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THIS BOOK IS FOE. EEFEEEHCB 
USE ONLY AiiB IjIAY HOT Bfi 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 

Music and Musicians 



Volume II 
EASTER -MYSTERES 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 



MUSIC AND MUSICIANS 



y 



EDITED BY 



JOHN DENISON CHAMPLIN, JR. 



CRITICAL EDITOR 

WILLIAM FOSTER APTHORP 



IV/TH MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS 



VOLUME II 



5 ',',»'■>' 



NEW YORK 
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

M DCCC LXXX IX 



TOE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

*»TOR, LENOX ANO 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS 
" 19)6 



Copyright, i88q, by 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS 



To Face 
Page 

1. CHARLES GOUNOD 

From a photograph by Nadar, Paris, . . 48 

2. GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL 

From the engraving by VV . Bromley, after the painting br Hudson, . , q6 

3. JOSEF HAYDN 

From the engraving by Sichli)ig, after the painting by Riisler, . , 144 

4. ORLANDO LASSO v,\\V \M '- '"'.! 

From the engraving by lohann Sadeler (i6'^2), . . . . , ",'.''• ',5^4' '•>»'''' ', 

S- FRANZ LISZT 

From a contemporary stretch by Kenonard, 240 



6- JEAN BAPTISTE LULLY to Fac. 

Page 

From the engraving by Jean Louis Roullet , after the painting by Paul Mignard, 288 



7- FELIX .MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY 

From the engraving by G. Seidel, 18^2, ,,^ 

8. GIACOMO MEYERBEEK 

From the lithograph by Ch. Fogt , 184^, ^g, 

9- WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART 

From the engraving by Sichling, after the painting by Tiscl}bein, . . 4^2 

10. JOHN KNOWLES PAINE 

From a photograph by Balt{ty, Cambridge. Mass.. 480 

11. GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA 

From the engraving by Boettcher, after the portrait in tl}e Vatican, . ^28 

fi; ,■.••;■" ' HENRY PURCELL 

[f^r^oiti: ihn engraving by Zobel, after the painting by Closterman, . . ^j6 



PORTRAITS OF MUSICIANS. 



DRAWN BY VAL^RIEN GRIBAY^DOFF. 



PAGE 

1. Eberlin, Daniel 2 

2. Eckert, Karl 4 

3. Eddy, Clarence 5 

4. Eicliberg, -Julius 8 

5. Elvey, Sir George Jol) 15 

6. Ernst, Heinricb Wilhelui 25 

7. Fascli, Karl Friedricli C'liristiaii. . . 43 

8. Faure, Jean Baptiste 45 

9. Fesca, Friedricli Ernst 57 

10. Fetis, Frauyois Joseph 59 

11. Field, John 03 

12. Fiorillo, Federigo 70 

13. Floersheini, Otto 70 

14. Flotow, Friedrich von 78 

1 5. Foggia, Francesco 80 

l(i. Poster, Stephen Collins 85 

17. Frederick the Great 90 

18. Frost, Charles Joseph 103 

19. Gade, Niels 109 

20. Gadsby, Henry Robert Ill 

21. Garrett, George Mursell 121 

22. Gaul, Alfred 125 

23. Gemiuiani, Francesco 132 

24 Gerber, Ernst Ludwig 134 

25. Gericke, Wilhelm 135 

26. Gernsheim, Friedricli 137 

27. Gibbons, Christojpher 143 

28. Gibbons, Orlando 144 

29. Gilbert, Thomas Bennett 14G 

30. Gilbert, Walter Bond 146 

31. Gilchrist, William Wallace 146 

32. Giovauelli, Ruggiero 150 

33. Gladstone, Francis Edward 154 



PAGB 

34. Gleason, Frederic Grant 155 

35. Glinka, Michail Ivauovitch , . 156 

36. Glover, John William 157 

37. Gluck, Christoph Willibald von. . . 158 

38. Goes, Damiao de 1G4 

39. Goetz, Hermann 164 

40. Goldbeck, Robert 105 

41. Goldmark, Karl 167 

42. Goldschmidt, Otto 167 

43. Gomez, Antonio Carlos. .. ...^^^^ 169 

44. Gossec, Franyois Joseph 172 

45. Gottschalk, Louis Moreau 176 

46. Gounod, Charles, in 1840 178 

47. Gounod, Charles, in 188(5 178 

48. Graben-Hofl'mann, Gustav 180 

49. Griidener, Karl 181 

50. Grammann, Carl 183 

51. Grami, Karl Heiurioh 180 

52. Gretry, Andre 192 

53. Grieg, Eilvard 194 

54. Grisar, Albert 196 

55. Griinfeld, Alfred 201 

50. Grutzmacher, Friedricli 201 

57. Guignon, Jean Pierre 205 

58. Gumbert, Ferdinand 208 

59. Gumpeltzhaimer, Adam 208 

GO. Gung'l, Joseph 209 

01. Habeneck, Pranjois Autoino 211 

62. Halevy, Promental 215 

03. Halle, Charles 217 

64. Hamerik, Asger 218 

05. Hammerschmidt, Andreas 220 

66. Handel, George Frideric 221 

07. Hartmaun, Emil 232 



vil 



PORTRAITS OF MUSICIANS 



68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74 

75. 

7G. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

9G. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
101 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 

109. 
110. 

111. 
112. 



Hartmann, Emil, elder 232 

Hartmaun, Ludwig 233 

Hasse, Jobaim Adolpb 234: 

Hassler, Hans Leo 236 

Hassler, Joliann 'Wilhelm 237 

Hatton, John Lipliot 237 

Hauptmann, Moiitz 238 

Hauser, Miska. 240 

Hawes, William 241 

Haydn, Josef 241 

Haydn, j\Iicbael 247 

Heap, Charles Swinuerton 248 

Heller, Stephen 252 

Hellniesberger, Josei)h 253 

Henschel, Georg 256 

Heuselt, Adolf von 257 

Herbeck, Johann Franz von 259 

Herman, Eeinhold Ludwig 200 

Herold, Louis 262 

Herve 265 

Herz, Henri 266 

Heymann, Karl 269 

Hiles, Henry 270 

Hiller, Ferdinand 270 

Hiller, Johann Adam 273 

Hilton, John 274 

Himmel, Friedricb Heinrich 274 

Hoffmann, Ernst 277 

Hoffman, Richard 279 

Hofmann, Heinrich 280 

Holder, Joseph ^Yilliam 282 

Holmes, Henry 283 

Holstein, Franz von 284 

Homilius, Gottfried August 286 

Hook, James 287 

Hojikins, Jerome 288 

Hopkins, Edward John 288 

Horneman, Emil Christian 290 

Horsley, William 291 

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk 298 

Hyllested, August 303 



Iliflfe, Frederick. . 
Isouard, Nicolo . . 



306 
316 



Jadassohn, Salomon 321 

Jaell, Alfred 322 



PAGE 

113. Jakabowski, Eduard 324 

114. Jeep, Johann 329 

115. Jekj'U, Charles Sherwood 330 

116. Jensen, Adolf 330 

117. Joachim, Joseph 334 

118. Jommelli, Niccolo 336 

119. Joncieres, Victoriu de 339 

120. Joseify, Rafael 339 

121. Joze, Thomas Eicbard Gonzalvez. 342 

122. Julien, Louis Autoiue 345 

123. Kalkbrenner, Friedricb 349 

124. Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel 350 

125. Kerl, Johann Kaspar von 361 

12G. Kes, "Willem 362 

127. Kiel, Friedricb 364 

128. King, Oliver 367 

129. Kirclmer, Theodor 369 

130. Ivirnberger, Johann Philipp 370 

131. Kjerulf, Halfdan 371 

132. Klein, Bruno Oscar 374 

133. Klugbardt, August 378 

134. Kr.bler, Louis 381 

135. Kontski, Autoinc de 385 

136. Korbaj', Francis Alexander. 386 

137. Krause, Anton 391 

138. lu'ebs, Karl August 392 

139. Kretscbmer, Edmund 393 

140. Kreutzer, Konradin 395 

141. Kreutzer, IJodolphe 396 

142. Krieger, Adam 397 

143. Krommer, Franz 399 

144. Kiickeu, Friedricb Wilhelm 401 

145. Kube, Wilhelm 402 

14(5. Kublau, Friedricb 402 

147. Kullak, Theodor 405 

148. Kummer, Friedricb August 405 

149. Labitzky, Joseph 411 

150. Lachner, Franz 411 

151. Lahee, Henry 416 

152. Lalaude, Michel Richard de 417 

153. Lalo, :6douard 417 

154. Lalouette, Jean Francois 417 

155. Lampe, Johann Friedricb 419 

156. Lang, Benjamin Johnson 420 

157. Laniere, Nicholas 422 



POllTRAITS OF MUSICIANS 



158. 
150. 
IGO. 
161. 
1G2. 
1G3. 

16J:. 

165. 

1G6. 
1G7. 
168. 
160. 
170. 
171. 
172. 
173. 
174. 
175. 
17G. 
177. 
178. 
170. 
ISO. 
181. 
182. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
188. 



Lanrier, Josejili 

Lassen, Eduanl 

Lasso, Oilaiulo 

Lavallee, Calixa 

Lawes, Henry 

Leclair, Jean Marie 

Lecocq, Charles 

Lefebure-Wuly, Louis James Al- 
fred " 

Lejeuno, Claude 

Leo, Leonardo - . 

Leschetitzky, Theodor 

Leslie, Henry 

Lesueur, Jean Franyois 

Leveridge, llicbard 

Liebling, Eniil 

Liudpaintner, Peter von 

Lipinslii, Karl Joseph 

Liszt, Franz, in 1844 

Liszt, Franz, in 1886 

Litolff, Henry 

Lobe, Johann Christian 

Look, Matthew 

Loder, Edward James 

Loewe, Karl 

Logier, Johann Bernhard 

Longhurst, William Henry 

Lortzing, Albert 

Lully, Jean Baptiste 

Lumbyo, Hans Christian 

Luther, Martin 

Lvoflf, Alexis , 



PAGE 

423 
425 
426 
434 
434 
437 
438 

440 
444 



198. 

190. 

200. 

201. 

202. 

203. 

204. 

205. 

206. 

207. 
447 208. 
450 j 200. 
450 210. 
451 
454 
458 



21L 
212. 
463 213. 



466 
467 
468 



214. 
21.5. 
216. 



470 217. 
472 218. 
474 210. 

474 ! 220. 



221. 

9 '70 



476 
477 
481 

484 223. 
402 • 224. 



Alexan- 



180. Maas, Louis 

190. Maccunn, Hamish 

191. Macfarreu, Sir George 

der 

192. Macirone, Clara Angela 

103. Mackenzie, Alexander Campbell. 

194. Maclean, Charles Donald 

195. Marcello, Benedetto 

196. Marchand, Louis 

197. Marchetti, Filippo 



405 
406 
408 

498 
500 



.501 
502 
502 
502 
514 
515 
517 



225. 
226. 
227. 
228. 
229. 
230. 
231. 
232. 
233. 

234. 

235. 



PAGE 

Maretzek, Mas 518 

Marschner, Heinrich 524 

Martini, Giovanni Battista 528 

Marx, Adolpb Bernhard 530 

Marzi.als, Theophilus 531 

Mason, Lowell 532 

Masse, Tictor 534 

Massenet, Jules 534 

Mattheson, Johann 530 

IVIayer, Charles 540 

Mchul, Etienne Nicolas 547 

]\Ieinardus, Ludwig 540 

Meudelssohn-Bartholdv, Felix, in 

1821 ' 5.52 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix . . . 553 

Mercadaute, Saverio 560 

Merkel, Gustav 562 

Mermet, Auguste 563 

Methfessel, Albert Gottlieb 568 

M6tra, Olivier 568 

Meyerbeer, Giacomo 560 

Mifler, Edward 573 

aiillr.cker, Karl 574 

Mills, Sebastian Bach 575 

MoUenhauer, Edward 580 

Mondonville, Jean Joseijh Cas- 

sanea de 580 

Monk, Edwin George 581 

Mousigny, Pierre Alexandre 583 

Monte, Philipi^e de 584 

Morales, Cristofano 586 

Morgan, George Washbourn .... 587 

Moseheles, Ignaz 500 

]\Iosel, Ignaz Franz von 503 

Moszkowski, Moritz 504 

Mottl, Felix 504 

Mozart, Leopold 596 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, in 

boyhood 596 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, in 

1780 508 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, in 

1790 508 



PORTRAITS OF SINGERS, AUTOGRAPHS, FACSIMILES. 

ETC. 



PACK 

1. Autograph of Ludwig Ehlert, 1864 8 I 20. 

2. Persiani, as Adina 13 

3. Portrait of Minna Pescbka-Leut- I 27. 

ner 19 

4. Autograph of Heinrich Wilhelm 28. 

Ernst, 1843 25 | 

5. Caroline Duprez, as Catherine .... 29 j 29. 
G. Battaille, as Pierre 30 j 30. 

7. Portrait of Henrietta Sontag 32 31. 

8. Portrait of CaffarelU 41 

9. Autograph of Johaun Friedrich 32. 

Fasch, 1713 43 

10. Autograph of Jean Baptiste 33. 

Faure 45 34. 

11. Miolan-Carvalho, as Marguerite .. . 40 35. 

12. Eosiue Stolz, as Loonore 48 

13. Portrait of Jenny Lind 51 30. 

14. Portrait of Alexandrine Branchu . . 53 

15. Autograph of Francois Joseph Fc- 37. 

tis, 1853 00 

16. Portrait of Schnkler-Devriont .... 02 38. 

17. Autograph of John Field, 1815. . . 04 

18. Max Sti'igemann, as Dcr Fliegende 39. 

HolUinder 75 

19. Autograph of Friedrich von Flotow 79 40. 

20. Autogi-aph of Johann Nicolaus For- 41. 

kel, 1804 83 

21. Charles Santley, as Pra Diavolo. . . 87 42. 

22. Autogi-aph of" Melchior Franck, 43. 

1638 89 44. 

23. Facsimile of the MS. of Eobert 45. 

Franz 93 40. 

24. Autograph of Eobert Franz 93 47. 

25. Portrait of Therese Malten 97 48. 



Autograph of Girolamo Fresco- 

baldi, 1008 99 

Autograph of Johann Jacob Fro- 

berger, 1650 102 

Autograph of Johann Joseph Fux, 

1728 107 

Autograph of Niels Gade 110 

Portrait of Violaute Camporese . . . 128 
Autograjjli of Ernst Ludwig Ger- 

ber, 1808 135 

Autograjsh of Fran(;ois Auguste 

Gevaert, 1877 139 

Portrait of Senesino 153 

Portrait of INIarietta Branibilla .... 153 
Autograph of Michail Ivauovitch 

Glinka, 1845 150 

Facsimile of Gluck's MS. : begin- 
ning of the Overture to Aleeste . 159 
Autograph of Christoph Willibald 

von Gluck, 1769 160 

Autograph of Hermann Goetz, 

1868 165 

Autograph of Francois Joseph Gos- 

sec, 1793 173 

Materna, as Briinnhilde 174 

Autograph of Charles Gounod, 

1860 179 

Autogi-aph of Eduard Grell, 1884. 191 

Autogi-aph of Andre Grotry 194 

Autograph of Edvard Grieg, 1886 . 195 

Portrait of Anastasia Robinson 197 

Duprez, as Arnold 206 

Autograph of Fromental Halevy. . 210 
Faure, as Hamlet 219 



PORTRAITS OF SINGERS, AUTOGRAPHS, ETC. 



49. Nilsson, as Opliulie 219 

50. Autograph of Andreas Hammer- 

schmidt, 1G75 221 

51. Facsimile of Handel's MS. : first 

page of The Messiah 222 

52. Birthplace of Handel 223 

53. Handel's Harpsichord, South Ken- 

sington ^Museum 22-1 

54. Death-:\lask of Handel 221 

55. Handel Statue at Halle 225 

56, 



57. 

58. 

59. 
60. 

61. 

62. 
63. 

64 



65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 

76. 

77. 



Handbook-Plate, Commemoration, 

1784 226 

Autograph of Handel, 1730 227 

Autograph of Handel, 1759, after 

his blindness 227 

Portrait of Eugeu Gura 228 

Autograph of Johaim Adolph 

Hasse, 1757 236 

Autograph of Hans Leo Hassler, 



79. Autograph of Gottfried August 

Homilius, 175.5 

SO. Portrait of Giuseppe Mario 

81. Autograph of Johann Nepomok 

Hummel, 1826 

82. Portrait of Sophie Arnould 

83. Portrait of Rosalie Levasseur .... 

84. Autograph of Heinrich Isaak, 

1497 

85. Autograph of Nicolo Isouard, 

1807 

86. Elleviou, as Jean de Paris 

87. Autograph of Adolf Jensen 

88. Portrait of Mathilde Mallinger. . . 

89. Autograph of Niccold Jommelli, 

1752 

90. Falcon, as Rachel 

91. Autogi'ai^h of Friedi'ich Kalkbren- 

ner, 1828 



1605. 



230 92. Autograph of Friedrieh Kiel, 



Autograph of J.acob Hassler, 1609. 237 

Autograph of ISIoritz Hauptmaun, 
1842 239 

Facsimile of Haydn's JIS. : from 
Divertimeuti for String Instru- 
ments 242 

Silhouette of Haydn 243 



1880. 



93. Autograph of Theodor Kirclnier, 

1878 

94. Autograph of Johann Pliilipp 

Kirnberger, 1780 

95. Autograph of Kouradin Kreutzer, 

1819 



Birthplace of Haydn 243 96. Autograph of Johann Phllipp 

Haydn's Tomb 244 • Krieger, 1677 

Autograph of Josef Haydn 246 97. Autograph of Franz Lachner, 



Autograph of Da\id Hoinichen, 
1710 250 

Autograph of Stephen Heller, 
1880 253 

Autograph of Adolf von Heuselt, 



1804 

98. L'Allemand, as Lakme 

99. Autograph of Eduard Lassen, 

1871 

100. Autograph of Orlando Lasso, 



1882 



258 



1573. 



Portrait of Adelaide Borghi-Mamo . 259 
Autograph of Louis Herold, 1814. 264 

Autograph of Hervr 266 

Autogi-aph of Ferdinand Hiller, 



101. Autograph of Giovanni Legrenzi, 

1605 

102. Autograph of Leonardo Leo, 

1741 



1863 273 103. Autogi-aph of Jean Francois Le- 

Autograph of Johann Adam Hiller, I sueur, 1828 

1775 274 ' 104. Portrait of Annie Louise Gary . . . 

Autograph of Ernst Hoffmann, 105. Autograph of Peter von Lind- 

1816 278 paintuer, 1836 



Autograph of Franz vou Holsteiu, 
1872 284 



106. Facsimile of Liszt's MS. : from 
Christus 



286 
295 

299 
311 
312 

314 

317 
329 
331 
332 

338 
344 

349 

364 

3(;9 

370 

395 

398 

412 
416 

425 

430 

443 

448 

453 
461 

464 

469 



PORTUAITS OF SINGERS, 



107. Autograph of Franz Liszt, 1830. . 

108. Portrait of Anna iMaria Crouch . . 
101). Autograpli of Karl Loewe, 1820. . 

110. Autograph of Johauu Bernhard 

Logier, 182G 

111. Emil Goetz, as Lohengrin 

112. Albaui, as Elsa 

11;?. Autogra2)h of Albert Lortziug, 

1850 

114. Autograph of Aiitonio Lotti, 

1739 

115. Portrait of Dolores Nau 

IIG. Portrait of Theresa Tietjens 

117. Portrait of Anna de Lagrange. . . 
lis. Autograph of Jeau Baptiste 

LuHy, 1G72 

110. Autograph of Alexis Lvoff, 1857 . 

120. Portrait of Marianne Brandt 

121. Autograjjh of Benedetto Marcello, 

1711 

122. Autograph of Friedrich Wilhelm 

Mari)urg, 1757 

123. Autograph of Heiurich Jlarsch- 

uer 

121. Portrait of Marzella Sembrich. . . 
125. Autograph of Giovanni Battista 

Martini, 17G5 

12G. Autograph of Jules Massenet. . . . 

127. Portrait of Jean Blaise IMartin . . . 

128. Portrait of Maria Felicita Mali- 

bran 

129. Autograph of Stanislao Mattei, 

1817 

130. Pasta, as Medea 

131. Portrait of Alwina Valleria 

132. Autograph of Etienne Nicolas 

Mi:4iul, 1800 



PAGE 1 

170 
475 

477 

477 
478 
479 

484 

487 
490 
491 
492 

494 

498 
507 

515 

523 

525 
52G 

528 
535 
535 



133. 

134. 
135. 
13G. 



537 

538 
544 
5-4G 

548 



137. 
138. 

139. 
140. 
141. 

142. 
113. 

144. 

145. 

14G. 

147. 
148. 
149. 

150. 

151. 

152. 
153. 
154. 
155. 
15G. 



AUTOGRAPIIS, ETC. 

PAGR 

Autograph of Jakob Meilaiid, 

1570 548 

Emil Fischer, as Hans Sachs .... 550 

Mendelssohn's Birthplace 553 

Facsimile of Mendelssohn's MS. : 
Wer hat dich, du schOuer 

■\Vald 55G 

Autograph of Mendelssohn 558 

Autograph of Saverio Merca- 

dante, 1838 5G1 

Portrait of Clara Novello 5GG 

Portrait of Sims Reeves 5GG 

Autograph of Giacouio Meyer- 
beer, 1820 571 

Sigrid Arnoldson, as IMignon. . . . 572 
Autograjjli of Wilhelm Bernhard 

Molique, 1831 579 

Autograph of Pierre Alexandre 

Mousigny, 1795 583 

Autograph of Claudio Moute- 

verde, 1G17 585 

Autograph of Francesco Morlac- 

chi 588 

Tomb of Moscheles, Leipsic 590 

Autograph of Moscheles, 184G. . . 591 
Autograph of Moritz Moszkow- 

sld 594 

Autograph of Leopold Mozart, 

1770 596 

Facsimile of Mozart's ^MS. : Goe- 
the's " Das Veileheu." 597 

:Mozarfs Birthplace 599 

Mozart's IMonumeut, Vienna GOl 

Mozart's Ear and Ordinary Ear . GOl 

Autograph of Mozart, 1770 GOl 

Autograph of August Gottlieb 
Muflat, 1717...^ GOG 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



A., A]in. 








M., INIonsiour. 


B., Bass, Basso, etc. 








MUo, Mademoiselle. 


Bar., Baritone. 








Mine, Madame. 


B. M. v., Beata Maria 


Virgo. 




MS., MSS., Manuscript, Manuscripts 


Biog., Biography, Bio 
Cath., Catlieilral. 


gratia 


etc. 




M. S., Mezzo-soprano. 

Mus. Bac, Bachelor of Music. 


Ch., Church. 








Mus. Doc, Doctor of Music. 


Col., Collection. 








n. d., no date. 


do., ditto. 

etc., et cetera. 

et seq., et seqnentia. 

Fr., French. 








op., opus, opera. 

Iv. A. M, Royal Academy of Music. 

S., Soprano. 

S., Sta., San, Santa. 


Ger., German. 








S. M., Santa Maria. 


ib., ibidem, 
id., idem. 








Sp., Spanish. 
St., Saint. 


It., Italian. 








T., Tenor. 


L. of Honour, Legion 
Lib., Liber. 


of Honour. 




Voc, Voces. 
Vol., Volume. 


*^* Worth in italics iiuHcate the alj 


habeti 


-al place of articles on the subjects specifiei 



CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



Music AND Musicians. 



EASTER ORATORIO. See Oder-Ova- 
toriiim. 
EBDON, THOMAS, born in Dur- 
ham, Englaml, in 1738, died there, Sept. 23, 
ISll. Organist of Durham Cathedral from 
1763 until his death. Works : 2 volumes of 
eathedr.al music (1790-1810) ; Collection of 
six glees (1780) ; 2 sonatas for the harpsi- 
chord (about 1780) ; Anthems and other 
chui-ch music in MS.- — Grove ; Mendel. 

EBELING, JOHANN GEORG, born in 
Liineburg about 1020, died in Stettin in 
1676. He became in 1662 musical director 
of the Hauptkirche in Berlin and Schulcol- 
lege of the St. Nicolaikirche there, and in 
1668 professor of music at the Gymnasium 
Carolinum of Stettin. Some of his church 
melodies are still sung. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
V. 52~) ; Mendel ; Riemaun ; Schilling ; Fc- 
tis. 

EBELL, HEINRICH KARL, born at 
Neu-Ruppin, Mecklenburg, Dec. 30, 1775, 
died at Oppeln, Silesia, March 12, 182-4. 
Amateur dramatic composer, chiefly self- 
taught while a student at the University of 
Halle ; then in Berlin jjupil of Reichardt, 
who procured for him in 1801 the appoint- 
ment as musical director of the theatre at 
Breslau, which he kept until 1803. He 
entered the government service in 1804, at 
Breslau, and in 1816 as councillor at Op- , 



l^eln. Works — Operas : Der Schutzgeist, 
given in Berlin, 1798 ; Selico und Borissa, 
ib., 1798 ; Der Deserteur, Melida, ib., 1799 ; 
Der Brautigamsspiegel, Breslau, 1800 ; Das 
Fest der Liebe, ib., 1801 ; Die Gaben des 
Genius, ib., 1802 ; Das Fest im Eichthale, 
ib., 1807 ; Anacreon in Jonien, ib., 1810 ; 
Der Naehtwilchter, ib., 1812 ; Music to the 
tragedy Larnassa ; Die Unsterblichkeit, or- 
atorio ; Wiedersehen, cantata ; Lob der 
geselligen Freude, do. ; 2 funeral cantatas, 
and a birthday cantata (1801-3) ; Preis der 
Tonkunst, cantata ; 5 symphonies ; 2 con- 
certos for horn ; 2 polonaises concertantes 
for violin and orchestra ; 4 quartets for 
violin, viola, and violoncello ; Mass for two 
choruses ; Instrumental music, and songs 
for one and several voices. He was also a 
distinguished writer on music, and critic. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 52.5 ; Allgem. Mus.- 
Zeitg. ; Fetis ; Hoffmann, Die Tonkiinstler 
Schlesiens (Breslau, 1830) ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling. 

EBERL, ANTON, born in Vienna, June 
13, 1766, died there, March 11, 1807. His 
father destined him for the law, but he 
chose music and became a good pianist in 
his boyhood. When sixteen years old he 
brought out in Vienna two operas, which 
gained him the friendship of Gluck and 
Mozart. With the latter's widow he made 



EBERLIX 



n, concert tour in Germany, and in 1796- 
1800 be was Kajiellmeister in St. Peters- 
burg. He visited Eussia again in 1803, 
and played in the chief cities of Germany in 
1806. As a pianist his playing was marked 
by fire and facility, and his compositions 
displaj'ed many beauties, with some con- 
fused modulation and striving for effect. 
Several of his works were published and 
became popular under the name of ]\lozart. 
Works — Operas ; Die Zigeuner, Vienna, 
1782 ; La marchande de modes, ib., 1783 ; 
Die Hexe Megara, ib., about 1800 ; Graf 
Balduiu von Flandern, ib., about 1802 ; Py- 
ramus uud Thisbe, melodrama, ib., about 
1796 ; Die KOnigin der schwarzen Liselu, 
ib., 1801 ; La gloria d' Imenco, cantata ; 
Symphonies ; Trios, quartets, a quintet, and 
a sextet ; Songs ; Concertos ; Variations ; 
Sonatas, and other pianoforte music. The 
operas and some other comjjositions have 
never been published. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
V. 572 ; Mendel ; Grove ; Fetis. 

KBERLIN, DANIEL, born in Nurem- 
berg about 1630, 
died in Cassel in 
IGOl. Violinist 
and composer. He 
had an adventu- 
rous life ; wasamu- 
sicid student in 
liome, cajitain of 
Papal troops, later 
librarian in Nu- 
remberg, Kapellmeister in Cassel and Eise- 
nach, banker in Hamburg and Altona, and 
finally captain of militia in Cassel. Tele- 
mann was his son-in-law. Though noted 
in his time, his violin trios, published in 
1675, are his only known works. — Mendel ; 
Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 574 ; Gei'ber ; Schil- 
ling ; Riemauu ; Fetis. 

EBERLIN, JOHANN ERNST, born at 
Jetteubach, Bavaria, March 27, 1702, died 
in Salzburg, June 21, 1762. He was court 
organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg ! 
about 1727, and later his KajseUmeister and 
Truchsess or carver. Mozart studied his 




compositions for their mastery of counter- 
point, and copied thirteen of them, but later 
wrote : " They really do not deserve a place 
between Handel and Bach. All honour to his 
four-jsart pieces, but his pianoforte fugues 
are nothing but long-drawn-out versetti " 
(Jahn's Mozart, i. 433. ; iii. 373). Works : 
IX Toccate e fughe jier 1' organo (Augsburg, 
1747), several times republished ; Latin 
dramas composed for the pujjils of the 
Benedictines in Salzburg, the words only 
having survived ; 2 sonatas published by 
Haftuer ; 2 motets jsublished by Schott ; 5 
jjieces contributed to Leopold Mozart's Der 
Morgeu uud der Abend (Augsburg, 1759) ; 
Masses, offertories, and other church mu- 
sic in MS., in the libraries of Vienna and 
Berlin ; 13 oratorios in the Proske library, 
the best known being the Componimento 
sacro, performed in Salzburg in 1747. 
— Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Allgem. d. Biogr., 
V. 576 ; Schilling. 

EBERS, ILrVRL FRIEDEICH, born in 
Cassel, March 25, 1770, died in Berlin, 
Sept. 9, 1836. He entered the artillery 
school in Berlin while young, but soon 
turned his attention to music, which he 
taught ; was vice-Kapellmeister at Schwerin 
in 1799 ; and later nmsical director at the 
theatre in Pesth. Li 1814 he became di- 
i-ector in a military company, and in 1822 
conducted a musical society in Magdeburg. 
Works — Operas : Bella und Fernando, 
Pesth, 1796 ; Die Blumeniusel, Pesth, 1796 ; 
Der Eremit von Formentera, 1796 ; Der 
Liebes-Comj)ass, Pesth, 1797. Overtures ; 
Sonatas ; Syn^phonies ; Wir sind die KiJnige 
der Welt, and other songs.— Mendel ; All- 
gem. d. Biogr., V. 578 ; Grove ; Fetis. 

EBERWEIN, KARL, born in Weimar, 
Nov. 10, 1786, died there, March 2, 1868. 
Violinist, pupil of his father and of his 
brother, Traugott Maximilian ; became court 
musician in 1803, and later director of the 
court orchestra ; was a pupil of Zelter in 
Berlin in 1808-10 ; and spent the rest of his 
life in Weimar, teaching, singing, and du'ect- 
ing the church music and the opera. In 



EBERWEIX 



18-49 he was pensioned. He was a contem- 
porary and friend of Goethe, for whom he 
comjjosed some songs. Works — Operas : 
Die Heerschau, Weimar, about 1842 ; Der 
Graf zu Gleicheu, ib., about 1843 ; Music 
for Leonore, and for Preciosa. Overture to 
Goethe's Proserpina ; Entr'actes ; Cantatas ; 
String qviartet ; Songs ; Music for violin, 
and for the flute. — Mendel ; Allgem. d. 
Biogr., V. 588 ; Schilling ; Fetis, Supjjle- 
ment, i. 300. 

EBERWEIN, TRAUGOTT MAXBH- 
LIAN, boru in Weimar, Oct. 27, 1775, died 
in Rudolstadt, Dec. 2, 1831. Violinist, pu- 
pil of his father, and when only seven years 
old played the violin in his father's or- 
chestra. He studied under Schick in Mainz, 
and Ivunze in Frankfort-on-the-Main ; be- 
came court musician to the Prince of Rudol- 
stadt in 1797 ; made a concert tour in Ba- 
varia and the Tyrol in 1803, and studied 
counterpoint under Fenaroli in Naples. In 

1804 he returned to Rudolstadt ; in 1817 
became court Kaj)ellmeister, made several 
concert tours through Germany, and in 
1818 travelled to Vienna and in Hungary. 
Works — Operas : Claudiue von Villabella, 
Rudolstadt, 1815 ; Pedro und Elvira, ib., 

1805 ; Der Jahrmarkt von Plundersweiler, 
ib., 1818 ; Das befreite Jerusalem, Rudol- 
stadt, 1819 ; Firdusi, ib., 1821 ; Das gol- 
dene Netz, ib., 1827. The Singsi^iele : Das 
Schlachtturnier ; Die Fischerin ; Das Storch- 
nest ; Die hohle Eiche. Music for Macbeth ; 
Church music, cantatas, hymns, psalms, a 
Te Deum, and a mass ; Symphonies ; Con- 
cert overtures ; Songs. He left an uniin- 
ished cantata, Der Tod des Alciden. — Men- 
del ; Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 589 ; Schilling ; 
Gerber ; Grove. 

EBHARDT, GOTTHDLF FRffiDRICH, 
born at Hohensteiu in 1771, died (?). Or- 
ganist, pupil of Tag on the organ and piano- 
forte and in composition ; became organist 
and teacher at Greiz, and later court or- 
ganist and director of a singing society at 
Schleiz. Works : Preludes for organ ; Can- 
tatas ; Chorals, and other church music. He 



was the author of Schule der Tonsetzkunst 
(Leij)sic, 1824) ; Die hoheren Lehrzweige 
der Tonkunst (Leipsic, 1830).— Mendel ; 
Schilling ; Gerber ; Fetis. 

ECCARD, JOHANN, born at Miihlhau- 
sen, Thuringia, 1553, died in Berlin, 1611. 
Organist, pupil of Joachim von Burgk ; 
studied under Orlando Lasso in Paris and 
Munich in 1571-74 ; returned to Midilhausen, 
where he lived until 1578, when he became 
director of tlie jjrivate orchestra of Jacob 
Fugger, of Augsburg. Having entered the 
service of Georg Friedrich, Margrave of 
Brandenburg-Anspach, he followed him to 
Konigsberg in 1583 as assistant Kapellmei- 
ster, becoming full KapeUmeister in 1599. 
In 1608 he went to Berlin as Kapelhneister 
of Joachim Friedrich, and held that position 
until his death. Works : 20 Cantiones 
sacrfe Helmboldi (JMiihlhausen, 1574) ; Cre- 
pundia sacra Helmboldi (ib., 1577, 1596 ; 
2d ed., Erfurt, 1608) ; 24 deutsche Lieder 
(ib., 1578) ; Newe deutsche Lieder (Konigs- 
berg, 1589) ; Der erste Theil 5-stimmiger 
geistlicher Lieder (ib., 1597) ; Preussische 
Festlieder (ib., 1598) ; O Lamm Gottes, mo- 
tet ; O Freude, chorus ; Hymns ; Chorals. 
— Mendel ; Grove ; Riemann ; Allgem. d. Bi- 
ogr., V. 595; Fetis; Naumann (Oaselej'), 
i. 479. 

ECCLES, JOHN, born in London about 
the middle of the 17th century, died at 
Kingston-on-Thames, January, 1735. Dra- 
matic composer, son and pui^il of Solomon 
Eccles, violin teacher. He was engaged as 
a composer for the theatre from 1685 for 
nearlj' a quarter of a century ; was appointed 
master of the king's band in 1698, and in 
1700 gained the second of the four prizes 
given for the best settings of Congreve's 
masque, The Judgment of Paris. In 1701 
he set the ode written by Congreve for the 
celebration of St. Cecilia's Day ; and in 1710 
published a collection of nearly one hundred 
of his songs, comprising many of those 
which he had written for forty-six dramatic 
pieces. In the latter jDart of his life he 
gave up all professional pursuits excej)t the 



ECCLESTO]^ 



annual production of the royal birthday and 
New Year's odes. Works — Operas : The 
Spanish Friar, 1G81 ; The Lancashire 
Witches, 1682 ; The Chances, 1G82 ; Justice 
Busy, 1690 ; The Kichmond Heiress, 1693 ; 
Don Quixotte (with Purcell), 1694 ; Love 
for Love, 1695 ; Europe's Revels for the 
Peace, 1697 ; The Sham Doctor, 1697 ; The 
Provoked Wife, 1697 ; Rinaldo and Armida, 
1699 ; Acis and Galatea, masque, 1701 ; The 
Mad Lover, 1701 ; The City Lady ; The 
Fair Penitent, 1703 ; Semele, 1707. He 
published a collection of songs for one, two, 
and three voices (London, 1701) ; Songs in 
Pills to Purge Melancholy, etc. Henrj' Ec- 
cles, his brother, a violinist, was a member 
of the king's band in Paris. He published : 
Twelve solos for the violin (Paris, 1720). 
— Grove; Fetis; ^lendel ; Schilling. 

ECCLESTON, EDWARD, Enghsh com- 
poser of the 17th century. Nothing is 
known of his history. In 1G79 he pub- 
lished a curious opera entitled, Noah's 
Flood.— Mendel. 

ECCO XL :\IONDO. See Mefistofele. 

ECCO LA MARCIA. See Nozze di Fi- 
garo. 

ECCO RIDENTE IN CIELO. See A ure- 
liano in Palmira ; Barbiere di Siviglia. 

fiCHO ET NARCISSE, opera in three 
acts, text by Baron Tschudi, music by 
Gluck, represented at the Academic Royale 
de Musique, Paris, Sept. 2-4, 1779. This 
was the last work written by Gluck ; he 
was seized with apoplexy when about to 
take up Les Danaidcs, with which he in- 
tended to close his career, and transferred 
the libretto to his pupil Salieri. l5cho et 
Narcisse, though not very successful, was 
reproduced in 1780. 

ECK, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, born iu 
Mannheim in 1766, died at Nancy, France, 
date unknown. Violinist, pupil of Danner, 
and studied composition under Winter. In 
1778 he went to Munich, where he became 
court musician in 1780, Conzertmeister in 
1788, and soon after dramatic director of 
the Court and National Theater. He mar- 



ried for the second time in 1801, and re- 
moved to Nancy. Works : 6 violin concer- 
tos (Offenbach and Paris) ; Coueerto-sj'm- 
phony for two violins (Leipsic). — Mendel ; 
Riemann ; Allgem. d. Biogr., v 602 ; Fetis ; 
Grove ; Wasielewski, Die Violine, 191. 

ECKAHT, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, born 
in Augsburg in 1731, died iu Paris, August, 
1809. Pianist, the son of poor parents, and 
self-taught. He accompanied the organ- 
builder, Georg Andreas Stein, iu 1758, to 
Paris, where he painted miniatures days 
and studied music nights, until he became 
one of the best pianists and teachers of his 
time. Works : 6 pianoforte sonatas ; 2 clav- 
ecin sonatas ; INIinuet with variations. — Men- 
del ; Fi'tis ; SchiUing. 

ECKER, KARL, born at Freiburg, Breis- 
gau, March 13, 1813, died there, Aug. 31, 
1879. Vocal composer, pupil of Sechter in 
Vienna (1811), returned to Freiburg in 1816, 
and soon became popular through his male 
choruses and sougs. Several orchestral 
works of some merit were produced in his 
native countrj-. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

ECKERSBERG, JOHANN WIL- 
HELM, born in Dresden, Aug. 20, 1762, 
died there, Aug. 20, 1821. Organist, pu- 
pil of Homilius, Weinlig, and of his father, 
and became organist of the Neustadt Church 
of Dresden iu 1789. The music to Schil- 
ler's Glocke was his most important pro- 
duction. — Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 614 ; Men- 
del ; Fetis ; Schilling. 
ECKERT, KARL (ANTON FLORIAN), 
born in Potsdam, 
Dec. 7, 1820, died in 
Berlin, Oct. 14, 1879. 
Pianist and violinist, 
pupil on the piano- 
forte of Rechenberg 
and Greulich, on the 
violin of Biitticher 
and Hubert Ries, 
i n composition of 
Rungenhagen. He 
was considered a prodigy when six years 
old, and composed an opera at the age 




Eclair 



of ten. In 1839 lie became in Leipsic 
a pupil of Meudelssolm ; tlien travelled in 
Italy, Holland, Belgium, and France, and in 
1851 accejited the place of accompanist at 
the Theatre Italien in Paris. He accom- 
panied Sontag on her tour in the United 
States, and in 1852 became conductor at 
the Paris Opera. In 1853 he went to Vi- 
enna, where he became conductor, and later 
technical director, of the Court Opera. He 
gave np these places in 1860 to succeed 
Kiicken as Kapellmeister in Stuttgart ; re- 
tired to private life in Baden-Baden in 
18G7, but in 18G9 was called to Berlin as 
first court Kapelhueister in place of Tau- 
bert and Dorn, suddenly pensioned to make 
way for him. He was an excellent con- 
ductor, but only his minor compositions 
have succeeded, and they do not justify 
the expectations Mendelssohn and others 
had of him. Works : Das Fischermildchen, 
opera, composed in 1830 ; Wilhelm von 
Oranien, given in Berlin, 1816 ; Kathchen 
von Niiruberg, 1837 ; Der Laborant ; Euth, 
oratorio, 1833 ; Judith, oratorio, Berlin, 
1811 ; Domine salvum fac regem, and other 
psalms ; Concerto for violoncello ; Songs. 
— Mendel ; Grove ; Fetis ; Riemaun. 

ECLAIR, L', lyi-ical drama in three acts, 
text l)y Saint-Georges and Planard, music 
by Hak'vy, first represented at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, Dec. 30, 1835. A young 
naval officer, struck blind by lightning in 
a tempest, is taken care of by a maiden 
who lives, with her sister, in a chateau 
beside the sea. On recovering his sight 
he confounds the object of his love with 
her sister, but his heart soon corrects the 
■ error of his eyes. This charming work, 
written for two tenors and two sopranos, 
without chorus, appeared in the same year 
with La Juive, and established Halevy's 
reputation. It was given with great suc- 
cess, in 1884, at the Teatro Manzoni, Mi- 
lan. 

£COSSAISDECHATOU, L' (The Scotch- 
man of Chatou), operette in one act, text 
by Adrien Jaime and Philippe Gille, music 



by Delibes, represented at the Bouffes Pa- 
risiens, Paris, Jan. 16, 1869. The Scotch- 
man is a silly bourgeois named Ducornet, 
who, having heard La Dame blanche, tries 
to imitate farmer Dickson, and builds at 
Chatou a chalet where he offers open hos- 
pitality to all comers. 

EDDA, grand opera, text by Emil Hopf- 
fer, music by Karl Reinthaler, first rep- 
resented at the theatre of Hamburg, Feb. 
22, 1876. The libretto, an adaptation of 
the drama of the same name by Josef 
Weilen, is founded on an episode in the 
Thirty Years' War. 

EDDY, CLARENCE, born, of American 
parentage, in Green- 
field, Massachusetts, 
June 23, 1851, still 
living, 1888. Or- 
ganist, pupil of J. 
G. Wilson in Green- 
field, and of Dudley 
Buck in Hartford, 
Conn. In 1871 he 
went to Europe and 
studied the organ, 
harmony, and counterpoint under August 
Haupt, and the pianoforte under A. Loesch- 
horu. Returning in 1874, he settled in 
Chicago as organist of the First Congrega- 
tional Church, and in 187G became director 
of the Hershey School of Musical Art in 
Chicago, founded by Mrs. Sara B. Hershey, 
whom he afterwards married. Mr. Eddy 
has made concert tours in Germany, Aus- 
tria, Switzerland, and America, and in 1879 
he gave in Chicago a series of one hundred 
organ recitals, in which no programme 
number was repeated. Works : Organ mu- 
sic ; Church and Concert Organist (2 vols., 
1882, 1885) ; The Organ in Church (1887). 
He has translated August Haupt's Counter- 
point, Fugue and Double Counterpoint 
(1876). 

EDELMANN, JEAN FREDERIC, born 
in Strasburg, May 6, 1749, died there, 
July 17, 1794. Pianist and dramatic com- 
poser, gained distinction in Paris in 1782 ; 




EDEN 



became a violent adherent of tbe Eevolution, 
sent bis benefactor, tbe maire Baron Die- 
trieb, and otber friends to tbe scaffold in 
Strasburg, and finally was guillotined bim- 
self. Works : Estber, oratorio, performed 
at tbe Concert Spirituel, 1780 ; La bergere 
des Alpes, lyric scene for soprano and bass, 
TnOeries, 1781 ; Le feu (act from tbe ballet 
Les c'K-ments), Aeadc-mie Royale de Mu- 
sique, 1782 ; Ariane dans I'lle de Nasos, 
opera, ib., 1782 ; Diane at I'Amour, opera- 
ballet, Theatre des Jeunes Eleves, 1802 ; 3 
concertos for pianoforte ; 9 works of so- 
natas for do., witb violin obligate ; Quartets 
for pianoforte, op. 15 (Amsterdam) ; Ca- 
prices for do. — Gerber, N. Les. ; Hamburger 
Correspondent (1794), No. 121 ; Nodier, 
Souvenirs de la Revolution, etc. ; Scbilling. 

EDEN, a mystei'y in two parts, poem by 
Mery, music by Felicien David, represented 
at tbe Op6ra, Paris, Aug. 25, 1848. A de- 
scriptive work, in tbe overture to wbicb tbe 
composer has attempted to depict musically 
tbe revolutions on tbe globe before tbe 
advent of man ; then succeeds tbe story of 
tbe Garden of Eden and tbe fall of man. 
It was well sungb^' Poultier, Alizard, Porte- 
bault, and Mile Grimm, but failed to at- 
tract attention in tbe political storm of 
1818. 

EDER, KARL KA.SPAR, born in Bavaria 
in 1751, died (?). Virtuoso on tbe violon- 
cello, pupil of Ki'ibler and Lang, and after- 
wards first violoncellist to tbe Elector of 
Treves. Upon several concert tours through 
Germany be won much applause. Works : 

2 sj'mpbonies for grand orchestra ; 2 quin- 
tets. For violoncello: 14 concertos, 20 solos, 

3 duos, and 2 trios. — Fetis ; Mendel. 
EDLING, JOHANN, born at Falken, near 

Eisenach, about 1754, died in 1786. He 
was chamber musician at tbe court of Wei- 
mar, and composed music to Bertucb's 
tragedy of Elfriede, besides symphonies, 
and pieces for the clarinet. — Gerber ; Schil- 
ling ; !Mendel ; Ft'tis. 

EDSON, LEWIS, born in Bridgewater, 
Mass., Jan. 22, 1748, died in Woodstock, 



New York, in tbe spring of 1820. He wrote 
the poj)ular hymn tunes, Lenox, Bridge- 
water, Greenfield, and others, first published 
by Simeon Jocelin and A. Doolittle in "The 
Chorister's Connwniou" (New Haven, 1782). 
In 1801-17 he was in New York and as- 
sisted in tbe compilation of "The New York 
Selection of Sacred Music" (1804-10), by 
Lewis and Thaddeus Seymoui*. About 1817 
he removed to Woodstock, Conn. 

EDUARDO E CRISTINA, Italian opera, 
text by Schmidt, music bj- Rossini, rep- 
resented at the Teatro San Benedetto, Ven- 
ice, 1819. Princess Christine of Sweden, 
betrothed to Prince James of Scotland, 
secretly marries an officer named Edward. 
Both are thrown into jjrison, but Edward, 
freed, delivers the king from great danger 
during the Russian bombardment of Stock- 
holm, and the monarch pardons him and 
recognizes the marriage. This, Rossini's 
twenty-sixth work, is largely a reproduction 
of two earlier ojjeras, Ricciardo e Zoraide 
and Ermione. An opera of tbe same title, 
music by Pavesi, was given in 1811, in Na- 
ples.— Edwards, Life of R., 202. 

EDVARDO STUART, Italian opera, mu- 
sic by Cipriano Pantoglio, represented at 
the Teatro Manzoni, Milan, May, 1887. 

EDWARDS, RICHARD, born in Somer- 
setshire, England, 1523, died in London, Oct. 
31, 1566. ComiDoser and poet, scholar of 
Coi'pus Christi College, Oxford, in 1540 ; 
M.A., Oxford, 1547. He studied music un- 
der George Etberidge, and became, in 15G3, 
Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal. 
The music of tbe beautiful madrigal, " In 
going to my naked bedde," is conjecturally 
assigned to him, as it is certain that he wrote 
the verses. The poem, " The Soul's Knell," 
said to have been written on his death-bed, 
is well known. He wrote also many other 
poems and two comedies. — Grove. 

EEDEN, JOHAN VAN DER, born at 
Ghent, Dec. 21, 1844, still living, 1888. 
PujDil at tbe Conservatoire, Ghent, where 
be won several first prizes, and of Fetis in 
Brussels (1863). At the Concours National, 



EGERIA 



in 1865, he won the first prize with his 
cantata, Le vent, and in 1869 with the can- 
tata. La derniere niiit de Faust. After hav- 
ing travelled in France, Italy, and Germany, 
he settled at Assisi. — Mendel, Ergiinz., di. 

EGEKIA, Italian operetta in one act, text 
by Metastasio, music by Hasse, represented 
in Vienna, 1761:, in honour of the coronation 
of Joseph XL, King of the Romans. Scene 
at the fountain of Egeria. Characters rej^ 
resented : Egeria, Venere, Mercuric, Marte, 
Apollo. 

EGGHAED, JULIUS (Count von Harde- 
gen), born in Vienna, April 21, 1831, died 
there, March 23, 1867. Pianist, pupil of 
Karl Czerny, and in comjoositiou of Sechter ; 
from his fifteenth year he appeared often 
successfully before the Viennese public, and 
was much esteemed as a teacher. In 1853- 
55 he was in Paris, and gave several con- 
certs at the Salle Erard. His tasteful 
compositions for the pianoforte in charac- 
teristic style were widely popular. Works : 
La campanella, impromptu, op. 2 ; Variations 
de bravour, op. 4 ; Nocturne en trilles, op. 
6 ; Idylle, op. 7 and 8 ; Souvenir de Pesth, 
op. 9 ; Rcve d' amour, op. 10 ; Mazurka de 
salon, op. 11 ; Polka de salon, op. 12 ; Ro- 
mance, op. 13 ; Les adieux du berger, idylle, 
ojj. 11 ; La danse des syljjhes, impromptu, 
op. 15 ; Je pense a toi, chanson sans paroles, 
op. 17 ; Chanson erotique, op. 19 ; Serenade 
italiennc, op. 22 ; Nocturne poetique, op. 
23 ; Fleurettes, etude de salon, op. 26 ; Sa- 
rolta, impromptu de salon, op. 27 ; etc. 
— Wurzbach ; Le Pays (Paris, 1855, No. 
32) ; Wiener Conversationsblatt (1855), 212. 

EGLI, JOHANN HEINRICH, Iwrn at 
Seegrebeu, Canton of Zurich, March 4, 
1712, died at Ziirich, Dec. 19, 1810. Vocal 
composer, pupil of Pastor Schmiedli at We- 
zikon ; settled at Ziirich, where he became 
a favourite teacher, and greatly influenced 
religious music. His songs are still popular 
in Switzerland. Works : 6 Schweizer-Can- 
taten von Lavater, with orchestra (1786) ; 
Schweizerlieder von Lavater (1787) ; Blu- 
menlese geistlicher Gedichte, etc. (1788) ;| 



I Oden von Cramer (1786) ; 12 Neujahrs 
Cautaten ; 60 geistliche Lieder (1791) ; 
Schweizer Volkslieder (1788) ; Schweizer 
Preiheitsgesang (1789) ; Kinderlieder, for 
two voices ; Gellert's geistliche Oden und 
Lieder (1789); do. zweiter Theil (1791); 
Lieder der Weisheit und Tugend (1790) ; 
Christliches Gesangbuch (Ziirich, 1798) ; and 
many others for one and more voices. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., V. 678; Futis ; Gerber ; 
Schilling. 

EGMONT, overture and incidental music 
to Goethe's tragedy of the same title, by 
Beethoven, op. 81, composed in 1809 ; first 
performed, May 21, 1810. The composer's 
third work for the stage, written between 
the second writing of Leonore, and Fidelio. 
The overture de^jicts in broad, vigorous 
traits what may serve for an introduction 
to the drama, to wit, the immutability of 
fate, the pathos in the suppression of lib- 
erty, and the fall of its hero, the pleasant 
existence of the people who are to be sup- 
pressed, and, finally, the joy of triumph, pro- 
claiming that the reaction must, at last, 
succumb. Besides the overture, the music 
consists of two sojprano songs, four entr'- 
actes, Clilrchen's death, a melodrama, and a 
finale ; in all, ten numbers. The finale is 
identical with the conclusion of the over- 
ture, which was apijarently written last. 
To tit the music for performance exclusive 
of the drama, verses connecting the move- 
ments were written in Germany by Jlosen- 
geil and Bernays, and in England by Will- 
iam Bartholomew. Published by Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1811-12).— Marx (Berlin, 
1875), ii. 162 ; Thayer, Verzeichuiss, 82 ; 
Von Lenz, ii. 207. 

EGMONT, opera-comique, text by Wolff 
and Millaud, music by Salvayre, represented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, Dec. 6, 1886. 
A failure. 

EGRESSY, BENJAMIN, born about 
1811, still Hviug (?). He settled in Pesth 
as an actor, and later comjiosed many Hun- 
garian melodies, songs, and other vocal 
and instrumental music. He also translated 



EIIERXE 



plays and operas, antl wrote the librettos of 
sevei-al Hungarian operas. — Wurzbacb, iv. 
5 ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

EHERNE SCHLANGE, DIE (The Bra- 
zen Serpent), oratorio for male voices, text 
by Giesebrecht, music by Karl Loewe, op. 
40, written in 1831 

EHLERT, LUDWIG, born in Konigs- 
berg, Jan. 13, 1825, died in Wiesbaden, 
Jan. 4, 1884. Pianist, pupil at the Leipsic 
Conservatorium under Mendelssohn and 
Sclmnianu ; settled in Berlin as a teacher 
in 1850 ; visited Italy several times, direct- 
ing the Socicta Cherubiui in Florence ; 
taught in Tausig's Berlin school in 1869- 
71 ; was teacher to the princes in Meining- 
en ; and settled in Wiesbaden. Professor 
in 1875. Works : Overtures to Hafiz and 
Winter's Tale ; Spring Symphony ; Sonate 
romautique ; Kequiem for a child ; Songs 
and pianoforte pieces. He was the author 
of " Briefe iiber Musik an eine Freundin " 
(Berlin, 1859, 18G7, 1879 ; translated as 
"Letters on Music to a Lady," London and 

Boston, 1877) ; 
derTon- 

. (Berlin, 

/^ 1877 ; trans- 
lated as " From the Tone- World," New 
York, 1885). — Riemann ; Mendel ; Grove ; 
Fetis, iii. 119 ; do., Supplement, i. 301. 

EHRENBERG, died young at Dessau, 
1790. He was chamber musician in Dessau, 
.and wrote an oi)era, Azakia, text by Schwan, 
Dessau, 1790, besides considerable vocal 
music. — Gerber ; Fctis ; Schilling ; Men- 
del. 

EHRHART, LEON, born at Miilhauseu, 
Alsace, May 11, 1854, died near Florence, 
Oct. 4, 1875. Dramatic composer, puj^il in 
his native place of Heyberger, in Paris of 
Chauvet and at the Conservatoire of Benoist 
and Eeber. The cantata of Acis et Gala- 
tee secured him the prix de Rome in 1874, 
and while visiting Rome and Venice he 
worked on a comic ojjera and an oratorio 
until his premature death. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 301. 



/) ijoston, 



EHRLICH, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH, 
born at Magdeburg, May 7, 1810, still liv- 
ing, 1888. Pianist, pujjil of Hummel in 
Weimar, returned to his native city about 
1834, where he is conductor of the Sing- 
akademie, and one of the founders, and pres- 
ident of the Tonkiinstler-Verein. He has 
composed several operas, of which Die Ro- 
senmiidchen, and Kiinig Georg were suc- 
cessfully given at various provincial the- 
atres ; also organ and pianoforte music, and 
sacred and secular songs.- — ^lendel. 

EHRNSTEIN, JOHANN JACOB STU- 
PAN VON, German comjioser, lived in the 
beginning of the 18th century. He pub- 
lished Rosetum musicum and 12 sympho- 
nies. — Gerber ; Mendel ; Fotis. 

EH! VIA,BITFONE. See /)on Giovanni. 
EICHBERG, JULIUS, born, of German 
parentage, in Diissel- 
dorf, Germauj-, June 
13, 1824, still living, 
1888. Violinist and 
dramatic composer ; 
p u p i 1 on the violin 
and in composition, 
at Wiirzburg, Bavaria, 
of Joseph FrJilich, and 
in counterpoint and 
orchestration of Julius 
Rietz. He went to 
Brussels in 1842, studied composition un- 
der Ft'tis, and the violin under Meerts and 
De Beriot, and obtained the 1st prizes in 
violin plaj'ing and composition in 1843 at 
the Conservatoire. After this he resided 
several years in Frankfort-on-the-Main and 
in 1846 went to Basel and Geneva, Switzer- 
land, as director of music, and received the 
appointment of professor of the violin and 
of composition in the Geneva Conservatoire. 
In 1856 he removed to America and has 
spent the past thirty years in Boston, where 
he is director of the Boston Conservatory of 
Music, general supervisor of musical instruc- 
tion in the Boston public schools, and head 
of Eichberg's School for Violin Plaj-ing. He 
has a national reputation as a teacher of 




EICHBERG 



the violin, some of the best public jjerform- 
ers having been liis pupils. Works : The 
Doctor of Alcantara, comic o^Jeretta in two 
acts, text by Woolf, represented in Boston, 
April 7, 1862 ; The Rose of Tyrol, ib., I860 ; 
The Two Cadis, ib., 1870 ; A Night in 
Home, ib., about 1870. Studies for the vio- 
lin ; Trios and quartets for string instru- 
ments ; Songs ; Works for the use of mu- 
sical instruction in schools. The Doctor of 
Alcantara has been performed many times 
in America, and is one of the few works of 
the kind, Avritten in America, which has 
made a permanent re2)utation. 

EICHBERG, OSCAE, born in Berlin, 
Jan. 21, 1845, still living, 1S88. Pianist, 
pupil of his father ; played in public at the 
age of ten ; then studied the pianoforte un- 
der Loschhorn and composition under Kiel. 
He settled in Berlin as a teacher, founded 
a singing society in 1871, wrote musical ar- 
ticles, and began the publication of a mu- 
sical calendar in 1879. Has published pi- 
anoforte music, songs, etc. — Mendel ; Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 302 ; Eiemann. 

EICHHORN, HERMANN, born iu Bres- 
lau, Oct. 30, 1847, still living, 1888. Virtu- 
oso on the horn and dramatic composer, 
pupil of Emil Bohn ; at first studied law 
and acquired the degree of doctor, but soon 
devoted himself entirely to music. He has 
composed the comic operas and operettas, 
Drei auf eineu Schlag, Zojjf und Krumm- 
stab, Blaue Kinder, and others, besides f)i- 
anoforte pieces and songs, and has also 
published several valuable monographs on 
the history of instruments and of instru- 
mental music. — Riemann. 

EICHHORN, JO H ANN, bom about 
1766, died after 1815. Violinist. Lived in 
Berlin and at Bruchsal, Baden, and joined 
the court orchesti-a at Mannheim in 1807. 
Works: Concerto for violin (Berlin, 1791); 
Solos for do. (ib.) ; 3 quartets for two vio- 
lins, viola, and bass (Darmstadt, 1794) ; 3 
duos for violins, op. 9 (Leipsic, Kiihnel) ; 
Quintet for two violins, two violas, and 
bass, op. 11 (ib.).' — Fetis ; Gerber. 



EICHLER, FRIEDEICH WILHELM, 
born in Leipsic iu 1809. Violinist, pui^il 
of Spohr in Cassel ; became Conzertmeister 
at the theatre in Kimigsberg in 1832 ; from 
1817 lived several years iu Loudon, and 
then settled at Baden-Baden. Among his 
compositions for violin are : Variations on 
a Swiss theme, with orchestra or pianoforte, 
op. 2 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hilrtel) ; Songs 
without words, op. 4 (ib.). — Schilling; Men- 
del ; Fetis. 

EICHNER, ERNST, born in Mannheim, 
Feb. 9, 1740, died iu Potsdam in 1777. He 
entered the ducal chapel at Zweibriicken 
about 1770, and left it elandestinelj', be- 
cause his resignation was not accepted ; 
then lived iu London until 1773, when he 
joined the band of the Crown Prince of 
Prussia in Potsdam. He formed some ex- 
cellent pujjils, and composed symphonies, 
concertos, and chamber music. — Fetis ; 
Schilling ; Mendel. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND 
TWELVE, ouverture solennelle for orches- 
tra, by Tschaikowsky, op. 49. 

E IL MAESTRO 10 FACCIO. See 
Barbiere di Siviglia. 

EILT, IHR STUNDEN, soprano aria in 
E minor, with accompaniment of violin and 
continuo, in Johann Sebastian Bach's can- 
tata, " Freue dich, erli'iste Schaar.'' 

EINERT, IvARL FRIEDRICH, born at 
Lommatsch, Saxony, in 1798, died in War- 
saw, Dec. 25, 1836. Organist, studied 
under Schicht in the Thomasschule of Leip- 
sic ; was a pupil of Friedrich Schneider for 
organ and of Wach for double-bass. Became 
music teacher in a noble Polish family and 
went in 1821 to Warsaw, where he was or- 
ganist of the Lutheran Church and double- 
bass player of the Court Theatre. His or- 
gan preludes were well written. — Sowiuski, 
165 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

EIN' FESTE BURG 1ST UNSER GOTT 
(A strong fortress is our God ; generally ren- 
dered iu English : God is our refuge in dis- 
tress). ]\Iartiu Luther's version of Psalm 
xlvi. (Deus uoster refugium). It was pub- 



EIN 



lished first in " Geistliebe Lierler nuffs newe 
gebessert zu Wittenberg. Dr. INIart. Luther, 
1529." Several arrangements of it appeared 
during Lu tiler's lifetime : 1. For three voices, 
with melody in the tenor, in " News Gesang," 
etc., by Johann Kugelmann (Augsburg, 
1540) ; 2. For four voices, with melod}- in 
the bass, in " Newe deutsche geistliche ' 
Gesenge cxxiii, by Georg Khau (Witten- 
berg, 154;J:) ; 3. For five voices, with mel- 
ody in the tenor, by Stephan Mahn, in G. 
Rhau's Hymn Book ; 4. For four voices, 
with melody in the bass, by Martin Agri- 
cola, in G. Rhau's Hymn Book ; 5. For four 
voices, with melody in the bass, by L. Hel- 
linck, in G. Rhau's Hymn Book. The tune 
as now sung is derived from the form given 
it by Johann Sebastian ]5ach in several of 
his cantatas, especially in Ein' feste Burg, 
which differs somewhat from Luther's ver- 
sion. It has been used as a theme by 
various other musicians : Mendelssohn, in 
the finale of his Reformation Symphony ; 
Otto Nicolai, in his i^e.^^Ouverture ; Joachim 
Raff, in his /f'A/-Oiiverture ; Wagner, in his 
Kaisermarsch ; Meyerbeer, in the Hugue- 
nots ; Karl Reinecke, in Variations on Ein' 
feste Burg (given in New York, Nov. 12, 
1887). — Rambach, Ueber Luther's Ver- 
dienst um den Kirchengesang (Hamburg, 
1813); Winterfeld, Luther's deutsche geist- 
liche Lieder (Leipsic, 1840) ; Wackernagel, 
do. (Stuttgart, 1848) ; Koch, Geschichte des 
Kircheulieds (Stuttgart, 186G-1877) ; Lu- 
ther musicien, Revue et Gazette musieale, 
July 13, 1879 ; Naumann (Ouseley), i. 458 ; 
Grove, ii. 179. 

EIN' FESTE BFRG, cantata, text by 
Salomo Franck, music by Johann Sebastian 
Bach, written probably for the Reformation 
Festival of 1730. Bitter thinks it was com- 
posed for the bicentenary Reformation Fes- 
tival of 1717, but Spitta argues that it was 
for either the festival of 1730 or for the two 
hundreth anniversar}' of Protestantism in 
Saxony, May 17, 1739. The cantata has 
eight numbers, five solos and three choruses. 
The opening is a fugue based upon a varia- 



tion on Luthei-'s melody and set to the first 
verse of his hymn. The solos are from the 
cantata, Alles was von Gott geboren, writ- 
ten in 1716.— Spitta, ii. 470 ; iii. 283 ; Up- 
ton, Standard Cantatas, 38. 

EINICIvE, GEORG FRIEDRICH, born 
at Hohlstedt, Thuringia, Ajjril 10, 1710, died 
in Nordhausen, Feb. 20, 1770. Organist, 
pupil of his father. He went to the Uni- 
versitj' of Leipsic in 1732, and finished 
his musical education under Sebastian Bach 
and Scheibe. He succeeded his father as 
Cantor and music director ; went to Frank- 
enhausen in a like capacity in 1746 and 
to Nordhausen in 1757. — Works : Concer- 
tos ; Symphonies ; Church music. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., v. 7G0 ; Mendel; SchilHng ; Fetis. 

EIN MADCHEN ODER WEIBCHEN. 
See Die ZauberflOte. 

EINSAM IN TRUBEN TAGEN. See 
Lohengrin. 

EINST TRAUMTE MEINER SELIGEN 
BASE. See Der Frcischiilz. 

EIN UNGEFARBT GEMUTHE, alto 
aria in F major, with accompaniment of 
violins and violas in unison, and continuo, 
in Johann Sebastian Bach's cantata for 
Dom. 4 fest. Trinil., of the same title ; 
published sej)arately, with additional ac- 
companiments by Robert Franz, by F. 
Whistling, Leipsic, 18G0. 

EISENHOFER, FRANZ XAYER, born 
at Ilmmiinster, Upper Bavaria, Nov. 29, 
1783, died in Wiirzburg, Aug. 15, 1855. 
While attending the University of Munich, 
he finished his musical education under 
Griitz ; gave up the study of theologj', and 
was school teacher and professor in sev- 
eral places. He composed cantatas for 
male voices, and many solo and part songs, 
of which he wrote also the text. — Mendel ; 
Schilling, Supplement, 110 ; Fotis, iii. 123 ; 
do., Supplement, i. 302. 

EISENHUT (Eisenuth, Eisenhuet), 
THOMAS, German composer, whose works 
appeared in 1675-1702. He was Kapell- 
meister of the Prince Abbot of Kempten 
and a regular canon of the Monasterv of 



10 



EISERT 



St. Georg in Augsburg. Among Lis publi- 
cations were Harmonia sacra, church music, 
and a theoretical book, "Musikahsches Fun- 
dament." — Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 7G7 ; Men- 
del ; Fetis ; Schilling. 

EISERT, JOHANNES, born at Dresden 
in 1810, died there in 18G4 Organist, 
studied music in Vienna, where he ajs- 
peared successfully in public, until recalled 
to Dresden as court organist. Among his 
compositions for the organ, his fugues de- 
serve especial mention for purity of style 
and melodic beauty. — Mendel ; Schilling. 

EISFELD, THEODOR, born, of German 
parentage, in Wolfenbiittel, Brunswick, in 
1816, died in Wiesbaden, Sept. IG, 1882. 
Conductor, pupil in composition of C. G. 
Reissiger, Dresden ; also studied the violin 
in Bremen under Karl Miiller. In 1848 
he went to New York, and the following 
year was made conductor of the New 
York Philharmonic Society, which he con- 
ducted alternately with Carl Bei-gmann, 
from 1855 to 18GG, when he returned to 
Europe. He was leader also of the Eisfeld 
Quartet, which gave its first concert, Feb. 
18, 1851. Eisfeld held a high position in 
New York musical circles. 

EITNER, ROBERT, born at Breslau, 
Oct. 22, 1832, still living, 1888. Pianist, 
pupil of Moritz Brosig, went in 1853 to 
Berlin, where he won success as a virtuoso 
and composer in concerts, given in 1857- 
5d. A school for the pianoforte which he 
founded in Berlin, 18G3, is still flourishing. 
Since 18G0 he has devoted himself more 
especially to musical literature, and chiefly 
to his agency was due the organization of 
the Gesellschaf t fur Musikforschung in 18G8, 
of whose organ, the " Monatshefte fiir Mu- 
sikgeschichte," he is the editor. Works : 
Judith, biblical opera ; Pfingstcantate ; Sta- 
bat Mater for 4 voices a cappella ; Over- 
ture to the Cid ; Pianoforte music, and 
songs. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 302 ; Men- 
del. 

EKHART, FRANZ JOSEF, born at Tep- 
litz, Bohemia, about 1735, died (?). Pianist, 



organist, and hai-pist, pupil of his father, 
and afterwards completed his studies in 
Italy. For several years he was organist 
of the Basilica of St. Peter, and in great 
favour with Pope Clement XIV., especially 
as a harp-i^layer ; in 1780 he enjoj-ed con- 
siderable reputation in Italy as an organist 
and composer, but his works remain in 
manuscript. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ELBEL, VICTOR, born in Alsace early 
in the 19th centuiy. He lived in Paris as 
a teacher ; brought out in Strasburg an 
oratorio, Der Miinsterbau ; and composed 
also two descriptive symphonies. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 302. 

ELEGUC ODE, text from President 
Lincoln's Burial Hymn by Walt Whitman, 
for solos, chorus, and orchestra, bj' Charles 
Villiers Stanford, composed for and first 
given at the Norwich (England) Festival, 
Oct. 15, 1884.— Athenseum (1884), ii. 505. 

ELEGIAC SYMPHONY, in D minor, by 
Charles Villiers Stanford, first produced at 
Cambridge, England, March 7, 1882, and 
at the Gloucester Festival, 1883. 

ELlilGIE, salon-jiiece for violin solo, with 
pianoforte accomjjaniment, by Heinrich Wil- 
helm Ernst, op. 10. It is extremely effec- 
tive and well written, and was long popular. 
Played at Chickering Hall, New York, Nov. 
22,'l88G, by Michael Banner. 

ELEGIE HARMONIQUE (Harmonic 
Elegy), for pianoforte solo, in F-sharp 
minor, by Johann Ludwig Dussek, op. Gl. 
Written in memory of Prince Louis Ferdi- 
nand of Prussia, whose premature death on 
the battle-field of Saalfeld, Oct. 13, 1806, de- 
prived Dussek of a friend and patron. One 
of the composer's best works. 

ELEGISCHER GESANG (Elegiac Song), 
for four voices, pianoforte, and string quar- 
tet, music by Beethoven, op. 118, comjwsed 
1814 ; dedicated to Johann, Freiherr von 
Pasqualati. Text, " Sanft wie du lebtest, 
hast du Tollendet," etc., by an unknown 
author. Published by Haslinger after the 
composer's death. — Thayer, Verzeichniss, 
120 ; Lenz, ii. 131. 



11 



ELER 



ELEE, .\NDRfi, bom in Alsace about 
1764, died Ajjiil 21, 1821. He went, when 
young, to Paris, where he became professor 
of counterpoint at the Conservatoire on 
its reorganization in 1816. His collection, 
copied in scoi'e, of the compositions of 16th 
century masters, is now in the librai-y of 
the Paris Conservatoire. Works — Operas : 
Apelle et Campaspe, 1798 ; L'habit du 
chevalier de Grammont, 1800 ; La forut 
de Brama ; Interlude, Le chant des ven- 
geances, words by Rouget de Li.sle, jyer- 
formed in 1798 ; Overture ; Symphony ; 
Sonatas ; Trios, and quartets for wind and 
string instruments. — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 303 ; Larousse ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling. 

ELI, oratorio, text by William Bartholo- 
mew, on the story of Eli and Samuel (Sam., 
i.-iv.), music by Michael Costa, first given 
at the Birmingham (England) Festival, Aug. 
29, 1855 ; first time in America, Handel and 
Haydn Society, Boston, Feb. 15, 1857. At 
Birmingham the part of Eli was sung by 
Sims Beeves, and that of Sanuiel by Mme 
Viardot. The other parts were by Mme 
Castellan, Carl Formes, and W. H. Weiss. 
— Athenieum (1855), 1008 ; Upton, Standard 
Oratorios, 84. 

ELI.VS (Elijah), oratorio, in two parts, 
text from the Old Testament, music by Men- 
delssolui, op. 70, first given in an Englisli 
translation at the Birmingham (England) 
Festival, Aug. 26, 1846. The idea was sug- 
gested, says Hillcr, by reading in 1 Kings, 
xix. 11, "Behold, the Lord passed by," and 
the text was compiled mostly from the same 
book. The libretto was sent to London as 
soon as the work was completed, and trans- 
lated into English bv' William Bartholomew. 
The scenes treated are Elijah's prophecj' of 
the drought, the raising of the widow's son 
at Zarephath, the rival sacrifices on Mt. 
Carmel, the fall of rain, the persecution of 
Elijah by Jezebel, his sojourn in the desert, 
his return, and his translation in the fiery 
chariot. The score is without date, but 
Mendelssohn probably began the work in 



the summer of 1837, though most of it was 
written in 1846. The orchestral parts were 
rehearsed bj' Mendelssohn at Leipsic, Aug. 
5, 184(i, and the vocal parts at Moscheles's 
house, London, Aug. 18th, the evening of the 
day of his arrival there ; then followed two 
full rehearsals in Hanover Square, and on 
Aug. 24th a full rehearsal at Birmingham ; 
and on Wednesday, Aug. 26th, the first pub- 
lic performance was given in the Town Hall, 
Birmingham. After many alterations and 
additions, it was given in London, April 10, 
1847, by the Sacred Harmonic Society. Its 
first performance in Germany was at Ham- 
burg, October, 1847. Pubfished first by 
Simroek (Berlin, 1847). — Grove, ii. 275, 
288 ; J. Bennet, in Concordia, 497, 523 ; 
Upton, Standard Oratorios, 218. 

ELIJAH. See Elias. 

ELIS.\, ou le voyage au ]\Iont Bernard, 
comedy in two acts, text by Saint-Cyr, mu- 
sic by Cherubini, represented at the Thea- 
tre Feydeau, Paris, December, 1794. The 
scene is laid among mountains and glaciers, 
and the douofuuent is hastened by an ava- 
lanche. 

ELISA E CLAUDIO, opera buffii, text 
b_v Romanelli, music by Mercadante, repre- 
sented in Milan in 1822. This opei'a, one 
of Mercadante's best works, was given in 
Paris, Nov. 22, 1823. The beautiful duet, 
"Se un" istante, all' offerta d' un soglio," is 
still a favourite with singers. 

ELISABETH, opera in three acts, text 
by Brunswick and De Leuven, music by 
Donizetti, represented at the Theatre Ly- 
rique, Paris, Dec. 31, 1853. This is the 
French version of Donizetti's Gli esiliati di 
Siberia, text by Gilardoni, first given in 
Naples, 1827. The Italian libretto is from 
the jilay by Guilbert de Pixen'court, enti- 
tled : " La fille de I'exile, ou huit mois en 
deux heures," which is an adaptation of 
Madame Cottin's romance, " Elisabeth, ou 
les exiles de Sibt'rie " (180G). It is the 
story of a young girl who comes from the 
depths of Siberia to ask from the Czar her 
father's pardon. Donizetti's music was 



K 



ELISABETTA 



adapted to the French version by Foutana, 
his pupil. 

ELIS.iBETTA A KENILWOETH. See 
CasleUo di Kenilworth. 

ELISABETTA, EEGINA D' INGHIL- 
TERRA, ojjera, text by Sohuiidt, music by 
Rossini, first rejDresented at the Teatro San 
Carlo, Najjles, in 1815. The libretto is not 
from Scott's "Kenilworth," which was not 
published until 1821, but is an adaptation 
from a French melodrama. The opera was 
Rossini's fifteenth work, and was written 
when he was twenty-four years old. Mile 
Colbran, whom he afterwards married, was 
the original Qaeen Elizabeth. The opera 
was given at the Italiens, Paris, March 
10, 1822. It was not successful, excepting 
at Naples. The overture, which had pre- 
viously belonged to Aureliano in Palmyra, 
is now the introduction to II Barbiere di 
Sivigha.— Stendhal, Vie de E. ; Edwards, 
Life of R., 109. 

ELISIRE D' AMORE, L' (The Elixir of 
Love), Italian opera buft'a in two acts, text 
by Romani, music by Donizetti, repiresented 
in Milan, May 12, 1832, in Loudon, at the 
Lyceum, Dec. 10, 183(), in Now York, 1838, 
and in Paris, at the Theatre Italien, Jan. 
17, 1839. The subject of this graceful and 
melodious opera, in some resjiects one of 
Donizetti's best, is identical with that of 
Auber's Le philtre, text by Scribe. Adina, 
a country girl, is loved by Neniorino, a 
young farmer, and by Belcore, a sergeant. 
Nemorino applies to Dr. Dulcamara, a 
mountebank, for a bottle of the elixir of 
love. Dulcamara gives him a bottle of 
wine, and tells him that if he drinks of 
it he can win the love of anyone. The 
farmer drinks the whole of it, and, becoming 
intoxicated, behaves in such a manner that 
Adina promises to marry the sergeant. 
The second act opens with the assemblage 
of the villagers to witness the marriage 
contract. Nemorino, in despair, begs Dul- 
camara to give him some charm which will 
make Adina love him. Dulcamara refuses, 
as the farmer has no money, and the ser- 



geant urges the latter to enlist. To obtain 
the bonus, Nemorino enlists and thus gets 
another bottle from the quack. Meanwhile 
Nemorino's uncle has died and left him all 
his property, though he does not know it. 
The girls crowd around and try to attract 
his attention, which he attributes to the 
elixir. Adina's jealousy is aroused, and 
hearing, through Dulcamara, of Nemorino's 
devotion, she repays the sergeant the enlist- 
ment fee, changes her mind, and gives her 
hand to the former. The principal num- 




Persiani, as Adina. 

bers in the first act are the buffo song by 
Dulcamara, beginning with the recitative, 
■'Udite, udite, o rustici," and the duet be- 
tween Dulcamara and Nemorino, "Obbli- 
gato, ah ! si obbligato." In the second act 
are the chorus : " Cantiamo, facciam brin- 
disi ; " the quartet, " Dell' elisir mirabile ; " 
the duet between Adina and Dulcamara, 
" Quanto amore ! ed io spietata ; " and the 
romanza of Nemorino, " Una furtiva lagri- 
ma." Among the best impersonators of 
Adina were Fanny Persiaui (1812-1867) and 



13 



ELKAMP 



Piccolomiui. Lablaclie was a noted Dr. 
Dulcamara, and Nemorino was a favourite 
cbai'acter with Mario. 

ELKAMP, HEIXRICH, born at Itzehoe, 
Holstein, in 1812, died in Hamburg in 
1868. Pupil in Hamburg of Clasiug and in 
Berlin of Zelter ; then settled in Hamburg 
as a teacher ; in 1842-51 he lived in St. 
Petersburg, then returned to Hamburg. 
Works : 2 oratorios. Die heilige Zeit, and 
Paulus ; Pianoforte pieces ; Songs. — ]Men- 
del ; Fetis ; Schumann, Gesammelte Schrif- 
ten, i. 223. 

ELLE NE CROYAIT PAS. See Miguon. 

ELLER, LOUIS, bom at Gratz in 1819, 
died at Pau in August, 1862. Violinist, pupil 
of Hysel ; apj^eared in Vienna in 1836. After 
concert tours in Hungary, Croatia, Switzer- 
land, and France, playing in Paris in 1814, 
he returned home, then visited Italy and 
Southern France, and settled in Pau after 
travelling over Spain and Portugal with 
Gottschalk. Works : Valse diabolique ; 
Menuet sentimental ; Rhapsodic hongroise ; 
Fantasias, and other violin music. — Fctis ; 
Wurzbach, iv. 23 ; Mendel. 

ELLERTOX, JOHN LODGE, born in 
Cheshire, England, Jan. 11, 1807, died in 
London, Jan. 3, 1873. Amateur composer, 
graduate of Oxford (1828) where he stud- 
ied music, chiefly composition, and wrote 
an English operetta and an Italian opera. 
He studied counterpoint for two j-ears in 
Rome under Terriani. In 1835 and 1838 
he took prizes at the Catch Club for his 
glees : Fayre is my love, and. How beau- 
tiful is night. Works— Operas : Issipile, 
given in Prussia, about 1825 ; Annibale in 
Capua, Andromacca, H Marito a vista ; Carlo 
Rosa, German opera ; Dominica, The Bridal 
of Triermain, English operas, ib., about 
1830 ; II Carnovale di Venezia, ib., about 
1832 ; Berenice in Armenia, II Sacrifizio 
d'Epito, ib., about 1835 ; Lucinda, English 
opera, Baden-Baden, about 1838. Pai'a- 
dise Lost, oratorio ; G masses ; 6 anthems ; 
17 motets ; 61 glees ; 83 duets for different 
voices ; 5 symphonies for gi-and orchestra ; 



4 concert-overtures ; 3 quintets for two 
violins, viola, and two violoncellos ; 44 quar- 
tets for two violins, viola, and violoncello ; 
3 trios for violin, viola, and violoncello ; 8 
do. for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello ; 
2 sonatas for pianoforte and violin ; Sonata 
for pianoforte and viola ; do. for pianoforte 
and violoncello ; 9 do. for pianoforte and 
flute. He was author also of a poetical 
romance, the Bridal of Salemo (London, 
1845), and of a poetical legend. The Elixir 
of Youth (ib., 1864).— FcHis ; Grove. 

ELOY, , born about 1400, died 

about middle of 15th century (?). Nothing 
of his history is known, but he must have 
preceded Dufay, Dunstable, and Binchois. 
Tinctoris and Gaforius both quote his mass 
Dixerunt discipuli, which is preserved 
among the MSS. of the Vatican. Kiese- 
wetter published the Kyrie and the Agnus 
in Geschichte der Europ. abendliind. IMu- 
sik. — Futis ; Mendel ; Ambros, Geschichte 
der Musik, ii. 462. 

ELSBERGER (Elsperger), JOHANN 
CHRISTOPH ZACHARIAS, born in Ratis- 
bon in 1736, died in Sulzbach, Feb. 1, 1790. 
He was at first cantor of the Latin school in 
Sulzbach, and later j^rivate secretary there. 
Works : Der Barbier von Sevilla, opera, 
Sulzbach, 1783 ; Church and instrumental 
music. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling. 

ELSBETH, THOilAS, born at Neustadt, 
Franconia, and lived in Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder about 1600. He was probably also a 
chorister in Liegnitz. Works : 3 collec- 
tions of Cantiones sacrre (Frankfort, 1600, 
Liegnitz, 1590, 1606) ; Weltliche und geist- 
liche Lieder (Frankfort, 1599, Liegnitz, 
1607) ; Zwei Theile Sonntiiglicher Evange- 
licn (Liegnitz, 1616, 1621); Geistliche Fest- 
gesiiuge auf das ganze Jahr (Breslau, 1624). 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 62 ; Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

ELSNER, JOSEPH XAVER, born at 
Grottkau, Silesia, June 1, 1769, died in 
Warsaw, April 18, 1854. The son of a 
maker of musical instruments, he was des- 
tined for medicine, but became choir-boy 



u 



ELSTEIi 



and later violinist and singer at the Breslau 
theatre. He received Larmouy lessons 
from Forster in Breslau ; then read scores 
and was intimate with musicians in Vienna ; 
and became first violin of the Briinu theatre 
in 1791, and musical director of the theatre 
in Lemberg in 1792. In 1799 he settled in 
Warsaw, where he was director of German 
and Polish theatres ; and in 1815, with 
Princess Zamoiska, founded a music so- 
ciety, which was transformed into the War- 
saw Conservatory in 1821, when he left the 
theatre and became first director and pro- 
fessor of comijosition in the new institution. 
He retired in 1830, when jjolitical troubles 
closed the Conservatory, but continued com- 
position. During a visit to Paris some of 
his works were performed at the Tuileries 
and Saint-Cloud. He may be regarded 
as the creator of Polish opera. His oj^eras 
are light and in the old style of Paer and 
Slayr ; his church music is rather dra- 
matic ; and his compositions generally 
show ease and purity, though lack of 
originality and thorough study. Works : 
Osoblievi Bracia, ojiera, and about 30 other 
small dramatic works in Polish ; Masses, 
motets, requiems, offertories, and other 
church music ; Cantatas and many songs ; 
Symphonies, quartets, concertos, and much 
other j)iauoforte and instrumental music. 
The Polish titles of his ofieras are given in 
Fetis and Sowinski. — Sowinski, Musiciens 
polonais, IGG ; Fetis ; Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 
70 ; Mendel ; Grove. 

ELSTER, JOHANN DANIEL, born at 
Benshausen, Henneberg, Sept. 16, 1796, 
.died at Wettiugen, Canton of Aargau, Dec. 
19, 18.57. He entered Leijisic University 
in 1816 ; gave uji theology for medicine ; 
and after several years of adventurous wan- 
dering, and military service in the French 
army and in Greece, he made his way to 
Switzerland, taught music in Lenzburg and 
Baden, was music director of a travelling 
theatrical company, and became music 
teacher in Bremgarten and from 1846 in i 
Wettingen. Works : Richard uud Blondel, 



opera in three acts, text by Adami, given 
in Meiningen, 1835 ; Songs and other vocal 
music. — Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 72 ; Mendel ; 
Fetis ; Bechstein, Fahrten eines Musikan- 
ten (1837 ; 2d ed., 1854; 3d ed., 1858). 

ELVEY, Sir GEORGE JOB, born at 
Canterbury, England, 







March 27, 1816, still 
Hving, 1888. Church 
comjjoser and organ- 
ist, brother and pupil 
of Stephen Elvey, hav- 
ing first been instruct- 
ed by High more 
Skeats, organist of 
Canterbury C a t li e - 
dral, whose son. High- 
more the younger, he succeeded as organ- 
ist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in 1835. 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1838 ; Mus. Doc, ik, 
1840 ; knighted, 1871. Works : The Resur- 
rection and Ascension, oratorio, 1838 ; Ser- 
vices in F and B-flat ; Anthems, chorals, 
chants, hymns, psalms, etc. ; Songs ; Or- 
gan music. — Grove. 

ELVEY, STEPHEN, born in Canterbury, 
June 27, 1805, died in Oxford, Oct. 6, 1860. 
Organist, brother of Sir George Job Elvey ; 
pujiil at Canterbury of Skeats. He became 
organist of New College, Oxford, in 1830 ; 
was made Mus. Bac, Oxford, in 1831, Mus. 
Doc. in 1838 ; and was choragus of the uni- 
versity from 1840 until his death. Works : 
Services ; Anthems ; Psalter and Canticles, 
pointed for chanting (London, 8vo, 6 
editions to 1866) ; Hymns, etc. — Grove ; 
Brown. 

ELWART, ANTOINE ^LIE, born in 
Paris, Nov. 18, 1808, died there, Oct. 14, 
1877. Dramatic composer, pujjil on the 
violin of Ponchard the elder, and at the 
Conservatoire of Madame de Sainte-Ursule 
in harmonj', of Fetis in composition, and of 
Lesueur. In 1828 he started, with several 
fellow pupils, the Concerts d'emulation, 
given at the Conservatoire for six years, 
to give young composers a school of prac- 
tice. In 1831 he won the second jirize for 



ELZE 



composition of the Institut and in 183i 
the grand piix de Kome. Having tilled 
the jjosition of adjunct professor of com- 
position for two j'ears, he resumed it on 
his return from Italy in 183G, became pro- 
fessor of harmony in 1840, retiring in 1871. 
Officer of the Academy, 1871 ; L. of Honour, 
1872 ; Order of Charles HI. of Spain ; 
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle. "Works : 
Les Catalans, opera, given at Kouen, The- 
ati-e des Arts, 1840 ; La reine de Saba, Les 
chercheurs d'or, operas, not performed ; 
Choruses and instrumental music to Alces- 
tis ; Noe, ou Le deluge imiversel, oratorio- 
symphony in four parts, Paris, 1845 ; La 
naissance d'five, oratorio, ib., 1846 ; Les 
noces de Cana, mystery for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra ; Ruth et Booz, vocal sym- 
phony ; Le salut imperial, cantata ; Le pou- 
voir de I'harmonie, do. ; Hymne a la beaute, 
do. ; Pas d'orchestre, choral oj)eretta ; Pe- 
nelope, lyrical scene ; Bichat, choral scene ; 
Masses for two, three, four, and five voices, 
with and without organ or orchestra ; Mo- 
tets ; Symphonies ; Overtures ; Quintets, 
quartets, and trios for string instruments ; 
Cboruses for male voices, etc. He was the 
author of many theoretical and didactic 
works, including : " Petit mauuel d'harmo- 
nie, etc." (1839) ; " Traite du contrepoint et 
de la fugue " (1840) ; " Essai de transposi- 
tion musicals " (1840) ; " Le Chanteur ac- 
compagnateur"(1844) ; "L'Harmonie musi- 
cale " (1853), etc. He wrote also " Histoire 
des Concerts populaires," and " Histoire de 
la Societe des Concerts du Conservatoire " 
(18()0). — Fetis, iii. 135 ; Supplement, i. 
304 ; Mendel, iii. 355 ; Ergimz., 07 ; Rie- 
mann ; Grove. 

ELZE, CLEilENS THEODOR, born at 
Oranienbaum, Anhalt-Dessau, in 1830, still 
living, 1888. Organist, pupil of his father, 
of F. Schneider, and at the Leipsic Con- 
servatorium of Moscheles, Dreyschock, and 
Plaidy for pianoforte ; of David for violin, 
and of Hanptmann for composition. He 
became an organist and a teacher in Lay- 
bach in 1852. Works : Symphonies ; Cham- 



ber music ; Songs. — Mendel ; Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 304 ; Schuberth, 125. 

EMERSON, LUTHER ORL.\NDO, born, 
of American parentage, in Parsonsfield, 
Mass., Aug. 3, 1820, still livhig, 1888. 
Conductor of many musical conventions 
held throughout the United States, and 
church composer. His first work. The 
Romberg Collection (1853), was followed 
by a book of Sundaj'-school music, The 
Golden Wreath (1857), of which more than 
300,000 were sold. Among his other col- 
lections are : The Golden Harp (1860) ; The 
Sabbath Harmony (18G0) ; The Harp of 
Judah (1863) ; Merry Chimes (1865) ; Ju- 
bilate (1866) ; Chorus Wreath. 

E:\IERY, STEPHEN ALBERT, born, of 
American parentage, in Paris, Oxford Co., 
Maine, Oct. 4, 1841, still living, 1888. Pi- 
anist, pupil on the pianoforte and in har- 
mony of Henry S. Edwards, Portland, 
Maine ; went to Europe in 1862 and stud- 
ied the pianoforte rmder Louis Plaidy and 
Robert Papperitz ; harmony and counter- 
point luider Papperitz, E. F. Richter, and 
Moritz Hanptmann in Leipsic, and the 
IDianoforte under Fritz Spindler in Dres- 
den. He returned to Portland, Maine, in 
1864, removed to Boston in 1866, and was 
engaged in 1867 by the New England Con- 
servatory of Music when that institution 
was opened ; and on the founding of the 
College of Music of Boston University, he 
was appointed professor of harmony and 
counterpoint, which j)ositions he still holds. 
He is assistant editor of the Musical Her- 
ald. Works : Songs ; Part-songs ; String 
quartets ; Sonatinas, and other music for 
the jnanoforte. He is the author also of 
Foundation Studies in Pianoforte Playing, 
and. Elements of Harmony. 

EMMA DI RESBURGO, Italian opera 
seria, music by Meyerbeer, represented in 
Venice, 1819. Produced at a time when 
Rossini was becoming famous, this work 
met with good success in Italy, but it was 
coolly received in Berlin and led to Meyer- 
beer's going to Paris. It was, however, after- 



16 



EMMERICH 



wards translated into German and success- 
fully jjlayed under the title of Emma von 
Leicester. 

EMMEEICH, EGBERT, born at Hanau, 
Hesse-Nassau, July 23, 183G, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of Tlic- 
odor Stauffer and of Albert Dietrich. He 
is most favourably known by his songs. 
Works : Der Schwedonsee, oi)era, given at 
Weimar, 1874; Van Dyck, do., Stettin, 
1875 ; Symphonies ; Pianoforte pieces ; 
Songs and part-songs. — Kiemann. 

EMMERT, ADAM JGSEPH, born at 
Wiirzburg, Dec. 24, 17G.5, died in Vienna, 
Ajjril 11, 1812. Dramatic composer, sou 
of Joseph Emmert. He held an oiBcial posi- 
tion in the archives of Salzburg and Vienna, 
and, though not a professional musician, 
wrote operas and other music. Works : 
Don Silvio de Rosalba, opera, given at Ans- 
pach, 1801 ; Der Sturm, do., Salzburg, 
180G ; Cantata for four voices and orchestra, 
ib., 1799 ; Te Deum (ib., 1797) ; IG Ger- 
man dances for pianoforte (ib., 1798) ; 
Pieces for two horns and bassoon ; do. for 
two clarinets, two horns, and two bassoons 
(il)., 1799).— Fctis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Wurzbach. 

EMaiERT, JOSEPH, born at Kitzingen, 
Franconia, Nov. 27, 1732, died at Wiirz- 
burg, Feb. 20, 1809. Dramatic composer, 
appointed school rector at Schilliugsfiirst 
in 17G0, and rector of the Latin school of 
St. Burkhardt and choral director of the 
uuiversitj' in Wiirzburg in 1773. Retired, 
with the title of Kapellmeister, in 1790. 
Works : Semiramis, Tomyris, Eberhardt, 
operas (in manuscript) ; Esther, Judith, 
oratorios (do.) ; Several cantatas (do.) ; 
Latin and German masses ; Vespers ; Mis- 
erere ; Te Deum ; do. (Salzburg, 1797) ; 
Psalmodia vespertina, etc. (Augsburg, 17G6); 
Choralbuch (Wiirzburg). — Fetis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

EMPEROR CONCERTO, THE, a title 
commonly but improj^erly given to Beet- 
hoven's fifth pianoforte concerto in E-flat, 
op. 75. 



EMPEROR'S HYMN, THE. See Gotl 
erhalte Franz den Kaiser. 

ENCHANTRESS, THE, English comic 
oi^era in four acts, text by Alfred Bunn, 
music by Balfe, represented at Drury Lane 
Theatre, London, Sept. 27, 1845. The 
character of the pirate queen was sustained 
by Madam Anna Thillon, who sang it also 
in New York, at the Astor Place Opera 
House, Aug. 30, 1852. 

EN CHASSE ! LE JOUR EST LEVE. 
See Le Pardon de Ploermel. 

ENCKE, HEINRICH, born at Neustadt, 
Bavaria, in 1811, died at Leipsic, Dec. 31, 
1859. Pianist, pupil of Hummel at Wei- 
mar, then lived at Jena and Leipsic, much 
esteemed as a teacher. Among his com- 
positions the instructive works for the pi- 
anoforte may claim the greatest merit, and 
his arrangements for pianoforte (4 hands) 
of classical orchestral and chamber music 
are of acknowledged excellence. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

ENCKHAUSEN, HEINRICH FRIED- 
EICH, born in Celle, Aug. 28, 1799, died 
in Hanover, Jan. 15, 1885. Organist, 
learned several instruments from his father ; 
entered a military band in 181G, and in 
1826 studied under Aloys Schmitt in Ber- 
lin and Hanover, succeeding his teacher in 
1829 as court organist and director of the 
Singakademie of Hanover ; also court pi- 
anist. Works : Der Savoyard, opera, Han- 
over, 1832 ; Church music ; Pianoforte mu- 
sic. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling ; Schumann, 
Gesammelte Sehriften, i. 29G. 

ENDTER, CHRISTIAN FRIEDEICH, 
born in Hamburg in 1728, died in Buxte- 
Imde, May 26, 1793. Organist, pupil of 
Pfeiffer in Hamburg ; became organist in 
Buxtehude in 1746 and of the Lutheran 
Church of Altona in 175G. Works: Canta- 
tas ; Songs. — Schilling ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

ENFANCE DU CHRIST, L' (The In- 
fancy of Christ), a sacred trilogy, for solo 
voices, chorus, and orchestra, by Berlioz, 
op. 25, first i^erformed in Paris, at the Salle 
Herz, Dec. 10, 1854, under the composer's 



17 



ENFANT 



direction. It consists of tbree parts : I. Le 
songe d'Herode (Herod's Dream) ; 11. La 
fuite eu £gvpte (The Flight into Egypt) ; 
III. L'arrivue a Sais (Tlie Arrival at Sais). 
— Jiillien, Hector Berlioz (1881), 113 ; do. 
(1888), 221, 378 ; M. J. d'Ortigue, La mu- 
sique a I't-glise, 196. 

ENFANT PRODIGUE, L' (The Prodigal 
Son), opera in five acts, text by Scribe, 
music by Auber, represented at the Aca- 
demic Nationale de Musique, Paris, Dec. 
6, 1850 ; in Italian, as II Prodigo, at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, London, June 12, 1851. 
The author of the libretto has taken so 
many liberties with the Bible story that 
it is scai'ceh' recognizable. Azarl, the only 
son of a poor old man, leaves the paternal 
roof and his betrothed Jephtele for a life of 
pleasure in the city of Memjihis. He is 
ruined by gaming, by the courtesan Nephte, 
and by the dancer Lia. He penetrates into 
the temjile of Isis where the mysteries are 
celebrating, and the Egyptians make him 
expiate the sacrilege by throwing him into 
the Nile. Saved by the leader of a caravan, 
he is reduced to watching the flocks, but 
eventually finds his way home and is for- 
given. There are some picturesque scenes 
in the opera, such as the passage of the car- 
avan and the procession of the bull Apis. 

ENFANT TROITV^fi, L'. See Fmx. 

ENGEDI. See Chrislus am Oelberg. 

ENGEL, DAVID HERMANN, born at 
Neu-Ruppiu, Brandenburg, Jan. 22, 1816, 
died at Merseburg, May 3, 1877. Dramatic 
composer and organist, pupil of Wilke on 
the organ, then at Des.sau (1835-37) of 
Friedrich Schneider, and at Breslau of 
Adolf Hesse. After his return to Neu-Rup- 
pin in 1839 he devoted himself to compo- 
sition, but went in 1811 to Berlin, where 
he taught music, and studied singing under 
Teschner. In 1848 he was appointed or- 
ganist of the cathedral at ^Merseburg, and 
instructor of singing at the Domgymna- 
sium. For his Choralbuch he received the 
great gold medal for art and science, and 
for his meiits in general the title of royal 



director of music. He was also an able 
writer on his art. Works : Prinz Carneval, 
comic opera, given in Berlin, 1862 ; Boui- 
facius, oratorio ; many compositions for 
oi-gan and pianoforte, psalms, songs, etc. 
—Mendel. 

ENGELSBERG, E. S., born at Engels- 
berg, Austrian Silesia, in 1825, died at 
Deutsch-JasnLk, ib., Aj)ril 28, 1879. Real 
name Eduard Schon. He was chief of a 
department in the ministry of finances in 
Vienna, and under the above pseudonym 
wrote many popular choruses for male 
voices, which made his name a household 
word with German singing societies all 
over the world. 

ENGLERT, ANTON, born at Schwein- 
furt, Bavaria, Nov. 4, 1674, died there after 
1729. Church composer, pupil of Kiihnau, 
Schade, and Strunck at Leipsic, where he 
studied theology. In 1697 he became can- 
tor in his native city, about 1717 co-rector 
of the Gymnasium, in 1729 rector, and at 
the same time organist of the cathedral. 
About 1697 he published several volumes 
of his compositions, mostly religious, which 
bear witness to his thorough musical knowl- 
edge. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ENGLISH SUITES (Ger., Englische Sui- 
ten), 6 large suites for clavier, by Johann 
Sebastian Bach. Suite I. A major ; H. A 
minor ; HI. G minor ; TV. F major ; V. E 
minor ; VI. D minor. Published by the 
Bach-Gesellschaft, Clavier werke, vol. ii. 1. 

ENICELIUS, TOBIAS, born at Leskow, 
Bohemia, about 1655, died ('?). He was can- 
tor in Flensburg about 1655, then went to 
Timningen in the same capacity, and in 
1660 to Hamburg. He composed a can- 
tata and music to Opitz's Epistles. — Men- 
del ; Fi'tis ; Mattheson, Ehren-Pforte, 59. 

ENNELIN, SfiBASTIEN, born at or 
near Saint-Queutin about 1650 or 1655, 
died after 1719. Church composer, at first 
chorister in the maitrise of Saint-Quentin, 
and in 1680 succeeded Antoiue Gras as 
choir director of Saint-Louis' chapel. Works 
— in manuscript in the library of the coi- 



ls 



ENNO 



legiale of Saiiit-Quentin, vol. i. (1709) : 8 
Siilve Eegiua for four and six voices ; i 
Alma Redemptoris ; 4 Ave Regina ; 2 In- 
violata ; 3 Regiua cceli ; Pie Jesu ; Maria 
mater gratije, mass for four voices ; Do- 
mine, quinque talenta, motet for do. Vol. 
ii. (1714) : Requiem mass for five voices ; 
Audi, benigue Christe, qui lux es et dies, 
Vexilla regis, Da pacem, Lenten hymns. 
Vol. iii. (1718) : 15 O salutaris, for five 
voices ; Four masses for four, and one mass 
for three voices. — Fetis. 

ENNO, SEBASTL4.no, Italian composer, 
living in the middle of the 17th century. 
He published Ariose cautate, libro primo 
e secondo (Venice, 1G55). — Fe-tis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

ENRICO, CONTE DI BORGOGNA, Ital- 
ian opera, music by Donizetti, represented 
at the Teatro San Luca, Venice, 1818. 
This, Donizetti's first opera, met with such 
success that he was commissioned to write 
another one for the same city. 

ENRICO, DETTO IL LEONE (Henry 
the Lion), Italian opera, text by Hortensio 
Mauro, music by Agostino Stett'ani, repre- 
sented in Brunswick, 1689. A German ver- 
sion, Heiurich der Lijwe, by Fiedler, was 
given in Hamburg, 1696. The subject of 
the libretto is Henry the Lion, Duke of 
Saxony and Bavaria and head of the House 
of Guelph, Frederick Barbarossa's warlike 
antagonist in the twelfth century 

ENTFESSELTE PROJIETHEUS, DER 
(Prometheus Unbound), Choruses to Her- 
der's poem, by Franz Liszt. Instrumental 
introduction : The symphonic poem Prome- 
theus. No. 1. Chor der Oceaniden, for fe- 
male voices ; No. 2. Chor der Tritonen, for 
mixed voices ; No. 3. Chor der Dryaden, for 
female voices ; No. 4. Chor der Schnitter, 
for mixed voices ; No. 5. Chor der Winzer, 
for male voices and solo ; No. 6. Chor der 
Unterirdischen, for male voices ; No. 7. 
Chor der Unsichtharen, do. ; No. 8. Schluss- 
Chor (Chor der ISIusen), for mixed voices. 

ENTFUHRUNG AUS DEJkl SERAIL, 
DIE (The Elopement from the Harem), 



comic Singspiel in three acts, test by Gottlob 
Stephanie, adapted from Bretzner's Bel- 
monte und Constanze, music by Mozart, first 
represented at the Nationaltheater, Vienna, 
July 12, 1782. This work, written when 
Mozart was twenty-six years old, was the 
beginning of a form of romantic opera in 
which the style and aria of the Italian opera 
buft'a was united with the style, Lied, and 
dialogue of the German Singspiel, a form 
afterwards repeated on a grander scale in 
Die ZauberflOte. Its production led to a 
paper war between the librettists Stephanie 
and Bretzner, during which Andre, the 
composer of Belmonte und Constanze, 




Minna Peschka-Leutner. 

took the side of Stephanie, notwith- 
standing that he had aided Mozart in pro- 
ducing an opera which virtually supplanted 
his own. Mozart's work was produced in 
Paris first, at the Lycee des Arts, Sept. 26, 
1798 ; again in 1801 and 1830 ; and in 
French, as L'enltvement au serail, text by 
Prosper Pascal, at the Theatre Lyrique, 
May 11, 1859. It was given in English as 
The Seraglio, " with additional airs by Mr. 
Kramer," at Covent Garden, London, Nov. 
24, 1827. The action passes in the harem 
of Selim Pacha, where are a Spanish girl 
Constanze, her maid Blondchen, and a valet 
Pedrillo, all under the charge of Osmin, 
guardian of the harem. Belmonte, the lover 
of Constanze, penetrates into the harem in 



19 



EN 



liope of effecting bis mistress's release. Pe- 
drillo tries to aid bim by drugging Osmiii's 
wine, but tbe wily guardian sees tbrougb 
bis design and exposes tbe plot. Tbe con- 
spirators are about to suffer tbe penalty of 
tbeir acts wben tbe Pacba discovers in Bel- 
monte a citizen of Burgos wbo once saved 
bis life, and gives tbem all tbeir freedom. 
Tbe original cast in Vienna was as follows : 

Constanze (S.) Mle Cavalieri. 

Blondcben (S.) Mile Tayber. 

Osmin (B ) M. Fiscber. 

Belmonte (T.) M. Adamberger. 

Pedrillo (T.) M. Dauer. 

A favourite Constanze of later times is Mme 
Pescbka-Lcutner (born in Vienna, 18.39), 
wbose portrait is given. — Hauslick, Moilerne 
Oper, 51 ; Jabn ; Naumann (Ousoley), ii. 
894. 

EN VAIN J'ESPJ^EE. See lloberl le 
Diable. 

ENVY, ELDEST BORN OF HELL, 
cborus in E-flat in Handel's Saul, Part H. ; 
one of tbe composer's most famous cbor- 
uses. 

i^:pisode de la \t:e d'un artiste 

(Episode in tbe Life of an Artist), tbe title 
of Hector Berlioz's opus 14, tbe first part of 
wbicb is tbe sympbonie fantastique, and 
tbe second, tbe lyric monodrama, Lelio, ou 
le Retour a la Vie (tbe Return to Life). 
Tbe sympbonie fantastique, in C major, tbe 
composer's first great sympbony, is a piece 
of so-called programme-music descriptive of 
tbe dream of a young composer wbo bas 
tried to poison bimself witb opium in a tit 
of disappointed love. Tbe beloved object 
ajjpears to bim in tbe guise of a melody, 
wbicb Berlioz calls I'ldee fixe (tbe fixed 
idea), and wbicb is treated tbematically or 
episodicall}-, in eacb one of tbe five move- 
ments of tbe sympbony. Tbis idee fixe is 
interesting bistoricallj-, as tbe first instance 
in music of wbat Wagner afterwards termed 
tbe Leitmotiv. Tbe beadings of tbe five 
movements are : 1. Reveries, Passions ; 2. 
Uu Bal ; 3. Scene aux Cbamps ; 4. Marcbe 



au Supplice ; 5. Songe d'une Nuit de Sab- 
bat. Tbe monodrama of Lelio, a spoken 
monologue witb incidental music for solo 
voices, cborus, and orcbestra, sbows us tbe 
young composer after awaking from bis 
dream ; be meditates upon love and art, at 
lengtb arousing bimself to seek consola- 
tion in tbe exercise of bis art. Tbe scene 
cbanges, and be ajjpears at tbe bead of a 
cborus and orcbestra, conducting tbe last 
rebearsal of bis own Fautaisie dramatique 
sur la Tempete de Sbakspeare, a cantata 
for cborus and orcbestra witb wbicb, and a 
last return of tbe Idee fixe, tbe work closes. 
Tbe entii'e Episode is but the exjjression of 
Berlioz's love for Henrietta Sniitbson, wbom 
be afterwards married, and Camilla Moke, 
afterwards Slme Pleyel. Tlie Fantasie sur 
la Tempete was first given separately at tbe 
Paris Opera in 1829 ; tbe Sympbonie Fau- 
fastique at tbe Conseiwatoire in 1830 ; and 
tbe entire work, witb Bocage in tbe part of 
Lelio, at tbe Conservatoire on Dec. 11, 1832. 
Tbe score of tbe Sympbonie Fantastique, 
and a masterly ti-auscrijition by Liszt for 
pianoforte solo arc pviblisbed by Brandus 
(Paris) ; tbe full and pianoforte scores of 
liClio, by Ricbault (Paris). — Scbumann (Rit- 
ter), Music and Musicians, 1st series, 228 ; 
E. Hippeau, Berlioz Intime, 244 ; Georges 
Noufflard, Hector Berlioz, 44 ; Jullieu, Ber- 
Uoz (1888), 50 ; Atlantic Montbly, xli. 32. 

fiPREUVE VILLAGEOISE, L' (Tbe Vil- 
lage Test), vaudeville in two acts, text by 
Desforges, music by Gretry, represented at 
tbe Tbeatre Italien, Paris, June 24, 1784. 
Tbe subject is an episode of Theodore et 
Paulin, an unsuccessful lyric comedy in 
three acts, by tbe same authors, given at 
tbe ItaHens, Marcb 18, 1784. In its new 
form tbe work proved a dramatic success. 
It was revived at tbe Opera Comique, Paris, 
in 1888. 

ERBA, Don DIONIGI, Italian composer, 
end of tbe 17tb century. Lived in Milan ; 
was of noble family and took boly orders. 
Works : Arion, opera (witb Valtelliua), 1G94 ; 
Ai-temio, oj)era (witb Besozzi and Battes- 



so 



EKBA 



tiiii), 1695 ; and probably a Magnificat for 
two choirs, from which Handel is tliought 
to have borrowed several pieces in the 
second part of Israel in Egypt. — Grove ; 
Gerber ; Chrysander, G. F. Handel, i. 168. 

ERBA, GIORGIO, violinist and com- 
poser. Originally from Milan, he was li^•iug■ 
in Rome about 1730. Some of his violin 
sonatas have survived. — Mendel ; Futis ; 
Gerber. 

ERBACH (Erbacher), CHRISTIAN, born 
at Algesheim in the Palatinate about 1560, 
died (?). He was organist, about 1600, to 
Marcus Fugger in Augsburg, later to the 
cathedral there, and in 1628 a member of the 
cily counciL His manuscrijjt compositions 
are in the Augsburg Cathedral Library and 
Berlin Royal Library. Works : Cantiones 
sacrffi (Augsburg, 1600, 1603, 1604, 1611) ; 
Acht geistliche deutsche Lieder (ib.) ; Songs 
in contemporary collections. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 181 ; Mendel ; Grove ; Fetis. 

ERBARME DICH, MEIN GOTT, aria in 
B minor for the alto of Core I., with ac- 
companiment of violin solo, strings com- 
plete, and contiuuo, in Johann Sebastian 
Bach's Passion nach IMatthiius, Part H. 

ERDMANNSDORFER, MAX, born at 
Nuremberg, June 14, 181-8, still living, 1888. 
Pianist and violinist, first instructed by his 
father and by August Raab, then at the 
Conservatorium, Leipsic (1863-67), pupil of 
Moscheles and Reinecke on the pianoforte, 
of David and Dreyschock on the violin, and 
of Hauptmann, Ricbter, and Reinecke in 
theory ; finally in Dresden (1868-69) pupil 
of Rietz. In 1871 he became Hof-Kapell- 
lueister to the Prince of Schwarzburg, at 
Sondershausen, where he actively promoted 
the production of the best modern compo- 
sitions, and raised the already high stand- 
ard of this renowned orchestra. He re- 
signed his i^osition in 1880, then lived in 
Vienna, Leipsic, and Nuremberg, and in 
1882 was appointed artistic director of the 
Imperial Music Society, and professor at 
the Conservatorium in Moscow. Works : 
Prinzessin Use, Waldsage (forest legend) for 



soli, chorus, and orchestra, 1870 ; Schnee- 
wittcheu, for do., 1873 ; TraumkOnig und 
sein Lieb, for soprano, female chorus, and 
small orchestra ; Des Kaiserheeres Rom- 
fahrt, for male chorus and orchestra ; Over- 
ture to Prinzessin Use, for orchestra ; do. to 
Brachvogel's drama Narciss ; Trio fur piano- 
forte and strings ; Sonata for pianoforte and 
violin ; Albumbliitter, for do. ; 5 choruses 
for male voices, a cappella, op. 26 ; Reise- 
bilder, for pianoforte ; Nordseebilder, for 
do. (four hands); Songs. — Mus. Wochenblatt 
(1879), 453, 407, 478. 

ERE LONG DEATH. See Puritans 
Daughter. 

EREjVHTA, GIULIO, born in Ferrara 
about 1550, died about 1600. Organist ; 
real name Giulio Giusberti, but called Ere- 
mita, because he belonged to the order of 
Camaldolite Eremites. Works : Primo libro 
de'madrigali a 6 voci (Ferrara, 1584; Antwerp 
1600) ; Madrigali a cinque, lib. i. (Venice, 
1597) ; 11 secondo libro de' madrigali a cin- 
que (ib., 1599). His madrigals are also in 
Italian and Flemish collections, such as : 
Melodia olympica (Pierre Philipps, Ant- 
werp, 1594) ; Trionfo di Dori (Venice, 1596 ; 
Antwerp, 1596, 1601, 1014) ; II Paradiso 
musicale (Venice, 1595 ; Antwerp, 1596) ; 
Madrigali di diversi eccellenti e famosi 
autori (Antwerp, 1595) ; and in the collec- 
tions of Schad, Bodenschatz, and Domfri- 
dus. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ERFURT, KARL, born at Magdeburg in 
1807, still living, 1888. Pianist, pupil of 
Miihling at Magdeburg, where for many 
years he taught music, until called to Hil- 
desheim as musical director. He has com- 
posed more than fifty works for pianoforte, 
and songs. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

ER GEHT UND LASST DICH MEINEM 
SCHUTZ. See Hicvzi. 

ERHEBE DICH, GENOSSIN MEINER 
SCHMACH. See Lohengrin. 

ERINNYES, LES (The Furies), antique 
drama in two parts, text by Leconte de 
Lisle, after the "Orestes" of iEschylus, 
music by Jules Massenet, represented at the 



Si. 



ERK 



Odc'on, Paris, Jan. 6, 1873. The incidental 
music of this tragedy, as first performed, 
was composed of au introduction, two inter- 
ludes, and a melodrama. On its reproduc- 
tion at the Oj^era National, May 15, 1876, 
the music was more developed, with some 
additions and new instrumentation, but 
the effect was not increased. — Clement et 
Larousse, 845. 

EllK, LUDA\1G CHRISTIAN, born in 
"Wetzlar, Jan. G, 1807, died in Berlin, Nov. 
25, 1883. Sou and pupil of Adam Wil- 
helm Erk (1779-1820), and pupil of J. B. 
Spiess, L. Eeinwald, and A. Andre. He 
became a teacher in the seminary of Meurs 
in 1829 ; started musical festivals at Eem- 
scheid and other towns ; was called in 1835 
to the Royal Seminai'y for City Schools in 
Berlin, where he led the liturgic choir of 
the cathedral in 183G, but gave it up in 
1838 for want of support. In 1836-38 he 
was a teacher in the family of Prince Karl 
of Prussia ; in 1843 he founded a Miiuuer- 
gesangverein ; in 1852 a Gesangverein for 
mixed chorus ; in 1857 became musical di- 
rector ; and in 1877 retired from the Ber- 
lin Seminary. Besides his own compo- 
sitions, he published many collections. 
Works : Liederkranz, Singvogelein, Deut- 
scher Liedergarten, Musikalischer Jugend- 
freund, Siingerhain, Siona, Sangesbliithen, 
Volksklunge, Deutscher Liederhort, Deut- 
scher Liederschatz, Turuliederbuch, and 
many other collections of jjopular songs, 
amounting to about forty, and mentioned 
more fully hj Mendel, some of them in 
conjunction with his brothel', Friedrich 
Albrecht Erk, and his brother-in-law, W. 
Greet. — Mendel ; Grove ; Riemauu ; Schil- 
ling, Supplement, 118. 

ERKEL, FERENCZ, born at Gyula, 
Hungary, Nov. 7, 1810, still living, 1888. 
Pianist and dramatic composer, first in- 
structed by his father, who was an able 
amateur musician. ^Yhen twenty-four he be- 
came musical director of the opera company 
at Kaschau, and with it went to Buda ; at 
the opening of the National Theatre at 



Pesth, in 1837, he was appointed its Kapell- 
meister, and afterwards received the title 
of director general of music, having won 
great distinction as the creator of an ex- 
cellent orchestra, and as conductor and com- 
poser. His numerous songs, in which the 
character of national melodies is hapjiily 
blended with the requirements of the more 
elevated modem style, but especially his 
operas, have made him extremely popular 
in Huugarj-. Among the latter, Hunyady 
Laszlo obtained the greatest success, and 
may preeminently be considered the na- 
tional opera of Hungary, although Bank 
Ban is probably his master work. In 18GS, 
when he conducted the great Hungarian 
music festival at Debreczin, he was made 
honorary director for lifetime of all the 
singing societies of Hungary. Works — 
Operas : Bathory M;uia, given at Pesth, 
1840 ; Hunyady Laszlo, National Theatre, 
1844 ; Erzst'bet, ib., 1857 ; Kunok, ib., 1858 ; 
Bank Bi'in, ib., 1861 ; Sarolta, ib., 18G2 ; 
Dozsa GyOrgy, ib., 1867 ; Brankovics Gy- 
Orgy, ib., 1874 ; King Stephen, ib., 1874. 
— Wurzbach. 

ERiaiNNE MICH, IMEIN HUTER, 
choral to the melody " Haupt voll Blut 
und Wunden," in E major, in Johann 
Sebastian Bach's Passion nach Matthiius, 
Part I. 

EEL.ANGER, JULES, born at Weissen- 
burg, Alsace, June 25, 1830, still living, 1887. 
Pupil at the Paris Conservatoire of Hale- 
vy. After publishing pianoforte music and 
bringing out several operettas in Paris, he 
devoted himself to business. Works : 
L'Ai'bre de Robinson, operette in one act, 
Boufies Parisiens, Oct. 19, 1857 ; Mes- 
dames de cceur volant, ib., April 16, 1859 ; 
Les musiciens de I'orchestre, opera-bouSe 
in two acts (with Delibes), ib., Jan. 25, 
1861 ; La servante a Nicolas, operette in 
one act, ib., March 11, 1861 ; Pianoforte 
music ; Songs. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 305. 

ERLEBACH, PHILIPP HEINRICH, 

born in Essen, July, 25, 1657, died in Ru- 

I dolstadt, AiJril 17, 1714. He received his 



EKLKUJS'IG 



nmsical education in Paris, and was Kapell- 
meister in Kudolstadt from 1G83 until his 
death. Works ; Chamber, organ, and vocal 
music. — Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 223 ; Men- 
del ; Fetis ; Schilling. 

ERLKONIG, DER (The Erl King), bal- 
lad by Goethe, music by Schubert, written 
in 1815 or 181G, published as op. 1 by 
Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna, 1821, with a 
dedication to Count Moriz von Dietrich- 
stein. The original sketch, now in the 
Royal Library, Berlin, differs from the 
published copy in having the accompani- 
ment in groups of four instead of in 
triplets for the right hand. The song was 
sung only at private gatherings for several 
years, Schubert being unable to find a pub- 
lisher, and it was not given in pxiblic until 
Jan. 2.5, 1821, when it was sung at the Mu- 
sikverein by August von Gymnich, with a 
success which added materially to the com- 
poser's fame. It was published the follow- 
ing month bj' private subscription, and after 
its performance by Vogl at the Kilrnthner- 
thor Theater, March 7, 1821, it had a rapid 
sale. Arranged by Liszt for voice and 
small orchestra ; published, score and parts, 
by Forberg (Leipsie). Arranged also by 
Berlioz for voice and orchestra. — Hellborn 
(Coleridge), i. 59, 307. 

ERLKONIGS TOCHTER (The Erl- 
king's Daughter), cantata for solo voices, 
chorus, and orchestra, by Neils W. Gade, 
op. 30, written in 1852. Tiie story varies 
somewhat from Goethe's poem. Sir Oluf, 
on the eve of his wedding-day, is enticed 
away by the Erl King's daughter, and rides 
home iu the morning to die at the castle 
gate. 

ERMEL, LOUIS CONSTANT, born in 
Ghent, Dec. 27, 1798, died in Paris during 
the siege of 1870. Pianist, pupil at the 
Paris Conservatoire under Zimmerman, 
Eler, and Lesueur. He won the grand 23rix 
de Rome, 1823, for his cantata Thisbe ; the 
gold medal of the Sociote des Beaux-Arts, 
Ghent ; and the bronze medal in 1818 for 
a national chorus for which eight hundred 



musicians competed. His opera-comique, 
Le testament, was given iu Liege in 1836, 
and in Brussels in 1838. Author of " Sol- 
fyge chorale transpositeur." — Fetis, ii. 152 ; 
do.. Supplement, i. 306 ; Mendel. 

ERMIONE, Italian opera, music by Ros- 
sini, represented at the Teatro San Carlo, 
Naples, in Lent, 1819. Though well sung, 
it was not a success. — Edwards, Life of R., 
201. 

ERNANI, tragic opera in four acts, text 
by F. M. Piave, music by Verdi, first repre- 
sented at the Teatro Fenice, Venice, March 
9, 1814:. The libretto is an adaptation of 
Victor Hugo's drama, " Hernani." Before 
its production in Venice the i^olice, refus- 
ing to permit the representation on the 
stage of a conspiracy, caused the libretto 
and parts of the music to be changed. It 
was played at Her Majesty's Theatre, Lon- 
don, March 8, 1815. When about to be 
given in Paris, Victor Hugo objected to the 
use of his drama, and to please him the 
libretto was rewritten. The title was 
changed to II proscritto, the scene removed 
to Venice, and the bandit Ernani made into 
Oldrado, an Italian corsair. In this guise 
the opera was produced at the Theatre 
Italien, Jan. 6, 181G ; but the poet was 
finally appeased, and it was given later in 
its proper form. The scene is laid in Ai'a- 
gon, time 1519. Characters represented : 
Ernani (T.) ; Don Carlos, King of Spain 
(Bar.) ; Don Ruy Gomez de Silva (B.) ; El- 
vira (S.) ; Johanna (M.S.) ; Don Riccardo 
(T.) ; lago (B.). Ernani, son of the Duke 
of Segovia, but under a ban and chief 
of a band of brigands, is in love with 
Elvira, a noble lady betrothed to the 
Duke de Silva, and plans to carry her 
off. Don Carlos, the King, also loves her 
and tries to abduct her. Her cries bring 
to her rescue Ernani, who defies the King, 
and Silva, who challenges him, but begs 
for pardon when he discovers his iden- 
titj'. The King finally carries off Elvira 
and Silva challenges Ernani. The latter 
refuses to fight, and induces Silva to aid 



EENANI 



him in taking vengeance on the King, at 
the same time giving him a horn and prom- 
ising to take his own life whenever Silva 
shall wind it. In the third act the conspii-- 
ators are plotting in the catacombs when 
the King appears suddenly among them 
and orders the nobles to execution. Er- 
nani, as a noble, demands the right to share 
their fate, when the King pardons all and 
bestows Elvira upon Ernani. In the fourth 
act, in the midst of the festivities attending 
their wedding, the fatal horn is heard and 
Ernani parts from Elvira, and keepis his 
word by killing himself. Among the prin- 
cijial numbers are, in the first act, Elvira's 
aria, " Ernani, iuvolami ; " Don Carlos's 
aria, " Bella come un primo amore ; " the 
duet between them, '' Fiero saugue d' Ara- 
gona ; " and Silva's bass solo, " Infelice ! e 
tu credevi." In the second act, the duets 
between Ernani and Elvira, " Ah ! morir 
potessi adesso," and " La vendetta piu tre- 
menda." In the third act the grand septet 
and chorus " O sommo Carlo," well known 
in its English form as " Crowned with the 
Tempest," is one of the composer's best ef- 
forts. In the last act the duet between Er- 
nani and Elvira, '• Cessaro i suoni," is full of 
dramatic feeling. — Hanslick, Moderne oper, 
220. 

EKNANI, INVOL.A.M. See Ernani. 

ERNELINDE, PRINCESSE DE XOR- 
VEGE, tragic opera in three acts, text by 
Poinsinet, music by Philidor, represented 
at the Academic Royale de Musique, Paris, 
Nov. 24, 17G7. The text is an adajstation 
of an Italian libretto entitled Ricimero, 
which was set to music by Pergolesi (Na- 
ples, 1731) and by Jommelli (Rome, 1740). 
Eruelinde, which is Philidor 's best work, 
was reproduced in Paris, Jan. 21, 1769, 
under the title of Sandoniir, prince de Dane- 
mark ; and again, Dec. 11, 1773, with the 
text remodeled bv Sedaine. 

ERNEMANfN, 'mORITZ, born in Eisle- 
ben in 1800, died in Breslau, Aug. 8, 18GG. 
Pianist, pupil in Berlin of Ludwig Berger. 
He went, in 1820, with Prince Radziwill to 



Poland, and lived several years in the house 
of Prince Zamoiski, in Warsaw. Then he 
became a teacher in the Warsaw Conserva- 
tory ; resided in Breslau in 1833-36 ; and 
later returned to Warsaw. Works : Piano- 
forte music; Songs. — -Mendel; Fetis, iii. 
152 ; do., Supplement, i. 306 ; Sowiuski, 
Musiciens polonais, 183. 

ERNST II., Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 
born at Coburg, June 21, 1818, still living, 
1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of Breid- 
enstein at Bonn, and of Reissiger at Dres- 
den, where his musical education was much 
furthered by intercourse with ^lendelssohn, 
Moscheles, Wagner, Liszt, and others. The 
fact that his operas continue in the reper- 
tories not only of Germany, but of other 
countries, seems to prove that their success 
is due to something more than the com- 
poser's exalted station. Works— Operas : 
Zaire, given at Gotha, 1846 ; Toni, about 
18.50 ; Santa Chiara, Coburg, 1854, Paris, 
1855 ; Casilda, Brussels, 1855 ; Diana von 
Solanges, Coburg, 1858, Dresden and Go- 
tha, 1859 ; Imraer Liebe, cantata, with or- 
chestra ; AUer Seelen, do. ; Fackeltauz, for 
full orchestra and brass instruments ; Die 
deutsche Tricolore, hymn for male chorus 
and brass instruments (prize at Music Fes- 
tival, Dreux) ; Fantasia for pianoforte, vio- 
loncello, and iioolodion ; many other instru- 
mental works, and several books of songs. 
— Mendek 

ERNST, CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB, born 
at Silberberg, Silesia, Feb. 2, 1778, died (?). 
Organist, pupil in Breslau of Neugebauer 
and Berner, became organist in 1798 at 
Ohlau, where he did much towards the de- 
velopment of musical life. He set to music 
several psalms, and published sonatas for 
the pianoforte and violin, organ music, etc. 
— Fotis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

ERNST, FRANZ ANTON, born at Geor- 
geuthal, Bohemia, Dec. 3, 1745, died in Go- 
tha, Jan. 13, 1805. Violinist, was choir-boy 
in Neuzell and later violinist to the Jesuits 
in Sagan ; after studying law at Prague 
Uniyersity, he held an office in his native 



24 



ERNST 



place, but soon became secretary to Count 
von Salm, and finally, on tlie advice of Lolli, 
made concert tours. He was influenced by 
Stad in Strasburg ; returned to Prague in 
1773 ; and in 1778 was appointed ducal 
Conzertmeister in Gotba. He devoted some 
attention to improving the construction of 
violins, and was an industrious composer of 
violin music. — Wurzbacli, iv. 72 ; ]\Iendel ; 
Fetis ; Schilling ; Biemanu ; Wasielewski, 
Die Violine, 214. 

ERXST, HEINRICH WU^HELM, born 
at BriUni, Moravia, 
in 181-1, died in 
Nice, Oct. 11:, 1865. 
Violinist, pupil at 
the Vienna Conser- 
vatorium u n d e r 
Biibm for violin, 
and Sej'fried for 
composition ; i n - 
structed later by 
M a y s e d e r. His 
playing was greatly 
influenced by Paganini, 
teen he made his tirst concert tour ; studied 
several years in Paris under Charles de Be- 
riot ; and in 1834-50 travelled over almost 
all Europe with wonderful success. In Hol- 
land alone he gave two hundred concerts. In 
1850 he settled in London, but latterly had 
to give up playing in public, and his last 
years were embittered by an incurable spinal 
disease. As a violin virtuoso his playing was 
marked by brilliancy, passion, mastery over 
all technical difficulties, and great beauty 
of tone. His compositions are effective 




At the a"e of six- 




and extremely difficult. Works : 2 noc- 
turnes ; El'egie for violin and jjianoforte ; 



Fantasia on Rossini's Otello ; Concertino in 
D ; Polonaise de Concert ; Variations on 
Dutch national air ; Pirata, Caijpriccio ; 
Rondo Papageno ; Concerto (Allegro pathe- 
tique) in F-sharp minor ; Carnaval de Ve- 
nise, in imitation of Paganini ; Erl King ; 
Bolero ; Variations on Hungarian airs ; 2 
quartets ; Etudes. — Allgem. d. Biogr. vi. 
325 ; Wurzbacli, iv. 73 ; Grove ; Mendel ; 
Wasielewski, Die Violine, 315 ; Futis, Sup- 
plement, i. 306 ; Hart, The Violin, 435. 

ERO E LEANDRO (Hero and Leander), 
opera seria, text by Arrigo Boito, music by 
Giovanni Bottesiui, represented at the Royal 
Theatre of Turin, Jan. 11, 1879. This work, 
sung by Barbacini, Roveri, and Mine Brus- 
chi-Chiatti, had a considerable success. 

EROE CINESE, L' (The Chinese Hero), 
Italian o^jera, text by Metastasio, first set 
to music by Bonno and represented at 
the Imperial Theatre at SchOnbrunn, 1752. 
Scene near the city of Singana (See-Ngan), 
capital of the jjrovince of Chen si (Shen-See), 
China. Characters represented : Leango, 
ruler of China ; Prince Siveuo, bis supi)osed 
son, in love with Lisinga ; Miuteo, a man- 
darin in command of the army ; and Lisinga 
and Ulauia, Tartar princesses, the one in 
love with Minteo, the other with Siveno. 
The libretto has been set to music also by 
Perez, Lisbon, 1753 ; Hasse, Dresden, 1753 ; 
Gluck, Schunbrunn, 1754 ; Rauzzini, Mu- 
nich, 1770 ; Sacchini, Munich, 1771 ; Majo, 
Naples, 1771 ; Cimarosa, Naples, 1783 ; Por- 
togallo, Turin, 1788; Checchi, Leghorn, 
1810. 

EROICA. See Sinfonia Eroica. 

EROSTRATE (Erostratus), opera in two 
acts, text by Mery and Pacini, music by 
Ernest Reyer, first represented at the 
theatre of Baden, Aug. 21, 1862. In the 
libretto, the story of Erostratus, who is 
known to history only as the incendiary of 
the temple of Diana, at Epbesus, is mingled 
with much fable, in which Athenais the 
courtesan, Scopas the sculptor, and the 
Venus of Milo are made to j)lay parts. 
The opera was given in Paris, at the Opera, 



EROTIKON 



Oct. 16, 1871, but was withdrawn after two 
representations. 

EROTIKON, Lieclercyelus by Adolf Jen- 
sen, op. 44. 

EESCHALLET, FEIERKLANGE. See 
Jiienzi. 

ERSTEHE, HOHE ROMA, NEU. See 
Rienzi. 

ERTEL (Ertelius), SEBASTIAN, German 
composer of the early part of the ITtli cen- 
tury. He was a Benedictine monk at "\Vei- 
henstephan, near Freisiug, and later in the 
Convent of Gersten, Upper Austi'ia. He 
published church music. — Mendel ; Futis ; 
Gerber. 

ERSTE WALPURGISNACHT, DIE (The 
Fii'st Walpurgis Night), ballad for solo 
voices, chorus, and orchestra, poem by 
Goethe, music by Mendelssohn, op. GO. 
The composition was begun in April, 1831, 
and was nearly finished before May. The 
first version was completed in Milan, July 
15th, except the overture, called by the 
composer Saxon Overture, which bears the 
date, Feb. 13, 1832. This fii'st version was 
brought out in Berlin in January, 1833. 
Ten years later, Mendelssohn returned to 
the work, making several changes, and re- 
scoring the whole. This second and final 
version was given with an English transla- 
tion by Bartholomew, by the Philharmonic, 
in London, July 8, 1844, and at the Ge- 
wandhaus in Leipsic, March 1, 1845. Ber- 
lioz's account of being at the last rehear- 
sal for this performance (Mi'moires, 2G3) is 
in'obably wrong, as Berlioz was in Leipsic 
in Februarj', 1843, and in Paris and Vienna 
in the early part of 1845 ; but his account 
of the work is worth reading. The full and 
pianoforte scores are published by Kistner 
(Leii^sic). — Lampadius, 2d ed., 134 ; Allgem. 
mus. Zeitung, xlviii. 1G5. 

ERYTHRAUS, GOTTHARD, born in 
Strasburg about 15G0, died about 1G17. In 
1587 he became Magister in Altdorf, in 1595 
Cantor and music teacher of the Gymnasium 
there, and in 1G09 rector of the Stadtschule. 
His principal compositions are sacred songs. 



— Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Win- 
terfeld, Der evaug. Kirchengesang, i. 376. 

ESCHBORN, KARL, born early in the 
19th century. Dramatic composer, Con- 
zertmeister in the court theatre orchestra 
of Mannheim in 1830, music director in 
Cologne in 1842, and dramatic director in 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1845. Works : Bastaids 
oder das Stiergefecht, opera in three acts, 
text by Wiedeufeld, given at Amsterdam, 
February, 1847 ; Songs. — Mendel ; Fetis. 

ESCHJIANN, JULIUS K.VRL, born at 
Winterthur, Switzerland, April, 1826, died 
in Ziirich, Oct. 27, 1882. Pianist, pupil of 
Mendelssohn ; lived in Cassel until 1852, 
when he settled in Zurich as a teacher. 
He composed chiefly didactic music for 
pianoforte and violin. — Mendel ; Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 306 ; Eiemanu. 

ESCI OM.AI. See Nozze di Figaro. 

ESCOBEDO (Escovedo), B.^ETOLO- 
Mfi, born in Spain about 1510, date of 
death unknown. Church composer and 
learned contrapuntist ; first studied in Sala- 
manca, then went to Rome, where he became 
a member of the Pontifical Choir in 1536. 
He was afterwards (1554) a priest in Segovia, 
and was one of the judges in the musical 
dispute between Vicentini and Vincenzo Lu- 
sitano. His motets are found in Eslava's 
Lira sacro-hispana, and some of his church 
music was preserved in the royal chapel at 
Madrid, notably 2 Miserere and a IMagui- 
ficat, which were considered very fine. — Fe- 
tis, iii. 156 ; Hawkins, Hist., iii. 91 ; Schil- 
ling ; Ambros, iii. 569. 

ESCOVAR, JOAO DE, Portuguese com- 
poser of the beginning of the 17th century. 
His motets were published in Lisbon in 
1620. He was the author of "Arte de mu- 
sica theorica y practica." — Fetis ; Mendel ; 
Gerber. 

ESCRIBANO, JUAN, Spanish musician 
of the IGth century. His compositions are 
found in the Papal Chapel, Rome, where he 
officiated as singer after having received a 
musical education at Salamanca. — Futis, 
Supplement, i. 307. 



36 



ESILIATI 



ESILIATI DI SIBERIA, GLI. See Elisa- 
beth. 

ES 1ST DIR GESAGT, Ccantata for Dom. 
viii. ijost Trinit., by Joliann Sebastian 
Bach. PublisbeJ by the Bach-Gesellschaft, 
Church Cantatas (1860), vol. v., No. 45 ; and 
with additional accompaniments by Robert 
Franz, full and pianoforte scores (F. E. C. 
Leuckbart, Breslau). 

ES 1ST GENUG ! bass air of Elias in 
jMeiulelssohu's Elicit, Part 11. 

ESLAVA, Don iHGUEL HELARIO, bom 
at Banlada, near Pampeluua, Spain, Oct. 21, 
1807, died in Madrid, July 23, 1878. Dra- 
matic composer, first instructed in solfeggio 
and singing when a choir-boy in the Ca- 
thedral of Pampeluna, then pupil of Julian 
Prieto on the pianoforte and the organ, and 
of Francisco Seccanilla in composition. In 
1828 he became maestro de capilla of the 
cathedral at Ossuna, where he took orders ; 



by Louise Angelique Bertin, Paris, 1836 ; 
Mazzucato, Mantua, 1838 ; Dargomysky, 
Moscow, 1847 ; Prince Poniatowski, Leg- 
horn, 1847 ; William Henry Fry, Philadel- 
phia, 1864 ; Wilhelm Wetterhahn, Chem- 
nitz, 1866 ; Friedrich Miiller, Laibach, 
1867 ; Campana, St. Petersburg, 1869. 
— Athenffium (1883), i. 417. 

ES MUSS DOCK FRUHLING WER- 
DEN, symphony in E minor, op. 67, com- 
monly called the Spring symphony, by Fer- 
dinand Hiller, 1840. 

ESPADERO, N. RUIZ, born in Ha- 
vana, Cuba, in 1835. Pianist, pupil of 
Aiizti ; published brilliant pianoforte mu- 
sic in the style of Gottschalk. He was 
Gottschalk's musical executor, and edited 
the jjosthumous works of that composer, 
published by Ohver Ditson & Co. (Boston 
and New York). Works : Souvenir d'autre- 
fois, op. 11 ; Chant de I'ame, op. 13 ; Plainte 



in 1832 of the Cathedral of Seville, where J du ijoiite, op. 14 ; Partez, ingrate, melodie, 
he was consecrated a priest, and in 1844 ; op. 15 ; Barcarolle, op. 18 ; Cantilene, op. 
of the royal chapel at Madrid. Order of 19 ; Ballade, op. 20 ; Innocence, caprice, 



Charles HI, 1848. Works— Operas : II so- 
litario, given at Cadiz, 1841 ; La tregua 
di Ptolemaide, ib., 1842 ; Pietro il crudele, 
ib., 1843 ; Spanish operas. More than 150 
church compositions, comprising masses. 



o]}. 23 ; Tristesse, nocturne, op. 53 ; Ossian, 
polka de salon ; Deusieme ballade, o\). 57 ; 
Scherzo, op. 58 ; Valse ideale, op. 60 ; Chant 
du Gnargiro, sc5ne caracteristique cubaine, 
op. 61. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 307 ; Mendel, 



psalms, hymns, motets, etc. He published Ergilnz., 98, 



also Lira sacro-hispana, and Museo organico 
espanol, collections of church music by old 
and new Spanish masters, and in 1862 
wrote, for the Revue de musique sacree 
(Paris), an interesting survey of the history 
of church music in Spain. — Fetis ; Grove ; 
Mendel. 

ESMERALDA, opera in four acts, text 
by Marzials and Randegger, after Victor 
Hugo's romance " Notre-Dame de Paris," 
music by Arthur Goring Thomas, first rep- 
resented at Drury Lane Theatre, London, 
March 26, 1883. The work was well re- 
ceived and has since been given in Ger- 
many. In 1887 Mr. Thomas rewrote the 
fourth act, and restored the tragic close in 
accordance with the original idea of Victor 
Hugo. The same subject has been treated 



ESPENT, PIERRE, born in Marseilles, 
Aug. 28, 1832, still living, 1888. Blind or- 
ganist and composer, pupil at the institu- 
tion for the blind in Paris, and received a 
composition prize from Adolph Adam. Be- 
came a teacher of solfege and of the pi- 
anoforte, director of a music class in a 
school for the blind, in 1858, at Nancy, and 
in 1865 at Marseilles, and organist at No- 
tre Dame de la Garde. He has composed 
overtures, masses, cantatas, orchestral mu- 
sic, etc.— Fetis, Supplement, i. 307; Men- 
del, Ergilnz., 98. 

ESPIN Y GUILLEN, JOAQUIN, pianist 
and organist, born at Velilla, Spain, May 
4, 1812, died in Madrid, June 24, 1882. 
He wrote popular zarzuelas, and in 1842 
published " La Iberia musical," the first 



27 



ESSER 



musical paper published in Sjiaiu. He be- 
came second organist in the royal cliapel 
in 1855 ; professor of solfeggio at the Con- 
servatorio ; director of the chorus at the 
Koyal Theatre, 1872.— Fetis, Supplement, i. 
308 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 98. 

ESSER, HEINRICH, born in Mannheim, 
July 16, 1818, died in Salzburg, June 3, 
1872. Violinist, pupil of Franz Lachner 
and of Sechter in Vienna ; became Conzert- 
meister and theatre conductor in Mannheim, 
director of the Liedertafel in Mainz in 1812, 
and Kapellmeister of the theatre there in 
184G In 1817 he was called to Vienna as 
Ka2)ellmeister of the Imperial Opera, was 
director of the Philharmonic concerts for 
some time, and in 18G7 was appointed art- 
member of the board of directors of the 
Opera, but retired in 18G9 on a pension. 
He was loved as a man, respected as an 
artist, and some of his songs became very 
popular. His widow and children were 
pensioned by the Emperor. Works — Op- 
eras : Silas, given at Mannheim, 1839 ; 
Riquiqui, Aix-la-Chapelle, 1843 ; Die beiden 
Priuzen, Munich, ISll. String quartet ; 2 
suites ; 3 symphonies ; about 40 books of 
songs ; 2 sonatas ; Trio with pianoforte, 
and other music, in all 81 opus numbers. 
His orchestral transcrijitions of Bach's C 
minor Passaeaglia, and Toccata in F, have 
been much played in German}' and America. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 382 ; Mendel ; Grove; 
Fotis. iii. 159 ; Supplement, i. 308 ; Rie- 
niaim. 

ESSER, KARL MICHAEL, Bitter VON, 
born in Aix-la-Chapelle about 1736, died 
after 1791. He became first violin of the 
court orchestra of Cassel about 1756, and in 
1759 began a concert tour which lasted 
many years and covered nearly all Eu- 
rope. The Pope made him a knight of the 
Order of the Golden Spur in 1772. He 
travelled in Spain in 1786. Works : Die 
drei Piichter, opera, given in Gotha, 1791 ; 
Violin unisic, much unpublished. — Mendel ; 
Fotis ; Schilling ; Wasielewski, Die Violine, 
218. . . 



ESSEX, TI]\IOTHY, born at Coventry, 
Warwickshire, 1780, died ('?). Organist ; 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1806 ; Mus. Doc, 1812. 
Works : Rondos ; 6 duets for two flutes ; 
Pianoforte and organ music. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

ESTE (Est, East, Easte), HHCHAEL, born 
in England, latter part of 16th century, died 
after 1638. Organist, conjectured to have 
been the son of Thomas Este (died after 
1624), the most important of the enrlj Lon- 
don music publishers. He first appears in 
print as the author of the five-part madrigal. 
Hence, stars, too dim of light, published in 
'"The Triuniphes of Oriana " in 1601. Be- 
tween 1610 and 1618 he obtained his degree 
of Mus. Bac, Cambridge ; and he became 
master of clioristers of Lichfield Cathedral. 
Works : First set of Madrigals (London, 
1604) ; Second set (ib., 1606) ; Third set of 
Bookes, wherein are Pastorals, Anthems, 
Neapolitaues, Fancies, and Madrigals, to 
5 and 6 parts (ib., 1610) ; Madrigals, An- 
thems, etc (ib., 1618) ; Anthems (ib., 1624) ; 
Duos and Fancies for Viols (ib., 1638). 
— Gi-ove ; Hawkins, History, iv. 25 ; Bur- 
uey. History, iii. 133 ; Mendel. 

