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Music and Musicians 

Volume I 












iSig „ f\ O "^ o 

6d.i i O 

Copyright, i88S, by 
Charles Scribiier's Sons. 






>^. I 


THE Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians, like its predecessor, The 
Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings, is expected by its pro- 
jectors to occupy a novel as well as a standard place among 
authorities upon its subject. Like that, also, it founds its claim to this 
position especially upon tlii-ee things : The character and comprehensive- 
ness of the information which, through its text and illustrations, it for 
the first time makes accessil)le ; the new simplicity of its arrangement ; 
and the bibliography, of a kind hitherto unattempted, through Avhich it 
furnishes a key and guide to the whole literature of its art. The two 
works beino; then similar in kind and in method of arrangement, we can- 
not do better than to re2)eat substantially the preface of the foi'mer. 

It is not only a fuller biographical dictionary than now exists of the 
musicians of all schools, including prominent contemporaries, but it is, as 
well, a dictionary of works ; and in a form in which the one branch of 
information is as immediately accessible as the other. It must be under- 
stood, however, that it embraces in its scope only composers and their 
works, excluding mere performers and musical literati. The important 
compositions of all periods, operas, oratorios, cantatas, symphonies, etc., 
are treated under their own names, in separate articles, in which are 
given an accurate description of each work, the history ot" its text, 
or of the subject of its theme, the date and place of composition and 
of first performance, and of its prodiiction in other countries, its publica- 
tion, and such other facts as make the account as nearly as possible ex- 
haustive. The articles, whether biographical or descriptive, are not based 
upon statements accepted in any sense at second hand, but upon close re- 


search, coiulucted with tlie hope of making this work virtually an oiiginal 
authority — their facts being derived fi-oni the latest monographs in 
all langiia<res on the several musicians and their works, from the music 
periodicals of many countries, and from autobiographical memoranda 
and other original material. In many instances correspondence with 
musicians and others has brought to light hitherto unpublished informa- 
tion of much interest and value, relating both to composers and to their 
Avorks. The latest publications of the prominent music publishers and of 
the several musical associations have also been carefully collated, so that 
the information given is the best and fullest accessible up to the date of 

The method of arrangement of the Cyclopedia is believed to be espe- 
cially practical, intelligible, and convenient. The biographical and de- 
scriptive articles are combined in a single alphabet : a novel plan, ena- 
bling any reader, with no knowledge of a well-known opei-a or other 
musical work other than the name, to turn to it directly and trace its 
history back to its composer. A simple cross-reference system also en- 
ables the i-eader of the biographical articles to tell at a glance what 
works of each musician are treated at length, the italicizing of a single 
word in the title of a composition showing that under that word a sepa- 
rate article upon it will be found. 

Tlie l>ibliography appended to each article is such as will guide tlie 
reader to further -and more minute investigation than would be possible 
in any book of reference ; even, it may be claimed, to an exhaustive 
study of the whole literature of the topic. It embraces, besides English 
works and periodicals, those in French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish. 

The illustration lias not been undertaken with a view of mere embel- 
lishment, )»ut ill accordance with the purpose of the Cyclopedia. The 
biographical articles contain a greater number of portraits of prominent 
musicians, living and dead, than have ever before been published in any 
work. Many of the contemjiorary ones have been furnished l)y the com- 
posers themselves, and are not obtainable elsewhere. In many of the 
articles also are fac-simile re2)roductions of scores by celebrated com- 


posers, fac-similes of autogi-aj)li signatures, and views of hirtlipLices, 
monuments, statues, etc. In tlie articles on operas and oratorios are 
given portraits of celebrated singers wliose names have been identified 
with their representation, some of them in the costumes approi)riate to 
their roles. Each volume of this edition contains, in addition to these, 
twelve full-page etched portraits of the most famous composers, making 
in all thirty-six etcliings, a representative collection of the great masters 
of the art never before given in any publication. 

The work is under obligations to Mr. Louis von Eltz for his efficient 
labors during its entire progress, and especially for his valuable aid in 
researches connected with the German, Italian, French, Spanish, and 
Portuo-uese musicians. 

Thanks are due, also, to the superintendent and other officials of the 
Astor Libraiy of New York, and to the officers of the Athen;eum and 
the Harvard Musical Association of Boston, for numerous pi'ivileges and 
courtesies, without which the woi'k on the Cyclopedia would have been 
attended with great difficulties, if not rendered impossible. 

New York, November 1, 18S8. 




To Fact' 


From the engraving by Hedoiiin, after the painting by Delaroche . . . 40 


From the engraving by Sichling, after the painting by Hanssinann . . , 80 


From the lithograph by Kriehnber, after the bust by Dietrich . . . 120 


From a contemporary lithograph '60 


From the engraving by Gilbert, after the painting by Conrbct . . . 200 

To Face 


From the engraving by Dien 240 


From a photograph by Hanfstaengl 280 


From a lithograph by Figiwroii, after tl.v painting by Ingres .... 520 


From a photograph after the painting by Schick 360 


From a photograph after the painting by Eiigen Fetix 400 


From a photograph after the painting by Hermann 4J0 


From a photograph after the painting by Duptessis 460 





























Abel, Karl Fiiedrich 

Abt, Franz 

Adam, Atlolpbe Charles 

Agostini, Paolo 

Alard, Delpliiu 

Alary, Jules 

Albert, Eugene tV 

Albreebtsberger, Joliann Georg. 

Alcoc'k, John 

Aklricli, Henry 

Allegri, Gregorio 

Allison, Horton Clariilge 

Ambros, August Wilhelm 

Anderton, Thomas 

Andre, Johanu Anton 

Anerio, Felice 

Anfossi, Pasquale 

Arditi, Luigi 

Ariosti, Attilio 

Armes, Philip 

Arne, Thomas Augustine , 

Arnold, George Benjamin 

Arnold, Samuel 

Asioli, Bonifazio 

Auber, Daniel Frau<;ois Esprit . 
Audran, Edmoud 





26 41. 





69 : 53. 




27. Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel 

28. Bach, Johann Christian 

29. Bach, Johanu Sebastian 

30. Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann 

31. Baillot, Pierre Marie Fran9ois de 


32. Baker, Benjamin Franklin 

33. Balakirev, Mily Ale.xejevich 

34. Balatka, Hans 

86 : 58. 

88 59. 


94 61. 

97 j 62. 

99 I 63. 

105 64. 


109 66. 

111 1 67. 
112 ; 68. 

112 69. 

Balfe, Michael William 113 

Banck, Carl IH 

Banister, Henry Charles H" 

Banister, John 118 

Bargiel, Woldemar 123 

Barnby, Joseph 125 

Barnett, John 125 

Barnett, John Francis 126 

Bartholomew, Ann S li c p p a r d 

Mounsey 128 

Battishill, Jonathan 132 

Bazin, Franyois 135 

Becker, Albert 139 

Becker, Eeinhold 140 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, in 1809 . . 141 
Beethoven, Ludwig van, in 1814. . 143 
Beethoven, Ludwig van, profile. . . 144 

Belcher, William Thomas 150 

Bellini, Vincenzo 152 

Beuda, Georg 156 

Bendall, Wilfred Ellington 157 

Bendel, Franz 157 

Benedict, Sir Julius 158 

Bennett, Sir William Sterndale. . . 161 

Bently, John Morgan 1*54 

Beriot, Charles Augusta do 168 

Berlioz, Hector 169 

Bertini, Henri 177 

Berton, Henri Montan 178 

Best, William Thomas 180 

Biber, Heinrich Joliann Franz 183 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley 189 

Bizet, Georges 190 

Blow, John 196 

Blumenthal, Jacob 197 

Boccheriui, Luigi 198 



70. Bochsa, llobert Nicolas Charles . . 201 

71. Bocksliorn, Samuel 202 

72. Boieklieu, Fran<;ois Adrieu 20G 

73. Boito, Arrigo 209 

74. Bonouciui, Giovanni Battista. . . . 213 

75. Borodin, Alexander 21G 

76. Bottesini, Giovanni 218 

77. Boucher, Alexandre Jean 218 

78. Boulanger, Ernest Henri Alexan- 

dre 219 

79. Boyce, "William 221 

80. Bradbury, William Batchelder... 222 

81. Braham, John 223 

82. Brahms, Johannes 223 

83. Brandeis, Frederick 22G 

81. Brassin, Louis 227 

85. Bridge, John Frederick 230 

86. Bridge, Joseph Cox 231 

87. Bronsart, Hans von 233 

88. Bronsart, Ingeborg vou 233 

89. Bruch, Max 235 

90. Bruckner, Anton 23G 

91. Briill, Ignaz 23G 

92. Buck, Dudley 238 

93. Bull, John 210 

91. Bull, Ole 210 

95. Billow, Hans von 211 

96. Bunnett, Edward 212 

97. Burney, Charles 215 

98. Caballero, Fernandez 250 

99. Cafaro, Pasquale 252 

100. Callcott, John Wall 256 

101. Calvisius, Sethus 257 

102. Campana, Fabio 261 

103. Canipra, Andre 262 

104. Carey, Henry 270 

105. Carter, WiUiam 277 

106. Cellier, Alfred 291 

107. Chadwick, George Whitfield 29G 

108. Cherubini, Luigi 307 

109. Child, William 312 

110. Chipp, Edmund Thomas 313 

111. Cliopiu, Frederic 314 

112. Cimarosa, Domenico 322 

113. Clarke, Hugh Archibald ; 329 

114. Clemcnti, Muzio 338 


115. Conradi, August 347 

IIG. Conrardy, Jules 317 

117. Converse, Charles Crozat 351 

118. Corelli, Arcangelo 355 

119. Cornelius, Peter 357 

120. Cossmanu, Beruhard 362 

121. Costa, Sir Michael 363 

122. Couperin, Francois 367 

123. Cowen, Frederic Hymen 3G;) 

124. Cramer, Johann Baptist 371 

125. Croft, William 376 

126. Crotch, William 376 

127. Crouch, Frederick William Nich- 

olls 377 

128. Criiger, Johannes 378 

129. Cui, COsar 380 

130. Cusins, William George 381 

131. Czerny, Carl 383 

132. Dalayrac, Nicolas 385 

133. Damrosch, Leopold 391 

134. Danzi, Franz 395 

135. David, Felicieu 399 

136. David, Ferdinand 400 

137. Davidoff, Karl 401 

138. Defesch, Willem 405 

139. Defies, Pierre Louis 405 

140. Delibes, Leo 410 

141. Despres, Josquin 419 

142. De Swert, Jules _ 422 

143. Diaz de la Pefia, Eugene Emile. . 428 

144. Dibdiu, Charles 429 

145. Dietrich, Albert 431 

146. Dittersdorf, Karl Ditters von 434 

147. Dohler, Theodor 437 

148. Donizetti, Gaiitano 443 

149. Dorn, Heinrich 447 

150. Dotzauer, Justus Johann Fri'jdrieh 448 

151. Draeseke, Felix 451 

152. Dragonetti, Domenico 452 

153. Dreyschock, Alexander 455 

154. Duni, Egidio Romoaldo 462 

155. Dujjont, Auguste 463 

156. Durante, Francesco 467 

157. Dussek, Johann Lndwig 468 

158. Dvorak, Antoniu 471 

159. Dyer, Arthur Edwin 472 



1. Autograph of Franz Abt. 1878.. 

2. Autograph of Adolphe Adam 

3. Portrait of Pauline Lucca . . 

4. Autograph of Johann Friedricli 

Agricola. 1771 

5. Clara Louise Kellogg, as Aula .... 

6. Autograph of Johann Georg Al- 

brechtsberger. 1793 

7. Autograph of Micliael Altenburg. 


8. Caricature of the Chorus in Anti- 

gone, London Punch, 1847. . . . 

9. !Mara as Armida 

10. Portrait of Carlo Broschi, called 


11. Portrait of Elizabeth Billington . . 

12. Autograph of Daniel Frani;ois Es- 

prit Auber 

13. Dugazon as Azemia 

14. Autograpli of Philijjp Emanuel 

Bach. 1774 

15. Autograph of Johann Christian 

Bach. 1757 

16. Birthplace of Johann Sebastian 


17. Facsimile of the MS. of Johann 

Sebastian Bach : from tlie 1st 
Prelude in the Wohltemperirte 

18. Autographs of Johann Sebastian 

Bach. 1733 

19. Autograph of Wilhelm Friedemann 

Bach. 1733 

20. Autograph of Pierre Mario Fran- 

cois de Sales Buillot. 1834. . . . 


5 21. 

15 22. 

18 I 23. 

22 24. 




































Autograpli of Giuseppe Baini. 

1831 Ill 

Autograph of Michael William 

Balfe 114 

Portrait of Zelia Trebelli 115 

Portrait of Adeliua Patti 121 

Portrait of Erminia Frezzolini 137 

Beethoven's Birthplace 142 

Caricature of Beethoven 143 

Beethoven's Tomb, Vienna 144 

Beethoven's Statue in Bonn 144 

Facsimile of Beethoven's MS.: from 

the Sonata in A-flat, op. 26 146 

Autograi^hs of Beethoven. 1809 . . 148 
Lavinia Fenton, as Polly Peachuin . 149 
Autograph of Vincenzo Bellini.... 154 
Autograph of Franz Benda. 1781. 155 
Autograph of Georg Benda, 1781. 157 
Autograph of Sir Julius Benedict. 

1867 158 

Autograph of Sir William Stern- 
dale Bennett. 1840 162 

Portrait of Gioacchino Conti, called 

Gizziello 166 

Autograph of Charles Auguste de 

Beriot 160 

Autograph of Hector Berlioz. 1853. 171 
Autograph of Christoph Bernhard. 

1651 174 

Autograph of Henry Moutan Ber- 

ton 179 

Autograph of Georges Bizet. 

1859 191 

Au*^ograpli of Luigi Bocclierini. 

1787 200 


45. Autograph of Robert Nicholas 

Charles Bochsa 201 

46. Autograph of Fran<;ois Adrian 

Boieldieu 208 

47. Autograph of Arrigo Boito. 1884 . 209 

48. Autograph of Giovanni Maria Bo- 

noncini. 1656 214 

49. Autographs of Johannes Brahms. 

1885 ; 1872 225 

50. Autograph of Hans von Billow. 

1868 242 

51. Autograph of Giulio Caccini. 

1005 251 

52. Hermione, in Cadmus et Hermione. 

1673 252 

53. Autograph of Antonio Caldara. 

1715 255 

54. Autograph of Sethus Calvisius. 

1594 258 

55. Autograph of Michele Carafa 267 

56. Minnie Hauck, as Carmen 273 

57. Autograph of Charles Simon Catel. 

1818 283 

58. Autograph of Emilio de' Cavalieri. 

1597 286 

59. Portrait of Marietta Alboui 292 

60. Autograph of Luigi Cherubini .... 309 

61. Autograph of Frederic Chopin . . . 314 
02. Facsimile of the MS. of Frederic 

Chopin. Mazurka 315 

63. Autograph of Domenico Cimarosa. 

1793 324 

64. Autograph of Muzio Clementi. 

1807 334 

65. Autograph of Arcangelo Corelli. 

1711 356 

66. AutograjDh of Peter Cornelius. 

1873 357 

67. Autograph of Sir Michael Costa. . . 363 

68. Autogi-aph of Carl Czernj-. 1823 . . 383 

69. Autograph of Nicolas Dalayrac. 

1807 \... 386 

70. Portrait of Marie Eoze 389 

71. Autograjjh of Alexander Sergie- 

vitch Dargomygky. 1857 396 

72. Autograph of Folicien David. 1846. 400 

73. Autograph of Ferdinand David. 

1853 401 

74. Autograph of Leo Delibes. 1883 . . 410 

75. Portrait of Eegiua Mingotti 413 

76. Autograph of Josejjh Dessauer. 

1863 420 

77. Portrait of Anna Thillon 427 

78. Autograph of Karl Ditters von Dit- 

tersdorf. 1798 435 

79. Laura Damoreau as Augele, in Le 

domino uoir 439 

80. Portrait of Galli-Marie 441 

81. Portrait of Lorenzo da Ponte, 

author of the libretto of Don 
Giovanni 441 

82. Lablache as Leporello, in Don 

Giovanni 442 

83. Autograph of Gautano Donizetti. 

1843 445 

84. Autograph of .iutonioDraghi. 1687. 452 

85. Autograph of Antoiiiu Dvorak. 

1882 472 


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A., Alto. 

B., Bass, Basso, etc. 

Bar., Baritone. 

B. M. v., Beata Maria Virgo. 

Biog., Biography, Biogratia, etc. 

Cath., Cathedral. 

Cb., Churcb. 

Col., Collection. 

do., ditto. 

etc., et cetera. 

et seq., et secjiientia. 

Pr., Freiicb. 

Ger., German. 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

It., Italian. 

L. of Honour, Legion of Honour. 

Lib., Liber. 

M., JMonsieur. 

Mile, Mademoiselle. 

Mme, Madame. 

MS., MSS., Manuscript, Manuscripts. 

M. S., Mezzo-soprano. 

Mas. Bac, Bachelor of Music. 

Mus. Doc, Doctor of Music. 

n. d., no date. 

op., opus, opera. 

R A. M., Royal Academy of Music. 

S., Soprano. 

S., Sta., San, Santa. 

S. M., Santa Maria. 

Sp., Spianish. 

St., Saint. 

T., Tenor. 

Voc, Voces. 

Vol., Volume. 

WoirU in italics indicate the alphabetical place of articles un the subjeds specified. 



Music and Musicians 

born in Verona, in 1662, died iu Mu- 
nich, Feb. 26, 1726. Violinist, Con- 
certmeister in the band of the Elector Max 
Emmanuel of Bavaria. Works : 12 sonatas 
for violin and bass ; 10 concertos for four 
parts, for church use ; 12 sonatas for two vio- 
lins, violoncello, and bass ; Sonata for violin 
and bass ; 6 concertos for four violins, alto, 
bassoon, violoncello, and bass. These works 
were published in Amsterdam. — Fotis ; Men- 
del, Ergdnz., 1. 

ABADIA, NATALE, born in Genoa, Italy, 
March 11, 1792, died (?). Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Pietro Eaimondi and of 
L. Cerro. Works : L'imbroglione ed il 
castigamatti, opera buffa, given in Genoa, 
1812 ; La Giannina di Pontieu, ossia la Vil- 
lanella d'onore, musical drama, ib., 1812 ; 
Mass for three voices ; Mass for four voices, 
with orchestra ; Vesper service ; Motets. 
— Fetis. 

Tiferno, or at Castello, Italy, in 159-5, died 
in Castello in 1677. He was maestro di cap- 
pella, in Rome, of S. Giovanni in Laterano 
in 1626, of the Gesft in 1628, of S. Maria 
Maggiore in 1645—46, and then of S. Lo- 
renzo e Damaso ; again of S. Maria Mag- 
giore in 1649-57, of S. ]Maria di Loretto 
until 1672, when he returned to S. Maria 

Maggiore, and remained there until his de- 
cease. Most of his compositions, masses, 
psalms, motets, etc., are in manuscript, and 
are pi-eserved in the archives of the churches 
in which he served. He assisted Kircher in 
writing his Musurgia, and is said by Allaci 
to have written an opera : Del male in bene, 
Rome, 1654. Works published : Psalms, four 
books (1630-35); Motets, for two, three, four, 
and five voices (1636-38) ; Masses, three 
books (1638-50). After his death, his pupil, 
Dominique del Pane, published his An- 
tiennes for twelve tenors and twelve basses 
(Rome, 1677).— Fi'tis ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 1. 

SfiVIN, called, born at Agen (Lot-et-Ga- 
ronne), June 11, 1727, died at Maisous, near 
Charenton, in 1787. Violinist, son and pupil 
of Philippe de Saint-Sevin, called Abbe 
(who, from 1727, was a violoncellist of re- 
piite in the orchestra of the Opera in Paris) ; 
then pupil of Leclair in 1740-42. He was a 
violinist at the Conu-die Franyaise in 1739, 
and the Opera in 1742, whence he retii-ed 
after twenty years of service. He published 
eight works of sonatas and trios for the vio- 
lin. — Fetis. 

ABEGG VARIATIONS, theme on the 
name Abegg, with variations for pianoforte, 
by Schumann, op. 1, dedicated to Pauline, 
Countess d' Abegg ; composed in the first 


half of 1830 ; published iu July, 1832. This 
work was inspired by a beautiful woman, 
Meta Abegg, whose uarne, represented in 
musical notes, Schumann used for the mo- 
tive of his conijiosition. It is worked up in 
waltz rhythiQ, f)robably iu memory of the 
ball at which he met the young lady. The 
Countess d'Abegg is a mythical jJerson, in- 
vented for the occasion. — Reissmann (Al- 
ger), 37. 

LUDWIG, born at Baireuth, Feb. 20, 17G1, 
(lied at Stuttgart, March 2, 1838. Pianist 
and organist, pujjil of Boroni and Siimann 
at the Karlsschule in Stuttgart. He joined 
the jjrivate band of the Duke of Wiirtem- 
berg in 1782, succeeded Zumsteeg as Con- 
certmeister iu 1802, and was subsecpeutly 
made director of official music, and organist 
in the court chapel. In 1832 Abeille re- 
ceived a ijension and royal gold medal for 
his fifty years' services. Among his works 
are eight Lieder, an Ash- Wednesday hymn 
for four voices, and two operettas : Amor 
luid Psj'che, Augsburg, 1801 ; and Peter und 
Aeunchen, 1810 ; which have been arranged 
for the pianoforte. He also wrote for the 
harpsichord, sonatas, concertos, etc., some 
with violin and violoncello accompaniment. 
A Miserei'e, with full chorus, is jDreserved in 
the MS. department of the Imperial Library, 
Paris. — Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 7 ; Fetis ; Men- 

ABEL, oratorio, music by Thomas Augus- 
tine Ai-ne, first performed at Drury Lane, 
London, March 12, 1755. It was not suc- 
cessful, but one of its melodies, known as 
the Hymn of Eve, is simple and beautiful, 
and became very popular. 

Westphalia, middle of 17th century, time of 
death unknown. Chamber-musician to the 
court of Hanover. He composed for string 
instruments, in the form of Allemandes, 
CtMirantes, Sarabands, etc. : Erstlinge mu- 
sikalischer Blumen (3 vols., Frankfort, 1071, 
1G7G, 1G77) ; also published as Drei Opera 
rausica (Brunswick, 1687), — Futis. 

Kothen, about 1725, died in London, June 
22, 1787. Viol-da- 
gamba virtuoso, pu- 
pil at the Thomas- 
schule, Leipsic, of 
Sebastian Bach ; one 
of the court band at 
Dresden, under 
Hasse, in 17i8-58. 
After travelling 
through Germany, he 
went in 1759 to London, where he gave, April 
5, a concert composed entirely of his own 
music. He was appointed chamber-musician 
to Queen Charlotte, with a salary of £200. 
Having joined John Christian Bach on his 
arrival in London iu 17G2, he aided him in 
conducting Mrs. Cornelys's subscrij)tion con- 
certs, the first of which was given in Carlisle 
House, Soho Square, in 1765, and which con- 
tinued many years. The violinist Wilhelm 
Cramer made his first appearance at these 
concerts, and Haydn's symphonies were there 
first performed in England. After Bach's 
death, in 1782, the concerts, conducted by 
Abel alone, were unsuccessful. He returned 
to Germany in 1783, visiting Berlin and 
Ludwigslust, where he played, but revisited 
Loudon again iu 1785, and played in the 
Subscription Concerts of Mr. Salomon and 
Mme. Mara at the Pantheon and in the 
newly established Professional Concerts ; he 
played last iu public at Mrs. Billington's 
concert, May 21, 1787. He was the greatest 
and last virtuoso upon his instrument, which, 
after his death, fell into disuse. Much of 
Abel's music was published by Bremner, of 
London, and Hummel, of Berlin. Among the 
best known are : A fifth set of Six Overtures, 
oj). 11 (Bremner), and Six Sonatas, op. 18 ; 
his instrumental pieces are contained in 
seventeen works. He wrote the music for 
the operas : Love in a Village (London, 1760) 
and Berenice (1761). — Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 
13 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

ABEL.\, KARL GOTTLOB, born at Bor- 
na, Saxony, April 29, 1823, died at Halle, 



April 22, 184:1. Vocal composer, pupil in 
Dresden of A. G. Fischer ; weut to Halle in 
1825, and shortly after was made cantor at 
St. Mary's Church. He did much toward 
the jjromotion of vocal music iu the public 
schools. Works : Collection of songs for 
two, three, and four voices (Leipsic, Hart- 
kuoch, -Ith ed., 1848) ; 160 songs, followed 
by canons for several voices (ib., Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel) ; 120 quartets for male voices 
(ib.) ; Der Siingerbimd, (juartets for do. 
(Halle, Knapp).— Fetis. 

ABELL, JOHN, born in London (?) about 
1()C0, died iu Cambridge in 1724. Alto 
singer and lute player, probably educated 
in the choir of the Chapel Royal, of which 
he was a member in 1079, and afterwards 
sent by Charles H. to study in Italy, whence 
he returned in 1688. Having re-entered the 
Chapel Royal, lie was dismissed, after the 
Revolution of 1688, on account of his Roman 
Catholic faith, and, after travelling on the 
Continent, leading a vagrant life, returned 
to London iu 1700 and settled at Cam- 
bridge. Works : Les airs d'Abell pour le 
concert (Amsterdam); A Collection of Songs, 
in several languages (London, 1701) ; Col- 
lection of Songs in English (ib.). — Grove ; 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

rages), French opera iu three acts, test by 
Jouy, music by Cherubini ; first represented 
at the Opera, Paris, April G, 1813. This 
performance was attended by the Emperor 
Napoleon, who left Paris the morning after 
to attemjjt to check the advance of the Allies. 
Tlie libretto is founded on the romantic, but 
now disjjroved, story of the feud between 
the two Moorish families the Zegris and the 
AbenceiTages, and the murder in the Alham- 
bra, by order of the sovereign of Granada, 
of all the jarinces of the latter name, on his 
discoverj' of illicit relations between one of 
them and his own wife or sister. The storj-, 
as given by Ginez Perez de Hita in his "His- 
toria de los Vandos, de los Zegries y Aben- 
cerages " (Saragossa, 1595), has been retold 
by Floriau, Chateaubriand, and others. The 

same subject is treated iu the operas Aben- 
hamet et Zoraide, hy Giusejjpe Niccoliui, 
Milan, 1805 ; Zoraide, by Giuseppe Fari- 
nelli, Venice, 1816 ; Zoraide, or Der Friede 
von Granada, by Karl Blum, Berlin, 1821 ; 
Zoraide di Grauata, by Donizetti, Rome, 
1822 ; Der letzte Abencerage, text by Lud- 
wig Bartog, music by Franz Sarosi (Schauer), 
Pesth, Jan. 4, 1887. — Bellasis, Cherubini, 


ABENHEIJH, JOSEPH, born at Worms 
in 1804, still living, 1888. Violinist, studied 
the violin and pianoforte at Worms and 
Darmstadt, and theory at Mannheim, where 
he entered the orchestra. In 1825 he was 
made a member of the royal orchestra at 
Stuttgart, visited Paris in 1828, and studied 
composition under Reiclia, and after his re- 
turn was promoted to a more elevated posi- 
tion in the orchestra, until in 1854 he be- 
came director of music. Works : Music for 
the drama Hariadan, played at Stuttgart, 
1842 ; Psalm for four voices ; Pater noster ; 
Songs without words, for pianoforte (Stutt- 
gart, Hallberger) ; 2 nocturnes for do., op. 
8 (ib.) ; Polonaise (Carlsruhe, Creuzbauer) ; 
6 songs, with pianoforte, op. 2 (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; 6 do., op. 5 (Stuttgart, 
Copel) ; Der deuLsche Rhein, for a single 
voice (Stuttgart, Schnitz) ; etc. Many entr'- 
actes and overtures, which remain iu manu- 
script. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

Kochowitz, Bohemia, Sept. 21, 1832, still 
living, 1888. Dramatic composer, first in- 
structed in the Augustine convent at Bohm- 
isch-LeijJa, but at the age of fifteen i-au 
away, and became a pupil at the Conserva- 
torium, Prague, of Kittl and Tomaczek. In 
1852 he obtained an engagement as contra- 
bassist in the court orchestra at Stuttgart, 
and in the year following brought out his 
first symphony in C minor. After having 
produced his first opera in 1859, he lived 
for several years in Paris and London, and 
in the former place was much aided by in- 


tercourse with Rossini, Auber, and Halevy. 
About I860 he was appointed royal director 
of music at Stuttgart, and in 1867 Hof- 
Kapellmeister. Works : Symphony in C 
minor, given iu Stuttgart, 1853 ; do. in A 
major, ib., 1856 ; Antia von Landskron, 
opera, ib., 1859 ; KOuig Eazio, oj^era, ib., 
1862 ; Columbus, symphonic poem, ib., 
1864; Astorga, opera, ib., Sept. 20, 186G ; 
Ekkehard, opera, Berhn, 1878 ; Die Almo- 
haden, opera, written iu 1886 ; Concert- 
Overtures, String Quartets, Compositions 
for the jjianoforte, and Songs. — Brockhaus ; 
Fetis, Supplement, i. 2 ; Mendel ; Riemaun. 

ABOS, GIROLAMO, born at Mdta in 
the beginning of the 18 th century, died in 
Naples about 1786. Dramatic composer. 
He taught in the Couservatorio deUa Pieta, 
Najsles, the singer Aprile being his most 
famous piupil ; he visited Rome, Venice, and 
Tui-in, and was maestro al cembalo at the 
opera iu London in 1756. Works — Operas : 
Le due zingare, given at Na^sles, Teatro 
Nuovo, 1742 ; La serva padrona, Naples, 
about 1744 ; Ifigenia in Aulide, ib., about 
1745 ; La moglie gelosa, ib., Teatro de' Fio- 
rentiui, 1745 ; Artaserse, Venice, 1746 ; Ad- 
riano, Rome, 1750 ; La pupilla e '1 tutore, 
Naples, about 1753 ; Tito Maulio, London, 
1756 ; Creso, ib., 1758. Church music : 7 
Masses, 2 Kyries, and several Litanies to the 
Virgin are in manuscript in Rome, Naples, 
and Turin, and in the Conservatory in Paris. 
— Fetis; Mendel, Ergiinz., 3. 

ABRAHA:\IS OPFER (Abraham's Offer- 
ing), oratorio, by Peter Joseph von Lind- 
paintner, given at Stuttgart in 1821. The 
characters are well conceived, the airs me- 
lodious and exj)ressive, the recitatives purely 
declamatory, and the choruses vigorous and 
full of fire. The instrumentation is very 
suitable and effective. It was dedicated to 
Queen Victoria, who sent him, in return, iu 
1848, a medal. — ^Vllgem. mus. Zeit., xxiii. 

ABRAM, JOHN, born at Margate, Eng- 
land, Aug. 7, 1840, still living, 1888. Organ- 
ist, successively, at St. John's, Torquay, 1864 ; 

St. Peter and Paul's, Wantage, 1865 ; St. 
Paul's, St. Leonard's-on-Seu, 1869. Works : 
Jerusalem, cantata ; The Widow of Nain, 
oratorio ; Anthems, services, pianoforte mu- 
sic, etc. 

ABRAMS, HENRIETTA, born in Eng- 
land in 1760, died in the tu-st half of the 
19th century. The eldest of three sisters, 
singers, pupil of Dr. Ai'ue ; first appeared 
in public at the Drury Lane Theatre in 1775, 
and composed several songs which became 
very popular, to wit : The Orphan's Prayer, 
and Crazy Jane. In 1787 she published A 
Collection of Songs, and A Collection of 
Scotch Songs harmonized for three voices. 
— Grove. 

Symphony), music by Josef Haydn ; date 
on autograph score, 1772. Published by 

ABT, FRANZ, bom at Eilenburg, Prus- 
sian Saxouj', Dec. 22, 
1819, died at Wies- 
baden, March 31, 
1885. Composer of 
vocal and of little- 
known instrumental 
music, educated at 
the Thomasschule in 
Leipsic, where, al- 
though destined for 
theology, he was 
drawn towards music by his acquaintance 
with Mendelssohn. In 1841 he was appoint- 
ed musical director of the court theatre at 
Bernburg, and iu the autumn of the same 
year of the theatre at Zurich, where he was 
much sought as a leader of singing societies 
and a vocal teacher, and became jiopular as 
a composer. Called to Brunswick, in 1852, 
as second Kapellmeister at the court theatre, 
he was appointed Hof-Kapellmeister iu 1855, 
and pensioned in 1881. On the invitation 
of several prominent singing societies, he 
visited the United States iu 1872, and won 
great triumphs. He was ver}' prolific, and 
up to 1881 had published more than five 




hundred and eighty books (Hefte), some of 
theiu containing from twenty to thirty num- 
bers. His songs for a single voice, and 
his part-songs, written especially for men's 
voices, are not of high standing, artisticallj', 
but sho^y a good deal of iiuent, melodious in- 
vention, although often verging on the senti- 
mental. Certain of his songs, like " Weun 
die Schwalben heimwilrts ziehn," and "Gute 
Nacht, du meiu herziges Kind," have be- 
come household melodies. Among his part- 
songs are some of poetic beauty ; for in- 
stance, "Die stille 
W a s s e r r o s e . " 
Member of Stock- 
h o 1 ni Academy, 
1865 ; Brunswick order of Henry the Lion, 
18G9. — Mendel; Kiemanu. 

ABU HASSAN, comic Singspiel in one 
act, text by Franz Hiemer, music by Carl 
Maria von Weber, first represented in Mu- 
nich, June 4, 1811. Weber began the 
score at Mannheim, Aug. 11, 1810, and, 
after some interrujjtious, completed it at 
Darmstadt, Jan. 12, 1811. He dedicated it 
to the Grand Duke Ludwig, in the vain hope 
that it would lead to a permanent ajjpoint- 
ment at the court. It was produced with 
success in London, in 1825, in an English 
dress, and was given at the Theatre Lyrique, 
Paris, May 11, 1859, with a French text by 
Nuitter and Beaumont. — Max M. von Weber, 
Carl M. von W., i. 212, 272. 

ACCELLI, GESARE, Italian contrapunt- 
ist of the second half of the 16th century-. 
He published at Venice : Libro primo de' 
madrigali a cinque voci, among which is 
the one beginning, Donna mia casta e bella 
(1557) ; others of his composition are found 
in the collection : De' floridi virtuosi d'ltalia 
il terzo libro de' madrigali a cinque voci, 
imovamente composto, etc. (Venice, 1586). 
— Fctis. 

in 1637, died there, Feb. 3, 1700. Dramatic 
composer and poet ; as knight of the order 
of Malta he went to Palestine, travelled 
through Europe, and parts of Asia, Africa, 

and America, whence he returned to Italy 
by way of England and France. He then 
devoted his whole attention to the theatre, 
for which he worked not only as a composer, 
but as a most expert machinist. His many 
operas, of which only four are complete, 
were well received throughout Italy, owing 
to their novel, romantic style, and were fre- 
quently performed. Under the name of 
Ireneo Amasiano he became, in 1690, a mem- 
ber of the Arcadi illustri, the famous acad- 
emy founded by Queen Christina of Sweden. 
Operas : II girello, given at Modena, 1675, 
at Venice, 1682 ; La damina placata, Venice, 
1680 ; Ulisse in Feazia, ib., 1680, 1681 ; Chi 
6 causa del suo mal, pianga se stesso. — 
Fetis ; Mendel. 

Rome about 1754, died (?). Dramatic 
composer. Works : II regno delle Amaz- 
zoni, opera, given in Parma about 1782 ; II 
podesta di tuft'o autico, opera, Rome, 1786 ; 
Masses, Motets, and Vesjiers, which are 
found in the churches of Romagua and 
Lombardy. — Fetis. 


ACERES, , Spanish dramatic com- 
poser of the present time, who has made 
himself known by several zarzuelas, jr comic 
operas : Dos comicos de jjrovincia ; Sensi- 
tiva ; El manco de Lepanto (written for the 
anniversary of the death of Cervantes), given 
at Madrid, April 23, 1867 ; La bola negra, 
1872 or 1873 ; El testamento azul (with 
Barbieri and Oudrid), Madrid, Teatro del 
Buen Retire, 1874. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 3. 


ACH ! ICH FilHL'S. See Zauberflote. 

(Achilles at the Siege of Troy), Italian opera, 
music by Cimarosa, represented at Rome, 
1798, during the carnival. An opera, same 
title, music by Francesco Basili, was given 
at the Pergola Theatre, Florence, 1798. 
Achille placato, Italian opera, music by 
Antonio Lotti, given in Venice, 1707 ; L' ira 


d' Achille, music by Niccolini, given in Milan, 
1813 ; find L' ira d' Achille, music by Fran- 
cesco Basili, Venice, 1817, deal with inci- 
dents of the siege. 

in Sciro. 

ACHILLE PLACATO. See Achille nell' 
assedio di Troja. 

and Polyxena), lyrical tragedy in tive acts, 
text by Campistron, music by Lulli and 
Colasse ; first rei^reseuted, Paris, Nov. 7, 
1687. The libretto is founded on the story 
of the love of Achilles for Polyxena, daugh- 
ter of Priam. Achilles, having gone to the 
temple of Apollo, at Thymbra, to negotiate 
his marriage, is treacherously slain there by 
Paris, and Polyxena is afterward sacrificed 
on his tomb by his sou Neoptolemus or 
Pyrrhus. The same subject is treated in 
Polyxene et Pyrrhus, five acts, text by La- 
serre, music by Colasse, given at the Acade- 
mic royale de musique, Oct. 21, 170G ; in 
Pyrrhus et Polyxene, five acts, text by Joli- 
veau, music by Dauvergne, Opera, Paris, 
Jan. 11, 17G3 ; in Pyrrhus und Polyxene, 
by Peter von Winter, Vienna, 1781 ; Polyx- 
ena, by Anton Schweitzer, "Weimar, about 
1770 ; Polyxena, by E. W. Wolf, Weimar, 
177G ; and Polyxena, by Leojjold Zeller, 
Neu-Strelitz, 1781. 

ACHILLE IN SCIRO (Achilles in Sciros), 
Italian opera in three acts, text by Metas- 
tasio, first set to music by Caldara and rep- 
resented at Vienna, Feb. 13, 1736, on the 
marriage of the Archduchess Maria Theresa 
with Stephano Francesco, Grand Duke of 
Tuscanj'. Sabject, the adventures of the 
young Achilles among the daughters of 
Lj-comedes in Sciros, where he had been 
introduced in the disguise of a maiden by 
his mother Thetis, to keep him from the 
Trojan war, which she knew would be fatal 
to him. Characters repi'esented : Licomede, 
Achille, Deidamia, XJlisse, Teagene, Nearco, 
Arcade. Scene, the palace of Lycomedes in 
Sciros. The libretto has been set to music 
also bv Giovanni Legreuzi, given in Venice, 

1664 ; by Antonio Caldara, Vienna, 1736 ; 
Giuseppe Arena, liome, 1738 ; Pietro Chia- 
rini, Brescia, 1739 ; Leonardo Leo, Turin, 
1743 ; Nicoli) Jommelli, Vienna, 1745 ; An- 
tonio Mazzoni, Naples, 1750 ; Sciroli, Naples, 
1751 ; Manna, Milan, 1755 ; Johann Fried- 
rich Agricola, Berlin, 1758 ; Johann Adolph 
Hasse, Naples, 1759 ; Ferdinaudo Giuseppe 
Bertoni, Venice, 1764 ; Johann Gottlieb 
Naumann, Palermo, 1767 ; Giovanni Pai- 
siello, St. Petersburg, about 1780 ; Giuseppe 
Sarti, Florence, 1781 ; Gaetano Puguani, 
Turin, 1785 ; Pietro Antonio Coppola, Na- 
ples, 1825. Achille a Soyros, a ballet in 
three acts, music by Cherubiui, was given 
at the Opera, Paris, Dec. 18, 1804 ; and 
Achille a Scyros, ojierette in one act, music 
by Laurent de Kille, at the Folies Nouvelles, 
Paris, in September, 1857. Achille et Deida- 
mie, tragic opera in five acts, text by Danchet, 
music by Andre Campra, given at the Acade- 
mie royale, Paris, Feb. 24, 1735 ; and Achil- 
les in Petticoats, English opera, music by 
Thomas Augustine Arne, London, 1773, 
deal with the same subject. 

ACHILLEUS, dramatic oratorio, text by 
Heinrich Bulthaupt, music by Max Bruch, 
first jjerformed at the Khenish Festival, 
1885. The jioem, which is founded on in- 
cidents from the "Iliad," deals with the dis- 
content of the Greeks, the resentment of 
Achilles, the death of Patroclus, and the 
final triumph over Hector. It was fii-st given 
in America by the Liederkrauz Society, New 
York, Nov. 28, 1886, with the following cast : 
Achilleus, C. Zobel ; Andromache, Miss 
Emily Winant ; Hector and Odysseus, M. 
Treumann ; Polyxena and Thetis, Miss Hen- 
rietta Beebe ; Agamemnon and Priam, Max 
Heinrich ; conductor, Reinhold L. Herman. 
— Krehbiel, Review, 1886-87, 34. 

ACHTER, PAUL ULRICH, born at Aich- 
bach, Bavaria, March 10, 1777, died there in 
October, 1803. Violinist and church com- 
posei-. The son of a tailor, he learned mu- 
sic from the Benedictines, whose order he 
joined in 1801. Among his works is a Mass 
of remarkable beauty. — Fetis. 


ACH WIE FLtJCHTIG, cantata for the 
24rtli Sunday after Trinity, by Johauu Sebas- 
tian Bacli ; written for four voices, two vio- 
lins, viola, two Geriiiau flutes, three oboes, 
and continuo. Published by the Bach- 
Gesellschaft, vol. iii., Church Cantatas, 1855. 

ACIS AND GALATEA (Ital., Aci or Acide 
e Galatea; Fr., Acis et Galatee ; Ger., Acis 
und Galathea), the story, as related by Ovid 
(Met., xiii. 750), of the loves of the shejjherd 
Acis and the nymph Galatea. Polyphemus, 
the Cyclop, jealous of Acis, crushed him un- 
der a huge stone, and his blood gushing 
forth was changed by Galatea into the river 
Acis or Acinus, which flows from under a 
rock at the foot of lit. Etna. First treated 
by ]\Iarc Antoine Charpentier in Les Amours 
d'Acis et Galatee, opera, Paris, 1678 ; then 
by Giovanni Battista Lulli, text by Campis- 
tron, in Acis et Galatee, an heroic pastoral 
in three acts, represented at the Chateau 
d'Anet, before the Dauphin, Sept. C, 1686, 
and at the Opera, Paris, in 1687. Aci, Ga- 
latea e Polifemo, a pastoral serenata, music 
by Handel, given at Naples, 1708, bears no 
musical resemblance to Acis and Galatea, 
his English serenata. Other versions of this 
subject are by Gottfried Heinrich StOlzel, 
German opera, Prague, 1715 ; Franz Josef 
Haydn, Italian ojjera, Vienna, 1770 ; Fran- 
cesco Bianchi, Italian opera, London, 1797 ; 
and Johann Gottlieb Naumauu, Dresden, 
1801, his last work. See Galatea. 

ACIS AND GALATEA, pastoral serenata 
in two acts, text by Gay, with additions by 
Poj)e and Hughes, music by Handel ; first 
produced (not acted) at the Duke of Chan- 
dos's place of Cannons, near Edgeware, in 
1720-21. Though not intended to be acted 
as an opera, it was thus represented, without 
Handel's sanction, at the Haymarket Theatre, 
London, May 17, 1732. Galatea was sung 
by Miss Arne, afterwards Mrs. Cibber, sister 
of the composer Thomas Augustine Ai-ne, 
and Acis by Mr. Mountier. This illegiti- 
mate performance led to its production, on 
the following June 10th, under Handel's aus- 
pices, as a serenata, Mozart strengthened 

the score with additional accompaniments 
for Baron Van Swieten in 1788. It was 
again put upon the stage at Drury Lane, 
Feb. 5, 1842. The MS. is in Buckingham 
Palace. It was first printed by Randall, 
successor to Walsh, in 1730, and has since 
been published by the Handel Society (Lon- 
don, 1846-47) and by the Handel- Gesell- 
schaft (Leipsic, 1859).— Hogarth, ii. 58 ; 
Schleicher, Handel, 59 ; Eockstro, Handel, 
112, 173 ; Chrysander, ii. 262. 

ACTION, opera comique in one act, text 
by Scribe, music by Auber, given at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, Jan. 23, 1836. The 
story of this famous hunter, who was torn to 
pieces on Mt. Cithseron by his own hounds 
as a punishment for having surprised Diana 
and her nymphs while bathing, was first 
treated musically by Marc Antoine Charpen- 
tier, Paris, about 1690. 


ACTUS TRAGICUS. See G'c/«e.s Zeit ist 
die allerbeste Zeit. 

Paris, July 24, 1803, 
died there, May 3, 
1856. Dramatic com- 
poser, son and pupil 
of Louis Adam, and 
pupil of Anton Rei- 
cha and of Boieldieu 
at the Conservatoire. 
Having acquired a 
popular name with 
compositions and 
transcriptions for the pianoforte, chansons 
and ensembles for vaudevilles and operettas, 
he brought out his first opera, Pierre et 
Catherine (one act), in 1829, which was fol- 
lowed by Danilowa (three acts) in 1830, 
both at the Opera Comique, where also he 
won his greatest triumph, in 1836, with 
the PostiUoH de Lonjumeau, which made 
its way rapidly in all the theatres of Eu- 
rope, and is still a standard piece in their 
repertories. In 1847 he founded a new 
dramatic enterprise, the Theatre National, 


which, successful at the outset, came to 
grief during the revolutionary troubles of 
1818, and left him financially embarrassed. 
Besides operas and ballets he composed 
some church music, of which two masses 
are stiU in great favour in Paris. The rhyth- 
mical grace and melodiousness of his mu- 
sic, combined with a fine sense of humour, 
and skilful treatment of voices and orches- 
tra, secure for him a place in the history of 
the national French opera next to Boieldieu 
and Auber. He visited Belgium, Holland, 
Germany, and Switzerland in 1826, sjjent 
nine months in London in 1832-33, and 
visited St. Petersburg in 1839, and Berlin 
in 1840, on the invitation of the respective 
sovereigns. He was an excellent organ and 
pianoforte player, and much sought as a 
teacher of the latter instrument ; he also 
won distinction as a musical critic. L. of 
Honour, 1836 ; Officer, Member of the Insti- 
tut de France, 1844 ; professor of composi- 
tion at the Conservatoire, 1848. Works — 
Operas : Le jeune proprietaire et le vieux 
fermier, Isaure. given in Paris, 1829 ; Henri 
V. et ses compagnons, Rafael, Les trois 
Catherines, Trois jours en une heure, Jo- 
sephine, ou le retour de Wagram, ib., 1830 ; 
Le moreeau d'ensemble, Le grand prix, 
Casimir, ib., 1831 ; His First Campaign, The 
Dark Diamond, London, 1832 ; Le proscrit, 
Paris, 1833 ; Une bonne fortune, Le ohalet, 
ib., 1834 ; La marquise, Micheliue, ib., 1835 ; 
Le fidele berger, Le brasseiir de Preston, ib., 
1838 ; Regine, La reine d'un jour, ib., 1839 ; 
La rose de Peronne, La main de fer, ou le 
secret, ib., 1841 ; Le roi d'Yvetot, ib., 1842 ; 
Caglioslro, Eichard en Palestine, ib., 1844 ; 
La bouquetiere, ib., 1845 ; Toreador, Le 
fanal, ib., 1849 ; Giralda, ou la nouvelle 
Psj'che, ib., 1850 ; Le farfadet. La poupee 
de Nuremberg (opera-bouffe). Si j'etais roi, 
ib., 1852 ; Le sourd. La faridondaine, Le 
roi des halles, Le bijou perdu, ib., 1853 ; Le 
muletier de TolOde, A Clichy, ib., 1854 ; 
Le houzard de Berchiny, ib., 1855 ; Falstaflf, 
Mam'zelle Genevieve, Les pantins de Vio- 
lette, ib., 1856 ; Le dernier bal, unpublished. 

Ballets : Faust, given in London, 1833 ; La 
fille du Danube, Paiis, 1836 ; Les Mohicans, 
ib., 1837; Morskoi Rasbonick, St. Peters- 
burg, 1840 ; Die Hamadryaden, Berlin, 
1840 ; Giselle, ou les Wilis, Paris, 1841 ; La 
jolie fille de Gand, ib., 1842 ; Le diable a 
quatre, ib., 1845 ; The Marble Maiden, 
London, 1845 ; GriseUdis, ou les cinq 
sens, Paris, 1848 ; La iiUeule des fees, ib., 
1849 ; Orfa, ib., 1852 ; Le corsaire, ib., 1856. 
Other works : Les nations, cantata, Paris, 
1851 ; Chant de victoire, do., ib., 1855 ; 
Cantate pour la naissauce du Prince Im- 
perial, ib., 1856 ; Messe solennelle, a quatre 
voix et choeur, Paris, 1837 ; Messe h trois 
voix ; Messe de Saint-Cecile, pour soli, 
choeurs et orchestre, Paris, 1850 ; Messe 
de rOrpheon, pour choeur de quatre voix 
d'hommes, Meaux, 1851 ; Mois de Marie de 
Saint-Philippe, huit motets ; Domine sal- 
vum, trio et choeur, avec orgue ; Grande 
marche religieuse ; Les metiers, choeurs 
populaires pour quatre voix d'hommes ; 
Les enfants de Paris, choeur a quatre voix 

d'hommes ; 
Duets, Ro- 
m a n c e s. 
Ballades, Chansonnettes, etc. — Adam, Sou- 
venirs d'un musicien (Paris, 1860) ; Clement, 
Les musiciens celebres, 483 ; Fetis ; Halevy, 
Notice sur la vie, etc.; Pougin, Adolphe 
Adam, sa vie, etc.; Tournaillon, Sur Adolphe 

ADAM DE LA HALLE (de la Hale), 
surnamed le bossu d'Arras (the Hunchback 
of Arras), born at Arras, Artois, about 
1240 (Coussemaker, 1220), died in Na- 
ples between 1285 and 1288. He studied 
at the Abbey of Vaucelles, near Cambrai, 
and assumed there the habit of clerk, 
though whether he meant to take orders is 
very doubtful ; but he fell in love with and 
married a young girl named Marie, whom 
he soon deserted. He afterwards went to 
Douai, and possibly to Paris to enter the 
university ; was in the service successively 
of Robert H., Comte d'Ai-tois, Robert de 


Bethune, Count of Flanders, and Charles 
d'Aujou, brother of St. Louis. He followed 
these nobles to Egypt, Syria, Palestine, autl 
Italy ; and probably shared the varied for- 
tunes of Charles d'Anjou, who was made 
Kegent of Naples in 1265. As a composer 
Adam was the greatest genius of his time, 
equal to the best of the dcchanteurs in 
technical knowledge, and far surpassing the 
other trouveres ; he was the connecting 
link between the dechauteurs and the early 
coutrajmutists of the first Flemish school. 
Of his compositions (the text of which he 
also wrote) there remain 34 chansons for 
a single voice ; 16 jeux-partis ; 17 ron- 
deaux and 17 motets for three voices ; the 
famous Jeu de Bobin et Marion. As a j^oet 
he was one of the chief founders of the 
French drama, and had much influence upon 
the formation of the French language it- 
self. — E. de Coussemaker, (Euvres comjjlctes 
du trouvere Adam de la Halle (Paris, 1872) ; 
Ambros, ii. 231 ; Revue et Gazette musicale, 
Paris, Dec. 18, 1836. 

ADAM, JOHANN GEORG, organist at 
Meissen, Saxony, about 1820. He is known 
by estimable comjiositions, among which 
are : Preludes for the organ (Meissen) ; 12 
variations and a fugue for do., op. 8 (Lei^D- 
sic, Hofmeister) ; 6 fugues for do., op. 9 (ib., 
Breitkopf & Hilrtel) ; Series of songs, with 
pianoforte (Meissen) ; Variations, dances, and 
other p)ieces for pianoforte. — Putis. 

Taubenheim, Saxony, July 1, 1792, died (?) 
Instrumental and vocal composer, chamber- 
musician at the court of Dresden. Works : 
10 variations for pianoforte (Meissen) ; Der 
lustige Klavierspieler, collection of fortj'- 
eight pieces for do. (ib.) ; 6 easy fugues for 
the organ (ib.) ; Kurze und leichte Gesange 
zum Gebrauche beim Gottesdienste und 
bei Sing-Umgiingen, for four voices ; Die 
Glocke (by Schiller), with pianoforte (ib.). — 

Vienna, April 22, 1817, still living, 1888. 
Instrumental composer, pupil of Josef 

Tecbliuger on the violin, and of Joachim 
Hoffmann in harmony and composition ; was 
made bandmaster of the civic guard of Vi- 
enna in 1816, and has composed about sixty 
works for military bands, which Lave had 
great success in Austria. — Fetis. 

Zadel, near Meissen, Dec. 22, 1806, died at 
Leisnig, Saxony, Dec. 23, 1868. Instru- 
mental and vocal composer, probably stud- 
ied music in Dresden, and became cantor 
and director of music at Leisnig. Works : 
12 characteristic dances, for pianoforte 
(Leipsic, 1829) ; 6 songs, op. 4 (Dresden, 
Rotter) ; Gedichte eines Lebendigeu, for 
male chorus, op. 6 (ib.) ; 6 quartets for male 
voices (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel). — Fetis. 

Zadel, Saxony, in 1770, died (?). Organist 
at Fischbach, near Bischofswerda. Works : 
6 pieces for the organ (Meissen) ; Songs for 
four men's voices (ib.) ; 6 songs for four 
voices, op. 4 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; 
12 dances for pianoforte (ib.). 

ADAM, LOUIS, born at Miettersholtz, 
Alsace, Dec. 3, 1758, died in Paris, April 
11, 1848. Pianist, pupil of the organist 
Hepp at Strasburg ; but it was chiefly his 
application to the works of Bach, Handel, 
Clexueuti, and Mozart, which fflaced him in 
the first rank among the teachers of his 
instrument. Without a master he studied 
the violin, the harp, and composition. Ar- 
rived in Paris, when seventeen, he brought 
out, at the Concerts Spirituels, two sym- 
phonies for harp, pianoforte, and violin, 
which were the first of their kind heard. 
His principal work is the famous Methode 
de pianoforte, which was at once adopted 
by the newly founded Conservatoire, where 
he was professor in 1797-1843, and edu- 
cated many celebrated artists, among them 
Benoist, Chaulieu, Kalkbrenner, and Ht'- 
rold, father and son ; L. of Honour, 1827. 
Works : Onze ceuvres de sonates pour le 
piano (Paris) ; Sonates separees ; Airs va- 
ries j)our do. (ib.) ; Methode ou principe 
general du doigte (ib., 1798) ; Methode nou- 


velle pour le piano (ib., 1802) ; Quatuors 
d'Haydn et de Pleyel an'anges pour le pi- 
auo ; Recueil de romances. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

ADAM VON FULDA, born about 1450, 
died after 1537. Composer of sacred songs, 
contrapuntist, and writer on music. He 
was a monk of Frauconia, living at the same 
time as Guillaume Dufay and Busuois, as 
he states in the first book of his work, 
wherein he styles himself Ducal musician. 
He is the author of a treatise on music, fin- 
ished Nov. 5, 14:90, of which one manuscript 
is preserved in the library of Strasburg. 
A canticle for four parts by him is jjre- 
served by Glarean in his Dodekachordon, 
with the text : O vera lux et gloria, but 
originally set to the German words : Ach 
hiilff mich Leid und senlich Klag, to be 
found in Joseph King's Wittenberger Ge- 
sangbuch of 1535, and in the Enchiridion 
of religious chants and ijsalms (Magdeburg, 
1673).— Allgem. d. Biogr., i., 43; Fetis; 
Mendel ; Reissmann, 128 ; Schilling. 

PROFONDES. See Africaine. 

ADAMS, THOJL\S, born in Loudon, 
Sept. 5, 1785, died there Sept. 15, 1858. 
Organist, pujiil of Dr. Busby. From 1802 
imtil 1858 he was successively oi-ganist of 
Carlisle Chapel, Lambeth, St. Paul's, Dept- 
ford, St. George's, Camberwell, and of St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-West, Fleet Street. His 
anthem for five voices, O how Amiable are 
Thy DweUings, was performed on the open- 
ing of St. George's, Camberwell, in 1824. 
Adams superintended for many years the 
annual performances on the Apollonicon, a 
chamber-organ of great power, containing 
both keys and barrels, first exhibited in 
1817. Works : Organ pieces ; Fugues ; 
Voluntaries ; 90 interludes ; Hymns ; Sa- 
cred songs ; Anthems. — Grove ; Fetis. 

ADCOCK, JAMES, born at 'Eton, Eng- 
land, in 1778, died at Cambridge, April 30, 
18(')0. In 1786 he became a chorister in 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and in Eton 
College Chapel ; in 1797 he became lay 

clerk in St. George's Chapel, and in 1799 
held a similar position at Eton. On remov- 
ing to Cambridge soon after, he was ad- 
mitted to the choirs of King's, St. John's, 
and Trinity Colleges, and later became 
master of choristers at King's College. 
Woi-ks : 3 glees dedicated to Sir Patrick 
Blake ; Hark, how the Bees, glee for four 
voices ; Welcome Mirth, glee for three 
voices ; Solfeggi for the instruction of those 
\vishing to read at sight. — Grove ; Fetis ; 


ADDIO, FUGGO. See Mejhlofde. 


ADDISON, JOHN, born in London about 
1765, died there, Jan. 30, 1844. Dramatic 
composei'. The son of an ingenious me- 
chanic, he early exhibited a taste for music, 
and on his man-iage with Miss Williams, 
a niece of the bass singer Reinhold, he 
adojjted it as a profession. He appeared 
first in pulilic in Liverpool, and soon after 
assumed direction of the amateur orchestra 
of the private theatre in Dublin. In 1796 
he returned to London, where his wife ap- 
peared at Covent Garden Theatre as Ro- 
setta in Love in a Village, and afterwards 
in other characters, and he played the 
double-bass at the Italian Opera and at the 
Ancient and Vocal Concerts. In 1814 he 
was one of six who composed music for 
The Farmer's Wife, an ojjera by Charles 
Dibdiu the younger. A musical drama, 
Elijah raising the Widow's Son, adapted by 
Addison to Winter's music, was given at 
the Drury Lane Theatre, IMarch 3, 1815, in 
the series of Lenten Oratorios under the 
direction of Sir George Smart. Addison 
also taught singing, and trained some well- 
known public singers. Works — Ojseras : 
The Sleeping Beauty (1805) ; The Russian 
Impostor (1809); My Aunt (1813); Two 
Words (1816) ; Free and Easy (1816) ; My 
Uncle (1817) ; Robinet the Bandit (1818) ; 
Rose d'Amour — adaptation of Boieldieu's 
opera (1818).— Grove ; Fetis. 



ADELAIDE (Ger., Adelheid), daughter 
of Rudoljib II. of Burguudy, and widow of 
Prince Lothaire of Italy, forced to ofl'er her 
hand to Adalbert, sou of the usur^jer Be- 
reuger 11. of Ivrea, fled to Cauossa to the 
protection of Otho I. of Germany, who 
made her his wife. This subject has been 
musically treated many times : By Sartorio, 
Italian ojjera, Venice, 1G7'2 ; Porjsora, do., 
Rome, 1723 ; Buiui, do., Bologna, 1725 ; 
Orlaudini, do., Venice, 1729 ; Cocchi, do., 
Rome, 1743 ; Fioravanti, do., Naples, 1817. 
Adelaide di Borgogua (Adelheid of Bur- 
gundy), Italian opera by Rossini, was given 
at the Ai-gentiua Theatre, Rome, 1818, dur- 
ing the Carnival ; do., by Generali, 1821. 
Adelaide di Borgogna al Castello di Ca- 
nossa, Italian opera, by Gaudiui, was repre- 
sented at the Ducal Theatre, Modeua, 1842 ; 
and Adelheid, German opera, by Telemann, 
Hamburg, 1727. 

ADELAIDE, cantata for tenor solo and 
pianoforte, poem by ]Matthison, music by 
Beethoven, op. 46, composed in Berlin 
about the middle of 1796, published in 
Vienna (Ai'taria), February, 1797 ; dedi- 
cated to the poet. Published also in 
Breitkojif & Hiirtel's Beethoven's Werke, 
Serie 21, Cantateu. One of the composer's 
hapjiiest conceptions. Mattbisou, in his 
writings, published 1825, saj's: "Several 
musicians have quickened this little lyrical 
fancj' with music ; but none has, accord- 
ing to my inmost conviction, placed the 
text, as against the melody, in deeijer 
shade than the ingenious Ludwig van 
Beethoven."— Marx (Berlin, 1875), i. 117 ; 
von Lenz, i. 247 ; Thayer, Verzeichuiss, 19. 

born at Constantinople in 1833, died insane 
at Vienna, Oct. 20, 1873. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil on the violin of Maj'seder in 
Vienna, 1850-54, then studied at the prin- 
cipal conservatories of Germany ; after sev- 
eral concert tours, he lived alternately in 
Vienna and Pesth. Works : Wallenstein, 
opei-a, about 1860, not performed ; Zrinyi, 
opera, given in Pesth National Theatre, 

1868; Martinuzzi, opera, ib., about 1870; 
Sonatas and concertos for the violin ; Quar- 
tets for string instruments. — Mendel ; Rie- 

AD£LE ET DORSAN, drama in three 
acts, text by Marsollier, music by Nicolas 
Dalayrac, represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, April 27, 1795. A poor girl, 
about to be abandoned by her seducer, is 
enabled to triumph over a powerful rival 
and to touch the heart of the father of her 

ADELE DI LUSIGNANO, Italian opera, 
by Carafa, given at the San Carlo Theatre, 
Naples, 1817 ; Spanish opera, by Carnicer, 
Barcelona, 1818. The cavatina, " Grazie 
vi reudo, amici," in Carafa's work, is still a 
favorite with singers. 

ADELE DE PONTHIEU, lyric tragedy 
in three acts, text by Saint-Marc, a chivaWc 
subject bearing some resemblance to the 
Tancrede of Voltaii'e ; music by Delaborde 
and Berton given at the Opera, Piu'is, Dec. 
1, 1772. It was changed into five acts, with 
new music by Piccinni, and represented Oct. 
27, 1781; then reduced to three acts and 
given in 1786, but without success. A 
German operetta, same subject, music by 
Joseph Lange, was given in Vienna in 1796 ; 
and a German ojjera in three acts, music by 
Kerijen, atMeutz in 1798. — Desnoiresterres, 
Gluck et Piccinni, 317. 

born at Lucerne, Switzerland, April 3, 
1728, died at Salzburg, Dec. 23, 1777 
Organist, pupil of Eberlin at Salzburg, 
where he became organist at the cathe- 
dral, and harpsichordist to the archbishop. 
Among his compositions, several masses 
with orchestra were greatly esteemed, al- 
though he imitated too closely the style of 
his master. — Fctis. 

ADELSON E SALVINA, Italian opera, 
music by Bellini, represented in 1824 in the 
theatre of the Conservatorio, Naples. This, 
Bellini's first work for the stage, produced 
w-liile he was still a student, was played in 
the presence of Barbaja, then manager of 



La Scala at IVIilaii, San Carlo at Naples, ami 
other opera-houses. The impresario, struck 
by the work, gave Bellini an order for an op- 
era for Naples ; and in 1826 Bianca e Fer- 
nando was produced at San Carlo with a 
success which gave the author a European 
reputation. The same subject was treated 
by Valentino Fioravanti in Italy about 1804 ; 
and by Savij in Florence in 1839. 

ADHEMAE, Comte ABEL D', born in 
Paris, 1812, died there, 1851. Vocal com- 
poser, whose romances in dramatic stj'le 
were for a long time jjopular in France, 
Italy, and Germany. 




ADLER, GEORG, born at Buda, Hun- 
gary, in 1806, still living, 1888. Violinist 
and pianist ; devoted himself to the teach- 
ing of both instruments, and was choir 
leader in the cathedral of his native city. 
Works : Hungarian theme, for violin, with 
two violins, viola, and bass, op. 1 (Vienna, 
Haslinger) ; Polonaise for do., o-p. 6 (ib.) ; 
Variations for pianoforte, op. 2 (ib.) ; Sonata 
for do. and violin, op. 3 (ib.) ; TiK'me varii', 
op. 4 (ib.); do., op. 8; La Chasse, rondo 
brillant, op. 7 (ib.); 4 songs, op. 10 (ib.) ; 
Libei-a me, Domine, for four voices and or- 
gan, op. 11 (ib.); Quartets for men's voices, 
op. 12 (ib.) ; 3 do., op. 13 (ib., Diabelli) ; 
Cantata, oj). 15 (ib., Haslinger) ; Allegro, 
andante, and rondo, op. 18 (ib.); Sonata for 
pianoforte at four hands, op. 27 (ib., Dia- 
belli) ; Souvenir, rondo brillant (Pesth, 
Grimm & Co.); 2 prayers for four voices, 
small orchesti-a and organ (Augsbiu-g, 
Bohm). — Fotis. 

ADiVIETO (Ammeto, Admetus), Italian 
opera in three acts, music bj' Handel, given 
at the King's Theatre, London, Jan. 31, 
1727. The text, the writer of which is 
unknown, is founded on the story of Adme- 
tus and Alcesth, from the " Alcestis " of Eu- 

ripide.s. It had nineteen consecutive repre- 
sentations, one of the longest recorded runs 
of the period. Admeto was sung by Sene- 
sino, Alceste by Faustina, Antigona b}' Cuz- 
zoni, and Ercole by Boschi. The air of 
Admeto, "Spera, si, mio caro,"is considered 
one of Handel's finest inspirations. Pub- 
lished first by Cluer ; full score, Handel- 
Gesellschaft (Leipsic, 1877). — Schoelcher, 
Handel, 76 ; Rockstro, Handel, 151 ; Reiss- 
mann, Handel, 96 ; Chrysander, ii. 153. 

ADOLF ATI, ANDREA, born in Venice 
in 1711, time of death unknown. Dramatic 
and sacred composer ; pupil in Venice of 
Baldassare Galupjsi. He was conductor of 
the music in S. M. della Salute, Venice, and, 
from 1750 until his death, in L' Annunziata, 
Genoa. His opera of Arianna is said to 
contain an air in the time of five beats to 
the measvire. Works : L'Artaserse, opera, 
given in Rome, 1742 ; L' Arianna, do., Genoa, 
1750; Adriano in Siria, do., ib., 1751; La 
gloria ed il piacere, do., ib., 1752 ; the Psalm, 
Domine, ue in furore, in the collection of 
the Abbe Santini, Rome ; Nisi Dominus, 
MS. in the Imperial Library, Paris ; Sei 
sonate a tre, cinque e sei, op. 1 (Amster- 
dam). — Ft'tis ; Mendel ; Ergiinz, 5. 

ADOLPHE ET CLARA ; or, Les deux 
prisouiiiers (The Two Prisoners), opera 
comique in one act, text by Marsollier, mu- 
sic by Dalayrac, given at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Feb. 10, 1799. Its original and 
interesting plot, and its simple melodies 
and dramatic expression, made it one of the 
most popular works of its time. 

ADONE (Adonis), pastorale, music bj' 
Monteverde, given in 1639 in the Teatro 
di San Cassiano, the first Venetian opera- 
house, which had been opened two yeais 
previouslj'. This was the first dramatic 
work by this composer which was repre- 
sented in public. The subject, the loves of 
Venus and Adonis, has also been treated by 
Keiser in Adonis, German opera, Ham- 
burg, 1697 ; by Karl Wagner in Adonis, 
monodrama, Darmstadt, 1772 ; by Legrenzi 
in Adone in Cijoro, Italian ojjera, Venice, 



lG7fi ; iiiul l)y Lngnarii in Adone e Venere, 
opera seria. Naples, 1784. See Vemis and 

ADRAST (Adrastus), opera, text hy 
Mayrhofer, music by Schubert. Only a 
fragment (two numbers) of this work was 
ever written (1815). It exists in MS. in 
the possession of Herr Dumba. The sub- 
ject, the War of the Seven against Thebes, 
has been treated also liy Friedricli Preu 
in Adraste, grand opera, given in Germany 
about 1785 ; l)y Tarchi in Adrasto, Italian 
opera seria, Milan, 1792 ; and by Portogallo 
in Adrasto, Lisbon, 1800. 

ADRIANI, FRANCESCO, surnamed di 
San Severino, born at Santo Severino, Italy, 
in 1539, died Aug. IG, 1575. Church com- 
poser, maestro di cappella of S. Giovanni in 
Laterano, Rome, 1593. AVorks : Psalms for 
four voices, published with those of Jacques 
de Waet, under the title : Adriani et Jachet, 
Psalmi vespertini omnium festorum per an- 
num, equator vocum (Venice, 1567). Fetis 
says it is possible that he has been con- 
founded with Adrien Willaert. — Fetis. 

See Rienzi. 

ADRIANO m SIRIA (Hadrian in Syria), 
Italian opera in three acts, text by Metas- 
tasio, first set to music by Caldara, and rep- 
resented in Vienna, Nov. 4, 1731. Scene in 
city of Antioch. Characters represented : 
Adriano, Asroa, Emirena, Sabina, Farnaspe, 
Aquilio. The libretto has been set also 
by Pergolesi, Naples, 1734 ; Ferandini, Mu- 
nich, 1737; Karl Heinrich Graun, Berlin, 
1745 ; Francesco Ciampi, Venice, 1748 ; Le- 
grenzio Vincenzo Ciampi, Loudon, 1750 ; 
Adolfati, Genoa, 1751 ; Perez, Lisbon, 1752 ; 
Giuseppe Scarlatti, Naples, 1752 ; Johann 
Adolph Hasse, Dresden, 1753 ; Galuppi, 
Venice, 1700 ; Cabalone, Naples, about 17G0 ; 
Johann Christian Bach, London, 17G4; Gu- 
glielmi, Italy, 17GG ; Sacchini, Venice, about 
1770 ; Holzbauer, Mannheim, 1772 ; Schwan- 
berg, Brunswick, 1772 ; Mysliweczek, about 
1775 ; Cherubini, Leghorn, 1782 ; Nasolini, 
Milan, 1790 ; Johaim Simon Mayer, Venice, 

1798 ; Migliorncci, Naples, 1811 ; Porto- 
gallo, Milan, 1815 ; Giuseppe Farinelli, 
iMilan, 1815 ; Mombelli, Como, about 1820 ; 
Airoldi, Venice, 1852. Tlie operas entitled 
Adriano, music by Duni, Italj-, 1737; by 
Abos, Rome, 1750; by Bernasconi, court 
of Bavaria, 1755, are after the same text. 

ADRUNSEN (Hadrianius), EMANUEL, 
born in Antwerp, lived in the second half 
of the IGth centur3'. He is identical with 
Hadrianius, a name he sometimes used as a 
signature. Among his works ai-e a collec- 
tion of pieces for one, two, three, and four 
lutes, in four or five parts, arranged from 
the compositions of Cyprian Rore, Orlandus 
Lassus, and many others, under the title : 
Pratum musicum, etc. (Antwerp, 1584, 1592, 
and IGOO). He wrote also twelve preludes, 
five fantasias, thirty-five madrigals, and 
much other music for the lute. — Biogr. nat. 
belgique ; Fetis. 

ADRIEN (Hadrian), opera in three acts, 
text by Hoftmanu, music by Mehul, repre- 
sented in the Theatre de la R6publique et 
des Arts, Paris, June 4, 1799. The libretto 
follows pretty closely that of Adriano in 
Siria b^' Metastasio. 

called La Neuville, also Adrien TAine, born 
at Liege, May 2G, 17G7, died in Paris, Nov. 
19, 1822. Bass singer and composer ; edu- 
cated at the Royal School of Singing of 
Memes-Plaisirs. From 1785 to 1804 he 
sang at the Opera in Paris, alternating 
parts with Cheron, and later became choir- 
master at the Opera. Neither his voice nor 
method was good, but he was successful 
as an actor. He succeeded Laine as pro- 
fessor of declamation at the l5cole roj'ale de 
Musique in March, 1822. Adrien composed 
the Hymne a la victoire (1795), on the 
evacuation of French territory in that year, 
the hymn to the martyrs for liberty, and 
the music to the melodrama, Elodie ou la 
Vierge du Monastere, by Ducange, given at 
the Theatre de I'Ambigu-Coraique, 1822. 
A brother, name unknown, born at Liege 
in 1767, was choirmaster at the Theatre 


Feydeau, Paris, and published five collec- 
tions of sougs, romances, etc. (Paris, 17'JO- 
1802). Ferdinand, another brother, was a 
composer of songs, teacher of singing, and 
choirmaster of the OiJura in Paris in 1799- 
1801. — Biogr. nat. belgique ; Fetis. 

era, text from the play (1819) of the same 
name by Scribe, music by Vara, represented 
in Rome in 1856. 

AD\Ti:NTLIED, hymn, text by Riickert, 
music by Schumann, for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra, op. 71, composed 1818. 

iu Ghent in 1770, died there, April 11, 1819. 
Carillouneur of Ghent from 1788 to 1839, 
and director of music at St. Martin's for 
fifty years. His comj)Ositions, especially a 
Miserere, are still performed in Flanders. — 
Biogr. nat. belgique ; Fctis. 

^NEAS. See Enea ; Dido. 

AERTS, EGIDIUS, born at Boom, near 
Antwerp, March 1, 1822, died at Bru.ssels, 
June 9, 1853. Virtuoso on the flute, pupil 
of Lahou at the Brussels Conservatoire, 
where he became professor iu 1817. As a 
flutist he attracted attention iu Paris as 
early as 1837 ; his compositions — symjiho- 
nies, overtures, and for the flute, concertos, 
etudes, and fantaisies — are not published. 

AERTS, F., born at St. Trond, Belgium, 
May 4, 1827, still living, 1888. Violin- 
ist, pupil of the Conservatoire, then of 
Charles Hanssens at Brussels, where he 
became first violinist at the Theatre de la 
Monnaie ; subsequently he led the orchestra 
of the theatre at Tournay, lived for several 
years in Paris, and in 1862 was made pro- 
fessor of music at the ficole Normale of 
Nivelles. He has composed a great num- 
ber of fantasias for orchestra, variations for 
the violin, romances, etc., and written two 
treatises on the Gregorian chant, and an 
elementary method of music. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 6 ; Riemann. 

AFRICAINE, L' (The African), French 
grand opera in five acts, text by Scribe, 

music by Meyerbeer ; first represented at the 
Opera, Paris, April 28, 1865. The libretto 
was prepared in 1810 at the same time with 
that of Le Prophete, which was given the 
preference, but Meyerbeer worked simul- 
taneously on the two, and in 1849, a few 
days after the production of the latter, the 
score of L'Africaine was completed. The 
libretto, however, was unsatisfactory, and 
Scribe rewrote it in 1852. Meyerbeer re- 
vised the score to suit the revision, finishing 
his work in 1860. It was brought to re- 
hearsal in 1863, but the composer died 
(1861) while still correcting it, and it was 
not produced until the following year. 
Original cast : 

Vasco de Gama (T.) M. Naudin. 

Nelusko (Bar.) M. Faure. 

Don Pedro (B.) M. Belval. 

Don Diego (B. ) M. Castelmary. 

Selika (S.) Mme Marie Sasse. 

lues (M.-S.) Mile Marie Battu. 

lues, daughter of Don Diego, loves Vasco 
de Gama, who has been absent two years 
on an expedition of discovery. Her father 
tries to persuade her that Vasco has per- 
ished by shipwreck, and orders her to ac- 
cept the hand of Dou Pedro, President of 
the Council ; but the story is refuted by 
the appearance of Vasco, who narrates be- 
fore the Council the discovery of a new 
land, and iu proof of it exhibits two cap- 
tives, Selika and Nelusko. The inquisitors, 
incited by Don Pedro, deny the truth of the 
stor\', and Vasco, angrily using intemperate 
language, is thrown into prison. In the 
second act, Selika is watching the sleeping 
Vasco in his dungeon. As he awakes she 
declares her love for him, saves him from 
the dagger of the jealous Nelusko, and 
points out on a map the position of the 
great island of which she is queen. Ines, 
to save Vasco, consents to marry Don Pe- 
dro, who, to cheat the navigator of his fame, 
takes command of the ship fitted out for 
the discovery of the new land, and with 
Ines, and Nelusko, who agrees to pilot him 



on boani, sets aall. Vasco, who has followed 
iu another ship, warns him that Nelusko, 
incited by revenge, is misleading him. Don 
Pedro, distrusting him, orders him to be 
shot, but at this moment the vessel strikes 
on a reef and is boarded by savages, who 
kill the commander and most of his crew. 
In the fourth act Si'lika assumes the attri- 
butes of royalty on her island, and to save 
Vasco, who is brought before her with other 
prisoners, declares herself his spouse. A 
barbaric marriage is about to be celebrated 
between them, when Vasco bears the voice 

'U ^P>'3-'/.,o 

■fl ''" 

Pauline Lucca. 

of Inea, and, forgetting his protestations, de- 
serts Selika and flies to his first love. In 
the last act Vasco and Ines sail away for 
Portugal, and the despairing Svlika lies 
down to die, together with Nulusko, under 
the poisonous luanchineel tree. The opera 
is so full of noteworthy musical numbers 
that it is difficult to make a selection ; but 
among the best is the romance of Lies, 
" Adieu, mon doux rivage," in the first act. 
The second act opens with a beautiful 
slumber-song, sung by Si'lika to Vasco in 
prison, " Sur mes genoux, fils du soleil." 
The aria of Nelusko, " Fille des rois, a toi 
I'hommage," is sombre and full of character. 

The act closes with a vocal septet without 
accompaniment, of which the etlect is as 
novel as unforeseen. In the third act, called 
the Ship Act, are the graceful chorus of 
women, " Le rapide et leger navire ; " the 
prayer, " O grand Saint-Dominicjue ; " and 
the invocation of Nelusko, " Adumastor, roi 
des vagues profondes." The fourth act 
opens with a grand Marche indienne which, 
for originality of rhythm, disi^ositiou of in- 
strumental masses, and taste in orchestra- 
tion, is Meyerbeer's masterpiece. It is fol- 
lowed by Vasco's aria, " Paradis sorti du 
sein de Tonde," which is full of melodic 
phrases, and by the grand duet between 
Vasco and Selika, " Nuit d'ivresse," which 
has been compared with the duet in the 
fourth act of the Huguenots. In the fifth 
act, the third scene, called La scene du 
mancenillier, opens with a symphonic prel- 
ude, which is one of the best of Meyerbeer's 
compositions, and leads to Selika's dying 
song on the border of the sea, as Vasco 
sails away. On the production of L'Afri- 
caine in London, the part of Selika was ably 
sustained by Pauline Lucca, whose portrait 
is given opposite. — Clement and Larousse, 
9 ; Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 144. 

AGAMEMNON, burlesque tragedy, text 
and music by Herve, represented at the 
Folies Nouvelles, Paris, in May, 18.5G. 

AGAZZAEI, AGOSTINO, born in Siena, 
Dec. 2, 1578, died there, April 10, 1640. 
He began his professional life in the ser- 
vice of the Emperor Matthias ; subsequently 
went to Rome, where he became maestro 
di cappella at the German College before 
1(503, at the Church of S. Apollinaris, and 
at the Seminario Romano. He was an in- 
timate friend of Lodovico Viadana of Man- 
tua, and one of the first to adopt figured- 
bass, introduced by the latter, for the em- 
ployment of which he gives instructions in 
his third volume of ilotetti (Zanetti, Rome, 
1606). In 1630-40 he was maestro of the 
cathedral at Siena. He was a member of 
the Academy of the Armonici Intronati. 
Agazzari published a little work entitled 



La musica ecclesiastica (Sieua, 1638), in- 
tended to determine bow church music 
should conform itself to the Resolution of 
the Council of Trent. Pitoui ascribes to 
him the pastoral drama of Eumelio, and 
Proske gives a short motet of bis in the 
Musica divina (Lib. motettorum, No. Ixv.). 
His compositions consist of Madrigals, 
motets, psalms, magnificats, and litanies. 
Among them are : II pi-imo libro de' madri- 
gali ; Madrigali armoniosi, etc., lib. 1 (Ven- 
ice, 1600) ; Sacrse cantiones, lib. 1 (1602) ; 
idem, lib. 2 ; idem, lib. 3 (Rome, 1603) ; 
Sacrse cantiones con un basso ad organum, 
lib. 1 (1603) ; idem, 2, 3, 4 voc. con basso ad 
organum, lib. 2, op. 5. These are among the 
first books published with basso coutinuo. 
Besides these there are litanies, and other 
church music published at Rome (1625, 
1639, 16'10), which went through several 
editions. — Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

AGGINTORIO, ROCCO, born in Naples 
about 1810, still living, 1888. He com- 
posed the opera, II biglietto e 1' auello, 
given in Naples, Teatro del Fondo, 1839, 
and subsequently settled in Paris as a 
teacher of vocal music. He has since pub- 
lished some compositions for the pianoforte 
and the voice. — Fetis. 

lermo, Sicily, in 1817, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, pujjil at the Conser- 
vatorio, Naples, of Furno, Zingarelli, and 
Donizetti ; brought out his works in Na- 
ples and Palermo, and went to Marseilles 
in 18i6. "Works — Operas : I due piedauti, 
given at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 183'! ; II 
lazzarone napolitano, ib., 1838 ; Una notte 
di carnovale (opera buffa), Palermo, Teatro 
Carolino, 1838 ; I due gemelli, I due for- 
zati, ib., 1839 ; La locandiera, Naples, Teatro 
Nuovo, 1839 ; La sentiuella notturna, ib., 
Teatro Parthenope, 1840 ; L'omicido im- 
maginario, I due pulcinelli simili, ib., Te- 
atro de la Fenice, 1841 ; R fautasma, ib., 
1842 ; La jacquerie, Marseilles, 1849 ; Luo- 
nore de Medicis, ib., 1855 ; Les deux avares, 
comic opera, ib., 1860 ; Cromwell ; Stefania ; 

Sforza ; Calisto, Blanche de Naples, La 
Rose. Ballets ; Apotheosis of Napoleon, can- 
tata, performed in Paris, 1856 ; Miserere ; 
Stabat mater. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 7. 

grand opera in three acts, text by Ernst 
Raupach, music by Spontini ; first act rep- 
resented in Berlin, May 28, 1827, the en- 
tire work, June 12, 1829. Spontini, dissat- 
isfied with it, had the libretto revised by 
Baron von Lichtenstein and others, and 
made many changes in the music. In this 
form the work was reproduced in Berlin, 
Dec. 6, 1837. The jslot turns on the recon- 
ciliation, during the struggle between the 
Guelphs and Ghibellines, of Henry VI., of 
Hoheustaufen, with Henry the Lion, of 
Brunswick, through the marriage at Mentz, 
in 1194, of his daughter Agues von Hoheu- 
staufen with Henrj', the sou of the latter. 
Original cast : 

Henry the Lion Herr Fischer. 

Henry, his son Herr Eichberger. 

Philip, King of France Herr Bader. 

Archbishop Herr Zschiesche. 

Agnes von Hohenstaufen . Fraulein Fassman. 
Irmengarde Fraulein Griinbaum. 

This, the last opera which Spontini com- 
pleted, is one of his best works, and deals 
worthily with a most dramatic period of 
German history. The same subject has 
been treated with success by Frederick 
Slarpurg, whose work was given at Freiburg, 
Baden, March 14, 1874. 

AGNES SOREL, opera in three acts, 
music bj' Gyrowetz, first represented in Vi- 
enna in 1808. The hero is Charles VE. of 
France, and the subject the deliverance of 
his realm from the English invasion through 
the eflbrts of Joan of Arc. The subject has 
been treated also by De Pellaert, opera in 
three acts, Brussels, 1823 ; and by Miss G. 
A. Becket, English opera, London, 1836. 

AGNESE (Agnes), Italian opera, two acts, 
text by Luigi Buonavoglia, music by Fer- 
dinando Paer, first represented in Parma, 
1810; and in Paris, July 24, 1819. The 



libretto is an adaptation of Mrs. Opie's 
" Father and Daughter," with the scene 
and some of the names changed. Charac- 
ters represented : Agnese, Ernesto, Pasquale, 
Uberto, and Don Girolanio. One of Paer's 
best works ; often reproduced, and alwaj's 
with success. It contains admirable choruses 
and a grand finale. — Musical Rev., i. 230. 

Milan in 172-i, died about 1799. Pianist 
and dramatic composer. Works : Sofo- 
nisba ; Giro in Armenia ; Nitroci ; and lu- 
subria consolata, all of which were given in 
1771 in Naples, Venice, and other Italian 
cities. She wrote also, for the pianoforte, 
cantatas, concertos, and sonatas, well known 
in Germany. — Mendel. 

AGOSTI, a dramatic composer of the 
18th centur}', settled in Russia, about whose 
life nothing is known. Several of his comic 
operas held tlie stage suceessfullj' ; as, for 
instance : An Autumnal Adventure, or the 
Squire of Giinsewitz, which wa.s given in 
Germany after 1780. — Mendel. 

rara in 1534, died there, Sept. 20, 1590. 
He took holy orders and became maestro 
di cappella to Alfonso II., Duke of Este. 
Works : II priino libro di madrigali a 5 voci 
(1570) ; Madrigali a 4 voci (1572) ; L'eco ed 
enigmi musicali a 6 voci, lib. 2 (Venice, 
1581) ; Messe, Vespri, Motetti, Madi-igali et 
Siufonie (Ancona, 1588).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

AGOSTINI, PAOLO, born at Vallerano, 
Italy, in 1593, died 
in Rome in Sep- 
tember, 1G29. He 
studied in Rome 
under Bernardino 
Nanini, whose 
daughter he mar- 
ried, and became 
organist of S. Ma- 
ria in Trastevere ; 
later he was maes- 
tro di cappella of ' ■" 
S. Lorenzo in Damaso, and finally, in 1629, 
succeeded Ugolini as maestro of the Vatican 

Chapel. He was among the first to employ 
a number of voices in several choirs. A 
masterpiece, the Agnus Dei, for eight voices 
in canon, was published by P. Martini in 
Saggio di contrappunto fugato ; Proske 
gives a motet in his Musica diviua (Liber 
motettorum, No. Ixx.). His most famous 
works are preserved in manuscript in the 
Corsiui Library and in the Vatican. Works : 
Psalms for four and eight voices, 2 vols. 
(Soldi, Rome, 1G19) ; Magnificats for one, 
two, and three voices (ib., 2 vols., 1620) ; 
Masses for eight and twelve voices, 5 vols. 
(Robletti, Rome, 1621, 1625, 162G, 1627, 
1628.)— Fctis; Grove; Mendel; Schilling. 

Rome about 1650, died (?). Dramatic com- 
jioser, maestro di cajipella to the Duke of 
Parma. His oj)era, II ratto delle Sabine, 
was given in Venice in 1680. He also pub- 
lished some cantatas (Rome, 1680). His 
Sicut erat, for five voices, is in the work by 
Paolucci styled : Arte j^ratica di contrap- 
punto, where it is given as an illustration 
of fugue. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

AGRELL, JOHANN, born at LiUh, 
Sweden, Feb. 1, 1701, died in Nuremberg, 
Jan. 19, 1769. He studied at LinkOpiug 
and at Upsal ; became court musician at 
Cassel in 1723, and conductor at Nurem- 
berg in 1746. Nine of his works, concertos, 
sonatas, etc., were published at Nuremberg 
(1761-64), and he left many others in man- 
uscript. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

Netherlands in 1460-70, died in Valladolid 
in 1520-30. He was a pupil of Okeghem, 
became one of the most noteworthy com- 
posers of the second Flemish school of con- 
trapuntists, and was distinguished as a 
singer at an early age. He left tlie service 
of Charles VIII. of France for that of Lo- 
renzo de' Medici, and probably passed some 
time in Floi-ence. About 1500 he was in 
the service of Philip the Fair at Brussels as 
"chaplain and singer," and in 1506 he fol- 
lowed either him or Charles V. to Spain, 
where he spent the remainder of his days. 


As a composer, Agricola is distioguished 
from the rest of bis school by a peculiarly 
fantastic style, and a fondness for bizarre 
vocal effects. Yet side by side with phrases 
of almost grotesque extravagance, and in 
strong contrast to them, we find passages 
in a strangely morose, atrabiliar sort of 
counterpoint. In some of his works, how- 
ever, especially in the superb mass " Je ne 
demande," he shows himself to be on a 
level with the finest geniuses of his day. 
His secular chansons were probably very 
popular, but his talent for this sort of wi-it- 
ing was small ; he wholly lacked humour and 
lightness of touch, and was great only in 
the grand stj-le. His published works are : 
Some motets in Motetti XXXIH. (Venice, 
Petrucci, 1502) ; 8 four-part songs in the 
Canti cento ciuquanta (ib., 1503) ; a vol- 
ume of 5 masses, Misse Alex. Agricolae (ib., 
1505). Several important works are in MS. 
in the Vienna Library (Codex A. N., 35 ; 
Cod. E., 133 ; Cod. N., 1783), and probably 
many more are to be found in Spanish ca- 
thedrals. — Ambros, iii. 243 ; Grove, i. 44. 

at Grossen-Furra, Thuringia, Oct. 25, 1643, 
died at Gotha, Feb. 22, 1676. He studied 
at Eisenach (1656), Gotha (1662), and at 
the Universities of Wittenberg and Leipsic, 
and became Kapellmeister at Gotha in 1670. 
Works : Musikalische Nebenstunden, for two 
violins, two violas, and bass (1670) ; Sonaten, 
Prfcludien, Allemanden couranten Balleten 
auf franzosische Art (1675) ; Deutsche geist- 
liche Madrigalien von zwey bis sechs Stim- 
men (Gotha, 1675).— Fetis ; Gerber, N. 

AGRICOLA, JOHANN, born at Nurem- 
berg about 1570, died (?). Professor of music 
at the Gj'mnasium Augusti at Erfurt, where 
he still lived in 1611. Works : Motetten 
mit vier, fiinf, sechs, acht und mehr Stimmeu 
(Nuremberg, 1601) ; Cantiones de prseeijjuis 
testis, quinque, sex et plurimum vocum 
(Nuremberg, Conrad Bauer, 1601) ; Motetaj 
novae pro prsecipuis, etc, containing twenty- 
eight motets (Erfurt, 1611).— Fetis. 

born at Dobitschen, Saxe-Alteuburg, Jan. 4, 
1720, died in Berlin, Nov. 12 (or Dec. 1), 
1774. Dramatic composer, began to learn 
music at the age of five under a certain 
Martini ; having entered the university at 
Leipsic in 1738, he studied music at the 
same time under Sebastian Bach, for three 
years ; after a visit to Dresden he went in 
1741 to Berlin, where he soon attracted at- 
tention by his organ playing, and studied 
composition under Quantz. Devoting him- 
self now chiefly to the dramatic style, he 
took Graun and Hasse for his models, and 
with the opera buffa, II filosofo convinto 
in amore, performed at the theatre in Pots- 
dam, 1750, won the applause of Freder- 
ick the Great, who conferred upon him the 
title of Hofcomponist (court-composer) in 
1751. Ha^^ug written another opera, La 
ricamatrice divenuta dama, for Potsdam, 
he visited Dresden again in 1751, and in 
the same year married the singer Benedetta 
Emilia Molteni of the Berlin Opera. On the 
death of Graun, in 1759, he was appointed 
director of the royal chapel, although with- 
out the title of KajDellmeister. Besides 
operas, he wrote sacred cantatas and instru- 
mental music, was considered the best or- 
ganist in Berlin, reputed as a vocal teacher, 
and distinguished as a writer on music. Of 
his compositions only the twenty-first jjsalm 
and some chorals have been published ; 
the manuscrif)ts of all others are preserved 
in the royal library, Berlin. Works — Op- 
eras : H re pastore, given at Berlin, 1753 ; 
Cleofile, ib., 1754 ; II 
tempio d' amore, ib., 
1755; Psyche, ib., 
1756 ; Achille in Sciro, 
ib., 1758 ; Ifigenia in Tauride, ib., 1765. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 149 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 
TOPH, German composer of the middle of 
the 17th century. Works : Fasciculus mu- 
sicalis, a collection of eight masses (Wiirz- 
burg and Cologne, 1651) ; Fasciculus vari- 
arum cantiouum, a collection of motets for 




two to eight voices. — Petis ; Mendel, Er- 
giiiiz., 6. 

AGRIPPINA, Italian opera, author of 
text uukuowii, music by Handel, repre- 
sented at the Teatro di S. Giovanni Cri- 
sostomo, Venice, in 1708. The libretto is 
founded on the story of Agrippiua, wife of 
the Roman Emperor Claudius, who poi- 
soned her husband (a.d. 5-4) in order to se- 
cure the succession of her young son Nero, 
through whom she hoped to rule the em- 
pire. This work, Handel's second Italian 
opera, which is said to have been written in 
three weeks, was received with enthusiasm, 
and held the stage in Venice more than 
twenty years. It was given in Hamburg, 
1718. Score printed first by Arnold, the 
entire work by the Hilndelgesellschaft, 
1781. The same subject is treated in 
an Italian opera by Porpora, represented 
about 1742.— Schoelcher, Handel, 17 ; Rock- 
stro, Handel, 48. 

Hettstildt, Prussian Saxony, in 1762, died 
at Ballenstiidt, Nov. 27, 1797. Dramatic 
composer and organist to the Prince von 
Buruburg at Ballenstiidt. Works — Operas : 
Aconeius uud Cydippe, given at Ballenstiidt 
about 1784; Das Milchmildcheu, ib., about 
1787 ; Martin Velten, ib., about 1789 ; Ei-- 
win und Elmire, ib., about 1789 ; Philemon 
und Baucis, ib., about 1791 ; Der Spiegel- 
ritter, ib., 1795. His sonatas for the pia- 
noforte were published at Leipsic in 1790 ; 
his Lieder, Der Morgen, Mittag, Abend und 
Nacht at Dessau, 1782.— Fetis ; SchilHng. 

AGUADO, DIONISIO, born in Madrid, 
April 8, 1784, died there, Dec. 20, 1849. 
He studied in Paris, under Garcia, in 
1825, returned to Madrid in 1838, and 
became one of the greatest of performers 
on the guitar. He published, in 1825, 
"New Method for the Guitar." Among his 
compositions are a collection of andantes, 
waltzes, and minuets, solos, transcriptions, 

AGUILAR, EMANUEL, born in Clap- 
ham, London, Aug. 23, 1824, still living. 

1888. Dramatic composer and pianist, pu- 
pil of Schnyder von Wartensee at Frank- 
fort, where he lived in 1844-48, gave con- 
certs, and brought out some of his compo- 
sitions ; after his return to Loudon he 
taught the pianoforte. Works : The Bridal 
of Triermain, dramatic cantata ; A Summer 
Night, cantata for treble voices ; Goblin 
Market, do. ; The Bridal Wreath, opera ; 
Symjjhonies, overtures, trios, sonatas, etc., 
in MS., which have been performed at con- 
certs ; Pianoforte music, and songs. — Fetis. 

TIAN, Spanish composer of the 17th cen- 
tury. He was a monk, and director of 
music in the Cathedral of Saragossa. His 
valuable collection of INIagnificats, for four, 
five, six, seven, and eight voices (Saragossa, 
1618) is still used in Saragossa and in other 
churches in Spain. — Ft'tis ; Mendel. 

AGUIRRE, ABELINO, born in Spain, 
contemporary. Composer of the opera, Gli 
amanti di Teruel, given at Valencia, 1865. 

AH ! BEL DESTIN. See Linda. 


AH ! CHE LA MORTE. See Trovatore. 


AH! COME RAPID A. See Grociato in 

AH ! DI TUE PENE. See Linda. 

Alcpsle, Gluck. 

AH ! FORS' E LUI. See Traviata. 

AH ! GRAN DIO. See Tninala. 

bert le Diable. 

AH, LO PREVIDI, scena for soprano, 
by Mozart, composed at Salzburg, in August, 
1777. Aria of Andromeda, words from Pai- 
siello's opera of that name. One of the 
grandest compositions of its kind. An ex- 
pressive recitative is followed by an elab- 
orate allegro, in which the excited passion 
of a great soul finds a powerful and vivid 
expression. A motive that had previously 
been introduced by the orchestra forms 


then the trausitiou to a softer mood, ex- 
pressing the grief over the lost lover in a 
beautiful recitative, which ends in a cava- 
tina. — Jahn, i. 424. 

AH ! MIO PREGAR. See Semiramide. 


See Dinorah. 


AH ! NON GIUNGE. See Sonnamhula. 

AH PERFIDO ! sceua and aria for so- 
prano, with orchestra, music by Beethoven, 
op. G5 ; dedicated to the Countess Clari ; 
composed in Prague, February, 1796, and 
published in Vienna (Artaria, pianoforte 
arrangement), 1810. It consists of : 1. An 
elaborate Recitative ; 2. Adagio, with ap- 
isendix ; 3. Movement in Lied form. Alle- 
gro assai ; 4. do., Piii lento ; 5. do., Alle- 
gro assai ; 6. do., repetition of 4 ; 7. An 
elaborate Finale, Allegro assai, and repeti- 
tion of 4. All these movements are attract- 
ive and expressive of the supposed situation ; 
the recitative is to be ranked with the best 
of Mozart's.— Marx (Berlin, 1875), i. 114. 


See Azetnia. 

See Ambassadrice. 

AH! QUELLE NUIT. See Domino 


AH! SI LA LIBERT E. See Armide et 


AH ! TU GELAR MI FAT. See Semira- 

AHLE, JOHANN GEORG, born at Miihl- 
hausen, Tluiringia, died Dee. 2, 1706. Or- 
ganist and composer of hymns, which were 
popular in their day, and poet-laureate to 
the Emperor Leopold I. (1680). He suc- 

ceeded his father as organist of the Church 
of St. Blasius. Works : Anmutige zehn vier- 
stimmige Viol di Gamba-Sjjiele (1681) ; 
Instrumeutalische Friihlingsmusik (1695, 
1696) ; manj- Songs. He was also a jjrolitic 
writer on music, and from 1671 to 1706 
published a work yearly, either theoretical 
or practical. Most of these were destroyed 
in the great lire at Miihlhausen in 1689, 
and the others are very rare. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr. ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Winter- 
feld, ii. 328. 

Miihlhauisen, Thuringia, Dec. 24, 1625, died 
there, July 8, 1673. He was educated at 
GOttingen and at Erfurt. In 1644 he be- 
came organist at the latter place, and in 
1646 was appointed director of the new 
music school there. On his return to Miilil- 
hausen he became organist of the Church of 
St. Blasius, and also councillor and burgo- 
master of that town. His treatise on sing- 
ing. Compendium pro teuellis (Erfurt, 1638), 
went through three editions. Among his 
best known works are : Geistliche Dia- 
logen (1648) ; thirty Symphonien, Paduane, 
Balleten, etc., for instruments (1650) ; Thii- 
ringische Lust-Garten, in two parts, for 
voices (1657-1658); ten Geistliche Arien 
(1660) ; 2d series of ten (Miihlhausen, 1662) ; 
third and fourth series of ten songs (1663- 
1664). These and many other collections of 
hymns, motets, etc., appeared at Miihl- 
hausen and Erfurt, until 1668. His hymn : 
Liebster Jesu, wir siud hier, was his best 
and is still in use, with many others. — AU- 
gera. d. Biogr., i. 159 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Spit- 
ta, J. S. Bach, i. 331 ; Winterfeld, ii. 296. 

AHLEFELDT, Griifin VON, German 
pianist at the close of the 18th century. 
She wrote the music of an opera ballet : 
Telemach und Kalypso (Leipsic, 1794). — ■ 
Fetis, Supplement, i. 8 ; Mendel. 

AHLSTROM, OLOF, born in Stockholm, 
Sweden, about 1756, died there in 1835. 
He was court pianist and musical instruc- 
tor of the royal family, and about 1790 
was among the best dramatic composers. 


With Boman, lie edited a collecLioii of 
Swedish popular airs, " Walda svenska 
Folkdansar och Folkledar " (Stockliolm), 
some of which were sung by Jenny Lind 
Goklschmidt, and for two years edited a 
Swedish musical periodical, " Musikaliskt 
Tidsfiirdrif." Works: 4 sonatas for pianoforte 
(Stockholm, 1783, 178G); also operas, can- 
tatas, and soiigs.— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 
Wisby on the isle of Gothland, Sweden, 
June 5, 1805, died at Stockholm, May 14, 
1857. Dramatic composer, studied music 
in his native place and, chiefly without a 
master, while at the University of Upsala ; 
after returning home, he travelled as or- 
chestra conductor with a theatrical company, 
and settled at Carlskrona to teach music. 
Having afterwards become organist and 
musical director at Westerns, he was called 
to Stockholm in 1842 as conductor at the 
newly erected Nya Theatern. From 1845 
he held different positions as instructor, 
orchestra conductor at various theatres, and 
organist. He deserves much credit for 
having searched for and arranged many 
popular melodies. Among his numerous 
compositions are the operas : Alfred the 
Great, and Abu Hassan ; Music to the trag- 
edy of Agne ; Several cantatas ; 6 quartets 
for stringed instruments ; Sonata for piano- 
forte, violin, viola, and violoncello ; Quintet 
for flute, two viohns, viola, and violoncello ; 
Trio ; Concerto for pianoforte, with orches- 
tra. — Mendel, Erganz., 6. 

at Wasserburg, Bavaria, Feb. 23, 177'J, died 
in Munich, May 6, 1867. He began his 
musical education at the seminary of Te- 
gernsee in 1790, then went to Munich, where 
he secured a pension which allowed him to 
study in Italy. At Bergamo in 1802 he 
wrote music under the direction of Mayr, 
was patronized by the Vice-Queen of Italy, 
and went to Milan as Kapellmeister to the 
royal chapel. He afterwards went to Ven- 
ice, where, in conjunction with the Abbe 
Gregorio Treutiuo, he founded the Odeou 

Institution. On the death of Winter, in 
1825, he was recalled to Bavaria and ap- 
pointed Kapellmeister to the court. In 
1833 he revisited Italy, was made a member 
of the Academy of St. Cecilia at Rome, and 
settled at Bergamo, where he collected an- 
cient classical music, now in the Staatsbiblio- 
thek, Munich. Works : Bianca, ballet (Milan, 
1820) ; I Titani, ballet (ib., 1820) ; Rodrigo 
und Chimeue, opera, given at Munich, 
1821 ; Requiems, Masses, Litanies, Psalms, 
Offertories, etc., with full vocal and instru- 
mental choirs. Most of his church music, 
which is written with great skill, has been 
published in Munich, Augsburg, and Paris, 
and one pastorale for organ in Milan. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr. , i. 163 ; Fetis ; ilendel ; Grove. 
AICH, GOTTFRIED, composer of church 
music, and canon of the Order of Premon- 
strants in the 17th century. He published 
at Augsburg, in 1663, a work entitled : 
Fructus ecclesiasticus trium, quatuor et 
quinque vocum, duorum vel trium lustrum, 
cum secundo choro. — Fetis. 

AICHINGER, GREGOR, born at Augs- 
burg (?) about 1565, died after 1614. Hav- 
ing taken holy orders, he became organist at 
Augsburg in the service of Jacob Fugger, 
baron of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn. In 
1599 he visited Rome, and spent two years 
in study. His works show the influence of 
the Venetian school. His Madrigals, Can- 
tatas, Litanies, etc., are among the best 
German compositions of the time. Works : 
Lib. i. Sacrarum cantionum and Lib. ii. 
Sacrarum cantionum (Venice, 1590-1595) ; 
Sacrte cantiones, dedicated to the chapter 
of the cathedral at Augsburg (Nuremberg, 
1597) ; Tricinai Mariana quibus, Antiphorse, 
etc. (Innspruck, 1598) ; Diviupe laudes, etc. 
(1602) ; Vespertini Virginia canticum (Augs- 
burg, 1604) ; Cantiones ecclesiasticaj, etc. 
(Dillingen, 1607); this work is especially 
remarkable for being one of the first where- 
in the words basso continuo appear. His 
church compositions number iu all seven- 
teen, published up to the year 1613. 
Proske gives a Litany, Stabat mater, and 



several motets by him, in his Musica divina ; 
aud the library of the King of Portugal con- 
tains several of his motets for three and four 
voices. — Allgem. d. Biogr , i. 165 ; Ambros, 
Gesch., iii. 5G0 ; Fotis ; Grove ; Schilling. 

AIDA, Italian opera seria in four acts and 
seven tableaux, text by Antonio Ghizlan- 
zoui, music by Giuseppe Verdi ; first rej^re- 
sented in Cairo, Egypt, Dec. 24, 1871. It 
was written upon commission of the Khe- 
dive Ismail Pasha, given in August, 1870, 
for the inauguration of the new opera- 
house in Cairo. The subject is said to have 
been suggested by the Khedive himself. 
The libretto was prepared in prose by M. 
Vassali, conservator of the Boulak Museum, 
then rendered into French verse by Camille 
du Locle, and lastly translated into Italian 
verse by Ghizlanzoni. The scenery and cos- 
tumes were designed by Mariette Bey, the 
distinguished Egyptologist. Original cast : 

Aida (S.) Signora Pozzoni. 

Amneris (M.-S.) Signora Grossi. 

Ridames (T. ) Signor Mongini. 

Amouasro (Bar.) Signor Costa. 

Ramphis (B. ) Signor Medini. 

King (B.) Steller. 

Aida, daughter of Amouasro, King of 
Ethiopia, has been made a prisoner in a 
war between her father aud the King of 
Egypt, and has become the slave of Amne- 
ris, daughter of the latter. Amneris is in 
love with Radames, au Egyptian captain, 
who secretly loves and is loved by Aida. 
When the High Priest, Ramphis, announces 
the approach of the Ethiojiians against 
Thebes, Radames, who is ignorant of the 
relatiouship between Amonasro and Aida, 
is chosen by Pharaoh to lead the Egyjjtiau 
hosts. During Radames's absence Amneris 
discovers Aida's secret and conceives for 
her a violent hatred. Radames returns vic- 
torious, with Amonasro his prisoner, aud is 
awarded a triumph and the hand of Am- 
neris. Acting under the instructions of 
Amonasro, who has formed a plan to re- 
cover his liberty and his kingdom through 

the aid of Radames and to marry his 
daughter to him, Aida persuades her lover 
to betray to her the secrets of the military 
operations preparing against Ethiopia and 
to fly with her ; but their j)lans are over- 
heard by Amneris and Ramjahis, and Rada- 
mes is denounced as a traitor. Condemned 
to be buried alive beneath the Temjjle of 
Phtah, Radames is offered a jiardon if he 
will marry Amneris, but he refuses, and de- 

**%N \", 

Clara Louise Kellogg, as Aida. 

scends into the vaults, where Aida awaits 
him. The tomb is walled up and sealed 
by the priests, and the lovers are united in 
death, while Amneris, abandoning herself to 
grief, prays beside their seijulchre. The 
first representation of Aida in Europe was 
at La Scala, Milan, Feb. 8, 1872, with Si- 
gnore Teresina Stolz and Waldmaun, and 
Signori Fancelli, Pandolfini, and Maini in 
the cast. The opera was given in Naples 
in March, and in Parma in April, 1872 ; in 
New York, 1873 ; in Paris, at the Italiens, 
April 22, 1876, aud at the Opera, March 
22, 1880 ; and in London, June 22, 1876. A 


Russian version was given in St. Petersburg 
in 1879 ; a German version in New York, 
Metropolitan Opera House, Nov. 12, 1886 ; 
and an Eni^lisli version at the Brooklyn 
Academy, Dec. 29, 1886, and at the Met- 
ropolitan Opera House, March 5, 1887. 
Among the noteworthy numbers in the 
first act are : The romanza of Radames, 
" Celeste Aula ; " the martial chorus of the 
King and his retinue, " Su ! del Nilo al 
sacro lido ; " and the scena of A'ida, " Ri- 
torna vincitor ! " The second act opens 
with a chorus of women, which is followed 
by a duet between Amneris and A'ida, " Alia 
pompa che si appresta," and closes with a 
grand triumphal chorus, " Gloria all' Egit- 
to." In the third act are the prayer of 
Aida, " O cieli azzuri," and duets between 
Amonasro and Aula, and Radames and 
Aida. The last act, which contains an im- 
pressive duet between Radames and Am- 
neris, " Chi ti salva, o sciagurato," closes 
with the plaintive dying song of Radames 
and Aida, " O terra, addio," while the priests 
and priestesses chant in the temple above 
their tomb. — Clement and Larousse, 767 ; 
Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 2-17; Edwards, 
Lyrical Drama, ii. 1. 

AIGNER, ENGELBERT, born in Vien- 
na, Feb. 23, 1798, died in (?). Dramatic 
composer, pupil of the Abbot Stadler ; in 
1835-37 he was director of the ballet or- 
chestra at the imperial theatre, then started 
an industrial enterprise in the provinces, 
and in 1842 returned to Vienna, where he 
cultivated music as an amateur. Works : 
Wunderlilie, opera, given in Vienna, 
Kiirnthnerthor Theater, about 1824; Das 
geheime Fenster, comic opera, ib., 1826 ; 
Der Angriffsplan, do., ib., 1829 ; Das Hoch- 
zeitsconcert, vaudeville, ib., 1829 ; Lob der 
Tonkunst, cantata, ib., 183.5; Mass for four 
voices (Vienna, Haslinger) ; Quintet in G 
(ib., Diabelli) ; 6 choruses for male voices 
(ib., Artaria) ; Masses with orchestra, and 
a Requiem, unpublished. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

COIS, born at LTsle, Vaucluse, Oct. 4, 1779, 

died in Paris, Feb. 2, 1866. Dramatic com- 
poser, son and pupil of the violoncellist 
Esprit Aimon (1754-1828). When but sev- 
enteen he conducted the orchestra of the 
theatre at Marseilles, and in 1817 settled in 
Paris, where he became leader of the or- 
chestra at the Gymnase Dramatique in 
1821, and at the Theatre Franyais in 1822. 
Among his compositions, those for chamber 
music are the most meritorious, showing 
great inventive talent and originality. He 
also wrote some treatises on harmony. 
Works — Operas : Les jeux fioraux, 3 acts, 
libretto by Bouilly, given in Paris, Acade- 
mie royale de musique, Nov. 16, 1818 ; La 
fee UrgMe, comic opera, ib., Gymnase, 
1821 ; Velleda, 5 acts, libretto by Jouy, 
ib.. Opera, 1824 ; Abufar, 3 acts, Alcide et 
Omphale, Les Cherusques, written for the 
Opera ; Les deux Figaros, for the Opera 
Comique, none of which were performed ; 
Quintet for two violins, two violas, and vio- 
loncello (Paris, Janet) ; 3 quartets for two 
riolins, viola, and violoncello, op. 4 (ib., 
Hanry) ; 3 do., op. 6 (ib., Momigny) ; do., op. 
7, 8, 9 (ib., Hentz) ; do., op. 43, 46 (ib., Pa- 
cini) ; 3 do., op. 47 (ib., Janet); do., book 
4 (ib., Frey); 3 new do., books 5-8 (ib.) ; 
Concertino for violoncello (ib., Pacini) ; 
Recreation for two violoncellos, horn, and 
pianoforte (ib.); Solo for clarinet, with ac- 
companiment of quartet or pianoforte (Ly- 
ons, Arnaud) ; First and second concerto 
for bassoon (Paris, Frey) ; Quartet for pia- 
noforte (ib., Pacini) ; Duets for guitar and 
violin (ib., Gaveaux) ; Several trios and duets 
for violin. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. ; 

AIROLDI, born in Italy, contemporary. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Pietro Ray 
and of Vaccai at the Conservatorio, Milan. 
Works : Don Gregorio nell' Imbarazzo, op- 
era buffa, given in Venice, 1850 ; Adriano 
in Siria, opera, ib., about 1852 ; Statira, Re- 
gina di Persia, Milan, about 1853. — Fetis. 

AJAX, music to the tragedy of Sophocles, 
by Sir William Stei-ndale Bennett, op. 45. 




barrassed Tutor), Italian ojsera, music by 
Donizetti, reiDi-esented in Rome, 1824. An 
opei"a of the same title, by C!elli, was per- 
formed in Italy about the same time. See 
Don Gregoi'io. 

for full orchestra, by Brahms, op. 80, com 
posed, 1881, in acknowledgment of the de- 
gree of Ph.D., conferred upon him by the 
Uuiversit}' of Breslau. 

composer of middle of 17th century. Or- 
ganist of St. Gudule, Brussels. Works : 

3 symphonies (Antwerp, 1644-47-49) ; Mass 
for eight voices ; Misspe et motettse (Ant- 
werp, 1650) ; Missa pro defunctis otto vo- 
cum. — Fetis ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 7. 

AKEROYDE, SAMUEL, born in York- 
shire, England, latter half of the 17th cen- 
tury, died (?). He contributed songs to the 
Third Part of D'Urfey's Don Quixote in 
1696. His songs are also found in the 
Theatre of Music (1685-87), Vinculum so- 
cietatis (1687), Comes amoris (1687-94), 
Gentleman's Journal (1692-94), Thesaurus 
musicus (1693-96), and other collections. — 
Grove ; Fetis. 

A LA FRONTlfiRE, cantata, music by 
Gounod, first j^erformed in Paris, 1870. 

Monza, Italy, in 1580, died in 1612. Or- 
ganist of the Church dei Servitori, Milan. 
Works : Madrigals and canzonets (Milan, 
1617, 1625) ; Concerti ecclesiastici (Milan, 

4 vols. 1618, 1621, 1628); and motets in 
the Pratum musicum (Antwerp, 1634). — 
Fi'tis; Mendel. 

ALADIN ; or, La lampe merveilleuse (The 
Wonderful Lamp), French opera in five acts, 
text by Etienne, music by Isouard ; first 
represented at the Opera, Paris, Feb. 6, 
1822. Subject from the " Ai-abian Nights." 
This, the last work of Isouard, was left un- 
finished at his death (1818), and was pre- 
pared for the stage by Benincori. Although 
it exhibits evidences of the composer's de- 
cadence, it met with wonderful success, 
partly due doubtless to its splendid spec- 

tacular effects. The Op^ra was lighted 
with gas for the first time on its represen- 
tation. The subject has been treated also 
by Gyrowetz, German opera in three acts, 
Vienna, about 1822 ; by BishoiJ, English op- 
era, Covent Garden, Loudon, 1826 ; by Karl 
Guhr, Frankfort, 1830 ; and by Luigi Ricci, 
Naples, 1835. 

ALARD, DELPHIN, born at Bayonne, 
France, March 8, 
1815, still living, 1888. 
Violinist, son and pu- 
pil of au amateur 
musician ; when only 
ten years old he 
played a concerto of 
Viotti's in public. In 
1827 he went to Paris, 
became a pupil of Ha- 
beneck, and won the 
second pi'ize for violin in 1829, and the first 
in 1830. He studied composition under Fetis 
in 1831, and was a member of the orchestra 
at the Opera in the same year. At concerts 
of that year he won the notice of Paganiui, 
who was much impressed with his plaj'ing. 
In 1840 he succeeded Baillot as first violinist 
to the king, and in 1843 as professor of the 
violin at the Conservatoire. Alard is the 
chief representative of the modern French 
school of violin playing. He is the author of 
a comprehensive work, " Ecole da violin," 
adojjted by the Conservatoire ; editor of a 
collection of violin pieces by the best com- 
posers of the 18th century, " Les maltres 
classiques du violin," in 40 parts, and com- 
poser for his instrument of a number of 
etudes, nocturnes, duos, etc., and of con- 
certos and symphonies with orchestral ac- 
companiment. — F('tis ; Grove ; IMendel ; Wa- 
sielewski, Die Violine, 376. 

ALARICO IL BALTHA (Alaric the Bold), 
Italian opera, text by Luigi Orlandi, music 
by Steffani, first represented at Brunswick, 
Jan. 18, 1687, the birthday of the Elec- 
tress Maria Antonia. Fresh singers were 
brought from Italy for the occasion, and 
the work was enlivened by ballets arranged 


by Rodier, aud danced by ladies and gen- 
tlemeu of the court, with costumes from 
Paris. Subject treated also in Alarico, Re 
de' Goti, by Bassaui, Ferrara, 1G85 ; in 
Alaric, opera iu three acts, music by Schie- 
ferdecker, Hamburg, 1702 ; and in Ingrati 
tudine castigata, ossia Alarico, by Chiochetti, 
Ancona, 1719. 

ALARY, JULES, born of French parents 
at Mantua in ISU, still 
living, 1888. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Ba- 
silj at the Conservatorio 
of Milan, was for a few 
years flutist nt the Te- 
atro della Scala, and in 
1835 went to Paris to 
teach the j^ianoforte and 
singing. He was iu Lon- 
don in 1836, but returned to Paris, where 
Jullien's orchestra performed some of hi.s 
music. Alternately there and iu London 
he gave concerts, in which he brought out 
his comj)ositions, without being able to ac- 
quire a genuine reputation, his style run- 
ning almost exclusively iu the shallow taste 
of fashion. In 1852 he went to St. Peters- 
burg to bring out a grand opera, and after 
his return, in 1853, was made accomjjanist 
in the imperial chapel, while at the same 
time he became musical director at the 
Theatre des Italiens. Works : Rosamonda, 
opera, given at Florence, Teatro de la Pergo- 
la, June 10, 1810 ; La Redemption, oratorio, 
Paris, Concert Sj)irituel, April, 1851 ; Le tre 
nozze, opera bufta, ib.. Theatre des Italiens, 
March 29, 1851 ; Sardanapale, ojjera, St. 
Petersburg, 1852 ; L'orgue de Barbaric, oj)- 
eretta, Bouflfes Parisiens. 185G ; La beaute 
du Diable, Paris, Opera Comique, 1861 ; Le 
/^ra.sseur d'Amsterdam, operetta. Ems, 1861 ; 
La voix humaiue, Paris, I'Opera, 1861 ; Lo- 
canda gratis, opera buffa, Theatre des Ital- 
iens, 1866 ; many songs, duets, terzets, and 
quartets, and pieces for the pianoforte, espe- 
cially polkas and waltzes. — Fetis ; do.. Sup- 
plement, i. 8. 

ALAS! THOSE CHIMES. See3Iaritana. 

ALAYRAC, D'. See Dalayrac. 

ALBANESI, LUIGI, born in Rome, March 
3, 1821, still living, 1888. Pianist and 
composer, studied under his brother and 
sister, who were pupils of Senderaeh ; after- 
wards a pupil in harmony of Giuseppe 
Polidoro and Salvatore Lavigna. Works : 
Les sept paroles de Jesus Christ, oratorio ; 
2 masses ; Motets with organ or harmonium, 
or the pianoforte and other instruments ; 
Pianoforte pieces, more than fifty. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 9. 

ALBANEZE (D'Albanese), born at Al- 
bano, Apulia, iu 1729, died in Paris in 
1800. Pupil of the Naples Conservatorio, 
visited Paris in 1717, and was engaged at 
the king's chapel. In 1752-62 he was first 
singer at the Concerts Spirituels. He com- 
posed airs and duets, among which are : 
Airs a chanter, 3 collections ; Les amuse- 
ments de Melpomene, with violin or guitar 
accompaniment ; and fifteen other collec- 
tions. The charming romance. Que ne suis- 
je la fougere, is his, although it has been 
attributed to Pergolesi. — Fetis ; Mendel ; 
Michaud, Biogr. univ. 

ALBENIZ, PEDRO, born in Biscay, 
Spain, about 1755, died at St. Sebastian 
about 1821. He was a monk aud conductor 
of music in the Cathedrals of St. Sebastian 
and Logrono (1795). Among his works 
are : Masses, vespers, and motets, unpub- 
lished, and a book of solfeggi (St. Sebastian, 
1800).— Fetis. 

ALBENIZ, Don PEDRO, born at Lo- 
gi'ofio, Spain, April 14, 1795, died in Ma- 
drid, Ajjril 12, 1855. Organist, son of Don 
Matteo Albeniz, maestro of the Collegiate 
Church at Logrono. When but ten years 
old he becanje assistant organist of the Par- 
ish of St. Vincent, Guipuzcoa. He studied 
in Paris under Henri Herz aud Kalkbreu- 
ner, and on his return to Spain was made 
director of the musical fetes on the arrival 
of the king and queen, in 1828. He after- 
wards became organist of the Church of 
Santa Maria in Logrono, a position left va- 
cant by his father's resignation in 1829. 


On his visit to Madrid and Aranjuez he 
received great favours from the king, who 
appointed him professor of the pianoforte 
at the Conservatorio wliich the queen, Maria 
Christina, had just instituted (1830), and 
organist of the Chapel Royal. In 1838 he 
was made vice-j)resident of the junto of 
directors for the Artistic and Literary Ly- 
ceum at Madrid, and became maestro to 
the Lifanta and the queen. Dona Isabella, 
and received several decorations. To him 
is due the foundation of the modern school 
of jjianoforte playing in Spain ; all the best 
pianists of that country and of Spanish 
South America were his pujjils. His works, 
which number about seventy, are chiefly va- 
riations, fantasias, etc., for pianoforte with 
violin or violoncello accompaniment. His 
Mcthode de piano (Madi-id, 1840), was 
adopted by the Conservatorio. — Fetis ; 

CELLI, born in Bologna, Italy, in the latter 
part of the 17th century, died (?). Dramatic 
composer. Although an amateur, his com- 
positions are considered among the best of 
his time. Works : Gli amici, opera, given in 
1699 ; II prineipe selvaggio, opera, given 
in Bologna, 1712 ; Giobbe, oratorio, given 
in Bologna, 1688 ; Baletti, corrente, sara- 
bande, etc. (1682-8.5) ; Sonate a due violini, 
col basso continuo per 1' organo, ed un alto a 
beneplacito per teorbo, o violoncello, op. 2 
(1683); Cantate morali a voce sola (1685); 
Messa e salmi concertate ad una, due, tre e 
quattro voci con stromenti obligati e ripieni, 
a beneplacito, op. 4: (1687) ; and Cantate ed 
oratorio a piti voci, op. 17 (1714). Besides 
these, there ai'e many cantate and motetti 
dating from 1687 to 1721.— Fetis ; Mendel ; 

at Orvieto, Italy, lived in the beginning of 
the ISth century. Composer and poet ; he 
publislied a musical dialogue for four voices 
entitled : L' Esilio di Adamo et di Eva dal 
Paradiso terrestre (Orvieto, 1703). — Fetis ; 

ALBERT, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 
Prince Consort of Great Britain, born at 
Castle Rosenau, near Coburg, Aug. 26, 1819, 
died at Windsor Castle, Dec. 14, 1861. 
Pianist, studied music at Coburg and at 
Brussels. Works : Masses ; Anthems ; Songs 
and glees ; also an opera, Hedwig von Lin- 
den. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ALBERT, EMILE, born at Montpellier, 
France, in 1823, died at Bagneres-de-Bi- 
gorre in August, 1865. Dramatic composer 
and pianist. Works : Les petits du premier, 
operette, given in Paris, Theatre Saint-Ger- 
main, 1864; Jean le Fol, do., 1865; Syni- 
pljonies ; Trios for pianoforte, violin, and 
violoncello ; Sonatas for 25ianoforte and vio- 
lin. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 10. 

ALBERT, EUGEN D', born at Glasgow, 
Scotland, Ajsril 10, 
1864, still living, 1888. 
He is the son of 
Charles d'Albert, a 
French dancing-mas- 
ter (born near Ham- 
burg, 1815). Eugen 
studied under Sir Ar- 
thur Sullivan, Prout, 
and Pauer in London, 
then under Hans 
Richter in Vienna (1880), and under Liszt 
at Weimar (1881). He appeared, in the 
same year, with bi-illiant success at a 
philharmonic concert in Vienna ; at Weimar, 
where he was made court pianist ; and in 
Berlin. Works : Concerto for jsiauoforte ; 
Overture to Hiilderlin's Hyijerion ; Suite in 
five movements ; Songs, etc. 

ALBERT, HEINRICH, born at Loben- 
stein, Voigtland, Saxon)-, June 28, 1604, 
died at Konigsberg, June 27, 1657 (Oct. 10, 
1651 ?). Organist and poet. A nephew 
and perhaps a pupil of Heinrich Schtitz, he 
studied law in Leipsic and mu-tiic in Dres- 
den. In 1626 he studied at Konigsberg un- 
der Stobbaeus, who was then Kapellmeister, 
and in 1631 he became organist of the old 
church there. Albert's music showed all 
that was best in the German and Italian 



schools ; lie composed the words to many 
of his owu lij-mns and songs, eight collec- 
tions of which were printed by Paschen, 
Meuse, aud Reussner, under the j^atronage 
of the Emperor of Germany, the King of 
Poland, and the Kurfiirst of Brandenburg. 
These collections were so pojiular that sev- 
eral editions were published by the author, 
aud others were issued, without his jjermis- 
sion, at KOnigsberg aud Dautzic under the 
title of " Poetisch-musicalisehes Lustwald- 
lein." These latter are very rare ; their 
original title was: Erster (Zweiter, etc.) 
Theil der Arien etlicher theils geistlicher 
theils weltlicher, zur Andacht, guten Sitteu, 
keuscher Liebe uud Ehreu Lust, dienender 
Lieder zum singen uud spielen gesetzt. 
This is followed by separate dedications to 
each part, which are valuable on account of 
the princijjles on musical art given iu them 
at a time when a reform iu music was tak- 
ing place by means of the basso continuo. 
He was author of the manuscript, Tractatns 
de modo conficiendi contrajsunetum, at that 
time owned by Valentine Hausmann. He 
composed for the centenary of the Konig.s- 
berg University, Aug. 28, 164;4, a ComO- 
dieii-Musik, afterwards given in the palace 
of the Kurfurst, thus becoming, after Hein- 
rich Schiitz, the founder of German opera. 
This comedy was never jjublished and is now 
lost. A Te Deum of his was published Sept. 
12, 1647. Albert's editions were originally 
in folio, but an octavo edition was published 
by A. Profe, of Leipsic, in 1G57. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr. ; Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; AViiiter- 
feld, Der evaug. Kirchengesaug, ii. 13G. 

Stagno, in Parma, 1783, died (?). Pupil at 
Parma of the Carmelite friar Giuseppe Va- 
leri, then of Fortunati iu singing and coun- 
terpoint ; settled afterwards at Genoa. His 
church music is highly esteemed. He wrote 
also an opera, Gli amanti raminglii, given 
about 1812, and much music for the piano- 
forte. — FOtis. 

ALBERTI, CARLO, born in Italy iu 1848 
or 1849. Dramatic composer, brought out 

the operas : Armando e Maria, at Naples, 
Teatro de' Fiorentini, 18C9, aud Oreste, ib., 
TeatroPoliteama, 1872. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 10. 

ALBERTI, DOMENICO, born in Venice 
about 1717, died at Formio about 1740. 
Amateur singer, pianist, and dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Antonio Biffi in singing, aud 
of Lotti in compositiou ; as the page of a 
Venetian ambassador he went to Madrid, 
where hia singing excited the jealousy of 
Fariuelli. Iu 1737 he came to Rome with 
the Marchese Molinari, and made his debut as 
a composer. Works — Operas : Endimione, 
given iu Rome, 1737 ; Galatea, ib., ; Olim- 
piade ; 36 sonatas, for pianoforte. — P^'tis ; 
Meudel ; Schilling. 

at Bologna in 168.5, died after 1726. Vi- 
olinist, jjupil of Carlo Manzoliui, of Pietro 
Minelli on the violin, aud of Floriano Ar- 
resti in counteri^oiut. He was first violinist 
at the Church of S. Petronio, was elected 
member of the Accademia Filarmonica iu 
1714, aud principe in 1721. Works : Dieci 
Coucerti a sei stromenti (Bologna, 1713) ; 
Dodici senate jser violino solo, con basso 
continuo (ib., 1721) ; Dodici sinfonie per 
due violini, viola, violoncello ed organo (ib., 
1726).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

at TiJnning, Schleswig, Jan. 11, 1642, died 
at Merseburg, June 14, 1710. Contrapunt- 
ist and organist, jiupil of Werner Fabricius 
at Leipsic ; became organist at the cathe- 
dral at Merseburg, but was obliged to re- 
sign in 1698 owing to a stroke of paralysis. 
He was esteemed one of the best composers 
of chorals, fugues, etc., and one of the most 
learned contrapuntists of his time. — Fctis ; 
Fiirstenau, Gesch. der Musik am Hofe zu 
Dresden, i. 143 ; Gerber, Hist. Lex. ; Spitta, 
J. S. Bach, i. 98. 

1744, died at Warsaw, April, 1811. Dra- 
matic comjjosei-, lived at Warsaw in 1784 as 
Kajjellmeister to the King of Poland. Po- 
litical events induced him to return to Italy, 



where lie taught singing until 1804, wlien 
he was called back to Warsaw by Prince 
Poniatowski for the instruction of his chil- 
dren. Works — Operas : Don Giovanni, 
given at Venice, 1784 ; Le maitre de cha- 
pelle polonais (Polish opera), Warsaw, 1784 ; 
Circe, Hamburg, 1785 ; Virginia, Rome, 
1786 ; Scipione Africauo, ib., 1789. — Fctis. 

ALBICASTEO, HENPvICO, boru in Switz- 
erland towards the end of the 17th century, 
died (?). Violinist, real name Weissenburg. 
He served as captain in the Allied Ai'niies 
during the Spanish War of Succession. 
Works : Sonatas for three parts, op. 1 (Am- 
sterdam, Roger); do., op. 4 (ib.) ; 12 do., 
op. 8 (ib.) ; 15 sonatas for violin and bass, 
op. 2 (ib.); do., op. 5 and op. 6 (ib.); Sona- 
tas for violin, violoncello, and bass, op. 3 ; 
Concertos for four parts, op. 7 (ib. ) ; Sona- 
tas for violin and violoncello (ib.). — Fetis ; 

dramatic composer, contemporary. Works : 
Uu giorno di quarautena, opera butfa, giv- 
en at Bologna, Teatro Contavalli, 18G6 ; and 
Lamberto Malatesta, opera. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 10. 

