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b-olii Gl-^i.Y ALD flIAY NOT EP 
^AEm rfiOM THE BOOM. 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 

Music and Musicians 



Volume III 
NAAMAN— ZWILLINGSBRUDER 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 



MUSIC AND MUSICIANS^ 



EDITED BY 

JOHN DENISON CHAMPLIN, JR. 



CRITICAL EDITOR 

WILLIAM FOSTER APTHORP 



IVITH MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS 



VOLUME 



NEW YORK 
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

M DCCC XC 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

A«TM, LENOX AND 

TIU)EN FOUNDATIONS 

" 1816 L 



Copyright, i8go, by 
Charles Scrib tier's Sons. 



^^ <^ ^ / f (^ K. 



- 7^-^, 3 — C 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS 



I. JEAN PHILIPPE RAMEAU 
From the engraving by Benoist, 



To Face -' 

Page 



?2 



GIOACCHINO ANTONIO ROSSINI 



From the lithograph by August Lemoiiie, 



80 



3- 



ANTON GREGOR RUBINSTEIN 



From a photograph, Briissets, 



128 



4- CAMILLE SAINT-SAENS 

From a photograph, Paris, '/ 

5- ALESSANDRO SCARLATTI 

From a tithograph, after the painting by Solimena, 



J 76 



J5> ,) > 



6. FRANZ SCHUBERT '^"J-" 

Page 

From the engraving by Passini, after the painting by Rieder, . , 272 



7- ROBERT SCHUMANN 

From the lithograph by Giistav Feckert, ^20 

8. LOUIS SPOHR 

From the lithograph by C. Koch, . . ^(55 

9- GASPARO SPONTINI 

From the efigraviiig by Friedrich iVilhelm Bollinger, . . . . 416 

10. GIUSEPPE VERDI 

From a photograph, Milan, ^64 

II- RICHARD WAGNER 

From a photograph, Munich, .... x. ... . ^12 

I?:..;..... KARL MARIA VON WEBER 

From the ehgra6ivgbp\,iVoolnoth, after the painting by Carl P^ogel, . 560 



PORTRAITS OF MUSICIANS. 

DRAWN BY VALl^BIEN GKIBAViDOFP. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14 
15. 



IG. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 

1-1 



23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

31. 



PAGE 

Nanini, Giovanni Maria 5 

Niipravnik, Eduard 6 

Nardini, Pietro 6 

Nares, James 7 

Naumann, Emil 8 

Naumann, Johann Gottlieb 9 

Naylor, John 10 

Nessler, Victor Ernst 12 

Neuendorff, Adolpli 13 

Neukomm, Sigismund von 14 

Neusiedler, Melchior 15 

Nicode, Jean Louis IG 

Nicolai, Otto IG 

Notker, Balbulus, facsimile 25 

Novello, Vincent 2G 

Oakeley, Herbert Stanley 30 

Oakey, George 31 

Obertbiir, Karl 33 

Offenbach, Jacques 37 

Osborne, George Alexander 52 

Otto, Julius 56 

Ouseley, Frederick Arthur Gore . . 57 

Paer, Ferdinando 62 

Paganini, Niceoli") 64 

Paine, John Knowles 66 

Paisiello, Giovanni 68 

Paix, Jakob 70 

Paladilhe, tlmWe 70 

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da. 71 
Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da, 

facsimile 72 

Paminger, Leonbardt 76 



32. Parker, Henry 83 

33. Parker, Horatio William 83 

34. Parker, James Cutler Dunn 84 

35. Parker, Louis Najjoleon 84 

36. Parry, Joseph 86 

37. Pattison, John Nelson 96 

38. Pauer, Ernst 96 

39. Peace, Albert Lister 100 

40. Pearce, Stephen Austen 100 

41. Pease, Alfred Humphreys 101 

42. Penfiekl, Smith Newell 103 

43. Pejjusch, Johann Christoph 104 

44. Perabo, Ernst 105 

45. Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista 106 

46. Pessard, iSmile Louis Fortune... 113 

47. Petrella, Errico 115 

48. Philidor, Francois Andre Danican-. 118 

49. Philp, Elizabeth 121 

50. Piatti, Alfredo 122 

51. Picciuni, Nicola 123 

52. Pierson, Henry Hugo 127 

53. Piusuti, Giro 129 

54. Plautade, Charles Henri 134 

55. Pleyel, Ignaz Josef 135 

56. Ponchielli, Amilcare 140 

57. Popper, David 141 

58. Porpora, Niccolo Antonio 142 

59. Porta, Giovanni 145 

60. Potter, Cipriani 147 

61. Prati, Alessio 149 

62. Priltorius, Michael 150 

63. Pratt, Silas Gamaliel 150 

64. Proch, Heiurich 155 

65. Prout, Ebenezer 159 

66. Prudent, Emile 159 



FOETEAITS OF MUSICIANS 



PAGE 

67. Pugnaui, Gaetano 1G3 

68. Purcell, Heuiy IGi 

69. Quantz, Johanu Joachim 170 

70. Raff, Joachim 17-4 

71. Rameau, Jean Philippe 178 

72. RanJegger, Alberto 181 

73. Rajjj^oldi, Eduaixl 183 

71. Rauzziui, Veiianzio 185 

75. Reber, Napoleou Hemi 188 

76. Rebliug, Gustav 188 

77. Reeve, "William ISO 

78. Reichardt, Johauu Friedricli .... 192 

79. Reiuecke, Karl 191 

80. Reinkeu, Johauu Adam 197 

81. Reiuthaler, Karl 197 

82. Reissiger, Karl Gottlieb 198 

83. Remenyi, Eduard 200 

84. Re3-er, Louis fitienne Ernest. . . . 208 

85. Rheiuberger, Joseph 209 

86. Ricci, Federigo 214 

87. Ricci, Luigi 211 

88. Richards, Briuley 216 

89. Richardsou, Joseph 217 

90. Richter, Ernst Friedricli Eduard. 217 

91. Riedel, Karl 218 

92. Ries, Ferdinand 221 

93. Ries, Franz 222 

94. Rietz, Julius 223 

95. Rimski - Korsakoff, Nicolai An- 

dreyevitch 226 

96. Ritter, Frederic Louis 232 

97. Roberts, John Varley 236 

98. Rochlitz, Johanu Friedricli 238 

99. Rode, Pierre 238 

100. RoUa, Alessaudro 246 

101. Romberg, Audreas 247 

102. Romberg, Beruhard 248 

103. Root, George Frederick 251 

104. Rore, Cipriauo de 251 

105. Rossi, Lauro 257 

106. Rossini, Gioacchiuo Antonio, in 

1820 259 

107. Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio, in 

1865 260 

108. Rouget de Lisle, Claude Joseph. . 265 



PAGE 

109. Rubinstein, Anton Gregor 268 

110. Rubinstein, Nicolai 271 

111. Rudorff, Ernst 271 

112. Rungeuhagen, Carl Fricdrich 275 

113. Russell, Henry 276 

114. Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gasparo. 280 

115. Sainton, Prosjier 285 

116. Sainton-Dolby, Charlotte Helen. 286 

117. Saiut-Saeiis, Camille 286 

118. Sala, Niccolo 289 

119. Salamau, Charles Kensington . . . 289 

120. Salieri, Antonio 291 

121. Salomon, Johaun Peter 294 

122. Salvayre, Gervais Bernard 295 

123. Sarasate, Pablo de 300 

124. Sauret, Emile 305 

125. Scarlatti, Alessandro 307 

126. Scarlatti, Domenico 310 

127. Scharwcnka, Philipp 313 

128. Scharwenka, Xaver 314 

129. Scheldt, Samuel 315 

130. Schein, Johann Herrmann 315 

131. Sehicht, Johann Gottfried 317 

132. SchlOsscr, Adolf 321 

133. Schmidt, Gustav 322 

134. Schneider, Friedricli 326 

135. Schoeuefeld, Henry 328 

136. Scholtz, HeiTmanu 328 

137. Scholz, Bernhard 329 

138. Schroder, Karl 331 

139. Schubert, Franz 333 

140. Schulhofif, Julius 342 

141. Schulz, Johaun Abraham Peter.. 343 

142. Schumann, Clara 344 

143. Schumann, Robert 345 

144. Schuster, Joseph 350 

145. Schiitz, Heinrich 351 

146. Schweitzei', Antou 354 

147. Senfl, Ludwig 363 

148. Serpette, Gaston 365 

149. Servais, Adrien Franyois 366 

150. Sherwood, Edgar Harmon 370 

151. Sherwood, William Hall 370 

152. Shield, WiUiam 371 

153. Silas, Eduard -. 378 

154. Simouelli, Matteo 380 



PORTRAITS OF MUSICIAN'S 



PAGE 

155. Singer, Edmund 383 

156. Sivori, Ernesto CamiUo 386 

157. Smart, George 389 

158. Smart, Henry 389 

159. Smith, AUce Mary 390 

160. Smitb, John Stafford 391 

161. Smith, Sydney 392 

162. Smith, Wilson George 392 

163. Solomon, Edward 397 

164. Sijenser, Willard 409 

165. Spindler, Fritz 410 

166. SiJoln-, Louis 411 

167. Spontini, Gasparo 414 

168. Staden, Johann 420 

169. Stainer, John 422 

170. Stanford, Charles Villiers 423 

171. Stanley, John 424 

172. Steibelt, Daniel 429 

173. Stephens, Charles Edward 430 

174. Sternberg, Constantin Ivano- 

vitch 431 

175. Stevenson, John Andrew 432 

176. Stobaus, Johann 434 

177. StOr, Karl 434 

178. Strauss, Eduard 438 

179. Strauss, Johann, the elder 438 

180. Strauss, Johann, the younger . . . 439 

181. Strauss, Joseph 440 

182. Sullivan, Arthur Seymour 445 

183. Suppe, Franz von 447 

184. Svendsen, Johan 448 

185. Sweelinck, Jan Pieter 449 

186. Sj-eroff, Alexander Nikolaye- 

vitch 450 

187. Sympson, Christopher 452 

188. Tartini, Giuseppe 461 

189. Taubert, Wilhelm 462 

190. Tausig, Karl 464 

191. Telemann, Georg Philipp 466 

192. Thalberg, Sigismund 473 

193. Thomas, Ambroise 479 

194. Tosti, Francesco Paolo 490 

195. Tozzi, Antonio 490 

196. Traetta, Tommaso 491 

197. Tschaikowsky, Peter 504 



PAGE 

198. Tuma, Franz 506 

199. Turpin, Edmund Hart 508 

200. Van der Stucken, Frank Valentin . 520 

201. Verdi, Giuseppe, in 1859 527 

202. Verdi, Giusei^pe, in 1880 527 

203. Vierling, Georg 537 

204. Vieuxtemps, Henri 538 

205. Vinci, Leonardo 540 

206. Viotti, Giovanni Battista 541 

207. Vivaldi, Antonio 544 

208. Vogler, Georg Joseph 546 

209. Vogrich, Max 546 

210. Volkmann, Eobert 548 

211. Wagner, Kicbard, in 1853 542 

212. Wagner, Richard, in 1880 542 

213. Wallace, Vincent 560 

214. Walliser, Chi-istoph Thomas .... 561 

215. WallnOfer, Adolf 561 

216. Webbe, Samuel 567 

217. Weber, Carl Maria von, in 1809. . 568 

218. Weber, Carl Maria von, in 1825 . 569 

219. Weber, Gottfried 573 

220. Weigl, Joseph 575 

221. Wels, Charles 580 

222. Wesley, Samuel Sebastian 583 

22.3. Westbrooke, William Joseph 584 

224. Westrop, Henry John 585 

225. Widmann, Erasmus 588 

226. Wieniawski, Henri 589 

227. Wieniawski, Joseph 590 

228. Wilhelm, Karl 591 

229. Wilhelmj, August 591 

230. Willaei-t, Adrian 591 

231. Willmers, Heinrich Eudolf 593 

232. Wilson, John 594 

233. Winter, Peter von 596 

234. WOlfl, Joseph 600 

235. Wollenhaupt, Hermann Adolph.. 601 

236. Wiierst, Richard 603 

237. Wiillner, Franz 603 

238. Zelter, Karl Friedrich 610 

239. Zoeller, Carli 616 

240. Zollner, Karl Friedrich 617 

241. Zumsteeg, Johann Eudolf 618 



PORTRAITS OF SINGERS, AUTOGRAPHS, FACSIMILES, 

ETC. 



1. 


Autograph of Pictro Nardini, 




27 




1790 


6 


•:^s 


2. 


Autograph of Johann GottHeb Nau- 


29 




mann, 1761 


9 


30 


3. 


Autograph of Otto Nicolai, 1841 . . 


17 


31 


4. 


Portrait of Giulia Grisi 


24 




5. 


Portrait of Angehca Catalani 


28 


32 


G. 


Portrait of Eugenia Papj)eiiheim . . 


31 


33 


7. 


Autograph of Jacques Offeuhach, 








1858 


38 


34 


8. 


Portrait of Pauline I\Iilder-Haui)t- 


35 




maun 


42 




9. 


Autograph of George Onslow, 


30 




1830 


44 
45 


37 


10. 


Portrait of Giuseppa Grassini 




11. 


Heleue Hastreiter, as Orpheus .... 


50 


38. 


12. 


Manuel Garcia, as Otello 


54 


39. 


IS 




54 
55 


'10 


U 


Portrait of Tamagno 




15. 


Autograph of FerJinando Paor, 


41. 




1803 


63 
65 




16. 


Paganini, in 1831 


42 


17. 


Autograph of Paganini 


66 




18. 


Autograph of Paisiello, 1811 


70 


43 


19. 


Autogi-aph of Palestrina, 1589 


74 




20. 


Portrait of Dcsirce Artut 


80 


44 


21. 


Winckelmanu, as Parsifal 


87 


45 


22. 


Portrait of Emma Nevada 


110 


40 


23. 


Autograph of Louis de Persuis, 




47 




1817 


112 


48 


24. 


Autograph of Jacopo Antonio 






Perti 


113 
139 


49 


25. 


Portrait of Marie Gabrielle Krauss. 


50. 


26. 


Autograph of Michael Priitorius, 




51 




1616 


150 





PAGE 

Portrait of Pauline Viardot-Garcia . 157 

Koger, as John of Leydeu 157 

Birthplace of Henrj' Purcell 105 

Autograjih of Henry Purcell 108 

Portrait of Giovanni Battista Ru- 

bini 108 

Portrait of Antonio Tamburini. .. . 168 
Autograjih of Johann Joachim 

Quautz, 1733 171 

Autograph of Joachim Raff, 1875 . 170 
Autograph of Jean Philippe Ra- 

meau, 1749 181 

Autograph of Anton Reicha, 1800 . 192 
Autograph of Johann Friedrich 

Reichardt, 1812 193 

Autograph of Karl Reineclcc, 1883 . 195 

Portrait of Mme Gueymard 190 

Portrait of Euphi'osync ParejDa- 

Rosa 197 

Portrait of Antoinette Ceeile Saint- 

Huberty 201 

Autogi-aph of George Reutter, 

1761 207 

Autograph of Jose]3h Rhcinberger, 

1872 210 

Carl Hill, as Alberich 211 

Portrait of Fanny Moran-Olden . . 212 

Portrait of Faustina Bordoni 213 

Tichatschek, as Rienzi 220 

Autograph of Ferdinand Ries, 

1816 221 

Autograph of Julius Rietz, 1855 . . 224 

Portrait of Padilla-y-Ramos 225 

Portrait of Julie Aimee Dorus- 

Gras 235 



xU 



PORTRAITS OF SINGERS, AUTOGRAPHS, ETC. 



52. 


Autograph of Pierre Rode, 1827 . . 


PAGE 

239 


81 


53. 


Portrait of Francesca Cuzzoni .... 


239 




54. 


Portrait of Josephine De Eeszke . . 


243 


82 


55. 


Autograph of Andreas Romberg, 








1816 


247 


S3 


5G. 


Autograph of Bernhard Romberg, 






1828 


248 


84 


57. 


Autograph of Cipriano de Rore, 






1558 


252 


85 


58. 


Autograph of Gioacchino Rossini, 


86 




1853 


262 


87 


59. 


Autograph of Claude Joseph Rou- 


88 




get de Lisle 


265 


89 


GO. 


Autograph of Anton Rubinstein, 








1872 


270 
27G 


90 


Gl. 


Autograph of Henry Russell 




62. 


Autograph of Antonio Maria Gas- 




91 




paro Sacchini, 1784 


282 




G3. 


Autograph of Camille Saint-Sacns. 


288 


92 


Gl. 


Autograph of Antonio Salieri, 








1816 


293 


93 


G5. 


Autograph of Antonio Scandelli, 


94 




1574 


307 




GG. 


Autograph of Alessandro Scarlatti, 


95 




1706 


309 




G7. 


Autograph of Samuel Scheldt, 


96 




1624 


315 




G8. 


Autograph of Johann Schenk, 


97. 




1830 


316 




G9. 


Autograph of Johann Gottfried 


98. 




Schicht, 1807 


317 




70. 


Autograph of Friedrich Schneider, 




99 




1830 


32G 




71. 


Facsimile of Schubert's MS. : Dor 


100 




Erlkonig 


335 




72. 


Schubert's Tomb 


336 


101. 


73. 


Autographs of Franz Schubert . . . 


340 


102. 


74. 


Autograph of Julius Schulhoff. . . . 


342 


103 


75. 


Autograph of Johaun Abraham 




104 




Peter Schulz, 1797 


343 


105 


7G. 


Autograph of Clara Schumann .... 


344 


106 


77. 


Birthplace of Robert Schumann . . 


345 




78. 


Grave of Robert Schumann 


346 


107. 


79. 


Facsimile of Schumann's MS.: Al- 




108 




bum f iir die Jugend 


347 




80. 


Autograph of Robert Schumann, 




109 




1841 


349 











Autograph of Joseph Schuster, 

1780 350 

Autograph of Heinrich Schiitz, 

1624 352 

Autograph of Simon Sechter, 

1837 357 

Portrait of Josephine Mainvielle- 

Fodor 361 

Sofia Scalchi, as Ai-sace 362 

Autograph of Ludwig Senfl, 1537 . 363 

Georg Unger, as Siegfried 374 

Lilli Lehmann, as Brunnhilde . . . 375 
Portrait of Gustave Hippolite 

Roger 384 

Delphine Ugalde, as Queen Eliza- 
beth 401 

Portrait of Maria Catarina Cara- 

dori- Allan 402 

Facsimile of Spohr's MS. : Dojj- 

j)el-Quartet in G minor 412 

Autographs of Louis Sjjohr, 1845 . 414 
Autograph of Gasjiaro Spoutini, 

1816 

Autograph of Agostino Steflfani, 

1709 

Autograjjli of Johann Strauss?, the 

elder, 1834 439 

Autograph of Joliann Strauss, the 

younger 440 

Autograph of Nikolaus Adam 

Strungk, 1697 442 

Autograph of Ai-thur Seymour 

Sullivan 445 

Autogi-aph of Alexander Syeroff, 

1862 450 

Autograph of Giovanni Tadolini . 453 
Autograph of Thomas Tallys .... 456 
Portrait of Sabina Heinefetter. . . 457 
Anton Schott, as Tannhiiuser. . . . 458 

Portrait of Johanna Wagner 459 

Autograph of Giuseppe Tartini, 

1731 462 

Autograph of Karl Tausig, 1866 . . 464 
Autograph of Georg Philipp Tele- 

mann, 1729 467 

Autograph of Sigismund Thal- 

berg, 1838 474 



416 



428 



PORTRAITS OF SINGERS, AUTOGRAPHS, ETC. 



110. Autograph of Ambroise Thomas. 

111. Portrait of Maria Piccolomini . . . 

112. Indienne in Le triomphe de 

I'amour 

113. Portrait of Ludwig Schnorr von 

Carolsfeld 

114. Portrait of Marie Sasse 

115. Portrait of Francois Villaret 

116. Portrait of Ronzi de Begnis 

117. Portrait of Giglio Nordica 

118. Statue of Verdi, at Milan 

119. Autograph of Verdi 

120. Portrait of Judic 

121. Portrait of Furscb-Madi 

122. Autograph of Henri Vieuxtemps. 

123. Autograph of Giovanni Battista 

Viotti 

124. Autograph of Georg Joseph Vog- 

ler 



PAGE 

480 


125 


493 


126 




127 


496 


128 




129 


498 


130 


502 


131 


502 


132 


507 




525 


133 


528 


134 


529 


135. 


532 


136. 


533 


137. 


538 


138. 




139. 


542 


140. 


546 


141. 



PAGE 

Autogi-aph of Robert Volkmann . 549 

Facsimile of Wagner's MS 553 

Wagner's Birthplace 554 

Autograph of Richard Wagner. . . 557 

Niemann, as Siegmund 558 

Betz, as Wotan 559 

Birthplace of von Weber 570 

Autographs of Cai-1 Maria von 

Weber 572 

Autograph of Joseph Weigl 576 

Autograph of Adrian Willaert . . . 592 

Autograph of Peter von Winter. . 596 

Vanzini as Zaire 605 

Portrait of Sylva 006 

Autograph of Gioseffo Zarlino . . . 606 

Portrait of Etelka Gerster 608 

Autograph of Karl Friedrich Zel- 

ter 610 

Autograph of Niccola Zingarelli. . 615 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Siippleiih'ntary to Bibliography in l^oliiine I, ami including additional works referred 

to in Volumes I! and III. 



k DAM, ADOLPHE. Eameau. Paris, 1864. 

Album zum Besteu nothleideuder Kiinstler, 

etc. Vienna, 1851. 
Allen, George. Life of Philidor. Philadel- 

pliia, 1803. 
Alvin, Louis. Notice sur F. J. Fetis. Brus- 
sels, 1874. 
American Musician. New York, 1874, seq. 
Andre, Johann Anton. Mozart Verzeiclmiss. 

Offenbach-on-the-Main, 1805, 1828, and 

1841. 
Arnold, Ignace Ernest Ferdinand. Giovanni 

Paisiello, seine kurze Biog., etc. Erfurt, 

1810. 
Auders, Godefroid Engelbert. Paganini, sa 

vie, sa personue, et quelques mots sur son 

secret. Paris, IStil. 
Azevedo, Alexis Jacob. G. Rossini, sa vie et 

ses oeuvres. Paris, 1865. 

T^AEBEDETTE, HIPPOLYTE. Stephen 
Heller. English translation by Eobert 
Brown-Bortliwork. London, 1877. 

Biiumker, Wilhelm. Palestrina. Freiburg, 
1871. 

Bayreuther Blatter. Monatschrift des Bay- 
reuther Patronatvereins tmter Mitwirkung 
Richard Wagner's, redigirt von Hans von 
Wolzogen. 1878, seq. 

Bochstein, Ludwig. Fahrten eines Musikan- 
teu. 1837, 1854, 1858. 

Beule, Charles Ernest. Notice sur la vie et les 
ouvi-ages do Fromental Halevy. Paris, 
1862. 



Biographie des Adalbert Gyrowetz. Vienna, 
1848. 

Biographiscbe Schildenmgen Salzburger 
Kiinstler. Salzburg, 1845. 

Bovet, Felix. Histoire du Psautier des Cglises 
reformees. Neufchatel and Paris, 1872. 

Bruni, Oreste. Niccolo Paganini, etc., raccou- 
to storico di. Florence, 1873. 

Burlingame, Edward L. Art Life and The- 
ories of Richard Wagner. New York, 
1875. 

Burney, Charles. An Account of the Musical 
Performances in Westminster Abbey and 
the Pantheon, May 26, 27, 29, and June 3, 
and 5, 1784, in commemoration of Handel. 
London and Dublin, 1785. 

Burney, Charles. The Present State of Music 
in Germany, the Netherlands, and the 
United Provinces, etc. 2 vols. London, 
1773. 

Bury, Henri Blaze de. Meyerbeer, sa vie, ses 
ceuvres, et son temps. Paris, 1865. 



rtAFFI, FRANCESCO. Delia vita e del com- 

porre di B. Furlanetto. Venice, 1820. 
Capruzzi. Traetta o la musica. Naples, 

1878. 
Catelani, Angelo. Delle opere di A. Stradella 

esistenti nell' Ai'chivo Musicale della R. 

Biblioteca Palatiua di Modena. Modena, 

1866. 
Champfleury (Jules Fleury). Contes posthumes 

d'Hoffman. Paris, 1850. 
Ciccouetti, Filippo. Memorie intorno Pietro 

Raimondi. Rome, 1807. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Claretie, Jules. Portraits contemporains. Pa- 
ris, 1875. 

Clark, Bichard. Remiaiscences of Handel. 
Londou, 183G. 

Clayton, Ellen C. Queens of Song. 2 vols. 
Londou, 1868. 

Colobrano, Carafa de. Fun^i-ailles de M. PalJr. 
Paris, 1839. 

Conestabile, Giancarlo. Vita di Niccolti Paga- 
nini da Genova. Perugia, 1851. 

Comettant, Jean Pierre Oscar. Musique et 
Musiciens. Paris, 1862. 

Conran, Michael. The National Music of Ire- 
land. London, 1850. 

Cummings, William H. Life of Henry Pur- 
cell. London, 1881. 

nOUEN, ORENTIN. Clement Marot et le 
■^ Psautier Huguenot. 2 vols. Pari.s, 1878- 

79. 
Dubourg, George. The Violin. London, 

1832 ; 5th ed., 1856. 
Ducharger, . E(5tlexions sur divers ou- 

vragcs de M. Kameau. Rennes, 17()1. 
Duffield, Samuel Willoughby. English Hymns : 

their Authors and History. New York, 

1886. 
Diiringer, Gustav Albert. Albert Lortzing, 

sein Leben und Wirken. Leipsic, 1851. 

TBERS, JOHN. Seven Years of the King's 

^ Theatre. London, 1828. 

Eitner, Robei-t. Chronologisches Verzeichniss 
der Druckwerke des Orlando di Lasso. 
Berlin, 1874. 

Eitner, Robert, and Haberl, Franz Xaver. Bi- 
bliographie der Musiksammehverke des 
XM;. und XVII. Jahrhuuderts. Berlin, 
1877. 

Engel, Carl. Biblioteca Faustina. Olden- 
burg, 1874. 

Engel, Carl. The Study of National Music. 
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Erdmanu. Ergebnisse der bisherigen For- 
schungen iiber die Echtheit des Mozart'- 
schen Requiem. 2 vols. Mainz, 1826-28. 

PAYOLLE, FRAN(;OIS JOSEPH MARIE. 

Notices sur Corelli, Tartini, Gavini6s et 

Viotti. Paris, 1810. 
Fayolle, Francois Joseph Marie. Paganini et 
' de B(5riot. Paris, 1830. 



Fetis, Franfois Joseph. Galerie des musiciens 
c^lebres. Paris, 1828. 

FCtis, Francois Josej^h. Notice biogi-aphique 
sur Niccolo Paganini. Paris, 1851. Eng- 
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London, 1852. 

Filippi, FilipiDO. Delia vita o delle opere di 
Adolfo Fumagalli. Milan. 

Fouque, Pierre Octave. Etude sur Glinka. 
Paris. 

Franz, Robert. Mittheilnngen uber Johann 
Sebastian Bach's Magnificat. Halle, 1863. 

r<AGLIARDO. Onori funebri, etc., di Pai- 

^ siello. Naples, 1816. 

Gassner, F. S. Universal-Lexikon der Ton- 

kunst. Stuttgart, 1849. 
Genard, P. Janssens, projet d'une biogi'aphie 

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Glehn, M. E. von. Goethe and Mendelssohn. 

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Bartholdy. 1821. 
Gollmick, Carl. Karl Friedrich Wilhelm. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1848. 
Gotthold, Friedrich August. Ueber Richard 

Wagner's Tannhiiuser, etc. Konigsberg, 

1854. 
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. Notes of a Pianist, 

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1881. 
Gounod, Charles. Autobiographic. London, 

1875. 
Gregoir, £douard Georges Jacques. Notice 

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Gr^try, AndrC Joseph. Gr6try en famille, ou 

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Grigne, H. Rameau, sa vie, ses ouvrages. 

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Grossi, Gennaro. Biografia dcgli Uomini 

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1809. 
Guhr, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm. Ueber Paga- 

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1831. English translation by SibiUa No- 

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Lk 



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TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



A., Alto. 






M., Monsieur. 


B., Bass, Basso, etc. 






Mile, Mademoiselle. 


Bar., Baritone. 






IMnie, Madame. 


B. M. v., Beata Maria 


Virgo. 




JIS., MSS., Manuscript, Manuscripts 


Biog., Bioj^rapby, Bio 


gratia, etc. 




M. S., Mezzo-soprano. 


Catb., Cathedral. 






Mus. Bac, Bachelor of Music. 


Ch., Chun'h. 






Mus. Doc, Doctor of Music. 


Col., Collection. 






n. d., no date. 


do., ditto. 






op., opus, opera. 


etc., et cetera. 






R A. M., Royal Academy of jMusic. 


ct seq., et sequeiitia. 






S., Soprano. 


Fr., Freucli. 






S., Sta., San, Santa. 


Ger., German. 






S. M., Santa Maria. 


ib., ibidem. 






Sp., Spanish. 


id., idem. 






St., Saint. 


It., Italian. 






T., Tenor. 


L. of Honour, Legion 


of Honour. 




Voc, Voces. 


Lib., Liber. 






Vol., Volume. 


*^* Words in italics indicate the 


alphabetii 


:al place of articles on the suhjccis specifiec 



CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



Music and Musicians 



NAAMAN, oratorio in two parts, text 
by W. Bartholomew, music by Sir 
Michael Costa, first performed at the 
Birmiugbam (England) Festival, Sept. 7, 
18C4. Characters represented : Naaman 
(T.), Mr. Sims Reeves ; Elisha (Bar.), Mr. 
Santley ; Gehazi (B.), Mr. Cummings ; Adah 
(S.), Mile Adelina Patti ; The Shunamite 
Widow (A.), Mme Rudersdorff. It was 
again sung at the same place, Sept. 1, 1870, 
and was given by the Handel and Haydu 
Society, Boston, March 27, 18G9. Pub- 
lished by Addison & Co. (London, 18G-4). 
— Athenfcum (18G4), ii. 345, 378 ; (1870), ii. 
346 ; (1878), i. 19G. 

NABUCCO, Italian oj^era in four acts, 
text by Solera, music by Verdi, first repre- 
sented at La Seala, Milan, March 9, 1842, 
with the following cast : 

Nabucco (Bar.) Signor Ronconi. 

Zaccaria (B.) Signor Derivis. 

Ismaele (T.) Signor Miraglia. 

Abigailo (S.) Mme Strepponi. 

Fenena (A.) Mme Bollinzagi. 

The original title, Nabucodonosor, was 
shortened to Nabucco. It was the first 
opera that established Verdi's reputation in 
France. The subject treats of Nebuchad- 
nezzar's madness, of which a captive, Abi- 
gaile, who pretends to be of noble birth, 



takes advantage for self-aggrandizement; 
her downfall, and the expiation of the king. 
This opera was first given in Vienna in 
1843 ; in Berlin in 1844 ; and in Loudon 
as Nino, March 4, 1846. It was first repre- 
sented in New York, April 4, 1848. Pub- 
lished by Diabelli (Vienna, 1844). Same 
subject, Nebukadnezar, German opera, text 
by Menautes, music by Reinhardt Keiser, 
Hamburg, 1704 ; Nabuchodonosor, Italian 
opera seria, or oratorio, text by Rocco 
Maria Rossi, music by Attilio Ariosti, Vi- 
enna, 1706 ; Nabuco, Portuguese ballet in 
one act, by Pinto, Lisbon, about 1850 ; and 
an operetta in one act, by J. J. Debillemont, 
Paris, 1871. — Clement et Larousse, 471 ; 
Grove, iv. 246 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xlvi. 
265 ; Athenanim (1846), 250. 

NACCIARONE, GUGLIELMO, born in 
Naples, Feb. 18, 1837, still li\ing, 1890. 
Pianist, son of the following, pupil of Mi- 
chele Marrano, and in composition of his 
father ; he appeared successfully in public 
at the age of ten, and two years after played 
in Paris, ajjplauded by Thalberg. Return- 
ing to Naples in 1851, he was heard in 
Florence, and in 1858 made a concert tour 
through Germany. Works : Pier de' Me- 
dici, opera ; Cantata ; 2 symphonies for or- 
chestra ; Miserere ; Pianoforte pieces ; Ro- 
mances, etc. — Futis, Supplement, ii. 259. 



NACCIARONE 



NACCIARONE, NICOLA, born in Na- 
ples, April 2, 1802, died there, December, 
1876. Pianist, pupil at the Couservatorio 
of Eaffaelle Cioifi and of Giuseppe Elia ; and 
in singing of Liiigi Mosca, in harmony and 
counterpoint of Fenaroli and Zingarelli, 
and private puf)il on the pianoforte of John 
Field. Works : Requiem, 1859 ; Sanctus 
for eight voices, and other church music ; 
4 sj-mphonies for orchestra ; Funeral sym- 
phony ; Quartets for pianoforte and strings ; 
Pianoforte music, and songs. Sofonisba, 
opera (unpublished). — Fctis, Supplement, 
ii. 259. 

NACHKLANTGE AN OSSIAN (Echoes 
from Ossian), concert overture for orches- 
tra, in A minor, by Niels W. Gade, first 
performed in Copenhagen in 1841. Gade 
received in 1841 for this work a prize from 
the Musical Union of Copenhagen. It was 
given in Leijjsic, Jan. 27, 1842, and by the 
Philharmonic Society, New York, in the 
season of 1852-53. Published by Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1841). Arranged for 
pianoforte for four hands. — Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xliii. 975 ; Neuc Zeits., xvi. 41 ; Sig- 
nale (1882), 8G5. 

NACHT DIE (The Night), cantata for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra, text by M. 
Hartmann, music by Ferdinand Hiller. 
Published by Leuckart (Breslau, 18G3). 
—Allgem. mus. Zeitg. (18G3), 267. 

NACHTLAGEK IN GRANADA, DAS 
(A Night in Granada), romantic opera in 
two acts, test from Johann Friedrich Iviud's 
drama, music by Konradin Kreutzer, first 
represented in Vienna in 1834. The Prince 
of Spain, hunting incognito, cornea to a 
mountain near a Moorish castle, where 
he finds a young girl, Gabrielle, bewailing 
the loss of a dove, which has been cai-ried 
away by an eagle. She tells him also that 
her guai-dian intends to mai-ry her to Vasco, 
but that she wiU not forsake her lover, Go- 
mez. The huntsman promises the protec- 
tion of the Prince, and at this moment the 
other huntsmen, including Vasco, arrive. 
In the meanwhile Gomez, who has been to 



court to ask aid from the Prince in securing 
Gabrielle's hand, follows him to the Moor- 
ish castle and ai'rives in time to defend 
him from the huntsmen, who have conspired 
to kill him. Afterwards he is rewarded with 
the hand of Gabrielle. The opera was given 
in Paris in 1843 ; and ui New York in 1864. 
Published by Diabelli (Vienna). 

NACHTLIED (Night Song), song by 
Hebbel, set for solo, chorus, and orchestra, 
by Robert Schumann, op. 108, first given ui 
Diisseldorf, March 13, 1851. It was com- 
posed in 1849, dedicated to Hebbel, and was 
published by Simrock (pianoforte score, 
Bonn, 1852 ; full score, 1853). Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Schumann Werke, Serie ix.. No. 7. 

NACHTSTUCIvE (Night Pieces), four 
pieces for pianoforte, by Schumann, op. 23, 
composed in Vienna in 1839, and dedicated 
to F. A. Becker, of Freiburg. The name is 
taken from a series of tales by Hoflinann. 
I. Mehr langsam, oft zuruckhaltend (in C) ; 
H. Markirt und lebhaft (in F) ; HI. Slit 
grosser Lebhaflikeit (in D-flat) ; IV. Eiu- 
fach (in F). Published by P. Mechetti 
(Vienna, 1840) ; also by Spina (Vienna). 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Schumann Werke, 
Serie vii.. No. 23. — Grove. 

NADAUD, GUSTA\^, born at Roubaix 
(Nord), France, Feb. 20, 1820, still Uving, 
1890. Vocal composer, at first intended for 
a mercantile cai'cer, but was so encouraged 
by the success of some chansons, of which 
he had written both words and music, that 
he devoted himself to this species of com- 
position. He has published fifteen volumes, 
each containing twenty chansons, and a vol- 
ume of Chansons legeres. He has written 
also three parlor operettas : Le docteur 
Vieuxtemps ; La voUere ; Porte et fenetre. 
Legion of Honour, 1861. — Fetis, Suj^jjlc- 
ment, ii. 260. 

NADERJLiN (Nadermann), FRANgOIS 
JOSEPH, born in Paris, 1773, died there, 
Aijril 2, 1835. Virtuoso on the harp, pupil of 
Krumpholz, and in composition of Des- 
vignes ; in 181G royal chamber harpist, and 
in 1825 professor at the Conservatoii-e. He 



NAGELI 



bad made a concert tour in Germany in 
1798, and liad played with success in Mu- 
nich and Vienna. After his father's death 
he became associated with his brother Henri 
in the management of the harj) factory which 
they inherited. Works : 2 concertos for 
tlie harp, op. 13, 40 ; 2 quartets for 2 harps, 
vioUn and violoncello, op. 42 ; Quartets for 
harp, pianoforte, violin and violoncello, op. 
43, 54 ; Trios for harp and various instru- 
ments ; Trio for harps, op. .57 ; Duos for 
harj) and violin or flute ; Do. for harp and 
pianoforte ; Sonatas, au-3 varies, fantaisies, 
etc., for harp. — Fctis. 

NAGELI, HANS GEOKG, born at Wet- 
zicon, Canton Zurich, Switzerland, May 10, 
1773, died at Zurich, Dec. 26, 1836. Didac- 
tic and critical writer ; deserves much cred- 
it for good and clear editions of classical 
works — Handel's, Bach's and Frescobaldi's, 
and the Repertoire des claveciuistes (1803), 
containing works of Beethoven, Clementi, 
Dussek, and Steibelt. In 1824 he travelled 
in Germany, and gave lectures on music ; 
was a believer in the Pestalozzian method 
and used it more than twenty j'ears in a 
school ho had established. He was founder 
and president of a society for the cultiva- 
tion of music. He is best known for his 
audacity in inserting four bars into one of 
Beethoven's sonatas. Works : Choruses for 
church and school ; Toccatas for pianoforte ; 
Many collections of songs, including Freut 
Euch des Lebens. He jJubhshed also Go- 
sangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzisehen 
Gruudsiltzen (ib., 1810), Vorlesungen fiber 
Musik mit Beriicksichtigung der Dilettanten 
(Stuttgai-t and Tubingen, 1826), and sev- 
eral other books and pamphlets. — AUgem. 
d. Biog., xxiii. 221 ; Bierer, Hans Nageli, 
Erinnerungen, etc. (Zurich, 1844) ; Biog. 
von H. G. Nilgeli (ib., 1837) ; Heindl, 
Biog. der beriihmtesten Piidagogen, etc. ? ; 
Keller, H. G. Nageli, eiue Festrede, etc. 
(Zurich, 1848) ; Schwager, Der deutscho 
Miinnergesang, etc. (Kaiserslautern, 1879). 

NAGILLER, MATTHAUS, born at Mini- 
ster (Tyrol), Oct. 24, 1815 (Oct. 14, 1817 ?), 



died at Innspruck, July 8, 1874. Instru- 
mental and vocal composer, first instructed 
at Schwaz by the choir-master Pichler, then 
at Innspruck, pupil of Martin Goller in har- 
mony, and at the Vienna Conservatorium, of 
Preyer in comjjosition ; won the first prize 
in i840, and went to Paris in 1842. He 
soon gained reputation as a teacher, founded 
and conducted the Mozart- Verein, and in 
1846 made a concert tour in Germany, 
bringing out successfully his first sym- 
phony, previously produced in Paris, and 
other compositions, at Cologne, Munich, 
and Berlin. In 1848 he left Paris to return 
to his native land, where he settled in 1850, 
after travelling in Germany. In 1854 he 
removed to Munich, bi-ought out some of 
his more ambitious compositions, and re- 
peatedly made concert tours to different 
cities until 1805, when he was called to 
Botzen as Kapellmeister and music direc- 
tor ; in 1866 he went in the same capacity 
to Innspruck, where he assumed also the 
direction of the Consei'vatorium and was 
very active in promoting a higher standai'd 
of music. Works : Herzog Friedrich von 
Tirol, opera, given at Botzen, 1861, Inns- 
pruck, 1802 ; Music to Widmann's Nausi- 
kaa ; Symj)houy in C minor ; Solemn mass ; 
Other masses ; Offertories ; Tantum ergo ; 
etc. ; Overtures ; Choruses and songs. 
— Allgem. d. Biog., xsiii. 227 ; AUgem. 
Zeitg., July 15, 1874, Beilagc, 190 ; Egger, 
Tiroler, and Vorarlberger (1882), 483 ; 
Heindl, Galleni beriihmter Piidagogen, etc. 
(Munich, 1859), ii. 50 ; Wurzbach. 

NALiDS, THE. See Die Najaden, 

NAIM, overture to an opera in five acts, of 
the same name, by Napoleon Henri Keber. 
The overture has been frequently performed, 
but the opera has never been given. 

NAIS, opera-ballet in three acts, text by 
Cahusac, music by Rameau, first repre- 
sented at the Academie Royale de Musiquo, 
Paris, April 22, 1749. It was revived Aug. 
7, 1764. 

NAJADEN, DIE (The Naiads), overture 
for orchestra in D, by William Sterndalo 



NALA 



Bennett, op. 15, first performed at the Ge- 
waudhaus, Leipsic, March 7, 1837, under 
Mendelssohn's dii-ection. It was given bj' 
the Philharmonic Society of London in 1837 ; 
of New York in the season of 1844-45. Pub- 
lished by Kistner (Leipsic, 1841). — Schu- 
mann, Gesammelte Schriften, ii. 98. 

NALA UND DAIVIAYANTI, cantata, text 
by Frau Dr. Soiihie Hasenclever, music by 
Ferdinand HOler, op. 150, written for and 
first performed at the Birmingham (Eng- 
land) Festival, Sept. 1, 1870, under Hitler's 
direction. The solo singers were : Miss 
Edith Wynne, Mr. Cummings, and Mr. 
Santley. The subject is from the Maha- 
bharata, and treats of the love of Nala for 
the maiden Damayanti. It was given in 
London, May 15, 1871. Pubhshed by No- 
vello (Loudon, 1870).— Athenreum (1870), ii. 
314. 

NALDINI, S.ANTE, born in Rome, Feb. 
5, 1588, died there, Oct. 10, 1GG6. Church 
composer, was tenor in the papal chapel in 
1G17, and later abbate. Ho was one of 
those commissioned by Pope Urban "Viil. to 
publish the hynuis of the church with Gre- 
gorian melodies, and music by Palestrina. 
"Works : Miserere ; Motets ; Hymni Sacri in 
Breviario Romano. S. D. N. Urbani YIH. 
auctoritate recogniti, et cantu musico pro 
prsecijiuis anni festivitatibus esjiressi (^bat- 
wei"p, 1644). — Mendel ; Fctis ; Schilling ; 
Gerber. 

NAMENSFEIER (Name Festival), over- 
ture for orchestra, iu C, bj* Beethoven, op. 
115, first performed in Vienna, Oct. 4, 
1814, the name-day of Franz I., Emperor 
of Austria. Beethoven, hoping to have this 
work heard by the crowned heads of Eu- 
rope, who were holding a Congress in Vienna 
in the autumn of 1814, wrote on the title- 
page " Zum Namenstag unseres Kaisers." 
It was played in the Great Redoutensaal, 
Vienna, Dec. 25, 1815, without the title 
" Namensfeier," and in 1818 it was given 
under the strange title of " A la Chasse." 
In 1825 Beethoven called it simply " Grosse 
Ouverture in C dur," and dedicated it to 



Prince Anton Heinrich Radziwill. The 
original MS. is in the Konigliche Bil)liothek, 
Vienna. This overture was more frequently 
worked over than any other of Beethoven's 
instrumental compositions. The first sketch 
was made in 1809, and others arc combined 
with sketches for the seventh, eighth, and 
ninth symphonies. It is especially interest- 
ing on account of its connection mth the 
ninth symphony, for its principal theme re- 
sembles that ■nTitten to Schiller's " Ode to 
Joy," which at one time Beethoven thought 
of setting as a chorus preceded by an over- 
ture. It was first jHiblished by S. A. Steiner 
& Co. (Vienna), shortly after Beethoven's 
death ; by Haslinger (Vienna, 1830) ; by 
Schlesinger under the title of " A la Chasse" 
(Paris) ; and by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Beetho- 
ven Werke, Serie iii., No. 23. — Thayer, Ver- 
zeichniss, 125 ; Lenz, Beethoven, ii.. Part ii. 
124 ; Marx, Beethoven, ii. 225 ; Nottebohm, 
Beothoveniaua, 35 ; Schiudler, ii. 153 ; Mas. 
Wochenblatt (187G), 1. 

NiiMOLT^A, ballet in two acts and three 
tableaux, text by Charles Nuittier, music 
by £douai-d Lalo, first represented at the 
Opera, Paris, March G, 1882, wth Mile 
Sangalli as Namouna. Namouna, the danc- 
ing slave of Adriani, passes into the posses- 
sion of Ottavio in payment of a gambling 
debt. Her old master, who loves her, fol- 
lows her with his suit, but she falls in love 
with Ottavio, and pursues him until he is 
won through her airy grace and charm. 
Introduction and serenade from Namouna, 
first performed in America by the Symphony 
Society, Nov. 25, 1887.— Le Menestrel 
(1881-82), 115. 

NANCE, song for chorus and orchestra, 
text on Schiller's words, " Auch das Schdne 
muss sterben," music by Brahms, op. 82, 
first given in Basel, Nov. 11, 1881 ; in Vi- 
enna, Feb. 10, 1882. Niinia was a classical 
term for a funeral dirge. Published by 
Peters (Leipsic, 1881). 

NANIE, song for chorus and orchestra, 
text from SchQlcr, music by Hermann 
Goetz, op. 10, first given in 1875. Pub- 



NANINI 



lished by Kistner (Leipsic, 1876). — Mua. 
Wochenblatt (187G), 722. 

NANESfl, GIOVANNI BERNAKDINO 
(Ambros gives both Bernardo and Bernar- 
dio), born at Vallerano about the middle of 
the IGth century, died in Kome about 1C20. 
He studied counterpoint under his elder 
brother, Giovanni Maria. Went afterwards 
to Rome, where he was made maestro di cajj- 
pella at S. Luigi de' Francesi, and later at 
S. Lorenzo in Damaso. About 1575 he 
began to assist his bi'other in his newly 
founded music school. No more is known 
of his life. Although not so imposing a 
genius as his brother, be was still one of 
the greatest men of the " great " Roman 
contrapuntal school. His compositions 
have a little more of modern flavour than 
those of his great contemporaries, and he 
was one of the first of the school to add an 
organ part to his vocal counterj)oint. Many 
of his most important works, among them 
his Salve Regina, 12 voc, are still in IMS. 
Published works : Madrigali a 5 voci. Lib. 
L (Venice, 1579, 1588, 1598) ; Idem, Lib. H. 
(ib., 1599) ; Mottecta 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 voc. una 
cum gravi voce ad orgaui sonum accomo- 
data, Lib. I. (Rome, 1G08) ; Idem, Lib. H. 
(ib., IGll) ; Idem, Lib. HI. (ib., 1G12) ; 
Idem, Lib. IV. (ib., 1618) ; Salmi a 4 voci 
con r organo (ib., 1620) ; Venite, exultemus 
Domino, a 3 voci col' organo (Assisi, 1620) ; 
Psalms, motets, and madrigals, some in 
MS., and many published in various collec- 
tions by Phalesius and others ; MS. Psalms 
and Motets 8 voc, and Salve Regina, 12 voc, 
in Santini collection, now in the episcopal 
Palace at Miinster ; 3 psalms, 4 voc, in 
Proske's Musica Divina. — Ambros, iv. 70 ; 
Riemann ; Fttis ; Grove. 

NANINI, GIOVANNI MARIA, born at 
Vallerano, about 1540, died in Rome, March 
11, 1607. Elder brother of the above; 
studied counterpoint at Goudimel's school 
in Rome ; the legend that he was a fellow 
pupil of Palestrina is undoubtedly false, as 
Palestrina must have left the school before 
Naniui entered it. He returned to Vallera- 




no as maestro di cappella, but in 1571 went 
back to Rome to succeed Palestrina aa 
maestro di cappella 
at Santa Maria Mag- 
giore ; in 1575 ho 
resigned this post to 
Ij^polito Tartaglini, 
and established the 
first public music 
school in Rome. At 
this famous school, 
in which he was as- 
sisted by his brother 
Giovanni Bernardi- 
no, and by Palestrina himself, almost all the 
best composers of the decline of the great 
Roman period got their musical education. 
On Oct. 27, 1577, he was elected member 
of the Pontifical choir, for which he wrote 
many of his best works. He was buried 
in S. Luigi de' Francesi. Nanini was one 
of the greatest composers of the great Ro- 
man school ; indeed ho was little inferior 
to Palestrina. His works are esijecially 
noted for their perfection of form and style. 
His six-voice " Hodie nobis cmlorum rex " is 
still sung annually in the Sixtino Chai^el on 
Christmas morning. Works : Motetti a 3 
voci (Venice, Gardano, 1578) ; do. a 5 voci 
(ib., 1578) ; Madrigali a 5 voci, lib. L (ib., 
1578) ; do., hb. H. (ib., 1580 ; other eds., 
1582, 1587, 1605) ; do., lib. HI. (ib., 1584) ; 
do., lib. rV. (ib., 1586) ; Canzonetti a 2 
voci (ib., 1587) ; Psalmo 7 voc. in Fabio 
Costantiui's Salmi a 8 di diversi, etc. (Na- 
ples, 1615) ; Motets in Phalesius's Har- 
monia celeste, Melodia olimpica, Musica 
divina, Symj)honia angelica, etc Cento 
ciuquanta sette coutrapjiunti e canoni a 2- 
11 voci, sopra del canto formo iutitolato La 
Base di Costanzo Festa, MS. ; 1 Madrigal, 
8 voc, MS., in the Munich Library ; Three 
motets, 3 voc, one do., 4 voc. ; one Miserere, 
4 voc, in Proske's Musica divina ; other 
single works in collections by Rochlitz, 
Tucher, Liick, and Prince von der Mosz- 
kwa. Regole di Giov. Maria e di Bernar- 
dino Naniui, per far il contrajipunto a men- 



NANTEKNI 



te sojira il canto formo (written conjointly 
by both brothers) in MS., transcribed by 
Orazio Griffi, is in the Palazzo Corsiui aUa 
Luugara. — Aiubros, iv. 67 ; Fotis ; Eie- 
niann ; Grove. 

NANTEKNI, ORAZIO, born in ]\Iilan 
about the middle of the 16th century, died 
(?). He was maestro di cappella of S. Celso 
about 1590, and is jiraised by wi-iters of 
his time. Besides the collection II primo 
libro di Motetti a cinque voci (ililau, 160G), 
his compositions may be found in most of the 
collections published about the beginning 
of the 17th century. His son Michel An- 
gelo, who succeeded him at S. Celso, pub- 
lished madrigals and canzonets. — Futis. 
NAPRAVNI'K, EDUARD, born at Bejsfc, 
near Kouiggriitz, 
Bohemia, Aug. 24, 
1839, still living, 
1890. Dramatic 
composer, first in- 
structed on the pi- 
anoforte by Josef 
Puhonn^, then at 
Pardubitz (1850) on 
the jjianofortc and 
organ by August 
Svoboda, his uncle ; 
finally, in Prague, pupil at the organ school 
of Blaiiek, and Kaj-1 Pitsch, and at Maydl's 
pianoforte school, where in 1850 he became 
instructor, studying at the same time instru- 
mentation under Fricdrich Kittl. In 1861 
he went to St. Petersburg as Kapellmeister 
to Prince YussupolT, whose orchestra he re- 
organized. In 1862 he was appointed or- 
ganist at the imperial ojaei'a, soon after 
chorus-master and assistant Kapellmeister, 
and in 1869 first court Kapellmeister. 
From Balakirev's resignation in 1872, until 
1882, he also conducted the symphony con- 
certs of the music society. Works — Ojieras : 
The Tempest ; Nizegorodni, given at St. 
Petersburg, 1869 ; Harold, ib., 1886. The 
Demon, sj-mphonic poem ; Vlasta, overture 
for orchestra, Prague, 1861 ; Ccske perle 
(Bohemian pearls), fantasia for pianoforte 




and orchestra ; Lou6eni (The Farewell), do. ; 
Trios, quartets, pianoforte music ; Bohemian 
and Russian songs. — Fotis, Supplement, ii. 
262 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 231 ; Riemanu. 

NAIiCISSE, idylle antique, for chorus, 
soli, and orchestra, text by Collin, music by 
Massenet, first performed in Paris in 1878. 
It was first given in New York at Chicker- 
ing Hall, Feb. 2, 188G, with additional in- 
strumentation by Franz Van dcr Stiickcn. 
The solos were sung by Mme Christine 
Dossert and Mr. W. H. Lawton. Pubhshed 
by G. Hartmann (Paris). 
"nARDINI, PIETRO, born at Fibiana, 
Tuscany, in 1722, 
died in Florence, 
May 7, 1793. Vi- 
olinist, pupil of 
Tartini, in Padua ; 
was, in 1753-67, 
solo violinist at the 
court in Stuttgart. 
In the latter year 
he returned to 
Italy, and was a short time at Leghorn, then 
in Padua with Tartini, nntil his old master's 
death, in 1779, when he was appointed di- 
rector of the court music in Florence. Ho 
seems to have been a true musician, and 
both Leopold jMozart and Schubart speak 
enthusiastically of his inlaying. Works : 6 
violin concertos ; 6 sonatas for violin and 
bass ; 6 flute trios ; 6 violin solos ; 6 string 




0^i^ 




<^ 



quartets ; 6 violin duets ; Sonatas in Alard's 
Klassische Meistcr and David's Hohe Schulo 
dcs Violinspiels. — Leoni, Elogio di Pietro 
Nardini, etc. (Florence, 1793) ; Futis ; Ger- 
ber ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Hart, The Violin, 
224 ; Wasielewski, Die Violinc, 93 ; Du- 
bourg. The Violin, 76. 

NARES, JAMES, born at Stanwcll, IMid- 
dlesex, England, in 1715, died in Loudon, 



NAIiGEOT 




Feb. 10, 1783. He was chorister in tbo 
Chapel Eoyal, under Bernard Gates, and 
afterwards j)upil of 
Dr. P e p u s c h. He 
acted in the place of 
Pigott as organist of 
St. George's Chajjel, 
Windsor ; in 1734 suc- 
ceeded Salisbury at 
York Minster; in 1756 
was organist and com- 
poser in the Chapel 
Eoyal, and in 1757-80 Master of the Chil- 
dren there. Mus. Doc, Cambridge, 175G. 
Works : Eight Sets of Harpsichord Les- 
sons (17-48) ; 5 Harpsichord Lessons (1758) ; 
Collection of Catches, Canons, and Glees ; 
The Eoyal Pastoral, ode ; II Principio, 
or, A regular Introduction to playing on 
the Hai-psichord or Organ ; Treatise on 
Singing ; 3 Easy Harpsichord Lessons ; Six 
Organ Fugues ; Second Treatise on Sing- 
ing, with a Set of English Duets ; 20 An- 
thems, 1778 ; A Morning and Evening Ser- 
vice and Six Anthems, 1788 ; To all lovers 
of harmony, and other glees ; Service in F ; 
Anthems, canons, and rounds in various col- 
lections. — Grove ; Mendel ; Eiemann ; Fe- 
tis ; Gerber ; Barrett, English Church 
Composers, 134 ; Harmonicon (1829), 235. 

NAEGEOT, PIEEEE JULIEN, born in 
Paris, Jan. 7, 1799, died (?). Dramatic 
composer, pupil at the Conservatoire of 
Kreutzer on the violin, and of Barbereau, 
Eeicha, and Lesueur in composition. He 
was a member of the orchestras successive- 
ly at the Opura Comique, the Theatre Ita- 
lien, and the OiDcra, then became chef d'or- 
chestre at the Theatre des Variotes. W^orks 
—Operettas : Los Contrabandistas, 1861 ; 
La volonte de mon oncle, 1862 ; Les ex- 
jjloits de Sylvestre, 1805 ; Dans le pcti-iu, 
18GG ; Jeanne, Jeannette et Jeauneton, 1870 ; 
Trois troubadours ; I Pifierari ; Le docteur 
Frontin ; Les ouvriferes de qualite. — Fetis ; 
do., Supplement, ii. 263. 

NASCO, GIOVANNI, Italian composer of 
the 16th ceutuiy. He was maestro di cai^- 



pella at Fano. W^orks : Primo libro di 
Madrigali, etc. (Venice, 1555) ; Motetti a 
cinque voci (ib., 1558) ; Madrigali, do. (ib., 
1559) ; Canzoni e Madrigali a sei voci, etc. 
(ib., 1562) ; Lamentationes Jeremise cum 
Passionis, etc. (ib., 1565). — Fetis ; Mendel. 
NASOLINI, SEBASTIANO, born at Pia- 
cenza, Italy, in 1768, died in Venice in 1799 
(1810 ?). Dramatic composer. Works : 
Nitteti, Trieste, 1788 ; L' isola incantata, 
Parma, 1789 ; L' Adriano in Siria, Milan, 

1790 ; L' Andromacca, London, 1790 ; Teseo, 
Vienna, 1790 ; La morte di Cleoi^atra, Vi- 
cenza, 1791 ; Ercole al Termodoute, Trieste, 

1791 ; Semiramide, Eome, 1792 ; Eugenia, 
Viceuza, about 1793 ; L' incantesimo senza 
magia, about 1794 ; II trionfo di Clelia, 
about 1799 ; Merope, about 1805 ; and sev- 
eral others, given in different cities of Italy. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

NATHAN, ISAAC, born in Canterbury, 
England, in 1792, died in Sydney, Australia, 
Jan. 15, 1864. Intended for the priesthood, 
he went to Cambridge in 1805 to study 
Hebrew, but became the pupil of Domeuico 
Corri in singing and composition. He was 
then a singing master in London, and ap- 
peared in Guy Mannering, at Covent Gar- 
den, but without success. He emigrated 
afterwards to Sydney. Works : The Al- 
caid, opei-a, 1824 ; Tlie Illustrious Stran- 
ger, operetta, 1827 ; Music for Sweethearts 
and Wives ; Hebrew Melodies for Byron's 
poetry ; Songs. He was author also of An 
Essa}' on the History and Theory of Music, 
and on the qualities, capabilities, and man- 
agement of the Human Voice (London, 
1823) ; also of the Life of Madame Malibran 
de Beriot (ib., 1830).— Grove ; Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Eiemann. 

NATIONS, LES, suite, six morceaux 
caracteristiques, for grand orchestra, by Mo- 
ritz Moskowski, op. 23. I. Eussisch (Alle- 
gretto) ; II. Italienisch (Presto) ; HI. 
Deutsch (Andante sostenuto) ; IV. Spanisch 
(Molto vivace) ; V. Polnisch (Allegro con 
fuoco) ; VI. Ungarisch (Molto Allegro). 
Published by Heinauer (Breslau, 1885) ; by 



ISTATIVITfi 



Durdilly (Pai-is). AiTangeJ for the piano- 
forte for four Lands. — Neue Zeits. (1885), 
366. 

NATIVITY, LA, oratorio, text by Cliaba- 
non de Maugris, music by Gossee, first per- 
formed in France in 1780. It contains a 
fine double chorus sung by angels and 
sliepberds, ■which excited the greatest enthu- 
siasm. Another effect was jjroduced by a 
second orchestra behind the scenes. Per- 
golesi also wrote an oratorio of the same 
title. — ^Hcdouin, Gossee, sa vie et ses ou- 
vrages. 

NATIVITY, THE, cantata in three pai-ts, 
for chonis, soli, and orchestra, text from 
MU ton's ode " On the Morning of Christ's 
Nativity," music by John Knowles Paine, 
op. 38, first performed, 1883. — Upton, 
Standard Cantatas, 28G. 

NATUR UND LTEBE (Natui-e and Love), 
cantata, text by Kind, music by Carl Maria 
von Weber, for two sojjrauos, two tenors, 
two basses, and pianoforte, wiitten for the 
name-day of King Friedrich August of 
Saxony, first performed in PiUnitz, Aug. 3, 
1818. It was sung by Mile Julchen Zuchcr, 
first soprano ; Mme Mieksch, second so- 
prano ; Herr Bergmann, first tenor ; Herr 
Wilhelmi, second tenor ; Herr Slieksch, 
first bass ; and Herr Helwig, second bass. 
The autograph is in the possession of Max 
von Weber, and a copy is in the private 
library of the King of Saxony. Published 
by Schlesinger (Berlin). Published with a 
second text, " Freundschaft und Liebe," by 
Hei-klots ; in English as " The Offering of 
Devotion " (Cramer & Co., London). — Jilhns, 
Weber Verzeichniss, 257 ; Weber, Weber, 
ii. 172 ; Berliner mus. Zeitg., i. 109. 

NAUBEET, FRIEDRICH AUGUST, born 
at Schkeuditz, Prussian Saxony, March 23, 
1839, stiU living, 1890. Vocal composer, 
pupil of Stern's Conservatorium in Berlin, 
organist and vocal instructor at the Gymna- 
sium of Neu-Brandenburg. He enjoys con- 
siderable reputation as a song writer. 

NAUE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, born at 
Halle, Nov. 17, 1787, died there. May 19, 



1858. Church composer, pupil of Tiii-k, 
whom he succeeded in 1813 as music di- 
rector at the university, where he exerted 
himself for the elevation of vocal church 
music. He sacrificed his entire fortune in 
collecting a precious musical library, after- 
wards bought in part for the royal library 
in Berlin, and in bringing about, in 1829, 
the great music festival at Halle, which was 
conducted by Sjiontini. Works : Versuch 
eiuer musikalischen Agenda, etc. (Hallo, 
1818) ; Allgemeines evangelisches Choral- 
buch (ib., 1829) ; Cantato zur Gediicht- 
nissfeiereiUcr Verstorbener ; Motets, hymns, 
responses ; INIarcho triomi)hale, for chorus 
and wind instruments ; Pianoforte music, 
etc. — Mendel ; Eiemauu. 

NAUMANN, E:\nL, born in Beriin, Sept. 
8, 1827, died in Dres- 
den, June 23, 1888. 
Dramatic coin230ser 
and distinguished 
■«Titer on music, 
gi-andson of Johaun 
Gottlieb Navmiann, 
first instructed at 
Bonn by Johanna 
Matthieu and by 
Franz Anton Ries, 
then at Frankfort pupil of Schnyder von 
Wartenseo, and at the Conservatorium in 
Leipsic of Mendelssohn, finally at Frankfort 
of Moser. In 185G bo was called to Berlin 
as music director at the Hofkircho, and in 
1869 appointed royal professor, isrojjosed 
by the Academy of Ai-ts. In 1873 he set- 
tled at Dresden, where soon after he founded 
a singing society. Works : Judith, ojaera ; 
Die Miihleuhexe, Singspiel ; Loreley, opera, 
Berlin, 1888 ; Christus der Friedensbote, 
oratorio, Dresden, 1848 ; Die Zerstorung 
Jcrusalems, cantata ; Dank- und Jiibelcan- 
tate, BerUn, 18GG ; Solemn mass ; Psalms, 
and other chui-ch music ; Symphonies ; Pi- 
anoforte music and songs. Among his writ- 
ings, "Die Tonkunst in der Culturge- 
schichte " (Beriin, 18G9-70) takes the high- 
est rank. — Mendel ; Riemann. 




NAUMAN]^ 



NAUIVIANN, ERNST (CARL), born at 
Freiberg, Saxony, Aug. 15, 1832, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Instrumental composer, grand- 
son of Joliann Gottlieb Naumanu, pu^nl of 
Hauptmaun, Richter, Wenzel and Langer, 
at Leipsic, and of Johann Schneider at Dres- 
den ; became music director at the univer- 
sity and city organist at Jena in ISGO, and 
professor in 1877. Works : 2 quintets for 
strings, op. G, 13 ; Quartet for do., op. 9 ; 
Trio for pianoforte and strings, op. 7 ; 
Serenade for string quintet, flute, oboe, 
bassoon, and born ; Sonata for viola, op. 1 ; 
etc. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

NAUIIANN, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, born 
at Blase witz, near Dresden, Ajnil 17, 1741, 
died in Dresden, Oct. 23, 1801. Dramatic 
composer, jjupil in Dresden at tlio Ki-euz- 
scbule, -wlience a Swedish musician, named 
Weestrom, took Lim about 1757 to Italy. 
After a short time in Hamburg and Padua, 
bad treatment compelled him to leave the 
Swede, and he became a pupil of Tartini. 
After three years in Padua he visited Najjles, 
Rome, Bologna, where he studied under 
Padre Martini, and Venice. Returning to 
Dresden in 17G3, he became court composer 
of sacred music. He 
again travelled in Italy, 
producing operas, and yi - v- - 
on his return, having /^^ 
declined an invitation to Berlin from Fred- 
erick the Great, was appointed in 177G, by 
the Elector, Kajoellmeistcr, and in 1786 
Oberkapellmeister. Hummel was his pupil. 
Although very popular in his time and a 
good musician, he seems to have had no 
genius, and is now almost forgotten. 
Works — Operas : AchOlo in Seiro, Palermo, 
17C7 ; Alessandro nello Indie, Venice, 17C8 ; 
La clemeuza di Tito, Dresden, 17G9 ; Lo 
uozze disturbate, Solimanno, Venice, 1772 ; 
Armida, Padua, 1772 ; L' isola disabita, Ve- 
nice, 1773 ; Ifiermestra, ib. ; R villauo gelo- 
so, Dresden ; L' ipocondriaco, ib. ; Elisa, 
ib.; Osiride ; Tutto per amore ; Amphion, 
Stockholm, 177G ; Cora, Gustave Wasa, ib., 
1780 ; Le reggie d' Imeneo, Dresden ; Or- 



ll\ '=rUr&>-i'^-fAy 




pheus, Danish opera, Copenhagen, 1785; 
La sorte di Medea, ballet, Berlin, 1788 ; 
La dama soldato, Dres- 
den, 1791 ; Amor giusti- 
ficato, ib., 1792 ; Prote- 
silao, Berlin, 1793 ; An- 
dromeda ; Aci e Galatea, 
Dresden, 1801. Orato- 
rios : La Passione di 
Giesu Cristo ; Isacco 
figura del Redentore ; 
Zeit und Ewigkeit ; San- 
ta Elena ; Joseph reconnu par ses frfjres ; 
Unsere Brilder ; II figlio prodigo ; La Pas- 
sione di Giesu Cristo, with new music ; Da- 
vidde in Terebinto ; Betulia liberata ; La 
morte d' Abele. Pater uoster, words by 
Klopstock ; 20 masses ; Te Deums ; Psalms ; 
Motets ; Hymns ; Litanies ; Cantatas ; 
Elegy, Le tombeau de Klopstock ; 18 sym- 
phonies ; Pianoforte concerto ; Pianoforte 
sonatas ; Violin duets ; Trios for isianoforto 
and violins ; Quartets for piano and violins ; 
German, Italian and French songs. — .iUlgem. 
d. Biog., xxiii. 30G ; Bitter, Gesch. des 
Oratoriums, 47G ; Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; 
Riemann ; Schilling ; Meissner, Bruch- 




stilcke aus Naumann's Lebensgeschichte 
(Prague, 1803-4) ; Rochlitz, Fiir Frcundo 
der Toukuust, iii. 3 ; Schubert, Lebens- 
geschichte Naumann's (Dresden, 1844). 

NAVOIGILLE, GUILLAUME JLXIEN, 
called Navoigillo the elder, born at Givet 
(Ai'dennes), about 1745, died in Paris, No- 
vember, 1811. Violinist, studied music in 
Paris, where a noble Venetian took him un- 
der his patronage, and finally adojsted him. 
For several years he held positions as vio- 
linist or chef d'orchestre at various theatres, 
and in 180G entered the orchestra of the 
King of Holland, after whose abdication ho 
returned to Paris. Works : G symphonies 
for orchestra ; 6 trios for violins and violon- 
cello, oj). 1 ; do., op. 10 ; G duos for violins. 



NAVOIGILLE 



op. 2 ; 6 sonatas for 2 violins and bass ; 6 
solos for violin, op. 4 ; Square dances and 
waltzes ; Eomances. — Fotis. 

NAVOIGILLE, HUBERT JULIEN, 
called Navoigille the younger, born at Givet 
in 1749, died (?). Violinist, brother of the 
preceding, whose associate he usually was 
iu theatre orchestras, and with whom he 
went to the Hague. Works : G symphonies 
for orchestra ; 12 quartets for strings, op. 
1, 3 ; Quintet for do. ; Sonatas for violin. 
— F6tis. 

NAWRA.TIL, KABL, born in Vienna, 
Oct. 7, 183G, stiU living, 1890. Instrumen- 
tal and vocal composer, pupil of Nottebohm 
in counterpoint ; studied law and entered 
the government service, then practised as a 
lawyer, and finally became a railway official. 
Works : Psalm XXX., for soprano solo, 
chorus, and orchestra ; Mass ; Overture ; 
Quintet for pianoforte and strings, iu D ma- 
jor ; Other chamber music, isiauoforte pieces, 
and songs. 

NAYLOR, JOHN, born at Stanningley, 
near Leeds, England, 
June 8, 1838, still hv- 
ing, 1890. Organist, 
pupil of Robert Senior 
Burton, became organ- 
ist at Scarborough in 
18.50, and at York Min- 
ster iu 1883. Mus. 
Bac, Oxford, 1863; 
Mus. Doc, ib., 1872. Works : Jeremiah, 
oratorio, York, 1883 ; Church services ; An- 
thems ; Part-songs, and songs. 

NEATE, CHARLES, born in Loudon, 
March 28, 1784, died in Brighton, March 
30, 1877. Pianist, pupil of William Sharp 
and John Field ; studied also composition 
under Woelfl and counterpoint under Win- 
ter in Munich. He first appeared iu pub- 
lic as a pianist in Loudon in 1800 ; was 
one of the original members of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, and for many years its 
director. He visited Vienna in 1815, and 
for some months enjoyed the friendship of 
Beethoven. Works : Trio for jjianoforte 




and strings ; Sonatas, rondos, fantasias and 
variations, for isianoforte. — Grove ; Fetis ; 
do., Supplement, ii. 2G5 ; Mendel, Ergiiuz., 
298. 

NEEB, HEINRICH, born at Lich, Hesse, 
in 1807, died at Frankfort, Jan. 18, 1878. 
Dramatic composer, jjupil of Peter Miiller 
at Friedberg, and of Aloys Schmitt at 
Frankfort, where ho settled in 1831 to 
teach music. He conducted there the sing- 
ing societies Germania, Neeb's Quartett, 
Teutonia, and Neeb's Miiunerchor. Works 
— Ofjeras : Domenico Baldi ; Der Cid ; Die 
schwarzcn Jiigcr ; Rudolf von Habsburg. 
Das deutsche Lied und sein Sanger, canta- 
ta ; String quartets ; Pianoforte pieces ; Bal- 
laden and songs. — Riemann. 

NEEFE, CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB, born 
at Chemnitz, Saxony, Feb. 5, 1748, died at 
Dessau, Jan. 2G, 1798. Dramatic compo.ser, 
son of a poor tailor, obtained through his 
fine soprano voice a position as choir-boy in 
his native place. Later he studied law at the 
University of Leipsie, and music under J. 
A. HOler. The success of some of his com- 
positions induced him to give up law for 
music, and iu 187G-79 he was oijeratic con- 
ductor of Seller's travelling theatre company, 
and then of the Grossmann-Hellmuth com- 
pany at Bonn. Here he became court or- 
ganist, and in 1782 succeeded vau der Eeden 
as court music director and as the instruc- 
tor of Beethoven. The theatre was given 
up in 1784, and his salary was cut down, 
but in 1788 a new court theatre was estab- 
lished and gave him cmijloyment. In 1794 
the war stopped this theatre also, and not 
untU 179G did he obtain an engagement as 
conductor at Dessau. Works — Operettas : 
Die Apotheke, Amor's Guckkasten, and airs 
for Hiller's Dorfbarbier, Leipsie, 1772 ; Die 
Einspriiche, ib., 1773 ; Heinrich und Lj'da, 
ib., 1777 ; Zamiro und Azor, 1778 ; Adel- 
heid von Vcltheim, Bonn, 1781 ; Die ncuen 
Gutsherren, 1781 ; Der dumme Gartner, 
oder die beiden Antone ; IMusic to the mo- 
nodrama, Sophonisbe ; Pater noster ; Ode 
by Klopstock for four voices and orchestra ; 



NEllMT 



2 symphonies ; Concerto for pianoforte, vio- 
lin, and orchestra ; 2-1: sonatas for piano- 
forte, with and without viohn ; Other pi- 
anoforte music and songs ; Arrangements 
and translations of operas. — Allgem. d. 
Biog., xxiii. 359 ; Mendel ; Riemaun ; Schil- 
ling ; Gerber ; Fetis ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
i. 241, 257, 273, 360 ; Thayer, Ludwig von 
Beethoven's Leben, i. 81, 117. 

NEHMT MEINEN DANK, aria for so- 
lirano with orchestra in G, by Mozart, com- 
posed for Mme Lange, in Vienna, April 10, 
1782. Breitkopf & Hlirtel, Mozart Werke, 
Serie vi.. No. 23. — KOchel, Verzeichniss, 
No. 383 ; Andre, No. 81 ; Jahu, Mozart, iii. 
274. 

NEIGE, LA, ou le nouvel Eginhard, 
opera-comiqiio in four acts, text by Scribe 
and Germain Delavigne, music by Auber, 
first represented at the Theatre Feydeau, 
Paris, Oct. 8, 1823. It was given in Lon- 
don as " The Frozen Lake," at Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, Nov. 2G, 1824 PubUshed by 
Schott (Mainz, 1825) ; and by Simrock 
(Bonn, 1825).— Berliner mus. Zeitg., ii. 330, 
338 ; iii. 149. 

NEITHAEDT, AUGUST HEINRICH, 
born at Schleiz, Aug. 10, 1793, died in Ber- 
lin, April 18, 18G1. Pupil of Brunow and 
Ebhardt ; then served aa a volunteer in the 
wars of 1813-15 ; was bandmaster of the 
Garde-Schiitzen Battalion in 181G-22, and 
of the Kaiser Franz Grenadiers in 1822-40. 
He received the title of royal music du-ec- 
tor in 1839, and in 1843 was entrusted with 
tlie formation of a regular choir for the 
Berlin Cathedral, of which he was appointed 
director in 1845. He visited St. Peters- 
burg and Rome for study, raised his choir 
to a high state of efficiency, and gave con- 
certs with it in London in 1850. Works : 
Julietta, die schOne Dalmatierin, opera, 
KOnigsberg, 1834 ; Horn duets, trios, and 
quartets ; Marches and other military mu- 
sic ; Sonatas, variations, waltzes, and other 
pieces for pianoforte ; Quintets for flute, 
violin, and bass : Quartets for men's voices ; , 
Many songs, including Ich bin eiu Preusse. | 



He edited Musica Sacra (Berlin, 8 vols.) 
and Chorale zum Kirchengebrauch (ib.). 
— Mendel ; Schilling, Supplement, 322 ; 
Riemann ; Futis. 

NEL COR Pit! NON MI SENTO, six 
variations for the pianoforte, in G, by Beet- 
hoven, on a theme from Paisiello's La 3Ioli- 
nara, composed in 1795, and published by 
Diabelli (Vienna, 1795, and by Traeg (Vi- 
enna, 1795). Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Beetho- 
ven Werke, Serie 17, No. 7. The theme is 
known in English as " Hope told a flatter- 
ing tale." — Thayer, Verzeichniss, 17 ; Nohl, 
Beethoven, iii. 58, 123. 

NENNA (NENNO), POMPONIO, born at 
Bari, Najjles, about 15G0. He was of noble 
birth ; in 1G13 he was crowned with laurel 
in Naples. Although many editions of his 
madrigals were published, they are singu- 
larly rare. Works : Madrigals in collections 
published in 1585 and 1594 ; Madrigali a 
cinque voci, 8 books (Venice, 1G09-24) ; 
Madrigali a quattro voci (ib., 1631). — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Riemaun. 

NERO, German opera, text by Feustking, 
music by Handel, first re2)rosented in Ham- 
burg, Feb. 25, 1705. Its full title was " Die 
durch Blut uud Mord erlangte Liebe, odor 
Nero." Johann Mathesou sang the part of 
Nero, this being the last ©ijera in which 
he a^jpeared. The work contained at least 
seventy-five airs, but the entire score is lost. 
— Rockstro, Handel, 40. 

NERO, German opera in four acts, text 
by Jules Barbier, music by Rubinstein, first 
represented at the Stadttheater, Hamburg, 
Nov. 1, 1879. Original cast : 

Nero (T.) Herr Winekelmann. 

Viudex (Bar.) Herr Kriickel. 

Saccus (B.) Herr Landau. 

Crysa (S.) Mme Sucher. 

Epicharis (C.) Mile Borree. 

Poppoea (S. ) Mme Prochaska. 

First represented in St. Petersburg, Feb. 
10, 1884 ; in New York, in English, by the 
American Opera Company, March 14, 1887. 
Published by Scuff (Leipsic, 1878). Other 



KERUDA 



operas of the same title, in Italian : text by 
Maria Piccioli, music by Carlo Pallavicino, 
Venice, 1G79 ; music by Carlo Porsile, Na- 
ples, 1686 ; Nerone fatto Cesare, text by 
Matteo Noris, music by Perti, Venice, 1G93 ; 
Nerone, music by Antonio Gianettini, Mo- 
dena, about 1710 ; text by Piovene, music 
by Giovanni Maria Orlandini, Venice, 1721 ; 
music by Vignati, about 1725 ; music by 
Egidio Komoaldo Duni, Eomc, 1735 ; La 
morte di Nerone, by Angelo Tarchi, Venice, 
1792 ; and in German by Reissiger, Municb, 
1822. — Clement et Larousse, 929 ; La Mai-a, 
Mus. Studienkopf, iii. 217 ; Mus. Woclien- 
blatt (1879), 544; Signale (1879), 929; 
(1884), 273; Krebbiel, Review (1886-87), 
152. 