ESTELLA. See Les Bhicts. 

ESTHER, oratorio in three acts, text by 
Alexander Pope (?), music by Handel, first 
performed at Cannons, the residence of 
the Duke of Chandos, Aug. 20, 1720. The 
original work, Handel's first English ora- 
torio, for which he received .£1,000, is in 
one part of six scenes, and was probably 
first called Haman and Mordecai. It was 
sung first in London, Feb. 23, 1732, by the 
Children of the Chapel Royal, on Handel's 
forty-seventh birthday. The success of tliis 
private performance led to the announce- 
ment of a rival representation by a specu- 
lator, April 20, 1732, and this induced Han- 
del to give a public performance at the 
King's Theatre, May 2, 1732, when the 
work was given enlarged to three acts. For 
this new version the text was rearranged 
by Samuel Humphreys, and Handel rewrote 
much of the original music, composed much 



ESTOCART 



new music, and borrowed freely from tbe 
Coronation Anthems. Tbe MS., iu Buck- 
iugbam Palace, wants tbe overture and tbe 
last page ; but two complete conducting 
scores are in tbe same collection, and au- 
otber one is at Hamburg. Characters rep- 
resented ; Abasuerus, Haman, Habdonab, 
Esther, Mordecai, Chorus of Persian Sol- 
diers, Ciiorus of Israelites. The overture, 
one of the best Handel ever wrote, is also 
one of tbe most popular, and tbe cho- 
ruses are superb. Tbe airs were published 
by Walsh (1733), and by Arnold (1794) ; 
text with pianoforte score, edited by J. J. 
Maier (Leipsic, ■ 1858) ; full score, Handel 
Society (London, 1844-45) ; original score 
(Haman and Mordecai), and revised score 
(Esther), Hilndelgesellschaft (1 vol., Leipsic, 
1882).— Eockstro, Handel, 106, 169 ; Eeiss- 
mauu, 69 ; Scboelcber, 59, 104 ; Chrysan- 
der, ii. 209. 

ESTOCART. See L'Estocarl. 
ESTR1':E, jean T>\ French composer of 
the 16tb century. Duverdier styles him 
joueur de bautbois du Ptoi. His composi- 
tions are published in four books entitled : 
Livres de danseries, contenant le chant des 
bransles communs, etc., de Champagne, de 
Bourgogne, de Poictou," etc. (Nicholas du 
Chemin, Paris, 1564).— Fetis ; Mendel 

ES WIRD EIN stern AUS JACOB 
AUFGEHN, chorus in Mendelssohn's Chris- 
tus. 

£TIENNE MARCEL, gi-and-opera iu four 
acts and six tableaux, text by Louis Gallet, 
music by Camille Saint-Saons, first rep- 
resented at the Lyons Theatre Feb. 8, 
1879. The characters represented are : 
Etienne Marcel, provost of the merchants ; 
his daughter Buatrix, and bis wife Mar- 
guerite ; Robert de Loris, equerry to the 
Dauphin, iu love with Bc-atrix ; Eustaobe, an 
adventurer ; Jean Maillard, district police 
officer ; The Dauphin ; Robert de Clermont, 
marshal of Normandy ; Robert Lecocq, Bish- 
op of Laou ; Pierre, friend of Robert de 
Loris. The action turns on tbe events of 
an insurrection of tbe populace led by 



Marcel, in which be eventually loses his 
life. 

ETHEEIDGE, GEORGE, English com- 
poser of the 16th century, born at Thame, 
Oxfordshire. He wrote anthems, madri- 
gals, and songs. 

ETOILE DU NORD, L' (Tbe Star of the 
North), opera in three acts, text by Scribe, 
music by Meyerbeer, first represented at 
the Opera Comiciue, Paris, Feb. 16, 1854 ; 
Kiven iu Italian as La Stella del Nord at 




Caroline Duprez, as Catherine. 

Covent Garden Theatre, London, July 19, 
1855. It includes several numbers from an 
earlier work by Meyerbeer, Das Fddlager 
in Schlesien (Tbe Camp of Silesia), given 
iu Berlin, 1843. The libretto is weak, but 
the music is brilliant and stirring, and full 
of singular orchestral effects. It opens at 
Viborg, Finland, where Pierre (Peter the 
Great), working iu the disguise of a ship- 
carpenter, makes tbe acquaintance of Da- 
nilowitz, a pastry-cook, and of Catherine, a 
cantiniere, to whom be becomes betrothed, 
though she does not know bis rank. A 



S9 



£toile 



conscription takes place and Catherine, to 
save her brother George, who has just mar- 
ried Prascovia, disguises herself as a soldier 
and volunteers in his j)lace. In the second 
act, which opens iu a Russian camp, Cath- 
erine, while doing duty as a sentinel, peeps 
into a tent where she sees Pierre and Da- 
nilowitz drinking and making love to two 
girls. Shocked at this, she neglects her 
duty, insults au officer, and is condemned 
to punishment. A mutiny among the 




Battaille, as Pierre. 

soldiers and news of the coming of the 
enemy ai'ouses Pierre, who makes himself 
known to his men and quells the revolt. 
In the third act, Pierre and Danilowitz ap- 
pear in the Czar's palace, but Catherine 
has disappeared and cannot be found. She 
is at last discovered by Danilowitz, wander- 
ing around bereft of her reason. After 
many etforts, Pierre succeeds in arousing 
her by playing on his flute familiar airs, 
her senses are restored, and the two are 
united. The original cast at the Opera 
Comique in 1854 was as follows : 



Pierre Battaille. 

Catherine Caroline Duprez. 

Danilowitz Henuaim-Leon. 

Gritzenko Lemercier. 

Nathalie Mile Loocadie. 

— Edwards, Lyrical Drama, i. 274 ; Hans- 
lick, Moderne Oper, 151. 

ETOILE DE SEVILLE, L' (The Star of 
Seville), opera in four acts, text by llippo- 
lyte Lucas, music bj- Balfe, represented at 
the Academie Eoyale de Musique, Paris, 
Dec. 17, 1845. The subject is from "La 
Estella de Sevilla" of Lope de Vega, which 
had previously been adapted for the French 
stage by Lebrun, under the title of " Le Cid 
d'Audalousie." Balfe was commissioned to 
write this work, which ran twenty succes- 
sive nights, by the director of the Opera, 
he being the first English composer who 
had been thus honoured. He received for 
it 15,000 francs and 250 francs for each 
performance. It was sung by j\luie Stoltz, 
Mile Nau, Baroilhet, Gardoni, Paullin, 
Menghis, and Bn'moud. — Barrett, Balfe, 
172. 

ETT, KASPAPi, born at Erling, Bavaria, 
Jan. 5, 1788, died iu Munich, Nov. 17, 1847. 
At the age of nine he sang iu the choir of a 
Benedictine monastery, and in Munich was 
the pu2)il of Joseph Schlett and Joseph Griitz. 
He was the organist of St. Michael's in Mu- 
nich from 1816 until his death, and did ex- 
cellent service by reviving the sacred music 
of the IGth, 17th, and 18th centuries, which 
he took as models for his deeply religious 
masses, requiems, and other church music. 
His woi'ks number about 200, only a small 
portion of wliicli have been published. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vi. 392 ; Mendel ; Fc'tis ; Rie- 
mann. 

ETTLING, l5:\nLE, born in Germany 
about 1820, resident of France, 1888. His 
operettas, Un jour de uoce, 1864 ; Le nain, 
1873 ; Le tigre, 1873 ; L'oeil de monsieur 
I'expert, 1874 : En maraude, 1877, have 
been given at the minor theatres of Paris. 
— Fetis, Supplement, i. 301). 



30 



Etudes 



£TUDES SYJIPHONIQUES en forme 
(le Variations for j^i^^uoforte, by Robert 
Hchumaim, op. 13, dedicated to William 
Sterndale Bennett, composed in 1834, pub- 
lished in August, 1837. Twelve variations 
on a theme the melody of which was de- 
rived from the father of Ernestine von 
Fricken, the friend of his youth. All the 
etudes are instinct with originality and 
strength, and are full of fancy. The whole 
concludes with a brilhant movement, in 
which the theme of the variations appears 
only in a subordinate position, the opening 
motive being taken from a song in Marsch- 
ner's opera Temjjler imd -Jiidin, which con- 
tains the words, Du stolzes England, freue 
dich. The adoption of this theme for the 
finale was intended by Schumann as a com- 
jsliment to Sterndale Bennett, who had just 
come to Leipsic, when the variations were 
composed. In the second edition, pub- 
lished 1852, he changed the title to the 
far more appropriate one of Etudes en 
forme de Variations. — Maitland, 53 ; Kie- 
mann, 61. 

EUCH LtJETEN, DIE MEIN KLA- 
GEN. See Lohengrin. 

EUGEN (FRIEDRICH KARL PAUL 
LUDWIG), Duke of Wiirtemberg, born at 
Oels, Silesia, Jan. 8, 1788, died at Karlsruhe 
Manor, ib., Sept. IG, 1857. Amateur dra- 
matic composer of considerable ability, en- 
tered at an early age the service of his uncle, 
the Czar Paul of Russia, took part in the 
campaigns of 180G-7 in East Prussia, and 
1810 in Turkey, and distinguished himself 
as a general in the wars of independence, 
and in 1828 against the Turks. After re- 
tiring from military service he lived mostly 
on his estate Karlsruhe, in Silesia. His 
compositions, comprising songs, instru- 
mental works, and operas, among which 
especially Die Geisterbraut, were widely 
known and popular. 

EUGENIUS, TRAUGOTT, German com- 
poser of the 15th centurj'. He was cantor 
at Thorn about 1100, and was one of the 
oldest German contrapuntists whose name 



has survived. He published songs. — Ger- 
ber ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

EULE, C. D., born in Hamburg in 1776, 
died there in 1827. The son of an actor, he 
brought out an opera at the age of twenty, 
and became later the musical director of 
the theatre of his native citj'. Works : Die 
verliebten Werber, opera, Hamburg, 1796 ; 
Das Amt- und Wirtshaus, opera, ib., about 
1800 ; Giafiar und Zaide, opera, ib., 1800 ; 
Der Unsichtbare, opera, text by Costenobel, 
ib., about 1800 ; Music for pianoforte. — Men- 
del ; Schilling ; Fetis. 

EULENSTEIN, ANTON HEINRICH SI- 
GORA, Edler VON, born in Vienna in 
1772, died there, Nov. 14, 1821. He was a 
government official ; for a short time took 
lessons of Mozart, and became the leader 
of an amateur orchestra. Works : Der Per- 
riickeumacher, opera, given in Vienna, about 
1800 ; Vetter Damian, opera, ib., about 1800 ; 
Die Wauderschaft, ib., about 1800 ; Der 
gebesserte Lorenz, opera, ib., about 1810; 
Sonatas; Quartets; Songs, etc. — Mendel; 
Fetis ; Schilling. 

EUMENE (Eumenes), Italian opera, mu- 
sic by Ziaui, represented at Venice in 1696. 
The subject is the same as that of Antigono 
(Antigonus). It has been musically treated 
also by Albinoni, Rome, 1717 ; Porpora, 
Rome, 1721 ; Jommelli, Naples, 1746 ; Man- 
na, Turin, 1750 ; Sacchini, Rome, 1763 ; 
Borghi, Turin, 1778 ; Buroni, Stuttgart, 
1778 ; Bertoni, Venice, 1784. 

EUilENIDES, choruses and incidental 
music to the tragedy by iEschylus, by 
Charles Villiers Stanford, op. 24, first 
given at Cambridge, England, Dec. 1, 1885. 
— Athenaum (1885), ii. 740, 741. 

EUPHROSINE ET CORADIN, ou le 
tyran corrige, opcra-comique in three acts, 
in verse, text by Hoffmann, music by Mehul, 
first represented at the Theatre Italien, 
Paris, Sept. 4, 1790. Mehul, then twenty- 
seven years old, had struggled with fortune 
until the production of this work, which 
' met with gratifying success and insured 
; his future. The duet in the second act, 



31 



EUPJDIGE 



" Gardez-vous de la jalousie,"' is a master- 
piece of dramatic expression. 

EURIDICE, musical drama, text by Otta- 
vio Einucciui, music by Jacopo Peri and 
Giulio Caccini, represented at the Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence, on tbe occasion of the mar- 
riage of Henri IV. of France with ilaria de' 
Medici, December, 1600. This work, found- 
ed on the story of Ori^heus and Eurydice, 
was the first opera ever performed in jjub- 
lic. Peri's earlier drama, Dafne, having been 
performed only privately. Both composers 
wrote music to the whole test, indepen- 
dently of eacih other, but at the performance 
2)art of Peris score and part of Caccini's 
were used. Peri's Euridice was published 
in Florence in 1600 and reprinted at Venice 
in 1008 ; and a new edition was ijublished 
in Florence in 18G3. Caccini's Euridice 
was also published separately in Florence 
in 1660. Peri's Euridice was given in Paris, 
at the Petit Bourbon, 1017, by a company 
of Italian singers invited to France by Car- 
dinal Mazarin. — Ambros, iv. 253; Naumann 
(Ouseley), i. 524. 

EURYANTHE, gi-and romantic opera in 
three acts, test by Helmina von Chezy (born 
von Klencke, 1783-1856), music by Carl 
Maria von Weber, first represented at the 
Court Opera House, Vienna, Oct. 25, 1823. 
The cast was as follows : 

Euryanthe (S ) Frl. Henrietta Sontag. 

Eglantine (M.-S.) Frau Griinbaum. 

Lysiart (B.) Herr Forti. 

Adolar (T.) Herr Heitzinger. 

Ludwig M. (B.) Herr Seipelt. 

The libretto is from a French romance en- 
titled : " Histoire de Gerard de Nevers et 
de la belle et vertueuse Euryant de Savoj-e, 
sa mie," which both Boccaccio and Shake- 
speare (" Cymbeline ") had previously used. 
Adolar, Count de Nevers, is betrothed to 
the beautiful Euryanthe de Savoy. Eglan- 
tine, her rival, in league with Lysiart, 
Count de Forest, succeeds in arousing 
Adolar's suspicious in regard to Eglantine's 
faith, and Adolar himself conducts his 



betrothed into the wilderness and leaves 
her to perish. Lysiart gets possession of 
Adolar's estates and marries Eglantine, but 
the latter, tortured by remorse, confesses 
the deceit practised upon Adolar, and is 
stabbed by Lysiart. Adolar challenges the 
robber of his inheritance, but the combat is 
pi'evented by King Ludwig, who declares the 
oft'ender forfeited to the law, and reinstates 
Adolai-. Euryanthe, who has been found 
in the wilderness by huntsmen, I'eturns and 
brings joy to all. The performance was 
conducted by the composer in person, who 




Henrietta Sontag. 

was received with a storm of apj^lause ; but 
enthusiasm soon grew cold, and the ojjera 
was given only seven times. It was given 
later in Vienna with Schrikler-Devrieut in 
the chief part, and again, under the admin- 
istration of Count Gallenberg. It was pro- 
duced with success in Berlin, Dec. 23, 
1825 ; then in Weimar and Dresden ; in 
Paris, at the Opera, April 6, 1831, with in- 
terpolations from Oberon and generall}' dis- 
aiTansred bv Castil-Blaze ; in London, at 
Covent Garden, June 29, 1833 ; and again 
in Paris, at the Theatre Lyrique, Sept. 1, 
1857, with a new libretto. The opera was 



32 



EUTITIITS 



played in New York about 18G3, but the 
first proper representation was at the j\Iet- 
rojiolitan Opera House, Dec. 28, 1887, when 
it was sung in German, witli Lilli Lehmann 
in the title-role. — Max M. von Weber, Carl 
M. von W. (Leipsic, 1864), ii. 352, 451 ; 
HcUborn (Coleridge), Life of Schubert, i. 
21G ; Hauslick, INIodcrue Oper, G'J ; Kreh- 
biel. Review (1887-1888), 62. 

EUTITIUS, AUGUSTIN, Polish com- 
poser of the 17th century. A Minorite, at- 
tached in 1613 to the chaisel of Ladislaus 
IV., of Poland. He comj)osed church music. 
— Mendel ; Fetis ; Sowiuski, 184 

EVANS, CHARLES SMART, born in 
Loudon in 1778, died there, Jan. 4, 1849. 
A chorister in the Chajjel Royal under Dr. 
Ayrton, he was admitted as gentleman of 
tlie Chapel Royal in 1808. The Glee Club 
awarded him a prize, in 1811, for "Beauties, 
have you seen a toy?," and in 1812 for " Fill 
all the glasses." He took the Catch Club 
prize, in 1817, for the best setting of 
William Liuley's " Ode to the Memory of 
Samuel Webb," the eminent glee composer ; 
and obtained another prize in 1821 for his 
glee, " Great Bacchus." He was the com- 
poser of anthems, two of which were 
printed ; and of several motets written for 
the choir of the Portuguese Ambassador's 
Chapel, some of which are printed in No- 
vello's Collection of IMotets. — Grove. 

iiVE, a mystery iu three parts, text by 
Louis Gallet, music by Jules Massenet, first 
given in Paris, March IS, 1875. 

i5VE (D^ve), ALPHONSE D', born near 
Courtrai, France, about the middle of the 
17th centurj'. Church composer, priest, and 
niaitre de chapelle of Notre Dame, AutwerjJ, 
from 1718 to 1725 ; and for many years 
leader of the choir of the Church of Saint- 
Martin, Courtrai. His motets and other 
church music in MS. are preserved in the 
Church of Sainte-Walburge, at Audenarde. 
— Fetis ; Vander Straeten, ii. 128 ; iii. 6 ; v. 
145 ; Biog. nat. de Belg., vi. 740 ; Mendel. 

E^T^RAERTS, PIERRE FRANCOIS, 
born in Louvaiu iu 1816, still living, 1888. 



Dramatic comjjoser, pupil of Brigode, maitre 
de cliapelle of St. Peter's, Louvaiu. He has 
served as bandmaster in several Belgian reg- 
iments, and became in 1844 professor of the 
bugle, trumpet, and coruet-a-pistous at the 
Conservatoire, Liege. Works : L' Avalanche, 
opera ; Hommage a Gretrj-, dramatic over- 
ture ; much military and church music pub- 
lished iu Liege. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 309. 

EVERS, KARL, born iu Hamburg, April 
8, 1819, died in Vienna, Dec. 31, 1875. 
Pianist, pupil of Jacques Schmitt ; played 
in public at the age of twelve ; then made a 
concert tour of Denmark and Sweden. He 
studied theorj' under Zieger in Hanover, 
and Karl Krebs iu Hamburg, and received 
in 1839 some instruction from Mendelssohn 
in Leipsic ; visited Paris, where he was well 
received by Chopin and Auber ; then went 
to Vienna, and settled in Gratz as music- 
dealer iu 1858, but returned to Vienna in 
1872. Works : 4 pianoforte sonatas ; Chan- 
sons d'amour, or 12 songs without words 
characterizing different nations ; Fantasias ; 
Fugues ; Songs ; in all, more than one hun- 
dred works. — Mendel, iii. 442 ; Ergiinz., 98 ; 
Fetis, iii. 165 ; do., Supplement, i. 309 ; 
Wurzbach, iv. 114 ; Grove ; Riemann. 

EV'RY VALLEY, tenor air in E, in Han- 
del's 3Iessiah, Part I. 

EXNER, GUSTAV HERMANN, born at 
Berbisdorf, near Hirschberg, Silesia, Oct. 
28, 1815. Organist, jjupil of his father, 
who was a Cantor ; finished his education 
in Hirschberg, Jena, and Bunzlau. He 
was organist and director of musical soci- 
eties iu Goldberg in 1841-45, and then in 
Sagau. His compositions are mostly vocal 
church music. — Mendel ; Fetis. 

EYBLER, JOSEPH, Edler VON, boru 
at Schwechat, near Vienna, Feb. 8, 1765, 
died in Schonbrunn, July 24, 1846. Pupil 
of his father and of Albrechtsberger iu Vi- 
enna. He adopted law as a profession, 
but changed to music when his parents be- 
came poor, and was assisted by the friend- 
ship of Haydn and Mozart. He attended 
Mozart in his last illness, and was commis- 



33 



EYKEN 



sioned by his widow to finisli tlie Requiem, 
but gave up the tcask. lu 1792 he became 
choir-master of the Carmelite Church in 
the Vienna subm-b of Leoj)oldstadt, in 1793 
of the Schotteu monastery in Vienna, in 
1801 music-teacher to the irajierial princes, 
in 1804 vice-Kapelhueister ; 1824, on Sa- 
lieri's retirement, Kapellmeister to the Em- 
peror of Austria. He was ennobled in 1834. 
While conducting Mozart's Requiem in 
1833, he was struck by aploplexy, which 
compelled him to renounce the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He took Mozart's 
advice in composing mostly church music. 
His works show a devotional spirit, in sjjite 
of great mobility and occasionally too heavy 
instrumentation, and bear some likeness 
to the compositions of ISIichael Haydn. 
Works : Das Zauberschwert, opera, 1803 
(not represented) ; Die Mutter der Gracchen, 
pantomime ; Die Hirten bei der Krippe zu 
Bethlehem, cantata, sung in 1794 ; Die vier 
letzteu Dinge, oratorio, performed in 1810 ; 
32 masses (7 printed) ; Requiem ; 7 Te De- 
um ; 30 offertories ; 35 graduals ; 7 piano- 
forte sonatas ; Symphonies ; Concertos ; 
Overtures ; Chamber music ; Songs. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vi. 453 ; Wurzbach, iv. 120 ; 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Riemann ; Grove. 

EYKEN (Eijken), GERRIT JAN VAN, 
born at Amersfoort, Netherlands, May 5, 
1832, still living, 1889. Organist, pupil of 
his father, Gerard van Eyken, organist, of 
his brother, Jan Albert, and (1851-53) at 
the Leipsic Conservatorium and at Dres- 
den of Johann Schneider and Magnus 
Bohme. After his return to Holland he 
settled first at Amsterdam, and in 1855 at 
Utrecht, where he became organist of the 
Waalsche kerk, and Kapelraeester of the 
schutterij. Works : Het Krooningsfeest 
van keizer Karel V. te Bologna, opera, 
given at Amsterdam, May 14, 1858, Utrecht, 
Nov. 20, 1859 ; Sonata for j^ianoforte and 
violin ; 3 sonatinas for pianoforte ; Songs. 
— Viotta. 

EYKEN (Eijken), JAN ALBERT VAN, 
born at Amersfoort, Netherlands, April 29, 



1823, died at Elberfeld, Sept. 24, 18C8. 
Organist, pupil of his father, Gerard van 
Eyken, organist ; subsequently at the Leip- 
sic Conservatorium in 1845-46. On Men- 
delssohn's recommendation he finished his 
organ studies under Johaun Schneider, in 
Dresden. Ho gave organ concerts in Hol- 
land in 1847, became organist in the Church 
of the Remonstrants, Amsterdam, in 1848, 
and professor of the organ in the music 
school of Rotterdam in 1853. In 1854 he 
went to Elberfeld as organist of the Re- 
formed Church. He received prizes for 
the following compositions written for the 
Netherlands Society for the Encouragement 
of Music : Quartet for jiianoforte, violin, vi- 
ola, and violoncello ; 2 organ sonatas ; music 
for a Dutch drama, Lucifer ; and songs for 
four male voices. He arranged Goudiniel's 
150 psalms for the Reformed Church for 
choir and organ, besides composing church 
music and Lieder with pianoforte accompa- 
niment, hymns for men's voices, etc. — Fi'tis ; 
Riemann ; Mendel. 

EYKENS, JEAN SIMON, born at Ant- 
werp, Oct. 13, 1812, still living, 1889. Dra- 
matic com]50ser, pupil of Ravets, organist 
of the church of the Augustiues, Antwerji, 
and at the Conservatoire, Liege, of Jalheau 
on the pianoforte, and of Danssoigne-Mchul 
in harmony. Returned to Antwerp in 1831, 
devoted himself to teaching the jjianoforte, 
became conductor of the Reunion lyrique 
anversoise in 1843, and president of the 
Reunion des socictes lyriques in 1848. 
Member of the Societe royale des sciences, 
Antwerp, and of the Societo d'emulation, 
Lic'ge. Works : Le depart de Grctry, op- 
eretta, given at Liege, 1829 ; Le bandit, 
opera, Antwerp, 1836 ; La cle du jai-din, 
ib., 1837 ; Cantata for the unveiling of the 
statue of Rubens, ib., 1840 ; Masses and 
other church music ; Pianoforte pieces ; 
Choruses for male voices, with or without 
orchestra ; Songs, etc. — Fetis ; Viotta. 

EYRE, ALFRED JAMES, born at Lam- 
beth, London, Oct. 24, 1853, still living, 
1889. Organist, impil at the Royal Acad- 



34 



EYSEL 



emy of IMusic under Maefarren, Westlake, 
ami Smith, and on the organ under Hoyte 
and Cooper. He has served as organist of 
several metropolitan churches, lastly of St. 
John Evangelist, 1881 ; was organist of the 
Crystal Palace, 1880. Works : Commun- 
ion Service in E-flat ; Evening Service for 
the Salisbury Diocesan Choral Associa- 
tion ; The 12Cth Psalm for four voices ; 
String quartet ; Pianoforte music ; Songs, 
etc. 

EYSEL, JOHANN PHILIPP, born at 
Erfurt, 1G98, died there, 17G3. Amateur 
violoncellist, and composer of more than 
ordinary ability ; published several cantatas, 
a great number of motets (Nuremberg, 
1738-16), solos for violin, and flute, with 
thorough bass.— Mendel ; Schilling. 

EZIO (^tius), Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Metastasio, first set to music 
by Auletta and represented in the Teatro 
delle Damme, Rome, Dec. 2G, 1728. The 
libretto, founded on incidents in the career 
of ^tius, the famous general of the Western 
Empire and conqueror of Attila, is one of 
Metastasio's best works. Scene in Rome. 
Characters represented : Valentiniano III., 
emperor, in love with Fulvia ; Fulvia, daugh- 
ter of Massimo, betrothed to Ezio ; Ezio, lover 
of Fulvia ; Onoria, sister of Valentiniano, 
secretly in love with Ezio ; Massimo, father 
of Fulvia, confidant and secret enemy of 
Valentiniano ; Varo, jDrefect of prretorians 
and friend of Ezio. The libretto has been 
set to music also by Porpora, Venice, 1728 ; 
Handel, London, Jan. 15, 1732 ; Lampu- 
gnani, Venice, 1737 ; Jommelli, Bologna, 
174:1, and Naples, 1748 ; Pescetti, Venice, 
1747 ; Bonno, Vienna, 1749 ; Traetta, Rome, 
1754 ; Perez, London, 1755 ; Graun, Ber- 
lin, 1755 ; Gassraann, Italy, about 1760 ; 
Schwanberg, Brunswick, 17G3 ; Gluck, Vi- 
enna, 1763 ; Felice Alessandri, Verona, 
1767 ; Johann Christian Bach, about 1770 ; 
Pietro Guglielmi, London, 1770 ; Sacchiui, 
Naples, about 1770 ; Gazzaniga, Venice, 
1772 ; Bertoui, Venice, 1777 ; Mortellari, 
Milan, 1777 ; Calvi, Pavia, 1784 ; Tarchi, 



Vicenza, 1790 ; Mercadante, Turin, 1826 ; 
Celli, Florence, 1830. 

EZIO, Italian opera in three acts, text by 
Metastasio, music by Handel, first rep- 
resented at the King's Theatre, London, 
Jan. 15, 1732. The MS., preserved in 
Buckingham Palace, is undated, the last 
sheet being missing. The text of Metas- 
tasio is much abridged and altered. The 
principal charactei-s were sung by Senesino, 
Montagnana, and Signora Strada. It was 
given five times. Published first by Walsh ; 
full score by Hilndelgesellschaft (Leipsie, 
1880).— Rockstro, Handel, 167 ; Schoilcher, 
103 ; Chrysander, ii. 248. 



FABER, BENEDICT, born at Hildburg- 
hausen about the end of the 16th 
century, died (?). Church comp)Oser 
of distinction, in the service of the Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg about the first quarter of the 
17th century. Works: The 148th Psalm 
(in Latin), for 8 voices (Coburg, 1602) ; Sa- 
crpe cautiones, 4, 5, G, 7 et 8 vocibus conci- 
nendiB (ib., 1G05) ; Gratulatio musica ex 
primo capite, etc. (ib., 1607) ; Canticum 
sex vocibus in festivitatem nuptiarum (ib., 
1607) ; The 51st Psalm, Miserere mei Deus, 
for 8 voices (ib., 1G08) ; Adhortatio prima 
Christi, etc. (ib., 1609) ; Cautio nuptialis ex 
psalmo Davidis, etc. (ib., 1609) ; Cantiones 
sacra;, 4-8 voc. (ib., 1610) ; Triumphus mu- 
sicalis in victoriam resurrectiouis Christi, 7 
vocibus compositus (ib., 1611) ; Zwei neue 
Hochzeits Gesilnge mit 5 Stimmen ; Gratu- 
latorium musicale 6 vocum (ib., 1631). — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

FABRE D'OLIVET, ANTOINE, born at 
Ganges (Herault), Dec. 8, 1768, died in 
Paris, April, 1825. Dramatic composer ; he 
endeavoured to reproduce the old Hellenic 
system of music in an oratorio written for 
the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1804. 
His system was analogous to Blainville's 
mode mixte, or the mode plagal. Works : 
Le sage de llndostan, philosophical drama 
with choruses, given in Paris, 1796 ; Ro- 



FABIII 



mances ; Quartets for two flutes, viola, and 
bass (1800). — Fetis ; Larousse. 

FABRI, STEFANO, tbe elder, bom latter 
half of tbe IGth century. He was maestro 
di cappella of tbe Vatican in 1599-1601, 
visited Germany in 1601-2, and was maes- 
tro di cajjpella of S. Giovanni in Laterano, 
Rome, in 1G03-7. He 'wrote two books, 
Duodecim modi musicales, etc. (Nurem- 
berg, 1602) and Trieinia sacra, etc. (ib., 
1607), and other church music. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

FABRI, STEFANO, the younger, born in 
Rome in 160G, died there, Aug. 27, 1658. 
Composer of the Roman school, pujjil of 
Naniui. He was maestro di cappella of S. 
Luigi de' Frances!, Rome, in 1648, and in 
1657 of Santa Maria Maggiore. "Works : 
Motets for two to five voices (Rome, 1G50) ; 
Salmi concertati, five parts (ib., 1G60). — Fc- 
tis ; Mendel. 

FABRICIUS, WERNER, born at Itzehoe, 
Holstein, April 10, 1633, died at Leii)sic, 
Jan. 9, 1679. Organist, first instructed by 
his father, who was organist at Flensburg, 
and by the cantor Karl Moth ; then pujail of 
Heinrich Scheidmann and in composition 
of Sellius at Hamburg. In 1G50 be went to 
Leipsic to study, and afterwards to pi-actise 
law ; in 1656 he was made director of mu- 
sic at the Paulinerkircbe, and two years 
later organist at St. Nicolai. Works : De- 
licite harmouite, musikalische Gemiithser- 
gotzung in Paduanen, Allemanden, Couran- 
ten, Balletten, Sarabanden, etc. (Go), zu 5 
Stimmen fiir Violen und andere lustru- 
mente (Leipsic, 1656) ; Geistlicbe Lieder 
(Jena, 1659) ; Geistlicbe Alien, Dialogen, 
Concerten, etc., fiir 4-8 Vocalstimmen (Leip- 
sic, 1662) ; Motets, etc. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
vi. 525 ; Fetis ; Monatshefte fiir Musikge- 
schichte (1875), 180 ; Winterfeld, ii. 477. 

FABRIZI (Fabrizio), PAOLO, born at 
Spoleto in 1809, died in Naples, Maix-h 3, 
1869. Dramatic composer, pupil at tbe 
Naples Conservatorio, and especially of Zin- 
gareUi in composition. Works — Operas : 
La vedova d'un vivo, given at Naples, Te- 



atro Partenoi^e, 1833 ; La festa di Carditi- 
eUo, ib., Teatro Nuovo, 1833 ; R Blondello, 
ib., 1834 ; La caravana del Cairo, il conte 
di Saverna, ib., 1835 ; L' inganuo uon dura, 
ib., 1836 ; R giorno degli equivoci, ib., 1837 ; 
II portator d'acqua, ib., 1840 ; Lara, o il ca- 
valiere verde, Cristina di Svezia, Sjjoleto, 
1844. — Ft'tis ; do., Supislement, i. 310. 

FABRIZI, VINCENZO, born in Naples 
about 1765, time of death not known. 
Dramatic comjioser, probably pupil at the 
Conservatorio, Naples, where he had his 
permanent residence, although be spent a 
goodly portion of his life travelling, to 
bring out his ojDeras, which were very suc- 
cessful. Works — Comic operas : I due 
castellani burlati, given at Bologna, 1785 ; 
La sposa in^dsibile, Rome, 1786 ; La neces- 
sitii nou ha legge, Dresden, 1786 ; La con- 
tessa di nova luna, Bologna, 1767 ; I pun- 
tigli di gelosia, Florence, 1786 ; Chi la fa 
I'aspetta, Bologna, 1787 ; La nobiltii viUana, 

1787 ; Gli amanti trajspolieri, Naples, 1787 ; 
II cafe di Barcelona, 1788 ; II Don Gio- 
vanni, ossia il convitato di pieti-a, Fano, 
1788 ; L' incontro per accidente, Naj)les, 

1788 ; La tempesta, ossia da uu disordine 
ne nasce un ordiue, Rome, 1788 ; R Colom- 
bo, 1789 ; La moglie capricciosa, Milan, 
1799.— FiHis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

F.ICCIO, FRANCO, born in Verona, 
Jlarch 8, 1841, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Conservatorio, ililan, 
1855-1861, under Roncbetti and Mazzucato. 
He obtained a subsidy from tbe govern- 
ment which enabled him to travel and 
study. With his friend and co-labourer, 
Arrigo Boito, he pursues a progressive 
course, deviating from the trodden path of 
the Italian oi^eratic style. He was professor 
of harmony at tbe Milan Conservatorio, 
1868, and subsequently of counterpoint and 
fugue, and maestro concertatore and maes- 
tro di cajipella at La Seala, being consid- 
ered tbe best conductor in Italy since 
Marlani. Works : Concert overture, 1860 ; 
Le sorelle d' Italia, cantata (with Boito), 
18G2 ; I profughi Fiamminghi, opera, text 



FACKELTANZ 



by Praga, given in Milan, La Scala, Nov. 
10, 1863 ; Amleto, do., text by Boito, Flor- 
ence, 1865, Milan, 1871 ; Cantata for the 
inauguration of tlie Turin Exhibition, 1884 ; 
Album nielodico (Milan, Eicordi) ; Cinque 
cauzonette veueziane (ib.). — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 311 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 99 ; Eie- 
mann. 

FACKELTAXZ (Torch Dance ; Fr., 
^larche aux lianibeaus), a procession with 
torches and military music, customary at 
some of the German courts on the occasion 
of the marriage of a member of the royal 
famih'. Meyerbeer wrote the music — a Po- 
lonaise in march tempo — for four : 1. For 
the wedding of the King of Bavaria, 1846 ; 
2. For the wedding of the Princess Char- 
lotte of Prussia, 1850 ; 3. For the wedding 
of the Princess Anne of Prussia, 1853 ; 4. 
For the wedding of the Princess Eoj-al of 
England and the Crown Prince Friedrich of 
Prussia, Jan. 25, 1858. Spontini, Flotow, 
and others, have also written them. — Men- 
del ; Grove. 

FAGO, NICOL(X called II Tarentino, 
born at Taranto in 1674, died in Naples 
after 1729. Dramatic composer, j)upil of 
Scarlatti at the Conservatorio de' Poveri, 
Naples, and of Proveuzale at the Conserva- 
torio de' Turchini. He succeeded Proven- 
zale as maestro, and had as pujsils Nicola 
Sala, Leonardo Leo, and other celebrated 
musicians. Of his several operas the name 
of one only, Eustachio, is preserved. As- 
tarte, a lyrical drama, was produced at Na- 
ples, Teatro Sau Bartolomeo, in 1709. His 
church music includes masses, motets, lita- 
nies, Te Deum, two Magnificat, a Benedic- 
tus, psalms, etc. Some are in the MSS. of 
the National Library, Paris, others in the 
archives of the Naples Conservatorio and 
other musical libraries in Italy. Bassevi's 
collection contains an oratorio, Faraone 
sommerso, for four voices and instruments. 
— Fetis ; do., Supph'ment, i. 311 ; Mendel ; 
do., Ergiinz., 99 ; lliemann. 

FAHEBACH, JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
Aug. 25, 1804, died there, June 7, 1883. 



Virtuoso on the flute and guitar, self-taught ; 
was for years first flute in the orchestra of 
the Opera in Vienna, then conductor of an 
orchestra for dance music. He has written 
a large number of fantasias, variations, pre- 
ludes, transcriptions, etc., for flute solo, and 
with other instruments, and dance music for 
orchestra ; also Methods for oboe (op. 27) 
and flute. — Fetis ; do., Suiiplcmeut, i. 312 ; 
Mendel ; Wurzbach. 

FAHEBACH, PHILIPP, the elder, born 
in Vienna, Oct. 25, 1815, died there, March 
31, 1885. Dramatic, church, and dance 
composer, pujnl of Lanner ; conducted for 
years a well-trained orchestra in Vienna, 
and was afterwards Kapellmeister of a regi- 
mental band. AVorks : Der Liebe Opfer, 
opera, given in Vienna, 1844 ; Das Scliwert 
des Konigs, do., ib., 1845 ; Church music, 
and more than 150 works of dance music. 
— AUgem. wiener Musik-Zeitung (1845), 
394, 504 ; Wurzbach. 

FAHEBACH, PHILIPP, the younger, 
born in Vienna in 1843, still hving, 1889. 
Dance music composer, son and pupil of 
Philipp Fahrbach, the elder, in whose or- 
chestra he played first violin, then first 
flute, and in 1865 shared the conductor- 
shii5 with his father, before organizing an 
orchestra of his own, when he rapidly won 
the reputation of an able conductor. In 
1870 he became Kapellmeister of a regi- 
ment, and in 1872 instituted at Pesth well- 
attended concerts, at which he plays his 
own compositions, now numbering more 
than 300, which are almost as much in de- 
mand as those of Strauss. — Mendel, Er- 
giinz., 99 ; Fetis, SuiJjilement, i. 312. 

FAIDIT (Faydit), GAUCELM, born at 
Uzerche (Correze), France, about 1150, died 
about 1220. Eichard Cceur de Lion called 
him to his court, and he accompanied that 
monarch to the Holy Land, and wrote a dirge 
at the time of his death (1199). He lived 
subsequently at the court of the Marquis de 
Montferrat, and at that of Eaymond dA- 
goult. About fifty of his songs are pre- 
served. — Fetis ; Larousse ; Gerber ; Men- 



faig:xient 



del ; Brockbaus ; Allgera. d. Biogr., vi. 
575 ; Ambros, ii. 226 ; Viotta, i. 49G. 

FAIGNIENT, NOE, Dutcb contrapuntist 
of tbe 16tb centuiy. He lived in Antweip 
about 1570 ; his airs, motets, and madrigals 
were printed in Paris and Antwerp (1567- 
1595). His works, written in the style of 
Orlando Lasso, are in the collections of that 
time, some of tliem in the Antwerp col- 
lection of the Brussels library, in the Livre 
septieme des chansons vulgaires. — Fetis ; 
Van der Straeten, i. 95 ; v. 283 ; Burney, 
Hist., iii. 262 ; Mendel ; AValther, 328 ; 
Viotta, i. 497. 

FAffiFAX. See Fayrfax. 

FAmLAMB, JAMES EEinXGTON, 
born, of American parentage, in Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, Jan. 23, 1837, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Organist, pupil of his mother, 
and of Charles Boycr, then organist of St. 
Steijheu's Church, Philadelphia. Before he 
was sixteen years old he became organist 
of the Western Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Philadelphia ; a year later of the Tabernacle 
Baptist Church, and four years afterwards 
of the Clinton Street Presbyterian Church, 
where he remained two years. In 1858 
he went to Europe, and studied, at the 
Paris Conservatoire, singing under Michel 
Masset and Madame Bockholtz-Falconi, and 
harmonj" under Adolphe Dauhauser, and 
at Florence, singing under Mabellini. In 
1860 he settled in Washington, D. C, as 
organist and choir-director of the Church 
of the Epiphany, but returned in 1861 to 
Europe as United States Consul at Ztlrich, 
Switzerland, where he remained four years, 
durinjr which he received from the King of 
Wiirtemberg the grand gold Medal of Art 
and Science. In 1865 he returned to the 
Church of the Epiijhany, Washington, but 
a year later removed to Philadelphia, and 
in 1870, became organist of St. John's 
Episcopal Church, Washington, and later 
of the Assembly Presbyterian Church in 
the same city. During his residence in 
Washington he organized an amateur ojjera 
company, which produced Balfe's Bohemian 



Girl, Gounod's Faust, and his own opera, 
Valerie. The organization was subse- 
quently changed into a choral society. In 
1878-81 he was organist of St. John's 
Church, Elizabeth, N. J., then of Grace 
Church, Jersey City, in 1883 of Ascension 
Church, New York, and in 1884 of St. 
Ignatius Church in the same city, which 
position he still retains. He has published 
about 150 comjjositions, of which nearly 
100 are songs and about 40 are sacred 
choral works ; the remainder, pianoforte 
pieces. He has written also a grand opera, 
Valerie, in four acts. 

FAHl ROSAMOND, English opera in 
four acts, text by C. Z. Barnett, music by 
John Barnett, first represented at Drury 
Lane Theatre, London, Feb. 28, 1837. It 
is full of charming music, but owing to a 
poor libretto had indifferent success. 

FAISST, IM MANUEL (GOTTLOB 
FRIEDRICH), born at Esslingeu, AViirtem- 
berg, Oct. 13, 1823, still living, 1889. Or- 
ganist, self-taught ; served as organist when 
nine years old, went to Berlin in 1844, and 
was advised by Mendelssohn, to whom he 
showed some of his compositions, to jjursue 
his studies independently. Having given or- 
gan recitals in several cities, he settled in 
184G, at Stuttgart, where he founded in 1847 
the Union for classical church music, in 1849 
the Suabian Silngerbund, and in 1857 with 
\ Lebert the Conservatorium, at which he 
taught the organ and composition, and of 
which he assumed the directorship in 1859. 
He is also organist of the Stiftskirche. Tlie 
university of Tubingen conferred on hira 
the degree of doctor, and the King of Wiir- 
temberg the title of professor. His com- 
positions consist of cantatas, motets, cho- 
ruses, songs, organ and pianoforte music. 
— Mendel ; Riemann. 

FAITHFUL SHEPHERD. See Pastor 
fido. 

FALANDRY, ALEXIS GERjMAm, born 
at Lavalette (Aude), France, April 28, 1798, 
died in 1853. Composer of church and 
chamber music, pupil of Fetis at the Paris 



38 



FALCONE 



Conservatoire, 1824-1827 ; became maitre 
de cbapelle in Southern France. Of his 
church music and romances were published 
in Paris (Canaux) : Mass for three voices, 
with two violins, viola, and bass ; Memorare, 
motet for four voices, and organ ; Domine 
nou secundum, for three voices and organ ; 
O sacrum couvivium, do. ; Ecce panis, do. ; 
Attende Domine, do. ; Ave vcrum, for two 
voices ; Hymn to St. Vincent de Paule, 
for do. ; Organ pieces, and many romances. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FALCONE, ACHILLE, Italian contra- 
puntist of the end of the 16th century, died 
at Cosenza, Italy, Nov. 9, 1600. He was 
maestro di cappella at Caltagirone. His 
name is well known in musical history from 
the long musical discussion as to the supe- 
riority of his merits over those of his rival, 
Sebastiano Eaval ; several of the best musi- 
cians of the time, including Nanini and So- 
riano, were made umpires. Baiui accords 
him much praise. His madrigals were pub- 
lished after his early death. — Fctis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling ; Ambros, iii. 591. 

FALCONIO (Falconius), PLACIDUS, 
Benedictine monk, born at Asola, died in 
the beginning of the 17th century. Church 
composer, entered the convent of his order 
at Brescia in 15-19. Works : Missai iutroi- 
tus per totum annum (Venice, 1575) ; Pas- 
sio, S. Voces hebdomadse sanctpe (ib., 
1580) ; Eesponsoria hebdomadaj sanctte, etc. 
(Brescia, 1580) ; Turbarum vocis, etc. (ib., 
1580) ; Magnificat octo touorum (ib., 1588). 
— Ft'tis ; Gerber (1812), ii. 73 ; Mendel ; 
Ambros, iv. 79. 

FALEGNAiNIE DI LIVONIA, IL (The 
Carpenter of Livonia), Italian comic opera, 
text by Eomani, music by Donizetti, repre- 
sented at the Teatro di San Luca, Venice, 
1819. The same libretto, set to music by 
Giovanni Pacini, was given at Milan in 
1819, and at Bergamo in 1832. 

FALKNERS BRAUT, DES (The Fal- 
coner's Bride), German opera, music by 
Heinrich Marschner, given at Leipsie, 
1832. 



FALLANI, DO MEN I CO, Neapolitan 
church composer, maestro di capisella at 
Pozzuoli in the second half of the 18th 
centurj'. He wrote masses, vespers, and 
psalms for three and four voices, with two 
violins, viola, and bass. His Orazione di 
Geremia, for a solo voice, with violins, viola, 
and organ, suggesting the style of Pergolesi 
and Leo, is commended as a masterpiece. 
—Fctis. 

FALL BABYLONS, DER (The Fall of 
Babylon), oratorio in two parts, text by 
Oetker after the English of Edward Taylor, 
music by Spohr, composed 1840, iirst per- 
formed at Cassel, Good Friday, 1811 ; Mu- 
sic Festival, Norwich, 1812 ; Exeter Hall, 
London, 1843, conducted by Spolir in per- 
son. — Spohr's Autobiography (English ed.), 
ii. 247. 

FALL'N IS THE FOE, chorus in D mi- 
uoi", in Handel's Judas Maccabwus, Part II. 

FALLOUARD, PIERRE JEAN IMICHEL, 
born at Honfleur (Calvados), France, July 
11, 1805, died there, April 16, 1865. Organ- 
ist, pupil of Delaporte, whose successor he 
became at St. Catharine's, Honfleur, in 1825, 
and of Godefroi at Rouen. He then studied 
the works of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, 
and formed many able jjupils. Works : 
6 series of marches, pas-redoubles, etc., for 
military band ; 6 valses brillantes for piano- 
forte ; 2 quadrilles for 4 hands ; Variations 
for clarinet ; 3 duos concertants for 2 clar- 
inets ; Romances, with pianoforte ; Organ 
and pianoforte music, and songs. — Fetis. 

FAXiSTAFF, Italian comic opera in two 
acts, text by Manfredo Maggioni, music by 
Balfe, represented at Her Majesty's Thea- 
tre, London, July 19, 1838. The libretto 
is an adaptation from Shakespeare's " Merry 
Wives of Windsor." The music was en- 
tirely written within two mouths. Sung by 
Grisi, Albertazzi, Caremoli, Lablache, Ru- 
bini, and Tamburini, it won an unqualified 
success. The trio, " Vorrei parlar," and the 
melody, " O mia gioia," were very popular 
and are still found in programmes. — Bar- 
rett, Balfe, 122 ; Kenney, Memoir, 126. 



FAMILLE 



FAMELLE SUISSE, LA, opera-comique 
iu one act, text bj Godart d'Ancourt (Saint- 
Just), music by Boieldieu, reinesented at 
the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, Feb. 12, 1797. 
This, the composer's first work of impor- 
tance, had a successful run of thirty nights, 
alternately with Cherubini's Medee. — Pou- 
gin, Boieldieu, 48. 

FAMINZIN, ALEXANDER SERGIE- 
VITCH, born at Kaluga, Russia, in 1841, 
still living, 1888. Dramatic composer, pu- 
2)il of Jeau Vogt in St. Petersburg, of Haupt- 
mann, Richter, and Riedel in Leipsic (18G2- 
Go), and of Seifriz at LOwenberg. In 1860 
he was made jjrofessor of musical history 
and aesthetics at the Conservatory of St. 
Petersburg, and in 1870 secretary of the 
Russian Music Society. Since 1869 he has 
edited the Russian perioilical Musical Sea- 
son, and he contributes also to other papers. 
Works : Sardanapal, opera, given iu St. 
Petersburg, 1875 ; Uriel Acosta, do., ib., 
1883 ; Triumph of Dionysos, symphonic 
poem ; Russian rhapsody for violin and or- 
chestra ; Quintet with pianoforte ; String 
quartets ; Pianoforte pieces and songs. 
— Mendel, Ergiinz. ; Riemann. 

FAN.\TICO BURL.\TO, IL (The Fanatic 
Ridiculed), opera buffa, music by Cimarosa, 
performed at the Teatro del Foudo, Naples, 

1787. It is probably identical with II fa- 
natico in berliiia (The Fanatic iu the Pillory), 
given iu Milan, 1792. 

FANCHETTE, ou I'heureuse eprcuve, 
opera-comique in three acts, text bj- Des- 
fontaines, music by Dalayrac, rejiresented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, Sept. 13, 

1788. An opera-comique of the same title, 
in one act, text and music by Eugene De- 
jazet, was produced at the Theatre Dejazet, 
Paris, Feb. 4, 1860. 

FANISKA, German opera in three acts, 
text by Sonnleithner from the French, mu- 
sic by Cherubini, represented at the Kiirnth- 
nerthor Theater, Vienna, Feb. 25, 1806. It 
had an immense reputation, being consid- 
ered at one time superior to Beethoven's 
Fidelio. 



FANNA, ANTONIO, born in Venice in 
1795, died there, March 15, 1845. Pianist, 
wrote fantasias for pianoforte, caprices, etc., 
besides romances and canzonets for the 
voice. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Viotta, i. 499. 

FANTASIE mT CHOR, for pianoforte, 
with orchestra and chorus, text by Christian 
Kuffuer, music by Beethoven, op. 80, in C 
minor, composed 1808, first performed iu 
Vienna, Dec. 22, 1808 ; dedicated to King 
Maximilian Josejih I. of Bavaria. Pub- 
lished by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1811). 
— Thayer, Verzeichniss, 77 ; Lenz, Bee- 
thoven, ii. 188. 

FANTASIO, opera-comique in three acts, 
text after the comedy of Alfred de Musset, 
music by Otfeubach, represented at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, Jan. 18, 1872. The 
role of the buffoon was played by Slme 
Galli-:Marie ; Elsbeth by Mile Priola. 

FANTASTIC SYMPHONY. See Epi- 
sode de la vie d'un artiste. 

FANTE, ANTONIO DEL, died in Rome, 
Jlarch, 1822. He was maestro di cappella 
of S. M. Maggiore, Rome, from 1817. He 
left church and chamber music in MS. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FANTON, NICOLAS, maitre de musique 
of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 1757. He bad 
previously held a similar position at the 
Cathedral of Blois. He comiioscd motets, 
and phyed at the Concerts Spirituels from 
1754. His best compositions are in La- 
lande's style. They were never published. 
—Fetis ; Mendel. 

FANUCCHI, DO:\IENICO, born in Lucca, 
Italy, about 1795, died there, June 24, 1862. 
Organist, pupil of Domenico Quilici, and of 
Domenico Puccini. He became one of the 
best performers of his tiine ; was maestro 
of the Seminario of S. Martino. Works : 
Masses ; Psalms ; Motets ; Hymns, etc. 
(1820-1840).— Fetis, Supplement, i. 313 ; 
Mendel, Ergilnz., xii. 100. 

FARAMONDO (Pharamond), Italian op- 
era in three acts, text by Apostolo Zeno, 
but considerably altered, music by Handel, 
fii'st performed at the King's Theatre, 



40 



FxiKEWELL 



London, Jan. 7, 1738. The MS., in Buck- 
ingliam PaLice, is dated, at the beginning, 
Nov. 15, 1737, and at the end, Dec. 24, 
1737. Within this time Handel wrote also 
the Funeral Anthem for the obsequies of 
Queen Caroline. The opera, the principal 
parts in which were sung by the famous 
artificial soprano Gaetano Majorauo (1703- 
1783), called Caffarelli and by Madame 
Elizabeth Duparc, called La Francesina, was 
given but five times. Characters repre- 
sented : Faramondo, Clotilde, Rosimonda, 
Gustavo, Adolfo, Gernaudo, Teobaldo, 
Childerico. It was first published by 
"Walsh, 1738 ; full score, Htindelgesellschaft 




(Leipsic, 1884). Ojseras of the same title 
had been given previously by Pollarolo, 
Venice, 1699 ; and Pori^ora, Naples, 1719. 
■ — Schoelcher, Handel, 192 ; Eockstro, Han- 
del, 208 ; Chrysander, ii. 447. 

FAEEWELL OF HIAWATHA, THE, 
ballad for baritone solo, male chorus, and 
orchestra, by Arthur Foote, op. 11, first 
given in the Boston (Mass.) Music Hall by 
the Apollo Club, May 12, 188G. The text 
is from Longfellow's poem. 

FAEEWELL SYMPHONY. See Ab- 
schieda sinfonie. 

FAELi, LLTZ DA COSTA E, born at 
Guarda, Portugal, Oct. 14, 1679, died (?). 
He studied at the Theological Seminary, 
took orders in 1724, and held important 



offices in the province of Jlinho. Works : 
Zarzuelas and vilhancicos, of which he wrote 
words and music. — Fetis, Supplement, i., 
313 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 100 ; Vasconcellos. 

FAEINA, CAELO, born in Mantua, Italy, 
about 1.580, died (?). He was solo violinist 
at the court of Savoy, and one of the earli- 
est to write solo music for his instrument. 
He published at Dresden, in 1G27, a collec- 
tion of galliards, courants, etc., the best 
part of which is appropriately called " Ca- 
priccio Stravagante," wherein the violin is 
made to imitate animal sounds, tlie fife, and 
the guitar. A copy of this book is in the 
Dresden Library. — Hart, Violin and its 
Music, 172. 

FAEINELLI, GIUSEPPE, born at Este, 
Venetia, May 7, 1769, died at Trieste, Dec. 
12, 1836. Eeal name Finco. Dramatic 
composer, pupil in his native city of Do- 
menico Liouelli, then in Venice of Marti- 
nelli, and in Naples at the Conservatorio 
della Pieta de' Turchini (where he changed 
his name to Farinelli), of Barbiella in sing- 
ing, of Fugo in thorough bass, and of Sala 
and Tritto in composition. He pursued 
also special studies under Picciuni, Fena- 
roli, and Guglielmi. In 1808 he brought 
out iu Venice the cantata II nuovo destino, 
lived in Turin from 1810 to 1817, then for 
a time in Venice, and in 1819 was appointed 
maestro di cappella of San Giusto cathedral 
and of the Teatro Grande in Trieste. His 
operas, mostly comic, are in the style of 
Cimarosa, and obtained great success ; he 
was repeatedly invited to Vienna and Lis- 
bon. As one of the last disciples of the 
masters mentioned, he adhered strictly to 
the old Neapolitan school, and was averse to 
modern Italian music. Works — Operas : 
La locandiera scaltra, Italy, about 1790, 
Paris, 1805 ; L' amor sincero, about 1790 ; 
Bandiera d' ogui vento, 1791 ; II finto sordo, 
1791 ; La Pamela maritata, Venice, 1791 ; 
Oro seuza oro, ib., 1792 ; LaGiulietta, 1792 ; 
La finta sposa, about 1793 ; Teresa e Clau- 
dio, Venice, 1793 ; L' amico dell' uomo, 
about 1793 ; Uu effetto naturale, 1793 ; 



41 



FARINELLI 



Odoardo e Cailottti, do. ; II colpevole salvato 
dellacolpa, 1793; Aiiiietta.ossiavirtu trionta, 
1794 ; L' iudoleute, about 1795 ; L' iucognita, 
1795 ; La terza lettera ed il terzo martinel- 
lo, Veuice, 1795 ; II duello jjer comi^limeuto, 
1795 ; Idomeueo, 1796 ; Attila, 1797 ; L' 
uomo iudolente, Najsles about 1797 ; 11 
Cid delle Sjjagne, do. ; La Ginevra degli 
Almieri, Turin, 1798 ; Lauso e Lidia, about 

1798 ; II matrimonio per concorso, about 

1799 ; Climeue, 1800 ; II trionfo d' Emilio, 
about 1800 ; La caritea, 1801 ; II dotto- 
rato di Pulcinella, 1802 ; La contadina di 
spirito, 1803 ; H nuovo savio della Giecia, 
1804 ; Raggiri a sorpresa, 1804 ; I riti d' 
Efeso, 1804 ; L' inganno non dura, Naples, 
1806 ; Adriano in Siria, Milau, 1815 ; Scij)i- 
one in Cartagine, Turin, 1815 ; Zoraide, 
Venice, 1816 ; La Cbiarina, Milan, 1816 ; II 
testameuto a sei cento mille fraucbi, Turin, 
1816 ; La donna di Bessarabia, Venice, 1819 ; 
II nuovo destino, cantata, Veuice, 1808. — Nu- 
volato, Storia di Este e del suo tenitorio 
(Este, 1851), 563; Fotis, iv. 230; Grove; 
Meudel ; Schilling ; do., Supjslement, 123 ; 
Wurzbacli. 

FARINELLI, serio-comic opera in two 
acts, text by C. Z. Barnett, music by John 
Barnett, represented at Druiy Lane Thea- 
tre, London, Feb. 8, 1839. The part of 
Farinelli (Carlo Broschi) was sung by 
Balfe. 

FARMER, JOHN, EngUsh composer of 
the 16th century. Nothing is known of his 
life. In 1591 he published a tract entitled 
'"Divers and Sundrie waies of two Parts iu 
one, to the number of fortie upon one 
playn Song," etc., and he was one of the ten 
composers employed by Este to harmonize 
the tunes for his " Whole Book of Psalms " 
(1592). In 1599 he published his "First 
Set of English Madrigals to Foure Voyces," 
and in 1601 contributed to the " Tri- 
umphes of Oriaua " the six-part madrigal, 
"Faire uimphes I heard one telling." 
— Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, Hist., iii. 134 ; 
Hawkins, Hi.st., iii. 400 ; Meudel ; Ritter, 
Music iu England, 40. 



FARMER, THOiLVS, Euglish composer 
of the 17tli centurj-. He was originally 
one of the Waits of London, aud received 
the degree of Mus. Bac, Cambridge, in 
1684. He conti'ibuted songs to the "The- 
atre of Music" (1685-1687) and to D'Urfey's 
" Third Collection of songs " (1685) ; pub- 
lished a " Consort of Musick in four parts, 
containing 33 Lessons beginning with an 
Overture " (1868) and a " Second Consort of 
Musick, iu four jjarts, containing eleven 
Lessons beginning with a Ground " (1G90). 
PurceU composed an Elegy, text by Nahum 
Tate, on his death, from which it is inferred 
that he died young. — Grove ; Fetis ; Haw- 
kins, Hist,, V. 18 ; Meudel. 

FARNABY, GILES, born in Truro, 
Cornwall, England, second half of 16th cen- 
tury, died ('?). Comjjoser, graduated at 
Oxford as Mus. Bac, July 9, 1592. He was 
one of the composers employed by Thomas 
Este to harmonize the tunes for the " Whole 
Book of Psalms " (1592). Works : Canzonets 
to foure voyces with a song of eight parts 
(Loudon, 1598); Madrigal, "Come, Cha- 
ron, Come," in MS. ; Music iu Queen Eliza- 
beth's Virginal Book, preserved in the Fitz- 
william Museum, Cambridge. — Grove; Fetis; 
Larousse ; Bumey, Hist., iii. 112 ; Hawkins, 
Hist., iii. 367 ; Ritter, Music iu England, 129. 

FARNACE (Pharnaces), Italian opera, 
music by Caldara, represented in Venice, 
1703. The hero is Pharnaces, son of Mith- 
ridates. King of Pontus, whose revolt led to 
his father's death. The same subject has 
been treated also by Pollarolo, Venice, 1718 ; 
Bononcini, London, 1723 ; Vinci, Venice, 
1724 ; Vivaldi, Venice, 1726 ; Riualdo da 
Capua, Italy, about 1740 ; Arena, Rome, 
1742 ; Traetta, Naples, 1750 ; Perez, Rome, 
1750 ; Guglielmi, Italy, about 1765 ; Sarti, 
Veuice, 1776 ; Sterkel, Naples, 1780 ; Ur- 
bani, Dublin, 1784. 

FARRANT, RICHARD, born in first half 
of 16th century, died at Windsor, Nov. 30, 
1580. He was one of the Gentlemen of the 
Chapel Royal up to 1564 ; Master of the 
Children of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 



42 



FARREXC 



q^. 



aucl probably organist, in 1564-69 ; and 
again Gentleman of the Chapel Eoj-al, from 
1569 until his death. Works : High Ser- 
vice, in G minor and A minor, in Tudway's 
Collection, British Museum ; The anthems, 
"Call to remembrance," and, "Hide not 
Thou thy Face, O Lord," i^reserved in the 
collections of Barnard and Boyce. The 
anthem, "Lord, for Thy tender mercies' 
sake," assigned to him, is attributed by ear- 
lier writers to John Hilton ; and the anthem, 
" OLord Almighty," is questionably assign- 
ed to him by Tudway. — Grove ; Fe- 
tis ; Burney, Hist., iii. 11; Hawkins, 
Hist., iii. 249 ; Bitter, Music in Eng- 
land, 39 ; Naumanu (Ouseley), i. 679. 
F.ARRENC, JEANNE LOUISE, 
(Dumont) in Paris, May 31, 1804, 
there, Sept. 15, 1875. Pianist, pupil of 
Moscheles, Hummel, and Reicha. In 1821 
she married Aristide Farrenc (born at Mar- 
seilles, April 9, 1794, died in Paris, Feb. 12, 
1869), flutist and writer on music, with whom 
she made several professional journeys. She 
was professor of the pianoforte at the 
Conservatoire, Paris, from 1842 to 1873. 
Works : Etudes, sonatas, etc., for the piano- 
forte ; Sonatas for pianoforte, violin, and 
violoncello ; Duos ; 2 quintets ; a sestet ; a 
nonet ; 2 symphonies ; and 3 overtures for 
full orchestra. lu 1869 she was awarded by 
the Academie des Beaux-Arts the prize for 
chamber music. Her Tresor des Pianistes 
(20 parts, Paris, 1861-72) contains master- 
pieces of all the classical writers from the 
16th century downwards. Her daughter. 



Naumburg, for which he composed three 
operas, then visited Italy, and after his re- 
turn to Leipsic went to Darmstadt to study 
harmony and counterpoint under Graupner 
and Griiuewald. Having occupied different 
positions at Gera (1715), Zeitz (1720), and 
in the service of Count Morzin in Bohemia 
(1721), he was appointed Hof kapellmeister 
at Zerbst in 1722. Works : Berenice, op- 
era, given at Zerbst, 1725 ; 2 sacred canta- 
tas, for four voices and orchestra ; Orato- 
rios ; Masses ; Motets ; Passions. In the 



•'ivw 



.^a 



born 1 Royal Library at Dresden are in MS. : 45 
died concertos for violin, flute, oboe, bassoon, 
etc., with accompaniment ; 61 overtures for 
orchestra ; 12 trios, and 13 symphonies for 
string- and wind-instruments. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 576 ; Fetis ; Marpurg, Histo- 
rischkritische Beitriige (Berlin, 1757), iii. 
124 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FASCH, KARL FRIEDRICH CHRIS- 
TIAN, born in 
Zerbst, Nov. 18, 
1736, died in Ber- 
lin, Aug. 3, 1800. 
Son and pupil of 
Jobann Friedrich 
Fasch in organ 
and theory, of 
HOckli for violin, 

and in Strelitz of — ' " 

Hertel in all branches. He became in 1756 




Victorine Louise Farrenc (1826-1859), was , accompanist to Frederick the Great, his 
also a pianist and wrote music for her in- duty being, alternately with C. P. E. Bach, 



to play the harpsichord to the king's flute. 
In 1774-76 he directed the Court Opera. In 



strument. — Fctis, iii. 186; do., Supplement, 
i. 314 ; Grove ; Larousse. 

FASCH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, born at 1792 a small choral society for which he had 
Buttelstiidt, Saxe-Weimar, April 15, 1688, ^ written pieces obtained a haU in the Acad- 



died at Zerbst, Anhalt, in 1758 (1759?). 
Dramatic comj)oser, pupil of Kuhnau at the 



amy building, and became the Berlin Sing- 
akademie, the prototj'pe of many such insti- 
Thomasschule in Leipsic (1702-7), where he tutions all over Germany. He was its first 
became a good pianist, and studied compo- artistic director, and was succeeded by his 
sition from the works of Telemann. In , pupil Zelter. Shortly before his death he 
1710 he accepted a call to the court of , caused to be burned all his compositions 



43 



FASCIIINGSSCHWANK 



written previous to the mass for 16 voices. 
Works : Vasco da Gama, opera, given in 
Vienna, 1792; Mass for 16 voices; Chorals ; 
Psahns ; Requiem ; Funeral cantata ; Can- 
ons ; Cantatas ; Harpsichord pieces. Some 
of his manuscript music is in the Berlin 
Rojal Library-. His principal works were 
2)ublished by the Singakademie in 1839. 
— Zelter, K." F. C. Fasch (Berlin, 1801) ; 
AUgem. d. Biogr., vi. 576 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

FASCHINGSSCHW.YNK AUS WIEN 
(Carnival Jest from Vienna), for jjianoforte, 
by Robert Schumann, op. 26, composed 1839. 
It consists of five movements, three of which 
are among the brightest and most attrac- 
tive creations of the composer. The jjoiut 
of the jest lies iu the first movement, in 
which the Marseillaise, at that time inter- 
dicted in Vienna, is surrej^titiously intro- 
duced. External influences are easily recog- 
nizable iu the other three movements, where 
certain moods are represented iu the firmly 
fixed forms of the Romance, the Scherzino, 
and the Finale iu rondo form. — Maitland, 
60 ; Riemann, 72. 

FASTRli, JOSEPH, born at Flushing, 
June 22, 1783, died at The Hague, April 13, 
1812. Instrumental and vocal composer; 
entered the service of a French regiment 
in 1803, was stationed at Flushing and at 
Dunkirk iu 1804, went with the regiment 
to Germany in 180.5, and took part iu the 
battle of Austcrlitz ; returned home in 1806, 
and, having afterwards lived at Alkmaar and 
Middelburg (1807), settled a"t The Hague, 
where he became a member of the I'oyal 
orchestra, and i^rofessor at the Conserva- 
toire in 1830. AYorks : 12 songs for 2 
voices ; 12 do. for 3 voices ; 6 do. for 2 so- 
pranos and contralto ; Compositions for flute, 
clarinet, and jjianoforte. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 316 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 101 ; Viotta. 

FAT.\L OATH. See Oberon. 

FATINITZA, operetta in three acts, text 
by Zell and Genue, music by Franz von 
Suppe, first represented in Vienna, Jan. 5, 
1876. The libretto is an adaptation of La 
Circassienne, opera-comique by Scribe and 



Auber. On its production iu Paris, the 
same year, a French text was supplied by 
A. Delacour and Victor Wilder, in which a 
woman inlays the riile of the young Russian 
officer of Scribe's libretto. Fatinitza was 
given in London in 1878. 

FATTORIXI, GABRIELE, born at Fa- 
enza, Roman States, lived in the begiuuing 
of the 17th centiuy. A work by him, in the 
Lyceo, Bologna, entitled: "I Sacri Con- 
eerti a 2 voci col basso generale " (1608), 
is supposed to be a reprint of his Sacri Con- 
cert! a 2 voci commodi da cantare col or- 
gano (Venice, 1600). This is interesting 
as being one of the first works of the kind 
ever produced, it marking the origin of the 
new forms of religious music. His masses 
are iu the Royal Librai'y, Munich. — Fe- 
tis ; Gerber ; Mendel. 

FAUBEL, JOSEF, born at Aschaffen- 
burg, June 12, 1801, still living, 1889 (?). 
Virtuoso on the clarinet, attached, when only 
ten years old, to the orchestra of the Grand 
Duke of Frankfort. In 1813, when that 
State ceased to exist, he w-as enrolled in a 
regiment of the city of Frankfort, and took 
part in the campaign against France in 
1811. After his return he devoted himself 
to a thorough study of his instrument, and 
in 1816 appeared wdth great success in 
Frankfort, and in 1818 in Munich, where he 
was at once engaged as court musician for 
the royal orchestra. There Biirmann became 
his great model, and his perseverance in 
emulating him won him much well-deserved 
applause ou concert tours in North Ger- 
many (1825), Vienna (1831), Switzerland 
(1833), Paris (1837), and Holland (1811). 
He has composed solos, variations, duos, 
etc., for his instrument.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FAUCON, LE, opera-comique in one 
act, text by Sedaine, music by Monsigny, 
represented at the Italiens, Paris, March 
19, 1772. The subject is from Boccaccio. 

FAUCONIER, BENOIST CONSTANT, 
born at Fontainc-rEveque, April 28, 1816, 
died at Thuiu, Feb. 16, 1877. Pianist, pu- 
pil at the Brussels Conservatou-e, under 



44 



FAUGUES 



Miclielot and Fotis, and became accom- 
panist at the Conservatoire in 1839. After 
making a professional tour with his wife 
and Fi'Hx Godefroid, he settled in Paris 
in 1840, but was in Rome in 18iG-1848. 
AYorks : Uu an d'avenir, opera-comique, one 
act, given in Brussels about 1850 ; La pa- 
gode, opera-comique, two acts, text bj* 
Saint-Georges, Paris, Sept. 26, 1859; 
Masses, op. 88, 89, 90, 91, 117 ; Quartets 
for violin, pianoforte, etc., with orchestral 
accompaniment ; Pianoforte music ; Violin 
music ; Hymns, songs, etc. — Fetis ; do.. Sup- 
plement, i. 317 ; Mendel ; do., Ergiinz., 101. 

FAUGUES (Fauques, Fagus, La Fage), 
VINCENT, Flemish composer, born about 
1415. He was a disciple of Guillaume Du- 
fay and a writer of considerable merit. 
His masses were much used during the 
pontificate of Nicholas VL (1417-55). 
Ambros gives part of his "Omme Anne," 
a mass preserved in MS. in the Pontifical 
Chapel. — Fetis ; Kiesewetter, Gesch. ; Men- 
del ; Nauraann (Ouseley), i. 317. 

FAURE, GABRIEL^ French composer, 
contemporary. Pianist, pujjil at the Ecole 
de Masique Religieuse, Paris, where he won 
the first prize for jiianoforte, and a prize for 
harmony, 18G0, and one for composition in 
1861. Works : Symphony for orchestra ; 
Cantique de Racine, chorus ; Sonata for 
violin and pianoforte ; Duos for 2 female 
voices ; Vocal melodies. — Fetis, Supjjle- 
ment, i. 320 : Mendel, Ergiinz., 102. 

FAURE, JEANBAPTISTE, born at Mou- 
liiis (Allier), France, 
Jan. 15, 1830, living in 
Paris, 1889. Baritone 
singer and composer, 
pupil at the Paris Con- 
servatoire in 1843 in 
solfege, then at the 
Maitrise of the Ma- 
deleine under Trevaux, 
and subsequently of 
Ponchard and Moreau- 
Sainti at the Conservatoire. In 1852 he 
won the 1st prize for singing and the 1st 





prize for opera-comique. He made his de- 
but, Oct. 20, 1852, at the Opera Comique 
as Pygmalion in Masse's Galatee, sang in 
London in 1860, in Berlin in 1861, and in 
the same year made his first appearance at 
the Opera, where he soon acquired great 
reputation in leading roles, especially in 
Don Giovanni, L'Africaine, Thomas's Ham- 
let, and Gounod's Faust. He alternated 
many years between Loudon and Paris, and 
has sung also in Italy and Russia. He was 
for a time in 1857 professor of singing at 
the Paris Conservatoire and in 1874 at that 
of Brussels. He is a man of wide general 
culture and his eomj)ositions are highly 
creditable. Works : 25 melodies for voice 
and pianoforte ; 
20 melodies for CA 
do. ; Church 
music ; Piano- 
forte music. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 
318 ; Larousse ; Grove, i. 571 ; Mendel, 
Ergiinz., xii. 101. 

FAUSSE MAGIE, LA, opera-comique in 
two acts, in verse, text by Marmontel, mu- 
sic by Gretry, rej)resented at the Comedie 
Italienne, Paris, Feb. 1, 1775. It contains 
a famous duet between two old men, 
" Quoi ! c'est vous qu'elle prefere ! " which 
was long popular. La fausse magie was re- 
produced in 1828 and again in 1863. It 
has been reinstrumented by Eugene Pre- 
vost. 

FAUST, German opera in two acts, text 
by J. C. Bernhard, music by Spohr, first 
represented at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 
1818. The oi^era was written at Vienna, in 
1813, for the Theater an der Wien, but for 
some reason was not produced. The li- 
bretto has little resemblance to Goethe's 
poem, the first part of which had been pub- 
lished in 1805, but follows more closely the 
popular legend. It was successful, and was 
soon produced at Cassel, Berlin, and else- 
where. It was given in London by a German 
company, at the Prince's Theatre, May 21, 
1840. in 1852, Spohr went to London to 
adapt the work for the Italian stage. He 



45 



FAUST 



composed for it recitatives in place of tbe 
spoken dialogue, and made other additions 
and alterations. In this new form it was 
produced with great success, under his own 
direction, at Covent Garden, July 15, 1852, 
with Castellan, Eonconi, Formes, and Tam- 
berlik in the principal parts. The first mu- 
sical-dramatic representation of the Faust 
legend seems to have been the English -pcin- 
tomime, The Necromancer ; or, Harlequin 
Dr. Faustus, bj' John Ernest GalUard, j)ro- 
duced in London, 1723. Other early ones 
are : Doktor Fausts Zaubergiirtel (JNIagic 
Girdle), by Phanty, Vienna, 1790 ; Harle- 
quin and Faustus, Samuel Arnold, London, 
1793 ; Doktor Faust, by Ignaz Walter, Han- 
over, 1797 ; Fausts Leben und Thaten (Life 
and Acts), Josef Strauss, 1815 ; Fausts 
Leben, Thaten, und Hollenfalu-t (Descent to 
Hell), by Lickl, Vienna, 1815 ; Faust, by 
Wenzel MiiUer, Vienna, 1818 ; do., by J. 
von Seyfried, Vienna, 1820 ; do., by Beau- 
coui't, Paris, 1827 ; do., by Angelique Ber- 
tin, ib., 1831 ; do., by Liudpaintner, Stutt- 
gart, 1832 ; do., ballet, by Adolph Adam, 
Paris, 1832 ; do., by de Pellaert, Brussels, 
183i ; do., by Eietz, Diisseldorf, 1836 ; 
Fausto, by Gordigiani, Florence, 1837 ; 
Faust and Marguerite, by "Wilhelm Meyer- 
Lutz, London, 1855 ; Faust, musical drama 
iu four acts and prelude, by Hcini-ich Zoll- 
ner, given with success in Munich, Oct. 19, 
1887. There have been many burlesques of 
the legend, and it has also been a prolific 
theme for a great deal of incidental music, 
iu the form of overtures, symjjhonies, etc. 
— K. Engel, Bibhotheca Faustiana (Olden- 
burg, 1874) ; Edwards, Lyrical Drama, i. 
149. 

FAUST, grand opera in five acts, test by 
jMichel Carre' and Jules Barbier, music by 
Charles Gounod, first represented at the 
Theatre LjTique, Paris, March 19, 1859 ; 
and at the Academie Impuriale de Musique, 
March 3, 1869. The libretto, an adapta- 
tion of Goethe's jjoem, follows the first part 
jjretty closely. The original cast in Paris 
■was as follows : 



Faust M. Barbot. 

Mcphistoplielus M. Balanque. 

Marguerite Mme Miolan-Carvalho. 

Valentin M. Ismael. 

Siebel JMlle Faivre. 

Marthe Mme Duclos. 

The same parts were sung at the Academie, 
iu 1869, by Colin, Faure, Nilsson, Devoyod, 
and Mauduit. This work at once placed 
Gounod iu the front rank of living compos- 
ers. It had even a greater success on the 
Continent than in Paris, and it has been per- 
formed on all the principal stages of the 
world. It was first given in London, at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, June 11, 1863, and, 




Miolan-Carvalho. as Marguerite. 

in an Italian version, as Faust e Margherita, 
at Covent Garden, July 2, 1863. An Eng- 
lish version, text by Chorley, was played at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, Jan. 23, 1864. It 
was first performed in Germany at Darm- 
stadt, 1861, as Faust, and in Berlin, 1863, as 
Margarethe. Its fii'st representation in New 
York took place at the Academy of IMusic, 
Nov. 25, 1863. The first act, which is in the 
nature of a prelude, introduces Faust iu his 
study with Mt'phistopheles. In act second is 
the Kermesse, in which Marguerite is intro- 
duced. In the third is the garden scene, 
which leads to Marguerite's fall. In the 
fourth, or cathedral act, occurs the death 
of Valentin and his malediction upon his 



46 



FAUST 



sister. Tlie fiftb, or prison act, includes 
Marguerite's deatli in j^rison and her apo- 
theosis. Tlie most popular of the numbers 
are the weird drinking song of Mophisto- 
plielos, " Veau d'or ; " the phrase of the old 
man at the Ivermesse, "Aux jours de di- 
manche;"the cavatiua bj' Faust, "Salut, de- 
nieure chaste et pure ; " the ballad sung by 
Marguerite at the S2)inning-wheel, "II etait 
un roi de Thule ;" the love scene, "Lais- 
sez-moi coutempler ton visage ; " the pas- 
sionate duet between Faust and Marguerite, 
"O unit d'amour, ciel radieux ; " and the sol- 
diers' chorus, " Gloire immortelle de iios 
a'ieux." The role of Marguerite, created by 
Mme Carvalho, has been since worthily 
filled by Patti, Lucca, Nilsson, and Valleria. 
• — Edwards, Lyrical Drama, i. iG, 1G.5. 

FAUST, musical portrait, for full orches- 
tra, by Anton Eubinsteiu, op. GS. Pub- 
lished by Siegel. 

FAUST, CARL, born at Neisse, Silesia, 
Feb. 18, 1825, still living, 1880. Dance 
music composer, jjupil of Herrling at Anua- 
berg, was bandmaster in two regiments 
from 18.53 to 18G5, when he left the mili- 
tary service to conduct a concert-orchestra 
at Breslau ; in 18G9 he was appointed city 
music director at Waldenburg. His com- 
positions, consisting exclusively of dances 
and marches, number more than 200, and 
are popular in North Germany, but will 
not bear comparison with those of the Vien- 
nese comjiosers. — Fetis, Suiipk'ment, i. 321 ; 
Mendel. 

FAUST-OUVERTURE, EINE (A Faust 
Overture), for orchestra, by Richard Wag- 
ner, written in Paris, 1839-40 ; first per- 
formed in Dresden, July 22, 1814. This 
work, the first in Wagner's true style, was 
conceived after a rehearsal of Beethoven's 
Ninth Symphony at the Conservatoire. It 
was intended as the first movement of a 
Faust symphony, but was finally laid aside 
until 1855, when it was revised, given at a 
concert in Zurich, and published. It is a 
masterpiece of instrumentation. It was 
given in New York, by the Philharmonic 



Society, in 1S5C-7, and in Boston, by the 
Philharmonic Societ}', Jan. 3, 1857. — Grove, 
iv. 35 L 

FAUST, SCENEN AUS GOETHE'S 
(Scenes from Goethe's Faust), for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, by Robert Schu- 
mann, comjiosed in 1844, 1847, 1849, 1850, 
1853, published in 1858 (Breitkopf & Hiir- 
tel). In musical importance, as in extent, 
this is to be regarded as the greatest work 
of the composer's later years. It is divided 
as follows : Part I. No. 1. Scene im Garten 
(Garden Scene), 1849 ; No. 2. Gretchen vor 
dem Bild der Mater dolorosa (Margaret 
before the picture of the Mater dolorosa), 
1849; No. 3. Scene in Dom (Cathedral 
Scene), 1849. Part 11. No. 4. Ariel, Sou- 
nenaufgang (Sunrise), 1849 ; No. 5. Mitter- 
nacht (Midnight), 1850; No. G. Faust's 
Tod (Faust's Death), 1853. Part IH. No. 
7. Faust's Verkliirung (Faust's Transfigura- 
tion), subdivided into seven scenes (April, 
1847). The third part contains the most 
valuable numbers, and in it aU Schumann's 
noblest qualities as a composer are seen to 
the best advantage. His purity of emotion, 
his keenness of spiritual insight, here find 
their j^roper sphere. The airy, incorjDoreal 
world of spirits in which this portion takes 
place is most faithfully reproduced in the 
music. This third part includes the whole 
last scene of the second part of Goethe's 
poem ; Schumann wrote two versions of the 
concluding Chorus Mysticus, one to be used 
when the whole work was given, the other 
when the third part was performed sepa- 
rately. Begun at the height of his maturity 
(1844), various portions were finished at dif- 
ferent times, and the overture was written 
in 1853. The first part was performed in 
Leipsic, Dresden, and Weimar, Aug. 29, 
1849, on the 100th anniversary of Goethe's 
birth. The first performance of the com- 
plete composition took place in Leipsic, at 
the Gewandhaus, under the direction of 
Carl Reinecke, Dec. 4, 18G2.— Maitland, 92, 
Reissmann, 198 ; Ambros, Bunte Blatter, 
ii. 169 ; Samml. mus. Vort., i. 121. 



FAUST 



FAUST-SYMPHONIE, EINE (A Faust 
Hyrupboiiy), iu three cbaracter-pictures, af- 
ter Goethe, and a chorus, for orchestra and 
men's voices, by Franz Liszt, dedicated to 
Hector Beriioz. Part I. Faust; II. llar- 
garete ; III. Mephistopheles. Published in 
score and parts ; also for pianoforte, two 
hands (Schuberth). — Tretbar, Analytical 
Eeview of A Faust Symphon}'. 

FAUST, ZWEI EPISODEN AUS LE- 
NAU'S (Two Episodes from Lenau's Faust, 
i.e., Nikolaus Lenau's drama of that title), 
for orchestra, by Fi-anz Liszt. I. Der 
nachtliche Zug ; II. Der Tanz in der Dorf- 
schenke (Mephisto-Walzer). Published in 
score and parts ; also for pianoforte, two 
and four hands (Schuberth). 

FAUVEL, ANDEfi JOSEPH, surnamed 
the elder, born in Bordeaux iu 1756. Vio- 
linist, studied under several masters, par- 
ticularly Gervais. He had Rode for a i)upil 
iu 1782, and went with him, in 1787, to Paris, 
where he was a member of the orchestra 
of the Opera in 1814-34. Published violin 
music and a Symphouie Concertaute which 
was played at the Lycee des Arts iu 1800. 
— Fetis.' 

FAVAEGER, REXfi, born iu France 
about 1815, died at l5tretat, near Havre, 
Aug. 3, 18G8. Pianist, lived for many years 
in London, where he was in great demand 
as a teacher. He composed many morceaux 
de genre, some of which became popular 
even outside of France. — Fetis, Suppk'meut, 
i. 321. 

FAVORITE, LA, grand opera in four 
acts, text by Alphonse Royer and Gustave 
Wai'Z (Van Niewenhuysen), music by Doni- 
zetti, represented at the Academic Royale 
de Musique, Paris, Dec. 2, 1840. The work 
was written originally in three acts, under 
the title of L'ange de Nisida, Tlu'utre de la 
Renaissance, and on the closing of that the- 
atre was transferred to the Academie, where 
a fourth act was added with the collabora- 
tion of S(!ribe. The subject is an adajstation 
of Baculard-Darnaud's tragedy, Le comte 
de Commiuges. Fernand, a novice in the 



Convent of St. James of Compostella, is 
about to take monastic vows when he sees 
and loves at sight a lady worshipping in the 
cloisters. He confesses his love to Baltha- 
sar, his superior, renounces monastic life, 
and goes out into the world. The lady who 
has inspired his passion is Leonore de Gus- 
man, the favourite of Alphonse XI., King 
of Castile, who has resolved, though threat- 
ened with excommunication, to repudiate 




I #-^ ,. 



M 



Rosine Stolz, as L6onore. 

his queen anil marry her. Fernand, who 
does not know her relations with the king, 
seeks her retreat, declares his love, and begs 
her to fly with him. She reciprocates his 
passion but refuses to follow him, and urges 
him to go to the wars and win honours for 
her sake. He performs signal services 
against the Moors, and returns to demand 
as a recompense the hand of Li'onore. The 
king, who has discovered that his mistress 
loves Fernand, gives her to him, and hast- 



48 



\r 






FAWCETT 



ens the marriage, meanwhile intercepting 
a message sent to Fernaud by Lt'ouore to 
inform him of her relations with the king, 
and begging his forgiveness. Fernaud dis- 
covers his dishonour when too late, breaks 
his sword, and returns for consolation to 
his convent. Leonora follows him thither, 
and dies at his feet as he comes from the 
church where he has pronounced eternal 
vows. The music of La Favorite is dramatic, 
passionate, and full of melody. Among the 
best numbers are the cavatina, " Uu ange, 
une femme iuconnue ; " the duo, " Idole si 
douce et si chere ; " the aria, " O mou Fer- 
naud " (Ital., O mio Fernando) ; the chorus, 
" Freres, creusons I'asile ; " and the romanza, 
"Ange si pur" (Spirto gentil), the last trans- 
ferred from Donizetti's opera, Le Due 
d'Albe. lu the original cast Mme Stolz 
sustained the part of Lconore ; Duprez, Fer- 
naud ; Baroilhet, Alphouse ; and Levasseur, 
Balthasar. Up to 1876 it had had 481 rep- 
resentations in Paris. The opera was pro- 
duced in Italian, as La Favorita, in London, 
at Her Majesty's Theatre, Feb. IG, 18i7. 
— Larousse, viii. 1G7 ; Liszt, Ges. Schr., iii. 
110. 

FAWCETT, JOHN, born at Bolton-le- 
Moors, Lancashire, in 1789, died there, Oct. 
26, 1SG7. Originally a shoemaker, he be- 
came a musician iu his native town, and 
composed three sets of psalm and hymn 
tunes, popular iu Lancashire, entitled, The 
Voice of Harmony, The Harp of Zion, and 
Miriam's Timbrel. He also arranged the 
accompaniment of a collection of psalm and 
hymn tunes, selected by Jose^jh Hart, called 
" Melodia divina "(1810), and wrote an ora- 
torio, Paradise, which was published in 
1853.— Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

FAWCETT, JOHN, boru iu Bolton-le- 
Moors iu 1824, died in Manchester, July 1, 
1857. Organist, son and pupil of the pre- 
ceding. He became organist of St. John's, 
Farnworth, in 1835, and of the parish 
church, Bolton, in 1842. In 1845 he en- 
tered the Academy of Music, London, 
studied under Sterudale Bennett, and was 



organist of Curzou Chapel in 1845-46. Mus. 
Bac, Oxford, 1852. Works : Supplication 
and Thanksgiving, cantata (degree exercise) ; 
Anthems ; Glees ; Songs, etc. — Grove. 

FAY, ETIENNE, born at Tours (ludre- 
et-Loire) iu 1770, died at Versailles, Dec. 
6, 1845. Dramatic singer and composer, 
made his musical studies while a chorister 
in the MetroiJolitau Church of his native 
city. He made his debut as a tenor at the 
Theatre de la rue de Louvois, Paris, in 
1790, entered up)on an engagement at the 
Theatre Favart iu 1792, aud at the Feydeau 
about 1795 ; upon the fusion of these two 
enterprises into the Opera Comique, in 1801, 
he went to Brussels, came back to Paris in 
1804, to bring out an opera, and again, in 
1819, to sing at the Of)era Comique, having 
meanwhile travelled and sung for a long 
time iu the provinces. In 1820 he went to 
Holland, aud the year after was engaged 
at the Theatre du Gymnase in Paris, but 
soon returned to Belgium, and lived there 
until 1856, when he finally settled iu Paris. 
Works — Ojoeras : Flora, given at the The- 
atre Louvois, 1791 ; Le projet extravagant, 
Le bon pere, ib., 1793 ; L'interieur d'un me- 
nage rejiublicaiu, vaudeville, Theatre Favart, 
1794 ; Les rendez-vous espaguols, ib., 1795 ; 
Emma, ou le soupjon, Clementine, ou la 
belle-mere. Theatre Feydeau, 1795 ; La 
famille savoyarde, ib., 1800 ; La bonne 
aventure. Theatre des Jeunes Eleves, 1802 ; 
Julie, Opera Comique, 1804. — Fetis ; do., 
Supplement, i. 321. 

FAYRFAX (Fairfax), ROBERT, born at 
Bayford, Herts, in the latter jxart of the 
15th century, died at St. Alban's. He is 
supposed to have been organist, or chanter, 
at St. Alban's Abbey, early in the 16th cen- 
tury. In 1504 he was given the degree of 
Mus. Doc. at Cambridge, and iu 1511 at 
Oxford. In the British Museum is a vol- 
ume of part-songs for two, three, and four 
voices, in MS., once belonging to Dr. Fayr- 
fax, which contains some of his own among 
other compositions, and which is probably 
\ the oldest collection of English secular part- 



49 



FAZZKI 



songs in existence. Four tbree-part songs 
by him are preserved in Smitli's "Musica 
Antiqua," and others in Burney and Haw- 
kins. Several of his sacred compositions 
are in MS. in the Music School, Oxford. 
— Grove ; Naumann (Ouseley), i. 668 ; Am- 
bros, iii. Hi ; Fetis. 

FAZZINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, born 
in Eome. Singer in the Pontifical Chapel in 
1760. A distinguished composer in the old 
Roman style, he was successively maestro 
di cappella of Sta. Cecilia, of Sta. Margarita, 
and of Sta. ApoUonia in Trastevere. His 
masses were in the Sautini collection. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

FEBURE. See Lefibure. 

FEDE EICONOSCIUTA, LA, Italian 
opera, text and music by Benedetto Mar- 
cello, represented at Vicenza, 1702 and 
1729. 

FEDELE. See Treu. 

FEDELI, RUGGIERO, born in Italy about 
1670, died in Cassel in 1722. He was Ka- 
pellmeister of the Landgrave of Hesse-Cas- 
sel in 1700, and was afterwards in the service 
of the Iving of Prussia. He ■wi-ote operas, 
even the titles of which are forgotten. His 
funeral mass for the death of the queen 
was considei'ed his best work (Berhn, 1755). 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FEDERICI, FRANCESCO, born in 
Rome, lived there in the second half of 
the 17th century. Priest and composer. 
Works : Santa Christina, oratorio (1676) ; 
Santa Catarina di Siena, oratorio (1676). 
Burney gives airs from one of these. He 
published also songs. — Fetis ; Burney, Hist., 
iv. 117 ; Mendel. 

FEDERICI, VINCENZO, born at Pesaro 
in 1764, died in Milan, Sept. 26, 1826. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Angelo Gadani 
at Bologna ; at the age of sixteen he went 
to England, and thence to America ; re- 
turned to London, where he taught music, 
and derived inspiration from the works of 
Handel and the old Italian composers. En- 
gaged as pianist at the Italian opera, he be- 
came familiar with the works of Cimarosa, 



Paisiello, and Sarti, but was incited, partic- 
ularly by Haydn's symphonies, to the serious 
study of composition, and went to Italy in 
1785 to become a pupil of Francesco Bian- 
chi. After another sojourn in London, 1792 
-1802, he returned to Italy, and in 1809 was 
appointed professor of counterpoint at the 
newly erected Conservatorio, and in 1826 
succeeded IMinoja as its censore (director). 
In 1812 he visited Paris to bring out an 
opera. Works — Operas : Olimpiade, Turin, 
1790 ; Demofoonte, Zenobia, London, about 
1792 ; Nitteti, ib., about 1793 ; Didone ab- 
bandonata, ib., about 179-4 ; Castore e Pol- 
luce, II giudizio di Numa, Milan, 1803 ; 
Oreste in Tauride, ib., 1804 ; La Sofonisba, 
Turin, 180.5 ; Idoraeneo, Zaira, Milan, 1806 ; 
La couquista dell' Indie, Turin, 1808 ; Ifi- 
genia in Aulide, Milan, 1809 ; Virginia, 
Eome, 1809 ; La locandiera scaltra, Paris, 
1812. Teseo, cantata ; Other cantatas ; 
Sonatas for pianoforte, and other instru- 
mental pieces. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Wurzbach. 

FEEN, DIE (The Fairies), romantic 
opera in three acts, text and music by 
Richard Wagner, written in 1833, first rep- 
resented at Munich, June 29, 1888. The 
overture alone was played at Magdeburg in 
1834. The original score, dedicated to liis 
patron, King Ludwig H. of Bavaria, was 
found among that monarch's effects after his 
death. The libretto is a German version of 
an Italian tale by Gozzi, which deals with 
the difficulties attending the love of Ai'indal, 
a mythical jsrince, and Ada, a fairy. — Mus. 
Wochenblatt (1887), 325, 337 ; Athena"um 
(1888), ii. 41. 

FELDLAGER IN SCHLESIEN, DAS 
(The Camp of Silesia), German opera in 
three acts, text by Rellstab, music by 
Meyerbeer, represented in Berlin at the 
opening of the new opera-house, Dec. 7, 
1844 (the old one was burned, Aug. 18, 
1843). In this opera, the subject of which 
is an episode in the life of Frederick the 
Great, Jenny Lind made a wonderful success 
in the character of Vielka, which was writ- 



60 



FELICI 



ten especially for her. Mosclieles, writing 
(Jan. 10, 1845) of her performance, says : 
" Jenny Lind Las fairly enchanted me ; she 
is unique in her way, and her song with two 
concertante flutes is perhaps the most in- 
credible feat in the way of bravura singing 
that can possibly be heard." She achieved 




Jenny Lind. 

a still more extraordinary success in Vienna, 
where she appeared in the same role, Feb. 
17, 1817, as much as eighty florins being 
paid for seats. The oj^era has never been 
given out of Germany, but the composer 
transferred many of its best numbers to 
h'^toile du Nord. 

FELICI, BARTOLOMEO (Alessandro ?), 
born in Florence about 1730, died ('?). 
Dramatic composer. His operas, L' amante 
contrastato, 1768 ; L' amore soldato, 1769 ; 
and La cameriera astuta, 1769, were per- 
formed in many of the Italian theatres. He 
wrote quartets for the violin, and psalms 
with orchestral accompaniment. His school 
of composition, opened in Florence in 1770, 
was celebrated. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 
322 ; Mendel. 

FELIS, STEFFANO, born at Bari, Italy, 
about 1550, composer, canon, and maestro 
of the cathedral in 1583. He went to 



Prague with his patron Philippe Domi- 
nique de Cro}', and jJublished masses there 
(1588). He published also motets, mad- 
rigals, etc.— Fetis ; Mendel ; Walther, 212 ; 
Viotta, i. 505. 

FELIX, ou I'enfant trouve (The Found- 
ling), comedy in three acts, text by Sedaine, 
music by Monsigny, represented at the 
Italiens, Paris, Nov. 24, 1777, after a private 
performance (Nov. 10th) before the court 
at Fontainebleau. Although Monsigny was 
but forty-eight years old, this was his last 
work. He said, on the day when he finished 
this score, that music was dead for him. 
The subject of the opera, Felix, a found- 
ling brought up by an honest villager, loves 
Therese, the daughter of his foster-father, 
but flies from his house on account of the 
hatred of his son. He saves the life of an 
unknown seigneur, who turns out to be his 
father and the owner of a considerable sum 
of money in the hands of the villager. The 
money is restored, Felix marries Thuruse, 
and all ends happily. 

FELL, ANTONIO, died at Palermo in 
1867. Dramatic composer, pupil of Eai- 
mondi ; composed several operas, among 
which are especially commended : Eufemia, 
and La sposa d' Abido ; also several masses 
and many other works of various kinds. 
— Futis, Supplement, i. 322. 

FELL RAGE AND BLACK DESPAIR, 
soj^rano air in A major, of Michal, in Han- 
del's Saul, Part I 

FELTON, WILLIAM, born in 1713, died 
Dec. 6, 1769. Organist, vicar-choral of 
Hereford Cathedral in the middle of the 
18th century. He was an able performer 
also on the harpsichord. Works : 3 sets of 
concertos for organ in imitation of those 
of Handel ; also 2 or 3 sets of lessons for 
organ. Felton's Gavot was long popular, 
and his Funeral Chant is still much sung. 
— Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, History, iv. 664. 

FELTRE, ALPHONSE CLARKE, Comte 
DE, born in Paris, June 27, 1806, died there, 
Dec. 3, 1850. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Reicha in 1825 and advised by Boieldieu. 



FEMME 



He was the third son of the Mart-chal due 
de Feltre, and served as an oiScer in the 
army until 1829, when he devoted himself 
entirely to composition. Works — Operas : 
Une aventure de Saiut-Fois (1830) ; La 
garde de nuit, given at the Princesse de 
Vaudemont's, 1831 (rewritten in part, 1844, 
and called Le capitaine Albert) ; Le fils du 
prince, Opt'ra Comique, 1834 ; L' incendio 
di Babilouia(1841) ; Valorie (unfinished) ; Li- 
strumental and vocal music. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

FEJniE SENSIBLE, ENTENDSTU 
LE R.\jMAGE ? See Ariodanl. 

F£]MY, FRANCOIS, known as Femy 
I'ainc', bom in Ghent, Oct. 4, 1790. Vio- 
linist and dramatic composer, pupil of 
Kreutzer at the Paris Conservatoire, where 
he took the prize for harmony in 1806 and 
for violin in 1807. For several years he 
was a member of the orchestra of the The- 
atre des Variett's, then travelled in France 
and Germany, and in 1834 settled at Rot- 
terdam. Works : Les trois Hussards, comic 
ofiera, given at Antwerp, 1813 ; Der Rau- 
graf, German opera, Frankfort, 1827 ; 4 
symphonies ; 3 concertos for violin and or- 
chestra ; Quartets, duos, romances, varia- 
tions, etc., for violin. — Fetis ; do., Sui:)pl(''- 
ment, i. 323 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FENAROLI, FEDELE, born at Lanci- 
ano, Abruzzi, in 1752, died in Naples, Jan. 
1, 1818. Contrapuntist, ^nipil of Durante 
at the Conservatorio of Loreto, Naples. He 
became maestro of the Conservatorio de' 
Turchini, and had many celebrated pupils. 
Works : 12 motets ; 4 masses with orches- 
tra ; a Requiem mass ; 2 Miserere for four 
voices ; Ave Maria for four voices ; Hymns 
and psalms for special occasions. He pub- 
lished studies in counterpoint and techni- 
cal works. — Fetis ; Larousse ; IMendel. 

FENZI, MOTOR, born at Naples, died 
at Moscow, April, 1827. Violoncellist, and 
composer for his instrument ; went in 1807 
to Paris, where he played at several con- 
cei'ts, and after visiting Germany settled in 
Russia. Works : 4 concertos for violon- 
cello ; Several pot-pourris ; 2 books of 



trios ; 3 do. of airs varies (published in 
Paris and Germany). His brother Giu- 
seppe was considered the best violoncellist 
in Naples, made concert tours in Italj', and 
composed concertos and airs varies for his 
instrument. — Fetis ; IMendel ; Schilling. 

FEO, FRANCESCO, born in Naples 
about the end of the 17th century. Dra- 
matic composer, jDupil of Domeiiico Gizzi 
in singing and composition, and in Rome 
of Pitoni in counterpoint. He succeeded 
Gizzi in 1740 as director of the singing 
school of Naples, and had many famous pu- 
pils. Gluck is said to have taken the motif 
of a chorus in his Telemaceo from a Kyrie 
by Feo, which he afterwards reproduced in 
his lijhigenie en Aulide. Some of Fee's 
church music in SIS. is jjreserved in the li- 
brary of the Conservatoire, Paris. Works 
— Operas : L' amor tirannico, ossia Zenobia, 
three acts, given in Naples, Jan. 18, 1713 ; 
Siface, re di Numidia, three acts, ib., 1728 ; 
Ipermestra, Rome, 1725 ; Arianna, ib., 
1728 ; Andromacca, ib., 1730 ; Ai\sace, ib., 
1731. Three intermezzi : Don Chisciotte 
della Maucia ; Coriando lo sjjeziale ; II ve- 
dovo. An oratorio : La distruzione dell' 
esercito de' Cananei con la morte de Sisera, 
given in Prague, 1739. A requiem ; Masses ; 
Psalms ; Litanies, etc. — Fetis, iii. 200 ; 
do.. Supplement, i. 323 ; Mendel, iii. 489 ; 
do., Ergiinz., 102 ; SchiUiug ; Gerbei*. 

FERAMORS, lyric opera, in three acts, 
text by Julius Rodeuberg, music by Anton 
Rubinstein, given in Dresden, 18G3. Sub- 
ject from Thomas Moore's "Lalla Rookh." 
Feramors is the young poet who entertains 
Lalla Rookh with poetical recitations while 
on her journey from Delhi, to be married to 
the sultan. She falls in love with the poet 
and finds, to her joy, on her wedding-morn, 
that the jjoet and the sultan are one. The 
opera was given in Vienna, April 24, 1872. 
— Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 325. 

FERANDINI, GIOVANNI, born in Ven- 
ice, beginning of the 18th century, died in 
Munich in 1793. Dramatic composer, pu- 
pil of Antonio Bitfi, maestro di cappella of 



FERNAND 



San Marco. He went to Muuicli as court 
oboist, and became director of chamber mu- 
sic, and subsequently councillor and Ka- 
pellmeister. Works — Operas: Berenice, 
given at the Court Theatre iu Munich, 1780 ; 
Adriano in Siria, Demofoonte, ib., 1737 ; 
Artaserse, ib., 1739 ; Catone in Utica, ib., 
1753; Diana placata, ib., 1758; Talestri, 
ib. ; II festiuo, Parma, 175G ; Componi- 
nieuto drammatico per 1' iucorouazione di Ca- 
rolo VII, etc., Munich, 1742. Many canta- 
tas, thirty of which are iu the Royal Library 
at Dresden ; Sonatas for the flute (Amstei'- 
dam, 1730) ; Comijositions for alto-viol and 
lute. — Ft'tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FERNAND CORTEZ, ou la conquC-te du 
Mexiquo (The Conquest of Mexico), opera 
in three acts, text by Etienne Jou}', after 
Piron's drama, music by Spontini, repre- 
sented at the Academie Imperiale de j\Iu- 
sique, Paris, Nov. 28, 1809, before the Em- 
peror Napoleon and the Kings of Saxony 
and "Westphalia. The original text was 
written by Jouy. Napoleon hoping to in- 
fluence public opinion in favour of his 
plans for the Sjiauish war, the Minister of 
the Interior desired Jouy to introduce into 
the libretto more distinct allusions to the 
topics of the day. Jouy declining to alter 
the text, a few additions and alterations 
were made by Esmenard, the part of Monte- 
zuma being suppressed altogether. Though 
the opera was a success, it had but twenty- 
four representations in seven years. On 
May 28, 1817, it was revived, with consider- 
able changes by Jouy, the third act be- 
coming the first, the first act the second, 
and a part of the second the third. The 
part of Montezuma was reinstated and the 
character of Amazily strengthened. In its 
second form Cortez achieved a new success. 
It kept the Paris stage up to 1839, when 
248 representations had been given. It 
was produced in Berlin, April 20, 1818, and 
elsewhere soon after. In 1823, when Spon- 
tini was Kajjellmeister at Berlin, the third 
act was remodelled by the jsoet Thi'auleon, 
and in this form the pianoforte score was 



published by Hofmeister of Leipsic. The 
full score was published in Paris in 1882. 
Cortez was produced in Stockholm in 1826 
and again in 1838 ; in Vienna, 1854 ; and 
in New York, iu German, at the Metropol- 
itan Opera House, Jan. 6, 1888. The plot, 
in its present form, is as follows : Alvarez, 
brother of Cortez, and other Spaniards, 
prisoners to the Mexicans and about to be 
sacrificed, are preserved by Montezuma as 
hostages for the departure of the invaders. 
Amazily, sister of Tclasco, the Mexican 
commander, has become a Christian and 








Alexandrine Branchu. 

fled to Cortez, whom she loves, but revisits 
the city to endeavour to bring about peace. 
Montezuma sends her back to the Spanish 
camp to arrange an armistice, and Telasco, 
who has been undermining the fidelity of 
Cortez's soldiers by presents, follows her 
under a flag of truce to second her efibrts. 
Cortez quells an insurrection which breaks 
out, and holds Telasco as a hostage for the 
safety of Alvarez and his companions ; but, 
the release of the Spaniards being promised 
by the Mexicans, he suffers Tulasco to re- 
turn. Telasco opposes the keeiaing of faith 
with Cortez, and the prisoners are about to 
meet their doom, when Amazily swims the 
lake and offers her life for them. But the 



S3 



FERNANDO 



sacrifice is unnecessary, for Cortez storms 
the city, saves all, and peace is made. 

Oeigujal Cast at the Opera, Paris, 1809. 

Amazily (S.) Mme Braucbu. 

Fernand Cortez (T.) M. Laino. 

Telasco (Bar.) M. Lais. 

Alvar (T.) M. Laforet. 

Le Grand Pretre (B.) M. Derivis. 

c.ast at the metropolitan opera house, 
New York, 1888. 

Amazily (S.) Frl. Meisslinger. 

Feruaud Cortez (T.) Herr Niemann. 

Montezuma (Bar.) Herr Elmblad. 

Tulasco (Bar.) Herr Robinson. 

Alvarez (T.) Herr Alvary. 

High Priest (B.) Herr Fischer. 

— Le Monestrel (1874), Sept. G, 13, 20, 27, 
Oct. i ; 11. Eocliette, Notice liistorique . . . 
de Spontiui (Paris, 1852) ; Grove, iii. G68 ; 
Krehbiel, Review (1887-88) ; N. Y. Evening 
Post, Jan. 7, 1888. 

FERNANDO, German operetta in one 
act, text by Albert Stadler, music by Franz 
Schubert, written in Vienna, 1815, but nev- 
er represented. It was composed in six 
days. The original score is in the posses- 
sion of Dr. Eduard Schneider, Vienna. 

FERR.\BOSCO (Ferabosco), ALFONSO, 
Italian musician, settled in England in the 
middle of the 16th century. He composed 
motets, madrigals, and pieces for the virgin- 
als, and ranked as one of the first musicians 
of the Elizabethan era. His Madrigali a 4 
voci were published iu Venice in 1542, and 
his Madrigali a 5 voci in 1587. Many of 
his madrigals were printed in the two 
books of Musica Transaljnua (1588, 1597) ; 
and several are extant in MS. — Fctis ; 
Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FERRABOSCO, ALFONSO, born at 
Greenwich, England, about 1580, died in 
1652. Sou of the preceding ; one of the 
grooms of the privy chamber of James I. 
and instructor in music of Prince Henry. 
Works : Volume of " Ayres," which contains 
many of the songs in Ben Jonson's plays 



(London, 1G09) ; Lessons for 1, 2, and 3 
viols (London, 1609) ; Fancies for viols, 
etc. A song by him, " Shall I seek to ease 
my grief ?," from the " Ayres," is published 
by Dr. Rimbault (Novello). — Fc'tis ; Grove. 
" FERRABOSCO (Ferrabosehi), DOMENI- 
CO :M.YRIA, born in Rome, first half of the 
16th century. He was maestro of the chor- 
isters in the Vatican Chapel from 1547 to 
1548, when he became maestro di cappella 
of S. Petronio, Bologna. Called to Rome to 
become a member of the Pontifical Choir, in 
1550, he was obliged to resign in 155G, in 
accordance with the Pope's decree that none 
but priests could belong to the college, he 
having meanwhile married. His motets are 
published in Gardane's collection (Venice, 
1554). His celebrated chanson, lo mi son 
giovinetta, is in Vincenzo Galilei's Fronimo, 
and in Eler's collection in the Conservatoii-e, 
Paris. His MSS. are preserved in the Vati- 
can Library. — Futis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FERR.\i30SC0, JOHN, English com- 
poser of the 17th century, died in 1682. 
Probably a son of Alfonso Ferrabosco the 
younger. He was organist of Ely Cathedral 
from 1G62 until his decease, and was 
awarded the degree of JIus. Bac. at Cam- 
bridge in 1671, per literas regias. A hymn 
of his is still sung at Canterbury and in 
other English cathedrals. Eight comjjlete 
services and eleven anthems by him are pre- 
served iu MS. in Ely Cathedral. — Grove ; 
Fc'tis ; Mendel. 

FERRADINI (Ferrandini), ANTONIO, 
born in Naples in 1718, died in Prague in 
1779. Church composer, studied in Naples, 
lived in Prague about thirty years, and died 
in great poverty and unknb wn. A Stabat Ma- 
ter, performed there after his death, 1780, 
was considered a masterjjiece. In the court 
library at Vienna is a Credo in four parts, 
and in the royal library at Dresden are five 
arias and four duets, of his composition. 
— Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FERRANTI, ]\IARCO AURELIO Z.\- 
NI DE, born in Bologna in 1802. Virtuoso 
on the guitar ; pupil on the violin of Gerli 



64 



FERRARI 



in Lucca, and became an accomplished 
player when only sixteen, but soon aban- 
doned that instrument for the guitar, on 
which he became equallj' skilful. In 1820 
he went to St. Petersburg as secretary to 
Prince Narischkin, and perfected there his 
guitar playing, and in 1824 went to Ham- 
burg. He gave concerts there, and in Brus- 
sels, Paris, and London from 1825 to 1832, 
visited America with Sivori, and finally set- 
tling in Brussels as professor of Italian at 
the Conservatoire from 181G to 1855 ; he 
returned afterwards to Italy. He has pub- 
lished fantaisies, airs varies, etc., for the gui- 
tar.— Fctis, iii. 240 ; Mendel, iii. 495. 

FEERAEI, BENEDETTO, born at Reg- 
gio, Italy, 1597, died at Modena, Oct. 22, 
1681. Dramatic composer, called Delia 
Tiorba, from his skiU on the theorbo or 
lute ; studied in Rome. He was a poet as 
well as a musician, and his opera Andro- 
meda, music by Manelli da Tivoli, repre- 
sented at the Teatro S. Cassiano, Venice, in 
1637, was the first performed in public in 
that city. It was largely owing to him that 
the dramma musicale took such deep root 
in Italy and in Germany. In 1639 was pro- 
duced his Armida, of which he wrote both 
text and music. In 1644 he left Venice for 
Vienna at the invitation of the Emperor 
Ferdinand. In 1653-62 he was maestro di 
cappella to Alfonso I., Duke of Modena, 
and in 1674-81 to his successor, Alfonso H. 
Works : Armida, given at Venice, Teatro 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 1639 ; II pastor re- 
gio, ib., S. Mose, 1640 ; La ninfa avara, ib., 
1641 ; Proserpina rapita, intermezzo, ib., 
1641 ; H principe giardiniero, ib., SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo, 1644 ; Vittoria d' Himeneo, 
ballet, Modena, 1648 ; Dafne in alloro, do., 
Vienna, 1651 ; L' ingauno d' amore, Ratis- 
bon, 1653 ; Amori d' Alessandro Magno e di 
Rossaue, Venice, 1656 ; Licasta, Parma, 1664 ; 
Garadegli elementi, Ferrara, 1666 ; Musiche 
varie a voce sola, collection of songs (Venice, 
1638). — Fctis ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Schilling. 

FERRARI, CARLO, born at Piaceuza in 
1730, died at Parma in 1789. Virtuoso on 



the violoncello, acquired great reputation 
in 1758, in Paris, where he appeared with 
brilliant success in the Concerts Spirituels ; 
in 1765 he entered the service of the court 
of Parma. He composed solos for his in- 
strument. — Mendel. 

FERRARI, CARLOTTA, born at Lodi, 
Italy, Jan. 27, 1837, still Hviug, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Strepponi and 
Panziui ; and at the Conservatorio, Milan, 
in 1844-50, of Mazzucato in comijosition. 
She is a poet as well as musician, and writes 
her own librettos. Works : Ugo, opera, 
represented in Milan, July 24, 1857 ; Sofia, 
opera in three acts, Lodi, Milan, Turin, 
1866 ; Eleonora d' Ai-borea, opera, Cagliari, 
Jlarch, 1871 ; Grand mass for Cathedral of 
Lodi, 1868 ; Requiem for anniversary of 
death of Charles Albert, Turin Cathedral, 
1868 ; Songs, etc. — Fetis, Sujaj^lement, i. 
325 ; Mendel, iii. 496 ; do., Ergiiuz., xii. 102 ; 
Riemann. 

FERRARI, DOMENICO, bornatPiacenza 
in the early part of the 18th century, died 
in Paris in 1780. Violinist, jiupil of Tartini ; 
after living several years in Cremona, he 
began to travel in 1749, and met with much 
success in Vienna, where he was considered 
the greatest living violinist. In 1754 he 
visited Paris, and was afterwards a mem- 
ber of the band of the Duke of Wiirtem- 
berg in Stuttgart. He is said to have been 
murdered on a second visit to Paris. 
Works : 6 violin sonatas (London, Paris, 
1758). His brother. Carlo Ferrari (1730- 
1789), was a noted violoncellist at Parma. 
— Fetis ; Grove ; Buruey, Hist., iii. 562, 
573 ; Mendel. 

FERRARI, GIACOMO GOTIFREDO, 
born at Roveredo, Tyrol, in 1759, died in 
London, December, 1842. Dramatic com- 
l^oser, pupil at Verona of the Abbate Cubri, 
Marcola, and Borsaro ; subsequently learned 
the flute, violin, oboe, and double-bass at 
Roveredo, theory under Pater Marianus 
Stecher, at the Convent of Mariaberg, near 
Chur, and later studied two years under La- 
tilla at Naples. In 1791 he became accom- 



FERRAEI 



paiiist at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris. After 
the breaking out of the Eevohition he \Yeut 
to Brussels, and finally settled in London as 
a singing teacher. Works — Operas : Les 
evenements imprevus, Paris, about 1794 ; 
La villanella rapita, London, 1797 ; I dui 
Suizzeri, ib., 1798 ; L' eroiua di Eaab, ib., 
1799. Ballets : Borea e Zeffiro ; La daina 
di sjsirito. Sonatas ; Concertos for various 
instruments ; Six English canzonets ; Solos ; 
Songs. He published, also : " Studio di 
musica pratica e teorica " ; " .i\jieddoti," 
etc. (London, 1830) ; and other treatises. 
— Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

FEEPtARI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, born 
in Venice, died there young, Aug. li, 1845. ' 
Dramatic composei'. Works : Maria d' In- 
ghilterra, given at La Scala, Milan, 1840 ; 
Saffo, Venice, Teatro Fenice, 1841 ; Candi- j 
ano IV'., Florence and Milan, 1842 ; Gli 
ultimi giorne di Suli, Venice, 1843. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

FERR.ARI, SERAFINO DE', born in 
Genoa in 1824, died there, March 31, 1885. 
Pianist, organist, and dramatic composer ; 
jjupil of Bevilacqua, Scrra, and Sciorati in 
Genoa, and later of Mandanici in I\Iilan. 
Engaged as maestro concertatore in Am- 
sterdam, he wrote the music of au opera, I 
Catilina, which has never been produced. 
On his return to Italy he became director 
of singing in several of the theatres, and 
produced an opera, Don Carlo, at the Carlo- [ 
Felice Theatre, Genoa, in 1853 ; he rewrote 
this opera later, and produced it as Filippo 
n., but it was not so successful as at first. 
Works : Pipele, opera bufifa ; H matrimonio 
per concorso, do., Venice, 1858 ; II menes- 
trello, do., Genoa, Teatro Paganiui, 18G1 ; H 
cadetto di Guascogna, do., ib., Teatro Carlo- 
Felice, 1864 ; Several masses ; Some songs, 
among which are. La croce della Mamma, 
and a mazurka, Fiori d' Aprile ; Delia, 
ballet, abovit the same time. — Fi'tis, Supple- 
ment, i. 246 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 79. 

FERRARO, Padre ANTONIO, born at 
Polizzi, Sicily, in the second half of the 
16th century. Church composer, Carmelite 



I monk, and organist of his monastery at Ca- 
tania. Works : Sacnic cantiones, collection 
of 32 motets for 1—4 voices (Rome, 1617) ; 
Ghirlauda di sacri fiori (Palermo, 1623). 
—Fetis; Mendel. 

FERRER, MATEO, known as Matenet, 
born at Barcelona, Feb. 25, 1788, died 
there, Jan. 4, 1864. Organist of great re- 
nown, pupil of Fi-ancisco Queralt ; having 
studied several instruments from his earli- 
est youth, he became organist of the cathe- 
dral at Barcelona when quite young, and 
soon after assumed also the functions of 
maestro de capilla. At the same time he 
played in the orchestra of the Teatro de 
Santa Cruz, and in 1827 was appointed its 
conductor. By one of his biographers he 
is jjraised as one of the greatest contrai^unt- 
ists of the century. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
326. 

FERRETTI, GIOVANNI, born iu Venice 
about 1540, died ('?). He was a jjrolific 
composer of madrigals and of canzoni alia 
napolitana, which, says Fetis, are full of 
originahty and worthy of more repute. 
Works : 5 books of five-part canzoni (Ven- 
ice, 1567-91) ; 2 books of six-part canzoni 
(ib., 1576-86) ; 1 book of five-part madri- 
gals (ib., 1588). His madrigal, Siat' avvertiti, 
for five voices, is in Webb's madrigals.— Fe- 
tis ; Grove ; Mendel. 

FERROUD, J. DENIS, born in France 
about 1810, still living, 1889 (?). Pupil at 
the Conservatoire, Paris, of Reieha and Fe- 
tis ; in 1846 he was settled at Bordeaux, as 
professor of harmony and composition, and 
left that city in 1856, since when nothing 
has been heard of him. Works : L'Ecos- 
sais, comic opera ; Several ballets ; Clovis, 
ode symphony, Bordeaux, Grand Theatre, 
1853 ; Jerusalem, ode-symphony ; Cantata ; 
Stabat Mater ; Le papillon, chorus ; Le 
retour aux montagnes, do.; Choruses for the 
synagogue of Bordeaux. — Fetis, Sujjple- 
ment, i. 327. 

FESCA, ALEXANDER ERNST, born at 
Carisruhe, May 22, 1820, died at Bruns- 
wick, Feb. 22, 1849. Dramatic comjjoser 



S6 



FESCA 



and pianist, son of Friedricli Ernst Fesca ; 
pupil of Marx on the pianoforte, then at 
Brunswick of Kapellmeister Wiedebein in 
theory, and from 1834 in Berlin of Rungen- 
hagen, August Wilhelm Bach, and Johann 
Julius Schneider in harmony and composi- 
tion, and of Taubert on the pianoforte. He 
returned to Carlsruhe in 1838, made con- 
cert tours through Germany, Austria, and 
Hungary in 1839-40, was made chamber 
virtuoso to Prince Furstenberg in 1841, and 
settled at Brunswick in 1842. His songs 
were, and still are, popular in Germany. 
Works — Operas : Marietta, given at Carls- 
ruhe, 1839 ; Die Franzosen in Spanieu, ib., 
1841 ; Der Troubadour, Brunswick, 1847 ; 
Ulrich von Hutteu, five acts, Brunswick, 
1849 ; 2 septets for pianoforte and string 
instraments, op. 2 and 28 ; Sextet for do., 
op. 8 ; 6 trios for do. ; 3 quartets for strings ; 
Duos for i^ianoforte and viohn ; Grand so- 
nata for do., op. 40 ; Fantasias, rondos, 
etc., for pianoforte ; Songs (collection of 
48, Brunswick, Litolff, 1872).— Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 722 ; Fetis ; Ledebur, Ton- 
kunstler Lexikon Berlins, 151 ; Mendel ; 
Weech, Badische Biogr., i. 243. 

FESCA, FRIEDRICH ERNST, born at 
Magdeburg, Feb. 15, 
1789, died at Carls- 
ruhe, May 24, 1826. 
Violinist, pujiil in 
Magdeburg of Lohse 
on the violin, and of 
Zachariii and Pitterlin 
in theory ; went to 
Leipsic in 1805 to 
study under August 
Eberhardt Midler and 
Matthiii, and also entered the Gewandhaus 
and Theater orchestras. In 1806 he became 
a member of the ducal orchestra at Olden- 
burg, in 1808 solo violinist at Cassel, in 
1814 visited Vienna, and in 1815 was called 
to Carlsruhe as first violin and later as 
Conzertmeister. Though ill several j'ears 
before his death, some of his last works 
were among his best. Opinions differ as to 




the merit of his compositions ; while they 
show no peculiarly original style, they are 
evidently the work of an earnest student of 
classic models and of a master of technique. 
Works : Cantemira, opera, 1819 ; Omar und 
Leila, romantic opera in three acts, Carlsruhe, 
1823 ; 20 quartets ; 5 quintets ; 3 symphonies ; 
4 overtures ; 4 violin pot-pourris ; Vater Un- 
ser for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; and sev- 
eral psalms and songs. A complete edition 
of his 25 quartets and quintets has been 
published in Paris (Rimbault). — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 722 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxviii. 
545, 701 ; xxxii. 215 ; xxxix. Ill ; vii.-xlvii.; 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Rochlitz, Fiir Freunde der 
Tonkunst, iii. 73 ; Schilling ; Weech, Ba- 
dische Biogr., i. 240. 

FESCH. See Defesch. 

FESSY, ALEXANDRE CHARLES, born 
in Paris, Oct. 18, 1804, died there, Nov. 30, 
1856. Pianist and organist, pupil in 1813 
at the Conservatoire ; studied the organ 
under Benoist, taking 1st prize in 1834. 
He was organist of I'Assomption, Paris, and 
chef-d'orchestre successively of the concerts 
of the rue Vivienue, of the Theatre Lyrique, 
and of the Theatre du Cirque. Works : Or- 
gan music ; Pianoforte music ; and L'Or- 
ganiste fran9ais. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

FESTA, COSTANZO, born, probably in 
Rome, near the close of the 15th century, 
died there, April 10, 1545. He was elected 
a member of the Pontifical Choir in 1517, 
and afterwards appointed maestro at the 
Vatican. It is more than probable that he 
studied under a Netherlandish master. He 
ushered in the great epoch of Italian music 
which culminated in Palestriua, and may be 
called the first great composer of the Ro- 
man school. His compositions consisted 
of church music a cappella, and madrigals. 
Most of his published pieces are in the col- 
lections published in Venice by Gardane 
and Scotto about the middle of the 16th 
century. His madrigal, " Quando ritrovo 
la mia pastorella " (Down in a flowery vale), 
is very popular in England. Works : 1. 
Madrigali a tre voci, libro primo (Venice, 



57 



FESTA 



Ant. Gardaue, 2d ed., 1556 ; 3d, 1559) ; 2. 
Motetti a 3 voci (Venice, 1543) ; 3. Litaniae 
Deiparse Virgiuis Marise (Munich, Adam 
Berg, 1583). Seijarate pieces are found in 
collections published in Venice and else- 
where during the 16th century. — Ambros, 
iii. 565 ; Sehelle, Die sixtinische Capelle 
(Vienna, 1872), 259 ; Eituer, 550. 

FESTA, GIUSEPPE MARIA, born at 
Trani, Naples, in 1771, died at Naples, April 
7, 1830. Violin virtuoso, pupil of Giardini 
and LoUi on his instrument, and of Gar- 
gano and Fenaroli in counterpoint ; accom- 
panied Loi"d Hamilton, the English ambas- 
sador, to Constantinople about 1799, and 
after his return lived for a time at Milan. 
In 1802 he became maestro di cappella at 
Lodi, but returned to Naples in 1805 and 
entered the orchestra of the Teatro Sau 
Carlo as first violinist ; in 1812 he visited 
Paris for about eight months, and after his 
return to Naples was appointed maestro di 
cappella at the Teatro San Carlo, in 1816, 
and soon after also of the royal ehaijel and 
of the king's private orchestra. Among his 
compositions for the violin are 3 works of 
duos and 2 works of quartets, published by 
Girard at Naples. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

FESTGESANG (Festival Song), Schil- 
ler's poem, "An die Kiinstler," for male 
voices and brass, by Mendelssohn, op. 68, 
written for the opening of the first German- 
Flemish Vocal Festival at Cologne. 

FESTGESANG, for male chorus and 
orchestra, by Mendelssohn (no opus No.), 
written for the festival of the fourth cen- 
tennial celebration of the art of printing, 
Leipsic, June 24 and 25, 1840. The words 
of the hymn, which was sung at the un- 
veiling of the statue of Guttenberg in the 
public square, on the morning of the 24th, 
were written by Adolphus Prolss, a teacher 
in the Freiberg Gymnasium. The work is 
sometimes called the Guttenberg Fest-Can- 
tate. — Upton, Standard Cantatas, 263. 

FESTING, MICHAEL CHRISTIAN, 
born in London (?) about 1680, died there, 
July 24, 1752. Violinist, puj^il of Richard 



Jones and of Geminiani. He became a 
member of the King of England's private 
orchestra and first violinist of the Philhar- 
monic Society of London ; and was made 
musical director of Ranelagh Gardens at 
their opening in 1742. He was one of the 
founders of the Loudon Society of Musicians 
and its secretary for many years. Works : 
Violin solos ; Symphonies, concertos, and 
} sonatas ; Ode on the return of the Duke of 
Cumberland in 1745 ; Addison's Ode for 
St. Cecilia's Day ; Milton's Song on May 
morning ; Cantatas and songs. — Grove ; 
Fotis ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

FESTIvLANGE (Festival Sounds), No. 7 
of Liszt's Symjjhonischr Dichtungen, written 
at Weimar, 1856. Published, score and 
parts ; also, two pianofortes, and pianoforte 
four hands, by Breitkopf & Hiirtel. 

FEST-:HARSCH (Festival March), for or- 
chestra, by Franz Liszt, written for Goethe's 
birthday. Published, score and parts ; also, 
pianoforte, two and four hands (Schu- 
berth). 

FESTilARSCH, GROSSER, zur Erofi'- 
nung der hundertjiihrigen Gedenkfeier der 
Unabhiingigkeits-Erklarung der vereinig- 
ten Staaten von Nordamerika, for grand or- 
chestra, by Richard Wagner. Written for, 
and first played at the National Centennial 
Exhibition, Philadeljjhia, May 10, 1876, 
whence called also Centennial March. The 
stipulated price for this work was $5,000, 
but Wagner received, through the efforts of 
American admirers, double that sum, when 
he needed the money for the first Baireuth 
festival. 

FEST-OUVERTURE (Festival Overture), 
for orchestra, by Otto Nicolai, written for 
the jubilee of the University of Kouigsberg, 
1844. Its theme is Luther's " Ein' feste 
Burg ist unser Gott." 

FEST-OITV'ERTURE, for orchestra, in A, 
by Joachim Raff, op. 117. In it, also, " Ein' 
feste Burg " is used as a theme. Published 
by Kistner. 

" FEST-VORSPIEL (Festival Prelude), for 
orchestra, by Franz Liszt, written for the 



es 



f£te 



Schiller and Goethe Festival, Weimar, 1857. 
Published in score (Hallberger). 

FETE DU VILLAGE, LA, opera in one 
act, text by Desfontaines, music by Gossec, 
represented at the Academic Koyale de 
Musique, Paris, May 26, 1778. An opera- 
comique in one act, of the same title, text 
by Etieune, music by Nicolo Isouard, was 
given at the Oj^era Comique, March 31, 
1811. La fete du village voisiu, opura- 
comique in three acts, text by Sewriu, 
music by Boieldieu, was produced at the 
Theatre Feydeau, March 5, 181G. 

FilTES DE L' AMOUR ET DE BAC- 
CHUS, LES, pastorale in three acts, with 
prologue, text by Molicre, Beuserade, 
Quinault, etc., music by Lulli, represented 
by the Academie Eoyale de Musique, at the 
Theatre du Bel-Air, Paris, Nov. 15, 1672. 
This work, reproduced six times between 
1672 and 1738, was the beginning of the 
comijoser's successful career. It was first 
published by J. B. Christophe Ballard 
(Paris, 1727), Fetis being incorrect in speak- 
ing of an edition of 1679. 

FfiTIS, ADOLPHE LOUIS EUGENE, 
born in Paris, Aug. 20, 1820, died there, 
March 20, 1873. Dramatic composer, son 
of Frau9ois Joseph Fetis, pujsil at the Con- 
servatoire at Brussels, then in Paris of 
Henri Herz on the pianoforte, and of Halevy 
in composition. After his return to Brus- 
sels he was put in charge of a course in har- 
mony for young ladies at the Conserva- 
toire ; for several years he taught harmony 
and the pianoforte at Brussels and Ant- 
werp, and in 1856 settled in Paris. Works : 
Le major Schlagmann, operetta given at 
the Bouffes Parisiens, 1859 ; several comic 
operas ; Les legendes des siecles, morceaux 
de salon, for pianoforte ; Romances sans 
paroles, for do. ; 2 caprices d'etude, do. ; 
Grand polka et redowa, do. ; Morceaux, 
for harmonium and violoncello ; Album de 
1861, melodies for 1 and 2 voices, with pi- 
anoforte. — Fetis. 

FFTIS, FRANgOIS JOSEPH, born at 
Mons, Belgium, March 25, 1784, died in 




Brussels, March 25, 1871. The son of an 
organist at Mons, he learned to play at an 
early age the violin, 
pianoforte, and or- 
gan. He finished 
his studies at the 
Paris Conservatoire, 
where he was the 
pupil on the piano- 
forte of Pradher 
and Boieldieu, tak- 
ing the prize for har- 
mony in 1803, and, 
for the second time, the second prize in com- 
position in 1807. In 1806 he married ; on the 
loss of his wife's fortune, in 1811, he retired 
to the Ardennes. In 1813 he was appointed 
organist and professor of music at Douai. 
In 1821, on Eler's vacating the post, he was 
made professor of counterpoint and fugue 
at the Paris Conservatoire and librarian in 
1827. In 1833 he was appointed director of 
the Brussels Conservatoire and maitre de 
chapelle to the King of the Belgians. He 
wrote several memou-es for the Belgian 
Academic Royale. Fetis was a learned 
harmonist and contrapuntist, and was a 
noted champion of the old Italian, pure con- 
trapuntal style. His operas, and chamber 
and orchestral music, have now passed into 
oblivion, and most of his church music is 
unpublished. His most noteworthy com- 
position is his Requiem (1850), written for 
the funeral of the Queen of Belgium. But 
he won his greatest fame as a musical the- 
orist, historian, and teacher. His Treatise 
on Counterpoint and Fugue is unquestion- 
ably the best and most exhaustive text- 
book on the subject in existence ; his Trea- 
tise on Harmony, in sjjite of some incon- 
sequences and now obsolete views, is still 
one of the most remarkable theoretical 
works in musical literature. As an histo- 
rian he was voluminous, but not always 
trustworthy ; his historical works are, 
moreover, stained with an uncompromising 
dogmatism. His Biographic universelle 
des Musicieus (continued after his death by 



FEUER-SYMPHONIE 



Ai-thur Pougin) is still a standard book 
of reference. Works — Operas : L'amant et 
le ruari, given at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
1820 ; Les sceurs jumelles, ib., 1823 ; Marie 
Stuart en Ecosse, ib., 1823 ; Le bour- 
geois de Reims, ib., 1824 ; La vieille, ib., 
182G ; Le mannequin de Bergame, ib., 
1832 ; Phidias, not represented. Instru- 
mental music : Overtures for orchestra ; 
Sonatas ; Sextets ; Quintets ; Duos for piano- 
forte and violin. Vocal music : Canzonette ; 
Masses ; Vespers, and much other church 
music still in MS. Historical and didactic 
works : Mi'thode elumeutaire d'harmonie 
et d'accompaguement (1824, 1836, 1S41, 
translated into English and Italian) ; Traite 
de la fugue et du contrapoint (1825, 184G) ; 
Traite de I'accompagnement de la partition 
(1829) ; Solfeges progressifs precedes de 
I'exposition raisonne des principes de la 
musique (1827) ; La musique mise a la 
portee de tout le moude (1830) ; Curiosites 
historiques de la musique (1830) ; Bio- 
graphie universelle des musiciens et biblio- 
graphie generale de la musique, 8 vols. 
(1835-44; 2d ed., 1860-G5 ; Supplement, 
Pougin, 1878-80) ; Manuel des principes de 
musique, etc. (1837) ; Traite du chant en 
choeur, etc. (1838) ; Manuel des jeunes com- 
positeurs, des chefs de musique militaire et 
des directeurs d'orchestre (1837) ; Methode 
des methodes de piano (1837) ; Methode 
des methodes de chant ; Esquisse de I'his- 
toire de I'harmonie, etc. (1840) ; Methode 
elementairc du plain-chant (1843) ; Traite 
complet de la theorie et de la pratique de 
I'harmonie (1844, 6th ed., 1857); Notice 
biographique de Nicolo Paganini, etc. 
(1851) ; Traite elementaire de musique, etc. 
(1851-1852) ; Antoine Stradivari, etc. (1856); 




Histoii'e generale de la musique depuis les 
temps les plus anciens jusqua uos jours 
(1869-76 ; finished only as far as the 15th 



century). He left other works and treatises 
unpublished. His eldest son, Edward Louis 
Fran(;ois (born at Bouvignes, May 16, 1812), 
is a professor in Brussels. He succeeded 
his father as editor of the Revue musicale 
in 1833-35, edited the fifth volume of 
"Histoire generale de la musique," and has 
published " Les musiciens beiges " (Brus- 
sels, 1848), and other works. — Louis Alvin, 
Notice sur F. J. Fetis (Brussels, 1874) ; Am- 
bros, Buute Blatter, i. 141. 

FEUER-SYMPHONIE (Fire Symphony), 
by Joseph Haydn, written in 1770. It is 
probably the overture to the opera Die 
Feuersbrunst, an unrepresented work by 
the composer. 

FEUILLETS D'.YLBUM (Album Leaves), 
3 songs with pianoforte accompaniment, by 
Hector Berlioz, op. 19. — Jullien, Hector 
Berlioz (1888), 378. 

FEVIN, ANTOINE, born, probably at 
Orleans, France, about 1490, died cer- 
tainly before 1516. Little or nothing is 
known of his life, but his compositions (in 
spite of his early death) point to his having 
been one of the gi-eatest geniuses between 
Josquin Despres and Orlando Lasso. His 
reputation, during and after his life, was im- 
mense. The opinion that be was a Span- 
iard is rejected by the best authorities. 
Works : 3 Masses, Sancta Trinitas, ]\[ente 
tota, and Ave Maria, from a book of Masses 
(Petrucci, Fossombrone, 1515 ; only known 
copy in British Museum) ; 3 Masses ; Ave 
Maria, Mente tota, and De feria (-'Liber 
quindecim Missarum," Rome, 1516 ; copy 
in llazarin Library, Paris) ; 6 motets from 
"Motetti della coi-ona " (Petrucci, 1514); 
Motet, Descende in hortum meum, and a 
fugue, Qu;e es ista ("Cautiones selects ul- 
tra centum," Augsburg, 1540) ; 2 Lamenta- 
tions, Migravit Juda, and Recordare est, 
(" Recueil de Lamentations de Jereraie," 
Paris, 1558) ; Detached movements from 
masses in Eslava's Lira sacro-hispana ; Mag- 
nificat in Attaignant's 5th book for four 
voices, and 2 motets in his 11th book (Paris, 
1534) ; Chansons franyaisea in "Bicinia gal- 



Ffivm 



lica, latiiia et germanica " (Wittenberg, 
1545) ; 3 masses in the Ambraser Messen, 
Vieuua, and 3 motets in MS. in the same 
hbrary. A mass in MS., Salve sancta pa- 
rens, the only copy, is in the Munich Li- 
brary. A song of his, " Je le I'airray," is in 
the Harleian MSS., and fragments of two 
masses are in Burney's Musical Extracts ; 
both in the British Museum. — Ambros, iii. 
274 ; Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, Hist, of Mas., 
ii. 530 ; Mendel. 

FEVIN, ROBERTUS, born at Cambrai, 
latter part of the 15th century, died after 
1515. A contemporary of Antoine Fevin, but 
of another family. He was maitre de chapelle 
to the Duke of Savoy. According to Fetis 
his only known composition is a Mass for 
four voices on the French chanson, Le vi- 
lain jaloux, printed in " Misste Antonii de 
Fevin" (Petrucci, Fossombrone, 1515) ; but 
Van der Straeten mentions a Mass and an- 
other church composition in the catalogue 
of the Sixtine Chapel music (1868), in which 
he is called Robiuet Fevin. — Fotis ; Van der 
Straeten, vi. 4G3, 471, 474 ; Gerber ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

FfiVRE. See Le Fibre. 

FIALA, JOSEPH, born at Lobkowitz, 
Bohemia, in 1749, died at Douaueschingen 
in 1816. Oboist and violoncellist. Origi- 
nally a serf, he taught himself the oboe, and 
became a member, in Vienna, of Prince Wal- 
lenstein's band. In 1777 he went to Mu- 
nich, and was engaged by the Elector Max 
Joseph for the Electoral Chapel, and subse- 
quently served in that of the Prince Bishop 
of Salzburg, where he made the acquaint- 
ance of Mozart, and through his influence 
went to Vienna in 1786. After residing sev- 
eral years in Russia, in the service of Count 
Alexis Orloff, he returned to Germany, 
and in 1792 became Kapellmeister to 
Prince Fiirstenberg at Douaueschingen. 
Works : 2 sets of quartets for violin (Frank- 
fort and Vienna, 1780, 1786) ; 6 duos for vio- 
lin and violoncello (Augsburg, 1799) ; 2 sets 
of trios for flute, oboe, and bassoon (Ratisbon, 
1806).— Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Wurzbach. 



FL\.NCISe, LA, opera-comique in three 
acts, text by Scribe, music by Auber, first 
represented in Paris, Jan. 10, 1829 ; in Ber- 
lin, as Die Braut, Aug. 26, 1829. It treats 
of bourgeois life. It was revived in Paris, 
Feb. 10, 1858. Published by Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1829), with pianoforte 
accompaniment ; Schott's SOhnen (Mainz, 
1829). 

FIANCEE DU ROI DE GARBE, LA, 
opera-comique in three acts and six tab- 
leaux, text by Scribe and Saint-Georges, 
music by Auber, re^jreseuted at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, Jan. 11, 1864. The sub- 
ject is from a tale by Boccaccio, put into 
verse by La Fontaine. An opera-comique 
of the same title, in three acts and four ta- 
bleaux, text by Dennery and Chabrillat, mu- 
sic by Henri Litolff, was given at the Folies 
Dramatiques, Paris, Oct. 29, 1874. Subject 
also fi'om Boccaccio. 

FIANCfiE DES VERTS-POTEAUX, LA, 
oj^eretta, music by Edmond Audran, repre- 
sented at the Menus Plaisirs, Paris, Nov. 
8, 1887. 

FIBICH, ZDENKO, born at Seborschitz, 
Bohemia, Dec. 21, 1850, still living, 1889. 
Dramatic composer, studied music first at 
Prague, then at the Leipsic Conservatorium 
(1865), and under Vincenz Lachner. In 
1876 he became second Kapellmeister at 
the National Theatre in Prague, and in 1878 
choir-director of the Russian church. He 
is one of the most prominent among the 
young Czech composers. Works : Buko- 
wiu, Czech opera, given at Prague about 
1875 ; Blanik, do., ib., Nov. 26, 1881 ; The 
Bride of Messina, do., 1883 ; Othello, Zaboj 
and Slavoj, Toman and the Nymph, Vesna, 
symphonic poems ; Two symphonies ; Sev- 
eral overtures ; Two string quartets ; Melo- 
dramas, choruses, songs, and pianoforte 
pieces. — Riemann. 

FIBY, HEINRICH, born in Vienna, May 
15, 1834, still living, 1889. Vocal composer 
and violinist, pupil at the Conservatoi-ium, 
Vienna ; became in 1853 solo violin and 
conductor of the orchestra at the theatre in 



61 



FIDELIO 



Laybaeb, Carniola, and in 1857 city music 
director at Znaim, Moravia, where be has 
done miicb towards tbe regeneration of mu- 
sical life and tbe reorganization of cburcb 
music. He is most favourably known by 
bis choruses for male voices ; and has com- 
posed also three operettas. — Mendel, Er- 
giinz., 104. 

FIDELIO, Oder die ebeliche Liebe (Con- 
jugal Love), German opera in two acts, text 
by Joseph Sonuleithner, music by Beethoven, 
first represented at the Theater an der Wieu, 
Vienna, Nov. 20, 1805. The libretto is an 
adaptation from the French of Jean Nico- 
las BouUly's " Lconore, ou I'amour conju- 
gal," which had twice before been set to 
music : by Gaveaux, as Leonore, ou I'a- 
mour conjugal, given at the Oi^era Co- 
mique, Paris, Feb. 19, 1798 ; and by Paer, 
as Leonora, ossia 1' amore conjugale, given 
at Dresden, Oct. 3, 1804. Beethoven re- 
ceived the text in the winter of 1801-5, and 
composed his score at Hetzeudorf during 
the following summer. The opera, originally 
in three acts, was produced under discour- 
aging cu-cumstances, the French having just 
taken jjossession of the city, which was de- 
serted by the court and nobility, and after 
three representations (Nov. 20, 21, 22) it 
was withdrawn. The work proving too 
long, three numbers were di-opped from it 
and the libretto was reduced to two acts by 
Stephen Breuning. In this form it was 
given at the Imperial private theatre, Mai'ch 
29 and April 10,1806, and again withdrawn. 
In 1811 the libretto was again revised by 
Friedrich Treitschke, and Beethoven re- 
wrote and rearranged a considerable part of 
the music. In this last form it was pro- 
duced at the Kiiruthnerthor Theater, May 
23, 1811. Beethoven wished the opera 
called Leonore, but he was overruled by the 
management of the theatre, and it was al- 
ways announced under its present name. 
Four overtures were written for it : 1. Leo- 
nore No. 2, in C, 1805 ; 2. Leonore No. 3, 
in C, 180G ; 3. Leonore No. 1, in C (op. 
138), 1807 ; 4. Fidelio, in E, 181G. The 



action of the opera takes place in a prison 
near Seville, Spain, of which Don Pizarro 
is governor, and Kocco chief jailer. Flo- 
restau is a state prisoner, whose wife, Leo- 
nore, has introduced herself into the prison 
in male attii'e, under the name of Fidelio, 
in hope of etlecting his deliverance. Ja- 
quino, the turnkey, is in love withMarzelline, 
daughter of Rocco, and she is in love with 
Fidelio. Don Pizarro, hearing that Don 
Fernando is coming to inspect the prison, 
determines to kill Florestan, but is pre- 
vented by Leonore. In the last scene Don 
Fernando frees Florestan, who is reunited 




Schroder-Devrient. 

to Leonore, Don Pizarro is led away to pun- 
ishment, and Marzelline consents to make 
Jaquino happy. Among the most notewor- 
thy of the numbers are : In the first act, 
Marzelline's aria, "O wiir' ich schon mit dir 
vereint," called the Hope aria ; the quartet, 
" Mir ist so wunderbar ; " Rocco's song, 
" Hat man nicht audi Gold, beineben," 
called the Gold song ; Don Pizarro's aria, 
" Ha ! welch ein Augenblick ! " Fidelio's 
aria, " Abscheulicher !," full of dramatic in- 
tensity expressive of her horror of Don Fer- 
nando's proposed crime, and leading into 
an adagio, "Komm, Hoffnung,"in which she 
describes the power of love. In the second 
act Florestan in his dungeon sings an aria, 



ez 



FIEDLER 



" In des Lebens Friihlingstagen," which 
closes rapturously with, " Und spiir' Ich 
uiclit liude," as he sees Leonora in a vision. 
After a furious scene between Don Pizarro 
and Leonore, interrupted by the arrival of 
Don Fernando, Florestan and Leonore join 
in the rajiturous duet, " O Namenlose 
Freude." The original cast in 1805 was as 
follows : 

Don Fernando Herr Weinkopf. 