ALBINONI, TOMilASO, boru in Venice 
in 1674, died there in 1745 (?). Dramatic 
composer and violinist. No i)articulars of 
his life are known. He wrote forty-two 
ojieras, some vocal, and much instrumental 
music, in which he showed greater talent 
thau in his dramatic works. He was also 
an excellent performer on the violin. Bach 
took bass parts by Albinoui for j^ractice in 
thorough bass and used many of his themes, 
notably two from his Opera prima, for 
fugues ; see Peters's edition of Bach's clavier 
works ; one in A (No. 10, cahier 13), the 
other in F-sharp minor (No. 5, cahier 3). 
Works — Operas: Engelberta (conjointly 
with Gasparini), given at Venice, 1690 ; Zeno- 
bia, regina de' Palmireni, ib., Teatro de' SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo, 1694 ; II prodigo dell' in- 
nocenza, ib., ib., 1695 ; Zenoue, imperatore 
d' Oriente, ib., Teatro di S. Cassiano, 1696 ; 
Tigrane, re d' Armenia, ib., 1697 ; Radamisto, 

ib., Teatro di Sant' Angiolo, 1G98 ; Primis- 
lao I., re di Boemia, ib., S. Cassiano, 1698, 
Vicenza, 1701, Udiue, 1704 ; L'ingratitu- 
dine castigata, Venice, 1698 ; Diomede pn- 
nito da Alcide ; L' inganno innocente, both 
in Rome, 1701 ; L' arte in gara con 1' arte, 
Venice, 1702 ; La fede tra gli ingauni, 
Rome, 1707; Astarte, Venice, 1708; H tra- 
dimento tradito, ib., Sant' Angiolo, 1709 ; 
Ciro riconosciuto, Rome, 1710 ; Giustina, 
Bologna, 1711 ; H tiranno Eroe, Venice, S. 
Cassiano, 1711 ; Le gare generose, ib., 1712 ; 
Amor di figlio uon conosciuto, 171G ; Eu- 
mene, Rome, 1717; Cleomene, ib., 1718; II 
Meleagro, Venice, 1718 ; Gli eccessi della 
gelosia, Rome, 1722, then under the title of 
Marianna, Venice, Sant' Angiolo, 1724 ; Er- 
mingarda, Rome, 1723 ; Laodicea, Venice, 
S. Mose, 1724 ; Scij)ione nelle Spagne, ib., 
S. Samuele, 1724 ; Antigono tutore, 1724 ; 
Didone abbandouata, Rome, 1725 ; Alciua 
delusa da Ruggiero, 1725 ; II trionfo d' Ar- 
mida, Venice, 1726 ; L' incostanza schernita, 
Rome, 1727; I due rivali in amore, and 
Griselda, ib., 1728 ; II concilio dei pianetti, 
and L' infedeltS, delusa, ib., 1729 ; Statira, 
Venice, Sant' Angiolo, 1730 ; Gli strata- 
gemmi amorosi, ib., S. Mos6, 1730; Elenia, 
1730 ; Ai'deliuda, 1732 ; Gli awenimenti di 
Ruggiero, Venice, 1732 ; Candalide, ib., 
1734; Artamene, ib., 1741. Other works: 
Due e dieci souate a tre, op. 1 ; Siufonie a 
sei e sette, op. 2 (Venice, 1700) ; Dieci e 
due balletti, ossia sonate da camera a tre, 
op. 3 ; 12 cantatas for a single voice, and 
bass, op. 4 ; 12 concertos for 6 instru- 
ments, op. 5 ; Trattenimenti da camera, con- 
sisting of 12 cantatas for a single voice, 
and bass, op. 6 ; do. for oboe and violin, 
op. 7 ; 12 ballets for two violins, violon- 
cello, and bass, op. 8 ; 12 concertos for 2 
oboes, viola, violoncello, and organ, op. 9. 
— F.'tis ; Mendel ; Spitta, i. 423. 

Magister Albrecht, boru at Giirmar, Thu- 
ringia, Jan. 8, 1732, died at Miihlhausen in 
1773. More especially a writer on music, 
but comjjosed cantatas (1758), a Passion 


(1750), and exercises for pianoforte (1708). 
— Allgem. (L Biogr., i. 321 ; Fetis ; Meudel. 

boru at Osterbehringen, near Gotba, May 1, 
1701, died at Frankfort in 1769. Cburcb 
composer and renowned organist, jjiipil of 
Kapellmeister Witt at Gotlia ; visited South 
Germany and France to Lear the best or- 
ganists, and f?ooii ranked witli tliem. He 
became organist at St. Catherine's, Frank- 
fort, in 1724, and at the Metropolitan 
Clmrch of the Barefooted Friars in 172G. 
He was distinguished also as a didactic 
writer. Works : Cantatas for the twenty- 
fourth Sunday after Pentecost (1758) ; Pas- 
sion according to the Evangelists (Miihl- 
hausen, 1759) ; Musikalische Aufmunterung 
f (ir Anfiinger des Kliiviers (Augslnirg, 17G:5) ; 
Musikalische Aufmunterung in kleinen Kla- 
vierstiicken und Oden (Berlin, 1703) ; Con- 
certos for pianoforte (unpublished). — ^len- 
del ; Schilling. 

GEORG, born at 
near Vienna, Feb. 
3, 1736, died in 
Vienna, March 7, 
1809. Composer of 
church and cham- 
ber music, contra- 
puntist, organist of 
the first rank, and 
cue of the most 
eminent theoreticians and teachers of mu- 
sic. He was first instructed in his native 
place by the parson Leopold Pittner, after- 
wards pupil in Vienna of the court organ- 
ist Mann. Having pursued Lis educational 
studies at tlie Benedictine Abbej' of Mulk, 
and at the Jesuits' Seminarj' in Vienna, 
where Michael Haydn was his fellow stu- 
dent, he became an organist, first at Raab, 
Hungary, then at Maria-Taferl, finally at 
Molk, where he remained twelve years, and, 
under the choir dii-ector Kimmerling, stud- 
ied the classical works of Caldara, Pergo- 
lesi, Grauu, Hasse, Handel, Bach, and others. 

After 1765 he taught a few years in the 
family of a nobleman in Silesia, then in 
Vienna, earning a scanty living, but soon 
attracting attention by Lis organ playing, 
which procured for him the position as Re- 
gens cliori at the Carmelites. In 1772 ho 
was appointed court organist, and in 1792 
Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's Cathedral. 
Member of Vienna Academy, 1772, of 
Stockholm Academy, 1798. As a teacher 
of counterpoint and composition lie was 
considered the first of his day, and he num- 
bered among Lis pupils most of the prom- 
inent musicians of the following generation, 
notably Beethoven (in 1794-95), Hummel, 
Weigl, and Johanu Fuss. He left 261 works, 
consisting of 43 masses, 43 graduates, 34 
offertories, vespers, litanies, jwalnis, hymns, 
motets, etc.; 6 oratorios (Die Pilgrime auf 
Golgotha, Die Auffindung des Kreuzes, Ge- 
Inirt Christi, Passion), 4 Te Deums, 4 sym- 
phonies, a great deal of chamber music, 
besides fugues and preludes for organ and 
pianoforte ; of all these only 27, compris- 
ing chamber and organ music, were printed. 
The bulk of his manuscript bequest, 244 in 
number, was acquired by Prince Nikolaus 
Esterhiizy. A complete edition of his theo- 
retical writings was published by his pujiil, 
Iguatz von Seyfried : J. G. Albreehtsber- 
ger's Siimmtliehe Schrifteu iiber General- 
bass, Harmonie und Tonsetzkunst, etc. 
(Vienna, Strauss, 1837), containing also a 

biography and list of his works. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., i. 323 ; Allg. mus. Zeitg., xi. 445 ; 
xxxi. 443 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ALBRICI, VINCENZO, born in Rome, 
June 26, 1631, died in Prague in 1696. 
About 1660 he was maestro di cappella to 
Queen Christina of Sweden at Stralsund, in 
1664 to the Elector of Saxony at Dresden, 
in 1680 organist of St. Thomas' Church at 
Leipsic, and in 1682 director of music at 
St. Augustine's, Prague. His highly es- 


teemed works were bought for the royal 
library, Dresden, but perished iu the bom- 
bardment of 17G0. Among those still pre- 
served are : Te Deum for 2 choruses, and 
small orchestra ; Kyrie for 8 voices ; Mass 
for do. ; Symbolum NiciEum for 4 voices 
and instruments ; The one hundred and 
fiftieth psalm for do. — Fetis ; Mendel ; 

ALBmiBLATT, BIN, for pianoforte, by 
Richard Wagner, composed 1860, published 
as supplement to No. -11 (1871) of Musika- 
lisches Wochenblatt. It has been arranged 
for orchestra by Reiclielt ; for violin and 
orchestra by August "Wilhelmj ; for violon- 
cello and orchestra b}' David Popper. — 
Kastner, Wagner Katalog, 51. 

ALBUMBLATTER (Fr., Feuillets d'al- 
bum ; Album Leaves), by Robert Schumann, 
a collection of twentj' short movements in 
varied styles, for pianoforte, op. 124. Com- 
posed in 1832-45 ; dedicated to Frau Alma 
von Wasielewski. Published by F. W. Ar- 
nold (Elberfeld, 1854). 

for the Young), by Robert Schumann, a col- 
lection of forty-three short movements iu 
varied styles for the pianoforte, op. 68. 
Composed iu 1848 ; ijublished by J. Schu- 
berth & Co. (Leijisic and New York, 1849- 

ALCESTE (Alcestis) ; or, Le triomphe 
dAlcide (The Triumph of Hercules). Lyric 
tragedy iu live acts, text by Quinault, music 
by Lulli, first represented iu the theatre 
of the Palais Royal, Paris, Jan. 19, 1674. 
The plot, derived fi'om the "Alcestis" of 
Eui-ijiides, turns on the restoration to life, 
through the efforts of Hercules, who strug- 
gles with and overcomes Death, of Alcestis, 
who had died in place of her husband, Ad- 
metus. King of Pheric. This ojjera was al- 
ways successful until eclipsed by Gluck's 
work. Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 23. 

ALCESTE, tragic opera iu three acts, 
Italian text by Calzabigi, music by Gluck, 
first represented iu Vienna, Dec. 16, 17G6. 
The score waa published iu Vienna iu 

1769, with a dedicatory epistle to the 
Archducliess Leopold, explaining the com- 
poser's intention iu its composition, which 
was to produce an opera in which the mu- 
sic should be perfectly adapted to the 
drama, and should faithfully interpret each 
situation without undue ornamentation. 
The new style was received with galling 
criticism, and in 1774 Gluck removed to 
Paris, where his work, with its text trans- 
lated and adapted for the French stage by 
the Bailli du Rollet, was produced at the 
Academic de Musique, April 23, 1776. Al- 
ceste was revived in Paris iu 1861, with 
Pauline Viardot, and in 1866, with Mile 
Battu in the title role. Among its best 
numbers are : "Non, ce n'est i^oint uu sa- 
crifice," "Divinites du Styx," and, "Ah! 
divinites implacables ! " Other settings are 
by Strungk, Hamburg, 1682 ; by Antonio 
Draghi, Vienna, 1699 ; by Schurmaun, 
Hamburg, 1719 ; by Lamjsugnani, Lon- 
don, 1745 ; by Schweitzer, text by Wie- 
laud, Leij)sic, 1774 ; by Gresnick, London, 
1786 ; by Portogallo, Venice, 1799 ; by El- 
wart, text by Hij^polyte Lucas, Paris, 1847. 
—Marx, Gluck u. d. Oper, i. 337 ; Des- 
noiresterres, Gluck et Picciuui, 62, 129. 

ALCESTE, Handel. See Choice of Her- 

ALCHYlVnST, DER (The Alchemist). 
German opera, text by Pfeiffer, adapted 
from Washington Irving's story of the 
same title, music by Sjjohr ; first jierformed 
at Cassel, July 28, 1830, the elector's 
birthday. It had but a temporary suc- 
cess. Other operas by this title : By 
Johann Andre, Berlin, about 1765 ; by 
Schuster, Vienna, 1785 ; by Hoffmeister, 
about 1790 ; L' Alchimista, Italian opera, 
by Laui-o Rossi, Naples, 1853 ; L'Alchi- 
miste, French opera in one act, by Leon 
Paliard, Lyons, 1855 

ALCIBIADE (Alcibiades), Italian opera 
by Marc Antonio Ziaui, Venice, 1680 ; by 
Ballarotti (with Gasparini), Venice, 1699 ; 
by Stefi'ani, text by Orteusio Mauro, Bruns- 
wick, 1696, Hamburg, 1697 ; by Cordelia, 



Venice, 1825 ; bj- C. L. J. Hanssens, test 
by Scribe, Brussels, 182'J. Alcibiade soli- 
taire, French opera in two acts, text by Cu- 
velier and Barouillet, music by Louis Alex- 
andre Picciuui, was given at the O^x-ra, 
Paris, March 8, 182-4. 

ALCIDE AL BIVIO, Italian opera, text 
by Metastasio, music by Paisieho, repre- 
sented at St. Petersburg about 1770. Ital- 
ian opera, same title, music by Eighiui, Cob- 
leutz, 1789. 

ALCIDES. See Choice of Hercules. 

ALCINA, Italian opera, text by Antonio 
Marchi, music by Handel, represented at 
Covent Garden Theatre, London, April 16, 
1735. The MS. is dated at the end, April 
8, 1735. Alciiia, a character in Boiardo's 
"Orlando lunamorato," and in Ariosto's 
" Orlando Furioso," is a kind of Circe, who 
enjoys her lovers for a time in her en- 
chanted garden, and then metamorphoses 
them into trees, wild beasts, etc. — Rock- 
stro, Handel, 191 ; Schojlcher, Handel, 176. 

ALCOCK, JOHN, born in London, April 
11, 1715, died at Lich- 
field, March, 1806. 
Organist ; pupil of 
Stanley. He was chor- 
ister of St Paul's Ca- 
thedral in 1722 ; or- 
ganist of St. Andrew's, 
Plymouth, in 1738, of 
St. Lawrence's, Head- 
ing, in 1742, and of 
Lichfield Cathedral in 1749, when ho was 
also master of choristers and lay vicar ; in 
1760 he resigned all positions but thatof lay 
vicar. He received fi-om Oxford the degree 
of Mus. B. in 1755, and Mus. D. in 1761. 
Works : Six Suites of Lessons for the 
Haqisichord, Twelve Songs (Plymouth), 
Six Concertos, Collection of Psalms, Hymns, 
and Anthems (Reading) ; Morning and 
Evening Service in E minor (1753) ; 
Twenty-six Anthems, and a Burial Service 
(1771); a book of glees, Harmonia Festi 
(1790). He edited a collection of psalm 
tunes, arranged for four voices, called Har- 

mony of Sound. Hail, ever pleasing Soli- 
tude, a glee, gained a medal at the Catch 
Club in 1790. His son, John Alcock (Mus. 
B., born in 1739, died in 1791), was or- 
ganist of Preston, and comjjoser of anthems 
in 1773-76. — Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

ALDAY, the younger, born at Perpignan 
or at Avignon in 1764, died at Edinburgh 
after 1806. Violinist, supposed pupil of 
Viotti ; appeared with great success in the 
Concerts spirituels in Paris until 1791, 
when he went to England. In 1806 he 
was called as musical director to Edin- 
burgh. Works : First Concerto for violin 
(Paris, Imbault) ; Fourth Concerto for vio- 
lin (ib.) ; Second and Third Concertos for 
violin (Paris, Sieber) ; Duos for two vio- 
lins (Paris, Decombe) ; Melanges for two 
violins (Paris, Leduc) ; Airs varies for violin 
and viola (ib., Imbault) ; Trios for two vio- 
lins and bass (London, Lavenu). His elder 
brother, born in 1763, was also a viohnist, 
though less distinguished ; played in the 
Concert spirituel in 1783, and with his 
brother in 1789, and settled at Lyons about 
1795 as a music dealer. He composed : 
Symphonie concertante for two violins (Am- 
sterdam, Hummel) ; do. for two violins and 
viola (Paris, Sieber) ; Quartets for violins, 
viola, and bass (ib., Pleyel) ; Method for 
the violin (Lyons, Cartoux). To one of the 
brothers is due the music to the lyrical 
drama GeneviOve de Brabant, given at the 
Theatre Louvois, 1791. — Fetis ; do.. Sup- 
plement, i. 10 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

TONIO VINCENZO, born in Bologna 
about l(i65. Dramatic composer, pupU of 
Jacques Perti. He was a member of the 
Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna in 1695, 
and principe in 1702 ; honorary maestro 
di cappella to the Duke of Mantua. Works 
— Operas: Dafne, Gl' inganni amorosi sco- 
perti in villa, both given at Bologna in 1696 ; 
Ottaviano, Turin, 1697 ; Amor torna in 
cinque al cinquanta, ovvero Nozz' dla Flip- 
pa e d' Bedette, comic opera in Bolognese 
patois, Bologna, 1699 ; L'orfano, Naples 



carnival, 1699 ; La fortezza al cimento, 
Venice, 1699 ; Le due Auguste, Bologna, 
1700 ; Cesare in Alessandria, Naples, 
1700 ; Semiramide, Genoa, 1701 ; Pirro, 
Venice, 1704 ; I tre rivali al soglio, ib., 
1711 ; an oratorio, S. Sigismondo (1704) ; 
cburcli music, consisting of three collec- 
tions of motets (Bologna, 1701-1703) ; so- 
natas for three parts, op. 5 (Amsterdam). — 

ALDRICH, HENRY, born at Westmin- 
ster in 1647, died 
in Oxford, Dec. 
14, 1710. He went 
from Westminster 
School to Christ 
Church College, Ox- 
ford, of which he be- 
came A.M. in 1G69, 
Canon in February, 
1681, D.D. ill the fol- 
lowing May, and Dean in 1689. He ad- 
vanced the study and progress of church 
music ill his college and cathedral, con- 
tributing services and about fifty anthems, 
original and adapted from Italian compos- 
ers. They are to be found in the collec- 
tions of Ely, Tudway, Christ Church MSS., 
Boyce, Ai'nold, and Page. He bequeathed 
to his college a large musical library con- 
taining the works of Palestrina, Carissinii, 
Bassani, Graziani, and other Italian com- 
posers. His works include Morning and 
Evening Service in G (Boyce), do. in A 
(Arnold), and several catches. Hark, the 
Bonny Christ Church Bolls, being one of 
the most popular. — Barrett, English Church 
Composers, 85 ; Fetis ; Grove ; Harmonicon 
(1832), 95. 

in 1742, died after 1791. Dramatic com- 
poser and harpsichord player ; pupil of 
the Conservatorio, Naples. When young 
he went to Turin as harpsichord player 
and composer, and subsequently spent 
four years in Paris, writing for the Con- 
certs Spirituels. On his return to Italy in 
1767 he brought out several operas, and 

afterwards visited the principal cities of 
Europe. In 1769 he was in London, where 
he brought out several operas ; in 1773 in 
Dresden, in 1774 in Italy, in 1775 in Lou- 
don again, and in 1778-86 in Italy. He 
went to Russia in 1786, but was unsuccess- 
ful there, and returned to Italy in 1788. 
In 1789 he was in Berlin, where he re- 
mained until 1792, as Kapellmeister to the 
king. His II ritoruo d' Ulisse, given there 
in 1790, was very successful ; but his opera 
buffa. La com23agnia d' oj)era in Nanchino, 
a satire on the cabals of the Theatre Royal, 
was denounced by the critics, his opera of 
Dario was hissed in 1791, and such dis- 
putes and jealousies arose that he was dis- 
missed from the service of the king, after 
which nothing is known of him. Works — 
Operas : Ezio, given at Verona, 1767 ; II 
matrimonio per concorso, Vienna, 1767 ; 
Argentino, ib., 1768 ; La mogiie fedele, 
London, 1769 ; II re alia caccia, ib., 1769 ; 
L'amore soldato, Dresden, 1773 ; Creso, 
Pavia, 1774 ; La sjiosa persiana, London, 
1775 ; La novita, ib., 1775 ; La contadina 
(with Sacchini), ib., 1775 ; Calliroe, Milan, 
1778 ; Venere in Cij)ro, Milan, at the carni- 
val, 1779 ; Attalo, Florence, 1780 ; II vec- 
chio geloso, Milan, 1781 ; II marito geloso, 
Leghorn, 1781 ; Demofoonte, Padua, 1783 ; 
Ai-taserse, Naples, 1784 ; I iiuntigli gelosi, 
Palermo, 1784 ; I due fratelli, Cassel, 1785 ; 
La finta priucipessa, Ferrara, 1786 ; Pappa 
Mosca, Vienna, 1788 ; II ritorno d' Ulisse, 
Berlin, 1790 ; La compagnia d' opera in 
Nanchino, Potsdam, 1788 ; Dario, Berlin, 
1791.— Fctis ; Mendel. 

Naples in 1717, died (?). Dramatic com- 
poser ; author of several operas, among 
which is Ottone, given in Venice, Teatro di 
San Giovanni Crisostomo, 1740. — Fetis. 

ALESSANDRO, Italian opera, in three 
acts, music by Handel, represented at the 
King's Theatre, London, May 5, 1726. The 
principal parts were sung by Signore Faus- 
tina and Cuzzoni, and by Signor Senesino. 
It was a success, and ran imtil the close of 


the season, June 7, 1726. It was repro- 
duced in 1743 under the title of Roxaua ; 
or, Alexander in India. The MS. is in 
Buckingham Palace. Oi^eras of the same 
title have been written by Duni, given in 
Italy, 1736 ; Leo, Naples, 1741 ; Himmel, 
St. Petersburg, 1799. Alexander, German 
opera, text by Schikaneder, music by 
Franz Tayber, given in Vienna, June 13, 
1800. — Kockstro, Handel, 147 ; Schcelcher, 
Handel, 75 ; Chrysander, H. 145. 

der in Ephesus), Italian opera, music by 
Giacomo Tritto, represented at Mantua, 
1804 ; by Marinelli, Milan, 1810 ; Alexan- 
der in Ephesus, German ojjera seria, music 
by Lindpaintner, Stuttgart, about 1815. 

ander iu India), Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Metastasio, first set to music 
by Vinci, and represented at the Teatro 
delle Dame, Rome, Dec. 26, 1729. Subject, 
the meeting of Alexander the Great with 
the Indian king Porus. Scene, on the 
banks of the Hydaspes. Characters repre- 
sented : Alessandro, Poro, Cleofide, Erisse- 
na, Gandarte, Timagene. The libretto has 
been set to music also by Porjiora, Dresden, 
about 1730 ; Johauu Adolphe Hasse, Dres- 
den, 1731 ; Manciui, Venice, 1732 ; Bioni, 
Breslau, 1733 ; Scliiassi, Bologna, 1734 ; 
Pescetti, Venice, 1740 ; Araja, St. Peters- 
burg, 1740 ; Leo, Rome, 1741 ; Graun, Ber- 
lin, 1744 ; Gluck, Turin, 1745 ; Galuppi, 
Vienna, 1749 ; Perez, Genoa, 1751, Lisbon, 
1755 ; Latilla, 1753 ; Jommelli, Stuttgart, 
1757 ; Scolari, Venice, 1758 ; Piccinui, 
Rome, 1758, Naples (new music), 1775 ; 
Holzbauer, Milan, 1759 ; Gioacchiuo Coc- 
chi, London, 1761 ; Majo, Naples, 1767 ; 
Naumann, Venice, 1768 ; Sacchini, Venice, 
1768, Turin (new music), about 1770 ; Caba- 
lone, Naples, 1770 ; Bertoni, 1770 ; Paisiello, 
Modena, 1775 ; Domenico Corri, London, 
1774; Kozeluch, Prague, 1774; Friedrich 
Rust, 1775 ; Mortellari, 1779 ; Cimarosa, 
Rome, 1781; Cherubini, Mantua, 1784 ; Gres- 
nick, London, 1785 ; Chiavacchi, Milan, 

1786 ; Caruso, Rome, 1787, Venice, 1791 ; Bi- 
anchi, Brescia, 1788 ; Tarchi, London, 1789, 
Turin, 1793 ; Himmel, St. Petersburg, 1799 ; 
Bomtempo, about 1800 ; Pacini, Naples, 
1824. Alexandre aux ludes, tragedy, ojjera 
in three acts, text by Morel, founded on the 
"Alexandre" of Racine, music by Mcreaux, 
was represented at the Opera, Paris, Aug. 
26, 1783 ; Alexander am Indus, Russian 
opera, by Sigismoud Neukomm, St. Peters- 
burg, 1805 ; and Alessandro nell' Indie, bal- 
let, by Peter Lichtenthal, Milan, 1820. 

ALESSANDRO, LUIGI, born at Siena in 
1736, died there, Jan. 29, 1794. Church 
composer, became maestro di cappella at 
the cathedral of his native citj' iu 1786. 
He wrote manj' masses, vespers, and motets, 
which are esteemed in Italy. — Fetis. 

latter half of the 1 6tli century. Viola player ; 
called della Viola from his facility on that 
instrument. In 1560 he was chorister of 
the Pojie's chapel, Rome. He composed 
motets and songs, among them a collection 
of Cauzoni alia napoletana for five voices 
and music for the viola and other instru- 
ments. Some of his MSS. are in the Royal 
Library, Munich. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

Severus), Italian opera, music by Antonio 
Lotti, represented at Venice, 1717 ; by Chel- 
leri, Brescia, 1718 ; by Sarri, Naples, 1719 ; 
Bioni, Breslau, 1733 ; Bonno, serenata, Vi- 
enna, 1737 ; by Bernasconi, Venice, 1741 ; 
and by Sacchini, Venice, 1770. Alexander 
Severus, pasticcio, by Handel, Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, London, Feb. 25, 1738. The 
score was composed entirely of his own old 
music, with a special overture, which be- 
came very popular. 


and Timotheus), Italian opera, music by 
Sarti, represented in Venice in 1782 ; rear- 
ranged by Perotti, London, 1800. 

ALESSIO, D', Italian dramatic 

composer, contemporary. He brought out 


two opere buffe : Elena in Troja, and Le 
figlie di Bianca, at Naples, Teatro Polite- 
ama, iu 1875. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 11. 

ALEXANDER. See Alessandro. 

ALEXANDER BALUS, oratorio, text by 
Dr. Thomas Morell, music by Handel, first 
performed at Coveut Garden, London, March 
9, ITrtS. Alexander Balas (as it should be 
written). King of Syria from 150 to 14:6 b.c , 
was a pretended son of Antiochus Ei^ipha- 
nes, who defeated Demetrius Soter and 
took possession of his throne. The score 
of the oratorio, in Buckingham Palace, is 
dated at the beginning June 1, 1747, and at 
the end July 4, 1747. Characters represent- 
ed : Alexander Balus, Ptolomee, Jonathan, 
Cleopatra, Aspasia, Chorus of Israelites, 
Chorus of Asiatics. Published by the Hiln- 
del-Gesellschaft (Leijiic, 1870). — Rockstro, 
Handel, 287 ; Schcelscher, Handel, 308. 

ALEXANDER, JOHANN (Joseph ?), lived 
at Duisburg, Rhenish Prussia, in the latter 
part of the 18th, and beginning of the 19th, 
centuries. Violoncellist and instrumental 
composer, etc. His variations for the vio- 
loncello on the air, O mein lieber ; and an 
arietta on the German air, Mich fliehen 
meine Freuden, were popular. He was the 
author of : Anweisung fiir das Violoncell 
(Leipsic, 1801).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

ALEXANDER'S FEAST, ode, words by 
Dryden, music by Handel, first performed 
at Covent Garden Theatre, London, Feb. 
19, 1736. The jDoem, the second of Dry- 
den's odes for St. Cecilia's Day, " Alexander's 
Feast ; or. The Power of Music," was rear- 
ranged with additions by Newburgh Ham- 
ilton. The score is dated at the beginning, 
Jan. 5, 1736, and at the end, Jan. 17, 1736. 
The principal singers were Siguora Strada, 
Miss Young (afterwards Mrs. Dr. Arne), 
John Beard, and Erard, a basso. It was 
published by Walsh in 1738, and by the 
Handel Gesellschaft (Leipsic, 1862). In 
1790 Mozart wrote some additional accom- 
paniments to the ode for Baron von Swieten, 
Vienna. John Clayton had attempted in 
1711 to write music to Dryden's ode, but 

failed through his incapacity for such a 
task. — Rockstro, Handel, 203 ; Schcelcher, 
Handel, 179 ; Crysander, H. 417. 

der at Babylon), French opera in three acts, 
music by Lesueur, received at the Opera, 
Paris, in 1823, but never rejiresented. 

LAUISIE, flourished in Paris about the 
middle of the 18th century. Dramatic com- 
poser, wrote the operas comiques : Georget 
et Georgette, given iu Paris at the Theatre 
de la Foire Saint Laurent, 1761 ; Le petit 
maitre en province, ib.. Theatre Italien, 
1765 ; L'esj^rit du jour, ib., 1767 ; Music 
for the two spectacular pieces, Le triomphe 
de I'amour conjugal, and La conquete du 
Mogol, performed at the Theatre du Palais 
des TuUIeries, 1755 and 1756. Among 
his instrumental music are sis duets for 
two violins, op. 8 (Paris, 1775). — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 11. 

era iu three acts, text by Franz von Schober, 
music by Franz Schubert, written in 1821- 

23. It remained unre^jresented vintil Juue 

24, 1854, twenty-six j-ears after Schubert's 
death, wheu it was given a single perform- 
ance, under the direction of Liszt, at the 
court theatre, Weimar, on the birthday of 
the Grand Duke. In 1879 Kajsellmeister 
Johann Fuchs, of the court ojaera, Vienna, 
rewrote the libretto and shortened the 
work, and it was produced at Cai-lsruhe 
with gi-eat success, March 22, 1881 ; and in 
Vienna, April 15, 1882. The scene of the 
libretto is iu Sjjaiu, where Troila, King of 
Leon, deprived of his throne by Mauregato, 
lives in a secluded valley with his son Al- 
fonso. Estrella, daughter of Mauregato, is 
beloved by Adolfo, her father's generalis- 
simo, but meets Alfonso, while hunting, and 
loves him. Alfonso defeats in battle Adolfo, 
who has rebelled, saves Mauregato, wins 
Estrella, and receives the kingdom from 
his father, Troila, who has himself been re- 
instated by Mauregato. The original cast 
(1854) was as follows : 



Troila Herr Milde. 

Alfouso Herr Liebert. 

Adolfo Herr Mayrliofer. 

Mauregato Herr HOfer. 

Estrella Frau Milde. 

The original score, without the overture, is 
in the library of the Musikverein, Vienna. 
The overture, which is dated December, 
1823, belongs to Herr Spina, who published 
it in 1867. A bass and a tenor air have 
also been published, with pianoforte ac- 
comj)animent, by Diabelli (1832). — Hellborn 
(Coleridge), i. 234 ; ii. 293 ; Grove, iii. 335 ; 
Leipsic, Siguale (1882), 465. 

land, has furnished the subject of the fol- 
lowing works : Alfred, English masque, text 
by Thomson, and Mallet, music by Thomas 
Augustine Arne (see Rule Britannia), Drury 
Lane, London, Aug. 14, 1740 ; do., same 
text, music by Charles Burney, London, 
1759 ; Alfred, lyric tragedy, by Pitter- 
lin, Magdeburg, 1797 ; Alfredo il Grande, 
music by Donizetti, Venice, 1823 ; Alfred, 
grand opera, text by Kotzebue, music 
by Wolfram, Dresden, 1826 ; Alfred der 
Grosse, German heroic opera iu two acts, 
text by Korner, music by Johanu Philipp 
Schmidt, Hamburg, about 1840 ; opera in 
three acts, music by Reuling, Vienna, 1840 ; 
German opera, by Maurice Chemin-Petit, 
Halle, 1858 ; Konig Alfred, three acts, text 
by Logan, music by Joachim Raff, Weimar, 
March 9, 1851 ; Alfred, King of Wessex, 
English opera, by Raymond Stainford, Liv- 
erpool, 1864. 

born at Brescia, Italy, June 2, 1666, died 
there, March 29, 1743. Dramatic composer 
and organist at the cathedral of his native 
city ; lived for some time in Venice, where, 
in 1690, he brought out two operas : 
L' amor di Curzio per la patria, and R 
trionfo delta continenza, at the Teatro SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo. — Fetis. 

ALI BABA (or, Les quarante voleurs ; 
The Forty Thieves), opera in four acts and 

a jJrologue, text by Scribe and Melesville, 
music by Cherubini, represented at the 
Aeadomie Royale de Musique, Paris, July 
22, 1833. The libretto, the subject of 
which is fi'om the " Ai-abian Nights," is but 
a rearrangement of Koukourgi, an unrep- 
resented opera written by Cherubini in 
1793 (text by Duveyrier-Melesville pere), 
with the music adajjted and partly rewrit- 
ten. The overture was probably new ; and 
the composer introduced into the work the 
march from Faniska and the bacchanale 
from his ballet Achille a Sciros. A German 
Schauspiel of the same title, text by Th. 
Hell, music by Marschner, was given about 
1822. Ali Baba, operetta, music by Charles 
Lecocq, given at the Alhambra, Brussels, 
Nov. 11, 1887. 

sha of Janina), opera by Lortzing, libretto 
founded on the story of the celebrated des- 
pot of Albania, first rejoresented at Cologne 
in 1824. This, Lortzing's first opera, was 
produced with success in the chief cities of 

ALIANI, FRANCESCO, born at Piacen- 
za, died therein May, 1812. Violoncellist ; 
first instructed by his father, a violinist, 
then pupil of Giusejiise Rovelli at Parma. 
After five years he returned home, and be- 
came first violoncellist in the orchestras of 
the church and the theatre. He has pub- 
lished three books of duets for two violon- 
cellos. His son Luigi, born at Piacenza in 
1789, was a violinist of distinction. — Fetis ; 

ALICE DE NEVERS, opera fantasy, 
original plot, text and music by Herve, 
represented at the Folies Dramatiques, 
Paris, April 22, 1875. Sung by Herve, 
Mme Desclauzas, and Mile Perrier. 

ALIDIA. See Dernier jour de Pompeii. 

(Alina, Queen of Golconda), opera ballet in 
three acts, text by Sedaine, music by Mon- 
signy, represented at the Comedie Itali- 
enne, Paris, April 15, 1766. The subject, 
which is from a story by Boufflers, has 



been treated also by : Eauzzini in La re- 
gina di Golconda, Loudon, 1775 ; Uttini, 
Stockholm, 1775; Martyu y Solar, Flor- 
ence, 1781 ; Johaun A. P. Schulz, Coijen- 
hagen, 1789 ; Berton, opcra-comique iu 
three acts, text by Vial and Favieres, The- 
atre Feydeau, Paris, Sept. 2, 1803, ar- 
ranged as a ballet by G. Dugazou, Aca- 
demie Koyale, Oct. 1, 1823, and Opei'a 
National, Nov. 16, 1847; Boieldieu, St. 
Petersburg, March 5, 1804 ; Karl Blum, 
Aline, ballet, Vienna, 1814 ; Donizetti, 
Alina, regiua di Golconda, text b}' Ko- 
mani, Genoa, 1828, St. Petersburg, 1851, 
Paris, March 10, 1870 ; Braga, Naples, 
1853 ; Vizentini, Alina, opera semi-seria, 
Verona, 1878. 

ALINOVI, GIUSEPPE, born at Parma, 
Sept. 27, 1790, died (?). Instrumental 
and vocal composer, pupil of Francesco 
Fortuuati ; devoted himself to teaching 
vocal music and pianoforte. The manu- 
scripts of his numerous compositions, sa- 
cred and profane, are to be found iu nearlj' 
all the archives of Italy. He published : 
Divertimento per corno con accomp. di 
grande orchestra (Milau, Ricordi) ; lutro- 
duzione e tema origiuale con variazioni 
per il pianoforte (ib.). — Fetis. 

Tuscauy in the beginning of 18th century. 
In 1730 he was composer at the court of 
Bavaria, and later director of the orchestra 
at Munich. Works— Operas : Mithridate, 
given at Munich iu 1738 ; Iphigenie, ib., 
1739 ; Semiramide, ib., 1740. His son 
Bernardo, who was first violoncellist in the 
Munich orchestra about 1780, composed 
for the violoncello and probably for the 
viola di gamba. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

TIN, born iu Paris iu December, 1813 ; 
known as Alkan aine. Pianist ; pupil of 
the Conservatoire, Paris. He won the first 
prize of solfege when only seven years old, 
when he also played on the violin iu public 
an air varii' by Rode. He was the pupil of 
Zimmermaun on the pianoforte, and took 

the first prize in 1823 ; of Dourlen in har- 
mony, winning the first prize in 1826 ; and 
he obtained honorable mention at the Cou- 
cours de ITnstitut for fugue and counter- 
point iu 1831. After a visit to London in 
1833, he settled in Paris as a teacher of 
the pianoforte. By him are seventy-two 
published works, including transcriptions, 
songs, pieces caracteristiques, two con- 
certos, sonatas, duos, a trio, etudes, and 
cajjrices. Among them are : Trois grandes 
etudes ; Fantaisie pour la main gauche 
seule ; Introduction et Finale pour la main 
droite seule ; Etude a mouvement sembla- 
ble et perpetuel pour les deux mains ; 12 
etudes dans les majeurs, op. 35 ; 12 etudes 
dans les mineurs, op. 39, etc. His brother, 
Napoleon Morhange (born in Paris, Feb. 
2, 1826), was a pupil of Adam and of Zim- 
mermaun at the Conservatoire, and iu 1850 
won the second prize of the Institut de 
France for his cantata Emma et Eginhard. 
He has published several works for the 
j)ianoforte. — Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 


See A'ida. 

ELL, boru iu England in 1843, died at Ox- 
ford, Jan. 8, 1863. Organist of St. John's 
College, Oxford, from 1875. Works : The 
Rebellion of Korah, sacred dramatic can- 
tata, performed 1869 ; Songs. 

ALLEGRI, DOMENICO, born in Rome, 
second half of 16th century, died (?). Ma- 
estro di cajijaella iu the Tiberiau Basilica 
in 1610-1629. He was one of the first 
composers who wrote obligato instrumental 
accompaniments to choral compositions. His 
first attempt at this style of writing was in 
his work ; Modi quos expressit in choris 
(Rome, 1617). He was a composer of sec- 
ondary importance, and one of those who 
sought to revive the old style of vocal writ- 
ing, " ad voces sequales." An " Euge, serve 
bone " for twelve tenors, a " Beatus ille 
servus " for twelve basses, and a sixteen 


voice mass of his are in the Santini collec- 
tion in Rome. — Ambros, iv. 107 ; Fetis. 

ALLEGRI, FILIPPO, born at Florence, 
July 18, 17G8, died (?). Church composer, 
pupil of Luigi Bracciiii ; became j)rofessor 
lit the seminary, and maestro di cappella at 
San Michele. Among his compositions are : 
Requiem Mass for four voices and grand or- 
chestra ; O Salutaris hostia, for soprano and 
bass ; Verbum caro factum est, motet for 
tenor and bass. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ALLEGRI, GREGORIO, born in Rome 
in 1560, died 
there, Feb. 18, 
1652. He was of 
the same family 
as Antonio Alle- 
gri, the painter, 
surnamed "11 
Correggio." A pu- 
pil of Giovanni 
Maria Nanini, he 
reached the age 
of manhood just 
as Palestriua's fame was at its height. He 
was then a beneficed priest attached to the 
cathedral at Fermo. On Dec. 6, 1629, Ur- 
ban Vni. called him to Rome to enter the 
college of pajjal singers, where he remained 
until his death. He was buried in S. 
Maria in Vallicella, in the tomb appropriated 
to the college of singers of the Vatican 
choir. Allegri was one of the shining 
lights of the great Roman School, some- 
times called the Palestrina School. If his 
music shows, in general, all the purity of 
style, objective beauty, and elevation of 
religious sentiment for which the school is 
noted, the subjective emotional element of- 
ten asserts itself. In Allegri the use of 
dissonances for the expression of agonized 
grief is more frequent, and plainly more 
intentional, than in Palestrina and Nanini ; 
nor are other quasi-picturesque traits 
wanting. In this sense, Allegri may be 
looked upon as a sort of connecting link 
between the so-called "great" (Roman) 
period of Italian music, and the ensuing 

" beautiful " (Neapolitan) period. His most 
famous composition is his great Misei-ere 
for two choruses, which is stiU sung in the 
Sixtine Chapel on every Good Friday. His 
published compositions are : II primo libro 
di concerti a due, tre e quattro voci (Rome, 
Soldi, 1618) ; II secondo libro di, etc. (ib., 
1619) ; Gregorii Allegri Romani Firmanpe 
ecclesife beneficiati motecta duarum, trium, 
quatuor, quinque, sex vocum, liber primus 
(ib., 1620) ; do., do., liber secundus, (ib., 
1621) ; Egredimini et videte, for 2 sopranos 
and tenor, in Fabio Coustantini's " Scelta di 
motetti" (1618). A large number of works 
in MS. are in the archives of S. Maria in 
Vallicella, the Pontifical Chapel, the Collegio 
Romano, and in the Library of the Abbate 
Santini. The Altaemps collection, in the 
Collegio Romano, contains several impor- 
tant instrumental compositions. — Ambros, 
iv. 90 ; Fetis ; Naumann (Ouseley), i. 512. 

IMODERATO, L', text adapted from Milton 
by Charles Jeunen.s, who added the third 
part, nnisic by Handel, first produced at the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, London, Feb. 
27, 1740. The score, in Buckingham Palace, 
is dated at the beginning Jan. 19, 1740, and' 
at tl)e end Feb. 4, 1740. Published by 
Walsh, and by the Hiindel-Gesellschaft 
(Leipsic, 1859). Robert Franz has supphed 
the score with complete additional accom- 
paniments. — Rockstro, Handel, 212 ; Schoel- 
cher, Handel, 229 ; Chrysander, III. 112. 

Kingsland, Middlesex, England, Sept. 4, 
1850, still living, 1888. Pianist, studied at 
the London Academy of Music, 1868. 
Works : Songs, orchestral and organ music, 
and a secular cantata. 

London, April 21, 1822, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, chorister at St. Martin's- 
in-the Field, 18.30, in Westminister Abbey, 
1832, at Armagh Cathedral, Ireland, 1843, 
resierned in 1862, and became organist and 
choirmaster of All Saints' Church at Ken- 
sington ; aftei-wards organist at Toorak, 



Melbourne, Australia, wliere he was also 
conductor of Lj'ster's Ojjera Comi^any. He 
organized an opera company with which he 
travelled through Australia, New Zealand, 
and India with great success ; and on his 
return to England established a comedy 
opera company. Works — Operas : Castle 
Grim, given in London, 18G5 ; The Viking ; 
The Wicklow Rose, Manchester, 1882 ; 2 
others in manuscript. Cantatas : Harvest 
Home, 1863; The Vintage of the Rhine, 
1865; Ministering Angels, 1884; Te De- 
ums ; Anthems ; Concerted vocal music ; 

DEN. See ZauberflOff. 

ALLEVI, GIUSEPPE, Italian composer 
of the 17th century. He was maestro di 
capisella of the cathedral at Piacenza ; au- 
thor of three books of sacred music, the 
second and third of which are entitled : 
Composizioni sacre a due, tre, e quattro 
voci, Missa jser li defonti a quattro a cap- 
pella (Venice, Magni e Gardano, 16G2) ; 
Terzo libro delle composizioni sacre, etc. 
(Bologna, Monti, 1668).— Ft-tis. 


in Loudon, July 25, 
1846. Organist and 
pianist, pupil at the 
I Royal Academy of 
Music of William 

Henry Holmes, of 
Macfarreu and of 
Garcia, at the Con- 
servatorium, Leipsic 
(1862-65), of Plaidy, 
Riehter, Reinecke, 
Hauptmann, and Moscheles ; won the first 
prize in 1865, and played at the Gewand- 
haus Concerts during his stay at Leipsic. 
Organist of St. James's, London, 1867 ; St. 
Paul's, Bolton, 1868; St. Paul's, Kersal, 
Manchester, 1869 ; appointed examiner, 
li.A.M., 1875, and one of the Queen's ex- 
aminers, 1884. He became A.R.A.M., 1862 ; 

Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 1877 ; Mus. Doc, 
Dublin, 1877; M.R.A.M., 1880. Works: 
Sacred cantata for solo voices, chorus, and 
orchestra (1871), performed in 1877 ; Can- 
tata for do. (1874) ; Symphony for full or- 
chestra (1875) ; Suite for do. ; Concerto for 
pianoforte and orchestra (1870), performed 
1877 ; Le Champ de Mars, war-march for 
orchestra (1873) ; Sonata for organ (1865) ; 
String quartet (1865) ; Concerto for two 
pianofortes (1865), and other pieces and 
studies for pianoforte ; The 110th, 117th, 
and 134th psalms, for .solo voices, chorus, 
and string orchestra (1876) ; Lord Wolse- 
ley's March, 1883 ; Anthems ; Songs and 
four-jjart songs. 

ALLISON, RICHARD, English composer 
and teacher of music in London in the 
reign of Elizabeth. His name first occurs 
as a contributor to Thomas Este's Whole 
Booke of Psalms, 1592. He published The 
Psalmes of David in Meter, 1599, a collection 
of old church tunes harmonized by himself, 
in four parts, with an accompaniment for 
the lute, orpharyon, citterne, or bass-viol ; 
also An Houre's Recreation in Musicke, apt 
for Instruments and Voyces, 1606. 



in four acts, text bj- Saint-Georges, music 
by Flotow, represented at the Theatre 
Italien, Paris, April 9, 1878. This work is 
the development of an older opera by the 
same master, entitled L'Esclave de Ca- 
moens, given in Paris in 1843, and later in 
Vienna under the title of Indra. 

Lisbon, Portugal, about 1618, died at 
Tbomar, March 21, 1660. Church com- 
poser, one of the most distinguished pupils 
of Duarte Lobo, and highly esteemed by 
King John IV. of Portugal. He entered the 
Order of Christ at Thomar in 1638. Of his 
works only a folio volume in manuscript is 
preserved, containing Lamentayoes, Respon- 
sorias e Misereres das tres Ofiicias da 


Quaita, Quiuta e Sexta-feii-a da Semana 
Sauta. — Vasconcellos. 

ALMENEADER, KAKL, boru at Eons- 
dorf, near Diisseldorf, Oct. 3, 178G, died at 
Nassau, Sept. 14, 1843. Virtuoso ou the 
bassoon, self taught on his instrument, and 
jjupil of Beriihard Klein in theory ; became 
instructor of the bassoon at the music 
school in Cologne in 1810, bassoonist in 
the theatre orchestra at Frankfort in 1812, 
bandmaster of a regiment in 1815, and 
of another in ISIG at Mainz, where he set- 
tled, abandoning the military career. In 
1820 he established at Cologne a factory 
for wind instruments, but gave it up in 
1822, and joined the Nassau court orches- 
ti'a at Biebrich. He made improvements 
in his instrument, and wrote a treatise on 
it (Mainz, Schott,' 1824), also a complete 
method for the bassoon (ib.). Works : 
Concerto for bassoon (Mainz, Schott) ; Pot- 
jjourri for bassoon and orchestra, op. 3 
(ib.) ; Variations for do., with violin, viola, 
and violoncello, op. 4 (ib.) ; Introduction 
and variations for bassoon and quartet, op. 
6 (Darmstadt, Alinsky) ; Duettinos for two 
bassoons, op. 10, etc. In MS. : 3 concertos 
for bassoon ; Fantasia for oboe, clarinet, 
basset-horn, bassoon, and two horns. — 
Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 12; Mendel; 

ALillEA, German opera in three acta, 
text by Feustking, music by Handel, rep- 
resented at Hamburg, Jan. 8, 1705. The 
fuU title is : Der in Krohnen erlangte 
Gliicks-Wechsel ; oder, Almira, KOuigin 
von Castilien (The Vicissitudes of Eoyalty ; 
or, Almira, Queen of Castile). The libretto 
is a translation of an Italian opera, with a 
similar title, music by Boniventi, given in 
Venice in 1691. It was Handel's first dra- 
matic work, and so aroused the jealousy 
of Keiser that he wrote music to the same 
subject, Hamburg, 1706. Handel's work 
was revived in 1878, with changes by J. N. 
Fuchs, on the two hundredth anniversary 
of the Hamburg Theatre. The score was 
piiuted in 1873 by the German Handel- 

' Gesellschaf t. — Eockstro, Handel, 37 ; Reiss- 
mann, Handel, 17 ; Schcelcher, Handel, 12. 


TISTA, born in Italy, second half of the 
16th century, died (?). Church composer, 
Minorite friar, and musical director at Bo- 
logna. AVorks : Motecta festorum totius 
anni, for four voices (Milan, 1587) ; Con- 
textus musicus, motets for two, three, and 
four voices (Venice, 162C) ; Cojlum har- 
monicum, masses for four voices (ib., 1628) ; 
Celestum Parnassum, motets, litanies, and 
canticles for two, three, and four voices ; 
Vellus aureum, litanies of the Virgin, for 
from four to eight voices ; Corona stel- 
larum, motets for four voices (Venice, 
1037).— Fetis ; SchiUing. 

JOHANN D', boru at Arnsberg, West- 
l^halia, in 1795, died at Millheim-on-the- 
Ehine, Nov. 27, 1863. Pupil in Berlin of 
Klein and Zelter, settled as a physician at 
Miilheim, and composed many songs, which 
became extremely popular, and rank among 
the best of their kind. His younger 
brother Franz, a ijiauist, was a pupil of 
Ferdinand Eies, with whom he travelled 
extensively. In 1827 he settled at Brussels 
to teach music, but the revolution of 1830 
induced him to go to London, where he 
pubhshed several concertos, sonatas, and 
other pieces for the ^jianoforte. — Fetis; 
Mendel ; Schilling, Supplement. 


nigsberg about 1804, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic comjioser and director of music 
at Eostock, where he produced his roman- 
tic opera, Die Wiedertiiufer, oder Johann 
von Leyden, in 1839. — Fetis. 

ALSLEBEN, JULIUS, bom in Berlin, 
March 24, 1832, still living, 1888. Pianist, 
jjupil of Leuchtenberg and of Emil Zech on 
the pianoforte, and of Dehn in composi- 
tion. Having acquired great reputation as 
a pianist, he began to teach, conducted sev- 


eral singing societies in 1856-58, and be- 
came president of the Berlin Tonkiiustler 
Verein in 1865. He is contributor to vari- 
ous musical papers, edited for several years 
the Harmonic, and published twelve lectures 
on the history of music. In 1872 he re- 
ceived the title of professor. Works : Ee- 
quiem for six- and eight-part choruses a 
cappeUa ; Liturgy ; Overtures ; Marches for 
orchestra ; Sacred arias ; Songs and piano- 
forte pieces, op. 1-21 (Mainz, Berlin, Ham- 
burg). — Mendel; Eiemanu. 

ALT, PHILLPP SAMUEL, born at Wei- 
mar, Jan. 16, 1689, died there in 1750. 
Composer of church and chamber music, 
pupil of Dresen and Strattuer in singing, of 
Heintze and Walther on the pianoforte, and 
of the latter also in composition. After 
studying lav? at Jena, he became organist at 
St. James's Church in Weimar, where, at 
the same time, he was attornej' to the court. 
His compositions, still in MS., are preserved 
in the grand-ducal library at Weimar. — 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

Italy, contemporary. Dramatic composer, 
pupil of the Royal College of Music, Naples. 
Works : II preventivo d'arresta, opera buflfa, 
given at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 1843 ; Lo 
sposalizio di un principe, ib., 1816; I pirati 
di Barratiera, ib., Teatro del Fondo, 18-16 ; 
Pace figlia di amore, ib., about 184.7 ; I liti- 
ganti, II debitore, ib., about 1818 ; Eaoul 
di Crequi, Turin, about 1848. — P'etis. 

SANG (Old German Battle Song), for male 
chorus unisono, with orchestra, by Julius 
Eietz, op. 12. The unusual form and entire 
conception of this work is proof of the com- 
poser's talent and artistic judgment. Begin- 
ning in the minor mode, the unison chorus 
assumes wider propoi'tions later on, hj divis- 
ion in parts, and ends in a brilliant major, 
extolling the immortal fame of those slain 
in battle. The harmony is simple and dig- 
nified, the orchestration powerful and im- 
pressive. — Allgem. raus. Zeitg., xlv. 678; 
xlvii. 61. 

church composer of the 17th centurj'. He 
was the son of Serafino Altemps, a musician 
of Irish origin, who was chorister in the 
Church of the Twelve Apostles ; and he be- 
came a Benedictine monk in the Convent of 
St. Calixtus, Eome. Works — Motets : As- 
sumpta est, for soprano, bass, and organ ; 
I Paradisi portte, for bass and organ ; Alle- 
luia ; Beatus vir, for 4 voices and organ ; 
Quasi Cedms, for 2 soprani, bass, and or- 
gan ; Veni ad liberandum, for do. — FOtis. 

at Weisseufels, Prussian Saxony, 1734, died 
at Bitterfeld in 1796. Virtuoso on the 
trumpet, son and pupil of Johann Caspar 
Altenburg, who was chamber-trumpeter to 
the Duke of Weissenfels, and an artist of 
great reputation. The son served as field 
trumjjeter during the Seven Years' War, and 
then became organist at Bitterfeld. He 
composed works for two, four, six, and 
eight tnimpets, and WTote a most valuable 
historical and theoretical treatise : Versuch 
einer Anleitung zur heroisch-musikalischen 
Trompeter- imd Paukeukunst (Halle, Hen- 
del, 1795), the second part of which con- 
tains a concerto for seven trumpets and 
kettle-drums. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ALTENBUEG, IVHCH-IEL, born at Alach, 
near Erfurt, May 27, 1584, died at Erfurt, 
Feb. 12, 1640. He studied theology at 
Halle about 1601, and from 1608 was pastor 
in different towns until 1637, when he was 
appointed to the same office at St. Andrew's, 
Erfurt. He did much towards the improve- 
ment of church music, and the choirs in his 
jjarishes were considered models. Works : 
Das 53ste Kapitel des Jesaias, mit acht 
Stimmen compouirt (Erfurt, 1608) ; Hoch- 
zeit-Motetten von sieben Stimmen (ib., 
1513) ; Musikalischer Sehirm und Schild 
der Biirger, etc., oder der 55ste Psalm mit 
sechs Stimmen (ib., 1618) ; Kirch- und Haus- 
gesilnge mit fiinf, sechs und acht Stimmen 
(ib., 11)20-21) ; Intraden mit sechs Stimmen 
(ib., 1620) ; Cantiones de aventu Domini 
Nostri Jesu, quinque, sex et octo vocibus 


compositse (ib., 1621) ; Musikalische "Weih- 
naclits uiid neu Jahrs Zierde, etc., zu vier- 
Stimmen (ib., 1621) ; Musikalische 


Festgesiinge mit fiinf-viehrzehn Stimmen 
(ib., 1653).— Ft'tis ; Mendel; Sclnlling. 

ALTES, JOSEPH HENRI, born at Rou- 
en, Jan. 18, 1826, still living, 1888. Virtu- 
oso on the ilute, pupil at the Paris Conser- 
vatoire of Tulou ; won the second prize in 
1841, and the first in 18-12. He entered the 
orchestra of the Opera, and in 1868 became 
professor at the Conservatoire. Works : 
Fantaisies, variations, etc., for flute and or- 
chestra or pianoforte (Paris, Eichault). — 
Fetis ; Mendel. 

still living in 17.58. Church music com- 
poser, pupil and, from 1719, son-in-law of 
Johanu Sebastian Bach ; became organist 
at Naumburg, Saxony, in 17-48, and enjoyed 
the reputation of being one of the best per- 
formers of his time on the organ and the 
harpsichord. Works : Several cantatas with 
grand orchestra ; Magnificat (Leipsic, Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel). In the royal library, Ber- 
lin, are : Halleluia for four voices and or- 
chestra ; Nun danket alle Gott, motet for 
five voices. Two Sanctus, for four voices 
and organ ; Fugues ; Sonata for harpsi- 
chord. — Futis ; Riemann. 

in Spain in 1787, died (?). Church com- 
poser of considerable repute in his native 
country ; maestro de capilla of the Church 
de la Soledad, Madrid. The manuscripts 
of several of his works are in the archives 
of the Escurial.— Fetis. 

born in Berlin (?) about 1820, still living, 
(?). Pupil of Marx ; became conductor of 
the musical society EuteiiDe at Leipsic 
about 18-14. Works: Cantata for male 

2 (ib.) ; Four character- 
pieces for pianoforte. 

chorus and orchestra, 1838 ; Symphony in 
G minor ; Concert overtui-e in D minor ; 
Festival overture in E, 1844 ; Six songs for 
_^ soprano and pianoforte, op. 1 

^^ (Berlin, Bote & Bock) ; do. 

for contralto and pianoforte, 



op. 3 (Leipsic, Hofmeister) ; 
do. for mezzo-soprano and do., op. 4 (Berlin, 
Stern) ; Two songs for bass and do., op. 5 
(Leipsic, Wiistling).— Fetis; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xl. 607 ; xlvi. 56, 256. 

AMAD^l, LADISLAW, Baron VON, born 
at Kaschau, Hungary, died at Felbar, ib., 
Dec. 22, 1764. A favourite national poet 
and composer, whose melodies were sung 
thi-oughout his native country and handed 
down by tradition, until collected and pub- 
lished in Pesth by Count Thaddiius Amade 
in 1836. The latter (born at Presburg, 
Jan. 10, 1783, died in Vienna, May 17, 1845), 
was an excellent pianist and successful 
composer, and is to be credited with the 
discovery and education of the musical 
genius of Franz Liszt. — Mendel. 

AlVIADEI, FILIPPO, born at Reggio, 
Italy, in 1683, died (?). Dramatic composer, 
known only by the opera, Teodosio il Gio- 
vane, given in Rome, 1711. He is probably 
identical with the Amadei who wrote, con- 
jointly with Orlaudini, the satirical opera, 
Arsace, given in Hamburg, 1722. — Fetis ; 

AMADEI, ROBERTO, born at Loreto, in 
the Marshes, Italy, Nov. 29, 1840, still liv- 
ing, 1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
his father and of Luigi Vecchiotti ; became 
orcanist and, in succession to his father, 
maestro di cappella at Loreto. Works ; 
Luchino Viscouti, opera, given at Lugo, 
1869 ; Bianca de' Rossi, do., given at Bari ; 
n Bacchettone, comic opera ; Motet for 8 
parts, and many other religious composi- 
tions ; Pianoforte and vocal music— Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 13. 

AMADIGI DI GALLIA ; or, Oriana, Ital- 
ian opera, text by Heidegger, music by 


Handel, represented at the King's Theatre, 
London, jMay 25, 1715. The story turns 
on the enchantments of the sorceress, Me- 
Hssa, who falls in love with the hero, Arua- 
digi, and who, when warned by a messenger 
from the other world that the hapjainess of 
her rival, Oriana, has been decreed by the 
higher powers, kills herself. Dardano, 
Prince of Thrace, Amadigi's rival, plays a 
principal part in the earlier parts, and reap- 
pears after death as a ghost. The respective 
characters of Amadigi, Dardano, Melissa, 
and Oriana, were sung by Nicoliui, Signora 
Diana Vico, Signora Pilotti Schiavonetti, 
and Mrs. Auastasia Robinson. Mucli of the 
music of Amadigi was transferred from a 
preceding opera, Silla. Published by the 
Hiiudel-Gesellschaft, Leipsic, 1874.- — Rock- 
stro, Handel, 90 ; Schoelcher, Handel, 18. 

AMADIS DE GAULE, lyric tragedy in 
five acts, text by Quiuault, music by Lulli, 
represented in Paris, Jan. 18, 1G84, and at 
Versailles the following j-ear. The subject, 
one of the knightly romances of the middle 
ages, is from the original by the Portuguese 
Vasco de Lobeira (1370), which was trans- 
lated, about 1500, into Spanish by Ordonez 
de Montalvo. One of the best of Lulli's 
works, it was long a favourite both of coiu't 
and city. Amadis, a parody vaudeville, text 
by Romagnesi and Riccoboni fils, repre- 
sented at the Nouveau Theatre Italien, Dec. 
19, 1710, was almost as popular. On the 
same subject are : Amadis des Gaules, bj' 
Berton, in collaboration with La Borde, 
Paris, Dec. 4, 1771 ; Amadis des Gaules, 
text by Devisme and Saint-Alphonse, music 
by Johann Christian Bach, at the Opera, 
Paris, Dec. 10, 1779 ; Amadis von Gallieu, 
text by Gieseke after Wieland, music by G. 
Stengel, Hamburg Theatre, 1798. 

AiMADORI, GIUSEPPE, flourished in 
Rome about the beginning of the 18th cen- 
tury, was stiU living in 1730. Church com- 
poser and one of the best singing masters 
of his time, pupil of Bernacchi. Works : H 
martirio di San Adriano, oratorio, given in 
riome, 1702 ; Ecce nunc benedicite, motet 

for six voices, two violins, viola, and organ ; 
Laudate pueri, for eight voices ; Leetatus 
sum, do. ; Laudate Dominum, do. — Fetis ; 

(ANNA) AMALIA, Princess of Prussia, 
Abbess of Quedliuburg, born in Berlin, 
Nov. 9, 1723, died there, March 30, 1787. 
A sister of Frederick the Great, she was a 
pujDil of Kiruberger, and composed many 
excellent chorals, and the cantata Der Tod 
Jesu to the same text as Graun's work. — ■ 
Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 470 ; Mendel ; Schil- 

(ANNA) AMALIA, Duchess of Weimar, 
born Oct. 24, 1739, died April 10, 1807. 
She composed the operetta, Erwin und El- 
mire, to the text by Goethe. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., i. 386 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

cess of Saxony, born at Dresden, Aug. 10, 
1794, died there, Sept. 18, 1870. Dramatic 
comjsoser, and writer of comedies under the 
name of Amalie Heiter. Works — Operas : 
II figlio perduto ; II marchesino ; La vasa 
di sabitata ; Una donna ; Le tre einture ; 
Die Siegesfahne ; Der Kauonenschuss, etc. 
Stabat mater, and other church music. — 

AMANT JALOUX, L' (The Jealous Lov- 
er), comedy in three acts, text by d'HMe, 
music by Gretry, represented at Versailles, 
Nov. 20, 1778, and in Paris, Dec. 23, 1778. 
Original plot ; one of Gretry's best works 
and long popular. The serenade sung by 
Florival in the second act, " Tandis que 
tout sommeiUe," is of exquisite sentiment. 
Of the same title is an opera in three acts, 
music by Mengozzi, represented at the 
Theatre des Varietes, Montansier, Feb. 2, 

AMANT STATUE, L' (The Statue 
Lover), opera comique in one act, vaude- 
ville, text bj' Desfontaines, represented at 
the Comedie Italienne, Feb. 20, 1781, put 
into music by Dalayi-ac, Aug. 4, 1785. A 
lover imagines that he appears to the eyes 
of his mistress as an animate statue, which 
plays the flute ravishingly. Of the same 



title ia au opera-comique in one act, text by 
Guichard, music by De Lusse, represented 
ill Paris, Aug. 18, 1759. 

AMANT, STEPHEN L', French dra- 
matic comjioser of the 18th century, iu the 
second half of which he was instructor at 
the Royal School of Music in Paris. He 
wrote five Italian operas, which were jiopu- 
lar, and found favour with Dr. Burney. He 
also published several collections of songs, 
with accompaniment for the harp or piano- 
forte. — Mendel ; Schilling. 

A]\LA.KYLLIS. See Circe. 

AMARYLLIS, opera-ballet, text by Dan- 
chet, music by Campra, represented at the 
Academic Roj'ale de Musique, Paris, Sept. 
10, 1704. The same as the Muses, au op- 
era-ballet by the same authors, given the 
year before, with an additional act. 

Toulouse, France, in 1814, died at Nice, 
Oct. 31, 1872. He went to Paris in 1845 
and soon made himself known bj' a num- 
ber of romances, melodies, nocturnes, and 
chansonettes ; in 1850 he went to Algiers 
to establish a music house, but he was un- 
successful, and returned to Paris, where, iu 
1856, he became director of the little The- 
atre Beaumarchais. Besides his numerous 
vocal compositions he wrote the operette : 
Elodie ou le forfait nocturne, given at the 
Bouflfes Parisiens, 185G, and the cantata : 
Le chant des Niyois, performed at the 
Vaudeville, 1860, and for which he was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour. — 
Fetis, Supplement, 14. 

A:VIAT0 (Amatus), VINCENZO, born in 
Sicily, Jan. 6, 1629, died at Palermo, July 
29, 1670. Church music composer of great 
repute in his time ; maestro di cajjpella at 
the Cathedral of Palermo. Of his composi- 
tions are known : Messe e salmi di vespro e 
compieta, for four and five voices (Palermo, 
1656) ; Concerti sacri, for two to five voices. 
He left also an opera, LTsauro (Aquila, 
1664), of little merit.— Mendel ; Schilling. 

AMAZONE, L' (The Amazon), ojiera- 
comique in two acts, music by Amedce de 

Beauplau, imitated from a vaudeville called 
Le petit dragon, by Scribe and others, rep- 
resented at the Opera Comique, Paris, Nov. 
15, 1830 ; Die Amazone, German opera, mu- 
sic by Lindpaintner, Stuttgart, 1831 ; L' 
Amazone, opera-comique in one act, text by 
Thomas Sauvage, music by Thys, Opera 
Comique, Paris, Nov. 25, 1845. 

AMAZONES, LES; or. La fondation 
de Thebes (The Founding of Thebes), opera 
in three acts, text by Jouy, music by Me- 
hul, represented at the Academie Imperiale 
de Musique, Paris, Dec. 17, 1811. Al- 
though not inferior to some of the more 
successful works by the composer, this 
work was j^erformed but nine times. Of 
the same title are the opera in two acts, 
music by Eisner, represented at Briinn, 
1795 ; Le Amazzoni, Italian opera, music 
by Ottani, Turin, 1784 ; Le Amazzoni, by 
Pavesi, Bergamo, 1809 ; Die Amazonen, 
ballet by Schweitzer, about 1775. 

Amazon of Aragon), Italian opera, music by 
Cavalli, represented in Venice, 1G52. 

zon Corsair), Italian opera, music by Palla- 
vicini, Venice, 1687 ; Italian opera, music by 
Monari, Ducal Theatre, Milan, about 1806. 

AMBASSADRICE, L' (The Ambassa- 
dress), opera-coraique in three acts, origi- 
nal plot, text by Scribe, music by Auber, 
represented at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
Dec. 21, 1836. One of Auber's most pleas- 
ing works. The role of the heroine, Hen- 
riette, long served for the debuts of pupils 
leaving the Conservatoire. Among its no- 
ticeable parts are the aria buffa : " Ah ! 
que moil sort est beau ! " the romance : 
" Le ciel nous a places dans des rangs ; " 
the duo: "Oui, c'est moi qui viens ici, 
Madame I'Ambassadrice ;" and Charlotte's 
air in the last act : " Que ces murs coquets." 
L'Ambassadrice was first given in New 
York at Niblo's Garden, May 19, 1843, by 
a French company from New Orleans. 

AMBER WITCH, THE, English ro- 
mantic opera iu four acts, original plot, 



text by H. F. Chorley, music by William 
Vinceut Wallace, first represented at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, London, Feb. 28, 1861. 
It was sung by Sims Reeves, Charles Sant- 
ley, and Mnie. Leniniens-Sherrington. 

AMBIELA, ]\nCHELE, born in Aragon, 
Spain, about 1665, died at Toledo, March 
23, 1733. A secular priest, he studied mu- 
.sic in a monastery of his native province, 
and was at first maestro de capilla in some 
churches of minor importance, then, in 
1700-7, at the Cathedral of Saragossa, 
and from 1710 at Toledo. He won a brill- 
iant reputation with his numerous compo- 
sitions, a large collection of which is pre- 
served in the Cathedral of Oviedo. — Fetis. 

composer of church music, flourished in 
the first half of the 17th century. He was 
a Jesuit in the Maison professe de Cler- 
mont, Paris. Works : Octonarium sacrum, 
etc. (Paris, Ballard, 1634) ; Harmonia sacra, 
etc. (ib., 1638) ; Domine, salvum fac regem ; 
Hymns, anthems, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

at Meiningen, Dec. 10, 1742, died about the 
end of the 18tb century. Chamber-musician 
and pianist of the ducal orchestra in Mei- 
ningen ; one of the best virtuosi of his time. 
His compositions were commended as mas- 
terpieces of invention and contrapuntal skill. 
— Mendel ; Schilling. 

at Mauth, Bohemia, Nov. 
17, 1816, died in Vienna, 
June 28, 1876. He was 
educated for the Aus- 
trian civil service, left 
the University of Prague 
in 1840 with the title of 
Doctor Juris, and en- 
tered the office of the 
attorney-general ; but 
he gave all his leisure to 
the study of music, and after 1850 became 
known as a writer on that art. His " Die 
Granzen der Poesie und der Musik," an 
answer to Hauslick's " Vom musikalisch 

SchiJnen," called forth much journalistic 
criticism, but won the admiration of the 
best German musicians. It was followed by 
a series of essajs, " Culturhistorische Bilder 
aus dem Musikleben der Gegenwart " (2d 
ed., Matlies, Leipsic, 1865). About this 
time he was engaged hj Leuckhart to begin 
his life's work, the " Geschichte der Musik," 
for which he made extensive researches in 
1860-73 in the Italian and German libra- 
ries. Through the liberality of the Acad- 
emy of Science at Vienna he was enabled 
to pursue this important work, the four 
volumes of which were published in 1862 
-78, and a fifth (posthumous) in 1882. 
In 1869 he became professor of the his- 
torj' of music in the University of Prague. 
Works: Overtures to Othello, and Calde- 
ron's Magico Prodigioso ; Wanderstiicke, 
Kinderstiicke, Landschaftsbilder (pianoforte 
pieces) -, Songs ; Stabat mater ; 2 masses in 
B-flat and A minor. — Fetis ; Grove ; Men- 
del, i. 193 ; Ergiinz., 11 ; Wurzbach, i. 26. 

born at Krumau, Bohemia, May 6, 1759, 
died in Berlin, Sept. 8, 1822. Tenor singer, 
pupil of Kozeluch the elder in Prague. 
He made his debut at the theatre of Bai- 
reuth in 1784, then sang in Hamburg, Han- 
over, and Vienna, and in 1791 was engaged 
for the National Theatre in Berlin, where 
he entered upon a brilliant career, as one of 
the most excellent dramatic singers of his 
time. Many of his songs, published in Ber- 
lin, Hamburg, and Zerbst, became favour- 
ites. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

AMBROSE, Saint, Archbishop of Milan, 
born in 340, died in Milan, April 4, 397. 
He was the first to regulate the church 
chants bj' a fixed code of laws. He author- 
ized the four authentic modes, since known 
as the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixo- 
Lydian, but not to be confounded with the 
Greek modes of the same names (see Am- 
bros, ii. 13, 126). He founded the Ambro- 
sian chant, which, although superseded 
about the year 600 by the Gregorian in 
Rome, and later in most parts of Europe, 


held its own in Northern Italy for several 
centuries, and is stiU cultivated in Milan 
(for difference between the two forms, see 
Ambros, ii. 44-63). Of the chants attrib- 
uted to him, the following are probably 
authentic : J3terne rerum couditor ; Dens 
creator omnium ; Veui redemptor omnium 
Splendor pateruiB gloriie ; Confers paterui 
luminis ; O lux beata trinitas. The ritual 
Te Deum has been ascribed to him, but is 
almost certainly of much later date. — Ca- 
milla Perego, Kegola del canto Ambrosiauo 
(Milan, 1622) ; Ambros, ii. 14 ; Grove, i. 59. 
iME EN PEINE, L' (The Soul in Tor- 
ment), opera in two acts, text by Saint- 
Georges, music bj' Flotow, first represented 
at the Opera, Paris, June 29, 1846 ; revived, 
Nov. 4, 1859. The beautiful romance, "Pen- 
dant la nuit j'ai pare ma chaumiire," has 
been transferred, with a change of words, to 
the opera of Martha. L'ame en jjeine was 
produced at the Princess's Theatre, Lon- 
don, Oct. 16, 1848, as Leoline. An Italian 
version, entitled, II boscajuolo (The For- 
ester), was given at the Teatro Scribe, 
Turin, Nov. 30, 1872. 

AMERBACH (Ammerbach), ELIAS NI- 
KOLAUS, called, born in Saxony about the 
middle of the 16th century, in which he is 
reported to have been one of the greatest 
contrapuntists. He travelled extensively to 
study under the most eminent musicians 
of the time — probably in the Netherlands, 
where then flourished the best schools of 
music — and in 1570 became organist at St. 
Thomas's, Leipsic. His only work extant 
is : Orgel- und Instruments-Tabulatur (Leip- 
sic, 1571 ; Nuremberg, 1583). — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

Oirschot, Brabant, died Nov. 20, 1605. 
Composer of the Flemish school, contem- 
porary of Orlando Lasso. He went to 
Rome, was a singer in the papal chapel, and 
a friend of Palestrina. His madrigals are 
published in Lattre's 3d book of madrigals 
for 3 voices (Venice, 1570). — Biogr. nat. de 
Belgique, i. 261; Mendel, Ergiluz., 11. 

AMI DE LA MAISON, L' (The Friend 
of the Famil}'), opcru-comicjue in three acts, 
text by Marmontel, music by Gretry, first 
represented at Fontaiuebleau, Oct. 26, 1771, 
and at Paris, bj' the king's comedians, 
March 14, 1772. Gretry applied in this 
work his theorj' of the intimate relationship 
between the music and the words, as is well 
shown in the two airs: "Je suis de voua 
tres-mecontente," and " Rien ne plait taut 
aux yeux des belles ; " also in the duet in 
the third act : " Tout ce qu'il vous plaira ; " 
and in the little duo: "Vous avez divine 

lish romantic opera in three acts, text by J. 
T. Haines, music by William Michael Rooke, 
first represented at Coveut Garden, Loudon, 
Dec. 2, 1837. This work, which was writ- 
ten about 1826, met with decided success 
and established Rooke's reputation as a 
composer. It was given in New York at 
the National Theatre in 1838, by the Se- 
guin combination, twelve consecutive nights, 
before crowded houses. 

See Miieite de Portici. 

Friendship), opera-comique in three acts, 
text by Desforges, music by Franc/ois Andre 
Philidor, represented at the Theatre Italien, 
Paris, Oct. 31, 1785. ProsjJer and Vincent, 
rural copies of Orestes and Pylades, are 
rivals in love and for the prize of virtue of- 
fered to the villagers by the Seigneur de 
Clemencey. Prosper absents himself to 
leave the field free to his friend, whose deli- 
cacy prompts him to refuse the prize won 
under such conditions. In the end, of 
course, everj'thing is satisfactorily arranged. 
The oj)era excited so lively an enthusiasm 
that the audience called for the composer, 
an honour then almost without precedent. — 
Allen, Life of Philidor, 87. 
AIULETO. See Hamlet. 
AMMETO. See AdmHo. 
Imst, Tyrol, Jan. 2, 1572, died in Munich, 


April 9, 161J:. Church composer, one of 
the most famous contrapuntists of bis time. 
He was for several years Hof-Kajsellmeister 
at Munich. Works : Sacrse cautiones, for 
four, five, and six voices (Munich, 1540) ; 
Kurze Motetteu von vier, fiinf und sechs 
Stimmen, auf verschiedene Heiligen-Fest- 
tage gerichtet (ib., ISS-i) ; Liber sacratissi- 
marum, for five voices (Vienna, Creuzer, 
1582) ; Missse quatuor (ib., 1588) ; Sacrse 
cantiones (Munich, Berg, 1590) ; Patroci- 
uium musices, Missa; (ib., 1591) ; Missse 
quatuor, for four, five, and six voices (ib., 
1593).— Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 404 ; Fetis. 

AjMNER, JOHN, born towards the end of 
the 16th century, died in 1641. Organist 
and choirmaster at Ely Cathedral, where 
he succeeded George Barcroft in 1610. 
Mus. Bac, Oxon., 1613. Works : Sacred 
Hymns of three, four, five, and six parts, for 
voices and vyols (1615) ; Anthems, etc. 

Bamberg in 1763, died at Wallerstein, Ba- 
varia, March 29, 1825. He was first in- 
structed in singing by the court singer 
Madame Fracasini, and on several instru- 
ments by Concertmeister Biiuerle ; then be- 
came the pupil of the famous horn virtuoso 
Giovanni Puuto, and was taken by him to 
Paris, where he studied composition under 
Sacchini in 1781-82. He travelled for sev- 
eral years with Punto, accompanying, and 
leading the orchestra in his concerts ; in 
1789 he became musical director at Heil- 
bronn, where also he taught the violin and 
pianoforte, and in 1817 was made Kapell- 
meister to the Prince of Oettingen-Waller- 
stein. Of his compositions, about fift^'-two, 
consisting of symphonies, concertos, sona- 
tas, duets, trios, quartets, quintets, inarches, 
and songs, were published by Simrock in 
Bonn, Schott in Mainz, Andre at Ofifenbaeh, 
Hug at Zurich, Bachmann at Hanover, 
Gombart at Augsburg, Bossier at Speyer, 
Falter in Munich, Pleyel and Janet in Paris, 
Castaud at Lyons ; among those left in 
manuscript are twenty-seven instrumental 
works, German songs, and a German Re- 

quiem. He wrote also two masses, besides 
smaller chui'ch compositions, cantatas, and 
two operettas, of which one, Der Sultan 
Wampum, was performed with little success 
in 1791. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxvii. 366 ; 
Fetis ; Schilling. 

AMORE CONJUGALE, L'. See Leo7iora. 

AMORE TRADITORE, cantata for a 
bass voice, with pianoforte accompaniment, 
by Johann Sebastian Bach. Published by 
the Bach-Gesellschaft, 1861. 

AMORITA. See PfingMen in Florenz. 

Muetle de Portici. 


poser, contemporary. Organist of the ca- 
thedral at Bordeaux. He played the music 
of his opera. La Eeine d'Ellore, or Reine 
et bergure, at a private concert in Bordeaux 
in 1865, and brought out II a ete perdu un 
Roi, opera comique, at the Gj-mnase, Paris, 
in 1867. He received honourable mention 
from the Saint Cecilia Society of Bordeaux 
for his Atteude, Domine, a choral for solos, 
chorus, and orchestra, given at the Bor- 
deaux Cathedral in 1873. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 14. 


AaffHITRYON, opera in three acts, 
text by Sedaine, music by Gretry, repre- 
sented at the Academic Royale de Musique, 
Paris, July 15, 1788, without success. Am- 
phitryon, comedy by Dryden, music (over- 
ture, act^tunes, and songs) by Henry Pur- 
cell, London, 1690 ; Anfitrione, Italian 
opera, music by Gasparini, Rome, 1707 ; 
Amphitryfie, Portuguese opera, by Jose da 
Silva, Lisbon, 1736 ; Amphitryon, Swedish 
opera, by J. M. Kraus, Stockholm, 1792 ; 
opera-comique in one act, scene laid in 
Spain, text by Nuitter and Beaumont, mu- 
sic by Lacome, Theatre Taitbout, Paris, 
April 5, 1875. 

AMTMANN, PROSPER, born in Aus- 
tria, early part of the nineteenth centuij. 



Flutist ; appeared successfully in concerts in 
Vienna, 183G, and Munich, 1839. Works : 
Grand duo concertant for two flutes, op. 1 
(Vienna, Diabelli) ; Marclie nationale lion- 
groise for flute and pianoforte, op. 2 (ib., 
Haslinger) ; Air varie for do., op. 3 (ib., 
Mechetti) ; 3 grand duos for flutes (Milan, 
Ricordi) ; 2 allemaudes for flute and piano- 
forte, op. 8 (Vienna, Diabelli) ; Introduction 
and variations for do., op. 9 (ib., Hasling- 
er) ; Exercises in all kej's, for flute, op. 10 
(ib.).— Fetis. 

born at Freiberg, Saxony, Oct. 17, 1790, 
died there, Aug. 21, 1854. Dramatic com- 
poser, self taught in his native city and in 
Leipsic, where he frequented the university. 
In 1822 he became cantor and musical di- 
rector at Freibei-g, where he soon created 
a musical atmosphere, organizing regu- 
lar performances of church music, and in 
1828 a singing academy, which from 1830 
gave annual subscription concerts with 
carefully selected programmes. Works : 
Der Bergraannsgruss, cantata (Leipsic, Hof- 
meister) ; Lebens Blume und Lebens Un- 
bestand, do. (Dresden, Paul) ; Markgraf 
Friedrich oder Bergmannstreue, musical 
drama, giveu in Dresden, 1836 ; Overture 
to Gotz vou Berlichingeu ; Pianoforte 
pieces ; Duets ; Sacred and secular songs. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ANACREON ; or, L'Amour fugitif, op- 
era-ballet iu two acts, text by Mendouze, 
music by Cherubiui, represented at the 
Opera, Paris, Oct. 5, 1803. It is now 
known only by its flue overture, and by a 
charming aii-, " Jeunes filles, aux yeux 
doux," which is still sung. Other works 
with a similar title are : Anacreon, ballet 
h^roique in one act, text by Geutil-Bernard, 
music by Rameau, represented at the Aca- 
demie Royale de Musique, Paris, May 31, 
1757 ; music by Raymont, theatre of Beau- 
jolais, about 1765 ; Anakreon, music by 
Hoszisky, theatre of Rheinsberg, about 
1791 ; Anacreon, text by Gentil-Bernard, 
music by Beaulieu, written about 1819, not 

represented ; Anakreou in lonien (Anacreon 
iu Ionia), music by Ebell, Breslau, 1810 ; 
Anacreon chez Polycrate (Anacreon at the 
house of Polycrates), text by J. H. Grey, 
music by Gretry, Paris, Jan. 17, 1797, Anac- 
reonte in Samo (Anacreon in Samos), music 
by Mercadante, San Carlo, Naples, 1820 ; 
Anacreonte tiranno, music by Sartorio, Ven- 
ice, 1678. 

GUSTIN, born iu Paris, April 25, 1800, 
died there, Jan. 2, 1871. Dramatic com- 
poser, chef d'orchestre at the Odeon, and 
afterwards at the Theatre Fran9ais. Works 
— Operettas : Estelle et Nemorin, Jean et 
Jeanne, Un troc, given at the Theatre des 
Folies Nouvelles, 1855-59 ; Sis sonatas for 
violin (Paris, Meissonnier). — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 15. 

ANCOT, JEAN, the elder, born at 
Bruges, Oct. 22, 1779, died there, July 12, 
1848. Church music and instrumental 
composer, pupil in Paris of Kreutzer and 
Baillot on the violin, and of Catel in har- 
mony ; returned to Bruges in 1804 and 
taught the violin and pianoforte. Works : 
4 concertos for violin with orchestra ; 3 
quartets for two violins, viola, and bass ; 2 
masses for three voices, with organ ; Ecce 
panis for four voices and orchestra ; 2 O 
salutaris for three voices, with organ obli- 
gate ; 6 Tantum ergo for three and four 
voices and organ obligate ; 4 Ave Marias 
for four voices ; Divertissements, overtures, 
fantaisies, marches, etc., for fifteen instru- 
ments. — Biogr. uat. de Belgique, i. 270 ; 
Fetis; Mendel. 

ANCOT, JEAN, the younger, born at 
Bruges, July 6, 1799, died at Boulogne, 
June 5, 1829. Instrumental and vocal 
composer, son of the preceding, who in- 
structed him on the violin and pianoforte, 
then pupil, at the Paris Conservatoire, of 
Pradher on the pianoforte, and of Berton 
in composition. He went, in 1823, to Lon- 
don, became professor at the Athenseum, 
and pianist to the Duchess of Kent, but 
returned in 1823, and, after concert tours 



in Belgium, settled at Boulogne. Works • 
Concerto for violin (Pai'is, Jouve) ; do. for 
pianoforte (ib., Leduc) ; 3 Sonatas for do., 
op. 4, 10, 18 ; Several fautaisies for do., 
with orchestra ; La tempete, fantaisie for 
do. (London) ; L'Ouragan, do. (Paris, Na- 
derman) ; Nocturne for pianoforte and vio- 
lin, op. 8 (ib., Petit) ; 2 aubades for do., 
op. 32, 35 (ib., Dufant et Dubois) ; Grand 
Sonata for do., op. 14 (ib.. Petit) ; 8 fan- 
taisies for pianoforte for four hands (Paris 
and London) ; 5 concertos for violin, with 
orchestra ; 12 fugues for organ ; Amelia, ou 
le depart pour la guerre, scena with orches- 
tra ; Marie Stuart, do. ; La resolution inu- 
tile, do. ; La philosophie d'Anacreon, do. ; 
6 overtures for grand orchestra ; Grande 
piece de concert ; Several collections of 
romances (Paris and London). His brother 
Louis (born at Bruges, June 3, 1803, died 
there in September, 1836), after having trav- 
elled as a pianist in France, Italj', the Neth- 
erlands, and England, settled at Boulogne 
to teach his instrument, then lived for some 
years at Tours, and finally in his native city. 
He composed music for pianoforte, over- 
tures, and concertos with grand orchestra, 
and romances and nocturnes for one and 
two voices. — Biogr. nat. de Belgique, i. 271 ; 
Fetis ; Mendel. 

ANDANTE FAVORI IN F, for piano- 
forte, by Beethoven, composed in 1804. 
It was intended originally for the slow 
movement of the sonata in C, op. 53, but 
afterwards discarded and published sepa- 
rately, without opus number, in 1806. 

AN DAS VATERLAND, symphony No. 
1, for full orchestra, by Raff, op. 96, com- 
jjosed 1863. 

See Oberon. 

ANDERL, JOHANN (?), born in Bavaria 
about 1787, died at Jamuitz, Moravia, Aug. 
19, 1865. Church composer, lived for some 
time at Augsburg. Works : Asperges, for 
four voices and organ (.\ugsburg, B<'ihm) ; 
Christ on the Mount of Olives, three songs 
for two sof)ranos, bass, and organ (Munich, 

Falter) ; Processional hymn for do. (Augs- 
burg, Bohm) ; Lauda Sion, for three voices 
and organ (ib.) ; Pange lingua, for do. (ib.) ; 
Canticle for Advent, for two voices, two vio- 
lins, and organ (Munich, Falter) ; Nativity, 
for two voices and organ (ib.) ; Canticles for 
other festivals, etc. (ib.) ; Missa brevis, for 
soprano, contralto, bass, two violins, double- 
bass, and organ (ib.). — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 15. 

ANDERS, HEINRICH, born in Germany 
between 1660 and 1670, died at Amsterdam 
between 1720 and 1730. Organist, settled 
at Amsterdam about 1696. Works : Trios, 
.Allemandes, Sarabandes, Gigues, etc. (Am- 
sterdam, 1G96) ; Apollo en Daphne (ib., 
1697) ; Min en Wijnstrijdt, herderspel met 
muzick (ib., 1719) ; Symphonipe introduc- 
toriffi triuin et quatuor instrumentornm, 
consisting of twenty-four sonatas. 

ANDERTON, THOMAS, born at Bir- 
mingham, England, 
April 15, 1836, still 
living, 1888. Ama- 
teur composer ; edi- 
tor of the Midland 
Counties Herald, Bir- 
mingham. Works : 
Song of Deborah and 
Barak, cantata, 1871 ; 
John Gilpin, do. ; 
Three Jovial Huntsmen, do., 1881 ; Wreck 
of the Hesperus, do , 1882 ; Norman Baron, 
do , 1884 ; Yuletide, do., 1885 ; Gentle Ger- 
trude, operetta, Liverpool, 1881 ; Chiltern 
Hundreds, do., ib., 1882 ; Artoxominous ye 
Great, do. ; Symphony for orchestra ; Quar- 
tet for strings, in F (1884) ; Overtui-es, and 
an oratorio ; Songs, and part-songs ; Piano- 
forte music. 

derkreis, for one voice and pianoforte, 
text by Jeitteles, music by Beethoven, op. 
98, dedicated to Prince Lobkowitz ; com- 
posed in Vienna, April, 1816. The first 
cycle of songs ever set to music, and to 
tiiis day unsurpassed. Each of the six 
poems has its own melody, expressing the 



fundamental mood, and thus every song 
forms an independent whole. No. 1 in E- 
llat, 5 verses ; No. 2 in G, 3 verses ; No. 3 
in A-flat, 5 verses ; Nos. 4 and 5 in do., 3 
verses each ; No. 6 in C, leading back into 
E-flat. Every song is strikingly character- 
istic in key, melody, and rliythm. (Vienna, 
Stein er.)— Marx (Berlin, 1875), ii. 159. 

ANDRE, JOHANN, born at Offenbach, 
Hesse, March 28, 1741, died there, June 18, 
1799. Dramatic composer. His father, a 
eilk manufacturer, intended him for the 
same business, but his love of music was too 
strong. He received lessons on the violin 
from a friend studying at Frankfort, and 
mastered the harjisichord without a teaclier. 
He soon began comj)osing, writing at first 
only fugitive pieces, but on visiting Frank- 
fort in 1760 he heard operas, and tliis gave 
a new impulse to his taste. After the pro- 
duction of his first comic opera, Der Top- 
fer, Goethe confided to him his operetta, 
Erwiu und Elmire, which was given in 1764 
with great success, and afterwards in Berlin 
twentj'-two times in 1782. In 1774 he es- 
tablished at Offenbacli a printing office for 
music, and in 1777 became musical director 
of the Dcjbbelin Theatre in Berlin, where 
two of his operas had been given with suc- 
cess in 1775 ; while there, he formed a 
friendship with and was much influenced 
by Marjjurg, and composed many dramatic 
pieces. Unable to carry out a plan for 
transferring his printing office to Berlin, he 
returned to Offenbach in 1784, with the title 
of Kapellmeister, conferred on him by the 
Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, and to 
the end of his active life devoted himself to 
comjiosition, and his publications ; from this 
press issued twelve hundred works before 
his death. Of his operas, one, with libretto 
by Bretzner, Belmonte und Constanze, oder 
die Entfiirhruug aus dem Serail, given in 
Berlin, May 26, 1781, became especially con- 
spicuous from Mozart's setting of the same 
with his own music, with alterations in the 
text by Stephanie, July 12, 1782, which led to 
a quarrel between the two librettists. Works 

— Operas : Der alte Freier, given in Berlin, 
DObbelin Theatre, 1775 ; Die Bezauberten, 
ib., 1777 ; Der Alchymist, ib., 1778 ; Das 
tartarische Gesetz, ib., 1779 ; Das wiithende 
Heer, Kurze Thorheit ist die beste, ib., 
1780 ; Herzog Michel, Der Fiirst im hOch- 
sten Glanze, Die Schadenfreude, Das Auto- 
mat, ib., about 1780 ; Eins wird doch helfen, 
ib., 1782 ; Der Barbier von Bagdad, ib., 
1783 ; Peter imd Hannchen ; Laura Rosetti ; 
Claudina von Villa Bella ; Die Friedens- 
feier ; Prolog der Grazien ; Azakia. Other 
works : Harlekin Friseur, pantomime ; Mu- 
sic to Macbeth, King Lear, and some Ger- 
man plays ; Three sonatas for pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello, op. 1 (Offenbach, 
1786) ; Songs with accompaniment of flute, 
or violin, viola, and bass, 3 parts (ib., 1793) ; 
Lenore (by Biirger), romance for piano- 
forte (ib., 5 editions) ; Die Weiber von 
Weinsberg, for pianoforte (ib., 1802) ; Ari- 
ettas, duets, and many songs, of which 
" Bekriinzt mit Laub den lieben vollen 
Becher," is still jjopular. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
i. 434 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xvi. 869 ; Petis ; 
Gerber, Hist. Lex. ; Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Schneider, Berliner Oper, 207. 

ANDRfi, JOHANN ANTON, born at Of- 
fenbach, Oct. 6, 
1775, died there, 
April 8, 1842. Dra- 
matic composer, 
violinist, and pia- 
nist ; son of, and 
first instructed in 
Berlin by, Johann 
Andre, pupil in 
singing of the ten- 
or, Marschhiiuser, 
then on the violin, at Offenbach, of Ferdi- 
nand Friinzl, 1787, at Mannheim of Franz 
Friinzl, 1789, and in composition of Voll- 
weiler, 1792. Having frequented the Uni- 
versitj' of Jena in 1796, he made two ex- 
tended musical tours through Germany in 
1798-99, and on his father's death suc- 
ceeded to the publishing business at Offen- 
bach, which he raised to a very flourishing 


couditiou, especially through his alliance 
■with Sennefelder, inventor of lithography, 
and through the acquisition of Mozart's 
musical bequest, which he had secured 
from the composer's widow in Vienna. He 
published (1805 and 1828) a thematic cat- 
alogue of Mozart's works, made from the 
master's own careful records (from Feb. 9, 
1784, to Nov. 15, 1791), and another the- 
matic list (1841) of the composer's manu- 
scripts, which had come into his possession. 
In 1800 he visited England. He cultivated 
every branch of composition, and as earlj- 
as 1801 his works numbered seventy-five ; 
they are now all foi-gotten, for, though skil- 
ful in structure and pleasing, they lacked 
original invention, and were conventional, 
in the manner of the feebler imitators of 
Mozart. Much esteemed as a teacher, he 
also wrote a treatise on harmony* and 
counterpoint, Lehrbuch der Tonsetzkunst, 
planned to comprise six volumes, of which 
only two were finished (1832-35 and 1838- 
43), forming, however, a comj)lete whole, 
and an important part of the theoretical 
literature of nmsic. His violin-method : 
Anleitung zum Violinsjjielen, holds an hon- 
ourable place among its kind. Works : Die 
Weiber von Weiusberg, opera (1792) ; Ei- 
naldo und Alcina, do., given at Dresden, 
1799 ; Der Friede Tuiscons, cantata (Oft'en- 
bach, 1797) ; 3 sonatas for pianoforte, with 
violin obligato, op. 2 (1790) ; Symphonies, 
op. 4, 5, 6, 7 (1795) ; Concerto for oboe, op. 
8 (1796); Concerto for flute, op. 3 (1793); 
do., op. 10 (179G) ; Sonata for four hands, 
op. 12 (1800) ; Spriehwi'irter (proverbs) for 
four voices and pianoforte, op. 32 (1807) ; 
besides many other specimens of church and 
chamber music, and collections of songs. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 435, Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., ix. 799; xxxviii. 18; Futis ; Gerber, 
N. Lex.; Mendel ; N. Necrol. der D. (1842), 
284; Schilling. 

LIUS, born at Frankfort, June 4, 1808, 
died there, April 17, 1880. Organist and 
pianist, son of Johann Anton Andre, pupil 

of Aloj's Schmitt. Works : 3 polonaises for 
four hands for pianoforte, op. 7 (Offenbach, 
Andre) ; Sonatiue for do., op. 17 (ib.) ; Me- 
langes pour piano, op. 13, 18 (ib.) ; Valses 
brillantes (ib.) ; Nocturnes and Rondos (ib.) ; 
12 jjieces for the organ, op. 9 (ib.) ; Twelve 
do., op. 26 (ib.) ; Method for the organ (ib.) ; 
Songs with jjianoforte (ib.). — Fetis ; Men- 

ANDREASFEST, DAS, romantic opera 
in three acts, text by Roderich Fels, music 
by Karl Grammann, represented in Dres- 
den, Nov. 30, 1882. It was warmly re- 

ples in 1763, died in Paris in December, 
1826. Dramatic composer, pupil of the 
Conservatorio, Naples, under his kinsman 
Jommelli ; he composed his first opera when 
only sixteen. He was maestro of the roj'al 
chapel at Naples, and travelled a great 
deal in Italy, where he brought out a num- 
ber of operas. His reputation extended 
to Russia, and he was invited to St. Peters- 
burg in 1784, returned to Italy in 1786, 
and again visited the most important cit- 
ies ; in 1790 he became conductor of the 
orchestra at the opera in Naples, but in 
the year following was in the same capac- 
ity in Madrid. Not long after his return, 
via Paris, to Italy, he ceased to write for 
the stage, and devoted himself to teach- 
ing, counting among his pupils the royal 
princesses, notably the Duchesse de Berri, 
who afterwards befriended him in Paris, 
whither, much reduced in fortune, be had 
rej)aired in 1825. His aria, "Ah, quest' 
anima non speri," is still celebrated in Italy. 
Works — Operas : La morte di Cesare, given 
in Rome, Teatro Argentina, 1779 ; Bajazette, 
Florence, Teatro Ducale, 1780 ; Olimpiade, 
Leghorn, 1780 ; Agesilao, Venice, Teatro S. 
Benedetto, 1781 ; Teodolinda, Turin, 1781 ; 
Catone in Utica, Milan, 1782 ; II trionfo 
d'Arsace, Rome, 1782 ; La vergine del sole, 
Genoa, 1783 ; Angelica e Medoro, Venice, 
1783; Dido, Giasone e Medea, both in St. 
Petersburg, 1784; Virginia, Rome, Teatro 



Ai-geutiua, 1787 ; Sofrouia e Olindo, Sesos- 
tri, Naples, Teati-o Sau Carlo, ITS!) ; 11 fiuto 
cieco, La principessa filosofa, ib., Teatio 
Nuovo, 1790 ; Gustavo, iv di Svezia, Ma- 
drid, 1791 ; Giovauua d' Arco, Yeuice, 1793 ; 
Ai-sinoe, Naples, Teatro Sau Carlo, 1795 ; 
Armida e Rinaldo, ib., 1802 ; Piramo e 
Tisbe, II trioufo d' Alessaudro, ib., 1803. 
Other works : Six quartets for 2 violins, 
viola, and violoncello (Florence, 1786) ; 
Saule, oratorio, given at Naples, 1790 ; La 
passione di Gesti Cristo, do , ib., 1792. — 
Fotis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ANDREVI, FRANCISCO, born at Sana- 
buya (Catalonia), Spain, Nov. 16, 1786, died 
at Barcelona, Nov. 23, 1853. He was a 
priest and maestro de capilla successively 
at the cathedrals of Segorbe, Barcelona, 
Valencia, Seville, and finally of the royal 
chapel. During the Carlist War he took 
refuge at Bordeaux, where he found em- 
ployment, lived in Paris in 1845-49, and 
after his return to Spain became maestro de 
capilla at the Church of Our Lady at Bar- 
celona. His most iiujwrtant works are : 
The Last Judgment, oratorio ; Requiem for 
Ferdinand VH. ; Stabat mater. — Fctis ; do., 
Supplement, i. 15 ; Riemaun. 

ANDRIES, JEAN, born at Ghent, April 
25, 1798, died there, Jan. 21, 1872. Viohu- 
ist and violoncellist, became professor at 
the Conservatoire, Ghent, in 1835, and its 
director in 1851. His comj)ositious remain 
unpublished. As a writer he is known by : 
Apergu historique de tons les instruments 
de musique (Ghent) ; and Precis de I'his- 
toire de la musique depuis les temjDs les 
plus recules (ib., Busscher, 1862).— Futis, 
Supplement, i. 16 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 12 ; 

ANDROMAQUE, French lyric tragedy 
in three acts, text by Pitra, music by Grc- 
try, represented at the Academic Royale de 
Musique, Paris, June 6, 1780. Tliis opera, 
which was given twenty-five times, was 
written in thirty days. Mile Levasseur, 
and afterwards Mile Laguerre, filled the 
role of Andromaque, and Larivee that of 

Oreste. Andromacca, Italian opera, text 
by Zeno, music by Caldara, Vienna, 1724 ; 
music by Bioni, Breslau, 1729 ; by Fran- 
cesco Feo, Rome, 1730 ; by Davide Perez, 
Vienna, 1752 ; by Sacchini, Florence, 1763 ; 
by Tozzi, Brunswick, 1765 ; by Bertoni, 
Venice, 1772 ; by Nasolini, London, 1700 ; by 
Paisiello, Naples, 1798 ; by Puccita, Lisbon, 
about 1806 ; by Rainiondi, Palermo, about 
1815 ; by Pavesi, Milan, 1822 ; by EUerton, 
Prussia, about 1830. 

ANDROMEDA, daughter of Cepheus, 
King of Ethioi^ia, who was delivered by 
Perseus from the sea-monster, for whom 
her father had been forced to chain her to 
a rock beside the sea, has been the subject 
of many operas : Andromeda, Italian opera, 
music by Girolamo Giacobbi, rejiresented 
at Bologna, 1610, and revived in 1628 ; 
Italian opera, text by Benedetto Ferrari, 
music by Frauce.sco Manelli da Tivoli, given 
at the Teatro di San Cassiano, Venice, 1637, 
the first oj^era ever represented in public 
in that city ; music by Leo, Teatro di San 
Carlo, Naples, 1742 ; by Paisiello, Milan, 
about 1770; by Ignazio Fiorillo, Ca.sse], 
1771 ; by Reichardt, Italian opera in three 
acts, Berlin, 178S ; by Persicchini, Warsaw, 
about 1782 ; by Trento, two acts, Rome, 
about 1792, and Naples, 1805 ; Naumann, 
ojjera seria, Dresden, 1792 ; German op- 
era, by Baumgarten, 1776 ; Polish opera, by 
Eisner, Warsaw, 1807 ; Andromeda e Per- 
seo (Andromeda and Perseus), by Michael 
Haydn, Salzburg, about 1780 ; by Mare- 
scalchi, Rome, 1784 ; .\ndromeda und Per- 
seus, German ojsera, by Jean Wolfgang 
Franck, Hamburg, 1679 ; Singspiel, by 
Zimmermann, Vienna, 1781. See Perseus. 

ANELLI, ANGELO, Italian dramatic 
composer of the 18th century. He is 
known by the ojjere buffe : I due sup- 
posti conti, given at Verona, 1786 ; La 
statua matematica, Bologna, 1788. — Fetis ; 

ANERIO, FELICE, born in Rome about 
1560 (Ambros, 1551), died (?). He studied 
under Giovanni Maria Nanini, and was 



appointed by Clement VIII. Palestrina's suc- 
cessor as composer to the Pontifical Choir, 
in which he was in- 
stalled, April 3, 1594. 
As a composer, Anerio 
is among the best of 
the " great " Roman 
period, and a worthy 
successor to Palestri- 
na. His great Adora- 
mus te, Christe, has 
been long wrongly at- 
tributed to Palestriua, 
and it is very possible that the famous 
Stabat Mater for three choruses, in the 
Altsemps collection, is by him, and not by 
Palestrina, as Baini asserts. Published 
works : Three books of sacred madrigals for 
4 voices, Eome, Gardane, 1585 ; Two books 
of sacred concertos for 4 voices, Rome, Co- 
attino, 1593 ; First book of Hymns, Canti- 
cles, and Motets for 8 voices (dedicated to 
Clement VIH.), Venice, Vincenti, 1596 ; 
Second book of Hymns and Motets for 5, 
6, and 8 voices, Rome, Zanetti, 1602 ; First 
book of Madrigals for 6 voices, Venice, 
Amadino, 1590, Antwerp, 1599 ; Second 
book of do., Rome, Zanetti, 1602 ; Respon- 
sorj per la settimana santa, a tre e quattro 
voci, Rome, Zanetti, 1603 ; Canzouette a tre, 
quattro voci, Madrigali spirituali a tre, quat- 
tro voci, ib., 1603. Some Cauzoni a quattro 
voci were published at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main in 1610. Other works are in the three 
collections of motets and psalms ijublished 
by Fabio Constantini in Eome, 1615, and 
Naples, 1616 and 1617, and in the Sonnetti 
nuovi of Fabio Petrozzi, Rome, 1609. A 
number of unjjublished works are in MS. in 
the archives of Sta. Maria in Vallicella, the 
Vatican Basilica, the library of the Pontifical 
Choir, the archives of the Chiesa Nuova, the 
CoUegio Germanico, and the library of the 
Abbate Santini. — Ambros, iv. 73 ; Grove, i. 

born in Rome about 1567, died ('?). A 
younger brother of Felice Anerio. He was 

at first maestro di cappella to Sigismund 
lU. of Poland, and afterwards at the cathe- 
dral at Verona, whence he was called to the 
post of music teacher to the Seminario 
Romano, Rome, and became later maestro 
di cai^pelln at the Church of la Madonna de' 
Monti, in 1600 ; finally, he was appointed 
to a similar position at the Lateran Basilica, 
where he remained until 1613, after which 
all traces of him have been lost. Although 
many of his works are in the pure a cap- 
pella style, Francesco Anerio belongs strict- 
ly to a later period than his brother. Some 
of his works, notably his six-voice Conver- 
sione di S. Paolo, have obligato instrumen- 
tal parts, and in his madrigals the harmony 
and modulations belong no longer to the 
Gregorian modal system, but distinctly to 
modern tonality. He was one of the first 
Italians who used the eighth-note and six- 
teenth-note in writing. Published works : 
n libro primo de' motetti a una, due e tre 
voci, Rome, Robletti, 1609 ; II libro secondo 
de' motetti, con le letanie e le quattro an- 
tifone maggiori dojDo il vespero, a sette e 
otto voci, Rome, 1611 ; II libro terzo con le 
letanie a quattro voci, Rome, 1613 ; II libro 
quarto, etc., ib., 1617 ; II libro quinto, 
etc., ib., 1618 ; Sacri conceutus quatuor, 
quinque, sex vocibus, una cum basso ad 
organum, ib., 1619 ; Selva armonica dove 
si conteugon motetti, madrigali, canzonette, 
dialoghi, arie a una, doi [sic], tre e quattro 
voci con basso per organo, ib., 1617 ; 
Ghirlanda di sacre rose, motetti a cinque 
voci, Rome, Soldi, 1613 ; Diporti musicali, 
madrigali a una, due, tre, quattro voci, 
Rome, 1617 ; Autifone e sacri concerti per 
una, due, tre voci, Rome, Robletti, 1613 ; 
Libro di responsorj per il Natale, a tre, 
quattro, otto voci, ib., 1619; Libro delle 
letanie, Eome, Marsotti, 1626 ; Messa de' 
morti, Rome, 1620 ; Libro de' salmi a tre, 
quattro voci, Rome, Robletti, 1620 ; II libro 
primo de' madrigali a cinque voci, Venice, 
Gai-dane, 1605 ; II libro delle gagliarde inta- 
volate ])er sonare nel cembalo e liuto, Venice. 
Vincenti, 1607 ; II libro secondo de' madri- 


gali a ciuqiie, sei voci, ed una a otto voci, 
ib., 1608 ; La recreazione armouica, iiia- 
drigali a una, due voci, Venice, Gardaue, 
1611 ; Teatro armonico spirituale di lua- 
drigali a ciuque, sei, sette e otto voci, 
coinposti dal rev. D. Francesco Anerio ro- 
mano, e fatti imprimere da Oraz. GriflS, 
cant, jjont. in Eoma, per Giovanni Battista 
Robletti, in 1619 (this work contains, 
among other things, the Conversione di S. 
Paolo, and II figluol jsrodigo) ; Dialogo pas- 
torale a tre voci con 1' intavolatura di cem- 
balo e del liuto in ranie, Rome, Verovio, 
1600. Some motets of Francesco Anerio 
are contained in the Coustantini coUectiou, 
referred to in the jireceding article, and a 
sonnet, " Destati Apollo," in the Petrozzi 
collection. Some one-voice motets are in 
Giovanni Domenico Puliaschi's Gemma 
musicale, Rome, 1618. Anerio's arrange- 
ment of Palestrina's " Messa di Pajsa Mar- 
cello " for four voices was first published in 
Rome in 1600. Several editions of a col- 
lection containing this arrangement, to- 
cether with two other masses bv Pales- 
triua and one bv Anerio were published in 
Rome in 1626, 1639, 1689.— Ambros, iv. 
74 ; Grove, i. 67. 

ANFOSSI, PASQITALE, born at Naples 
about 1736, died 
in Rome in Feb- 
ruary, 1797. Dra- 
matic composer, 
pupil of the Con- 
servatorio d e 11 a 
Pieta, Naples, 
where he first 
studied the violin, 
but soon aban- 
doned it for com- 
position, iu which 

he became a favourite ^juj^il of Piccinni, who 
procured him au engagement in 1771 at the 
Teatro delle Damme, Rome. Having failed 
with his first opera, 1769, in Venice, where 
he had become maestro di cappella at the 
Conservatorio del Ospedaletto, and with his 
next effort in Rome, he finally obtained a 

brilliant success there in 1773 with his In- 
cognita perseguitata, and thenceforth was 
Piccinni's rival. But as early as 1776 he ex- 
j)erienced the fickleness of the public, and 
left Rome in disgust, to write for the prin- 
cipal theatres of Italy. In 1780 he went to 
Paris, where several of his operas, translated, 
had been successfullj' given in 1778 and 
1779, but left a year after for London, called 
there as conductor of the Itahan opera. In 
1783 he brought out operas in Berlin and 
Prague, returned in 1784 to Italy, and in 
1787 to Rome, where he won new tri- 
umphs, but, tired of the stage, applied for 
the position of maestro di cappella at S. 
Giovanni in Laterano, which he obtained iu 
1791. His reputation was equal to that of 
the greatest masters of his time, his comic 
operas especially being considered models 
in style and in technical structure. He in- 
troduced into the opera the elaborate finale, 
which, in his Avaro, and in Isabella e Ro- 
drigo, were of such mastery as to serve even 
Mozart as examples. His instrumentation 
was rich and varied. Works — Operas: 
Cajo Mario, given at Venice, 1769 ; La cle- 
menza di Tito, Rome, 1769 ; I visiouari, ib., 
Teatro delle Damme, 1771 ; II barone di 
Rocea, ib., 1772 ; L' incognita perseguitata, 
Demofooute, ib., 1773 ; Autigono, Venice, 
1773 ; Lucio Silla, ib., 1774 ; La finta giar- 
diniera, Rome, Teatro delle Damme, 1774 ; 
H geloso in cimento, La contadina in 
Corte, L' avaro, ib., 1775 ; Isabella e Ro- 
drigo, o la costanza iu amore, La pescatriee 
fedele, Olimpiade, ib., 1776 ; Lo sposo dis- 
perato, ib., 1778 ; II curioso indiscreto, 
Cleopatra, Milan, 1778 ; II inatrimouio per 
inganno, Paris, Theatre de I'Academie Roy- 
ale, 1779 ; La forza delle donne, Milan, 
1780 ; I vecchi burlati, London, 1781 ; I 
viaggiatori felici, Armida, ib., 1782 ; Gli 
amauti canuti, Dresden, 1784 ; II trioufo 
d' Ariana, Prague, 1784 ; II cavaliere per 
amore, Berlin, 1784 ; Chi cerca trova, opera 
buffa, Florence, 1784 ; La vedova scaltra, 
Castel-Nuovo, 1785 ; Didone abbandonata, 
Naples, 1785 ; L' imbroglio delle tre spose, 


Padua, 1786 ; La jjazzia de' gelosi, Fabiano 
and Home, 1787 ; Creso, La villauella di 
spirito, Rome, 1787 ; Artaserse, La maga 
Circe, ib., 1788 ; L' orfanella americana, 
Venice, 1788 ; Le gelosie fortunate, Bel- 
luuo, 1788 ; La gazzetta, ossia il baggiano 
deluso, Rome, 1789 ; Zeuobia in Palmira, 
Florence, 1790 ; Issipile, ib., 1791 ; E zo- 
tico iucivilito, Dresden, 1792 ; L' Americana 
in Olanda, Matilda ritrovata, Gli artigiaui, 
ib., 1793 ; II j)rincipe di Lago negro. Other 
works : La feria del Ascensione, oratorio, 
1786 ; Nose saorificium, do. ; Assalone, do. ; 
Sant' Elena al Calvario, do. ; Mass for four 
voices and orchestra ; Laudate jjueri, Lau- 
date Jerusalem, both with grand orchestra ; 
Salve regina ; Kyrie and Gloria for eight 
voices ; Ut queant laxis, do. ; Lauda Sion, 
do.. Dixit Dominus (2), do., Beatus vir, 
do. ; Confitebor, Beatu^vir, Laudate pueri, 
psalms for five voices ; Several psalms and 
masses for four voices and orchestra ; mo- 
tets and anthems. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schil- 

IMAGE. See Damnatim de Faust. 

at Ghent, Nov. 18, 1797, died there, Dec. 
20, 1832. Pianist, first instructed by his 
father, then pupil, at the Paris Conserva- 
toire, of Zimmermanu on the pianoforte, 
winning the first prize in 1822 ; of Dour- 
len in harmony and accompaniment, and 
of Fetis in composition. He settled at 
Brussels to teach the pianoforte, and in 
1829 was made pianist to King William. 
Works : Marclio varic'e, for jsianoforte, op. 
1 (Paris) ; Eight variations, and polonaise, 
op. 2 (ib.) ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, and 
violoncello, op. 3 (ib., Leduc) ; Symjshony 
for grand orchestra, oji. 5 ; Divertissement 
pastoral for pianoforte, for four hands, op. 
8 ; Fantaisies, caprices, melanges, etc., on 
different airs, op. 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 
16, 17; etc.— Fetis; Mendel. 

ANGELICA E MEDORO (Angelica and 
Medor), Italian opera, text by Villati, music 
by Lampuguani, Venice, 1738 ; music by C. 

H. Graun, Berlin, 1749 ; music by Andre- 
ozzi, Venice, 1783 ; music by Vaunacci, 
Italy, about 1790 ; music by Niccolini, 
Milan, 1811 ; Angclique et Medor, French 
opera-bouffe in one act, test by Sauvage, 
music by Ambroise Thomas, Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, May 10, 1848 (published by 

ANGELONI, , Italian dramatic com- 
poser, contemporary. He brought out the 
opera Osrade degli Abencerraggi, at Lucca, 
1871. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 16. 

ANGER, LOUIS, born at Audreasberg, 
Hanover, Sept. 5, 1813, died at Liiueburg, 
Jan. 18, 1870. Organist and pianist, first 
instructed on the organ and pianoforte by 
an old organist in his native place, then pu- 
pil at Weimar, whither he went in 1833, of 
Hummel on the pianoforte, and of Tojifer 
in composition ; settled at Leijisic in 1836 
to teach music, and was called to Liineburg 
in 1842 as organist of St. John's Church. 
Works : 6 melodious pieces for jiiauoforte, 
0^3. 1 (Leipsie, Hofmeister) ; Grand varia- 
tions for do., op. 3 (ib.) ; Concert overture 
for grand orchestra (Leipsie, Whistling) ; 6 
songs, with pianoforte, op. 2 (ib.) ; 4 do., 
(sp. 22 ; Christnacht, cantata, for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra ; Fugues for organ. — Fetis ; 

at Biliu (?), Bohemia, died in Vienna, Feb. 
23, 1732. Virtuoso on the violin, and com- 
poser of several concertos for his instru- 
ment.— Mendel. 

ANGIOLINI, GASPARO, born in Milan 
in the 18th century. Composer of ballets, 
celebrated all over Italy. He went first as 
ballet-master to Vienna, then in 1760 to St. 
Petersburg, and after his return to Italy 
lived in Milan and Rome, overwhelmed with 
orders to write for the stages of both cities. 
— Mendel ; Schilling. 

born at Siena about 1760, died after 1812. 
Pianist, studied while travelling through 
Italy, and in 1784 went to Germany ; he 
lived in Berlin in 1787-91, and after a visit 



fo St. Petersburg returned to Germany in 
1797, settling at Brunswick, and afterwards 
to Italy. Works : Sonata for pianoforte 
and flute ; Variations on the duet : Pace, 
caro mio sposo ; 6 duos for two flutes or 
violins (London, 1788) ; 3 sonatas for hai-p 
with flute ad lib. (Berlin, 1792) ; Sonata 
seeonda for pianoforte and flute (Berlin, 
1794) ; 6 variations for harp or pianoforte 
(Brunswick, 1797); Arie aus dem Sonntags- 
kinde : Ich sage es doeh immer, with vari- 
ations for harp or pianoforte (ib., 1797). — 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

about 1G28, died in Paris, April 23, 1G91. 
Organist to the Due d'Ork'aus and after- 
wards chamber-musician to Louis XIV. 
His works include a collection of original 
fugues for the organ, and chaconnes, over- 
tures, and other airs by Lulli, arranged for 
harpsichord (Paris, 1689). — Fotis ; do.. Sup- 
plement, i. 17 ; Mendel. 

at Reichstadt, Bohemia, Jan. 2, 1717, died 
in Vienna, May 1.5 (Aug. 20 ?), 1789. He 
studied theology, entered the Order of the 
Knights of the Cross in 1738, of which 
he was chaplain, and in 1743-68 was dean 
at Karlsbad, and finallj' commendator at 
St. Charles's in Vienna. His compositions, 
in the style of Lotti, often performed in 
his time, remain in MS. — F<''tis ; Wurzbach, 
i. 40. 

poser of chamber and church music, con- 
temporarj-. Professor at the Royal Insti- 
tute of Music, Florence ; won prizes in 
1862, 1863, 1865, for string quartets. He 
also published a Requiem with grand or- 
chestra, an Ave Maria for four voices, and 
other church music. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 

ence about the beginning of the 16th cen- 
tury, died in Rome, March, 1571. Vocal 
composer, pupil of Claude Goudimel. 
From 1555 until his death he was maestro 
di cappella of the Vatican, a position in 

which he was succeeded by Palestrina. 
His music, which is an advance on the 
productions of the Flemish school of the 
time, is marked by the same religious spirit 
which influenced Palestrina, with whom he 
shared the friendship of St. Philip Neii, 
founder in 1564 of the Congregation of the 
Oratory. For this congregation, one of the 
objects of which was to render religious 
services attractive to the young, to keep 
them from vain amusements, Animuccia 
composed the Landi, to be sung at the con- 
clusion of the regular ofBce, from the dra- 
matic style of which the oratorio is said to 
have been developed. Hence he is some- 
times called the Father of Oratorio. Many 
of his masses, magnificats, motets, madri- 
gals, and several of the Laudi, were pub- 
lished during his lifetime by Gardane, 
Dorici, and liy Baldo's successors, but the 
larger part of his compositions is probably 
in MS. Among his published works are : 
II prinio libro di madrigali, etc. (Rome, 
1595) ; Joannis Animuccite magistri capelliB 
sacrosanctiB basilic;© Vatieana^ Missarum 
libri, etc. (Rome, 1567) ; II primo lib. di 
madrigali, etc. (Venice, 1567) ; Canticum B. 
Mariie Vir., etc. (Rome, 1568) ; II secondo 
lib. delle laudi ore si contegono motetti, etc. 
(Rome, 1570) ; Credo Dominicalis quatuor 
voc. (Rome, 1567) ; Magnificat, ad omnes 
modes, lib. 2 (Rome, 1568); these number 
20.— Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Scliilling. 

ANIMUCCIA, PAOLO, born about the 
beginning of the 16th century, died in Rome 
in 1563. One of the most skilful contra- 
puntists of his time ; brother of Giovanni 
Animuccia, but whether older or younger 
is unknown. He was maestro di cappella 
of S. Giovanni in Laterano, after Rubini, in 
1550-52. His madrigals and motets for 
four and six voices, scattered in many old 
collections, were verj^ popular. — Fetis ; Men- 

ANJOS, DINIZ DOS, born at Lisbon in 
the first half of the 17th century, died in 
the monastery of Belem, Jan. 19, 1709. 
Chui'ch composer, entered the order of St. 



Jerome at Belem, in 1656. Works : Re- 
spousorios para todas festas da primeira 
classe ; Psalmos de vesperas, e Magnificat ; 
Diversas missas, Vilhancieos et Motettes. — 
Fetis ; Schilling ; Vascoucellos. 

ANKERTS, D". See Dankerts. 

ANNA BOLENA (Anne Bolejn), Italian 
opera, text by Felice Eomaui, music by 
Donizetti, first represented in Milan in 
1831. This work, written for Pasta and 
Rubini, gave the composer a European rep- 
utation, and was long considered his mas- 
terpiece. It was produced in Paris, Sept. 
1, 1831, and in London the same year. In 
it, in the role of Henry "Vlli., Lablache 
first won public attention. It was first 
given in New York, at the Astor Place 
Opera House, Jan. 7, 1850, with Signoriua 
Bertucca in the title role. 

opera, text by Nehrlich, music by Abert, 
represented at Stuttgart, December, 1858. 

of Pilgrimage), series of compositions for 
pianoforte, by Franz Liszt, op. 34. Pre- 
miere annee, Suisse : 1. Chapelle de Guil- 
laume Tell ; 2. Au lac de Wallenstadt ; 
3. Pastorale ; 4. Au bord d'uue soiu'ce ; 
5. Orage ; 6. Vallee d'Obei-mann ; 7. E- 
glogue ; 8. Le mal du pays ; 9. Les cloches 
de Geneve (nocturne). Seconde annee, 
Italie : 1. II sposalizio ; 2. II penseroso ; 3. 
Cauzonetta di Salvator Rosa ; 4, 5, 6. Tre 
sonetti del Petrarca ; 7. Apres une lecture 
de Dante. Venezia e Napoli : 1. Gondo- 
liera ; 2. Canzone ; 3. Tarantelle. 

ANNETTE ET LUBIN, comedy in one act, 
in verse, text by Mme. Favart and the Abbe 
de Voisenou, music by Blaise, represented 
at the Comodie Italienne, Paris, Feb. 15, 
1762. The libi-etto is an adaptation of 
Rousseau's Devin du village. It was re- 
produced in 1800, with new music by IMar- 
tini and revised text by Lourdet de San- 
terre. La suite d'Annette et Lubin, text 
by Favart, music by Jadin, given at the 
Theatre Feydeau, Paris, March 10, 1791, 
deals with the same story. 

ANNETTE ET LUBIN, comedy in one 
act, in verse, text by Marmontel, music by 
Laborde, represented at the private theatre 
of Marechal de Richelieu, March 30, 1762. 
The piece is Marmontel's tale dramatized, 
with some additional scenes. 

ANNIBALE (Hannibal), Italian opera, 
music by Porpora, re2:)resented in Venice, 
1731 ; music by Zingarelli, Turin, 1787 ; 
Hannibal, German opera, music by Johann 
Wolfgang Franck, Hamburg, 1681 ; Anni- 
bale in Bitinia, Italian opera, music by J. 
Niccolini, Padua, 1818 ; Annibale in Capua, 
P. A. Ziani, Venice, 1661 ; by Salieri, Vien- 
na, 1801 ; by Cordelia, Naples, 1808 ; text 
by Romanelli, music by Farinelli, Milan, 
1810; by Ellerton, Prussia, about 1830; 
Annibale in Italia, text by Duranti, music 
by Paisiello, Turin, 1773 ; Annibale in To- 
rino, music by Lodovico Ricci, Turin, 1830 ; 
Annibal et Scipion, by Jules Conrardy, 
Liege, 1860. 

ANNIBALE, surnamed Patavinus or Pa- 
dovano, born at Padua in the 16th century, 
died at Venice, probably in 1556. Contra- 
puntist, became organist at S. Marco, Ven- 
ice, in 1552. He was also the best lute and 
harpsichord player of his epoch. Works : 
Liber primus motettorum quinque et sex 
vocum (Venice, 157G) ; Cantiones quatuor 
voeum (ib., 1592) ; Madrigali a cinque voci 
(ib., 1583) ; 2 masses (Venice, Antonio Gar- 
dane, 1566). — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

at Ovar, Portugal, in 1681, still living at 
Lisbon in 1747. He studied music in his 
native place, and in the convent of Leii'ia, 
having entered the Order of St. Francis in 
1706. He occupied subsequently musical 
jiositions in the convents of his order at 
Coimbra, Oporto, and Lisbon. He left a 
great number of masses, anthems, motets, 
etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 17 ; Vasconcel- 

ANSANI (Anzani), GIOVANNI, born in 
Rome about the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, died at Naples after 1815. Dramatic 
composer, one of the most famous Italian 



tenor singers. He sang first at Copen- 
hagen in 1770, in Holland in 1774, and at 
the Italian opera in London in 1782-84, 
after which he returned to Italy, and for 
sevei'al years was famous in Florence. Af- 
ter singing on the principal stages of Italy, 
he settled at Naples as a teacher. Works : 
La vendetta di Minos, opera, given in Flor- 
ence, 1791 ; Duets for two sopranos ; do. 
for soprano and tenor, with basso con- 
tinue. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

born at Coblentz, Germany, jNIarch 19, 
1772, died there in 1858. Pianist, pupil 
of his grandfather, who was court organ- 
ist and Kapelldirector to the Elector at 
Treves. In 1808 he founded, at Coblentz, 
a musical society with a school for instru- 
mental and vocal instruction, which was 
subvened by the goverinnent. Works : 
Sechs deutsche Lieder (Bonn, Simrock) ; 
other songs and airs, German, French, and 
Italian (ib.) ; Ehapsodische Gesiinge, op. 8 
(Augsburg, Gombart) ; 3 songs (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf uud Hilrtel) ; Waltzes for orches- 
tra, books 1, 2, 3, 4 (Bonn, Simrock) ; 
Waltzes for pianoforte, books 2, 3, and 4 
(ib.) ; 8 allemandes fordo. (Augsburg, Gom- 
bart) ; Masonic hymn for three voices and 
chorus, with two violins, viola, and violon- 
cello (Bonn, Simrock) ; Tantum Ergo ; Ecce 
Panis ; Masses with orchesti-a. His son 
Karl, born at Coblentz in 1815, died in 
New York, December, 1870 ; pupil of Fried- 
rich Schneider, took charge of his father's 
musical institute in 1844, but went to Entr- 
land in 1848, and to America in 1857, 
where he conducted, for several years, 
UUmann's opera orchestra. He composed 
songs and pianoforte pieces. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling, Supplement. 

born at Huy, Belgium, Dec. 16, 1781, died 
there. Dee. 4, 1826. Dramatic composer, 
pupil of Tingry on the pianoforte, and of 
Heukart in harmony ; went to Paris in 1808, 
and after his return became the warm pa- 
tron of all musicians and artistic institu- 

tions of his native city. Works : Les reve- 
nants, opera ; L'apotheose de Gretry, lyr- 
ical drama, given at Lifege, 1820 ; Jephte, 
oratorio ; La Fete de Sainte-Cecile, cantata ; 
9 masses ; 3 Te Deums ; Overtures, and oth- 
er works for orchestra. — Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, i. 338 ; Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 18. 

ANSORGE, CONRAD, born at Buch- 
wald, Silesia, Oct. 15, 1862. Pianist, pupil 
in Leipsic of Professor Paul (1880-82), and 
at Weimar (1885) of Liszt, with whom he 
went to Rome during the winter of 1885-86. 
From Weimar, whither he returned in the 
summer of 1886, he undertook concert trips 
to the larger cities of Germany, and in Jan- 
uary, 1888, went to New York, where he 
made a successful debut at Steinway Hall. 
Works : Sonata for pianoforte, in F minor ; 
other pianoforte music. 

bon about 1690, died there in 1748. Harp- 
ist, went at an early age to America, where 
he received his musical education. After 
his return he entered the order of the Car- 
melites at Lisbon, and became mestre de 
capella. His works, consisting of masses, 
Te Deums, psalms, hymns, and cantatas are 
preserved in the library of his monastery. — 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

scia about the middle of the 16th century, 
died there after 1619. The son of Gratiadio 
Antegnati, the famous organ-builder, whose 
craft he followed ; he was organist at the 
cathedral of his native city until 1619, 
when he had a stroke of paralysis. Works : 
Canzoni a quattro voci, four books (Venice, 
Vineenti) ; Messe e niotetti a due e tre chori 
(ib., Magni) ; Messe e sinfonie a otto (ib.) ; 
Motetti e letanie a tre (ib.) ; Messe a sei e 
otto voci (ib., Gardano) ; Inni d' intavola- 
tura d' organo ; L' antegnata, intavolatura di 
ricercate ; Salmi a otto voci (Venice, Gar- 
dano, 1592) ; Motetti a tre voci ; Motetti e 
messe a dodici in tre chori (Venice, Vin- 
eenti) ; Canzoni da sonare a quattro e otto 
voci (Venice, 1619) ; L' Arte organica (Bre- 
scia, 1608). — Fetis, Schilling. 



TISTE, boni at Lorieut, France, Aug. 19, 
1836, still living, 1888. Dramatic composer, 
pupil at the Paris Conservatoire of Elwart 
in harmony, of Benoist on the organ, and 
of Carafa in composition ; won the second 
grand prix in 1861, and became repctiteur 
at the Conservatoire iu 1863. Works : II 
faut semer pour rccolter, operette, given in 
Paris, Theatre des Fantaisies Parisieunes, 
1866 ; Le dernier des Chippeways, do., ib., 
Folies Bergtjres, 1876; 6 croquis d'album, 
suite de morceaux de piano (Paris, Grus). 
— Fctis, Supplement, i. 18. 

ANTIGONE, tlie heroine of Sophocles's 
tragedy of the same name. The daughter 
of CEdipus and of Jocasta, she is condemned 
to be shut up in a subterranean cave by the 

tyrant Creon because she had given sepul- 
ture, contrary to his orders, to the body of 
her brother Polynices. She kills herself, 
and her lover Hsemon, son of Creon, kills 
himself beside her. The original text of 
Sophocles, translated by Conner, music — 
introduction and seven numbers — by Men- 
delssohn, first represented at the Neue Pa- 
lais, Potsdam, Oct. 28, 1841 ; first public 
performance, Berlin Ojsera, Nov. 6, 1841 ; 
given in Paris at the Odeon, May 21, 1844, 
and in London, Covent Garden, Jan. 2, 1845. 
The Invocation to Bacchus, called the Bac- 
chus Chorus, is the most striking part. Its 
success in London was not great at first, 
owing to the way the chorus was put upon 
the stage, which was satirized by "Punch" 
(Jan. 18, 1845) in a cut here reproduced, but 
it finally ran forty-five nights. Italian operas 

on the same subject ; music by Galuppi, 
represented in Italy about 1754 ; music by 
Parenti, Italy, about 1786; by Campobasso, 
Milan, 1789 ; BassiU, Venice, 1800 ; by Or- 
landini, Bologna, 1818 ; Antigone, German 
opera, by J. A. Hasse, Brunswick, 1723, his 
first opera and his only one with a German 
text ; by Bernasconi, Vienna, about 1745 ; 
by Wagenseil, Vienna, 1750 ; by Mortellari, 
Rome, 1782 ; ojsera seria iu three acts, by 
Hoszisky, Eheinsberg, about 1787 ; grand 
opera in three acts, text by Marmontel, 
music by Zingarelli, Academie Royale de 
Musique, Paris, April 30, 1790 ; by Gandini, 
Modena, 1824 ; Antigona ed Emone (Anti- 
gone and Hsemon), ballet, music by Pierre 
Dutillieu, Naples, 1788. 

ANTIGONO (Antigonus), Italian opera in 
three acts, text by Metas- 
tasio, music by Johann 
Adolph Hasse, first repre- 
sented in Dresden, during 
the carnival, 1744. Scene 
in Thessalonica, a maritime 
city of Macedonia. Charac- 
ters represented : Antigono 
Gonata, King of Macedonia; 
Berenice, Princess of Egypt, 
betrothed to Antigono ; Is- 
I mene, daughter of Antigono, in love with 
Alessandro ; Alessandro, King of Epirus, in 
I love with Berenice ; Demetrio, son of Anti- 
gono, also in love with Berenice ; Clearco, 
captain of Alessandro and friend of Deme- 
trio. Metastasio's libretto has been set to 
music also by Gluck, Eome, 1754 ; by Caf- 
faro, Naples, 1754 ; by Santis, Naples, 1760 ; 
by Francesco Ciampi, Venice, 1762 ; by Ga- 
luppi, Italy, 1762 ; by Francesco Zanetti, 
Leghorn, 1765 ; by Majo, Naples, 1768 ; by 
Scliwanberg, Brunswick, 1769 ; by Pietro 
Pompeo Sales, Munich, 1769 ; by Piccinni, 
Rome, 1771 ; by Tommaso Traetta, St. Pe- 
I tersburg, 1772 ; by Sacchini, London, 1773 ; 
I by Giordani, London, 1773 ; by Aufossi, 
Rome, 1773 ; by Giuseppe Gazzaniga, Na- 
ples, 1779 ; by "Paisiello, Naples, 1784 ; by 
Righini, Mainz, 1788 ; by Caruso, Rome, 



1788, Venice, 179-1 ; by Peter von Winter, 
Naples, 1791 ; by Seraochini, Florence, 1794 ; 
Antigonus, by von Poissl, Munich, 1808. 

ANTIOCO (Antiochus I.). See Antiochus 
und Stratoiiice. 

ANTIOCO (Antiochus v.), Italian opera, by 
Augelo Tiirchi, represented at Milan, 1788. 
Subject, Antiochus V. (Eupator), who was de- 
throned and put to death by Demetrius Soter. 