NERUDA, JOHANN GEORG, bom at 
Rossicz, Bohemia, in 1706, died in Dresden 
in 1780. He played in the orchestra of a 
theatre, travelled, and from 1750 until his 
death was a member of the Elector's chapel 
in Dresden. His two sons, Ludwig and 
Anton, were also attached to the Dresden 
chapel. Works: 18 symphonies; 4 violin con- 
certos ; 30 trios ; 6 solos for \'iolin. — Wurz- 
bach ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Gerber ; Fctis. 
NESSLER, \1CT0R ERNST, bom at 
Baldenheim, near 
Schlettstadt, Alsace, 
Jan. 28, 1841, still hv- 
ing, 1890. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of 
Thcophil Stem at 
Strasburg, where he 
studied theology, then 
finished his musical 
education at Leipsic, 
where he conducted 
several singing societies, and in 1870 be- 
came chorus master at the Stadttheater ; in 
1879 music director at the Carolatheater. 
He has lived at Strasburg for several years. 
Works — Operas : Dornroschens Brautfahi't, 
Leipsic, 1867; Irmingard, ib., 1876; Der 
Rattenfiinger von Hameln, ib., 1879 ; Der 
wide Jiiger, ib., 1881 ; Der Trompeler von 
Siikkingen, ib., 1884. Operettas : Fleurette, 




Strasbui'g, 1864 ; Die Hochzeitsreise, Leip- 
sic, 1867 ; Nachtwiichter und Student, ib., 
1868; Am Alexandertag, ib., 1869. Der 
Blumen Rache, for chorus, soli, and orches- 
tra ; Siingers FriihUngsgruss, double chorus 
for male voices ; Voa der Wiege bis zum 
Grabe, cycle for chorus, soU, and i^iano- 
forte ; Quartets for male voices ; Songs. 
— 3Ius. Wocheublatt, xv. 559 ; Riemann. 

NESWADBA, JOS (properly Hamacek), 
born at Vj'skef, Bohemia, Jan. 19, 1824, 
died at Darmstadt, June 20, 1876. He 
was Kapellmeister, successively, at the the- 
atres of Karlsbad (1848), Olmiitz, Bri'mn, 
Gratz, at the National Theatre in Prague 
(1857-58), at the Italian Opera in Berlin 
(1859-60), at the Stadttheater in Hamburg 
(1861-63), and in 1864 became Hof-KapeU- 
meister at Darmstadt. Works : Music to 
several ballets, performed at Darmstadt ; 
Overtures, and other pieces for orchestra ; 
Bohemian songs, and choruses. — Mendel ; 
Slovnik naMhnf (Prague, 1859), v. 790; 
Wurzbach. 

NETZER, JOSEF, bom at Zams, Tyrol, 
March 18, 1808, died at Gratz, May 28, 1864. 
Dramatic composer, self-taught on the piano- 
forte and organ, afterwards at Innsbruck pu- 
pil of Martin GoUer on the pianoforte, and 
of Kathi'ein on the violin. He then went to 
Vienna, where he became one of the favour- 
ite pianoforte teachers, and studied comjio- 
sition under Gilnsbacher, and counterpoint 
under Sechter. In 1839 he visited Italy, 
and in 1842 made a tour through Germany 
to produce his opera Mara, which had been 
brought out with great success in Vienna, 
in 1841. At Leipsic he assisted Lortzing 
as Kapellmeister at the Stadttheater and 
conductor of the Euteii^e Concerts in 1844- 
45, then was for one year Kapellmeister of 
the Theater an der Wien in Vienna, where 
he resided three years. After a visit at 
Meldenau, near Leipsic, in 1848, he went, 
in 1849, as Kapellmeister to Mainz, and, 
having again lived at Leipsic, accepted, in 
1853, an engagement as Kapellmeister of 
the theatre at Gratz. Works — Operas : Die 



12 



^EUBAUEli 



Belagerung von Gothenburg ; Mara, given in 
Vienna, 1841 ; Die Eroberung von Granada, 
ib., 1844 ; Die seltene Hocbzeit, ib., 1846 ; 
Die Konigin von Castilien. Overtures, sym- 
phonies, string quartets. More than 100 
songs. — Heiudl, Gallerie, etc., ii. 54 ; Kess- 
ler, Jos. Nctzer, etc. (Gratz, 18G4) ; "Wurzbacb. 

NEUBAUEE, FEANZ CHEISTIAN, born 
at Horzin, Bohemia, in 17G0, died at Biicke- 
burg, Oct. 11, 1795. Violinist, pupil of a 
village school teacher, went early to Prague 
and Vienna, where he made the acquaint- 
ance of Mozart, Haydn, and Wranitzky ; 
then led a wandering, dissipated life, giving 
concerts in many German cities, and com- 
posing. In 1780 he became Kapellmeister 
to Prince Weilburg, but, as the French 
Eevolution soon caused the disbanding of 
the orchestra, he went to Minden, and later 
to Biickebui'g, where he was at first court 
composer, and afterwards successor of J. C. 
F. Bach as Kapellmeister. His early death 
was partly due to intemperance. Works : 
Ferdinand und Yoriko, operetta, given in 
Vienna about 1786 ; Cantatas ; 12 sym- 
phonies ; 10 string quartets ; String duets 
and trios ; Violin sonatas ; Violoncello, 
flute, and pianoforte concertos ; Flute duets 
and trios ; Sonata for pianoforte, violin, 
and bass ; Valuations for pianoforte and 
violin ; Songs. — Dlabacz ; Fetis ; Gerber ; 
Mendel ; Eiehl, Mus. CharakterkOpfe, i. 
253 ; Schilling ; Schlichtegi-oU, Nekrolog 
auf des Jahr, 1795 (Gotha), 395 ; Wurzbach. 

NEUENDOEFF, ADOLPH, born in 
Hamburg, Germany, June 13, 1843, still 
living, 1890. When twelve years old he 
was a fair pianist ; in 1855, his father hav- 
ing removed to New York, he received in- 
straction there on the violin from Joseph 
Weinlich. When sixteen he became sec- 
ond violinist, and in 1859 first violinist, of 
the old Stadt Theatre, New York, and made 
his debut as a pianist. In 1860-61 he was 
in South America, and on his return to 
New York studied theory and composition 
imder Carl Anschtltz, whom he succeeded 
in 1864, after a short residence in Milwau- 




kee, as conductor of the German opera. In 
1867 he was conductor of the New Stadt 
Theatre, and is said to , > -~; '■-- 

have produced, in three 
successive seasons, 
forty comic operas ; 
in 1870-71 he brought 
from Europe another 
comjjany, with which 
he gave more than 
thirty German operas 
in seven months, Lo- 
hengTin being then sung for the first time 
in America. In 1872 he went to Europe, 
and brought back with him Theodor Wach- 
tel, and gave, in partnership with Carl 
Eosa, a season of Italian opera at the new 
Academy of Music in New York, with Pa- 
repa, Adelaide Phillipps, Wachtel, and Sant- 
ley as singers. He also established the 
Germania Theatre in New York, and served 
as conductor of a choral society, and organ- 
ist of one of the city churches. In 1875 he 
brought Wachtel to America again, and 
with Mme Papi^enheim gave German opera 
in the Academy of Music. In 1876 he con- 
ducted the Beethoven Centennial Concerts 
in New York, and attended the first Wagner 
Festival at Baireuth as correspondent of 
the " New-Yorker Staats Zeitung ; " and in 
the winter of 1877 produced, at the Acad- 
emy of Music, Der fliegende holliinder, 
Tannhiiuser, and Die Walkiire. In 1878 he 
succeeded Theodore Thomas as conductor 
of the New York Philharmonic Society. 
Financially ruined in 1883 by the failure of 
the Germania Theatre, he has since con- 
ducted operas and concerts all over the 
United States, and in 1887-88 was con- 
ductor of the concerts given by Josef Hoff- 
mann on his first tour in America. Works : 
The Eat Charmer of Hamelin, comic ojiera 
in four acts, 1880 ; Don Quixote, comic 
opera in four acts, 1882 ; Prince Woodruff, 
romantic comic opera in three acts, 1887 ; 
Symphony No. 1, 1878 ; Symphony No. 2, 
1880 ; Several smaller orchestral works ; 
Songs, male quartets, etc. 



NELTKOMM 




NEUKOMjVI, SIGIS:MUND, Eltter VON, 
bom at Salzburg, July 10, 1778, died iu 
Paris, April 3, 1858. 
Pupil of the organist 
W e i s s a u e r , whose 
place he often filled ; 
then studied compo- 
sition under llichael 
Haydn, and at the 
age of fifteen became 
university organist. 
He leai'ned sevei-al 
other instruments, 
and played the flute 
in concerts. When 
eighteen years old he 
was made Correpetitor of the opera, but 
after finishing his university studies left 
Salzburg in 1798 for Vienna. He became 
the pupil of Joseph Haydn, who treated him 
like a son. In 1807 he went to Stockholm, 
where he was elected member of the Acad- 
emy ; then to St. Petersburg, and became 
there conductor of the German opera. At 
the time of Haydn's death he returned to 
Vienna, and in 1809 went to Paris, where 
he was intimate with Grutry, Cherubini, 
and other celebrities. He succeeded Dus- 
sek as pianist to Talleyrand, whom lie ac- 
companied to the Congress of Vicuna, 
where he was commissioned to compose a 
l{equiem in memory of Louis XVI., and 
where Louis XVIH. conferred iipon him 
the Legion of Honour- and a title of nobil- 
ity. 'With Talleyrand he retm-ued to Paris, 
but in 1816 he went in the suite of the 
Due de Luxembourg to Brazil and was 
a^ipointed coui't du-ector by the Emperor 
Dom Pedro, with whom he went to Lisbon 
when the revolution of 1821 comjieUed him 
to leave Rio Janeiro. Then he returned 
to Talleyrand, but in 1826 travelled ia 
Italy, in 1827 in Holland and Belgium, and 
in 1829 in England and Scotland. He ac- 
companied Talleyrand on his embassy to 
England iu 1830 ; in 1832 visited Germa- 
ny, in 1833-31 Italy, and in 1834-35 Sou- 
thern France and Algiers. Illness alone 



prevented him from embarking for North 
America iu 1836, and the last years of his 
Ufe were spent between London and Paris, 
with brief visits to other cities. For some 
time he was blind, but a successful opera- 
tion restored his sight. In spite of the dis- 
tractions of travelling he composed indus- 
triously, but, fluent and interesting as his 
works are, they are now almost forgotten. 
He cultivated the more serious kind of mu- 
sic, and attempted to revive the style of 
Palestrina. His refinement and elevated 
character won him many friends. Works : 
Alexander am Indus, ojiera ; nine other 
German operas. Oratorios : Das Gesetz 
des alten Bundes (in English, Mount Sinai) ; 
David ; Grableguug, Auferstehung und 
Himmclfahi-tChristi; Pfiugsten. Cantatas: 
Der Ostermorgen ; Circe ; Music to Schil- 
ler's Braut von Messina ; 15 masses ; 5 Te 
Deums ; 5 chui'ch cantatas ; Morning and 
evening service ; Many psalms ; 3 Italian 
dramatic scenes ; About two hundred 
songs ; Duets, terzets, and choruses ; Sj'm- 
phony ; 5 overtures ; 7 orchestral fantasias ; 
57 organ pieces ; Concerto, sonatas, and 
other music for pianoforte ; Chamber and 
mUitary music, altogether more than 1,000 
comjwsitions. — Wurzbach ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Eiemann ; Fetis ; Rochlitz, Fiir 
Freunde der Tonkunst, iii. 226 ; Schebest, 
Aus dem Leben einer Kilnstlerin (Stutt- 
gart, 1857) ; niustr. Zeitg. (1858), i. 394. 

NEUPERT, (CARL FREDERIK) ED- 
MUND, born at Christiania, Norway, April 
1, 1842, died in New York, June 22, 1888. 
Pianist, pupil of his father until 1856, then 
iu Berlin of KuUak and Kiel. In 1868 he 
became teacher of pianoforte at the Copen- 
hagan Conservatoi-y, and in 1880 professor 
at the Imperial Conservatory, Moscow, but 
left the latter on the death of Nicolas Ru- 
binstein (1881) and after a visit to Norway 
removed in 1882 to New York, where he de- 
voted himself to teaching and concert play- 
ing. Works : Andante fantastique ; Before 
the Battle; Funeral Marcli; 6 Norwegian Im- 
provisations ; Danse orientale ; 4 Romances ; 



NEUSIEDLER 




4 Valses ; 3 Barcarolles ; 3 Ballades ; 3 Polo- 
naises ; 124 Concert etudes. He published 
also : Piano School (1880), and more than 
700 technical studies and exercises. 

NEUSIEDLER (Newsidler), M E L - 
CmOR, born at 
Augsburg in the 
first half of the 
ICth century, 
died in Nurem- 
berg in 1590. 
Lutenist, lived in 
Italy in 156G, and 
afterwards in 
Nuremberg. He 
did much to im- 
l>rove the lute, and published two books of 
lute music (Venice, 15GC), which were re- 
printed by P. Phaliise (Louvain, 1571) and 
by Tobin (Strasburg). He published also 
Deutsch Lautenbuch, darinnen kunstreiche 
Motetteu, etc. (1574, 2d ed., 1596 ; in Ital- 
ian, n primo libro in tabulatura di liuto, 
1576) ; and Sechs Motetteu von Josquin in 
Lautentabulatur heraus (1587). 

NEVER WILL MY HEART REFUSE 
THEE. See Ich will dir mein Herze schen- 
ken. 

NEVIN, ETHELBERT WOODBRIDGE, 
born, of American jjarentage, in Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, Nov. 25, 1862, still living, 
1890. Pianist, pupil in Pittsburgh of von 
der Heide, and of William Guenther ; and 
in 1877-78 studied singing in Dresden un- 
der von Boehme. In 1880-81 he studied 
counterpoint under S. Austen Pearce, of 
New York, and then in Boston, for two 
years, the pianoforte under B. J. Lang, and 
harmony under Stephen A. Emery. In 1884 
he went to Europe and studied, in Berlin, 
the pianoforte and theory under Karl Klind- 
worth, von Biilow, and Carl Bial. Works : 
Suite for pianoforte, op. 2 ; Waltzes, and 
other pianoforte music ; Songs. 

NIBELUNGEN. See Ring des Nibe- 
lungen. 

NIBELUNGEN, eleven Charakterstucke 
for orchestra by Eduard Lassen, op. 47, 



written for Hebbel's drama of Die Nibe- 
lungen (1862), first performed in 1875. 
Published in Munich. 

NICCOLINI (Nicolini), GIUSEPPE, born 
in Piacenza in 1771 (April, 1763 ?), died 
there, Dec. 18, 1842. Dramatic composer, 
son and pupil of Omobono Niccolini, ma- 
estro di cappella at Piacenza ; he studied 
singing under Macedone, and at the Con- 
servatorio di San Onofrio in Naples was the 
pupil of Insanguine, called Mouopoli. His 
first opera was performed in 1793, and he 
wrote more than fifty others, which were 
rei^resented with great success in the prin- 
cipal cities of Italy. After becoming ma- 
estro di cappella of the cathedral at Pia- 
cenza in 1819, he composed chiefly church 
music. Works— Operas : La famiglia stra- 
vagante, Parma, 1792 ; II principe Spazza- 
camino, I molinari, Genoa, 1794 ; Le nozze 
campestri, Milan, 1794 ; L' Artaserse, Ven- 
ice, 1795 ; La donna innamorata, ib., 1796 ; 
Alzira, Genoa, 1797 ; La clemenza di Tito, 
Leghorn, 1798 ; I due fi-atelli ridicoli, 
Rome, 1798; II Bruto, Genoa, 1799; Gli 
Scitti, II trioufo del bel sesso, Milan, 1799 ; 
L'iudativo, Genoa, 1800 ; I baccanali di 
Roma, Milan, 1801 ; I Manlj, ib., 1802 ; La 
selvaggia, Rome, 1803 ; Fedra, ossia il ri- 
torno di Teseo, ib., 1804 ; II geloso siuce- 
rato, Geribea e Telamone, Gl' incostauti 
uemici delle donne, Le nozze inaspettate, 
Najsles, 1805 ; Abenhamet e Zoraide, Mil- 
an, 1806 ; Trajano in Dacia, Rome, 1807 ; 
Le due gemelle, ib., 1808 ; Coriolauo, Milan, 
1809 ; Dario Istaspe, Turin, 1810 ; Angeli- 
ca e Medoro, ib., 1811 ; Abradame e Dir- 
cea, Milan, 1811 ; Quinto Fabio, Le nozze 
dei Morlacchi, Vienna, 1811 ; La feudataria, 
Piacenza, 1812 ; La casa del astrologo ; Mi- 
tridate ; L' ira d' Achille ; Balduino ; Carlo 
Magno ; II conte di Lennos ; Annibale in 
Bitinia ; Cesare nelle Gallic ; Adolfo ; La 
presa di Granata ; L' eroe di Lancastro ; 
Aspasia ed Agide ; II Teuzzone ; Ilda d' 
Avenelle, Bergamo, 1828 ; La conquista di 
Malacca ; Witikind ; II trionfo di Cesare. 
Five oratorios ; 30 masses ; 2 requiems ; 100 



NICCOLINI 



psalms ; Cantatas ; Pianoforte sonatas ; Quar- 
tets for different instruments ; Canzonets, 
and other compositions. — Fetis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

NICCOLINI, LOUIS, born at Pistoja in 
17G9, died at Leghorn in 1829. PupU of 
llutiui at Florence, then of Sala, Tritto, and 
Paisiello at the Conservatorio della Pieta 
dei Turchini in Naples. In 1789 he was 
appointed maestro di cappella of the cathe- 
dral at Leghorn. Works : Several baUets 
for the Teatro San Carlo, Naples ; Masses, 
Utanies, and many other sacred composi- 
tions. — Fetis. 

NICCOLO DE' LAPI, ossia 1' assedio di 
Firenze, Italian opera seria in four acts, 
text bj' Pinto, music by Pacini, first ref)re- 
sented in Florence, Oct. 29, 1873. It was 
sung by Mme Ronzi-Checchi, Augusti, and 
Nierly. Same text, music by Francesco 
Schira, London, March 7, 1SG3 ; by Gio- 
vanni Rossi, Ancona, 1804, Parma, 18GG ; 
by Gammieri, St. Petersburg, Dec. 6, 1877 ; 
and by Terziaui, Rome, Februaiy, 1883. 

NICHEL:\L\NN, CHRISTOPH, bom at 
Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, Aug. 13, 1717, 
died in Berlin, July 20, 17G2. Instrumental 
and vocal composer, and writer on music ; 
pupil of Bach, and his oldest sou, at the 
Thomasschule in Leijisic, and of Quautz in 
Berlin, having in the meanwhile lived in 
Hamburg. In 1741-5G he was pianist to 
Frederick the Great. He is now chiefly 
known by his book Die Melodie nach ihrem 
Wesen, etc. (Dautzic, 1755), which he de- 
fended successfully against the attacks of 
a pseudonymous Diinkelfeind. Works : H 
Boguo di Scipione, serenade, Berlin, 17i6 ; 
Galatea, pastorale (with Frederick the Great, 
Grauu, and Quantz), ib. ; Pianoforte music, 
and songs for the collections of Mai-pm-g 
(175G), Voss (1758), Lange (1758), and Bu-n- 
stiel (17G0).— Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

NIC0D£, jean LOUIS, born at Jerczik, 
near Posen, Aug. 12, 1853, still living, 1890. 
Pianist, first instructed in Berlin by his , 
father, then pupil of Hartkiis, and at Kul- 1 




lak's Academic of KuUak on the pianoforte, 
and of Wiierst in theory ; finally, of Iviel in 
counterpoint and com- 
position. Having for 
several years taught in 
Berlin, where he re- 
peatedly played in pub- 
lic, he made a concert 
tour with Madame Ai-- 
tut through Galicia and 
Roumania in 1878, and 
became in 1879 in- 
structor at the Conser- 
vatorium in Dresden. Works : Maria Stu- 
ai't, symphonic poem ; Symphonic variations 
on an original theme ; Chamber music ; So- 
natas for pianoforte, etc. — Riemann. 

NICOLA, IvARL, born at Mannheim in 
1797, died at Hanover, June, 1875. Vio- 
linist, pupil of Wendling and in composi- 
tion of Gottfried Weber ; member of the 
court orchestra at Mannheim, Stuttgart 
(1821-23), and finally at Hanover. Works : 
Overture to the drama Anna Boleyn ; Ada- 
gio and rondo for violin and orchestra ; 2 
quartets for strings ; Sonatas for violin and 
pianoforte ; About 7 collections of German 
songs. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

NICOLAI, (CARL) OTTO (EHREN- 
FRIED), born at 
Kiinigsberg, June 9, 
1810, died in Berhn, 
May 11, 1849. Dra- 
matic composer, pu- 
pil on the pianoforte 
of his father, a sing- 
ing teacher ; was so 
unhappy a t home 
that he ran away at 
the age of sixteen. He was befriended by 
the Justizrath Adler, of Stargard, who 
helped him in his studies, and in 1827 sent 
him to Berlin, where he studied under Zelter 
and Klein. In 1833 the Chevalier Buusen 
sent him to Rome, as organist to the chapel 
of the Prussian embassy, where he studied, 
under Baini, the great Italian masters, es- 
pecially the older ones. Late in 1837 be 




NICOLAI 



went to Vienna, where he was made Ka- 
pellmeister and singing master at the court 
opera. In October, 1838, he returned to 
Rome, and began his career as a dramatic 
composer, producing several operas in 
various Italian cities with much suc- 
cess. In 1841 he retui-ned once more 
to Vienna, to become first Kapellmeister 
of the opera, which post he held to gen- 
eral admiration until Easter, 1847, hav- 
ing produced two operas during hia stay. 
lu 1842 he founded the Philharmonic Con- 
certs there. The composition of a mass 
(1843) dedicated to Friedrich WUhelm IV., 
and of a Festival Overture for chorus and 
orchestra on Ein' feste Burg for the Jubilee 
of the KOnigsberg University in 1844, got 
him a call to Berlin as director of the then 
newly organized Domchor, and Kapellmeis- 
ter of the opera. Here he finished his Die 
lustigeu Weiber von Windsor, decidedly his 
best work, which he had begun at Vienna. 
It was brought out at Berlin with resound- 
ing success, only two mouths before he 
died of apoplexy. Excepting this last work, 
and his Festival Overture, nothing of his 
ever had a very lasting success. He had 
a natural gift of bright, graceful melody, 
and wrote in excellent style, albeit he nev- 
er aimed very high, and was content to 
please the taste of the day. Yet much 
might have been expected of him, had he 
lived longer. He was honorary member of 
the Societa CeciHa at Rome, and of the Fi- 
larmonici at Bologna. In 1851 the Berlin 
Tonkiinstler-Vereiu set up a monument over 
his grave in the church-yard of the Doro- 
theenstadt. Works — Ojieras : Rosmonda 
d' Inghilterra, given in Turin, 1838, in 
Trieste, as Eurico H., April 2G, 1839 ; II 
Templario, three acts, text by G. M. Marino, 
after Scott's "Ivauhoe," Turin, Feb. 11, 
1840 ; Odoardo e Gildippe, Turin, 1841 ; II 
proscritto, three acts, Milan, March 13, 
1842, in German as Die Heimkehr des Ver- 
bannteu, Vienna, Feb. 3, 1844 ; Die bisti- 
gen Weiber von Windsor, Berlin, March 9, 
1849. Mass, dedicated to Friedrich Wil- 



helm IV., 1843 ; i^'es^Ouverture, KOnigsberg, 
1844 ; Symphony ; Requiem ; Te Deum ; G 
Lieder, op. G ; Lieder uud Gesilnge, op. IG ; 
Concerto for pianoforte and orchestra, and 



JP 



other pianoforte music ; Songs and cho- 
ruses. — Mendel, Otto Nicolai, Eiue Bio- 
graphic (Berhn, 18G8). 

NICOLAI, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, born 
at Gross-Neuudorf, Saxe-Meiningen, Oct. 
15, 1744, died at Zwoll in 1801. Organist 
and concert director from 1780 at Zwoll. 
Works : Die Wilddiebe, operetta, 1774 ; 
Der Geburtstag, do., 1779 ; Jolantha, do., 
1785 ; Symphonic concertaute for violin and 
violoncello, op. 7 ; 2 quartets for strings ; 
Sonatas for pianoforte ; Soli for flute, etc. 

NICOLAI, WILLEM FREDERIK GE- 
RARD, boru in Leyden, Holland, Nov. 20, 
1829, still living, 1890. Organist and pian- 
ist, pupil at the Conservatorium, Leipsic, of 
Moscheles, Rietz, Hauptmann, and Richter, 
and at Dresden of Johanu Schneider on the 
organ. In 1852 he was appointed instruc- 
tor at the royal school of music at The 
Hague and, after Liibeek's death, became 
its director. As conductor of several musi- 
cal societies and as editor of the " Cecilia" 
(since 1870), he has had much influence 
among his countrymen. Works: Bouifa- 
cius, oratorio ; Das Lied von der Glocke, 
for chorus, soli, and orchestra ; Hansken 
van Gelder, for male chorus and do. ; Ter 
herinnering, for do. ; Vondel-hymne, for do. ; 
Door het woud, for do. ; Thorbeckecantate, 
for do. ; De zweedsche nachtegaal, for chil- 
dren's voices, mixed chorus, and orchestra ; 
Other cantatas ; Duets and songs ; Piano- 
forte music. — Mendel ; Riemann ; Viotta. 

NICOLO. See Uoxmrd. 

NICOU-CHORON, STEPHANE LOUIS, 
born in Paris, April 20, 1809, died there, 
Sei^t. G, 188G. Church composer, educated 



17 



XIDECKI 



at Choron's Institution Eoyale de Musique, 
where Le became professor and, in 1832, 
insf)ector of studies. Ou the death of 
Chorou, whose son-iu-law he had become, 
he assumed the direction of the school, 
which, however, abandoned by the govern- 
ment, could not support itself. Works : 
Oratorios for Cluistmas, Easter, and Pen- 
tecost : Several cantatas ; Several solemn 
masses with orchestra ; Short masses with 
organ ; Many motets and canticles ; Marche 
religieusc, for orchestra ; Sacred songs, etc. 
— Fotis, Supjjh'meut, ii. 272. 

NIDECKI, TOMASZ, born at Waisaw 
about 1800, died there in 1852. Dramatic 
composer, pui^il of Eisner at the Conserva- 
torium in Warsaw ; went to Vienna with a 
government stipend, and in 1837 settled at 
Poseu, whence he was called, in 1841, to 
succeed Kurj)iliski as conductor of the op- 
era in Warsaw. Works : Der Wasserfall in 
Feenheim, melodrama, Vienna, 1825 ; Przy- 
sifga (The oath), lyrical drama ; Masses and 
other church music ; Overtures. — Fetis ; 
Sowinski. 

NIEDEKMEYEE, LOUIS, born at Nyon, 
near Geneva, Switzerland, April 27, 1802, 
died in Paris, ]March 14, 18G1. Dramatic 
composer, puj)il of his father, and in Vi- 
enna of Moscheles on the pianoforte, and 
of FOrster in composition. In 1819 ho 
went to Italy, studied vocal composition 
under Fioravanti in Rome, and under Zin- 
garclli in Naples, where he became intimate 
with Rossini, and brought out his first opera. 
He settled in 1821 in Geneva, thence went 
to Paris in 1823, but his success falling short 
of his desires, he became music-master for 
eighteen months of a school in Brussels, 
and afterwards returned to Paris. After 
failing as a dramatic composer he devoted 
himself to raising the school of sacred 
music founded by Choron, and with d'Or- 
tigue founded the periodical "La Maitrise," 
devoted to sacred music. Works — Operas : 
II reo per amore, Naples ; La casa nel bos- 
co, Paris, 1828 ; Stradella, ib., 1837 ; Ma- 
ria Stuart, ib., 1844 ; La Fronde, ib., 1853. 



I Masses, motets, anthems, hymns ; Organ 
preludes ; Lo lac, and other melodies, to 
words by Lamartine, Victor Hugo, and Des- 
champs ; Italian songs ; Pianoforte music ; 
Methode d'accompagnement du plain-chant, 
with d'Ortigue (Paris, 1855, 2nd ed., 1876) ; 
Accompagnement pour orgue des offices 

' de l'£gUse (ib., 1861).— Fi'tis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, ii. 273 ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

I NIEMANN, RUDOLF (FRIEDRICH), 
born at Wesselburen, Holstein, Dec. 4, 1838, 
still living, 1890. Pianist, first instructed 
by his father, an organist, then pupil at the 
Conservatorium, Leipsic, of Moscheles, 
Plaidy, and Rictz, at the Conservatoire in 
Paris, of Marmontel and H;dcvy, and finally 
iu Berlin, of Billow and liieL He made 
himself iii-st known as a pianist, in 1873-77, 
when he accompanied Wilhelmj on his con- 
cert tours through Germany, Russia, and 
England. For several yeai's he lived at Ham- 
burg, and, iu 1883 settled at Wiesbaden, 
whence he accompanied Wdhelmj on his 
travels, teaching also at the hitter's violin 
school, at Biebrich. He has composed chief- 
ly genre jjieces for pianoforte, and songs, 
besides a sonata for violin. — Riemann. 

NIE SOLLST DU jNHCH BEFRAGEN. 
See Lohenfjrin. 

NIEUWENHUIJSEN, FRED ERIK, 
born at Zutpheu, Holland, in 1758, died at 
Utrecht, Jan. 29, 1841. Organist, pujjil of 
Bleumer, and in 1772-78 of Groeuemaun, 
whereupon he became organist of the cathe- 
dral at Utrecht. He made also a great repu- 
tation as carillonneur. Works : Do zeoslag 
by Doggersbank, symphonic jDiece for 2 or- 
chestras, Utrecht, 1781 ; La pais d'Alkmaar, 
cantata, 1802 ; De toonkunst, do., 1818 ; 
Other cantatas ; Dramatic song for the in- 
auguration of the theatre at Utrecht, 1796 ; 
etc. — Viotta. 

NIEUWENHUIJSEN, WILLEM JAN 
FREDERIK, born at Utrecht, Jan. 4, 1818, 
died there, May 19, 1869. Organist and 
writer on music, sou of the preceding, 
whom he succeeded in his position at the 
cathedral. Works: Overtui'e to Victor 



NIIIOUL 



Hugo's Hornani ; Leicester, cantata ; Chor- 
uses for male voices ; Instrumental music. 
— Viotta. 

NIHOUL, IVnCHEL, born at Tongres, 
Belgium, in 1790, dietl there, November, 
18G5. Dramatic composer, pupil of Daus- 
soigne-Mehul. In 1834 he accepted a gov- 
ernment position, and in 18G0 was post- 
master in his native city. Works : Une 
soiree a la mode, opera-comique, Liege, 
1836 ; Le compromis des nobles, grand op- 
era ; Church music, and symphonic compo- 
sitions. His son Romain (born at Tongres 
in 1821, died there, July 30, 1881), pupil at 
the Conservatoire at Liege, was conductor 
and director of mtisical societies in Ton- 
gres, maitre de chapelle at the cathedral, 
and professor in various schools. "Works ; 
Le bandit, ojX'ra-comique, Tongres, 18.'')7; 
Masses, canticles, choruses, etc. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, ii. 275. 

NIMM mCH DIR ZU EIGEN HIN, 
tenor aria in C major, with accompaniment 
of two flutes, two horns, two oboi da caccia, 
strings complete, and continuo, in Johann 
Sebastian Bach's cantata, Sie werden aus 
Saba Alio kommen. 

NINA, ou la folle par amour, comedie in 
one act, text by Marsollier, music by Dalay- 
rac, first re2)resented at the Italiens, Paris, 
May 15, 178G, with Mme Dugazon as Nina. 
Nina, believing that her lover, Germeuil, 
has been killed in a duel, becomes insane, 
but recovers her reason on his safe return. 
Given in Leii^sic with Mme Aue as Nina, 
in AprU, 1808. It was arranged as a ballet 
in three acts by Milon and Persuis, and rep- 
resented at the Academie Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, Nov. 23, 1813, with Mile 
Bigottini as Nina and M. Milon as Ger- 
meuil. Published by Scblesinger (Berlin 
18G0-G7).— Clement et Larousse, 477 ; La- 
jarte, ii. 81 ; Clement, Mus. celebres, 194 ; 
Jullien, Airs varies, 259 ; Hogarth, ii. 331. 

NINA, ossia la pazza per amore, Italian 
opera in three acts, text by Lorenzi after 
Marsollier, music by Paisiello, first repre- 
sented in Naples in May, 1787, with Mme 



Celestina Coltellini as Nina and Signor Laz- 
zarini as her lover, Lindor. Reduced to 
one act by Paiir, and represented at the 
King's Theatre, London, May 2G, 1825, 
with Pasta as Nina, one of her best achieve- 
ments, and Signor Curioni as Lindor. Pub- 
lished by Eicordi (Milan), and by Witzen- 
dorf (Vienna). Same title, Italian opera 
semi-seria, text by Ferretti, music by Cop- 
pola, first represented in Rome, May 6, 
1854. The part of Nina was written for 
Adelina Sjjech, who won much success, and 
it was sung with effect also by Mme Alboni. 
It was given at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
in December, 1839, under the title of Eva, 
with words bj' MM. de Leuven and Bruns- 
wick, and with Mme Eugenie Garcia as 
Nina. An intermede in two acts, Nina et 
! Lindor, ou les caprices du coeur, text by 
Eichelet, music by Dimi, was given at the 
Foire Saint-Laurent, Paris, Sept. 9, 1758. 
— Clement et Larousse, 478 ; Queens of 
Song, ii. 18 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxvi. 2G1. 

NINI, ALESSANDRO, born at Fnno, 
Eomagna, Nov. 1, 1805, died at Bergamo, 
Dec. 27, 1880. Dramatic and church com- 
poser, pupil of Ripiui, and at Bologna (1827) 
of Palmerini. In 1831 he went to St. Peters- 
burg, where he established, and until 1837 
directed, a school of singing. Some j'ears 
after his return to Italy he was made maestro 
di cappella at the cathedral of Bergamo. 
Works — Operas : Ida della Torre, Venice, 
1837 ; La Marescialla d" Ancre, Padua, 1839 ; 
Cristina di Svezia, Genoa, 1840 ; Marghe- 
rita di York, Venice, 1841 ; Odalisa, Milan, 
1842 ; Virginia, Genoa, 1843. Church mu- 
sic. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, ii. 27G. 

NIOBE, REGINA DI TEBE (Niobe, 
Queen of Thebes), Italian opera, text by 
Luigi Orlandi, music by Stefi'ani, first rep- 
resented in Munich, January, 1G88. This 
was Steffani's last work for the court of 
Munich. Same subject, ojiera by Pacini, 
Naples, Nov. 19, 182G, written for Pasta, 
who won a great triumph in it. Published 
by Ricordi (Milan). — Eudhart, Munchener 
Oper (1G54-1787), 8L 



19 



Kill VAN A 



NIRVANA, symplionisclies Stimmungs- 
bild, for orchestra, by Hans von Biilow, op. 
20, performed in Weimar, May 25, 1884. 
Published by Heine (Leipsic, 18G0-67); 
and by Aibl (Munich, 1884) ; arranged by 
Richard Kleinmichel for pianoforte for four 
hands. 

NISLE, JEAN FET^DfiRIC, born at 
Neuwied in 1782, died (?). Virtuoso on 
the horn and pianist, pupil of Koch at Ru- 
dolstadt, whence he went to Rostock, and 
in 1806 joined in Vienna his elder brother 
David, with whom he had travelled before 
studying at Rudolstadt. The two went into 
Hungary, and thence to Trieste, and thi'ough 
Italy as far as Sicily. Jean Froduric settled 
at Catania, where he founded a musical so- 
ciety, and lived for about twenty years. In 
1834 he retui-ned to Germany, went to Paris 
in 1836, and then to Loudon, where he still 
was in 1837. For many years previously 
ho had abandoned his former instrument for 
the pianoforte. Works : Overture for full 
orchestra ; Quintets for vioUns ; Quintet for 
flute, horn, and strings ; Do. for flute and 
strings ; Quartets for strings ; Trios for do. ; 
Do. for 2 horns and violoncello ; Do. for 
pianoforte, violin, and horn ; Duos for vio- 
lins ; Do. for horns ; Do. for pianoforte and 
horn ; 6 solos for violin ; Divertissements 
and fantaisies for pianoforte ; German and 
Itahan songs. — Fctis ; Schilling. 

NITTETI, Italian oper.a in three acts, 
text by Metastasio, music by Sarti, first 
represented in Parma in 17G5. Scene in 
Egypt. Characters represented : Amasi, 
King of Egypt ; Sammete, his son ; Beroe, 
a shepherdess, loved by Sammete ; Nitte- 
ti, Egyptian princess, daughter of the de- 
throned king Aprio ; Amenofi, sovereign of 
Cirene, friend of Sammete and lover of 
Nitteti ; and Bubaste, captain of the king's 
guards. Amasi, captain of the Egyptian 
army and friend of Ajjrio, King of Egypt, 
is sent by him to subdue rebellious prov- 
inces. He fulfils his mission, and on his 
return is proclaimed king of Egj'pt by the 
people. Aprio yields the throne without 



demui', and begs Amasi to aid in finding 
his daughter Nitteti, lost in the tumult, 
whom he wishes given in marriage to Sam- 
mete, the son of Amasi, so that she may be 
restored to the throne. Aprio then dies in 
the arms of Amasi. Published by Ricordi 
(Milan). Same test, Italian operas, music 
by Jommelli, Stuttgai-t, 17.53 ; Nicolo Con- 
forti, INIadrid, 175G ; Holzbaucr, Turin, 

1757 ; Johann Adolpli Hassc, Dresden, 

1758 ; by Angelo Petrucci, Mantua, 1766 ; 
Ignaz Fiorillo, Cassel, 1770 ; Sacchini, Lon- 
don, 1774 ; Dominico Fischetti, Naples, 
Nov. 4, 1775 ; Carlo Monza, Venice, 1777 ; 
Josef Mysliweczek, ib., 1780 ; Paisiello, St. 
Petersburg, 1781 ; Luigi Gatti, Lucca, 1786 ; 
Sebastiano Nasolini, Trieste, 1788 ; Parenti, 
Naples, 1789 ; Bertoni, ib., 1789 ; Bianchi, 
Milan, 1789 ; Federici, London, 1797 ; Be- 
nincori, Vienna, 1800 ; Stefano Pavesi, Tu- 
rin, 1812 ; and Poissl, Darmstadt, 1817. 

NIVERS, GUILLAmiE GABRIEL, born 
in a village near Melun in 1617, died in 
Paris after 1700. Church composer and 
writer on music, pupil of Chambonuieres 
on the pianoforte, became in 1G40 organist 
of Saint-Sulpice, in 1642 tenor in the royal 
chapel, and in 1G67 organist of the same. 
Afterwards he was also maitrc do mnsiquo 
to the queen. Works : Chants d'eglisc a 
I'usage de la paroisse de Saint-Sulpice (Pa- 
ris, 1G5G) ; Graduale romanum juxta mis- 
sale Pii Quinti, etc. (ib., 1G58) ; Antiphona- 
rium romanum, etc. (1G58) ; Passiones cum 
benedictione, etc. (ib., 1670) ; Lejons de 
tenc'bres, etc. ; Chants et motets, etc. (ib., 
1G92) ; Livi-e dorgue (3, 1GG5, 1671, 1675). 
— Fc'tis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

NIXE, DIE, cantata for alto solo, female 
chorus, and orchestra, text by Lermontoff, 
music by Anton Rubinstein, op. 63, first 
given at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, Fcbru- 
ai-y, 1864. Published by Scnft' (Leipsic). 
— Hanslick, Concertwesen in Wien, ii. 340. 

NOBLES SEIGNEURS, SALUT ! See 
Uugitenots. 

NOCES DE JE.\NNETTE, LES (Jcan- 
nette's Wedding), optra-comiquc in one 



20 



jsrocEs 



act, test by Carre and Barbier, music by 
Victor Masso, first represented at the Oj)era 
Comique, Paris, Feb. 4, 1853. Tlie subject, 
Jeauuette, is a young working-woman, who 
through love and tact elevates the charac- 
ter of her betrothed, Jean, a coarse and ill- 
tempered peasant. The chief parts were 
sung originally by Mme Miolan and M. 
Coudcrc. This, one of Masse's best works, 
was first given in New York iu ISGl, with 
Clara Louise Kellogg and M. Dubreuil ; in 
Loudon iu 1875 ; in Vienna in 1884 ; and 
by the American Opera Company, New 
York, March 24, 188G. Published by 
Schlesinger (Berlin, 1854). — Clement et 
Larousse, 481 ; Krehbiel, Eeview (1885-86), 
183. 

NOCES D'OLIVETTE, LES, opera-co- 
miquo in three acts, text by Chivot and Du- 
ra, music by Edmond Audran, first repre- 
sented at the Boutfes-Parisieus, Paris, Nov. 
13, 1879. Olivette, daughter of the seue- 
chal de Perpignan, loves Valentin, a young 
officer in the body guard of the comtesse 
de Pioussillou, and nejjhew of capitaine 
Merimac, whom Olivette's father wishes 
her to marry. Valentin disguises himself 
as his uncle and marries Olivette. Matters 
become complicated, for Valentin dares 
not appear as himself before the comtesse, 
who is iu love with him, and Olivette is in- 
volved with two Murimacs. The thread is 
disentangled through the aid of the due 
des Ifs, who draws the elder Merimac into 
a conspu'acy which forces him to leave the 
country, and wins the comtesse's consent 
to the union of Valentin and Olivette. 
The original cast included JJlle Clary as 
Olivette ; IMllo Bennati as la comtesse de 
Koussillon ; MM. Jolly, Marcelin, Gerpre, 
Desmonts, Pescheus, and Bertelot. The 
opera was first given in New York, Jan. 7, 
1881.— Kevue et Gaz. mus. de Paris (1879), 
372. 

NOCES DE TthtE ET DE THETIS. 
See Nozze di Tetide e di Peleo. 

NOCES DE PROMETHfiE, LES (The 
Wedding of Prometheus), cantata for cho- 



rus, soli, and orchestra, by Saint-Saens, op. 
19, first performed at the Cirque des 
Champs Elysees, Paris, Sept. 1, 1867. Pub- 
lished by Maho (Paris, 1868). 

NODUS SOLOMONIS (Solomon's Knot), 
a celebrated canon composed by Pietro 
Francesco Valentini in Komc in 1631. It 
is written on the chord of G for ninety- 
six voices iu twenty-four choirs. lurcher 
describes it in his Musurgia Universalis 
(Rome, 1650), and says if the proper dis- 
tribution of the four-part chorus is made, 
this canon may be sung by twelve million 
two hundred thousand voices. — Grove, ii. 
461 ; Burney, iii. 522 ; Hawkins, iii. 376. 

NOEL. See Oratorio de Noel. 

NOHR, CHRISTIAN FEIEDRICH, born 
at Laugeusalza, Thuringia, Oct. 7, 1800, 
died at Meiningen, Oct. 5, 1875. Virtuoso 
on the violin, jjupU of Spohr, and in com- 
position of Umbreit and Hauptmann ; after 
several successful concert tours he became 
Conzertmeister in the ducal orchestra at 
Meiningen. Works — Operas : Der Alpen- 
hirt, Gotha, 1831 ; Liebeszauber, Meinin- 
gen, 1831; Die wunderbaren Lichter, ib., 
1833 ; Der vierjilhrige Posten, ib., 1851. 
Oratorios : Martin Luther, Eisenach, 1850 ; 
Fraueulob ; Helvetia. Symphony for full 
orchestra ; Pot-pourri for wind instruments ; 
Quintet for strings ; 2 quartets for do. ; 
Quartets for male voices ; German songs. 
— Fetis ; Mendel 

NOLA, GIOVANNI DOJHNIC DE, Ital- 
ian comjjoser of the 10th century. His name 
is probably only that of his birthplace. He 
was maestro di cajjpella of S. Annunciata at 
Naples in 1575. Works : D. Joannis Dom- 
ini juvenis, etc., cantiones, vulgo Motecta 
appellattc, etc. (Venice, 1575) ; Canzone vil- 
lanesche a 3 voci (ib., 1545) ; Villanella alia 
Napolitana a 3 e 4 voci (ib., 1570) ; Madri- 
gals in various collections of the time. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

NON CASA, NON SPIAGGIA. See 
Pnritani. 

NON, CE N'EST POINT UN SACRI- 
FICE. See Alcesle, Gluck. 



NON 



NON, DE MA JUSTE COLEEE. See 
Deii.r families. 

NON MI DIE, BELL' IDOL mO. See 
Don Giovanni. 

NONNENGESANG (Song of the Nuns), 
for soprano solo and female chorus, with ac- 
companiment of two horns and harp, text 
from Uhland's " Brautlied," music l)y Jen- 
sen, op. 10, No. 1. It is dedicated to J. V. 
E. Hartniann and Niels W. Gade. Pub- 
lished by Sclmberth (Hamburg, 18fiO-G7). 

NONNE SANGLANTE, LA (The Bloody 
Nun), French opera in five acts, text by 
Scribe and Dolavigne, music by Gounod, 
first represented at the Academic Royalo do 
Musique, Paris, Oct. 18, 1854. Subject from 
Lewis's romance " The Monk " (179.")) ; 
scene in Bohemia in the eleventh century. 
Agnes, daughter of Comte de Moldaw, prom- 
ised by her father to Theobald, son of the 
Baron de Luddorf, loves Rodolphe, brother 
of Theobald. In order to meet him she 
promises to assume the disguise of the 
Nonnc sanglante, a phantom that haunts 
the estate. Rodolphe, seeking her at mid- 
!iight, falls in with the real phantom, and, 
supposing her to be Agnes, pledges her his 
love. Theobald dies, and Rodolphe wish- 
ing to niaiTV Agnt'S, the Nonne sanglante 
agrees to release him from his vows to her 
if he will slay her seducer and murderer. 
To Rodolphe's horror, she points out his 
own father as the iiroposcd victim. For- 
tunately, the baron is removed by the poig- 
nards of the Jloldaws, and the appeased 
nun bears him to heaven in a grand tableau. 
This opera was given only eleven times. 
— Clement et Larousse, 481. 

NONNES QUI REPOSEZ. See Robert 
le Diable. 

NON NOBIS, DOmNE, a celebrated 
canon in the Mixolydian mode, frequently 
sung in England at the close of public din- 
ners. Its authorship has been assigned by 
English historians to William Byrd, but the 
canon does not appear in any of his pub- 
lished works. According to Bumey, the 
first copy bearing Byrd's name is contained 



in Hilton's "Catch that Catch can," but 
the author's name is not mentioned in the 
edition of 1652. Its composition has been 
ascribed also to Palestrina, who used the 
opening theme for his Madrigal, " ^yhen 
iiowery meadows deck the year," possibly 
on the evidence of a copy of this canon, en- 
graved on a plate of gold, and said to be in 
the Vatican; but Dr. Blow, in his "Am- 
2)hion Anglicus " (1700), speaks of this as 
"Byrd's Anthem in golden notes," "Pre- 
served intirc in the Vatican." The canon 
has been set to German words and ascribed 
to Mozart. Bach used the theme for the 
subject of an " Allabreve per Organo pleno 
in D ; " Handel, in the TTallehijah chorus in 
the 3li!.<<siah, and in " I will Sing unto the 
Lord," in I.-^i-ael in Egypt ; Mendelssohn, in 
the last chorus in Faidus ; and Carlo Ricci- 
otti founded upon it a concei'to, published 
in Amsterdam in the eighteenth centurj-. 
The canon is capable of many solutions, an 
interesting one of which is in an anonymous 
MS. in Buckingham Palace. Mendelssohn 
also set this. Psalm cxv., op. 31, Simroek 
(Bonn, 183(5). — Grove, ii. 4G4 ; Burney, iii. 
92 ; Pohl, Mozart uud Haydn in London, i. 
19, 25. 

NON PliT ANDRAI. See Nozze di Fi- 
garo. 

NON PLUS ULTRA. See Pbta ultra. 

NON SO DONDE \TENE, aria for bass 
with orchestra in F, text from Metastasio's 
Olimpiade, music by Mozart, composed for 
Herr Fischer in Vienna, March 18, 1787. 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie vi., 
No. 35. — KiJchel, Verzeichniss, No. 512 ; 
Andre, No. 85. 

NON SO DONDE VIENE, aria for so- 
prano with orchestra, in E-flat, text from 
Jletastasio's OUmpiade, music by Mozart, 
composed in Manheim, Feb. 24, 1778, for 
Aloysia Weber, and sung by her in Vienna, 
March 11, 1783. Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mo- 
zart Werke, Serie vi., No. 17.^ — Kochel, 
Verzeichniss, No. 294 ; Jahn, Mozart, ii. 
170 ; Mozart's Letters (Lady Wallace), i. 
175. 



22 



NON 



NON SO Pitr COSA SON. See Nuzze 
di Figaro. 

NON TEMEK, AMATO BENE, rondo 
for soprano with orcliestra and pianoforte 
obligate, in E-flat, text from Idomeneo, mu- 
sic by Mozart, composed for Mme Storace 
and himself, Dec. 2G, 178(3. Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie vi., No. 34. — 
KOchel, Verzeichuiss, No. 505 ; Andre, No. 
84 ; Jahu, Mozart, iii. 282. 

NO, NO, CHE NON SEI CAPACE, aria 
for soprano with orchestra, in C, text from 
Aufossi's opera, H curlvso indiscrete, music 
by Mozart, composed iu Vienna in June, 
1783. Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, 
Serie vi.. No. 20. — KOchel, Verzeichuiss, No. 
419 ; Jahn, Mozart, i. 426 ; iii. 276. 

NOIIDISCHE SOMMEKNACHT (North- 
ern Summer Night), cantata for mixed 
chorus, soli, and orchestra, text by Lingg, 
music by Friedrich Gernsheim, op. 21. 
Published by Schott (Mainz, 1872).— Mus. 
Wochenblatt (1872), 227. 

NOIIDISCHE SUITEN, five Northern 
Suites, for orchestra, by Asger Hamerik, 
first performed at the Peabody Concerts, 
Baltimore, Maryland, under the comjjoser's 
direction. No. 1, op. 22, iu C : I. Im 
Walde (Adagio, Allegro molto) ; H. Volks- 
lied (Andante sosteuuto) ; HI. Springtauz 
(Allegro vivace) ; IV. Meuuet (Andante) ; 
V. Brautmarsch (Allegro maestoso, Allegro 
vivace). Published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel 
(Leipsic, 1871-72). No. 2, op. 23, iu G 
minor : I. Heldeulied (Andante sostenuto) ; 
II. Sage (AUegro molto) ; IH. Drapa (Mode- 
rate) ; IV. Springtauz (Moderate, Allegro 
molto vivace). Published by Andre (Offen- 
bach am Main, 1872-73). No. 3, op. 24, 
in A minor : I. Des Bardeu Lied (Andante 
con mote) ; H. Hallingtauz (Allegro vivace) ; 
in. Sage (Andante) ; TV. Springtauz (Alle- 
gro). Published by Andre (Offenbach am 
Main, 1873-74). No. 4, op. 25, in D, dedi- 
cated to Theodore Thomas : I. Auf dem 
Meere (Andante tranquillo, Allegro molto 
vivace) ; II. Im Volksteu (Andante sostenu- 
to) ; in. Meermaidstanz (Allegro molto vi- 



vace) ; rV. LiebesHed (Andante) ; V. Zur 
Kiisto (Allegro maestoso). Published by 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1875-76). No. 
5, op. 26, in A, dedicated to Niels W. Gade : 
I. Auf dem Meere (Allegro) ; II. Serenade 
(i\jidante con mote) ; IH. Scherzo (Allegro) ; 
IV. Im Volksten (Andautiuo con mote) ; V. 
Lob des Meeres (Allegro). Published by 
Andre (Offenbach am Main, 1877-78).— 
Mus. Wochenblatt (1880), 505. 

NOlvMA, Itahau opera in two acts, text 
by Eomani, music by Bellini, first repre- 
sented iu Milan, Dec. 26, 1831. The libretto 
is taken from a tragedy of the same title, by 
Soumet and Belmontet. The first act is 
laid iu Cambria, in the sacred forest of the 
Druids, the second in their temple of Ir- 
minsul. The Gauls, having subjugated the 
Romans iu Whales, have placed Pollione, a 
proconsul of Home, in government. He 
loves Norma, the daughter of the High 
Priest, Orovese, and is secretlj' married to 
her. Afterwards he gives his affection to 
Adalgisa, a young priestess, who conseuta 
to fly with him to Home ; but, conscience 
smitten, she reveals the plan to Norma, who 
resolves upon revenge, and determines to 
murder her two children by Pollione. In- 
stead of this, she impeaches herself in the 
assembly of the Druids, who condemn her to 
be burned. Her faithless husband is sen- 
tenced also, his love for Norma returns, 
and he shai-es Ler fate on the funeral pyre. 
Among the best numbers are : Norma's 
prayer to the moon, " Casta Diva ; " her 
cavatina, "Ah! bello a me ritorua ; " the 
duet between Adalgisa and Polhone, "Va 
crudele ;" "Sola, furtiva, al tempio," sung 
by Norma and Adalgisa ; the grand duet 
between Norma and Adalgisa " Deh ! con 
te li prendi," " Mira, O Norma ; " Norma's 
war hymn, "Guerra, guerra ;" and her final 
duet with Pollione, " Qual cor ti-adisti." 
Original cast : 

Norma (S.) Mme Pasta. 

Adalgisa (A.) Mme Grisi. 

PoUione (T.) Signer Donzelli. 

Oroveso (B.) Signor Negrini. 



NORMAN 



The role of Norma, one of the most perfect 
on the operatic stage, has been worthily filled 
by some of the greatest of prime donne, 









Giuiia Grist. 

among them Pasta, Grisi, and IMalibran. 
Grisi, who sang the part of Adalgisa to 
Pasta's Norma in the first representation in 
Milan, expressed to Bollini a desire to sing 
Norma. "Wait twenty yeai-s," replied he, 
"and we shall see." "I will play Norma 
in sjsite of you, and in less than twenty 
years," she retorted. She kept her word, 
for in 183-1 she apjieared as Norma in Lou- 
don, and made it her greatest character, in 
which she has never been surpassed. Mile 
Tietjens was also successful in this part. 
The character of Pollioue was a favorite one 
with Rubiiii, and that of Oroveso with La- 
blache. This was the composer's favorite of 
aU his operas, and Wagner called Norma "the 
most melodious " of Bellini's works. It was 
first given in Loudon, at the King's Theatre, 
in Italian, June 20, 1833, with this cast : 

Norma Mme Pasta. 

Adalgisa Mme de M6ric. 

Pollione Signer Douzelli. 

Oroveso Siguor V. Galli. 

It was first represented in Paris at the Ita- 
liens, in 1833 ; in Vienna in 1833 ; in Ber- 



lin in 1834 ; in Leipsic in 1835 ; at Drury 
Lane, London, in English, June 2-1, 1837 ; 
and in New York, Sept. 20, 1843, with 
Signora Corsini as Norma, and Signor Pe- 
rozzi as Pollione. It was given in New York, 
Sept. 11, 1854, with Grisi, Mario, and 
Susini in the cast. Published by Ricordi 
(IMilan), and by Diabelli (Vienna). — Clement 
at Larousse, 482 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xxsiv. 199 ; xxxv. 529, 752 ; xxxvi. 315 ; 
Grove, i. 213; Athenfcum (1833), 420; 
(1837), 485 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 48. 

NORMAN BARON, cantata, text from 
Longfellow, music by Thomas Anderton, 
%vritten for and dedicated to the Middles- 
borough Musical Union of England in 1884. 

NORMANN, LUDWIG, born in Stock- 
holm, Sweden, Aug. 28, 1831, died there, 
March 28, 1885. Pupil of Lindblad, and 
afterwards at the Conservatorium at Leip- 
sic. In 1857 he became professor of com- 
position at the Royal Academy of Stockholm, 
and in 18G1 Kapellmiistaro at the opera 
there. In 18G4 he married the violin vir- 
tuoso Wilhelmine Neruda. Works : Quartet 
for pianoforte and strings ; Trio for do. ; 
Sonata for violin ; Pianoforte music for two 
and four hands. — Riemann. 

NOltMANNENZUG, cantata for baritone 
solo and male chorus, with orchestra, text 
from " Ekkehard," by J. V. Scheffel, music 
by Jlax Bruch, op. 32. Published by Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1873). 

NORWEGISCHE RHAPSODIEN (Nor- 
wegian Rhapsodies), for orchestra, by Johan 
Severin Sveusden, op. 17, op. 19, op. 21, op. 
22. No. 1, op. 17, in B minor, dedicated 
to M Lindeman (j\jidautino. Allegro, An- 
dante, Allegro). No. 2, op. 19, in A (Alle- 
gro, Andantino, Lento) ; No. 8, op. 21, in 
C, dedicated to Edvard Grieg (Allegro mol- 
to, AUegi'O moderato. Andante, Allegi-o, 
Stretto) ; No. 4, op. 22, in D minor, dedi- 
cated to Karl Hals (Andante, Allegro mo- 
derato, Allegretto quasi moderato. Andante, 
Allegi-o, Presto). Published by Warmuth 
(Christiania, 1877-81). Arranged for piano- 
foi'te, four hands. — Neue Zeitschr. (1881), 3. 



NOTIIUNG 



NOTHUNG ! N T H U N G ! NEID- 
LICHES SCHWEET. See Siegfried. 

NOTKER (Notkerus), BALBULUS, 
called St. Notker, born in 840, died at St. 




S" . hlorXzBys' 



Gall, Switzerland, April 6, 912. Ho was a 
ruoiik of the Monastery of St. Gall, and 
probably received Lis name (Balbulus, the 
Stammerer) from a physical infirmity. He 
was one of the earliest and most noted com- 
posers of Sequences, Ms celebrated Media 
vita in morte sunms, a chant which owed 
much of its popularity to its subsequent 
adoption by Christian wamors as their bat- 
tle-song, being still in iise. Others also by 
him (he wrote thirty-five) are used at Pen- 
tecost, Easter, and Christmas. A codex 
preserved at St. Gall contains forty-four of 
his chants, which influenced both French 
and Italian song. The portrait is a fac- 
simile of a drawing in this MS. He must 
not be confounded with Notker the younger, 
known as Notker Labeo or Teutonicus, also 
a monk of St. Gall, who died in 1022, re- 
nowned as the writer of the first German 
MS. on the theory of music. — Naumann 



(Ouseley), i. 187, 202 ; Reissmann, 31 ; 
Schubiger, Die Siingerschule von St. Gallen 
(1858). 

NOTTE E GIORNO FATICAR. See 
Don Giovanni. 

NOTTEBOHM, MARTIN GUSTAV. 
born at Liidenscheid, Westphalia, Nov. 12, 
1817, died at Gratz, Nov. 1, 1882. While 
serving in Berlin, in 1838-39, as a volunteer 
soldier, he studied pianoforte and composi- 
tion under Berger and Dehn. In 1840 he 
went to Leipsic, where he was the friend of 
Schumann and Mendelssohn, a testimonial 
from the latter as to his musical ability se- 
curing his discharge from the army. Set- 
tled in Vienna in 1846, he took a course of 
counterpoint under Sechter, and became 
active as a teacher and writer. He was one 
of the most thorough investigators of Beet- 
hoven's sketch-books. Works : Quartet for 
pianoforte and strings ; Trios for do. ; Va- 
riations on a theme by Bach for pianoforte 
(4 hands) ; Other music for pianoforte. Lit- 
erary works : Ein Skizzenbuch von Beetho- 
ven (Leipsic, 18C5) ; Thematisches Verzeich- 
niss der im Druck erschieneuen Werke 
von Beethoven (ib., 18G8) ; Beethoveniana 
(1872) ; Beethoven's Studien, containing 
Beethoven's lessons from Haydn, Albrechts- 
berger, and Salieri (1873) ; Thematisches 
Verzeichniss der im Druck erschieneuen 
Werke von Franz Schubert (Vienna, 1874) ; 
Mozartiana (Leipsic, 1880) ; Ein Skizzen- 
buch von Beethoven aus dem Jahre 1803 
(ib., 1881).— Mendel, Erganz., 314 ; Ric- 
mann. 

NOUVEAU SEIGNEUR DU VILLAGE, 
LE (The new Lord of the Village), opera- 
comique in one act, text by Creuze de Les- 
sor and Faviores, music by Boicldieu, first 
represented at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
June 29, 1813. This work, which is dedi- 
cated to Martin, was very popular and kept 
the stage for thirty years. It was given in 
Vienna, June 24, 1814, as "Dor neue Guts- 
lierr," translation by J. F. Castelli. It was 
revived in Paris in 1867. Published by 
Simrock (Bonn, 1814). — Allgem. mus. Zeitg. 



NOUVELLES 



xvi. 669 ; Pougin, Boieklieu, 146 ; Rufu- 
veille, Boieldieu, sa vie et ses oeuvres (Koii- 
en, 1851) ; Hoguet, Boieldieu, sa vie et ses 
oeuvres (Paris, 1864). 

NOIA'ELLES SOIEfiES DE \TENNE, 
valses caprices for the pianoforte after 
Strauss, by Cai-1 Tausig. They may be re- 
garded as pendants to Liszt's Soirees de Vi- 
euue, after Schubert. Cahiers I., 11., and 
in., dedicated to Franz Liszt and published 
by Schuberth (Leipsic and New York). Ca- 
Lier IV., dedicated to Franz Liszt, and V., 
to the friends of the dead composer, pub- 
lished posthumously by Erler (Berlin) and 
by Hermann (Leipsic). 

NOVELLETTEN f iir das Pianoforte, by 
Schumann, op. 21, composed in 1838, and 
dedicated to Adolph Heuselt. They have 
no titles to explain them, but Schumann 
calls them "long and connected romantic 
stories." PubUshed by Breitkopf & Hiirtel 
(Leipsic, 1839) ; ib., Schumann Werke, 
Serie vii.. No. 21. Schumann wrote another 
Novellette in the same year-, which is in- 
cluded in his Bunte Bliitter, op. 99, No. 9. 
Same title, Orchesterstxlcke by Niels W. 
Gade, op. 53, first performed in Leipsit;, 
Oct. 12, 1876.— Grove, ii. 480; iii. 409; 
Maitland, Schumaim, 59. 

NOVELLO, VINCENT, born in London, 
Sept. 6, 1781, died at 
Nice, Aug. 9, 18G1. 
Sou of an Italian 
father and an Eng- 
hsh mother, he be- 
gan his musical ca- 
reer as a choir-boy 
and deputy organist ; 
was organist of the 
Portuguese Chapel 
in London in 1797- 
1822 ; acted as jnan- 
ist of the Italian Opei-a in 1812 ; was an 
original member of the Philharmonic So- 
ciety, and sometimes conducted its concerts. 
In 1840-43 he was organist of the Eoman 
Catholic Chapel in Moorfields ; was one of 
the founders and conductors of the Classi- 




cal Harmonists and Choral Harmonists So- 
cieties ; in 1849 he settled permanently in 
Nice. He composed good though not very 
original music, but was best known as an 
editor and arranger. He founded in London 
in 1811 the music publishing house of No- 
vello. Ewer & Co. Works : Kosalba, canta- 
ta ; Old May Morning, a glee ; The Lifant's 
Prayer, recitative and air ; Masses, motets, 
and sacred music to Latin words. He ed- 
ited also many collections of sacred music. 
— Grove ; Kiemann ; Mendel ; Futis. 

NOWM^OWSia, J(')ZEF, born at 
Muiszek, near Ratlomsk, Poland, in 1805, 
died at Warsaw in 1865. Pianist, Ih'st in- 
structed in a monastery at Wonchak, then 
pupil at the Conservatorium iu Warsaw of 
Wiirfel in harmony, and of Eisner in comjJO- 
sition. In 1833 he made his first concert 
tour, visiting Germany, Italy, and stopping 
for some time in Paris. He was then cousid- 
ei-ed one of the best composers of Poland, 
and after his return became jjrofessor at 
the Alexander Institute, Warsaw. In 1838 
and 1841 he again visited Paris. W'orks : 
2 symphonies for orchestra ; 4 overtures 
for do. ; 2 masses and other church music ; 
About 20 polonaises for pianoforte and 
orchestra ; 2 quintets for j)ianoforte and 
strings ; Quartet for strings ; Polonaises, 
fantaisies, nocturnes, airs varies, rondeaux, 
etc., for pianoforte ; 12 grandcs etudes for 
do. ; Method for do. ; Many songs. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

NOW' HEAVEN IN FULLEST GLORY. 
See Nun scheint in vollem Glanzo. 

NOW THE EVENING WATCH IS SET. 
See Oberon. 

NOW VANISH BEFORE THE HOLY 
BE.-VMS. See Nun schwanden vor dem 
heUigen Strahle. 

NOZZE D' AEIANA E DI BACCO, LE. 
See Ariadne. 

NOZZE DI DORINA, LE (Dorina's Wed- 
ding), Italian opera, music by Sarti, first 
represented in Venice in 1782. It was 
given in Paris, Sept. 14, 1789. The score, 
which is in Lhe library of the Paris Con- 



NOZZE 



servatoire, 1ms been published in Paris ; 
also by Ricordi (Milan). An opera of this 
title was written by Cocehi, London, 17G2. 
NOZZE DI ENEA CON LAVINIA, LE 
(The Wedding of iEneas and Lavinia), Ital- 
ian opera by Monteverde, first represented 
in Venice in 1641. Subject, the marriage 
of ^neas with Lavinia, daughter of Latiiuis, 
King of Latiuni, to win whom J^neas fought 
against her betrothed lover Turuus and 
killed him. Other operas on the same 
story, in Italian : Enea e Lavinia, by Sac- 
chini, London, 1779 ; by Guglielmi, Naples, 

1785. Enea in Italia, by Pallavicino, Ven- 
ice, 1675 ; by Di'aghi, Vienna, 1678 ; and 
Perez, Lisbon, 1759. Enea nel Lazio, by 
Jommelli, Stuttgart, 1755 ; by Gardi, Mod- 
ena, 1786 ; and Eighini, Berlin, 1793. Tur- 
no Aricino, by M. A. Bononciui, about 1710 ; 
by Alessaudro Scarlatti, Rome, 1720 ; and 
Vinci, Naples, 1724 In French, Enee et 
Lavinie, text by Fontenelle, music by Co- 
lasse, Paris, 1690. 

NOZZE DI FIGARO, LE (The Marriage 
of Figaro), Italian opera buffa in four acts, 
text by Lorenzo da Ponte, music by Mo- 
zart, first represented at the Burgtheater, 
Vienna, May 1, 1786. The libretto is taken 
from Beaumarchais' comedy, " Le mariago 
de Figaro," first jjlayed in Paris, April 27, 
1784. The music was composed in April, 

1786, and was finished on the 28th of that 
month. Mozart wrote the finale to the sec- 
ond act in two nights and a day without in- 
termission. The scene is in Sixain. Count 
Almaviva, wlio has won his wife through the 
aid of Figaro, the barber of Seville, falls in 
love with her maid, Susanna, who is be- 
trothed to Figaro. They make him jealous 
of the attentions paid to the Countess by 
the page, Cherubiuo, and Figaro becomes 
jealous of the Count's affection for Susanna. 
After conspiracies, disguises, meetings at 
cross-purposes, and playful surprises, the 
characters reveal themselves, the Count and 
Countess are reconciled, and Figaro and 
Susanna are married. Among the princi- 
pal numbers are : " Se vuol ballare, Siguor 



contino," sung by Figaro to a guitar-like 
accomijaniment ; Bartolo's song, " La ven- 
detta ; " Cherubino's aria, " Non so piti cosa 
son ; " the trio, " Cosa sento ! tosto andate," 
sung by the Count, Basilio, and Susanna ; 
the chorus, "Giovanni lieti," and Figaro's 
celebrated aria, "Non i^iti andrai," which 
closes the first act ; the aria, "Porgi amor," 
sung by the Countess ; Cherubino's ro- 
manza, " Voi, che sapete ; " " Venite, ingi- 
nocchiatevi," sung by Susanna ; the elab- 
orate finale to the second act, begun by the 
Count, " Esci omai, garzon mal nato ; " 
" Crudel ! percho finora," duet between the 
Coimt and Countess ; the sextet, " Riconosci 
in questo amplesso ; " the Countess's aria, 
''Dove sono," and the "Zephyr Duet," 
" Canzouetta sul' aria : Che soave zeffiretto," 
sung by the Countess and Susanna ; Basilio'a 
aria, " In quegli anni ; "Figaro's song, " Ecco 
la marcia;" and Susanna's song, "Deb, 
vieni, non tardar." Original cast : 

Figaro (B.) Signor Benueci. 

Count (B.) Signor Mandiiii. 

Countess (S.) Signora Laschi. 

Susanna (S.) Signora Storace. 

Cherubino (S.) Signora Bussani. 

Marcellina (S.) Signora Mandini. 

Basilio 

Don Curzio 

Bartolo 

Antonio . 

Barberina (S.). . . .Signora Nanina Gottlieb. 

Mozart conducted. After nine representa- 
tions in Vienna, this oj)era was laid aside 
through the influence of Mozart's rivals. 
In the following year it was received in 
Prague with great enthusiasm, and, owing to 
its wealth of melody, charm and grace of 
style, perfection of concerted music, and re- 
flection of Mozart's genial nature, it has 
kept the stage uninterruptedly. It was first 
given in Paris at the Academic Royale de 
Musique, translation by Notaris, March 20, 
1793, without success ; and at the Theatre 
Italien in 1838, with Lablache as Figaro, 
Tamburiui as the count, Mme Persiani as the 



(T.) Mr. Michael KeUy. 



](B.). 



. Siprnor Bussani. 



KOZZE 



countess ; Mine Giulia Grisi as Susanna; 
and Mine Albeitazzi as Clieiubiuo. It was 
represented at the Theatre Ljrique, adapt- 
ed by Barbier and Cai-re, May 8, 1858, when 
Mine Carvalho achieved great success as 
Cherubino. Figaro was first represent- 
ed in Beilin, May 22, 1803 ; in Leipsic in 
1808 ; in Munich in 1813 ; in Dresden in 
1816 ; and in Strasburg in 1823, adapted 





55 I 




Angelica Catalan!, 

for the stage by Castil-Blaze. Tlie opera 
was first given in London, King's Theatre, 
June 18, 1812, with Mine Catalani as Susan- 
na, a cliaracter in which she excelled, though 
she did not like Mozart's music. It was 
again given, Feb. 1, 1817, with Naldi as Fi- 
garo, Ambrogetti as the count, Fodor as the 
countess, Caiuporese as Susanna, and Pasta 
as Cherubino. It was first given in New 
York in English, May 3, 1823, with Bishop's 
arrangement (Loudon, 1819), and it was 
first sung in ItaUan, Nov. 2.3, 18.58, with 
Carl Formes as Figaro, Piccolomini as Su- 
sanna, and Mme von Berkel as Cherubino. 
Miss Paton made her first a23pearance on 
the oj»eratic stage as Susanna at the Hay- 
mai-ket, London, Aug. 3, 1822, and Mine 
Caradori-Allan made hers at the King's 
Theatre, Jan. 12, 1822, as Cherubino, one of 
Mozart's most charming characters, which 
has been played with gi'eat success also by 



Mme Pasta, Mme Vestris, Pauline Lucca, 
and Christine Nilsson. Full score pubhshed 
by Simrock (Bonn, 1821) ; by J. Frey 
(Paris, 1823) ; and by Breitkopf & Hartel, 
Mozart Werke, Serie v., No. 17. — KOchel, 
No. 492 ; Jahn, Mozart, iv. 191-275 ; Nohl, 
Mozart (Lady Wallace), ii. 133 ; Oulibi- 
cheff, Mozart, iii. 28 ; do., Mozart Operu, 
309 ; Holmes, Mozart, 279 ; Nisseu, Mozart, 
ii. 80 ; Gehring, Mozai-t, 108 ; Kelly, Rem- 
iniscences (London, 182G), 188 ; Pohl, Mo- 
zart and Haydn in London, i. 147 ; Berliner 
mus. Zeitg."(1793), 77, 138 ; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., iii. 594 ; v. 572 ; sxiv. 270 ; xlii. 589 ; 
Revue des deux Mondes, xvii. 841 ; Revue 
et Gaz. mus. de Pirns (1858), IGl, 294 ; 
Neue Zeitschr., xli. 113 ; Grove, ii. 390 ; 
Clement et Larousse, 485 ; Hogarth, ii. 
238-246 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 169. 

NOZZE DI TETI E DI PELEO, LE 
(The "Wedding of Thetis and Peleus), Ital- 
ian opera in three acts, text by Orazio Per- 
siani, music by Francesco Cavalli, first 
represented at the Teatro San Cassiano, 
Venice, in 1639. It was given at Versailles, 
Jan. 26, 1654, after which a ballet of the 
same title, of ten entrees, by Benserade was 
danced by Louis XTV. and the ladies of 
his court. — Schletterer, Studien zur Ge- 
schichte der franzOsischen Musik, ii. 189 ; 
Ambros, Geschichte der Musik, iv. 372. 

NIJCEUS, ALARD, born at Lille about 
the end of the 15th century. Church com- 
poser, and maitre de chapelle to Ai-chduke 
Jlathias of Austiia. His name seems to be 
simply a translation of the French Noyer or 
Du Noyer. Works : Quatuor Missaj quin- 
que, sex et octo vocum (Antwerp, 1539). 
— Fetis; Mendel. 

NUCIUS, FRIEDRICH JOHANTSf, born 
at GorUtz, Silesia, in 1556, died (?). Church 
composer, pupil of Johann Winkler at ^litt- 
weida, Saxony. He was at first a monk at 
Rauden, Silesia, then abbot at Hiinmelwitz. 
Works : Modulationes sacrse modis musicis 
(Prague, 1591) ; Cantionum sacrarum (Lieg- 
nitz, 1609) ; Hymns. — Futis ; HoiTinann, 
Lexikon schlesischcr Tonkiinstler ; Mendel. 



JMIIIT 



NUIT A LISBONNE, ITNE (A Night in 
Lisbon), barcarolle, for orchestra, by Saint- 
Saeus, op. G3, dedicated to Ha, Majestu Dom 
Luiz, Koi de Portugal. Published by Du- 
rand, Schoeoewerk & Cie (Paris). Tran- 
scription for the pianoforte for foiu- hands, 
by the composer. 

NUIT DE CLEOPATEE, UNE (A Night 
of Cleopatra), opera-comique, text by Jules 
Barbier, music by Victor Masse, first given 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, April 25, 1885. 
The libretto is founded on a romance by 
Gautier. A great success ; called by the 
critics the composer's masterj^iece. 

NUIT DE WALPUEGIS, LA (Walpurgis 
Night), symphonic poem for orchestra, by 
Charles Mario Widor, first performed at the 
Chatelet, Paris, Feb. 8, 1880. It is a de- 
scriptive poem in tkree divisions : Overture, 
Andante, and Devil's Dance. — Musical Re- 
view (New York, 1880), i. 296. 

NLIT DTV'RESSE. See Africaine. 

NUITS BLANCHES (Restless Nights), 
eighteen morceaux lyriques for the piano- 
forte, by Stei^hen Heller, op. 82. I. Vivace 
(in C) ; II. Impetuoso (in A minor) ; HI. 
Lento con tenerezza (in G) ; TV. Molto 
animato (in E minor) ; V. Andante quasi 
allegretto (in D) ; VI. Allegro deciso (in 
B minor) ; VH. Pin lento (in A) ; VHI. Al- 
legro ai^passionato (in F-sharp minor) ; IX. 
Allegretto con grazia (in E) ; X. Allegro 
caratteristico (in C-sharp minor) ; XI. An- 
dante con moto (in G-flat) ; XH. Molto 
agitato (in B-flat minor) ; XHI. Allegretto 
gi-azioso (in D-flat) ; XIV. Piii moderate e 
jjlintivo (in F minor) ; XV. Andante pla- 
cido (in F) ; XVI. Allegi-o risoluto (in D 
minor) ; XVII. Allegretto pastorale (in B- 
flat) ; XVni. Allegro non troppo (in G 
minor). Published by Litolff (Brunswick, 
1877). — Barbedette (Brown - Borthwick), 
Heller, 70. 

NUITS D'ET:fi, LES (Summer Nights), 
six songs for one voice with pianoforte 
accompaniment, from Theophile Gautier, 
music by Berlioz, op. 7. They were com- 
posed in 1834, dedicated to Mllo Louise 



Bortin, and published by Richault (Paris, 
1811). I. Villanelle, for mezzo-soprano, or 
tenor ; II. Le spectre de la rose, for con- 
tralto; in. Sur les lagunes, for baritone, 
contralto, or mezzo-soprano ; IV. Absence, 
for mezzo-soprano or tenor ; V. Au cimc- 
tiere, for tenor ; VI. L'ile inconnue, for 
mezzo-soprano or tenor. No. IV. was or- 
chestrated in 1813 ; the others, about 185G. 
They were translated into German by P. 
Cornelius, and rededicated respectively to 
Jllle Wolff, Mle Falconi, M. Milde, Mile 
Nottcs, M. Caspari, and Mile Milde. Pub- 
lished by Rieter-Biedermaim (Leipsic and 
Winterthur, 1856) and by Hofmeister (Leip- 
sic). Liszt also wrote Nuits d eto a Pausi- 
lippe, trois amusements sur des motifs de 
I'Album de Donizetti (Ricordi, Milan, 1839 ; 
and Schott, Mainz, 1839).— Neue Zeitschr., 
xlvii. 77. 

NUN BEUT DIE FLUR, soprano aria of 
Gabriel, in B-flat major-, in Haydn's Die 
Scho'pfung, Part I., No. 8. 

NUN DANKET ALLE GOTT, choral by 
Johanu Criiger. It is one of Criiger's best 
known works. Published in the "Praxis 
pietatis melica," for four voices and two in- 
struments (Leipsic, 1619 ; 30th ed., Berlin, 
1703). It was used by Mendelssohn in No. 
8 of his Lobfjesang, o-p. 52 (1810). 

NUN LIEBES WEIBCHEN, ZIEHST 
MT MIR, duet for soprano and bass with 
orchestra, in F, composed by Mozart about 
1790. Breitkopf & Hartel, Mozart Werke, 
Serie vi.. No. 47. — Kochel, Verzeichniss, 
No. 625. 

NUN LIEGET ALLES UNTER DIR, 
choral in D major, for four-part chorus, 
with accompaniment of two flutes, two 
oboes, strings complete, and continue, in 
Johann Sebastian Bach's cantata (Orato- 
rium) Lohel Gott in seinen Reichen. The 
melody is Ermunt're dich, mein schwacher 
Geist, written by Johann Schopp (1641). 

NUN OF NIDAEOS, THE, song for 
tenor solo, male chorus, and orchestra, with 
pianoforte obligato accompaniment, and 
reed organ ad libitum, music by Dudley 



NUN 



Buck, op. 83, written in 1878, and dedi- 
cated to W. B. Leonard. Published by G. 
Schirmer (New York, 1879). 

NUN SCHEINT IN VOLLEM GLANZE, 
bass aria of Eapbael, in D major, in Hay- 
dn's Die SchOpfung, Part 11., No. 22. 

NUN SCHWANDEN VOK DEM HEILI- 
GEN, tenor aria of Uriel, and chorus, in A 
major, in Haydn's Die Schi'ypfung, Part L, 
No. 2. 

NUN SEI GEDANKT, ]VIEIN LffiBER 
SCHU'AN. See Lohengrin. 

NUOVE MUSICHE, LE, a collection of 
madrigals and canzone for one voice, by 
Giulio Caccini. The first edition was pub- 
lished by Marescotti (Florence, lGOl-2) ; 
the second hy Alessaudro Itaverii (Venice, 
1607) ; the third (ib., 1615).— Fetis, ii. 141 ; 
Ambros, iv. 173. 