Don Pizarro Herr Meier. 

Florestan Herr Demmer. 

Leonore (Fidelio) Frilulein Milder. 

Eocco Herr Rothe. 

Marzelline Friiulein Midler. 

Jaquino Herr Cache. 

In 1822 \\'ilhelmina Schroder, afterwards 
Schroder-Devrient (1805-1860), sang at Vi- 
enna the part of Leonore, and achieved such 
extraordinary success as to become al- 
most identified with the character. Fidelio 
was produced in Paris, at the Salle Favart, 
1829 and 1830 ; at the Italiens, 1852 ; and 
in three acts, French translation by Jules 
Barbier and Michel Carre, at the Theatre 
Lyrique, May 5, 18G0. It was performed in 
London at the King's Theatre, May 18, 
1832, and in English at Covent Garden, 
June 12, 1835. Its first production in 
America was at the National Theatre, New 
York, Sept. 9, 1839, when it was given in 
English. The German version was sung at 
the Metropolitan Ojjera House, New York, 
in the season of 1885-86. — Marx, L. van 
B., 200 ; Nohl, B.'s Leben, ii. 205 ; Thayer, 
Life of B. ; do., Verzeichniss, 61 ; Hanslick, 
Moderne Oper, 61 ; Liszt, Gesamml. Schr., 
iii. 10 ; Berlioz, A travers Chants, 68 ; Schu- 
mann, Music and Musicians, i. 25. 

FIEDLER, AUGUST MAX, born at 
Zittau, Dec. 31, 1859, still living, 1889. 
Pianist and instrumental and vocal com- 
poser, pupil of his father on the pianoforte 
and of G. Albrecht in theory and on the 
organ, then at the Conservatorium in Leip- 
sic (1877-80). Since 1882 professor at 
the Conservatorium in Hamburg. He ap- 







peared with success as a concert player, and 
has composed a sj'mphony, performed in 
Hamburg, 1886, a quintet and a quartet for 
strings, songs, and pianoforte i^ieces.— Eie- 
mann. 

FIELD, JOHN (called in England "Rus- 
sian Field "), born 
in Dublin, Ireland, 
July 26, 1782, died 
in Moscow, Russia, 
Jan. 11, 1837. His 
father was a violin- 
ist in a theatre or- 
chestra in Dublin ; 
his grandfather an 
organist, who taught 
him the rudiments 
of music and the pi- 
anoforte. His father apprenticed him in 
London to Clementi, with whom he studied 
the pianoforte until 1801, acting also as 
salesman and exhibitor of pianofortes in 
the warerooms of Clementi & Co. In 1802 
Clementi took him to Paris, where he won 
great distinction by his playing of Bach and 
Handel, and thence to St. Petersburg, where 
he continued to serve in his master's ware- 
rooms until 1801, when Clementi left Rus- 
sia. He then settled in St. Petersburg as a 
teacher, receiving extraordinary j)rices for 
his lessons. In 1823 he removed to Mos- 
cow, where he won even greater success as 
a pianist. After a professional trip through 
Russia he returned to London in 1832, and 
in 1833 to Paris, passing through Belgium 
and Switzerland to Italy, where he lost 
money at his concerts in Milan, Venice, and 
Naples. Intemperate habits had worn out 
his originally feeble constitution, and he was 
nine months in a wretched state in a NeajDO- 
litan hospital. A Russian family by the 
name of Raemanow saved him from this 
plight, on condition that he should return 
to Russia. Passing through Vienna he elic- 
ited the most enthusiastic praise by his 
playing, but died almost immediately after 
reaching Moscow. As a composer, Field 
is to be credited with originating that form 



FIEN^'ES 



of pianoforte piece known as the nocturne ; 
his nocturnes were the models for Chopin 
and all later composers, and, among all his 
works, they alone have survived. His con- 
certos, sonatas, pianoforte quintet, and 
other works, much admired in his day, 
have all died. His style was marked by 
infinite grace, charm, and an intimate 
knowledge of the most characteristic re- 
sources of the pianoforte. Both as a pian- 
ist and composer he was the connecting link 
between Clementi and Chopin. Works : 7 
concertos for pianoforte and orchestra, in 
E-flat (Nos. 1, 3, and -4), A-flat, C (L' incen- 
die par I'orage), C, and C minor ; 2 diver- 
tissements for do., with accompaniment for 
2 violins, flute, viola, and bass ; Quintet for 
pianoforte and strings ; Rondo for do. ; 
Variations on a Russian air for four hands ; 
Grand valse for do.; 3 sonatas, in A, E-flat, 
and C minor ; 3 do. in A, B, and C ; Sonata 
in B ; 20 nocturnes (only 12 of these were 
designated as such by the composer) ; 2 airs 

. • en rondeau ; Ron- 

^/e_j^j deau ccossais; 
_ -_,.7 - Fantasias on dif- 

y ferent airs ; Polo- 

V naises, romances, 

rondos, and miscellaneous pieces for piano- 
forte ; Two songs, with pianoforte. — Grove ; 
Fetis, iii. 244 ; do., Supph'ment, i. 331 ; 
Mendel ; Spohr, Selbtsbiographie, i. 43 ; 
Weitzmann, Geschichte des Clanerspiels, 
92. ; Liszt, Gesamml. Schr., iv. 261. 

FIENXES, HENRI DU BOIS DE, born 
at Auderlecht, near Brussels, Dec. 15, 1809, 
died there, Feb. 15, 1863. Pianist, pupil of 
Landwyck, an organist at Brussels, then went 
to Paris, where for two years he profited 
much by the advice of Henri Herz. After 
his return to Belgium he gave concerts 
with Bender, Hauman, and D('sargus, and 
in 1834 studied composition under Fetis ; 
then perfected himself on the pianoforte in 
Paris under Kalkbrenner. Settled in Brus- 
sels, where he devoted himself to teaching, 
he made a concert tour through Holland 
and on the Rhine in 1837, and visited Lon- 



/ 



don to hear and be advised by Thalberg, 
then at the zenith of his fame. Works : 
Two concertos for pianoforte and orchestra ; 
Fantaisie romantique ; Morceau de concert ; 
Thume varie ; Fantaisies, mt'langes, caprices, 
etc., on operatic themes. — Fetis. 

FIERO SANGUE D' ARAGONA. See 
Ernani. 

FIERRABRAS, romantic opera in three 
acts, text by Josef Kujjelwieser, music by 
Franz Schubert, written in 1823, but never 
performed, though Riemann says it was 
produced in Vienna in 1861. The work, 
in MS. (1,000 pages of written score), in 
twenty-three numbers, including the over- 
ture, is preserved in the library of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 
Fragments of it have been played in Vienna 
(1858, 1862), and the overture, which is 
owned by Herr Spina, Vienna (it has been 
published, arranged for j)ianoforte, by Di- 
abelli), is frequently played at concerts. It 
is decidedly the greatest of Schubert's over- 
tures. The subject is from the romances of 
chivalry and deals with the wars between 
Charlemagne and the Moors. The scene is 
laid in Spain. Fierrabras, son of the Moor- 
ish prince, is in love with Emma, daughter 
of King Charles (Charlemagne), who is also 
beloved by Eginhardt, a Christian knight ; 
and Florinda, sister of Fierrabras, is loved 
by Roland, another Christian knight. Af- 
ter many vicissitudes, Eginhardt wins 
Emma, and Roland Florinda ; and Fierra- 
bras, renouncing his religion, becomes a 
follower of King Charles amid a chorus of 
joy and exultation. — Hellborn (Coleridge), 
Life of Schubert, i. 293 ; Grove, iii. 338. 

FIESCO, GIULIO, born in Ferrara in 
1519, died in 1586. Lutist, musician of 
the chapel of Ercole H., and Alfonso H., of 
Este. His madrigals were published in 
Venice (1554-1569).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FifiVRE BROLANTE, UNE. See Ei- 
chard Cceur de Lion. 

FIGARO. See Nozze di Figaro. 

FIGHERA, SALVATORE, born at Gra- 
vina, Naples, in 1771, died at Naples in 



64 



FIGLIUOL 



1836. Church composer, pupil of Insan- 
guine and Fenaroli at the Conservatorio 
Santa Maria di Loreto, Naples ; then lived 
for a time iu Milan, and after his return 
was maestro di cappella of several convents, 
for which he wrote numerous compositions. 
"Works : La iinta istoria, cantata ; Lo 
sdegno e la pace, do. ; 2 masses for double 
chorus with orchestra ; Several masses alia 
Palestrina ; Miserere for 4 voices with or- 
chestra ; Credo for 8 voices in madrigal 
style ; La sorpresa, opera buflta, given in 
Milan. — Fotis, Sui^plemeut, i. 331 ; Mendel, 
Ergiinz., 104 

FIGLIUOL PKODIGO, IL (The Prodi- 
gal Son), melodrama in four acts, test by 
A. Zanardini, music by Amilcare Ponchielli, 
represented at La Scala, Milan, Dec. 26, 
1880. This work, sung by Tamagno, 
de Reszke, Salvati, and Mmes Angeri and 
Prasini, had a great success. 

FILBY, WILLIA^M CHARLES, born at 
Hammersmith, England, 1836, still living, 
1889. Organist, and composer of church, 
dramatic, and instrumental music, studied 
in France, and was organist successively in 
London, at Walworth, Bayswater, West- 
bourne Park, Margate, and Stepney. 
Works : Your money or your life, operetta, 
op. 99 ; Alabama Claims, do., op. 100 ; Mass 
in E-flat, op. 24 ; do., in E, op. 28 ; The 
twenty-third psalm, op. 36 ; The thirteenth 
psalm, op. 71 ; Ouverture fantastique for or- 
chestra, op. 101 ; Motets ; Anthems ; So- 
nata for pianoforte, op. G6 ; Fantasias and 
other pieces for do. ; Organ music, songs, 
duets, etc. 

FILIPPINI, STEFANO (surnamed 1' Ar- 
gentino), Augustine monk, maestro di cajj- 
pella of St. John the Evangelist at Ravenna, 
in the second part of the 17th century. 
His motets, j)salms, masses, etc., were pub- 
lished in Ancona and Bologna (1522-1685). 
— Ft'tis ; Mendel, iii. 517 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 
xii. 105. 

FILIPUZZI, AGOSTINO, born in Bo- 
logna about 1635, died (?). Organist of the 
church of the Madonna di Galiera, and iu 



1665 maestro di cappella of the church of 
the regular canons of S. Giovanni iu Monte. 
On the foundation of the Accademia Filar- 
mouica, Bologna, 1666, he was made a mem- 
ber, antl he was principe in 1669 and 1675. 
He composed masses, psalms, etc., Bologna 
(1666-1671).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FILLE DE MADAME ANGOT, LA 
(Madame Angot's Daughter), opera-bouffe, 
text by Clairville, Siraudin, and Koning, 
music by Charles Lecocq, represented at 
the Fautaisies Parisienues, Brussels, No- 
vember, 1872. Madame Angot's daughter, 
Clairette, a pretty flower-girl, whom her 
friends wish to marry the hair-dresser Pom- 
ponnet, prefers to give her love to Ange 
Pitou, a singer. The latter, inconstant, sac- 
rifices his love to the beautiful eyes of Mile 
Lange, the famous comedienne. Clairette, 
after all sorts of trouble, at last consoles 
herself for his infidelity and gives her hand 
to Pomponnet. The work had a great suc- 
cess in Paris, where it was presented, Feb. 
23, 1873, at the Folies Dramatiques. 

FILLE DES EOIS, A TOI L'HOM- 
MAGE. See Africaine. 

FILLE DU REGLAIENT, LA (Ital., La 
figiia del reggimento, The Daughter of the 
Regiment), oi)era-comique iu two acts, text 
by Bayard and Saint-Georges, music by 
Donizetti, represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Feb. 11, 1840. Scene, iu the 
Tyrol, during its occupation by the French 
in Napoleon's time. Marie, picked up 
when an infant on the battle-field by Ser- 
geant Sulpice, has grown up to be a vivan- 
diere and the adopted daughter of the 21st 
Regiment. Tony, a Tyrolese peasant, who 
once saved her from falling over a precijiice, 
loves her, and joins the regiment to obtain 
her hand. But the mystery of her birth is 
cleared up by the appearance of her mother, 
a marquise, who claims Marie as her niece, 
and rejects Tony. In the second act the 
daughter of the regiment appears in her 
mother's chateau, surrounded by everything 
belonging to her rank, but regretting Tony 
and longing for the freedom of her old 



65 



FILS 



life. She is suddenly cheered up by the 
return of the regiment, and Tony, become 
an officer, demands her hand. The mar- 
quise reveals to Marie that she is her mother 
and bids her give up her lover, but at 
last, overcome by her daughter's grief, con- 
sents to the union. The opera was given 
in Italian in London, at Her Majesty's The- 
atre, May 27, 18-17, with Jenny Liud in the 
title-role ; and in English, at the Surrey 
Theatre, Dec. 21, 1847. The French ver- 
sion was produced in New York, at Niblo's 
Garden, July 19, 1843, by a company from 
New Orleans, with Mile Calve as Marie and 
Bles as Sulpice. Among the best of the 
numbers are : the tyrolienne, " Suppliant, 
a genoux ; " the duet between Marie and 
Sulpice, commonly called "Le Rataplan;" 
the spirited, " Salut a la France ; " and the 
song of the regiment, " Chacun le sait, 
chacuu le dit." — Edwards, Lyrical Drama, 
ii. 37 ; Larousse, viii. 376. 

FILS DU BRIGADIER (The Corporal's 
Son), LE, opcra-comique in three acts, text 
by Eugene Labiche and Delacour, music by 
Victor Masse, represented at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, Feb. 25, 1867. Sung by 
Crosti, Montaubry, Sainte-Foy, Prilleux, 
and Allies Girard, Ruze, and Revilly. 

FILTZ, ANTON, died at an early age at 
Mannheim in 1768. Violoncellist in the 
service of the Elector-Palatine at Mann- 
heim about 1763, and enjoyed great reputa- 
tion as a composer. Works : 6 symjihonies 
for 8 instruments ; 6 trios for pianoforte, 
violin and bass ; 6 trios for violins ; 6 quar- 
tets for 2 violins, viola, and bass. Concertos 
for violoncello, flute, oboe, and clarinet, 
and duos and solos for violoncello, in MS. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FINAZZI, FELIPPO, born in Bergamo 
in 1710, died at Jersbeck, near Hamburg, 
April 21, 1776. Singer and compose!-, sang 
in Italian opera at Breslau in 1728 ; was 
subsequently in the ser\'ice of the Duke of 
Modena, returned to Germany in 1737, and 
settled at Jersbeck in 1748. He published 
six four-part symphonies (1754), and left 



the opera Temistocle, the intermezzo La 
jsace campestre, a cantata, and other music 
in MS.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

rmCH' HAN DAL VINO. See Don 
Giovanni. 

FINCK, HEINRICH, German composer 
of the beginning of the 16th century, date 
of birth and death unknown. He finished 
his studies in Cracow, Poland, where he 
was in the service of Kings John Albert in 
1492, of Alexander in 1501, and of Sigis- 
mund I. in 1506. He retired later to Wit- 
tenberg. He is sometimes confounded with 
his grand-nephew, Hermann Finck. Works : 
SchiJne auserlesene Lieder (Nuremberg, 
1536) ; music to 22 Latin hymns in Rhau's 
Sacrorum hymnorum, lib. i. (Wittenberg, 
1542) ; and compositions in other 16th cen- 
tury collections. — AUgem. d. Biogr., vii. 12 ; 
Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 333 ; Mendel ; 
Sowinski, 191 ; Schilling ; Winterfeld, Der 
evang. Kirchengesang, i. 186. 

FINCK, HERMANN, born in Pirna, Sax- 
ony, March 21, 1527, died in Wittenberg, 
Doc. 28, 1558. A grand-nephew of Hein- 
rich Finck, and a warm supporter of the 
Reformed religion. He studied in Witten- 
berg, where he became an organist, and 
composed chorals, one of which, " O let thy 
grace remain," is still sung in German 
Protestant churches. He was the author 
of a theoretical work, " Practica musica " 
(1556). — Riemann ; Naumann (Ouseley), i. 
440. 

FIN DU MONDE, LA. See Hercu- 
lannm. 

FINETTI, GIACOMO, Italian composer 
of the beginning of the 17th century, born 
at Ancona. A Franciscan monk, he was 
maestro di cappella of his native town in 
1611, and subsequently of San Marco, Ven- 
ice. He composed psalms, etc., with Petrus 
Lappius, and Jul. Bellus (Frankfort, 1621 ; 
Venice, 1611-1622).— Fetis; Mendel. 

FINGALS HOHLE. See Die Hehriden. 

FINGER, GOTTFRIED, born at Olmiitz, 
Moravia, about 1660, died after 1717. He 
went to England in 1685 and became musi- 



FINI 



cian to James II. On obtaining the fourth 
prize for his music to Congi'eve's masque, 
The Judgment of Paris, in 1701, he was so 
displeased that he returned to Germany. 
He became chamber musician to Queen 
Sophie Charlotte in Berlin in 1702, and 
Kapellmeister at Gotha in 1717. Works : 
SonatsB xii. p>ro diversis instrumentis 
(1688) ; Six sonatas or solos, three for a 
vioHn and three for a flute (1690) ; Ayres, 
Chacones, Divisions, and Sonatas, for Vio- 
lins and Flutes, with John Banister (1691) ; 
A set of sonatas in five parts for flutes 
and hautboys (with Godfrey Keller) ; So- 
natas for violins and flutes ; Music for Theo- 
philus Parson's Ode for St. Cecilia's Day ; 
Music for Motteux's masque. The Loves of 
Mars and Venus (with John Eccles), Lon- 
don, 1696 ; Music for Ravenscroft's comedy, 
The Anatomist, ib., 1697; Music for Elkanah 
Settle's opera, the Virgin Prophetess, ib., 
1701 ; Music for Congreve's masque, The 
Judgment of Paris, ib., 1701 ; Sieg der 
Schunheit fiber die Helden, opera, Berlin, 
1706 ; Eoxane, opera, ib., 1706 (with Strieker 
and Volumier). — Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; 
Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 16. 

FINI, mCHELE, born in Naples in 
the first years of the 18th century. Dra- 
matic composer. Works — Operas: Pericca 
et Varrone, Venice, 1731 ; Gli sponsali d' 
Enea, ib., 1831 ; I dei birbi, ib., 1732. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

FINK, CHRISTIAN, born at Dettiugen, 
Wiu-temberg, Aug. 9, 1831, still living, 1889. 
Organist, pupil at the Conservatorium in 
Leipsic (1853-55), and of Johann Schneider 
in Dresden, then lived in Leipsic until 
1860, when he was called to Esslingen as 
principal instructor of music at the seminary, 
and as music director and organist at the 
Metropolitan Church. In 1862 the title of 
professor was conferred on him. He has 
published a considerable number of sonatas, 
fugues, preludes, trios, etc., for the organ ; 
Psalms, motets, and other church music ; 
also pianoforte pieces, and songs. — Eie- 
mann. 



FINK, GOTTFRIED WILHELM, born 

at Suiza, Thuringia, March 7, 1783, died at 
Halle, Aug. 27, 1846. Instrumental and 
vocal composer and writer on music, pupil 
of the cantor Gressler on the jjianoforte and 
organ. First wrote for the Allgemeine mu- 
sikalische Zeitung in 1808, and was editor of 
the paper in 1827—41. Became professor of 
music at Leipsic University in 1842, and re- 
ceived the doctor's degree. Works : Pieces 
for pianoforte and violin ; Songs and bal- 
lads ; Terzettos for soprano, contralto, and 
bass ; Many part-songs for male voices ; 
Hiiusliche Andachten, 3 books (Leipsic, 
1810) ; He also published Musikalischer 
Hausschatz der Deutschen, a collection of 
1,000 songs (Leipsic, 1843) ; Deutsche Lie- 
dertafel, a collection of four-part songs 
for male voices. — Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 
17 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemann, 263 ; Schil- 
ling. 

FINTA GIAEDINIERA, LA, Italian 
opera buffa in three acts, text by Calzabigi 
adapted by Coltellini, music by Mozart, 
first represented at Munich, Jan. 13, 1775. 
—Holmes, Life of M., 89. 

FINTA SEMPLICE, LA, Italian opera 
buffa in three acts, text by Coltellini, mu- 
sic by Mozart, written at Vienna in 1768, 
but never represented. 

FIOCCHI, VINCENZO, born in Rome in 
1707, died in Paris in 1845. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Conservatorio della 
Pieta de' Turchini, Naples, under Fenaroli. 
Choron says he was organist of St. Peter's, 
Rome, but left there at the time of politi- 
cal troubles, and went to Paris in 1802 ; 
he had then written about 16 operas, which 
are now forgotten. He published, with 
Choron, Priucipes d'accompagnement des 
ecoles d'ltalie (1807). In Paris he brought 
out the operas : Le valet de deux maitres. 
Theatre Feydeau, 1802 ; Sophocle, Acade- 
mie Imperiale de Musique, 1811. He after- 
wards wrote several comic operas, which 
were not performed. Other works : L' 
Addio d' Ettore, cantata, 1797 ; Piramo e 
Tisbe, do. ; Francesca d' Aiimiuo, do. ; Aci, 



67 



FIOCCO 



cantatille. — Fi'tis ; do., Suppk'ment, i. 333 ; 
Mendel ; do., Ergilnz., lOG. 

FIOCCO, JEAN JOSEPH, born at Brus- 
sels, died there about 1772. Composer of 
oratorios, son and probably pupil of Pietro 
Antonio Fiocco, whom he succeeded as 
maitre de chaijelle to the royal chapel, and at 
Notre Dame du Sablon, Brussels ; held these 
offices still in 1749. His oratorios were cele- 
brated, and were a new feature in the his- 
tory of Netherland music. Works — Ora- 
torios : La tempesta de' dolori, performed 
1728 ; II Pentimento d' Accabo ; La morte 
vinta sul Calvario, 1730 ; Giesh flagellato, 
1734 ; II trausito di S. Giuseppe, 1737 ; 
Le profezie evangeliche di Isaia, 1738. His 
church compositions are numerous. — Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, vii. 72 ; Van der Straeten, 
ii. 132-137 ; v. 149-153 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 
107. 

FIOCCO, JOSEPH HECTOR, born in 
Brussels about 1(590, died after 1752. 
Harpsichord player, son antl pupil of Pietro 
Antonio Fiocco. He was vice-maitre of the 
royal chapel in 1729, and became maitre de 
chapclle of the cathedral, Antwerp, in 1731, 
but resigned in 1737, to assume the same 
function at Saiute-Gudule, Brussels. Both 
Joseph Fiocco and his celebrated father 
mark a special epoch in the musical his- 
tory of the Netherlands. Joseph Hector's 
book of harpsichord pieces entitled Pieces 
de claveyin dediees i son Altesse Mon- 
seigneur le due d'Areuberg, etc. (Brussels, 
between 1730-1737), is the oldest collection 
of the kind in existence. Van der Straeten 
gives an interesting account of this work 
and of the progress of music at the coui't of 
Brussels, then one of the most brilliant 
courts of Europe. Among this composer's 
church music is a Mass to St. Cecilia 
(1752), and many other masses (Amsterdam, 
Antwerp, 1730). His music was long in use 
in the Cathedral of Antwerp, and was played 
at the Concerts Spirituels in Paris ; some of 
his MSS. are in the National Library, Paris. 
• — Biog. nat. de Belgique, vii. 73 ; Futis ; 
Van der Straeten, ii. 95 ; iv. 293. 



FIOCCO, PIETRO ANTONIO, born in 
Venice about the middle of the 17th century, 
died at Brussels, Nov. 3, 1714. Church 
composer, settled at Brussels about 1690, 
and was maitre de chapelle at Notre Dame du 
Sablon ; then from 1G9G vice-niaitre, and in 
170G-14 maitre de la musique, to the court 
of Brussels. Composed motets, masses, etc., 
for the royal chapel, and under his direc- 
tion several very efl'ective performances were 
given at the court, which consisted of relig- 
ious dramas. His prologues set to music for 
Lulli's operas, jserformed at the court, ai-e 
also specially mentioned in the chronicles 
of the time ; none of these pieces have sur- 
vived. The most important were the pro- 
logues to Amadis (1G95), Acis et Galatue 
(1G95), Belk'rophou (1G9G), Tlu'sOe (1697). 
He was made director of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, Brussels, founded by the 
Electoral Duke of Bavaria, in 1704. His 
clun-ch music was played at Sainte-Gudule 
until the last part of the 18th century. Pub- 
lished flute sonatas. — Biog. nat. de Belgi- 
que, vii. 71 ; Van der Straeten, ii. 127-132, 
176 ; iv. 293 ; v. 148 ; Fetis ; Becker, Die 
Tonwerke des xvi. und xvii. Jahrh. 

FIODO, VINCENZO, born at Taranto, 
Naples, Sept. 2, 1782, died at Naples in 
1863. Dramatic, and church comi^oser, 
pupil of Sala and I'aisiello at the Conserva- 
torio de' Turchini, Naples. In 1812 he 
settled at Pisa to teach vocal music, but 
afterwards is said to have given uj) his pro- 
fession for a mercantile career until 1820, 
about which time he returned to Naples, 
and to music, becoming maestro di cappella 
in difl'crent convents and churches. In 
1846 he was apj)ointed inspector of the ex- 
tei'nal schools of the Conservatorio, and in 
1858 professor at that institution. Works 
— Operas : H disertore, Rome, 1808 ; II 
trioufo di Quinto Fabio, Parma, 1809 ; Gi- 
ro, Florence, 1810 ; Giuseppe riconosciuto, 
oratorio ; Requiem mass for 2 choruses and 
2 orchestras ; 2 do. for 3 choruses and 3 or- 
chestras ; Many other religious composi- 
tions. — Fetis ; do., Suj)2>l'^'iiient, i. 333. 



FIORAVANTI 



FIORAVANTI, VALENTINO, born in 

Rome, November, 1770, died at Capua, 
June IG, 1837. Dramatic composer, pupil at 
the Couservatorio della Pieta de' Turcbini, 
Naples, uuder Sala. His first ojjera was 
represented at the Pergola, Florence, in 
1791, and was followed by about fifty others, 
all comic. In 180G he was invited to Paris, 
and produced there, Sept. 2G, 1807, an 
opera buffa in two acts. In 181G he suc- 
ceeded Jannaconi as maestro di cappella at 
St. Peter's, Rome, but his church music was 
inferior to his operas. Like other Italian 
composers Fioravanti, though jjojiular in 
his day, was eclipsed by Rossini. Works — 
Operas : Con i matti il savio la perde, rep- 
resented at La Pergola, Florence, 1791 ; 
Amor aguzza 1' ingegno, about 1792 ; L' 
amore immaginario, 1793 ; L' astuta, 1793 ; 
La cantatrice bizzarra, about 1793 ; II furbo 
contra il furbo, Turin, 1795 ; Lo cantatrici 
viilane, Turin, 1795— Paris, 1806, 1842; 
Lisetta e Giannino, Naples, 1795 ; II fabro 
parigino, Milan, 179G ; Gli amanti comici, 
Milan, 1796 ; La capricciosa pentita, Turin, 
1797 ; L' iunocente ambizione, Venice, 
1797 ; H matrimouio i^er magia, Naples, 

1797 ; La fortunata combinazione, about 

1798 ; L' inganno cade sojira 1' inganuatore, 
about 1799 ; II bello place a tutti, about 
1800 ; I viaggiatori ridicoli, Naples, 1800 ; 
La schiava fortunata, about 1800 ; H vil- 
lauo in angustie, Naples, 1801 ; Amor e dis- 
pgtto, Milan, 1802 ; I raggiri ciarlatanescbi, 
Naples, 1802 ; L' orgoglio avvilito, Milan, 
1803 ; La schiava di due padroni, Milan, 
1803 ; II giudizio di Paride, about 1803 ; 
Le avventure di Bertoldino, Rome, 1803 ; 
I puntigli per equivoco, Naples, 1804 ; La 
bella Carbonara, about 1804 ; L' Africano 
generoso, 1804 ; Adelson e Salvina, 1804 ; L' 
avaro, 1804 ; L' amor per interezza, about 
1805 ; L' ambizione pentita, about 1805 ; 
Semplicitii ed astuzia, Naples, 1806 ; Vir- 
tuosi ambulanti, Paris, 1807 ; Lo sposo che ' 
piti accommoda, Naples, about 1808 ; Ca- 
milla, 1810 ; Adelaide e Comingio, Milan, 
ISIO; Raoul di Crequi, Naples, 1811 ; La 



foresta d' Hermannstadt, ib., 1812 ; II cia- 
battino, ib., 1813 ; Inganni ed amore, ib., 
1814 ; Enrico IV. al passo della Mania, 
Rome, 1818 ; Paolina e Suzetta, Naples, 
1819 ; La moglie di due mariti, ib., 1820; 
Ogni eccesso e vizioso, ib., 1823. — Fetis ; 
Grove ; Larousse ; Mendel ; Biog. gt'n., 
xviii. 723. 

FIOR.WANTI, VINCENZO, born in 
Rome, April 5, 1799, died in Naples, March 
28, 1877. Dramatic composer, son of Va- 
lentino Fioravanti and pupil of Jannaconi 
and of Donizetti. In 1833 he was maestro 
di cappella of a church in Naples, and later 
music director at the Albergo de' Poveri 
there. Like his father, he wrote many 
buffo operas, in the first of which, given in 
Naples in 1819, the great basso Lablache 
made his debut. Works — Operas : La pul- 
cinella molinara, Naples, 1819 ; La pasto- 
rella rapita, ib., 1820 ; II sarcofago scozzese, 
ib., 1820 ; Robinson Crusoe, ib., about 
1825 ; Colombo alia scoperta delle Indie, 
ib., about 1830 ; II folletto innamorato, 
about 1830 ; and many others, a full list of 
which is given in Pougin's supplement to 
Fetis. He wrote also two oratorios : Seilla, 
and II sacrifizio di Jefte. — Fetis, iii. 25G ; 
do.. Supplement, i. 333 ; Larousse ; Mendel, 
iii. 534; Erganz., xii. 831. 

FIOR D' ALIZA, oj)era-comiquc in four 
acts and seven tableaux, text by Hippolyte 
Lucas and Michel Carre, music by Victor 
Masse, represented at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, Feb. 5, 1866. The subject of the 
libretto is from Lamartine's romance, 
" Graziella." The cast was as follows : 

Fior d' Aliza . . Mme Vandenheuvel-Duprez. 

Picciniua Mme Galli-Marie. 

Gerouimo M. Achard. 

Le moiue M. Crosti. 

FIORE, STEFANO ANDREA, born in 

Milan, close of the 17th century. Compos- 
er, maestro di cajjjjella to the King of Sar- 
dinia ; member of the Accademia Filarmo- 
nica, Bologna. Quantz knew him in Tu- 
rin, in 1726, where he enjoyed a brilliant 



69 



FIOrJLLO 




reputation. His XII Sonate da cliiesa a 
due violini, and bis opera II pentimeuto 
generoso (1719), are bis best compositions. 
— Fetis; Mendel. 

FIORILLO, FEDERIGO, born in Bruns- 
wick in 1753, died 
after 1823. Vio- 
linist, son of Igna- 
zio Fiorillo. He 
went to Poland in 
1780, conducted a 
band at Riga, 
1783-85, went to 
Paris and was 
beard at tbe Con- 
certs Spirituals in 1785, and in 1788 went to 
London, wbere be played tbe viola in Salo- 
mon's quartet-party. His last ajipearance 
in London was in 1791 ; be went tbence to 
Amsterdam and was in Paris in 1823, after 
wbicb nothing is known of him. Of all his 
works, that entitled Etudes de violon has 
survived as a classical work, of great service 
to students. It is composed of 36 caprices, 
wbicb are equal to tbe classical studies of 
Rode and Kreutzer. They have been pub- 
lished lately bj* Ferdinand David (Leipsic), 
after many previous editions. His other 
music consists of duos for violins, for pi- 
anoforte and violin ; Quartets, quintets, 
concertos, etc., of wbicb Fetis gives a list. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Grove ; Larousse. 

FIORILLO, IGNAZIO, born in Naples, 
May 11, 1715, died at Fritzlai-, Hesse, June, 
1787. Dramatic composer, pupil at tbe 
Couservaton'o, Naples, under Leo and Du- 
rante. He brought out his first opera, at 
Venice in 1736, became Hofkapellmeister in 
Brunswick in 1751, and Kapellmeister in 
Cassel in 1762. In 1780 he retired to Fritz- 
lar. Works — Of)eras : Mundane, opera seria, 
given at Venice, 1736 ; Ai-tamene, Milan, 
1738 ; n vincitor di se stesso, ib., 1711 ; 
Diana ed Endimione, Cassel, 1763 ; Arta- 
serse, ib., 1765 ; Nitteti, ib., 1770 ; Andro- 
meda, ib., 1771 ; Isacco, oratorio ; 3 Te 
Deum ; Requiem. — Fetis ; Mendel ; La- 
rousse ; Riemann. 



I FIOEINI, IPPOLITO, born in Ferrara 
about 1510, died about 1612. Madrigal 
and church composer, surnamed 1' Angio- 
letto ; composer and maestro di cappella to 
Alfonso II., Duke of Ferrara. He pub- 
lished church music and collections of son- 
nets and madrigals. His madrigals are in 
Lauro Verde (1586).— Fetis ; Schilhng ; Men- 
del. 

FIORONI, GIOVANNI ANDREA, born 
in Pavia, 1701, died in Milan, 1779. Church 
composer, pupil in Naples of Leo for fifteen 
years ; maestro di cappella at Como, and 
subsequently of the Cathedral of Milan, 
wbere his compositions are preserved. He 
had many celebrated pupils, Zucchinetti, 
Bonesi, and others. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Wurz- 
bach. 

FISCHER, ADOLPH, born at Ucker- 
miinde, Pomerania, Juno 23, 1827, still 
living, 1889. Organist, first instructed in 
Berlin by Elssler in singing, then at the 
Royal Institute for Church Music pupil of 
A. W. Bach on the organ, of Killitscbgy on 
the pianoforte, and of GreU in counterpoint; 
finally (1850-51), of Rungenhageu and GreU 
in composition, for which he received tbe 
grand medal. Meanwhile he had already 
acted as organist for several years, and in 
1853 went as chief organist and conductor 
of the Siugakademie at Frank f or t-on-the 
Oder. In 1865 be received the title of 
royal director of music, and in 1870 was 
called to Breslau as first organist of the 
Elizabetbkirche. In 1880 be established 
there tbe Silesian Conservatorium, which is 
steadily growing. At the exposition in 
Pai-is, 1867, he won the applause of Auber 
and Rossini as a virtuoso on the organ. 
Three symphonies of his composition have 
been performed several times with success ; 
he has published motets, songs, and organ 
music. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 188. 

FISCHER, ANTON, born at Ried, Sua- 
bia, in 1777, died in Vienna, Dec. 1, 1808. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of an elder brother 
in Augsburg ; went to Vienna, wbere he be- 
came Kapellmeister in the Jose^jhstadter 



70 



FISCHER 



Theater, and from 1800 in the Schikaneder 
Theater. His works are in the style popu- 
lar in Vienna in his time, and show little 
originality. Works — Operas and operettas : 
Lunara, KOnigin des Pahnenhaius, Vienna, 

1802 ; Die arme Familie, about 1800 ; Die 
Eutlarvten, ib., 180-4 ; Die Scheidewand, ib., 

1803 ; Die Verwandlungen, 1804 ; Der tra- 
vestirte Aeneas ; Das Hausgesinde, 1805 ; 
Swetard's Zauberthal ; Das Singspiel auf 
dem Dache ; Die Festung an der Elbe ; Das 
Milchmiidchen von Bercy ; Theseus und Ari- 
adne, a pantomime ; Der wohlthiitige Ge- 
nius ; A children's operetta ; Two cantatas. 
— Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling. 

FISCHER, FERDINAND, born at Bruns- 
wick in 1723, died there in 1805 (?). Vio- 
linist, travelled in Germany and Holland, 
and became court and city musician at 
Brunswick, whither he returned in 1761. 
Works : G trios for violins (Brunswick, 
1763) ; 6 symphonies for nine instruments 
(ib., 1765) ; 6 quartets for two violins, viola, 
and bass ; Cantata for wind instruments 
(1800); Concerto for do. (1803).— Futis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

FISCHER, GOTTFRIED EMIL, born in 
Berlin, Nov. 28, 1791, died there, Feb. U, 
1841. Vocal composer, pupil of Zelter in 
1810-13, was jn-ofessor of mathematics at 
the Royal School of War in 1817-25, and 
from 1818 instructor of vocal music at 
the Grey Convent. He composed motets, 
chorals, songs, and melodies to von der 
Hagen's Minnesiinger, was a contributor to 
the AUgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and 
wrote a treatise on singing. — Mendel. 

FISCHER, JOHANN, born in Suabia 
about 1650, died at Schwedt, Pomerania, 
about 1720. Virtuoso on the violin and 
instrumental composer, pupil in composi- 
tion of Kapellmeister Capricornus at Stutt- 
gart, then in Paris much influenced by 
Lulli, for whom he copied music. He 
seems afterwards to have travelled ; was 
employed in the Church of the Barefooted 
Friars at Augsburg in 1681, and, after long 
wanderings through Germany and Courland, 



became Kapellmeister at Schwerin in 1701 ; 
having filled this position for a few years, 
he went north and, after sojourns at Copen- 
hagen and Stockholm, entered the service 
of the Margrave of Schwedt in Pomerania. 
He composed overtures, dances, madrigals, 
solos, and variations for violin and viola, 
songs, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FISCHER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, born 
at Freiburg in the Breisgau in 1733, died 
in London, April 29, 1800. Virtuoso on 
the oboe, was a member of the Dresden 
court orchestra in 1760 ; visited Italy in 
1765 ; went to England in 1768, and be- 
came a member of the Queen's band. In 
1786 he made a concert tour in Germany, 
and in 1790 settled in London. He was 
one of the best performers on his instru- 
ment of the last century, and a minuet by 
him has been made famous by Mozart's va- 
riations on it. There is a fine portrait of 
him at Hampton Court, by Gainsborough, 
whose daughter ]\Iary he married. Works : 
10 hautboy concertos ; Quartets for flute, 
violin, viola, and violoncello ; 6 duets for 
two flutes ; 10 flute solos ; a concerto and 
a rondo for pianoforte — Mendel ; Fetis ; 
Grove. 

FISCHER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, born 
at Naundorf, near Freiberg, Saxony, Sept. 
13, 1751, died at Freiberg, Sept. 7, 1821. 
Church composer, studied at Leipsic, be- 
came organist of St. Andrew's at Eisleben 
in 1777, and director of music at Freiberg 
in 1799. Works : Andante with variations 
for pianoforte ; Capi^ice for do.; 6 fugues for 
organ and pianoforte ; Pater noster for sev- 
eral voices ; Two oratorios for Good Friday ; 
Psalms, and many other pieces of church 
music— FL'tis; Gerber, N. Lex.; Mendel; 
Schilling. 

FISCHER, JOHANN KASPAR FERDI- 
NAND, born about 1672, died (?). One of 
the best pianists of his time, Kapellmeister 
to the Margrave of Baden about 1720. 
Works : Le journal du printemps, airs and 
ballets for five parts, and trumpets, op. 1 
(Augsburg, 1696) ; Das musikahsche Blu- 



FISCHER 



menbiischlein bestebend in 8 Partien unci 
eiuer variiiteu Arie, op. 2 ; Psalmi vespertini 
pro toto anno, etc., op. 3 (ib., 1701) ; Ariadne 
rausica, etc. (ib., 1710) ; Der musikaliscbe 
Parnassus (ib., 1738) ; Preludia et f ugie pro 
organo per 8 tonos ecclesiasticos (ib.). — Fe- 
tis ; Gerber, N. Lex. ; Mendel. 

FISCHER, JOSEPH, born in Vienna in 
1780, died at Mauubeim in October, 1862. 
Basso and vocal composer, sou and j'upil of 
tbe famous basso Ludwig Fiscber (1715- 
1825) and of Barbara Fiscber, bom Strasser. 
Having first appeared in concerts in Berlin, 
be obtained an engagement at tbe tbeatre 
in Manubeim in 1801, tben at Cassel in 
1803, and two years after started on a 
concert tour for Paris, tben tbrougb Ger- 
many to Italy, wbere be spent tbe greater 
part of bis life as singer and impresario ; in 
the latter capacity be was last in Palermo, 
whence be retired to Mannheim. He jmb- 
lisbed ten or twelve books of songs. — Fotis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

FISCHER, KARL AUGUST, born at 
Ebersdorf, near Chemnitz, Saxony, in 1829, 
still living, 1889. Dramatic and instru- 
mental composer, and one of tbe most emi- 
nent organists of the present time ; jjupil of 
Anacker at Freiberg, made extensive con- 
cert tours in 1852-55, and became organist 
of the orphanage and English churches at 
Dresden. Works : Loreley, opera ; Festi- 
val mass ; Four symphonies for organ with 
orchestra ; Three concertos for organ ; Two 
suites for orchestra ; Compositions for vio- 
lin and organ, and for violoncello and or- 
gan. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

FISCHER, KARL LUD^^^G, born at 
Kaiserslauteru, Bavaria, in 181(3, died at 
Hanover, Aug. 15, 1877. Violinist, pupil 
of Eichborn at Mannheim in composition, 
having appeared successfully in public at 
the age of eight. He was musical director 
at tbe theatres in Treves, Cologne, Ais-la- 
Chapelle, Nuremberg, and Wiirzburg, Ka- 
pellmeister at Mainz in 1847-52, then at 
the royal theatre in Hanover assistant Ka- 
pellmeister with Mai-schner, whom he suc- 



ceeded in 1859. His songs and choral 
works, but esj)ecially his male choruses, 
have won him great reputation in Germany. 
— Mendel ; Riemann. 

FISCHER, MICHAEL GOTTHARDT, 
born at Alach, near Erfurt, June 3, 1773, 
died there, Jan. 12, 1829. Organist, pupil 
at Erfurt of Johauu Christian Kittel, the 
last discijjle of Sebastian Bach. Having 
lived for a short time at Jena, be was re- 
called to Erfurt by Baron Dalberg in 1790 
as Conzertmeister, organist at the Church of 
the Barefooted Friars, and conductor of the 
winter concerts. Afterwards he became 
organist at the Predigerkirche, and in 1816 
professor of thorough bass and the organ 
at the seminary. Works : Two quartets 
for violins, viola, and rioloncello, op. 1 
(Offenbach, 1799) ; Symphony in C, for 

11 parts (Hamburg, Lau) ; Grand sonata 
for pianoforte, op. 3 (Erfurt, Rudoljshi) ; 

12 organ pieces, dedicated to Kittel, op. 
4 (ib., 1802) ; 4 symphonies for 11 and 
14 imrts, op. 5, 9, 13, 19 ; Quartet for pi- 
anoforte, viola, and bass, ojj. 6 (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; Quintet for two violins, 
two violas, and bass, op. 7 (ib. ) ; Concerto for 
bassoon and orchestra, op. 8 (ib.) ; Concerto 
for clarinet, or oboe, and bassoon, op. 11 ; 
Caprices, rondos, and exercises for piano- 
forte ; Five motets ; Four arias for chorus in 
four parts ; Evangelisches Choral-Melodien- 
buch ; Eight chorals with accompanying 
canons, for organ ; Twelve songs with jjiano- 
forte ; About fifty works for the organ, many 
of which are still in use. — Fctis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

FISCHETTI, MATTEO LU^GI, born at 
Martina-Franca, Italy, Feb. 28, 1830, died at 
Naj)les, December, 1887. Pianist and dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Michele Cerimele 
on the pianoforte, of Raejntropb, Petrella, 
Moretli, Lillo, and Pappalardo, in harmony 
and composition ; taught the pianoforte and 
published about 200 pieces for that instru- 
ment. Other works — Operas : Aida di Sca- 
fati, Naples, 1873 ; La Sorrentina, ib., 1873 ; 
Uu' altra figlia di Madama Angot, ib., Teatro 



la 



FISCHHOF 



Mercadante, 1874 ; Vocal melodies. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 335 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 105. 

FISCHHOF, JOSEF, bom at Butscbo- 
witz, Moravia, Ajiril 4, 1804, died in Vi- 
enna, June 28, 1857. Pianist, pupil in Vi- 
enna of Anton Halm, on tbe pianoforte, and 
of Iguaz vou Seyfried in composition ; soon 
became one of the favorite pianoforte 
teachers in Vienna, and in 1833 was ap- 
pointed professor at tbe Conservatorium. 
He published also several literary works on 
music. His compositions consist of rondos, 
fantasias, variations, dances, and marches 
for pianoforte ; Variations for flute with 
pianoforte, guitar, and quartet ; String 
quartet ; Songs, etc. — FOtis ; Mendel ; Mo- 
iiatschrift fiir Theater und Musik (Vienna, 
1857), iii. 460. 

FISCHIETTI, D03IENIC0, born in Na- 
jiles in 1729 (1725?), died at Salzburg after 
1810. Dramatic composer, pupil at the 
Conservatorio di San Onofrio. He went to 
Dresden in 1766, and his first mass was 
given there in that year. Subsequently 
the Archbishop of Salzburg appoiuted him 
his Kapellmeister. Works — Operas : L' Ab- 
bate Collarone, given at Najjles, 1749 ; H 
fiuto fratello ; Solimano, Naples, 1753 ; Lo 
speziale (with Pallavicini), Venice, 1755 ; 11 j 
ritorno di Londra, Naples, 1756 ; H Signer j 
Dottore, ib., 1758; II Siface, ib., 1761 ; H 
mercato di Malmantile, Dresden, about 
1766 ; La molinara, Naples, 1768 ; Ariana 
6 Teseo, Dresden, 1769 ; Nitteti, Naples, 
1770 ; Les metamorphoses d' amour, inter- 
mezzo. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

FISH, WILLIAM, born in Norwich, Eng- 
land, in 1775, died about 1863 or 1864. 
Violinist in the theatre at Norwich, then 
principal oboist in the theatre, and leader 
of the band at concerts. Composed songs, 
glees, and concertos for various instruments. 
— Grove. 

FISHER, JOHN ABRAHAil, born at 
Dunstable, England, 1744, died (?). Violin- 
ist and dramatic compose!', pupil on the vio- 
lin of Pinto ; made his first appearance in 
1765 in a concert at the King's Theatre. 



Becoming interested in Covent Garden The- 
atre through his marriage with a daughter 
of Powell the actor, he turned his attention 
to dramatic composition. He was given 
the degree of Mus. Doc. at Oxford in 1777, 
on the performance there of his oratorio, 
Providence. On the death of his wife he 
made a professional tour through Russia 
and Germany, and in Vienna in 1784 mar- 
ried the singer Anna Selina Storace, but he 
so ill-treated her that she left him, and the 
Emperor ordered Fisher to quit his domin- 
ions. Works — Operas : The Monster of 
the Wood, London, 1772 ; The Sylphs, ib., 
1774 ; Prometheus, 1776 ; The Norwood 
Gj'psies, 1777 ; Music for the opening of 
Macbeth ; Symphonies ; Concertos for pi- 
anoforte and oboe ; Canzonets ; Violin and 
flute music. — Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

FISSOT, ALEXIS HENRY, born at Ai- 
raines (Somme), Oct. 24, 1843, still living, 
1889. Pianist and organist, jjupil at the 
Conservatoire, Paris, of Marmontel for pi- 
anoforte, Benoist for organ, Bazin for har- 
mony, and of Ambroise Thomas for counter- 
point and fugue. He won the 1st pianoforte 
prize in 1855, 1st iwize for fugue and organ 
in 1859, and many other prizes. He be- 
came one of the best organists and pianists 
in Paris ; is organist of Saint-Vincent-de- 
Paul. His pianoforte compositions are nu- 
merous and popular. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 336. 

fitzwillia:\i, edward francis, 

born at Deal, England, in 1824, died in 
Loudon, Jan. 20, 1857. He became in 1853 
director of music at the Haymarket Thea- 
tre, London, where he produced an oper- 
etta, Love's Alarms, and the music of sev- 
eral minor pieces. He published a Te 
Deum, four four-part songs (1855), hymns, 
etc. — Grove. 

FIX'D IN HIS EVERLASTING SEAT, 
double chorus in D major in Handel's Sam- 
son, Part II. 

FLACCOmO, GIOVANNI PIETRO, 
born at Milazzo in Sicily, died in Turin in 
1617. Priest and church composer, maes- 



73 



FLADT 



tro de cappella to Philip in., of Spain. He 
IJublished a collection of sacred music. — Fc- 
tis ; Gerber ; Meudel ; Walther ; Viotta. 

FL.iDT (Flad), ANTON, born in Mann- 
heim in 177.5, died in Munich, June 14, 
1850. Oboist, pupil of Friedricb Ramm 
in Munich, where he succeeded Lebrun in 
the court orchestra iu 1790. After many 
concert tours iu Germany, Ital^', France, and 
England, he returned to his Munich posi- 
tion, from which he did not retire until 
1842. Works : 3 concertinos for oboe and 
orchestra ; 8 allemandes and 4 waltzes for 
two flageolets ; 24 minor pieces for do. 
— Mendel ; Fetis ; Grove. 

FLATTEING TONGUE, soprano air, in 
B-flat, of Esther in Handel's Egther, Part HI. 

FLAVIO (Flavius), Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Nicolo Francesco Haym, music 
by Handel, first represented at the King's 
Theatre, London, May 14, 1723. This 
work, noted for the beauty of its melodies, 
was sung with great success by Senesiuo, 
Cuzzoui, Durastauti, and Mrs. Anastasia 
Kobinsou. It contains a quintet, said to be 
the first scenic quintet ever composed. 
Characters represented : Flavio, Guido, 
Emilia, Teodata, Vitige, XJgone, Lotario. 
The opera was i-evived in 1732, but without 
success. The ]MS,, in Buckingham Palace, 
is dated at the end. May 7, 1723. Published 
first by Walsh ; full score by HiindelgeseU- 
schaft (Leipsic, 1875). — Rockstro, Handel, 
139 ; SchcBlcher, Handel, 70, 90 ; Chry- 
sander, ii. 96. 

FLECHA (Fleccia), MATTHAEUS, born 
iu Prades, Spain, died at the Benedictine 
Abbey of Solsoua, Feb. 20, 1604. A Car- 
melite monk, he became maestro de capilla 
to the Emperor Charles V., and, after the 
abdication of that monarch, lived in monas- 
teries in Hungary and Bohemia. He re- 
turned to Spain in 1559, and retired to the 
Convent of Solsona. Works : Motets, 
psalms, and other church music. He was 
the author of a treatise, " Libro de Musica 
de Punto " (Prague, 1581).— Fetis, iii. 270 ; 
Supplement, i. 336 ; Mendel ; Viotta. 



FLtCUt, JEAN ANDRI^:, born at Mar- 
seilles, April 23, 1779, died (?). Dramatic 
composer ; was jjrivate secretary to Jerome 
Bonaparte, and his chamberlain when King 
of Westphalia. He went with him to Cas- 
sel, and produced there in 1811 an opera, 
Le troubadour. He wrote also music for 
the pianoforte and violin, and romances for 
the viola. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

FLEDERMAUS, DIE (The Bat), German 
operetta in three acts, text by HafTuer and 
Richard Genee, music by Johann Strauss, 
first represented in Vienna, and at the 
Friedrich-Wilhelmstiidtisches Theater, Ber- 
lin, July, 1874. The libretto is an adaptation 
of Meilhac and Halevy's Le Ri'veillon. A 
French version, text by Delacour and 
Wilder, music partly from Die Fledermaus 
and partly from Strauss's Cagliostro, with 
some additions, was given in Paris, at the 
Thc'atre de la Renaissance, Oct. 30, 1877, 
under the title. La tzigane. — Hanslick, 
Moderne Oper, 338. 

FLfiGIER, ANGE, born in MarseiUes, 
Feb. 22, 184G, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Marseilles, and in 
1866 at the Paris Conservatoire, where he 
studied under Bazin and Ambroise Thomas. 
In 1870 he settled in Marseilles. Works: 
Fatma, opi'racomique in one act, text by 
Devoisin, given at the Grand Theatre at 
Marseilles, April, 1875 ; Franjoise de Ri- 
mini, cantata ; Overtures ; Choruses ; Songs, 
etc. — Fetis ; Supplement, i. 336 ; Mendel, 
Ergiinz., xii. 109. 

FLEISCHER, FRIEDRICH GOTTLOB, 
born at Cothen, Anlialt, Germany, Jan. 14, 
1722, died at Brunswick, April 4, 1806. 
Pianist, organist, and dramatic and instru- 
mental composer, was appointed chamber 
musician at Brunswick in 1747, and after- 
wards became there also organist at the 
Church of Sts. Martin and Egidius, and 
court pianist. He had the reputation of 
being one of the greatest pianists of Bach's 
school. Works : Das Orakel, opera, 1771 ; 
Music to the drama Comala ; Cantatas 
(Brunswick, 1760) ; Minuets and polonaises 



FLEISCHMANN 



for pianoforte (ib.) ; Sonatas for do. ; Odes 
for solo voice with jiianoforte (ib., 1756). 
^Fotis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FLEISCHMANN, FRIEDRICH, born at 
Heidenfeld, near Wurzburg, Bavaria, July 
18, 17G6, died at Meiuiugen, Nov. 30, 1798. 
Instrumental and vocal composer, self- 
taught ; became secretary to the Duke of 
Meiningen in 1789, and director of the 
court orchestra in 1790. Works : Die Geis- 
terinsel, opera, 179G ; Several symphonies ; 
Pieces for military band ; Concertos for pi- 
anoforte ; Symphonie concertante for do. 
and violin ; Variations, songs, etc. — Fotis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

FLEUR DE THE, opt'ra-bouffe in three 
acts, text by Chivot and Duru, music by 
Charles Lecocq, represented at the Athenue, 
Paris, April 11, 1868. Sung by Desire, 
Lconce, Sylter, and Miles Irma Marie and 
Lucie Cabel. 

FLEURS DES LANDES (Moorland 
Flowers), 5 melodies for one or two voices 
and chorus with pianoforte accompaniment, i 
on words by A. de Bouclon, Emile Des- 
champs, and Briseux, by Hector Berlioz, op. 
13. I. Le matin (Morning) ; H. Petit oi- 
seau (Little Bird) ; IH. Le trebuchet (The 
Trap) ; IV. Le jeune jjatre breton (The 
Young Breton Shepherd) ; V. Le chant des 
bretons (Breton Song). Published in 1850 
by Richault, Paris. The following are jJub- 
lished separately, with French and German 
text : Le matin, Le trebuchet, by Mechetti, 
Vienna ; Le patre broton, full score by Ri- 
chault.— Jullien, Hector Berlioz (1888), 378. 

FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER, DER(The 
Flying Dutchman), romantic opera in three 
acts, text and music by Richard Wagner, 
first represented in Dresden, Jan. 2, 18'13. 
The subject is from Heinrich Heine's 
" Memoiren des Herrn von Schnabelewop- 
ski," in which the imaginary hero witnesses 
a play about the " Ahasuerus of the Ocean" 
in an Amsterdam theatre, though Heine 
got the outlines of the story from an Eng- 
lish play by Fitzball, which he witnessed in 
1827 at the Adelphi Theatre in London. 



Fitzball in turn probably derived the ground- 
work of his plot from a stoiy in Blackwood's 
Magazine of May, 1821, entitled " Vander- 
decken's Message Home ; or, The Tenacity 
of Natural Affection." The touching denoue- 
ment, however, which Wagner adopted, is 
Heine's own. In 1810 Wagner submitted 
sketches for a libretto on this theme to 
Leon Pillet, director of the Paris Opera, 
with the proposal that a French text should 
be prepared for him to set to music. Wag- 




Max Stagemann, as Der Fliegende Hollander. 

ner subsequently sold his rights for 500 
francs to Pillet, who had a libretto pre- 
pared by Feucher and Revoil, with music by 
Pierre Louis Philippe Dietsch, then chorus- 
master at the Opera. The result was Le 
vaisseau fantume (The Phantom Ship), in 
two acts, which was produced at the Aca- 
demie Royale de Musique, Nov. 9, 1842. lu 
the meantime, Wagner made of the story a 
German libretto and set it to music. It 
was originally intended for one act only, 
but was subsequently cut into three. Wag- 
ner himself conducted the first perform- 
ance, which, though not a failure, was not 
very satisfactory. The work was produced 



76 



FLIXTOFT 



at Cassel, June 5, 1843, by Si^oLr, who rec- 
ognized its merits, but it failed in Berlin 
and in Munich, where it was given in 1865. 
It was represented in London at Drury 
Lane, 1870, in an Italian version, L' ollan- 
dese dannato ; at the Lyceum, 1876, in 
English, as the Flying Dutchman ; and at 
Covent Garden, 1877, in Italian, as II va- 
scello fautasma. It was given in English in 
New York in 1886 and again in 1887. The 
Flying Dutchman is the commander of a 
mysterious vessel doomed to sail the seas 
until he is loved by a maiden who will be 
faithful unto death. He puts into a port 
at the same time with a Norwegian vessel, 
whose captain, Daland, invites him to his 
house. There he meets Senta, Dalaud's 
daughter, who, though affianced to Erik, is 
fascinated with the stranger and believes 
that it is her lot to rescue him from perdi- 
tion. He, however, discovers her in an in- 
terview with Erik, concludes that she is not 
true to him, and decides to leave her. But 
as his vessel sails away Senta throws herself 
from a cliff into the sea, thus proving con- 
stant even in death. The curse is removed, 
the phantom shij) sinks, while the sea grows 
calm, and the lovers are seen in the distance 
rising to happiness together. In the first 
act, after the introductory sailors' chorus, the 
chief numbers are : The helmsman's soncr, 
" ilit Gewitter imd Sturm," and the scena of 
the Dutchman, "Die Frist ist um." The 
second act contains the sjjinniug-song of the 
girls, " Summ' uud bruram', du gutes Riid- 
chen," and Senta's ballad, " Johohoe ! traft 
ihr das Schiff im Meere an," in which she 
tells the storj' of the Dutchman ; and closes 
with a superb duet between Senta and the 
Dutchman, " Wie aus der Feme," and a ter- 
zetto with Daland. The third act opens 
with a sailors' chorus, " Steuermann, lass' 
die Wacht." It contains also a dramatic 
duet between Senta and Erik, " Wass muss 
ich horen ? " and closes with chorus and a 
trio between Senta, Daland, and the Dutch- 
man. — Hueffer, Richard Wagner and the 
Music of the Future ; Edwards, Lyrical 



Drama, i. 189 ; Liszt, Gesamml. Schr., iii. b, 
147 ; Wagner, Gesamml. Schr., v. 205, 228. 
FLINTOFT, LUKE, born in latter half 
of 17th century, died in London (?), Nov. 
3, 1727. He was priest-vicar of Lincoln 
Cathedral in 1704-14, gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal in 1715, and reader in W'hite- 
hall Chapel in 1719. His double chant iu 
G minor being the earliest known, he has 
the credit of inventing that form of compo- 
sition. — Grove. 

FLITNER (Flittner), JOHANN, born at 
Suhla, Henneberg, Nov. 1, 1618, died in Stral- 
sund, Jan. 7, 1678. He studied theology 
and music, became a chorister at Grimmen, 
near Greifswald, iu 1644, preacher there iu 
1646, and deacon iu Stralsund. Some of 
his chorals are still iu use. Works : Himm- 
lisches Lustgiirtlein (Greifswald, 1601), the 
sixth part being entitled Suscitabulum mu- 
sicum, aud containing, Ach, was soil ich 
SCiuder machen, and other chorals and 
songs. — ]Meudel ; Futis ; Winterfeld, Der 
evang. Kirchengesang, ii. 467. 

FL0ERSHEI:M, otto, bom in Aix-la- 
Chajielle, Germany, 
March 2, 1853, still liv- 
ing, 1889. He stud- 
ied the pianoforte at 
Aix-la-Chapelle under 
Wungmanu and Laut- 
maun, the organ under 
Winkelhaus, harmony 
uuder Breunuug, and 
composition at Co- 
logne under Ferdi- 
nand Hiller. About 1875 he went to Amer- 
ica, aud since 1880 has been editor of The 
Musical Courier, New York. He visits Eu- 
rope frequently to attend important musi- 
cal performances, and to get information as 
to the general condition of musical affairs. 
Works — Orchestral : Prelude and fugue, 
1883 ; Alia Marcia, 1884 ; Consolation, 
1884 ; Scherzo, 1887 ; Elevation, for or- 
chestra and organ, produced at the Milwau- 
kee Music Festival, 1886. Pianoforte : 
Thi-ee Romances ; Fina ; Elegy ; Wedding 




78 



FLOQUET 



Marcli ; German Marcli ; Three Poetic 
Thoughts ; Lullaby ; Valse gracieuse, and 
other pianoforte music ; Songs. 

FLOQUET, fiTIENNE JOSEPH, born 
at Aix, Provence, Nov. 25, 1750, died in 
Paris, May 10, 1785. Dramatic corajjoser, 
educated at the maitrise de Saint-Sauveur 
of his native town, where he wrote a motet 
at the age of eleven ; went to Paris in 1769, 
obtained great success with his first dra- 
matic work, a ballet, in 1773, and soon after 
started for Italy, to study counterpoint un- 
der Sala at Naples, and under Padre Mar- 
tini at Bologna, whei'e he was made a mem- 
ber of the Accademia Filarmonica. After 
his return to Paris he was fairly successful 
with his operas, until vain enough to attempt 
the composition of Alceste, which was re- 
jected after one rehearsal, the grief over it 
impairing his health. "Works : L'union de 
I'amour et des arts, ballet, given at the 
Acadt'mie Royale de Musique, 1773 ; Azolan, 
ou le serment iudiscret, opera-ballet, ib., 
177-1 ; Helle, opera, ib., 1779 ; Le seigneur 
bieufaisant, ib., 1780; La nouvelle Omphale, 
lyrical comedy. Theatre de la Comedie Ita- 
lienue, 1782 ; Alceste ; Te Deum for two 
choruses and two orchestras. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

FLOR, CHRISTIAN, born in 1626, died 
at Neuenkirchen, Holstein, in 1697. Or- 
ganist, of great reputation, at the Church of 
St. John and St. Lambertus, Liineburg. 
Of his compositions have been preserved : 
Several wedding-songs, with accompaniment 
of two violins and basso continuo, and the 
choral, Auf meinen lieben Gott. — Fttis ; 
Mendel ; do., Ergiinz., 109. 

FLORENTINISCHE-SINFONIE (Flor- 
entine Symphony), for orchestra, by Josejih 
Rheinberger, written in 1876. 

FLORIDANTE, Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Paolo Rolli, music by Handel, 
first represented at the King's Theatre, 
London, Dee. 9, 1721. It was sung by 
Senesino, Baldassari, Boschi, and Mrs. 
Anastasia Robinson. Characters repre- 
sented : Floridante, Oronte, Timante, Co- 



ralbo, Roseane, Elmira. The MS. score, in 
the Buckingham Palace collection, wants 
the last chorus and the date. The opera 
was given in Hamburg in 1723, and revived 
in London, March 3, 1733. It was pub- 
lished first by Walsh ; full score by Hiin- 
delgesellschaft (Leipsic, 1876). — Roekstro, 
Handel, 137 ; Schoelcher, 69, 90 ; Chrysan- 
der, ii. 73. 

FLORIMO, FRANCESCO, born at San 
Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, Oct. 12, 1800, 
still living, 1889. Church, instrumental, and 
vocal composer, and distinguished writer on 
music, pupil of Furno in harmony, of Elia 
ou the pianoforte, and of Zingarelli and 
Tritto in counterpoint and composition, at 
the Real Collegio di Musica, Naples, of 
which he became librarian in 1826. Works : 
Two cantatas ; Two Masses ; Dixit ; Credo ; 
Te Deum ; Overtures ; Funeral symphony ; 
Several collections of songs (Milan and Na- 
ples) ; Vocal method (Metodo di canto, in 
use at the Conservatorio, Naples). He is 
author also of : Cenno storico sulla Scuola 
musicale di Napoli (Naples, 1869-71) ; and 
Riccardo Wagner ed i Wagneristi (ib., 1876). 
— Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 337 ; Mendel. 

FLORINDO UND DAPHNE. See Dafae. 

FLORIO, CARYL, born (William James 
Robjohn) of English parentage, in Tavis- 
tock, Devonshire, England, Nov. 3, 1843, 
still living, 1889. Organist and pianist, 
self-taught. In 1857 he went to America, 
and in 1858-60 (under the name of Rob- 
john) was princijjal boy-soprano in Trinity 
Church, New York ; after his voice broke 
he remained as assistant organist to Dr. 
Henry S. Cutler ; later he became organist 
in Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., and then 
of a church in Morristown, N. J. At the 
close of this engagement he went on the 
stage, appearing in the Western States. In 
1869 he returned to New York as solo bari- 
tone in Zion Church. Since then he has 
been organist successively of St. Luke's, 
New York ; Mount Calvary, Baltimore ; 
Brick Church, New York ; Zion Church, 
New York ; then returned to the Brick 



77 



FLORSCIIUTZ 



CliurcL, where he is at present (1889). 
He has appeared as pianist quite often in 
New York, and has conducted orchestras 
and choruses both in New York and in 
Havana, Cuba. Works : Inferno, operetta, 
1871 ; Les Tours deMercure, operetta, 1872 ; 
Suzanne, operetta, 187G ; Gulda, opera, 
1879 ; Uncle Tom, opera, 1882, produced in 
Philadelphia ; 2 symphonies. No. 1 in G, 
1887, No. 2 in C minor, 1887 (both per- 
formed by Theodore Thomas in New York, 
March 27, 1888) ; 2 overtures, occasional, 
187'4, triumphal, 1877 ; 2 string quartets. 
No. 1 in C, 1873, No. 2 in F, 1874 ; i so- 
natas for pianoforte and violin, No. 1 in A, 
1871, No. 2 in F minor, 1872, No. 3 in C, 
1884, No. 4 in G, 188.5 ; Pianoforte concerto 
in A-flat, 1875-8G (performed in New York, 
March 27,1888) ; 2 quartets for saxojDhones, 
1879 (performed in New York, April, 1880). 
Two cantatas : Song of the Elements, 1872 
(performed in Brooklyn, 1872) ; Bridal of 
Triermain, 1886. 

FLORSCHUTZ, EUCHAEIUS, born at 
Lauter, near Coburg, in 1757, died at Ros- 
tock, Mecklenburg, 1820. Organist, num- 
bered among the most favourite instru- 
mental composers of the time, about 1780, 
and became organist of St. James's, Rostock, 
after 1792. Works : Der Richter und die 
Giirtnerin, operetta, given at Liibeck, 1792 ; 
Sonatas for pianoforte (4 hands) ; Fugues 
for do. ; Duets and trios for violin and flute ; 
Church music. — Futis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FLOTOW, FRIEDRICH, Freihcrr VON, 
born at Rentendorf, ]\Iecklenburg, April 27, 
1812, died at Darmstadt, Jan. 24, 1883. 
Dramatic comfDoser, pupil of Reicha at the 
Conservatoire, Paris, returned to Mecklen- 
burg at the outbreak of the July revolution, 
but a few j'ears later went again to Paris, 
where his first dramatic efforts were brought 
out at some of the smaller theatres in 183G. 
His first noteworthy success was Le nau- 
frage de la Meduse, in 1839, but his fame 
rests chiefly on Alessandro Stradella and 
Martha. The March revolution of 1848 
drove him once more from Paris, whither he 




returned in 1863, having meanwhile held 
the oflice of intendaut of court music at 
__ Schwerin, to which the 

Grand Duke of Meck- 
lenburg appointed him 
in 1856. In 1868 he 
settled on an estate near 
Vienna, spending his 
winters alternately in 
that city, in Paris, and 
in Italy. His operas are 
distinguished for melo- 
^ dious invention, grace- 

ful forms, and pleasing instrumentation : 
on the whole, iDre-emineutly Italian in char- 
acter, more effective than deep ; he must 
be esteemed the most popular represen- 
tative of the lyric and comic opera in Ger- 
many since Kreutzer and Lortzing. He 
composed also some overtures, chamber 
music, and songs. Works : Pien-e et Ca- 
therine, given at the Theatre de I'Hotel de 
Castellane, 1836 ; Seraphina, Chateau de 
Royaumont, 1836 ; Die Bergknappen (The 
Miners) ; Rob Roy, given at a chateau near 
Paris ; Le naufrage de la Meduse (with 
Pilati), Theatre de la Renaissance, 1839 (54 
times), and at Hamburg (under the title 
Die Matrosen, rewritten entirely by Flo- 
tow), 1845 ; La duchesse de Guise, Theatre 
Ventadour, 1840, and at Schwerin, 1841 ; 
Le forestier. Opera Comique, 1840, Vienna 
(under the title Der Forster), 1847, London 
(as Leoline), 1848 ; L'esclave de Camoiins, 
Opera Comique, 1843 ; Lady Harriet, ballet 
(with Burgmiiller and Deldevez), Opera, 
1843 ; Alessandro Stradella, Hamburg, Dec. 
30, ,1844 ; h'dme en peine. Opera, 1846 ; 
Martha, Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847 ; Die Gross- 
fUrstin, Berlin, 1850 ; ludra, Berlin and 
Frankfort, 1853, Riga, 1855; Riibezahl, 
Frankfort, 1854 ; Hilda, 1855 ; Albin, Vi- 
enna, 1856 ; Veuve Grapin, operetta, 
Bouffes Parisiens, 1859 ; Pianella, do., 
Theatre Dejazet, 1860 ; Wintermiirchen, 
Vienna, 1862 ; Die Libelle, ballet, ib., 
1866 ; Zilda, Paris, Opera Comique, 1866 ; 
Tannkonig, ballet, Dai-mstadt, 1867 ; Am 



78 



FLUCHT 



Runenstein (with Genee), Prague, 1868 ; 
liombre, Paris, Opi'ra Comique, 1870 ; 
Nakla, Milan, Teatro Manzoni, 1873 ; II fior 
(T Harlem, Turin, Teatro Vittorio Emauuele, 
1876; L'Encliaute- 
resse (Indra rewrit- 
ten), Paris and Lon- 
don, 1878, given in 
Italian as Rosellaua 
(posthumous). Alma 
r Incantatrice, and in 
German as Die Hese ; 







/^ 



^ 



Der Graf Saint-Megrin (posthumous), given 
at Cologne, Januarj-, 1884 ; Die Musikanten 
(discovered at Mannheim, 1887, given at 
Magdeburg, 1888). — Clement, Mus.celebres, 
575 ; Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 338 ; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1883), i. 117 ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

FLUCHT DER HEILIGEN FAMILIE, 
DIE (The Flight of the Holy Family), can- 
tata, for chorus aud orchestra, by l\Iax 
Bruch, op. 20, 1863. 

FLUGEL, ERNST PAUL, born at Stet- 
tin, Aug. 31, 1844, still living, 1889. In- 
strumental and vocal composer, sou and -^w- 
pil of Giistav Fliigel, and iu 1862-63 pupil 
in Berlin at the Royal Institute for Church 
Music and at the Academy, then of Billow, 
Flodoard Geyer, and Kiel ; lived as music 
teacher at Treptow and Greifswald, became 
organist and vocal instructor at Preuzlau in 
1867, and cantor at the Bernhardinkirche in 
Breslau in 1879. Works : The 121st psalm, 
op. 22 ; Mahomet's Gesang, op. 24 ; Trio 
for pianoforte, op. 25 ; Organ and pianoforte 
pieces, and songs. — Riemann. 

FLUGEL, GUSTAV, born at Kloster- 
Nienburg, Anhalt, July 2, 1812, still living, 
1889. Organist, pupil of Cantor Thiele at 
Altenburg, and of Friedrich Schneider at 
Dessau ; from 1830 he taught successively at 
Nienburg, COthen, Magdeburg, and Schone- 



beck, then at Stettin, 1840-50 ; was called to 

Neuwied to teach at the seminary in 1850, 

received the title of roj'al director of music 

, iu 1856, and returned to Stettin as Cantor 

and organist of 
the Schloss- 
kirche in 1859. 
He has contrib- 
uted also a 
number of ex- 
cellent articles 
to musical pe- 
riodicals. Works : Concert overture for or- 
chestra ; String quartet ; Thirty-five books 
of comjjositions for pianoforte ; Six do. for 
organ ; Nine do. of songs ; Sacred and sec- 
ular songs for mixed, and male choruses ; 
Priiludienbuch (112 preludes), etc. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Riemann. 

FLYING DUTCHMAN, THE. See 
FUegcnde Hollander. 

FODOR, ANTOON, born at Venloo in 
1775, died in Amsterdam, Feb. 22, 1846. 
Pianist, studied in Mannheim, whence he 
went, about 1792, to Amsterdam. He wrote 
Numa Pompilius, the first national opera 
given in Holland, and comjjosed a great 
deal of pianoforte music. He was a mem- 
ber of the Netherland Institute, conductor 
at the German Theatre of Amsterdam, 1814, 
and dii-ector of the Felix Meritis Society. 
— Fetis, iii. 279 ; do.. Supplement, i. 339 ; 
Gregoir, Mus. Neerlandais, 75 ; Mendel ; 
Viotta. 

FODOR, JOZEF, born at Venloo, in 
1752, died iu St. Petersburg, Oct. 3, 1828. 
Violinist, brother of Antoon Fodor, pupil in 
Berlin in 1766 of Franz Benda. He trav- 
elled in Germany and the Netherlands, was 
in Paris iu 1790, aud lived in St. Peters- 
burg in 1794r-1828. Works: Concertos; 
Solos ; Duos ; Quartets for strings and 
much violin music (Paris, Berlin, Vienna, 
Amsterdam). — Grove ; Fetis ; Gregoir, Mus. 
Neerlandais, 74 ; Mendel ; Viotta. 

FOERSTER, ADOLPH MARTIN, born, 
of German parentage, in Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, Feb. 2, 1854, still living, 1889. 



79 



rr 



FOGAgA 



He studied the pianoforte as a boy under 
his mother, and later under Jean Manns. 
In 1872 he went to Europe and studied, at 
the Leipsic Conservatorium, the pianoforte 
under Coccius and Wenzel, singing under 
Grill and Schimon, and theorj' under E. F. 
Richter and Papperitz. Returning in 1875, 
he taught in the Fort Wayne Conservatory 
of Music during 1875-76, then settled in 
Pittsburgh, where he still resides. He was 
conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphonic So- 
cietj-, 1878-79, and of the Pittsburgh Musi- 
cal Union, 1883. Works : Thusnelda, op. 10, 
for orchestra, first played in Baltimore, Feb. 
11, 1882 ; Quartet, op. 21, for pianoforte, 
violin, viola, and violoncello ; Fautasie, op. 
15, for violin and pianoforte ; Romanza, op. 
17, for violin and jsianoforte ; Andante, op. 
3 ; Valse cajjrice, op. 5 ; Nocturne, op. 7 ; 
Three Sonatinas, op. 14 ; Pianoforte music ; 
Songs ; Part-songs, and choruses. 

F0GA(;A, JOAO, bom at Lisbon in 1589, 
died there about 1G58. Church composer, 
pupil of Duarte Lobo, entered a monastic 
order, and lived afterwards in a convent at 
Ossa. His works are in the royal library at 
Lisbon. — Mendel ; Vasconcellos. 

FOGGIA, FR.VNCESCO, born in Rome 
in 1604:, died there, 
Jan. 8, 1688. Church 
composer, pupil of 
Cifra, Nanini, and 
Agostini. He was 




Kapellmeister to the 
Elector of Cologne, 
to the Elector of Ba- 
varia, and then to the 
Archduke Leopold of 
Austria. On his return to Italy he became 
successively maestro di capjjella at the Ca- 
thedrals of Narni and Montefiascone, and 
of the following churches iu Rome : S. M. in 
Aquiro, S. M. in Trastevere, S. Giovanni in 
Laterano (1636-1661), S. Lorenzo in Dama- 
so, and S. M. Maggiore (1677), remaining at 
the last until his death. He was a prolific 
composer of church music. Besides his 
published works, a list of which is given in 



Fetis, there is an immense amount in MS, 
scattered throughout the churches of Italy. 
He was one of the first musicians to write 
tonal fugues, and the last who remained 
faithful to the traditions of Palestrina. 
Works : Motets ; Masses ; Psalms ; Lita- 
nies, for 2 to 9 voices, published iu Rome 
from 1640 to 1681. His motets are in the 
Spiridione collection. — Grove ; Fetis, iii. 
284 ; do., Supiplemeut, i. 340 ; Larousse ; 
Mendel. 

FOGLIANI, LUDOVICO, born in Mod- 
ena close of the 15th century, died there 
about 1539. Composer, whose songs for 
several voices are found in Petrucci's 
"Frottole" (Venice, 1504-1508). In one 
of his songs each of the four voices, cantus, 
altus, tenor, and bassus, sings different 
words. He was a learned writer for his 
time. He was the author of Musica the- 
orica (1529), a treatise on the theory of 
sound. — Fetis ; Biog. Gen., xviii. 35 ; Bur- 
ney. Hist., iii. 157 ; Mendel ; Riemann, 268 ; 
Viotta. 

FOIGNET, CHARLES GABRIEL, born 
in Lyons in 1750, died in Paris in 1823. 
Dramatic comjjoser, studied music from au 
early age, and in 1779 went to Paris where 
he taught singing, the harpsichord, and the 
harp. He wrote many operettas for the 
small Paris theatres, and became director, 
iu 1797, of the Thuatre des Jeuues Artistes. 
He was director also of the Theatre Mon- 
tansier until 1802, when he gave it up. 
The Jeunes Artistes was closed by the edict 
of 1807. For a list of his operas, which 
are now forgotten, see the supplement to 
Fetis. He published also vocal music with 
l^ianoforte or violin accompaniment. — Fe- 
tis ; do., Supplement, i. 340 ; Mendel. 

FOIGNET, FRANgOIS, born in Paris 
about 1780, died in Strasburg, July 22, 
1845. Dramatic composer and singer, sou 
and puj)il of the preceding, made his debut, 
when yet a child, at the Theatre des Jeunes 
I^leves, and, besides comic operas, wrote 
the music for a number of pantomimes and 
melodramas. From 1806 he sang in vari- 



80 



FOLKUNGER 



ous provincial theatres, after 1829 in the 
South of France, especially at Angoulome, 
where he was manager of the theatre. He 
died in poverty at the hospital. Works : La 
noce de Lucette, Theatre Montansier, 1799 ; 
Le gondolier, ou la soiree venitienne, ib., 
1800 ; Le chat hotte, ou les vingt-quatre 
heures d"Arlequin, feerie. Theatre des Jeunes 
Artistes, 1802 ; Le retour inattendu, ou le 
mari revenant, ib., 1802 ; Eaymond de Tou- 
louse, ou le retour de la Terre sainte, gi'aud 
opera (with his father), ib., 1802 ; Riquet 
a la houpjie, fairy ojjera, ib., 1802 ; La 
uaissance d'Arlequin, ou Arlequiu dans un 
ceuf, do., ib., 180.3 ; Arlequiu a Maroc, ou la 
pyramide enchantce, do., ib., 1801 ; L'oi- 
seau bleu, do. His brother Gabriel, born 
in Paris, 1790, has made a name for himself 
as a virtuoso on the harp. — Fetis ; do., Sup- 
plement, i. 311 ; Mendel. 

FOLKUNGER, DIE (The Folkuugs), 
grand ojsera in five acts, text by S. H. Mo- 
senthal, music by Edmund Kretschmer, first 
represented at the Court Theatre, Dresden, 
April, 1874. Scene, in Sweden. Time, end 
of thirteenth century. Characters repre- 
sented : Magnus, son of King Eric of Swe- 
den ; Maria, niece of Eric ; Karin, nurse ; 
Lars Olasson, castellan of the Castle of 
Borgniis ; Bengt, Duke von Schoonen ; Sten 
Petrik, his confidant ; Ansgar, Abbot of 
Kloster Nydal. This, Kretschmer's first op- 
era,, had a fair run, but has now disappeared. 

FONTAINE, ANTOINE NICOLAS MA- 
EIE, born in Paris in 1785, died at Saint- 
Cloud, Ajiril, 18GG. Violinist, pupil of his 
father, and of Lafont, Kreutzer, and Baillot. 
He entered the Conservatoire in 1806, and 
won the 1st violin prize in 1809 ; studied 
harmony under Catel and Daussoigne and 
composition under Reicha. After a profes- 
sional tour of ten years, he settled in Paris 
in 1825 as teacher of the violin, and was 
solo violin to Charles X. until the revolu- 
tion of 1830. He published a great deal of 
violin music, and some church music. — Fe- 
tis, iii. 288 ; do., Supplement, i. 312 ; Men- 
del ; Yiotta. 



FONTANA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 

Italian composer, living in 1G60. He pub- 
lished a collection of sonatas, for two or 
three violins with bass (Venice, IGll). Ac- 
cording to Hart, these sonatas furnish the 
earliest indication of the removal of the 
violin as a solo instrument to a higher 
sphere of composition. — Fetis ; Hart, The 
Violin, 172 ; Mendel, iii. 590 ; do., Ergilnz., 
sii. 110. 

FONTANA, URANIO, born at Iseo, Italy, 
November, 1815, still living, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil at the Milan Conser- 
vatorio. His opera seria, Isabella di Lara, 
given in Rome, 1837, first brought him into 
notice. He then produced in Paris, 1810, 
another work, Le Zingaro, and soon after 
became director of the Italian theatre in 
Athens, but returned to Italy in 1811, and 
gave in Padua his Giulio d' Este (1812). 
His best work is I Baccanti, written for La 
Scala, Milan, 1849. He was professor of 
singing at the Paris Conservatoire in 1856- 
65.— Fetis, iii. 289 ; do., Supplement, i. 342 ; 
Mendel ; Viotta. 

FONTEI, NICOLO, born at Orzinuovi, 
Italy, in 1597, died (?). He wrote masses, 
psalms, etc., published in Venice (1634- 
1647), and Bizzarrie poetiche for 1, 2, and 3 
voices, three books, the two last in Venice 
(1636-39).— Fetis ; Van der Straeten, i. 61 ; 
Mendel ; Viotta. 

FONTENELLE, GRANGES DE, born at 
Villeneuve d'Agen (Lot-et-Garonue), France, 
in 1769, died there in 1819. Dramatic com- 
poser, first instructed in his native town, 
then in Paris pupil of Rey in harmony and 
of Sacchini in composition. Works : La 
montagne, ou la fondation du temple de 
la Liberte, opera, given in Paris, Opera, 
1793 ; Hecube, do., ib., 1800 ; Medee et 
Jason, do. (1802), ib., 1813 ; Circe, cantata ; 
Priam aux pieds d'Achille, do. ; Other can- 
tatas ; Quartets for violin. — Fetis ; do., Sup- 
plement, i. 312 ; Mendel. 

FONTjNHCHEL, hippolyte hono- 

RE JOSEPH COURT DE, born at Grasse 
(Var), May 5, 1799, died (?). Dramatic com- 



& 



FOOTE 



poser, puj)il of Chelard at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, won the second prize for composition 
iu 1822, and %-isited Italy. Works : Ainadeo 
il Grande, gi%'en at Genoa; I due Forzati, 
Leghoi'n ; H Gitano, Marseilles, 1835 ; Le 
chevalier de Canolle, Paris, Oj^era Comique, 
183G ; Amleto, not performed ; Choruses for 
the Amalocites of Chateaubriand. — Fetis; 
do., Supplement, i. 342 ; MendeL 

FOOTE, AETHUR (^\TLLIAM), born, of 
American parents, iu Salem, Mass., March 
5, 1853, still living, 1889. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1874, studied the 
pianoforte and organ under B. J. Lang, 
and harmony and composition under 
Stephen A. Emery and John K. Paine. Has 
been, since 1878, organist of the First Uni- 
tarian Church, Boston. Works — Vocal : 
The Fareirell of Hiawatha, for male chorus 
and orchestra, Boston, May 12, 1886 ; Tlie 
Wreck of the Hesperus, for soli, mixed 
chorus, and orchestra, ib., Jan. 2G, 1887; 
Numerous songs and part-songs. Instru- 
mental : String quartet in G minor, op. 4 ; 
Trio for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello 
in C minor, op. 5 ; Serenade for strings, op. 
12 ; Overture, /;( the Mountains, op. 14 ; 
Concerto for violoncello and orchestra ; 
Several fugitive pieces for pianoforte, for 
violin, and for violoncello. 

FORAN SYDENS KLOSTER (Before 
the South Convent), cantata for soli, female 
chorus, and orchestra, by Edvard Grieg, 
op. 20. Subject from Bjorustjerne BjOrn- 
sou's "Aruljot Gelline." Translated iuto 
German as Vor der Klosterpforte, by F. von 
Holstein, and published by E. W. Fritzsch 
(Leipsic, 1877).— Wochenblatt (1877), 226. 

FOE, AS IN ADAM ALL DEE, short 
chorus in D minor, iu Handel's llcssiah, 
Part in. ; usually sung as an unaccompa- 
nied quartet of solo voices. 

FORBES, GEORGE, born in London, 
JiUy 1, 1813, died there, Sept. 11, 1883. 
Pianist, pupil of his brother Henry and of 
Sir George Smart. He gave concerts with 
his brother in London in 1831-44 and after- 
wards on his own account. Works : Sonata 



in C for pianoforte ; Marche des Guides ; 
Larghetto and rondo capriccioso in E ; La 
pluie de perles ; Nocturnes, waltzes, and 
other works for pianoforte. — Brown. 

FORBES, HENRY, born in London in 
1804, died there, Nov. 24, 1859. Pianist 
and organist, brother of George Forbes, 
pupil of Sir George Smart, Hummel, Mo- 
scheles, and Herz. He was conductor of 
the Societa Armonica and organist of St. 
Lukes, Chelsea. Works : The Fairy Oak, 
opera, given at Drury Lane, London, 1845 ; 
Ruth, oratorio, London, 1847 ; National 
Psalmody, a collection of psalm tunes for 
four voices ; Songs, etc. — Grove. 

FORD, THOMAS, English composer of 
17th century, buried, London, Nov. 17, 
1648. He was one of the musicians of 
Prince Henry, son of James I., and also of 
Charles I. He published a work entitled, 
" Musicke of Sundrie Kindes, set forth in 
two Bookes. The first whereof are Aires for 
4 Voices to the Lute, Orpharion, or Basse- 
Viol, etc. The second are Pavens, Galiards, 
Thumpes and such like for two Basse Viols, 
the Liera Way," etc. This work contains 
the beautiful four-part songs : " Since first I 
saw your face," and, "There is a ladie sweet 
and kind." He contributed to Leighton's 
" Teares or Lamentacions of a Sorrowfull 
Soule " (1614) ; and composed canons and 
rounds which are printed in Hilton's 
" Catch that Catch Can," and an anthem in 
the Anthems by Madrigal Composers of the 
Music Antiquarian Society. — Grove ; Fetis ; 
Jilendel. 

FORGUES, VICTOR ESPRIT I5mILE, 
born in Paris, Sept. 26, 1823, still living, 
1889. Pianist, pupil at the Conservatoire 
under Goblin, Laurent, Zimmermann, and 
Leborne. He won the 1st prize for piano- 
forte in 1840 ; has played with great success 
at concerts in Paris and other cities. He 
has jjublished morceaux de genre, and a col- 
lection of 12 iStudes. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 343. 

FOR HE SHALL GIVE HIS ANGELS. 
See Deiin er hat seiuen Engelu. 



FORKEL 



FORKEL, JOHANN NICOLAUS, born 
at Meeder, near Coburg, Feb. 22, 1749, 
died in GOttiiigen, March 17, 1818. The 
son of a shoemaker, he received some in- 
struction from a chorister of his native place 
and then taught himself. He became choir- 
boy at Liineburg in 1762, and Chorprilfect 
at Schwerin in 17GG ; went to GOttingen in 
17G9 to study law, but soon devoted him- 
self to music again, and was appointed or- 
ganist of the University Church, and in 1778 
musical director to the university, which 
gave him the doctor's degree in 1780. He 
■was the earliest of the musical historians 
of Germany, and showed great energy in 
amassing materials with, sometimes, a want 
of the critical faculty in digesting them. 
Woi-ks : Hiskias, oratorio ; 2 cantatas : Die 
Machtder Harmonie and DieHirteu bei der 
Krij^pe zu Bethlehem ; Choruses ; Symj^ho- 
nies, concertos, and pianoforte sonatas. 
Among his historical and critical writings 
are : " Ueber die Theorie der Musik " (GOt- 
tingen, 1771) ; " Musikalisch-kritische Bibli- 
othek"(Gotha,1778); "Musikalischer Alma- 
nach f iir Deutschland " (Leipsic, 1782, 1783, 
1784, 1789); "Allgemeine Geschichte der 
Musik " (ib., 1788-1801), his greatest work, 
though imfiuished ; " Allegemeine Litera- 
tur der Musik" (ib., 
1792), the first biblio- 
graphical attempt of 
the kind; "Johann 
Sebastian Bach's Leb- 
en, Kunst und Kunst- 
werke" (ib., 1802, English translation, 
London, 1820).— Mendel ; Schilling ; FOtis ; 
Grove ; Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 155. 

FORNABI, VINCENZO, born at Naples, 
May 11, 1848, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Luigi Siri on the piano- 
forte and of Battista in composition. His 
opera, Maria di Torre, was given at Naples, 
Teatro Filarmonico, 1871. — Fctis, Supple- 
ment, i. 343. 

FORNASINI, NICOLA, born at Bari, 
Aug. 17, 1803, died at Naples, June 24, 
18G1. Dramatic composer, pupil at the 



AArt 



Conservatorio, Naples, of Furno, Tritto, and 
Zingarelli, became bandmaster of a regi- 
ment, and afterwards was aj^pointed direc- 
tor of music of the royal army, also inspec- 
tor of the classes in wind instruments at 
the Conservatorio. Works : Oh ! quante 
imposture, opera buft'a, Naples, Teatro 
Nuovo, 1829 ; Un matrimonio per medieina, 
ib., 1829 ; L'avvocato in angustie, farce, ib., 
1831 ; La vedova scaltra, ib., 1831 ; Ro- 
berto di Costanzo, ib., Teatro Sau Carlo, 
1839 ; Several ballets, ib. ; Masses, vespers, 
litanies, a Te Deum, and other church mu- 
sic. — Futis, Supplement, i. 343. 

FORONI, JACOPO, born at Verona, July 
25, 1825, died at Stockholm, Sept. 8, 1858. 
Dramatic and instrumental composer, son 
and probably pupil of Domenico Foroni, 
church composer (179G-1853) ; introduced 
the symphony for orchestra into Italy, and 
composed several meritorious works in this 
form. In 1849 he was called to Stockholm 
as royal director of mvisic. Works : Mar- 
gherita, opera, given in Milan, 1847 ; Les 
gladiateurs, do., Stockholm, about 1855 ; 
L'avocat Pathelin, do. (unfinished) ; Three 
overtures for grand orchestra ; Several sym- 
phonies for do. ; Pianoforte pieces. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

FORSTER, ALBAN, born at Reichen- 
bach. Saxony, Oct. 23, 1849, still living, 
1889. Pupil of R, Blume and, at the Con- 
servatorium, Dresden (1866-69), of Eietz in 
composition, of Lauterbach on the violin, 
and of Diiring on the pianoforte. Having 
held positions at Carlsbad, Breslau and 
Stettin, he went as court musician to Neu- 
Strelitz in 1871. Besides an operetta. Das 
Fliistern, given at Neu-Strelitz, 1875, he has 
written 2 string quartets, 2 trios, soli for 
violin and for violoncello, some orchestral 
works, and pianoforte j^ieces and songs. 
— Mendel, Ergiinz., 111. 

FORSTER, CHRISTOPH, born at Bebra, 
Thuringia, Nov. 30, 1693, died at Rudol- 
stadt, Dec. 6, 1745. Organist, pupil in his 
native town of the organist Pitzler on the 
pianoforte and organ, then at Weissenfels 



FOIiSTER 



of Heinichen in tliorougb bass and compo- 
sition, and at Merseburg of Kaufimann in 
counterpoint. In 1719 he went to Dresden, 
■was in Prague during the coronation festiv- 
ities in 1723, and became Kapellmeister at 
Eudolstadt in 1745. He composed over 
300 works, consisting of cantatas, sympho- 
nies, overtures, and pianoforte and organ 
pieces. — Fctis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FOKSTER, EJIANUEL ALOYS, born at 
Niederstein (at Neurath, according to Men- 
del), Silesia, Jan. 26, 1748, died in Vienna, 
Nov. 12, 1823. Self-taught, he went to Vi- 
enna in 177G, and became a vei-y successful 
teacher of thorough bass and composition. 
Beethoven esteemed him highly. Works: 
48 string quartets and quintets ; Quartets 
for pianoforte and strings ; Pianoforte so- 
natas and pieces ; Cantata and songs ; Va- 
riations on an air- from Sarti's opera, I finti 
Eredi, which were long attributed to Mozart. 
He was the author of "Anleitimg zum Ge- 
neralbass" (1802, 1805, 1824), with 146 ex- 
amples, a work of considerable value. — Men- 
del ; Ft'tis ; Wurzbach. 

PORTIA DE PILES, Comte AL- 
PHONSE, born in Marseilles, Aug. 18, 
1758, died at Sisteron, Feb. 18, 1826. 
Dramatic composer, puj^il of Ligori. The 
last member of the noble family of his 
name, he was an officer of the regiment du 
Roy and governor of Marseilles before the 
Revolution. Works — Ojjeras : La fi'e Ur- 
gi-le, Nancy, 1784 ; V<.'nus et Adonis, ib., 
1784 ; Le pouvoir de I'amour, ib., 1785 ; 
L'officier franjais a I'armee, ib., 1786 ; 8 so- 
natas for pianofoiie, with violin and violon- 
cello ; Trios for violin ; Quartets for violin ; 
SymjAony for full orchestra. — Fotis ; La- 
rousse ; Biog. Gt'n., xviii. 221 ; Mendel. 

FOETSCH, JOHANN PHILIPP, born at 
Wertheim, Franconia, May 14, 1652, died 
at Ltibeck after 1708. Dramatic composer, 
pupil at Weissenfels of Johann Philipp 
Krieger, and completed his musical train- 
ing under different masters while studying 
medicine at Frankfort, Jena. Helmstiidt, 
Ei-furt, and Altdorf. Having travelled in 



Germany, Holland, and France, he entered, 
iu 1671, the Chapel of the Council at Ham- 
burg as tenor singer, and a few years later 
was engaged for the theatre there, as singer, 
composer, and poet. In 1680 he became 
Kapellmeister to the Duke of Sclileswig at 
Gottoi^j, went in the same year to Kiel, to 
take his diploma as doctor, and practised 
medicine at Husum, Schleswig, etc. ; was 
made court physician to the aforenamed 
duke in 1689, and to the Bishop of Eutin in 
1694, living at Liibeck from 1705. Works 
— Operas : Crosus, given at Hamburg, 1684 ; 
Das unmOgliche Ding, ib., 1685 ; Alexander 
in Sidon, Eugenia, Polyeuct, ib., 1688 ; Kaiu 
und Abel, Xerxes, Cimbria, ib., 1689 ; Tha- 
lestris, Aucile Romano, Bajazeth und Tam- 
erlan, Don Quixote, ib., 1690. Concertos 
for harpsichord. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FORTUNATI, GIOVANNI FRANCES- 
CO, born at Parma, Feb. 24, 1746, died (?). 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Omoboni Ni- 
colini the elder, and in Bologna of Padre 
Mai-tini. He brought out his first opera in 
Parma, 1769, was made maestro di capjsella 
to the court, vocal instructor to the Arch- 
duchess Amalia, and director of the opera. 
Having composed operas for many Italian 
cities, he went to Germany, lived in Dres- 
den, and finally went to Berlin, as com- 
poser to Friedrich Wilhelm II. On his 
return to Parma he resumed his former 
position at the court and the principal the- 
atre, and held them initil the death of 
Louis Ferdinand in 1802. He was one of 
the original members of the musical sec- 
tion of the Academy of Ai-ts and Sciences in 
Italy, founded in 1810. Works : I caccia- 
tori e la vendilatte, given at Parma, 1769 ; 
L'incontro inaspettato, ib., about 1800 ; La 
contessa per equivoco ; Ipermestra. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

FOR UNTO US A CHILD IS BORN, 
chorus in G major, in Handel's 3fessiah, 
Part L 

FORZA DEL DESTINO, LA, Italian op- 
era seria in four acts, text by Piave, music 
by Verdi, first represented in St. Peters- 



84 



FOSSA 



burg, Nov. 10, 1862. The libretto is adapted 
from a romantic drama of the same title, 
in five acts, by Don Angelo Saavedra, duque 
de Rivas, plaj-ed in Madrid in 1835. The 
opera was produced in Loudon, at Her Maj- 
esty's Theatre, June 22, 1867 ; and in Paris, 
at the Theatre Itahen, Oct. .31, 187G, with a 
new overture and changes in the test by 
Verdi. The action takes place in Spain. 
Don Alvarez, sou of the viceroy of Peru, 
enamoured of Donna Leonora de Vargas, 
daughter of the Marchese di Calatrava, acci- 
dentally kills the marquis, who tries to pre- 
vent their elopement. Donna Leonora re- 
tires into a convent and Don Carlos, her 
brother, vows vengeance against Don Alva- 
rez. After having been sworn friends in 
the war in Italy, both being under assumed 
names, Don Carlos at last discovers his iden- 
tity and forces him to fight him. Don Car- 
los is wounded and Don Alvarez goes into a 
monastery under the name of Padre Eaffaele. 
Don Carlos, recovered from his wound, seeks 
his retreat and endeavours, by every insult, 
to make him fight again. Padre Raffaele 
bears his taunts with saintly patience, but 
at last, goaded beyond endurance, seizes the 
sword Don Carlos offers him and, going 
without the monastery walls, fights and 
mortally wounds him. Leonora, who has 
witnessed the combat from her window, 
rushes upon the scene as her brother falls 
and, while ofl'ering aid, is stabbed by him, 
and Don Alvarez, losing his reason at the 
dreadful sight, throws himself from a prec- 
ipice. In the final form of the opera, as 
given in Paris, the denouement is changed 
so that Alvarez does not kill himself. — Hans- 
lick, Moderne Oper, 242 ; Larousse, viii. 
631. 

FOSSA (Defossa), JOANNES DE, born in 
the Netherlands in the 16th century, died at 
Munich in 1603. Church composer, became 
assistant Kapellmeister at Munich in 1.569, 
under Orlando Lasso, after whose death 
he acted as Ober-Kapellmeister from 1594 
until 1602. Masses and motets of his com- 
position are in the royal library of Munich ; 



they show great delicacy and original con- 
ception. — Mendel. 

FOSSA (de Fossis, De Ca Fossis, Da Fos- 
sa), PIERRE DE, Flemish composer of the 
16th century, died in Rome in 1527. He is 
the first recorded maestro di cappella of S. 
Marco, Venice, having immediately preceded 
Adrien Willaert of Bruges. He had pre- 
viously been a singer in the papal choir from 
about 1485, and in 1491 was director of the 
music of the chapel and of the maitrise. 
He was thus the first chorodidascalus and 
first phonascus of that celebrated church. 
Though noted in his day as a composer, 
none of his works have survived. He is 
celebrated by Pietro Contarini in " Argo 
vulgare " for his songs, and he is said to 
have written a cantata for the marriage of 
Anne Condola of Aquitaine with Ladislas, 
King of Hungary and Bohemia, 1502, which 
was preserved in the archives of that queen. 
— Van der Straeten, La Musique au Pays 
Bas, vi. 182 ; Mendel ; Viotta. 

FOSSEY, LEON, born in Paris, March 
17, 1829, died there in February, 1877. 
Dramatic composer, joupil of Elwart at the 
Conservatoire, where he took the second 
prize for harmony in 1849. He was for 
many years chef d'orchestre of the Theatre 
de la Gaite. Works : Pomme d'api, ope- 
retta, Gaite, 1859 ; Marcel et Cie, do., Bouft'es 
Parisiens, 1867.— Fetis, Supplement, i. 345. 

FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS, born, 
of American parent- 
age, in Lawrenceville 
(now part of Pitts- 
burgh), Pennsylvania, 
July 4, 1826, died in 
New York, Jan. 13, 
1864. His early mu- 
sical education was 
acquired at home, 
and later he had 
some instruction 
from local teachers, 
and was, in his own 
way, a close student of the works of the 
great composers. During 1850-51 he lived 




FOUQUE 



for a time in New York aiiLl Hoboken, but 
in 1851 returned to Pittsburgh ; in 18G0 he 
again went to New York, where he remained 
until his death. Foster occupies a place 
of his own among American song-writers ; 
few musical compositions appeal so directly 
to the popular heart as his, and none have 
become more universally known or been in 
more general use. His first published com- 
position, written when he was about seven- 
teen years old, was a serenade, Open thy 
lattice, love (1842). The Old Folks at 
Home, often called The Suwanee Kiver, was 
composed in the summer of 1851, and was 
purchased by the negro-minstrel Edwin P. 
Christy, who published it as "written and 
composed by " himself. More than half a 
million copies of it were sold, and it still 
has a steady sale. Works : Foster com- 
posed about 150 songs in all, and in most 
cases wrote the words as well as the music. 
Among the better known are : Old Uncle 
Ned ; Oh, Susanna ; Nelly was a lady 
(1849); Old Folks at Home; Oh, boys, 
carry me 'long ! ; Gentle Annie ; Jily Old 
Kentucky Home ; Nelly Ely ; Nancy Till ; 
Old Dog Tray ; "Willie, we have missed you ; 
Come where my love Hes dreaming (-1 
voices) ; Massa's in the cold, cold ground ; 
Maggie by my side ; Old Black Joe, 18G1 ; 
Beautiful Dreamer, 18G1. 

FOUQUE, (PIERRE) OCTAVE, born at 
Pau (Basses-Pyrouces), Nov. 12, 184-1, died 
there, Sept. 22, 18815. Dramatic, instru- 
mental, and vocal composer, pupil in Paris 
of Reiuhold Becker in harmony, of Chauvet 
in counteiiioint, and of Ambroise Thomas 
in composition. He is more important as a 
writer on music. Works : L'avocat noir, 
operetta, given at the Alcazar, 1874 ; Deux 
vieux coqs, do. ; Prelude for orchestra. 
Concerts Daubo, 1874 ; Preludes, nocturnes, 
morceaux de genre, etc., for pianoforte ; 
Songs, and choruses. — Fetis, Suisplement, 
i. 345 ; Mendel, Ergiluz., 112. 

FOWLE, THOMAS LLOYD, born at 
Amesbury, Wilts, England, Oct. 16, 1827, 
still living, 1889. Church composer and 



organist, self-taught ; was organist at Ames- 
bury, then at Crawley, Sussex, and from 
1856 engaged as editor and publisher. Re- 
sides at Ryde, Isle of Wight. Works : Five 
cantatas ; Four volumes of anthems ; do. of 
organ voluntaries ; Twelve marches for 
special seasons ; Two sei-vices, etc. 

FRA DIAVOLO, ou I'hoteUerie de Ter- 
racine (The Inn of Teiracina), opcra-co- 
mique in three acts, text by Scribe, music by 
Auber, first represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Jan. 28, 1830. Fra Diavolo 
was the sobriquet of Michele Pezza, a Cala- 
brian bandit, who was pardoned in 1799 and 
became a colonel in the Neapolitan army, 
but was captured in 1806 by General Hugo 
(father of Victor Hugo) and hanged in 
Naples. Scribe took little more than the 
title for his libretto, the incidents of which 
are derived chiefly from La Caverne of 
Lesueur, which in turn is founded on an 
episode in " Gil Bias." A spectacular 
drama, entitled Fra Diavolo chef du bri- 
gands dans les Alj^es, by Cuvelier and Fran- 
coui, was given in Paris in 1808, and a Ger- 
man version, Die Riluber in den Abruzzen, 
in Vienna in 1822. Auber's Fra Diavolo 
was produced in Vienna in 1830 ; an Eng- 
lish version at Drury Lane, Nov. 3, 1831, 
and an Italian version at the Lyceum, Lon- 
don, July 9, 1857. It was first given in 
New York, April, 1832. In the first act of 
the opera. Lord and Lady Kokbourg, Eng- 
lish travellers, after a narrow escape from 
Fra Diavolo's band, during which the lady 
loses her diamonds, enter the inn at Terra- 
cina, kept hy Matteo, whose daughter Zer- 
line loves Lorenzo, an officer in command of 
carabineers searching for the bandits. Fra 
Diavolo himself, who has followed the trav- 
ellers disguised as the Marquis de San 
Marco, hearing how they have deceived his 
men, tries to perfect his plans for robbing 
them by ingratiating himself with Zerline 
and Lady Kokbourg. Lorenzo, after a sad 
parting from Zerline, who is promised by 
her father to a rich farmer, goes in search 
of the bandits, defeats them, and recovers 



86 



FRA 



the diamonds, -winning the offered reward 
of 10,000 francs, and becoming thus as 
wealthy as his rival. In the second act 
Fra Diavolo and his companions Beppo and 
Giacomo conceal themselves iu a closet in 
Zerline's room. Their plans of robbery are 
interrupted by the return of the carabineers, 
and Fra Diavolo boldly comes out of the 
closet and declares to Lord Kokbom-g that 
he is there by appointment with his wife 
and to Lorenzo that it is by invitation of 
Zerliue. With two duels on his hands, Fra 




1: v^** / 7'// 

Charles Santley, as Fra Diavolo. 

Diavolo promises satisfaction in the morning 
and coolly walks out, leaving his two rivals 
confounded and in despair. His compan- 
ions, however, are captured and agree to 
betray their chief to secure their own safety. 
In the third act, where the scene is trans- 
ferred to the mountains, Fra Diavolo is en- 
snared, and meets death at the hands of the 
carabineers, after acknowledging Zerline's 
innocence, and the lovers are made happy. 
The music, which made Auber's reputation, 
is bright and sparkling and as inspiring as 
the libretto. Li the first act the principal 



numbers are: Pamela's, "Ah! quel voyage 
abominable ! " ; Lord Kokbourg's, " Je vou- 
lais bien, je voulais bien ; " the quintet be- 
tween the two travellers, the sham Marquis, 
Zerline, and Matteo, " Que vois-je, c'est 
elle!"; Zerline's air, "Voyez sur cette 
roche ; " the scene between the Marquis and 
Pamela, " Gondolier Mi-le ; " and the buffo 
trio between these two and Lord Kokbourg, 
" Je n'aimais pas le musique." In the sec- 
ond act the air of Zerline, " Quel bonheur, 
je respire ; " the barcarolle, " Agnes la jou- 
vencelle ; " the cavatina in Zerline's room, 
" Oui, c'est demain qu'on me marie ; " and 
the chorus, " Oui, la prudence." In the 
third act, Fra Diavolo's grand air, " Je vols 
marcher sous ma banniere ; " the chorus, 
" C'est aujourd'hui Paques fleuries ; " Lo- 
renzo's romanza, "Pour toujours, disait- 
elle," and the final .scene. — Hanslick, Mod- 
erne Oper, 132 ; Larousse, viii. G97. 

FRA I DUE litigant: IL TEEZO 
GODE (Between two quarrellers a third 
liarty profits), Italian comic opera, text by 
Lorenzi, music by Sarti, given at Turin, 
1780. The unpublished score of this work, 
which was very successful, is in the library 
of the Conservatoire, Paris. Mozart took a 
theme from this opera for the table-music 
in the second act of Don Giovanni. 

FRANCESCA DA RIMINI, German op- 
era in three acts, text and music by Her- 
mann GOtz, rej)resented in Mannheim, Sept. 
10, 1877. GOtz died before finishing the 
work, and the third act was instrumented, 
from the composer's sketches, by G. Frank. 
The music is dramatic and was well re- 
ceived. 

FRANCESCA DA RIISHNI, symphonic 
poem for orchestra, by Peter Iljitsch Tschai- 
kowsky, op. 32, composed in 1877, first per- 
formed in Warsaw in 1878. 

FRANCESCHINI, PETRONIO, born in 
Bologna, lived in the second half of the 17th 
century. Dramatic composer, brother of 
the painter Marco Antonio Franceschini ; 
pupil of Lorenzo Perti, and at Narni of 
Giuseppe Corso. In 1673 he was elected 



FRANCESCO 



principe of the Accatlemia Filarmonica, 
Bologna. Works : Oroute di Meiuii, Bo- 
logna, Teatro Formagliari, 1676 ; Arsinoe, 
ib., 1677 ; Apollo in Tessaglia, musical 
di-aiua, ib., 1679 ; Dionisio, ovvero la virtti 
trionfaute del vizio (with Parteuio), Venice, 
1681. — Fotis ; do., Huijplument, i. 347. 

FRANCESCO DA IVnLANO (Francesco 
Milanese) ; organist, early part of 16tli cen- 
tmy. He was a member of the Navizzi- 
ani family of Milan and was a poet as well 
as musician. About 1.530 he became or- 
ganist of the Cathedi-al of Milan. Accord- 
ing to Doni and Picciuelli he was the author 
of several rare collections of organ and lute 
music, entitled : Intabolatura di organo, 
lib. i. ; Intabolatura di liuto (Milan, 1540). 
Some of his pieces for lute are in a collec- 
tion entitled, Intabolatura di liuto di di- 
vei'si autori, etc. (Milan, 1556), w'hich went 
through several editions under difl'ereut 
titles ; and others are in Hortus Musai'um 
(Louvain, 1552). — FOtis ; Schilling. 

FRANCHJ, GIOVANNI PIETKO, born 
at Pistoja about the middle of the 17th 
century. He was maestro concertante to 
the Duke Rospigliosi di Zagarolo. He pub- 
lished Duetti da camera (Bologna, 1689) ; 
Duetti del 1' amore col basso numerate (ib., 
1689) ; Motets ; Psalms ; Sonatas, etc. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel ; Viotta. 

FR.\NCHO:\niE, AUGUSTE, born at 
Lille, April 10, 1808, died in Paris, Jan. 21, 
1884. Violoncellist, pupil at the Paris Con- 
servatoire of Levasseur and of Norbliu ; and 
in 1826 won the first prize for violoncello. 
He was a member of the orchestra of the 
Anibigu Comique in 1825-26, of the Opi"- 
ra in 1827, and of the Theatre Italien in 
1828. With Alard and Charles Halle he 
founded a society for classical quartets. 
The intimate friend of Choijin, he wrote 
with him a duo for pianoforte and violon- 
cello on Robert le Diable. He also wrote 
a duo with variations in collaboration with 
Bertoni, and a third with Osborne. In 1846 
he became professor of the violoncello at 
the Paris Conservatoire. Works : Theme 



varie pour violoncelle avec orchestre, op. 1 
(Paris) ; Thome original, op. 3 ; Theme 
original vario avec orchestre, op. 4 ; Fan- 
taisie sur des themes russes et ucossaises, 
avec quatuor ou orchestre, op . 6 ; Romance 
pour violoncelle, op. 10 ; Trois nocturnes ; 
Deux adagios, oj). 21, 29 ; Premier concerto 
pour violoncelle et orchestre, op. 33, etc. 
— Grove ; Fetis ; Larousse ; Mendel. 

FRANCISCELLO (Francischello), — ; 
violoncellist, living in Italy in the early part 
of the 18th century (1713-50). His birth- 
place is unknown ; as he retired to Genoa 
in his old age, it may have been his native 
place. First celebrated at Rome shortly 
after the death of Corelli (1713), he was to the 
violoncello what Corelli was to the violin, and 
was the first to substitute that instrument 
for the bass-viol, which almost disappear- 
ed from Italian orchestras before 1730. 
Quantz heard him in Naples in 1725 ; Ge- 
miniani sjjeaks of hearing him play with 
Scai'latti when that master accompanied him 
on the harj)sichord. Benda heard him in 
Vienna in 1730, and took him for his model 
on the violin. Gerber says that Duport 
heard him at Genoa ; if so, he must have 
been over seventy-five years of age. — Fetis, 
iii. 307; Grove, i. 358; Mendel, iv. 14; 
Schilling, iii. 32. 

FRANCE, C£SAR AUGUSTE, born in 
Liege, Dec. 10, 1822. Pianist, pupil at the 
Liege Conservatoire, subsequently at that in 
Paris (1837) under Zimmerman, Leborne, 
and Beuoist, winning the 2d organ prize in 
1841. He was organist of Sainte-Clotilde, 
Paris. His oratorio, Ruth, composed some 
twenty-five years before, was given in Paris 
in 1846, when he succeeded Benoist as pro- 
fessor of the organ at the Conservatou-e. 
He published pianoforte and violin music. 
— Fetis, iii. 310 ; do.. Supplement, i. 347 ; 
Mendel ; Viotta. 

FRANCK, EDUARD, born in Breslau, 
Dec. 5, 1817, still hying, 1889. Instru- 
mental composer and pianist, studied music 
in his native city and, 1843-46, in Italy, then 
settled in Berlin, whence he was called to 



FRANCE 



Cologne as professor of the pianoforte at 
the Conservatorium. In 1859 he went as 
musical director to Berne, and in 1867 to 
Berlin to teach at Stern's Conservatorium. 
Works : Sympihony, op. il ; Quintet for 
l^ianoforte, op. 4.5 ; Sextet, op. 4:1 ; Sonata 
for violoncello, op. 42 ; Duos for jjianoforte, 
op. 4G ; Six sonatas, op. 40 ; Three do., op. 
43 ; Symphonies, overtures, concertos, etc. 
— Mendel ; Riemann. 

FRANCE, JOHANN WOLFGANG, born 
in Hamburg in 1G41, died in Spain after 
1G88. Dramatic composer, one of the ear- 
liest German writers of opera. He pro- 
duced fourteen works, all of which were 
represented in Hamburg in 1679-86. In 
1688 he went to Spain, and became a favour- 
ite composer of Don Carlos II., a distinction 
which led to his death by assassination. 
Works — Operas : Michael und David ; An- 
dromeda und Perseus ; Die Mutter der 
Makkabiier ; Don Pedro ; Aeneas ; Jodelet ; 
Semele ; Hannibal ; Charitine ; Diocletia- 
nus ; Attila ; Vespasianus ; Kara Mustafa, in 
two parts : I. Die Belagerung Wiens ; H. 
Die erfreuliche Entsatzung W^iens. He 
published also sonatas for two violins and 
bass, and church compositions. — Fetis ; 
Jlendel ; Riemann. 

FRANCE, JOSEPH, born in Liege 
about 18-20, still living, 1889. Organist and 
violinist ; brother of Cesar Auguste Franck ; 
pupil at the Liege, and subsequently at the 
Paris Conservatoire. He was maitre de 
chapelle and organist of the Church des 
Maisons Etrangeres and of that of Saint- 
Thomas d'Aquin, Paris, and a teacher 
of the pianoforte and organ. Works : 
Collections of motets for one or sev- 
eral voices with two choirs ; Ode to 
St. Cecilia, with orchestra ; Concertos 
for pianoforte with quartet or orches- 
tra ; Cantatas ; Masses ; Songs. He 
is the author of several theoretical and 
practical works for the instruction of 
the pianoforte and organ. — Ft-tis, iii. 
310 ; do., Sui^plement, i. 347 ; Mendel ; 
Viotta. 



FRANCE, MELCHIOR, born in Zittau 
about 1580, died in Coburg, June 1, 1G39. 
Church composer, lived in Nuremberg 
about 1600, and became Kapellmeister to 
the Duke of Coburg in 1603. Gerber gives 
a list of 44 of his works. He sometimes 
embellished his melodies in the Italian 
style, and was one of the earliest composers 
to make the instrumental accomj)animent 
more independent. Some of his chorals are 
still sung. Works : Melodia sacrte (1600- 
7) ; Musikalische Bergreyeu (1602); Con- 
trapuncti compositi (1602) ; Teutsche Psal- 
men und Eircheugesiinge (1602) ; Neue 
Paduanen, Galliarden (1603) ; Opusculum 
etlicher newer mid alter Reuterliedlein 
(1603) ; Neues Quodlibet (1604) ; Farrago 
(1604) ; Teutsche weltliche Gesilnge und 
Tiintze (1605) ; Geistliche Gesilnge und 
Melodien (1608) ; Neue musikalische Intra- 
den (1608) ; Flores mu.sicales (1610) ; Musi- 
kalische FrOhlichkeit (1610) ; Tricinia nova 
(1611) ; Vincula natalitia (1611) ; Sechs 
deutsche Eouzerte (1611) ; Suspiria mu- 
sica (1612) ; Opusculum etlicher geistli- 
cher Ge.siinge (1612) ; Viridarium musi- 
eum (1613) ; Recreationes musicro (1614) ; 
Zween Grabgesiinge (1614) ; Zwey newe 
Hochzeitsgesiinge (1614) ; ThrenodiiB Da- 
vidicit! (1615) ; Die trostreichen Worte aus 
dem 54. Eajjitel Esaiil (1615) ; Delicije 
amoris (1615) ; Fasciculus quodlibeticus 
(1615) ; Geistlicher musikalischer Lustgar- 
ten (1616) ; Lilia musicalia (1616) ; Teut- 
sches musikalisches frohliches Eonvivium 
(1621) ; Laudes Dei vespertiuse (1622) ; 




■^ ^--^'7^. 



(ZM>^- 



«^v-i. 



Newe teutsche Magnificat (1622) ; Gemmu- 
Ise evangeliorum musical (1623-24) ; Newes 



FEANCK 



liebliclies musikalisches Lustgiirtlein (1623) ; 
40 Teutscbe lustige musikalische Tiiutze 
(1624) ; Newes musikalisches Ojiusculuiu 
(1624) ; Sacri convivii musica sacra (1628) ; 
Eosetuluni musicum (1628) ; Cithara eccle- 
siastica et scliolastica ; Psalmodia sacra 
(1631) ; Dulces muudani esilii clelici;c 
(1631) ; Der 51 Psalm (1634) ; Paradisus 
musicus (1636). — Eiemanu ; Fctis ; Mendel ; 
Gerber ; Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 213 ; Grove ; 
Winterfeld, Der evaug. Kii-cbengesang, ii. 
50. 

FRANCE, mCHAEL, born at Scbleu- 
siugen, March 16, 1609, died at Coburg, 
Sept. 24, 1667. Vocal composer, studied 
music iu middle life, after he had lost all 
his property during the Thirty Years' War, 
and iu 1640 had settled at Coburg, where 
in 1644 he found employment as teacher at 
the Gymnasium. It was then that he took 
uf> music and poetry, with such success as 
to be made imperial poet laureate in 1659. 
Of his comjjositions ai'e known : Geistliches 
Harfeuspiel aus dreissig vierstimmigen Arien 
uebst Generalbass (Coburg, 1657) ; and the 
chorals : Kein Stiindleiu geht dahin, Ach, 
wie nichtig, ach, wie fliichtig, and Sey Gott 
getreu, halt' seineu Bund. — Fctis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

FRANCCEUR, FRANCOIS, born in 
Paris, Sept. 28, 1698, died there, Aug. 6, 
1787. Dramatic composer, member in 
1710 of the orchestra of the Opera, where he 
formed a lifelong friendship and ijaitner- 
ship with Rebel. He was subsequently a 
member of the king's private band, and in 
1733 composer to the king. He was ap- 
pointed joint-inspector of the Opera with 
Rebel in 1736, was director iu 1751-67, and 
superintendent of the king's chamber music 
iu 1760. He published when young two 
books of sonatas, the only works in which 
he did not have Rebel as a collaborator. 
Works — Operas, with Rebel : Pyrame et 
Thisbe, 1726 ; Tarsis et Zelie, 1728 ; Scan- 
derbeg, 1735 ; Le ballet de la pais, 1738 ; 
Les Augustales, 1744 ; Zelindor, 1744 ; 
Ismene, 1747 ; Les genies tutelaii-es, 1757 ; 



La princesse de Noisy, 1760. — Mendel ; 
Grove ; Fetis ; Larousse. 

FRANCCEUR, LOUIS JOSEPH, born in 
Paris, Oct. 8, 1738, died there, Mai'ch 10, 
1804. Violinist and dramatic composer', 
nephew and jmpil of Francois Francceur. 
He was first a page of the king's band, 
1746-52, then violinist in the orchestra at 
the Opera, second maitre de musique in 
1764, and in 1767 succeeded Berton as di- 
recteur en chef, which position he held un- 
tU 1779. In 1792 he became with Cellerier 
manager of the Ojiera, and in 1794 was di- 
recteur of the Opi'ra with Denesle. Pro- 
duced several operas, among them Ismene 
et Lindor, 1766, and Ajas, 1770, and left 
others in MS., as well as church music, all of 
which are in the Conservatoire Library. He 
is the author of " Diajsason general de tous 
les instruments a vent," etc. (Paris, 1772). 
— Grove ; Fetis, iii. 311 ; do., Supplement, 
i. 348 ; Larousse ; Mendel. 

FRANgOISE DE RIMINI, French grand 
opera in five acts, text by Barbier and Carre, 
music by Ambroise Thomas, represented at 
the Opera, Paris, Ajnil 14, 1882. Subject, 
the story of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo 
Malatesta, as related by Dante in the " Di- 
vina Commedia." One of the composer's 
best works. 

FRANCO-lNIENDfiS, JACQUES, born iu 
Amsterdam in 1812, of a distinguished 
Portuguese Israelitish family that settled 
there in the 16tli century. Violoncellist, 
pupil of Priiger and Bertehuann, and sub- 
sequently of Merk, in Vienna. After visit- 
ing London and Paris with his brother 
Joseph, he was appointed in 1831 court 
violoncellist. He made another profes- 
sional tour in Germany with his brother in 
1833, and in 1836 went to Paris to perfect 
himself in composition, and established 
there a series of quartet matinees with his 
brother which were greatly appreciated. 
After Joseph's early death he lived princi- 
pally in Holland. He published violoncello 
and other instrumental music. Orders of 
Isabella the Catholic, the Oaken Crown, 



90 



FRANCO- MEND:I^S 



Adolph of Nassau. — Fc-tis ; Larouisse ; Gre- 
goir, Mus. neerlandais du xviiie et xixe siecle, 
76 ; Mendel ; Viotta. 

FRANCO-MENDfiS, JOSEPH, born in 
Amsterdam, May 4, 181G, died Oct. U, 
1841. Violinist, brother of Jacques Franco- 
Mendes ; pupil of Prilger, and in Paris in 
1836 of Baillot. After a professional tour 
to London, Paris, and Germany he played 
chiefly at The Hague and Amsterdam. In 
1835 two of his quartets for two Yiolins, 
viola, and bass were ci'owned by the Nether- 
land Society for the Encouragement of 
Music. He left many works in MS. — Fotis ; 
Larousse ; Gregoir, Mus. ncerlandais du 
xviiie et xixe sii'cle, 76 ; Viotta. 

FRANCS-JUGES, LES (The Vehmic 
Judges), overture to the ojiera of the same 
title, by Hector Berlioz, op. 3, first performed 
at the Conservatoire, Paris, May 26, 1828. 
The opera, written by Berlioz in 1825, on a 
libretto by Humbert Ferrand, was declined 
by the committee of the Acadcmie Royale 
de Musique, and only the overture ever saw 
the light. The score of the opera was de- 
stroyed. The overture was the first of 
his works to gain him any lasting reputa- 
tion. Published, full score and parts, by 
Richault and Hofmeister (Leipsic) ; in parts 
for military band, arranged by "Wieprecht, 
Eichault ; for pianoforte, 4 hands, Richault, 
Hofmeister ; do., arranged by Karl Czerny, 
Meyer (Brunswick) ; do., 2 hands, arranged 
by Liszt, Schott (^lainz). Given in New 
York, Philharmonic Society, season of 
1845-46.— Jullien, Hector Berlioz (1888), 
375. 

FRANK, ERNST, born in Munich, Feb. 
7, 1847, still living, 1889. Dramatic and 
vocal composer, and excellent conductor, 
pupil of Mortier de Fontaine on the piano- 
forte and of Franz Lachner in composition ; 
became court organist and chorus-master at 
the Royal Opera, and in 1868 Kapellmeister 
at Wiirzburg. In 1869 he was made chorus- 
master at the Opera in Vienna, where he 
afterwards conducted the Siugverein and 
the Academische Gesangvereiu. Hof-Ka- 



pellmeister at Mannheim in 1872-77, he 
was called to Frankfort as first Kapellmeis- 
ter at the theatre, and in 1879 to Hanover as 
von Bidow's successor. In 1887 he became 
insane, and was committed to an asylum. 
Works : Adam de la Halle, opera, given at 
Carlsruhe, 1880 ; Hero, do., Berlin, 1884 ; 
Duettinos for female voices ; Rattenfiinger 
Lieder from Wolff's Singuf, with violin 
obligato ; Other songs and choruses. He 
translated into German the operas. The 
Veiled Prophet, and Savonarola by Stanford, 
and Colomba by Mackenzie. — Mendel, Er- 
giluz., 113 ; Riemann. 

FRANKENBERGER, HEINRICH, born 
at Wiimbach, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 
Germany, Aug. 20, 1824, died at Sonders- 
hausen, Nov. 22, 1885. Dramatic composer, 
pupil at Sondershausen of Bartel the elder, 
of Ernst Bartel in theorj', of Birnstein on 
the organ, and of G. Hermann on the piano- 
forte ; then at Leipsic of Plaidy, Karl Ferdi- 
nand Becker, and Hauptmann. In 1847 he 
entered the princely orchestra at Sonders- 
hausen as violinist, and afterwards became 
its assistant conductor. During his annual 
furlough he conducted the operas at Erfurt, 
Halle, Frankfort, etc. He was also an ex- 
cellent harpist, and able teacher, and 
published hand-books on instrumentation, 
and harmony, and a method for the or- 
gan. Works — Operas : Die Hochzeit zu 
Venedig, four acts, given at Sondershausen, 
1847 ; Vineta, three acts, text by Bohn, 
ib., Jan. 30, 1851 ; Der Giinstling, three 
acts, text by Lemm, ib., 1863. — Riemann. 

FRANZ, J. H. (Count Bolko von Hoch- 
berg), born at Castle Fiirstenstein, Silesia, 
Jan. 23, 1843, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, supported in Dresden, for several 
years, a string quartet bearing his name, 
and in 1876 instituted the Silesian music 
festivals. Li 1886 he was appointed in- 
tendant general of the royal Prussian court 
theatres. Works : Claudine von Villabella, 
given at Schwerin, 1864 ; Der Wilrwolf 
(Die Falkensteiner), Hanover, 1876 ; Sym- 
phonies, songs, etc. 



FEANZ 



FRANZ, KARL, born at Langenbielau, 
Silesia, in 1738, died in Muuicli in 1802. 
Played the bom in the service of the Ai'ch- 
bishop of Olmiitz in 1758 ; then joined 
Prince Esterhazj's orchestra in Eisenstadt, 
and became the greatest virtuoso on the 
barytone, the predecessor of the violoncello. 
Haydn composed a cantata, Deutschland's 
Klage auf den Tod Friedrich's des Grossen, 
with barj-tone accompaniment, especially for 
him. He spent eight years in Presburg 
under Cardinal Bathiany, and in 1787 
was called to Munich as chamber musician. 
Works : 12 barytone concertos. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., vii. 310 ; Mendel ; Fetis ; Grove. 
FRANZ ROBERT, born in Halle, June 
28, 1815, stm liv- 
ing, 1889. After 
studying by him- 
self several years, 
he became a pupil 
at Dessau (1835- 
37) of Schneider 
in pianoforte, har- 
mony, and coun- 
terpoint ; rctumod 
then to Halle, and, 
without employ- 
ment for six yeai's, made thorough studies in 
Bach, Beethoven, and Schubert. In 1811 his 
sense of hearing began to decline. In 1843 he 
published his first set of twelve songs, which 
won him the sincere admiration of Schumann, 
and later of Mendelssohn, Gade, Liszt, and 
others. About this time he was appointed 
organist at the Ulrichskirche in Halle, and 
conductor at the Singacademie. Somewhat 
later he was given the titles of KOniglicher 
Musikdirelctor and Doctor of Music, the 
latter for his musical lectures at the Halle 
Univer.sity. His deafness gradually became 
more and more serious, and in 1853 was 
aggravated by nervous disorders. In 18G8 
he was forced to throw up all his employ- 
ments, and almost entirely to abandon com- 
position. The pecuniary difficulties result- 
ing from this were made up for by a sum of 
about $25,000 realized from concerts given 




in 1872 for Franz's benefit by Liszt, Joa- 
chim, Helene Magnus, and others, and by 
sums raised in a similar way in Boston, 
Mass., by Otto Dresel (his intimate friend 
and co-worker), B. J. Lang, and Sebastian 
B. Schlesinger. Franz's fame rests upon a 
twofold basis : upon his songs, and upon 
his additional accompaniments to choral 
works by Bach, Handel, Durante, and As- 
torga. He is undisputedly the greatest liv- 
ing song-writer : the legitimate successor of 
Schubert and Schumann. At first his songs 
were caviare to the general public, but the 
admiration of men like Schumann and !!Men- 
delssohn, and the ardent propagandism of 
Liszt (through his incomparable pianoforte 
transcriptions), of the baritone Stockhausen, 
and others in Germany, and of Otto Dresel 
in America (at one time Boston was one of 
the chief focuses of the Franz cult), helped 
much to gain them universal recognition. 
Franz's additional accompaniments to old 
choral works are to be ranked only with 
what is most perfect in this difficult depart- 
ment. In this matter he has been from the 
first a stout ojspouent of Chrysander, Spit- 
ta, and others of more timidly archaeologi- 
cal tendencies. Works — I. Original : 257 
songs, in 45 sets, for voice and pianoforte, 
published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Whist- 
ling, Peters, Senff, Fritzsch, etc. ; Ivyrie a 
cappella for 4-part chorus and soli ; Psalm 
cxvii. for double chorus (8 parts) a cap- 
pella ; Liturg}' for the evangelical service ; 
G chorals ; 6 part-songs for mixed voices, 
and 6 do. for male voices. H. Ai-range- 
ments, from J. S. Bach : Miltthaus-/'a.s-.sio/i ; 
ire/«ac/i/.s-Oratorium, Parts I. and H. ; 3Iag- 
iiificat in D ; Tracer-Ode. Church canta- 
tas : Es ist dir gesagt, Mensch, was gut ist ; 
Oott fiihret auf mit Jauohzen ; leh hatte 
viel Bekiimmerniss ; Wcr sich selbst erhu- 
het ; ewiges Feuer ; Lobet Gott in Seinen 
Reichen ; Wer da glaubet und getauft wird ; 
Ach wie fliichtig, ach wie nichtig ; Freue 
dich, erloste Schaar ; Gotles Zeit ist die 
allerbeste Zeit (Actus tragicus) ; Sie wer- 
den aus Saba Alle kommen ; Airs from 



93 



FRANZ 



other cantatas, etc. For soprano : Mei)i 
Seelenscbatz ist Gottes Wort, from Gleicb 
wis der Regen unci Sclinee ; Aucli niit 
gediimjDften, scliwacben Stimmen, from 
Schwingt freudig eucb empor ; Liebster 
Jesu, main Verlangen ; Gottlob, nun gebt 
das Jabr zu Ende ; Hot, deine Giite, from 
Wer Dank opfert, der preisset micb ; Herr, 
der du stark und miicbtig bist, from Meine 
Seele erbebt den Herren ; Gedenk' an uns 
mit deiuer Liebe, from Wir danken dir, 
Gott ; 3Tein gliiubiges Herze, from Also 
bat Gott die Welt geliebt. For alto : Ein 
ungefi'irbtGemutbe ; llenschcn, g\a.uht docb 
dieser Guade, from Christ unser Herr zum 
Jordan kam ; Domiue Fili unigenite, from 
G Minor JIass ; O Menscb, errette deine 
Seele, from O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort ; 
Wie furchtsara wankeu meine Schrittc, from 
AUein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ. For tenor : 
Welch Uebermaass der Giite, from Wer 
Dank opfert ; Ergiesse dicb reicblicb, from 
Wo soil icb fliehen bin ; Um^ri- Mund und 
Ton der Saiten, from Wie scbi'm leucbtet der 
Morgen stern ; Nun mOgt ibr stolzen Feinde, 
from Herr, wenndie stolzen Feinde schnau- 
ben ; Ich will dir zu Ehren leben, from 
Fallt mit Danken ; Die Liebe ziebt mit 
sanften Scbritten, from Scbwingt freudig 
eucb empor. For bass : Verstianme, HOl- 
leubeer, from Wo soil ich fliehen bin ; Gxte 
Nacht, du Weltgetiimmel, from Wer weiss 
wie nahe mir mein Ende ; Booh weichet, 
ibi- tollen, vergeblichen Sorgen, from Lieb- 
ster Gott, wann werd' ich sterben ; Goll ist 
gerecht, from O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort ; 
Gott, bei deinem starken Schiitzen, from 
Wiir' Gott nicbt mit uns diese Zeit. Duets : 
HeiT, dein Mitleid, for S. and B., from 
Herrscber des Himmels, erbiire das Lallen ; 
Cbriste eleison, for 2 S., from the Hohe 
Messe ; Wenn Sorgen auf micbdringen, for 
S. and A., from Ach Gott, wie manches 
Herzeleid ; Et in unum Dominum, for S. 
and A., from the Hohe Messe ; Domine 
Deus, for S. and A., from the G major 
Mass ; Four movements from JTusiLnlit'ches 
Opfer, for pianoforte, flute, and violin ; 



Suite in E minor, for pianoforte (Leipsic, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel). From G. F. Handel : 
L' Allegro, il Penseroso, ed il Moderato ; 
Jubilate, in D ; The 3Iessiah. Airs, for so- 
prano : Cara sposa, from Eadamisto ; Sommi 
Dei, from do. ; Vanne, sorella ingrata, from 
do. ; 3Iio bel tesoro, from Alcina ; Mio caro 
bene, from Rodelinda ; lUtorna, o caro, from 
do. ; Il vostro maggio, from Rinaldo ; Menti 
eterne, from Lotario ; Spera si, mio caro 
bene, from Admeto ; SI, t' amo, ocara, from 
Muzio Scevola ; S'ei non mi vuole amar, 
from Tamerlano ; Ab, non son io cbe parlo. 
from Ezio. For alto : Con rauco mormorio, 
from Rodelinda ; Confusa si miri 1' infida 
consorte, from do. ; Si, si minaccia, e viuta, 
from Sosarme ; Empio, diro, tu sei, from 
Giulio Cesare ; rupille sdegnose, from 
Muzio Scevola ; IJn disprezzato affetto, from 
Otbone ; Io sperai trovar riposo, from do. ; 
Son confusa pastorella, from Poro ; Stille 
amare, gi:i vi sento, from Tolomeo ; Furi- 
hondo sjnra il vento, from Partenope ; Gi- 
acchh morir non jiosso, from Radamisto ; 
Vi fida Io sposo, from Ezio. Duets : Se 
teco vive il cor, for 2 S., from Radamisto ; 
Fuor di periglio, for S. and T., fi'om Flori- 
dante ; Io t'abbraccio, for S. and A., from 
Rodelinda ; Per le porte del tormento, for 
S. and A., from Sosarme ; Ricordati, mio 
ben, for S. and A., from Flavio ; Deh, per- 
dona, for S. and A., from do. ; Vivo in te, 
for S. and A., from Tamerlano ; A teneri af- 
fetti, for S. and A., from Otbone ; Cara, piii 
amabile belta, for S. and A., from Giulio 
Cesare ; Che vai pensando, for S. and B., 
Kammer-Duett, No. 5 ; Vh, speme infida, 
pur !, for 2 S., id., No. 7 ; Tacele, ohime, 
tacete, for S. and B., id., No. 10 ; Langue, 
geme, for S. and A., id., No. 13. From 
other composers : Astorga's Stabat Mater ; 
Francesco Durante's Magnificat in B-flat. 
HI. Literary works : Oft'ener Brief an Edu- 
ard Hanslick iiber Bearbeitungen illterer 
Tonwerke, namentlicb Bach'scber und Hiin- 
del'scber VocalmusLk (Leipsic, 1871) ; Mit- 
theilungen tiber J. S. Bach's Magnificat 
(Halle, 18G3).— Ambros, Rob. Franz, Eine 



94 



FRANZ 



Studie (Leipsic, 1872) ; La Mara, HIus. 
StudieukOpfe, iii. 131 ; Liszt, Ges. Schrif- 
ten, iv. 207 ; Mus. Wochenblatt, i. 211, 228, 
2'47 ; Schumann, Ges. Schriften, ii. 318 ; 
Schuster, Rob. Franz (Leipsic, 1874) ; 
Sarau, Eob. Frauz uud das deutsche Volks- 
und Kivcheuhed (Leipsic, 1875) ; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1872), i. 288 ; ii. 213. 

FEANZ, STEPHAN, born in Vienna, 1785, 
died there in 1850 (?). VioHnist, pupil of 
his father and several other Viennese violin 
teachers, and on the pianoforte pu^jil of 
Dominik Ruprecht, and in composition of 
Albrechtsberger, besides which he was often 
advised by Josef Haydn. For a short time 
compelled by his father to foUow a mercan- 
tile career, he was soon led back to music, 
being offered a permanent employment as 
teacher, and as first violinist in a private 
quartet, in a wealthy nobleman's house. He 
held this position in 1803-G, then a similar 
one at Presburg, and in 1807 became mu- 
sical director to a nobleman in Stuhlweis- 
seuburg county, where he devoted himself 
to composition. He gave successful con- 
certs at Presburg, Pesth, and other Hun- 
garian cities, returned to Vienna in 1813, 
became first violinist at the Theater an der 
Wien, and in 181G a member of the imperial 
orchestra. In great demand as a teacher, 
he gave up his position at the theatre in 1818, 
and in 1820 also ceased to perform in pub- 
lic. From 1828 to 1850 he conducted the 
orchestra of the Burgtheater. Works : Sym- 
phony ; 15 overtures ; about 90 entr'actes ; 
Grand mass ; Graduals and offertories ; 
String quintet ; Several quartets, concert- 
pieces, variations, solos, etc., for violin ; 
Septet for flute, violin, oboe, bassoon, horn, 
violoncello, and bass ; Quintet, quartets, 
trios, and duos for flute ; Rondo for harp 
and orchestra ; Two pianoforte trios, varia- 
tions for pianoforte ; Songs. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Wurzbach ; Neue wiener Musikzei- 
tung (1856), 4. 

FKANZL, FERDINAND, boru at Schwet- 
zingen in the Palatinate, May 24, 1770, died 
in Mannheim, November, 1833. Violinist 



and dramatic composer, son and pupil of 
Ignaz Frilnzl, whom he greatly surpassed as a 
composer. He joined the Mannheim court 
band in 1782, made concert tours with his 
father from 1785, studied under Pleyel 
and Richter in Strasburg, and, after a visit 
to Paris, went to Italy and studied composi- 
tion under Padre Mattel of Bologna, giving 
concerts in Rome, Naples, and Palermo. 
He became Conzertmeister in Frankfort-on- 
the-Main in 1792, director of a private or- 
chestra at Oflenbach in 1794, went on con- 
cert tours from 1799, and visited Poland 
and Russia in 1803-6. In 1806 he suc- 
ceeded Caunabich as court Kapellmeister 
and director of German opera in Munich. 
Pensioned in 1827, he retired to Geneva, 
and later to Mannheim. Spohr considered 
him an old-fashioned virtuoso. Works — 
Operas : Die LuftbilUe, Strasburg, 1788 ; 
Adolph uud Clara, 1800 ; Carlo Floras, 
Munich, 1800 ; Haireddin Barbarossa, ib., 
1815 ; Der Fassbinder, ib., 1824 ; a festival 
composition — Die Weihe, ib., 1818 ; 8 con- 
certos and 4 concertinos for violin ; 9 quar- 
tets and G trios for strings ; Overtures, sym- 
phonies, and songs. — Mendel ; Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vii. 203 ; Fetis ; Grove ; Wasielewski, 
Die Violine, 188. 

FRANZL, IGNAZ, born at IMannheim, 
June 3, 1734, died there in 1803. Virtuoso on 
the violin, entered the famous court orches- 
tra of the Elector Karl Theodor at Mann- 
heim in 1750, became afterwards Conzert- 
meister and finally Kapellmeister, in which 
capacity he removed with the orchestra to 
Munich in 1768. From 1784 he travelled 
for several years with his son Ferdinand, 
and in 1790 was made director of the the- 
atre orchestra at Mannheim. His composi- 
tions, numbering about twenty works, con- 
sist of concertos, quartets, and trios. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FRASI, FELICE, born in Lombardy in 
1803, died at Vercelli, Sept. 8, 1879. Dra- 
matic composer, piupil at the Conservatorio, 
Milan, gained reputation as a jjiauist and 
organist, and at the age of twenty-one 



95 



FRAUEXLIEBE 



became maestro di cappella of the cathedral 
at Vercelli, Piedmont. His opera La selva 
di Hermanstadt was given at La Scala, 
Milan, in 1827 ; he also published sonatas 
for pianoforte, and pastorals for the organ. 
— Fetis; Mendel. 