ANTIOCO XL GRANDE (Antiochus the 
Great), Italian opera, nnisic by Legreuzi, 
represented in Venice, 1681. Subject, the 
career of Antiochus III., King of Syria, who 
made warlike expeditions into India, Egypt, 
and Greece, and whose ambition was finally 
curbed by the Romans. 

man opera, music by Graupner, represented 
at Hamburg, 1708 ; Antiochus et Stratoniee, 
French opera, music by Langle, Versailles, 
1786. Subject, the love of Antiochus I. 
(Soter) for his stepmother Stratoniee, wife 
of Seleuous Nicator, King of Syria. His 
father, discovering his son's malady through 
his physician Erasistratus, resigned her to 
him and made him King of Upper Asia. 
The operas Antioco, by Cavalli, Venice, 
1658 ; Carpani, Bologna, 1G73 ; and Gaspa- 
rini, Rome, 1705, deal with the same subject. 

ANTOIN, FERDINAND D', flourished 
in Germany about 1780-9-1. Dramatic 
composer and pianist, chiefly self taught 
from the theoretical works of Marpurg, 
Kirnberger, and Riepel. He was a captain 
in the service of the Elector of Cologne, 
and during his campaigns and travels was 
much influenced by Italian and French mu- 
sic. Works : II moudo al rovescio, opera 
buffa, given at Cologne, 1780 ; Das tartar- 
ische Gesetz, opera, ib., about 1783 ; Das 
Mildchen im Eichthal, ib., about 1790 ; Otto 
der Schiitz, ib., about 1792 ; Der Fiirst und 
seiu Volk, operetta, ib., about 1793 ; Ende 
gut, AUes gut, do., ib., 1794 ; Choruses to 
the tragedy of Lanassa ; Symphonies and 
quartets. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

born in the second half of the 16th century. 

died in Rome, probably in 1669. He was 
maestro di cappella of the episcopal church 
at Benevento, Naples, and in 1G08 of San 
Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. Works : Missa 
a quattro voci e quattro Motetti a due, con 
organo (Rome, 1629) ; Missa breve a quat- 
tro. Salmi e motetti a tre e quattro, con 
basso continue (ib., 1628) ; Liber primus 
diversarum modulationum (ib., 1615) ; Mo- 
tetti a quattro chori. — Fetis. 

ANTONI, ANTONIO D', born at Pa- 
lermo, June 25, 1801, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, earned applause even 
as a boy of twelve with a mass, composed 
for the Feast of St. Cecilia ; wrote his first 
oj)era when eighteen, and became director 
of the opera at Syracuse and at Malta. 
After travelling in France and England, he 
settled at Venice to teach music and went 
afterwards to Trieste, whither he returned 
after a stay at Florence. In 1851 he found- 
ed the Accademia Filarmonica, of which he 
became director. Works — Operas : Uu du- 
ello ; Gli amanti burlati, given at Syracuse 
about 1820 ; II peregrino, Malta ; Armina, 
Trieste ; Amazilda, Florence ; Several can- 
tatas. Fugues for four hands, Canons, etc. — 
Wurzb.aeh, i. 47 ; Mendel. 

logna about 1630, died there shortly after 
1718. Church composer and cornet player, 
became maestro di cappella of S. Giovanni 
in Monte, and was one of the members of 
the Accademia Filarmonica from its foun- 
dation in 1666, and principe six times be- 
tween 1676 and 1718. Works; Missa e 
salmi a tre voci, op. 2 (Bologna, Monti, 
1670) ; Concerti da chiesa a due violiui, 
viola e contiuuo per organo ; Sonate, arie, 
oisfhe e balletti a tre stromenti, op. 4 ; Ri- 
cercate a violino solo e violone o continuo, 
op. 5 (Bologna) ; Sei motetti a voce .sola, 
etc., op. 7 (ib., 1696) ; Tre messe per due 
soprani e basso con due violini, op. 8.^ 
Fetis; Schilhng. 

bardy in 1692, died at Milan in 1776. In- 
strumental composer of repute in his time. 



He lived several years in Holland, vrbere he 
published in 1736 his first work, consisting 
of twelve sonatas for viola di gamba ; after- 
wards went to Loudon, where he resided 
for more than twenty years, and where an 
English translation of his "Arte armonica," 
a treatise on composition, was published in 
1761. About 1770 he returned to Milan. 
• — Fetis ; Schilling. 


Miinster, Westphalia, Feb. 1, 1790, died 
there in 1837. Organist, son and pupil 
of Josef Antony (1758-1836, organist of 
Miinster Cathedi'al) ; became choir director 
at the cathedral in 1819, and organist, suc- 
ceeding his father, in 1832. Works : Die 
Muse, cantata ; Wer spannet den Bogen, 
do. ; Masses, chorals, and other church 
music ; Quartets for strings ; Sonatas for 
pianoforte. He was also a learned writer 
on music. — Fetis; Mendel; Schilling, Sup- 

Maas, o-p. 15, first performed in the Music 
Hall, Boston, Dec. 14, 1883, with great suc- 
cess. The work, whicli was suggested while 
travelling on the prairies, is dedicated to 
President Arthur. It is in four parts : 1. 
Morning on the Prairies ; 2. The Chase ; 
3. An Indian Legend ; 4 Evening, Night, 
and Sunrise. 

ANVIL CHORUS. See Tromtore. 

AOUST, Marquis JULES D', born in 
France about 1825, still living, 1888. Am- 
ateur dramatic composer, author of the 
operettas : L'amour voleur, given in Paris, 
1865 ; La ferme de Miramar, ib.. Theatre 
de I'Atheuee, 1874. — Futis, Suisplement, i. 

Triichtelborn, near Erfurt, Nov. 21, 1775, 
died at Kiel, Aug. 31, 1841. Contrapuntist 
and organist, pupil at Erfurt of Kittel ; 
became organist in 1796 at St. Thomas's 
Church there, and in 1804 at St. Nicholas's 
in Kiel, where he was also apjjoiuted musi- 

cal director at the University in 1818. He 
deserves much credit for the development 
and treatment of church music, and espe- 
cially of the Piotestant choral, which was 
promoted through his Choral-Melodienbuch 
(1817). Only a few of his compositions, 
among which is a successful oratoi-io, were 
printed. — Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 500 ; Jahn, 
Ges. Aufsiitze (1866), 1. 

at Cassel, Feb. 23, 1754, died there in 1833. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of the court mu- 
sician Wiesel, then at Rinteln of the organist 
MiiUer, and after his return to Cassel of 
Rodewald and Johann Braun the younger ; 
finally, of the court organist Kellner. He 
began to acquire reputation in 1780, became 
a member in 1786, under the name of Ca- 
pelli, of the Accademia Filarmonica at Bo- 
logna, and, under the name Filleno Tin- 
daride, of the Ai'cadi lUustri at Rome ; 
and in 1791 was made an honorary mem- 
ber of the Stockholm Academy, and in 
1800 a knight of the Golden Spur by Pope 
Pius Vn., to whom he had dedicated a 
mass. At Cassel he reorganized the Phil- 
harmonic Society, and became its first di- 
rector. Works : La clemenza di Tito, opera, 
given at Cassel about 1786 ; Tancrede, do., 
ib., about 1789 ; L'amour peintre, comic 
opera, ib., 1796 ; Ascanius und L'ene, dra- 
ma, ib., 1797 ; Das Fest der Gatten, musical 
prologue, ib., 1797 ; Euthj-me et Lyris, 
Renaud dans la fon't enchantee, ballets, ib., 
1782 ; Mass dedicated to Pius VIL (1800) ; 
Laudate Dominum, psalm with full orches- 
tra ; Beati omnes, do.; Tantum ergo. Can- 
tatas : Anacreon ; La tempesta. La gelosia. 
La scusa, with full orchestra (1786) ; Der 
Traum : Ah no ! I'augusto sguardo, dedi- 
cated to the Queen of Prussia ; Kantate zur 
Kirchweihe (1795) ; II trionfo della musica, 
with full orchestra (1806) ; 3 symphonies 
for grand orchestra (1783) ; 3 quartets for 
two violins, violoncello, and bass (1784) ; 
12 notturni for wind instruments ; 6 polo- 
naises for grand orchestra ; 6 marches for 
the Hessian Guard ; Choruses with fuU 


orchestra ; 24 Italian scenas and airs, with 
do. ; 6 ItaHan duets for soprano and con- 
tralto, with do. ; 6 canzonets (1791) ; 3 do, 
with viola and bass. — Ft'tis ; Gerber, N. 
Lex. ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

Campaspe), Italian opera, music by Zinga- 
relli, represented at Venice, 1794 ; music by 
Tritto, Milan, 1796 ; Apelle et Campaspe, 
French opera, text by Dumoustier, music 
by Eler, given at the Opera, Paris, July 12, 
1798. Subject, the love of the painter 
Apelles for Campaspe, the favourite concu- 
bine of Alexander the Great, said by some 
to have been the model of the Venus Ana- 

ice about the beginning of the 18th centur}'. 
Dramatic and vocal composer. At first a 
barber, he studied the violin and played 
on it his barcaroles, which became popular 
among the boatmen of Venice. He com- 
posed the three operas : Fama dell' onore e 
della virtii, given at Venice, 1727 ; Meta- 
morfosi amorosi, ib., 1732 ; H pastor fido, 
ib., 1739.— Fetis ; Schilling. 


ed}', music by IMozart, represented in the 
Aula of the University of Salzburg, May 13, 
1767. Mozart, who was then but eleven 
years old, played the harpsichord at the 
performance. The MS. of the music, which 
is written for five voices, covers one hun- 
dred and sixty-two jjages. 

(Apollo, Shepherd of Admetus), opera in 
one act, music by Grenet, represented at 
the Opera, Paris, 1759. The same episode, 
the story of the god tending the flocks of Ad- 
metus at Pherse in Thessaly, on the banks 
of the Amphrysus, is treated in Apollo in 
Tessaglia (Apollo in Thessaly), music by 
Francescliini, Bologna, 1679 ; Apollo unter 
den Hirten (Apollo among the Shepherds), 
German Liederspiel, music by Schweitzer, 
Germany, 1778 ; do., German opera, music 
by Stegmann, Konigsberg, 1775. 

Coronis), French opera-ballet, text by Fuze- 
lier, music by Jean Baptiste Rey, repre- 
sented at the Academic Roj-ale de Musique, 
Paris, May 3, 1781. The libretto deals with 
the loves of Apollo and Coronis, who became 
by him the mother of JSsculapius, and who 
was finally slain by him through 

APOLLONI, GIOVANNI, Cavaliere, born 
at Arezzo about 1650. Dramatic composer, 
author of three operas : Dori, ossia lo schi- 
avo regio, given in Rome about 1680 ; L' Ar- 
gia, in the theatres of Italy, about 1682 ; 
L' Astiage, ib., about 1683. — Fetis. 

cenza, contemporary. Dramatic composer. 
Works : L' Ebi'eo, opera seria, given first 
probably at Venice, 1855 or 1856, then on 
aU the principal stages of Italy ; Pietro 
d' Albano, Venice, 1856 ; Adelchi, ib., 1857 ; 
II Conte di Konigsberg, Florence, Teatro 
della Pergola, 1866 ; Gustavo Wasa, Trieste, 
Teatro Communale, 1872.- — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 18. 

rio, for unaccompanied male voices, text by 
Giesebrecht, music by Karl Loewe, op. 48, 
first performed at the music festival in Jena, 
Aug. 13, 1835. 

APPEL, KARL, born at Dessau, March 
14, 1812. Violinist, pupil of Conzertmeis- 
ter Lindner on the violin, and of Friedrich 
Schneider in theory and composition ; early 
entered the ducal orchestra as violinist, and 
succeeded his master as Conzertmeister. 
Among his vocal music, the quartets for 
male voices are especially liked. He also 
wrote an opera. Die Rauberbraut, which 
was performed at Dessau, 1840. — Mendel. 

AQUIN, D'. See Daquin. 

ARABESKE (Arabesque), the title given 
by Robert Schumann to a piece for the 
pianoforte, op. 18, written somewhat in 
rondo form. Composed in 1839, dedicated 
to Frau F. Serre ; published by C. A. Spina 

Arabs in Gaul), opera in four acts, libretto 



from the romance by D'Arliucoiirt, entitled 
"Le renegat" (The Renegade), music by 
Giovanni Pacini ; first represented at Milan 
in 1827, then at Turin, Dec. 2G, 1828, and in 
Paris, at the Theatre Itaheu, with seven 
new numbers, Jan. 30, 1855. Pacini him- 
self superintended the representations in 
Paris, where the opera was given under 
the new title, L' ultiuio de' Clodovei. It 
was first given in New York, at the Opera 
House in Church Street, Jan. 20, 1834. The 
action passes in Gaul in the time of Charles 
Martel. Clodomir, formerly affianced to 
Ezilda, Priucesse des Cevennes, has em- 
braced the part of the Arabs, or Saracens, 
and under the name of Agobar is devastat- 
ing his native country. Leodato, general 
of Charles Martel, is overcome and is about 
to lose his life, when Ezilda comes out of a 
monastery, where she had taken refuge, and 
implores clemency for Leodato, who had 
previously made to her an avowal of his 
love. She recognizes iu Agobar her old 
lover, the two renew their love, and the 
Saracen leader orders his troops to stop the 
pillage, and to i-espect the country of his 
mistress. The soldiers murmur and form 
a plot against Agobar, and, notwithstanding 
the warning of the generous Leodato, he is 
kUled, and EzUda, casting herself on his 
dead body, makes known that he is Clo- 
domir, her affianced. Pacini's best work. 
The duet in the third act, between Agobar 
and Ezilda, " Va, menzogner," is its most 
noted number. Gli Arabi nelle Gallie, 
opera semi-seria, music by Schoberlechuer, 
Florence, 1815, has a different libretto, 
older than D'Arlincourt's romance, which 
was not published until 1822. 

ARAJA, FRANCESCO, born at Naples 
in 1700, died at Bologna about 1770. Dra- 
matic composer, attracted attention with 
his first opera in 1730, went to St. Peters- 
burg with a troupe of Italian singers in 
1735, and became conductor of the orches- 
tra at the Italian opera there. Highly es- 
teemed and distinguished in many ways 
for twenty-three years, he returned to Italy 

in 1759, and settled in Bologna, where he 
was made honorary member of the Accade- 
mia Filarmonica, and gathered around him 
a circle of young artists, mostly without 
means, who praised him as their teacher 
and benefactor. In 1761 he visited Russia 
again, but returned to Bologna in the year 
following, after the assassination of Peter 
HI. He is said to have been the first to 
compose an opera (1755) in the Russian 
language. Works : Berenice, given at a 
chateau of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, near 
Florence, 1730 ; Amor regnante, Rome, 
1731 ; Lucio Vero, Venice, Teatro di S. Gio- 
vanni Crisostomo, 1735 ; Abiatare, St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1737 ; Semiramide, ib., 1738 ; 
Scipione, ib., 1739 ; Alessandro nell' Indie, 
ib., about 1740 ; Ai-sace, ib., 1741 ; La Rus- 
sia afiiittae riconsolata, Moscow, 1742; Bel- 
lerofonte, St. Petersburg, about 1743 ; Se- 
leuco, ib., 1744 ; Cephalus and Procris, 
Russian opera, ib., 1755 ; La Cimotea, lyric 
drama, given (at Bologna?) about 1765 ; La 
uativita di Gesti, oratorio. — Fetis ; Mendel ; 

ARANAZ, PEDRO, born at Soria, Spain, 
in the 18th century, died, at an advanced 
age, at Cuenca, about 1825. Church com- 
poser, became maestro de capilla at the 
Cathedral of Cuenca towards the end of 
the 18th century. His music is preserved 
at Cuenca, in the Escorial, and in several 
churches of Spain. He wrote a treatise on 
counterpoint and composition, esteemed in 
his countrj'. — Fetis. 

ARANGUREN, JOSfi, born at Bilbao, 
Spain, May 25, 1821, still living, 1888. 
Pianist, pupil of Nicolas Ledesma on the 
pianoforte, of Fausto Sanz on tlie violin, 
then in Madrid (1844-48) of Hilarion Esla- 
va in composition. He began teaching, and 
in 18G7 became adjiuict professor of har- 
monj' at the Conservatorio, Madrid. He 
has composed much sacred music, piano- 
forte pieces, and songs, and published in 
1855 a method for the pianoforte, which 
has had five editions, and in 1861 a treatise 
on harmony. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 19. 


RfiA DE, born iu Spain about 1581, died 
at Segovia, Jan. 13, 1663. A Dominican 
monk, at first organist of San Salvador at 
Seville, then professor at Salamanca, and 
finally Bishop of Segovia. A number of 
his compositions, consisting of psalms, mo- 
tets, and vilhancicos, formed part of the fa- 
mous musical library of King John IV. of 
Portugal, as did also his treatise : Casos 
morales de la mftsica. — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 19. 

ARBACE (Arbaces), Italian pasticcio, 
music by Handel, performed at Coveut Gar- 
den, London, Jan. 5, 1734. The libretto is 
an adaptation of Metastasio's Artaserse, re- 
named after one of the principal characters, 
and the music consists entirely of selections 
from the composer's own works. The score 
is in the Hamburg Library. — Rockstro, Life 
of H, 322. 

LAURENT, born in Lyons, Feb. 28, 1825, 
still living, 1888. Pupil of the Paris Con- 
servatoire ; then studied under Dauverne, 
and took the second prize for the trumpet 
in 1844, and the first in 1845. His playing 
on the cornet-a-pistons, which had just come 
into popular favour, was considered remark- 
able. He i^layed at the Concerts Musard, 
and afterwards became leader at the Casino- 
Cadet, at the Valentino, Fraseati's, and at 
the Opera balls after Strauss's retirement. 
In 1857 he was appointed professor of the 
sax-horn at the Conservatoire, and in 1869 
was made director of a class on the cornet. 
He has composed a great deal of music for 
his insti'ument, besides Grande Mi'thode 
complete de cornet-a-pistons et de sax-horn 
(Paris). — Fetis, Supplement, i. 20 ; Mendel, 
Ergilnz., 15. 

ARBITRE D'UNE VIE. See iMuelle de 

ARCADELT (Archadelt, Arcadet, Harcha- 
delt, Arkadelt), JACOB, born in the Nether- 
lands towards the end of the 15th century, 
died in Paris (?), 15—. The story that he 
was a pupil of Joaquin Depres is probably 

untrue. In 1540 he was admitted into the 
Pontifical Choir at Rome, and in 1555 (?) 
entered the service of the Cardinal Charles 
of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, whom he fol- 
lowed to Paris. Arcadelt was one of the 
many Flemish composers who migrated to 
Italy ; he helped to found the " great " 
Roman school, and was one of Palestrina's 
most distinguished forerunners. He united 
French delicacy of sentiment, Flemish mas- 
tery of musical form, and Italian culture in 
quite an exceptional way, and was at once 
one of the most important and prolific com- 
posers of his day. Together with AVillaert 
and Verdelot, he was one of the founders of 
the madrigal. His first book of 53 madri- 
gals (Venice, 1538) reached its sixteenth 
edition in 1617, and was followed by five 
other books. If in his church compositions 
Arcadelt's style is of almost heroic grandeur, 
and shows the most comj^lete mastery over 
all the intricacies of counterpoint (albeit he 
seems to have despised the then popular 
" Netherlandish tricks "), in his Italian mad- 
rigals we discover perhaps the first dawn 
of the sentimental element in music. His 
French chansons, on the other hand, are 
perfect little cabinet-pieces of contrapuntal 
elaborateness. Notwithstanding the glori- 
ous musical epoch which followed close 
upon his death, Arcadelt's works were long 
looked upon with the greatest veneration ; 
Freseobaldi wrote an organ jsiece on a 
theme " del Signore Arcadelt," and even 
Liszt wrote a pianoforte piiece on an Ave 
Maria of his. His published works are : 
Three books of Masses for 3, 4, 5, and 7 
voices, Paris, Adrien Le Roy, 1557 (one 
book of these, for 4 and 5 voices, repub- 
lished, 4to, in 1583) ; H prirao libro de' 
madrigali a piu voci, Venice, 1538 (subse- 
quent editions in 1539, 1540 [ib., Vincenzo 
Bianchi], 1541, 1542, 1545, 1550, 1.551, 
1552, 1556, 1560, 1568, 1581, 1603, 1606, 
1617) ; II secondo libro de' madrigali, etc., 
Venice, Antonio Gardane, 1539 ; Four other 
books of madrigals, published about the 
same period ; L'excellence des chansons 



musicales, Lyons, 1572 (2d ed., 4to, ib., 
1587), not a theoretical work, as Forkel and 
Licbtenthal have supposed, but a book of 
chansons ; Chansons franyaises :i plusieurs 
parties, Lyons, 158G. Other chansons are 
in Le dixitme de chansons a quatre par- 
ties compost'cs par phisieurs auteurs, 
Paris, Nicolas Du Cheniin, 1552, and in 
some collections published by Adrien Le 
Roy ; also in Adriani Wigliar, Cypriani de 
Rore, Archadelt et Johannis Gero, cantiones 
trium vocuni, aliaque madrigalia trisona di- 
versorum auctorum, Venice, 1565. (Title 
and date, from Ambros, not found in Eit- 
ner's Bibliography, which, however, men- 
tions a collection, jiublished by Scotto, Ven- 
ice, 1566, bearing the same title in Italian.) 
Also an Ave Maria, London, Musical Times, 
No. 183, and an 8-voice Pater noster, Com- 
mer, "Collectio," viij. 21. Three sacred 
pieces are in the collection "Piissimse ac 
sacratissimse lamentationes, etc.," Paris, Ad- 
rien Le Roy, 15 — , and three others in " Can- 
ticum B. V. IMaripe quod Magnificat inscrib- 
itur octo modis, etc.," ib., 15 — . Some four- 
and five-voice motets are in Forster's col- 
lection. — Ambros, iii. 576 ; Grove, i. 81. 

born in Italy about 1830, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, and musical critic of 
the most conservative stamp, extending liis 
opposition to everything modern, even to 
Gounod's Faust. Works : I due precettori, 
opera buffa, given about 1863 ; Sganarel- 
lo, do., Milan, Teatro Re, 1871 ; La guerra 
amorosa, Florence. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 

born at Herve, Belgium, March 3, 1823, 
still living, 1888. Organist, first instructed 
by his father, then pupil of GofBn and of 
Joseph Massart, and studied harmony' and 
counterpoint from the treatises of Cheru- 
bini, Catel, and Fi'-tis. When scarcely fif- 
teen years old, he became instructor of 
music at the college of his native city, and 
ten years later organist at Petit-Rechain. 
Works : 2 masses for three men's voices, 

with organ ; 12 litanies ; 7 motets ; Ro- 
mances without words, for pianoforte, etc. 
He has also composed an operetta, which 
was given at Lit'ge, Theatre du Gymnase, 
1859. His brother Edouard (born at Herve, 
Dec. 8, 1834), is a pianist, and has published 
several compositions for his instrument. — 
Fetis, Supplement, i. 21. 

ARCHER, FREDERIC, born of English 
parentage, Oxford, England, June 16, 1838, 
still living, 1888. Organist, pupil of his 
father. In 1847 he became a chorister at 
Margaret Chapel (now All Saints' Chm-ch), 
London, and about five years later organist 
of St. Clement's, Oxford, and then of Mer- 
ton College, holding both appointments. 
After travelling on the Continent he was 
appointed organist of the Panopticon, 
now the Alhambra Theatre, and in 1862 
gave weekly recitals on the great organ 
at the Universal Exhibition, in London. 
In 1863, in association with Julius Bene- 
dict, he directed the concerts of the Vocal 
Association ; in 1865 became organist and 
choirmaster of Christ Church, Lancaster 
Gate, London ; then of the Church of the 
Jesuit Fatliers, Farm Street, until 1873, 
when he accepted a similar position at 
Alexandra Palace, which was shortly after 
burned. In 1875, when the new Palace 
was completed, he resumed his position, 
and gave more than 2,000 recitals on the 
great organ, without repeating a programme. 
In 1877 he was given the entire musical di- 
rection of Alexandra Palace, and, besides 
the organ recitals, conducted the orchestral 
concerts and the English opera in the thea- 
tre. In 1879 he became musical examiner 
in the University of Glasgow ; and in 1880 
formed an English opera comj)any, which 
ga^ve performances in the chief cities of Eng- 
land. He visited America in 1881, 23layed 
in many of the principal cities, and, after a 
short visit to Loudon, became organist of 
Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, and subse- 
quently of the Church of the Incarnation, 
New York, during which he gave a series 
of ninety organ concerts in Chickering 


Hall. In 1885 he founded and edited The 
Keynote, a musical journal, and in 1887 
became conductor of the Boston Oratorio 
Society, and removed to that city, where he 
still resides. Works : Adagio maestoso for 
organ ; Fugue in D minor, id. ; Grand fan- 
tasia in F, id. ; Andantes in D, F, and A, 
id. ; Concert variations, id. ; Jlarche triom- 
phale, id. ; 12 pieces, id. ; 2 gavottes in D 
and E-flat, for pianoforte ; Polka de sa- 
lon, id. ; 3 impromptus, id. ; King Witlaf's 
Drinking-horn ; Songs, part-songs, etc. He 
is the author also of "The Organ," a theo- 
retical treatise, with original exercises and 
compositions ; and of " The Collegiate Or- 
gan Tutor" (London, n. d.). 

(?), died in Milan in 1650. Maestro di cap- 
pella and organist of the churches S. M. 
della Scala and S. Fedele. His composi- 
tions were held in high esteem long after 
his death. Among them are : Motetti 
(Milan, 1616) ; Faux-Bourdons (ib., 1618) ; 
JIusica a pin voei con basso per I'organo 
(ib., 1628).— Fctis ; Schilling. 

ARDITI, LUIGI, born at Crescentino, 
Piedmont, July 16, 
18 2 5. Dramatic 
composer and vio- 
linist, puj)il, in 
18.36-42, at the 
Conservatorio, Mil- 
an. In 1843 he 
made his debut as 
director of the op- 
era at Vercelli, 
where he was made 
honorary member 
of the Accademia Filarmonica. With Bot- 
tesini he visited Havana in 1846, and then 
Boston, Philadelphia, and New York, where 
he conducted the opera at the opening of 
the Academy of Music, Oct. 2, 18.54. In 
1856 he visited Constantinople, and in 18.58 
settled in London as conductor at Her 
Majesty's Theatre. He afterwards travelled 
with an Italian company through the prin- 
cipal German cities, and conducted Italian 


opera at St. Petersburg in the winter of 
1871-73, and at Vienna each spring after 
1870. Works : I briganti, opera, given at 
the Conservatorio, Milan, 1841 ; II corsaro, 
do., Havana, about 1846 ; La spia, do., New 
York, 1856 ; Overture (1840) ; do., and Sou- 
venir de Donizetti (1842) ; Commemoration 
ode, given at the Crystal Palace, June 10, 
1873, and II Bacio, vocal waltz ; L' Ardita, 
do. He has also written violin music, con- 
sisting of arrangements from operas, or 
American songs. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 21 ; 
Mendel ; Yapereau, 1880. 

ARDITI, MICHELE, Marchese, born 
at Presicca, Naples, Sept. 29, 1745, died in 
Naj)les, April 23, 1838. Amateur dramatic 
comjjoser, pupil of Jommelli. In 1807 he 
became director-general of the Museo Re- 
ale Borbonico. "Works : Olimpiade, opera ; 
Sacred and secular cantatas ; Motets ; Sym- 
phonies ; Overtures ; Sonatas for piano- 
forte ; Arias with orchestra or pianoforte. 
— Fctis. 

ARDORE, Principe D'. See Milano. 

ARENA, GIUSEPPE, born in Naples (?) 
at the beginning of the 18th century. Di-a- 
matic composer, very popular in his time. 
Works — Operas : Aehille in Sciro, given in 
Rome, 1738 ; Tigrane, Venice, 1741 ; Ales- 
sandro in Persia, London, 1741 ; Farnace, 
Rome, 1742. He left in manuscript : Prin- 
cipj per cembalo o organo. — Fetis. 

ARENS, FRANZ XAVIER, born, of Ger- 
man parentage, on the banks of the Moselle, 
Germany, Oct. 28, 1856, stiU living, 1888. 
Organist, pupil on the j)ianoforte and organ 
of his father. When fifteen years old he be- 
came organist and choirmaster in a small 
town near Cleveland, Ohio ; after finishing 
the normal school course at St. Francis, 
near Milwaukee, where he studied the or- 
gan, the violin, and harmony and singing, 
he took charge of a church choir in Mil- 
waukee, at the same time continuing his 
lessons in counterpoint with Prof. Singen- 
berger of the St. Francis Normal School. 
After acting as musical director of Canisius 
College, Buffalo, N. Y., three years, he went 



to Europe, where lie studied for two years 
in Munich, counterpoint, instrumentation, 
and tlie organ with Rheinberger, conduct- 
ing under Abel, and in Dresden coinjjosition 
under Wiillner, the pianoforte and organ 
under Jannseu, and score-reading under 
Kirchner. Upon his return to America he 
took the conductorshijJ of the Cleveland Ge- 
sang Verein and of the Cleveland Philhar- 
monic Orchestra, but resigned the latter 
position in 1887. He has also been organ- 
ist in one of the churches of that city since 
188G. Works : Prelude and Fugue for or- 
gan, 1883 ; The Troubadour, for solo, cho- 
rus, and oreliestra ; Salve Eegina, for mixed 
chorus, 1884 ; String quartet in A minor, 
produced in Dresden, 1884 ; Symphonic 
Fantasia, Indianapolis, 1887 ; Slumber 
sweetlj', song ; Other songs, and music for 
mixed chorus. 

ARETINUS, PAULUS, Italian church 
composer of the 16th century. He is 
known bj' the following works, preserved 
in the royal library at ]M\inich : Sacra re- 
sponsoria, turn natali Domini, etc. Respon- 
soria hebdomadse sanct?e, etc. (Venice, 1547) ; 
(ib., 1544) ; Libro primo delli raadrigali 
cromatici (ib., 1549). — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ARGENTILLY, CARLO D', born prob- 
ably in Picardy, France, contemjDorary of 
Arcadelt, and, like him, singer and com- 
poser in the Pontifical Chapel, in the first 
half of the ICth century. Some of his 
works, bearing the date of 1543, are pre- 
served in the library of the Vatican, and 
justify the high estimation in which they 
were held in his time. — Schilling. 

at Parma, May 12, 1842, died in Milan, 
March 1, 1877. Dramatic composer, au- 
thor of operas and ballets given in Italy. 

hiere di Siviglia. 

ARIADNE, Italian opera, text by Paolo 
Rolli. music by Porpora, represented at the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, London, Dec. 
29, 1733. This was one of the operas put 
upon the stage by Handel's rivals, who pre- 

tentiously called their enterprise the "Op- 
I era of the Nobility." Porpora directed the 
performance in person. — Rockstro, Handel, 

ARIANNA (Ariadne), Italian opera seria, 
text by Einuccini, music by Claudio Monte- 
verde, represented in Mantua, 1607, to cele- 
brate the marriage of Francesco di Gonzaga, 
son of the Duke, with Margherita, Infanta 
of Savoy. The success of this work, written 
in competition with Gagliauo's Dafne, which 
was produced at the same time, was unprec- 
edented. It is said that the audience was 
moved to tears during the performance of 
the scene in which Ariadne laments the de- 
jjarture of her faithless lover, the only part 
of the work, excepting a few passages of 
recitative, now presei-ved to us ; and that 
the composer's power was similarly shown 
on the reproduction of the opera in Venice, 
thirty years later. The story of the deser- 
tion of the unfortunate daughter of Minos 
by Theseus and her subsequent finding and 
marriage by Bacchus has also inspired 
many other musicians: Ariadne, music by 
Niccolo Porpora, Loudon, 1733 ; Ai-iana, mu- 
sic by Feo, Rome, 1728 ; music by Bene- 
detto Ferrari, Venice, 1640 ; Arianna, music 
by Handel, London, 1734 ; music by Adol- 
fati, Genoa, 1750 : Ariane, opera in five 
acts, text by the Abbe Perrin, music by 
Cambert, London, 1667 ; opera-ballet, music 
by Batistin, Versailles, about 1717 ; scene 
lyrique, music by Jean Baptiste Rochefort, 
Paris, 1785 ; Ariadne, music by Conradi, 
Hamburg, 1691 ; music by Keiser, Ham- 
burg, 1722 ; Ariana abbandonata (Ariadne 
Abandoned), music by Boniventi, Venice, 
1719 ; Aiiana e Bacco (Ariadne and Bac- 
chus), music by Tarchi, Turin, 1785 ; Ariane 
et Bacchus, opera in five acts, text by Saint- 
Jean, music by Marais, Paris, March 8, 1696 ; 
do., music by Bouvard, represented at the 
Court of France, 1729 ; do., ballet, music 
by J. B. Rochefort, Paris, 1793 ; Bacchus 
und Ariadne, ballet, music by Thaddeus 
Weigh about 1800 ; Nozze d' Arianna e di 
Bacco (Nuptials of Ai-iadne and Bacchus), 


music by Holzbauer, Vienna, about 1780 ; 
Ariiichie auf Naxos, melodrama, music by 
George Benda, Gotlia, about 1769 ; ojjera, 
music by Bernhard Klein, Berlin, 1825 ; 
opera in two acts, music by Mme Paradies, 
Vienna, 1791 ; drama, text by Tb. Krebs, 
music by Max Selfriz, Lihvensberg, 18G1 ; 
Ariane dans File de Naxos, opera in one act, 
text by Moline, music by Edelmaun, Paris, 
1782 ; Ai-iane et Thesee (Ariadne and The- 
seus), opera in five acts, text by Lagrange- 
Chancel and Roy, music by Mouret, Paris, 
1717 ; Ariana e Teseo, Italian opera, music 
by Niccolo Porpora, Vienna, 1714 ; by Caf- 
faro, Najiles, 1766 ; by Piscbietti, Dresden, 
1769 ; by Peter von Winter, Vienna, about 
1796 ; by Benvenuti, Pisa, 1810 ; Trionfo 
d' Ariana (Triumph of Ariadne), music by 
Anfossi, Prague, about 1784 ; by Righini, 
Berlin, 1795. 

ARIANNA, Italian opera, text by Francis 
Colman, music by Handel, first represented 
at the King's Theatre, London, Jan. 26, 
1734 The score is dated Oct. 5, 1733. 
The part of Theseus was magnificently sus- 
tained by Giovanni Carestini, an artificial 
contralto brought from Italy by Handel to 
take the place of Senesino, who had de- 
serted him to join the rival company at the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre. The opei-a con- 
tains some very dramatic situations, and the 
minuet in the first scene was long poijular. — 
Rockstro, Handel, 189 ; Crysander, ii. 334. 
ARIANNA A NAXOS, cantata for voice 
with pianoforte, by Josef Haydn, composed 
in Vienna, 1790. Consisting of a recita- 
tive : Teseo mio ben, and the aria : Dove sei, 
mio bel tesoro. This vocal seena describes 
the moment of the myth when Ariadne, 
awaking on the rocky shore, espies the ship 
of Theseus sailing away in the distance. It 
is a highly dramatic scena, calling, however, 
for an orchestral accompaniment, which 
was supplied afterwards (1809) by Kapell- 
meister G. Abraham Schneider in Berlin. 
— Pohl, ii. 237, 358. 

ARIENZO, NICOLA D', born in Na- 
ples, Dec. 24, 1843. Dramatic composer, 


pupil of Pietro Labriola on the pianoforte 
and of Vincenzo Fioravanti, Moretti, and 
Mercadante in harmony and counterpoint. 
He made his debut at the age of sixteen by 
producing an opei'a buffii, in Neapolitan 
patois, played in a trio of his own compo- 
sition at the Bouamici concert in 1864, 
became professor of harmony and com- 
position at r Albergo de' Poveri, and at the 
College of San Pietro a Majella, Naples. 
His four nocturnes for two, three, and four 
voices, won the second prize of the Societa 
del Quartetto, Milan, in 1869. Works— 
Operas : Monzii Gnazio o La fidauzata del 
Perucchiere (opera bufta in Neapolitan dia- 
lect), given at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 1860 ; 
I due mariti, ib., Teatro Bellini, 1866 ; Le 
rose, ib., 1868 ; II cacciatore delle Alpi, ib., 
1870 ; n cuoco, ib., Teatro Rossini, 1873 ; 
I viaggi, Milan, Teatro Castelli, 1875 ; La 
figlia del diavolo, Naples, Teatro Bellini, 
1879 ; I tre coscritti, ib. , Albergo de' Po- 
veri, 1880 ; Pensiero sinfouico, performed 
in Rome, 1871 ; H Cristo sulla croce, can- 
tata ; several overtures, and much vocal 
music. — Fi'tis, Supplt^ment, i. 22 ; Rie- 
mann ; Vapereau ( 1880). 

ARIOBANT (Ital., Ariodante), lyrical 
drama in three acts, text by Hoffmann, sub- 
ject from the " Orlando Furioso " of Ariosto, 
music by Mehul ; first rej)resented at the 
Theatre "^Favart, Paris, Oct. 11, 1799. It 
was the composer's favourite opera, but, 
though containing many dramatic beauties, 
was not very successful. Some of its airs 
were long popular, especially the romance : 
" Femme sensible, entends-tu le ramage?"; 
the duet of Ariodant and lua, "Dissi- 
pons ce sombre nuage ; " and the air of 
Dalinda, " Calmez, calmez cette colere." 
Other operas on same subject : Ariodante, 
Italian opera, music by Giovaiini jMaria 
Costa, Genoa, 1655 ; music by Pollarolo, 
Venice, 1716 ; music by Bioni, Bi-eslau, 
1727 ; music by Handel, London, Jan. 8, 

.\RION, lyric tragedy in five acts, text by 
Fuzelier, music by Matho, represented at 


the Academie Eoyale de Musique, Paris, i 1693 ; Dafue, Venice, 1686 (pub. 1696) ; 
April 10, 1711. Subject, the story of Ai-ion 1 Erifile, ib., 1697 ; La festa d' Imenei, near 
the Greek bard. 

about 1660, 

Berlin, 1700; Atys, Liitzenburg, 1700; La 
Bologna , madre de' Maccabei, Venice, 1701 ; Na- 

died (?). 
A Dominican monk, 
who, under a papal 
dispensation, gave up 
his ecclesiastical pro- 
fession to follow that 
of music, which art he 
had studied from 
youth up. With the 
exception of one ora- 
torio and a few cantatas, he wrote only 
for the stage. His first opera, Dafne (text 
by Apostolo Zeno) was brought out with 
fail- success at Venice in 1686. Besides be- 
ing a composer of great merit, he was a 
clever performer on the violoncello and the 
viol d' amore. In 1690 he was made either 
private composer or maestro di cappella to 
the Electress of Brandenburg, which post 
he held until 1716. During this period he 
probably left Berlin twice, once on a visit 
to Italy, and once to Austria. He first api 

bucodonosor, Vienna, 1706 ; La piti gloriosa 
fatica d' Ercole, Bologna, 1706 ; Amor tra 
Nemici, Vienna, 1708 ; Ciro, London, 1721 ; 
1st act of Muzio Scevola, ib., 1721 ; Co- 
riolano, ib., 1723 ; Vespasien, ib., 1721 ; Ar- 
taserse, ib., 1721 ; Dario, ib., 1725 ; Lucio 
Vero, ib., 1726 ; Teuzzone, ib., 1727 ; Vol- 
ume of cantatas, and a collection of lessons 
for the viol d' amore, ib., 1728. — Grove, i. 
83 ; Hogarth, ii. 21. 

ARIOVISTO (Ariovistus), Italian opera, 
music by Ballarotti, in collaboration with 
Perti and Paolo Magni, represented at the 
ducal theatre in Milan, 1699. Subject, the 
famous German chief, whose invasion of 
Gaul was checked by Caesar at Vesoutio 
(Besan(;on), b.c. 58. Another, same subject, 
music by Mancini, Naples, 1702. 

AEKADELT. See Arcadelt. 

ARLESIENNE, L', melodrama in three 
acts and five tableaux with entr'actes and 
choruses, text by Alphonse Daudet, music 

peared in London at the performance of | by Georges Bizet, represented at the Thea- 

Handel's Amadis, in which he played a solo 
for the viol d' amore. In 1720 the directors 
of the opera engaged him, together with 
Handel and Bononcini, to write for their 
theatre. The first opera given was Muzio 
Scevola, written by all three composers in 
collaboration, the first act being by Ariosti. 
But Handel's genius finally threw his two 
rivals into the shade, and at the close of the 
season of 1727 Bononcini and Ariosti were 
dismissed. In 1728 Ariosti quitted Eng- 

tre du Vaudeville, Paris, Sept. 30, 1872. 
Frederi, a young peasant of the Camarge, 
is in love vsdth a maiden of Aries (I'Arle- 
sienne), said to be very beautiful, but who 
does not ajjpear on the stage. When about 
to marry her, she is proved to be unworthy 
and he loses his reason. His mother, who 
wishes him to marry a charming young girl 
who loves him, is coldly repelled by him, 
and at last, in despair, gives her consent to 
his union with the Ailcsienne ; but it is too 

land, and nothing is known of his subse- 1 late, and he commits suicide by throwing 
quent life. Fetis's story that, previous to ! himself from a tower before her eyes. 

his departure, he published a volume of can- 
tatas by subscription, realizing £1,000, may 
or may not be true ; at any rate, he was mis- 
erably poor at the time. He was a man of 
talent and great cleverness rather than of 
genius. The list of his works, with date 
of first performance and publication, is : Sta. 
Eadegonda, Eegina di Francia, oratorio. 

AEMES, PHILIP, born in Norwich, Eng- 
land, Aug. 15, 1836, still living, 1888. Or- 
ganist ; chorister in Norwich Cathedral in 
1816-18, and in Rochester Cathedral 1818- 
51 ; articled pupil of Dr. John Larkin Hop- 
kins at Rochester, 1850-55 ; was organist of 
Trinity Church, Milton, Gravesend, in 1855- 
57, of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, London, 



in 1857-61, of Chichester Catbedraliu 1861- 
02, and of Durham Cathedral since 1862 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 
1858 ; Mus. Doc, ib., 
1864 ; degrees also 
from University of 
Durham, 1863, 1864. 
Works : Hezekiali, 
oratorio, jierformed at 
Worcester Festival, 
1878 ; St. John the 
Evangelist, do., York 
Festival, 1881; Com- 
munion Services in 
A ; do. in B-flat ; Te 
Deum ; Morning and 
G ; Antliems ; Chants 

ARMIDE, gi-and heroic opera in five acts, 
te-xt by Quinault, music by Gluck, repre- 

Evening Service in 
Hvmns, etc. 

Mara as Armide, 

sented at the Academic Royale de Musique, 
Paris, Sept. 23, 1777. Subject from the 
"Gerusalemme Liberata" of Tasso. Though 
produced at the height of the quarrel be- 
tween the Gluckists and the Piccinnists, 
this work won an enthusiastic success. In 
it the composer continued the musical revo- 
lution, begun in Alceste, of subordinating 
the singing to the ti'uth of dramatic expres- 
sion. The airs, "On s'etonnerait moins que 
la saison nouvelle," and " Ah ! si la liber- 
ie me doit etre ravie," are still classic, and 

the minuet and the gavotte in it were long 
popular. Among the best interpreters of 
Armide was Gertrude Elizabeth Mara, one 
of the most famous singers of the last cen- 
tury.^Marx, Gluck, ii. 184 ; Hanslick, Gluck 
u. d. Oper, 9. 

Rinaldo), lyric tragedy in five acts, text by 
Quinault, subject from the " Gerusalemme 
Liberata '" of Tasso, music by Jean Baptiste 
Lulli, first represented at the Opera, Paris, 
Feb. 15, 1680. This was Quinault's last 
and best libretto ; and Lulli's most popular 
score ; it had an unprecedented success and 
was applauded for nearly half a centurj-. 
Several of the airs, such as "La chaine de 
I'hymen m'otonne," and the recitative, "Le 
perfide Renaud me fuit," still survive in the 
classic repertory. The same subject has 
been treated also by Rampini, Venice, 1711 ; 
by Graun, text from Quinault, Berlin, 1751 ; 
by Traetta, Vienna, 1760 ; by Jomnielli, 
Naples, 1771 ; in three acts, by Salieri, Vi- 
enna, 1771 ; by Sacchini, Milan, 1772 ; by 
Nauniann, Padua, 1773 ; by Astaritta, 1777 ; 
by Gazzaniga, Italy, 1777 ; by Rauzzini, 
London, 1778 ; by Winter, Munich, 1778 ; 
by INIortellari, Milan, 1778 ; by Mysliweczek, 
about 1780 ; by Bertoni, Venice, 1781 ; in 
three acts, by Cherubini, Florence, 1782 ; 
by Anfossi, London, 1782 ; by F. J. Haydn, 
Esterhaz, 1784 ; by Zingarelli, Rome, 1786 ; 
by J. Mosca, Florence, 1799 ; two acts, text 
by Soltellini, music by Eighini, Aschaften- 
btirg, 1788, Berlin, 1799 ; by Rossini, Na- 
ples, 1817, in which he began bis sec- 
ond manner ; Armida abbandonata (Armida 
Abandoned), Italian opera, by Giovanni Rug- 
gieri, Venice, 1710 ; by Buini, Florence, 
1723, also as Armida delusa (Deceived), 
Venice, 1720; by Prati, Munich, 1785; Ar- 
mida al campo (in the Camp), by Boni- 
venti, Venice, 1717 ; by Bioni, Breslau, 1720 ; 
Armida al campo d' Egitto (in the Egyptian 
Camp), by Vivaldi, Venice, 1718 ; by Giu- 
seppe Bertoni, Venice, 1781 ; Armida im- 
maginaria (Imaginary), Cimarosa, Naples, 
1778 ; Armida placata (Appeased), music by 


Giambattista ]\Iele, Madrid, 1750 ; Avmida, 
Eegina di Damaso (Queeu of Damascus), 
Oi-giani, Verona, 1711 ; Armide la Magi- 
cienue (the Magician), bj- F. Gliiser, Vieuua, 
1828 ; n trioufo d' Arniida (Triumpli of 
Armida), by Albinoni, Venice, 1726 ; Die 
Zauberin Armide (Armida the Enchantress), 
by Gliiser, Vienna, 1828 ; Riualdo, by Tozzi, 
Brunswick, 1775 ; by Guglielmi, Venice, 

1789 ; music by Handel, Loudon, 1711 ; 
Einaldo e Armida, by Eccles, London, 
1698 ; Rinald, German opera, by Hilffner, 
Stockholm, 1792 ; Rinald und Armide, by 
Rheineck, 1779 ; by Zumsteeg, Stuttgart, 

1790 ; by von Paradies, Prague, 1797 ; Ri- 
nald im Zauberwald (Rinaldo in the En- 
chanted Wood), ballet, by Apell, Cassel, 

ARMINGAUD, JULES, born at Ba- 
yonue, May 3, 1820, still living, 1888. Vio- 
linist, studied in his native city. He went 
to Paris in 1839 to perfect himself at the 
Conservatoire, but was not admitted as be- 
ing too far advanced, and has since then 
been a member of the orchestra of the 
Opera. Works : Fantaisie, for violin and 
pianoforte, op. 8 (Paris, Brand us) ; Sere- 
nade for do., op. 9 (ib., Meissonier) ; Grande 
fantaisie on Zampa, for do., op. 10 (ib.) ; 
Vilanelle, op. 11 (ib.) ; Andante and Scher- 
zo, op. 13 (Paris, Richault) ; Fantaisie et 
variations, for violin and orchestra, op. 14 
(ib.) ; Souvenir de Vasconie, for do., op. 15 
(ib.) ; etc. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 22. 

ARlVnNIUS (Ital., Arminio ; Ger., Ar- 
min or Hermann), the German chief of the 
Cherusci, who defeated the legions of Varus 
in the Teutoberger forest and freed his 
country from the Roman yoke, is the sub- 
ject of many operas. Arminio, Italian op- 
era, music by Pollarolo, Pratolino, 1703, 
Venice, 1722 ; by Steffaui, Hanover, 1707 ; 
in three acts, by Scarlatti, Venice, 1714 ; by 
Johann Adolph Hasse, Milan, 1731, Dres- 
den, 1745 ; by Handel, London, Jan. 12, 
1737 ; by Galuppi, Italy, 1747 ; by Gioac- 
chino Cocchi, Rome, 1749 ; by Ottani, Tu- 
rin, 1781 ; by Tritto, Rome, 1786 ; opera 

scria in three acts, music by Tarchi, Man- 
tua, 1786 ; by Bianchi, Florence, 1790 ; by 
Pavesi, Venice, 1821 ; Armiuius, French op- 
era, music by Mehul, 1794 (not represented) ; 
Armin, German opera in four acts, text by 
Felix Dahn, music by Heinrich Hofmann, 
Dresden, Oct. 14, 1877, Berlin, Nov. 14, 
1877, with the tenor Niemann in the princi- 
pal role. 

ARMINIUS, secular oratorio, text by J. 
Clippers (English translation by Mrs. Natalia 
Macfarreu), music by Max Bruch, op. 43, 
l^erformed at Ziirich, 1877 ; at Boston, Mass., 
at the sixth triennial festival of the Handel 
and Haydn Society, in the Music Hall, 
INIay 4, 1883, under the composer's direction. 
Solos by Miss Emily Winant, Charles R. 
Adams, and Georg Henschel. 

lish opera in three acts, text by J. V. Bridg- 
man, founded on Victor Hugo's " Marie 
Tudor," music by Balfe ; represented at 
Coveut Garden, London, Feb. 12, 1863. 
Sung by Harrison, Sautley, Weiss, Corri, 
Miss Pyne, and Miss Hiles. — Barrett, Balfe, 

Miihlberg, near Gotha, Sei^t. 9, 1670, died 
at Erfurt, Dec. 31, 1699. Composer of 
church and chamber music, and organist in 
several churches of Erfurt. Only a few of 
his numerous compositions have been pub- 
lished. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ARNAUD, fiTIENNE, born at Marseil- 
les, March 16, 1807, died there in January, 
1863. Vocal composer, pupil of Plantade 
at the Paris Conservatoire. He has pub- 
lished more than two hundred romances, 
most of which obtained considerable suc- 
cess. — Fetis. 

ARNE, ]\nCHAEL, Ijorn in London 
in 1741, died at South Lambeth, Jan. 14, 
1786 . Dramatic composer ; son of Thomas 
Augustine Arne. He early showed a talent 
for music, being al)le to plaj' on the harpsi- 
chord with gi-eat correctness, wlien only ten 
j'ears old, the lessons of Scarlatti and Han- 
del, and later exhibited great facility in the 



composition of songs aucl dramatic pieces. 
In " The Flow'ret, a New Collection of 
Euglisli Songs, by Master Arne," is a song 
called the Highland Laddie, written at the 
age of thirteen, which was adapted by Liu- 
ley in 1755 to "Ah, sure a pair were never 
seen," in Sheridan's opera, The Duenna. 
After devoting several years to chemistry in 
search for the philosopher's stone, he turned 
to composition again, and wrote for Rane- 
lagh, Covent Garden, and Vauxhall. He 
•was director of music at the Dublin The- 
atre in 1779, and of the Lenten Orato- 
rios at London theatres in 1781 and later. 
Works— Operas : Alcmena (with Battishill), 
The Fay's Tale, given in London, Drury 
Lane, 1761; Cymon, ib., 1767; The Fa- 
thers, ib., 1778 ; The Belle's Stratagem, ib., 
1780; The Choice of Harlequin, ib., 1781; 
The Positive Man, ib., 1782 ; Tristram 
Shandy, ib., 1783. — Grove ; Hogarth, Mus. 
Drama, ii. 102. 

in London, March 
12 [May 2 8?] 
1710, died there, 
March 5, 1778. 
The son of an up- 
holsterer in King 
Street, Covent Gar- 
den ; he was edu- 
cated at Eton, and 
then studied three 
j-ears in a solici- 
tor's office, but his 
bent for music was stronger than his love 
for the law, and he at last persuaded his 
jjarents to let him give up the latter for the 
former. He studied the violin under Fest- 
ing, and also took lessons on the spinet and 
in composition. He was the singing teach- 
er of his sistei', Susanna Maria, who, after 
a short career as an opera-singer, became 
famous as an actress and the wife of Colley 
Gibber. Arne's first opera was a resetting 
of Addison's "Rosamond," which he made 
for his sister, and in which she appeared at 
the Lhicoln's Inn Fields Theatre, March 7, 

1733. In 1736 he married Cecilia, eldest 
(laughter of Charles Young, organist of All- 
hallows, Barking, a brilliant singer who was 
famous in Handel's operas. In 1742 he 
went with his wife to Dublin, where he 
stayed until 1741. On his return to Lou- 
don he was engaged as composer at Drury 
Lane, and became conductor of the orches- 
tra there after Gordon's death. In 1745 he 
was engaged as composer to Vauxhall Gar- 
dens, a post which he held for many years, 
writing a host of songs for the Gardens, as 
well as for Ranelagh and Marjdebone Gar- 
dens. On March 12, 1755, was produced 
his first oratorio, Abel. On July G, 1750, 
the University of Oxford conferred upon 
him the degree of Mus. Doc. In 1762 
he produced Artaxerxes, an opera in the 
Italian style, with recitative instead of spo- 
ken dialogue, and the text of which he 
himself translated from Metastasio's Arla- 
serse. The part of Mundane, famous for its 
florid writing, was written for and sung by 
his pupil. Miss Brent. This, which held 
the stage for more than seventy-five years, 
has been accounted his best work. His 
second oratorio, Judith, was represented 
on Feb. 29, 1764. At a performance of 
this work at Covent Garden Theatre, Feb. 
26, 1773, Dr. Arue first introduced women's 
voices into oratorio choruses. In 1765 he 
brought out his only Italian opera, a setting 
of Metastasio's OJimpiadf, but without suc- 
cess. His last dramatic work was the mu- 
sic to Mason's Caractacus, 1776. Besides 
his operas, he wrote a vast amount of other 
vocal music, glees, canons, catches (seven 
of which won prizes at the Catch Club), 
and a good deal of instrumental music. 
He was buried in St. Paul's, Covent Gar- 
den. His wife outlived him about seven- 
teen years. Dr. Arne has been called the 
greatest English composer of the 18th 
century. His melodic stj'le was elegant 
and brilliant ; he imitated neither Lulli, 
Purcell, nor Handel, as most of his contem- 
poraries did, but his melodies often suggest 
at once the Italian manner and the flavour 


of Scotch songs. His failure in Italian 
opera is probably attributable to this field's 
beiug so stroDgly occupied by Haudel and 
BoDoucini. His oratorios are, iu geueral, 
weaker than bis operas, the choruses esj)e- 
cially bearing no comparison with those of 
the great oratorio eomi^osers of his day ; 
yet he was the first composer to introduce 
female voices into oratorio choruses in Eng- 
land. Much of his incidental music to 
Shakespeare's plays has become standard, 
and the air Rule Britannia, the finale of 
his music to Thomson and Mallet's masque 
"Alfred," written in 1740 to commemorate 
the anniversary of the accession of the 
House of Hanover, Aug. 14th, is world fa- 
mous. Works — Operas, etc. : Rosamond, 
given at Drury Lane, Loudon, 1733 ; The 
Opera of Operas ; or, Tom Thumb the 
Great, Haymarket, ib., 1733 ; Dido and 
iEneas, 1734 ; The Fall of Phaeton, 1736 ; 
Music to Zara, 1730 ; Comus, 1738 ; Judg- 
ment of Paris, 1740 ; Alfred, 1740 ; Songs 
iu Twelfth Night, 1741 ; Blind Beggar 
of Bethnal Green, 1741 ; Songs in The 
Merchant of Venice, 1742 ; Britannia, 1743 ; 
Eliza, 1743 ; Thomas and Sally, 1743 ; 
The Temple of Duhiess, 1745 ; King 
Pepin's Camj^aigu, 174.5 ; Music to the 
Tempest, 1746 ; Neptune and Amphitrite, 
1746 ; Don Saverio, 1749 ; Dirge in Ro- 
meo and Juliet, 1750 ; The Prophetess, 
1759 ; The Sultan, 1759; Aiiaj-er.res, 1762 ; 
Love iu a Village (compilation), 1762 ; 
Birth of Hercules (not represented), 1763 ; 
The Guardian Outwitted, 1764 ; Olimpiade 
(Italian), 1765 ; The Ladies' Frolic, 1770 ; 
Additions to Purcell's King Arthur, 1770 ; 
The Fairy Prince, 1771 ; The Cooper, 1772 ; 
Choruses in Mason's Elfrida, 1772; The 
Kose, 1773 ; Contest of Beauty and Virtue, 
1773 ; Achilles in Petticoats, 1773 ; May 
Day, 1775 ; Phoebe at Court, 1776 ; Music 
to Mason's Caractacus, 1776 ; Songs in The 
Tender Husband, The Rehearsal, The Rival 
Queens, and other plays. Oratorios : Abel, 
1755 ; Jifdith, 1764. Collections of songs 
under the following titles : Lvric Harniouv, 

The Agreeable Musical Choice, Summer 
Amusement, Winter's Amusements, The Sy- 
ren ; Vocal Melody, 1753 ; The Vocal Grove, 
1774 ; and nearly twenty other books of 
songs. Glees, Catches, Canons, etc. : 12 
glees, 10 catches, 6 canons, printed iu War- 
ren's Collections; Ode on Shakespeare, writ- 
ten by Garrick for the Shakespeare Jubilee 
at Stratford-on-Avon, 1 769 ; Sonatas or les- 
sons for the harjjsichord ; Organ concertos ; 
Overtiu-es for orchestra, etc. — Grove ; Ho- 
garth, ii. 65 ; Buruey, iv. 6 — ; Dwight's 
Journal, xiii. 205. 

REIRA VEIGA, Vicomte D', born at Ma- 
cao, China, Nov. 22, 1838, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, of a family distinguished 
in the musical cu-cles of Lisbon. He studied 
law at the University of Coimbra, but from 
1859 to 1862 studied harmony under Manoel 
Joaquim Botelho, counterj)oiut and fugue 
under Vicente Schira, and the pianoforte un- 
der Antonio Jose Soares. He began com- 
posing orchestra music, entr'actes, and other 
pieces, and produced a ballet, Ginu, at the 
Teatro San Carlos, Lisbon, iu 1866. He 
wrote a great deal of church music. His 
jirineipal work, a Te Deum, performed at 
St. Paul's, Lisbon, in 1871, was afterwards 
brought out iu Paris as a symphonie can- 
tata. Works : Scherzo in E-flat ; Polonaise 
de Concert ; Refrains du Priutemps, a col- 
lection of characteristic pieces ; Elisire di 
giovinezza, opera, Lisbon, 1876, Milan, 1877. 
— Fetis, Sujjplemeut, i. 23 ; Naumann (Ouse- 
ley), ii. 1265 ; Rieniann, Lex. 

ARNOLD, GEORG, born at Weldsberg, 
in the Tyrol, lived about the middle of the 
17th century. He was organist at Inns- 
bruck, and later of the cathedral at Bam- 
berg. He jiublished the following works : 
Cantionum sacrarum de tempore, op. 1 ; 
Tres Mottettos de Nomine Jesu, op. 2 ; 
Psalmi de Beata Maria Vergine, etc., with 
violin or viola (1652) ; Cautiones et Sonettse 
(1659) ; Sacrarum cantionum, etc. (1661) ; 
Psalmi Vespertini ; Tres Missse pro defuuc- 
tis, etc. (1676) ; Messarum quatern. cum no- 


vem vocibus, i. pars. (1673) ; id., ii. pars. 
(1675).— Fetia, 3 ; Schilling. 

at Petworth, Sussex, 
England, Dec. 22, 1832, 
still living, 1888. Pupil 
of S. S. Wesley ; Mas. 
Doc, Oxford', 1861 ; 
was organist of St. Col- 
umba's College, 1852, 
of St. Mary's Chnrcli, 
Torquay, 1863, of Ne^v• 
College, Oxford, 1860, 
of Winchester Cathe- 
dral, 18G5. Works : Ahab, oratorio, Exeter 
Hall, Loudon, 1863 ; The Second Coming 
of Our Lord, oratorio ; The Song of David, 
cantata ; Sennacherib, do., Gloucester, 1883 ; 
The Forty-third Psalm ; Communion Ser- 
vice ; Te Deums ; Anthems and Motets ; Con- 
certed vocal music ; Songs ; Pianoforte music. 

at Niederuhall, Wiirtemberg, Feb. 1, 1773, 
died at Frankfort, July 26, 1806. Violon- 
cellist, son of the schoolmaster of Niedern- 
hall. He showed such taste for music that 
his father apprenticed him from 1785 to 
1789 to the musical director of the town of 
Kiinzelsau, under whom he devoted himself 
to the violoncello. In 1790 he entered on 
bis first engagement at Wertheim, where 
his uncle Friedrich Adam Arnold was mu- 
sical director, and took lessons of the or- 
ganist Frankenstein in composition. After 
concert tours in Switzerland and Gei-many, 
where he played his own concertos, he 
studied under the violoncellist Willmanu 
at Ratisbon (1796), and later visited Berlin 
and Hamburg, where he studied the method 
and style of Bernhard Romberg. He be- 
came first violonceUist in 1798 at the 
Frankfort Theatre, and was well known as 
a teacher and composer. Works ; Five 
concertos for violoncello ; Symphonic con- 
certante for two flutes and orchestra ; Airs 
with Variations, op. 9 (Bonn) ; Pieces for the 
guitar. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xii. 609 ; Fe- 
tis; Gerber, Hist. Lex.; Schilling. 

ARNOLD, KARL, born at Neuenkircheu 
near Mergentheim, Wiirtemberg, May 6, 
1794, died at Christiania, Nov. 11, 1873. 
Pianist, sou and pupil at Frankfort of Jo- 
hann Gottfried Arnold, then pupil at Offen- 
bach of Philipp Karl Hoffmann and Aloys 
Schmitt on the pianoforte, and of Vollweiler 
and Anton Andre in comjjosition. After a 
concert tour through Germany and Poland, 
he settled in 1819 at St. Petersburg, where 
he was in great demand as a teacher, but 
in 1824 removed to Berlin, whence he was 
called in 1835, as musical director, to Miins- 
tei'. In 1817 he gave concerts at St. Pe- 
tersbui'g, and in 1849 became director of 
the Philharmonic Society, and organist at 
Christiania. His music is refined, and full 
of technical difiiculties. Works : Sextet with 
pianoforte ; Sonatas for do., op. 3 and 5 
(Offenbach, Andre) ; Sonata for do., with 
clarinet and bass, oj). 7 (ib.) ; Divertisse- 
ment for do., Nos. 1 and 2, op. 12 and 13 
(Berlin, Schlesinger) ; Rondo for do., oj). 14 
(ib. ) ; Variations on an Original Theme, op. 
16 ; Vive Henri IV., rondo for pianoforte 
and violoncello (Leipsic, Peters) ; Rondo- 
letto. No. 4 ; Concerto for pianoforte, with 
orchestra, op. 17 (Berlin, Christiaui) ; Valses 
favorites (ib., Grochenschuetz) ; Rondo for 
pianoforte for four hands (Offenbach, An- 
dre) ; Divertissements for pianoforte, op. 13, 
14, 16, 24 ; Fantaisies et variations, op. 17, 
20 ; Canticle for four male voices (Bruns- 
wick, Sptihr) ; Quartet for two violins, viola, 
and violoncello, op. 19 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel) ; Thelephos, opera, given at Kuuigs- 
berg about 1830 ; Irene, do., Berlin, 1832. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ARNOLD, SAMUEL, born in Lon<lon, 
Aug. 10, 1740, died there, Oct. 22. 1802. 
Dramatic composer and pupil of the Chapel 
Royal under Bernard Gates and Dr. Nares. 
Before he was twenty-three years old he 
was engaged as composer to the Covent 
Garden Theatre ; here he used, with great 
success, concerted music to carry on the 
business of the stage. In 1769 he pur- 
chased Maryleboue Gardens, where he 


brought out original burlettas, performed 
by the best singers of the day ; but he ulti- 
mately lost by 
the speculation. 
In 1773 he re- 
^^;°;-l '*?S #^Kk ceived the de- 

gree of M u s . 
Doe. from Ox- 
ford University. 
He succeeded 
Dr. Nares as or- 
ganist and com- 
poser to the 
Chapel Royal in 1783 ; established the Glee 
Club, iu conjunction with Callcott, about 
1786 ; became conductor of the Academy of 
Ancient Music in 1789 ; organist of West- 
minster Abbey as successor to Dr. Cooke 
in 1793 ; and was invited to conduct the 
annual performances at St. Paul's for the 
benefit of Sons of the Clergy on the death 
of Dr. P. Hayes in 1796. Between 1765 
and 1802 Dr. Arnold composed oratorios, 
dramatic pieces, songs, glees, much sacred 
music, and forty-three operas ; after 1783 
published a continuation of Boyce's Cathe- 
dral Music (4 vols.) ; in 1791, with the as- 
sistance of Dr. Callcott, a book entitled 
Psalms of David ; and later, an Ode for the 
Anniversary of the London Hospital. In 
1786 he proposed issuing a comj)lete edi- 
tion of Handel's works, but only succeeded 
in bringing out 168 numbers, containing 
five out of Handel's forty-three ojDeras. 
Works — Operas : Maid of the Mill, given 
in London, 1765 ; Eosamoud, ib., 1767 ; 
Portrait, Mother Shipton, ib., 1770 ; Son- 
in-Law, Summer Amusement, 1779 ; Fire 
and Water, Wedding Night, Silver Tank- 
ard, 1780 ; Dead Alive, 1781 ; Castle of An- 
dalusia, Harlequin Teague, 1782 ; Gretna 
Green, 1783 ; Hunt the Slipper, Two to 
One, Here, There, and Everywhere, 1784 ; 
Turk and no Turk, Siege of Cuzzola, 1785 ; 
Iidde and Yarico, 1787 ; Enraged Musician, 
1788 ; Battle of Hexham, 1789 ; New Spain, 
Basket Maker, 1790 ; Surrender of Calais, 
1791 ; Harlequin and Faustus, Children in 

the Wood, 1793; Auld Robin Gray, 1794; 
Zorinski, Mountaineers, Who Pays the 
Reckoning, Love and Mcjney, 1795 ; Ban- 
nian Day, Shipwreck, 1796 ; Italian Monk, 
1797 ; False and True, Throw Physic to 
the Dogs, Cambro-Britons, 1798 ; Obi, or 
Three-tingered Jack, 1800 ; Review, Cor- 
sair, Veteran Tar, 1801 ; Sixty-third Letter, 
Fairies' Revels, 1802. Oratorios : Cure of 
Saul, given in 1767 ; Abimelech, 1768 ; Res- 
urrection ; Elijah, given after his death, in 
1810. — Barrett, English Church Composers, 
144 ; Fe tis ; Grove ; Hogarth, Mus. Drama, 
ii. 440 ; Schilling. 

ARNOLD, YOURIJ VON, born in St. 
Petersburg, Nov. 1, 1811, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, pujjil o'f Johaun Leo- 
pold Fuehs, after having been an army offi- 
cer (1831-38) ; then entered the government 
civil service. In 1859 he won the prize of- 
fered by the St. Petersburg Philharmonic 
Society for the best ballad, and subsequently 
produced two opieras, and much vocal mu- 
sic ; he lectured also on the historj' and 
theory of music at Moscow and St. Peters- 
burg, and made himself favourably known 
as a musical critic. In 1863-68 he lived in 
the latter capacity in Leipsic, and in 1870 
became professor of vocal music in the Mos- 
cow Conservatory. Works : The Gypsj', 
opera ; Swiitlana, ballad (1859, prize) ; 
Overtui'e to Boris Godunov ; Oratorical 
Psalm ; Four-part songs, and more than one 
hundred songs. — Fetis, Supijlement, i. 24 ; 
Mendel ; Riemann. 

ARNOULD (Arnolt) DE BRUCK (Brucq, 
Bruges, Pruck, Prug), called sometimes Ar- 
noldus, born at Bruges about 1480, died in 
Vienna, Sept. 22, 1536. Vocal composer, 
and one of the celebrated musicians of his 
century. Nothing is known of his eai-ly 
life, or of his musical education. He be- 
came Kapellmeister to Ferdinand I. of Ger- 
many, as appears from a silver medal in the 
Imperial Museum at Vienna, struck in his 
honour in 1536. Among his works, which 
consist of motets, hymns, etc., are several 
in MS. in the collection of the Royal 



Library, Miinieh. Amoiif^ those published 
are : The motet, Fortitudo Dei, iu a collec- 
tion at Nuremberg (1537) ; Two motets, 
Pater Noster and In civitatem Domini, in 
the second part of the same collection 
(1538) ; Several motets in a collection by 
Georg- Porster (Nuremberg, 1540) ; The 
hymns Audi, bonigne Conditor, Jesu quad- 
ragenaripe, Adcsto nunc Ecelesifc, O Crux, 
Ave, in the Saerorum Hymnorum, lib. i. 
(1542) ; Several motets iu the collection en- 
titled : Quatuor vocum musiese modul., lui- 
mero 2G, etc. (Antwerp, 1542). He also 
published German lieder in the 2d i^art of 
the collection by Forster entitled : Bin Aus- 
zug kurtzweiliger guter frischer Liedlein zu 
singen (Nuremberg, 1540) ; and chants for 
schools, in the collection entitled : 123 Newe 
geistliche Gesiluge mit vier und fiintf Stim- 
men, etc. (Wittenberg, 1544).— Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, i. 4G6 ; Fetis ; Mendel, ii. 198 ; 
Winterfeld, Der evang. Kirchengesang, i. 

ARNONI, GUGLIELMO, born at Ber- 
gamo iu 1546. Organist of Milan Cathe- 
dral about 1580. Works : Magnificat for 
four, five, six, seven, and eight voices (MUan, 
1595) ; H primo libro de' madrigali (Venice, 
1600) ; Three books of motets (ib., 1602).— 

AHQUIER, JOSEPH, born at Toulon, 
1763, died at Bordeaux, October, 1816. 
Dramatic composer, studied music at Mar- 
seilles, and in 1784 joined the orchestra of 
the theatre at Lyons as violoncellist. Four 
years after he was at Carcassonne, went in 
1789 to Marseilles to lead the orchestra at 
the Tln'atre du Pavilion, and in 1790 to Paris, 
where he filled positions at some of the 
smaller theatres. About 1800 he went to 
New Orleans as director of an opera troupe, 
but returned to France iu 1804, resuming 
his former position in Paris until 1807, then 
teaching music at Toulouse until 1809, when 
he once more led the orchestra at the Pavil- 
ion in Marseilles ; in 1812 he was at Perpig- 
nan, again at Toulouse, and finally retired 
to Bordeaux in great poverty. Works- 

Operas : L'Indienue, given at Carcassoune, 

1788 ; Daphnis et Hortense, Marseilles, The- 
atre du Pavilion, 17S9 ; Le pirate, Toulon, 

1789 ; Le mari corrige, Paris, Tlu'atre Ly- 
rique et Comique, about 1790 ; La peau de 
I'ours, comic opera, ib., Theatre Moliere, 
about 1792 ; Le conge, ib.. Theatre Montan- 
sier, about 1793 ; Les Peruviens, Tours, 1798 ; 
Les deux petits troubadours, comic opera, 
Paris, Theatre des Jeunes Sieves, 1800 ; 
L'ermitage des Pyrenees, do., ib., 1805 ; 
L'hotellerie de Sarzanno, do., ib.. Theatre 
Montansier, 1802 ; Le desert on I'oasi.s, do.. 
New Orleans, about 1802 ; La fee Urgele, 
do., Brest, 1804 ; Monrose, do., Marseilles, 
1809 ; La suite du medecin turc, do., ib. 
about 1810 ; Zipea, Perpignan, about 1815. 
— Fetis. 

ARRESTI (Aresti), FLORIANO, born at 
Bologna, second half of the 17th century, 
died before or in 1719. Dramatic com- 
poser, and organist at Bologna Cathedral ; 
pupil of Bernardo Pasquini on the organ ; 
member of the Accademia Filarmonica in 
1G84. Works — Operas : Inganno si vince, 
given at Bologna, 1710 ; Enigma disciolta, 
ib., 1710 ; CrLsii^ijo, Ferrara, 1711 ; Co.s- 
tanza in Cimento colla Crudelta, Venice, 
1712 ; II Trionfo di Pallade iu Arcadia, Bo- 
logna, 1710.— Fetis; do., Supplement, i. 25. 
Bologna about 1630, died after l(i94. Or- 
ganist, pupil of Ottavio Vernizzi, whom he 
succeeded as organist at S. Petronio. He 
was one of the first members of the Acca- 
demia Filarmonica, founded iu 1666, and 
its principe three times, 1671, 1686, 1694. 
Works : Messa e vespro della B. V. M. a 
otto voci (Bologna) ; Messa a tre voci con 
sinfonie (ib.) ; Salmi cinque a quattro voci 
(Venice, 1664) ; Gare musicali, salmi a cap- 
pella a quattro voci. — Fetis. 

at Bilbao, Spain, Jan. 27, 1806, died at Mar- 
seilles, February, 1825. Violinist, at first 
self-taught ; composed a charming Spanish 
opera before he knew the rules of harmony. 



At the age of tliii-teen he went to the Con- 
servatoire, Paris, to study the violiu under 
Baillot, and harmony and counterpohit un- 
der Fetis. His progress, Ft'tis says, was 
marvellous, three months having been suf- 
ficient for him to master harmony, and at 
the end of two years there was no difficulty 
in fugue or counterpoint which he could not 
overcome. About this time he wrote a fugue 
for eight voices to the words of the Credo, 
Et vitam venturi, which was prouoiuiced a 
chef-d'oeuvre by Cherubini. In 1824 he 
was chosen director of a class in counter- 
point at the Conservatoire. He died young, 
but left a number of compositions, among 
others, a work of three quartets for the 
violin (Paris, 18"24) ; An overture, a sym- 
phony for full orchestra, a mass for four 
voices ; a Salve Regina, and several cantatas 
and romances which remain in MS. — Fetis ; 
Grove ; Riemann, Lex. 

at Puente la Reina, Navarre, Spain, Oct. 
21, 1823, still living, 1888. Dramatic com- 
poser ; went to Italy in 1838, and studied 
composition, in 1842—15, under Vaccaj at 
the Conservatorio, Milan, where he brought 
out Ildegonda, his first opera, but met with 
no success. He returned to Madrid in 
1848, and devoted himself to the compo- 
sition of zarzuelas, of which he has writ- 
ten about forty, and operas. He comijosed 
a cantata for the inauguration of the Zar- 
zuela Theatre in 185G, and a cantata dedi- 
cated to Rossini in 1864. He became pro- 
fessor of composition at the Conservatorio 
of Madrid in 1857, and one of the coun- 
sellors in the ministry for public instruc- 
tion in 1875. Director of the Conserva- 
torio since 1877. Works: Ildegonda, opera, 
given at Milan, 1846 ; Isabel la Catulica 6 
sea la conquista de Granada, do., Madrid, 
1850. Zarzuelas : El domino azul. El gru- 
mete, ib., 1853 ; La vuelta del Corsario, Ma- 
rina, ib., 1855 ; La estrella de Madrid, De 
tal palo tal astilla, El hombre feliz (mono- 
logue), El sonambulo, ib., 1856 ; Guerra a 
muerte ; La dama del rey ; Un ayo para el 

nino, 1864-65 ; A cadenas pei-pt'-tua ; El 
coujuro (with Lojsez de Ayala), ib., 1866 ; 
Un sarao y una soiree, ib., 1866 ; Quien 
manda, manda ; Llamada y tropa ; Azon 
Visconti ; Cadenas de oro ; Dos coronas ; 
El cautivo en Argel ; El cajjifan negrero ; 
El agente de matrimonios ; El caudillo de 
Baza ; El planeta Venus ; El toque de ani- 
mas ; La insula Barataria ; La carceria real ; 
La suegra del Diablo, ib., 1867 ; La taber- 
nera de Londres ; Los Circasianos ; Un 
trouo y un desengafio ; El motin contra 
Esquilache. Cantata for the inauguration 
of the Teatro de la Zarzuela, 1856 ; Cantata 
to Rossini, 1864. — Fetis, Supjslemeut, i. 25; 
Mendel, Ergiinz., 16. 

ARRIGO TEDESCO. See Isaac, Hein- 

ARRIGONI, CARLO, born in Florence 
about 1708, died, probably in Tuscany, about 
1743. Clever lutenist, maestro di cappella 
to the Prince of Carignan. He is said by 
Fetis to have been engaged with Porpora 
as composer to the theatre started in oppo- 
sition to Handel at Lincoln's Inn in 1734, 
and to have brought out an unsuccessful 
opera called Fernando ; but there is no 
proof of it, although bis Cantate di Camera 
was j^ublished in London in 1732. Burnej' 
claims, in his Commemoration, that Arri- 
goni is intended bv* the " King of Aragon, " 
mentioned as one of Handel's opponents in 
Arbuthnot's satire, " Harmony in an Up- 
roar. " He was of small importance, as no 
mention is made of him or of his opera in 
the musical writings of that day. His ora- 
torio of Esther was given at Vienna in 1738. 
— Fetis ; Grove ; jNIendel. 

ARRIVEE A SAIS, L'. See Eiifance 
du Christ. 

ARRONGE, ADOLPH L', born at Ham- 
biu-g, Germany, March 8, 1838, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of Richard 
Gence, then at the Conservatorium, Leipsic 
(1854^57), of Hauptmann, Rietz, and Mo- 
scheles. He conducted the ojiera at the 
theatres of Konigsberg, Cologne, Wiirzburg^ 
Pesth, and Stuttgart, then in Berlin, where 



he settled in 1866, at KroU's Theatre, but af- 
terwards devoted himself exclusively to the 
teaching of vocal music, and conducting 
the BerHn Miuiuergesangverein. Works : 
Das Gespenst ; Der zweite Jakob, and other 
comic operas ; Songs ; Part-songs. — Men- 

AESACE (Arsaces), Italian opera, music 
by Gasparini, represented at Venice, 1715 ; 
music by Sarri, Venice, 1718 ; music by 
Fee, Rome, 1731 ; music by Giacomelli, 
Turin, 1736 ; music by Araja, St. Peters- 
burg, 1741. j 
ART OF FUGUE. See Kumt der 

AETASERSE (Artaxerxes), Italian opera 
in three acts, text by Metastasio, music by 
Leonardo Vinci, first represented at the 
Teatro delle Damme, Rome, during the car- 
nival, 1730. Scene in the city of Susa. 
Characters represented : Artaserse, King of 
Persia and lover of Semira ; Mandane, sis- 
ter of Artaserse and lover of Arbace ; Ar- 
tabauo, prefect of the royal guard, father 
of Arbace and of Semira ; Arbace, friend of 
Artaserse and lover of Mandane ; Semira, 
sister of Arbace and lover of Artaserse ; 
]\Iegabise, general and confidant of Artaba- 
no. The libretto has been set to music 
also by Hasse, Venice, 1730, Dresden, 1740 ; 
Duni, Italy, 1731 ; Pampani, Venice, 1737 ; 
Terradeglias, Naples, 1737 ; Ferandini, Mu- 
nich, 1739 ; Porta, Munich, 1739 ; Leo, 
Naples, 1740 ; Gluck, Milan, 1741 ; Adol- 
fati, Rome, 1742 ; C. H. Graun, Berlin, 
1743 ; Abos, Venice, 1746 ; Jommelli, 
Rome, 1749 ; Perez, Lisbon, 1753 ; Lam- 
pugnani, 1757 ; Scolari, Venice, 1758 ; Ga- 
luppi, Venice, 1762 ; Majo, Naples, 1762 ; 
Beruasconi, Munich, 1763 ; Scarlatti, Vien- 
na, 1763 ; Piiisiello, Modena, 1765 ; Fioril- 
lo, Cassel. 1765 ; Ponzo, Venice, 1766 ; Pic- 
cinni, Turin, 1766 ; Sacchini, Rome, 1768 ; 
Vento, London, 1771 ; Giordani, London, 
1772 ; Piccinni (new music), Naples, 1772 ; 
Caruso, London, 1774 ; Mysliweczek, Na- 
ples, 1774 ; Felice Alessandri, Naples, 1774 ; 
Guglielnii, Italy, about 1775 ; Buroni, Stutt- 

gart, 1776 ; Borghi, Venice, 1776 ; Bertoni, 
London, 1780 ; Cimarosa, Turin, 1781 ; 
Alessandri, Naples, 1784 ; Rust, Modena, 
1784 ; Bertoni (new music), Venice, 1786 ; 
Tarchi, Mantua, 1787 ; Bianchi, Padua, 
1787 ; Anfossi, Rome, 1788 ; Parenti, Italy, 
about 1789 ; Zingarelli, Turin, 1794 ; Nico- 
lo Isouard, Leghorn, 1795 ; NiccoUui, Ven- 
ice, 1795 ; Artaxerce, French ojjera in three 
acts, music by Lesueur, 1801, not repre- 
sented ; Artaxerxes, English opera, music 
by Arne, London, 1762 ; Artaxerxes, Ger- 
man opera, by Heinrich Dorn, Berlin, 1850. 
There are also several operas of the same 
title which follow an older text. 

ARTASERSE, Italian opera in three acts. 



text by Metastasio, mu.sic by Hasse, repre- 
sented in Venice, 1730, and Dresden, 1740. 
Composed for the celebrated singer Faus- 
tina Bordoni, whom Hasse had married 
shortly before. It was in this opera that 
the famous artificial soprano. Carlo Broschi, 
called Farinelli, made his debut in London, 
in the King's Theatre, Oct. 29, 1734, under 
the auspices of Handel's rivals and the su- 
perintendence of Porpora. The other prin- 
cipal parts were supported by Senesino, 
Montagnana, and Signora Cuzzoni. With 
this exceptional cast, the opera was very 
successful and was performed more than 
forty times in three years, a great run for 
that period. When Farinelli separated 


himself from the world of art by his ac- 
ceptance of a yearly salary of 50,000 francs 
from Philip V. of Spain, who heaped all 
manner of honours upon him in addition, 
he is said to have sung nightly to the ting 
for ten years two songs from Artaserse, 
"Pallido il sole " and "Per questo dolce am- 

ARTAXERXES, English grand opera in 
three acts, text adapted by the composer 
from Metastasio, music by Thomas Augus- 
tine Arne, first represented at Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, Loudon, Feb. 2, 17G2. The 
libretto is a jsoor translation of the original, 
and the music is in the Italian style of the 

Elizabeth BiMington. 

day, the dialogue being entirely in recita- 

several operas : Italian oj)era, music by Ca- 
valli, rej)resented at Venice in 1656, and 
Paris, 1660, under the title of Xerxes ; Ger- 
man opera, music by Stiilzel, Naumburg, 
1713 ; music bj' Keiser, Hamburg, 1715 ; 
Italian opera, music by Sarri, Venice, 1731 ; 
in three acts, music by Terradeglias, Rome, 
about 174:1 ; music by Johann Adolp)li Hasse, 
Dresden, 1754 ; music by Reichardt, Berlin, 
1787 ; music by Cimarosa, Venice, 1801. 
Cimarosa's opera, one of his best works, was 
left unfinished at his death in Venice, Jan. 
11, 1801. 

ARTHUR, ALFRED, born of American 
parentage near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
Oct. 8, 1844, still living, 1888. He studied 
at the Music School, Boston, singing under 
B. F. Baker, pianoforte under George How- 
ard, and brass instruments under Matthew 
Arbuckle and Henry Brown ; and at the 
Boston Conservatory harmony and compo- 
sition under Julius Eichberg. After singing 
tenor in the Church of the Advent, Boston, 
two years, he settled in 1871 in Cleveland, 
Ohio, as a teacher of vocal music and leader 
of the Germauia Orchestra. He was a 
member for a few months of the choir of 
Trinity Church, in that city, and later of 
the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church, where 
he remained until 1878, when he formed 
the Bach Choir of the Woodland Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, of which he is still 
conductor. This society is ranked as one 

tive. It is Dr. Arne's best work and had an ; of the best chorus choirs in the United 

extraordinary success, being for a long time 
a favourite on the London stage. In the 

States. In 1873 The Cleveland Vocal So- 
ciety was formed, with Mi-. Arthur as con- 

original cast Ai-baces was sung by Tenducci, : ductor, a position he still holds ; and he is 

Artaxerxes by Peretti, Mandane by Miss 
Brent, and Artabanes by John Beard. To 
succeed in the character of Mandane was 
long considered a test of the vocal powers 
of female dramatic singers. It was one of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Billington's best impersona- 
tions. — Hogarth, ii. 87 ; Musical Rev., iii. 

ARTEmSIA, Queen of Halioarnassus, 
wlio aided Xerxes in the battle of Salamis, 
when he invaded Greece, is the subject of 

also director of the Cleveland School of 
Music. He visited Euro2Je in 1879 and in 
1887. Works : The Water Carrier, opera, 
1876 (MS.) ; The Roundheads and Cavaliers, 
do., 1878 (MS.) ; Adaline, opera, 1879-84 
(MS.). Songs : Memory's Dream ; Tell it, 
Silver Throat ; etc. Didactic : Progressive 
Vocal Studies, 1887 ; Album of Vocal Stud- 
ies, 1888 ; and other vocal studies. He has 
also compiled the following hymn-books : 
Evangelical Hymnal ; Spirit of Praise. 



ARTISAN, L' (Tlip :\rechanic), opura- 
comique in one act, text by Saint-Georges 
and Simonnin, original plot, music by Ha- 
levy, represented at the Theatre Feydeau, 
Paris, January, 1827. Although the composer 
had won the grand prix de Rome in 1819 and 
had written several other dramatic works, 
this was the first which he succeeded in pro- 
ducing. The libretto is feeble but the music 
is pretty, and it was given a hundred times. 

TAGNY, called, born in Brussels, Feb. 4, 
1815, died at Ville-d'Avray, near Sevres, 
France, July 20, 184.5. Violinist and com- 
poser, son and pupil of Maurice Montagny 
(1772-1829, regimental music master in the 
time of the Revolution). He studied later 
under Snel in Brussels, and under Rudolf 
and August Kreutzer at the Conservatoire 
in Paris (1824-31), won the second prize in 
1827, and the first in 1828. He made eon- 
cert tours through England, Holland, Ger- 
many, Italy, Russia, the United States 
(1843), and to Havana, returning in 1845 to 
France. Works : Concerto pour violon et 
orchestre, en la mineur ; Fantaisies pour vio- 
lon et jiiano, op. 4, 5, 8, 11, IG, 19 ; Airs 
varies pour violon et orchestre, on piano, 
op. 1, 2, 17 ; Rondeaux pour violon et or- 
chestre, ou piano, op. 9 et 15 ; Serenades, 
romances, etc. — Biog. nat. de Belgique ; 
Fetis ; Mendel. 

called, born in Paris, Sept. 23, 1803, still 
living, 1888. Cornet player, son and pupil 
of Maurice Montagnj'. He was first cornet 
in the 31st Swiss Regiment in 1819, under 
Jacques Bender, then member of the or- 
chestra of the Royal Theatre, Brussels, in 
1823 ; and cornet player to the King of the 
Netherlands, at his father's death, in 1829. 
He travelled through Germany and France 
in 1835 ; was professor of the cornet at the 
Conservatoire, Brussels, in 1843, and solo 
player to Leopold I. in 1849. Woi-ks : Six 
fantaisies concertantes pour cor chromat- 
ique, avec piano ; 48 etudes adoptees comme 
exercises par les Conservatoires et Ecoles de 

Musique de Bruselles ; 18 melodies pour 
cor, ou violoncelle, avec piano ; quatuors 
pour cors chromatiques ou cornets a-pis- 
tons ; 12 trios et 12 quatuors pour les 
memea (Brussels). — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
•26 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 17. 

Bologna, Italy, about 1554, died (?). Canon 
of S. Salvatore, Venice ; he was the defender 
of the counterpoint of his day against the in- 
novations of Claudio Monteverde. Works : 
Canzonette (4 voice.s) ; Cautate Domino 
(dedicated to Schieti in Vincent! collec- 
tion). His theoretical works are : Arte del 
contrappunto ridotto in tavole (1586, 1589, 
later translated by Frost into German) ; 
Delle imperfezioni delle musica moderna 
(an attack on Monteverde's use of unpre- 
jmred sevenths and ninths, 1600, 1603) ; 
Difesa ragionata delle sentenze date di 
Ghisilino Dankerto ; Impresa del Zarlino 
(1604); Considerazione IMusicale (1607).— 
Fetis ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

ARVIRE ET liVELINA, lyric tragedy in 
three acts, text by Gaillard from Mason's 
" Caractacus," music by Saccliini, repre- 
sented at the Opera, Paris, April 30, 1788. 
The composer died (Oct. 7, 1786) before 
finishing his work, and the end of the third 
act was written bj' Rey, the leader of the 
orchestra at the Opera. 

born in Moscow in 1838, still living, 1888. 
Composer and virtuoso, pupil at Leipsic in 
1861-62 of Hauptmauu and of Richter in 
Paris, where he bought the librarj' of An- 
ders, adding it to his own, and he has now 
one of the finest musical libraries in the 
world. In 1870-76 he was Rubinstein's suc- 
cessor as director of the Conservatory at St. 
Petersburg. Works : Sonata in B minor, 
op. 2, pianoforte and violoncello ; Trio in F- 
sharp minor, op. 10, pianoforte and strings ; 
Fest-Polonaise, op. 12, two pianofortes; Pas- 
satempo, piano a quatre mains. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 27 ; Riemann. 

ASCANIO IN ALBA (Ascanius in Alba), 
Italian opera, text by Metastasio, music by 



PoUarolo, represented in Venice, 1701 ; 
serenata, test by Abbate Giuseppe Parini, 
music by Mozart, given at JSIilan, Oct. 17, 
1711, on the marriage of the Archduke 
Ferdinand of Austria with the Princess 
Maria of Modena. Ascanius is the son of 
J^lueas and founder of Alba Longa. The 
same subject lias been treated by Beruabei, 
Munich, 1686 ; and by Antonio Lotti and 
Leal-Moreira, Lisbon, 1784. 

HEINRICH, bom at Alt-Stettin, Dec. 29, 
1654, died at Jena, Dec. 13, 1732. Violin- 
ist, first instructed by his father, who was 
municipal music director at Alt-Stettin ; 
then jjupil in composition of Schiitz, and at 
Merseburg of Theile, and in Vienna of 
Schmelzer. He was first violinist in the 
ducal orchestras at Zeitz (1677-81), and 
Merseburg (1683-90), then director of mu- 
sic at Zeitz (1695-1713), and Kapellmeister 
to the Duke of Merseburg (1713-19). He 
visited Vienna in 1692, when he played 
before the emperor and dedicated to him 
a collection of sonatas for the violin, and 
again in 1703. His principal and at present 
only known work is : Gast- und Hochzeits- 
freude, bestehend in Souateu, Praludien, 
Allemanden, Couranten, Balletten, Arien, Sa- 
rabanden mit di-ei, vier und fiinf Stimmen 
nebst dem basso continuo (Leipsic, 1673, 
Innsbruck, 1676).— F6tis ; Mendel ; Schil- 

ASCHER, JOSEPH, born in London in 
1831, died there, June 3, 1869. Pianist, 
pupil of Moscheles, whom he followed to 
the Conservatorium at Leipsic. He went 
to Paris in 1849 and became court pianist 
to the Empress Eugenie. His best known 
compositions are two mazurkas, La jierle dii 
Nord and Dozia, and an etude, Les gouttes 
d'eau ; besides these, he wrote over a hun- 
dred gallops, nocturnes, mazurkas, tran- 
scriptions, and etudes. His song, Alice, 
where art thou, is still a favourite at con- 
certs. — Grove. 

ASHE, ANDREW, bom at Lisburn, Le- 
land, in 1759, died in London iu 1828. 

Flutist, first instructed at Woolwich on the 
violin, then pupil, at the Hague, of Wend- 
ling on the flute, through the patronage of 
Count Bentinck, a Dutch colonel in the 
English service, with whom he had trav- 
elled extensively. He was first flute at the 
Opera House of Brussels in 1778-82, and 
was engaged at the concerts in the Rotun- 
da at Dublin until 1791, when he went to 
London, where he appeared successfully in 
many concerts as virtuoso and composer. 
He was subsequently first flute at the Italian 
ojjera, and in 1810 conductor at the concerts 
at Bath, which position he resigned in 1822, 
to devote himself to the editing of his nu- 
merous works. — Grove ; Mendel. 
ASHTON. See Aston. 
ASILO D' AMORE, L' (Love's Refuge), 
Italian opera in one act, text bj' Metastasio, 
first set to music by Caldara, and ref)r6- 
sented at Lintz, Upper Austria, Aug. 28, 
1732, on the occasion of the visit there of 
the Emperor Charles VI., to celebrate the 
birthday of the Empress Elizabeth. Scene 
near the coast of Cyprus. Characters rep- 
resented : Venere, Amore, Pallade, Apollo, 
Mercurio, Marte, Proteo. The libretto has 
been set to music also by Johann Adolph 
Hasse, Dresden, 1743 ; by Jommelli, Stutt- 
gart, 1767 ; cantata, by Benedetto Bierey, 

ASIOLI, BONIFAZIO, born at Correg- 
gio, April 80, 1769, 
died there, May 26, 
1832. Dramatic 
comijoser, first in- 
structed, when five 
years old, by Luigi 
Crotti, organist of S. 
Quirino, and at the 
age of ten pupil of 
Morigi at Parma. 
Two yeai-s before, he 
had already composed three masses, twenty 
other pieces of church music, a concerto for 
pianoforte with orchestra, another for vio- 
lin, and two sonatas for four hands. Having 
completed his studies in Parma, he went to 


Venice, where he gave two concerts, .and on 
his return to Correggio, four months later, 
he was made maestro di cappella. In 1787 
lie went to Turin, and lived there until 
1796, when he accompanied the Marchesa 
Gherardini to Venice, remained there for 
three years, and in 1799 settled at Milan. 
In 1801 he became maestro di cappella to 
the Viceroy of Italy, and in 1809 censor and 
professor of composition and singing at the 
newly erected Conservatorio. In 1810 he 
visited Paris, and in 1813 retired to his 
native town, where he composed until 1820, 
and established a school of music, which 
nourished under his direction. Works — 
Operas ; La volubile, given in Rome about 
1786 ; La contadiua vivace, Naples, about 
1786 ; La discordia teatrale, Milan, about 
1786 ; H Ciclope, Naples, 1787 ; La festa 
d'Alessandro, Turin, about 1790 ; Pimma- 
glione, ib., about 1789 ; Gustavo, ib., 1791: ; 
Cinna, Milan, Teatro della Scala, 1801 ; La 
gabbia de' Pazzi, intermezzo, Venice, about 
1785 ; II ratto di Proserpina, do., Naples, 
about 178.5 ; Giacobbo in Galaad, oratorio. 
Cantatas: La gioja pastorale (between 1781 
and 1785) ; La primavera ; II nome ; II 
consiglio ; II complimento ; Quella eetra 
pur tu sei ; Piramo e Tisbe ; La scusa ; La 
tempesta (Turin, 1787-96) ; H dubio ; La 
Medea (Milan) ; Five masses, and many 
other pieces of church music ; Four over- 
tui-es ; Concertos, sonatas, duets, trios, etc. 
For different instruments : Arias, canons, 
songs, duets, terzets, quartets, with and 
without accompaniment, etc. Several theo- 
retical w'orks. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ASIOLI, Francesco, Italian dramatic com- 
poser, contemijorary. He brought out the 
opera Maria de' Ricci, in Milan, La Scala, 
Feb. 10, 1859.— Fi'tis, Supplement, i. 28. 

born in Verona, lived in the latter part of 
the 16th century. Priest and comjioser be- 
tween the j'ears 1565 and 1600. In 1592, 
in conjunction with other composers, he 
dedicated a collection of Psalms to Pales- 
trina. He was among the first to use fig- 

ured bass. Works — JIadrigals : Madrigali 
a due voci da cantarsi in fuga (1587) ; 
other editions (Venice, 1604, 1624, 1665) ; 
La Vergine, madrigali a tre, lib. i. (1596). 
Martini has included some in his Exem- 
plare ; and some of Asola's motets are in the 
Promptuarium Musicum of Abraham Schad. 
Church compositions : Introitus et Alleluya, 
etc. (1565) ; Missarum quiuque voc, etc. 
(1571) ; Psalmodia ad vespertinas, etc. 
(1574) ; Falsi bordoni sopra gli otto tuoni 
ecclesiastici, etc. (Venice, 1575, 1582, 1584, 
Milan, 1587) ; Vespertina jjsalmodia maj., 
etc. (1576) ; Completorium per totum (pia- 
tuorque illse B. V., etc., antij)honal (1576) ; 
Vespertina omnium solemn, psal. duoque 
B. v., etc. (1578) ; Primo lib. deUe Messe, 
etc. (1579) ; Secundolib., etc. (1580) ; Missa 
et major, solemn, psal. 6 vocum (1581) ; 
Vesjjertina, etc. (1582) ; Officium majores 
hebdomadte, saiict. etc. (1583) ; Secunda 
pars, idem (1584) ; In jaassionibus quat. 
evang. Ckristi locut., etc. (1583) ; Sacrse 
cantiones, etc. (1584) ; Divinoe Dei laudes, 
etc. (1586) ; Lamentatioues, etc. (1588) ; Se- 
cunda j)fii's vespertina;, etc. (1591) ; Missa 
defunctorum (1588) ; Duse Missse et decern 
sacrre laudes (Venice, 1589) ; Misse sopra 
gli otto tuoni, etc. (Milan, 1590) ; Canto 
fermo sopira le Messe, etc. (Venice, 1596) ; 
Sacro-sanctse Dei laudes, antiphonal in 
four vols. (1600).— Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; 

ASP A, EDWIN, born in London, May 6, 
1835, still living, 1888. Organist, nephew of 
Mario Aspa. Works : The Gipsies, cantata ; 
Endymion, do. ; Pianoforte pieces ; Songs, etc. 

ASPA, MARIO, born at Messina, Sicily, 
in 1799, died there, Dec. 14, 1868. Dra- 
matic composer, studied at first in Messina 
and Palermo, then under Zingarelli at the 
Royal College of Music, Najjles, where he 
settled as a teacher of vocal music. Works 
— Operas: Giovanni Banier, ossia il Castello 
di Arolte, given at Najjles, Teatro del Fondo, 
1830 ; II carcei-e d' Ildegonda, ib., Teatro 
Nuovo, 1831; La burla, ib., Teatro del 
Fondo, 1832 ; II litigante senza lite, ib., 



1833 ; La finta greca (farce), I due Forzati, * 
ib., about 1834 ; II quadro pailaute, Teatro 
Nuovo, 1834; II 20 Augusto, Teatro del' 
Foudo, 1835 ; Bartolommeo del Piombo, 
Teatro Nuovo, 1837 ; Allan Mac Auley, ib., 
1838 ; H mariuaro, ib., 1839 ; Maria d'Ai-les, 
ib., 1841 ; II proscritto, Turin, 1841 ; Gu- 
glielmo Colman, Naj)les, 1843 ; Paolo e Vir- 
ginia, Rome, Teatro Metastasio, 1843 ; II 
travestimento, Najjles, Teatro del Foudo, 
1846 ; Piero di Calais, Messina, Teatro Vit- 
torio Emraanuele, 1872 ; La vei'ga magica ; 
La metamorfose fortunata ; Federico II. ; 
L' orfana muta ; II niuratore di Napoli ; 
Werther ; Emo ; Margherita d' Aragona ; 
Gustavo Wasa. — Fetis. 

ASPA, EOSARIO, born at Messina, Sic- 
ily, Jan. 12, 1827, still living, 1888. Dra- 
matic composer, brother of Edwiu Aspa. 
"Works : The Artist's Stratagem, opera ; 
Pianoforte pieces ; Songs. 

ASPASIE, French opera in three acts, 
text by Morel, music by Gn'try, represented 
at the Opera, Paris, March 17, 1789, known 
now only by its celebrated duet, "Donne-la- 
moi, dans nos adieus."' Opera-comique in 
two acts, music bj' Saint-Amans, Paris, about 
1790. Aspasie et Pericles, ojjera in one act, 
text by Viennet, music by Daussoigne-Me- 
hul. Opera, Paris, July 17, 1820. 

ASPELMA.YER (Appelmeyer), FRANZ, 
died in Vienna, July 29 (or Aug. 9), 1786. 
Dramatic composer, court musician to the 
emperor. Works : Die Kinder der Natur, 
opera, given in Vienna, 1770 ; Pygmalion, 
do., ib., about 1770 ; Der Sturm, do., ib., 
1786 ; Agamemnon, ballet ; La Lavandara 
di Citere, do.; I Mori spagnuoli, do. ; 6 duets 
for violin and violoncello ; G trios ; 6 quar- 
tets for violin ; 10 serenades for wind in- 
struments. -— Fetis. 

ASPERI, URSULA, born in Rome in 
1807. Dramatic composer and pianist, pu- 
pil of Fioravanti ; conducted the orchestra 
of a small theatre in Florence in 1839. 
Works : Le avventure di una giornata, 
opera, given in Rome, Teatro Valle, 1827 ; 
I pirati, do., ib., 1843. — Fetis. 


ASSMAYER, IGNAZ, born at Salzburg, 
Austria, Feb. 11, 1790, died Aug. 31, 1862. 
Organist, pupil of Michael Haydn. In 1808 
he was organist of St. Peter's, at Salzbui-g, 
where he composed an oratorio. Die Siind- 
fluth, and a cantata, Worte der Weihe. In 
1815 he settled in Vienna, and in 1824 was 
appointed organist at the Schottenstift, in 
1825 imperial organist, in 1838 vice-, and in 
1846 chief-Kapellmeister to the court. The 
Tonkiinstler-Societat, which Assmayer con- 
ducted for fifteen years, often performed 
his chief oratorios. Das Geliibde, Saul und 
David, and Saul's Tod. He was author of 
fifteen masses, two requiems, a Te Deum, 
some hymns, motets, and other sacred mu- 
sic, and nearly sixty secular compositions, 
consisting of overtures, symphonies, jiasto- 
rales ; the latter have all been published. — 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Pietznigg, Mit- 
theilg. aus Wien (1834), iii. 1 ; Wurzbach. 

born in Paris in 1604, died there in 1679. 
Lute player and dramatic comjjoser. He 
led a vagabond life in France, England, 
and Italy, and died in want and misery. 
He composed, and wrote the words to, Les 
amours dApollou et de Daphne, comedie 
en musique, en vers (Paris, 1650). — Schil- 

ASTARITA, GENNARO, born at Naples 
about 1749, died ('?). Dramatic composer, 
esi^ecially of comic operas, which were very 
popular both in Italj' and Germany. His 
style shows a great similarity to that of his 
contemporary, Anfossi. Works : La con- 
tessa di Bimbinpoli, given in Rome, 1772 ; 

I visionari, Venice, 1772 ; Le finezze d' 
amore, o la Forza non si fa, ma si prova, 
Naples, 1773 ; II marito che non ha moglie, 

II priucipe Spondriaco, Venice, 1774 ; La 
critica teatrale, Rome, 1775 ; H mondo 
della Luna, Venice, 1775 ; La dama im- 
maginaria, L' isola di Bingoli, Naples, 1777 ; 
Armida, Circe ed Ulysse, 1777 ; Nicoletto 
bella Vita, Naples, 1779 ; La contessina, 


Rome, about 1780 ; La inoliuarella, Raven- 
na, 1783 ; II divertimento in campagna, 
Dresden, 1783 ; H Franccse bizzarro, ib., 
1786 ; I tilosofi inimaginarj, Naples, 1788 ; 
I capriccj in amore, Venice, 1791 ; L' im- 
l^resario in scompiglio (farce), IVIilan, Tea- 
tro della Canobbiana, 1791 ; II medico Parig- 
ino, ib., 1792 ; II parrucbiere, Berlin, 1793 ; 
L' isola disabitata ; Le Cinesi. — Fetis. 

ASTARTE, Italian opera, text by Zeno, 
music by Albinoni, Venice, 1708 ; music by 
Fago, Naples, 1709 ; music by Predieri, 
Bologna, 1715 ; music by Caldara, Vienna, 
1718 ; music by Giovanni Battista Bonou- 
cini, London, 1720 ; German oisera, from 
Zeno's text, music by Treu, Breslau, 1725; 
Italian opera, music by Terradeglias, Rome, 
1736, Naples, 1739 ; music by Rauzzini, Mu- 
nich, 1769. 

ASTIANASSE. See A.^h/amx. 
ASTON (Ashton, Asbtan), HUGH, Eng- 
lish organist iu time of Henry VHI. A Te 
Deum for live voices and a motet for six 
voices by him are preserved iu the Music 
School, Oxford. 

ASTORGA, German opera iu three acts, 
text by E. Basque, music by Abert, first 
ref)reseuted with great success at Stuttgart, 
Sept. 20, 1866. The libretto is derived 
from the romantic story of the composer. 
Baron Emanuele d' Astorga, who, when on 
a diplomatic mission to the court of Parma, 
in 1704, fell in love with the duke's sis- 
ter, his pupil in music. Characters repre- 
sented : Astorga (T.), Angioletta (S.), Bal- 
bazes (Bar.), Eleonore (S.), Lauristan (B.), 
and Farnese (B.). 

born in Palermo, Sicilj', in 1681, died in 
Bohemia, Aug. 21, 1736. He was the son 
of the Marehese Capece da Roffrano, a Si- 
cilian noble, executed with several others 
for conspiring against the Spanish power. 
Having attracted the attention of the Prin- 
cess Ursini, maid of honour to the wife of 
Philip v., he was placed by her at the con- 
vent of Astorga, in Spain, where his musi- 
cal education (probably begun at Palermo 

under Francesco Scarlatti) was completed. 
On leaving the convent, after a few years' 
residence, he obtained the title of Baron d' 
Astorga, through his patroness's influence. 
Iu 1704 he was sent on a dij>lomatic mission 
to the court of Parma, where he made him- 
self very popular, but was sent to Vienna 
by the duke iu 1705, to break off a love 
affair between the young composer and his 
puj^il, Elisabetta Farnese, the duke's sister. 
He spent the greater part of his life in 
travels through Spain, Portugal, England, 
and Italy. Shortly after 1720 he retired to 
the Prince of Lobkwitz's Sehloss Kaudnitz, 
in Bohemia, where he remained until his 
death. He was a handsome man of the 
world, of graceful manners and pleasing 
address, and a most accomplished singer. 
As a composer, he is now chiefly famous for 
his great Skibaf. Mater for 4 voices (Oxford, 
1713). He wrote also a pastoral opera, 
Dafui (Barcelona, June, 1709), and many 
cantatas, of which the Abbate Santini has 54 
for soprano, 44 for contralto, with figured 
bass, and 10 for two female voices. The 
score of Dafni is in the Kiesewetter collec- 
tion in the Hofbibliothek, Vienna. The 
Stabat Mater, with additional accompani- 
ments by Robert Franz, is published by 
F. E. C. Leuckart, Leijssic. — Rochlitz, Fiir 
Freunde der Tonkuust, ii. 43 ; Grove, i. 99 ; 
Riehl, Musikalische Charakterkopfe, i. 16. 

ASTREA PLACATA (Astrea Appeased), 
Italian operetta in one act, text by Metas- 
tasio, music by Predieri, represented iu Vi- 
enna, Aug. 28, 1739, to celebrate the birth- 
day of the Empress Elizabeth. Scene iu the 
palace of Jove ; subject from Ovid's "Meta- 
morphoses." Characters represented : Gl- 
ove, Astrea, Apollo, La Clemenza, II Rigore. 
ASTREE (Astrea), lyric tragedy in three 
acts, text by La Fontaine, music by Colasse, 
represented at the Academic Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, Nov. 28, 1691. 

See Mignon. 

Cunning), Italian opera, text by Metastasio, 



music by Cimarosa, repi'esented at the Tea- 
tro del Fondo, Naples, 1793 ; Opera Italieu, 
Paris, Oct. 21, 1802, and again in 1803, 1814, 
and 187-4. — Clement and Larousse, 831. 

ASTYANAX (Ital., Astiauasse), French 
opera in three acts, text by Dejaure, music 
by Kreutzer, represented at the Opera, 
Paris, April 12, 1801. The libretto is de- 
rived from the " Troyades " of Eurijjides 
and of Seneca, and the hero is Astyauas, 
son of Hector and Andromache, who, after 
the fall of Troj', was hurled from the bat- 
tlements by the Greeks to prevent the ful- 
filment of the decree of fate, by which he 
was to restore the city. Italian operas on 
the same subject, text by Salvini : Astia- 
nasse, music bj' Leo, Naples, 1725 ; music bj- 
Vinci, Venice, 1725 ; music by Bouoncini, 
London, May 6, 1727 ; music by Jommelli, 
Rome, 1741 ; music by Pampiui, Italy, 1755 ; 
music by Galuppi, about 17G0. 

ATALANTA (Atalante), the Arcadian hunt- 
ress, who was won for his wife by Mela- 
niou, through a cunning stratagem, is the 
subject of several operas. Italian opera, 
text by Pallavicino, music by J. K. Karl, 
Munich, 1667 ; music by Draghi, Vienna, 
1669 ; text by Zeno, music by Chelleri, Fer- 
rara, 1713 ; music by Handel, London, May 
12, 1736 ; music by Johann Adolph Hasse, 
Dresden, 1737 ; music by Giordani, Turin, 
1792 ; music by Steffimi, Hamburg, 1698 ; 
German opera, music by Strungk, Leipsic, 
1695. Atalanta e Meleagro, music by Ei- 
ghini, Beriin, 1797. 

ATENAIDE, L', or, Gli affetti generosi, 
Italian ojieretta in two parts, text by Metas- 
tasio, music by Bonno, represented privately 
in the palace of the Ai'chduchess Marianna 
Isabella de Bourbon, Vienna, 1762. Sub- 
ject, the elevation to the imperial purple of 
Athenais, afterwards Eudocia, wife of Theo- 
dosius n.. Emperor of the East. Scene in 
an imperial palace on the banks of the Bos- 
porus. Characters represented : Teodosio 
il Giovane, Emperor, secretly in love with 
Atenaide ; Marziano, general of the imperial 
army, also in love with her ; Atenaide, se- 

cretly in love with Teodosio ; Pulcheria, 
elder sister of Teodosio, secretly in love 
with Marziano ; Asterio, imperial prince, 
also in love with Atenaide. 

A TE, O CARA. See PurUani. 

ATHALIA, oratorio, text by Samuel Hum- 
phreys, music b}' Handel, first performed at 
Oxford, July 10, 1733. The score of this, 
the third of Handel's oratorios, was finished 
June 7, 1733. The text is arranged in imi- 
tation of the " Athalie " of Racine. The 
oratorio was given in London five times 
in April, 1735, with Miss Young as Athalia, 
Siguora Strada as Josabeth,Carestini as Joad, 
Waltz as Abuer, and Master Goodwill (?) as 
the young King Joash. Handel rearranged 
much of the music of Athalia for an Italian 
serenata, called Parnasso in Festa, produced 
at the King's Theatre, March 13, 1734, in 
honour of the marriage of the Princess 
Royal with the Prince of Orange. The ora- 
torio was revived in London, June 20, 1845, 
by the Sacred Harmonic Society. Pub- 
lished by the Himdel-Gesellschaft (Leip- 
sic, 1859).— Schcelcher, Handel, 156 ; Rock- 
stro, Handel, 199. 

ATHALIE, music to Racine's drama of, for 
chorus and orchestra, by Mendelssohn, o-p. 74 
(ojj. 2, posth.) ; composed 1843 (choruses), 
i and 1844-45 (overture). Early in 1845 the 
choruses were rewritten and scored for or- 
chestra. It was first performed in Berlin, 
Dec. 1, 1845. It was given in England at 
Windsor Castle, Jan. 1, 1847, and by the Phil- 
harmonic, London, March 12, 1849. Cho- 
ruses for Athalie were written also by Abt 
Volger, Stockholm, 1791 ; by Gossec, Paris, 
1791 ; by Boildieu, ib., 1836 ; by Ftlix Cle- 
ment, ib., 1858 ; and by Cohen, ib., 1859. 

ATTALO, R£ DI BITINIA (Attalus, King 
of Bithynia), Italian opera, music by Johann 
Adoljah Hasse, represented in Naples, 1728 ; 
by Aurisicchio, London, 1758 ; by Alessandri, 
Florence, 1780; by Caruso, Rome, 1790. 

ATTENHOFER, KARL, born at Wetting- 
en, near Baden, Switzerland, May 5, 1837, 
still living, 1888. Composer, pupil of Dan- 
iel Elster at Baden, of Kurz at Neufcha- 



tel, aud of Richter, Papperitz, Dreyselioek, 
Rontgeu, and Scbleiuitz at the Conservato- 
rium iu Leipsic. In 1859 he became musical 
instructor at Muri (Aargau), iu 1863 con- 
ductor of a male singing society at Rappers- 
wyl, iu wbich capacity he soon won reputa- 
tion, and assumed the direction of several 
other societies, removing in 1867 to Ziirich, 
where in 1879 he became organist aud mu- 
sical director of the Catholic church. He 
is one of the most distinguished Swiss com- 
posers, especially of male choruses, but also 
of choruses for female, aud mixed voices, 
songs, pianoforte pieces, violin studies, aud 
some masses. — Riemann. 

land about 1740, died at Westminster, June 
11, 1796. Musician iu ordinary to George 
TIT, He composed numerous catches and 
glees, aud between 1778 and 1780 obtained 
from the Catch Club prizes for three glees 
and two catches ; he also wrote an oratorio, 
Goliah, which was performed at the Hay- 
market Theatre in 1773. About 1790 he 
published A Collection of Twelve Glees, 
Rounds, etc. A number of his glees and 
catches are in Warren's collections. 

ATTILA, King of the Huns (a.d. 434-454), 
called the Scourge of God, is the subject of 
several operas : Music by Pietro Antonio 
Ziani, Venice, 1672 ; music by Johann W^olf- 
gang Franck, represented iu Hamburg, 
1682 ; Italian opera, text by Rossi, music by 
Giuseppe Pariuelli, Venice, 1810 ; music by 
Malipiero, Venice, 1846 (later entitled Ilde- 
gonda di Borgogua) ; text by Solera, music 
by Verdi, Venice, 1846, New York, March 
15, 1850, one of the most feeble of the mas- 
ter's works. The terzet, " Te sol' quest' 
auima" (for S., T. aud B.), however, is one 
of the finest examples of Verdi's short con- 
certed pieces, aud has been sung more than 
anything else by him in this form. Attila 
iu Aquileja (in Aquileia, which he besieged, 
A.D. 451), opera seria, music by Giuseppe 
Persiani, Parma, 1827 ; Attila il Re de' 
Franchi (King of the Franks), text by So- 
grafi, music by Mosca, Palermo, 1818. 

ATTILIO REGOLO (Atilius Regulus), 
Italian opera iu three acts, text l>y Jletastasio, 
first set to music by Hasse and represented 
in Dresden, during the carnival, in 1750. 
Scene uear Rome. Characters represented : 
Regolo ; Manlio, consul ; Attilia and Publio, 
children of Regolo ; Barce, a noble Carthage- 
niau girl, slave of Publio ; Licinio, tribune 
of the people, in love with Attilia ; Amilcare, 
ambassador of Carthage, in love with Barce. 
The same text has been set to music also by 
Scarlatti, Rome, 1719 ; Egidio Naselli, Pal- 
ermo, 1748 ; Johauu Adolph Hasse, Dres- 
den, 1750 ; Jommelli, Rome, 1752 ; Carlo 
Monza, Munich, 1777. See also Eegulus. 

ATTRIJP, KARL, born at Copenhagen, 
March 4, 1848, still living, 1888. Organist, 
pupil iu 1867 at the Conservatorium in Co- 
penhagen, of Gade, whom he succeeded two 
years later as instructor at the same insti- 
tution. In 1871 he was appointed orgauist 
at St. Frederick's, aud in 1874 at the Church 
of the Redeemer, aud instructor of the or- 
gan in the Royal Institute for the Blind. 
He has given many organ concerts through- 
out Denmark, Schleswig, and Swedeu, and 
is the author of valuable organ music and 
of songs. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 17. 

ATTWOOD, THOMAS, born in London 
iu 1767, died there, March 28, 1838. Dra- 
matic composer and orgauist ; pupil of Dr. 
Nares and Dr. Ayrton, while a chorister iu 
the Chapel Royal, from 1776 to 1881, of Fi- 
lippo Ciuque and Gaetano Latilla in Naples 
in 1783-85, and of Mozart in Vienna until 
his return to England in 1787. He was 
under the immediate patronage of George 
IV., by whom, when Prince of Wales, he 
was sent to Italy to study, and fi-om whom 
he received most of bis appointments. 
Attwood held successively the following 
offices : Orgauist of St. George the Martyr, 
Queen Square, aud member of the Prince 
of Wales's chamber band ; musical in- 
structor to the Duchess of York in 1791, 
to the Princess of Wales in 1795, organist 
of St. Paul's Cathedral iu 1795, composer 
to the King's Chapel Royal on the death of 



Dr. Dupuis in 1796 ; organist of George 
IV. 's private chapel in the Pavilion at 
Brighton in 1821 ; and organist of the 
Chapel Royal in 1836. He occasionally 
conducted concerts of the Philharmonic 
Society, of which he became a member on 
its organization in 1813. Attwood's earlier 
compositions were dramatic, but later he 
devoted himself to church music, sonatas, 
songs, and glees. Attwood was a friend of 
Mendelssohn, who dedicated to him some 
of his best compositions. AVorks : The 
Prisoner, opera, given in London, 1792 ; 
The Mariners, do., ib., 1793 ; Caernarvon 
Castle, do., ib, 1798 ; The Adopted Child, 
do., ib., 1795 ; The Poor Sailor, do., ib., 
1795 ; The Smugglers, do., ib., 1796 ; The 
Mouth of the Nile, do., ib., 1798 ; The Devil 
of a Lover, do., ib., 1798 ; A Day at Rome, 
do., ib., 1798 ; The Castle of Sorrento, do., 
ib., 1799 ; The Red Cross Knights, do., ib., 
1799 ; The Old Clothesman, do., ib., 1799 ; 
The Magic Oak, do., ib., 1799 ; True Friends, 
do., ib., 1800 ; The Dominion of Fancy, do., 
ib., 1800 ; The Escapes, or the Water Car- 
rier (partly original, partly from Cherubiui's 
Les deux journees), do., ib., 1801 ; II Bon- 
docani, do., ib., 1801 ; St. David's Day, do., 
ib., 1801; The Curfew, do., ib., 1807; 
Two songs contributed to Guy Manneriug, 
1816 ; Anthem with orchestral accompani- 
ment, I was glad (written for coronation of 
George IV.) ; do., O Lord, grant the King 
a long life (coronation of William IV.) ; a 
volume containing four services, eight an- 
thems, nine chants (edited by his godson. 
Dr. Thomas Attwood Walmisley, fifteen 
years after Attwood's death). A third an- 
them was begun for the coronation of 
Queen Victoria, but never finished. His 
song, The Soldier's Dream, was long jwp- 
ular ; his glees, In peace Love tunes the 
Shepherd's reed, and, To all that breathe 
the air of Heaven, are still well known ; 
and his services in F and D are household 
words in most cathedrals. — Barrett, Eng- 
lish Church Composers, 152 ; Fetis ; Grove ; 
Naumaun (Ouseley), ii. 1287. 

ATYS, lyric tragedy in five acts, text by 
Quinault, music by Lulli, represented at 
St. Germain, before Louis XTV., Jan. 10, 
1676, and in Paris, August, 1677. Subject, 
the love of Cybele for the beautiful Phry- 
gian shepherd Atys. This work, now for- 
gotten, was greatly liked by the king. In 
1682, on its third representation, the ballet 
was danced by the chief lords and ladies of 
the court. It was reproduced ten times at 
the Academic de Musique between 1687 
and 1710. Quinault's text, reduced to 
three acts by Marmontel, with music by 
Nieolo Piccinni, was represented at the 
Academie de Musique, Feb. 22, 1780. 
Though successful, it did not keep the 
stage long. On the same subject are the 
operas, Atide, music by Giacomo Perti 
[ (with Tosi), Bologna, 1679 ; Atide, music 
\ by Mysliweczek, Padua, 1771 ; Atys, music 
by Ariosti, Lutzenburg, 1700 ; and Cibele 
et Ati, music by Antonio Bertali, Vienna, 

born at Caen (Cal- 

vados), Jan. 29, 
1784, died in Par- 
is, May 12, 1871. 
His father, Jean 
Baptiste Daniel 
Auber, was officer 
of the king's hunt, 
and an amateur 
musician ; and an 
uncle, Daniel Au- 
ber, was painter 
Auber first studied music as 
an accomplishment, taking pianoforte les- 
sons of Ladurner, and was sent to London 
to enter a commercial house. Business 
soon i^roved distasteful to him, and he re- 
turned to Paris, where he became well 
known in certain artistic circles for his 
compositions, mostly chamber music. His 
first dramatic work was a new setting of 
the text of an old comic opera, Julie, the 
orchestral part of which he wrote for strings 
only. This was soon followed by another 

to the king. 



opera ; both works were given in private ; first two and tliose otherwise marked, 
about 1812, and were much applauded, j Works — Operas : Julie, 1812 (?) ; Le sejour 
In sinte of these amateur successes, he felt ! militaire, 1813 ; Le testament, 1810 ; La 

dissatisfied with his work, and began seri 
ous studies under Cherubini. His studies 
ended, he wrote a four-part mass. He first 
appeared before the public in 1813, with an 
opera in one act, Le sujour militaire ; this, 
with Le testament, ou les billets-doux, 1819, 
was wholly unsuccessful. But in 1820 his 
three-act La bergere chatelaine, given at 
the Opera Comique (Feydeau), was much 
applauded, and Emma, ou la promesse im- 
prudente, 1821, confirmed his reputation. 
In Le concert a la cour, and Lij>cadii\ both 
182-1, and notably iu Le mapon, 1825, a 
new and more mature development of his 
style was noticeable ; here begins his sec- 
ond manner. This second period closed 
gloriously with La Muette de Portici, given 
at the Opera, 1828. To his third period 
belong his master-works. La fiancee, Fra 
Diavolo, Leittocq, Le chrva! de bronze, Le 
domino noir, Zanetta. "With the Diamants 
de la couronne (1811) his style began to 
expand still further, and he 
reached the apogee of that form ^ J\)Ww^'«b», ?<)vJ*^v«Jcuv 'i.^jui^J^ ^- w^^InqiA' | 
known as the opera-comique. To 

this fourtli period belong also La part d'amour 1869. — B. Jouvin, D. F. E. Auber, 
du diable. La airhie, and Haydie. Auber j sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, Heugel, 1861) ; 
was at once the greatest and the most Dwight's Journal, ii. 179; xxii. 291; E. de 
characteristically French of all the writers Mirecourt, Auber (18.'5-l-58). 
of opera comique. He did not enter upon AUBERLEN, SAMUEL GOTTLOB, 
his professional career until the age of born at Feilbach, near Stuttgart, Nov. 23, 

berghre chatelaine, 1820 ; Emma, 1821 ; 
Leicester, 1823 ; La neige, 1823 ; Le concert 
a la cour, 1824 ; Iji-ocadic, 1824 ; Le marnn, 
1825 ; Fiorella, 182() ; Le timide, 1826 ; La 
muelle de Portici, Opera, 1828 ; La fiand-e, 

1829 ; Le diexi et la bayadere, Opi'ra, 

1830 ; Fra Diavolo, 1830 ; Le philtre, Opura, 

1831 ; Le servient. Opera, 1833 ; Gastave 
in.. Opera, 1833 ; Lestocq, 1834 ; Le cheval 
de bronze, 1835 ; Action, 1836 ; Les cha- 
perons blancs, 183G ; L'AmhaAsadrice, 1836 ; 
Le domino noir, 1837 ; Le lac des fees, Opi'ra, 
1839 ; Zanetta, 1840 ; Les diamants de la 
couronne, 1841 ; Le due d'Olonne, 1842 ; La 
jxirt du Diable, 1853 ; La siriine, 1844 ; La 
barcarolle, 1845 ; Haijdec, 1847 ; L'rnfant 
prodigue. Opera, 1850 ; Zerline, Opera, 1851 ; 
Marco Spada, 1852 ; Jenntj Bell, 1855 ; Ma- 
non Lescaut, 185(> ; La Circassienne, 1861 ; 

I Jjo, Jiancee du roi de Garbe, 

/Y , ijti^ 1864 ; Jje premier jour de 

•^ ''^ / bonheur, 1868 ; lUves 


twenty-nine ; his last opera. Roves d'amour, 
was written at the age of eighty-five. If 
his genius showed symptoms of decay 

1758, died at Ulm after 1824. Organist ; 
after having occupied positions as conduc- 
tor, Conzertmeister, and organist at Zii- 

in the last few years of his life, some rich, Stuttgart, Zofingen, Winterthur, Tii- 
of his very best work was done when he bingen, and Schaffhausen, under constant 

adversities, which he lias described in an 
autobiography (Ulm, 1824), he was finally 

was over sixty. In 1825 he was named 

chevalier of the Legion of Honour, and was 

admitted member of the Academic des appointed oi-ganist and musical director at 

Beaux Arts de llnstitut in 1829. He ^ the Cathedral of Ulm iu 1819. Works: 

wrote forty-two operas (not counting those Lob der Poesie, Lob der Musik, cantatas ; 

which he wrote in collaboration with others), 
besides many ballets and occasional pieces. 

Das Fest der Christen auf Golgotha, orato- 
rio ; Mass ; Seclis moderne Walzer fiir 

In the following list, all were brought out Clavier, op. 7 (Augsburg, 1799) ; Euterpens 
at the Opera Comique in Paris except the Opfer am Altar der Gi-azien (1801); other 



collections of dances, etc., for pianoforte ; 
Forty melodies for male voices (Muuich, 
183-1:) ; Fifty songs for two, three, and four 
voices (Esslingen) ; etc. — Fetis. 

AUBEET, JACQUES (the elder), born 
in France, end of 17th century, died at 
Belleville, near Paris, in 1753. He was 
violinist in the roj'al band in 1727, first 
violinist in the orchestra of the Oprra and 
in the Concerts Spirituels in 171:8, in which 
year he became leader of the band and di- 
rector of the Due de Bourbon's private mu- 
sic. Works : 5 books of violin sonatas, 
with a bass ; 12 suites en trio ; 2 books of 
concertos for four violins, violoncello, and 
bass ; airs and minuets for two violins and 
bass ; La paix trioraphante, opera (1713) ; 
Diane, ballet divertissement, (with Bour- 
geois, 1721) ; Le ballet de 24 heures (1722); 
La reine des Peris, words by Fuselier 
(1725) ; La fete champetre et guerriere 
(174:6) ; Le ballet de Chantilly, cantata, 
Paris, 1728.— Fetis ; Grove. 

VIEE, born at Amiens in 1763, died (?). 
Violoncellist, member of the orchestra of 
the Opera Comique, Paris, for twenty-five 
years. Works : 3 quartets for two violins, 
viola, and violoncello, op. 1 (Ziirich, 1796) ; 
3 do., op. 2 ; 3 duets for violoncellos, op. 
3 ; 3 do., op. 5 ; do., op. 6 ; do., oj). 7 ; 
fitudes for violoncello, followed by thi-ee 
duets and three sonatas, ofi. 8 ; 8 books of 
sonatas. He has also published two meth- 
ods for violoncello. — Ft'tis. 

LOUIS, born at Verneuil (Eure), Dec. 9, 
1796, died there, February, 1870. Instru- 
mental composer, tirst instructed by his 
father, who was a good musician. At the 
age of five be was able to read music at 
sight, and at ten played difficult concertos 
on the flute and on the horn. In 1808 he 
was sent to Paris, and studied at the Con- 
servatoire, under Monsignj-, Mehul, and 
Cherubini until 1815 ; returned to Ver- 
neuil, where he seized every opportunity 
to take part in concerts, given by artists 

there and in the neighborhood. Obliged 
to live in the country from 1827 ou account 
of his health, he practised agriculture, pub- 
lished a method of instruction entitled 
" Grammaire musicale" in 1830, and, on the 
organization of the National Ciuard through- 
out France, formed at Verneuil a militarj' 
band of forty, which led to the institution 
of similar musical unions among the rural 
pojjulation. His compo.sitious, consisting of 
sonatas, and marches for the pianoforte, 
quartets, trios, and other chamber music, 
number 156 works, a complete list of which 
may be found in : Socii'to Philharmonique de 
I'Eure, de I'Orne et d'Eure-et-Loire (L'Aigle, 
Ginoux, 1866). His comic opera, Les 
amants querelleurs, received at the Opera 
Comique, was given at the Gj'mnase in 
1824, arranged as a vaudeville, for which 
purpose the author of the libretto had with- 
drawn it. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 30. 
AUDEAN, EDMOND, born at Lyons, 
April 11, 1842, still 
living, 1888. Dra- 
matic composer, son 
of the tenor Marius 
Audran, pupil at the 
Ecole Niedermeyer, 
Paris, where he won 
the prize for compo- 
sition in 1859 ; set- 
tled with his father, 
in 1861, at Marseilles, 
where he is maltre de ehapelle at St. Joseph's. 
Works : L'Ours et le Pacha, comic opera, 
given at Grand Theatre, Marseilles, 1862 ; 
La chercheuse d'esprit, ib., 1864 ; La Niver- 
naise, ib., Gymnase, 1866 ; Le petit Poucet, 
operette, ib., 1868 ; Le grand Mogol, do., 
ib., 1877 ; Les noces d'Olivette, comic opera, 
Bouffes Parisiens, Paris, 1879 ; La maxcotle, 
opera-bouffe, ib., 1880.— Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 33. 

AUF HOHEN BEFEHL, comic opera, 
text and music by Carl Beinecke, repre- 
sented at the Stadttheater, Hamburg, Oct. 
1, 1886. The libretto is an adaptation of 
Eiehl's novel, "Ovid bei Hofe." It was 


conclucted by the composnr, and met with 
decided success. 

See Rienzi. 

tation a la valse), rondo brillant for piano- 
forte, by Weber, op. G.5, dedicated to bis 
Caroline, composed 1819, first original edi- 
tion, Berlin (Schlesinger). This happy in- 
spiration must forever remain a standard 
work. You seem to see the respectful lover 
approaching the object of his affection, and 
claiming her hand for the dance. The coy 
damsel at first but half consents, but after 
some slight hesitation is persuaded. En- 
circled by the arm of her happy partner, 
she listens to the accents of passionate love 
whispered in her ear, to which she replies 
in subdued but encouraging tones. The 
dance becomes more animated, and the hap- 
py swain carries his future bride through 
the mazy throng till the last chord of the 
exciting dance. Then demurely he bows 
his farewell. Among the different arrange- 
ments of this piece, whose popularity is 
unexampled, the following deserve special 
mention : One, with somewhat larger treat- 
ment of the pianoforte, by Henselt, and a 
still more elaborate one, " with arabesques 
for concei't performance," by Tausig (See 
von Lenz, Drei grosse Klavier-Virtuosen) ; 
one for eight hands, by Otto Dresel, and 
Berlioz's matchless transcription for full or- 
chestra (See Berlioz, Mc' moires, 330). It 
has also been arranged for soprano with 
pianoforte accompaniment, to the words, 
Vieni, o cara, etc. — Benedict, 153. 

born about 1720, died in 1778. Organist, 
and Kapellmeister at Kempten about 17.50. 
His three concertos for organ, with orches- 
tra (Augsburg, 175Jr), entitle him to remem- 
brance. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

TON, Kapellmeister at Passau, beginning 
of the 17th century. Works : Concors dis- 
cordia, consisting of six overtures (Nurem- 
berg, 1695) ; Dulcis fidium harmonica, sona- 

tas (ib., 1099) ; Vesperte soleranissimse, op. 
5 (Augsburg, 1709) ; Alaudsc quinque, con- 
taining five masses, op. 6 (ib., 1711) ; Duo- 
dena offertoria, op. 7 (Pas.sau, 1719) ; Cym- 
balum Davidis vespertinum, op. 8 (ib., 
1729).— Fetis ; SchiUing. 