NUBAL4.HAL, oder das Rosenfest von 
Caschmir, German opera in two acts, text 
by Herklots, from Moore's " Lalla Eookli," 
music by Spontini, first represented in Ber- 
lin, ^lay 27, 1822, in honour of the betrotli- 
al of tlie Princess Alexandrina of Prussia 
to the Grand Duko of Meckleuburg-Schwer- 
in. Original cast : 

Nurmahal Mme Seidler. 

Zelia Mme Scliulz. 

Namouna Mme Jlilder. 

Sultan Dschohangir HeiT Bader. 

]5ahar Herr Devrient. 

Atar Hcrr Blume. 

Genie lilllo Euuike. 

The work was dedicated to the Emperor 
and published by Schlesinger (Berhn, 1828). 
Spontini had previously written music for 
an arrangement of "Lalla Eookh," repre- 
sented at the Royal Palace, Jan. 27, 1821, to 
entertain the Grand Duke Nicholas of Rus- 
sia, during his visit to the German court. 
Weber wrote music to Nurmahal's song, 
" From Chindara's warbling fount I come," 
from "LaUa Rookh," for soprano with pi- 
anoforte accompaniment ; his last compo- 
sition, it was left incomplete, and finished 
by :Moschelcs.— Grove, iii. 673, 675 ; All- 



gem, mus. Zeitg., xxiv. 402 ; Berliner mus. 
Zeitg., V. 471, 477 ; Ciicilia, vii. 135 ; Jahn, 
Weber Verzeichniss, 409. 








AKELEY, Sir HERBERT STANLEY, 

born at Ealing, IMiddlesex, England, 
July 22, 1830, still living, 1890. He 
was educated at 
^^ "^^^\ Kugby and Ox- 

I ^ ford (B.A., 1853; 

1'/^ '^ Vr M.A., 185G) ; pu- 

pil of Dr. Stephen 
El vey in harmony, 
in Leipsic of Mo- 
schelesand Plaidy 
on the jjianoforte, 
in Bonn of Brci- 
densteiu, and in 
Dresden of Dr. Johann Schneider, on the 
organ. After residing in London as a mu- 
sical critic he became professor of music 
in Edinburgh University in 1865 ; received 
the degi'ce of Mus. Doc, Cambridge, 1871 ; 
Oxford, 1879 ; knighted in 1876 in recog- 
nition of his musical services, and in 1881 
made composer to Her Majesty in Scot- 
land ; LL.D., Aberdeen, 1881 ; D.C.L., To- 
ronto, 1886 ; Mus. Doc, Dublin, 1887 ; hon- 
orary member of Aecademia Filarmonica, 
Bologna, 1888. Works : Edinburgh Festal 
March, for orchestra, Liveiijool Musical 
Festival, op. 22, 1874 ; Funeral March, for 
do., oji. 23 ; Minuet in old style, do., Ches- 
ter Festival, 1885 ; Anthems ; 4 quartets, 
op. 7 ; 3 do., op. 16 ; 6 part-songs for men's 
voices, op. 17 ; 4 choral songs for do. ; Stu- 
dent's song. Alma Mater, for do. ; National 
Scottish ]Melodies, arranged for do., op. 18 ; 
3 duets, op. 8 ; English, French, and Ger- 
man songs ; Pianoforte music — Grove ; 
Men of the Time (1884), 840. 

OAIvEY, GEORGE, born in London, 
Oct. 14, 1841, still living, 1890. Vocal com- 
poser, pupil of Hullah and MacfaiTen ; won 
first prizes in Society of Arts Examinations 
in 1869 and 1873. He became examiner in 
harmony and composition to Tonic Sol-fa 



OBERIIOFFER 




College ill 1877, lecturer on harmony in 
1877, and on counterpoint in 1878 ; pro- 
fessor of liarmony and 



couuter23oint in City 
of London College 
in 1883. Mas. Bac, 
Cambridge, 18 77. 
Works : Blessed be 
the Lord God, and 
other anthems; 
Hymns and chants ; 
Stars of the Summer 
Night, and other part- 
songs ; Songs and glees. He has published, 
also: Exercises in Harmony (London, 1877); 
Text-Book of Counterpoint (ib., 1878) ; Do. 
of Harmony (ib., 1884). 

O ! A TE B.VDA, See Lucrczia Borgia. 

OBBLIGATO, AH! SI OBBLIGATO. 
See Elim-e d' Amore. 

O BEAU PAYS DE LA TOURAINE. 
See Huguenots. 

OBERHOFEER, HEINRICH, born at 
Pfalzel, near Treves, Rhenish Prussia, Dec. 
9, 1824, still Hving, 1890. Church compos- 
er, first instructed by his fatliei', an organ- 
ist, then pupil of W. Hermann at Treves ; 
became instructor of music at the teach- 
ers' seminary at Luxemburg in 185G, and 
professor in 18G1. He has done much for 
the elevation of church music, and in 18G2 
founded the periodical "Ciicilia," with that 
object in view. In the same year he was 
elected a member of the Aecademia di Santa 
Cecilia in Rome. Works : Sacred four-part 
songs ; Choruses for male voices ; Songs ; 
Organ music. — Mendel. 

OBERON, or the Elf - King's Oath, ro- 
mantic English opera in three acts, text 
by James R. Planche, music by Carl Maria 
von Weber, first represented at Covent 
Garden, London, April 12, 182G. It was 
written in 1825-2G, and is the composer's 
last dramatic work. The libretto is taken 
from Villeneuve's romance, " Huon de 
Bordeaux," and from Sotheby's translation 
of Wieland's poem, " Oberon." Oberon, 
having quarrelled with Titauia, vows that 



he will not be reconciled to her until ho 
shall find two lovers who will kGej) their 
troth inviolate. Puck, wishing to reunite 
them, sets to work. He discovers in 
France the chevaUer Huon de Bordeaux, 
who has killed the son of Charlemagne in a 
combat, and is ordered to Bagdad. Puck 
brings him with his squire, Sherasmin, 
asleep to Oberon, who shows him a vision 
of Rezia, daughter of the Caliph. Sir 
Huon falls in love with her, and on waking 
Oberon promises that he may possess her, 
and gives him a magic horn that will sum- 
mon him at Huou's need. He gives to 
Sherasmin a golden cup that tests charac- 
ter by filling with wine, or flame, to the one 
who holds it to his lips. Huon is trans- 
ported to Bagdad, where he learns that 
Rezia is to be married on the morrow. 
Rezia, who also has seen Sir Huon in a 
vision, declares to her attendant, Fatima, 
that she will die by her own hand if Sir 
Huon does not come to her rescue. He 
ajipears, and, with the aid of the magic 
horn, can-ies her away, and they embark 
with Fatima and Sherasmin. A storm is 
raised by Oberon, and they are shipwrecked 
on a desert island. Rezia is captured by 
pirates, and sold to the Emir of Tunis, who 
becomes enamoured of her. Fatima and 
Sherasmin are made slaves. Sir Huon, 
conveyed to Tunis by Oberon, enters the 
harem to find Rezia. He undergoes trials 
from the emir's wife, and, resisting her, 
she accuses him to her husband, who or- 
ders Sir Huon and Rezia to be burned on 
the same jjile. Sherasmin blows upon the 
fairy horn, and Oberon appears with Ti- 
tania, saves the lovers, and bears them to 
the court of Charlemagne, where Huon is 
pardoned. The chief numbers are : The 
opening chorus, "Light as fairy feet can 
fall," sung by fairies and genii ; Oberon's 
solo, "Fatal oath;" Rezia's song, "Oh! 
why art thou sleeping ? " leading to the en- 
semble, " Honour and joy to the true and 
the brave ; " " Oh ! 'tis a glorious sight," 
sung by Huon ; and the finale to Act I., 



31 



OBERON 



"Yes, my lord," begun by Eezia, extend- 
ing into a duet with Fatima, and closing 
with the chorus, " Now the evening watch 
is set ; " the chorus, " Glory to the Caliph ; " 
Fatima's ai-ietta, " A lovely Ai-ab maid ; " 
the quartet, " Over the dark blue waters ; " 
Huon's prayer, " Euler of this awful 
hour;" Eezia's grand aria, "Ocean, thou 
mighty monster," which is often sung at 




Eugenia Pappenheim. 

concerts ; tlic mermaids' song, " Oh ! 'tis 
pleasant ; " Fatima's song, " Oh ! Araby, 
dear Araby ; " the duet, " On the banks of 
the sweet Garonne," between Fatima and 
Shei'asmin ; Kczia's cavatina, " Mourn thou, 
poor heart ; " Sir Huon's rondo, " I revel 
in hope ;" and his aria, "Yes! even love to 
fame must yield," which was composed 
especially for Braham, at his request. The 
opera is a combination of chivalry, Orient- 
alism, and delicate fancy, blended with art 
and grace. The melody, colour, and rich- 
ness of the orchestration were greatly ad- 
mired by BorUoz. Original cast : 



Oberon (T.) Mr. Bland. 

Huon (T.) iVIi-. Braham. 

Sherasmin (Bar.) ilr. Fawcett. 

Rezia (S.) Miss Paton. 

Fatima (M.-S.) Mme Vestris. 

Puck (C.) Miss Cawse. 

Mermaid (S.) Miss Gownell. 

The opera was translated into German by 
Theodor Hell, and given in Leipsic in De- 
cember, 1826 ; in Vienna, March 20, 1827 ; 
and in Berlin, July 2, 1828. It was first 
represented in Paris in German, in 1830, 
without success, and again at the Theatre 
Lyrique, translation by Nuitter, Beaumont, 
and Chazot, with success, Feb. 27, 1857. 
It was first sung in New York, Oct. 9, 1829. 
It was first given in Italian at Her Majes- 
ty's, London, July 3, 18G0, with recitatives 
by Su* Julius Benedict, and this version was 
given in Philadelphia, March 9, 1870. Obe- 
ron was revived in London, December 7, 
1878. The last German edition by Franz 
Grandaur, with recitatives by Franz Wiill- 
ner, was given in Leipsic, Sept 30, 1883. 
The original autograph, in the Royal Li- 
braiy in St. Petersburg, was presented in 
1855 by Max von Weber to Alexander H. 
Kezia is a favourite role of Mme Pappen- 
heim. Pubhshed by Welsh & Hawes (Lon- 
don, 182C) ; by Schlesinger (Berlin, 1827) ; 
by Sinirock (Bonn and Berlin) ; by Litolff 
(Brunswick) ; by Lose (Copenhagen) ; by 
Hirsch (Stockholm) ; by Brandus & Du- 
four, by Choudens, and by Richault (Paris) ; 
and by Novello & Co. and Cramer & Co. 
(London). — Jiihus, Verzeichniss, 383 ; Web- 
er, Weber, ii., 58G, G67, 680; Palgrave, 
Weber, ii., 377, 455 ; Benedict, Weber, 120 ; 
Harmonicou (1826), 107, HI ; Edward's 
Hist. Opera, ii. 299 ; Hanslick, Moderne 
Oper, 75 ; Berlioz, A travers chants, 234 ; 
Berliner mus. Zeitg., iv. 19 ; v. 456, 463, 
473, 481 ; AUgem. mus. Zeitg., xxviii. 43G, 
530 ; xxix. 109, 245, 265 ; Cacilia, vii. 174 ; 
Clement et Larousse, 488 ; Revue et Gaz. 
mus. de Paris (1857). 66, 77 ; Echo, i. 209 ; 
Grove, iv. 420 ; Quarterly Mus. Review 



OBEIlTIltJR 




(London), viii. ; Signale (1883), 865 ; (1886) 
1153 ; Atbenaium (1878), ii. 771 ; Upton, 
Standard Operas, 333. 

OBERTHUK, KARL, born in Munich, 
March -1, 1819, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Virtuoso on 
the harp, i)upil of Elise 
Brauchle and G. V. 
IiOder ; was attached to 
the theatre of Zi'u-ich iu 
1837-39, then engaged 
in Wiesbaden, lived iu 
Mannheim iu 1812-41:, 
aud went to Euglaud iu 
1811:, where he held a brief engagement at 
the Italian Opera iu London, aud then de- 
voted himself to teaching, composition, aud 
playing in concerts iu Euglaud aud abroad. 
Works: Floris von Namur, opera, Wies- 
baden, about 1810 ; Der Berggeist des Har- 
zes, do., about 1850 ; The Pilgrim Queen, 
cantata for treble voices ; The Eed Cross 
Knight, do. for female voices ; Lady Jane 
Grey, cantata; Overtures to Macbeth and 
to Eiibezahl ; St. Philip de Neri, mass with 
harp ; Concertino for harp aud orchestra ; 
Loreley, a legend, for do. ; Quartet for 4 
harps ; Noctiu'ue for 3 harps ; Trios for harp, 
violiu, and violoncello ; Many solo pieces for 
harp ; Pianoforte music, and sougs. — Futis, 
Supplement, ii. 282 ; Mendel. 

OBIOLS, MARIANO, born at Barcelona, 
Nov. 26, 1809, died there, Dec. 10, 1888. 
Violinist, pupil of one Juan Vilauova, and 
in harmony of Arbos and Saldoni, aud iu 
composition of Ramon Vilauova ; went to 
Italy iu 1831, aud studied under Mercadaute, 
with whom he travelled through Italy, 
France, and Germany. In 1837 he returned 
to Spain and soon after was made director 
of the newly created musical Lyceum at 
Barcelona, where he organized and con- 
ducted regular concerts, and finally became 
director general of music, and orchestra con- 
ductor of the grand theatre of the Lyceum. 
Works : Odio ed amore, opera, given at 
Milan, Scala, 1837 ; Editta di Belcoui't, do., 
Barcelona, 1874 ; II regio Imeneo, cantata ; 



Many dramatic scenes for the Lyceum Thea- 
tre, Barcelona ; Mass ; Psalms ; 3 Salve 
Regina ; Motets ; 3 concert overtures ; Sere- 
nade ; Concerto for English horn ; Album 
religieux ; 2 vocal albums, etc. — Futis, Sup- 
plement, ii. 282 ; Mendel, Ergilnz., 316. 

OBRECHT. See Hobrecht. 

OCA DEL CMRO, L' (The Goose of 
Cairo), Italian oj^era buffa in two acts, text 
by Varesco, music by Mozart, written in 
Salzburg in July, 1783. Only the first act 
was finished, for Mozart was dissatisfied with 
the libretto. The autograph and sketches 
are in the possession of Jules Andre, Frank- 
fort. The scene is iu Ripasecca. Charac- 
ters represented : Don Pijjpo, Marquis of 
Ripasecca (B.) ; Donna Pautea, his wife (S.) ; 
Celidora, their daughter (S.) ; Bioudello, a 
wealthy citizen of Ripasecca (T.) ; Calan- 
drino, nephew of Donua Pautea (T.) ; Lavina, 
companion of Celidora (S.) ; Chichibos, stew- 
ard iu Don Pippo's house (B.) ; and Aunetta, 
Donna Pantea's maid (S.). The opera was 
first published by Andre. The sketches 
were fiuished by Charles Coustautiu, who 
added numbers from Mozart's Lo sposo 
deluso and Zaide, translated into French by 
Victor Wilder, aud first represented at the 
Theatre des Fantaisies Parisiennes, Paris, 
June 6, 1867 ; in Vienna, in 1868 ; aud at 
Drury Lane, London, in Italian, May 12, 
1870. Pubhshed by Andre (Ofteubach, 
1855) ; by Breitkopf & Hilrtel, Mozart 
W'erke, Serie v.. No. 37 (Supplement). — 
KiJchel, Verzeichniss, No. 422 ; Andre, Ver- 
zeichniss, No. 47 ; Jahn, Mozart, iv. 163 ; 
Clement et Larousse, 489 ; Athenaum (1870), 
i. 685 ; Hanshck, Moderne Oper, 49 ; Neue 
Zeitschr., liii. 80. 

OCCASIONAL ORATORIO, iu three 
parts, by Handel, first performed at Covent 
Garden, Loudon, Feb. 14, 19, and 26, 1746. 
It is supposed that this work was written to 
be performed at three free concerts which 
Handel gave to pay his debt to his former 
subscribers, who had lost eight concerts in 
the season of 1744-45. Another theory is 
that it was composed to celebrate the first 



33 



OCCIDENT 



victories over Charles Stuart in Scotland. 
The onlj- date on the autograph score, in 
Buckingham Palace, heads the overture, one 
of Handel's best, Anno 17i5 (or 1746). 
The conducting score is inscribed with the 
names of the soprano Gambarini and the 
tenor Beard. The first two parts are orig- 
inal compositions, the words of which are 
from Milton's "Psalms." The soprano air, 
" Oh, liberty, thou choicest treasure," in B- 
flat, was subsequently transposed to A for 
Judas Maccabseus, where it appears as 
" Come, ever-smiling liberty." Part II. 
closes with a fine Hallelujah chorus. Part 
HI. opens with a siufonia put together from 
two movements of the first and sixth of the 
twelve Concerti grossi. It contains several 
numbers from Israel in Egypt, including the 
choruses, " I will sing unto the Lord " and 
" He gave them hailstones for rain," and 
the tenor aria, " The enemy said, I will pur- 
sue ; " and many new jiieces which refer to 
the mihtary events of the time. The words 
of these were probably written by Dr. 
Thomas Morell. The strophe, " War shall 
cease," in the air, " Prophetic visions," is 
identical with Dr. Arne's "Rule. Britannia," 
from which Handel took his subject. The 
oratorio closes with " God save the King," 
from the Coronation Anthem. It was per- 
formed only three times. First published 
by Walsh (London) ; edition by Chrysander 
for the HiindelgeseUschaft, Breitkopf & 
Hartel (Leipsic, 1885). — Schcelcher, Handel, 
295 ; Kockstro, Handel, 283. 

OCCIDENT ET ORIENT (West and 
East), march for military band and orches- 
tra, in C, by Saint-Saons, op. 25, first per- 
formed at the distribution of prizes at the 
Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1878. Dedi- 
cated to M. Th. Biais, and published by 
Durand, Schoenewerk & Cie (Paris, 1879). 
Ai-ranged for the isianoforte for four hands 
by the composer. 

OCEAN SYMPHONY, in C, for orches- 
tra, by Anton Rubinstein, op. 42, first per- 
formed in Kijnigsberg in 1857. It was 
given in Leipsic, at the Gewandhaus, Feb. 



9, 1860 ; by the Musical Art Union, Lon- 
don, May 31, 1861 ; in Vienna in 1863, and 
by the New York Philharmonic in 1871. 
This, Rubinstein's second symphony and 
greatest orchestral work, is full of rich 
melody and solemn grandeur. It is dedi- 
cated to Franz Liszt. I. Allegro maestoso ; 
n. Adagio non tanto ; HI. Scherzo ; IV. 
Finale : Allegro con fuoco. Subsequently 
Rubinstein composed two new movements, 
an Adagio and Scherzo ; and the entire 
symphony was given at the Crystal Pal- 
ace, London, April 12, 1877 ; by the New 
Philharmonic, April 28, 1877 ; by the Phil- 
harmonic, Juno 11, 1879 ; at the Chate- 
let, Paris, Feb. 4, 1877 ; and in Berlin in 
1884 A new movement, "The Storm," 
Lento assai, con moto moderato, was given 
at the Crystal Palace, London, May 13, 
1882. PubHshed by Senff (Leipsic, 1857 ; 
new ed., 1876). — Concertwesen in Wien, ii. 
291 ; Athena3um (1877), i. 554 ; (1879), i. 
Upton, Standard Symphonies, 220 ; Signale 
(1858), 193 ; (1876), 353 ; La Mara, Mus. 
Studienkopf, iii. 204 ; Neue Zeitschr., liii. 
11, 18. 

OCEAN, THOU INHGHTY MONSTER. 
See Oheron. 

O CIELI AZZURRL See Aida. 
OCKENHEIM See Okeghem. 
OCON Y EIV.LS, EDUARDO, born at 
Malaga, Jan. 12, 1834, still living, 1890. 
Organist and pianist, studied music at the 
cathedral of his native city, where he was a 
choir-boy, and in 1853 was made assistant 
organist. In 1858 he went to Paris, where 
Gounod is said to have advised him, and 
remained in France several years. Works : 
Masses, motets, psalms, litanies, hymns, 
etc. ; Spanish, Italian, and French melo- 
dies ; Pianoforte music. He published also 
a collection entitled : Cantes espanoles, co- 
leccion de aires nacionales y populares, etc. 
(Malaga, 1874).— Fetis, Supplement, ii. 283 ; 
Mendel, Ergilnz., 318. 

O DASS ICH DOCH. See Zauher- 
flole. 

ODE A SAINTE-CfiCILE (Ode to St, 



34 



O DEATH 



Cecilia), for solo, chorus, aud orchestra, by 
Saiut-SaOns. 

O DEATH, WHERE IS THY STING, 
duet for alto aud tenor, iu E-dat major, 
with accoiupauimeut of coutinuo, iu Hau- 
del's 3Ie)<siah, Part III, No. 48 ; it leads 
immediately to the chorus, " But thanks be 
to God." 

ODE FOR SAINT CECILIA'S DAY, 
music to Dryden's, for solo, chorus, and or- 
chestra, by Handel, first performed at Lin- 
coln's luu Fields, London, on Saint Cecilia's 
Day, Nov. 22, 1739. The programme in- 
cluded Alexander's Feast, two new con- 
certos for several instruments and one for 
the organ. The autograph, in Buckingham 
Palace, is the first one dated with astrologi- 
cal signs, a custom which Handel contin- 
ued the rest of his life. The work was 
written between Sept. 15 and Se^Dt. 2-1, 
1739. It is the shortest of Handel's vocal 
compositions, but contains several fine cho- 
ruses. It was given six times during the 
season. Mozart wrote additional accom- 
paniments in 1789. It was first jjerformed 
by the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, 
Nov. 28, 18G3. Published by Walsh (Lon- 
don, 1739) ; and by Simrock (Berlin, 18G0- 
67). Chrysander's edition for the Hilndel- 
gesellschaft, Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leijisic, 
18G5). This ode had previously been set 
to music by Giovanni Baptista Draghi in 
1687. Same title, ode by Christopher Fish- 
burn, music by Purcell, 1683 ; ode by 
Thomas d'Urfey, music by Dr. Blow, 1691 ; 
ode by Joseph Addison, music by Pui'cell, 
1699 ; ode by Pope (1708), music by Will- 
iam Walond, 1757 ; ode by Christopher 
Smart, music by William Russell, 1800 ; 
aud a cantata, test by Chorley, music by 
Julius Benedict, first performed at the Nor- 
Avich (England) Festival, in 1866, Sacred 
Harmonic Society, London, 1867. — Chry- 
sauder, Handel, ii. 430 ; Rockstro, Handel, 
211 ; Hawkins, v. 328 ; Upton, Standard 
Cantatas, 57, 177; Harmonicou (1831), 289. 

O DIEU PUISSANT, DIEU TUTfi- 
LAIRE. See Muetle de Portici. 



ODIN'S MEERESRITT (Odin's Ride 
over the Sea), cantata for baritone solo, 
male chorus, and orchestra, on a poem of 
the same title, music by Friedrich Gerns- 
heim, op. 48, first given iu New York by 
the Arion Society, Dec. 14, 1884. It is 
dedicated to the Grossherzog Ludwig von 
Hessen und bei Rhein. Published by Ries 
& Erler (BcrHu). 

ODI TU. See Ballo in Maschera. 

O DOLCEZZE PERDUTE. See Ballo in 
Maschera. 

0, DU MEIN HOLDER ABEND- 
STERN. See Tannhduaer. 

ODYSSEUS, cantata in two parts, for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra, text by William 
Paul Graff, from the Odyssey, music by 
Max Bruch, op. 41, first performed in 
Bremen in June, 1872. Characters repre- 
sented : Odysseus (Bar.) ; Penelope (C.) ; 
Alcinoos, King of the Pheaces (B.) ; Arete, 
his consort (C.) ; Nausicaa, their daughter 
(S.) ; Pallas Athene (S.) ; Leucothea (S.) ; 
the Helmsman (B.) ; Hermes (T.) ; Spirit of 
Tiresias (B.) ; Spirit of Anticlea, mother of 
Odysseus (C.) ; Chorus of Companions of 
Odysseus, Spirits of the Departed, Sirens, 
Tritons, Sea-Nymphs, Pheaces, Rhapsodes, 
Boatmen and Peojjle of Ithaca. Published 
by Simrock (Berlin, 1871). — Mus. Wochen- 
blatt (1873), 703, 726; Upton, Standard 
Cantatas, 95. 

CEDIPE A COLONE, tragedie-opera, in 
three acts, text by Guillard, after Ducis's 
tragedy, music by Sacchiui, first repre- 
sented at the Academic Royale de Musique, 
Paris, Feb. 1, 1787. This is Sacchini's mas- 
terpiece. The choruses are the most strik- 
ing features of the work, and the recitatives 
are vigorous and sustained. It is dedi- 
cated to Marie Antoinette. DisapiDoiutment 
caused by the Queen's failure to keep her 
promise to have this opera performed at 
Fontaiuebleau was the occasion of the com- 
poser's death. Q5dipe was given continu- 
ally at the Academic from 1787 till 1830, 
receiving five hundred and eighty-three rep- 
resentations. It was revived in July, 1843, 



OEDIPUS 



and given six times, and once again in May, 
1844 Original cast, Paris, 1787 : 

Antigone (S.) Mme Chcron. 

Poliuice (T.) M. Laine. 

CEdipe (T.) M. Cheron. 

Tliesee (B.) M. Chardiny. 

In later yeai's Mme Dabadie and Mme 
Donis-Gras appeared as Antigone ; M. 
Adolphe Noun-it and M. Massol, as Polinice ; 
and M. Dabadie and Levasseur, as Thesee. 
Pianoforte arrangement published by 
Troupenas (Paris) ; in German, translation 
by Herklots, edition by Carl Klage (Berlin, 
1818). Same title Italian opera, text by 
Lalli, music by Pietro Torri, was given in 
Munich in 1729. — Clumeut et Larousse, 
491 ; Grove, iii. 208 ; Fetis, vii. 3G2 ; La- 
jarte, i. 354 ; Berliner mus. Zeitg., ii. 45 ; 
Hogarth, ii. 148. 

OEDIPUS IN KOLONOS, music to Soph- 
ocles's tragedj-, by Mendelssohn, op. 93, first 
performed at Potsdam, Nov. 1, 1845. Frl. 
Sticb sang the part of Antigone, and Frau 
Liihmanu, Herr Hcndrichs, Herr Stawiusky, 
HeiT Bethge, and Herr Franz the other 
parts. It was written at the command of 
the King of Prussia, who ordered Mendels- 
sohn to compose music to Antigone and to 
CEdipus Tyrannus. On March 12, 1845, 
Mendelssohn announced that the music to 
CEdipus at Kolonus was ready for perform- 
ance and the sketch of QSilipus Tyran- 
nus finished ; but the latter was never 
given, and the MS. has been lost. QSdipus 
at Kolonus was given in Berlin, Nov. 10, 
184G, and first in London at the Crystal 
Palace, June 13, 1876. It contains an in- 
troduction and nine numbers. Published 
in 1851. Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mendelssohn 
Werke, Serie xv., No. IIG. Music to So- 
phocles's tragedy by Eduai'd Lassen, Wei- 
mai", Feb. 7, 1874 ; and a dramatic cantata 
for chorus, soli, and orchestra, by Theodore 
Gouvy, op. 75, Berlin, 1887. — Grove ; Musi- 
cal World (1854) ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xlviii. 178 ; Mendelssohn's Letters from 
1833 to 1847, 346 ; Athenaeum (1876), i. 



CEDIPUS TYRANNUS, incidental mu- 
sic to the tragedy of Sophocles, by John 
K. Paine, first performed under the compo- 
ser's direction, at the first representation of 
that play in Greek, at Sanders Theatre, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., May 
17, 1881. This is the most scholarly work 
written by an American composer. The 
prelude has beeu frequently played at con- 
certs. The music consists of an orchestral 
introduction, choruses, six odes, and a 
postlude. Music to this play has been 
written also hy Charles Villiers Stanford, 
for a performance at Cambridge, England, 
Nov. 22-26, 1887.— Upton, Standard Can- 
tatas, 281. 

O ELSA ! NUE EEST JAHR AN DEINER 
SEITE. See Lohengrin. 

OELSCHLEGEL, JOHANN LOHE- 
LTUS, born at Loschau, near Dux, Bohemia, 
Dec. 31, 1724, died at Prague, Feb. 22, 
1788. Organist and church composer ; en- 
tered the order of Premonstrants at Prague 
in 1747, and was ordained a priest in 1755. 
He then studied harmony and composition 
under Sehling and Habcrmann, and for many 
years had charge of the music in his mon- 
astery, which he enriched with one of the 
best organs in Boh(!mia, after devoting 
years of study to the principles of organ 
building. Works : Iniiocentia et pietas bo- 
nam causam, etc., oratorio, Strahow, 1760 ; 
5 other oratorios, ib., 1756, 1758, 1759 ; 
Operetta natalitia, a mystery, ib., 1761 ; 
do., 1762 ; Pastoral mass ; Slissa brevis ; 
Requiem ; 11 Rorato coeli ; 49 motets ; 18 
Stationes Theophorica; ; 16 offertories ; 12 
hymns of St. Norbert, for 2 voices and or- 
gan ; Hymn, do., for 4 voices, 4 violins, 2 
trumpets, and organ ; 3 Te Deum ; 2 Salve 
Regina ; Responses for 4 voices and small 
orchestra ; Cantata for the jubilee of an ab- 
bot. — Dlabacz ; Fetis ; Meusel, Lexikon, x. 
186 ; Wurzbach. 

OESTEN, THEODOR, bom in Berlin, 
Dec. 31, 1813, died there, March 16, 1870. 
Pianist ; learned to jjlay on string and wind 
instruments from the town-musician Po- 



se 



O EWIGES 



litzki at Fiirstenwakle and the pianoforte 
from a scboolmastei-, and made many j'outh- 
fiil attem23ts at composition. On returning 
to Berlin lie studied composition under 
Bohmer, the pianoforte and singing under 
Dresclike, and clarinet under Taune ; then 
entered the Academy of Arts, where lie was 
the pupil of Rungenhagen, G. A. Schneider, 
and A. W. Bach, and settled in Berlin as a 
teacher. His music is sentimental, brill- 
iant, eas}-, and exceedingly popular. He 
had many imitators, including his sou JLix. 
Works : Symphonies, masses, quartets, 
motets, fugues, and about 400 pianoforte 
pieces. — Mendel ; Fetis ; do., Supplement, 
ii. 284. 

O EWIGES FEUER, O URSPEUNG 
DER LIEBE, Cantata Festo Pentecostes, 
for soli and chorus, with accompaniment of 
three trumpets, drums, two oboes (two 
flutes), strings complete, and continuo, by 
Johann Sebastian Bach (Bachgesellschaft, 
No. 34) ; published, with additional accom- 
j)auiments bj' Robert Franz, in full and pi- 
anoforte score (Breslau, Leuckart). — Sjiitta, 
ii. 5.57. 

OFFENBACH, JACQUES, born in Co- 
logne, June 21, 
1819, died in 
Paris, Oct. 5, 
1880. The son 
of a Jewish can- 
tor, he went early 
to Paris, and stud- 
ied the violon- 
cello a year at the 
Conservatoire un- 
der Vaslin ; then played in the orchestra 
of the Opera Comique, and wrote music to 
parodies on La Fontaine's jsoems. After 
appearing as violoncellist in concerts with 
little success, he was appointed chef d'or- 
chestre at the Theatre Fran5ais, where his 
composition of the Chanson de Fortunio in 
Alfred de Musset's "Chandelier " was well 
received. He used every means of keeping 
his name before the public, and at last, in 
1855, had a theatre of his own, the Boufifes 




Parisiens, which was situated at first in the 
Salle Lacazes of the Champs Elysees, and 
soon removed to the Theatre Comte in the 
Passage Choiseul, where many of his most 
popular productions were brought out. In 
18GG he gave up this theatre, and had his 
works performed at different houses ; in 
1872 he took the Theatre de la Gaite, but 
resigned it to Vizentini in 1870, and then 
made an unsuccessful American tour, which 
he described in his "Notes d'un musicien 
en voyage " (Paris, 1877). On his return 
home he devoted himself to composition, 
and suffered much from the gout. His nu- 
merous works have enjoyed an immense 
jjopularity. He was the founder of that 
species of operetta known as opera-bouffe, 
and, although he has had many imitators, 
none of them have equalled him in comic 
verve or fertility of melodic invention. In- 
deed, he has been the only writer of opera- 
bouffe to whom the term " man of genius " 
can properly be applied. Works — Operet- 
tas : Les alcoves, Paris, 1847 ; Mai'ietta, Co- 
logne, 1849 ; Pepito, Paris, 1853 ; Oyayaye, 
Entrez, messieurs, mesdames, Une nuit 
blanche, Les deux aveugles, Le reve d'une 
nuit d etc, Le violoneux, INIadamc Papillon, 
Perinette, i^a-Ta-Clau, 1855 ; Un jjostillon 
en gage, Troiub-al-Cazar, La rose de Saint- 
Flour, Les dragces du bapteme, Le soixante- 
six, Le financier et le savetier. La bonne 
d'enfants, 1856 ; Les trois baisers du diable, 
Croquefer ou le dernier des j)aladins, Dra- 
gonette. Vent du soir ou I'horrible festin, 
Une demoiselle en loterie, Le mariage aux 
lanternes, Les deux pecheurs, Les petits 
prodiges (with Jonas), 1857 ; Mesdames de 
la Halle, La chatte metamorphosee en 
femme, Orphee aux enfers, 1858 ; Un mari 
a la porte, Les vivandieres de la graude 
armee, Geneuieve de Brabant, 1859 ; Le 
Carnaval des revues, Daphnis et Chloe, 
Barkouf, Le papillon, ballet, 18G0 ; La 
Chanson de Fortunio, Le pont des soupirs. 
Monsieur Choufleury restera chez lui (with 
M. de Saint-Remy — Due de Morny), Apo- 
thicaire et perruquier, Le roman comique, 



37 



OFT ON 



1861 ; Monsieur et madame Denis, Le 
voyage de MM Duuanan pcre et fils, 1862 ; 
Les Bauards, 1863 ; Liscben et Fritzcben, 
L'amour cbauteur, II signor Fagotto, Les 
Georgiennes, La fee du Rbin, Le fifre en- 
cbante, Jeanne qui pleure et Jean qui rit, 
La belle HeK'ne, 1864 ; Coscoletto, Les Bei-- 
ge)-s, 1865 ; Harbe-lilene, La vie parisienne. 



' B-flat major, witb accompaniment of strings 
complete, in Handel's L' Allegro, il Pensie- 
roso, ed il Moderate, Part I., No. 20. 

OGGI AERIVA UN REGGI]\IENTO. 
See Barber of Seville. 

OGINSKI, Prince ISHCHAL KLEOFAS, 
born at Guzow, near Warsaw, SejDt. 25, 
1765, died in Florence, Oct. 31, 1833. Pu- 



1866 ; La grande ducbesse de Gcrolstein, La pil of Kozlowski ; was grand treasurer of 
permission de dix beures. La leyou de cbant, I Litbuania and senator of tbe Russian Em- 



Robinson Crusoi-, 1867 ; L'ile de Tuliisatan, 
Le cbateau a Toto, La Perichole, 1868 ; La 
princesse de Trebizonde, Fert-Vert, La rfiua, 
Les bi'igands, La i-omance de la rose, 1869 ; 
Boule de neige, 1871 ; Le roi Garotte, Fleu- 
rette, Fantmtio, Le corsaire noir, 1872 ; Les 
braconniers, Pomme d'api. La jolie parfu- 
meuse, 1873 ; Bagatelle, Madame I'Ai'cbi- 
duc, 1874 ; Wittington et son cbat, Les 
bannetous. La boulangure a des ecus, Le 
voyage dans la lune, La Creole, 1875 ; Pi- 



pire. During bis sojourn in Paris, in 1823, 
tbe great violinist Baillot played witb bim 
in quartets. Works : 14 polonaises ; Songs 
witb Frencb and Italian words. — Fetis ; So- 
wifiski ; Mendel ; Scbilling. 

GRAND SAINT-DOMFSriQUE. See 
Africaine. 

OH! ARABY, DEAR ARABY. See 
Oberon. 

HAUPT TOLL BLUT UND WUN- 
DEN, cboral in F major, for Core I. and 



^^^t-w^. 



errette et Jacquot, La boite au lait, 1876 ; H., with accompaniment of two flutes, two 
Le docteur Ox, La Foire Saint-Laurent, oboes, strings complete, organ, and con- 
1877 ; Maitre Peronilla, 1878 ; La Maro- tiuuo, in Jobann Sebastian Bacb's Passion 
caine, Madame Favart, 187'J ; Belle Lu- ' uacb Mattbilus, Part U., No. 63. Tbe mel- 
ody is by Hans Leo Hass- 
ler, and was first pub- 
lished in 1601, as a sec- 
ular song, Mein G'miitb 
ist mir verwirret. 

OH! COME DA 
QUEL Dl. See Semi- 
ramide. 
OH, GIOJA CHE SI SENTE. See Lucia. 
OH ! HAD I JUBALS LYRE, soprano 
aria of Acbsab, in A major, witb accompani- 
ment of violins in unison and bass, in Han- 
del's Joshua, Act m.. Scene 3. Published 
also separately, with the accompaniment 
filled out by Otto Dresel (Leipsic, Breit- 
kopf & Hartel). 

O HIMJIEL ! LASS" DICH JETZT ER- 
See Tannhiiuser. 




rette, 1880 ; Mademoiselle Moucboron, 1881 ; 
Les conies d'Hoifmann, comic opera, 1881. 
— Fetis ; do., Supplement, il 284 ; La- 
rousse ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Wurzbach ; 
Ambros, Bunte Blatter, Serie H., Die mu- 
sLkalische Wasserpest ; Atlantic Monthly, 
xxix. 508 ; International Review, x. 286. 

OF GIRLHOOD'S HAPPY DAYS. See 
Rose of Castile. 

O FORTUNE, A TON CAPRICE. See ' FLEHEN 



lioberl le Diable. 

6 FRANCE, O MA PATRIE ! See Dm 
d'Olonne. 

OFT ON A PLAT OF RISING 
GROUND, soprano aria of 11 Pensieroso, in 



OH, JOYOUS, HAPPY DAY. See Rose 
of Castile. 

OH, LOVELY PEACE, soprano aria of 
An Israelitish Woman, in G major, with 
accompaniment of two flutes, strings com- 



OH, SLEEP 



plete, ami continue, in Handel's Judas 
MaccabiBUS, Act III. 

OH ! QU'IL EST BEAU. See Postilion 
de Lonjumeau. 

OH, SLEEP, WHY DOST THOU 
LEAVE ME ?, soprano aria of Semele, in E 
major, with accompaniment of continuo, in 
Handel's Semele, Act H., sc. 2. Published 
also separately, with the accompaniment 
filled out by Otto Dresel (Leipsic, Breit- 
ko2:)f & Hiirtel). 

OH ! 'TIS A GLOEIOUS SIGHT. See 
Obei'oyi. 

OH ! 'TIS PLEASANT. See Oberon. 

OH! WHY ART THOU SLEEPING? 
See Oberon. 

OH, WOULD THAT I. See Puritan's 
Daughter. 

O ISIS UND OSmiS. See ZauberJlOte. 

OIvEGHEM, JOANNES (Okenghem, 
Okekam, Oekenheim, etc.), born at Ter- 
moude {?), East Flanders, about 1-115-20, 
died at Tours (?) in 1513. He is supposed 
to have got his musical education at the 
Maitrise of the Antwerp Cathedral, where, 
in 1443, he was a singer. Tlie story that 
he was a pupil of Binchois is probably un- 
true. In 1444 he gave up his position at 
Antwerp. In 14G1 he was the head of the 
chapel of Charles VII. of France. Louis XI. 
made liim treasurer of Saint-Martin at Tours. 
He was also in the service of Charles VIII. 
In 1484 he made a trip to Flanders, accom- 
panied by several pupils, and was honoured 
with a splendid banquet at Bruges. He 
retired from service shortly before the ac- 
cession of Louis Xn., 1498, and probably 
spent the rest of his days in Tours. Oke- 
ghem was the founder and head of the 
second, or great, Netherlandish school ; he 
was long considered the inventor of canonic 
and contrapuntal art, and was called the 
Father of Music. He, however, was not 
the inventor, but one of the great early de- 
velopers of counterpoint and canon. He 
gave life and vigor to the older, more stiff 
and awkward counterpoint of Dufay, Bin- 
chois, and other masters of the first Nether- 



landish school ; he counted among his pu- 
jsils many of the greatest names of the next 
generation, Josquin Despres, de la Rue, and 
others, and his was the most potent and 
widely exerted musical influence of the 
period. His reputation during his life 
was universal, and at his death composers 
like Josquin, Lujji, and others honoured 
his memory with commemorative works. 
Works : Missa cujusve toni, in Liber XV. 
missarum (Petrejus, Louvain, 1538) ; Six 
motets, 3-4 voc, and a seqvience. Miles 
miraj probitatis, in Canti C (Petrucci, Ven- 
ice, 1503) ; An enigmatic canon in S. Hey- 
den's Ars canendi, Glarean's Dodekachor- 
don, etc. (solutions in Burney, Hawkins, 
Forkel, Fetis, Kiesewetter's Verdienste der 
Niederlilnder, Riemann's Notenschrift, etc.); 
Fragments of Missa prolationum, in Hey- 
den's Ars canendi and Bellermann's Kontra- 
punkt ; do. of Missa cujusve toni (ad om- 
nem tonum) in Glarean's Dodekachordon ; 
Mass, De plus en plus, MS. in Pontifical 
Chapel, Rome ; 2 do., Pour quelque peine, 
and Ecce ancilla Domini, MS. in Brussels 
Library ; Motets in MS. in Rome, Florence, 
and Dijon ; 6 masses, an Ave, and some 
motets in Van der Straeten ; Kj'rie and 
Christe, 4 voc, from Missa cujusve toni, in 
Rochlitz. — Ambros, iii. 170 ; Fetis ; Grovo ; 
Riemann. 

O'KELLY, JOSEPH, born, of Irish par- 
entage (?), at Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, in 
1829, died in Paris, January, 1885. Pian- 
ist, pupil of Osborne and Kalkbrenner, and 
in composition of Dourlen and Halevy, in 
Paris. Works : Le lutin de Galwaj', opera, 
Boulogne, 1878 ; La zingarella, do., Paris, 
1879 ; Paraguassii, poeme lyrique, 1855 ; 
Ruse contre ruse, ojDeretta ; Cantata, Ami- 
ens, 1867 ; Cantata for the Centenary of 
O'Connell, Dublin, 1878 ; Justice et charite, 
sacred cantata, Versailles, 1878 ; Songs and 
pianoforte music. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 
28G. 

OLD HUNDREDTH TUNE, THE, a 
hymn-tune popular in England and Amer- 
ica, the authorship of which is unknown. 



39 



OLD 



It was the melody adapted to Beza's version 
of Psalm CXXXr\\, iucluded by bim in 
the Psalms which he added to the Genevan 
Psalter in 1551. The earliest copy of the 
Psalter with the tunes is dated 1554 
Louis Bourgeois, the musical editor of that 
book, arranged the tune in its present form. 
It is probably an adaptation of a poj)ular 
tune of the 15th century. It resembles the 
tune sung in France at that period to the 
words, " II 11 y a icy celluy qui n'ai sa belle ;" 
and in Holland to, "Ik had een boelken 
uitercoren, die ik met Hai'ten minne." It 
is found with different endings in the 
earhest Flemish Psalter, " Souter Liedekeus 
ghemalct ter eeren Gods " (Antwerjj, 1540) ; 
in Utenhoves Dutch Psalter, "Hondert 
Psalmeu Davids," printed by John Daj-e 
(London, 1561) ; in a French translation of 
the Psalms with music by Marot and Beza 
(Lyons, 1563) ; in Claude Goudimel's fa- 
mous collection of tunes (Paris, 1565) ; in 
Este's Psalter (1592) ; and the same melody 
is in several English and German tune- 
books, with variations regarding the value 
of the notes. The Genevan tune was first 
sung in England to Kethe's version of Psalm 
C, "All people that on earth do dwell," 
and it was first called the " Hundredth " 
tune. The word " Old " was added when 
Brady and Tate's new version of the Psalter 
appeared in 1696. In America it is com- 
monly called " Old Hundred." The name 
" Savoy " has been given to it, from its use 
by the French congi-egation established in 
the Savoy, London, in the reign of Charles 
n. A monograph on this tune, with an ap- 
pendix of 28 specimens of the melody as 
sung from 1563 to 18i7, was jiublished by 
the Eev. W. H. Haveigal in 1854.— Grove, 
ii. 495 ; Bovet, Histoire du Psautier des 
eglises reformees (Neufchatel and Paris, 
1872) ; Douen, Clement Marot et le Psautier 
Huguenot (2 vols., Paris, 1878-79). 

OLD, JOHN, born at Totness, South 
Devon, England, in 1829, still bring, 1890. 
Pupil of John and Edward Loder, and at 
the Royal Academy of Music of Bennett ; 



afterwards studied under Thalberg and 
Molique. Conductor of Torquay Choral 
Society, 1852-55. Works: The Seventh 
Seal, sacred drama, 1853 ; Heme the Hunter, 
opera, 1879 ; The Battle, dramatic solo and 
chorus, 185'4 ; Tenth of March, Overture 
for orchestra (on marriage of Prince of 
Wales) ; Anthems, songs, and part-songs ; 
Pianoforte music. 

O'LEARY, ARTHUR, born near Kil- 
larne^-, Ireland, March 15, 1834, still living, 
1890. Pianist, pupU at the Conservatoiium, 
Leipsie, of Moscheles, Hauptmann, Richter, 
Rietz, and Plaidy, and at the Royal Acad- 
emy, London, of Bennett and Potter. Pro- 
fessor at the latter, 1856. Works : Overture 
and incidental music to Longfellow's " Span- 
ish Student " (with Potter) ; Symphony in 
C ; Concerto in E minor, for pianoforte and 
orchestra ; Pianoforte music and songs. 
His wife, Rosetta (Vinning) O'Leary, was 
King's scholar at the Royal Academy in 
1852, conjointly with J. F. Barnett. She 
has published songs. 

OLIMPIADE, L', opera seria in three 
acts, text by Metastasio, music bj' Cimarosa, 
first represented iu Naples in 1784. The 
libretto, IMetastasio's masterpiece, was writ- 
ten in 1733. Characters represented : Clis- 
tene. King of Scione ; Ai-istea, his daugh- 
ter ; Megacle, her lover ; Alcandro, Clis- 
tene's confidant ; Licida, supposed son of 
the King of Crete ; Amiuta, preceptor of 
Licida ; and Argene, a Cretan in love with 
Licida. The scene is at Olympia. Clisteue, 
warned by the oracle of Deljjhi that he will 
be killed by his son, abandons him, but real's 
the twin-sister, Aristea, who becomes a 
beautiful woman. She is loved by Megacle, 
whose suit is refused by Clistene. Megacle 
goes to Crete, where he is rescued from 
brigands by Licida, with whom he forms a 
strong friendship. Licida is mourning the 
loss of his mistress, Ai-gene, who has been 
banished to Elide as a shepherdess under 
the name of Lycori. Licida goes to Elide 
with Megacle to take part in the Olj'iupian 
games, over which Clistene, who has prom- 



40 



OLIMPIADE 



ised the hand of his daughter to the victor, 
presides. Licida falls in love with Aristea, 
and, unpractised in athletic sports, begs Me- 
gacle to win her for him under his name. 
Megacle, not knowing who is to be the re- 
ward, promises, and on entering the lists 
discovers that it is Ai'istea. At this point 
Clistene recognizes Licida as his sou Phi- 
linte, and Megacle and Aristea are united. 
Megacle is one of Metastasio's most beau- 
tiful characters. Cimarosa's rondo, "Nel 
lasciarti, o jsrence amato," was published 
by M. Gevaert in " Les gloires de I'ltalie." 
—Hogarth, i. 340. 

OLIMPIADE, L', opera seria in three acts, 
text by Sletastasio, music by Leo, first rej)- 
resented in Naples, Nov. 4, 1737. Two 
numbers, the duet, " Ne' giorni tuoi felici," 
between Aristea and Megacle, and Clistene's 
aria, " Non so donde viene," are among 
Leo's best compositions. 

OLIMPIADE, L", ojjera seria in three acts, 
text by Metastasio, music by Pergolesi, first 
represented in Eome in 1735. Although 
the music is written iu the composer's best 
stj'le, the opera was received with inditt'er- 
ence because of its rival opera Nerone by 
Duni. After Pergolesi's death, in 1727, the 
opera was revived in Rome, with groat suc- 
cess. It was first sung in England in 174;"2, 
when the part of Megacle was sung by Si- 
gnor Monticelli. — Clement et Larousse, 193 ; 
Fiitis, Mus. ccdebres, 83 ; Hogarth, i. 385- 
388 ; Burney, iv. 448 ; Waldersee, Samm- 
lung mus. Vortriige, ii. 153. 

OLKIPIADE, L', opera seria iu three 
acts, text by Metastasio, music by Piecinni, 
first represented in Eome in 1701 ; iu Na- 
ples, with new music, 1771. This was one 
of Piecinui's most successful operas, and 
one of the best settings of this libretto. 
— Hogarth, ii. 13G. 

OLIMPLADE, L', ojjera seria in three 
acts, text by Metastasio, music by Sacchini, 
first represented iu Milan in 17(57. It is 
said that this opera was deprived of a hear- 
ing in Paris through the jealousy of Gluck. 
Same text, music by Antonio Caldara, Vi- 



enna, Aug. 28, 1733 ; by Domenico Alberti, 
Venice, 1739 ; by Duni, about 1740 ; by 
Giuseppe Scolari, about 1747 ; by Georg 
Christoph Wagenseil, Vienna, 1749 ; by 
Gaetano Latilla, Venice, 1752 ; by David 
Perez, Lisbon, 1754 ; by Giuseppe Sarti, 
Florence, about 1755 ; by Johann Adam 
Hasse, Dresden, Feb. IG, 1750 ; by Niccolo 
Jommelli, Stuttgart, 17G1 ; by Viucenzo 
Manfredini, Moscow, 17G2 ; by Andrea Ber- 
nasconi, Munich, 17G4 ; by Gassmaun, Ven- 
ice, 1764 ; by Lampuguani, about 17G5 ; by 
Ferdinando Giuseppe Bertoui, Naples, 17G5 ; 
by Thomas Augustine Arne, London, April 
27, 17G5 ; pasticcio by various composers, 
arranged by Francesco Puttini, Cremoua, 
17G8 ; by Giovanni Paisiello, Naples, 17G8 ; 
by Pasquale Cesaro, ib., 1769 ; by Johann 
Christian Bach, London, 17G9 ; by Traetta, 
St. Petersburg, 1770 ; by Pasquale Aufossi, 
Venice, December, 1774 ; by Baldassare 
Galuppi, about 1775 ; by Joseph Mysli- 
weczek, Rome, 1778 ; by Gaetano Andre- 
ozzi, Leghorn, 1780 ; by Francesco Bianchi, 
Milan, 1782 ; by Johann Gottfried Schwan- 
berg, Brunswick, 1782 ; by Luigi Gatti, 
Piacenza, 1784 ; by Giovanni Battista Bor- 
ghi, Florence, 1785 ; by Alessio Prati, Na- 
ples, 178G ; by Angelo Tarchi, Eome, 1790 ; 
by Vincenzo Federici, Turin, 1790 ; by Jo- 
hann Friedrich Eeichardt, Berlin, October, 
1791 ; by Marcello Perrino, Naples, about 
1795 ; by Michael Arditi, ib., about 1800 ; 
and by Conti, ib., Oct. 9, 182G. 

OLIVER, HENRY KEMBLE, born at 
Beverly, Massachusetts, Nov. 24, 1800, died 
iu Boston, Aug. 10, 1885. He was a boy 
soj^rano in the choir of the Park Street 
Church, Boston, in 1810, was graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1818, and taught in 
Salem until 1844 ; in 1848-58 he was agent 
of a manufacturing company in Lawrence, 
of which he was mayor in 1859, and iu 18G1 
-65 was treasurer of the State of Blassachu- 
setts. In 1865 he returned to Salem, of 
which city he was also mayor, aud in 1880 
removed to Boston. He was organist and 
musical director of several churches in Law- 



OLIVETTE 



rence and Salem, and the founder of a glee 
club (1823), which existed twenty years, 
and of a Mozart Association (182G), both in 
the latter place. In 1883 he received the 
degree of Mus. Doc. from Dartmouth Col- 
lege. Works : The National Lyre, with 
Tuckerman and Bancroft (Boston, 1848) ; 
Collection of Church Music (ib., I860) ; 
Original Hymn Tunes (ib., 1875). Federal 
Street, one of his best known tunes, written 
in 1832 (Mason's Boston Academy Col- 
lection, 1835), was sung, set to his own 
words, at the Boston Peace Jubilee in 1872, 
under his own direction. Others of his 
hymns are Morning, Harmony Grove, Bea- 
con Street, Hudson, Elkton, and Merton. 
He left also motets, chants, and a Te Deum, 
and a volume of educational addresses 
(Salem, 1856). 

OLIVETTE. See Noces d'Olivette. 

O LORD, HAVE MERCY. See Golt sei 
mir gniidig. 

O LORD, WTIOM WE ADORE, alto aria 
of Joad, and chorus, in C minor, with ac- 
companiment of strings complete, and con- 
tinuo, in Handel's Athalia, Act L, Scene 2. 

O LUCE DI QUEST' ANIMA. See 
Linda di Cliamounix. 

OLYilPIE, tragedie-lyrique in three 
acts, text In' Dieulafoj- and Briflault after 
Voltaire, music by Spontiui, first repre- 
sented at the Academic Royale de Musique, 
Paris, Dec. 22, 1819. The opera was not a 
success at first, and in the following year it 
was revised by Spontini, a happy conclu- 
sion being substituted for the former tragic 
ending. Cassandre, the supposed murderer 
of Alexandre, and now King of Macedonia, 
is in love with Olympic, Alexandre's daugh- 
ter, whose life he has saved. They go to 
celebrate their nuptials in the Temple of 
Diana, where the officiating priestess proves 
to be Statira, Alexandre's wife, who recog- 
nizes her daughter, whom she had believed 
dead. She denounces Cassandre as the 
murderer of her husband, and joins King 
Antigone, who is trying to wrest Cassan- 
dre's throne from him and to gain the hand 



of Olympic ; but, soon learning that Anti- 
gone is the true murderer, she is reconciled 
to Cassandre, and consents to his union 
with Olympic. Original cast : 

Statira (S.) Mme Branchu. 

Olympie (C.) Mme Albert. 

Cassandre (T) M. Nourrit. 

Antigone (B.) M. Dcrivis. 

The revision was first given in Berlin, Ger- 
man translation by E. A. Hoffmann, ]\Iay 
14, 1821, with enormous success, and Spon- 
tiui was accorded a supremacy in the musi- 




Pauline Milder-Hauptmann. 

cal world which lasted until the first repre- 
sentation of Der Freischiitz, five weeks later. 
Mme Milder sang the part of Statira ; Mme 
Schulz, Olymjoia ; Herr Bader, Cassander ; 
and Herr Blume, Antigonus. In 1822 the 
opera was again revised, changes being 
made in the airs for Olympia and Cassan- 
der, and in their duet in the first act, and a 
new scene with terzetto was added to the 
third act. The score was dedicated to 
Friedrich Wilhelm HI., King of Prussia. 
Published by Brandus & Dufour (Paris) ; 
by Erard (Paris) ; and by Schlesinger (Ber- 
lin, 1826). Same title, tragedie-lyrique in 
three acts, text by Guillard, after Voltaire, 



O MAN 



music by Christian Kalkbrenner, previously 
giveu at the Acadcmie Royale de Musique, 
Paris, Dec. 18, 1798. Opera ou the same 
text, music by Franz Horzizki, Rheinsberg, 
about 1800. — Clument et Larousse, 495 ; 
Grove, iii. GG9, G73 ; Fotis, viii. 94 ; La- 
jarte, ii. 94; Berhner mus. Zeitg., i. 59, 
313, 322 ; iii. 349, 357, 386, 393, 409, 417 ; 
Cilcilia, ii. 1 ; iii. 51 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xxi. 212 ; xxii. 101, 117 ; xxiii. 439 ; xxxi. 
532. 

O MAN, BEWAIL THY SIN. See 
Mensch, bewein' deiu' Siinde. 

6 MA TENDRE AMIE. See Pre aux 
Clercs. 

OMBRA FELICE, aria for alto, with or- 
chestra, in F, text from Metastasio's Didone 
abbandonata, music by Mozart, composed 
in Salzburg in Sei^tember, 1776. Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie vi., No. 14. 
— Kochel, Verzeichniss, No. 255 ; Jahn, Mo- 
zart, i. 422. 

OMBRA MAI Ftr, mezzo-soprano arioso 
of Serse, in F major, with accompaniment 
of strings complete, in Handel's Serse. Act 
I., Scene 1. A grandiose and generally con- 
demnable transcription of this little pas- 
toral air, for violin, hai-p, and full modern 
orchestra, by Hellmesberger, has won un- 
deserved i^opularity in concerts as the "Han- 
del Largo." 

OMBRE, L' (The Shade), French opera 
in three acts, text by Saint-Georges, music 
bj- Flotow, first represented at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, July 7, 1870. Scene in Sa- 
voy, reign of Louis XIV., during the per- 
secution of the Protestants. The Comte de 
RoUecourt, having protected a family of 
Protestants from massacre, is sentenced to 
be shot, but is saved by a friend, who ex- 
tracts the balls from the muskets. He then 
takes refuge in a village as a wood-carver, 
under the name of Fabrice. Jeanne, a young 
Protestant, who had loved him and had seen 
him fall, flees to this village, and becomes 
the servant of Fabrice, whom, however, she 
does not recognize as the comte. Fabrice, 
hearing that his friend is to suffer death for 



the stratagem, reveals himself to Jeanne, 
marries her, and is about to surrender when 
the docteur Mirouet brings his pardon. 
Mme AbeiUe, a widow, also loves Fabrice, 
but finally consents to marry the good 
doctor. There are only four characters in 
the opera, and there is no chorus. Original 
cast : 

Fabrice (I'Ombre, T.) M. Monjauze. 

Docteur Mirouet (B.) M. Meillet. 

Jeanne (S.) Mile JVIarie Roze. 

Mme Abeille (C.) Mile Priola. 

It was given in London as " The Phantom," 
at Her Majesty's, Jan. 12, 1878.— Clement 
et Larousse, 802 ; Athenreum (1870), ii. 89 ; 
(1878), i. 96. 

O MENSCH, BEWEIN' DEIN' SUNDE, 
figured choral in E major for Coro I. and 
n., accompanied by two flutes, two oboi 
d' amore, strings complete, organ and con- 
tinue, in Johann Sebastian Bach's Passion 
nach Matthilus, Part I., No. 35. The mel- 
ody is by Hans Leo Hassler (1525). 

b MENSCH, ERRETTE DEINE SEELE, 
alto aria in D minor, with accompaniment 
of strings complete and continue, in Johann 
Sebastian Bach's cantata Dom. I. post Trin- 
it., O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (Bachge- 
sellschaft. No. 20). Published also separate- 
ly, with the accompaniment transcribed by 
Robert Franz (Leipsic, Whistling). 

O mO DOLOR. See Sonnambula. 

O NA:MENL0SE FREUDE. See Fidelio. 

ONLY BLEED, THOU DEAREST 
HEART ! See Blute nur, du liebes Herz ! 

ON S'ETONNERAIT MOINS QUE LA 
SAISON NOUVELLE. See Armide et 
Renaud. 

ON SHORE AND SEA, cantata for 
chorus, soli, and orchestra, text by Tom 
Taylor, music by Arthur S. Sullivan, writ- 
ten for and first performed at the opening 
of the Annual International Exhibition at 
Albert Hall, London, May 1, 1871. The 
action takes place in the 16th centurj', at a 
port of the Riviera, and on a Genoese and 
Moorish galley at sea. Characters repre- 



ONSLOW 



sented : La S^Josina, a Riviera woman, and 
II Marinajo, a Genoese sailor, and clioruses of 
sailors and mothers and wives of the seamen. 
It was given at tlie Crystal Palace, London, 
Dec. 2, 187G. Published by Boosey (Lou- 
don, 1871). — Upton, Standard Cantatas, 334 
ONSLOW, GEORGE, born, of English 
parentage, at Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de- 
Dome), July 27, 1784, died there, Oct. 3, 
1852. A grandson of the first Lord Ons- 
low, he passed some years while a child in 



O NUIT D'AjVIOUR. See Faust, Gounod. 
O, PARDON aiE, aiY GOD. See Er- 

barme dich, mein Gott. 

OPFERLIED (Offering Song), song with 
orchestral accompaniment in E, by Beet- 
hoven, op. 121b, on Matthisou's song of 
the same title. It was written in 1791, and 
revised in 1801 or 1802, and again in 1803 
or 1807, and completed in 1822-23 for the 
tenor Ehler's benefit concert in Presburg. 
The sketches are preserved in a note-book, 
London, where he was pupil of Hiillmandel, ', in the KOnigliche Bibliothek, Berlin. Pub- 
Dussek, and Cramer. Returning to France, ' lished by Schott (Mainz, 1825), as Chant du 
Le began the study of the violoncello, and Sacrifice, by Schouenburg (Paris) ; by 
played chamber music with his friends. He Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Beethoven Werke, Se- 



Btudied under Reicha, and resided a while 
in Vienna, then divided his time between 
Clermont and Paris. In 1812 he succeeded 
Cherubini as member of the lustitut. He 
was a most industrious composer, and en- 
joyed a great reputation during his lifetime. 
Works — Ojjeras : L'alcalde de la Vega, 
Paris, 1824 ; Le colporteur, ib., 1827 ; Le 
due de Guise, ib., 1837. Four symphonies, 
op. 41, 42, G9, 71 ; Nonet for flute, oboe, 
clarinet, horn, bassoon, and string quartet, 
op. 77 ; Septet for pianoforte, flute, oboe, 
etc., op. 79 ; sextet for do., op. 30 ; 34 
string quintets ; 3(5 string quartets ; 10 
trios for pianoforte and strings ; G sonatas 
for pianoforte and violin ; 3 do. for piano- 




forte and violoncello ; Sonatas, variations, 
toccatas, etc., for pianoforte ; Abel's Death, 
solo scena for bass, with orchestra. — Grove ; 
Riemann ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Har- 
monicon (1828), 263 ; Riehl, ]\[us. Charak- 
terkiJpfe, i. 293. 

ON THE BANKS OF S^^'EET GA- 
RONNE. See Obcron. 



rie xxii.. No. 212. Another song on the 
same poem, for voice with pianoforte, was 
written by Beethoven in 1797. Published 
without opus number by Breitkopf & Hiir- 
tel, Beethoven Werke, Serie xxiii.. No. 233. 
— Thayer, Verzeichniss, 144 ; Nohl, Beetho- 
ven, iii. 393, 577 ; Nottebohm, Beethoven- 
iana, 51 ; Ciicilia, viii. GG ; AUgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xxvii. 704. 

OPHELIA, symphonic poem for orches- 
tra, by E. A. Macdowell, op. 22, first per- 
formed in Germany in 1885 ; at Chickering 
Hall, New York, Nov. 4, 188G.— Krehbiel, 
Review (188G-S7), IG. 

O PUISSANTE MAGIE. See Pardon de 
Ploermel. 

ORATORIO, FA- 
THER OF. See Aiii- 
muccia. 

ORATORIO DE 
NOEL (Christmas Or- 
atorio), for chorus and 
soli, with accompani- 
ment of strings, harp, 
and organ, text from 
' the Bible, music by Saint-Saens, op. 12. 
Published by Durand SchcEnewerk & Cie. 
(Paris). Messe de Noel, oratorio, by Le- 
sueur, first performed in Paris, Dec. 25, 
1786. 

ORAZJ E CURIAZJ, GLI (The Horatii 
and Curiatii), Italian opera in two acts, 
text by Sogi'afi, music by Cimarosa, first 



OR 



represented at La Fenice, Venice, in 1797. 
In the original representation the part of 
Orazia was sung by Giusejipa Grassini, af- 
terwards noted for her relations with Napo- 
leon, who made in it an extraordinary success. 
She sang it also in London, in 1805, where 
her acting in this piece was pronounced al- 
most equal to that of Mi's. Siddons. It was 
given in Paris in January, 1812, and on June 
IC, 1813. Pubhshed by Simrock (Bonn). 
Same title, Italian operas, by B. Marcello, 
Venice, about 1720 ; by F. G. Bertoni, ib.. 




Giuseppa Grassini. 

171G ; by Zingarelli, Turin, 1794 ; by Mar- 
cos Portugal, Ferrara, 1799 ; by Capotorti, 
Naples, 1800 ; and by Mercadante on Cam- 
marauo's text, Vienna, 1830 ; Naples, ISIB. 

OE CHE IL CIELO A ME TI RENDE, 
aria for soprano with orchestra, in E-flat, by 
Mozart, composed in Vienna in 1781. Breit- 
kopf & Hilrtel, Mozart Werke, Serie vi.. No. 
22. — KOchel, Verzeichniss, No. 374: ; Andre, 
No. 175 ; Jahn, IMozart, iii. 8. 

OR CHE IL DOVER, recitative and aria 
(Tali e cotanti sono di Sigismondo i merti) 
for tenor with orchestra, in D, text from an 
opera, Licenza, written for the name-day of 
the Ai'chbishop of Salzburg, music by Mo- 



zart, composed in 1770. Breitkopf & Har- 
tel, Mozart AVerke, Serie vi.. No. 3.— KOchel, 
Verzeichniss, No. 36 ; Jahn, Mozart, i. 228, 
414. 

ORDINAIEE, RAOUL, born at Besanjon 
in 1843, still living, 1890. Instrumental 
and vocal composer, pupil of Pierre de 
Mol. He is also a writer on music, and in 
1866-70 was co-editor of " L'art musical." 
Works : Morceaux symphoniques ; Serenade 
for quintet ; Quartet for strings ; Trio for pi- 
anoforte and strings ; Sonata for pianoforte 
and violoncello ; Pianoforte music, choruses, 
and songs. — Petis, Supplement, ii. 287. 

O REST IN THE LORD. See Sei stiUe 
dem Herru. 

ORFEO, Italian opera in five acts, music 
by Monteverde, first represented at the 
court of Mantua, in 1607. The libretto, on 
the story of Orpheus and Eurydice, was 
thought until recently to have been writ- 
ten by Rinuccini, the author of the text 
of Peri's Euridice, but Alessandro Striggio 
is now considered the true author. Char- 
acters represented : La Musica, Prolo- 
go ; Orfeo ; Euridice ; Speranza ; Caronte 
(Charon) ; Pluto ; Proserpine ; Apollo ; 
Chorus of nymj)hs and shepherds, and 
chorus of infernal spirits. The oisera be- 
gins with a prologue of five recitatives, the 
first of which is spoken by the Genius of 
Music to declare the argument and to en- 
join silence from the audience. Thei-e are 
no solo arias, but the work is composed of 
duets, recitatives, choruses, and trios, and 
closes with the Moresca, or Moorish Dance, 
performed by shepherds. The score shows 
many remarkable affinities with dramatic 
music in its latest development, including 
the constant employment of mezzo-recita- 
tivo, supi^orted by characteristic instru- 
ments ; and the great variety and efl'ect in 
the orchestration. The introduction to 
Wagner's Eheingold is identical in construc- 
tion with the instrumental prelude to this 
opera, called by Monteverde a Toccata, and 
consisting of eight measures on the chord of 
C with a single and sustained note in the 



ORFEO 



bass. It is directed to be played three times 
before the rising of the curtain. For Orfeo 
the composer emploj'ed an orchestra of 
thirty-six instruments, at tliat time an un- 
usual number. These were : 2 gravicem- 
bali (supposed to be clavicembali, harpsi- 
chords) ; 2 contrabassi di viola ; 10 viole 
da braccio ; 1 ai-pa doppia ; 2 violini pic- 
coli alia francese ; 2 chitarroni ; 2 organ i di 
legno ; 3 bassi da gamba ; 4 tromboni ; 1 
regale (a small organ) ; 2 cornetti ; 1 flau- 
tino alia vigesima seconda ; 1 clarino, con 3 
trombe sordine. The entire score ^Yas jjub- 
lished in Venice in IGOi), reprinted by Ric- 
ciardo Amadiuo (ib., 1G15). A copy of the 
second edition, formerly owned by Sir John 
Hawkins, is now in the Royal Library, 
Buckingham Palace. The score was jjub- 
lished by Robert Eitner and J. J. Maier, in 
vol. ix. of the " Publication iilterer praktisch- 
er und theoretischer Musikwerke " (Traut- 
wein, Berlin, 1880). The descent of Or- 
pheus into Hades was the first profane sub- 
ject used for an opera ; and the first Orfeo, 
text by Cardinal Riario, nephew of Sixtus 
IV., music by Angelo Poliziauo, was first 
represented in Rome in 1-480. Other Ital- 
ian operas on the same subject, Orfeo ed 
Euridice, by Fen-ari, Mantua, 1G07 ; Orfeo 
ed Euridice, supposed to be by Zarliuo, or 
Monteverde, given at the Louvre, Feb. 26, 
1647, for the amusement of Louis XTV. at 
the instance of Cardinal Mazarin, and the 
first opera represented in Paris ; Orfeo ed 
Euridice, text by Am-elio Aureli, music by 
Sartorio, Venice, 1652 ; La lira d' Orfeo, 
text by Miuato, music by Antonio Draghi, 
Vienna, May 13, 1683 ; Orfeo ed Euridice, 
in Italian, text by Pariati, music by J. J. 
Fus, Vienna, Oct. 1, 1715 ; I lamenti d' 
Orfeo, text by Pasquini, music by Georg 
Christian Wagenseil, ib., July 26, 1740; 
Orfeo, by Karl Heinrich Graun, text bj' 
ViUati, Berlin, Blarch 27, 1752 ; Orfeo ed 
Euridice, by Johann Christian Bach, Lon- 
don, 1770 ; do., by Antonio Tozzi, Munich, 
1775 ; do., by Bertoni, text by CaJzabigi, 
Venice, 1776 ; Hanover, 1783 ; Orfeo, by 



Pietro Guglielmi, London, 1780 ; Orfeo ed 
Euridice, by Haydn, begun in London in 
1793-94 (unfinished) ; and Orfeo, by Luigi 
Lamberti, about 1800. Operas in German, 
by Heinrich Schiitz, text by Rinuccini, Dres- 
den, Nov. 20, 1638 ; Orpheus, by Rhein- 
hard Keiser, text by Bressand, Brunswick, 
1699, Hamburg, 17*02 ; by Georg Benda, 
Berlin, 1788 ; Der Tod des Orpheus, by 
Max von Droste-Hiilshoff, text by Jacobi, 
1791 (not given) ; same text, music by Gott- 
lob Bachmann, Brunswick, 1798 ; Orpheus, 
by Cannabich, Munich, about 1800 ; by F. 
A. Kanne, Vienna, 1810. Operas in French, 
Orphee, by Jean Baptiste LuUy, text by 
du Boullay, Paris, 1690 ; by Antoine Dau- 
vergne, about 1770 (not given). Orpheus in 
English, by J. Hill, London, 1740 ; and Or- 
pheus, in Danish, by J. G. Naumaun, Co- 
penhagen, 1785. Ballets : Orpheus und 
Euridice, hj Heinrich Schiitz, for the be- 
trothal of George H., Elector of Saxony, 
Dresden, 1638 ; Orpheus, English masque, 
by Martin Bladen, London, 1705 ; by J. 
Dennis, ib., 1707 ; and John Weaver, ib., 
1717 ; Oiishee, in French, by Blaise, Paris, 
1738 ; Orpheus and Euridice, English panto- 
mime, by Rich, London, 1741 ; and ballets, 
by William Reeve, ib., 1792 ; and by Peter 
von Winter, ib., 1805. Ojjerettas : Le petit 
Oi-phee, parodie-operette in four acts (au- 
thor unknown), Havre, March 10, 1795 ; 
by Prosper Didier Deshayes, Paris, 1793 ; 
Orpheus der Zweite, by Ditters, Vienna, 
1787 ; Oi-pheus und Euridice, in two acts, 
by K. Meisl, ib., 1813 ; Orphee aux enfers, 
in two acts, text by Hector Cremieux, mu- 
sic by Ofl'enbach, Paris, Oct. 21, 1858 ; and 
Orpheus im Dorfe, text by Karl Elmai", 
music by Karl Ferdinand Conradin, Vienna, 
Jan. 27, 1867.— Grove, ii. 358, 500; Ho- 
garth, i. 17 ; Burney, iv. 27, 35 ; Hawkins, 
iii. 430 ; Edwards, Hist. Opera, i. 7 ; Mu- 
sical Times (London), March and April, 
1800 ; Clement et Larousse, 500 ; Schlet- 
terer, Studien zur Geschichte der franzO- 
sischen Musik, iii. 183 ; Choquet, Histoire do 
la musique dramatique en France, 76, 94 ; 



46 



ORFEO 



Bitter, Eeform der Oper durcli Gluck, 123 ; 
Ambros, Geschichte der Musik, iv. 353 ; 
Reissmann, Geschichte der Musik, ii. 138 ; 
Mus. Wochenblatt (1874), 185 ; Allgem. 
mus. Zeitg., ix. 150 ; Vierteljahrsscbrift fiir 
Musikwissenschaft, iii. 343. 

OEFEO ED EURIDICE, ItaHau opera 
in tbree acts, text by Calzabigi, music by 
Gluck, first represented at tbe Hof Burg- 
theater, Vienna, Oct. 5, 1762. The author 
of the libretto rehearsed the actors, and 
Gluck conducted the ojaera, which was the 
first work written in his new dramatic 
style. It was received with great enthusi- 
asm. Among the best numbers are : The 
chorus of the Furies ; the ballet-music ; 
and Orfeo's tender and beautiful aria in C 
major, "Che faro senza Euridice," accom- 
panied by the strings, sung after he has 
taken the forbidden glance at Euridice as 
she follows him from Hades. She is re- 
stored by Amore, aud the opera ends haj)- 
pily. Original cast : 

Orf eo Signor Gaetano Guardini. 

Euridice Signora Marianna Bianchi. 

Amore Signora Lucia Clavarau. 

The opera was given in Frankfort-on-the 
Main in 1761, in Parma at the marriage 
fute of the infanta in 1769, in London in 
1770, and at a concert in the Conservatory, 
Milan, May 24, 1813. It was represented 
in Paris as Orpliee et Euridice, Aug. 2, 1774, 
translation by Moline. The autograph is 
in the Koj-al Library, Vienna. The full 
score was published at the expense of Count 
Durazzo at a cost of 2,000 livres. It was 
sent to Favart, who gave it to Moudouville, 
and the latter had it printed by Chambon 
(Paris, 1764). This edition is very rare. 
—Marx, Gluck und die Oper, i. 294-329 ; 
Wiener Diarium (1762), No. 80 ; Bitter, Ee- 
form der Oper durch Gluck, 244 ; Cramer, 
Magazin der Musik (1784), ii. 459 ; Schmid, 
Gluck, 90 ; Desnoiresterres, Gluck et Pie- 
cinni, 48 ; Hogarth, ii. 194-204. 

ORFEO E EURIDICE, cantata for one 
voice with orchestra, by Pergolesi, fii'st 



performed in 1736. One of Pergolesi's 
best works. Published in Rome (1738). 
It is included in Choron's " Principes de 
composition des ecoles d'ltalie " (3 vols., 
Paris, 1808). 

ORGELBUCHLEIN (The Little Organ- 
Book), a collection of forty-five chorals, by 
Johann Sebastian Bach, for beginners in 
organ playing. It was compiled in CiJthen, 
and was intended for a lesson-book for his 
son Wilhelm Friedemanu and others. The 
chorals are treated in canon form and in 
strict counterpoint, and in many the con- 
trapuntal elements of the music reflect the 
emotional meaning of the words with great 
fervour. The autograph, in the Konigliche 
Bibliothek, Berlin, bears the words " Dem 
hochsten Gott allein zu Ehren, Dem Nilch- 
sten draus sich zu belehren." Mendelssohn 
owned an autograph by Bach of the Orgel- 
biichlein, containing thirty-eight chorals. 
This was in the possession of Herr Ernst 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy in 1879, and it is 
supposed that this is the older of the two 
MSS., for there is a slight difference in 
the reading of several of these chorals, the 
most of which are supposed to have been 
composed while Bach was organist at Wei- 
mar. Many pages of the Orgelbiichlein 
remain blank, inscribed only on the up- 
per staff with the first lines of the chorals 
which Bach intended to elaborate. The 
chorals completed are : I. Nun komm' der 
Heiden Heiland ; II. Gott, durch deiue 
Giite ; HI. Herr Christ, der einzige Gottes 
Sohn ; IV. Lob sei dem allmiichtigen Gott ; 
V. Puer natus in Bethlehem ; VI. Gelobet 
seist du, Jesu Christ ; VH. Der Tag der ist 
so freudenreich ; VHI. Von Himmel hoch, 
da komm' ich her ; IX. Vom Himmel kam 
der Engel Schaar ; X. In dulci jubilo ; XI. 
Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich ; XII. 
Jesu meiue Freude ; XJH. Christum wir 
sollen loben schon ; XIV. Wir Christen- 
leut' ; XV. Helft mir Gottes Giite jireisen ; 
XVI. Das alte Jahr vergangen ist ; XVH. 
In dir ist Freude ; XVHI. Mit Fried' imd 
Freud' ich fahr' dahin ; XIX. Herr Gott, 



4T 



OEGIANI 



nun scUeuss den Himmel auf ; XX. O 
Lamm Gottes uuscbuldig ; XXI. Christe, 
du Lamm Gottes ; XXU. Chiistus, der uns 
selig macht ; XXHI. Da Jesus an dem 
Kveuze stund ; XXIV. O Mensch, bewein' 
dein Sunde gross ; XXV. Wir danken dir, 
Herr Jesu Christ ; XXVI. Hilf Gott, dass 
mir's gelinge ; XXVII. Clu-ist lag in Todes- 
banden ; XXVIII. Jesus Christus, uuser 
Heilaud ; XXJX. Christ is erstanden ; XXX. 
Erstanden ist der beil'ge Christ ; XXXI. 
Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag ; XXXII. 
Heut' triumphiret Gottes Sohu ; XXXIII. 
Komm, Gott, SchOpfer, heiliger Geist ; 
XXXrV. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns 
wend ; XXXV. Liebster Jesu, wir sind 
hier ; XXX\T[. Dies siud die heil'gen zehn 
Gebot ; XXXM^I. Vater unser im Himmel- 
reich ; XXXVIII. Durcb Adam's Fall ist 
ganz verderbt ; XXXIX. Es ist das Heil 
uns kommen her ; XL. Ich rnf zu dir, Herr 
Jesu Christ ; XLI. In dich hab" ich gehof- 
fet, Herr ; XLCI. Wenn wir in hochsten 
Nothen sein ; XLHI. "Wer nur den li<>ben 
• Gott li'isst walten ; XLIV. Alle Menscheu 
mtissen sterben ; XLV. Aeh wie nichtig, 
ach wie fliichtig. Edited by Wilhelm Rust 
for the Bach-Gesellschaft, year XXV. (Leip- 
sic, 1875).— Spitta, Bach, i. 588-592 ; 601- 
601 ; 818 ; Spitta, Bach (Bell), i. 597-603 ; 
611-615 ; 647-652 ; Winterfeld, Der Evan- 
geliche Kirchengesang, iii. 415. 