FRAUENLIEBE UND LEBEN (Wom- 
an's Love and Life), eight songs by Cha- 
misso, for voice and pianoforte, by Robert 
Schumann, op. 42, 1840. The music to 
this cycle reveals an extraordinary depth of 
jjenetration into a side of human character 
which men are generally supposed incapable 
of understanding. Schumann treated the 
series as a whole, as Beethoven did his Lie- 
derkreis, An die feme Geliebte, yet with- 
out connecting the separate songs even in 
an external way, as did the latter. Only at 
the close does the pianoforte give an echo 
of the first song as a postlude. — Maitland, 
68 ; Eeissmann, 100. 

FEECH, JOHANN GEORG, born at 
Kaltenthal, near Stuttgart, Jan. 19, 1790, 
died at Esslingen in 1864. Organist and 
pianist, chiefly self-taught, and since 1806, 
when he became assistant teacher at Deger- 
loch, pupil at Stuttgart of Knecht in har- 
mony, of Sutor in composition, of Nanz on 
the violin, of Kriiger on the flute, and of 
Scherzer on the violoncello. In 1811 he 
went to Esslingen, where he became or- 
ganist and musical director in 1820, and 
founded the still existing Liederkranz in 
1827. His influence upon musical educa- 
tion in Wiirtemberg was gi-eat and bene- 
ficial. Works : ]\Iontezuma, opera ; Abra- 
ham auf Moria, oratorio ; Cantatas ; German 
mass for mixed chorus ; Oi-gan and piano- 
forte pieces; Songs and j)art-songs. — Fetis; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

FREDDI, AMADEO, born in the Vene- 
tian States about the close of the 16th cen- 
tury. Priest and maestro di cappella succes- 
sively at Treviso and of the Cathedral of 
Padua. Works : Madrigals (Venice, 1601- 
2) ; Motets, psalms, hymns, etc. (ib., 1616- 
42). — Fetis ; Van der Straeten, i. 30 ; Men- 
del ; Viotta. 




FREDERICK THE GREAT, King of 
Prussia, born at Berlin, Jan. 24, 1712, 
died at Sans Souci, 
Aug. 17, 1786. Flut- 
ist, pupil of Quautz, 
who composed for 
him nearly 300 con- 
certos and 200 soli, 
besides e x e r c is e s 
which the king prac- 
tised regularly every 
morn ing. Works: 
H re pastore, opera ; 
Overture to Aci e Galatea ; Marches ; Arias ; 
About 100 soli for flute. A complete edi- 
tion of his compositions is in preparation 
by Breitkopf & Hilrtel, Leipsic. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Midler, Friedr. d. Gr. als Kenner 
und Dilettant auf dem Gebiete der Ton- 
kuust (Potsdam, 1847). 

FREEER (Freyer), AUGUST, born at 
Mulda, near Dresden, in 1803, still living, 
1889 (?). Organist, pujjil of Cantor Geissler, 
whom he often replaced at the organ, from 
his tenth year. He afterwards went to 
Poland, and settled at Warsaw, where he 
studied counterpoint imder Elssler. In 
1834 he made a concert tour through Ger- 
many, and after his return was made organ- 
ist of the Lutheran Church at Warsaw. He 
has published a large number of composi- 
tions for the organ. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
350 ; Mendel; do., Ergiinz., 113. 

FREISCHUTZ, DER, German romantic 
opera in three acts, text by Fiiedrich Kind, 
music by Weber, first represented in Ber- 
lin, June 18, 1821. The score was finished, 
May 13, 1820, at Dresden. The opera was 
first named " Der Probeschuss," then " Die 
Jiigerbraut," but was produced under its 
present title. The libretto is founded on a 
stoiy in vol. i. of the " Gespeusterbuch," 
edited by Johann August Apel, and Fried- 
rich Laun (Leipsic, 1810), translated into 
English by De Quincey under the title of 
" The Fatal Marksman," and which is itself 
founded on a stiU earlier tale in "Unterre- 
dungen vom Reiche der Geister," pubhshed 



96 



rS^liiYO^^. 



1/- ■' T 



uR/^RT 



»8f •!<. •-' 



ttMX 



1 ,.;r~3i:i-ii2!!i- 



FEEISCIItTZ 



about the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In the opera, Max, a marksman, in 
love with Agathe, daughter of Kuno, head 
ranger to the Prince of Bohemia, is recom- 
mended by Kuno, who is old and infirm, as 
his successor. The prince agrees to accept 
him if he is victorious in the coming shoot- 
ing-match. Caspar, also in love with Agathe, 
who has sold himself to the demon Samiel, 
forms a plan to win the girl and to substi- 
tute Max for himself in the fulfilment of his 
contract with the Evil One. He shows Max 
the power of magic bullets, made with Sa- 
miel's aid, and persuades him to meet him 
in the Wolf's Glen at midnight to obtain 




Therese Malten. 

more. Max keeps his appointment, though 
terrified by sjjectres and grotesque forms, 
and warned by his mother's spirit, and re- 
ceives seven bullets, six of which are to be 
used at Max's will in the coming match, and 
the seventh is to be directed by the demon 
himself Agathe, warned by a holy hermit 
of coming danger, but guarded against it 
by a wreath of roses which he has given 
her, prepares in the third act for her wed- 
ding. Oppressed by melancholy forebod- 
ings, she tells Annchen that she dreamed she 
was a dove and that Max fired at her. On 
the day of the shooting-match her lover wins 
with his six magic bullets, and at the com- 
mand of the prince fires the seventh one at 



a flying dove. As he fires the dove takes in 
his eyes the form of Agathe and he fancies 
he has slain her ; but she is saved by her 
wreath and the bullet pierces Caspar's heart. 
Samiel claims his victim, and Max wins his 
bride and the ranger's position amid the 
general rejoicing. The original cast in Ber- 
lin was as follows : 

Agathe Frau Caroline Seidler. 

Annchen Frl. Johanna Eunicke. 

Max Herr Carl Stumer. 

Caspar Herr Heinrich Blume. 

Ottokar Herr Rebenstein. 

Kuno Herr Wauer. 

Samiel Herr Hillebrand. 

Kilian Herr Wiedemann. 

Among the best personators of Agathe is 
Therese Malten, whose portrait is given. 
Der Freischiitz met with an enthusiastic re- 
ception, and its pojjularity is still very great 
in Germany. Its 500th re^n-esentation was 
celebrated in Berlin in 188.5. It was given 
in Dresden, Jan. 26, 1822, and soon after 
in other German cities. An English ver- 
sion, entitled Der Freischiitz or The Sev- 
enth Bullet, was produced in London, at 
the English Opera House, July 22, 1824, 
with ballads inserted, and it became so 
popular that nine different theatres played 
it at the same time. The German version 
was brought out at the King's Theatre, May 
9, 1832, and an Italian version, II franco 
arciero, at Covent Garden, March IG, 1850. 
A pasticcio was given in Paris, at the Ode- 
on, Dec. 7, 1824, with a new libretto, with 
changes of names and scene, by Castil-Blaze 
and Sauvage, under the title, Eobin des Bois. 
An accurate French version of the original 
by Emilien Pacini and Hector Berlioz, with 
recitatives by Berlioz, was produced at the 
Academic Koyale de Musique, June 7, 1841. 
Der Freischiitz was first represented in New 
York, at the Park Theatre, March 3, 1825. 
Among its most popular numbers are : 
" Durch die Willder, dui-ch die Auen," aria 
of Max, Act i.. No. 3 ; " Schelm ! halt fest!," 
duet between Agathe and Annchen, Act ii., 



9T 



frI:lon 



No. 6; "Wie naLte mir der Sclilummer,'' 
scene and aria of Agathe, Act ii., No. 8 ; 
" Eiust triiumte mciner seligeu Base," ro- 
mance and aria of Annchen, Act iii., No. 13 ; 
" Wir wiuden dir den Jungfernkranz," Volks- 
lied, cliorus of bridesmaids, with soprano 
solo, Act iii.. No. 14 ; " Was gleicht wolil 
auf Erden dem Jiigervergniigen," chorus of 
huntsmen, Act iii., No. 15. — Ji'ihns, Weber 
in seiuen Werken, 297 ; Larousse, viii. 809 ; 
Max M. von Weber, Carl M. von W. (Leip- 
sic, 1864), ii. 277, 312 ; Edwards, Lyrical 
Drama, i. 33 ; Hanslick, Mod erne Oper, 
66 ; Berlioz (Apthorp), 395 ; Wagner, Ges. 
Schr., i. 257 ; Burlingame, Wagner, 92 ; 
Ambros, Bunte Blatter, i. 1 ; do., ii. 93. 

FE:fcLON, LOUIS FKANCOIS ALEX- 
ANDRE, born at Orh'ans, France, in 1825, 
still living, 1889. Pianist and organist, 
studied music in his native city, where he 
founded a gratuitous course of musical in- 
struction for workmen in 1847. When the 
harmonium came into use, he was one of its 
most active propagators in Paris, and pub- 
lished an excellent method for this instru- 
ment. In 1851 he went to London to rep- 
resent the organs constructed by the firm 
of Alexandre. He has composed a great 
number of morceaus de genre, fantaisies, 
etc., for harmonium, and for do. and piano- 
forte. — Ft'tis, Supplement, i. 349. 

FREMART, HENRI, French composer 
of church music, vicar of Notre Dame de 
Paris about the middle of the 17th century, 
having been maitre de musique of the ca- 
thedral at Rouen in 1611-25. Works: 
Missa 4 voe. ad placitum, Ballard coll., 
1642 ; Missa 4 voe. ad imit. mod. Confun- 
dantur suj)erbi, ib. ; Missa 5 voe. ad imit. 
mod. Verba mea auribus, etc., ib., 1643 ; 
Missa 5 voe. ad imit. mod. Eiipe me, Domine, 
ib. ; Missa 5 voe. ad imit, mod. Domine re- 
fugium, ib. ; Missa 6 voe. ad imit. mod. Ju- 
bilate Deo, ib., 1645 ; Missa 6 voe. ad imit. 
mod. Salvum me fac, Deus, ib. — Fetis. 

FRENCH SUITES (Ger., Franzosisehe 
Suiten), the name generally given the six 
smaller cla-vder suites by Johann Sebastian 



Bach : Suite i. D minor ; ii. C minor ; iii. B 
minor ; iv. E-flat major ; v. G major ; vi. E 
major. Published by the Bach-Gesellschaft. 
FRESOHI, GIOVANNI DOMENICO, 
born in Vicenza, Italy, in 1640, died there in 
1690. A priest, he lived in Venice in 1677- 
85, and wrote there many ojjeras. On his 
return to Vicenza he became maestro di 
cappella of the cathedral. Works— Operas : 
Elena rapita da Paride, Venice, 1677 ; Sar- 
dauapale, ib., 1678; TuUia Superba, ib., 
1678 ; Circe, ib., 1679 ; Berenice, ib., 
1680 ; Giulio Cesare trionfante, 1682 ; 
Silla, 1683 and 1699 ; L' incoronazione di 
Dario, 1684 ; Teseo tra le rivali, 1685 ; 
Dario, 1685. Giuditta, oratorio. Missa a 
cinque, salmi a 3, 4, 5 voci (Venice, 1660) ; 
Missa a 0, e salmi a 2, 5, 6 voci (ib., 1673). 
— Fctis ; Mendel. 

FRESCOB.^LDI, GIEOL.UIO, born in 
Ferrara, 1588, died 
after 1640. Little is 
known of his life. He 
studied under Fran- 
cois MiUeville (not 
under Alessandro 
Milleville, his father, 
who died, 1589) ; his 
first composition, a 
book of five-voice 
madrigals, was imb- 
lished by P. Phalesius in Antwerp, June 
10, 1608. During this year, Frescobaldi 
visited Milan. In 1615 he succeeded Ei-- 
cole Pasquini as organist at St. Peter's 
in Rome, his fame being then so great 
that thirty thousand are said to have 
flocked to the church to hear his first 
performance. The latest record of him 
is in a letter of P. della Valle (1640), in 
which he is mentioned as still living, and 
fifty-two years old. Johann Jacob Fro- 
berger was his pupil. Frescobaldi may 
be called the father of the great schools 
of organ playing and organ music ; not 
only was he the first very imposing fig- 
ure we meet with in the history of or- 
gan writing, but no genius so great as 




as 



FREUBEL 



his is to be found in this department of 
composition until we come to J. Sebastian 
Bach. Hawkins's statement that Fresco- 
baldi was the first Italian who played in the 
fugued style is an error which has found 
much favour with subsequent historians. 
But he probably was the first organist who 
used the tonal (instead of the real) response 
in the fugue. "Works: 1. Libro primo di 
Madrigali a 5 voc. (Antwerp, Phalesius, 
1C08) ; 2. Libro secoudo di Madrigali, etc. 
(Milan, 1608) ; 3. Ricercari e canzoni fran- 
cesi (Rome, Borboni, 1G15) ; 4. Toccate 
. . . e partite d' intavolatura (1G13-27- 
37-57) ; 5. Secoudo libro di toccate, etc. 
(Rome, 1G15) ; 6. Primo libro delle canzoni 
a 1, 2, 3, 4 voei (Rome, 1628) ; 7. Primo 
libro, Arie musiculi, Florence, 1630 ; 8. 
Capricci sopradiversi soggetti (Venice, 1626, 
Rome, 1627). Separate pieces are found 
in the following collections : Three in Can- 
zoni per sonare con ogni sorta di stromenti, 
etc. (Venice, Aless. Rauer, 1608) ; One in Se- 
lecta3 Cantiones, etc. (Rome, Bart. Zauetti, 



>^^Wz^ 




1616) ; One in Scelta di Motetti, etc. (Rome, 
Zauetti, 1618) ; Lilia Camjii, etc. (Rome, J. 
Bapt. Robletto, 1621).— Arabros, iv. 103, 
438 ; Clement, Mus. celebres, 16. 

FREUBEL, JOHANN LUD^^aO PALT,, 
born at Namur in 1763, died at Amster- 
dam, May 21, 1828. Organist and violinist, 
and for many years conductor at the Dutch 
theatre, Amsterdam. Works : De vroiiwe- 
lijke recruten, ballet, 1788 ; Several other 
ballets ; De triomf der liefde, symphony, 
1793 ; Het vredefeest, 1802 ; 14 cantatas ; 
3 concertos for violin ; Several overtures ; 
Psalms ; Popular songs. — Fetis, Supjile- 
ment, i. 350 ; Viotta. 

FREUDENBERG, KARL GOTTLIEB, 
born in a village of Silesia, Jan. 15, 1797, 
died at Breslau, April 13, 1869. Organist, 
pupil of the Cantor Klein at Schmiedeberg, 



then of Berner and Schuabel in Breslau, 
and, finally, at the organists' school in Ber- 
lin, of Zelter in harmony and composition 
and of Beruhard Klein in counterpoint. In 
1826 he visited Italy, and in 1827 became 
organist of St. Mary Magdalen's Church at 
Breslau. He composed organ and piano- 
forte music, psalms, songs, and part-songs. 
— Fotis ; Mendel. 

FREUDENBERG, WTLHELM, born at 
Raubacher-Hiitte, near Neuwied, Prussia, 
March 11, 1838, still living, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, studied music at Leij)sic 
in 1858-61, was then for four years Kaijell- 
meister at the theatres of diflerent cities, 
last at Mainz, and in 1865 went to Wies- 
baden as conductor of the Ciicilienverein 
and the Synagogenverein. In 1870 he 
founded there a school of music and con- 
ducted the Singakademie until 1886, when 
he removed to Berlin, and opened a school 
of music with Mengewein. Works — Op- 
eras : Die Pfahlbauer, burlesque, three acts, 
given at Mainz, March 24, 1877 ; Die Ne- 
benbuhler, romantic, three acts, Wiesbaden, 
Feb. 6, 1879 ; Kleopatra, four acts, Magde- 
burg, Jan. 12, 1882 ; Die Miihle im Wis- 
perthale, three acts, Magdeburg, Jan. 21, 
1883 ; Ein Tag in Florenz, symphonic 
poem ; Durch Duukel zum Licht, overture ; 
Music to Romeo and Juliet ; Pianoforte 
pieces, and songs. — Mendel ; Riemanu ; 
Signale (1879), 433. 

FREUDENTHAL, JULIUS, born at 
Brunswick, April 5, 1805, still living, 1889 
(?). Violinist and flutist, pupil of Karl 
Miiller, entered the ducal orchestra, of 
which he in time became musical director, 
retiring in 1860 on account of his health. 
He evinced a remarkable talent for the hu- 
morous genre of music, and his comic songs 
and quartets for male voices, but especially 
his operettas, and opera-travesties — capital 
satires on modern, chiefly Italian, operas — 
must be mentioned with distinction. — Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

FREUE DICH, ERLOSTE SCHAAR, 
church cantata, Festo S. Joanuia Bapt., for 



35« 



FREUNDE 



solo voices and chorus, with accompanimeut 
of 3 trumpets, drums, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 
strings complete, and continue, by Johann 
Sebastian Bach (Year V, No. 30, Bach-Ge- 
sellschaft ed.) ; published also in full score, 
with additional accompaniments by Robert 
Franz, and in pianoforte score, by Leuc- 
kart (Leipsic). 

FREUNDE VON SALAMANKA, DIE, 
oijeretta in two acts, text by Mayrhofer, 
music by Franz Schubert, written in 1815, 
never jierformed. The music, which was 
written between Nov. 18 and Dec. 31, is on 
a large scale, the first act alone filling 320 
pages. The MS. is in the possession of Dr. 
Eduard Schneider, Vienna. The libretto is 
lost. — Hellborn (Coleridge), i. 72. 

FREUDESAUSEN, JUBELBRAUSEN. 
See Stradella. 

FREUDIG BEGRUSSEN WIR DIE 
EDLE HALLE. See Tannhiiuser. 

FREYSTADTLER (Freystiidler), FRANZ 
JACOB, born at Salzburg, Sept. 13, 1760, 
died in Vienna in 1841. Organist, pupil of 
Georg Lipp, competed successfully against 
thirty-two applicants for the organist's 
place at the Domstift of St. Peter, which 
he held for sis years, then taught music for 
two years in Munich, whence he went to 
Vienna in 178G, and soon secured many pu- 
pils through the recommendation of his 
countryman and school-mate Mozart. He 
published many pianoforte compositions, 
mostly didactic, besides characteristic pro- 
gramme-pieces, like Die Belagerung von 
Belgrad, Mittag und Abend, Der Friihling- 
smorgen, etc., and songs, and left in manu- 
script over GO works, consisting of concer- 
tos, fantasias, organ preludes, cadenzas, etc. 
— Allgem. wiener Musikzeitung (1812), No. 
121 ; Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Wurzbach. 

FRIBERTH, KARL, bom at Wullers- 
dorf. Nether Austria, June 7, 1736, died in 
Vienna, Aug. 6, 1816. Church composer 
and tenor singer, first instructed by his 
father, then studied in Vienna under the 
guidance of the court composers Bono and 



Gassmann. In 17.59 he joined the chape\ 
of Prince Eszterhazy at Eiseustadt as tenor, 
and in 1776 became Kapellmeister of the 
Jesuits' and IMinorites' churches at Vienna. 
Works ; Nine masses ; Five motets ; Stabafc 
Mater ; Requiem ; Graduals and offerto- 
ries. — Fc'tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FRIDOLIN, or the Message to the Forge, 
cantata, by Alberto Randegger, written for 
and first performed at the Birmingham 
(England) Festival, Aug. 28, 1873. Tlie 
text, by Mme Erminea Rudersdorft", is 
founded on Schiller's ballad, " Der Gang 
nach dem Eisenhammer." Characters rep- 
resented : Waldemar, Count of Saverne ; Eg- 
lantine, Countess of Saverne ; Fridolin, page 
to the Countess ; Hubert, squire to the 
Count. The cantata was a complete suc- 
cess. Published by Chappell (London). 
—Upton, Standard Cantatas, 299. 

FRIDZERI, ALEX.INDRE MARIE AN- 
TOINE FRIXER, called, born at Verona, 
Italy, Jan. 16, 1711, died in Antwerp in 
1819. Violinist, and virtuoso on the man- 
dolin. He lost his sight when a year old, 
and learned to play the mandolin without 
a teacher ; he had five different violin 
teachers, constructed his own mandolin at 
eleven, learned the flute, the viol d' amore, 
the organ, the horn, and several other in- 
stniments without instruction, and never re- 
ceived any lessons in harmony or counter- 
point. He was organist of the Chapel la 
IMadonna del Monte Berico, at Vicenza, for 
three years, and at the age of twenty-four 
started on a concert tour, played at the Con- 
certs Spirituels in Paris (where he remained 
two years), travelled through the northern 
part of France, Belgium, Germany, lived 
in Strasburg over a year, and returned to 
Paris in 1771. He went to Brittany, and 
spent twelve years with the Comte de Ch:\- 
teaugiron, visiting Paris several times. On 
the breaking out of the Revolution he went 
to Nantes, and established a philharmonic 
academy. The terrors of the war in the 
Vendee caused him in 1791 to seek refuge 
in Paris, whence he left for Antwerp in 1801, 



100 



FRISCIIMUTII 



settled there as a music teacher, and estab- 
lished a trade in music and instruments. 
Works : Les deux miliciens, comic opera, 
given at the Comedie Italienne, 1772 ; Les 
souliers mordores, do., ib., 1776 ; Lucette, 
do., ib., 1785 ; Les Thermopyles, grand 
opera ; Six quartets for strings ; Six sonatas 
for mandolin ; Two concertos for violin ; 
Symphouie concertante for two violins, viola, 
and orchestra ; Six quartets, 2d book ; Duos 
for violins ; Six romances for voice and 
pianoforte. — Futis ; Mendel. 

FRISCHMUTH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, 
born at Schwabhausen, Gotha, died in Ber- 
lin, July 31, 1790. Dramatic composer, was 
musical director of various travelling com- 
panies, and small theatres, then lived for 
some years at Gotha, and removed to Ber- 
lin, where he became director of the Dub- 
bliu Theatre in 1785, and Kapellmeister of 
the National Theatre in 1787. Works : Die 
krauke Frau, Clarissa, Das Modereich, oper- 
ettas ; Sonatas for pianoforte ; Duets for 
violin, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FRITHJOF, cantata, for soli, male chorus, 
and orchestra, by Max Bruch, op. 23. 
Scenes from the Frithjof-Saga of Esaias 
TegDL^r. The cantata opens with Frithjofs 
return from the Orkneys, and closes with 
his sailing away in " Ellida " to become a 
sea rover, after firing the temple in which 
the false kings are sacrificing. — Upton, 
Standard Cantatas, 87. 

FRITHJOF - SYJMPHONIE, symphony 
for orchestra, by Heinrich Hofmann, op. 
22, written in 1871. 

FRITZ, KASPAR, born in Geneva in 
1716, died there in 1782. Violinist, pupil 
in Turin of Giovanni Battista Somis. 
Works : Quartets and solos for violin ; 6 
symphonies ; Concerto for harpsichord, 
etc. — Fetis ; Mendel, iv. 67 ; do., Erganz, 
115. 

FRITZE, WILHEL:\I, born in Bremen, 
Feb. 17, 1812, died in Stuttgart, Oct. 7, 
1881. Pianist, pupil in Bremen of Sobo- 
lewski, then studied at the Conservatorium 
in Leipsic, and under Biilow and Weitzmanu 



in Berlin. Having travelled in France and 
Italy, he settled in 1866 at Glogau, Silesia, 
and in 1867 at Liegnitz, where he conducted 
the Singakademie in 1867-77, went once 
more to Berlin to study under Kiel, and in 
1879 to Stuttgart. Works: Die Jahres- 
zeiten, symphony ; Fingal, oratorio ; David, 
do. ; Concerto for violin ; do., for piano- 
forte ; Sonata fordo., op. 2 ; Sanctus, Bene- 
dictus, and Agnus Dei for mixed chorus, soli, 
and orchestra ; Pianoforte pieces, songs, and 
choruses. — Riemann. 

FROBERGER, JOHANN JACOB, born 
(Mattheson says in Halle, but no proof has 
been found) early part of 17th century (the 
date usually given, 1635, is undoubtedly 
many years too late), died at Hericourt 
(Haute-Saone), France, May 7, 1667. The 
story of his life has been made the nucleus 
of a large amount of accumulated fiction ; 
Fctis's acount is eminently untrustworthy, 
and Mattheson's dates are mostly wrong. 
The following facts are known : Jan. 1, 
1637, he was appointed, by Emperor Fer- 
dinand HI., organist in the imperial Hofmu- 
sikkapelle, Vienna, where he remained un- 
til Sept. 30, when he was sent by the Em- 
peror to study under Frescobaldi, at Rome, 
where he changed from the Luthei'an to 
the Romish faith, in accordance with the 
Emperor's wish. In 1611 he retui-ned to 
Vienna, and resumed his position as court 
organist. He relinquished this post in Oc- 
tober, 1615, but staid in Vienna certainly as 
late as September, 1619. He occupied this 
post for a third time from April 1, 1653, to 
June 30, 1657, when he incurred the Em- 
peror's displeasure (how, is not known) and 
was discharged in disgrace. He then en- 
tered the service of Sybilla, Dowager Duch- 
ess of Wiirtemberg, as teacher and music 
director, and passed the last years of his life 
at her home at Hericourt, much beloved 
and revered by his pupil and patroness. He 
died suddenly of a stroke of apoplexy while 
at evening prayers, and was buried. May 
10, in the church at Bavilliers (Haut-Rhin). 
The monument erected over his tomb by 



101 



FEOM 



Sybilla was destrojecl during the French ' in Stuttgart. This, and another edition, 
Revolution. Besides these absolutely known dated 171-1, are printed from the same 
facts of Froberger's life, his visits to Paris, ' plates as the first, but bear different titles. 
Dresden, and London may be accounted as No copy of the edition of 1714 is known to 
more than probable. In Paris he caught exist.) 2. Diverse. . . . etc.. Prima con- 
the ornamented lute-style of Galot and Gau- tinuazione . . . Mogont., 1696. 3. Suites 
tier and apislied it to the clavecin, which de Clavecin, par Giacomo Froberger, 2me 
proves that the accepted legend which credits edition ; Amsterdam : Roger. (A copy is in 
Couperin (1668-1733) with originating the the Berlin Librarj*. ) Several volumes of au- 
ornameuted clavecin-stjde is 
false, for the so-called French 
agroments are found jjlenti- 
fully in Froberger's clavecin 
works. Liternal evidence goes 
to jjlace the date of his -N-isit to 
Paris before his return from Rome to Vienna I tograpli MS., dated 1649 and 1656, are in 
in 1637. His visit to Dresden was probablj' the Berlin Library ; four volumes do., in 
between 1646 and 1657. The date of his visit the Vienna Hofbibliothek. — Anibros, iv. 
to Loudon is set at 1662 by Dr. Franz Geh- 4G3 ; Edmund Schebek, Zwei Briefe fiber 
ring in Grove's Dictionary, relying upon J. J. Froberger, . . . (Prague, 1874) ; 



zfto JOl 



'auoTiw 




Mattheson, but Ambros suspects that this 
date should be earlier, before Froberger's 
final depai'ture from Vienna in 1657. That 
Froberger went to Mainz after quitting Vi- 
enna, as asserted by Gerber, is more than 
doubtful. Froberger was the first of the 
great German organists and clavecinists. 
He brought the grand Italian style of or- 
gan writing, which, first developed by 
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604), culminated iu 
Frescobaldi (1588 — ?), to Germany, and 
was thus the real father of the great Ger- 
man organ school, the precursor of Pachel- 
bel, Buxtehudc, and the other immediate 
predecessors of Sebastian Bach. His style, 
if somewhat less grand than that of his 
master Frescobaldi, was more easily grace- 
ful and elegant. Ambros calls him the 
earliest salon-composer. None of his works 
were published during his lifetime. Those 
published since are : 1. Diverse ingegnosis- 
sime e rarissime Partite di Toccate, Canzoni, 
Ricercari . . . Stampate da Ludovico 
Bourgeat . . . Mogont., 1693. (Two 
copies, one with Italian, the other with Ger- 
man title, are in the possession of Dr. F. 
Gehring in Vienna. A copy of a reprint, 
1695, is in the possession of Prof Im. Faisst 



Samml. mus. Vortriige, v. 357. 

FROM LOVE UNBOUNDED. See " Aus 
Liebe, nur aus Liebe," in Johann Sebastian 
Bach's Passion nach Matthiius. 

FROINIM, EMIL, born at Spremberg, 
Nether Lusatia, Jan. 29, 1835, still living, 
1889. Organist, pupil of A. W. Bach, Grell, 
and Schneider, at the Royal Institute for 
Church Music in Berlin, became cantor at 
Cottbus in 1859, received the title of royal 
director of music iu 1866, and went to 
Flensburg as organist of St. Nicholas's in 
1869. "Works: Die Kreuzigungdes Herrn, 
oratorio ; Two Passion cantatas ; Organ mu- 
sic, and songs. — Mendek 

FROM anOHTY KINGS, soprano air in 
A major, in Handel's Judas Maccabeus, 
Part n. 

FROM THE VALLEYS AND HILLS. 
See Bohemian Girl. 

FROST, CHARLES JOSEPH, born at 
Westbury-on-Trim, near Clifton, England, 
June 20, 1848, still living, 1889. Organist, 
pujjil of his father, who was organist at 
Tewkesbury from 1849, of George Cooper, 
Steggall, and Sir John Goss ; was organist 
successively at different places from 1865 to 
1884, when he succeeded Henry Robert 



FEOYO 




Gadsby at St. Peter's, Brockley, Surrey, a 
position which he still holds. He has been 
also professor of the 



organ at GuOdhall 
School of Music since 
1880. Mus.Bac., Cam- 
bridge, 18 7 7; Mus. 
Doc, ib., 1882. Works: 
Nathan's Parable, ora- 
torio, 1878 ; Harvest 
cantata, 1880 ; By the 
Waters of Babylon, can- 
tata, 187G ; Services ; 
Anthems ; Te Deum ; Symphony for orches- 
tra, 1878 ; Evening Service in D, 1883 ; The 
Gypsies, chorus, 1888; Organ music, and 
songs. 

FROVO, JOAO AliVAEEZ, born in Lis- 
bon, Nov. IG, 1G08, died in January, 1G82. ' 
Mestre de capella to Dom Joao IV., and of 
the Cathedral of Lisbon, and hbrarian of 
the royal musical library. He composed 
hymns, masses, motets, etc., preserved in 
the royal library of Portugal, and wrote sev- 
eral theoretical works. — Fetis ; Vascoucel- 
los, Mus. Portug., i. 113 ; Mendel. 

FRUH, ARMIN LEBERECHT, born at 
Muhlhausen, Bavaria, Sept. 1.5, 1820, still 
living, 1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Dehu in Berlin, where he settled to teach 
vocal music. In 1857 he invented an appa- 
ratus, called by him Semeio-Melodicon, to 
facilitate elementary musical instruction, by 
introducing the notes to sight and hearing 
simultaneously. Having travelled and se- 
cured approvals for his invention from such 
authorities as Fctis, Moscheles, Stephen 
Heller, Auber, Halcvy, Dreyschock, the 
Paris Conservatoire, etc., he settled in 1858 
in Dresden, to establish a factory, but 
failed in his enterprise. Works — Operas : 
Die Bergknappen ; Die beiden Figaro ; Der 
Stern von Grenada ; Nachtigall und Savoy- 
arde ; A symphony, and songs. — Mendel. 

FRUHLINGS-BOTSCH.\FT (Spring's 
Message), cantata (Conzertstiick) for chorus 
and orchestra, by Niels Wilhelm Gade, op. 
35. Breilkopf and Hiirtel (Leipsic). 



FRtJHLINGSKLANGE (Sounds of 
Spring), symphony No. 8, in A, for orches- 
tra, by Joachim Raff, op. 205, first per- 
formed, 1878. 

FRUHLINGSPHANTASIE (Spring Fan- 
tasy), cantata (Conzertstiick) for four solo 
voices, orchestra, and pianoforte, by Niels 
Wilhelm Gade, op. 23, written in 1850. 
Subject, a poem by Edmund Lobedanz, 
translated into English by Mrs. Van der 
Weyde, for the performance of the work in 
London, 1878, under the direction of von 
Biilow. — Upton, Standard Cantatas, 146. 

FRY, WILLIAM HENRY, born, of Amer- 
ican parentage, in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, Aug. 10, 1815, died in Santa Cruz, 
West Indies, Dee. 21, 18G4. About 1835 
he went through a course of musical in- 
struction in the United States, and wrote 
four orchestral overtures which were pub- 
licly performed ; in 1845 he produced an 
English opera entitled Leonora, which was 
given in Philadelj)hia, and later in New 
York. In 1846 he went to Europe as 
regular correspondent of the New York 
Tribune, and on his return to New York, 
in 1852, he became its musical editor. He 
wrote the music to an ode for the opening 
of the New York Industrial Exhibition of 
1853, and about this time delivered a 
course of ten lectures on the history of 
music, illustrated by performances of com- 
positions, among them two of his own sym- 
phonies. The Breaking Heart, and A Day in 
the Country. A second opera, Notre Dame 
de Paris, was produced at the Academy of 
Music, Philadelphia, in April, 18G4. Be- 
sides those mentioned, bis principal works 
are a set of symphonies, performed by 
JuUien's orchestra in New York ; Stabat 
Mater, 1854 ; Violin quartets, 1855 ; Can- 
tatas ; Songs, etc. 

FUCHS, ALBERT, born at Basel, Aug. 
6, 1858, still living, 1889. Instrumental 
and vocal composer, pupil at the Conserva- 
torium, Leipsic (1876-79), became music 
director at Treves in 1880, and settled at 
Oberlossnitz, near Dresden, in 1883. He 



-103 



FUCIIS 



Las composed Hungarian suites for orches- 
tra, pianoforte jiieces, and songs. — Eie- 
manu. 

FUCHS, FERDINAND KAKL, born in 
Vienna, Feb. 11, 1811, died there, Jan. 7, 
1848. Dramatic composer, pupil of the 
Conservatorium, Vienna, where he soon be- 
came popular through his numerous songs. 
His operas, Gutteuberg, and Der Tag der 
Verlobung, given 1842, show many pleasing 
featiu'es, but lack originalitj-. A third op- 
era. Die Studenten von Salamanca, was not 
given. — Wiener allgem. Musikzeitg. (1846), 
Nos. 41, 42 ; (1848), 11-17, 19-23 ; Wurz- 
bach. 

FUCHS, GEORG FRIEDRICH, born at 
Mainz, Dec. 3, 1752, died iu Paris, Oct. 9, 
1821. Instrumental composer, pupil of 
Cannabich at Mannheim, became military 
music dii'ector at Zweibriicken, whence he 
went to Paris in 1784. At the foundation 
of the Conservatoire he was appointed one 
of the teachers to form the musicians for 
the armies of the French Republic. Works : 
Mai'ches for military band ; Concertos for 
flute, clarinet, and horn ; Quartets, trios, and 
duos for wiud instruments ; Six quartets 
for strings. — -Fctis ; Gerber ; Meudel ; Schil- 
ling. 

FUCHS, JOHANN (NEPOMUK), born 
iu Vienna, June 29, 17G0, died at Eisen- 
stadt, Hungary, Oct. 29, 1839. Dramatic 
and church composei", pupil and great fa- 
vourite of Haydn, whom he succeeded as 
conductor of Prince Eszterhazy's famous 
orchestra. He numbers among the best 
church composers of his time. His complete 
works are in the princely archives at Eisen- 
stadt, and consist of 20 operas, 3 operettas, 
1 cantata, 28 masses, 51 oifertories and grad- 
uals, 31 litanies and vespers, 62 Salve Regina, 
Ave, etc., and hymns, 1 Te Deum, 2 over- 
tures for orchestra, 1 nonet, 1 octet, 1 quar- 
tet, 3 trios, and 15 quartets for male voices. 
— Theaterzeitung (Vienna, 1840), 688 ; 
Wurzbaeh. 

FUCHS, JOHANN NEPOMUK, born 
at Frauenthal, Styria, May 5, 1842, still liv- 



ing, 1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Sechter in Vienna, became opera-Kapell- 
meister at Presburg in 18G4, then acted in 
the same capacity at difierent theatres ; last 
in Cologne, Hamburg, and Leipsic, and since 
1880 at the imperial opera, Vienna. His 
opera Zingara was given at Briinn, Moravia, 
1872 ; he wrote additional accompaniments 
to Handel's Almira for representation at 
Hamburg, and revised Schubert's Alfonso 
und Estrella, and Gluck's Der betrogene 
Kadi, for Vienna. His brother Robert 
(born, Feb. 15, 1847), pupil at the Conser- 
vatorium, Vienna, where he teaches har- 
mony, has published a symphony, oji. 37, a 
quartet, a trio, 3 serenades, 2 sonatas for 
violin, sonata for pianoforte, several varia- 
tions, etc. — Eiemaun. 

FUCHS, PETER, born in Bohemia about 
1750, died iu Vienna, 1804. Violin virtu- 
oso, studied in Prague, where he enjoyed 
considerable reputation as earlj' as 1768 ; 
then went to Hungary. Iu 1794 he was ap- 
pointed violinist in the imperial chapel iu 
Vienna. He published a concerto for vio- 
lin, sonatas for violin and violoncello, and 
variations for violin. — Mendel ; Schilling. 

FUENTES, Don PASQUALE, born at 
Albayda, Valencia, early part of the 18th 
century, died, April 26, 1768. Church com- 
poser, one of the best of the Valencian 
school. He was maestro de capilla of the 
Church of S. Andres and in 1757 of the Ca- 
thedral of Valencia. "Works : Masses ; Te 
Deums ; Motets for 6 to 12 voices ; Vilhan- 
cicos with orchestral accompaniment. — Fo- 
tis ; Meudel ; Viotta. 

FUETSCH, JOACHIM JOSEF, born at 
Salzbm-g, Aug. 12, 1766, died (?). Violon- 
cellist, self-taught, afterwards pupil of Luigi 
Zardonati, who came for a year especially 
for this purpose from Verona, engaged by 
the Archbishop of Salzburg, whose court 
violoncellist Fuetsch had become. With 
Luigi Gatti he studied thorough bass, and 
with Michael Haydn composition. Before 
taking up the violoncello he had been in- 
structed on the violin by Hafeneder and 



104 



FtJHEEE 



Leopold Mozart. He composed concertos, 
sonatas, solos, etc., for violoncello, also for 
violonceUo and bass, and published three 
and foui--part songs for male voices. — Fotis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling ; Wiirzbach. 

FUHKEE, ROBERT, born at Prague, 
June 2, 1807, died in Vienna, Nov. 28, 
18G1. Organist, pupil of Witasek, was at 
first organist at Strahow, appointed princi- 
jial instructor at the organists' school in 
Prague, 1830, and organist of the cathedral, 
1839. His irregular life caused the loss of 
his position in 1845, after which he lived in 
Salzburg, Bavaria, and UiJper Austria, ob- 
taining an appointment as organist at 
Gmunden and Ischl in 1857, which he did 
not keep long. He finally settled in Vienna, 
where he died in the hospital. Works : 
Twenty masses, and other church music ; 
Preludes, fugues, etc., for the organ ; Sev- 
eral theoretical works about the organ. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel ; Wurzbach. 

FUITE EN EGYPTE, LA. See Enfance 
du Christ. 

FUMAGALLI, ADOLFO, born at In- 
zago, near Milan, Oct. 19, 1828, died in 
Florence, May 3, 185G. Pianist, pupil, at 
the Milan Conservatorio, of Angeleri. He 
gave his first concerts iu Milan in 1848, 
then visited Turin and Paris, travelled in 
Belgium in 1854, and afterwards played in 
many Italian cities. Works : Fantasia on I 
Puritani (Milan), Grande fantaisie de concert 
on the same ; Others on La Favorite, Lucia, 
Norma, etc. Caprices, tarantellas, marches, 
etc. ; Concerte fantastique with orchestra, 
entitled Les clochettes. — Fetis ; Filippi, 
Delia vita e delle opere di Ad. F. (Milan) ; 
Mendel ; Wurzbach. 

FUin, VINCESLAO, born at Montepul- 
ciano, Italy, Oct. 30, 1826, died at Florence, 
Nov. 20, 1880. Dramatic and instrumental 
composer, pupil of Giorgetti at Florence ; 
was maestro di cappella to the operatic 
stages of different Italian cities, and in Con- 
stantinople, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, 
and Montevideo, and returned afterwards to 
Florence. Works : Atala, opera, given at 



Buenos Ayres, 1852 ; Several compositions 
for orchestra. — Riemann. 

FUNERAL ANTHEM, music by Handel, 
composed for and performed at the funeral 
of Queen Caroline, in the Chapel of Henry 
VH., Westminster Abbey, Dec. 17, 1737. 
The score, in Buckingham Palace, is headed : 
" The Anthem for the Queens Carolines Fu- 
neral," and is dated Dec. 12, 1737. The 
text, from Psalms, was probably selected by 
the composer himself. Though the score 
occujiies, in its published form, about 
eighty pages, it was written within five 
days. It was given by eighty singers and 
one hundred instrumental pi^i'^oi'i^si'^- 
First j^rinted by Walsh ; full score, Hilndel^ 
gesellschaft (Leij^sic, 1861). — Schcelcher, 
Handel, 192 ; Rockstro, 206 ; Chrysander, 
ii. 436. 

FUOR DI PERIGLIO, duet for soprano 
and tenor (Rossaue and Timante) in F ma- 
jor, with accompaniment of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 
2 bassoons, strings complete, and cembalo, 
in Handel's Floridante, Act ii. Published 
with additional accompaniments by Robert 
Franz, Leipsic, Kistner. 

FURCHTE DICH NICHT, chorus in 
Mendelssohn's Elias, Part H. 

FURIBONDO SPIRA IL VENTO, con- 
tralto aria of Arsace, in E minor, with ac- 
companiment of violins iu unison, and bass, 
iu Handel's Farlenope, Act iii. Published 
with additional accompaniments by Robert 
Franz, Leipsic, Kistner. 

FURIO CAMILLO. See Gamillus. 

FURLANETTO, BONAVENTURA (sur- 
named Musin), born in Venice, May 27, 
1738, died there, April 6, 1817. Organist, 
educated at the Jesuit College, Venice, took 
orders, and devoted himself to music. He 
became maestro of the girls' choir of La 
Pietii, and in 1797 maestro di cappella of 
S. Marco. He was celebrated for his 
fugues, and on his appointment as maestro 
of counterpoint at the Philharmonic Insti- 
tution of Venice, in 1811, he wrote for his 
pupils a treatise on fugue and counterpoint, 
which still remains in MS. Works : La 



105 



FURSTEXAU 



caduta delle mura di Gerico, and La sj)osa 
de' Saci'i Cantici, II Tobia, and II voto di 
Jefte, oratorios ; II S. Giovanni Nepomu- 
ceno, sacred cantata ; Galatea, dramatic can- 
tata ; Te Deum ; Dies ii'fe ; Psalms, etc. 
— Caffi, Delia vita e del comporre tli B. 
Furlanetto (Venice, 1820).— F6tis ; La- 
rousse ; Mendel ; Wurzbacb. 

rURSTENAU, ANTON BERNHAED, 
born at Miinster, Oct. 20, 1792, died at 
Dresden, Nov. 18, 1852. Virtuoso on tbe 
flute, son and pupil of Kaspar Fiii'stenau, 
whom be even surpassed. He ajspeared 
as a solo player wben scarcely seven 
years old, and from 1803 travelled exten- 
sively with bis fatber, earning everywhere 
enthusiastic applause, until be settled at 
Dresden in 1820 as royal chamber musi- 
cian. His last concert tour was made with 
"Weber to London, in 1826. He j)ublished 
about 150 works, consisting of concertos, 
fantasias, rondos, variations, studies, tran- 
scriptions, duos, trios, quartets, etc., for the 
flute, which rank high among compositions 
for this instrument. — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 
214 ; Fi'tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

FURSTENAU, liASPAR, born at Miin- 
ster, Feb. 20, 1772, died at Oldenburg, 
May 11, 1819. Virtuoso on the flute, pupil 
of his father, who was a member of the 
bishop's orchestra at Miinster, and of Anton 
Romberg ; then of Josef Franz Antony in 
composition. In 1793 he made his first suc- 
cessful concert tour through Germany, and 
in 1794 became first flutist in the court or- 
chestra at Oldenburg. When the latter was 
disbanded, in 1811, he set out on extensive 
travels with his son Beruhard, on which 
both acquired world wide reputation. Of 
his numerous compositions about 60 works 
are known, consisting of concertos, fan- 
tiisias, rondos, variations, pot-pourris, etc. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 215 ; Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

FUSS, JOHANN EVANGELIST, born 
at Tolna, Hungary, in 1777, died in Vienna, 
March 9, 1819. Dramatic and church com- 
poser, pupil of Albrechtsberger in Vienna, { 



whither he went after having occupied a po- 
sition as music master at Presburg, where 
he brought out also a duodrama, Pyramus 
und Thysbe. His compositions in Vienna 
aroused the interest of Haydn, who assisted 
him with advice. Recalled to Presburg as 
Kapellmeister at the theatre, he proved him- 
self a skilful conductor and considerably 
raised the standard of the ojjera there, but 
finally chose Vienna for his permanent resi- 
dence. Of his works, the following were 
published : Quartets and trios for wind in- 
struments ; Duos for pianoforte and violin ; 
Sonatas for pianoforte (2 and 4 hands) ; 
Rondos, variations, and dances for piano- 
forte ; Songs. Besides these are known a 
mass and other church music ; an overture 
to Schiller's Braut von Messina ; the duo- 
dramas : "Watwort, Isaak, Judith, Jacob und 
Rahel ; the operetta, Der Kiifig ; Pandorens 
Biichse, a parody ; Melodramas with cho- 
ruses, and cantatas. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Wurzbacb. 

FUX, JOIL\NN JOSEPH, born at Hir- 
tenfeld, near Gratz, Styria, in 1060, died in 
Vienna, Feb. 13, 1741. He was appointed 
organist of the Schottenkirche, Vienna, in 
1696, and in 1698 the Emi)eror Leopold I. 
made him court comi^oser ; he became 
Kapellmeister to the Cathedral of St. Ste- 
phen in 1705, vice-Kapellmeister to the impe- 
rial court in 1713, and at the same time Ka- 
pellmeister to the Dowager Empress "Wil- 
helmine Amalie. On the death of Ziaui, 
in 1715, he was made chief Kajjellmeister 
to the court, the highest ofiice then open to 
a musician. Many mai'ks of imperial favour 
were bestowed upon him. He dedicated 
his first work to Archduke, afterwards Em- 
peror, Josejjh I., and his Gi'adus ad Par- 
nassum to the Emperor Charles VI. The 
latter monarch had him brought from Vi- 
enna in a Utter, while suffering from gout, 
to witness the coronation in Prague in 
1723 and to listen to one of his own operas. 
In spite of painful illness and all the in- 
trigues of court he kept his office and faith- 
fully performed its duties until his death. 



IOC 



GABELLONE 



He was buried at St. Stephen's. Among Lis 
best pupils were Wagenseil, Tuma, Muflfat, 
and Zeleuka. He was a master of composi- 
tion, as understood in liis time, of tlie art of 
interweaving contrapuntal and fugue forms 
in the way then admired. His operas do 
not rise above the Italian taste of his day, 
but he is seen to better advantage in his 
church music, where his reverent spirit pre- 
vented his abuse of the polyphonic writing 
so easy to him. It he had possessed the 
genius of his younger contemj)oraries. Bach 
and Handel, to rise above mere musical 
forms, he would not have incurred the ob- 
livion and the reputation of a pedant, which 
are now perhaps unjustly his fate. Works : 
290 compositions in church music, including 
50 masses, among them the Missa cauonica, 
a masterpiece ; 3 Requiems ; 2 Dies irse ; 
1 Domine Jesu Christe ; 1 Libera me. Do- 
mine ; 57 vespers and psalms ; 22 litanies 
and completoria ; 14 offertories ; 12 gradu- 
als ; 22 motets ; and lOG hymns. Further, 
10 oratorios in Italian ; 18 operas, some 
of which were : La clemenza di Auguato, 
1702 ; La decima fatica d' Ercole, 1710 ; 
Elisa ; Angelica vincitrice d' Alciua, 1716 ; 
Psyche, 1719 ; Costauza e Fortezza, 1723 ; 
La Corona d' Arianua, 1726 ; Enea negii 
EUsi, 1731. Instrumental music : The Con- 
centus musico-instrumentalis, his opus 1 
(1701) ; Many other partitas ; 38 sacred 
sonate a tre ; Overtures ; and 8 pieces for 
clavier. The Gradus ad Parnassum (Vienna, 
172.5, also many later editions and transla- 
tions) is in Latin and treats of the theoiy 
and practice of composition. It was ap- 
proved of by Piccinni, Martini, and Vogler ; 
Albrechtsberger and Cherubiui followed its 
method ; young Mozart used it in his con- 




trapuntal exercises, and Haydn studied it 
again and again. Altogether, his known 



works number 405 ; and but a small portion 
of them has been printed. Most of them, 
either in autograph or copies, are in the 
Vienna Imperial Library. — KOchel, Johann 
Josef Fux, etc. (Vienna, 1872) ; Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 272 : Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; 
Schilling ; Wurzbach. 



GABELLONE, GASPARO, born at 
Naples about 1730, died (?). Church 
composer, and one of the best singing 
masters of Italy. A Requiem mass by him 
was a model of its kind. The following 
works are in the Library of S. Pietro a Ma- 
jella, Naples : Mass for four voices and in- 
struments, original MS. ; Passion for Good 
Friday, 1774 ; Fugues for two voices, 1783 ; 
Christus and Miserere for four voices ; 3 
Tan turn ergo ; Cantatas and arias. — Fetis. 

G.iBLER, CHRISTOPH AUGUST, born 
at Muhldorf, Voigtland, March 15, 1767, 
died in St. Petersburg, AjH-il 1.5, 1839. 
Studied theology, acted as secretary to a 
nobleman, and then pursued the study of 
law and music together in Leipsic. He was 
a music teacher and concert plaj'er in Reval 
in 1800 and the same in St. Petersburg 
from 1836. Works : Der Pilger am Jordan, 
oratorio ; Songs ; Pianoforte and other in- 
strumental music. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Schil- 
ling. 

GABRIEL, (MARY ANN) VIRGINIA, 
born at Banstead, Surrey, England, of Irish 
parentage, Feb. 7, 1825, died in London, 
Aug. 7, 1877. Dramatic composer, pupil 
on the pianoforte of Pixis, Dohler, and 
Thalberg, and in harmony and construction 
of Molique. She married in 1874 George 
E. March, the author of most of her librettos. 
Her death was the 
result of a carriage 
accident. Works — 
Operettas : The 
Widows Bewitched, 
given in London, 
1867 ; The Grass Widows ; The Shepherd 
of Cornouailles ; Who's the Heir ? ; A Rainy 



107 



GABEIELI 



Day. Cantatas ; Dreamland, 1870 ; Grazi- 
ella ; Evangeline, 1873. Many songs, some 
of whicli were popular. — Grove ; Brown. 

GABRIELI, ANDEEA, born in the Cana- 
reggio quarter (whence called also Andrea 
da Canareggio, or da Canareio) of Venice 
about 1510, died in Venice, 1.5SG. Born of 
one of the oldest and most distinguished 
families in Venice, he studied composition 
under Adrien Willaert. In 153G he entered 
the choir of St. Mark's; in 1558 he was, to- 
gether with Zarlino, elected member of the 
Accademia della Fama ; in 1566 he suc- 
ceeded Claudio Merulo as second organist 
at St. Mark's, and again as first organist in 
1584. In 1574 the Republic commissioned 
him to write the music given at the recep- 
tion of Henri III. of France. Although his 
fame has been somewhat overshadowed by 
that of his nephew Giovanni, he was one of 
the glories of the great Venetian contrapun- 
tal school. Noted as an organist and organ 
writer during bis lifetime, his greatest fame 
rests upon his choral works — masses, mo- 
tets, and madrigals. He was the first con- 
trapuntist to write a real fugue, which form 
was afterwards developed into the tonal 
fugue by Frescobaldi. He was also noted 
as a teacher ; Giovanni Gabrieli, Hans Leo 
Hassler, and Jan Pieter Swelinck were 
among his pupils. He himself accounted 
his Psalmi Davidici, qui ^Jcenitentiales nun- 
cupantur (Venice, 1583) his greatest work. 
His Psalm Ixv., Deus misereatur, for three 
choruses, far surpassed anything of the sort 
that had been written up to his time. — Am- 
bros, iii. 523. 

GABRIELI, DOMENICO, surnamed 
Meughino del violoncello, born at Bologna 
about 1640, died there about 1G90. Dra- 
matic composer and virtuoso on the violon- 
cello ; was at first connected with the Church 
of S. Petronio in his native city, and after- 
wards in the service of Cardinal Panfili, 
grand prior of Rome. Member of the Ac- 
cademia Filarmouica, 1676 ; principe, 1683. 
Works : Cleobulo, given at Bologna, Teatro 
Formagliari, 1683 ; Gige in Lidia, ib., 1683 ; 



Clearco in Negroponte, Venice, 1685 ; Ro- 
doaldo, re d' Italia, ib., Teatro San Mosti, 
1685 ; Teodora Augusta, ib., Teatro S. Sal- 
vadore, 1685 ; Maurizio, ib., 1687 ; Gordi- 
ano, ib., 1688 ; Le geuerose gare tra Cesare 
e Pompeo, Venice, 1686 ; Carlo il Grande, 
ib., 1688 ; Cantate a voce sola (Bologna, 
1691) ; VexiUum pacis, motet for contralto 
with instruments (ib., 1695) ; Balletti, gighe, 
correnti, e sarabande, for two violins and 
violoncello, with basso continuo (ib., 1703). 
— Fctis ; Mendel. 

GABRIELI, GIOVANNI, born in Venice, 
1557, died there, Aug. 12, 1G12 (1613?). 
Church composer and organist, nephew 
and pupil of Andrea Gabrieli, acquired con- 
siderable reputation early in life, and in 
1585 succeeded Claudio Merulo as first or- 
ganist at San Marco. Like his uncle, he 
entertained a lively intercourse Avith the 
German masters of his period, and was es- 
pecially allied in close friendship with 
his famous co-disciple, Hans Leo Hassler. 
Among his patrons in Germany, where he 
was the most esteemed of foreign masters, 
were Duke Albrecht V. of Bavai-ia and his 
sons, and the Counts of Fugger at Augs- 
burg. As a te.acher he was sought fai- and 
wide ; his most renowned pupil was Heiu- 
rich Schiitz, who spent four years in Venice, 
sent there by the Elector Maurice of Sax- 
ony. Together with Palestriua and Orlando 
Lasso, Giovanni Gabrieli represents the 
culminating glory of the strict contrapun- 
tal schools of the IGth century ; he was in- 
disputably the greatest genius of the Vene- 
tian school. Unlike Palestrina, who always 
wrote strictly a cappella, Gabrieli often in- 
troduced instrumental parts in his great 
choral works, although a cappella writing, 
often for two or three choruses, was still 
his habitual style. But these instrumental 
parts did not, in any sense, form an accom- 
paniment to the voices ; his treatment of 
them was totally different from that whicli 
we find in the stilo concertante which sprang 
up later, during the decline of the "great" 
Roman school. His choice of instiiimeuts, 



GABEIELLI 



too, bears no relation to even the most ru- 
dimentary form of the orchestra. If he falls 
somewhat behind Palestriua in perfection 
of formal beauty, he equals him in sublim- 
ity, and often siirj)asses him in wealth of 
colouring. The twelve-voice Benedictus, in 
Rochlitz (i. 34), is a masterpiece of its kind. 
Works : Psalmi poeuitentiales 6 vocum 
(1583) ; Madrigali a 6 voci o istromenti 
(1585) ; Madrigali e ricercari a 4 voci (1587) ; 
Ecclesiastics cantioues 4-0 vocum (1589) ; 
Sacrse symphoniae, for 6-16 voices or instru- 
ments (1597) ; do., 2d book, for G-19 voices 
(1615) ; Canzoni e souate a 3-32 voci (1615). 
Single pieces are published in almost all 
collections of the time up to 1620. — Wiuter- 
feld, Johannes Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter 
(Berlin, 1834) ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 
-GABEIELLI, Conte NICOLO, born at 
Naples, Feb. 21, 1814, still living, 1889. 
Dramatic composer, pupiil of Busti in sing- 
ing and of Ziugarelli and Donizetti in com- 
position. He settled in Paris in 1854. He 
has brought out 22 oj^eras and written 60 
ballets, all showing more facility than merit. 
They were given at the Teatro Nuovo, and 
Teatro San Carlo, Naples, in 1835-47, and 
a few in Paris, and were mostly unsuccessful. 
— Fetis, iii. 369 ; do., SuppK-meut, i. 354 ; 
Mendel, iv. 99 ; do., Ergimz., 115 ; Vape- 
reau, Contemporaius. 

GABRIELSia, JOH.\NN WTLHELM, 
born in Berlin, May 27, 1791, died there, 
Sept. 18, 1846. Flutist, pupil of the artil- 
lery caj^tain Vogel, and of the chamber mu- 
sician A. Schrock ; appeared in public in 
1810, obtained an engagement at the the- 
atre in Stettin, 1814, and became royal 
chamber musician in Berlin in 1816, when 
he studied theory and composition under 
Giirrlich, Seidel, and Birnbach. He made 
concert tours in North Germany from 1812, 
and to Warsaw in 1822. He composed con- 
certos, solos, duos, trios, and quartets for 
his instrument, besides some songs. His 
brother and pupil Julius (1806-78), was also 
a noted virtuoso on the flute, and composer. 
— Fctis ; Mendel, 



GABUSSI, VINCENZO, born in Bologna 
about 1800, died in London, Sept. 12, 1846. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Padre Mattel. 
After producing his first opera in Modena, 
in 1825, he went to London and resided 
there as a teacher until 1840, when he re- 
turned to Italy to bring out another opera. 
He is best known by his vocal duets, which 
are still sung in England. Works — Operas : 
I furbi al cimento, Modena, 1825 ; Ernani, 
Theatre des Italiens, Paris, 1834 ; Clemenza 
di Valois, Fenice, Venice, 1841. Songs and 
part-songs ; Chamber music. — Grove ; Fe- 
tis ; Larousse ; Mendel. 

GABUZIO, GIULIO CESARE, born in 
Bologna, first half of the 10th century, 
died (?). Maestro di cappella of the Cathe- 
dral of jMilan. Works : Motets for five and 
six voices (Venice, 1586) ; Magnificat and 
other church compositions (Milan, 1587). 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GACES BRULES (Brulez), one of the 
best and most prolific composers of chan- 
sons of the 13th century, died after 1255. 
Some of the old MSS. give his name as 
Gaste-Bk'. Seventy-nine of his chansons 
are extant, sixty-three of which are in the 
National Library, Paris, with the airs of 
some attached to them. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GADE, NIELS (WILHELM), born at 
Copenhagen, Oct. 22, 
1817, still living, 1889. 
The son of a musical 
instrument maker, he 
early learned the gui- 
tar, violin, and piano- 
forte ; later studied 
under Wershall, Berg- 
green, and Weyse, un- 
der whom he began to 
compose, but afterwards looked upon these 
early efibrts as of little value. He became 
a violinist in the royal orchestra at Copen- 
hagen, and soon began to develop that origi- 
nal power as a composer which has j)laced 
him in the foremost rank of contemporary 
musicians. By the vote of Spohr and 
Schneider his Ossian overtm-e was awarded 




109 



GADSBY 



the prize offered by the Copenhagen Musi- 
cal Union in 1841. This was followed by 
his first symphony in C minor, the score of 
which he sent to Mendelssohn at Leij)sic, 
and it was brought out at the Gewand- 
haus, March 2, 1843, to general admiration. 
This second brilliant success induced the 
King of Denmark to allow Gade money to 
•visit the great musical centres of Europe. 
He went to Leipsic, where he remained until 
near the end of 1843, when he made a short 
trip to Italy, but soon returned to Leipsic, 
as Mendelssohn, who had gone to Berlin, 
offered him the conductorship of the Ge- 
wandhaus concerts. Gade filled this post 
during 181-1 15, and on Mendelssohn's re- 
turn continued as sub-conductor under him 
in 1845-4G. On March 3, 1846, he brought 
out his cantata of Comala. After Mendels- 
sohn's death (Nov. 4, 1847), Gade resumed 
his functions as conductor in chief, contin- 
uing until 1848, when he was succeeded by 
Julius Rietz. He then returned to Coisen- 
hagen, where he has remained ever since, 
excepting a short visit to England in 1876, 
to conduct his Crusaders and Zion at the 
Birmingham Festival. On his return to 
Copenhagen he accepted a post as organist, 
and was made conductor of the Musical 
Union. In 1861 he succeeded Glaeser, de- 
ceased, as coui-t conductor. Besides the ex- 
ercise of his official functions, he has de- 
voted his time wholly to composition and 
teaching. As a composer Gade stands in 
a manner by himself ; if the cut of his mel- 
odies (in spite of their distinctly Northern 
character) and the general phj'sioguomy of 
his style resemble Mendelssohn, and he 
tends somewhat in Schumann's direction by 
his romanticism, he never attained either 
to the complete mastery of form and organic 
musical development of the former nor to 
the intensity of expression and depth of 
thought of the latter. His resemblance to 
Mendelssohn is, after aU, superficial. His 
striking merits are clearness, simplicity, 
warmth and grace of expression, and a 
never-failing sense of beauty. His themes, 



as well as his harmony, bear the unmistak- 
able stamj) of his Scandinavian associations, 
but he never forces the " national " element 
to the point of eccentricity. In his earlier 
period his genius gave evidence of the most 
brilliant originality, but he has not wholly 
kept the promise of his youth, and among 
his later works one looks in vain for that 
divine spark which gave life to his first sym- 
phony (which was at one time looked ujjou 
as an epoch-making work) and his earlier 
overtures. In 1886 he was made Com- 
mander of the Order of Dauebrog. Works : 
8 symphonies, in C minor, oj). 5, E, op. 10, 
A minor, op. 15, B-flat, op. 20, D minor 
(with jiianoforte), op. 25, G minor, op. 32, 
F, oj). 45, and B minor, op. 47 ; 5 over- 
tures : Nachkiange von Ossiau, Im Hoch- 
land, op. 7, Overture in C, op. 14, Hamlet, 
op. 37, Michelangelo, op. 39 ; Novelletten, 4 
pieces for string orchestra, op. 53 ; Octet 
for strings, op. 17 ; Sextet for do. ; Quartet 
for do. ; Pianoforte trio, op. 42 ; 3 sonatas 
for violin. No. 2, op. 21, No. 3, op. 59 ; 8 
cantatas : Comala, op. 12, Friihlings-FlmiiX- 
tasie, op. 23, ErlkOnigs Tochter (Elverskud), 
op. 30, Friihlings-'BoisQkii.ii, op. 35, Die 




Heilige Nacht, op. 40, Die Kreuzfahrer, op. 
50, Zion, op. 49, Psyche, op. 60 ; Sommertag 
auf dem Lande, 5 pieces for orchestra, op. 

55 ; Concerto for violin and orchestra, op. 

56 ; Holbergiana, suite for orchestra, op. 
61 ; Volkstilnze, for violin, with pianoforte, 
op. 62 ; Sonata, Aquarelles, Folk-dances, 
Northern Tone-pictures, and many other solo 
works for pianoforte ; Choruses for male and 
mixed voices; German and Scandinavian 
songs.— Ulustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 288 ; Men- 
del ; Riemann. 

GADSBY, HENRY ROBERT, born in 
London, Dec. 15, 1842, still living, 1889. 
Pianist, son of a musician, principally self- 



no 



GAEBLER 




taught. He was a member of the choir 
of St, Paul's in 1849-58 ; organist of St. Pe- 
ter's, Broekley, Surrey, 
till 1884: ; professor 
at Guildhall School of 
Music ; jjrofessor of 
harmony at Queen's 
College, Loudon, 1884. 
Works — Cantatas : Al- 
ice Brand, 1870 ; The 
Lord of the Isles, text 
by Prank Murray, from 
Scott, 1879; Colum- 
bus, for male voices, 
1881. Overtures : Andromeda, 1873 ; The 
Golden Legend ; The Witches' Frolic. 
Music to Alcestis, 187G ; Symphonies for 
orchestra in A, C, and D ; String quartet, 
187.5 ; Festival service for eight voices, 
in D ; Service in C, 1872 ; 130th Psalm ; 
Audaute and rondo for pianoforte and flute ; 
Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in D ; Te 
Deum in E-flat ; Festival symjihony in D, 
1888 ; Anthems ; Part-songs, etc. 

GAEBLER, ERNST FRIEDKICH, born 
in Bunzlau in 1815, still living, 1889. Pupil 
of C. Karow and at the Berlin Institute for 
Church Music under A. W. Bach, besides 
attending the lectures of A. B. Marx ; suc- 
ceeded KOhler as music director and teacher 
of the Piidagogium and Orphan House in 
Ziillichau. He has comj^osed motets, songs, 
and other pieces. — Mendel ; Fotis ; Schil- 
ling, Supplement, 156. 

GAERTNER, KARL, born at Stralsund, 
Oct. 21, 1823, still Uving, in Philadelphia, 
1889. Violinist, pupil at Greifswald of Abel, 
and at the Conservatorium, Leipsic, of Men- 
delssohn, David, and Hauptmann ; played in 
the Gewandbaus orchestra until 1848, when 
he travelled through Germany as a virtuoso, 
in which capacity he went to America in 
1852. In Boston and other cities he awak- 
ened a taste for classical music by his ex- 
cellent performances, and in 1858 went to 
Philadelphia to conduct the chorus at the 
Steuben festival, and remained there as mu- 
sical director of the old Miinuerchor and the 



Siingerbund ; later he became also conduc- 
tor of the Handel and Haydn Society. In 
1859 he gave the first series of classical con- 
certs in the Academy of Music, which for 
thirty-one years be has continued success- 
fully. In 1867 he founded a conservatory 
of music, which is still flourishing under 
his direction. His numerous compositions 
include orchestral works, violin solos, and 
vocal music, and he has published also 
methods for the pianoforte and violin, and 
a system of vocal training. 

GAFFI, BERNARDO, composer of the 
Roman school, early part of the 18th cen- 
tury. His Cantata dell' Amore was pub- 
lished in Rome in 1700. The Lyceo of Bo- 
logna has several cantatas in MS. — Fetis ; 
Schilling ; Mendel. 

GAGLIANO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA 
DI ZANOBI DA, born in Florence about 
1580, died (?). Brother of Marco di Zanobi 
da Gagliano ; was in the service of the 
Medici ; succeeded Alfonso Benevenuti, 
chaplain of S. Lorenzo, as maestro of the 
clerks of that college. Works : Motets ; 
Madrigals (Venice, 1603-23).— Fetis; Schil- 
ling ; Mendel. 

GAGLLINO, MARCO DI ZANOBI DA, 
born in Florence, second half of the 16th 
century, died there, Feb. 24, 1642. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Luca Bati. He 
became, in 1702, maestro di cappella of S. 
Lorenzo, where his compositions were still 
performed at the beginning of this century. 
Under the name of I'Alfannato he was a 
member of the Accademia degli Elevati. 
His most important work is the opera TJafne, 
written for the wedding of Francesco Gon- 
zaga, sou of the Duke of Mantua, 1607, one 
of the earliest productions of this kind. 
Other works : Misse a cinque voci (Venice, 
1579) ; Responsorj della Settimana Santa 
(ib., 1580) ; H primo libro de' madrigali (ib., 
1602) ; II secondo ed il terzo libro, etc. (ib., 
1601) ; Libro quinto, etc. (ib., 1606) ; Mu- 
siche a una, due e tre voci (ib., 1615) ; Li- 
bro sesto de' madrigali (ib., 1617) ; Respon- 
sorj della Settimana Santa (Venice, Bar- 



GAGLIAllDI 



tolomeo Magni, 1630) was considered Lis 
best work. The melodies, Bel pastor del 
cui bel guardo, and Ecco solinga delle selve 
arnica, were in great favour, in his time. 
— Ambros, iv. 288 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Eock- 
stro. Hist. Music, 107. 

GAGLIAEDI, DIONISIO POLIANI, 
born at Naples in 1811, died there in 1835. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of the Royal 
College of Music, Naples. Works — Operas : 
L' antiquario e la modista, opera bulla, Na- 
ples, 1828 ; La strega di Dernegleuch, ib., 
1830 ; Le due gemelle, ib., 1831 ; E lan- 
gravio di Turingia, ib., 1832 ; La casa a 
veudere, ib., 1834 ; Pulcinello coudaunato, 
1835 ; Le ferriere di Maremma ; La barca- 
juola svizzera ; E coscritto. His langravio 
di Turingia, his best work, was given ten 
years after his death as Candida e Luigi. 
— Fctis; Mendel. 

GAGNI, ANGELO, dramatic composer, 
born in Florence, middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, died (?). His opera buffa, I pazzi 
gloi'iosi, Milan, 1783, is also known as I 
matti gloriosi. — Fetis ; IMendel. 

GAHRICH, WENZEL, born at Zercho- 
witz, Bohemia, Sept. IG, 1791, died in Ber- 
lin, Sept. 15, 18G1. He studied law at 
Leipsic Universitj', but poverty compelled 
him to become a violinist in the theatre or- 
chestra there. In 1825 he joined the royal 
orchestra in Berlin, and in 1815-00 was 
conductor of the ballet at the Opera. The 
merit of his compositions should have se- 
cured for him more than the local fame he 
enjoyed ; especially his ballet music is of an 
indisputably high order. "Works — Operas : 
Die Creolin ; Der Freibeuter. Ballets : 
Don Quixote ; Die lusel der Liebe ; Der 
Seeriiuber ; Aladdin, etc., 2 symphonies for 
grand orchestra ; Quartet for pianoforte 
and strings, op. 4 ; Concertino for viola and 
orchestra ; 5 collections of dances for or- 
chestra and for pianoforte ; Songs, etc. 
— Mendel ; Futis ; do., Supplement, i. 353 ; 
Riemann. 

GAlL, EDlNlfiE SOPHIE (born Garre), 
born in Paris, Aug. 28, 1775, died there, 



July 24, 1819. Dramatic composer and 
singer, pupil of Meugozzi in singing ; after 
a concert tour through Southern France 
and Sijain, and writing an opera for private 
representation, she studied harmony and 
counterpoint under Fc'tis, Perne, and Neu- 
komm. In 181G she sang in London, and in 
1818 gave concerts, with Mme Catalani, in 
Germany and Vienna. "Works: Les deux 
jaloux, opora-comique ; Mademoiselle de 
Launay a la Bastille, do., given at the The- 
atre Feydeau, 1813 ; Angela, ou I'atelier de 
Jean Cousin (with Boieldieu), La meprise, 
ib., 1814 ; La serenade, ib., 1818 ; Romances 
and nocturnes. — Fctis ; do.. Supplement, 
i. 355 ; Mendel. 

GAILI^mD. See Galliard. 

GALATEE, opera-comique, in two acts, 
text by Jules Barbier and IMichel Carre, 
music by Victor Masse, first represented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, April 14, 
1852. Pygmalion, having finished a beauti- 
ful statue of Galatee, falls in love with it, 
and prays Venus to give it life. Galatee, 
become a woman, exhibits a thousand ca- 
prices and disappoints Pygmalion by her 
ingratitude. She prefers his sen'ant Gany- 
mede to his melancholy love, accepts pres- 
ents from old IVEdas, and gets intoxicated 
on Chian wine. At last, when she is about 
to fly with Ganymede, he prays that she 
may be turned again into a statue, which he 
sells without regret to Midas. The charac- 
ters of Pygmalion and Galatee were played 
by Mile Vertheimber and Mme Ugalde ; 
those of JEdas and Ganymede by Mme 
Sainte-Foy and Mocker. The briudisi, 
"Ah! verse encore," obtained a gi-eat suc- 
cess. — Larousse, viii. 93G. 

GALEAZZI, ANTONIO, born at Brescia, 
lived mostly in Rome and Venice in the 
early part of the 18th century. Dramatic 
and church composer. Works : Zelniira in 
Creta, opera, given in Venice, 1729 ; E tri- 
onfo della costanza in Statira, ib., 1731. 
Much of his church music is to be found in 
the Library of S. M. Maggiore, Rome. He 
rewrote also part of the opera, I tre difensori 



GALEAZZI 



della patria, by Pescetti, which was given in 
this form at Pailua, Teatro Obizzi, in 1730. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GALEAZZI, FRANCESCO, born in Turin 
in 1738 (1758 ?), died in Eome in 1819. 
Violinist, leader of the baud at the Teatro 
Valle, Eome, for fifteen years ; afterwards 
professor of the violin at Ascoli. Besides 
numerous comj)ositions for the violin and 
other instruments, he deserves special no- 
tice for his Elementi teoretico-practici di 
musica, etc. (Rome, 1791-9G), one of the 
earliest methodical instruction books for 
the violin. — Fctis ; Grove ; Larousse. 

GALENO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, lived 
in the second half of the IGth century. He 
was in the service of the Emperor Rudolph 
II. of Austria from his earliest years. 
Works: Madrigals (Venice, 1587, 1598; 
Antwerp, 1591).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GALIBERT, PIERRE CHRISTOPHE 
CHARLES, born in Pei-pignan, Aug. 8, 
182G, died in Paris, August, 1858. Dra- 
matic comjjoser, pupil at the Conservatoire 
from 1815, under Bazin, Elwart, and Halevy. 
He won the 2d grand prix de Rome in 
1851, and the 1st in 1853. On his return 
to Paris in 1857 he brought out an opera, 
Apri'S I'orage, which was well received, and 
gave much promise, but it was his only 
work besides two cantatas, Le prisonnier, 
and Les rochers d'Appeuzell, and a few other 
compositions. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GALILEI, VINCENZO, born in Florence 
about 1533, died there about IGOO. Lute 
and viol player, pujsil of Gioseffo Zarliuo. 
He was a noble and the father of Galileo 
Galilei, the famous astronomer and philos- 
opher. Associated with Giovanni Bardi, 
Piero Strozzi, Corsi, Peri, Caccini, and oth- 
ers, he was one of the first to introduce dra- 
matic music in Italy. A warm champion of 
antique music, he took a prominent part in 
the dispute with the supporters of the con- 
trai^uutal style, among whom was his old 
master Zarlino, and against whom he wrote 
a pamphlet. He was one of the prominent 
figures in the Florentine Music-Reform of 



the 17th century. He composed a cantata, 
II coute Ugoliuo, for one voice with accom- 
paniment of lute and viol, and a dramatic 
setting of the Lamentations of Jeremiah. 
He was the author also of several theoreti- 
cal works : Discorso della musica antica e 
della moderua (Florence, 1581 ; 2d ed., 
1G02) ; II Frouimo, etc. (ib., 1583) ; Discorso 
iutorno alle ojjere di messer Gioseftb Zarlino 
di Chioggia (ib., 1589). — Fetis ; Larousse. 

GALIMATHIAS MUSICUM, a comic 
piece for orchestra, with clavier and other 
instruments obligato, by Mozart, first per- 
formed at The Hague, March 8, 17G6, for 
the festivities at the coming of age of Will- 
iam of Orange the Fifth. Mozart was then 
only ten years old. The piece, which is in 
thirteen short numbers, ends with a varia- 
tion on the Dutch national air, Wilhelmus 
von Nassau. Galimathias is a French term, 
of doubtful derivation, meaning gibberish. 
— KOchel, No. 32 ; Otto Jahn, 2d ed., i. U ; 
Grove. 

GALITZIN, Prince GEORG, born in St. 
Petersburg in 1823, died there in Septem- 
ber, 1872. Composer of church, instru- 
mental, and vocal music ; gave concerts in 
Germany, Great Britain, and France, with a 
large orchestra of his own, to make a propa- 
ganda for Russian music. At Moscow he 
entertained since 1842 a choir of seventy 
boys, whom he instructed in person. He 
has written masses, orchestral works, solos 
for various instruments, choruses, songs, 
etc. — Futis, Supijk'ment, i. 35G ; Mendel ; 
Riemann. 

GALLAY, JACQUES FRANCOIS, born 
at PeriJignan, France, Dec. 8, 1795, died iu 
Paris, October, 18G4. Virtuoso on the horn, 
first instructed by his father, an amateur, 
then pupil of Ozi, and at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, of Dauprat, 1820 ; won the first prize 
in 1821, became a member of the royal or- 
chestra, and of the orchestras of the Odeon, 
and the Theatre Italien in 1825, chamber 
musician to Louis Philippe in 1832, and 
professor at the Conservatoire in 1842. 
He composed concertos, nocturnes, etudes, 



113 



GALLENBEPtG 



duos, trios, aiicl quartets, and publislied a 
method for liorn. — Fotis ; do., Sujiplt'ineut, 
i. 356 ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

GALLENBERG, WENZEL ROBERT, 
Graf VON, born iu Vienna, Dec. 28, 1783, 
died in Rome, March 13, 1839. Pupil of Al- 
brechtsberger ; married, in 1803, to Count- 
ess Ginlietta Guicciardi, who had been loved 
by Beethoven. He wrote in 1805 music for 
Joseph Bonaparte's festival iu Naples ; was 
associated with Barbaja in 1821-23 in the 
management of the Vienna court theatre, 
which he undertook to conduct in 1829, 
and failed from want of funds. He then 
joined Barbaja in Naples as ballet composer 
and director. Works : About 50 ballets, 
including Samson, 1811 ; Arsinoe, and Te- 
lemacco, 1813 ; I riti ludiani, 1814 ; Am- 
leto, 1815 ; Alfred der Grosse, 1820 ; Jeanne 
d' Arc, 1821 ; Margherita, regina di Catania, 
1822 ; Ismaans Grab, 1823 ; La caravana 
del Cairo, 1824 ; Ottavio PineUi, 1828 ; Das 
befreite Jerusalem, 1828 ; Cresar iu Aegjp- 
ten, 1829 ; Theodosia, 1831 ; Orpheus und 
Em-ydice, 1831 ; Agnes und Fitz Henri, 1833 ; 
Bianca's Wahl, 1835 ; and Latona's Rache, 
1838. He wrote also marches, a sonata, 
fantasias, and other pieces for j)ianoforte. 
— Grove ; Fctis ; Mendel ; Wurzbach. 

GALLERANO (Galerauo), LEANDRO, 
born in Brescia, end of the IGth century. 
He was organist of S. Francesco, and mem- 
ber of the Accademia de gli Occulti in 
that city, under the name of 1' luvolato. 
From Brescia he went to Padua, and became 
maestro di cappella of the Church of S. An- 
tonio. Works : II primo libro delle Messe, 
op. 1 (Venice, 1G19) ; H secondo, do., op. 3 
(ib., 1620) ; Salmi intieri, op. 5 (ib., 1624) ; 
Missarum et Psalmorum quinque vocibus 
liber primus, oi5. 14 (ib., 1628) ; Missa e 
salmi concei'tati (ib., 1629) ; do., ojx 16 (ib., 
1630) ; II primo libro de Motetti (ib.) ; Mo- 
tetti a voce sola con organo (ib.) ; Complete 
e Litanie a otto voci con stromcnti (ib.). 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GALLET, FRANgOIS (Franciscus Galle- 
tius), born in Mons about the middle of the 



16th century. Church composer ; one of 
the musicians of the College of Saint-Amat, 
Douai. Works : Sacrse cantiones 5, 6, et 
plurium vocum (1586) ; Hymni communes 
Sanctorum (1596). — FiJtis ; Mendel ; Rie- 
mann. 

GALLI, ATkHNTORE, born at Rimini, 
Oct. 12, 1845, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of CrotTat the Conservatorio 
of Milan ; was director of a music school 
in the province of Modena, and became a 
successful composer of operas, but is best 
known bj' his writings on music. He is 
the musical critic for " II Secolo," and now 
conducts the great publishing house of 
Edoardo Sonzogno, Milan. Works : Cesare 
al Rubicone, opera, given with success ; II 
risorgimento, given in Rome, about 1870 ; 
n corno d' oro ; Cristo al Golgota, oratorio, 
L' espiazione, cantata, Milan, 1867 ; Masses; 
Stabat Mater. — ^Fctis, Supplement, i. 358 ; 
Mendel, Ergiiuz., 116. 

GALLI (Gallus), EUGENIO, born at 
Lucca, Italy, Feb. 12, 1810, died there, Sept. 
1, 1867. Church composer, pujiil of Marco 
Santucci, finished his musical education in 
Vienna, where he became an excellent con- 
trapuntist, and after his retiu-n to Lucca was 
appointed professor of counterpoint at the 
Musical Institute. Later on he was direc- 
tor of the ducal chapel. He wrote several 
masses for 4 voices with orchestra, a Re- 
quiem, and fugues for the organ. — Fetis, 
Suj)plemeut, i. 258. 

GALLI, VINCENZO, born in Sicily, 
about the middle of the 16th century. 
Franciscan monk, maestro di cappella of 
the Cathedral of Palermo. His masses, 
psalms, and madrigals wei-e published in 
Palermo (1589-1607). With the proceeds 
of their sales he enlarged the Convent of 
the Annunciation, and had cut on one of 
the columns of that building the words, 
" Musica Galli."— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GALLIA, motet for soprano solo, chorus, 
and orchestra, by Gounod, first performed 
at the opening of the International Exhi- 
bition, Albert Hall, Loudon, May 1, 1871. 



114 



GALLIAED 



The text is from the Lamentations of Jerc- 
miab. 

GALLIAED, JOHANN, EENST, born at 
Zell, Hanover, about 1(387, died in Loudon 
in 17-49. Dramatic comisoser, jjupil of Fa- 
riuelli, then director of tlie concerts at Han- 
over, and of Steftani. He won distinction 
as an oboist, went to Eugland about 170G, 
and was ajipointed chamber musician to 
Prince George of Denmark, and, on the 
death of Draglii, organist at Somerset House. 
He wrote the music for Hughe's opera. 
Calypso and Telemachus, 1712, and was 
emploj'ed by Rich to furnish music for his 
masques, etc., from 1717. In 1728 he set to 
music the morning hymn of Adam and Eve 
from Milton's " Paradise Lost," an admirable 
composition, afterwards enlarged by Dr. 
Benjamin Cooke, who made additions to the 
orchestral accompaniments. Other works : 
Music for Julius Cnesar, 1715 ; Pan and Sy- 
rinx, 1717 ; Jupiter and Europa, 1723 ; The 
Necromancer ; or Harlequin, Apollo, and 
Daphne, 172G ; Dr. Faustus, 1723 ; The 
Royal Chace, or Merlin's Cave, 1736, musi- 
cal entertainment, in which occurred the 
famous hunting song, " With early horn ; " 
The music for Lee's tragedj', " ffidipus ; " 
Several cantatas, songs, and instrumental 
music. — Grove ; Fetis. 

GALLICULUS, JOHANN, lived in Leip- 
sic about 1.520. His motets and jisalms 
were published in " Novum et insigne opus 
musicum" (1537); in Petrejus's "Psalmi 
select!" (1538); in Rhaws' "Harmonire 
selectfe," etc. (1538) ; and in Vesperarum 
precum officia, etc. (1540). He was the au- 
thor, also, of a theoretical treatise, "Isa- 
goge de compositione cantus " (1st and 4th 
ed., 1520, 1548), called also, "Libellus de 
compositione cantus" (2d and 3d ed., 1538, 
1546). — Fetis ; Mendel ; Eiemann. 

GALLO, DOMENICO, born in Venice 
about 1730. Violinist and composer of 
church music, sonatas for violin, and sym- 
phonies for 2 violins, viola, and violon- 
cello, all of which are still in MS. — Petis ; 
Mendel. 



GALLUCCIO, GERARDO, maestro di 
cappella at Pavia in the last years of the 
IGth century. He composed masses, psalms, 
litanies, etc. (Venice, 1597). — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GALLUS, JACOBUS, born in Carniola 
about 1550, died at Prague, July 4, 1591. 
His real name was Jacob Hiihnel (Hiindl, 
Handl, etc.). Contrapuntist, Kapellmeister 
to Stanislas Pawlowski, Bishop of Olmiitz, 
and afterwards in the imperial cliajiel, 
Prague. He wrote in the old church 
tones, before the modern distinction be- 
tween major and minor existed, and was 
one of the most distinguished German con- 
temjioraries of Palestrina and Orlando 
Lasso. In 1588 Emperor Rudolf H. 
granted him a ten years' privilege for the 
publication of his works. Those known 
are : Missse selectiores, for 5-8 voices, 4 
books (1580) ; Musici operis harmoniarium, 
for 4-8 and more voices (Prague, Part L, 
1586 ; Parts H. and IH., 1587 ; Part IV., 
1589) ; Moralia 5, 6 et 8 vocibus concinnata 
(Nuremberg, 1586); Epicedionharmonicum 
(1589) ; Harmonise varite 4 vocum (Prague, 
1591) ; Harmoniarum moralium, do., 3 parts 
(ib., 1589-90) ; Sacrse cantiones de prseci- 
puis festis, for 4-8 and more voices (Nu- 
remberg, 1597) ; Motettpe quaj pra?stant 
omnes (Frankfort, 1610). Bodenschatz's 
Florilegium Porten.se contains 19 pieces by 
him, among them the famous Ecce quomodo 
moritur Justus ; others are in Proske's ]\Iu- 
sica divina, and in the collections of Schij- 
berlein, Zahn, Becker, Rochlitz, etc. — Rie- 
mann ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Grove ; Ambros, 
Geschichte, iii. 557 ; Naumann (Ouseley), i. 
G14. 

GxVLLUS, JOHANNES (in French, Jean 
le Cocq, Maitre Jean, Mestre Jhan, etc.), 
born in the Netherlands, died before 1543. 
He was maestro di cappella to Duke Ercole 
of Ferrara, and composed motets and other 
music, preserved in collections. He was 
long confounded with Jhan Gero. — Rie- 
mann. 

GALUPPI, BALDASSARE (called H 
Buranello), born in the island of Burano, 



115 



GAMBAEA 



uear Venice, Oct. IS, 170G, died in Venice, 
Jan. 3, 1785. Dramatic composer, pupil 
of bis father, a barber, who plaj-ed the vio- 
lin at the theatre. He went to Venice when 
sixteen and was organist of several minor 
churches in succession. Although ignorant 
of the rules of composition he composed an 
opera buffa. La fede nell' inconstanza, ossia 
gli amici rivali, which was hissed off the stage. 
He was on the point of giving up music and 
becoming a barber, when Marcello pi-ocured 
his admission to the Conservatorio degli 
Incurabili, where he studied counterpoint 
for three years under Lotti. Marcello also 
helped him by writing the libretto of Do- 
rinda, which was well received, in 1729, at 
the Teatro San Angelo. He studied the 
harpsichord at this time and became a cele- 
brated player. His operas held the stage 
from 1729 to 1797. In 17-41 he was in Eng- 
land, where his style produced a marked 
effect on dramatic music. In 17G2-64: he 
was maestro di capi^ella of >S. Marco, Ven- 
ice, director of the Incurabili, and organist 
of several churches. About 1767 he went 
to St. Petersburg at the invitation of Cath- 
erine n., and brought out there two ojjeras 
with great success, but returned to Italy in 
1768 and resumed his position in the In- 
curabili. None of his operas, of which Fo- 
tis gives a list of fifty-four, have survived on 
the stage since Rossini. He composed the 
music for a cantata for five voices, n ri- 
torno di Tobia, played at the Conservato- 
rio, on the occasion of the arrival of Pius 
VI. in Venice. All his Church music and 
operas remain in MS. Some of them are 
DOW in the National Librai-y, Paris ; some 
in the Santini collection. His oratorios 
were : La fornace di Babilonia ; Debbora 
profetessa, and Moyses de Sinai reversus. 
Among music for haq^sichord is one sonata 
of great beauty, printed in Pauer's Alte 
Klaviermusik. Principal operas : Penelojie, 
given in London, 1711 ; Scipione in Carta- 
gine, ib., 1742 ; Enrico, Sirbace, ib., 1743 ; 
H mondo della luna, Italy, 1750 ; H cava- 
liere delle piume ; II mondo alia rovescia, 



ib., 1752 ; Alessandro nell' Indie, ib., 1755 ; 
Sesostri, Venice, 1757 ; Aifriano in Siria, 
Italy, 1760 ; Cajo Mario, ib., 1764 ; Didone 
abbandonata, St. Petersburg, 1766 ; Ifigenia 
in Tauride, ib., 17G8.— Fetis ; Grove ; Men- 
del ; Schilling ; Hogarth, Memoirs of Mus. 
Drama, i. 396. 

GAMBARA, Cavaliere CARLO ANTO- 
NIO, born in Venice in 1774. Instrumental 
composer ; of noble parentage, he was edu- 
cated in the college for the sons of nobles 
at Parma, where he studied the violin under 
]\Ielegari, violoncello under Ghiretti, and 
counterpoint under Colla. On leaving col- 
lege he went to Brescia to finish his musical 
studies under Cannetti, maestro di cajjpella 
of the cathedral. Works : 4 symphonies 
for grand orchestra ; Concertante for sev- 
eral instruments ; Quintet for harp, violin, 
mandolin, viola, and violoncello ; 2 books 
of trios for 2 violins and bass ; 2 do. of 
quartets ; Vocal music- — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GAMBINI, CARLO ANDREA, born at 
Genoa, Oct. 22, 1819, died there, Feb. 14, 
1865. Dramatic composer and pianist ; 
held a position in his native city, which 
made him, so to speak, the musical chief in 
that part of Italy. Works — Operas : Eufe- 
mio di Messina, given in Milan, 1833 ; II 
Nuovo Tartufo, Genoa, Teatro Apollo, 1854 ; 
Don Grifone, Turin, Teatro Rossini, 1856 ; 
I Tessali e la vendetta della schiava ; Cristo- 
foro Colombo, dramatic symphony ; Music 
to La Passioue, by Manzoni, for 4 voices, 
chorus, and orchestra ; Mass with grand or- 
chestra ; Several other masses ; Cantatas, 
hymns, etc. ; Two collections of etudes for 
pianoforte, op. 36 and 70 ; etc. His com- 
jjositions of all kinds number more than 
150. — Futis ; do., Su^jplement, i. 359 ; Men- 
del ; do., Ergilnz., 116. 

GA:\IBLE, JOHN, English violinist of 
the 17th century, pupil of Ambrose Bcyland. 
He was a cornet player in the Chapel Royal, 
and later one of the band of violins to 
Charles H. Works : " Ajtcs and Dialogues 
to be sung to the Theorbo Lute or Bass 
Viol," words by Stanley (1657) ; and " Ajtcs 



110 



GAMBOGI 



and Diiiloguefs for One, Two, and Three 
Voj'ces " (1G59). — Grove; Buruey, Hist., iii. 
461 ; Hawkins, Hist., iv. 63. 

GAMBOGI, Padre FRANCESCO, born 
at Camaiore, Duchy of Lucca, about 1713, 
died in 1781. He was maestro of music at 
tlie Seminary of S. Michele in Foro, and sub- 
sequently maestro di capjiella of the Colle- 
giate Church of Camaiore. His most im- 
portant work was the oratorio, Giuseppe 
riconosciuto. From 1748 to 1778 he wrote 
twenty services for four voices with instru- 
mental accompaniment. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i, 360 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 116. 

GAaiMERSFELDER, JOHANN, com- 
poser at Burghausen, UpiJer Bavaria, in the 
16th century. He was one of the first to 
compose psalms for a single voice. His 
work was called Der gantze Psalter Davids 
iu Gesangsweiss gestellt (Nuremberg, 1542). 
— Mendel ; Ft'tis ; Gerber. 

GAMjMIERI, ERENNIO, born at Campo- 
basso, March 11, 1836. Pupil at Naples 
Conservatorio of Busti and Carlo Conti. 
Became maestro concertatore at the theatre 
of St. Petersburg in 1859. Works : Chat- 
terton, opera, given at St. Petersburg, 1867 ; 
L* assedio di Firenze, do., not performed ; 
Much vocal music. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
360. 

GAMUCCI, BALDASSARE, born in 
Florence, Dec. 14, 1822. Pupil of Carlo 
Fortini on the pianoforte and of Luigi Pic- 
chianti iu composition. He founded in 
Florence in 1845 a choral society, Del Car- 
mine, which later became the Royal Music 
Institute, of which he was director. Works : 
Masses ; Requiem ; Cantatas ; Motets ; 
Psalms. He was the author also of an ele- 
mentary work on music, and of "lutorno 
alia vita ed alle opere di Luigi Cherubini " 
(1869).— Mendel, Ergilnz., 117 ; Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 360 ; Riemanu. 

GANDINI, Cavaliere ALESSANDRO, 
born at Modena iu 1807, died there, Dec. 
17, 1871. Dramatic composer, son and pu- 
pil of Antonio Gandini, whom he succeeded 
as maestro di cappella at the court iu his 



native city. Works — Operas : Demetrio, 
given at Modena, 1827 ; Zaira, ib., 1829 ; 
Isabella di Lara, ib., 1830 ; Maria di Bra- 
bante, ib., 1833 ; Adelaide di Borgogna, ib., 
1841. Cantatas : La fedelta, 1832 ; La fata, 
1842 ; n genio di Modena, 1857.— Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 361 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 117 ; 
Riemann. 

GANDINI, Cavaliere ANTONIO, born in 
Bologna, Aug. 20, 1786,- died in Modena, 
Sei^t. 10, 1842. Dramatic comjjoser, pupil 
of Mattel, became ducal maestro di cappella 
at Modena. Works : Ruggiero, Modena, 
1822 ; Erminia ed Antigone, ib., about 
1825. He wrote also several cantatas. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel, iv. 123 ; Erganz., 117. 

GANDOLFI, RICCARDO, born at Vo- 
ghera, Piedmont, in 1839, still living, 1889. 
Dramatic comj^oser, pupil in Najiles of 
Carlo Conti, and in Florence of Mabellini. 
Works : Aldina, given iu Milan, Teatro Ra- 
degonda, 1863 ; II Paggio, Turin, Teatro 
Regio, 1805 ; II Coute di Moni-eal, Genoa, 
Teatro Carlo-Felice, 1872 ; Requiem with 
grand orchestra, Florence, 1866 ; Symphony 
for do., ib., 1869 ; Psalm, ib., 1872 ; II Bat- 
tesimo di Santa Cecilia, ib., 1875 ; Elegie 
for violoncello, with quartet, harp, and har- 
monium, il). ; Solemn Mass, Chiavari, 1869 ; 
Pensieri ed Affetti, vocal album (Milan, 
Lucca). — Fetis, Sujjplemeut, i. 361 ; Men- 
del, Ergilnz., 117. 

GANDOLFO, operetta in one act, text 
by Chivot and Duru, music by Charles 
Lecocq, represented at the Bouffes Pari- 
siens, Paris, Januar r, 18S9 The libretto is 
from a tale by Boccaccio. 

GANSBACHER, JOHANN, born at Ster- 
zing in the Tyrol, May 8, 1778, died in 
Vienna, July 13, 1844. Instructed by his 
father in singing, pianoforte, organ, and 
violin, he became a choir-boy first at Inns- 
pruck, then at Halle. Entered Innsin-uck 
University iu 1795, but left iu 1796 to serve 
as a soldier ; visited Vienna in 1801, and 
studied under Vogler and Albrechtsberger ; 
accompanied his patron. Count Firmian, to 
Bohemia in 1804. He then travelled, and 



.llT 



GANZ 



resided some time in Innspruck, and in 1810 
visited Vogler iu Darmstadt, where be be- 
came intimate witli his fellow-pupils Mey- 
erbeer and Weber, who addressed to him 
a large part of their correspondence. He 
again entered the army in 1813, but was 
appointed iu 1823 Kapellmeister to the 
Cathedral of St. Stephen, in Vienna, as suc- 
cessor of Preindl, and held the office until 
his death. Works : 27 graduals ; 17 masses ; 
4 Requiems ; Offertories, motets, hymns, 
psalms, and litanies ; Sonatas, variations, 
and marches for pianoforte ; Orchestral sj'm- 
phony ; Music to Kotzebue's Die Ki-euzfah- 
rer ; Liederspiel, Des Dichters Geburtsfest ; 
Italian terzettos, vocal quartets, cantatas, 
songs, and other compositions, numbering 
altogether 2 IC— Mendel ; Wurzbach ; Fe- 
tis ; Grove. 

GANZ, ADOLF, born in Mainz, Oct. 14, 
1790, died in London, Nov. 11, 1SG9. Vio- 
linist, pupil of Sebastian Hollbuseh. He 
became conductor at Mainz in 1819, Ka- 
pellmeister to the Grand Duke of Hesse 
Darmstadt in 1825, and in 1845 musical 
director of a German opera company in 
London. Works : Melodrama ; ISIarches ; 
Overtures ; Songs. Eduard Ganz, his son 
(1827-G7), was a pianist, pupil of Thalberg. 
Wilhelm, another son (born, 1833), is a j^ia- ^ 
nist and organist in London. He has pub- 
lished pianoforte music and songs. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., viii. 36G ; Fi'tis ; IMendel. 

GANZ, LEOPOLD, born in Mainz, Nov. 
28, 1810, died in Berl-n, June 15, 18G9. 
Violinist, pupil of hijr^'father and of his 
brother Adolf Ganz, and of Biirwolf. He 
made concert tours with his brother Moritz, 
became a member of the Berlin coui-t band 
in 1827, and received in 1836 the title, and 
in 1840 the place, of Conzertmeister. His 
reputation is due chiefly to his jilaying with 
his brother. Works: Duos for violin and 
violoncello, published with his brother. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr.; Mendel ; Fetis ; Grove. 

GANZ, MORITZ, born in Mainz, Sept. 
10, 180G, died in Berlin, Jan. 22, 1868. 
Violoncellist, brother of the preceding, pu- 



pil of his father, of Stiastny, and in theory 
of G. Weber. He joined the Berlin court 
band in 1827 ; made concert tours with his 
brother Leopold, visiting London in 1837, 
and again in 1856. Works : Concertos for 
violoncello and orchestra ; Fantasias, duets, 
trios, transcriijtions, songs, and other pieces. 
• — Allgem. d. Biogr.; Mendel ; Fotis ; Grove. 

GARA, LA (The Competition), Itahan 
oj)eretta iu one act, test by Metastasio, mu- 
sic by Georg Reutter, represented at the 
Imperial Court, Vienna, 1755, in honour of 
the Archduchess INIaria Antonia, afterwards 
Mai'ie Antoinette, Queen of France. Char- 
acters represented : Serenissima arcidu- 
chessa ; Dama prima ; Dama seconda. 

GARAT, PIERRE JEAN, born at Us- 
taritz, A25ril 25, 1764, died in Paris, JIarch 
1, 1823. Singer and comijoser, pupil in 
Bayonne of Lamberti, and in Bordeaux of 
Francois Beck. Sent to Paris to finish the 
study of law, when the struggle between the 
Gluckists and Piccinnists was at its height, 
he became drawn into it, and determined to 
make music his profession. After a strug- 
gle with poverty", the Comte d'Artois made 
him his private secretary, and ])resented 
him to Marie Antoinette, whose musical 
favourite he became from 1785 to 1789. At 
the time of the Revolution he went with 
Rode to Hamburg, but returned to Havre 
in 1794, and sang at the Feydeau concerts 
in 1795, where his success was overwhelm- 
ing. He possessed a voice of wonderful 
compass, including both baritone and tenor 
registers, and sang all styles of music 
well. Until he lost his voice, at the age of 
fifty, he was the most popular singer in 
Europe. He was made professor of sing- 
ing at the Conservatoire, at the time of its 
institvition, about 1795, and had many cele- 
brated pupils. He was the author of several 
popular romances : Belisaire, Je t'aime tant, 
Le menestrel exile, Firmin et son chien, etc., 
which owed their celebrity chiefly to his 
stj'le of singing them. — Fetis ; Larousse. 

GARAUD15, ALEXIS DE, born in Nancy, 
March 21, 1779, died in Paris, March 23, 



lis 



GARCIA 



1852. Pupil of Cambini and Eeicha, and 
influenced by Crescentiui and Garat ; sang 
in the Imperial and Royal Chapel of Paris 
in 1808-30 ; and professor of singing and 
harmony in the Conservatoire in 181G-il. 
Works : Sonatas for pianoforte, and other 
chamber music ; Songs and duets ; Music 
for violin, violoncello, and other instruments. 
He was the author also of Muthode du chant 
(1800), and other didactic works. His son, 
Alexis Albert Gauthier Garaudo (1821-54), 
was accompanist at the Opora Comique and 
published i)iauoforte music. — Fotis ; Men- 
del. 

GAECIA, Don FRANCISCO SAVERIO, 
surnamed Lo Sjjagnoletto, born at Nalda, 
Spain, in 1731, died at Saragossa, Feb. 26, 
1809. Church comjioser, first studied in 
Spain, then in Rome, where he lived as 
vocal teacher until 175(5, when he became 
maestro de capilla of the cathedral at Sara- 
gossa. He greatly influenced church music 
in Spain, banishing the then prevailing 
fugued style. His numerous compositions, 
consisting of masses, and motets for all the 
feasts of the year, are written almost ex- 
clusively for eight voices in two choruses. 
— Fetis ; Riemann. 

GARCIA, MANUEL DEL-POPOLO- 
VICENTE, born in Seville, Spain, Jan. 22, 
1775, died in Paris, June 2, 1832. Dra- 
matic composer, chorister of the cathedral 
at Seville at the age of six, pupil of Don 
Antonio Eipa and Juan Almarcha. "When 
seventeen he was well known as a singer, 
composer, and orchestra conductor. After 
making a reputation at home and produc- 
ing several operas, he made his debut in 
Italian opera at the Opera Bouife, Paris, in 
1808 ; brouglit out and sang in his Spanish 
operas in 1809, and was rapturously re- 
ceived in them, this style of music being 
new to Paris. In 1811 he went to Italy, 
and sang in Turin, Naples, and Rome ; and 
in 1812 he was appointed first tenor in 
Murat's chapel. About the end of 1816 he 
went to England, and thence to Paris, made 
his debut at the Theatre Italien, singing iu 



his own and in several Italian operas. Iu 
1817 he went to England, and sang there 
very successfull}', returning in 1819 to 
Paris, where he remained until 1823, 
bringing out many works of his own, 
besides singing in all the well-known Ital- 
ian operas. He returned to London as first 
tenor of the King's Theatre in 1823 and 
founded there a school for singing, which 
became famous. In 1823-25 he alternated 
between Paris and London, producing op- 
eras in both cities and devoting much of 
his time to teaching. In 1825 his daughter 
Maria, afterwards the celebrated Mme Mali- 
bran de Bi'riot, made her debut iu London, 
and he set about the realization of a project 
he had formed of establishing Italian oj)- 
era iu New York. Taking with him a com- 
pany consisting of himself and the younger 
Crivelli, tenors ; his son, Manuel Garcia, 
and Angrisani, bassi cantanti ; Rosich, buflib 
caricato ; Mme Barbieri and Mme Garcia, 
soprani ; and Maria Garcia (Mahbran), con- 
tralto, he made his first appearance before 
an American audience at the Park Theatre, 
New York, Nov. 29, 1825, in II Barbiere. 
Between this and Sept. 30, 182G, the date 
of his last performance, he gave seventy- 
nine representations, partly at the Park and 
partly at the Bowery Theatre, including 
Otello, Romeo e Giulietta, II Turco in Italia, 
Semiramide, Don Giovanni, Taucredi, La 
Cenerentola, and two of his own operas, 
L' amante astuto and La figlia dell' aria. 
In 1827 he went to Mexico, brought out 
eight operas there with success, and after 
a stay of eighteen months set out on his 
return, but was robbed by brigands near 
Vera Cruz of all his earnings. He returned 
to Paris, appeared again in ojiera, but de- 
voted himself mainly to teaching until his 
death. His princif)al pupils, besides his 
daughters Mme Malibrau and Pauline (Mme 
Viardot), were : Jlmes Rimbault, Ruiz-Gar- 
cia, Meric-Lalaude, Favelli, and Countess 
Merlin ; Adolphe Nourrit, Geraldy, and his 
son Manuel Garcia. AVorks — Sjaanish op- 
eras : El preso por amor, given at Malaga, 



119 



GARCIA 



1803 ; El posadero, Madrid ; Qnicu poifia 
muclio alcanza, El poeta calculista, ib., 
1805 ; El reloj do Madera ; El criado fin- 
gido, El cautiverio apareute, Los ripios del 
maestro Adan, El hablador, Florinda, ib., 
about 1805 ; Abufar, Semiramis, Acendi, 
El gitano por amor, Los maridos solteros, 
Xaira, Mexico, 1828. Italian operas : II , 
Califo di Bagdad, Naples, 1812 ; La selva 
nera, ballet, Milan ; II fazzoletto, Paris, | 
1823 ; Astuzie e prudeuza, Loudon, 1825 ; ' 
L' amante astuto, La figlia dell' aria, H lupo 
d' Ostenda, I bauditi, La buoua famiglia, 
Don Chisciotte, La gioventii d' Enrico V., | 
Le tre sultane. New York, 1827 ; ITu' ora di 
matrimouio, Zemira e Azor, Mexico, 1827. 
French Operas : Le prince d'occasion, Paris, 
Opc'ra Comique, 1817; La mort du Tasse, 
ib., Opura, 1821 ; Elorestau, ib., 1822 ; La 
meuniere, ib., Gymnase Drainatique, 1823 ; 
Les deux coutrats, ib., Opura Comique, 
1824.— Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Eitter, Mu- 
sic in America, 18G ; Schilling, Supplement. 

GARCLV, MARIANO, bom at Aoiz, Na- 
varre, July 26, 1809, still hving, 1889. 
Church composer, at first choir-boy in the 
Cathedral of Pampeluua, where he was in- 
structed by Mateo Gimenez, then studied 
the violin and, under Jose Guelbenzu, har- 
mony and composition. Within a few yeai-s 
after, he was made professor in the chajiel 
of the cathedral, and later on became di- 
rector of the school of music in his native 
town. He has written a great number of 
sacred compositions, distinguished for clear- 
ness and elegance of ideas, facility of execu- 
tion, and pure taste. — Fetis, Suj^ijlement, i. 
363. 

GARCIN, JULES AUGUSTE SALO- 
MON, called, born at Bourges, July 11, 
1830. Violinist, pupil at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, of Clavel and of Alard on the vioUn, 
of Bazin in harmony, and of Adam in com- 
position ; took the 2d prize for \'iolin in 
1851 and the first in 1853 ; became a mem- 
ber of the Opera orchestra, of which he is 
now 3d chef d'orchestre and first solo vio- 
lin. Besides a concertino for viola, he has 



written various compositions for his instru- 
ment. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 363. 

GARDEZ-VOUS DE LA JALOUSIE. 
See Euphrosine et Coradin. 

GAEDI, FRANCESCO, born in Italy 
about the middle of the 18th century, 
died (?). Dramatic comjsoser, known by 
the following operas : L' incautesimo senza 
magia, 1784 ; La muta per amore, La donna 
ve la fa, 1785 ; La bella Lauretta, 1786 ; 
Euea nel Lazio, Modena, 1786 ; Un buco 
nella porta, 1787 ; H convito di pietra, ossia 
il Don Giovanni, Venice, 1787 ; L' Ameri- 
cana, 1788 ; La fata capricciosa, Venice, 
1789 ; Teodolinda, ib., 1790 ; La bottega 
di caffe, 1790 ; II nuovo convitato di pietra, 
Bologna, 1791. His oratorio Abrahami sac- 
rificium passed for his finest work, and ob- 
tained great success at the close of the 18th 
century. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GARIBALDI, GIUSEPPE, contempo- 
rary. Flutist, born in Italy, and lived in 
France, where he published a large immber 
of compositions for his instrument, and 
wrote the operas-comiques : Au clair de la 
lune and La jeunesse de Hoche, both given 
at Versailles, September, 1872, and the oper- 
etta, Lc reve d'un ecolier, given at a concert, 
1868.— Fetis, Supijle'ment, i. 363 ; Mendel, 
Ergiinz., 118. 

GARNIER, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, born 
at Lauris (Vaucluse) in 1759, died there iu 
1825. Virtuoso on the oboe, pupil of Sal- 
leutiu ; in 1778 he became second, and in 
1786 first, oboist in the orchestra of the 
OjJera, Paris, and from 1783 was a mem- 
ber of the king's chamber music. At the 
outbreak of the Revolution he lost these 
positions, but secured au ajipointment as 
commissaire ordonuateur in the Army of the 
Rhine ; at Frankfort he appeared with great 
success in a concert given by Kreutzer ; 
afterwards attached to an army corps in 
Italy, he visited Rome and Najjles, and on 
leaving the army retired to his native vil- 
lage. He published concertos, and duos 
for his instrument, duos for oboe and vio- 
lin, trios for oboe, flute, and bassoon, and a 



l-JO 



GARRETT 



method for oboe. His brother Joseph, 
called Garnier the younger, was oboist, and 
afterwards flutist, iu the orchestra of the 
Opera, 1789-1814, and composed a concerto 
for flute, trios for flute, horn, and bassoon, 
duos for flute, and etudes and a method for 
flute. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

GAEEETT, GEOEGE MUESELL, born 
in Winchester, Eng- 
land, June 8, 1834, 
still living, 1889. Or- 
ganist, ijupil of S. S. 
Wesley, whose assist- 
ant at the organ he 
was iu 1851-54 ; then 
organist successively 
of Madras Cathedral, 
1854-56, St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 
18G7 ; University, 1873. 




bridge, 1857 ; Mus. Doc. 



Mus. Bac, Cam- 
ib., 18G7 ; univer- 



sity lecturer, 1883 ; examiner in music for 
University of Cambridge. Works : The Shu- 
namite, oratorio, 1882 ; The Deliverance of 
St. Peter, sacred cantata ; The Triumph of 
Love, secular cantata ; Church services ; 
Anthems, part-songs, and songs. 

GAETH, JOHN, English composer of 
the last half of the 18th century. He 
probably lived in London as an organist. 
Works : 6 sonatas for harpsichord, two vio- 
lins, and violoncello (17G8) ; 6 organ volun- 
taries ; 30 collects set to music. He pub- 
lished, also: "The First Fifty Psalms, set 
to music by Benedetto Marcello " (Loudon, 
8 vols., 1757).— Mendel. 

G.ARTNEE, JOHANN, born ou the 
Petersberg, near Fulda, in 1740, died in 
Fulda in 1789. Flutist, pupil in Mannheim 
of Wendling ; travelled over Germany, and 
then settled down as first flute of the court 
chapel of the abbot Prince of Fulda, who 
had been his patron. W^orks : Operettas ; 
Flute solos ; Cantatas. — Mendel ; Fetis. 

G.A.SCOGNE (Gascongne, Gaseoine, Gas- 
cong), MATHIEU, French composer of the 
beginning of the 16th century. His motets 
are found in Attaignant's collection of 1534, 



and in Salblinger's collection of 1545. Bai- 
ni mentions his masses, written ou French 
chansons, as preserved in the archives of 
the Pontifical Chapel. Under the name of 
Gascoug his masses in MS. are found in 
the royal library at Munich ; others are in 
the pulilic library at Cambrai among the 
MSS. of the 16th century.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GASPAR VAN WERBECKE (Weerbeke), 
born in Audenarde, Flanders, about 1440, 
died after 1509. He was singing master to 
the house of Sforza in Milan until 1490, 
when he returned to his native town. 
Works : Misser (sic) Gaspar, 5 masses (pub- 
lished by Petrucci, Venice, 1509) ; 3 parts 
of masses in Fragmenta missarum (ib., 
1509) ; a mass in Missarum diversorum auc- 
torum liber primus (1508) ; Sevei'al motets 
and lamentations in Petrucci's diflerent col- 
lections ; Manuscript masses in library of 
Pontifical Chapel. — Fetis ; Eiemann ; Am- 
bros, iii. 246. 

GASPAEI, GAETANO, born in Bologna, 
March 14, 1807, died there, March 31, 1881. 
Church composer, p)upil of Benedetto Do- 
nelli at the Lyceo, where he won several 
important prizes. He became maestro di 
cappella of the church at Cento in 1828, 
and of the cathedral at Imola in 1836-39, 
when he was called to assist Donelli at the 
Lyceo in Bologna. He became librarian of 
the musical library of the Lyceo in 1856, 
and maestro of S. Petrouio in 1857. A 
clever contrapuntist, he wrote church com- 
positions, chiefly Miserere and masses. He 
published, also : ]\Iemorie risguardanti la 
storia dell' arte musicals in Bologna al xvi 
secolo. — Fetis, iii. 413 ; do., Supplement, i. 
364 ; Mendel ; Eiemann. 

GASPAEINI (Guasparini), FRANCES- 
CO, born at Camajore, near Lucca, March 
5, 1668, died iu Eome, April, 1727. Dra- 
matic comjjoser, pupil in Eome of Corelli 
and Pasquini. He was maestro di coro at 
the Ospedale della Pieta, Venice, and mem- 
ber of the Accademia Filarmonica. In 1725 
he was elected maestro by the chapter of S. 
Giovanni iu Laterano, Rome, with Girolamo 



121 



GAsrARmi 



Cbiti as bis coadjutor, but ill-bealtb com- 
pelled bim soou after to retire ou balf-pay. 
He wrote equally well for tbe stage and 
tbe cbureb, but tbe work by wbicb be is 
best remembered is bis treatise ou accom- 
paniment entitled, " L' armonico prattico 
al cembalo," etc. (Venice, 1G83 ; 7tb ed., 
1802), wbicb bas maintained its position 
in Italy, even since tbe appearance of tbe 
clearer and better-arranged treatise by 
Feuaroli. Works : Tiberio, imperatore 
d' Oriente, given in Venice, Teatro Saut' Au- 
giolo, 1702 ; Amor della patria, Imenei 
stabiliti dal caso, II priucipe tra i vassali, 
Rome, 1703 ; II miglior d' ogni amore per 
il peggior d' ogni odio, Venice, Teatro San 
Cassiano, 1703 ; Fedc tradita e vendicata. 
La mascbera levata al vizio, Rome, 1704 ; 
Amleto, Antioco, Fredegouda, ib., 1705 ; 
II principato custodito dalla fraude, Statira, 
Venice, Teatro San Cassiano, 1705 ; Jaicou, 
re della China, Rome, 1706 ; Amor gene- 
roso, Anfitrioue, ib., 1707 ; Flavio Anicio 
Olibrio, ib., 1708 ; L' Alcide, o violenza d' 
amore, Engelberta, ib., 1709 ; Laprincipessa 
fedele, Sesostri, re d' Egitto, Tamerlano, 
La ninfa Apollo, Venice, Teatro San Cas- 
siano, 1710 ; Costautiuo, La pazzia amo- 
rosa, ib., 1711 ; Mcrope, ib., 1712 ; La ve- 
rita neir iugauuo, ib., 1713 ; Bajazette, ib., 
1711) ; II Pirro, H trace in catena, Rome, 
1717 ; Lucio Vero, Astianatte, ib., 1719 ; 11 
Faramoudo, Amore e Maestu, ib., 1720 ; La 
Zoe, ovvero il comandononinteso, ib., 1721 ; 
Gli equivoci d' amore e d' iunocenza, La 
fede in cimento, Venice, 1730 ; Mose liber- 
ate dal Nilo, oratorio. — Fetis ; Grove ; Men- 
del ; Riemann ; Scbilling. 

GASPARINI, MICHELE ANGELO, born 
at Lucca, died in Venice in 1732. Dra- 
matic composer and contralto singer, pujjil 
of Lotti. He founded in Venice a cele- 
brated school of singing, where many well- 
known singers were formed, among otbers 
Faustina Bordoni. Works — Operas : II 
principe selvaggio, given in Venice, 1695 ; 
II Rodomonte, ib., 171-t; ; Ai'sace, ib., 1715 ; 
Lamano, ib., 1719 ; II piii fedel tra gli 



amici, ib., 1721. — Fc'tis ; Burney, Hist., iv. 
526 ; Mendel. 

GASPARINI, QUIEINO, maestro di cap- 
pella to tbe Iving of Sardinia, Turin, in 
1749-70. He was a virtuoso violoncellist 
and composed motets, a Stabat Mater, and 
trios for two violins and violoncello, which 
last were published in London. — Fetis; 
Mendel. 

GASSE, FERDINAND, born in Naples, 
March, 1788, died (?). Violinist and dra- 
matic composer ; pupil at tbe Paris Con- 
servatoire of Kreiitzer, Catel, and Gossec. 
He won the 1st violin prize in 1801 ; tbe 
2d grand prix in 1801, and tbe grand pri.x: 
de Rome in 1805. He was violinist in tbe 
orchestra of tbe Opera, Paris, in 1812-35. 
Works— Operas : La linta Ziugara, opera 
buifa, given at Naples, 1812 ; Le voyage 
incognito, Paris, Opera Comique, 1819 ; 
L' idiote, ib., 1820 ; Une unit de Gustave 
Wasa, ib., 1825 ; Te Deum for two cbo- 
i-uses ; Cbriste eleison, fugue for six voices ; 
Three duos for violins, op. 1 ; Duos faciles, 
2d and 3d book ; 3 grand duos coiicertants ; 
3 duos faciles ; 3 sonatas for violin and vio- 
loncello.- — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GASSMANN, FLORLVN LEOPOLD, 
born at Briix, Bohemia, May 4, 1723, died 
in Vienna, Jan. 21, 1774. Dramatic com- 
poser, ran away from home when thirteen 
years old, and, supporting himself by play- 
ing the harp, worked bis way to Bologna 
and became the pupil of Padre Martini, 
who established bim as organist of a church 
in Venice. He entered the service of Count 
Leonardo Veneri, and soon began to attract 
attention by bis comijositions. In 1762 the 
Emperor Francis I. called him to Vienna 
as composer for the theatre, and Jose^jb II. 
subsequently ajipointed him Hoflcapellmeis- 
ter and librarian of the imperial musical 
library. He founded the Society for tbe 
widows and orphans of Vienna musicians, 
which in 1862 was reorganized under the 
name of Haydn Society. His most distin- 
guished pupil was Salicri. He composed a 
great deal of church music, which Mozart 



GASSNER 



tliouglit more of than of his operas, among 
which are : A Mass, for chorus and orches- 
tra, and a very fine Dies irpe ; Psalms, hymns, 
offertories, and an oratorio, Betulia liberata, 
which had a briUiant success. Works — 
Operas : Slerope, given in Italy, about 1759 ; 
Issipile, ib., ab. 17G0 ; Catone in Utica, ib., 
ab. 17G1 ; Ezio (two different settings), ib., 
ab. 17G1 ; Olimpiade, Vienna, 17G4 ; II 
mondo nella luna, Venice, 1765 ; II trion- 
fo d' Amore, ib., 17G7 ; Gli uccellatori, Vi- 
enna, rewritten for Venice, 17G8 ; II filosofo 
innamorato, ib., 17G8 ; do. (new music, Vi- 
enna, 1771) ; Un pazzo ne f;i cento, ib., 
17G9 ; I viaggiatori ridicoli, Vienna, 17G9 ; 
L' Amor artigiano, ib., 17G9, Milan, 1770 ; 
La pescatrice, Vienna, 1771 ; I rovinati, 
La casa di campagna, Amore e Venere, ib., 
1772. Two German operas : Die jiiuge Gri'i- 
fin, Berlin, about 17G9 ; Die Liebe unter 
den Handwerlisleuten. Instrumental mu- 
sic : Symphonies for orchestra ; G quartets 
for flute, viola, and bass ; G quintets for 2 
violins, 2 violas, and bass ; G quartets for 2 
violins, viola, and violoncello (Amsterdam). 
— Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Wurz- 
bach. 

GASSNER, FERDINAND SIMON, born 
in Vienna, Jan. G, 179S, died in Carlsruhe, 
Feb. 25, 1851. Violinist, went early to 
Carlsruhe, where he studied the violin while 
attending the gymnasium ; entered the 
court orchestra, and in ISIG became violinist 
of the new Nationaltlieatcr in Mainz and 
soon after Correpetitor and vice music di- 
rector, being influenced by Gottfried Weber. 
In 1818 he was university music director in 
Giessen, received in 1819 the degree of doc- 
tor, and authority to lecture on music ; re- 
turned to the Carlsruhe orchestra in 182G, 
and was later singing teacher and music 
director of the court theatre there. Com- 
posed operas, ballets, cantatas, and other 
music, edited musical journals, and wrote 
several books. Works : Der Scliifflsrueh, 
opera ; Das Stiindchen, do. ; Die Jliiller, 
ballet ; Several other ballets ; Die Aufer- 
weckung des Junglings von Nain, cantata ; 



Songs and male choruses. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 40G ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Weech, 
Badische Biogr., i. 277 ; Wurzbach. 

GASTINEL, LEON GUST AVE CY- 
PRIEN, born at Villers - les - Pots (Cote 
d'Or), France, Aug. 15, 182.3, still living, 
1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of Halevy, 
won in 18J:G the grand prix de Rome for 
his cantata Velasquez. Several of his ope- 
ras-comiques have been successful. Works 
— Operas : Le miroir, given in Paris, Jan. 
19, 1853 ; L'opera aux fenetres, 1857 ; 
Titus et Berenice, 18G0 ; Le buisson vert, 
18G1 ; Bianca Capello ; La Kermesse ; Les 
dames des pres ; La tulips bleue ; Le roi 
barde (the last five unrepresented). Orato- 
rios : Le dernier jour, 1853 ; Les sept pa- 
roles ; Saiil ; La fee des eaux ; Mexico, can- 
tata, 18G3 ; 3 grand masses ; 3 symphonies ; 
Concerto for two violins with orchestra ; 2 
overtures ; Chamber music ; Songs.— Fetis ; 
do.. Supplement, i. 3G5 ; Mendel. 

GASTOLDI, GIOVANNI GLICOMO, 
born at Caravaggio, Italy, about the middle 
of the IGth centurj', died after 159G. Maes- 
tro di cappella in Mantua, and in 1592 in 
Milan. His Balletti da suonare, cantare e 
ballare are said to have served Morley as 
models for his Ballets or Fa-las. Two of 
tliem are well known to English amateurs : 
Maiden fair, of Mantua city, and. Soldiers, 
brave and gallant be. He was a prolific 
writer of canzonets and madrigals. Thei'e 
were published five or more books of his 
madrigals for five, six, eight, and nine 
voices, 8 books of canzonets for three, four, 
and five voices, besides books of masses, 
psalms, vespers, etc., published in Venice, 
Mantua, Milan, and Antwerp, between 1581 
and IGll. He was one of the composers 
who dedicated a collection of psalms for 
five voices to Palestrina in 1592 (Martini). 
His madrigals are found in a collection j)ub- 
lished at Antwerp by Andre Peveruage in 
1593 with the title, Harmonie celesti di di- 
versi excel, mus. They are also in the col- 
lection Trionfo di Dori (Venice, 1596) ; in 
IMadrigali a otto voci (Phalesius, Antwerp, 



12.3 



GASTEITZ 



1596) ; and in many other collections of that 
time. — Fetis ; Grove, Mendel ; Kiemann. 

GASTEITZ (Castritz, Castricius, Castri- 
tius), ]\L\TTHTAS, German eomj)Oser of 
the IGth century. He was organist in Am- 
berg, Upper Palatinate, about 1571 ; wrote 
Latin and German songs, and particularly 
the melody to Herzlich lieb hab' ich dich, o 
Herr. He is sometimes called erroneously 
Iilichael Gastritz. — Allgem. d. Biogr. ; Mo- 
natshefte fiir Musik-Geschichte, v. 123 ; vi. 
26 ; Mendel. 

GATAYES, F£LIX, born in Paris, 1809, 
still living, 1889 (?). Pianist, self-taught, 
afterwards received a few lessons from 
Liszt ; he improvised with rare facility, and 
won great applause on his concert tours, 
which led him for twenty years through 
Europe, Ameiica, and Australia. His sym- 
phonies and overtures for orchestra are es- 
teemed by critics. For jjccuniary reasons 
he devoted himself later to compositions for 
military band. — Fetis. 

GATAYES, GLTLLAUME PIERRE AN- 
TOINE, born in Paris, Dec. 20, 1774, died 
there, October, 1846. An illegitimate son 
of the Prince de Conti and the Marquise 
de Silly, he ran away from the theological 
seminary where he had been placed and was 
befriended at the time of the Revolution by 
Marat, who was attracted by his singing and 
guitar playing. His romances, especially 
Mon delire, which was sung throughout 
France, soon won him popularity and he 
became noted as a guitar and harp virtuoso. 
His guitar method (1790) was for a long 
time the only one used in France. He pub- 
lished trios for guitar, flute, and violin ; 
duos for two guitars, for guitar and piano- 
forte, for guitar and violin or flute, and for 
harp and horn ; and solos for guitar and for 
harp. His son, Joseph Leon Gataj-es (1805- 
1877), was a harp virtuoso and composer. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Larousse ; Riemann. 

GATTI, Abbate LUIGI, born in Mantua, 
Italy, about 1750, died('?). Dramatic com- 
poser ; maestro di cappeUa at Salzburg in 
1790. Works— Operas : L' Olimpiade, Pia- 



cenza, 1784 ; La Nitteti, Lucca, 1786 ; 
Demofoonte, Mantua, 1787. The Death of 
Abel, oratorio, 1788 ; Church music in MS. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GATTI, SIMONE, born in Venice about 
the middle of the 16th century, died (?). 
Composer of several religious dramas or 
mysteries written for the Duke Albert of 
Bavaria, in whose chapel he was musician, 
after serving in the same capacity in that of 
the Archduke Charles of Austria. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

GATTI, TEOB.ALDO DI, born in Flor- 
ence about 1650, died in Paris, 1727. Dra- 
matic composer. He heard Lulli's music 
in Italy and went to Pai-is to join him, 
served in his orchestra at the Opera, and re- 
mained there fifty years. Works : Coronis, 
pastorale, given in Paris, Opera, 1691 ; 
Sylla, ojiera, ib., 1701 ; Twelve Italian arias 
(Paris, 1696).— Fetis ; Hawkins, Hist., v. 
45 ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GATTY, ALFRED SCOTT, born at Ec- 
clesfield, England, April 25, 1847, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Vocal composer, studied at 
Marlborough and Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. Appointed, 1880, Rouge Dragon, 
Pursuivant of Arms, Heralds' College, 
London. Works : Sandford and Merton's 
Christmas Party, operetta, 1880 ; Songs ; 
Pianoforte music. 

GAUCQUIER (du Gaucquier, Nuceus), 
ALARD DUNOYER, born at Lille, Flan- 
ders, first half of the 16th centurj'. He was 
tenor in 1564, and second maitre de chapelle, 
in 1567-76, to the Archdukes of Austria 
Ferdinand I., Maximilian H., and Matthias. 
Works : Magnificat, 4-6 voc. (1547) ; Qua- 
tuor missse 5, 6 et 8 vocum (Antwerp, 1581). 
— Fetis ; Van der Straeten, iii. 150 ; v. 103 ; 
Mendel ; Ambros, iii. 325. 

GAUDE, THEODOR, born at Wesel-on- 
the-Ehine, June 3, 1782, died (?). He fin- 
ished his musical education in Paris, where 
he made a reputation as a guitar virtuoso 
and teacher. In 1814 he started on a con- 
cert tour for St. Petersburg, but was taken 
sick in Hamburg, and on recovering settled 



GAUDEAMUS 




there as a teacher of his instrument, for 
which he composed and pubUshed about 
80 works. — Mendel ; SchilHng ; do., Sup- 
plement, 162. 

GAUDEAMUS IGITUE, Humoreske for 
orchestra, soli, and chorus, by Franz Liszt, 
op. 10. Published, score and parts ; also 
for i^ianoforte (2 and -i hands), Schuberth. 

GAUL, ALFKED (EOBEET), born in 
Norwich, England, 
April 30, 1837, 'still liv- 
ing, 1888. He was a 
cathedral boy at Nor- 
wich, from nine until 
fifteen years old, when 
he was articled to Dr. 
Zachariah Buck, or- 
ganist of the cathedral. 
In 1851-59 he was or- 
ganist at Fakenham, Norfolk, and in the 
latter year he became organist of St. Augus- 
tine's, Edgebaston, Birmingham, a jiosition 
he still holds. He is also teacher of harmony 
and counterpoint at the Midland Institute 
and conductor of the Sunday School Union 
Choral Society, Birmingham. Mus. Bac, 
Cambridge, 18G2. Works : Hezekiah, ora- 
torio, 18G0 ; 1st Psalm, cantata ; 9Gth Psalm, 
for solo voices and 8-part chorus ; Kuth, 
cantata, 1881 ; The Holy City, do., Bir- 
mingham Festival, 1882 ; Passion Service, 
do. ; Joan of Arc, historical cantata, text 
by Frederick Enoch, Birmingham Festival, 
1887 ; Offertory Sentences ; Anthems ; 
Glees ; Songs and part-songs. His Holy 
Citj' is often sung in the United States ; his 
Passion Service was sung for the first time 
in America at Chickering Hall, New York, 
Dec. 15, 1885 ; and his Euth, ib., Feb. 14, 
1887. 

GAULTTEE , French dramatic com- 
poser in the last part of the 18th century. 
He wrote the following operas for the The- 
atre des Jeunes Artistes, Paris : Pheuix, ou 
I'ile des vieilles, 1796 ; Zephyr et Flore, ou 
rose d' Amour, 1797 ; Le dodit, 1798 ; Le 
nid d'Amours, 1798 ; Vert- Vert, ou le per- 
roquet de Nevers, 1800 ; Frosiue, ou la 



negresse, 1801 ; Le petit Poucet, ou I'or- 
phelin de la forct ; Josejih. — Fotis, Supple- 
ment, i. 367 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 119. 

GAULTIEE, DENIS, born at Marseilles 
between 1600 and 1010, died in Paris be- 
fore or in 1664 Celebrated virtuoso on 
the lute, went early in life to Paris, where 
he studied law, and about 1637 was already 
famous as a lute player. In 1647-48 he es- 
tablished, with his cousin Jacques Gaultier, 
the Paris school of the lute, where they con- 
jointly formed many pupils. In 1056 he 
became lieutenant-general of the bailiwick 
at Clermont, and after 1660 lived again in 
Paris. He was equally great as a virtuoso 
and composer, and looked upon by his con- 
temporaries as the most distinguished rep- 
lesentative of lute music in general. Of his 
compositions two j)rinted collections are 
preserved : Pieces de luth (1660), and Livre 
de tablature, besides the Codex Hamilton, 
containing La rhetorique des dieux, a col- 
lection of 62 pieces in manuscript (1650- 
55 '?), now in the cabinet of engravings at 
the Berlin Museum. — Vierteljahrsschrift fiir 
Musikwissenschaft, ii. (1886) 1-180. 

GAULTIEE, JACQUES (Gautier le 
vieux?), called Gautier d'Angleterre, born 
(at Lyons ?) about 1600, died in Paris be- 
fore 1671. Virtuoso on the lute, pupil of 
Mesangeau ; was royal lutist in London, 
1017-47, had won reputation in 1622, and 
settled in Paris, 1647, where he formed 
many pupils of note, with his cousin Denis 
Gaultier. He is probably identical with 
Gautier le vieux, Sieur de Neiie, of Lyons. 
Some of his compositions are preserved in 
the Codex Milleran in the library of the 
Conservatoire, Paris. — Vierteljahrsschrift 
fiir Musikwissenschaft, ii. 2-11. 

GAULTIEE, PIEEEE, born at La Ciotat, 
Provence, in 1642, died in the harbor of 
Cette in 1697. Dramatic composer in the 
style of LuUi, of whom he bought, in 1685, 
for Marseilles, his patent to give operas, 
and brought out with great success his 
opera Le triomphe de la paix, March 22, 
1687. He then played with his company 



125 



GAUNTLETT 



alternately at Marseilles, Montpellicr, ami 
Lyons, and on embarking in 1097 for Mar- 
seilles was shipwrecked and lost with his 
entire troupe. He published also a collec- 
tion of duos and trios for violin and flute, 
and left other instrumental music in MS. 
— Vierteljahrsschrift f. Musikwissenschaft, 
ii. 28. 

GAUNTLETT, HENRY JOHN, born at 
Wellington, Shropshire, England, in 1806, 
died in London, Feb. 11, 1876. Organist, 
studied law and music ; practised law in 
1831-42 ; organist in 1827-47 of St. Olave's, 
Southwark, and afterwards of several other 
churches. Mus. Doc, Lambeth, 1842. In 
1846 he was chosen by Mendelssohn to play 
the organ part in Elijah, on its jiroduction 
at Birmingham. Works : Hymns for Mat- 
ins and Evensong (1844) ; Church Hymnal 
and Tune Book, with W. J. Blew (1844-51) ; 
Cantus melodici (1845) ; The Congrega- 
tional Psalmist, with Dr. Allon (1851) ; 
Hymns and Glorias ; Tunes new and old 
(1868) ; Anthems ; Songs and glees ; Organ 
music. — Grove ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 110. 

G.\USSOIN, AUGUSTS LOUIS, born in 
Brussels, July 4, 1814, died there, Jan. 11, 
1846. Composer, professor at the Brus- 
sels Conservatoire. Pnpil of Masset, Snel, 
Hanssens, and Ft'tis. In 1837 he insti- 
tuted people's concerts in Brussels, and free 
choral schools for workmen. Works : Ser- 
enade for orchestra ; Le poMe mourant, 
cantata ; La mort du contrebandier, do. ; 
Overture for grand orchestra ; La chute 
des feuilles, elogie ; Album lyrique ; Album 
de chant. — Fetis, Sujiplement, i. 307 ; Men- 
del, Ergiinz., 119. 

GAUTIER (Gautier le vieux, or I'aneien), 
DENIS, Sieur de Neiie, born about 1620, 
died in 1678-80. Lutist at the French 
court ; published a Livre de tablature de 
pieces de luth sur ditferents modes (Paris, 
1664), and other music. — Ft'tis ; Mendel. 

GAUTIER, JEAN FRAN^'OIS EUGENE, 
born at Vaugirard, near Paris, Feb. 27, 
1822, died there, April 3, 1878. Violinist, 
pupil of Habeneck and Halevy at the Con- 



servatoire, Paris ; won the 1st violin prize 
in 1838) and the 2d grand prix in 1842. 
He became in 1848 second chef d'orchestre 
at the Lyrique, in 1864 chef de chant at the 
Theatre Italien, and in the same year pro- 
fessor of harmony at the Conservatoire for 
the female classes and afterwards of the class 
in musical history. He was also for several 
years maitre de chapelle of the Church of 
Saint-Eugi'ue, Paris. Works — Operas : L'an- 
neau de Marie, given at Versailles, 1845 ; 
Les baiTicades (with Pilati), Paris, 1848 ; 
Le marin de la garde, ib., 1849 ; Murdock 
le bandit, ib., 1851 ; Flore et Zophire, 
Choisy le Roi, ib., 1852 ; Schahabaham H., 
ib., 1854 ; Le mariage extravagant, ib., 
1857 ; Le docteur Mirobolan, ib., 1860 ; La 
bacchante, Jocrisse, ib., 1802 ; Le trc'sor de 
Pierrot, ib., 1864 ; La clef d'or ; La mort 
de Josus, oratorio ; Lo 15 aoftt, cantata, 
1801 ; Ave Maria, 1848.— Fetis; do., Sup- 
lik'raent, i. 368 : Mendel ; do., Ergiinz, 120 ; 
Riemann. 

GAVEAUX, PIERRE, born at Beziers 
(Herault), France, August, 1761, died in the 
hospital for insane atCharenton (Paris), Feb. 
5, 1825. At the age of six he became choir- 
boy at the cathedral in his native town. He 
was destined for the church, and studied 
Latin and philosophj-. In 1778 ho purposed 
going to Najjles to complete his musical 
studies, but was prevented by the Bishop 
of Beziers offering him a benefice. On the 
death of this prelate, however, he accepted 
the position of first tenor at the Church of 
Saint-Severin at Bordeaux, where he also 
studied composition under F. Beck. After 
the successful production of several compo- 
sitions, he determined to make music his 
vocation ; so he quitted the cloth, and en- 
tered the company at the Bordeaux theatre 
as tenor. In 1788 he went to Montpellier, 
and in 1789 to Paris, where he was made 
leading tenor at the Theatre de Monsieur, 
which was then at the Tuileries. When the 
Feydeau was opened, on Jan. 6, 1791, this 
company was joined with the Italian troupe 
of the foire Saint-Germain, and from that 



GAVINIES 



time Gaveaux never sang at any other thea- 
tre. In 1801 the companies of the The:'itre 
Favart and the Feydeau were united, and 
Gaveaux was made a member of the new 
combination, but no longer as first tenor. 
His compositions, too, began to atti-act less 
attention than formerly, and his singing 
could not vie with that of Elleviou and 
Martin. In 1812 an attack of insanity 
forced him to quit the stage. He recovered 
a few months later, but in 1810 his insanity 
returned, and he was sent to Charenton, 
where he remained until his death. Ga- 
veaux wrote many operas for the Feydeau, 
in which his graceful, facile style almost 
made up for a certain lack of melodic 
originality ; but for a time his works were 
very popular. Works : Le paria, ou la 
chaumicre indienue, given at the ThOutre 
Feydeau, 1792 ; Les deux Suisses, ib. (after 
the events of Aug. 10th, entitled L'amour 
filial, ou la jambe de bois) ; Les deux 
ermites. La famille indigente. La partie 
carroe, 1793 ; Sophronime, 1791: ; Le petit 
matelot, Lise et Colin, 1795 ; Tout par 
hasard, Celiane, Delmon et Nadine, La 
gasconnade, 1796 ; Le traitu nul, Sophie et 
Moncars, ou I'intrigue portugaise, 1797 ; 
Lconore, ou l'amour conjugal (his best 
work, subject identical with Beethoven's 
Fidelio), 1798 ; Les noms supposc's, 1798 ; 
Les deux jockeys, 1799 ; Owinska, Le trom- 
peur trompe, 1800 ; Le locataire. Theatre 
Favart, 1800 ; Avis aux femmes, Un quart 
d'heure de silence. Theatre Feydeau, 1804 ; 
Le diable couleur de rose, ou le bonhomme 
Misere, Le boufl'e et le tailleur, Trop tut, 
Le manage inattendu. Theatre Montansier, 
1804 ; L'amour a Cythere, Opera, 1805 ; 
Monsieur Deschalumeaux, Theatre Feydeau, 
1805 ; Le diable en vacance. Theatre Mon- 
tansier, 1805 ; L'echelle de sole. Theatre Fey- 
deau, 1808 ; La rose blanche et la rose rouge, 
1809; L'eufant prodigue, 1811; Une nuit 
au bois, ou le muet de cireonstance, 1818. 
— Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 369 ; Mendel. 
GAVINIES, PIERRE, born in Bordeaux, 
May 26, 1726, died in Paris, Sept. 9, 1800. 



I Violinist, considered in France the founder 
of the French school ; mostly self-taught, 
forming his style chiefly after that of the 
great Italian violinists. He made his debut 
in 1741, at one of the Concerts Spirituels, 
and after that resided chiefly in Paris, 
where he soon won the reputation of being- 
one of the greatest violinists of his age. 
His Romance de Gavinies, played at his 
concerts, is said to have always moved 
his hearers to teai's. He became director 
of the Concerts Spirituels with Gossec in 
1773, and professor of violin at the Conser- 
vatoire in 1795. Among his pupils were 
Capron, Robineau, Le Due aiue, Paisible, 
Imbault, Baudran, and Verdiguies. Works ; 
Le pretendu, opura-comique, played at the 
Comedie Italienne, 1760 ; Les vingt-quatre 
matinees (1794) ; 6 sonatas for violin with 
bass ; 6 do., op. 3 ; 6 concertos for violin 
and bass ; 3 sonatas for violin solo (Nader- 
man, Paris, 1801). — Fetis ; Grove ; Hart, 
The Violin, 285 ; Larousse ; Fayolle, No- 
tices sur Corelli, Tartini, Gavinies et Viotti 
(1810). 

GAYER, JOHANN JOSEPH GEORG, 
born at Engelhaus, Bohemia, April 17, 
1748, died in Homburg in 1811. Violinist, 
pupil in Prague of Pichl, and in composi- 
tion of Loos. He made a concert tour to 
Darmstadt, and in 1774 became Conzert- 
meister in Homburg. His compositions in- 
clude symphonies, church music, concertos 
for the violin, horn, and other instruments. 
—Mendel ; Fetis. 

GAZTAMBIDE, JOAQUIN, born at Tu- 
dela, Navarre, Spain, Feb. 7, 1822, died in 
Madrid, March 18, 1870. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Jose Guelbenzu, an organist 
of Pampeluna, on the pianoforte and in com- 
position, and later, at the Madrid Conser- 
vatorio, of Albeniz and Carnicer. When 
leader of the orchestra at the Teatro del 
Principe, Madrid, he brought out his first 
zarzuela, and in the twenty-five years fol- 
lowing he wrote upwards of forty, some of 
which were verj' jjopular. He became di- 
rector of the theatre and of the Conser- 



127 



(iAZZA 



vatoi'io concerts for tlie Society for Mutual 
Helj), Chevalier of the Order of Charles 
HL, Commander of that of Isabella la 
Catolica, and honorary professor of the 
Couservatorio of Madrid. Works — Op- 
eras : Escenas de Chamberi (with Bar- 
bieri, Hernando, and Oudrid), 1850 ; La 
picaresca (with Barbieri), 1851 ; Por seguii- 
a una mujer (with Barbieri, luzenga, and 
Oudrid), 1851 ; El Valle de Andorra, 1852 ; 
Don Simplicio Bobadilla (with Barbieri, 
Hernando, and Inzenga) 1853 ; Uu dia 
de reinado (with Barbieri), 1851: ; Cata- 
lina, 1851 ; El sarjento Federico (with 
Barbieri), 1855 ; Eutre dos aguas, 1856 ; 
La zarzuela (with Arrieta and Barbieri), 
1855 ; Los Magyares, played over one hun- 
dred times, 1857 ; Amor sin conocer (with 
Barbieri), 1858 ; El jm-amento, 1858 ; Una 
Vieja, 1860 ; En las astas del torre, 1862 ; 
Al Amanecer ; Anarquia conjugal ; Casado 
y soltero ; El amor y el almuerzo ; El es- 
treno de un artista ; El laucero ; La cotor- 
ra ; La nina ; La edad en la boca ; Una 
historia en un meson ; Un plcito ; Tribula- 
ciones ; La hija del pueblo ; Las sefias del 
archiduque ; Del palacio ii la tabei-na ; El 
diablo las carga ; La mensajera ; Esteba- 
nillo ; El sueno de una noche de verano ; 
La cisterua encaiitada ; La conquista do Ma- 
drid ; Las hijas dc Eva ; Los comuueros ; 
Matilde y Malek-Adel ; El secreto de la 
reina. A kinsman, Xavier Gaztambide, 
was leader of orchestra at a Madrid theatre 
in 186G, and the author of several dramatic 
comijositions. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 370 ; 
Mendel, Ergiinz., 120. 