Augury), cantata for three voices, text by 
Metastasio, music by Reutter, produced in 
SchOnbrunn, 17-19. Characters represented : 
Arciduchessa prima, Ai'ciduchessa seconda, 
Arciduchessa terza. 

AULAGNIER, ANTONIN, born at j\[a- 
nosque (Basses-Alpes) in 1800, still living, 
1888 (?). Composer, pupil of Benoist at the 
Conservatoire, Paris, where he afterwards 
established himself as a music publisher. 
Works : 2 masses for three voices ; O Salu- 
taris, do. ; Domine, salvum fac regem, do. ; 
Variations, rondos, melanges, etc., for piano- 
forte ; Square dances for several instru- 
ments ; Romances for one and two voices ; 
Faux-bour<lons roraains et parisiens, for 3 
voices. — Fetis. 

AULETTA, PIETRO, flourished in Italy, 
first half of the 18th century. Dramatic 
composer, maestro di capjjella to the Prince 
of Belvedere. Works : Ezio, opera, given 
in Rome, 1728 ; U Marchese Sgrana, NajDles, 
Teatro Nuovo, 1738 ; L" Amor costante, ib., 
Teatro de' Fiorentini, 1739 ; Orazio, Venice, 
1748 ; H Giocatore, H maestro di musica, 
interludes, given in Paris, 1752. Domenico 
Auletta, probably his son, is the author of 
an opera buffa. La loeandiei'a di si)irito, 
given in Naples about 1820. — Fetis. 

flourished about 1789 in Hamburg, where 
he was organist. Works : Choralbuch fiir 
das neue Hamburgiselie Gesangbueh (Ham- 
burg, 1787) ; Hochzeit Cautate (ib., 1787) ; 
Oster Oratorium (ib., Matthiesen, 1788) ; 
Das Hocheuauer Schiffgeschrei, for four 
voices, two violins, and bass. A comic opera, 
Das neue Rosenmiidchen, was given in Ham- 
burg, 1789. — Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

Paris, July 31, 1818, still living, 1888. Vio- 


liuist, pupil at the Conservatoire of Guerin 
and of Baillot, wou the second prize for vio- 
lin in 1837, then studied composition until 
1840. Works : Air varie, for violin and or- 
chestra (Paris, Richault) ; Les caracteres, 
three fantaisies for violin (ib., Challiot) ; 
Duo coucertant for pianoforte and violin 
(ib ) ; Fautaisie on a French theme, for do. 
(ib.) ; do. on an Italian theme (ib.) ; do. on 
a German theme (ib.). — Fetis. 
A UNA FONTE. See Purilani. 
Palmyra), Italian opera, music by Rossini, 
represented in Milan, 1811. It was unsuc- 
cessful, but some of its principal parts have 
been preserved in other woi-ks of the com- 
poser. The melody of the first chorus, 
" Sposa del grande Osiride," which had jsre- 
viously done duty as a chorus in Giro in 
Babilonia, is now the cavatina of Almaviva, 
" Ecco ridente in cielo," in II barhiere di 
Siviglia, and the overture is now the intro- 
duction to the same work, after having served 
meanwhile as the overture to Elisabetta. 
Aureliano failed also in London. — Stendhal, 
Vie de R. ; Edwards, Life of R., 65. 

Vienna about 1776, died there in 1841. 
Pianist, pupil of jMozart, Richter, and Kotze- 
luch ; gave annual concerts at the Burg- 
theater, and was especially skilful iu extem- 
jjorizing, and varying a given theme. She 
composed 63 works for her instrument. — 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

about 1750 in Rome, where he died young. 
Maestro di cappella at S. Giacomo degli 
Spagnuoli, Rome. His works consist of 
psalms, motets, cantatas, and masses, and 
an opera, Attalo, given in London, 1758. — 

Robert le Diable. 

ETOILES. See I'rophrte. 

AUSTIN, WALTER, English composer, 
contemporary. Works : The Fii-e King, can- 

tata ; The Stepmother, operetta ; Overtures 
for orchestra ; Pianoforte pieces ; Songs, etc. 

born at Palermo, Sicily, Dec. 25, 1845, still 
living, 1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Platania, and in Florence of Mabellini. 
Works : Marcellina ; Dolores, given at Flor- 
ence, Teatro della Pergola, 1875 ; H Negri- 
ero, Barcelona, 1878 ; Stella, Piaeenza, 1880. 
■ — Fetis, Sujjjjlement, i. 34. 

born at Saint-Quentin (Aisne), in 1758, died 
at Mons, Belgium, in December, 1824. Vio- 
linist, pupil of Jaruovich ; unfortunately 
became deaf at the age of thirty-five, and 
thenceforth devoted himself more to com- 
position. Works : Several concertos, duets, 
and other works for violin ; Songs. — Fetis. 

AUVERGNE, See D'A n ivrgne. 

composer of clmi-ch music, maitre de mu- 
sique of the Eglise des Innocents, Paris, 
in the second half of the 17th centur3'. 
Works : Missa, Iste confessor, for 4 voices 
(Paris, Ballard) ; Missa, Legem pone, do. 
(ib.) ; Missa, O gloriosa Domina, do. (ib.) ; 
Missa, Tu es Petrus, for 5 voices (ib.) ; Jlissa, 
Ne moreris, do, ( ib ) ; Missa, Confitebor 
Domine, do. (ib.) ; Missa, Fundamenta ejus, 
do. (ib.).— Fetis. 

FausI, Gounod. 


A U X C O U S T E AU X (Hautcousteaux), 
ARTHUR, born iu Beauvais, Picardy (Ma- 
quin) or Saint Quentin (Gomart), died in 
1656. He was a singer in the church of 
Noyon (1627) ; music teacher in the College 
of Saint-Quentin, maitre de la Sainte Cha- 
I pelle, and haut-contre in the chapel of Louis 
Xni., Paris. From the advanced style of 
his music he is thought by Fctis to have 
studied the Italian composers. He was the 
author of numerous masses and chansons, 
among which is a collection of chansons 
dedicated to Molt'-.— Grove ; Fetis ; Men- 
del, i. 306 ; Nouv. biog. gen. 



AVMIO, L' (The Miser), Italian opera, ISth century, died about 1786. Dramatic 

music by Anfossi, represented in 1775 ; 
music by Sarti, Venice, 1777 ; music by 
Rutiui, Rome, 1789 ; music by J. S. Mayr, 
Venice, 1799 ; music by Orlandi, Bologna, 
1801 ; music by Josef Haydn, Paris, 1802 ; 
music by Bianchi, Paris, 1804 ; music by 
Fioravanti, about 1804 ; music by Cordelia, 
Naples, about 1810 ; music by Conte Miari, 
Venice, 1811 ; music by Savij, Parma, 
1840 ; music by Quarenghi, 1863 ; mu- 
sic by C. Brizzi, Bologna, 1877. L' avaro 
burlato (The Miser Tricked), Italian comic 
opera, by Giovanni Puisiello, Prague, 1784 ; 
by Giuseppe Sborgi, 1873 ; by Margaria, 
Turin, 1877. L' avai-o deluso (The Miser 
Deluded), by Sacchini, Loudon, 1778. L' 
avaro punito (The Miser Punished), by Ga- 
lujjpi, about 1760. 

AVE, VERUM CORPUS, motet for 
chorus, with string accompaniment, by Mo- 
zart, composed at Baden, near Vienna, in 
June, 1791. 

D', Spanish comisoser, living about the 
close of the 16th century. He published the 
following work : Motecta festorum totius 
anni cum communi sanctorum, quatuor, 
quiuque, sex et octo vocibus (Rome, 1585). 
— Fetis. 

AVISON, CHARLES, born at Newcas- 
tle-upon-Tyne, England, in 1710, died there 
May 10, 1770. Vocal comjjoser and or- 
ganist, pupil of Geminiani ; studied also in 
Italy. In 1736 he became organist of the 
Church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle. He was 
the author of " An Essay on Musical Ex- 
pression" (1752), and he edited, with John 
Garth, organist of Durham, Marcello's 
Psalms (1757), adapted to English words. 
Works : 5 concertos for a full band of 
stringed instruments ; 2 sets of sonatas for 
harpsichord and two violins ; Quartets and 
trios. The once popular air, " Sound the loud 
timbrel," is adapted from one of his concer- 
tos. — Hawkins ; Grove ; Brand, Newcastle. 

composer and violoncellist. Works ; Bere- 
nice, ojjera, given at Najales about 1730 ; H 
mondo della luna, do., ib., about 1732 ; 
Gioa, rii di Giuda, oratorio ; La morte 
d' Abele, do. ; Twelve sonatas for violin and 
violoncello, op. 1 (Amsterdam, 1732) ; Duets 
for violin and violoncello. Tlie manuscript 
scores of his two oratorios are in the Royal 
Library at Berlin. — Peti.s. 

the Married), Italian opera bufta, music by 
Cimarosa, represented in Najile.s, 1780; mu- 
sic by Isouard, his first opera, Florence, 
1795 ; music by J. S. Mayr, Venice, 1798 ; 
music by Caruso, Rome, 1810 ; nuisic by 
Henri Cohen, written for Naples, 1838, but 
not produced. 

AWAKE, MY SOUL, hymn, music by 
Franrois Hippolyte Barthelemon, written in 
London, about 1780. 

AXUR, RI5 D' ORMUS. See Tarare. 
AYLWARD, THEODORE, born in 1731, 
died in London, Feb. 27, 1801. He was 
awarded a prize medal by the Catch Club 
in 1769, and became professor of music in 
Gresham College in 1771 ; organist and 
choirmaster at St. George's Chapel, Wind- 
sor, in 1788. Mus. Doc, Oxford, 1791. 
Works : 6 lessons for the hari^sichord, or- 
gan, or pianoforte, op. 1 ; Elegies and glees, 
op. 2 (1785) ; Music for the dramas Harle- 
quin's Invasion, Midsummer Night's Dream, 
etc. ; 8 canzonets for two sopranos ; Glees ; 
Church music. — Grove. 

AYRTON, EDMUND, born at Ripon, 
England, in 1734, died in Westminster, 
London, May 22, 1808. Organist, pupil of 
Dr. Nares. He was elected, when quite 
young, organLst of the collegiate church of 
Southwell ; became in 1764 a gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal, and soon after vicar-choral 
of St. Paul's, and one of the lay clerks of 
Westminster Abbey. In 1780, on the res- 
ignation of Dr. Nares, he was appointed 
master of the children of His Majesty's 

AVONDANO, PIETRO ANTONIO, born ^ chapels, which post lie held until 1805. He 
at Naples about the beginning of the received the degree of Mus. Doc. from the 


Uuiversity of Cambridge in 1784, aud was j 
afterwards admitted ad eundem by the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. He was given tliis for 
bis autbem, Begin unto my God with tim- 
brels, w^hich was performed in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, July 28, 1784, the day of general 
thanksgiving for the termination of the 
American Revolutionary War. Works : Two 
complete morning and evening services, sev- 
eral anthems, and other church composi- 
tions. William Ayrton (born Feb. 24, 1777, 
died May 8, 1858), musical critic and editor, 
was his son. 

AZEIVIIA, French opera-comique in three 

Dugazon as Azemia. 

acts, text by Lachabeaussi^re, original sub- 
ject, music by Dalayrac, represented at the 
Italieus, Paris, May 3, 1787. One of the 
composer's best works. Its "Ah! que je 
sens d'impatience, mon cher pays, de te re- 
voir," had a universal popularity. Like 
other of the composer's works, the finale is 
notable for the skilful and fluent treatment 
of the choral parts. The character of Aze- 

mia was one of the most remarkable crea- 
tions of Mme Kosalie Dugazon (nee Le- 
fevre, born in Berlin in 1755, died in Paris, 
Sept. 22, 1821), who played with unvarying 
success until 1806, when she retired from 
the stage. The classes of parts in which 
she excelled are still known on the French 
stage as "jeunes Dugazon" and "meres 

born at Heudeber, near Halberstadt, 
Prussian Saxony, April 15, 1800, still liv- 
ing, 1888. Pianist and organist, pupil of 
the brothers Samuel and Karl MiiUer at 
Halberstadt, of Hummel at Weimar, and, in 
theory, of Friedrich Schneider at Dessau. 
He was organist at Halberstadt, Wolfen- 
biittel, and Miihlhauseii, but returned to 
Halberstadt in 1838 to conduct a singing 
society, and has done much for the promo- 
tion of musical life there. Works : 6 songs, 
op. 1 (LeiiJsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; 6 polo- 
naises for pianoforte, op. 2 (ib.) ; Rondo for 
do., op. 3 (Berlin, Trautwein) ; 6 songs, op. 
5 (ib.) ; Grand variations on an original 
theme, op. 4 (Mainz, Sehott) ; Grand sonata 
for pianoforte, oj). 6 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel) ; Odeon, collection of new composi- 
tions, 1st and 2d vol. (Wolfenbiittel, Hart- 
manu) ; Variations and rondo, op. 9 (ib.) ; 
Amusement, for pianoforte, op. 10 (ib.) ; So- 
natine, op. 12 (ib.) ; 12 waltzes, op. 11 
(Leipsic, Hofmeister) ; Prelude for organ 
(Erfurt, Kih-ner) ; Songs for four voices, 
with pianoforte, op. 13 (Halberstadt, Frantz); 
Male choruses for four voices, op. IG (ib.) ; 
Salve Regina, for four voices, with orches- 
tra ; Die Verklarung des ErlOsers im Tode, 
cantata, performed in Halberstadt Cathe- 
dral, 1822.— Fi'tis ; Mendel. 

BA.\L, ERHORE UNS, chorus of Priests 
of Baal, in Mendelssohn's Elian, Part I. 

BABAN, GRACIAN, musical director 
of the Cathedral of Valencia, Spain, in 
1G50-65. Masses and motets, written by 
him for several choirs, are preserved there. 


BABBI, CRISTOFORO, born at Ceseua, 
Italy, iu 17i8, died at Dresden in 1814. 
Violinist, pupil of Paolo Albergbi ; became, 
iu 17',)0, Coiizeitmeister to the Elector of 
Saxony. Works : Concertos for the violin ; 
Symphonies for church and chamber ; Quar- 
tets and duets for the flute ; Augusta, can- 
tata (1789).— Mendel ; Schilling. 

BABELL, WILLIAM, born in England 
in lU'JU, died iu Loudon in 1723. Violinist 
and organist, i^ujsil of Dr. Pepusch ; was a 
member of the Royal Baud of Music and 
organist of All -Hallows Church, Bread 
Street, London. Works : 12 solos for vio- 
lin or oboe ; 12 solos for flute or oboe ; 6 
concertos for octave flutes and violins. 

matic composer of the ISth century. He 
went to Paris iu 17GG with his wife, an 
actress of reputation, and iu 1770 success- 
fully produced the comic opera, Le uouveau 
marie, ou les imjiortuns, at the Comedie 
Italieune. In 1779 he returned to Italy. 

BACCELLI, Padre MATTEO, born at 
Lucca about 1680, died there in 175G. 
Church comjjoser, jii'ofessor of music at 
the seminary of San Giovanni. He wrote 
masses, graduals, motets, and psalms for 
four voices, a Domine, a Dixit, and a Mag- 
nificat for do., with instrumental accompa- 
niment. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 36. 

BACCHINI, CESARE, born in Flor- 
ence in 1816. Dramatic comjjoser, pujjil 
of Aniehini on the jjianoforte and in har- 
mony, of Giovacchino Giovacchini on the 
violin, and of Mabellini in composition. 
Works — Operas : II quadro jjarlante, given 
at Florence, 1871 ; La secchia rapita (with 
Deschamps, Felice, Giraldini, Tacchinardi, 
and Usiglio), ib., Teatro Goldoni, April, 
1872 ; La caeciata del Duco d' Ateue, ib., 
Teatro Pagliano, Feb. 1871 ; Delmira, ib., 
Dec. 5, 1878.— Fetis, Supplement, i. 36. 


bass air in F major, iu Handel's Ale.rander's 
Feast, Part I. 

Perugia about the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury. He composed the opera Abigail, 
given at Citta della Pieve, Province of Pe- 
rugia, in 1691. — Fotis. 

BACCUSI, IPPOLITO, lived iu Verona, 
Italy, latter half of the 16th centur}-. He 
was maestro di cappella of the Cathedral of 
Verona in 1.590. His works include masses, 
madrigals, motets, and psalms, published 
in Venice during his lifetime (1592) by 
Gardpiio, Vincenti, and Ramjiazetti ; others 
are in the volume dedicated to Palestrina 
by fourteen Italian composers, and in oth- 
er publications of the day. Baccusi was 
amoug the first to introduce instruments 
as an accomjianimeut to the voices iu 
church singing, and this system is applied 
in two volumes of his works, one contain- 
ing vesi^er jssalms and two magnificats ; the 
title of the other book is : Hip25olyti Bac- 
cusi, Eccl. Cath. Veronse musicse magistri, 
missse tres, tuni viva voce turn omni in- 
strumentorum genere cantatu accommoda- 
tissimte, cum octo vocibus (Amadiuo, Ven- 
ice, 1596).— Fetis. 

BACH. The Bach familj' jiresents by far 
the most remarkable instance of hereditarj' 
genius in all history. In seven con.secutive 
generations we can count no less than forty- 
nine musicians, of whom at least twenty de- 
serve to be classed as important figures in 
musical history. Of the eldest member of 
the family to whom the genealogy is trace- 
able, Hans Bach, nothing is known save 
that he was one of the trustees of the Parish 
(Gemeinde-Vormundschaftsglied) of Wech- 
mar, a little town near Gotha, in 1561. The 
first musical member of the family was Veit 
Bach (probablj' sou of this Hans), who has 
generally been looked upon as the head of 
the family tree. He was a miller or baker 
(possibly both), and used to delight in play- 
ing on the cythringen (diminutive for cith- 
ara, an instrument of the guitar tribe) ; he 
left his native place, and settled somewhere 
in Hungary ; a tradition, probably origi- 
nated by Korabiusky, fixes Presburg as the 


place, but this is wholly without authentic 
fouudation. Be this as it may, the Jesuit 
troubles in Hungary, under Eudolph 11., 
drove Veit, with other Lutherans, from the 
country (probably before 1597), and he re- 
turned to Wechmar. How many children 
he had is not known. The genealogy men- 
tions a Lips Bach (died Oct. 10, 1G20), three 
of whose sons are said to have been sent 
to Italy, by the reigning Count of Schwarz- 
burg-Arnstadt, to study music. But it is 
merely conjectural that Lips was Veit's son, 
and a good deal of evidence points to the 
rest of the story being apocryphal. It is 
known, however, with tolerable certainty, 
that Veit had at least two sous : one was 
Hans (known as " der Spielmann ") ; the 
name of the other is not known ; possibly it 
may have been Lijjs. But Hans and his 
unnamed brother were the heads of the two 
main branches of the Bach family, which 
branches unite in Veit. Both branches were 
rich in musicians, all of whom studied in 
Germany, a very notalsle fact at a period 
when it was the almost universal custom for 
musicians of any standing to go to Italy to 
finish their musical education. In course 
of time Arnstadt, Erfurt, Steinach, and 
Meiuingen became the headquarters, so to 
speak, of the family, which was a singularly 
united one, very distant cousins (in younger 
generations) living on terms of the greatest 
intimacy, and mutually helloing one another 
in their profession. The predominant fam- 
ily traits, apart from a genius for music, 
which grew apace until the fourth genera- 
tion after Veit Bach, were a certain persist- 
ent honesty and kindliness of character, an 
almost childlike religious faith and adhe- 
rence to the Lutheran Church, a great ca- 
pacity for hard work, and an equally great 
incapacity for living unmarried. 

[20], born at Weimar, March 14, 1714, died 
at Hamburg, Sept. (Dec. ?) 14, 1788. The 
third son of Sebastian [15]. His father 
originally intended him to study philoso- 
phy, and sent him to the Thomas-schule at 

Leipsic ; he afterwards studied law at the 
universities at Leijssic and Frankfort-ou- 
the-Oder, but his 
passion for music 
was so strong that 
he studied the art 
more thoroughly 
than is generally 
the case with ama- 
teurs, and, when 
he went to Frank- 
fort, was already a 
cultivated musician 
and a brilliant clavecinist. He conducted a 
singing society there, for which he com- 
posed some music, and at last gave up the 
law and chose music for his profession. In 
1746 he went to Berlin, and was made 
chamber-musician and clavecinist to Fred- 
erick the Great. He had, however, to give 
up this jjosition in 1757 at the first violent 
outbi'eak of the Seven Years' War. He 
went to Hamburg, where he took the direc- 
tion of the music in a church, and in 1767 
succeeded Telemann as Musikdirector of 
the principal church there, which post he 
continued to hold until his death. Emanuel 
Bach was one of the least musically gifted 
of Sebastian's sons, but his power of work, 
and especially his great intelligence and 
general culture, stood him in such good 
stead that he is certainly the most famous 
of them. The influence he exerted upon 
the subsequent development of the art of 
music can hardly be overrated ; he is prob- 
ably the most important figure in the trans- 
ition period between Sebastian Bach and 
Handel on the one hand, and Haydn and 
Mozart on the other. In his works we find 
the germs (and something more) of the cy- 
clical forms (sonata, symphony) and the 
homophonic style of composition which be- 
long to the later period of modern music-. 
He also anticipated, to some extent, the 
change in treatment of the orchestra which 
was completed by Haydn and his successors. 
He is especially important in the history of 
pianoforte playing. In his great theoretical 



work, "Versuch liber die wahre Art das 
Clavier zu spielen," he explained and devel- 
oped the j)rinciples set down hj his father. 
He thus may be regarded as the true foun- 
der of the modern schools of pianoforte 
playing. As a composer be was elegant, 
finished, and pleasing rather than great, but 
he was the man of all others best fitted to 
advance the art of music in his day. As a 
performer he was one of the greatest of his 
time. He is often known as the " Berlin " 
or "Hamburg'" Bach. Works — Instrumen- 
tal : IS symphonies for orchestra ; Bi mis- 
cellaneous pieces for wind instruments ; 11 
trios for flute, violin, and bass ; 7 do. for 2 
violins and bass ; 4 for various instruments ; 
2 concertos for oboe (also for pianoforte) ; 
i do. for flute ; 3 do. for violoncello ; 12 
soli for flute ; 2 do. for viola di gamba ; 
Solo for oboe ; do. for violoncello ; do. for 
liarp ; Duet for flute and violin ; do. for 2 
violins ; do. for 2 clarinets. For ijianoforte : 
52 concertos, 3 quartets, 59 trios, 195 sona- 
tas, 15 sonatinas, 24 minuets, 21 polonaises, 
4 duets, 9 solfeggi, 1 fugue, 2 marches, 24 
minor j^ieces, 9 symphonies arranged. Vo- 
cal : 2 oratorios. Die hraelilcn in der Wiiste, 
and Die Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt 
Jesu ; 22 Passions ; Many can 
tatas ; Psalms, motets, hymns, 
etc. ; Sanctus for 2 choirs 
Melodies to Gellert's sacrec 
songs ; Choruses, arias, secular songs, etc. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 744 ; Bitter, C. Ph. 
E. Bach, etc. (Berlin, 1868) ; Ft'tis ; Grove ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

BACH, CHRISTOPH [3], born at Wech- 
mar, April 19, 1613, died at Arnstadt, Sept. 
14, 16G1. The second of the thi-ee musical 
sons of Hans Bach [1], and grandfather of 
Sebastian Bach [15]. He was a professional 
musician (Kunstpfeifl'er), and attached to 
the household of the Duke of Weimar in 
that capacity ; also as " servant." About 
1640 he went to Prettin, in Saxony, where 
he married Maria Magdalena Grabler, whose 
father was probably town-musician there. 
lu 1642 he was member of a company of 


musicians in Erfurt, whence he went, in 
1653 or 1654, to Ai-nstadt, where he re- 
mained until his death. 

at Erfurt, Sept. 6, 1642, died at Schwein- 
furt, April 24, 1697. Eldest sou of Chris- 
toph Bach [3]. He was at first employed 
(in what cajDacity is not known) at a school 
in the little town of Heinrichs, near Suhl. 
In 1668 he was called to Themar, near 
Meiningen, where he became cantor, and 
twenty years later he moved to Schwein- 
furt, where he held the same position until 
his death. A composition of his for three 
male voices, with string accompaniment, on 
the text of a psalm, was once in the posses- 
sion of Philipp Emanuel Bach, but has since 
been lost. He is notable as the ancestor of 
the branch of the Bach family which mi- 
grated to Francouia, and several members 
of w^hich were excellent musicians. — Spitta, 
i. 152. 

BACH, HANS [1], born at Wechmar 
about 1580, died there, Dec. 26, 1626. Son 
of Veit Bach, and great-grandfather of Se- 
bastian Bach [15]. Generally known as 
"der Spielmann." Besides being a profes- 
sional '■Kunstpfeiifer " {i.e., j)layer on vari- 
ous orchestral instruments), he was a car- 
pet weaver by trade. He was well known 
about Gotha, Arnstadt, Erfurt, Eisenach, 
and Suhl, and had his portrait taken four 
times, a thing which, in those days, hap- 
pened only to notabilities. — Spitta, i. 8. 

BACH, HEINRICH [4], bom at Wech- 
mar, Sept. 16, 1615, died at Ai-nstadt, July 
10, 1692. Youngest son of Hans Bach [1], 
and head of the Arnstadt line ; was taught 
the violin by his father, but, even when a 
boy, his taste led him to the organ, which 
he studied under his elder brother, Johann 
[2]. In 1641 he became organist at the 
Liebfrauen-Kirche, Arnstadt, which post he 
held for over fifty years. He inherited his 
father's cheerful disposition, and his char- 
acter was such that he was beloved and re- 
spected by the whole community. He was one 
of the best organists of his time. Only one 



of his works has been preserved, an organ- 
piece on the chorale, " Christ lag in Todes 
Bauden." — Johauu Gottfried Olearius, Fu- 
neral Sermon (Arustadt, 1692) ; Spitta, i. 28. 
BACH, JAIvOB [5], born at Wolfsbehr- 
ingen, 1655, died at Euhla, 1718. Son of 
Wendel Bach, and generally recognized as 
the head of the Meiningen line of Bachs. 
He was cantor in Steinbach, and, from 
1694 to his death, in Euhla. He was the 
first teacher of Johann Theodore Romhild. 
— Spitta, i. ,11. 

BACH, JOHANN [2], born at "Weehmar, 
Nov. 26, 1604, died at Erfurt, May 13, 1673. 
Eldest son of Hans Bach [1]. He was ap- 
prenticed to Hoffmann, " Stadtpfeifer " in 
Suhl, and became organist there and in 
Schweinfurt. After a restless life during 
the Thirty Years' War, he settled in Erfurt 
as director of the Raths-Musikanten, Sept. 
27, 1635, and became organist at the Pre- 
diger-Kirehe, probably in 1647. He was a 
true Bach in the strict morality of his life, 
and his influence upon music in Erfurt, 
where he lived during the greater jiart of 
his life, was such that the town-musicians 
were known as " the Bachs " down to the 
second half of the 18th century. He was 
the head of the Erfurt line of Bachs. 
—Spitta, i. 15. 

at Erfurt, Feb. 9, 1045, died there in 1717. 
Second son of Johann Bach [2]. He was 
viola plaj'er among the town-musicians un- 
der his father's directorsliii) ; became, later, 
organist at the St. Michaelis-Kirche, and 
succeeded his elder brother as Raths-Musik- 
director in 1082.— Spitta, i. 23. 

at Erfurt, Feb. 22, 1045, died at Eisenach 
in 1095. Second son of Christoph Bach [3] 
and twin brother of Johann Christoph [9], 
also father of Johann Sebastian Bach [15]. 
He studied the viola under his father, and 
entered the association of the " Raths-Musi- 
kanten " at Erfurt in 1667, taking the place 
of his cousin Johann Christian [5]. In 
October, 1071, he settled in Eisenach, leav- 

ing his Erfurt position to his cousin Johann 
Jj^gidius [0]. The mental and physical like- 
ness between him and his twin brother was 
so great that their own wives could not tell 
them apart. He married Elisabeth Lilm- 
merhirt, April 8, 1008, and had the follow- 
ing children : 1. Infant, died soon after 
birth ; 2. Johann Christoph [13] ; 3. Johann 
Balthasar (born March 4, 1073, died April, 
1091) ; 4. Johann Jonas (born Jan. 3, 1675) ; 
5. Maria Salome (born May 27, 1077) ; 6. 
Johanna Juditha (born Jan. 20, 1080) ; 7. 
Johann Jakob [14] ; 8. Johann Sebastian 
[15]. — Funeral sermon by Valentin Schron 
on Dorothea Maria Bach (Eisenach, 1097) ; 
now in the Ducal Librarj', Gotha ; Spitta, 
i. 1.54, 171. 

born at Erfurt, Nov. 23, 1676, died at Ei- 
senach, June 11, 1749. Second son of Jo- 
hann ^gidius Bach [6]. He was organist 
at the Kaufmanns-Kirche at Erfurt, and 
afterwards at Magdeburg ; was called to 
Eisenach in 1703 to succeed the great Jo- 
hann Christoph [10] as organist at the St. 
Georgen-Kirche and other churches. Be- 
came also cembalist in the orchestra of 
I Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Sachsen-Eise- 
nach. He was one of the best organ com- 
posers of his day. His style was much 
like that of Pachelbel. Of his works there 
still exist four suites for orchestra, a 
few short pieces for harjisichord, several 
arrangements of chorales for organ. Eight 
of the latter are in the collection made by Jo- 
hann Gottfried Walther of Weimar. Tliree 
volumes of this are in the Royal Library at 
Berlin, a fourth in the Royal Library in 
KiJnigsberg, and a fifth in the possession 
of Herr Frankenberger in Sondershausen. 
Tlie orchestral suites are in the Royal Li- 
brary in Berlin.- — Spitta, i. 24. 


called the Milanese or the English Bach, 

born at Leipsic in 1735, died in London, 

1782. Youngest son of Johann Sebastian, 

I after whose death he went to Berlin to 

! study under his brother Philipp Emanuel ; 



but, being of a verj' convivial nature, he 
soon tired of the strict discipline and went 
in 1754 to Milan, 

where he became 
organist of the 
cathedral, and 
rapidly made him- 
self popular with 
the masses by 
ministering to the 
fashionable taste, 
thus degrading 
and wasting hia 
extraordinary tal- 
ent. To be able to devote himself entirely to 
dramatic composition, he accepted a call to 
London in 1763, and won abi'illiant, though 
not a lasting success. Almost immediately 
on his arrival, he was appointed music master 
to the queen and royal family. His oj)eras 
found great favour through their melody 
and lively instrumentation, to which he 
imparted a novel charm by the more fre- 
quent use of wind instruments ; he was also 
the first to abolish the frequent and tedious 
da capo in the great arias. That he did not 
lack the sense of the truly beautifid and 
sublime, in spite of his frivolous turn of 
mind, is proven by his few religious com- 
positions and symphonies, characterized by 
a touch of grandeur. By his elegant style 
of comjjosition he vastly promoted the love 
for pianoforte playing, and in his concertos 
essentially amplified the technique of the in- 
strument. Works — Oj>eras: Catoue, given 
in Milan, 1758, London, 1764 ; Orione os- 
sia Diana vendicata, Zanaide, London, 1763 ; 
Berenice, pasticcio (with Hasse, Galuppi, 
and Ferradini), ib., 1764 ; Adriano in Siria, 
ib., 1764 ; Carattaco, ib., 1767 ; Olimpiade, 
pasticcio, Vienna, 1769 ; Ezio, do., 1769 ; Si- 
face, London, about 1771 ; Temistocle, Paris, 
1772 ; Lucio Silla, ib., 1774 ; La clemenza 
di Scipione, Breslau, about 1733 ; Amadis 
des Gaules, Paris, 1779 ; Gioas, re de Giuda, 
oratorio, King's Theatre, 1770. Cantatas : 
Die Amerikanerin ; Rinnldo ed Armida ; 
Amor vincitore ; Aurora ; Endimiono 

(1772) ; The Litercession (1767) ; Salve Ee- 
gina ; Magnificat, for two voices and orches- 
tra ; Laudati pueri, for do.; Gloi'ia for four 
voices and orchestra ; Te Deum, and other 
church music ; 15 symphonies for eight 
instruments ; Sj-mphonie concertante ; 18 
concertos for pianoforte ; 6 quintets for 
flute and violin ; 30 trios or sonatas for 
pianoforte, violin, and bass ; 6 trios for vio- 
lins ; 6 quartets for do.; 2 quintets for 
2)ianoforte, flute, oboe, viola, and violon- 
cello ; Quartet for pianoforte, two violins, 
and bass ; 12 so- 
natas for piano- /O y^ t) O 
forte ; Sonata for ^ * ^ '/OCL..d^ „ 
four hands ; do. ^ 
for two piano- 

fortes. — Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 747; Allgem. 
Mus. Zeitg., viii. 811 ; Bitter, Carl Phil. 
Em. Bach, etc., ii. 140 ; Burney, iv. 480, 
486 ; Fctis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Schubart, Ideeu zu ehier Aesthetik der Ton- 
kuust, 201. 

born at Arnstadt, Dec. 8, 1642, died at Ei- 
senach, March 31, 1703. The eldest son of 
Heinrich Bach [4] ; studied under his fa- 
ther. He was called in 1665 to Eisenach, 
where he was appointed organist in several 
churches, notably the St. Georgeukirche. 
From 1()96 to his death he had free lodg- 
ings in the mint, and was probably court 
organist after Pachelbel's resignation in 
1678. On the 23d Sunday after Trinity, 
1667, he was married to Maria Elisabeth 
Wedemaun, whose father was town clerk at 
Eisenach. Johann Christoph was unques- 
tionably the greatest of all the Bachs ex- 
cejjting Johann Sebastian [15] ; he was not 
only one of the best organists and greatest 
contrapuntists of his daj', but one of the 
most important composers of the whole 
17th centui-y. None of his works were 
published, and most of them have been 
lost, but they were held in the highest 
esteem by Sebastian Bach and his son 
Philipp Emanuel, and the few choral com- 
positions of his that have been preserved 


show him to have beeu the great spiritual 
forerunner of Sebastian Bach, and perhaps 
still more of Handel. Like most of the 
family, he was wholly free from Italian in- 
fluence, and in -vigour of inspiration and 
perfection of form and style his works far 
surpass those of his German contemporaries. 
His more important works were : A sort of 
oratorio, Der SLreit zwischen Michael und 
dem Teufel (text from Eevelations, xii. 
7-12), for double chorus, orchestra, and or- 
gan. Sebastian had it performed at Leip- 
sic, as Philipjj Emanuel did in Hamburg. 
The score is the " Alt-Bachischen Archive," 
now in the Berlin Library. Eight motets 
are in the " Musica Sacra " of the Berlin 
Dom-Chor, and others are in Naue's "Neun 
motette . . . von Johann Christoph 
und Johann Michael Bach " (Leipsic, Hof- 
meister). A few unimportant organ and 
harpsichord works stiU remain. — Sjsitta, i. 
37, 4L 

at Erfurt, Feb. 22, 1645, died at Arnstadt, 
Aug. 25, 1693. Third son of Christoph 
Bacli [3], and twin brother of J. Ambrosius 
Bach [8]. After studying under his father, 
he was made court musician at Arnstadt in 
1G71, where he also assisted his uncle Hein- 
rich Bach [-1] in the church music. In 1681 
he was discharged, but was reinstated again 
in 1682, and made Stadtpfeifer besides. 
His principal instrument was the violin. — 
Spitta, i. 154 

born at Erfurt, June 16, 1671, died at 
Ohrdruff. Feb. 22, 1721. Eldest grown-up 
son of J. Ambrosius Bach [8] and brother 
of Sebastian Bach [15]. Studied from 1686 
to 1689 under Pachelbel, and in the latter 
j'ear took the position of organist at the 
Thomaskii'che, but soon afterwards went to 
Arnstadt to assist the old Heinrich Bach 
[4]. In 1690 became organist of the Stadt- 
kirche in Ohrdruff, where he remained 
until his death. He was Sebastian Bach's 
first clavier teacher, and was probably an 
excellent organist. He was succeeded, af- 

ter his death, by his second son, Johann 
Bernard Bach.— Spitta, i. 171, 181. 

FRIEDRICH [21], called the Biickeburg 
Bach, born at Leipsic, June 29, 1732, died 
at Buckeburg, Jan. 26, 1795. Ninth son 
and pupil of Johann Sebastian ; studied 
law at the University of Leipsic, but took 
up music as a profession, and became Ka- 
pellmeister to the count of Schaumburg- 
Lippe at Buckebui-g, which he left only 
once to visit London for a few mouths. 
Although lacking the great talent of his 
brothers, he was a worthj' disciple of his 
father, whose character and of 
heart he had also inherited. Works: Ino, 
cantata for a voice, with 2 violins, viola, 
and bass ; The Youth of Christ, biblical 
tableau, for 4 voices, 2 violins, viola, basso 
continuo, 2 flutes, and 2 horns ; The Res- 
urrection of Lazarus, oratorio, for 4 voices 
and orchestra ; Cantata for do. (1787) ; Can- 
tata for Ascension, for 4 voices, 2 violins, 
viola, and basso continuo ; 2 motets for 4 
voices ; Symphony for 2 violins, viola, bass, 
2 clarinets, bassoon, and 2 horns ; Pygma- 
lion, theatrical cantata ; 2 concertos for 
pianoforte and orchestra ; Trio for flute, 
violin, and bass ; Trio for 2 vioUns and 
bass ; Arias with orchestra ; 6 quartets for 
flute and strings; 6 do. for violins; Sona- 
tas ; Musikalisches Vielerley, a collection of 
miscellaneous pieces ; Musikalische Neben- 
stunden, do. ; Munter's geistliche Lieder, 
etc. — Bittex-, Carl Phil. Em. Bach, etc. 
(Berlin, 1868), ii. 131 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

BACH, JOHANN ERNST [18], born 
at Eisenach, Sept. 1, 1722, died there, Jan. 
28, 1777. Only son of Johann Bernhard 
Bach [12], he entered the Thomasschule at 
Leij^sic about 1735, and studied law at the 
university there. In 1748 he became as- 
sistant organist to his father, and succeeded 
him after his death. In 1756 he was made 
Kapellmeister at Weimar, but continued to 
live at Eisenach. As a church composer he 
was decidedly superior to most of his con- 
temporaries, albeit he lived in the tran- 


sition period between Sebastian Bach and 
Haydu, a period of general decadence in 
vocal composition. A list of bis existing 
choral works is given in Spitta, i. 849. 
Some of his compositions for clavier are 
published in Pauer's "Alte Claviermusik " 
(Leipsic, B. Senff). The IMSS. of a Fan- 
tasia and Fugue in A minor, and a Sonata 
in A major, are in the Berlin Library. — 
Spitta, i. S-IS. 

at Arnstadt, Aug. 9, 1048, died at Gehren, 
May, 1694. Third son of Heinricb Bach 
[4] and younger brother of the great 
Johann Christoph Bach [10]. He was a 
pupil and, later, an assistant of his fathei-'s. 
In 16TS he was made organist in Gehren, 
near Arnstadt. The house he lived in is 
still standing. Besides his official duties 
as organist, and his great activity as a 
composer, he also devoted much time to 
tlie manufacture of harpsichords, violins, 
etc. His youngest daughter, Maria Bar- 
bara Bach (born at Gehren, Oct. 20, 1684, 
died at Cothen, July 7, 1720), was the first 
wife of Sebastian Bach [15]. With the 
exception of his brother, Johann Christoph, 
Johann Michael was the greatest Bach of 
his generation ; while the former shone 
more especially in choral composition, the 
instrumental works of the latter were nota- 
bly fine. Yet a finer feeling for musical 
form characterizes the elder brother. 

born at Eisenach, 
probably March 
21, baptized 
March 23, 1685, 
died at Leipsic, 
July 28, 175 
One of the great- 
est masters of all 
ages, son of Am- 
b r o s i u s B a c h 

(1645-95), from whom he received his 
first instruction on the violin, and after 
whose death he was taken in charge by his 
elder brother Christoph at Ohrdruff. His 

fine voice and musical education aided liim 
in obtaining, in 1700, a position in the 
choir of St. Michael's at Luneburgs where 
the church library offered him rich treas- 
ures for the study of the old as well as liv- 
intr masters, from ^vhose works he chiefly 
studied composition through his own ef- 
forts. Georg, the cantor at St. 
John's, seems to have exerted a personal in- 
fluence upon him, and the vicinity of Ham- 
burg induced him to undertake various pe- 
destrian trips, in order to hear the famous 
organists Reiukeu and Vincenz Liibeck. 
At Celle, which he visited frequently, he 
became acquainted with French instrumen- 
tal music, zealously cultivated at that court. 
About Easter of 1703 he went to Weimgx 
as violinist to Johann Ernst, brother of the 
rei"-ning duke, and in the summer of the 
same year was elected organist of the new 
church at Arnstadt.- In the autumn of 
1705 he visited Liibeck to make the ac- 
quaintance of Buxtehude, and was so much 
attracted by this famous master of the or- 
gan that he did not return to his duties 
until February, 1706. In the year following 
he accepted a position as organist at Miihl- 
hausen, and married his cousin, Maria Bar- 
bara, daughter of Michael Bach ; in 1708 
he was called to Weimar as court organist, 
and, being chamber musician at the same 
time, he was made Concertmeister in 1714. 
His activity at Weimar was devoted princi- 
pally to tlie organ and to church miisic, 
and thence his fame as the first organist 
of his time and as a composer began to 
si^read. During the autumn vacation he 
used to travel, and thus visited Halle in 
1713 and 1716, Cassel (before 1714), Leip- 
sic in 1714, and Dresden in 1717. At the 
last place he found the much-admired 
French player Marchand, who evaded 
Bach's challenge for a musical contest by 
taking himself off on the very morning of 
the day agreed upon. In November of the 
same year he was called by Prince Leopold 
of Aniinlt to CiVtheju as Kapellmeister and 

director of his chamber music ; and he de- 


voted himself there principaUy to instru- 
lueutal music. The life at Cothen was in- 
terrupted only by a few journeys ; to Carls- 
bad, whither he had to accompany the 
prince several times, to Leipsic in 1717, to 
Halle in 1719, where he tried to make the 
acquaintance of Haudel, who had, however, 
left for England on the day of Bach's arri- 
val. In July, 1720, his wife died suddenly, 
while he was on his return from Carlsbad, 
and in the autumn he went to Hamburg to 
compete for the organist's position at the 
Jacobikirche, but without success. In De- 
cember, 1721, he was married again to 

Birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach. 

Anna Magdalena Wilken, and in May, 1723, 
accepted the call as cantor at the Thomas- 
kirche in Leipsic, in which capacity he was 
at the same time oi'ganist and director of 
music at St. Thomas and St. Nicholas. On 
May 30, 1723, he executed his first church 
service at Leipsic Subsequently he re- 
ceived the honorary appointment of Kapell- 
meister to the Duke of Weissenfels, and in 
1736, upon his special wish, that of court 
composer to the King of Poland and Elec- 
tor of Saxony. In his position at Leipsic 
his creative power was naturally turned 
again towards religious music, and there 
he composed the greater portion of his sa- 

cred cantatas, of which he wrote altogether 
five sets for every Sunday and feast-day in 
the year ; only 226 of these are known. 
His outward life was now simple and un- 
eventful ; he often visited Dresden, espe- 
cially since his son Friedemann had become 
organist there, and because he liked to at- 
tend the Italian oj)era, which flourished un- 
der Hasse. In 1747 he celebrated his lat- 
est triumph ; Frederick the Great, whose 
service Bach's son Philipp Emanuel had en- 
tered in 1740, had often expressed the 
ardent desire to see and hear the old mas- 
ter iu his capital, and Bach resolved, there- 
fore, to visit Potsdam, ac- 
companied by his son 
Friedemann. The king 
received him with the ut- 
most courtesj", and ex- 
pressed the highest ad- 
miration of the master's 
art in the most flattering 
terms ; a fugue theme 
which he gave him. Bach 
worked up at home in the 
most artistic forms, and 
dedicated to the king un- 
der the title Das musilc- 
alische Opfer. For some 
time his eyesight had 
been failing, and an op- 
eration which he under- 
went soon after his return 
to Leipsic resulted in total blindness; af- 
ter suifering also otherwise for six mouths, 
he suddenly recovered his eyesight once 
more, but ten days later breathed his last. 
Twenty children had been born to him, 
seven by his first, and thirteen 1)y his sec- 
ond wife ; of these, five sons and four 
daughters survived him. Bach is one of 
those great masters who cannot be sur- 
passed, because in them is embodied, so to 
speak, the musical knowledge and senti- 
ment of an entire epoch ; his especial sig- 
nificance and unexampled greatness lie in 
the fact that the styles of two different art- 
epochs have, in him and through him, at- 



f^- f^, f^ f^^ ff ff 


bV>r ' ' nn ^ ^^^^^ 




^ ■ fj ^j" j 

Facsimile of the MS. of Johann Sebastian Bach; from the rst Prelude in the Wohltempen.te Clavier. 


tained their liighest development ; like a ', lislied yearly since, witli a few intermissions, 

gigantic landmark be stands between them, 
towering above either in mighty grandeur. 
(With equal right he belongs to the preced- 
' iug period of polyphonic music, of contra- 
puntal, imitative style, and to that of har- 
monic music, of pronounced tonality. He 
lived in a period of transition, when the old 
style had not as yet outlived itself, while 
the new was in the first stages of its devel- 
opment, and bore the stamp of immaturit}-. 
Bach's genius combined the peculiarities of 
both styles in a way which may be consid- 
ered as worthy of attainment bj' a period 
still lying before us ; the growing obsolete 
of his music is therefore out of the ques- 
tion, as at best only some accessory parts, 
like cadences, embellishments, and the like, 
in which Bach is entirely a child of his 
times, remind us of the past. But his 
melody is so sound and inexhaustible, his 
rhythm so jiolymorphous and full of pulsa- 
tion, his harmony so select, and withal so 
clear, that his works are the object not only 
of admiration but of the most zealous study 
and emulation on the part of musicians, and 
will probably continue to be so for ages 
to come. Besides Handel, Bach is the last 
great master of the reigning church music, 
and the first great prophet of that domin- 
ion of German instrumental music which 
characterizes the second half of the 18th 
century. Works : A nearly complete cata- 
logue of Bach's works is given in Mitzler's 
" Musikalische Bibliothek " (1754). Only a 
few of the immense number were printed 
during his lifetime. Others were published 
after his death, but it was not until the per- 
formance by Mendelssohn of the Matthew 
Passion in Berlin in 1829, a century after 
its first f)roduction, that the musical world 
became conscious of the true value of the 
master's compositions. Editions then be- 
gan to multiply, and in 1850, the centenary 
of his death, was founded at Leipsic the 
Bach-Gesellschaft, for the publication of his 
entire works. The first volume was issued 
in 1851, and a new volume has been puW 

' in 

to the present time. The following sum- 
mary of the contents of the several volumes 
shows the published works of the composer : 

Year I. (1851). 10 Kirchencantaten (vol. 
i) : 1. Wie schiJn leuchtet ; 2. Ach Gott, 
vom Himmel ; 3. Ach Gott, wie manches ; 
4. Christ lag in Todesbanden ; 5. Wo soil 
ich flieheu hiu ; 6. Bleib' bei uns ; 7. Christ 
unser Herr ; 8. Liebster Gott, wann werd' 
ich sterben ? ; 9. Es ist das Heil ; 10. Meine 
Seel' erhebt. 

Tear H. (1852). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol ii.) : 11. Lobet Gott ; 12. Weinen Kla- 
gen ; 13. Meine Seufzer ; 14. Wiir Gott nicht 
mit uns ; 15. Denn du wirst meine Seele ; 
16. Herr Gott dich loben wir ; 17. Wer 
Dank opfert ; 18. Gleieh wie der Regen ; 
19. Es erhul) sich ein Streit ; 20. O Ewig- 
keit, du Donnerwort. 

Year IH. (1853). Clavierwerke (vol. i.) : 
15 Tnveitlions and 15 Sijmphonies. Klavier- 
iibung : Part 1, 6 partitas ; Part 2, A con- 
certo and a partita ; Part 3, Choral-preludes 
and 4 duets ; Part 4, Air, with thirty varia- 
tions ; Toccata in F-sharp minor ; Toccata 
in C minor ; Fugue in A minor. 

Year IV. (1854). Passion nach Matthaus. 

Year V. (1855). 10 Kirchencantaten (vol. 
iii.) : 21. Ich hatte viel Bekiiminerniss ; 22. 
Jesus nahm zu sich ; 23. Du wahrer Gott ; 
24. Ein ungefilrbt Gemiithe ; 25. Es 
uichts Gesundes ; 26. Ach wie iliichtig ; 27. 
Wer weiss, wie nahe mir ; 28. Gottlob ! nun 
treht ; 29. Wir dauken dir, Gott ; 30. Preue 
dich, erluste Schaar. WeiknachtsOvaXoviaia, 
in four parts. 

Year VI. (1856). Mass in B minor. 

Year VII. (1857). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. iv.) : 31. Der Himmel lacht ; 32. Lieb- 
ster Jesu ; 33. Alleiu zu dir, Herr ; 34. O 
ewiges Feuer ; 35. Geist und Seele ; 36. 
Schwingt freudig euch ; 37. We.r da glau- 
bet ; 38. Aus tiefer Noth ; 39. Brich dem 
Hungrigen ; 40. Dazu ist erschienen. 

Year Vni. (1858). 4 Masses, in F, A, 
G minor, and G. 

Year IX. (1859). Kammermusik (vol. i.) : 



3 sonatas for clavier and flute ; Suite for 
clavier and violin ; (i sonatas for do. ; '? so- 
natas for clavier and viola di ganiba ; sonata 
for fiute, violin, and figured bass ; sonata 
for two violins and do. 

Year X. (18(30). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. v.) : -11. Jesu, nun sei gepreiset ; 42. 
Am Abend aber desselbigen ; 43. Gotl fahret 
auf ; 4-4. Sie werdeu eucli ; 45. Es ist dir 
gesagt ; 46. Scbauet doch und sebet ; 47. 
Wer sicb selbst erbOhet ; 48. Icb elender 
Menscli ; 49. Icb geh' und eucbe ; 50. Nun 
ist das Heil. 

Year XI. (1861). Magnificat in D. 4 
Sanctus, in C, D, D minor, and G. Kam- 
mermusik (vocal) : Der Htreit zwiscben Pbce- 
bus und Pan ; Weichet nur, betrubte Scbat- 
ten ; Amove traditore; Contentment; Der 
ZiifriedcngealelUe J^olus. 

Year XII. (1862). Passion music from 
St. Jobn. 10 Kircbeucautaten (vol. vi.) : 51. 
Jaucbzet Gott ; 52. Falscbe Welt ; 53. 
Scblage docb ; 54. Widerstebe docb ; 55. Icb 
armer Meuscb ; 56. Icb will deu Kreuzstab ; 
57. Selig ist der Maun ; 58. Acb Gott, wie 
manches (2d version) ; 59. Wer micb liebet ; 
60. O Ewigkeit (2d version). 

Year XIII. (1863). Trauungx Cantaten : 
Dem Gerecbten muss das Licbt ; Der Herr 
denket an uns ; Gott ist unsere Zuversicbt ; 
3 chorales. Clavier werke (vol. ii.) : 6 Freiu-h 
suites ; 6 English suites. Trauer-Ode ou 
tbe Electress of Saxonj'. 

Year XIV. (1864). Clavierwerke (vol. 
iii.) : Das icohlleinperi.rle Clavier. 

Year XV. (1865). Organ works : 6 Sona- 
tas ; 18 Preludes and Fugues ; 3 Toccatas ; 

Year XVI. (1866). 10 Kircbencantaten 
(vol. vii.) : 61. Nun komm, der Heideu ; 62. 
Id. (2d version) ; 63. Cbristen, iitzet diesen 
Tag ; 64. Sebet, welcb' eine Liebe ; 65. Sie 
werden aus »Saba ; 66. Erfreut eucb, ibr 
Herzeu ; 67. Halt' im Gediicbtniss ; 68. 
Also hat Gott die Welt ; 69. Lobe den 
Herrn ; 70. Wachet, betet, seid bereit. 

Year XVII. (1867). Kammermusik (vol. 
. ii.) : Concertos for clavier and orchestra, in 

D minor, E, D, A, F minor, F, and G mi- 
nor ; Concerto for clavier, flute, and violin, 
with orchestra. 

Year XVIII. (1868). 10 Kircbencantaten 
(vol. viii.) : 71. Gott ist mein Kunig ; 72. 
AUes nur nacb Gottes Willen ; 73. Herr, 
wie du willst ; 74. Wer mich liebet (2d ver- 
sion) ; 75. Die Eleuden sollen essen ; 76. 
Die Himmel erzilhlen ; 77. Du sollst Gott ; 
78. Jesu, der du meine Seele ; 79. Gott der 
Herr ist Sonn' ; 80. Ei.n feste Burg. 

Yeai- XrX. (1869). Kammermusik (voL 
iii.) : 6 concertos for various instruments, 
with orchestra. 

Year XX. (1870). 10 Kircbencantaten 
(vol. ix.) : 81. Jesus scbliift ; 82. Icb babe 
genug ; 83. Erfreute Zeit ; 84. Icb bin ver- 
gniigt ; 85. Icb bin ein guter Hirt ; 86. 
Wabrlich, ich sage eucb ; 87. Bisher babt 
ibr nichts ; 88. Siebe, icb will viel Fischer ; 
89. Was soil ich aus dir machen ; 90. Es 
reifet eucb. 3 Dramas for various festivities. 

Year XXI. (1871). Kammermusik (vols, 
iv. and v.) : 2 concertos for violin and or- 
chestra ; 1 do. for two violins and orches- 
tra ; 1 symphony movement for violin ; 3 
concertos for two claviers and orchestra. 

Year XXII. (1872). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. X.) : 91. Gelobet seist du ; 92. Ich bab' 
in Gottes ; 93. Wer nur den lieben Gott ; 
94. Was frag' ich ; 95. Christus dor ist 
mein Leben ; 96. Herr Christ, der ein' ge ; 
97. In alien meinen Tbateu ; 98. Was Gott 
tbut, das ; 99. Do. (2d version) ; 100. Do. 
(3d version). 

Year XXIH. (1873). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. xi.) : 101. Nimm von uns, Herr ; 102. 
Herr, deine Augen sehen ; 103. Ibr werdet 
weinen und beulen ; 104. Du Hirte Israel ; 
105. Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht ; 106. 
Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit ; 107. Was 
willst du dicb betriiben ; 108. Es ist eucb 
gut ; 109. Icb glaube, lieber Herr ; 110. 
Unser ^lund sei voll Lachens. 

Year XXIV. (1874). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. xii.) : 111. Was mein Gott will ; 112. 
Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt ; 113. Herr 


Jesu Chiibt, du Luclistes Gut ; 114. Ach, 
lieben Christen ; 115. Mache dicli meiu 
Geist bereit ; 116. Du FrieJeusfiirst, Herr 
Jesu Christ ; 117. Sei Lob und Ehr ; 118. 
O Jesu Christ mein's Lebeu's Licht ; 119. 
Preise Jerusalem, den Herru ; 120. Gott, 
man lobet dich. 

Year XXV. (1875). Die Kunst der Fuge ; 
Orgelbilchlein ; Sechs Chorale (known as 
the " Schiibler'scheu ") ; Achtzehn Chorale 
(known as " diegrosseu mitdem Scbwanen- 
liede "). 

Year XXVI. (1876). 10 Kircheucantaten 
(vol. xiii.) : 121. Christum wir solleu loben 
schon ; 122. Das neugebor'ne Kindelein ; 
123. Liebster Immanuel, Herzogder From- 
men ; 124. Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht ; 

125. Mit Fried' und Freud' ich fahr' dahin ; 

126. Erhalt' uns, Herr, luit deiiiem Wort ; 

127. Herr Jesu Christ, wahr'r Mensch und 
Gott ; 128. Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein ; 
129. Gelobet sei der Herr, meiu Gott ; 130. 
Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. 

Year XXVH. (1877). 6 Sonaten fiii- vio- 
line ; 6 sonaten filr violoncell. 

YearXXVin. (1878). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. xiv.) : 131. Aus der Tiefe rufeich, Herr, 
zu dir ; 132. Bereitet die Wege, bereitet 
die Bahn ; 133. Ich freue mich in dir ; 134. 
Eiu Herz, das seinen Jesum lebeud weiss ; 
135. Ach Herr, mich armen Siinder ; 136. 
Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein 
Herz ; 137. Lobe den Herren, den machti- 
geu Kijnig der Ehren ; 138. Warum be- 
triibst du dich, mein Herz ; 139. Wohl 
dem, der sich auf seiuen Gott ; 140. Wachet 
auf, ruft uns die Stimme. 

Year XXIX. (1879). Kammermusik fiir 
Gesang : Cantaten ; Was mir behagt, is uur 
die muutre Jagd ; Non sa che sia dolore ; O 
holder Tag, erwiinschte Zeit (Hochzeits- 
Cantate) ; Hochsterwiinsehtes Freudenfest ; 
Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht ; Mer hahn 
en neue Oberkeet ; Mit Gnaden bekrone 
der Himmel die Zeiten (Gratulations-Can- 
tate) ; O, angenehme Melodei ; Instrumen- 
talsatz ffir Violine, Hoboe und Continuo. 

Year XXX. (1880). 10 Kirchencantaten 

(vol. XV.) : 141. Das ist je gewisslich wahr ; 
142. Uns ist ein Kind geboren ; 143. Lobe 
den Herrn, meine Seele ; 144. Nimm was 
dein ist, und gehe ; 145. So do mit deinem 
Munde bekennest Jesum ; 146. Wir miissen 
durch viel Triibsal in das Keich Gottes ein- 
gehen ; 147. Herz und Mund und That und 
Leben ; 148. Briuget dem Herru Ehre seines 
Namens ; 149. Man singt mit Freuden vom 
Sieg ; 150. Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich. 

Year XXXI. (1881). Werke fiir Orches- 
ter : Ouverturen in C, B minor, D, D ; Sin- 
fonia in F. 

Year XXXH. (1882). 10 Kirchencantaten 
(vol. xvi.) : 151. Siisser Trost, mein Jesus 
kommt ; 152. Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn ; 
153. Schau', lieber Gott, wie meine Feind' ; 
1.54. Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren ; 155. 
Mein Gott, wie lang', ach lauge ; 156. Ich 
steh' mit eiuem Fuss im Grabe ; 157. Ich 
lasse dich nicht, du segnest mich denn ; 
158. Der Friede sei mit dir ; 159. Sehet, 
wir geli'n hinauf gen Jerusalem ; 160. Ich 
weiss, dass mein Erliiser lebt. 

Year XXXIH. (1883). 10 Kirchencanta- 
ten (vol. xvii.): 161. Komm, du siisse To- 
desstuude ; 162. Ach, ich sehe, jetzt da ich 
zur Hochzeit gehe ; 163. Xur Jedem das 
Seine ; 164. Ihr, die ihr euch von Christo 
nennet ; 165. O heil'ges Geist- und Wass- 
erbad ; 166. Wo gehest du bin ; 167. Ihr 
Menscheu, riihmet Gottes Liebe ; 168. Thue 
Rechuung ! Donnerwort ; 169. Gott soil 
allein mein Herze haben ; 170. Vergniigte 
liuh', beliebte Seelenlust. 

Year XXXJV. (1884). Kammermusik fiir 
Gesang : Serenata, Durehlaucht'ster Leo- 
pold ; Cantata, Schwiugt freudig euch em- 
por (Die Freude reget sich) ; Dramma per 
musica, Lasst uns sorgen, lasst uns wachen ; 
Do. Tonet, ihr Pauken ! Erschallet, Trora- 
peten ; Cantata gratulatoria, Preise dein 
Gliicke, gesegnetes Sachsen ; Dramma per 
musica, Angenehmes Wiederau ; Do. Auf, 
schmetterndeTiine dermuntern Trompeten. 
— AUgem. d. Biogr., i. 729; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., i.-xlviii. ; Bitter, J. S. Bach (Berlin, 
1865) ; Forkel, Ueber Bach's Leben, Kunst 


I-ips Bach ii), b. (t). d. 1620. 

Wendel Bach, farmer!?), 
b. 1619 d. 1682. 

Jakob Bach, musician 
cantor in Steinach and 
K-uhla. b. x6ss, d. 1718 

nn Ludwie Bach, 
:antor and music 


Nicolaus Ephraim 
Bach, court musician 
at Gandersheim. 

atHalle, b. 1703. d. 1771. ^ ' 

Samuel Anton Bach, 
court organist at Mein- 
ingen, b. 1713. d. 1781. 

Gottlieb Friedrich 
Bach, court organist 
at Meiningen, b, 1714, 
d. 1785. I 

Johann Philipp Each 
court organist at Mein- 
mgen, b. 1751, d. 1846. 

Johanii Christian Bach 
music teacher at Halle, 
the "Clavier-Bach," b. 
1743. d, 1814. 



Johann Cbilitiaii 
ncUt id Erfuit. b 

Johann bacb, muli- 
ciaD. oidnt^ in £^ 
furt, b. itei. d. 167^ 

[«I I 

JohaiiD A<eidiui 

Bnch, miufc dirEctor 

and oisanitl in El- 

futl. b. l&i;. d- mr- 


Bacb. rioU da 
gamba player, b. 
.6SJ. d. Jtaa. 

Gcont Chiliioph Bimh, 

;ali«na Jakob BacIi, lohann Chriitoph Bach. Johann Derahard Jchann Chrittoph 

' ' ~ "' ~ cAiitor nnd orjranlsl fn Bdch, coniuo&er, 01- Bach.muikdlreclor, 

Unier-Zininicrn ani) c^nlii at Eifuit. b. b ttSi d.(tl. 

tn. b. iftjj. d, im. 1&J6, d. 1J40. 

Hans Bach, of Wechmar, b. tjM (t). 

e cilhara, b. is9>-Ai, d. 1G19, 

Veil Bach, anat«ur< 

II, b 15S0IT), d. i»36. 

Dph Bach 

Johtuin Ambroiiui 
Bach, violinlil and 
compwer, b. iCits d. 

Bacli. loirn ■ mu^- 
cian m Schveinfun, 

I Chriiloph 
1671, d 

Johann GOniher Bach, 
t^wi xHiecr tn Eifun. b. 
<N3. d. (Fj. 

Johnnii lirntl B<ich. 
conipotet and oi^an- 
itt, b. tj3% iL 1J77, 


Johann l^r«nz Bach. Johsnn Efldt Bach, 

mmposar, orxnniit at cantor In Sch-««1nfuit, 
Lahan, b. i6k, d. ■7;> b. tjos, d uss- 

Tobias h'fitdrkh 
Bach, canlnr in 
Unmdt. b ib}s. 

Johnnii Bern hard 
Bach, oreaniil la 
ObrtruB, b. 1700. 

Johann Heinrieh 

lohann Jacob Bach. 
'KuitHpfeircr." conn 
miitician nl Slock- 
holm, b. i6B>. il. 1733. 



Bach, violinist, courl 
musician at A nutadi, 
b. it«s. d. 1653. 

Johann Cliiiitoph 

Johann Michael Bac-h 
coRipoKr, oncanlsi. and 
intlrument bulldct at 
Cehien. b. ifi^S. d. iCw 

t.itn lUrh Hj. b. (I), d. iteo. 

ITendel Racti, farmeilt). 

JahohBach, muiician, 
cantor in Slelnach and 
Ruhia b i<^ d. If i& 

Johann Ludwic Dacli, Sicol. 

couft cnntor and music 
dlref(oriaMelnine«n,b at Cani 

Johnnn Umsl Itach, 
en. h.i6»i, d. 1739. 

Johann Chrldoph 
Kculi (I), t. lOPo, d. 

vemiy oreani' 

Johinn Christoph Johan 

. i6jt. MQhIhauien. b 1(^4 

('pi I 
Wilhclm Friedemann Bach. 

Carl Philipp Hmanuel Bnch, 
the " Hamburg" and " Berlin- 
Bach " composei and pianist, 

Johnnn Andreas 
OhrdnitrSj 171J 

Johnnn Chrisloph 1-riedrlch 
Bach, the " BDc1cebuii['Bach," 
composer nntl Kapcllnieitler, 
b i7It.<l.i;95'| 

Wilhelm tnedtich Emu 
Bach, comjMiei, pianist 
and Tiollnul, b. liso. d. 

Samuel Anion Ddch, 
COOrt organist nl Miln^ 
iifSD, b i;i3. iL i;<ii. 

It Halle, b 1701.1]. ini- 

Bach, court ornanltt 
d. .tSv T"' 
Johann rhilipp Bacb, 
instiai b i;ii, d. liti 

Johann ChfUMan Dadi. 
music IBAChor at Halle. 
the - Clavier Bach," b 
i-«. d 18(4. 





uud Kunstwerke (Leipsic, 1802) ; Hiller, 
Lebensbesclireibuugen, etc. (ib., 1784) ;Hil- 

genfeld, Bach's Leben, Wirken und Werke 
(ib., 1850); Schauer, do. (ib., 1850) ; Poole, 
Seb. Bach (Loudon, 1882) ; Mizler's mu- 
sikalische BibHotliek (1754), iv. 1 ; Spitta, 
J. S. Bach (Leipsic, 1873^80); do. (Eng- 
lish ed., London, 1884-85). 

[19], called the 
Halle Bach, born 
at Weimar, Nov. 
22, 1710, died in 
Berlin, July 1, 
1784. Eldest son 
and pupil of Jo- 
hann Sebastian, 
whose favourite 
he was, and, un- 
der whose guid- 
ance he had acquired a remarkable profi- 
ciency on the pianoforte at the age of twelve. 
When fifteen he studied the violin under 
Graun, then at Merseburg. In 1733 he be- 
came organist of the Sophienkirche in Dres- 
den, andin 1747 of theMarienkirche atHalle. 
There he gi-adually gave himself up to a dis- 
sipated mode of life, which led to his resig- 
nation in 1764 ; he then lived, without any 
regular occupation, at Leipsic, Brunswick, 
Gottingen, and from 1774 in Berlin, where he 
deteriorated more and more, and finally died 
in utter distress. He was the most gifted 
and learned of Bach's children, and, accord- 
ing to his brother Emanuel's testimony, the 
only one who might have been able to re- 
place their great father. Works — Vocal : 
Cantata on the Pence of Hubertsburg (1763) ; 
Pentecost Cantata (1746) ; Cantata for Ad- 
vent (1749) ; do. for birthday of Frederick 

the Great ; Christmas Cantata ; 17 other 
cantatas and arias for special holydays ; 
Kyrie and Gloria ; Pentecost music ; Amen 
and Hallelujah ; 3 motets. Instrumental : 
Organ concerto for 2 pianofortes ; Sonata 
for do. ; 10 fugues ; 12 polonaises for do. ; 

10 concertos for do., with quartet, and other 
accompaniment ; 12 sonatas for pianoforte ; 

11 fantasias for do. ; 1 gique ; 1 6tude ; 1 
suite ; Trio for 2 flutes and bass ; 2 trios 
for oboe, bassoon, and bass ; Trio for vio- 
lins and cembalo obligato ; 4 duets for 
flutes ; Allabreve for do. ; Ricercata for 
quartet and bass ; Symphony for 2 flutes 
and quartet ; Sextet for 2 horns, clarinet, 
violin, viola, and bass ; Divertimento for 
pianoforte ; about 30 polonaises and several 

minuets for do. ; Duet for 2 pianofortes ; 
Allemande for do. ; Presto for do. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr.. i. 743 ; Bitter, C. P. E. Bach, etc., 
ii. 150 ; Fctis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ERNST) [22], born at Biickeburg, May 27, 
1759, died in Berlin, Dec. 25, 1845. ' The 
last male descendant of Johann Sebastian 
Bach, son and pupil of the Biickeburg Bach, 
also pupil of his uncle Johann Christian in 
London, where he lived, until the latter's 
death, as an excellent jsifinoforte and organ 
player and esteemed teacher ; he then went 
to Paris, where he gave concerts, and settled 
at Minden, whence he was called to Berlin 
in 1792, to become pianist to Queen Fried- 
erike Louise, and afterwai'ds to Queen 
Louise. He was the teacher of Frederick 
William III. and his brothers. Of his com- 
positions, in the style of the old school, and 
consisting of pianoforte and instrumental 
works, cantatas, and songs, only a few have 
been printed.— Bitter, C. P. E. Bach, etc., 
ii. 139 ; Ledebur, Tonkilnstl. Lex. Berlins 

Berlin, Oct. 4, 1796, died there, April 15, 



1869. Organist, son and pupil of Gottfried 
Bach, who was organist at Trinity Church, 
afterwards pupil of Zelter in counterpoint 
and fugue, of L. Berger on the pianoforte, 
and of C. W. Henuing on the violin. He 
was organist at St. Gertrude's (1814), and 
St. Mary's (1816), became professor at the 
Institute for church music in 1822, and 
succeeded Zelter as its director in 1832. 
He composed church and organ music, 
besides some jsianoforte pieces and songs. — 

BACH, OTTO, born in Vienna. Feb. 9, 
1833, still living there, 1888. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Sechter in Vienna, of 
Marx in Berlin, and of Hauj)tmann in Lei})- 
sic ; was at first Kapellmeister of the theatre 
at Augsburg (1866), and in 1868 was called 
to Salzburg as director of the Mozarteum 
and Kapellmeister of the cathedral. Since 
1880, Kapellmeister of the Votivkirche in 
Vienna. Works — Operas : Sardanapal, three 
acts, about 1860 ; Die Liebesprobe, two acts, 
represented at Augsburg, April 1, 1867 ; 
Die Argonauten, 1870 ; Lenore, three acts, 
Gotha, Dec. 25, 1874 ; Medea ; 4 sympho- 
nies ; Electra, overture ; Der Blumen Rache, 
ballad for chorus and orchestra ; Requiem ; 
Masses, choruses, chamber music. — Rie- 

Birmingham, England, Sept. 14, 1833, died 
there, Aug. 24, 1858. Pianist, pupil on the 
violin at Birmingham of Alfred Mellon ; 
went to London in 1849 to studj' under 
Sterndale Bennett, and to Leipsic in 1853 
to study with Hauptmann and Plaidv-, tak- 
ing also organ lessons at Dresden in 1854 
from Schneider. Illness took him in 1855 
to Algiers, whence he went to Leipsic, 
Rome, and Vienna, and returned to England 
in 1857. His ability was great— far beyond 
his physical strength. Works : Which is 
Which?, opera, 1851 ; Riibezahl, opera, 1853 ; 
4 mazurkas, op. 13 ; Souvenirs dTtalie, op. 
19 ; Andante and rondo polonaise for piano- 
forte and orchestra ; trio for pianoforte and 
strings, op. 25 ; Romance for pianoforte and i 

violin ; 6 songs, op. 16 ; Barcarola Vene- 
ziana ; Concerto in E for pianoforte and or- 
chestra. Walter Bache (born in Birming- 
ham, June 19, 1842), his brother, is a pianist 
in Loudon, and the acknowledged exponent 
in England of Liszt's music. — Grove ; Brown. 

bAche von gesalznen zahren, 

tenor aria in F minor, with accompaniment 
of strings complete, fagotto and continuo, in 
Johann Sebastian Bach's cantata, Ich hatte 
viel Bekiimmerniss. 

BACHMANN, GOTTLOB, born at Born- 
itz. Saxony, March 28, 1763, died at Zeitz, 
April 10, 1840. Organist, pupil of Freeh at 
Zeitz, for pianoforte and harmony ; went in 
1785 to Leipsic and studied counterpoint, 
and in 1790 to Dresden, where Naumann 
became his master in composition. Organ- 
ist at Zeitz in 1791. Works : Phaedou und 
Naide, opera, given in Dresden, about 1790 ; 
Don Silvio de Rosalva, do., Brunswick, 

1797 ; Orpheus und Eurydice, do., ib., 

1798 ; Cantate auf den Tod des Orpheus, 
ib., 1799 ; Lieder und Arien (Halle, 1795) ; 
Das Elysium, ballad (Vienna, Riedt) ; Hero 
und Leander, do. (Offenbach, Andre, 1798) ; 
12 songs, op. 6 (ib., 1799) ; Des Miid- 
chens Klage (Aug.sburg, 1799) ; Leonhard 
und Blondiue, ballad (Leipsic, Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel) ; Leonore, do. (Vienna, Riedt) ; 
Arion, do. (Bonn, Simrock) ; Die Biirg- 
schaft, do. (ib.); Die Klage der Ceres (ib.); 
Die Schlacht (ib.) ; Ballads of Goethe (Leip- 
sic, Kiihnel) ; 12 songs, op. 22 (Vienna, 
Eder) ; 6 do., op. 25 (ib., Riedt) ; 6 German 
odes, op. 33 (ib.) ; 6 songs, op. 45 (Berlin, 
Dunker) ; 6 do., op. 51 (Leipsic, Hoffmeis- 
ter) ; 6 do., op. 59 (Worms, Kreitner) ; 
Symphony for orchestra, op. 2 (Oflfenbach, 
Andre) ; 2 do., op. 9 and 10 (Brunswick, 
Spehr) ; 2 quai'tets for 2 violins, viola, and 
violoncello, op. 3 (Offenbach, Andre) ; 2 do., 
op. 5 (ib.) ; 3 do., op. 7 (Vienna, Eder) ; 2 
do., op. 8 (Brunswick, Spehr) ; 1 do., op. 32 
(Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; do., op. 57 
(Worms, Kreitner) ; do., dedicated to Haydn 
(Augsburg, Gombart) ; Quintet for jnano- 
forte, flute, violin, viola, and violoncello, op. 



42 (Vienna, Eder) ; 2 trios for pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello (Brunswick, Spehr) ; 
Sonata for pianoforte and violin obligato, 
op. 4 (Offenbach, Andre) ; do., op. 23 (Vi- 
enna, Eder) ; do., op. 24 (ib.) ; Sonata for 
pianoforte for four hands, op. 41 (Bonn, 
Simrock) ; do. for pianoforte, op. 21 (Leip- 
sic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; do., op. 3G (Vi- 
enna, Riedt) ; 12 dances and marches, op. 
58 (Worms, Kreitner) ; 6 pieces for the or- 
gan, op. 34 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel). — 
Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

BACHMANN, Pater SIXTHS, born at 
Kettershaiisen, Bavaria, July 18, 1754, died 
at Marchthal about 1818. Contra^Juntist 
and organist, attracted attention even at the 
age of nine, when he was able to play from 
memory more than two hundred jjieces, and 
held his own, at Biberach, 1706. in a musi- 
cal contest on the organ with young IMozart, 
vrho was then ten years of age. He ac- 
quired his musical education in the monas- 
teries of Eleliingeu and Marchthal, in the 
latter of which he was a Premoustrant 
monk, studied the works of Abbot Vogler, 
and was temporarily instructed by Kapell- 
meister Koa, who stopped at Marelithal on 
his way to Italy. In 1786 he was associated 
with Hoffmeister in Vienna in his musical 
publishing society, but withdrew from it 
two years later. His masses, written in true 
church style, were much esteemed and wide- 
ly circulated by numerous copies. Besides 
them he left behind him a real treasure of 
cantatas, symphonies, sonatas, violin quar- 
tets, and fugues for the organ. Only the 
following were printed : 2 sonatas for piano- 
forte (Vienna, 1786) ; Sonata for do. (Speyer, 
1791) ; Diverse Pezzetti (ib., 1791) ; Organ 
Fugue alia Zoppa (ib., 1792) ; Sonata for 
pianoforte, op. 1 (Munich, 1800). — Fetis ; 
Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

in Zurich in 1692, died there in 1755. 
Singing-master in the Latin school and 
cantor of one of the Zurich churches in 
1718 ; director of the Chorherrn-gesell- 
schaft as successor to Albertiu ; author of 

an instruction book on music and singing, 
the "Music. Notenbiichleiu." Compositions : 
Musicalisches Halleluja, containing 600 mel- 
odies for two and three voices with organ 
and figured bass (8 eds. down to 1767) ; Ver- 
mehrte Zusatz von Morgeu, Abend . . . 
Gesungeu (1738) ; Sacred airs iu concert- 
style for two and three voices given in 
twelve monthly numbers (4th ed., 1755) ; 
Brocke's Irdisches Verguiigeu iu Gott, set 
to music (1,000 pages, 1740) ; jMusicalische 
Ergetzungen (1755) ; Psalmen Davids (8vo, 
2d ed., 1759) ; Fiir die Sundeu der Welt, 
from Brooke's Passion (1759). His hymns 
were very popular iu Switzerland. — Grove. 

Zsambokreth, Hungary, in 1841, stiU living, 
1888. Dramatic composer and violinist, 
pujsil iit the Conservatorium, Vienna, of 
BOhm on the violin (1851-57) ; for a short 
time Kapellmeister of a small theatre in 
Vienna, went in 1861 to Paris, and for sev- 
eral years earned a scanty living as con- 
ductor of an orchestra, journalist, and even 
as an apothecary ; then returned to Vienna, 
and for twelve years was a member of the 
Helmesberger (Quartet. He is now in- 
structor at the Conservatorium, and mem- 
ber of the Philharmonic and the Opera or- 
chestras, also of the Eose Quartet. Works : 
Muzzedin, comic opera, given in Vieima, 
1883 ; Heini von Steier, do., ib., 1884 ; Sa- 
kuntala, ballet ; Two operettas, Vienna, 
1866 ; Chamber music, pieces for the vio- 
lin, and songs. — Riemann. 

Molk, Nether-Austria, Dec. 7, 1705, died 
at Eichstiidt, Bavaria, iu 1780 (1776 ?). 
Virtuoso on the trombone and violin ; 
member iu 1760 of the prince-bishop's 
court orchestra at "Wiirzburg, and later in 
the prince's orchestra at Eichstiidt, where 
in 1769 he became Concertmeister. It was 
only then that he began to study the great 
composers, especially Graun, to whose style 
he conformed. The Prince of Eichstiidt 
sent him to Italy to complete his musical 
education, and, owing to the success of 


some operas composed there, appointed 
bim Kapellmeister after his return. He 
won reputation through his church music, 
consisting of masses, litanies, vespers, etc.; 
among his other works were symphonies, 
concertos, and quartets, of which only the 
following were printed : Concerto for oboe, 
two violins, viola, violoncello, and two 
horns ; Sis violin quartets. In his sixty- 
eighth j-ear he became totally blind. — Fe- 
tis ; Schilling. 

EICH, born at Durlach, Germany, in 1768, 
died at Darmstadt in 1839. Virtuoso on 
the harji, tbe English horn, the clarinet, 
and the flute ; pupil at Nuremberg of Georg 
Wilhelm Gruber in composition, and of 
Birckmaun on the instruments. In 1789 
he began a successful concert tour as clar- 
inetist through France, Spain, and Italy, re- 
turning to Nuremberg in 1794 ; four years 
later he travelled through Germany, per- 
forming on the harp and the English horn, 
meeting with an especially honoui'able recep- 
tion at Gotha, where he made a prolonged 
stay iu 1802, and was appointed chamber 
musician in 180(5. Thence he visited Leip- 
sic, Munich, and Frankfort, and in 1815 
settled at Darmstadt, where he established 
a factory of wind instruments. He wrote a 
very good method for the harp (Leijisic, 
1803, and another for the clarinet and the 
English horn (ib., 1803). Works : 16 vari- 
ations for the harp (Leipsic, 1779) ; Sonata 
for do., with violin (il>., 1798) ; Concertaute 
for do., English horn, and violoncello ; do. 
for harp, viola, and violoncello ; Abendge- 
sang der Balsora (Leipsic, 1800) ; 13 varia- 
tions for harp, op. 41 (ib., 1801) ; First, 
second, and third books of pieces for the 
harp (ib., 1799-1802) ; Concertante for two 
clarinets ; Quintet for English horn, two 
violins, viola, and violoncello. In manu- 
script : Short Te Deuin ; Music for the inau- 
guration of the Nuremberg Theatre : Scene 
from Metastasio ; Dirge for four voices at 
the grave of a Freemason ; 3 concertos for 
Euglish horn ; Grand concerto for the harp ; 

Quintet with clarinet ; Several pieces for 
two clarinets, two horns, and two bassoons. 
— Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; Schilling. 

Venice iu the 17th century. Dramatic 
composer, lived about the beginning of the 
18th century as court musician at Vienna. 
Works : La Niufa Apollo, opera, given in 
Eome and Milan, 1692, in Bologna, 1694, 
at Laxenburg Palace, 1699, in Vienna, 1700 ; 
Narciso, do., Vienna, 1699 ; Amore vuol So- 
migliauza, do., ib., 1702 ; La corte celeste, 
oratorio, 1702 ; II profeta Elia, do., Venice, 
1720 ; Gesti nel Prestorio, do., 1730 ; Tri- 
buti armonici, a collection of twelve canta- 
tas for a single voice and harpsichord. — 
Fetis ; Schilling. 

BADIA, LUIGI, born at Tirauo, Naples, 
in 1822, still living, 1888. Dramatic com- 
poser, known by the operas : Gismonda di 
Mendrisio, given at Bologna, 1846 ; another 
opera, given at Florence ; Flavio Racliis, 
Trieste, 1853.— Fetis. 

BAGATELLEN (Fr., bagatelle, a trifle), 
a title, probably first used by Beethoven, to 
designate a short piece of light pianoforte 
music. Beethoven wrote four sets of Baga- 
tellen : 1. 7 Bagatellen, op. 33, composed 
1782 ; original MS. owned by Johann Kaff- 
ka, Vienna. Published, Vienna. 2. 6 Baga- 
tellen, op. 126, composed 1821. Published 
by Schotts, Mainz. 3. 12 Bagatellen, op. 
119, composed 1820-22. Published by 
Sauer Liedersdorf in the " Wiener Zeitung " 
(1824). 4. 6 Bagatellen, iu MS., owned by Ar- 
taria & Co. (Vienna). — Thayer, Verzeichuiss. 

BAGGE, SELMAE, born at Coburg, June 
30, 1823, still living, 1888. Instrumental and 
vocal composer, pupil of Kaspar Kunnner in 
thorough bass and of Schilbach on the violon- 
cello, then (1837) at the Conservatorium in 
Prague of Dionys Weber and of Hiittner ; 
later of Sechter in Vienna, where he be- 
came professor of composition at the Con- 
servatorium in 1851 ; resigned iu 1855 to 
become a musical critic and editor ; from 
1863 at Leipsic ; director of the music 
school at Basel since 1868. His composi- 


tions consist of a symphony, a sonata for 
pianoforte and violoncello, op. 3, string 
quartets, pianoforte pieces, and songs. He 
has published also an arrangement of Bach's 
Fasaioii uach Matthiius for pianoforte solo 
( Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hartel ).— Grove ; 

BAI (Baj), T0MM.\80, born at Creval- 
cuore, near Bologna, Italy, in the second 
half of the 17th century, died in Rome, Dec. 
22, 1714. He was for many years tenor 
singer in the chapel of the Vatican, where 
he became maestro di cappella in 1713. 
Bai was one of the many comi^osers who, 
flourishing near the close of the " great " 
Eouian period of Italian music, strove to 
hold fast by the Palestrina traditions and 
the a cappella style ; yet he, like the rest of 
his generation, found it impossible wholly 
to free himself from the influence of con- 
temporary music, and his works, when 
con^pared with Palestrina's, show what a 
totally different musical atmosphere he 
breathed from that which pervaded the 
first few decades of the " great " period. 
His great posthumous reputation is based 
upon a single work, his Miserere, written 
after the still more famous one by Gregorio 
AUegri. It is published in Choron'a Col- 
lection gunerale des ouvrages classiques de 
musique (Paris, Le Due). A 5-voice mass, 
twelve motets for i, 5, and 8 voices, and 
an 8-voice De profuudis exist in MS. in 
the Santini collection in Home. — Fetis ; 
Grove ; Mendel. 

BAILDON, JOSEPH, lived during mid- 
dle of 18th century, died May 7, 1771. Or- 
ganist. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal ; 
lay-vicar of Westminster Abbey ; organist 
of St. Luke's, Old Street, and All Saints', 
Fulham, in 1763. The Catch Club awarded 
him prizes in 1763 and in 17G6 for a catch 
and the glee, " When gay Bacchus fills my 
breast." In Warren's collection are ten 
catches and four glees by Baildon. He 
published two volumes of his works entitled 
The Laurel, and Four Favourite Songs sung 
by Mr. Beard at Ranelagh Gardens. His 

glees, "Adieu to the village delights," and 
"Pr'ythee, friend, fill t'other pipe," and his 
humorous catch, "Mister Speaker, tho' 'tis 
late," were very popular in their day. — 

BAILLEUX, ANTOINE, flourished in 
Paris about 1758-84, died there in 1791. 
Instrumental and vocal composer, and teach- 
er ; author of an exceUeut vocal (1760), and 
a violin method (1779). Works : Le bou- 
quet de Tamitie, cantatille ; 6 symphonies 
for four parts (Paris, 17.58) ; do. for grand 
orchestra (ib., 17G7) ; Les petits concerts 
de Paris ; Solfcges (Paris, 1784).— F6tis. 

DE SALES, born at 
Passy, France, Oct. 
1, 1771, died in 
Paris, Sept. 15, 1842. 
Instrumental c o m- 
poser, critic, and lust 
great representative 
of the classical school 
of violin-playing in 
Paris. Professor of 
the violin at the 

Conservatoire. His first master on the vio- 
lin was an Italian named Polidori, but his 
real musical education began in 1780 under 
Sainte-Marie, in Paris, and was continued 
in 1783 under Pollani, in Rome, where he 
was sent by M. de Boucheporn ; his play- 
ing was influenced also by Viotti, whom 
he heard in his tenth year. Baillot first ap- 
peared iu public in 1791, Viotti procuring 
him a place in the Theatre Feydeau, which 
he soon resigned for an apjjointment in the 
Ministere des Finances, using his musical 
talent merely as a recreation. In 1795, 
after studying the compositions of CorelH, 
Tartini, Gemiuiani, Loeatelli, Bach (?), and 
Handel, he determined to become a profes- 
sional musician, and made a successful de- 
but in a concerto by Viotti, which secured 
his reputation and gained him a professor- 
ship of the violin in the newly opened Con- 
servatoire, which he held till his death. He 
studied also harmony under Catel, and 


countei-point with Reiclia and Cherubini. 
Member of Napoleon's private band in 1802. 
He made a professional tour with the vio- 
loncello-player Lamare in Russia in 1805- 
08, but the war brought him home ; he gave 
concerts in the South of France, and started 
chamber-music concerts in Paris in 1814, 
which gained him great reputation as a 
quartet-player. In 1815-16 he made a sec- 
ond professional tour in Holland, Belgium, 
and England, becoming a member of the 
English Philharmonic Society, at one of 
whose concerts he played on Feb. 26, 1816. 
Director of the band at the Paris Opera in 
1821-31 ; director of the Concerts spirituels 
given at the Opera, 1822, 1823, 1824 ; of the 
Eoyal Band from 1825 ; his last tour was 
made through Switzerland and part of Italy 
in 1833. Baillot's quartet-playing is highly 
praised by Mendelssohn and Hiller. He 
had celebrated pupils, Mazas, Habeneck aine, 
the two Danelas, and many others. He as- 
sisted Rode and Kreutzer iu compiling a 
work for the violoncello, and the Muthode 
de Violon, adopted by the Conservatoire 
(1803) ; with the exception of the Ai't du 
Violou, which is considered by Fetis the 
best elementary work of the kind (1834), his 
works are almost forgotten. His music is 
difficult. Among his i^ublished compositions 
are : 15 trios for two violins and bass ; 6 duets 
for two violins ; 12 etudes for violins ; 9 
concertos ; Symphonie concertante for two 
violins, with orchestral accompaniment ; 30 
airs varies ; 3 string quartets ; Sonata for 
pianoforte and violin ; 24 preludes iu all keys 
and several smaller compositions for the 
violin. A posthumous work, '•Observations 

aux concours de violon du Conservatoire de 
Musique," was published iu Paris (1872).^ 

Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 37 ; Grove ; La- 
rousse, ii. 62 ; Mendel, i. 416 ; Ergiiuz, 22 ; 
Wasielewski, Die Violine und ihre Meister, 

BAH^LOU, LOUIS DE, born in France 
about the middle of the 18th century, died 
in Milan in 1809. Dramatic composer and 
violinist, pupil of Capron on the violin ; 
went to Italy and became conductor of the 
orchestra at the Teatro della Scala, Milan, 
for which he wrote the following ballets : 
Andromacca e Pirro, L' amante generosa, 
given in 1777 ; AjDollo jjlacato, Calipso ab- 
bandonata, 1778 ; Mirza, La guinguetta iu- 
glese. La Zingara riconosciuta, 1783 ; Giulio 
Sabino, 1784 ; Lodovico il Moro, Amore 
maestro di scuola, II popolo d' Argo festeg- 
giante, Vologese, 1786 ; Guatimozin o la 
Conquista del Messico, II primo viagiattore, 
II fanfaro militare, I due avari, 1787 ; II 
matrimonio per coucorso, 1788 ; Guglielmo 
Tell, Lucio Giunio Bruto, 1797 ; La disfatta 
di Abderamo (with Capuzzi), 1809. — Fetis. 

BAINI, GIUSEPPE, born in Rome, Oct. 
21, 1775, died there. May 21, 1844. Church 
comjjoser, and the most eminent musical 
writer and critic in Italy in this century ; 
pujjil of his uncle, Lorenzo Baini, and at the 
Seminario Romano of Jaunacoui in 1802, 
when he obtained a j)osition as bass singer 
iu the Pontifical Chapel, of which he was ap- 
pointed maestro di cap2:)ella in 1817. His 
celebrated Miserere was composed for the 
Sistine Chapel, and is considered equal to 
those by Allegri and Bai, and still used. As 
a writer on music he is the author of " Saggio 
sopra r identita de'ritmi musicaliepoetichi" 
(Florence, 1820) ; his most important work 
was the monograph, "Memorie storico-criti- 
che della vita e delle opere di Giovanni 
Pierluigi da Palestrina," etc. (Rome, 1828). 
Member of Berlin Academy, 1837, of the 
Deutsche National Musik Verein, 1839. His 
princii^al compositions are : Salmi ed Inni 
a quattro voci, etc. (1804) ; Inni ad otto 
voci, etc. (1807) ; Tutto il servigio per la 
solenne messa del martedi santo, etc., II Te 
Deum o Inno Arubrogiano ad otto voci, etc 



(1815) ; Tutto il servigio di chiesa anuuale, 

etc. (1816) ; II tei'zo Miserere a tlieci voci 

per servigio della cappella poutiticia, etc. 

(1821). Besieies these he composed a great 

jiumber of masses, motets, hymns, psahns, 

and church _ 

concertos 1.,',,,^^,^, 0*^ 

I -'I 

for from 
four to 



twelve voices. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxvi. 
473 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; do., Sup- 
plement, 13. 

BAJETTI, GIOVANNI, born at Brescia, 
Italy, in 1815, died in Milan, April 28, 1876. 
Dramatic composer, and musical director 
at the Teatro della Scala, Milan. Works : 
Gonzalvo, opera, given at Milan, La Scala, 
1841; II genio d' Italia, Piaceuza, 1843; 
L' assedio di Brescia, Milan, 1844 ; Faust 
(ballet with Costa and Panizza). ib., 1848 ; 
Uberto da Brescia, ib., 18G6. — Fetis ; do.. 
Supplement, i. 38. 

born of American 
parentage in Wen- 
ham, Massachusetts, 
July 10, 1811, still 
living, 1888. In 
1822 he removed to 
Salem, and at the age 
of fourteen began 
to sing in the choir 
of the Howard Street 
Presbyterian Chui'ch 
in that city. Dur- 
ing 1828-33 he resided in Boston, whence 
he removed to Bangor, Maine, to engage 
in commercial pursuits, without, however, 
severing his connection with music. In 
1836 he returned to Boston, studied 
under John Paddon, and sang in the 
choir of the Chauucey Place Church, 
and in the following year took charge of 
the music in the Rev. Dr. Chanuing's 
Church. In 1841 he was chosen succes- 
sor to Lowell Mason, to teach music in 
the public schools of Boston, and was 
elected vice-president of the Handel and 

Haydn Societj', a position which he held 
for six years, appearing in solos at many of 
the society's concerts. In 1847 the pre- 
liminary work of establishing a music- 
school in Boston was begun by ^Ir. Baker, 
and in 1851 the Boston Music School was 
incorporated, with a full corps of teachers 
in the various dejjartments, Mr. Baker be- 
ing vocal instructor and principal. The 
establishment of this school was an im- 
portant event in the development of musi- 
cal culture in America. In 1868 the school 
was closed, and Mr. Baker retired from ac- 
tive professional work. Works — Vocal : 
Death of Osceola, quartet, 1846 ; Stars of 
the Summer Night, quartet, 1865 ; Ave Ma- 
ria, 1871 ; The Storm King, cantata, 1856 ; 
The Burning Ship, do., 1858 ; Camillus, the 
Roman Conqueror, do., 1865 ; and other 
songs and quartets. He is also the author 
of Baker's Thorough Bass and Harmony, 
and has compiled several books of glees 
and anthems. 

BAKER, GEORGE, born in Exeter, 
England, in 1773, died at Eugeley, Feb. 
19, 1847. Organist, pupil (about 1780) of 
Hugh Bond and of William Jackson, organ- 
ist of Exeter Cathedral ; he also studied the 
violin under Ward, and the jjianoforte and 
violin under Dussek and William Cramer 
in London in 1790. He was organist of 
Stafford in 1795, of Derby in 1810, and of 
Rugeley in 1824 ; received the degree of 
Mus. Doc, Oxford, about 1801. Baker 
wrote anthems, glees, organ voluntaries, 
pianoforte sonatas, songs, manj' of them 
composed for Incledon, and music to The 
Caffres, given unsuccessfully at Coveut 
Garden Theatre, June 2, 1802.— Grove ; 

born at Nijni Novgorod, Russia, in 1836, 
still living, 1888. Pianist, appeared in con- 
certs when still a boy, although he did not 
take up music as a profession until after 
his acquaintance with Ulibischeff. In 1856 
he appeared as pianist in St. Petersburg 
with great success, and in 1862 founded, 



with Lainakin, the free School of Music, 
of which he assumed direction iu 1867. 
He conducted the 
concerts of the Rus- 
sian Music Society in 
1SG7-70, but retired 
into private life in 
1872. He is a fol- 
lower of the Berlioz- 
Liszt school. His 
principal works are : 
Overtures on Rus- 
sian, Sj)anish, and 
Czech themes ; Music to King Lear ; Bla- 
rney, Oriental fantasy for pianoforte ; Other 
music for do. — Riemann. 

BALART, GABRIEL, born in Barce- 
lona, Sjmin, June 8, 1824, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer ; began his musical 
studies in Spain, finished them in Paris, 
and returned home iu 1852. He has been 
orchestra leader of the ijrincipal theatres 
of Barcelona and of Madrid, and has pub- 
lished vocal and instrumental pieces, and 
several zarzuelas : Un rapacion de Candas ; 
Los guardias del Rej' de Siam (Barcelona, 
18G6) ; El tulipan de los mares ; Amor y 
Arte. — Fi'tis, Supplement, i. 38. 

BALATKA, HANS, born, of Austrian 
parentage, in H o ff - 
nungsthal, Moravia, 
March 5, 1828, still liv- 
ing, 1888. He began 
his musical education 
as a choir-boy in the 
01m (itz Cathedral ; in 
1846^8 he studied 
harmony, composition, 
and singing in Vienna, 
Seohter, and Gentiluomo, 
and during that time was conductor of 
the Academical Singing Societies in that 
city. In consequence of the Revolution 
of 1848 he went to America in 1849, and 
settled in Milwaukee, where, in 1851, he 
founded the Milwaukee Musikvei-ein, of 
which he was the conductor for nine 
years. In 1860 he went to Chicago to 


conduct Mozart's Requiem, and accejsted 
the leadership of the Philharmonic Society, 
which he conducted six years, and in 1862 
became conductor also of the Musical Un- 
ion. He gave symphony concerts on his 
own account, iu 1867 became conductor of 
the Germania Mannerchor, in 1870 made 
a concert tour with Madame Pappenheim 
through the Northwest, and after again 
leading the Milwaukee Musikvereiu, re- 
turned, in 1873, to Chicago, where, with 
the exception of a short engagement in 
St. Louis, he has since resided. During 
these later years he has organized the Lie- 
derkranz Society and the Mozart Club, both 
vocal, and he is now (1888) conductor of 
the newly established Chicago Symjjhony So- 
ciety. Works : The Power of Song, double 
chorus for male voices, received first prize 
at the Cincinnati Siingerfest, 1856 ; Festi- 
val Cantata for soprano and grand orches- 
tra, 1869 ; about 20 fantasias and tran- 
scrij)tions for orchestra ; Quartets and cho- 
ruses for male and mixed voices ; 26 
songs with orchestral and pianoforte accom- 

BALBI, LUDOVICO, born iu Venice, 
middle of 16th century, died there in 
1608. Church composer and contrapunt- 
ist, pupil of Costanzo Porta. Early in life 
he entered the Franciscan order, and about 
1591 became maestro di cappella at S. 
Antonio, Padua, and about 1606 at the 
convent of his order, Venice. He was 
esteemed one of the most eminent musi- 
cians of his time, a reputation justified by 
his numerous masses, motets, and madri- 
gals (Venice, 1576-1606). With Giovanni 
Gabrieli and Orazio Vecehi he edited : 
Graduale et Antiphonarium, juxta ritum 
Missalis et Breviarii novi (Venice, 1591). — 
Fctis ; Mendel. 

BALBI, MELCHIORE, Cavaliere, born 
in Venice, June 4, 1796, died in Padua, 
June 22, 1879. Organist, pupil, at Padua, 
of Alessandro Nini and of Gaetano Valeri 
for pianoforte and organ, of Antonio Calegari 
for harmony and fugue. He was maestro 



concertatore of two theatres in 1818, maes- 
tro di cappella at S. Antonio in 1853 ; 
Academician of the Institute of Florence in 
1868, for wliieh he wrote three memoirs, 
and for which he was made Chevalier of 
the Order of the Crown of Italy, and a 
member of many Italian and foreign socie- 
ties. Works : Solemn mass. Requiem 
mass, Solemn do., with choruses, orches- 
tra, and four organs, all performed at S. 
Antonio's, 1831, 18G9, 1871. He was the 
author also of the following theoretical 
works : Sistema armonico d' Antonio Cale- 
gari (Milan, 1829) ; Grammatica ragionata 
della musica sotto 1' aspetto di lingua 
(1845) ; Nuova Scuola casata sul sistema 
semi-tonato equabile, 1 jsart (1872). — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 38. 

BAL COSTUMlfi (Costume BaU), twen- 
ty characteristic pieces for pianoforte {-i 
bands), by Anton Eubinstein, op. 103. Pub- 
lished by Bote & Bock (Berlin). Two series 
of these pieces were afterwards scored for 
orchestra by the composer. 

poser of the 17th century. He was the au- 
thor of an oratorio, Applausi eterni dell' 
Amore manifestato nel Temj>o (Brescia, 
1709).— Ft'ti.s. 

BALDUCCI, GIOVANNI, Italian dramatic 
composer, contemporary, pupil of the Royal 
College of Music, Naples. Works : II Conte 
di Marsico, melodrama for female voices, 
with accompaniment for two pianofortes, 
1830 ; La sorciera di Benevento, opera in 
two acts, Naples, 1837 ; Bianca Tui'enga, 
oijera, Naj^les, 1838. — Fetis. 

born at Limerick, Ireland, May 15, 1808, 
died at Rowney Abbey, Hertfordshire, Oct. 
20, 1870. Dramatic composer, baritone 
singer, and violinist. After instruction 
on the violin, he studied under O'Rourke 
(known in London as Rooke), who brought 
him out as a violinist in May, 181G. In 
1818 he composed a ballad, " The Lover's 
Mistake," which was sung by Mme Vestris 
in Paul Pry. In 1824 he played successful 

violin solos at the Loudon oratorios, and 
was subsequentlj' engaged in the Drury 
Lane orchestra, 
which he led when 
the director, T. 
Cooke, appeared on 
the stage. About 
this time he studied 
composition under 
C. F. Horn, organist 
of St. George's Chajj- 
el, W i n d s o r. In 
1825, under the pat- 
ronage of Count Mazzara, he visited Rome, 
where he studied counterpoint under Fre- 
dcrici, afterwards head of the Conservatorio, 
Milan. Later, he received vocal instruction 
from Filippo Galli, at Milan, where in 1827 
he comjjosed his first dramatic piece, a bal- 
lad entitled, La Perouse. Rossini offered 
him an engagement as principal baritone at 
the Italian Opera, Paris, with the proviso 
that he should take preparatory lessons 
from Bordogni ; the proj^osal was accepted, 
Balfe making a successful debut in Figaro 
in 1828. In 1829-30 he was principal bari- 
tone at Palermo, where he produced his 
first opera, I Eivali di se stessi, written in 
twenty days. Sliortly afterwards he sang with 
Mallbran at La Scala, Milan, and in 1835 re- 
turned to London, where he sang at public 
and private concerts. From the latter year 
dates his career as a eomi^oser of English 
operas. In the following autumn he appeared 
at Drury Lane ; iu 1837 he sang the part of 
Theodore in his own opera, Joan of Arc ; and 
in 1839 appeared as Farinelli in Barnett's 
opera, at Drurj' Lane, and iu a translation 
of Ricci's Scaramuccia, at the Lyceum. Be- 
ing unsuccessful as manager of the Lj-ceum 
(the English opera-house), he went iu 1840 
to Paris, where he wrote, and jjroduced at 
the Opera Comique, two operas. The most 
popular and successful of Balfe 's works, The 
Bohemian Girl, was given in London, Nov. 
27, 1843. While writing L'Etoile de Seville 
for the Acadcmie Royale iu 1845, he was re- 
called to London to make aiTangements for 


his engagement as conductor of Her Majes- 
ty's Theatre, a position he hekl until its 
close in 1852. Balfe ^Yas in Vienna about 
1846, and in Berliu bringing out some of 
his oj^eras in 1849 ; in the latter year, 
until 1852, he conducted a series of 
national concerts at Her jMajesty's 
Theatre ; but, although important 
■works were produced, this enteri^rise 
■was not successful. In 1852 he visited 
St. Petersburg and Trieste, returning 
to England in 1856. A French ver- 
sion of The Bohemian Girl, revised and added 
to by the composer, was given at the Thea- 
tre Lyrique, Paris, in December, 1869, with 
such success that he was made chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor by the French Emperor, 
and Commander of the Order of Carlos by 
the Regent of Spain. Works — Operas : I 
Rivali di se Stessi, Palermo, 1829 ; Un Av- 
vertimento ai Gelosi, Pavia, 1830 ; Eurico 
rV. al Passo della Marna, Milan, 1831 ; 
The Siege of Rochelle, London, Drury Lane, 
1835 ; The Maid of Artois, ib., 1836 ; Cath- 
erine Grey, Joan of Arc, ib., 1837 ; Diadeste, 
ib., 1838'; Falstaff, Her Majesty's Theatre, 
1838 ; Keolanthe, Lyceum, 1840 ; Le Puits 
dAmour, Paris, Oi^era Comique, 1843 ; Les 
quatre Fils dAymon, ib., 1844 ; The Bo- 
hemian Girl, London, Drury Lane, 1843 ; 
Daughter of St. Mark, ib., 1844 ; The En- 
chantress, ib., 1845 ; UEtoile de Seville, 
Paris, Academic Roy ale de Musique, 1845 ; 
The Bondman, London, Drury Lane, 1846 ; 
The Maid of Honour, ib., 1847 ; The Sicil- 
ian Bride, Drury Lane, 1852 ; The Devil's 
in it, Surrey Theatre, 1852 ; Pittore e Duca, 
Trieste, 1856 ; The Rone of Castile, Lyceum, 

1857 ; La Zingara (Italian vei-sion of The 
Bohemian Girl), Her jMajesty's Theatre, 

1858 ; Salanella, Lyceum, 1858 ; Bianca, 
1860 ; The Puritan's Daughter, 1861 ; The 
Armourer of Nantes, Blanche de Nevers, 
1863 ; The Sleeping Queen, operetta, Lon- 
don, Gallery of Illustration, 1863 ; La Bo- 
hemienne (French version of The Bohemian 
Girl, with many additions, and extended 
into five acts), Paris, Theatre Lyrique, 1869. 

Balfe's last opera. The Knight of the Leop- 
ard, was given in Italian as II Talismano at 
Drury Lane on June 11, 1874. Miscellane- 
ous music : Mazeppa, cantata (London), 2 

others, written at Paris and Bologna, and 
many ballads, glees, part-songs, etc. — Ken- 
ney, A Memoir of ]\I. W. Balfe (London, 
1875) ; Clement, Mus. celebres, 511 ; Fetis ; 
Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling, Supplement, 14 ; 
Riemann, Lex. 

BALLADE, the title given by Chopin to 
four pieces of his pianoforte music, which 
have no special character beyond that they 
are all written in triple time. 1, Op. 23, in 
G minor ; 2, op. 38, in F major ; 3, op. 47, 
in A-flat major ; 4, op. 52, in F minor. 
Brahms also has published four Balladen 
for the pianoforte, op. 10 ; and Liszt two 
Ballades for the same, op. 36. 

LIE. See Tridia. 

dramatic composer, flourished about the 
end of the 17th and the early part of the 
18th centurj'. Works — O^jeras : Alcibiade 
(Alciade ?), o violenza d' amore (with Polla- 
rolo and Gasparini), given at Venice, 1699 ; 
Ai'iovisto (with Perti and Paolo Magni), 
IVIilan, 1699 ; L' Amante impazzito, Venice, 
1714.— Fetis. 

era, music by Cimarosa, represented at Na- 
ples, 1782. 

Claudio Monteverde, represented in Man- 
tua, 1608. This work, performed at the same 
time with the composer's Orfeo, was a mytho- 
logical spectacle, showing the punishment 
in Hades of fair ones who trifle with the 
affections of their swains. 



BALlLO in MASCHERA, IL (The Masked 
Bail), Italian opera in four acts, text by Som- 
lua, music by Verdi, tirst represented at the 
Teatro Apollo, Rome, Feb. 17, 1859. It 
was originally called Gustavo HI., the sub- 
ject being identical with that of Gusiave 
HI. ou le Bal Masque of Scribe, set to 
music by Auber, and was written for the 
San Carlo, Naples ; but during the re- 
hearsals Orsini made his attempt on the 
life of Najjoleon III. (Jan. 13, 1858), and 
the jjerformauce was interdicted by the au- 
thorities on account of its conspiracy scene. 
Verdi's refusal to adapt his music to a new 
libretto led to a suit against him by the 
management of the San Carlo for 200,000 
francs damages, and almost to a revolution 
in Naples, where the poj^ulace greeted the 
composer with shouts of "Viva Verdi," the 
letters of his name being given a political 
significance by being made to represent the 
initials of I'ittorio jEJmmanuele -St) Z*' /talia. 
Verdi finally took his work to Rome, where 
the censorship permitted its production 
with a change of scene and characters. 
The scene was changed to Massachusetts, 
and the action was made to turn on the 
assassination, at a masked ball in the co- 
lonial times, of Riccardo, Earl of Warwick 
and Governor of Boston, instead of King 
Gustavus m. of Sweden. In its new guise 
the piece was full of anachronisms and ab- 
surdities, but the beauty of its musical set- 
ting made it au unqualified success. On 
its production in Paris, at the Theatre 
Italien, Jan. 13, 1861, JLuio, who was cast 
for Riccardo, objected to the costume 
(small clothes, red coat, and epaulets), 
and the scene was again changed from 
Boston to Naples, and the Earl of Warwick 
was made into the Duke of Olivarez. The 
principal characters, Riccardo and Amelia, 
were represented originally by Fi'aschini 
and Mile Lagrua. The role of Amelia is 
a favourite with Mme Zelia Trebelli (nee 
Gillebert, Paris, 1838 ; her stage name is 
obviously her maiden name reversed), whose 
marriage, in 18G3, to the tenor singer Ales- 

sandro Bettini, was followed socm after by a 

Cast in Paris. 

Duca d' Olivarez Mario. 

Renato, Secretary Graziani. 

Oscar, a page Battu. 

Adelia, wife of Renato Penco. 

Ulrica, a sorceress Mme Alboni. 

Un Ballo in Maschera was first produced 
in London, at the Lyceum, June 15, 18G1 ; 
a French version, text by Edouard Duprez, 
was given at the Theatre Lj'rique, Paris, 
November, 18G9. The opera is strong in 
dramatic situations, to which the music is 

Zelia Trebelli. 

well adapted. Among the most noteworthy 
numbers are in the first act the romanza of 
Riccardo : " La rivedrii, nell' estasi ; " the 
aria of Reiuhart, "Di speranze e glorie pi- 
ena ; " and the ballata of Oscar, " Volta la 
terrea f route alle stelle." In the second 
act (or the third as now sung) are Amelia's 
aria : " Ma dall' arido stelo ; " her duet with 
Riccardo, "M'ami, in' ami;" and the trio 
of the two and Reiuhart, "Odi tu come." 
The last act opens with a scene between 
Reinhart and Amelia, in which the latter 
sings a minor andante, "Morro, ma prima, 
in grazia," and the former au aria, " O dol- 
cezze perdute," which is always popular. 
Then comes the trio and the quartet of 
the conspiracy music, and later the beau- 


tiful song of the page, " Saper voireste," 
aud tiually the ball scene and the assassiua- 
tiou. — Hauslick, Moderne Oper, 237. 

BAL HIASQUE, LE, by Auber. See 
Gustave III. 

BALTAZAR, oratorio, music by Giaeomo 
Carissimi. MS. in National Library, Paris. 
It has been published by Chrysander (Schott). 

BALTAZARINI (Baltageriui, Balthazar 
de Beaujoyeuls), flourished in the 16th 
century. An Italian musician, and jjerhaps 
the best violinist of his day. Brought from 
Piedmont to Paris in 1577 by the Marquis 
de Brissae, he became iuteudant of music 
aud first valet de chambre to Catherine 
de' Medici, queen dowager. He introduced 
into France the five-stringed Italian violin 
(tuned by 4ths from A to F). But his most 
important service was the introduction of 
the Italian dances into Paris ; he was the 
real founder of the ballet in France, aud, 
through the ballet, of the opera. In this 
labor he associated with himself the best 
Parisian musicians of the daj'. His most 
important work was Circe, or Le ballet 
comique de la Heine (-Ito, Paris, Adrieu 
Le Eoy et Robert Ballard, 1582). Some 
other ballets by him are in MS. in the Na- 
tional Library, Paris. — Ludovic Celler, Les 
Origiues de I'Opera, 135 (Paris, 1868). 

B.\LTHAS.Ul, FLORENCE, Henry Mat- 
thias BaUhasar, called, born at Arlon, Bel- 
gium, Oct. 21, 1844, stiU living, 1888. Dra- 
matic composer and pianist, pujDil at the 
Conservatoire, Brussels, in 1857, studied 
the pianoforte under Auguste Dupout, the 
organ under Leramens, harmony under 
Adolphe Samuel, fugue and counterj)oint 
inider Futis, obtaining successively all the 
prizes in these studies. He performed in 
public at Namur, where he lived, and in 
1868 brought out a dramatic overture at 
the Concerts populaires in Brussels, and in 
1870 the fragments of several symphonies. 
In 1875 he took the jDrize given by the city 
of Lille for a cantata. Works: Une croy- 
ance bretonne, opura-bouffe, given at Brus- 
sels, Thciitre de la Monnaie, about 1868 ; 

Le Docteur Quinquina, operetta, ib.. Casino 
des Galeries Saint-Hubert ; Grand concerto 
symphonique for pianoforte and orchestra, 
Namur, 1870 ; Messe solennelle, with cho- 
rus and orchestra, Namur, 1872 ; Cantata 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra, Lille, 1875 ; 
Several fantaisies for pianoforte ; a concerto 
for the trumpet ; ballet music, etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 39 ; Mendel ; Ergiinz., 23. 

BALTZAR, THOMAS, born in Liibeck, 
Germany, about 1630, died in London, 
buried July 27, 1663. Violinist, settled in 
England in 1656, the first great performer 
ever heard there. At the Restoration he 
became leader of the king's celebrated band 
of twenty-four violins. Anthony Wood cred- 
its him with having introduced the shift 
and the use of the upper part of the finger- 
board. His printed compositions appear in 
Playford's Division Violin ; a set of sonatas 
for lyra violin, treble violin, and bass viol, 
were sold at the auction of Thomas Britton, 
aud Burney owned some MS. solos.— Grove ; 
Fetis; Burney; Schilling. 

BAMBINI, FELICE, born at Bologna, 
Italy, about 1742, died in Paris during the 
first years of this century. Dramatic com- 
poser and jjianist, went to France in 1752 
with an Italian opera troupe, of which his 
father was director, first aft Strasburg, then 
in Paris, where young Bambini, then nine 
years old, accomiiauied the ^performances 
on the pianoforte, and even composed airs, 
which were introduced in the intermezzi. 
Remaining in Paris after the expulsion of 
the Italian troupe, he studied imder Bor- 
denave and Rigade, and settled down as a 
teacher of the pianoforte. Works : Les 
amauts de village, comic opera, given in 
Paris, Nouveau Theatre Italien, 1764 ; Ni- 
caise, do., Opera Comique, 1776 ; LAmour 
r emporte, do., Theatre de Beaujolais, about 
1787 ; 8 sonatas for pianoforte ; Trios for 
violin, viola, and violoncello ; 6 sympho- 
nies ; Little airs for ijianoforte with violin. — 
Fetis ; Schilling. 

logna in 1567, died in 1634. Organist, pujnl 


of Gerami, who was organist of the Cathe- 
dral of Lucca, aud later of S. Marco in Ven- 
ice. Banehieri was first organist of Sta. 
Maria iu Regola, Iniola, and in 1G03 of S. 
Michele in Bosco, near Bologna. He wrote 
church and dramatic music, and intermedj 
for comedies, such as La pazzia senile, etc. 
(Venice, 1598, reprinted at Cologne) ; its 
pendant, La jsrudeuza giovenile, which he 
entitled Comedia iu musica (Milan, 1G07) ; 
La barca di Venezia a Padua (Venice, 1623) ; 
and La fida fanciulla, etc. (Bologna, 1(528, 
1629). His canzonette for four and three 
voices are dated 1595, 1596, 1597, 1598 ; and 
his madrigals for three and four voices 1593, 
1594, 1600, 1602, 1623. Besides these he 
had many collections of motets, concertos, 
and masses. His 7th work is Fautasie e 
psalmi, canzone alia francese (1603). Of his 
theoretical works his first, " Conclusioni per 
orgauo," appeared at Lucca iu 1591 ; his most 
important, "L' Organo suonarino " (Venice, 
1605), contained the first jwecise rules for 
accompanying from a figured bass (pub- 
lished separately by Lomazzo at Milan) ; iu 
the " Moderna practica musicale " (Venice, 
1613), he suggests alterations in the basso 
continuo in consequence of its influence on 
the ornaments in singing. Another book, 
the " Cartella Musicale " (1614), contains a 
jH'oject for founding an academy of science 
and art at his monastery at Bologna. Ban- 
ehieri wrote comedies under the name of 
Camillo Scaligeri della fratta. — Grove ; Fe- 
tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

BANCK, KARL, born at Magdeburg, May 
27, 1809, still living, 
1888. Instrumental 
and vocal composer. 

pupil in Berlin of B. 
Klein aud L. Berger, 
aud at Dessau (1829) 
of Friedrich Schnei- 
der. He visited Italy in 
1831-32, then lived at 
Magdeburg, Berlin, 
and Leipsic, where he entertained friendly 
relations with Robert Schumann, then at 

Tubingen and Jena until 1840, when he set- 
tled at Dresden. In 1861 he married an 
American, and visited America in 1867. He 
is one of the most eminent musical critics 
of Germany. Besides songs and part-songs 
he has published some music for pianoforte. 
— Mendel ; Riemann ; Schilling, Sujiplement. 
in London, June 13, 
1831, still living, 
1888. Pianist, son 
and pujiil of Henry 
Joshua Banister 
(1803-1847, violon- 
cellist), but mostly 
self-taught ; studied 
also at the Royal 
Academy of Music 
under Cipriani Potter, won the King's Schol- 
arship iu 1846 aud 1848, and became assistant 
professor of harmony and composition in 
1851, and professor in 1853. He has been pro- 
fessor of harmony at the Guildhall School 
of Music since 1880, and at the Royal Nor- 
mal College for the Blind. Works : First 
Symphony iu D, for orchestra (1847) ; Sec- 
ond do. in E-flat (1848) ; Third do. in A 
minor (1850) ; Fourth do. in A (1853) ; Fu-st 
Overture, for orchestra (1849) ; Second do. 
— Cymbeline, Third do. (1852) ; Fourth do. 
— The Serenade; Fifth do. — From Sorrow 
to Joy (1876) ; First Quartet for strings 
(1848) ; Second do. (1850) ; String quartet in 
E minor ; Sonata iu E, for pianoforte ; Sec- 
ond do., four hands, in G minor (1850) ; Third 
do. in A-flat ; Fourth do. in A minor ; So- 
natas for i^ianoforte iu B-flat, F-sharp minor 
(2), F minor ; Fantasia in F minor, for 
pianoforte (1874) ; Andante aud Rondo for 
do. and orchestra (1852) ; Capriceio in A 
minor fordo.; Fantasia iu D, for do. (1863) ; 
Intermezzo in E, for orchestra (1875) ; Sa- 
cred cantata for chorus, solo voices, and or- 
chestra (1851) ; The Sea Fairies, cantata for 
female voices, and orchestra (1861) ; The 
Maiden's Holiday, do., without orchestra ; 
Numerous songs, part-songs, aud pianoforte 



BANISTER, JOHN, born in Loudon in 
1G30, died there, Oct. 3, 1679. Dramatic 
composer and 
violinist. His vio- 
lin -playing at- 
tracted the notice 
of Charles II., who 
sent him to Fi'ance 
to study, and on 
his return in 1663 
made him leader 
of his band. He 
was the first to es- 
tablish in London lucrative concerts, which 
he kept up until near the time of his decease. 
He wrote the music to the tragic opera of 
Circe, by Dr. Charles Davenant, eldest son 
of Sir "William Davenant, given in 1676 at 
the Duke of York's Theatre ; and also wrote, 
jointly with Pelham Humfrey, the music to 
The Tempest, performed in 1676. He was 
one of the contributors to Playford's Courtly 
Masquing Ayres (1662), and 25ublished some 
lessons for viols or violins. — Grove ; Haw- 
kins, Notes to North's Memoirs of Musiek. 
FRIEDRICH, born, of French parents, at 
Oettingen, Bavaria, Aug. 8, 1700, died at 
Cassel about 1764. Yiolinist, lived in 1703- 
20 at Darmstadt, visited Paris in 1718, and 
travelled in Italy and most of the European 
countries until 1726, when he settled at 
Cassel as court dancing-master, his father's 
2)rofession. "Works : 12 solos for violin ; 6 
do. for violoncello ; 6 trios for oboe and 
violoncello ; 36 solos for bass viol ; 12 con- 
certos for do. ; 6 sonatas for flute. — Fetis ; 

BAPTISTE (real name Baptiste Anet), 
lived last of the 17th and beginning of the 
18th centuries. Violinist, pupil of Corelli 
for foui" years, from 1700. He went to 
Paris, where he was looked upon as a musi- 
cal prodigy, and did much to develop violin- 
playing by introducing Corelli's method ; 
but he failed to suit the taste of Louis XIV., 
who preferred Lulli's music, and Baptiste 
went to Poland, where he became music 

director to the King. Published works : 
Sonates pour violou, 1, 2, 3 liv. ; Deux suites 
de pieces a deux musettes, ceuv. 2 ; Six duos 
pour deux musettes, ceuv. 3. — Futis. 

B.APTISTIN (Batistiu), JEAN, born, of 
German parents, in Florence, Italy, about 
1690, died in Paris, Dec. 9, 17.55. Dramatic 
composer and violoncellist in the orchestra 
of the Opera in Paris. His real name w^as 
Johann Struck. He stood in high favonr 
with Louis XTV., who allowed him an an- 
nual pension during his sojourn in France. 
"Works : Meleagre, Ij'ric tragedy, given in 
Paris, Academic Koyale de Musique, 1709 ; 
Manto la Fee, do., ib., Opera, 1711 ; Poly- 
dore, do., Academie, 1720 ; Four books of 
cantatas (Paris, 1706, 1708, 1711, 17U) ; 
Collection of arias (ib., 1709). Several op- 
eras and ballets, written for the court, and 
not performed in Paris. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BARBE, ANTOINE, born, probably in 
Hainault, in the early part of the 16th cen- 
tury, died at Antwerp, Dec. 4, 1564. Church 
composer, called to Antwerp in 1527 as mai- 
tre de musique of the maitrise of Notre 
Dame, which position he held for thirty-five 
j-ears, becoming so famous as a composer 
and leader that the best musicians of that 
epoch placed themselves under his direc- 
tion. Nearly aU of his numerous masses, 
motets, hymn.s, anthems, etc., that were ex- 
ecuted daily at Notre Dame, were destroyed 
with the cathedral by the Iconoclasts in 
1566. Only the following survive : Two 
motets (Antwerp, Van Visseuaken, 1542) ; 
Four-part song (ib., Tylman Susato, 1544) ; 
Vecy la danse de Barbaric, mass (ib., 1545- 
46). His sou (died, 1604) and grandson 
(died, 1626), both named Antoine, wex-e also 
musicians of distinction. — Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, i. 703. 

BARBE-BLEU (Blue Beard), opera-bouffe 
in three acts and four tableaux, text by 
Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy, music 
by Offenbach, first represented at the Thea- 
tre des Varietus, Paris, Feb. 5, 1866. 

B.ARBELLA, ElLiNUELE, born in Na- 
ples, beginning of the 18th century, died 



there iu 1773. Violinist ; pupil of his father 
Francesco Barbella, of Augjelo Zaga, and of 
Pasqualiiio Biiii, a pupil of Tartini in Na- 
ples ; instructed in counterpoint by Michele 
Gabbalone and Leo. He had Kaimondi for 
his pupil. Works : C duets for 2 violins and 
Gsonatasforviolin (London) ; 6 duets for vio- 
lin ; 6 duets for 'cello, op. 4 (Paris). Burney, 
in his History of Music, gives, Tinna Tonna, 
j)er prender souno, a chai-ming piece for 
double string, by Barbella. — Ft'tis ; Schil- 

BALTHAZAR, born iu Paris, Nov. 14, 1799, 
died there, July 18, 1879. Instrumental 
composer, pupil of Eeicha at the Conserva- 
toire. He won the grand prix in 1824, vis- 
ited Italy and Germanj^ was for some years 
chef d'orchestre at the Theatre des Nou- 
veautes, and at the Theatre FranCj'ais, then 
devoted himself for many years to historical 
studies and teaching, and in 1872 became 
professor at the Conservatoire. Works : 
Agnes Sorel, cantata (grand jjrix, 1824) ; 
Several overtures for orchestra ; Part of 
the music to the lyrical drama Les Syba- 
rites de Florence, given at the Theatre des 
Nouveautes, 1831. He wrote a treatise 
on composition (1845, unfinished) ; and 
"Etudes sur I'origine du systfeme musical " 
(1852, do.).— Fetis; do.. Supplement, i. 

comic oj)era in two acts, text by Madison 
Morton, music by John Hullah, represent- 
ed at Covent Garden, London, Nov. 11, 

in Metz, Nov. 15, 1829, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Darondeau, or- 
ganist at Bourges. He was destined for the 
army or the law by his family, but a little ope- 
ra-comique which he produced at Bourges, 
Le Manage de Colombine, decided his career 
and enabled him to devote himself to the 
study of music. He went to Paris, was pre- 
sented to Sevestre, director at the Lyrique, 
and made the acquaintance of Adoljahe 

Adam, who gave him lessons in composi- 
tion and helped him to bring out at the 
Lyri<pie, in 1855, Une nuit a Seville, which 
was favourably received. Two months after 
he produced Rose et Narcisse (1855), and 
since that time he has had his operas played 
on all the lyric stages of France and in 
all the cafos-chantants of Paris. He has 
written more than sixty op6ras-comiques, 
ojserettes, and ballets, besides three hun- 
dred duets, romances, melodies, chanso- 
nettes, and dance music. He was chef d'or- 
chestre of the Theatre International in 
1867, and has been director at the Alcazar 
for some years. He has been musical critic 
and has written for many musical sheets. 
Besides operas mentioned, the following 
have been given in Paris, at the Folies Nou- 
velles : Le Pacha, Fraucaster, Le Page de 
Mme Malbrough, Le Faux Faust, 1858 ; Le 
Docteur Tam-Tam, 1859. At the Theatre 
Dejazet : Monsieur Deschalumeaux, Le 
grand Roi d'Yvetot, 1859 ; Le loup et 
I'agneau, 18G2 ; Simon Terre-Neuve, 1863 ; 
Deux permissions de dix heures, 1864 ; 
Panne aux airs. At the Theatre du Chalet 
des lies : Les amours d'un Shah, Flamberge 
au vent, 1861. At the Folies Marigny : Ver- 
sez. Marquis, La cigale et la fourmi, 1862 ; 
La gamine du village, Les trois Normandes, 
1863 ; Achille chez Chiron, 1864. Th^-atre 
Saint-Germain : La bouquetiere de Trianon, 
1864. Bouifes Parisiens : Mme Pygmalion, 
1863 ; Un congres de modistes, 1865 ; Une 
femme qui a perdu sa clef, 1866. Theatre 
International : Gervaise, 1867. Fantaisies 
Parisiennes : Les oreilles de Midas, 1866 ; 
Les legendes de Gavarni, 1867 ; Le soldat 
malgre lui, 1868. Folies Berg^re : Mam'- 
zelle Pierrot, 1869. Varictes : Mam'zelle 
Rose, 1874. At the Concert de I'Eldorado : 
Le souper d'Arlequin ; Balladine et Cas- 
quenfer ; Un mariage au gros sel ; Don 
Ferocio ; Le beau chasseur ; Ferme le di- 
manche ; Un proces en separation ; On de- 
mande un pretre ; Un souper chez la Con- 
tat ; L'acteur Omnibus ; Un leudemain de 
noce ; La bonne de ma tante ; Une cause 



celebre ; Le nez de cartou ; Le coq est 
mort ! ; La nouirice d'Hercule ; Millionaire ! 
les point jaunes ; M. I'Alcade ; Maiu' Nico- 
las ; Le champagne de ma tante ; La fer- 
miere et son garjon ; Les deux clioristes ; 
Marion de I'Orme, parody ; Luerece d'Or- 
geat, do.; Le tresor de Cassandra, Les cas- 
cades de Pierrot, La batte encliantije (pan- 
tomimes). At the Alcazar : La fete de Mme 
Denis ; Un scandale a I'Alcazar ; L'Orches- 
tre des Danoises ; Les pifferari, ballet. Un- 
represented operas : Le Miroir, operetta ; La 
veuve Omphale ; La chaumiere indienne, 
of)era comique ; Corinne, do. ; Les incroj'a- 
bles, opera bouife. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 

(The Barber of Sievering), operetta, parodj' 
on the Barbiere di Siviglia, music by A. Miil- 
ler, rejDresented at the Theater ander Wien, 
Vienna, about 1828. 

Barber of Trouville), operetta in one act, 
text by M. Henri (Jaime), music by Charles 
Lecocq, represented at the Bouffes Parisi- 
ens, November, 1871. 

lage Barber), ojaera-comique in one act, 
text by A. J. Gretry, music by Gretry, rep- 
resented at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, 
May G, 1797. Les barbieres de village, 
French operetta, text by Blondelet and 
Baumain, music by Firmin Bernicat, Paris, 
1878. See Der Dorfbarhier. 

ber of Seville ; Fr., Barbier de Seville ; Ger., 
Barbier von Sevilla), Italian ojjera bufifa, 
text founded on the celebrated comedy of 
Beaumarchais (1775), music by Paisiello, 
first represented in St. Petersburg in 1780, 
and in Paris at the Theatre de Monsieur in 
the Tuileries, July 12, 1789, and at the 
Theatre Feydeau, July 22, 1789. This 
work, sung originally by Signori Viga- 
noni, Mengozzi, Mandini, Rovedino, Raf- 
fanelli, and by Signore Morichelli, Baletti, 
Zerbini, and Mandini, achieved a European 
success and was always received with en- 

thusiasm until supplanted by Rossini's 

opera buffa in two acts, text by Sterbini, mu- 
sic by Rossini, first represented, in Rome, 
at the Teatro Argentina, Feb. 5, 1816 ; in 
Paris, at the Salle Louvois, Oct. 26, 1819. 
Rossini, who had bound himself, Dec. 26, 
1815, to produce a new opera by the twen- 
tieth of the following mouth, hesitated to 
accept a libretto which Paisiello had treated 
so successfuU}', but, having obtained that 
composer's permission, wrote the score, it 
is said, in thirteen days. To avoid the ap- 
pearance of rivalry with Paisiello he named 
his work, Almaviva, ossia 1' inutile precau- 
zione (Almaviva, or the Useless Precaution), 
but the theatre was packed with the adhe- 
rents of the older composer, who resented 
the new effort as an intrusion on his rights, 
and the work was unmistakably damned ; 
but it was kept on the stage and continually 
grew in favour until it became one of the 
most poj)ular comic operas ever written. 
A similar result attended its performance 
in Paris. It was coldly received by the 
critics, who demanded the Barbiere of Pai- 
siello ; but when the latter was put upon 
the stage at the Theatre Italien it met with 
dismal failure and Rossini triumphed. 

Original Cast in Rome, 1816. 

Rosina (A.) Signora Giorgi Righetti. 

Berta (S.) Signorina Rossi. 

Figaro (Bar.) Signor Luigi Zamboni. 

Count Almaviva (T.) Signor Garcia. 

Bartolo (B.) Signor Botticelli. 

Basilio (Bar.) Signor Vitarelli. 

Cast in Paeis, 1819. 

Rosina Mme Ronzi de Begnis. 


Figaro Signor Pellegrini. 

Count Almaviva Signor Garcia. 

Bartolo Signor Graziani. 

Basilio Signor de Begnis. 

The opera was first produced in New 



York, at Niblo's Garden, Nov. 29, 182G, 
with the following remarkable cast : 

Rosiua Signorina Garcia (Malibran). 

Berta Signora Garcia. 

Figaro Signor Garcia, Jr. 

Almaviva Siguor Garcia, Sen. 

Bartolo Siguor Rosich. 

Basilio Signor Angrisani. 

Fiorillo Signor CrevelH. 

Siguor jSIanuel del Popolo-Vicente Gar- 
cia, the father of Malibran and of Viardot 
Garcia, took the part of Almaviva, it will be 
noted, in the original representations of the 
opera in Rome, Paris, and New York. 
Among the most noted of the Rosinas of the 
present time is Mme Adeliua Patti (born at 

' * -'» 

Adelina Patti. 