ORGL^I, Don TEOFILO, Italian com- 
poser of the second half of the 17th cen- 
tury, died at Udine about 1714. Dramatic 
and church composer, maestro di cappella of 
the cathedral at Udine. Works — Operas : 
II vizio depresso, e la virtti coronata, ovvero 
r Eliogabale riformato, Venice, 1686 ; Dio- 
clete, ib., 1687 ; Le gare dell' ingauno e del 
amore, ib., 1689 ; II tiranno deluso, Vicen- 
za, 1691 ; L' onor al cimeuto, Venice, 1703 ; 
Armida regina di Damasco, Verona, 1711. 
Many compositions for the church. — Fetis. 
ORGITANO, RAFAELLO, born in Na- 
ples in 1780, died in Paris, in 1812. Drama- 
tic composer, son of Paolo Orgitano (1745- 
98 ?), pupil of Sala. Works : L' iufermo ad 



arte, opera buffa, Naples, 1803 ; Non cre- 
dere alle apparenze, do., ib., 1804 ; Arsinoe, 
opera ; Jefte, oratorio ; La Passione di N. 
S., cantata for 3 voices ; Endimioue, can- 
tata ; Canzonette, etc. — Fetis. 

ORIANA. See Amadigi di Gallia. 

ORLANDI, FERNANDO, born at Parma, 
Italy, in 1777, died at Munich in 1840. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Rugarti at 
Colorno, and of Ghiretti at Parma, then at 
the Conservatorio della Pieta de' Turchini, 
in Naples, of Sala and Tritto in counter- 
point. On his return to Parma he obtained 
employment in the court orchestra, and 
soon won a brilliant rejjutation through his 
operas, although they were of little merit 
and void of inspiration. lu 1806 he was 
called to Milan, as vocal instructor at the 
pages' institute, and acted in the same ca- 
jiacity at the Conservatorio, since 1809, and 
in Munich since 1828. Works : I furbi 
alle nozze, Rome, 1802 ; L' amore strava- 
gante, Milan, 1802 ; L' amore deluso, Flor- 
ence, 1802 ; H liore, Venice, 1803 ; La 
sposa contrastata, Rome, 1804 ; II sartore 
declamatore, Slilan, 1804 ; Nino, Brescia, 
1804 ; La villanella fortunata, Turin, 1804 ; 
Le nozze chimeriche, Milan, 1805 ; Le nozze 
poetiche, Genoa, 1805 ; H Corrado, Turin, 
1806 ; La melodanza, I raggiri anioi'osi, 
Milan, 1806 ; II balordo, Venice, 1807 ; La 
dama soldato, Genoa, 1808 ; L' uomo bene- 
fico, Tui'iu, 1808 ; L' amico dell' uomo, 
1809 ; II luatrimonio per svenimento, 1811 ; 
II quiproquo, II cicisbeo burlato, Milan, 
1812 ; Zulemo e Zelima, 1813 ; Rodrigo di 
Valeuza ; La Fedra. — Fetis. 

ORKiNDINI, GIUSEPPE MARIA, born 
in Bologna, Italy, about 1690, died (?). 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Padre Dome- 
nico Scorpioni ; he was maestro di cajijDella 
to the Grand-duke of Tuscany, and became 
a member of the Accademia Filarmonica, 
Bologna, in 1719. Works : Farasmane, 
1710 ; La fede tradita e vendicata, Venice, 
1713 ; Carlo, re d' Allemagna, ib., 1714 ; 
L' innocenza giustificata ; Merope, 1717 ; 
Antigone, Bologna, 1718 ; Lucio Papirio, 



ORLANDO 



Venice, 1718 ; Ifigenia in Tauride, 1719 ; 
Paride, Giiselda, Bologna, 1720 ; Nerone, 
Venice, 1721 ; Orontea, Milan, 1724 ; Be- 
renice, Venice, 1725 ; L' Adelaide, ib., 1729 ; 
La donna nobile, 1730 ; Massimiauo, Ven- 
ice, 1730 ; II Temistocle, Florence, 1737 ; Lo 
scialacquatore, 1715. Oratorios : Giuditta, 
Aucona, 1723 ; Gioas, re diGiuda, Florence, 
1746.— Futis. 

ORLANDO, Italian opera in tbree acts, 
text by Braccioli, music by Handel, first 
represented at the King's Theatre, London, 
Jan. 27, 1733. The autograph, in Buck- 
ingham Palace, is dated at the end of the 
second act, Nov. 10, 1732, at the end of the 
third, Nov. 20, 1732. It contains the last 
songs which Handel wrote for Seuesino. 
One of these, " Giil 1' ebro mio ciglio," has 
an accompaniment for two violette marine, 
which were played by the brothers Pietro 
and Prospero Castrucci, who introduced 
that instrument into England in 1732. 
The aria, " Sorge infausta," was sung by 
Siguor Tasca at the Handel commemora- 
tion, May 27, 1784. Original cast : Orlan- 
do, hero (C), Signor Senesiuo ; Angelica, 
Queen of Catai, in love with Medoro (S.), 
Signora Strada ; Medoro, African prince, 
Angelica's lover (A.), Signor BertoUi ; Do- 
rlnda, a shepherdess (S.), Signora Celeste 
(Gismondi) ; and Zoroastro, a Persian ma- 
gician and friend of Orlando (B.), Signor 
Montagnano. Published by Walsh (Lon- 
don, 1733) ; edition by Chrysander, for 
the Handel - Gesellschaft (Leipsic, 1881). 
—Chrysander, Handel, II., 252 ; Rockstro, 
Handel, 180 ; Schoelcher, Handel, 122 ; 
Marshall, Handel, 87 ; Burney, iv. 362 ; 
id., Handel Commemoration, 49 ; Grove, i. 
319 ; iv. 267. 

ORLANDO GENEROSO, Italian opera, 
text by Hortensio Mauro, music by Steffani, 
first represented in Brunswick in 1696. 
Other Italian operas on Tasso's hero. La paz- 
zia d' Orlando, by Giacomo Griffino, Lodi, 
1692 ; Orlando, by Steffani, text by Mauro, 
Brunswick, 1696 ; by Domenico Scarlatti, 
on Sigismondo Capeci's text, Rome, 1711 ; 



Orlando, by Maurizio Cacciati, about 1710 ; 
Orlando furioso, by Ristori, on Braccioli's 
text, Venice, 1713 ; Same text, music by 
Vivaldi, ib., 1714 ; Same text, music by An- 
tonio Bioni, Baden, 1725, Breslau, 1725 ; 
by Giacomo Macari, Venice, 1727 ; II nuovo 
Orlando, by Niccolo Picciuui, Naples, 1763; 
Le pazzie d' Orlando, by Pietro Gugliemi, 
London, 1771 ; by Pasquale Anfossi (?), Vien- 
na, June 19, 1877 ; Ritter Roland, by Haydn, 
on Nuuziato Porta's text, Eszterhaz, 1782, 
Presburg, 1787, Dresden, 1792 ; Orlando 
furioso, by Agostino Lofifredo, Naples, 1831 ; 
and Orlando, German opera, by Fr. Adami, 
Schwerin, Jan. 1, 1848. See Roland. 

OR LET THE MERRY BELLS, aria of 
L' Allegro, for soprano or tenor, in D ma- 
jor, with accompaniment of two violins and 
bass, in Handel's L' AUegi'o, il Pensieroso, 
ed il Moderato, Part I, No. 26. 

ORLOWSKI, ANTONI, born in Warsaw 
in 1811 (?), still Hving (?), 1890. Violinist, 
pupil at the Conservatorium, Warsaw, of 
Bielawski, and in composition of Eisner ; 
won in 1823 the first prizes for violin and 
pianoforte. After 1827 he passed some 
time in Germany, and in 1830 went to 
Paris, where he studied under Lesueur ; then 
settled at Rouen, where he conducted the 
theatre orchestra and the philharmonic so- 
ciety. Works : Le mari de circonstauce, 
opera, Rouen, 1834 ; The Invasion of Sjjain 
by the Moors, ballet, Warsaw, 1827 ; Quar- 
tet for pianoforte and strings ; Trio for do. ; 
Sonata for jiianoforte and violin ; Duo for 
do. ; Polonaises, rondos, caprices, etc., for 
pianoforte. — Fetis ; Sowiuski. 

ORPH^E ET EURIDICE, French opera 
in three acts, text by Moline, translated from 
Calzabigi, music by Gluck, first represented 
at the Acadcmie Royale de Musique, Paris, 
Aug. 2, 1774. The role of Orphee, which 
had been written for a contralto, was trans- 
posed for a high tenor, six measures were 
added to his first song in the infernal re- 
gions, three to his second, three to the "Che 
faro senza Euridice," and one to the chorus 
of the happy shades ; " Torna o bella al tuo 



49 



orphEe 



consorte ; " and the symphonic description 
at Orphee's entrance to the Elysian Fields 
was reinstrumented. The new numbers in- 
cluded : Amour's first song, " Si les doux 
accords de ta lyre ; " that of Euridice with 
chorus, " Get asile aimable et tranquille ; " 
the aria di bravura inserted for Legros, 
" L'esjjoir renait dans mon ame," taken 
from Bertoni's Tancredi (Venice, 1778) ; 
and several new airs for the ballet. The 
French edition, which was played many 




1 ^. \s( y : ' 




^^ 



Hastreiter, as Orpheus. 

years at the Acadumie, was engraved with 
many errors, and coiTections by an unknown 
hand. Act I. presents Orphee's lament 
over Euridice's tomb, and the entrance of 
Amour, who brings to Orphoe permission 
from the gods to seek her in Hades. Act 
IL Orphoe in Pluto's realms, where he re- 
covers Euridice. Act IH. Their journey 
to the upi^er regions, when Orphee, turn- 
ing to see if Euridice follows, loses her ; 
Amour appears and aids Orphee in recov- 
ering her a second time, and Eui-idice re- 
turns to the world amid the rejoicing of 
nymphs and shepherds assembled in the 



Temple of Love. The opera ends with a 
chaconne. The second act, in which the 
plaintive and ethereal songs of Orphi'e are 
most effectively contrasted with the gro- 
tesque and wild music of the furies and de- 
mons, is a masterpiece. Original cast : 

Orphee M. Legros. 

Euridice Mile Sophie Arnould. 

Amour Mile Eosalie. 

This opera was given at the Acadt'mie 
nearly every year from 1774 till 1833, and 
again in 1848, receiving 297 representa- 
tions. When Adolphe Nourrit sang the 
part of Orphue he substituted the air, " O 
transport, 6 desordre extreme," from £cho 
et Narcisse, for the aria di bravura in Act 
L This opera was given in Berlin, April 
20, 1808 ; in Stockholm in 1815 ; and again 
in Berlin, German translation by G. D. 
Sander, Oct. 15, 1818. It was represented 
in Weimar under Liszt's direction, on the 
birthday of the Grossfiirstin Marie Pau- 
lowna, Feb. 16, 1854, for which perform- 
ance Liszt, who admired this work greatly, 
wrote his symphonic poem, Orpheus. The 
opera was revived at the Theatre Lj'riquo, 
Paris, Nov. 18, 1859, with the score revised 
by Berlioz. It was given at Covent Garden, 
London, in Italian, with Mme Viardot as 
Orjiht'e and Mme Sax as Euridice, June 27, 
1860. It was first represented in New York 
with i\Ime Vestvali as Orphee, May 27, 1863 ; 
and was given there hj the American Opera 
Company, at the Academy of Jlusic, in Eng- 
lish, Jan. 8, 1886, with Mme Helene Hast- 
reiter as Orpheus and Miss Emma Juch as 
Euridice. Gluck dedicated the score to the 
Queen. It was published by Pacini (Paris, 
1774). Editions by Mme V. Launer (Vas- 
sal, Paris, 1774) ; by Carl Ivlage (Schles- 
inger, Berlin, 1818) ; by Berlioz (Paris, 
1859) ; by Alfred DOrffel (Gustav Heinze, 
Leipsic) ; by F. Brissler (Peters, Leip- 
sic) ; and by Sh" Charles Halle, translation 
by Henry F. Chorley (Chappell & Co., Lon- 
don). — Clement et Larousse, 502 ; Lajarte, 
i. 278 ; Liszt, Gesammelte Schriften, iii. 1 ; 



60 



ORPHEUS 



Berlioz, A travers chants, iii. ; Schmid, Bit- 
ter von Gluck, 223 ; Marx, Gluck uud die 
Oper, i. 291-329 ; ii. 13i ; Eeissmann, 
Gluck, 106 ; Bitter, Reform der Oper durcli 
Gluck, 214 ; Desuoiresterres, Gluck et Pic- 
ciuni, iii. ; Naumann, Deutsche Toudichter, 
106 ; Jahn, Mozart, ii. 232 ; Hauslick, Mo- 
derne Oper, 3 ; Fetis, iv. 31 ; Favart, MC- 
moires et correspoudance Utteraires (Paris, 
1808), ii. 113 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de Paris 
(1859), 385 ; "Waldersee, Sammlung mus. 
Vortriige, iv. 272 ; Naumann (Ouseley), ii. 
830 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., x. 525 ; xx. 675 ; 
Athenreum (1860), i. 58 ; ii. 33 ; Ki-ehbiel, 
Review (1885-86), 105. 

ORPHEUS, symphonic poem for orches- 
tra, by Liszt, op. 4, No. 4, first performed 
at a rein-esentation of Gluck's Orphee, in 
Weimar, Feb. 16, 1854. It was first given 
at a concert in Weimar in November, 1854. 
Published by Breitkopf & Hartel (Leipsic, 
1856), also by Schuberth (Leipsic). Ar- 1 
ranged for two pianofortes by the composer, 
and for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello by 
Saint-SaOns, Breitkopf & Hartel (Leipsic, 
1887).— Pohl, Liszt, 221 ; Revue et Gaz. \ 
mus. de Paris (1855), 352. 

ORPHEUS' SELF MAY HEAVE HIS 
HEAD, soprano aria of L' Allegro, in G 
major, with accompaniment of strings com- 
plete, in Handel's L' Allegro, il Pensieroso, 
ed il Moderato, Part H., No. 38. 

OESINI, ALESSANDRO, born in Rome, 
Jan. 24, 1842, still Uving, 1890. Dramatic 
and church composer, pupil of Mariano 
Astolfi, Ricci, Raimoudi, and Muti Papaz- 
zurri. After having conducted various 
orchestras in Italy, he returned to Rome, 
was elected member of the Accademia di 
Sta. Cecilia, and in 1870 became its libra- 
rian, and in 1873 professor of vocal music. 
Works : 5 operas, not performed ; La mo- 
dista alia corte, ballet, Rome, 1865, and 7 
other ballets. Lamberto di Pavia, cantata, 
1864 ; n genio di Roma, do., 1870 ; Can- 
tata for the inauguration of the monument 
to Cavour, Turin, 1873 ; Ave Maria alia 
Palestrina ; Benedictus ; Inuo della Pente- 



eoste, chorus for female voices ; Salve del 
mar, o Stella, with various instruments ; 
several pieces for orchestra ; 12 Etudes 
d'harmonie pratique. — Fetis, Supplement, 
ii. 288. 

ORSINI, ANTONIO, born at Naples, 
June 13, 1843, still living, 1890. Pianist, 
pupil of Autoine Coop and in theory of 
Baron Staifa ; appeared with success as a 
virtuoso in his native city, in Rome, Paris, 
and London. Works : Benvenuto Cellini, 
opera, Naples, 1875 ; Fughe per quattro 
voci. He published also : Norme per ap- 
prendere la composizione, etc., and Schema 
di un indirizzo all' arte del canto. — Futis, 
Sujjplement, ii. 288. 

ORSUCCI, POMPEO, born at Lucca, 
May 21, 1665, time of death not known. 
Church composer, dean of the collegiate 
church of San Michele in Foro, Lucca. He 
was considered one of the most able and 
learned composers of sacred music ; his 
works are stUl performed and admired in 
the churches of his native city. Works : 
Missa in pastorale ; 2 Vexilla for 2 choruses ; 
Pater noster for 2 voices ; Hymn to the 
Trinity, do. ; Te Deums, hymns, motets, 
psalms, litanies, etc.— Futis, Supplement, ii. 
288. 

ORTLIEB, EDUARD, born at Stuttgart, 
drowned near there in 1861. Church com- 
poser, pastor at Drakenstein. Works : Mass 
for 4 voices with organ and small orchestra, 
op. 1 ; 2 masses for 4 voices and orchestra, 
op. 5 and 8 ; Mass for 4 voices and organ, 
op. G ; Requiem for 3 voices and organ. 
—Mendel. 

ORTO, GIOVANNI DE (Jean Du Jardin, 
de Horto), contrapuntist of the IGth cen- 
tury. Nothing is known of his life, but he 
was probably a Belgian by birth. Works : 
Misse de Orto, containing 5 masses ; Domi- 
nicalis, Jay j)ris amours, Lomme ai'me, La 
' belle se sied ; Petite Camusette (Venice, 
1505) ; Kyrie of a mass in Fragmenta mis- 
sarum(ib., 1509); Lamentation of Jeremiah 
(in Lamentationum Jeremia; prophetic liber 
primus, ib., 1506) ; Ave Maria for 4 voices, 



61 



OETOLAN 



and 11 cbausons for do. (in Harmonice mu- 
sices odhecaton, Venice, 1500-1) ; Masses, 
8ongs, and motets in manuscript. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Riemann. 

ORTOL.VN, EUGf:NE, born in Paris, 
April 1, 1824, still living, 1890. Dramatic 
composer, pupil of Berton and Haluvy at the 
Conservatoire, whUe studying law at tlio 
same time ; won tbe second grand pris in 
1845, and after taking bis degree as doctor, 
entered tbe ministry of foreign affairs. L. 
of Honour ; Orders of Leopold and Stanislas. 
"Works : Lisette, opera-comique, Tbeatre 
Lyrique, 1855 ; La momie de Eoscoco, 
oiseretta, Boufifes Parisiens, 1857 ; Tobie, 
oratorio, Versailles, 1867 ; Sympbouic mu- 
sic, and vocal melodies. — Futis, Supplement, 
ii. 289. 

ORTOL.\NI, AXGELO, born at Siena, 
April 11, 1788, died tbere, April 18, 1871. 
Pupil of Ritterfels, Deifebo Romagnoli, and 
of Ettore Romagnoli, wboni be succeeded 
as maestro di cappella at Santa Maria di 
Proveuzauo, in 1838. Works : R giorno 
delle nozze, opera (1835-3G ?), not per- 
formed ; L' Arte del contrappunto, etc., 
published under tbe pseudonym Lotario 
Gauleno (Siena, 1828). He published also 
7 volumes of comedies and dramas (ib., 
1839), and Memoirs on tbe history of Siena 
(ib., 1842).— Fetis, Supplement, ii. 289. 

ORTOL.A.NI, TERENZIO, born at Pesaro, 
Ancona, Sept. 4, 1799, died tbere, April 7, 
1875. Church composer, pupil of Ripini 
in harmony and counterpoint, then at tbe 
Liceo, Bologna, of Padre Mattel. He was 
maestro di cappella successively in several 
cities in tbe Marches and tbe Romagna, and 
then at the cathedral of Pesaro. "Works : 
La pastorella delle Alpi, opera buflfa, Naples, 
1830 ; Many masses, psahns, and other 
church music ; 10 fugues for 8 voices and 
figui-ed bass ; 100 fugues for 2 to 4 voices ; 
10 cuxular canons. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 
200. 

O RUDDIER THAN THE CHERRY, 
bass aria of Polyphemus, in G minor, with 
accompaniment of flute, two violins, and 




continue, in Handel's Acts and Galatea, Act 
H. 

O SANCTISSniA, O PURISSBIA, a 
hymn to tbe Virgin Mary, set to a melody 
called tbe Sicilian Mariners' hymn, a tune 
which was popular in Non-conformist chap- 
els in England. It is still sung by tbe gon- 
doliers in Venice, especially on St. Mary's 
Day. The air, Sicilian Mariners', is included 
in Miller's " Dr. "Watts's Psalms and Hymns 
set to Music " (London, 1800). — Grove, iii. 
491. 

OSBORNE, GEORGE ALEXANDER, 
-■: born at Limerick, Ire- 

land, Sept. 24, 1806, 
still living, 1800. Pi- 
anist, j^upd in Paris 
(1826) of Pixis and 
Fetis ; later studied 
under Kalkbrenner, 
and was intimately ac- 
quainted with Chopin 
and Berlioz. In 1843 
be settled in London and became a pojjular 
teacher. "Works : Duets for pianoforte and 
violiu (with de Beriot) ; Violin quartets ; 
Pluie des Perles and other pianoforte mu- 
sic including rondos, fantasias, and varia- 
tions. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Grove. 

OSGOOD, GEORGE LAURIE, born of 
American parentage, in Chelsea, Massa- 
chusetts, April 3, 1844, still Hving, 1890. 
Tenor singer, pupil in 1800-62, on the organ 
and in counterpoint, of J. K. Paine in Cam- 
bridge ; in 1866 went to Europe and stud- 
ied, in Berlin, composition under Haupt and 
singing under Ferdinand Sieber ; in Halle 
tbe German Lied under Robert Franz ; and 
in Milan Italian vocal methods under Lam- 
perti. After a successful concert tour in 
Germany, he returned to America in 1872 ; 
he made a concert tour with Theodore 
Thomas in 1872-73, singing with success in 
tbe principal cities of tbe United States. 
He then settled in Boston as a teacher of 
singing and tenor singer. Since 1875 be 
has conducted tbe Boylston Club, and since 
1882 be has been choir master of Emman- 



OSSIAN 



uel Church, Boston. His compositions are 
mostly songs, some of which have had a 
large sale. 

O SINK' HEKNIEDER, NACHT DER 
LIEBE. See Tristan und Isolde. 

O SOMMO CARLO. See Ernmn. 

OSSIAN, ou les bardes, French opera in 
three acts, text by Dercy and Deschamps, 
music by Lesueur, first represented at the 
Academic Royale de Musique, Paris, July 
10, 1804. The scene is in Caledonia ; the 
story that of Ossian, the warrior-bard, son 
of Fingal. One of the best numbers of the 
opera is the dream in which Ossian believes 
that he sees the future heroes of his race. 
Original cast : 

Ossian M. Lainez. 

Hydala M. Lainez. 

Duntalmo M. Cheron. 

Rosmala Mile Armand. 

The severe and plagal harmonies employed 
caused one critic to say that at church Le- 
sueur was "un musicien de theatre et au 
theatre un musicien d'eglise." It was the 
most successful opera represented at the 
Academie since Sacchini's OEdipe a Colone, 
and it was jjlayed from 1806 till 1811, re- 
vived on May 31, 1814 and 1815, and on 
Sept. 29, 1817, receiving G5 representations. 
This work gave the new name. Academic 
Imperiale, to the Opera-house. Napoleon, 
who was fond of Ossian 's poems, greatly 
admired Les bardes, and gave to its com- 
poser the order of the Legion of Honour 
and a gold snuflf-box. The score was dedi- 
cated to Napoleon and published by Janet 
(Paris, 1805). Same subject, Ossian's Harfe, 
Danish opera, text by Baggesen, music by 
Kunzen, Copenhagen, 1709. — Clement et 
Larousse, 85 ; Clement, Mus. cel^bres, 241 ; 
Lajarte, ii. 34. 

OSTER-ORATORimi (Easter Oratorio), 
by John Sebastian Bach. The author of 
the text, which is very meagre, is unknown. 
It is supposed that Bach wrote this oratorio 
in 1736, and that it was first sung on Easter 
Sunday, April 6, 1738. It describes John, 



Peter, and the two Marj-s at the tomb of 
Christ after the Resurrection, expressing 
their longing to their Lord and rejoicing 
that he lives again. The closing chorus 
and the Sanetus of the B minor mass are 
similar in construction. Both are written 
in the form of the French ouverture, and 
both are of two sections with a closing 
movement in three-eighth time following 
one in common time, with the change ef- 
fected in the same manner. The form of 
the numbers in this work shows Bach's ma- 
ture hand. Characters rejiresented : Maria 
Jacobi (S.) ; Maria Magdelena (A.) ; Petrus 
(T.) ; and Johannes (B.). L Sinfonia ; II. 
Adagio ; HI. Duetto, tenor and bass with 
chorus, Kommt, eilet und laufet ; IV. Alto 
recitative, O kalter Manner Sinn ; V. So- 
prano aria, Seele, deine Specereien ; VI. 
Tenor, bass, and alto recitative Hier ist 
die Gruft ; VI. Tenor aria, Sanfte soil mein 
Todeskummer ; VII. Soprano and alto rec- 
itative In dessen Seufzen ; VIII. Alto aria, 
Saget, saget mir geschwinde ; IX. Bass rec- 
itative, Wir sind erfreut ; X. Chorus, Preis 
und Dank bleibe, Herr, dein Lobgesang. 
Edited by Wilhelm Rust for the Bach- 
gesellschaft (year XXII., Leipsic, 1871). 
— Spitta, Bach, ii. 421, 818 ; Spitta, Bach 
(Bell), ii. 590, 714. 

O StJSSE NACHT! EWGE NACHT. 
See Tristan und Isolde. 

OTELLO, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Berio, after Shakespeare, music by 
Rossini, first represented at the Teatro del 
Fondo, Naples, Dec. 4, 1816. The libretto 
is very inferior. Many of the best scenes 
of the tragedy are omitted, lago is a subor- 
dinate character, and is converted into a 
rejected lover of Desdemona, the charac- 
ters of Cassio and Roderigo are blended 
into one, and the nobility of Otello's nature 
is suppressed. Desdemona falls by Otello's 
dagger, with which the Moor kills himself 
afterwards. In this work, which is the sec- 
ond of his serious operas, Rossini continued 
the reforms begun in Tancredi. The or- 
chestration is richer than in any of his pre- 



OTELLO 



vious compositions, and the liberal treat- 
ment of the horns and clarinets occasioned 
much discussion. The recitatives are ac- 
companied by the orchestra instead of the 
pianoforte, as was the custom in Italy at 
that time, although this instrument had 
been banished from the orchestra in France 
by Gluck in 1774, and stiU earlier in Ger- 
many. Original cast : 

Otello (T.) Signor Davide. 

Eoderigo (T.) Signor Nozzare. 

lago (T.) Signor BenedettL 

Desdemona (S.) illle Colbran. 

This opera was first represented in Leijjsic 
in 1820, in Berlin, Jan. IG, 1821, at the 
Bang's Theatre, London, with Camporese 
as Desdemona, and Cuiioni as OteUo, May 
16, 1822 ; and in Dresden in 1834. It was 
first given in New York, Feb. 27, 1825, with 
Manuel Garcia as Otello ; his son, Manuel, 
lago ; Signora Garcia, Desdemona ; Signor- 
ina Marietta Gar-cia (Malibran), Emilia; and 
Mme Barbieri, Koderigo. Otello was a 
favorite role of Tamberlik and of Garcia. 



with great success by Pasta, Grisi, and 
Patti, OteUo by Kubini and Tamberlik, and 




Garcia, as Otetlo. 



The latter acted with such passion that his 
daughter, who sang Desdemona with great 
eflfect, was afraid that he would actually 
kiU her. Desdemona has also been sung 




Pasia, as Desdemona. 

lago by Tamburini and Ronconi. Otello 
was translated into French by Rover and 
Waez, and given at the Academie Royale 
de Musique, Paris, Sept. 2, 1844, with 
Mme Stolz as Desdemona and Duprez as 
Otello. Published by Diabelli (Vienna) ; 
by Schott (Mainz) ; and by Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel (Leipsic). — Edwards, Rossini, 152 ; 
Escudier, Rossini, 53, 69 ; Clement et La- 
rousse, 505 ; Edwards, Lyrical Drama, ii. 
22 ; Edwards, Hist. Opera, ii. 157 ; Vie de 
Rossini par un dilettante, 137 ; Hanslick, 
Modeme Oper, 107; Grove, iii. 167; 
Ebers, Seven Years of the King's Theatre, 
164 ; Allgem. Mus. Zeitg., xxii. 252, 344, 
785, 801 ; -triii. 121 ; xxvi. 667 ; Berliner 
Mus. Zeitg., L 429 ; u. 4, 13 ; iii. 133 ; 
Harmonicon (1823), 79. 

OTELLO, Italian opera in four acts, text 
by Arrigo Boito, after Shakespeare, music 



54 



O TEMERAIIIO 



by Verdi, first represented at La Scala, 
Milan, Feb. 5, 1887, with great success. 
Original cast : 

Otello (T.) Signor Tamagno. 

lago (Bar.) Signor Maurel. 

Cassio (T.) Signor Paroli. 

Eoderigo (T.) Signor Fomari. 

Lodovico (B.) Signor Navanini. 

Desdemona (S.) Signora Pantaleoni. 

It was first given in New York at the Acad- 
emy of Music under Signor Campanini's di- 
rection, April IG, 1888, with Signor Marconi 
as OteUo ; Signor Galassi, lago ; Signoi-a 




Tamagno. 

Tetrazzini, Desdemona ; and Signora Scal- 
chi, Emilia. Otello was first represented in 
London, May 18, 1889. Published by Ri- 
cordi (Milan, 1887).— Signale (1887), "225, 
257 ; Mus. Wochenblatt (1887), 91 ; Neue 
Zeitschr. (1887), 71, 125 ; Krehbiel, Review 
(1887-88), 113 ; Athensum (1889), i. 

O TEMERARIO ARBACE, recitative and 
aria (Per quel paterno amplesso) for so- 
prano with orchestra, in B, text from Me- 
tastasio's Artaserse, music by Mozart, com- 
posed in Milan in 1770. Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie vi.. No. 7. 
— Kuchel, Verzeichniss, No. 79. 

O TERRA, ADDIO. See Aida. 

OTHMAYR (Othmayer), KASPAR, born 
at Amberg, Palatinate, about 1519, died at 
Nuremberg, Feb. 4, 1553. Vocal composer, 



was rector at the convent school in Heidel- 
berg, 1545, canon of St. Gumbert, in Ans- 
pach, in 1547, and provost at Anspach in 
1548. Works : 1 book of Tricinia ; do. of 
Bicinia sacra ; Ode on the death of Luther ; 
2 Latin motets ; Many songs in Georg For- 
ster's collections. — Mendel ; Riemann ; Mo- 
natsh. f. Musikgesch., vii. 163 ; viii. 10, 33. 

OTHO \1SC0NTI, grand opera in three 
acts, by Frederic Grant Gleason, op. 7. 
The work is in MS., but selections have 
been published by W. A Pond & Co. (New 
York). 

O THOU THAT TELLEST, alto aria 
and choms in D major, with accompani- 
ment of violins in unison, and continuo, in 
Handel's Messiah, Nos. 8 and 9. 

6 TOI QUI M'ABANDONNE. See 
Pro2)hHe. 

OTS, CHARLES, born at Brussels about 
1775, died there in 1845. Violinist, passed 
the greater part of his life at Ghent, teach- 
ing music, and returned when quite old to 
his native city. Works : La ruse villageoise, 
opera-comique, Ghent, 1796 ; Jean Second, 
ou Charles-Quint dans les murs de Gand, 
do., ib., 1816 ; David Teniers, do., ib., 1818. 
Dixit Dominus, Laudate pueri, Tantum 
ergo, O salutaris, with orchestra, and other 
church music. — Fetis. 

OTTANI, BERNARDINO, born at Bo- 
logna in 1735, died at Turin, April (Oct. ?) 
26, 1827. Dramatic and church composer, 
pujiil of Padre Martini. He was only 
twenty-two when appointed maestro di cap- 
pella at S. Giovanni in Monte ; three years 
later he acted in the same capacity at the 
Hungarian College, and in 1779 was of- 
fered a similar position at the cathedral in 
Turin. Works — Operas : Amor senza ma- 
lizia, Venice, 1767 ; H maestro, Munich, 
1768 ; L' isola di Calipso, Turin, 1777 ; Ca- 
tone in Utica, Naples, 1777 ; La sprezzante 
abbandonata, Rome, 1778 ; Le nozze della 
citta, Florence, 1778 ; L' industria amorosa, 
Venice, 1778 ; Fatima, Turin, 1779 ; Di- 
done, ib., 1780 ; Arminio, ib., 1781 ; Le 
Amazzoni, ib., 1784 ; La clemenza di Tito, 



65 



OTTO 




ib., 1789. Forty-sis masses ; Vespers, 
psalms, litanies, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 
OTTO, (EKNST) JULIUS, born at KO- 
/'^ ■'^^v nigsteiu, S a x o n j' , 

/ ^ Sept. 1, 1804, died 

a"^*^ ^P. at Dresden, March 5, 
1877. Yocal com- 
poser, pupil of Wein- 
lig and Uber, at the 
Kreuzscbule in Dres- 
den. He was in- 
structor several years 
at Bloebmann's Music 
Institute, and in 1830-75 cantor at the 
Kreuzkirche, also for a long time music di- 
rector of the i^riucipal Lutheran churches, 
and conductor of the Liedertafel. Works : 
Das Schloss am Rhein, opera, Dresden, 
1838 ; Der Schlosser von Augsburg, do., 
Augsburg. Oratorios : Hiob, Bitterfeld, 
18-10 ; Des Heilands letzte "Worte, Dresden, 
1844 ; Die Feier der Erlosten am Grabe 
Jesu. Masses for male voices, motets, 
hymns, and other church music ; Festival 
cantatas ; Cyclus for male chorus ; Many 
choruses for male voices in the collection 
"Ernst und Scherz." His brother Franz 
(1809-41) is also favourably known as com- 
poser of choruses for male voices, and of 
songs. He published 12 dances for orches- 
tra. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

OTTONE, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Nicola Haym, music by Handel, first 
represented at the King's Theatre, London, 
Jan. 12, 1723. It was written in 1722. It 
contains a greater number of beautiful songs 
than almost any opera of the period. The 
subject is Otho I. the Great, King of Ger- 
many (936-973) and Emperor of Rome 
(962). Scene, Rome. Original cast : Ot- 
tone. King of Germany and lover of Teo- 
fane (C), Signor Senesino ; Teofane, daugh- 
ter of the Roman commander of the Orient 
(S.), Signora Francesca Cuzzoni, her first 
appearance in Loudon ; Emireno, corsair, 
called Basilio, brother of Teofane (B.), Si- 
gnor Boschi ; Gismonda, widow of Beren- 
gario, tyrant of Italy (S.), Signora Duras- 



tanti ; Adelberto, sou of Gismonda (A.), 
Signor Berenstadt ; and Matilda, Ottone's 
cousin, betrothed to Adelberto (S.), Mi's. 
Anastasia Robinson. This ojjera became 
popular at once, and the gavotte at the end 
of the overture, Burney tells us, was " played 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
land on every possible instrument, from the 
organ to the salt-box," an instrument used 
by clowns and j ugglers. It was often played 
for a hornpipe or country-dance. In the 
original autograph, in Buckingham Palace, 
the overture is of four movements : An in- 
troduction, and two fugues, between which 
is the gavotte ; but Handel afterwards sub- 
stituted the second fugue for the first, 
closing with the gavotte, in which form the 
overture was first printed with the opera 
by Walsh (London, 1723). The first fugue 
Handel transposed a semitone lower and 
made it the second movement in the over- 
ture to Giulio Cesare (1724). The sinfonia 
in Act I. was afterward used by Handel for 
his sixth oboe concerto. The aria, " Af- 
fanni del peusier," was sung by Signor Pac- 
chierotti at the Handel Commemoration, 
May 27, 1784. Full score edited by Chry- 
sander for the Hiindelgesellschaft (Leipsic, 
1881). Same subject, Italian oijeras, Ot- 
tone in Italia, text by Diani, music by Marco 
Rosetti, Munich, 1670 ; Ottone il Grande, 
text by Silvani, music by Paolo Biego, Ven- 
ice, 1688 ; Ottone, text by Roberti, music 
by Pollarollo, Venice, 1694 ; Ottone in Italia, 
text by Lalli, music by Vivaldi, ib., 1713 ; 
Ottone amante, text by Boccardi, music by 
Luigi Tavelli, ib., 1726; and Ottone, text 
by Salvi, music by Gennaro d' Alessandri, 
Naples, 1740. — Chrysander, Handel, ii. 88 ; 
Rockstro, Handel, 138 ; Schcclcher, Handel, 
69 ; MarshaU, Handel, 71 ; Burney, iv. 286 ; 
Mainwaring, Memoirs ; Burney, Handel 
Commemoration, 63. 

OUDRID Y SEGURA, CRISTOBAL, 
born at Badajos, Feb. 7, 1829, died at Ma- 
drid, March 15, 1877. Dramatic composer ; 
went to Madrid in 1844, and began to pro- 
duce some orchestral compositions in 1849 ; 



66 



OITI 



soon won reputation as an orchestra con- 
ductor in several theatres, became chorus- 
master at the Italian opera in 1867, maes- 
tro de capilla in 1872 at the Teatro de la 
Zarzuela, and later at the Teatro del Ori- 
ente. He wrote more than thirty zarzue- 
las, given at Madrid, some of them con- 
jointly with Barbieri, Gaztambide, Eogel, 
Caballero, and others. The last one, El 
consejo de los diez, was given after his 
death, 1884— Futis, Sui^ploment, ii. 290. 

OUI, C'EST MOI QUI VIENS ICI. See 
Ambasmdrice. 

OUI, VOUS L'AKRACHEZ A MON 
AME. See GuiUaume Tell. 

OLT JE VAIS ? See Huguenots. 

Oil PEUT-ON ETRE MIEUX QUAU 
SEIN DE SA FAjMILLE? (Where can 
one be better off than in the bosom of one's 
family ?), quartet in the oj^era of Lucile, by 
Gretry, represented at the Italiens, Paris, 
Jan. 5, 17G9. It was sung at Versailles, 
July 15, 1789 ; at Carlton House, at the iirst 
visit of George III. and Queen Charlotte to 
the Prince of Wales, Feb. 3, 1795 ; and at 
Korythnia, on the retreat from Moscow, 
Nov. 15, 1812. It was adopted by the 
Bourbons after the Restoration as a na- 
tional air. — Grove, ii. 61G ; Clement et La- 
rousse, 412 ; Larousse ; Masson, La lyre 
franjaise. 

OURS, L' (The Bear), symphony for or- 
chestra in C, by Haydn, written in 1786 for 
the society of the " Loge Olympique," in 
Paris. It got its name from the finale, 
which begins with a motive :i la cornemuse 
(bagpijies), resembling a bear-dance. I. 
Vivace assai ; II. Allegretto ; HI. Menu- 
etto ; IV. Finale : Vivace assai. Published 
by Andre, Haydn Sinfonien, No. 2 (Offen- 
bach am Main). — Grove ; Reissmann, Haydn, 
168. 

OUSELEY, Rev. Sir FREDERICK AR- 
THUR GORE, Bart., born in London Aug. 
12, 1825, died at Hereford, April 6, 1889. 
Pianist and organist, son of Sir William 
Ouseley, Bart., to whose title he succeeded 
in 18i-l. He early showed musical ability, 




and composed an opera when only eight 
years old ; was educated at Chi-ist Church, 
Oxford (B.A., 1846; 
M.A., 1849) ; was or- 
dained in 1849, and 
in 1849-51 was curate 
at St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge. In 1855 he 
succeeded Sir Henry 
R. Bishop as profes- 
sor there, and in the 
same year was ap- 
pointed in-ecentor of Hereford Cathedral; 
in 1856 he became vicar of St. Michael's, 
and warden of St. Michael's College, 
Tenbury. He induced Oxford to confer 
degrees in music, which the university had 
not done before 1879. Mus. Bac, Oxford, 
1850; Mus. Doc, ib., 1854; Mus. Doc, 
Cambridge, 1862 ; Hon. LL.D., ib., 1883 ; 
do., Edinburgh, 1885. Works : L' isola di- 
sabitata, opera ; St. Polycarp, oratorio, 1855 ; 
Hagar, do., 1873 ; The Lord is the true 
God, cantata; 11 sei-vices ; 70 anthems; 
About 35 preludes and fugues for the 
organ ; Andantes ; Sonatas ; Glees and part- 
songs ; Songs with pianoforte accompani- 
ment ; Sestet and two quartets for strings ; 
Pianoforte music. He was author also of 
treatises on harmony, on counterpoint and 
fugue, and on form and general composi- 
tion ; edited Orlando Gibbons's sacred 
works ; Cathedral services (1853) ; Aughcan 
Psalter Chants (1872), with E. G. Monk ; con- 
tributed articles to Grove's Dictionary of 
Music and Musicians ; and edited Naumann's 
History of Music (English translation by F. 
Praeger). — Grove ; Fetis ; do.. Supplement, 
ii. 291 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 322 ; Riemann. 

OU VAS-TU, PAUTRE GONDOLIER? 
See Zampa. 

OUVERTUEA DI BALLO (Overture to 
the Ball), for orchestra, iu E-flat, by Arthur 
S. Sullivan, first performed at the Birming- 
ham (England) Festival, Aug. 29, 1870. It 
is written in graceful and melodious dance- 
rhythms. Published by Stanley Lucas (Lon- 
don, 1869).— Athenfeum (1870), ii. 315. 



OUYERTURE 



OUVEETUEE FUE HAEMONIE-inj- 
SIK (Overture for Wind-instruments), in C, 
by Mendelssohn, op. 24. It was written in 
1826. Andante con moto, Allegro vivace. 
Published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mendels- 
sohn Werke, Serie vii., No. 29. — Hanslick, 
Concertwesen in Wien, ii. 419. 

OmTSKTURE, SCHERZO, UND FI- 
NALE, for orchestra, by Schumann, op. 52, 
first performed at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, 
Dec. G, 1841. I. Ouvertiire, Andante con 
moto in E minor, Allegro in E ; II. Scher- 
zo, Vivo in C-sharp minor ; HI. Finale, Al- 
legro molto vivace in E. The work is in the 
form of a symi>hony, but Schumann would 
not give it this name because it had no 
slow movement. He revised the finale in 
1845. This work was first given in Dres- 
den, Dec. 4, 1845 ; by the Philharmonic of 
London, April 4, 1853 ; and by that of New 
York in the season of 1857-58. Published 
by Kistner (Leipsic, 1854). Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Schumann W'erke, Serie ii., No. 
1. — AUgem. mus. Zeitg., xliii. 1100 ; xlvii. 
928 ; Maitland, Schumann, 78. 

OLTERTUKE TRIOMPHALE, for or- 
chestra, by Tschaikow.ski, op. 15. Its sub- 
ject is the national hymn of Denmark. Pub- 
lished by Jiirgenson (Moscow, between 1874- 
79). AiTangeel for pianoforte for four hands. 

OMUERO Y RAMOS, IGNACIO, born 
at Madrid, Feb. 1, 1828, still Hving, 1890. 
Organist, jsupil of one Gimeno, and of Lo- 
desma ; in 1858 he was appointed assistant 
professor at the Conservatorio. Works : 
Fernando Cortcz, lyric drama, Madrid, 
1848 ; La Cabana, zarzucla, ib., 1848 ; 
About 200 compositions for the church. 
— Fetis, Sujjplement, ii. 291. 

OVER THE DARK BLUE WATERS. 
See Oberon. 

O WEINT UM SIE (Oh ! weep for those), 
cantata for soprano solo, chorus, and orches- 
tra, text from Byron's "Hebrew Melodies," 
music by Ferdinand Hiller, op. 49. Pub- 
lished by Simrock (Bonn, between 1841-44). 

OXFORD SYMPHONY, for orchestra, in 
G, by Haydu, written for and first per- 



formed under the composer's direction, 
July 7, 1791, at Oxford, where he received 
the degree of Mus. Doc. on the following 
day. This symphony is j)ublished in the 
London Philharmonic Catalogue as " Letter 
Q ; " in Rieter-Biedermanu's as No. 2 ; and 
in Peters's as No. 9. — Townsend, Haydn, 94 ; 
Pohl, Mozart und Haydn in London, ii. 148. 

OX HHNUET, THE (Die Ochsen-Meuu- 
ette), Singspiel in one act, text from Hoff- 
mann's " Le menuet du bceuf," music select- 
ed by Ignaz Seyfried from Haj'dn's works, 
first rei^reseuted in Vienna, Dec. 13, 1823. 
The play is based on a story without founda- 
tion, regarding a minuet that Haydu is said 
to have written at the request of an Hun- 
garian butcher for the wedding of his daugh- 
ter, in acknowledgment of which the com- 
poser was presented with a living ox. 
Characters represented : Joseph Haydn ; his 
niece, Therese ; Frau Barbara, the house- 
keeper ; Istock, the butcher ; Jantschi, 
Haydn's scholar ; and Eduard. Anvanged 
for the i^ianoforte by C. Burchard (Bauer, 
Dresden, 18G3). — Grove ; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xxvi. 41 ; xxxi. 791. 

OZI, fiTIENNE, born at Nimes, France, 
Dec. 9, 1754, died in Paris, Oct. 3, 1813. 
Virtuoso on the bassoon, went to Paris in 
1777, appeared in the Concerts Spirituels 
two years later, was first bassoon player in 
the royal, afterwards the imperial orchestra, 
also in the Opera orchestra, and professor 
at the Consei-vatoire. Works : 7 concertos 
for bassoon, with orchestra ; 3 symphonies 
concertantcs for clarinet and bassoon ; 24 
duos for bassoons ; 6 do. for do. or violon- 
cellos ; Airs varies for do. ; Slethod for bas- 
soon (Paris, 1800).— Fetis ; Schilling. 

O ZITTRE NICHT, METN LIEBEE 
SOHN. See Zauherflbte. 



PABST, AUGUST, born at Elberfeld, 
Prussia, May 30, 1811, died at Riga, 
July 21, 1885. Dramatic composer, 
cantor and organist at Konigsberg, where 
he was made royal music director in 1857. 



58 



PACCIIIONI 



He became afterwards director of the Con- 
servatorium at Riga. Works — Operas : Der 
Kastellan von Krakau, given at Konigsberg, 
1846 ; Unser Jobanu, ib., 1848 ; Die letzten 
Tage von Pompeji, Dresden, 1851 ; Die 
Longobarden (18C0, not given). 

PACCHIONI, ANTONIO MAEIA, born 
at Modena, July 5, 10.54, died there, July 
15, 1738. Church composer, pupil of Mur- 
zio Erculeo d' Otricoli in singing, and of 
Giovanni Maria Bononcini in counterpoint ; 
perfected his musical knowledge by the 
study of Palestrina's works. In 1G94 he 
became maestro di cajjpella at the cathe- 
dral, and in 1722 to the Duke of Modena. 
Works : Le porjjore trionfali di S. Iguazio, 
oratorio {1G78) ; La gran Matilda, do., 
Modena, 1G82 ; Motets for 4 voices (Venice, 
1687) ; Cantatas, motets for 8 voices, and 
other church music in MS., iu the ducal 
library, Modena. — Fetis ; Schilling. 

PACELLI, ASPIKILIO, born at Varci- 
ano, Italy, in 1570, died iu Warsaw, May 4, 
1623. Church composer ; was at first maes- 
tro di cajipella at the German college in 
Rome, then in the Vatican, 1602-3, and 
was called to Warsaw, in the same capacity, 
by Sigismuud III., King of Poland and 
Sweden, who caused a monument to be 
erected to his memory in the Cathedral of 
Warsaw. Works : Cantiones sacrte, for 5- 
10 voices (Frankfort, 1604) ; do. for 5 to 20 
voices (ib., 1608) ; Psalmi et motetti octo 
vocum (ib., 1607) ; Psalmi, motetti et Mag- 
nificat quatuor vocibus (ib., 1608) ; Madri- 
gali, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PACHELBEL, JOHANN, born in Nu- 
remberg, Sept. 1, 1653, died there, March 
3, 1706. Organist, with Buxtehude one of 
the immediate precursors of Bach ; pupil 
of Heinrich Schwemmer, then studied at 
Altdorf and Ratisbon, and in 1674 went 
to Vienna, where he became assistant or- 
ganist, at St. Stephen's, to Kaspar Kerl, 
which gi-eat artist naturally influenced him 
very much. In 1677 he was court organist 
at Eisenach and in 1678 organist of the 
Predigerkirche iu Erfurt, whence he was 



called to Stuttgart in 1690. The invasion 
by the French army, in 1692, caused him 
to take refuge at Gotha, where he was city 
organist until 1695, when the post of or- 
ganist, at St. Sebaldus, Nuremberg, was 
given him, in succession to Wecker. Works : 
Musikalische Sterbensgedanken, aus 4 va- 
riirten Choriilen bestehend (Erfurt, 1683) ; 
Musikalische Ergotzung, aus 6 verstimmten 
Parthien von 2 Violinen, 2 Geigen und 
Generalbass (Nuremberg, 1691) ; 78 Cho- 
rale zum Prilambuliren (ib., 1693) ; Hexa- 
chordum Apolliuis, aus 6mal variirten Arien 
(ib., 1699) ; Tabulaturbuch geisthcher Ge- 
siinge D. Martini Lutheri, etc., 160 Choral- 
Melodien mit Generalbass und kurze fu- 
gierte Vorspiele (MS., grand-ducal librarj-, 
Weimar) ; Many other vocal and instru- 
mental pieces in Franz Commer's " Musica 
sacra," and other collections. His sou and 
pupil, Wilhelm Hierouymus (born at Erfurt 
in 1685), who was organist at Wehrd, and 
from 1706 of the Jakobskirche at Nurem- 
berg, published : Musikalisches Vergniigen, 
bestehend in eiuem Praeludio, Fuga, und 
Fantasia, etc. ; Fuga in F-dur fiirs Klavier 
(Nuremberg, 1725) ; Praeludium fiir die 
Orgel (Berlin, 1726). — Doppelmeier, Von 
Niirnberger Kiiustlern, 257 ; Fetis ; Ger- 
ber ; Mattheson, Ehrenpforte ; Reissmann, 
Gesch., ii. 241 ; Riemann ; Schilling ; Win- 
terfeld, Kircheugesang, ii. 589, 626. 

PACKER, JOSEPH ADALBERT, born 
at Daubrawitz, Moravia, March 29, 1818, died 
at Gmiinden, Upper Austria, Sept. 3, 1871. 
Pianist, mostly self-taught, afterwards in 
Vienna pupil of Preyer in harmony and 
countei-point ; made successful concert tours 
through Austria and Germany, and taught 
in Vienna several years. His compositions 
for the pianoforte, consisting of nocturnes, 
caprices, etudes, variations, etc., number 
more than seventy works. — Wurzbach. 

PACINI, GIOVANNI, born in Catania, 
Sicily, Feb. 19, 1796, died at Pescia, Dec. 
6, 1867. Dramatic composer, son of a fa- 
mous tenor, who took him while a child to 
Rome, where his musical education was 



PACINI 



beguu ; then studied at Bologna under 
Marches! and Mattel, and in 1808-12 at 
Venice under Furlanetto. Educated to oc- 
cupy a position in some church choir, his 
first compositions were church music, but 
when eighteen he wrote an opera, Anuetta e 
Lucindo, which had some success at Venice ; 
and uj) to 1834 he had produced forty-two 
operas in the principal Italian cities with 
varying success. In 1825 he married Ade- 
laide Castelli, of Naples, and became maestro 
di cappella to the Empress Marie Louise, 
widow of Napoleon I. The total failure of 
his ojiera Carlo di Borgogua at Venice in 
1835 inducing him to give up com^sosition 
for a time, he went with his family to Via- 
reggio, near Lucca, where his mother lived, 
and there founded a suocessful music school, 
for which he wrote a history of music, a 
treatise on counterpoint, and one on har- 
monj'. Several of his pupils have since 
risen to eminence. The school was after- 
wards transferred to Lucca. In 1840 he 
brought out at Naples with flattering and 
deserved success his opera of Saffo, his best 
known, as it is probably his best, work. He 
married three times, and had three children 
by each wife, of whom four daughters and 
his onlv son, Luigi, survived him. He was 
musical du'ector of the music school at 
Florence, and a knight of several orders. 
In 1851 he went to Paris to superintend the 
production of his L' ultimo dc' Clodovei, a 
new version of Gli Ai-abi uelle Gallic which 
Napoleon III. had applauded at Home 
twenty-seven years before. Pacini wrote, 
besides eight}' operas, more than seventy 
masses, oratorios, and cantatas, of which 
the cantata for the Dante centenary best 
deserves mention. He was an imitator of 
Rossini, and when that master's peculiar 
style passed out of fashion, Pacini's success 
began to wane. He was a facile and melo- 
dious, but very cai'eless writer ; his knowl- 
edge of the voice and of the requirements | 
of the stage was great, and he excelled in 
writing arias to exhibit the best qualities in 
the voices of individual singers. The vari- 



ety and beauty of his cabalettas have been 
much jJiaised. During his Viareggio jse- 
riod he made quite a study of the works of 
Mozai-t, Haydn, and Beethoven, for all of 
whom he had a profound admiration, and, 
in his subsequent operas he tried his best 
to throw off his Rossini habit. 

Works : I. Operas : Annetta e Lucindo, 
Venice, 1811 ; Gli spousali de' silfi, Milan, 
1814; ; L' evacuazione del tesoro, Pisa, 1815 ; 
Rosina, Florence, 1815 ; II matrimonio per 
procura, Milan, 1815 ; II carnevale di Mi- 
lano, ib., 1815 ; Piglia il montio come viene, 
ib., 1815 ; II seguito di Ser Mercantonio (se- 
quel to Stefano Pavesi's Ser Mercantonio), 
Venice, 1815 ; L' iugenua, ib., 181G ; Dalla 
befla il disingauuo, Milan, 1817 ; La sacei- 
doiessa d' Irminsul, Trieste, 1817 ; Adelaide 
e Comminghio, Milan, 1818 ; II barone di 
Dolsheim, ib., 1818 ; La sposa fedele, ib., 
and Venice, 1819 ; H falegname di Livonia, 
Milan, 1819 ; L' ambizione delusa, ?, about 
1820 ; Atala, ?, about 1820 ; Vallace, ossia 
r eroe scozzese, Milan, Feb. 24, 1820 ; La 
schiava di Bagdad, Tuiin, 1820 ; La gio- 
ventii di Enrico V., Rome, 1821 ; Cesai-e 
nelle Gallic, ib., 1822 ; La vestale, Milan, 
Feb. 6, 1823 ; Temistocle, Lucca, 1823 ; 
Isabella ed Enrico, Milan, June 12, 1824 ; 
AlessaiiJro nell' Indie, Naj^les, 1824 ; Ama- 
zUia, ib., 1825 ; L' ultimo giorno di Pom- 
peja, Naples, Nov. 19, 1825, and Pai-is, Oct. 
2, 1830 ; La gelosia corretta, Milan, 182G ; 
Niobe, Naples, Nov. 19, 1826 ; Gli ArabineWe 
Gallie, ossia 1' ultimo de' Clodovei, Milan, 
1827, and Paris (with 7 new numbers), 
1855 ; Margherita d' Angiti, Najsles, Nov. 
19, 1827 ; I crociati in Ptolemaide, Trieste, 
about 1827 ; I cavalieri di Valenza, Milan, 
June 15, 1828 ; II talismano, ossia la terza 
crociata in Palestina, ib., June 10, 1829 ; 
Cesare in Egitto, ?, about 1830 ; I fidanzati, 
ossia il contestabile di Chester, Milan, 1830 ; 
Giovanna d' Arco, ib., March 14, 1830 ; Gi- 
anni di Calais, Naples, 1830 ; II corsaro, 
Rome, 1831 ; Ivanhoe, Venice, April, 1832 ; 
R convitato di pietra, Viareggio, 1832 ; Gli 
Elvezi, Naples, 1833 ; Ferdinando duca di 



60 



PACINI 



Valeuza, ib., 1833 ; Irene, ossia 1' assedio 
di Messina, ib., Nov. 30, 1833 ; Maria re- 
gina d' Ingbilterra, Milan, 1834:, and as 
Maria Tudor, Palermo, Feb. 11, 1843 ; Carlo 
di Borgogna, Venice, February, 1835 ; Saffo, 
Naples, Nov. 27, 1840 ; Furio Camillo, ib., 
1841; L' uomo del mistero, ib., 1841; II 
duea d' Alba, Venice, 1842 ; Adolfo di Wer- 
beck, Najjles, 1842 ; La fidanzata corsa, ib., 
1842 ; Medea, Palermo, December, 1843 ; 
Luisella, ossia la cantatrice del Male di 
Napoli, Naples, January, 1844 ; L' Ebrea, 
Milan, Feb. 27, 1844 ; Lorenzino de' Medici, 
ossia Elisa Valasco, Eome, March 5, 1845 ; 
Buondelmonte, Florence, 1845 ; Stella di 
Napoli, Naples, 1845 ; La regina di Cij^ro, 
ossia Catarina Cornaro, Turin, 1S4G ; Me- 
rope, Naples, 184G ; Ester d' Engaddi, Tu- 
rin, 1847 ; Allan Cameron, Venice, 1848 ; 
Malvina di Scozia, Naples, 1851 ; ZafBra, 
ib., 1851 ; II Cid, Milan, March 12, 1853 ; 
Romilda di Provenza, Naples, 1853 ; La 
punizione, Venice, 1854 ; Margherita Pus- 
terla, Naples, April, 1856 ; II saltimban- 
co, Eome, May 24, 1858 ; Lidia di Bru- 
selles, Bologna, November, 1858 ; Gianni di 
Nisida, Eome, November, 1860 ; E mula- 
tiere di Toledo, ib., June, 1861 ; Belfegor, 
Florence, 1861 ; Don Diego di Mendoza, 
Venice, 1867 ; Berta di Varuol, Naples, 
April, 1867 ; Niccolo de' Lapi (posthumous), 
Florence, Oct. 29, 1873. 

II. Oratorios : La destruzione di Gerusa- 
lemme, Sala dei Cinque Cento, Florence, 
1858 ; E carcere Mamertino, Eome, Sala del 
Capitolio, 1867 ; E trionfo di Giuditta ; E 
trionfo della religione ; Sant' Agnese. in. 
Cantatas and hymns : L' omaggio piii grato, 
Pavia, 1819 ; II puro omaggio, Trieste, 
1822 ; Cantata for Franyois I, Naples, 
1825 ; Cantata for the wedding of Maria 
Cristina of Naples, 1830 ; II felice imeneo, 
Naples, 1832 ; Cantata for Pius IX., Eome, 
1848 ; Cantata for the Emperor of Brazil, 
1851 ; Cantata for the Emperor of France ; 
Cantata for the wedding of Prince Ferdi- 
nand of Naples ; Cantata for the wedding 
of the Prince of Tuscany ; Eossini e la 



patria, cantata for the Eossini fetes at Pe- 
saro ; L' Italia cattolica, cantata, for the 
Accademia dei Quiriti, Eome ; Hj'mu to 
Guido d' Arezzo ; Hymn to the Viceroy of 
Egypt ; Hymn for San Marino ; Hymn to 
the Virgin ; Choruses for the Qildipus of 
Sophocles, Vicenza, 1847. IV. Masses, etc.: 
Messa alia Madonna del Castello, Milan, 
1822 ; Messa a 8-voci, dedicated to Greg- 
ory XVI., 1827 ; Mass performed at Via- 
reggio in 1835 ; Messa di Eequiem, dedi- 
cated to the town of Catania ; Mass sung 
at Monte Carlo ; Messa di Eequiem to the 
memory of Michele Puccini ; Messa di 
Eequiem for the removal of Bellini's body 
to Italy ; and a large number of masses in 
3 and 4 parts, with accompaniment of or- 
gan and contrabass, or with grand orches- 
tra ; two SEserere, a De profundis, and sev- 
eral vesper services for 4 and 8 parts with 
grand orchestra. V. Instrumental music : 
Dante symphony ; Octet for three violins, 
violoncello, oboe, bassoon, horn, and con- 
trabass ; Six string quartets ; Quartet, ded- 
icated to Mme Pacini ; Quartet, dedicated 
to Lucca, two trios for pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello ; A number of duos, trios, 
and quartets for the pianoforte and wind 
instruments ; Several morceaux for piano- 
forte and harp ; Collection of 6 songs ; 
do. of 5 songs and a duet ; and a num- 
ber of songs for one and several voices. 

VI. Theoretical works : Corso teorico- 
pratico dil ezioui di armonia ; Principj 
elementarj col metodo del meloplasto ; 
Ceuni storici sulla musica, e trattato di 
contrajJiJunto (Lucca, 1864) ; Sulla ori- 
ginalita della musica italiana ; Memoria 
sul migliore indirizzo degli studj musicali 
(Florence, 1863) ; Progetto per giovani 
compositori (1863) ; Lettera ai Municipj 
italiani per una scuola musicale (1863) ; 
Discorso in morte di Michele Pulcini 
(1865) ; Vita di Giudo d' Arezzo ; Dis- 
corso ai collegi sul concors oall' ufficio 
di Direttore uel Conservatorio di Paler- 
mo (Pescia, 1862) ; Discorso nel primo 
pubblico esperimento degli alunni dell' 



PACIUS 



Istituto musicale in Lucca (Lecca, 1865) ; 
Ragionameuto sull' opera del Tiron : stud- 
ies in Greek music ; Diseorso nel secundo 
pubblico esperimento degli alunni dell' 
Istituto musicale in Lucca (Pescia, 1867). 
— Le mie memorie artisticbe, autobiog- 
raphy (Florence, 1865, revised and com- 
pleted by Filippo Ciccouetti, Rome, 1872) ; 
Futis ; Clc'ment, Mus. culebres, 434 

PACIUS, FRIEDRICH, born in Ham- 
burg, Marcb 19, 1809, died at Helsingfors, 
Finland, March 19, 1889. Virtuoso on the 
violin, pupil of Spohr ; from 1834 music 
director at the University of Helsingfors. 
He was author of the Finnish national air, 
" Our Country," and other songs popular in 
Finland and Sweden. Works : Kouig 
Karl's Jagd, opera ; Loreley, Finnish ojiera, 
Helsingfors, April, 1887 ; Songs. 

PADLOCK QUINTET. See Zauberflote. 
PAER, FERDINANDO, born in Parma, 
Itah', June 1, 1771, 
died in Paris, May 
3, 1839. Dramatic 
composer ; studied 
composition in his na- 
tive town under an 
organist and the vio- 
linist Ghh-etti. He 
pursued his studies 
with great facility, 
and at the age of sixteen stopped his lessons 
altogether, and began composing operas. 
His first, an opera bufta. La locanda do' 
vagabondi (Parma, 1789), showed decided 
comic talent ; the second, I pretendenti 
bui-lati, although wTitten before he was 
seventeen, contains some of the best music 
he ever wrote. It was intended for, and 
given at, an amateur theatre, but its success 
was soon noised abroad. During the next 
ten years Paor wrote twenty operas, given, 
with almost invariable success, at Venice, 
Rome, Naples, Florence, Milan, Bologna, 
and Padua. In 1791 he became maestro di 
cajjpella at Venice, where he composed with 
the greatest industry, leading the while a 
dissolute life and ending by marrying the 




--^ 



noted singer, Francesca Riccardi, from 
whom he afterwards separated. During 
this period he founded his style on Cima- 
I'osa, Paisiello, and Guglielmi. In 1797 he 
was called to Vienna, where Mozart's music 
made a strong impression upon him, and a 
consequent modification in his own style 
soon became apparent. His harmony grew 
more vigorous, his instrumentation richer, 
and his modulation more varied. I fuoru- 
sciti di Firenze (Vienna, 1800) marked the 
beginning of his second manner. In 1801 
the Elector of Saxony invited him to Dres- 
den to replace Naumann, deceased, as Ka- 
liellmeister. Here Paer composed several 
operas with un\vonted care, and his finest 
works belong to this period of his life. In 
180G he followed Napoleon to Warsaw and 
Posen, and in 1807 was appointed his mai- 
tre de chapelle, and settled permanently 
in Paris. In 1812 he succeeded Spontiui 
at the Thi'iUre Italien, where he remained 
until 1827, Rossini being his associate from 
1824 to 1826. In these years he wrote eight 
operas, none of which made any decided 
success. In 1831 he was admitted to the 
Academic, and in 1832 was made director 
of the King's chamber music. As a man, 
PaOr was of the loosest morals, and he had 
an immeasurable love for intrigue. As a com- 
poser, he is one of the most important rep- 
resentatives of Italian opera at the close of 
the eighteenth century. His melodic power 
was great, and his mastery of the simpler 
forms of comj)osition comijlete. His comic 
gift was remarkable, but he was almost to- 
tally lacking in pathos and earnestness. 
His best work, upon the whole, is jjrobably 
Camilla, ossia il sotten-aueo. 

Works : I. Operas : La locanda de' vaga- 
bondi, Parma, 1789 ; Iprelendenti burlati, 
ib., 1790 ; Circe, Venice, 1791 ; Said, ossia 
il seraglio, ib., 1792 ; L' oro fa tutto, Milan, 
1793, and Dresden, 1795 ; I molinari, Ven- 
ice, 1793 ; Laodicea, Padua, 1793 ; II tempo 
fa giustizia a tutti, ossia 1' astuzie amorose, 
Pavia, 1794 ; Idomeneo, Florence, 1794 ; 
Una in bene ed una in male, Rome, 1794, 



C2 



PAGANINI 



and Dresden (in German, as Niclit gelungen 
und docb gelungen), 1802 ; H matrimonio 
improvviso, Vienna, 1794 ; L' amante servi- 
tore, Venice, 1795 ; La Rossana, Milan, Jan. 
31, 1795 ; L' orfana riconosciuta, Florence, 
1795 ; Ero e Leandro, Naples, 1795 ; Tamer- 
lano, Milan, 1796 ; I due sordi, Venice, 1796 : 
Sofonisba, Bologna, 1796, and Dresden, 
1808 ; Griselda, ossia la virttial cimeuto, Par- 
ma, 1796 ; L' iutrigo amoroso, Venice, 179G ; 
La testa risealdata, ib., 1796 ; Cinna, Padua, 
1797 ; II priucipe di Taranto, Parma and 
Milan, 1797 ; II nuovo Figaro, Parma,1797 ; 
La sonnambula, Venice, 1797 ; 11 fanatico 
in berliua, Vienna, 1797; Pirro, ib., 1798; 
Poco ma bene, ib., 1798 ; II morte vivo, ib., 
1799 ; Le donne cambiate, ossia il calzolajo, 
ib., 1800 ; I fuorusciti di Firenze, ib., 1800 ; 
Camilla, ossia il sotterraneo, ib., 1801 ; Gi- 
nevra degli Almieri, ossia la peste di Fi- 
renze, Dresden, 1802 ; Sargino, ossia 1' al- 
lievo deir amore, ib., 1803 ; Tutto il male 
vien dal buco, Venice, 1804 ; II maniscalco, 
Padua, 1804 ; Leonora, ossia 1' amore conju- 
gale, Dresden, 1805 ; Achille, ib., 1806 ; 
Nunia Pompilio, Paris, Theatre de la Cour, 
1808 ; Cleopatra, ib., ib., 1809 ; Dklone 
abbandonata, ib., ib., 1810 ; I baccanti, ib., 
ib., about 1811 ; L'oriflamme (with Berton, 
Kreutzer, and Mehul), ib., Academie Impe- 
riale de Musique, Jan. 31, 1814 ; L'eroismo 
in amore, Milan, 1816 ; La primavera felice, 
Paris, July 6, 1816 ; Agnese, ib., July 24, 
1819 ; La gazza ladra (not performed, writ- 
ten about 1820) ; Le maitre de cbapelle, 
Paris, Theatre Feydeau, March 29, 1821 ; 
Blanche de Provence (with Berton, Cheru- 
bini, and Kreutzer) ; Olindo e Sofronia (un- 
finished, written about 1824) ; La marquise 
de Brinvilliers (with Auber, Batton, Berton, 
Blangini, Boieldieu, Carafa, Cherubini, and 
Herold), Paris, Ojjcra Comique, Oct. 31, 
1831; Un caprice de femme, Paris, 1834. 

U. Oratorios : II San Se^jolcro, Vienna, 
1803 ; Utrioufo dellaChiesa, Parma, 1804 ; 
La Passione de Giesti-Cristo, 1810. m. 
Cantatas : II Prometeo, with orchestra ; 
Bacco ed Ai-iana, do. ; La conversazione ar- 



monica, do. ; Europa in Creta, voice and or- 
chestra ; Eloisa ed Abelardo, two voices 
with pianoforte ; Diana ed Endimione, do. ; 
L' amor timido, voice with pianoforte ; 
L' addio di Ettore, two voices with piano- 
forte ; Ulisse e Penelope, two voices and 
orchestra (in score, Launer, Paris) ; Saffo, 
voice with orchestra (ib.) ; 2 serenades for 
three and four voices with accompaniment 
of harp or pianoforte, horn, violoncello, and 
contrabass ; 6 duets for voices (Artaria, Vi- 
enna) ; 6 little Italian duets for voices, in 
two suites (Paris) ; 42 Italian ariettas for 
one voice with pianoforte ; 6 cavatinas of 
Metastasio for do. (Mollo, Vienna) ; 12 
French romances with pianoforte ; 2 collec- 
tions of exercises for soprano and tenor 
(Paris, 1821, 1825) ; 4 motets (O salutaris 
Hostia), three voices and orchestra (Petit, 
Paris) ; Oflertory for chorus (Janet, Paris) ; 
Ave Regina coeli, two voices and organ 
(Porro, Paris). TV. Instrumental music : 
Symphonie bacchante for grand orchestra 
(Nadermann, Paris) ; Vive Henri IV., varia- 
tions for gi-and orchestra (ib.) ; Grandes 
marches mihtaires, Nos. I., IL, DI., IV. (Janet, 
Paris) ; 6 waltzes for sis- and ten-part wind 
band (ib.) ; La douce victoire, fantaisio for 
pianoforte, two flutes, two horns, and bas- 
soon (Schoenenberger, Paris) ; ^,^ 
3 gi'and sonatas for the piano- Y J '* 
forte, violin obligato, and (XJT' ,, 

violoncello ad libitum (Janet, Paris) ; and 
many themes with variations for pianoforte. 
— Thomas Masse and Antony Deschamps, 
Paer et Rossini (Pari.?, 1820) ; Fetis ; Cle- 
ment, Mus. celebres, 289 ; Carafa de Colo- 
brano, Funerailles de M. Paer : Discours 
(Paris, 1839). 

PAESIELLO. See Paisiello. 

PAGANINI, ERCOLE, born at Ferrara 
about 1770, died (?). Dramatic conqjoser, 
settled in Milan during the first years of 
the 19th century. Works — Operas : La 
conquista del Messico, Milan, 1808 ; Le ri- 
vali generose, ib., 1809 ; I filosofi al cimento, 
ib., 1810; Cesare in Egitto ; Demetrio a 
Rodi. — Futis. 



68 



PAGANINI 




PAGANINI, NICC0L6, born in Genoa, 
Oct. 27, 1782, died at Nice, May 27, 1840. 

The father of 
this most famous 
of all violin vir- 
tuosi was a smaU 
tradesman, with 
no musical cult- 
ure, but a decid- 
ed love for the 
art ; as soon as he 
perceived his 
son's marked 
musical gift, he 
gave him regular instruction on the mando- 
lin, which instrument he played himself. 
But he soon turned him over to abler 
teachers, fii'st to G. Sei-vetto, and then to 
G. Costa, the Genoese maestro di cappella, 
with both of whom the young Niccol5 
studied the violin. At the age of eight 
the boy's proficiency was ab-eady remark- 
able, and he had composed a sonata for his 
instrument. His first public appearance 
was in 1793 in Genoa, he playing variations 
on La carmagnole with gi'eat success. Ev- 
ery Sunday, too, he would play a violin con- 
certo in church. About 1795 he was taken 
to Parma to study under Alessandro Eolla, 
who gave him some lessons ; he studied 
also for some time under Ghiretti, who had 
been Paer's teacher. In after-life Pagauiui 
always denied having taken lessons from 
Eolla, but it is almost certain that he really 
did. But, whoever his teachers were, he 
began so soon to explore new paths in vio- 
lin plaj-ing that he must be considered as to 
a great extent self-taught. On his return 
to Genoa he composed his first studies, 
which contained then unheard-of difiiculties, 
and gave himself iip to the most arduous 
practising. His father's strict control was 
exceedingly ii'ksome to him, and when he 
was allowed to go to Lucca to play at a 
musical festival in November, 1798 (his 
first journey alone), he did not return to 
his family, but made an independent tour 
through Pisa and some other towns. He 



was addicted to all sorts of dissipation, 
although only sixteen ; fits of illness, 
brought on by his habits, would interrupt 
his practice and his appearances in public, 
and his youthful excesses undoubtedly laid 
the foundation of his general ill-health in 
later life. In Leghorn he had gambled 
away everything, even to his violin ; and, to 
enable him to ]Aa.y at a concert, one M. 
Levron lent him a fine Joseph Guarnerius, 
which he afterwards presented to him, iu 
delight at his performance. This Guarne- 
rius remained his favourite violin through 
life, and he bequeathed it to the town of 
Genoa, where it is still kejjt under glass in 
the Municipal Palace. The painter Pisani 
also gave him an admirable Stradivarius. 
In 1801 Pag.anini withdrew to the chateau 
of a lad}' of rank, where he lived in retu-e- 
ment four years, practising the guitar, and 
writing two sets of sonatas (op. 2 and 3) for 
guitar and violin. In 1804 he returned to 
Genoa, and once more took up violin prac- 
tice, studying Locatelli's "Arte di uuova 
modulazione," and other of his studies, and 
doing his best to outdo their difficulties. 
In 1805 he set out on fresh travels, creat- 
ing immense enthusiasm wherever he ap- 
peared. At Lucca, where he lived until 
1808, as court violinist, he began hia fa- 
mous performances on the G-string alone. 
After 1808 he never accejjted another regu- 
lar position, but led a roving life, full of 
adventures, and not always devoid of danger 
from outraged husbands and fathers, and 
audiences with whom he allowed himself to 
take undue Hberties. But liis artistic suc- 
cess was constant ; in Jlilan he gave in 1813 
thirty-seven concerts. He came out victor 
in two violin contests — with Lafont in Mil- 
an in 1816, and with Lipinski at Piacenza 
in 1817. Pope Leo XH. conferred on him, 
in 1827, the order of the Golden Spur. 
His first trip outside of Italy was in 1828, 
when (March 9) he gave his first concei-t in 
Vienna ; his reception was unexampled, the 
city giving him the gi'and gold medal of 
St. Salvator, and the Emperor making him 



M 



PAGANINI 



court virtuoso. From Vienna he continued 
his tour through several cities, playing in 
March, 1829, for the first time in Berlin. 
On March 9, 1831, he ajipeared in Paris 
and on June 3 in London. His concerts 
in Great Britain and Ireland during this 
visit, and two more he made in the follow- 
ing year, wei-e so successful, financially, that 
in 1832 he returned to the Continent with 
a large fortune, mainly invested in landed 
estates. He spent the winter of 1833 in 
Paris, and in January, 1831, asked Berlioz 










Paganini in 1831. 

to write a viola concerto for him, which re- 
quest resulted in the composition of Harold 
en Italic. He passed most of the next two 
years at the Villa Gaiona, near Parma. But 
his bent for making money would not let 
him rest long in retirement. In 1836 he was 
induced to embark in a dubious speculation 
in Paris, the Casino Paganini, a fashionable 
club-house, ostensibly for concerts, but 
really chiefly for gambling. But the gam- 
bling license was refused, and the concerts 
alone could not float the undertaking. 
Paganini went to Paris to do his best to 
save the enterprise by appearing at the con- 



certs, but he was too ill to play. The com- 
pany went into bankruptcy, and his person- 
al loss was 50,000 francs. He staid in Paris 
during the winter of 1838, and it was in 
this year that he gave Berlioz the so much 
talked of present of 20,000 francs as a 
mark of admiration for his Symphonic fan- 
tastique. But this apparent piece of munifi- 
cence was in reality by no means what the 
world took it to be for many years. Fer- 
dinand Hiller relates, on the authority of 
Franz Liszt, who was in Paris at the time, 
and was intimate with all the parties to the 
transaction, that the splendid gift was a 
mere advertising dodge, suggested by Jules 
Janin to Paganini, whose well-known miser- 
liness had made him unpopular with the 
Parisian public, and that the 20,000 francs 
did not even come out of Paganini's purse. 
But Berlioz never knew the truth about the 
matter, and always supposed the gift to be 
from Paganini himself. Paganini was, and 
always had been, miserly and grasping in 
money matters, and it was this insatiable 
thirst for money which probably lay at the 
bottom of his ruinous passion for gambling. 
His chagrin at the failure of the Casino ag- 
gravated the laryngeal phthisis from which 
he had been suffering for some time ; ho 
stayed a few months at the house of a 
friend in Marseilles, but, getting no relief, 
went to Nice for the winter of 1839, and 
died there in the following May. Paganini's 
genius was ejsoch-making in the history of 
violin-playing. Both his technique and his 
whole style of performance were original. 
But marvellous and novel as were his feats 
of virtuosity, his immense hold upon his 
audiences was chiefly due to his impressive 
individuality and the passionate warmth of 
his playing. He was a romantic virtuoso 
rather than a classical player, and he never 
attained to that highest distinction of the 
violinist, of being a fine, or even a good, 
quartet-player. As a composer, his reputa- 
tion was purely ephemeral, and his once 
famous violin caprices now live only through 
Schumann's and Liszt's pianoforte tran- 



65 



PAGEN 



scriptions, works into which the transcrib- 
ers i)ut far more of their own individuality 
than they left of Paganini's. Works : 
Ventiquattro capricei per vioHno solo, op. 
1 ; Sei sonate per vioUno e chitarra, op. 2 ; 
do., op. 3 ; Tre gran quartetti a violin o, 
viola, chitarra e violoncello, op. 4 and 5 ; 
Concerto in E-flat (solo-part in D, for violin 
tuned a semitone higher than usual), op. G ; 
do. in B minor (rondo a la clochette), op. 7 ; 
Le streghe, variations on a theme by Simon 
Mayr, op. 8; Variations on "God save 
the King," op. 9 ; II camevale di Venezia, 
bm-lesque variations on a popular air, oj). 
10 ; Perpetuum mobile, op. 11 ; Variations 
on "Non piii mesta," op. 12; do. on "Di 
tanti palpiti," op. 13 ; CO do., in all keys, 
on the air " Barucaba." Only the first five 

K 




opus numbers were pubhshed during his 
life-time ; other compositions ascribed to 
him ai-e spurious. — M. Schottky, Paganini's 
Leben und Treiben als Kunstler und als 
Mensch (Prague, 1830 ; translation by Lu- 
dolf Vinata, Hamburg) ; George Harris, 
Pagiinini in seinem Reisewagen und Zim- 
mer, etc. (Vierweg, Brunswick, 1830) ; II- 
menau, Leben, Charakter, und Kunst dcs 
Eitter N. P. (1830) ; M. J. Imbert de la 
Phalcque, Notice sur . . . N. P. (Paris) ; 
Gvihr, Ubcr Paganini's Kunst die Violine zu 
spielen (1829, English translation by Sibilla 
Novello, London, 1831) ; G. E. Anders, Pa- 
ganini, sa vie, sa personne et quelques mots 
sur son secret (Delaun.ay, Paris, 1831) ; Fr. 
FayoUe, Paganini et de Bcriot (Paiis, 1831) ; 
Bennati, Notice physiologique sur . . . 
Paganini (read before the Acadumie Royale 
des Sciences, Paris, 1831 ;Kevuemusicale, xi. 
113-llG) ; Giancarlo Conestabile, Vita di N. 
P. da Genova (Pei-ugia, 1851) ; F. J. Futis, 
Notice biographique sur N. P. (Paris, 1851 ; 
EngUsh translation by Wellington Guern- 
sey, Loudon, 1852) ; Niccolo Paganini, etc.. 



raconto storico di Oreste Bruni (Florence, 
1873) ; Elise Polko, N. P. und die Geigen- 
bauer (Leipsic, 1875). 