GAZZA LADRA, LA (The Thieving Mag- 
pie), Italian comic ojDera in two acts, text 
by Gherardini, music by Rossini, first rep- 
resented at La Scala, Milan, May 31, 1817 ; 
given in Loudon, King's Theatre, March 10, 
1821, and in Paris, Theatre Italien, Sept. 
18, 1821. It was first produced in New 
York, in the new opera-house in Church 
Street, Nov. 18, 1833. The libretto is 
founded on a French melodrama, " La jjie 
voleuse," which, with Mile Jenny Vertpre 



in the princijial chai-acter, had a long and 
successful run at the Porte Saint-Martin, 
Paris, in 1815. Paer, seeing its operatic 
capabilities, sent the play, with marginal 
notes showing how it should be divided for 
musical purposes, to bis librettist at Milan ; 
and the latter, instead of returning it to 
Paer, offered it to Rossini, who wrote for it 
one of his most brilliant scores. The over- 
ture, among the composer's best orchestral 
works, begins with a duet for snare drums, 
one of the earliest instances of the use of that 
instrument in the orchestra. It was con- 
sidered at the time such an innovation that 




Violante Camporese. 

ii j'oung musical enthusiast went about 
armed, with the avowed purjiose of kill- 
ing Rossini. The part of Pippo, too, was 
the first auxiliary part wi-itten for a con- 
tralto voice, though generally sung at the 
time, in the English and French theatres, 
by a baritone or bass ; and it was not until 
after this that a contralto was considered 
an indisjiensable member of an opera 
company, except for first parts. The part 
of Ninetta, sung in 1821 in London by 
Madame Camporese and in Paris by IMa- 
dame Fodor, afterwards became a favourite 
character with Sontag, Malibran, and Grisi. 
GAZZANIGA, GIUSEPPE born in Ve- 
rona, Italy, October, 1743, died at Cremona 



GEAR 



before 1819. Dramatic comjioscr, jinpil of 
Porpora iu Venice and at S. Ouofrio, Naples, 
and in 1767-69 of Piccinni. He returned 
to Venice about 1770, and becauie tbe 
friend of Saccbini, who aided bim in tbe 
production of bis first opera. In 1779 be 
went to Napiles and remained until 1781, 
wben be visited Palermo, to bring out sev- 
eral operas and a mass composed for tbe 
fete of St. Cecilia. In 1791 be became 
maestro di cappella of tbe Catbedral of Cre- 
mona and devoted bimself cbiefly to cburcb 
music. Among bis operas, II convitato di 
pietra, tbe forerunner of Don Giovanni, 
bad a great success in tbe Italian cities, 
and later iu Loudon. He left several can- 
tatas, a Te Deum, and otber cburcb music. 
Works — Ojjeras : II fiuto cieco, given at Vi- 
enna, 1770 ; La locanda, 1771 ; II calan- 
drino, 1771; L' isola d'Alcina, 1772; Ezio, 
1772 ; La tromba di Merlino, 1772 ; La 
donna soldato, 1774 ; II ciarlatano in tiera, 
1771 ; Marino Carbonaro, 1775 ; La fedelta 
d' amore alia prova, 1776 ; Ai-mida, 1777 ; 
La contessa di Nuova Luna, Dresden, 1778 ; 
Antigono, Naj^les, 1779 ; La donna cajnic- 
ciosa, 1780 ; II ritorno d' Ulisse, Palermo, 
1781 ; Peneloppe, ib., 1781 ; La veudemmia, 
Venice, 1783 ; La creduta infedele, Naples, 
1783 ; II seraglio d' Osmanno, Florence and 
Milan, 1785 ; Circe, Venice, 17SG ; Le douue 
fanaticbe, ib., 178G ; La dama incognita, 
1787 ; La cameriera di spirito, Venice, 
1787 ; La Didone, ib., 1787 ; II couvitato 
di pietra, Venice, 1787 ; L' Italiana in Lou- 
dra, Piacenza, 1789 ; L' amor costante, L' im- 
presario in angustie, Ferrara, 1789 ; La 
moglie cappricciosa, 1789 ; Idomeneo. Pad- 
ua, 1790 ; Achille in Sciro, about 1790 ; 
La donna cbe non parla, about 1790 ; La 
disfatta de' Mori, Turin, 1791 ; H marito 
migliore, Milan, 1801. He left also several 
cantatas, a Te Deum, and otber cburcb mu- 
sic. — Fetis, iii. 431 ; Supplement, i. 371 ; 
Grove, Larousse. 

GE.\E, GEORGE FREDEEICK, born in 
London, May 21, 1857, still Hving, 1889. 
Pianist, pupil of Dr. Wylde, and Jobn 



Francis Barnett at tbe London Academy of 
Music. Works : Sonatas for jjianoforte ; 
String quartet ; Songs ; Two operettas. 

GEBADER, ETIENNE FRANCOIS, bom 
at Versailles iu 1777, died in 1823. Flu- 
tist, brotber and pupil of Micbel Josejib 
Gebauer, and, ou tbe flute, pupil of Hugot ; 
entered tbe orcbestra of tbe Opera Comique 
iu 1801, became first flutist in 1813, and 
retired iu 1822 on account of feeble bealtb. 
Among bis numerous compositions are : 19 
works of duets for flutes ; Several do. for 2 
violins ; Sonatas for flute, witb bass, op. 8, 
14 ; More tban 100 soli, airs varies, etc., 
for flute ; Airs varies for clainet. — Fetis. 

GEBAUER, FRANgOIS RENfi, born in 
Versailles iu 1773, died in Paris, July, 1845. 
Bassoonist, jjupil of bis brotber Micbel 
Josepb Gebauer and Devienne. He was 
bassoonist in tbe Garde Suisse wben fifteen, 
professor at tbe Versailles Conservatoire 
wben twenty-tbree, member of tbe orcbestra 
of tbe Op)era, Paris, in 1801-26, and musician 
of tbe emjieror's cbapel. Cbevalier of tbe 
Legion of Honour, 1814. Works : Sonatas ; 
Duets ; Trios ; Quartets ; Quintets ; Sympbou- 
ies ; Overtures. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

GEBAUER, inCHEL JOSEPH, born at 
La Fere (Aisue), France, in 1763, died in 
December, 1812, during tbe retreat from 
Moscow. Tbe sou of a regimental mu- 
sician, be became oboist in tbe Swiss 
Guard ; was also a singer in tbe cbapel at 
Versailles, and a clever violinist. He was 
a member of tbe baud of tbe Garde Na- 
tionale, Paris, in 1791, aud professor at tbe 
Conservatoire in 1794-1802. He left tbe 
last position to become cbef of tbe con- 
sular guard band, subsequently tbe Garde 
Imix'riale. Works : 200 military marcbes ; 
2 Quartets for flute, clarinet, born, and 
bassoon ; Duets for various instruments. 
— Fetis, iii. 433 ; do., Supplement, i. 371 ; 
Larousse ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

GEBEL, FRANZ XAVER, boru at Fiir- 
stenau, near Breslau, iu 1787, died iu Mos- 
cow iu 1843. Pupil of Vogler and Al- 
brecbtsberger. He was director of tbeatro 



XS9 



GEEEL 



orchestras in Vienna, Pestli, and Lemberg, 
where he brought out with success several 
operas of his composition. From 1817 he 
taught the isiauoforte in Moscow. Works : 
Mass ; 4 symphonies ; Several overtures ; 
Quartets and quintets for strings ; Sonatas, 
fantasias, etc., for pianoforte ; Preludes for 
organ ; German songs. — Mendel ; Fetis ; 
do., Supplement, i. 371 ; Riemaun. 

GEBEL, GEOKG, the elder, born at 
Breslau iu 1GS5, died there in 1750. Or- 
ganist, pupil of Tiburtius Winkler and of 
Johann Heiurich Krause ; became organist 
at Brieg in 1709, where he was much iuflu- 
cnccd by Stulzel, and in 1713 went iu the 
same capacity to Breslau. He was the in- 
ventor of a clavichord with quarter tones, 
and of a clavi-cymbalum with manual and 
pedal. He composed a Passion-Oratorio ; 
60 cantatas ; Mass with orchestra ; 25 
psalms ; a collection of canons (among 
which, one for 30 voices) ; 70 chorals ; 24 
concertos for pianoforte ; 48 concertos and 
other works for various instruments ; prel- 
udes for organ, etc., all in MS. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Riemaun ; Schilling. 

GEBEL, GEORG, the yomiger, born at 
Brieg, Silesia, Oct. 25, 1709, died at Rudol- 
stadt, Sept. 24, 1753. Organist, son and 
pupil of Georg Gcbel the elder, was second 
organist at S. M. JMagdalena, Breslau, and 
at the same time Kaj^eUmeister to the Duke 
of 01s. In 1835 he became a member of 
Count Briihl's orchestra in Dresden ; was 
ai^pointed royal Kapellmeister in Rudolstadt 
in 1747. Works— Operas : Oedipus, 1751 ; 
Medea, 1752 ; Tarquinius Superbus, 1752 ; 
Sophonisbe, 1753 ; Marcus Autouius, 1753 ; 
Serpillo e Melissa, given in Dresden, about 
1740 ; Several cantatas ; An Oratorio ; A 
Mass ; More than 100 symphonies for or- 
chestra ; Concertos for pianoforte ; Church 
and chamber music. His younger brother, 
Georg Sigismund (died in 1775 in Breslau, 
where he was organist at St. Elizabeth's), 
composed fugues and preludes for the or- 
gan. — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 452 ; Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 



GEBHARDI, LUDWIG ERNST, born 
at Nottleben, Thuringia, iu 1787, died in 
Erfurt, Sejjt. 4, 18G2. He was organist at 
the Predigerkirche and royal music director 
in Erfurt. He published several collections 
of organ music. — Mendel ; Riemaun ; Fetis. 

GEBHART, ANTON, born at Sonthofen, 
Bavaria, in 1817, stiU living, 1889. Organ- 
ist, pupil of his father and of Anton Schmid, 
whose successor he became as organist and 
music teacher in Dilliugen in 1842. In 1858 
he became also director of the church music. 
He composed a mass, a Requiem, a Stabat 
Mater, Miserere, Pangue lingua, and other 
church music, and wrote on music. — Mendel. 

GEBT MIR MEINEN JESUM WIE- 
DER, aria in G major for the bass of Coro 
H, with accompauiment of violin solo, 
strings complete, and continue, in Johann 
Sebastian Bach's Passion nach Matthilus, 
Part H. 

GEDENK AN UNS, jNHT DEINER 
LIEBE, soprano aria in B minor, with ac- 
companiment of oboe, strings complete, or- 
gan, and continue, in Johann Sebastian 
Bach's cantata Bei der Rathswahl zu Leip- 
zig, 1731, " Wir danken dir, Gott, wir dan- 
keu dir ; " published separatelj-, with addi- 
tional accompaniments by Rob. Fi'anz, by 
F. Wliistling, Leipsic, 18G0. 

GEDULD ! GEDULD !, aria in A minor 
for the tenor of Coro H, with accompani- 
ment of violoncello and continue, in Johann 
Sebastian Bach's Passion nach Matthilus, 
Part I. 

GEGRUSST, GEGRUSST. See Eienzi. 

GEHOT, JEAN, born in Belgium about 
1756. Violinist ; made concert tours in 
England, Germany, and France ; he was liv- 
ing in London in 1784. He wrote quartets, 
trios, and duets for strings ; also a method 
for \dolin, and other musical instruction 
books. — Jlendel ; Fetis ; Wasielewski, Die 
Violine, 284. 

GEIGER, JOSEPH, born in Lower Aus- 
tria in 1814, died in Vienna, Dec. 30, 1861. 
Pianist, lived long in Vienna as a music 
teacher, in favour at court and with the 



130 



GEIJER 



public. Works : Wlasta, opera, given in 
Vienna, 1840 ; Solemn mass for 4 voices 
and orchestra, op. 7 ; O Deus, ergo, gradual 
for 4 voices and organ, op. G ; Marches, 
caprices, divertissements, rondos, etc., for 
jjiauoforte. — Futis, iii. 430 ; Mendel, iv. 
172. 

GEI.JEE, ERIK GUSTAF, born at Raii- 
siitter, Wermlaud, Sweden, Jan. 12, 178.3, 
died in Upsala, April 23, 1847. He was 
professor of history in the University of 
Upsala from 1817. With Lindblad he made 
a collection of new Swedish songs, and with 
Afzelius made the valuable compilation of 
old Swedish songs. He comjjosed piano- 
forte music and some tasteful songs in the 
style of his nation. — Riemann ; Fetis. 

GEISLER, PAUL, born at Stolp, Pom- 
erania, Aug. 10, 1856, still living, 1880. 
Dramatic composei-, pupil of his grand- 
father, who was director of music atMaricn- 
burg, and of Konstantin Decker ; has lived 
mostly in Leipsic since 1873. Works : 
lugeborg, opera, text by Peter Lohmann, 
Bremen, 1884 ; Der Rattenfilnger von 
Hameln, symphonic poem, Magdeburg, 
1880 ; Till Eulenspiegel, Mira, Maria Mag- 
dalena, symphonic poems ; Ejnsodes; Mon- 
ologues ; Songs. 

GEISSLER, KARL, born at Mulda, 
near Frauenstein, Saxony, April 28, 1802, 
died at Bad Elster in 18G9. Pupil of his 
father and of Fischer, cantor in Freiberg, 
and prefect of the chorus. In 1822 he be- 
came organist and third teacher in the city 
school at Zschoi)au, and later was cantor 
and music director. He composed songs, 
pianoforte and organ music, and edited a 
Choralbuch. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling. 

GELINEK, HERJIANN ANTON (called 
Cervetti), born at Horzeuiowecs, Bohemia, 
Aug. 8, 1709, died in Milan, Dec. 5, 1779. 
Organist and violinist, entered the Premon- 
strant Abbey at Seelau, after becoming a 
priest, and was sent to study law in Vienna, 
but on his return found the life unbearable, 
and leaving the abbey secretly, travelled as a 
violinist. He lived in Najjles under the name 



of Cervetti. His works comprise concertos 
and sonatas for the violin, church music, 
and some pieces for the organ. — Mendel; 
Fetis. 

GELINEK, Abt JOSEF, born at Selcz, 
Bohemia, Dec. 3, 1758, died in Vienna, April 
13, 1825. Pianist, pupil of Segert ; entered 
the seminary of Prague in 1783, and be- 
came a i3riest in 178G. On Mozart's recom- 
mendation he was ajopointed domestic chap- 
lain and pianoforte teacher to Count Philipp 
Kinsky, who took him in 1795 to Vienna, 
where he was in the ser\ice of Prince Joseph 
Kinsky thirteen years. He studied theory 
under Albrechtsberger, and became inti- 
mate with Mozart. He was a very fashion- 
able teacher until about 1810, and his com- 
positions brought him so much money that 
he was able to leave his poor relatives 42,000 
florins. He composed about 1,000 pieces, 
mostly very shallow, though occasionally 
showing an easy and elegant style. He was 
called the variation-hero, and Paris dealers 
had men in their employ writing music to 
be jJublished under Gelinek's name in the 
time of his greatest popularity. Works : 
About 125 themes with variations ; Trios 
and sonatas for pianoforte and strings ; 
Fantasias, rondos, sonatas, and many other 
pieces for j>ianoforte. — Wurzbach ; Mendel ; 
Fetis ; Grove. 

GELOSIE VILLANE, LE (Rustic Jeal- 
ousies), Italian opera buffa in two acts, text 
by Grandi, music by Sarti, represented at 
Venice, 177G. Mozart wrote for it, in 1791, 
a fine chorus, of which nothing has sur- 
vived but five measures in his autograph 
catalogue (Kochel, G15). 

GEMINIANI, FRiVNCESCO, born in 
Lucca in 1G80, died in Dublin, Dec. 17, 
17C2. Violinist, pupil of Scarlatti, Lonati, 
and Corelli, who considered him his best 
schol.ar, and of whose school he must be con- 
sidered one of the foremost representatives, 
although his playing and compositions dif- 
fered in style from those of his great master. 
He went in 1714 to England, where he soon 
won reputation as a virtuoso. He visited 



131 



GEMMINGEN 




Paris in 1748-55, and on his return to Eng- 
land settled permanently in London. In 
17G1 he went to 
Dublin on a visit, 
and died there. Ge- 
iniuiaui had found 
the art of violin 
playing in its in- 
fancy on his arrival 
in England, and lie 
did considerable to 
advance it. His 
most valuable con- 
tribution was his " Art of Playing the Violin " 
(London, 1740), the first book of the kind 
ever published in England, it being six years 
earlier than Leopold Mozart's " Violin 
School." It has the merit of handing down 
to j)Osterity the principles of the art of play- 
ing the violin as they were finally established 
by Corelli. His rules for holding the vio- 
lin and bow are the same as are recognized 
in our day. Works : 12 solos, op. 1 (Lon- 
don, 1716) ; G concertos for seven parts, op. 

2 (ib., 1732, Paris, 1755) ; 6 concertos, op. 

3 (London, Paris, 1775) ; 12 solos, op. 4 
(Loudon, 1739) ; G solos for violoncello, op. 
5, arrangements from violin solos ; 6 con- 
certos, op. G (London, 1741) ; 6 concertos 
for eight parts, op. 7 ; 12 sonatas for violin, 
op. 11 (Loudon, 1758) ; 12 trios and G trios, 
the latter an arrangement of op. 1 ; Lessons 
for the harpsichord (London). He pub- 
lished also an arrangement of Corelli's 
solos, op. 5, as Concerti grossi (London). 
—Grove ; Fetis ; Hart, The Violin, 218 ; 
"VVasielewski, Die Violine, 48 ; Dubourg, 
The Violin, 5G. 

GEMmNGEN, EBERHARD FRIED- 
RICH, Freiherr VON, pianist, born at Heil- 
bronn, Nov. 5, 1726, died in Stuttgart, Jan. 
19, 1791. He adopted the judicial profes- 
sion, and rose to the dignity of president of 
the government council in Stuttgart, prac- 
tising music as an amateur, and composing 
pianoforte concertos and sonatas, six sym- 
phonies, chamber and vocal music, mostly 
remaining in MS. He was also a poet. — 



Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 557 ; F('tis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

GEMMA DI VERGY, Italian opera, text 
by Bidera, music by Donizetti, represented 
in i\Iilan, 1835, and in Paris, Theatre Ita- 
lien, Dec. IG, 184.5. It was first produced 
in New York, in 1843, by a French com- 
l^any from New Orleans. 

GENAST, EDUARD FRANZ, born in 
Weimar, July 15, 1797, died in Wiesbaden, 
Aug. 3, 18GG. Dramatic composer, pujiil 
of Eberwein and later of Hiiser in singing. 
He made his debut at Weimar in 1814 un- 
der Goethe's direction ; was director of the 
theatre in Magdeburg in 1828 ; and from 
1829 had an engagement for life at the 
Weimar Court Theatre, being pensioned in 
18G0. He was also opera manager in Wei- 
mar in 1833-51. Works : Die Sonnenmiin- 
ner, and Die Verriither in den Alpen, 
operas, i^erformed in Weimar ; Music to 
Saphir's Die letzto Stunde des Hauscs ; 
Songs. Ho i^ublished his memoirs, Aus 
dem Tagebuche eiues alteu Schauspielers 
(Leipsic, 18G1-GG).— Mendel ; Fetis. 

GENEE, RICHARD, born in Dantzic, 
Feb. 7, 1823, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, i^upil of Stahlknecht in Berlin. 
In 1848-G7 ho was Kapellmeister of theatres 
in Reval, Riga, Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Diisseldorf, Dantzic, Mainz, Schwerin, Am- 
sterdam, and Prague. Became Kapellmeis- 
ter of the Vienna Theater an der Wien in 
18G8, and retired in 1878 to his villa at 
Pressbaum, near Vienna. He is the author 
of most of his own librettos, has translated 
many, and has furnished some to Strauss, 
Supije, and Millijcker. Works — Operas : 
Polj-phem, oder eiu Abenteuer auf Marti- 
nique, given in Dantzic, 185G ; Der Geiger 
aus Tirol, 1857 ; Der Musikfeind, Die Gen- 
eralprobe, Schwerin, 18C2 ; Rosita, Mainz, 
1864 ; Der schwarze Prinz, Prague, 18GG ; 
Am Runenstein (with Flotow), Prague, 
18G7; Dor Seekadett, Vienna, 1876, trans- 
lated into several languages ; Nanon, die 
Wirtin vom Goldenen Lamm, Vienna, 1877 ; 
Im Wuuderlande der PjTamiden, ib., 1877 ; 



GENEKALI 



Die letzten Mobikaner, Munich, 1878 ; Nisi- 
ka, Vienna, 1880 ; Rosina, ib., 1881 ; Songs ; 
Choruses for male voices. — Brockhaus ; 
Kiemann ; Mendel ; Fetis, Suj)plement, i. 
372. 

GENERALI, PIETRO, bom at Masse- 
rano, Piedmont, Oct. -i, 1783, died atNovara, 
Nov. 3, 1832. Dramatic composer, luipil 
of Giovanni Massi. His real name, Mer- 
candetti, had been changed by his father 
on his banki-uptcy and removal to Rome. 
He began to write masses and church mu- 
sic soon after finishing his studies, and pro- 
duced his first opera in 1800. In 1801-17 
he visited many Italian cities, producing 
operas, meeting with success especially in 
Venice, where most of his best works were 
given. His I baccanali di Roma had great 
success, and was given in many Euroj)eau 
cities. In 1817-20 he was director of the 
Barcelona theatre and gave there many of 
his works ; but, his popularity waning as 
Rossini came into favour, he accepted the 
position of maestro di cappella of the Ca- 
thedral of Novara and devoted himself to 
church music. In 1827, however, he brought 
out an oratorio, II voto di Jef te in Florence, 
and followed this with an opera buffa, II 
divorzio persiano, which was not a suc- 
cess. In 1829, after studying Rossini's style, 
he gave his opera Francesca da Rimini, 
written for the opening of the Fenice, but 
it was badly received. The precursor of 
Rossini, he was the first to emploj' certain 
harmonies and modulations of which Ros- 
sini took advantage, but he did not possess 
the genius of his successor. Works — 
Operas : Gli amauti ridicoli, Rome, 1800 ; 
II duca Nottolone, ib., 1802 ; La villana al 
cimento, farce, ib., 1802 ; Le gelosie di 
Giorgio, farce, Bologna, 1802 ; La Pamela 
nubile, Venice, 1802 ; La calzolaja, ib., 
1803 ; Misantropia e pentimento, Gli effetti 
della Somiglianza, farces, ib., 1805 ; Don 
Chisciotto, Milan, 180.5 ; Orgoglio ed umi- 
liazione, Venice, 1806 ; L' idolo Cinese, Na- 
ples, 1807 ; Lo sposo in Bersaglio, Flor- 
ence, 1807 ; Le lagrime d' una vedova, II 



ritratto del duca, Venice, 1808 ; Lo sposo 
in contrasto, Vienna, 1808 ; La moglie di 
tre mariti, Venice, 1809 ; Amore vince lo 
sdegno, Rome, 1809 ; L' Adelina, La Cec- 
china, farces, Venice, 1810 ; Chi non risica 
non rosiea, Milan, 1811 ; La vedova deli- 
rante, Rome, 1811 ; La sciocca per gli altri e 
r astuta per se, Venice, 1811 ; Gaulo ed 
Ojtono, Naples, 1812 ; La vedova strava- 
gante, Milan, 1812 ; L' orbo die ci vede, 
Bologna, 1812 ; Isabella, farce, Venice, 
1813 ; Eginardo e Lisbetta, Naples, 1813 ; 
Amor prodotto dall' odio, Milan, 1813 ; Ba- 
jazetto, La contessa di CoUe Erboso, II servo 
padrone, Turin, 1814; ; L' impostore ossia 
il marcotondo, Milan, 1815 ; I Baccanali di 
Roma (his best work), Venice, 1815 ; La 
Vestale, Trieste, 1816 ; II trionfo d' Ales- 
sandro, Bologna, 1816 ; Elato, ib., 1817 ; 
Rodrigo di Valenza, Milan, 1817 ; II divor- 
zio persiano o il gran Bazzaro di Bassora, 
Trieste, 1829 ; Francesca da Rimini, Ven- 
ice, 1829. — Piccoli, Elogio di P. Generali 
(Novara, 1833) ; Fetis, iii. 4:15 ; do., Supple- 
ment, i. 372 ; Grove ; Mendel. 

GENET, ELIAZAR (Elziar), surnamed 
Carpentras, or il Carpentrasso, born at Car- 
pieutras (Vaucluse) in the second half of the 
15th century. Church composer, and maes- 
tro di cappella of the Pontifical Chapel, 
which he entered under Leo X., who be- 
came his patron, and made him bishop in 
partibus in 1518. He was sent on a mis- 
sion to Avignon in 1521 (?), and having re- 
turned to Rome at the end of 1523 or in 
1524, we know of his being again at Avi- 
gnon in 1527. Works : Liber primus mis- 
sarum, containing 5 masses (Avignon, 1532) ; 
Liber Lamentationum Hieremie prophete 
(sic) (ib., 1532) ; Liber Hymnorum usus Ro- 
manre ecclesise (1533) ; Liber cantici Mag- 
nificat, omnium tonorum. The manuscript 
of the book of masses is in the Imperial 
Library, Vienna. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

GENEVliiVE DE BRABANT, French 
opera-bouffe in two acts and seven tableaux, 
text by Jaime fils and Etienne Trcfeu, mu- 
sic by Ofleubach, first represented at the 



GENISCIITA 



Theatre des Bouflfes Parisiens, Paris, Nov. 
19, 1859. In 1875 it was given at the The- 
atre de la Gaite, iu five acts, with text re- 
vised hj Hector Cromieux and Trefeu, and 
■vvith eight new numbers by the comjioser, 
mostly written for Mile Thorcsa. 

GEXISCHTA, rV'AN, born in Russia 
about 1810, still living, 1889. Pianist and 
violoncellist, lived at Moscow, where he be- 
came director of a singing society in 1837. 
His style was formed under the influence 
of Beethoven's music. AYorks : 3 grand so- 
natas for pianoforte and violoncello, or vio- 
lin, op. 6, 7, 9 ; Grand sonata for piano- 
forte, op. 12 ; 3 nocturnes for violoncello, 
with violin, op. 10 ; Sonata for pianoforte 
and violoncello, op. 13 ; Fantasia for piano- 
forte, op. 14. — Fetis. 

GENOVES (Geuues), TOMMASO, born 
at Seville in the first years of the 19th cen- 
tury. Dramatic composer ; went to Italj- 
in 183-1, and lived in Bologna, Rome, and 
Naples. Works — Operas : La rosa bianca 
e la rosa rossa, given iu Madrid, 1831 ; 
Zelma, Bologna, 1835 ; La battaglia di Le- 
pante, Rome, 183G ; Bianca di Belmonte, 
Venice, 1838 ; Iginia d' Asti, Naples, 1810 ; 
Luisa della Valliere, ]\Iil;ui, 1845 ; Le sere 
d'autunno al Monte Pincio, collection of ro- 
mances (Milan, Ricordi). — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GEN0\T3VA, German opera iu foiu' acts, 
text by Robert Reiniclc, music by Schu- 
mann, represented at the thesitre of Leipsic, 
June 25, 1850. The libretto, founded on 
the legend of St. Genevieve, follows jsartly 
the two versions of the story in the trage- 
dies of Tieck and Hebbel, though princi- 
pally the latter. Schumann, dissatisfied with 
Reinick's work, changed it materially to suit 
his own ideas. The music, begun iu 1847, 
was finished in August, 1848, but its pro- 
duction was delayed. Its reception was 
honourable but not enthusiastic, and it was 
withdrawn after three rei^resentations. The 
overture, one of Schumann's masterpieces, 
is a standard work in the concert repertory 
all over Europe and America. — Grove, iii. 
399 ; Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 25G. 



GENST, AUGUSTE DE, born iu Brus- 
sels, June 24, 1801, living in 1889. Pianist, 
pujjil of Cazot. His compositions for pi- 
anoforte, numbering about forty, were pub- 
lished in Brussels, Holland, and Germanj-. 
Afterwards he composed also operas, and 
symphonies.- — Fctis ; Mendel. 

GENTILI, GIORGIO, born in Venice 
about 1668, died (?). VioUuist, first violin 
of the ducal chapel of Venice. "Works : So- 
natas and concertos for violin (Venice, 1701- 
08).— Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber, ii. 289 ; Schil- 
ling, iii. 194. 

GENTILI, RAFFAELE, born in Rome 
about 1837, died there, Aug. 7, 1867. 
Dramatic composer. His operas, Stefania, 
given in Rome, 1860, Werther, ib., 1802, 
Rosamonda, ib. , 1867, gave signs of great 
promise, cut short by his early death. He 
left also pianoforte music and songs. — Fe- 
tis. Supplement, i. 372 ; Mendel, Ergiiuz., 
121. 

GENTLE MRS, tenor air iu A major 
with violoncello obligato, of Mathau, in 
Handel's Alhalia, Part I. 

GEPRIESEN SEI DIE STUNDE. See 
Taniihduser. 
GERBER, ERNST LUD"«1G, born in 
Sondershausen, 
Sept. 29, 1746, died 
there, June 30, 
1819. Composer, 
son and pujjil of 
Heinrich Nicolaus 
Gerber, under 
whom he studied 
the pianoforte, or- 
gan, and violon- 
cello. He entered 
Leipsic University 
in 1765, but soon gave up law for music ; re- 
turned to Sondershausen to assist his father, 
and succeeded him as court organist in 1775. 
He was also chamber musician, and from 
1795 a court secretary. He visited Weimar 
in 1772 and 1776, Leipsic in 1780, Cassel in 
1786, and other German cities in 1793 and 
1797. His collection of portraits of musi- 




13-1 



GERBER 



cians led Liiii to think of writing biogra- 
phies to accompany them. This resulted in 
Lis " Historiscb-biographisches Lexicon der 
Tonkiinstler " (2 vols., Leipsic, 1790-92). 
Receiving corrections and further informa- 
tion he prepared a new edition, " Neues 
historisch-biographisehes Lexikon der Ton- 
kiinstler" (i vols., Leipsic, 1812-14), which 
does not supersede the older work, since it 
constantly refers to it. Considering that 
he lived iji a small city without a public 
library, and that few had preceded him in 
the same field, his Lexicons are remarkably 
complete, and give evidence of wonderful 
industry. They have been extensively used 
by all subsequent investigators. He wrote 
also for several musical papers. The Vi- 
enna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde bought 

his books and music. Works : Pianoforte 
sonatas ; Choral preludes for organ, and 
other instrumental pieces. — Gerber ; Schil- 
ling ; Allgem. d. Biogr. ; Mendel ; Grove ; 
Eiemann ; Eochlitz, Fiir Freunde der Tou- 
kunst, ii. 35. 

GERBEK, HEINRICH NICOLAUS, born 
at Wenigen-Ehrich, near Sondershausen, 
Sejit. G, 1702, died at Sondershausen, Aug. 
G, 1775. Organist, pujjil of Johann Sebas- 
tian Bach, became organist at Heringen in 
1728, and court organist at Soudershausen 
in 1731 ; was appointed secretary to the 
court there in 1719, without, however, re- 
signing his musical functions. He occu- 
pied himself also with improvements in the 
mechanism of the organ, and constructed 
a Strohfiedel (Xylophone) with keyboard. 
His compositions, consisting of concertos, 
chorals, fugues, ijreludes, sonatas, and trios 
for the organ, and concertos, menuets, mur- 
kys, suites, and trios for pianoforte, remain 
in MS.— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GERECHTEE GOTT. See Riemi. 

GERICKE, WILHELM, born in Gratz, 
Styria, April 18, 1845, still living, in Boston, 
1889. The son of a merchant in Schwan- 




berg, he was brought up in that town un- 
til 1857, when he was sent to school in 
Gratz. In 18G2 he 
entered the Vienna 
C o n s e r V a t o r i u m , 
where he studied com- 
position three years 
under Dessoff; many 
of his works date from 
this period. In Oc- 
tober, 18G5, he be- 
came Kapellmeister of 
tho theatre at Linz ; 
in 1874, Kapellmeister at the Vienna Hof- 
oper, conjointly with Hans Richter ; and in 
1880 succeeded Brahms as conductor of the 
Gesellschaftsconzerte, the principal concerts 
in Vienna for the performance of large cho- 
ral works. He conducted also the Singve- 
rein, a branch society of the Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde. In 1884 he threw up 
his positions in Vienna to accept the post of 
conductor of the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra in Boston, Mass., which he has held ever 
since. After leaving the Conservatorium, 
during his three years at which he com- 
posed almost incessantly, his duties as Ka- 
pellmeister left him but little leisure for 
composition. His works have been given 
principally in Linz, Vienna, and Boston, ex- 
cept some male choruses, which have made 
the round of almost all the singing societies 
in Germany. He is especially distinguished 
as an orchestral and choral conductor, and 
a remarkable score reader ; it is chietiy ow- 
ing to his drilling that the Boston orchestra 
owes its present high position among the 
great orchestras of the world. Shortly be- 
fore leaving Vienna, in 1884, he was made 
honorary member of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde, a distinction verj' seldom 
conferred. Works in MS.: 2 sonatas for 
pianoforte ; 2 sonatas for violin and piano- 
forte ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, and vio- 
loncello ; String-quartet ; Septet ; Recpii- 
em ; Little Siugspiel ; about 100 Lieder 
and many choruses (all written between 
18G2 and 18G5) ; Concert overture (first 



1.35 



GERKE 



given in Vienna, and later twice in Boston, 
in 1885-86 and 1SS7-88, under the pseudo- 
nym of Wenzel Ecker) ; Sonata for piano- 
forte ; Quintet for jjianoforte and strings ; 
1 movement of a sonata for violin and j'ia- 
uoforte ; Sclion Hanucben, operetta, Linz, 
between 1865 and IST^, and also in Pestb ; 
Huldigungscbor, given at a serenade to tbe 
newly married Crown Prince and Princess 
in tbe spring of 1881, and in Boston, Jan. 
16, 1886 ; Additional accompaniments to 
Handel's Judas Maccabeus, and to an An- 
tbem ; 3 sonata movements by Bacb scored 
for orcbestra ; 3 movements of a suite for 
orcbestra, Boston. Publisbed works : Deut- 
scbe Tanze, Vienna, Bosendorfer ; Weun dii- 
Gott eiu Licb' gescbenkt, cborus witb tenor 
and baritone solos, ib. ; i Lieder, ib.; 4 
Clavierstiicke fiir die Jugeud, for i bands, 
Vienna, Scbmidt ; 4 Lieder, ib. ; 2 male 
choruses, Wacb auf, du scbOue Triiumeriu, 
and, O Welt, du bist so wuuderscbiin, ib. ; 
3 mixed cboruses, So weit, Muutrer Bacb, 
and Herbst am Rbein, ib.; 3 male cboruses, 
Marie von Oborlaud, Herbst im Meere, and 
Weun der Friibling auf die Berge steigt, 
Vienna, Bucbbolz ; 2 Lieder, Bitte, and 
Meine Boten, New York, Scbirnier. 

GERIvE, AUGUST, born in Poland about 
1790, died after 1848. Violinist, Kapell- 
meister to Count Hanski ; travelled with bis 
four precocious musical children ; in 1824 
was attached to the ducal court of Dessau, 
then returned to Russia ; in 1835 was music 
dii-eetor in Cassel, and in 1848 occupied a 
similar position in Detmold. Works : Over- 
tures ; Polonaises ; Chamber and pianoforte 
music. — Futis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GERKE, OTTO, born in Limeburg, July 
13, 1807, died at Paderborn, June 28, 1878. 
Violinist, pupil of bis father and in Cas- 
sel of Si)ohr and Hauptmann. He made 
concert tours, and from 1837 Uved nine 
years in Russia. In 1847 be settled in 
Paderborn as a teacher. Works : Concer- 
tos, quartets, etc., in all about forty works, 
for violin ; Pianoforte music. — Mendel ; 
Fetis. 



GERL (GOrl), FRANZ, dramatic com- 
poser, close of 18th century. He was an 
actor at tbe Schikaneder Theater, Vienna, 
before 1794, and after that time at tbe Na- 
j tional Theatre in Briiun. Works — Operet- 
I tas : Die Wiener Zeitung, given at Briinu, 
' 1790 ; Das Schlaraffenland, Vienna, 1790 ; 
' Die dummen Gartner, ib., 1794 ; Der Graf 
Balbaroue, Briinn, 179G ; Der Stein der 
Weisen, Vienna, 1797.— Mendel, iv. 195 ; 
do., Ergiinz., 121 ; Fetis ; Schilling ; Ger- 
ber. 

GERLE, HANS ; two musicians of this 
name lived in Nuremberg in the 16tb cen- 
tury, and are distinguished as the elder and 
the younger. They were both makers and 
players of lutes and violins, but only tbe 
elder one composed works that are of 
historical value. Works : Lautenpartien 
(1530) ; Musica Teusob, auf die Instrument 
der grossen unnd kleinen Geygen, audi 
Lautten (Nuremberg, 1532) ; a second edi- 
tion of same, as Musica und Tabulatur (ib., 
1546) ; Eyn Newes sehr Kiinstlichs Lauten- 
buch (ib., 1552).— Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 23 ; 
Gerber; Allgem. mus. Zeitung, xviii. 309, 
325 ; Mouatsheft fiir Musik-Geschicbte, iii. 
211 ; iv. 38 ; vii., Beilage, 100 ; Fetis ; Schil- 
ling. 

GERLI, GIUSEPPE, born in Italy in 
1812, died at Milan in May, 1885. Dra- 
matic composer and basso ; made his ap- 
pearance on provincial stages in Italy, 1832, 
attempted to establish Italian oijera in 
Algiers, 1839, but, failing, proceeded to 
Spain, where he sang at Pampeluna and 
Bilbao in 1841, at Cadiz and Santander, 
1842, and at Saragossa in 1845. In the 
year following he was orcbestra conduc- 
tor of the Italian theatre in Berlin. Works 
I — Operas : II piocco, opera buffix, I gal- 
antuomini falsi, do., given in Milan, 
1834 ; II sogno punitore, Algiers, 1839, Mi- 
lan, 1844 ; Pelagio, Algiers, 1840, Barcelona, 
1845.— Fetis. 

GERNE ^\^LL ICH MICH BEQUE- 

MEN, aria in G minor for the bass of Coro 

I II, with accompaniment of violin and con- 



GERNSHEIM 




tinuo, in Johann Sebastian Bacbs Fassion 
nach Matthiius, Part I. 

GERN8HEIM, FRIEDRICH, born at 
Worms, July 17, 
1839, still living, 
1889. Pianist, first 
instructed by Musik- 
director Liebe, then 
at Mainz puj)il of 
Pauer, at Frankfort 
of Rosenbain and 
Hauff, at the Conser- 
vatorium, Leipsic, of 
Moscheles, Haupt- 
mauu, Rietz, and Ricbter ; finally studied in 
Paris (1855), where he began also to teach, 
and was esteemed as a pianist. In 1861 he 
became director of music at Saarbriicken, 
in 18G5 instructor at the Couservatoriuni 
of Cologne, where he conducted three mu- 
sical societies, and in 1873 the opera or- 
chestra ; in 1872 he was made professor by 
the Duke of Gotha, and in 1871 director of 
the Conservatorium at Rotterdam. Works : 
WYichterlied aus der Neujahrsnacht des 
Jahres 1200, for male chorus and orchestra, 
op. 7 ; Salamis, Siegesgesang der Griechen, 
for do., oj). 10 ; lliimische Leichenfeier, for 
do., op. 1 ; Germania, Ein deutsclier Sieges- 
gesang, for do., op. 24 ; Das Grab im Bu- 
sento, for do., op. 52 ; Odina Meeresritt, for 
baritone solo, male chorus, and orchestra, 
po. 48 ; Nordische Sommeruacht, for mixed 
chorus, soli, and orchestra, oix 21 ; Agrip- 
pina, scene for contralto or mezzo-soi^rauo, 
chorus, and orchestra, oj). 45 ; Salve Regina 
for sojirano solo and female chorus, op. 11 ; 
4 Gesilnge for male chorus, op. 40; Zwei 
Lieder, for do., op. 41 ; Kriegslied, for do. ; 
Lied der Stiidte, for do., op. 43 ; Festgruss, 
for do., op. 49 ; Auf der Wacht, for do., Der 
Liebesbote, for mixed chorus ; Waldmeis- 
ter's Brautfahrt, overture for full orchestra, 
op. 13 ; 2 symphonies for do., op. 32, 46 ; 
Concerto for pianoforte, with orchestra, op. 
16 ; Fautasiestiick, for violin with orchestra, 
op. 33 ; do. for violin, op. 42 ; Elohe nu, 
Hebrew song for violoncello with small or- 



chestra ; Quintet for pianoforte and strings, 
op. 35 ; 3 quartets for do., op. 20 and 47 ; 
2 trios for do., op. 28 and 37 ; Quintet for 
strings, op. 9 ; 3 quartets for do., op. 25, 31, 
and 51 ; 2 sonatas for pianoforte and violin, 
op. 4 and 50 ; Sonata for pianoforte and 
violoncello, op. 12. — Mendel ; Mus. Wochen- 
blatt, i. 388, 678 ; iii. 227 ; is. 66 ; xiv. 476 ; 
N. Zeitschr. f. Mus. (1868), 211 ; (1869), 
116 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg. (1865), 34, 116, 
339, 343. 

GERO, GIOVANNI DE, known asMaistre 
Jhan, Italian vocal comijoser, maestro di 
cai)25ella of the cathedral at Orvieto during 
the first half of the 16th century. He was 
long erroneously identified with Jacobus 
Gallus. Works : Symphonia quatuor modu- 
lata vocibus (Venice, 1543) ; Madrigali a 
tre voci, 2 books (ib., 1541, 1555) ; Madri- 
gali italiani e canzoui alia francese, a due 
voci, 2 books (Orvieto, 1544, Venice, 1552, 
1572, 1582) ; Many detached pieces in va- 
rious collections of the time, as in Motetti 
della Simia (Ferrara, 1539), Selectissima) 
nee nou familiarissimse cantiones ultra cen- 
tum (Augsburg, 1540) ; Cantiones sei:)tem, 
sex et quiuque vocum (ib., 1545); Conceutus 
octo, sex, quinque et quatuor vocum omnium 
jucundissinii (ib., 1545), Jacques Moderne's 
fourth Livre de motets (Lyons, 1539). — Fc- 
tis ; Mendel ; Riemaun. 

GERSBACH, ANTON, born at Sack- 
ingen, Baden, Feb. 21, 1803, died in 
Carlsruhe, Aug. 17, 1848. Pupil of his 
brother, Josejih Gersbach, also studied at 
Nilgeli's Institute, Zurich. After a short 
time spent in Nuremberg and Halle he 
taught the pianoforte in Ziiricb, and in 
1831 succeeded his brother in the seminary 
at Carlsruhe, where he taught singing, the 
organ, and harmony. He composed songs 
and pianoforte music. Works : 12 varia- 
tions for pianoforte ; 30 studies for do. ; 
four-part songs ; 29 two-part songs (1839) ; 
25 children's songs for one and two voices ; 
12 motets for male chorus ; Songs. — Men- 
del ; Fetis ; Riemann ; Allgem. d. Biogr., 
ix. 44. 



IS! 



GERSBACll 



GEESBACH, JOSEPH, born at Siick- 
iugen, Dec. 22, 1787, died iu Cai'lsruhe, Dec. 
3, 1830. He studied at the gymnasium at 
Villiugen in the Black Forest iu 1800-5, 
then at the university iu Freiburg. He 
taught music in Switzerland iu 1808-lG, 
then in Wiirzburg, Yflerten, Rastatt, and 
Nuremberg. In 1823 he received a j)osi- 
tion at the seminary in Carlsruhe, where he 
remained until his death. Works : Chorals 
iu four parts (182(i) ; Wanderviiglein, col- 
lection of four-part songs (1859, 4th ed.) ; 
SingvOglein, 30 two-part songs for young 
people (1839, 3d ed.) ; Singschule (1829); 
Part-songs for mixed and male chorus 
(1839).— Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 45 ; Mendel ; 
Fetis ; SchilUng. 

GERVAIS, CHARLES HUBERT, born 
in Paris, Feb. 19, 1G71, died there, Jan. 
15, 1744. Dramatic com2)oser. MS. motets 
by him are iu the National Library, Paris. 
Four of his operas are mentioned by Fetis, 
one of which, Hypermnestre, was partly 
written by the Regent (1710). — Fetis ; La- 
rousse ; Hawkins, Hist., v. 381 ; Mendel. 

GERVAIS, PIERRE NO EL, born, of 
French parents, in Mannheim, Germany, 
about 174G, died in Bordeaux about 1805. 
Violinist, pupil of Iguaz Frilnzl. He plajed 
at the Concerts Spirituels, Paris, in 1785, and 
was first violinist at the Bordeaux theatre 
from 1791. His violin concertos were pub- 
lished in Paris. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Wasielew- 
ski. Die VioUne, 269. 

GERVASI, LUIGI, Neapolitan composer, 
pupil at the Naples Conservatorio. Made 
his debut as comj)oser with I promessi 
sposi, Rome, Teatro Vallc, 1834. In 1841 
he was in Odessa, director of music at the 
Italian opera, where he brought out II casino 
di campagna. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

GESANGE DER FRUHE (Morning 
Songs), 5 pieces for the pianoforte, by Rob- 
ert Schumann, op. 133, composed in 1853 ; 
dedicated to the poetess Bettina. Published 
by F. W. Arnold (Hberfeld, 1855). 

'gESCHOPFE DES PROMETHEUS, 
DIE. See Uomini di Prometeo, Gh. 



GESIUS (Gese, Goss), B.ARTHOLO- 
MAUS, born in IMiincheberg, near Frauk- 
fort-on-the-Oder, about 1555, died in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Oder about 1G13. He lived iu 
Wittenberg, then settled in Fraukfort-on- 
the-Oder, where he was chorister in 1595. 
Works : Passion naeh Johannes (Witten- 
berg, 1588) ; Teutsche geistliche Lieder 
(1594) ; Hymni 5 vocum (1595) ; Melodise 5 
vocum (1598) ; Psalmodia Choralis (IGOO) ; 
Teutsche Lieder Dr. Lutheri und auderer 
frommer Christen (IGOl, 1G07, 1G08, IGIG) ; 
Hymni patrum cum cautu (1G03) ; Synopsis 
MusicEc practicfo (1G09, 1G15, 1G18) ; Christ- 
liche Musica (1G05) ; Christlicho Choral- 
und Figuralgesilnge (IGll) ; Opus primum 
et secundum cantionum ecclesiasticarum 
(1G13) ; Cautioues nuptiales (1G14) ; Motet- 
ta' Latino-Germanica; (1G15) ; Fasciculus 
etlicher deutscher uud lateinischer Motetten 
auf Hochzeiten und Ehrentage (IGlG) ; Mis- 
sa3 5, 6 et plurium vocum (1621) ; Vierstim- 
miges Haudbiiehlein (1G21) ; Teutsche und 
lateinische Hochzeitsgesiinge (1624). — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., ix. 93 ; Fetis ; Eiemann ; 
Wiuterfeld, Der evaug. Kirchengesang, i. 
359. 

GESTEWITZ, FRIEDRICH CHRIS- 
TOPH, born at Prieschka, near Meissen, 
Nov. 8, 1753, died in Dresden, Aug. 1, 
1805. He studied in Leipsic, in 1770, un- 
der his brother-in-law, J. A. Hiller ; was 
music director of Bondini's German theatre 
in 1784, and iu 1790 du-ector of the royal 
Italian opera in Dresden. Works : Dio 
Liebe ist sinureich, operetta iu one act, 
Leipsic, 1781 ; L' orfanella americana, oper- 
etta, Dresden, 1790 ; Church music ; Pi- 
anoforte music. — AUgem. d. Biogr., ix. 128; 
Meudel ; Fi'tis. 

GESUALDO, CARLO, Principe di Ve- 
nosa, born about the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury. Amateur composer of madrigals, pu- 
pil of Pomponio Nenna. He was a finished 
player on the lute and several other instru- 
ments, and entertained several composers, 
singers, and instrumentalists at his court. 
He was one of the first to attempt chromat- 



iss 



GEVAERT 



ic writing. His first five books of madri- 
gals were printed iu separate parts (Genoa, 
1585). Simone Molinara, maestro of the ca- 
tliedral of that city, pubHshed a complete 
edition of them with the title: "Partitura 
delli sei libri de' madrigali a cinque voci 
dell" Illustrissimo et Eccellentissimo Prin- 
cipe di Venosa, D. Carlo Gesiialdo '" (Genoa, 
1613).— Futis ; Ambros, iv. 23G. 

GEVAEPvT, FPiANrOIS AUGUSTE, 
born at Huysse, near Audenarde, July 31, 
1828. Dramatic eomj)oser, pupil in 1841 
at the Ghent Conservatoire, where he stud- 
ied the pianoforte under Soinmere, winning 
the first ijrize in 1843, and harmony under 
Mengal. He became organist of the Jesuit 
church, and in 1846 a Christmas cantata by 
him was performed in Ghent. In 1847 he 
took the prize given by the Societc des 
Beaux-Arts for his cantata, Belgie, and the 
grand prix at the Brussels Concours, and in 
the same year his jisalm, Super flumina 
Babylonis, was played at the Zangverbond. 
After producing two operas with moderate 
success, he went in 1849 to Paris, and then 
to Spain, where his fantaisie, Sobre motivos 
espanoles, won him the Order of Isabella la 
Catolica. After a visit to Italy he returned 
to Ghent in 1852, and in the following years 
brought out, principally in Paris, several suc- 
cessful ojjeras, which won him popular favour 
in France as well as at home. In 1857 he 
received the Order of Leopold for his can- 
tata, De natiouale verjaerdag, for the 25th 
anniversary of the reign of Leopold. In 
1867 he became chef-de-chant at the Aca- 
demic de Musique, Paris, a post which he 
held until the Opera was closed by the War 
of 1870. In 1871 he succeeded Fetis at the 
Brussels Conservatoire. He was elected in 
1873 a member of the Academie des Beaux- 
Arts in the place of Mercadante. Works 
• — Operas : Hugues de Somerghem, given in 
Ghent, March 23, 1848 ; La comedie de la 
ville, ib., 1848 ; Georgette, ou le moulin de 
Fontenoy, Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Nov. 27, 
1852 ; Le billet de Marguerite, ib., 1854 ; 
Les lavandieres de Santarem, ib., 1855 ; 



Quentin Durward, Opera Comique, ib., 
1858 ; Le diablo au moulin, ib., 1859 ; 
Chateau-Trompette, ib., 1860 ; La poularde 
de Caux, ib., 1861 ; Les deux amours, the- 
atre of Baden-Baden, 1861 ; Le aqntaine 
Henriot, Opera Comique, Paris, 1864 ; Per- 
tinax, 1884. Le depart, cantata for three 
voices ; Jerusalem, for double chorus with- 
out accompaniment ; Chants lyriques de 
Saiil ; Lc Lion Flamand ; Jacques Van Arte- 
velde, cantata (1863) ; Ik Speek van zoo zel- 
den ; Many Lieder in the collection Neder- 
lansche zangstukkeu (Ghent) ; Flandre au 
Lion, overture ; Transcriptions classiques 



^-^f^^^i^-^r^^r^ 



pour petit orchestre, for the use of the Con- 
servatoire ; Vade-mecum des organistes, 
and many other minor works. — Clement, 
Mus. celebres, 655 ; Fetis, iii. 470 ; do., 
Supplement, i. 375 ; Larousse ; Riemann. 

GEYER, FLODOARD, born in Berlin, 
March 1, 1811, died there, April 30, 1872. 
After studying theology he became the 
pupil of A. B. Marx in composition, and in 
1842 founded the academic Miinnergesang- 
verein and conducted it ; was also one of the 
founders of the Berlin Tonkiinstlerverein. 
He taught theory in the Kullak-Stern Con- 
servatorium in 1851-54, and remained with 
Stern after Kullak's departure until 1866. 
In 1856 he received the title of professor. 
He composed operas, sj'mphonies, songs, 
and chamber music, and was connected 
with the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung and 
the Spener'sche Zeitung for a quarter of a 
century. — Mendel ; Fetis, iii. 472 ; Supple- 
ment, i. 376 ; Riemann. 

GHEBART, GIUSEPPE, born in Pied- 
mont, Nov. 20, 1796, died in Milan, Jan. 22, 
1870. Violinist, pupil of Radicati ; he en- 
tered the royal chapel in Turin in 1814, and 
become solo violinist in 1824. From 1817 
he directed the concerts of the Philharmon- 
ic Academy, iu 1832 was conductor of the 
theatre orchestra, and iu 1846 of the royal 



GHERARDESCIII 



chapel and cliamber music. Works : Violin 
concertos, quartets, and quintets ; Church 
music. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 122 ; Futis, Sup- 
plement, i. 376 ; Wasielewski, Die Violrae, 
107. 

GHERARDESCHI (Gheradesca), FILIP- 
PO, born at Pistoja in 1738, died at Pisa 
in 1808. Dramatic composer and organist, 
pupil of Bosamelli, and subsequently of 
Padre Martini in Bologna. His first opera 
buifa was given in Lucca iu 1763 ; one pro- 
duced at Pisa, in 1769, on the occasion of 
the visit of Leopold, Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany, won him his nomination of maestro 
di cappella to the conventual chapel of the 
Knights of Pisa, and the position of director 
of the court music and teacher of the pi- 
anoforte to the ducal family. When Leo- 
jiold became Emperor, Gherardeschi re- 
mained at the ducal court of Ferdinand 
m., and later became maestro to Louis I. 
de Bourbon, King of Etruria, for whose 
funeral ceremony he wrote a Requiem mass, 
considered one of his best works (1803). 
"Works — Operas : Amor aiiigiano, opei-a 
buffa, Lucca, 1703 ; II curioso indiscreto, 
ib., 1764 ; I visionari, ib., 176.5 ; La Con- 
tessina, ib., 1766 ; L' astuzia felice, ib., 
1767; I due Gobbi, Pisa, 1760.— Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

GHERARDESCHI, GIUSEPPE, born in 
Pistoja, Nov. 4, 17.59, died there in 1815. 
Organist, nephew of Pilipjio Gherardeschi, 
pupil of his father, who was maestro di cap- 
pella of the cathedral at Pistoja, and of 
Sala in Naples ; he succeeded his father. 
He wi'ote much church music, which re- 
mained in manuscript. An opera L' aj^pa- 
renza inganna, was given at Mantua, 1782, 
and at Florence, 1784. — Fotis ; do.. Sup- 
plement, i. 376 ; Mendel; do., Ergiinz., 122. 

GHERARDESCHI, LIHGI, born at Pis- 
toja, July 5, 1791, died there, March 21, 
1871. Cliurch composer, son and pupil of 
Giuseppe Gherardeschi, then at the acade- 
my of Florence pupil of Disma Ugolini in 
counterpoint and compositi(5u, for which 
he carried oflf the first prize ; returned to 



his native city, where he succeeded his 
father as maestro di cappella at the cathe- 
dral. Besides a cantata, Cristoforo Colom- 
bo, performed at the Academy of Pistoja, 
he has composed a great number of masses, 
psalms, hymns, and motets, j)artly a cap- 
pella, partly with organ or orchestra. — Fe- 
tis, Supplement, i. 376 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 
122. 

GHERARDI, BLASIO, Itsilian composer, 
maestro di ca^jpella of the Cathedral of Ve- 
rona about the middle of the 17th century. 
Works : Motets for 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 voices 
(Venice, 1650). — Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber. 

GHERSEM, GAL'GERIC (Gery) DE, 
born in Tournay about 1570, died there, 
May 25, 1630. At first a chorister iu the 
Cathedral of Tournay, he was a jnipil of 
Georges de la HMe, who kept him iu his 
choir when he became maestro de capilla 
to Philip n. of Spain. Ghersem succeeded 
his master in this position, but returned 
to Brussels in 1604 to become maestro to 
the Governor of the Netherlands. In 1608 
he was made canon of Sainte-Gudule and in 
1614 of the Cathedral of Tourn.ay. His 
masses, motets, and vilhancicos, published 
in Spain, were much esteemed, as he was a 
fine contrapuntist. — Van der Straeten, ii. 1 ; 
v. 130; Fetis; Mendel, iv. 236; Ergiinz., 
122 ; Gerber ; Schilling. 

GHEZZI, IPPOLITO, composer of mo- 
tets, oratorios, etc., living in last years of 
the 17th and early part of the 18th centu- 
ries. He was maestro di cappella of tlie 
Cathedral of Montepulciano. His music 
was published in Florence and Bologna, in 
1699-1708. As a theorist he is known by 
"II setticlave canoro" (Bologna, 1709). 
—Fetis; Mendel. 

GHINASSI, STEFANO, born in Brescia 
in 1731, died (?). Dramatic composer, pu- 
pil of Andrea Labella. He was accompa- 
nist at the Teatro San Samuele, Venice, 
and in 1784-90 was director of the Italian 
Ojiera, Dresden. He was later accompanist 
in Warsaw. Works — Operas : II governa- 
tore deir isole Canarie, Dresden, 1785 ; II 



GPIIRETTI 



seraglio cV Osmanno, ib., 1787 ; Lo strava- 
gante Inglese, ib., 1790. — Fetis ; Mendel ; 
Gerber; Schilling. 

GHIEETTI, GASPAKO, bom in Naples 
in 174:7, died in Parma iu 1827. Violinist, 
piij^il at the Conservatorio dclla Pieta ; be- 
came chamber musician to the Duke of 
Parma. Works : Several books of sonatas, 
and caprices for the violin ; 2 masses, lit- 
anies, and a Stabat Mater for 3 voices. All 
in MS.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GHISELIN (Ghiselain, Ghiseling, Ghise- 
linns), JEAN, Belgian composer of the 15th 
and 16th centuries. Nothing is known of 
his histor}', but he is surmised to have been 
a native of the province of Haiuaut. He 
left five masses, to be found in Petrucci's 
Misspe Diversorum (Venice, 1500), as many 
four-part motets, in the Ith book of Motetti 
della Corona (1505), and a five-part song in 
Glarean's Dodecachordon. — Fetis ; Biog. 
nat. Belg., iii. 730. 

GHIZZOLO (Ghizzola), GIOVANNI, 
born in Brescia, second half of the 16th cen- 
tury, died (?). A Franciscan monk, he vpas 
maestro di cappella to Cardinal Aldobran- 
dini at the Cathedral of Ravenna, and sub- 
sequently in Milan and in Venice. Works : 
2 books of madrigals (Venice, 1608-19) ; 4 
books of motets, canzonets, etc. (1609) ; 
Masses and concertos (1611) ; Psalms (1618); 
Masses, psalms, litanies (1619) ; do. (1624). 
— Fc'tis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

GHYS, JOSEPH, born in Ghent in 1801, 
died iu St. Petersburg, Aug. 22, 1848. 
Violinist, pupil of Lafont ; was professor 
of music at Amiens, and then at Nantes, for 
several years. He was a most excellent 
performer, and from 1832 to 1835 travelled, 
and gave concerts with Servais the violon- 
cellist, with whom he went to England, and 
from 1837 to 1848 travelled through Ger- 
many and the north of Europe. Works : 
L'orage, grande etude pour violon seul, 
op. 5 (Berlin) ; Sixieme air varie ; Mouve- 
ment perpetuel, caprice de concert, violon 
et quatuor, op. 36 ; Triste pensOe, melodie ; 
Pensee fixe, grand agitato pour violon et 



piano, op. 37 ; Concerto pour violon et or- 
chestre, op. 40 (Mayence) ; Romances pour 
voix avec accompagnement de piano. — Fe- 
tis ; Biog. nat. Belg., vii. 746 ; Wasielewski, 
Die Violine. 386. 

GIACCHi: jNIORIR NON POSSO, con- 
tralto aria of Zenobia, in C minor, with ac- 
companiment of violins in unison, viola, and 
bass, in Handel's Radaminto, Act II. Pub- 
lished, with additional accompaniments, by 
Robert Franz, Leij^sie, Kistner. 

GIACOBBI, GIROLAMO, born in Bo- 
logna about 1575, died there, Nov. 30, 
1630. Dramatic composer, one of the 
founders of the Bolognese school. He was 
maestro di cappella of S. Petronio, Bo- 
logna, and founder of the Accademia dei 
Filomusi, which met at his house. His 
oj^era Andromeda, 1610, was one of the 
first, if not the first, given in Bologna. His 
masses and motets, which were in Padre 
Martini's collection of MS., now belong to 
the Convent of S. Francesco, Bologna. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel ; Ambros, iv. 294. 

GIACO^MELLI, GEMINIANO, born at 
Parma in 1686, died at Naples, Jan. 19, 1743. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Cajjelli ; he 
wrote his first opera when only eighteen 
years old. The Duke of Parma became his 
patron, and sent him to finish his studies in 
Naples under Scarlatti. After composing 
operas for the principal theatres of Italy, 
he went to Vienna as chamber musician to 
Charles VI., returning in 1731 to Naples. 
Works — Operas : Ipermestra, given at Par- 
ma, Teatro Farnese, 1704 ; Catone iu Utica, 
L'Arrenione, Vienna, about 1720 ; Epami- 
nondas, Naples, 1731 ; Lucio Papirio, Ve- 
rona, 1734 ; Merope, Venice, 1734 ; Cesare 
in Egitto (his best work), Turin, 1735 ; Ar- 
sace, ib., 173C. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemann ; 
Schilling. 

GIAMBERTI, GIUSEPPE, born in Rome, 
second half of the 16th century, died there 
in 1630. Church composer, pupil of Na- 
nini and of Agostini ; maestro di cappella of 
the Cathedral of Orvieto and subsequently 
assistant maestro, and iu 1629 fall maestro, 



GIANELLA 



of S. M. Maggiore, Rome. He is best 
known for his corrections of the Eoman 
Antiplional service published in Rome 
twenty years after his death. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

GIANELLA, LIHGI, Italian flutist, who 
went to Paris about 1800 ; died there in 
1817. Was first flute at the Opera Boufle, 
then established at the Theatre de la laie de 
la Victoire. Works : L'argent fait tout, 
ballet, La Scala, Milan, 1790 ; L'ofiicier co- 
saque, opera (with Dumonchau), given at 
the Theatre de la Porte Saint-Martin, 1805 ; 
Acis et Galatee, ballet, Opera, 180C ; Three 
concertos for flute and orchestra ; Quintets, 
trios, duos, nocturnes, for flute and other 
instruments ; Romances, with pianoforte. 
— Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 377 ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

GIANETTINI (Zauettini), ANTONIO, 
born in Venice in 1049, died at Modena, 
August, 1721. Dramatic composer, became 
maestro di cappella to the court of Modena 
in 1G8G. He w'as called to Hamburg to 
bring out some of his 02)eras in 1C9;?. 
Works — Operas : Medea in Atene, Venice, 
1676 ; Aurora, ib., 1678 ; Irene e Costan- 
tino, ib., 1G81 ; Ermione, Hamburg, 1G9.5 ; 
I presagi di Melissa, IModena, 1709 ; L'in- 
gresso alia gioventti di Nerone. Oratorios : 
La creazione de' magistrati di Mosl' ; Amore 
alia Catena ; L' uomo in Bivio ; La morte 
di Cristo, Vienna, 1704 ; Jefte ; II martirio 
di Santa Giustina ; Several cantatas ; Salmi 
a quattro voci con stromenti (Venice, 1717) ; 
Kyrie for 5 voices and instruments. — Fetis ; 
Eiemann. 

GIANNETTI, RAFFAELE, born at Spo- 
leto, April IG, 1817, died in Naples in Au- 
gust, 1872. Dramatic composer, pupil at 
the Couservatorio, Naples, in 1837-4:4 ; 
studied under Lanza, Spalletti, Cimarosa the 
younger, Busti, Crescentini, Ruggi, Parisi, 
and Donizetti. Published vocal melodies 
and church music. Works : La colomba 
di Barcelona, opera, Naples, 1855 ; Church 
music ; Songs. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 378 ; 
Meudel, Ei-giinz., 123. 



GLkNNI DI CALAIS (Jean de Calais), 
opera buffa, text by Gilardoni, music by 
Donizetti, first represented in Naples, 1828, 
and in Paris, at the Theatre Italien, Dec. 
17, 1833. An opera of the same title, mu- 
sic by Giacomo Panizza, was given at Trieste, 
1834 ; and another, music by Giovanni Pa- 
cini, at Naples, 1838. 

GIANNI DI PARIGI(Jean de Paris), Ital- 
ian opera, text by Romaui, music bj' Doni- 
zetti, represented in Milan, Sept. 10, 1839. 
The libretto is an adaptation of Jaan de 
Paris by Saint-Just and Boieldieu (1812). 
Romani's version had been previously set 
to music by Morlacchi, Milan, May 30, 1818, 
and by Giovanni Antonio Speranza, Naples, 
August, 183G. 

GLySfNINA E BERNADONE, Italian 
opera in two acts, music by Cimarosa, rep- 
resented in Venice, 1781, in Vienna, 1784, 
in Naples, 1788 and in Paris, July 18, 1801. 

GIANNINI, GIO'S'ACCHINOi born at 
Lucca, March 20, 1817, died in Brazil in 
18G1. Pianist and organist, pupil of Do- 
menico Fauucchi and Marco Santucci. 
Went to Brazil in 1843 or 1844. Works : 
Two cantatas for several voices and instru- 
ments ; Several pieces of church music, for 
two, three, and four voices, a cappella, 
1840-43 ; Music to Mauzoui's cantata, II 
quinto di Maggio. — Fetis, Supi)lrment, i. 
378 ; Mendel, Ergiiuz., 123. 

GL\NNINI, SALVATORE, born in Na- 
ples, Dee. 24, 1830. Pianist, pupil of Giu- 
se^jpe Lillo. He wrote an opera, several 
elementary works, and a number of piano- 
forte and sacred pieces. — Fetis, Supi^le- 
ment, i. 378 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 123. 

GIANOTTI, PIETRO, born in Lucca, 
died in Paris, June 19, 17G5. Contrabass- 
ist, pupil of Rameau ; was engaged at the 
Opera, Paris, in 1739-58. He became cele- 
brated as a teacher. Works : 6 books of 
sonatas for violin and violoncello ; Duos ; 
Trios ; Songs. Author of " Guide du com- 
positeur" (Paris, 1859), an instruction book 
on Rameau's system. — Fetis ; Burney, Hist., 
iv. 626 ; Mendel ; Riemann. 



GIANSETTl 



GIANSETTI (Gianzetti), GIOYANNI 
BATTISTA, Composer of the Roman 
school, maestro di cappella of S. Giovanni in 
Laterauo, Rome, in l(JG7-73. He published 
5G motets for 2, 3, 4, 5, and G voices. His 
reputation rests on a mass for 48 voices iu 
12 clioruses, executed at S. M. sopra Mi- 
nerva, Aug. 4, 1675. — Fi'tis ; Mendel. 

GIARDINI, FELICE DE', born in Turin, 
April, 171G, died in Moscow, Dec. 17, 1796. 
Dramatic composer and violinist, chorister in 
the Milan Cathedral, pupil in Milan of Pala- 
dini in singing, the harpsichord, and har- 
monj', and in Turin of Somis on the violin. 
After jjlaying iu the opera band in Rome and 
iu the Teatro S. Carlo, Naples, he made a 
tour through Germany, and played in Paris 
in 1748-49. In 1750 he appeared in London, 
where he was greatly admired for the mel- 
lowness of his tone and the brilliancy of his 
execution. In 1752 he became leader at 
the Italian Opera and in 175G undertook its 
management, but met with pecuniary loss. 
He was manager again, however, in 17G3- 
65. In 1774-80 he was leader at the Pan- 
theon concerts, iu 1782-83 again at the 
Opera, and in 1784 went to Italy with the 
intention of remaining ; but in 1790 he re- 
turned to London and tried to establish 
there an Italian Opera, failing in which 
he took his troupe to Russia, where he 
died. Giardini was one of the greatest 
violinists of his time and had no rival in 
London until Cramer appeared. His best 
works are his pieces for the violin, his operas 
meeting with little success. He owned Co- 
relli's violin and always used it at his con- 
certs. Works — Operas : Euea e Laviuia, 
London, 1756 ; Love in a Village, ib., 1757 ; 
Rosmira, ib., 1757 ; Cleonice, ib., 1764 ; 
Siroe, ib., 17G4. Oratorio, Ruth, London, 
1752. Chamber music : 4 sets of violin 
solos, op. 1, 7, 8, 16 ; 12 solos, op. 19 ; G 
violin duets, op. 2 ; 6 sonatas for j)ianoforte 
and violin, ojd. 3 ; 12 violin concertos, op. 
4, 5, 15 ; 3 sets of trios for stringed instru- 
ments, op. 6, 14, 20 ; 6 quintets for piano- 
forte and string instruments, op. 11 ; 12 




quartets for string instruments, op. 20, 29 ; 
Songs, catches, etc. — Fetis ; Grove ; Men- 
del ; Schilling ; Hart, The Violin, 233 ; 
Burney, History, iv. 521 ; Wasielewski, Die 
Violine, 98 ; Dubourg, The Violin, 81. 

GIASONE (Jason), Itahan opera, text 
by Giacomo Andrea Cicognini, music by 
Francesco Cavalli, represented in Venice, 
1G49. The original score in MS. is pre- 
served iu the library of S. Marco, Venice. 

GIBBONS, CHRISTOPHER, born in 
1615, died in Lou- 
don, Oct. 20, 1G76. 
Organist, sou of Oi- 
lando Gibbons, pu- 
pil of Edward Gib- 
bons in the choir of 
Exeter Cathedral. 
He was organist of 
Winchester Cathe- 
dral iu 1G40-44; 
served in the Royalist army, and in 1660 
became organist of the Chapel Royal, pri- 
vate organist to Charles II., and organist of 
Westminster Abbey. Mus. Doc, Oxford, 
July 7, 1GG4. Works : Anthems in MS. ; 
Hymns in Dering's "Cautica Sacra" (1G74). 
— Grove ; Fotis. 

GIBBONS, Rev. EDWARD, born about 
1570, died after 1650. Organist, probably 
son of William Gibbons, one of the AVaits 
of Cambridge. He graduated as Mus. Bac. 
at Cambridge, and on July 7, 1592, was in- 
corporated at Oxford. He was organist, 
priest-vicar, sub-chanter, and master of the 
choristers of Bristol Cathedral in 1592- 
1611, and organist and custos of the col- 
lege of priest-vicars of Exeter Cathedral in 
1611—44. Some of his compositions are in 
the Music School at Oxford ; and an an- 
them. How hath the city sate solitary, with 
prelude for the organ and accompaniment 
for viols, is in the Trelawney collection, 
British Museum. — Grove ; Fetis. 

GIBBONS, ELLIS, born at Cambridge, 
England, second half of 16th century. Or- 
ganist, brother of Rev. Edward Gibbons. 
He was organist of Salisbury Cathedral at 



u-6 



GIBBONS 




the latter end of the IGth centuiy, and un- 
til about the year 1601. He contributed 
two madrigals, Long live fair Oriana, and 
Round about her chariot, to " Triumphs of 
Oriana" (1601).— Grove, i. ; Fetis. 
GIBBONS, ORLANDO, born at Cam- 
bridge, E n g - 
land, in 1583, 
died at Canter- 
bury, June 5, 
1625. Brother 
of the two pre- 
ceding, and 
the most fa- 
mous of the 
family. He 
got his early 
musical education probably at Cambridge, 
in the choirs of some of the college chapels. 
He succeeded Arthur Cock as organist at 
the Chapel Royal, March 21, 1604. In 
1610 he published some three-part fantasies 
for viols, the first musical jjublicatiou from 
copper plates in England. In IGll he as- 
sociated himself with Byrd and Dr. Bull in 
compiling and publishing the "Pai-thenia." 
In 1612 ho published his first set of five- 
voice madrigals and motets. He was made 
Bachelor and Doctor of Music at Oxford, 
in May, 10'^'', at the request of Camden the 
historian. In 1623 he was appointed to 
succeed Parsons as organist at Westmin- 
ster Abbey. In 1625 he was summoned to 
Canterbury to attend the nuptials of Charles 
I., for which he had composed some music, 
and there he caught the small-pox, of which 
he soon died. Gibbons was undoubtedly 
the finest English oi'ganist of his time, as 
well as one of the greatest composers of 
English birth. His fame rests mainly on 
his chiu'ch music, which gained him the 
nickname of " the English Palestriiia " ; 
for simple, solemn grandeur, and i3urity 
of style it is hardly to be excelled. Much 
of it was printed in Barnard's Church 
Music, and in Boyce's Cathedral Music ; 
the rest in a volume edited by Ouseley in 
1873. His madrigals are among the best 



of the English school, and were reprinted 
bj- the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1811. 
Works : Morning and Evening Service, in 
F ; Te Deum and Jubilate, in D minor ; 
Veuite exultemus, in F ; Te Deum and 
Benedictus, do. ; Fii'st Preces, do. ; Second, 
in G ; 23 Anthems ; Hymns ; 20 Madrigals 
and Motets ; 9 Fantasies in 3 parts, for 
viols ; 6 pieces for the virginals ; Galiards, 
fantasias, pavans, etc. — Grove ; Fetis ; 
Athenreum (1885), ii. 644. 

GIBELLI, LORENZO, died at Bologna 
in 1811. Church composer, one of the 
last pupils of Padre Martini ; maestro di 
cappella of S. Salvatorc, and of S. Barto- 
lommeo, and later at the church of the 
Theatines. Member of the Accademia fil- 
armonica, 1743, principe in 1753. His 
works are preserved in the library of S. 
Bartolommeo. — Pancaldi, Vita di D. GibeUi, 
celebre contrappuntista e cantore (Bologna, 
1830). 

GIBELLmi (GhibelUni), ELISEO, born 
at Osimo, Marches of Ancona, Itah', about 
1520. Church composer, maestro di cajv 
pella at Ancona until 1581. He published 
in Venice : Motetta super piano cantu ( 1546) ; 
Motettorum cum quinque vocibus (1548) ; 
Madrigali a tre voci (1552) ; Introitus mis- 
sarum de testis per cursum anni (Rome, 
15G5) ; II primo libro de' Madrigali a cinque 
voci (1581). — Fetis; Riemann. 

GIBEIIT (Gisbert, Gispert), FRANCIS- 
CO JAVIER, born at Granadella, Spain, 
second half of 18th century, died in Madrid, 
Feb. 27, 1848. Pupil of Antonio Sala ; 
maesti'o de capilla at Tarazona in 1800-08, 
then of the convent in Madrid where he 
died. Works : Motets ; Masses ; and other 
church music. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 370 ; 
Baltazar Saldoni in Efemerides de musicos 
esiJanoles ; Mendel, Ei-giinz., 123. 

GIBERT, PAUL CESAR, born at Ver- 
sailles in 1717, died in Paris in 1787. Dra- 
matic composer. Studied music in Naples 
with the best masters, and settled in Paris to 
teach music. His operas were played at the 
Comedie Italienne. The best known are: 



144 



GIBSONE 



La sibylle, 1738 ; Le carnaval d'<'to, 1759 ; 
La fortune au village, 1760 ; Soliman, ou 
les trois sultanas, 17G1 ; Aj)elle et Cam- 
paspe, 1703. He wrote also for the Aca- 
demie royale de Musique Deucalion et 
Pyrrba, about 1770.— F6tis ; Meudel ; 
Schilling. 

GIBSONE, IGNACE, born in London in 
182G or 1827, still hving, 1889. Pianist, 
pupil of Moscheles ; aj^peared at Brussels, 
181:5, at Baden, Homburg, Frankfort, Wies- 
baden, Darmstadt, Berlin, 1840, returned to 
London in 1850. Works : An opera (5IS.) ; 
Elfin Knight, cantata ; Wood Nymphs, do. 
for female voices ; Two symphonies ; Sonatas 
for violin and jjianoforte ; Pianoforte pieces, 
and Songs. 

GIDE, CASIMIR, born in Paris, July 4, 
1804, died there, Feb. 18, 1868. Dramatic 
composer, jjupil of Dourleu at the Paris 
Conservatoire. Works — Ojieras : Les trois 
Marie, Tht'atre des Nouveautes, 1828 ; Le roi 
de Sicile, given at the Opera-Comique, 1830 ; 
Les trois Catherine (with Adam), Theatre des 
Nouveautc'S, 1830 ; Les jumeaux de la Ee- 
ole, ib., 1831 ; L'Angelus, OjK'ra-Comique, 
1834 ; Beljjhegor (unpublished) ; Fraujoise 
de Eimiui (do.) ; ballets : La chatte blanche 
(with Adam), Theatre des Nouveauti's, 1830 ; 
La tentation (with Halevy), Ojaera, 1832 ; 
L'ile des pirates (with Carliui), ib., 1835 ; 
Le diable boiteux, ib., 1836 ; La voliere, 
ib., 1838 ; La tarentule, ib., 1839 ; Ozai, ib., 
1847. — Futis ; do., Suijpk'ment, i. 379 ; 
Mendel ; do., Erganz., 123. 

GIGAULT, NICOLAS, born at Claye 
(Brie), France, about 1645, died (?) He was 
one of the best French organists of the 
17th century, pupil of Titelouze ; published 
organ music in 1685. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GIGOUT, EUGi:NE, born at Nancy, 
March 23, 1844, still living, 1889. Organ- 
ist, pupil of Bazile Maurice and Mess, organ- 
ists of the cathedral of Nancy, and in Paris 
of Dietsch, Saint-Saens, and Loret. He was 
professor of plain-chant and of solfege in 
Niedermeyer's school of sacred music, Paris, 
and oi-gauist of Saiut-Augustin from 1863. 



He has written a great deal of church music. 
— Fetis, Supplement, i. 379 ; Mendel, Er- 
ganz., 123. 

GIL, FEANCISCO ASSIS, born at Cadiz, 
Spain, in 1829, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, pupil in Brussels of Fetis in 1850- 
53, took the first j)nze in composition, and 
after his return to Spain was appointed 
professor of harmony at the Conseiwatorio, 
Madrid. He wrote a treatise on harmony 
(1850), au elementary treatise on same 
(1856), and composed several ojjeras for the 
theatre at Madrid. — Fetis ; do., Suj)ple- 
meut, i. 380 ; Mendel. 

GIL Y LLAGOSTEEA, CAYETAN, born 
in Barcelona, Spain, Jan. 6, 1807, still living, 
1889 (?). Flutist, pupil of Andrevi, Fran- 
cisco Berinij and Calcante. He played first 
flute in the orchestra of the cathedral and 
in the theatre of Barcelona twenty-two years. 
W'orks : Symphonies ; Masses ; Eequiem ; 
Dance music for orchestra ; Flute music, 
etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 380 ; Mendel, 
Ergilnz., 124. 

GILBERT, ALFRED, born in Salisbury, 
England, in 1828, still living, 1889. Pianist, 
pupil at the Eoyal Academy of Music. 
Member of Philharmonic Society, and of 
Eoyal Society of Musicians ; do. of Academy 
of St. Cecilia, Eome, 1884. Works: The 
Eival Eoses, dramatic scene, 1883 ; Trios 
for pianoforte and strings ; Quintet. 

GILBEET, ALPHONSE, born in Paris, 
Feb. 2, 1805, still living, 1889 (?). Violon- 
cellist and organist, pupil at the Paris Con- 
servatoire from 1822 ; won the 2d grand 
prix in 1827, for the cantata Orphee. He 
was a member of the Odeon orchestra, and 
organist at Notre Dame de Lorette ; won 
first government prize for historic and sa- 
cred songs, 1847. Has published masses, 
motets, cantatas, and organ music. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

GILBEET, THOMAS BENNETT, born 
in Salisbury, Oct. 22, 1833 (March 15, 
1835?), died in London, May 11, 1885. 
Instrumental and vocal composer, pupil at 
the Eoyal Academy of Music, 1847, and at 



145 



GILBERT 




the Conservatorium, Leipsic, of Moscheles, 
Hauptmann, Eicliter, Rietz, etc., 1852. Or- 
ganist of different 
churches, 1853-67, af- 
terward singing teach- 
er in London. He 
used sometimes the 
names Ernest Bennett 
Gilbert and Charles 
Bennett as pseudo- 
nyms. Works : Das 
Stelldichein, operetta, 
Leipsic, 1851 ; A 
Night in Fairj-land, do., Surrey theatre, 18G1 ; 
Eamiro, dramatic cantata, 1879 ; Concert 
overture, 1853 ; Overture to Merry Wives 
of Windsor, 1854 ; String quartets ; Trio 
for pianoforte, violin and violoncello ; Part- 
songs, and songs ; Pianoforte music. 

GILBERT, WALTER BOND, born of 
English parentage in Exeter, England, April 
29, 1829, still living, 1889. Organist ; ar- 
ticled pupil of Alfred Angel, organist of Ex- 
eter cathedral, under whom he studied the 
organ, the pianoforte, composition, and 
choir-training ; then pupil of Dr. S. S. Wesley, 
organist of Winchester cathedral, in organ 
playing and composition, and afterward of 
Sir Henry Bishop in instrumentation. He 
was organist in 1847—19 at Topsham ; 
1849-53 at Bideford ; 1853-58 at Tmi- 
bridge ; 1858-G5 at Maidstone ; 1865-G7, of 
St. INIargaret's Church, Loudon ; and 18G7- 
69 in Boston, Lincolnshire. In 1869 he 
went to America and became organist of 
Trinitj' Chapel, New York, a position he 
still holds. lu 1854 
the degree of Mus. 
B a c . was conferred 
upon him by the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, in 
1886 that of Mus. Doc. 
by the University of 
Toronto, and in 1888 
Mus. Doc. by Oxford. 
He has been also a 
fellow of the London College of Organists 
since its foundation in 1864. Mi-. Gilbert 




aided in preparing the historical part of 
Hopkins and Rimbault's " History of the 
Organ." Works : Songs : Once 'twas my 
Hope, Never more, 1849 ; Madrigal, I had 
both money and a friend, 1854. Piano- 
forte : Fantasias, 1856 ; Cecilia's Medita- 
tion, 1856. Organ : 3 Pieces, 1856 ; 10 
Preludes and Fugues, 1876. Oratorios : 
Saint John, 1857 ; Restoration of Israel, 
1859 ; 19 services for Trinity Chapel, New 
York, composed between 1870-87 ; and 
about 25 anthems for the same church, com- 
posed between 1870-88. He has prepared 
also the following collections of church mu- 
sic : Parish Church Manual, 1854 ; The 
Canticles, 185G ; Church Chorister, 1872 ; 
Hvmnal, 1872. 
GILCHRIST, ^ATLLIAM WALLACE, 
born of American par- 
entage in Jersey City, 
New Jersey, Jan. 8, 
1846, still li'ving, 1889. 
Organist, j^upil at the 
University of Pennsyl- 
vania of H. A. Clai'ke ; 
was for a time solo 
baritone of Holy 
Trinity Church, and 
of St. Mark's Church, 
Philadelphia. In 1872 he went to Cincin- 
nati and became choir-master of the First 
New Jerusalem Society of that city, and in- 
structor in the Cincinnati Conservatory ; 
in 1873 he returned to Philadelphia and 
was for four years choir-master of St. 
Clement's Church. Since 1877 he has been 
organist and choir-master of Christ Church, 
Germantown, Penn., and since 1882 in- 
structor in the Philadeljjhia INIusical Acad- 
emy. He is conductor of the following 
musical associations: Philadelphia Festival 
Chorus, Amphion Society, The Arcadian, 
Mendelssohn Club, Germantown Choral, 
West Philadelphia Choral. Works: 46th 
Psalm, for soli, chorus, orchestra, and organ 
(Cincinnati Festival prize, 1882) ; Song of 
Thanksgiving, for chorus and orchestra ; 
The Rose, cantata, New York, Feb'. 8, 




146 



GILDEMYN 



1887 ; 3 m.ale choruses ; Ode to the Sun ; 
Autumn ; Dreaming (New York Mendels- 
sohn Glee Club prize, 1880) ; also many 
pieces of churcli music, songs, etc., and 
unpublished music, both vocal and instru- 
mental. 

GILDEmN, CHARLES FERDINAND, 
born in Bruges, Aug. IS, 1791, died there, 
March 22, 185i. Organist, pupil of Govaert 
and Thienpont, chorister of Notre Dame de 
Bruges, and organist of that church from 
1807. He was awarded a silver medal by 
the Soeictc Royale des Beaux-Arts in 181G, 
for his cantata, Waterloo. His opei-a-co- 
mique, Edmond et Henriette, was repre- 
sented at Bruges, Sept. 15, 1819. He com- 
fiosed church music also. — Fctis, Supple- 
ment, i. 381 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 121. 

GHiES, NATHANIEL, born in Worces- 
tershire, England, about the middle of the 
16th century, died at Windsor, Jan. 24, 
1633. Organist, chorister of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1559-61, and clerk of the 
same in 1577. In 1595 he was clerk, or- 
ganist, and master of the choristers in St. 
George's chapel, Wiudsoi', and in 1597 
gentleman and master of the children of 
the Chapel Royal. Mus. Bac, Oxford, 
1585, Mus. Doc, 1622. He contributed to 
Leighton's " Teares or Lamentacions of a 
Sorrowfull Soule " (1614) ; A service and 
anthem by him were printed in Barnard's 
Church Music (1641), and other anthems 
are in MS. Hawkins prints a curious 
" Lesson of Descant of thirtie eighte Pro- 
portions of sundrie kindes," in the Apjjen- 
dix to his History of Music. — Grove ; Fetis. 

GILLE ET GILLOTIN, opera-comique 
in one act, in verse, text by Thomas Sauvage, 
music by Ambroise Thomas, represented at 
the Opera Comique, April 22, 1874. It was 
written in 1861.— Clement, Diet. Lyr., Sup- 
plement, iii. 

GILLES, JEAN, born at Tarascou in 
1669, died in 1705. Maitre de chapelle at 
Aix, Provence, and subsequently at Agde. 
Celebrated in the south of France for his 
church compositions, he was called in 1697 



to direct the maitrise of Saint-l^tienne, 
Toulouse. A famous Messe des Morts by 
him, preserved in the National Library, 
Paris, was plaj'ed at Rameau's funeral cere- 
monies. — Fetis ; Mendel, iv. 246 ; Ergilnz, 
124 ; Gerber. 

GILLIERS, JEAN CLAUDE, born in 
Paris in 1667, died there in 1757. Dra- 
matic composer, first vdolin at the Comedie 
Franyaise, one of the first writers of music 
for vaudevilles, divertissements, etc., at the 
Comedie Italienne and the Comedie Fran- 
<;aise. Works : L'hymenee royal, 1699 ; 
Cephale et Procris, 1711 ; La foire de Gui- 
bray, Le tombeau de Nostradamus, 1714 ; 
Parody on Telemaque, La ceinture de Ve- 
nus, 1715 ; Les dieux a la foire, 1724 ; 
L'amante retrouvee, 1727 ; Sancho Pan<;a, 
gouverneur, ou la bagatelle, Le bouquet 
du roi, 1730 ; La niece vengee, ou la dou- 
ble surprise, 1731 ; La fille sauvage, Le 
pot-pourri comique, Sojihie et Sigismoud, 
1732 ; La premiere representation, Lucas 
et Perrette, 1734, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 381 ; Poisot, Hist, de la Mus. en France. 

GIMENEZ HUGALDE, CIRIAQUE, 
born in Pampeluna, Spain, Feb. 5, 1828, 
still living, 1889. Church composei', pupil 
at the Madrid Conservatorio of Eslava. He 
was maestro de ca23illa of the primatial 
church of Toledo in 1865. Works: Motets ; 
Masses ; Psalms, etc. A Miserere by him 
is celebrated. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 382 ; 
Mendel, Ergiinz., 124. 

GIMENO, JOAQUIN, born at Santo Do- 
mingo de la Calzada, Nov. 21, 1817, died at 
Nivelles, Brabant, Nov. 29, 1849. Church 
composer, member in 1834 of the Society of 
Jesus, Madrid. On the suppression of the 
religious orders in Spain he went to Bel- 
gium, and taught in the College of Saint- 
Michel, Brussels. His church compositions 
have an orchestral as well as an organ ac- 
companiment. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GINESTET, (FRANCOIS REGIS) PROS- 
PER, Vicomte DE, born at Aix, Provence, 
about 1796, died in 1860. Dramatic com- 
poser, served in the Gardes du Corps under 



GINOU^fiS 



Louis XVnL Works — Operas : L'orplic- 
lin et le brigadier, given in Paris, 1827 ; 
Franyois lier ii Chambortl, ib., 1830 ; Le 
mort fiancL', ib., 1833. Pianoforte and violin 
music. — Fotis, iv. G ; do.. Supplement, i. 
382 ; Larousse ; Mendel. 

GINOUVfiS, FERDINAND, born at Cay- 
enne in 18-44, died at Marseilles, August, 
1888. Pianist, pupil from 185G at the Mar- 
seilles Conservatoire, wliere Le won the 
pianoforte prize ; became professor of the 
pianoforte in 1867. Wrote operas-comiques. 
Works : Wilfride, grand opera in five acts, 
given at Mai-seilles, 1809 ; Le violou de 
Stradivarius, opera-comique, ib., 1877. 
Songs, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 382. 

GIOCONDA, LA, opera in four acts, text 
by Arrigo Boito, music by Amilcare Pon- 
cbielli, first represented at La Scala, Milan, 
April 8, 1876. The libretto is an adapta- 
tion of Victor Hugo's drama, " ^\jigelo.'" 
This oj)cra, one of the best of the modern 
Italian school, had a success iu Italy ex- 
ceeded bj' Aida oulj-. It had tlie same en- 
thusiastic recejjtion at the Teatro Carlo 
Felice, Genoa, and the Pagliano, Florence, 
as at Milan. 

GIOEDANI, Padre DOMENICO AN- 
TONIO, church composer, maestro di cap- 
pella of the Cathedrals of Narni and Ilieti, 
and of the church of the SS. Aj)ostoli in 
Home ; became a monk in the convent of 
Eocca Sinibalda. His ofifertories were pub- 
lished in Rome in 1724. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GIORDANI, GIUSEPPE (caUed II Gior- 
danello), born in Naples in 1744 (1753 ?), 
died at Fermo, Jan. 4, 1798. Dramatic com- 
poser, violinist, and pianist, jiupil at theCon- 
servatorio of Loreto, where he was a fellow- 
student of Cimarosa and Zingarelli. Joined 
his family, 1772, in Loudon, whither they 
bad gone in 1762, and became composer for 
the troupe they formed. Was also much in 
vogue as a teacher, and published a great deal 
of violin music, lessons for the hari^sichord, 
etc., between 1776 and 1782. Returned to 
Italy and remained there ten j'ears, produc- 
ing in that time 24 ojjeras, and oratorios ; 



went to Lisbon to conduct Italian opera, and 
iu 1791 was called to Fermo, as maestro di 
cappella of the cathedral. Works — Operas : 
L' astuto in imbroglio, given at Pisa, 1771 ; 
Artaserse, pasticcio, London, 1772 ; Anti- 
gone, ib., 1773 ; II bacio, opera bufi'a, ib., 
1774-79 ; II ritoruo d' Ulisse, Mantua, 1782 ; 
Aeomato, Pisa, 1783 ; Erifile, Bergamo, 
1783 ; Epponinia, Novara, 1783 ; Elpinice, 
Bologna, 1784 ; Tito Maulio, Genoa, 1784 ; 
Pizzarroneir Indie, Florence, 1784 ; Osmaue, 
Bergamo, 1785 ; La Vestale, Modena, 1786 ; 
Ifigenia in Aulide, L' imisegno, ossia chi la 
fa' r asjietta, Ferdiuaudo nel Messico, Rome, 
1780 ; I ripieghi fortunati, intermezzo, Al- 
ciade e Telesia, Rome, 1787 ; Cajo Ostilio, 
Faenza, 1788 ; Ariai-ate, Turin, 1788 ; La 
distruzioue di Gerusalemmo, II corrivo, 
Naples, 1788 ; La disfatta di Dario, Milan, 
1788 ; Cajo Mario, Venice, 1790 ; Medonte, 
re d' Ejiiro, Rome, 1791 ; Don IMitrillo cou- 
trastato, Venice, 1791 ; Atalanta, Turin, 
1792 ; Demetrio. La morte d' Abele, ora- 
torio, performed at lesi, 1785 ; Le tre ore 
d' agonia di N. S. Giesfi Cristo, do. (MS. 
in the royal library, Berlin). Instrumental 
music : quintets for jnanoforte ; 3 quar- 
tets for do. ; 30 trios ; 6 string quartets ; 3 
concertos for violin and orchestra ; besides 
chuixh music and vocal music, including lit- 
anies, 23salms, 5 books of canzonette for one 
voice. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Schil- 
ling. 

GIORD.AXI, TOT^IMASO, born in Naples 
in 1744, died in Dublin after 1816. Singer, 
comf)osei', and teacher, brother of Giusej)pe 
Giordani, with whom he is often confounded ; 
he was one of a family of opera buffa sing- 
ers in Naples, consisting of a father, two 
sons, and three sisters, who went to Eng- 
land in 1762 and played at the Haymarket. 
He went to Dublin in 1779, associated with 
Leoui to establish an opera, but, failing, set- 
tled there as teacher. Works : Perseve- 
rance, or the third time is the best, opera, 
given at Dublin, 1789 ; Isaac, oratorio ; 5 
books of duos for flute (London, 1775- 
1783) ; 6 trios for flutes, and violoncello ; 



148 



GIOKGETTI 



do. for flutes aud bass ; G duos for violon- 
cellos, op. 5 ; Songs, Italian and English, 
and jfianoforte music. — Grove ; Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

GIORGETTI, FERDINANDO, born in 
Florence, June 25, 179G, died there, March 
23, 18G7. Violinist, pujnl of Francesco 
Giuliani. At tlie age of fifteen he was vio- 
linist in the band of the Queen of Etruria. 
Illness in 1814 making him an invalid, he 
took up composition and teaching, studying 
harmony under Disma Ugolini. In 1839 
he became ijrofessor of the violin at the 
Lyceo, Florence, where he formed many ex- 
cellent ijui^ils, among whom were Giuseppe 
Giovacchini, Corazzi, Ferroni, and Bruni. 
Works : Le turbe nel deserto, oratorio ; 
Violin music ; Church nnisic. — Fotis, iv. 9 ; 
do., Supijlemeut, i. 383 ; Mendel, iv. 2-18 ; 
do., Erganz., 124 ; Schilling. 

GIOEGI, GIOVANNI, born about the 
(tnd of the 17th century, died in January, 
1725. Maestro di cappella of the Chapel of 
S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, in 1719. 
Works : Church music, preserved in MS. in 
S. Giovanni in Laterano and in S. M. Mag- 
giore.— Fetis, iv. 10 ; Mendel, iv. 248. 

GIOEGIS, GIUSEPPE, born in Turin in 
1777, died(?). Violinist, pupil of Colla. 
He appeared in Paris as a virtuoso in 1807, 
entered the royal chapel in Cassel, made 
concert tours in 1813, and .settled in 1820 
in Paris, where, in 1823-34, he was first 
violin at the Opera Comique. He composed 
trios, duets, and other pieces for the violin. 
— Mendel ; Fetis ; Wasielewski, Die Vio- 
line, 131. 

GIORNO D' ORRORE. See Semira- 
m idc. 

GIORNOVICHI (Jarnovich), GIOVANNI 
MANE, bom at Palermo, Sicily, in 1745, 
died in St. Petersburg, Nov. 21, 1804. 
Violin virtuoso, pupil of Lolli, made his first 
concert tour to Paris in 1770, and won great 
success in the Concerts Spirituels by his 
elegant style of playing as well as with his 
own compositions. Called to Berlin in 1779, 
he belonged to the orchestra of the Crown 



Prince until 1783, when he started on a 
concert tour, crowned with brilliant success, 
to St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Vienna (178G), 
and other capitals. In London he was with- 
out a rival until 1792, when Viotti appeared 
there, and he could have held his own 
against this master, but for his irregular 
life and arrogant behaviour which made him 
unbearable there, as before in Paris and 
Berlin. In 179G he went to Hamburg, 
whence he visited Berlin again in 179G aud 
1802, winning undiminished applause ; in 
1802 he went to St. Petersburg, and was 
the lion of the day until Kode's arrival. 
Struck by apoplexy, he died suddenly while 
playing at billiards. His compositions, much 
in favour in their time, consist of IG con- 
certos, 7 symphonies, 6 string quartets, IG 
duos for violins, sonatas for violin and bass, 
aud variations. — Fetis, iv. 429 ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

GIORZA, PAOLO, born in Milan in 1832, 
still living, 1889. The son of an organist 
and singer, who gave him his first musical 
instruction, he is a composer of the higher 
class of ballet music peculiar to Italy. He 
has written more than forty ballets, some of 
which have had a successful run in many of 
the larger cities of Europe. His one opera, 
Corrado, console di Milauo, Milan, 18G0, 
was not successful. He is the author also 
of much dance music, published in the form 
of albums. During the war of 18GG he wrote 
a martial hymn for Garibaldi at the hit- 
ter's request. Principal ballets : Un fallo, 
Milan, 1853 ; I Bianchi ed i Negri, ib., 1853 ; 
Un' avventura di Carnevale a Parigi, Genoa, 
1863 ; Farfalletta, London, 18G3 ; La mas- 
chera, Paris, 18G4 ; Fiammella, Milan, 18GG ; 
La Cai^anna dello zio Tom, Florence ; Fol- 
gore ; La Silfide a Pechino (with Madoglio 
and Sarti) ; Un ballo nuovo ; Cherubina, o 
la rosa di Posilippo ; Pedrilla ; etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 383 ; Mendel, Erganz. , 124. 

GIOSA, NICOLA DA, born at Ban, May 
5, 1820, died there, July 7, 1885. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Naples Consei-va- 
torio, under Pasquale Bongiorno for flute. 



GIOVANELLT 



Ruggi for counterpoint, Zingarelli and Don- 
izetti for composition. He was maestro 
di capisella at diflereut times at the San 
Carlo, Naples, the Fenice, Venice, and at 
the Italian theatres at Buenos Ayres and at 
Cairo. His iivst opera, produced in 1842, 
was fa vourabl}- received, and his Don Checco, 
his best work, represented in 1850, had a 
greater success than any opera Luffa had 
enjoyed for nearly a quarter of a century, 
and still holds its place in the theatres of 
Italy, but none of his m.any other works 
met the popular taste. His albums of vocal 
music, containing romances, melodies, can- 
zoui, etc., more than twenty of which were 
publi-shed in Naples, had a groat success. 
Among them are the following : La cetra 
capricciosa, .'5 melodies ; Stornelli d' amore, 
G ; Gioja e dolore, G ; Le canzoni d" Italia, i ; 
Serenata di Mergcllina, G ; Eco dell' oceano, 
3 ; etc. Besides these ho published masses, 
cantatas, and instrumental pieces. — Fetis, 
iv. 11 ; do., Supph'mcnt, i. 38.5 ; Mendel, 
Ergiinz., 125 ; Ricmann. 

GIOVANELLI, RUGGIERO, born at 
Velletri, near 
Rome, about 
15G0, died after 
1G15. One of 
the best compos- 
ers of the Rom.an 
school, but little 
is known of his 
life. Ho was 
maestro di cap- 
pella of S. Luigi 
de' Francesi, Rome, in 1587, and later of 
the Chiesa dell' Anima of the German Col- 
lege, and was appointed in 1594 successor 
to Palestrina at St. Peter's. In 159!) he be- 
came a member of the Sistino choir. He 
was living in 1G15, in which ye.ar he pub- 
lished the second volume of his new edition 
of the Graduale, undertaken at the request 
of Paul v., and magnificently printed at 
the Medici press. Works : 3 books of five- 
part madrigals (158G, 1587, 1589) ; 2 books, 
four-part madrigali sdruccioli (1587) ; 2 




books, five- and eight-part motets and three- 
part canzonets (1592) ; Villanelle a 3 voci 
(1593) ; Villanelle a 5 voci (1G08) ; Masses, 
motets, psalms in MS. in the Vatican, among 
them a Miserere for four and eight voices 
and a mass for eight, on Palestrina's madri- 
gal Vestiva i colli. Other madrigals are in 
the collections of Scotto and Phalcsius ; and 
motets and psalms in those of Fabio Con- 
stantini and Proske. — Fotis ; Grove ; La- 
rousse. 

GIOVANI LIETI. See Nozze di Figaro. 

GIOVANNA D' ARCO (Joan of Arc), Ital- 
ian opera in three acts, text by Solera, mu- 
sic by Verdi, first represented at La Scala, 
Milan, Feb. 15, 1845. It was given in Paris, 
at the Italiens, Jlarch 28, 1868, with Patti, 
Nicoliui, and Steller in the cast, but with- 
out success. The score contains nuuibors 
of great merit, but the libretto is weak and 
ridiculous. — Hanslick, 222. 

GIOVENTU DI ENRICO QUINTO, LA 
(The Youth of Henry the Fifth), Italian 
ojiera buffa in two acts, text by Landri- 
ani tho composer, music by Herold, repre- 
sented at tho Teatro del Fondo, Naples, 
1815. The libretto is an adajitation from 
Duval's comedy, " La jcune.sse de Henri V." 
The opera, written in the third year of Ho- 
rold's residence in Italy as a pensioner of the 
Acadcmie do France, was a succes.s. The li- 
bretto was printed (Naples, 1815) anonj-- 
mously, but tho music remains in MS. 
Operas of the same title are by J. Mosea, 
Palermo, 1817 ; Carlini, Naples and Milan, 
1820 ; Pacini, Rome, 1821 ; Morlacchi, Dres- 
den, 1823; Garcia, New York, 1827; and 
Mercadante, Milan, 1834.— Grove, i. 731. 

GIPPENBUSCH, JACOB,, born in Speyer 
in 1G12, died July 3, 1GG4. Entered the 
Order of Jesuits in 1629, taught the classics 
in Cologne, and at the same time acted as 
choir-master. Published hymns and mo- 
tets. — Mendel ; Ft'tis ; Gerber. 

GIPSY'S WARNING, THE, English ro- 
mantic opera, text by Linley, music by Ju- 
lius Benedict, first represented at tlie Ly- 
ceum Theatre, London, 1838. This work. 



150 



GIEALDA 



Benedict's first English opera, was given 
afterwards in Berlin and other (Tcrman cities. 

GIBALDA, ou la nouvelle Psjche, opcra- 
comique in three acts, test by Scribe, mu- 
sic by Adolphe Adam, first represented at 
the Opera Comique, Paris, July 20, 1850. 
A king of Spain, accompanied by his queen 
on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, 
stops at the farm of Gines, the betrothed 
of Giralda. She is secretly in love with a 
cavalier whom she has met, but whose face 
she has never seen, he being obliged to con- 
ceal himself on account of some political in- 
trigue. He (Don Manoi'l) gives farmer Giuus 
six hundred ducats to let him take his jjlace 
at the altar on his wedding-day, and so be- 
comes the husband of Giralda. Ou the arri- 
val of the king he is obliged to take to flight, 
and during his absence jjoor Giralda believes 
herself in turn wedded to Gines and then 
to an old seigneur named Don Jaj^het ; but 
at last the queeu secures the pardon of Don 
MauoOl, and he returns to claini his bride. 
This work, the best of the composer's from 
a musical point of view, was well interpreted 
by Miles Miolau and Meyer, and by Messrs. 
Bussine, Audrau, Sainte-Foy, and Ricquier. 
It met with great success throughout France 
and in Germany, and was revived in Paris 
in 18G2 and 187G. — Pougin, Adolphe Adam, 
204 ; Larousse, viii. 12G7. 

GIKANEK, ANTON, born in Bohemia 
about 1712, died at Dresden, Jan. 16, 1761. 
Violinist, lived for some years in Prague, 
then went to Warsaw, where he became 
first violinist in the royal orchestra, after- 
wards director of music in Dresden. He 
composed 24: concertos for the violin, and 
several concertos for pianoforte, flute, and 
viola di gamba. — Fetis ; Meudek 

GIRAED, NARCISSE, born at Mantes, 
France, Jan. 27, 1797, died in Paris, Jan. 
16, 1860. Dramatic composer, pupil at the 
Paris Conservatoire, from 1817, of Baillot 
for violin ; won the 2d prize in 1819 and 
the 1st in 1820. He studied counterpoint 
under Reicha. In 1830-82 he was conductor 
of the orchestra at the Opera Italien, and in 



1837-4G at the Opera Comique. In 184G 
he succeeded Hnbeneck at the Opera, and in 
1856 became director in chief there. He 
also became in 1847 Habeneck's successor 
as professor of the violin in the Conserva- 
toire, and chef d'orchestre of the Socicte 
des Concerts. Legion of Honour, 1843. 
"Works — Operas : Les deux voleurs. Opera 
Comique, Paris, 1841 ; Le conseil des dix, 
ib., 1842. He arranged Beethoven's Sonate 
pathetique as a symphony, and gave it at a 
concert in Paris presided over by Liszt in 
1832.— Fc'tis ; Larousse. 

GIRAUD, FRANgOIS JOSEPH, French 
composer of the 18th century. Violoncel- 
list, member of the orchestra at the Opera, 
Paris, in 1752-67 musician of the royal 
chapel and of the King's chamber music. 
Several of his motets were played at the 
Concerts Spirituels. He wrote Deucalion 
et Pyrrha (with Berton pere), 1755 ; and 
L'opera de sociOte, 1762. He published a 
book of sonatas for the violoncello. — Fetis, 
iv. 14 ; do., Supplement, i. 385 ; Mendel. 

GIRBERT, CHRISTOPH HEINRICH, 
born at Frijhnstockheim, near Crailsheim, 
Wiirtemberg, July 8, 1751, died in Baireuth 
about 1826. Pupil of his stejj-father in 
singing, pianoforte, and organ, then of Can- 
tor Stadler, and settled in Baireuth as a 
teacher in 1769. Became music director 
of Schmidt's travelling company in 1784, 
bringing out seven of his operettas, and re- 
turned to teaching in Baireuth. Works : 
Two symphonies for 8 and 10 instruments ; 
Four concertos for pianoforte ; Eleven for 
do. ; Five quartets for violins. — Mendel ; 
Fetis. 

GIR0FLT5-GIR0FLA, opera-bouffe in 
three acts, text by Vanloo and Leterrier, 
music by Charles Lecocq, first represented 
at the Theatre des Fantaisies Parisiennes, 
Brussels, March 21, 1874. The plot turns 
on the confounding of Girofle and Girofla, 
the two daughters of Don Bolero d'Alcara- 
zas, one of whom is promised in marriage 
to the banker Marasquin, and the other to 
the Moorish warrior Mourzouk. It was 



GIEOUST 



given in Paris, at the Theatre cle la Eenais- 
sance, Nov. 11, 187-1. 

GIllOUST, FRANgOIS, bom iu Paris, 
April 9, 1730, died in Versailles, Aug. 28, 
1799. When maitre de musique iu the 
metropolitan church in Orleans, his psalm, 
Sujjer flumina Babylonis, won the 1st prize 
in 1768 at a government concours, he being 
awarded also the 2d prize. In consequence 
be was called to Paris to become maitre de 
chajjelle of the Church des Innocents, and 
he subsequently held a similar position iu 
the royal chapel, and in 1775 became super- 
intendent of the king's music. His orato- 
rios were jjlayed at the Concerts Spirituels, 
among them, Le passage de la Mer Rouge. 
His motets were composed for the royal 
chajiel. His music is jsreserved in the 
national library, Paris. — Fetis ; Larousse ; 
Mendel. 

GIRSCHNER, CHRISTIAN FRIED- 
RICH JOHANN (or Karl, according to 
Mendel), born at Spaudau in 1794, died at 
Libourne (Gironde) in June, 1860. Dra- 
matic and church composer, studied music 
at Frankfort-ou-the-Oder, and in 1820 went 
to Berlin, where he held a position as or- 
ganist for two years. Logier arriving then 
in Berlin, to establish a school for his new 
method of musical instniction, Girschner 
allied himself with him, and in 1822 became 
director of the Logier Academj-, which 
flourished, however, for scarcely ten years. 
In 1833 he was editor of the Berliner mu- 
sikalische Zeitung, and, having occupied 
various positions at Potsdam, Dantzic, Jena, 
and Aix-la-Chapelle, he finally obtained an 
appointment as organist of the Lutheran 
chapel at Brussels in 1840, and was made 
professor of the organ at the Conservatoire 
in the year following. His intemperate 
habits unfortunately led to his resignation 
from both positions in 1848, after which he 
lived for a few months at Ghent ; for sev- 
eral j'ears nothing was heard of him, until 
1851, when he appeared as chef d'orchestre 
of a theatre at Rochefort, France. "Works : 
Undine, ojsera, given in Berlin, 1830 ; Die 



drei Schulmeister, do., ib., 1834 ; Sympho- 
nies, overtures, psalms, and songs. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

GISELLE, ou les Willis, fantastic ballet 
in two acts, text by ThL'Oj)hile Gautier and 
Saint-Georges, music by Adolphe Adam, 
first represented at the Opera, Paris, June 
28, 1841. Subject derived from a Slav 
legend related by Heinrich Heine in " De 
I'Allemagne " (ii. 60), concerning a noc- 
turnal dance called in the Slav countries 
the Willi. Willis are betrothed girls, who, 
having died before their wedding-day, can- 
not lie quiet in their graves, but come out at 
midnight in their weddmg-garments and, 
crowned with roses, dance in the moon- 
light like elves. If they meet any young 
man, they foi'ce him to dance with them 
untU he falls dead. — Pougin, Adolphe 
Adam, 156 ; Larousse, viii. 1280. 

GIUDITTA (Judith), oratorio, by An- 
tonio Lotti, written for Venice. 

GIUDITTA, oratorio, text and music by 
Benedetto Marcello, 1710. 

GKILI.\NI, FRANCESCO, born in Flor- 
ence in 17G0, died after 1819. Violinist 
and jiianist, jiupil of Nardini on the violin, 
and of Bartolommeo Felici in counterpoint ; 
when quite young he became first violin at 
the Teatro Nuovo in Florence. His violin 
music was j^rinted in Berlin, Amsterdam, 
and London ; he composed also vocal mu- 
sic.-— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GIULIANI, GIOVANNI DOMENICO, 
born in Lucca about 1670, died in 1730. 
He was maestro di cappella of the Church 
of San Michele in Foro of his native place. 
His masses, motets, and psalms are still 
presei-ved there, and are occasionally per- 
formed. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 125 ; Fetis, Sup- 
plement, i. 387. 

GIULIANI, MAUEO, born iu Bologna 
about 1780, died (?). Famous guitarist and 
composer. He settled in Vienna in 1807, 
was in Rome iu 1821, then in St. Peters- 
burg for several years. He wrote much 
music for guitar and orchestra, two guitars, 
etc. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 



152 



GIDLIO 



GIULIO CESARE, Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Nicolo Fraucesco Hajm, music 
by Hamlel, first represented at the King's 
Tlieatre, London, Feb. 20, 1724. The orig- 



/C'^ j,"*"#!*A 




inal MS. score, in the Buckingham Palace 
collection, is dated 1723. Characters rep- 
resented : Giulio Cesare, Curio, Cornelia, 
Sesto Pompeo, Cleopatra, Tolomeo, Achilla, 
Nireno. Senesiuo (Francesco Beruardi, 
called) created a profound impression in 
this work by his magnificent delivery of the 
accompanied recitative, "Alma del gran 
Pomjjeo." Giulio Cesare often reappeared 
on the stage, the last time in 1787, when 
George HI. attended the theatre. Published 
first by Cluer ; full score, Hiindelgesell 



. — llockstro, Handel, 
Schalcher, 70, 90 ; 



schaft (Leipsic, 1875 
139 ; Eeissmanu, 92 
Chrysander, ii. 106. 

GIULIO SABINO, Italian opera in three 
acts, text by lletastasio, music by Giu- 
seppe )Sarti, represented at the Teatro San 
Benedetto, Venice, 1781. Subject founded 
on the story of Julius Sabinus, a noble 
Gaul who, in the time of Vespasian, joined 
Civilis in the revolt against the Roman 
yoke. Defeated and forced to fly for his 
life, he pretended to burn himself in his 
country house, but escaped in the disguise of 
a jDeasant and hid himself in a cave in the 
depths of a forest, where he lived, attended 
by two servants and by his faithful wife 
Epponina, nine years. Betrayed at last, he 
was delivered up to Vespasian, who sent 



both to punishment, Ej^ponina demanding 
to be permitted to die with her husband. 
In the opera the denouement is changed: 
the two prepare to die together when Ti- 
tus, moved to pity by Epponina's devotion, 
pardons Sabinus. The characters are : Giu- 
lio Sabino, Arminio, Annio, Tito, Voadice, 
Epponina. Although a work of the second 
order, Giulio Sabino shows that Sarti was 
possessed of considerable dramatic ability. 
His work was given in other Italian cities 
in 1782, and in Loudon in 1785. The same 
text has been set also by Cherubiui, Lon- 
don, 178G ; and by Tarchi, Turin, 1791. 
— Larousse, xiv. 11 ; Burney, iv. 530. 

GIURAMENTO, IL (The Oath), lyrical 
drama in four acts, text by Rossi, music 
by Mercadante, first represented at La 
Scala, Milan, Dec. 26, 1837, and in Paris, 
at the Theatre Italien, Nov. 22, 1858. The 
libretto is an adaptation of Victor Hugo's 




Marietta Brambilla, 



drama, "Augelo, tyrau de Padoue," but the 
scene is changed to Syracuse, and other 
concessions are made to the Italian taste. 
It is one of the best of Mercadante's 
scores. It was sung at Milan by Carta- 
genova, Pedrazzi, and Mmes Schoberlech- 



GIUSTINO 



ner and Marietta Brambilla ; iu Paris by 
Francesco ami Lodovico Graziani, and 
Mines Penco and Alboni. 

GIUSTINO (Justin), Italian opera in' 
three acts, text by Count Beregoni, music 
by Handel, first represented at Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, London, Feb. 16, 1737. The 
MS., iu Buckingham Palace, is dated at the 
beginning August 1-4, 1736, and at the i 
end Oct. 20, 1736. The text was proba- , 
bly written for Venice, 1683. Characters 
represented : Anastasio, Ariauna, Leocasta, 
Amanzio, Giustino, Vitaliauo, Polidarte, La 
Fortuna, Voce di dentro. It had only five 
representations. Giustino, whose part was 
sung by Gizziello, engages and slays a sea- 
monster to the music of a descriptive sym- 
phony, which was jjarodied by Carey in the 
Dragon of Wantley. Originally published 
by "Walsh ; full score, Hiludelgosellschaft 
(Leiijsic, 1883). — Schcelcher, Handel, 185 ; 
Rockstro, 192 ; Chrysander, ii. 397. 

GIVE ME BACK MY DEAREST 
MASTER. See Gebt mir meinen Jesum 
wieder. 

GLADLY WILL I, ALL RESIGNING. 
See Gerne will ich mich bequemen. 

GLADSTONE, FRANCIS EDWARD, 
born in Oxford, Eng- 
land, March 2, 1845, 
still living, 1889. Or- 
ganist, pupil of S. S. 
Wesley in 1859-64 ; 
organist of Llandaff 
(1860) and Chichester 
(1870) Cathedrals, 
lived in Brighton, 1873 
-76, and London, 1876 
of Norwich Cathedral, 
1877-81, and since of Christ Church, Lan- 
caster Gate, London. Mus. Bac, Cam- 
bridge, 1876 ; Mus. Doc, ib., 1879. Works 
. — Cantatas : Nicodemus, London, 1880 ; 
Philippi, 1882 ; Constance of Calais, 1884. 
Church services ; Anthems ; Trio for piano- 
forte, violin, and violoncello, 1876 ; Organ- 
music ; A wet sheet and a flowing sea, cho- 
rus with orchestra ; Songs. 




4 



77, then organist 



GLASER, FRANZ, born at Ober-Geor- 
genthal, Bohemia, April 19, 1798, died iu 
Copenhagen, Aug. 30 (or 29?), 1861. Dra- 
matic composer, piq^il iu singing, while a 
choir-boy iu the court chapel at Dresden, 
of Mieksch ; at the Prague Conservatorium 
of Pixis on the violin ; and in Vienna of 
Heydeureich in couuterijoiut. He became 
Kapellmeister of the Josephstiidter Theater, 
Vienna, in 1817 ; of the KOuigstiidtisches 
Theater, Berlin, iu 1830 ; and was appointed 
royal Kapellmeister in Copenhagen iu 1842. 
Works — Oj)eras: Der Brief an sich selbst, 
Sauertopfchen, oder der Ritter mit der 
goldenen Gans, given iu Vienna, 1824 ; 
Sonderbare Lauue, ib., 1825 ; Heliodor, 
ib., 1826 ; Elsbeth, oder die Brautschau auf 
Kronstein, Armida, die Zauberiu im Orient, 
ib., 1828 ; Die vier Haimons-Kinder, ib., 
1830 ; Des Adlers Horst, Berlin, 1833 ; 
Aurora, ib., 1836 ; Der Ratteufiluger von 
Hamelu, ib., 1837 ; Das Auge des Teufels, 
ib., 1840 ; Andrea, ib., 1841 ; Die Hochzeit 
am Comosee, ib., 1848 ; and music to many 
dramas, farces, melodramas, pantomimes, 
etc.; Festival overture, Berlin, 1830; Fu- 
neral cantata, ib., 1837. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
ix. 216 ; Fc'tis ; Ledcbur, Tonkihistler Lex- 
icon Berlins, 189 ; Mendel ; Wasielewski, 
354. 

GLASER, KARL GOTTHELF, born at 
Weissenfels, Prussian Saxony, May 4, 1784, 
died at Barmen, Rhenish Prussia, April 
16, 1829. Son and pupil of Karl Lud- 
wig Traugott Gliiser, and studied at the 
Thomasschule of Leipsic under J. A. 
Hiller and A. E. Miiller in pianoforte and 
harmony, and under Campagnoli in violin. 
He began the study of law at Leipsic Uni- 
versitv', but became a teacher and dealer iu 
music in Barmen. He wrote songs, motets, 
chorals, music for pianoforte, and several 
elementary works for musical instruction. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 217 ; Riemann ; 
Mendel. 

GLASER, KARL LLT)WIG TRAU- 
GOTT, bom at Ehrenfriedensdorf, Sax- 
ony, iu 1747, died at Weissenfels, Jan. 31, 



GLEASOlSr 




1797. He was cantor, music director, and 
seminary teacher in Weissoufels. Com- 
posed much manuscript church music, and 
published a collection of minuets and polo- 
naises for the pianoforte. His melody to 
Feinde riugsum, by Karl Gottlob Cramer, 
became widely known, and to the same 
melody Nonne wrote another jwpular text, 
Flamme empor ! — Mendel ; Allgoni. d. Bi- 
ogr., ix. 217 ; Schilling ; Gerber ; Fctis. 

GLEASON, FREDEIUC GIUNT, born, 
of American parentage, 
at Middletown, Con- 
necticut, Dec. 17, 1848, 
still living, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil 
in Hartford on the pi- 
anoforte and in compo- 
sition of Dudley Buck, 
and in 18G9 at the 
Leipsic Conserv.ato- 
riiim on the pianoforte 
of Moscheles, Papjje- 
ritz, and Plaidy, and in theory and compo- 
sition of E. F. Eichter, J. C. Lobo, Pappe- 
ritz, and Oscar Paul. In 1870 he studied 
in Berlin the pianoforte under Oscar Raif 
and A. Loeschhorn, theory and composition 
under C. F. Weitzmann, and the organ 
under August Haupt ; and in London the 
pianoforte under Oscar Beringer. Return- 
ing home in 187.5, he became organist of 
the Asylum Hill Congregational Church in 
Hartford, and in 187(5 of the First Congre- 
gational Church in New Britain. In 1877 
he became teacher of the pianoforte, organ, 
composition, and orchestration in the Her- 
shey School of Music, Chicago, and in 188-t 
examiner, director, and fellow of the Amer- 
ican College of Musicians. He is also musi- 
cal editor of the Chicago Tribune. Works : 
Olho Visconti, grand ojicra in three acts, 
op. 7 (MS.); Montezuma, do. (MS.) ; Ouver- 
ture triomphale, for organ, op. 11 ; God our 
Deliverer, cantata for soli, chorus, and or- 
chestra, op. 12 ; 3 trios for pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello ; Praise Song to Harmony, 
symphonic cantata, for soli, chorus, and or- 



chestra, op. 17 ; Concerto in G minor, for 
pianoforte and orchestra, op. 18. 

GLEISSNER, FKANZ, born at Neustadt 
an der Waldnab, Bavaria, in 17G0, died in 
Munich after 1815. Dramatic and instru- 
mental composer ; completed his philosophi- 
cal and musical studies in Munich, and be- 
came a member of the royal chapel there 
about 1800. He was the first who used 
lithography for printing music, and estab- 
lished a house for this jnirpose at Offenbach 
in 1799. Works: Der Pachtbrief, opera, 
given in Munich, 1814 ; Several ballets, ib., 
among them, Paul und Virginia; Agnes 
Bernauerin, melodrama, ib., about 1790 ; 
Lazarus, oratorio, ib., 1795 ; Six masses and 
offertories, op. 2 (Augsburg, Lotter) ; Sym- 
phonies for several instruments, op. 1 and 
15 ; Quartets, duos, etc.; Several collections 
of pianoforte music. — Fetis ; Gerber ; Eie- 
mann ; Schilling. 

GLETTLE, JOHANN MELCHIOR, born 
at Bremgarten, Switzerland, in the first part 
of the 17th century. He was Kapellmeister 
in Augsburg about 1G80, and one of the 
most favourite composers of his time. 
Works : 36 motets, op. 1 (Augsburg, 1GG7) ; 
Masses for five voices and five instruments 
(ib., 1GG7) ; do., and mass for eight voices 
and seven instruments, op. 3 (ib., 1G70) ; 
Psalms for five voices and five instruments 
(ib., 1GG7) ; 36 motets for solo voice and 
two violins (ib., 1GG7) ; Musica generalis 
latino-germanica, for from one to five voices, 
partly with two violins, besides 2 sonatas 
and 36 Tromfieter-Stiicklein (ib., 1674) ; 
do., 2d part, op. 8 (ib., 1684) ; 18 psalms 
for three voices (ib., 1685). — Fctis; Gerber, 
Hist. Lex.; Mendel. 

GLUMES, JEAN BAPTISTE JULES DE, 
born in Brussels, J.an. 24, 1814, died there, 
Oct. 4, 1881. Pianist, pupil of Hanssens and 
of Fctis at the Conservatoire, Brussels, and 
teacher of singing there in 1837-40. He 
was a teacher in London for about twenty 
years from 1842. Works : Pianoforte mu- 
sic ; Chamber music ; Songs. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 



155 



GLINKA 




GLINKA, MICH AIL IVANOVITCH 
DE, born in the village of Novo-spaskoi, near 
Smolensk, Russia, 
May 20 (or June 1) 
1804 died in Ber- 
lin, Feb. 15, 1857. 
Dramatic composer, 
pupil on the piano- 
forte of John Field. 
A Russian of PoUsh 
extraction, he first 
took up music as an 
amateur, but later 
adopted it as a profession. In 1830 he 
went to Italy, and made a close study 
of the Italian mode of composition for 
the voice, and in 1833 studied counter- 
point under Siegfried Wilhelm Dehn in 
Berlin. In 1830 he brought out in St. 
Petersburg an ojjera, Zar.skaja skisu (Life 
for the Czar), which had an immediate suc- 
cess, and has always been popular in Rus- 
sia. In 1876 its 4:48th representation was 
celebrated, and the bust of the composer 
crowned. In 1842 his second opera, Rus- 
zlan and Ludmilla, won almost an equal 
popularity. Glinka became court con- 
ductor and director of the opera and of 
the choral performances in the imperial 
churches. In 1844 he went to Paris, in 
1845-47 he was in Madrid and Seville, 
and, after living a while in Warsaw and St. 
Petersburg, returned to Spain in 1851. 
In 1854-55 he lived near St. Petersburg, 
engaged on his autobiography and in 
new opera projects, and in 185G visited 
Dehn, his old master, in Berlin, where he 
died. Works : Zarskaja skisu, opera, St. 
Petersburg, 183G ; Huszlan and Ludmilla, 
do., St. I'etersburg, 1842 ; Kamarinskaja ; 
Symf)hony (unfinished) ; Liixjola Aragonesa ; 




Adagio and Rondo for orchestra ; Septet ; 
Quartets ; Serenades for several instru- 



ments ; Rondos and variations ; Romances 
and other songs. — Fctis ; do., Supplement, 
i. 387 ; Fouque, l5tude sur Glinka ; Men- 
del ; Riemann ; Cui, La Musique en Rus- 
sie, in Revue et Gazette musicale de Paris 
(1878-79) ; Serow, in Theater- und Musik- 
bote (1857), and in Musik und Theater 
(18G8) ; Soloviev, in Musikaluy Listok 
(1872) ; Oscar Comettaut, Mus. et Musi- 
ciens, 414. 

GLOCKEN DES STRASSBURGER 
MONSTERS, DIE (The Bells of Strasburg 
Cathedral), cantata for baritone solo, mixed 
chorus, and orchestra, by Franz Liszt, op. 
155, WTittcn in 1874. Dedicated to Long- 
fellow, to whose "Golden Legend" in 
" Christus " Liszt was indebted for his 
theme. The cantata deals only with the 
prologue, in which Lucifer and the Powers 
of the air attempt to tear down the cathe- 
dral cross during the night-storm. Pub- 
lished, score, pianoforte score, and parts 
(Schuberth). — Upton, Standard Cantatas, 
22L 

GLOIRE LVIMORTELLE DE NOS 
AIEUX. See Faust, Gounod. 

GLOOMY TYRANTS WE DISDAIN, 
contralto air in D minor, of Josabeth, in 
Handel's Athalia, Part I. 

GLORIA ALL' EGITTO. See AUa. 

GLORIOUS APOLLO, glee by Samuel 
Webbe, composed for the London Glee 
Club on its establishment in 1787. It was 
the first glee sung at every meeting of the 
club during its existence. — Grove, i. 599. 

GLORREICHE AUGENBLICK, DER 
(The Glorious Moment), cantata for four 
solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, text by 
Dr. Aloys Weissenbach, music by Beethoven, 
op. 136, composed in 1814 by order of the 
magistracy of Vienna for the celebration of 
the Congress held in Vi- 
enna to readjust the rela- 
tions of Europe after the 
downfall of Napoleon ; per- 
formed, Nov. 29, 1814, be- 
fore the assembled monarchs, Franz I. of 
Austria, Nicholas I. of Russia, and Friedrich 



156 



GLORY 



Willielm in. of Prussia, to whom it was 
dedicated. Published by Hasliuger, after 
Beethoven's death, under the title Preis 
der Tonkunst (Praise of Music), with the 
original text, and also with a new text by 
Friedrich Rochlitz. Edition by Breitkoj^f 
& Hiirtel (Leipsic), Beethovens Werke, 
Cautaten, No. 1.— Marx, ii. 202 ; Thayer, 
Verzeichuiss, 118 ; Lenz, Beethoven, ii. 
304 ; Upton, Standard Cantatas, .53. 

GLORY TO GOD IN THE HIGHEST, 
chorus in D majoi", in Handel's Messiah, 
Part I. 

GLORY TO THE CALIPH. See Oberon. 

GLOSCH, KARL WILHELM, born in 
BerHn in 1732, died there, Oct. 21, 1809. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of his father ; 
chamber musician from 17G.5 to the Prince 
of Prussia and teacher of the princess. 
Works : La fete des vertua et des graces, 
Berlin, 1773 ; Der Bruder Graurock iind 
die Pilgerin, ib., 1775 ; Pianoforte music ; 
Flute music. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

GLOVER, CHARLES WILLIAJI, born in 
London, February, 180G, died there, March 
23, 18G3. Violinist, pupil of T. Cooke ; was 
engaged at the Drury Lane and Coveut Gar- 
den Theatres ; musical director of Queen's 
Theatre, 1832. Has composed songs, duets, 
and pianoforte music. 

GLOVER, JOHN "^TLLIAM, born in 
Dublin, June 19, 1815, 
still living, 1889. Or- 
ganist, studied in Dub- 
lin, where he became 
violinist in the orches- 
tra, 1830. Established 
the Choral Institute of 
Dublin, 1851. Works : 
St. Patrick at Tara, 
cantata, London, 1870 ; 
Erin's Matin Song, 
Patria, do., ib., 1873 ; 
for violin and orchestra ; Fantasia on Irish 
airs for do. ; Concerto for organ ; Piano- 
forte music ; Numerous songs. The De- 
serted Village, opera, London, 1880 ; Two 
Italian operas (MS.). 




Masses ; Concerto 



GLOVER, STEPHEN, born in London 
in 1812, died there, Dec. 7, 1870. Brother 
of Charles William Glover, and composer 
of more than three hundred popular songs 
and duets, most of which were publishers' 
successes. Works : Merry is the Green- 
wood, cavatina ; Duets, What are the wild 
waves saying ?, Stars of the summer night. 
There's a sweet wild rose. Our bark is on 
the Rhine, The Curfew bell, and Voices of 
the night ; Songs, Annie on the banks o' 
Dee, The Minstrel knight, and Emigrant's 
farewell ; Trios ; Quartets ; Pianoforte tran- 
scriptions, etc. — Brown ; Mendel. 

GLOVER, WILLIAM, born in London, 
1822, still living, 1889. Organist at Cam- 
bridge, 1841-42, at Manchester, 1842, and 
at Cheetham, 1846 ; pupil of Walmisley. 
Works : Jerusalem, oratorio, Manchester, 
1848 ; Emmanuel, do., ib., 1851 ; The Cor- 
sair, cantata (1849) ; Chamber music, songs, 
and pianoforte music. 

GLOVER, WILLIAM HOWARD, born 
at Kilburn, London, June G, 1819, died in 
New York, Oct. 28, 1875. Dramatic com- 
poser and violinist. Son of Mrs. Glover the 
actress, pupil on the violin of Wagstaflf, 
leader of the Lyceum band. After a long 
tour on the Continent he settled in London, 
where he taught, conducted, and sang in op- 
era, and was musical critic for the Morn- 
ing Post. He resided in the United States 
after 1868. Works : The Coquette, opera, 
London, about 1845 ; Tam O'Shauter, can- 
tata, produced by the Philharmonic Society, 
London, July 4, 1855 ; Aminta, opera. Hay- 
market, London, about 1855 ; Ruy Bias, 
opera, Covent Garden, ib., 1861 ; Once too 
often, operetta, Drury Lane, ib., 1862 ; 
Palomita, or The Veiled Songstress, oper- 
etta ; Overture to Manfred ; 12 romances 
for pianoforte, in two books ; Vocal quar- 
tets and duets, etc. ; Pianoforte music. 
— Grove ; Brown. 

GLUCK, CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD, 
Ritter VON, born at Weidenwang, near 
Neumarkt, Upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714, 
died in Vienna, Nov. 15, 1787. His father. 



157 



GLUCK 




Alexander, aud his motber, Walpurga, were 
of Prinz Lobkowitz's household, and he 
M^i'\~;\, passed his childhood 

at the prince's Castle 
of Eisenberg. lu 
172G he entered the 
Jesuit school at Kom- 
motau in Bohemia, 
where he studied the 
classics, singing, the 
violin, pianoforte, and 
organ. In 1732 be 
went to Prague, where he studied under 
Cernohorsky, and practised the violoncello. 
In 173G he went to Vienna, where he en- 
tered the private baud of Prince Melzi, whom 
he followed to Milan, where he finished his 
studies in harmony under G. B. Sammartini. 
He soon wrote ojieras, Artaserse (17-11) be- 
ing the first, for Milan, Venice, and Turin, 
all of which were well received. lu 1745 
he went, by invitation, to London, but was 
unable to compete with Handel, and the 
operas he brought out were failures. In 
April 23, 1746, he appeared at the Hay- 
market as a performer on the musical 
glasses. He then visited Paris, where he 
heard Eameau's operas, Hamburg, and 
Dresden, and arrived, near the close of 174:G, 
in Vienna, wliei'e he applied himself to the 
study of a'sthetics, and of languages and 
literature, frequenting the most intellect- 
ual society. His Semiramide riconosciuta 
(1748) was a marked advance upon his pre- 
vious works. From 1749 to 1755 he trav- 
elled, visiting and producing works in Co- 
penhagen, Rome, Naples, Schonbrunn, and 
again in Rome. The ojierettas, divertisse- 
ments, and other things he wrote after his 
return to Vienna, in 1855, showed a marked 
falUng off; but he was gaining in facility 
of style. Abandoning IMetastasio's libretti, 
after much consultation with the poet Calza- 
bigi he set the latter's Orfeo ed Euridice 
(given, Oct. 5, 1762), in which his important 
reforms in the operatic style wei-e fully man- 
ifest. After this masterpiece, however, he 
fell back again, writing music in his former 



vein to libretti by Metastasio, undoubtedly 
in obedience to outside pressure from the 
court. It was probably between 1765 and 
1770 that he gave singing and clavecin les- 
sons to Marie Antoinette. At length he re- 
turned to Calzabigi and his new dramatic 
stj'le, producing Alceste (1767) and Paride 
ed Elena (1769). In this latter year he 
wrote also two lighter intermezzi for the 
court of Parma. But he had lost all faith 
in his older manner, and his new style was 
so harshly criticised in Vienna that he de- 
termined to seek some other field for the 
practical development of his ideas. En- 
couraged by the Bailli du Rollct, an attache 
of the French embassy, he went to work 
upon Iphigunie en Aulide, which, when com- 
pleted, he took to Paris, after a few futile 
rehearsals in Vienna iu 1772. It was 
brought out triumphantly in Paris in 1774, 
and marked the opening of a new era in 
the French Ij-ric drama, as Orfeo had in the 
history of the whole lyric stage. It began 
very much the same revolution in the French 
tragedie-lyrique that had been brought 
about in the oprra-comique by Philidor, 
Mousigny, and Grt'try. Still Glnck had to 
! rely upon no little dijilomacy, pamphleteer- 
ing, and, above all, uj)on the influence of 
JNIarie Antoinette, now queen, to have his 
work performed. Orphee, a revised version 
of his Orfeo, and a new arrangement of his 
Alceste (1774 and 1776) soon followed. In 
spite of the success of these works, their 
novel, intensely dramatic, and severe style 
met with no little opposition ; when Gluek 
had set to work on his Armide, Piccinni had 
already been invited to Paris, and was hard 
at work with IMarmontel on his Roland. 
Armide was brought out, Sept. 23, 1777 ; 
Roland, Jan. 17, 1778. The war between 
the Gluckist and Piccinnist factions bvirst 
forth with even more fury than that which, 
years before, had raged in London between 
the Handel and Bononcini parties. That 
Gluck came out victorious in the end with 
his Iphigenie en Tauride (May 18, 1779) is 
well known ; Piccinni's opera, on the same 



I 



158 



GLUCK 




169 



GLUCK 



subject (Jan. 23, 1781), was too inferior to 
keej) up the contest. Gluck brouglit out 
(Sept. 21, 1779) liis Echo et Narcisse, which 
was not so successful as his Iphigenie, al- 
though it was revived a year later. He had 
set to work on Les Danaides, intending it 
to be his last opera, but an apojilectic at- 
tack forced him to give up this task, and he 
gave the libretto to Salieri. He soon re- 
turned to Vienna, where he passed his last 
years ; his fame and fortune were alike 
great. He died of a second stroke of apo- 
plexy. Gluck is, apart from his great ge- 
nius, consj)icuous in the history of the lyric 
drama as being the first man avowedly to 
return to the original general a'sthetic j^rin- 
ciples of the opera, virtually as they were 
set forth by the Florentine music-reformers 
of the 17th century, and first embodied in 
the works of Cacciui and Peri. Such a re- 
turn to first 2)rinciples has been made only 
twice, first by Gluck, then by Wagner. The 
unquestionable difference in form and char- 
acter of the music of Peri, Gluck, and Wag- 
ner, brought about by the gradual musical 
evolution of over one and two centuries re- 
spectively, should not blind our eyes to its 
absolute identity of artistic aim ; namely, its 
entire subservience to the di'amatic spirit of 
the text. Of all the many reactionaries and 
reformers in the history of the lyric drama, 
Gluck and Wagner have been the only radi- 
cal ones. Of Gluck's operas, Orph^e and 
Armide have had the widest and most last- 
ing popularity ; Alccste comes next, but it 
is probable that none of his French operas 
have permanently passed from the stage ; a 
revival of any of them would not be a mat- 
ter of surprise. The best portrait of Gluck 
is the one by Duplessis (1775) in the Vi- 
enna Gallery. It has been engraved by 
Unger and Schilling and etched by Le Rat. 
A replica, decidedly finer in the head, but 
inferior in other portions, in the library of 
the Harvard Musical Association, Boston, 
Mass., has been etched for this Cyclopedia. 
Another portrait, by HoudeviUe, has been en- 
graved by Phihppeaux ; Houdou's famous 



bust has been engraved by Saint-Aubin. 
Cavelier's statue is in the Opera in Paris. 
Works — Operas, intermezzos, and ballets : 
Artaserse, given at Milan, 1741 ; Demo- 
foonte, ib., 171:2 ; Demetrio, Venice (under 
the title Cleonice), 1742 ; Ipermestra, ib., 
1742 ; Ai-tamene, Cremona, 1743 ; Si/ace, 
INIilan, 1743 ; Fetba, ib., 1744 ; Alessandro 
neU' Indie, Turin (under the title Poro), 
1745 ; La caduta de' giganti, Loudon, 1746 ; 
Ai'tameue (remodelled), ib., 1746 ; Piramo e 
Tisbe, pasticcio, ib., 1746 ; La Semiraniide 
riconosciuta, Vienna, 1748 ; Filide, serenade 
in 2 acts, Copenhagen, 1749 ; Tekmacco, 
Eome, 1750 ; La demenza di Tito, Naples, 
1751 ; L' eroe Cinese, Schonbruun, near Vi- 
enna, 1755 ; II trioufo di Camillo, Antigono, 
Rome, 1754 ; La Danza, Laxenburg, near 
Vienna, 1755 ; Les amours champctres, Vi- 
enna, 1755 ; L' innocenza giustificata, II re 
pastore, ib., 1756 ; Le Chinois poll en 
France, Laxenburg, 1756 ; Le deguiscment 
pastoral, Schimbrunu, 1756 ; L'ile de Mer- 
lin, ib., 1758 ; La fausse esclave, Vienna, 
1758 ; Cyth6re assiegee, ib., 1759 ; L'i- 
vrogne corrige, ib., 1760 ; Tetide, ib., 1760 ; 
Le cadi dupe, ib., 1761 ; Don Juan, ballet, 
1761 ; On ue s'avise jamais de tout, L'arbre 
euchautu, ib., 1762 ; R IrionJ'u di Clclia, Bo- 
logna, 1762 ; Oifeo ed Euridice, Vienna, 
17G2 ; Ezio, ib., 1763 ; La rencontre impre- 
vue, Vienna (also in German as Die Pilgrime 
von Mekka), 1764 ; R Parnasso confuso, 
performed by the imperial family, Schon- 
brunn, 1765 ; Telemacco (remodelled). La 
Corona (by the imperial family), Vienna, 
1765 ; Alceste, ib., 1766 ; I'aride ed Elena, 
ib., 1769 ; Le feste d' Apollo, Bauci e File- 
mone, Ai'isteo, Parma, 1769 ; Iphigenie en 
Aulide, Orphce et Eiirydice (rearranged), 
Paris, 1774; Alceste (remodelled), ib., 




1776 ; Armide, ib., 1777 ; Iphigenie en Tau- 
ride, £cho et Nai-cisse, ib., 1779. Other 



160 



GLtJCK 



works: G symphonies for 2 violins, viola, 
bass, and 2 horns ; De j^rofundis, for chorus 
and orchestra ; The eighth psalm, a cap- 
pella ; 8 odes of Klopstock, for a voice and 
pianoforte ; Part of a cantata, The Last 
Judgment, which was finished by Salieri. — 
Clement, Mus. celcbres, 88 ; Futis ; do., Sup- 
jilement, i. ; Mi'inoires pour servir a I'histoire 
de la revolution opi'ree dans la musique par 
M. le chevalier Gluck (Paris and Naples, 
1781) ; Siegmeyer, Ueber den Eitter Gluck 
und seine Werke (Berlin, 1825) ; Riedel, 
Ueber die Musik des Ritters Christoph von 
Gluck (Vienna, 1775) ; Miel, Notice sur Chr. 
G. (Paris, 1840) ; Solie, Etudes biogra- 
phiques, etc. (Annecy, 1853) ; Schmid, Chr. 
W. Eitter von Gluck, etc. (Leipsic, 1854) ; 
Desnoiresterres, Gluck et Piccinui (Paris, 
1872). 

GLUCK VON EDENHALL, DAS (The 
Luck of Edenhall), ballad by Uliland, music, 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra, by Robert 
Schumann, op. 143, composed in 1853. 
The Luck of Edenhall is a goblet left by 
the fairies on St. Cuthbert's well at Eden- 
hall, and the superstition is that there will 
be no more luck in the family if the goblet 
be lost or broken. Longfellow has trans- 
lated the poem. 

GLUCKSRITTER, DEE, operetta, text 
by Genee and Mannstiidt, music by Alfons 
Czibulka, represented at the Carl Theater, 
Vienna, Dec. 22, 1887. It was a success. 

GNECCO, FRANCESCO, born in Genoa 
in 17G9, died in Milan in 1810. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Mariani, of the Sistine 
Chapel, and the Cathedral of Savona. 
Works — Operas : Lo sposo di tre, marito 
di nessuna, Milan, 1793 ; Gli Bramini, Italy, 
about 1794 ; Argete, Naples, about 1794 ; 
Le nozze de' Sanniti, Turin, about 179G ; 
Le nozze di Lauretta, ib., about 1797 ; La 
prova d' uu opera seria, Italy, about 179G, 
Paris, 1806 ; Carolina e Filaiulro, Italy, 
about 1798 ; II pignattaro, Naples, about 

1799 ; La scena senza scena, ib., about 

1800 ; Gli ultimi due giorni di Carnevale, 
Venice, about 1800 ; Arsace e Semiramide, 



about 1808 ; I falsi galantuomini, Milan, 
Teatro Carcano, 1809 ; Gli amanti filarmo- 
nici, Italy, about 1810 ; Adelaide e Gues- 
clino ; II nuovo podesta ; La testa riscal- 
data. — Potis ; Mendel. 

GO, BAFFLED COWARD, duet in A 
minor for tenor and bass, between Samson 
and Harapha, in Handel's Samson, Part 11. 

GOBATI (Gobatti), STEFANO, born at 
Bergantino, Veuetia, July 5, 1852, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Dramatic composer, pupil at 
Mantua of Campioni, at Bologna of Giu- 
seppe Busi, and at Parma of Lauro Eossi, 
whom he followed to Naples. His first op- 
era, I Goti, brought out at Bologna, Nov. 
30, 1873, was a success and was repeated 
on all the iirincijial stages of Italy. His 
second opera. Luce, Bologna, 1875, Milan, 
Scala, 1876, was equally successful. — Fotis, 
Supplement, i. 395 ; Mendel. 