Madrid, Feb. 19, 1843), whose marriage (July 
29, 1868) to Henri, Marquis de Caux, Equerry 
to Napoleon IIL, was annulled in 1885 and 
followed by a second union with Signor Nieo- 
lini (Ernest Nicolas), tenor singer. The 
scene of the opera is laid in Seville, Spain. 
Rosina, ward of Dr. Bartolo, who desires 
to marry her, is loved by Count Almaviva, 
known to her as Count Lindoro. The 
Count prevails upon Figaro, the factotum 
of the place, to secure him an interview 
with his mistress, who lives with her guar- 
dian, and, in spite of the latter's watchful- 
ness and of that of Don Basilio, her music 
teacher, who is in league with Bartolo, she 
sends her lover a letter informing him that 
she returns his passion, and he secures, with 

the aid of Figai-o, admission to the house in 
the disguise of a drunken dragoon. Foiled 
in this by the entrance of the guard, who 
aiTest him, he gets in a second time dis- 
guised as a music teacher, jsreteudiug to 
have been sent by Don Basilio, who is ill. 
He secures Bartolo's confidence by showing 
him Rosina's letter to himself, promising to 
persuade her that the letter has been given 
him by a mistress of the Count, and to thus 
break off the connection between the two. 
In an interview with Rosiua an elopement 
is planned, but Don Basilio comes in and 
the Count is obliged to make his escape. 
Dr. Bartolo arouses his ward's jealousy by 
means of the letter, whereupon she tells of 
the i^roposed elopement and promises to 
marry him ; but at the time for the elope- 
ment the Count and Figaro appear, a rec- 
onciliation takes place, and the lovers are 
married by a notary just as Bartolo appears 
with officers to arrest the Count. The over- 
ture of H Barbiere di Siviglia is taken from 
Aureliano in Palmyra, an unsuccessful op- 
era by Rossini, written in 1814. It had 
previously served as the overture to Ciro in 
Babilonia (1812) and later (1815) to EHsa- 
betta, regina d' Inghilterra. In the first per- 
formance, in the scene beneath Rosina's 
balcony, Garcia introduced a Spanish air, 
but before the second performance Rossini 
wrote for it the beautiful cavatiua, " Ecco 
ridente in cielo," borrowing the melody 
from the opening chorus in Aureliano, 
" Sposa del graude Osiride." In the second 
scene Figaro sings the famous bufl'o aria, 
" Largo al factotum." After a duet between 
Almaviva and Figaro, " Oggi arriva un reg- 
gimento," comes the piquant cavatina of 
Rosiua, "Una voce poco fa," so often heard 
in concerts. The celebrated Cakimny aria, 
"La calunnia o un venticello," is a bass 
solo sung by Basilio, and the duet, "E il 
maestro io faecio," by Figaro and Rosina. 
In the second act, the music lesson of Ro- 
sina gives the singer an opportunity for 
interpolation, the original being lost. The 
aria, " Sempre gridi," sung by the duenna 



Bertha, is taken from a Russian melody. 
It is called iu Italy "Aria di Sorbetto," 
because the audience used to eat ices while 
it was sung. The trio " Zitti, zitti," is ta- 
ken from Haydn's Seasons, it being the 
air sung hj Simon. The same subject has 
been treated musically by Louis Beuda, 
Hamburg, 1782 ; by Elsj)erger, Sulzbach, 
1783 ; and by Schulz, Eeinsberg, 1786. Fig- 
aro, German opera, music by Tost, was rep- 
resented at Presbiu'g, 1795 ; Barbiere di Sivi- 
glia, Italian opera, music by Nicolo Isouard, 
Malta, about 179G. See also Nozze di Figaro. 
— Escudier, Rossini, sa vie, etc. ; Castil-Blaze, 
Theatres Lyriques de Paris ; Edwards, Life 
of R., 127 ;" Stendhal, 136 ; Hauslick, Mod- 
erne Oper, 105 ; Musical Rev., ii. 66. 

born at Genoa in 1822, died at Pesth, Sept. 
29, 1867. Dramatic composer, pujjil of 
Mercadante at Naples. He conducted the 
orchestra in several Italian opera houses, 
then in 1845 in Vienna, and in 18-47 iu 
Berlin, and was Kapellmeister at the Stadt 
Theater in Hamburg in 1851-53. He then 
went with an Italian opera troupe to Rio 
Janeiro, and after his return in 1856 lived 
iu Vienna, teaching music until 1862, when 
he became Kapellmeister at the National 
Theatre in Pesth. Works — Operas : Cristo- 
foro Colombo, given in Berlin, 1848 ; Nisida, 
la Perla di Procida, 1851 ; Carlo und Car- 
lin, 1859 ; Perdita, ein Wiutermiirchen, 
Leipsic, 1865, and at Cracow, Prague, Wei- 
mar, Magdeburg, Kunigsberg, Berlin, etc. ; 
Masses ; Pianoforte pieces ; German and 
Italian songs. — Mendel. 

born in Madrid, Aug. 3, 1823, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of the Con- 
servatorio Maria Christina, Madrid, under 
Pedro Albenez for pianoforte, Ramon Broca 
for clarinet, Baltazar Saldoni for singing, and 
of Carnicer in composition. He was educated 
as a doctor and a civil engineer, but his love 
of music led him to adopt it as a profession. 
For several years he liad a hard struggle, but 
at last he became a member of the chorus 

at the Cirque Theatre, and wrote a zar- 
zuela, Felipa, which was not jslayed. He 
joined an Italian opera company as a 
supernumerary' and travelled through North- 
ern Sjiain, and on his return to Madrid in 
1847 his career as a composer began, and 
ever since he has been one of the best 
known writers in Spain, and the chief pro- 
moter of Spanish national opera in oppo- 
sition to Italian opera. He first wrote an 
Italian opera, II buon tempo, but he soon 
joined a society forming at Madrid for the 
production of zarzuelas, or Spanish operas 
comiques, of which he became secretary 
and a hard-working member, and was at 
the same time musical critic on the "Ilustra- 
cion." In 1850 he produced Gloria y Peluca, 
zarzuela in one act, which obtained a won- 
derful success, and was followed by several 
others, and in 1851 brought out Jugar con 
fuego, which was greeted with enthusiasm 
and he became a popular favourite. He 
brought out no less than sixty works in the 
next twenty-five years, some of which were 
written in collaboration with other mem- 
bers of the Zarzuela Society, the com- 
posers Hernando, Oudrid, Inzeuga, Gaz- 
tambide, and the dramatic author Don 
Luiz Olona. The list comprises : Tramoya, 
Escenas de Chamberi (with Oudrid, Her- 
nando, and Gaztambide), 1850 ; La Jacara, 
ballet, La Piscaresca (with Gaztambide), 
Jugiir con fuego, Por seguir a una mujer 
(with Oudrid, Inzenga, Gaztambide), 1851 ; 
La hechicera, El Manzanares, Gracias a 
Dios que estil puesta la mesa, 1852 ; La es- 
pada de Bernardo, El Marques de Caravaca, 
Don Simplicio Bobadilla (with Gaztambide, 
Hernando, and Inzenga), Galanteos en Veni- 
cia, 1853 ; Un dia de reinado (with Gaz- 
tambide, Inzenga, and Oudrid), Aventura 
de un cantante, Los Diamantes de la Coro- 
na, 1854 ; Mis dos mujeres, Los dos ciegos, 
El vizconde, El Sargento Federico, 1855 ; 
Eutre dos aguas, Gato por liebre. La Zar- 
zuela (with Gaztambide and Arrieta for the 
inauguration of the Zarzuela Theatre), 1856 ; 
El Diablo en el poder, 1856 ; El relampago. 



1857 ; Por conquista, Amar sin conocer, Uu 
caballero particular, 1858 ; El robo de las 
sabinas, El nifio, Conipromisos del uo ver, 
Eutre mi imijer y el negro, 1859 ; Un Tesoro 
escondido, 18G1 ; Los herederos — el secreto 
de una dania, 1862 ; Dos picboues del Tu- 
ria, 1863 ; Pan y toros, 186-1 ; Gibraltar en 
1890, El rabano portas hojas, Eevista de 
un muerto juicio del aiio 1865 (with Eogel), 
De tejas arriba, El pavo de Navidad, 1866 ; 
El pan de la boda, 1868 ; El soprano, La 
maya, 1869 ; Robinson, 1870 ; Los holga- 
zanes, Don Pacifico, El liombre es debil, 
1871 ; El tribute de las cien doncellas, 
Suefios de oro, 1872 ; El proceso de can- 
can, 1873 ; Los comediantes de antano. La 
despedida, lyrical monologue, El domador 
de fieras, El testamento azul. El barberillo 
de Lavapies, 1874 ; La vuelta al niundo 
(with Rogel), 1875. — Fetis, Supjjlument, i. 
44 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 24 ; Kiemaun, Lex. 

Rovigo, Italy, in 1813, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer, known by the opera, 
I Trojani in Laurento, given at Rovigo, 
1836, Venice, 1837.— Fetia 

BARBIREAU (Barbarian, Barbingaut, 
Barbiryant, Barbyrianus), JACQUES, bom 
perhaps at Mons, Hainault, died at Antwerp, 
Aug. 8, 1491. Church composer and cele- 
brated contrapuntist ; he is mentioned as 
choir-master at Notre Dame, Antwerj), as 
early as 1448, was considered one of the 
highest musical authorities of his time, and 
the master of many famous musicians who 
lived in his, and at the beginning of the 16th 
century, notably Okeghem, Jacotin, Breden- 
iers, Egide Charlier, and Van den Wj'ngaert. 
Under bis direction the musical service at 
Notre Dame attained to a very high standard. 
He was a friend of Rudolf Agricola, with 
whom he maintained a literary correspond- 
ence. In thelmjierial Library, Vienna, are the 
manuscripts of the following : Virgo parens 
Chi-isti, mass for five voices ; Faulx perverse, 
do. for four voices ; Kyrie of an Easter mass, 
for do.; Kyrie and Christe of another mass. 
— Biog. uat. de Belgique, i. 712 ; FetLs. 

BARCAROLLE, L.\, or LAmour et la 
musique (Love and Music), French opera- 
coniique in three acts, text by Scribe, orig- 
inal plot, music by Auber ; first represented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, April 22, 1845. 

BARDES, LES. See Ossian. 

BARGIEL, WOLDEMAR, born in Ber- 
lin, Oct. 3, 1828, 
still living, 1888. 
His father was a 
music teacher in 
Berlin, his mother 
the divorced wife 
of Friedrich 
Wieck ; he is thus 
step-brother t o 
Clara Schumann. 
He studied the 
pianoforte, violin, 
and organ at home, and counterpoint un- 
der Dehn. In 1846 he went to Leijjsic, 
where he spent two years at the Conser- 
vatory, of which Jlendelssohn was then 
du-ector. In 1850 he began teaching in 
Berlin, and gradually established his repu- 
tation aa a composer by the publication 
of several pianoforte pieces, orchestral and 
chamber works. He had already made 
some mark in Leipsic with a string-octet, 
which was played at one of the public ex- 
aminations at the Conservator^'. In 1859 
he got a professorship at the Cologne Con- 
servatory, and in 1865 was made Kapell- 
meister and director of the music school at 
Rotterdam. In 1874 he became professor at 
Joachim's Hochschule fiir Musik in Berlin. 
Bargiel is one of the more prominent fol- 
lowers of Schumann ; he has not been a vo- 
luminous composer, but some of his works 
entitle him to a high position in modern 
German music. His best known work is the 
overture to Medea, which holds an honour- 
able place in the current concert repei'tory. 
Works : Overture Zur einem Trauerspiel, 
op. 18 ; do. to Medea, op. 22 ; do. to Pro- 
metheus ; do. to Romeo und Julie (? is 
possibly op. 18) ; Synqihony in C ; Trois 
danses brillantes, for orchestra, op. 24 ; 


Psalm 9G for double eliorus, op. 33 ; Two 
psalms, oj). 25 and 26 ; Trio for piauoforte, 
violin, and violoncello, op. G ; do., op. 20 ; 
do., op. 37 ; Suite for pianoforte and violin, 
op. 17 ; Sonata for do., op. 10. For piano- 
forte : Drei Charakterstiicke, ojd. 1 ; do., 
op. 8 ; Nachtstiicke, op. 2 ; Drei Notturnos, 
op. 3 ; Secbs Bagatellen, op. 4: ; Phautasien, 
op. 5, 12, 19 ; Suite (4 hands), op. 7 ; Drei 
Phantasiestiicke, op. 9 ; Marscli und Fest- 
reigen, op. 11 ; Scherzo, op. 13 ; Suite, op. 
21 ; Sonata (4 hands), op. 23 ; Phantasie- 
stiick, oj). 27 ; Acht Pianofortestiicke, op. 
32 ; Drei do.— Wochenblatt (1871), ii. 424. 

BARKOUF, French opt-ra-boufte in three 
acts, text by Scribe and Boisseaux, music 
by Offenbach, represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Dec. 24, 1860. The subject 
is derived from a political and philosophi- 
cal tale by the Abbe Blanchet. Barkouf is 
a bull-dog, sent by the Grand Mogul to 
govern the inhabitants of Lahore, the most 
turbulent of his subjects. The people 
tremble whenever the dog barks, but a 
young girl named Maima tames the beast 
and rules Lahore so justly and successfully 
in his name that when Barkouf is unfort- 
unately killed all mourn his loss. 

at Potsdam, Feb. 17, 1784, died in Munich, 
June 11, 1847. Celebrated clarinetist, pu- 
pil of the oboe school at Potsdam ; in 1798 
he entered as clarinetist the band of the 
roj'al guard, where his skill procured him 
the patronage of Prince Louis Ferdinand 
of Prussia, who emjsloyed him at his private 
concerts, and caused him to be instruct- 
ed by the royal chamber-musician Franz 
Tausch. After the battle of Jena he was 
among the prisoners of war, bat, released 
after the Peace of Tilsit, he returned to 
Berlin, whence he proceeded to Munich, 
with a recommendation from the Crown 
Prince Ludwig of Bavaria, and after the 
first court concert was at once appointed 
first clarinetist of the royal orchestra. In 
1808 he began a sei'ies of concert tours 
throughout Eurojae, which constituted as 

many triumphs. Karl Maria von Weber, on 
his visit to Munich in 1811, wrote for him 
three clarinet-concertos, became his friend, 
and travelled with him in the same year ; 
while in Vienna during the Congress of 
1813, he was intimate with Meyerbeer, who 
also composed for him, as later on did 
Mendelssohn, with whom he formed a life- 
long friendship. His compositions are re- 
fined, brilliant, and thorough, and continue 
in high favour with clarinetists. Among the 
thirty-eight works published are : Concertos 
and concertinos, op. 24, 27, 28 (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; Fantasias and sonatas 
with orchestra, op. 26, 31 (ib.) ; Quintets 
for clarinet, two violins, viola, and violon- 
cello, op. 19, 22, 23 (ib.) ; Quartets for do., 
op. 18, 25 (ib.) ; Airs varies with orchestra, 
op. 12, 20, 21, 29, 37 (ib., and Leipsic, Hof- 
meister ; Bonn, Simrock ; Paris, Gambaro) ; 
Divertissements, oj). 34, 35, 38 ; Duets, 
etudes, and solos. His son and pupil Karl 
(born in Munich, Oct. 24, 1811, died there. 
May 24, 1885), also stands high as a virtu- 
oso on the clarinet and basset-horn. He 
accompanied his father to St. Petersburg in 
1832, and to Paris in 1839, and succeeded 
to his position in the royal orchestra at Mu- 
nich. His compositions number more than 
eiglity- seven, besides an excellent method 
for his instrument, in the construction of 
which he has also made great improvements. 
— Allgeni. d. Biogr., ii. 69; Fetis ; Mendel; 
Schilling ; do., Supplement. 

BARNARD, Mrs. CHARLES, born in 
England in 1834, died at Dover, Jan. 30, 
1869. Song writer, published many popular 
ballads under the pseudonym of " Claribel." 
She wrote also duets, trios, and quartets, 
and music for the pianoforte. Brown ; 
Fetis, Supplement, i. 185. 

BARNBY, JOSEPH, born in York, Eng- 
land, Aug. 12, 1838, still living, 1888. 
Organist, jnipil of the Royal Academy of 
Music ; chorister in York Minster. He was 
for nine years organist at St. Andrew's, 
Wells Street, London ; was conductor of 
Barnby's Choir, of the Oratorio Concerts, 




anil of the Royal Albert Hall Choral Soci- 
ety. In 1875 be was appointed succen- 
tor and director 
of musical in- 
struction at Eton 
College. Works : 
Rebekah, orato- 
rio ; tbe Lord is 
King, for soli, 
chorus, and or- 
chestra, Leeds 
Festival, 1883; 2 
Services in E ; Te 
Deum in B-flat ; 

Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in D 
theius ; Songs and part songs ; Organ mu- 
sic ; Hymns, etc. He also edited a Hymnary 
for Novello, to which be contributed many 
of tbe airs. 

in London in 1858, died in Montreal, Can- 
ada, Sept. 21, 1880. Organist, pupil of Hel- 
more in the Chapel Royal and, from 1872, of 
tbe Royal Academy of Music. Organist of 
All Saints' Church, London, 1872, of St. Mar- 
garet's, Liverpool, 1876, of tbe Cathedral, 
Montreal, in 1878-79, and in 1880 assistant 
organist of Trinity Church, New York. He 
was also conductor of the Montreal Philhar- 
monic Society. "Works : An opera, text by 
Mrs. G. L. Craik (SIS.) ; Operetta, produced 
at the "German Reed Entertainments;" 
The 23d Psalm for soli, chorus, and orches- 
tra ; Organ and pianoforte music ; Songs. 
BARNETT, JOHN, born at Bedford, 
England, July 1, 1802, 
still living, 1888. Dra- 
matic composer. His 
father was a Prussian 
named Bernhard Beer, 
of tbe same family as 
Meyerbeer. When 
eleven John was articled 
to S. J. Arnold, propri- 
etor of the Lyceum, for five years as a singer 
in return for musical instruction, received 
from C. E. Horn, and later from Price, chor- 
us-master of Drury Lane. After leaving Ar- 

nold he studied the pianoforte under Perez, 
organist of the Spanish Embassy, and under 
Ferdinand Ries, from whom be received his 
first lessons in harmony. In 1832 be was mu- 
sic director of the Olympic Theatre, and in 
August, 1834, bis best work, Tbe Mountain 
Sylph, was given at the Lyceum. After this 
Barnett visited Paris, and about 1837 went to 
Frankfort to study Yogler's system of har- 
mony, and composition under Snyder von 
Wartensee ; while there he wrote a symphony 
and two quartets (unpublished). In 1838, on 
returning to London, be joined Morris Bar- 
nett in an unsuccessful attemi^t to found an 
English opera bouse. In 18-11 he settled at 
Cheltenham as singing-master. His compo- 
sitions include dramatic pieces, operas, an 
oratorio, Tbe Omnipresence of the Deity 
(1829), never performed in public, and more 
than four thousand songs. Works — Dramat- 
ic pieces : Before Breakfast, Lyceum, 1825 ; 
Monsieur Mallet ; Robert the Devil ; Coun- 
try Quarters ; Two Seconds ; Soldier's Wid- 
ow ; The Picturesque ; Married Lovers ; The 
Deuce is in her ; Charles the Twelfth ; Carni- 
val of Naples, Covent Garden, 1830 ; Pet of 
tbe Petticoats, Sadler's Wells, 1831 ; Paphian 
Bower, Olympic Revels, Court of Queen's 
Bench, Blanche of Jersey (written for 
Olympic Theatre) ; Win her and Wear her, 
Lyrical Version of Mrs. Centlivi-e's "Bold 
Stroke for a Wife," for Drury Lane. Operas : 
Fair Rosamond, Drury Lane ; Farinelli, ib., 
1838 ; Kathleen, with a libretto by Sher- 
idan Knowles, and two other operas which 
have never been performed. Songs : Lyri- 
cal Illustrations of the Modern Poets (1834:) ; 
Songs of tbe Minstrels ; Amusement for 
Leisure Hours. — Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

London, Oct. 6, 1838, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer and pianist, nephew of 
tbe preceding, son of Joseph Alfred Bar- 
nett, professor of music. He studied the 
pianoforte under Dr. Wylde in 1849, gained 
tbe Queen's Scholarship at tbe Royal Acad- 
emy of Music in 1850, and successfully com- 
peted a second time on its exj)iratiou in 



1852. In 1857 he visited Germany, where 
he studied under Hauptmann and Eietz at 
the Leijjsic Conserva- 
torium ; and returned 
to London in 1860 ; 
Barnett's first notable 
work was a symphony 
in A minor, given by 
the Musical Society of 
London, June 15, 1864 ; 
his most important, an 
oratorio. The Raising of 
Lazarus (1873). Other works : Ouverture 
symphonique, given by the Philharmonic 
Society, May 11, 1868 ; Concerto in D minor ; 
two cantatas. The Ancient Mariner and Par- 
adise and the Peri (written for the Birming- 
ham Festival in 1867 and 1870) ; Overture 
to Shakespeare's " Winter's Tale," British 
Orchestral Society, Feb. 6, 1873 ; Orches- 
tral work on Scott's " Lay of the Last Min- 
strel," Liverpool Festival, Oct. 1, 1874: ; Tau- 
tum Ergo in eight parts ; several quartets 
and quintets for string instruments ; piano- 
forte trios and songs. — Grove. 

BARNI, CAMILLO, born at Como, Italy, 
Jan. 18, 1762, died in Paris after 1811. Vio- 
loncellist, pupil oil the violoncello of his 
grandfather David Ronchetti, and of Giu- 
seppe Gadgi, afterwards (1799) in composi- 
tion of Minoja at Milan, where from 1788 
he was second, and from 1791 first violon- 
ceUist at the Teatro della Scala. In 1802 
he settled in Paris, and was for some time 
first violoncellist at the Italian Opera. 
Works : Concerto for violoncello (1803) ; 2 
Italian airs, with variations for violin and 
violoncello ; 6 duets for do. ; 6 trios for vio- 
lin, viola, and violoncello ; 3 works of quar- 
tets for strings ; 12 Italian ariettas ; 6 French 
romances. He also wrote an opera, Edou- 
ard ou Le frere par supercherie, given at 
the Theatre Feydeau, 1812, which did not 
succeed. — Fi'tis ; Mendel. 

Breslau, Feb. 17, 1696, died in Berlin, Au- 
gust 26, 1760. Famous lute player, pupil 
of the Bohemian lutist Kohott. He visited 

several German courts, meeting everywhere 
with brilliant success, and settled at Jena, 
until called in 1728 as chamber musician to 
Gotha, whence he went in the same capacity 
to Eisenach in 1732. Five years later he 
went to Berlin, to join the orchestra of 
Frederick the Great, then crown prince. His 
compositions, consisting of concertos, sona- 
tas, trios, duets, and solos, remain unpublish- 
ed. He wrote also several treatises on his in- 
strument, and on music in general.- — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., ii. 82 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BARRf:, LEONARD, born at Limoges, 
France, early in the 16th century. Vocal 
composer, pupil of Willaerts in Venice, then 
went to Rome, where he became a singer in 
the Pontifical Chapel in 1537. He was one 
of the musical delegates sent by the pope to 
the Council of Trent in 1545. Of his com- 
positions sevei'al masses and motets are in 
manuscript in the hbrary of the Pontifical 
Chapel. Other motets and madrigals are 
to be found in a collection published in 
Venice by Gardane, in 1544. — Fetis. 

BARRE, MICHEL DE LA, born in Paris 
about 1680, died there in 1744. Flutist, 
and composer for his instrument. Works : 

3 books of trios for flutes ; 13 suites of duets 
for do. ; Sonatas for the flute, with bass, op. 

4 ; Collections of drinking songs in two 
parts ; Le triomphe des arts, ballet, given 
at the Academic Royals de Musique, 1700 ; 
La Venitienne, do., ib., 1705. — ^Fetis. 

BARRETT, JOHN, born about 1674, died 
in London in 1735. Organist, pupil of Dr. 
Blow. He was music master at Christ's 
Hospital and organist at St. Mary-at-Hill 
about 1710. He wrote overtures and act 
tunes for Love's Last Shift ; or, the Fool in 
Fashion, 1696, Tunbridge Walks, 1703, and 
Mary, Queen of Scots (1703). His songs 
are to be found in D'Urfey's " Wit and 
Mirth ; or. Pills to Purge Melancholy," and in 
other collections of the day. Gay borrowed 
his melody of lanthe the Lovely, for a song 
in the Beggar's Opera. — Grove ; Mendel. 

London, June 10, 1830, still living, 1888. 


Organist, pupil of Thomas Attwood Walm- 
islej' at Cambridge, then at the Conserva- 
torium iu Cologne of Franz Weber on tbe 
organ, of Eduard Franck on tbe pianoforte, 
and of Hiller in composition ; finally at 
Leipsic (1856-57) of Moscbeles, Plaidy, and 
Kicbter. He lived for a time at Dresden, 
wbere be was influenced by Reissiger, and 
returned to London in 1858. Works : Sym- 
phony for full orchestra ; 2 overtures for 
do. ; Marches for do. ; Quartet for strings ; 
An operetta ; Several cantatas, sacred and 
secular ; Pianoforte and vocal music. 

about 1G90, died in London after 1750. Vir- 
tuoso on tbe tlute and oboe, went with 
Geminiani to London in 1714, and entered 
tbe orchestra of the Italian opera, first as 
flutist, then as oboist. For several years he 
then held a lucrative position iu Scotland, 
but returned to London iu 1750, and played 
the viola in the orchestras of the Opera iu 
winter and of Vauxhall in summer. Works : 
6 solos for flute, with bass, 1st book ; 6 do., 
2d book ; G sonatas for two violins and 
bass ; 12 concertos for violin ; G anthems in 
the style of Palestriua ; Collection of old 
Scotch melodies, with bass. — Fetis ; Grove ; 

BARTA, JOSEF, born in Bohemia about 
na, died in Vienna in 1803. Dramatic 
composer, at first organist of St. Paul's 
Chui'ch in Prague, then settled in Vienna in 
1778. Works : Da ist nicht gut zu rathen, 
operetta, given in Vienna, 1780 ; II mercato 
di Malmantile, opera buffa, ib., 1781 ; Der 
adelige Taglohuer, operetta, ib., 1795 ; Die 
donnernde Legion, do. ; G quartets for two 
violins, viola, and bass ; 4 concertos for pi- 
anoforte ; 6 duets for two sopranos ; Songs. 
— Fetis ; Schilling. 

BART EI, GIROLAMO, born at Arezzo, 
Italy ; lived earlj' part of 17th century. 
General of the Augustin order of monks at 
Rome. According to Baini (Memorie), he 
published some masses for eight voices, a 
book of ricercari for two voices, and two 
books of concerti for two voices and organ 

(Rome, 1G18) ; Fetis adds some Responsaria 
for four equal voices (Venice, 1G07). — Fetis ; 

at Glauchau, Saxony, iu 1735, died at Co- 
penhagen, July 8, 1809. Virtuoso on the 
oboe, pupil of Bach at the Thomasschule in 
Leipsic ; was chamber musician successively 
at Rudolstadt (1753), Weimar (17G2), Han- 
over (17G8), Cassel (1772), and finally at 
Copenhagen (178G-98). Works : 5 concer- 
tos for oboe ; Rondeau suisse for do., with 
orchestra, op. 10 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & 
Hilrtel) ; Divertissement for oboe, two vio- 
lins, viola, and bass, op. 8 (ib.) ; Pot-jjourri 
for oboe and pianoforte, op. 9 (Offenbach, 
Andre) ; Sonatas for pianoforte and oboe 
(Hanover, Kruschwitz) ; Six ecossaises for 
pianoforte (Coiienhagen, Lose) ; Grand sj'm- 
phony for wind instruments (Oft'enbach, An- 
dre) ; Overture for orchestra, op. 18 (ib,). 
His son and pupil Philipp (born at Cassel 
in 1773) succeeded him in the orchestra at 
Cassel, and was afterwards called to Copen- 
hagen as director of the royal band. He 
composed concertos for oboe, a concerto for 
flute, a symphonie concertante for two horns, 
etc. — Fetis; Mendel; Schilling. 

Bayonne, June 7, 1828, still living, 1888. 
Dramatic comjjoser, pupil of Leborne at the 
Conservatoire, Paris ; won the grand prix in 
1854, and studied for three years in Rome. 
Works : Francesea da Rimini, cantata (grand 
prix, 1854) ; Judith, oratorio ; Don Carlos, 
opera; La Fianree dAbydos, do., given at 
the Theatre Lyrique, 18G5. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 50. 

born at Plauen, Saxony, April 19, 177G, died 
at Altenburg, June 10, 1831. Organist and 
pianist, pupil of the organist Rosier on the 
pianoforte, then at the Thomasschule in 
Leipsic of Johann Adam Hiller and of Gor- 
ner. When not quite twelve years of ago, 
he played one of Mozart's most difficult 
pianoforte concertos to the delight of the 
composer ; when fourteen he became organ- 



ist at the free school in Leipsic, and two 
years later concert director to Prince Schon- 
burg. About 1796 he returned to Leipsic, 
to complete his studies, and in 1798 -was 
appointed cantor and musical director at 
Greitz ; some jears after he made a suc- 
cessful concert tour as organist through 
Germany, and in 1804 became court organ- 
ist at Altenburg. Of his numerous com- 
positions, consisting of cantatas, motets, one 
hundred and four j)salms, etc., only some 
fantasias for the organ were printed. — Fe- 
tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

POLITE, born at Bordeaux, July 27, 1741, 
died in London, July 20, 1808. Dramatic 
composer and violinist. In 1765 he settled 
in England, where he was appointed leader 
of the Opera band ; and in 1770 leader at 
Vauxhall Gardens. His professional life 
was passed in England, with the exception 
of a tour through Germany, Italy, and 
France in 1776-77, and a visit to Dublin in 
1784. While in Florence he set to music 
the oratorio by the Abbate Semplici, Jefte in 
Masfa. Works — OjDeras : Pelopida, given 
at the Kings Theatre, London, 1766 ; Le 
fleuve Scamandre, given in Paris, 1768. 
Dramatic pieces : Orpheus, Judgment of 
Paris, 1768 ; Enchanted Girdle ; Election, 
Maid of the Oaks, 1774 ; Belphegor, 1778. 
Preludes for the organ ; Quartets for stringed 
instruments ; Concertos and duets for the 
violin ; Pianoforte exercises ; Awake, my 
Soul, hymn.— Fetis ; Grove. 

BARTHOLDY. See Mendelssohn - Ba,r- 

MOUNSEY born (Mounsey), in London, 
April 17, 1811, still living, 1888. Organist 
and pianist, pupil of J. B. Logier from 1817 ; 
organist at Clapham, 1828 ; at St. Michael's, 
Wood Street, 1829 ; and at St. Vedast's, 
Foster Lane, from 1837. She became 
an associate of the Philharmonic Soci- 
ety and a member of the Royal Society of 
Musicians in 1839. In 18.59 she was mar- 
ried to William Bartholomew (born in 

London, 1793, died there, 1867), violinist 
and writer, well known as the adapter of 
the English librettos 
of Mendelssohn's op- 
eras and oratorios, 
Mehul's Joseph, 
Spohr's Jessonda,etc. 
Mrs. Bartholomew 
has been a noted 
teacher of the piano- 
forte and organ, and 
of harmony, and a 
prolific com poser. 
Works : The Nativity, oratorio, text by 
William Bartholomew, produced in Lon- 
don, 1855 ; Sanctus, Kyries, and Chants, 
1853 ; Supplication and Thanksgiving, sa- 
cred cantata, 1864 ; The Young Vocalist, 
1867 ; Holy Thoughts, 1875 ; 34 Orig- 
inal Tunes (London, 1883) ; 6 four-part 
songs, op. 37 ; 3 four-part songs, 1870 ; 
Many songs, and organ and pianoforte 

of American parentage, in Olive, New York, 
Dec. 28, 1845, still hving, 1888. Pianist 
and organist ; played on the violin at the 
age of five, and appeared in concerts when 
nine years old. At sixteen he began a 
regular course of musical instruction ex- 
tending over seven years, studied the 
pianoforte under S. B. Mills and others, 
and harmony and counterpoint under Max 
Brauu, Jacobsen, and others. He has occu- 
pied the position of organist in several 
churches in New Yoi'k and vicinity, and is 
at present organist of the Madison Avenue 
Baptist Church, New York. Works : 80 
published compositions, of which about 50 
are for the pianoforte ; the others are songs, 
quartets, anthems, and glees for men's and 
women's voices, and a sextet for strings 
and flute. Among his unpublished works 
are : La Valliure, opera in three acts, text 
by J. Berry, 1885-86 ; Ignis Fatuus, ca- 
price for orchestra, 1884 ; 2 marches for 
orchestra, 1885 ; Quartet for harp, organ, 
violin, and violoncello, 1888 ; The Last 



Chieftain, cantata, 1888 ; Samuel, oratorio, 
text by J. B. Bartlett, 1888. 

BAKTNANSKY (Bortniausky), DIMI- 
TRI STEPHANOVICH, born at Gloukoff 
(Ukraine) in 1752, died iu St. Petersburg, 
Sept. 28 (Oct. 9), 1825. Church composer, 
pupil of Galupj)i, first at St. Petersburg, then 
at Venice ; called the Russian Palestrina. 
A singer iu the choir of the luijDerial Chajjel, 
he was patronized by the Empress Eliza- 
beth, and also by Catherine 11., who sent 
him to Italy in 1768 to continue his studies. 
After leaving Galuppi, he studied at Bo- 
logna, Eome, and Naples, and on his return 
to Russia in 1779 became director of the 
Imperial Chapel, which he thoroughly re- 
formed. He reduced Russian church mu- 
sic to a system, and composed forty-five 
psalms iu four and five parts which were 
considered very fine and were sung iu his 
choir, thenceforth known as the Im^jerial 
Chapel Choir. He composed a Greek mass 
for three voices, ten concertos for double 
choir, forty-five psalms for four and eight 
voices, and other church music. An ojDera, 
Fabio Quinto, was given at Modena in 1778. 
— Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BASEVI, ABRAMO, born iu Leghorn, 
December, 1818, died in Florence, Decem- 
ber, 1885. Theoretical and critical writer 
and founder and proprietor of the two mu- 
sical journals "Annonia" and "Boccherini." 
Works : Romilda ed Ezzelino, oj^era, rejjre- 
sented at the Teatro Alticri, Florence, Aug. 
11, 1840; Enrico Odoardo, opera. La Per- 
gola, ib., 1847. 

maestro di caiDj)ella at Loreto, middle of 
18th century, died in 1775. Church com- 
poser, author of motets for three, four, and 
five voices, iu the Abbate Santini's collec- 
tion, together with a Salve Regiua in two 
double canons, two Christus factus est for 
four voices, a Miserere for eight and an- 
other for twelve voices. Fetis jiossessed 
eight masses for four voices, and two for 
eight voices in manuscript. He wrote a 
great deal of other church music, aud for the 

use of his pupils published a collection of 
twenty-four studies for the harpsichord, un- 
der the title, Musica universale armonico- 
pratica (Venice, Alessandri). — Fetis. 

BASILI, FRANCESCO, born at Loreto 
iu February, 1766, died in Eome, March 25, 
1850. Dramatic composer, son of Domen- 
ico Andrea Basili, and pupil of Jauuaconi, 
of the Roman school after 1775. While 
very young he became maestro di cappella 
at Foligno, and wrote there his first work, 
a cantata, Ariana e Teseo. At the age of 
twenty-two he gave in Milan his first opera. 
La bella incognita, 1788, which was soon 
followed by La locaudiera, a farce jjlayed 
at Rome about 1789. Ten years later be 
left Foligno for a similar post at Macerata, 
where soon after he contracted a rich mar- 
riage, enabling him to give up music as a 
l^rofession, but the union resulting iu a sejj- 
aration in 1810, he accepted the position as 
maestro di cappella at Loreto, and again 
began comjjosing for the theatre. He was 
called to Milau in 1818, brought out there 
two new operas, and iu 1824, at the Teatro 
S. Carlo iu Naj^les, his dramatic oratorio, II 
Sansone, iu which the principal parts were 
written for Lablache and Nozzari ; he also 
wrote a Requiem mass for the death of 
Jannaconi, performed at the Church of the 
Twelve Apostles in Rome (181G). He was 
appointed censor of the Imperial Conserva- 
torio at Milan in 1827, and after occujsyiug 
that i^osition for ten years was called to 
Rome to succeed Fioravanti as maestro di 
cajjpella of St. Peters, which post he held 
until his death. He composed an immense 
amount of church music ; Fetis gives an 
exhaustive list of his published works, and 
of those left in MS. at his death ; they con- 
sist of Ave Marias, kyries, offertories, masses, 
graduals, motets, introits, vespers, psalms, 
hymns, litanies, etc. His operas are : 
Achille neir assedio di Troja, given at 
Florence, Teatro de la Pergola, 1798; 11 
ritorno d' Ulysso, ib. 1799 ; Antigoua, 
Venice, about 1800 ; Conviene adattarsi, 
opera buffa, ib., Teatro S. Mose, about 



1800 ; L' Unione mal pensata, farce, ib., 
Teatro S. Benedetto, 1800 ; Lo stravagante 
ed il dissipatore, Venice, 1802 ; L' ira d' 
Acbille, L' orfana egiziana, ib., 1817 ; 
Isaura e Eicciardo, Rome, about 1817 ; Gli 
Illinesi, Milan, 1818 ; II Califtb e la scbi- 
ava, Milan, Teatro della Scala, 1818.— Fetis ; 
Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BASILIUS, German opera seria, music by 
Keiser, represented at Wolfenbiittel, 1G93. 
The hero is Basilius I., Emperor of the East 
(a.d. 867-88G), who, the son of a small 
farmer in Thrace, raised himself to the im- 
perial dignity and became one of the most 
famous of the Byzantine rulers. The same 
subject is treated in Basilio, Ee d' Orients, 
Italian opera, music by Navara, Venice, 
1G96 ; and music by PorjJora, Naples, 

at Padua about 1C57, died at Ferrara in 
1716. Dramatic composer and violinist. 
He conducted for several years the cathe- 
dral music at Bologna and from 1G85 held 
the same position at Ferrara. He was a 
member of the Accademia della Morte, Fer- 
rara, and of the Accademia dei Filarmonici, 
Bologna, of which he was prineipe in 1682. 
Corelli is believed to have been one of his 
pupils. Fetis gives a complete list of works 
published by Bassani from 1G80 to 1710, 
which includes six operas, thirtj'-one masses, 
besides cantatas, motets, and psalms, for one, 
two, or three voices with instruments, and 
sonatas for violins and violoncello. Works 
—Operas: Falaride, tiranno d' Agrigente, 
given at Venice, 1G84 ; Amorosa preda di 
Paride, Bologna, 1684 ; Alarico, E6 de' Goti, 
Ferrara, IGOO ; II Conte di Baeheville, Pis- 
toja, 1G96 ; La morte delusa, Ferrara, 169G. 
The Imperial Library, Paris, and the Eoyal 
Library, Berlin, own several of liis MSS. 
Kent has taken the chorus, "Thy righteous- 
ness," in his anthem, "Lord, what love," 
from his Magnificat in G minor, and the 
Hallelujahs in, "Hearken unto this," from 
his Alma Mater. — Fi'tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ;, Die Violine, etc., 36. 

New York, N. Y., April 23, 1839, still living, 
1888. Pianist and organist, pupil in har- 
mony and composition of Samuel Jackson, 
an organist in New York. After travelling 
extensively in the United States witli a con- 
cert troupe as pianist, he settled in New 
York, where he has since devoted himself to 
pianoforte teaching and composition. He 
has also been organist of several churches 
in New York, among them, of the Madison 
Square Presbyterian Church, and he is at 
present organist of Calvary Church, East 
Orange, N. J. Works : Cassilda, opera in 
two acts ; Devotion, Young Maiden and 
Flowers, Meditation, Morning Song, Tran- 
quility, and other pianoforte pieces ; Mass 
in E-flat, and other sacred music ; "Never- 
more," " She flung the roses iu the air," 
"Sigh, thou Wind," " Thou lov'st no more," 
and other songs. Mr. Bassford was also en- 
gaged by Mme Wallace to complete the op- 
era of Estrella, left unfiuished by William 
Vincent Wallace. 

BASSIEON, PHILIPPE, lived in the 
Netherlands in the 15th century. He was 
a contemporary of Josquin Depres. Some 
of his masses are preserved by Ottaviano 
Petrucci of Fossombrone in his collection 
entitled, Missse diversorum auctorum (Ven- 
ice, 1508). In the fourth book of Motetti 
published at Venice by Petrucci is an In- 
violata by Bassiron. — Grove ; Fetis ; Men- 

born at Twello, Holland, in 1812, died at 
Haarlem, Feb. 16, 1875. Organist, pupil of 
Friedrich Schneider at Dessau, of Mendels- 
sohn at Leipsic, and of Johann Schneider in 
Dresden. After his return he settled at 
Amsterdam, and in 1839 became organist of 
the Zuiderkerk. In 1868 he was appointed 
to the same jjosition at St. Bavon's Church 
in Haarlem. Works : Cantata for mixed 
chorus ; Motet for do. ; 6 jjieces for organ ; 
Songs without words, for pianoforte ; So- 
nata ; Choral Book. He was the author of 
two theoretical works. — Viotta. 




operetta iu one act, text by Anton Scliacbt- 
ner, music by Mozart, iserformed in a Gar- 
den-bouse belonging- to his friends tbe Miss- 
mers, Vienna, 17GS. Mozart was then only 
twelve years old. Tbe libretto is an adaj^- 
tatiou of Weiskern's translation of a Frencb 
parody, by JIadanie Favart, of Rousseau's 
Devin du Village. The cliaracters rejjre- 
seuted are : Bastien (tenor), Bastienne (so- 
prano), and the Soothsayer Colas (bass). 
— Wurzbaeh, Mozart Buch, 73. 

BASTON, JOSQUm, born iu Flanders, 
first half of the 16th century, died after 
l.'JGe. Composer of motets, madrigals, 
etc. His works form j^art of collections 
published at Antwerp (15i2-58), Augsburo- 
(1515), and Louvain (1554-Gl). — Biog. uat. 
de Belgique, i. 770 ; Fetis. 

BA-TA-CLAN, French operetta in one 
act, text by Ludovic Halevy, music by Of- 
fenbach, first represented at the Bouffea 
Parisieus, Pariss, Dec. 29, 1855. This piece 
of nonsense, with a Chinese plot, had a con- 
siderable success. 

BATES, WILLIAM, English composer of 
the 18th century. He wrote the music of 
The Jovial Crew, comic opera, 17G0 ; Phar- 
naees, opera, 1765 ; The Ladies' Frolic 
(jointly with Dr. Arue), an alteration of The 
Jovial Crew, 1770 ; The Theatrical Candi- 
dates, musical prelude, 1775 ; and Flora, or 
Hob in the Well, 1768. He was the com- 
poser also of glees, catches, and canons. 
— Grove. 

BATESON, THOMAS, born in England 
about 1575, time of decease unknown. Or- 
ganist of Chester Cathedral from 1599 to 
1611, soon after which be settled in Ireland, 
and became organist to Christ Church Ca- 
thedral, Dublin He received the degree of 
Mus. Bac. from Dublin University. Works : 
A set of madrigals in praise of Queen Eliza- 
beth (1601) : First Set of Madrigals (1604) ; 
Second Set of Madrigals, with the following 
inscription on the title-page : " Bachelor of 
Mu.sick, Organist, and I\Iaster of the Chil- 
dren of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed 

Trinity, Dublin (1618)." The Musical An- 
tiquarian Society has reprinted his First 
Set of Madrigals, and some of his church 
music is contained in the Society's "An- 
thems by composers of the Madrigalian 
Era." — Grove. 

in Pari.s, March 28, 1820, died there, Nov. 
9, 1876. Organist, son of Antoiue fidouard 
Batiste, the well-known singer of the Opera 
Comique ; pupil at the Conservatoire iu 
1828, studied solfege under Leborne and 
Bieuaime, harmony and accomiJauiment 
under Lecouppey and Dourleu, composition 
under Halevy, and the organ with Benoist. 
He took 2d prize for solfege in 1832, 1st 
prize in 1833 ; 2d prize for harmony and 
accompaniment in 1836, 1st prize in 1837 ; 
2d prize for counterpoint and fugue, and 2d 
prize for organ, in 1838 ; 1st prize for all 
three in 1839 ; and 2d grand prix de Eome 
in 181:0. He was professor in the Conser- 
vatoire from 1836, organist of Saint Nicolas- 
des-Champs in 1812-54, and organist of 
Saint Eustache in 1854. His organ music 
consists of oflertoii-es, sonatas, fugues, fanta- 
sias, voluntaries, etc., and he also wrote songs 
and pianoforte nmsic. His edition of the 
twelve volumes of Solfeges du Conservatoire, 
annotated by him with accompaniment for 
piano, or for organ with figured bass, and 
a Solfege harmonique, was highly eulogized 
by the Conservatoire. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 52 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 26. 

BATISTIN. See Slruci: 

BATTA, ALEXANDRE, born at Maes- 
tricht, July 9, 1816, still living, 1888. Vio- 
loncellist, pupil of Platel at the Conserva- 
toire, Brussels, where he won the first jsrize 
in 1834. He went to Paris, whence he made 
successful concert tours through the greater 
part of Eui'ope. He has published many 
fantasias, romances, variations, etc., for vio- 
loncello. His youngest brother, Joseph 
(born at Maestricht, April 24, 1820), pupil 
at the Conservatoire, Brussels, where he 
won the grand prize for composition iu 
1845, has been violinist in the orchestra of 


the Opera Conuqxie, Paris, since 1846, and 
has conijjosed cantatas, overtures, sympho- 
nies, etc. — Fetis. 

BATTANCHON, F^LIX, born in Paris, 
April 9, 181-4, still living, 1888. Violoncel- 
list, 2>npil of Vasliu and Norblin at the Con- 
servatoire, and since 1840 member of the 
orchestra of the Opera. Works : Trois 
etudes en double corde, op. 1 (Paris, Ei- 
chault) ; Airs bretons, for violoncello and jsi- 
auoforte (ib.) ; Deux melodies, for do., op. 
3 (Leipsic, Hofmeister) ; 24 etudes pour 
violoncelle, op. 4. — Fetis. 

BATTEN, ADRIAN, born at Winches- 
ter (?), England, about 1585, died in Lou- 
don (?) about 1640. Church composer, 
brought up in the cathedral choir of Win- 
chester under John Holmes, was appointed 
vicai--choral of Westminster Abbey in 1G14, 
and removed in the same capacity to St. 
Paul's Cathedral in 1624, where he held also 
the position of organist. _ He wrote several 
anthems which ai'e still sung, and a Morn- 
ing, Communion, and Evening service in the 
Dorian mode. Several of his compositions 
are printed in Barnard's and Boyce's collec- 
tions. — Burnej" ; Grove. 

Don Giovanni. 

London, May, 1738, 
died at Islington, 
Dec. 10, 1801. Or- 
ganist, chorister in 
1747 of St. Paul's 
Cathedral u n d e r 
W i 1 1 i a m Savage, 
and later his arti- 
cled puisil. After 
officiating as harp- 
sichord player at 
Covent Garden Theatre, he became, about 
1771, organist of the united parishes of St. 
Clement, Eastcheap, and St. Martin, Orgar, 
and a little later of Christ Church, Newgate 
Street. He w-rote glees, catches, songs, and 
(in conjunction with Michael Arne) the 
score to the opera of Almena, given in Lon- 

don, 1764 ; the music to a pantomime, The 
Rites of Hecate, 1764 ; and much church 
music. Two of his glees won prizes from 
the Catch Club, Underneath this Myrtle 
Shade, 1770, and. Come, bind my hair, 1771. 
Published works : 3 collections of songs ; 4 
anthems in Page's Harmonia Sacra ; 6 an- 
thems and ten chants (Page, 1804) ; Glees 
and catches in Warren's collection ; 12 psalm 
tunes and an ode in Page's collection of 
hvmus. — Grove ; Fetis. 
" BATTISTA, VINCENZO, born at Naples, 
Oct. 5, 1818 (1823 ?), died there, Nov. 14, 
1873. Dramatic composer, pupil of the 
Royal College of Music at Naples. His first 
opera, Anna La Prie, was played at the San 
Carlo in 1843 ; Margherita d'.lragona, ib., 
1844 ; Rosvina de le Forest, Milan, Teatro 
delta Scala, 1845 ; Emo, Naples, 1846 ; 
Irene, ib., about 1847 ; Eleonora Dori, ib., 
1847 ; II corsaro della Guadalupa, ib., Tea- 
tro Nuovo, 1853 ; Ermelinda, ib., Alba 
d' Ora, ib., 1869. He also wrote music to 
a part of Dante's Inferno, called II Bivacco. 

BATTLE OF PRAGUE, a piece of mili- 
tary music, by Kotzwara, a native of Prague, 
descriptive of the battle fought near that 
city. May 6, 1757, in which Frederick the 
Great defeated the Austrians. It was writ- 
ten for the pianoforte, with violin and vio- 
loncello accompaniment, and was published 
at Berlin and Hamburg about 1792 and in 
Loudon in 1793. The j)iece was very suc- 
cessful and was the precursor of much other 
music of a similar kind. — Fetis; Grove. 

B.\TTLE SYMPHONY. See Wdlington'.^ 

Maasmiinster, Alsace, Aug. 25, 1818, died at 
Dijon, July 7, 1886. Organist, first at Belfort 
(1840), then at Vesoul ; pupil at Colmar of 
Theodor Sehlosser in harmony and composi- 
tion, and of Martin Vogt on the organ. He 
has i^ublished about 400 works, consisting of 
masses, motets, choruses ; many pieces for 
the harmonium ; studies for the organ and 
pianoforte ; duos and trios for violins ; ro- 



mauces, chansonettes, and man_y dances for 
pianoforte, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 55. 

in Paris, Jan. 2, 1797, died at Versailles, Oct. 
IG, 1855. Dramatic composer, pupil of the 
Conservatoire from 1806 ; studied counter- 
point under Cherubini. He gained the 2d 
grand jjrixde I'lnstitutin 1816, and the 1st in 
1817, for his cantata, La Mort d'Adouis, ac- 
quiring the right to travel for five years in 
Italy and Germany. While in Rome he com- 
posed an oratorio, and several pieces of sa- 
cred and instrumental music ; at Munich he 
brought out a symphony and other works, 
and returned to Paris in 1823. Having ob- 
tained little success with several operas, he 
was on the point of giving uj) his musical 
career, when the opera, La Marquise deBrin- 
villiers, written in 1832, in collaboration with 
Auber, Herold, Carafa, and others, again 
brought him into public favour, as the finale 
written by him was very fine. He was made 
Inspecteur des Suecursales at the Con- 
servatoire in 1842, and director of a vocal 
class in 1847. Works : La fenetre secrete, 
comic opera, given in Paris, Theatre Fey- 
deau, 1818 ; Ethelvina, ib., Op^ra Comique, 
1827 ; Le prisonnier d'etat, Theatre Fey- 
deau, 1828 ; Le champ du drap d'or (with Ri- 
faut and Leborne), ib., 1828 ; Le remi)la<;ant. 
Opera Comique, 1837. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BATTU, PANTALEON, born in Paris in 
1799, died there, Jan. 17, 1870. Violinist, pu- 
pil of Rudolph Kreutzer at the Conservatoire, 
where he obtained the first prize in 1822. 
From the start he was successful as a solo 
player in the Concerts spirituels, and in the 
concerts of the Conservatoire, which he 
helped to establish. He was at the same 
time a member of the orchestra of the 
Opei'a, and until 1830 also of the Eoj'al 
Chapel ; in 1846 he became second chef 
d'orchestre at the Opera, and retired into 
private life in 1859. Works : 2 concertos for 
violin, op. 1, 3 (Paris) ; 3 duos concertants 
for two violins, op. 2 (ib.) ; Theme varie for 
violin, with orchestra ; Romances, with pi- 
anoforte.— Fetis ; Mendel. 


at Nancy, March 29, 1773, died in Paris, 
Sept. 26, 1849. Violoncellist, pupil of Jan- 
son the elder, whom he succeeded as pro- 
fessor at the Conservatoire, Paris, in 1802, 
and whence he retired in 1822, having been 
appointed also first violoncello of the royal 
orchestra in 1816. Works : 2 concertos for 
violoncello ; 2 concertinos for do., op. 19 
and 20 ; Trio for violin, viola, and violon- 
cello, op. 3 ; Duets for violoncello, op. 5 and 
7 ; Pot-pourri for do., with quartet ; 3 fan- 
taisies for do., with pianoforte, op. 12; 3 do., 
op. 20 ; 3 nocturnes for violoncello and 
harp ; 2 works of sonatas for violoncello, 
with bass ; Trios for pianoforte, violoncello, 
and horn, and for pianoforte, harjs, and vio- 
loncello ; Themes varies for violoncello and 
pianoforte ; 3 duets for do. on themes of 
Rossini and Auber, op. 31 ; Many pieces ar- 
ranged after Lafont and de Beriot, for violon- 
cello ; Methode complete de violoncelle, op. 
25 ; Instruction pour les compositeurs. — 
Fetis ; Riemann. 

BAUDOIN. See Bauldewijn. 

BAIXDEWIJN (Baudoin, Baulduin, 
Balduin), NOEL (Natalis), born in the sec- 
ond half of the 15th century, died at Ant- 
werp in 1529. Maitre de musique of Notre 
Dame at Antwerp in 1513-18. It is possi- 
ble that he visited Italy, as some of his 
motets were printed by Petrucci de Fossom- 
brone in the collection, Motetti della corona, 
in 1519. His masses in MS. are in the 
Pontifical Chapel in Rome, and the Royal Li- 
brary at Munich. Other motets are to be 
found in collections published at Augsburg 
(1540), Antwerp (1545), and Nuremberg 
(1546). — Biog. nat. de Belgique, i. 663 ; 
Fetis ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 26. 

BAUMBACH, ADOLPH, born in Ger- 
many about 1830, died in Chicago, 1880. 
He removed to America, and in 1855 was 
settled in Boston. He was a teacher of the 
pianoforte and the organ, and many of his 
compositions were for instruction on the 
pianoforte ; he also compiled a collection 
for the use of quartet choirs. 




bom iu 1753, died at Leii^sie, Nov. 30, 
1813. Couductor of the theatre orchestra 
at Hamburg in 1778 ; retired to Leipsic iu 
1789 to devote himself to composition. 
Works : sonatas for pianoforte, op. 1 
(Gotha, 1790); 6 duets for violins (Speyer, 
1791) ; Trios ; Concertos ; Variations for 
pianoforte, with violin or violoncello obli- 
gato ; Kondos for jjianoforte ; Variations for 
2 violins ; Etudes for guitar ; Songs and 
duets. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

WILHELM, born iu Dresden, May 28, 1836, 
still living, 1888. Instrumental composer, 
pupil of Johauu Schneider, and at the Cou- 
servatorium at Leipsic ; is a favourite teacher 
of the pianoforte at Dresden, and has com- 
posed symphonies, overtures, concertos for 
pianoforte, and other works of a high stan- 
dard, besides a great deal of light piano- 
forte music. — Mendel. 

born iu Berlin, Jan. 12, 1741, died at Gross- 
Strehlitz, Silesia, Oct. 1, 1813. Dramatic 
comj)oser, studied music iu his native citv*, 
served iu the army in 17G1-79, and was ap- 
pointed to a government position in Silesia 
iu 1780. Works : Zemire und Azor, given 
at Breslau, 1775 ; Andromeda, monodrama, 
ib., 177C ; Das Grab des Mufti, ib., 1778.— 
Fetis ; MendeL 

born in Germany in 1754, died iu London 
in 1824. Organist, violinist, and di\imatic 
composer, pupil of the famous organist J. 
P. Kunzeu ; went early to London, where 
he was organist of the Lutheran chapel in 
the Savoy, conductor of the opera at Coveut 
Garden in 1780-94, and leader of the Duke 
of Cumberland's private band. Among his 
operas and pantomimes the best known are : 
Robin Hood, given at Covent Gai'deu, 1786 ; 
Blue Beard, ib., 1792.— Grove. 

Munich, Nov. 9, 1814, died there, Sept. 29, 
1862. Church composer, jnipil of the or- 
ganist Kalcher and of Holz on the jjiano- 

forte, then of Ettin theorj-, 1841-42 ; became 
choirmaster at St. Ann's, Munich, iu 1853. 
Works : Instrumental Mass ; Requiem ; Ves- 
per Psalms ; Secular choruses with and with- 
out orchestra, songs, and pianoforte jsieces. 
■ — Mendel. 

born at Augsburg, 1723, died at EichstiUlt, 
May 18, 1782. Violoncellist, studied at 
Augsburg and Munich, and as one of the 
best performers on his instrument made 
extensive concert tours through Germany, 
England, Holland, Scandiuavia, etc., and 
settled at Amsterdam in 1774. Called to 
Stockholm in 1778, he was soon obliged to 
give up a lucrative position on account of 
the climate, and became chamber musician 
to the Prince Bishop of Eichstiidt in 1781. 
He composed concertos, variations, and solos 
for violoncello, also published a valuable 
method for his instrument (Hague, 1777). 
An o)iera, Perseus and Andromeda, by a 
composer of this name, was given in Ger- 
many iu 1780. — Mendel. 

Tours in 1789, died (?). Pianist and harp- 
ist, first instructed by his jjareuts, then iu 
Paris i^upil of Nadermaun ; went to Loudon 
in 1820 and taught the harp. Works : 3 
sonatas for harp, op. 1 ; do., op. 2 ; Collec- 
tion of arias for do. ; Duets foi- harp and 
pianoforte, ojj. 3 ; do. for harp and flute ; 
Quartets for harp, pianoforte, violin, and 
bass. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BAVAGNOLI, MANLIO, Italian com- 
poser, contemporary. He is the composer 
of Roderico di Spagna, opera seria, repre- 
sented at the Teatro Reale, Parma, April 20, 

BAVAEDS, LES (The Gossips), French 
opera-bouffe iu two acts, text by Nuitter, 
after Cervantes, music by Offenbach, repre- 
sented at the Bouffes Parisiens, Paris, Feb. 
20, 1863. 

trapuntist of the 15th century. His drama or 
mystery. La Conversione di San Paolo, was 
represented in Rome in 1440 (1480?), by 



order of Cardinal Kiario. This work, one 
of the first religious dramas ever put upon 
the stage, is now lost.— Futis ; Mendel. 

BAYADERES, LES, French opera in 
three acts, text by Jouy, music by Catel, 
first represented at the Opera, Aug. 7, 1810. 
The Bayaderes are dancing girls attached 
to the Hindoo temples. The libretto is 
founded on Goethe's ballad, "Der Gott und 
die Bajadere," which also gives the title to 
Auber's Le Dieu et la Bayadere. Les Baya- 
deres, -which achieved a great success, was 
reduced to two acts, Aug. 31, 1821. 

BAYARD A LA FERTE, French opera 
comique in three acts, text by Desaugiers 
and de Geutil, music by Plantade, first rep- 
resented at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, Oct. 
3, 1811. The scene is laid at the Chateau 
de la Ferte, and the action turns on the love 
of Bayard for Mme de Randan, who is also 
loved by the king. The opera was finally 
reduced to two acts. 

BAYARD A MEZT^RES, French opera- 
comique in one act, text by Dupaty and 
Chazet, music by Boieldieu, Catel, Isouard, 
and Cherubini, first represented at the Ope- 
ra Comique, Paris, Feb. 12, 1814. Subject, 
Bayard at the siege of Mezieres. The Chev- 
alier is the hero also in Bayard dans Bresse, 
French opera in two acts, text by Piis, mu- 
sic by Stanislas Champein, given at the The- 
atre italien, Paris, Feb. 21, 1791. 

BAYER, ANTON, born in Bohemia in 
1785. Dramatic comjOTser and flutist, pupil 
in Prague of Josef Rosier, Alibot Vogler, 
and Karl Maria von \Velier ; in 1802-5 
he conducted the orchestra of the Czech 
and German popular opera, for which he 
also composed many pieces. To escape 
military service, he travelled as a pianist 
and flutist through Germany, France, and 
Italy, but returning to Prague at the time 
of the Congress at Vienna, he became first 
flutist at the theatre and professor at the 
Conservatorium. In 1823 he obtained a 
position as administrator on the estate of 
Reichenbach. He was the first teacher of 
Henriette Sonntag. Among his comic op- 


erettas the most popular were : Der 
Tausendsassa, BiJhmische Aniazonen, Frau 
Ahndl, Der indianische Gaukler in Kriih- 
winkel, Naturalische Zauberei, etc. His 
numerous instrumental compositions, con- 
sisting pirincii^ally of dances, variations, etc , 
for violin, flute, pianoforte, and guitar, were 
very popular. — Fetis ; Mendel; Schilling, 

BAY OF BISCAY, THE, song by John 
Davij, written in the early part of this cen- 
tury. It is one of the most popular songs 
of its kind ever composed. 

SEPH), born at Mar- 
seilles, France, Sept. 
4, 181G, died in Paris, 
Sept. 2, 1878. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil 
at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, of Dourleu and 
Lecouppey in harmo- 
ny, of Benoist on the 
organ, and of Hak'vy 
and Berton in compo- 
sition. He won the first jn'ize in 183(5, 1837, 
1839, and 1840, and the second in 1837 and 
1839. His cantata, Louise de Montfort, hav- 
ing been performed at the Academy in 1840, 
he went for three years to Rome, where he 
composed a solemn mass, performed at the 
Church of S. Luigi de' Frances!, 1842 and 
1843, the oratorio, La Pentecote, and the 
psalm, Suj)er flumina Babylonis, which were 
executed several times in 1843 by the So- 
cieta Filarmonica of Rome. On his return 
to Paris he was made professor at the Con- 
servatoire, and in 1872 member of the Acad- 
emy. Officer L. of Honour, 1869. Works — 
Operas: Le trompette de M. le Prince, given 
at the Opera Comique, 1846 ; Le malheur 
d'etre joli, ib., 1847 ; La nuit de la Saint 
Sylvestre, ib., 1849 ; Madelon, ib., 1852 ; 
Maitre Pathelin, ib., 1856 ; Les desesperes, 
ib., 1858 ; Le voyage en Chine, ib., 1867 ; 
Marianne, opera-comique in one act, text 
by Augustin Challamel, published in the 
Magazin des Demoiselles (1861) ; L'Oura et 



le Pacha, text by Scribe and Saintiue, Ope- 
ra Comique, 1870. He also published a 
Cours d'harmonie theorique et pratique, 
for the use of the classes iu the Conserva- 
toire. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 58. 

BAZZANI. See Bazzino. 

BAZZINI, ANTONIO, born at Brescia, 
Lombardy, March 10, 1818, still living, 
1888. Viohnist and composer, pupil of 
Faustino Camisani. At the age of seven- 
teen he was maestro di cappella of the 
Church of S. Filij)po, Brescia, had written 
masses and vespers for that church, and 
brought out sis oratorios for full orchestra. 
Pagauini heard him play the violin in 1836, 
and advised him to travel, and from 1840 
he played in all the i^rincipal cities of Italy, 
France, Germany, and Belgium as a virtu- 
oso and composer. In 18.52 he went to 
Paris, where Pougin was iu the orchestra 
at the Gymnase Theatre where his concerts 
were given, and he recognized in him one 
of the most finished violinists he had ever 
heard. In 186-1 he returned to Brescia, and 
in 1873 was made professor of couuterjioint 
and composition at the Conservatorio, Mil- 
an. Works : Tvu-audot, opera, given at La 
Scala, Milan, in 184:4, which was not suc- 
cessful. His psalms, among which is the 
Resurrection, were considered his best 
works, and next to these his symphonies 
and cantatas. He wrote overtures to Alfie- 
ri's "Saul"and Shakespeare's " Kinglunax." 
His compositions for violin are numerous : Le 
Carillon d'Arras, air flamand vario, op. 36 ; 
Trois morceaux h'riques : Nocturne, Scher- 
zo, Berceuse, op. 41; Trois morceaux so- 
natas : Allegro, Romance, Finale, op. 44, 
are the best. — Fetis; do.. Supplement, i. 
58 ; Larousse ; Riemann, Lex. ; Wasielewski, 
Die Violine, 312. 

at Lovero, Venetia, iu 1593, died at Berga- 
mo, April 15, 1660. Celebrated theorbist, 
pupil of Giovanni Cavaccio at Bergamo, 
where he became organist at Sta. INIaria 
Maggiore ; having entered the service of the 
Duke of Modeua, he went thence to Vienna, 

but returned to Modena, and in 1636 to 
Bergamo. Works : La representazione di 
S. Orsola, oratorio ; Sonata and other pieces 
for the theorbo ; Canzonettas. His elder 
brother, Natale (born at Lovero, died in 
Venice, 1693), was an organist ; he com- 
posed masses, motets, psalms, and arias of 
merit. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

Milan in 1816, died in Paris, September, 1871. 
Dramatic composer, studied in his native 
city, settled iu Paris after 1836, and became 
chef de chant at the Theatre Italien in 1852. 
A few years after 1858 he went to Italy, but 
returned to Paris, where he died in want. 
Works : I tre mariti, farce, Teatro della 
Canobbiana, Milan, 1836 ; Salvator Rosa, 
opera, ib., 1837 ; Le quart d'heure de Rabe- 
lais, operetta, Paris, Folies Nouvelles, about 
1858 ; II rinnegato fiorentiuo, opera, Turin, 
Teatro Regio, after 1858. Vocal melodies, 
and morceaux de genre for pianoforte. — 
Fetis, Supplement, i. 59. 

BEALE, WILLIAM, born at Landrake, 
England, Jan. 1, 1784, died in London, 
May 3, 1854. Vocal composer, principally 
of glees and madrigals ; chorister of West- 
minster Abbey under Dr. Arnold and Rob- 
ert Cooke. He was awarded the prize cuj) 
given by the Madrigal Society in 1813, for 
his "Awake, sweet Muse," and a j^rize from 
the Adelphi Glee Club in 1840. In 1820 
he published a collection of his glees and 
madrigals, and about 1879 a selection from 
his MSS., consisting of thirteen glees, etc., 
was published. — Grove. 

opera in two acts, text and music by Hec- 
tor Berlioz, represented at the theatre of 
Baden-Baden, Aug. 9, 1862. Subject from 
Shakespeare's " Much Ado about Nothing." 

BEATRICE DI TENDA, Italian opera, 
text by Felice Romani, music by Bellini, 
first represented in Venice, March 16, 1833 ; 
at the King's Theatre, London, March 22, 
1836 ; at the Theatre des Italiens, Paris, 
Feb. 8, 1841 ; and at Palmo's Opera House, 
New York, March 18, 1844. Subject : Fi- 



lippo di Visconti, Duke of Milau, suspect- 
ing his wife, Beatrice di Tenda, of infidel- 
ity, sends her to punishment by torture 
together with her pretended accomplice 
Orombello. Originally sung by Pasta, Curi- 
oui, and Cartagenova, this opera was coldly 
received both at Venice and Florence. Al- 
though it contains many interesting num- 
bers, it did not succeed much better in 
Paris, where, however, it was reproduced 

iinta Frezzolin'. 

in 1854 with Frezzolini in the title-role, 
aided by Graziaui. Mine Frezzolini, who 
retained her maiden name on the stage, not- 
withstanding her marriage with the tenor 
Poggi, made her debut as Beatrice in 1838 
in Florence. The same subject had been 
previously treated in Philippus, Herzon- 
von Mailand, text by Hinscb, music by 
Mattheson and Bronner, Hamburg, 1701, 
which was given also as Beatrix in 1702 ; 
and later in Beatrice, music by Josef Wolf- 
ram, Dresden, 1837 ; and in Beatrice, music 
by Guimarais, Italy, 1882. 

' BEAU DUNOIS, LE, operette in one act, 
text by Chivot and Duru, music by Charles 
Lecocq, represented at the Theatre des Va- 
rietfts, Paris, April 13, 1870. 

See BaJlazarini. 

TIN), called, born in Paris, April 11, 1791, 

died there in December, 1863. Church 
composer, pupil of Alliaume, Kreutzer, Be- 
nincori, and Mehul. He won the 2d grand 
prix at the Institut de France iu 1800, and 
the 1st in 1810 ; but he did not avail him- 
self of its privileges, continuing his studies 
under Mchul, and settling soon afterwards 
at Niort ; he sent a Miserere to the Institut 
in 1812, a Laudate and a cantata, Sapho, 
iu 1813, a Dornine Salvum in 1814. He 
was the founder of quartet meetings at 
Niort, and in 182'J of a Philharmonic Soci- 
ety, afterwards known as the Association 
Musicale de I'Ouest (1835), one of the most 
successful societies of the kind in France. 
In 18G6 he instituted a vocal society iu 
Paris, called La Societe de Chant Classique, 
and at his death endowed both of these so- 
cieties with the fortune amassed at his con- 
certs, and by his works. He wrote also 
several works on music. His most im- 
portant compositions are : Miserere for 
four voices, soli and chorus (1812) ; Sapho, 
IjTic scene for solo and chorus, Laudate Do- 
minum for two choruses (1813) ; Domine sal- 
vum for five voices, soli and choruses (1817) ; 
Jeanne dArc, cantata (1817) ; Requiem Mass 
for four voices, soli and chorus (1819) ; An- 
acreon, opera (about 1819) ; Sixieme Ode 
sacree de J. B. Eousseau, for soli and cho- 
rus (1828) ; Quinzieme Ode sacree de do., 
for single voice ; Fantaisie for violin, solo 
and chorus ; Psyche et lAmour, scenes, soli 
and chorus (1833) ; Fete bachique, scene, 
tenor solo and chorus (1835) ; Hymne pour 
la premiere communion (1840) ; L'Ocean, 
morceau d'ensemble (1841) ; L'Hymne du 
matin, oratorio (1843) ; Messe solennelle for 
four voices, soli and chorus (1845) ; Llm- 
mortalite de I'ame, oratorio, L'Hymne de la 
nuit, do. (1851) ; Jeanne d'Ai-c, grande 
scene lyrique iu two parts (1853) ; Mass for 
three voices and organ (18.53) ; Philadelphie, 
opera (1855). — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 
59 ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

LAIDE VILLARD DE, born in Paris, Aug. 
31, 1758, died there in 1813. Dramatic 



singer and composer, shone as one of the 
great stars of the Opera in 17G6-74, retired 
in 1781, and soon after married the actor 
Philippe of the Comedie ItaUeune. Works : 
Les Saturnales (act of a ballet), Academie 
Eoyale de Musique, 1784: ; Tibulle et Delie, 
ojjera, ib., 1784 ; Anacreou ; Les legisla- 
trices ; Plaire, c'est commander, comic op- 
era. Theatre Montansier, 1792. — Fetis; do., 
Supi^lemont, i. 61 ; Mendel. 

See Huguenots. 

JACQUES, born in Abbeville in 1730, died 
in Paris, May, 1794. Organist at Lyons, 
and later (1771) of the Abbey Chmxh of St. 
Victor, Paris. In 1772 he succeeded Da- 
quin at St. Paul's, Paris, and was also one 
of the four organists at Notre Dame. The 
Revolution deprived him of these positions, 
and he died of a broken heart. After the 
death of Armand Louis Couperin he was 
considered the greatest of French organists. 
Works : Piuces d'orgue (Paris) ; Sonates de 
clavecin, op. 2 et 8 ; Fugues pour orgue, 
op. 6 ; Trois magnificats pour orgue, ojo. 7 ; 
Journal d'orgue, in twelve numbers with 
some of his hymns, four for the Circumci- 
sion, the Ej)iphanj-, the Purification, and the 
Annunciation, and four processional cho- 
ruses. — Futis ; Larousse ; Schilling ; Mendel. 

JACQUES MAEIE, born in Lyons, July 3, 
1766, died in Paris in November, 18.34. Or- 
ganist and composer ; son and pujjil of Jean 
Jacques Beauvarlet-Charpentier, whom he 
succeeded as organist at the Church of St. 
Paul, Paris, when the churches were re- 
opened after the Revolution. He was also 
organist of St. Germain-des-Pres towards 
the latter part of his life. Works : Victoire 
de I'armee d'ltalie, ou Bataille de Monte- 
notte, for organ or harpsichord (Paris, 1796) ; 
Airs varies a quatre mains pour clavecin 
(1799) ; La bataille d'Austerhtz (1805) ; La 
bataille d'lena (1807) ; Gervais, ou le Jeune 
aveugle, opera, given in Paris, Theatre des 
Jeunes Artistes, 1802 ; and a collection of 

romances entitled, Le troubadour, with ac- 
companiment (Paris, 1816). He also pub- 
lished : Methode d'orgue suivi de I'olfice 
complet de dimanches et d'un Te Deum. — 
Fetis ; do., Sujiplement, i. 61 ; Mendel ; 

Manchester, England, in 1803, died in 
Vienna, Nov. 23, 1848. He was of German 
parentage, and his life was spent at Elber- 
feld, Cologne, Diisseldorf, The Hague, and 
Loudon until 1841, when he settled in Vi- 
enna, and became musical critic of the 
Wiener Musik-Zeitung and the Sonutags- 
bliitter. In 1848 he became a violent demo- 
crat, and was tried by court-martial and 
shot in the Stadtgraben, Vienna. Works : 
8 poems for one voice and pianoforte, op. 1 
(Leipsic) ; 8 lyrical pieces for pianoforte, op. 
2 (Cologne) ; 3 sonatas for pianoforte, op. 7 
(Hegel) ; monologue for pianoforte, oj). 9 
(Vienna) ; 5 songs for one voice with piano- 
forte, op. 10 ; etc. His songs were pub- 
lished in four collections in Cologne and 
Vienna. — AUgem. d. Biogi'., i. 200 ; AUgem. 
Zeitg., Dec. 3, 1848, Beilage ; Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Wurzbach, i. 207. 

BECK, FRANZ, born at Mannheim in 
1730, died at Bordeaux, Dec. 31, 1809. Vio- 
linist, pupil of his father, who was privy 
councillor to the Prince Palatine ; adopted 
by and a great favourite of the latter, he for- 
feited his brilliant prospects in consequence 
of a fatal duel, which caused his flight to 
Paris, whence he was called in 1777 to Bor- 
deaux as concert director. Works : 24 sym- 
phonies (1776) ; Stabat Mater, performed 
at the Concert Spirituel, Paris, 1783 ; Pan- 
dore, a melodrama, ib., Thi'atre de Monsieur, 
1789 ; Gloria ; Credo ; Quartets for violin ; 
Sonatas for pianoforte. — Fetis. 

German parentage, in Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 
12, 1856, still living, 1888. Violinist, began 
the study of the violin when quite young. 
In 1879-82 he studied in the Leipsic Con- 
servatorium the pianoforte, violin, and vi- 
ola, and theory and composition under Carl 



Keinecke, Jadassolin, Oscar Paul, F. Her- 
mann, Alfred Richter, and others ; aud ou 
his return in the latter year settled in Cleve- 
land as a teacher and violinist. He has 
received considerable praise as a violinist, 
and his compositions have been favour- 
ably noticed in both Germany and Amer- 
ica. Originator of the Schubert Quartet of 
Cleveland. Works : Byron's "Lara," ovei-- 
ture in E minor ; Shakespeare's " Romeo and 
Juliet," overture ; String quartet in C minor ; 
String se.\tet in D minor ; Bayard Taylor's 
Deukaliou, cantata. Songs : Bitte, Der 
Schwere Abend, Meeresabend, Bedouin Love 
Song, and others. These are all in MS. 

BECKEL, JAMES COX, born, of Ameri- 
can parentage, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
Dec. 20, 1811, still Uving, 1888. Organist, 
began the study of music at the age of six 
under Jacob Reelsecker, a Moravian min- 
ister, and afterwards studied counterpoint 
and musical theory under Filippo Trajetta. 
"When thirteen years old he was chosen or- 
ganist of St. James's Church, Lancaster. 
In 1840 he became organist of St. Raid's 
Church, in 1843 of the Crown Street Church, 
in 1847 of the Clinton Street Church, all in 
Philadelphia ; in 1858 of Christ Church, 
Germantown, where he remained until 
1876, when he returned to the Clinton 
Street Church, Philadelphia, of which he 
is still organist. Works : 3 cantatas. The 
Nativity, Pilgrim's Progress, and Ruth ; 
The Restoration, oratorio, in MS. ; and 
many minor pieces. He has also written 
a method of organ instruction, and is the 
compiler of The Psalter, a collection of 
church music. 

born at QuedHnburg, June 13, 1834, still 
living, 1888. Pupil of the organist Her- 
mann Bonicke, then of Dehu in Berlin 
(1853-56), where he settled as a music 
teacher, and in 1881 became professor of 
composition at Scharwenka's Conservato- 
rium. For his symphony he received the 
second prize from the Gesellschaft der Mu- 
sikfreunde in Vienna, 1861. Works : Lie- 

der, op. 1 (Leipsie, Siegel, 1857) ; Lieder 

im Volkston fiir Haus und Herz (Berlin, 

Simrock) ; S3'm- 

phony in G minor 

(1858); Lieder 

aus Julius Wolff's 

Rattenfilnger von 

Hameln, do. aus 

Der wilde Jager 

(1877); Mass in B 

minor (Leipsie, 

Breitkojjf & Har- 

tel, 1879); Weine 

nicht!, a dirge for the soldiers fallen in 

battle, 18GG ; Reformations Kantate (1883) ; 

chorals and sacred folk-songs. — Mendel, 

Ergiinz., 27 ; Riemann ; Wochenblatt (1884), 

179, 214. 

at Freiberg, Saxony, Feb. 3, 1811, died at 
Oberlosnitz, ib., Feb. 26, 1859. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Aiiacker in singing, then 
at Leipsie of Karl Ferdinand Becker (or- 
ganist and distinguished writer on music, 
1804-77) in counterpoint. In 1837 he be- 
came editor of the Neue Zeitschrift fiir 
Musik and wrote many articles for it until 
1846 ; about 1843 he settled at Dresden, 
and taught singing and composition until 
1846, when he retired suddenly to Ober- 
losnitz. Works : Symphony for grand or- 
chestra, performed at Leipsie, 1843 ; Das 
Zigeunerleben, rhapsody, ib., 1845 ; Die 
Erstiirmung von Belgrad, opera, ib., 1848 ; 
Lieder, op. 2, 5, 6, 8, 14, 17 (Leipsie and 
Dresden) ; 3 duets for female voices, op. 36 ; 
Lieder for three voices and pianoforte, op. 
21, 23 ; Serenade for violin aud violoncello, 
op. 34. He has also written a singing 
method for male voices (Leipsie, 1845), and 
two treatises ou harmony. — Allgem. mu.s. 
Zeitg., 1. 411 ; Fetis. 

BECKER, JOHANN, born in Mannheim, 
Germany, May 11, 1836, died there, Oct. 
10, 1884. Violinist, pupil in Mannheim of 
Kettenus and in Paris of Alard. He ap- 
peared in public when only eleven years 
old, succeeded Kettenus as leader of the 




Mannheim orchestra, played with success in 
Paris and Loudon in 1859-60, and, after 
travelling through most of Europe, settled 
in 1866 at Florence, where, with Masi and 
Chiostri, and the German violoncellist Hil- 
pert, he established the celebrated Floren- 
tiuer Quartett, which had a well-deserved 
reputation for the performance of string 
music. He composed music for the violin. 
BECKER, REINHOLD, born atUdorf, 
Saxony, in 1842, still 
living, 1888. Violin- 
ist, fived for some 
years in Souther u 
France, giving con- 
certs, but, obliged to 
give up his instru- 
ment on account of 
an injury to his hand, 
he settled in Dres- 
den as a comjioser. 
Works : Der Priiiz von Homburg, sym- 
phonic poem ; Concerto for violin ; Wald- 
morgen, for male chorus ; Songs. 

GOTTLIEB, born in 1737, died at Celle, 
April 25, 1792. Instrumental and vocal 
composer and one of the best pianists of 
the 18th century. He was organist of the 
new church at Celle, and excelled in impro- 
visation, in which ho often made use of 
double counterjjoint. Works : Lukas und 
Hannchen, opera, given at Hamburg, 1782 ; 
3 sonatas for harpsichord (17G9) ; 3 do. 
(Hamburg, 1770) ; 3 concertos for harpsi- 
chord (Berlin, 1779) ; Solo for harpsichord 
(Hamburg, 1797).— Fetis ; Schilling. 

BECQUIE, JEAN IMARIE (?), born at 
Toulouse about 1800, died in Paris, Nov. 
10, 1825. Flutist, pupil of Tulou and of 
Guillod at the Conservatoire, Paris, where 
he won the first prize in 1822. Having for 
some years played in the orchestra of a 
small theatre, he became first flutist at the 
Opera Comique in 1821. Works : Grande 
fautaisie and variations for flute, with or- 
chestra ; Les regrets, do., for flute and 
pianoforte ; Ronde d'Emma variee ; Air 

nouveau ; Fantaisies on different themes, 
etc.— Fetis. 

quie de Peyreville, born at Toulouse in 
1797, died in Paris, January, 1876. Violin- 
ist, brother of preceding, pupil of Rudolf 
and August Kreutzer at the Consei'vatoire, 
Paris, where he won the second jsrize in 
1823, and the first in 1826. He played 
successively in several theatre orchestras, 
and was then for many years violinist at 
the Theatre Italien. Works : Fantaisie for 
violin and pianoforte ; Air varie, with vio- 
lin, viola, and bass; do., with quartet; Sev- 
eral other pieces for violin. — Fetis. 

at Jungbunzlau, Bohemia, AjH-il 9, 1754, 
died in Berlin, May 15, 1823. Organist of 
the Church of St. James, Prague, about 
1777, of the principal church at Brunswick 
in 1779, resigned in 1796, lived at Bam- 
berg until 1800, when he removed to Ber- 
lin. Works : Concerto for pianoforte, op. 1 ; 
do., op. 2 (Oflenbach, 1794) ; Three sonatas 
for pianoforte, op. 3 (Berlin, 1797) ; Con- 
certo for do., op. 6 (Brunswick) ; Niihe des 
Geliebten, song with pianoforte ; Gesiinge 
beym Klavier, 2 collections (1801); Songs 
with pianoforte, 1st collection (Offenbach, 
1799) ; do., 2d collection (ib.) ; Die Wiirde 
der Frauen, song with pianoforte (1800). — 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

Rennes, Brittany, about 1765, died in Paris 
about 1815. Violinist ; was first violin and 
maitre de musique at the theatre of his 
native town, and settled in Paris in 1796. 
Works : Two symphonies for grand orches- 
tra ; Duet for harp and horn ; Several suites 
for wind instruments ; Duets for violins, op. 
2, 3, 4, 28, 53, and 58 ; Suites of duets for 
one violin (double string) ; Square dances 
and waltzes for orchestra ; Airs varies, and 
pot-pourris for violin ; Methode for violin 
(Paris, I860).— Fetis. 

BEECKE, IGNAZ VON, lived in the 
latter half of the 18th century, died at Wal- 
lerstein, January, 1803. One of the best 



harpsichoitT plaj-ers of his time. He was \ 
captain of dragoous iu Hobenzollcru, was a 
friend of Gluck and of Jommelli, bis master 
in composition, and of W. A. Mozart, with 
whom he played a concerto for four hands 
at the Emperor's coronation at Frankfort. 
Among his works are : Roland, French op- 
era ; Claudine de Villa Bianca, opera, given 
in Vienna, 1784 ; Die Weinlese, do., ib., 
about 1785; Die Jubelbochzeit, List ge- 
gen List, Nina, Die zerstOrte Hirtenfeier, 
operas ; Overture and choruses to the 
Hermannssehlacht ; lOagen iiber den Tod 
der grossen Silngerin Nanette, von Gluck 
(Augsburg, 1777) ; Der brave Maun (Mainz, 
1784) ; Friedens Kautate for grand orches- 
tra (Hambui-g, 1797). His instrumental 
music consists of six sonatas for harpsi- 
chord, four trios for do. (Paris, 17G7) ; Six 
symphonies for eight parts, six symphonies 
for six i^arts ; Three quartets for flute, vio- 
lin, viola, and bass ; Three do., 2d book 
(Spires, 1791). An oratorio, Die Auferste- 
hung Jesu (1794) ; besides a great deal of 
vocal music with pianoforte accompaniment. 
— letis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; Schilling. 

BEEHGAARD, JULIUS, born at Copen- 
hagen, Dec. 19, 1843, stiU living, 1888. 
Composer, pupil of the Conservatorium, 
Leipsic, and in Copenhagen of several mas- 
ters, last of Gade ; visited Germany and 
Italy, and lived for some time in Paris be- 
fore returning to his native city. Works : 
Concert overture for orchestra ; Sailor's 
Life, On the Field of Battle, Cycluses for 
baritone solo, with pianoforte ; Four-part 
songs, songs, and pianoforte music. — Men- 
del, Ergiiuz., 29. 

BEER, JACOB. See Meyerbeer. 

BEER, JOSEF, born at Griinwald, Bo- 
hemia, April 18, 1744, died at Potsdam in 
1811. At first a trumpeter in the Austrian 
army, he entered the French service shortly 
after, and, going to Paris in 1771, was en- 
rolled in the Garde du Corps, where he first 
took up the clarinet, and became the most 
eminent virtuoso ever heard on that instru- 
ment, which he perfected by adding the 

fifth valve. In 1777-82 he was chamber 
musician to the Due d'Orli'aus, and after a 
concert tour through Holland, England, 
and Germany, held a similar position at 
the court of St. Petersburg in 1783-90, and 
finally in Berlin, from 1792. Works: 3 
concertos for clarinet ; 6 duets for do.; Solo 
variations for do. — Fctis ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Wurzbach. 

BEER, JULES, born about 1835, still 
living, 1888, in Pari.s. Amateur dramatic 
composer, nephew of Meyerbeer. Works : 
En etat de siege, comic opei-a, performed 
in Paris, 1859 ; Les roses de M. de Males- 
herbes, do., ib., 18G1 ; La fille d'fegypte, 
ib.. Theatre Lyrique, 18G2 ; Elisabetta d' 
Ungheria, La Scala, Milan, Feb. 15, 1871 ; 
Le Paria ; The 137th psalm, for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra, Paris, 1868 ; Songs. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. G3. 

BEER, MAX JOSEF, born iu Vienna, 
1851, still living, 1888. Dramatic com- 
poser, first instructed by his father, then 
pupil of Dessoft'. Works : Otto der Schiitz, 
opera (MS.) ; Der Pfeiferkonig, do. ; Das 
Stelldicheiu auf der Pfahlbriicke, operetta 
(prize) ; Der wilde Jiiger, for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra ; Suite for pianoforte, op. 9 ; 
Eichendorffiana, Spielmannsweisen, Abend- 
feier, Heidebilder, Was sich der Wald er- 
ziihlt, lyric cycles for pianoforte ; Songs. 
— Riemann. 

Bonn, Dec. 16, 
probably 17 70, 
died in Vienna, 
March 26, 1827. 
The family came 
originally from 
a village near 
Louvain, whence, 
iu 1650, they re- 
moved to Ant- 
werp. The name, 
originally as we 
now know it, underwent various changes of 
spelling (BiethofTen, Biethofen, Biethoven, 
Bethoveu, Betthoven, Bethof), until at last 


it returned to its original form. Ludwig's 
father, Jean, and his grandfather Ludwig 
were musicians in the court baud of the 
Elector of Cologne at Bonn ; his mother, 
Maria Magdalena Keverich, was daughter 
of the head-cook at Ehrenbreitstein. She 
was the widow of one Leym, or Laym, 
when she married Jean Beethoven, Nov. 12, 
1767. Ludwig was the second of seven 
children, but as the first, Liidwig Maria, 
born, April 1, 1769, lived only six days, he 
was virtually the eldest of the family. He 
began to study music at the age of four 
under his father, a barsh teacher, who seems 
well to have appreciated his son's talent. 
The boy was taught the ordinary branches 
and a little Latin at a public school, which, 
however, be left when he was thirteen. 
When he was nine years old his father gave 
up his musical education to Pfeift'er, a tenor 
singer at the Bonn opera. He studied the 
organ under Van den Eeden, organist of 
the court chapel, and, after he had left 
school, Latin, French, and Italian under j 
one Zambona. In 1781 he began to study 
under Neefe, who succeeded Van den Eeden 
as court organist. A year or two later he 
was up to playing most of the Wohltemper- 
irte Klavier, and to taking Neefe's jslace at 

the organ when 
necessary. In 
1783 he was ap- 
pointed cembal- 
ist in the or- 
chestra without 
salary, part of 
the duties of 
the position be- 
ing to conduct 
the opera or- 
chestra. In 
1784 he was appointed second organist, 
with a salary of 1.50 florins (about $63.30). 
During this year be studied the \iolin under 
Franz Ries. In 1787 he made his first trip 
to Vienna, where he stopped pi-obably not 
longer than three months, taking a few les- 
sons of Mozart. Ou his return to Bonn he 

made the acquaintance of von Breuning, to 
whose children he gave lessons, and in 
whose family his taste for literature was 
first cultivated. In 1788 he entered the or- 
chestra of the new National Theatre as sec- 
ond viola. His circumstances at this time 
were of the saddest ; his mother and his 
only remaining sister had died (one sister, 
born, 1779, lived only four days), and his 
father had become a confirmed drunkard ; 
he was, moreover, very poor. In 1790 and 

Beethoven's Birthplace. 

1792 Haydn passed through Bonn on his 
way to and from London ; on the second 
occasion he warmly praised a cantata by 
Beethoven, which was given before him. 
Up to this time the Elector had taken no 
esisecial notice of Beethoven, but now he 
determined that he should be sent to Vienna 
to study. Accordingly he went, at the age 
of twenty-two, and the second period of his 
life began. His comjjositions had hitherto 
been singularly few and unimportant, com- 
pared with the early works of other great 
composers ; but when he reached Vienna 



Haydn considered liini quite up to the 
greatest undertakings, and very soon volun- 
tarily transferred liis own mantle, as it were, 
to the young man's shoulders. Mozart had 
died the year before. In November, 1792, 
Beethoven was well settled in the Alservor- 
stadt, Vienna, and immediately began study- 
ing under Haydn ; the lessons were in strict 
counterpoint (strict according to the then 
existing views in Germany, but probably 
pretty lax by the Palestrina standard), the 
text-book being Fux's Gradus ad Parnas- 
sum. But Haydn was too busy to give him 
the attention he desired, and Beethoven, 

dissatisfied with 
his progress, 
soon took extra 
lessons secretly 
from S c h e n k. 
When Haydn 
went again to 
England, in 1794, 
Beethoven con- 
tinued his studies 
in counterjjoint 
under Alln-echtsberger, and took violin les- 
sons from Schuppanzigh. He also benefited 
by the advice of Salieri in Italian vocal com- 
position, and of Aloys Forster in quartet 
writing. In this year his allowance from 
the Elector was stojipeil, and henceforth he 
was dependent wholly upon his own re- 
sources. He had excellent introductions to 
influential people, and the time of his ar- 
rival was fortunate. Mozart's death had left 
the field comparatively free. It was as a 
jjianist that he first became known at the 
musical parties of Priuz Lichnowsky and 
Baron van Swieten ; but his compositions 
soon began to win him renown, if at first in 
a rather restricted circle. On March 29, 
1795, he made his first apjiearance before 
the general public with his concerto in C at 
the annual concert in the Burg Theater for 
the widows's fund of the Artists' Society. 
In 1796 he and Haydn appeared together 
at a second concert. He had already paid 
short visits to Prague and Nui'emberg, and 

before the j'ear was out he went back to 
Prague, and even to Berlin, where he played 
at court and at the Singakademie. He very 
soon returned to Vienna. In 1798 he again 
visited Prague, playing at two concerts there. 
During this year he met, and had a friendly 
rivalry with, WOlffl in Vienna. Up to the 
end of the century his Vienna comjjositions, 
excepting the first concerto, had all been in 
the way of chamber music ; but in 1800 his 
C major .symphony appeared, although it 
had been written for two or three years. It 
was brought out, on April 2d, at a benefit 

Caricature of Beethoven. 

concert given him at the Burg Theater. In 
180 1. Czerny first began to take lessons of 
him. In this year his deafness, premoni- 
tory symptoms of which had shown them- 
selves as early as 1798, began to trouble 
him seriously. His productiveness went on 
increasing steadily until his death ; he was 
in the habit of working on several composi- 
tions at a time, and, although he composed 
very slowly, writing and rewriting passages 
over and over again until" he was satisfied 
with them, he was certainly one of the most 
prolific of composers. As he brought out 
one work after another, his success with the 



Vienna public, and especially with the circle 
of distinKiiisbed amateurs amonp; whom he 

Beethoven's Tomb, Vienna. 

found his most influential patrons, was al- 
most constant, no matter what strictures 
critics and contemporary composers might 
make on his music. In spite of his brusque 
manners and his utter disregard for the 
conventionalities, even for the common de- 
cencies, of social intercourse, he never lacked 
a circle of worshipping admirers who were 
willing to put up with all his whims. He 
passed his summers in the country, for 
which he had an ardent love, and was very 
restless, changing his winter lodgings al- 
most every jear, sometimes more than once 
in a season. The nearest ajjproach to his 
losing his hold upon the public was about 

1823, when the Eossini fever was at its 
height. The popularity of Rossini's operas 
probably had more to do with this than the 
novelty of his own, so-called, third manner ; 
for when his ninth symphony was given, in 

1824, it was received with unbounded en- 
thusiasm by the audience. Although the 

sums he received from publishers seem 
small to-day, he was reallj' fairly well off in 
a material way during his life in Vienna. 
He never held anj' official position, but re- 
ceived yearly allowances from more than 
one noble patron ; and when these noble- 
men died he had already invested money in 
the Bank of Austria. The privations he 
submitted to in his later years were for the 
most part voluntary, and occasioned by his 
laying up money to provide for his nephew 
Carl, the whole charge of whose mainte- 
nance and education he took upon himself 
at the death of his brother Caspar Karl in 
1826. The recklessness and ingratitude of 
this young ne'er-do-weel, together with his 
own increasing deafness, which at last be- 
came total, and general ill-health, the result 
of a disease which even his iron constitu- 
tion could not withstand, were the great 
crosses of the later part of his life. The 

Beethoven's Statue in Bonn, 

immediate cause of his death was an attack 
of dropsy brought on by a cold in the stom- 
ach caught while travelling in the damp 
December weather iu an open chaise. 


His funei-al was attended, says Breuuiug, 
by 20,000 people, iiicluiling many distiu- 
guislied musicians, and a great crowd fol- 
lowed the hearse to the Wiihringer Ceme- 
tery, where the body was interred under the 
south wall. In 1863, the grave having fallen 
into neglect, the remains both of Beethoven 
and of Schubert, who lay near him, were ex- 
humed and reburied by the Gesellschaft der 
Musik-Freunde, and Beethoven's place of 
sepulture was marked by the monument il- 
lustrated above. In 1888 the remains were 
again taken up and removed, with imposing 
ceremonies, to the Central Cemetery. Beet- 
hoven was below middle height — not more 
than five feet and five inches — but broad 
across the shoulders and strongly built. 
The full-length sketch by Lyser, on page 
143, though probably intended for a cari- 
cature, is said by Breuning to give a good 
idea of his general appearance. Works 
— Dramatic : Fidelia, opera, given in Vienna, 
Theater an der Wien, Nov. 20, 1805. In- 
strumental. I. For orchestra : 9 sympho- 
nies, xrrC,oj).2j), intb,rap, 36,iu'JE-flat {Sin- 
fonia Erojca), op. 5.'^, in B-flat, op. 60, in C 
minor, op. 67:, in'¥ {Sinfonia Pastorale), oy). 
6^ in Aj ,o]j. 92, in F, o-^. 93,, in. D minor 
{Choral SymiDhony), o]). 125; Die Ge- 
schopfe des Prometheus, ballet, op. 43 ; 
Music to Goethe's Egmont, op. 84 ; Wel- 
linglon's Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vit- 
toria, op. 91 ; 10 overtures, to Prometheus, 
in C, op. 43, to Coriolan, in C minor, op. 
G2, to Leonore (No. 1, charakteristische Ou- 
verture), in C, op. 138, do. (No. 2) in C, op. 
72a, do. (No. 3), in C, op. 72a, to Fidelio, 
in E, op. 72b, to Egmont, in F minor, op. 
84, to Rainen von Athen, in G, op. 113, zur 
Namemfeier, in C, op. 115, to Ki^ni.g Ste- 
phan, in E-flat, op. 117, Die Weihe des 
Hauses, in C, op. 124 ; Allegretto (Gratula- 
tions-Menuet), in E-flat ; Triumphmarsch zu 
Tarpeja, in C ; 12 menuets ; 12 German 
dMces ; 12 square dances ; 2 marches, for 
miTitary band, in D and in F./ For violin 
and orchestra : Romanze in G, op. 40 ; do. 
in F, op. 50 ; Concerto in D, op. 61. 11. 

For strings : 3 quintets, for 2 violins, 2 violas, 
and violoncello, in E-flat (after octet, op. 
103), op. 4, in C, op. 29, in C minor (after 
trio, op. 1), 01^. 104 ; Fugue in D, for do., 
oj). 137 ; Movement in C from an unfinished 
quintet, for do. ; 17 (]uartets, for 2 violins, 
viola, and violoncello, in F, G, D, C minor, 
A, B-flat, op. 18, Nos. 1-6 {Lobkotvilz Quar- 
tets), in F, E minor, C, op. 59, Nos. 1-3 
{Rasoumowskij Quartets), in E-flat, op. 74 in F 
minor, op. 95, in E-flat, op. 127, iu B-flat, o^j. 
130, in C-sharp minor, oj). 131, in A minor, 
op. 132, in F, op. 135, in F (after sonata, 
op. 14, No. 1) ; Grand fugue iu B-flat, for 
do.; 4 trios, for violin, viola, and violoncello, 
iu E-flat, op. 3, in G, D, C minor, op. 9, Nos. 
1-3 ; Serenade in D, for do. ' HL For "wind 
instruments : Octet, for 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 
2 horns, and 2 bassoons, in E-flat, ojp. 103 ; 
Eondiuo, for do., in E-flat ; Sextet, for 2 
clarinets, 2 horns, and 2 bassoons, in E-flat, 
op. 71 ; Trio for 2 oboes and English horn, 
oix 87 ; 3 duos for clarinet and bassoon ; 2 
equal^or 4 trombones. IV. For string and 
wind iustrume\ts : Septet, for violin, viola, 
clarinet, bassooDv violoncello, and double 
bass, in E-flat, op. aO ; Sextet, for 2 violins, 
viola, violoncello, and 2 horns, in E-flat, op. 
81b ; Serenade for flute, violin and viola, op. 
25. V. For pianoforte with accompaniment 
— 1, with orchestra : 7 concertos, in C, op. 
15, in B-flat, op. 19, in C minor, op. 37, in 
G, op. 58, in E-flat, op. 73, in D (after the 
violin concerto), op. Gl, in C (for pianoforte, 
violin, and violonceHo), op. 56 ; Phantasie 
with chorus, iu C nnnor, op. 80 ; Rondo in 
B-flat ; — 2, with strings : 3 quartets, in E- 
flat, D, and C ; Quartet (after quintet) in E- 
flat, op. 16 ; 11 trios, in E-flat, G, C minor, 
op. 1, Nos. 1-3, in D, E-flat, op. 70, Nos. 1 
and 2, in B-fl£i,t, op. 97, in E-flat, in B-flat 
(in one movement), in D (after 2d sympho- 
ny), in B-flat (with clarinet or violin, and 
violoncello), op. 11, in E-flat (after septet, 
op. 20), op. 38 ; 14 variations in E-flat, op. 
44 ; Variations (Jrii bin der Schneider Ka- 
kadu) in G, op. 121a; 10 sonatas, for piano- 
forte and violin, in D, A, E-flat, op. 12, Nos. 



1-3, ill A minor, op. 2.'j, in F, op. 24, in A, in F, G minor, op. 5, Nos. 1 and 2, in 
C minor, G, op. 30, Nos. 1-3, in A, op. 47, 1 A, op. C9, in C, D, op. 102, Nos. 1 

{Kreutzer ■Sonata) in G, op. 96 ; Rondo, for [ and 2 ; Variations {Ein Mi'idchen oder 

do., in G ; Variations (Se vuol ballare), 
for do., in F ; AUemaude, for do. ; 5 

Weibclieu), for do., in F, op. 60 ; do. (theme 
from Judas Maccabreus), in G ; do. (Bei 

sonatas, for pianoforte and violoncello, Miiunern, welche Liebe f(ibleu), in E-llat ; 



• — 3, with wiml instruments : Quintet, with 
oboe, clarinet, born, and bassoon, in E-flat, 
op. 16 ; Sonata, with horn, in F, op. 17 ; C 
varied themes, with flute (or violin), op 105 ; 

10 do., op. 107. VI. For pianoforte alone 
— 1, for 4 hands : Sonata in D, ojx G ; 3 
marches, in C, E-tlat, and D, op. 45 ; Varia- 
tions (theme by Count Waldstein) in ' C ; 
Lied mit Verilnderungen {Ich denke dein), 
in D ; Grand fugue (after 021. 133), in B-flat, 
op. 134 ; — 2, solo : |32 sonatiis^yjtj^ttSijor, 
,A, C, op.»2, Nq3. 1^3^ E-flat, op. J, "me 
minor', F, D, op. TO, ^os. 1-3, fu d nimor 
(Sonate pathctlque), op. l-B, in 1? G, op. 14; 
Nos. 1 and 2, in B-flai, op. 2e!, ni A-flafop. 
26, in E-flat, Csharjo niiner (quasi-fantasia), 
op. 27 {Laubensonale), No.s. 1 and 2, in* 6, 
ojx 28 [Sonata pastorale,) iu G, D minor, 
E-flat, op. 31, Nos. 1-3, in G minor, G, op,' 
49, Nos. 1 and 2, jn C, op. 53 {Wakhtein 
sonata), iu F, op. 54, in F minor, op. 57 {So- 
nala appassionata,) in F-sharp minor, op. 
78, in G (Souatiue), op. 7t\<tn E-flat (Das 
Lebewohl, die Abweaeuheit, das Wieder- 
sehn), oj). 81ft, iu E minor, op. 90, iu A, op. 
101, in B-flat, op. 106 {Sonate fiir das Ham- 
merklavier), in E, op. 109, iu A-flut, op. 
110, iu C minor, op. 111.^ 3 sonatas iu E- 
flat, F miuor, and D (written at the age 
of eleven) r Leichte Sonate (fragment), in 
C ; 2 sonatiuas, iu G, and F ;[ 7 Bagalrllen, 
ojj. 33 J. 2 preludes (also for organ) op. 39 ; 
2 roudos, in C, and G, op. 51 ; Phantasie, 
iu G minor, op. 77 ; Polonaise, in C, op. 89 ; 

11 (12) neue BagaleUen, op. 119 ; 6 Baga- 
tellen, op. 126 ; Hondo a capriccio, in G, ojj. 
129 ; Koudo in A ; Menuet in E-flat ; Prii- 
ludium, iu F minor ; 6 menuets (arrange- 
ment ?) ; 7 liindlerisehe Tilnze ; 6 do. (ar- 
rangement?); Andante iavori, in F; Ivleines 
Stiick,'iu B-flat ; Cadenzas to pianoforte con- 
certos; Allemande (originally with violin) ; 
Letzter Gedanke, iu C (after a movement for 
5 string instruments) ; 6 variations (original 
theme), in F, oj). 34 ; 15 do., with fugue (do.) 
iu E-flat, op. 35 ; 6 do. (do.), iu D, op. 76 ; 
33 do. (waltz by Diabelli), in C, op. 120; 9 do. 
(march by Dressier), iu C minor • 24 do. 

( Vieni amore), in D ; 13 do. (Es war ein- 
mal), in A ; 9 do. (Qiiant' i- pih bello), in A ; 
do. (Nel cor jiiii nou), in G ; 12 do. {3Ie- 
nuet A la Vigano), iu C ; 12 do. (Russischer 
Tanz), iu A ; 6 do. (Schweizerlied), in F 
(also for harj)) ; 8 do. [Une fii-vre brulaute), 
iu C ; 10 do. (La stessa), iu B-flat ; 7 do. 
{Kind, willst du ruhig sehlafen), iu F ; 8 
do. {Tandehi und Scherzen), in F ; 6 do. 
(original theme), in G ; 7 do. {God save the 
king), in C ; 5 do. {Bide, Britannia), iu D ; 8 
do. {Ich hab' ein kleines Hiittchen nur), iu 
B-flat ; 32 do., in C miuor ; 7 do. in C 
{Reich mir die Hand). Vocal. €. With 
orchestra : Cliridas am Oelberge, oratorio 
for 3 solo voices, and chorus, op. 85, first 
performed iu Vienna, Theater an der Wien, 
April 5, 1S03 ; Mass iu C, for 4 solo voices 
and chorus, op. 86, Eisenstadt, Sept. 8, 
1807 ; Mass {Missa solennis), in D, for do., 
op. 123, St. Petersburg, March 27, 1824; 
Die Ruinen von Athen, eiu Nachsj^iel (Kot- 
zebue), op. 113 ; Kunig Stejjhau, ein Vor- 
spiel (Kotzebue), op. 117, Pestb, Deutsches 
Theater, Feb. 9, 1812 ; March with chorus 
from Die Euincu von Athen, op. 114, Vien- 
na, Joseijhstildter Theater, Oct. 3, 1822 ; Der 
glorreiche Augenblick, cantata for 4 solo 
voices and chorus, op. 13G, Vienna, Nov. 29, 
1814 ; Music to Goethe's Egmont, op. 84, 
Vienna, May 24, 1810 ; Chorus in Phantasie, 
op. 80 ; do. (Schiller) in 9th symphonj', oji. 
125 ; lleeresstille und gliiekliche Fahrt, for 4 
voices, op. 112 ; Tremate, emjjj tremate, ter- 
zetto for sojjrano, tenor, and bass, oj). 116 ; 
Ah ! perfido, scena and aria for sojjrano, op. 
65 ; Opferlied for do., with chorus, oj). 121b ; 
German ia's Wiedergeburt, for bass with 
chorus ; Es ist vollbracht !, for do. ; Ele- 
gi.-<chcr Gesang, for 4 voices, with 2 violins, 
viola, and violoncello, op. 118 ; Bandeiilled 
(Goethe), for 2 solo aud 3 choral voices, 
with 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, aud 2 horns, 
015. 122 ; Trauergesang bei Beethoven's Lei- 
chenbegilnguiss, for four-part male chorus 
and 4 trombones. 11. 'S^ithout accompani- 
ment : Gesang der MOnche (from Schiller's 
Wilhelm Tell), for 3 male voices ; 18 canons 




for 2, 3, and i voices. III. Folk-songs, for 
one voice, jjartly for two, or three voices, 
and small chorus : 25 Scotch songs, op. 108 ; 
25 Irish songs ; 20 do. ; 12 do. ; 26 Welsh 
songs ; 12 Scotch songs ; 12 miscellaneous 
songs (English, Scotch, Irish, and Italian). 
IV. Songs with pianoforte : An die Hofi- 
uung (Tiedge), op. 32 ; Adelaide, op. 46 ; In 
tjuesta tomba oscura ; 6 Lieder (Gellert), 
op. 8 ; 8 do., op. 52 ; 6 do., oi^ 75 ; 4 ariettas 
and a duet (Metastasio), op. 82 ; 3 songs 

^^^iS^'^ (A^ 

(Goethe), oix 83 ; Das Gliick der Freuud- 
schaft, op. 88 ; An die Hoffnung (Tiedge), 
op. 94 ; An die fei-ue Geliebte (Cyclus by 
Jeitteles), op. 98 ; Der Maun von Wort, 
oj). 99 ; Merkenstein, op. 100 ; Der Kuss, 
op. 128 ; 28 others without op. No.-/— Lenz, 
Beethoven, eine Kunststudie (Caiwel, 1855- 
60) ; do., Beethoven et ses trois styles (St. 
Petersburg, 1852) ; Schiudler, Biographie 
von L. v. B. (Miinster, 1860) ; Kochel, Drei 
und achtzig Briefe Beethoven's (Vienna, 
1865) ; Thayer, Chronologisches Verzeich- 
nissderWerkeB.'s (Berlin, 18G5); do., Beet- 
hoven's Leben (ib., 1866-79) ; Nohl, Beet- 
hoven's Lebeu (Leipsic, 1867-77) ; do., 
Neue Briefe B.'s (Stuttgart, 1867) ; Notte- 
bohm, Thematisches Verzeichuiss der Werke 
B.'s, (Leipsic, 1868) ; do., Beethoveniana 
(Leipsic k Winterthur, 1872) ; do., Beethov- 
en's Studien (ib., 1873) ; do., Skizzenbuch 
(Leipsic 1880) ; Graeme, Beethoven, a mem- 
oir (London, 1870) ; Wagner (Parsons), Beet- 
hoven, (Boston, 1872) ; La Mara, Ludwig van 
Beethoven (Leipsic, 1873) ; do., Musikalische 
Studienkopfe, HI. 319, 465 (Leipsic, 1880) ; 
Gerhard von Breuning, Aus dem Schwarz- 
spanierhaus (Vienna, 1874) ; Marx, Ludwig 
van Beethoven, Leben und Schaffeii (Berlin, 

1875) ; Naumann, Deutsche Tondichter 
(BerHn, 1882), 181. 

better known as Cousin Jacques, born at 
Laon, France, Nov. 6, 1757, died in Paris, 
Dec. 18, 1811. Eccentric composer of operas, 
for which he wrote also the words, and the 
ephemeral success of which was due solely 
to the singularity of their titles and subjects. 
They were : Les ailes de I'Amour, given in 
1786 ; L'Histoire universelle. Theatre Fey- 
deau, 17.89 ; Nico- 
deme dans la lune 
ou la Kevolution 
pacifique. Theatre 
Fran9ais, 1790 ; La 
federation du Par- 
nasse. The li t r e 
Beaujolais, 1790 ; 
Jean-Bete, Theatre 
des Grands Danseurs du Roi, 1790 ; Louis 
XII., Les foliesdansantes, Di'lassementscom- 
iques, 1790 ; Le club des bonnes gens. Thea- 
tre de Monsieur, 1791 ; Nicodeme avix enfers. 
Theatre Feydeau, 1791 ; Les deux Nico- 
demes, 1791 ; Allons, (,•» va, ou le Quaker en 
France, Theatre Feydeau, 1793 ; Toute la 
Groce, ou ce que pent la liberto, Opera, 1794 ; 
La petite Nanette, Theatre Feydeau, 1796 ; 
Turlututu, Empereur de I'lle verte, 1797 ; 
Jean-Baptiste, Theatre Feydeau, 1798 ; Un 
Rien, ou I'Habit de noces, Ambigu Comique, 
1798 ; Le grand genre, ib., 1799 ; Les deux 
Charbonniers, Madelon, Le Bonhomme, ou 
Poulot et Fanchon, Theatre Montansier, 
1799. He also jDublished, Les romances 
de Berquin (Paris, 1798), and a collection 
of chansons. Soirees chantantes, ou le 
Chansonnier bourgeois (ib., 1805). — Fetis ; 
do., Supplement, i. 64. 

to the melody "O Haupt voll Blut und 
Wunden," in D major, in Johann Sebastian 
Bach's Passion nach Matthiius, Part 11. 

BEGGAR'S OPERA, ballad opera, text by 
1 John Gay, music by Johann Christoph Pe- 
I pusch, first represented at Lincoln's Inn 
I Fields Theatre, Loudon, Jan. 29, 1728. 



Written ostensibly as an exposure of the 
vices of criminals, it is reallj' a keen satire 
on the corruj)tiou of the courtiers and poli- 
ticians of the day. The songs, sixty-nine in 
number, were all written to English and 
Scotch ballad tunes, some old and some con- 
temporary, and were arranged and scored 
by Dr. Pepusch, who wrote also the over- 
ture. The piece was received with great 
applause, was acted in London sixty-three 
times, and renewed the next season, and 
was produced in all the large towns of the 
kingdom. Gay's profits from the work are 
said to have been £2,000, and it raised some 

Lavinia Fenton, as Polly Pe^chum 

of the actors in it from obscurity into prom- 
inence. Lavinia Fenton, who represented 
Polly Peachum, became the idol of the 
town. Her portrait was engraved and sold 
by thousands, her life was written, verses 
and letters to published, and she hei-- 
self, after resisting innumerable offers, be- 
came the mistress of the Duke of Bolton 
and ultimately (1751) Duchess of Bolton. 
The Beggar's Opera was followed by numer- 
ous imitations, which were called, from the 
introduction of old songs, ballad operas. 
— Hogarth, ii. 40 ; Schcelcher, Life of Handel, 
81 ; Edwards, The Prima Donna, i. 13 ; 
Chappell, Popular Music of Olden Time, 


overture to, by ^Yeber, op. 27, composed 
1811, first original edition, score, Leipsic 
(Peters). This entirely reconsti-ucted, and 
jiartly rewritten, overture belonged, in its 
original and now lost form, to the unfinished 
opera Riibezahl, comjjosed at Bre.slau in 
1804^5. It is perhaps, of all the composer's 
instrumental preludes, the most regular, 
complete, and musician-like. No flaw, from 
the fiery beginning to the end of the exciting 
peroration, can be detected ; aU is harmo- 
nious and rhythmical, a work of beauty. 
— Benedict, 141. 

BEHOLD AND SEE, short air in E 
minor, in Handel's Jfrxsiah, Part H. 

BY. See I>cr Herr ging voriiber. 

See Geduld ! Geduld ! 

in G minor, in Handel's Messiah, Part II. 

FUHLEN, variations on theme of, for piano- 
forte and violoncello, by Beethoven, com- 
posed in 1801 (?). Dedicated to the Count- 
ess Browne. Tlie theme is the familiar 
duet between Pamina and Papageno, in 
Mozart's Die Zaaherjldte: Published by 
Mollo (Vienna). — Thayer, Verzeichniss, 41. 

Onkel aus Boston (The Two Ne^^hews, or 
The Uncle from Boston), opera in three acts, 
text by Dr. Caspar, music by Mendelssohn, 
first performed in his father's house, Berlin, 
on the composer's fifteenth birthday, Feb. 
3, 1824. This, Mendelssohn's fourth oper- 
atic work, contains an overture and four- 
teen numbers for voices and orchestra. It 
was never given in 2:)ublic. The autograph 
MS. is preserved in the Bibliothek, Berlin. 

Pedagogues), opera in one act, test bj- Dr. 
Casj)ar, music by Mendelssohn, first ■pev- 
formed in his father's house, Berlin, 1821. 
It was the composer's third opera and was 
written in his twelfth year. It contains an 
ovei'ture and twelve numbers for voices and 



Triuity, Bordesley, 

orcliestra. The MS. is iu the Berlin Bib- 

BEL EAGGIO. See Semiramide. 
iu Birmingham, Eng- 
land, March 8, 1827, 
still living, 1888. Or- 
ganist of Great Barr 
Church, Staffordshire, 
1856 ; of St. Silas Lo- 
zell's, B i r m i u g h am, 
1861 ; of St. George's, 
ib.,18G4-78; of Hands- 
worth Parish Church, 
1878-81 ; and of Holy 
1884 Mus. Bac, Ox- 
ford, 1867 ; Mus. Doc, 1872. Works : The 
Sea of GalQee, oratorio, Oxford, 1872 ; Es- 
telle, ojsera (MS.) ; The Fates, cantata, Ox- 
ford, 1867 ; Excelsior, cantata, 1868 ; Church 
music ; Four-part songs, songs, glees, etc. 

at Lucka, Saxony, May 27, 1795, died there, 
Dec. 10, 1874. Virtuoso on the trombone, 
son and pupil of Christian Gottfried Belcke, 
an able oboe and flute player (1765-1838). 
He filled a place iu the city band M'heu a 
boy of twelve, vfent in 1811 to Altenburg to 
study with the city musician Sachse, and 
soon after to Loipsic, where he appeared in 
solos in 1815, and was immediately en- 
gaged for the Gewandhaus and theatre or- 
chestras. With his brother the flutist, Chris- 
tian Gottlieb Belcke, he made a concert tovir 
through Merseburg, Halle, and Dessau to 
Berlin, where he was appointed chamber mu- 
sician in 1816. Weber invited him to Dresden 
to play at a court concert, and in Berlin he 
played (after 1827) at church concerts with 
especial success. Concert tours through 
Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands in- 
creased his fame, and the Conservatoire of 
Paris conferred upon him the medal of hon- 
our in 1841:. He was the first virtuoso on his 
instrument who introduced it into the con- 
cert room. In 1858 he resigned his j)osition 
in Berlin, and retired to his native city. Be- 
sides concertos and studies for his instru- 

ment, he composed works for orchestra, 
wind and other instruments, and pianoforte. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

morn, Hungary, Aug. 10, 1835, still living, 
1888. Pianist, jDujail in Vienna of Joachim 
Hoffmann and Franz Krenu, afterwards of 
Anton Halm on the pianoforte, and of Notte- 
bohm in theory. After living alternately at 
Presburg and Vienna, he has resided in 
Pesth since 1871, as civil engineer of the 
royal Hungarian railroad. Works : Mass 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Ave Maria, 
for do., op. 9 ; String quartet, op. 21 ; Trio, 
op. 30 ; Andante for string orchestra, op. 
25 ; Pianoforte music for two and four 
hands ; Songs. — Mendel ; Ergiinz., 30 ; Eie- 

BELISARIO, opera in three acts, text by 
Dartigny, music by Philidor, first repre- 
sented at the Theatre des Italiens, Paris, 
Oct. 3, 1796. The subject, the story of 
Belisarius, the famous Byzantine general in 
the reign of the Emperor Justinian, is from 
Marmontel's romance, "Belisaire" (1767). 
The same subject is treated in Belisar, 
German melodrama, music by Leon de 
Saint-Lubin, given at the Josephstadt The- 
ater, Vienna, 1827 ; and in a tragedy, music 
by J. M. Maurer, Bamberg, 1830. 

BELISARIO, Italian opera in three acts, 
text and music bj' Donizetti, first repre- 
sented at the Teatro Fenice, Venice, Feb. 7, 
1836 ; at the King's Theatre, Loudon, April 
1, 1837 ; at the KOnigstadische Theater, 
Berlin, April, 1838 ; at the Theatre des Ita- 
liens, Paris, Oct. 24, 1843 ; and at Palmo's 
Opera House, New York, March 14, 1844. 
The libretto, which recalls Marmontel's 
romance and the several tragedies on the 
subject, contains some striking musical 
situations. The work was successful in 
Italy and in England, but was not very 
warmly received in Paris. It was sung at 
the Italiens by Giulia Grisi, Fornasari, 
Mile Nissen, Morelli, Corelli, and ]\Ime 
Bellini ; Fornasari made his debut iu the 




See Ennmi. 



St. Nicolau, Ujjper Hungary, in 1843, still 
living, 1888. Church composer, self-taught 
on the violin, pianoforte, organ, and in 
singing ; a proficient at the age of eight. 
While at the theological seminary at Neu- 
sohl, he composed an instrumental mass 
■when only sixteen. In Vienna, wliere he 
finished his studies at the university, his 
intercourse with Sechter and Preyer only 
increased his tendency to a severely clas- 
sical style, in which he composed, after he 
had become a priest at Neusohl. His most 
important works are : Hsec dies, and Adora- 
mus (in the style of Palestrina), for male 
quartet ; Tu es Petrus, motet a cappella, 
for 2 male quartets ; Modlitba sv. Cyrilla 
(Prayer of St. Cyrillus), chorus ; Several 
works for orchestra ; National choruses for 
male and mixed voices ; Pri Presporku, 
concert variations for pianoforte, op. ; etc. 
— Mendel. 

aria for soprano, with orchestra, by Mozart, 
composed at Prague, Nov. 3, 1787. 

Venice in the first half of the 17th century. 
He was a pupil of Giovanni Gabrieli, and 
an imitator of Mouteverde. Works : Salmi 
di vespri a otto voci (Venice, 1618) ; Sacro- 
rum concentum, etc. (ib., 1620) ; Motetti, 
op. 4 (ib., 1622) ; Salmi intieri, etc., op. 5 
(Milan, 1623) ; Sahni concertati, op. 7 
(Venice, 1626) ; Missa, Magnificat e mo- 
tetti concertati, etc., op. 8 (Venice, 1628). 
— Fetis. 

BELLE AESfeNE, LA, fairy comedy in 
verse, in four acts, text by Favart, music 
by Monsigny, first represented at Fontaiue- 
bleau by the Italian comedians in ordinary 
to the king, Nov. 6, 1773, and in Paris at 
the Theatre des Italiens, Aug. 14, 1775. 

Subject from Voltaire's tale, " La Be- 
gueule." One of Mousigny's best works, 
and very successful. Same subject treated 
by Mazzinghi, Loudon, about 1797 ; and by 
Sor, London, about 1820. 

BELLE H^LENE, LA, French opera- 
bouffe in three acts, text by Henri de 
Meillac and Ludovic Halevy, music by 
Oft'enbach, first represented at the Theatre 
des Varietus, Paris, Dee. 17, 1864. Sub- 
ject, the seduction of Helen by Paris. A 
piece of buffoonery, full of ridiculous anach- 
ronisms, in which the heroes and gods of 
Greece are made to masquerade in modern 
costumes amid modern surroundings. Mu- 
sically, it is one of the best of Offenbach's 
bouffe operas, and it proved one of the 
greatest successes ever known at the Vari- 
etes. Original cast : Paris, Dapuis ; Me- 
nelas, Kopp ; Calchas, Gi'enier ; Agamem- 
non, Couder ; Achille, Guyon ; Ajax I., 
Hamburger; Ajax II., Andof ; Helene, Mme 
Schneider ; Oreste, Mme Silh'. 

BELLE ISABEAU, LA, a tale during the 
storm, for a voice, with chorus, by Hector 
Berlioz, o-p. 19. 

Erfurt in 1696, died at Miinden, Hanover, 
April 1, 1758. Dramatic composer, became 
cantor at Miinden in 1719, and rector of the 
higli school there in 1741. He was a vir- 
tuoso on the lute, the viol da gamba, the 
violin, and the flute, and, besides many 
other poems, wrote the texts to nearly all 
his vocal compositions, and was made poet- 
laureate in 1738. Works — Oratorios : Die 
himmlischen Heerschaaren, performed at 
GOttiugen, 1726 ; Der reiche jVIanu und der 
arme Lazarus, 1731 ; Die Allmacht in der 
Ohnmacht, oder die freudenreiche Geburt 
Jesu Christi, Erfurt, 1734 ; Der in der 
Auferstehung triumphirende Jesus, Die sie- 
gende Selileuder des heldenmiithigen Da- 
1 vids, 1734 ; Das auf ein La mi sich endi- 
gende Wohlleben des reichen Mannes, Der 
verlorene Sohn, Die Sendung des heiligen 
Geistes, Erfurt, 1735 : Issipile, opera (about 
\ 1744) ; Several cantatas : 24 suites for the 


lute ; 3 concertos for tlae flute ; 3 do. for j 
oboe ; 10 do. for pianoforte with violiu ; 6 
overtures for graud orchestra ; 6 sonatas 
for flute, viol da gamba, and pianoforte. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

Berlin, March 10, 1832, still Hving, 1888. 
Vocal composer, sou and pupil of Fried- 
rich Bellermanu (1795-1874), and pupil of 
Eduard Grell ; became iustructor of vocal 
music at the Grey Convent iu 1853, royal 
director of music iu 1861, and in-ofessor at 
the university iu 1866. Member of Berlin 
Academy, 1875. Works : Oratorios, psalms, 
motets, choruses ; Gesaug der Geister iiber 
den Wassern, for chorus and orchestra ; 
Choruses in Ajax, King (Edipus, and (Edi- 
pus in Colonos, by Sophocles ; An opera 
(MS.)— Mendel ; Riemann. 

BELLfiROPHON, opera iu five acts, text 
by Thomas Corneille, Foutenelle, and Boi- 
leau, music by Lulli, represented at the 
Theatre de FOpera, Paris, Jan. 31, 1679. 
Original title, Les triomphes de Bellero- 
phon. Subject, the hero Bellerophon who, 
mounted upon his wiuged steed Pegasus, 
overcame the monster Chimfera. It met 
with extraordinary favour, was plaj'ed until 
the end of the following October, and re- 
produced the next year with equal success. 
In 1773 it was reset to music by Berton and 
Grenier, but the new version proved a fail- 
ure. The same subject is treated iu Bel- 
lerofoute, Italian opera, music bj' Sacrati, 
Venice, 1642 ; music by Araja, St. Peters- I 
burg, about 1713 ; music by Terradeglias, 
London, 1716 ; music by Giovanni Ferran- 
dini, Munich, 1757 ; music by Mysliweczek, 
Naples, 1765 ; in Bellerophon, German op- 
era, music by Graupner, Hamburg, 1708 ; 
music by von Winter, Munich, 1782 ; and in 
Jobates und Bellerophon, music by Keiser, 
Hamburg, 1717. 

BELL'HA\^R, VINCENZO, born in 
Venice about 1530, died there about 1588 
(?). One of the organists at S. Marco, Ven- 
ice, in 1586. As he was succeeded by Gu- 
ami, Oct. 30, 1588, it is presumable that he 

died about that time. Works : Madrigali 
a cinque e .sei voci, lib. i. (1567) ; Madrigali 
a cinque, lib. i.; Madrigali a cinque, lib. ii. 
(Venice, 1575). Some of his madrigals are 
in the library of the King of Portugal, 
others in a collection entitled. Corona di 
dodici sonetti di G. B. Zuccariui (Vienna, 
1586).— Fetis. 

BELLI, GIULIO, lived at end of the 
16th aud beginning of the 17th century. 
He was minor canon at Longiano, maes- 
tro di cappella of the Church of Osimo, 
near Ancoua, afterwards of the cathedral 
at Imola, and, according to the title of one of 
his works, maestro di cappella at Venice. His 
works consist of masses, psalms, canticles, 
motets, aud madrigals, published at Milan 
and Venice from 1586 to 1613, and in the 
Bodenschatz collection. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

BELLINI, BERNARDO, Italian dramatic 
composer, contemporary. He is author of 
II sogno d' amore, opera semi-seria, text by 
Golisciana, represented at the Casino Uni- 
one, Naples, Jan. 12, 1880. 

BELLINI, F., Italian composer, contem- 
porarj'. He is author of Si paga o non si 
paga?, operetta, played at the Collegio della 
Visitatione, Monaco, January, 1877. 