PAGEN UND DEE KONIGSTOCHTEE, 
VOM, four ballads for soli, chorus, and 
orchestra, by E. Geibel, music by Schu- 
mann, op. 110, first performed at Diissel- 
dorf, Dec. 2, 1852. Characters repre- 
sented : Prinzess, KOnigin, and Nixe (S.) ; 
Alto solo ; Page (T.) ; KOnig, Meermann, 
and Sj)ielmann (B.). This work was given 
in Leipsic, Nov. 19, 18G1. Published by 
Eieter-Biedermanu (Leij^sic and Wiuter- 
thur, 1858). Posthumous works. No. 5. 
By Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Schumann Werke, 
Serie ix.. No. 13.— Neue Zeitschr., liii. 27. 

PAGLIAEDI, GIOVANNI IIAEIA, Flor- 
entine dramatic composer, maestro di caii- 
pella to the Grand Duke of Tuscany dur- 
ing the second half of the 17th century. 
Works — Operas : Caligula delirante, Venice, 
1C72 ; Lisimacco, ib., 1G73 ; Numa Pompi- 
lio, ib., 1G74. 

PAINE, JOHN KNOWLES, born in 
Portland, Maine, 
Jan. 9, 1839, still 
living, 1890. His 
first musical in- 
stniction was in 
his native town 
from H. Kotzsch- 
mar. In 1858 he 
went to Berlin, 
where ho studied 
the organ and 
counterjjoint under Haupt, singing under 
Fischer, and instrumentation under Wic- 
precht until 18G1, when he retui-ned to the 
United States. After giving organ concerts 
in several cities he settled in Boston, where 
he held the position of organist at the West 
Church, Cambridge Street, for about a year. 
In 18G2 he was engaged as music teacher 
at Harvard University, and organist at Ap- 
pleton Chapel in Cambridge, where he has 
lived ever since. In 187G he was invested 
with a fuU professorship of music at Har- 
vard, the first chair of the soii created at 




66 



PAINE 



an American university. Paine's reputation 
as an organist was exceedingly brilliant 
during the first six or eight years after bis 
return from Germany, his taste and style 
of 2)laying placing him almost alone in this 
country as a follower of the extreme classic 
school ; but of late years be has jDlayed 
but little in public, or even in church, and 
is known to-day principally, if not solely, 
as a composer and teacher of composition. 
As a composer he baa admittedly belt! the 
first rank in America for some years. His 
musical education was very thorough, and 
entirely classic in its tendency ; indeed, be 
may be said to have been brought up on 
Bach. His earlier works, too, are wholly 
of the classic type, and show a rare mas- 
tery over musical form. But after his Mass, 
op. 10, he began to strike out more and 
more plainly in the modern romantic direc- 
tion, and is now to be classed with the ro- 
manticists. Works : I. For voices with 
orchestra : Domine salvum fac, for male 
chorus and orchestra, op. 8, given at the 
inauguration of President Hill, of Harvard 
University, Cambridge, March 4, 1SG3, and 
at that of President Eliot, ib., Oct. 19, 
18G9 (MS.) ; Mass in D, for soli, chorus, and 
orch., op. 10, given under the composer's 
direction, Berlin, Singakademie, February, 
1SG7 (pianoforte score, New York, Schir- 
mer) ; Saint Peter, oratorio, op. 20, Port- 
land, Me., May, 1873 (pianoforte score, 
Boston, Ditson, 1872) ; Centennial Hymn, 
in D, for chorus and orch., op. 27, given in 
Philadelphia, at the opening of the Centen- 
nial Exposition, May 10, 1876 (Boston, Dit- 
son) ; Music to the (Edipus Tyrannus of 
Sophocles, for male voices and orch., op. 
35, Cambridge, Sanders Theatre, May 17, 

1881 (Boston, Schmidt); The Bealm of 
Fancy, cantata for soprano solo, chorus, and 
orch., op. 3G, Boston, Music Hall, 1882 
(Boston, Schmidt) ; Phcehus, arise, for tenor 
solo, male chorus, and orch., op. 37, ib., 

1882 (Boston, Schmidt) ; The Nativity, can- 
tata for soli, chorus, and orch., op. 38, Bos- 
ton, Music Hall, 1883 (Boston, Schmidt) ; 



Song of Promise, do. for soprano, chorus, 
and orch., op. 43, Cincinnati May Festival, 
1888 (Cincinnati, John Chiu'ch & Co.) ; 
Harvard Commencement Hymn ; Mirabel, 
romantic opera in 4 acta (MS., not yet fin- 
ished). H. For orchestra : Symphony No. 
1, in C minor, op. 23, Boston, Music Hall, 
Thomas orchestra, Jan. 2G, 187G (MS.) ; 
Overture to Shakespeare's " As You Like It," 
in F, Cambridge, Sanders Theatre, Thomas 
orchestra, Nov. 21, 1878 (MS.) ; Symphonic 
poem on Shakespeare's Tempest, in D minor, 
op. 31, New York, October, 1877 (MS.) ; 
Duo concertante for violin and violoncello, 
with orch., in A, op. 33, Cambridge, San- 
ders Theatre, Thomas orchestra, April, 1878 
(MS.) ; Sp)ring symphony. No. 2, in A, op. 
34, Cambridge, Sanders Theatre, March, 
1880 (Hamburg, Schmidt & Cranz) ; An 
Island Fantasy, symphonic poem in G-sharp 
minor and A-flat major, op. 44, Boston, 
Symphony Orchestra, April, 1888 (MS.) ; 
HI. Songs and part-songs : Part-songs and 
motets, op. 14, IG, 18 (MS.) ; 4 songs, with 
pianoforte, op. 29 (Boston, Ditson) ; 3 
songs, with do., op. 40 (ib., Schmidt). FV. 
Chamber music : String quartet in D, op. 5 
(MS.) ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, and vio- 
loncello, in D minor, op. 22 (MS.) ; Larghetto 
and scherzo for do., in B-flat, op. 32 (MS.) ; 
Sonata for pianoforte and violin, in B mi- 
nor, oj). 24 (MS.) ; Eomanza and scherzo 
for pianoforte and violoncello, op. 30 (MS.). 
V. For pianoforte : Sonata No. 1, in A mi- 
nor, op. 1 (MS.) ; do. No. 2, in F-sharp 
minor, op. 4 (MS.) ; Christmas gift, in D, 
op. 7 (Boston, Ditson) ; Funeral March for 
Abraham Lincoln, in B-flat minor, op. 9 
(New York, Schirmer) ; 4 Charakterstiicke, 
op. 11 (Leipsic, Forberg) ; Komance in C 
minor, op. 12 (Boston, Schmidt) ; 4 charac- 
ter pieces, op. 25 (ib., Ditson) ; In the coun- 
try, 12 pieces, op. 2G (ib., ib.) ; Komauco 
in D-flat, op. 39 (ib., ib.) ; 3 pieces, op. 41 
(ib., Schmidt) ; Nocturne in B-flat, op. 45 
(MS.). VI. For organ : Concert variations 
on the Austrian Hymn, in F, and on The 
Star-spangled Banner, in C, op. 3 (Boston, 



67 



PAISIELLO 




Ditson) ; Fantasia in F, and double fugue 
on God Save the Queen, op. 6 (MS.) ; Fan- 
tasia and fugue in E juinor, and Fantasia 
oil Ein' feste Burg, op. 13 (MS.) ; Miscel- 
laneous pieces, op. 17, 19 (MS.). 

PAISIELLO (Paesiello), GIOVANNI, 
bom at Taranto, 
Italy, May 9, 1741, 
died in Naples, 
June 5, 1815. 
Dramatic com- 
poser, son of a vet- 
erinary surgeon, 
who sent him, 
when five years 
old, to the Jesuit 
school at Taranto. 
The beauty of his voice attracted the no- 
tice of the cavaliere Guarducci, maestro di 
ca23pella at the Capuchiu church, who ad- 
vised his parents to send him to Najsles to 
be educated as a musician. After he had 
been taught the elements of music by one 
Carlo Kesta, a priest, his father took him, 
in Maj', 1754, to Naples, where he studied 
at the Conservatorio di S. Onofrio, under 
Durante, Cotumacci, and Abos. During 
his live years there he devoted himself 
to church music, and continued writing 
masses, motets, and oratorios for four years 
more. But in 17G3 he wrote a dramatic 
intermezzo which showed so much dra- 
matic talent that he was invited to Bologna 
to write a comic opera, La pupUla, ossia 
il mondo al rovescio (17G4). The next 
twelve years were an almost unbroken 
series of successes at Modena, Parma, Ven- 
ice, Kome (where he wrote his once so fa- 
mous H marchese di Tuhpano), and Naples, 
where he sustained successfully a brisk 
rivalry with Piccinni and, afterwards, with 
Cimarosa. In this Paisiello did not depend 
upon his genius alone, as he might have 
done, for the success of his L' idolo ciuese 
(17C9) was fully equal to that of any work 
of his rivals at that time ; he did not dis- 
dain to have recourse often to very shabby 
intrigues, jealousy and unscrupulouaness 



being marked traits in his character. In 
1776 he went to St. Petersburg, on invita- 
tion of the Empress Catherine. He stayed 
eight yeai-s in Russia, being paid a royal 
salary, and writing some ten ojjeras, of 
which the most noteworthy is II barbiere 
di Siviglia. In 1784 he returned to Italy, 
stopjjing a while on his way at Vienna, 
where he wrote II ri; Teodoro and twelve 
symphonies for Joseph 11. Appointed 
court maestro di cajjpella by Ferdinand IV. 
of Naples, the absence of Cimarosa and 
Guglielmi left him there without a rival, 
and during the thirteen years he remained 
at his post (refusing advantageous offers 
from Berlin in 1788, and Russia and Lon- 
don in 1790) he wrote some of his best and 
most successful scores, such as I zingari in 
fiera, Nina, o la pazza per amore, and La 
molinara. In 1797, on invitation of Napo- 
leon, he competed successfullj- with Cheru- 
bini for the composition of a funeral march 
for General Hoche. Bonaparte's decision 
on this occasion spoke more for his well- 
known love for Paisiello's music than for 
his ai-tistic discrimination. During the rev- 
olution of 1799 Paisiello adopted republi- 
can principles, which ho was quick enough 
to repudiate at the subsequent restoration of 
Ferdinand IV., although it took him a good 
two years of scheming to regain the king's 
favour, and his former position. In 1802 
he went to Paris to organize and direct 
the chapel of the First Consul. He was so 
munificently treated as to excite the jeal- 
ousy of French musicians, notably Mehul 
and Cherubini, whom he furthermore en- 
raged by sjjitefuUy using all his patronage 
to favour their rivals. While in Paris he 
wi-ote chiefly church music ; in 1803, how- 
ever, he produced an oj)era, Pomone, but 
with such ill-success that he asked leave to 
return to Naples on the plea of his wife's 
want of health. This permission was 
granted him next year, and he accordingly 
returned to his old post, endowed with a 
handsome pension, after appointing Losu- 
eur (to general sui-prise) as his successor 



G3 



PAISIELLO 



at Paris. In Naples he enjoj'ed the favour 
of Joseph Bonaparte and Murat, but on 
the return of the Bourbons lost his pen- 
sions, retaining only his salary at the Royal 
Chapel. The anxiety at this sudden down- 
fall of his fortune undermined his health, 
which received a fiu-ther shock at the death 
of his wife in 181.5. He survived her only 
a few months. PaisieUo was one of the 
most prolific of composers ; besides 91 ojie- 
ras, he wrote 103 masses and other church 
compositions, and more than 50 instrumen- 
tal pieces. Gifted neither with the highest 
tragic nor comic power, he was yet a master 
of beautiful, simple, and expressive melody. 
The musical means he employed were of 
the simplest, but he knew how to obtain 
singularly fine effects by them. He ab- 
horred showy vocalization, and was incapa- 
ble of producing elaborate work of any 
sort ; but few writers have been so well 
able as he to keep up the interest in a mel- 
ody in spite of frequent repetitions of the 
same phrase, without change or ornament. 
His operas are now wholly out of date, yet 
the student can probably find in them more 
food for thoughtful study than in those of 
any other Italian dramatic composer of his 
day. Works : 

I. Operas : La pupilla, ossia il mondo al 
rovescio, Bologna, 17G1 ; La madama hu- 
morista, Modena, 17G5 ; Demetrio, ib., 
1765 ; Artaserse, ib., 1765 ; I virtuosi ridi- 
coli, Parma, 1765 ; H negligente, ib., 1765 ; 
I bagni di Albauo, ib., 1765 ; Le pescatrici, 
Venice, 1765 ; H ciarloue, ib., 1766 ; II 
marchese di Tulipano, Rome, 1766 ; La ve- 
dova di bel genio, Naples, 1766 ; L' amore 
in ballo, Venice, 1766; L' imbroglio delle 
ragazze, Naples, 1766 ; L' idolo cinese, ib., 
1767, and Paris, Academic Royale de Mu- 
sique, June 10, 1779 ; Lucio Papirio ditta- 
tore, Naples, 1767 ; II furbo mal accorto, 
ib., 1767 ; L' OUmpiade, ib., 1768 ; La ser- 
va padrona, ib., 1769 ; Andromeda, Milan, 
about 1770; Le nozze disturbate, Naples, 
1771 ; La somiglianza dei nomi, ib., 1771 ; 
Gli scherzi d' amore e di fortuna, ib., 1771 ; 



L' innocente fortunata (La semplice fortuna- 
ta), Venice, 1772 ; Le frame per amore, Na- 
ples, 1772 ; Le Dardaue, ib., 1772 ; L' Arabo 
cortese, ib., about 1773 : La contesa de' 
numi, ib., 1773 ; Semiramide, Rome, 1773 ; 
Montesuma, ib., 1773 ; II tamburro nottur- 
no, Naples, 1773 (?), and Vienna, May 17, 
177-4 ; Annibale in Italia, Turin, 1773 ; I 
filosofi (perhaps identical with I Socrati im- 
maginarj, q. v.), ib., 1773 ; II giocatore, ib., 
1773 ; Le astuzie amorose, Naples, about 

1773 ; La discordia fortunata, Venice, 1773 ; 
Demnfoonle, ib., 1773 ; II credulo deluso, 
Naples, 1774 ; L' osteria di Marechiaro, ib., 

1774 ; La Frascatana, Venice, 1774 ; La 
luna abitata, Naples, about 1775, and, as II 
mondo della luua, Moscow, 1778 ; Alesmn- 
dro neir Indie, Modena, about 1775 ; Don 
Anchise Campauone, ossia gli amauti co- 
mici, Naples, 1775 ; Don Chisciotto della 
Mancia, ib., about, 1775 ; H duello comico, 
ib., 1775, and in French, as Le duel co- 
mique, with some numbers by Mereaux, 
Paris, Opera Comique, Se2)t. 16, 1776 ; II 
finto jjrincipe, Florence, 1775 ; La disfatta 
di Dario, Rome, about 1775 ; Dal finto in 
vero, Naples, about 1775 ; I Socrati immagi- 
narj, ib., 1775, Milan, 1783, and, as I filosofi 
immagiuarj, St. Petersburg, 1779 ; La tinta 
maga per vendetta, Najiles, 1776 ; II gran 
Cid, Florence, about 1776 ; Le due con- 
tesse, Vienna, Nov. 17, 1776 ; II harhiere di 
Siviglia, St. Petersburg, 1776, and Paris, 
Tuileries, July 12, Theatre Feydeau, July 
22, 1789 ; II matrimonio inaspettato, St. 
Petersburg, 1777 ; La finta amante, Mohi- 
slaw, Poland, 1780 ; L' amor contrastato, St. 
Petersburg, 1780 ; Achille in Sciro, ib., 
about 1780 ; Nitleli, ib., 1781 ; Lucinda ed 
Artemidoro, ib., 1782 ; Alcide al bivio, ib., 
1783 ; n r!i Teodoro iu Venezia, Vienna, 
Aug. 23, 1784 ; Anligono, Naples, 1784 ; 
L' amor ingegnoso, Rome, 1785 ; Ruggiero e 
Bradamante, Naples, 1785 ; La grotta di 
Trofonio, ib., 1786 ; Le gare generose, ib., 
1786 ; Pirro, ib., about 1786 ; La lavandaja 
astuta, Pisa, 1786 ; Fedra, Naples, 1788 ; 
L' impresario in angustie, Florence, 1788 ; 



PAIX 



Catone in Utica, Naples, 1788 ; La molinara, 
ib., 1788, and Pai-is, Sept. 2, 1801 ; I zin- 
gari in fiera, Naples, 1789, and Paris, May 
3, 1802 : II matrimonio per fanatismo, Na- 
ples, 1789 ; Nina, o la pazza per amore, Bel- 
videre, near Naples, 1789 ; II fanatico in 
berlina (La locandiera), London, 1789, and 
Najjlcs, 1792 ; Giimone Lucinda, dramatic 
cantata, Naples, 1789 ; Zenobia in Palmira, 
ib., 1790 ; La modista raggiratrice, Milan, 
June 7, 1790, and, as La scuffiara, Najiles, 

1792 ; II conte di Bell' umoi-e, Verona, 1791 ; 
n genio poetico appagato, Naples, 1791 ; I 
pretendenti delusi, Brunswick, 1791 ; I 
giuochi d' Agrigento, Venice, 1792 ; II ri- 
torno di Perseo, Naples, 1792 ; I visionari, 
ib., 1792, and in German, as Die Pbantas- 
ten, Dresden, 1793 ; Elfrida, Naples, about 

1793 ; L' inganuo felice, ib., 1793 ; I scbiavi 
per amore, ossia U jtadrone generoso se buon 
padrone, Pai-is, 1793 ; L' antiquario bui-lato, 
Bergamo, 1793 ; H calzolajo, Berlin, 1793 ; 
Elvira, Nai)les, about 1703 ; Didone abban- 
donata, ib., 1795 ; La Daunia felico, Fog- 
gia, 1797 ; Andromacca, Naples, about 1798; 
La contadina di spirito, ib., about 1800 ; 
Zelmira (not performed, written about 
1800) ; I^oserjnnc, Paris, Opc'ra, March 30, 
1803; I Pittagorici, Naples, 1807. The fol- 
lowing are doubtful : Solimanno ; La finta 
giardinicra ; Zamora ; L' avaro punito. 

n. Chui'ch music : La Passione di Gesii 
Cristo, oratorio, Warsaw, 1781 ; Pastorali 
per il S. Natale, a canto e coro ; 3 solemn 
masses for 2 choirs and 2 orchestras ; 
Itequiem for do. ; Te Deum for do. (for 
the coronation of Napoleon) ; Eequiem for 

4 voices and orchestra ; about 30 masses for 
do. ; Te Deum for do. ; 4 Dixit, 3 Magnifi- 
cat, Kji-ie, and Gloria, for do. ; 2 masses for 

5 voices ; 2 Dixit for do., alia Palestrina ; 
Miserere for do., with violoncello and viola ; 
about 40 motets with orchestra, etc. 

in. Instrumental : 12 symphonies for 
orchestra (dedicated to 
*, Jose^jh n.); Marche 
funubre in memory of General Hoche, for 
do. ; G concertos for pianoforte ; 12 quar- 




tets for do. and strings ; 6 do. for strings ; 
Sonata and concerto for the harp ; 2 volumes 
of sonatas, caprices, etc., for pianoforte. 
— Arnold, Giov. PaisieUo, seine kurze Biog., 
etc. (Ei-fui-t, 1810) ; Biog. del regno di Na- 
poli, iii. ; Fotis ; Gagliardo, Onori funebri, 
etc. (Naj)les, 18 IG) ; Le Sueur, Notice sur, 
etc. (Paris, 181G) ; Quatremcre de Quincy, 
Notice historique (ib., 1817) ; Schizzi, Delia 
vita e degli studi di G. P. (Milan, 1833) ; 
Villarosa, Slemorie dei comijositori, etc. 
(Naples, 1840). 
PAIS, JAKOB, born at Augsburg in 
1550, died at Lau- 
ingen, p robabl y 
soon after 15 9 0. 
Organist at Lauin- 
gen, where he pub- 
lished the foUowiug 
collections : E i n 
schon niitz mid 
gebrouchlich Orgel- 
Tabulaturbucb, etc., containing motets for 
4 to 12 voices by famous composers, be- 
sides songs, Passamezzi, and other dances 
(1583) ; Missa ad imitationem Motettio 
(1584) ; Seleetfp, artificiosro et elegantes 
fugte, etc. (1587, 1590) ; Missa parodia 
Mutetas (1587) ; Thesaurus motettarum, 22 
motets by different composers (Strasburg, 
1589) ; Missa Helveta, artificiosa) et ele- 
gantes fugce, etc. (1590).— Fctis ; Gerber ; 
Mendel. 

PALADILHE, fiinLE, born at Montpel- 
lier (Hurault), June 3, 
1844, still hving, 1890. 
Dramatic composer ; 
entered when only 
nine years old the 
Conservatoire, where 
he was pupil of Mar- 
montel on the piano- 
forte, of Benoist on 
the organ, and of 
Halevy in counterpoint. In 1857 he won 
the first piize for pianoforte, and in 18G0 
the organ prize and the prix do Home, the 
latter for the cantata Le czar Ivan IV, 




70 



PALESTRINA 



given at the OpC-ra, 18G0, but never j)ub- 
lisbed. During his stay in Rome he sent 
to the lustitut several compositions, in- 
cluding an Italian opera buffa, a mass, and 
orchestral works, which showed ability. 
On his return to Paris he wrote his first 
opera, Le passant, on Coi^pue's text, but 
the music was not regarded as a success. 
His Suzanne was better received, and his 
Patrie still more favourably ; but his meth- 
ods are antiquated and he is wanting in in- 
vention. Legion of Honour, 1881. Works 
— Operas: Le passant, opcra-comique, one 
act, given at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
1872 ; L'amour africain, do., two acts, ib., 
1875 ; Suzanne, do., three acts, ib., 1878 ; 
Diana, do., ib., 1885 ; Patrie, grand opera, 
text from Sardou's drama. Opera, Dec. 20, 
1886. Symphony for orchestra, 18G0 ; 6 
melodies ecossaises ; 20 melodies, voice and 
pianoforte ; Fragments symphoniques, 1882 ; 
2 masses ; Songs, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, 
ii. 29G ; Grove. 

PALESTRINA, GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI 
DA (Joannes Petraloysius Prteuestinus), 
born at Palestrina, near Rome, probably in 
1514-15, died in Rome, Feb. 2, 1594. His 
family name was Sante ; in the earlier edi- 
tions of his works he is called either simply 
Gianetto, or Gianetto with differently si^ellcd 
affixes, such as Palestrina, Pallestrina, Pales- 
trino, Palestina, Pelestrino, with or without 
the da ; sometimes, also, Jo. de Palestina. 
He is called J. P. Aloisius by his biographer 
Baini. The date of his lairth has been much 
disj)uted, and was formerly set at 1524, but 
the best later authorities now agree that it 
must have been ten years earlier. He was 
the son of Pierluigi and Maria (Gismondi) 
Sante, people in a humble station. His 
musical gift is said to have been first dis- 
covered by tlie maestro di cappella of Sta. 
Maria Maggiore, in Rome. It is almost 
certain that he was sent at an early age to 
Claude Goudimel's music school, where he 
laid the foundations of his unsiu-passed 
mastery in counterpoint. The first record 
of his occupying an ofiicial position is his 




succeeding Francesco Rosseli as maestro de' 
putti (master of the boys) at the Cappella 
Giuha, in February 
or March, 1551, 
the chapter of St. 
Peter conferring 
upon him the title 
of maestro della 
cappella della Ba- 
silica Vaticana ; it 
is estimated that 
he began his pro- 
fessional career as 
a musician in 1544. In 1554 was published 
his first book of masses, dedicated to Pope 
Julius HI. On Jan. 1, 1555, he was made 
maestro di cappella of the Pontifical Chap- 
el, Giovanni Animuccia succeeding him at 
his former post at St. Peter's. It is evident 
that his exceptional genius must have been 
pretty well recognized at this period, for the 
jjope dispensed him from passing the strict 
examination prescribed in the Motu proprio 
of Aug. 5, 1553, for all applicants for admis- 
sion to the Pontifical Chapel, and also over- 
looked the regulation that all members of 
the chapel must be priests ; for at that 
time Palestrina was already married, and 
had several sons. But although these in- 
fractions of the rules of the chapel were 
winked at also by Julius's successor, Mar- 
cellus n., who had been a jmtrou of Pales- 
trina's before his accession to the Papal 
Chair, that stern reformer in church matters, 
Paul rV., expelled him and two other mar- 
ried singers from the chapel, with a very 
small pension, July 30, 1555, so that he 
held the position for only seven months. 
It was, however, a stroke of the irony of fate, 
that Palestrina should afterwards have been 
a potent agent in thwarting one of Paul's most 
cherished reformatory measures : the aboli- 
tion of contrapuntal chui-ch music, and the 
return to the plain Gregorian chant. On 
Oct. 1, 1555, Palestrina was appointed maes- 
tro di cappella at San Giovanni in Laterano ; 
but as this post was poorly paid he ob- 
tained a release from it, and in 1561 the 



71 



PALESTRINA 



appointment to the similar position at Sta. 

Mai-ia Maggiore. In 1563 came the most 

famous event of 
his Ufe, the writ^ 
ing of the Mar- 
cellus Mass, and 
with it the 




so- 

" saving 

art of 

This 

transac- 

which 



called 
of the 
music." 
whole 
t i o n , 

ended in nullify- 
ing, in so far as 
music itself was 
concerned, the radical reforms in church mu- 
sic proposed bj' Paul IV., and discussed at 
gi'eat length at the Council of Trent (1545- 
63), has been made the theme of almost end- 
less romancing. A brief account of it may 
be found under the heading 3Iissa Papaj 
Marcelli, and a detailed one in Ambros (iv., 
7-20). The result to Palestrina was his be- 
ing made composer to the Pontifical Chapel, 
an honorary position which has been held only 
by him and by Felice Anerio. In 1571, on 
the death of Auimuccia, he was made maes- 
tro di cappella at St. Peter's, which i)Ost he 
held until his death. Other suiiplementaiT 
posts held by him were those of composer 
to the Congregazione del Oratorio, founded 
by S. Filippo Neri, of maestro concertatore 
to Prince Buoucompagni in 1581, and oc- 
casional teacher in G. M. Nanini's music 
Bchool. Pope Gregory XUI. intrusted him 
with the revision of the Roman Gradual 
and Antiphoiial, an enormous task, in which 
he was assisted by his pupil Giudetti, but 
left unfinished at his death. In 1585 Pope 
Sixtus V. tried to reinstate him in his 
former position of maestro di cappella to 
the Pontifical Chapel, but the jealous op- 
position of the singers was too energetic to 
be overcome. Palestrina stands universally 
accepted as the greatest genius not only of 
the " great " Roman contrapuntal school 
but of the whole epoch of strict simple con- 
trapuntal composition, which reached its 



culmination in him. The only two men 
who could in any way dispute his suprema- 
cy in this style were Giovanni Gabrieli and 
Orlando Lasso ; but, making all due allow- 
ance for the greatness of these men, the 
palm of superiority must still be awarded 
to Palestrina. The romantic legends that 
grew up around the nucleus of fact con- 
cerning the jiart he and his Marcellus Mass 
j)layed in the history of church music after 
the Council of Trent for a long time misled 
musical historians into looking u^jou him 
as an important innovator in music. He 
was dubbed not only the Prince of Music, 
but the Father of Music. But Palestrina 
was in no sense a musical innovator ; his 
tendencies were conservative, he never de- 
parted from the field of composition which 
had been so well worked by his great prede- 
cessors. In the Marcellus Mass itself there 
was not a single element of novelty either in 
style or construction. Palestrina's mission 
was to complete and perfect a great musi- 
cal epoch, not to pave the way for a new 
one. His compositions are all in strict sim- 
jjle counterpoint in the Gregorian modes, for 
unaccompanied chorus ; he made frequent 
use of almost every contrapuntal subtlety 
known to the older Netherlandish compos- 
ers, but with a completeness of technical mas- 
tery and an iin failing sense for ideal beau- 
ty that wholly veiled the merely scholastic 
side of these devices. His long life was a 
hard-working, but not particularly eventful 
one ; he saw a line of fifteen popes — from 
Leo X. to Clement VHI. — ascend the throne 
and pass awa}', and he held some of the 
most brilliant musical positions of his day ; 
but the salaries were small, and there is lit- 
tle doubt that he was miserably poor the 
greater part of his life. The portrait on this 
page is a facsimile of part of the frontis- 
piece of his first book of masses, represent- 
ing him presenting the book to the pope. 
It is the only contemporary likeness of him. 
Works : I. Masses : Joannis Petri Aloysii 
Prsenestini in Basilica S. Petri de Urbe 
cappellse Magistri, Missai'um, liber primus. 



72 



PALESTEINA 



four4-part masses, and one in 5 parts (Rome, 
1554 ; 2d ed., 1572 ; 3d ed., containing a 5- 
part Requiem and a 6-part mass, 1591) ; Mis- 
sarum, liber secundus, four 4-part and two 
5-part masses, and the 6-part Missa Papse 
Marcelli (Rome, 1567 ; 2d ed., Venice, 1598) ; 
]\Iissarum, liber tertius, four 4-part, two 5- 
part, including the Tihomme armu, and two 
6-part masses (Rome, 1570) ; Missarum, 
liber quartus, four 4-part and three 5-part 
masses (Rome, 1582 ; 2d ed, ib, 1582 ; 3d 
ed, ib., 1590) ; Missarum, liber quintus, 
three 4-part, two 5-part, and two 6-part 
masses (Rome, 1590 ; 2d ed., Venice, 1591) ; 
Missaj, liber sestus, four 4-part masses, and 
one 5-part (Rome, 1594 ; 2d ed., containing 
also a 6-part Ave Maria, Venice, 1596) ; 
Missse, liber Septimus, two 4-part and two 
6-part masses, published after Palestrina's 
death by bis son Hygin (Rome, 1594 ; 2d 
ed., ib., 1595 ; 3d ed., containing also a 
6-part mass, Venice, 1605) ; Missarum, liber 
octavus, two 4-part, two 5-part masses, and 
one 6-23art with perpetual double canon 
(Rome, 1599 ; 2d ed, ib., 1609) ; Mis- 
sarum, liber nonus, two 4-part, two 5-part, 
and two 6-part masses (Rome, 1599 ; 2d 
ed., ib., 1608) ; Missarum, liber decimus, 
two 4-part, two 5-part, and two 6-part 
masses (Rome, 1600) ; Missarum, liber un- 
decimus, one 4-part, two 5-part, and two 
6-part masses (Rome, 1600) ; Missarum, 
liber duodecimus, two 4-part, two 5-part, 
and two 6-part masses (Rome, 1601) ; Mis- 
B8e octonis vocibus concinendse, four 8-part 
masses (Venice, 1601) ; Lauda Sion, Pater 
noster, and Jesu nostra redemptio, in 4- 
parts ; Beatus Laurentius, Panem nostrum, 
Salve Regina, and O Sacrum Convivium, for 
5 parts ; Ecce ego Joannes, and Veni Creator 
Spiritus, for 6 parts, and other unedited 
masses preserved in the Library of the 
Vatican ; also a collection in the Minerva 
Library, Rome. II. Motets : Motecta fes- 
torum totius anni, cum communione sanc- 
torum quaternis vocibus, liber primus 
(Rome, 1585 and 1590 ; Venice, 1601 ; and 
Rome, 1622) ; Mottettorum quse partim 



quinis, partim senis, partim septenis voci- 
bus concinantur, liber primus (Rome, 1569 ; 
2d ed, Venice, 1586 ; 3d ed, 1600) ; Mot- 
tettorum, liber secundus, discovered by 
Baini (Venice, 1572) ; Mottettorum, liber 
tertius (Rome, 1575 ; Venice, 1581, 1589, 
and 1594) ; Mottettorum quatuor vocibus, 
partim plena voce, e jjartim partibus voci- 
bus, liber secundus (Venice, 1581 ; Rome, 
1590 ; Venice, 1604, 1606) ; Mottettorum 
quinque vocibus, liber quartus (Rome, 1584 ; 
2d ed., Venice, 1584 ; 10th ed., Rome, 
1650) ; Mottettorum quinque vocibus, liber 
quintus (Rome, 1584 ; Venice, 1588, 1595, 
1601). Three books of motets for 4, 5, and 
6 voices were collected by Baini. HL La- 
mentations of Jeremiah : 23 Lamentations 
in 4 parts, liber primus (Rome, 1588 ; 
Venice, 1589) ; and two other works in 4, 
5, and 6 parts, collected by Baini. IV. 
Hymns : Hymni totius anni, secundum S. 
R. E. consuetudinem quatuor vocibus con- 
cinendi nee non hymni religionum (Rome 
and Venice, 1589 ; Rome, 1625). V. Offer- 
toria (Rome, 1593; Venice, 1594, 1596). 
VI. Magnificat : Magnificat octo tonorum, 
liber primus (Rome, 1591 ; 2d ed., Venice, 
1591) ; also of 5-, 6-, and 8-part unedited 
Magnificats, collected by Baini. VII. Lit- 
anies : Litanipe Deiparfc Virginis (Rome, 
1600) ; Vm. Madrigali spiritual], libro 
primo (Venice, 1581) ; libro secundo (Rome, 
1594). IX. Psalms : Sacra omnia, solemn. 
Psalmodia Vespertina (Venice, 1596). X. 
Madrigals : Libro primo a quattro voci 
(Rome, 1555; Venice, 1568, 1570, 1594, 
1596, 1605) ; libro primo a cinquo voci 
(^^enice, 1581) ; secundo libro a quattro 
voci (Venice, 1586). Many of Palestrina's 
masses were edited and jjublished by Al- 
fieri in his " Raccolta di Musica in cui con- 
tengonsi i capolavori di celebri compositori 
italiani " (Rome, 1841) ; and Alfieri also pub- 
lished, " Raccolta di mottetti a quattro voci 
di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Ludo- 
vico de Vittoria di Avia e di Felice Anerio " 
(ib., 1841). A number of Palestrina's works 
were published by Proske in his collection of 



73 



PALESTRINA 



" Musica Divina." Tbo most of Palestrina's 
MSS. are in the Library of the Vatican, and 
37 motets are in the Library of the Con- 
servatoire in Paris. Breitkojof & Hartel's 
edition of Palestrina "Werke : L 5, 6, and 
7-part Motets ; 11. 5, G, and 8-part Motets ; 
IIL 5, 6, and S-jjart Motets; IV. 5-part 
Motets ; V. 4-part Motets ; YL. 5, 6, and 
8-part Motets; VH. 4, G, 8, and 12-pai-t 
Motets ; \TII. 4-part Hymns ; IS.. 5-part 
Offertories ; X. Masses, 1st Book ; XI. 2d 
Book; Xn. 3d Book; XHL 4th Book; 
XrV. 5th Book ; XV. Gth Book ; XVI 7th 
Book ; XVn. 8th Book ; XYIJI. 9 Books 
of Masses ; XIX. 10 Books of Masses ; 
XXIV. 15 Books of Masses ; XX\1. Three 
Books of Litanies for 4, 5, 6, and 8 voices, 
and six 12-part Motets and Psahns ; XXVII. 
35 Magnificats in 3 Books. XX^TH. 3, 4, 
5, and 6-part Madrigals, 3 Books ; XXIX. 
5-part Madrigals, 2 Books ; 15 Books of 
Masses ; 3 Books of Lamentations in 4, 5, 

/7_ f •> A ' /"• • and G parts ; 3 Books 
j4^^H^^C^/k4/l of Litanies in 4 and 
C jiarts ; 2 Books of Magnificats in 4, 5, 6, 
and 8 parts ; and a Supplement of miscel- 
laneous works, biographical data, and docu- 
ments, etc. — Baini, Memorie storico-critiche 
della vita e delle opera di G. Pierluigi da 
Palestrina (2 vols., Rome, 1828 ; German 
translations by Kandler and Kiesewetter, 
1834) ; C. Winterfcld, Palestrina, seine 
"Werke und deren Bedeutung fiir die Ge- 
schichte der Tonkunst (Breslau, 1832) ; 
Biiumker, Palestrina (Freiburg, 1871) ; 
Fc'tis, vi. ; Ambros, iv. 1. ; Clement, Mus. 
celebres, 7 ; Kiemann ; Naumann, Italien- 
ische Tondichter von Palestrina bis auf die 
Gegenvrart (?). 

PALESTRINA, oratorio, by Cari Loewe, 
written in 1841. It was performed by the 
Berlin Singakademie in 1845. — Wellmer, 
Loewe (Leipsic, 1887). 

PALIONE, GIUSEPPE, born in Rome, 
Oct. 7, 1781, died in Paris, December (?), 
1819. Dramatic composer, pupil of Fonte- 
maggi in Rome and of Fenaroli in Naples ; 
went to Paris in 1805, and taught vocal 



music. "Works — Operas : La finta amante, 
Naples, about 1800 ; Le due rivali, Rome, 
1802 ; La vedova astuta, ib., about 1803 ; 
La villanella rapita, ib., about 1804. De- 
bora, oratorio ; Ai-iane, cantata ; 2 sympho- 
nies for orchestra ; 3 quintets for 2 piano- 
fortes, 2 violins, and violoncello ; 9 quartets 
for strings. — Fetis. 

PiiLLAVICmO, BENEDETTO, born at 
Cremona in the second half of the IGth cen- 
tury, died (at Mantua?) after IGIG. Vocal 
composer, maestro di eappella to the Duke 
of Mantua. "Works : Book of madrigals, for 

4 voices (Venice, 1570) ; 7 books of do., for 

5 voices (ib., 1581, 1.593, 159G, 1597, 1G12, 
1G13) ; Book of do., for G voices (1587) ; do. 
of motets, for 8, 12, and IG voices (ib., 
1595) ; Madrigals in several collections of 
the time. — Fetis ; Riemann. 

PALLA"V^CINO, CARLO, born at Bres- 
cia, Italy, in 1G30, died in Dresden, Jan. 
27, 1G88. Dramatic composer, Vize-Kapell- 
meister in Dresden, 1GG7 ; Kaiiellmeister 
in 1G72 ; then lived for several years in 
Italy, but from 1G85 again in Dresden 
as Kapellmeister of the new Italian ojjera. 
"Works : AureUano, Demetrio, Venice, IGGG ; 
II tiranuo umiliato d' amore, ovvero Meraspe, 
1G67 ; Diocleziano, 1674 ; Enea in Itaha, 
1G75 ; Galeuo, 1G76 ; H Vespasiano, 1G78 ; 
n Nerone, 1G79 ; Messalina, 1G80 ; Bassiano, 
ossia il maggiore impossibile, 1G82 ; Carlo, 
ro d' Italia, 1G83 ; R re infante, 1G83 ; Li- 
cinio imi^eratore, 1G84 ; Recimero, vh de' 
Vaudali, 1G85 ; Massimo Puppieno, 1685 ; 
Penelope la casta, 1G8G ; Didone delirante, 
168G ; Amor innamorato, 1687 ; L' amaz- 
zone corsara, 1687 ; Elmiro, re di Corinto, 
1G87 ; La Gorusalemme liberata, 1G88 ; 
Antiope (finished by Strungk), Dresden, 
1689.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

PALilA, SILVESTRO DI, born at Ischia, 
near Naples, about 1762, died at Naples, 
Aug. 8, 1834. Dramatic com^joser, pupil 
of Valenti and Fenai-oli at the Conserva- 
torio in Loreto, and afterwards of Paisiello. 
"Works : La finta matta, Naples, 1791 ; La 
pietra simpatica, ib., 1792 ; GU amanti ridi- 



74 



PALME 



coli, ik, about 1794 ; La sposa contrastata, 
Turiu, about 1797 ; II iiaturalista immagiua- 
rio, Florence, 180G ; Several others, given in 
Naples. — Fetis. 

PALME, RUDOLF, born at Barby, Prus- 
sian Saxony, Oct. 23, 1834, still living, 1890. 
Organist of the Church of the Holy Ghost 
at Magdeburg, and royal music director ; 
pupil of August Gottfried Ritter. Works : 
Sonatas, jireludes, Conzert-Phantasie with 
male chorus, and many other comjjositions 
for the organ ; Choruses for male, and 
mixed voices, sacred songs, etc. — Riemann. 

PALMEN-SONNTAG MORGEN (Palm- 
Sunday morning), for chorus, soli, and or- 
chestra, text by Geibel, music by Ferdinand 
Hiller, op. 102. Pubhshed by Rieter-Bie- 
dermaun (Leijisic, 1860-67). 

PALIMER, HORATIO RICHMOND, 
born, of American parentage, in Sherburne, 
New York, April 26, 1834, still living, 1890. 
When nine years old he sang alto in a 
church chou-, at seventeen was organist 
and choirmaster, and at eighteen began 
composing. He studied thorough-bass and 
harmony under his father, but is chietly 
self-taught. He became professor of mu- 
sic in the Academy, Rushford, New York, 
then musical editor of the " Sunday School 
Teacher ;" in 1866 began editing the " Con- 
cordia," a monthly journal of music in Chi- 
cago, where for sis years he was chorister 
in the Second Baptist Church. In 1874 he 
removed to New York, where he still resides. 
He has lectured in nearly every State in the 
Union, and has had several thousand pupils 
under his instruction. In 1879 the Uni- 
versity of Chicago gave him the degree of 
Doctor of Music. He has published many 
collections, containing most of his own com- 
positions ; among them : The Song Queen 
(1867) ; Sabbath School Songs (1868) ; Nor- 
mal Collection of Sacred Music (1870, 200,- 
000 copies sold) ; The Song King (1871, 
200,000) ; The Standard (with L. O. Emer- 
son, 1872) ; Concert Choruses (1873) ; Songs 
of Love for the Bible School (1874) ; The 
Leader (with L. O. Emerson, 1874) ; The 



Song Monarch (with L. O. Emerson, 1874) ; 
The Song Herald (1876) ; Book of Anthoma 
(1879) ; The Sovereign (1879) ; Rays of 
Light (1882) ; Concert Gems for Choruses 
(1883) ; Book of Threnodies (1883) ; The 
Choral Union (1884) ; Concert Collection of 
Choruses, 1886 ; Book of Literludes, 1888 ; 
Anthems, glees, and jjart-songs. 

PALOTTA, MATTEO, surnamcd II Pa- 
normitano, born at Palermo in 1680, died 
in Vienna, March 28, 1758. Church com- 
poser, pupU at the Conservatorio di S. Ono- 
frio, Najiles, about the same time as Pergo- 
lesi. He was ordained secular jiriest on 
his return to Palermo, devoted himself to 
studies in part-writing and counterpoint, 
and produced a valuable work entitled : 
Gregorian! cantus enucleata praxis et cog- 
nitio ; a treatise on Guido d' Arezzo's Sol- 
misation ; and an instruction book on 
church tones. In 1733 he was apjjoiuted 
Hof-Kapellmeister in Vienna ; was dis- 
missed in 1741, and reinstated in 1749. 
Works : Masses in four and eight parts, 
motets, etc., in the libraries of the court 
chapel and the Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde, Vienna. — Mendel ; do., Ergilnz., 
324 ; Riemann ; Schilling. 

PALUMBO, COSTANTINO, born at 
Torre Annunziata, Naples, Nov. 30, 1843, 
still living, 1890. Pianist, pupil at the 
Conservatorio of Lanza antl Russo, and in 
comjiosition of Mercadante ; made a eon- 
cert tour in 1864 through Italy, and in 1867 
went to Paris, where he profited by the ad- 
vice of Henri Herz and Planti"'. Having 
appeared also in London as a vii'tuoso, he 
returned to Naj)les, where he gave many 
concerts, often performing in company with 
Thalberg. In 1873 he became professor at 
the Conservatorio. Works : Maria Stuarda, 
opera, given at Naples, Teatro San Carlo, 
1874 ; More than 70 compositions for the 
pianoforte. — Fctis, Supplement, ii. 298. 

PAmNGER (Pammigerus), LEON- 
HARDT, born at Aschau, Upper Austria, in 
1494, died at Passau, May 3, 1567. Con- 
trapuntist, educated in the Monastery of 



T5 



PAMPANI 




St. Nicholas at Passau, where he became 
secretary after completing his studies in 
Vienna in 1513-16. 
Works : Ecclesias- 
ticarum cantionum 
4, 5, G et jjlurium 
vocum, etc. (Nur- 
e mbor g, 1573) ; 
Others in several 
collections of the 
times. His three 
sons, Balthasar, 
Sophonias, and Sig- 
ismund, were also composers. — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Eitner, Bibl., 771. 

PAMPANI, ANTONIO GAETANO, born 
in the Komagna in the beginning of the 18th 
century, died in Venice, February, 17G9. 
Dramatic composer, maestro di cappeUa of 
the cathedral at Fermo until 1748, then di- 
rector of the Venice Couservatorio. Mem- 
ber of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, 
1746. Works— Operas : Anagilda, 1735 ; 
Artaserse Lougimano, 1737 ; La caduta d' 
Amulio, 174G ; La clemenza di Tito, 1748 ; 
Artastrse, 1750 ; II Vinceslao, 1752 ; Astia- 
nassc, 1755 ; Demofoonte, 1764 ; Demelrio, 
1768. Church music— Fetis. 

PiVNICO, mCHELE, born at Naples, 
July IG, 1830, still living, 1890. Dramatic 
and church composer, pupil of the Couser- 
vatorii at Naples and Milan. Works : La 
figlia di Domenico, opera, Naples, 1857 ; 
Stella, do., ib., 1859 ; SI e no, ojieretta, ib., 
1875 ; Mass with full orchestra, 1855 ; Other 
church music, and vocal melodies. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 299. 

PANIZZA, GLACOMO, born at Castel- 
lazzo, Italy, May 1, 1804, died there, April, 
18G0. Dramatic composer, and vocal in- 
structor of considerable reputation, who 
formed many excellent singers. Works — 
Operas : Sono eghno maritati ?, Milan, 
1827 ; La coUerica, ib., 1831 ; Gianni di 
Calais, Trieste, 1834 ; I ciarlatani, Milan, 
1839. Ballets : La rosiera ; Merope (with 
Viviani), Milan, 1832; Faust (with Costa 
and Bajetti), ib., 1848 ; Palmiua (with 



Santos and Pinto), ib., 1853 ; Nana Sa'ib 
(with Strebiuger), Vienna, 1867. Inno a 
Maria Malibran, serenade for 4 voices and 
orchestra, Milan, 1834 ; Sextet for wind in- 
struments ; Arias and romances. — Fotis ; 
do.. Supplement, ii. 299. 

PANNAIN, ANTONIO, born at Naples, 
Jan. 31, 1841, still living, 1890. Instru- 
mental and vocal composer, pupil of Nicola 
Fornai-ini, his uncle. Works ; 4 masses, of 
which 3 with orchestra ; Other church mu- 
sic ; 2 overtures for orchestra ; Pianoforte 
music, and songs. — Futis, Supplement, ii. 
299. 

PANNY, JOSEPH, born at Kohlmitz- 
berg, Nether Austria, Oct. 23, 1794, died 
at Mainz, Sept. 7, 1838. VioUnist, pupil of 
his father, and in theory of his grandfather, 
an organist ; studied afterwards in Vienna, 
where Paganiui took a fancy to him (1824), 
and invited him to join him on his future 
concert tours. In Prague they separated 
and Pauny went to Germany, gave concerts 
in Munich (1828) and other cities, and set- 
tled at Mainz, whence he made concert 
tours to Hamburg and Berlin in 1830, to 
Norway, Sweden, and England in 1831-32. 
Works : 3 masses ; Requiem, for 3 voices, 
2 violins, 2 horns, and organ ; Several grad- 
uals ; Cantatas ; Quartets ; Sonata for clar- 
inet and pianoforte ; Violin music ; Cho- 
ruses for male voices, and songs. — Allgem. 
wiener mus. Zeitg. (1842), 448 ; Fetis ; N. 
Necrol. der D. (1839), i. 38 ; Wurzbach. 

PANOFKA, HEINRICH, born in Brcs- 
lau, Oct. 2, 1807, died in Florence, Italy, 
Nov. 18, 1887. Violinist, and professor of 
singing ; destined to the law by his father, 
he took lessons on the violin from his sis- 
ter, a clever violinist ; learned the princi- 
ples of music from the cantor Strauch and 
his successor Foerster, played at a concert 
at the age of ten, when his father, recogniz- 
ing his talent, sent him to study in Vienna 
under Mayseder and Hoffmann, 1824-27. 
He gave his first concert in 1827 ; left Vi- 
enna for Munich in 1829, and thence went to 
Berlin, and at last settled in Paris as violin- 



70 



PANSEKON 



ist. He played at the Conservatoire con- 
certs, studied vocal music and itfs practical 
instruction under Bodogni, and with him 
established in 1842 an Acadcmie de Chant, 
in imitation of the one in Berlin. Their 
project was not successful, as the Prince de 
la Moskowa was then forming his Societu 
de Concerts. In 1844 Panofka went to 
London, and in 1847 was engaged by Lum- 
ley as assistant at Her Majesty's Theatre at 
the time of Jenny Lind's visit. The Revo- 
lution of 1848 obliging him to remain in 
London, he became widely known as a 
teacher of singing, but returned to Paris in 
1852, and settled at Florence in 1866.' 
Works : L' art de chanter, op. 81 (Paris) ; 
24 vocalises progressives, op. 85 ; Abecc- 
daire vocal, 2d edition ; 12 vocalises d' ar- 
tiste, op. 86 ; Erholung und Studium, op. 
87 ; 86 nouveaux exercices, op. 88 ; 12 vo- 
calises pour contralto, op. 89 ; 12 Vokalisen 
fur Bass, op. 90 ; Works for violin and pi- 
anoforte, and violin and orchestra, etc. — Fe- 
tis ; Riemauu ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PiVNSERON, AUGUSTE MATTHIEU, 
bom in Paris, April 2G, 1796, died there, 
July 29, 1859. Vocal composer, professor 
of singing, and writer ou music ; the son 
of a professor of music who scored many of 
Gretry's operas, he entered the Conserva- 
toire in 1804, became pupil of Gossec in 
counterpoint, of Levasseur on the violon- 
cello, and of Bertini in harmony, winning 
prizes in these studies. He won, also, in 
1813 the grand jirix de Rome for his can- 
tata Herminie. He went to Italy, took 
lessons in counterpoint from Mattel in 
Bologna, lived in Naples and Rome several 
years, studying under the best masters, 
went to Germany, and was pupil of Salieri 
in Vienna, and of Winter in Munich. In 
1817 he became honorary Kapellmeister to 
Prince Eszterhiizy at Eisenstadt. After vis- 
iting Prussia be returned iu 1818 to Paris, 
where he taught singing and became ac- 
companist at the Opera Comique, then in 
1826 professeur de solfege and in 1826 pi'O- 
fesseur de chant at the Conservatoire. His 



great charm as a composer was in his ro- 
mances, which acquired great popularity, 
and of which he published two hundred 
between 1825 and 1840. His greatest 
merit lies in his didactic treatises, which 
were the outcome of his experiences as jjro- 
fessor at the Conservatoire. L. of Honour ; 
Orders of Oaken Crown, and of the Red 
Eagle. Works : La grille du pare, opera- 
comique, Paris, Theatre Feydeau, 1820 ; Les 
deux cousines, do., ib., 1821 ; Le mariage 
difficile, ib., 1823 ; L'ccole de Rome, Oduon, 
1827 ; 3 solemn masses ; 2 masses for 3 so- 
prani ; Requiem ; De prof undis ; Miserere for 
4 voices ; Mois de Marie, motets and hymns 
for 1-3 voices ; Pie Jesu ; Many fugues ; 
Fantaisies, nocturnes, and themes varies 
for pianoforte and flute. ABC musical ; 
Suite de I'A B C ; Solfuge a deux voix ; Sol- 
fege d'artiste ; Solfege sur la clef de fa ; 
Solfege d'ensemble a deux, trois et quatre 
voix, 3 parts ; Solfege du pianiste ; Solfege 
du violoniste ; Solfege concertant a deux, 
trois et quatre voix, 3 parts ; 50 lemons de 
solfege a changements de clefs ; 36 do., suite 
aux 50 lemons ; Methode complete de voca- 
lisation, 3 parts ; Douze etudes sj)eciales ; 
Traite de I'harmonie pratique, etc. — Fetis ; 
do.. Supplement, ii. 300 ; Riemann ; Schil- 
ling, Supplement, 334. 

PANZINI, ANGELO, born at Lodi, Nov. 
22, 1820, still living, 1890. Pianist, pro- 
fessor at the Conservatorio in Milan. 
Works : La carita, cantata ; II brindisi, 
song with chorus ; Ariettas and other vocal 
music ; Grand sonata for pianoforte and 
harmonium ; Various pieces for do. ; do. 
for pianoforte and flute ; Grand duo for 
2 flutes ; Nocturnes, caprices, melodies, 
scherzi, etc. — Fetis, Sujjplement, ii. 300. 

PAOLUCCI, Padre GIUSEPPE, born at 
Siena in 1727, died at Assisi iu 1777. Church 
composer and Franciscan monk, pujjil of 
Padre Martini at Bologna, then maestro di 
cappella successively in the convents of his 
order at Venice, at Sinigaglia, and at Assisi. 
Works : Preces pife, for 8 voices (2 choirs), 
(Venice, 1767) ; Other church music iu MS. 



77 



PAPILLONS 



He is particularly noteworthy through the 
IJublication of his Arte pratica di contrap- 
punto dimostrata con esempj di vari autori 
(ib., 17G5-72).— Fetis. 

PA-PA-PAPAGENO. See ZaubcrflOie. 

PAPILLONS (Butterflies), a set of twelve 
short pianoforte ijieces in dance form, by 
Schumann ; op. 2. Nos. 1, 3, 4, G, and 8 
were composed in 1829, the others in 1831. 
They were written in Heidelberg and Leip- 
sic, and are dedicated to the composer's 
sisters-in-law, Therese, Rosalie, and EmiUe 
Schumann. The name indicates musical 
ideas and phases, exjiressed from esjseri- 
ences of a thoughtful Ufe, through which 
they break as the butterflj' from its chrysa- 
lis. Schumann gives them a poetical mean- 
ing by referring to the chapter of Jean 
Paul's " Flegeljahre," describing a masked 
ball, or carnival, which the PapLllous ai-e 
sui^posed to depict. The last bars of the 
finale ai-e inscribed with these words : "The 
noise of the Carnival night dies away. The 
church clock strikes sis." The PapUlons 
may be regarded as a sketch for the more 
elaborate Carneval, op. 9, and in this work 
a passage is inserted from the Papillons, 
No. 1. The finales of both works contain 
the Grossvaterlanz, which is the finale of op. 
2, and is treated coutrax)uutally with the 
subject of Papillon No. 1. Introduzione, 
Moderate, in D ; L In D ; H. Prestissimo, 
in E-flat and A-flut ; IIL In F-sharp minor ; 
IV. Presto, in A ; V. In B-flat ; VI. In D 
minor ; Vli. Semplice, in F minor and A-flat ; 
\TII. In C-sharp minor and D-flat ; IX. 
Prestissimo, in B-flat minor ; X. Vivo, in C, 
Piti lento in G and C ; XI. In D, Piti lento 
in G, In tempo vivo in D ; XH. Finale in 
D (Grossvatertanz), Piii lento. PubUshed 
by Kistner (Leipsic, 1832). Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Schumann Werke, Serie vii., No. 2. 
— Wasielewsky, Schumann, 3d ed., 328 ; 
Reissmann, Schumann, 41 ; Maitland, Schu- 
mann, 49 ; Wiener mus. Zeitg. (1832), No. 
26 ; AUgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxv. G16 ; Grove, 
ii. G45 ; iii. 408. 

PAPINI, GUIDO, bom at Camaggiore, 



near Florence, Aug. 1, 1847, still living, 
1890. Virtuoso on the violin, pupil of Gi- 
orgetti. He made his debut at the age of 
thii-tcen in Florence, jjlaying Spohi-'s third 
concerto ; and was for several years leader 
of the Societa del Quartetto in that city. 
In 1874 he appeared in England at the 
Musical Union, and has since played at the 
old and new Philharmonics, and in 187G at 
the Pasdeloup Concerts in Paris. Works : 
Concerto for violin ; do. for violoncello ; 
Exercices du mecanisme pom- le violou 
seul ; Amour, romance-nocturne ; A mon 
t'toile, romance sans pai'oles ; FeuiUes 
d'album, etc. ; Arrangements and tran- 
scriptions. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 312 ; 
Grove ; Mendel, Ergiiuz., 325. 

PARADIES, PIETRO D03IENIC0, 
bom in Naples in 1710, died in Vcuico in 
1792. Harpsichord player and dramatic 
comj)oser, pupil of Porpora ; he went to 
London in 1747, and lived there many 
years, teaching the pianoforte. Works : 
His best known operas are Alessandro in 
Persia, Lucca, 1738 ; II decreto del fato, 
Venice, 1740 ; Phaiiton, London, 1747 ; Le 
muse in gara, cantata, Venice, Conserva- 
torio dc' Mcndicanti, 1740 ; 12 sonato di 
gravicembalo (London ; 2d ed., Amsterdam, 
1770).— Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel. 

PARADIES UND DIE PERI, DAS 
(Paradise and the Peri), cantata in three 
parts, for soli, chorus, and orchestra, text 
from Moore's " Lalla Rookh," music by 
Schumann, op. 50, first performed at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipsic, Dec. 2, 1843, imder 
the composer's direction. This is Schu- 
mann's first work for voices and orches- 
tra, and is one of his most important com- 
jiositions. It bears the same relation to 
the concert hall that Weber's Oberon does 
to the stage. The text was chosen largely 
from Emil Fechsig's translation of " Lalla 
Rookh," but Schumann added several num- 
bers to the third part. Characters repre- 
sented : A Peri (S.) ; an Angel (A.) ; the 
King of Gazna (B.) ; a Youth (T.) ; a 
Horseman (Bar.) ; a Maiden (S.) ; and cho- 



78 



PARADIS 



ruses of Indians, Angels, Houris, and Genii 
of the Nile. The part of Narrator is sung 
by the different voices and the chorus. 
This work was first given in Dresden, Dec. 
23, 1843 ; in Berlin, Feb. 17, 1847 ; in Dub- 
lin, Feb. 10, 1854 ; in London, by the Phil- 
harmonic Society, with Mme Jenny Lind 
Goldschmidt as the Peri, June 23, 185G ; at 
the Theatre Italien, Paris, in December, 
18G9 ; and in New York by the Oratorio 
Society in 1876. Published by Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1845). Schumann Werke, 
Serie ix.. No. 1. Same title, cantata by 
John F. Barnett, Birmingham (England) 
Festival, Aug. 31, 1870. — Heissmaun, Schu- 
mann, 129 ; Maitland, Schumann, 85-87 ; 
130-131 ; Neue Zeitschr. xxvi. 71 ; Naumann 
(Ouseley), ii. 1020 ; Concertwesen im Wien, 
ii. 145 ; Signale (1858), 113 ; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xlv. 951 ; slvi. 28 ; xlvii. 561, 585, 
606, 617 ; lii. 210 ; Athenjeum (1844), 951 ; 
(1855), 651 ; (1856), 81G ; Grove, ii. 648 ; 
iii. 416; Upton, Standard Oratorios, 273. 

PAEADIS, MAEIA THEKESIA VON, 
born in Vienna, May 15, 1759, died there, 
Feb. 1, 1824. Pianist and, although blind 
from her fifth year, a skilful organist, pupil 
of Eichter and Ko^eluch, Salieri, and Ei- 
ghiui, and in composition of Friberth and 
the Abt Vogler. She became a protegee 
of the Empress Maria Theresa, her god- 
mother, and went in 1784 to Paris, where she 
played at the court concerts and Concerts 
Spirituels, and at the then newly founded 
Professional Concerts. She visited London 
in 1786, then Brussels and the most im- 
jDortant German courts, and on her return 
to Vienna played at the concerts of the 
Tonkunstler Societilt. Mozart wrote a con- 
certo for her, and a friend invented a system 
of notation for her so that she took up com- 
position. Towards the close of her life she 
devoted herself to teaching singing and the 
pianoforte. Principal works: Ariadne and 
Bacchus, melodrama, Vienna, 1791 ; Der 
Schulcandidat, operetta, ib., 1792 ; Kinaldo 
und Alcina, fairy oj^era, Prague, 1797 ; 
Deutsches Monument Ludwig's des Ungliick- 



lichen, a funeral cantata for the anniversary 
of the death of Louis XVI., Vienna, 1794 ; 
Trio for pianoforte and strings ; Sonatas, 
variations, etc., for pianoforte ; German 
songs and Italian canzonets. — Fctis ; Ger- 
ber ; Mendel, viii. 15 ; Eiemann ; Schilling ; 
Wurzbach. 

PAEADIS SOETI DU SEIN DE 
L'ONDE. See Africaine. 

PAEADISE AND THE PEEI, fantasy- 
overture for orchestra, by William Sterndalo 
Bennett, op. 42, written for, and first per- 
formed at the Jubilee concert of the Phil- 
hai-monic Society, London, July 14, 1862. 
— Athen.t'um (18^62), ii. 89. 

PAEDON DE PLOEEMEL, LE (The 
Pilgrimage of PloGrmel), French opura-co- 
mique in three acts, text by Jules Barbier 
and jMichel Carro, music by Meyerbeer, 
first represented at the Optra Comiquo, 
Paris, April 4, 1859. Original cast : 

Dinorah (S.) Mme Cabel. 

HoOl (Bar.) M. Faure. 

Corentin (T.) M. Saiute-Foy. 

The scene is laid in the village of PloiJrmel, 
Brittany. On a certain day, when the in- 
habitants of Plourmel make a j)ilgrimage to 
the shrine of the Vii-gin, Hool, a goatherd, 
and Dinorah, his betrothed, go to receive a 
benediction. A storm arises and destroys 
Dinorah's house. Hoel, resolving that she 
shall not suffer by the loss, and acting on a 
wizard's advice, leaves Ploermel in quest of 
a treasure which is guarded by the Kori- 
gans, fays of Brittany, and spends a year in 
the forest in solitude. Dinorah, believing 
that her lover has abandoned her, becomes 
mad and wanders about with her goat, seek- 
ing him. The opera begins at this point. 
After a rustic chorus, Dinorah enters and 
sings a slumber song to her goat, "Dors, 
petite, dors tranquille." Soon HoOl arrives, 
and goes to the house of a bagpiper, Corent- 
in, to whom he tells the story of the treasure. 
Dinorah is seen in the distance, and the act 
closes with a trio. The second act begins 
with a drinking-song by the wood-cutters. 



79 



PAEENTI 



When they leave the stage, Dinorah enters 
and begins a pathetic air ; but seeing her 
shadow in the moonHght, she dances to it, 
singing meanwhile the famous aria, " Ombre 
legfere," or " Shadow Song," a polka ma- 
zurka, which is frequently given at con- 
certs. The next scene is in the Val Maudit, 
where HoOl and Corentin are searching for 
the Korigans' treasui-e. Dinorah is heard 
singing, and from her words Corentin learns 
that whoever touches it first will die. He 
refuses to continue the quest, and Hoel, 
who sees Dinorah, believes her to be a spiiit. 




D^sirSo ArtJt. 

She falls from the bridge into the torrent 
and is rescued by HoOl, who takes her back 
to Ploermel. In the last act Dinorah's rea- 
son returns, and she goes with HoOl to the 
chapel, while a procession is seen in the dis- 
tance wending its way to the shrine. The 
overture is a retrospect, and is unique in 
having interpolated a chorus, which sings 
behind the scenes a chant to the Virgin. 
The role of Dinorah, one of the most fan- 
tastic and charming of light soprano 
parts, has been sung with success by Ade- 
Una Patti, lima de Murska and Dosirt'e 
Artot. The opera is given in Italian under 



the title of " Dinorah." It was represented 
in Italian at Covent Garden, London, under 
Meyerbeer's direction, July 20, 1859, with 
Mme Miolan-Carvalho as Dinorah ; Si- 
gner Gardoni, Corentin ; and Signor Grazi- 
ani, Hoiil. It was given at Covent Garden 
in English, Oct. 3 of the same year, with 
Miss Pyne, Mr. Santley, and Mr. Harrison. 
It was first represented in New York with 
IMlle Cordier as Dinorah. Published by 
Brandus & Dufour (Paris, 1859) ; by Bote 
& Bock (Berlin, 18G0).— Clement et La- 
rousse, 511 ; Mendel, Meyerbeer, 86 ; Eovue 
et Gaz. mus. de Paris (1859), 117, 125, 133, 
349 ; Athenfeum (1859), i. 522 ; ii. 151, 
473 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 153 ; Hans- 
lick, Moderne Oper, IGl. 

P.\ItENTI, FEANCESCO PAOLO 
(MAURIZIO), born in Naples, Sept. 15, 
1764, died in Paris in 1821. Dramatic and 
church composer, pupil, at the Conserva- 
torio della Pieta de' Turchini, of Tarantia, 
Sala, and Traetta ; went to Paris in 1792, 
and was accompanist and chorus-master at 
the Italian opera there in 1802-3. Works 
— Operas : Le vendemie, Venice, about 
1784 ; II matrimonio per fanatismo, 1785 ; 
I viaggiatori felici, about 1785 ; H re pas- 
tore, about 1787 ; Nitteti, Venice, about 
1788 ; Artaserse, about 1789 ; Les deus por- 
traits, Paris, 1792 ; L'homme ou le malheur, 
ib., 1795. Masses and motets alia Pales- 
trina, and other church music. — Ft'tis. 

PARIDE ED ELENA (Paris and Helen), 
Italian opera in five acts, text by Calzabigi, 
music by Gluck, first represented in Vi- 
enna in 1769. This work was written af- 
ter Alceste and Orfeo, and continued the 
reformation begun in those operas. The 
story is from the Iliad ; but Elena is made 
Queen of Sparta, and the betrothed, in- 
stead of the wife of Menelaus. Characters 
represented : Paride, son of Priam, King of 
Troy (S.) ; Elena, Queen of Sparta (S.) ; 
Erasto (Amore, the god of love), (S.) ; Pal- 
lade (Pallas), the goddess (S.) ; a Trojan 
(T.) ; and chorus of Trojans and Spartans. 
The opera closes with a ballet. Among the 



80 



' THE NEW YORR 
il'UBLIC LIBRARY 
1 

TlLBf.N FOUNCATION* 



TARIS 



best numbers ai"e : The Overture in C ; the 
ballet music in A minor ; and Paride's first 
three arias, " O del mio doles ardor," in G 
minor ; " Spiagge amate, ove talora," in 
F ; and "La bella immagine," in F minor. 
The score was dedicated to the Duke Gio- 
vanni di Braganza, and published by Tratt- 
ner (Vienna, 1770). The overture was re- 
scored by Hans vou Biilow, and jjublished 
by Peters (Lei^Jsic, 18(J4). He added two 
clarinets in G, two horns in F, and a bass 
trombone, to the original score, which re- 
quired strings, two flutes, two oboe.s, two 
bassoons, two trumpets, two horns, and 
drums. A now edition of the opera in 
jjianoforte score, by H. M. Schletterer, was 
published by Peters (Leij^sic, 18G4) ; and a 
new edition of the ballet music, by Carl 
Eeinecke, by Brcitkopf & Hartel (Leipsic, 
1882). Other operas on the same subject — 
in Italian : II ratto d' Elena, by Virgilio Puc- 
citeUi, Dantzic, 1C34 ; by Francesco Cirillo, 
test by Gennaro Paolella, Naples, 1G55 ; 
Elena, regina di Sparta, by Cavalli, Venice, 
1659 ; II Paride, text and music by Gio- 
vanni Andrea Bontempi, Dresden, Nov. 3, 
1(jG2 ; Elena rapita da Paride, by Giovanni 
Domenico Freschi, Venice, 1G77 ; L'amorosa 
preda di Paride, by G. B. Bassani, Bologna, 
1684 ; II giudizio di Paride, by Pollarolo, 
Venice, 1G99 ; by Gianettini (Zauettini), 
about 1710 ; by K. H. Graun, text by Vil- 
lati, Berlin, June 25, 1752 ; by Valentino 
Fioravauti, about 1803 ; II giudizio di 
Paride corretto della giustizia, serenata, 
test by L. N. Cilni, music by P. E. Bal- 
dasari, Vienna, July 10, 1707 ; Helena, ossia 
la forza dell' amore, text and music by 
Eeinhardt Keiser, Hamburg, 1709 ; Paride 
in Ida, text bj' Mazzari, music by Coletti 
and Carlo Monza, Venice, 1709, revised by 
Mendozzi as Le due rivali in gara, Padua 
and Bologna, 1719 ; Le nozze di Paride, by 
Galuppi, Venice, 1756 ; II Paride, by Pietro 
Casella, Naples, 1806 ; and Elena in Troja, 
Italian operetta by Eoberto d' Alessio, Na- 
ples, January, 1875. Operas in French, Le 
jugement de Paris, by Marc Antoiue Char- 



pentier, Paris, about 1700 ; by T. Bertin 
de la Due, test by Mile Barbier and Pelle- 
grin, ib., June 21, 1718 ; by Franz Hor- 
zizk}', Eeinsberg, about 1790 ; opera-co- 
mique, by Laurent de Eillo, text by Albyaud 
Commerson, Paris, Feb. 11, 1859 ; La belle 
Hc'lene, by Offenbach, ib., Dec. 17, 18G4 ; 
La belle Helene dans sou menage, by 
Georges Eose, ib., 1867 ; ballet by Mehul, 
ib., 1793, and cantata by Salieri, ib., 1787. 
Operas in German : Paris und Helena, test 
by David Schirmer, composer of music un- 
known, Dresden, Dec. 2, 1650 ; by Johann 
David Heinichen, Leipsic, 1709 ; by Peter 
von Winter, Munich, 1780 ; Der Eaub der 
Helena, ballet by Josef Weigl, Vienna, May 
16, 1795 ; Paris und Helena, ballet by J. 
N. Hummel, about 1810 ; Der trojanisclie 
Krieg (second part of Die schOne Helena), 
by W. Homann, test by SchObel, Hamburg, 
August, 1867 ; and music to Euripides's He- 
lena, by Louis Kuhler, about 18G0. Operas 
in English : The Judgment of Paris, masque, 
by Congreve, music by Purcell, Eccles, 
Weldon, and Finger, London, March 11, 
1701 ; new music, by Dr. Arne, ib., 1740 ; 
oi^ora, by F. H. Barthi'lemon, ib., 1770 ; and 
a ballet, by D. Steibelt, ib., 1804.— Marx, 
Gluck und die O^Jer, i. 396-433 ; ii. 377 ; 
Schmid, Eitter von Gluck, 135-154 ; Bitter, 
Eeform der Oper durch Gluck, 256 ; Eeiss- 
mann, Gluck, 129 ; AUgem. mus. Zeitg., xiv. 
632 ; (1864), 849, 865, 869. 

PAEIGI, O CAEA. See Tramata. 

PAEIS, CLAUDE JOSEPH, born at Ly- 
ons, March 6, 1801, died in Paris, July 25, 
1866. Dramatic composer ; studied first in 
his native city, then was j)upil of Lesueur 
at the Conservatoire, Paris, where he won 
the second grand prix in 1825, and the first 
in 1826. He then studied two years in 
Eome and Naples, returned to Paris, then 
to Lyons, and about 1835 became chef 
d'orchestre at the Theatre du Pantheon, 
Paris. Works : L' alloggio militare, opera 
buffa, Vienna, 1829 ; La veillee, Paris, Ope- 
ra Comique, 1831 ; Le cousin de Denise, 
Theatre Beaumarchais, 1849 ; ballet, The- 



81 



PARISE 



aire de la Porte Saint-Martin, 1825 ; Her- 
minie, cantata, 182G. — Futis ; do., SuppK'- 
ment, ii. 304. 

PARISE, GENNAEO, born at Naples 
during the last j-ears of the 18th century. 
Church composer, pupil of his father, but 
formed himself chie% by studying the 
works of the gi'eat masters. He became ma- 
estro di cajipella at the cathedral and several 
other churches of Najiles, and in ISGljwofes- 
sor at the Koyal College of Music. "Works : 
Masses with orchestra ; Do. alia Palestrina ; 
Do. for 3 voices, with organ ; Short masses 
and vesjjers, with organ and harp ; Requiem 
with full orchestra ; 2 do. alia Palestrina ; 3 
complete vespers with all the psalms, do.; 
Other psalms with fuU orchestra ; Dixit, 
Credo, Te Deum, etc., hymns with orches- 
tra, or organ, or alia Palestrina. — Fetis. 

PARISER SmFONIE, for orchestra, in 
D, by Mozart, first performed at the Concert 
Spii-ituel, Paris, June 18, 1778, with gi-eat 
success. L Allegi'o assai ; H Andantino ; 
UL iVllegro. The opening phrase of the 
first movement was -wi-itten with regard to 
the "premier coup d'archet," for which the 
Paris orchestra was famous. Legros, by 
whom Mozart was commissioned to write 
the symphony, wished him to insert a 
lighter movement in place of the Andan- 
tino. Mozart acquiesced, and the sym- 
phony in its new form was played in Paris, 
Aug. 15, 1778. It is one of the compos- 
er's most fully scored symphonies, and is 
usually given as originally written. It was 



PARISH- ALVARS, ELI AS, born at 
Teignmouth, England, Feb. 28, 1808, died 
in Venice, Jan. 25, 1849. Virtuoso on the 
harp and pianist, pupil of Dizi, Labarre, 
and Bochsa ; became one of the most dis- 
tinguished performers on the harp ; visited 
Germany in 1831, and played at Bremen, 
Hamburg, and other places with great suc- 
cess. After visiting Milan, he went in 1836 
to Vienna, where he remained two years ; 
travelled in the East in 1838-42, and on his 
return gave concerts in Leipsic, and visited 
Bei'lin, Frankfort, Dresden, Prague in 1843, 
and Naples in 1844. In 184G he went to Leip- 
sic, where his association with Mendelssohn 
imjjroved his composition, and in 1847 ho 
settled in Vienna and became chamber mu- 
sician to the Emperor. Works : 2 concertos 
for harp and orchestra ; Concertino for two 
harps and orchestra ; Fantasias, transcrip- 
tions, romances, and melodies, for harp and 
orchestra, harp and jHanoforte, etc.; Marcli 
for harp ; Voyage d'uu liarpiste en Orient, 
a collection of airs and melodies pojjular in 
Turkey and Asia Minor. — Grove ; Fetis ; 
IMendel ; Wnrzbach. 

PARISIAN BACCHANALE. See Tann- 
liduser. 

PARISIENNE, LA, French revolutionary 
song, text by Casimir Delavigne, music by 
Brack, supposed to have been written in 
1757, at the time of the siege of Harburg. 
The music was transposed by Auber, who 
composed for it additional bars of instru- 
mental accompaniment. It was first sung 



performed at the Crystal Palace, London, i in public at the Theatre de la Porte Saint- 
March 15, 1873. The autograph, in pos- [ Martin, Paris, Aug. 2, 1830, and at the Aca- 
session of Andre (Offenbach), was published dcmie Royale de Musique, Paris, Aug. 4, 
by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie 1830, during a representation of La muette 



viii.. No. 31. A second symphony is said to 
have been written bj' Mozart in Paris at 
that time and first perfonned there, Sejit. 
18, 1778, but the score of this has been 
lost. — KiJchel, Verzeichniss, No. 297 ; An- 
dre, Verzeichniss, No. 127 ; Jahn, Mozart, 
ii. 287 ; Nissen, Mozart, i. 377, 385 ; Geh- 
ring, Mozart, 7G ; Mozart's Letters (Lady 
Wallace), i. 208 ; Grove. 



de Portici, by Adolphe Nourrit, who sang it 
every evening for several months, and it 
was greatly owing to him that it became 
popular. The subject is the triumph of 
the Orleanist party. Of late years a con- 
troversy has arisen regarding its origin. 
The air, which is bold and martial, was pre- 
viously introduced into Le baron de Trenk, 
a comedie-vaudeville in two acts, by Scribe 



82 



PARISDSTA 



and Delavigne, Paris, Oct. 4, 1828. Henri 
Herz wrote variations on this air, op. 58, 
published by Seliott (Mainz, 1830).— Grove, 
ii. G49 ; Larousse ; Eevue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (April i), 1849). 

PARISINA, overture for orchestra, in 
F-sharp minor, to Loi-d B3'ron's j^oem of 
the same title, bj' William Sterudale Ben- 
nett, op. 3, composed in 1834-35, and first 
performed in Loipsic, in March, 1837, and 
at the London Philharmonic in 1839. It 
was given at the Euterpe Concert, Leipsic, 
Feb. 1, 187G. Published by Kistner (Leip- 
sic, 1S7C). 

PARISINA, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Romani, music by Donizetti, first 
represented at the Pergola, Florence, March 
18, 1833. The story is fi-om Byron's "Pa- 
risina." Azzo, Duke of Ferrara, who has 
put his wife, Matilda, to death, marries 
a young and beautiful woman, Parisina, 
who loves Hugucs, a young soldier who has 
won renown under Ernest, the Duke's gen- 
eral. Hugues, victor in a tournament, is 
crowned by Parisina, who betrays Ler af- 
fection for him. On making this discovery, 
Azzo has the two arrested and sentenced to 
death. Ernest reveals to him that Hugues 
is his child, whom Matilda left in his charge. 
Although Azzo hates this son, lie revokes 
the sentence and orders him to be banished. 
The order comes too late, for at the moment 
■when Parisina makes her last prayer Ernest 
appears, and, drawing a curtain, discloses 
the corpse of Hugues, upon \?hich Parisina 
falls dead. Original cast : 

Parisina (S.) Mle Ungher. 

Hugues (T.) M. Duprez. 

Azzo (B.) M. CoseUi. 

This ojjera was given at the Theatre 
Italien, Paris, Feb. 24, 1838, with Grisi, 
Eubini, and Tamburini in the cast. Pub- 
lished by Ricordi (Milan). — Clement et 
Larousse, 512 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1837-38), 101 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xxxvii. 405. 