GOBBAEETS, JEAN LOUIS, born in 
Antwerp, Sept. 28, 1835, died at Saint-Gil- 
les, April 28, 1886. Pianist, pupil at the 
Brussels Conservatoire. He published, 
often under the pseudonym of Streabbog 
(Gobbaerts reversed), about 1,200 numbers 
of light pianoforte music, much of which 
was popular.— Works : Valse des masques, 
op. 39 ; Nocturne, op. 45 ; Idylle, op. 49 ; 
Galojo di bravura, op. 56 ; Serenade, oj). 
84 ; Les jjapillons, G dances, op. 108 ; Trans- 
criptions, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 395 ; 
Eiemann. 

GOBEL, JOHANN FEEDINAND, born 
at Baumgarten, Silesia, in 1817, still living, 
1889 (?). Violinist, pupil of Pixis on the 
violin, and of Dionys Weber in composition 
at the Prague Conservatorium. In 1840 he 
was first violin in the theatre orchestra at 
Breslau, and in 1844 became director there. 
Works : Overtures ; Violin music ; Songs. 
—Mendel ; Fctis. 

GOBEL, KAEL, born in Berlin, March 
11, 1815, died at Bromberg, Oct. 26, 1879. 
Pianist, Kaijellmeister of the theatre in 
Dantzie and, later, director in Bromberg. 
He had the title of royal Prussian music 
director. Works — Operas : Chrysalide, 



GOCKEL 



about 1840 ; Fiitbjof, 1860. He was the 
author of a " Kompeiidium tier Klavier- 
literatur." — Meudel, iv. 285 ; Ergiinz., 127. 

GOCKEL, AUGUST, born at Willibades- 
sen, Westphalia, in 1831, died tliere in 
18G1. Pianist, pupil of Mendelssohn and 
Plaidy at the Leipsie Couservatorium in 
1845. In 1853-56 he made a concert tour 
in the United States. — Works : Pianoforte 
music ; Chamber music ; Songs. — Men- 
del. 

GODAHD, BENJAMIN (LOUIS PAUL), 
born ill Paris, Aug. 18, 1849, still living, 
1889. Violinist and dramatic composer, pu- 
pil of Richard Hammer on the violin, and 
from 1863 at the Conservatoire in composi- 
tion of Reber, and on the violin of Vieux- 
temps, whom be accompanied twice on con- 
cert tours to Germany. He is one of the 
most noteworthy representatives, among 
the younger generation of French compos- 
ers, of the tendency inaugurated by Berlioz. 
Prix Chartier of the lustitut de France, 
for his chamber music. W'orks : Pedro de 
Zalamea, opera, given at Antwerp, Jan. 31, 
1884 ; Jocelyn, opera, Brussels, Feb. 25, 
1888 ; Dante et Beatrice, Paris, 1888 ; Les 
Guelfes, do. (MS.) ; Diane ct Acteou, lyric 
scene ; Le Tasse, dramatic symphony, op. 
39 (prize of city of Paris, 1878) ; Symph- 
onic gothique, op. 23 ; Symphonie orieu- 
tale, op. 84 ; Sijmplwiiie k'gendau'e, Paris, 
Chatelet, 188G-87 ; Scenes j)oetiques, suite 
for orchestra, op. 46 ; Solitude for do. ; 2 
valses for do. ; Concerto for pianoforte with 
orchestra, op. 31 ; Introduction et Allegro, 
for do., op. 49; Concerto romantique, for 
violin and orchestra, op. 35 ; 2 quartets for 
strings, op. 33 and 37 ; 2 trios for piano- 
forte and strings, op. and 72 ; 4 sonatas 
for pianoforte and violin, op. 1, 2, 9, and 
12 ; Legende et Scherzo, for do., op. 3 ; 6 
duettini, for 2 violins with pianoforte, op. 
18 ; Deux morceaux, for violoncello, with 
do., op. 36 ; Suite de trois morceaux, for 
violin, with do., op. 78 ; Pianoforte music 
and many songs. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
395 ; Riemann. 



GODECHAELE (Godcbalk), EUGENE 
CHARLES JEAN, born in Brussels, Jan. 15, 
1742, died there about 1814. Violinist, 
sou of Jacques Autoine Godecharle, singer 
in the royal chapel (1712). He was edu- 
cated a chorister of the chapel, and was sent 
to Paris to study the violin ; on his return, 
in 1773, to Brussels he became violin player 
in the chajiel, and in 1788 iirst violin. He 
was also maitre de chapelle of the Church 
of Saint-Gery, from 1776 until his death. 
Most of his compositions are in MS., but 
some were i)ublished in Brussels and Paris 
(1765).— Fetis ; Van der Straeten, ii. 231 ; 
iv. 320 ; Hart, The Violin, 319 ; Mendel ; 
Wasielewski, Die Violine, 284. 

GODEFROID, (DIEUDONNE JOSEPH 
GUILLAU^LE) FELIX, born at Namur, 
July 24, 1818, still living, 1889. Harp vir- 
tuoso, pupil at the Paris Conservatoire 
from 1832 of Nadermann on the harj), for 
which be won in 1835 the 2d prize. A 
clever performer also on the pianoforte, he 
wrote before he was nineteen years old a 
trio for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, 
one of his best works. By constant jirac- 
tice he became as expert with his left as 
with his right hand, and has been called 
the Pagauiui of the harp. In 1839 he went 
to Germany and afterwards to London, and 
he has since made successful concert tours 
in the principal countries of Europe. In 
1856 he j)articipated, in Brussels, in the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the accession of 
Leopold I., and was awarded the cross of 
the Order of Lt'opold. Works : La harpe 
d'or, opera-comique, given at the Theatre 
Lyrique, Paris, 1858 ; La dernicre bataille, 
operetta, Pai'is, 1861 ; La lille de Saiil, 
opera, Boulogne, 1883 ; Le reve, etude me- 
lodi(iue, oj). 23 ; La melancolie, op. 24 ; Les 
reves de la Plata ; La danse des Sylphes ; 
Souvenir castellan ; Danse indienne ; Me- 
lodies de Schubert ; Rondo russe, etc. He 
wrote also in 1869 the cantata for the in- 
auguration of the statue of Leopold I. in 
Namur. — Fetis, iv. 43 ; do.. Supplement, L 
396. 



GODEFROID 



GODEFROID, JULES JOSEPH, boiu 
at Namur, Feb. 23, 1811, died in Paris, 
Feb. 27, 1840. Harp virtuoso, brother of 
the preceding ; pujiil of Nadermanu on the 
harp, for which he won the 2d prize in 
1828, and of Lesueur in composition. He 
lived chiefly in Boulogne as teacher of the 
harp and composer. In 1837 he made a 
concert tour through Belgium. Works : 
Le diadeste, opera-comique, given in Paris, 
1836 ; La chasse-roj'ale, opcra-comique in 
two acts, Paris, 1839 ; Harp music ; Piano- 
forte music ; Songs. — Fetis; Larousse. 

GODFREY, ADOLPHUS FREDERICK, 
born in London in 1837, died there, Aug. 
28, 1882. Bandmaster and composer, son 
of Charles Godfrey, pupil at the Royal 
Academy of Music. Li 18G3 he succeeded 
his father as bandmaster of the Coldstream 
Guards. He was a jJi'olific writer of lan- 
cers, quadrilles, galops, jMlkas, and other 
dance music. 

GODFREY, CHARLES, born at King- 
ston, Surrey, England, Nov. 22, 1790, died 
in London, Dec. 12, 18G3. Bassoonist, for 
fifty years bandmaster of the Coldstream 
Guards ; appointed in 1831 musician in or- 
dinary to the King. He composed and ar- 
ranged much music for military bands and 
was the editor of " Jullien's Military Band 
Journal," the first journal of military music 
published in England. His three sons, 
Daniel, Adolphus Frederick, and Charles, 
Jr., are all noted in the same profession. 

GODFREY, CHARLES, JR., born in 
London, Jan. 17, 1839, still living, 1889. 
Bandmaster and comjwser, son of Charles 
Godfrey, pupil at the Royal Academy of 
Music, London. He was bandmaster of 
the Scots Fusiliers in 18G0-68, and since 
18G9 has held the same position in the 
Royal Horse Guards. He is also professor 



of military music in the Royal College of JIus. 
Music and the Guildhall School of Music. Grove. 
He is the author of numerous popular 
waltzes, galops, quadi-illes, and other dance 
music, and is editor of the " Orjjheus Jour- 
nal," a military music periodical. | 



GODFREY, DANIEL, born in West- 
minster, London, in 1831, still living, 1889. 
Bandmaster and composer, eldest son of 
Charles Godfrey, pupil at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, London. He became in 
1856 bandmaster of the Grenadier Guards, 
and is professor of military music at the 
Royal Academj-. In 1872 he made with his 
band a concert tour in the United States, 
the first visit there of an English military 
band since the War of Independence. He is 
the author of many marches, waltzes — Ma- 
bel, Hilda, Guards, etc. — and transcriptions 
from poj^ular operas. — Grove ; Mendel ; 
Brown. 

GOD SAVE THE KING, the English 
national air, author of text and music un- 
certain. It was first sung in j)ublic in Sep- 
tember, 174.'), at Drury Lane and Covent 
Garden Theatres, London, Dr. Arne har- 
monizing it for the former and Dr. Burney 
for the latter ; but there is some evidence 
that it was sung in 1740 by Henry Carey at 
a tavern in Cornhill, and that he announced 
it as his own comj^ositiou. Its authorship 
has been attributed also to Dr. John Bull 
and to others, but the weight of authority 
seems to be in favour of Carej'. It has been 
adojited as a national air in Hanover, Bruns- 
wick, Prussia, Saxony, Weimar, Sweden, 
and in Russia until 1833, when the new 
Russian anthem was composed. In Switz- 
erland it is the air of the federal cantons, 
"Rufst du, mein Vaterland," and in Ger- 
many it is sung to the words " Heil dir im 
Siegerkranz," and also to "Brause, du 
Freiheit-Sang." Weber introduced it into 
his cantata Kampf und Sieg, and his Ju- 
bel-Ouvertiire, and Beethoven wrote varia- 
tions on it for the pianoforte.— Chappell, 
Popular Music of Olden Time, ii. 691 ; 
Chrysandai', Jahrbiicher, i. 287 ; London 



Times (March to August, 1878) 



GOD SAVE THE KING, variations on, 
for the liianoforte, in C major, by Beet- 
hoven. Published first in Vienna, 1804. 
Edition by Breitkopf & Hartel (Leipsic), 



163 



GOES 




Variationen fiir das Pianoforte, etc., page 
109. — Thayer, Verzeichniss, 58. 
GOES, DAfflAO DE, born at Alemquer, 
Portugal, in 1501, died 
in Lisbon in 1573. 
Church composer. 
He was ambassador 
successivelj' to France, 
Italy, Poland, and 
Denmark, was in Rome 
several years, and set- 
tled in 1542 in Lou- 
vain. On his return 
to Portugal he was made historian to the 
court and was otherwise honoured. His 
church compositions are in several collec- 
tions of the time, including the Dodecachor- 
don of Glareanus. He was thrown into the 
prisons of the Inquisition in 1571 and was 
killed in 1573, according to Vascoucellos, 
who gives a list of his w-orks. — Fetis ; Vas- 
concellos ; Mendel ; do., Ergiinz., 127. 

GOETHE, WM.THEE "WOLFG.ANG 
VON, born in Weimar in 1817, died there, 
April 15, 1885. A grandson of the poet, 
he studied music under Mendelssohn and 
Weinlig in Leijisic, and under Karl Loewe 
in Stettin. He lived about 1850 for some 
time in Vienna. "Works — Operas : Ansel- 
mo Lancia, oder das Fischermi'idchen, text 
by Theodor Ki'irner, given in Weimar, 
1839 ; Der Gefangene von Bologna, ib., 
1846 ; Elfriede, ib., 1853. Pianoforte mu- 
sic ; Songs. — Mendel ; N. Zeitschr, f. Mus. 
(188.5), 190. 

GOETZ, FRANZ, born at Straschitz, Bo- 
hemia, in 1755, died at Olmutz, IMoravia, 
after 1799. Violinist, at first in the thea- 
tre orchestra at Briinu, then made a con- 
cert tour through Bohemia and Silesia, and, 
through the recommendation of Dittersdorf, 
whose acquaintance he made at Breslau, 
was made Conzertmeister in the ej^iscopal 
orchestra at Johannisberg ; afterwards again 
in Breslau, he went as conductor of the 
theatre orchestra to Briinn, and soon after 
became Kapellmeister to the Archbishop of 
Olmutz. He composed symphonies, con- 



certos, and sonatas for violin, duos, trios, 
etc., which remain in manuscript. — Dlabacz, 
Kiinstl. Lex. fiir Buhmeu, 481 ; Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Wurzbach. 

GOETZ, HER]\IANN, born at Konigs- 
berg, Dec. 17, 1840, died at Hottingen 
(Canton of Zurich), Switzerland, Dec. 3, 
1876. Dramatic composer, first instructed 
by Louis KiJhler, on the pianoforte and in 
harmony ; after completing his studies at 
the University of Kouigsberg, in 1858, he 
entered Stern's school, Berlin, where he 
studied the pianoforte under Billow, and 
composition under Ulrich. In 1863 he suc- 
ceeded Kirclmer as organist at Winterthur, 
where he also gave lessons, founded a sing- 
ing society, and conducted an amateur or- 
chestra. Over-exertion bj' travelling be- 
tween Zurich, whither he moved in 1867, 
and Winterthur, 
where he had kept 
his former engage- 
ments for over two 
years, undermined 
his health, and his 
death at Hottingen, 
where he had settled 
in 1870, occurred just 
as fame and fortune 
began to smile on 
him. Like Norbert 
Burgmidler, Goetz died jirobablj- before his 
full genius had had time to develop. He 
may be regarded as one of the most notable 
of the legitimate followers of Mendelssohn 
and Schumann. Although he could not 
escape the musical influences of his day, 
the general bent of his genius was in the 
classic, rather than the " future " direction. 
His best-known works are the opera Der 
Widerspenstigen Zilhmung, and the sym- 
phony in F major. Works : Der Wider- 
spenstigen Zidimung, opera, given at Mann- 
heim, 1874 ; Francesca von Rimini, do. 
(third act finished by Ernst Frank), ib., 1877 ; 
Niinie (Audi das Schi'me muss sterben !, by 
Schiller), for chorus and orchestra, op. 10 ; 
Cantate (Es liegt so abeudstill der See), for 




1C4 



GOFFIN 




male chorus and orchestra (with tenor or 
soprano solo), op. 11 ; 137th psalm, for 
chorus, soprano solo, and orchestra, op. 14 ; 
Symphony in F, for full orchestra, oj). 9, 
Leipsic, Gewaudhaus Concert, Jan. 27, 
187G ; Friihlings-Ouvertiire, op. 15 ; Con- 
certo for pianoforte, op. 18 ; do. for vio- 
lin, op. 22 ; Trio for do., and strings, op. 
1 ; Quartet for do., op. G ; Quintet for do., 
op. 16 ; Drei leichte Stiicke, for pianoforte 
and violin, op. 2 ; Pianoforte pieces, op. 7, 
8, 13, and sonata (1 hands), op. 17 ; Songs, 

op. 3, 4, 5, 12, 19 ; Quartets for male voices, 
op. 20 ; do. for mixed voices, op. 21. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr. ix. 509 ; Mendel ; Mus. 
Woehenbl., vii. 228, G85, 707, 722 ; Sig- 
nale. 

GOFFIN, DIEUDONNE, Belgian com- 
poser, contemporary. He is honorary di- 
rector of the Choral Society of Verviers, the 
oldest in Belgium. Works : Le pic du di- 
able, comic opera, Verviers, 18G1 ; Le lever 
du soleil, cantata ; Christophe Colomb, do. ; 
Les croises, do. ; Le combat naval, do., and 
others. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 397. 

GOLD, LEONHARD, born in Odessa in 
1818, still living, 1889 (?). Violinist, pupil 
of Joseph Biihrn at the Vienna Conserva- 
torium ; returned to Odes.sa in 1836. He 
made a concert tour in 1837-39, and in 
1840 became first violin of the theatre or- 
chestra in his native town. He composed 
at Vienna and brought out with success at 
Odessa, 1837, an Italian opera.— Schilling, 
Sujjplement, 1G7 ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

GOLDBECK, ROBERT, born, of German 
parentage, in Potsdam, Prussia, April 19, 
1839, still living, 1889. Pianist, pupil on 
the pianoforte and in harmony of Louis 
Kohler, his mother's brother ; then, through 
the influence of Alexander von Humboldt, 
a pupil, in Brunswick, of Litolff, in piano- 
forte playing and composition. Li 1851 he 
went to Paris, and thence, in 185G, to London, 




where he gave a private concert in the pic- 
ture gallery of Devonshire House. In 18G1 
he visited New York, 
where he wrote most 
of his larger composi- 
tion.s. He founded a 
conservatory in Bos- 
ton, and in 18G8 went 
to Chicago, and found- 
ed there a second con- 
servatory, of which ho 
became director. In 
1873 he removed to 
St. Louis, where he 
was for a time one of the directors of the 
Beethoven Conservatory, and conductor of 
the St. Louis Harmonic Society. In 1885 
he settled in New York, where ho is en- 
gaged in teaching, giving pianoforte re- 
citals, and conducting. Works : The Sol- 
dier's Return, operetta, text by composer, 
given in London, 1856 ; Saratoga, opera ; 
Newport, opera, 1888 ; The Song of the 
Brave Man, cantata ; Biirgers Lenore, 
Idylle, T^legie, and other compositions for 
the orchestra ; Symphony Victoria ; 2 con- 
certos for pianoforte and orchestra, in G 
minor, and in C ; Sextet for strings ; Quin- 
tet for pianoforte an<l strings ; 135 compo- 
sitions for the pianoforte, among them a 
grande polonaise and a nocturne ; Much 
concerted vocal music and a number of 
songs. His didactic works comprise Three 
Graduating Courses for pianoforte, voice, 
and harmony in G volumes. — Mendel ; Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 398. 

GOLDBERG, JOHANN GOTTLIEB 
(Gottlob ? Theophilus ?), German compioser 
of the 18th century, supposed to have lived 
in 1730-GO. Organist, pupil of Sebastian 
Bach, who gave him the highest praise. In 
1756 was chamber musician to Count Briihl 
in Dresden. He had a remarkable power 
of improvisation, and could read the most 
difficult music at .sight, even when turned 
upside down. Bach's Thirty Variations 
were written for him, and are sometimes 
called the Goldberff Variations. Works : 



105 



GOLDE 



24 polonaises for pianoforte ; 2 concertos ; 
Sonata with minuet and 12 variations for 
pianoforte ; G trios for flute, violin, and 
bass ; Preludes and fugues ; Motet ; Psalm. 
All liis compositions are in MS. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., is. 331 ; Grove ; Mendel ; Fetis ; 
Spitta, Bach, ii. 72G. 

GOLDE, ADOLF, born at Erfurt, Aug. 
22, 1830, died there in April, 1880. Pian- 
ist, son and pupil of Josef Golde, an able 
musician and conductor, who instructed 
him on the clarinet and violin ; in 1851 he 
went to Berlin, where he studied compo- 
sition iinder Marx, and the organ under 
Haujit and Hauer. He afterwards taught 
the pianoforte at Stern's Conservatorium, 
and also appeared in jjublic as an able pi- 
anist ; in 1872 he assumed the direction of 
the Soller Vocal Society at Erfurt, as suc- 
cessor of his father. Besides a symj^hony 
in B minor, and other orchestral works, in 
MS., he has composed graceful jjioccs de 
salon, dances, and marches for pianoforte. 
— Mendel. 

GOLDEN COLTOINS, F.AIR AND 
BRIGHT, tenor air in D major of Zadock, 
in Handel's Solomon, Part HI. 

GOLDEN LEGEND, THE, cantata, by 
Dudley Buck, awarded the jirize of one 
thousand dollars offered in 1879 by the 
Cincinnati j\Iay Festival Association for the 
best work by a native compose!', and j^er- 
formed at the Festival of 1880. The text 
is composed of a prologue, twelve scenes, 
and an e2)ilogue, from the "Golden Le- 
gend " in Longfellow's " Christus." Charac- 
ters represented : Elsie ; Prince Henry ; 
Lucifer ; Friar Paul. — Upton, Standard 
Cantatas, 100. 

GOLDEN LEGEND, THE, cantata, text 
adapted from Longfellow's poem of "Chris- 
tus," by Joseph Bennet, music by Sir Ai'- 
thur Sullivan, first performed at the Leeds 
(England) Festival, Oct. IG, 188G. The 
libretto comprises a prologue, six scenes, 
and a choral epilogue. — Upton, Standard 
Cantatas, 33.''). 

GOLDENE KEEUZ, DAS (The Golden 



Cross), comic opera in two acts, text by 
Mosenthal, music by Ignaz Briill, first rep- 
resented in Berlin, December, 1875. The 
libretto is an adaptation of the French vau- 
deville, " Catherine, ou la croix d'or," by 
Brazier and Melesville. Christine, sister of 
Nicholas, a young innkeeper about to be 
raai-ried to Theresa, but whose wedding is 
interrupted by his being drawn in the con- 
scription to fight iinder Napoleon against 
the Russians, offers her hand in marriage, 
after two years, to anyone who will go as 
his substitute. Gontran, a young nobleman 
who has been jilted, accepts her off'er and 
sends Bombardon, a sergeant, to get Chris- 
tine's pledge — the golden cross. In the 
second act, which begins three years later, 
Christine and Theresa are nursing a young 
captain, who has returned wounded. He, 
who turns out to be Gontran, falls in love 
with Christine, but she refuses him out of 
fidelity to her pledge. Gontran declares 
his identitj', but fails to prove it, as he has 
given the golden cross to a comrade while 
lying on the battle-field in expectation of 
death. Bombardon finally returns and con- 
firms his story, and a second wedding is the 
result. The opera was j)layed in Vienna, 
187G, and in an English dress, libretto by 
John P. Jackson, in London, 1878. It was 
given at the Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York, Nov. 10, 188G, with the follow- 
ing cast : Christine, Frau Seidl-Krauss ; 
Theresa, Frl. Januschowsky ; Gontran, Max 
Alvarj' ; Nicholas, von Milde ; Bombardon, 
Emil Fischer. 

GOLDMARK, KARL, born at Keszthely, 
Hungai-y, May 18, 1832, still living, 1889. 
Violinist and dramatic composer, first in- 
structed on the violin in the Musikverein 
at Oedenburg (1843), then in Vienna jjupil 
of Jansa, and for a short time (1847-48) at 
the Conservatorium of Bohni, but on the 
whole rather self-taught, especially in 1858 
at Pesth by the study of Bach's, Beethoven's, 
and Schumann's works. His overture, Sa- 
kuntala, and a scherzo for orchestra first 
attracted the attention of the musical world. 



GOLDSCllMIDT 




wliile his opera, Die KOnigin von Saba 
(1875), firmly established his fame. The 
comjjaratively small 
number of his com- 
positionsshow a great 
earnestness of pur- 
pose and clearness of 
form combined with 
true feeling ; his in- 
strumentation is veiy 
brilliant. Works — 
Operas : Die Konigin 
von Saba, op. 27, 
given in Vienna, 1875 ; llerlin, ib., 1886, 
New York, 1887 ; Der Fremdling; Sakuntala, 
concert overture, op. 13 ; Die Liindliche 
Hochzeit, symphony, op. 26 ; Symphony in 
E-flat ; Penthesilm, overture, op. 31 ; Scherzo, 
for orchestra, op. 19 ; Concerto for violin with 
orchestra, op. 28 ; 2 trios for pianoforte and 
strings, op. i and 33 ; Quintet for do., op. 
30 ; Quartet for strings, op. 8 ; Quintet for 
do., op. 9 ; Suite for pianoforte and violin, 
op. 11 ; Sonata for do., op. 25 ; Sturm und 
Drang, 9 characteristic pieces for piano- 
forte, op. 5 ; Drei Stiicke, for do. (4 hands), 
op. 12 ; Tanze, for do., op. 22 ; Zwei Novel- 
letten, Priiludium und Fuge, for do., op. 
29 ; Regeulied, for mixed chorus, op. 10 ; 
Friihlingsnetz, for four male voices, with 
pianoforte and four horns, op. 15 ; Meeres- 
stille und gliickliche Fahrt, for male chorus 
and horns, op. 16 ; 4 choruses for male 
voices, op. 1-t and 17 ; Im Fuscherthale, G 
songs for mixed voices, op. 24 ; Friihlings- 
hymne, for chorus, contralto solo, and or- 
chestra, op. 23 ; Songs, op. 18, 20, 21, 32, 
34.— niustr. Zeitg. (1878), ii. 250; Mus. 
Wochenblatt, i. G, 277, 441 ; ii. 500 ; viii. 
2G9 ; X. 519 ; N. Zeitschr. f. Mus. (1866), 
209, 218 ; (1867), 269, 279 ; (1868), 452 ; 
(1870), 295 ; (1886), 533 ; Siguale (1886), 
1073, 1089, 1121. 

GOLDSCHanDT, ADALBERT VON, 
born in Vienna in 1853, still living, 1889. 
Dramatic composer, pupil at the Vienna 
Conservatorium. He belongs to a family of 
wealthy financiers and follows music only 



' as an amateur. Ho is, however, notable as 
virtually' the only composer who has thor- 
oughly followed out the princij)les of Wag- 
nerianisni, applying them practically, with- 
out stint. The immense notoriety of his 
Todsiinden and Heliauthus seems to have 
been merely ephemeral, and since 1885, lit- 
tle, or nothing, has been heard from him. 
Works : Die Sleben Todsiinden, oratorio, 
text by Robert Hamerling ; Heliantlins, op- 
' era, given in Leipsie, 1884 ; Music for piano- 
forte and orchestra ; Songs. — Mendel. 

GOLDSCHMmT, OTTO, born in Ham- 
burg, Aug. 21, 
1829, still living, 
1889. Pianist, 
pupil of Jacob 
Schmitt and Fried- 
rich W'. Grand, 
and in 1843-46 at 
the Leij)sic Con- 
servatorium of 
Mendelssohn. Ho 
went to Paris in 
1848 and studied 
with Chopin. In 1849 he played in Lon- 
don at a concert with Jenny Lind, and 
in 1851 went with her to America as con- 
ductor of her concerts. He married her 
in Boston, Feb. 5, 1852, and the couple 
lived in Dresden in 1852-55 and in or 
near London from 1858 until her decease 
in 1887. He conducted festivals in Dii.s- 
seldorf and Hamburg in 1863 and 1866, 
was vice-jjrincipal of the London Royal 
Academy of Music in 1863, and formed the 
Bach Choir in 1875. He became an honor- 
ary member of the London Philliarmonic 
Society in 1861 and member of the Swedish 
Royal Academy of Music in 1864, and re- 
ceived the royal Order of Vasa in 1876. 
Works : liiifh, oratorio, first jjerformed at 
the Hereford Festival, 1867, and afterwards 
in London, Dilsseldorf, and Hamburg ; Trio 
j for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, op. 
12 ; Concerto for pianoforte and orchestra, 
op. 10 ; 12 studies for pianoforte, op. 13 ; 
12 songs with jsianoforte accompaniment, 




GOLDSCJIMIDT 



op. 8 and 9 ; Part-sougs, etc. — Grove ; Men- 
del ; Fetis. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, SIGISMUND, born in 
Prague, Sept. 28, 1818, died in Vienna in 
October, 1877. Pianist, pupil in Prague of 
Tomascbek, Dionj's Weber, and Joseph 
Triebensee, and in Paris of Dreyscbock. 
He lived in the latter city in 1845-49, then 
returned to Prague. He composed over- 
tures, sonatas, and songs. — Wurzbacb, v. 
260 ; Fotis ; Mendel, iv. 294 ; do., Ergauz., 
130. 

GOLD SONG. See Fidelio. 

GOLDWIX, JOHN, boru (?), died at 
Windsor, Nov. 7, 1719. Organist, pupil of 
Dr. William Child, whom he succeeded as 
organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
in 1697 ; became also master of the choris- 
ters in 1703. His service in F is printed in 
Arnold's "Cathedral Music." Boyce and 
Page also printed some of his anthems, and 
others remain in MS. in Tud way's collection 
and at Ely Cathedral, where he is entered as 
Golding. — Grove ; Fi'tis ; Mendel. 

GOLINELLI, STEF.VNO, boru at Bo- 
logna, Italy, Oct. 26, 1818, still living 1889. 
Pianist, whoso reputation is very great in 
Italy ; is professor in the Licco at Bologna, 
which has adopted his Ai giovaui j)ianisti, 
24 preludes, op. 177, as a study. Works : 
5 sonatas, op. 30, 53, .54, 70, 40 ; 3 toccatas, 
op. 38, 48, 186 ; 2 fautaisies romantiques, 
op. 58, 76 ; Album, op. 11 ; 12 etudes, op. 
15 ; 24 preludes, op. 23 ; do., op. 69 ; 2 
etudes de concert, op. 47 ; Esquisses pian- 
istiques, op. 120 ; Peusieri, op. 155 ; Fan- 
tasia lirica, op. 163 ; etc. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 398 ; Mendel, Erganz., 130. 

GOLLER, MARTIN, born at Layeu, Ty- 
rol, Feb. 20, 1764, died in Innspruck, Jan. 
13, 1836. Church composer, son and pupil of 
Daniel Goller, an organist ; at the age of six- 
teen he entered the Benedictine monastery 
of St. Georgenberg, near Fiecht. In 1811 
he became music teacher to a new Musik- 
vereiu at Innspruck, and directed the choir 
of the university church there. His church 
music was favourably judged by Michael 



Haydn. — Bernsdorf ; Mendel ; Schilling, 
Supplement, 167 ; Staffler, Das deutsche 
Tyrol, etc. (Innsinuick, 1847), i. 678. 

GOLLMICK, ADOLF, boru at Fraukfort- 
on-the-Maiu, Feb. 5, 1825, died in Loudon, 
March 7, 1883. Pianist, sou and pupil of 
Karl Gollmick and pupil of Riefstahl, H. 
Wolff, and Kessler ; went to London in 
1844. Works : Dona Constanza, comic op- 
era ; The Oracle, do.; Balthasar, do.; Blind 
Beggar's Daughter of Bethnal Green, oper- 
atic cantata ; The Heir of Linne, do. ; Sym- 
phony for orchestra ; Overture and marches 
for do. ; Pianoforte music and songs. 

GOLL:\nCK, KARL, born at Dessau, 
March 19, 1790, died in Frankfort-on-the 
Main, Oct. 3, 1866. Sou of the tenor singer 
Friedrich Karl GoUmick (1774-1852), and 
jjupil of SiJiudler in Strasburg, where he 
began studying theology, but left the uni- 
versity and settled in Frankfort as a teacher 
of music and languages. Spohr engaged 
him to play the kettledrums of the Frank- 
fort theatre orchestra iu 1818 ; later he be- 
came Correpetitor, and was pensioned in 
1855. He wrote songs and pianoforte 
music, oj)eratic librettos, educational and 
critical musical works, articles iu musical 
journals, a musical dictionary, and his au- 
tobiographj'. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 345 ; 
Mendel ; Fi'tis, iv. 50 ; do., Supplement, i. 
398 ; Riemann. 

GOLTERM.VNN, GEORG (EDUARD), 
born at Hanover, Aug. 19, 1824, still living, 
1889. Violoncellist, jnipil of Prell and 
Menter on the violoncello and of Lachner 
in composition. He made concert tours in 
1850-52, became in 1852 musical director 
in W^iirzburg, and in 1853 second, and iu 
1874 first. Kapellmeister of the Stadttheater 
in Frankfort-ou-the-Main. He is one of the 
best of modern violoncellists, and an emi- 
nent conductor. Works : 6 concertos for 
violoncello and orchestra, op. 14, 30, 51, 65, 
76, 100 ; Symphony for orchestra in A 
minor, op. 20 ; 2 Festspiel-Ouvertiiren, op. 
24 and 94 ; Sonatas for pianoforte and vio- 
loncello ; Dauses allemandes for violoncello 



GOMBERT 



anil pianoforte, op. 42 ; Adagio for violon- 
cello and orchestra, op. 83 ; Morceaux ca- 
racteristiques for violoncello and pianoforte, 
op. 41, 48, 53 ; jSlegie iu C minor for do., 
op. 88 ; Songs, etc. — Riemann ; Mendel ; 
Fotis, iv. 51 ; do., Suijplement, i. 399 ; 
Grove. 

GOMBERT, NICOLAS, born in Bruges 
about 1495, died after 1570. One of the 
most important composers of the Flemish 
school, pupil of Josquin Des2)rcs. Educat- 
ed for the church, he remained true to his 
priestly vows, although he entered the ser- 
vice of the Emperor Charles V., and resided 
at Madrid in 1530-34 as musicus impera- 
torius. Through that sovereign's favour he 
was given a sinecure oifice iu the Nether- 
lauds, which enabled him to speud his last 
days in peace in his native country'. Gom- 
bert was Josquin 's best pupil and the lead- 
ing master of his time, Pctis saj's he was 
a precursor of the style of Palestriua, and 
Ambros that he was gifted with such musi- 
cal prescience as should ever make his name 
respected. He was particularly renowned 
for his fugues (canons), though his style is 
more inclined to the sentimental than to 
that of the severe contrapuntists of his 
time, and he excelled in chamber and sec- 
ular music. He delighted especially in 
secular music, and chose pastoral subjects, 
treating them much as Haydu and Mozart 
did in later times. His music is descrip- 
tive and his style delightfully fresh and sim- 
jile. His love of nature is apparent iu the 
titles of his songs : Eu ce mois delicieux, 
joyeux verger ; Le chant des oiseaux ; 
Leto chaud bouilloit ; Je m'en vois au vert 
bois ; etc. His music is found in all the 
collections of the time. Eitner's Biblio- 
graphie der Musik-Sammelwerke (Berlin, 
1877) gives a list of nearly 250 of his com- 
positions, printed iu ninety different col- 
lections between 1529 and 1573. Fetis 
also gives a long list of his works, with the 
names of the collections in which they are 
found, such as Motetti del Trutto (1538- 
39) ; Fior di Motetti (Venice, 1539) ; Ec- 



clesiasticfe cantionum (AntwerjJ, 1553) ; 
Sacrarum cantiones (ib., 1554-55) ; Mo- 
tetti della Simla (1539) ; Attaignant's col- 
lection of motets (1529) ; Moderuo's (1532- 
42) ; etc. His Grande Messe a quatre voix, 
Je suis desheritoe, is iu a collection of 
Masses printed by Le Roy and Ballard ; the 
Eler collection, iu the Library of the Paris 
Conservatoire, contains nineteen of his 
motets iu MS. His chansons are in the 
collections of chansons published by At- 
taignaut and others ; his Allejuja me faut 
chanter is in the 7th book of Attaignant's 
Sis galliards, etc. (1529) ; and the Com- 
plaint of Gerard Avidius, set to music by 
Gombert, with the title. In losquinium a 
Prato, etc., is in the 7th volume of Chansons 
a 4, 5, 6 et 8 parties (Susato, Autwerji, 
1543-50).— Grove ; Fc'tis ; Buruey, Hist, 
of Music, iii. 302 ; Neues hist, biogr. Lex. 
der Touk, ii., Art. Gombertus, col. 357 ; 
Die Verd der Niedl. in die Tonk., 35 ; 
Geschicht der Europ. abendltind., etc., 56 ; 
Cat. der Samml. alter Mus., 30 ; Naumann 
(Ouseley), i. 343, 300. 

GOjMEZ, ANTONIO CARLOS, born, of 
Portuguese parents, at 
Campiuas, Brazil, July 
11, 1839, still living, 
1889. Dramatic com- 
poser, sent to Europe 
by the Emjseror, and 
received his musical ed- 
ucation at the Conser- 
vatorio of Milan, under 
Rossi. Though he had 
previously produced in Rio Janeiro, iu 1861, 
a Portuguese operetta iu three acts entitled 
A noite de castello, his first success was a 
little piece entitled Se sa miuga, in the Mi- 
lanese patois, given at the Teatro Fossati iu 
1807. Its popularity was largely due to a 
song on the ueedle-gun, which had an im- 
mense success, coming as it did immedi- 
ately after the Sadowa campaign. His next 
opera, II Guaranij, produced at La Scala 
March 19, 1870, was also very successful, 
and was afterwards played in Genoa, Flor- 




GOMEZ 



ence, Komc, and in London in 1872. His 
works since then have not had any success, 
being obviously iudebted for their inspira- 
tion to Verdi and Meyerbeer, and having 
little of the original flavour of II Guaranij. 
Later works : Fosca, Milan, 1873 ; Salvator 
Rosa, Genoa, 1871: ; ]\Iaria Tudor, four acts, 
text by Braga, Rome, Dec. 8, 1877 ; II saluto 
del Brasile, ode, performed at the Centen- 
ni:d Exhibition, Philadeljihia, 187G. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 31)9 ; Grove. 

GOMEZ, EUGENIO, born at Alcaniz, 
Spain, in 1802, still living, 1880. Pianist 
and organist, chorister in the cathedral, jiu- 
pil of Luis Blasco and Manuel Dancha. 
When twelve years old he was second organ- 
ist, and subsecjueutly organist, of the Cathe- 
dral of SevUlc. Works : Pianoforte music ; 
Organ music ; Repertorio de organistas (3 
vols.). — Ft'tis, Supplement, i. 300 ; Mendel, 
Ei-gauz., 130. 

GOmS, JOSEPH MELCHIOR, born at 
Auteniente, Valencia, in 1703, died in Paris, 
July 26, 183G. He became professor of 
vocal music, when sixteen years old, in the 
religious house where he was educated, and 
when twenty-one chef of an artillery baud 
in Valencia. In 1817 he went to Madrid, 
brought out several ojieras, and was made 
band master in the royal guards. In 1823 
he went to Paris, and in 182G to Loudon, 
where he taught singing. Works — Ope- 
ras : La aldcana, Madrid, about 1818 ; Le 
diable a Seville, Opera Comique, Paris, 
1831 ; Le revenant, ib., 1833 ; Le portefais, 
ib., 183.5 ; Rock-le-Barbu, ib., 183G. L'in- 
verno, quartet for voices, with orchestral 
accompaniment, given at the Philharmonic 
concerts, London ; Songs ; Boleros. — Fetis ; 
Larousse ; Mendel, iv. 207 ; do., Ergiiuz, 
130. 

GOMOLKA, NICOLAS, born at Jas- 
lowiec, Poland, died in Chorawla, March 5, 
IGOO. Church composer, studied in Italy, 
it is supposed under Palestrina. He wrote 
music for the psalms translated into Polish 
b_v Kochanowski, a celebrated poet (1580). 
A copy of these psalms is preserved in the 



library of the University of Cracow ; they 
have been arranged in modern notation by 
Zandmann, and Sowinski gives five of them 
in Les Musiciens polouais. Other works by 
this comjjoser jaerished, as printing was 
then unknown, and there were few maitrises 
or collections of musical works in the 
churches of Poland. — Fetis ; Sowinski, Mus. 
pol., 221 ; Mendel, iv. 299. 

GONZ.iLEZ Y RODRIGUEZ, JOSlfi 
MARIA, born at Alcala, Spain, Feb. 5, 1822, 
still living, 1880. Organist, j)upil in Ma- 
drid of Roman Jimeno ; an organist at the 
age of eighteen, and professor in 1844-67 
in the Madrid Conservatorio. Works : 
Masses ; Motets ; Litanies ; Organ music. 
— Fetis, Supplement, i. 400 ; Mendel, Er- 
giiuz., 130. 

GOODGROOME, JOHN, born in Eng- 
land about 1G30, died, June 27, 1704. A 
chorister of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
he was appointed in IGGO gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, and in 1GG4 became musician 
in ordinary to the king. Some of his songs 
apjseared in the Treasury of Music (IGGO). 
— Grove ; Hawkins, History, v. 18 ; Men- 
del. 

GOOD SHEPHERD, THE, cantata, mu- 
sic bj' William Smyth Roekstro, composed 
in 1885. 

GOPFERT, KARL ANDREAS, born at 
Rimpar, near Wiirzburg, Jan. 16, 1768, 
died in Meiuingen, April 11, 1818. After 
studying the j^ianoforte, organ, and singing, 
he took up the clarinet under Meissner, and 
in 1788 became fir.st clarinetist in the court 
orchestra of Meiuingen and soon after mu- 
sic director of the military corps there. He 
wrote an opera, Der Stern des Nordens, 
songs, and much music for clariuet and 
other wind instruments. — Mendel ; Fetis ; 
Schilling ; Riemaun. 

GOPFERT, KARL GOTTLIEB, born at 
Weesenstein, near Dresden, in 1733, died 
in Weimar, Oct. 3, 1708. Violiu virtuoso, 
puj)il at the Kreuzschule and a choir-boy 
in Dresden ; studied the violin while at 
Leipsic University, and was intlueuced in 



170 



GORDIGIANI 



1764 in Frankfort-on-the-Maiu by Ditters- 
dorf. After playing in concerts in Leipaic 
in 17G5-69, he remained in Berlin a year, 
and settled in Weimar as chamber musi- 
cian, becoming later orchestral director and 
Conzertmeister. His best pupil was J. F. 
Kranz. He published six polonaises for 
violin. — Mendel ; Schilling. 

GORDIGIANI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 
born in Mantua, Italy, in July, 1795, died 
in Prague, March 2, 1871. Dramatic com- 
poser, son and pupil of Antonio Gordigiani, 
and pupil also at the Milan Conservatorio. 
After serving in orchestras in Florence and 
teaching in Ratisbou he went in 1822 to 
Prague, where he was maestro of the Coii- 
servatorium until his death. Works : Pim- 
maglione, opera, given in Prague, 18-45 ; 
Consuelo, opera, Prague, 1846 ; Cluirch mu- 
sic ; Canzonets ; 12 cavalry marches ; Songs, 
etc. — Fetis, iv. 58 ; do.. Supplement, i. 401 ; 
Mendel. 

GORDIGIANI, LUIGI, born in Florence, 
June 12, 1806, died there, April 30, 1860. 
Dramatic composer, brother of the preced- 
ing ; sometimes called the Italian Schubert. 
After travelling and singing with his father 
he studied the pianoforte iu Brescia with 
Gara, in Rome with Sirletti, in Pisa with 
Benvenuti, and learned accompaniment un- 
der Romani and composition under Ugolini. 
At the age of thirteen ho comjiosed a can- 
tata, II ratto d' Etruria, which he dedicated 
to the Emperor of Austria. After the death 
of his father, in 1820, ho made a living by 
writing pianoforte pieces, under such pseu- 
donyms as Zeuner and von Fiir.stenberger. 
He devoted himself next to dramatic com- 
position and wrote several operas, some of 
which were produced at difleront theatres 
in Florence. But he is best known for his 
Canti popolari and his Canzonette for voice 
and pianoforte, melodies of a sentimental 
and usually a mournful cast, in the style of 
or actually founded on old Italian national 
tunes, and sometimes set to words of his 
own. These, of which there are more than 
three hundred, have been translated into 



other languages. They were published iu 
parts of eight or ten each, with characteris- 
tic titles, such as : In cima al monte ; Le far- 
falle di Firenze ; In rival al Aruo ; Mosaico 
Etrusco, etc. He published also a collec- 
tion of Tuscan airs with accompaniment, in 
three books. His romances : L' innamo- 
rata, L' esule, La gondoliera, La selva ; his 
ariettas : L' amor tranquillo and La danza, 
are perfect of their kind and have enjoyed 
a wide celebrity. His stornelli are full of 
a joyous originality, which also found vent 
in his clever parodies of Norma, Parisina, 
Sonnambula, etc. Works — Operas : Faus- 
to, given at the Pergola, Florence, 1837 ; 
Filippo, text by Prince Poniatowski, and 
performed by him and his family, privately, 
Florence, 1840 ; Gli Aragonesi in Napoli, 
Pergola, ib., 1841 ; I ciarlatani, Teatro Leo- 
poldo, Florence, 1843 ; Una vendetta corsa, 
Florence, 1847 ; Un eredita in Cor.sica, ib., 
1847.— Fetis, iv. 58 ; do.. Supplement, i. 
401 ; Grove ; Larousse. 

GORIA, ALEXANDRE I^:D0UARD, born 
in Paris, Jan. 21, 1823, died there, July 6, 
1860. Pianist, pupil at the Conservatoire 
in 1830-39, on the pianoforte of Laurent and 
Zimmerman, and in harmony of Dourlen. 
He won the 2d prize for pianoforte in 1834, 
and the 1st prize in 1835. After leaving 
the Conservatoire he taught the pianoforte 
and comjiosed for it about one hundred 
pieces, such as caprices, nocturnes, solos de 
concert, etc. One of his best compositions 
is a fautaisie on Schubert's Des Miidchen's 
Klage.— Fetis ; Larousse. 

GOSS, Sir JOHN, born at Fareham, 
Hants, England, December, 1800, died iu 
London, ]May 10, 1880. Organist, son of 
Joseph Goss, organist of Fareham ; one of 
the children of the Chajjel Royal under John 
Stafford Smith, iu 1811, and subsequently a 
pupil of Atwood. In 1824 he became or- 
ganist of the new Church of St. Luke, Chel- 
sea, and in 1838 he succeeded Atwood as 
organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. He was 
appointed one of the composers of the 
Chapel Royal to succeed Knyvett in 1856 ; 



GOSSEC 



was knighted in 1872, ancl resigned his ap- 
pointment at St. Pauls shortly afterwards. 
Mus. Doc, Cambridge, 187G. Works — An- 
thems : If we believe that Jesus died (for 
funeral of Duke of Wellington, Nov. 22, 
1852) ; Bless the Lord, my soul (bicen- 
tenary festival of Sons of the Clergy) ; The 
Lord is my strength, and a Te Deum (for 
Thanksgiving in St. Paul's, Feb. 27, 1872, 
for recovery of Prince of Wales) ; The Wil- 
derness ; O give thanks unto the Lord ; Al- 
mighty and merciful God ; Blessed is the 
man ; Christ our Passover ; I heard a voice 
from heaven ; And the king said to all the 
people ; etc. Church service in A ; Burial 
service in E minor ; Cantate Domino and 
Deus misereatur in C ; Magnificat and Nunc 
dimittis in E ; Overtures for orchestra ; Or- 
gan music ; Glees and madrigals ; Songs, 
etc. He published also Parochial Psalmody 
(London, 1827) ; The Organist's Companion 
(■4 vols.) ; Introduction to Harmony and 
Thorough-Bass (18:53, many ed.) ; Chants, 
ancient and modern (1811). — Grove ; Fi'tis; 
Brown. 

GOSSEC, FRANgOIS JOSEPH (prop- 
erly Gosso), born at 
Vergnies in the Hai- 
naut, Jan. 17, 1733, 
died at Passy, Feb. 
1(5, 1829. The son 
of a small farmer, 
he became in 1740 
a choir-boy at the 
Antwei-j) Cathedral, 
where he remained 
until 1748. In 1751 
where he became ac- 
quainted with Rameau, and was apjiointed 
by the fermier-gc-nural La Pojielinii're to di- 
rect his private orchestra. Under the eyes 
of Rameau, then at the height of his fame, 
Gossec made his first appearance before the 
Paris public. The low condition of instini- 
mental music in France excited his am- 
bition to lead it into higher paths, and he 
may aptl}' be called the father of the sym- 
phony in France. His first works in this 




he went to Paris, 



form were published in 1754, five years 1)0- 
fore Haydn wrote his first symphonj'. The 
value of Gossec's symj)honies was not appre- 
ciated at first, but after several years his 
vigorous harmony and orchestration found 
approval in the ears of the public, and the 
overtures of Lulli and Rameau were found 
to be dull and tame by comparison. When 
Rameau, in his old age, stopped writing for 
the stage, Gossec entered the household of 
the Prince de Conti as conductor of the 
prince's orchestra, where he had much lei- 
sure for composition. His first quartets ap- 
peared in 1759, and his Requiem (probably 
his most famous work) was given with over- 
whelming success, and published in 1760. 
In 1764 his first opera, Le Faux Lord, was 
given at the Comedie Italienne. His Les 
Pccheurs was given on April 8, 176G, and 
ran for nearly the remainder of the year. 
In 1770 Gossec founded the Concert des 
Amateurs, the orchestra being conducted 
by the famous Chevalier de Saint-Georges. 
This, the first impulse given to fine orches- 
tral playing in France, is to be ascribed 
mainly to Gossec. But his greatest service 
to the cause of music in France was his 
founding of the £eole Royale de Chant (the 
first beginning of the Conservatoire), in 
1784. 'Wlien the Conservatoire itself was 
founded, in 1795, Gossec was made one of 
the inspectors. During the Revolution he 
was conductor of the band of the Garde 
Nationale, and wrote much music for the 
public fetes. He was a member of the In- 
stitut from its foundation (1795), and che- 
valier of the Legion of Honour (1812). He 
retired from his professorship at the Con- 
servatoire in 1815, but continued to attend 
the meetings of the Academic des Beaux- 
Arts until 1823. Gossec was a man of great 
talent, perseverance, insight, and enterprise 
rather than a man of great genius. Bj' hard 
and intelligent work he raised himself from 
a position of absolute obscurity to the rank 
of a classic comjjoser, and this, too, with 
hardly any instruction. He enjoyed im- 
mense i:)opularity, but had the misfortune 



172 



CtOSWIN 



to see himself surpassed in almost every 
dej)artment by his younger contemporaries. 
Like most innovators who flourish at the 
jjoiut of contact of two distinct periods in 
art, he saw his original ideas laid hold of 
and vastly improved upon by others. Thus 
Haydn and Mozart far surjjassed him in the 
sj-mphony and in sacred composition, as 
Grt'try and Gluek did on the stage. His 
popularity, fully deserved as it was, was 
thus destined to be but short-lived. There 
is an oil portrait of hiui in the Conservatoire 
library at Paris, besides which there is a 
small engraving by Fremy (after Brun), and 
a bust by Caillouetc. A monument to his 
memory was erected at Vergnies in 1877. 
Works — Ojjeras : 1. Le faux lord, Paris, 
Theatre Italien, 17C4 ; 2. Les pccheurs, 
ib., 176G ; 3. Le double deguisemeut, ib., 
1707 ; 4. Toinon et Toinettc, ib., June 20, 
1707 ; 5. Sabinus, Opera, Feb. 22, 1773 ; 
C. Berthe (in collaboration with Philidor 
and Botson), Brussels, Jan. IS, 1775 ; 7. 
Alexis et Da^^hnr, Paris, Opera, Sept. 20, 
1775 ; 8. FldU'inon et Baucis, ballet, ib., 
Sept. 2G, 1775; 9. Hylas et Sylvie, ib., 
1770 ; 10. La file de village, ib.. May 20, 
1778 ; 11. Thesee, ib., Feb. 20, 1782 ; 12. 
Clioruses to Rocheforfs "Electre," at court, 
January, 1783 ; 13. liosine, ou IV'pouse aban- 
donnoe, Opera, July 14, 1780 ; 14. Choruses 
to Racine's " Athalie," Theatre Frau(;ais, 
1791 ; 15. L'ofirande a la patrie. Opera, 
Oct. 2, 1792 ; 10. Le camp de Grandpre, ou 
le triomphe de la reisublique, ib., Jan. 27, 
1793 ; 17. La reprise de Toulon, ib., 1790 ; 18. 
Les sabots et le cerisier. Theatre des Jeunes 
iSleves, Dec. 13, 1803 ; 19. Le Perigourdin, 
at the palace of the Prince de Conti, (?) ; 
20. Nitocris, unfinished. Oratorios : L'arche 
dalliance; To, Natimte ; Saiil. Church mu- 
sic : Masses with orchestra ; Mesxe des morts ; 
Motets ; Te Deum ; O Salutaris. Music for 
patriotic festivals : Chant du 14 juillet ; 
Chant martial ; Hymne a I'Etre supreme ; 
do. a la Nature ; do. a I'Humanite ; do. a la 
Liberte ; and several others. Serment re- 
publicaiu ; Chujurs et chants pour I'apothe- 



ose de Voltaire ; do. do Rousseau ; etc. In- 
strumental music : La chasse, and 25 other 
symphonies for full orchestra ; 3 do. for 
wind instruments ; Symphonic concertante 
for eleven instruments ; Several overtures ; 




serenades for violin, flute, horn, bassoon, 
viola, and ba.ss ; Quartets, trios, and duos 
for strings. — Pierre Hedouin, Gossec, sa vie, 
etc. (Valenciennes, 1852) ; Notice by Edou- 
ard Gregoire in ''La Fedt'ration " news- 
paj)er (Brussels, Nov. 20, 1875) ; Charles 
Plot, " Particularites inedites concernant les 
ceuvres musicales de Gossec et Philidor," 
Bulletins de I'Acadomie Royale de Belgique, 
2d series (1872), xl. No. 1 (also printed sep- 
arately in pamphlet form) ; Clement, Mus. 
ct'K'bres, 137 ; Gregoir, Notice sur G. (1878) ; 
Fetis ; do., Sui3ijh'ment, i. 403. 

GOSWIN, ANTON (Antonius Gostuinus), 
German composer of the latter part of the 
10th century. He was in the royal chapel 
in ^Munich ; then became Kapellmeister suc- 
cessively to the Bishoj)s of Liege, Hildes- 
heim, and Freising, and finally to the Count 
Palatine, Ernst bei Rhein. He composed 
madrigals and sacred songs. — Mendel ; Fe- 
tis ; Allgem. d. Biogr. 

GOTT, BEI DEINEM STARKEN 
SCHUTZEN, bass aria in G minor, with ac- 
companiment of 2 oboes and continuo, in 
Johanu Sebastian Bach's cantata for Dom. 
IV. jjost Epij^h., " Wiir' Gott nicht mit uns 
diese Zeit ; " published separately, with ad- 
ditional accompaniments by Robert Franz, 
by F. Whistling, Leipsic, 1800. 

GOTTERDAMMERUNG (Dusk of the 
Gods), music drama in a prologue and three 
acts, by Richard Wagner, first represented 
at Bayreuth, Aug. 17, 1870. The fourth 
and last drama in Der Bing des Nibelungen. 
The original cast was as follows : 



1T3 



GOTTERDAMMERUNG 



Siegfried (T.) Hen- Unger. 

Gunther (Bar.) Herr Gura. 

Hagen (B.) Herr von Eeicheuberg. 

Albericli (Bar.) Herr Hill. 

Briiuubilde (S.). . .Fraii Friedrich-Materna. 

Gutrune (S.) Frl. Weckerlin. 

Waltraute (S.) Frau Ja'ida. 

Siegfried who, at the close of the tliird 
drama, Siegfried, Las wou Briiunbilde, leaves 




Materna, as Bfunnhtlde. 

her on tbe beigbts of tbe Bri'mnhildensteiu, 
giving ber tbe Ring as a pledge of bis 
fidelity, and goes out in searcb of new ex- 
ploits. Arriving at tbe dwelling of Guntber, 
tbe Gibicbung, be meets Gutrune, bis sister, 
and Hagen, bis balf-brotber. Hagen is Al- 
bericb'sson, and is bent ujwn regaining tbe 
Ring, robbed from bis father (Rheingoki, 
Scene 3). He prepares a potion which, 
handed to Siegfried by Gnti'une, makes the 



hero forget Briinnbilde, and love Gutrune. 
Siegfried sues forthwith for Gutrune's 
band ; Guntber promises ber to him, if be 
will fii'st help him win Briinnbilde for his 
wife. Siegfried consents, and, disguising 
himself as Gunther, bj' means of tbe Tarn- 
helm, repairs to tbe Briinubildenstein, 
wrenches tbe Ring from Briinnbilde's fin- 
ger, and brings ber captive to Gunther. In 
the second act Siegfried, having doffed the 
Tarnhelm, appears in his own shape ; Briinn- 
bilde claims him as her husband, but he, 
still under the spell of Hagen's potion, dis- 
claims all knowledge of her. She espies the 
Ring on bis finger, and sees that it was he, 
and not Guntber, who brought her by force 
from the Briinnbildenstein. Both Gunther 
and Briinnbilde think that Siegfried has 
wittingly islayed them false, and, stiU further 
incited thereto by Hagen, they plot Sieg- 
fried's death. In the tbinl act Siegfried, 
one of a bunting party, comes to tbe banks 
of the Rhine ; the Rhine-daughters beseech 
him to restore tbe Ring to them, prophesy- 
ing bis death if bo should keep it, but he 
refuses to give it uji. He is joined by Gun- 
ther, Hagen, and others, and during the 
noontide rest Hagen asks him to tell the 
story of his life. In the midst of the nar- 
rative Hagen offers Siegfried a draught, a 
counterpotion to the one given him in the 
first act ; tbe young hero, bis memory now 
restored, proceeds to tell how he first won 
Briinnbilde on the heights of tbe Briinn- 
bildenstein (Siegfried, Act iii., Sc. 3). Gun- 
ther springs up in horror ; Wotan's ravens 
fly up from a bush hard by, and as Sieg- 
fried, startled by the whir of wings, turns 
round to look after them, Hagen plunges 
his spear into his back. Siegfried dies with 
Briinnbilde's name on his lips ; the men 
raise his body upon bis shield, and bear it 
home in solemn jirocession. On reaching 
Gunther's dwelling, Hagen and Gunther 
quan-el, and the latter is killed ; Hagen 
tries to take the Ring from Siegfried's fin- 
ger, but the dead arm raises itself and warns 
him off with threatening gesture. While 



GOTT 



Gutrune is bewailing lier hero's death, 
Brilnubilde appears, and claims liim for her 
owu ; she orders a funeral iJyre to be built, 
and, as the men lift Siegfried's body njion 
it, draws the Ring from his finger and jjuts 
it on her owu. She lights the pyre with a 
torch, and, mounting her horse Grane, leaps 
into the flames. The Rhine overflows its 
banks into the hall, bearing with it the 
Rhine-daughters, who recover the Ring and 
drag Hagen, plunging into the waves after 
them in delirium, down to the depths. A 
ruddy glow lights up the northern sky, be- 
tokening the end of Valhalla, and the Dusk 
of the Gods : the Ragnaruk of Northern 
mythology. 

Of the four Nibelungen dramas, GOtter- 
diimmerung is the one in which there is the 
most of incident and dramatic action. As 
in all of the dramas of Wagner's third pe- 
riod, the music is not divided into distinct 
numbers, but is a continuous working out 
of characteristic Leitmotivs, most of which 
have already' appeared in the earlier parts of 
the tetralogy. The music after Siegfried's 
death has become familiar in the concert- 
room under the misnomer of " Siegfried's 
Funeral March," and Briinnhilde's last 
speech over the hero's body, beginning, 
"Schweigt eures Jammers jauchzenden 
Swall !," is frequently given ajjart from the 
rest of the work. The orchestral interlude 
(scherzo) between the Prologue and Act i., 
known as Siegfried's Rheiufahrt " (S.'s trip 
up the Rhine), which was written before the 
rest of the music, is sometimes played also 
at concerts. Gotterdilmmeruug was first 
given in America at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, New York, Jan. 25, 1888.— Krehbiel, 
Review (1887-88), 87 ; for other bibliog- 
raphy, see riiuij des Nibelungen. 

GOTT ERHALTE FRANZ DEN KAI- 
SER (God save Franz the Emperor), com- 
monly called the Emperor's Hymn, the 
national anthem of Austria. The words 
were written by Lorenz Leopold Haschka, 
in 1796, during the patriotic fervour caused 
by the movements of the French army, were 



set to music for four voices by Haydn, in 
January, 1797, and were sung first on the 
EmjJeror's birthday, Feb. 12, 1797. Haydn 
subsequently used it as a theme for varia- 
tions in his Kaiserquartet (op. 7G, No. 3). 
— A. Schmid, J. Haydn vmd N. Zingarelli 
(Venice, 1817). 

GOTTES ZEIT 1ST DIE ALLERBESTE 
ZEIT (God's Time is the best of all Time), 
cantata for soli and chorus, with accomjJani- 
ment of two flutes, two viole da gamba, and 
continuo, otherwise called the Actus Tragi- 
cus, by Johann Sebastian Bach, written at 
Weimar, probably in memory of Magister 
Philipp Grossgebauer, rector of the school 
there, who died in 1711. It is sometimes 
called also the Mourning Cantata. Though 
one of the composer's j-outhful comi^ositions, 
it has always been a favourite of the best mu- 
sical critics. Published, edited by Robert 
Franz, by Leuckhart (Leipsic, 1850). — Spit- 
ta, i. 451 ; Upton, Standard Cantatas, 33. 

GOTT F.IHRET AUF HOT JAUCHZEN, 
cantata, festo Ascensionis Christi, for soli 
and chorus, with accompaniment of three 
trumi^ets, drums, two oboes, strings com- 
plete, and continuo, by Johann Sebastian 
Bach (Bachgesellschaft, No. 43). Publish- 
ed in full and pianoforte score, with ad- 
ditional accompaniments by Robert Franz, 
Breslau, Leuckart. — Sjjitta, Bach, ii. 550. 

GOTTH.mD, J. P. (real name Pazdirek), 
born at Drahauowitz, Moravia, Jan. 19, 1839, 
still living, 1889. He was a choir-boj' at 
Altwasser, and finally solo so23rano at the 
cathedral in Olmiitz. He attended the gym- 
nasium in Vienna, where he was the pupil 
of Simon Sechter in composition. He 
founded a musical establishment in 18G8 in 
Vienna. In his hall he established a series 
of concerts, where young musicians ap- 
j)eared. Works : Mass for soli, chorus and 
orchestra, op. 6G ; 14:9th psalm, for do., op. 
G3 ; Oft'ertorium, for do., ojj. G5 ; do. for 
soprano and tenor, with strings, 2 horns 
and organ, op. G7 ; Graduale, for tenor, 
with flute, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
and double-bass, op. 64 ; Ave Maria, for 



175 



GOTT 



Tenor solo and male chorus, with organ, 
op. 39 ; Liebesgliick, song in dance form, 
for a voice, with orchestra, op. 62 ; Con- 
cert overture, for orchestra ; Quintet for 
jiianoforte and strings, oji. GO ; Andante 
ongarese, for string quartet, op. 68 ; Cho- 
ruses for male voices, op. 10, 19, '2i, 32, Si, 
35, 38, 41, 46, 69 ; Pianoforte music and 
songs. 

GOTT 1ST GERECHT, bass aria in B- 
flat, with accompaniment of three oboes 
and continuo, in Johauu Sebastian Bach's 
cantata for Dom. I post Triuit., " O Ewig- 
keit, du Dounerwort " (Bachgesellschaft, 
No. 20) ; ijublished sejaarately, with addi- 
tional accompaniments by Kobert Eranz, by 
F. Whistling, Leipsic, 18(;0. 

GOTTLOB! NUN GEHT D.LS J.IHR 
ZU ENDE, soprano aria in A minor, with 
accompaniment of 2 oboes, taille, strings 
complete, and continue, in Johann Sebas- 
tian Bach's cantata for Dom. post Nativ. 
Christi, " Gottlob ! Nun gcht das Jahr zu 
Ende " (Bachgesellschaft, No. 28) ; published 
separately, with additional acconipaniinents 
by Robert Franz, by F. AVhistling, Leij)sic, 
1860. 

GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREAU, born 
at New Orleans, 
Louisiana, May 8, 
1829, died at Rio 
de Janeiro, Dec. 
18, 18(19. Pianist, 
I^upil in Paris of 
Chai-les Halle and 
of Stamaty on the 
pianoforte, and of 
M a 1 e d e n in har- 
mony ; appeared 
first in public in 
184.5, then made a concert tour through 
France, Switzerland, and Spain, meeting 
everywhere with brilliant success. Li 1853 
he returned to America, and made a suc- 
cessful tour through the United States, 
Cuba, and South America, whither he went 
from San Francisco in 1865. Endowed 
with a poetic imagination, he was equally 




original as virtuoso and composer ; and his 
music has a colour peculiar to itself. His 
numerous compositions, if not deep, are full 
of novel accents and unusual rhythmical 
combinations, producing an indefinable 
charm ; they are nearly all so-called charac- 
ter-pieces, and mostly of a national, espe- 
cially Spanish tinge, brilliant, and at times 
melancholy. Works : Charles IX., Isaura 
de Salerno, operas ; La unit des troisiques, 
symphonj', for grand orchestra ; ]Monte- 
video, do. ; Grand triumphal march, for 
do. ; Gran marcha solemne, dedicated to 
the Emperor of Brazil, for do. ; Finale con- 
certante to the opera Charles IX., for do. ; 
Escenas campestres cubanas, for do. ; Gran 
Tarantella, for do. ; about 90 works for pi- 
anoforte, a complete list of which is to be 
I found in the monographs cited below, and 
about a dozen songs. — Fors, Gottschalk 
j (Havana, 1880) ; R. E. Peterson, Notes of a 
I Pianist, etc. (Philadelphia, 1881) ; Octavia 
I Hensel, Life and Letters of L. M. Gottschalk 
(Boston, 1870). 

GOTT SEI MIR GNADIG, bass air of 
Paulus in Mendelssohn's J^aulus, Part I. 

GOTTWALD, HEINRICH, born at 
Reichenbach, Silesia, Oct. 24, 1821, died in 
Breslau, Feb. 17, 1876. Pianist, pupil of 
his father ; entered the seminary in Bres- 
lau in 1839, but soon left to study under 
Pixis at the Prague Conservatorium. He 
became music director at Hohenelbe, Bo- 
hemia, in 1844 ; was first horn in a theatre 
orchestra in Vienna in 1846 ; retm-ned to 
Hohenelbe in 1847 ; settled in Breslau as 
pianist, teacher, and writer, in 1857. Works : 
Symphonies ; Overtures ; Masses ; Music for 
horn and pianoforte. — Mendel, iv. 310 ; Er- 
giinz., 131 ; Fi'tis, Supplement, i. 404. 

GOTTWALD, JOSEPH, born at Wil- 
helmsthal, Glatz, Aug. 6, 1754, died in Bres- 
lau, June 25, 1833. He became choir-boy 
in the Dominican Church of Breslau in 1766, 
organist of the sanie in 1769, organist of the 
Kreuzkirche in 1783, and of the cathedral 
in 1819. Works : -Masses ; Hj-mns ; Vespers, 
and other church music. — Mendel ; Fetis. 



ne 



GOTZE 



GOTZE, HEINKICH, born at AYaitba, 
Silesia, April 7, 1836, still liviug, 1889. Li- 
strumental composer, pujiil of Mosewius 
and Baumgart, then at the Conservatoriuiu, 
Leipsic, of Frauz Gutze iu singing ; losing 
liis voice, be devoted himself to teaching 
and composition, went first to Russia as 
musical tutor, then lived for some years at 
Breslau, and in 1871 became instructor 
of music at the seminary at Liebenthal, 
Silesia. Among his compositions are es- 
pecially noteworthy two serenades, and 
six sketches for string orchestra, and a 
pianoforte trio. — Mendel, Ergiiuz., 129 ; 
Riemann. 

GOTZE, JOHANN NICOLAUS KON- 
RAD, born at Weimar, Feb. 11, 1791, died 
there, Dec. 5, 1861. Violinist, pujnl iu 
Gotha of Spohr, iu Weimar of August Miil- 
ler, and at the Paris Conservatoire iu 1813 
of Kreutzer and Cherubini. After leaving 
the Conservatoire he settled in Weimar, 
making jjrofessional journeys to Vienna and 
other cities. Iu 1826-18 he was director 
of the Court Theatre at Weimar. Works — 
Operas : Der Markt, Weimar, 1819 ; Alex- 
ander iu Persieu, ib., 1820 ; Das Orakel iu 
Delphi, three acts, ib., 1822 ; Der Gallego, 
four acts, ib., 1834. He wrote also the 
music for several vaudevilles and melo- 
dramas ; Overtures for orchestra ; Quartet 
for stringed instruments, op. 2 ; 3 other 
quartets for do., op. 5 ; Variations for vio- 
lin with accompaniment ; 3 trios for two 
violins and %dolonceUo ; Pianoforte music ; 
Songs, etc. — Fctis ; Larousse. 

GOTZE, KARL, boru in Weimar iu 1836, 
died at Magdeburg, Jan. 14, 1887. Dra- 
matic composer, j)upil of TOpfer and Geb- 
hardi, and later of Liszt. He became Cor- 
repetitor of the Weimar Opera iu 1855, 
then theatre Kapellmeister in Magdeburg, 
iu Berlin in 1869, in Breslau in 1872, and 
in Chemnitz from 1875. Works — Operas : 
Eine AbschiedsroUe, Die Korseu, Weimar, 
1866 ; Gustav Wasa, der Held des Nordens, 
text by Rost, ib., 1868; Judith, Magde- 
burg, 1887. Eine Sommernacht, sympho- 



nic poem, op. 20 ; Orchestral, pianoforte, 
and vocal music. — Riemann ; Mendel. 

GOUDIMEL, CLAUDE, born at Vaison, 
near Avignon, Frauce, probably about 1505, 
killed at Lyons iu the massacre on St. Bar- 
tholomew's Day, Aug. 24, 1572. Of his early 
life nothing is known ; he went to Rome 
and established a music school there, cer- 
tainly before 1540. Li 1555 he had returned 
to France, and was partner of Nicolas Du- 
chemiu, book and music publisher in Paris. 
The partnershijD was dissolved iu the follow- 
ing year. Iu 1562 he jjublished his set- 
ting of the Psalms in four-voice counter- 
point on cantus firmi taken from Calviuistic 
melodies. It is very doubtful, however, if 
Goudimel was himself a Protestant. His 
Psalms had the authorization of the Sor- 
bonne (Oct. 16, 1561), and were actually 
used iu Catholic public worship. His being 
included iu the St. Bartholomew proscrip- 
tion was probably due to the machinations 
of envious rivals. Goudimel wrote almost 
entirely for the church ; his works are nota- 
ble for a peculiar charm and grace of style, 
remindiug one more of Costanzo Festa than 
of his other great coutemi^oraries Hobrecht 
and Arcadelt. His fame as a teacher has, 
somewhat unjustly, thrown his reputation 
as a composer iuto the shade. Probably 
no man ever formed so many great pupils, 
among them being Palestrina, Giovanni 
Animuccia, Steftano Bettiui, Giovanni Maria 
Nanini, and Alessandro della Viola. — Am- 
bros, iii. 578. 

GOULD, NATHANIEL (DUREN), born 
iu Chelmsford (now Bedford), Massachu- 
setts, March 26, 1781, died in Boston, May 
28, 1864. He studied vocal music under 
Reuben Emerson, established his first sing- 
ing school iu Stoddard, N. H., iu 1798, and 
for twenty years conducted singing schools 
in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. In 
1806 his name was changed from Duren to 
Gould. About 1807 was formed the Mid- 
dlesex Musical Society, of which he was 
' conductor for several years. In 1819 he 
' removed to Boston, and taught vocal music 



GOULLEY 



there and in New York for ten years. He 
then returned to Boston, where he jJassed 
the rest of his Ufe as a professional penman. 
He edited the following works : " Social 
Harmony " (1823) ; " National Church Har- 
mony " (1832) ; " Sacred Minstrel " (1839) ; 
" Companion for the Psalmist " (1853). He 
was the author also of a Look entitled 
" Church Music in America." 

GOULLEY (Goule), JACQUES NICO- 
LAS, born at Saint-Jean du Cardonnay 
about 1774, died at Rouen, May 30, 1818. 
Church composer, pupil of Cordonnier and 
Broche at the Maitrise of Rouen Cathedral, 
where Boieldieu was his fellow pupil. Com- 
posed his first mass, with orchestral accom- 
paniment, at fifteen. His motet, lucipite 
Domino, with full orchestra, was considered 
a fine work. He excelled in romances for 
3 or 4 voices ; one of these, O ma j)atrie, O 
mon bonheur, was very popular. — Fctis, 
Supplement, i. 405 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 131. 
GOUNOD, CHARLES (FRANCOIS), 
born in Paris, June 
17, 1818, stm hving, 
1889. Dramatic 
composer ; g r a d u- 
ated at the Lycc'e 
Saint-Louis, and in 
1836 entered the 
C(jnservatoire, where 
he became a pupil 
of Haluvy in coun- 
terpoint, and of Paer 
and Lesueur in composition. In 1837 he 
won the second prize for composition, and in 
1839 the prix de Rome, with the cantata 
Fernand. During his three years' residence 
in Rome he studied the style of Palestrina, 
brought out a mass in S. Luigi de' Francesi 
in 1841, and a Requiem in Vienna, 1842, and 
after his return to Paris became organist and 
maitre de chapelle of the ^Missions etran- 
n-eres. At that time he attended theologi- 
cal lectures, and came near taking holy 
orders ; but suddenly a change took place 
in his musical aspirations, which led him to 
dramatic composition. It was, however, a 





religious work which first brought him 
into universal notice, after one of Hullah's 
concerts in London, 
1851, in which parts 
of his Messe so- 
leunelle wei'e per- 
formed. In the 
same year he made 
his debut at tlie 
Opera with Sapho, 
and in 1852 was 
made director of 
the Orpheon, the 
great union of the 
male singing societies and vocal schools of 
Paris, which position he held for eight years. 
In 1859 he won his greatest triumph with 
Faust, Avhich bore his fame into all coun- 
tries of Europe, and continues to be his 
masterpiece, although his Romeo et Juliette 
(1867) is ranked even higher in France. 
The war of 1870 caused his removal to Lon- 
don, where ho founded the choral union 
Gounod's Choir, with whom he gave con- 
certs ; in 1875 he returned to Paris, where, 
after producing several new operas, the 
success of which never equalled that of 
Faust, he devoted himself almost exclu- 
sively to sacred composition in the larger 
forms. Gounod's genius is eminently ele- 
giac and poetic, with a tinge of mysticism ; 
he is a consummate master of the orchestra, 
in his treatment of which he evinces consid- 
erable individuality. Member of the Insti- 
tute of France ; Commander of the L. of 
Honour. "Works — Operas: Sapho, given at 
the OiJcra, April IG, 1851 ; La nonne. san- 
glante, Oct. 18, 1854 ; Le medecin malgre 
lui, oiJcra-comique, Theilti-e Lyriquc, Jan. 
15, 1858 ; FausI, ib., March 19, 1859, and 
with considerable modifications. Opera, 
March 3, 1809 ; Philemon et Baucis, The- 
atre Lyi'ique, Feb. 18, 1860, Opera Co- 
mique (reduced to 2 acts), 1876 ; La vo- 
loinbe, opera-comique, Baden, 1860, Opera 
Comique, June 7, 1866 ; La reine de Saba, 
Opera, Feb. 29, 18()2 ; Mireilh; Theatre 
Lyrique, March 19, 1804, Opera Comique 



ITS 



GOUVY 



(reduced to 4 acts), November, 1874 ; Pio- 
mk> et Juliette, Theatre Lyrique, April 27, 
1867 ; Cinq-'Mars, Opera Comique, April 
5, 1877; Pohjeude, Opera, Oct. 7, 1878; 
Georges Dandin, not performed ; Le tribut 
de Zamora, April 1, 1881. Other dramatic 
music : Choruses to Ponsard's tragedy 
Cli/sse, Comedie Frau^aise, June 18, 1852 ; 
do., and incidental music to Legouve's 
drama Les deux reines de France, Theatre 
Ventadour, Nov. 27, 1872 ; do. to Barbier's 
drama Jeanne d'Arc, Theatre de la Gaite, 
Nov. 8, 1873. Sacred music : Mass for 
3 voices and orchestra, Rome, 1841 ; Re- 
quiem, Vienna, St. Charles's, 1842 ; Messe 
solennelle, Paris, Saint-Eustache, 1849 ; 
Missa brevis ; Second Requiem mass ; Two 
masses ; Messe du Sacre-Coeur de Jesus, 
for 4 voices, chorus, orchestra, and organ, 
Paris, Saint-Eustaclie, 187G ; Stabat Jlatcr ; 
Tubie, oratorio ; Lcs sept paroles du Christ ; 
MasSj Angeli custodes ; Pater uoster ; I'res 
du fleuve etranger, chorus with orchestra ; 
Ji'sus de Nazareth ; Ave verum ; O saluta- 
ris, for solo voice, with chorus and organ ; 
Te Deum ; Jesus sur le lac de Tiberiade, 
scene for baritone solo, chorus, and orches- 
tra, Paris, 187G ; Magnificat ; Vexilla regis ; 
Christus faetus est ; Sis cantiques, for solo 
or chorus ; Messe solennelle, Sainte-Cecile, 
Paris, 1882 ; La Redemption, oratorio, 
Birmingham Festival, August, 1882 ; jl/b>-.s 
et vita, do., ib., 1885. Cantatas : Fernand 
(1839) ; A la frontiere, Paris, Opera, 1870 ; 
OaUia, biblical elegy, for chorus, soli, and 
orchestra, for the opening of the Interna- 
tional Exhibition, London, Royal Albert 
Hall, Maj' 1, 1871. Instrumental music : 
Symphony in D ; do. in E-flat ; La reine 
des Apotres, symphony ; Marche romaine ; 
Prelude de Bach, orchestrated. Concert 
populaire, Dec. 8, 18G7 ; Meditation sur le 
ler prelude de Bach, for sojjrano, violin, 
pianoforte, and organ ; Le calme, for violin 
solo, with orchestra ; Romances sans pa- 
roles, for pianoforte ; 10 morceaux ori- 
ginaux, for do. ; Marche pontifieale, do. ; 
Valses, do. ; Convoi funebre d'une mario- 



nette, do. ; Dodelinette, berceuse for do. 
(4 hands) ; Methode de cor a pistons. 
Vocal : 12 choruses for 3-G voices ; Choeurs 
orpheoniques, for 4 male voices ; Dans uue 
etable, chorus with orchestra ; Les Gaulois, 
do. ; En avant !, chanson militaire, for solo 
and chorus, with orchestra ; Chants lyriques 
de Saiil ; Pastorale sur un Noel du dix- 
huitieme siecle, chorus with orchestra ; 
Choruses dedicated to the Albert Hall Cho- 
ral Society ; 20 melodies for voice and pi- 
anoforte (Paris, Choudens) ; do., 2d col. ; 
do., 3d col. ; 

do., 4th col. \ ^ f ^ 

15 duets for ^ ^ - rZtu.rx^ 
do. (m o s 1 1 y 

extracts from his operas) ; Biondina, 
12 melodies to Italian f)oems by Zaf- 
fira ; Many other French, English, and 
Italian songs. — Autobiograjihie de Ch. Gou- 
nod, etc. (London, W. Reeves, 1875) ; L'Art, 
April 1 and 8, 1877 ; Claretie, Portraits 
contemporains (Paris, 1875) ; Clement, 
Mus. celebres, G24 ; Fetis ; do., Supple- 
ment, i. 405 ; Mendel. 

GOm'Y, (LOUIS) THEODORE, born, 
of French parents, atGoffontaine, near Saar- 
briick, Rlienish Prussia, July 2, 1819, still 
living in Paris, 1889. Pianist ; after a 
course of study at the Metz Gymnasium he 
went in 1840 to Paris to study law, but 
gave it up for music ; studied composition 
under Elwart three years, then studied in 
Berlin, and later in Italy fifteen months. 
In 184G he returned to Paris, where he has 
since resided as a teacher and composer. 
He gave his first concert in Paris in 1847, 
when the orchestra of the Theatre Italien 
played his second symphony, op. 9. The 
Societe des Concerts of the Union Musicale 
played his music in 1848 and it had a warm 
reception, and since 1850 the different mu- 
sical societies of Paris, notably that of Sainte- 
Cecile, and the society of the young stu- 
dents of the Conservatoire h.ave played his 
works every year. His puljlished and un- 
published works extend to op. 75, and con- 
tain more than 200 numbers. — Works : Cid, 



1T9 



GOW 



opera, 1863 ; Aslega, lyric-dramatic scene ; 
Golgotha, cantata ; Eequiem Mass ; Stabat 
Mater ; Friihlings Erwacben, for male cho- 
rus, soprano solo, and orchestra, op. 73 ; 6 
symphonies for full orchestra ; 2 concert 
overtures ; String quartets and a quintet ; 
5 pianoforte trios and cue quintet ; 18 ser- 
enades for pianoforte solo ; Sonatas for pi- 
anoforte, choruses, songs, and other pieces 
iu large numbers. — Fctis ; do., Sujjplement, 
i. -110 ; Grove ; Mendel ; lliemann. 

GOW, NEIL, born at luver, near Dun- 
keld, Perthshire, Scotland, March 22, 1727, 
died thei-e, March 1, 1807. Violinist, self- 
taught until the age of thirteen, when he 
received lessons from John Cameron, a 
retainer of the Stewart family of Grand- 
tull\'. He became noted for his i^erform- 
ance of Scotch tunes, especially reels and 
strathspeys, and he pei-formed at most of 
the fashionable balls and assemblies of his 
time, supported by his brother Donald on 
the violoncello. He published six collec- 
tions of strathspey reels, and A Complete 
Repositoiy of the Original Scotch Slow 
Tunes, Strathspeys, and Dances, many of 
which were of his own composition. His 
four sons, Nathaniel, Andrew, John, and 
William, were all violinists, and noted in 
their day. Nathaniel (17G6-1831), pupil 
of his father, and also of E. M'Intosh, 
M'Glashan, and J. Keinagle, edited The 
Beauties of Neil Gow (Edinburgh), in six 
books, comprising chiefly the comjDOsitions 
of Neil Gow and his sons, and several otlier 
collections of Scotch melodies. Among his 
airs. Caller Hen-iu' is one of the most pop- 
ular. Neil Gow, Jr. (1795-1823), son of 
Nathaniel, was the composer of Cam' ye by 
Athol ?, Flora Maedouald's Lament, and 
Bonnie Prince Charlie. — Grove ; Brown. 

GRABELER, PETER, born in Bonn, Aug. 
10, 179G, died there, Dec. IG, 1830. Violin- 
ist, ^slaved when ten years old in an orches- 
tra of his native city ; learned several other 
instruments, and in theory was the pupil of 
Stegmann. He became a bandmaster in 
the Prussian Army, and, after the battle of 




Waterloo, directed German opera in Posen. 
In 1821 he returned to Bonn, and took 
charge of his dead father's brewery in 1824, 
without giving up music entirely. He com- 
posed the oratorio, Salomo's Urtheil, the 
cantata, An die Hoffnung, to words by Lud- 
wig, King of Bavaria, and other vocal and 
instrumental music. — Mendel ; Fetis. 
GRABEN-HOFFMANN ( H o ff m a n n ) , 
GUSTAV, born at 
Bnin, near Posen, 
March 7, 1820, still 
living, 1889. After 
studying at the semin- 
ary of Bromberg, he 
became a teacher near 
and in Posen ; and in 
1813 went to Berlin 
and was a pupil of the 
singer Stiimer. He 
founded a ladies' singing academy in Pots- 
dam, studied composition under Hauptmanu 
in Leipsic, settled iu Dresden as teacher of 
singing in 18.^)8, in Schwerin in 18G8, La 
Berlin in 1870, and returned to Dresden in 
1873 ; settled at Potsdam, 1885. He has 
composed 95 books of songs and other mu- 
sic, and has written several works on vocal 
instruction. His ballad, 500,000 Teufel, 
was veiy popular and often translated. 
— I\Ieudel ; Brockhaus, ix. 300 ; Riemann, 
327 ; Fi'tis, Supplement, i. 411. 

GR.YBU (Grabut), LOUIS, French com- 
poser, living in London about 1680. He 
wrote the music for Drvden's Albion and 
Albinus, 1G85, printed in London (1GS7). 
Choron calls him chapel-master to Charles 
H. and director of Covent Garden Theatre, 
and says that the first opera played in Lon- 
don, Ariadne, or the Marriage of Bacchus 
(1674), was by him, but this account has no 
real foundation. — FOtis ; Burney, Hist., iv. 
194 ; Mendel. 

GRADEHAND, FRIEDRICH, born at 
Brehna, Prussian Saxonj', Dec. 24, 1812, 
died in Leipsic, June 2, 1842. Organist, 
pupil at the Thomasschule, Leipsic, of 
Weinlig ; organist of the Church of St. 



GRADENER 



Georg, Leijisic. Works : Symphony ; Mo- 
tets ; Organ pieces. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRADENER, HERMANN, born at Kiel, 
Germany, May 8, 1844, still living, 1889. 
Organist, son and pupil of Karl Griideuer, 
and at the Conservatorium in Vienna ; or- 
ganist at Gumpeudorf (Vienna), 1862, vio- 
linist in the court orchestra, 1804, instructor 
of harmony at Horak's jnanoforte school, 
and for some years past at the Conservato- 
rium. Works : Capriccio for orchestra, op. 
4; Sinfonietta, for do., op. 14; Eiue Lusl- 
s^jiW-Ouvertiire, for do., op. 28 ; Octet for 
strings, op. 12 ; Quintet for do., op. 23 ; 
do. for pianoforte and strings, op. 6 ; Trio 
for do., op. 1 ; .5 impromptus for do., op. 
11 ; 5 intermezzi for violin and pianoforte, 
op. 9 ; Sonata for two pianofortes, op. 18 ; 
Other pianoforte jaieces and songs. 

GEADENER, KARL G. P., born at Ros- 
tock, Jan. 14, 1812, 
ilied in Hamburg, 
June 10, 1883. 
Studied at Halle 
and GiJttingcn TJiii- 
versities, and then 
adopted music as a 
profession. He was 
violoncellist in Hel- 
slugfors, and uni- 
versity and society 
music director in 
Kiel for ten years ; then founded a singing 
academy in Hamburg in 1851, and con- 
ducted it another ten years. He taught 
singing and theory at the Vienna Conser- 
vatorium in 1802-0.5, when he settled in 
Hamburg again as a teacher. His works 
are distinguished by original harmony and 
striking form. Works : 2 symphonies ; 
Overture to Schiller's Fiesco, op. 30 ; Con- 
certo for pianoforte, op. 20 ; 2 quintets for 
do. and strings; 2 trios for do.; 1 sonata, 
variations, fantastic studies, Fliegende Blat- 
ter und Bliittchen, Triiumereien, for piano- 
forte ; 3 sonatas for violin ; Sonata for vio- 
loncello ; Octet for strings, op. 49 ; 3 string 
quartets, op. 12, 17, 29 ; Trio, op. 48 ; Ro- 




mance for violin with orchestra. — Mendel ; 
Riemann. 

GRADENTHALER (not Gnadenthaler), 
HIERONYMUS, German composer of the 
17th century. He was organist in Ratisbon, 
and composed several collections of sacred 
and secular songs. — Fetis; Gerber, N. Lex.; 
Mendel. 

GRADUS AD PARNASSUM, a series of 
100 instructive studies for the pianoforte, 
by Clementi, dedicated to the Princess 
Wolkonska. Some of these exercises had 
been published previously, and were revised 
and extended for this collection. Three 
sonatas, op. 50, are dedicated to Cherubini. 
Published by Ricordi (Milan, 1817). Cle- 
menti published an appendix to the Gradus, 
containing 134 exercises, gavottes, gigues, 
airs with variations, etc., chiefly by other 
composers, to which he wrote preludes. 
Selections from the Gradus, for advanced 
students, have been edited, with modern 
fingering, by Karl Tausig. Fux wrote, un- 
der the same title, a treatise on composition 
and counterpoint (Vienna, 1725), translated 
into German by Mizler (Leipsic, 1742) ; Ital- 
ian, by Manfredi (Carpi, 1761). An English 
edition was published also, without date, 
with a Kyrie and Amen from the Missa Vicis- 
situdinis. — Grove, i. 610. 

GRAESER, JOHANN CHRISTOPH 
GOTTFRIED, born in Arnstadt in 1766, 
died at the Castle of Erbach in 1790. 
He chose the clerical profession, and at his 
early death was a private tutor and a can- 
didate for the ministry. His musical abil- 
ities were demonstrated by pianoforte so- 
natas and songs, which he published. 
—Mendel, iv. 323 ; Schilling, iii. 285 ; Fe- 
tis, iv. 77. 

GRAF, CHRISTIAN ERNST, born at 
Rudolstadt in 1723, died at The Hague in 
1802 (?). Violinist, son and pupil of Johann 
Graf, whom he succeeded as Kapellmeister 
to the court of Rudolstadt ; in 1762 he was 
called to The Hague as royal Kapellmeis- 
ter. His name is sometimes set down in 
catalogues as Christian Friedrich Graaf. 



GRAF 



Works : G- symplionies for orchestra ; 15 
concertos for the vioUu ; Trios for 2 viohus 
and bass ; Duo ecouomique, op. '27 ; G duos 
for violiu and viola, op. 28 ; 2 sonatas for 
pianoforte {i hands), op. 29 ; Pot-pourri, 
for do., op. 31 ; Fables, for a voice and piano- 
forte, op. 32 ; Sonata for violin and pianoforte, 
op. 33 ; An oratorio, performed at The Hague, 
July, 1802.— Fetis ; INIendel ; Schilling. 

GRAF, FRIEDRICH HARTMANN (Her- 
mann), born at Rudolstadt in 1727, died at 
Augsburg, Aug. 19, 179.5. Flute player, 
brother of the preceding, pupil of his father. 
He entered a Dutch regiment, and was taken 
prisoner by the English at Berg-op-Zoom ; 
after regaining his liberty, he went to Ham- 
burg in 1795, and during a stay of five years 
won reputation as flutist and composer, 
then made a concert tour through England, 
Holland, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy ; 
was first fiutist of the royal orchestra at The 
Hague, under his brother's direction, from 
17G9 until 1772, when he accepted a call to 
Augsburg as director of music. In 1779 ho 
was charged with the composition of a dra- 
matic work by the director of the German 
opera in Vienna, and while there was in- 
vited to conduct the grand concerts of the 
season of 1783-84 in London, whence ho re- 
turned to Augsburg, to resume his office as 
Kapellmeistei-. The University of Oxford 
sent him, in 1789, the diploma of Mus. Doc, 
waiving all usual formalities. Works : Die 
Siindfluth, oratorio ; Der verlorene Sohn, 
do. ; Die Hirten an der Krippe zu Bethle- 
hem, do. ; The 29th Psalm ; Invocation of 
Neptune and his attendant Nereids of Bri- 
tannia, cantata, London, 1784 ; Andromeda, 
heroic cantata ; 5 concertos for flute, violin, 
violoncello, and orchestra ; 21 concertos for 
the flute ; 2 do. for flute d'amour ; 2 sym- 
phonies concertantes, for 2 flutes ; 18 quar- 
tets for strings ; 12 do., for flute and strings ; 
2 do., for 2 flutes, viola, and bass ; Quartet 
for 4 flutes ; do. for oboe, violin, bassoon, 
and violoncello ; Trios for 2 flutes and bass ; 
G duos for flute ; 12 soli for do. — Fotis ; 
Mendel ; SchiUiug. 



GRAF, JOHANN, born in Nuremberg 
towards the end of the 17th ceuturj', died in 
Rudolstadt about 1745. Violinist ; went as 
regimental bandmaster to Hungary, and 
profited by several visits to Vienna. About 
1718 he was court musician in Mainz and 
Bamberg, and finally was called to Rudol- 
stadt as Couzertmoister. Works : 12 Violin 
sonatas ; String quartets. (Bamberg and 
Rudolstadt ).^ — Fotis ; Mendel. 

GR.\FE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, born 
at Brunswick in 1711, died there, Fob. 7, 
1787. Vocal composer, amateur, lived in 
Halle and Leipsic, and afterwards returned 
to his native city as chamber and post-office 
councillor. Works : Sammlungen von Oden 
mit Melodien (Halle, 1737) ; Odcu und 
Schilfergedichte (Leipsic, 1744) ; Sonnet 
(ib., 1755) ; Fiinfzig Psalme, Oden und 
geistliche Lieder (Brunswick, 17G0) ; LA- 
mour, cantata (Berlin, 17G5) ; Seeks geist- 
liche Oden und Lieder (Leipsic, 1762) ; 
Oden und Lieder (17G7-G8) ; and many 
single pieces in Rich's Musikalisches Vieler- 
lei (Hamburg, 1770). — AUgom. d. Biogr., ix. 
557 ; Fotis ; Gerber ; Meudek 

GRAFF, CARL, born at Also For, Hun- 
gary, ]V[ay 20, 1833, still living, 1889. Vio- 
linist, studied at the Vienna Conservatori- 
um ; then solo violinist at the Theater an 
der Wien, and pupil of BOhm in violin and of 
Sechter in composition. Ho made a concert 
trip in Austria, Hungary, and Turkey ; 
after studying under Vieuxtemjjs in Paris, 
he accompanied his master on a professional 
tour ; appeared in London and Paris ; was 
engaged by Spolir as first solo violinist in 
Cassel in 1858 ; was afterwards in Mar- 
seilles, and in 1870 in Mentone. Works : 
Hercule, operetta ; Overture to Don Carlos ; 
Conzertstiick for violiu and orchestra ; Fan- 
taisie dx'amatique, for violin and pianoforte ; 
3 string quartets ; Mass for 2 voices and or- 
gan ; Motets for 4 voices and organ ; 2 grand 
fugues for organ ; Tantum ergo, for piano- 
forte ; Sonata for violin and pianoforte ; 2 
Hungarian dances fordo. ; Several fantasias 
for violin ; G morceaux de salon, for piano- 



las 



GEAFFIGXA 



forte ; Romances, songs, and clioruses. — Fu- 
tis. Supplement, i. 412 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 
132. 

GRAFFIGNA, ACHILLE, bom in Lom- 
bardy about 1817, still living, 1880. Dra- 
matic composer, j'upil at the Conservatorio, 
Milan ; became director of the opera at Odessa 
in 1845 ; visited Paris in 1SG5, to bring out 
an oj^era, and in 1872 as impresario and or- 
chestra conductor of an opera troui)e, which 
failed ; maestro coucertatore at the Teatro 
Goldoni, in Florence, in 1875. Works : Un 
lampo d' infedelta, Lodi, 1838 ; La conquista 
di Grauata, ballet, Milan, Scala, 1839 ; Ilde- 
gonda e Riccardo, Milan, 1841 ; Eleonora 
di San Bouifazio, Verona, 1842 : Mignoni e 
Fanfau, Florence, 1844 ; Gli ultimi giorui 
di Suli, Ester d' Eiigaddi, Odessa, 1845 ; 
L' assedio di Malta, Udine, 1854 ; La dii- 
chessadiSan Giuliano, Paris, Theatre Italien, 
18G5 (formerly in Italy under the title Ve- 
ronica Cibo) ; Romances. — Fctis ; do., Sujj- 
ploment, i. 413. 

GRAGNANI, FILIPPO, born in Leghorn 
in 17G7. Distinguished guitarist and com- 
jioser ; studied counterpoint under Luchesi, 
intending to devote himself to church com- 
position, but chance placing a guitar in his 
liands, he adopted it as his instrument. 
His music for guitar, alone or with other 
instruments, was published in Milan, Augs- 
burg, Paris. — Fetis, iv. 79 ; Mendel, iv. 
32G. 

GRAMMANN, CARL, born at Liibeck, 
March 3, 1844, still 
living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the 
L e i p s i c Couserva- 
torium in 1867-71, 
then lived in Vienna, 
where he devoted him- 
self to composition. 
Works — Operas : Der 
Schatzgrilber ; Die Eis- 
jungfrau ; MeJusine, op. 
24, Wiesbaden, 1875 
Dresden, 1881 ; Das Andreasfest , op. 35, 
ib., 1882. Two symphonies ; Cantata for 




Thusnelda, op. 29' 



chorus, soli, and orchestra ; Chamber music. 
— Riemann ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 133 ; Fetis, 
Supplement, i. 413. 

GRANARA, ANTONIO, born in Genoa, 
Italy, in 1809. Dramatic composer, pupil 
of Generali at Novara. Works — Operas : 
Elisa de' Montaltieri, given in Genoa, 1832 ; 
Giovanni di Napoli ; Un' avventura teatrale, 
oi^era biifta, Venice, 1836.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRAN CID, IL. See Cid. 

GRANCINI, anCHELE ANGELO, Ital- 
ian composer of the 17th century. Organ- 
ist of the Church del Paradiso and subse- 
quently organist and maestro di cajipella of 
the catliedral, Milan. When a decree of 
Carlo Borromeo, in 156G, excluded all mar- 
ried men from these oiBces, he obtained a 
dispensation in recognition of his talent as 
a composer. His masses, psalms, and mo- 
tets, i^ublished during his life, are in 23 
volumes. — Fetis, iv. 81 ; do. Supplement, i. 
413 ; Mendel. 

GRANDE-DUCHESSE DE Gl^ROL- 
STEIN, LA, opera-boulib in three acts and 
four tableaux, text by Henri Meilhac and 
Ludovic Halevy, music by Otfenbach, first 
represented at the Varietes, Paris, Ajiril 12, 
1867. This grotesque parody, produced at 
the time of the Exposition universelle, had 
an immense success and obtained a Euro- 
pean celebrity. The Grande-Duchesse, re- 
viewing her army, under the command of 
General Boum, notices Fritz, a soldier of fine 
presence, and makes him her favouiite. He 
becomes almost at once sergeant, count, and 
general in chief, and succeeds Boum. A 
conspiracy is organized again.st him, but he 
destroys his own good fortune by preferring 
to marry the little peasant Wanda rather 
than accept the favours of the Grande- 
Duchesse, and after a funny series of ad- 
ventures is succeeded by Baron Grog, who 
in turn gives up the command again to 
General Boum. The role of the Grande- 
Duchesse was filled by Mile Schneider ; 
the other parts were sung by Dupuis, Cou- 
derc, Grenier, Kopp, Baron, Gardel, and 
Miles Garait, Legrand, Morosini, Verou, 



183 



GRANDE 



and Maucourt. An Italian opera buffa, en- 
titled II grauduca di Gerolstein, by Eurico 
Bernardi, was given in Milan, 1871. — Cle- 
ment and Larousse. 

GRANDE SYAIPHONIE FUN^BRE. 
See Symphonie fuuebre et triompbale. 

GRANDFOND, EUGENE, born at Com- 
pii'gne, France, in February, 1786. Com- 
poser, pupil at the Conservatoire, under 
Kreutzer for violin, Berton for harmony; 
became second chef d'orchestre at the Ver- 
sailles Theatre in 1809. He -nTote an opera, 
Monsieur Desbosquets, given at the Opera 
Comique, 1810 ; concertos for violin, and 
several romances, with pianoforte. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

GRANDI, ALESSANDRO DE'. born in 
Venice, 16th century, died at Bergamo in 
1630. Church composer, pupil of Giovanni 
Gabrieli. He was maestro di cappella, in 
1597, at the Accademia della Morte, Fer- 
rara, subsequently at San Marco, Venice, 
1617, and in 1618 maestro cantatore of the 
Ducal Seminary. Vice maestro di cappella 
of San Marco in 1620, he resigned this posi- 
tion to become maestro di cappella of S. M. 
Maggiore at Bergamo in 1627. Works: 
Madrigali concertati (Venice, 1G19, 'M ed.) ; 
Salmi pur i Vespri, etc., Te Deum e Tan turn 
ergo, op. 2 (Bologna, 1607) ; 6 books of mo- 
tets for 2-8 voices (1619-40) ; Messe con- 
certate a otto voci ; 3 books of motets (Ven- 
ice, 1621) ; Messa e Salmi (Venice, 1623) ; 
Celesti tiori ; Salmi brevi (1623) ; Messa e 
salmi concertati (ib., 1630) ; Motetti con- 
certati (ib., 1632).— Fetis ; Mendel ; Rie- 
mann. 

GRANDIS, VINCENZO DE, born at 
Monte Albotto, Pontifical States, died (?). 
Church composer, maestro di cappella to the 
Duke of Modena in 1682-83, where he pro- 
duced the following oratorios : II nasci- 
mento di Mosi-, 1682 ; La caduta di Adamo ; 
II matrimonio di Mose. — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 413 ; Schilling. 

GRANDTANTE, LA, opera-comique, 
text by Adenis and Grandvalet, music by 
Jules Massenet, represented at the Opera 



Comique, Paris, April 3, 1867. This, the 
composer's iirst dramatic work, showed him 
to be the skilled and graceful musician 
which he has since proved himself. 

GR.iNDVAL, M.AltlE FELICIE CLE- 
MENCE DE REISET, Vicomtesse DE, born 
at the Chateau de la Cour-du-Bois (Sarthe), 
France, Jan. 21, 1830, still hviug, 1889. 
Dramatic composer, studied composition 
under Flotow and Saint Saens. Her operas 
have been given in Paris under difi'ereut 
pseudonyms : Caroline Blangay, Clemence 
Valgrand, etc. Some of her church music, 
notably a Stabat Mater for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra, was i)layed at the Conservatoire 
concerts. Her chansons have also been very 
popular in France. Works — Operas : Le 
sou de Lise, operetta, Paris, Bouffes Pari- 
siens, 1859 ; Les fiances de Rosa, ib.. Thea- 
tre LjTique, 1863 ; La comtesse £va, Baden, 
1864 ; La penitente, Paris, Opera Comique, 
1868 ; PiccoHno, ib.. Theatre Italien, 1869 ; 
La foret, lyric scene for soli, chorus, and or- 
chestra, ib., Salle Ventadour, 1875 ; Sainte- 
Agnes, oratorio, ib., Odeon, 1876 ; 2 masses ; 
Stabat Mater ; Pater noster, for soprano, 
with organ ; Esquisses symphoniques, for 
orchestra ; Suite for flute and pianoforte ; 
Trio, op. 7 ; Sonata for violin and piano- 
forte, op. 8 ; Concertino for violin ; Noc- 
turnes for pianoforte ; Arias, chansons, and 
duets. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 414. 

GRANDVAL, NICOLAS RAGOT DE, 
born in Paris in 1676, died there, Nov. 16, 
1753. He wrote music for all the popular 
comedies played in Paris at the Comedie 
Franyaise from 1694 to 1751 ; became or- 
ganist of a church. His cantatas were pub- 
lished in 1729. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 
414. 

GRANET (Grenet), , born in Lyons, 

France, in 1707, died in Paris in 1761. Lit- 
tle is known of him, and his name has been 
preserved only because certain detractors of 
Jean Jacques Rousseau have accused him of 
stealing from Granet the music of his Devin 
du Village. Granet was a director of con- 
certs in Lyons. Works : Le triomphe de 



184 



GRANIER 



I'harmonie, opera-ballet, test by Lefrauc 
de Pompignau, represented at the Aca- 
dt-mie Royale de Musique, May 9, 1737 ; 
ApoUon, berger d'Admete, ojiera iu one 
act, Opera, Paris, 1759. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 420. 

GRANIER, LOUIS, born at Toulouse in 
1740, died there in 1800. Violinist and 
dramatic composer ; studied music in his 
native city, whence he went to Bordeaux, 
and, although a mere j'outh, was made mai- 
tre de musique at the Opera ; a few years 
later he entered the service of Prince Charles 
of Lorraine as first violin, was in Brussels, 
and in 1766 went to Paris, where he was 
2d violin at the Opera for twenty years, re- 
tiring to his native town in 1787. He was 
made inspector of the Opera in 1780. 
Works : Choruses to Racine's Athalie ; The- 
onis, ou le toucher, opera (with Berton and 
Trial), given in Paris, Academic Roj'ale de 
Musique, 1767 ; Bellerophon, do. (with Ber- 
ton), ib., 1773 ; Music to several divertisse- 
ments, and ballets ; Sonatas and other 
pieces for violin. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling. 

GRANZIN, LOUIS, born at Halle, Prus- 
sian Saxony, about 1810, still living, 1889 (?). 
Organist, pujiil of Naue and Niemeyer. He 
was cantor and professor of music at Mari- 
enwerder, and iu 1840 went as organist to 
Dantzic. His oratorio of Tobias was played 
there in 1845. Other works : Te Deum ; 
Crucifixus, for 6 voices and organ ; Domine 
salvum fac regem ; Organ music, and songs. 
—Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRASSET, JEAN JACQUES, born in 
Paris about 1769, died there, Aug. 25, 
1839. Violinist, pupil of Berthaume ; served 
in the campaigns in Germany and Italy, but 
gave all his spare time to the study of mu- 
sic. On his return to Paris he gave con- 
certs, and in 1800 was appointed professor 
of the violin at the Conservatoire. In 1801- 
29 he was chef d'orchestre at the Italian 
Opera. Works : 3 concertos for violin, op. 
1, 2, 4 ; Duos pour deux violons, liv. 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5, op. 9 ; Sonate pour piano et violin, op. 



3. — Fetis ; Grove ; Wasielewski, Die Vio- 
line, 258. 

GRASSI, FRANCESCO, church com- 
poser, maestro di cappella of San Giacomo 
degli Spagnuoli, Rome, about the end of 
the 17th century. His oratorio, II trionfo 
de' Giusti, was given at the Church della 
Pieta iu 1701. He left music in MS. : Masses 
for 4 voices ; Couiitebor, Dixit, and Mis- 
erere, for 8 voices, and several other pieces 
of church music. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRASSI, GIUSEPPE, born at Palmi, 
Calabria, Feb. 26, 1825, still hving, 1889. 
Pianist and dramatic composer, pupil of 
Rosa Savoia, of Carmelo Jonita, and at 
Naples of a German master, and in har- 
mony and composition of Gaetano Rotondo. 
Works — Operas : La vergine del Castello, 
given at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 1845 ; Don 
Procopio a Carditiello, ossia n' asciuta a Iu 
Fusaro, ib., 1849 ; I tre matrimonii, ib., 
1852 ; Melodramma in onore di S. Rocco, 
cantata, Palmi, 1840 ; Cantata in onore della 
Madoiuia della Montagna, Radicena, 1850 ; 
La guida e il solitario, cantata, Semiuaria, 
1857. His son Pietro is a distinguished 
pianist. — Feti.s, Supplement, i. 416. 

GRASSONI, GIOVANNI, born at An- 
cona about 1819, died there, July 13, 1882. 
Composer, was professor of singing in the 
normal school of Ancona ; brought out a 
successful opera, Matilda di Valdelmo, at 
Ancona, about 1850. Has been maestro di 
canto in many Italian theatres ; in 1875 at 
Mantua. — Fetis ; Supplement, i. 417. 

GRATZ, JOSEPH, born at Vohburg, Ba- 
varia, Dec. 2, 17G0, died iu Munich, July 
17, 1826. Dramatic and church composer, 
pupil of Michael Haydn at Salzburg, and 
of Bertoni in Venice, whence he visited 
the principal cities of North Italy, and re- 
turned to Bavaria in 1788, settling in Mu- 
nich. He was esteemed as a theoretician, 
his instruction being sought by such men 
as Cannabich, Ett, Lindpaintner, and others, 
when they were already ripened artists ; 
but as a composer he was exceedingly dry, 
to which his operas Das Gespenst mit der 



1S5 



GEAUN 



Trommel, and Adelheid von Veltlieini, de- 
cidedly rejected at their first performance, 
his oratorio, Der Tod Jesu, and his masses, 
bear witness, while among his chorals, jjrel- 
udes and other church music are works 
of acknowledged merit. — Fetis ; Meudel ; 
Schilling. 

GRAUN, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, born at 
Wahreubruck, Merseburg, about 1698, died 
in Berlin, Oct. 27, 1771. Violinist, pupil 
at the Kreuzschule, Dresden, with his 
brother, Karl Heiurich Graun, of Grundig, 
in singing and of Petzold on the organ and 
pianoforte ; studied the violin under Piseu- 
del, and in Padua under Tartiui. In 1720 
he was in the service of the court at Merse- 
burg, in 1727 of the Prince of Waldeck, 
and in 1728 was Conzertmeister to the 
Crown Prince of Prussia (Frederick the 
Great) at llheiusberg, and in 17-40 occupied 
the same position in the I'oyal chapel. 
Works : 40 symphonies ; 20 violin con- 
certos ; 24 string quartets ; String trios, etc. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. GOG ; "Wasielewski, 
Die Violine, 165 ; Dubourg, The VioHn, 
228 ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

GRVrX, K.mL HEINRICH, born at 
AVahrenbriick, Prus- 
sian Saxony, May 7, 
1701, died in Ber- 
lin, Aug. 8, 1759. 
Church and dra- 
matic c o ni po s e r . 
Gifted as a boy with 
a remarkable so- 
prano voice, he was 
instructed in singing 
by Cantor Grundig, 
and on tlie organ and pianoforte by Chris- 
tian Petzold, at the Kreuzschule in Dres- 
den, where he obtained a position in the 
city choir. While his voice was changing 
into a tenor he studied composition under 
Johann Christoph Schmidt, and formed his 
taste by frequent attendance at the opera, 
then under the direction of Lotti. In 1725 
he was engaged for the opera at Brunswick, 
where within one year he won success as a 



_.*-^v-^ 




dramatic composer, was appointed Vice-Ka- 
pellmeister, and comjjosed in rajoid succes- 
sion five operas, which sjjread his reputa- 
tion throughout Germany. On a visit to 
Brunswick, the Crown Prince of Prussia, 
afterwards Frederick II. , persuaded the duke 
to release Graun, whose services he wished 
to secure for his chapel at Rheinsberg, 
whither he went in 1735, and devoted him- 
self for some time to the composition of 
cantatas, for which the Crown Prince wrote 
the text in French verse. On the accession 
I of Frederick 11. he was sent to Italy to en- 
gage singers for the king's favourite project 
of establishing Italian opera in Berlin. 
Having acquitted himself of this task, and 
also having earned great applause as a 
singer in the principal cities of Italy, he 
was ajipointed Kapellmeister, and during 
his long service composed 28 operas, which, 
with those of Hasse, were peiformed almost 
exclusively at that time in Berlin. Inti- 
mately as his life is connected with the his- 
tory of the opera, his importance increases 
in his church compositions, among which 
the Passion oratorio, Der Tod Jesu, has kept 
his fame alive to this day, and although 
somewhat overrated, in sjjite of its high 
merit, will probably continue so to do for fu- 
ture generations. His harmony was singu- 
larly pure, and in all his works prevailed the 
most perfect system of modulation ; in melo- 
dious effects he has few equals, and while 
his vocal compositions lack fire they never 
fail in pleasing and tender exi^ression, 
stamijing especially his adagios as master- 
pieces, which perfectly correspond to his 
aflable and loving character. Works — Op- 
eras : Pollido)X>, given at Brunswick, 1726 ; 
Sancio e Sinilda, ib., 1727 ; Ifigenia in 
Aulide (in German), ib., 1729 ; Scipio Afri- 
canns (do.), ib., 1730 ; Timareta, ib., 1733 ; 
Faraone (with German recitatives and Ital- 
ian arias), ib. ; Lo specchio della fedelta, 
Potsdam, 1733 ; Roddinda, Berlin, 1741 ; 
Cleopatra, ib., 1742; Artaserse, ib., 1743; 
' Catone in Utica, ib., 1744; Alessandro uell' 
I Indie, Lucio Papirio, ib., 1745 ; Adriano in 



186 



GRAUPKER 



Siria, Dcmofoonte, ib., 174G ; Cajo Ffibrizio, 
ib., 174:7 ; Le feste galante, Galatea, pastor- 
al (with Frederick II., Quautz, and Niscbel- 
mann), Cinna, ib., 17-48 ; Eiiropa galaute, 
ib., 1749 ; Angelica e Medoro, Coriolano, 
ib., 1750; Medonte, Mitridate, ib., 1751; 
Armida, Britannico, ib., 1752 ; Orfeo, II 
giudizio di Paride, Silla (text by Fi-ederic 
II.), ib., 1753 ; Semiramide, ib., 1754 ; 
Montezuma, Ezio, il)., 1755 ; I fratelli ne- 
mici, Merope, ib., 175G. Der Tod .Jesu, ora- 
torio, first 2>erforined in Berlin Cathedral, 
March 2G, 1755 ; Lavinia e Turno, cantata ; 
Te Deuni, with chorus and orchestra, on 
the victory near Prague, 175G ; About 25 
church cantatas, with orchestra ; 2 passion 
cantatas ; Mass ; About 20 Latin motets, 
for 4 voices a capjjella ; church melodies 
for every day in the year (two years) ; Col- 
lection of odes ; 3 collections of concertos 
for the flute, with other instruments ; 12 
concertos for harpsichord, with string in- 
struments ; etc. — AUgem. d. Biogr., ix. G07 ; 
Allgem. mus. Zeitg., i. seq. ; Hiller, Lebens- 
bcschreibungen berilhmter Musikgelehrten, 
etc. (Leipsic, 1784). 

GRAUPNER, CHRISTOPH, born at 
Kirchberg, Saxony, January', 1G83, died at 
Darmstadt, May 10, 17G0. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil at the Thomasschule in Leipsic 
of Kulinau ; then studied law, but was 
driven by the Swedish invasion of 1706 to 
Hamburg, where he acted as accompanist 
to the opera under Reiser. He was ap- 
pointed Vice-Kapellmeister at Darmstadt in 
1710, Kapellmeister in 1711, and did much 
to elevate musical taste. During the last 
ten years of his life he was blind. He was 
wonderfully industrious in composition, 
working sometimes days and nights, and 
he engraved some of his own pieces. He 
devoted himself later almost exclusively to 
church music. Works — Operas : Dido, 
Hamburg, 1707 ; Die lustige Hochzeit 
(with Keiser), ib., 1708 ; Herkules und 
Theseus, Aniiochiis und Stratonice, Bellero- 
phon, ib., 1708 ; Simson, ib., 1709 ; Bere- 
nice und Lucio, Darmstadt, 1710; Tele- 



mach, ib., 1711; Bestiindigkeit besiegt Be- 
trug, ib., 1719. Eight Parthien fiirKlavier 
(1718) ; Monatliche Klavierfriichte (1722) ; 
8 Parthien fiir das Klavier (172G) ; Die vier 
Jahreszeiten (1733) ; Hessen-Darmstadti- 
sches Choralbuch. In manuscript: About 
1,300 figured chorals and pieces for the 
Schlosskirchc in Darmstadt ; 194 Tafelmu- 
siken, 144 symphonies, and 80 overtures for 
pianoforte and other instruments ; 50 con- 
certos for various instruments ; trios and 
sonatas for pianoforte, strings, and wind in- 
struments. His manuscripts are in the court 
musical library of Darmstadt.— Allgem. d. 
Biogr., ix. GOO ; Mendel; Mattheson, Ehren- 
pforte, 410, autobiographical ; Fetis ; "Win- 
terfeld, Der evang. Kirchengesang, iii. 502. 

GRAVRAND (Graveraud), JACQUES 
FRANCOIS URBAIN, born at Caen, France, 
April 2, 1770, died there, July IG, 1854. 
Violinist, pupil of Queru, then in Paris of 
Baillot ; after having been violinist in the 
theatre orchestra at Caen for several years, 
he became chef d'orehestre. Works : 7 col- 
lections of duos for violin, op. 1-5, 7, 8 ; 3 
trios for 2 violins and violoncello, op. G. 
—Fetis. 

GR.\ZIANI (Gratiani), BONIFACIO, 
born at Marino, near Rome, in 1C05, died 
there, June 15, 1CG4. Church composer, 
maestro di cappella of the Jesuit church in 
Rome. He left a quantity of church music, 
published after his death by his brother, 
consisting of motets for one, two, and six 
voices ; Salmi for five voices, etc. ; Masses ; 
Litanies ; etc., in all twenty-four works, from 
1G52 to 1G78.— Fetis ; Riemann ; Mendel. 

GRAZIANI, Padre TOMMASO, born at 
Bagnacavallo, near Ravenna, Italy ; lived in 
the latter part of the 16th and beginning 
of the 17th centurj'. He was a Franciscan 
monk, and became maestro di cappella of 
the convent of his order in Milan. Works : 
Five-part masses (1569) ; Four-part vesper 
psalms (1587) ; Five-part madrigals (1588) ; 
Eight-part do. (1601) ; Sinfouie pertinaci, 
litanie a 4, 5, 6 e 8 voci (1617) ; Responses 
(1627).— Mendel ; Riemann ; Fetis. 



GEAZIOLI 



GRAZIOLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 

born ill Venice about 1755, died there iu 
1820. Organist, pupil of Bertoni, whom he 
assisted in 1778. He succeeded Domenico 
Bettoui at San Marco iu 1 782. His sonatas 
for harpsichord and violiu, etc., were pub- 
lished in German}'. — Ft'tis ; Mendel. 

GRAZZINI, REGIN.ALDO, born at Flor- 
ence, Italy, Oct. 15, 1848, still living, 1889. 
Instrumental and vocal composer, pupil of 
Teodulo Mabellini nt the Conservatorio, 
Florence ; became director of the Conserva- 
torio, and maestro di cappella of the theatre 
at Reggio d' Emilio in 1881, and professor 
and artistic director of the Liceo Benedetto 
Marcello, at Venice, in 1882. Works : Can- 
tata biblica, 1875 ; Mass for 3 voices, 1882 ; 
Symphonies ; Pianoforte music ; Opera 
(MS.). — Riemann. 

GREAT DAGON HAS SUBDUED OUR 
FOE, tenor air and chorus in G major, in 
Handel's Sainsoi), Part IH. 

GREATHEED, SAMUEL STEPHEN- 
SON, boi'n near Weston-super-Mare, Eng- 
land, Feb. 22, 1813, still living, 1889. 
Church coraijosei", rector of Corringham, 
Sussex. B.A. Cambridge, 1835 ; M.A. 
1838. Works : Enoch's Pro^jhecy, oratorio, 
1852 ; Communion services ; Anthems, etc. 

GREATOREX, THOMAS, born at North 
Wingfield, Derbyshire, England, Oct. 5, 
1758, died in London, July 18, 1831. Or- 
ganist, pupil of Dr. Benjamin Cooke in 
1772. He found a patron in the Earl of 
Sandwich in 1774, and assisted at the ora- 
torios given by Joah Bates at Hinchinbrook 
House in 1774, 1775, 177G. In 1780-84 he 
was organist of Carlisle Cathedral, and iu 
178G-88 visited Italy and the Netherlands. 
He established himself as a teacher in Lon^ 
don in 1789, and succeeded Bates on his re- 
tirement, in 1793, as conductor of the Con- 
cert of Ancient Music. In 1801 he joined 
Knyvett, HaiTison, and Bartleman in reviv- 
ing the Vocal Concerts, in 1819 succeeded 
George Ebenezer Williams as organist of 
Westminster Abbey, and was conductor ' 
many years of the triennial musical festivals I 



at Birmingham, as well as those at York, 
Derby, and elsewhere. Greatorex was the 
foremost organist of his time, and of consid- 
erable scientific attainments. He published 
a collection of psalm tunes harmonized for 
four voices, and a few harmonized airs ; and 
composed orchestral accompaniments for 
many pieces for the Ancient and Vocal Con- 
certs which are still in MS. His son, 
Henry Wellington Greatorex (born at Bur- 
ton-on-Trent, 1811, died in Charleston, 
South Carolina, Sept. 10, 1858), wont to 
New York in 1839 and was organist of Cal- 
vary Church, of St. Paul's Chapel, and later 
of a church in Hartford, Connecticut. He 
published some church music and compiled 
The Greatorex Collection (Hartford, 1851). 
He was the husband of Eliza Greatorex, the 
artist. — Grove ; Brown ; Harmonicon, 1831, 
231. 

GREAVES, THOMAS, English lutist and 
composer, beginning of the 17th century. 
He published, in 1G04 : " Songs of Sundrie 
Kindes ; first. Aires to be sung to the Lute 
or Base Violl. Next, Songs of Sadnesse for 
the Viols and Voyces. Lastly, Madrigalles 
for five Voyces." It consists of 21 pieces, 15 
songs, and 6 madrigals. Nothing is known 
of his history. — Grove. 

GREBER, JACOB, lived in the latter 
part of the 17th and first part of the 18th 
century. He went to Loudon about 1703, 
and aided in the introduction of Italian 
opera. Madame Pe^nisch was one of his 
pupils. Works— Operas: The Loves of Er- 
gasto, melodrama, given at the Haymarket 
Theatre, London, 1705 ; The Temple of 
Love, ib., 170G. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Burney, 
Hist, of Music, iv. 200 ; Hawkins, Hist, of 
Music, v. 154. 

GREENE, MAURICE, born in London 
about 1G9G, died there, Sept. 1, 1755. Or- 
ganist, chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral 
under Charles King, afterwards articled to 
Richard Brind, organist of the cathedral. 
He soon distinguished himself, and suc- 
ceeded Daniel Pureell as organist of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, in 1717, being at the 



188 



GREEN SLEEVES 



same time organist of St. Duustan's iu 
the West, Fleet Street ; ou the death of 
Brind, iu 1718, he became organist of St. 
Paul's, and iu 1727 organist aud composer 
to the Chapel Royal. He was intimate with 
Handel aud Bononcini. When the latter 
was expelled from the Academy, Greene, 
believing or affecting to believe that his 
friend had beeu unjustly treated, also with- 
drew from it, and, in conjunction with Fest- 
ing the violinist, established a rival concert 
at the Apollo Rooms. In 1730 he was 
elected professor of music in the University 
of Cambridge to succeed Dr. Tudway, and 
received the degree of Mus. Doc. He suc- 
ceeded John Eccles as master of the king's 
band in 1735, aud wrote many odes for the 
king's birthdays and New Year's Day. His 
reputation rests mainly on his Forty Select 
Anthems (17-13), a work which places him 
among the best of the Euglish church com- 
posers. In 1750 he began the formation 
of a collection of the best English cathedral 
music in score, which, left unfinished at 
his death, was completed by Dr. Boyce un- 
der the title of " Cathedral Music." He 
was one of the founders of the Society of 
Musicians. Works : Music to Pope's Ode 
on St. Cecilia's Day (1730) ; Odes for King's 
Birthday and New Year's Day (1730) ; Par- 
aphrase ou part of the Soug of Deborah and 
Barak (1732); Jephthah, oratorio (1737); 
Florimel, or Love's Revenge, dramatic pas- 
toral (1737) ; Addison's ode. The Spacious 
Firmament (1837) ; The Judgment of Her- 
cules, masque (1710) ; The Force of Truth, 
oratorio (17-lJ:) ; Phoebe, pastoral ofiera 
(1748) ; Spencer's Amoretti, for voice, harp- 
sichord, aud violin ; The Chaplet, collection 
of twelve Euglish songs ; Catches and can- 
ons for three and four voices ; 2 books, 
each containing a cantata and four English 
songs ; Church service in C (1737) ; Forty 
select anthems in score for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
and 8 voices (2 vols., Loudon, 1743) ; Te 
Deum in D (1745) ; Anthems, many in MS.; 
Organ voluntaries ; Harpsichord lessons, 
etc. — Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, History, iv. 



G67 ; Barrett, English Church Composers, 
117. 

GREENSLEEVES, English ballad and 
tune of the IGth century, probably as old as 
the reigu of Henry VIH. The tune is still to 
be heard in London streets with the old bur- 
den, " Which nobody can deny." It is the air 
also of ■■ Christmas comes but once a year," 
aud many other songs. In the civil wars it 
was one of the party tuues of the Cavaliers, 
who had many songs to it, esjjecially "The 
Blacksmith," aud "The Brewer," or "Old 
Noll, the Brewer of Huntingdon," referring 
to Cromwell. Shakespeare mentions it in 
the "Merry Wives of Windsor" (ii.. Scene 
1 ; v.. Scene 7), Beaumont and Fletcher iu 
" The Loyal Subject," aud it was introduced 
in " The Beggars' OiJera." — Chappell, Music 
of Olden Time, 227. 

GREGOIR, fiDOUARD GEORGES 
JACyUES, born at Turnhout, Belgium, 
Nov. 27, 1822, still living, 1889. Pianist, 
brother of Jacques Mathieu Joseph Gregoir, 
pupil in Bieberich of Rummel on the piano- 
forte. He gave concerts iu London in 1841 
with the violinists Teresa aud Maria Mila- 
nollo ; went to Amsterdam in 1847, to Paris 
in 1849, aud in the same year became profes- 
sor at Lierre, and later at Antwerp, where he 
undertook the task of reforming the meth- 
ods for teaching music iu the government 
schools and institutions of Belgium. Works : 
Les Croisades, symphouie historique, Ant- 
werp, 1846 ; La vie, drame lyrique, Ant- 
werp, 1848 ; Le Deluge, oratorio sympho- 
uique, Antwerp, 1849 ; Marguerite d'Au- 
triche, grand opera, Antwerp, 1850 ; De 
Belgen in 1848, drame national avec ouver- 
ture, airs, duos, chceurs, Brussels, 1851 ; 
La derniere nuit du comte d'Egmont, 
Brussels, 1851 ; Leicester, drame mele de 
musique, Brussels, 1854 ; Willem Beukels, 
opera-comique flamand, Brussels, 185G ; 
Willem de Zwyger, opura-comique, 185G ; 
La belle Bourbonuaise, opera-comique, 
about 1860. He has published also a Me- 
thode theorique d'orgue aud two Jlethodes 
de Musiques, besides more than a hundred 



189 



GREGOm 



choruses for male voices ; organ and piano- 
forte music ; collections of songs ; a collec- 
tion of pieces for the harmonium ; violin 
music, and several verj' popular songs. He 
is also a contributor to musical periodicals 
and the author of historical works, among 
which are : Essai historique sur la musique 
et les musiciens dans les Pays-Bas (Brussels, 
18G1) ; Galerie biographique des artistes- 
musicieus beiges du xviii. et du xix. siecle 
(18G2, new ed., 1885) ; Notice sur I'origine 
du celebi'e compositeur Louis van Beetho- 
ven (18G3) ; Les artistes-musicieus ueerlan- 
dais (1864); Histoire de I'orgue (1865); 
Notice biographique d'Adrian Willaert ; 
Documents historiques relatifs u I'art mu- 
sical et aux artistcs-musiciens (4 vols., 1872- 
76) ; Phantln'on musical populaire (6 vols., 
1876-77) ; Bibliotheque musicale populaire 
(3 vols., 1877-79) ; Notice biographique sur 
F. J. Gosse dit Gossec (1878) ; L'art musical 
en Belgique sous les ri'gnes de Leopold 
L et Leopold U. (1879) ; Des gloires de 
rOpe-ra et la musique a Paris (3 vols., 1880- 
8-). — Fi'tis, Sujjplument, i. 418 ; Riemann ; 
Larousse. 

GREGOIR, JACQUES MATHIEU JO- 
SEPH, born in Antwerp, Jan. 18, 1817, 
died in Brussels, Oct. 29, 1876. Pianist, 
showed a precocious taste for music, and 
played a difficult concerto by Dussek in 
public at the age of eight. He studied the 
organ under Horaans and after the Revolu- 
tion of 1830 became a pupil at the Paris 
Conservatoire of Henri Herz, and subse- 
quently went to Germany with his brother 
Edouard, and studied under Ruinmcl. On 
his return to Antwerp, in 1837, he played at 
several concerts, and became widely known 
for his compositions. At this period he 
brought out a Lauda Sioii, for chorus and 
orchestra, a musical jjoem, Faust (1847) ; 
and an opera, Le gondolier de Venise, 
Antwerp, 1848. He was at that time chef 
d'orchestre of the royal theatre, and di- 
rector of a German choral society. He 
went to Brussels in 1848, became professor 
in an English school at Bruges in 1849, and 



finally settled in Brussels in 1850, making 
occasional professional journeys to other 
countries. Among his best works are his 
pianoforte compositions, which number 
more than one hundred. Works : Marche 
solennelle, for the 25th anniversary of Leo- 
pold's reign ; Marche triomphale, for the 
marriage festivities of the Due de Brabant ; 
Aux manes de IMeyerbeer, marche funebre ; 
Concerto, op. 10 ; Poesies musicales ; Com- 
positions nouvelles en forme d'etudes, op. 
66 ; L'etude du diable ; Etudes de moyenne 
force ; 24 etudes de style et d'expression, 4 
books, oj). 101 ; Etudes de style et de meca- 
nisme, 4 books, op. 99 ; Six morceaux de 
salon, OJ). 98 ; etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
418. 

GREGOR, CHRISTIAN, born at Dirs- 
dorf, Silesia, Jan. 1, 1723, died at Berthels- 
dorf, Nov. 6, 1801. Organist, joined the 
Jloravian Brotherhood in 1742, and was ap- 
pointed Bishop of the Briiderkirche at Ber- 
thelsdorf. He was organist, teacher, and 
music director for the order, and composed 
many songs for them, besides editing a 
Choralbuch.— Mendel, iv. 343. 

GREGORIO, ANNIBALE, born at Siena 
about the end of the 16th century. He 
was maestro di cappella of the cathedral of 
that city and member of the Accademia 
degli Intronati. Works : Madrigals (Venice, 
1617) ; Church music (Siena, 1620).— Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

GREISEN, ALBERT, born in Frankfort- 
on-the-Oder, April 24, 1814, died in Ber- 
lin, April 11, 1836. His compositions at- 
tracted the notice of Zelter, who took him 
to Berlin ; after his master's death he be- 
came the pupil of Rungenhagen at the mu- 
sic school of the Academy. He composed 
an oratorio, a symphony, and some chamber 
music. — MeudeL 

GREITH, IvARL, born at Aarau, Swit- 
zerland, Feb. 21, 1828, died in Munich, Nov. 
17, 1887. Son and pupil of Joseph Greith ; 
studied in Munich under C. Ett and in 
Augsburg under C. L. Drobisch. He be- 
came music teacher of schools and director 



190 



GRELL 



of singing societies in St. Gall, taught in 
Frankfort-on-tlie-Main for several years 
from 185-i, and was professor in the College 
of Maria Hilf in Scbwjtz. In 1861 be took 
bis father's jjlace as choirmaster of the St. 
Gall Cathedral, and after ten j-ears settled 
as a composer and critic in Munich, where 
be subsequently became Kapellmeister of 
the cathedral. Works : Der beilige Gallus, 
oratorio, Winterthur, 1849 ; Frauenberz, 
melodrama. Die Waise aus Genf, do., both 
at St. Gall, about 1850 ; Symphony, ib., 
and Basel ; Requiem (Winterthur, 1857) ; 
7 vocal masses ; 5 instrumental masses ; 
Litanies ; Motets ; Many songs to the Holy 
Virgin, etc. (since 18G2) ; 3 Singspiele ; 
Jung Rubens, Der Mutter Lied, Der verzau- 
berte Frosch (Munich, since 1871) ; Two- 
part songs for female chorus (ib.). — Men- 
del. 

GRELL, EDUARD (AUGUST), born in 
Berlin, Nov. G, 1800, died at Steglitz, near 
Berlin, Aug. 10, 188G. Organist, jjupil of bis 
father, of Kaufmann, Ritsehl, and Zelter ; 
became organist of the Nikolaikirche in 
Berlin' in 181G ; entered the Singakademie 
in 1817, and was made vice-director of it 
in 1832. In 1839 be was appointed court 
organist of the cathedral, in 1811 a mem- 
ber of the Berlin Acadenij', in 1813 
teacher of the cathedral choir, and, after 
Rungenhagen's death in 1851, teacher of 
the composition school of the Academy. 
He was also a member of the senate of the 
Academy, and first director of the Sing- 
akademie ; became professor in 1858, and 
received the order pour le merite in 18G4. 
He relinquished the direction of the Sing- 
akademie in 187G. In 1883 the Berlin 
University conferred on bim the honorary 
degree of doctor of philosophy. Works : 
Die Israelilen in der ^ , 
Wiiste, oratorio ; Mass ^^ ^J^^^-vjdf 
for IC voices ; Over- 

ture for orchestra ; Organ preludes ; Mo- 
tets, cantatas, psalms, hymns, and many 
songs ; Four-part arrangement of the cho- 
ral melodies of the Evangelical Gesangbucb 



(1833). — Riemann ; Mendel ; Broekhaus ; 
Fetis, iV. 98 ; do., Sui^plement, i. 120. 

GRENET. See Granet. 

GRENIER, FELIX, born at Marseilles, 
Sept. 27, 1841, still living, 1889. Amateur 
instrumental and vocal composer, pupil of 
Heckmauu, an Alsatian organist, became a 
lawyer, but still studied music in Paris 
under Labarre, Boely, and Franchomme. 
He has lived in Nice since 18G9. His songs 
and music are well known, and some of his 
choruses have been very pojjular. He has 
translated several German works on music, 
and has published works on Sebastian 
Bach, Mendelssohn, and other German 
musicians. Principal works : La Roussalka, 
opera (not performed) ; Trio for strings, 
op. 1 ; do. for pianoforte and strings, oj). 
3 ; (Quartet for pianoforte and strings, op. 
4 ; 2 quartets for strings, op. 5 and 13 ; 
3 preludes and fugues for pianoforte, op. 
15 ; 12 songs for soprano, op. 2 ; G songs, 
op. 7 ; 4 do., op. 8 ; Four-part songs ; Cho- 
ruses for Racine's Esther, for 4 female 
voices ; Mass for 4 voices ; The 49tb psalm 
for double chorus, and orchestra. — Fotis, 
Supplement, i. 421 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 135. 

GRENIER, GABRIEL, lived in Paris, 
last half of the 18th century. Harpist, pub- 
lished romances with harp accompaniment, 
1793 ; Harp sonatas, and harp and violin 
music. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRESNICH (not Gresnick), ANTOINE 
FREDERIC, born in Liege, March 2, 1755, 
died in Paris, Oct. 16, 1799. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the College Liegeois, 
Rome, and subsequently in Naples of Sala ; 
wrote operas for that city before 1780 ; went 
to London some time before 1784, again in 
1785, was chosen director of music by the 
Prince of Wales in 1786, returned to Paris 
in 1791, was in Lyons as chef d'orchestre 
of the Grand Theatre in 1793 ; his L'Amour 
a Cythore, brought out there in that year, 
was played also at six of the Paris theatres 
in the same year, and made him famous. 
Works — Operas : D Fraucese bizzarro, opera 
bufifa, Savona, 1784 ; Demetrio, Alessandro 



GRESSLER 



neir Indie, La donna di cattivo umore, Lon- 
don, 1785 ; Alceste, ib., 1786 ; L' Amour :\ 
Cythure, Lj'ous, 1793 ; Le savoir-faire, Les 
petits commissionnaires, Paris, Theatre de 
la rue de Louvois, 1795 ; fiponine et Sa- 
binus, Les faux mendiauts, Le baiser donne 
et rendu, ib., 179G ; Les extravagances de 
la vieillesse. Theatre Moutansier, 1796 ; La 
Foret de Sicile, Le petit page, ou la prison 
d'etat, Les faux mounojem-s, ou la ven- 
geance, Le tuteur original, ib., 1797 ; La 
grotte des Cevennes, ib., 1798 ; L'heureux 
proces, ou Alphonse et Leonore, Theatre 
Feydeau, 1798 ; La tourterelle dans les 
bois, Rencontres sur rencontres. Theatre 
Moutansier, 1799 ; Le reve. Theatre Favart, 
1799 ; Leonidas, ou les Spartiates (with Per- 
suis). Opera, 1799 ; Symphonic concertante 
for clarinet and bassoon, with orchestra, 
Paris, Concerts de Feydeau, 1797 ; Ariet- 
tas, i-omances, duos, etc. — Pougin, Gresnick 
(Paris, 1862) ; Fetis ; do., Sujiplement, i. 
421; Mendel; Schilling. 

GRESSLEE, FRANZ ALBERT, born at 
Suiza, Thuringia, Dec. 14, 1804, still living, 
1889. Son of Friedrich Salomon Grcssler ; 
finished his musical education in the Erfurt 
Seminar}' under M. G. Fischer, L. E. Geb- 
hardi, and J. J. Miiller ; became teacher in 
a family in 1826, and from 1827 taught in 
schools in Erfurt. Composed pianoforte 
and organ music and songs. — Mendel ; 
Ersch und Gruber, i. Section, xc. 246. 

GRESSLER, FRIEDRICH SALOJION, 
organist at Triptis, near Meissen, in 1780. 
From 1791 he was cantor, organist, and 
teacher at Suiza in Thimngia. Composed 
pianoforte pieces and songs. — Mendel, iv. 
355 ; Ersch und Gruber, i. Section, xc. 246. 

GRETRY, ANDRE (ERNEST MO- 
DESTE), born at Liege, Feb. 8, 1741, died 
at " I'Ermitage " (formerly Rousseau's coun- 
try house), near Montmorency, Sept. 24, 
1813. The son of a poor violinist, he en- 
tered the choir of Saint-Denis at the age 
of six, but was dismissed as incapable, and 
put under one Leclerc, who made him a 
proficient reader of music. Inspired by 




his time in composing. 



the arrival in Liege of an Italian opera com- 
pany, he took to composing, and showed 
such talent that his 
family procured him 
good instruction. He 
studied harmony un- 
der Rcnekin the or- 
ganist, and counter- 
point under Moreau ; 
but it was too late to 
expect jjatient study, 
and he spent most of 
Six little symphonies 
by him wore produced at Liege in 1758, and 
a four-voice mass in 1759, with such success 
that the Chanoine du Harlez sent him to 
Rome, where he studied counterpoint four 
or five j'ears under Casali, but he never be- 
came a good harmonist, nor a contrapuntist. 
His genius was purely dramatic and expres- 
sive. Some smaller compositions, notably 
an intermezzo, Le Veudemmiatrici, met 
with success at Rome, but when he saw the 
score of Monsigny's Rose et Colas, he be- 
gan to feel that French opcra-comique was 
to be his real vocation. In 1767 he went to 
Geneva, and, failing to get Voltaire to write 
him a libretto, set to work to write new mu- 
sic to Favart's Isabelle et Gertrude, which 
he brought out with great success the same 
year at Geneva. By Voltaire's advice he 
then went to Paris, where two years were 
thrown away in vain solicitations for a li- 
bretto, until at last Du Rosoy confided to 
him his Les mariages Samnites. The first 
rehearsals of the music at the house of the 
Prince de Conti, in presence of the court, 
persuaded almost everyone that the com- 
poser had no talent for dramatic composi- 
tion ; but Count Creutz, the Swedish min- 
ister, thought otherwise, and, taking Gretry 
under his protection, prevailed upon Mar- 
montel to confide to him his comedy, Le 
Huron. This work was given, Aug. 20, 
1768, with the most overwhelming success. 
Lucile ajspeared a few months later, and 
with Le tableau jiarlant (1769) Gretry's po- 
sition in the foremost rank of French com- 



192 



GENTRY 



posers was establislied. He continued pro- 
ducing opera after opera, until very near the 
time of Lis death. The most famous of his 
works are Le tableau parlaut, Zemire et 
Azor, L'amant jaloux, L'upreuvc village- 
oise, and Richard Caau- de Lion, which last 
must be accounted as his masterpiece. In 
1784 the Prince-Bishop of Lioge made him 
privj^-couucillor. In 1795 he was admitted 
to the lustitut, and in 1802 Napoleon made 
him chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
He was appointed also one of the inspectors 
of the Conservatoire ou its foundation, but 
held the office for only a year. His funeral 
at Paris (Sept. 27, 1813) was splendid, and 
Bouilly and Mehul pronounced eulogies 
over his grave. Gretry's genius, which was 
epoch-making in the annals of French comic 
opera, was essentially melodic and dramatic. 
He was little of a harmonist, as he himself 
knew very well, and was wholly at a loss 
when he tried to step out of the limited 
frame of opera-comique. His accompani- 
ments were in general very meagre, and 
although he showed that, when he aimed 
at orchestral effects, he knew how to handle 
the orchestra intelligently and cleverly, he 
rarely attempted anything of the sort. 
Graceful melody and, especially, expressive 
and dramatic declamation were his forte. 
His theatrical sense was of the keenest, and 
he has rarely been surpassed as a delineator 
of character ; his comic power was also very 
remarkable, and his admirers have called 
hiiu the " Molicre of music." Works — Op- 
eras : 1. Le Vendemmiatrici, intermezzo, 
Rome, Teatro Aliberti, 17G5 ; 2. Isabelle et 
Gertrude, Geneva, 17G7 ; 3. Le Huron, 
Paris, Theatre Italien, 1768 ; 4. Lucile, 
ib., 1769 ; 5. Le tableau parlant, ib., 1769 ; 
6. Sylvain, ib., 1770 ; 7. Les <hutx Avares, 
Fontainebleau, 1770, Paris, Comcdie Ita- 
lienne, 1770 ; 8. L'amitie a IVpreuve, 2 
acts, Fontainebleau, 1770, Paris, Theatre 
Itahen, 1771 ; do., 3 acts, Fontainebleau, 
Oct. 24, and Paris, Oct. 30, 1783 ; 9. L'nmi 
de la maison, Fontainebleau, Oct. 26, 1771, 
Paris, March 14, 1772 ; 10. Zemtre et Azor, 



Fontainebleau, 1771, Paris, Theatre Italien, 
1771 ; 11. Le magnifique, Paris, Theatre 
Italien, 1773 ; 12. Cephale et Procris, lyric 
tragedy, Versailles, 1773, Paris, Academic, 
177.5 ; 13. La roslire de Salency, Theatre 
Itahen, 1774 ; 14. La fausse Magie, Come- 
die Italienne ; do., 1 act, ib., 1776 ; 15. 
Tjbs mariagei^ Samnites, ib., 1776 ; 16. Ma- 
troco, Fontainebleau, 1777, Paris, Theatre 
Italien, 1778 ; 17. Les troisagesde I'Opera, 
prologue in 1 act, Paris, Academic Royale 
de Musique, 1778 ; 18. Le jugement de 
Midas, Comedie Italienne, 1778 ; 19. Les 
fausses apparences, ou Vamant jaloux, Ver- 
sailles, Nov. 20, Paris, Dec. 23, 1778 ; 
20. Les evenements imprevus, Versailles, 
Nov. 11, Paris, Theatre Italien, Nov. 13, 
1779 ; 21. Andromaque, Paris, Aeademie 
Royale de Musique, 1780 ; 22. Emilie, ib., 
1781 ; 23. CoUnelle a la cour, ou la double 
epreuve, ib., 1782 ; 24. L'embarras des 
richesses, ib., 1782 ; 25. Thalie au nouveau 
theatre, Comedie Italienne, 1783 ; 26. La 
caravane du Caire, Fontainebleau, Oct. 30, 
1783, Paris, Acadeniie Royale de Musique, 
Jan. 15, 1784 ; 27. Theodore et Paulin, 
Theatre Italien, March 18, 1784; do., as 
Jji'preuve villageoise, ib., June 24, 1784 ; 
28. Richard Cceur de Lion, Paris, by the 
comediens ordinaires du roi, Oct. 21, 1784 ; 
do., 4 acts, Dec. 21, 1785 ; do., 3 acts, 
Dec. 29, 1786 ; 29. Panurge dans I'lle des 
Lanternes, Oj)L'ra, 1785 ; 30. La nouvelle 
amitie a I'epreuve, Comedie Italienne, 

1786 ; 31. Les meprises par ressemblance, 
Fontainebleau, Paris, Comedie Italienne, 
Nov. 16, 1786 ; 32. Le comte d'Albert, 
Fontainebleau, Nov. 13, 1786, Paris, Come- 
die Italienne, Feb. 8, 1787 ; 33. La suite 
du comte d'Albert, Paris, Comedie Italienne, 

1787 ; 34. Le prisonnier anglais, ib., 1787 ; 
35. Le rival confident, ib., 1788 ; 36. Ain- 
phytrion, Academie Roj'ale de Musique, 
1788 ; 37. Raoul Barbe-Bleue, Comedie 
Italienne, 1789 ; 38. Aspasie, Opera, 1789 ; 

39. Pi<;>TeleGrand, Comedie Italienne, 1790; 

40. Guillaume Tell, ib., 1791; 41. Cecile 
et Dermance, ib., 1792 ; 42. Basile, ou it 



ma 



GREULICII 



trompeur, trompeur et demi, Opc'ra Co- 
mique, 1792 ; 43. Clarice et Belton (altered 
version of Le prisonnier anglais), ib., 1793 ; 

44. La rosiere republicaine, Opera, 1793 ; 

45. Joseph Barra, Comedie Italieuue, 1794 ; 

46. Denys le t3-ran maltre d'ecole a Co- 
rintbe, Opera, 1794 ; 47. Callias, ou nature 
et patrie, Opera Comique, 1794 ; 48. Lis- 
helh, Comedie Italienne, 1797 ; 49. Anacreon 
chez Polycrate, 1797 ; 50. Le harhier de 
village, ou le revenant, Theatre Feydeau, 
1797 ; 51. Elisca, ou I'amour maternel, 
ib., 1799 ; 52. La casque et les colombes, 
Opera, 1801 ; 53. Delphis et Mopsa, ib., 
1803. Also the following : Le congre.s 
des rois (in collaboration with Berton, 
Blasius, Cherubini, Dalayrac, Deshayes, 
Devienne, Jadin, Kreutzer, Mehul, Solie, 
and Trial fils), Theatre Favart, Feb. 2G, 
1793 ; and the following, which were never 
performed : Alcindor et Zaide ; Zimeo, 3 
acts ; Zelmar, ou I'asile, 1 act ; £lectre, 3 
acts ; Diogene et Alexandre, 3 acts ; Les 
llaures d'Espagne, 3 acts. Church music : 
Messe solennelle, Liege, 1759 ; Confiteor, 
for 4 voices and orchestra, Rome, 1762 ; 6 

motets for 2 




<i«rVJ /n /? A j' ^^'^ ^ voices ; 
y // ci^L/^^^ Deprofundis; 
f ^y^ Requiem. In- 



Req 

strumen tal 
music : 6 sym- 
phonies for orchestra ; 2 quartets for harpsi- 
chord and strings ; 6 do. for strings ; 6 so- 
natas for harpsichord. — Le Breton, Notice 
sur la vie, etc. (Paris, 1814) ; Andre Joseph 
Grotry, Gretry en famille (ib., 1815) ; Ger- 
lache, Essai sur G. (Liege, 1821) ; Fetis, 
Galerie de musiciens celebres (Paris, 1828) ; 
Van Hulst, Gretry (Liege, 1842); L. de 
Saegher, Notice biographique (Brussels, 
1869) ; Clement, Mus. celebres, 150 ; Jal, 
Diet, critique, 657 ; Liny, Kecueil de let- 
tres i'crites a Gretrv (Paris, 1809). 