BELLINI, GIUNTI, Italian composer, 
contemporary. He is author of Raphael, 
grand opera in five acts, text by Mery, rep- 
resented at the Athcnee, Paris, May 28, 
BELLINI, VINCENZO, born at Catania, 
Sicily, Nov. 3, 1802, 
died at Puteaux, 
France, Sept. 23, 
1835. His father, 
an organist, per- 
suaded by a Sicil- 
ian nobleman, sent 
tlie young Vincenzo 
to Naples to enter 
the conservator}', 
directed at that 
The boy accordingly 
entered a little after Donizetti had left the 
institution, and while Mercadante was still 

time by Zingarelli. 



studying there. Bellini was but poorly 
taught, the Naples Couservatory being in a 
miserable condition at the time, and Zin- 
garelli neglecting his pupils greatly. Very 
likely, also, Bellini did not work very hard 
at his studies, and it is highly probable that 
he got the better part of his musical educa- 
tion, like many of his comjDatriots, from the 
perusal of standard scores of the great mas- 
ters. Throughout his career he showed 
himself to be a composer by instinct rather 
than a thoroughly schooled musician After 
publishing in Naples some unimportant in- 
strumental and sacred choral works, his first 
opera, Adehon e Salvina, was brought out 
at the little theatre of the CoUegio Reale 
di Musica in 1824:. Barbaja, who was pres- 
ent at the performance, immediately engaged 
him to write an opera for the San Carlo, and 
Bianca e Fernando was accordingly given 
there on June 30, 1826. The principal parts 
were sung by Rubiui, Lablache (who was 
an ardent admirer of the young composer), 
and Mme Meric-Lalande. The oj)era was 
a great success at the time, but has since 
been wholly forgotten. Emboldened by this 
triumph, Barbaja engaged Bellini to write 
another opera, this time for Milan, the 
tenor part to be especially written for Ru- 
biui. The composer accordingly retired to 
the country, taking the great tenor with 
him in order to profit by his advice, and the 
result was II Pirata, which was brought out 
with overwhelming success in Milan, 1827, 
and was soon given in the principal Euro- 
pean capitals. This work was the key-stoue 
of Bellini's great and ever-growing reputa- 
tion. From this time to his early death he 
pi'oduced seven more operas, most of which 
were brilliantly successful. Bellini's genius 
may be called, in a certain sense, " epoch- 
making." He perceived that the persistently 
florid style of Rossini, which Pacini, Carafa, 
Mercadante, and the young Donizetti imitat- 
ed blindly, would not long monopolize pub- 
lic favour ; he struck out in the direction of 
bringing Italian melody back to its pre- 
Rossinian simplicity and dramatic warmth 

of expression. No man was better fitted to 
do this than be ; for high natural gifts, ex- 
treme sensibility of nature, and the most ex- 
quisite refinement of artistic perception all 
contributed to make him as great a melodist 
as ever lived. His melodies quite equal 
Rossini's in beauty, elegance, and finish, 
while they are, as a rule, endued with a 
fervid expressiveness, a graceful, almost fem- 
inine tenderness and pathos to which the 
great master of Pesaro very rarely attained. 
Per contra, as a harmonist Bellini was little 
more than embryonic ; not that his har- 
mony is bad, but that he habitually confined 
himself to the very simplest and most nat- 
ural progressions. His almost total lack 
of sound schooling made him impotent to 
grapple successfully with any but the 
simplest musical forms ; as a contrapuntist 
he was absolutely null, and his mastery over 
cyclical forms was of the very slightest. 
Yet it must be said to his praise that he 
was content to stay within the limits of his 
own powers, and rarely attempted harder 
tasks than he could accomplish. In the art 
of instrumentation he was a perfect child, 
but here, as elsewhere, the modesty of his 
pretensions saved him from doing really 
bad work. He depended solely upon his me- 
lodic power and upon his consummate skill 
in treating the human voice ; indeed, his skill 
in this imjwrtant particular has never been 
surpassed. His intimacy with Rubini, for 
whom he wrote most of his tenor parts, had 
probably much to do with the formation of 
his perfect vocal style. Yet this influence was 
unfortunate in one respect ; Bellini's tenor 
parts, written for Rubini's exceptionallj- 
high counter-tenor, are beyond the compass 
of true tenor voices. As counter-tenor 
voices have completely disappeared from 
the stage, many arias and duets have now 
to be largely transposed, with vmspeakable 
detriment to their effect. These transposi- 
tions are most ruinous just in Bellini's 
greatest masterpiece. La Sonnambula, in 
which the high register and peculiar quality 
of the counter-tenor voice is absolutely 



necessary to give the part of Elvino, most 1 1830 (Romeo et Juliette, Paris, 1859) ; La 
tender of all complaining lovers, its tvne 'Sonnaiiibida, Milan, 1831 ; i\w))ia, ib., 1832 ; 
character. The melody, "Ah, perche non , Beatrice di Teuda, Venice, 1833 ; I Furilani 
posso odiarti ?, " when sung in B-flat, as it di Scozia, Paris, 1835. — Filippo Cicconetti, 
now is, does not give an approximate idea ; Vita di Vincenzo BeUiui (Prato, Alberghetti, 
of the effect it j)roduces when sung in the j 1859) ; Arthur Pougin, Belluii, sa vie, ses ceu- 
original key of D. Bellini, like many other i vres (Paris, Hachette, 1868) ; Dwight's Jour- 
composers, may be said to have had two , nal, vii. 58 ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 06. 
manners. With Norma (1832) he began to ! BELLMAN, comic ojjera, music by Franz 
adopt a broader and grander, albeit not von Suppe, rejjresented at the Theater an 
more elaborate, melodic style. lu 1833 he , der Wien, Vienna, Feb. 26, 1887. 
went to Paris, where, under Rossini's guid- 1 BELLMAN, CARL MICHAEL, born at 

ance, he began to study the taste of the 
French public. After a short trip to Lon- 

Stockholm, Feb. 4, 1710, died there, Feb. 11, 
1795. The great Swedish poet deserves a place 

don, whither he went to superintend the ; also in the history of Swedish music, having 
production of one of his ojseras, he returned set to music his ingenious descriptions of 
to Paris and brought out I Puritani, a work ! popular life, embodied in the partly idyllic, 
in which he forced himself to take unusual partly burlesque, cycles : The Epistles of 
pains with the instrumentation, not, how- Fredman, The Songs of Fredman, and The 
ever, with invariable success. After I Pu- Acts of the Bacchanalian Chapter. — Mendel, 
ritani, he was engaged to write two more Ergiinz., 31. 

operas, one for La Scala at Milan, the other 
for the Opera in Paris ; but he died of dys- 

BELLOLI, LUIGI, born at Castelfranco, 
Bologna, Feb. 2, 1770, died at Milan, Nov. 

entery before he had more than begun 17, 1817. Virtuoso on the horn, and dra- 
either of them. He was buried in Pure matic composer, entered the court orchestra 
la Chaise ; but the Italian Government af- at Parma in 1790, and became professor at 

the Couservatorio, Milan, in 1812. Works : 
II trionfo di Vitellio Massimo, La distru- 
zione di Pompejano, ballets, Milan, Scala, 
1803 ; La morte di Tipoo- Sahib, Eleazar 
despoto della Servia, ib., 1801 ; Sofouisba, 
Andromacca, ib., 1806 ; Le avventure di 
Aroldo il prode ; Concertos for horn : 
Method for do.— Fetis. 

mont and Constance), German comic opera 
in four acts, text by Bretzner, music by 
Johann Andre, first represented at the Ber- 
liu Theatre, May 26, 1781. This work, pro- 
duced with the alternative title Die Eutf iih- 
rung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from 
the Harem), was often repeated with suc- 
cess until it was supplanted by Mozart's 
work entitled, Entfiihrung, etc. The 
- same subject, music by Dietter, was rep- 
resented at Stuttgart about 1786. 
BELSAZAR (Belshazzar), oratorio, by 
Carl Reinecke. 

terwards begged for his remains, and a 
deputation from Catania went to Paris, 
where the ceremonj" of exhumation took 
place on Sejst. 15, 1876, and escorted the 
body to his native town, where it was re- 
buried with great pomp on Sept. 23d, the 
forty-first anniversary of the comjaoser's 
death. Works : Several small compositions 
for various instruments, such as flute, clari- 
net, pianoforte, etc., Naples, before 1821 ; 
Fifteen sinfonie for orchestra, ib.; Is- 
meue, a cantata, ib. ; Three Vespers, two 
Dixit Dominus, and three Masses, be- 
sides other sacred pieces, ib.; Adelson e 
Salviua, Najjles, 1821 ; Bianca e Fernando, 
ib., 1826; II Pirata, Milan, 1827; La 


Siraniera, ib., 1829 ; Zaira, Parma, May 16, 
1829 ; I Vapuletti ed i Montecchi, Venice, 



BELSHAZZAR, oratorio, text by Charles 
Jenuens, but much changed by Haudel, 
music by Haudel, first performed at the 
King's Theatre, London, March 27, 1745. 
It was announced as Belteshazzar, the name 
given in Babylon to Daniel (Dan., ii. 2G), 
but the name was changed on the day of the 
performance. The dates on the autograph 
MS., preserved in Buckingham Palace, are, 
at the beginning, Aug. 23, 1744: ; at end of 
the first part, Sept. 3, 1744 ; and at end of 
the second part, Sept. 10, 1744. The work 
was revived by the London Sacred Harmonic 
Society, Mai'cli 19, 1847. Handel was very 
fond of this oratorio, which is undoubtedly 
one of his best. Characters represented : 
Belshazzar, Nitocris, Cyrus, Daniel, Gobrias, 
Ai-ioch, Chorus of Babj'lonians, Chorus of 
Jews, Chorus of Medes and Persians. Pub- 
lished first by Walsh ; full score by Hiin- 
del-Gesellschaft (Leipsic, 1864). — Schosl- 
cher, Handel, 288 ; Rockstro, Handel, 

BENDA, FRANZ, born at Alt-Benatek, 
Bohemia, Nov. 25, 1709, died at Potsdam, 
March 7, 178G. Violinist, first instructed 
by a blind Jew, named Label, then at 
Prague by Kisnicek, afterwards (1732), at 
Ruppiu, pupil of Johaun Gottlieb Grauu on 
the violin, and of Karl Heiiirich Graun and 
Quanz in composition. He had, at that 
time, joined the orchestra of the crown 
prince, afterwards Frederick the Great, 
whom, according to his own statement, he 
had accompanied in about 50,000 concertos 
during his forty years' service. He formed 
a number of distinguished pupils, among 
whom were his youngest brother, Josef, and 
his two sons Friedriohand Karl. His com- 
positions consist of symphonies, many con- 
certos, solos, etudes, of which only twelve 
solos for violin (Paris), * ^, ^ 

solo for flute (Berlin), and /MfA\nl^i^ 
three books of violin stud- 
ies. (Leipsic, Kiihnel), are printed. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr., ii. 315 ; Ft'tis : Gerber, Hist. Lex.; 
Hiller, Lebensbeschi-eibungen (Leipsic, 
1784) ; Schilling. 


at Gothaiu 1740, died at Konigsberg, March 
27, 1793. Dramatic composer, sou of Georg 
Benda, whom he took for his model. In 
1780 he became musical director of the 
theatre at Hamburg, where he married the 
singer Felicitas Agnesia Rietz, with whom 
he visited Berlin and Vienna ; iu 1783 he 
entered the service of the Duke of Mecklen- 
burg at Ludwigslust, but conjugal trouble 
leading to a separation, he was induced to 
go as a concert director to Konigsberg in 
1789. Works : Three concertos for the 
violin (Leipsic, 1779) ; Der Barbier von 
Sevilla, opera, given in Hamburg, 1782 ; 
Das Vateruuser, cantata (1783) ; Trauerkan- 
tate auf den Tod des Herzogs von Mecklen- 
burg (Funeral Cantata on the Death of the 
Duke of M., 1785) ; Das Narrenballet, 1787 ; 
Der Tod, cantata (1788) ; Die Religion, do. 
(1790) ; Die Verlobung, operetta, given at 
Konigsberg, 1790 ; Louise, do., ib., 1791 ; 
Mariechen, do., ih., 1792. — Fetis ; Gerber, 
N. Lex.; Mendel. 

HEINRICH) born at Potsdam, July 15, 1745, 
died there, June 19, 1814. Dramatic com- 
poser, son of Franz Benda, whose pupil he 
was on the violin, although he excelled more 
as a pianist and iu composition, which he stu- 
died under Kirnberger. In 1789 he received 
a gold medal from the Empress of Russia, for 
whom he had composed the opera Orpheus, 
and in 179G a flattering letter with a pre- 
cious snufi'-box from the Czar Paul I. Works : 
Pygmalion, cantata, 1783 ; Die Grazien, do., 
about 1788; Alceste, opera, 178G ; Die 
Jiinger am Grabe des Auferstandenen, ora- 
torio, performed in Berlin, 1792 ; Das Lob 
des HOchsten, do., Potsdam, 1806 ; Das 
Blumenmadchen, operetta ; G trios for violin 
and violoncello, op. 1 ; 2 concertos for vio- 
lin and orchestra, op. 2 ; 3 trios for harpsi- 
chord, violin, and violoncello, op. 3 ; 3 con- 
certos for the flute, op. 4 ; Trios for harpsi- 
chord, op. 5 ; Sonata for four hands, op. 6 ; 
7 sonatas for harpsichord or harp, witli flute 
or violin and violoncello (Berlin, 1788-93) ; 




Solo for flute and violoncello (1792) ; 6 con- 
certos for violin ; 6 solos for flute. — Fetis ; 
Gerber, N. Lex.; Schilling. 

BENDA, GEUEG, born at Jungbuuzlau, 
Bohemia, iu 1722, 
died at KOstritz, 
Nov. 6, 1795. He 
was the third sou of 
Haus Georg Benda, 
u u d e r whom he 
studied the oboe 
and afterwards the 
violin and piano- 
forte, acquiring a 
high degree of pro- 
lu 1740 he went to BerUn, where 
he completed his musical education, by 
hearing the works of Graun and Hasse, 
but he never made any regular study 
either of harmony or counterjioint. In 
1718 he became Kapellmeister to the 
Duke Frederick III. of Saxe-Gotha, and in 
1761 he made a journey to Italy at the 
Duke's expense, and in company with Eust. 
At Venice Galuppi's La donna di governo 
(although all Rust's persuasion could not 
make him sit out the first performance) fi- 
nally attracted him so strongly by its facile 
melody that Benda made a serious change 
in his own style ; from that time his com- 
positions showed decided marks of Italian 
influence. In 1766 he returned to Gotha, 
where he wrote his operas Giro ricono- 
sciuto and II buon marito. These were fol- 
lowed by several other works, notably 
Ariadne auf Naxos and Medea. In 1778 
Benda ran away from Gotha and assumed 
the direction of Schroeder's Theatre 
in Hamburg, a post which he soon relin- 
quished to go to Vienna, whence he at 
length returned to Gotha and resumed his 
old position iinder Frederick HI. and his suc- 
cessor Augustus. In 1781 he went to Paris 
to superintend the production of a French 
version of his Ariadne, but I'eturned to 
Georgenthal, a village about nine miles from 
Gotha, disappointed at the failure of the work. 
But his nervous temperament would not al- 

low him to stay long in any one place ; he 
soon moved to Ohrdrufl" and thence, in 1788, 
to Rouuenburg, where he wrote his Benda's 
Klageu. His last place of abode was KOs- 
tritz. Throughout life he was noted for his 
absence of mind, and his for the 
2)leasures of the table. As a composer he 
was noted for the grace and expressiveness 
of his melodies ; although he had made no 
serious studies, his harmony is generally 
pure and correct ; he was, however, not 
gifted with much originality, and his works 
are now forgotten. The important palace he 
holds in the history of the German ojiera is 
mainly owing to his melodramas Ariadne 
auf Naxos and Medea. The alternation of 
set musical forms and spoken dialogue in 
Hiller's Singspiele and Reichardt's Lieder- 
sjiiele, which afterwards became the standard 
characteristic of German opera (as it is of 
the French opera comique), seemed to Ben- 
da to be inartistic and dramatically false. 
The musical recitative of the Italian and 
French grand opera struck him also as being 
incomj^atible with a national German form 
of musico-dramatic art. He accordingly 
conceived the idea of confining the whole 
musical part of the opera to the orchestra, 
while the dialogue was all spoken ; thus he 
may be said to have originated the pure 
melodrama, a form of art which was short- 
lived, to be sure, but which attracted much 
attention in his day. Published works : Sei 
sonate per il cembalo, Berlin, 1757 ; Amyn- 
tas' Klagen iiber die Flucht der Lalage, can- 
tata, ib., 1744 ; T>ev Dorfjahrmarlt, operetta, 
Leijisic, 1776, pianoforte score ; Walder, op- 
era, Gotha, 1777 ; Ariadne auf Naxos, duo- 
drama, Leipsic, 1778, and (more complete 
ed.) ib., 1781 ; Bledea, melodrama, ib., 1778 ; 
Der Hohbauer, operetta, ib., 1778 ; Pygma- 
lion, monodrama, ib., 1780 ; Romeo und 
Julie, ib., 1778, pianoforte score ; Two con- 
certos for the clavichord, ib., 1779 ; Three 
series of pianoforte music, Leij^sic and 
Gotha, 1780 and 1781 ; Collection of Italian 
airs, Leipsic, 1782, jDianoforte score ; Airs 
and duets, ib., 1789 ; Cephalus und Aurora, 


cantata, ib. ; Benda's Klagen, cantata. 
Among bis uiipublisbed MSS. are a great 
deal of church music, occasional pieces, 

symphonies, concertos, sonatas, etc., and 
the melodrama Almauzor. — Leipzig. AUg. 
Mus. Zeitung, xvi. 8G0 ; iii. 329 ; Grove, i. 

born in London, April 
22, 1850, still living, 
1888. Pupil in har- 
mony and comjjosition 
of Charles Lucas and 
Edward Silas in Lon- 
don ; then studied at 
the Leipsic Conser- 
vatory in 1872-74 
Work s — Operettas : 
Lovers' Knots, St. 
George's Hall, 1880 ; 
1880 ; Oisera comique, 
Parizadeh, St. James's Hall, 1884 ; The 
Lady of Shalott, for female voices ; The 
Kosiere, for do. ; Part songs and trios ; 
Songs and duets ; Pianoforte music, etc. 
BEN DEL, FRANZ, born at Schonlinde, 
Bohemia, March 23, 
1833, died in Berlin, 
July 3, 1874. Pian- 
ist, j)upil of Josef 
Proksch in Prague, 
and of Liszt at Wei- 
inai\ He won rejiu- 
tation as one of the 
most brilliant of mod- 
ern virtuosi on con- 
cert toui-s through 
Order of Danebrog, 1863. Be- 
sides a mass, he composed etudes, idyls, 
fantasias, etc., for pianoforte, numbering 
118 works, of which the most popular are 



pro Quo, 
Cantatas : 


the fantasias on Bohemian folk-songs, o]}. 

8, 45, 47, and on motives from Faust, and 
L'Africaine. — Mendel. 

BENDER, JACOB, born at Bechtheim, 
near Worms, in 1798, died at Antwerp, Aug. 

9, 1844. Instrumental composer, pupil at 
the age of five of the organist M'lser on the 
pianoforte, then of his father on the violin, 
and at Worms of Alfuldisch on several in- 
struments, among which he cultivated es- 
pecially the clarinet. In 1819 he became 
bandmaster of a regiment in the Nether- 
lands, and in 1829 director of music at St. 
Nicolas, Belgium, where he founded a phil- 
harmonic society, and whence he went to 
Antwerp in 1833 as director of the Har- 
monie. He has composed many concertos 
and other jiieces for different instruments, 
besides fantasias and pot-jjourris for mili- 
tary band. His brother and pupil Valen- 
tin (1800-73) was a distinguished virtuoso 
on the clarinet, became musical director at 
Brussels, and composed clarinet and mili- 
tary music. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

GLORY, sopi'ano air in B minor for Susan- 
na, in Handel's Stisaniia, Part I. 

BENDIX, JULIUS, born iu Stockholm in 
1818, still living there, 1888. Pianist and 
dramatic composer, pupil of Friedrich 
Sclmeider at Dessau. His opera, The Fay 
on the Rhine, was successfully given at 
Stockholm. — Mendel. 

SHADE, soprano air in D minor, alia sicilia- 
no (sic), of Susanna's attendant, in Handel's 
Suaanna, Part H. 

BENDL, KARL, born in Prague, x\.i)ril 
IG, 1838, still living, 1888. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Franz Bla^ek and Karl 
Pitsch at the Organists' School in Prague, 
where he took the first prize. In 1864 he 
went as second chef d'orchestre to the Opera 
at Brussels, and, after its failure, as chorus- 
master to the German Opera at Amsterdam, 
returned to Prague in 1865, and became di- 
rector of the male singing society Hlahol. 
Works : Lejla, Bohemian ojjera, given at 


the National Theatre, Prague, 18G8 ; Bret- 
islav, do., ib., 1869 ; Cernahorci, three acts, 
ib., 1881 ; Karel Skreta, comic opera, three 
acts, ib., 1883 ; Two masses for male voices ; 
Mass for mixed chorus and orchestra ; Over- 
ture ; About two hundred Czech songs and 
choiTises. — Mendel. 

BENEDICT, Sir JULIUS, born at Stutt- 
gart, Nov. 27, 1804, 
died in London, 
June 5, 1885. Dra- 
matic composer, 
and pianist, 23uj)il 
of Louis Abeille on 
the jjianoforte, 
then at Weimar 
(1819) of Hummel, 
and at Dresden 
(1820 of Weber,) 
with whom he soon formed an intimate 
friendship, and visited Berlin, Vienna, and 
other cities, to attend the first representa- 
tions of Weber's operas. On this master's 
recommendation he was appointed Kajjell- 
meister at the Iviirnthnerthor Theater in 
Vienna, 1823, but two years later he started 
with the impresario Barbaja on a journey 
through Germany and Italy, and at Naples 
became maestro di cappella of the Teatro 
San Carlo. In 1830 he visited Paris, and, 
after returning to Naples, went again in 
1835, and in the same year to London, where 
he soon became the fashionable professor of 
the pianoforte, and gave annual concerts, in 
which the most renowned artists apipeared. 
Conductor of the ojiera buffa at the Lyceum 
in 183G, he went in the same capacity to 
Drury Lane Theatre in 1837, accompanied 
Jenny Lind on her tour through America in 
1850-51, and soon after his return became 
orchestra leader of Mapleson's operatic en- 
terprise, first at Her Majesty's, then at Drury 
Lane Theatre. In 1859 he was called to Co- 
vent Garden, also took charge of the Monday 
jjopular concerts, conducted several music 
festivals at Norwich, and in 1876-80 the 
Philliarmonic Society at Liverpool. He was 
knighted in 1871, and decorated with many 

foreign orders. Works — Operas : Giacinta 
ed Ernesto, given at Naples, 1829 ; I Porto- 
ghesi in Goa, Stuttgart, 1830 ; Un anno ed 
un giorno, opera bufta, London, Lyceum, 
1836 ; The Gypsi/'s Warning, ib., Drury 
Lane, 1837 ; The Bride>i of Venice, ib., 
1844 ; The Crusaders, ib., 1846 ; The Lake 
of Gleuaston, ib., Covent Garden, 1862 ; 
The Lily of Killaruey, ib., 1862 (under the 
title The Rose of Erin also on the Conti- 
nent) ; The Bride of Song, ib., 1864. Can- 
tatas : Undine, Norwich, 1860 ; Richard 
Ca3ur-de-Liou, ib., 1863 ; Cantata for the 
return of the Prince of W^ales from India, 
Portsmouth, 1876. Oratorios : Saint Ce- 
cilia, Norwich, 1866 ; Saint Peter, Birming- 
ham, 1870 ; Two symphonies. Crystal Pal- 
ace, 1873-74 ; Two concertos for pianoforte, 
op. 13 and 29 ; Concertino for do., op. 18 ; 

Rondo, with 

^■Mlul H€y>^e^ sTsonatTs 

for piano- 
forte solo, and with violin ; Fantaisies, ca- 
prices, variations, etc. — Fetis ; do., Supjjle- 
ment, i. 08 ; Grove ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

of American parentage, in Cornwall, Ver- 
mont, June 9, 1866, still living, 1888. Pi- 
anist ; studied in Boston the pianoforte 
under Carlyle Petersilea, and theory and 
composition under John K. Paine. In 1883 
-84 he was in Europe, spent three months 
with Liszt at Weimar, visited Berlin, Leip- 
sic, and Paris, among other musical centres, 
and was favourably received bj' Rubinstein, 
Scharwenka, L. Emil Bach, and otlier mas- 
ters. Since his return to America he has 
lived in Boston as a teacher of the pia- 
noforte. Works : 6 Cornwall dances, op. 
1, 1885 ; Polonaises, op. 2 and op. 3 ; Piano- 
forte concerto, t'tudes, toccata, scherzo, 
mazurka, etc., in MS. 

BENEDICTUS. See Ihicis. 

BENEDICTUS (Benedict, Benoit) OF 
APPENZELL, born at Appenzell, Switzer- 
land, lived about the middle of the 16th 
century. He must not be confounded with 



Benedictus or Benoit Ducis of Belgium, 
although some authorities, viz., Gesuer, 
Gerber, Walther, Kiesewetter, aud Schilling 
have tried to jJrove their identity. He was 
master of the children's choir at Brussels 
from 1539 to 1555. The only works which 
are handed down also record his name and 
birthplace : Liber primus ecclesiasticarum 
eautionum quatuor voc. quas vulgo moteta 
vocant, tarn ex veteri, quam novo Testamen- 
to ab optimis quibusque hujus letatia musi- 
cis compositarum, AutwerpiiB, 1553. Other 
collections bear the name Benedictus with- 
out any designation ; they number 12, ex- 
tending from 1400 to 1569.— Fetis ; Ger- 
ber ; Larousse ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

born at Forli, Romagua, Hept 5, 1771, died 
at BOruichau, Saxony, Aug. 16, 1830. Com- 
poser and dramatic singer, pupil of Fathers 
Martini (?) and Blattei ; obtained au en- 
gagement as first tenor at the Teatro San 
Carlo, Najjles, 1790, then in London, 1798, 
aud at Dresden in 1801, where he sans uu- 
til 1822, when he lost his voice and was 
pensioned, and soon after was appointed, 
through Spontini's influence, vocal instruc- 
tor at the Opera in Berlin. Some malignant 
criticisms of his patron's ojjeras, which he 
published in Leipsic, led to his dismissal 
in 1829, when he retired to Dresden, aud 
soon after to Bijrnichau. Works : Sonata 
for pianoforte for four hands; Rondo for 
pianoforte ; Pater noster for five voices ; 
Salve Regiua for four voices and orchestra ; 
Stabat mater for do.; II giorno natalizio, 
cantata for five voices aud i^iauoforte ; 1 
nocturnes for four voices ; Arias, cavatinas, 
etc.; Vocal method (Dresden, 1819).— Fetis ; 

BENESCH (Benes), JOSEF, born at 
Batelov, Moravia, Jan. 11, 1793, died (?). 
Violinist, first instructed by his father, a 
tailor and able amateur violinist, then in 
the Premonstratensian monastery at Iglau, 
and finally pupil of Schlesinger in Vienna ; 
played in the theatre orchestras at Baden 
and Presburg, and in 1819 started on a con- 

cert tour through Italy ; having returned 
to Vienna in 1822, he was called to Lai- 
bach, Carniola, in 1823 as Conzertmeister, 
orchestra leader, and jirofessor of violin of 
the Philharmonic Society ; once more in 
Vienna, 1828, he became a member of the 
imperial orchestra in 1832. Among his 
compositions ai'e to be noticed : 2 polo- 
naises for violin, with accompaniment of 
two violins, viola, aud bass, op. 6 and 7 ; 
Grandes variations on an original theme, 
with quartet ; Variations, concertinos, etc. ; 
German songs. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BENEVOLI, ORAZIO, born in Rome m 
1602, died there, June 17, 1G72. The 
natural son of Duke Albert of Lorraine, 
he studied under Vincenzo Ugolini, but 
not under Beruardio Nanini (Fctis, Biog. 
Univ., ii. 135, note). His first official posi- 
tion was that of maestro di cappella at 
S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome, which he re- 
linquished in 1643 to enter the service in 
Vienna of the Archduke of Austria. On his 
return to Rome he resumed his old post, 
but accepted a similar one at Sta. Maria 
Maggiore on Feb. 23, 1646. On Nov. 7 of 
the same year he succeeded Virgilio Mau- 
zocchi as maestro di cappella of the Vatican 
Chajjel, and retained the position until his 
death. He was a man of the highest per- 
sonal character, but died, as he had lived, 
in great poverty ; he was buried in S. Spi- 
rito di Sarsia, near the Vatican. Benevoli 
may be regarded as the most important 
figure of the Roman school towards the de- 
cline of its " great " period, at a time when 
writing a cappella for a large number of real 
voices was in vogue, a style which, fifty years 
before, was more characteristic of the Ve- 
netian than of the Roman school. Indeed, 
writing for sixteen real voices may be called 
Beuevoli's familiar, every-day manner. Yet 
easily clear and finely wrought as his works 
in this form are, his chief fame is that of 
being the perfecter of the jjolychoric style 
of a cappella comjJosition. He excelled 
in writing for four and six independent 
choruses [i.e., sixteen and twenty-four real 



parts), and was one of the first to attempt 
(in a mass jjerformed on Aug. 4, 1650, in 
Sta. Maria sojira Minerva) the feat of writ- 
ing for twelve choruses (forty-eight real 
voices). Benevoli did not always contine 
himself to a cappella writing ; he was one 
of the chief pioneers in the style of choral 
composition with obligato instrumental ac- 
companiments. His most noteworthy work 
in this more modern stylo is his mass, writ- 
ten for the consecration of the Salzburg 
Cathedi-al (Sept. 2-4, 1G28), the score of 
which (written on 54 staves) is preserved in 
the Mozarteum in that city ; separate parts 
are in the Corsiniana at Rome. Benevoli is 
to be admired not only as a phenomenal 
contrapuntist, but as a composer of real 
genius and great elevation of style. Most 
of his works are still in MS. in the archives 
of the Vatican Basilica and the Corsiniana 
(manj' of the latter in a very fragmentary 
condition). The mass, In diluvio multarum 
aquarum (4 choruses and organ), is i)ub- 
lished (Leipsic, Breitkopf, 1769). The sec- 
ond Kyrie from the same is in P. Martini's 
Treatise on Fugued Counterpoint, p. 122 ; 
Sanctus and Dona nobis for 4 choruses 
(orchestral jjarts added by a later hand), 
(Breitkopf, 1769) ; Mass, Si Deus jiro nobis, 
for 4 choruses, in the library of the £cole 
Nationale de Musique, Paris (the Kyrie 
in Fetis's counterpoint, Paris, Troupenas, 
1828.) Fragments of other works are in P. 
Paolueci's Arte pratiea di contrapunto, vol. 
iii. — Ambros, iv. 104. 

Brescia, Italy, March 28, 1779, died at Belle- 
ville, near Paris, Dec. 30, 1821. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Ghiretti, Rolla, and Cima- 
rosa. He finished his musical education at 
the age of seventeen, and went to Spain in 
1797 with his brother, also a musician, who 
died there, and left him without resources. 
On his return to Italy he brought out his op- 
era, Nitteti, there, and soon after in Vienna, 
where he became a follower of Haydn. In 
1803 he settled in Paris, where his quartets 
had been published. Failing in repeated 

efforts to bring out some of his operas, and 
only moderately successful as a teacher, in 
spite of the variety of his musical accom- 
plishments, he seemed about to score a tri- 
umj)h when commissioned to comjjose three 
acts of the opera Aladin, left unfinished by 
Isouard in 1818, but he died six weeks be- 
fore the rej)resentation of the work, which 
obtained a brilliant success. Works : Ga- 
latee ou le nouveau Pygmalion, opera, 1804 ; 
Hesione, do. (1807) ; Les jjarents d'un joui-, 
operette, given in Paris, Thcati'e Feydeau, 
1815 ; La promesse de mariage ou le re- 
tour au hameau, do., Opera Comique, 1818 ; 
Les epoux indiscrets, do., Paris, 1819 ; 
Quartets for string instruments ; Masses ; 
Litanies ; Hymns ; etc. — Fetis. 

BENIOWSEI ; or, Les Exiles du Kam- 
tschatka (The Exiles of Kamchatka), opera in 
three acts, text by Alexandre Duval, music 
by Boieldieu, first represented at the The- 
atre Favart, Paris, June 8, 1800. Subject 
from "Les Memoires de Beniowski," a 
Hungarian chevalier, who, a general in the 
Polish service, falls into the hands of the 
Russians and is exiled to Kamchatka. 
This, though not one of the composer's 
best works, met with a good reception and 
was much parodied. It was successfully 
revived at the Opera Comique, July 20, 
1824.— Pougin, Boieldieu, 60. 

BEN NET, JOHN, English composer of 
the latter part of the 16th and early part of 
the 17th centuries. He was possibly an 
organist, as he left some anthems and organ 
pieces in MS. "Works : Madrigals to four 
voyces (1599) ; All creatures now are merry 
minded (Morley's Collection, The Tri- 
umphes of Oriana, 1601) ; 5 compositions 
in parts (Thomas Ravenscroft's, Briefe Dis- 
course, etc., 1614). — Hawkins, Hist, of Mu- 
sic, iii., 394; Grove; Fetis. 

BENNET, SAUNDERS, born in England 
in last quarter of the ISth century, died in 
1809. Organist of church at "Woodstock. 
He composed anthems, songs, and glees, 
and sonatas, rondos, and variations for or- 
gan and pianoforte. 



BENNETT, ALFRED, born iu Chiches- 
ter, England, 1805, died in Oxford, 1830. 
Organist, son and pupil of Thomas Bennett. 
He became organist of New College, Ox- 
ford, and of the TJuiversitj- in 1825, and re- 
ceived the degree of Mus. Bac. Works: 
Church Services and Anthems ; Chants 
(with William Marshall, 1829) ; Songs. 

BENNETT, THOMAS, born in England 
in 1779, died at Chichester, March 21, 1848. 
He was a chorister of Salisbury Cathedral, 
where he studied under Joseph Corfe ; be- 
came organist of St. John's Chapel, Chi- 
chester, and in 1803 of Chichester Cathedral. 
Works : Introduction to Art of Singing 
(London, no date) ; Sacred Melodies (do.) ; 
Cathedral Selections, anthems, chants, etc. 

BENNETT, WILLIAM, born near Teign- 
mouth, England, in 1707, died in 18 — . 
Organist, pupil at Exeter of Hugh Bond 
and William Jackson, and iu London of 
Johann Christian Bach and of Schroeter. In 
1793 he became organist of St. Andrew's 
Church, Plymouth. Songs and Glees (Lou- 
don, 1799) ; Anthems, and pianoforte and ' 
organ music. 

DALE, born iu Shef- 
field, England, Ajiril 
13, 1816, died in Lon- 
don, Feb. 1, 1875. 
His father, an organist, 
died when he was 
three years old, and 
his education was 
cared for by his grand- 
father. At the age of 
eight (1824) he en- 
tered the choir of King's College Chapel at 
Cambridge, where his grandfather lived, and 
in 1820 was sent to London to study at the 
Royal Academy of Music. Here he studied 
composition under Lucas and Dr. Crotch, 
and pianoforte, first under W. H. Holmes, 
then under Cipriani Potter. His first com- 
position of note was his D minor pianoforte 
concerto, op. 1, written in 1832 and played 

by himself at the prize concert at the Acad- 
emy in 1833. Mendelssohn was jwesent and 
greatly encouraged the young composer. In 
1836 the firm of Broadwood offered to pay 
his expenses for a year's study iu Leipsic ; 
here he came under the influence of Men- 
delssohn and Schumann, both of whom 
held his talent in high esteem. He came 
back to London after the specified year, but 
returned to Leipsic for another year's study 
in 1840. In 1843 he began to give success- 
ful chamber concerts in London, and in 
1844 married Mary Anne Wood, daughter of 
a captain in the Navy. In 1849 he founded 
the London Bach Society, one of the re- 
sults of which was the first performance in 
England of the Matthew-Passion, April 6, 
1854. In 1853 he was offered the conduc- 
torship of the Leipsic Gewandhaus eon- 
certs, and in 1856 he was elected to the 
chair of musical jjrofessor at the University 
of Cambridge, and shortly afterwards re- 
ceived the degree of Mus. Doc. In 1856 he 
was also made i^ermanent conductor of the 
Philharmonic Society, a jjost which he re- 
signed ten years later to become princijial 
of the Royal Academy of Music. Li 1867 
he received the Cambridge degree of M.A., 
and a salary of £100 was joined to his pro- 
fessorship. In 1870 the University of Ox- 
ford conferred upon him the honorary de- 
gree of D.C.L. He was knighted in 1871, 
and a scholarship was founded at the Royal 
Academy of Music out of the subscriptions 
to a public testimonial to him in St. James's 
Hall in 1872. He died after a short illness, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
Bennett has been called the first English 
composer of individual genius since Pur- 
cell ; he certainly was the first English com- 
poser who got any real recognition in Ger- 
many. He has generally been considered 
as a follower and imitator of Mendelssohn, 
although the best English critics deny this. 
Yet he may truly be said to have held more 
by Mendelssohn than by Schumann. His 
compositions are noteworthy for an easj' 
grace, refinement, and elaborate perfection 



of style. His best-known works tire tlie 
concerto in F minor, op. 19 ; the piano- 
forte sextet, op. 8 ; the overture, The Nai- 
ads ; the sonata, The Maid of Orleans ; and 
the oratorio, The Woman of Samaria. His 
influence upon music iu England, nota- 
bly upon the introduction and study of 
Bach's works, was very strong and whole- 
some. Works : The Woman of Samaria, ora- 
torio, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, 
op. 44, Birmingham Festival, 1867 ; The May 
Queen, a pastoral cantata (Chorley), for do., 
023. 39, Leeds Musical Festival, 1858 ; Jlusic 
to Ajax (Sophocles), op. 45 ; Ode (Tenny- 
son), for the opening of the International 
Exhibition, 18G'2, oj). 40 ; Cambridge Instal- 
lation Ode (Kingsley), 1862, op. 41 ; Sym- 
phony in G minor, op. 43 ; 4 Overtures, 
Parisina, op. 3 (1834-35), The Naiads, op. 
15 (1836), The Wood Nymph, op. 20 (1840), 
I'aradisc and the Peri, op. 42 (1862) ; 4 con- 
certos for pianoforte and orchestra, in D 
minor, oi3. 1, in E-flat, op. 4, in C minor, 
op. 9, in F minor, op. 19 ; CajJrice, in E, 
for do., op. 22 ; Sextet for pianoforte and 
strings, op. 8 ; Trio for do., op. 26 ; Sonata 
for violoncello and pianoforte, op. 32 ; for 
pianoforte solo ; 2 sonatas, op. 13, and the 
Maid of Orleans, ojj. 46 ; Caj^riccio, op. 2 ; 
3 Musical Sketches— Lake, Millstream, and 
Fountain, op. 10 ; 6 studies iu Caisriccio 
form, op. 11 ; 3 Impromptus, op. 12 ; 3 
Romances, op. 14 ; Fantasia, op. 16 ; 3 Di- 
versions (4 hands), op. 17 ; Allegro grazioso, 
op. 18 ; Suite de Pieces, op. 24 ; Scherzo, 
op. 27 ; Introductione e Pastorale, etc., op. 
28 ; Two Studies — L' Amabile e 1' Appas- 
sionata, op. 29 ; Tema e Variazioni, op. 31 ; 
Preludes and Lessons, 60 pieces, oj). 33 ; 
Kondeau — Pas triste, pas gai, oj5. 34 ; Flow- 
ers of the Mouth, op. 36 ; Rondeau a la 
PolouaLse, op. 37 ; Toccata, op. 38 ; Sona,- 

tina in C ; 
M i nuetto 
e X p r e s - 
sivo ; Prse- 

ludium ; Eoniance — Genevieve ; Songs, An- 
thems, and Four-i^art Songs. — Leipsic Sig- 

nale, March, 1875, No. 16 ; London Mus. 
Times, March 1, 1875 ; Dwight's Journal, 
xxxiv. 393, 409 ; London Mus. Standard, 
new series, viii. 88, 104 ; ix. 134 ; Grove, i. 
224 ; Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 69 ; Schu- 
mann, Music and Musicians, i. 140 ; Hiller, 
Musikalisches und Personliches, 156. 

BENOIST, FKAN^'OIS, born at Nantes, 
France, Sept. 10, 1794, died in Paris, May, 
1878. Dramatic composer and organist, 
pupil in 1811 at the Paris Conservatoire, of 
Catel in harmony, and of Adam on the pi- 
anoforte, obtained in the same year the first 
prize in harmony, and in 1814 in pianoforte 
playing. After his cantata Enone had been 
crowned by the Institute of France in 1815, 
he spent three years in Rome and Naples, 
and on his return early in 1819 was made 
organist of the royal chapel, and soon after 
professor of the organ at the Conservatoire, 
whence he retired in 1872. He was also 
after 1840 chef du chant at the Opera. 
L. of Honour, 1851. Works : Felix et Le- 
onore, opera, given in Paris, Theatre Fey- 
deau, 1821 ; La Gipsy, ballet (with Marliani 
and Ambroise Thomas), Opera, 1839 ; Le 
Diable amoureux, do. (with Reber), ib., 
1840 ; L'Apparition, opera, ib., 1848 ; Nisi- 
da ou les Amazones des Ayores, ballet, ib., 
1848 ; Paquerette, do., ib., 1851 ; Requiem 
mass for three men's voices and a child's 
voice, with organ ad libitum (Paris, Veuve 
Canaux) ; Compositions for the organ under 
the title, Bibliotheque de I'organiste (ib.). 
— Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 69 ; Riemann. 

POLD), born at Haerlebeke, West Flanders, 
Aug. 17, 1834, still living, 1888. Dramatic 
composer, jjupil of Fetis at the Brussels 
Conservatoire, where he won the second 
prize in 1853 and the first in 1854. Two 
years later he wrote the music of several 
Flemish melodramas for the Theatre du 
Pare, of which he was made chef d'orches- 
tre in December, 1856. Having obtained 
the grand prize in 1857 for his cantata Le 
Meurtre d'Abel, performed at the Conserva- 
toire, he studied several months at Leipsic, 



and then visited Dresden, Prague, Munich, 
and Berlin. After his return to Belgium 
he brought out a solemn mass at Brussels 
and at Ghent, and in 18G1 went to Paris, 
where his French opera, Lo Roi des Aulnes, 
was accepted at the Theatre Lyrique ; while 
waiting for its performance (which never 
took place), he conducted (18G2) the or- 
chestra at the Bouflfes Parisiens, returned 
in the same year to Brussels, and in 1867 
became director of the Conservatory (Flem- 
isli School of Music) at Antwerp. In this 
f)ositiou he has since been most active as 
the chief promoter of a national tendency 
in music, making the Flemish language 
and Flemish traditions the basis for all his 
compositions. Officer of Order of Leojjold. 
Works : De belgische Natie, melodrama, 
given at Brussels, Theatre du Pare, 185G ; 
Het dorp iu't gebergte, comic opera, ib., 
1856 ; Ave Maria for eight voices in two 
choruses, performed at the Cathedral in 
Berlin, 1858 (Berlin, Bote & Bock) ; mel- 
odies for a single voice with pianoforte 
(Brussels and Mainz, Schotfc Freres) ; Douze 
pensees na'ives, for do. (ib.) ; 12 motets (ib.) ; 
Petite cantata de Noi-1, 1860 ; Te Deum, 
1863 ; Requiem Mass, 1863 ; Quadrilogie (a 
combination of the last three works and his 
solemn mass), performed at AutwerjJ, 1864 ; 
Concerto for pianoforte with orchestra, do. 
for flute with orchestra, Lucifer, Flemish 
oratorio, Brussels, 1866 ; Isa, Flemish op- 
era, ib., 1867 ; De Schelde, oratorio, 1860 ; 
Cantata, 1869 ; L'Eglise militantc, souf- 
frante et triomphante, religious drama for 
soli and chorus with organ, violoncelli, 
double-basses, tinimpets, and trombones, 
Antwerp, 1871 ; De Oorlog (War), oratorio, 
ib., 1873 ; La Colonne du Cougres, cantata, 
Brussels ; Cantata in 3 parts, Liege ; Pro- 
mt'thce, oratorio, Ghent ; Hymne a I'Har- 
monie, Antwerp ; Chant de la Lys, cantata, 
Courtrai, 1875 ; De Maeyers, choral sym- 
phony ; Kinder-cantate ; Music for Char- 
lotte Corday, historical drama by Ernest 
Van der Ven, Antwerp, Flemish Theatre, 
1876 ; besides ballades, Lieder, choruses 

without accompaniment, a collection of 20 
motet.s, with oi-gan (Brussels). He has also 
written articles for the Messager des Arts, 
Le Guide Musical, and L'Art Universel. 
— Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 70 ; Riemauu ; 

BENONI, JULIUS, born at Stfelohostic, 
Bohemia, in 1833, still living, 1888. Dra- 
matic composer, and pianist, first instructed 
at Silberberg, Bohemia, whence he was 
taken to Vienna by the Countess von Taafife, 
and educated with her children ; showed 
early a remarkable talent for improvisation, 
which won him the favour of Prince Metter- 
nich. He played in a concert at court in 
1843, then studied composition under Doni- 
zetti and Simon Seehter. In 1855 he gave 
uj) his musical career, studied farming, and 
assumed the administration of an estate in 
Bohemia. Works — Ojieras : Die Wunder- 
blume, given in Vienna, Palace of Count 
Taaffe, 1847 ; Emma, ossia II Protettore in- 
visibile, ib., Kiirnthnerthor Theater, 1851 ; 
Giovanna da Ponte, Prague, 1855 ; Vocal 
Mass, Vienna, 1843 ; Ave, regina coelorum, 
ib., 1843 ; Lied vor der Schlacht, chorus with 
orchestra ; Songs and romances. — Mendel ; 

BE NOT AFRAID. See Fiirchte dich 

BENTAYOUX (Ben-Tayoux), FRP]- 
DERIC, born at Bordeaux, June 14, 1840, 
still living, 1888. Dramatic composer, pu- 
pil at the Conservatoire, Paris, of IMarmon- 
tel on the pianoforte, of Emile Durand in 
solfeggio, of Colin and Bazin in harmony, 
and of Carafa in comjiosition. Works — Op- 
erettas : Pa-tchou-ly, given in Paris, Folies 
Bergcre, 1875 ; Bobiue, ib., 1876 ; Le 
Dompteur de Bougival, Folies Marigny, 
1875 ; Many pianoforte pieces of light cali- 
bre, and romances and chansons. — Fvtis, 
Supplement, i. 72. 

Manchester, England, Sept. 3, 1837, still 
living, 1888. Organist of St. Philip's, Sal- 
ford, 1S55 ; St. Stephen's, Manchester, 
1860 ; .St. Saviour's, ib., 1866 ; Bowdou 



Parish ChurcL, 18G8 ; and of Cheadle Ab- 
bey, 1877. He has been the conductor of 
several musical so- 

cieties, and in 1870 
established the Ac- 
ademy of Music, St. 
Ann's, Manchester. 
In 1877 he received 
the degree of Mus. 
Bac, and in 1879, 
IMus. Doc, Cam- 
bridge. In 1881 
he was appointed 
local examiner for the Eoyal Academy of 
Music. Works : Gethsemane, dramatic can- 
tata (Mus. Bac. exercise), 1877 ; AVhat is 
Life ?, oratorio (Mus. Doc. do.), 1879 ; Yule- 
tide, cantata for mixed voices (Hutchings 
& Komer) ; The Golden Butterfly, cantata 
for female voices (Hutchings) ; Horte Sacrte, 
series for violin and pianoforte ; The Two 
Violinists, duets for violins, with pianoforte 
accompaniment ; Vesper Canticles ; Sym- 
phony for full orchestra (MS.) and other 
orchestral works ; Songs, etc. 

BENVENUTI, NICOH"), born at Pisa, 
May 10, 1783, died (?). Dramatic composer, 
pu^iil of his father, whom he succeeded as 
maestro di cappella of the Cathedral .at Pisa. 
Works : 6 masses for 4 and 6 voices, with 
orchestra ; 2 Vespers ; II ratto di Proser- 
pina, cantata for 3 voices with chorus, Pisa, 
1806 ; Ariana e Teseo, ib., 1810 ; II Werter, 
farce, ib., 1811 ; 12 symphonies for grand 
orchestra ; Sonatas for pianoforte ; do. for 
organ ; Variations, etc. — Fetis. 

BENVENUTI, TOMMASO, born in Italy 
about 1832, still living, 1888. Dramatic 
composer, author of the following operas : 
Valenzia Candiano, given at Mantua, 18.50 ; 
Shakespeare, Parma, 18G1 ; La Stella di To- 
ledo, Milan, Teatro della Canobbiana, 1861. 
— Fetis, Supplement, i. 72. 

in two acts, text by Leon de Wailly and 
Auguste Bai-bier, music by Hector Berlioz, 
represented at the Academie Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, Sept. 3, 1838. It was received 

with general reprobation by the critics and 
was withdrawn after three representations. 
It was given at Covent Garden, London, in 
three acts, June 2.5, 1853. The second 
overture to this opera is now called Le Car- 
naval romain. The same subject has been 
treated by Franz Lachner, Munich, 1849 ; 
Louis Schlosser, Darmstadt, 1815 ; by Leo 
Kern, text by Prechtler, Pesth, 1851 ; by 
Orsini, Naples, 1875 ; and by Bozzauo, text 
by Perosio, Genoa, 1877. 

Lauchheim, Wiirtemberg, June 17, 1807, 
still living, 1888. Church compioser, first 
instructed by Dreger, choir director at 
EUwangen, then travelled with a family as 
tutor, and in 1831 became instructor of 
German at the College at Chalous-sur- 
Marne. In 1836-38 he studied in Rome the 
old church music, in personal intercourse 
with Baiui, and through the agency of Car- 
dinal Wiseman was appointed to a position 
at the Catholic College at Oscott, England, 
whence he went in 1811 to Birmingham, as 
choirmaster and org.anist of the new cathe- 
dral. In 1843 he returned to Germany, 
lived in Munich and Vienna, until called to 
Speyer in 1846 as professor of music at 
the seminary, and organist of the cathedral. 
Works: O clemens, o pia, o dulcis virgo 
Maria, festival mass, Speyer, 1853 ; 4 masses, 
for three and four voices, with organ ; Of- 
fertories, graduales, etc. ; Harnionia sacra. 

BERARDI, ANGELO, born at Sant' Aga- 
tha, Bologna, about the middle of the 17th 
century. Church composer, maestro di cap- 
pella at Viterbo, then (1681) of the cathe- 
dral at Spoleto ; Canon at Viterbo in 1687, 
and maestro di cappella of Sta. Maria in Tras- 
tevere, Rome, 1693. Works : Requiem mass 
for 5 voices (1663) ; Motets for 2-4 voices 
(1665) ; Psalms (1675) ; Offertories (1680). 
—Fetis; Schilling. 

Bfi:RAT, FREDERIC, born at Rouen in 
1800, died in Paris, Dec. 2, 1855. Vocal 
composer, went early to Paris, where he 
formed an intimate friendship with Buran- 



ger, and set many of liis poems to music, 
attaining great popularity. The best known 
of bis romances and chausonettes, wbicli 
are still sung in France, are : Ma Normandie, 
Le depart, A la froutii're, La Lisette de 
Berauger, Bibi, men chori, C'est demaiu 
qu'il arrive, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

born at Caderousse (Vaucluse) Dec. 21, 
1782, died at Pont-Levoy, near Blois, Jan. 
29, 1838. Flute player, pujjil at the Paris 
Conservatoire of Wunderlich on the flute, 
and of Berton in composition. He was 
drafted for the army in 1815 ; his profes- 
sional life began in 1819 and was spent in 
Paris until 1830. His playing was remark- 
able for its technique and purity of tone. 
Works : 15 books of duets for two flutes ; 
2 do. for flute and violin ; 6 grand solos 
for flute ; 10 concertos for do. ; 7 books of 
sonatas for do. with bass or viola ; 8 varia- 
tions with pianoforte or orchestra ; 6 do. ; 6 
books of trios for three flutes ; One do. for 
two flutes and viola ; One do. for flute, vio- 
lin, and viola ; Several suites of duets for two 
flutes ; Grand duo coucertante for flute and 
pianoforte ; Several fantasias, romances, etc., 
for do. ; Method for flute.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

(Jachet), born in Flanders, beginning of the 
16th century, died about 1580. Vocal com- 
poser, and one of the most famous contra- 
puntists of his century. He passed most of 
his life, 1535-65, in the service of the Duke 
of Mantua, whence he was called by the 
Italians Giaclietto di Mantova, as well as to 
distinguish him from Giachetto di Keggio, 
who was Jachet de Werts. He is sometimes 
confounded, too, with Jachet de Buus. 
Works : 26 motets, lacheti musici celeber- 
rimi atque delectabilis, etc. (Venice, 1539) ; 
Second edition, with two more motets, II 
prime lib. de motetti (Venice, 1540) ; 93 
stanzas of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso," set 
to four-part music (Venice, 1561). In the 
MS. of the 16tli century in the Koyal Li- 
brary, Munich, are three of his masses for 
five voices, under the name of laches de 

Mantua. In a collection published at Ven- 
ice in 1544 is a mass by Jachet Bergem on 
the chanson. Mors et fortuna. — Biog. nat. 
de Belgique ; Fetis ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

BEREITE DICH, ZION, alto aria in A 
minor, with accompaniment of oboe d'amore 
and violins, in unison, fagotto and continue, 
from Johann Sebastian Bach's Wriiiacliti^- 
Oratorium, Part I. 

BERENICE, daughter of Agrippa L of 
Judtea, wife of her uncle Herod, King of 
Chalcis, afterwards of Polemon, King of 
Cilicia, and later at Rome beloved by the 
Emperor Titus, is the subject of many 
ojsenxs : Music by Freschi, Venice, 1680 ; by 
Strungk, Leipsic, 1698 ; by Bronner, text by 
Hinsch, Hamburg, 1702 ; by Porpora, Rome, 
1710 ; by Orlandiui, Venice, 1725 ; by Do- 
menico Sarri, Naples, 1725 ; by Ferrandini, 
Munich, 1730 ; by Araja, Florence, 1730 ; 
by Avoudauo, about 1730 ; by Fasch, Zerbst, 
about 1739 ; by Galuppi, Italy, 1741 ; by 
Perillo, Venice, 1757 ; English opera, music 
by Charles Frederick Abel, Loudon, 1764 ; 
by Piccinni, Naples, 1764 ; by Rust, Parma, 
1786; by Spontini, Naples, i798 ; by Zin- 
garelli, Rome, 1811 ; Tito e Berenice, music 
by Caldara, test by Capeca, Rome, 1714; 
Berenice iu Roma, by Raimondi, Naples, 
1823 ; Titus et Berenice, by Gastiuel, Paris, 
1860 ; Berenice in Siria, by Carafa, Naples, 
1818 ; Berenice, f)asticcio, music by Johann 
Christian Bach, in collaboration with Hasse, 
Galuppi, and Ferrandini, London, 1764. 

BERENICE, Italian opera in three acts, 
author of text unknown, music by Handel, 
first represented at Coveut Garden, Lon- 
don, May 18, 1737. The MS. in Bucking- 
ham Palace is dated at the beginning, Dec. 
18, 1736, and at the end, Jan. 27,^ 1737. 
The libretto, which is probably older than 
the music, has the following characters : 
Berenice, Selene, Alessandro, Demetrio, Ai-- 
sace, Fabio, and Aristobolo. The scene is 
laid in Egypt, of which Berenice is queen. 
The part of the hero was sustained by Gio- 
acchino Conti, called Gizziello (1714-61), 
an artificial soprano, one of the gi-eatest sing- 



ers of the 18th century. The work, iu sjjite 
of its excellence, had but four representa- 

Gioaccnino Conti, called Gizziello. 

tions, after which Handel closed his theatre. 
Published first bj' Walsh ; full score by Hiin- 
delgesellschaft (Leipsie, 1883). — Schoelcher, 
Handel, 186 ; Eockstro, 192 ; Chrysander, 
ii. 398. 

BERENS, HERMANN, born iu Ham- 
burg, Germany, in 1826, died iu Stockholm, 
May 9, 1880. Dramatic comjioser and pi- 
anist, son and pupil of Karl Berens (flutist, 
1801-57) ; went in 1843 to Dresden, where 
he studied composition mider Reissiger, 
made a concert tour through Germany with 
Mai'ietta Alboni in 1815, then returned to 
Hamburg. In 1847 he was invited to Stock- 
holm, where he established chamber-music 
concerts. He went as musical director to 
Oerebro in 1849, whence he returned to 
Stockholm in 1860 as Kapellmeister of 
the JNlindre Theatre ; later he was made 
Court-Kapellmeister, professor and member 
of the Academy. Works : Violetta, opera, 
given in Stockholm ; Der Sommeruaehts- 
traum, operetta, ib., Royal Theatre, 185G 
(twenty-five times) ; LuUy und Quinault, 
do., Mindre Theatre, 1859 ; Riccardo, do., 
ib., 1869 ; Music to Kodros, Greek drama, 
given in Hamburg ; Symphonies ; Over- 
tures ; Cantatas ; Quartet for ijianoforte and 
strings; Trio ; etc. — Fetis ; do., Snpph'ment, 
i. G5 ; Mendel ; Rieraann ; Schilling. 

VICH, born at Gluchov, Ukraine, in 1745, 
died by suicide in 1777. Church composer, 
studied music at the Academy at Kiev, and 
under Martini at Bologna, whither he was 
sent in 1765 by Catherine H., after having 
been a singer iu the imperial chapel at St. 
Petersburg. He returned from Italy in 
1774, possessed of rai-e knowledge, but, dis- 
apjjointed in his expectation of obtaining a 
position as vocal instructor iu the imperial 
chapel, he shot himself. He comjjosed in 
the manner of the old Italian masters, en- 
deavoured to improve the service of the 
Greek Church, and was the first in Russia 
to introduce double choruses. He was a 
member of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bo- 
logna. — Fc'tis. 

Colmar, Ai3ril 27, 1785, died at Strasburg, 
Dec. 13, 1852. Pianist, pupil at Mannheim 
of Friinzl on the violin, 1804-5, then in 
Paris at the Conservatoire on the piano- 
forte in 1806-7. He settled at Strasbui-g in 
1808, thence visited Paris in 1810, 1818, 
1835, and 1851, and Vienna in 1817, making 
the acquaintance of Beethoven, Hummel, 
and Czernj' ; and Darmstadt in 1825, where 
he formed a friendshij) with Gottfried Weber 
and Rinck. Works : Three concertos for 
pianoforte and orchestra ; Rondo for do., 
op. 24 ; Sonatas for pianoforte and violin, 
op. 9, 23, and 25 ; Duo with variations, for 
2 i^ianofortes, op. 12 ; Trios for pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello, op. 11, 15, 16, and 
20 ; Quartet, op. 33 ; Four string quartets ; 
Sonatas for pianoforte, op. 5 and 30 ; Fan- 
taisies and rondeaux for do. ; Variations for 
do. and violin ; Die Nixe des Mummelsees, 
ballad for soprano. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BERGFJl, LUDWIG, born in Berlin, 
April 18, 1777, died there, Feb. 16, 1839. 
Pianist, jjupil of Gtirrlich, then in Dresden 
of Johann Gottlieb Nainnann, and again at 
Berlin of Clementi, whom he followed to 
St. Petersburg iu 1805, and thence via 
Stockholm in 1812 to London, whither Cle- 
menti had gone in 1810 ; he retui-ned to 



Berlin iu 1814r. As a pianist and teacher [ 
he was highly esteemed ; his compositions 
are meritorious, but met with little success, 
appealing to the trained musician rather 
than the amateur. "Works : Souate pathe- 
tique, op. 1 (Leipsic, Peters) ; Preludes and 
fugues, op. 5 (Berlin, Schlesinger) ; Pre- 
ludes a la turque, op. 8 (ib.) ; Sonatas, op. 
9, 10, 18 (ib.) ; Twelve etudes, op. 11 (Ham- 
burg, Christian!) ; Rondeau pastoral (ib.) ; 
Toccata (Leipsic, Breitkoi^f & Hilrtel) ; So- 
nata for four hands, oj). 15 (Berlin, Lane) ; 
3 miHtary marches, op. IG (ib.) ; 3 infantry 
marches (ib.) ; Variations on Russian and 
Norwegian airs ; Orestes, opera ; Sympho- 
ny, performed l)y iMeudelssohn iu Berlin, 
1832 ; 8 collections of songs (Offenbach, 
Andre) ; Several do. of four-part songs for 
male voices (Berlin, Hamburg, and Offen- 
bach). Unpublished : 2 symphonies ; Con- 
certo for pianoforte ; String quartets ; 18 
variations on "Ah! vous dirai-je, maman" ; 
Kyrie and Gloria a cappella for four solo and 
eight chorus parts ; Canons, fugues, marches, 
and songs. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 380 ; Allg. 
mus. Zeitg., xli. 186 ; Fetis ; Rellstab, Lud- 
wig Berger, ein Denkmal (Berlin, 18-lG). 

BERGfiRE CH1TEL.\INE, LA, opera 
comique iu three acts, text by Plauard, mu- 
sic by Auber, iirst represented at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, Jan. 27, 1820. This, the 
first successful work of the comijoser, opened 
to him a long and prosperous career. 

BERGERS, LES (The Shepherds), opera 
comique in three acts, text by Hector Cre- 
mieux and Philippe Gille, music by Offen- 
bach, first represented at the Bouft'es Pari- 
siens, Paris, Dec. 11, 1865. The first act, 
L'idylle, represents Arcadian shepherd life ; 
the second, Le trumeau, the shepherd of 
the rococo age, with music iu the style of 
the seventeenth century ; the third. La 
bergerie realiste, the shejiherd of real life. 

BERGGEIST, DER (The Spirit of the 
Mountain), romantic opera in three acts, 
text by Di'iring, music by Spohr, represented 
at Cassel, INIarch 24, 1825. Subject from the 
" Rubezahl " of Museeus. See also Ruhezahl. 


born in Copenhagen, March 2, 1801, still 
living, 1888. Instrumental and vocal com- 
poser ; took up music as a profession after 
having first been compelled to study law, 
became organist at Trinity Church, Copen- 
hagen, iu 1838, professor of vocal music at 
the Metropolitan School in 1843, and in- 
spector of the same branch in all public in- 
stitutions. Works : Collection of songs, 
with guitar (Copenhagen, 1822, 1823) ; Ro- 
mances (ib., 1823) ; Ballads and Romances 
(ib., 1824) ; Variations for guitar (ib., 1825) ; 
Wedding Cantata (1829) ; Billedet og bus- 
tan (The Portrait and the Bust), comic op- 
era, given at Copenhagen, 1832 ; Songs for 
the use of schools (1834-39) ; Popular songs 
and national and foreign melodies, for pi- 
anoforte (1842-47) ; Twelve Swedish songs 
(184G) ; National songs (1848) ; Songs to 
poems of Bellmaun (1850) ; Six Swedish 
songs of Runeberg (1852) ; Several canta- 
tas. — Pctis, Supplement, i. 74 ; Riemann. 

BERGHEM. See Berchem. 

BERGMANN, JOSEF, born at 6erno- 
chov, Bohemia, July 26, 1822. Composer, 
first instructed by his father, then in Prague 
pupil of Josef Ki-ejci ; went as organist and 
choirmaster to Jungbunzlau in 1862, and as 
choir-director and vocal instructor to Smi- 
chov (Prague) in 1867. Works : Pijakovo 
dedictvi (The Toper's Bequest), cantata ; 
Choruses for male voices ; Transcriptions 
of national Czech melodies ; Chant des Si- 
rt^nes, for pianoforte (1st prize, Vienna) ; 
Other pianoforte pieces ; Songs. — Mendel. 

BERGSON, anCHAEL, born at Warsaw 
in May, 1820, still living, 1888. Dramatic 
composer and pianist, pupil of Friedrich 
Schneider at Dessau ; went in 1842 to Italy, 
and after his return lived for several years 
in Berlin and Leipsic, then settled in Paris. 
In 1863 he became professor of the piano- 
forte at the Conservatory in Geneva, soon 
after its director, but went a few years later 
to London. Works : Luisa di Montfort, 
opera, given at Florence, Teatro de la Per- 
gola, 1846, Leghorn, 1847, Hamburg, 1849 ; 



Qui va ;i la chasse, perd sa jjlace, operetta, 
Fans, 1859 ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, ami 
violoncello ; Duo dramatique for pianoforte 
and violoncello ; Three duos for pianoforte 
and violin, for pianoforte and clarinet ; Con- 
certo in E minor ; Fantasias ; Mazourkas ; 
Pieces de Salon ; German songs. — Fetis ; 
do.. Supplement, i. 358 ; Riemaun. 

GUST, born at Oederan, Saxony, June 17, 
1772, died at Bautzen, ib., Feb. 10, 1837. 
His taste for music was aroused in 1790 at 
Leipsic, where he was completing his theo- 
logical studies, and be gave himself up to 
the study of the organ, harmony, and com- 
position. In 1801 he wrote bis first musi- 
cal compositions, consisting of Lieder, sona- 
tas for pianoforte, and an intermezzo. List 
gegen List. He played the organ at several ! 
of the churches of Leiissic as an amateur, 
but bis recantation was soon established, and 
in 1802 he was made organist of the princi- 
pal cburcb at Bautzen, and soon after pro- 
fessor at the seminary and director of the 
singing society. From that time he became 
a celebrated teacher of music, and had many 
illustrious pupils. He wrote a treatise, "Et- 
was zum Choral und Dessen Zubebor," much 
used in the seminaries (Leipsic, 1832), and, 
" Brief wechsel eines alten und jungen Schul- 
meisters fiber allerhand Musikalisches " (Zit- 
tauuud Leipsic, 1838). "Works : The Passion, 
oratorio, in three parts, op. 10 ; So weit der 
Sonne Strahleu, hymn for four voices and 
orchestra, op. 17 ; Easter hymn, Christus 
ist erstanden, for four voices and orchestra, 
op. 18 ; A Te Deum ; A collection of re- 
ligious songs ; The ancient canticle, Herr 
Gott dich loben wir, reset for four voices, 
with four trombones, trumpets, cymbals, 
and organ. These have been much used in 
all the German churches. Operas : Laura 
c Fernando ; Die Wunderkur ; Erwin und 
Elmire, by Goethe ; Das Stiindchen ; La 
Fete auniversaire de la naissance du poete ; 
Mitgefiihl. For the orchestra and for cham- 
ber music he wrote symphonies, sonatas for 
pianoforte and violin, German dances, a 

wedding cantata, and two collections of 
Lieder for several voices and pianoforte. 
His Conge, Lieder for one voice with piano- 
forte, had a wonderful success, and was 
published in all the large towns of Ger- 
many. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 398 ; Allgem. 
mus. Zeitg., xxxix. 454 ; Fetis ; Gerber. 
born at Louvain, 
Feb. 20, 1802, 
died in Brussels, 
April 8, 1870. 
Violinist, found- 
er of the modern 
school of violin- 
playing, the first 
after Paganini to 
adopt a brilliant 
and effective mode of playing, in opposition 
to the classic severity of the old French 
school. De Beriot received his earliest in- 
struction on the violin from Tiby, a provin- 
cial teacher, and when nine years old per- 
formed in public a concerto by Viotti. In 
1821 he went to Paris, where he was assist- 
ed in his studies by Viotti and Baillot. 
After a successful debut there, De Beriot 
played frequently in England, where he was 
announced on his first appearance at the 
Philharmonic Society, May 1, 1826, as " Vi- 
olon de la chambre de sa Majeste le Roi 
de France." He was solo violonist to the 
King of the Netherlands from the date of 
his return to Belgium until the Revolution 
of 1830. From the latter year until 1835 
he made a professional tour through Eng- 
land, France, Belgium, and Italy, with 
Maria Malibran, whom he married (1835). 
In 1836 he settled in Brussels, reappearing 
in public in 1840, when he travelled through 
Germany. He was professor of violin 
playing at the Brussels Conservatoire from 
1843 to 1852, when he retired from loss 
of eyesight. De Beriot wi-ote a great deal 
of popular and brilliant music for the violin. 
His published compositions consist of four 
trios for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello ; 


seven concertos ; eleven airs varies ; and a 
number of duos brillants for pianoforte and 
violin in conjunction with Osborne, Thal- 
berg, and other pianists. He was author of 
an instruction book entitled : Premier guide 
des violonistes ; of several books of studies 
for the violin, and of Mcthode de violon en 
trois parties (Paris, 1858), which is his best 
work. He was, too, a clever painter and 
sculptor. His bust of Mme Malibran is at 

the Italiens, Paris, and a violin constructed 
by him belongs to Prince Youssoupoff, in 
Russia. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 74 ; 
Mendel ; Riemann ; Wasielewski, Die Vio- 
line und ihre Meister, 380. 

bom in Paris, Feb. 12, 1833, still living, 
1888. Pianist, son of Charles de Beriot 
and Maria Garcia Malibran. He made his 
debut in a concert at Louvain, when scarce- 
ly ten years of age, then studied at the 
College Louis-le-Grand in Paris, until 1848, 
when he went to Brussels. Works : Two 
concertos for pianoforte, with orchestra ; 
Two fragments symphoniques ; Trio ; Mor- 
ceaux de genre (about 50) for pianoforte ; 
Many songs. — Fetis, Sujiplement, i. 75. 

BERLI.JN (Berlyn), ARON WOLF, born 
at Amsterdam, May 2, 1817, died there, Jan. 
16, 1870. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Bernhard Koch on the pianoforte and of 
Ludwig Erk in composition ; went iu 1839 
to Leipsic, where he studied counterpoint 
under Gottfried Wilhelm Fink ; then visited 
the most important cities of Germany, be- 
fore returning to Amsterdam, whence he 
visited Brussels in 1844 and Paris in 1845- 
46. For several years after, he was leader 
of the orchestra at the Royal Theatre. Or- 
der of Oaken Crown, 1843 ; Gold medal 
of merit of Belgium and Denmark, 1845 ; 
Greece, 1846 ; Sweden and Austria, 1848 ; 
Holland, 1858 and 1860 ; Saxe-Coburg, 

1864 ; and Nassau. Member of the Acad- 
emy of St. Cecilia, Rome. Works — Op- 
eras : Die Bergknappen, Der Schatzgra- 
ber, given at Amsterdam, 1841 ; Runal, ou 
L'esprit du feu, ib., 1844; La deroute de 
Culloden, ib., 1846 ; 5 other operas ; 7 bal- 
lets. Moses on Nebo, oratorio, performed 
at Magdeburg, 1844 ; Ouverture triomphale, 
Brussels, 1844 ; Die Matrosen am Ufer, 
symphonic cantata, Amsterdam, 1848 ; 
Symphony, Cassel, 1857 ; A Mass ; Tautum 
ergo ; cantatas, overtures, psalms, quartets 
for string instruments, fantasias for orches- 
tra, nocturnes, songs with pianoforte, four- 
part songs, etc. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 
77 ; Mendel ; Viotta. 

La Cote - Saint-An- 
dre, near Grenoble, 
France, Dec. 11, 
1803, died in Paris, 
March 9, 1869. His 
father, Louis Ber- 
lioz, was a phj-sician, 
and intended his 
son for the same 
career. In 1822 he 
was sent to Paris to 
study medicine un- 
der Amussat ; he also attended lectures on 
chemistry by Thenard and Gay-Lussac, and 
ou literature by Andrieux. But the passion 
for music proved too strong and, in spite of 
his parents, he gave up medicine, and took 
private lessons in composition under Le- 
sueur. He had already begun composing, 
and a mass of his composition was given at 
the Church of Saint-Roch in 1825. In the 
following year he failed to be admitted as 
competitor for the prize for comjjosition at 
the lustitut des Beaux-Ai-ts, but on Aug. 26, 
1826, he was regularly inscribed in the 
books of the Conservatoire, and on Oct. 2d 
he entered Reicha's counterjioint class. In 
1827 he competed for the first time with a 
cantata, Ori^hee, but got no prize. In 1828 
he gave his first concert at the Conservatoire, 
and iu the competition got the second prize 



for composition with bis cantata Hermiuie. 
Ill June, 1829, he failed to get a prize for his 
cantata Cluopatre, but in 1830 he won the 
pris tie Rome with his cantata Sardanajaale. 
This crowning success brought about a final 
reconciliation with his family, with whom he 
had broken several times. His important 
compositions uji to this time were : Overture 
to the Francs-Juges, 1827 ; Huit scones de 
Faust, 1828, afterwards destroyed ; Melodies 
irlandaises, 1829 ; Symjihonie fantastique 
and Fantaisie sur laTempetc, 1830. "Within 
this i^eriod fall also his first passion for Hen- 
rietta Smithson, the Irish actress, whom he 
subsequently married (1833), and his liaison 
with Camilla Moke (concerning his ruisture 
with whom, see Memoires, 121, and Hijipean, 
Berlioz intime, 219). Early in 1831 he set 
out for Eome, where he remained two years, 
at the Academie de France. Durhag this 
period he wrote, among other things, the 
overture to Kob Roy, which he afterwards 
destroyed. He returned to Paris in 1832. 
Near the end of 1812 he set out on his first 
concert trij) to Germanj-, in which he met 
with flattering success. In 181G he made 
an equally successful tour through Austria, 
Hungary, Bohemia, and Silesia, and in 1847 
he made a similar trip to Russia. In 1852 
he went to London, where he conducted the 
first series of New Philharmonic concerts ; 
and in 1853 ho conducted his Benvenuto 
Cellini there. His wife died (after having 
been separated from him since 1811), March 
3, 1854, and he married soon after Marie 
Martin, or, as she was known by her mother's 
name, Marie Recio, who died in 18G2 ; she 
had been his mist/ess from 1841 up to the 
time of her marriage, and was the main cause 
of his rupture with his first wife. His last 
years were years of intense and almost con- 
stant suffering from an affection of the intes- 
tines. The failure of his ojjei-a, Les Troyens 
a Cartilage, in 1863, and the death of his son 
Louis in 1867, wei'e blows from which he 
never recovered. He, however, made one 
more trip to Russia, on invitation of the 
Grand Duchess Helene, and one to Vienna to 

conduct his Damnation de Faust. Berlioz 
was the head of the modern French orchestral 
school, and may be called the father of mod- 
ern orchestration. He occupied very much 
the position in French music that Victor Hugo 
did in French literature. He was a thor- 
ough romanticist, but, with all his disdain 
for tradition, he never sympathized with the 
Wagnerian movement in Germany. His 
success in France was limited during his 
lifetime, although he had his coterie of ad- 
mirers ; but his true jjojjularitj' in his native 
country began only after his death. Now 
he is looked up to as the greatest of modern 
French composers ; as a master of the or- 
chestra he is unsurpassed. His most popu- 
lar composition is the Damnation de Faust. 
He considered the Eequiem, the Romeo et 
Juliette symphony, the Te Deum, and Les 
Troyens as his greatest works. He never 
played on any instrument, except a little on 
the guitar and flute. He was for a long 
time musical critic on the Journal des 
Debats. He was appointed librarian to the 
Conservatoire in 1838, and elected to suc- 
ceed Adolphe Adam at the Institut in 1856. 
He was Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
■Works — Ijramatic : llenvenulo Cellini, ojj- 
era semi-seria, op. 23, given in Paris, Op- 
era, Sept. 3, 1886 ; Beatrice et Benedict, 
comic opera, Baden-Baden, Aug. 9, 1862, 
conducted by the comjDoser ; Les Troyens — I. 
La prise de Troie, opera in three acts, never 
performed, II. Les Troyens a Carthage, 
opera in five acts, Paris, Theatre Lyrique,Nov. 
4, 1863 ; Lelio, ou Le retour a la vie, Ij-ric 
monodrama, ojj. 14b (2d part of the Episode 
de la vie d'un artiste). Vocal-^With orches- 
tra : La damnation de Faust, legend in four 
parts, op. 24, ib.. Opera Comique, Dec. 6, 
1846, conducted by the composer. UEn- 
fance du Christ, sacred trilogy, op. 25, 
Paris, Salle Herz, Dec. 10, 1854, conduct- 
ed by the composer ; Sara la baigneuse, 
ballad for three choruses, op. 11 ; Romeo 
et Juliette, dramatic symphony with chorus, 
solos, and prologue in choral recitative, op. 
17; Tristia, a collection of two choruses. 



Paris, 1844); " Les soirees de Torcliestre " 
(ib., 1853) ; " Les grotesques de la, musique " 
(ib., 1859) ; " A travers chauts" (ib., 1802) ; 
"Mcinoires,"etc., 1803-1865 (ib., 1870; Eug- 
lisli trauslatiou, Loudou, 1884); " Traite 
d'instrumentation " (Paris). A German edi- 

and a funeral march with chorus, op. 18 ; 
Vox Populi, two grand choruses, op. 20 ; 
U Imperkdc, cantata for two choruses, oj). 
2(), Palais de I'lndustrie, Champs Elysees, 
1855, conducted by the composer ; Grande 
messe des morts, requiem, op. 5 ; Te Deum 
for three choruses and organ obli- 
gato, op. 22 ; La belle Isabeau, for 
chorus ; Le cinq mai, cantata for 
bass and chorus, op. 6 ; Les nuits 
d'c'te, six songs with small orches- 
tra, op. 7 ; La captive, reverie (Vic- 
tor Hugo), for contralto, op. 12. 
. Vocalj — With pianoforte: 

melodies (Thomas Moore), tor one W' • ra \ a 
or two voices, or choruses, op. 2 ; ^ 

Flews des Laudes, five songs, op. 13 ; tiou of his literary works is entitled " Ge- 
Feuillels d'album, three songs, one of which sammelte Schriften" (Leipsic, 4 vols., 1865). 
is with chorus, op. 19 ; Le temple universel, ^ — Edmond Hippeau, Berlioz iutime (Paris, 


e:/,-W.,9 /) ^ 'ilo.Jb^ 

ire), for one gV • r;tiA O O '^^-^ 

ISPS mi 2 • ^ " ' J -/ 

chorus for 4 voices ; Pricre du matin, do. 
for 2 voices ; Le chasseur danois, for bass. 
' T'lptrumental : Symphonic fantastique, op. 
14a, first part of Episode de la vie d'un ar- 
tiste ; Grande si/nqjJionie fuuebre et triom- 
phale, for full military band, with string 
orchestra, and chorus ad libitum, ojj. 15 ; 
Harold en Italic, symphony with viola obli- 
gata, op. 16 ; 5 overtures, Waverley, op. 1, 
Les Fi-ancs-J uges, op. 3, Boi Lrar, op. 4, 
Le carnaval romain, op. 9 (second overture 
to Benvenuto Cellini), Corsaire, op. 21 ; 
Reverie et caprice, romance for violin, with 
orchestra or pianoforte, op. 8. Eight scenes 
from Goethe's Faust (destroyed, not to be 

1883) ; Berlioz artiste (in press) ; Xavier 
Eyma et Arthur de Lucy, licrivains et ar- 
tistes vivants (Paris, Librairie universelle, 
1840) ; Eugene de ilirecourt, Berlioz (Paris, 
1856) ; Georges de Massougnes, Berlioz, son 
oeuvre (ib., Eichault et Dentu, 1870) ; Revue 
et Gazette musicale de Paris (1870-71) ; 
D. Bernard, Correspondance inedite, (ib., 
1879) ; H. M. DunstaiT7 Life and Letters 
of Berlioz (trans, from Bernard, London, 
2 vols., 1882) ; Joseph Bennett, Berlioz 
(London, 1883) ; Alfred Ernst, LVeuvre 
dramatique de H. Berlioz (Paris, 1884) ; 
AVm. F. Apthorp, Hector Berlioz (New York, 
1879) ; Georges NoulHard, Hector Berlioz et 

confounded with La damnation de Faust) ; le mouvemeut de I'art contemporain (Paris, 

Resurrexit et iterum venturus, for chorus 
with orchestra (1831) ; Quartette e coro dei 
Maggi, for mixed voices, with orchestra 
(1832); Litrata di Rol 
1832). Transcriptions : La Marseillaise, ar- 
ranged for chorus and full orchestra ; Leo- 
pold de !Meyer's Marche marocaine, for full 
orchestra ; Weber's Invitation :i la valse, for 
do. ; Accompaniment to Schubert's Erlkiinig, 
do. ; do. to Martini's Plaisir d'amour, for 
small orchestra. He was the author, also, 
of the following Ut^rarv works^ " Voyage 
musical en Allemagne et en Italic " (2 vols.. 

1885) ; Leipsic Signale, March 15, 1869, 
February, 1879, No. 16 ; London Musical 
Times, xxi. 272, 326 ; Dwight's Journal, xxiii. 
Roy MacGregor 25, 33, 41, 49 ; xxix. 10, 11 ; London Mus. 
Standard, new series, xvii. 264, 294 ; Am- 
bros, Bunte Bliltter, i. 93 ; Mirecourt, Ber- 
lioz (Paris, 1856) ; Griepenkerl, Ritter 
Berlioz in Braunschweig (Brunswick, 1843) ; 
Hanslick, Musikalische Stationen, 190. 

Alach, near Erfurt, May 8, 1758, died at 
Rhoda, Thuringia (?). Organist, pupil of 
Creuzmuller on the pianoforte and violin, 


of the cantor Weimar in singing, of Eei- 
chardt on the organ, and of Hassler in com- 
l)ositiou. AYorks : Several short oratorios ; 
Motets ; .Symjjhouies ; 2 sonatas for piano- 
forte for four hands ; 30 national melodies, 
for pianoforte ; Arias, and jjianoforte pieces. 
— Fe tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Mendel. 

born in Rome, 1659, died in Munich, March 
3, 1732. Dramatic composer, son and pupil 
of Giusej^pe Ercole Bernabei, with whom 
he went to Munich, and whose successor 
he became there. Works — Operas : Alvida 
in Abo, Munich, 1G78 ; Enea in Italia, ib., 
1679 ; Ermione, ib., 1680 ; Niobe regina di 
Tebe, ib., 1688 ; La gloria festeggiante, ib., 
1688. Church music : Orpheus ecclesias- 
ticus, consisting of several masses (Augs- 
burg, 1698) ; MissjB VII. cum quatuor voci- 
bus (Vienna, 1710);. 24 hymns for four 
voices, and basso continuo for organ. His 
brother Vincenzo (born in Rome, 1666) also 
composed several operas, among which may 
be mentioned : Gli accidenti d' amore, 
Vienna, 1689 ; Eraclio, Munich, 1690.— Fo- 
tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. 

at Caprarola, Papal Territory, 1620, died in 
Munich, 1687. Dramatic composer, one of 
the best harmonists of the 17th century, 
pupil of Orazio Beuevoli. He was maestro 
di cappella of San Giovanni in Laterano in 
1662-67, then of San Luigi de' Francesi un- 
til 1G72, when he succeeded Benevoli in San 
Pietro in Vaticano ; only a year after, he was 
called to Munich to succeed Kerl as Hof- 
Kapellmeister. Works — Operas : La cou- 
quista del vello d' oro in Colco, La fabrica 
di corone, given in Munich, 1674 ; II liti- 
gio del cielo e della terra, ib., 1680 ; Masses ; 
Psalms ; Offertories for 4-16 voices ; Motets 
(1690) ; IMadrigals, for 3, 5, and 6 voices 
(1669).— Fc'tis ; Mendel. 

BERNARD, PAUL, born at Poitiers, 
France, Oct. 4, 1827, died iu Paris, Feb. 24, 
1879. Pianist and composer, pupil in Paris 
of Gambaro and Tlialberg on the pianoforte, 
and at the Conservatoire of Elwart iu har- 

mony, and of Halevy in fugue and compo- 
sition ; appeared successfully in concerts, 
and devoted himself to teaching. Several 
parlor operas by him were performed iu 
Paris ; amoug them : Loin du bruit, L' Ac- 
cord parfait, etc. He has published nioie 
than a hundred compositions for the pia- 
noforte, and many songs. — Fetis, Sujjple- 
ment, i. 78. 

Italy iu the latter jjart of the 17th century. 
Violinist, and about 1720 Kapellmeister 
to the King of Denmark at Copenhagen. 
Member of the Academy there. Works : 
12 sonatas for violin with basso continuo ; 
Sonate a tre, for two violins and violoncello, 
with basso for the organ (Bologna, 1696) ; 
Concertos, caprices, cantatas (formerly in 
the Royal Librai-y at Copenhagen, consumed 
in the great fire of 1794). — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BERNARDI, ENRICO, Italian dramatic 
composer, contemporarj^. He was maestro < 
concertatore and orchestra leader at the 
Teatro del Verme, Milan, in 1876. Works : 
Zeliska, ballet, given at Milan, Scala, 1860 ; 
Marco Visconti, do., Turin, Teatro Regio, 
1862 ; nda, Don Pacheco, do., Trieste, 1868 ; 
Ate, do., Milan, Teatro Castelli, 1876; II 
Granduca di Gerolstein, oj)era buffa, Milan, 
1871.— Fetis, Supplement, i. 78. 

the close of the 16th century. He was 
maestro di cappella of the Duomo, and ma- 
estro of the Accademia Filarmonica, Verona, 
and probably canon and maestro di cajspella 
at Salzburg. He wrote an elementary work 
entitled. Porta musicale, etc. (Verona, 1615, 
second edition, Venice, 1639). His composi- 
tions, consisting of madrigals published 
at Venice, of masses, ^jsalms, and motets, 
appeared from 1611 to 1637. Some motets 
were publi.shed at Salzburg in 1634, and a 
mass for five voices at Antwerp in 1619. — 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

called, born about 1826, died in Paris during 
the siege, 1870 or 1871. Violinist, pupil of 
the Conservatoire, where he won the second 



prize iu 1841 ; became chef d'orchestre at 
the Vaudeville, then at the Folies Nouvelles, 
and other theatres of this class, and finally 
at the Folies Draniatiques. He wrote mu- 
sic to the following pieces : Polkette, Folies 
Nouvelles, 185G ; Nous n'irous plus au bois, 
ib., 1857 ; P'tit fi, p'tit mignon, ib. ; Nicaise, 
Bouiies Parisiens, 18C7 ; Une razzia galaute, 
pantomime, Apres la noce, do. ; Fautaisie 
for violin, with pianoforte. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 79. 

Capua, Ital}', about 17G2, sometimes called 
Marcello da Capua. Dramatic comjjoser ; he 
frequently ^vl■ote his own libretti. Works : 
L' Isola incautata, given at Perugia, 1781 ; 
La finta sposa olandese, Rimini, 1784 ; 

I tre Orfei, intermezzo, Rome, 1781 ; Le 
donne bisbetiche, ossia 1' antiquario fana- 
tico, ib., about 1785 ; II baroue a forza, ib., 
1785 ; II coute di bell' umore, ib., 178G ; 

II fonte d' acqua gialla, ossia il trionfo della 
pazzia, Rome, 1787 ; Le quattro Stagioni, Al- 
bano, 1788; II bruto fortuuato, Civita Vec- 
chia, 1788 ; Gli amanti confusi ; La Donna 
di Sj)irito, Rome, 1788 ; La finta Galatea, 
Naples, 1789 ; La fiera di Forlipoijoli, 
Rome, 1789 ; L' Ultima che si perde e la 
sperauza, Naples, 1790 ; II Pizarro in Perh, 
L' Amore Y>ei- magia, ib., 1791 ; La donna 
bizzarra, Vienna, 1793 ; L' Allegria in cam- 
pagna, Venice, 1794 ; La statua per j^uu- 
tiglio, about 1794. — Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; 

seilles iu 1712, died iu Munich, Jan. 24, 
1784. Dramatic composer, son of au ex- 
army officer who settled at Parma ; he stud- 
ied music from his earliest youth and gave 
lessons while still young ; brought out his 
first opera in Venice iu 1741, visited Rome 
and other Italian cities, went to Vienna iu 
1743, and returned to Parma in 1747. He 
became maestro di eappella at the Ospedale 
della Pieta in Venice, went to Munich in 
1754, and was made Hof-Kapellmeister to 
the Elector Maximilian in 1755. Works — 
Operas : Alessandro Severo, given iu Venice, 

1741 ; La uinfa Apollo, Vienna, 1743 ; Te- 
mistocle, ib., 1744 ; Antigone, ib., 1745 ; 
Sallustia, Munich, 1753 ; Bajazet, L' Ozio 
fugato dalla gloria, ib., 1754 ; Adriano, II 
trionfo della costanza, Alessandro, ib., 1755 ; 
Didone abbaudouata, ib., 1756 ; Agelmondo, 
ib., 17G0; Artaserse, ib., 17G3; L' Olimpi- 
ade, ib , 17G4 ; Demofoonte, ib., 17G5 ; En- 
dimioue, ib., 176G ; La clemenza di Tito, ib., 
17G8; Demetrio, ib., 1772 ; La Betulialibe- 
rata, oratorio, 1754. He wrote also a num- 
ber of masses, vespers, and litanies, which 
remain in MS. — Futis ; Schilling. 

born at Breslau, Silesia, March IG, 1780, 
died there. May 9, 1827. Organist, pupil 
of his father, who was organist of the Eliza- 
beth Church at Breslau, and his assistant 
when thirteen years old. He studied coun- 
terpoint and composition under Gehirnie, 
directorof the choir at the Matthiius Church, 
and the violoncello, horn, bassoon, and clari- 
net under Reichardt. In company with 
Schnabel, Beruer visited Berlin in 1811, to 
master the system of the Siugakademie, 
with a view to establishing for the govex'u- 
ment similar institutions throughout Silesia, 
and ho was employed also iu cataloguing 
the musical libraries of the suppressed mon- 
asteries, a task which was cut short by his 
death. He wrote cantatas, marches, dances, 
etc., from 1792 to 179G ; later (1799) he com- 
posed an elegy to Jules de Tarent, and a har- 
monized piece which was considered very fine. 
In 1801 his jiroductions became more char- 
acteristic ; his best work is the 150th Ps;ilui 
for four voices and orchestra ; L'H^-mne dcs 
Allemauds with orchestra is also one of his 
best works. He wrote an intermezzo, Der 
Kapellmeister, besides masses, canons, 
sacred choruses, and Lieder, of which his 
Deutsches Herz, verzagenicht is still poi^ulnr. 
He excelled as a teacher, and had as puj)ils, 
Koehler his successor as organist, Zoelner, 
and Adolph Hesse. His most valuable di- 
dactic writings ai-e : " Grundregeln des 
Gesanges " (1815) ; " Theorie des Choral- 
Zwisehenspiels " (1819) ; " Lehre von der 



musikaliscbeu Interpunktion " (1821). — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., ii. 413 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg. ; 
Fetis ; Meudel ; Schilling. 

dour of the 13tli ceutury, boru at Couitraj-, 
according to popular belief, but Fetis thinks 
at the village of Berneville, near Arras. He 
flourished before 12G0, and was in the 
service of Henry HI., Duke of Brabant. He 
■wrote a song beginning, " Beau Gillebert, s'il 
vos agree." Fifteen of his chansons are in 
the National Library, Paris, and two IMSS. in 
the same library contain six more. — Fetis ; 
Larousse ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 3-1. 

Dantzic iu 1G12, died at Dresden, Nov. 14, 
1692. The son of a poor fisherman, he was 
enabled, with tile assistance of Dr. Strauch, 
to enter the Gymnasium at Dantzic, where 
he studied music under Balthazar Ei-beu, 
and the organ and harmony under Paul 
Syfert, and later to visit Dresden, where he 
was a jiupil of H. Schiltz in counterpoint 
and composition. His fine tenor voice in- 
duced the Kurfiirst to send him to study 
singing in Italy, where he became the friend 
of Carissimi, and his compositions were 
much admired. He returned to Dresden 
with several singers for the Royal Chapel, 
but the Elector sent him back to comjjlete 
the royal choir and to secure a Kapellmeis- 
ter. Through intrigue he was forced to re- 
sign his post at Dresden and to take a can- 
torship at Hamburg, whence he was recalled 
after ten years by the Kurfiirst Johann 
Geoi'g ni., and became teacher to the young 
princes, and Kapellmeister until his death. 
He was noted for his knowledge of counter- 
point, a notable instance of which is shown 
in his setting of the Latin hymn, Prudentia 
prudentiaua (Hamburg, IGfiO). Works : 2 


masses for fen voices and ten instruments, 
in MS. ; Geistlicher Harmonia erster Theil, 

containing 20 cantatas (Dresden, 1665). He 
was the author also of didactic treatises en- 
titled "Tractatuscomijositionesaugmentas ;" 
and " Ausfiihrliclier Bericht von dem Ge- 
brauch der Consouanzen, nebst einem Au- 
hang von dem doppelten und vierfacheu 
ContraiJunct." — Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 456 ; 
Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

BERNICAT, FIRJHN, boru in 1841, died 
iu Paris, March, 1883. Works : Ali-pot-de- 
rhum (a I'Hijipodrome), operette bouffe in 
one act, played at the Alcazar d'Ete, Paris, 
July, 1870 ; Trois grands prix, operette, 
Theatre Taitbout, ib., March 28, 1875 ; La 
jeunesse de Beranger, ojjerette, given at 
I'Eldorado, ib., January', 1877. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 79. 

BERNIER, NICOLAS, born at Nantes, 
June 28, 1664, died at Versailles, Sejat. 5, 
1734. Church composer, pupil in Rome of 
Caldara, whose works became his model. 
He was considered the most skilful composer 
of his time, was at first maitre de musique 
of Saint-Germain I'Auxerrois, theu of the 
royal chajsel, in which capacity he founded 
at Versailles a school of music, from which is- 
sued several of the most eminent French ar- 
tists. Works : 26 motets, op. 1 (Paris, 1703); 
Motets for 1, 2, and 3 voices, op. 2 (ib., 1713) ; 
Motets, posthumous (ib., 1736) ; Cautates 
franjaises, books 1-7. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

BERR (Beer), FRIEDRICH, born at 
Mannheim, April 17, 1794, died in Paris, 
Sept. 24, 1838. Virtuoso on the clarinet 
and bassoon ; pui^il of his father, Jacob 
Beer, on the violin and the flute. He became 
bandmaster of the 39th Regiment of Infan- 
try, served in Sjjain in 1810-14, and iu 1816 
studied harmonj' under Fetis, then organist 
at Douai. In 1819 he became bandmaster 
of the 2d Regiment of Swiss Guards iu Paris, 
and in 1823 first clarinet at the Opera. He 
was appointed professor of the clarinet at 
the Conservatoire in 1831, first clarinet to 
the king, and member of the Legion of 
Honour iu 1835. In 1836 the government 
created a school of military music as part of 
the Conservatoire, which he superintended 



until bis death. He wrote au immense 
amount of music for the clarinet, bassoon, 
and other instruments. Five hundred of 
his pieces are military music, forty suites 
d'hariuonie, besides duos, quatuors, airs va- 
ries, etc., published at Paris, Leipsic, etc. 
He wrote a method for the clarinet entitled 
Traite complet de la clarinette a 14 clefs 
(Paris, 183(5), which was . translated into 
German by Lobe.— Fetis ; do., Suppli'ment, 
i. 79 ; Mendel ; Schilling, i. 587 ; Supple- 
ment, 38. 

BERRE, FERDINAND, born at Gaus- 
horen, near Brussels, Feb. 5, 181:3, still liv- 
ing, 1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Godineau, and of Bosselet the younger. 
Having founded the Cercle Symplionique et 
Dramatique, he brought out there : L'Orage 
au moulin, comic opera, 18G7 (in Flemish, 
under the title Marldes op Jacht, Theatre 
du Cirque, the same year) ; Le couteau de 
Castille, op6ra-bou£fe, 18G7, which was also 
sriven at the Galeries Saint-Hubert, 1868. 
He has composed the following operas, still 
unpublished : Le dernier des Mohicans, 
Madame Putiphar, Les poltrons, Lowely, 
and has published about fifty romances 
(Brussels, Schott).— Fctis, Supplement, i. 

BERTALI, ANTONIO, born at Verona, 
1G05, died in Vienna, April 1, 1669. Dra- 
matic composer, became court musician at 
Vienna in 1637, and Hof-Kapellmeister in 
1649. AVorks — Operas: L' inganno d' 
amore, Vienna, 1653 ; Teti, ib., 1656 ; II 
Re Gelidoro, ib., 1659 ; Gli amori di Apol- 
lo, ib., 1660 ; II Giro crescente, ib., 1661 ; 
L' Alcindo, ib., 1665 ; Cibele e Ati, ib., 
1666 ; La contessa dell' aria e dell' acqua, 
ib., 1667. Oratorios : Maria Magdaleua, 
1663 ; Oratorio sacro ; La strega degl' in- 
nocenti, 1665. Cantatas, performed in Vi- 
enna, 1631-46 ; Thesaurus musicus (1671) ; 
Jlass ; Suonata a nove ; Sonatas for 2 vio- 
lins and bass ; Magnificat. — Fetis ; Gerbei-, 
N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

BERTANI, LELIO, born at Brescia 
about 1520, died there in 1600. Maestro, 

di cappella of the Cathedral of Brescia ; 
subsequently court musician to Alfonso of 
Perrara, and maestro to the Bishop of Pa- 
dua. One of his madrigals is to be found 
in the collection of Hubert Waebrant (1504), 
and others in the following collections pub- 
lished at Venice : II Lauro verde (1591) ; II 
Trionfo di Dori (1596 ; Antwerp, 1601) ; and 
in a collection of sonnets by Battista Zuc- 
carini (Venice, 1586). Among those pub- 
lished separately are : Madrigali a cinque, 
lib. i. (Brescia, 1584) ; Sonnets for five 
voices (Venice, 1586-1609) ; Madrigals for 
six voices, lib. i. (Venice). — Fetis ; Gerber, 
N. Les. ; Schilling. 

BERTE.AU, born at Valenciennes in the 
first years of the ISth century. Founder of 
the violoncello school in France ; travelled 
in Germany when young, and was a pupil 
of a Bohemian named Kozecz on the bass- 
viol, an instrument on which he excelled, 
but he gave it up for the violoncello. In 
1739 he made his first appearance in Paris at 
the Concerts Spirituels. Among his pupils 
were Cupis, the two Jansons, and Dupont 
aine. He published four concertos for vio- 
lin, and thi-ee books of sonatas for violin 
and bass. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

Amsterdam, Jan. 21, 1782, died there, Jan. 
25, 1854. Composer, pupil of the blind or- 
gan-virtuoso Brachthuijzer ; professor at the 
Royal School of Music, Amsterdam, member 
of the Accademia di Sta. Cecilia, Rome. 
He formed many eminent pupils, among 
whom were Stumpff, Richard Hoi, Van 
Bree, etc. Order of the Lion. Works: Grand 
cantata with orchestra, Amsterdam, 1836 ; 
Other cantatas ; Motets ; Mass ; Requiem ; 
Two overtures ; String quartets ; Concertos 
for clarinet ; do. for double bass ; Etudes 
for violin ; Pianoforte, and violin pieces. — 

born at Giltersloh, Westphalia, in 1811, died 
at Amsterdam, Nov. 20, 1861. Composer, 
pupil of Rinck at Darmstadt ; instructor of 
vocal music at the seminary at Soest, he 



■went in the same capacitj' to Amsterdam iu 
1838, and assumed the dhectiou of the 
newly founded Eutonia there in 1839. 
Works : 12 four -part songs for mixed 
voices, op. 3 ; Choruses for male voices ; 
Hymn for do. ; Songs, with pianoforte ; Or- 
gan, and pianoforte music. — Fiitis ; Viotta. 

BERTHA, ALEX.\^DER VON, born at 
Pesth, Hungary, contemporary. Instru- 
mental composer, pupU iu Pesth of Mosonyi 
and of A. Feley, and at Leipsic and Berlin 
of Hauptmaun, Moscheles, and Hans von 
Billow. He settled afterwards iu Paris. 
Works : Symphony ; Quartets ; Sonatas ; 
Hougroises, etc. ; National hymn (gold 
medal). — Fetis, Supplement, i. 80. 

BERTHAUME, ISIDORE, born in Paris, 
1752, died in St. Petersburg, March 20, 
1802. Violinist, played with success iu 
public when nine years old, became first 
violin in the Opera orchestra, and conductor 
of the Concerts Sj)irituels iu 1783. He went 
on a concert tour during the Revolution, 
was appointed Conzertmeister to the Duke 
of Oldenburg at Eutin iu 1703, and a few 
years later went to St. Petersburg, as solo- 
violinist in the imperial orchestra. Works : 
Sonatas for violin, iu the style of Lolli ; Sis 
solos for do., op. 2 ; 6 duos, op. 3 ; Sona- 
tas, op. 4 ; Concerto for violin, op. 5 ; Sym- 
phonic concertante, for 2 violins, op. 6 ; 
Sonatas for jDianoforte, with violin, op. 7 ; 
Six sonatinas for pianoforte, op. 8. — Fetis ; 
Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

THEODOR, born at Dresden, Dec. 18, 
1815, died there, April 28, 1882. Com- 
poser, pupil of Julius Otto and of Johann 
Schneider. He went with a noble family to 
Little Russia in 1841, and became inspector 
of music at the Ladies' Seminary at Charkov 
in 1843, and at the Patriotic Seminary in 
St. Petersburg in 1849. He was made also 
professor of composition in the Imperial 
Chapel, and organist and musical director 
of the Lutheran Church of St. Ann.a. He 
founded the Oratorio Society of St. Anna, 
and in 1864 was called to Dresden to succeed 

Johann Schneider as court organist. Works : 
Petrus, oratorio ; Symphony ; Concert over- 
ture for orchestra ; Missa solennis ; Other 
church music ; Pianoforte pieces, and songs. 
— Mendel. 

BERTHOLDO. See Bertoldo. 

at the Roches, near Paris, Feb. 15, 1805, 
died iu Paris, April 2G, 1877. Dramatic 
comjjoser, jjianist, and contralto singer, pu- 
pil of Fetis. Works — Operas : Le loup- 
garou, given in Paris, 1827 ; Faust, ib., 
1831 ; Notre Dame de Paris, ib., 1836, the 
libretto of which was adaj)ted by Victor 
Hugo. She also published a collection of 
Six Ballades, and left uni^ublished a Prayer ; 
Hymne a Apollon, Le retour dAgamemnon ; 
besides other vocal music and symphonies 
for chamber music. — Fetis; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 81. 

BERTIN, T. DE LA DOUE, born in 
Paris in 1G80, died there in 1745. Dra- 
matic composer ; took Lulli's works for his 
model. He was pianoforte teacher in the 
Orleans family, organist of the Theatine 
Church, and in 1714-34 violinist and ac- 
companist at the Opera. Works — Operas : 
Cassandre (with Bouvart), given in 1706 ; 
Diomede, 1710 ; Ajax, 1716 ; Le jugement 
de Paris, 1718 ; Les plaisirs de la campagne. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BERTESn, DOJklENICO, born at Lucca, 
June 26, 1829, still living, 1888, at Flor- 
ence. Dramatic composer and singer, pujjil 
under Pacini of the School of Music at 
Lucca, where he won all the first prizes ; 
and, after the eamisaigns of 1848-49, in 
which he took part, jjupil of Michele Puc- 
cini. In 1853 he became maestro concerta- 
tore of the theatre at Lucca, in 1857 director 
of the musical institute at Massa Carrara, 
and in 18G2 settled at Florence, where 
he made himself known as conductor of the 
Societa Cherubini, and as a musical critic. 
Works : Non ti scordar di me, Cinzica Sis- 
mondi, operas ; Cantata ; Mass ; Magnificat 
for 4 voices and orchestra ; Songs. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 82 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 35. 




London, Oct. 28, 1798, died at, 
near Grenoble, 
France, Oct. 1, 1876. 
His father was a 
clever composer and 
pianist. The young 
Henri studied the pi- 
anoforte first under 
his father and then 
under his elder 
brother, Auguste, 
who was a pujiil of Clenienti. He began 
playing in public at an early age, and when 
only twelve years old left Paris on a concert 
tour through the Low Countries and Ger- 
many. The admiration his talent excited 
did not dissuade him from pursuing his 
studies diligently under his father's guid- 
ance. On his return to Paris he began his 
studies in composition, and then went to 
live for some time in England and Scotland. 
In 1821 he retui-ned to Paris, where he re- 
mained, with few interruptions, until about 
1856, when he retired to ]\Ieylan, breaking 
off all relations with the public, both as 
pianist and composer ; he had bought some 
land at Meylan, and continued to live there 
in seclusion until his death, composing only 
now and then for a society of orpheouists, 
of which he was president. He is said to 
have refused the decoration of the Legion 
of Honour, offered him by the Government 
of July. Bertini was equally eminent as a 
composer and a pianist ; his grace and purity 
of style, as well as his high natural gifts, 
compel admiration. Ho was a classicist in 
the best sense, and made a stand against 
the prevailing light salon-vii-tuosity of his 
day in France, much as Schumann and 
Mendelssohn did in Germany. He is best 
known to-day by his pianoforte studies, of 
which there are 29 sets ; almost all of these 
were originally published bj- Lemoine in 
Paris, but other editions have been printed 
in most of the large cities in Eiu-ope and 
America. These studies have been largely 
superseded to-day by similar works in a 

more modern style, and better adapted to 
further the ends of the more brilliant tech- 
nique of our day, but the "Ecole de lamu- 
sique d'ensemble," a collection of preludes 
and fugues by Sebastian Bach arranged for 
four hands, is still of interest. Of Bertini's 
other compositions, the following are the 
most important : 6 trios for pianoforte and 
strings (Paris, Lemoine) ; .5 serenades for 
pianoforte and strings (ib.) ; ■! sextets 
(ib.) ; Nonet for pianoforte and wind in- 
struments. The following ai-e posthumous 
works : 3 nonets for pianoforte and wind 
instruments ; 3 .symphonies for jiianoforte 
and orchestra ; 20 pieces for the pianoforte ; 
a Pie Jesu composed foi', and sung at, Ber- 
tini's funeral. — Grove, i. 236. 

lermo in 1721, died there, Dec. 16, 1794. 
Dramatic composer, first instructed by Poz- 
zudo, tlien pupil of Leo at the Conservatorio 
della Pieta, Naj^les. Having declined a 
call to St. Petersburg, from religious 
scruples, he became afterwards maestro di 
cappella in his native city, succeeding David 
Perez, who had gone to Lisbon. He brought 
out successfully several operas in Palermo, 
Rome, and Naples, and wrote oratorios, 
masses, psalms, and other church music, 
among which are deserving of special notice 
a Requiem mass, composed for the ob- 
sequies of Charles IH., 1790, a Miserere for 
two choruses, and a do. for four voices. 
— Fetis; Mendel. 

BERTOLDO, SPER' IN DIO (Sperandio). 
born at Modena in 1530, died at Padua, Aug. 
13, 1570. Renowned contrapuntist and or- 
ganist at the cathedral at Padua. Works : 
Madrigali a cinque voci (Venice, 1561) ; do., 
second book (ib., 1562); Toccate, ricercate 
e canzoni per 1' organo (ib., 1591). The 
first two are in the Royal Library, Municli. 
— Fetis. 

BERTON, FRANyOIS, born in Paris, 
May 3, 1784, died there, July 15, 1832. 
Dramatic composer, illegitimate son of 
Henri Montan Berton and Mile Maillard, 
a famous singer ; pupil at the Conserva- 


toire, where be was i^rofessor of singing in ] I'Epreuve, given in Paris, Comedie Italienne, 

1821-27. Works : Monsieur Desbosquets, 
Theatre Feydeau, IblO ; Le present de 
uoces, ou le pari. Opera Comique, 1810 ; 
Jeune et vieille (with Pradher), 1811 ; Ni- 
nette a la cour, Opera, 1811 ; Les caquets, 
Theatre Feydeau, 1821 ; Une heure d'ab- 
seuce, Opera Comique, 1827 ; Chateau d"Ur- 
tuby, ib., 1831.— Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 

Paris, Sept. 17, 
1767, died there, 
April 22, 1844. 
Dramatic c o m - 
poser and Tioliu- 
ist, son and 
pupil of Pierre 
Montau Berton ; 
pupil of Rej- and 
Sacchini, and fol- 
lower of Paisiello. 
When fifteen 
years old he was a member of the orchestra 
of the Opera (1782), and at nineteen several of 
his oratorios were given at the Concerts Spi- 
rituels, one, Absalon (1786), meeting with 
much success. When twenty years old he 
wrote his first opera, Promesses de man- 
age, played at the Comedie Italienne in 
1787, which was followed by several others, 
and some of his best were written between 
this time and 1794. When the Conservatoire 
was established he was appointed professor 
of harmony, in 1795, and he was director of 
the Italian opera, then called opera buffa, 
in 1807-9. He introduced Mozart's Nozze 
di Figaro in Paris, and began a reform in 
French opera, by giving works in which the 
beauties of harmony and instrumentation 
were as prominent as fine melodies. In 
1815 he became a member of the Institut 
de France, in 1816 Chevalier, and in 1834 
Officer of the Legion of Honour. Professor 
of composition, and afterwards Inspector at 
the Conservatoire. Works— Operas : Le 

1787 ; Cora, Academic Royale de Musique, 
1789 ; Les brouilleries, Comedie Italienne, 
1789 ; Les rigueurs du cloitre, Le Nouveau 
d'Assas, ib., 1790 ; Les deux sentineUes, 
Theatre Favart, 1791 ; Eugene, Theatre Fey- 
deau, 1793 ; Agricole Viala, ou le Heros de 
la durance, ib., 1794 ; Ponce de Leon, The- 
atre Favart, 1797 ; Le souper de famille, 
Le denoilmeut inattendu, ib., 1798 ; Mon- 
tauo et Stephanie, L' Amour bizarre, Le De- 
lire, ou les Suites d'une erreur, ib., 1799 ; 
La nouvelle au camp, I'Opera, 1799 ; Le 
Grand deuil. Theatre Favart, 1801 ; Les 
deux Sous-lieutenants, ou le Concert iiiter- 
roinpu. Theatre Feydeau, 1802 ; Aline, reiue 
de Golconde, OjJera Comique, 1803 ; La Ro- 
mance, ib., 1804 ; Delia et Verdikan, Le 
vaisseau amiral, ib., 1805 ; Les Maris-gar- 
yons, ib., 1806 ; Le Chevalier de Seuanges, 
Ninon chez Madame de Scvigne, ib., 
1808 ; Franyoise de Foix, ib., 1809 ; L'En- 
levemeut des Sabines, ballet, Foutaine- 
bleau, 1810 ; Le charme de la voix ; La 
victime des arts (with Isouard and Solie), 
ib., 1811; L 'Enfant prodigue, ballet, O- 
pera, 1812 ; Valentin, ou le Paysan roma- 
nesque, Opera Comique, 1813 ; L'Oriflamme 
(with Mehul, Paer, and Kreutzer), Ojaera, 
1814 ; L'heureux retour, ballet (with Per- 
suis and Kreutzer), 1815 ; Les dieux rivaux, 
opera-ballet (with Sj)ontini, Persuis, and 
Ki-eutzer), Academie Royale, 1816 ; Feodor, 
ou le Batelier du Don, Opera Comique, 
1810 ; Roger de Sicile, I'Opera, 1817 ; Cori- 
sandre, Opera Comique, 1820 ; Blanche de 
Provence (with Boieldieu, Cherubini, and 
Paer), Opera, 1821 ; Virginie, ou les De- 
cemvirs, ib., 1823 ; Les deux mousque- 
taires. Opera Comique, 1824 ; La mere et 
la fille (not performed) ; Aline, reine de 
Golconde, ballet (with Dugazon), 1825 ; 
Pharamond (with Boieldieu and Kreutzer), 
Academie Royale, 1825 ; Les Creoles, Opera 
Comique, 1826 ; Les petits appartements, 
ib., 1827. Oratorios : Absalon, Jephte, Da 

premier navigateur (1786) ; Les promesses vid dans son Temple, Les Bergers de Beth- 
de mariage, La dame invisible, ou I'Araant i\ leem, La Gloire de Lyon, iu the Concerts 



Spirituels, 1786-90. Cantatas : Jlaiie de 
Seymours, Orphee daus les bois, ib. ; Trasi- 
bule, Hotel de ViUe, 1804 ; Thesee, Brus- 
sels, 1805 ; Le Chant du letour (after the 
campaign of 1805), Optra Comique, 1807 ; 
and many romances, besides several collec- 
tions of canons. He was the author of 
several didactic works ; " Arbre genealo- 
gique des Accords ;" "Un traitc d'harmonie 

base sur I'Arbre getiealogique ; " " Diction- 
uaire des Accords," -4 vols. (Paris, 1815). 
— Futis ; do.. Supplement, i. 82 ; Mendel ; 
Schilling, i. 593 ; Supplement, 43. 

Paris in 1727, died there. May 14, 1780. 
Dramatic eomj)oser and organist. He read 
music at sight when six years old, composed 
motets when twelve, which were j^layed at 
the Cathedral of Senlis, and was for several 
years a member of the choir of Notre Dame 
de Paris. In 1744 he made his debut as 
an opera singer, became chef d'orchestre 
at the Opera, Bordeaux, in 1746, and or- 
ganist of two churches in that citv. In 
1755 he became chef d'orchestre at the 
Opera in Paris, and director-general in 
177G. Works— Operas: Deucalion et Pyr- 
rha (with Giraud), 1755 ; £rosiue (words 
by Moncrief), 17G8 ; Sylvia (with Trial), 
176G; Theonis (with Trial and Granier), 
1707 ; AdUe de Ponthieu (with Laborde), 
1773. He is best known by his arrange- 
ments of other authors' works. He wrote 
airs for the ballet in Camille by Campra, 
for Iphigenie en Tauride by the same, for 
Castor and Pollux and Dardanus, by Ra- 
meau, introducing the Chaconne de Berton. 
— Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 82. 

born on the island of Salo, near Voiuce, 
Aug. 15, 1725, died at Desenzano, Dec. 1, 

1813. Dramatic composer and organist, 
pupil of Padre Martini. He went about 

1745 to Venice, where he became celebrated 
as a teacher. He was organist of S. Marco 
from 1752, and choir-master of the Con- 
servatorio de' Mendicanti in 1757-97. He 
visited London in 1778-80, and in 1781-83, 
to bring out some of his ojjeras, succeeded 
Galuppi as maestro di cappella at S. Marco 
in 1784, and retired to Desenzano in 1810. 
His best works, principally oratorios and 
church music, were written between 1743 
and 1760. Works — Operas : Orazii ed e 
Curiazii, La Vedova accorta, given in Venice, 

1746 ; Cajetto, ib., Palazzo Labia, 1747 ; 
Ipermestra, Venice, 1748 ; Le Pescatrice, ib., 
1752 ; Ginevra, ib., 1753 ; La Moda, ib., 
1754; Le Vicende amorose, ib., 1760; La 
bella Girometta, ib., 1761 ; Amore in Mu- 
sica, ib., 1763; Achille in Sciro, L' Ingau- 
natore ingannato, ib., 1704 ; L' Olympiade, 
Naples, 1765 ; L' Isola di Calipso, dramatic 
cantata, Venice, Palazzo Rezzonico ; Ales- 
sandro nelle Indie, 1770 ; L' Anello incan- 
tato, 1771 ; Andromacca, Venice, 1772 ; Ai-is- 
to e Temira, 1774 ; Orfeo, Venice, 1776 ; 
Ezio, Telemacco, ib., 1777; Quinto Fabio, 
Padua and London, 1778 ; Tancredi, Venice, 
1778 ; Artaserse, London, 1780 ; Armida, 
Venice, 1781 ; Eumeue, ib., 1784 ; Artaserse 
(second), il.)., 1786 ; Narbale, Naples, about 
1787; Cajo Mario, about 1788; La Nitteti, 
Najiles, 1789 ; Ifigenia in Aulide, Trieste, 
1790 ; Antigouo. Oratorios : II Figliuol 
l^rodigo, i^erformed at Sta. Maria della Fava, 
1747 ; Perigrinatio ad sanctum Domini se- 
pulchrum, 1753 ; David penitens, Conserva- 
torio de' Mendicanti, 1775 ; Joas ; Susanna ; 
Requiem mass, Chiesa dei Serviti, 1792. 
Among his finest works for the church are 
the psalms, Beatus vir, and Lstatus sum, 
and the Improperia written for the ducal 
chapel of S. Marco ; 6 sonatas for harpsi- 
chord and violin, op. 1 (Berlin, 1789) ; 6 
quartets for two violins, viola, and violon- 
cello (Venice, 1793) ; 6 sonatas for liarpsi- 
chord (Paris, 1780).— Fetis ; Gerber, Hist. 
Lex. ; do., N. Lex. ; Schilling. 



boru iu Stockholm, Sweden, July 23, 1788, 
died there, Sejitember, 1861. Violinist, son 
of one of the chamber musicians to the 
King of Sweden, and pupil of the Abbe 
Vogler. Before he was ten years old he 
travelled as an infant i^rodigy ; in 1806 he 
became a chamber musician to the king, 
and from 1819 until his death he was 
conductor and Kapellmeister in Stockholm. 
■ His three daughters were singers. Works : 
3 polonaises for pianoforte and violin, op. 
1, 1791 ; Symphon}' for orchestra, 1799 ; 3 
quartets for stringed instruments, 1808 ; 
Sonata for pianoforte, op. 6 ; and songs. 
His cousin, Franz Berwald (born in Stock- 
holm, 1796, died there, April 3, 1868), com- 
posed much instrumental music, and an 
opera, Estrella de Soria, given in Stock- 
holm. — Ft'tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Mendel. 

Piacenza, Italy, in 1821, 'still living, 1888. 
Dramatic composer ; became maestro di cap- 
pella of the Italian opera, Berlin, in 1845, but 
soon returned to his native land. His op- 
era, Ruy Bias, was given with much success 
at Piacenza, 1843. 

BESLER, SAMUEL, born at Brieg, Si- 
lesia, Dec. 15, 1574, died iu Breslau, July 
19, 1025. Rector of the Gymnasium zum 
Heiligen Geist, Breslau, 1605. A large col- 
lection of his comijositious are jjreserved 
in the library of St. Bernhardiuus, Breslau, 
among which is a Passion after St. John, 
I^rinted by Baumann (Breslau, 1621). — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BESSEMS, ANTOINE, born at Antwerp, 
April 6, 1809, died in Paris, Oct. 19, 1868. 
Violinist, pupil of Baillot at the Conserva- 
toire, Paris ; for several years first violin at 
the Theatre Italien, then made a concert 
tour through Belgium, Germany, Italy, and 
England, returned to Paris, and in 1847- 
52 conducted the orchestra of the Societe 
Royale d'Harmonie at Antwerp. Works: 
3 masses for four voices and orchestra ; 2 
psalms for do. ; Several motets, with or- 
chestra or organ ; Canticles, oflertories. 


Art, London, 1852; 

graduales, etc., with do., or quartet ; Hymn, 
with chorus and two orchestras ; Concerto 
for violin, with orchestra ; Fantaisies for 
do.; 12 grandes etudes, with pianoforte; 
Duos, trios, quartets, for strings ; 12 grand 
duos de concert, for pianoforte and violin 
(with Jules Dejazet) ; Melodies for violin ; 
do. for pianoforte ; do. for violoncello ; do. 
for one and several voices, etc. — Fetis ; 

Carlisle, England, Aug. 
13, 1826, still living, 
1888. Organist ; pupil 
of Young, organist of 
Carlisle Cathedral. He 
has held many impor- 
tant positions, such as 
organist of the Liver- 
pool Philharmonic So- 
ciety, 1848 ; of the Pan- 
opticon of Science and 
of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, Loudon, 1852 ; of Lincoln's Inn 
Chapel, 1854 ; of St. George's Hall, Livei"- 
pool, 1855 ; of Church of Wallasay, Birken- 
head, 1800 ; of Holy Trinity, near Liverpool, 
1863 ; of the Musical Society, Liverpool, 
1808 ; of Royal Albert Hall, 1871 ; of the 
Philharmonic Society, Liverpool, 1872 ; of 
West Derby Church,' 1879. Mr. Best, who 
is one of the greatest masters of the organ 
in Great Britain, still holds several of the 
most important of these positions, and has 
jjlajed iu manj' of the principal cities of 
Europe. He is the author of many com- 
positions for the organ and pianoforte, of 
church services, anthems, hymns, and minor 
vocal pieces, and of several standard didactic 
works. His anthems are in constant use iu 
English churches. — Grove ; Mendel ; Brown. 
See Se'l getreu bis in den Tod. 

BETLY, Italian opera in two acts, text 
and music by Donizetti, first represented in 
Najjles, 1836 ; and in Paris, at the Opera, 
Dec. 27, 1853, in a French translation by 
Hippolyte Lucas. Donizetti's text is an 



adaptation of "Le clialet," by Scribe aud 
Melesville (music by Adam, 1834), wbicli iu 
turn is from Goetbe's " Jery und Biitely." 
Betly was unsuccessful in Paris, notwitb- 
standing tbat the jnincipal cbaracter was 
sustained by Madame Bosio. Betly was one 
of Alboni's favourite parts. 

BETULIA TJBERATA (Betbulia Freed), 
Italian sacred drama iu two parts, text by 
Metastasio, music by Georg Reutter, com- 
posed by command of tbe Emperor Charles 
VI., and first rejwesented in tbe Imperial 
Chapel, Vienna, 1734. Subject from the 
apocbryphal book of Judith. Scene, the 
city of Betbulia. Chai'acters represented : 
Ozia, Prince of Betbulia ; Giuditta, widow 
of Manasseh ; Aniital, a noble Israelitish 
maiden ; Acbior, Prince of tbe Ammonites ; 
Cabri and Carmi, leaders of tbe people ; 
chorus of inbabitauts of Betbulia. The 
same libretto was set, probably iu 1771, by 
Mozart, and performed at Padua during 
Lent in 1772 (publisbed by Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Mozart's Werke, Cantaten und Ora- 
torien, No. 4) ; also by Cafl'aro, and repre- 
sented in Naples about 1778. 

BEVIN, EL WAY, born in Wales, flour- 
ished towards tbe end of the reign of Eliz- 
abetb. Organist, pupil of Tallis, ou whose 
recommendation be was apjjointed organist 
of tbe cathedral of Bristol. His onlj' com- 
position known to-day is tbe first service of 
four aud five parts, ijublished in Barnard's 
collection : First Book of selected Church 
Musick (1C41).— Grove ; Fetis. 

Gotba in 1GG9, died at Carlsbad, Bohemia, 
May 9, 1744. Composer, cantor at Frei- 
berg, 1697, at Weissenfels, 1722, tben di- 
rector of music at Freiberg, 1728. Works : 
Pianoforte music, chiefly instructive ; Pri- 
mse linese musicse vocalis (Freiberg, 1703) ; 
Musikalischer Vorratb neu variirter Fest- 
Cboral-Gesange (ib., 1710) ; Geistlieb musi- 
kaliscbe Seelenfreude, containing 72 con- 
cert arias (ib., 1724).— Fetis; Mendel. 

at Norwich, England, April 27, 1824, died 

iu London, Oct. 29, 1853. Church com- 
poser, pupil of Dr. Zechariab Buck, under 
whom he was a chorister in the cathedral. 
He became organist in Boston, Lincoln- 
shire, and iu 184G graduated at Oxford as 
Bacbelor of Music ; in 1848 he was ap- 
pointed organist of St. Helen's, London, 
and in 1849 received the degree of Doctor 
of Music at Cambridge. Works : hrad 
Restored, oratorio, given at Norwich Mu- 
sical Festival, 18.52, and reproduced iii 
1879 ; Church anthems (London) ; Set of 
fugues for organ (ib.) ; Songs and part 
songs ; Organ music. — Grove ; Brown. 

BIAGI, ALAMANNO, born in Florence, 
Dec. 20, 1806, died there, June 26, 1861. 
Violinist, pupil of tbe Florence Academy ; 
became one of the ablest orchestra conduc- 
tors of his time, aud conducted for many 
years the music at the grand-ducal court of 
Tuscan}-. He has left compositions in every 
branch, excepting the dramatic ; among bis 
instrumental works, a quartet for strings, 
which won a jjrize, is especially noteworthy. 
— Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 87. 

BIAGI, ALESSANDRO, born at Flor- 
ence, Jan. 20, 1819, died, Feb. 28, 1884. 
Pianist, instructed by one of his broth- 
ers, then at tbe Academy pupil of Geremia 
Sbolci and Palafuti on the pianoforte, and 
of Nencini in counterpoint ; he won the 
first i^rize in both classes, and in 1857 be- 
came professor at the Academy, succeeding 
Palafuti. Works : La secchia rapita, opera 
buffii, given at Florence, Teatro de la Per- 
gola, 1830 ; Gonzalvo di Cordova, opera, 
ib., Teatro Nazionale, 1857 ; Cantico di Zac- 
caria, for four voices, cboiiis, and orchestra 
(1858); Padre Nostro (Dante); Pianoforte 
pieces and songs. — Fctis, Supph'meut, i. 

BL\L, RUDOLF, born at Habelschwerdt, 
Silesia, Aug. 26, 1834, died iu New York, 
Nov. 13, 1881. Violinist, until 1853, in the 
theatre orchestra at Breslau, tben made 
a concert tour to Africa and Australia 
with his brother, the pianist Karl Bial 
(born in 1833) ; settled in Berlin, where he 


was Conzertmeister of Kroll's orcbestra, 
then (1864) Kapellmeister at tbe Walluer 
Theater, later director of the Italian ojj- 
era, and finally established a concert en- 
terprise in New York. Works : Herr von 
Papillon, operetta, text by Fellechuer, given 
in Berlin, Wallner Theater, January, 1870 ; 
Der Liebesriug, opera butia, three acts, 
text by Fellechner, ib., Friedrich-Wilhelm- 
stildtisches Theater, Dec. 4, 1875 ; Ein 
kluger JMaun, ib., January-, 187G ; Many or- 
chestral pieces. — Mendel. 

BIANCA ; or, The Bravo's Bride, grand 
opera in four acts, text by Palgrave Simp- 
son, music by Balfe, represented at Covent 
Garden, London, Dec. 6, 18G0. The libretto 
is founded on Matthew Gregory Lewis's 
romance, " The Bravo of Venice " (1804), 
which also served as a melodrama under the 
title of " Rugantino " (1805). This opera, 
jjroduced by the Pyne Harrison Company, 
achieved a legitimate success. — Barret, 
Balfe, 235. 

BIANCA CAPELLO, opera, text by Jules 
Barbier, music by Salomon, represented at 
Antwerp, Feb. 1, 188G. It had a moderate 

BIANCA E FALIERO, Italian opera, text 
after Manzoni's " Coute di Carmaguola," 
music bj' Rossini, represented at La Scala, 
Milan, Dec. 26, 1819. One of Rossini's 
failures ; some of its best numbers were 
transferred by him to other operas. 

BLANCA E FERNANDO, Italian opera, 
music by Bellini, represented at Naples, 
June 30, 1826. Interpreted by Rubini, 
Lablache, and Mme Mt'ric-Lalande, this 
work met with success, but it is now for- 

BIANCHI, ANTONIO, born in Milan in 
1758, died (?). Dramatic singer and com- 
poser, made his musical studies in Milan, 
and appeared successfully there, and at 
Genoa, Paris, and Hanover. For a time in 
the service of the Duke of Nassau, he ob- 
tained an engagement in Berlin in 1793-97, 
then sang in Hamburg, Breslau, Di-esden, 
Leipsic, and Brunswick. Works : Die Insel 

der Alcina, given in Berlin, 1794 ; Fileno e 
Clorinda, intermezzo pastorale, ib., 1796 ; 
Die Eutfiihrung, oder das Feldlager, by De- 
seuzano, ballet ; French and ItaUan songs. 
— Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; Mendel. 

BIANCHI, ELIODORO, Italian com- 
poser, contemporary. He is the author of 
Gara d' amore, Italian opera, rejsreseuted 
at Bari, July, 1873. 

BI.INCHI, FRANCESCO, born at Cre- 
mona, Italj-, in 1752, died by suicide at 
Hammersmith, London, Nov. 27, 1810. 
Dramatic composer. At iirst maestro di cap- 
pella in Cremona, he became a member of 
the orchestra of the Italian Oj^era, Paris, in 
1775, assistant conductor of S. Ambrogio, 
Milan, in 1784, and second organist of S. 
Marco, Venice, in 1785. About 1796 he 
went to London, where he was connected 
for seven years with the King's Theatre. 
During the last ten years of his life he was 
occupied chiefly in teaching, numbering 
among his pupils Sir Henry Bishop and 
others who won eminence. His operas, 
pleasing but with little originahty, are now 
forgotten. Works — Operas : La reduction 
de Paris, given in Paris, Comedie Italienne, 
1775 ; Le mort marie, ili., 1777 ; Castor e 
Polluce, Florence, 1780 ; Venere e Adone, 
ib., 1781 ; II trionfo della pace, Venice, 
1782 ; Demofooute, Ai-bace, ib., 1783 ; Cajo 
Mario, Naples, 1784 ; Briseide, Turin, 1784 ; 
La caccia d' Enrico IV., Venice, 1784 ; As- 
parde, jirincipe Battriano, Rome, 1784 ; H 
Medonte, Reggio, 1785 ; II dissertore, Ven- 
ice, 1785 ; La villanella rapita, 1785 ; Pi- 
ramo e Tisbe, La vergiue del sole, Venice, 
1786 ; Scipione Africano, La secchia rapita, 
Naples, 1787 ; L' orfauo della China, Ven- 
ice, 1787 ; Pizarro, ib., 1788 ; Mesenzio, Na- 
ples, 1788 ; Alessaudi-o nell' Indie, Brescia, 
1788; Tarara, Venice, 1788; B ritratto, 
Naples, 1788 ; L' Inglese stravagante, Bo- 
logna, 1789 ; H gatto, Brescia, 1789 ; La 
morte di Giulio Cesare, Venice, 1789 ; L' 
Arniinio, Florence, 1790 ; La dama bizarra, 
Rome, 1790; Cajo Ostilio, ib., 1791; Se- 
leuco, Leghorn, 1792; II finto Astrologo, 



Turiu, 1792 ; La capricciosa ravveduta, 
Venice, 1793 ; L' Olandese in Venezia, ib., 
1794 ; Lo stravagante, ib., 1795 ; Zenobia, 
Inez de Castro, Aci e Galatea, London, 
1797; Seiuiramide, Venice, 1798; Meropo 
(his best work), London, 1790. Oratorios : 
Agar ; Joas.- Fetis ; do., Siipijlemeiit, i. 88 ; 
Gerber, N. Lex.; Schilling. 

Venice about 1530. Vocal composer, cano- 
uicus regularis of S. Salvatore, Venice, then 
chaplain of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. 
Most of his works are lost ; those still ex- 
tant are : Canzoni Napoletaue a tre voci 
(Venice, 1572) ; Sacri concentus, octo voci- 
bus, etc. (ib., 1609) ; Motets in Abraham 
Schad's "Promptuarium musicuuj." — Fetis ; 
Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schilling. 

Casola, near Siena, Italy, in the last quarter 
of the 16th century, died at Siena, aged 
thirty-five. He is said to have been one of 
the first contrapuntists who wrote on the 
basso continuo. He was maestro di cap- 
pella of the cathedral at Siena about IGOO, 
and Accademico intronato. Works : 3 books 
of motets, for 4, 5, 6, and 8 voices (Venice, 
Gardano, 1596-1607) ; 4 books of motets 
for 2, 3, and 4 voices, with organ (1599- 
1608) ; 3 books of motets without organ 
(1600) ; 2 books of masses for 4 and 8 
voices, without organ (Venice, Gardano, 
1604-5) ; Psalms for 4 voices (Venice, 1604). 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

VON, born in 
Wartenberg, Bo- 
hemia, in 1644, 
died in Salzburg, 
May 3, 1704. 
He was a famous 
violinist and 
composer for the 
violin, and one 
of the chief, if 
not the chief, 
founders of the German violin school. His 

Emperor Leopold I., besides other gifts, 
presented him with a patent of uobility. 
He was probably the first German who tried 
to raise the art of violin writing above the 
level of a mere display of virtuosity ; his 
style, if closely related to that of his best 
Italian contemporaries, is noted for a cer- 
tain Teutonic severity and pathos. Judg- 
iu"' from his compositions, his technique, 
both in double-stopping and bowing, was 
very considerable ; he seems to have been 
the first to alter the usual tuning of the 
violin to facilitate polyphonic inlaying in 
otherwise unfavorable keys. He was liber- 
ally patronized by the princes Ferdinand 
Marie and Maximilian Emanuel of Bavaria, 
and during the latter part of his life he ex- 
ercised the functions of high steward and 
maestro di cappella to the Prince Ai'cli- 
bishop of Salzburg. Published works : Six 
sonatas for violin and continuo (Salzburg, 
1681 ; the sixth of these in Ferdinand David's 
"Hohe Schule des Violinspiels," Leii> 
sic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; Fidicinium sacro- 
jsrofanum, 12 sonatas for four and five in- 
struments (Nuremberg, no date) ; Harmonia 
artificioso-ariosa in septem partes vel parti- 
tas distributa, for 3 instruments (Nurem- 
berg, no date) ; Souat:e du?e tarn aris quam 
aulis servientes (Salzburg, 1676) ; Vesperpe 
longiores ac breviores, una cum litauis Laure- 
tanis a quatuor vocibus, duobus violin, et 
duabus violis in concerto, additis quatuor 
vocibus in capella, atque tribus trombonis 
ex ripienis desumendis ad libitum (Salz- 
burg, 1693). The MS. of a Dramma musi- 
cale is in the Salzburg Museum. Biber's 
portrait was engraved in Germany in his 
thirty-sixth year. — Wasielewski, Die Violine 
und ihre Meister, 148 ; Grove, i. 240. 

BIBL, ANDREAS, born in Vienna, April 
8, 1797, died there, April 30, 1878. Organ- 
ist, pupil of Josef Preindl, and so proficient 
that he became organist of the parish church 
of St. Leopold in 1816, and of St. Stephen's 
Cathedral and St. Peter's Clinrch in 1818. 
Works — For organ : 12 preludes, op. 3 (Vi- 

reputatiou was great in his day, and the , enna, Diabelli) ; 32 versets, op. 7 (ib.) ; do. 



cadences, op. 10 (ib.) ; 3 preludes, op. 11 
(ib.) ; do., op. 13 (ib.) ; do., op. 15 (Vienna, 
Haslinger) ; Preludes for use at church 
festivals, op. 12 (Vienna, Diabelli) ; 20 pre- 
ludes for requiem masses, op. 16 (ib.) ; 
Fugue, op. 17 (ib.) ; Prelude and fugue, 
op. 23 (ib.) ; 2 fugues on themes by Al- 
brechtsberger (ib.) ; do. on themes by 
Preindl (ib.). Church music : Salve Eegina 
for four voices and organ, op. 5 (Vienna, 
Mechetti) ; 3 Ave Maria for do., op. 6 (ib.) ; 
2 Tantum ergo for do., op. 8 (Vienna, Dia^ 
belli) ; In te Domine speravi, gradual for i 
voices, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double- 
bass, and organ, oj). 9 (ib.) ; Lsetamini in 
Domino, offertory for tenor, chorus, 2 vio- 
lins, viola, violoncello, double-bass, organ, 
2 oboes, 2 trumpets, trombones, and drums, 
op. 18 (ib.) ; Ave Maria, gradual for 4 
voices, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double- 
bass, organ obligato, 2 clarinets, and 2 bas- 
soons, op. 19 (ib.) ; Mass for 4 voices, 2 
violins, viola, bass, 2 clarinets, 2 horns, 2 
trumpets, drums, and organ, op. 20 (Vi- 
enna, Haslinger) ; Tantum ergo for soprano, 
chorus, and oi'chesfra, op. 21 (ib.) ; do. for 
contralto, chorus, and orchestra, op. 22 (ib.). 
His son Rudolf (born in Vienna, Jan. C, 
1832) jiupil of Sechter, became organist at 
St. Stephen's in 1859, and of the Imperial 
Chajiel in 1SG3. He has composed church 
and chamber music of considerable merit. 
— Allgem. "Wiener mus. Zeitg. (1811), No. 
34 ; Fc'tis ; Wurzbach. 