Dance of Sirens, 



PARKER, HENRY, born in London, 
Aug. 4, 1845, still living, 1890. Instru- 
mental and vocal 
composer, pupil at 
Lei2")sic of Moscheles, 
Eichter, and Plaidy, 
and in Paris of Le- 
fort. Works: Pa- 
mela, gavotte for or- 
chestra ; Clarissa, 
minuet for do. ; Do- 
rothea, sarabande, 
do. ; P a V a n n e d e 
Guise, do. ; Imogen, do. 
do. ; 400 songs and pianoforte jjieces. 
PARKER, HORATIO WILLIAM, Iwrn, 
of American par- 
ents, at Auburn- 
dale, Massachu- 
setts, Sept. 15, 
18G3, still living, 
1890. Organist 
a n d composer, 
pupil from 1877 
of his mother, an 
accomplished mu- 
sician, then in 
Boston of Stephen 
A. Emery in har- 
mony and pianoforte, of John Orth in piano- 
forte, and of George W. Chadwick in comjjo- 
sition. In 1880 he was organist of St. Paul's, 
Dedham, Mass., and in 1881 of St. John's, 
Boston Highlands. In 1882 he went to 
Munich, where he studied for three years the 
organ and composition under Josef Rhein- 
berger, and conducting under Ludwig Abel. 
In 1885 his cantata. King Trojan, was suc- 
cessfully given in Munich. On his return 
to America in the same year he became j)ro- 
fessor of music at the Cathedral Schools of 
St. Paul and St. IMary, Garden Citj-, Long- 
Island ; in lS8(i he became organist and 
choirmaster at St. Andrew's Church, Har- 
lem, New York, and in 1887 resigned his 
position in St. Paul's, but retained that in 
St. Mary's School ; in 1888 became organist 
and choirmaster at the Church of the 




I ^■^ 



PAIiKEli 



Holy Trinity, Madison Avenue, New York. 
"Works: Concert overture, in E-flat, given 
in Munich, 1884 ; Psalm xxiii., for female 
chorus, organ, and harp, ib., 1884 ; Ro- 
mance for chorus and orchestra, ib., 1884 ; 
Symphony in C major, orchestra, ib., 1885 ; 
Kegulus, heroic overtui-e, ib., 1885 ; King 
Trojan, ballad for chorus or orchestra, ib., 
1885 ; String quartet in F major, Garden 
City, 188G ; Der Normanuenzug, ballad for 
male chorus and orchestra. New York, 1889 ; 
Chamber music ; Organ and pianoforte mu- 
sic ; Songs and jiart-songs for male, female, 
and mixed voices. 
r.\ItKER, JAjMES cutler DUNN, 
born, of Amer- 
ican parentage, 
in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, June 
2, 1828, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Or- 
ganist; was 
g r a d u ated at 
Hai-vard Col- 
lege in 1848, 
and began to 
study law, but 
soon gave it up for mu.sic, and, after prelim- 
inary- study in Boston, went in 1851 to Eu- 
rope and studied, in Leipsic, the pianoforte 
under Moscheles and Phiidy, hai'mony un- 
der Hauptmann, and composition under 
Rietz and Richter. In 1854 he returned to 
Boston and soon took a prominent jilace as 
organist, leader, and instructor. In 1862 he 
organized the Parkiu' Club, an amateur vo- 
cal association which gave classical works 
with success. He has been organist of the 
Handel and Haydn Sociot\', and for the past 
twenty-four years organist and choir direc- 
tor of Trinity Cluu-ch, Boston ; and has 
held a 2)rofessorship in the College of Mu- 
sic connected with the Boston University. 
"Works : Redemption Hymn, for contralto 
solo and chonis, wi-itten for the fourth trien- 
nial festival of the Handel and Haydn Soci- 
ety, May 17, 1877 ; The Blind King, cantata, 
188G ; Church music. Didactic : Manual of 





Sterndale Bennett. 



Harmony (1855) ; Theoretical and Practical 
Harmony (1870). 
PARKER, LOXnS NAPOLEON, born at 
Calvados, France, Oct. 
21, 1852, still living, 
1890. I'ianist ; studied 
in Italy, France, and 
Germany, and fro m 
1870 at the Royal Acad- 
emy of ]\Iusio, London, 
under Harold Thomas, 
"Walworth , B a n i s t e r, 
Steggall, Cusins, and 
In 1874 he was elected 
an Associate of the Royal Academy of Mu- 
sic, and he has been since 1877 director 
of music in the King's School, Sherborne. 
Works : Silvia, dramatic idyl, text by Sew- 
ard Mariner (Walter Raymond), for four 
solo voices, chorus, and small orchestra, 
1880 ; Psalm xxiii., motet for female voices ; 
The Wreck of the Hesperus, trio for female 
voices, text by Longfellow ; Cantate Do- 
mino and Deus misereatur ; Overtures for 
orchestra (MS.) ; "Violin music ; Pianoforte 
music ; Songs. 

PARLAR, SPIEGAR. See vl/o.s^ in 
Egitto. 

PARJIENTIER, CHARLES JOSEPH 
THEODORE, born at Barr (Bas-Rhin), 
3*Iarch 14, 1821, still living, 1890. Ama- 
teur composer, general in the French army, 
where he served with distinction in the 
coqjs of engineers, and took part in the 
campaigns in the Crimea, 1855, Italy, 1859, 
and France, 1870-71 ; was wounded at 
Wiirth, and taken prisoner at Sedan. He 
is the husband of the violin virtuoso Te- 
resa Milanollo. Works : Grande polonaise 
de Weber, for orchestra ; 2 polkas for do.; 
4 pieces and fugue for organ ; 9G preludes 
and versets, do. ; Nocturnes, barcarolles, ca- 
prices, etc., for pianoforte ; Choruses for 4 
male voices ; Romances ; German songs and 
Balladen. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 304. 
PARNASSO CONFUSO, IL (Parnassus 
in Confusion), festa teatralo in one act, text 
by Metastasio, music by Gluck, first reprc- 



84 



PAENASSO 



sented in the palace of Sclionbrunn, Jan. 
23, 1765, on the wedcling day of Josejsli 11. 
and Maria Josepha of Bavaria, for which 
occasion both tlie text and music were 
written. The Archduke Leopold conducted 
and accompanied the play on the clavecin. 
The part of Apollo was sung by the Prin- 
cess Amalia, and the Three Graces, hy Eliz- 
abeth, Charlotte, and Josephine. — Marx, 
Gluek und die Oper, i. 33.'5 ; Sehmid, Ritter 
von fUiK^lc, 115. 

PAI'iNASSO IN FESTA, Italian sercnata 
by Handel, first represented at the King's 
Theatre, London, March 13, 1734, in honour 
of the marriage of the Princess Anne with 
the Prince of Orange, which took place on 
the following day. The royal family was 
I^resent at the first performance ; the work 
was repeated several times. It was given 
without dramatic action and in one gayly 
decorated scene, representing Mount Par- 
nassus, with Apollo and the Muses seated, 
celebrating the marriage of Peleus and 
Thetis. The work contains only thirteen 
new airs, the rest of the music being ta- 
ken from Handel's oratorio, Athaliah, which 
had not been heard in London at that 
time, and to which ho afterwards added sev- 
eral new airs from the Paruasso in Festa. 
Characters represented : Apollo (S.) ; Orfeo 
(S.) ; Cho (S.) ; Calliope (S.) ; Cloride (A.) ; 
Eurilla (A.) ; Euterpe (A.) ; Proteo (B.) ; and 
chorus of nymphs and shepherds. At the 
close of the wedding ceremony, March 14, 
the choir sang an anthem, "This is the 
day," with orcliestral accompaniments, the 
music of which was selected by Handel 
from Athaliah, the Parnasso in Festa, and 
the seventh Chandos Anthem. The MS. 
conducting score of this and of the Par- 
nasso in Festa are in the Public Library, 
Hamburg. In each the music is in Smith's 
handwriting and the text in Handel's. The 
Parnasso in Festa was published by the 
Hiindelgesellschaft, Breitkojjf & Hilrtel 
(Leipsic, 1878). — Chrysander, Hilndel, ii. 
319, 358 ; Scha-lcher, "Hilndel, 103 ; Rock- 
stro, 201 ; Burncy, iv. 374. 



PARRATT, WALTER, born at Hudders- 
field, Yorkshire, England, Feb. 10, 1841, 
still living, 1890. Organist, pupil of his 
father, Thomas Parratt (organist at Hud- 
dersfield), and in Loudon of George Cooper. 
Organist at Armitage Bridge Church, 1852 ; 
St. Paul's, Huildersfield, 1854-GO ; at Wit- 
ley Court, Worcestershire, 18G1-G7 ; Wigan 
Parish Church, 18CS-71 ; Magdalen College, 
Oxford, 1872-81 ; appointed to St. George's 
Cliapel, Windsor, in 1882, vice Sir George 
Job Elvej'. In 1873 he became Mus. Bac, 
Oxford, and in 1883 professor of the organ 
in the Eoyal College of Music. Works : 
Music to Agamemnon, given at Oxford, 
1880, and to The Story of Orestes, Prince's 
Hall, 188G ; Anthems ; Songs ; Organ music. 

PARRY, CHARLES HUBERT HAST- 
INGS, born at Bournemouth, Feb. 27, 1848, 
still living, 1890. Instrumental and vocal 
composer, educated at Eton and Christ 
Church, Oxford ; pupil of Elvej', and in 
Stuttgart of Pierson ; in London, of Mac- 
farren and Dannreuther. Mus. Bac, 1870 ; 
Mus. Doc, Oxford ; do., Cambridge (hon- 
orary degree), 1883 ; professor at Eoyal 
College of Music ; choragus of Oxford Uni- 
versity : professor of composition and mu- 
sical history in Royal College of Music. 
Works : Scenes from Shelley's " Prometheus 
Unbound," for soli, chorus, and orchestra, 
Gloucester Festival, 1880; Music to "The 
Birds" of Ai-istophanes, Cambridge, 1883; 
Judith, oratorio, Birmingham Festival, 
1888 ; Ode for chorus and orchestra ; Guil- 
lem de Cabestanh, overture. Crystal Palace, 
1879 ; Symjshony in G, Birmingham, 1882 ; 
do. in F, Cambridge, 1883 ; do. in C, Phil- 
harmonic Society, Loudon, May 23, 1889 ; 
Suite moderuc, Gloucester Festival, 188G ; 
Concerto for pianoforte and orchestra ; 
Nonet for wind instruments ; Quartet for 
pianoforte and strings ; 2 trios for do. ; 
Quintet for strings ; Quartet for do. ; So- 
nata for j)ianoforte and violin ; 2 sonatas for 
pianoforte and violoncello ; Sonatas for pi- 
anoforte ; Duo for 2 pianofortes ; O Lord, 
thou hast, cantata ; Morning and Evening 



86 



PAERY 



Service ; 3 Odes of Anacreon ; Charakter- 
bilder, for pianoforte ; Songs, etc. — Grove ; 
Riemann ; Crystal Palace Programmes 
(1878-79), 523. 

PARRY, JOHN, born at Denbigh, North 
Wales, Feb. 18, 1776, died in London, Apul 
8, 1851. Clarinet player and teacher, com- 
I^oser of songs and dramatic music. He 
received his earliest education from a danc- 
ing master, joined the band of the Den- 
bighshire militia in 1795, became master 
in 1797, resigned in 1807 ; settled in Lon- 
don as teacher of flageolet. He was en- 
gaged in 1809 to compose songs for Vaux- 
hall Gardens, and adapted English vrords 
to many Welsh melodies. He composed 
the music for the extravaganzas. Harlequin 
Hoax, 1814 ; Oberon's Oath, 181G ; and 
High Notions, 1817 : and wrote both text 
and music for Fair Cheating, 1814 ; Helji- 
less Animals, 1818 ; Two Wives, 1821 ; My 
Uncle Gabriel, etc. He also adapted music 
for Ivanhoe, 1820, and Caswallon, a tragedy, 
1829. He was for many years conductor of 
the Cynimrodorion .and Eistcddvod.an, or 
Congresses of Welsh bards, hold in various 
places in Wales ; received in 1821 the de- 
gree of Bard d Alaw, or Master of Song. 
He was author of An Account of the Rise 
and Progress of the Harp ; An Account of 
the Royal Musical Festival held in West- 
minster Abbey in 1834, of which he w.as sec- 
retary. Was nuisical critic for the "Morn- 
ing Post " from 1834 to 1848. He imblished 
also a collection of Welsh melodies under 
the title of the " Welsh Harper." — Grove ; 
FtJtis ; Riemann, G7G ; Mendel. 

PARRY, JOSEPH, born at Merthyr-Tyd- 
vil, Wales, May 21, 1841, still lining, 1890. 
Dramatic composer, son of Daniel Parry, 
■who removed to the United States in 1853. 
Joseph returned in a few years, and after 
receiving some instruction in music at his 
native place went back to America, where he 
continued his studies. In 18G8, through 
the aid of Brinley Rich.ards and others, he 
was enabled to enter the Royal Academy of 
Music in London, where he studied until 




1871 under Sterndale Bennett, Garcia, and 
Steggall. A bronze medal was awarded 
liiin in 1870, a silver 
one in 1871, and in the 
same year his overture 
to the Prodigal Son 
was given at the Acad- 
cmj-. In 1871-78 he 
was professor of music 
at the University Col- 
lege at Aberystwith, 
in 1879-8G principal 
of the Music College 
of Wales at Swansea, and since then has been 
professor at Cardiff University. Mus. Bac, 
Cambridge, 1871 ; Mus. Doc, ib., 1878. 
Works : Blodwen, opera, Aberdare, and Al- 
exandra Palace, London, 1878 ; 2 other op- 
eras (MS.) ; Emmanuel, oratorio, St. James's 
Hall, London, May 12, 1880 ; 2 other ora- 
torios (]MS.) ; G overtures ; Sj'mj^hony for 
full orchestra ; Anthems ; Druids' Chorus, 
1888, and other cantatas ; 400 songs ; Piano- 
forte music, etc — Grove ; Riemann. 

P.;VRSIFAL, a festival stage-consecration 
play in three acts, text and music by Rich- 
ard Wagner, first represented at Bayreuth, 
July 2G, 1882, with the following cast: 

Ainfortas (Bar.) Herr Roichmann. 

Titurcl (B.) Herr Kindcrmaiin. 

Gurnemanz (B.) Herr Scaria. 

Parsifal (T.) Herr Winckelmann. 

Klingsor (B.) Herr Carl Hill. 

Kundi-y (S.) Frau Materna. 

The action takes place in and near the 
Castle of Mon.salvat, Spain, where the Holy 
Grail is kept, and whence came Lohengrin, 
son of Parsifal (called Parzivid in Lohen- 
grm), in his swan-boat, to the rescue of 
Elsa of Brabant. The Holy Grail, the 
crystal chaUce used by Christ at the eu- 
charist and in which Joseph of Arimathea 
caiight the Saviour's blood after the lance- 
thrust, is in charge of the Knights of the 
Holy Grail, who derive from it all their 
sustenance, physical as well as spiritual. 
In order to share in the benefits to be de- 



8C 



PAESIFAL 



rived from its adoration, tbo Kuiglits are 
required to lead lives of purity. Amfortas, 
their king, who has fallen from this estate, 
is suffering from a wound received in an 
encounter with the magician Klingsor. 
Klingsor, who aspired to become a Knight 
of the Grail but had been rejected, studied 
the magic arts and created for himself a 
fairy j)alace at the foot of the mountain on 
which stands the castle, peopling it with 
beautiful women to tempt the Knights of 




WincVelmann, as Parsifal. 

the Grail. Kundry, one of these women, 
beguiles Amfortas, who falls into the power 
of Klingsor, and loses the holy spear — the 
spear with which the Saviour's side was 
pierced — receiving from it a wound which 
will never heal until the coming of " der 
reiueThor" (the gxiileless fool), appointed 
to cure him. Parsifal (whose name Wagner 
derives from two Ai-abic words signifying 
" foolish pure-one "), who has been reared by 
his mother in ignorance of the world, has 
his chivalric nature aroused by sight of 



some knights, and starts out in search of 
adventure, armed only with his bow and 
arrows. He shoots a swan in the vicinity 
of the Castle of the Grail, where all animals 
are sacred, and when questioned by Gurne- 
manz, one of the Knights of the Grail, ap- 
pears to be unaware that he has committed 
any wrong. In hope that he may prove to 
be der reine Thor, he is led into the great 
hall of the castle and permitted to witness 
the adoration of the Grail. Parsifal is be- 
wildered at the splendour of the holy vessel, 
which glows with ever-increasing light, and 
at the ceremonial, but acknowledges that 
he does not understand the rite and is 
ignominiously cast out. The second act is 
in the palace and gardens of Klingsor, who, 
recognizing Parsifal as the promised re- 
deemer, turns all his magic powers against 
him ; but Parsifal overcomes wicked knights 
sent against him and is proof against the 
fascinations of the flower-maidens who seek 
to seduce him. Kuudry, who leads a dual 
life — in the service of the Knights of the 
Grail as well as in that of the sorcerer — 
also fails ; but Parsifal, who siiuriis her, 
learns from her kiss the meaning of all that 
has taken place, and demands to be led to 
Amfortas. She, declaring he shall never 
find the way to the castle, summons Kling- 
sor, who hurls the sacred spear at Parsifal. 
It remains suspended in the air, and Parsi- 
fal, grasjDing it, makes with it the sign of the 
cros.s, and the enchanted palace disajijiears ; 
Parsifal and Kundry are left alone in a 
desert, and while she sinks to the ground 
he turns from her to seek the Castle of the 
Grail. In the third act Parsifal, after wan- 
dering for years, at last meets Gurnemanz, 
now an old man living as a hermit in the 
forest, where Kundry is serving him. Gur- 
nemanz, recognizing the sacred spear, hails 
him king, and Parsifal, after baptizing 
Kundry, is led to Monsalvat just as the 
tolling bells announce the funeral of Titu- 
rel, father of Amfortas. Parsifal heals the 
wound of Amfortas by touching it with the 
spear, and, while Kundry dies in the joy of 



87 



PARSONS 



repentance and the others kneel in homage, 
proclaims himself Iving of the Grail and 
raises on high the chalice amid the joyful 
chants of the knights. Parsifal, like Lo- 
hengrin, is founded on the Ai-thurian legend 
of the Holy Grail, and follows, with some 
changes, the metrical romance of "Parzi- 
val," by Wolfram von Eschenbach. The 
poem of Parsifal was published by Schott 
(llainz, 1877) ; the sketch of the first act was 
completed in the spring of 1878, the second 
act, Oct. 11, the third, April, 1879, and the 
orcliestration was finislied at Palermo, Jan. 
13, 1882. The Vorspiel was first performed 
privately by the Meiiiingcn orchestra, un- 
der the composer's direction, at Bayreuth, 
Christmas, 1878. It was given sixteen 
times at Bayi'euth in 1882, and was rejieated 
in 1883, 1881, 188G, and 1889. It was sung 
as an oratorio by the Royal Albert Hall 
Choral Society, London, Nov. 10 and 15, 
1884, and by the Oratorio Society of New 
York, March 4, 188G. Full score iDublished 
by Schott (Mainz, 1882) ; pianoforte score, 
by Jo.seph llubinstein (ib., 1882). English 
translation by H. L. and F. Corder (ib., 
1882). — Wagner, Gesammelte Schriften, x. 
417; Pohl, Wagner, 323; Nohl, Wagner 
(Upton), 159 ; Wolzogen, Leitfadcn durcli 
Parsifal ; Bartsch, Parcifal (1870-72) ; ! 
Brachvogel, Parcival (Berlin, 1877) ; Wolf- 
ram von Eschenbach, Parcival aus dcm 
Mittelhochdeutschen von Sau-Marte (A. 
Schulz, Leipsic, 1858) ; Wolfram von Esch- 
enbach, Parcival Fragmente vom Titurel 
luid Willehelm und Lieder-Lachmann ; 
Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parcival Epos ; 
Carl Simrock, Parcival, dritte Auflage (1857); 
Eichberg, Pai-sifal (Leipsic, 1882) ; Mayer- 
]\Iarkau, Parsifal (:Magdeburg, 1882) ; Max 
Gutenhaag, Parsifal (Leipsic, 1883) ; All- 
gem, deutsche mus. Zeitg. (1877), No. 49 ; 
Bayreuther Blatter (1878), 95, 119, 222 ; 
(1879), 12, 47, GG, lOG ; (1881), 112, 181, 
206, 238, 272, 342 ; (1882), 189 ; (1883), 57, 
264 ; (1884), 97 ; (1885), 27 ; (1886), 41, 69, 
103; (1888), 277; Neue Zeitschr. (1882), 
301, 341, 353, 361, 429, 471, 527 ; (1883), 



318; (1884), 317, 326; (1888), 387, 399; 
Mus. Wochenblatt (1882), 313, 325, 337, 
357, 369, 395, 606 ; (1883), 369, 386 ; (1884), 
457, 469 ; Signale (1882), 641 ; Athenteum 
(1882), ii. 151, 183 ; (1884), ii. 633 ; Acad- 
emy (1882), ii. 91, 109; (1888), ii. 169; 
Ki-ehbiel, Review (1885-86), 159; Grove, 
iv. 364 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 308. 

PARSONS, ALBERT ROSS, born, of 
American parentage, in Sandusky, Ohio, 
Sept. 16, 1847, still living, 1890. Organist 
and pianist ; he studied in 1854-56 the 
pianoforte under Robert Denton in Buffalo, 
in 1863-66 the pianoforte and theory under 
Dr. F. L. Ritter in New York, and in 1867- 
69, at the Leipsic Conscrvatorium, piano- 
forte under Moscheles, Reinecke, Weuzel, 
and Pappeiitz, and countei'point and fugue 
under E. F. Richter and Oscar Paul. The 
following j'ear ho studied in Tausig's High 
School for Pianists, in Berlin, iiianoforte 
under Tausig, and harmony, counterpoint, 
and fugue under C F. Weitzmann, and 
in 1871, in the same city, at Kullak's New 
Academy of Music, pianoforte under Kul- 
lak and composition tinder Richard Wiierst. 
On his return to America he settled in New 
York, where he has since resided. He has 
occupied tlic following jrositions : 1861-62, 
organist of Third Pre.sbyteriau Church, 
Indianapolis ; 1863-66, organist of First 
Baptist Church, Indianapolis ; 1873, princi- 
])al of department of instrumental music 
in New York Institute for the Bhnd ; 1874- 
79, organist of First Reformed Episcopal 
Church, New York ; 1875, editor of " Ber- 
ham's Musical Review ; " 1877, editor of 
" The Orpheus," New York ; 1879-85, or- 
ganist of Church of the Holy Trinitj', New 
York ; since 1885 organist of Fifth Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, New York. In 1889 
he was elected ^jresident of the Music 
Teachers' National Association. He is 
the translator and editor of the follow- 
ing : Wagner's " Beethoven," Lessmann's 
" Liszt," Kullak's " Comjjlete Works of 
Chopin," HoUilnder's " Complete Works of 
Schumann,'' and other works of impor- 



PARTAGEZ-VOUS 



tance ; and has edited and annotated many 
pieces for instructive purposes. His orig- 
inal compositions include songs, vocal quar- 
tets, etc. 

PAETAGEZ-VOUSMESFLEURS. See 
HamJet. 

PARTANT POUR LA SYRIE, French 
song, text by Count Alexandre de Laborde, 
music by Queeu Hortense, written in 1809. 
It was suggested by a picture which the 
Queen showed Count Laborde, representing 
a knight cutting an inscription on a stone 
Avith his sword. Louis Napoleon took his 
mother's melody for a national air when 
he ascended the throne of France in 1853, 
and it was arranged for military bands. 
Drouet claims to have had a share in its 
composition, and a claim has been made for 
Narcisse Carbonel, Queen Hortense's accom- 
panist. Dussek wrote variations for the pi- 
anoforte in E-flat on this tune. — Grove ; 
Larousse ; Mile Cochelet's (Mnie Parquiu) 
Momoires sur la Eeine Hortense, i. 4.5 ; 
Masson, La Lyre franraise, lOG. 

PART DU DL\BLE, LA, opura-comique 
iu three acts, text by Scribe, music by 
Auber, first represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Jan. IG, 1843. Subject, Philip 
V. of Spain, who after the death of his sou 
had fallen into a state of despair and melan- 
choly, and is restored to health by the jDOwer 
of music through the singing of Farinelli 
(Carlo Broschi), whom the Queen employs 
for this purpose. Afterwards Farinelli plays 
the part of Satan in order to win Philip's 
consent to the union of a young student, 
Rafael d' Estuniga and Caselda, Farinelli's 
sister, with whom the King also is in love. 
Mme Rossi-Caccia sang the part of Farinelli 
ill the original cast. The opera was given 
iu Berlin and Leijssic in 1843. Published 
by Schott (Mainz, 1843).— Clement et La- 
rousse, 514 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., slv. 8G1. 

PARTENIO, GIOVANNI DOMENICO, 
died at Venice in 1701. Dramatic and 
church composer, of a family from Friuli, 
who had settled at Venice. He became a 
priest, and was at first a singer in the ducal 



chapel of S. Marco, where he succeeded 
Legreuzi as second maestro di cappella, in 
1G85. Shortly after this he founded the 
philharmonic society, and in 1090 was made 
director of the Couservatorio de' Mendicanti ; 
in 1G92, maestro di cappella at S. Marco. 
Works — Operas : Genserico, Venice, 1GG9 ; 
La costanza trioufaute, 1G73 ; Diouisio, 
1G81 ; Flavio Cuniberto, 1082. Much 
church music. — Fetis. 

PARTENOPE, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Silvio Stampiglia, nuisic by Handel, 
first represented at the King's Theatre, Lon- 
don, Feb. 24, 1730. The original score, in 
Buckingham Palace, is dated at the end of 
the first act, Jan. 14 ; at the end of the opera, 
Feb. 12, 1730. Besides the overture there 
are in this work four sinfonie — short in- 
strumental interludes — and many beautiful 
arias. The aria, " Furibondo spira il vento," 
has been published with additional accom- 
jsanimeuts by Robert Franz (Kistner, Leip- 
sic). Burney considers this one of Han- 
del's best ojjeras. Original cast : Par- 
tenope. Queen of Parthenope (Naples), and 
lover of Ai'sace (S.), Signora Strada ; Ros- 
mira. Princess of Cyprus and lover of Arsace 
(A.), Signora Merighi ; Arsace, Prince of 
Corinth, once lover of Rosmira, now of 
Partenoi^e (C), Signor Bernacchi ; Armindo, 
Prince of Rhodes, lover of Partenope (A.), 
Signora Bertolli ; Einilio, Prince of Cuma, 
lover of Partenope (T.), Signor Fabri ; Or- 
monte, cajjtaiu of the guards of Partenope 
(B.), Signor Riemschneider ; and chorus of 
soldiers and people of Najjles. The opera 
was given only seven times during the first 
season, but it was revived the following 
year and received seven more representa- 
tions, when several alterations were made, 
especially in cutting the recitatives. Par- 
tenope was translated into German by H. 
Wend, and represented in Hamburg with 
recitatives by Reinhard Keiser in 1733. 
Published by Walsh ; Hiindelgesellschaft, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1879). Other 
Italian operas of the same title : By Cal- 
dara, Venice, 1707 ; by Luca Antonio Pre- 



89 



PASCAL 



dieri, Bologna, 1719 ; bj' Sarri, IMetastasio's 
text, Naples, 1722 ; by Porpora, ib., about 
1742 ; by J. A. Hasse, Vienna, 1767 ; a 
dramatic cantata by Kossini, Naples, May 
9, 1819 ; and Partenope, by Cordelia, Na- 
ples, about 1830. — Cbrysander, Handel, ii. 
237 ; Buruey, iv. 344^349. 

PASCAL, FLORIAN. See Williams, 
Joseph. 

PASCAL, PEOSPER, born in France 
about 1825, still living, 1890 (?). Dramatic 
comjjoser, and musical critic. "Works : Le 
reman de la rose, given in Pai-is, Theatre 
Lyiique, 1854 ; La nuit aux gondoles, ib., 
18G1 ; Le cabaret des amours. Opera Co- 
mique, 1862 ; Fleur de lotus, Baden-Baden, 
1864 ; Les Temijliers, grand opera. Les 
chants de la veillue, collection of vocal 
melodies. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 305. 

PASMORE, HENRY BICIvFORD, bora, 
of English pai'entage, in Jackson Township, 
"Wisconsin, June 27, 1857, still living, 1890. 
Organist ; began the study of music in 
San Francisco when twenty years old, 
pupil on the organ and in harmony of John 
P. Morgan, and in singing of S. J. Morgan. 
In 1882 he went to Leijjsic, and studied 
hai-mony and composition under S. Jadas- 
sohn and C. Reiuecke, and singing under 
Frau "Uuger-Haujit ; then, in London, sing- 
ing under William Shakespeare and R. H. 
Cummings. On his return to America he 
settled in San Francisco, where he is organ- 
ist of St. John's Episcopal Church ; also 
professor of vocal music in University of 
the Pacific, San Jose, "^'orks : Conclave 
March, for orchestra, performed at Sinfonie- 
Conzert, Leii^sic, 1883 ; Overture to Miles 
Standish, performed at Leipsic Conserva- 
torium concert, 1884 ; Suite for organ and 
string orchestra ; Tarantelle for pianoforte ; 
Kyrie from Mass in F ; Mass in B-flat ; 
Rainy Day, Sechs Lieder, Sea Song, Stars 
of the Summer Night, Those Evening Bells, 
Among the Heather, and other songs ; also, 
pai't-songs for male voices. 

PASQUINI, BERN.IRDO, born at Massa 
di Valnevola, Tuscany, Dec. 8, 1637, died 



in Rome, Nov. 22, 1710. Organist, pupil 
of Loreto Vittori and of Antonio Cesti, but 
foi'med himself chiefly by studying the 
works of Palestrina ; went to Rome when 
quite young, and became organist at S. M. 
Maggiore ; later received the title of organ- 
ist to the Senate and the Roman j^eople, 
and was also chamber musician to Prince 
Borghese. "Works : Dov' e amor e pietu, 
opera, Rome, 1679 ; Allegorical drama, ib., 
1686 ; La forza d' amore, ojsera ; La sete 
di Crislo, oratorio ; Toccates et suites pour 
le clavecin (Amsterdam, 1704) ; Organ mu- 
sic ; Saggi di contrapinmto (1695). — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Schilling. 

PASSACAGLIA, a work for the organ, in 
C minor, by Johanu Sebastian Bach, written 
in "Weimar between 1717 and 1723. Its 
form, a dance-form, consisting of a short 
theme on a ground bass elaborated with 
contrapuntal devices, was a favourite one 
with the organ and harjisichord composers 
of the 17th and 18th centuries. The work 
was published by the Bachgesellschaft, 
year xv., Orgelwerke, vol. i. The first cho- 
rus of the cantata, "Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, 
Zageu (Bachgesellschaft, year ii., Kirchen- 
cantateu, ii.. No. 12), contains a passacaglia 
the theme of which is again used in the 
cantata, Jesu, der du meine Seele (Bach- 
gesellschaft, year xviii., voL viii., No. 78). 
Other noted jjassacaglias are by Buxtehude, 
Frescobaldi (Toccate d' Intavolatura, vol. 
i.), and by Handel (Suite vii. and Sonata 
iv. of Vn. Sonatas or Trios). There are 
also passacagUas in Gluck's operas, and 
some cui-ious examples in Salvatore Maz- 
zella's "Balli, Correnti, Gighe, Gavotte, 
Brande, e Gagliarde, con la misura giusta 
per ballare al stile Inglese " (Rome, 1689). 
— Spitta, Bach, i. 276 ; ii. 234, 650 ; Spitta, 
Bach (Bell), i. 279 ; ii. 405 ; iii. 170 ; Grove, 
ii. 661 ; Schcelcher, Handel, 174. 

PASSARINI (Passerini), Padre FRAN- 
CESCO, born at Bologna dui-ing the fii-st 
half of the 17th century, died there in 1698. 
Church comi^oser, Franciscan friar, was aji- 
pointed maestro di cappella in the convent 



ao 



PASSION 



of his order in 1657, ami resumed that posi- 
tion after having fulfilled the same functions 
at Viterbo in 1674:-S0. Works : Salmi con- 
certati a 3-G voci con violini, etc. (Bologna, 
1G71) ; Antifone della Beata Vergine a voce 
sola (ib., 1C71) ; Compieta concertata a 5 
voci, con violini obligati (ilx, 1072) ; Misse 
brevi a otto voci col' organo (ib., 1G90). 
— Potis. 

PASSION, German oratorio, text from 
Barthold Hermann Brockes'a poem, "Der 
fiir die Siindcu der Welt gemartete und 
sterbende Jesus," music by Handel, first 
performed in Hamburg in 1717. This, 
Handel's onlj' German oratorio, was written 
during his visit to Hamburg with George L 
It is different in treatment from his other 
oratorios and shows the influence of Keiser 
and Steffani. Characters represented : Ma- 
ria, Drei Mi'igde, Tochter Zion, and Gli'iu- 
bige Seele (S.) ; Judas, Johannes, Jacobus, 
Kriegesknecht, and Glaubige Seele (A.) ; 
Evangelist, Petrus, and Glaubige Seele (T.) ; 
Jesus, Caiphas, Pilatus, Hauptmann, and 
Glaubige Seele (B.) ; and chorus. The work 
contains a sinfonia, arias, recitatives, and 
choruses. The duet between Maria and 
Jesus, " Soil mein Kind, meiu Leben ster- 
ben, Ja ich sterbe dir zu gut," was worked 
over for the duet in Eather, " Who calls my 
parting soul from death. Awake my soul, my 
life, my breath," and the Daughter of Zion's 
aria. Die ihr Gottes Gnad' versaiimet, was 
again used in the air, "In Jehovah's awfid 
sight," in Ikhoruh. The originalMS. islost, 
but several autograph transcriptions are ex- 
tant, two in Buckingham Palace, two in the 
Royal Library, Berlin ; and one, partly in 
Johann Sebastian Bach's handwriting. It 
was first published by the Hilndelgesell- 
schaft, Chrysander's edition, Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1863). The same poem 
was set by Eheinhard, Keiser, Hamburg, 
170J:; by Gottfried HeinrichStoelzel, Prague, 
1715 ; by Telemann, Hamburg, 1716 ; and 
by Mattheson, ib., 1718. Handel wrote also 
a Passion cantata, in two parts, on Postel's 
version of the Passion according to Saint 



John, Hamburg, 1704. The autograph in 
the Konigliche Bibliothek, Berlin, was ed- 
ited by Chrysander and published by the 
Hiindelgesellschaft, Breitkopf & Hiirtel 
(Leipsic, 18G0).— Chrysander, Handel, i. 
88-102, 427-449 ; Rockstro, 32, 101 ; Schoil- 
cher, 45 ; Maitland, GO ; Wiuterfeld, Der 
evangeliche Kirchengesang, iii. 128, 164, 
179, 195 ; Athenffium (1872), i. 215. 

PASSION — nach dem Evangelisten Mat- 
tliilus, in two parts, text selected from the 
Bible, St. Matthew, chapters sxvi. and 
xsvii., by Picander (Christian Friedrich 
Henrici) and J. S. Bach, music by Johann 
Sebastian Bach, first performed at St. 
Thomas's Church, Leipsic, Good Friday, 
April 15, 1729. This surpasses all other 
works on the same theme. The text, con- 
tained in Picander 's " Scherzhaffte und sa- 
tyrische Gedichto " (vol. ii., 101), is writ- 
ten partly in the dramatic and partly in 
the epic form. An Evangelist, the prin- 
cipal tenor, relates certain events ; but 
Christus, Petrus, Pilatus, and other persons 
speak in the words assigned to them in the 
Bible. The arias and choi-uses, called Soli- 
loquire at the time of their composition, 
are meditations and exj^ressions of sorrow 
ujion the events acted and narrated. The 
double choruses of fanatical Jews, or loviusr 
disciples, in the dramatic form, are in intri- 
cate part-writing. The congregation was 
expected to join in the chorals, repre- 
senting the voice of the entire Christian 
Church, and the sermon was delivered be- 
tween the parts of the oratorio. Part I. 
treats of the conspiracy of the High Priests 
and Scribes ; the anointing of Christ ; the 
institution of the Lord's Supper ; the praj'er 
on the Mount of Olives ; and the betrayal 
by Judas. Part II., of the hearing before 
Caiajjlias ; Peter's denial ; Pontius Pilate's 
judgment ; Judas's death ; the progress to 
Golgotha ; and the crucifixion, death, and 
burial of Christ. The music is written for 
two choruses, each with its separate or- 
chestra and organ accomjianiment, but in 
the less dramatic numbers and chorals they 



PASSION 



are combined into ouo clioir. The open- 
ing double chorus, " Kommt ibr Tijchter, 
helft mir Klagen," sung by the Daughters 
of Zion and believers, has the addition of 
a third choir, Soprano ripieuo, which sings 
the choral melody, " O Lamm Gottes un- 
schuldig," one of the finest numbers in the 
work. All of the solos by biblical persons, 
excepting the false witnesses, are supported 
b}' the first chorus. The Evangelist and 
other sjieakers sing in recitativo secco, 
and Jesus is accompanied by the strings. 
Among the fourteen chorals the one, " 
Haujjt voll Blut und Wunden," occiu-s five 
times, each time with new words and har- 
mony. The work was revised by Bach and 
extended into its present form and given 
about 1740-41. The original score is in the 
Kijnigliche Bibliothek, Berlin, which also 
possesses a cojiy in Bach's autograph. An- 
other coj)y is owned by the Berlin Singaka- 
demie, and one, in Kiriiberger's writing, is 
in the Joachimsthal Gymnasium, Berlin. 
The oratoi'io was revived by Mendelssohn, 
and first given under his direction by the 
Singiikademie, Berlin, March 11, 21, and 
24, 1829. The solo singers were Herr 
Stumer, the Evangelist ; Herr Devrient, 
Christ ; Herr Bader, Herr Busolt, Mme 
^Milder, Mme Tiirrschmidt, Frl. Blanc, and 
Frl. von Schiitzel. This work was first given 
in Brcslau, April 3, 1829 ; in Dresden, 
Ajnil 3, 1833 ; selections in Paris, Jan. 12, 
1840 ; in Vienna, 1802 ; in London, by the 
Bach Society, under W. S. Bennett's direc- 
tion, April 6, 1854 ; in St Martin's Hall, 
March 23, 1858 ; at St. James's Hall, Feb. 
15, 1871 ; at Westminster Abbey, April 13, 
1871, and IMarch 28, 1872 ; and it is fre- 
quently given during Passion week, and at 
the musicial festivals in England. It was 
first giv(ai in America by the Handel and 
Haydn Society, Boston, May 8, 1874 ; and 
by tlie Oratorio Society, New York, March 
18, 1880. Published by Schlesinger (Ber- 
lin, 1829) ; French translation by Maurice 
Bourgcs, ib. (Paris, 1844) ; by Trautwein 
(Beriin, 1829) ; by the Bachgesellschaft 



(year iv.), edited by Julius Rietz and re- 
vised by W. llust, by Breitkopf <fc Hiirtel 
(Leijisic, 1854) ; by Novcllo, with an intro- 
duction by Macfarren (London) ; edition by 
Julius Stern, by Peters (Leipsic, 18G0-G7) ; 
and with additional accompaniments by 
Robert Franz, by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leip- 
sic, 1860-67) ; and by Leuckart (Leipsic, 
1860-67). 

Bach left five settings of the Passion, the 
most important of which, next to the ]Mat- 
thiius, is the Passion uach dcm EvangeUsten 
Johannes, in two parts, first performed at 
St. Nicholas's Church, Leipsic, Good Friday, 
April 7, 1724. This is supjiosed to have 
been written at Cothen in 1723. The text 
was selected from the Bible by Bach, who 
adopted some verses of Brockes's Passion 
poem for the arias. It is written for a 
single chorus with orchestra and organ ac- 
comjianiment. Several of the chorals set 
to Stockmann's hymn, "Jesu Leiden, Pein 
und Tod," are in Bach's most exquisite 
style, and the arias are among the finest that 
he ever wrote. The work originally opened 
with the chonis, " O Mensch bewcin dein 
Siinde gross," wlucli Bach afterwards cutout, 
transposed from E-flat to E, and inserted 
into the Matthew Passion, when he revised 
it in 1740, and it closed with a choral 
chorus, " Christe du Lamm Gottes," now 
the last number of the cantata, Du wahrer 
Gott. It treats of the betrayal of Jesus 
by Judas ; Peter's denial ; the scene with 
Pilate ; the cries of the Jews for the cruci- 
fixion ; the division of the garments ; the 
agony of the cross ; and a final Requiem. 
This work was first given in Berlin, March 
21, 1833 ; in London, under Mr. Barnby, 
March 22, 1872. The oldest copy of the 
original score is lost, but one of Bach's 
later copies is in the Konigliche Bibliothek, 
Berlin. This was edited by W. Rust for 
the Bachgesellschaft (year xii.), and jjub- 
lished by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 
1862). 

Between the writing of the first and sec- 
ond parts of the St. John Passion, Bach is 



PASSION 



snp250sed to have composed another Passion 
oratorio on a text by Picander, written for 
Good Friday, 1725. The music is lost but 
the test remains. The Bible narrative is 
recited by an Evangelist, and the characters 
represented are Christ, Peter, John, and 
Mary. There are no dramatic choruses, 
and only two chorals are introduced. 

The Passion nach dem Evangelisten Lucas 
is supposed by some authorities to be the 
earliest of Bach's comi^ositions on this theme. 
It is thought to have beeu written for Good 
Friday, 1733, but the King Elector of Sax- 
ony died in that year and there was a gen- 
eral mourning. It is supposed that Bach set 
the work aside, finished it in 173i, and gave 
it at St. Thomas's Church on Good Friday 
of that year. There are only eight lyric 
numbers, but there are thirty-one chorals, 
among which Johann Flittner's hynin, " Je- 
su meines Herzeus Freudo," occurs many 
times. The authenticity of this work is, 
however, more than doubtful, and m'any 
excellent authorities, among them Men- 



by three Deacons, but in 1585 Vittoria made 
a polyphonic setting of words uttered by 
the crowd, Turbfs, which, intermingled with 
the chants of the Deacons, were so effec- 
tive that they were continued in use. Pub- 
lished by Gardano (Rome, 1585). Portions 
of this were published by R. Butler (Lon- 
don). Francesco Suriano also made a po- 
lyphonic setting for four voices of these 
words, his last work (Rome, 1G19), included 
in Proske's " Musica Divina " (vol. iv.). The 
old church form of the Passion contained a 
dramatic germ which developed into the 
jMystery and Miracle plays, originally per- 
formed in the churches, and some valuable 
sf)ecimens of the music to these plays are 
extant. The Passion music borrowed its 
form from the contemporary sacred drama, 
and the German Passion music, which 
reached its climax with Bach, was devel- 
oped through these old forms and the in- 
fluence of the Italian oratorio into a sin- 
gular compound, both simjile and intricate. 
S. Gregory Naziauzen (330-390) was the 



delssolm and Robert Franz, have denied it i first to arrange the history of the Passion 
altogether. It has been published by H. 
Durffel (Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Lcipsic and 
Brussels, 1887). See Prieger, Echt oder 
unccht? (Berhu, 1889). 

The Passion nach dem Evangelisten Mar- 
cus, in two jiarts, was first given in St. 
Thomas's Church, Leii^sic, on Good Friday, 
1731. The text, which is by Picander, is 
thought to have been adapted to the music, 
written originally for the Traue7--0de on 
the Electress of Saxony (1727). Five lyric 
pieces are preserved in this ode (Bachge- 
scUschaft, year xiii.). 

The earliest known Cantus Passionis is 
a solemn Plain Chaunt Melod}', which was 
handed down by tradition, a version of 
which was published at the instance of 
Pope Sixtus v., by Giudetti, under the title, 
"Cantus ecclesiasticus Passionis Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi secundum Matthfeum, 
Marcum, Lucam, et Johanncm " (Rome, 
1586). From the beginning of the 13th 
century until the IGth the Passion was sung 



in a dramatic form. In the IGth century 
the German text came into general use. 
The principal settings arc by Jakob Obrecht, 
1538, in Georg Rhau's collection, " Harmo- 
nire selecfro quatuor vocum de Passione 
Domini " (Wittenberg, 1538) ; Orlando di 
Lasso, for five voices (Patrocinimn Musices, 
vol. iv., Munich, 1575) ; Jakob Reiner (1559- 
(?) IGOG), three Passions (Proske's Library) ; 
Johann Walther, St. Matthew and St. John, 
1530, fi'om the four Gospels, in German, 
1552 ; Balthasar Resinarius, 1541 ; a MS. 
in the Royal Library, Vienna, Meissen, 
1559 ; Antonius Scadellus, about 15G0 ; 
Clemens Stephani, text by Buchau, Nurem- 
berg, 1570 ; Ludwig Daser, Munich, 1578 ; 
Jakob Gallus, copy in Kr)nigsberg, 1587 ; 
Bartholomiins Gese, 1588, published in F. 
Commer's "Musica Sacra," voL vi. (Berlin) ; 
Three Passions after Matthaus in Matt. 
Ludecus's Vesperale e Mattutinale, 1589 ; 
Johann Machold, Erfurt, 1593, MS. in Kr.- 
nigsberg ; Melchoir Vulpius, 1C13 ; Th. 



93 



PASSION 



Mancimis, 1620, reprinted in Sehuberlein's ] 
Scliatz des liturgischen Chor imd Gemein- 
degesangs, part ii., 362 ; Christoph Deman- 
tius, Freiburg, 1631, copy of MS. in Pirna ; 
Christoph Schultz, Leipsic, 1653 ; Heinrich 
Schiitz, Siebeu Worte des Erlosers am 
Kreuz, 16-15, published by Riedel (Leipsic, 
1870) ; Historia des Leidens und Sterbcns 
unsers Herrn und Heilandes lesu Christi 
(1665-66) ; Giovanni Sebastiani, KOnigs- 
berg, 1672, MS. in Konigsberg; Johann 
Theile, Liibeck, 1673 ; Funcke, Liineburg, 
1683, MS. in Liineburg; J. C. Eothe, 
Sondershausen, 1697, MS. in Sonders- 
hausen ; Reinhardt Keiser, test by Hunold, 
Der blutige und sterbende Jesus, Ham- 
burg, 1701 ; on Brockes'a text, ib., 1712 ; 
Handel, text by Postel, ib., 1704 ; text 
by Brockes, ib., 1716 ; The Messiah, Dublin, 
1711 ; Gottfried Heinrich Stoelzel, Prague, 
1715 ; Telemanu, Hamburg, 1716 ; Mar- 
kus-Passion, 1725 ; Mattheson, Hamburg, 
1718 ; Johann Kuhnan, Leipsic, 1721 ; 
Kramer, Arnstadt, 1735 ; Karl Heinrich 
Graun, Der Tod Jcsu, text by Ramber, Ber- 
lin, 1756 ; by J. F. Doles, same test, Leip- 
sic, 1759 ; Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach, 
22 Passions ; Chi-istoph Ehrcgott Weinlig, 
Leipsic, 1780 ; J. H. Rolle, 8 Passion.s, 
1780 ; J. Abr. P. Schulz, Christi Tod, Co- 
penhagen, 1792 ; J. G. Schicht, Die Feier 
der Christen auf Golgotha and Das Ende 
des Gerechten, Leipsic, 1785 ; F. Schneider, 
Gethsemane und Golgotha, 1838 ; E. F. 
Ricliter, Clu'istus der Eloser, Leipsic, March 
8, 1819 ; and Fricdrich Kiel, Berlin, 1871. 
Oratorios : Chi'isto al limbo and La morte 
del giusto, by Giac. Perti, Bologna, 1698 ; 
La morte di Chiisto, by Ant. Gianettini, 
Vienna, 1704 ; La morte vinta sul Calvario, 
by "M. Ant. Ziani, text by P. A. Bernard oni, 
ib., 1706 ; and La passiono uelF orto, by 
the same, ib., 1708 ; La passione di Christo, 
by Attilio Ariosti, ib., 1709 ; Christo nell' 
orto, by J. J. Fux, test by Pariati, ib., 1718 ; 
La deposizione della croce di Gosii Christo, 
by the same, ib., March 23, 1728 ; La pas- 
sione di Gesti Christo, by Antonio Caldara, 



text by Metastasio, ib., April 4, 1730 ; same 
text by Gius. Venturelli, Modena, 1735 ; La 
virtti appie deUa croce, by J. A. Hasse, 
Dresden, 1737 ; I pellegrini al sepolcro, ib., 
1742 ; La deposizione della croce di Gesil 
Christo, text by Pasquini, Dresden, 1744 ; 
same title, by Ad. Schiirer, ib., 1755 ; by 
J. Gottfried Naumann, ib , 1769 ; by Ign. 
Holzbauer, Mannheim, 1773 ; La morte di 
Christo, by Jos. Mysliwcczck, about 1775 ; 
by Ant. Salieri, Vienna, 1776 ; by Josef 
Schuster, Dresden, 1778 ; by Luc. Xavier 
dos Santos, Lisbon, 1783 ; by Giovanni Pai- 
siello, Warsaw, 1784, Bologna, 1790 ; G. 
Andreozzi, Naples, 1792 ; S. Mayr, Forli, 
1794 ; Die sieben worte des ErlOsers am 
Ivreuz, Vienna, by Haydn, 1798 ; I peWe- 
grini al sepolcro, J. G. Naumann, Dresden, 
1798 ; by Gius. Niccolini, Naples, 1799 ; by 
Dom Cercia, about 1800 ; Christus am Oel- 
berge, by Beethoven, 1815 ; by F. Pacr, 
about 1810 ; by Pietro Raj, Monza, 1807 ; 
by Josef Weigl, text by Carpani, Vienna, 
1811 ; by F. Morlacchi, Dresden, 1812 ; by 
Michael Costa, Naples, 1827 ; by Josef 
Eisner, Warsaw, 1844 ; and Franz Liszt, 
Chnslus, Rome, 1867. — Spitta, Bach, ii. 
307-400; do. (BeU), ii. 477-569; Bitter, 
Bach, i. 315-423 ; Mosewius, J. S. Bachs 
Matthaus - Passion musikalisch - ilsthetisch 
dargestellt (Berlin, 1852) ; Wintcrfcld, Der 
evangehche Kirchengesang, iii. 364 ; Bit- 
ter, Gesehichte des Or.atoriums, 198 ; Poole, 
Bach, 88 ; La Mara, Mus. Studienkiijjfe, iv. 
104; Grove, ii. 540, 663; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg.,sssi. 234, 258, 601'; sxxiii. 265, 285, 
302 ; xxsv. 257, 294, 323 ; Berliner mus. 
Zeitg. 1829). 65, 73, 79, 89, 97, 121 ; (1830), 
105, 153, 157 ; Neue Zeits., xiv. 99 ; xviii. 
57, 61, 65, 69, 73, 77, 85 ; (1887), 374, 558 ; 
Hanslick, Concertwesen in Wien, ii. 242 ; 
Hensel, The Mendelssohn Family, i. 170 ; 
AthenfEum (1854), 469; (1858), i. 409; 
(1872), i. 409 ; Bitter, Emanuel und Fricde- 
mann Bach, i. 274 ; Vierteljahrsschrift fiir 
Musikwissenschaft (1888) iv. 471 ; Monats- 
hefte fiir Musikgesehichte, iii. 97 ; v. 77 ; 
xi. 71, 87; Ai-rey von Dommer Handbuch 



94 



PASSIONE 



der mus. Geschichte, 243 ; Eeissmann, Ge- 
scbiclate der Musik, ii. 18G3 ; Sebastian!, 
Kurze Nachricbt wie die Passion, etc., ge- 
sungen wird (1686), in the Koyal Library of 
Konigsberg. 

PASSIONE DI GESU CRISTO, LA, 
oratorio in two parts, text by Metastasio, 
music by Salieri, first performed by the 
Tonkiiustler - SocietJit, Vienna, in 1777. 
Same text, oratorio by Caldara, Vienna, 
1730 ; and German translation, music by 
Eberlin, at the Convent of the Benedictines, 
Salzburg, 1755. 

PASSIONE, LA, symphony, in F minor, 
by Haydn, sujjposed to have been written 
in 1773. I. Adagio ; II. Allegro di molto ; 
in. Menuet; IV. Presto. Eieter-Bieder- 
mann's Catalogue, No. 1. — Pohl, Haydn, ii. 
265. 

PASTORALE EN MUSI QUE, LA, 
French opera, text by the Abbe Perrin, mu- 
sic by Cambert, first rej^resented privately 
at Issy, April, 1689. It was the first French 
ojjera. — CK'ment et Larousse, 516. 

PASTORAL SYIMPHONY. See Sinfonia 
pastorale. 

PASTORAL SYMPHONY, a short com- 
position for strings, in Handel's Messiah, 
inserted to introduce the scene of the 
" Shejjherds abiding in the fields." This 
air, marked Pifa in Handel's MSS. and in 
Smith's transcriptions, is an ancient Cala- 
brian melody which Handel heard played 
by the peasants, called Pifferari, on the 
Piffero (fife) in the streets of Rome during 
his visit there in 1709. It was scored for 
strings only, with a third violin part, which 
has often been left out. When the name Pas- 
toral Symphony was given to it is not known. 
Wright, Randall, and Abell's edition of the 
Messiah (Loudon, 1768) bears the word 
Pifa ; but Arnold's earlier edition calls it 
" Sinfonia Pastoralle." Dr. Rimbault, in 
his edition of the Messiah for the Handel 
Society of London (Loudon, 1850), gives 
the origin of the air, and says it was in- 
cluded in a MS. collection of hymns (1630). 
Similar tunes, under the title of Partheuia, 



are contained in Playford's " Musick's Hand- 
maid " (1678), and in Crotch's " Specimens 
of Various Styles of Music," where the air 
is called a Siciliana. This title is given also 
to short orchestral movements in other ora- 
torios by Handel. — Rockstro, Handel, 55, 
237 ; Schcelcher, Handel, 28-1 ; Grove, ii. 671. 
PASTOR FIDO, IL (The Faithful Shep- 
herd), Italian opera in three acts, text by 
Giacomo Rossi, music by Handel, first rep- 
resented at the Queen's Theatre, London, 
Nov. 26, 1712. The subject was taken from 
a pastoral by Battista Guarini, represented 
and published in Venice in 1590. The 
greater part of the original autograph has 
been lost ; but fragments of the second and 
third acts, and the final chorus, dated Lon- 
don, Oct. 24, 1712, arc in the second vol- 
ume of " Songs and Sketches " in Bucking- 
ham Palace, where the conducting score, 
with the exception of the overture, may be 
found. Several of the airs were used again 
for later ojaeras, and many oboe passages in 
the aria, "Ritorna adesso Amor con la Spe- 
ranza," were introduced into the overture to 
Esther. Original cast : 

Mirtillo (S.) Cavaliere Valeriano. 

Amarilli (S.) Margarita de I'Jiipine. 

Eurilla (S) La Pilotti Schiavonetti. 

Silvio (A.) Signor Valentini. 

Doriuda (A.) Mrs. Barbier. 

Tirenio (B.) Richard Leveridge. 

The opera was revived by Handel at Covent 
Garden, Nov. 9, 1734. " Favourite songs 
in Pastor Fido " were published by Walsh 
(London, 1734). The opera was first pub- 
lished by the Hiindelgesellschaft, with a res- 
toration of the overture, Breitkopf & Hiirtel 
(Leipsic, 1876). Other operas of the same 
title : In English, by Sir Richard Faushaw, 
Loudon, 1646 ; by E. Settle, ib., 1677 ; in 
Italian, after Guarini, music by Luigi Pie- 
tragrua, Venice, 1721 ; by Apollini, Venice, 
1739; by Salieri, text by da Ponte, Vienna, 
1789.— Chrysander, Hiiudel, ii. 363 ; Rock- 
stro, 76 ; Schffilcher, 167 ; Ck'ment et La- 
rousse, 516 ; Burney, iv. 234, 377. 



95 



PATIENCE 



PATIENCE, ffisthetic English opera in 
two acts, text by Gilbert, music by Sullivan, 
first represented at the Opi'ra Comique, 
Strand, London, April 25, 1881, with the 
following cast : 

Patience (S.) Miss Leonora Braham. 

Bunthorne (T.) Mr. Grossmith. 

Lady Jane (A.) Miss Alice Baruett. 

Ai-chibald Grosvenor (B.) . Mi'. II. Barrington. 

It is a droll satii-e on sestheticism, and was 
very successful in London and in New 
York, where it was first given at the Stand- 
ard Theatre, Sept. 22, 1881. Published by 
Cliappoll & Co. (Loudon, 1881). — Atheureum 
(1881), i. GOl ; Academy (1881), i. 32C ; Pall 
j\Iall Budget (April 29, 1881) ; New York 
Tribune (Sept. 23, 1881). 

PATRIE, overture for orchestra, by 
Georges Bizet, first performed at the Con- 
cert Populairo, Paris, iu 1871. This is one 
of Bizet's last works, and it was given at 
the composer's memorial concert, Paris, 
Oct. 31, 1875. Pubhshed by Eiirstner (Ber- 
hn, 1874). 

PATlilE, oder die Erben des weissen 
Berges (The Heirs of the White Mountain), 
hymn for mixed chorus to words by Halck, 
music by Dvoi-:'ik, originally published as 
op. 4, reissued as op. 30 by Novello & Co. 
(London). — Grove, iv. G23. 

PAT HIE, French opera, text by Sardou, 
nuisic by Paladilhe, first rei^resented at the 
Oi)ora, Paris, Dec. IC, 18SC. It was well 
received. 

PATRIOTIC HYMN, by An tonin Dvorak. 
See ratric. 

PATTISON, JOHN NELSON, born, of 
American parentage, at Niagara Falls, New 
York, Oct. 22, 1815, stDl Uviug, 1890. 
Pianist, early showed musical talent, and at 
fifteen had some reputation as a performer ; 
soon after he went to Europe, and again in 
18G2, and studied in Berlin, Leij^sic, Paris, 
and Loudon, and has had as teachers Liszt, 
Thalberg, Henselt, and von Billow on the 
pianoforte, and Haupt in harmony. Since 
his second return to America he has per- 



formed in more than 800 concerts in the 
United States ; and has made concert tours 
with Parepa Eosa, 




Al- 
and 



Among 



Miss Kellogg, 
bani, Lucca, 
others. 

his more notable 
performances 
were his recitals 
at the Centennial 
Exhibition, Phila- 
delphia ; he has 
played also with 
-' ■ success at the 

concerts of the New York and Brooklyn 
Philharmonic Societies. His works consist 
of more than 200 compositions ; among 
them the following : In the Forest, The 
Dawn of Day, Dreamland, The Village IMill 
"WTieel, Marche militaire, for the piano- 
forte ; Concert overture, in A minor, for 
grand orchestra, performed iu Berlin, and 
by Thomas's Orchestra iu New York ; Niag- 
ara, grand symphony for orchestra and mil- 
itary baud ; Concerto fantaisie-romantique, 
for pianoforte and orchestra. 

PATTISON, THOM.iS IVIEE, bom at 
Warrington, England, Jan. 27, 1815, still 
living, 1890. Organist of St. Paul's church, 
Wan-iugton, smce 18G9. Works : The 
Happy Valley, opera ; The Ancient Mar- 
iner, cantata, 1885 ; Lay of the Last Min- 
strel, do., 1885 ; Anthems ; Organ and 
pianoforte music. 

PAUER, ERNST, born in Vienna, 
21, 182G, still living, 
1890. Pianist, sou of 
the general superin- 
tendent of the L u- 
theran churches o f 
Austria, and pupil 
o f Theodor Dirzka, 
of Wolfgang Amadeus 
Mozart the younger, 
and of Sechter in 
Vienna, then of Franz 

Lachner in Munich. He became director 
of musical societies iu Maiuz iu 1847, and 



Dec. 




96 



PAUKENSCHLAG 



played in London with success in 1851. In 
1852 he married the singer Miss Andrea 
of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and then settled 
in London. In 18G1 he began giving his- 
torical recitals of pianoforte music, played 
within a few years iu Holland, Leipsic, 
Munich, and Vienna, and was made Aus- 
trian court pianist iu 18GG. From 1870 he 
lectured on the history of music in Great 
Britain and Ireland ; succeeded Cipriani 
Potter in the Royal Academy of Music ; in 
ISTGhecame in'ofessor at the National Train- 
ing School for Music at Kensington Gore ; 
and in 1878 was a member of the musical 
board of Cambridge University, being made 
examiner the nest year. He has rendered 
great service by publishing editions of clas- 
sical composers. Hanslick calls him the 
first pastor of German music in Loudon. 
Works — Operas : Don Riego, Mannheim, 
1849 ; Die rothe Maske, ib., 1850 ; Die 
Brautsehau Friedrichs des Grossen, ib., 
18G1. Symphony in C minor, oj). 50 ; 
Quartet, quintet, jiianoforte music, and 
songs ; Arrangements of Schumann's sym- 
jjhonies and Mendelssohn's pianoforte con- 
certos. He edited : Alte Klavier-Musik ; 
Alte Meister ; Old English Composers for 
the Virginals and Harpsichord ; classical 
composers, from Bach and Handel to Schu- 
mann, in Augener's edition ; New Gradus 
ad Parnassum, containing 100 studies, 
some by himself ; Primer of the Pianoforte, 
and Elements of the Beautiful in Music 
(187G) ; and Primer of Musical Forms 
(1878).— Grove ; Vl^irzbach ; Mendel ; Rie- 
mann ; Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 311 ; 
Hanslick, Concertwesen in "Wien, 326. 

PAUIvENSCHLAG, SINFONIE MIT 
DEM, iu G, by Haydn. I. Adagio cauta- 
bile, vivace assai ; H. Andante ; IH. Menu- 
etto ; rV. Allegro di molto. It is known 
in England and America as the Sui'^srise 
Symphony. Breitkopf & Hiirtel edition. 
No. G ; Peters, No. 4 ; London Philhar- 
monic Catalogiie, No. 3. 

PAUKENWIRBEL, SINFONIE MT 
DEM, in E-flat, by Haydn, supposed to 



have been written in 1795. I. Adagio, Al- 
legro con spirito ; H. Andante ; HI. Menu- 
etto ; IV. Allegro con spirito. Breitkopf & 
Hilrtel's edition. No. 1 ; Peters, No. 1 ; 
London Philharmonic Catalogue, No. 8. 

PAUL ET VIRGINIE, French opera in 
three acts, text by Dubreuil, music by Le- 
sueur, first represented at the Theatre Fey- 
deau, Paris, Jan. 13, 1794 The libretto is 
founded on the romance of Bernardin de 
Saint-Pierre, but the story is greatly 
changed. The hymn of the Indians to the 
rising sun, " Divin soleil, ame du monde," 
was long sung at concerts after the opera 
had been withdrawn from the stage. — Cle- 
ment et Larousse, 517. 

PAUL ET VIRGINIE, French opera in 
three acts and seven tableaux, text by Mi- 
chel Carre and Jules Barbier, music by 
Victor Masse, first represented at the Ojjera 
National Lyrique, Paris, Nov. 15, 187G. 
The libretto is from Bernardin de Saint- 
Pierre's romance. Original cast : Paul, M. 
Capoul ; Virgiuie, Mile Cijcile Ritter ; Mme 
de La Tour, Mme Sallard ; Marguerite, Mme 
Teoni ; Meala, Mme Engally ; M. de Saiute- 
Croix, M. Melchisedech ; Domingue, M. 
Bouhy ; M. de La Bourdonnais, M. Bonnefoy. 
This oj)era is one of Masse's best works. 
It was given at Covent Garden, Loudon, in 
Italian, with M. Capoul as Paul and Mile 
Albaui as Virginie, June 1, 1878, and first 
iu New York, March 28, 1883. The score, 
dedicated to M. Capoul, was published by 
Theodore Michaelis (Paris, 1878) and by 
Chappell tt Co. (Loudon). Other operas of 
the same title, in French : By Rudolj)he 
Kreutzer, text by Favieres, Paris, Jan. 15, 
1791 ; by Lesueur, text by Dubreuil, ib., 
Jan. 13, 1794 ; by Denis Robert, Port Louis, 
Mauritius, Oct. 30, 187G. Iu Italian : Paolo 
e Virginia, by Angelo Tarchi, Venice, 1789 ; 
by Pietro Guglielmi, text by Palomba, Na- 
ples, about 1790, Milan, Jan. 3, 1830 ; by 
Miglioi-ucci, Milan, 1813 ; by Mario Aspa, 
Rome, April 29, 1843. In Spanish : Pablo 
y Virginia, by Jose Rogel, Madrid, 1861. 
Paul and Virginia, English ballet, by 



97 



PAULUS 



William Eeeve and Mazzinghi, London, 
1800 ; and Paul und Virginia, German bal- 
let, by Wenzel Giibricli, Berlin, about 1840. 
— Glomeut et Lai-ousse, 864 ; Atbenseura 
(1876), ii. 696; (1878), i. 742; Academy 
(1878), i. 519. 

PAULUS (St. Paul), oratorio in two parts, 
text compiled from the Bible by Filrst, 
Sclmbring, and Mendelssohn, music by 
Mendelssohn, op. 36, first jjerformed at the 
Lower Rhine Festival, Diisseldorf, May 22, 
1836, under the composer's direction. It was 
sung by Frau Fischer-Achten (S.) ; Friiuleiu 
Grabau (A.) ; Herr Schmetzer (T.) ; and HeiT 
Wersing (B.). Mendelssohn received a com- 
mission to write this, his first oratorio, from 
the Ciicilien-VereLn of Frankfort in 1831. 
The music was begun in March, 1834, when 
its composer was iu his twenty-sixth year. 
The oratorio contains an overture iu A mi- 
nor, and forty-five numbers. Its chief sub- 
jects are the martyrdom of Saint Stephen, 
the conversion of Saint Paul, and the latter's 
subsequent career. The choral inserted 
on the death of Stephen was by Georg 
Neumark, who also wrote the original 
words. After the first perfoi-mance Men- 
delssohn revised the work, cutting out 
fourteen numbers, and it was again given 
at Liverpool, under Sir George Smart's 
direction, Oct. 3, 1836. It was first per- 
formed in London by the Sacred Harmonic 
Society, March 7 and Sept. 12, 1837 ; at 
the Birmingham (England) Festival, under 
Mendelssohn, Sept. 20, 1837 ; in Leipsic, 
March 16, 1837 ; in Berhn, Oct. 6, 1837 ; 
in Dresden, Dec. 8, 1837 ; in Vienna, March 
1, 1839 ; and in Paris, March 19, 1847. It 
was first sung in New York by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, Oct. 29, 1838, and by 
the Oratorio Society, Nov. 9, 1875, and first 
by the Handel and Haydn Society, Bos- 
ton, Jan. 22, 1843. Published by Simrock 
(Bonn, 1837) ; by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leip- 
sic, 1837) ; and by Novello, English trans- 
lation by W. Ball. An oratorio in Italian, 
San Paolo in Ateue, text by Pasquini, music 
by Bouno, was given in Vienna iu 1740. 



— Lampadius, Mendelssohn, 47 ; Reiss- 
mann, 173 ; Rockstro, 61 ; Hensel, The 
Mendelssohn Family, ii. 331 ; Goethe and 
Mendelssohn, 189 ; Hand, Aesthetic der 
Toukunst, ii. 576 ; Schumann, Gesammelte 
Schriften, ii. 68 ; Bitter, Geschichte des Ora- 
toriums, 5-22 ; Neue Zeitschr., vii. 75, 147 ; 
X. 87; xiii. 150; Cacilia, xix. 201 ; xx. 135; 
Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxviii. 410, 807 ; xxxix. 
209, 497, 513, 534, 705, 821 ; xli. 250 ; xliv. 
380 ; Grove, ii. 271, 555, 675 ; Atheuieum 
(1837), 708 ; (1871), i. 310 ; (1S72), ii. 817 ; 
Chorley, Modern German Music, i. 22 ; Up- 
ton, Standard Oratorios, 208 ; Clement et 
Larousse, 518. 

PAUSCH, EUGEN, born at Neumarkt, 
Bavaria, in 1758, died there after 1838. 
Church composer, instructed in music while 
a choir-boy in the church at Neuburg ; en- 
tered in 1777 the Cistercian Order at "Wal- 
derbach, where he taught music and con- 
ducted the choir. After the suspension of 
the abbeys in Bavaria, he was for a short 
time director of the seminary at Amberg ; 
theu returned to his native town. Works : 
6 masses, 7 motets, and 1 Requiem, for 4 
voices, 2 violins, 2 horns, organ, and bass 
(Dillingen, 1790) ; Te Deum, for 4 voices, 
organ, and orchestra (Augsburg, 1791) ; 
Psalmi vespertini, etc. (ib., 1792) ; 6 missse 
breves, solemnes tamen, etc., op. 4 ; Misste 
breves ac solemnes, etc., op. 5. In manu- 
script : 12 operettas, and other music. — Fe- 
tis ; Schilling. 

PAm'RE DA:ME i\LARGUERITE. See 
Dame blanche. 

PAm\-ELS, JEAN ENGELBERT, born 
in Brussels, Nov. 26, 1768, died there, June 
3, 1804. Violinist, pupil of van Malder, 
and in harmony of Witzthumb, then in 
Paris of Lesueur in composition. He ob- 
tained a position at the Italian ojsera, but 
in 1790 went to Strasburg, where he was 
chef d'orchestre at the theatre. In 1791 he 
returned to Binissels, appeared with success 
as a virtuoso in a concerto of his own com- 
position, and became solo violinist at the 
theatre, and iu 1794 maitre de chapelle. 



PAVESI 



111 1799 he established permanent concerts, 
the technical perfection of which contrib- 
uted much to the advancement of music 
in Belgium. Works — Oj)eras ; La mai- 
sonette dans les bois, L'auteur malgre lui, 
Lcoutine et Fonrose, aU given at Brussels, 
about 1791-1800 ; Concerto for violin and 
orchestra ; do. for horn and orchestra ; 3 
quartets for strings ; 6 duos for violins ; 
3 polonaises for soprano and orchestra ; 
L'amitie, duet for soprano and tenor, with 
orchestra. In manuscript : Symj)honies, 
concertos for violin, masses, etc. — Fetis ; 
Mendel ; Kiemanu. 

PAVESI, STEFANO, born at Casaletto 
Vaprio, near Cremona, Jan. 22, 1779, died 
at Crema, July 28, 1850. Dramatic com- 
poser ; studied at the Conservatorio dei 
Turchini, Naples, until the Revolution of 
1799, when he was imprisoned and finally 
sent to Marseilles ; thence he went to Di- 
jon and joined a regimental band, with 
which he returned to Italy for the Marengo 
campaign. He seized the Ofiportunity of 
returning to Venice, where he began in 
1802 writing for the theatre, and was soon 
engaged as composer by all the leading 
theatres in Italy. He wrote most of his 
ojjeras for Venice, where he lived chieflj', 
although he was appointed maestro di cap- 
pella at Cremona in 1818, to succeed Gaz- 
zaniga. "Works : L' avvertimento ai gelosi, 
L' anonimo, Venice, 1803 ; I castelli in 
aria, Verona, ISOi ; L' accortezza materna, 
L'amor coutrastato, Venice, 1801 ; L' amo- 
re prodotto dall' odio, Padua, 1801: ; Fingallo 
e Comala, Amare e nou voler esser amante, 
Venice, 1805 ; II trionfo d' EmQio, Mi- 
lan, 1805 ; II giuocatore, Erminia o la Ves- 
tale, Rome, 1806 ; Napoleoue il Grande al 
tempio deir immortalita, cantata. La sor- 
presa, L' amor vince 1' inganno, Venice, 
1806 ; Sapersi sciegliere uu degno sposo, 
L' alloggio militare, ib., 1807 ; I baccanali, 
Leghorn, 1807 ; La festa della rosa, L' amor 
perfetto, I Cherusci, Venice, 1808 ; L' Ai-is- 
todemo, Naples, 1808 ; II servo padrone, B 
maldiceute, Bologna, 1809 ; Le Amazzoni, 



Bergamo, 1809 ; II Corradino, Venice, 
1810 ; Elisabetta, regina d' lughilterra, 
Turin, 1810 ; Trajano in Dacia, Milan, L'or- 
fanella di Ginevi-a, ossia Ai-minia, 1810 ; II 
Giobbe, oratorio, Bologna, 1810 ; Ser Marc' 
Antonio, La contadina abruzzese, II monas- 
tero, Milan, 1811 ; La Nitteti, Turin, 1812 ; 
Tancredi, Milan, 1812 ; Amore e generosita, 
L' ostregario, II Teodoro, Venice, 1812 ; La 
forza dei simpatici, Una gioruata pericolosa, 
ib., 1813 ; Ii'ene e Filandro, Naples, 1813 ; 
L' Agatina, Milan, 1814 ; La Celanira, Ven- 
ice, 1815 ; La fiera di Brindisi, Modena, 
1815 ; Le Danaide romane, Venice, 1816 ; 
La gioventii di Cesare, Milan, 1817 ; II ti- 
ranno geloso, Venice, 1818 ; I jiitocchi for- 
tunati, Venice, 1819 ; II trionfo di Gedeone, 
oratorio, Modena, 1819 ; Don Gusmano, ib., 
1819 ; B gran naso, Najjles, 1820 ; Eugenia 
degli Astolfi, Naples, 1820 ; L' Arminio o 
r eroe germano, Venice, 1821 ; L' Andro- 
macca, Milan, 1822 ; L' Lies d' Almeida, 
Anco Marcio, Naples, 1822 ; L' Egilda di 
Proveuza, Venice, 1823 ; I cavalieri del 
nodo, Naples, 1823 ; Andano e Dartulla, ib., 
1825 ; B solitario ed Elvida, Naples, 182G ; 
Antigono e Lauso, Milan, 1827 ; La donna 
bianca d' Avenello, ib., 1830 ; Feuella o la 
muta di Portici, Venice, 1831 ; L' incognito ; 
La fiera ; La gloria, cantata. He published 
also a quantity of church music and, with 
Gazzaniga, a collection entitled : Salmi, Can- 
tici ed Inni Cristiani del Conte L. Tadini, 
posti in musica populare (Milan). — Sanse- 
verino, Biog. di Stefano Pavesi (Jlilan, 1851) ; 
Fetis ; do.. Supplement, ii. 312 ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

PA VILLON DES FLEUES LE, ou les 
pecheura de Grenade, comedie-lj'rique in 
one act, test by E. C. Guilbert de Pixero- 
court, music by Dalayrac, first represented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, May 13, 1822. 
It was a posthumous arrangement of the 
Pavilion duCalife, ou Almanzoret Zobeide, 
opera in two acts, text by Descliamj)a and 
Morel, music by Dalayrac, first given at the 
Opera, Paris, April 11, 1804.— Clement et 
Larousse, 519. 



687351 



PATER 



PAYER, HIERONTlVrDS, born at Meid- 
ling, near Vienna, Feb. 15, 1787, died at 
Wieburg, near Vienna, September, 1845. 
Dramatic and church comijoser, instructed 
bj' his father, otherwise self-taught ; was at 
first organist in his native village, went to 
Vienna in 181G to teach music, and was 
made Kapellmeister at the Theater an der 
Wien. In 1818 he made a concert tour 
through Germany, accepted a call to Amster- 
dam as Kapelmeester in 1824, but went to 
Paris in 1825, and for eight years was much 
sought as a pianoforte and singing teacher, 
also conducted the German opera, founded 
there during the last year of his sojourn. 
In 1832 he retui'ned to Vienna, and became 
Kapellmeister at the new oijeraiu the Josef- 
stadt Theater. A stroke of paralysis in 
1838 reduced his resources to the income 
from his lessons, which left him in naiTow 
circumstances during the remainder of his 
life. Works — Operas : Hochlands Fiirsten, 
given at Amsterdam ; La folle de Glaris, 
Paris, Odeou ; La croix de feu, ib. Op- 
erettas : Der wildc Jiiger ; Der hohle Baum ; 
Das Sternenmiidchen ; Die musikalische 
Akademie ; Die Trauer ; Die Einsame ; 
Coco, vaudeville. Six masses ; motets, gi'ad- 
uals, Tautum ergo, etc. ; 3 concertos for 
pianoforte ; Octet for do., flute, 2 horns, 
and strings ; Quintet for do., flute, and 
strings ; Trio for do. and strings ; Many 
overtures, marches, rondos, etc., for mili- 
tary baud ; Serenades for flute and guitar 
concertante ; do. for mandolin and guitar ; 
Many waltzes, minuets, and other dances ; 
Organ and ^^ianoforte music, etc. — Allgem. 
wiener mus. Zeitg. (1846), Nos. 5 and 6 ; do., 
384 ; Fetis ; SchilUng ; Seyfried, Denk- 
steine, etc. (Vienna, 1848), 95 ; "Wurzbach. 

PAZZA PER AIMORE, LA. See Nina. 

PEACE, ALBERT LISTER, born at 
Huddersfleld, England, in 1845, still living, 
1890. Organist and church composer. He 
was appointed organist of the parish church 
of Holmfirth in 1854, when only nine yeai-s 
old, and subsequently held a similar posi- 
tion in other churches iu that neighbour- 




hood. He settled in Glasgow in 186G as 
organist of Trinity Congregational Church, 

,. ~ and soon after became 

organist of the Univer- 
sity : organist at St. 
Andrew's Hall, 1877 ; 
do., Glasgow Cathe- 
dral, 1879. Mus. Bac, 
Oxford, 1870; Mus. 
Doc, ib., 1875. 
"Works: Psalm 
cxxxviii., 1870 ; The 
Narrative of St. John the Baptist, cantata, 
1875. Morning, Communion, and Evening 
Services ; Anthems ; Organ arrangements, 
etc. — Grove. 

PE.ARCE, STEPHEN AUSTEN, born 
near Loudon, 
England, Nov. 
7, 1836, still 
living, 1890. 
Organist, pupil 
at Cambridge 
of John Larkiu 
Hopkins. In 
1859 he was '■ 
graduated at 
New College, 
Oxford Univer- 
sity, as Mus. 
Bac, and iu 1864 as Mus. Doc. During 
the same year he visited America, and 
on his return to England became org.in- 
ist and musical director at St. Katharine's 
Royal CoUegiate Church, Loudon, and 
later of St. John's Church. In 1872 he 
again went to America, where he has 
since remained. He has been instructor 
of vocal music in Columbia College, New 
York, and has lectured on harmony and the 
science of music at the General Theological 
Seminary ; on the music of all nations at the 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore ; and on clas- 
sical music at Johns Hopkins University. 
In 1874 he became musical editor of the 
New York " Eve&ing Post," and he has con- 
tributed many articles on music to periodi- 
cals. He has been organist of several 




'- \ ' ..y 



100 



PEAESALL 



churches in New York, among them, in 
1870-85, of the Collegiate Church, 48th 
Street and Fifth Avenue, in 1885-88 of Ziou 
Church, and now (1890) of the Church of 
the Ascension. Works : La belle Ameri- 
caiue, opera in three acts ; Allegro agitato 
in D minor, for orchestra ; Overture in E 
minor, for orchestra, written for the Crystal 
Palace Classical Concerts, London ; The 
Psalm of Praise, an ecclesiastical cantata ; 
Celestial Visions, dramatic oratorio for 
eight-part chorus, soli, full orchestra, and 
organ ; Pianoforte music ; Church choral 
music ; Organ music ; Songs. He is author 
also of a pocket Dictionary of Musical 
Terms in twenty-one languages. 