GREULICH, ADOLPH, born in Posen 
in 1819, died in Moscow in 1868. Pia- 
nist, self-taught at first, then studied under 
W. Fischer in Brieg, and became private 



tutor in a noble family of Warsaw. He 
visited Weimar, where he was influenced by 
Liszt, and in 1858 was teacher of music in 
Schitomir, Southern Russia ; and later ap- 
pointed pianoforte jjrofessor at the Catha- 
rine Institute in Moscow. Works : Piano- 
forte music. — Mendel ; Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 422. 

GRIEF AND PMN. See Bms und 
Reu'. 
GRIEG, EDVARD (HAGERUP), bom 
at Bergen, Norway, 
June 15, 1843, still liv- 
ing there, 1889. In- 
strumental and vocal 
c o m J) o s e r, first in- 
structed on the piano- 
forte by his mother, 
then at the Conserva- 
torium in Leijjsic 
(whither he was sent by 
Ole Bull's advice in 
1858), pupil of Richter and Hauptmann in 
harmony and counterpoint, of Rietz and 
Reinecke in composition, and of Wenzel 
and Moscheles on the pianoforte. Illness 
forced him to return home in the spring 
of 1860, but he resumed his studies at 
Leipsic in the autumn, and remained there 
until 1862. He went to Copenhagen in 
the spring of 1863, principally to make the 
acquaintance of Gade, and, although in- 
fluenced by him and by Emil Hartraann, he 
was most decidedly affected by Rikard Nor- 
drank, an ingenious Norwegian tone-poet 
(died shortly afterwards), who sang and 
played to him his melodies to BjOrnson's 
songs. As Gi'ieg himself relates : " The 
scales fell from my eyes ; it was only 
through him that I learned to know the 
Norse melodies and my own nature. We 
made a compact against the weakly Gade- 
Meudelssohn Scandinavism, and entered 
with enthusiasm upon the new path on 
which the Northern school is now progress- 
ing." In 1867 he settled at Christiania, 
where he founded a musical society and con- 
ducted it until 1880, when he returned to 



191 



GRIESBACH 



Bergen. As the Norwegian Diet awarded 
him a liberal pension, be has had nothing 
to do since but to devote himself to his 
art. In 1865 and 1870 be visited Italy, 
cultivating Liszt's society in Rome ; and 
was repeatedly in Germany, especially at 
Leipsic, to bring out his compositions. 
Grieg may be said to dispute with Svendsen 
the foremost place among living Norwegian 
composers. As yet he has devoted himself 
chieiiy to the higher forms of chamber 
music. His talent, strongly imbued with 
the Scandinavian folk-song spirit, has 
marked individuality, and his comjjositions 
are noted for their brilliant and effective 
local coloring. His inspiration is vigorous 
and spontaneous, and if his workmanship is 
not invariably of the very best, and be often 
shows a considerable disregard for euishony, 
as well as a certain incapacity for organic 
thematic develo23ment, in the highest sense 
of the term, he only shares these short- 
comings with many of his contemjjoraries, 
while the freshness of his melodic invention, 
the piquancy of his harmouj', and the auda- 
cious brilliancy of his style have won him 
hosts of warm admirers. His best works 
are his A minor pianoforte concerto, and 
his sonata for pianoforte and violin in F 
major. Works: Concerto for pianoforte 
and orchestra, in A minor, op. 16 (2 ver- 
sions) ; Sonata for violin and pianoforte, in 
F, op. 8 ; do. in G minor, op. 13 ; do. in C 
minor, op. 45 ; do. for violoncello, op. 36 ; 
String quartet, op. 27 ; Zwei Melodien, for 
string orchestra, op. 34 ; Foran Sydens Klos- 
ter, for soprano solo, female chorus, and or- 
chestra, op. 20 ; Landkjeudiug, for baritone, 
male chorus, and orchestra, op. 31 ; Der Bei'g- 
entriickte, for baritone, with string orches- 
tra and 2 horns, op. 32 ; Bergliot (by BjOrn- 
son), for declamation with orchestra, op. 42 ; 
Music to BjOrnson's Sigur Jorsalfar, op. 22 ; 
do. to Ibsen's Peer Gynt, op. 23. For 
pianoforte : 4 Clavierstiicke, op. 1 ; Poe- 
tische Tonbilder, op. 3 ; Ballade, op. 4 ; 4 
Humoresken, op. 6 ; Sonata, op. 7 ; Ro- 
manzeu und Balladen, op. 9 ; Kleine Roman- 



zen, op. 10 ; Im Herbst, Phantasie (2 piano- 
fortes), op. 11 ; Lyrische kleine Stiicke, op. 
12 ; 2 symphonische Stiicke (2 pianofortes), 
op. 14 ; Romanzen, op. 15 ; 25 Norwegische 
Volkslieder und Tiinze, op. 17 ; Bilder aus 
dem Volksleben, Drei Humoresken, ojj. 19 ; 
Ballade, op. 24 ; Albumbliitter, oji. 28 ; Im- 
provisata fiber 2 norwegische Volksweisen, 
op. 29 ; Norwegische Tiinze, op. 35 ; Wal- 
zer-Capricen, op. 37 ; Neue lyrische Stilck- 




chen, op. 38 ; Aus Holberg's Zeit, Suite im 
alteu Style, op. 40. Songs : 4 Lieder for 
contralto, op. 2 ; 6 Lieder, op. 4 ; Melodien 
des Herzens, op. 5 ; 4 Romanzen, op. 10 ; 
Romanzen und Lieder, oj). 18 ; 4 Gedichte, 
op. 21. — Mendel ; Riemann ; Mus. Wochen- 
blatt, iv. 161, 195 ; v. 7 ; vii. 348 ; viii. 226 ; 
xiii. 134 ; XV. 511, 522. 

GRIESBACH, JOHN HENRY, born at 
Windsor, England, June 20, 1798, died in 
London, Jan. 9, 1875. Dramatic composer, 
son of Justin Christian Griesbach, violon- 
cellist in Queen Charlotte's band, and 
nephew to Friedrich Griesbach, the oboe 
player ; pupil of his uncle, George Leopold 
Jacob Griesbach, and of Kalkbreuner. On 
the breaking up of the Queen's band, in 
which he was violoncellist, he settled in 
London as a pianist, composer, and teacher. 
He was fourteen times a director of the 
Philharmonic Society. Works : Belshaz- 
zar's Feast, oratorio, written in 1835, re- 
modelled and performed as Daniel, at the 



195 



GRIEVE 



Harmonic Society, in 1854 ; Overture and 
music to Shakespeare's "Tempest ;" James 
I., or the Eoj'al Captive, operetta ; The 
Goldsmith of Westcheap, opera ; Eblis, 
uufiiiished opera ; Kaby Ruins, musical 
drama ; Overtures, symphonies, anthems, 
songs, etc. — Grove ; Fetis. 

GRIEVE, JOHN CHARLES, bom in 
Edinburgh, Aug. 29, 1842, stUl living, 1889. 
He is lecturer on musical theory in Heriot- 
Watt College, and conductor of the Phreuix 
Musical Association, Edinburgh. Works : 
Benjamin, oratorio, Edinburgh, 1877 ; The 
Sower and the Seed, Scriptui-e parable for 
soli and chorus ; The Good Samaritan, do. ; 
Julia's Birthday, musical sketch ; Kinder- 
spiel, do. for juveniles ; Glees, songs, and 
part-songs. His Stars of the Summer 
Night is popular. 

GRIFFIN, GEORGE EUGENE, born 
Jan. 8, 1781, died in London, May, 1863. 
Pianist, one of the original members of the 
Philharmonic Society. Works : 2 concertos 
for pianoforte and orchestra ; Ode to Char- 
ity, 1806 ; 4 sonatas for pianoforte ; 3 string 
quartets ; Rondos, variations, etc. ; Songs, 
glees, etc. — Grove ; Fetis. 

GRILL, FR.INZ, died at Oedeuburg, 
Hungary, about 1795. Chamber musician 
to a Hungarian nobleman, and known 
through the following compositions in the 
style of Haydn : 15 sonatas for pianoforte 
and violin, op. 1, 2, 4, 6 ; 12 string quar- 
tets, op. 3 (dedicated to Haydn), 5, 7 ; 89 
caprices for pianoforte (1791) ; 6 duos con- 
certants for pianoforte and violin (1791) ; 
2 do. (1792) ; 3 quartets (1792) ; Quartet 
(1795).— Mendel ; Schilling. 

GRIMM, HEINRICH, born (?), died in 
Brunswick, July 10, 1637. He was a pupil 
of Michael Priitorius, and was cantor in 
Magdeburg and later in Brunswick. He 
wrote church music and theoretical works. 
— Allgem. d, Biogr., ix. 678 ; Mendel, iv. 386 ; 
do., Ergiinz., 136 ; F6tis, iv. 412 ; Schilling, iii. 
360 ; Gerber (1790), i. 548 ; (1812), ii. 411. 

GRDIM, JULIUS OTTO, born in Per- 
uau, Russia, March 6, 1827, still living, 1889. 



Pianist, pupil at the Leipsic Conservatorium 
and influenced by Schumann, Joachim, and 
Brahms. He settled in 1855 in Gottingen 
as a teacher, and in 1860 became musical 
director in Miinster. Works : 2 orchestral 
suites in canon-form (much played in Ger- 
many) ; An die Musik, for solo, chorus, and 
orchestra ; Symphony ; Sonata for piano- 
forte and violin ; 12 Lieder for voice and 
pianoforte, op. 1, 3 ; 6 Lieder for four male 
voices, op. 13, etc. — Mendel ; Riemann ; 
Fetis. Supplement, i. 423. 

GRISAR, ALBERT, born in Antwerp, 
Dec. 26, 1808, died 
at Asniores, near 
Paris, June 15, 
1869. Dramatic 
composer, pupil in 
Paris of Reicha. 
Placed by his fam- 
ily in a commercial 
house in Liverpool, 
he ran away to Par- 
is during the rev- 
and began to study under 
Reicha, but the revolution spreading to Bel- 
gium, he joined his family in Antwerii, and 
wrote there during the siege his first ro- 
mance, La folle, which had quite a success 
in Belgium and France. His first important 
dramatic work, Le mariage impossible, 
opera-comique, given in Brussels in 1833, 
procured him a grant from the government 
of 1,200 francs to aid his musical education. 
He returned to Paris, and devoted himself 
to dramatic composition, but, dissatisfied 
with his work, went to Naples in 1840 and 
studied under Mercadante. In 1848 he re- 
turned to Paris, produced many works, and 
became a pojiular favourite. Nineteen of 
his operas were represented, and he left 
others in MS. He published also more than 
fifty melodies and romances. Works — Op- 
eras : Sarah, Paris, Opera Comique, 1836 ; 
L'an mil, ib., 1837 ; La Suisse a Trianon, 
Theatre des Varietes, 1837 ; Lady Melvil, 
Theatre de la Renaissance, 1838 ; L'eau 
merveilleuse, ib., 1839 ; Le naufrage de la 




196 



GRISELDA 



Moduse (with Flotow and Pilati, ib., 1839 ; 
Les travestissemeuts, Opora Coinique, 1839 ; 
L'opera a la Cour (with Boieldieu), ib., 
1840 ; Gille ravisseur, ib., 1848 ; Les por- 
cherous, ib., 1850 ; Bonsoii-, monsieur Pau- 
talou, ib., 1851 ; Le carillvimeur de Bruges, 
ib., 1852 ; Les amours du diable, Theatre 
Lyrique, 1853 ; Le chien du jardinier, Opura 
Comique, 1855 ; Voyage autour de ma cham- 
bre, ib., 1859 ; Le joaiUier de St. James (a 
revision of Lady Melvil), ib., 1862 ; La 
chatte merveilleuse, Theatre Lyrique, 18G2 ; 
Begaiements d'aiuour, ib., 1804 ; Douze 
iunoceutes, Bouffes Parisieus, 1865. He 
left 12 operas in MS., some complete, some 
only sketched ; more than fifty melodies, 
romances, dramatic scenes, etc. — Pougin, 
Albert Grisar (Paris, 1870) ; Clument, Mus. 
culobres, 517 ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 424 ; 
Mendel ; Riemanu. 

GRISELDA, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Apostolo Zeno, rewritten by Rolli, 
music by Giovanni Battista Bououcini, rep- 
resented at the Academy of Music, London, 
Feb. 22, 1722. The libretto is founded on 
the story of Griseldis, Griselda, or Grisla, 
called by English writers Patient Grissel, a 
subject popularized by Boccaccio, Petrarch, 
and by Chaucer iu "The Clerk's Tale." 
In the original legend, Griselda, daughter 
of a Piedmoutese labourer, is married by 
the Marquis de Saluces and has by him two 
children. Wishing to prove her constancy 
and the strength of her love, he puts her to 
the most cruel tests and subjects her to a 
thousand humiliations, all of which she 
bears patiently. When he considers the 
proof of her devotion complete he brings 
her back iu triumph to his castle. The 
principal parts in Bononciui's opera, which 
is regarded as his best dramatic production, 
were sung by Seuesino, Boschi, and Mrs. 
Anastasia Robinson, whose admirable per- 
formance of the character of Griselda is 
said to have completed her conquest of the 
Earl of Peterborough. There seems to 
have been some slight resemblance between 
this beautiful woman's career and that of 



the patient heroine, for, though married to 
the Earl of Peterborough, she consented to 
appear to the world as his mistress only, un- 
til he chose to own her as his wife and to 
invest her with the honours of his position. 
The libretto of Zeno has been set to music 
also by the following : PoUarolo, Venice, 
1701 ; Chelleri, Piacenza, 1707 ; Predieri, 
Bologna, 1711 ; Capelli, Rovigo, about 
1710 ; Orlandini, Bologna, 1720 ; Scarlatti, 
Rome, 1721 ; Conti, Vienna, 1725 ; Caldara, 
Vienna, 1725 ; Albinoni, Rome, 1728 ; Vi- 




Anastasia Robinson. 

valdi, Venice, 1735 ; Latilla, Rome, 1747 ; 
Picciuni, Venice, 1793 ; Paer, Parma, 1796, 
Paris, 1803.— Burney, iv. 284 ; Hogarth, ii. 
18. 

GROLL, EVERMODUS, born at Wit- 
tenau in the Upper Palatinate in 1756, died 
at Allershausen in 1809. He was educated 
iu the Benedictine monastery at Reichen- 
bach and in Ratisbon. He entered the Pre- 
monstraut Abbey at Scheftlarn, and was 
music director and leader of the choir. 
After the abolition of the monastery, he 
was appointed to the Parish of Allershausen 



\m 



geo:n'lakd 



in 1807. He composed sympliouies and 
masses. — Fetis, Gerber, Schilling. 

GRONLAND, JOHANN FEIEDRICH, 
born about 1760 in Sleswick, died iu Altona 
in November, 1834 He studied in Kiel in 
1780-82, and assisted Cramer in his Maga- 
ziu der Musik ; after being secretary iu the 
German Government office in Copenhagen 
and director of the royal porcelain factor}' 
there, he became organist and music teacher 
in Altona. He comijosed songs and piano- 
forte music. — Fotis, iv. 116 ; Mendel, iv. 
390 ; Gerber, ii. 412 ; Schilling, iii. 362. 

GROOS, KARL AUGUST, born at Sass- 
mannshauseu, Wittgenstein, Feb. 16, 1789, 
died iu Coblentz, Nov. 20, 1861. He stud- 
ied theology ; while in Berlin in 1817-18, 
he edited, with Bernhard Klein, Deutsche 
Lieder fiir Jung uud Alt, containing many 
songs of his own composition. He was jjas- 
tor in Coblentz. Some of his songs have 
become virtually Volkslieder. — Mendel. 

GROOT, DAVID EDU.iRD DE, born in 
Amsterdam, April 8, 1795, died in Paris, 
March 29, 1874. Clarinetist, made success- 
ful concert toui-s in Holland, Belgium, and 
Germany. From 1830 he lived in France ; 
was dii'ector of a theatre orchestra in Mar- 
seilles for some time ; spent the last years 
of his life in Paiis. He composed a great 
deal of music for the clarinet, of a high ar- 
tistic order. — Mendel ; Tiotta. 

GROSE, mCHAEL EHREGOTT (TI- 
MOTHEUS), German organ virtuoso, died 
after 1824. He was organist until 1786 at 
St. Gottliardt's-Kirche, Brandenburg, then 
at Christiansund in Sweden, and finally 
in Copenhagen. Works : 24 Lieder, with 
clavier accompaniment (Leipsic, 1780) ; 6 
Bonatas for clavier (Berlin, 1785). — Mendel ; 
F.'tis. 

GROSHEIM, GEORG CHRISTOPH, 
born iu Cassel, July 1, 1764, died there in 
1847. He became music director in 1800, 
for a short time, of the new theatre of Laud- 
grave Friedrich Wilhelm H. of Hesse, and 
later was teacher to the children of the 
Queen of Westphalia, after which his ^wpu- 



larity as an instructor of music was great. 
In 1819 he received the degree of Ph.D. 
from the Wittenberg University. Works : 
Titauia, opera, given at Cassel, 1801 ; Das 
heilige Kleeblatt, do., ib., about 1801 ; Pas- 
sion oratorio ; Six psalms for 4 voices ; Six 
symphonies for orchestra ; Several gi-and 
pieces of church music, with orchestra ; 
Three concertos for pianoforte ; One con- 
certo for flute ; One do. for clarinet ; One 
do. for 2 oboes ; 12 sonatas for pianoforte 
and violiu ; 3 fantasias for ijianoforte ; 6 
little do. ; Theme and variations ; jMarche 
de Bonaparte a Marengo ; Anglaises for 
pianoforte ; Preludes for organ ; The Ten 
Commandments for 1—4 voices and organ ; 
Choralbuch for the reformed church of 
Hesse ; Hektor's Abschied, by Schiller, for 
2 voices and orchestra ; Collections of songs. 
— Fc'tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GROSJEAN, JEAN RO^IARY, born at 
Rochesson (Vosges), Jan. 12, 1815, died at 
Saint-Die (ib.), Feb. 13, 1888. Organist, 
son of a poor artisan. When twelve years 
old he was organist of his native place, then 
at Padoux, in 1837 of the princijjal church 
in Remiremont, and iu 1839 of the Cathe- 
dral of Saint-Dio. Later he was a pu^Dil in 
Paris of Stamaty. He devoted much time 
to the study of the German organists, and 
published a work containing selections from 
their music, with some of his own, entitled, 
.\lbum d'un organiste catholique (2 vols.). 
He published also a collection of the Noels 
and popular melodies of Lorraine (1861). — 
Fotis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

GROSS, GEORG AUGUST, born in Ko- 
nigsberg, Sept. 28, 1801, died in Hamburg 
iu 1853. Pianist and violinist, studied 
composition uuder Urban. He was Con- 
zertmeister in Memel iu 1820, made a con- 
cert tour iu 1830, then officiated as teacher 
in Liibeck, and was soon called to Hildes- 
heim as music director. Iu 1837 he re- 
moved to Hamburg, and founded and edit- 
ed the Hamburger musikalische Zeitung. 
He published psalms and songs, and left 
pianoforte and violin music in manuscript. 



198 



GROSS 



— Mendel ; F(Jtis, iv. 119; do., Snpplt'ment, 
i. 426. 

GROSS, HEINinCH, born in the 18tli 
century, died in Berlin in 1806. Violoncel- 
list, pupil of Duport. As a boj' lie played 
publicly in Berlin ; about 1793 lie entered 
the service of the Swedish Count de Geer, 
and some two years later became first yio- 
loucello in the royal Prussian orchestra. 
He published a sonata and variations for 
violoncello. — Mendel. 

GROSS, JOHANN BENJAJMIN, born in 
Elbing. Prussia, Sept. 12, 1809, died in St. 
Petersburg, Sept. 1, 1848. Violoncellist, 
brother of Georg August Gross, and pupil 
of Hausmann. He was in the orchestra of 
the Konigstadtisches Theater of Berlin in 
182-1-29 ; then lived in Leijjsic, playing solo 
often in the Gewandhaus concerts ; joined 
the theatre orchestra of ]\Iagdeburg in 1833, 
but soon returned to Berlin ; next played 
in a private quartet in Dorpat, with Ferdi- 
nand David as first violin, and became first 
violoncello of the imj)erial orchestra of St. 
Petersburg in 1835. He died of cholera. 
He published string quartets, songs, and 
many violoncello compositions. — Mendel ; 
Riemann ; Fetis. 

. GROSSE, SAMUEL DIETRICH, born 
in Berlin in 1757, died there in 1789. Vio- 
linist, pupil of Lolli. In 1779 he was in the 
orchestra of Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm 
of Prussia. He made a concert tour to Paris 
in 1780-82, and joined the royal orchestra of 
Berlin in 1786. Works : Le retour desire, 
comic opera, Berlin, 1784 ; Cantata ; Violin 
concertos, and other music. — Fetis ; Mendel. 
GROSSER, JOHANN EMANUEL, born 
at Warmbrunn, Silesia, Jan. 30, 1799, died 
('?). Organist, son and pupil of Joseph Aloys 
Grosser. He was cantor and organist in 
Friedeberg-on-the-Queis in 1822, organist 
in Hirschberg in 1823, and rector in Polk- 
witz from 1826. He composed masses, 
offertories, church and pianoforte music, 
edited a musical weekly, and wrote biog- 
raphies of Haydn, Mozart, and J. S. Bach. 
— Mendel ; Schilling ; Fetis. 



GROSSI, Cavaliere CARLO, lived in Ve- 
nice in the latter part of the 17th century. 
He was a singer in the Chapel of S. Marco, 
and was pensioned in 1685. Works — Operas: 
Giocaste, regina d'Armenia, given in Venice, 
1676 ; II Nicomede in Bitinia, ib., 1677 ; 
Artaserse, ib., 1669. Church music, can- 
zoni, and madrigali. — Caffi, Storia. . . . 
di S. Marco in Venezia, L 308, H. 34 ; Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

GROSS VATERTANZ (Grandfather's 
Dance), a German family-dance of the 17tli 
ceuturjf, greatlj' in vogue at weddings. As 
it usually concluded the entertainment, 
it was called also the Kehraus (Clear-out). 
The ail-, called Grossvater-Lied, was very 
popular. Spohr introduces it into the Fes- 
tival March written for the marriage of 
Princess Marie of Hesse with the Duke of 
Saxe-Meiningen in 1825, and Schumann 
uses it in the Davidsbiindler March and in 
the finale of his Papillons, op. 2. — Grove. 

GROTTE, NICOLAS DE LA, lived in 
Paris from about 1565 to 1587. He was 
valet de chambre and organist to Heni-i IH. 
of France, and one of the best players of his 
time on the organ and spinet. He set Ron- 
sard's chansons to music. Works : Chan- 
sons a trois, quatre, cinq et six parties 
(Paris, 1553).— F6tis. 

GRUA, FRANZ PAUL, born in Mann- 
heim, Feb. 2, 1754, died in Munich, July 5, 
1833. Son and pupil of Karl Ludwig Peter 
Grua ; studied also under Holzbauer and 
in Italy under Padre Martini and Traetta. 
In 1779 he became Kapellmeister to the 
Elector Palatine, whose court was then in 
Munich, and was pensioned in 1831. Mo- 
zart thought it was easy enough to write 
half a dozen such masses as his in a daj-. 
Works : Telemacco, opera, Munich, 1780 ; 
31 masses for orchestra ; 39 oft'ertories and 
motets ; 6 Miserere ; 3 Stabat Mater ; 3 
Requiem ; 3 Te Deum ; Concerto for piano- 
forte, clarinet, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRUA, KARL LUDWIG PETER, born 
in Milan, died after 1714. He is erro- 
neously called Wilhelm Grua in the older 



19U 



GEUA 



lexicons. After receiving a musical educa- 
tion in Slilan, and visiting several Italian 
cities, he went to Germany and was for a 
short time attached to the electoral chapel 
in Dresden. In 1G97 he settled in Dussel- 
dorf as Kapellmeister, and in 1714 went to 
Mannheim. Works : Masses, and MS. mu- 
sic in Dresden and Berlin libraries. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., ix. 785 ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

GRUA, KARL LUDWIG PETER, born 
in Milan in 1700, died in Mannheim in 
1775. He finished his musical education 
under his uncle Karl Ludwig Peter Grua, 
and became Kapellmeister to the court of 
Mannheim, and in 1712 also director of 
the opera. Works : Cambise, Italian opera, 
represented in Mannheim, Jan. 17, 1742. 
— Fi'tis; Mendel ; Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 785. 

GRUBER, FRANZ, born at Hochburg, 
Upper Austria, Nov. 25, 1787, died in Hal- 
lein, June 7, 1863. Organist in Arnsdorf, 
Berndorf, and Hallein. He composed the 
Christmas song, Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht, 
long ascribed to Haydn. — Mendel. 

GRUBER, FRANZ, born in Arnsdorf, 
Nov. 27, 1820, died in Hallein, April 27, 
1871. Son and pupil of Franz Gruber ; 
studied also theory under Taux and the 
violin under Stummer. He was a school- 
teacher in Mauterndorf, Salzburg, and Hal- 
lein, and founded two musical societies in 
the latter place. His compositions number 
about sixty, and comprise church and piano- 
forte music, overtures, and songs. Only six 
of his woi'ks have been printed. — Mendel. 

GRUBER, GEORG WILHEL^M, born in 
Nuremberg, Sept. 22, 1720, died there, 
Sept. 22, 1796. Violinist, pupil on the 
pianoforte and in composition of Dretzel 
and Siebenkees, and on the violin of Hem- 
merich. Before he was eighteen j-ears old 
he made a concert tour ; took lessons in 
counterpoint in Dresden from Umstadt ; 
and about 1750 entered the orchestra of 
Nuremberg, w'here Ferrari's presence in- 
fluenced him gi-eatly. He succeeded Agrell 
as Kapellmeister in 1765, and held also 
honorary municipal offices. Works : Ora- 



torios ; Church, chamber, and other instru- 
mental music. — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 1 ; 
Mendel ; Fetis. 

GRUNBAUM, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, 
born at Haslau, near Eger, Oct. 28, 1785, 
died in Berlin, Jan. 10, 1870. He studied 
music in a convent and in the choir of Rat- 
isbon Cathedral ; tlien became tenor in the 
Ratisbon theatre in 1804, and in the Prague 
theatre in 1807. Having married the 
singer, Therese Miiller, in 1813, he went 
^yith her to the court opera of Vienna in 
1818, but settled in Berlin from 1832 as 
teacher of singing and writer for music pub- 
lishers. He wrote vocal music and trans- 
lated many operas and songs. — Mendel. 

GRUNBERGER, LUDWIG, born in 
Prague, April 24, 1839, still living, 1889. 
Pianist, pupil of Franz Skraup and Josef 
Kisch, then in Dresden of Rictz and Rei- 
chel. Works : 2 symphonies ; Music to 
Lowe's Kindertraum (1885) ; Dithyrambe 
by Schiller ; 2 string quartets ; Pianoforte 
music, and songs. 

GRUNBERGER, THEODOR, German 
composer of the latter part of the 18th cen- 
tury. He was a monk in a monastery in 
Suabia, and composed masses and organ 
music. — Gerber ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

GRUND, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, born 
in Hamburg, Oct. 7, 1791, died there, Nov. 
I 24, 1874. Pupil of his father, founded the 
i Singakademie in his native city in 1819, 
and led the Philharmonic concerts in 1828- 
62. He was popular as a teacher. Works : 
Die Burg Falkenstein, Mathilde, operas, not 
performed ; Die Auferstehung und Him- 
melfahrt Christi, cantata ; Mass for 8 voices 
a cappella ; Symphonies ; Overtures ; Octet 
for pianoforte and wind instruments ; Quin- 
tet for do., op. 8 ; Quartet for pianoforte 
and strings, op. 5 ; Sonatas for pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello, op. 9, 11, 13 ; do., 
for pianoforte, four hands, op. 10 ; Sona- 
tinas for pianoforte, op. 14 ; Hymn by 
Krummacher ; Six collections of songs. 
— Mendel, Ergiinz., 137 ; Riemann ; Fetis, 
do., Suj)plement, i. 426. 



GEUNER 



GRUNEE, NATHANAEL GOTTFRIED, 

lived in the latter part of the IStli century, 
died in 1794 at Gera, ^yhere he was cantor 
and music director. He seems also to have 
lived at Lyons, as some of his music was pub- 
lished there. Works : Dein Ziou streut dir 
Palmeu, cantata ; Psalms 8, 27, 51, 81, and 
113 for chorus and orchestra ; Motets ; 
About 15 chorals in form of cantatas, for 
do. ; Concertos for pianoforte ; Six sonatas 
for pianoforte, oix 1 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & 
Hilrtel, 1781) ; Ten do., op. 2 (ib., 1783) ; 
Four-part songs for church choii-s and 
schools, 1st and 2d book (Leipsic, Koll- 
mann). — FiHis ; Mendel. 

GRUNEWALD, KARL HE IN RICH, 
singer and composer, lived in the first part 
of the 18th century, died at Darmstadt in 



1739. He was singing in the Hamburg ' Drechsler on the vio 



brothers on the violin and in harmony. In 
1815 he was violinist in the orchestra of the 
united theatres of Presburg and Baden, and 
in 181G of a Vienna theatre. In 1830 he be- 
came second director of the Kiirntnerthor 
Theater, and in 1831 member of the im- 
perial chapel. Works : Der Nachtwilchter, 
opera, Vienna, 1835 ; Der Liebhaber als 
Contrebande, do., ib., 1838; 2 masses; 
Graduale and offertory ; Duos, trios, and 
quartets for violin ; Vocal quartets ; Songs. 
— AVurzbach ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Fetis. 

GRUTZMACHER, FRIEDRICH (WIL- 
HELM LUDWIG), 
born in Dessau, March 
1, 1832, still living, 
1889. Violoncellist, pu- 
pil of his father, of 



Theatre in 1703 ; was court singer in Ber- 
lin about 1708 ; later he became Viceka- 
pellmeister in Darmstadt. He is said to 
have composed several operas, of which, 
however, only one is still known : Germani- 
cus, oder die gerettete Unschuld, given suc- 
cessfully in Hamburg, 170G. — Gerber ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

GRliNFELD, ALFRED, born in Prague, 
July 4, 1852, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Pianist, 
pupil of Julius Theo- 
dore Hiiger, and at 
the Conservatorium 
of Krejfi, then in 
Berlin at Kullak's 
Academy; in 1837 he 
settled in Vienna, 
where he at once 
made for himself a 
prominent position as a concert player, and 
whence he has undertaken successful con- 
cert tours abroad, especially in 1883 to St. 
Petersburg and IMoscow. As a composer 
he is known by songs and pianoforte music. 
— Mus. Wochenblatt, siv. 343. 

GRUTSCH, FRANZ SERAPH, born in 
Vienna, Oct. 24, 1800, died there, April 5, 
18G7. Violinist, pupil of the Blumenthal 





loncello, and of F. 
Schneider in theory. 
He went to Leijjsic in 
1848, attracted the at- 
tention of David, and in 1849 became first 
violoncellist of the Gewandhaus orchestra, 
and teaclier in the Conservatorium. In 
ISfiO ho was appointed chamber virtuoso in 
Dresden ; he has made many concert tours 
and formed many distinguished pujiils. 
Works : Concertos for violoncello and or- 
chestra ; Variations, for do. ; IMusic and ex- 
ercises for violoncello ; Chamber and or- 
chestral music ; Pianoforte pieces ; Songs. 
He has published also many editions of 
standard works. His brother, Leojjold 
Griitzmacher (born at Dessau, Sept. 4, 
1835), is a violoncellist virtuoso at Weimar, 
and a composer for his instrument. — IMen- 
del ; Grove ; Riemann, 34G ; Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 427 ; Mus. Wochenblatt, i. 599. 

GUAITOLI, FRANCESCO MARIA, born 
at Carpi in 15G3, died there, Jan. 3, 1G28. 
Church composer, canon and maestro di 
capi^ella of the cathedral of his native place, 
also of the confraternity of San Rocco from 
1G02. Works: Salmi per vespri a 5 voci 
(Venice, 1G04) ; Libro primo di madrigali 
(ib., IGOO) ; Canzonette a tre e quattro voci 



201 



-^ 



GUAMI 



(ib., IGOC) ; Psalmi ad tertiam quinis Toci- 
bus, etc. (ib., 1618) ; Messe e Motetti .a otto 
voci, 1st auj 2d book (ib., 1G18).— Fctis ; 
Mendel. 

GUAm, GIUSEPPE, bom in Lucca, 
about 1.540, died in 1626. Organist of the 
ro_yal chapel at Municli in 1.57.5, second or- 
ganist of S. Marco, Venice, in 1.588, and or- 
ganist to the cathedi-al of Lucca in 1591. 
He was celebrated also as a violinist. 
Works : JIadrigals and motets ; Church 
music, found in the collections of the time. 
— Fctis, iv. 127 ; Supplement, i. 427 ; Bur- 
ney, Hist. Music, iii. 545 ; Mendel, iv. 
428 ; do., Ergiinz., 187. 

GUAEANY, Hj, Italian opera seria in four 
acts, text by Sealvini, music by Carlos Go- 
mez, first represented at La Scala, Milan, 
March 19, 1870. Spanish adventurers sur- 
round with suares a noble Portuguese, 
whose daughter and treasures they intend 
to carry off. An Indian chief of the tribe 
of the Guarany, protects the family and tri- 
umphs over the iilibustcrs. The work, 
which was interpreted by Mme Marie Sass, 
Maurel, and Villani, was fairly successful. 
It was given soon after in Rome, and at 
Covent Garden, London, July 13, 1872. 

GUAZZONI, FEDERIGO, born near 
IMilan in the 18th century, died in Rome in 
1787. He studied music in Naples ; was 
maestro di cappclla in several small Ital- 
ian cities, and finally in Rome in 1770. Of 
his masses, otYertories, litanies, etc., some 
are still in use in Italy. His operas are for- 
gotten. — ^Mendel ; Schilling, Supplement, 
176. 

GUDRUN, opera, in three acts, text and 
music by Felix Driiseke, first given in Han- 
over, Nov. 5, 1884. Great success. Pub- 
lished by Kistner (Leipsic, 1884). Same ti- 
tle, by Amand Mangold, Darmstadt, 1851 ; 
August Reissmann, Leipsic, 1871 ; August 
Klughardt, Neustrelitz, 1882, Leipsic, 1884. 

GUl^DRON, PIERRE, born in Paris, 
about 1565, died (?). He was a singer in 
the King's music from 1590 and succeeded 
Claude Lejeune as composer to the king. , 



Under Louis XHI. he was superintendent of 
church music and wrote many of the court 
ballets. He was also a favorite composer 
of chansons for one voice, which began to 
take the jslace of those for three, four, or 
more voices, in the reign of Henri IV. — Fc- 
tis ; Larousse ; Mendel. 

GUEIT, MARIUS, born in Paris, about 
1810, still living, 1889 (?). Blind organist 
and composer, whose improvisations on the 
organ were remarkable ; was also a finished 
violoncellist, pupil of Benazet. Organist of 
the Church of Saint-Paterne, Orleans, 1831- 
1840, of Saint-Denis au Marais, Paris, 1841. 
Works : L'indicateur de I'organiste, 60 
jjieces for anthems, Kyrie, Gloria, etc. ; 12 
pieces for the organ ; 3 oifertories for do., 
op. 25 ; Fantaisies, divertissement, romances, 
serenades, etc., for organ and harmonium ; 
Motets for several voices, and organ ; Can- 
ticles ; Method for the organ. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

GUENEE, LUC, born at Cadiz, Aug. 19, 
1781, died in Paris, in 1847. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil at the Paris Conservatoire under 
Gavinies and Rode, and later of Mazas and 
Reicha. He entered in 1829 the orchestra of 
the Opera, of which he was a member twentj-- 
five years. He was also chef d'orchestre 
at the Palais Royal Theatre. Works— Op- 
eras : La chambre a coucher, Paris, Opera- 
Comique, 1813 ; La comtesse de Troun, 
ib., 1816 ; Une visite a la campagne, Gym- 
nase Dramatique ; Concerto for violin and 
orchestra ; Trios for 2 violins and bass, op. 
5 ; Three duos concertants for violins, op. 
1 ; Thi-ee do., op. 2 ; Six caprices for violin, 
with bass ; Thi-ee quartets for strings, oj). 
4. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GUltlNIN, MARIE ALEXANDRE, born 
at Maubeuge (Nord), Feb. 20, 1744, died in 
Paris in 1819. Violinist, pupil of Capron 
on the violin and of Gossec in composition. 
He played a concerto of his own at the Con- 
certs Spirituels in 1775 ; was intendant of the 
Prince de Conde's music in 1777 ; member 
of the royal chapel in 1778, and solo violin 
at the Oi^cra iu 1780-1800. In 1810-14 he 



202 



GUERCIA 



was second violin to Charles IV. of Sj)ain. 
Works : U sj'inplionies ; G string quartets ; 
18 violin duets ; G sonatas for two violins ; 
3 sonatas for j^ianoforte and violin ; 3 vio- 
loncello duets. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Eiemauu ; 
Wasielewski, Die Violine, 251. 

GUEKCIA, ALFONSO, born in Naples, 
Nov. 13, 1831, still living, 1889. Composer, 
professor of singing at the Naples Conserva- 
torio. His opera, Rita, was represented in 
Naples, Dec. 11, 1875. He is the author also 
of many songs, and of a theoretical work, 
L' Arte del canto italiano. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, i. 428 ; Mendel, ErgUuz., 137. 

GUEEIN, EjSIJMANUEL, born in Ver- 
sailles in 1779, died (?). Yioloucellist, pupil 
at the Paris Conservatoire of Levasseur. He 
was a member of the orchestra at the Thea- 
tre Feydeau in 1799-1824. Works : Sona- 
tas, duets, and variations for the violoncello. 
■ — Fetis ; Eiemann. 

GUERRA, GUERRA. See Norma. 

GUERRERO (Guerreiro), FRANCISCO, 
born at Beja, Portugal, in 1528, died at 
Seville, Jan. 15, 1600. Church composer, 
jiupil of his elder brother, Pedro, a pro- 
fessor of music, and later of Morales. In 
1546 he became maestro de capilla of the 
Cathedral of Jaen, and in 1550 a singer in 
the Cathedral of Seville, where he was asso- 
ciated with and tiually succeeded Fernandez 
as maestro. In 1588 he undertook a jour- 
ney to Jerusalem, passing through Italy, 
wliere he left with Zarlino his compositions 
for revision. Some of his earlier composi- 
tions had been already published in Paris, 
Louvain, and Rome, which would seem to 
imply that he had previously visited those 
cities. His works are known throughout 
Spain, in every cathedral towu, but are ex- 
tremely rare in the rest of Europe. His 
most important works were published im- 
der the title. Liber primus Missarum, F. 
Guerrero, Hispalensis Odei phonasco au- 
thore (Paris, 1566) ; this contains 4 masses 
in 5 parts and 5 in 4 parts, and some mo- 
tets in 5, 6, and 8 parts. This work and a 
collection of Magnificats, printed at Lou- 



vain in 1563, are now in the Vienna library. 
Eslava's Lira sacro-hispana has the Passion 
according to St. Matthew, for 4 voices, for 
Palm Sunday, and that according to St. 
John, 5 voices, for Good Friday ; also 3 
motets for 5 voices and a 4-j)art mass. Si- 
mile est reguum ccelorum. His Psalmo- 
rum quat. voc, etc., Missarum defunctorum 
(Rome, 1559), and Primo lib. di salmi (ib., 
1584), are in the same work. Besides these, 
II secoudo libro di messe (Rome, 1584), and 
Libro di motetti a quattro, etc. (Venice), 
are given in Fetis' list. — Fetis, iv. 136 ; 
Supplement, i. 429 ; Mendel. 

GUEST, GEORGE, born at Bury St. Ed- 
mund's, England, in 1771, died at Wisbeach, 
Cambridgeshire, Sept. 10, 1831. Organist, 
son and pupil of Ralph Guest ; chorister in 
the Chapel Royal under Dr. Nares and Dr. 
Ayrton, organist at Eye, Suffolk, in 1787- 
89, then at Wisbeach until his decease. 
Works : Anthems ; Hymns ; Glees ; Duets ; 
Organ music ; Military baud music. — Grove ; 
Fetis ; Mendel. 

GUEST, RALPH, born at Basely, Shrop- 
shire, England, in 1742, died at Bury St. 
Ednunid's, June, 1830. Organist, member 
of the Portland Chapel choir, London, 1763 ; 
pupil in organ playing at Bury St. Ednuuid's 
of Ford, organist of St. James's Church ; 
choir-master and organist of St. Mary's, 
Bury St. Edmund's, in 1805-22. He pub- 
lished " The Psalms of David," a collection 
of old psalm tunes with about sixty new 
ones, and a supplement, "Hymns and 
Psalms," with music composed and adapt- 
ed by himself. He was author of many 
popular songs. — Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

GUGL, IMATTHAUS, lived in the first 
part of the 18th century. Organist of the 
cathedral in Salzburg, composed music of 
great popularity at the time, and wrote an 
instruction book. — Mendel ; Schilling ; Fetis. 

GUGLIELMI, PIETEO, born at Massa- 
Carrara, Italy, May, 1727, died in Rome, 
Nov. 19, 1804. Dramatic composer, son 
and pupil of an accomplished musician who 
was maestro di cappella to the Duke of 



203 



GUGLIELMI 



Modena ; pupil at tlie Conservatorio of San 
Loreto, Naples, of Durante. On leaviug 
the Conservatorio, be made a tour through 
Italy and brought out -his first ojJera in 
Turin, in 1755. From that time the prin- 
cipal cities of Italy disi^uted the privi- 
lege of producing his operas, of which he 
wrote nearly two buudi'ed. In 1762 be 
■went to Venice, soon after to Dresden and 
Brunswick, and in 1772 to London, where 
he was not very successful, as Piccinni 
w'as then the reigning favourite. When he 
returned to Naples after an absence of 
fifteen years, be found that Cimarosa and 
Paisiello bad taken his place iu pojjular 
favour ; but, notwithstanding the efforts 
made by their followers, be eventually di- 
vided the favours of the Neapolitan public 
with them. The three subsequently formed 
themselves into a mutual protective society 
to keep out intruders, and agreed upon a 
common jjrice of sis hundred ducats for 
each opera that the}' should produce. Gu- 
glielmi finally gave up dramatic composi- 
tion, and in 1793 accepted the position of 
maestro at the Vatican, and composed 
church music. Most of his operas are for- 
gotten, but those that remain arc wortliy of 
a place in the history of music. Some of his 
opere buffs are stiU played in Italy. Prin- 
cipal works : I viaggiatori ridicoli (1772) ; 
La serva iunaniorata (1778) ; La bella pesca- 
trice (1779) ; I fi-atelli Papjja IMosca (Milan, 
1783) ; La pastorella nobile (1783) ; La Di- 
done (Venice, 1785) ; Enea e Lavinia (Na- 
ples, 1785) ; I due gemelU (Rome, 1787). 
His church compositions are mostly ora- 
torios. La morte d' Abele ; Betulia liberata ; 
La distruzione di Gerusalenime ; Debora 
e Sisera, considered his masterpiece by 
Zingarelli, written for the Vatican iu 1794 ; 
Le lagrime di San Pietro ; besides masses, 
motets, etc. — Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Eie- 
mann ; Schilling ; Hogartli, Hist, of Miis. 
Drama, 160 ; Burnej', Hist, of Music, iv. 
493. 

GUGLIELMI, PIETRO CARLO, born 
in Naples in 1763, died iu Massa-Carrara, 



! Feb. 28, 1817. Dramatic composer, son of 
Pietro Guglielmi ; pupil at the Conserva- 
torio of Loreto, Naples. He produced his 
first opera in Naples when only twenty 
years old. After visiting several Italian 
cities as a composer, and London in 1810, 
he became maestro di cappella to the arch- 
duchess Beatrice of Massa-Carrara. Works 
— Operas : Asteria e Teseo, Naples, about 
1783 ; La fiera, ib., about 1785 ; II nau- 
fragio fortunato, ib., about 1787 ; L' equivo- 
co degli sposi, ib., about 1789 ; La serva 
I bizzarra, ib., about 1790 ; L' erede di Bel 
j Prato, about 1799 ; L' isola di Calipso, 
Milan, 1813 ; La persuasione corretta, Na- 
ples, about 1814 ; Ernesto e Palmira, Italy, 
about 1814 ; La moglie giudice del marito, 
Naples, about 1815 ; Romeo e Giulietta, 
about 1816. — Fotis ; Mendel. 

GUHR, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH 
FLORIAN, born at Militsch, Prussian Sile- 
sia, April 17, 1791, died (?). Pupil of bis 
father ; was in the orchestra of the Count 
von Maltzahn in his native town in 1807-10 ; 
then continued his studies at the seminary 
in Breslau. On bis return he assisted his 
father as cantor, and later succeeded him 
iu that position. He composed some songs, 
and wrote an elementary book on music. 
' —Fetis ; Mendel. 

GUHR, KARL FRIEDRICH WIL- 
HELM, born at Militsch, Prussian Silesia, 
Oct. 30, 1787, died in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, July 22, 1848. Pianist and violinist, 
son and pupil of Karl Christoph Guhr, and 
pupil of Faust, Jauitschek, Berner, Wolfl, 
Schnabel, and Vogler. At fourteen he had 
I been a member of Count von Maltzalin's 
' orchestra in Militsch, and after finishing 
his studies he joined it again in 1804. In 
1807 he became chamber musician in Wiirz- 
burg, soon after musical du'cctor of the 
Nuremberg theatre, and in 1813 of Wies- 
baden. He went to Cassel as Hofkapell- 
' meister, and in 1821 as director of music at 
; Frankfort-on-the-Main. Works — Operas : 
Feodora, Die Vestalin, Cassel, 1814 ; Deo- 
data, ib., 1815 ; KOnig Siegmar, ib., 1819 ; 



204 



GUICHARD 



Aladdin, oder die Wunderlampe, Frankfort, 
1830 ; A mass ; A symphony ; Pianoforte 
rondo for four hands ; Sonata for jjiauo- 
forte ; Violin concerto ; etc. He wrote also : 
" Paganini's Kunst die Violine zu spieleu " 
(Mainz, 1831).— Gollmick, Carl Guhr, Nek- 
rolog. (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 18i8) ; Men- 
del ; Fetis ; Riehl, Mus. Charakterkupfe, 
iii. 189 ; Dubourg, The Violin, 2i5. 

GUICHARD, Abbe FRANgOIS, born 
at Mans, France, Aug. 26, IHB, died in 
Paris, Feb. 2i, 1807. He was counter- 
tenor and later sous-maitre at Notre Dame, 
Paris. During the Revolution he taught 
the guitar and published music for that in- 
strument. He published Essais de Psalmo- 
die, containing Magnificats (1783). His 
chansons were popular. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GUIDO ET GINEVRA, ou la peste de 
Florence (The Plague of Florence), ojiera 
in five acts, text by Scribe, music by Halevy, 
represented at the Academic Royale de Mn- 
sique, Paris, March 9, 1838. The libretto 
is founded on an ejjisode in Delecluze's 
"Histoire de Florence." Ginevra, daughter 
of Cosmo de' Medici, falls in a swoon during 
the celebration of her marriage with the 
Duke of Ferrara. Believed to be a victim 
of the plague then prevailing, she is en- 
tombed, but, as in Romeo and Juliet, 
awakes and escapes from the vault. Re- 
pulsed everywhere in the terrified and al- 
most deserted city, she is received into the 
house of Guido, a young sculjDtor who had 
long loved her. Cosmo de' Medici at last 
finds his daughter and consents to her mar- 
riage with Guido. Although the work con- 
tains many musical gems, its lugubrious 
plot interfered with its success. It was 
revived, however, in four acts, Oct. 23, 
1810. 

GIHGNON, JEAN PIERRE, born in 
Turin, Feb. 10, 1702, died in Versailles, 
Jan. 30, 1775. Violinist, the last " Roi des 
Violons et des Menetriers." At first a vio- 
loncellist in Paris, he relinquished that in- 
strument for the violin, on which he is said 
to have rivalled Leclair. He entered the 




king's service in 1733, was appointed teach- 
er to the dauphin, and in 1741 had revived 
in his favor the extinct title of Roi des vio- 
ons ; but his at- 



tempt to levy taxes 
ou other musicians 
led to an acrimoni- 
lous dispute and to 
the revocation of his 
powers in 1750, 
though he did not 
resign the title until 
1773. He was an 
excellent orchestra 

leader, and published several books of Con- 
certos, Sonatas, Duos, etc. — Fetis; Grove; 
Fayolle, Hist, du Violon ; Dubourg, The 
Violin, 189. 

GUILLAUiAIE DE MACHAU (de Bla- 
chaut, Guillermusde Mascaudio, Guiglielmo 
di Francia), born at Machau, Champagne, 
about 1284, died after 1370. He was in 
the service of Jeanne de Navarre, wife of 
Philippe le Bel, and in 1307-14 was valet 
to that king. After that he was clerk to 
Jean de Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, 
where he lived thirty years, returning to 
France after the death of his master at 
Crecy in 1346. He then entered the ser- 
vice of the Duchess of Normandy, was sec- 
retary to the Duke Jean le Bon, afterwards 
King of France, and served his successor 
Charles V. in the same capacity. His com- 
positions consist of motets, ballads, ron- 
deaux, and a mass said to have been used 
at the coronation of Charles V., preserved 
in the MS. collections in the National Li- 
brary, Paris. His masses and motets were 
long used as models. One of his poems gives 
a curious account of the musical instru- 
ments in use at that time. — Fetis ; La- 
rousse ; Mendel. 

GUILLAU.AIE TELL, lyrical drama in 
three acts, text by Sedaine, music by Gretry, 
first represented at the Italiens, Paris, Ai^ril 
9, 1791. The subject, which had previously 
been treated musically by Lemiere, was be- 
j'oud the composer's range. The opera was 



205 



GITILLAUME 



reinstrumented bj- Berton and Eifaut in 
1828. 

GUILLAUME TELL, grand opera, in 
tliree acts, text by litienne Join-, Hippolyte 
Bis, and Ai-mand Mai-ast, music by Rossini, 




Duprez. as Arnold. 



first represented at the Aeademie Royale de 
Musique, Paris, Aug. 3, 1829. Tlic compos- 
er's thirty-seventh and last oijera, and his 
masterpiece. The libretto, derived from 
Schiller's drama, " Wilhelm Tell " (1804), was 
written originally in five acts by Jouy, but, 
proving unsatisfactorj', was largely rewritten 
by Bis, and lastly worked over by Marast, 
to whom belongs the conspiracy scene, the 
best in the opera. In 1831 the third act 
was omitted and the fourth and fifth acts 
were condensed into one, and the opera is 
now jjlayed everywhere in its three-act 
form ; but in 1856 it was performed entire 
in Paris, and lasted from seven until one 
o'clock. An English version, entitled Hofer, 
the Tell of the Tyrol, text by Planche, mu- 
sic arranged by Bishop, was given in Lon- 
don, at Drury Lane, May 1, 1830 ; it was 



given also as Guillaume Tell, at the same 
house, Dec. 3, 1838 ; and an Italian version, 
Guglielmo Tell, was produced at Her Maj- 
esty's, July 11, 1839. The scene is laid 
in Switzerland in the thirteenth century. 
Original cast in Paris, 1829 : 

Arnold INI. Adolphe Nourrit. 

Walter M. Levasseur. 

TeU M. Dabadie. 

Ruodi M. A. Dupont. 

Rodolphe M. Massol. 

Gessler M. Prevost. 

Leuthold M. Prcvot. 

Jemmy Mme Dabadie. 

Mathilde Mme Cinti-Damoreau. 

Hedwige Mile Mori. 

Each of these roles has since been filled by 
famous singers, among whom Gilbert Du- 
prez (born in 1806), has been among the 
most noted. His novel and stirring reading 
of the part of Arnold contributed greatly to 
the success of the oisera on its revival in 
1837 at the Opera. The plot is briefly as 
follows : One of the followers of Gessler, 
Austrian bailiff in Kiissnacht, having at- 
tempted an outrage upon the daughter of 
the herdsman Leuthold, is slain by the fa- 
ther, who flies for refuge to Tell and is pro- 
tected by him. Tliis excites the rage of 
Gessler, and Mclclital, the father of Arnold, 
is accused of inciting people to insurrection 
and put to death. Ai'nold, enamoured of Ma- 
thilde, Gessler's daughter, has long vacillated 
between love and duty, but now renounces 
his love and devotes himself to avenging 
his father's death. He joins Tell in the 
mountains, where the second act closes 
with the grand conspiracy scene, the secret 
banding together of the cantons under the 
leadership of Tell, who promises to lead 
them to victory or death. In the third act 
Gessler, to discover who is and who is not 
loyal, commands everybody to do homage 
to his hat, which he places upon a pole in 
the public square at Altorf. Tell refus- 
ing, he is ordered to shoot an apple from his 
son's head. When about to retire after ac- 



S06 



GUILLON 



oomplisliiiig this feat, Gessler demands of 
him why he had concealed another arrow 
under his cloak. Tell defiantly answers 
that it was intended for him in case be had 
slain his son. On this he is thrown into 
l^rison. Mathilde, outraged by her father's 
cruel acts, deserts him and joins the pa- 
triots with the purpose of procuring Tell's 
rescue ; but she is anticipated by Arnold. 
Gessler is slain, Tell returns in triumph to 
his family, and Arnold and Mathilde are 
united. The overture is Kossini's master- 
piece in this form. Among the noteworthy 
numbers in the opera are, in the first act, 
the quartet between Tell, Hedwige, Jemmy, 
and a fisherman, " Accours dans ma nacelle," 
and the recitative of Arnold, " Le mien, 
dit-il." In the second act are the romance 
by Mathilde, "Sombre forct," the passion- 
ate duet between Mathilde and Arnold, 
" Oui, vous I'arrachez :\ mon Ame," the trio, 
" Tu nV-tais pas seul en ees lieux," and the 
fine chorus at the gathering of the Cantons. 
The third act contains the air of Tell, in the 
famous scene of the shooting of the apple, 
" Sois immobile," and a passionate aria by- 
Arnold, "Asile hereditaire." — Clement and 
Larousse, 331 ; Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 
118 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 202. 

GUILLON, ALBERT, born at Meaux 
(Seine-et-Marne), France, in 1801, died in 
Venice, Ajiril, 1854. Dramatic composer ; 
made his first musical studies at the Cathedral 
of Paris, then at the Conservatoire pupil of 
Fctis and of Berton ; won the prix de Rome 
in 1825 with his cantata Ariaue a Naxos, 
and lived several years in Rome, whence he 
sent some sacred compositions to the lu- 
stitut de France. He then went to Venice, 
and in 1830 wrote for the Teatro della Fen- 
ice his opera Maria di Brabante, which was 
well received. Patronized by a noble family, 
who intrusted him with the administration 
of their estates, he abandoned music, and 
devoted himself to agriculture. — Fetis. 

GXJILLOU, JOSEPH, born in Paris in 
1786, died at St. Petersburg, Sejitember, 
1853. Virtuoso on the flute, pupil at the 



Conservatoire of Devieune and of Wunder- 
lich ; won the second prize in 1798, and the 
first in 1808, but had to wait until 1815 be- 
fore obtaining a position as second flute 
in the orchestra of the Opera, and in the 
royal chapel. In 181G he became professor 
at the Conservatoire, and in 1830 started 
on a concert tour through Belgium, Ger- 
many, Sweden, etc., and settled at St. 
Petersburg. Works : 2 concertos for flute 
and orchestra ; Concertino ; Themes vai-ius 
for do. ; Themes for flute and quartet ; 
Duos, fantaisies, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

GUILMANT, FELIX ALEXANDRE, 
born at Boulogne, France, March 12, 1837, 
still living, 1889. Organist, son and pupil 
of the organist of the Church of Saint- 
Nicolas, Boulogne ; pupil of Gustave Ca- 
rulli, and later (1860) of Lemmens. In 
1857 he became organist of the church of 
S.aint-Joseph, Boulogne, and maitre de cha- 
pelle of Saint-Nicolas, and soon after pro- 
fessor of solfege in the Ecole Communale. 
He was also director and organizer of the 
Boulogne Societo Orpheonique and a mem- 
ber of the Societe Philharmonique. In 1871 
he removed to Paris, where he became or- 
ganist of the Church of La Trinite, a posi- 
tion which he still occupies. He has made 
concert tours in England, Italy, and Russia. 
Guilmant is one of the best organists of 
modern times, and is unexcelled for bril- 
liancy of execution. Works : i masses with 
orchesti'a or organ ; Motets for 4 voices, 
with do. ; 12 motets for 1-4 voices, with or- 
gan ; Echos du mois de Marie, canticles ; 
Quam dilecta (83d psalm), for soli and 
chorus, with organ, op. 8 ; Sonatas for or- 
gan ; Symphony for do., and orchestra ; 
Many other pieces for organ ; L'organiste 
pratique. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 435 ; Men- 
del, Ergiinz., 138 ; Riemann. 

GUIMET, EMILE, born in Lyons, France, 
in 1836, still living, 1889. Pianist, pupil of 
Debillemont, Lindau, and Luigini. The son 
of a wealth}- chemical manufacturer, he has 
given much attention as an amateur to music. 
He has been at the head of the great musical 



S07 



GUIRAUD 



societies of Lj-ons, and is a member of the 
Academy. Works : L'cBuf blanc et I'oeuf 
rouge, ballet, Lyons, Grand Tlu'utre, 1867 ; 
Le feu du ciel, oratorio, Loudon, 1872, 
Paris, 1873. He published a collection of 
melodies and pianoforte pieces (1859), be- 
sides several orpheonic choruses. — Fetis, 
Supplument, i. 435. 

GUIRAUD, ERNEST, born, of French 
parents, in New Orleans, Louisiana, June 23, 
1837, still living, 1889. Dramatic composer, 
son and pupil of Jean Baptiste Guiraud, who 
won in 1827 the grand prix de Rome. He 
visited Paris at the age of twelve and on his 
return to New Orleans brought out an oi^era 
Le roi David. Soon after he went again to 
Paris, and studied, at the Conservatoire, the 
pianoforte under Marmontel (2d prize, 
1857 ; 1st prize, 1858), harmony under 
Barbereau, and composition under Hak'vj' ; 
grand prix de Rome, 1859, for his cantata, 
Bajazet et le joueur defiilte. Was in Rome 
18G0-G3, served during the war of 1870-71, 
and when it was ended played at the Concerts 
Populaires, bringing out at one of them in 
1872 a suite for orchestra which secured 
him a recognized position among the leaders 
of the French school of composers. Ap- 
pointed professor of harmony and accom- 
paniment at the Conservatoire in 187G. 
Works — Operas : Sylvie, Paris, Oi)rra Co- 
mique, 18G4 ; En prison, Tlu'atrc Lyrique, 
18G9 ; Le Kobold, Opura Comique," 1870 ; 
Madame Turlupin, Thuiitre de I'Athunee, 
1872 ; Gretna-Green, ballet, Opera, 1873 ; 
Piccolino, Opera Comique, 1876 ; La galante 
aveuture, ib., 1882 ; Gli avveuturieri, opera 
buffa ; Messe solennelle ; Concert overture, 
etc. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 437 ; Riemann. 

GULISTAN, OU LE HULLA DE SA]M- 
ARCANDE, opera- comique in three acts, 
text by La Chabeaussiere, music bj' Dalaj'- 
rac, first represented at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, Sept. 20, 1805. The subject is from 
the "Arabian Nights." 

GULNARE, OU L'ESCLAVE PER- 
SANE, opera-comique in one act, text by 
Marsollier, music by Dalayrac, first repre- 




j sented at the Opera Comique, Paris, Jan. 9, 
1798. Same title, German opera by Siiss- 
mayer, represented in Vienna in 1800. Ital- 
I ian ojieras by Libani, Rome, 1869, and Flor- 
ence, 1870, and by Guarneri, Genoa, 1877. 
GUMBEET, FERDINAND, born in Ber- 
lin, April 21, 1818, still 
living, 1889. Dramatic 
composer ; studied first 
the violin, then sing- 
ing under Fischer and 
composition under Clii- 
pius. Destined to be 
a bookseller, he pre- 
ferred the stage, and 
secured a theatrical en- 
gagement at Sonders- 
hausen in 1839, and another as baritone 
in Cologne in 1840-42. Then, taking 
Kreutzer's advice, he settled in his native 
city as a teacher and composer. His songs 
are very popular. Works — Operettas : Die 
scliiine Schusterin, given in Berlin, 1844 ; 
Die Kunst geliebt zu werden, 1850 ; Der 
kleine Ziegenhirt, 1854 ; Bis der Rechte 
kommt, 185G ; Karolina, and others ; More 
than 400 songs. He has published also 
German translations of songs, and of Offen- 
bach's and other French ojjeras ; articles for 
musical journals, and the book, Musik, Ge- 
lesenes und Gesammeltes (Berlin, 1860). 
— Mendel ; Riemann ; Fetis, iv. 161 ; Sup- 
jilement, i. 438. 

GUMPELTZH AIMER, ADA:\r, born at 
Trostberg, Bava- 
ria, in 1559, died 
in Augsburg, 
1625. Church 
composer, pupil 
in Augsburg of 
the monk Jodo- 
cus Euzm idler ; 
in 1575 he en- 
tered the service 
of the Duke of 
Wurtemberg ; in 1581 he became cantor 
in Augsburg. His church music is of a 
high order. Works : Erster Theil des Lust- 




GUNG'L 



giirtleins teutscli imtl lateiuischer Lieder 
von 3 Stimmeu (AuL;sbiirg', 1591) ; Zwei- 
ter Theil (ib., IGll) ; Erster des Wiirtzgilrt- 
leius J:-stimmiger geistliclier Lieder (ib., 
1594) ; Zweiter Theil, do. (ib., 1G19) ; Psal- 
mus 1. octo vocum (ib., 1G04) ; Partitio sa- 
croruin conceutuum, etc. (ib., 1G14) ; Pars 
ii., do. (ib., 1G19) ; Zebu geistliche Lieder 
mit 4 stimmen ; Fiiuf do. ; Newe teutsche 
geistliche Lieder (ib., 1591-92); Motets. 
He also rearranged and edited the famous 
Coiupeiidium musica; of Heiurich Faber, 
vinder the title, Coiupeudiuiu musica; pro 
illius artis tirouibus, etc. (Augsburg, 1591- 
1G75, 12 editions). — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 
119 ; Futis ; Mendel ; lliemanu ; Ambros, 
iii. 559 ; Mouatshefte filr Musikgeschichte 
(1870), 27 ; (1872), 51, 122 ; Wiuterfeld, Der 
evaiig. Kirchengesang, i. 498. 

GUNG'L, JOSEPH, born at Zsambek, 
Hungary, Dec. 1, 
1810, died at Wei- 
mar, Jan. 31, 1889. 
Bandmaster, jj u - 
pil of Semaun. He 
entered the Aus- 
trian army as an 
oboist, and sooji 
became band- 
master. With his 
baud gave concerts 
in the German cit- 
ies until 1843, when he collected an orches- 
tra of his own in Berlin. In 1849 he took 
this orchestra to the United States, but was 
not very successful. He was ai^pointed 
royal Prussian musical director in 1850, 
Kapellmeister to an Austrian infantry regi- 
ment in 1858 ; settled in Munich in 1864, 
and moved to Frankfort-on-the-Main in 
1876. W'ith his orchestra he has visited 
almost all the larger cities of Europe, and 
played chiefly light music of his own com- 
position. His dances have been almost as 
popular as those of Strauss. Works : Hun- 
garian march, op. 1, and other marches and 
dances, numbering altogether more than 
300 pieces. His nephew, Johanu Gung'l 




(born, 1828, died in 1883), was also a fa- 
vourite composer of dance music, gave con- 
certs in Berlin, 1843-45, and St. Peters- 
burg, 1845-54, and retired to Fiinfkirchen, 
Hungary, in 1862. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Eie- 
maun, 351. 

GURLITT, COENELIUS, born at Al- 
tona in 1820, still living there, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, jDupil of Eeinecke the el- 
der ; professor at the Conservatoriiim, Ham- 
burg ; was appointed royal music director 
in 1874. Works : Scheik Hassan, oijcra ; 
Die rOmische Mauer, operetta ; Rafael San- 
zio, do. ; Quartet for strings ; 3 sonatas 
for violin ; Sonata for violoncello ; 2 sona- 
tinas for do. ; Sonatas for pianoforte ; In- 
structive pieces for do.; Songs and duets. 
— Riemann ; Mendel. 

GURRLICH, JOSEPH AUGUSTIN, born 
at MCuisterberg, Silesia, in 17G1, died in 
Berlin, June 27, 1817. He studied the- 
ology in the Jesuit Latin school in Breslau. 
In 1784 he became organist at the Hed- 
wigskirche, Berlin, in 1790 entered the 
court orchestra there, in 1811 was ap- 
pointed assistant conductor of the ojiera, 
and in 181G court Kapellmeister. Works 
— Operas : Das Incognito, Berlin, 1797 ; 
Der Opernschneider, ib., 1801 ; Hans Max 
Giesbrecht von Humpenburg, ib., 1815 ; 
Alfred der Grosse (unfinished). Ballets : 
Das Opfer vor der Bildsilule des Amor, Ver- 
tumnus und Pomona, 1804 ; Die Einschif- 
fung nach Cythera, Die Schwesteru als Ne- 
beubuhlerinuen, Der Dorfschulmeister, Die 
Verwandlungeu aus Liebe, 1805 ; Der un- 
terbrochene Dorfjahrmarkt, 1806 ; Echo 
und Narcissus, 1813 ; Lucas und Laui'ette, 
1815 ; Die Ruckkehr des Mars, 1815 ; Die 
deutschen Frauen, Alexander und Campas- 
pe, Der Maler, 1817 ; Music to Goethe's 
Die Lauue des VerUeben ; do. to several 
dramas ; L' Obedienza di Giouata, oratorio ; 
4 cantatas ; Pianoforte music and songs. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

GUST AVE HI., ou le bal masque (The 
Masked Ball), opera in five acts, text by 
Scribe, music by Auber, first represented 



GUTE 



at tlie Academie Koyale tie IMusique, Paris, 
Feb. 27, 1833. The' libretto deals with the 
story of Gustavus III. of Sweden, who was 
shot at a masked ball iu 1792, by Ankar- 
stroiu, the iustrumeut of a couspiracj' of uo- 
bles ; but Scribe has taken liberties with 
history by making the kiug the victim of 
au outraged husband. The scene of the 
masked ball iu the last act is magnificent, 
and is often rej)resented singly. The galojs 
from Gustave is famous. 

GUTE NACHT, DU "U'ELTGETUiM- 
]MEL, bass aria in G minor, with accompa- 
niment of strings complete, and coutinuo, 
in Johann Sebastian Bach's cantata for 
Dom. xvi post Trinit., " Wer weiss, wic 
nahe mir meiu Ende " (Bachgesellsehaft, 
No. 27) ; 2)ublished separately, with addi- 
tional accompaniments by Robert Franz, by 
F. Whistling, Leipsic, 18G0. 

GYPSY BARON,THE. See Zigeunerbaron. 

GYPSY'S WARNING, THE, English ro- 
mantic opera iu three acts, text by Lindley 
and Peake, music by Julius Benedict, first 
represented at Drury Lane, London, April 
19, 1838. It was performed many times iu 
Germany. " Rage, rage, thou angry storm," 
and " Blest be the home," were frequently 
sung in concerts. 

GYROWETZ, ADALBERT, born at Bud- 
weis, Bohemia, Feb. 19, 17G3, died in Vi- 
enna, March 19, 1850. Dramatic composer, 
j)upil of his father, a choirmaster. He be- 
gan the study of law at Prague University, 
but poverty compelled him to accep)t the 
post of secretary to Count von Fiinfkirchen. 
He went to Vienna, where Mozart intro- 
duced his compositions to the public ; he 
then visited Italy and studied two years 
under Sala in Naples. In 1789 he travelled 
in France, and proved himself the comijoser 
of symphonies that had been performed as 
Haydn's ; but the troubles of the Revolu- 
tion soon drove him to London, where he 
was well received by the Prince of Wales 
and others, and found liberal publishers. 
He was engaged to write an opera, but the 
opera-house and the score of Semiramide 



were burned. In 1793 he returned to Vi- 
enna after an absence of seven years. Un- 
derstanding six languages, he acted as sec- 
retary of legation in several German cities, 
and in 1S0J;-31 was KaiJellmeister of the 
court theatre in Vienna, from which he re- 
tired on a slender pension. His fertility 
was remarkable, and his compositions were 
very popidar iu their time, though they are 
now forgotten. His style is often an imita- 
tion of Haydn's. W^orks — Operas : Selico, 
1801 ; Ar/nex Sorel, ISOO ; Der Augenai'zt, 
1811 ; Die Priifung, 1813, approved by 
Beethoven; Helene, 1816 ; Felix und Adele, 
1831 ; Ida, die Biissende ; Emerike ; Semi- 
ramide ; U finto Stanislao ; Federiea e Adol- 
fo ; Mirina, melodrama. Opei'ettas : Der 
betrogene Betriiger; Der dreizehute Man- 
tel ; Der blinde Harfuer ; Der Sammtrock ; 
Wiuterquartier in Amerika ; Gemahl von 
Ungefiihr ; Das zugemauerte Fenster ; Die 
Junggesellenwirthschaft ; Das Stilndehen ; 
Aladin ; Die Pagen dea Herzogs von Ven- 
dome. Forty ballets ; Cantatas, choruses, 
and songs ; 19 masses ; GO symphonies ; 21: 
trios ; 41 quai'tets ; 3 quintets ; 12 sere- 
nades ; 3G i^ianoforte sonatas ; 12 nocturnes ; 
Overtures, dances, marches, and other mu- 
sic. — Biogi'aphie des Adalbert Gyrowetz (Vi- 
enna, 1818) ; Wurzbach, vi. 62 ; Allgem. d. 
Biogr., X. 247 ; Riehl, ]\Ius. CharakterkOpfe, 
i. 211 ; Mendel ; Fetis ; Grove. 



HAACK, FRIEDRICH, born iu Pots- 
dam in 17G0, died (?). Violinist, 
brother of Karl Haack ; at an early 
age he joined the orchestra of the Prince of 
Prussia as violinist, but studied the piano- 
forte and the organ, and composition imder 
Fasch. He became organist at Stargard, 
Pomerania, in 1779, and later music direc- 
tor and organist in Stettin, where he con- 
ducted amateur concerts from 1793. He 
composed the opera. Die Geisterinsel, an 
oratorio, S}-mf)honies, pianoforte concerto 
and trios, and a violin concerto. — Mendel ; 
Fetis : Schilling. 



210 



HAACK 



HAACK, IvARL, born in Potsdam, Feb. 
18, 1757, died there, Sept. 28, 1819. Vio- 
linist, pupil of Franz Benda. He entered 
the orchestra of the Prince of Prussia and 
was Conzerlmeister before 1782 ; on the ac- 
cession of Friedrich Wilhelm II. he became 
royal chamber musician and in 1796 Con- 
zertmeister. He was pensioned about 1811. 
He was also a good pianist. Works : G vioHn 
concertos ; 3 sonatas for pianoforte ; Cham- 
ber music, songs, etc. — Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Fc'tis ; Gerber(1790), i. 567 ; (1812), ii. 453. 

HAAS, Pater ILDEPHONS, born at Of- 
fenburg, April 23, 1735, died May 30, 1791. 
Singer and violinist, pupil of Wolbrecht ; 
entered the Benedictine Monastery of Et- 
tenheimmiinster in 1751, and became a jjriest 
in 1759. He then studied composition, and 
the violin, on which he had already been 
much advanced by Wenzel Stamitz. Cor- 
resp)ondence with Kaiser, Vogler, and Port- 
mann, and the study of Mattheson's and 
Marpurg's works, but especially Fax's 
Gradus ad Parnassum completed his musi- 
cal education. He was librarian of his con- 
vent, and his exertions in studying mathe- 
matics hastened his end. He com2DOsed 
masses, vespers, and other church music. 
— Schilling ; Mendel ; Gerber. 

HABENECK, FRANgOIS ANTOINE, 
born at Mt'zi- 
eres, June 1, 
1781, died in 
Paris, Feb. 8, 
1849. Violinist, 
son of a Ger- 
man musician in 
a French mili- 
t a r y band; 
Ijlayed in pub- 
lic at the age of ten. He studied at the 
Paris Conservatoire under Baillot, won the 
first violin prize in 1801, and developed 
a talent for conducting in the Conservatoire 
concerts in 1806-15. He became first vio- 
linist of the Opera in 1818, director in 1821- 
24, conductor of the orchestra in 1824-46. 
He received the cross of the Legion of 




Honour in 1822, and after the Revolution of 
July, 1830, became first violinist to the king. 
From 1828 he conducted for twenty years 
the new Societe des Concerts du Conserva- 
toire, and was the first to introduce Bee- 
thoven's symphonies into I'rance. Works : 
Several numbers for the opera of Aladin, 
given in 1822 ; Le page inconstant, ballet, 
1823 ; Compositions for violin and piano- 
forte or orchestra ; Church music ; Songs, 
etc. — Fetis, Wasielewski, Die Violine und 
ihre Meister, 372-375 ; Hart, The Violin, 
304 ; Dubourg, The Violin, 209. 

HABERBIER, ERNST, born in Konigs- 
berg, Oct. 5, 1813, died at Bergen, Norway, 
March 12, 1869. In 1832 he went to St. 
Petersburg ; where he became court pianist 
in 1847 ; gave concerts in London in 1850 ; 
then retired for six months to Cliristiania, 
Norwaj', and elaborated a system of finger- 
ing rapid pianoforte jjassages by alter- 
nately using both hands. This system, which 
bears his name, was not, however, of his 
inventing, as J. S. Bach and others had ap- 
2)lied it long before him. He plaj'ed in 
concerts at Paris in 1852 ; later visited 
Germany, Russia, and Denmark, and set- 
tled as teacher in Bergen in 18GG. Com- 
posed numerous brilliant pieces for piano- 
forte. — Fetis, iv. 173 ; do., Supplement, i. 
440 ; Mendel, iv. 467. 

HABERMANN, FRANZ JOHANN, born 
at KOuigswarth, Bohemia, in 170G, died at 
Eger, April 7, 1783. He studied music in 
Italy ; then travelled in Spain and France ; in 
Paris entered the service of Prince de Condc 
in 1731 ; later was made maestro di cajspella 
to the ducal court of Florence. He com- 
posed an opera for Maria Theresa's corona- 
tion in Prague, had many pujails, and con- 
ducted music in two churches there ; and 
in 1773 went to Eger as music director of 
a church. Published 12 masses (Prague, 
1746) and 6 litanies (ib., 1747), and left in 
manuscript the oratorios Conversio pecca- 
toris and Deodatus, symphonies, sonatas, 
and many works of church music. — Mendel ; 
Fetis : Wurzbach ; Schilling. 



IIABERT 



HABEItT, JOHANN EVANDER, horn 
at Oberplan, Boliemia, Oct. 18, 1833, still 
living, 1889. After being a school-teaclier 
for nine years, he was appointed, in 18(51, 
organist at Gmunden, Upper Austria. He 
has composed masses, other church music, 
and some pianoforte pieces and songs. 
—Mendel. 

HACKEL, ANTON, bom in Vienna, April 
17, 1799, died there, July 1. 1846. Amateur 
vocal composer, pupil of Franz Freystildter 
and Emanuel Alois Forster ; was a govern- 
ment official in the department of build- 
ings, but found time to produce many com- 
positions, chiefly songs, and church and 
military music. His ballad, Die nilchtliche 
Heerschau, was very j)opular. — Wurzbach ; 
Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

HACKENSOELLNER, LEOPOLD, Aus- 
trian pianist and composer, contemporaiy. 
He settled in Florence, where he is director 
of the Philharmonic Society ; has composed 
several French operettas, produced in Flor- 
ence, of which Le do obtained considerable 
success ; also a comic opera. La villa du 
spirite. — Fotis, Supph'meut, i. 440. 

HACKER, BENEDICT, born at Metten, 
near Deggendorf, Nether Bavaria, May 30, 
17C0, died (?). Composer, pu2iil of ^Michael 
Haydn and Leopold Mozart ; was violinist in 
a convent choir, and from 1780 to 1802 a 
clerk in book-shops at Salzburg ; then set 
wTp for himself there as a dealer in music. 
He wrote a comic opera, List gegen List, for 
male voices, 7 masses, a Requiem, and other 
church music, and songs. — Fetis ■ Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

HADRI.YN. See Adriaxo in Siria. 

HADRLYNIUS. See Adrim.-^eu. 

HAENEL DE CRONENTHALL, LOU- 
ISE AUGUSTA MARIE JULIA, Marquise 
d'Hericourt de Valincourt, born iu Saxony 
in 1839, still living, 1889. Compose!", pu- 
pil successively of Tariot, Frauchomme, 
Stamaty, Prevost, and Demersseman. She 
has iiublished nearly 100 works, sympho- 
nies, sonatas, quartets for strings, varso- 
viennes for orchestra, songs, etc. She tran- 



scribes Chinese national airs and songs, 
for which she gained a medal at the Ex- 
position, and one from the Chinese Com- 
mission ; one of these pieces, La descente 
de I'hiroudelle, is taken from the collection 
of popular songs by Confucius. La chan- 
son du the is by a Chinese emperor of the 
18th century. — Fotis, Suj^plement, i. 440 ; 
Mendel, Ergiinz., 140. 

HAFFNER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN 
FRIEDRICH, born at Obersclii.nau, near 
Suhl, March 2, 1759, died at Upsal, Sweden, 
May 28, 1833. Organist, pupil of Vierling 
at Schmalkalden, and from 1776 student at 
Leipsic University, where he suj^ported 
himself by proof-reading for Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel. After travelling with opera com- 
panies as music director, he became in 1780 
organist of the German church in Stock- 
holm and accompanist at the opera there, 
receiving in 1787 the title and in 1793 the 
office of court Kapellmeister; removed to 
Upsal iu 1808, and was made organist of 
the cathedral and musical director of the 
university in 1820. He wrote three operas, 
Elektra, Alcides, and Rinaldo, in the style 
of Gluck ; Swedish songs, organ, and other 
music. — Fetis ; Schilling ; Mendel ; Rie- 
manu. 

H.iFFNER SYMPHONIE, a name some- 
times given to Mozart's Symphony in D 
(KOchcl, No. 385), to distinguish it from 
his 13 others in the same key. It was com- 
posed in 1782, for the wedding of a daugh- 
ter of the HafTners, one of the wealthy mer- 
chant families of Germany, and was first 
l^erformed at her marriage in Salzburg, in 
the same year. 

HAGEMAN, HERMAN, bom at Neer- 
bosch, Holland, in 1812, still Uviug, 1889. 
Organist, piupil of Courbois ; was for twenty- 
five j'ears organist of his native town. He 
went in 1859 to Nymwegcn, and was or- 
ganist in 1864 at Grave. He has published 
a treatise on plain-chauut and a collection of 
plain-chauut pieces harmonized with organ 
accompaniment. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 442 ; 
Mendel. 



S12 



IIAGEMAN 



HAGEMAN, MAURITS LEONAED, 
born at Zutpheii, Holland, Sept. 25, 1829, 
still living, 1889. Pianist and. violinist, 
pupil of yioot and Vrugtman, and at the 
Eoyal School of Music at The Hague of 
Liibeck, Van der Does, Tommassiui, and 
Baeteus ; finally, at the Brussels Conserva- 
toire, of de Bt'riot. He entered the orches- 
tra of the Italian Opera at Brussels as first 
violinist, became musical dii-ector and organ- 
ist at Grouingen, and in 1SG5 director of 
the Maatschappij van Toonkunst at Batavia. 
Ten years later he returned to Holland, 
lived for a year in Brussels, and settled at 
Leeuwardeu, where he assumed the direc- 
tion of a great music scliool and a singing 
society. He has composed a few cantatas, 
j)ianoforte music, and songs. — Eiemann ; 
Viotta. 

HAGER, JOHANNES, born in Vienna, 
Feb. 24, 1822, still living there, 1889. Real 
name, Johana von Hassliuger-Hassiugen ; 
lie is an aulic councillor in the Minis- 
try of Foreign Affairs. Dramatic composer, 
pupil of A. J. Becker, Fischhof, J. Hauser, 
Moritz Hauf)tmann, and Mendelssolin ; has 
published also a series of excellent works 
of chamber music. Works : Jolantha, opera, 
given in Vienna, 1819 ; Marfa, do., ib., 
1886 (composed iu 18G1) ; Johannes der 
Tiiufer, oratorio ; Symjihony ; Mass ; Con- 
certo for violoncello ; Sextet for strings ; 
Quartets, trios, etc. ; Songs and ballads. 
— Riemann. 

HAGIUS, JOHANN, German composer 
of the last half of the IGth century. He 
was a preacher in Eger and an able musi- 
cian. He had the original idea of setting 
the sayings of celebrated men to music and 
publishing them under the title of Symbola. 
The Emperor Maximilian XL, Luther, and 
Melanchthou were among the celebrities 
thus symbolized. — AUgem. d. Biogr., x. 
351 ; Fetis ; Gerber. 

HAGHJS, KONRAD, born at Rinteln, 
Schaumburg-Hesse, in 1559, died (?). He 
lived iu Poland iu his youth, and afterwards 
became chamber musician to the Count of 



Holsteiu-Schaumburg. Of his numerous 
compositions the best known are some 
Magnificats for 1-6 voices (Dilliugeu, 1606), 
and German songs for 2-8 voices (Lauiugen, 
1614) ; besides, he has written intrades, gal- 
liardes, courantes, etc., for instruments, and 
fantasias, and fugues. — Gerber (1790), i. 
578 ; (1812), ii. 480 ; Ft'tis ; Schilling ; 
Mendel. 

HAGUE, CHARLES, born at Tadcaster, 
England, in 1769, died at Cambridge, June 
18, 1821. Composer, pujjil at Cambridge 
of Manini on the violin, Hellendaal, senior, 
in thorough-bass and composition, and 
studied also under Salomon and Dr. Cook. 
He settled in Cambridge, where he became 
Mus. Bac. iu 1794 ; professor of music in 
the university in 1799, and Mus. Doc. in 
1801. His anthem, "By the Waters of 
Babylon," published in score, and an ode 
(1811) were great favourites. He arranged 
Haydn's 12 symphonies as quintets, and 
jniblished two collections of glees. — Grove ; 
Fctis ; Mendel. 

HAHN, BERNHARD, born at Leubus, 
Silesia, Dec. 17, 1780, died in Breslau in 
1852. Pupil of his father in singing and 
violin ; was cLoir-boy in Breslau, then 
played the violin in the private quartet of 
Count Matuschka in Pitschen, where FOrs- 
ter instructed him further. He was influ- 
enced by Tiirk in Halle in 1804, then re- 
turned to Breslau, where he sang in the 
cathedral and taught singing in the Catholic 
gymnasium in 1815, and later succeeded 
Schnabel as Kapellmeister of the cathedral. 
He wrote songs, church music, and vocal 
instruction books. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Schil- 
ling ; Eiemann. 

H.AHN, GEORG JOACHBI JOSEPH, 
German comjjoser of the 18tli century. He 
was senator and music director at Miinner- 
stildt, Francouia, and wrote masses, psalms, 
arias, pianoforte pieces, and works on 
theory.— Mendel ; Schilling ; Gerber (1790), 
i. 579 ; (1812), ii. 482 ; Fetis. 

HAHN, THEODOR, born at Dobers, 
Silesia, Sept. 3, 1809, died in Berlin in 



213 



HAllNEL 



1865. Organist, pupil of Klein at Schmiede- 
berg, of Rink and Gottfried Weber in 
Darmstadt, and of B. Klein and Zelter in 
Bei-lin. He went to Paris in 1838, and re- 
ceived advice from Bordogni and Lablacbe ; 
then visited Italy and Austria, and on re- 
turning to Berlin became organist of St. 
Peter's and in 1840 singing teacher and 
Repetitor of the royal opera school. Works : 
Cantatas, motets, psalms, songs, and organ 
music. — Mendel ; Fctis ; Viotta. 

H.IHNEL, JACOB. See Gallus. 

HAIBEL (Haibl), JACOB, born in Gratz 
in 17G1, died in Deakovar iu 182G. After 
j)laying in the provinces, he became tenor 
singer and actor at Schikaneder's theatre 
in Vienna from 1789, and there composed 
about ten light operettas. In 1804 he be- 
came church Kapellmeister to the Bishop 
of Bosnia iu Deakovar. The most po2:)ular 
of his operettas were : Der Tj-roler Wastel, 
Der Landsturm (sequel), Das medieiuischc 
Collegium, Papagei uud Gaus, Der Ein- 
zug in das Friedens-Quartier, Tschiug ! 
Tschiug !. He wrote also the music to sev- 
eral ballets. — Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 379 ; 
Wurzbaeh ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

HAIGH, THOMAS, born in London 
about 17G9, died there, April, 1808. Pian- 
ist and violinist, studied composition iu 
1791-92 under Haydn, some of whose sym- 
phonies he arranged. In 1793 he removed 
to Manchester, and returned to London in 
1801. Works : 12 sonatas for pianoforte 
and violin ; Sonatas for pianoforte, four 
hands ; do., for pianoforte and flute ; 3 ca- 
priccios, op. 38 ; 3 serenatas, op. 40 ; 12 
preludes ; Songs, glees, etc. — Fetis ; Grove. 

HAIL COLUMBIA, a popular American 
song, music from the President's March by 
Feyles, words by Judge Joseph Hopkinson, 
written in 1798 for an actor, Fox, and first 
sung by him in a theatre in Philadelphia in 
that year. It became at once a national 
song. Hail Columbia, a Fest-Ouvertiire hj 
Karl Hahnstock, op. 5, written for the Phil- 
harmonic Society of New York, published 
by Schuberth (Leii^sic and New York). 



HAIL! GENTLE SLEEP. See Furi- 

lan!< Daughter. 

HAINE, IvARL, born in Augsburg, Jan. 
2, 1830, stm living, 1889. The son of an 
opera singer, he played the pianoforte in 
public at the age of eight, made concert tours 
with his father, and when sixteen years old 
was music director of a travelling company 
in Westphalia, and in 1847 entered the 
theatre orchestra of Mainz. After vLsiting 
Hanau and Worms, he taught iu Bocholt in 
1849-51 ; was theatrical music director in 
Aurich and Emden ; became organist of the 
cathedral iu Worms iu 1852 and of the sj'u- 
agogue there iu 18G8, founding an orches- 
tral society in 1872. He wrote an opera, 
Der Graf von Burgund, an operetta, and 
jiianoforte and vocal music. — Mendel. 

H.UNL, GEORGES FRANCOIS, born 
at Issoire, France, Nov. 19, 1807, died iu 
Paris, June 2, 1873. Violoncellist, studied 
at the Paris Conservatoire vmder Norblin, 
and gained the first violoncello prize in 1830. 
He was conductor of the orchestra at the 
Grand Theatre of Lyons from 1840 ; went 
to Paris in 18G3 as conductor of the Acado- 
mie de Musique, and was conductor of the 
Societo des Concerts da Conservatoire in 
1SG4-73. Works : Fantasias for violon- 
cello, one on Guillaume Tell. He jJublished 
a book entitled "De la musique a Lyon" 
(1852). — Fetis ; Larousse. 

H.iKART (Hacquart), CAROLO, born at 
Bruges (or at Huy ?) about 1G40, died in 
Holland, 1730. Viola di gamba j^layer ; 
seems to have lived at The Hague about 
1G8G in the service of the Prince of Orange. 
— Works : Cantiouessacne(lG74) ; Harmonia 
parnassia (1G8G) ; Motetti (1700) ; Prpeludia 
(170G) ; 10 sonatas for 2 viole di gamba 
and bass (1700) ; lilusic to Dirk Buysero's 
comedy De triomfeerende Min (1G80). — Vi- 
otta. 

HAKENBERGER (Hackenberger), AN- 
DRE.\S, church composer of the 17th cen- 
tury. In lGlO-28 he was Kaj^ellmeister in 
the Marienkirche of Dantzic. Possibly a pu- 
pil of his ijredecessor Johannes Wanningus, 



214 



HAKING 



he was a worthy representative of the tend- 
eucy jirevailing at the end of the IGth cen- 
tury, and ranks among the best masters of 
his time. — Works : Newe teutsche Gesaenge 
mit 5 Stimmen, etc. (Dantzic, 1610) ; Odaria 
suavissima, etc. (Leipsic, 1G12) ; Harmonia 
sacra, sen G motetti C-12 voc. (Frankfort, 
1617) ; Motets for 6-12 voices (Leipsic, 
1612-19) ; Sacri modulorum concentus, for 
8 voices (Stettin, 1G15, Frankfort, 161G, 
Wittenberg, 1619) ; Od;c sacnc Christo in- 
fantulo, etc. (Leipsic, 1619). — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., X. 397 ; Fctis. 

HAKING, Rev. KICHARD, born in Eng- 
land in 1830, still living, 1889. He took 
holy orders in 1861, became rector of Eas- 
tou Grey, Malmesbury, in 1873, and of Cong- 
ham, Norfolk, in 1882. In 18G4 he was 
made ]\Ius. Doc, Oxford. Works : Canta- 
tas ; 2 lyrical legends ; Orchestral pieces ; 
Solos for violin, violoncello, flute, etc. ; An- 
thems ; Part-songs. 

HAKON JAEL, cantata for solos and 
male chorus, with orchestra, text by Hein- 
rich Carsten, music by Carl Reinecke, op. 
142, lirst performed in 1877. Published 
by Breitkopf <fc Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1877). The 
subject is from Ohleuschlilger's tragedy of 
"Hakon Jarl." He has used the same 
theme for a sjanphonic poem in C minor, 
first jierformed at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, 
Feb. 23, 1880. I. Allegro, Hakon Jarl ; H. 
Andante, Thora ; HI. Intermezzo, Allegretto 
moderato, in Odin's Grove ; IV. Olaf's Vic- 
tory (1880). Frederik Smetana also wrote 
a symphonic poem on this subject. — Upton, 
Standard Symphonies, 30-t. 

HALJ^VY, (JACQUES FRANgOIS) FRO- 
MENTAL (ELIE), born in Paris, May 27, 
1799, died at Nice, March 17, 1862. The 
family name was Levy, but was changed by 
Fromental's father in compliance with a 
proposal made in 1807 by the French gov- 
ernment, in concert with a decree of the 
Sanhedrim convoked at Paris, to all Jews 
in France to modify their surnames, to 
avoid the confusion in the government reg- 
isters arising from many families having 




the same name. He entered Cazot's solfege 
class at the Conservatoire in 1809 ; iu 1810 
he began to study 
the pianoforte un- 
der Charles Lam- 
bert, and in 1811 
harmony under Ber- 
ton. He then stud- 
ied counterpoint for 
five years under 
Cherubini. He took 
the Prix de Rome in 
181G with his canta- 
ta, Herminie, and set out for Rome the year 
after. While in Italy he worked hard at an 
opera and other music. On his return to 
Paris, after many disappointments, he suc- 
ceeded in having L'artisan brought out at 
the Theatre Feydeau in 1827, but with de- 
servedly little success ; yet, for several years 
he continued to produce operas, which 
showed a steady advance iu his art. His 
reputation with musicians was sufKeient to 
induce the management of the 023era Co- 
mique to entrust to him the completion of 
Herold's unfinished opera, Ludovic, and this 
work was brought out with great success 
in 1834. But Halevy's first definite triumph 
was in 1835, with La Juive, with which his 
second manner began. Six months later 
he won fresh laurels with L'eclair. His 
reputation was now most brilliant, yet it 
was not until 1838 that he produced Guido 
et Giuevra, a work which, though full of 
beauties of a high order, failed to catch the 
popular taste. Les treize (1839) and Le 
drapier (184:0) had no better luck, but La 
reine de Chyjire, Opera, 1841, again placed 
him upon the pinnacle of success, although 
the work, as a whole, was hardly up to the 
level of his two master-woi'ks, La juive and 
L'eclair. It has been susjjected that the 
resounding success of Mej'erbeer's Les Hu- 
guenots, in 1836, overstimulated his ambi- 
tion, and led him to attempt tasks not con- 
genial to his cast of genius ; but it is more 
probable that he often worked on subjects 
which diel not iusjjire him. As it is, there 



215 



lIALfiVY 



are few of bis operas wbicb do not con- 
tain beauties of a very bigb order, and 
be bas always been ratber undervalued by 
tbe Freneb pubUc. Meyerbeer's reputation 
reacbed its beigbt just in time to tbrow 
Halcvy's into tbe sbade at tbe very turning- 
point of tbe latter's career. He bad far 
greater deptb of sentiment tbau bis more 
successful rival, and was more prone to be 
true to a bigb ideal ; but be bad not so acute 
a perception of wbat would be effective witb 
tbe public, and was not always careful to 
make bis style perfectly clear. Tbe suc- 
cess of La Juive j'rocuretl bim tbe succes- 
sion to Iteicba at tbe Inslitut, in 183G. , 
In 1816 be bad already begun to teacb sol- 
iCge at tbe Conservatoire, and was made 
professor of barmony in 1827, being 23ro- 
moted to tbe professorsbip of counterpoint 
iu 1833, and to tbat of composition in 1840. 
Gounod, Victor Masse, Bazin, Henri Duver- 
uoy, Bizet, and many otbers of note were 
among bis pupils. In 1827 be was accom- 
panying pianist at tbe Tbeatre Italien, and 
in 1829 be became cbef du cbant at tbe 
O^jera. He was cbosen jjermanent secre- 
tary of tbe Academic des Beaux-Arts in 
1854. He died of consumption at Nice, 
but was buried iu Paris, Marcb 24, 18G2. 
AVorks : I. Operas : Les bobemiennes, never 
performed ; Pygmalion, do. ; Les deux pa- 
vilions, do. ; L'artisan, Paris, Opera Co- 
mi(jue, Jan. 1827 ; Le roi et le batelier (iu 
collaboration witb Ilifaut), ib., Nov. 3, 1828 ; 
Clari, Tbeatre Italien, Dec. 9, 1828 ; Le di- 
lettante d'Avignon, Ojsera Comique, Nov. 7, 
1829 ; Atteudre et courir (in collaboration 
witb H. de Ruoltz), ib.. May 29, 1830 ; La 
lungue musicale, ib., Dec. 11, 1830 ; Yella, 
never performed ; La tentation, ballet-opera 
(iu collaboration witb Gide), Paris, Opera, 
June 20, 1832 ; Les souvenirs de Lafleur, 
Opera Comique, ]\Iarcb 4, 1833 ; Ludouic 
(begun by HOrold), ib., May 10, 1833 ; La 
Juice, Opera, Feb. 23, 1835 ; JJeclair, Ope- 
ra Comique, Dec. 30, 1835 ; Guido et Gi- 
nevra, ou la peste de Florence, Ojsera, Marcb 
!), 1838 ; Les treize. Opera Comique, Ajsril 



15, 1839 ; Le sberif, ib., Sept. 2, 1839 ; Le 
drapier, Opera, Jan. 0, 1840 ; Le r/uilarrero, 
Opera Comique, Jan. 21, 1841 ; La reine de 
Cbypre, Opera, Dec. 22, 1841 ; Charles VL, 
ib., Marcb 15, 1843 ; Le lazzaroue, ou le 
bien vient en dormant, ib., Marcb 29, 1844 ; 
Les mousquetaires de la reine. Opera Co- 
mique, Feb. 3, 184G ; Les premiers pas (in 
collaboration witb Adam, Auber, and Cara- 
fa). Opera National, Nov. 15, 1847 ; Le Val 
d'Andorre, Opera Comique, Nov. 11, 1848 ; 
La fee aux roses, ib., Oct. 1, 1849 ; La tem- 
pesta, London, Her Majesty's Tbeatre, Jime 
8, 1850 ; La dame de pique, Paris, Opera 
Comique, Dec. 28, 1850 ; Le Juif errant, 
Opera, April 23, 1852 ; Le Nabab, Opera 
Comique, Sept. 1, 1853 ; Ju<juarUa I'lndi- 
enne, Tbeatre Lyrique, May 14, 1855 ; 
L'inconsolable (given under tbe pseudonym 
Alberti, but attributed to HalOvy), ib., June 
13, 1855 ; Valentine d'Aubiguy, Opera Co- 
mique, April 2G, 185G ; La magicienne, Oi)e- 
ra, Blarcb 17, 1858 ; Valentine d'Oruano, 
unfiuisbed ; Noo, ou le Deluge, unfinisbed. 
n. Cantatas, Ballets, etc.: Les derniers mo- 
ments du Tasse, cantata (2d prize, Conser- 
vatoire, 1816) ; La mort d' Adonis, cantata 
(2d grand prix, Conservatoire, 1817) ; Her- 
minie, cantata (prix de Rome, 1819) ; De 
profundis for 3 voices and orcbestra, to a 
Hebrew text, for tbe deatb of tbe due de 
Berry, given at tbe synagogue in tbe rue 
Saint-Avoye, Paris, Marcb 24, 1820 ; Mauon 
Lescaut, ballet. Opera, May 3, 1830 ; Over- 
ture and incidental music to Prometbee 
encbaine (translated from JSscbylus by bis 
brotber, Leon Hak'vj-), Tbeatre Franjais, 
Marcb 18, 1849 ; Italic, cantata. Opera Co- 
mique, June 
. 7, 1849 ; Les 
plages du Nil, 




cantata ; Sev- 
eral cboruses for male 
,'oices. HI. Pianoforte 
music, etc. : Sonata for 
four bauds ; Rondo, or capriccio, and otber 
fugitive pieces ; Many songs and duets. 
— Leon Halevy, F. Halevy, sa vie, ses ojuvres 



■~— "^ 11111 



216 



HALL 



(Paris, Paul Dupont, 1862 ; 2d ed., enlarged, 
with portrait and autograph, Paris, Heugel, 
18G3) ; Edouard Monuais, F. Halcvy, etc. 
(Paris, Chaix, 1863); Arthur Pougiu, F. 
Halovy, ]5crivain (Paris, Claudiii, 18G5). 

HALL, HENRY, boru at Windsor, Eng- 
land, about 1655, died March 30, 1707. 
Organist, said to have studied under Dr'. 
Blow ; became organist of Exeter Cathedral 
in 1074, and later organist and vicar-choral 
of Hereford Cathedral. Works : Te Deum 
in E-flat ; Benedicite in C minor ; Cantata 
Domino and Deus Misereatur in B-Hat ; 
Five anthems ; Songs and duets. His son 
Henry was also organist and vicar-choral of 
Hereford Cathedral, and his sou William 
was a member of the king's band. — Grove. 

HALLE, CHARLES (Karl HaUe), boru at 
Hagen, Westjjhalia, 
April, 11, 1819, stiU 
living, 1889. Pianist, 
studied with Rink in 
Darmstadt in 1835. 
He went in 1840 to 
Paris, where he as- 
sociated with Cheru- 
bini, Chopin, and 
Liszt. In 1848 he 
went to London, 
wiiere he first appeared at the orchestral con- 
certs at Covent Garden, May 12, 1848, and at 
the Philharmonic, March 15, 1852. Li 1857 
he began his orchestral subscription con- 
certs at Manchester, and in 1861 his annual 
series of recitals, in which lie performed 
all Beethoven's sonatas in eight matinees. 
He has written a limited number of com- 
positions, and a method for the pianoforte. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

HALLELUJAH CHORUS, the closing 
chorus in the second part of Handel's ora- 
torio of The Messiah. When the oratorio 
was first given at Covent Garden Theatre, 
March 23, 1743, the whole audience, includ- 
ing King George H., arose and remained 
standing until its conclusion — a custom 
still observed. Other Hallelujahs by Han- 
del are in Judas Maccabasus, Athalia, the 




Occasional Oratorio, and the Coronation 
Anthems. — Sckt-lcher, Handel, 253 ; Rock- 
stro, 239. 

HALLEN, ANDERS, born at Goteu- 
burg, Sweden, Deo. 22, 1846, still living, 
1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of Rei- 
necke at Leipsic (1866-68), of Rheinberger 
in Munich (1869), and of Rietz in Dresden 
(1870-71). In 1872-78, and again from 
1883, conductor of the concerts of the mu- 
sical union at Gotenburg ; in the mean- 
while he lived mostly in Berlin. Works : 
Harald der Viking, opera, given at Leipsic, 
1881, and Stockholm, 1883 ; 2 Swedish 
rhapsodies, op. 17 and 23 ; Vom Pagen 
und der Konigstochtei', Balladencyclus for 
chorus, solo, and orchestra ; TraumkOnig 
und sein Lieb, do. ; Das Ahrenfeld, for fe- 
male chorus, with pianoforte ; Viueta, cho- 
ral rhapsody with pianoforte ; Romance for 
violin, with orchestra ; German and Swed- 
ish songs. — Riemann. 

HALLSTROM, IVAR, born in Stock- 
holm, 1826, still living, 1889. Dramatic 
comiDoser ; studied law and became private 
librarian to the Crown Prince, the present 
King ; in 1861 he was appointed director 
of the school of music, as successor to 
Lindblad. Works — Operas : Hertig Mag- 
nus, given in Stockholm, 1867 ; The Rape 
of the Mountain Maid, ib., 1874 ; Der Berg- 
kOuig, ib., 1875, Munich, 1876 ; The Vik- 
ings, Stockholm, 1877 ; Nyaga, 1885 ; The 
Flowers, idyl for solos, chorus, and orches- 
tra (prize, Stockholm, 1860). — Riemann. 

HALM, ANTON, born at Altenmarkt, 
Styria, June 4, 1789, died in Vienna, April 
6, 1872. After having served in the Aus- 
trian army as lieutenant until 1811, he set- 
tled down in Vienna to teaching pianoforte 
and composing, and was for many years an 
esteemed friend of Beethoven. Works : 
Solemn Mass ; 6 Trios for pianoforte and 
strings, op. 12, 21, 23, 42, 57, 58 ; 3 Quar- 
tets for strings, op. 38-40 ; 3 Sonatas for 
pianoforte and violoncello, op. 13, 24, 25 ; 
do. for pianoforte solo, op. 15, 43, 51 ; Ron- 
deaux brilliants, for do., op. 4, 14, 17, 20, 49 ; 



HALTER 



Themes varies, for do., op. 33, 37, 4G, 47, 
50 ; Grautles Etudes de coucert, op. 59 ; 
Etudes melodieuses, op. 60 ; Etudes patlie- 
tiques, op. 61 ; Etudes heroiques, op. 62 ; 
Souatas, roudos, marclies, etc., for j^iano- 
forte (-4 Lands), op. 41, 44, 45, 48, 54, 56 ; 
Die KrOuungsfeier M. der Kaiseriu Karoline 
Augusta, op. 55. — Fetis ; Gassuer, Univ. 
Lex. (Stuttgart, 1849) ; Wurzbach. 

HALTEE, WILHELM FERDINAND, 
born in the last half of the 18th century, 
died at Konigsberg, April 10, 180G. While 
secretary of Konigsberg, be was an amateur 
musician, and later became organist of the 
reformed cliurcli there. His oi^eretta Die 
Cantons-Revision, was given at Konigsberg 
in 1792, and won him much local fame. 
He composed also sonatas (1788), and 
songs. — Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling, iii. 428. 

HAMAL, HENRI GUILLAUIME, born at 
Liege in 1685, died there, Dec. 3, 1752. 
Organist, pupil of Lambert Pietkin. He 
became in 1708 maitre de musique at the 
jjarochiid church of Saint-Trond, whence he 
was called to Liege to be master of the 
sous-maitrise of Saint-Lambert. He intro- 
duced Italian music into Belgium. "Works : 
Motets ; Italian and French cantatas ; Songs 
in the Liege patois. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Yi- 
otta. 

H.\MAL, JEAN NOEL, born at Liege, 
Dec. 23, 1709, died there, Nov. 26, 1778. 
He studied counterpoint at Rome with Giu- 
seppe Amadori, became maitre de chapelle 
at Saint-Lambert in 1738,, and again visited 
Italy in 1749. He used the f)atois of Liege 
in his operas. Works — Oratorios : Jona- 
than, Judith. Operas : Li voegge di Cho- 
fontaine, written in 1757 ; Li Ligeois egagi, 
1757 ; Li Fiess di houte si jjlau, 1758 ; Les 
Ypocontes, burlesque opera, 1758. Other 
works : In esitu Israel, for two choruses 
and two orchestras ; 6 quartets for strings ; 
3 symj)honicpieces for four jjarts. — Mendel ; 
Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 446. 

HAMERIK, ASGER, born at Copenha- 
gen, Aprd 8, 1843, still living, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, j)upil of Gade, Matthisou- 




Hansen, and Haberbier, then in Berlin 
(1862) of von Billow on the pianoforte, and in 
Paris (1864-68) of Ber- 
lioz, whose only pupil 
he was, and with whom 
he went to Vienna iu 
1866-67 ; during the 
exhibition in Paris he 
was a member of the 
musical jury, anil re- 
ceived a gold medal 
for his Hymne de la 
paix. In 1869 he vis- 
ited Italy, and in 1871 
became director of the Conservatory of the 
Peabodj' Institute, and of the Peabody 
symphony concerts at Baltimore, where he 
has done much toward the improvement 
of musical life. Works — Operas : Tovelille, 
ojx 12 (1863-65), performed in fragments 
in Paris and Copenhagen ; Hjalmar and 
Ingeboi-g, op. 18 (1868), do., ib., and Stock- 
holm ; La vendetta, op. 20, given iu Jlilan, 
1870 ; The Traveller, op. 21 (Vienna, 1871) ; 
Suites for orchestra : Nordische Suite, op. 
22(1871-72) ; Second do., op. 23 (1872-73) ; 
Third do., op. 24 (1873-74) ; Fourth do., op. 
25 (1875-76) ; Fifth do., op. 26 (1877-78). 
Symphonies : Symphouie poetique, op. 29 
(1879-80) ; Symphonie tragique, op. 32 
(1882-83) ; Symphouie lyrique, op. 33 
(1884-85) ; Symphonic majestueuse, op. 35 
(1888). Various works : Jiidaische Trilogie 
for orchestra, op. 19 (1866-67) ; Christian 
Trilogy, for do., baritone solo, mixed 
chorus, and organ, oji. 31 (1881-82) ; Re- 
quiem, for alto solo, chorus in 6 parts, and 
orchestra, op. 34 (1886-87) ; May-dance, 
for female voices, and small orchestra, op. 
28 (1879) ; Opera without words, ui 3 parts 
for orchesti'a, or pianoforte, op. 30 (1881) ; 
Concert romance for violoncello, with or- 
chestra, op. 27 (1878) ; Cantatas, chamber 
music, and songs. 

HAMLET, opera in five acts, text by 
Michel Carre and Jules Barbier, after 
Shakespeare, music by Ambroise Thomas, 
first represented at the Opera, Paris, March 



SI8 



HAMLET 



9, 18G8 ; produced in London in Italian, as ] mard, and the others by Belval, CoHn, Da- 
Amleto, at Covent Garden, June 19, 18G9. vid, Grisy, Castelmary, Ponsard, Gaspard, 
The success of this work, written next after : and Mermant. The pianoforte score is by 
Mignon, and which passed its 200th repre- 
sentation at the Opera, Feb. 16, 1883, won 
for the composer in 1871 the position of di- 
rector of tlie Conservatoire. Among the 
prominent numbers are : The duet in tlie 
first act between Oijhelie and Hamlet, 
"Doute de la lumiere;" the aria of the 
Queen, " Dans sou regard plus sombre," 
and the chorus of the comedians, "Princes 
sans apanages," in the second act ; the trio 
in the third act, with the baritone jjhrase, 
"AUez dans un cloitre, Oi^helie," and the 
grand scene between Hamlet and his mother 
in the same act ; the andante sung by Opho- 
lie in the fourth act, with the waltz-rhythm, 
" Partagez-vous mes lleurs," the melody of 
which is continued by an invisible chorus of 
Willis, while Ophelie disappears in the wa- 
ters of the blue lake ; and lastlv, the aria of 




mi^ 



V7 ^.rm 



{'■W^^-h 




Faure as Hamlet. 

Hamlet, "Comme une pale fleur," the fu 
neral march, and the concluding chorus of 
j'ouug girls. The rule of Hamlet was sung 
in Paris by Faure, those of Ophelie and of 
the Queen by Mile Nilssou and Mme Guey- 



Nilsson as Oph&lie. 

Vauthrot. Hamlet had been previously set 
to music, as Amleto, by Gasparini, Itome, 
1705 ; Domenico Scarlatti, ib., 1715 ; G. 
Carcano, Venice, 1790 ; Andreozzi, Genoa, 
1793 ; Mercadante, Milan, 1822 ; Buzzola. 
Venice, 1848 ; L. Moroni, Rome, 1860 ; and 
Franco Faccio, text by Boito, Genoa, 1865. 
It has also been musically treated in Ger- 
many by Abt Vogler, about 1791 (published 
at Spires) ; by Mareczek, Briiun, 1810 ; and 
by Alexander Stadtfeld, Darmstadt, 1857, 
and Weimar, 1882.— Lajarte, ii. 242 ; Am- 
bros, Buute Blatter, ii. 53. 

HAMLET, overture for orchestra in C 
minor, by Niels W. Gade, op. 37, dedicated 
to F. L. HiJedt. Andante, Allegro con f uoco, 
Marcia funebre. Performed by the Phil- 
harmonic Society of New York, in the sea- 
son of 1868-69. Published by Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1865). Ai-ranged for piauo- 



S19 



HAMLET 



forte by Franz Brissler. Overtures to Ham- 
let, for orchestra, have been written also by 
Josef Joachim, op. 4, and by George Alex- 
ander Macfarren. 

HAMLET, symphonic poem for orcliestra, 
by Liszt, op. 4, No. 10. "Written in 1859. 
Date of first performance unknown. 

HAMLET, symphonic poem for orchestra, 
by E. A. Macdowell, first performed at 
Chickering Hall, New York, Nov. 15, 1887. 

HAMM, JOH.\NN VALENTIN, boru at 
Winterhausen, Bavaria, May 11, 1811, died 
at Wiirzburg, Dec. 21, 1875. Violinist and 
pianist, pupil at the FrOhlicli Institute at 
Wiirzburg ; entered the theatre orchestra 
there, as viola player in 1831, and became 
later Conzertmeister and music director. 
His opera Die Grilfin Plater, was w'ell re- 
ceived at Wiirzburg, 1832. He composed 
also symphonies, overtures, quintets, quar- 
tets, marches, dances, and part-songs. — Men- 
del ; do., Ergiinz., Hi ; Fctis, Sujiplement, 
i. 447. 

HA:\ni.\, BENJAMIN, born at Fried- 
ingen, Wiii'temberg, Oct. 10, 1831, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Brother of Fridolin and Franz 
Hanuna, pupil at Stuttgart of Lindpaintncr ; 
then lived in Paris and Kome. He directed 
concert and singing societies in Kimigsberg 
until after the war of 1870, then devoted 
himself to teaching, and later became di- 
rector of the new luusic school in Stuttgart. 
He composed the opera, Zarrisco, many 
songs and part songs, and pianoforte pieces. 
— Mendel ; Ft'tis, Supph'nient, i. 447. 

HAMMA, FBANZ, boru at Friedingen, 
Wiirtemberg, Oct. 4, 1835, still living, 1889. 
Organist and pianist, brother of Fridolin 
and Benjamin Hamma. He was organist of 
the church of St. Anna and director of the 
CilcUienverein in Basel, and later became 
organist at Oberstadion, Wiirtemberg. He 
has written songs, a vocal method, and organ 
music. — Mendel ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 
447. 

HAlVniA, FRIDOLIN, born at Fried- 
ingen, Wiirtemberg, Dec. 1(1, 1818, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Organist, brother of Benjamin 



and Franz Hamma. Became music director 
in Schaffhauseu in 1840, organist of Meer.s- 
burg on the Lake of Constance in 1842 ; 
took part in revolutions in Italy and Baden ; 
lived in Switzerland and Badeu ; taught in 
Burgdorf, Geneva, and Stuttgart ; was or- 
ganist at Ettliugen, and later teacher in Neu- 
stadt on the Haardt. He claimed to have 
discovered the original melody of the Mar- 
seillaise in a mass by Holtzmann. W'orks : 
Operettas ; Ballets ; Songs. — Mendel ; do., 
Ergiinz., 144 ; Fc'tis, Supplement, i. 447. 

HAMilEL, STEPHAN, born at Gissig- 
heira, Baden, Dec. 21, 1756, died at Veits- 
hochheim, Feb. 1, 1S30. Organist, ed- 
ucated in the Benedictine monastery of St. 
Stephen's at Wiirzburg, he entered the 
order, and became pastor at Veitshochheim. 
He composed much church and instru- 
mental music, of which httle has been pub- 
lished. — Schilling ; do.. Supplement, 183 ; 
Mendel ; Fetis. 

HA:MMER, GEOEG, bom at Herlheim, 
Francouia, May 1, 1811, still living, 1889. 
Organist, pupil in Wiirzburg at Frohlich's 
Institute, where he became assistant in 1830, 
and of the seminary church of St. Michael 
in 1837. He is the author of church mu- 
sic, cantatas, songs, dances, and marches. 
— Mendel ; Schilling, Supplement, 184 ; 

Fetis. 

HA:\IMERSCHinDT, ANDREAS, born 
at Briix, Bohe- 
mia, 1611, died 
at Zittau, Oct. 
29, 1675. Or- 
ganist, studied 
counterpoint at 
Schandau, under 
the cantor, Ste- 
phan Otto ; be- 
came organist 
at Freiberg in 
1635, and at Zit- 
tau in 1639. Works : Instrumentaliseher 
erster Fleiss (1636) ; Geistliche Concerte 
von 2, 3, und 4 Stiramen (1838) ; Geistliche 
Concerte von 4, 5, und 6 Stimmeu (Frei- 




HAMPE 



burg, 1G41) ; Dialogi spirituali, oder Ge- 
spriicbe zwiscbeii Gott uud eiuer gUiubigen 
Seele, -vou 2 und -i Stimiueii (Dresden, 1G45 
aiid 1(J52) ; XVII. Missw s:icr;e, 5 ad 12 
usque vocibus et iustruiueutis (Dresden, 
1633) ; Paduanen, Gaillarden, Balleteu, etc. 
(1st part, Freiberg, 1G18, 2d part, ib., 
1G50) ; Die niusilialiscbe Andachten, geist- 
liche Motetteu uud Coucerte, von 5, G, 12 



und nielir Stimmen (Freiberg, 1G48) ; Welt- 
licbe Oden (Freiberg, IGIO) ; Die niusilca- 
liscbe Audacbteu (3d part, Freiberg, 1G52) ; 
Cbor-Musiek (Leipsie, 1GG2) ; Die musika- 
liscbeu Gesprilcbe iiber die Evangelien, von 

4, 5, 6 und 7 Stimmen (Dresden, IGSS) ; 
Fast-, Buss- uud Dank-Lieder (Zittau, 1G51)) ; 
Kireb- uud Tai'el-Musick (Zittau, 1GG2) ; 
Missen vou 5, G, 12, uud uiolir stiiuuiige 
(Dresden, IGGl) ; Die Fest uud Zeit Au- 
dacbteu, etc. (Dresden, 1G71). — Gerber ; 
Mendel ; Fetis ; Scbilling ; Allgem. d. 
Biogr., X. 488 ; Winterfeld, Der evaiig. Kir- 
cbeugesaug, ii. 219, 381. 

HA^MPE, JOHANN SAMUEL, born at 
Lucine, Silesia, Nov. 11, 1770, died at Op- 
pelu, June 9, 1823. Organist and pianist, 
pupil of bis fatlier, tben studied in Breslau. 
For six years tutor in a private family, be 
obtained a government appointment at 
Tarnowitz, and in 179G at Glogau, wbere 
bo founded a vocal institute ; from it sprang, 
in 1807, a standard concert enterprise, for 
wbicb be composed several works, and often 
appeared successfully as a pianist. In 1809 
be went to Liegnitz, and in 181G as coun- 
cillor to Oppelu. He composed tbe opera 
Die Kiickkebr (181G), cantatas, and festival 
bymus, and instrumental nuisic. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

HAJIPEL, HANS, born in Prague, Oct. 

5, 1822, died tbere, Marcb 30, 1881. Pian- 
ist, finisbed bis musical studies under Wen- 
zel Tomascbek, and wrote a Requiem, and 
pianoforte compositions mostly of a melan- 
cbolycbaracter, but of decided merit. Among 



tbem are : Das Entziicken, op. 8 ; Clavier- 
fuge, op. 21 ; Lieb-Anncben ; Fantasiestiick 
in vier Bildern, op. 10. — Mendel. 

HAMPELN, KAKL VON, born iu Mauu- 
beim, Jan. 30, 17G5, died iu Stuttgart, Nov. 
23, 1834. Violinist, became Kapellmeister 
to Prince von Fiirstenberg in Douauesebin- 
gen, and later at tbe court in Hecbingen ; 
was court musical director in Stuttgart 
from 1811, being pensioned in 1825. A 
mjibouie concertante for 4 violins, and 
violin concerto were bis only compo- 
sitions publislied besides waltzes. — Fctis ; 
Scbilling ; Mendel. 

HANDEL, GEORGE FRIDERIC (Georg 
Friedrieb Hiin- 
del), born in 
Halle, Feb. 23, 
1685, died in 
London, April 
14, 1759. Tbe 
name was va- 
riously spelt 
by different 
brancbes of tbe 
family : Hiiudel, 
Heudel, Hendeler, Hiindeler, Hendtler ; it 
was first spelt Hendel in England, after- 
ward Handel ; in Germany tbe great com- 
poser is universally known as Handel ; in 
Fi-ance, until quite recently, as Hoendel or 
Hsendel. Handel's fatber was a surgeon, a 
man of no artistic tastes, and wbo, being 
sixty-five wben bis son was born, bad sucb 
fixed ideas on tbe subject tbat, in spite of 
tbe cbild's evident talent for music, be did 
everytbing to prevent bis studying it, even 
superficially. Handel's boyhood was one 
determined struggle against parental au- 
tbority in tbis matter, until, on tbe inter- 
vention of tbe Duke of Saxe Weissenfels, 
be was reluctantly allowed to follow bis 
natural bent. In 1G92 be began to study 
counterpoint, canon, and fugue under Za- 
cbau, and to practise on tbe organ, tbe 
barpsicbord, tbe spinet, and tbe oboe. In 
1695 be was sent to Berlin, wbere be met 
Bononciui and Ariosti, exciting tbe admira- 




HANDEL 



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HANDEL 



tiou of the one, find the dislike, find finally 
the jealousy, of the other by his already 
wonderful imjirovisatious on the organ and 
harpsichord. The Elector wished to send 
liim to Italy, and then attach him to his 
court ; but nothing came of it, and the boy 
was ordered back to Zachau in Halle. On 
his father's death he went to Hamburg, en- 
tering the orchestra of the German Operji, 
then under Keiser's direction, as violino di 
ripieno ; but on Keiser's being forced to 
hide from his creditors, Handel took the 




Birthplace of Handel. 

harpsichord, and was soon jjermaneutly en- 
gaged as clavecinist and conductor. In 
Hamburg began his intimacy with Tele- 
maun and Miittheson. His first opera, Al- 
mira, was given in January, 1705. In 170G 
Handel went to Italy, producing both operas 
and sacred works with unvarying success in 
Florence, Venice, Rome, and Naples. Here 
the works of Alessandro Scarlatti made au 
indelible impression upon him ; indeed, of 
all the outside influences ever exerted upon 
his genius, Scarlatti's was unquestionably 
the strongest. In 1709 the post of Kapell- 
meister to the Elector of Hanover (txfter- 



ward George I., of England) was offered 
him by the advice of Steftaui, who then 
held it ; Handel accepted, on the condition 
of being allowed to visit England, whither 
he went in the latter part of 1710. His 
Rinaldo, written in a fortnight, was brought 
out at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, Feb. 
24, 1711, with such success that his reputa- 
tion in England was at once secured. At the 
expiration of six mouths he was forced to 
return to Hanover ; but London attracted 
him so, that in January, 1712, he went back 
thither, apparently without leave ; for when 
his master, the Elector, came to London as 
King of England, it took the intervention 
of Baron Kilmanseck and the IFater-Music 
episode to effect a reconciliation between 
His Majesty and his quondam truant Ka- 
pellmeister. Handel, however, soon ob- 
tained his pardon and an annuity of £200. 
In 171G he followed the King to Hanover, 
where he brought out his Brockes-Passion. 
On his return to London, in 1718, he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Pejiusch as chapel-master to the 
Duke of Chaudos, which post he hekl three 
years, during which time he jjroduced the 
Chandos Te Deums and Anthems, the Eng- 
lish Acis and Galatea, and his first oratorio, 
Esther. He gave lessons also to the daugh- 
ters of the Prince of "Wales, for whom he 
wrote the first volume of his Suites de 
pieces pour le Clavecin, known in England 
as The Lessons. In addition, he assumed 
the direction of the Italian opera for the 
Royal Academy of Music in 1720, engaging 
a company of Italian singers, Senesino and 
Durastanti among them, and bringing out 
Radamisto with great success. From this 
production of Radamisto dates the famous 
rivalry between Handel and Bononcini. 
The latter and Ariosti had been drawn to 
London by the Royal Academy, each one 
of them had his supporters among the no- 
bility, and neither was inclined to acknowl- 
edge Handel's supremacy. After Muzio 
Scevola, in which each of the three com- 
posers was engaged to write an act, as a 
conciliatory measure, Ai-iosti was virtually 



2S3 



HAXDEL 



out of the race. But, altbougli Handel's 
act was prouounced the finest of tlie thi-ee, 
Bouonciui would not succumb, and the 
rivali-y continued for several years, Bouou- 




Handel's Harpsichord. 

cini's popularitj- steadily increasing, wbile 
Handel, whose rather haughty beanng did 
not conciliate the nobility, kept losing 
ground in popular favor, blatters came to 
a climax in 1788, when Handel quarrelled 
with Senesiuo, who went over to the enemies' 
camji ; Bononciui would probably have held 
the field alone, had not his foolishly try- 
ing to pass off a madrigal by Lotti as his 
own given rise to a scandal which forced 
him to quit England. The Bononcini party 
immediately rallied round Senesino, and 
soon a business competition ensued (in lieu 
of the old artistic rivalry between Handel 
and Bononcini) between Handel and his 
company, at Coveut Garden, and a com- 
pany at Lincoln's Inn Fields, with Senesino 
as chief attraction, and Porpora as composer 
and conductor. Neither enterprise thrived ; 
the taste for Italian opera was on the wane ; 
Senesino left England in 1735, and two 
years later Handel became bankrupt ; both 
houses were closed. Handel's health was 
severely impaired, and an attack of paralysis 
sent him to Aix-la-Chapelle. When he re- 
turned, in November, 1737, his health was 
not much improved, and the few operas he 



brought out were failures with the public. 
After Deidamia (17tll) he ceased writing 
for the stage, and turned his powers almost 
exclusively to the oratorio. Saul and Israel 
in Egypt were written and given in 1740, 
the Messiah in 171:2, Jephtha, his last, in 
1752. While writing it, he was attacked 
by the disease which ended in his losing 
his sight. He was couched three times for 
cataract, but unsuccessfully, and remained 
' nearly or totally blind until his death. 
Still, after a brief period of mental depres- 
sion, he kept up his active professional 
life, conducting his own oratorios, and even 
playing organ concertos in public. During 
the last years of his life the violent oppo- 
sition to him, on the part of the aristocratic 
faction, which had been kept up even after 
his retirement from the operatic field by 
his persistent refusals to write anything fur 
Senesino, sensibly declined. His last public 
appearance was at a performance of the 
Messiah, on April 6, 1759. He was buried 
in the south transept of Westminster Ab- 
bey, a monument by Roubiliac being raised 
over his tomb in 17G2. Handel's immense 
posthumous fame has been due almost en- 
tirelj' to his oratorios ; indeed it was long 




Oeath-Mask of Handel. 



the opinion of critics that, in the oratorios 

written between 1740 and 1752, his genius 

found its finest and culminating expression. 

! But a careful study of his operas, recently 

' made easily obtainable through the pub- 

! lications of the Handelgesellschaf t, must 



224 



HANDEL 



show that the general snpei-iority of the 
oratorios is mainly imaginary, and that the 
operas do not suffer in the comparison. 
His most popular, if not indisputably his 
greatest, work is the Messiah. What most 
stands in the way of bringing the greater 
part of his vocal works face to face with the 
musical public of to-day, as is also the case 
with those of his equally great contempo- 
rary, Sebastian Bach, is the incomplete 
condition in which he left his scores, the 
full instrumental accom23animent being rare- 




Handel Statue at Halle. 



ly written out, and, in many cases, only 
sjjaringly indicated by a figured basso con- 
tinuo. Several of the oratorios, many of 
the oi^era airs, and the chamber-duets have 
been supplied with additional accompani- 
ments, in a more or less adequate way, by 
Mozart, Johaun Adam Hiller, Mosel, Men- 
delssohn, Robert Franz, Johannes Brahms, 
and others ; but much still remains to be 
done in this way, both for Handel and 
Bach. (On this subject see Franz, Offener 
Brief an Eduard Hanslick, Leipsic, 1871 ; 
August Saran, Eobert Franz und das 



deutsche Volks- und Kirchenlied, Leip.sie, 
Leuckart ; Julius Schilffer, Eobert Franz in 
seinen Bearbeituugen iilterer Vocalwerke, 
Leipsic, Naumann ; do., Philipp Spitta und 
sein Schlusswort in Sachen des Accompa- 
gnements, Allg. deutsche Musikzeitg., 187G, 
No. 2 ; do., Friedrich Chrysauder in .seinen 
Clavierausziigen zur deutscheu Hilndel- 
Ausgabe, Leuckart, 1876 ; do., Seb. Bach's 
Cantate, " Sie werden aus Saba Alle kom- 
men," etc., 3-24, Leuckart, 1877 ; Atlantic 
Monthly, xlii., 321 ; Grove, i. 30 ; Fr. Chry- 
sander, Jahrbiicher fiir mus. Wissenschaft, 
i. 408, ii. 249, passim ; Ph. Spitta, Allg. Mu- 
sikztg., 1875, No. 20). The etched portrait 
of Handel given in this volume, is from the 
frontispiece to the original edition of Alex- 
ander's Feast. The death-mask is from an 
engraving of the cast of his face, taken after 
death by Roubiliac, from which the head of 
the statue on his monument in Westminster 
Abbey, erected in 1762, was modelled. The 
" Commemoration of Handel," with the pro- 
file portrait, is a facsimile of the plate at- 
tached to the handbook of the commemor- 
ation of the centenary of Handel's birthday, 
held in W^estminster Abbey, in 1784. 

W'orks — Oratorios. I. German : 1st Pas- 
siov, Hamburg, 1704 ; 2d Passion, ib., 1716. 
H. Italian : La rcsurrezione, Rome, 1708 ; II 
trionfo del tempo e del disinganno, ib., 1708. 
m. English : Esther, Cannons, 1720 ; De- 
borah, London, 1733 ; Athalia, Oxford, 1733 ; 
Saul, London, 1739 ; Israel in Egypt, ib., 
1739 ; The llessiah, Dublin, 1742 ; Samson, 
London, 1743 ; Joseph, ib., 1744 ; Hercules, 
ib., 1745 ; Belshazzar, ib., 1745 ; Occasional, 
ib., 1746 ; J^urfas Maccabseus, ib., 1747 ; Alex- 
ander Balus, ib., 1748 ; Joshua, ib., 1748 ; 
Solomon, ib., 1749 ; Susanna, ib., 1749 ; Hwo- 
dora, ib., 1750 ; Jephtha, ib., 1752 ; and The 
Triumph of Time and Truth, ib., 1757. 

Anthems, Hymns, etc.: Utrecht Te Deum, 
London, 1713 ; Utrecht Jubilate, ib., 1713 ; 
12 Ghandos Anthems, Cannons, 1718-20 ; 
1st Chandos Te Deum, ib., 1718-20; 2d 
Chandos Te Deum, ib., 1718-20 ; Short Te 
Deum, ib., 1718-20; 4 Coronation Kuihevas, 



225 



HANDEL 



Loudon, 1727 ; 1st Wedding Anthem, ib., 
1731 ; 2d Wedding Anthem, ib, 1736 ; 
Queen Caroline's Te Deum, ib, 1737 ; 
Funeral Anthem, ib, 1737 ; Dellingen Te 
Deum, ib, 174:3 ; Dellingen Anthem, ib, 
1713 ; Foundhng Anthem, ib, 1719 ; 3 Eng- 
glish Hymns ; Laudate j)ueri in F, Halle ; 
Dixit Dominus, Rome ; Nisi Domiuus ; Lau- 
date pueri in D, Rome ; Silete veuti, ib. ; 
Kyrie ; Gloria ; Magnificat. 

Operas. L German : Ahnira, Hamburg, 




Handbook-Plate, Commemoration, 1784. 

170o ; Nero, ib., 1705 ; Florindo und Daphne, 
ib., 1706. n. Italian : Boderigo, Florence, 
1707 ; Agrippiiia, Venice, 1708 ; Hinaldo, 
London, 1711 ; Pa4or Fido, ib., 1712 ; Te- 
■leo, ib., 1713 ; SUIa, 1711, not performed in 
public; Amadigi,'London,ni5; Badamhlo, 
ib., 1720 : Mnzio Scevola, ib., 1721 ; Flori- 
danle, ib, 1721 ; Ottone, ib., 1723 ; F/avio, ib., 
1723 ; .Glulio Cesare, ib., 1721 ; Tamerlano, 
ib., 1721; Rodelinda, ib., 1725; Scipione, 
ib, 1726 ; Alessandro, ib., 1726 ; Admeto, 
ib., 1727 ; Riccardo V, ib., 1727 ; Siroe, ib., 



1728; Tolomeo, ih., 1128 ; Zoiario, ib., 1729, 
Parlenope. ib., 1730 ; Poro, ib., 1731 ; Ezlo, 
ib., 1732 ; Sosarnw, ib., 1732 ; Orlando, ib., 
1732 ; Arianyia, ib., 1731 ; AriodanUi, ib., 
1735 ; Alcina, ib, 1735 ; Alalanla, ib., 1736 ; 
Giustino, ib, 1737 ; Arminio, ib., 1737 ; 
Berenice, ib., 1737 ; Farainondo, ib., 1738, 
and Serse, ib., 1738 ; Jupiter in Argos (1739), 
not performed ; Imeneo, London, 1710 ; Dei- 
damia, ib., 1711. Parts of operas: Tito, 
1732 ; Alfonso Primo, 1732 ; Flavio Olibrio 
and Houorius. Pasticcios : Ormisda, Lon- 
don, 1730 ; Lucio Papirio, ib., 1732 ; II 
Catone, ib., 1732 ; Semiramide, ib., 1733 ; 
Cajo Fabrieeio, ib., 1733 ; Arbace, ib., 1731 ; 
Orestes, ib., 1731 ; Alesr^andro Severe, ib., 
1738 ; Roxana, ib., 1713 ; Lucio Voro, ib., 
1717 ; Ernelinda, and fragments of an 
opera without name or date. Dramatic 
Pieces : The Alchymist, London, 1732 ; 
Tcrpftichore, ib., 1731 ; Semele, ib., 1711 ; 
The Choice of Hercules (Alceste), ib., 1751. 

Serenatas and Odes : Aci, Galatea e Poli- 
femo, Naples, 1708 ; Queen Anne's Birth- 
day Ode, London, 1713 ; Acis and Galatea, 
Cannons, 1720 ; Parna^ao in Festa, London, 
1731 ; Alexander's Feast, ib., 1736 ; Ode for 
Saint Cecilia's Day, ib., 1739 ; L' Allegro, il 
penseroso, ed il moderato, ib., 1710. Many 
Italian cantatas, duets, and trios ; 7 French 
songs ; 9 Gorman songs ; 16 Italian airs 
and canzonets ; and 1 English air. For ever 
let his sacred raptures, unpublished. 

Instrumental : Water Musick (on the 
Thames, 1715) ; Fireworks Musick (Lon- 
don, 1719) ; 6 sonatas (trios), (lost), 1691 ; 
12 sonatas, solo.s, op. 1 (Walsh, 1732) ; 6 so- 
natas (trios), op. 2 (Walsh, 1733) ; 6 hautboy 
concertos, op. 3 (Walsh, 1729) ; 6 organ 
concertos, op. 1 (Walsh, 1738) ; 2d set 
(Walsh, 1710) ; 3d set, posthumous (Walsh, 
1760) ; 7 trios, op. 5 (Walsh, 1739) ; 12 grand 
concertos, op. 6 (Walsh, 1710) ; 6 organ 
concertos, op. 7 (1761) ; 3 oi'gan concertos 
(Arnold, 1797) ; Concertone (or concer- 
tante) in nine parts, for 2 solo violins, 
violoncello, hautboy, and stringed band 
(Walsh, 1711) ; Coucei'to for trumiJets and 



IIANISCH 



lioriis (Birchall) ; Concerto for horns and 
skle-drums (unpublished) ; HornjiiiJe (1740) ; 
Sonata for 2 violins (1736) ; Sonata in five 
l)arts (173G) ; and Sonatas for violin, viola, 
and hautboy. For harpsichord : Forest 
Musick (Dublin, 1742) ; The Lessons, or 
Suites de Pieces, containing the Harmonious 
Blacksmith (Cluer 1720 ; Wdsli, 1733) ; 2d 
set of nine Lessons (Walsh, 1733) ; 3d set 
of Lessons (Aruould, 1793) ; G Fugues for 



oeo'y^t 






organ or harpsichord, op. 3 (Walsh, 1735) ; 
4 Minuets and March (1720) ; and short 
pieces. — Fr. Chrysander, G. F. Handel 
(Leipsic, 1858-60) ; Victor Schoelcher, Life 
of H. (London, 1857) ; Maiuwaring, Me- 
moirs of G. F. H. (London, 1700) ; W. S. 
Rockstro (London, 1883) ; G. G. Gervinus, 
Handel iind Shakespeare (Leipsic, 18GS) ; 
Kretschmar, in Samml. mus. Vortriige, V. 
ino ; Naumaini, Deutsche Tondicliter, 25. 

H.INISCH, JOSEPH, born at Katisbon 
in the 19th century. Organist, sou and 
pupil of Anton Haniseh, whoiu he suc- 
ceeded in 183G as organist. He was the 
assistant of Proske in his first visit to Italy, 
and in 1840 became organist of the cathe- 
dral of Ratisbon. Works : Missa auxilium 
Christianorum ; Quatuor hyiinii pro festo 
corporis Christi ; Fiinf lateinische Pre- 
digtgesiinge. — ^Mendel. 

HANKE, KARL, born at Rosswalde, 
Schleswig, in 1754, died in Hamburg in 1835. 
Dramatic composer, directed the chapel 
of Count von Haditz in his native place ; 
married the singer Stormkin, and accom- 
panied her as conductor to different cities. 
In 1786 he was called to the court theatre at 
Schleswig ; on his wife's death he married 
another singer, Berwald, and with her went. 



in 1791, to Flensburg, where he founded 
a singing school and concert institute, and 
became cantor, and music director. Finally 
he was city music director in Hamburg. 
Works — Operas : Robert und Hannchen, 
Warsaw, 1781 ; Haphire, Flensburg, about 
1793 ; Huon und Amande, ib., 1794 ; Doc- 
tor Faust's Leibgiirtel, ib., 179G ; Cassandra 
abbandonata, Italian intermezzo. Ballets : 
Pygmalion ; Die Jiiger ; Die Wassergotter ; 

Phobus und 
aphne ; Die 
Dorf sch u 1 e ; 
several others. 
Choruses to 
Rolla's Tod ; 
Prologues, ep- 
ilogues, and 
incidental 
music for comedies and dramas ; 7 German 
cantatas ; 5 Italian do. ; Sj-mphouies for or- 
chestra ; Concertos for violin, oboe, trum- 
pet, and horn ; 4 symphonies concertantes 
for 2 horns ; Sextets and serenades for dif- 
ferent instruments ; Quartets for do. ; Trios 
for 2 violins and bass ; do. for oboes and 
bassoon ; do. for 2 horns and trumpet ; 
Duets for different instruments, of which 
about 300 for 2 horns ; Solos for violin and 
for tlute ; Church music, and songs. — F6- 
tis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

HANNIBAL. See Annihale. 
HANSEN, GOTFRIED MATTHISON, 
born at Roeskilde, Denmark, Nov. 1, 1832, 
still living, 1889. Organist, son of Hans 
Matthison Hansen. Renounced the study 
of law, and taught himself music. Was ap- 
pointed organist of the German Friedrichs- 
Kirche in Copenhagen in 1859 ; studied in 
Leipsic in 1862-63 ; became organ teacher 
of the Cojienhagen Couservatorium in 18G7 ; 
secured the position of organist of St. 
John's Church in 1871 ; gave concerts in 
Denmark in 1874-77 ; and often visited 
Germany. Works : Trios for pianoforte 
and strings, ojj. 5 ; Drei Characterstiicke, 
for pianoforte, op. 1 ; Drei Mazurkas, for 
do., op. 2 ; Vom nordischen Mythenkonig 



HANSEN' 



Frocle Fredegod, Ballade for do., op. 14 ; 
Souata for do. and violin, op. 11 ; do. for 
isiauoforte and violoncello, op. 16 ; Fan- 
tasie, for organ, op. 15 ; Conzert-Tonstucke, 
for do., op. 19. — Mendel, Ergiinz., 146. 

HANSEN, HANS HIATTHISON, born at 
Flensburg, Feb. 6, 1807, still living, 1889. 
Organist. After making considerable prog- 
ress in the study of art and teaching him- 
self music, he became the pupil of C. F. E. 
Weyse on the organ, and in 1832 was ap- 
pointed oi-ganist of the Cathedral at Eoes- 
kilde. He gave concerts in Norway in 
1861, in Sweden in 1862, and in London in 
1864. He is considered one of the best or- 
ganists living, and highly esteemed as a 
church composer. Order of Danebrog, 
1857 ; professor', 1869. Works : Preludes 
and postludes, for the organ ; 2 Kyrie elei- 
son ; Cycle of church music for Christmas, 
Easter, and Pentecost ; 130th psalm ; The 
Lord's Prayer ; Introductions and variations 
on vai'ious themes. In manuscript : Jo- 
hanues, oratorio ; 100th, 121st, and 150th 
psalm, with orchestra ; 6 symphonies, 6 
fantasias, variations, etc., for organ. — Men- 
del, Ergiinz., 144. 

HANSER, WILHEL:\I, born at Tnter- 
zeil, Swabia, Sept. 12, 1738, died (?). Or- 
ganist, entered the order of the Premon- 
stratensians and studied the pianoforte, or- 
gan, violin, and violoncello at the Abbey of 
Scheusseuried. In 1775 he went to the 
Abbey of Lavaldieu in the Ardennes and 
founded there a school of music. Woi'ks : 
Psalmodia vesjiertina quatuor vocibus (Augs- 
burg, 17G7) ; Dixit, Magnificat, and Nunc 
dimittis, quatuor voc. cum organo (Augs- 
burg, 1767) ; 4 sonatas for pianoforte with 
violin accompaniment (Paris, 1777) ; Grad- 
ual and autiphonary (Nancy, 1789) ; Masses 
and fugues for organ. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

HANS HEnjNG, romantic opera in 
three acts, text by Eduard Dcvrient, music 
by Heinrich Marschner, first represented at 
Hanover, May 24, 1833. The libretto of 
this opera, which is Marschner's master- 
piece, had been offered to Mendelssohn in 



1827 (Devrient's " Recollections," 40). The 
success of the work was instantaneous and 
universal, and it still retains an honoui'able 
place in all the German theatres. Its pro- 
duction in Copenhagen, under the com- 
poser's own direction, in 1836, was so suc- 
cessful that he was offered the post of Gen- 
eral Miisik-Director in Denmark, an honour 
which his enthusiastic reception in Ger- 
many obliged him to decline. Among the 
best impersonators of the title role is Eugen 




Eugen Gura. 