BIBLIS, opera in five acts, text by Fleury, 
music by Lacoste, represented at the Opera, 
Paris, Nov. 6, 1732. Subject, the love of 
Byblis for her own brother Caunus, as re- 
lated by Ovid (Met., ix. 446-4G5). 

BIEGO, PAOLO, born in Venice about 
1650. Dramatic composer, author of tbeoi^e- 
ras : Ottone il Grande, given in Venice, 1688 ; 
Fortuna tra le disgrazie, Pertinace, ib., 1689. 

poser, born at Genoa, contemporary. He 
is author of 11 conscritto, opera buffa, 
given at San Pietro d' Arena, Piedmont, 
1841 ; and Ettore Fieramosca. 

in Dresden, July 25, 1772, died at Breslau, 
May 5, 1840. Dramatic composer ; pupil 
of his father, a professor of music, and of 
Weinlig in harmony and composition. He 
was director of music in several travelling 
opera companies, and in 1807 in Vienna, 
where Lis opera of Wladimir was played 
with much success. This procured him the 
appointment of Kapellmeister at Breslau to 
succeed C M. von Weber, and in 1824 he 
became director of the theatre there. He 
resigned in 1828, and lived alternately at 
Leipsic, Weimar, Wiesbaden, and Mainz, 
but ultimately returned to Breslau. Works : 
Of his 26 operas, mostly comic, the most 
prominent are : Der Zauberhain, given at 
Ballenstiidt, 1799 ; Das Blumenmiidchen, 
Leipsic, 1802 ; Klara, Herzogin von Breta- 
nien, ib., 1803 ; Rosette, das Schwerzermiid- 
chen, ib., 1806 ; Der Uberfall, Breslau, 
1809 ; Der Gemsenjiiger, Das unsichtbare 
Miidchen, ib., 1811 ; Almazinde, oder die 
Hohle Sesam, Berlin, 1814 ; Pj-ramus und 
Thisbe, Breslau, 1814 ; Der Apfeldieb ; Jery 
und Bsitely ; Der Madchenmarkt ; Die bose 
Frail ; Liebesabenteuer ; Der betrogene Be- 
triiger. Cantatas : Die Sachsen im Lager ; 
Das Opfer der Menschenliebe ; Die Feier 
des Friihlings (3 under this title) ; Der Sieg 
Amors ; II Tributo di rispetto e d' amore, 
cantata on the death of Duke Ferdinand of 
Brunswick ; Das Erndtefest ; L' Inverno, 
ovvero la provida pastorella ; Osterkantate 
(Leipsic, 1805) ; Overtures and marches for 
orchestra ; Several collections of songs with 
pianoforte (Berlin, Leipsic, and Breslau). — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 628 ; Allgem. mus. 
Zeit., iv. 516 ; vi. 207, 803 ; xiii. 241, 843 ; 
xlii. 506 ; Fi'tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Schil- 

BIFFI, ANTONIO, flourished in Venice, 
died there in March, 1736. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Legrenzi ; became maestro 
di cappella at San Marco in 1701, and was 
also professor at the Conservatorio de' 
Mendicanti. Works : II Figliuolo prodigo, 
given in Venice, 1704 ; 7 psalms for two 



and three voices (iu the Eoyal Library, 
Berlin). A large number of Ins composi- 
tions is to be found in the Santini col- 
lection, Rome. — Fi'tis; Nemeitzen, Nachlese 
besonderer Naclirichten von Italien (Leipsie, 
172(i), '49. 

BIFFI, GIUSEPPE, born at Cesano, 
Lombardy, about the middle of the Ifith 
century. Vocal composer, maestro di cap- 
pella to Cardinal Andrea Battori, after- 
wards court composer to the Duke of Wiir- 
teinberg. "Works: Libro di madrigali a 
quattro voci (Brescia, 1582) ; do. a cinque 
voci (Venice, 159!)) ; do. (Milan) ; do. a sei 
voci (Nuremberg, IGOO) ; Cantiones sex vo- 
cum (Nurendjerg, 1596). — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BIGAGLIA, Padre DIOGENIO, lived in 
Venice about the beginning of the 18th 
century. Dramatic composer ; Benedictine 
monk of the convent of S. Giorgio Maggiore. 
Works : Giaele, opera, given in Venice, 1731 ; 
Dodici sonate a violino solo ossia flauto (Am- 
sterdam, 1725) ; Siam soli, Erminie, cantata ; 
In Serena coeli scena, motet for alto solo, 
two violins, viola, violoncello, and organ. 
Mail}' of his MS. works are j^reserved in the 
convent of his order. — Gerber, N. Lex. ; Men- 
del ; Nemeitzen, Nachrichten von Italien, 53. 

BIGATTI, CARLO, born in Milan, Feb. 
12, 1779, died there in November, 1854. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Vincenzo C'a- 
nobbio on the pianoforte, then at Bologna 
of Padre Mattel, and at Loreto of Zingarelli. 
In 1801 he went to France, spent several 
years at Marseilles, and returned in 1809 to 
MUan, where he afterwards became maes- 
tro di cappella at Santa JIaria Jlaggiore. 
Works : II Fanatico, opera bufl'a, given at 
Marseilles, 1804 ; Theodore et Jenny, 
French opera, ib., 1808 ; L' Amante prigio- 
niero, Milan, Scala, 1809 ; L' Albergo nia- 
gico, ib., Teatro di Sta. Radegonda, 1811 ; 
La Scoperta inaspettata ; Astuzie contra as- 
tuzie ; I Furbi al cimento, Venice, 1819 ; 
Symphouie concertante for two horns, with 
orchestra ; O sacrum convivium, for three 
voices ; Theme and variations for pianoforte. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

BIJOU PERDU, LE (The Lost Jewel), 
opera-comique in three acts, text by de 
Leuven and de Forges, music by Adolj)he 
Adam, rej^resented at the Theatre Lyrique, 
Paris, Oct. G, 1853. Subject, the history 
of a watch which passes from hand to hand, 
from the boudoir of Mme Coquilliere, to 
the Marquis d'Angennes and others, until it 
comes into the possession of Toinette, the 
gardener's daughter, who restores it to the 
marquis on condition that he relieves her 
lover from militar}' duty. 

BILDER AUS OSTEN (Pictures from 
the East), 6 inqiromptus for pianoforte for 
four hands, by Robert Schumann, op. 66, 
composed in 1848. Dedicated to Frau Lida 
Bendemann (born Schadow). Orchestral 
transcription by Reinecke. First published, 
Fr. Kistner (Leipsie, 1849) ; edition of Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel, Schumann's Werke, Series 
VI., No. 2. 

BILETTA, EMANUELE, Italian com- 
poser, contemporarj-. He is the author of 
La rose de Florence, opera in two acts, 
text by Saint-Georges, represented at the 
Opera, Paris, Nov. 10, 1856. 

BILHON (Billon), JEAN DE, French 
composer of the end of the 15th and begin- 
ning of the 16th century. He resided in 
Rome, where he was a singer in the Pon- 
tifical Chapel. In its archives are masses 
by him, composed on themes of old French 
chansons. Other works may be found in 
different collections.- — Fetis. 

GUST, born at Alt-Stettin, Pomerania, 
Sept. 14, 1821, died in Berlin, Dec. 22, 
1875. Di'amatic comjDOser, pupil of the 
musical director Montu on the pianoforte, 
and of Karl Loewe, then studied in Berlin 
at the Organ Institute and iu the composi- 
tion class of the Royal Academy, w'here be 
took the first prize in 1847. He greatly 
influenced musical life in Berlin, founded 
a singing society, and after 1857 devoted 
himself to researches and writing, especially 
in the field of musical archaeology and the 
science of instruments. Grand gold medal 



for science aucl art. Works : Y^isilauti, 
opera (IbiTj ; Der Liebesring, do. ; Christi 
Geburt, oratorio ; Symphony in D major ; 
Te Deum, for cborus, orchestra, and mili- 
tary baud (for the coronation of King 
WiUiam L); Cantata for the silver wed- 
ding of King William (Berlin, Schlesinger) ; 
Psalms ; Overtures ; Sacred and secular 
songs. — Mendel. 

born of Fi-ench parents, at St. Petersburg, 
March U, 1S17, still living, 1888. Pianist, 
pujoil of Ziranierniann at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, which he entered in 1833. In 183.5 
he won the second prize, and with his 
brother, who had studied the violoncello at 
the same time, went to Geneva, where both 
taught and appeai-ed succe.ssfully in public 
for several years. In 1841 he visited Italy, 
Germany, and Russia, lived for several years 
in London, then settled in Paris. His com- 
2)ositions, consisting of fantaisies, nocturnes, 
caprices, etudes, etc., for pianoforte, were 
published in the several countries he had 
visited. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

tery Ticket), opera-comique in one act, text 
by Roger and Creuze de Lesser, music by 
Isouard, rejiresented at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, Sept. 14, 1811. It had a prolonged 
success in Paris and in the provincial cities. 

comitjue in three acts, text by de Leuven 
and Brunswick, music by Gevacrt, repre- 
sented at the Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Oct. 
7, 1854. 

BILLETER, AGATHON, born at Miln- 
nedorf, Ziirich, Nov. 21, 1834, died at Burg- 
dorf, Feb. 8, 1881. Vocal com2)oser, pupil 
of the Leipsic Conservatorium ; organist 
and musical director at Burgdorf, Switzer- 
land. He has composed very puisular cho- 
ruses for male voices. — Riemann. 

BILLINGS, WILLIA:M, born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, Oct. 7, 1746, died in Boston, 
Sept. 26, 1800. He has been considered 
the founder of American church music, as 
before his time the Colonies had only the 

ft w tunes that had been brought from Eng- 
land. Being entirely self-taught, his theo- 
retical knowledge of music was very limited, 
but his pieces give evidence of some talent, 
and at one time his music became so pop- 
ular that it was used in the churches almost 
exclusively. He published six collections 
of music : The New England Psalm Singer 
(1770) ; The Singing Masters Assistant 
(1778) ; Music in Miniature (1779) ; The 
Psalm Singer's Amusement (1781) ; The 
Suffolk Harmony (1786) ; The Continental 
Harmony (1794). In these collections the 
tunes were, with few exceptions, his own. 
The Lord is risei^ indeed, anthem. 

BILLINGTON, THOMAS, born (?), died 
af Naples in May, 1797. Harpist and jji- 
anist ; music teacher and member of the 
orchestra at Drury Lane Theatre in Lon- 
don until 1786, when he elojsed with the 
afterwards famous singer Elizabeth Billing- 
ton to Dublin, and subsequently accom- 
jjanied her on her travels. According to 
Grove's dictionary he was not the husband, 
but 23i"obably the brother-in-law of Eliza- 
beth. Works : 12 canzonette for two voices 
(London, Preston, 1795-97) ; 6 songs (ib.) ; 
6 sonatas for pianoforte (ib.) ; Sonata for 4 
hands (Amsterdam, Schmidt) ; Sonata for 
harjisichord with violin (Paris, 1796) ; Ma- 
ria's Evening Service ; Gray's " Elegy ; " 
Pope's "Elegy to the Memory of an Un- 
fortunate Lady ; " Pope's " Eloisa to Abe- 
lard ; " 24 ballads to Shenstone's Pastorals ; 
Prior's Garland ; Petrarch's Laura ; Laura's 
Wedding-day ; Children in the Wood ; 
Young's "Night Thoughts;" Glees (all in 
London, Clementi). — Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; 

BILSE, BENJAMIN, born at Liegnitz, 
Silesia, Aug. 17, 1816, still living, 1888. 
Orchestra conductor, first in his native city, 
whence for many years he made regular 
concert tours, meeting everywhere with brill- 
iant success. After his great triumph dur- 
ing the exhibition in Paris, 1867, he settled 
in Berlin. He has composed a great num- 
ber of dances and marches. — Mendel. 



BINCHOIS, KGIDE (or Gilles), born at 
Biucli, uear Moiis, Haiuault, about 1-tOO, 
died iu Mous, 1452-14G5. He was a soldier 
iu Lis youtli ; iu 1438 Pljilipp the Good 
grauted him a prebend iu the Cliurch of S. 
Waudru at Mous, and iu 1452 lie is men- 
tioned as second chaplain. Together with 
Dufay, Binohois was one of the most famous 
composers of the first Flemish school ; his 
reputation reached as far as Italy, although 
he seems never to have visited that country. 
Very few of his compositions have been pre- 
served. There is a three-voice mass in the 
Brussels Library, aud some three -voice 
French chansons iu the libraries of the Vat- 
ican, Rome, and of Paris. Kiesewetter's de- 
ciphering of the song '-Ce mois de Mai," 
dedicated to Dufay (iu Gallerie der alteu 
Contrapunktisteu), is jjrobably wrong. — Am- 
bros, ii. 458. 

BINDER, KARL, born iu Vienna, Nov. 
29, 181G, died there, Nov. 5, 1860. Dra- 
matic composer, Kapellmeister at the Josef- 
stildter Theater of bis native city, 1839-47, 
then in Hamburg, at Presburg, Hungary, 
and finally again in Vienna, where he also 
taught vocal music. Works : Der Wiener 
Schusterhut, melodrama, Vienna, about 

1840 ; Die drei Wittfrauen, opera, ib., about 

1841 ; Purzel, vaudeville, ib., about 1843 ; 
Overture and choruses to the drama Elmar ; 
Psalms, with grand orchestra ; Songs, with 
pianoforte. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BING, JACOB, born blind at Eschenbach, 
Wiirtemberg, July IG, 1821, died at Freiburg, 
Breisgau, April 17, 1841. Organist, pianist, 
and violinist, educated at the Institute for the 
Blind at Freiburg. Works : Overture for 
graud orchestra ; Mass (1836) ; String quar- 
tets and trios ; Sacred songs for 4 voices ; 
Songs, with jjianoforte. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

WICHEN, choral, to the melody : " Werde 
raunter, mein Gemiithe," iu A major, iu 
Johann Sebastian Bach's Passion nach Mat- 
thiius. Part II. 

BION, opera-comique iu one act, iu verse, 
text by Hoii'man, music by Mchul, first 

represented at the Opera Comique, Paris, iu 
1801. Agenor, a young Athenian, perceiv- 
ing that Bion is in love with Nyaa, endeav- 
ours to throw obstacles iu his way. Bion 
mystifies Agenor and finally wins Nysa. 

BIONDINA, twelve melodies to Italian 
words by Zaffira, music by Gounod, iu the 
stj'le of the Tuscan storncllo. 

BIONI, ANTONIO, born iu Venice iu 
1G98, died after 1738. Dramatic composer, 
pupil in harmony and counterpoint of Gio- 
vanni Porta. He went to Ferrara in 1722, 
and, as musical director of an Italian opera 
troupe, to Breslau in 1726. In the next 
nine years he wrote twenty-one operas, and 
assumed the managemeut of the Italian 
theatre at Breslau in 1730. After the dis- 
banding of the troupe in 1733 he is lost 
sight of, but seems to have been iu Vienna 
in 1738, and afterwards probably returned 
to Italy. The Elector of Mainz conferred 
on him the title of court composer in 1731. 
Works : Climene, given at Naples, 1721 ; 
Udine, Venice, 1722 ; Cajo Mario, Mitridate, 
Ferrara, 1722 ; Orlando furioso, Baden, 
1724 ; Ai'mida abbandouata, Armida al 
campo, Breslau, 172G ; Endimione — pasto- 
rale, Lucio Vero, Ai'iodante, Attale ed Arsi- 
noe, ib., 1727 ; Artabauo, Filindo — pastorale 
eroica, Nissa ed Elpino, ib., 1728 ; La Fede 
tradita e vendicata, Engelberta, Audromac- 
ca, ib., 1729 ; Ercole sul Termodonte, ib., 
1730 ; Lucio Papirio, Siroe, re di Persia, 
Silvia, ib., 1731 ; La Verita sconosciuta, ib., 
1732 ; Alessandro Severo, 1' Odio jjlficato, 
Alessandro nell' Indie, ib., 1733 ; Girita, 
Vienna, 1738. — Fetis; Gerber, N. Lex.; 

BIORDI, GIOVANNI, born in Rome iu 
the latter half of the 17th century. Cantor 
of the Pontifical Chapel iu 1717, aud in 1722 
maestro di cappella of S. Giacomo, Rome. 
Nearly all the churches of Rome own works 
by this master, and his music is still sung 
at the Pontifical Chapel. The Abbate San- 
tini's collection contains : Motetti e salmi, 4 
voci ; Miserere, for two choirs ; Lauda Sion, 
for two choirs ; Litanies for four voices ; 


Lietatus sum, for six voices, composed for 
the Pontifical Chapel ; Christus factus est, 
for 6 voices, with chorus di ripieno. 
— Fetis ; Meudel ; Schilling. 

born at Alsfeld, Hesse, Feb. 19, 1687, died 
at Eisenach, Feb. 26, 1733. Instrumental 
composer, pupil at Cassel of Euggiero Fe- 
deli, then in Berlin of Volumier, at Bay- 
reuth of Fiorelli, and finally in Paris (1709- 
10) of de Val. After his return to Cassel 
he was made court musician, in 1721 first 
violinist, and 1725 Kapellmeister, in which 
capacity he accepted a call to Eisenach in 
1730. Works : 12 sonatas for violin with 
basso continue (Amsterdam, 1722) ; 12 do. 
(ib., 1730) ; 12 concertos for 4 violins obli- 
gati, viola, violoncello, and continue 
(ib., 1730).— Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

BIRD, AETHUE, born of American par- 
entage, in Watertown, Massachusetts, July 
23, 1856, still living, 1888. In 1872-7G he 
studied in Germany, and in 1881 he again 
went to Europe, where lie was at different 
times a pupil of Liszt, Hauptmann, Loesch- 
horn, Arbach, and Eode. His compositions 
consist of a symphony for orchestra ; 2 
pieces for pianoforte and violin ; 3 marches 
for pianoforte ; 3 waltzes for pianoforte ; 
and other pianoforte jjieces. 

BIED. See Bijrd. 

at Bochau, Wiirtemberg, May 23, 1820, still 
living, 1888. Church comi^oser, pupil of 
his father on the pianoforte and organ, and 
in singing, then at the Wilhelmstift at Tii- 
bingen, where he studied theology, influ- 
enced especially bj' Professor Aberle. He 
became a learned writer on classical music, 
and is now professor at the Gymnasium of 
Ehningen. He has composed masses, ves- 
per psalms, etc., for mixed and male chorus. 
— Mendel. 

HEINEICH, born at Breslau, Jan. 8, 1795, 
died in Berlin, Aug. 24, 1879. Pianist, son 
and pupil of Karl Josef Birnbach, and stu- 

dent of Friedrich M. Kilhler in thorough 
bass. He made a concert tour to Warsaw 
when a boy of eight years, became Kapell- 
meister at the theatre and of a church in 
Pesth about 1813, but returned in 1814 to 
Breslau, where he taught until 1821, when 
he settled in Berlin. In 1833 he founded 
there a musical institute, and formed a 
number of pupils of such note as Nicolai, 
Dehn, Kiicken, etc. During the latter part 
of his activity be had become entirely blind. 
Works : Two symphonies for orchestra ; 
Two overtures for do.; Concertos for piano- 
forte, for clarinet, oljoe, guitar ; Sonatas for 
jjianoforte ; Duos ; Quintet, etc. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

at Breslau, 1782, died in Berlin, Dec. 31, 
1840. Violoncellist, son of Karl Josef Birn- 
bach and pupil of Anton Kraft in Vienna, 
where he had obtained an engagement in 
the orchestra of the Theater an der Wien. 
In 1804-G he was chamber musician to 
Prince Lubomirski at Landshut, Galicia ; in 
1807 be entered the opera orchestra in 
Vienna as guitar player, and returned to 
Landshut in 1822, having in the meanwhile 
played the violoncello in the theatre orches- 
tra at Pesth, after 1812. On the erection 
of the Kunigstiidter Theater in Berlin, 1824, 
he accepted an engagement there, became 
chamber musician in the royal orchestra 
in 1825, and was pensioned in 1831. He 
composed concertos and variations for vio- 
loncello, and many pieces for the guitar. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

pernick, near Neisse, Silesia, 1751, died at 
W^arsaw, May 29, 1805. Violinist and 
dramatic composer, pupil of Dittersdorf, 
who pi-ocured him a position in Breslau, 
whence he went to Berlin in 1795, and be- 
came chamber musician in the royal orches- 
tra. In 1803 he went to Warsaw with his 
son Heinrich, and accepted an engagement 
as Kapellmeister of the German theatre 
there in 1804, but fell victim to an epidemic. 
Works : Saphire, opera, given at Breslau 



about 1783 ; Die Fiscliweiber vou Paris, 
do., ib. ; Oratorios and cantatas ; Masses ; 
10 symphonies for orchestra ; IG concertos 
for pianoforte ; 10 do. for viohu ; 20 quar- 
tets for strings ; several quintets for do. ; 25 
sonatas for pianoforte ; 15 soli for violin, 
etc. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

tenor air in A major of Jonathan, in Han- 
del's Saul, Part I. 

at Nieder-Rublingen, Weimar, Dec. 24, 
1807, still living, 1888. Composer, j)ui3il 
in Berlin of A. W. Bach, Rungenhagen, and 
Grell. He accejjted a call to Stargard, 
Pomerania, in 1843, and afterwards re- 
ceived the title of roj'al director of music. 
Works : Der Christ, oratorio ; Joas, do. ; 
Quartets, and other chamber music ; Blotets, 
etc. — Mendel. 

Ansbach, April 7, 1823, still living, 1888. 
Composer, pupil of Ett and Stuutz in 
Munich, then studied in Leipsic, 1847-49, 
and settled at Frankfort. W'orks : Maske 
und Mantille, oj)era, given at Frankfort, 
1852; Symphony; Overture to Hamlet; 
Cantatas ; Psalms ; Quartets for strings ; 
Songs and part-songs. — ^lendel. 

in London, Nov. 
18, 178G, died 
there, April 30, 
1855. Dramatic 
comj)oser, i)upil 
of Francesco Bi- 
anchi. He began 
to compose at an 
early age, but 
was first brought 
into notice by 
his opera of The 

Circassian Bride, produced at Drury Lane 
Theatre in 1809. Unfortunately the theatre 
was burned the night after (Feb. 24th) and 
the score was lost, but its reception procur- 
ed him in 1810 the position of musical di- 
rector at Covent Garden Theatre. In 1S18 

he was one of the founders of the Philhar- 
monic Society, of which he took his turn as 
conductor, and in lcS20 he visited Dublin 
and received the freedom of the city. He 
was conductor at Drur^' Lane Theatre in 
1825, musical director at Vauxhall Gardens 
in 1830, musical director at Covent Garden 
Theatre in 1840-41. conductor of the An- 
tient Concerts in 1840-48, professor of mu- 
sic in Edinburgh University in 1841-43, and 
professor of music in Oxford University in 
1848. He received the degree of Bachelor 
of Music at Oxford in 1839, and of Doctor 
of Music in 1853, and was knighted in 1842. 
Bishop jjroduced more than a hundred op- 
eras, operettas, burlettas, ballets, and other 
dramatic pieces, of which at least two-thirds 
were entirely by him, and the rest adajita- 
tious or works written in collaboration with 
Davy, Reeve, Whittaker, and others. He 
was esjjecially strong in vocal music and 
one of the best of the English lyrical com- 
posers. Works — Operas and musical dra- 
mas : Angelina, farce, London, 1804 ; Ta- 
nierlau et Bajazet, ballet, ib., 180G ; Narcisse 
et les Graces, ballet, ib., ISOG ; Caractacus, 
ballet, ib., 180G ; Love in a Tub, ballet, ib., 
180G ; The Mysterious Bride, ib., 1808 ; The 
Circassian Bride, The Vintagers, 1809 ; Mo- 
ra"s Love, ballet, 1809 ; Tlio Maniac, or 
Swiss Banditti, 1810; The Knight of Suow- 
don, 1811 ; The Virgin of the Sun, The 
^thiop, or Child of the Desert, The Kene- 
gade, 1812 ; Haroun Alraschid (altered from 
the iEthiop), The Brazen Bust, Harry Le 
Roy, The Miller and his Men, For England, 
Ho !, 1813 ; Tlie Farmer's Wife (with Keeve 
and Davy), The Wandering Boys, or The 
Castle of Clival, Sadak and Kalasrade, or 
The Waters of Oblivion, Tlie Grand Alliance, 
The Forest of Bondj', or Dog of Montargis, 
Dr. Sangi-ado, ballet, The Maid of the Mill, 
comic opera, Brother and Sister (with Reeve), 
John of Paris (adajjted from Boieldieu), 

1814 ; The Noble Outlaw, Telemachus, Co- 
mus, jNIagpie or the Maid, John du Bart, 

1815 ; A Midsummer Night's Dream, Royal 
Nuptials, intermezzo, Guy ]\Iannering, or 


the Gypsy's Prophecy (with Whittaker), The 
Slave, opera, Who Wants a Wife?, melo- 
drama, 181G ; The Heir of Verona, or Hon- 
esty the best Policy (with Whittaker), The 
Humorous Lieutenant, Tlie Father and his 
Children, melodrama, The Duke of Savoy, or 
Wife and Mistress, The Libertine (adapted 
from Don Giovanni), 1817 ; Zuma, or The 
Tree of Health, comic opera (with Braham), 
The Illustrious Traveller, December and 
May, Barber of Seville (adapted from Ros- 
sini), 1818; The Heart of Midlothian, A 
Roland for an Oliver, The Gnome King, or 
The Giant Mountains, Swedish Patriotism, 
The Comedy of Errors, Fortunatus and his 
Sons, melodrama. Marriage of Figaro 
(adapted from Mozart), 1819; The Anti- 
quary, The Battle of Bothwell Brigg, Henri 
Quatre, or Paris in the Olden Time, Tvt'elfth 
Night, Don John, or The Two Violettas, 
Montrose, or The Children of the Mist, 
1820 ; The Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1821 ; 
The Law of Java, Maid Marian, or The 
Huntress of Arlingford, opera, 1822 ; Clari, 
or The Maid of Milan, opera. The Beacon of 
Liberty, Cortez, or The Conquest of Mexico, 
1823 ; Native Land, or Return from Sla- 
very, Charles the Second, oj^eretta. As you 
like it, 1824; The Fall of Algiers, opera, 
Edward the Black Prince, Coronation of 
Charles X., Aladdin, or the Wonderful 
Lamp, opera, Faustus, 1825 ; The Knights 
of the Cross, opera, 1826 ; Englishman in 
India, 1827 ; The Night before the Wed 
ding, 1829 ; Ninetta, opera, Hofer (adapted 
from Rossini), 1830 ; Under the Oak, opera, 

1831 ; Adelaide, or The Royal William, op- 
era. The Tyrolese Peasant, Home, Sweet 
Home, operatic drama. The Magic Fan, or 
The Fillip on the Nose, operetta, The Sedan 
Chair, The Bottle of Champagne, operetta. 
The Romance of a Day, ojaeratic drama, 

1832 ; Yelva, or The Orphan of Russia, The 
Rencontre, operatic comedy, 1833 ; Rural 
Felicity, 1834 ; The Doom Kiss, opera, Man- 
fred, 1836 ; The Fortunate Isles, 1841 ; The 
Czar of Muscovy, opera. The Fallen Angel, 
oratorio ; The Seventh Day, cantata, 1833 ; 

Ode for the Installation of the Earl of Derby 
as Chancellor of Oxford, 1853. Glees and 
songs. — Brown ; Grove ; Fetis. 

WIEDER ? See Tm/a/t und Isolde. 

BITTONI, BERNARDO, born at Fabri- 
ano. Pontifical States, in 1755, died there, 
May 18, 1829. Organist, j)upil of one Lom- 
bardi ; lived for manj' yeavs as maestro di 
musica at Rieti, then in the same capacity in 
his native place. Alfieri wrote his biogra- 
jihy. Works : Mass for 8 voices and or- 
chestra ; Requiem Mass for 4 voices and 
several instruments ; Lauda Jerusalem, 
psalm for do.. Salve Regina, fordo.; Beatus 
vir, for do. ; Christus factus est, for do.; 
Credo for do. ; Magnificat ; Miserere ; Many 
motets, and olt'ertories, etc. ; Sonatas for the 
organ. — Fetis. 

Milan, died there in 1652. Organist, first 
at the Church della Passione, then at San 
Ambrogio, and finally at the cathedral. 
Works : A book of Magnificats for 4-8 
voices ; do. of fantasias for 4 voices ; do. of 
motets for 2-4 voices ; Caiizoni da suonar 
alia francese a 4 ed 8 voci ; and others, 
scattered in collections. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

called GEORGES, born in Paris, Oct. 25, 
,^ - 1838, died there, June 

3, 1875. He entered 
in 1848 the Conserva- 
toire, where he studied 
composition under Ha- 
levy, and won the 
prix de Rome in 1857. 
Before graduating he 
had brought out an 
operetta, Docteur Mi- 
racle, at the Bouffes Parisiens. On his re- 
turn from Italy he composed and produced 
several operas-comiques, which had but 
indifferent success. His overture, Patrie, 
and especially his interludes to Daudet's 
L'Ark'sienne (afterwards published as two 
orchestral suites) were far better received. 
The corner-stone of his fame, however, was 


the opera ('armcii, wliioli at once placed Lira 
in the foremost rank of modern French 
composers. This, and the suites L'Arle- 
sienne and Koma, are liis best-knowu works. 
He was a man of superior gifts, and of 
decidedly greater originality than other 
Fi'ench composers of his generation. He 
was an aceomijlished pianist, especially 
noted for his wonderful sight-reading of or- 
chestral scores. He married a daughter of 


€c^^ ei ^ / ? e^ 


Halevy. Great hopes were entertained of 
his future, and his sudden death was uni- 
versally lamented. Works — OjDeras : Le 
Docleur Miracle, given at the Bouifes Pari- 
siens, A25ril 9, 1857 ; Don Procopio ; La 
Guzla de I'Emir ; Les ptcheurs de perles, 
Theatre Lyrique, Sept. 30, 18G3 ; LaJoZ/efille 
de Perth," ib., Dec. 2G, 18G7 ; Numa, 1871; 
Djamileh, Oi^era Comique, May 22, 1872 ; 
Carmen, Opera Comique, June 3, 187.5 ; 
Yvan le Terrible (never performed). Other 
works : Incidental music to Daudet's VArle- 
sienne ; Overture, Pat tie ; La r//asse d'Ossian, 
overture ; Two movemenis of a sj-mphony ; 
Songs and pianoforte music. — Leipsic Sig- 
nale, June, 1875, No. 29 ; April, 1883, No. 
33 ; Grove, i. 246. 

BLACK CROOK, THE, fairy operatic 
spectacle in four acts, music by Jacobi and 
Frederick Clay, first represented at the 
Alhambra, London, December, 1872. The 
first and third acts are by Jacobi, the others 
by Clay. 

BLACK DOMINO. See Domino Noir. 

BLAHAG (Blahak), JOSEF, born at 
Raggendorf, Hungary, in 1779, died in Vi- 
enna, Dec. 15, 1846. Tenor singer at the 
Leopoldstiidter Theater, Vienna, in 1802- 
23, Kapellmeister at St. Peter's, there, in 
1824. Works : 14 masses ; 25 graduales ; 
29 offertories for one or several voices, with 

[ string instruments and organ ; 10 Tantum 
ergo, for four voices and organ ; 2 Te De- 
um. — Fotis ; Wurzbach. 

Guutramsdorf, near Vienna, Nov. 15, 1811, 
still living, 1888, at Boulogne. Pianist, 
pupil of Czeruy, then of Kalkbreuner and 
Moscheles on the pianoforte, and of Simon 
Sechter in comisosition. She excited an 
interest by her playing when only seven 
years of age, and was afterwards very suc- 
cesful on her concert tours. In 1840 she 
settled at Boulogne, and devoted herself to 
teaching. Works : Die Rauber und die 
Sanger, opera, given in Vienna, Kiirnthner- 
thor Theater, 1830 ; Concertos, sonatas, po- 
lonaises, variations, etc., for pianoforte solo, 
and with orehesti'a, or quartet, or only vio- 
lin ; Trios for pianoforte, violin, and vio- 
loncello ; Songs, with pianoforte. — Fetis ; 

BLAISE, ADOLPHE, died in Paris in 
1772. Dramatic composer, bassoon-player 
in the orchestra of the Comodie Italienne 
in 1737. He wrote many divertissements, 
entr'actes, dances, and marches for that 
stage, besides the following works : Annette 
et Lubin, given at the Theatre Italien, 1762 ; 
Isabelle ct Gertrude, ou Les sylphes sup- 
poses, ib., 1765 ; Le trompeur tromjii', il)., 
1707 ; Orjihee, Filets de Vulcain, ballets, 
given in 1738 ; Pedant, Amours de Cupi- 
don. Psyche, and other ballets. — Fetis. 

BLAISE ET BABET, opera-eomique in 
two acts, text by Monvel, music by Dezede, 
first represented at Versailles, April 4, 1783, 
and at the Comedie Italienne, Paris, June 
30, 1783. It is a sequel to Les trois fer- 
miers by the same author. It was the most 
successful of Dezede's works. 

BLAISE LE SAVETIER (Blaise the Cob- 
bler), opera-comique in one act, text by Se- 
daine, music by Philidor, first represented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, March 9, 1759. 
This opera, Philidor's first dramatic work, 
achieved for him a decided and permanent 
success. In it he showed himself to be a 
more skilful harmonist than the French 



composers of his day, thovigh his phrasiug 
often violates dramatic truth, and his pros- 
ody is defective. It was one of the works 
selected in 1762 with which to open the 
new Comcdie Italieune, and it continued to 
be a favourite for half a century. — Allen, 
Life of Philidor, 45. 

American parentage, in Walpole, Massachu- 
setts, Sept. 13, 1847, still living, 1888. Or- 
ganist, pupil of J. D. C. Parker, David Paine, 
T. P. Eyder, J. K. Paine, and Handel Pond. 
He has been organist and musical director 
in the Congregational churches, at Wrent- 
ham and at HoUiston, Mass.; in the Broom- 
field St. :\I. E. Church, Boston ; and the 
Union Church, Boston. Works — Songs : 
Both sides. The Dead Leaves rustling, Roses 
and Violets, The Cavalier's farewell, The 
Longest way 'round, Wake from thy dream- 
ing. When Pansies come again. Whisper thy 
thoughts to me, etc. ; All Hope has fled, 
duet ; Thine Own, duet ; Angels are sing- 
ing, Christmas carol ; The Way, the Truth, 
the Light, Christmas carol, etc. 

born at Versailles, Nov. 22, 1G90, died in 
Paris, Feb. 14, 1760. Dramatic com^joser. 
At first a musician in the household of the 
Duchess of Maine, he made his debut as 
a composer in 1707 with Circe, a cantata, 
which won him the notice of Lalande, who 
gave him lessons in harmony and counter- 
point. He afterwards became superintend- 
ent of the king's music. His first work for 
the stage (1723) established his reputation, 
and won him the order of St. Michael. 
Works : Les fetes grecques et romaines, 
heroic ballet, given in Paris, Opera, 1723 ; 
Diane et Eudymion, opera, ib., 1731 ; Les 
fetes de Tlietis, opera-ballet ; Les carac- 
t^res de I'amour, heroic ballet. Concert de 
la Reine, 1736, Academic Eoyale de Mu- 
sique, 1738 ; Les amours du printemps 
(act added to Caractiires de I'amour), Ope- 
ra, 1739 ; Jupiter vainqueur des Titans, 
do., at Court, 174.5 ; Le retour des dieux 
sur la terre (1725) ; Cantates f ran5aises in 

3 books ; Five collections of Airs serieux et 
h boire ; 2 liooks of motets ; and the music 
of the following court ballets : Fetes on 
divertissements, 1721 ; Les presents des 
dieux, 1727 ; Les fetes du labyrinthe, 
1728 ; La nymphe de la Seine ; Le jardin 
des Hesperides, Zephire et Hore, 1739 ; 
L'heureux retour de la reine, 1744 ; Les 
regrets des beaux arts ; II pastor fido. — Fe- 
tis ; Larousse ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BLANC, ADOLPHE, born at Manosque 
(Basses-Alpes), June 24, 1828, still living, 
1888. Violinist, f)upil at the Conserva- 
toire, Paris, where he won a prize, and of 
Halevy in composition. For a short lime 
he was chef d'orchestre at the Theatre Lj'- 
rique. He is one of the few French com- 
posers who have pre-eminently cultivated 
chamber music, for which the prix Chartier 
was assigned to him by the Academy in 
1862. Works : Une aventure sous la Ligue, 
comic opera ; Les deux billets, operetta, 
Paris, Salle Herz and Salle Pleyel, 1868 ; 
Les reves de Marguerite, do. ; La prom- 
enade du boeuf gras, symphonie burlesque ; 
Ouverture espagnole, for orchestra; Sonatas, 
trios, quartets, quintets, sej)tets for strings, 
or for pianoforte and strings ; Rondos, so- 
natinas, caprices, etc. — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 96. 

Bordeaux, Feb. 7, 1778, died in Paris, Dec. 
18, 1858. Violinist and dramatic composer, 
pupil of his father on the violin and of 
Franz Beck in harmony, then in Paris of 
Rudolf Kreutzer, Reicha, and JNIehul. He 
was chef d'orchestre at the Theatre des Va- 
riutes in 1818-29, where he composed a 
great number of vaudeville airs, most of 
which became popular. After the revolu- 
tion of 1830 he assumed the management 
of the Theatre Molicre, and wrote several 
dramas which had great success, but brought 
him into discredit with the government. In 
1833 he devoted himself entirely to musical 
criticism and writing on music, in which 
field he became very distinguished. Works : 
Diane de Vernon, comic opera, given at the 



ThiVitre des Nouveautt's, 1831 ; L'Arioste, 
do. (not performed) ; Concertini for violiu ; 
Airs varies for do.; Fautaisie for do. and 
liarf) ; Quartets for violins ; do. for violas ; 
Duos for violins, etc. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

BLANCHE DE NEVERS, English opera 
ill three acts, text by John Brougham, mu- 
sic by Balfe, represented at Covent Garden, 
London, Nov. 21, 1803. Subject from the 
French drama, " Le Bossu," called in Eng- 
lish the '• Duke's Motto." 

des Fees (The Court of the Fairies), opei-a 
in three acts, text by Theaulou and Ranee, 
music by Berton, Cherubiui, Kreutzer, and 
Paer, first represented at the Opera, Paris, 
May 3, 1821. All that remains of this work, 
composed on the occasion of the birth and 
baptism of the Due de Bordeaux, posthu- 
mous son of the DucdeBorry, is the splendid 
final chorus by Cherubini : "Dors, cher en- 
fant, tendre fleur d'esperance." 

RIA FELICE, born in Turin, Nov. 18, 1781, 
died in Paris, Dec. 18, 18-41. Dramatic 
composer and tenor singer. He was ad- 
mitted in 1789 to the choristers' school in 
Turin Cathedral, and made rapid progress 
under the Abbate Ottani ; when twelve 
years old he acted as organist to the cathe- 
dral, and had composed a motet and a Kyrie, 
and at fourteen he led a mass with full or- 
chestra. His favourite instrument was the 
violoncello. In 1799 he went to Paris and 
became the fashionable composer of ro- 
mances and nocturnes and teacher of sing- 
ing. In 1802 he was commissioned to com- 
plete Delia- Maria's unfinished oj)era. La 
fausse duegne, which was followed by 
others of his own, and in 1805 he was called 
to Munich, where several of his operas were 
produced. In 180G he became Kapellmeis- 
ter to the King of Bavaria, and Princess 
Borghese appointed him director of her mu- 
sic. King Jerome made him General Mu- 
sik-Director at Cassel in 1809. In 1814 he 
returned to Paris and was appointed Surin- 
tendant de la musique du Roi. He was an 

indefatigable comj)Osor of operas. Works : 
Zelie et Terville, ou Chimere et realite, 
given in Paris, Theatre Feydeau, 1803 ; En- 
core un tour de Calife, Munich, 1805 ; 
Nephtali ou les Ammonites, Paris, Acadc- 
mie Imjieriale de Musique, 180G ; Inez de 
Castro ; Les fetes lacedemonieunes (1805) ; 
Les femmes vengees, Paris, Theatre Fey- 
deau, 1811 ; Le sacrifice d'Abraham, L'A- 
mour philosophe, Cassel, 1811 ; Le uau- 
frage comique. La fee Urgele, La Princesse 
Cachemire, Cassel, 1812 ; Trajano in Dacia, 
Munich, 1814 ; La sourde-muette, Paris, 
Theatre Feydeau, 1815 ; La Comtesse de 
Lamark, ib., 1817 ; Le jeune oncle, ib., 
1820 ; Marie Therc'se, 1820 ; Le Due d'Aqui- 
taine, Paris, Theatre Feydeau, 1823 ; Le 
projet de j^iece, ib., 1825 ; La Saint-Henri, 
Theatre de la Coui% 1825 ; L'Intendant, ib., 
182() ; Le morceau d'ensemble. Theatre des 
Nouveautes, 1825 ; Le coureur de veuves, 
Le jeu de cache-cache, L'auueau de la fi- 
ancee, ib., 1827 ; Le chanteur de romances, 
Theatre des Varietes, 1830 ; Part of the 
music of the Duchesso de Brinvilliers, 1831 ; 
Uu premier pas, 1832 ; Les gondoliers, 
1832 ; Le vieux de la montagne. His ro- 
mances (174 for a single voice) and noc- 
turnes (170 for two voices) are among his 
best compositions ; several of the former, 
like II est trop tard, Les souvenirs, M'ai- 
meras-tu?, II faut partir, are still sung. 
He wrote also some church music, including 
four masses with orchestra, and motets. 
— Villemarest, Souvenirs de F. Blangini, 
1797-1834 ; Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 97 ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

BL.ARAMBERG, PAUL, born at Oren- 
burg, Russia, Sept. 26, 1841, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer, j)upil of Bala- 
kirev at St. Petersburg, where he studied 
law ; he first held a government position, 
but resigned it, in 1870, to become editor 
of the Russian Gazette, at Moscow. He 
is an adherent of the Berlioz-Liszt school. 
Works: Maria Tudor, opera, given at St. 
Petersburg, 1882 ; The Fu-st Russian Co- 
median, do. ; Music to Ostrovski's Vaivode ; 


The Demon (after Lermontoff), cantata. — 

born at Naples in 1765, died at Florence, 
Aug. 22, 1851. Dramatic composer, pupil 
of Fenaroli at the Conservatorio of his na- 
tive city. He was organist in Venice, re- 
turned to Naples in 1799, and thence went 
to France, settling at Marseilles. The time 
of his return to Italy is not known. "Works 
• — Operas and ballets, given in Italy : Ar- 
minio ; Didoue ; Adoue e Venere ; Zulima ; 
Lo sposo in periglio ; II burbero di buon 
cuore ; La donna capricciosa ; H geloso 
ravveduto ; L' isola di Bella Marina ; II 
fiuto feudatorio, etc. The following were 
given in France : Omphale ; Almanzor, ou 
L'epreuve de la jeunesse ; Le eourroux d'A- 
chille ; Debutade, ou L'oiigine du dessin ; 
Les trois Sultanes ; Le triomphe de la pais ; 
Meprise sur mejsrise ; La fete du village, 
etc. Oratorios, masses, overtures, and quar- 
tets. Methods for the violin, the pianoforte, 
and a vocal method. — Fetis, Sui^plement, i. 

born at Lauteburg (Bas-Rhin), April 23, 
1758, died at Versailles, 1829. Violinist, 
clai-inetist, flute and bassoon j^layer, pupil 
of his father. He went early to Paris and 
soon made himself known as a composer for 
wind instruments. In 1791 he became chef 
d'orchestre at the Opera Comique, then pro- 
fessor at the Consei'vatoire (until 1802), and 
bandmaster of the consular guard. In 
1816 he retired to Versailles. Works : La 
paysanue supjjost'e, ou La fete de la mois- 
son, comic opera, given at the Comedie Ita- 
lienne, 1788 ; Pelletier de Saiut-Fai-geau, 
opera, given at the Opera Comique, 1793 ; 
L'amour ermite, do., ib., 1793 ; Africo et 
Menzola, Don Pedre et Zulika, Adelson et 
Salvina, melodramas. Symphonic concer- 
tante for 2 horns ; Three concertos for vio- 
lin ; Four do. for clarinet ; One for bassoon ; 
Twelve quartets for strings, op. 1, 3, 12, 19 ; 
Six do. for bassoon ; Three trios for do., op. 
48 ; Trios for clarinet, flute, and bassoon, 

op. 31 ; do. for clarinets ; Duos for do., op. 
18, 20, 21, 38, 40, and 46 ; do. for violins, 
op. 8, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 39, 43, 53 ; Sonatas 
for violin and bass, etc. — Fetis ; do., Sup- 
j)lement, i. 99 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

Prague, 1793, died (?). Clarinetist, pupil 
at the Conservatorium, Prague, of Farnick 
on the clarinet, and of Dionys Weber in 
composition. In 1814 he went on a suc- 
cessful concert tour through Germany and 
the North of Europe, after his return ob- 
tained a jjosition in the theatre orchestra, 
and in 1818 became professor at the Con- 
servatoiium. Works : 12 caprices in form 
of etudes, for clarinet ; Trios for do., op. 
3 ; Variations brillantes for do. and quar- 
tet ; Introduction and variations for do., and 
orchestra ; Three duos concertants, op. 29 ; 
CajJrices amusauts for clarinet, op. 26 ; 
iStudes, op. 33 ; Complete method for clar- 
inet ; Vocal method. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Wurzbach. 

BLAVET, :\nCHEL, born at Besan5on, 
March 13, 1700, died in Paris, Oct. 28, 
1768. Flutist, self taught, and soon won 
such distinction as to be without a rival ou 
his instrument. In 1723 he settled in Paris ; 
became a member of the Opera orchestra, 
and made several concert tours, on one of 
which Frederick the Great, then crown 
prince, tried to induce him to enter his ser- 
vice. Works : La fete de Cythere, opera, 
given at Berny, 1753 ; Le jaloux corrige, 
opera-bouffe, Paris, Academic Royale de 
Musique, 1753 ; Egle, pastorale, ib., 1750 ; 
Les jeux olympiques, ballet, 1753 ; Sonatas 
and other pieces for flute ; Music for wind 
instruments.- — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 99 ; 

BLAZE. See CaMil-Blaze. 

Cavaillon (Vaucluse), in 1763, died there. 
May 11, 1833. Dramatic composer, pupil 
in his native place of the organist Lapierre, 
and in Paris of Sejane. He settled as a 
lawyer at Avignon, and after 1794 was made 
admiuisti'ator of his native department, 



whence he visited Paris again in 1799. 
Works : L'hi'ritage ; Semiramis, operas ; 
Masses ; Sonatas for pianoforte ; Duos for 
do. and harp, etc.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FEAE HIM. See Wold dem der den 
Herreu fiirchtet. 

BLEWITT, JONAS, organist in the latter 
part of the 18th century, died in 1805. He 
was author of the first treatise on the organ 
published in London, under the title of : 
"A Treatise on the Organ, with Explana- 
tory Voluntaries." He also published " Ten 
Voluntaries for the Organ," etc. ; " Twelve 
easy and familiar Movements for the Organ." 
— Grove ; Futis. 

BLEWITT, JONATHAN, born in Lon- 
don in 1782, died there, Sept. 4, 1853. 
Composer and singer of ballads ; son and 
pupil of Jonas Blewitt, organist, and pupil 
of Jonathan Battishill. At eleven years 
old he was deputy organist to his father 
and held other appoiutmeuts as organist in 
London, and in other parts of England dur- 
ing his life. In 1811 he went to Dublin, 
was grand organist to the masonic body of 
Ireland, conducted concerts there, and was 
associated with Logier in his system of mu- 
sical instruction. In 1828-29 he was di- 
rector of the music at Sadler's Wells Thea- 
tre, Loudon, and in his latter years was 
connected with Tivoli Gardens, Margate. 
Works— Operas, etc. : Harlequin, or Man in 
the Moon, pantomime, 1826 ; Tahsmau of 
the Elements ; Auld Robin Gray ; My Old 
Woman ; The Corsair ; The Magician ; Is- 
land of Saints ; Rory O'More ; Mischief Mak- 
ing, etc. Songs : A nice little man ; Adieu, 
my moustachios ; Barney Brallaghan ; Eng- 
land, Merry England ; Let us drink to old 
friends ; White Cliffs of England ; Groves 
of Blarney ; O for a cot ; Our jolly stout 
jackets of blue ; Phillis, have you seen my 
love ? ; When crowned with summer roses. 
He wrote also a concerto for pianoforte and 
orchestra, and sonatas, caprices, and fugues 
for the pianoforte and the organ.— Grove ; 
Brown ; Fetis. 

BLIESENER, JOHANN, born in Prussia 
about 175G, died in Berlin, February, 1842. 
Violinist, pupil of Giornovichi, chamber 
musician to the Queen of Prussia in 1791- 
1806. Works : Three duos for violins (Ber- 
lin, 1789) ; do., op. i (ib., 1795) ; Three 
quartets for do., viola, and violoncello, op. 2 
(ib., 1791) ; do., op. 3 (ib., 1792) ; do., op. 
5 (ib., 1797) ; do., op. 6 (ib., 1799) ; 3 duos 
for violin and viola, op. 7 (ib., 1800) ; Con- 
certo for violin with orchestra, op. 8 (ib., 
1801) ; 3 duos for violin, op. 15 (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf & Hartel) ; Compositions for the 
flute.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GREEN, THE, English opera, music by 
Thomas Augustine Arne, represented at 
Drury Lane Theatre, London, 1711. 

BLIND KING, THE, cantata, music by 
James C. D. Parker, first performed by the 
Apollo Club, Boston, Mass., April 29, 1885. 
BLODEK, WILHELM, born in Prague, 
Oct. 3, 1834, died there, May 1, 1874. Flut- 
ist, pupil of Anton Eiser at the Conserva- 
torium, where he became professor in 1860, 
having meanwhile taught at Lubycz, Gali- 
cia. In 1870 he became insane, and was 
confined in the asylum in Prague. Works : 
V studni (In the Well), Czech opera, given 
in Prague, 1867 ; Zidek, do. (left unfin- 
ished) ; Mass ; Overture ; Quartets for male 
voices ; Pianoforte music and songs. — Men- 
del ; Riemann. 

BLOEMENBRUID, DE, Flemish opera, 
text by Emil van Goethem, music by Franz 
van Herzeele, represented at the Theatre 
Minard, Ghent, March, 1887. It met with 
well-deserved success. 

BLONDEL (Blondeceux, Blondelaus), 
born at Nesle, in Picardy, about 1160 (V). 
A celebrated rhymer, or minstrel to Richard 
L, King of England, about 1190. Accord- 
ing to tradition, he discovered his master, 
after searching for him in the Holy Land 
and in Germany, by singing under the walls 
of the Castle of LOwenstein, where Richard 
was a prisoner, a song wdiich he and the 
king had jointly composed. This subject 



furnished GrutiT with tbe insjjiration for 
Lis ojDera, Richard, Cceur de Lion. Sixteen 
of his chansons are in the MS. deixxrtmeut 
of the National Library of Paris. — Fetis ; 
Meudel ; Schilling ; Larousse. 

BLOW, JOHN, born at North Colling- 
ham, Notting- 
hamshire, Eng- 
land, in 1648, 
died in London, 
Oct. 1, 1708. He 
was one of the 
lirst set of chil- 
dren of the ChajJ- 
el Koj-al on its 
re - establishment 
in 1G60. His master was Captain Henry 
Cooke, but, on leaving the choir, he studied 
under John Hiugeston, and afterwards un- 
der Dr. Christoi^her Gibbons. He had al- 
ready begun to compose while a chorister, 
and soon rose to great eminence. In 1669 
he was appointed organist at Westminster 
Abbey, but was displaced iu 1680 in favour 
of Parcell ; on the hitter's death in 1695 he 
was reappointed to the post. On March 16, 
1674, he was sworn in one of the gentlemen 
of the Chapel Eoyal, vice the Eev. Roger 
Hill, deceased, and on July 21, 1674, he was 
appointed master of the children of the 
chajiel, succeeding Pelham Humj)hrey. A 
few years later he became one of the organ- 
ists of the chapel. Li 1685 he was appoint- 
ed one of the king's private musicians, and 
honorary composer to the king. In 1687 
he succeeded Michael Wise as almoner and 
master of the choristers of St. Paul's, but 
resigned in 1693 in favour of his pupil, Jer- 
emiah Clarke. In 1699 he was the first to 
fill the office of composer to the Chapel 
Royal. Blow was not a graduate of any 
university ; but the degree of Doctor of 
Music was conferred upon him at Lambeth 
by Sancroft, Ai'chbishofi of Canterbury. He 
was buried under the organ in the north 
aisle of Westminster Abbey. Blow was a 
voluminous composer, and many of his 
works are still extant : One hundred an- 

tliems ; Fourteen church ser\'ices ; Sacred 
songs, duets, etc. ; Odes for New Year's Day, 
1682, 1683, 1686, 1687, 1688, 1689, 1693 (?), 
1694, 1700 ; Odes for St. Cecilia's Day, 1684, 
1691, 1700, besides two which cannot be re- 
ferred to any particular year ; Songs, catches, 
Dryden's ode on the death of Purcell, etc. 
Unfortunatelj', very few of these works are 
published ; some of the church music is in 
Boyce's " Cathedral Music," Stevens's " Sa- 
cred Music," Smith's " Musica Antiqua," 
Playford's " Harmonia Sacra," and in Clif- 
ford's collection ; some of the catches are 
published iu " The Catch Club," " The Pleas- 
ant Musical Companion " (1724), and other 
collections. Blow's works published by 
themselves are : Lessons for the Harpsi- 
chord (London, 1698, second ed., 1705, 
with some by Purcell) ; Ode for St. Cecilia's 
Daj', 1684 ; Amphion Anglicus, containing 
compositions for one, two, three, and four 
voices, with accompaniments of instrumen- 
tal music, and a thorough bass, figured for 
the organ, harpsichord, or theorbo-lute, with 
portrait of the composer (London, 1700). — 
Grove, i. 249. 

BLUETS, LES, opera-comique in four 
acts, text by Cormon and Trianon, music 
by Jules Cohen, first represented at the 
Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Oct. 23, 1867. Don 
Juan of Castile, wishing to leave his crown 
to his natural son, Fabio, a brave soldier, 
imnuu'es in a convent Estelle, a young girl 
whom he loves, and gives him iu marriage 
to Sister Carmen, abbess of the convent. 
The work was sung by Troy, Lutz, and 
Miles Nilsson and Tual. An Italian ver- 
sion, text by de Lauzii-res, was given at the 
theatre of Nice in 1873. It was j^roduced 
also at Covent Garden, London, 1880, under 
the title of Estella, with Adelina Patti in the 
princijial rule. 

BLUM (Blume), KARL LUDWIG, born 
iu Berlin in 1786, died there, July 2, 1844. 
Dramatic composer and organist ; first in- 
structed on the violoncello by the royal 
chamber nuisician, H. Grosse, he went on 
the stage in 1801 as an actor and singer, 



first in Berlin, then at Erlaugeu, aud iu 
1805 at Ki'iuigsberg, where he studied com- 
position under Hiller ; after his return to 
Berlin, in 1810, he brought out an opera, 
and composed a great deal of instrumental 
and vocal music. He then spent five years 
in Vienna, and became the friend aud pupil 
of Saliin ; appointed chamber musician and 
composer to the court of Prussia iu 1820, 
he went about that time to Italy aud to 
Paris to study the styles of Auber, Cheru- 
bini, and Boieldieu, returned to Berlin iu 
1822, taking charge of the royal opera. 
After that he travelled in Germany, France, 
and Italy, visited St Petersburg in 1828, 
Paris again in 1830, and London. He was 
the first to introduce the Freuch vaude- 
ville iuto Germany. Works : Claudine de 
Villa Bella, opera, given at KOnigsberg, 
1810 ; Karl der Zweite, do., ib., 1812 ; Fe- 
dora, Malvida, ib., 1814 ; Zoraide, oder Die 
Mauren iu Granada, Berlin, 1817 ; Der 
Schiffskapitiin, oder Die Uubefaugenen, 
vaudeville, ib., 1817 ; Fortunata, operetta, 
Canonicus Ignaz Schuster, vaudeville, ib., 
1818 ; Alino, KOnigiu von Golconda, ballet, 
Vienna, ISIS ; Achilles, do., ib., 1819 ; Das 
Rosenhiitchen, opera, ib., 1819 ; Die Pageu 
des Herzogs von Vendome, operetta, ib., 
1820 ; Der Biir und der Bassa, vaudeville, 
Berlin, 1822 ; Die Heirath im zwOlften Jahre, 
operetta, ib., 1823 ; Riquet der Haarbiischel, 
opera, ib., 1824 ; Der schOnste Tag des Le- 
bens, ib., 1826 ; Der Bramin, opera, Der 
Liebe Macht, operetta, ib., 1827 ; Die Wuu- 
derlampe, do.. Die Waise aus Russland, 
melodrama, ib., 1828 ; Die Liebe in der 
Miidchenschule, operetta, ib., 1S30 ; Bettina, 
do., ib., 1831 ; Baldrian und Rosa, do., ib., 
1833 ; Madonna Ginevra, opera, Mary, Max 
und Michel, operetta, ib., 1S3G ; Metastasio, 
do., Weimar, 1836 ; Bergamo, do., ib., 
1837 ; Three serenades for flute, clarinet, 
horn, 2 violins, viola, and bass, op. 49, 50, 
51 (Mainz, Schott) ; Rondeau a la turque, 
for pianoforte and flute, op. 35 ; Many quar- 
tets, trios, duos, and solos for guitar ; Pi- 
anoforte music aud songs. He wrote also 

a complete method for the guitar. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., ii. 737 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg.; Fe- 
tis ; Heinrii'h's Ahnanach fiir Freunde der 
Schauspielkunst (1845), 109 ; Mendel ; 

at Kurnick, Posen, Feb. 29, 1828, still liv- 
ing, 1888, in Berlin. Instrumental and 
vocal composer, pupil of Carl Friedrich 
Rungeuhageu in Berlin, where he settled 
afterwards to teach. Works : Kiiustlerleben, 
opera ; Cantata, Berlin, 1851 ; Pianoforte 
music and songs.— Meudek 

remberg about 1789, died (?). Dramatic 
composer, became director of music at Nu- 
remberg in 181G ; conducted the music fes- 
tivals there iu 1834-35. Works : Turandot, 
given in Munich, ISIO ; Die Jagd, ib., 
1810; Die Biirgschaft, Nuremberg, 1824. 
— Fetis. 

BLUMENTHAL, JACOB, born in Ham- 
burg, Oct. 4, 1829, still 
living, 1888. Pianist, 
pupil of Grund in Ham- 
bui-g, aud of Bocklet 
aud Sechter in Vienna, 
and from 1846 of Herz 
and Halevy at the Con- 
servatoire in Paris. In 
1848 he went to Lon- 
don and became a fash- 
ionable teacher, aud pi- 
anist to the Queeu. Besides compositions 
for the violin aud violoncello, and piano- 
forte, he has written many songs, among 
which The Message, My Queen, and The 
Requital, are well known. — Grove ; Futis ; 

in Brussels, Nov. 1, 1782, died iu Vienna, 
May 9, 1850. Dramatic composer, pupil in 
composition of the Abbe Vogler. He was the 
director of a church choir in Vienna at the 
time of his death. Works : Dou Sylvio de 
Rosalba, romantic opera, 1805 ; 2d act of 
the fairy piece Der kurze Mantel ; Entr'actes 
aud choruses for dramas, such as : Colomb, 



King Lear, Turandot, Kiitliclien von Heil- 
bioun, Fernautlo Cortez, etc., and for the 
luelodramas : Camma, and Menasko et El- 
wina. He wrote a ballet, several sj-mijlionies 
for orchestra ; Quartets for two violins, viola 
and bass, op. 38 ; Variations on an air from 
Cenereutola by Kossini, op. 32 ; Duos for 
violins ; Quartets for flute, op. 31 ; Masses ; 
Cantatas and chants. He was the author 
also of a Methode de violoii. — Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 532 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Scbilliug. 

BLU:MXEE, MARTESr, born at Fursten- 
berg, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Nov. 21, 1827, 
still living, 1888. Dramatic composer, pu- 
pil in Berlin of Dehu. He was appointed 
in 1853 conductor of the Berlin Siugakad- 
emie, of which he had become a member in 
1845. He is a meritorious composer, strict 
in style, and of considerable dramatic power. 
Royal musical director and professor, 18G0 ; 
member of Berlin Academj-, 1875. Works : 
Columbus, cantata, 1853 ; Abraham, ora- 
torio, 1860 ; Der Fall Jerusalems, do., 1881, 
jjerformed with much success in Breslau, 
1881:, at the seventh Silesian ^Musical Festi- 
val ; Te Deum for eight voices ; Psalms ; 
Motets ; also Lieder, duets, aud other vocal 
music. — Mendel ; Naumaun (Ouselej'), ii. 
1218 ; Eiemann. 

in B minor for the soprano of Coro H., with 
accompaniment of two flutes, strings com- 
l^lete and continue, in Johann Sebastian 
Bach's Passion nach Matthilus, Part I. 

BLYMA, FEANZ XAVER, born in Bo- 
hemia {?), died at Kiev, Eussia, in May, 
1822. Violinist, director of music at Mos- 
cow in 1797, afterwards chef d'orehestre to 
Count Comburley. Works : Grande sym- 
phonie, op. 1 (Moscow) ; Symj)hony in D, 
op. 2 (Bonn) ; Solos and pot-pourris for 
violin, with orchestra ; Airs varies for violin, 
with do. and bass. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BOCCACCIO, operetta in three acts, text 
by Zell and Genee, music by Suj)})!', repre- 
sented at the Carltheater, Vienna, Feb. 1, 
1879. It was produced at the Comedy 
Theatre, Loudon, April 22, 1882. 

BOCCHEEINI, LUIGI, born in Lucca, 
Italy, Feb. 19, 1743, died in Madrid, Spain, 
May 28, 1805. He 
was the son of an 
excellent contra- 
bassist at the ca- 
thedral in Lucca. 
His first instruc- 
tion was from his 
father, the instru- 
ment of his choice 
being the violon- 
cello, but his mu- 
sical education 
was soon confided to the Abbate Domenico 
Vauucci, teacher of music aud singing at 
the archiepiscopal seminary. The boy's 
progress was so rapid that Vanucci soon 
found he had nothing more to teach him, 
and in 1757 he was sent to Eome to perfect 
himself ujjon his chosen instrument aud 
complete his studies iu counterpoint. Even 
in Eome he was not long in distancing his 
teachers, but there can be little doubt that 
the church music he beard there (a cappella 
works of Palestrina iu the Sixtine Chapel, 
and the concerti spirituali in other churches) 
had a lasting influence upon his genius. He 
returned to Lucca with the most flattering 
testimonials, but very soon set out for Vi- 
enna and the several electoral coiu-ts of 
Germany ; this journey he made both for 
the purjiose of j^laying in public and of 
perfecting his violoncello playing. His 
first imjMrtant chamber compositions fall 
within this period (six quartets, op. 1, 
1761, and six trios, op. 2, 1760). On re- 
turning to Lucca he wrote an Azione dram- 
matica, Clementina, and two oratorios, Giu- 
seppe ricouosciuto, and Gioas, Ee di Giuda, 
■which were brought out in 1765 in the 
Church of S. M. Corteorlandini with great 
success. He formed a close friendship with 
Filippo Manfredi, a young violinist of great 
talent and a jjupil of Tartini, and in 1767 
the two young musicians made a successful 
concert tour together through North Italy. 
Their jdaying, and notably Boccheriiii's 



compositions, won such enthusiastic recog- 
uitiou that the two friends determined upon 
a more extended tour, and in 1768 they left 
their native town for good, going first to 
Turin, thence through the larger cities of 
Lombardy, Piedmont, and Provence, arriv- 
ing finally iu Paris. There, as elsewhere, 
they had unbounded success, both in private 
salons and at the Concerts Spirituels. The 
eagerness of the Paris publishers to get 
Boccheriui's compositions incited the young 
artist to fresh efforts, and from this time 
forward he was an untiring producer. Act- 
ing on the advice of the Spanish ambassa- 
dor, Boccherini and Manfredi set out for 
Madrid, then the Eldorado of musicians, in 
the fall of 1768. Arrived there, JNIanfredi 
was more successful than his friend, getting 
almost immediately the position of first vio- 
lin in the chajsel of the Infante Don Luis, 
but Boccherini some time later was ap- 
pointed chamber composer and chamber 
virtuoso. In 1780 Manfredi died, leaving 
Boccherini to depend wholly upon his own 
resources. This was a terrible blow to 
Boccherini, who was nothing of a man of 
the woi-ld, and had a thorough distaste for 
the intrigues inseparable from the life of a 
virtuoso at court. His career, which had 
begun so brilliantly, was henceforth to be 
but a succession of humiliations and priva- 
tions. His productiveness as a composer 
was astounding, but he was very ill x^aid for 
his work. To till Manfredi's place, Bocche- 
rini had Gaiitano Bruuetti invited to come 
to Madrid. Brunetti, a pupil of Nardini, 
was a brilliant violinist and clever composer, 
who had won a considerable reputation iu 
Germany and Paris. On his arrival in Ma- 
drid Boccherini overwhelmed him with kind 
attentions, which he accepted so long as he 
needed the master's patronage, and then 
repaid them with the blackest ingratitude. 
The wily violinist succeeded in estranging 
the court interest from Boccherini, and, 
when the Infante died, in 1785, the latter had 
to look around him for another patron. An 
unlucky accident made Charles IV. his im- 

placable enemy, but his dedication of some 
music to Friedrich Wilhelm II. of Prussia 
was acknowledged with a golden snufi-box 
filled with friedrichs d'ors, and for ten years 
Friedrich Wilhelm's patronage enabled him 
to live tolerably at ease. But this enthusi- 
astic patron died in 1797, and about the 
same time a pension which Boccherini had 
received from the Spanish Government was 
withdrawn. During the previous decade 
private misfortunes had not been wanting ; 
he lost a wife and two adult sons, and a 
second wife died soon after her marriage. 
His health was very poor, and severe hem- 
orrhages of the lungs would at times force 
him to give up violoncello playing. AVhilo 
Lucien Bonaparte was ambassador to the 
Spanish court (October, 1800, to February, 
1802) his circumstances were made easier 
by the art-loving Frenchman's munificent 
patronage. But when the latter was recalled, 
abject poverty again stared Boccherini in 
the face. The friendship of the Marquis of 
Benavente was of some little help to him, 
but the hundred francs paid by that noble- 
man for each quartet with guitar obligato 
that he wrote for his especial use did not 
go very far, and he had to eke out a liveli- 
hood by rearranging many of his works for 
various instruments to satisfy the taste of 
several of the j\Iarquis's friends. He at 
length determined to seek better fortunes 
in France. Some French friends spoke in 
his behalf to Madame Sophie Ga'il, a brill- 
iant French pianist and singer then in 
Madrid, and she interested herself keenly 
in the poverty-stricken old musician's be- 
half. She went to see him, and found him 
living with his whole family in a single mis- 
erable room, in need of even the bare neces- 
saries of life ; but, in spite of his poverty, 
he refused her offer of one hundred louis- 
d'ors for a Stabat Mater which he had prom- 
ised to a Paris editor (Sieber) for sixty 
ducats. But her charity bettered his con- 
dition somewhat, and he could always for- 
get his troubles if he had music-paper and 
pen and ink at hand. He never lived to 


visit Paris again. Boccberiui'fg genius was 
eminently original and inventive ; the whole 
form of his compositions and his manner 
of treating his themes are as much liis own 
as his melodies themselves. His harmony, 
if not invariably correct, is full of delicious 
and unexpected effects. In general, his 
style is noted for its simple naturalness and 
naivete. In freshness and grace of melodic 
inspiration, and in purity of sentiment, he 
has hardly been surjsassed ; his adagios and 
minuets are stiU marvels of beauty ; his fi- 
nales alone seem antiquated. The great 
simplicity and a certain childlike innocence 
of his style are what has probably stood in 
the way of his works being duly appreciated 
in Germany ; but he and his predecessor 
Sammartini would have occupied very much 
the position in Italian instrumental music 
that Haydn and Mozart did in German, 
had not Italy so neglected instrumental 
compo-sition since Boccheriui's day. As it 
is, Cberubini ■was the only Italian to con- 
tinue Boccheriui's work in the field of cham- 
ber music. Boccheriui's most famous works 
are his quintets, most of which are for 2 vio- 
lins, viola, and 2 violoncelli, an arrangement 
which has been but rarely imitated since, 
but which is suflSciently accounted for by 
the composers intending the first violon- 
cello part for himself, thus giving him a bet- 
ter chance for the display of virtuosity than 

Villancicos (motets for Christmas) for four 
voices and orchestra ; Ines de Castro, can- 
tata (the master's last work) ; 13 Arie acad- 
emiche with orchestral accompaniment. In- 
strumental works : First Symphony, 4 parts 
with horn ad lib. (Paris, Grange, 1767) ; 
Op. 1, Sei sinfonie ossia quartetti (Paris). 
His instrumental works, which number up- 
wards of 366, were mostly originally pub- 
lished by Vernier and La Chevardiere, also 
by Ignaz Pleyel in Paris, and reprinted in 
Amsterdam, London, Offenbach, Worms, 
Mannheim, Vienna, Naples, etc. Much con- 
fusion exists in the opus numbers, different 
publishers but rarely agreeing either among 
themselves or with Bocchei'iui's MS. cata- 
logue : 20 symphonies (11 of them in MS.) ; 
8 Sinfonies concertantes ; 1 suite of min- 
uets for orchestra (MS.) ; 1 concerto for vio- 
loncello ; 113 quintets for 2 violins, viola, 
and 2 violoncelli (of which 20 in MS.) ; 12 
quintets for 2 violins, 2 violas, and violon- 
cello (MS.) ; IG sextets (of which 2 iu MS.) ; 
2 octets ; 18 quintets for flute, or oboe, 
and strings ; 12 quintets for pianoforte and 
strings ; 91 quartets for 2 violins, viola, and 
violoncello (of which 2 iu MS.) ; 42 trios for 
2 violins and violoncello (of which 2 in MS.) ; 
12 trios for violin, viola, and violoncello ; 6 
duets for 2 violins ; 6 sonatas for pianoforte 
and violin ; G sonatas for violin (violoncello ?) 
and bass. A complete catalogue of all Boc- 

the usual violoncello part (bass) iu a quintet cherini's works may be found in Schletterer. 
could legitimately afford. Indeed, the difS- ' A nearly complete edition of the trios and 
culty and importance of the first vio- . 

loncello jjart is quite characteristic of 
the Boccherini quintet. Published 
woi'ks — Vocal : La Clementina, opera, 
given at Lucca, 17G5, Madrid, 1786 ; 
Giuseppe ricouosciuto, oratorio, Lucca, 
1786 ; Gioas, Re di Giuda, oratorio, ib., 
1786 ; Messa a quattro, con tutti instru- 
meuti obligati, op. 59, 1800 ; Stabat 
Mater for three voices with string accom- 
paniment, op. 61, 1800-1 ; Cantata al S. 
Natale di N. S. Gesti Christo, a 4 voci ob- 
ligati, coro e instrumenti, op. 63, 1802 ; 
Cantici sacri for 4 voices and orchestra ; 



quintets was begun in Paris by Janet & Co- 
telle in 1824. — L. Picquot, Notice sur la vie 
et les ouvragea de Luigi Boccherini, suivi 
du catalogue raisonnu de toutes ses oeuvres 
(Paris, 1851) ; D. M. Cerfi, Cenui intorno 
alia vita di Luigi Boccherini (Lucca, 1864) ; 
M. Cristal, Luigi Boccherini, in Le Menes- 
trel, 41ii'me annee (Paris, 1875) ; H. M. 
Schletterer, Luigi Boccherini, No. 39 of 



Sammlung musikalischer Vortriige (Leipsic, 
Bi-eitkopf & Hiirtel, 1882) ; Dwighfs Jour- 
nal, xxix. 178. 

BOCHSA, KARL, bom in Bohemia, died 
in Paris in 1821. Virtuoso ou the flute and 
clarinet, oboist in the orchestra of tlie thea- 
tres in Lyons and Bordeaux. In 180G he 
went to Paris, where he became a music- 
dealer. Works : 3 quartets for clarinet, 
violin, viola, and bass, op. 1 (Paris, Janet, 
1799) ; 3 do. (Paris, Momigny) ; 3 do., op. 
3 (ib., Sieber) ; 3 nocturnes in quartets, 
books 1 and 2 ; 3 quartets for oboe, book 1 ; 
2 do., book 2 ; 3 do., 
book 3 ; 6 duos con- 
certauts for t w o 
oboes, op. 5 (Paris, 
P 1 e y e 1 ) ; Concerto 
for clarinet, op. 53 ; 
2 quintets ; Method 
for the flute (Paris, Omont) ; do. for the 
clarinet (ib.). — Fotis ; Mendel, 

CHARLES, born at 
Montmedi (Meuse), 
Aug. 9, 1789, died 
at Sydney, Austra- 
lia, Jan. 7, 185fi. 
Dramatic compos- 
er and celebrated 
harpist, son of and 
first instructed by 
Karl Bochsa, then 
pupil in composi- 
tion of Franz Beck at Bordeaux, and in 1806 
of Catel and Mehul at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, where he studied also the harp under 
Nadermann and Marin, but soon formed a 
style of his own, and revolutionized harp 
playing. He was a musical prodigy who 
played a pianoforte concerto in public at 
the age of seven, comi^osed a symphony 
when nine, had written several overtures 
and quartets when twelve, and brought out 
an opera at Lyons when sixteen. In 1813 
he became harpist to Napoleon I., and kept 
his position under Louis XVHI. Detected 
in forgeries, he was compelled to leave Paris 

in 1817, and took refuge in London, where 
he tauglit the harp, and had among his pu- 
pils Parish-Alvars and Chatterton. In 1822 
he imdertook, with Sir George Smart, the 
Lenten oratorios, and in 1828 assumed entire 
direction of them. He was appointed pro- 
fessor of the harp and general secretary to 
the Royal Academy of Music at its institu- 
tion, but was dismissed in 1827. Succeed- 
ing Coccia, he conducted Italian opera at 
the King's Theatre in 1826-32, eloped with 
Sir Henry Bishoji's wife in 1839, and with 
her made a concert tour through Europe 


and America, and finally went to Sydney, 
where he died of dropsy. Works — Operas : 
Trajan, given at Lyons, 1804 ; Les heritiers 
de Paimpol, Paris, Opera Comique, 1813 ; 
Alphonse d'Aragon, Les heritiers Michau, 
ib., 181-4 ; Les noces de Gamache, Le Roi 
et la Ligue, La lettre de change, ib., 
1815 ; La bataille de Denain, Un mari 
pour fitrenne, ib., 1816. Ballets : Danso- 
manie (1806) ; Beniowski, or the Exiles 
of Kamchatka ; Le corsaire ; Le Deluge 
universel, oratorio, performed in London, 
1823 ; Requiem mass ; Apotheosis of Louis 
XVI.; Motet et Vivat ; Solo and chorus in 
three parts with instruments ; Overtures 
and symphonies for orchestra ; Caprices, 
concertos, duos, fantaisies, nocturnes, so- 
natas, studies, variations, and arrangements 
for the harjj alone and with other instru- 
ments ; Method for the harp, which is still 
the best of its kind. — Fctis ; Grove ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

logne, July 11, 1836, still living, 1888, at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. Church composer, pupil 
of the Conservatorium, Cologne, especially 
of Ferdinand Hiller, in counterpoint. He 
became vicar in 1862 at Aix-la-Chapelle, 


and Las had a great influence on the culti- 
vation of church music in that city. In 
1876 he was made choir director at the 
Stiftskirche. Works: Mangou, missa in 
summis festis ; Processionale, 3 books ; 
Songs for the different seasons of the 
church year, for male voices ; Latin songs 
for male and for mixed chorus ; Collection 
of two-jjart songs, etc. — Mendel, Ergauz., 

BOCKSHOEN, SAMUEL (called Capri- 
cornus), born in 
Germany in 1629, 
died at Stuttgart 
about 1669. H e 
was director of mu- 
sic at the Trinity 
Church, Presburg, 
Hungary, and in 
1657 Kapellmeister 
to the Duke of 
Wiirtemberg at Stuttgart. Works : Kajjtus 
Proser2:)iufe, dramatic cantata, 1602 ; and 
many sonatas, capriccios, motets, chants, 
etc., published in Nuremberg, Stuttgart, 
Vienna, Wiirzburg, and other cities. The 
Royal Library at Berlin has the following 
MSS. : Miserere for five voices and instru- 
ments ; ]\Iiserere for eight voices, four vio- 
lins, and basso continuo ; Ecce quam bonum, 
motet for five voices and instruments ; O 
bone lesu, five voices and five viols. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., ii. 792 ; Fetis. 

TOPH, born at Barum, Brunswick, Jan. 16, 
1730, died at Weimar, Dec. 13, 1793. In- 
strumental composer, first instructed by the 
city musician Kroll at Brunswick (17-15), 
then jjupil on the bassoon of the chamber 
musician Stolz at Helmstedt. Having ob- 
tained a position in 1775 as oboe player at 
Celle, he went thence to Hamburg, where, 
besides teaching music, he edited the Ham- 
burger Correspondent in 1762-63, and made 
a sj)ecia]ty of translating from the English. 
He conducted the regular winter concerts, 
and later became Lessing's jiartner as a 

jn'inter and publisher. In 1778 he went to 
. Weimar, and devoted himself to composi- 
tion and literary work. He composed sym- 
phonies, concertos for violin, for violon- 
, cello, for bassoon, trios, soli for viola d' 
amore, etc. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 795 ; 
Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; Mendel ; Schilling. 

Lichtenberg, Saxony, about 1570, died at 
Gross-Osterhausen, near Querfurt, in 1638. 
Church composer, studied theology at Leip- 
sic, became cantor at Schulpforta in 1600, 
jsastor at Rehhausen in 1603, and at Gross- 
Osterhausen in 1608. His name is best re- 
membered by the following valuable collec- 
tions, edited by him : Florilegium Portense, 
containing 115 motets (Leipsic, 1603); do., 
2d part, containing 150 motets (ib., 1621) ; 
Florilegium selectissimorum, etc. (ib., 1606). 
His own works are : Magnificat sampt Be- 
nedicamus (ib., 1599) ; Psalterium Davidis 
(ib., 1605) ; Harmonia angelica (ib., 1608) ; 
Bicinia XC selectissima, etc. (ib., 1615). — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 6 ; Fctis ; Gerber, N. 
Lex.; Mendel. 

gOIS, born at Versailles, April 19, 1785, 
died in Paris, Dec. 27, 1858. Pianist and 
organist, first instructed by his jDarents, 
then pupil at the Conservatoire of Laduruer 
on the violin, and self taught in harmony. 
In 1830 he devoted himself to the study of 
the organ, and was for several years organ- 
ist at Saint-Germain I'Auxerrois. Works : 

2 sonatas for pianoforte, op. 1 ; 30 caprices, 
op. 2 ; Air varie for pianoforte and violin, 
op. 3 ; Duo for jiianoforte for i hands, op. 4 ; 

3 trios for strings, op. 5 ; 30 etudes, op. 6 ; 
2 caprices for -1 and 1 for 3 hands, op. 7 ; Ca- 
price for ijianoforte solo, op. 8 ; 4 offertories 
for organ, op. 9 ; Mass for Christmas, op. 
10 ; 14 pieces for organ, op. 11 ; 24 do., op. 
12, etc.— Fetis. 

Nymwegen in 1812, still living, 1888. Vio- 
linist, pupil of his father, and, at the Royal 
School of Music at The Hague, of Lubeck. 
In 1831 he was made chef d'orchestre at 



the National Opera, and in 1837 went to 
Paris, wliere lie spent two years, then was 
chef d'orchestre at the theatre at Metz until 
1841, when he returned to his native city ; 
there he conducted a choral society, and in 
1853 went as musical director to Delft. In 
1848 he conducted the great music festival 
at Arnheim, and in 1861 one at Nymwegen. 
He has composed a symphony, overtures, 
choral works, cantatas, and several collec- 
tions of songs. — Fetis ; Supplement, i. 102 ; 
Mendel, Ergilnz.; Viotta. 

BOESSET, ANTOINE, Sieur de Ville- 
dieu, born in France about 158.5, died in 
1643. He was surintendant de la musique 
des chambres du roi et de la reine, 1615- 
1617, under Louis XIII., and counsellor to 
that king in 1632. He was quite celebrated 
in France for his airs for foiu' parts, which 
appeared in several collections, as follows : 
" Airs de cour a quatre et a cinq parties en 
neuf livres" (1617, 1620, 1621, 1624, 1626, 
1629, 1630, 1632). The tenth is entitled : 
"Airs de cour en tablature de luth," and was 
published after his death. Tlie first was 
translated into English as " Court Ayres 
with their ditties Englished " (London, 
1629). The National Library, Paris, has a 
collection in MS. He wrote a great deal of 
ballet music, among which are : Ballet des 
dix Verds (1614) ; Ballet danced by Louis 
XIII. (Jan. 29, 1617); Apollon '(1621); 
Fetes de Junon (1623) ; Les Fetes des fo- 
rets de Saint-Germain (1625) ; Des Tri- 
omphes (1635) ; etc. His son, Jean Bap- 
tiste Boiisset, was also musician to Louis 
XIII.— Fetis. 

BOHEMIAN GIRL, THE, grand opera 
in three acts, text by Alfred Bunn, music 
by Balfe, first represented at Drury Lane, 
London, Nov. 27, 1843. The libretto is an 
adaptation of La Gipsy, a ballet written for 
Fanny Ellsler by Saint-Georges and Mazil- 
lier, music by Benoist, Thomas, and Mar- 
liani, given at the Opera, Paris, Jan. 28, 
1839, which in turn was taken from "Tlie 
Gj-psy of Madrid," one of the "Novelaa 
Ejemplares " of Cervantes, which furnished 

also the text of Weber's Preciosa. The 
scene, laid in Scotland in the ballet, is trans- 
ferred to Hungary in the opera. The work, 
which became at once popular in England, 
has been translated and successfullj- pro- 
duced in nearly aU the languages of Europe, 
and it will jDrobably keep the stage as long 
as any of the ballad operas. It was repro- 
duced in Italian as La Zingara, at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, London, Feb. 6, 1858. 
It was played as La Gitana in Hamburg ; 
in Vienna and Berlin as Die Zigeunerin ; 
and in Paris, in four acts and a prologue, 
French text by Saint-Georges, with several 
additional numbers by the composer, as La 
Bohemienne, at the Theatre Lyrique, Dee. 
30, 1869. 

Original Cast, London, 1843. 

Arline JNIiss Roraer. 

Thaddeus Mr. Harrison. 

Gypsy Queen Miss Belts. 

Devilshoof Mr. Stretton. 

Count Arnheim jNIr. Borrani. 

Florestein INIr. Durnset. 

Arline, davighter of Count Arnheim, Gov- 
ernor of Presburg, is rescued from the at- 
tack of a stag by Thaddeus, a Polish refu- 
gee, who has joined a troop of gypsies to 
escaj^e the Austrian soldiers. The exile, in- 
vited to the hunting banquet by the grate- 
ful father, refuses to drink the health of the 
Emperor, and is saved from the soldiers by 
Devilshoof, the gypsy chief, who is arrested 
for his interference and taken to the castle. 
Thaddeus is allowed to dejjart, and Devils- 
hoof escapes, carrying Arline with him. The 
second act, twelve years later, shows Arline 
asleep in the Queen's tent in the gypsj' camp, 
with Thaddeus watching over her. On her 
awaking, Thaddeus tells her of her rescue 
from the stag, which explains a scar upon 
her arm, and declares his love, which is re- 
turned, and the two are united, according to 
the gypsy custom, by the Queen, who, also 
in love with Thaddeus, at the same time 
vows vengeance. During a visit to a fair in 


the city, Aiiiue is arrested for the theft of a 
medallion, stolen some time previously from 
Florestein, nephew of Count Aruheim, and 
maliciously given her by the Queen. She is 
taken for trial before Count Aruheim, who 
questions her about the scar on her arm, and 
through it discovers his long-lost daughter. 
In the third act, which opens in the salon 
of Count Aruheim, Arline ajjpears in her 
former position, but still retains her love for 
Thaddeus, who, accompanied by Devilshoof, 
has gained access to the castle. The Gyjjsy 
Queen, intent on revenge, j'oints out the 
place of concealment of her companions, and 
Thaddeus is ordered to leave. Arline de- 
clares her love and her intention to accom- 
pany him, Thaddeus jjroves his noble de- 
scent, and the Count finally gives him the 
hand of his daughter. The Queen, enraged, 
orders one of the tribe to shoot Thaddeus, 
but Devilshoof throws ujj the weapon and 
the bullet pierces the Queen's breast. Among 
the noteworthy numbers in the Bohemian 
Girl are, in the first act : " 'Tis sad to leave 
your Fatherland," sung by Thaddeus, and 
the closing prayer, "Thou who, in might 
supreme." In the second: " Silence, silence, 
the Lady Moon," a chorus by the gypsies ; 
" I dreamt I dwelt in marble halls," and 
" Come with the gypsy bride," sung by Ar- 
line ; "From the valleys and hills," quartet 
by Arline, tlie Queen, Devilshoof, and Thad- 
deus ; and "The heart bowed down," by 
Count Arnheim. In the third : " When 
other lips and other hearts," and " When 
the fair land of Poland," both sung by 
Tliaddeus. — W. A. Barrett, Balfe (London, 
1882), 15-4 ; Kenney, Memoir, 182. 

BOHLEN, ADRIAN, born at Aurich, 
East Friesland, Oct. 19, 1G79, died at Jever, 
March 17, 1727. Church composer of dis- 
tinction, contemporary of Bach, jjupil of his 
father on the organ and harpsichord, and at 
Norden of the organist Druckmiiller. He 
studied theology at Wittenberg, and became 
cantor in his native city, and in 1700 went 
to Hamburg, whence he was called to Stade 
as director of music. In 1705 he became 

cantor at Jever. His numerous and greatly 
esteemed compositions were left in manu- 
script. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BOHM, HEINRICH, born at Blatna, 
Bohemia, in 1836, still living, 1888. Dra- 
matic comjjoser ; son of the choir leader 
at Blatna, who had also written an opera 
called Krakonos. Heiurich is the author of 
thirty-five or more operas and operettas, 
which are popular on the Bohemian stage. 
— Grove ; Mendel. 

BOHM, JOHANN, born at Blatna, Bo- 
hemia, in 1810, died there in 1869. Organ- 
ist, wrote masses, choruses, and songs, also 
a Czech fairy-opera, Krakonos, which is, 
however, unfinished. Another composer of 
the same name was an eminent violinist and 
orchestra conductor during the last decades 
of the eighteenth and at the beginning of this 
ceutui-y. The following operas by him were 
given in Germany : Das Muster der Liebe, 
Die Braut im Schleier, Philander, about 
1800 ; Philemon und Baucis, about 1805. 

BOHM, JOSEPH, born at Pesth, March 
4, 1795, died in Vienna, March 23, 1876. 
Violinist of repute and pupil of his father 
and of Kode. He jjlayed with success at Vi- 
enna in 1815, travelled several years in Italy, 
phu'ed at La Scala, Milan, and returned in 
1819 to Vienna, where he was appointed vio- 
linist to the Royal Chapel and professor of 
the violin at the Conservatorium, retiring iu 
1848. He travelled through Germany and 
France for two years, giving concerts in the 
principal cities. For fifty years he resided 
at Vienna and earned renown as a teacher, 
having for j)upils Ernst, Joachim, Ludwig 
Straus, Singer, Helmesberger, and many 
other well-known violinists. He published 
20 compositions for the violin, among which 
are : Polonaise pour le violon, op. 1. ; Varia- 
tions brillantes, op. 2 ; Polonaise for violin, 
two second violins, alto and bass, op. 8 ; 
Quartets for two violins, alto and bass. 
— Fctis ; Hanslick, Concertweseu in Wien, 
205, 231 ; Mendel ; Hart, Violin and Vio- 
linists. 435 ; Wasielewski, Die Violine und 
ihre Meister, 346. 



BOHM, THEOB.ILD, born in Municli, 
April 4, 1794 ilied there, Nov. 25, ISSl. 
Flute player of distinction and inventor of 
the well-known system of flute-fingering 
which is named after him, and which he 
perfected in 1831. He was Kammermu- 
sicus at Munich, and composed many brill- 
iant works for his instrument, consisting 
of polonaises, fantaisies, variations, etudes, 
etc. He was author also of a work en- 
titled, Uber den Flotenbau und die neusten 
Verbesserungen desselben (Mainz, 1847). 
— Grove ; Fctis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

Willerstedt, near Weimar, March 11, 1827, 
still living, 1888, at Dresden. Vocal com- 
poser, pupil of G. Tiipfer, then at Leipsic of 
Moritz Hauptmann and Julius Rietz ; lived 
for twenty years in Dresden teaching music, 
and received the title of royal professor. In 
1878-85 he was jsrofessor of musical history 
and counterpoint at Hoch's Conservatorium 
in Frankfort, and since 1886 has lived again 
iu Dresden. He has composed several 
books of sacred choruses, and popular songs 
for male chorus. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 40. 

Tottelstiidt, Gotha, Jan. 8, 1787, died at 
Gotha, March 28, 1860. Pianist and or- 
ganist, pupil at Erfurt of G. H. Kluge on 
the organ, and of Michael Gotthardt Fischer 
iu composition, then of Spohr at Gotha, 
whence iu 1808 he went to Jena. In 1810 
he set out on a concert tour through North 
Germany to Sweden, then to Switzerland, 
winning applause everywhere, and living 
for five years at Nuremberg, where his best 
compositions originated. In 1820 he re- 
turned to his native town and afterwards led 
an unsteady life, becoming a confirmed 
drunkard, and finally playing in taverns for 
a supper. Works : Quartet for piauoforte, 
violin, viola, and bass, op. 4 (Leipsic, Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel) ; Concertos for pianoforte 
with orchestra, op. 7, 8, 11 (ib.) ; Serenade 
for two violins, viola, flute, 2 horns, bas- 
soon, violoncello, and double-bass, op. 9 
(ib.) ; Concertos en fantaisie, op. 13, 14 

(Leipsic, Hofmeister) ; Sonatas for piano- 
forte, op. 15 (ib.) ; Fantasia with variations 
for clarinet and orchestra, op. 21 (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; Variations for horn 
with quartet, op. 24 (Mainz, Schott) ; Sonata 
for pianoforte and violin, op. 37 (Copen- 
hagen, Lose) ; Variations for piauoforte, op. 
3, 6, 12, 20, 51, 53, 55 (Leipsic, Coburg, Of- 
fenbach, Bonn, Nuremberg) ; Fantasias, 
caprices, bagatelles, etc., for do., op. 19, 22, 
31, 91, 92 (Leijisic, Hamburg, Frankfort, and 
Augsburg) ; Quartets for 2 violins, viola, and 
bass ; Fantasia for two pianofortes, op. 60 ; 
Variations for pianoforte with orchestra, op. 
120 (last work) ; Der Dreiherrensteiu, op- 
era ; Overtures for grand orchestra ; Twelve 
quartets for string instruments ; Motets ; 
Several collections of songs. — AUgem. d. 
Biogr., iii. 82 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BOHRER, ANTON, born iu Munich in 
1783, died at Hanover iu 1852. Violinist, 
son of and first iustructed by Caspar Bohrer, 
a celebrated double-bass player and trumjs- 
eter (1744-1809) ; pupil of Danzi iu com- 
position, and in Paris of Winter and Kreut- 
zer on the violin. He was made violin 
player iu the court orchestra at Munich, 
and travelled iu Bohemia and Austria with 
his father. Subsequently he undertook a 
musical tour with his brother Maximilian 
through Switzerland, France, etc. ; on their 
return to Munich they studied togethei', to 
prepare for a protracted concert tour through 
Germany, Holland, Austria, Poland, and 
Russia, on which they started in 1810. 
Having narrowly escaped deportation to 
Siberia, and silent a year at St. Petersburg, 
they went through Finland, Sweden, and 
Denmark, to England, returned to Munich 
in 1814, gave concerts in Paris, with brill- 
iant success, iu 1815 and again after a sec- 
ond visit to Englaud, then went to Berlin, 
where Anton was appointed Conzertmeister 
in the royal orchestra. They went to Italy 
in 1820, returniug to Berlin in 1824, when 
they quarrelled with Spontini and threw up 
their positions to return to Munich. There 
they married two distinguished pianists 



■who were sisters, and in this new artistic 
association won new triumphs in Italy and 
in 1827 in Paris, which they left at the 
outbreak of the Eevolution of 1830, when 
for the first time the brothers separated, 
and Anton, after travelling about, went in 
1834: to Hanover as Conzertmeister. His 
works consist of concerted symphonies for 
violin and violoncello (Paris, Pleyel) ; Four 
concertos for violin and orchestra, op. 9, 12, 
17, 27 (Paris and Offenbach) ; Quartets for 
2 violins, viola, and bass, op. 23 ; Trios for 
2 violins and violoncello, op. 13 ; do. for vio- 
lin, viola, and violoncello, op. 14 and 15 ; 
Caprices or etudes for violin ; Duos for vio- 
lin and violoncello, and a number of airs 
varies for violin with orchestra. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling ; Meyer, Con. Lex. 

nich in 1785, died (?). Celebrated violon- 
cellist, brother of Anton Bohrer, and pupil 
of Schwartz at Munich. In 1799 he became 
a member of the court orchestra, and later 
travelled with his brother. Having heard 
Romberg in Vienna, he adopted him as hia 
model. After leaving Paris in 1830, he 
travelled in Germany and was made first 
violoncellist and Conzertmeister at the court 
of Stuttgart ; went to Russia for the second 
time in 1838, and in 1840 journeyed through 
Italy. From 1842 to 1843 he was in Amer- 
ica, and on his return visited Holland, Bel- 
gium, and England. Works : 3 concertos 
for violoncello, ijublished in Paris and Ber- 
lin ; Airs varies ; Fantaisie with orchestra 
on Russian national airs, op. 21 ; Eondoletto 
with quartet, op. 22 ; Duos for violin and 
violoncello. — Fetis; ]\Iendel ; Schilling. 

born in Rouen, France, Dec. 16, 1775, died 
at Jarcy, near Grosbois, Oct. 8, 1834. His 
father was secretary to Archbishop La- 
rochefoucauld, and his mother kept a milli- 
nery shop. The young Boieldieu took his 
first musical instruction from Broche. or- 
ganist at the cathedral and a pupil of Pulrc 
Martini. It has been suspected that Boiel- 
dieu's home life was not a ha23j)y one, but, 

at any rate, he began to live in Broche's 
house when quite young, although his mas- 
ter treated him 
with great bru- 
tality. Fright- 
ened one day at 
having made 
an ink-spot on 
one of Broche's 
books, the boy 
ran away to 
Paris, where 
he was found 
by his family 
after some trouble, and brought back to 
Rouen, Broche promising to treat him more 
kindly in future. What Boieldieu learned 
of Broche can hardly have been more than 
rudimentary, but there are no authentic ac- 
counts of his having studied under anj' 
other master. His native talent was of the 
finest, and he had a very quick power of 
observation, but his distaste for serious 
study of harmony and counterjDoint was un- 
conquerable. Hia great ambition was to 
write for the stage ; accordingly he wrote 
an opera, La fille coupable, which was 
brought out at Rouen in 1793 with much 
success. His success made him ambitious 
to try his fortunes in the capital, but it is 
uncertain whether he left Rouen immedi- 
ately, or in 1795 after the performance of a 
second opera, Rosalie et Myrza ; when he 
did leave his native town, he made the jour- 
ney to Paris on foot (having hardly any 
money) in two days. He brought an intro- 
duction from the singer Garat to Jadin, at 
whose house, and at Erard's, he met the 
principal musical notabilities then in Paris. 
He had a pretty talent on the pianoforte, 
and soon made quite a reputation for him- 
self, in musical circles, by his songs, such as 
"Le menestrel," "S'il est vrai que d'etre 
deux," and " O toi que j'aime," but the doors 
of the lyric theatres were shut against him 
for some time. Although intimate with, 
and befriended by both Cherubini and Mv- 
hul, he characteristically neglected to avail 



liiiuself of the opportunity to take lessons 
iu composilioii from either of them. He 
made bis debut as au oj)era composer in 
Paris with La FainiUe Suisse, which was 
brought out at the Feydeau iu 1797, and 
ran for thirty nights, alternating with Che- 
rubini's Medee. Other operas followed 
quickly, until Le Calife de Bagdad, 1800, 
set the seal to his ever-growing reputation. 
This charming opera may be called the last 
and best of the first period of Boieldieu's 
artistic career. During this period he also 
wrote some chamber music, to the success 
of which he owed his appointment as pro- 
fessor of the pianoforte at the Conservatoire. 
It is said that, after Le Calife de Bagdad, 
Boieldieu studied counterijoint seriously un- 
der Cherubini, but FcJtis (a pupil of Boiel- 
dieu) denies the story. Indeed, the fact that 
Boieldieu did not produce another opera for 
three years, and the internal evidence of 
the vast improvement in his style when he 
took the stage again with Ma tante Aurore, 
in 1803, would not, of themselves, be suffi- 
cient to prove the truth of the report ; yet, 
on the other hand, it is hard to conceive 
how the position of professor of composition 
at the Conservatoire should have been of- 
fered to, and acceptecl by him (about 1818) 
unless he had really gone through some such 
course of training. A few months after 
the success of Ma tante Aurore, Boieldieu 
went to St. Petersburg. In 1802 he had 
married Clotilde Matleuroy, tiio famous 
dancer, an ill-advised union, which turned 
out unhappily, and it is j^i'obable that do- 
mestic trials may have had something to do 
with his going to Russia. He accepted au 
engagement offered by the Czar Alexander, 
by which he was bound to furnish three 
operas a year (the Czar to find the libretti), 
be.sides writing music for the military bands. 
But the libretti were not forthcoming, and 
Boieldieu was forced to take opera texts 
which had already been set by other com- 
posers, or else French comedies not well 
adapted to music. Little that lie did dur- 
ing his eight years' stay in Russia has any 

importance. In 1811 Boieldieu returned 
to Paris, where he found matters much 
changed ; both Mehul and Cherubini had 
withdrawn from public life, Dalayrac was 
dead, and Catel worked but little ; the only 
rival left him was Nioolo Isouard. Boiel- 
dieu's first work after his return was Jean 
de Paris (1812), which had a stupendous 
success. What may be called Boieldieu's 
third and finest period began properly with 
Le Petit chaperon rouge (1818), a work 
which took him two years to write. The 
labor this opera cost him seriously affected 
his health, and he withdrew to the country. 
With the exception of some imimportant 
works, written in conjunction with other 
composers, Boieldieu produced nothing for 
seven years after the Chaperon, but in 1825 
he returned to Paris, and brought out La 
Dame blanche, which has generally been 
considered his masterpiece. The success of 
this opera was overwhelming. Four years 
later he brought out Les deux nuits, but 
the work failed with the public, although 
the score had brought a very high jsrice be- 
fore the ojjera was even put into rehearsal. 
The work of writing this opera, and the 
chagrin consequent upon its failure, com- 
pletely broke down Boieldieu's already deli- 
cate health ; laryngeal phthisis declared it- 
self in a violent form, and the remainder of 
his life was mostly spent iu travelling in 
hope of recovery. He was troubled also 
with apprehensions about his future means 
of livelihood, as the change of government in 
1830 deprived him of an important pension. 
This was, however, re-given to him shortly 
before his death, together with an additional 
pension of three thousand francs granted by 
the Minister of the Interior. He died, on a 
trip for his health to the South of France, at 
his own country-seat at Jarcy. His funeral 
was celebrated at the Invalides in Paris. 
Boieldieu was elected a member of the In- 
stitut in 1817 iu place of Mehul, deceased. 
He was the greatest writer of opera-co- 
mique of his day ; indeed, Auber was prob- 
ably the only composer who ever surjjassed 



him in this field. His melodic itiventiou 
was unbounded, and bis stj-le, especially in 
his second and third periods, of the highest 
degree of finish and perfection. He had an 
especiallj^ keen perception of theatrical ef- 
fect, and always knew how to adapt his mu- 
sic to the requirements of the stage ; his 
orchestration abounded in charming effects zer, and Isouard), Opera Comique, June 18, 

jeune femme colere, ib., Oct. 12, 1812 ; 
Les voitures versees, ib., Aj)ril 29, 1820. 
The following works were written by Boiel- 
dieu in collaboration with others : Emma, 
ou la prisonniere (with Cherubini), Paris, 
Theatre Moutausier, Sept. 12, 1799 ; Le 
baiser et la quittance (with Muhul, Kreut- 

1803 ; Bayard a Mt'zieres (with Cherubini, 
Catel, and Isouard), ib., Feb. 12, 1814 ; Les 
Bearnais, ou Henri IV. en voyage (with R. 
Kreutzer), ib., May 21, 1814 ; Angela, ou 
I'Atelier de Jean Cousin (with Mme Gail), 
ib., June 13, 1814 ; Charles de France, ou 
Amour et Gloire (with Herold), ib., June 
18, 181G ; Blanche de Provence, ou la Cour 
des Fees (with Berton, Cherubini, Ki-eutzer, 
and Paer), Opera, INIay 3, 1821 ; Les trois 
genres (with Auber), Odeon, April 27, 
1824 ; Pharamoud (with Berton and Kreut- 
zer), Opera, June 10, 1825 ; La Marquise 
de Brinvilliers (with Auber, Batton, Berton, 

of color. He was little of a harmonist, but 
his style was in general so very simple, he 
was tempted to modulate from the principal 
key so rarely, and trusted so little to har- 
monic effects that his writing is very jiure 
and free from faults. He wrote easily, but 
spent much time and conscientious labor in 
retouching. His only works of importance 
are his operas : La fille coupable, given at 
Eouen, Nov. 2, 1793 ; Rosalie et Myrza, ib., 
Oct. 28, 1795 ; La FaniUle Suisse, Paris, 
Theatre Feydeau, Feb. 12, 1797 ; L'heu- 
reuse nouvelle, ib., Nov. 8, 1797 ; Le Pari, 
ou Mombreuil et ]\Ierville, Theatre Favart, 
Dec. 15, 1797 ; Zora'ime et Zulnare, 
ib.. May 11, 1798 ; La Dot de Suzette, 
ib, Sept. 6, 1798 ; Les Meprises es- 
pagnoles, Theatre Feydeau, April 19, 
1799 ; Benioivski, Theatre Favart, June 
8, 1800; Le Calife de Bagdad, ib., 
Sept. 16, 1800 ; Ma tante Aurore, Opera 
Comique, Jan. 13, 1803 ; Aline, Reine 
de Golconde, St. Petersburg, March 5, 1804 ; Blangini, Carafa, Cherubini, Herold, and 
La jeinie femme colere, ib., April 18, 1805 ; PaOr), Opera Comique, Oct. 31, 1831. — J. 
Amour et mystere, ib., 1806 ; Abderkhan, A. Refuveille, Boieldieu, sa vie et ses ceu- 
ib., 1806 ; Tel6maque, ib., Dec. 16, 1806 ; vres (Rouen, 1851) ; G. Hequet, Boieldieu, 
Un tour de soubrette, ib., 1807 ; Les voitures 1 sa vie et ses CBUvres (Paris, 1864) ; A. Pou- 
versi'es, ib., 1808 ; La dame invisible, ib., gin, Boieldieu, sa vie, ses ceuvres, son ca- 
1808 ; Rien de trop, ib., Dec. 25, 1810 ; Jean ractere, sa correspondance (Paris, 1875) ; 
de Paris, Paris, Opera Comique, April 4, Garnier, Institut Royal de France, Fune- 
1812 ; Le nouvean seigneur de village, ib., railles de M. Boieldieu, Discours (Paris, 
June 29, 1813; La y" te du village voisin, 1834) ; J. A. Wash, Proces-verbal de la cere- 
ib., March 5, 1816 ; Le pe/i7 chaperon monie funebre en I'honneur de Boieldieia 
rouge, ib., June 30, 1818 ; La France et (Rouen, 1835). 

I'Espague, Hotel de Ville, Dec. 15, 1823 ; j BOILLY, EDOUARD, born in Paris, 
La (lame blanche, Opt'ra Comique, Dee. 10, Nov. 16, 1799, died (?). Dramatic com- 
1825 ; Les deux nuits, ib.. May 20, 1829. ' poser, son of the genre painter Louis 
Of the operas brought out at St. Petersburg Boilly ; pupil, at the Conservatoire, of Fe- 
the following were repeated at Paris : Rieu tis and of Boieldieu, and won the grand 
de troj). Opera Comique, April 9, 1811 ; La I prix for composition, 1823. Having at first 


studied drawing and engraving, lie after- 
wards returned to the latter art. Works : 
Le bal du sous-prOfet, opera, given at the 
Opera Comique, 1844 ; several others, not 
represented. Thisbe, cantata, 1823. — Fe- 
tis ; do., Suppk'ment, i. 104 ; Mendel. 

BOISE, OTIS B , born, of Amer- 
ican parentage, in Oberlin, Ohio, Aug. 13, 
1845, still living, 1888. When about four- 
teen years old he became organist of St. 
Paul's Church, Cleveland. In 1861 he went 
to Europe, and studied theory and compo- 
sition in Leipsic under Hauptmann, Richter, 
Moscheles, Wenzel, and others ; and three 
years later he visited Berlin, where he 
studied under KuUak. In 1864 he returned 
to America and became organist of the 
Euclid Avenue Presbyterian Church, Cleve- 
land ; in 1870 he removed to New York, 
where he taught music, and was for a time 
organist of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian 
Church. In 1876 he again went to Europe, 
and visited Leipsic, where some of his mu- 
sic was performed. The following year he 
spent at Wiesbaden, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Raff ; in 1878 he returned to 
New York. On Jan. 30, 1879, he gave a 
concert in New York, the programme con- 
sisting entirely of his own works. His com- 
positions consist of a Psalm for chorus and 
orchestra, symphonies, concertos, overtures, 
and smaller instrumental pieces. 

born at Perpignan in 1691, died in Paris in 
1765. Dramatic composer of little merit ; 
went early in life to Paris, where he re- 
ceived his musical education. Works : Les 
Voyages de I'Amour, ballet, given in Paris, 
Academic Royale de Mnsique, 1736 ; Don 
Quichotte chez la Duchesse, opera-ballet, 
ib., 1743 ; Daphnis et Chloe, pastoral, ib., 
1747 ; Daphne, ballet (1748) ; Two col- 
lections of motets ; 6 do. of French 
cantatas ; Airs and vaudevilles, op. 16 ; 
Sonatas for viola, op. 10 ; Trios for two 
violins and bass, op. 18 ; Sonatas for 
violoncello, op. 20, 50 ; do. for two bassoons, 
op. 14, 40 ; do. for dute, op. 3, 9, 19, 35, 

44 ; Duos for two ilutes, op. 1, 2, G, 8, 13, 
25 ; Trios for tiute, violin, and bass, op. 4, 
7, 12, 37, 39, 41 ; Concertos for Hute, op. 
15, 21, 31 ; Suites for two musettes, op. 11, 
17, 27.— Fc'tis ; Mendel. 

BOissELOT. do:mixique FR.\NgOIS 

XAVIER, born at MontpelUer, Dec. 3, 1811, 
still living, 1888, at Marseilles. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Fetis and of Lesueur at 
the Conservatoire, Paris, where he won the 
second prize for composition in 1834, and 
the first in 1836. After the death, in 1850, 
of his father (founder of a great pianoforte 
factory at INIarseilles), he abandoned his mu- 
sical career to take charge of the establish- 
njent. — W^orks : Ne touchez pas a la Reine, 
opera, given at the Opera Comique, 1847 ; 
Mosquita la Sorciere, do.. Opera, 1851 ; Vel- 
leda, cantata, 183G ; Overture for grand or- 
chestra, 1838 ; Melodies and romances, with 
pianoforte. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 105 ; 
; Mendel. 

BOITO, ARRIGO, born at Padua, Italy, 
Feb. 24, 1842, still 
living, 1888. Dra- 
matic composer, pu- 
pil of Mazzucato at 
the Couservatorio, 
Milan, which he fre- 
quented in 1853-62. 
He first became 
known as a musical 
critic and a poet, 
visited Paris in 1862 
and 1869, Germany, 

and Poland, and conceived such a liking for 
German music and the musico-dramatic re- 
forms of Wagner that he is sometimes called 
the Italian Wagner. He is the author of the 
libretti of Ponchielli's Gioconda, and other 
operas, of his own operas, and of Verdi's 



Otello, and of other poetical works. Works : 
n quarto di Giugno, cantata (1860) ; Le 



Sorelle d' Italia, do. (with Faccio, 1862) ; 
Mefislofele, opera, given at Milan, Teatro 
della Scala, 1868 ; Ere e Leandre (MS.) ; 
Nerone (MS.) ; Ode (1880).— Meyer, Con v. 
Lex., xviii.; Eiemann. 

mensee, nearCelle, March, 1679, diedatWol- 
fenbiittel, Dec. 7, 1751. Church comiioser, 
j)upil of Georg Oesterreich at Brunswick ; 
became cantor at Husiim in 1712, and in 
1720 at Wolfenbiittel, having returned to 
Brunswick in 1717. His compositions have 
become extremely rare, and he is now 
better known by his writings on mu.sic. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 93; Fetis ; Mendel, 

BOLCK, OSIvAR, born at Hohenstein, 
East Prussia, March i, 1839, died at Bremen, 
May 2, 1888. Dramatic composer, jjupil of 
Paetzold at Konigsberg, then of Moscheles, 
Hauptmann, Kichter, and Rietz at the Con- 
servatorium, Leipsic. He held positions as 
music teacher at various institutions : 1861 
at Wiborg, Finland, 1866 in Liverpool, 1867 
in London, 1875 at Riga, returning between 
times to Leijisic in 1862, 1867, 1872, and 
1878 ; was Kapellmeister at the theatre in 
Wurzburg, 1868, and at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1869, for several years chorus-master at the 
Stadttheater in Leipsic, and since 1886 has 
lived in the same capacity at Hamburg. 
Works: Lustspiel-Ouverture (1861) ; Pierre 
Robin, opera (186-1), given at Riga, 1875 ; 
Gudrun, do. (1865) ; Der Schmied von 
Gretna Green, do., Leipsic, 1882 ; Two An- 
thems (London, Novello & Co.) ; Six songs, 
op. 5 ; Miidchens Gestiindnisse, for voice and 
pianoforte, op. 7 ; Sechs Charakterbilder, 
for i^iauoforte, op. 46 ; Herbstklilnge, five 
songs for baritone or contralto, op. 51. — 
Mendel, Ergilnz., 41 ; Riemann. 

at Lisbon, Portugal, in 1775 (or 1781), died 
there, Aug. 13, 1842., went in 1806 
to Paris to complete his musical education, 
and lived there, with the exception of a 
short sojourn in London, until 1820, when 
he returned to Lisbon, and became director 

of the Conservatorio in 1833 ; he was also 
conductor of the court orchestra and mu- 
sical instructor in the royal family. Knight 
of the order of Christ. Works : Two con- 
certos for pianoforte with orchestra ; So- 
natas for pianoforte, op. 1, 5 (Paris, 1803) ; 
Fantasias and variations for do.; Requiem 
mass in memory of Camoens, op. 23 (Paris, 
Ledue, 1819) ; Two other requiem masses ; 
Solemn mass for the iDroniulgation of the 
constitution, Lisbon, 1821 ; Matins and re- 
sponses for the dead ; Method for the pi- 
anoforte (London, 1816) ; Alessandro nell' 
Indie, opera. — Fetis ; Vasconcellos. 

BONA, PASQUALE, born at Cerignola, 
Naples, Nov. 3, 1816, died in Milan, Jan., 
1879. Dramatic composer, pupil of the Con- 
servatorio del Buon' Pastore, Palermo ; be- 
came professor of harmony at the Conserva- 
torio, Milan, in 1851. Works : I Luna e i Pe- 
rollo, given at Milan, Scala, 1844 ; Don Carlo, 
ib., 1847 ; R Gladiatore, Turin, Teatro Eegio; 
Vittoria, la madre degli eserciti, Genoa, Te- 
atro Carlo Felice, 1863 ; Funeral cantata 
in memory of Cavour ; La Settimana musi- 
cale, 7 duos for pianoforte and clarinet ; La 
Collana Verdiana, fantasias for violin and 
violoncello ; 50 duets without words ; 7 
methods for different voices ; 4 collections 
of vocalises ; 100 daily exercises ; 100 sol- 
feggi. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 107. 

BONA, VALERIO, born at Brescia, Lom- 
bard}-, flourished in the second half of the 
16th century ; was living in 1619. A Fran- 
ciscan monk of the Order of Cordeliers, he 
was maestro di cappella of the cathedral at 
Vercelli and at Moudovi, and maestro of the 
chvirch of San Francisco, Milan. Works : 
Motetti a 8 voci (Milan, 1591) ; Lamenta- 
zioni (Venice, 1591) ; Madrigali a cinque 
(Milan, 1600) ; Masses and motets, from 
1591 to 1611. In the National Library, 
Paris, is an Introitus Missarum, octo vo- 
cum, etc. (Antwerp, 1639). He was also a 
didactic writer. — Ft'tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; 

composer, contemporary. He is the author 



of Liila Wilson, opera seria, text by Goli- 
sciaui, represented at the Teatro Nuovo, 
Pisa, Jan. 31, 1878 ; Cleopatra, opera seria, 
represented at La Feuioe, Venice, Feb. 8, 

born at Diirkheim-ou-tbellbiue, Dee. 4, 
1839, still living, 1888. Dramatic com- 
poser and pianist, pupil of tbe Liege Con- 
servatoire, lie went in 1852 witb bis pa- 
rents to America, wbence be returned to 
Europe in 1861 to complete bis musical 
education. In 1861-66 be lived at Wies- 
baden, tbeu in Paris and London, went to 
New York in 1871, and tbere conducted 
tbe popular symphony concerts in 1872-73. 
After a successful concert tour tbrongb tbe 
United States, be lived in Pbiladelpbia in 
1874-76, tbeu for several years in Vienna, 
wbence be undertook various concert tours ; 
of late, again in London (1887). Works : 
Diogenes, comic opera (1870) ; The Bride 
of Messina, opera, given in Pbiladelpbia, 
1874 ; Ostrolenka, do., ib., 1875 ; Irma, do., 
London, 1885 ; Requiem mass, ib., 1881 ; 
Fantaisie de concert, op. 22 ; Sur la mer, 
grande fantaisie, op. 28 ; Concerto for pi- 
anoforte witb orchestra, op. 36 ; do. for two 
pianofortes ; Sonata for pianoforte and 
violin. Of). 40 ; Quartet for pianoforte and 
string instruments. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
107 ; Mendel ; do., Ergiinz., 42 ; Riemann. 

BONDINERI, mCHELE, born in Flor- 
ence about 1750, died about 1798. Dra- 
matic composer and singer (under the name 
of Neri) ; as a writer of operas a local celeb- 
rity of Florence, where tbe following works 
were given : La serva in contesa, 1784 ; II 
matrimonio in Cantina, 1785 ; La locau- 
diera, 1786 ; Le spose provenzale. La finta 
uobile, 1787 ; L'autunno, II maestro jjer- 
seguitato, ogni disuguaglianza amore ugu- 
aglia, 1788 ; II veccbio spezziale deluso in 
amore, 1791.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

BONDMAN, THE, English opera in 
three acts, text by Alfred Bunn, music by 
Balfe, represented at Drury Lane Theatre, 
London, Dec. 11, 1846. Subject adapted 

from tbe elder Dumas' "Le Chevalier Saint- 
Georges." The opera, which was a success, 
was sung by Miss Romer, Miss Rebecca 
Isaacs, and Messrs. Weiss, Harrison, Harley, 
and Rafter. It was produced at tbe Court 
Opera, Berlin, in 1849, as Dcr Mulatto, 
with Frau Koesler and Herr Mauting in tbe 
chief roles.— Barrett, Balfe, 187, 204 ; Ken- 
ney, Memoir, 215. 

BONDUCA, English tragedy in five acts, 
text by Betterton, with music by Henry 
Purcell, represented in London, 1696. The 
libretto is an adaptation of Beaumont and 
Fletcher's "Bonduca" (1616), which is 
founded upon the story of Bonduca or Boa- 
dicea in Taeitus's "Annals" (Books sii. and 
xiv.). The music was composed in 1695, 
the last year of Purcell's life, and the piece 
was brought out after bis death. Tbe work 
has some powerful and pathetic scenes, but 
is quite unfit for tbe modern stage. Edited 
by Edward F. Rimbault, and published by 
the Musical Antiquarian Society (Loudon, 
1 1841).— Hogarth, i. 183. 
I BONESI, BENEDETTO, born at Ber- 
gamo about 1750, died in Paris in 1812. 
j Dramatic composer and singer, pupil of 
Augusto Cantoni in singing, and at Milan of 
j Andrea Fioroni in comjjosition. He went 
to Paris in 1779, and became vocal instruc- 
tor at tbe Comudie Italieune. Works : Pyg- 
[ malion, duodrama, given at the Comedie 
Italienne, 1780 ; Judith, oratorio, Concert 
, Spirituel, 1781 ; La niagie a la mode, ojjera, 
Theatre Beaujolais, 1782 ; Le rosier, do., 
ib., 1782 ; Amasis, ballet, ib., 1788. He 
also wrote Traite de la mesure, etc. (Paris, 
1806), which is bis best production. — Fetis ; 

BONPICHI, PAOLO, born at Livraga, 
Lombardy, Oct. 16, 1769, died at Lodi, 
Dec. 29, 1840. Church composer, showed 
early great talent for music, and learned to 
play on tbe pianoforte and tbe organ with- 
out a teacher. At Parma, where he studied 
at tbe university, an old maestro of Marti- 
ni's school taught him to accompany figured 
basses and to read scores. At the age of 



eighteen be entered the Order of Servites, 
and in 1789 went to Kome, where he stud- 
ied counterpoint under Guglielmi, and the 
works of the classic German and Italian 
masters. On the sup23ression of his order 
in 1805 he retired to Milan, whence in 1828 
he was called to Eome as maestro di cappella 
at the Santa Casa di Loreto. Works — Orato- 
rios : La morte d' Adamo ; La genesi ; La 
nuvoletta d' Elia ; E Paradise perduto ; II 
passagio del mar rosso ; Elia sul Carmelo ; 
Ester, ossia La morte d' Amanno ; I tre Fau- 
ciulli nella Fornaee di Babilouia ; La morte 
di Baldassare ; La resurezione ; La discesa 
al limbo ; L' ascensioue di Maria ; II figli- 
uol prodigo ; La decolazione di S. Giovanni 
Battista. Cantatas : H trionfo di Giuditta ; 
II trasporto dell' area ; II natale di Gesh 
Cristo ; La epifania ; La j)entecoste ; I trat- 
tenimenti di S. Filipino Neri ; L' iuveuzione 
e Kej)osizione del Corjjo di Sta Cecilia ; Cau- 
tico di Zacharia. Operas : La Climene, per- 
formed at Parma ; Abradata e Dircea, Tur- 
in, 1817 ; Lauretta (?), opera buft'a ; Ten 
Masses ; Requiem ; Two Miserere ; Five 
Magnificat ; Te Deum ; Stabat Mater ; Many 
Tantum ergo ; Hj'mns ; Psalms ; Versets ; 
Many overtures and other instrumental 
pieces. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 


BONIFORTI, CARLO, bora at Ai-ona, 
Piedmont, in 1818, died at Trezzo d'Adda, 
Lombardy, Oct. 10, 1S79. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil at jNIilan of Bouazzi, whom he 
succeeded in 1811 as organist at the cathe- 
dral, and royal maestro di cai^jsella, retain- 
ing afterwards only the latter position. In 
1852 he became professor of harmony and 
counterpoint at the Conservatorio. Mem- 
ber of Accademia di Santa Cecilia, Rome. 
"Works : Velleda, opera, given at Milan, 
Scala, 1817 ; Giovauua di Fiandra, ib., 
1818 ; Overture for grand orchestra ; Many 
religious compositions, with organ or or- 
chestra. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 107. 

BONrV'ENTI, GIUSEPPE, born at Yen- 
ice, flourished about the end of the 17th 

and during the first half of the 18tli cen- 
tury. Dramatic composer, author of the 
following operas : II gran Macedone, given 
in Rome, 1690 ; Almerinda, 1691 ; Almira, 
1691 ; La vittoria nella Costanza, Venice, 
Teatro Sant' Angiolo, 1702 ; Endimione, 
Naples, 1702 ; Armida al caiupo, Venice, 
1707; Circe delusa, Italy, 1711; La Virtii 
fra iNemici, Venice, Teatro San Mose, 1718; 
Ariana abbandonata, Venice, 1719 ; L' In- 
ganno fortunato, ib., 1721 ; II Vinceslao, 
Turin, 1721 ; Pertarido, re de' Longobardi, 
Venice, 1727. — Fetis. 

BONMARCHE, JEAN, born at Ypres (or 
Valenciennes?) about 1520. Church com- 
poser, became canon and choirmaster at 
Cambrai, and in 1565 maestro de capilla to 
Philip n. of Spain (at Brussels ?). In his 
old age he seems to have retired to Valen- 
ciennes. His masses and motets (MS.) are 
in the library of the Escurial. — Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 685 ; Fetis. 

BONNAY, FRANgOIS, flourished in 
Paris about 1780-1800. Dramatic com- 
poser, and violinist in the orchestra of the 
Opera in Paris about 1787. Member of 
the Academie Roj'ale de Musique. Works: 
Colin et Colette, given in Paris, Theatre de 
Beaujolais, 1786 ; Les deux jaloux, Les cu- 
rieux punis, La fete de I'arquebuse, ib., 
1787 ; Les amants ridicules, ib., 1790. 

Montauban (Taru-et-Garoune), April 23, 
1763, time of death not known. Violinist, 
pupil of Giornovicqhi and of Mestrino ; was 
first violin in the theatre orchestras at Brest 
and Nantes, and in 1802 retired to his na- 
tive city, where he was made organist of 
the cathedral. Works : 8 concertos for 
violin ; 10 sj-mphonies concertantes for two 
violins ; 30 duos for do., op. 1, 3, 6, 9, and 
10 ; 6 quartets for strings ; 6 trios for do.; 
12- divertissements for grand orchestra. 

BONO (Bonno), GIUSEPPE, born in Vi- 
enna in 1710, died there, April 15, 1788. 
Dramatic composer. The son of one of the 
I imperial footmen, he was sent to Naples to 



study compositiou, was taken into the Im- 
perial Hofkapelle as Hofscholar in 1738, 
and rose to be Hofcorapositeur iu 1739, 
and Hofkapellmeister in 1774. For many 
years he was vice-president of the Ton- 
kiintsler-Societat, Vienna, and his scores 
are preserved iu the Imperial Library and 
the jMusik-Verein. Works— Operas: Natale 
di Giove, given at Venice, 1740 ; Danae, Vi- 
enna, 1744 ; Ezio, ib., 1740 ; H vero omag- 
gio, ib., 1750 ; L' eroe cinese, L' isola di- 
sabilitata, ib., 1752 ; II re pastore, Milan, 
1753 ; Atenaide, Vienna, 1762. Oratorios : 
Isacco, San Paolo in Atene. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

za, near Milan, March 24, 1873. Instru- 
mental compo.ser, son of the tenor singer 
Claudio Bonoldi ; pupil of the Couserva- 
torio, Milan. Works ; Symphonies and 
overtures for orchestra ; Pot-pourris on op- 
eratic themes, for pianoforte ; Variations 
and valses for do. ; An opera, H Mauro, was 
given at Trieste, 1833. — Fotis. 

BATTISTA, born at 
Modena in IGGO, died 
probably in Venice 
in or after 17 5 0. 
Dramatic composer 
and violoncellist, son 
and pupil of Giovanni 
Maria Bononciui, 
then at Bologna pu- 
pil of Paolo Colonna. He went about 1091 
to Vienna, where he was made violoncellist 
to the emperor, and brought out an opera 
with extraordinary success, which, however, 
was afterwards proved to be the work of his 
brother j\Iarco Antonio. Called to Kome 
in 1094, he returned to Vienna in 1699, 
and again iu 1706, having spent two years 
(1703-5) in Berlin as court composer to 
Queen Sophie Charlotte. The years 1706- 
20 were divided between Vienna and Italy. 
While iu Eome, in 1716, he was invited to 
London, where soon a great rivalry sprang 
up between him and Handel and, through 


the patronage of the former by the Duchess 
of Marlborough, and of the latter by the 
court, assumed an almost political character. 
The strife ended with the defeat of Bonon- 
cini owing to the discovery, iu 1731, of his 
plagiarism of a madrigal by Antonio Lotti. 
His prospects being thus impaired, he was 
enticed iu 1733 by an alchemist adventurer 
to go to Paris, where he lost his entire fort- 
une and was obliged again to resort to his 
art. Iu 1748 he was recalled to Vienna to 
compose the music for the festivities after 
the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Soon after he 
went to Venice, where he composed for the 
theatre and was still active at the age of 
ninety. Works — Operas: Tullo Ostilio, 
Serse, given in Home, 1694 ; La Fede pub- 
blica, Vienna, 1699 ; Aftetti pin graudi vinti 
dal piti giusto, 1701 ; PoUfemo, Berlin, 
1703 ; Eudimione, Vienna, 1706 ; Mario 
fugitive, Tamiride, ib., 1708 ; Abdalomino, 
ib., 1709 ; Muzio Scevola, ib., 1710 ; Astarte, 
London, 1720 ; Crispo, Grmlda, ib., 1722 ; 
Farnace, Erminia, ib., 1723 ; Calpurnia, ib., 
1724 ; Alessandro in Sidoue, Vienna, 1737. 
Symphonies for 5, 6, 7, and 8 instruments, 
op. 2 (Bologna, 1685) ; do. for 3 instru- 
ments with organ, op. 3 (ib., 1686) ; do. for 
several instruments, op. 5 ; do. for violin 
and violoncello, op. G (ib., 1687) ; Mass for 
eight voices, op. 7 ; do., op. 8 (ib., 1688) ; 
Duetti da camera, op. 9 (ib., 1691) ; Cantate 
e duetti (London, 1721) ; Funeral Anthem 
for the Duke of Marlborough (ib., 1722) ; 
Divertimenti di camera (ib., 1722) ; 12 so- 
natas or chamber airs for two violins and 
bass (ib., 1732) ; II Giosue, oratorio.— Fetis ; 
Gerber, N. Lex. ; Hawkins, v. 274 ; Mendel ; 
Schilling ; Grove, i. 649 ; Hogarth, ii. 19. 

at Modena in 1G40, died there, Nov. 19, 
1678. Instrumental and vocal composer, 
studied in Bologna, and at an early age en- 
tered the service of the Duke of Modena, 
and became maestro di cappella of S. Gio- 
vanni in Monte. Member of the Accademia 
Filarmonica of Bologna. Works : Primi 
frutti del giardino musicale, for 2 violins 



(Venice, Magni, 1666) ; Vaij fiori, etc., so- 
natas for 2, 3, and i instruments, op. 3 (Bo- 
logna, 1669) ; Arie, Correnti, Sarabande, 
etc., for 2 violins and double-bass, op. 4 
(ib., Monti, 1674) ; Siufouie, Allemaude, 
etc., for 5 parts, op. 5 (ilj., 1671) ; Sonatas 
for 2 violins with organ, op. 6 (ib., 1077) ; 
Ariette, correnti, gighe, etc., for violin solo 
and 2 violins, op. 7 (ib., 1677) ; Musico pra- 
tico, op. 8 (ib., 1673) ; Trattenimenti musi- 
cali, for 3 or 4 instruments, op. 9 (ib., 
1675) ; Cantata a voce sola, op. 10 (ib., 
1677) ; Partitura de' madrigali a cinque 
voci, etc., op. 11 (1678) ; Arie correnti, for 

three instruments, op. 12 (ib., 1678) ; Libro 
secondo delle cantate, op. 13 (ib., 1678). 
— FOtis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Mendel. 

at Modena about 1675, died there, July 8, 
1726. Dramatic composer, brother of Gio- 
vanni Battista, with whom he is said to have 
been in Vienna and Berlin, and who seems 
to have availed himself of Antonio's superior 
talent in the composition of his operas. It 
is certain only that he was in Rome in 1714 
and was made maestro di cappella to the 
Duke of Modena in 1721. Padre Martini 
praises his elevated style, and places him 
above all his contemporaries. Works — Op- 
eras : Camilla, regina de' Volsci, given in 
Vienna, 1692 ; Griselda, Italy, about 1700 ; 
Andromeda ; Arminio ; Sesostri ; Turno 
Ai'icino, Florence, 1704 ; Etearco, Vienna, 
1707 ; La regina creduta re, Venice, 1707 ; 
Tigrane, re d' Armenia, Cajo Gracco, ib., 
1710 ; Astianatte, ib., 1718 ; La decoUazione 
di S. Giovanni Battista, oratorio, Vienna, 
1709 ; Christinas cantata. — Ft'tis ; Gerber, 
N. Lex, ; Scliilling. 

born at Trent, Tyrol, about 1660, died (?). 
Instrumental composer. He was Aulic 
Counsellor to the Emperor of Austria, and 
gave much time to the study of music. 

Works : Sonatas for two violins and bass 
(Venice, 1696) ; Le triomphe de la Grande 
Alliance, op. 8 ; One hundred minuets for 
violins and bass ; Dodici Concertini e Se- 
renate, etc. (Augsburg, 1741) ; and many 
motets and sonatas. — Fetis ; Gerber. 

named Angelini, born at Perugia about 
1630, died there after 1697. Singer, dra- 
matic composer, and didactic writer, pupil 
of Virgilio Mazzocchi. He was maestro di 
cappella of a church in Rome, then in Ven- 
ice, and entered the service of Margrave 
Christian Ernst of Brandenburg at Berlin, 
exchanging his jjosition in 1660 for a more 
influential one at the court of Elector Jo- 
bann Georg U. of Saxony, at Dresden. In 
1694 he returned to Perugia. Works : Pa- 
ride, opera, given in Berlin (published in 
Dresden, 1662) ; Martirio di S. Emiliano, 
oratorio. — Fetis ; Gerber, N. Lex.; Mendel ; 

Utrecht, Oct. 15, 1807, died at Stockholm 
in April, 1872. Pianist, son and pupil of 
Johannes E. G. Van Boom, an eminent flut- 
ist (born, 1783) ; made a concert tour to Den- 
mark and Sweden about 1825, and was in- 
duced to settle at Stockholm, where he 
became member of the Academy in 1844, 
and professor iu 1848. In 1862 he visited 
the principal cities of Europe to study the 
system of musical instruction. He com- 
posed operas, symjihouies, overtures, quar- 
tets, trios, and many works for pianoforte. 
—Mendel ; Viotta. 

born at Weinheini, Baden, March 13, 1842, 
still living, 1888. Violinist, organist, and 
pianist, pupil of the Conservatorium at 
Carlsruhe, studied the violin under Con- 
zertmeister Will, comijosition under Mo- 
lique, and the organ under Dr. Steggall. 
He made his debut as a violinist at Birming- 
ham in 1853, and settled in London in 1856. 
Organist at St. Mutthew's, Bayswater, in 
1868-75. Works : Symphony in C minor ; 
Prizes and Blanks, operetta ; A cantata ; 



Godiva, overture for orchestra ; JMarclie 
funebre for do. ; Te Deuin in D ; Anthems 
and church services ; Sonata quasi-fantasia, 
for organ ; Offertories for do. ; Quartets and 
quintets for stringed instruments ; Victoria 
March for orchestra ; Sonata in A minor, 
for viohn and pianoforte ; do. in D ; Ro- 
mance in F, for do. ; Ten easy pieces for 
do.; Wanderlieder, sketches for pianoforte; 
Gavotte and Bourn'e for do. ; Songs, etc. 