PEAESALL, EGBERT LUCAS, born at 
Clifton, England, March 14, 1795, died at 
Wartensee, on Lake Constance, Aug. 5, 
1S5G. Vocal composer ; was educated for 
the bar but left it in 1825 and went to live 
in Mainz, where he became the jsuijil of 
Panny in composition. He revisited Eng- 
land in 1829, then settled in Carlsruhe in 
1830, and at Wartensee in 1832. Works : 
Requiem ; Madrigals for 4, 5, G, and 8 
voices (Loudon, 1840) ; 8 Glees and madri- 
gals (ib., 18G3) ; 24 Choral Songs, edited 
by J. Hullah (ib., 1SG3) ; Ballet Opera 
Choruses (ib., 1878) ; Psalms and Anthems ; 
Part-songs, among them : "Thehardy Norse- 
m.au's house of yore," "A king there was 
in Thule," " O who will o'er the downs so 
free?," and "Sir Patrick Spens." He pub- 
lished also Catholisches Gesangbuch (18G3), 
founded on that of St. Gall, which is still 
in use, though mostly in MS. — Grove ; Fe- 
tis. Supplement, ii. 313. 

PEARSON (Peerson, Pierson), MARTIN, 
born in latter half of IGth century, died in 
Loudon in 1G50. Vocal composer, master 
of the children in St. Paul's Cathedral in 
1G03 ; Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1G13. He was one 
of the contributors to Leighton's "Teares 
or Lamentacions," etc. (1614). Works : Pri- 
vate ]\Iusicke, or the First Booke of Ayres 
and Dialogues, containing Sougs of 4, 5, 
and 6 Parts of severall sorts, etc. (1G04) ; 




Mottects or Grave Church Musique, etc., 
with organ part, which for want of Organs 
can be performed on Virginals, Base Lute, 
BandoraorIi-ishHarpe(1630) ; also a Mourn- 
ing Song of sixe parts. — Grove ; Fetis. 

PEASE, ALFRED HUMPHREYS, born 
in Cleveland, Ohio, 
May G, 1838, died in 
St. Louis, Missouri, 
July 13, 1882. Pian- 
ist, educated at Ken- 
yon College, Ohio ; 
studied the pianoforte 
in Berlin under Theo- 
dor KuUak and von 
Billow, composition 
under Richard Wiier.st, 
and scoring under Wieprecht. After three 
years he made a short visit to the United 
States, and returned to Germany for three 
years' further study. On his final return he 
made extended concert tours, playing with 
success in most of the important cities 
and towns. Works : Reverie and Andante, 
Andante and Scherzo, Eomanze, Concerto 
(1875), all for orchestra, given with success 
by Theodore Thomas ; Manj' pianoforte 
compositions, arrangements, etc. ; Songs. 

PECHATSCHEK (Pechaczec, Pechaeek), 
FEANTISEK, the elder, born at Wilden- 
schwert, Bohemia, in 17G3, died in Vienna, 
Sept. 2G, 181G. Violinist, first instructed in 
his native town, then at Weisswasser, Si- 
lesia, j)upil of Lambert, and of Dittersdorf. 
In 1783 he went to Vienna, and in 1790- 
1805 was Kapellmeister at one of the thea- 
tres. He was the Strauss of his time, being 
especially notable as a comjjoser of dance 
nmsic. Works : 2 operas ; 12 operettas ; 
about 30 ballets ; Several masses and other 
church music ; 12 symphonies for orches- 
tra ; Overture for do.; Music for violin, 
with other instruments ; Many waltzes, 
Liindler, eeossaises, minuets, etc., for or- 
chestra, or for pianoforte, violin, etc. — Dla- 
bacz ; Fctis ; Wurzbach. 

PECHATSCHEK, FRANZ, the younger, 
born in Vienna, July 4, 1793, died iu Carls- 



101 



PECHEDES 



ruhe, Sept. 15, 1840. Violin virtuoso and 
composer, son and joupil of the above, after- 
wards pupil of FOrster in composition ; j)er- 
formed at the imperial court when only ten 
years old, and in 1803 made a concert tour 
with his father to Prague. For a time 
second Kapellmeister at the Theater an der 
Wien in Vienna, he went to Hanover in 
1818 as first violinist in the court orchestra, 
gave many concerts in various cities of Ger- 
many in 1821-25, and was called to Carls- 
ruhe, in 1826, as Conzertmeister. Works : 
Concertino for violin and orchestra, op. IG ; 
Polonaises for do., or pianoforte ; ThOmes 
varies, do. ; Rondos, do. ; Pot-poui-ris, do. ; 
Quartets for strings ; Duo concertant for 2 
violins, etc. — Fetis ; Wurzbach. 

PfiCHEUES DE PERLES, LES (The 
Pearl Fishers), French opera in three acts 
and four tableaux, text by Cormon and Mi- 
chel CaiTc, music by Georges Bizet, first 
represented at the Theatre Lyrique, Paris, 
Sejjt. 30, 1863. The story is of Ltila, a 
vestal virgin, who is stationed on a high 
rock jutting out over the sea, where she 
prays to the gods to protect the pearl 
fishers. She is closely veiled, and no man 
may approach her. Zurga and Nadii-, two 
fishermen, climb the rock, and Nadir tells 
his love, which is accepted by Lt'ila. They 
are surjjrised, captui-ed, and condemned to 
death ; but they escape through aid from 
Zurga, who sets fire to the fishermen's 
cabins. The music is wi-itten in the mod- 
ern school, and the iusti-umentation is well 
worked. Mile Luontine de Maesen, Ismacl, 
and Moriui appeared in the original cast. 
Published by Bote & Bock (Berlin, 1863). 
— Clement et Larousse, 521. 

PECHEURS, LES (The Fishermen), co- 
medie in one act, text by the Mai-quis de la 
Salle, music by Gossec, first represented at 
the Comedie Italienne, Paris, June 7, 1760. 
It was one of Gossec's most successful 
works. — ClL'ment et Larousse, 520. 

PEDRELL, FELIPE, born in Catalonia, 
contemporary. Pianist, and dramatic com- 
l)oser. Works : El ultimo Abeucerrajo, op- 



era, Barcelona, 1874 ; Quasimodo, do., ib., 
1875 ; Mass for 3 voices and choruses, with 
orchestra, organ, and harp ; Pianoforte mu- 
sic and songs. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 314. 

PEDROTTI, CARLO, born in Verona, 
Italy, Nov. 12, 1817, still living, 1890. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Domeuico Fo- 
roni ; was conductor of the Italian opera 
in Amsterdam in 1840-45, then lived for 
several j-ears in his native city, and in 
18G8 was called to Turin as du-ector of 
the Liceo Musicale, maestro concertatore, 
and maestro di cappella of the Teatro 
Regio. In 1872 he established popular 
concerts, which prospered rapidly, and 
are still successful. Works : Lina, Clara 
del Mainland, Verona, 1840 ; Matilde, Am- 
sterdam, 1841 ; La figlia del arciere, ib., 
1844 ; Romea di Moufort, Verona, 1846 ; 
Fiorina, ib., 1851 ; II parrucchiere della 
reggeuza, ib., 1852 ; Gelmina, o col fuoco 
non si scherza, Milan, 1853 ; Genoveffa del 
Brabante, ib., 1854 ; Tutti in maschera, Ve- 
rona, 1856 ; Isabella d' Arragona, Tiu-iii, 
1859 ; La guerra in quattro, Milan, 1861 ; 
Mazeppa, Bologna, 1861 ; Marion de Lormc, 
Trieste, 1865 ; H favorito, Turin, 1870 ; Ole- 
ma la schiava, Modena, 1872. — Futis, Sup- 
plement, ii. 314 ; Mendel ; Riemaun. 

PEELLAERT, AUGUSTIN PHILIPPE 
MARIE GmSLAIN, Baron DE, born in 
Bniges, March 12, 1793, died at Saint- 
Josse-ten-Noode-lez-Bruxelles, April 16, 
1876. Dramatic composer, jjupil at Lille 
of d'Ennery, and in Paris of IMomigny and 
PaOr. He entered the army, and retired 
as lieutenant -colonel. Works: L'amaut 
troubadour (1815), not performed ; Le sor- 
cier par hasard, given at Ghent, 1819 ; 
L'heure du rendez-vous, Brussels, 1821 ; 
Agnes Sorel, ib., 1823 ; Le Barmecide, ib., 
1824 ; Teniers, ib., 1825 ; L'exile, ib., 1827 ; 
Songe et realito (1829), not given ; Faust, 
Brussels, 1834 ; Le coup de pistolet, ib., 
1836 ; Louis de Male, ib., 1838 ; Le barigel ; 
Monsieur et Madame Putiphar, Brussels, 
1857 ; Le manage par testament ; Regilde ; 
Castor et Pollux. Operettas : Les trois clefs ; 



PEER 



Trois centre un ; Thucla ; Sans dot ; La si- 
rcne. Several masses ; 2 trios for jJianoforte 
and strings ; More than 100 vocal melodies. 
— Fetis ; do., Supj)lement, ii. 315 ; Peellaert, 
Cinquante ans de souvenirs (Binissels, 1867). 

PEER GYNT, entr'acte music and dances 
to Hendrik Ibsen's comedy of "Peer Gynt," 
by Edvard Grieg, op. 23. Published by 
Peters (Leipsic, 1881). Arranged for piano- 
forte for four Lands. It was first given in 
New York, at Cbickering Hall, by Theo- 
dore Thomas, Jan. 24, 1889.— Mus. Woch- 
enblatt (1884), 511. 

PELLEGRINI AL SEPOLCRO, I (The 
Pilgrims at the Sepulchre), Italian ora- 
torio, test by Pallavicini, music by Johann 
Adolpli Hasse, first performed in Dresden 
in 1742. The Pilgrim's chorus from this 
oratorio was given in Berlin in November, 
1844. The original score, in the KOnig- 
liche Bibliothek, Berlin, was published by 
J. A. Hiller, German translation by Eschen- 
bach (Leipsic, 1784). Oratorio of the same 
title by Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Dres- 
den, 1798. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxi. 243. 

PELLET, ALPHONSE, born at Uzus 
(Gard), Oct. 18, 1828, still living, 1890. 
Dramatic composer, first instructed by his 
father, who was organist of the cathedral 
at Uzes ; then pupil at the Paris Conserva- 
toire of Colet and of Hah'vy. In 1849 he 
settled at Nimes, where he became director 
of the Conservatoire and organist of the 
Basilica. Works : Les deux avares, Nimes, 
18G4 ; L'ours et le j)acha, ib., 18G5 ; Salsifi, 
ou les incouvenients de la grandeur, ib., 
186G ; Futaille a vendre, saynete, ib., 1868 ; 
Deux locataires, ib., 1873 ; Sous les pal- 
miers, ib., 1878 ; Oratorio ; About 20 can- 
tatas ; Quintet for strings ; Quartet for pi- 
anoforte and strings; Trio for do.; Sonata 
for pianoforte and violoncello ; 2 series of 
melodies for do. ; Collection of sacred mu- 
sic ; Pianoforte pieces, etc. — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, ii. 316. 

PENA TIRANNA 10 SENTO, alto aria 
of Dardano, in D minor, with accompani- 
ment of oboe solo, bassoon, three violins, i 




viola, and bass (senza cembalo), in Handel's 
Amadigi, Act IT., Scene 5. Published also 
separately, with the accompaniment tran- 
scribed by Otto Dresel (Leipsic, Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel). 

PENDANT LA NUIT JAI PARfi MA 
CHAUrafcRE. See Ame en peine. 

PENDU! PENDU! See rostillon do 
Longjumeau. 

PENFIELD, SmTH NEWELL, born, of 
American parent- 
age, in Oberlin, 
Ohio, April 4, 
1837, still living, 
1890. Organist 
and pianist, piupil 
in New York of 
James Flint ; then 
studied, in Leip- 
sic, pianoforte un- 
der Moscheles, 
Reiuecke, Papperitz, and Plaidy, organ un- 
der Richter, and harmony and theory under 
Hauptmann ; later, in Paris, under Delioux. 
After his return to America he resided in 
Rochester, New York ; then in Savannah, 
Ga., where he founded the Savannah Con- 
servatory of Music, and the Mozart Club ; 
later, lived for six years in Brooklyn, where 
he founded the Arion Conservatory, and 
since 1882 has resided in New York. In 
1884 the degree of Mus. Doc. was given 
him by the University of the City of New 
York, and in 1885 he became president of 
the Music Teachers' National Association ; 
he is now organist of the Broadway Taber- 
nacle Church. Works : Psalm xviii., can- 
tata, for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Over- 
ture for orchestra ; String quintet ; Anthems ; 
Pianoforte pieces ; Songs. 

PENNA, LORENZO, born in Bologna, 
Italy, in 1613, died at Imola, Oct. 20, 1693. 
Church composer and didactic writer, en- 
tered the Carmelite monastery at Parma, 
became its maestro di cappella, and later 
occupied the same position in the cathedral 
at Imola. Works : Messe piene a quattro 
ed otto voci se place, libro primo, op. 9 (2d 



103 



PENTENPJEDEE 



ed., Bologna, 1677) ; Galena del sacro Par- 
Dasso ; Messe piene con stromenti ad libi- 
tum, libro secondo (ib., 1670) ; II sacro 
Parnasso deUi Salmi festivi, etc., op. 8 ; 
Salmi 1381- tutto 1' anno ed una Messa, etc. 
(1669). He published also a treatise : Li 
primi albori musicali per li principianti 
della musica figurata, etc. (1679), and Diret- 
torio del canto fermo (1689). — Fetis ; Men- 
del ; Riemann. 

PENTENRIEDER, FRANZ XAVER, 
born at Kaufbem-en, Bavaria, Fob. 6, 1813, 
died in Munich, July 17, 1867. Dramatic 
and church composer, j)upil of Kalcher and 
Stunz in Munich, where ho entered the 
choir of the Frauenkirche. He became 
court Kapellmeister, court organist, choir 
director at St. Ludwig's, and Repetitor at 
the royal theatre. Injuries received from 
being run over by a carriage resulted hi 
such serious consequences that he passed 
the last years of his life in an insane asylum. 
Works : Die Nacht auf Paluzzi, opera, given 
on aU the principal stages of Germany ; 
Das Haus ist zu verkaufen, do., Leipsic, 
18i6 ; Cantatas, masses, motets, etc. — Men- 
del ; Riemann. 

PENTHESELEA, overture for orchestra, 
in G, to lileist's drama of the same title, by 
Goldmark, op. 31, first jDcrformed in Vi- 
enna, Dec. 26, 1880. Published by Schott 
(Mainz, Loudon, and Brussels, 1881) ; by 
Leede (Leijisic). An-anged for the piano- 
forte for foiu- hands. — Mus. "SVochenblatt 
(1881), 92. 

PEPUSCH, JOHAXX CHRISTOPH, 
born in Berlin in 1667, died in London, Julj- 
20, 1752. Dramatic composer, jjupil at 
Stettin of Gottlieb Kliiigenberg, and of 
Grosse, a Saxon organist. He was a musi- 
cian at the Prussian court in 1681-97, was 
in Holland in 1698, and about 1700 went to 
London, where he became a member of the 
orchestra at Druiy Lane. In 1707 he ad- 
apted the music of Thomyi-is, Queen of 
Scythia, and of other operas, adding recita- 
tives and songs. He devoted much time to 
the study of ancient music, and in 1710 




.'?-£. 



aided in establishing the Academy of An- 
cient Music. In 1712 he became organist 
and composer to 
the Duke of Chan- 
dos at Cannons, 
where he preceded 
Handel; in 1713 
he took the degree 
of Mus. Doc. at 
Oxford, and soon 
after became mu- 
sic director of Lin- 
coln's luu Theatre. 
In 1724 he joined Dr. Berkeley in his scheme 
of a college in the Bermudas, but was ship- 
wrecked and returned to England. Soon 
afterwards he married Mai-guei-ite do 1' Ejsiue 
the singer, and in 1731 became organist of 
the Charter House, a position he held until 
his death. His wife, who brought him a 
fortune of .£10,000, died in 1716. Pepusch, 
though pedantic, was skilled in musical 
science, and was one of the chief authorities 
on music in England previous to Handel. 
He is best known by his scoring and ar- 
rangement of the Beggar's Opera. Works : 
Venus and Adonis, masque, 1715 ; Apollo 
and Dajjhne, and The Death of Dido, 
masques, 1716 ; The Union of the Three Sis- 
ter Ai-ts, masque for St. Ceciha's Day, 1723 ; 
The Beijgar's Opera, 1727 ; Polly, opera, 
1729 ; The Wedding, ballad opera, 1734 ; 
Ode to the Memory of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, 1707 ; Ode for the Princess of Wales's 
Birthday, 1715-16 ; 6 English cantatas 
(London, 1712) ; Sonatas and concertos 
for strings and wind instruments ; Anthems 
and motets. He published also a Short 
Treatise on Harmony (London, 1730 ; 2d 
ed., 1731) ; and edited Corelli's Sonatas in 
score. — Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, Hist., iv. 
634 ; Mendel. 

PERABO, (JOHANN) ERNST, born in 
Wiesbaden, Germany, Nov. 14, 1845, still 
living, 1890. Pianist, the youngest of ten 
children, all of whom followed the profession 
of music ; began when five years old to 
study under his father. In 1852 he went to 



IM 



PEKANDI 




America with his parents, and two years 
later made his first pubhc appcarnncc at a 
concert in New 
York. After two 
years spent in 
Dover, New Hamji- 
shire, he studied 
the viohn in Boston 
under William 
Schultze, andjilayed 
at a concert under 
Carl Zerrahn's di- 
rection. He lived 
next in Chicago, and then in Washington, 
returning finally to New York, whence, in 
1858, he went to Europe. In 18G2 he 
entered the Leipsic Conservatorium, where 
he studied the pianoforte under Moscheles 
and E. F. Wenzel ; harmony under Pap- 
peritz, Hauptmann, and Eichter ; and com- 
position under Eeinecke. In 1865 he re- 
turned to America, and after a concert 
tour in the West settled in 18GG in Boston. 
He has played often in public, and has a 
high reputation as a pianist and teacher of 
the pianoforte. In 1878-79 he again visited 
Leipsic, to study further under Wenzel. 
Many of his works are transcrijitions and 
arrangements for the jjianoforte ; among 
them the following : Lowe's ballads, The 
Dance of Death, Melek at the Spring, The 
Secluded ; First movement of Rubinstein's 
Ocean Symphony, and the overture to Di- 
mitri Donskoi ; First movement of Schu- 
bert's unfinished sj-mj^hony ; 10 selections 
from lolanthe, op. H. Among his original 
compositions, mostlj- for the jaianoforte, are : 
Moment musical, op. 1 ; Scherzo, op. 2 ; 
Prelude, op. 3 ; Waltz, op. 4 ; Three studies, 
op. 9, 1880 ; Peusees, op. 11, 1884 ; Circum- 
stance, or Fate in a Human Life, op. 13, 
1887 ; Songs. 

PERANDI, MAECO GIUSEPPE, born in 
Eome, beginning of the 17th century, died 
in Dresden, Jan. 12, 1675. Church com- 
poser, entered the service of the Elector of 
Saxony between 1G51 and 1G56, and was 
appointed Kapellmeister in 1663. Works : 



Die Historia von der Geburt des Herrn und 
Heilandes Jesu Christi ; Passion des Evan- 
gelisten St. Marcus ; 6 masses for 5 voices, 
with trumpets and drums ; 3 Magnificat for 
5 and 9 voices ; 15 concertos for 3-6 voices, 
with instruments ; 15 madrigals for 2-5 
voices ; 3 symjihonipc. With Bontempi he 
also composed a German opera, Dajibne, 
given in Dresden, 1672. — ^Mendel. 

PERDONO E TI COm^IANGO. See 
Norma. 

PEEEIEA, DOJIINGOS NUNES, bora 
at Lisbon about the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury, died at Camarate, near Lisbon, March 
29, 1729. Church composer, for many years 
mestre da capella of the cathedral at Lisbon. 
Works : Responsorios da Semana Santa, for 
8 voices ; Do. dos officios de defuntos, for 
do. ; Li(;oens de defuntos, for 4 voices ; Con- 
fitebor, Laudate jjueri, for 8 voices ; Vilhan- 
cicos e motetes, for 4, 6, and 8 voices. — Vas- 
concellos. 

PERELLI, NATALE, born in Lombardy 
about 1815. Dramatic composer, jjupil at 
the Conservatorio, Milan. Works : Gale- 
otto Manfredi, opera, Pavia, 1839 ; Osti et 
non osti, do., Genoa, 1840 ; II coutrabban- 
diere, Turin, 1842. 

PEREZ, DAYIDE, born in Naples, of 
Spanish parents, in 1711, died in Lisbon 
in 1778. Church and dramatic comjioser, 
pupil at the Conservatorio di Loreto of An- 
tonio Galli on the violin, becoming a virtu- 
oso on that instrument, and of Francesco 
Mancini in counterpoint. He went in 
1739 to Palermo as maestro di caj^jiella of 
the cathedral. There he wrote his first 
oj)eras, and soon acquired great reputation 
in Italy ; he comjjosed for all the leading 
cities, and in 1752 went to Lisbon, where, 
after the great success of his Demofoonte, 
the king bestowed on him the Order of 
Christ, and appointed him royal mestre de 
capella. In 1755 he ojiened the new theatre 
in Lisbon with his Alessandro nell" Indie, 
procuring for it the best singers from Italy ; 
went to London in the same year, and pro- 
duced his Ezio, with great success. Fetis 



:05 



PERFALL 



ranks his compositions next to those of 
Jommelli. AYorks — Operas : L' eroismo di 
Scipione, Palermo, 1741 ; Astartea, Medea, 
L' isola incantata (Palermo), La clemenza 
di Tito, Naples, 1749 ; Semiramide, Rome, 
1750; Furnace, ib.j Merope, Genoa, 1751; 
Didone abbandonata, ib.; Alessandro nell' 
Indie, ib. ; Zenobia, Turin, 1751; Demetrio, 
ib., 1752 ; Demofoonte, ib.; Artaserse, Adri- 
ano in Siria, ib., 1755 ; L' eroe cinese, ib., ' 
1753 ; Ipermnestra, ib., 1754 ; Olimpiade, 
ib.; Ezio, London, 1755 ; Solimanno, Lis- 
bon, 1757 ; Euea in Italia, 1759 ; Giulio 
Cesare, 1762. A fine edition of bis Matu- 
tini de' morti, his best sacred work, was 
published while he was in London. Other 
church music : Mass for 8 voices and or- 
chestra ; do. for 5 voices and orchestra ; 
Motets for 4 voices ; 2 Salve Regina for do. ; 
Resjjonses for do. ; Psalms for 3 voices and 
chorus. — Grove; Futis; Buruey, Hist., iv. 
570 ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Gerber ; Hogarth, 
Mus. Hist., i. 225. 

PERF.y:,L, K.\RL, Freiherr VON, born 
in Munich, Jan. 29, 1824, still living, 1890. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Hauptmauu at 
Leipsic (1848) ; left the government service 
in 1850, and assumed the direction of the 
Miinchener Liedertafel. In 1854 he found- 
ed the Oratorio Societj', which he conducted 
until 18G4, when he was appointed court 
music iutendant. In 1SG7 he became in- 
tendant of the royal theatre, in which posi- 
tion he has made the Munich opera one of 
the most prominent. Works — Oj)eras: Sa- 
kuntala, Munich, 1853 ; Das Konterfei, ib., 
18G3 ; Raimoudiu (also as Mclusine), ib., 
1881 ; Junker Heinz, ib., 188G ; Barbarossa, 
melodrama ; Dornroschen, Milrchen for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra ; Undine, do. ; Riibe- 
zahl, do. — Eiemann. 

PERGOLESI (Pergolese), GIOVANNI 
BATTISTA, born at Jesi, Roman States, 
Jan. 3, 1710, died at Pozzuoli, March IG, 
1736. Dramatic composer, pupil, when 
very young, at the Conservatorio dei Poveri 
di Gesti Cristo, Naples, on the violin of 
Domenico de Matteis. He soon attracted 




notice at the conservatory by the curious 
and unheard-of passages he imjirovised 
while practising, 
chromatic p r o - 
gressions based 
upon harmonic 
successions being 
then unknown. 
Such seemed to be 
his originality, 
that he was placed 
under Gaetano 
Greco to study 
counterpoint (harmony having hardly risen 
to the dignity of a separate study at that 
time) ; he continued his contrapuntal studies 
for a while under Durante, and then under 
Francesco Feo. He made rapid progress, 
but soon formed a style of his own, retaining 
only as much of the contrapuntal science he 
had learned as could be subordinated to me- 
lodious and expressive writing. His first 
composition worthy of the name was an 
oratorio, La couversione di San Guglielmo, 
which was given (with comic interludes) at 
the cloister of S. Agnello in 1731, before 
Pergolesi had left the conservatorj-. After 
leaving the conservatory he studied vocal 
composition under Vinci, and possibly also 
under Hasse. His first opera. La Sallustia, 
was given in 1731, but had no more than a 
succi'3 d'estime. Two other ojjcras also 
failed, and starvation would probably have 
been his fate had not the Prince of Stegli- 
ano, first equerry to the King of Naples, 
taken an active interest in him and heljied 
him to get work. After a great earthquake 
in Naples, a solemn mass was voted to the 
patron saint of the city, and Pergolesi was 
commissioned to write the music. He ac- 
cordingly wrote a mass and vespers for ten- 
part chorus and double orchestra, which 
was soon followed by a second mass for 
double chorus and two orchestras (to which 
the composer afterwards added parts for 
two more choruses), which was much ad- 
mired by Leo. About this time Pergolesi 
wrote also thirty trios for two violins, vio- 



106 



PERGOLESI 



loncello, and bass, dedicated to the Prince 
of Stegliano. In the winter of 1731 the 
workl-famous La serva padrona, was writ- 
ten and produced. Its success at first was 
not overwhelming', but it was the only gen- 
uine success Pergolesi had during his hfc- 
time. Several other operas followed it, but 
they were all regarded by the public as 
failures. In 1734 he went to Loreto as ma- 
estro di cappella. After the failure of a new 
oj)era, Flaminio (1735), the Confraternity of 
San Luigi di Palazzo, who had for years 
been in the habit of giving Alessandro 
Scarlatti's Stabat Mater on every Friday in 
March, ordered a new one of Pergolesi for 
ten ducats (about $8.75). He immediately 
set to work, but was soon called off to Rome 
to write an opera for the Teatro Tordiuone. 
His fame, which was now sjsreadiug beyond 
Najjles, seems to have been almost wholly 
due to the high esteem in which contem- 
porary musicians held his works, for the 
public almost ignored them. But at Rome 
L' Olimpiade failed with a crash, while Du- 
ni's Neroue (a far inferior work, as its com- 
poser admitted) made a resounding success. 
Pergolesi returned to Loreto, in disgust 
with the stage, and resumed work on the 
Stabat Mater. But his health, which had 
long been undermined by excesses of the 
gallant sort, now gave way, and consumjj- 
tion declared itself. He moved to Pozzuoli, 
near Najsles, and, although really far too ill 
to work, he persisted in composing a can- 
tata, Orfeo e Euridice, a Salve Regina, and 
in finishing the Stabat Mater, iu spite of 
the urgent entreaties of his old master Feo, 
who counselled rest. He died a few days 
after the completion of the Stabat. He 
was buried in the precincts of the Pozzuoli 
Cathedral, where, a century later, the Mar- 
quis de Villarosa and the Cavaliere Cori- 
glano raised a monument to his memory. 
His death was an almost immediate signal 
for a boundless enthusiasm for his works 
all over Italy, and twenty-four years later 
in France. L' Olimpiade was revived at 
Borne with overwhelming success. Indeed, 



Pergolesi's high renown was entirely post- 
humous, a fact unparalleled in the annals 
of Italian music. Pergolesi is to be re- 
garded as virtually the father of " modern " 
music in Italj' — perhaps even in Europe. 
In his music the contrapuntal element steps 
for the first time definitely into the back- 
ground, and the melodic-harmonic element 
asserts its supremacy. The step from Leo 
and Feo to Pergolesi is somewhat like that 
from the younger Bachs to Gluck and 
Haydn. Pergolesi's chief merits were great 
pathos, sweetness, and depth of expression. 
Of contrapuntal, or even melodic invention, 
he did not give surjjassing evidence, but it 
should be remembered that he died at the 
age of twenty-six, and that there is no 
calculating the splendour of development 
which awaited his genius had he but lived 
longer. Although in originality of concep- 
tion his works pale somewhat beside the 
more mature productions of other com- 
posers, if we compare them with what other 
great men had written before the age of 
twenty-six, we shall see that the comparison 
is rather in Pergolesi's favour than against 
hiiu. In fact, his Serva padrona was the 
model of nearly all Italian opere buffe that 
followed it. 

Works — I. Operas : San Guglielmo d' 
Aquitania, Naples, 1731 ; La Sallustia, 3 
acts, ib., 1731 ; Amor fa 1' uomo cieco, 1 
act, ib., 1731 ; Recimero, 3 acts, ib., 1731 ; 
La serva padrona, 2 acts, ib., Teatro San 
Bartolomeo, 1731, and Paris, Theatre 
Italien, Oct. 4, 1746 ; II maestro di mu- 
sica, 2 acts, Najjles, 1731 ; II geloso scher- 
nito, ib., 1732 ; Lo frate innamorato, in 
Neapohtan dialect, ib., 1733 ; II prigio- 
niero superbo, 3 acts, ib., 1733 ; Adriano iu 
Siria, ib., 1734 ; Livietta e Tracolo, ossia la 
contadina astuta, ib., 1734 ; Flaminio, 3 acts, 
ib., 1735 ; L' Olimpiade, 3 acts, Rome, 1735. 

H. Church music : Kyrie cum gloria, 4 
voc, with orchestra (Vienna, Haslinger) ; 
Mass, 5 voc, with orch.; do. for two 5-part 
choruses and double orch.; Dixit, 4 voc, 
strings, and organ ; do., double chorus and 



107 



PERI 



orch. ; Miserere, 4 voc. and orch. (Paris, 
Plejel) ; Confitebor, 4 voc. ; 2 Domine ad 
adjuvaudum, 4 and 5 voc; Laudate, 5 voc. 
with orcL.; Lsetatus sum, 2 soprani and 2 
basses ; do., 5 voc. ; Laudate, one voice 
with instruments ; Salve Regiua, one voice, 
strings, and organ (Paris, Leduc and Por- 
ro) ; Slahal Mater, for soprano and con- 
tralto, strings, and organ (Paris, Bonjour 
and Porro) ; Dies ira3, for soprano and con- 
tralto, and strings ; jMass, 2 voc, and or- 
gan ; do., in D, 4 voc, with orchestra ; 
Oratorio sacro per la nascita del Reden- 
tore. 

ni. Chamber and concert music : Orfeo, 
cantata for one voice and orchestra (in Cho- 
ron's Principes de composition des £coles 
d'ltalie) ; 5 cantatas for sopi-ano with clavi- 
chord ; 30 trios for 2 violins and violoncello, 
with a figured bass for harpsichord (24 of 
these were published in London and Am- 
sterdam); Two movements, 6 voc, from 
Psalms are in the FitzwiUiam Music (Lon- 
don, Novello) ; Air in F minor, for clavier, 
is in Clauss-Szarvady's Klavierstiicke (Leip- 
sic, Senff) ; Mass, and a Kyrie, and Gloria, 
10 voc, are in MS. in the FitzwiUiam 
Librai-y ; 3 jjsalms, a Stabat Mater, a Salve, 
and a mass are in the British Museum, Add. 
MSS., No. 5044. — ViUarosa, Lettera biogra- 
fica, etc., Naples (1831) ; do., IMcmorio dei 
compositori di musica del licgno di Napoli 
(Naples, 1840), 141 ; Belasis, Biografia di 
Pergolese ; Fctis ; Grove. 

PERI, ACHILLE, born at Reggio d' Emi- 
lia, Italy, Dec 20, 1812, died there, March 
28, 1880. Dramatic composer ; was at first 
maestro di cappella of an Italian opera 
troupe at Marseilles, afterwards at the Tea- 
tro Grande in his native city. Works : Una 
visita a Bedlam, IMarseilles, 1839 ; II soli- 
tario, Reggio, 1841 ; Dirce, ib., 1843 ; Ester 
d'Engaddi, Parma, 1843 ; Taucreda, Genoa, 
1848 ; I fidanzati, ib., 185G ; Vittore Pisani, 
Reggio, 1857 ; Giuditta, biblical drama, 
Milan, 18G0 ; L' e.spiazione, ib., 18G1 ; Or- 
fano e Diavolo ; Rienzi, Milan, 1862. — Fo- 
tis ; do., Supplement, ii. 321. 



PERI, JACOPO, caUed II Zazzerino, born 
in the latter half of the 16th century in 
Florence, died (?). He studied music under 
Cristoforo Malvezzi, of Lucca, and became 
maestro di cappella to Fernando, Duke of 
Tuscany, and later to Cosimo II. de' Me- 
dici. He married a rich noblewoman of 
the house of Fortini, by whom he had a 
son who showed great mathematical talent, 
and was jjut to study under Galileo Galilei, 
but eventually ruined himself by dissipation. 
This was the young man of whom Galileo 
used to speak as " il mio demone." In 
spite of the trouble given him, and the fre- 
quent disgrace brought ui)on his household 
by his son, Peri continued to move in the 
highest Florentine society. He soon as- 
sociated himself with Giovanni Bardi, conte 
di Vernio, Vincenzo Galilei, Piero Strozzi, 
Jacopo Corsi, the poet Ottavio llinucciui, 
and the composer Giulio C'accini, in the 
great Renaissance movement known as the 
Florentine Music Reform of the 17th cen- 
tury (see Ambros, iv. 147) which resulted 
in the establishment of the so-called stile 
rajjpresentativo, and the foundation of the 
lyric drama. He followed Caccini's epoch- 
making Nuove Musiche with a similar 
work of his own, Le varie musiche del Si- 
gnor Jacopo Peri, etc., less rigidly solemn 
than Caccini's in the declamatory portions, 
but also less elaborate in ornamentation. 
He was the first to develop this new style 
of vocal chamber music into actual dramatic 
composition in his setting of Riuucciui'a 
drama Dafne, which is properly accounted 
the first opera, and was brought out in 
private at the Palazzo Corsi in 1594 (not 
1597, as given in Grove, and as stated by 
Marco da Gagliano ; the work was given 
during the Carnival of three successive 
years, and da Gagliano probably heard only 
the last performance). This was soon fol- 
lowed by his setting of the same poet's 
Euridice. Singularly enough. Peri did not 
try to follow up these successes, perhaps 
from lack of opportunity ; certainly he 
wrote no more operas. He left Florence, 



108 



PEEKINS 



for some unknown reason, and in 1601 was 
appointed maestro di eappella to the Duke 
of Ferrara. His latest publication was the 
Varie musicbe. Works : Dafne, j^astoral 
ojiera, Florence, Palazzo Corsi, 1594 (all 
trace of this work is lost) ; Euridice, do., 
Florence, 1600 ; Le varie musiche del Si- 
gnor Jacojjo Peri a una, due e tre voci con 
alcuni spirituali in ultimo, per cantare nel 
clavicembalo e chitarrone e ancora maggior 
isarte di essa per sonare semplicemente 
nel orgauo (Florence, Marescotti, 1609). 
Three madrigals, 4 voc, are printed in 
Kiesewetter's " Schicksale und Beschaf- 
fenheit des weltlicheu Gesauges " (1841). 
— Ambros, iv. 201, 253 et seq. ; Grove ; 
Eiemaun. 

PEEIONS.HENEY SOUTH WICK, born, 
of American parentage, in Stockbridge, Ver- 
mont, March 20, 1833, still living, 1890. 
Son and j)upil of Orson Perkins (singing 
master, 1802-82) ; graduated in 1861 at the 
Boston Music School. In 18G7-71 he was 
president of the Iowa Normal Academy of 
Music, Iowa City ; in 1867-68 professor of 
music in the State University of Iowa ; in 
1870-74 president of the Kansas Normal 
Academy of Music, Leavenworth ; in 1887- 
88 president of the Illinois Music Teachers' 
Association ; in 1888 secretary and treasurer 
of the Music Teachers' National Association. 
In 1875-76 he went to Eurojie, and studied 
methods of conducting and teaching. He 
is well known as a conductor of musical 
conventions, festivals, and normal music 
schools ; resides in Chicago. Works : Sweet 
and Low, Sleep in Peace, She said she'd be 
my Bride, and other quartets ; Trust her 
not, quintet ; Make your Home beautiful, 
Little Wanderer, My Mariner, Alone, There's 
Peace on the Deep, and other songs. He 
is the compiler also of several collections, 
such as : The Nightingale (1860) ; Sabbath 
School Trumpet (1864) ; Church Bell (1867) ; 
Song Echo (1871) ; Sunnyside (1875) ; Shin- 
ing River (1875) ; Palms of Victory (1880) ; 
Song Wave (1882) ; Soul Songs (1885) ; and 
several books of instruction. 



PERKINS, WILLIAM OSCAR, born at 
Stockbridge, Vermont, May 23, 1831, still 
living, 1890. Son and pupil of Orson Per- 
kins and brother of the preceding ; after 
studying with American musicians he went 
to Europe, and took lessons in singing of J. 
Q. Wetherbee, London, and of G. Periui, 
Milan. On his return home he devoted 
himself to teaching, conducting, and com- 
posing. He visited Eurojie again in 1871- 
72 ; received the degree of Mus. Doc. from 
Hamilton College in 1879. He has pub- 
lished about forty books of compilations, 
containing many of his own compositions, 
such as Choral Harmony (1859) ; Perkins's 
Anthem Book (1874) ; The Temple (1879) ; 
Choral Choir (1882) ; The Peerless (1883), 
etc. His youngest brother, Julius Edson 
Perkins (1845-75), bass singer and pianist, 
married in 1874 Mario Roze, who after- 
wards became the wife of Henry Mapleson. 

PER LE PORTE DEL TORMENTO, 
duet for soprano and contralto (Elmira and 
Sosarme), in E major, with accomjaauiment 
of strings complete, in Handel's Sosarme, 
Act n., Scene 8. Published also separately, 
with the accompaniment filled out by Rob- 
ert Franz (Leii^sic, Kistner). 

PERLE DU BEfiSIL, LA (The Pearl of 
Brazil), drame lyrique in three acts, text by 
Gabriel and Sylvain Saint-Etienne, music 
by Fc'licien David, first rejsresented at the 
Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Nov. 22, 1851. 
This was the composer's first dramatic work 
The admiral Salvador has captured in Bra- 
zil a young gii-1 Zora, whom he educates 
and intends to marry. He sets sail with 
her, and discovers that she has a lover, Lo- 
renz, a young lieutenant who had disguised 
himself as a sailor to accompany them. A 
severe storm compels the ship to seek shel- 
ter in a harbour of Brazil, where they are 
attacked by the natives. Zora chants a 
hymn to the Great Spirit, and, recognizing 
their comjsatriot, the Brazilians make peace. 
Zora is rewarded by permission fi-om the 
admiral to marry Lorenz. The original 
cast was : Zora, Mile Duez ; Lorenz, M. 



109 



PERNE 



Soyer ; Admiral Salvador, M. Boucbe. 
The opera was revived at the Theatre Ly- 
rique, Paris, in March, 1858, with Mme 








Emma Nevada. 

Miolan-Carvallio, and at the Ojn'ra Coiuiquo, 
1883, with Mme Emma Nevada aa Zora. — 
Cli'racnt et Larousse, 524 ; Eevue et Gaz. 
mus. de Piiris (1858), 83. 

PERNE, FRANVOIS LOUIS, born in 
Paris in 1772, died there, May 2G, 1832. 
Composer and erudite writer on music ; 
educated at the maitrise of Saiiit-Jacques- 
de-la-Boucherie, where he studied harmony 
and counterpoint under the Abbe d'Haudi- 
mout. In 17!)2 he became a chorus singer 
at the Opera, but in 1799 exchanged to play 
the double-bass in the band. In 1811 he 
succeeded Catel as professor of harmony 
at the Conservatoire, in 181G became in- 
spector, in 1820 librarian, and in 1822 
retired to reside on an estate near Laon ; 
removed to Laon in 1830, and in 1832 re- 
turned to Palis. He was a profound stu- 
dent of ancient music, and expended a vast 
amount of labour in investigating the mu- 



sic of the Greeks and of the Middle Ages. 
Works : Messe de Sainte-Cecile, 1800 ; Vivat 
rex, mass for four voices, 1811 ; Veni Cre- 
ator, for three voices ; G sonatas for piano- 
forte ; Domine, salvum fac regem, variations 
for do.; 2 methods for ijianoforte ; Cours 
d'harmonie et d'accompagnement (1822). 
He published, also : Exposition de la Semci- 
ographie, ou Notation musicale des Grecs 
(Paris, 1815) ; Chansons du Chatelain de 
Coucy (Paris, 1830) ; and other didactic and 
historical works. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Rie- 
maun. 

PEEOTTI, GIOVANNI AG O ST IN 0, 
born at Vercelli, April 12, 17G9, died in 
Venice, June 28, 1855. Dramatic and 
church composer, brother and pupil of the 
following, then in Bologna pui:)il of Mattel ; 
went to Vienna in 179G aa accomj)anist at 
the Italian opera, and to Loudon in 1798, 
in the same capacity. In 1801 he settled in 
Venice, where in 1812 ho became substitute, 
and in 1817 successor, to Furlanetto as ma- 
estro di cappella at S. Mai'co. Works : La 
coutadina nobile, given at Pisa, 1795 ; Ales- 
saiidro e Timoteo, rearrangement of Sarti's 
opera, London, 1800. Ballets ; Church 
and chamber music. — Fetis ; Riemann. 

PEROTTI, GIOVANNI DOMENICO, 
born at Vercelli, Italy, in 17G0, died there 
after 1820. Dramatic and church composer, 
pupil of Fiorini in Milan, and of Padre Mar- 
tini in Bologna ; on his return to Vercelli 
he was appointed maestro di cappella at 
the cathedral. Works : Zemira e Gondarte, 
given at Alessandria, 1788 ; Agesilao, Rome, 
1789 ; Much church music for the service 
in Vercelli Cathedral. — Fetis. 

PERPETUUM ilOBILE (Perpetual 
^Motion), rondo in Weber's Sonata in C, 
for pianoforte, op. 21, completed in Berlin, 
Aug. 18, 1812, and dedicated to Madame la 
Grande-Duchesse Marie Paulowna of Saxe- 
Weimar. The Rondo, which is the last 
movement, is dated " L'infatigable, compo- 
nirt June 11th and July 15th." Published 
separately as "Perpetuum Mobile," by 
Schlesinger (Berlin) ; by Simrock (Bonn 



JIO 



PER PIETA 



and Berlin) ; and by Haslinger (Vienna) ; 
as " Mouvement perpctuel," by Brandus & 
Dufour (Paris); as "Allegro brillant," by 
Augener & Co. (London) ; as " Brilliant 
Rondo," by Cba^jpell & Co. (London), and 
Cramer & Co. (ib.) ; as "Moto continuo," 
by Chappell & Co. (London) ; and, " II moto 
l^erpetuo," by Eicordi (Milan). The Rondo 
Las been rearranged by Henselt witb mod- 
ei'n difficulties, and adapted by Brahms as 
a study for the left hand. Pagauini also 
wrote Moto perpetuo, Allegro de concert 
for the violin, op. 11. — Jahns, Weber Yer- 
zeichuiss, 159 ; Benedict, Weber, 140. 

PER PIETA, BELL' IDOL MIO, aria 
for soprano with orchestra, in E-flat, text 
from Metastasio's Artaserse, music by Mo- 
zart, composed in Milan in 1770, Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie vi.. No. G. 
— Kuchel, Verzeichniss, No. 78. 

PER PIETA, NON EICERCATE, rondo 
for tenor with orchestra, in E-flat, text from 
Anfossi's opera, II curioso iudiscreto, music 
by Mozart, composed in Vienna, June 21, 
1783. Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, 
Serie -vi., No 27. — Kochel, Verzeichniss, No. 
420 ; Andro, No. 59. 

PER QUESTA BELLA MANO, aria for 
bass, with orchestra, accomj)animent and 
contrabass obligato, in D, by Mozart, com- 
posed for Franz Gerl in Vienna, March 8, 
1791. Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, 
Serie vi.. No. 46. It was sung at the Lon- 
don Philharmonic in 1887. — KOchel, Ver- 
zeichniss, No. 612 ; Andre, No. 89 ; Jahu, 
Mozart, iii. 287. 

PER QUESTE TUE MANINE. See Don 
Giovanni. 

PERRY, EDWARD BAXTER, born, of 
American parentage, in Haverhill, Massa- 
chusetts, Feb. 14, 1855, still living, 1890. 
Pianist ; when two years old he was made 
totally blind by accident ; from his sixth to 
his nineteenth year he studied the piano- 
forte in Boston, and in 1875-78 studied in 
Berlin, Frankfort, Stuttgart, and Weimar, 
under Kullak, D. Prucknei-, and Liszt. On 
his return he settled in Boston and devoted 



two years to concert work, but had to aban- 
don it on account of an injury to his right 
wrist, and in 1881-83 was jirofessor of pi- 
anoforte at Oberlin Conservatory. In 1883- 
85 he was again in Europe, appeared in 
concerts with success, and at Frankfort re- 
ceived instruction from Clara Schumann. 
Since 1885 he has been instructor in the 
Tremont School of Music, Boston, and is 
well known as a concert pianist in New 
England and the Middle and Western 
States. His works consist chiefly of com- 
positions for the pianoforte, and songs. 

PERRY, GEORGE, born at Norwich, 
England, in 1793, died in London, March 
4, 18G2. Organist, jjupil of Beekwith, 
settled in London in 1822, and was at first 
director of music in Haymarket Theatre and 
organist of Quebec Chaj)el. In 1832-47 he 
was concert-master, and in 1848 conductor, 
of the Sacred Harmony Society. From 
1846 he was organist of Trinity Church, 
Gray's Inn Road. Works : Morning, Noon, 
and Night, oj^era, 1822. Oratorios : Elijah 
and the Priests of Baal, 1818 ; The Fall of 
Jerusalem, 1830 ; TheDeathof Abel ; Heze- 
kiah ; Belshazzar's Feast, cantata, 1836. 
Overture to the Persian Hunters ; Anthems. 

PERSEE, tragedie-lyrique in five acts 
and prologue, text by Quinault, music by 
Lully, first represented at the Acadomie 
Royale de Musique, Paris, Ajn-il 17, 1G82. 
It is one of the composer's best operas. The 
prologue celebrates Virtue, Innocence, and 
Fortune. The first act presents plaj's in 
honour of Juno ; the second, the gardens 
and palace of Cepheus, King of Ethiopia 
and father of Andromeda, whom Perseus 
resolves to deliver. He receives a shield 
from Minei-va and a casque from Pluto ; in 
the third act vanquishes the Gorgon, and 
in the fourth rescues Andromeda. The 
last act shows their marriage, and the apo- 
theosis of Cej^heus, Cassiopea, Perseus, 
and Andromeda. Original cast : Persee, M. 
Dumesnil ; Phinee, M. Beaumavielle ; Ce- 
phee, M. Dun ; Andromede, Mile Aubry ; 
Merope, Mile Marthe du Rochois ; and 



lU. 



peesEe 



Meduse, Mile Desvoyes. Thevenard sang 
the part of PhiiiOe with great effect Pub- 
lished by Ballard (Paris, 1682 ; 2d ed., 1722). 
Same text, music by Bernard de Bui-y, Dau- 
vergne, Franccour, and Rebel, Paris, 1770 ; 
and Persee et Andromode, ballet by Mehul, 
ib., June 8, 1810. Italian operas on the 
same subject : Perseo, by Aiidrea Mattioli, 
Venice, 1GG5 ; by Antonio Draghi, text b}' 
Aurelio Amalteo, Vienna, 1GG9 ; Le azioni 
fortunate di Perseo, by do., ib., 1G91 ; An- 
dromeda, text by Bernardoni, composer un- 
known, ib., Feb. 21, 1702 ; by Sacchini, 
Loudon, 177-1 ; by Jouo de Sousa Carvalho, 
Lisbon, 1779 ; and II ritorno di Perseo, by 
Paisiello, Naples, 1792. Also an Hungarian 
ballet, Perseus iind Andromeda, by George 
Druzecki, Presburg, about 1790. — Clement 
et Larousse, 525. 

PERSEE, tragt'die-lyrique in three acts, 
arranged by Miu-montel from Quinault's text, 
nmsic bj' Philidor, first represented at the 
Academie lloyale de Musique, Paris, Oct. 27, 
1780. Oiiginal cast : Persee, M. Legi-os ; 
Andromede, Mile Levasseur ; Mt'duse, Mile 
Durancy ; Cassiopi^'e, j\Ille Duplant ; Phinee, 
M. Larrivee ; and Mercure, M. Laine. — La- 
jarte, i. 319. 

PEKSIANI (Persiano), GIOSEFFO, born 
at Ilecanati, Papal States, in 180-4, died in 
Paris, Aug. 14, 18G9. Dramatic composer, 
pupil of Tritto at the royal college of music, 
Naples. About 1837 he went to Paris, and 
after 1838 jiassed several j-ears in Spain. 
"Works : Piglia il mondo come viene, opera 
bufTa, Florence, 182G ; L' inimico generoso, 
ib., 182G ; Attila, Pamia, 182G ; Danao, re 
d' Argo, Florence, 1827 ; Gaston de Foix, 
Venice, 1828 ; Costantino in Aries, ib., 1829 ; 
Eufemio di Messina, Florence, 1829 ; II 
solitario, Milan, 1829 ; I Saraceni in Cata- 
nia (a new version of Eufemio di Messina), 
Padua, 1832 ; Ines de Castro, Naples, 1835 ; 
H fantasma, Paris, 1813 ; L' orfana savo- 
jarda, Madrid, 1846.— Ft'tis. 

PERSUIS, LOUIS LUC LOISEAU DE, 
born at Metz, July 4, 1769, died in Paris, 
Dec. 20, 1819. Dramatic composer and vio- 



linist, pupil of his father, who was master 
of the choristers of the cathedral. He en- 
tered the orchestra of the theatre, lived in 
Avignon as teacher of violin, and in 1787 
went to Paris, where he produced an ora- 
torio, Le passage de la mer Rouge, at the 
Concerts Spirituels. He was first violinist 
at the Theatre Montansier in 1790 and at 
the Oj^era in 1793, chef de chant at the 
Oi^era in 1804, chef d'orchestrc in 1810, 
succeeding Rey ; he became also professor 
of violin at the Conservatoire when it was 
founded in 1795, but lost this post in 1802. 
In 1814 he became inspector-general of the 
Opera, and in 1817, through coui-t influ- 
ence, sufierseded Choron as director. He 
had meanwhile been appointed conductor 
of the court concerts, and in 1810-15 was 
conductor of the orchestra at the Acade- 
mic. Afterwards maitre de chapelle to Louis 
XVin. in 1814, succeeding Lesueur as super- 
intendent of the Royal Chapel. He exhib- 
ited great ability as a conductor, but his 
music, though it met with considerable suc- 
cess in its day, is now forgotten. Order 
of St. Michael, 1819 ; Legion of Honour, 
Works — Operas ; Estelle, 1783 ; La nuit 
espagnole, 1791 ; Phanor et Angela, 1798 ; 
Fanny Morna, 1799 ; Leonidas (with Gres- 
nick)," 1799 ; Le fruit defendu, 1800 ; Mar- 
cel, 1801 ; Chant de victoire en I'honneur 
de Napoleon, 1806 ; L'inauguration de la 
Victoire (with Lesueur), 1807 ; Le triomphe 
de Trajan, 1807 ; Jerusalem delivrue, 1812 ; 
Chant franyais, 1814 ; L'heureux retour 
(with Berton and Kreutzer), 1815 ; Les 
dieux rivaux (with Spontini), 181G. He 
wrote also music for 
i ballets (some in col- 

iLc*,^ labo ration with 
^ ^^ -^ Kreutzer) : Le retour 
'^ d'Ulysse, 1807 ; Nina, 

1813 ; L'epreuve villageoise, 1814 ; L'heu- 
reux retour, 1815 ; Le carnaval de Venise, 
1816. His church compositions in MS. 
are in the Conservatoire Library. — Fetis ; 
do.. Supplement, ii. 32G ; Riemanu ; Men- 
del. 




119 



PEETI 



PERTI, JACOPO ANTONIO, born in 
Bologua, June 6, 1661, died there, April 10, 
175G. Church composer, puijil of Padre 
Petronio Franceschini. In 1680 he con- 
ducted a mass of his own for solo, chorus, 
and orchestra, in San Petronio, and in 1681 
was made a member of the Accademia Filar- 
monica, Bologna, of which he was six times 
priucipe. He was maestro di cajDjDella of 
San Petronio till his death. Among his 
pupils were Aldovi-andini, Laureuti, Pis- 
tocchi, and Torelli. He was the friend and 
companion of Padre Martini. Works — Op- 
eras, all given in Venice : Atide, 1679 ; Mar- 
zio Coriolano, 1683 ; Flavio, 1686 ; Rosaura, 
1689 ; L' incoronazioue di Dario, 1689 ; 
Brenno in Efeso, 1690 ; L' ingauno sco- 
perto per vendetta, 1691 ; Furio Camillo, 
1692 ; Nerone fatto Cesare, 1693 ; Laodicea 
e Berenice, 1695. Church works : Cantate 
morali e spirituali, 1688 ; Messe e salmi 
concertati, 1735. The Abbate Santini pos- 
sessed a fine collection of his music. There 
is an Adoramus Te by Perti in the Fitzwill- 
iam Library, Cambridge, and Novello has 
included two fine choruses by him in his 

" Sacred Music," vol. ii. He wrote two or- 
atorios, Giesu al sepolcro, and La morte di 
Giesti, 1718.— Burney, Hist., iv. 51 ; Rie- 
manu ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PESCETTI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 
born in Venice in 1704, died there in 1766. 
Organist, and dramatic and church com- 
poser, pupil of Lotti ; was appointed in 1762 
organist of the second organ in S. Marco. 
He was in London in 1737^0. Works— Op- 
eras : II jjrototipo, Venice, 1726 ; La canta- 
trice, ib., 1727 ; Dorinda, ib., 1729 ; I tre 
defensori della patria, ib., 1730 ; Narcisso al 
fonte, ib., 1731 ; H vello d'oro, London, 1737 ; 
Demetrio, ib., 1738 ; Alessandro nell' Indie, 
Venice, 1740 ; Tullio Ostilio, 1740 ; Ezio, 
1747 ; Diana ed Endimione, cantata, Lon- 
don, 1739. Church music ; 9 sonatas for 
pianoforte. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 




PESSARD, fiMILE LOUIS FORTUNE, 

born in Paris, May 29, 1843, still living, 
1890. Dramatic 
composer, pupil 
of Bazin and Ca- 
rafa at the Con- 
servatoire, where 
he obtained the 
second prize in 
1861, and the 
first in 1862 ; 
grand prix de 
Rome, 1866. 

He is inspector of vocal music in the public 
schools of Paris. Legion of Honour, 1879. 
Works — Operas : La cruche cassee, given at 
the Opera Comique, 1870 ; Le char, ib., 
1878 ; Le capitaine Fracasse, Theatre Ly- 
rique, 1878. Solemn mass for 2 voices with 
organ ; Ave Maria, with organ, violin, and 
violoncello ; Mater Salvatoris ; Suite for 
orchestra ; March for do. ; Quintet for 
wind instruments ; Trio for pianoforte and 
strings ; Pianoforte music, and songs. — Fe- 
tis, Supplement, ii. 327 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 
333. 

PETER SCHMOLL UND SEINE 
NACHBARN (Peter Schmoll and his Neigh- 
bours), German comic opera in two acts, 
text by Joseph Turks, from Carl Gottlob 
Cramer's novel of the same title (Rudolstadt, 
1798-99), music by W^eber, represented 
at Augsburg, in March, 1803. It was writ- 
ten in Salzburg, when Weber was a pupil 
of Michael Haydn, who recommended this 
work of the young composer. It was re- 
hearsed in Salzburg in June, 1802, and was 
probably first given there. The libretto is 
laid in the time of the French Revolution, 
and is arranged as a Singspiel with spoken 
dialogue. The music as a whole is some- 
what crude, but the harmonies are original 
and the instrumentation novel and full of 
colour, exhibiting the individuality of the 
composer. He has used also several obso- 
lete instruments to characterize the situa- 
tions of the play. The music of Minette's 
song in the first act was again used for the 



113 



PETERSEN 



song, "Wircl Philomele trauern," in Abu 
Hassan and for the last song in the finale 
of the third act of Oberon. Characters rep- 
resented: Peter Schmoll, Bast, and Greis 
(B.) ; Oberbereiter and Niclas (T.) ; and 
ilinette (S.). The original MS. is in the 
iwssession of Max von Weber, and a copy 
is owned by F. W. Jiihns. The opera was 
not published. Weber rescored and partly 
rewrote the overture in E-flat in 1807, and 
it was published by Gombart (Augsburg) ; 
also for jjianoforte for two and for four 
hands by Schlesinger (Berlin) ; full score, 
Peters (Leipsic), and by Kichault (Paris). 
— Jiihns, Weber, Verzeichniss, No. 8 ; Weber, 
Weber, i. 65, 73 ; Grove, iv. 410. 

PETERSEN, KAKL AUGUST, born in 
Hamburg, May 27, 1801, died (?). Flutist, 
son and pupil of the following ; abandoned 
his instrument for the violin and pianoforte, 
both of which he taught in Hamburg, after 
having travelled through Denmark and 
Sweden. Works : Polonaise for jDianoforte, 
with orchestra ; Duos for violins ; Rondo 
for violin and pianoforte; Sonata for do.; 
Polonaises, rondos, divertissements, etc. 
— Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PETERSEN, PETER NIKOLAS, born 
at Bederkesa, near Bremen, Sept. 2, 17G1, 
died in Hamburg, Aug. 19, 1830. Virtuoso 
on the flute, self-taught, joined a band of 
travelling musicians when still a boy, and 
at the age of seventeen entered a militia 
regiment in Hamburg as oboe player. In 
course of time he began to teach, and hav- 
ing appeared in public for the first time in 
1791, retained favour as the foremost flutist 
of Hamburg for thirty years. He also made 
important improvements in his instrument. 
Works : Etudes pour la flute, 2 books ; Ada- 
gio et variations pour la flute et piano ; Re- 
cueil de duos pour deux flutes ; Methode 
de flQte.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

PETIT, ADRIEN (called Coclicus, also 
Petri), born in Germany about 1500, died 
probably there. Pupil of Josquin Despres, 
having gone to France in his youth ; he 
travelled afterwards, and seems to have re- 



sided in Italy, but returned to his native 
country. Works : Musica reservata ; Con- 
solationes ex psalmis Davidicis, 4 voc. (Nu- 
remberg, 1552) ; Motets in the collections 
of Adrien Leroy and Ballard ; Treatise on 
music (Nuremberg, 1552). — Fetis ; Mendel ; 
Schilling. 

PETIT CHAPERON ROUGE, LE (Little 
Red Riding-hood), opera-comique in three 
acts, text by Theaulon, music by Boieldieu, 
first rejjresented at the Theatre Feydeau, 
Paris, June 30, 1818. The libretto is an 
adaptation of the old fairy tale of Perrault. 
Red Riding-hood in the opera becomes 
Rose d'Amour, a simple peasant girl, who 
on her way to visit an old hermit is attacked 
by the wolf, who is the Baron Rodolphe. 
He possesses a magic ring, the power of 
which no woman is able to resist, but by 
virtue of her red hood, which is a talisman, 
Rose d'Amour escapes. The Baron hurries 
to the hermit's abode, and waits for her in 
disguise. Rose d'Amour is again saved, 
this time by the hermit, who returns to his 
home and discovers that she is the Baron's 
niece. Rose d'Amour is afterwards given 
in marriage to Count Roger, who had won 
her heart in the guise of a shepherd. The 
opera showed a marked advance in Boiel- 
dieu's style, and the orchestration was richer 
than that of his former works. The Petit 
Chaperon rouge was given in Vienna under 
the title of Rothkiippchen, March 27, 1819 ; 
in Berlin, July 7, 1819 ; and in Dresden, 
Dec. 10, 1823. It was revived at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, in 18G0. The score was 
dedicated to Louis X\TII., and published 
by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, and by Peters (Leip- 
sic). Same title, melodrama by Schaffuer, 
Paris, Feb. 28, 1818. — Clement et Larousse, 
526 ; Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 96 ; Allgem. 



mus. Zeitg., xx. 571. 

PETIT DUG, LE (The Little Duke), 
opera-comique in three acts, text by Hemi 
: Meilhac and Ludovic Hak'vy, music by 
Lecocq, first represented at the Theatre de 
la Renaissance, Paris, Jan. 25, 1878, with 
Mile Jeanne Granier as le petit due. It 



114 



PETITE 



was first given in English at the Islington 
Philharmonic Theatre, London, April 27, 
1878 ; and first in New York, March 17, 
1879. Published by Brandus & Co. (Paris, 
1878).— Clement et Larousse, 933 ; Athe- 
nffium (1878), i. 1G4. 

PETITE ilADEJMOISELLE, LA, opera- 
eomique iu three acts, text by Meilhac and 
Halevy, music by Lecocq, first represented 
at the Theatre de la Renaissance, Paris, 
April 12, 1879. The scene is in and near 
Paris in 1G52. The petite mademoiselle is 
a young widow, the Countess Cameroni, 
whom Mazarin wishes to marry to the 
brother of the dead count. She refuses, 
joins the Fronde, and travels to Paris under 
the passport of Mme Douillet. Aided by 
the capitaine de Manicamp, she passes 
through the garrison and arrives in Paris. 
He follows, takes her prisoner, and after- 
wards marries her. This opera was given 
in English as Madelon at the Casino, New 
York, Dec. 5, 1887. PubUshed by Bote & 
Bock (Berlin, 1879). — Eevue et Gaz. mus. 
de Paris (1879), 123 ; Clement et Larousse, 
934. 

PETITE MARIEe, la, opera-bouflfe in 
three acts, text by Eugene Leterrier and 
Albert Vanloo, music by Lecocq, first rep- 
resented at the Theatre de la Renaissance, 
Paris, Dec. 21, 1875, with great success. 
— Clement et Larousse, 8G7 ; Atheuseum 
(187G), i. 29. 

PETIT SOUPER, LE (The Little Sup- 
per), opera-comique in one act, by Dalayrac, 
first rej^reseuted at the Theatre de la Cour, 
Paris, in 1781. Same title, ojjera-comique, 
text by Violet d'Epagny, music by Dourlen, 
given at the Feydeau, Paris, Feb. 22, 1822. 

PETRELLA,"eRRICO, born in Palermo, 
Dec. 10, 1813, died in Genoa, April 7, 1877. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Saverio del 
Giudice on the violin, and, at the Couserva- 
torio San Pietro a Majella, of Jlichele Costa, 
Bellini, Furno, Ruggi, and of Zingarelli. He 
produced his first opera, II diavolo color di 
rosa, 1829, while studying at this school, 
and rapidly became one of the most cele- 




brated dramatic composers of Italy, second 
only to Verdi. His oj^eras enjoyed great 
pojDularity for twenty- 
five years. Works : 
II giorno deUe nozze ; 
Pulclnella morto e 
non morto, Naples, 
1832 ; Lo scroccone, 
ib., 183G ; I pirati 
spagnuoli, ib., 1837 ; 
Le miuiere di Freim- 
berg, ib., 1839 ; Le 
precauzioui, ib., 1851 ; 
Elena di Tolosa, ib., 1852 ; Marco Visconti, 
ib., 1854 ; Elnava, o 1' assedio di Leida, 
Milan, 1855 ; lone, ossia I'ultimo giorno di 
Pompeji, ib., 1858 ; II duca di Scilla, ib., 
1859 ; Morosina, Naples, 1860 ; II foUetto 
di Gresy, ib., 18G0 ; Virginia, ib., 18G1 ; La 
contessa d' Amalfi, Turin, 186-1 ; Celinda, 
Naples, 18G5 ; Caterina Howard, Rome, 
1866 ; I promessi sposi, Lecco, 1866 ; Gio- 
vanna H. di Napoli, Naples, 1869 ; Manfredo, 
ib., 1872 ; Bianca Orsini, ib., 1874 ; Cimo- 
docea, Diana, ossia la fata di Pozzuoli, not 
given. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 328 ; Mendel. 

PETROBELLI, FRANCESCO, born at 
Bologna about 1C35. Church composei-, 
maestro di cappella of the cathedral at 
Padua. Works : Motetti e Litanie della 
B. V. (Autwerji) ; Salmi a quattro voci con 
stromenti obligati (Venice, 1662) ; Musiche 
sacre concertate, etc. (Bologna, 1670) ; Can- 
tate a una e due voci, etc. (ib., 1676) ; Mo- 
tetti, Antifone e litanie della B. V. a 2 
voci (ib., 1677) ; Musiche da camera (Ven- 
ice, 1682) ; Psalmi breves octo vocibus (ib., 
1684) ; Salmi dominicali a 8 voci (ib., 1686) ; 
Scherzi musicali, etc. (ib., 1693). — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

PETZOLD, EUGEN KARL, born at 
Ronneburg, Saxe-Altenburg, Nov. 7, 1813, 
died Jan. 22, 1889. Organist, jjujiil of Can- 
tor Hasenmeyer on the iiiauoforte, then at 
the Thomasschule in Leipsic of Weinlig in 
theory, later of David on the violin, of 
Julius Knorr and August Klengel on the 
pianoforte, of Pohlenz iu singing and on 



us 



PEVERNAGE 



tbe organ, and of Mendelssolin in score- 
reading. In 1837 he founded the Phil- 
harmonic Society, in 1838-39 was Kapell- 
meister of the Stadttheater at Bautzen, and 
in ISiO went to Switzerland as musical 
instructor at an institute. Having visited 
Paris in 1841, he became in 1842 organist 
and music director at Murten and in 1844 
at Zofingen, Canton Aargau where he ac- 
tively promoted musical cultui-e by the 
establishment of regular subscription con- 
certs, oratorio performances, etc. In 1874 
he retired from public life, retaining only 
his position as organist. In 1845 he visited 
Italy, and in 1851 London. Works : Music 
to Goethe's Faust ; do. to Schiller's Wil- 
helm Tell ; Concert compositions for solo, 
chorus, and orchestra ; do. for various solo 
instruments ; Church music ; Pianoforte 
pieces ; Songs and choruses. — Mendel, Er- 
giinz., 334. 

PEVERNAGE, ANDRfi, born at Cour- 
trai, Flanders, in 1543, died in Antwei-p, 
Jul}- 30, 1591. Chui'ch composer, jjupil at 
the maitrise of his cathedral, where he was 
chorister, and of which he became maitre de 
chapelle at the age of twenty. In 1574 he 
married, and moved to Antwerp as choir- 
master of the cathedral, and led an active 
life in composing, editing a collection of 
other authors' works, and giving at his 
own house weekly performances from the 
best masters. "Works : 5 books of sacred 
motets (Antwerp, 1574-91) ; 5 masses (ib., 
1593) and 7 books of motets (ib., 1602). 
The British Museum has a book of chan- 
sons, and two imjjerfect cojjies of Harmo- 
nic celeste, a collection of madrigals ed- 
ited by him, in which seven of his own 
appear (1583). Eituer mentions sixteen 
detached pieces in various collections of 
the time. Two have been jirinted in mod- 
ern type, an Ode a Sainte-Cecile, O Virgo 
generosa (Commer. col. op. mus. Batav:, vol. 
vii., Berlin), and a 9-part Gloria in excel- 
sis, in the Csecilia of von Oberhoflfer (Lux- 
emburg, 1863). — Fetis ; Riemann ; Mendel ; 
Schilling ; Gerber ; Ambros, Gesch., iii. 31G ; 



Van der Straeten, i. 127-129 ; ii. 243-244 ; 
iii. 5 ; vi. 5G, 178. 

PEZEL (Pezelius), JOHANN, born in 
Austria in the first half of the 17th centurj-. 
Instrumental composer, canon of the Order 
of St. Augustine, entered in 1672 a monas- 
tery in Prague, but left it in the year fol- 
lowing and went to Bautzen, Saxony, where 
he embraced Protestantism, and became 
town piper ; afterwards lived in the same 
capacity at Leipsic. He is one of the few 
composers who, in the 17th century, cul- 
tivated exclusively instnimental music. 
Works : Musica vesijertina Lipsiaca, for 1- 
5 voices (Leipsic, 1669) ; Hora decima, for 
5 voices (ib., 1669) ; Musikalische Arbeit 
zum Abblasen, bestehend in 40 Sonetten 
mit 5 Stimmen (ib., 1670) ; Arien iiber die 
iiberfliissigen Gedanken (ib., 1673 ; Mu- 
sikalische Seelenerquickungen (ib., 1675) ; 
Bicinia variorum instrumentorum, etc. (ib., 
1674) ; Intraden in zwei Theileu (ib., 1676) ; 
DeliciiB musicales, etc. (Frankfort, 1678) ; 
Intraden a 4, nehmlich mit einem Cornet 
und drei Trombonen (Leipsic, 1683) ; 
Fiinfstimmige blasende Abendmusik, etc. 
(Frankfort, 1684) ; Musikahsche Gemiiths- 
ergotzungen, etc. (1685) ; Opus musicum 
sonatorum, etc. (Fi-ankfort, 1686) ; Musica 
cui-iosa Lipsiaca, etc. (Leipsic, 1686). His 
only vocal composition is : Jahrgang tlber 
die Evangelia von 3-5 Vokalstimmen, etc. 
(Leipsic, 1678). He published also: Ob- 
scrvationes musicse (Leijisic, 1678-83) ; In- 
felix musicus (ib., 1678) ; Musica politico- 
practica (ib., 1678). — Fetis ; Gerber ; Men- 
del ; Reissmaun, Gesch., ii. 300 ; Riemann. 

PFEIFFER, GEORGES JEAN, born at 
Versailles, Dec. 12, 1835, still Uving, 1890. 
Pianist and instrumental composer, son and 
pupil of the pianist Clara Virginie Pfeiffer, 
and in composition pupil of Maleden and 
Damcke. He won immediate success as a 
virtuoso, played in London in 1862, and is 
much sought as a teacher. His composi- 
tions rank among the best of the modern 
French school. He is a partner in the firm 
of Pleyel, Wolfif & Cie, Paris, pianoforte 



116 



PFINGSTEN 



makers. Works : 3 concertos for piano- 
forte and orchestra ; Allegro symj^lionique 
for do. ; Symphony for orchestra ; Jeanne 
d'Arc, symphonic poem ; Agar, lyrical scenes 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Overture to 
Le Cid ; Quintet for pianoforte and strings ; 
Trio for do. ; Sonatas for do. ; Le capitaine 
Eoch, comic opera ; Romances, waltzes, 
mazurkas, sonatas, etudes, and many other 
pieces for pianoforte. — Fetis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, ii. 331 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 335. 

PFINGSTEN (Whitsuntide), cantata, text 
by Immergriiu, music by Ferdinand Hiller, 
op. 119. Published by Kistner (Leipsic, 
1860-67). 

PFINGSTEN IN FLORENZ, operetta in 
three acts, text by Eiegeu, Zell, and Genee, 
music by Alphons Czibulka, first repre- 
sented in Vienna, Dec. 20, 1884. An Eng- 
lish version, entitled Amorita, translation 
by Sidney Rosenfeld and Leo Goldmark, 
was given at the Casino, New York, Nov. 
16, 1885. 

PH^DRA, music to the tragedy of Prince 
Georg of Prussia (G. Conrad), by Wilhelm 
Taubert, first performed in Berlin in 1868. 
Operas on this subject, in Italian : Fedra 
incoronata, text by Vissai'i, composer un- 
known, Munich, 1662 ; Fedra, by Gluck, 
Milan, 1744 ; by Giovanni Paisiello, Naples, 
1788 ; by Niccolini, Rome, 1804 ; by Ferdi- 
nando Orlandi, Padua, 1820 ; by Simon 
Mayr, text by Eomanelli, Milan, Dec. 26, 
1820 ; by John Fi-anc Westmoreland, Flor- 
ence, Nov. 17, 1824 ; and in French, Phedre, 
text by F. B. Hoffman, music by Lemoiue, 
at the Academie Royale de Musique, Paris, 
Nov. 21,^ 1786. 

PHAETON, tragedie-lyrique in five acts 
with prologue, text by Quinault, music by 
Lully, first represented at Versailles, Jan. 
6, 1683 ; at the Academic Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, April 27, 1683. This work 
was received with immense applause, and 
became such a favourite that it was called 
" I'opera du peuple." It was played every 
night until July 30, 1683, when Lully closed 
the theatre, on the announcement of Maria 



Theresa's death. The prologue, the sub- 
ject of which is the return of the Golden 
Age, in praise of Louis XIV., is written for 
two characters, Saturne and Astree. The 
opera contains many brilliant scenes, and 
the temple of Isis, the palace of the Sun, 
and Phaeton's ride and fall were represented 
with great magnificence. The music ranks 
among Lully "s best compositions. The op- 
era was revived in 1742. Published by 
Ballard (Paris, 1683 ; 2d ed., 1713). This 
work occasioned several parodies, one of 
which was entitled Le cocher maladroit. 
Other operas on the same subject : In Ital- 
ian, Fetonte, by J. H. Kapsberger, Rome, 
1630 ; by Pietro ParaJisi, London, Dec. 17, 
1747 ; by Karl Heinrich Graun, text by 
Villati, Beriin, March 29, 1750 ; and by Jom- 
melli, Stuttgart, June 11, 1769. Phaeton, 
English tragedy by Gildon, with music by 
Daniel Purcell, London, 1698; and The 
Fall of Phaeton, English opera by Thomas 
Augustine Arne, ib., 1736. In German : 
Phai-thou und Nais, by Bachmann, Dresden, 
about 1790, and by Bierey, Breslau, about 
1804. O precipicio de Phaetonte, Portu- 
guese opera, by Antonio Joao da Silva, Lis- 
bon, 1738. — Lajarte, i. 44 ; Clement et La- 
rousse, 528. 

PHAETON, symphonic poem, for or- 
chestra, in C, by Saint-Saens, op. 39, first 
performed in Berlin, Feb. 14, 1876. Dedi- 
cated to Mme Berthe Pochet, nee de Tiuau, 
and published by Durand Schoenewerk & 
Cie (Paris, 1876) ; arranged for the piano- 
forte for four hands by E. Guiraud. 

PHEDRE, overture to Racine's tragedy, 
for grand orchestra, in G minor, by Mas- 
senet, first j)erformed at the Concerts Popu- 
laires, Paris, March 26, 1876. It is dedi- 
cated to Joseph Dupont, and published by 
Schott (Mainz, 1876). 

PHILEMON ET BAUCIS, ballet-hero- 
ique in one act, text by Chabanon de Mau- 
gris, music by Gossec, first represented at 
the Academic Royale de Musique, Paris, 
Sept. 26, 1775. It was given after Alexia 
et Daphne, a pastorale in one act, by the 



PHILEMOjST 



same authors. Original cast : Philumon, 
M. Larrivee ; Baucis, 'Mile Levasseur ; and 
Jupiter, M. Gclin. 

PHILEMON ET BAUCIS, French opera 
in thi'ee acts, text by Barbier and Carre, 
music by Gounod, first represented at the 
Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Feb. 18, 18G0. 
The opera had first been composed in one 
act for the theatre of Baden. The subject 
is treated in a half-mythological, half-bur- 
lesque manner. The original cast included 
Bataille, Fromant, Balanque, and IMme Car- 
valho. Other operas on the subject are : 
Baucis e Filemone, by Gluck, Parma, 17G9 ; 
by Jotio Cordeiro da Silva, Lisbon, 1789 ; 
in French, by P. Alex. Monsigny, 1771, not 
given ; in German, Philemon und Baucis, 
Mariouettenoper, by Joseph Haydn, Esz- 
terhi'iz, Sept. 2, 1773 ; Siugspiel, by Joh. 
Bi'ihni, 180;j ; melodrama, by Franz Stanis- 
laus Spindler, 1800 ; music to Conrad Gott- 
lieb Pfefiel's drama, Philemon und Baucis, 
by Anton Schweitzer, Weimar, 1770 ; bid- 
let to the same, by K. Chr. Agthe, Ballen- 
stiidt, 1790 ; and music to Konrad Eckhoff's 
drama, by Karl David Stegmann, Gotha, 
1777. — Clement etLarousse, 530 ; Hauslick, 
Mus. Stationen, 131. 

PHILIDOE, ANDRE DANICAN-, called 
Philidor I'aine, born in Paris about 1G47, 
died at Dreux, Aug. 11, 1780. Dramatic 
composer, son of Jean Danican-Philidor 
(1G20-79) ; member of the Grande Ecurie, 
the Chambre, and the Chapelle of Louis 
XrV\ He played the bassoon, cromorne, 
oboe, and tromjjette marine, and competed 
with LuUy in writing bugle-calls, fanfares, 
and military marches. He was also libra- 
rian of the king's music library from 1G8J: 
until his death. Works : Le canal de Ver- 
sailles, opera-ballet, 1GS7 ; La princesse de 
Crete, do. Masquerades : Le mariage de la 
Couture avec la grosse Cathos, 1G88 ; Mas- 
carade des Savoyards, Le roy de la Chine, 
Marly, 1700 ; La noce do village ; Les Ama- 
zones ; Le lendemain de la noce ; Le vais- 
seau marchand ; Le jeu des echecs ; La 
fete d'Ai'cueil. Trios, passe-pieds, et me- 



nuets ; Suite de danses pom- les violons et 
hautboys ; Pieces a deux basses de viole, 
basse de violon et bassou ; Pieces de trom- 
l^ettes et timbaUes ; Partition de plusieurs 
marches et batteries do tambour, etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 334. 