Gura (born at Pressern, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 
1842), whose jsortrait is given herewith. 
— Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 83. 

HANSL, PETER, born at Leppe, Prus- 
sian Silesia, Nov. 29, 1770, died in Vienna, 
Sept. 18, 1831. Violinist, educated by an 
uncle in Warsaw. In 1787 he entered the 
orchestra of Prince Potemkin in St. Peters- 
burg ; in 1791 was Conzertmeister in the 
orchestra of Prince Lubomirski in Vienna, 
where he studied composition under Haydn. 
Visited Paris in 1802, and after remaining 
there a year returned to Vienna. He died 
of cholera. Works : 55 string quartets ; 3 
quartets with flute and clarinet ; 4 quintets ; 
9 duets for violins ; variations, rondos, polo- 
naises, marches, etc., for various instru- 
ments. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

HANS SACHS, German comic o-pera, in 
four acts, text by Regei", music by Albert 



HANSSENS 



Lortzing, represented at Leipsic, June 23, 
ISiO. An unperformed opera of the same 
title was written also by Gyrowetz (died 
1850). Hans Sachs is the hero of Wagner's 
Die Meidfrxinger von Niirnberg. 

HANSSENS, CHAELES LOUIS, born at 
Ghent, July 12, 1802, died at Brussels, 
April 8, 1871. Violoncellist, entered the or- 
chestra of the National Theatre at Amster- 
dam in 1812, became leader in 1822, and 
in 1824; violoncellist, and later leader of the 
orchestra in the theatre at Brussels. In 
1827 he was made professor of harmony in 
the royal school of music, but returned to 
Holland in 1830, and in 1831: became solo 
violoncellist at the Theatre Ventadour in 
Paris, and later second leader of the or- 
chestra and composer. In 1835 he was di- 
rector of the French opera at the Hague ; 
then at Brussels professor at the Conserva- 
toire, director of the Societe de la Grande 
Harmonic, and chef d'orchestre of the The- 
atre Eoyal. Member of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Belgium ; Order of Leopold. Works 
— Operas : Le siege de Calais, given at 
Brussels, 1861 ; Marie de Brabant, frag- 
ments of which were performed in concerts ; 
6 others ; ballets : Sylla ; Le pied de mou- 
ton ; La lamps merveilleuse ; Le conscrit ; 
L'enchanteresse ; Mahieux ; part of Gar- 
gantua ; Bizzarre, not given ; Robinson ; 
Fleurette ; Le 5 juillet (with Snel), Brus- 
sels, 1825 ; Un dimanche a Poutoise, ib., 
1833 ; Valentine ; Le chateau de Kenil- 
worth ; Le paradis du diable ; Music to 
Gustave VaOz's drama Agneessens, Brussels, 
1819 ; Le sabbat, cantata-oratorio, ib., 1870 ; 
4 cantatas with orchestra; Requiem, ib., 
1837 ; 2 solemn masses ; several sympho- 
nies for full orchestra ; do., overtures ; do., 
fautaisies ; Concerto for violoncello ; do. for 
violin ; do. for pianoforte ; 2 concertos for 
clarinet; Symphouie concertante for clari- 
net and violin ; Quartets for strings ; Cho- 
ruses a cappella ; etc. — Futis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 419 ; Mendel ; Viotta. 

HANSSENS, CHARLES LOUIS JO- 
SEPH, the elder, born at Ghent, May 4, 



1777, died at Brussels, May G, 1852. Dra- 
matic composer, first instructed by Vauthier 
and Verheym, then pupil in Paris of Ber- 
ton, and in Ghent of his elder brother, Jo- 
seph Hanssens, and of the violinist Ambroise 
Ferny. He began as chef d'orchestre of an 
amateur theatre at Ghent, then was con- 
nected in the same caf)acity with a troupe 
performing alternately in Amsterdam, Ut- 
recht, and Rotterdam ; in 1804 he went to 
Autwerj^, thence to Ghent, and in 1825 to 
Brussels as chef d'orchestre of the Theatre 
de la Monnaie ; in 1827 he was apj^ointed di- 
rector of the royal orchestra, and in 1828 in- 
sjsector of the Conservatoire. Compromised 
in the iJolitical events of 1830 he lost both 
positions, but conducted the opera again 
in 1835-38, and in 1840, when he also as- 
sumed a partnership in the enterprise, there- 
by ruining himself financially. Works : 
Les dots, comic opera, given at Ghent in 
1804 ; Le solitaire de Formentera, drama, 
Ghent and Lille, 1807 ; La partie de tric- 
trac, ou la belle-mere, comic opera, Ghent, 
1812 ; Alcibiade, grand opera, Brussels, 
1829 ; Cantata ; 6 masses with orchestra ; 
Beatus vir, for four voices and orchestra ; 2 
Deus Dixit ; 3 Te Deum ; Album. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

HARANC (Harreuc), LOUIS ANDRE, 
born in Paris, June 12, 1738, died there in 
1805. Violinist, played Tartiui's difficult 
sonatas at the age of six. Travelled in Italy, 
1758-Gl, then was admitted to the royal 
chapel, and in 1770 became first violinist to 
the king. He taught the violin to the dau- 
phin, father of Louis XVI., from 1763 till 
that prince's death. In 1775 he was ap- 
pointed director of the queen's concerts, 
and in 1790 became first violinist at the 
Theatre Montansier. Works : 6 sonatas for 
violin and basso continue, 12 duos for 2 vio- 
lins. — Fetis. 

HARDER, AUGUST, born at SchOner- 
stildt, near Leisnig, Saxony, in 1774, died 
in Leipsic, Oct. 29, 1813. Song composer, 
pupil of his father ; gave up theology for 
music, and settled in Leipsic as a teacher. 



IIARDOUIN 



He wrote about 50 books of songs, -wbich 
became uuiversally popular, and guitar and 
pianoforte music. — Fctis ; Gerber ; Schil- 
ling. 

HARDOUm, Abbe HENRI, born at 
Grandprc (Ardeuues), France, in 172-4, died 
at Eheims, Aug. 13, 1808. Church com- 
poser, educated at the maitrise of the Cathe- 
dral of Rheims, became a priest and canon, 
and was maltre de chapelle rmtil the Revo- 
lution ; on Robespierre's death several 
priests who had remained in hiding, re- 
stored the cathedral services and reinstated 
him. He was entrusted with the revision 
of the breviary of the diocese of Rheims, 
and set its hymns and proses to new music. 
Works : Solemn mass, for the coronation of 
Louis XVI. ; 12 masses for 4 voices a cap- 
pella (17G4) ; over -kO masses for 4-5 voices, 
with orchestra ; about SO motets ; several 
Requiems ; 4 Te Deum ; De profundis ; etc. 
He published also Methode nouvelle de 
Plain-clKUint (1762). — Fotis, Larousse. 

HAKFENQUARTETT, for two violins, 
viola, and violoncello, in Eflat, by Beetho- 
ven, op. 74, composed in 1801), and dedi- 
cated to the Fiirst von Lobkowitz. The 
MS. is in the possession of Paul Mendels- 
sohn. It is named from the pizzicati arpeg- 
gios that it contains, and which give the ' 
effect of the harp. I. Poco adagio, iUlegro ; 
n. Adagio ; IH. Presto ; IV. Allegretto con 
variazioni. Published by Breitkopf & Hiir- 
tel (Leipsic, 1810) ; do., Beethoven Werke, 
Serie G, No. 10. — Lenz, Beethoven, ii. 166 ; 
Thayer, Verzeichniss, 79. 

HARGITT, CH.ARLES JOHN, born in 
Edinburgh in 1833, still living, 1889. Or- 
ganist and conductor, pupil of his father, 
Halle, Sir G. A. Macfarren, and Ferdinand 
Hiller. He has been, since 1862, conductor 
in London, where he organized the Royal 
Albert Hall Choral Society, of which he 
was sub-conductor to Gounod. Works : 
Coronet or Crown, opera ; 2 operettas ; 
The Harvest Queen, cantata ; Orchestral 
overtures, marches, music to plays, songs, 
part-songs, etc. 



HARMONIES POETIQUES ET RELI- 
GIEUSES, 10 2)ieces for pianoforte solo, by 
Liszt, op. 33. I. Invocation ; H. Ave Ma- 
ria ; HI. Benediction de Dieu dans la soli- 
tude ; rV. Pensee des morts ; V. Pater nos- 
ter ; VI. Hymue de I'enfaut a son reveil ; 
VII. Funerailles ; VHI. Miserere d'apres 
Palestrina ; IX. Andante lagrimoso, Tom- 
bez, larmes ; X. Cantique d'amour. — Pub- 
lished by Kistner (Leipsic, 1853). — Ramann, 
Liszt, 212. 

HARMONIOUS BLACKS:\IITH, THE, 
air with variations for pianoforte, by Handel, 
included in his First set of Lessons for the 
Harpsichord, published by Cluer under the 
title : Suites de Pieces pour le Clavecin 
(1720). It closes the fifth lesson in E ma- 
jor, and in the early editions was called 
Air ct Doubles. This was arranged for the 
orchestra, and was jjerformed bj' the Acad- 
emy of Ancient Music in London. Tradi- 
tion says that Handel used as his theme a 
tune which he heard sung in a smithy, 
where he had taken refuge from the rain, 
by a blacksmith, who beat time to his song 
with his hammer on the anvil. It has been 
alleged that this air was written by Wagen- 
seil, or some older composer. A version of 
the tune was published in Paris to words by 
Clement Marot. — Scho^lcher, Handel, 65, 
401 ; Rockstro, 117 ; Chrysaiider, iii. 187 ; 
Richard Clark, Reminiscences of Handel 
(London, 1836). 

H.ARK, THE BONNY CHRIST 
CHURCH BELLS, catch for three voices 
bj' Henry Aldrich. He wrote also a Greek 
version of this catch. 

HARNISCH, JOHANN JACOB, German 
church composer of the 17th century. He 
published at Worms in 1G52 a collection of 
motets, psalms, and other compositions un- 
der the title Calliope mi.xta. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

HARNISCH, OTTO SIEGFRIED, born 
in the IGth century, died in 1630. He was 
cantor in the chui'ch of St. Blasius, Bruns- 
wick, about 1588, cantor at Gottingen 
in 1603-21, and Kajjellmeister at Celle. 



IIAEOLD 



Works : Neue lustige, teutscbe Liedlein 
(HelmstiuU, 1588, 1591; Hamburg, 1591, 
1G51 ; Nuremberg, 1601) ; Fasciculus se- 
lectissimarum cantionum (Hehnstildt, 1592) ; 
Artis musicffi tlelineatio (Frankfort, 1G08) ; 
Kosetum Musicum (Rostock, 1G17) ; Psal- 
moilia iiova (Goslar, 1G21) ; Passio Domiuica 
(Goslar, 1G21) ; Resurrectio Dominica (Gos- 
lar, 1G22) ; Cantiones Gregoriamo (Goslar, 
1G2J:). — Gerber, ii. 504 ; Mendel, v. G7 ; 
Ergiinz., 150 ; Fctis, iv. 22 ; Scbilliug, iii. 
475 ; Allgem. d. Biog., x. G14. 

HAROLD, dramatic opera in five acts and 
nine tableaux, by Eduord Napravnik, repre- 
sented in St. Petersburg, Nov. 23, 188G. It 
is said to have won great applause. Harold, 
German opera, text by Paul Krone, music 
by Karl Pfeffer, given in Vienna, April 3, 
1887, was well received. 

HAROLD EN ITALIE, symphony in four 
j)arts, by Hector Berlioz, op. IG, for full 
orchestra, with solo viola, composed in 1834 
and first performed at the Conservatoire, 
Paris, Nov. 23, 1834. Dedicated to Hum- 
bert Ferraud. I. Harold aux montagnes. 
Scenes de melancolie, de bonheur, et de 
joie, (Adagio and Allegro) in G. H. 
Marche de pelerins chantant la priere du 
soir, (Allegretto) in E. III. Serenade d'un 
montaguard des Abbruzes a sa maitresse, 
(Allegro assai) in C. IV. Orgie de brigands, 
souvenirs des scenes precedeutes, (Allegi-o 
frenetico) in G. The work, the idea of 
which is based on " Childe Harold," origin- 
ated in a request of Pagauini's that Berlioz 
should write a solo to display the qualities 
of liis Stradivarius viola. It has been much 
altered since its first production. It was 
first played in England at the New Philhar- 
monic Concert, London, July 4, 1855, under 
the direction of the composer. First per- 
formed in Boston by Theodore Thomas's 
orchestra, Oct. 28, 1874. The score and 
parts are i^ublished by Schlesinger. Ar- 
ranged for pianoforte by Liszt (Brandus 
et Cie., Paris, 1880).— Jullien, H. Berlioz, 
140 ; Berlioz, Memoires, Cli. 45 ; Grove ; 
Upton, Standard Symphonies, 105 ; Jul- 



lien (1888), 89 ; Liszt, Ges. Schr. (Ramann), 
iv. 3. 

HARRER, GOTTLOB, died at Carlsbad 
in 1755. Church composer, studied coun- 
terpoint in Italy ; accompanied Frederick 
the Great on the harpsichord in 1745 at 
Leipsic, where he was cantor of the Tho- 
masschule in 1750-55. Left in manuscriiot 
the oratorios Der Tod Abels, Gioas re di 
Giuda ; 3 Passion-oratorios ; Symphonies ; 
Concertos for various instruments ; Duos for 
flutes ; Sonatas for pianoforte, etc. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., X. G50 ; Fetis ; Schilling ; Mendel. 

HARRINGTON, HENRY, born at Kel- 
ston, Somersetshire, England, in 1727, died 
at Bath, Jan. 15, 181G. He was graduated 
at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1748, settled 
as a physician in Bath, of which he became 
mayor. He founded there the Harmonic 
Society. Works : 3 books of glees and 
songs (1770, 1785, 1797) ; Eloi ! Eloi ! or 
The Death of Christ, a dirge for Passion 
Week (1800) ; Anthems ; Songs. — Grove ; 
Fetis ; Harmonicon, 1830, 225. 

HARTEL, BENNO, born at Jauer, Si- 
lesia, May 1, 184G, still living, 1889. Pu- 
pil of E. Hoppe on the piianof orte, of P. Jap- 
sen on the violin, and of P. Kiel in comjjo- 
sition. In 1870 he became instructor of 
theory at the roj-al school for music in Ber- 
lin. He has composed an opera, orchestral 
music, over 300 canons, and other vocal mu- 
sic, but has published only pianoforte pieces 
and an Andante religioso for contralto. 
—Mendel, iv. 484. 

HARTKAS, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, 
born at Bennuugeu, Thuringia, March 10, 
1805, still living, 1889. Organist, pupil of 
Weissenborn at Frankenhausen ; studied at 
the Royal Institute for Church Music in 
Berlin, and at the same time took lessons 
of Kelz on the violoncello. Taught vocal 
music in several schools of Berlin ; became 
oi-ganist of the Paulskirche there in 1835, 
and of the Elizabethkirche in 1839. Com- 
posed vocal and organ music. — Mendel. 

HARTaiANN, CHRISTIAN KARL, born 
in Alteuburg about 1750, died in Paris 



HARTMANN 



about 1804. Virtuoso on the flute. Lived 
in Hamburg (1786), Russia, ami in 1790 at 
Erlangeu, whence he went to Paris ami be- 
came professor at the Conservatoire in 
1794, ami flutist at the Opera. Works : 4 
Concertos ; Duos ; Variations ; Fantasias 
for flute and orchestra (1784-85) ; G Duos 
for flutes, op. 6 ; do., op. 7 ; 2 Aira varies 
for flute, violin and orchestra ; 6 French and 
Russian airs, for flute with violin or vio- 
loncello ; 126 Cadenzas for flute in all 
keys ; Collection of preludes for do. ; 8 Airs 
varies, with bass. — Fctis ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling. 

HART.MANN, CHRISTOPH HEINRICH, 
born at Rudisleben, Thuringia, about 1750, 
died at Eimbeck, Hanover, in 182G. He 
was organist at Eimbeck, and composed an 
oi^era Das Zauberschloss, sonatas for piano- 
forte and violin, pianoforte pieces, and 
songs. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

HARTMANN, ElMIL, born at Copenha- 
gen, Feb. 21, 18.36, still 
living, 1889. Son and 
pupil of Johann Peder 
Emil Hartmann ; stud- 
ied also under his 
brother-in-law, Gade, 
visiting Lcijssic in 1860. 
In 1861 he became or- 
ganist of a church in 
Coi)enliagen, and in 
1871 of the royal chapel of Christiansborg 
there, but on account of his health retired 
in 1873 to SOlleriid, near Copenhagen, and 
devoted himself to composition. Works: 
Fjeldstuen, ballet, given at Copenhagen ; 
The Nixie, operetta, ib. ; Elverpigen (The 
alder-maid), opera, given at Copenhagen, 
1867 ; The Corsicans, comic opera ; A ballet ; 
2 symphonies, in E-flat, op. 29, and A minor 
(Aus der Ritterzeit, op. 34) ; Eine nordische 
Heerfahrt, overture ; Nordische Volkstiinze, 
for orchestra, op. 18 ; Winter und Lenz, 
for chorus and orchestra, op. 13 ; Concerto 
for violin, op. 19 ; do., for violoncello, op. 
27 ; Trio for pianoforte ; op. 10 ; Serenade 
for pianoforte, violoncello, and clarinet, op. 




24.— Meyer, Conv. Lex. (1888) ; Mendel, 
Ergiiuz., 151 ; Riemanu. 

HARTJIANN, JOHANN, born at Gross- 
glogau, Silesia, about 1735, died in Copen- 
hagen in 1791. Violinist, was a member of 
the Prince Bishop's chapel of Breslau in 
1754, and Conzertmeister at the court of 
Rudolstadt about 1760 ; entered the ser- 
vice of the Duke of Ploen, with whom he 
removed to Copenhagen in 1768, and there 
composed many works for the cliurch and 
theatre, highly esteemed in Denmark, but 
all of which were lost at the burning of 
Christiansborg Castle. His opera Raider's 
Dijid was written in the style of Gluck ; 
from another opera, The Fisherman, the 
popular "Kong Christian stod ved hojen 
Mast " still survives as a national song. 
—Mendel ; Schilling ; Gerber (1790), i. 587, 
(1812) ii. 511. 
HARTMANN, (JOHANN PEDER) EMIL, 
born at Cojienhagen, 
May 14, 1805, still 
living, 1889. Dra- 
matic composer, son 
and puj)il on the 
pianoforte and violin 
of August Wilhelm 
Hartmann, who was 
organist at Copenha- 

/,,'-.' ^ W - o*^" ^^ 1800-50, and 
in his turn a son of 
Johann Hartmann. While he studied juris- 
jirudence and held a government ofiice for 
a time, he was much influenced and advised 
by Weyse, assisted his father as organist of 
the Garrison church, was teacher in the 
Copenhagen Conservatory, and brought out 
his first opera in 1832. In 1836 he visited 
Germany, France, and Switzerland, in 1840 
became director of Copenhagen Conserva- 
toiy, and in 1849 was made royal chapel- 
master. On the fiftieth anniversary of his 
musical life, in 1874, he received the Dane- 
brog Oi'der, and in 1879 was made a Ph.D. 
by the university of Copenhagen. He de- 
servedly ranks among the greatest musi- 
cians of Denmark. Gade married his 




23a 



HAETMANN 




daughter. Works — Operas : Kavnen, oder 
Broderproven (The Raven, or Brotherly 
Proof), given at Copenhagen, 1832 ; The 
Golden Horns, ib., 1834: ; The Corsairs, ib., 
1835 ; Liden Kirsten (Little Christina), ib., 
184G ; Music to Bournouville's classical 
ballets, and to Oehleuschliiger's, Heiberg's, 
and Andersen's dramas ; Concerto for violin ; 
Pianoforte pieces, and song-cycles (Salomon 
and Sulamith, Hjortens Flugt, etc.). — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. -151 ; Mendel ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex. (1888), VHI. 185 ; Riemann. 

HARTMANN, LUDWIG, born at Neuss 
on the Rhine in 183G, 
still living, 1889. Pi- 
anist, son and j^upilof 
Friedrich Hartmanu 
(vocal composer, 
born 1805), then at 
the Conservatorium, 
L e i p s i c , pupil of 
Moscheles and Haupt- 
mann, and in Weimar 
(185G-7) of Liszt ; in ' ' 

1859 he ajipeared with great success in a 
concert at Dresden, where he settled and 
made for himself an exclusive position as a 
literary champion of the Wagner tendency. 
Works : KOnig Helge, oj^era (MS.) ; Piano- 
forte music, and songs. — Mendel. 

HARTOG, EDOUARD DE, born in Am- 
sterdam, Aug. 15, 1826, still living, 1889. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Mme Dulcken, 
Dohler, Hoch, and Bartelmann, then in 
Paris under Elwart and Litolti', and finally 
(1849-52) under Heiuze and Damcke. He 
settled in Paris in 1852, produced his music 
to Portia at the Societe de Sainte-Cecile, 
and taught composition, harmony, and 
pianoforte. He is a member of the Nether- 
land Society for the Encouragement of 
Music, and was one of the collaborators of 
Pougin's Supplement to the Biographie 
Universelle des Musiciens. Orders of the 
Oaken Crown, and of Leojiold. Works — 
Operas : Le mariage de Don Lope, comic 
opera, given at the Theatre Lyrique, 1865 ; 
L'amour et son bote, do., Brussels, 1873 ; 



Lorenzo Aldini, and Portici, grand operas, 
not yet produced ; Music to Augier's drama 
Portia, Paris, 1853 ; The 43d psalm, for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra ; La foret, for 
do. ; Prologue symjihonique to Schiller's 
Maid of Orleans ; Mass with orchestra ; 
Symphony for full orchestra ; 2 concert 
overtures (Macbeth and Pompee) ; 2 suites 
for string quartet ; 2 quartets for strings ; 
Scherzo for do. ; Six duets for female 
voices. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 451 ; 
Riemann. 

HASENBALG, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, 
born at Werna, Hohenheim, in 1771, dietl 
at Brunswick, July 28, 1859. Pupil of his 
father. Taught in Brunswick, where he 
was music director of the Martineum and 
gymnasium, and founded and conducted 
the Singakademie. In youth he studied 
the harp, but later gave it up. Works : So- 
natas for harp and violin ; Fantasias and va- 
riations for harp ; Church music ; Songs, 
etc.— Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling. 

HASER, AUGUST FERDINAND, born 
at Leipsic, Oct. 15, 1779, died in Weimar, 
Nov. 1, 1844. He was educated at the 
Thomasschule, and studied theology at the 
University of Leij^sic ; became teacher and 
cantor in Lemgo in 1797, and director of 
music in 1800. In 1800-13 he visited Italy ; 
taught mathematics and Italian in Lemgo 
in 1815, and from 1817 lived in Weimar as 
music master to the ducal family, and mu- 
sical director of the principal church. 
Works: Der Triumph des Glaubens, ora- 
torio, words by Klopstock, performed in 
Birmingham, 1837 ; two oj^eras, Die Neger 
auf St. Domingo, and Alphonsiue, oder der 
Thurm im Walde ; Church music, over- 
tures, songs, and pianoforte music ; Versuch 
einer systematischen Uebersicht der Gesang- 
lehre(1820) ; Lehrbuch des Gesanges(1831). 
— Fctis ; Mendel ; Gerber. 

HASLER. See Hassler. 

HASLINGER, KARL, born in Vienna, 
June 11, 1816, died there, Dec. 26, 1868. 
Pianist, son of Tobias Haslinger, the founder 
of the publishing house ; pupil of Czerny 



IIASSE 



on the pianoforte, and of Seyfried in com- 
position. He succeeded to Ins father's ex- 
tensive publishing business, and as an artist 
deserved well of musical life in Vienna by 
his musical soirees, continued for thirtj' 
years, in which, with the assistance of emi- 
nent artists, he presented to the public the 
best works of old and new classical com- 
posers. Works : Wanda, das Miidchen von 
Californien, opera ; Napoleon I, symphony- 
cantata, given at Weimar, 1853 ; Die Glocke, 
cantata for 4 solo voices, chorus, and or- 
chestra ; Masses, and other church music ; 
Voyage sur le Rhin, for pianoforte with or- 
chestra, op. 1 ; Quartets ; Trios for piano- 
forte and strings ; Sonata for violin and 
pianoforte, op. 35 ; do. for pianoforte and 
violoncello, op. 39 ; many pianoforte pieces, 
and songs. — Mendel ; do., Ergiinz., 152 ; 
Futis ; do., .Sui)pU'ment, i. -t52 ; Wurzbach. 
HASSE, JOHANN ADOLPH (known in 
Italy as H Sassone, 
the Saxon), born at 
liergedorf, iieai" 
Hamburg, March 25, 
1 G99, died in Venice, 
Dec. IG, 1783. He 
was taught until his 
nineteenth year, by 
bis father, who was 
organist and school- 
' ' master in his native 

village. lu 1717 he went to Hamburg, 
where he made the acquaintance of Ul- 
rich Kiinig, a jjoet attached to the Polish 
court at Dresden, who recommended him 
to the notice of Keiser, the manager of the 
Hamburg theatre. He was engaged as 
tenor for four years, after which he got an 
engagement at the theatre in Brunswick, 
where his first opera, Antigonus, the only 
one he ever wrote to a German text, was 
brought out with fair success in 1723. In 
1724 he went to Italy to study composition. 
He began under Porpora in Naples, but 
soon left him for Alessandro Scarlatti, who 
was his true teacher in compoisition, al- 
though his eminence as a singer was prob- 




ably lai'gely due to Porpora's instruction. 
His first Italian opera, Sesostrate, given in 
Naples in 172(), spread his fame all over 
Italy. Next year he was made professor at 
the Scuola degl' lucurabUi, Venice, where 
he wrote his long-famous Miserere. In 
1728 he returned to Naples, but was back 
in Venice again in 1729, where he married 
the great singer, Faustina Bordoni. He 
was then the most popular composer in 
Italy, and ec^ually a favorite in society, his 
personal beauty, fine voice and singing, 
conspicuous mastery on the clavecin, and 
engaging manners all contributing to his 
success. In 1731 he was called by August 
H. as Kapellmeister and director of the 
Court Oi)era at Dresden, where his Ales- 
sandro neir Indie, with Faustina in the 
leading pai't, had a phenomenal success. 
But Porpora, and his famous pupil, Regiua 
Miugotti, were estabUshed there in high 
favor with a part of the royal family. 
Hasse's relations with Porpora had never 
been friendly, and neither Porpora nor the 
Miugotti were pleased to see the success of 
Faustina, who had been a pupil of Gaspa- 
rini. Hasse tried to throw discredit upon 
the Miugotti by writiug an air for her, in 
Demofoonte, calculated to show her voice 
and style at a disadvantage. This trick failed, 
but the noise of it led Hasse to quit Dres- 
den for a while, leaving his wife behind 
him. He went to Milan, Venice, and Na- 
ples, and finally to London, where his wife's 
singing in Handel's company (172G-27) had 
not been forgotten. He was induced to ac- 
cept the direction of the opera in opposition 
to Handel, but although his Artaserse had 
an unquestioned success, he did not care to 
cope further with his greater rival ; and 
heartily disliking England, he returned to 
Dresden in 1739. August IH. was then 
on the throne, and Porpora and the Min- 
gotti had left the city. Except for a visit 
to Venice in 1740, Hasse and Faustina re- 
mained in Dresden, enjoying the greatest 
popularity, uj) to 17G3. At the siege of the 
city, in 17G0, most of his accumulated prop- 



334 



IIASSE 



erty was lost, and the greater part of his 
MSS., preimred for a complete edition of 
his works, to be published at the expense 
of the King of Poland, was destroyed. 
After the war, both the opera and the 
King's chamber music were suppressed, 
Hasse and Faustina were pensioned, and 
retired to Vienna. There he met a new 
rival, in the shape of Gluclr, whose Orfeo 
had been brought out the year before. But 
Hasse, in collaboration with Metastasio, 
still made a good stand with several operas, 
the more so that Gluck's new manner was 
not at first appreciated by the public. 
Hasse's last opera, Ruggiero, was brought 
out in Milan in 1774, simultaneously with 
the young Mozart's Ascanio in Alba. (Mozart 
was then only thirteen, and Hasse seventy- 
five ; but the older composer predicted : 
"This boy will throw us all into the 
shade.") The remaining ten years of Hasse's 
life were passed iu Venice. His fertility as 
a composer was remarkable ; he set nearly 
all of Metastasio's dramas to music, some 
of them three or four times over. Works : 
I. Oratorios : La virtvi al pie della Croce ; 
La dejiosizione della Croce ; La caduta di 
Gerico ; Maddalena ; II cantico de' tre fan- 
ciulli ; La conversione di S. Agostino, 
written for the Electoral Princess Marie- 
Antoinette ; Giuseppe riconosciuto ; I 
peUt'cjrini al sepolcro di Nostro Signore, in 
score, edited by Hillcr, Leijjsic ; Sant' Elena 
al Calvario, two versions ; Die Busse des 
Heiligen Petrus. H. Church Music : Te 
Deum, 4 voices and orchestra, Dresden ; 
do., id., ib. ; Grand Te Deum, id., ib. ; 4tli 
Te Deum, Venice, 1780 ; Miserere, female 
voices and strings, ib., 1727 ; Solemn mass, 
4 voices and orchestra ; Missa dedicat. Tem- 
pli, id. ; Solemn mass, in C ; Kyrie and 
Gloria, in D ; do., in C ; Credo in F ; Li- 
tanire Laurentinre, iu G, Venice, 1727 ; Li- 
tanie per 2 soprani con accompagnamento ; 
Salve Eegina, soprano solo and strings ; 
do., 2 soprani ; Grand Requiem for the ob- 
sequies of August in., of Poland ; About 
1.50 motets, x^salms, and anthems ; Many 



airs, duets, and choruses. The following are 
in the Royal Library of Berlin : Magnifi- 
cat, 4 voices and orchestra ; Eegina coeli, 4 
voices and instruments, in D ; Ora pro no- 
bis, id., in G ; do., for contralto solo and 
instruments, in G ; Salve regina, for id., iu 
A ; do., for soprano solo and instruments, 
in B-flat ; do., id., iu G ; Solemn mass for 
the electoral princess of Saxony ; Mass, 4 
voices and instruments, in D minor ; do., 
id., in G ; do., id., in D ; do., id., iu F ; do., 
id., in D ; do., id., in C ; do., id., in G mi- 
nor ; do., id., in E-flat ; Litanies for female 
voices and instruments ; Miserere for female 
voices ; do., 4 voices and instruments, iu 
D minor ; do., 4 voices a cappella, iu C mi- 
nor ; Te Deum, 4 voices and orchestra, iu 
D ; do., id., iu G ; Dixit Dominus, Confite- 
bor, and Mihi autem, 4 voices and orches- 
tra, in. Operas : Antigonus, Brunswick, 
1723 ; Sesostrate, Naples, 172G ; Altalo, re 
di Bitinia, ib., 1728 ; Dalisa (his first opera 
written for Faustina Bordoni), Venice, 1730 ; 
Artai<erxe, ib., 1730; Arminio, Milan, 1731 ; 
Cleofide, Dresden, 1731 ; Alessandro nell' 
Indie, ib., 1731 ; Cajo Fabrizio, Rome, 1731, 
Dresden, 1732 ; Demetrio, Venice, 1732 ; 
Catone in Utica, Turin, 1732 ; Euristeo, War- 
saw, 1733 ; Asteria, Dresden, 1734 ; Senocrita, 
ib., 173G ; Atalanta, ib., 1737 ; La clemenza 
di Tito, ib., 1737 ; Alfonso, ib., 1738 ; Ii-ene, 
ib., 1738 ; Demetrio, ib., 1739 ; Arlascrse, 
ib., 1740 ; Olimpia in Eruda, London, 1740 ; 
Numa Pompilio, Dresden, 1741 ; Lucio Pa- 
pirio, ib., 1742 ; TJidone abbandonata, ib., 
1743 ; L' asilo d' Amore, ib., 1743 ; Antigono, 
ib., 1744 ; Ij^ermestra, ib., 1744 ; Arminio, 
ib., 1745 ; La Spartana, ib., 1747 ; Semi- 
ramide, ib., 1747 ; Demofoonte, ib., 1748 ; D 
natale di Giove, ib., 1749 ; Attilio Regolo, 
ib., 1750 ; Giro riconosciuto, ib., 1751 ; Iper- 
mestra, ib., 1751 ; Leucippo, ib., 1751 ; Soli- 
mauno, ib., 1752 ; Adriano iu Siria, ib., 
1753 ; L' eroe cinese, ib., 1753 ; Arminio, 
ib., 1753 ; Ai-temisia, ib., 1754 ; II r!i pas- 
tore, ib., 1755 ; Ezio, ib., 1755 ; Artemisia, 
ib., 1755 ; L' Olimpiade, ib., 175G ; Nitteti, 
ib., 1759 ; Achille iu Sciro, ib., 1759 ; Alcide 



235 



HASSLER 



al bivio, cantata, Vienna, 1760 ; II trionfo 
di Clelia, Dresden, 1761 ; Egeria, festa 
teatrale, ib., 1762 ; Nitteti, Vienna, 1762 ; 
Siroe, ib., 1763 ;Zenobia, ib., 1763 ; Jioniolo 
ed Ersilia, Innspruck, 1765 ; Partenope, Vi- 
enna, 1767 ; Piramo e Tisbe, intermezzo, 
ib., 1769 ; Don Tabranno e Scintilla, id., 
Dresden ; II lluggiero, Milan, 1770. IV. 
Concert and Chamber Music : 5 Italian 
cantatas for soj)rano and strings, Leipsic ; 
12 clavecin sonatas (the first 6, dedicated 
to the Dauphin, Paris) ; 2 quartets for vio- 
lin, flute, oboe, and bassoon ; 6 concertos 
for 1 or 2 flutes, clavecin and strings, op. 1, 
Leipsic ; 6 sonatas for 2 flutes, or violin, 
violoncello, and clavecin, op. 2, ib. ; 6 sym- 




^^^'^idi^^ 



phonies for 6 and 8 parts, op. 3 ; 4 clavecin 
sonatas, op. 4 ; Concerto for liom, London ; 
Favorite concertos for clavecin, ib. — Burney, 
Hist., iv. 548 ; Hawkins, v. 323 ; Eiehl, 
Mus. Charakter-K;>pfe, i. 109 : Grove ; Fo- 
tis; Mendel ; Eiemann. 

HASSLER (Hasler), H.VNS LEO (Leon- 
hard), born in Nu- 
remberg in 1564 
(?), died in Frank- 
f o r t-on-the-Main, 
June 5, 1612. 
Eldest and most 
noteworthy son of 
Isaac Hassler ; pu- 
l)il of his father, 
then for a year of 
Andrea Gabrieli 
in Venice, where he was a fellow-student of 
the great Giovanni Gabrieli. He was the 
fii'st German composer of note who studied 
in Italy. After leaving Venice, he lived for 
a while at the Fuggers' bouse in Augsburg, 
and later, several years at the court of Ru- 
dolph n., in Prague, where he was ennobled. 
In 1608 he entered the service of Christian 
n., Elector of Saxony. He died in Frank- 




fort while on a journey. Hassler's style 
resembled that of both the Gabrielis, his 
canzonets and madrigals reminding one of 
the elaboration of Andrea, while his larger 
works recall the grander polychoric style of 
Giovanni. His fame during his lifetime 
was very great, and he is to be regarded 
as one of the fathers of German music. 
Those of his works that have been pre- 
served are : 24 cauzonetti a 4 voci, Nurem- 
berg, 1590 ; Cantiones sacra de fest. prse- 
cip. totius anni, 4, 5, 8 et plurium voc, 
Augsburg, 1591 ; Madrigali a 4-8 voci, 
ib., 1596 ; Concentus ecclesiastici, ib., 1596 ; 
Newe teutsche Gesang, etc., for 4-8 voices, 
ib., 1596, 1004-09 ; Cantiones novje de 
fest., etc., ib., 1597 ; Missse, 4-8 voc, ib., 
1599 ; Lustgarten newer deutscher Gesang, 
etc., 4-8 voices, 1001-05-10 ; Sacri con- 
centus, 5-12 voc, 1601-12 ; Psalmen und 
clu-istliche Gesiinge, 4-stimmig, fugweis, 
1007 (new ed. in score, 1777) ; Kirchen- 
gesiinge, Psalmen und geistliche Lieder, 
4-stimmig, simpliciter, 1608-37 ; Litaney 
dcutsch Herrn Dr. Martini Lutheri, 7 voices 
in double-chorus, 1619 ; Venusgarten, oder 
neue lustige liebliche Tiiutze, etc., 1615 ; 
Several motets in the collection, Sacra3 sym- 
phoniaj diversorum auct., 2 parts, edited by 

him, 1601 ; Motets in Bodenschatz's Flori- 
Icgium Portense, and Scliad's Promptu- 
arium musicum. — Monatsschr. fiir Mus.- 
Gesch., 1874, Beilage ; Ambros, iii. 556 ; 
Riemann. 

HASSLER (Hasler), JACOB, born at 
Nuremberg in 1566, died at Hechingen. 
Organist to the Count of Hohenzollern, 
and one of the great virtuosi of his time ; 
brother of Hans Leo. He composed many 
masses. Magnificats, psalms, and other 
chui'ch music, among which the 51st psalm, 
for eight voices, is especially valued. An- 
other brother, Kaspar, born at Nuremberg 



SS6 



HASSLEE 



about 1570, died there in 1G18, became or- 1 Thames, operetta, Drury Lane, 1844 ; Pas- 
ganist there in 1587, and came next to his|cal Bruno, opera, given at Vienna, 1844- 

Music for Macbeth and Sardan- 
apalus, Princess's Theatre, 1853 ; 
Faust and Marguerite, overture 
and entr'actes, 1854 ; King Hen- 
ry VIII., 1855 ; Pizarro, 185G ; 
King Eichard II., 1857 ; King 
Lear, The Merchant of Venice, 
oldest brother as a master of his instrument I and Much Ado about Nothing, 1858 ; 2 Ca- 
and on the harpsichord.— Fetis ; IMeudel ; ' thedral Services ; Anthems ; Eose, or Love's 





Schilling ; Walther. 

HASSLER, JOHANN WILHELM, born 
at Erfurt, March 29, 
1747, died in Mos- 
cow, March 25, 1822. 
Pianist, sou of a cajj- 
maker, he learned 
and long followed 
his father's trade. 
Nephew, and pupil 
on the pianoforte 
and organ, of Kittel, 
who had been a pu- 
pil of Johann Sebas- 
tian Bach ; at the age of fourteen became 
organist in Erfurt, and while leading a 
wandering apprentice's life gave concerts. 
He founded winter concerts in Erfurt in 
1780, and a music business, but later trav- 
elled to England and Russia, became impe- 
rial Kapellmeister in St.Petersburg in 1792, 
and settled in Moscow as a teacher in 1794. 
Works : Concertos ; Fantasias ; Sonatas, and 
variations for pianoforte ; Organ music ; 
Songs. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 20 ; Fetis ; 
Mendel, iv. 487 ; Riemann. 

HASSLINGER-HASSINGEN. See Ea- 
ger. 

HAT MAN NIGHT AUCH GELD. See 
Fidelio. 

HATTON, JOHN LIPHOT, born in Liv- 
erpool in 1809, died at Margate, Sept. 20, 
188G. Almost self-taught ; settled in Loudon 
in 1832, engaged at Drury Lane Theatre in 
1842 ; same year went to Vienna ; visited 
America in 1848 ; director of music at Prin- 
cess's Theatre. Works : The Queen of the I 

237 




1877. 



Ransom, ojiera, Cov- 
ent Garden, 1864; 
Robin Hood, can- 
tata, Bradford Musi- 
cal Festival, 1856; 
Books of jaart-sougs, 
and about 150 songs 
(Bid me to live, etc.); 
Sacred drama, Hez- 
ekiah. Crystal Palace, 
— Grove. 

HAUER, HERMANN, born at Dardes- 
heim, near Halberstadt, August 18, 1812, 
died at Wernigerode, Aug. 16, 1888. 
Organist, pupil at Quedlinburg of Liebau, 
then in Berlin of Rungenhagen, Marx, 
Dehn, and A. W. Bach, and in 1845 became 
organist of the Jacobikirche, Berlin. He 
taught in several schools and founded two 
singing societies, and was made roj-al mu- 
sic director in 1870. Works : Cantata ; 
Church music ; Lieder, etc. His brother 
Karl (born 1824) is an organist and teacher 
in Berlin. — Mendel. 

HAUFF, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, born 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Sept. 8, 1811, 
still living, 1889. He has been director 
and teacher of theory at the Frankfort Mu- 
sic School since its foundation. Works : 
Symphonies ; Quartets ; Motets ; Piano- 
forte music, etc. He is author of Theorie 
der Tonsetzkunst (Frankfort, 18G3-G9). 
— Mendel ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 453. 

HAUFF, WILHELM GOTTLIEB, born 
at Gotha about 1755, died at Nymwegen, 
May 14, 1817. Organist. After serving in 
the army, he became organist of the prin- 



IIAUFF 



cipal cbui'cL at Nymwegen. His cantata, 
De dood vim Jesus Christus, is his iirineipal 
work. He wrote also other cantatas, con- 
certos for pianoforte and for wind instru- 
ments, violin music ; 6 symphonies (Paris, 
1774, 1777) ; 6 sextets for brass instru- 
ments (ib., 1776) ; 3 Clavier trios (Brussels, 
1777) ; Chorals for voices (Amsterdam, 
1810), etc. — Gregoir, Mus. uoerlandais, 85 ; 
Van der Straeteii, iv. 414 ; Fotis. 

HAUTF, WILHELII GOTTLIEB, the 
younger, born at Nymwegen in 1793, died 
at Groningen, Oct. 31, 1858. Organist, 
son and pujsil of the preceding, whom he re- 
placed at the organ when twelve years old. 
He became organist of a church in his 
native city, and in 1818 of St. Martin's at 
Groningen. He frequently gave organ 
concerts, and was much admired for his 
talent of imjjrovising. "Works : 160 psalms ; 
G preludes, etc., for organ ; 6 waltzes for 
pianoforte ; 15 school songs, etc. — Gregoir, 
Mus. noerlandais, 8G. 

HAUPT, (CARL) AUGUST, bora at Cu- 
nau, Silesia, Aug. 25, 1810, still living, 
1889. Vu'tuoso on the organ, pupil of A. 
W. Bach, Klein, Dehu, and the two Schnei- 
ders ; became organist of the French con- 
vent, Berlin, in 1832, of St. Elizabeth's in 
1835, of St. Nicholas iu 1839, and of the 
parish church, in 1849 ; and taught at the 
Koyal Institute for church music, of which 
be became director after A. W. Bach's death 
in 1870. He was remarkable for his fine 
extempore variations in the style of J. S. 
Bach. Of his numerous compositions those 
for the organ are still in JIS. His songs and 
part-songs have been published in various 
collections ; his Choralbuch (Berlin, 1869) 
ranks very high among its kind. — Mendel ; 
Fetis ; Mus. Wochenblatt, xiii. 407. 

HAUPTMANN, LORENZ, born at Graf- 
ensulz. Nether Austria, Jan. 15, 1802, died 
in Vienna, May 25, 1870. Organist, pro- 
ficient at the age of twelve ; taught school 
until he was twenty-four years old ; then 
went to Vienna, became organist of the 
Theresianum and of the Paulanerkirche, 




\jr' -?i 




and later was choir-master of an Augustine 
parish church, giving also singing lessons. 
He composed church, pianoforte, violin, and 
organ music, and good solfeggi and in- 
structive vocal duets. His masses, gradu- 
als, and other sacred compositions are still 
much esteemed. — Wurzbach ; Mendel ; Fe- 
tis ; do., Supplement, i. 453 ; Schilling. 
HAUPTMANN, MOKITZ, born in Dres- 
den, Oct. 13, 1792, 



died in Leipsic, Jan. 
4, 1868. Intended 
for his father's j)ro- 
fession, a r c h i t e e- 
ture, he was allowed 
i^fe^' '"^k to study music as 

an accomplishment, 
and became a pupil 
on the violin of 
Scholz, and in har- 
mony and comjio- 
sition of Morlacchi and others. When 
seventeen he abandoned architecture for 
music, and in 1811 he went to Gotha to 
perfect himself on the violin, and to study 
composition imder Spohr. This was the 
beginning of a firm friendshijj between the 
two men, which lasted imtil Spohr's death. 
In 1812 he entered the royal orchestra 
at Dresden, and then the household of 
Prince Repniu, the Russian governor of 
Dresden, whom he followed in 1815 to Rus- 
sia, spending several years at St. Peters- 
burg, Moscow, Poltava, and Odessa. Re- 
turning to Germany in 1822, he entered 
Spohr's orchestra at Cassel, where his 
remarkable talent for teaching counter- 
point and composition first manifested it- 
self. Among his pupils at this period are 
to be noted Ferdinand David, Norbert 
Burgmiiller, Curschmann, Kufterath, Kiel, 
and many others. In 1842 he was ap- 
pointed cantor and Musikdircktor at the 
Thomas-Schule, and professor of counter- 
point and composition at the Conservato- 
rium at Leipsic, where he lived until his 
death. Hauptmaim's career, like his rejju- 
tation, was unique. Of all contemporaiy 



HAUPT^'EIi 



musicians his name was the one which was 
mentioned all over Germany (as it still is) 
with the most loving veneration. Gifted 
by nature with a musical ear of exceptional 
delicacy, and with the purest musical j^er- 
ceptions, he cultivated his talent to the 
highest conceivable degree by prolonged 
and arduous study and jiractice. The fun- 
damental principle of all his teaching and 
writing was that absolute unity of idea and 
perfection of form were the two indisj^eu- 
sable attributes of every work of art. In 
Leipsic he represented the extreme classi- 
cal i^arty in music ; but he always refrained 
from attacking either the ideas or the work 
of the younger generation of comj)Osers, 
and, in turn, no one ever made him the ob- 
ject of jsartisan polemical writing. As a 
master of musical form he was absolute. 
For j)erfection of style and finish of work- 
manship his compositions can hardly be 
surpassed. Yet he i3 hardly to be ac- 
counted a man of great genius, and he has 
alwaj'S been more famous as a teacher and 
theorist than as a com230ser. Joachim, von 
Billow, Sullivan, Coweu, and many other 
noted men are among his pupils. His 
great work, " Die Natur der Harmonik und 
der Metrik," has had probably more influ- 
ence upon the modern study of the philoso- 
l)hy of music than any other book iu exist- 
ence. He died loaded with about every hon- 
our that could well fall to the lot of a famous 
and universally revered musician. Works : 
I. Church music : Salve Eegina for 4 voices 
and organ or pianoforte, ad libitum, op. 13 ; 
Offertorium for 4 voices and organ or pi- 
anoforte, op. 15 ; Vocalmesse for soli and 
chorus, op. 18 ; ]Mass for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra, op. 30 ; 6 geistliche Gesilnge for 
soli and 4-part chorus, op. 33 ; Motet, Nimm 
von uns, Herr Gott, oyx 34 ; G geisthche 
Gesiinge, for 2 S. and A., op. 35 ; Motets, 
Komm', Heil'ger Geist, and another, op. 
36 ; Cantata, Herr, Herr ! wende Dich, for 
soli, chorus, organ, and 4 trombones, op. 38 ; 
Hymn, Am Ciicilientage, for soli, 2 choruses, 
and pianoforte, op. 39 ; 3 Motets for soli 



and chorus, op. 40 ; 3 do., op. 41 ; 6 geist- 
liche Gesiinge for chorus, op. 42 ; 3 Kirch- 
enstiicke for chorus and orchestra, op. 43 ; 
3 geistliche Chorgesiinge, op. 44 ; Psalm 
LXXXIV., for soli and chorus, op. 45 ; 
Motet for soli and chorus, op. 51 ; Do. 
from Psalm CXI., op. 52 ; 3 geistliche Chor- 
gesiinge for mixed chorus, op. 53 ; 12 do. 
for 2 S. and A. (2 books), op. 54 ; 3 do. for 

5. A. T. and B., op. 5(> ; Psalm, Sei mir 
gnildig, Gott, for 4 solo voices, and 2 4- 
Ijart choruses, op. 57. IL Secular vocal 
music : Gretcheu vor dem Bilde der Mater 
Dolorosa, for voice and pianoforte (the 
accompaniment scored for orchestra by 
Franz von Holsteiu), op. 3 ; Auf dem See, 
text by Goethe, for 4 solo voices and 
chorus, op. 21 ; Songs, j)art-songs, and 
canons, with j^ianoforte, op. 1, 4, 9, 11, 19, 
22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 37, 46, 50 ; Part- 
songs without accompaniment, op. 32, 47, 
49, 55. in. Chamber music : 2 string 
quartets (E-flat, C), op. 7 ; Duos coucert- 
auts for 2 violins, op. 2, 16, 17 ; Divertisse- 
ment for violin and guitar, o]). 8 ; Concerto 
facile in E-flat, for pianoforte with accom- 
paniment of 2 violins, viola, and violoncello, 
013. 20 ; Sonatas for pianoforte and violin, 
in G minor, E-flat, D, op. 5 ; do. in F, op. 6 ; 
do. in B-flat, G, D minor, ojj. 23 ; 12 pieces 
for pianoforte, op. 12. IV. Orchestral : 
Overture to Mathilde, oj). 60. V. Literary- 
works : 1. " Erliluterungen zu Johann Se- 
bastian Bach's Kunst der Fuge " (Leipsic, 
Peters) ; 2. " Die Natur der Harmonik und 
der Metrik " (ib., Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; 3, 
" Aufgaben fiir einfachen und doppelten Con- 
trapunkt"(ib., Senfi") ; 4. "Briefe am Franz 
Hauser " (ib., Breit- 
kopf & Hartel) ; 5. 
" Die Lehre von der 
Harmonik" (ib., id.); 

6. Briefe von Moritz 
Hauptmann an Spohr und Andere, herausge- 
geben von Dr. Ferdinand Hiller (ib., 1876). 
— Grove ; Hiller, Aus dem Tonleben, iii. 79. 

HAUPTNER, THUISKON, born in Ber- 
lin in 1825, still living, 1889. Pupil at the 




839 



nAUSCHKA 



Rsjal Academy of Berlin ; became con- 
ductor of orchestra of the Vorstiidtisches 
Theater iu 1850, and of the KOnigsstiidt- 
isches Theater in 1852, in the meantime writ- 
ing many operettas and farces. In 1854-58 
he studied at the Paris Conservatoire, then 
was a teacher in Berlin, Basel, and Potsdam, 
where he directed the Singakademie. He 
has published a singing method. — Mendel ; 
Eiemann. 

HAUSCHKA, VINCENZ, born at Mies, 
Bohemia, Jan. 21, 17GG, died in Vienna, 
Sept. 13, 1840. Violoncellist, son and pu- 
pil of a school teacher ; he was choir boy iu 
the Prague Cathedral ; then studied theory 
under ZOger and the violoncello imder 
Christ ; became violoncellist in the chapel of 
Count Joseph von Thun, in Prague ; made a 
concert tour through German}', and settled 
in Vienna, where he obtained, in 1793, a 
government office. He was also an excellent 
player on the baryton, comi^osing much for 
that instrument and the violoncello, besides 
vocal music. — "Wurzbach ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Gerber, ii. 522 ; Fetis. 

HAUSER, MORITZ, born in Berlin in 
1826, died in Konigslierg, May 31, 1857. 
Son and pupil of Franz Himser (dramatic 
singer, 1794-1870), aud studied at the 
Leipsic Conservatorium under Mendelssohn 
aud Hauptmann. He was music director 
of the cdty theatre iu Konigsberg until his 
early death. Works : Der Erbe von Hohe- 
ueck, opera, given at Konigsberg, 1855 ; Lie- 
der ; Instrumental music. — Mendel ; Fetis. 
HAUSER, MISKA (:Michael), bom at 
Presburg, Hungary, 
in 1822, died in Vi- 
enna, Dec. 8, 1887. 
Violin virtuoso, pupil 
of Joseph Matalay, of 
Conradin Kreutzer, 
and at the Conserva- 
torium in Vienna, of 
Mayseder, and Sech- 
ter. In 1840-48, he 
made a concert tour through Gei-many, 
Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Russia ; iu 




1 1848-49 visited France and England, and on 
Jan. 1, 1850, landed in New York and trav- 
elled throughout the United States for three 
years. From San Francisco he went to 
South America in 1853, then to Australia in 
1854-58, and returned via India, Egypt, 
Malta, and Marseilles to Vienna. After a 
tour through the larger cities of the empire, 
he went to Bukharest, and in 1861 to Con- 
stantinople, where he played before Abdul 
Medjid. Subsequently he lived compara- 
tively retired, and only seldom ajjpeared in 
public, the last time in Cologne, in 1874. 
Works : Nocturne, op. 1 ; Introduction and 
Rondo on Hungarian melodies, op. 2 ; Mes 
adieux a Varsovie, op. 5 ; Introduction et 
Variations de concert, op. 7 ; Bolero, op. 
10 ; 12 Lieder ohne worte, op. 11 ; do., op. 
16, op. 21, 23-28 ; La milancoUe, etude de 
concert, op. 17 ; La sentimentale, do., op. 
18 ; Tarentelle, op. 19 ; Scherzo, op. 22 ; 
Das Voglein am Baume, op. 34 ; Fantasias, 
rondos, variations, etc. He wrote also an 
operetta, Der blinde Leiermann, about 
1860. — Aus dem Wanderbuch eines oster- 
reichischen Virtuosen (Leipsic, 1858-59) ; 
Wurzbach. 

HAUSLICHE KRIEG, DER (The Do- 
mestic Struggle), German Singspiel in one 
act, text adapted from the French by Cas- 
telli, music by Franz Schubert, written for 
the court theatre, Vienna, in 1823, but un- 
performed during the composer's lifetime. 
The original title was Die Verschworenen 
(The Conspirators), but the licensers re- 
garding it with suspicion, it was changed to 
the present one. The libretto was sug- 
gested by the " Lysistrata " of Aristoi^hanes. 
It was first represented, under the direction 
of Herbeck, by the Musikverein, Vienna, 
March 1, 1861 ; at Frankfort, Aug. 29, 
1861, and then in Munich, Salzburg, and 
other German cities. It was given in Paris, 
at the Fantaisies Parisiennes, Feb. 3, 1868, 
in a French translation by Victor Wilder, 
under the title La guerre domestique, ou 
les conjures, which was afterward changed 
to La croisade des dames ; aud in London, 



340 



HA 




at tlie Crystal Palace, Sydenliaiii, March 
2, 1872, as The Conspirators. The work 
consists of an overture and eleven numbers. 
Published by Spina (Vienna, 1SG2). — Life of 
Schubert, i. 309 ; Atheiiteum (1872), i. 313. 

HA! "WELCH EIN AUGENBLICK! 
See Fidelia. 

HAWES, WILLIAJI, born in London in 
1785, died there, 
Feb. 18, 1816. He 
was chorister iu 
the Chapel Eoyal 
from 1793 to 1801, 
violinist at Coveut 
Garden iu 1802, 
Gentleman of the 
Chapel Eoyal iu 
1805, master of 
choristers and 
vicar-choral at St. ' 

Paul's iu 1811, master of the children of the 
Chapel Royal iu 1817, and lay vicar of West- 
minster Abbey in 1817-20. He was the 
first promoter of the Harmonic Institution, 
then a music publisher, and later director 
of music at the English Opera Lyceum ; 
conductor of the Madrigal Society, and or- 
ganist of the German Lutheran Church iu 
the Savoy. He adapted many operas to the 
English stage, aud composed or comjiiled 
music for many of them. Works : Glees 
and madrigals ; Chants, Sauctuses, and 
Eesponses to the Commandments. — Grove. 

HAYDEE, ou le secret, opcra-comique 
iu three acts, text by Scribe, music by 
Auber, first represented at the Opera Comi- 
que, Paris, Dec. 28, 1817. Auber's best 
work in his third style. The libretto, 
adapted trom a Eussian novel translated by 
Prosper Mt'rimee, is interesting, with poeti- 
cal situations, and the music is dramatic aud 
appropriate to the subject. The hero of 
the work is Loredan, a young Venetian ad- 
miral who returns home, after driving the 
Turks from Cyprus, bringing with him 
Haydee, a young Greek prisoner, who 
turns out to be of royal descent, and whom 
he finally marries when elevated to the 



1818. — AtheuEeum 



JOSEF, born at 







dignity of Doge of Venice. Other charac- 
ters are Andrea, son of Donate, a man whom 
Loredan has ruined at play, whom the Ad- 
miral makes his heir aud marries to Eafaela, 
his ward, and jNIalipieri, a spy of the Coun- 
cil of Ten. The role of Loredan was cre- 
ated by Eoger; the other characters were 
sustained by Hermann-Leon, Audrau, Eic- 
quier, and Miles Lavoye and Grimm. The 
opera was given in English at the Straud 
Theatre, Loudon, April 3, 1818, and at Co- 
vent Garden, Nov. 1, 
(1848), 13 ; 1130. 

HAYDN, (FEANZ) 
Rohrau, Lower Aus- 
tria, March 31 (April 
1), 1732, died iu Vi- 
enna, May 31, 1809. 
He was the second 
child of a wheel- 
wright, Matthias 
Haydn, and Maria 
H. (born K o 1 1 e r), 
daughter of Count 
Harrach's cook and 

Marktrichter, or steward. The family 
came originally from Hainburg, a town four 
leagues from Eohrau, near the Danube. 
Both Josef's parents were nmsical ; his 
first teacher was his step-grandfather, Jo- 
hauu Mathias Frankh, a school-master in 
Hainburg, to whose school he was sent 
when six years old. Although his mother 
would have preferred him to be brought up 
for the j)riesthood, his musical education 
was, from the first, conducted with a view to 
his making music his profession. Frankh 
was a severe but excelleut teacher, and 
would doubtless have brought his pupil 
farther ou than he did, had not Georg 
Reutter, Hofcompositor, aud Kapellmeister 
at St. Stephen's, in Vienna, been struck with 
the boy's talent and voice, while on a visit 
to Hainburg, and offered him a place as 
chorister at St. Stephen's, two years after 
he began his schooling. Haydn's j^arents 
consented, and he left Hainburg and 
Frankh, for Vienna, in 1710. His studies 



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242 



IIAYDN 



were religion, Latin, writing, and aritlime- 
tic, to which were added the viohu, the 
clavier, and singing, prolialily under Gegen- 
bauer and Fiusterbusch ; but nothing what- 




Silhouelte of Haydn. 

ever was done about instruction in har- 
mony, counterpoint, or composition. He 
was looked upon by von Reutter (ennobled 
in 1740) merely as a boy singer, and even 
when it was discovered that he had been 
trying to compose on his 
own account, the Kajjell- c ~\^ " " 

meister gave him no en- 
couragement or advice. 
In 1745 he was joined at 
the Cantorei by his broth- 
er Michael, who soon suj:)- 
islanted him in the favor 
of von Keutter and Maria 
Theresa, who had previ- 
ously noted his singing 
with pleasure ; for about 
this time his voice began to 
change, and he was prac- 
tically useless as a singer. A practical joke, 
played by him upon a fellow-chorister, and 
found out by von Reutter, brought matters 
to a head, and he was dismissed the Cantorei 
with a sound caning. He was now thrown 
upon his own resources, but one Spangler, 



chorister at St. Michael's, and a Viennese 
friend who lent him 150 florins, helped him, 
and he got a few pupils. He was thus 
enabled to hire a little room in the old 
Michaelerhaus in the Kohlmarkt. He be- 
gan to study composition by himself from 
the works of P. Emanuel Bach, and to such 
good purpose that Bach afterward said 
that he alone fully understood his writings 
and knew how to use them. About this 
time he wrote his first mass, in F (No. 11, 
Novello's ed.), and a musical farce, Der 
neue Krumme Teufel, for the Stadttheater, 
the latter bringing him in a good sum of 
money. It became quite famous in its way, 
and was given in several German cities. 
Through Metastasio he was introduced to 
a Spanish family, the de Martines, and was 
engaged to give lessons to Marianne, the 
elder daughter. This led to his meeting 
Porpora, who engaged him as accompanist, 
and gave him the only regular instruction 
in composition he ever had, in return for 
this and other more menial services. But 
he mastered by himself all the important 
theoretical musical literature of the day, es- 
pecially Fax's Gradus. In 1755 he wrote 
his first quartet, for Karl Joseph, Edler von 




Birthplace of Haydn, 

Fiirnberg, whose acquaintance he had made, 
and who, in 1759, recommended him as 
jMusikdirektor and Kammercompositor to 
Count Ferdinand Maximilian Morzin, at his 
country seat at Lukavec, near Pilsen. Here 
he wrote his first symphony. His salary 



243 



HAYDN 



was 200 florins, with board and lodging. 
On Nov. 26, 17G0, be married Anna Maria 
Keller, a woman three years older than him- 
self, of quarrelsome temper, who did her 
best to make his life wretched. Soon after. 
Count Morzin gave uj) his baud, and Haydn 
entered the service of Prince Paul Anton 
Eszterhazy, as second Kajiellmeister imder 
"Werner, at Eiseustadt. He continued to 
hold this post, and, after "Werner's death, 
that of first Kapellmeister, under Prince 
Nicolaus Eszterhazy, both at Eiseustadt and 
at Eszterhaz, the Prince's new summer place, 
near Siittor, on the Neusiedler-See. Here 
he composed most of his operas. Except 
for some visits to Vienna, either alone, or 
in company with the Prince and the whole 
chapel, he continued living at Eszterhaz un- 
til his patron's death, in 171)0. He retained 
liis title of Kapellmeister, with a yearly pen- 
sion of 1,000 florins, under his successor, 
Prince Anton ; but as nearly the whole 
chapel was disbanded, lie moved to Vienna. 
But the news of Prince Nicolaus's death had 
brought Salomon to Vienna, in hopes of en- 
gaging Haydn for London. As Haydn was 
now free, he consented, and the two set out 
together, Dec. 15, 1700, going by Munich, 
Bonn, and Brussels to Calais, crossing the 
chanuel on Jan. 1, 1791, and arriving in 
London without delay. Here Haydn found 
himself the centre of a brilliant artistic cir- 
cle, and every attention was heaped upon 
him. In July he went to Oxford to receive 
the honorary degree of Mus. Doc. His 
symphonies, written at this period for Salo- 
mon's concerts, and known as the " Salomon 
symphonies," are accounted his greatest or- 
chestral works. He left London in the lat- 
ter part of June, 1792, returning to Vienna 
by way of Bonn, where he met Beethoven 
and passed judgment upon a cantata of his, 
and Frankfort, and arriving at the end of 
July. In December Beethoven came to Vi- 
enna to studj^ under him. On Jan. 19, 1794, 
Haydn set out again for Loudon, on the in- 
vitation of Salomon to write six more sym- 
phonies. His success and popularity dur- 



ing this second visit quite equalled his 
former exjierience in England, and he re- 
turned home in August, 1795, with a com- 
petence for the rest of his life. In January, 
1797, he left his house in Vienna (now Neu- 
markt. No. 2) for one he had bought in the 
Mariahilf suburb (Windmiihle, 73 Kleine 
Steingasse, now 19 Haydugasse), and went 
to Eiseustadt only for the summer and fall. 
The great works of the last ten years of his 
life were Die SchOpfung, and Die Jahi'es- 




Haydn's Tomb, 

zeiten. Although his health was feeble dur- 
ing the last few years, he coi\tinued com- 
posing almost to the end. He died during 
the siege of Vienna by the French. On 
June 15, Mozart's Eequiem was sung in his 
honour in the Schotteukirche, and he was 
liiu'ied in the Hundsthurm churchyard, not 
far from his own house ; but in 1820 his 
body was transferred to the upper parish 
church at Eiseustadt by order of Prince 
Eszterhazy. Haydn has, with justice, been 
called the father of modern orchestral 



HAYDN 



music ; to Lira the world owes the establish- 
ment of the two finest phases of the sonata- 
form : the orchestral symphony and the 
string quartet. However, the generally ac- 
ce25ted story that he and Boccherini set the 
standard form for the quartet nearly at the 
same time, and without collusion, seems to 
be, in the main, true. (See Samml. Mus. 
Vortrilg, IV. 105-110.) In the field of oratorio 
he, Beethoven, and Mendelssohn are the only 
composers after Handel whoso works have 
lived to the present day in undiminished 
favour with musicians and the public. 
Works : I. Oratorios and Cantatas : Canta- 
ta for the birthday of Prince Nicolaus Esz- 
terhazy, Eiseustadt, 17G3 ; Deutschland's 
Klage auf den Tod Friedrichs des Grossen ; 
Applausus musicns, for the festival of a pre- 
late, Vienna, 1708; II ritorno di Tobia, ib., 
1775 ; Arianna a Naxos, London, 1791 ; 
The Slorm, ib.. Mar. 2G, 1791 ; The In- 
vocation of Neptune (composed 1795, not 
completed) ; Die sicben letzten Worte, 
Eisenstadt, 1797 ; Die Erwilhlung eines 
Kapellmeisters, Vienna, 1797-1802 ; Die 
Schopfuiig, ib., Apr. 29, 1798 ; Die Jahres- 
zeilen, ib., Apr. 24, 1801. H. Church Mu- 
sic : 14: masses ; 1 Stabat Mater ; 2 Te 
Deum ; 13 oflertories ; 4 motets ; 1 Tantum 
ergo ; 4 Salve Kegina ; 1 Regina cceli ; 2 
Ave Eegina ; Eesponsoria de Venerabili ; 1 
cantilena pro Adventu (German) ; 6 sacred 
arias ; 2 ditto, duets. HI. Dramatic : Der 
neue krumme Teufcl, Singspiel, Vienna, 
Stadttheater, 1752 ; Acide e Galatea, pas- 
toral, Eisenstadt, Jan. 11, 17G3 ; La can- 
terina, opera buifa, 177G ; Lo speziale, Vi- 
enna, 17G9 ; II diavolo zoppo, ib., 1770; Le 
pescatrici, dramma giocosa, 1770 ; L' infe- 
deltadelusa, burletta, Eszterhaz, 1773 ; L' in- 
contro improviso, dramma giocosa, 1775 ; 
II mondo della Luna, do., 1777 ; La vera 
costauza, Eszterhaz, 1779 ; La fedelta pre- 
miata, ib., Nov. 18, 1779; L' infedelta fedele, 
1780 (?) ; Orlando paladino, Eszterhaz, 1782 ; 
Armida, ib., 1784 ; L' (sola disabitata, Vi- 
enna, Hoftheater, 1785 ; Orfeo ed Euridice 
(composed 1791, not completed) ; Die Apfel- 



diebe, Berlin, 1791 ; Second act of II dls- 
fmllo, Vienna, about 1794 (?) ; L' avaro, in- 
termezzo, Paris, Opera Italien, Jan. 5, 1802 ; 
Philemon und Baucis, marionette opera, 
Eszterhaz, 1773 ; Der Gotterrath, do. ; Der 
Hexenschabbes, do. ; Genoverfa, do. ; Dido, 
do., Eszterhaz, Sep. 15, 1778 ; Incidental 
music to Der Zerstreute (see II didrallo). 
Die Feuersbrunst, Hamlet, Gotz von Ber- 
lichingen, Konig Lear, Das abgebrannte 
Haus, Alfred. IV. Miscellaneous Vocal 
Works : 12 German Lieder, 1782 ; 12 do., 
1784 ; 12 separate do. (5 in IMS.) ; 6 origi- 
nal canzonets, London, 179G ; G do. ; The 
Sjiirit Song (Shakespeare) ; O tuneful voice ; 
3 English songs in MS. ; 2 duets ; 3 three- 
part and 10 four-part songs ; 3 choruses in 
ilS. ; 1 do. from Alfred (Leipsic, Breitkopf 
& H;irtel) ; Golt erhalte Franz den Kaiser, 
for 1 and 4 voices ; 42 canons in 2 or more 
parts ; 2 do. ; The Ten Commandments in 
canons ; the same with other words. Die 
zehn Gesetze der Kunst ; Accompaniments 
for pianoforte, violin, and violincello to 
247 Scotch songs (London, W. Napier, 3 
vols.) ; Do. to 17 ditto (some by Thomas & 
Whyte, Edinburgh) ; 41 Welsh airs in 3 parts 
(London, Preston, 3 vols.). V. Instru- 
mental : 125 symphonies, of which the fol- 
lowing are the most noteworthy. (The 
greatest confusion exists in the numbering 
of Haydn's symphonies ; the numbers given 
here refer respectively to the editions of 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Peters, Andre, and 
Eieter-Biedermann, and to the Catalogue of 
the London Philharmonic Society. The 
English, French, and Italian titles are current 
in England and America, the German titles 
are recognized in Germany. Those num- 
bered 1-12 in the Lond. Philharmonic Soc. 
catalogue are the so-called great " Salomon " 
symphonies, written for Salomon's concerts 
in London.) Mit dem Paul'emvirhel, in E-flat, 
1795 ? (B. & H, No. 1 ; P., No, 1 ; Phil., No. 
8) ; in D, London, 1795 (B. k H, No. 2 ; P., 
No. 2 ; Phil., No. 7) ; in E-flat, Vieima, 1793 
(B. &H., No. 3 ; Phil., No. 10) ; The Clock, 
in D, 1794 (B. k H, No. 4 ; P., No. 3 ; Phil., 



IIAYDK 



No. 11) ; in D, Loudon, 1791 (B. &H., No. 5, 
Pbil, No. 2) ; Surprifi', Mit dem Pauken- 
scLlag, in G, 1791 (B. & H., No. G ; P., No. 
4 ; Phil., No. 3) ; in C, 179- ? (B. & H., 
No. 7 ; P., No. 5 ; Phil., No. 1) ; in B-flat, 
1792 ? (B. & H., No. 8 ; Phil., No. 4) ; in C 
minor, 1791 (B. & H., No. 9 ; Phil., No. 5) ; 
in D (B. & H., No. 10) ; Mililanj, in G, 
1794 (B. & H., No. 11 ; P., No. 7 ; Phil., 
No. 12) ; in E-flat, 1795 (B. & H., No. 12 ; 
P., No. 6 ; Phil, No. 9) ; in G (B. k H., No. 

13 ; P., No. 8) ; in D, 1791 (B. & H., No. 

14 ; Phil., No. 6) ; in E-flat, 1787 ?, for Paris 
(Andre, No. 1 ; Phil., Letter T) ; L'oifrs in 

C, 178G? (A., No. 2) ; Traucr, in E minor, 
1772? (A., No. 3; Phil., Letter I) ; in B 
(R.-Bied., No. 1); Oxford, in G, 1788? 
(R.-B., No. 2 ; P., No. 9 ; Phil, Letter Q) ; 
in C, 1788 ? (R.-B., No. 3 ; Phil., Letter R) ; 
in E-flat (R.-B., No. 4) ; La chasse, in D 
(R.-B., No. 5) ; in C minor (R.-B., No. G) ; 
in B-flat, 1780 ? (Phil., Letter A) ; Farewell, 
AbAchiedi<sii)fonie, in F-sharp minor, 1772 
(Phil., Letter B) ; in D, 1774 (Phil., Letter 
H) ; in G, 1772 (Phil., Letter L) ; in G, 
1787?, for Paris (Phil., Letter V) ; in F, 
1787 (Phil., Letter "\V) ; La rrinede France, 
in G minor, 178G ?, for Paris (Simrock, in 
parts) ; lio.relane, in C, 1777 ? (ib., id.) ; 
Lia poule, in G minor, 1786?, for Paris (ib., 
id.) ; Bfaria Theresa, in C, 1773? (ib., id.) ; 
Laiidon, in C, 1779 ? ; The Schoolmaster, in 
E-flat, 1774 (Simrock, in parts) ; Le matin, in 

D, 17G-? ; Le midi, in C, 17G1 ; Le xoir, in 
G, 17G-? ; II dish-allo, in C, 177G ? ; Kinder- 
siimphonie, in C, 178- ? (Andro) ; Mercury, 
in E-flat, 1772 ? ; Der x>hilo><oph, in E-flat, 
17G4 ; La pcuft^ione, in F minor, 1773 ? ; 
/'('Her-Symphonie, in A, 1774 ; Concertante, 
in B-flat, London, 1792 ; Lamentations, in 
D minor, 1772 (the entire number of 
symjjhonies, including overtures to ojjeras, 
etc., published in parts, is 94 ; 40 are pub- 
lished in score, and 29 are still in MS.) ; Die 
siebea letzten "Worte, for strings, Artaria, 
1785 ; 7 notturnos for lyre ; 7 marches ; 6 
scherzandos ; 1 sextet ; several quintets ; 1 
echo for 4 violins and 2 'ceHi ; several Feld- 



parthien for wind instruments ; arrange- 
ments of pieces for barytou ; 12 collections 
of minuets and allemandes ; Divertimeuti, 
etc., for strings, with and without wind ; 
175 pieces for baryton ; 51 concertos (19, 
including divertimeuti, for pianoforte, 1 for 
pianoforte and violin, 9 for violin, G for vio- 
loncello, 1 for double-bass, 5 for lyre, 3 for 
baryton, 2 for flute, 3 for horn, 1 for 2 horns, 

1 for clarino, 179G) ; G duets for violin and 
viola ; 1 do. for 2 lutes ; 35 trios for piano- 
forte, violin and violoncello ; 3 do., for pi- 
anoforte, flute and violoncello ; 20 do. for 

2 violins and bass ; 1 do. for violin, viola 
and bass ; 2 do. for flute, violin and bass ; 

3 do. for 3 flutes ; 1 do. for coruo di caccia, 
violin and violoncello ; 2 do. for lute, violin 
and violoncello ; 77 quartets for 2 violins, 
viola and violoncello (Nos. 1-18 published 
in 3 series, Nos. 21-74, with arrangement 
of Sieben letzten Worte, in 9 series, Nos. 20, 
75-7G, and 77 separately ; No. 19 is in 
MS.) ; 53 sonatas and divertiincnti for pi- 
anoforte ; 4 do. for jjianoforte and violin ; 
1 do. for harp, flute and bass ; 9 smaller 
pieces for pianoforte ; 1 for do., 4 hands ; 
several pieces for musical clock ; 1 do. for 




harmonica. For list of works spuriously or 
conjecturally attributed to Haydn, see 
Grove, i. 720.— C. F. Polil, Joseph Haydn 
(Leipsic, Breitkopf k Hiirtel, 1875) ; C. F. 
Pohl, Mozart und Haydn in London (Vi- 
enna, 18G7) ; Grove. 

HAYDN, (JOHANN) mCHAEL, born at 
Rohrau, Germany, Sept. 14, 1737, died at 
Salzburg, Aug. 10, ISOG. Organist, broth- 



a^r. 



HAYES 




er of Josef Haydn. He became cborister 
at St. Steijheu's, Vienua, at eight years of 
age ; and later as- 
sist aut organist ; 
was Kapellmeister 
at Grosswardeiu iu 
1757, Couzertmeis- 
ter and director to 
Archbisboj) Sigis- 
mund, at Salzburg, 
and organist at 
Holy Trinity and 
St. Peter "s, Salzburg, in 1777. Having lost 
liis in-operty through the destruction of 
Salzburg by the French iu 1800, the Em- 
press asked him to compose a mass for her, 
iu which she sang the soprano solos, Oct. 
4, 1801. Prince Eszterhazy twice ofiered 
him the vice-Kaiiellmeistership of his chapel, 
but he twice refused, hoping the chapel at 
Salzburg would be reorganized. He was 
a member of the Academy at Stockholm. 
Joseph Haydn considered Michael's church 
music better than his own. Works : 2 
Eequiems ; 21: masses ; 4 German masses ; 
114 graduals ; 67 olTertories ; 8 Responso- 
rien ; 3 Tenebrse, Regiua Cadi, etc. ; 8 lit- 
anies ; 11 vespers ; 5 Salve Regina ; sev- 
eral German sacred songs ; 50 short organ 
pieces, preludes, etc. (Linz) ; 30 .symphonies, 
and Partiten ; 1 sextet ; 3 quintets ; 12 
minuets (Augsburg, Gombart) ; 1 violin con- 
certo ; quintets ; serenades ; marches ; orato- 
rios ; cantatas ; ojjera, Andromeda e Perseo 
(1770) ; operettas ; i)astoral. Die Hochzeit 
auf der Aim ; four-part songs (Vienna, 
1799 ; Salzburg, 1800) ; single songs, Karl 
der Held, Erzherzog von Oesterreich, etc. ; 
6 canons (Salzburg, 1800) ; Partitur Fun- 
dament ; Anti25honarium romanum. — Men- 
del ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Fetis. 

HAYES, PHILIP, born at Oxford, April, 
1738, died in London, March 10, 1797. Or- 
ganist, son and pupil of William Hayes ; 
Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1763 ; Gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal, 1767 ; organist of New 
College, Oxford, 1770, of Magdalen College, 
and Professor of Music in the University, 



1777 ; Mus. Doc, 1777 ; organist of St, 
John's College, 1790. Works : Prophecy, 
oratorio, 1781 ; Telemachus, a masque ; Ode 
for St. Cecilia's Day, " Begin the Song " 
(by John Oldham) ; Anthems ; Services, 
psalms, glees, etc. He edited Harmonia 
Wiccamica (London, 1780). — Grove. 

HAYES, WILLIAjM, born at Gloucester 
in 1707, died at Oxford, July 30, 1777. He 
was chorister of Gloucester Cathedral, or- 
ganist at St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, and, iu 
1731-34, of Worcester Cathedral. In 1734 
he became organist of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, where he received the degree of 
Mus. Bac. in 1735. He became professor 
of music at the University in 1742, and 
Doctor of Music iu 1749. He conducted 
at the Gloucester Musical Festival in 1763. 
Works : Twelve Arietta or Ballads and Two 
Cantatas (1735) ; Collins's Ode on the Pas- 
sions ; Vocal and Instrumental Music, con- 
taining : I. The Overture and Songs in the 
Masque of Circe, H. A Sonata or Trio and 
Ballads, Airs, and Cantatas, IH. An Ode, 
being part of an Exercise performed for a 
Bachelor's Degree in Music (1742) ; Cathe- 
dral Music ; Catches, glees, canons, etc. 
— Grove ; Barrett, English Church Com- 
posers, 130 ; Harmonicon (1833), 141. 

HAYM (Hennius), GILLES, Belgian 
church composer of the 17th century. 
Canon and singer iu the collegiate church 
of St. John, Liege ; subsequently Kajjell- 
meister to Ferdinand, Elector Prince-bishop 
of Cologne, and finally to the Duke of Pfalz- 
Neuburg. His masses, motets, hymns, etc., 
were published in Cologne and Antwerp 
(1620-1651).— Fetis ; do., Supiolement, i. 
454 ; Riemann ; Van der Straeten, i. 215. 

HAYM, NICOLO FRANCESCO, born in 
Rome about 1G79, died in London, Aug. 11, 
1729. Violoncellist, born of German par- 
ents. He went in 1704 to England, and 
attemj)ted to establish Italian op>era in Lou- 
don ; altered operas, played in the orchestra, 
and wrote many librettos. Works : Sona- 
tas for two violins and bass. — Grove ; Men- 
del ; Futis ; Hawkins, Hist, of Music, v. 163. 



HAYOUL 



HAYOUL, BAUDOUIN, French ecclesi- 
astic and clnircli composer of the second 
lialf of the Ifith ceuturj'. Maitre de mu- 
sicjue at the church of Saiut-Nicolas-des- 
Champs, Paris. He published a collection 
of motets (Nuremberg, 1587). — Futis. 

HAYS, WILLIAjM SHAKSPEAKE, born 
of American parentage in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, July 19, 1837, still living, 1889. 
Composer of popular songs, the first of 
which was written when he was about six- 
teen yeai's old. Since then he has pub- 
lished nearly three hundred, which have 
had a phenomenal sale of several millions 
in the aggregate. Among the best known 
are : Evangeline ; My Southern Sunny 
Home ; Write me a Letter from Home ; 
We parted by the River Side ; Driven from 
Home ; Shamus O'Brien ; Mollie Darling ; 
Tlie Moon is out to-night, Love ; Old- 
fashioned Roses are Sweetest ; etc. 

HE.y;', CHARLES SWINNERTON, born 
in B i r m i n s h a m , 
England, Ajiril 10, 
1847, still living, 
1889. Pianist and 
conductor, studied 
at Leipsic ; Men- 
delssohn scholar, 
ISO.'') ; Mus. Bac, 
Cambridge, 18 71, 
Mus. Doc, 1872. 
Conductor of Bii-- 
mingham Philhar- 
monic Union, of 
Stafiford and other Philharmonic Societies, 
and of Wolverhamjjton Musical Festivals. 
Works : The Captivity, oratorio ; The Maid 
of Astolat, cantata, 1885 ; 3d Psalm, for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Voice of Spring, 
chorus and orchestra ; Overture in F, or- 
chestra, Birmingham Festival, 1879 ; do. in 
C, ib., 1879 ; Sonata for clarinet and piano- 
forte, 1880 ; do. for organ ; do. for violin 
and pianoforte, 1884 ; Quintet for jjiano- 
forte and wind instruments, 1882 ; Trios ; 
Anthems and other sacred music ; Organ 
music ; Songs, part-songs, etc. 




HEBRIDEN, DIE, (The Hebrides), also 
known as Fingal's HOhle (Fingal's Cave), 2d 
concert overture, in B minor, for orchestra, 
by Mendelssohn, op. 26, first played by the 
Philharmonic Society, London, May 14, 
1832. Mendelssohn and Klingemann vis- 
ited StaiTa in 1829, and in the winter of the 
followiiig year the overture was begun in 
Rome. The original score, dedicated to 
Franz Hauser, is dated Rome, Dec. IG, 
1830, and entitled Die eiusame lusel (The 
Lonely Isle). The MS. of this is in posses- 
sion of Felix Moscheles, London. A sec- 
ond setting, dated Loudon, June 20, 1832, 
in possession of the family of Sir W. Stern- 
dale Bennett, diflers greatly, chiefly in the 
working out of the middle part. The 
printed score (published by Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Easter, 1834), is entitled Fingals 
Hohle. The overture was given in New 
York, by the Philharmonic Society, season 
of 1852-53.— Grove, i. 724. 

HECQUET (Huquet), CHARLES JO- 
SEPH GUSTAVE, born at Bordeaux, Aug. 
22, 1803, died in 18GG. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of Paer. He wrote music for 
vaudevilles, and composed several operas, 
of which the best are : Le braconnier, given 
at the O^Jera Comique, 1847, and Marinette 
et Gros-Reue, operetta, Bouflfes Parisiens, 
185G. He was musical critic on L'Rlus- 
tration, the Revue et Gazette musicale, 
and other Paris journals. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

HECUBA, concert aria for alto and or- 
chestra, in G minor, text by Dr. L. Gold- 
ham, music by Rubinstein, op. 92, No. 1, 
dedicated to Frau Caroline Gomperz-Bet- 
tleheim. Published by Bartholf Seuflf (Leip- 
sic, between 18G8 and 1873), and by No- 
vollo, Ewer & Co. (London). 

HEDA\1G, JOHANN LUCA, born at 
Helsdorf, near Kronstadt, Transylvania, ' 
Aug. 5, 1802, died at Ki'onstadt, Jan. 8, j 
1849. The cantor of his native place taught 
him singing and violin, and his musical 
studies wei-e finished under Drechsler and 
Blumenthal, in Vienna, where he composed 
overtures and other music for the theatres. 



S48 



HEGAPt 



In 1840 he became cantor and claurcli mu- 
sic director in Kronstadt. His best Avorks 
were cantatas, motets, and songs. — Mendel. 

HEGAE, FRIEDRICH, born at- Basel, 
Oct. 11, 1811, still living, 1889. Violinist, 
pupil at the Conservatorium, Leipsic 
(1857-GO), for a short time Couzertmeister 
of Eilso's orchestra, then at "Warsaw ; re- 
turned to Leipsic to complete his studies, 
and after a visit to Baden-Baden and Paris, 
became director of music at Gebweiler, 
Alsace. Since 18G3 he has lived at Ziirich, 
where he was at tirst Conzertmei.stei-, then 
conductor of the subscrijatiou concerts, and 
from 18G8 of the Tonhalle orchestra. He 
is also director of the school of music, 
opened in 187G. Of his compositions the 
oratorio Manassa deserves esjjecial notice. 
—Mendel. 

HEILANDS LETZTE STUNDEN, DES 
(The Saviour's Last Hours), oratorio by 
Spohr, text by Eochlitz, Urst performed at 
Cassel, Good Friday, 1835. The libretto 
had been previously declined by Mendels- 
sohn, who was then at work on his St. Paul. 
The oratoi'io is called Calvary in the Eng- 
lish version by Edward Taylor, the tirst 
performance of which was given, under 
Spohr's own direction, at the Norwich Fes- 
tival, 1839. It was given again, in Spohr's 
presence, under the direction of Costa, by 
the London Sacred Harmonic Society, Ex- 
eter Hall, July 5, 1852. — Spohr, Autobiog- 
raphy, ii. 217 ; Athenneum (1852), 75G. 

HEIL DIR IM SIEGERKRANZ, a Ger- 
man national song, words by Heinrich Har- 
ries, adapted to the air "God save the King." 
It was written originally for the birthday of 
Christian VH., King of Denmark (Harries 
being a clergyman of Ilolstein), and pub- 
lished in the Flensburg Wochenblatt, Jan. 
27, 1790 ; but it was modified later (1793) 
for Prussian use by B. G. Schumacher. — W. 
Tappert, in Musik. Wochenblatt, Aug. 31, 
1877. 

HEILIGE CACILIA, DIE (St. Cecilia), 
cantata for mezzo-sojjrano, chorus, and or- 
chestra, or pianoforte, harp, and harmon- 



ium, text by Mme Emile de Girardin, mu- 
sic by Franz Liszt, op. 15G, composed in 
1875. Published, score, vocal score, and 
parts, by Kahnt (Vienna, 187G). 

HEILIGE NACHT, DIE, Couzertstiick 
for alto solo, chorus, and orchestra, in A- 
flat, by Niels W. Gade, op. 40. The text is 
from the poem, "Die Christnacht," by Au- 
gust von Platen. Published by Breitkopf 
& Hilrtel (Leiijsic, 18G3). Allgemeine Mu- 
sikalisehe Zeituiig (18G3), 33G." 

HEILIG, HEILIG, HEILIG!, quartet 
and chorus in C major, in Mendelssohn's 
Elias, No. 35. 

HEIL SACHS! HANS SACHS! See 
Jlfeislersingrr von Niirnberg. 

HEIL SEI EUCH GEWEIHTEN. See 
Zauhertlijk'. 

HEILUNG DES BLINDGEBORNEN, 
DIE (The Blind restored to Sight), oratorio, 
by Carl Loewe, for voices a cappella, a spe- 
cies of oratorio composition peculiar to this 
composer. Published without opus number 
in ISGl. 

HEBIKEHR AUS DER FEEMDE (Re- 
turn from abroad), operetta, iu one act, 
text by Carl Klingemanu, music hy Men- 
delssohn, op. 89, written for the silver wed- 
ding of his jjarents on Dec. 2G, 1829. It 
was comijosed in London between Sejjt. 10 
and Oct. 4, 1829. The words of the song. 
No. 12, Die Blumenglocken, were written 
by Mendelssohn, and the music by Kliuge- 
mann. The parts were : Lisbeth, Rebecca ; 
Kauz, Devrient ; Hermann, Mantius ; and 
the Maj-or, Hensel, for whom the jiart was 
written on one note, F. Performed at the 
Opera, Berlin, in 1851. An English ver- 
sion, entitled Son and the Stranger, by 
Chorley, was jiroduced at the Haymarket 
Theatre, London, July 7, 1851. A French 
translation by Jules Barbier, entitled Lis- 
beth, was represented at the Theatre Lyri- 
que, Paris, June 9, 18G5. Published by 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mendelssohn's Werke, 
Serie 15, No. 122. — Hensel, Mendelssohn, i. 
247 ; Clement et Larousse, 404. ; Atlien- 
?oum (1851), 744. 



IlEINEMEYEE 



HEINEMEYEIl, ERNST WILHELM, 

boi'u at Hauover, Feb. 25, 1827, died iu 
Vienna, Feb. 12, 1869. Virtuoso on tlie 
flute, son and jjupil of Christiau Heiue- 
mej'er (179G-1872, also a distinguished 
flutist, and royal chamber musician), at whose 
side he played in the royal orchestra, 1845 
-1:7 ; then went to St. Petersburg as first 
flutist iu the imperial orchestra, and was at 
the time instructor at the theatre-school 
there. Pensioned iu 1859, he returned 
to Hanover, but in 186G settled in Vienna. 
His concertos and solos for his instrument are 
very brilliant, and much esteemed by flutists. 
— Mendel ; Riemann. 

HEINICHEN, (JOHANN) DAVID, born 
at Crdssuln, near Weissenfels, April 17, 
1G83, died in Dresden, July IG, 1729. Pu- 



HEINLEIN, PAUL, born in Nuremberg, 
April 11, 162G, died there, Aug. G, 1G8G. 
Pianist and organist, studied music in his 
native city, later in Linz, Munich, and 
Italy. On returning to Nuremberg he be- 
came musician to the council, organist of 
the Egidienkirche in 1G55, musical director 
of the Fraueuku'che iu 1G5G, and chief or- 
ganist of St. Sebaldus iu 1658. He com- 
posed pianoforte, organ, and church music. 
—Mendel ; FOtis ; Schilling ; Gerber (1790), 
i. 616 ; Wiuterfeld, Der evaug. Kirchenge- 
sang, ii. 457. 

HEESfROTH, JOHANN AUGUST GUN- 
THEE, born at Nordhausen, June 19, 1780, 
died at Gottingen, June 2, 1816. Vocal 
composer, but more noted as a writer on 
music ; son and pupil of Christoph Gottlieb 



l>i\ at the Leipsic Thomasschule of Schelle Heinroth, who for sixty-two years was Gr- 
and Kuhnau ; studied law and practised as ganist at Nordhausen. In 1818 he suc- 
an advocate iu Weissenfels ; then returned ' ceeded Forkel as music director at the uni- 
to Leipsic and began to compose operas, versity of GOttingen, where he was very 
After living several years (1713-18) in Italy, active in promoting the musical life of the 
he was appointed court Kapellmeister in i city by establishing the academical concerts. 
Dresden in 1718. He published in 1711 a He composed 169 choral melodies for 4 
large work on thorough bass, which at- voices (1829) ; 6 songs for three parts ; G 
tracted much attention. Works : Helena choruses for male voices. — Fetis ; Mendel : 



und Paris, opera, given at Leipsic, 1709 ; 
Calpurnia, i pazzi per troppo amore, Venice, 
Teatro S. Augelo, 1713 ; Several masses ; 
Solos for violin ; Fugues for harpsicliord, and 
other instrumental music. In the royal 
library, Berlin, are : Requiem for 4 voices 
and instruments ; 2 masses for do. ; Kyrie 
and Gloria, do. ; Te Deum, do. ; 2 Pange 
lingua, do. ; 4 Italian cantatas. In the royal 



Riemann. 

HEINZE, GUSTAV ADOLPH, born iu 
Leipsic, Oct. 1, 1820, still living, 1889. 
Dramatic composer, son and pupil on the 
clarinet of Ferdinand Heiuze, and studied 
the iDianoforte under W. Haake ; became a 
member of the Gewandhaus orchestra at 
the age of fifteen. In 1840 he took lessons 
in com position of Kotte, in Dresden, made 
concert tours, and was 
influenced by Mendels- 
sohn. In 1844 he be- 
came second Kapell- 
meister at the Breslau 
theatre, and iu 1850 
went as Kapellmeister 
of the German opera to 
library, Dresden, arc : the operas Flavio ' Amsterdam, where he was director of the 
Crispo, and Mario, 5 serenades, and 57 Euterpe Society from 1853, of the Vincen- 
cantatas. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 367 ; Fetis ; j tius Concerts in 1857, and of the Excelsior 
Mendel ; SchiUiug ; Riemann. | church music singing society in 1868. 







sso 



IIEISE 



Works : Lorelei, opera, given at Breslau, 
18i6 ; Die Riiiue iu Tliaraudt, ib., 1847 ; 
Oratorios : Auferstehimg, Sankta Ciicilia, 
Der Feenschleier ; Three masses ; Three 
overtures ; many cantatas, hymns, songs, 
and male choruses. — Mendel ; Kiemann. 

HEISE, PEDER ARNOLD, born at Co- 
penhagen, Feb. 11, 1830, died there, July 
5, 1879. Dramatic comjwser, studied at 
the university of his native city ; pupil on 
the i^ianoforte of A. Lund, and in theory of 
Berggreeu, HaujJtmann, and Gade. He was 
music teacher at the Academy of SOrOe iu 
1857-G5, then returned to Copenhagen, 
where he produced successfully the operas : 
The Pasha's Daughter, 18G9, and King and 
Marshal, 1878.— Meyer, Konv. Lex. (1888) ; 
Mendel, Ergilnz., 154 ; Riemann. 

HEISER, WILHELJI, born in Berlin, 
April 15, 1817, still living, 1889. Vocal 
composer, was a choir-boy and later an ojj- 
era singer ; then retired from the stage 
and taught singing in Stralsuud, Berlin, 
and Rostock. In 185.3 he became regimen- 
tal bandmaster in Berlin, and after 1866 
devoted himself again to vocal instruction. 
He composed several hundred songs, of 
which many have become very popular in 
Germany, besides dances and marches for 
pianoforte. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

HELD, JACOB, born at Landshut, Nov. 
11, 1770, died after 1812. Violinist, but 
studied also the organ and pianoforte, and 
at an early age became organist in his native 
place ; went to Munich to study j^hilosophy, 
and became the xaui^il of Hampeln and Eck 
on the violin, and of Danzi in comijosition. 
Made concert tours iu Germany, Switzer- 
land, and France, and then settled down as 
court musician and teacher iu Munich. He 
composed overtures for orchestra, string 
quartets, and concertos and variations for 
the violin.— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

HELDER (Helderus), BARTHOLO- 
MAUS, born in Gotha about 1585, died in 
Remstiidt, Oct. 28, 1635. Vocal composer, 
was attendant in a school at Friemar, and 
from 1616 pastor iu Remstadt. Works : 



Cymbalum Genethliacum, containing 15 mo- 
tets for Christmas and New Year, for i, 5, 
and 6 voices (Erfurt, 1614) ; Symbolum Da- 
vidicum, containing 25 German psalms, for 
5, 6, and 8 voices (ib., 1620) ; Pater noster, 
in contrapuncto colorato, for 4 voices (ib., 
1G21) ; The 103d and 123d psalms, do. ; 54 
melodies by him are included in the Can- 
tionale sacrum (Gotha, 1646-48). — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xi. 684 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Winter- 
feld, Der evang. Kirchengesang, ii. 87. 

HE LED THEM THROUGH THE 
DEEP, double chorus in E-llat major (end- 
ing in G minor), iu Handel's I.'ii-ael in Egypt, 
No. 13 ; often known as the "Wilderness 
chorus." 

H£LE, GEORGES DE LA, born iu the 
Hainaut, about 1545, died 1591 (?). He 
was conductor of music in the cathedral at 
Tournay, and maestro de capilla at the 
court of Philip H., at Madrid. Works : 8 
masses for 5, 6, and 7 voices (Antwerp, 
1578).— Mendel ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Fetis. 

HELFER, CH.VRLES D", French church 
composer of the 16th century. He was 
canon and master of the children in the ca- 
thedral of Soissons. He composed masses, 
hymns, etc. (Paris, Robert Ballard, 1653, 
1658, 1660, 1674).— Fc-tis. 

HELIANTHUS, opera in three acts, text 
and music by Adalbert von Goldschmidt, 
represented in Leipsie, Stadttheater, March 
26, 1884.— Signale (1884), 401. 

HELLE, ANTOINE, French composer, 
contemporary. He was educated at the 
School for Sacred Music, Paris ; became 
maitre de chapelle of the basilica of Saint- 
Epvre, Nancy, for the consecration of which, 
in 1875, he composed a cantata-oratorio, 
entitled Les magnificences du culte catholi- 
que. He is director of the Choral Society, 
Alsace-Lorraine. Among his published 
works are organ and church music, and Le 
Trcsor des Maitrise.s, a collection of har- 
monized plain chaunts. — Fetis, Supplement, 
i. 45G. 

HELLER, STEPHEN, born at Pestb, 
May 15, 1815, died in Paris, Jan. 14, 1888. 



251 



HELLER 




Pianist, pupil of F. Biiiiier, fippeared in 
public at an eai'ly age, and when thirteen 
years old went to Vien- 
na, to study under An- 
ton Halm ; made a con- 
cert tour of the cities of 
Germany in 182!), lived 
for some years at Augs- 
burg, and went iu 1838 
to Paris, where he soon 
entered into friendly 
intercourse with Clio- 
piu, Liszt, Berlioz, and 
other celebrities, and acquired great repu- 
tation as a concert player and teacher. 
He visited England in 18G2, and played 
at the Crystal Palace with Halle. He 
began composing in Augsburg, where he 
attracted the notice of Robert Schumann ; 
l)ut in sjiite of his friendship, his works are 
more marked by the influence of Mendels- 
sohn and Chopin. Works : Trois morceaux 
caracti'ristiques, op. 7 ; Grande t'tude en 
forme de rondo-scherzo, o}!. 8 ; Trois mor- 
ceaux brillants, op. 10 ; Rondo-valse, op. 
11 ; Divertissement brillant sur Les Treize, 
d'Halcvy, op. 13 ; Passe-temps, recueil de 
compositions amusantes, op. 14 ; Six ca- 
prices sur Le Shi'rif, d'Hak'vy, op. 17 ; 
Quatre rondos sur La Favorite, op. 22 ; do. 
sur Le Guitarrero, op. 23 ; Scherzo, op. 24 ; 
Deux bagatelles sur Richard Ciwir-de- 
Lion, op. 25 and 2G ; Caprice brillant, op. 
27 ; Caprice symphonique, op. 28 ; La 
Chasse, etude earactcristique, op. 29 ; Dix 
pensees fugitives, op. 30 ; Petite fantaisie 
et boh'ro sur La Juive, op. 31 and 32 ; 
Fantaisie brillante et caprice sur Charles 
\T;., op. 37 and 38 ; La Kermesse, danse 
ncerlandaisc, op. 39 ; Miscellanees, op. 40 ; 
Caprice sur Le Deserteur, op. 41 ; Valse 
elegante, op. 42 ; Valse sentimentale, op. 
43 ; Valse villageoise, op. 44 ; Chant na- 
tional de Cliarles VI., op. 48 ; Pastorale, op. 
48 bis ; Quatre arabesques, op. 49 ; Scenes 
pastorales, op. 50 ; Venitienne, op. 52 ; Ta- 
reutelle, op. 53 ; Fantaisie, op. 54 ; La fon- 
taiue, caprice sur uuc melodie de Schubert, 



op. 55 ; Serenade, op. 56 ; Scherzo fantas- 
tique, op. 57 ; Reveries, op. 58 ; Valse bril- 
lante, op. 59 ; Canzonetta, op. 60 ; Deux- 
ieme tarentelle, op. 61 ; Deux valses, op. 
62 ; Capriccio, op. 63 ; Presto capriccioso, 
op. 64 ; Deuxieme sonate, op. 65 ; Caprice 
brillant sur Le Val d'Andorre, op. 66 ; La 
vallee d'amour, op. 67 ; L'alouette, caprice 
sur une melodie de Schubert, op. 68 ; Chant 
national de Mendelssohn, fantaisie en forme 
de sonate, op. 69 ; Caprice briUant sur Le 
Prophi'to, op. 70 ; Aux manes de Chopin, 
elegie et marche funebre, op. 71 ; Le chant 
du matin, Le chant du troubadour, Le 
chant du dimanche, op. 72 ; Le chant du 
chasseur, L'adieu du soldat, Le chaut du 
bei'ceau, op. 73 ; Fantaisie et valse brillante 
sur L'eufant prodigue, op. 74 ; Rondo-ca- 
price sur La Dame de Pique et romance 
variee, op. 75 ; Caprice caracteristique sur 
deux themes de Mendelssohn, op. 76 ; Sal- 
tarello surun theme de do., op. 77 ; Prome- 
nades d'un solitaire, op. 78 ; do., nouvelle 
suite, op. 80 ; do., troisieme suite, op. 89 ; 
Quatre jireludes, op. 79 ; Nuits blanches, 
18 morceaux Ij'riques, op. 82 ; Six Feuillets 
d'album, op. 83 ; Impromptu, op. 84 ; Deux 
Tarentelles, op. 85 ; Daus les bois, six re- 
veries et finale, op. 86 ; Scenes italiennes, 
fautaisie-tarentelle, op. 87 ; Troisieme so- 
nate, op. 88 ; Nouvelles etudes, op. 90 ; 
Deux nocturnes et nocturne-serenade, op. 
91 ; Trois eglogue.s, op. 92 ; Deux valses 
brillantes, op. 93 ; Tableau de genre, op. 
94 ; Allegro, op. 95 ; Grande etude de con- 
cert, oji. 96 ; Douze Landler et valses, op. 
97 ; Improvisation sur une melodie de 
Schumann, op. 98; Quatre Phantasie-Stiicke, 
o]}. 99 ; Deuxieme canzonetta, op. 100 ; 
Reverie d'un promeueur solitaire, oj). 101 ; 
Morceau de chasse, op. 102 ; Troisieme 
nocturne, op. 103 ; Polonaise, ojs. 104 ; 
Trois Romances sans paroles, op. 105 ; Trois 
bergeries, op. 106 ; Quatre Liindler, op. 
107 ; Quatrieme scherzo, oj). 108 ; Feuilles 
d'automne, oj). 109 ; Deux morceaux pour 
un album, op. 110 ; INIorceaux de ballet, 
op. Ill ; Caprice humoristique, op. 112; 



HELLMESBERGER 



Fantaisie caprice, op. 113 ; Deux cahiei'S, 
op. Ill ; Trois ballades, op. 115 ; Pivludes 
composes pour mademoiselle Lili, op. 119 ; 
Lieder, op. 120 ; Trois morceaux, op. 121 ; 
Valses-reveries, op. 122 ; Feuilles volantes, 
op. 123 ; Scenes d'enfants, op. 124 ; Vingt- 
quatre Etudes d'expressiou et de rliythme, 
op. 125 ; Trois ouvertures, op. 12G ; Etudes 
sur Le Freischtitz, de Weber, op. 127 ; 
Dans les bois, nouvelle serie, op. 128 ; do., 
troisiome suite, op. 13G ; Deux inipronij)tus, 
op. 129 ; 23 Variations sur un theme de 
Beethoven, op. 130 ; 21 do., op. 133 ; Trois 
nocturnes, op. 131 ; Deux Polonaises, op. 
132 ; Petit Album, op. 131 ; Deux inter- 
medes de concert, op. 135 ; Deux taren- 
telles, 023. 137 ; Album dedie a la jeuuesse, 

o\). 138 ; 3 Etudes pour piano, op. 139 ; 
Voyage autour de ma chambre, op. 140 ; 4 
Barcarolles, op. 141. — Barbedette, Stephen 
Heller, sa vie, etc. (Paris, ISTG) ; Fetis ; do., 
Supplement, i. 45G ; Mendel ; N. Zeitschi-. 
f. Mus. (1888), 73 ; Schumann, Ges. Scbrif- 
ten, i. 218, 239, 247 ; ii. 132 ; 211, 314, 
351 ; Wurzbach. 

HELLMESBERGER, GEORG, the elder, 
born in Vienna, April 24, 1800, died at 
Neuwaldegg, near Vienna, Aug. IG, 1873. 
Violinist, pupil at the Conservatorium of 
Br)hm on the violin, of E. Fiirster in com2)o- 
sition ; assistant instructor at the Conserva- 
torium in 1821, titular professor in 1825, 
and professor in 1833 ; conductor of the Im- 
perial opera in 1829 ; member of the court 
chapel in 1830 ; pensioned in 18G7. He 
was the teacher of Ernst, Hauser, Joachim, 
Auer, and of his sons Georg and Josejih. 
Works : 2 concertos, besides solos and several 
works of variations for violin ; string quartet. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Wurzbach. 

HELLMESBERGER, GEORG, the 
younger, born at Vienna in 1828, died at 
Hanover, Nov. 12, 1852. Violinist, sou and 




pupil of Georg, the elder ; won great suc- 
cess on a concert tour through Germany 
and England in 1847, and became Conzert- 
meister of the royal orchestra at Hanover 
in 1849. Works— Operas: Die Biirg.schaft, 
given at Hanover ; Die beideu KOnigiunen, 
ib. ; symphonies, and other music in MS. 
—Mendel ; Wurzbach ; Mus. Wochenblatt, 
i. 708. 

HELLMESBERGER, JOSEPH, the el- 
der, born in Vienna, 
Nov. 3, 1829, still liv- 
ing there, 1889. Vio- 
linist, son and pupil of 
Georg, the elder ; be- 
came artistic director 
of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde and di- 
rector of the Conser- 
vatorium in 1851, Con- 
zertmeister at the Imperial Opei'a in 18G0, 
first violinist in the court orchestra in 18G3, 
and Hof-Kapellmeister in 1877. He was 
professor of violin at the Conservatorium 
in 1850-77. With the concerts of the 
string quartet founded by him in 1849, 
and which has ever since sustained an 
eminent reputation, a new era for chamber 
music opened in Vienna. As a teacher of 
his instrument, and as a conductor, he has 
attained j)articular and well-deserved dis- 
tinction. Austrian and foreign orders : L. 
of Honour, 1855, when he was president of 
the jury for musical instruments at the Paris 
Exhibition ; freedom of the city of Vienna 
on his 25th anniversary as director of the 
Conservatorium. His compositions are only 
of an instructive charactei-. — Wurzbach ; Fe- 
tis; do.. Supplement, i. 457; Mendel; Mus. 
Wochenblatt, i. 708. 

HELLilESBERGER, JOSEPH, the 
younger, born in Vienna, April 9, 1855, still 
living, 1889. Violinist and dramatic com- 
poser, son and pupil of Jose^jh, the elder, 
whose quartet he joined as second violin in 
1875 ; became solo violinist in the impe- 
rial and in the opera orchestra, and jjro- 
fessor at the Conservatorium in 1878. 



253 



HELLWIG 



Works — Operettas : Kapitiin Ablstrom, Der 
Graf von Gleichen, given iu Vienna, Theater 
Konacher, 1880 ; Der schone Kurfurst, Mu- 
nich, Theater am Giirtnerplatz, 1885 ; Ei- 
kiki, Vienna, Carltheater, 1887 ; Harlekin 
als Elektriker, iJautomime, Vienna Opera- 
house, 1884 ; Fata Morgana, Iji-ic-choreo- 
graphic drama, ib., 1885. 

HELLWIG, (liAKL FRIEDRICH) LLT)- 
WIG, born at Kunersdorf, near Wrietzen, 
July 23, 1773, died in Berlin, Nov. 24, 1838. 
Organist, learned the violin, pianoforte, and 
organ almost without a teacher, and while 
iu business studied theory under Giin-lich, 
G. A. Schneider, and Zelter. Became vice- 
director of the Singakademio of Berlin in 
1803, organist of the cathedral in 1813, and 
music teacher iu several public institutions. 
Works : Die Bergknappen, opera given in 
Berlin, 1822 ; Don Silvio, do.; Masses, mo- 
tets, psalms, canons, chorals, and many 
songs and male choruses. — Fotis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling, Supjilement, 199. 

HELMONT, ADRLUN JOSEPH VAN, 
bom in Brussels, April 14, 1747, died there, 
Dec. 28, 1830. Violinist and organist, son 
and successor of Charles Joscjih van Hel- 
mont, as du-ector and choir-master of SS. 
Michel-et-Gudule, Brussels. He had en- 
tered the royal chapel as a boy and re- 
mained in it for forty years. He was at 
one time chef d'orchestre of the Opera at 
Amsterdam, and comjiosed an oj^era, L'a- 
mant lugataire, 1808, but he wrote chiefly 
for the church. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, i. 
459 ; Van der Straeten, v. 1 and 399 ; ii. 
231. 

HELMONT, CHARLES JOSEPH VAN, 
born in Brussels, March 19, 1715, died 
there, June 8, 1790. Organist, maitre de 
musique of SS. Michel-et-Gudule, Brussels, 
from the age of twenty-two, and director of 
the royal chapel for many years. He was 
the author of a famous divertissement, Le 
retour desire, jjlayed at the triumphal en- 
try of Charles of Lorraine, as governor of 
the Netherlands, into Brussels (1749). He 
composed a great deal of church music of 



which Van der Straeten gives a detailed list. 
— Van der Straeten, i. 75 ; Fctis, Supple- 
ment, i. 459. 

HELP, LORD ! See Hllf, Herr ! 

HEMELSOET, LOUIS, born in Ghent, 
July 20, 1836, still living, 1889. Pianist, pu- 
pil of his father, then studied at the Ghent 
Consei-vatoire under Mengal, Henderickx, 
and Andries ; won in 1853 2d prize for har- 
mony and 1st prize for pianoforte ; became 
professor of pianoforte in Brussels, 1856. 
Works : De boereu-kermis, Flemish opera, 
Ghent, 1861 ; Church music ; Vocal and in- 
strumental music. — Futis, Supplement, i. 
460 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 154 ; Gregoir, iii. 20. 

HEiniERLEIN, JOSEPH, German pi- 
anist of the 18th century. He was music 
teacher in Fraukfort-ou-the-Main in 1780, 
and to the Countess von Vorberg in 1786 ; 
then lived in Paris until 1799, after which 
nothing more is known of him. He jjub- 
lished 6 concertos for pianoforte, with 
strings, oboes, and horns, 24 sonatas for 
pianoforte and violin, 6 do. for pianoforte 
(4 hands), 6 trios, 12 menuets, 12 anglaises, 
marches, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

HEMPEL, GEORG CHRISTOPH, born 
in Gotha in 1715, died there, May 4, 1801. 
Violinist, member of the ducal chapel of 
Gotha. He wrote 11 symphonies, 2 con- 
certos, and 12 solos for violin. — Fetis ; Ger- 
bcr (1790), i. 021 (1812), ii. 633. 

HENKEL, HEINRICH, bom at Fulda, 
Feb. 14, 1822, still living, 1889. Pianist, 
son and pupil of Michael Henkel ; studied 
also under Aloys Schmitt, and theory under 
Kessler and Anton Andre. After living in 
Fulda and Leij)sic, he settled in Fi-ankfort- 
on-the-Main in 1849 as a teacher, and be- 
came one of the founders and directors 
of the Musikschule there. He has jjublished 
songs and choruses, i^ianoforte pieces, and 
a method for pianoforte. — Mendel ; Fetis ; 
Riemann. 

HENKEL, GEORG ANDREAS, born at 
Fulda, Feb. 4, 1805, died there, April 5, 1871. 
Church and instrumental composer, son 
and pupil of Michael Henkel ; began to 



IlENKEL 



comj)ose at the age of eleven, then studied 
law at the university of Marburg, and in 
1837 obtained an ajapointment as musical 
instructor in the seminary at Fulda. 
Works : Overture to Schiller's Wallen- 
stein's Lager ; Sonata for pianoforte and 
violin ; Choruses for male voices ; Piano- 
forte and organ music. Symphonies, over- 
tures, masses, motets, songs, and choruses 
remain in MS. — FtHis ; Mendel. 

HENKEL, MICHAEL, born at Fulda, 
June 18, 1780, died there, March 4, 1851. 
Church composer, puj^il of Vierling ; early 
became chamber musician to the Prince 
Bishop of his native place, and from 1805 
was music teacher of schools. He com- 
jjosed a large number of church, organ, and 
jjiauoforte pieces, and published several 
choral books. Works : Music to Ifliand's 
drama Achmet und Zeuida, and to KOnig's 
Bauernhochzeit ; 3 German masses for 4 
voices, 2 horns, and organ ; 2 sonatas for 
pianoforte and violoncello ; 100 versicles, 
and other music for the organ ; duos for 
flutes ; many pianoforte pieces, songs, and 
choral melodies. — Mendel ; Futis ; SchilHng. 

HENNEBERG, JOHANN BAPTIST, 
born at Vienna, Dec. 6, 17G8, died there, 
Nov. 27, 1822. Organist and pianist, was 
conductor at the Theater an der Wien in 
1790-1804, and having removed to Hof, on 
the Hungarian frontier, became organist to 
Prince Eszterhazy, at Eisenstadt, in 1805, 
and also conducted the occasional operatic 
performances there. Ou the disbanding of 
the prince's orchestra he returned to Vi- 
enna, where he afterward became choir- 
master at the Stadtkirche am Hof, and in 
1818 court organist. Works — Operettas : 
Conrad Langbart von Friedburg ; Die 
Waldmiinner, Vienna, 1793 ; Der Scheeren- 
schleifer ; Die EisenkOuigin, ab. 1800 ; Die 
Liebe macht kurzen Process, 1801 ; Die 
Giganteu ; Symphonies ; Songs ; Overtures ; 
Cantatas ; Church music. — Wurzbach ; Men- 
del ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Ft'tis. 

HENNEN, ARNOLD, born at Heerlen, 
Netherlands, in 1820, still living, 1889. Pi- 



anist, pupil at the LiOge Conservatoire, 
where he won the first pianoforte prize, 
1845. He went to Paris iu 1847, and set- 
tled in London in 1850 ; now lives in Heer- 
len. He has published concertos and other 
pianoforte music. — Fetis, Suijplemeut, i. 
4G1 ; Gregoir, Doc. hist., iii. 21 ; Viotta. 

HENNEN, FEEDEKIK, born at Heer- 
len, Holland, in 1830, still living, 1889. 
Violinist, brother of Arnold and Mattheus 
Hennen, pupil at the Liege Conservatoire, 
of Dupont and Prume ; won first prize for 
violin, 184G, and medal, 1847. With his 
brother Arnold he went to Paris, and in 
1850 settled in London, where he became 
first violinist at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
under Balfe. Obliged to retire iu 1855 on 
account of his health, he made a concert 
tour through Holland with his two brothers, 
and after his return to London was solo vio- 
linist at the English theatre and the Phil- 
harmonic Society. Since 1872 he has lived 
at his country seat at Strythageu, near 
Heerlen. He has composed for his instru- 
ment. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 461 ; Gregoir, 
Doc. hist, iii. 22. 

HENNEN, MATTHEUS, born at Heerlen, 
in 1828, still living, 1889. Pianist, brother 
of Arnold Hennen ; pupil of the Liege Con- 
servatoire ; won first pianoforte jirize in 
1852. He settled in 1860 as teacher in Ant- 
werp), where he is professor in the school of 
music. He has published music for jjiano- 
forte, violin, and violoncello, and church and 
orchestral music. — Fetis, Supj^k'ment, i. 
461 ; Gregoii-, Doc. hist., iii. 21. 

HENNIG, KARL, born in Berlin, April 
23, 1819, died there, April, 18, 1873. He 
was organist of St. Paul's in 1847, and of 
the Soj)hieukirche from 1351 until his 
death ; also directed the male chorus, Lyra, 
and in 1863 received the title of royal music 
directoi". His most impiortant compositions 
are Die Sterneunacht, symphony-cantata, 
1854 ; Konigspsalm (1849), and Friedens- 
psalm (1854), for soli, chorus, and orches- 
tra ; besides which he wrote songs, and many 
quartets for male voices. — Mendel ; Riemann. 



265 



HENNING 



HENNING, KAEL WILHEOI, born at 
Berlin, Jan 31, ITS-l, died there, April, 
18G7. He became violinist at the royal 
tlieatre in 1807 ; chamber musician in the 
court chapel in 1811 ; royal Conzertmeister 
iu 1822 ; member Royal Academy in 1833 ; 
made royal Kaix'llmcister by Friedrich 
Wilhelm "iV. in 1810, and after fifty years' 
service, was pensioned in 1818. Works : 
Das Eoseumiidchen, comic opera, given in 
Berlin, 1825 ; IMusic to 30 plays, melodra- 
mas, 2 ballets ; Cantatas ; Songs ; sextet for 
strings ; Quartet for violins, trios, duos, so- 
natas, and solos for violin and violoncello. 
— Mendel ; Fi'tis ; Schilling. 

HENNRTS. See Haijm. 

HENRION, PAUL, born iu Paris, July 
20, 1819, still living, 1889. Vocal com- 
poser, studied pianoforte under Henri 
Karr, and harmony with the blind organist, 
Moncouteau ; published over 1,000 ro- 
mances and chausonnettes, many of which 
have become very popular. His operettas, 
Une rencontre dans le Danube (1851), Une 
euvie de clarinette (1871), and La chan- 
teuse par amour (1877), had but little suc- 
cess. — Fi'tis ; do., SuppUauent, i. IGl. 

HENRY Yin., King of England, born 
June 28, 1491, at Greenwich, died at "White- 
hall, Jan. 28, 1517-48. Originally intended 
for the cluirch, ho was instructed in music, 
and seems to have had some skill iu com- 
position. He sang and played upon the 
recorder, flute, and virginals. Works : 
Latin motet for three voices, Quam jjul- 
chra ; Anthem, O Lord, the Maker of all 
things ; Passetyme with good cumpanj'c ; 
The Kynge's balade ; Two masses for use 
in the Royal Chapel. — Grove ; Mendel ; Fc- 
tis ; North, Memoirs of Musick, 75. 

HENRY Vni., grand opera iu four acts, 
text by Leonce Detroyat and Ai-mand Syl- 
vestre, music by Saint-SaOns, first repre- 
sented at the Ojicra, Paris, March 5, 1883. 
The libretto, which deals somewhat freely 
with history, treats principally, like Doni- 
zetti's Anna Bolena, with the story of Anne 
Boleyn. The fii'st act opens in the palace 



of the king in London, and ends with the 
interruption of the i^resentation of Anne as 
maid of honour by the funeral march of 
Buckingham. The scene of the second act 
is Richmond Park ; the third act deals 
with the trial of the divorce suit in West- 
minster Abbe}' ; and the last with the death 
of Catherine and the downfall of Anne Bo- 
leyn. The part of the king was sung by 
Lasalle ; Don Gomez de Feria, the S^xanish 
ambassador, by Dereims ; Catherine, by 
Jllle Krauss ; and Anne, by jMlle Richard. 
The opera was enthusiastically received. 
Remodelled and cut to three acts by the 
composer and performed in Paris, October, 
1888. The liallet music was performed in 
Boston by the Symphony Orchestra in 1885. 
Published in Paris by Durand, Schoene- 
werk & Cie ; Leipsic, Rieter-Biedermann 
(1881).— Athenreum (1883), i. 118. 

HENRY Yin., incidental music to Shake- 
speare's play of, by Arthur S. Sullivan, pub- 
lished by Metzler & Co. (London, 1879). 

HENRY OF NAVARRE, ballad for male 
voices and orchestra, by George E. Whit- 
ing, first performed by the Apollo Club, 
Boston, April 29, 1885. 

HENSCHEL, (ISHDOR) GEORG, born in 
Breslau, Germany, 
Feb. 18, 1850, still 
living, 1889. Bari- 
tone singer and 
composer, jjupil in 
Breslau of Wandelt 
and Schaefifer, and 
in Leipsic from 1807 
of Moscheles and 
Wenzel on the pi- 
anoforte, of Rei- 
necke in theory and composition, and of 
Gotze in singing. In 1870 he studied com- 
position in Berlin under Kiel, and singing 
under Adolf Scliulze. After singing several 
years in concerts in Germany, Austria, Swit- 
zerland, Russia, Holland, and Belgium, he 
went iu 1877 to London, remained until 
1880, and then went to America. In 1881- 
81 he was conductor of the Boston Sym- 




850 



HENSEL 



plionj' Orchestra. He then returuetl to 
Englaml, a,ncl siuce 1885 has been settled iu 
London, where, iu 188G, he was ajipoiuted 
professor of singing in the Eojal College 
of Music, and conductor of the London 
Symphony Concerts. Works : Friedrich der 
SclnJue, opera ; A Sea Change, or Love's 
Castaway, comic oj^eretta, test by W. D. 
Howells ; An oratorio ; Gipsy serenade for 
orchestra ; Psalm iii., for soli and chorus ; 
Psalm cxxs., for soli, chorus, and orchestra, 
given iu Berlin in 1872, London iu 1879 ; 
Serenade for string instruments, Berlin, 
1872, Pesth, 187(], Loudon, 1878 ; Canon- 
suite for string orchestra ; Canons for pi- 
anoforte ; 10 Serbisches Liedersi^iel and 
other songs. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

HENSEL, FANNY (CACILIA), born at 
Hamburg, Nov. 14, 1805, died May 14, 
1847. Eldest sister of Mendelssohn, who 
was tenderly attached to her, and who said 
she played better than he at one time. She 
married W. Heusel, a painter, iu 1829. 
Works : Gartenlicder ; Part-songs ; Songs 
for voice and jiiauoforte ; Trio for pianoforte 
and strings. — Meudel ; Fetis ; Heusel, The 
Mendelssohn Family. 

HENSEL, JOHANN DANIEL, born at 
Goldberg, Silesia, Dec. 31, 1757, died at 
Hirschberg, Dec. 10, 1839. Dramatic com- 
poser, studied at Kijuigsberg University 
and became tutor at Halle, where he was 
a pupil of Tiirk ; in 1792 he founded an 
educational iustitutiou at Hirschberg, where 
music was taught and concerts were occa- 
sionally given. Works : Cyrus und Cas- 
sandra, opera (1787) ; Daphne, do. (1799) ; 
Die Geisterbeschwi'iruug, operetta ; Die 
Geisterinsel, do. ; Jesus, oratorio ; Can- 
tatas ; Method for pianoforte (1799-1800). 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 789 ; Meudel ; Fe- 
tis ; Schilling. 

HENSELT, ADOLF VON, born in 
Schwabach, Bavaria, May 12, 1814, still liv- 
ing, 1889. Famous pianist and composer 
for his instrument ; he was taken to Mu- 
nich when three years old, and began to 
take violin lessons, but soon gave uji that 




instrument for the pianoforte, which he 
studied, at first uuder Lasser, and then un- 
der Geheimriithin 
von Fladt, who also 
gave him some in- 
struction in har- 
mony. In 18 3 1 
King L u d w i g I. 
made him an allow- 
ance to enable him 
to go to Weimar, and 
study under Hum- 
mel. He has always 

been recognized as a pui^il of Hummel, al- 
though he never succeeded in apijropiriat- 
ing to himself Hummel's method of playing, 
having develojied an original method of his 
own before going to Weimar. After eight 
months he left his teacher, returning to 
Munich, whence he soon went to Vienna, 
where he studied counterpoint for two 
years under Sechter, and practised the pi- 
anoforte. In 1836 he was ordered to Carls- 
bad, and theuce to Berlin, for his health. 
In Berlin, as also in Dresden, Weimar, and 
Jena, his playing aroused the greatest en- 
thusiasm iu private circles ; but the only 
times he ever appeared before the general 
public in Germany were on a short tour 
through Dresden, Leipsic, and Berlin to 
Breslau, in 1837. After marrying in Breslau 
in this year, he went to St. Petersburg iu 
1838. He was soon made chamber pianist 
to the Emjiress, and also to the Prince vou 
Oldenburg, and played much iu society, 
but almost never in public. He adhered 
strictly to this plan on the trips he made 
to Germany, for recujieration, almost every 
summer. He was later appointed inspector 
of musical instruction in all the government 
educational institutions for girls. Up to 
the Crimean war he ajjpeared in public 
from time to time in St. Petersburg and 
other Russian cities, but since then he has 
devoted all his time to composition and 
teaching. His natural nervousness aud 
shyness in face of a large audience made 
it almost impossible for him to play at con- 



as? 



IIENTSCIIEL 



certs ; he would Lave a piauoforte iu the 
gi'eeii-room, aud while the orchestra on the 
stage was playing the mtroductory ritor- 
nello of a concerto he would play with them 
up to the point when he had just time to 
run to his place ou the platform and strike 
the first chord of his solo jjart on the in- 
strument that was ready for him, in sight 
of the audience. Ou one such occasion, iu 
St. Petersburg, he forgot to take the cigar 
out of his mouth, and continued smoking 
through the whole of the first movement of 
a concerto, oblivious of Emperor and court. 
Indeed, Henselt has been perhajis the only 
great pianist of the first rank from whom 
the general musical public has hardly 
ever heard a note. Those who have heard 
him report his playing to be of the most 
poetic, inspired, and at the same time 
wholly musical, character. He was espe- 
cially noted for his playing of Hummel and, 
above all, Weber. He excelIe^l in playing 
widely extended chords and arpeggios ; 
and a large hand is almost indispensable 
to anyone who would play his compositions. 
Of these the most important is his F minor 
concerto, oj}. IG, which had for a long time 
the reputation of being the most difficult 
pianoforte piece in existence. Although it 
has since been excelled in this respect by 
some more recent works by other com- 
posers, it still holds au honourable place 
in the repertory of all great pianists. Next 
to the concerto should be rated his two 
sets of Studies, op. 2 and op. 5, which are 
quite unique in their way. His melodious 
accompaniments, for " first pianoforte," 
to several of Cramer's studies, are also of 
great value. His transcriptions of works 
by Beethoven and Weber have had their 




day, as have also his pianoforte trio, and a 
not very large number of fugitive pieces. 
— Von Lenz, Die gi'ossen Piauoforte-Vir- 
tuosen unserer Zeit, 85 ; Mendel. 



HENTSCHEL, FRANZ, director and 
composer, boru in Berlin, Nov. G, ISl-l, 
still living, 1889. Pupil of Grell, A. W. 
Bach, and Marx. He became musical di- 
rector of the theatre at Erfurt in 1843, at 
Altenburg in 1815 ; returnetl to Berlin, 
where he directed the private theatre, 
Urania, iu 1818-51, has taught music. 
Works : Die Hexenreise, opera ; Operettas ; 
Melodramatic music ; ^Marches and other 
pieces for orchestra, and for military band ; 
Concertos for flute, oboe, clarinet, and 
horn ; Pianoforte music ; Songs. — Mendel. 

HENTSCHEL, THEODOK, born at 
Schirgiswalde, UiJper Lusatia, March 28, 
1830, stm living, 1889. Dramatic com- 
poser, was choir-boy in Dresden, where he 
studied under Reissigerand Ciccarelli, then 
pupil at the Conservatorium at Prague. 
He played the pianoforte in concerts in 
Leipsic, was appointed Kapellmeister of 
the theatre there, aud iu 18G3 went to 
Bremen iu the same capacity. Works — 
Operas : Matrose und Sanger, given at 
Leipsic, 1857 ; Der Kimigspage, Bremen, 
1874 ; Die Braut vou Lusignan, oder die 
schone Melusine, ib., 1875 ; Lancelot, ib., 
1878 ; Overtures, aud symphonic marches 
for orchestra ; Mass for male voices ; Piano- 
forte music, and sougs. — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, i. 4G3 ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

HERBAIN, Chevalier D', born in Paris 
in 1734, died there in 17G9. Dramatic 
composer, also captain in the army, cheva- 
lier of St. Louis, aud member of the Acad- 
emy of Corsica. He went to Italy at the 
age of seventeen, and produced an inter- 
mezzo, H geloso, Rome and Florence, 1751. 
While iu Corsica with his regiment he wrote 
several operettas. Works: II trionfo del 
ciglio, Lavinia, given at Bastia, 1752, and 
in several Italian cities, 1753 ; Cclimene, 
Paris, Opi'ra, 175G ; Les deux talents, ib., 
Comedie Italienne, 17G3 ; Nanette et Lucas, 
ib., 1764 ; 2 cantatas, and motets. — F^tis ; 
Mendel. 

HERBECK, JOHANN FRANZ VON, 
boru iu Vienna, Dec. 25, 1831, died there, 



258 



HERGULANUM 




Oct. 28, 1877. He studied harmony witli 
Hotter a few mouths, but was almost en- 
tirely self-educated ; 
was choir-director to 
the Piarists iu the 
Josephstadt in 1853, 
chorus-master to the 
Vienna Milnnerge- 
saugverein iu 1856 ; 
jn-ofessor in the Con- 
servatorium and 
chorus-master of the 
Singverein in 1858 ; director of tlie Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde iu 1859 ; chief 
court Kaj)ellmeister in 18CG ; director of 
the imjierial Opera iu 1871, but resigned 
iu 1875, and resumed his former office in 
the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Works : 
Songs; Overtures ; Symphony in D minor; 
String quartets ; Masses, in E and in F ; 
Te Deum ; Graduals ; Tanzmomente ; 
Kiinstlerfahrt ; Symphonische Variationen. 
— Wurzbach ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 463 ; 
Mendel ; Mus. Wochenblatt, viii. G40, 655. 




HEKCULANUM, French opera iu four 
acts, text by Mery and Hadot, music by Fe- 
licieu David, first represented at the Aca- 



demie Imperiale de Musique, Paris, March 4, 
1859. This work won the lustitut's prize of 
20,000 francs. It was first written as a 
drama with vocal pieces, entitled La fin du 
monde ; then as an opera for the Theatre 
Lyrique, under the title of Le dernier 
amour, and finally as above. The action 
passes iu the reign of Titus, in the evening 
of the destruction of Herculaueum and 
Pompeii. The libretto, though somewhat 
deficient in historic colour, its authors hav- 
ing drawn some of their best material from 
the history of Sodom and Gomorrah and 
the prophecies concerning the end of the 
world, contains many interesting and dra- 
matic situations. The music is grand and 
beautiful, and especially rich in the orches- 
tration. The role of Helios, sung by Roger, 
was one of the great tenor's finest creations. 
The characters of Olympia and Lilia were 
represented by Mmes Borghi-Mamo and 
Gueymard-Lauters. — Lajarte, ii. 225. 

HERCULES, musical drama in three 
acts, test by Rev. Thomas Broughton, 
music by Handel, first rej)resented at the 
King's Theatre, Haymarket, London, Jan. 
5, 171:5. The original score, in Bucking- 
ham Palace, is dated at the beginning, July 
19, 1744, and at the end, August 17, 1744. 
Characters represented : Hercules, bass ; 
Dejanira, soprano ; Hyllus, tenor ; lOle, so- 
prano ; Lichas, alto ; Priest of Jupiter, bass ; 
chorus of Trachinians, chorus of Oechalians. 
Scene, Trachin, in Thessaly. Though an- 
nounced as a " musical drama," it was pro- 
duced and published as an " oratorio." 
First published by Walsh ; published by 
Arnold, 1785-86 ; by the Hilndelgesell- 
schaft (Leipsic, 1859). Hercules was re- 
vived at the Lower Rhine Festival, Diissel- 
dorf, May 17, 1875, under direction of Joa- 
chim, and in London, June 8, 1877, under 
that of Henry Leslie. — Rockstro, 316. 

HEREDIA (Herredia), PEDRO, Spanish 
church composer of the first half of the 17th 
century, died in Rome iu 1648. He was 
maestro di cappella of St. Peter's, Rome, 
from 1630 until his death. His masses and 



359 



IIEEING 



other clmrcli music are iu the Santini col- 
lection. — Fetis. 

HERING, KARL EDU.\I?D, born at 
Oschatz, Saxony, May 13, 1807, died at 
Bautzen, Dec. 30, 1879. Son and pupil of 
R G. Hering, and at Lei^ssic pupil of Wein- 
lig ; in 1819 be became organist at Bautzen, 
where he founded and conducted a singing 
society. Works — Oratorios : Der Erloser, 
given at Leipsic in 1834 ; Die heilige Nacbt, 
David, Salomo, Christi Leid und Herrlich- 
keit. Ojaeras : Conradin, der letzte Hohen- 
staufe, Tordenskjold ; A mass given in 
Prague iu 1835 ; Other masses ; Cantatas ; 
Hymns ; Psalms, and ballads. — Mendel ; 
Ft'^tis ; Schilling. 

HERING, KARL (FRffiDRICH AU- 
GUST), born iu Berlin, Sept. 2, 1819, still 
living, 1889. Violinist, iKijnl of H. Ries and 
Rungenhagen in Berlin, of Lipinski in Dres- 
den, and of Tomaschek in Prague. After 
making concert tours, he was for a short 
time attached to the royal chapel of Berlin ; 
founded the Sonateuverein there in 1818, 
and a music school in 1851. Received the 
title of royal music director. Works : Sym- 
phonies ; Overtures ; Masses ; Chamber and 
pianoforte music ; Songs. He was author 
also of educational woi-ks. — Mendel ; Fctis, 
Supplement, i. 4G3 ; Riemann. 

HERITIER, JEAN L', church composer 
of the French school, first half of the IGth 
century. His motets are found in Motetti 
della Corona (1519) ; in Fior di Motetti 
(Rome) ; and in other French and Italian 
collections of that time. — Fi'tis. 

HER:MAN, REINHOLD LUDWIG, bom 
at Prenzlau, Brandenburg, Sept. 21, 1819, 
still living, 1889. Pianist, pujnl at Stern's 
Couservatorium, Berlin, of Ehrlich on the 
pianoforte, of Stern in vocal culture and 
conduetorship, and of Kiel in composition. 
In 1871 he went to New York, devoted him- 
self to vocal instruction, and conducted 
several singing societies there, in Brook- 
lyn, and New Haven, until 1878, when he 
was called to Berlin as director of Stern's 
Conservatorium and ojsera school. In 1881 




he returned to New York, resuming his 
former activity ; in 1881 was elected con- 
ductor of the 
German Lieder- 
kranz, and in 
1887 apiJointed 
professor of 
Sacred History 
at the Theologi- 
cal S e m i u a rj' . 
Works : Vineta, 
romantic op era 
(1872-73), r e - 
written, 1888; 
Lanzelot, heroic opera (1880), 1st act per- 
formed at the Liederkranz Concert, Stein- 
way Hall, April 22, 1888 ; Music to Schil-. 
ler's Braut von Messina (1883-84) ; The 
Bridge of Sighs (Hood), cantata for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, Berlin, Singakade- 
mie, 1879 ; The Spirits of the Thay, do. ; 
Sancta Ciicilia (Der Sanger von Gmiind), 
do. (1885) ; The buried Song, do. (male 
voices, 1888) ; Friihlingszug, overture for 
orchestra, Berlin, Singakademie, 1879 ; 
Concert Overture in D ; Dido, Concert aria 
for soprano with orchestra ; Concerto for 
pianoforte and orchestra ; Sonatas and suites 
for various instruments ; Sextets, quintets, 
quartets, etc., for male and mixed voices, 
with and without accompaniment ; Terzets, 
duets, and songs. 

HERMANN. See Arminiiis. 
HERSLiNN (CONSTANT HERMANT, 
called), born at Douai, Aug. IG, 1823, still 
hving, 1889. Violinist, pupil at the Paris 
Conservatoire of Gucrin and Habeneek ; 
won the first violin jirize in 1841, and stud- 
ied later under Leborne. He has composed 
for %'iolin and pianoforte. — Fi'tis. 

HERMANN, FRIEDRICH, born in 
Frankfort-on-the-!Main in 1828, still living, 
1889. Violinist, pupil of Mohr, and at the 
LeiiJsic Conservatorium of Ferdinand David, 
Mendelssohn, and Hauptmann. In 1846 
he became first viola player of the Gewand- 
liaus and theatre orchestras of Leipsic, and 
teacher of violin in the Conservatorium there, , 



HERMANN" 



devoting himself to the latter from 1878. 
Received the title of royal jjrofessor in 1883. 
Works : Symphony ; Violin music. — Men- 
del ; Meyer, Couv. Lex., ssi. 421. 

HERMANN (HERMANN COHEN, 
called), born in Hamburg, Nov. 10, 1821, 
still living, 1889. Pianist, son of a rich 
banker, studied music as an amateur, and 
was a good performer at the age of twelve. 
Reverses of fortune having obliged him to 
adopt music as a profession, he gave con- 
certs in Germany, but finally settled in 
Paris (1831), where he became Liszt's fa- 
vourite pu2)il, and was taken by him to 
Geneva as professor at the Conservatoire, 
which he founded there. Cohen subse- 
quently returned to Paris, then travelled 
through England, Germanj', and Italy, and 
brought out an oi^era in Verona. When 
twenty-five years old he returned to Paris, 
abjured the Hebrew faith, became a Catho- 
lic priest (1851), and entered the Order of 
Barefooted Friars as Father Augustin Ma- 
rie. He became celebrated for his preaching, 
published a collection of canticles, and com- 
posed a mass under his new name. — Fetis, 
Supplement, i. Idl ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 155. 

HERMANN, JOHANN DAVID, born in 
Germany about 17(50, died in Paris in 1816. 
Pianist, settled in Paris in 1785 ; was first 
heard at the Concerts Spirituels, became 
teacher to Marie Antoinette, but on the ar- 
rival of Steibelt was obliged to give up that 
position. Both musicians competed for 
public favour and royal patronage at a per- 
formance where Steibelt's new and spark- 
ling style was greatly in contrast to that 
of Hermann, who was a follower of Bach. 
He remained in Paris through the Revo- 
lution, and amassed a fortune by buying 
up the royal properties at public sales. 
He published concertos, sonatas, potpour- 
ris, etc., for pianoforte. — Fctis ; Mendel; 
Weitzmann, Geschichte des Clavier.spiels, 82. 

HERMANN UND DOROTHEA, overture 
for orchestra to Goethe's " Hermann und 
Dorothea," in B minor, by Schumann, op. 
13G, composed in 1851, and dedicated 



[ " Seiner lieben Clara ; " first performed at 
the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, Feb. 26, 1857. 
It was Schumann's first intention to write 
an opera on this subject. Arranged by the 
composer for pianoforte for four, and for 
two hands ; published by Breitkopf & Hiir- 
tel (Leipsic, 1857). 

HERiVLlNNSCHLACHT, DIE, overture 
for orchestra in C minor, by Georg Vierling, 
op. 81. Theme, Kleist's drama, "Die Her- 
mannschlacht." Dedicated to Julius Riefz, 
published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 
between 1860 and 1867). 

HERMIONE, German opera in four acts, 
text by Emil Hopffer, music by Max Bruch, 
op. 40 ; first represented in Berlin, March 
21, 1872. The libretto is an adaptation 
of Shakespeare's " Winter's Tale." — Mus. 
Wochenblatt (1872), 222. 

HERNANDEZ, PABLO, born in Sara- 
gossa, Spain, Jan. 2.5, 1834, still living, 1889. 
Organist, pupil of Valentin Moton ; became 
organist of the parish church at the age of 
fourteen ; entered the Madrid Conserva- 
torio in 1856, as pupil of Hilarion Eslava, 
and won, iu 1861, 1st prize for organ and 
composition ; became organist of the royal 
church of Nuestra Dama de Atocha, and pro- 
fessor at the Conservatorio. Ho has pub- 
lished a method for the organ, church mu- 
sic, and composed several zarzuelas, besides 
orchestral music. — Fetis, Supplement, i. 
465 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 156 ; Riemaun. 

HERNANDO, RAFAEL JOS ft MARIA, 
born in Madrid, May 31, 1822, still living, 
1889. Dramatic composer, jJupil of Ramon 
Carnicer at the Madrid Conservatorio ; went 
to Paris about 1843 ; became composer and 
director for a Madrid theatre ; secretary, in 
1852, and later professor of harmony at the 
Madrid Conservatorio. Works — Zarzuelas : 
Las sacerdotisas del sol ; Palo de ciego, 
Colegiales y soldados. El duende, 1849 ; 
Bertoldo y Comparsa ; El novio pasado por 
agua ; Cosas de Juan ; Una noche en el 
serallo ; El tambor ; Aurora ; Escenas de 
Chamberi ; Por seguir a una mujer ; El 
nacimiento ; Premios a la virtud ; and a 



HERO 



Proyecto, memoria jiara la creacion de una 
Acadeniia espanola de musica y de fomento 
del arte ; Mass, performed 18G7 ; Stabat 
Mater ; Cantatas, Lymns, etc. — Fetis, Sup- 
lilemeiit, i. 4GG ; Meudel, Ergiiuz., 15G ; 
Ilieinanu. 

HERO AND LEANDER, cantata, by 
Charles Harford Lloyd, first performed at 
the Three Choirs' Festival, Worcester (Eng- 
land), Sept. 9, 1884. Published by Novello, 
Ewer & Co. (Loudon, 1885). — Atheuseum 
(1884), ii. 345. 

HERO UND LEANDER, overture in A 
major, for orchestra, by Julius Rietz, op. 11, 
coraj)Osed in Diisseldorf between 1836 and 
1848. Arranged for pianoforte for four 
hands. Published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel 
(Leijisic). — Schumann, Gcsamm. Schr., ii. 
3-24. 

HEROES, WHEN WITH GLORY BURN- 
ING, contralto aria of Othniel, in F major, 
"ATemj)o diGavotta," with accomj)animent 
of 2 oboes, strings complete, and coutinuo, 
in Handel's Joshua, Act II., scene 4. 

HERO'IDE FL^fiBRE (Helden-Klage), 
symj)honic poem, for orchestra, by Liszt, 
op. 4, No. 8. Comjwsed in 1830 as the 
first part of the Symphonie Revolutionnaire, 
worked over in 1849. First jjcrformed in 
Breslau, afterward in Berlin and Frankfort- 
on-the-Oder. Published by Breitkoj^f & 
Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1857). 

HEROLD, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, born 
at Soltz, Alsace, March 10, 1755, died in 
Paris, Sept. 1, 1802. Pianist, studied mu- 
sic in Hamljurg, where ho afterward be- 
came a pupil of Car] Philipp Emanuel 
Bach. He settled in Paris in 1781, as 
teacher ; published sonatas for harp, and 
for pianoforte with violin. — Fetis. 

HEROLD, LOUIS (JOSEPH FERDI- 
NAND), born in Paris, Jan. 28, 1791, died 
there, Jan. 19, 1833. Son of Francois Jos- 
ejih Herold, jiupil at the pensionnat Hix, 
where he attracted the notice of Fetis, who 
gave solfege lessons there, by his quickness 
of musical perception. So rapid was his 
jDrogress that, when his father died in 180G, 




he determined to make music his profes- 
sion, and entered Louis Adam's pianoforte 
class at the Conser- 
vatoire. In 1810 he 
took the first prize ; 
studied harmony 
under Catel, in 1811 
began lessons in 
composition under 
Mehul, and in 1812 
took the Prix de 
Rome with a can- 
_ tata, Mademoiselle 

de la Vallicre. After 
working hard in Rome for nearly three 
years, he went in 1814 to Naples, where he 
became pianist to Queen Caroline. During 
the last