BOOTT, FRANCIS, born, of English par- 
entage, in Boston, Massachusetts, June 24, 
1813, still living, 1888. He studied har- 
mony under Luigi Picchianti, in Florence, 
Italy, where he has passed much of his life, 
and where he is honorary professor in the 
Academy of Fine Arts. Works : Mass, for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Song of Zecha- 
riah, do.; Te Deum, do.; Memento Rerum, 
hymn for eight parts ; Miserere, for chorus 
a cappella ; Several string quartets. Songs : 
Aftermath (Longfellow) ; Ave Maria ; Break, 
Break (Tennyson) ; Kyrie Eleison (Longfel- 
low) ; Laus Deo (Whittier) ; Rose upon the 
Balcony (Thackeray) ; Sands of Dee ; We 
Two (Ingelow) ; The Sea hath its Pearls 
(Heine) ; Brooklet (Longfellow), duet ; Riv- 
ulet (Tennyson), duet ; The Clover Blossoms, 
duet ; Maria Mater, cpiartet, etc. His first 
compositions were published under the 
pseudonym of Telford. 

BORDE. See Laborde. 

BORDESE, LITIGI, born at Naples, Italy, 
in 1815, died in Paris, Feb. 17, 1880. Dra- 
matic composer, jjupil of the Conservatorio 
at Najjles ; went in 1834 to Turin to bring 
out an opera which he had been commis- 
sioned to write, and thence to Paris, where, 
after repeated failures of his dramatic ef- 
forts, he devoted himself to the teachinir 
and composition of vocal music. Works — 
Operas : Zelimo e Zoraide, given in Turin, 
1834 ; La Mantille, Paris, Opera Comique, 
1837 ; L'automate de Vaucauson, Jeanne 
de Naples (with Monpou), ib., 1840 ; I 
Quindici, Naples, Teatro San Carlo, 1842 ; 
Le Sultan Saladin, Paris, Opera Comique, 
1847 ; Les deux bambins, ib., 1848 ; La 

Fioraia (18fi7) ; Three masses; A requiem; 
Motets ; Several vocal methods, and series 
of solfeggi, and hundreds of sacred and sec- 
ular songs for single and concerted voices. 
— Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 109. 

in Rome about 1(340. Dramatic composer, 
maestro di capj)ella at the court of Parma. 
Works : Zenobia, given in Venice, Teatro 
di San Cassiano, IGGG ; Alessandro aniante, 
1667 ; Eliogabalo, Naples, 1668 ; Marcello 
in Siraeusa, Venice, 1670, Bologna, 1672 ; 
Ercole in Tebe, Rome, 1671 ; Dario in Babi- 
lonia, Parma, 1671 ; Claudio Cesare, 1672 ; 
Domiziano, 1673. — Fctis. 

Genoa about 1810, still living, 1888? Pi- 
anist, made himself known by concerts given 
in his native city in 1832, and in Milan, 1833. 
Works : II Quadromaniaco, opera, given at 
Genoa, 183.5 ; Francesca da Rimini, do., ib., 
1837 ; Sonata for pianoforte ; Cadence ca- 
pricieuse for do. ; Variations on operatic 
themes for do. ; Italian romances. — Fetis. 

BORGHESE, ANTONIO, born in Rome 
in the second half of tlie 18tli century. Dra- 
matic composer, w-ent to Paris about 1777. 
Works : La Bazoehe, opera, given in Paris, 
Theatre Beaujolais, 1787 ; Der unvermuthete 
gliickliche Augenblick, ojieretta, given in 
Germany ; Sonatas for pianoforte, with vio- 
lin obligato, op. 2 (Paris, 1780). He pub- 
lished also L'art musical, etc. (ib., 1786) ; 
Traitii de composition (ib., 1788). — Fetis. 

at Orvieto, Umbria, about 1740, last heard 
of in 1800. Dramatic composer, maestro 
di cappella of the Cliiesa della Santa Casa 
at Loreto in 1770. He went to Vienna in 
1797, thence to Russia, and returned to 
Italy in 1800. Works — Operas : Alessandro 
in Armenia (1768) ; Merope, given in Rome, 
1768 ; Giro riconosciuto, given in Venice, 
1771 ; Ricimero (1773) ; La Donna instabile, 
Rome, 1776 ; Artaserse, Venice, 1776 ; Eu- 
niene, Turin, 1778 ; Pirarao e Tisbe, Flor- 
ence, 1783; L' Olimpiade, ib., 1785; La 
Morte di Semiramide, Milan, 1791 ; EgiUna, 


ib., 1793; Semiramis, Vienna, 1798; II j 
Tempio di Guido ; Two masses for four i 
voices and orchestra ; A Dixit for four 
voices ; Laudate for five voices ; Domine for 
five voices ; Lamentazione per il Giovedi 
Sauto for bass voice and orchestra ; Two 
litanies for four voices, and one for two 
choirs and orchestra. — Petis ; do., Supjjle- 
ment, i. 110 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BOEGHI, LUIGI, flourished in the 18th 
centuiy, time of birth and death unknown. 
Violinist, pupil of Pugnani. He lived from 
about 1780 in London, where he was a lead- 
er of the second violins at the Handel Com- 
memoration in 1784. He jsublished music 
for his instrument in London, Berlin, Paris, 
and Amsterdam. "Works : 6 sonatas for vio- 
lin and bass, op. 2 ; G solos for violin, op. 3 ; 
6 duos for two violins, op. 4 ; 6 duos for 
violin and violoncello, op. 7 ; 6 symphonies 
for full and small orchestra ; Italian canzo- 
nets, etc. — Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling. 
BOKIS GODUNOW, Russian opera, mu- 
sic by Mussorgski, represented at the Marie 
Theatre, St. Petersburg, 1872. It is one of 
the most popular works in the Eussian rep- 

Petersburg, Nov. 12, 
1834, died Feb. 22, 
1887. Amateur in- 
strumental composer, 
studied medicine and 
c h e m i s t r J' at the 
Academy, whei-e he 
became professor. 
He was one of the 
chief representatives 
of the young Russian 
school in music, and president of the Society 
of Music Lovers at St. Petersburg. Works : 
Middle Asia, symphonic poem ; 2 sj'mpho- 
nies ; String quartets ; Pianoforte music ; 
Prince Igor, opera (MS.). — Riemanu. 

BORONI (Buroni), ANTONIO, born in 
Rome in 1738, died there in 1797. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Padre Martini at 
Bologna, and of Abos at the Conservatorio 

della Piet;"i, Naples. He brought out some 
of his first operas at Venice in 1762, visited 
Prague in 1764, became miisical director 
and composer of the theatre at Dresden in 
1765, and Hof-Kapiellmeister to the Duke 
of Wiirtemberg at Stuttgart in 1770. He 
returned to Italy in 1780, and became maes- 
tro di cappella at St. Peter's, Rome, in 1785. 
"Works — Operas : L' Amore in musica, La 
notte critica, given in Venice, about 1760 ; 
Alessandro in Armenia, ib., 1762 ; Sofonisba, 
Le villegiatrici ridicole, ib., 1764 ; Siroe, 
re di Persia, Prague, 1764 ; La moda, II 
Carnevale, Le orfane suizzere, Dresden, 
1769 ; Ricimero, Stuttgart, 1773 ; La donna 
instabile, Artaserse, ib., 1776 ; Eomene, ib., 
1778. He wrote also motets and symjjho- 
uies and much church music. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

BORREMANS, JOSEPH, bom at Brus- 
sels, Nov. 25, 1775, died at Uccle-les-Bru- 
xelles, Dec. 15, 1858. Organist and dramatic 
composer'; maitre de ehapelle in his native 
city at Sainte-Gudule, organist of Saint- 
Nicolas, and second chef d'orchestre at the 
Theatre de la Mounaie, where he brought 
out the following works : De Klapperman, 
ou Le crieur de uuit d'Amsterdam, comic 
opera, 1804 ; La femme imj)romptue, opi'ra- 
bouffe, 1808 ; L'ofl'rande a I'Hymen, lyric 
scene, 1816. He has left also masses, Te 
Deum, motets, etc., with orchestral accom- 
paniment. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 111. 

BORRONI, ANTONIO, Italian church 
composer, flourished about the middle of 
the 17th century. He was among the first 
to substitute for the severe stilo osservato 
of Palestriua a freer style of composition. 
His masses and motets remain in manu- 
script. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

born at Reggio about 1570. Church com- 
2)oser and Franciscan friar, about whose life 
nothing is known. "Works : Magnificat su- 
per omnes tonos (Venice, 1591) ; 7 books of 
concerti ecclesiastici (ib., 1593-1606) ; Ves- 
pertina psalmodia (ib., 1602) ; Novo giar- 
dino di concerti, op. 11 (ib., 1611) ; Secondo 



libro degl' odoranti fiori, op. 13 (ib., 1615) ; 
Aftectibus pietosis, G books of motets (ib., 
1G15) ; Cauzonette si3iritiiali (ib., 1616) ; 
Diversoi'um concejjtuum luusicalium, 3 
books of miscellaneous cburcli music (161G- 
18).— Fetis. 
BOETNIANSKY. See Bartmiud'n. 
Venice in 1773, died in Vienna (?). Man- 
dolin and guitar jjlayer, went to Germany 
in 1803, and gave concerts at Dresden, 
Leipsic, Brunswick, Berlin, and settled in 
Vienna. Works : Variations, rondos, fan- 
tasias, for guitar solo, or with violin, piano- 
forte, and mandolin ; 6 variations for man- 
dolin or violin and guitar, op. 8 ; Sonata 
for pianoforte and mandolin or violin, op. 
9 ; 6 themes vaiies for mandolin or violin 
and guitar, op. 10 ; 6 variations for guitar 
and violin obligato, op. 13 ; Sonata for gui- 
tar and pianoforte ; 2 collections of Italian 
and German songs ; 6 French romances, 
op. 20.— Fetis ; Schilling. 

BORZIO, CARLO, Italian dramatic and 
church composer, maestro di cajipella at 
Lodi towards the end of the 17th centur^y. 
Works : Narciso, opera, given at Lodi, 1676 ; 
Pastorale, Bologna, 1691 ; Much church mu- 
sic. — Fetis. 

BOSCAJUOLO, IL. See I'Ame en peine. 
BOSI (Bossi), born at Ferrara in 1773, 
died in London in September, 1802. Dra- 
matic composer, brought out some operas 
in Italy, but went to London about 1792, 
and composed chiefly ballet music, such as : 
Little Peggy's Love, L'Amant Statue, 1797 ; 
Acis and Galatea. He published also so- 
natas and other music for jiianoforte. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

BOSSELET, CHARLES, born at Lyons, 
July 27, 1812, died at Saint-Josse-ten-Noode- 
les-Bruxelles, April 2, 1873. Dramatic and 
church composer, pupil of Fetis at the Con- 
servatoire, Brussels, where he won the first 
prize for composition in 1836, and became 
professor of harmony in 1840. He was also 
second chef d'orehestre at the Royal Theatre 
from 1835. Works : Ballets, given at the 

Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels : Les Dry- 
ades ; Arlecjuiu et Pierrot ; Terpsychore sur 
terre ; Masses, motets ; Four-part songs for 
male voices. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 
113 ; Mendel. 

BOTT, JEAN JOSEPH, born at Cassel, 
March 9, 1826, still living, 1888, at Ham- 
burg. Violinist, sou of and first instructed 
by the court musician Anton Bott (1795- 
1869), then pupil of Spohr on the violin, 
and of Moritz Hauptmann in theory. He 
made a successful concert tour through 
North Germany, and became solo violinist 
of the Electoral Orchestra in 1846, Con- 
zertmeister in 1846, and assistant Kapell- 
meister in 1851. In 1856 he went as 
Hof-Kapellmeister to Meiningen, and in 
1865 to Hanover, where he was jjensioned 
in 1878. He then taught nuisic for several 
years at Magdeburg, and in 1884 settled at 
Hamburg, whence he visited America in 
1885. Works : Der imbekannte, opera, 
given at Cassel, 1854 ; Actiia, das Miidcheu 
von Corinth, do., Berlin, 1862 ; Sympho- 
nies ; Overtures ; Concertos for violin ; Soli 
for do.; Pianoforte music and songs. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel ; Riemanu. 

Pavilly (Seine-Inferieure), Sept. 29, 1823, 
still living, 1888. Pianist, pupil at the 
Conservatoire, Paris, of Ziminermann on 
the pianoforte, of Savard and Leborne in 
harmony, counterpoint, and fugue ; in 1842 
he settled at Rouen, and in 1854 in Paris, 
where he devoted himself to his profession 
and to musical criticism. In 1864 he be- 
came professor at the Convent des Oiseaux. 
Works : Jocelyn, overture for grand orches- 
tra ; Le corsaii'e, do. ; Album do chant 
(1846) ; Album for pianoforte ; Souvenir de 
I'ange gardien, six etudes de stylo (1850) ; 
2 new albums (1855, 1857) ; 7 characteristic 
pieces for pianoforte, etc. — Fetis, Sup^jlO- 
ment, i. 113. 

BOTTESmi, GIOVANNI, born at Cre- 
ma, Lombardy, Dec. 24, 1823, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer and vii'tuoso on 
the double-bass ; pupil of the Conserva- 


~. <■■ 

torio, Milan. He studied the double-bass 
under Rossi, and counterpoint and har- 
mony under Fran- 
cesco Basili and Vac- 
caj. After a concert 
tour in Italy from 
1840 to 18i6, he be- 
came conductor of 
the orchestra in the 
theatre at Havana. 
Since then he has 
made various jour- 
neys to America, vis- 
iting the United 
States and Mexico and the northern portions 
of South America. In 1855 he became chef 
d'orchestre at the Italiens, Paris. In 1857- 
58 he travelled through Germany, Holland, 
Belgium, France, and England on a concert 
tour, in 1861 was maestro di capjsella of the 
Teatro Bellini at Palermo, in 1863 at Barce- 
lona, then founded in Florence the Societa 
di Quartetto for the cultivation of German 
classical music, and subsequently divided 
his time between Florence and London, 
whither he went last in 1871 as director of 
an opera troupe at the Lyceum, but returned 
again to Italy. "Works — Operas : Cristoforo 
Colombo, given at Havana, 1847 ; L' Assedio 
di Firenze, Paris, Theatre Italien, 1856 ; II 
Diavolo della notte, oijera buifa, Milan, 
Teatro di Santa Radegonda, 1859 ; Marion 
Delorme, Palermo, 1862 ; Vinciguerra, op- 
eretta, Paris, Theatre du Palais Royal, 1870 ; 
Ali Baba, comic opera, London, 1871 ; Ero 
6 Leandro, Turin, 1879 ; La Regina del 
NeiDal, ib., 1880; Symphonies; Overtures; 
Quartets ; INIany comf)ositions for double- 
bass ; Songs. — Fe'tis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

B0TT05ILEY, JOSEPH, born at Hali- 
fax, Yorkshire, in 1786, died (?). Organist 
and pianist, pupil of Grirashaw at Manches- 
ter, of Watts and Yaniewicz, in Leeds of 
Lawton, and in Loudon of Woelfl. He was 
organist at Bradford in 1807, then at Hali- 
fax, and from 1820 at Sheffield. Works : 
G exercises for pianoforte ; 12 sonatinas ; 2 
divertissements with flute ; 12 waltzes ; 8 

rondos ; 10 airs varies ; Duets for pianoforte. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

in Paris, April 11, 
1770, died there 
Dec. 29, 1861. Vio- 
lin virtuoso, said to 
have played at the 
Concerts Spirituels 
when only six years 
old ; went to Madrid 
in 1787, and was 
appointed solo vio- 
linist to the king. 
In 1806 he returned to Paris, and in 1820 
began to travel over Europe, exciting ev- 
erywhere great enthusiasm on account of 
his extraordinary skill in execution. He 
styled himself L'Alexandre des violons. 
He composed two concertos for his instru- 

Amiens, Oct. 3, 1770, died in Paris, Jan. 
19, 1835. Dramatic composer and singer, 
made his musical studies while a choir-boy 
in the cathedral of his native city, then in 
Paris (1791) pupil of Tomeoni in singing, 
and soon became himself a fashionable 
teacher. Gifted with a fine tenor voice, he 
was admitted as a member of the Imperial 
Chapel in 1806, and retained his place after 
the restoration. Works : L'heureux pre- 
texte, opera, given at the Theatre Montan- 
sier, 179-t ; 2 masses for four voices ; 3 
psalms; 3 Magnificat; 2 Salve Regina; Sta- 
bat Mater for four voices, chorus, and or- 
chestra ; Romances, chansons, rondeaus, and 
nocturnes. — Fetis. 

ANDRE, born in Paris, Sept. 16, 1815, still 
living, 1888. Dramatic composer, pupil at 
the Conservatoire, Paris, of Alkau, Hak'vy, 
and Lesueur, won the grand prix in 1835, 
and studied in Italy four years. He was 
made professor of singing at the Conser- 
vatoire in 1871. L. of Honour, 1869. 
Works — Operas : Le diable ;"i IV'cole, given 
in Paris, Opera Coniique, 1842; Les deux 



bergeres, ib., 1843 ; Une voix, ib., 1845 ; La 
cachette, ib., 1847 ; Les sabots de la mar- 
quise, ib., 1854 ; L'E- 
veutail, ib., 1860; Le 
docteui" Magnus, ib., 
Op6ra, 1804; Don 
Quichotte, Theatre 
Lyrique, 1809 ; Don 
Mucarade, Opera Co- 
luique, 1875 ; Acbille, 
cantata, 1835 ; Le 15 
Aout aux champs, 
do., 1862. — Fetis ; Supplement, i. 115. 

BOULE-DE-NEIGE (Snow Ball), opera- 
bouft'e in three acts, text by Nuitter and 
Trefeu, music by Offenbach, first rejare- 
sented at the Bouffes Parisieus, Paris, De- 
cember, 1871. Boule-de-Neige is a bear, 
imposed by the Grand Khan as a monarch 
upon an ungovernable people who are con- 
tinually getting up revolutions. 

ALBERT, born in Nantes, France, Feb. 2, 
1840, still living, 1888. Dramatic comjsoser, 
educated a lawyer but turned to music. He 
studied in the Conservatoire, Paris, under 
Ambroise Thomas, gained an aecessit for 
fugue in 1861, and took the grand prix of 
the Institut, 18G2, for his cantata, Louise 
de Mezieres. While in Rome he wrote a 
lyrical drama ; visited Greece, and, on his 
return to Paris, brought out a Stabat Mater 
(1868). A follower of Bach and Handel, his 
large private fortune has enabled him to in- 
troduce their music to the French people, 
for which he founded a choral society iu 
Paris. Works : Stabat Mater for soprano, 
alto, tenor, and bass, with chorus and grand 
organ and orchestra of violoncellos, double- 
bass, harp, and trombones ; Dieu notre pere 
divin, cantata ; Chanson d'une mere, melo- 
die ; Chant de ceux qui vont sur mer ; Ga- 
votte et menuet pour pianoforte. At the 
Concerts Populaires, 1874, he brought out 
a Suite pour orchestre, in four parts ; Fan- 
taisie en ut mineiu'. He wrote a " Souvenir 
d'une Mission musicale en Grece et en 
Orient " (Paris, 1876), and published '■ Trente 

Melodies populaires de Grece et d'Orient 
avec texte grec, traduction italieune en vers 
adaptee alamusique, et traduction fran(,'aise 
en prose." — Fetis, Supplement, i. 116 ; Men- 
del, Ei-giinz., 44. 

at Fontaine-l'Eveque, Haiuault, in 1676, 
I died in Paris in January, 1750. Dramatic 
j composer, counter-tenor at the Opera iu 
1708. From 1711 he devoted himself to 
composition, producing sixteen operas and 
' many cantatas. He became maitre de clia- 
pelle at Toul about 1716, and after that at 
Strasburg. Works : Les Amours deguises, 
opera-ballet, given iu Paris, Academie Roy- 
ale de Musique, 1713 ; Les jjlaisirs de la 
paix, do., ib., 1715. Besides these he com- 
posed divertissements and court ballets : 
Les nuits de Sceaux, 1714 ; Le Comte de 
Gabalis, oulesPeuples elomentaires, Sceaux, 
1715 ; Les peines et les plaisirs de I'amour, 
Zephyr et Flore, cantata, 1715 ; Psyche, 
1718 ; Diane, 1721 ; Divertissement pour la 
naissance da Dauphin, Dijon, 1729 ; Idyle 
de Rambouillet, 1735 ; Cephale et I'Aurore ; 
Phedre et Hipjiolyte ; La lyre d'Anacreon ; 
Dedale ; Don Quichotte. He published two 
books of French cantatas, and Cantates 
Anacreoutiques. L'Amour prisounier de la 
Beaute, cantata (Paris, Ballard) ; L" Amour 
et Psyche, do. (ib.) ; La belle Hollandaise, 
do. (ib.) ; Beatus vir, motet for full chorus. 
^Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 117 ; Mendel. 
comedie-ballet in live acts, test by Moliere, 
music by Lulli, represented at Chambord, 
Oct. 14, 1670, and iu Paris, at the Theatre 
du Palais Royal, Nov. 29, 1670. One of 
LuUi's best works, it was very successful. 
Iu 1852, on the occasion of Moliere's anni- 
versary, the music was rearranged bj' Jules 
Cohen, and in 1876, by Weekerlin for the 
pianoforte (Paris, 1876). 

poser of the 16th century, died Sept. 30, 
1561. Her works occupy a place among 
those of the great composers of her time. 
A four-part chorus, " Da bei rami," written 



by lier, is in Paix's Orgel-tabulatur Buch. — 
Grove ; Meiulel ; Gerber ; Scliilliug. 

Bordeaux, Dec. 2, 1812, died in Paris, April, 
ISSl. Iiistruineutal composer, pupil in Paris 
of Barbereau, made himself first kuowu as a 
musical critic, aud by an ojsera entitled Sul- 
tana, given at the Opera Comique, 1846. It 
was well received, but it has not been fol- 
lowed by any further etlbrt in this field. 
Other works : Two trios for pianoforte, vio- 
lin, and violoncello ; 2 sonatas for piano- 
forte ; Caprices, barcarolles, waltzes, ro- 
mances for do. ; Vocal melodies ; Stabat 
Mater, 1863. — Fetis ; do., Suj^plement, i. 
117 ; Mendel. 

BOURIE, HONORfi, born at Nimes in 
1795, died (?). Instrumental composer, bas- 
soon-player in the theatre orchestra of his ! 
native city, where he brought out a comic 
opera, Les deux philosophes, in 1812. 
Other works : A cantata ; Concertos for 
bassoon ; Quartets for wind instruments ; 
Church music ; Romances. — Fetis, Supjjle- 
ment, i. 117. 

BOUSQUET, GEORGES, born at Per- 
jjignan, France, March 12, 1818, died at 
Saint-Cloud, near Paris, June 15, 1851. 
Dramatic composer and musical critic, jju- 
pil at the Conservatoire of Collet and of El- 
wart in harmony, then (1836) of Leborne in 
counterpoint and fugue, and of Berton for 
dramatic style. He won the grand prix in 
1838, spent two years in Rome, where he 
was made a member of the Accademia di 
Sta. Cecilia, aud of the Filarmonici, passed 
the year 1811 in Germany, and returned to 
Paris after live years' absence. In 1847 he 
became chef d'orchestro at the Opi'ra, and 
ill 1849-51 held the same position at the 
Theatre Italien. As a critic he wrote for 
the " Commerce," the " Illustration, " and the 
" Gazette nmsicale de Paris." Works : La 
vendetta, cantata, performed at the Acade- 
mie des Beaux Arts, 1838 ; Mass, for voices 
only, Rome, S. Luigi de' Fraucesi, 1839 ; 
Mass with orchestra, ib., 1840 : Miserere 
for 8 voices with orchestra (1840) ; Three 

quartets for 2 violins, viola, and violoncello 
(1841) ; Quintet for 2 violins, viola, violon- 
cello, and double-bass (1842) ; Overture for 
orchestra, Academie des Beaux Ai'ts, 1842 ; 
L'hotesse de Lyon, opera. Conservatoire, 
1844 ; Le niousquetaire, do., Opera Co- 
mique, 1844 ; Tabarin, do.. Theatre Lyrique, 
1852.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

ART DE, born at Anieres, near Dijon, in 
1662, died (?). Vocal composer, pupil of 
Jacques Farjonel at the Jesuit college in 
Dijon ; he was for several years maitre de 
musique of the Lou^Te. His real name 
was Drouart. Works : Cantates fran(;aises ; 
Eglogues bachiques ; Twenty-one books of 
airs ; Motets. His son Rene (born in Paris, 
Sept. 11, 1703, died there, May 19, 1760), 
pupil of Beruier, and of Calviere, became 
one of the best French organists. He com- 
posed odes, cantatas, and arias. — Fetis ; 

BOUTEILLER, LOUIS, born at INIonce- 
en-Rain, Maine, in 1648, died at Mans in 
1724. Church composer, maitre de musique 
of the cathedral at Mans, from his fifteenth 
year. Several of his numerous composi- 
tions, consisting of masses, motets, hymns, 
and anthems, were executed before Louis 
XIV., who often ordered them to be re- 
peated. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BOUVAIiD, FRANCOIS, born in Paris 
about 1670, time of death not known. Dra- 
matic composer, was a singer at the Opera 
until the age of sixteen, when he lost his 
voice ; he travelled extensively aud spent 
several years in Rome. W^orks : Meduse, 
given at the Academic Royale de Musique, 
1702 ; Cassandre (with Berlin), ib., 1700. 
For the court he wrote: Ariane et Bacchus, 
Le triomphe de I'Amour et de I'Hymen, 
1729 ; Diane et I'Amour, idyl, 1730 ; L'e- 
cole de Mars, 1733 ; Cantatas ; Collections 
of arias ; Sonatas for violin. — Fetis ; Men- 

BOVERY, JULES, born at Liege, Oct. 
21, 1808, died in Paris, July 17, 1868. Real 
name Antoine Nicolas Joseph Bovy. Violin- 



ist anil dr.amatio composer, entirely self- 
taught, iu Paris, whither he weut on leaving 
the college of his native citj-. He became a 
chorus singer iu the theatre at Lille, where 
he assisted also in conducting the orches- 
tra, then became chef d'orohestre at Douai, 
and successively at Lyons, Amsterdam, Ant- 
werp, Koueu, and iu 1845 at Ghent, having 
returned to Paris the year before. Iu 1856 
he was first violinist at the Theatre des Fo- 
lies Nouvelles, Paris, and about 1865 be- 
came chef d'orchestre at the Folies Saint Ger- 
main (Theatre Cluny). Works: Mathieu 
Laensberg, given at Douai about 1830 ; Paul 
I., ib. ; La Tour de Eouen, Kouen, Theatre 
des Arts, 1843 ; Charles II., Paris, Theatre 
des Baulieues, 1844 ; Jacijues d'Artevelde, 
Ghent, 1846 ; Le Giaour, Lyons, Amster- 
dam, and Antwerp, 1840-48 ; Isoline, ballet, 
given at Lyons ; La Carte a payer, Liege ; 
Several operettas, and pantomimes, Paris, 
Folies Nouvelles ; France et Augleterre, can- 
tata ; Ouverture triomphale ; Ave Regiua, 
etc. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 11 ; Gre- 
goir, Galerie biogr. des Artistes musiciens 

born at Sondershausen, April 24, 1670, died 
at Gorlitz, time not known. Dramatic com- 
l^oser and organist, j)upil of the Thomas- 
schule, Leipsic ; was at first tutor in a 
private family, 1686-92, then organist at 
Grossenhain, and since 1702 at Gorlitz. 
His operas were very popular in his time, 
and he often received invitations to the 
courts of Ansbach, Cassel, Wolfenbiittel, and 
others. Among them are : Orion, Sarda- 
napalus. Die verschwiegeue Treue. — Gerber, 
N. Lex. ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

BOYCE, WILLIAM, born in London in 
1710, died there, Kensington, Feb. 7, 1779. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Charles King, 
under whom he was a chorister iu St. Paul's 
Cathedral, then of Maurice Greene, and, 
after becoming organist of Oxford Chapel, 
Cavendish Square, of Dr. Pepusch. Iu 1736 
he became organist of St. Michael's, Corn- 
hill, and in the same year composer to the 


Chapel Royal and the king. Li 1737 ho. 
was appointed conductor of the music festi- 
vals of the Three 
Choirs (Glouces- 
ter, Worcester, 
and Hereford), 
became organist 
of the church of 
All-hallows the 
Great and the 
Less in 1749, 
and of the 

Chapel Royal in 1758, when ho resigned 
the other two organist's j)ositions, and re- 
tired to Kensington. Doctor of Music, 
Cambridge, 1749 ; master of the King's 
Band, 1755. Works : David's Lamentation 
over Saul and Jonathan, oratorio, performed 
at the Apollo Society, 1736 ; Two Odes for 
St. Cecilia's Day (1736) ; Solomon, serenata, 
1743 ; Twelve sonatas or trios for 2 violins 
and bass (London, 1747) ; Ode for the In- 
stallation of the Duke of Newcastle as Chan- 
cellor of Cambridge University, 1749 ; Pe- 
leus and Thetis, masque, 1749 ; Pindar's 
First Pythian Ode, 1749 ; The Chaplet, mu- 
sical drama, Drury Lane Theatre, 1749 ; 
The Shepherd's Lottery, do., ib., 1750 ; Sec- 
ular Ode by Dryden, ib., 1752 ; 2 Odes in 
Home's Agis, 1'758 ; Ode to Charity ; 15 
Anthems, Te Deum, and Jubilate (London, 
1780) ; 12 Anthems and a Service (ib., 
1790) ; Organ concerto ; 8 symphonies for 
various instruments ; Overtures ; Lyra Bri- 
tannica, collection of songs, duets, and can- 
tatas. He also edited Cathedral Music, 
being a collection of the most valuable com- 
positions for tliat service by eminent com- 
posers (London, 1760-78). — Burney, iii. 
619 ; Grove ; Fctis ; Mendel. 

BOYLE, FRANCESCO, born at Piacenza 
in 1787, died in :Milan, Nov. 27, 1844. Dra- 
matic composer, went in 1801 to i\Iilan, 
where he studied music and became an 
excellent singer, and, having lost his eye- 
sight, 1830 (?), devoted himself to vocal in- 
struction and formed many eminent pupils. 
Works : II Carnovale di Venezia, given in 



Milan, Teatro Ri-, 1812 ; La Selvaggia, not 
performed ; Solfeggi for luezzo-soprauo ; 
Pianoforte music. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BOZZANO, E:MILI0, Italian composer, 
contemporary. He has written : Diem la 
Zingara, Italian opera, given at the Teatro 
Doria, Genoa, June 20, 1872 ; Benvenuto 
Cellini, opera seria, represented at the Poli- 
teama, Genoa, May 20, 1877. 

poser, contemporary. He is the author of : 
Caterina di Belp, Italian opera, three acts, 
given at the Teatro Balbo, Turin, June 4, 

BR.4BANV0NNE, LA, the Belgian na- 
tional air. It was composed during the 
revolution of 1830, from which Belgium 
dates its independence, the words by Jen- 
neval, who fell in one of the actions near Ant- 
werp, and the music by Franc;ois van Cain- 
penhout. King Leopold gave the mother 
of Jenneval a pension of 2,400 francs, and 
appointed Campeuhout director of the royal 

DER, born, of Amer- 
ican parentage, in 
York, Maine, Oct. 6, 
1816, died in Mont- 
clair, New Jersey-, Jan. 
7, 1868. He received 
his first musical in- 
struction from Sum- 
ner Hill ; in 1830 he 
removed to Boston, 
where he attended 
music classes taught by Lowell Mason and 
Geoige J. Webb. In 1840 he began teach- 
ing music in New York ; in 1847 he visited 
Europe, and studied music at Leipsic under 
Hauptmann, INIoscheles, and Bijhme. After 
his jeturu to America, in 1849, he devoted 
his time to teaching, composing, and to con- 
ducting musical conventions in various parts 
of the country. In 1854, with his brother 
Edward G. Bradbury and F. C. Lighte, he 
began to manufacture pianos, which busi- 
ness he afterwards continued on his own 


account, until 1869, and at one time the 
Bradbury pianos w^ere widely known. Mr. 
Bradbury was the editor of more than fifty 
collections of music, from 1841 to 1867, in 
which much of the music was his own. 
Some of these collections had a very large 
sale, especially The Jubilee (1857), 200,000 
copies ; Fresh Laurels (1867), 1,200,000 
copies ; and the Golden Series (including 
several), about 2,000,000 copies. He was 
the author also of Daniel, cantata (with G. 
F. Root, 1853) ; Esther, cantata (1856). 

born at Rakovnik, Bohemia, Jan. 17, 1833, 
died there, Aug. 10, 1881. Dramatic com- 
poser, first instructed in his native place by 
the choirmaster Johann Lepicovsky, then 
jnipil in Prague of Caboun and Pischek in 
singing ; went to Berlin, where he entered 
the royal cathedral choir, and taught vocal 
music. Prince George of Prussia made him 
his court composer in 1874. His most pop- 
ular works are his Bohemian and German 
songs, and quartets for male voices. Works 
— Operas : Der Heirathszwang (1859) ; Ros- 
witha, given at Dessau, 1860 ; Die Braut 
des Waffenschmieds (1861) ; Das Krokodil 
(1862) ; Jarmila, Prague, 1879 ; Der Ratten- 
fiinger von Hameln, Berlin, 1881 ; Music to 
the tragedy Jolanthe, text by Prince George 
of Prussia, 1872 ; do. to Christine von 
Schweden, text hy do., Berlin, 1872. — Men- 
del ; Riemann. 

BRAGA, GAETANO, born at Giulianu- 
ova, in the Abruzzi, June 9, 1829, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer and -^-ioloncellist. 
He was destined for the church, and entered 
the Consorvatorio, Naples, to study singing, 
but finally took up the violoncello, under 
Gaetauo Ciavidelli, studying harmony under 
Parisi, accompaniment under Francesco 
Ruggi, counterpoint under Carlo Conti, and 
composition under Mercadante. He made 
his first effort in composition while under 
the last-named, writing Saiil, cantata, and 
a luass for four voices and orchestra. He 
brought out his first dramatic work. Alma 
Braga, soon after leaving the Couservatorio 



(1852). Travelled in Italy, went to Vienna, 
where he played with Mayseder, then to 
Paris in 1855, where he appeared at con- 
certs as a virtuoso, and taught singing. 
Works— Operas : Estella di San Gerinano, 
given in Vienna, 1857 ; II Ritratto, Naples, 
1858 ; Margherita la mendicaute, Paris, 
Theatre It.alien, 1860 ; Mormile, Milan, Feb. 
4, 1862 ; Gli avveuturieii, ib., Teatro Santa 
Radegouda, 1867 ; Reginella, Teatro Car- 
cano, Milan, 1872 ; Caligola, Lisbon, Jan. 
23, 1873. He also set to music Don Cicsar 
de Bazan and Ruy Bias, which have not been 
produced. Besides dramatic works he has 
published : Concerto for violoncello in G 
minor, and other music for that instrument, 
with pianoforte accompaniment ; Vocal 
pieces ; and au Album of Vocal Melodies 
with Italian words, another with French 
words, and a third entitled, Notti Lombardi. 
— Fctis, Supplement, i. 120. 

GUSTAV, born at Kritschen, Silesia, Oct. 
7, 1839, died in Berlin, Nov. 1, 1878. Dra- 
matic comijoser, pupil of Steinbrunn at the 
seminary of Bromberg, later in Berlin, 
1862-63, of Flodoard Geyer. Since 1867 
he has been instructor at Wandelt's Insti- 
tute, Berlin. Works : Ein IMatrose von der 
Nymphe, Singspiel, given in Berlin, IMeysel's 
Theater, 1864 ; Deutschland im Urwald ; 
Te Deum, for chorus and orchestra, 1866 ; 
Quartets for violins ; Organ music ; Char- 
acteristic pieces for pianoforte ; Sonatas ; 
Duets ; Songs ; Choral motets, etc. — Mendel. 

BRAHAM, JOHN, liorn in London in 
1 7 7 -t , died there, 
Feb. 17, 1856. Dra- 
matic composer and 
tenor-singer ; jDupil 
in London of Leoni 
while very young, at 
Bath, in 1794, of 
Rauzzini, and in 
Genoa of Isola in 
composition. He 
made his appearance at a very early age at 
Covent Garden Theatre, but came into no- 

tice as a great tenor in 1796, in the opera of 
Mahmoud at Drury Lane, and was at once 
engaged for the Italian Opera House. After 
that he visited Italy to perfect himself, and 
appeared in Florence, Rome, Naples, Milan, 
Genoa, Venice, etc., retiu-ning in 1801 to Eng- 
land, to reappear at Covent Garden. From 
that date his career was a triumphant one, 
and he was a public singer for nearly sixty 
years. His voice was powerful, and his 
compass, of three octaves, unusually wide. 
As a composer he obtained success in many 
ballads and songs, one of the most popular 
being the Death of Nelson. He wrote also 
most of the music for his own parts in 
several of the operas in which he appeared. 
Works — Music to Dramas : The Cabinet, 
1801 ; Family Quarrels, 1802 ; Enghsh 
Fleet, 1802 ; Thirty Thousand, 1804 ; Out 
of Place, 1805 ; False Alarms, 1807 ; Kais, 
or Love in a Desert (with Reeve), 1808 ; 
The Devil's Bridge (with C. E. Horn), 1812 ; 
The Paragraph ; Narensky ; The Americans ; 
The ]V[agicians (with M. P. King).— Grove ; 
Brown ; Fetis ; ]\Ieudel. 

BRAHMS, JOHANNES, born in Ham- 
burg, Germany, May 
7, 1833, still hving, 
1888. His musical 
education, begun un- 
der Ins father, who 
was a musician, was 
continued undei 
Marxsen of Alton a 
In 1853 he met, at 
Diisseldorf, Schii- 
mann, who entei- 
tained the very highest hojses of him, and 
published an enthusiastic article on him 
in the Neue Zeitschrift f iir Musik. But for 
several years after this Brahms seemed 
rather to belie Schumann's prophecies, and 
Schumann himself, in his later years, ex- 
pressed himself as much disai^pointed in 
hiin. Brahms remained in Hamburg until 
1861, studying hard, and publishing a good 
deal. His reputation was beginning to es- 
tablish itself, but it was hardly brilliant, 


and was confinetl to the more cultivated 
musical circles ; upon the whole, his talent 
was much disputed. In 1861 he moved to 
Vienna, where he conducted the Siug-Aka- 
demie in ISGS-G-l, and was director of the 
concerts of the Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde from 1872 to 1875, bringing out 
choral works by Bach and Handel with 
great lustre. His reputation as a composer 
kej)t growing apace, but was still not wide- 
spread. His first symphony, upon which 
he had been at work for ten years, off and 
on, came almost like a thunderclap out of 
a clear sky when it was brought out at 
Carlsruhe, Nov. 4, 1876. No composition 
ever made more, or more immediate, noise 
in the world ; Brahms found himself sud- 
denly world fan)ous. His fame was still in- 
creased by his Deutsches Eequiem and his 
second symphony. He stands to-day almost 
undisputed as the foremost com2:)Oser in the 
world. He represents the climax of modern 
musical thought ; he is the legitimate suc- 
cessor of Schumann. His style is marked 
bj' great elaboration, and there is in his mu- 
sic a stoutness of construction, a warmth of 
sentiment, and a real profundity of thought 
(which has often been misconstrued into 
abstruseness) such as no other living com- 
poser can lay claim to. He was alwilj's an 
anti-Wagnerite, and, during the Bayreuth 
master's later years, an Gernaftuy may be 
said to have virtually been divided into 
Wagnerianer and Brahmsianer. Works — 
Choral : Ein Deutsches Requiem, for solo 
voices, chorus, and orchestra, op. 45, first 
performed in Vienna, 1868 ; Rinaldo, can- 
tata (Goethe), for tenor solo, male chorus, 
and orchestra, op. 50 ; Rhapsodic, frag- 
ments from Goethe's " Harzreise " for con- 
tralto solo, male chorus, and orchestra, op. 
58 ; SchicksaUUed (song of destiny, by HiJl- 
derlin), for chorus and orchestra, op. 54 ; 
Triumphlied (Rev., chap, xix.), for eight-part 
chorus and orchestra, op. 55 ; Ndnie, for 
cliorus and orchestra, op. 82 ; Gesang der 
Parzen (fi'om Goethe's "Iphigenia"), for six- 
part chorus and orchestra, op. 89 ; Ave Maria, 

for female voices, organ, and orchestra, op. 
12 ; Funeral hymn, for chorus and wind 
instruments, op. 13 ; 4 part-songs for female 
chorus, two horns, and harp, op. 17 ; 7 
Marienlieder, for mixed choir, in two parts, 
op. 22 ; Psalm xiii., for female chorus and 
organ, op. 27 ; Geistliches Lied (Paul Flem- 
miug), for four voices, mixed choir and or- 
gan, op. 30 ; 3 sacred choruses for female 
voices, op. 37 ; 5 part-songs for male chonis 
(four voices), op. 41 ; 3 songs for chorus 
(six voices), a cappella, op. 42 ; 12 songs and 
romances, for female chorus, a cappella, op. 
44 ; 7 songs for mixed choir, op. 62 ; 2 mo- 
tets for five voices, a cappella, op. 29. For 
orchestra : 4 symphonies, in C minor, op. 68, 
in D, op. 73, in F, op. 90, in E minor, op. 
98; Akademisclie Fest-Ouverture, op. .80; 
Tragische Ouverture, op. 81 ; Variations on 
a theme by Haj-dn (Choral St. Antonin), op. 
56 ; Serenade in D, op. 11 ; do. in A, op. 
16 (for small orchestra). Concerted music : 
Concerto in D, for pianoforte and orchestra, 
op. 15 ; do. in B-flat, for do., op. 83 ; do. for 
violin and orchestra, in D, ojj. 77 ; 2 sextets 
for strings, in B-fiat, op. 18, and in G, op. 36 ; 
Quintet for do., op. 88 ; Quintet for piano- 
forte and strings, in F minor, op. 34 (also 
arranged for two pianofortes) ; 3 quartets 
for strings, in C minor and A minor, op. 51, 
Nos. 1, 2, and in B-flat, op. 67 ; 3 quartets 
for pianoforte and strings, in G minor", op. 
25, in A, op. 26, and in C. minor, op. 60 ; 3 
trios for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, 
in B, op. 8, in E, op. 40 (with horn or vio- 
loncello), in C, oj). 87 ; Sonata for violoncello 
and pianoforte, in E minor, op. 38 ; do. for 
violin and pianoforte, op. 78. For piano- 
forte : 3 sonatas, in C, op. 1, in F-sharjD mi- 
nor, op. 2, and in F minor, op. 5 ; 4 Bal- 
laden, op. 10 ; Scherzo in E-flat minor, op. 
4 ; 16 waltzes (4 hands), op. 39 ; Ungarhche 
Tilnze (4 hands, also for orchestra) ; 8 jiieces 
in two books, op. 76 ; Rhapsodien, op. 79 ; 
Variations (themes by Schumann), op. 9 and 
23 ; 2 do., op. 21 ; Variations and fugue 
(Handel), op. 24 ; 28 variations (Paganini), 
op. 35. Vocal : Liebeslieder, waltzes for pi- 



anoforte for four liands, and voieos, op. 52 ; 
Neue Liebeslieder, do., op. 65 ; 3 quuitcts 
for soprano, contralto, tenor, and bass, op. 
32 ; 4 do., op. 64 ; 4 duets for contralto 
and baritone, op. 29 ; 3 do. for soprano 
and contralto, op. 21 ; 4 do., op. 61 ; 5 do., 
op. 66 ; 4 do., op. 75 ; 6 songs, op. 3 ; do., 
op. 6 ; do., op. 7 ; 8 songs and romances, 
oj). 14 ; 5 songs, op. 19 ; 9 do., op. 32 ; 15 
romances from Tieck's Magelone, op. 33 ; 
4 songs, op. 43 ; do., op. 46 ; do., op. 47 ; 7 
do., op. 48 ; 5 do., op. 49 ; 8 do., op. 57 ; 

do., op. 58; do., op. 59 ; 9 do., op. 63 ; do., 
op. 69 ; 4 do., op. 70 ; 5 do., op. 71 ; do., op. 
72. — Deiters, Joh. Bralims, eine Charakter- 
istik (1880) ; Wocbenblatt (1870), i. 40, 56 ; 
Eiemann ; Signale Saral. mus. Vortriige, 23- 
24, ii. 319 ; Dwiglit's Journal, xxii. 389 ; 
xxiv. 269. 

Bonn, Westpliulla, July 14, 1833, still living, 
1888. Composer, pujjil at Cologne of the 
Conservatorium and of Ferdinand Hiller. 
In 1847-50 lie was first violinist of the Bonn 
Opera House ; in 1858-61 professor in the 
Conservatorium, in 18()l-69 musical di- 
rector at Bonn ; and since then he has re- 
sided at Bonn as composer and teacher. 
Works : Ariadne, grand opera. Cantatas : 
Die Macht des Gesanges, op. 6 ; Velleda, op. 
7 ; Trost in TiJnen, op. 10 ; Das eleusische 
Fest, op. 32 ; Friihlingshymnus, op. 37 ; 
Alcestis, op. 14 ; Prometheus, op. 47 (1880) ; 

Columbus, op. 58 (1886) ; Germanischer 
Siegesgesang, op. 26 ; Das Lied vom llliein, 
op. 40 ; Lenzerwachen, op. 46 ; Rheinfahrt, 
op. 54. Songs, duets, choruses, etc. ; Tas- 
so, a concert-overture, op. 30 ; Sonata for 
pianoforte, op. 3 ; Sextet for two pianofortes 
two violins, two violas, oj). 5 ; 2 sonatas for 
pianoforte, op. 20 ; Concerto for do. and 
orchestra, op. 39 ; 2 romances for violon- 
cello and pianoforte, op. 41. — Mendel ; Rie- 

BRAMBILLA, PAOLO, born in Milan 
(or in Vienna?) in 1793, died (?). Dra- 
matic comjioser, who enjoyed considerable 
reputation in Italy in 1815-20. Works : 
L' Ajiparenza inganna, opera buffa, Milan, 
Teati-o Re, 1816 ; II Barone bnrlato, opera, 
ib., 1816 ; L' Idolo birmanno, ib., 1816 ; II 
Carnovale di Venezia, Turin, 1819. Ballets, 
given at the Scala, Milan : Acbar gran Mo- 
gol, Saffo, Capriccio e buon cuore, 1819 ; 
Giovanua d' Arco (with Lichtenthal and Vi- 
gano), 1821 ; II Paria, 1828 ; Camma, 1833. 
— Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 122 ; Mendel. 

BRANCA, GUGLIEL^MO, Italian com- 
poser, contemporary. He is the author of 
Catalana, opera, represented at La Pergola, 
Florence, February, 1876. 

ples in 1813, died there, Feb. 12, 1846. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of the Couserva- 
torio at. Naples. Works : I Panduri, given 
at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 1843 ; II Morto 
ed il vivo, opera bulla, ib., 1843 ; II Punti- 
glione, do., ib., 1845 ; L' Assedio di Con- 
stantina, Teatro Fenice, 1844 ; L' Incognita, 
ossia dopo quindici anni, ib., 1846 ; Ros- 
muuda, Venice, Teatro Fenice, about 1830 (?) ; 
Le Sarte ealabresi, ib., about 1832 (?) ; Fran- 
cesca da Rimini, ib., 1844 ; Lilla, ib., 1848 ; 
I duje Vastasi di Porto, opera in Neapolitan 
dialect, Naples, about 1830 (?).— Fetis ; Rie- 

BRANCOLI, CESARE, born at Massa- 
Pisana, near Lucca, June 11, 1788, died July 
9, 1869. Amateur church composer, pu- 
pil at Lucca of Domenico Quilici. Among 
his numerous works are : Stabat Mater, 


Beuedictus, Miserere, for several voices and 
iustriiments ; Cliristum regem, for 4 voices ; 
Mass with grand orchestra ; Motets with do. ; 
Several masses and motets for 4-8 voices 
with orchestra. — Ft-tis, Supplement, i. 122. 
man iiarentage, 
in Vienna, July 
5, 1835, still liv- 
ing, 1888. Or- 
ganist ; studied 
in Vienna the jji- 
anoforte u n d e r 
Joseph Fischhof 
and Carl Czerny, 
and composition 
' under Eufiuat- 

scha ; and in 
New York under William Meyerhofer. In 
1849 he went to America and travelled ex- 
tensively in the United States with William 
Vincent Wallace's concert company ; his first 
jjublic appearance in New York, where he 
finally settled, was in 1851 as a pianist. He 
was organist of St. Jiilin the Evangelist (E. 
C.) Church in 18G5-70, and of St. James's 
(R. C.) Chui-ch in 1871-86. Since 1886 he 
has been organist of the Fortj'-fourth Street 
Sj-nagogue, and is at present organist of 
Sl. Peter and St. Paul's (R. C.) Church 
in Brooklyn. Works : Maria Stuart, over- 
ture ; Capriccio ; Scherzo ; Gavotte sym- 
phonique, and other orchestral pieces ; Trio, 
quintet, and other in.strumental music ; Toc- 
cata, tarentelle, sonata, and other pianoforte 
music ; Vocal quartets and glees ; Many 
songs, of which, " My love is like the red, 
red rose," is the most popular. 

BRANDL, JOHANN, born at Rohr, near 
Ratisbou, Nov. 14, 1760, died in Carlsruhe, 
May 26, 1837. Dramatic composer, pupil 
of Valesi in singing, and studied in Rohr, 
Munich, and Neuburg. When only sixteen 
years old he wrote a Miserere, which was 
sung in the Jesuit Church, Neuburg, and 
one of the Jesuit fathers sent him to Eich- 
stiidt to study counterpoint under Schlecht. 
In 1784 he was appointed Kapellmeister to 

Prince Hohenlohe-Bartenstein, in 1789 Mu- 
sik-Direktor to the Bishop of Bruchsal, and 
in 1806 the same to the Archduke of Baden 
at Carlsruhe. Works : Germania, opera, 
1800 ; Hermann, do. ; Hero, melodrama, 
(Carlsruhe) ; Symphony for full orchestra ; 
Serenades, quintets, quartets, sextets, and 
nocturnes for string and wind instruments ; 
Oratorio ; Masses, etc. He set the poems 
of Schiitz to music (Leipsic), and jjublished 
collections of Lieder for one and several 
voices, with pianoforte. — Fetis ; Mendel ; 

born at Deventer, Holland, Sept. 20, 1847, 
still living, 1888. Organist, brother and 
pupil of Marius Brandts Buys ; went in 
1874 to Rotterdam as organist and conduc- 
tor of Rotte's Mannenkoor. Works : Das 
Siugenthal (Uhlaud), for baritone, mixed 
chorus, and orchestra ; Petrus-Klage, for 
baritone with orchestra ; De vier Jaargetij- 
den, for male chorus ; Songs with piano- 
forte. — Viotta. 

born at Deventer, Oct. 31, 1840, still living, 
1888. Organist, son and pupil of Cornells 
Alyander Brandts Buys (born, 1812, organ- 
ist and musical director at Deventer) ; since 
1864 organist and bell-player at Zutphen. 
Works : Vater unser, for chorus and solo 
voices ; Mailied, for 3 female voices ; W^erk- 
mannslied, for male chorus ; Een Kerk, for 
female voices, with violin and pianoforte ; 
Gegen Unmuth, 3 sacred songs for contralto, 
female chorus, and organ ; Grabgesang, for 
8 voices ; Wilhelmus van Nassouweu, for 
organ ; Pianoforte pieces, and songs, tran- 
scriptions for organ, etc. — Viotta. 

DE, French composer of the 18th century. 
Amateur dramatic composer, ofiScer in the 
royal army, and marshal in 1769 ; celebrated 
by Voltaire in his " Temple du goilt." 
Works : L'Empire de I'Amour, ballet, given 
in Paris, Academic Royale de Musique, 
1733 ; Leandre et Hero, opei-a, ib., 1750. 



Brewer of Arasterdaiu), opcTa-comique iu 
one act, text by de Najac, music by Jules 
Alary, represented at Ems, Aug. 19, 18G1. 
The wife of M. Vauberj^-, believing herself 
misunderstood by her husband, abandons 
herself to romantic ideas, but is finally cured 
of her folly by Kaoul de Floriac, who proves 
to be the friend of her husbaud. 

Brewer of Preston), opura-comique in three 
acts, text by de Leuven and Brunswick, 
music by Adolphe Adam, represented at 
the Opera Comique, Paris, Oct. 31, 1838. 
Daniel Robinson is a brewer at Preston, in 
the reign of George II., at the time of the 
attempt of Edward, sou of the Pretender ; 
and the plot turns on the confounding of 
him with his brother George, a lieutenant 
in the royal service, who so closely resem- 
bles him as to render the two scarcely dis- 
tinguishable. It is one of the most popular 
of Adam's works. An English version was 
given in New York, March 28, 1S4G.— Pou- 
gin, A. Adam, 139. 

BRASSIN, LOUIS, born at Ais-la-Cha- 
pelle, June 24, 1810, <^^j4i^^ 

died in St. Peters- "^^ 

burg. May 17, 1884. 
Pianist, pupil of Mo- 
scheles at the Conser- 
vatorium, Leij^sic ; 
made several concert 
tours with his broth- 
ers and pupils Leo- 
pold and Gerhard, 
was instructor at Stern's Conservatorium in 
Berlin iu 18(36, at the Brussels Conserva- 
toire in 1869-79, and afterwards at the 
Conservatorium of St. Petersburg. Works : 
Der Thronfolger, operetta ; Der Mission- 
iir, do.; L'ecole moderne du piano, twelve 
etudes de concert (Brussels, Schott) ; Grand 
galop fantastique, op. 5 (ib.) ; Valse caprice, 
op. 6 (ib.) ; do., op. 11 (ib.) ; Pri^-e, op. 10 
(ib.) ; Galop fantastique, op. 16 (ib.) ; Grande 
polonaise, op. 18 (ib.), etc. ; Songs. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 123 ; Mendel. 

BRAULT, ELIE, French composer, con- 
temporary. He is the author of Bachelier 
et Alguazil, opera-comique in one act, 
played at the Theatre du Chateau d'Eau, 
Paris, 1880. 

BRAUN, GEORG, born at Eichstiidt iu 
the second half of the 18tb century. Dra- 
matic composer, and German comedian, 
author of the music of the following operas, 
given at Gotha in 1789-96 : Julie ; Der 
ueiie Herr ; Die Jubel-Hochzeit.— Fetis. 

BRAUN, JOSEPH, born at Ratisbon in 
1787, died ('?). Pianist, violoncellist, and 
dramatic composer ; he was musical director 
of several opera troupes at KOnigsberg, 
Dantzic, Bremen, Liibeck, etc. In 1826 he 
went to Philadelphia to conduct an operatic 
enterprise, which failed in 1828 ; having 
o'iven and played iu concerts in New York, 
Baltimore, and other cities of the Union, he 
returned to Germany in 1830, and settled 
at Bremen. "Works: Die Wiinsche, oder 
der Priifungstraum, fairy opera, given at 
Konigsberg, 1825 ; Die lange Nase, comic 
opera, Der Kosak uud der Freiwillige, do., 
ib., 1825 ; Compositions for the pianoforte, 
and the violoncello.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

at Ludwigslust, Mecklenburg, in 1788, died 
C?) Virtuoso on the oboe, son and pupil of 
Jolianu Friedrich Braun ; entered, in 1807, 
the royal orchestra at Copenhagen. Works : 
Symphony for grand orchestra ; Overture 
for do. ; Concerto for flute, op. 2 ; Quartet 
foi 2 flutes and 2 horns, op. 1 ; Quartets for 
flute, violin, viola, and bass, op. 6 ; Two 
quartets for flute, oboe, horn, and bassoon ; 
Duos for flutes ; do. for oboes, op. 3 ; Duo 
for oboe and bassoon ; Sonata for piano- 
forte and oboe, etc. — Fetis. 

BRAUN, WILHELM, born at Ludwigs- 
lust, Mecklenburg, in 1791, died (?). Vir- 
tuoso on the oboe, son and pupil of Johanu 
Friedrich Braun, whom he succeeded in 
1825 as first oboe in the grand-ducal or- 
chestra of ]Mecklenburg-Schwerin, having 
from 1809 been a member of the royal or- 
chestra iu Berlin. Works : Divertissement 



for oboe, op. 3 ; Concerto for do., op. 12 ; 
yis duos for oboes, op. 1 ; Graud duo for 
do., op. 23 ; Two quartets for strings, op. 
13 ; Divertissement for flute and quartet, 
op. 27 ; Sonata for j^ianoforte, ojs. 17 ; In- 
troduction and ijolonaise, for do., op. 26 ; 
Der Trost, cantata for soprano, with piano- 
forte, op. 22. — Fetis. 

of Messina), music to Schiller's drama of 
the same title, for chorus and orchestra, by 
Sigismund Neukoram, comj)osed at St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1808. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xsix. 

to Schiller's drama of the same title, in C 
minoi', for grand orchestra, by Robert Schu- 
mann, op. 100, composed in 1850-51. First 
performed in DUsseldorf, March 13, 1851 ; 
in Leipsic, Nov. 6, 1851. First published 
by C. F. Peters (Leij)sic, 1851) ; edition in 
score by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Schumann's 
"Werke, Overturen, etc.. No. 3. 

BRAVO, IL, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Berettoui, music by !Marliana, repre- 
sented at the Theatre Italieu, Paris, Feb. 1, 
1834. Plot original, scene in Venice. The 
work was not successful, though it contains 
some good numbers. It was revived in 
1855. II Bravo, opera in three acts, text by 
Gaetauo Rossi, music by Mercadante, first 
represented during the Carnival of 1839, at 
La Scala, Milan, and at the Thoatre Italieu, 
Paris, May 12, 1853. The libretto is made 
up of crimes and horrors, but the score has 
many beautiful passages. The finale is very 
dramatic. Le Bravo, French opera in three 
acts and four tableaux, test by ^fcmile Bla- 
vet, music by Gustave Salvayre, represented 
at the Opera National Lyrique, Paris, April 
18, 1877. As in the libretto by Berettoui, 
the scene is in Venice and the name of the 
heroine is Violetta Tiepolo, but the plot is 

Copenhagen, June 17, 1800, died there, 
March 25, 1864. Viola player and dramatic 
comjjoser, pupil of Kuhlau ; when still very 

young be obtained a position in the royal 
orchestra, and composed a concerto for vi- 
ola, a concertante for do. and violoncello, 
aud an overture for orchestra. In 1834 he 
became Conzertmeister, and in 1850 chorus- 
master. Other works : Lucia di Lammer- 
moor, opera given at Copeuhagen, 1832 ; Die 
Guerillas, do., ib., 1834 ; Judas Ischariot, 
scene for tenor aud orchestra ; Resurrec- 
tion, an Easter hymn ; Some church com- 
positions. — Mendel, Ergiiuz., 46. 

born iu Amsterdam, Jan. 29, 1801, died 
there, Feb. 14, 1857. Dramatic composer 
and violiuist, pupil of his father on the vio- 
lin, and of Bertelmau in composition ; spent 
his youth at Leeuwarden, and at the age of 
eighteen returned to Amsterdam, where he 
entered the orchestra of the Theatre Fran- 
9ais, and in 1829 became director of the 
FeUs-Meritis Society. In 1840 he founded 
the Cecilia Club, and was director of it 
and of the music school of the Society for 
the Promotion of Music, up to his death. 
Order of the Lion ; honorary member of the 
Academy of St. Cecilia, Rome, and several 
other societies. Works : Symphony for 
grand orchestra (Amsterdam, Theune & 
Co.) ; Concert overture (ib.) ; Festival over- 
ture with chorus, performed, Amsterdam, 
1836 (ib.) ; Quartet for two violins, viola, 
and bass (Bonn, Simrock) ; Second quartet 
for do. (Amsterdam, Theune & Co.) ; Third 
do. (ib.) ; Solemn mass for four voices and 
orchestra (Rotterdam) ; 4 masses for three 
voices and organ (Amsterdam, Theune & 
Co.) ; Requiem (ib., 1848) ; The Forty- 
eighth Psalm for solo, chorus, and orches- 
tra (ib., 1851) ; Adoljjhe au tombeau de 
Marie, ballad for tenor and pianoforte (ib.) ; 
Colomb, ou la Ducouverte de I'Amerique, 
cantata for baritone and male chorus (ib.) ; 
Lord Byron, do. for a single voice ; Le Ban- 
dit, opera, given at The Hague, Theatre 
Fran(;ais, about 1840 ; Sapho, Dutch op- 
era, Amsterdam, 1834 ; Man in the Four 
Stages of Life, melodrama, ib., 1835 ; He- 
roic Death of Speick, do., ib., about 1850 ; 


Nimm dich in Aclit, German opera, ib., about 
1845.— I'etis ; Viotta. 

in Rotterdam in 1830, still living, 1888. 
Pianist and orgauist, piqail at the Leipsic 
Conservatorium of Johanu Sclnieider, and 
after his return to his native city organist of 
the Walloon church and professor at the 
School of Music of the Musical Society of 
the Netherlands. In ISG'I he visited Leip- 
sic with his wife, a distinguished singer, 
appeared with her in concerts, and brought 
out several of his compositions ; in 18(53 he 
produced in Milan his first concerto with 
orchestra. Works : Voyage nocturne, for 
pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, op. 4 ; 4 
characteristic pieces for four hands, op. 7 ; 
Jagdlied, for pianoforte, op. 9 ; Rondo ca- 
priccio, op. 11 ; Sonata for pianoforte, op. 
13 ; Quartet for pianoforte and stringed in- 
struments, op. 16 ; Knosjien, six pieces for 
pianoforte ; 2 concertos for pianoforte with 
orchestra ; Judith, oratorio. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 125. 

BRENDLER, ERICH, died at Stock- 
holm in 1845 in the bloom of youth. Dra- 
matic composer, known by the operas, Ed- 
mund and Clara, and The Death of Spartara, 
given in Stockholm, 1845. His posthumous 
opera, Ryno, was estimated a work of high 
artistic value. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

BRESCIANI, PIETRO, born at Brescia 
(or Padua?) about ISOG, died (?). Dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Antonio Calegari. 
Works : La fiera di Frascati, given at Ven- 
ice, 1830; L'albero di Diana, Trieste, 1832; 
I promessi sposi, Padua, 1833. — Fetis ; 

BREUER, BERNHARD, born at Co- 
logne in 1808, died (?). Violoncellist, pu- 
pil of his grandfather, who was director of 
music, then in Berlin of Zelter, of Bernhard 
Klein in composition, of A. Wilhelm Bach 
on the organ, and of Moritz Ganz on the 
violoncello. After his return to Cologne 
he joined the orchestra of the Stadtthcater, 
and in 1839 visited Pari.s, where he studied 
counterpoint under Cherubini. In 1845 he 

bought the musical concern of Eck & Co., 
and was for many years professor at the 
Rhenish School of Music. Works : Die Ro- 
senmiidchen, opera, given at Cologne, 1839 ; 
Lazarus, oratorio ; Die Sendung des Heili- 
geu Geistes, do.; 3 masses, with orchestra ; 
Several psalms, with do. ; Requiem mass ; 2 
syrajihonies for orchestra ; 5 overtures for 
do.; 4 string quartets; Trio for pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello ; Duos for violins ; 
Songs ; Part songs for four male voices, 
etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

the department of I'Aisne, France, in 175G, 
died at Chamouille, near Laon, in 1825. 
Violoncellist, pupil of Cupis ; made a brill- 
iant success at the Concerts Spiritnels, when 
still very young, was a member of the or- 
chestra at the Opera in 1781-180G, and 
professor at the Conservatoire in 1796- 
1802. After 1806 he lived for some j-ears 
in Paris and Versailles, then retired to Cha- 
mouille. Works : 2 oi)eras ; 8 symphonies ; 
7 concertos for violoncello ; 18 violin quar- 
tets ; 21 trios for strings ; 54 duos for vio- 
lins ; 6 do. for violin and viola ; 6 do. for 
flutes ; 18 do. for violin and violoncello ; 12 
do. for two violoncellos ; 18 soli for violon- 
cello ; Method for do. {Paris, 1804).— Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

composer of the second half of the 17th 
centurj'. He was organist of the Cathedral 
of Bergamo in 1G73, maestro di cappella of 
the cathedral, 1G99, and afterwards of S. 
Francesco, Milan, and of the Churches del 
Carmine and S. Fedele. Works : Bizarrie 
armoniche, ovvero sonate da camera a tre 
stromeiiti col basso continuo, op. 3 (Bo- 
logna, 1693) ; La catena d' oro, ariette da 
camera a voce sola, op. G (Modena, 1696) ; 
La divozioue canora, op. 7 (Modena, 1699) ; 
Delire d' amor divino, o cantate a voce sola 
e continuo, op. 8, lib. i. (Modena, 1695, 
Venice, 1706). He left an elementary work : 
Primi elementi di musica per i principianti 
con alquanti solfeggj facili (Venice, 1699). 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 


BRE\YER, TH0:MAS, born in 1609, died 
in 1G7G ('?). Vocal comjjoser and performer 
on the viol-da-gamba ; educated at Christ's 
Hospital. Man}' of Lis rounds and catches 
are printed in Hilton's " Catch that Catch 
can" ; he also composed several fantasias for 
the viol, and a pretty three-jjart song. Turn, 
Amaryllis, to thy swain. — Grove; Fetis ; 
Meudel ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

BKICCIALDI, GIULIO, born at Terni, 
Papal States, March 1, 1818, died in Flor- 
ence, 1882. Flutist, instructed by liis father, 
then self-taught ; went to Rome, when 
quite young, and entered the orchestra of 
a theatre there, studying composition at the 
same time under Ravagli. He was only 
seventeen when appointed professor of the 
Hute at the Aceademia di Sta. Cecilia. In 
1836-39 he was in Naples, then lived in 
Milan for fifteen months, and in Maj-, 1841, 
plaj'ed in Vienna with great success, and re- 
turned there after having visited the batbs 
in Bohemia. He met with extraordinary' 
success in England, and made London his 
principal residence. Works : 2 concertos 
for liute and orchestra ; Ballabile di con- 
certo for do., op. 15 ; Fantaisies for do., or 
for flute and pianoforte, on operatic themes, 
op. 17, 18, 24, 2.5, 27 ; Morceaux de salon 
for do., op. 3, 16, 21, 28, 30, 32, etc.— Fctis. 

tata, text and music by Frederick Corder, 
first performed at the Wolverhampton 
(England) Festival of 1886. Subject from 
Walter Scott's poem of the same name 
(1813). The work, which begins with a 
choral introduction in place of an overture, 
and is in two ])arts, is largely in narrative 
form. The music is vigorous and dramatic, 
and the cantata was one of the successes of 
the year. — Upton, Standard Cantatas, 124. 

tata, text Ijy Frederick Enoch, music by 
Henry Smart, first performed at the Bir- 
mingham (England) Festival of 1864. Sub- 
ject, the traditional story of the Lord of 
Dunkerron, a castle on the coast of Kerry, 
who becomes enamoured of a sea-maiden. 

The Sea-King forbids their marriage, dooms 
her to death tor loving a mortal, and drives 
him from his realm to the upper world. 

BRIDE OF SONG, THE, English oper- 
etta in one act, text by Henry Faruie, nuisic 
by Julius Benedict, represented at Covent 
Garden Theatre, Loudon, Dec. 3, 1864. 

grand opera in two acts, music by Julius 
Benedict, represented at Drury Lane Thea- 
tre, London, April 22, 1844. 

Oldbury, England, 
Dec. 5, 1844, still liv- 
ing, 1888. Organist, 
pupil of his father, 
who was lay clerk of 
Rochester Cathedral ; 
organist of Trinity 
Church, Windsor, 
1865, of jManchester 
Cathedral, 1869, and 
of Westminster Ab- 
bey, 1875-81 ; professor of harmony and 
composition at the Royal College of Music. 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1868 ; Mus. Doc, do., 
1874. Works : j\Iount Moriah, oratorio, 
1874 ; Boadicea, cantata, 1880 ; Callirrhoe, 
do., 1888. Anthems : Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis, in D ; do. in G ; Give unto the 
Lord the glory ; It is a good thing to give 
thanks ; The Lord hath chosen Zion ; Seek 
ye the Lord ; We declare unto you glad ti- 
dings ; Hope thou in the Lord ; The Offertory 
Sentences as used in Westminster Abbey, 
1884 ; Rock of Ages, for baritone solo, choi-- 
us, and orchestra, 1885 ; Anthem for cele- 
bration of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, West- 
minster Abbey, 1887. Part-songs, and songs. 
BRIDGE, JOSEPH COX, born in Roch- 
ester, Kent, England, Aug. 16, 1853, still 
living, 1888. Organist, brother of John 
Frederick Bridge, entered as a chorister in 
Rochester Cathedral, where he studied un- 
der John Hopkins and became assistant or- 
ganist. In 1870 he became assistant to his 
brother at Manchester Cathedral ; in 1871 
organist of Exeter College, Oxford, and in 



1877 organist of Chester Catliedral. B.A. 
Oxford., 1875 ; Mus. Bac, ib., 187G ; :M.A., 
ib., 1878; Mus. Doc, 
ib., 1884; Fellow of 
the College of Organ- 
ists, 1879. Works: 
Daniel, oratorio, 
Chester Festival, 
Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis iu C, voice 
and orchestra (1879, 
id.) ; String quartet in G minor, 1870 ; 
4 arrangements for organ from Handel, 
Schumann, and Cramer ; 6 original organ 
pieces ; Bourrce and gigue for pianoforte ; 
Polonaise for do. ; Dance of ISIummers 
for do. ; 2 pianoforte duets— No. 1, Danse 
slav iu D major, No. 2, do. in G minor; 
Anthem for Harvest Festivals ; do., O, 
that men would praise the Lord. Songs : 
O moonlight deep and tender (S. or T.) ; 
The Steersman's Song (B.). Part-Songs : 
It was a lover and his lass (S. A. T. B.) ; 
The Curfew (do.) ; Greek War-Soug (T. T. 
B. B.), with accompaniment of brass instru- 
ments ; Great Britain's Sons (S. A. T. B.) ; 
Soldier, rest ! (A. T. T. B.). 

in Germany in 162G, died at Darmstadt in 
1710. He was organist at Stettin, and 
music director to Prince Friedeustein iu 
Gotha ; in 1660 he became Kapellmeister 
to the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, and in 1670 
Kapellmeister to the Landgrave in Darm- 
stadt, where he spent the rest of his life. 
He was a voluminous composer of concer- 
tos, sonatas, madrigals, dance music, Lieder, 
psalms, etc., published between 1652 and 
1709. His Hymn book for Darmstadt ap- 
peared in 1687. A full list of his works is 
given by Gerber and Fetis. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., iii. 328 ; Fi'tis ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

BRIGANDS, LES, opera-bouffe in three 
acts, text by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic 
Halevy, music by Offenbach, represented at 
the Varietes, Paris, Dec. 10, 1869. 

BRIGANDS, by Verdi. See Masnadieri. 

BRIGANTI, I (The Brigands), Italian op- 
era in three acts, text by Crescini, music by 
Mercadante, first represented at the Theatre 
Italieu, Paris, March 22, 1836. The libretto 
is an adaptation from Schiller's " Die Riiu- 
ber." Mercadante went from Milan to Paris 
to be present at its production, but was dis- 
aupoiutetl at its reception. Same subject 
treated by Luigi Arditi, Milan, 1811. 

THELEilY, born at Saint-Etienne (Loire), 
May 13, 1833, still living, 1888. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Marseilles Conserva- 
toire of Barsotti on the pianoforte, and in 
harmony of Schoenagel. He then studied 
under his uncle, the Abbe Brion, who was 
maitre de chapelle of the cathedral at Cham- 
bery, and in 1852 went to Paris and was pu- 
pil, at the Consrevatoire, of Bataille, Levas- 
seur, and Revial in singing, and of Halevy 
in counterpoint and composition. Works : 
Le meunier de Sans-Souci, comic opera, giv- 
en at Antwerp, 1861 ; Le Don Juan de vil- 
lage, do., ib., 1863 ; Una charge de dragons, 
do., Nantes, 1867 ; Le Chevalier de Cordes- 
sac, do., Lille, 1868 ; Ivan IV., ou les Porte- 
glaives, grand opera, Marseilles, 1876 ; Due 
et Paysan, opera comique, one act, text by 
Yvert, Amiens, 1877 ; Two operettas ; Sev- 
eral masses ; Cantata ; Motets, choruses, son- 
atas; Quintet, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i.l26. 

BRISSON, FREDERIC, born at Angou- 
leme (Charente), Dec. 25, 1821, still living, 
1888. Pianist, played in public when twelve, 
and gave lessons when fifteen years old. He 
studied harmony under Garaudi, and pub- 
lished his first composition in 1840 ; in 1846 
he went to Paris, where he has since been 
a prominent teacher and comjioser. He 
published : Ecole d'orgue traitant speciale- 
meut de la soufflerie et contenant 38 exer- 
cises, 50 exeniples et 20 etudes (Paris). 
Works : Les Ruses villageoises, operetta, 
1863. Arrangements pour operas : Guil- 
laume Tell, piano, violin, and organ ; Robert 
le Diable, piano, etc. ; Reverie for piano- 
forte, op. 17 ; Arabesque, op. 19 ; Caprice- 
etude, op. 25 ; do., op. 30 ; L'Espaguol- 


Bolero, op. 32 ; Galop Je concert, op. 36 ; 
Fantaisie brillaiite, op. 40 ; Hjmne triom- 
pbale, op. 4:1 ; Makouba, dause arabe, op. 
42 ; Caprice uocturne, op. 44 ; Three con- 
cert pieces, op. 46 ; Reverie fantastique, op. 
50 ; Caprice elegant, op. 51 ; Caprice imi- 
tatif, op. 55 ; Valse de concert, oj}. 59 ; Fan- 
tasias, duos, trios, etc., from operas. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 127 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 48. 

born in Brooklyn, New York, Dec. 19, 1825, 
still living, 1888. Son of William Richard 
Bristow. He was a violinist, about 1836, 
in the orchestra of the Olympic Theatre, 
New York ; and in the New York Philhar- 
monic Society from its organization in 1842, 
for more than forty years. In 1851-62 he 
was conductor of the New York Harmonic 
Societ}-, and later of the Mendelssohn Union. 
He was also organist of several churches 
in New York, among them St. John's, St. 
George's, Zion, and the Church of the Cov- 
enant, and a teacher of music in the public 
schools of New York more than forty years. 
His compositions, which number more than 
sixty, are most of them still in MS. The 
following are the more important : h'ip Van 
Winkle, ojjera, produced at Niblo's Garden, 
New York, Sept. 27, 1855 ; Columbus, an 
unfinished opera, the overture to which has 
been given in New York several times since 
1857 ; Praise to God, oratorio, 1860 ; Dan- 
iel, oratorio, produced in New York, Dec. 
30, 1867 ; 5 symphonies, of which the Ar- 
cadian was performed in New York by the 
Philharmonic Society, Feb. 14, 1874 ; String 
quartet, in F ; String quartet, in G minor ; 
The Great Republic, cantata, with orchestral 
accompaniment, 1880 ; Pieces for the vio- 
lin, the pianoforte, and the organ ; Christ 
our Passover, anthem ; Christmas Anthem, 
1887 ; Songs. He was one of the compilers 
of Music of the Church (1852), of The Can- 
tilena, for Day Schools (1860), and of The 
Cantata, for Day Schools (1866). 

of English parentage, in Kent, England, 
February, 1803, died in Brooklyn, New 

York, Aug. 13, 1867. He went to America 
in 1817, performed on the organ, clarinet, 
and trumpet, and was noted as a pianoforte 
teacher. Among other works he composed 
5 masses, and 7 sets of vespers for use in 
the Roman Catholic Church. 

BRITO, ESTEBAN DE, Spanish com- 
poser of about 1625. He was musical di- 
rector of the Cathedrals of Badajos and 
Malaga. Works : Tratado de musica ; Mo- 
tetes a 4, 5, 6 voces ; Motete, Exurge Do- 
mine, 4 voc. ; Villancicos de Natividad. His 
compositions, which are in MS., are pre- 
served in the library of the King of Portu- 
gal. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber. 

BRIXI, FRANZ XAVER, born at Prague 
in 1732, died there, Oct. 13, 1771. Church 
composer, pupil of Pater Simeon in the Pi- 
arists' College at Kosmanos ; became organ- 
ist at St. Gall's, Prague, then at St. Nich- 
olas's, and afterwards choirmaster at St. 
Martin's, finally, in 1756, Kapellmeister at 
the cathedral. He was a capital contrapun- 
tist, and did much towards the reform of 
Catholic church music ; his works are dis- 
tinguished for originality and diversity of 
ideas. Works : 52 grand masses ; 24 short 
do. ; Litanies, vespers, graduals, ofiertories, 
and oratorios ; Also operas and operettas. 
— Dlabacz, i. 224 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

BRIZIO, PETRUCCI, born at Mosca 
Lombarda, Ferrara, June 12, 1737, died at 
Ferrara, June 23, 1825. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Pietro Beretta ; became ma- 
estro di caijpella at the Cathedral of Fer- 
rara in 1784. Works : Ciro riconoseiuto, 
opera, given at Ferrara ; I pazzi improvisati, 
opera buffa, ib., about 1770 ; Masses for 4 
voices and orchestra ; Psalms, Te Deums, 
litanies, hymns, etc. ; Stabat Mater ; Pas- 
toral mass and Credo for Christmas, with 
full orchestra, etc.- — Fetis. 

BRIZZI, CARLO, Italian composer, con- 
temjaorary. He is the author of L' avaro, 
opera buffa, text by Romani, represented at 
the Teatro Brunetti, Bologna, May 19, 1877. 

ALEJO, born at Madrid, Feb. 17, 1843, 



still livinp:, 1888. Violinist, first instructed 
by one Manuel Pamfil, then j^npil of Isidore 
de Vega on tbe violin, and studied harmony 
and composition at the Conservatorio. He 
played first violin in the orchestra of the 
Zarznela in 1858-67. Composer of masses, 
psalms, motets, overtures, and the music to 
several zarzuelas. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 128. 

BROCHAED, PETER, born in Munich, 
Aug. -4, 1779, died there (?) after 1811. 
Composer, pujiil of Kleinheinz and of 
Streicher on the pianoforte, of Held and 
Friedrich Eek on the violin, and of Schlccht 
in composition. In 1797-98 he was a mem- 
ber of the theatre orchestra at Munich, 
whither he returned iu 1799 after a year in 
Mannheim, and in 1804, having played for 
two years in the court orchestra at Stuttgart. 
"Works — Ballets : Der Tempel der Tugend, 
Der Dorf-Jahrmarkt, Die zwei Wilden, given 
in Munich, 1800 ; Der Mechaniker, ib., 
1806 ; Der dankbare Sohn, ib., 1807 ; Son- 
atas, variations, ariettas, cantatas, etc. — Fetis. 

BROD, HENRI, born in Paris, June 13, 
1799, died there, April 5, 1839. Virtuoso 
on the oboe, pujjil of Vogt at the Conserva- 
toire, where he won the first prize in 1819. 
He played the first oboe in the orchestra of 
the Opera, beside his master, and in 1832 
became professor at the Conservatoire. In 
all the concerts in which he was heard, in 
Paris and abroad, he obtained the most 
brilliant success. L. of Honour, 1838. 
Works : Four fantaisies for oboe with or- 
chestra or pianoforte ; Nocturne concertant 
for oboe and pianoforte ; Bolero for do. and 
orchestra ; Airs varies for do., with quartet ; 
Three quintets for oboe, flute, clarinet, horn, 
and bassoon ; Grand method for oboe, etc. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

BRONNER, GEORG, born in Holstein 
in 1666, supposed to have died in 1764 or 
1724?. Dramatic composer and organist. 
His works are recorded in the annals of the 
Hamburg Theater, of which he became di- 
rector in 1699, soon after producing several 
of his operas. He was also organist of the 
OUurch of the Holy Ghost at Hamburg. 

Works — Operas: Echound Narcissus, 1693 ; 
Venus, 1694 ; Cei)halus uud Prokris, 1701 ; 
Philippus, Herzog von Mailand ; Berenice, 
1702 ; Victor (music for 3d act), 1702 ; Der 
Herzog von Normandie, 1703 ; Der Tod des 
grossen Pans, 1702. He published also a 
collection of cantatas for the voice alone 
(1690), and chorals arranged for the organ 
(Hamburg, 1716).— Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 
361 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

BRONSART, HANS VON, born in Ber- 
lin, Feb. 11, 1830, 
still Yiving, 1888. 
Pianist, educated 
at Dantzic and at 
Berlin University ; 
pupil iu harmony 
and composition of 
Dehn in Berlin, 
and on the iiiauo- 
forte under Kullak, 
and of Liszt at 
Weimar. He ac- 
quired fame on his concert tours through 
Europe, conducted the Euterpe concerts at 
Leipsic in 1860-62, the concerts of the Ge- 
sellschaft der Musikfreunde in Berlin in 
1865-66, and became intend ant of the Royal 
Theatre at Hanover in 1867. Works: Trio 
for pianoforte, in G minor ; Concerto for 
do. ; Fnihlings-Fantasie, for orchestra ; Sex- 
tet for stringed instruments ; Christnacht, 
cantata, jierformed in Leipsic ; Der Corsar, 
ojiera (MS.), text from Byron ; Polonaise in 
C minor. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

bom of Swedish par- 
ents (Starek), in St. 
Petersburg, in 1843, 
married Hans von 
Bronsart in 1862. Pi- 
anist, pupil of Liszt. 
Works : Konig Hiarne, 
opera ; Jery und B;l- 
tely, operetta, text after 
Goethe, represented at 
the Grand-Ducal Theatre, Weimar, April 
Pianoforte music, etc. 

26, 1873 ; Songs : 


BRONZE HORSE. See Gheval de 

BROS, Don JUAN, born at Tortosa, 
Spain, in 1776, died at Oviedo, March 12, 

1852. Church composer, pupil of Queralt 
at Barcelona, where he soon became assist- 
ant maestro de cajjilla at Santa Maria del 
Mar, and organist at San Severo. In 1807 
he obtained the position of maestro de ca- 
pilla of the cathedral at Malaga, was in the 
same capacity at Leon in 1815-23, then from 
1834 at Oviedo, whither he had retired af- 
ter 1823. He comjiosed numerous masses, 
psalms, and other church music, among 
which are quoted as the best : 3 Misereres 
■with lamentations, a Te Deum, and a Re- 
quiem. — Fetis. 

BROSIG, MORITZ, born at Fuchswinkel, 
Silesia, Oct. 15, 1815, died at Breslau, Jan. 24, 

1887. Pupil at Breslau of Franz Wolf, whom 
he succeeded as organist of the cathedral in 
1842. He was made Dom-Kapellmeister in 

1853, afterwards assistant director of the 
Royal Institute for Catholic church music, 
and instructor at the university. Doctor 
of Philosophj', and member of the Accade- 
mia di Sta. Cecilia, Rome. Works : 4 grand 
instrumental masses ; 3 short do. ; 7 books 
of graduals and offertories ; 20 books of 
organ pieces ; Organ book in eight parts ; 
Choralbuch, etc. — Fetis ; ^Mendel ; Rieniann. 

BROUSTET, EDOUARD, born at Tou- 
louse, April 29, 1836, still living there, 

1888. Pianist, pupil in Paris of Maleden 
in harmony, of Camille Stamaty, Ravina, 
and Henri Litolfl", with whom he made an 
extended tour abroad as far as St. Peters- 
burg. After his return he brought out 
several of his compositions in Paris, in 1871 
visited Spain and Portugal, and settled in 
his native city. Works : 3 trios for piano- 
forte, violin, and violoncello ; Sj'mphonie 
concertante for pianoforte and orchestra ; 
Tarantella for do. ; Concerto for do. ; Grande 
valse de concert ; Quintet for pianoforte and 
strings ; Suite for string instruments ; Fan- 
taisies, romances, t'tudes, etc., for pianoforte. 
— Fetis, Supplement, i. 129. 

American parentage, in Washington, D. C, 
July 2, 1829, still living, 1888. Pupil, in 
Boston, on the pianoforte and in composi- 
tion of J. C. D. Parker and Carl Hause, in 
instrumentation of Carl Zerrahn, and in 
singing of J. Q. Wetherbee and August 
Kreissmann ; also attended the lectures on 
counterpoint of Prof. J. K. Paine. In 1869 
he went to Europe, and studied the piano- 
forte in Leipsic under Louis Plaidy, and 
comj^osition under J. C. Lobe. In 1860- 
69 he was teacher of music in the State 
Normal Schools of Bridgewater, Framing- 
ham, and Salem, Mass.; and he has also 
taught music in the public schools of Bos- 
ton, Roxbury, Chelsea, Brookline, Salem, 
and Maiden, where he is teaching at pres- 
ent. He has been organist in Boston : five 
years of the South Congregational Church, 
eight yeai-s of West Church, and since 1876 
of the New Jerusalem Church. He has con- 
ducted several choral societies, among them 
the Maiden Choral Union, and has acted as 
musical editor for several music-publishing 
houses. The pianoforte scores of Macken- 
zie's Rose of Sharon, and of Gounod's Mors 
et Vita, and the Holy Vision were arranged 
by him for Novello, Ewer & Co., of London, 
from the manuscript orchestral scores which 
were sent from England for the purpose. 
Many of his compositions have been pub- 
lished under the pseudonyms of Ernest 
Leslie and Ferdinand Mayer. Works : 
Scherzo for orchestra, first jjerformed in 
Boston, 1886, in MS. Vocal — Quartets : 
How beautiful upon the mountains ; Thy 
sun shall no more go down. Trios : I will 
lay me down ; The Lord will comfort Zion. 
Anthems : Whoso dwelleth in the secret 
place ; Unto Thee, O Lord. Sacred Songs: 
O that thou had'st hearkened ; Therefore 
the redeemed of the Lord ; Songs and part- 

BRUCH, MAX, born in Cologne, Jan. 6, 
1838, still living, 1888. His father was in 
government employ, his mother a brilliant 
singer who watched carefully over her son's 


early musical instruction. He studietl bar- 
mony nud couiitei-point at Bonn under Brei- 
densteiu. In 1852 he 
won the Mozart schol- 
arship at Fraukfort- 
ou-the-Main for four 
years, and continued 
his studies in compo- 
sition under Hiller, 
Breuniug, and Iteiu- 
ecke at Cologne. 
During this period 
he set to music Gei- 
bel's Lorelei (originally written for, and 
partly set by Mendelssohn). Leaving Co- 
logne about 1856, he made long -visits to 
Leipsic, Munich, and other musical centres. 
In Munich he met Geibel, whom he at last 
prevailed upon to permit the performance of 
his Lorelei, which was accordingly brought 
out in IMauuheim, and later in Cologne. 
During his staj' in Mannheim he wrote 
some of his best-known works, and stud- 
ied dramatic composition. In 1865 he was 
made musical director of the Conzert-In- 
stitution at Coblentz, and in 1867 was ap- 
pointed Kapellmeister to the Prince of 
Schwarzburg-Soudershausen. In 1870 he 
resigned this post to go to Berlin, where, 
and at Bonn he has since lived, occupying 
himself entirely with composition. In 1883 
be visited the United States, bringing out 
his Arminius in Boston. He now stands in 
the front rank of German musicians. If 
his operas have been mainly unsuccessful, 
and his orchestral works and chamber mu- 
sic comparatively inconspicuous, his compo- 
sitions for chorus and orchestra are the 
basis of his high reputation. He stands 
to-day as the foremost representative of the 
epic cantata. His best-known and most 
admired works are his Scenes from the 
Frithjof-fiaga (which first established his 
reputation), his Odt/sseus, and his two vio- 
lin concertos in G minor and D minor. 
Works : Scherz, List und Rache, operetta, 
op. 1, given at Cologne, 1858 ; Jungfrau 
von Orleans, ib., 1851) ; Lorelei/, romantic 

opera, op. 16, Mannheim, 1863 ; Hermioiie, 
opera, op. 10, Berlin, 1872 ; liOmischer 
Triumjjhgesang, for male chorus and or- 
chestra, op. 19, No. 1 ; Das Wessobruu- 
ner Gebet, Lied der Stiidte, Schottlands 
Thriinen, for do., op. 19, No. 2 (1862); 
Gesang der heiligeu drei Ki'mige, for do., 
op. 21; Frilhjof, for do., op. 23 (1862); 
Salaniis, for do., op. 25 ; Normanneiizug, 
for do., op. 32 ; Die Flucht der heiligeu 
Familie, for mixed chorus, soli, and orches- 
tra, op. 20 (1863) ; Sclwn Ellen, ballad for 
do., op. 21: (1869) ; Eomiache Leicheufeier, 
for do., op. 34: ; Das Lied vom deutschen 
Kaiser, for do., op. 37 ; Odi/sseus, for do., 
Of). 41 (1871) ; Arminius, oratorio, for do., 
op. 43 (1875), Boston, 1883 ; Das Lied von 
der Glocke, cantata, for do., of). 45 (1879) ; 
Acldlleus, for do., op. 50, Rhenish Music 
Festival, Bonn, 1885 ; Jubilate, Amen, for 
sojsrano solo, chorus, and orchestra, op. 3 ; 
Die Birken nnd die Erlen, for do., op. 8 ; 
Die Flucht iiacli Egypten, for do. (female 
chorus), op. 31, No. 1 ; Morgeustunde, for 
do., op. 31, No. 2 ; Frithjof auf seines Vaters 
Grabhiigel, concert scene for baritone solo, 
female chorus, and orchestra, op. 27 ; Bo- 
rate coeli, for mixed chorus, orchestra, and 
organ (ad libitum), Of). 29 ; Kyrie, Sanctus, 
Benedictus, and Agnus Dei, for double 
choir, organ, and orchestra, op. 35 ; Dithy- 
rambe, for tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra, 
op. 39 ; Die Priesterin der Isis in Rome, for 
contralto, with orchestra, op. 30 ; 5 songs 
for mixed chorus, a cappella, op. 38 ; 4 male 
choruses, op. 48 ; First symphony for full 
orchestra, in E-flat, op. 28 ; Second do., in 
F minor, op. 36 ; Third do., in E, op. 51 
(1887) ; First concerto for violin and orches- 
tra, op. 26 ; Second do., op. 44 ; Rom.anze, 
for do., op. 42 ; Fantasia on Scotch airs, for 
do., op. 46 (1880) ; Kol Nidrei, after Hebrew 
melodies, for violoncello and orchestra, op. 
47 ; Quartet for strings, in C minor, op. 9 ; 
do., in E, op. 10 ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello, in C minor, op. 5 ; 3 duets 
for soprano and contralto, with pianoforte, 
op. 4 ; 4 terzets, and 3 duets, for do., op. 6 ; 



Songs, op. 7, 13, 15, 17, 18, 22, 33, 49 ; and 
isiimoforte nnisic, op. 2 (4 liaiuls), 11 (2 
pianofortes), 12, 14. — Fotis, Siipplument, i. 
129 ; Grove ; Mendel ; Eiemanu ; Mus. 
Wocheublatt (1870), 773, 787, 833. 
BRUCK. See Arnould de Bruek. 
BRUCKNEK, ANTON, born at Ansfeld- 
eu, Uj)per Austria, 
September, 1824, still 
living, 1888, in Vienna. 
Organist, first instruct- 
ed bj' bis fatlier, then 
cbieHj' self-taught and 
pupil in Vienna of 
Secbter in counter- 
point, and at Linz 
(18G1-63) of Otto 
Kitzler in eonipiosition. 
He was for several 
years organist at the Monastery of St. Flo- 
rian, from 1855 at the Cathedral of Linz, and 
in 1868 became Sechter's successor at the 
Imperial Chajjel in Vienna, when he was also 
apijointed professor at the Conservatorium. 
In 1875 he was apj)ointed lecturer on music 
at the university. AVorks : 8 symjihouies ; 
3 grand masses ; Te Deum ; Graduals and of- 
fertories ; Quintet for strings ; Germauen- 
zug, for male chorus ; Other works for do. 

BRUGGER, Dr. J. D. C, born at Frei- 
burg, Breisgau, Oct. 23, 1796, died (?). Vio- 
linist, pujiil of Weiland and Moor on the 
violin ; professor at the Gymnasium of Frei- 
burg, where be conducted the academical 
concerts. Works : German mass for 4 voices ; 
Patriotic songs for male chorus ; Many songs 
for a voice and pianoforte, or guitar. 

BRiiLL, IGN.iZ, born at Prossnitz, Mo- 
ravia, Nov. 7, 1846, still living, 1888. Pian- 
ist and dramatic composer, puisil in Vienna 
of Epstein on the jiianoforte, and of Rufi- 
natscha and Dessotf in composition. He 
appeared in concerts in Vienna, and in the 
large cities of Germany, with increasing fa- 
vour, and was especially successful in Lon- 
don, where he played in twenty concerts in 
1878. Work.s — Operas : Die Bettler von 
Samai'kand (1864) ; Das (juldene Kreuz, giv- 

en in Berlin, 1875 ; Der Landfriede, op. 

30, Vienna, 1877 ; Bianca, Dresden, 1879 ; 
KOnigin Marietta, 
Munich, 1883 ; Das 
sleinerne Herz, Vien- 
na, 1888 ; Im AValde, 
Jagd Ouvertiire, for 

orchestra, op. 25 ; 2 
serenades, for do., 
in F, op. 29 ; in E, 
op. 36 ; Symphony, 
in E minor, op. 31 ; 
Tanz-Suite, for do., oja. 54 ; Overture to 
Macbeth, op. 46 ; Two concertos for piano- 
forte, op. 10 and 24 ; Concerto for violin, 
op. 41 ; Suite for pianoforte and violin, op. 
42 ; Sonata for violoncello and pianoforte, 
op. 9 ; do. for 2 pianofortes (4 hands), op. 

21 ; do. for violin and pianoforte, op. 48 ; 
Trio, oj). 14 ; Cycle of Tuscan songs, for 
mixed chorus, tenor and soi^rano soli, op. 

22 ; Siisses Begrabniss, for 2 soprani, tenor, 
contralto, and 2 basses, op. 23 ; Der drei 
Burschen Lied, for mixed chorus ; Jagdlied, 
for do., op. 26, No. 1 ; Gebt mirvom Becher, 
for male chorus, op. 26, No. 2 ; Pianoforte 
pieces (op. 6, for 2 pianofortes) ; Songs. 

BRU3HEL, ANTOINE, born in the Neth- 
erlands about 1480 (?), died about 1520 (?). 
He was one of the most distinguished of 
Okeghem's pupils, and of the composers of 
the second (or great) Flemish school. He 
and De la Rue may be accounted the two 
greatest contemporaries of Josquin Depres. 
Although his rejiutation was wide-spread in 
his own day, nothing is now known of his 
life. As a composer, if he lacked something 
of Josquin's finish of st_yle, he was yet one 
of the strongest of his time ; his harmony 
is peculiarly fine. Although as consummate 
a master of counterpoint as any composer 
of his time, he did not affect the enigmati- 
cal canons and mere musical puzzles then in 
vogue. He was one of the first to attempt 
the feat of writing for twelve real voices ; 
but his habitual style was for four voices. 
His masterpieces were the missa De beata 
Virgine, and the missa De A/n'y^. Pub- 


lislied works : Several motets in " Motetti 
xxxiii." (Venice, Petrucci, 1502), and iu 
" Motetti tlella Coroua," lib. i. (Fossoin- 
broue, Petrucci, 1514:), and some cbausons 
in Petrucci's " Cauti B," and " Cauti cento 
ciuquanta " (Venice, 1501 and 1503) ; Five 
masses, viz., Je n'ai deuil, Berzeretta savoy- 
enne, TJt re mi fa sol la, L'Homme armc, 
Victimse pasclialae (Venice, Petrucci, 1503) ; 
Mass De Api'yf, in '■ Missarum diversorum 
auctorum liber primus " (Venice, Petrucci, 
1508) ; Three masses, viz., De beata Vir- 
gins, A I'ombre dung buyssonet (in canon). 
Pro defuuctis, in " Liber quindecim missa- 
rum " (Rome, Andreas de Antiquis, 1510) ; 
Patrem from the mass Villayge, in " Frag- 
menta missarum " (Venice, Petrucci, no 
date) ; Two masses, viz., A I'ombre, etc., 
Festivals, in " Liber quindecim missarum " 
(Nuremberg, Job. Petrejus, 1538) ; Mass 
Boutemps, iu '■ Missse tredecim " (Nurem- 
berg, Grapheus, 1539) ; Pleui sunt cceli and 
Qui venit iu nomine Domini, in Glarean's 
" Dodecachordou " (Basel, 1547) ; Laudate 
Dominum, (iu Forkel, ii. 629-647). The 
twelve-voice mass, Et ecce terne motus, 
and some other works are in MS. iu the 
Munich Libi'ary ; many MSS. are iu the ar- 
chives of the Pontifical Chapel at Eome. 
Some chansons are in the Cor. Basevi in the 
Eiccardiaua at Florence. — Ambros, iii. 240. 
BRUNELLI, AXTONIO, Italian composer 
of beginning of 17th century. He was ma- 
estro di cajipella of the Cathedral of Prato, 
subsequently of S. Miniato, Florence, and 
to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was 
one of the best theoretical vocalists and 
contrapuntists of his day. "Works : Eser- 
cizi ad una e due voci (Florence, 1605) ; 
Motetti a due voci, lib. i. (ib., 1607) ; do. 
lib. 2 ; L' affettuoso invaghito, canzonette a 
ire voci (ib., 1608) ; I fiori odoranti, madri- 
gali a tre voci, lib. 1 (Venice, 1609) ; Le fiam- 
mette d' iugeuio, madrigali a tre voci, lib. 2 
(ib., 1610); La Sacra. Can tica, a 1-4 voci; 
Regole e dichiarazioni di alcuui contrapunti 
doppj, etc. (Florence, 1610) ; Scherzi, arie, 
canzonette e madrigali a 1-3 voci, lib. 3 

(Venice, 1614) ; Fioretti spirituali a 1-5 
voci, op. 15 (ib., 1621). Fetis ; Schilling. 

BRUNET'Jl, GAiiTANO, born at Pisa, 
Italy, in 1753, died in Madrid in 1808. 
Violinist ; pui^il of Nardini. He spent the 
greater part of his life at the Spanish court, 
where he was court musician to Charles IV. 
His compositions, which number more than 
two hundred, consist of 32 symphonies for 
orchestra ; 5 concerted symphonies for dif- 
ferent instruments ; Two books of composi- 
tions for wind instruments for horse dances 
at public fetes ; 6 sextets ; 32 quintets ; 6 
quintets for violins, etc., and other violin 
and violoncello music ; among which are 18 
sonatas for violin and bass. — Fetis ; jVIendel. 

born iu Pisa, Italy, about 1760, died ('?). 
Dramatic composer, sou of Antonio Bru- 
uetti, maestro di cappella at Pisa, whom be 
succeeded at the cathedral. Works — Operas: 
Amore imbratta il senno (opera bufta in 
Neapolitan patois), Pisa, 1733 ; Don Pas- 
quino (do.), ib., 1785 ; II Corrivo, Naples, 
1736 ; Lo sposo di tre, Marito di nessuua, 
Bologna, 1786 ; Le stravagauze iu campag- 
na, Venice, 1787 ; Bertoldo e Bertoldina, 
Florence, 1788 ; Demofoonte, 1790 ; Nozze 
per invito, ossia gli amanti capricciosi, 
Rome, 1791 ; Fatima, Brescia, 1791. Of 
bis church music, his Matines de la Trinite, 
for eight voices, is considered best. — Fetis. 

born at Coni, Piedmont, Feb. 2, 1759, died 
there in 1823. Dramatic composer and vio- 
linist ; pupil of Pugnaui for violin, and of 
Spezzani in composition. He lived in Paris 
from 1771, was first in the orchestra of the 
Theatre de Monsieur, was afterwards con- 
ductor of the Opera Comique. "Works — Op- 
eras, all jilayed in Paris : Coradin, 1786 ; Ce- 
lestiue, 1787; L'Isola incantata, 1789 ; Aze- 
lie, 1790 ; Spinette et Mariiii, and Le niort 
imagiuaire, 1791 ; L'officier de fortune, 1792 ; 
Claudiue, 1794 ; Le mariage de J. J. Rous- 
seau, 1795 ; Toberni, ou le pecheur suedois, 
1795 ; Le Major Palmer, 1797 ; La rencontre 
en voyage, and Les sabotiers, 1798 ; L'Au- 


tear dans son menage, 1799 ; Augustine et 
Benjamin, ou les Sargiues de village, 1800 ; 
La bonne soeur, 1801 ; Le regue de douze 
heures, 1811 ; Le mariage par commission, 
1816 ; Cadiclion, ou les Bobemiennes, 1792 ; 
L'Esclave, 1800. He wrote also for the vio- 
lin four sets of sonatas, several concertos, 
ten quartets, and twenty-eiglit duets, which 
have been used in teaching with his " Mc- 
thode de Violou," jjublished in Paris and 
Leipsic. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 131. 

BRUNNMULLER (B r o u n e m ti 1 1 e r) , 
ELIAS, born in Germany in 1666, died at 
Amsterdam, Sept. 17, 1762. Pianist and 
violinist, pujail of Scarlatti, Lunati, and 
Corelli ; played with success in London, 
Paris, and at many Eurojjean courts, and 
settled in Holland, first at The Hague, then 
at Amsterdam. Works : Sonata a due vio- 
lin! e violoncello con organo, ojJ. 1 ; Simon 
van Beaumont, op. 2 ; Toccata, fugues, cha- 
couue, suites, etc., for pianoforte and organ, 
op. 3 ; 6 solos for violin ; 6 do. for oboe ; 
Fasciculus musicus, containing toccatas, soli 
for oboe, violin, and flute, and Italian and 
German melodies. All these are in the 
library at Leyden. — Mendel, Erganz., 49. 

in Venice about the middle of the 17th 
century, died probably in 1740. Dramatic 
comjjoser ; became organist of the Orga- 
netto del Palchetto in San Marco, 1726, and 
choirmaster in the Conservatorio degl' In- 
curabili. Works: II Trionfo della Virtu, 
given in 1724 ; Amor eroico, 1725 ; Medea 
e Giasone, 1726.— Fctis. 

BRUTI, VINCENZO, Italian composer, a 
chef de musique in the Italian army, contem- 
porary. He is the author of Macco, Italian 
opera buffa, given at the Teatro Brunelli, 
Bologna, June, 1872 ; Adina, comic opera, 
represented at Sangeuesio, 1877. 

BRYNE, ALBERT, Euglish composer of 
the 17tli century. Organist, pupil of John 
Tomkins, whom he succeeded as organist 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. His com- 
positions are preserved in Boyce and Clif- 
ford, and in MS. in the British Museum. | 

BRZOWSKI, JOSEPH, born at Warsaw 
in 1805, still living, 1888, Pianist and dra- 
matic composer, jjupil of Karl Kurpinski ; 
became musical director of the ballet at the 
Warsaw Theatre in 1832, and made a con- 
cert tour through Germany and France in 
1837, and, with his daughter and pupil Hed- 
1 wiga, pianist, to Germany in 1843. Works : 
Hrabia Weseliuski, Polish oi:)era, given at 
Warsaw, 1833 ; Fantastic overture ; Dra- 
matic symphony ; Quartet with jjianoforte ; 
Quintet, do.; Requiem for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra ; Pianoforte j^ieces, and songs, 
duets, etc. — Fetis, Sujjplement, i. 131. 

BUCHERON, LE (The Wood Cutter), 
opera-comique in one act, text by Guichard 
and Castel, music bj' Philidor, first repre- 
sented at the Comcdie Italienne, Paris, Feb. 
28, 1703. A satire on loquacious women. 

BUCHNER, EMIL, born at Osterfeld 
near Naumburg, Prussian Saxony, Dec. 5, 
1826, still living, 1888. Pupil at the Con- 
servatoriura, Leipsic (1843-46), in which 
city he continued to live until 1856, and 
whither he returned as musical director in 
1862, having meanwhile conducted the 
theatre orchestras at Rostock, Augsburg, 
Nuremberg, Innsbruck, and Magdeburg. 
In 1865 he became Hof-Kapellmeister at 
Meiningen. Works : Dame Kobokl, opera, 
text by Theodor Apel, about 1860 ; Konig 
Harald's Brautfahrt, cantata ; Overture to 
Schiller's Wallenstein (1867), and other 
overtures ; Trio for pianoforte, etc. ; Songs. 
BUCK, DUDLEY, born, of American 
parentage, in Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, 
March 10, 1839 ; still 
living, 1888. Organ- 
ist, pupil on the 
pianoforte of W. J. 
Babcock, and in the 
Leipsic Conservato- 
rium, 1858, of Plaidy 
and Moscheles, in in- 
strumentation of Ju- 
lius Rietz, and in composition of Haupt- 
mann. Aftei' remaining at Leif)sic for 



eighteen montlis, he became a, jjupil on 
the organ of Johaiin Schneider in Dres- 
den, and again of Rietz ; and in 18G1 lie 
went to Paris and studied Frencli music 
for a short time. Eeturniug to America in 
18G2, he settled first in Hartford, where he 
was organist of the Park Church ; then in 
Chicago of St. James's Episcopal Church. 
In 1872 he removed to Boston, where he was 
appointed organist of St. Paul's Church, and, 
subsequently, of the Music Hall Association, 
a position which placed him in charge of the 
great Music Hall organ. In 1875 he was or- 
ganist at the Cincinnati May Festival, and 
during the same year went to New York as 
assistant conductor of Theodore Thomas's 
Central Park Garden Concerts. He became 
also organist of the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, and director of the Apollo Club, 
Brooklyn, in 1875. Works: Legfiid oi Bon 
Muiiio, cantata, 1874 ; Faalm 46, do., Handel 
and Haydn Society, Boston, 187-t ; Centen- 
nial Meditation of Columbia, do., 1876 ; 
The Nun of Nidaros, do., 1878 ; The Golden 
Legend, do., 1880 ; Deseret, comic opera, 
1880 ; Marmion, symphonic overture for or- 
chestra, 1880 ; Voyage of Colamlnis, 1885 ; 
Light of Asia (188G) ; King Olaf's Christmas, 
1887 ; Slav Spangled Banner, overture, 
1888 ; Easter Morning, for mixed voices ; 
Hymu to Music, mixed voices. Church 
Music : Motet Collection, 1867 ; Second 
Motet Collection; Morning Service for 
Episcopal Church, op. 25 ; Evening Service 
for do., op. 31 ; Christ pur Passover, op. 29 ; 
There were shepherds ; Hark, what mean 
these holy voices?, op. 32 ; Darkly rose the 
guilty morning, op. 33 ; Morning Service, 
op. 45 ; Evening Service, op. 47 ; Easter 
Anthem, op. 46 ; Christmas Anthem, op. 48 ; 
Special Hymns (8 numbers), op. 43 ; Three 
Anthems, op. 72 ; Te Deum and Jubilate 
from Schubert's Mass in B-flat ; O Saviour, 
hear me ! ; A Midnight Service for New 
Year's Eve. Organ : Illustrations in Choir 
Accompaniment, with Hints in Registration, 
1877 ; Grand Sonata in E-flat, op. 22 ; Con- 
cert Variations on the Star Spangled Ban- 

ner, op. 23 ; Triumphal JMarch, op. 26 ; Im- 
promptu Pastoral, op. 27 ; Eighteen Pedal 
Phrasing Studies, op. 28 ; Rondo Caprice, 
op. 35 ; Several Transcriptions and Varia- 
tions ; At Evening, Idylle, op. 52 ; Second 
Grand Sonata, in G minor, op. 77; The 
Organist's Repertoire, edited by D. Buck 
and A. P. Warren. Pianoforte music; 
Songs, words by E. C. Stedman, and other 
Songs ; Dictionary of Musical Terms ; The 
Influence of the Organ in History (1882). 

BUHL, JOSEF DAVID, born at the Cha- 
teau de Chanteloup, near Amboise (Indre-et- 
Loire), of German parents, in 1781, died at 
Versailles, April, 1860. Virtuoso on the 
trumpet, studied in Paris. He was pro- 
fessor of the trumpet in the cavah-y school 
at Ver.sailles in 1805-11, conductor of the 
Garde du Corps in 1824, and a member of 
the orchestra of the Opera and of the The- 
atre Italien in 1816-25. He devoted much 
time to improvements in his instrument. 
L. of Honour, 1814. Works: Quicksteps 
for wind instruments ; 16 marches, quick- 
steps, etc., for four trumpets, two horns, and 
trombone ; War-song for horns, trumpets, 
and trombone ; Duets for trumpets, etc. ; 
Method for the trumpet.^Fetis ; Mendel. 

born at Schneidheim, near Augsburg, April 
12, 1760, died at Augsburg, Feb. 4, 1824. 
Organist, first instructed by his father, 
and at the Abbey of Neresheim, where he 
became a chorister in 1770, pupil of Fa- 
ther IMayr in singing, of Father Werk- 
meister on the pianoforte, and of Father 
Faulhaber in harmony and composition ; 
then at Augsburg pupil of Michael Dimm- 
ler on the organ and in composition. He 
was organist at Mayngen Monastery for a 
short time, and, having returned to Augs- 
burg, went to the Convent of Benedictines 
at Donauwerth in 1778, where he studied 
under Neubauer and Rosetti, was made a 
priest in 1784, and called as Kapellmeister 
to Botzen in 1794 ; he obtained from the 
pope his secularization in 1801, and became 
Kapellmeister of the Cathedral of Augsburg. 


Works : Masses with organ and orchesti-a ; 28 
Vesper hymns ; 3 German masses for three 
voices and orchestra (Augsburg) ; Psahns, 
Pauge lingua, Libera, Eequieni, Te Deum, 
Vespers ; Several collections of German Lie- 
der with pianoforte ; Sonatas and preludes 
for organ, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilhng. 
BUmi, GroSEPPE MARIA, born at 
Bologna towards the end of the 16th cen- 
tury. Dramatic composer, pianist and vio- 
linist, and poet ; wrote the text to six of his 
operas. Member of the Accademia Filar- 
monica, 1722 ; principe in 1730 and 1735. 
Works : L' ipocondriaco, given in Florence, 
1718 ; II Mago deluso dalla magia, Bo- 
logna, 1718 ; La pace per amore, I diporti 
d' amore in villa, ib., 1719 ; Gl' inganni 
fortunati, Filindo, Armida delusa, Venice, 
1720 ; Cleofile, ib., 1721 ; Amore e maesta, 
ovvero 1' Arsace, Gl' Inganni felici, Flor- 
ence, 1722 ; Armida abbandonata, ib., 1723 ; 
La ninfa riconosciuta, ib., 1724 ; Adelaide, 
Bologna, 1725 ; Gli sdegni cangiati in 
amore, Venice, 1725 ; B savio delirante. 
La vendetta disarmata dall' amore, Bo- 
logna, 1726 ; Albumazar, ib., 1727 ; Frene- 
sie d' amore, ib., 1728 ; Teodorico, Malmo- 
eor, Amore e gelosia, Chi no fa, non falla, 
Endimione, ib., 1729 ; L' Oi-tolane eon- 
tessa, II podesta di Colognole, La maschera 
levata al vizio, ib., 1730 ; Artanagamem- 
none, Fidarsi e ben, ma non fidarsi e me- 
glio, Venice, 1731 ; Gli amici de' martelli, 
Bologna, 1734— Fe'tis ; Mendel. 

BULL, JOHN, born in Somersetshire, 

England, in 
1563, died at 
March 12, 
1628. Organ- 
ist, pupil of 
William Blithe- 
man, in the 
Chapel Royal ; 
was appointed 
organist of the 
cathedral at Hereford in 1582, and afterwards 
master of the children. In 1585 he was ad- 

mitted a member of the Chapel Royal, and 
in 1586 received the degree of jMus. Bac. 
and in 1592 that of Mus. Doc, at Oxford. 
Upon the recommendation of Queen Eliza- 
beth he was appointed professor of music in 
Gresham College, 1596, which position he 
resigned on his marriage in 1607, it being 
tenable by statute only so long as he 
remained unmarried. In 1601 he went 
abroad for the recovery of his health, and 
made a concert tour through Holland, 
France, and Germany. In 1611 he was in 
the service of Prince Henry, and in 1613 
went to the Netherlands, where he entered 
the service df the Archduke, and in 1617 
became organist of the Cathedral of No- 
tre Dame at Antwerp. Of his composi- 
tions, said to number more than 200, only 
a few have been printed in various collec- 
tions ; to wit, in Barnard's, Boyce's, Leigh- 
ton's, etc. A list of his works is contained in 
Ward's "Lives of the Gresham Professors." 
To him has been attributed the composition 
of the national anthem God save the King, 
but the question still remains undecided. 
— Burney, iii. 115 ; Hawkins, ii. 366 ; Chap- 
pell, Popular Music of Olden Time, 249, 698 ; 
Marpurg's Beitrlige, iv. : Grove ; Mendel. 
Bergen, Norway, Feb. 
5, 1810, died at his villa 
Lysoen, near Bergen, 
Aug. 17, 1880. Violin 
virtuoso, self-t a u g h t, 
adopting a ilat finger- 
board and bridge, and 
holding his instrument 
in a way quite bis own. 
Paulsen, a Dane, his 
first teacher, could not control the method 
of his pupil, who, at ten years of age, would 
play passages which his teacher found too 
difficult. Intended for the clerical profes- 
sion, but failing in his examinations, his 
friends arranged that he should direct the 
Pliilliarmonic and Dramatic Societies (1828). 
In 1831 he went to Paris, where he suffered 
many hardships, but experienced the most 



exciting of his musical iinpicssioiis in listen- 
ing to Piigiiniui, who afterwards spoke of 
Ole Bull's technique as masterful, and liis 
style and method as original and admirable. 
He belonged to no school, unless the study 
of song in Italy may have helped him to 
know his own powers and limitations. The 
criticism of Joachim, quoted by Bjornson, 
is worthy of note : " No artist in our time 
has possessed Ole Bull's poetic power ; no 
one has ever surpassed his inlaying of the 
adagio." Mozart was the composer he 
most cared to interj)i-et, but his own com- 
positions and improvisations best brought 
out his mastery of the instrument, and were 
demanded by the public. He had also, 
from his long experience and close study, 
acquired a full knowledge of the construc- 
tion of the violin, and was a judge of rare 
instruments. Years of residence in the 
United States led Ole Bull to call that 
country his "other home." Works: Con- 
certo in A (1832) ; do. in E minor (1841) ; 
Quartetto a violino solo (1834) ; Preghiera 
d' una madre (1834) ; Polacca guerriera 
(1834) ; Gruss aus der feme (1841) ; Sicili- 
ano 6 tarantella, Variazioni di bravura, II 
Notturno (1843) ; Agiaco Cubano, Eecuer- 
dos de la Habaua (1844) ; Niagara, The Sol- 
itude of the Prairies, David's Psalm (1844) ; 
Memory of Washington (184.5) ; La Verbena 
de San Juan (1847); SaeterbesOg (1848); 
The Nightingale (1867).— Sara C. Bull, Ole 
Bull, a Memoir (Boston, 1883). 

born at Dresden, 
Jan. 8, 1830, still 
living, 1888. His 
father, Eduard von 
Biilow, was cham- 
berlain to the 
Prince of Anhalt- 
De.ssau, and had 
some reputation as 
a litterateur. The 
j'oving Hans showed 
at first neither taste nor talent for music, 
and it was only after a long and severe ill- 

ness that his musical gift declared itself. 
At the age of nine he began studying the 
pianoforte under Friedrich Wieck, and, 
two j'ears later, harmony and counterpoint 
under M. K. Eberwein. In 1848 he en- 
tered the University of Leipsic, to study 
law, but also continued his studies in 
counterpoint under Hauptmann. In 1849 
he left Leipsic to enter the University at 
Berlin. He was, at the time, deeply inter- 
ested in politics, and contributed to a dem- 
ocratic newsjjaper, "Die Abendjrost." Here 
he began his championship of the new 
German school of music, and of the ideas 
of Wagner and Liszt. In 1850, after hearing 
a performance of Lohengrin, conducted by 
Liszt in Weimar, he determined to abandon 
the law, and take up music as a profession ; 
hitherto he had pursued it only as an ama- 
teur. He went to Ziirich and placed him- 
self under Wagner's guidance. In 18.51 ho 
went to Weimar to complete his study of 
the pianoforte under Liszt. In 1853 he 
made his fii-st concert tour to Vienna, Pesth, 
Dresden, Carlsruhe, Bremen, Hamburg, and 
Berlin, meeting with unqualified success 
wherever he appeared. From 1855 to 18G4 
he was priucij)al teacher of the pianoforte at 
Stern and Marx's Conservatorium in Berlin, 
where he organized symphony and chamber 
concerts, contributed political and musical 
articles to various papers, and did what he 
could to helj) the propaganda of the new 
school. He also made jDrofessional trips 
through Germany, the Netherlands, and 
Russia, appearing both as pianist and con- 
ductor. In 18G4 he was appointed chief 
conductor at the Royal Ojiera, and director 
of the Conservatorium in Munich. It w'as 
here that he conducted the first perform- 
ances of Wagner's Tristan and Die Meister- 
singer. His labors in reorganizing the Con- 
servatorium, added to domestic troubles, 
at last so affected his health that in 1809 
he retired to Florence, where he lived for 
several years. In 1873 he made a visit to 
Loudon, and in 1875-76 a tour through the 
United States. Since that time he has held 



positions as conductor in several German 
cities, notably in Hamburg, Hanover, and 
Meiningeu. His concert tours witli the 
Meiuiugeu orchestra have been esjjeeially 
famous. Billow's fame as pianist, conduct- 
or, and musical writer is of the very liigh- 
est order. His memory is prodigious ; he 
plays and conducts almost everything with- 
out notes, and his repertory includes almost 
everything of importance in the literature 
of the pianoforte and of the orchestra. 
Since 1870 his open championship of Wag- 
ner's works and doctrines has been less 
noticeable than formerly. Although still a 
warm admirer of the Bayreuth master, he 
has of late devoted his energies more ex- 
clusively to the classic composer.?, especially 
Bach and Beethoven, and has done much 
to further the Brahms propaganda. As a 
composer he never acquired much distinc- 
tion, but his musical influence has alwaj'S 
been ver^y great. His original composi- 
tions, as far they have been published, are : 
Marche heroique, op. 3 ; Innocence, Album- 
blatt for juanoforte ; Die Entsagende, Lie- 
dercyclus, for voice and pianoforte, op. 8 ; 
Music to Shakesjjeare's JHliu.s Csesar, op. 
10 ; Des Sanger's Fluch, ballade for orches- 
tra, op. 16 ; Ninvana, symphonisches Stim- 
mungsbild, op. 20 ; II Carnovale di Milano, 
short dance-pieces for pianoforte, op. 21 ; 

Vier Charakterstucke fiir Orchester, op. 23 ; 
Two Romances for mezzo-soprano and pi- 
anoforte, op. 26. Among his pianoforte 
transcriptions the following are noteworthy : 
The pianoforte score of Wagner's Tristan 
und Isolde ; the Vorspiel to Die Meister- 
singer ; Berlioz's overtures to Le Corsaire, 
and Benvenuto Cellini. His instructive edi- 
tions of many pianoforte classics, notably 
of Beethoven's pianoforte works, beginning 
with opus 53, are universally recognized 

BUNDESLIED (Song of Federation), 
text from Goethe, for two soli, chorus, two 
clarinets, two horns, and two bassoons, by 
Beethoven, op. 122, composed in 1822. 
Published by Schott (Mainz). Sketch in a 
sketch-book in Royal Library, Berlin. — 
Thayer, Verzeichuiss, 1-45 ; Lenz, Krit. Kat- 
olog", 140. 

BUN(4ERT, AUGUST, born at Miilheim 
au der Rulir, Rhenish Prussia, Jlarch l-l, 
1846, still living, 1888. Pianist, pupil of 
Hubert Ferdinand Kufferath, then studied 
for three year's at the Conservatorium in 
Cologne, and, with interruptions, for four 
years in Paris at the Conservatoire, and 
under Mathias. In 1869 he became musi- 
cal director at Kreuznach, and in 1873 set- 
tled in Berlin, where he studied counter- 
point and fugue under Kiel. Works : Die 
Studenteu von Salamanca, comic opera, 
given at Leipsic, 1884 ; Overture to Tasso ; 
Hohes Lied der Liebe, with orchestra ; Pi- 
anoforte quartet, op. 18 ; Pianoforte pieces, 
songs, and male choruses. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 
50 ; Riemanu. 

BUNNETT, EDWARD, born at Ship- 
ham, Norfolk, Eng- 
land, June 26, 1834, 
still living, 1888. Or- 
ganist, pupil of Dr. 
Zechariali Buck at 
Norwich Cathedral, 
of which he was a 
chorister in 1842, and 
assistant organist in 
1855-77. He became 
organist of St. Peter's 
Church in 1877, and organist to the cor- 
poration of Norwich in 1880. Mus. Bac, 
Cambridge, 1856 ; Mus. Doc, do., 1869. 
Works : Song of Praise, 1869 ; Rhineland, 
j cantata for soprano solo, chorus, and or- 
chestra, composed for Mile Tietjens, Nor- 
I wich Festival, 1872 ; Lora, cantata, text by 
W. W. Turnbull, 1876 ; Magnifieat, Nunc 
dimittis, Cautate Domino, and Deus 
reatur, 1860 ; Te Deum in G ; Te Deum in 
1 P ; Benedictus and Jubilate in F ; Volume 



of Chants, Kyries, Anthems, etc., 18(55 ; Of- 
fice of the Holy Commuuiou iu E, 1883 ; 
Anthems ; Songs ; Sonata for violin and pi- 
anoforte, 1873 ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello, 1873 ; Pianoforte music, etc. 

BUNTE BLATTER (Variegated Leaves), 
li pieces for pianoforte, by Robert Schu- 
mann, op. 99, composed in 1836-49 ; dedi- 
cated to Miss Mary Potts. First published 
by F. W. Arnold (Elberfeld, 1852) ; edition 
by Breitkopf & Hartel, Schumann's Werke, 
Series VIL, vol. vi., No. 33. 

BUNTE REfflE (Variegated Series), 24 
pieces for violin by Ferdinand David, tran- 
scribed for pianoforte by Liszt. 

Daughter), ossia La Ceccliina, Italian opera 
buffa, text by Goldoni, music by Piccinui, 

BUONDELiSIONTE. See Maria Stuarda. 

BUONOMO, ALFONSO, born at Naples, 
Aug. 12, 1829, still living, 1888. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Conservatorio, Na- 
ples, of Achille Pistilli iu solfeggio, of Gio- 
vanni Donadio on the pianoforte, then of 
Giuseppe Polidoro and of Luigi Siri on the 
pianoforte, of Pietro Casella in harmony, and 
of RatYaele Polidoro and Alessandro Busti in 
sin"in"'. Having lost his voice, he studied 
composition under Giuseppe Lillo. Works : 
Cicco e Cola, given at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 
1857 ; L' ultima Domenica di Carnovale, ib., 
1859 ; Moualora di Chiaja, ib., 1862 ; Osti 
e nou Osti, ib., Teatro Bellini, 1865 ; Le 
Follie amorose, ib., 1865 ; Tizio, Cajo e 
Sempronio, ib., Teatro de la Fcnice, 1867 ; 
II :\Iarito geloso, ib., Teatro Rossini, 1871 ; 

first represented in Rome, 1760 ; and iu Una Giornata a Napoli, ib., Teatro Nuovo, 

Paris, at the Academie Royale de Musique, 
as La bonne lille, Dec. 7, 1778. The li- 
bretto is an adaptation of Goldoni's drama 
of '■ Pamela," which is founded on Richard- 
son's romance of the same title. One of the 
most popular buft'a operas ever written, it 
held the stage throughout Europe for many 
years. Iu Rome it was played in all the 
theatres, great and small, the fashions were 
"alia Cecchina," and inns, shops, coiffures, 
wines, etc., were named after her. Pro- 
duced in Paris during the heat of the quar- 
rel between the Gluckists and Piccinnists, 
it met with a brilliant success, in spite of 
the sarcasms of the former. It is said to 
have been written in eighteen days. The 
opera was revived iu London in 1814:, for 
the benefit of Madame Catalani, who repre- 
sented Pamela with great success. — Ho- 
garth, Memoirs, ii. 134 ; Desnoiresterres, 
Gluck et Piccinni, 173 ; Giuguene, Notice 
sur . . . N. Piccinni, 10. 

(The Good Daughter Married), text by Gol- 
doni, music by Piccinni, first represented 
at Naples, 1765, and at the Acadt'niie Roy- 
ale de Musique, Paris, April 15, 1779. The 
libretto, a sequel to La buona figliuola, deals 
with The Good Daughter's married life. 

1871 ; Le due Maschere ; Bi-Ba-Bu.— Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 133. 

BUONONCINL See Bononcini. 

poser, contemporary. He is author of : Pic- 
carda Donati, opera, given at Arezzo, Oct. 
31, 1874 ; La Marchesella, opera buft'a, ib., 
Dec. 24, 1876 ; Le teste di Gesso, opera 
bufta, ib., April 19, 1877 ; Carmela, opera 
seria, ib., March 17, 1880. 

(PHILIPPE MARIE), Chevalier DE, born 
at Termonde, East Flanders, Aug. 16, 1812, 
still living, 1888. Distinguished musical 
amateur, studied the violoncello at Ghent 
under de Vigne, who was a pupil of Bau- 
diot. He founded at the University of 
Ghent, a musical society. La Lyre Acade- 
mique, where many of his works were given ; 
was a president of the societies of Sainte- 
Cccile, Amour des Arts, Les Chceurs, and 
"£chos de la Denche, for all of which he 
wrote many choruses, and was the winner 
of the 1st prize given by the Society des 
Arts, des Sciences, des Lettres, of Hainault, 
in 1840, for his overture of Charles-Quint. 
The town of Termonde made him member 
of the Council of the Church of Notre Dame 
iu 1842, when he became interested in the 



work of classifying and recording the ar- 
chives of that collegium. He was invited 
by other towns to undertake the same work 
for them, and in the coiu'se of it, particularly 
while at Antwerp (1846-53j, he made valu- 
able additions to the musical history of the 
Netherlands. He was made administrator 
of the Academie des Beaux Arts at Antwerp 
in 1858, and of the Roj-al Academy of Bel- 
gium iu 18C2. His compositions are very nu- 
merous, as he wi'ote for all the principal mu- 
sical societies of Belgium. They consist of 
choruses with and without accomjjaniment, 
romances, melodies, and Lieder, of which 
fifty-six were published in Belgium and 
Germany iu 1834-50. Church music : Te 
Deum ; Stabat Mater ; Litanies to the Vir- 
gin ; Ave Maria ; Tantum ergo. Orchestral 
nuisic : Overtures to Jacques d'Arteville, 
Quentiu Matsys, Godefroi de Bouillon, Da- 
vid Teniers, etc. Choruses and cantatas : 
The Pirate's Song, De Stag by Doggersbook, 
Lindanus, with accompaniment ; Les mau- 
vais gar<,'ons, Art, Patrie et Dieu, Belgie, 
Flaudre au Lion, Hymue a Sainte-Cecile, 
etc., without accomp)auiment. He is the au- 
thor of : "Aperyu sur I'ancienne corporation 
des musiciens instrumeutistes d'Anvers" 
(18G2) ; " Recherches sur les factures des 
clavecins et des luthiers d'Anvers depuis le 
IGe jusqu'au 19e siecle " (Brussels, 1863) ; 
"Notice sur Ian Van Ockeghem," in Flem- 
ish (185G), and "Catalogue historique du 
Musce d'Anvers." — Fctis ; do., Supj)lcment, 
i. I3i ; Mendel. 

BUECK, JOACHIM VON, born near 
Magdeburg, second half of the IGth century. 
Organist, cantor at Miilhausen, and one of 
the fifty-three judges cliosen for the recep- 
tion of the organ at Groningen, iu 1596. 
"Works : Passion Christi, nach dcm 4 Evan- 
geslisten auf dem teutschen Text, etc. (Er- 
furt, 1550 and 1557, Wittenberg, 1568) ; 
Harmonise sacra; tam viva voce, quam in- 
struinentis musiois cantatu jucunda^ (Nu- 
remberg, 15GG) ; IV Decades senteutiosorum 
versuum (15G7) ; Cantiones sacra- 4 vocum 
(Miilhausen) ; Symbolum aijostolicum Nic;c- 

um, Te Deum laudamus, etc., mit 4 Stim- 
men (1569) ; XX geistliche Odeu auf Villa- 
i nellen Art gesetz, 1st part (Erfurt, 1572) ; 
Idem, 2d part (Miilhausen, 1578) ; Sacrae 
cantiones plane novse ex vet. et novo Testa- 
mento a 4 vocum (Nuremberg, 1573) ; Odie 
sacriB Ludovici Hemboldi Mulhusini suavi- 
bus harmoniis ad imit. italicaruin villaue- 
siarum, uusquam in Germania linguii' latinse 
antea accommodatarum (Miilhausen) ; Heb- 
domas div. instituta sacris odis celebrata, 
lectionumque scholasticarum intervallis, etc. 
(Miilhausen, 1560). — Futis ; Gerber ; Men- 
del ; Winterfeld, Der evang. Kirchengesang, 
i. 397. 

bau, Silesia, June 24, 1837, still living, 
1888. Instrumental composer, pupil of 
Brosig at Breslau and of Kiel iu Berlin, 
where he afterwards taught the i^ianoforte 
at Kullak's Academy (1869-70). He is liv- 
ing there now as teacher and composer. 
Works : Two sonatas for pianoforte ; So- 
nata for violin ; Suite and variations for pi- 
anoforte ; Fantasiestiicke for do. ; Quintet 
for do., and stringed instruments ; Overture 
to Sappho ; Symphonic march, etc. — Mendel. 

composer, contemporary. He is author of 
II Paria, Italian opera, represented at the Te- 
atro Pergola, Florence, March, 1872 ; Jolan- 
da, opera seria, text by Interdonato, Teatro 
Grande, Brescia, Feb. 20, 1879 ; Le notti 
romane, opera seria, Adria, Aug. 29, 1880. 

bueg:mullee, (johann) fried- 
rich (FRANZ), boru iu Eatisbon in 180G, 
died at Beaulieu, France, Feb. 13, 1874. Pi- 
anist, son and pupil of August Friedrich 
Burgmiiller (1760-1824). He went to Paris in 
1832, and became a noted teacher, and com- 
poser of popular pianoforte nuisic. Works : 
La Peri, ballet (1843) ; one act of Lady 
Henriette, ballet (with Flotow and Del- 
devez as collaborators) ; the motif for a 
valse for Adolphe Adam's Giselle, ballet, 
which became famous as La Valse de Gi- 
selle. His compositions for pianoforte 
number nearly one hundred, composetl of 



fautaisics, caprices, rondos, etc. — Frtis ; do., 
Supplriiieut, i. 134. — Alendel.