PfflLIDOE, ANNE D.ANICAN-, born in 
Paris, April 11, 1G81, died there, Oct, 8, 
1728. Flutist and dramatic composer, son 
of the i^receding, was admitted to the king's 
chamber music in 1702, and estabUshed 
the Concerts Spirituels in 1725. Works: 
L'Amour vainqueur, pastorale, 1G97 ; Diane 
et Endymion, 1G98 ; Danau, opera. Marly, 
1701 ; Te Deum, motet a 4 voix et chante 
sur mer, etc. ; Pieces pour la flilte, violons 
et hautbois, etc. (1712). His brother Fran- 
cois, born at Versailles, March 17, 1G89, was 
also an able flutist, and has left 2 books of 
Pieces for his instrument (Paris, 171G, 
1718). — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 337. 
PHHJDOR, FRANgOIS ANDKfi DA- 
NICAN-, born at 
Dreux (Eure-et- 
Loir), Sept. 7, 
172G, died in 
London, Aug. 31, 
1795. He was 
the youngest sou 
of Andre Diuai- 
ean-Philidor, b y 
his second mar- 
riage. His talent 
both for chess and 
music showed it- 
self at an early age, although he became tlie 
first chess-player in the world before he was 
at all noted as a musician, or, indeed, before 
be showed much enthusiasm for music. As 
a boy he was a page in the Chapelle du Eoi, 
and laid the foundations of a good musical 
education by studying harmony under Cam- 
pra. Wlien he left the chapelle he went to 
Paris, where for some time he supported 
himself bj- lessons and copying music. But 
the discouragements he met with were such 
that he abandoned music, and took up chess- 
playing as a profession. At the age of eigh- 




iis 



PniLIDOK 



teen he was already one of the most formid- 
able players in Europe. In 1745 he set out 
on a tour, beating the famous Stamma in 
Amsterdam. Thence he went to Germany, 
staying some time, in 1748, at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, to write a book on chess. Lord Sand- 
wich invited him to the English camp be- 
tween Bois-le-Duc and Maestricht, where 
the Duke of Cumberland was so pleased 
with him and his play that he invited him 
to London and to publish his " Analyse du jeu 
des t'checs," the first edition of which aji- 
peared in 1749. He won immense distinc- 
tion on this and other visits to London, 
especially at the Chess Club, which institu- 
tion afterwards gave him a regular pension. 
His zeal for music sprang up suddenly in 
1754, when he wrote a Lauda Jerusalem, 
hoping to get the jsost of surintendant de 
la musique du roi in Paris, Diderot and 
others of his friends having done their best 
to persuade him that the mental strain of 
continued chess-playing was injuring him, 
and that music was his true vocation. He 
did not, however, get the appointment as 
surintendant ; but his seK-love would not 
brook the idea of failure, and he turned 
his attention to dramatic composition. His 
first opera, Blaise le savetier, 1759 (strictly 
speaking, his second ; his Diable a quatre 
had failed in 175G), was a brilliant success, 
and was followed by others equally fortu- 
nate. But his passion for chess continued 
unabated, and in 1777 he returned to Lon- 
don. Going back to Paris in 1779, he 
found Gluck and Grutry high in popular 
favour, yet tried, nevertheless, for fresh lau- 
rels with his Persee and Themistocle, but 
without his former success. Every year he 
would pass a few mouths in London, inlay- 
ing chess ; in 1792 he got permission from 
the Comitu du Salut Public to make his 
regular visit there, but he was prevented 
from returning to Paris, and his relations 
did not succeed in getting his name struck 
off from the list of emigres before his death. 
Philidor was decidedly a more cultivated 
musician than his contemporaries GriJtry 



and Monsigny ; he was at once more orig- 
inal, his harmony was more correct and va- 
ried, and he gave far more importance to 
the chorus and the orchestra than they ; in 
orchestration especially he was the sujoerior 
of any French comjjoser of his day. But in 
melodic grace and dramatic instinct, both 
Monsigny and Gretry surjjassed him. His 
popularity was unbounded, and he was the 
first composer ever called before the curtain 
in Paris — after the first performance of his 
Sorcier, in 1764. Works — L Operas : Le 
diable a quatre, four acts, Paris, Opera Co- 
mique, Aug. 19, 1756 ; Le retour du prin- 
temps, opera-ballet, December, 1756 ; Blaise 
le savetier, one act, Opera Comique, March 
9, 1759 ; L'huitre et les plaideurs, ou le 
tribunal de la chicane, one act. Theatre de 
la Foire Saint-Laurent, Sept. 18, 1759 ; Le 
quiproquo, two acts, Comedie Italienne, 
March 6, 1760 (afterwards reduced to one 
act, as Le volage fixe) ; Le soldat magicieu, 
one act, Theatre de la Foire Saint-Laurent, 
Aug. 14, 1760 ; Le jardinier et son seigneur, 
one act, Feb. 18, 1761, revived at the The- 
atre Lyrique, May 1, 1763 ; Le marcchal- 
ferrant, two acts. Theatre de la Foire Saint- 
Laurent, Aug. 22, 17G1 ; Sancho Pan<;a dans 
son ile, one act, Comedie Italienne, July 8, 
1762 ; Le bilcheron, ou les trois souhaits, 
one act, ib., Feb. 28, 176.3 ; Les fetes de la 
paix (intermezzo, written on the conclusion 
of peace with England), 1763 ; Le sorcier, 
two acts. Theatre Italien, Jan. 2, 1764 ; Tom 
Jones, three acts, ib., Feb. 27, 1765 ; Er-ne- 
linde, princesse de Norvege, three acts, Aca- 
demie Eoyale de Musique, Nov. 24, 1767, 
and revived as Sandomir, jjrince de Dane- 
mark, Dec. 11, 1773 ; Le jardinier de Sidon, 
two acts. Theatre Italien, July 18, 1768 ; 
L'amant deguise, ou le jardinier su25pose, 
one act, ib., Sejit. 3, 1769 ; La rosiere de 
Salency (with several others), ib., Oct. 25, 
1769 ; La nouvelle ecole des femmes, three 
acts, ib., Jan. 22, 1770 ; Le bon fils, one 
act, ib., Jan. 11, 1773 ; Zelime et Melide, ou 
les fausses infidelites, ib., Oct. 30, 1773; 
Berthe, three acts (with Botson and Gos- 



PHILIDOK 



sec), Brussels, 1775 ; Les femmes Tengees, 
one act, Paris, Theatre Italian, March 20, 
1775 ; Le puits d'amour, ou les amours de 
Pierre le Long et Blancbe Bazu, one act, 
May 1, 1779 ; Persee, three acts, Academie 
Royale de Musique, Oct. 24, 1780 ; Le dor- 
meur eveiUe, 1783 ; JJamitie, au village, 
three acts, Tht-atre Italien, Oct. 31, 1785 ; 
Thumistocle, three acts, Fontainebleau, Oct. 
13, 1785, and Academie Royale de Musique, 
May 23, 1786 ; La belle esclave (not per- 
formed) ; Le mari comme il les faudrait tous, 
one act, 1788 ; Bclisaire, three acts (Act 11. 
is said to be by Berton), Theatre Italien, 
Oct, 3, 1796. n. Church music : Lauda 
Jerusalem, motet, performed at the Concert 
Spirituel, Paris, Feb. 2, 1755 ; Mass for the 
anniversary of Eameau's death, Oratou-e, 
Paris, 1766 ; Te Deum, Concert Spirituel, 
Paris, Aug. 15, 1786 ; and many motets 
performed at the Concerts Spirituels, but 
not jjublished. HI. Miscellaneous works : 
L'Art de la modulation, quartets for two 
violins, oboe, and bass, dedicated to M. le 
due d'Ayen (Paris) ; Ariettes periodiques, 
for one voice with accompaniment of violin, 
viola, bass, oboe, and horn, and also a sim- 
ple accompaniment of violin and bass, pub- 
lished by Philidor and Trial every fifteen 
days. Philidor's include : 1. Le triomphe 
de la jeunesse ; 2. Les rigueurs d'Hortense ; 
3. Le pure de famille ; 4. Le printemps ; 5. 
Le poUtique ; 5 bis. A quelque chose malheur 
estbon; 6. Aus sons amoureuxdes musettes; 
7 and 7 bis. Venus, venes sous ces bosquets 
charmauts, La restitution ; 8. La vie cham- 
petre ; 9. L'image de la guerre ; 10. L'iudiffe- 
rent; 11. L'amant malheureux ; 12. La ber- 
gere coquette ; L'ete, song for one voice with 
two violins, viola, and bass ; Six ariettas 
composed for Sauvigny's Histoire amoureuse 
de Pierre le Long et de sa tres-honoree 
dame Blanche Bazu ; and Carmen seculare, 
an ode, Loudon, 1779. Philidor also pub- 
lished a book on chess. Analyse du jeu des 
echecs (London, 1749). — Reflexions sur un 
prospectus oti Ton propose par souscription 
lapartitioncompleted'Ernelinde, byT. . . 



F. (Paris, 1768) ; Lettre a M. le Chevalier 
de . . . a I'occasion du nouvel opera 
(Ernelinde), (ib., 1868) ; Piot, Particularites 
inedites concernant les reuvres musicales 
de Gossec et de Philidor ; ]fipitre a M. A. 
Phihdor, by a Citoyen (Paris, 1780) ; Lar- 
din, Philidor peint par lui-meme (Paris, 
1847) ; Fetis, vii. ; Clement, IMus. celebres, 
101 ; La France musicale (Dec. 22, 1867, to 
Feb. 16, 1868) ; Allen, Life of Philidor. 

PHILIDOR, PIERRE DANICAN-, born 
in Paris, Aug. 22, 1681, died there (or at 
Versailles), Sept. 1, 1731. Flutist, son and 
pupil of Jacques Philidor (called Philidor 
le cadet, brother of Andre, born in Pai-is, 
May 5, 1657, died at Versailles, May 29, 
1708), also pupil of his uncle Andre ; at first 
oboe player of the Grande Ecurie, then of 
the Chapelle (1704), he became flutist of the 
chamber music in 1712, and viola player in 
1716. Works: Pastorale, Marly, 1697; 6 
suites a deux fliites, etc. (Paris, 1717, 1718) ; 
Trio, contenant 6 suites, etc. (ib.). — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 338. 

PHILIPPE DE MONS. See Blonte. 

PHTTJPPE ET GEORGETTE, opera- 
comique in one act, text by Monvel, music 
by Dalayrac, first represented at the Come- 
die Italienne, Paris, Dec. 28, 1791. This 
work was given in Berlin, Feb. 14, 1805, in 
a German translation by A W. Schlegel. 
— Clement et Larousse, 530. 

PHILIPPS, PETER (Petrus Philippus, 
Pietro FiUppo), born in England about 1560, 
died in April, 1625. Contrapuntist, and 
church composer ; was canon of Bethune in 
French Flanders, became organist of the 
vice-royal chapel of the Archduke Albert and 
Isabella, governors of the Low Countries ; 
appointed in 1610 canon of the Collegiate 
Church of Saint- Vincent at Soignies. Bur- 
ney says that the first regular fugue upon 
one subject that he had met with was that 
by Peter Philipps, found, with others of his 
compositions, in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal 
Book, Trinity College Librai-y, Cambridge. 
Hawkins has printed a four-part madrigal 
of his. Works : Melodia Olympica di di- 



uo 



PHILLIPS 



versi eccellentissimi niusici a iv., v., vi. e viii. 
voci (1591) ; reprints (1594-lGll). Four 
books of madrigals (1596, 1598, 1603) ; Mo- 
tets for 5 voices (1612) ; do. for 8 voices 
(1613) ; Gemmulse sacrse, for 2-3 voices 
with continuo (1613) ; Litanies for 4-6 
voices (1623) ; Paradisus sacris cantionibus 
conditus (1628). — Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, 
Hist., iii. 86 ; Barrett, English Church 
Com250sers, U ; Eiemanu ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Gerber. 

PHILLIPS, PHILIP, born, of American 
parentage, in Casadaga, New York, Aug. 13, 
1834, still living, 1890. He studied under 
Lowell Mason, George F. Root, Adams Da- 
vis, and others. In 1853 he began con- 
ducting singing-schools in Alleghany, New 
York, and neighbouring places. In 1860 
he published Early Blossoms, a collection, 
of which 20,000 were sold ; then opened a 
music shop in Cincinnati, where, in 1863, 
he published Musical Leaves, which had a 
sale of 700,000. During the Civil War he 
greatly aided the Christian Commission by 
services of song in different j^arts of the 
country. He has made several trips to Eu- 
rope, conducting there nearly six hundred 
musical entertainments ; in a tour round 
the world he held praise services in the 
Sandwich Islands, Australia, New Zealand, 
Palestine, Egypt, India, and in many Euro- 
pean cities. In 1866 he removed to New 
York, where he has since resided. His 
other published works are: Singing Pil- 
gi-im, 1865 ; Song Life, 1872 ; New Hal- 
lowed Songs, 1872 ; Singing Annuals, 1874- 
75-76 ; Song Ministry, 1874 ; Song Ser- 
mons, 1876 ; International Song Service, 
1887. 

PHILLIPS, WILLIAM LOVELL, born 
in Bristol, England, Dec. 26, 1816, died in 
London, March 19, 1860. Pianist, pupil of 
Potter at the Royal Academy of Music, and 
on the violoncello of Liudley. Professor of 
composition at the Roj-al Academy. Mem- 
ber of orchestra of Her Majesty's Theatre, 
Philharmonic Society, and Sacred Harmonic 
Society. Conductor at the Olympic and Prin- 




cess's Theatres. Organist of St. Catherine's 
Church, Regent's Park. Works : Symphony 
in P minor ; Cantata ; Songs. 

PHILOSOPH, DER, symphony in E-flat, 
written by Haydn about 1764. 

PHILP, ELIZABETH, born in Falmouth, 
England, in 1827, died 
in London, Nov. 26, 
1885. Vocal composer, 
pupil of Manuel Garcia, 
Marchesi, and Ferdi- 
nand Hiller. She de- 
voted herself to teach- 
ing and composed a 
number of meritorious ' 
songs and part-songs, 
many of which have ' : 

been popular. Among her first was a ballad 
(1855), Tell me, the summer stars, words 
by Edwin Arnold. She set also six songs 
from Longfellow, The Water Babies, Eliza- 
beth Barrett Browning's " Inclusions," Vic- 
tor Hugo's " Chant des lavandiores," and 
Prudhomme's "Le souj^ir." Many of her 
songs and part-songs were sung by herself 
and other singers at her own concerts. 

PHILTRE, LB, French opera in two acts, 
text by Scribe, music by Auber, first rep- 
resented at the Acadomie Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, June 20, 1831. The subject 
is the same as Donizetti's Elisire d' amore. 
Original east : Terusine, Mme Damoreau ; 
Guillaume, M. Adoljihe Nourrit ; Fonta- 
narose, M. Levasseur ; and Joli Coeur, M. 
Dabadie. This opera remained in the rep- 
ertory until 1862. It was given in Ber- 
lin, Oct. 15, 1831. Full score and piano- 
forte score by Ch. Rummel, and by V. 
Rifaut, published by Schott (Mainz, 1833) ; 
also by E. Troupenas (Paris, 1833) ; Latour 
(London, 1833), German translation by von 
Lichtenstein. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxv. 
289 ; Clement et Larousse, 530 ; Lajarte, 
ii. 138. 

PHCEBUS, ARISE, cantata for male cho- 
rus, tenor solo, and orchestra, text from 
William Drummond of Hawthornden's 
poem of the same title, music by John 



m 



PHEOSINE 



Knowles Paine, first performed in tbe Mu- 
sic Hall, Boston, by the Apollo Club, April 
26, 1882.— Upton, Standard Cantatas, 289. 
PHROSINE ET MfiLIDOE, French op- 
era in three acts, text by d'Arnault pure, 
music by Mehul, first represented at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, May i, 1794. 

PLiCENZA, PASQU.\LE, born at Casal 
Monferrato, Nov. 16, 1816, died at Pistoja, 
Oct. 23, 1888. Dramatic composer ; studied 
at first the flute and the bassoon, and en- 
tered the band of a regiment, of which, 
within a few years, he became bandmaster. 
In 1859 he was commissioned to organize 
the bands of several regiments, obtained 
the rank of ofiicer, and after having re- 
signed, held various positions as maestro 
di cappella at theatres. Works : II tribunal 
segi-eto, given at Cuneo, 1845 ; Marinella, 
Turin, 1858 ; Cii^riano U sarto, Genoa, 1860 
(?) ; Monaldcsca, Turin, 1867. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, ii. 342. 

PM.NGERO LA SORTE ^^^^, soprano 
ai'ia of Cleopatra, in E major, with ac- 
companiment of traversa, two violins, and 
bass, in Handel's Giulio Cesare, Act III, 
Scene 3. Published also separately with 
the accompaniment filled out by Otto Dresel 
(Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel). 

PIATTI, ALFREDO, born in Bergamo, 
Italy, Jan. 8, 1822, 
still living, 1890. Vir- 
tuoso on the violon- 
cello, son of the vio- 
linist Antonio Piatti 
(died at Bergamo, 
Feb. 27, 1878), pupil 
'if his gi-eat-uncle 
Zanetti, and in 1832- 
37, at the Conserva- 
torio, Milan, j)upil of 
Merighi. He began playing in the orches- 
tra of the theatre at seven ; and in 1837 
made his first public ajipearance as a solo 
performer. He went to Venice and Vienna, 
gave concerts in 18-41 in Frankfort, in 1843 
in Munich with Liszt, and iu 1844 in Pai-is 
and Loudon. He played with success at 




the London Philharmonic Society's con- 
cert on the same occasion with IMendelssohn, 
and also jjlayed with him several times in 
private. In 1845 he went to St. Peters- 
burg, but returned in 184G to London, and 
still resides there, holding since 1859 the 
position of violoncellist at the Pojiular Con- 
certs. Works : Concertino and two con- 
certos for violoncello and orchestra ; Songs 
with violoncello obligate. He has also done 
good service by arranging and producing 
many forgotten sonatas by Veracini, Valeu- 
tini, Locatelli, Boccherini, and other com- 
posers for strings of the 18th century. 
— Grove ; Fctis ; do., SuppK-nient, ii. 342 ; 
Riemann ; Mendel ; Hanslick, Concertwesen 
in Wion, 162. 

PIAZZA, GIOV.VNXI BATTISTA, born 
in Rome, second half of 16th century. Vir- 
tuoso on several instruments, especially 
on the viola, pupil of Vincenzo Ugolino. 
Works: Canzoni per una viola (Venice, 1633, 
2d ed.) ; do., 2d book (ib., 1527) ; Balletti e 
correnti a una viola con basso (ib., 1628) ; Cia- 
conne, passacaglie, balletti, etc. (ib.) ; Can- 
zoni, lib. v.; Correnti, ciaconne, etc., lib. vi.; 
Canzonette jjer una viola. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

PICCHI, ERMANNO, born at Impruneta, 
near Florence, June 7, 1811, died in Flor- 
ence, April 18, 1856. Dramatic composer, 
pupil of Ignazio Colson in Florence, where 
he was appointed in 1850 secretary of the 
music class at the Academy and in 1852 
director of the annex schools. Works : 
Marco Visconti, opera, given in Florence, 
1838 ; Don Crescendo, opera buffa (with 
Fiori), Modena, 1854 ; II domino bianco, 
Florence, 1855 ; Ezechia, oratorio ; Masses, 
psalms, overtures, concertos, music for mili- 
tary bands, and for j)ianoforte. — Fetis ; do., 
Supplement, ii. 342. 

PICCHIANTI, LUIGI, born in Florence, 
Italy, Aug. 29, 1787, died there, Oct. 19, 
1864. Virtuoso on the guitar ; although 
opposed by his family, made music his 
profession and studied counterpoint under 
Disma Ugolini. He became one of the edi- 
tors of the " Gazzetta Musicale " of Florence, 



123 



ncciNJs^i 



ami in 1852 was appointed jsrofessor of 
counterpoint. Works : Metiiod for guitar ; 
Quartet for stringed instruments, and parti- 
menti for the study of harmony and ac- 
companiment ; Sonatas, caprices, etudes, 
and themes varies for guitar ; Psabn cix., 
for 8 voices in two choirs with orchestra, 
etc. Didactic works : Princiin generali 
e ragiouati della musica teorico-pratica 
(Florence, 1854 ; Milan, 1855) ; Notizie della 
vitta e delle opere di Luigi Cherubini 
(Florence, 1843) ; and other works on har- 
mony, composition, and accompaniment. 
— Futis ; do., Sujjplement, ii. 343 ; Mendel; 
Schilling. 

PICCINNI, LUIGI, born in Naples in 
1766, died, between Paris and Passy, July 
31, 1827. Dramatic composer, son and 
puijil of Nicola Piccinni, whom he joined 
in Paris in 1783, and accompanied again 
to Naples in 1791. He was appointed in 
1796 royal Kapellmiistare at Stockholm, and 
returned in 1801 to Paris. Works : Les 
amours de Cherubin, Paris, Theatre de 
Beaujolais, 1784 ; Suzette et Colinet, ou les 
amants heureus par stratagems, ib., 1786 ; 
La suite des deux chasseurs et la laitiere, 
ib., 1788 ; Les infidolites imaginaires. The- 
atre Louvois, 1790 ; Gli accidenti inaspet- 
tati, Naples, 1792 ; L' aniante statua, Venice, 
1793 ; II matrimonio par raggiro, Genoa, 

1793 ; La notte imbrogliata, Florence, 

1794 ; Ero e Leandro, theatrical cantata^ 

1795 ; n sonnambulo, Stockholm ; Le 
sigisbee, ou le fat corrige, Paris, Theatre 
Feydeau, 1804 ; L'ainee et la cadette ; 
Avis aux jaloux, ou la rencontre imprevue, 
1809 ; Hippomene et Atalante, Opera, 1810 ; 
La rancune trompee, 1819. — Fetis. 

PICCINNI, LOUIS ALEXANDRE, born 
in Paris, Sept. 10, 1779, died there, April 
24, 1850. Dramatic composer, son of Giu- 
seppe and grandson of Nicola Piccinni, pu- 
pil of Hausmann on the pianoforte and of 
Lesueur in composition, finally of his grand- 
father. At first accompanist at the Theatre 
Feydeau and then at the Opera, he was 
chef d'orchestre at the Theatre de la Porte 



Saint-Martin in 1803-7 and in 1810-16, 
court accompanist in 1804-18, and at the 
Theatre du Gymnase in 1820-24, and chef 
de chant at the Opera in 1816-26. The 
privilege of theatrical performances at Bou- 
logne was accorded him in 1827, but the 
enterprise did not succeed, and he returned 
to Paris to teach until 1836, when he settled 
at Boulogne, with the same object in view. 
Afterwards he lived several years at Tou- 
louse, where he was director of the Con- 
servatoire, thence went to Strasburg to teach 
singing, and while there conducted the con- 
certs and music festivals at Baden-Baden. 
In 1849 he returned to Paris. Works : 
L'amoureux par surprise. Theatre Feydeau, 
1804 ; Avis au public, ou le physionomiste 
en defaut, ib., 1806 ; lis sont chez eux, ib., 
1808 ; Le sceptre et la charrue, ib., 1817 ; 
La maison en loterie, Theatre du Gymnase, 
1820 ; Le Bramine, ib., 1822 ; La petite 
lampe merveilleuse, ib., 1822 ; La fete fran- 
yaise, ib., 1823 ; Alcibiade solitaire. Opera, 
1824 ; La prise de Jericho, Strasburg, 1847 ; 
and more than 200 melodramas and ballets ; 
romances, cantatas, vaudeville airs ; Sonatas, 
pot-pourris, and themes varies for jjiano- 
forte.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

PICCINNI (Piccini, Picinni), NICOLA, 
born at Bari, King- 
dom of Naples, Jan. 







16, 1728, died at 
Passy, near Paris, 
May 7, 1800. His 
father, a musician, 
wished him educated 
for the church, but 
the Bishop of Bari 
persuaded him in 
1742 to send his son to the Conservatorio 
di S. Onofrio, Naples, where the lad became 
in time a favourite pupil of Leo and Dvirante, 
after being first instructed by a maestrino 
(pupil-teacher). Piccinni left the Conserva- 
torio in 1754, after twelve years' study, and 
brought out bis first opera, Le donne dis- 
pettose, at the Teatro de' Fiorentini in Na- 
ples, with great success, in spite of the fact 



123 



PICCINNI 



that Logroscino's opere buffe virtually mo- 
nopolized the stage at that time. His sud- 
den fame, as well as his ability as a composer, 
grew rapidly, with subsequent operas, until 
in 17G0 his Cecchiua carried everything 
before it in Rome, and soon passed on to 
almost every lyric stage in Europe. Four 
years previously he had married his pupil, 
Viuceuza Sibilla, an excellent singer, pos- 
sessed of an exceedingly sympathetic voice 
and great personal beauty. He never al- 
lowed her to go upon the stage, although 
he said that she sang his music better than 
anyone else. The fame of La cecchina 
reached JommeUi's ears, and although at 
first inclined to pooh-pooh it as mere boy's 
work, the great master predicted, after he 
had heard it, great things of the young 
composer. Piccinui's next success was 
L' Olimpiade, and though the text had 
already been set by Leo, Pergolesi, Galuppi, 
and Jommelli himself, his oj)era excelled 
those of all his predecessors. Even in 
these early operas Piccinni showed himself 
an innovator, uotablj- in his more dramatic 
treatment of the duet, and his more ex- 
tended development of the finale, on lines 
first laid down by Logroscino. He was, 
indeed, practically the first opera eomjjoser 
to turn choral masses to dramatic account 
on the stage. In 1773 a rivalry sprang up 
in Rome between him and Anfossi, who, 
although an inferior conijioser, had caught 
the popular ear. The fickle Roman public 
went over to the new favourite en masse, and 
an opera by Piccinni was hissed and had to 
be withdrawn. This so outraged Piccinni 
that he returned to Najiles, and fell so ill 
that his life was despaired of ; but on his 
recovery he brought out I viaggiatori, 
which made almost as much furore in Na- 
ples as La cecchina had in Rome. In 1776 
he was offered a salary of G,000 francs, and 
travelling expenses, by Marie Antoinette, 
through La Borde and the Neapolitan 
ambassador, General Caraccioli, if he would 
go to Paris to uphold the standard of the 
traditional opera against the innovations of 



Gluck. He arrived there with his family 
in December, and set to work, with Mar- 
montel's aid (for he did not know a word 
of French), upon a text by Quinault which 
Marmontel had remodelled. But a good 
while before his opera was finished the 
opponents of Gluck clustered around Pic- 
cinni as around a chosen chami^ion, and 
when at last his Roland came to its first 
performance, in 1778, the famous Gluekist 
and Piccinnist factions were already at 
swords' points, and the animosity between 
the two 23arties was so violent that fears 
were entertained for Piccinni's safety. The 
success of Roland was, however, undoubted, 
and the composer was carried home in 
triumph. He was appointed director of 
the Italian troupe that alternated with the 
regular French company at the Academie 
de Musique, and was also engaged to give 
singing-lessons to Marie Antoinette at Ver- 
sailles. It is a little curious that both 
Gluck and Piccinni, in their world-famous 
rivalry, should have owed much to the 
Queen's protection ; it is highly probable, 
however, that Marie Antoinette protected 
Gluck more from personal affection, as her 
old clavecin teacher in Vienna, while her 
musical sympathies were more with Pic- 
cinni. But she certainly used her iufluence 
to secure fair jjlay for each. The rivalry, 
and the two opposing factious, went on 
until the production of Gluck's Iphigeuie 
en Tauride, May 18, 1779, left the victory 
with Gluck. An oj^era by Piccinni on the 
same subject was to have been brought out 
first, and the two composers shown in 
more immediate com2)arison than ever ; but 
Piccinni found the version of the text offered 
him so bad that he had to interrupt his 
work ujion it, and hand it over to Ginguene 
to be rewritten, and his Iphigouie en Tau- 
ride could not be brought out until Jan. 
23, 1781, a year after Gluck had left Paris. 
It had but small chance of success after 
Gluck's immortal work, especially as the 
Gluekist faction was, by that time, well in 
the ascendant. But a new rival sprang up, 



PICCrNNI 



in the f)erson of Sacchini, and although Pic- 
cinni's Didon was a brilliant success, and 
some smaller operas won general favour, 
the tide of fortune gradually tui-ned tow- 
ard his rival. About 1783 Piccinni was 
made head master of a new school of sing- 
ing founded in Paris, but his star was on 
the wane, and his new oj)eras were all fail- 
ures with the public. He was a mau wholly 
unfitted for intrigue, being of a frank, ojsen, 
kindly nature, fond of domestic life, and 
bearing no one ill-will ; in his rivalry with 
Gluck he had been supported by a powerful 
and active faction, which left no stone un- 
turned that could contribute to his success ; 
but when left to himself, he had only his 
own genius to trust to. He was not in the 
least embittered by his reverses, and when 
Sacchini died it was he that pronounced 
his funeral oration, while on Gluck's death, 
in 1787, Piccinni tried to raise funds by 
subscription to found a series of annual 
concerts in his memory. On the breaking 
out of the Eevolution in 1789 he lost his 
pension, and returned to Naples, where he 
was well received, and obtained a pension 
from the king. But the remainder of his 
life was an almost unbroken series of 
troubles. A daughter of his married a 
young Frenchman of advanced liberal ideas, 
and he saw one of his ojaeras deliberately 
hissed on account of his supposed Jacobin- 
ism. He was placed under an-est by the 
jirime minister — more to save his life than 
for any other reason— and remained im- 
prisoned in his own house four years, in 
great poverty, for all his propertj' in France 
was lost, and a friend whose paper he had 
indorsed went into bankrujatcy. He 
supported himself as best he could by 
writing church music. In 1798, after the 
treaty of peace with the French Kejjublic, 
some influential friends made it possible for 
him to go once more to Paris, where he was 
feted at the Conservatoire, and presented 
with a sum of 5,000 francs, and a small pen- 
sion. But ill-luck still pursued him ; his 
pension was irregularly paid, and when his 



family, whom he had left in Naples, were 
forced to fly before Napoleon's army, they 
arrived in Paris in utter destitution. He 
had an attack of paralysis, which lasted 
several months. On his recovery Napoleon 
gave him 25 louis for a military march, and 
helped him in other ways ; a sixth inspec- 
tor's place was also created at the Conserva- 
toire for his benefit, but severe illness struck 
him down again, and he retired to Passy, 
only to die. He was buried in the common 
burial ground (since sold), and a stone 
was set up over his grave by some friends. 
Works — I. Operas : Le donne dispettose, 
Naples, 1754 ; Gelosia per gelosia, ib., 
1755 ; II curioso del suo proprio danno, 
ib., 1755 ; Zenohia, ib., 175G ; L' astrologo, 
ib., 175G ; L' amaute ridicolo, ib., 1757 ; La 
schiava, ib., 1757 ; Cajo Mario, ib., 1757 ; 
La morte di Abele, ib., 1758 ; Petiton, ib., 

1758 ; La scaltra letterata, ib., 1758 ; Gli 
uccellatori, Venice, 1758 ; Alet^saiuho nell' 
Indie, Rome, 1758 ; II Ciro, ?, 1759 ; Siroe, 
Naples, 1759 ; Le donne vendicate, ib., 

1759 ; La buona figliuola, ossia la Cecchina, 
Rome, 1759, and Paris, Academie Eoyale 
de Musique, Dec. 7, 1778 ; Origilla, Naples, 

1760 ; H r^ pastore, ib., 1760 ; La couta- 
dina bizzarra, ib., 1761 ; L' Olimpiade, Rome, 
17C1 ; L' amor senza malizia, Naples, 1761 ; 
Demetrio, ib., 1762 ; La bella verita, ib., 
1762 ; Le vicende della sorte, ib., 1762 ; 
La viUeggiatura, ib., 1762 ; Demofoonte, ib., 
1762 ; II barone di Torre forte, ib., 1762 ; 
II nuovo Orlando, ib., 1763 ; II mondo della 
luna, ib., 1763 ; L' incognita perseguitata, 
ib., 1763 ; II gran Cid, ib., about 1763 ; 
Berenice, ib., 1764 ; La Cecchina maritata 
(La buona figliuola maritata), ib., 1765; II 
cavaliere per amore, ib., about 1765 ; Le 
f)escatrici, ossia 1' erede riconosciuta, ib., 
1765, and Vienna, Jan. 23, 1769 ; La Fran- 
cese maligna, ib., 1766 ; La molinarella, 
ib., 1766 ; Artaserse, Turin, 1766, and Na- 
ples, 1772 ; La finta giardiniera (La baro- 
nessa giardiniera), Naples, 1767 ; Mazzina, 
Acetone e Dindimenio, ib., about 1767 ; 
Didone abbaudonata, ib., about 1767 ; La 



125 



PICCIONI 



donna di spirito (La locandiera di spirito), 
ib., 17G8 ; Gli amanti mascherati, ib., about 
1768 ; Gli stravagauti, ib., 17G9 ; Gli sposi 
perseguitati, ib., 17G9 ; Don Chisciotto, ib., 

1770 ; Catone in Utica, ib., 1770 ; Cesare e 
Cleopatra (Cesare in Egitto), Milan, 1770 ; 
L' Americano ingentUito, Vienna, 1770, and 
Naples, 1772 ; Lo sposo burlato, Vienna, 

1771 ; Antigono, Eomo, 1771 ; La donna 
di beir umore, Naples, 1771 ; L' Olimpiade 
(second setting), ib., 1771 ; La corsara, ib., 

1772 ; Ipermeslra, ib., 1772 ; Le trame zin- 
garescbe, ib., 772 ; 11 finto pazzo, ib., 1772 ; 
L' ignorante astuto, ib., 1773 ; I furbi bur- 
lati, ib., 1773 ; La sposa collerica, ib., 1773 ; 
11 ritorno di Don Calandrino, ib., 1771; ; I 
Napoletani in America, ib., 1774:; II vaga- 
bondo fortunato, ib., 1774 ; Alessandro nell' 
Indie (second setting), ib., 1775 ; Lequattro 
nazioni, ib., 1775 ; Le gemelle, ib., 1775 ; H 
sordo, ib., 1775 ; Eneain Cuma, ib., 1775 ;La 
capricciosa, ib., 1776 ; Radamisto, ib., 1776 ; 
1 viaggiatori felici, ib., 1776 ; Roland, Paris, 
Opera, Jan. 27, 1778 ; Pbaon, CLoisy, at 
court, 1778 ; Le fat mepriso, Pims, Como- 
die Italiennc, 1779 ; Atys, ib., Acadumie 
Eoyale dc Musique, Feb. 22, 1780 ; Iphi- 
genie en Tauride, ib., ib., Jan. 23, 1781 ; AdUe 
de Pontbieu, ib., ib., Oct. 27, 1781 ; Didon, 
ib., ib., Dec. 1, 1783 ; Le faux lord, ib., Oix'ra 
Comique, Dec. 6, 1783 ; Le dormeiu- oveillo, 
ib., Comedie Italicnne, 1784 ; Diane et En- 
dymion, ib., Acadumie Royale de Musique, 
Sept. 7, 1784 ; Lucette, ib., TbOatre Italien, 
Dec. 30, 1784 ; I decemviri (not performed, 
written about 1785) ; Penelope, Paris, Aca- 
demie Eoyale de Musique, Dec. 6, 1785 ; Le 
mensonge officieux, ib., Comedie Italienne, 
Marcb 17, 1787 ; L'euluvemeut dea Sabiues 
(not performed, written in 1787) ; Clytem- 
nestre (id., 1788) ; Les fourberies de Marine, 
Paris, 1790 ; La Ceccbiua zitella (not per- 
formed, written in 1790) ; La Vittoriua (id., 
about 1790) ; La serva onorata, Naples, 
1792 ; Ercole al Termodonte, ossia la dis- 
fatta delle Amazzoni, ib., 1792 ; Griselda, 
Venice, 1793 ; D servo padrone, ib., 1793 ; 
Lo sposalizio di fciau Pomponio, ?, about 



1795 ; n finto Tureo (not performed, written 
about 1795) ; II Tigraue (id., about 1795). 
n. Church music : Laudate, for live voices 
and orchestra ; Laudate, for two soprani, 
bass, and chorus ; Beatus vir, for soprano and 
chorus ; and Pater noster, for soprano and 
orchestra. The scores of nearly sixty of 
Piccinni's operas were found at a second- 
hand clothier's in Naples by Signor Florimo, 
librarian of the Collegio reale di Musica di 
San Pietro a Majella, at Najsles. — Ginguene, 
Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de N. Pic- 
cinni (Paris, 1801) ; Desnoiresterres, Gluck 
et Picciuui (Paris, 1872; 2d ed., 1875); 
Clement, Mus. cclebres, 108 ; Fctis, vii. ; 
Eiemann ; Mendel. 

PICCIONI, GIOVANNI, organist of the 
cathedral at Orvieto at the end of the 16th 
and beginning of the 17th century. "Works : 
Madrigali a cinque voci (Venice, 1596) ; E 
pastor fido musicale (ib., 1602). In the 
library of the Liceo Musicale at Bologna 
are : Concerti ecclesiastiei et Motetti a 
1-8 voci (\'enice, 1610) ; do., op. 21 (Rome, 
1619).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

PICHEL (Piehl), VACLAV (Wenzel), 
born at Bechin, Bohemia, in 1740, died in 
Vienna, Jan. 23, 1805. Violinist, pupil of 
Johauu Pokorny, and, while studying at 
Prague University, of Segert in counterpoint. 
He was influenced also by Dittersdorf, 
under whose auspices he joined the orches- 
tra of the Bishop of Grosswardein. For 
two years he was musical director to Count 
Hartig in Prague, then became first violin 
of the National Theatre in Vienna, until in 
1775 he was ajjpointed compositore di mu- 
sica to the Archduke Ferdinand in Milan. 
He visited the chief Italian cities, and was 
a friend of Nardini. "When the French oc- 
cupied Lombai'dy in 1796, he returned with 
the Archduke to Vienna. "Works ; 4 Latin, 1 
German, 8 French, and 7 Italian operas ; 35 
masses, 22 psalms, 9 offertories, and other 
church music ; Cantata ; 29 concertos ; 3 
concertiui ; 89 symphonies ; 17 serenades ; 
30 sonatas ; 12 sonatinas ; 49 capriccios ; 6 
fugues ; 224 variations ; 6 ariettas ; 64 duets ; 



12« 



PIELTAIN 



39 trios ; 172 quartets ; 21 quintets ; 6 
sextets ; 7 septets ; 7 octets : in all, 887 
numbers, exclusive of 148 quartets, quintets, 
and sextets, composed for Prince Esztcr- 
hdzj. He made also a Bohemian transla- 
tion of Mozart's ZauberflOte. — Dlabacz ; 
Futis ; Mendel ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Wurz- 
bacli. 

PIELTAIN, DIEUD0NN15 PASCAL, 
born in Liuge, March i, 1754, died there, 
Dec. 10, 1833. Violinist, pujjil of Jarno- 
wich, went to Piiris in 1778, and aj^peared in 
the Concerts Spirituels for six years in suc- 
cession. In 1784-93 he was violinist to 
Lord Abiugton in London ; then visited St. 
Petersburg, Warsaw, Berlin, and Hamburg 
(1800), and returned to his native city. 
Works : 13 concertos for violin ; 6 sonatas 
for do. ; 6 quartets for strings ; 12 duos 
for violins ; 12 airs varies for do. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

PIERO MIO, GO QUA UNA FRITOLA. 
See Crhpino e la Comare. 

PIEREE LE GRAND (Peter the Great), 
comcdie in four acts, text by Bouilly, music 
by Gretry, first rejiresented at the Italiens, 
Paris, Jan. 13, 1790. Catherine H. of Rus- 
sia is the heroine of the opera, which was 
represented in Amsterdam in 1812. Other 
operas on the same subject : Kaiser und 
Zimmermann, Singspiel by K. Aug. von 
Lichtenstein, Strasburg, 1814 ; Die Jugend 
Peter desGrossen, Singsijiel, by Josef Weigl, 
text by Treitschke, Vienna, Dec. 11, 1814 ; 
Czar und Zimmermann, by Lortzing, Leii> 
sic, Dec. 22, 1837, Berlin, 1854. In Italian, 
Pietro il Grande, by Niccolo Vaceaj, Parma, 
1824 ; by Mercadante, Lisbon, Dec, 17, 
1827 ; II borgomastro di Saardam, oj^era 
bufifa, by Donizetti, Naples, 1827 ; Pietro il 
Grande, by Louis Antoiue Julien, London, 
Aug. 17, 1852. In French, U^toile du Nord, 
Paris, Feb. 16, 1854 ; and in English, by 
Thomas Simpson Cooke, London, 1829. 

PIEESON (Pearson), HENRY HUGO, 
born in Oxford, England, April 12, 1816, 
died in Leipsic, Jan. 28, 1873. Oi'ganist 
and pianist, jDupil of At wood and Arthur 




wmwm^ 




Corfe at Cambridge, and in Germany of C. 
H. Rinck, Tomasehek, and Reissiger; had 
much intercourse 
with Mendelssohn, 
and became ac- 
quainted with 
Meyerbeer, Sjiohr, 
a n d Schumann. 
He was elected in 
1844 to the Reid 
jjrofessorshij) of 
music in the Uni- 
versity of Edin- 
burgh, succeeding 
Sir Henry Bishop, but soon resigned and 
returned to Germany, which he virtually 
adopted as his country, changing his name 
from Henry Hugh Pearson to that given 
above ; he lived at first in Vienna, from 1847 
in Hamburg, and afterwards at Leipsic. 
Works : Der Elfensieg, opera, Briinn, 1845 ; 
Leila, do., Hamburg, 1848 ; Contarini, ib., 
1872 ; Jerusalem, oratorio, comi^osed for 
the Norwich Festival, September, 1852 ; 
Hezekiah, do. (fragment), Norwich, 1869 ; 
Music to the 2d part of Goethe's " Faust " 
(1854), repeatedly performed at Hamburg. 
Funeral March to "Hamlet ;" Several over- 
tures ; Sacred songs, choruses, and songs. 
Some of his earlier works appeared under the 
pseudouyme of Edgar Mansfeldt. — Grove ; 
Fetis ; Eiemann ; Mendel. 

PIETA ! SIGNORE ! celebrated aria di 
chiesa, for contralto, text from the second 
stanza of Arsenio's aria in Alessandro Scar- 
latti's oratorio, II martirio di Santa Teodosia, 
Naples, 1709 (MS. in the Biblioteca Pala- 
tina, Modena), music attributed to Ales- 
sandro Stradella, whose authorship is 
however, out of the question. Fetis, Nied- 
ermeyer, and Rossini have been suggested 
as the composers of this melody, but it is 
more jirobablj' by Francesco Rossi. It was 
sung by Miss Emily Winant at the Musical 
Festival, New York, May 6, 1882. 

PIETON, LOYSET (Louis), called Loyset 
de Bernais, and Le Normand, born at Bernay, 
Normandy, in the last quarter of the 15th 



127 



PIETEO 



century. Contrapuntist, whose works, con- 
sisting of motets, j)salms, and chansons, are 
to be found in various collections of the 
times, between 1531 and 1545 ; also in Pe- 
trucci's Motetti della Corona (1519). — Futis ; 
Mendel ; Kiemann. 

PEETRO YON ALBANO, romantic opera 
in two acts, text by Charles Pfeiffer, from 
Tieck's novel of the same title, music by 
Sjjohr, first rejiresented in Cassel, Oct. 13, 
1827. It was admired by Meyerbeer. The 
opera had only a temporary success. Pub- 
lished by Schlesinger (Berlin, 1829) ; the 
pianoforte score arranged by Ferdinand 
Spohr. Same title, Italian opera by Apol- 
loni, Venice, March 9, 1856. — Spohr, Auto- 
biography, ii. 1G3 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xsxi. 849 ; Berliner mus. Zeitg., vi. 193. 

PIFF-PAFF, TRAQUONS-LES ! See 
Huguenots, 

PIGNATI (Pignata), Abbate PIETRO RO- 
MULUS, born in Rome in 1660, died (?). 
Dramatic composer ; wrote also most of the 
librettos of his operas. Works : Costanza 
vince il destine, Venice, 1695 ; iUmiro, re 
di Corinto, ib. ; Sigismondo Primo, ib., 

1696 ; L' inganno senza danno, Treviso, 

1697 ; Paolo Emilio, Venice, 1699 ; II vanto 
d' amore, ib., 1700 ; Oronte in Egitto, 
Udiue, 1705.— Fetis ; Mendel. 

PIL.\TI (Auguste Pilate, called), born 
at Bouchaiu (Xord), France, Sept. 29, 1810, 
died in Pai'is, Aug. 1, 1877. Dramatic com- 
poser ; studied at first at Douai, then at 
the Conservatoire in Paris ; visited London 
in 1837, became chef d'orchestre of the 
Theatre de la Porte Saint-:\Iartin in 1840, 
and later of the Theatre Beaumarchais. 
"Works : La modiste et le lord, Paris, 1833 ; 
La prova d' un opera seria. La fermiere de 
Bolbec, 1835 ; Le-oua, ou le Parisian en 
Corge, 1836 ; Le roi du Danube, London, 
1837 ; OUvier Basselin, Paris, 1838 ; Made- 
moiselle de Fontanges, Le naufrage de la 
Mt-duse (with Grisar and Flotow), ib., 1839 ; 
Les Farfadets, fairj'-ballet, 1841 ; Les bar- 
ricades (with Eugene Gautier), 1848 ; Le 
postilion de Saint- Valery, 1849 ; Les t'toiles, i 



Les trois dragons, 1854 ; Les statues de 
I'Alcade, ballet-pantomime, 1855 ; Jean le 
sot, Une devinette, L' Amour et Psyche, 1856 ; 
L'ile de Calypso, 1857 ; Peau d'ane, Ignace 
le retors, II signor Cascarelli, 1858 ; L'ile du 
sol-si-re, 1860 ; H maestro Blaguarino, Lille, 
1865 ; Rosette et Colin, Paris, 1874 ; Les 
liccheurs de Tarente, ib., 1886 ; Le nid 
d'aigle, cantata, 1858. — Fetis ; do., Supple- 
ment, ii. 57. 

PILGRTMS' CHORUS. See Tannhau- 
scr. 

PILKINGTON, FRANCIS, EngUsh com- 
poser of the 16th and 17th centuries. He 
was a chorister in Chester Cathedral ; Mus. 
Bac, O-xford, 1595. Works: The First 
Booke of Songs or Ay res of 4 parts : with 
Tableture for the Lute or Orpharion, with 
the Violl de Gamba (1605) ; The First Set 
of Madrigals and Pastorals of 3, 4, and 5 
parts (1613) ; The Second Set of Madrigals 
and Pastorals of 3, 4, 5, and 6 parts ; apt 
for Violls and Voyces (1624). He contrib- 
uted also, in 1614, two j)ieces to Leightou's 
" Teares and Lamentacions." — Grove. 

PILOTTI, GIUSEPPE, born in Bologna, 
Italy, in 1784, died there, June 12, 1838. 
Church composer, pupil of lilattei, and 
member of the Accademia Filarmonica 
when only twenty-one years of age. Hav- 
ing been maestro di cappella at Pistoja 
several years, he succeeded Mattel at San 
Petronio, Bologna, in 1826, and was aj)- 
pointed professor of counterpoint at the 
Liceo Filarmonico in 1829. His numerous 
compositions for the church remain in MS. 
He wrote two operas : L' ajo uell' imbarrazzo, 
given at Bologna, and Non essere geloso, 
Florence, 1816. — Fetis; Mendel; Rie- 
mann. 

PINAFORE, H. M. S., English comic op- 
eretta in two acts, text bj* Gilbert, music by 
SuUivan, first represented at the Opera Co- 
mique. Strand, London, May 25, 1878. The 
action takes place ou Her Majesty's Ship 
Pinafore, and turns on the fact of the 
Captain and an officer, Ralph Rackstraw, 
having been exchanged in infancy by the 



r'"*"" ^-3*1 




^''^> 



•T*"' 



tW- 



»*i 



fO>-' 






PINELLI 



bumboat woman, Little Buttercup, 
nal cast : 



Oiigi- 



Captain Corcoran Mr. Barrington. 

Sir Joseph Porter Mr. G. Grossmith. 

Josephine Miss Howson. 

Ealph Eackstraw Mr. Power. 

Little Buttercup Miss Everhard. 

This opera had an extraordinary success 
in London, where it kept the stage for 700 
consecutive nights ; and in New York, 
where it was first given, Jan. 15, 1879, it 
was performed at four theatres for months. 
It was adopted throughout the United States 
to a degree surpassing all previous records. 
It was given under the direction of Gilbert 
and Sullivan at the Fifth Avenue Theatre, 
Dec. 1, 1879. Published by Metzler & Co. 
(London, 1878) ; and by Oliver Ditson & Co. 
(Boston and New York, 1879). — Atheuasum 
(1878), i. 709 ; New York Tribune, Dec. 2, 
1879. 

PINELLI DE GERARDIS, GIOVANNI 
BATTISTA, born, of noble family, in Genoa, 
Italy, in 1545, died in Vienna, or in Prague, 
June 15, 1587. Church composer, was cantor 
at the Cathedral of Vicenza in 1571, and, 
apparently in the imperial service, settled 
at Prague before 1580, when he became 
Kapellmeister to the Elector of Saxony 
at Dresden, on the recommendation of 
Emperor Eudolph 11. Constant disagree- 
ments, caused by his violent tempei-, led to 
his discharge in 1584, and a year later he 
was again in the imperial service. Works : 
VI. Misse a 4 voci (Dresden, 1582) ; Ger- 
man Magnificats (ib., 1583) ; Madrigali a 
piti voci (ib., 1584) ; Cantiones sacree, 8, 
10 e 15 voci (ib., 1584) ; Newn kurtzweilige 
teutsche Liedleiu mit 5 Stimmen (ib., 1584) ; 
Libro primo de Neapolitane a 5 voci 
(ib., 1585) ; Mutetti quinque vocum, etc. 
(Prague, 1588) ; 18 Musettes for 5 voices 
(ib., 1588).— Mendel. 

PINELLI, ETTORE, born in Eome, Oct. 
18, 1843, still living, 1890. Violinist, pu- 
pil of Ramacciotti, and at Hanover (1864) 
of Joachim ; returned to Rome in 18GG, and 



with Sgambati founded a society for clas- 
sical chamber music. He also established, 
at the Accademia di Sta. Cecilia, a violin and 
pianoforte school, out of which grew the 
Liceo Musicale, where in 1877 he was ap- 
pointed professor. He failed in 1867 in 
his endeavour to found a Roman orchestral 
society, but succeeded in 1874 in doing so. 
He conducts the court concerts alternately 
with Sgambati. "Works : Overture ; Italian 
Rhapsody ; String quartet, etc. — Riemann. 

PINO, ROSARIO ANTONIO, born at 
Palermo, Dec. 19, 1850, still living, 1890. 
Pianist, pupil of Ferdinando Valeute and of 
Luigi Siri, and in composition of Salvatore 
Lavigna, of Aspa, and of Battista ; apjicared 
as a virtuoso from his fifteenth year, and 
settled at Naples to teach his instrument. 
Works : Le tre ore di agonia, oratorio, Na- 
ples, 1867 ; Masses, vespers, overtures, etc. 
— Futis, Supplement, ii. 347. 

PINSUTI, Cavaliere CIRO, born at Asina- 
lunga, Siena, May 9, 
1829, died in Lou- 
don, March 10, 1888. 
Pianist and dramatic 
composer, pupil of his 
father ; played in pub- 
lic at ten, and was 
made an honorary 
member of the Acca- 
demia Filarmonica, 
Bologna, at the age 
of eleven ; he went to England with Henry 
Drummond, and studied the pianoforte and 
composition under Cipriani Potter, and the 
violin with Blagrove. In 1845 he returned 
to Italy and entered the Conservatorio at 
Bologna, where he attracted the notice of 
Rossini, and became his favourite pujjil. 
He went to England again in 1848, and be- 
came a singing teacher, dividing his time be- 
tween London and Newcastle, where he 
founded a musical society. He frequently 
visited Italy, and brought out operas there. 
He was professor of singing at the Academy 
of Music, London, from 1856. Orders of 
I Saint-Maurice et Saint-Lazarus, 1859, and of 




129 



PIOUS 



the Italian Crown, 1878. He was selected 
to represent Ital^- at the opening of the 
International Exhibition in 1871, and com- 
posed a bj-mn for that occasion to words by 
Lord Houghton : " O people of this favoured 
land." Works — Operas : H mercaute di 
Venezia, Bologna, 1873 ; Mattia Corvino, 
Milan, 1877 ; Margherita, Venice, 1882. Te 
Deum, 1859 ; 35 duets ; 14: trios ; 45 part- 
songs, and choruses ; About 250 English 
and Italian songs, and 30 pianoforte pieces. 
— Grove ; Fetis, Supplement, ii. 348 ; Eie- 
mann ; Mendel, Erganz., 350. 

PIOUS ORGIES, aria, with accompani- 
ment of strings complete, and coutinuo, in 
Handel's Judas Maccabicus, Act I. This 
air, which is only twenty-seven measures 
long, is sung first in E-flat major by Simon 
(bass), and then repeated, after a short reci- 
tative, either by An Israelitish Man (mezzo- 
soprano), in F major, or else by An Israel- 
itish Woman (sojirauo), in G major. 

PIPELARE, ]\L\THIEU, born at Lou- 
vain, flourished about the end of the 15th 
and the beginning of the 16th centuries. 
Contrapuntist ; signed his name usually with 
a rebus composed of the word Pipe and the 
notes la, ru. A mass of his composition is 
to be found in Andreas de .\ntiquis Jlissa; 
XV. (151G), and an Ave Maiia in Petrucci's 
Book of motets (Venice, 1505) ; Georg 
Ehaw's Biciuia (1545) also contains a few of 
his works. Manuscripts by him are in the 
royal libraries of Brussels and Munich. 
— Fetis ; Riemann. 

PIRATA, IL (The Pii-ate), Italian opera 
in two acts, test by Romani, music by Bel- 
lini, first represented at La Scala, Milan, 
Oct. 27, 1827. Gualtiero, having lost his 
ancestral estates, becomes chief of a band of 
pii-ates. During his absence his betrothed, 
Imogene, marries his enemy, Ernesto, Duke 
of Calabria, to retrieve her father's fortune. 
In the midst of a severe storm Gualtiero is 
forced to seek refuge on shore, where he 
discovers that Imogene has married. He 
attempts to take the life of her son, but 
yields to her entreaty to spare him, and 



kills her husband instead. Gualtiero is 
seized by the authorities, and Imogene be- 
comes insane. This opera, written by Bel- 
lini at the age of twenty, was received with 
enthusiasm. The part of Gualtiero was 
composed for Rubiui, who appeared in the 
original cast. This work was first given in 
Vienna, Feb. 25, 1828 ; in London, April 
17, 1830 ; in Berlin, Aug. 31, 1831 ; in New 
York, Dec. 5, 1832 ; and in Paris, Feb. 1, 
1832, with Rubiui, Santini, and Mme Schro- 
der-Devrient, and in 1846 with Mai-io, Co- 
letti, and Mile Grisi, who was very suc- 
cessful as Imogene. Published by Ricordi 
(Milan). — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxiii. 630 ; 
Clement et Larousse, 534 ; Harmonicon 
(1830), 222. 

PIRATES OF PENZANCE, THE, Eng- 
lish comic opera in two acts, text by Gilbert, 
music by Sullivan, first represented at the 
Fifth Avenue Theatre, New York, Dec. 31, 
1879, under the composer's direction. Act 
I. is placed in the Pirates' lair on the coast 
of Cornwall. Frederic, having been ap- 
prenticed to the Pirates by mistake, at the 
close of his indenture resolves to war against 
those whom he loves as companions, but 
hates as Pirates. He discovers that he was 
born on leap-year, and instead of being 
twenty-one is but four and a half years old, 
and must therefore remain in the band. 
The Pirates, who never rob oi-phans, find 
that Major-General Stanley, whose daughter 
Mabel is betrothed to Frederic, deceived 
them into thinking him an oi-phan, and re- 
solve to attack his home. Act H. is in a 
ruined chapel on the General's estate, where 
the Policemen and Pirates meet, and con- 
spicuously enjoin silence, affecting uncon- 
sciousness of each other. Gen. Stanley en- 
ters, thinking he heard a noise, and after 
him his five and twenty daughters. The 
Pirates rush for them, but are caj)tured by 
the Policemen. They yield instantly at the 
mention of Queen Victoria's name, and, on 
discovering that they are all noblemen. 
Gen. Stanley gives them all permission to 
marry his daughters. This opera was first 



130 



PISANI 



given iu London, April 3, 1880. Published 
by Cbappell & Co. (London, 1880).— New 
Yoric Tribune, Dec. 28, 1879, Jan. 1, 1880 ; 
Atbenffium (1880), i. 479. 

PISANI, BARTOLOMEO, born at Con- 
stantinople iu 1811, still living, 1890. Dra- 
matic comjjoser, pupil of Mercadante, was 
chef d'orchestre of the Naoum Theatre, at 
Constantinople, in 1859, visited France in 
18G0, and brought out in Paris several of 
his compositions. Works : La peri ; Rosa- 
munda ; Ladislao, given at Constantinople, 
18G2 ; Rebecca, Milan, 186.5 ; La gitana, 
Venice, 1876 ; Una lagrima sulla tomba di 
Mercadante, funeral chant ; Patriotic hymn ; 
Grande fantaisie for soli, chorus, and or- 
chestra ; Songs and choruses, etc. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 3-19. 

PISARI, PASQUALE, born in Rome 
about 1725, died there in 1778. Church 
composer ; made a close study of the works 
of Palestrina, whom he adopted as a mod- 
el ; called by Padre Martini the Palestrina 
of the 18th century. The son of a poor ma- 
son, he was possessed of a fine bass voice, 
which a musician named Gasparino took 
pleasure in cultivating ; and in 1752 he 
was admitted into the Pontifical Chapel as 
a supernumerary, a position he held until 
his death. He studied counterjDoint under 
Giovanni Biordi, and composed much church 
music, which he was too poor to publish. 
He wrote for the King of Portugal a Dixit 
in sixteen real parts, and a complete service 
for all the year, but the payment was so 
long deferred that when it reached Rome 
Pisari was dead. The Dixit was sung at 
the SS. Apostoli, Rome, bj' 150 musicians. 
Burney, who heard it, speaks of the learn- 
ing displayed in it. Works : Miserere in 
9 parts (1777) ; Masses, psalms, motets, in 8 
parts ; 2 Te Deum, one for 8, the other for 
4 voices. Many of his compositions are in the 
Santiui Collection, including a Dixit, a Mi- 
serere, a mass, psalms, and motets. — Grove ; 
Fetis ; Riemann ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PISENDEL, JOHANN GEORG, born at 
Karlsburg, Transylvania, Dec. 26, 1687, 



died at Di-esden, Nov. 25, 1755. Virtuoso 
on the violin, pupil of Pistocchi and Torelli 
at Ansbach, where he was a choir-boy in 
the Margi-ave's chapel. In 1709 he went to 
Leipsic, to study at the university, but 
seems to have devoted himself entirely to 
music even then, as he succeeded Mel- 
chior Hofmann as Kapellmeister in the new 
church, and at the opera in 1710-12. In 
1712 he entered the Elector's orchestra in 
Dresden, and was thence often sent abroad 
in the suite of the Electoral Prince ; to Paris 
in 1714, to Venice in 1716, when he studied 
under Antonio Vivaldi, to Rome and Naples 
in 1717, and to Vienna in 1718. In Rome 
he took lessons of Antonio Montanari. He 
accompanied the king to Berlin in 1728, and 
in the same year succeeded Volumier as 
Conzertmeister. Works : 8 concertos for 
violin ; Soli for do. and bass ; Concertantes 
for 2 oboes with string instruments ; Con- 
certi grossi, etc., aU in the royal library, 
Dresden. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PISTOCCHI, FRANCESCO ANTONIO, 
born in Palermo, Sicily, in 1659, died after 
1717. Dramatic composer, jjupil of his 
father ; learned composition so readily that 
at the age of eight he jiublished, Capricci 
puerili variamente composti in 40 modi, etc. 
(Bologna, 1667). He studied singing under 
Padre Vastamigli and Bartolomeo Monari, 
went on the stage as a soprano singer, but 
soon abandoned it, and became maestro di 
cappella of San Giovanni in Monte, Bologna. 
He entered the Oratorio order as a j^riest, 
and iu 1697 was called to the court of Ans- 
bach as Kapellmeister ; returned to Italy 
by way of Vienna and Venice in 1699. 
Although a composer of merit, he is best 
known from having founded at Bologna, in 
1700, a school of singing in which were 
educated some of the great singers of the 
first half of the 18th century, among them 
Bernacchi, Minelli, Pio Fabri, and Bertoliuo 
da Faenza. Member of the Accademia Fi- 
larmonica, 1692 ; principe in 1708 and 1710. 
Works — Operas : Narciso, Ansbach, 1697 ; 
Le risa di Democrito, Vienna, 1700 ; Le- 



131 



PITONI 



audro, 1679 ; II girello, 1681. Oratorios : 
II martirio di S. Adriano, Venice, 1697 ; 
Maria Vergiue addolorata, 1698 ; La fuga 
di Sta. Teresia, 1717. Scherzi musicali, a 
collection of Frencb, Italian, and German 
airs (Amsterdam) ; The Psalm, Lauda 
Jerusalem, for five voices and basso con- 
tinuo, in MS. — Fetis ; Riemann ; Mendel; 
Gerber. 

PITONI, GIUSEPPE OTTA\^0, born at 
Kieti, Italy, March 18, 1657, died in Home, 
Feb. 1, 1713. Church composer, jjupil of 
Pompeo Natale from the age of five, succes- 
sively chorister at San Giovanni de' Fioren- 
tini and the SS. Apostoli, Rome, from the 
age of eight. He attracted the notice of 
Foggia, who gave him lessons in counter- 
point for several years. He was maestro di 
cappella at Terra di Eotondo, 1G73, and in 
1674 at Assisi, where he began to write out 
Palestrina's works in score to study his style, 
a practice he afterwards enjoined on his pu- 
jjils. Having removed to Eieti in 1676, he 
became in 1677 maestro di cappella of the 
Collegio di San Marco, Rome, a post he 
retained till his death, although engaged, 
besides, in the same cai^acity at San Apol- 
linare, 1686 ; San Lorenzo in Damaso, 1686 ; 
S. Giovanni in Laterano, 1708 to 1719 ; St. 
Peter's, 1719, and several minor churches. 
His pupils were Durante, Leo, and Feo. 
Works : Dixit in 16 jsarts (highlj' praised 
by Baini ; one of the finest pieces of music 
still sungat St. Peter's during Holy Week) ; 
and his masses, Li pastori a Maremme, Li 
pastori a Montagna, and Mosca, founded 
on popular melodies, ai-e still fresh. He 
wrote upwards of sixty masses and psalms, 
complete services for St. Peter's for the 
entire year, and many pieces for six and 
nine choruses ; 3 Masses, 2 Dixit, and a 
number of motets in the Santini Collection ; 
a mass, a Requiem, 6 motets, a psalm, a 
hymn, a Christus factus est, in Proske's 
" Musica Divina." He compiled a history of 
the maestri di cappella of Rome from 1500 
to 1700, the MS. of which, now in the Vati- 
can Library, was used by Baini in his life 



of Palestrina. He left also, in MS., Guida 
armonica, which is unfortunately lost. His 
studies in counterpoint, written for his pu- 
pils, are preserved in MS. in several of 
the best musical libraries of Italy. — Fetis ; 
Grove ; Riemann ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PITSCH, K.^EL FRANTISEK, born at 
Patzdorf, Bohemia, Feb. 5, 1786, died in 
Prague, June 13, 1858. Organist and pi- 
anist, first instructed by his father, then at 
Glatz, Silesia, jiupil of Otto ; jjlayed the or- 
gan when only eight yeai-s of age. He stud- 
ied also in Prague, whither he returned after 
having been a tutor in the family of a noble- 
man in Moravia, in 1815-25 ; was appointed 
in 1832 organist at St. Nicholas, in 1810 pro- 
fessor at the Conservatorium, and in 1841 
director of the organists' school. Among 
his compositions, most of which remain in 
MS., are a Festival Mass in D ; Te Deum ; 
Graduale ; Vocal Requiem ; Preludes, fu- 
gues, etc., for the organ ; and many instruc- 
tive pieces. — Slovnik nauSn^ (Prague, 1859), 
vi. 402 ; Wurzbach. 

PITTORE PARIGINO, IL (The Parisian 
Painter), Italian opera buffa in two acts, 
by Cimarosa, first represented in Rome in 
1783. A quartet from this opera, in which 
the Grand Duchess and Prince of Tuscany 
sang, was performed at Leghorn during 
Cimarosa's visit to the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany in 1789. 

PIU NON CERCA LIBERTA, alto aria 
of Arcane, in F major, with accompaniment 
of flutes and violins in oct.aves, and bass, in 
Handel's Teseo, Act HI., Scene 1. Pub- 
lished also separately, with the accompani- 
ment filled out by Otto Dresel (Lei^Jsic, 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel). 

PIU NON SI TROVANO, canzonet in F, 
for two soprani and a bass, with accompani- 
ment of two basset horns, text from Metas- 
tasio's Olimpiade, music by Mozart, com- 
posed in Vienna, July 16, 1788. Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie 6, No. 41. 
— Kochel, Verzeichniss, No. 549. 

PIUTTI, CARL, born at Bad Elgersburg, 
Thuriugia, in 1846, still living, 1890. Vir- 



132 



PIXIS 



tuoso on the organ, pupil of tbe Conserva- 
toriums at Cologne and Leif)sic ; from 1875 
instructor at the latter, and since 1880 or- 
ganist of the Thomaskirche. He has com- 
posed concertos, fugues, and other music 
for the organ, pianoforte pieces, and songs. 
— Mendel, Ergilnz., 351. 

PIXIS, FKIEDRICH ^VILHELM, born 
at Mannheim in 178G, died in Prague, Oct. 

20, 1842. Violinist, sou of Friedrich Wil- 
hclin Pixis (organist, died after 1805), pu- 
pil of Kitter, Luigi, and Frilnzel, and later 
received advice from Viotti. He made con- 
cert tours with his brother, Johann Peter, 
joined the court band of Mannheim in 
1804, and afterwards became professor at 
the Conservatorium and Kapellmeister of 
the theatre at Prague. Works : Concertino 
for violin and orchestra ; Variations for do., 
etc. — Fetis ; Wurzbach ; Schilling ; Ger- 
ber ; Wasielewski, Die Violiue, 190. 

PIXIS, JOHANN PETER, born at Mann- 
heim in 1788, died at Baden-Baden, Dec. 

21, 1874. Pianist, brother of the preced- 
ing, with whom he travelled ; then lived in 
Munich and Vienna, and settled in 1825 
in Paris to teach. He educated his adopted 
daughter, Franzilla P. Giihringer, as a singer, 
accompanied her on her professional tour 
through Germany and Italy, and after her 
marriage retired to Baden-Baden. "Works 
— Operas: Bibiaua, Paris, 1831 ; Die Sin-a- 
che des Herzens, Berlin, 1836. Symphony ; 
Trios, quartets, and quintets ; Concertos, 
sonatas, fantasias, variations, and other 
pieces for pianoforte. — Fctis ; Mendel ; 
Gerber ; Schilling. 

PIXIS, THEODOE, born in Prague, 
April 15, 1831, died at Cologne, Aug. 1, 1856. 
Violinist, son of Friedrich Wilhelm Pixis, 
pupil at the Conservatorium at Prague, 
afterwards of Vieuxtemps at Cannstadt, 
having previously visited Paris with his 
uncle, Johann Peter Pixis ; he made suc- 
cessful concert tours through the Rhine 
countries, and afterwards played in Frank- 
fort, Hanover, Berlin, etc., and in 1850 was 
appointed professor at the Conservatorium 



in Cologne. He made successful visits to 
Holland in 1853, and to Paris in 1855. 
Works : Concert-Fantasias for violin and 
oi'chestra ; Variations for do. ; Soli for vio- 
lin and pianoforte ; Songs. — Wurzbach. 

PLAIDY, LOUIS, born at Hubertsburg, 
Saxony, Nov. 28, 1810, died at Grimma, 
March 3, 1874. Pianist and violinist, pu- 
pil of Agthe and, on the violin, of Haase. 
He taught in Dresden, played the violin in 
Leipsic, and, after giving attention more 
especially to the pianoforte, was chosen 
in 1843 by Mendelssohn as instructor at 
the Leipsic Conservatorium, where he re- 
mained until 1865, when he became a private 
teacher. He was wonderfully successful in 
developing the technical execution of his 
pupils. Works : Technische Studieu fiir 
das Pianofortesjsiel, now a standard text- 
book in music schools. He was the author 
also of Der Klavierlehrer (1874), translated 
by F. L. Bitter as the " Pianoforte Teacher's 
Guide," and by John S. Dwight as the 
" Piano Teacher." — Riemauu ; Grove; Men- 
del ; Fetis, Supplement, ii. 350. 

PLAINTE DES DAMNES, LA (Com- 
plaint of the Damned), cantata for three 
voices, two violins, and organ, by Carissimi. 
It is very celebrated. The MS. is in the 
National Library, Paris. 

PL.mQUETTE, ROBERT, born in Paris, 
July 21, 1850, still living, 1890. Pianist 
and dramatic composer, pui^il at the Con- 
servatoire, and for a short time of Duprato. 
He began writing chansons and chansou- 
nettes for the cafes-chantants, and, having 
acquired popularity, composed several op- 
erettas, and in 1877 produced his first well- 
known oi^era, Les cloches de Corneville, 
which was given more than 400 times in 
succession, and became as popular in Lon- 
don as in Paris. Works : Mefie-toi de 
Pharaon, 1872 ; Le serment de Mme 
Grogoire, 1874 ; Paille d'avoine, 1874 ; Les 
cloches de Corneville, 1877 ; Le chevalier 
Gaston, Le peage, 1879 ; Les voltigeurs 
de la XXXH., 1880 ; La cantiniere, 1880 ; 
Itqj van Winkle, 1882 ; Nell Gwyune, 1884 ; 



lo3 



PLANTADE 




Surcouf, comic opera, 1887 ; Paul Jones, 
do., London, 1880 ; Songs and instru- 
mental music. — Ft'tis, Supi^lement, ii. 357 ; 
Grove ; Kiemanu. 

PLANTADE, CHARLES HENRI, born 
at Poutoise (Seine-et- 
'"" Oise), Oct. 19, 17C4, 

died in Paris, Dec. 18, 
1839. He was ad- 
mitted at the age of 
eight to the school of 
the king's pages de 
musique, where he 
learned singing and 
the violoncello. On 
leaving the king's ser- 
vice he studied singing 
and composition under Langlo, pianoforte 
under Hiillmandel, and the harp under Pe- 
trini. He was professor of singing at Mine 
Campan's celebrated school at Saint- Denis, 
and there instructed Hortense de Beauhar- 
nais, who afterwards, as Queen of Holland, 
appointed him kapelmeester at her court. 
Plantade resigned his position of professor 
at the Conservatoire, which he had held 
from 1802, in company with Garat, to ac- 
cept this new honour, but on the king's ab- 
dication he was forced to return to Paris, 
where he resumed his position in 1815, was 
dismissed in ISIG, reinstated in 1818, and 
finally retired in 1828. In ISIG he suc- 
ceeded Persuis as maitre de chapelle to 
Louis XVlLL, who in 1814 had decorated 
him with the Legion of Honour. His best 
pupil was Mine Cinti-Damoreau. Through 
the revolution of 1830 he lost all his offices, 
and retired to Batignollcs. Works — Op- 
eras : Les deux sanu-s, 17!)1 ; Les souliers 
mordorc'S, 1793 ; Au plus brave la plus belle, 
1794 ; Palma, ou le voyage en Groce, 1797 ; 
Romagnesi, 1799 ; Le roman, 1799 ; Zoo, 
ou la pauvre petite, 1800 ; Lisez Plutarque, 
1800 ; Bayard a la Fertc, 1811 ; Le mari 
de circonstauce, 1813 ; Scc'ue lyrique, 1814 ; 
Blanche de Castille (with Habeneck). Five 
masses ; Requiem ; Motets ; Te Deum ; 
Sonata for harp ; 20 collections of ro- 



mances ; 3 do. of nocturnes for 2 voices. 
— Fotis ; Mendel ; Riemann. 

PLATANIA, PIETRO, born at Catania, 
Sicily, April 5, 1828, still living, 1890. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Carmelo Messina 
on the pianoforte, and of Vicenzo Abatelli 
in composition, then at Palermo of Rai- 
mondi. In 18G3 he was appointed director 
of the Conservatorio at Palermo. Member 
of the Accademia di Sta. Cecilia, Rome. 
Order of Saint-Maurice et Saint-Lazare, and 
of the Italian Crown. Works — Operas: 
Matilda Bentivoglio, Palermo, 1852 ; Pic- 
carda Douati, ib., 1857 ; La vendetta slava, 
ib., 18(55 ; GiulioSabino. Funeral symphony 
on the death of Pacini, 18G8 ; Ode-symphony 
for chorus, orchestra, and military band, 
1878 ; Hymn to the queen, 1878. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 353. 

PLATEL, NICOLAS JOSEPH, born at 
Versailles in 1777, died at Brussels, Aug. 
25, 1835. Virtuoso on the violoncello, pu- 
pil of Louis Du230rt and of Lamare, entered 
in 179G the orchestra of the Theatre Fey- 
deau, but in 1797 followed an actress to 
Lyons, and did not return to Paris until 
1801, when he was considered the best 
violoncellist there. In 1805 he made a 
concert tour, sojourning in several minor 
cities, and in 1813 became first violoncellist 
at the 023era in Antwerp ; in 1824 he went 
in the same capacity to Brussels, where in 
1831 he was appointed also professor at the 
Conservatoire. Works : G concertos for vi- 
oloncello, and orchestra ; 3 sonatas for 
violoncello, with bass ; 6 airs varies for 
violoncello ; Caprices or preludes for do. ; 
3 trios for strings ; 6 duos for do. ; G ro- 
mances, with pianoforte. — Fctis ; Mendel ; 
Riemann. 

PL.\TT, CHARLES EASTON, born, of 
American parentage, in Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, Oct. 13, 185G, still living, 1890. 
He studied in Boston, in 1875-7G, the or- 
gan under Eugene Thayer, then, at the New 
England Conservatory of Music, pianoforte 
under Joseph A. Hills, S. A. Emery, and B. 
J. Lang, and harmony under S. A. Emery ; 



134 



PLAUSI 



and on his return to Waterbury, the organ 
under Julius Baier, Jr. In 1877 he went 
to Europe, and studied the organ under 
August Haupt, the pianoforte under H. 
Ehrlieh, KuUak, and Oscar Raif, and mu- 
sical theory and composition under F. Kiel, 
W. Bargiel, and Franz Neumann ; during 
two summers, also, he was a pupil of Liszt 
at Weimar. Eeturning to America in 1882, 
he became a teacher in the Detroit Con- 
servatory of Music, which position he still 
holds. He is a member of the Music 
Teachers' National Association. Works : 
Variations for string quartet, in D minor ; 
Theme and variations, in B minor, for pi- 
anoforte, violin, and violoncello ; Sonata in 
4 movements, for pianoforte ; Also waltzes, 
nocturnes, mazurkas, and other pianoforte 
music. 

PLAUSI ALL' INCLITO SEVERO. See 
Poliulo. 

PLEYEL, CAIVIILLE, born in Stras- 
burg, Dec. 18, 1788, died in Paris, May 
4, 1855. Pianist, son and pupil of Ignaz 
Josef Pleyel ; received instruction also 
from Dussek. He lived a while in London, 
then went to Paris, and entered the piano- 
forte making firm of Pleyel & Co., estab- 
lished by his father, in which the pianist 
Kalkbrenner also became later a partner. 
Works : Quartet f or jsianoforte and strings ; 
3 trios for do. ; Sonatas for pianoforte and 
violin, or violoncello ; Pianoforte duet ; 
Nocturnes, rondos, fantasias, and other com- 
positions for jjianoforte solo, and with ac- 
companiment. His wife, Marie Felicite 
Denise (born Moke, 1811-75), was a cele- 
brated pianist, and in 1848-72 professor at 
the Conservatoire of Brussels. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

PLEYEL, IGNAZ JOSEF, born at Rup- 
pertsthal, near Vienna, June 1, 1757, died 
on his estate near Paris, Nov. 14, 1831. In- 
strumental composer, pupil of Wanhall on 
the isianoforte, and of Haydn, under whose 
entire care he was placed for five years by 
Count Erdody. In 1777 the count made 
him his Kapellmeister, but allowed him to 




In 1792 the society 



study four years longer in Italy. After his 
return to Vienna, in 1781, he soon went 
again to Rome, and 
in 1783 accepted the 
position as second 
Kapellmeister at the 
Minster of Stras- 
burg, became first 
Kaj)ellmeister in 
1780, but was de- 
prived of his jjost 
by the Revolution, 
which abolished the 
Christian religion, 
of Professional Concerts called him to Lon- 
don, to compete against Haydn's sympho- 
nies, produced in Salomon's concerts ; the 
enterprise was successful, but the Profes- 
sional Concerts ceased after a few years, and 
Pleyel bought and retired to some prop- 
erty near Strasburg. Annoyed and sus- 
pected by the revolutionary authorities, he 
sold his property and removed to Paris in 
the beginning of 1795, and established a 
music trade, and later a pianoforte factory, 
becoming a business man exclusively, and 
abandoning composition. The last years of 
his life he spent on an estate near Paris, 
devoting himself to agriculture. Works : 
29 symphonies ; Septet for strings, 2 horns, 
and double bass ; Sextet for strings ; 5 
quintets for do. ; 45 quartets for do. ; Trios 
and duos for do. ; 6 quartets for flute and 
strings ; 2 concertos for pianoforte ; 2 do. 
for violin ; 4 do. for violoncello ; 7 sym- 
phonies concertantes for 2 violins, for string 
and wind instruments, for pianoforte and 
violin ; Sonatas for pianoforte, violin, and 
violoncello ; 12 do. for jjianoforte, etc.- — Fe- 
tis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; N. Necrol. der D. 
(1831), ii. 967 ; Riehl, Mus. Charakterkopfe, 
i. 238 ; Schilling ; Wurzbach. 

PLUS BLANCHE QUE LA BLANCHE 
HERmNE. See Huguenots. 

PLUS ULTRA, sonata for pianoforte, in 
A-flat, by Dussek, op. 71, called also " Le 
retour a Paris," published by Cianchetti 
and Sperati (London, 1808). It is dedi- 



135 



PLUTUS 



cated to " Non plus ultra," a sonata for the 
pianoforte, in F, by Joseph Woelfl, op. 41, 
closing with variations on the air, " Life 
let us cherish " (a favourite German song, 
words by Martin Usteri, of Zurich, music by 
Hans Georg Niigeli, 1793), which was dedi- 
cated to Miss E. Binney, and pubHshed by J. 
Lavenu (London, 1800). It was intended to 
show that mechanical skill could go no fur- 
ther, and Dussek's was an answer. — Grove, 
iii. 4. 

PLUTUS, opora-comique, text by Mil- 
laud and Jolives, after Ai-istof)hanes, mu- 
sic by Charles Lecocq, represented at the 
0]X'ra Comique, Paris, March 31, 1886. 

POEME DAMOUR (Poem of Love), 
cycle of songs for voice and pianoforte, 
test by Paul Robiquet, music by Massenet. 
Sis numbers. Published by G. Hartmann 
(Paris, 1879). 

POEME D'AVRIL (Poem of April), cycle 
of songs for voice and pianoforte, text from 
Armaud Silvestre's " Mignonne," music 
by Massenet, in eight numbers. Dedicated 
to Ernest Reyer, and published by G. Hart- 
mann (Paris, 1878). 

POEME DHR^ER (Poem of Winter), 
cycle of songs for voice and pianoforte, text 
bj' Ai'mand SUvestre, music by Massenet. 
Published by G. Hartmann (Paris). 

POEME b'OCTOBRE (Poem of Octo- 
ber), cycle of songs for voice and piano- 
forte, test by Paul Collin, music by I\Ias- 
senet. Prelude and five numbers. Dedi- 
cated to Ernest Ht'bert, and jniblished by 
G. Hartmann (Paris). 

POEME DU SOUVEXm (Poem of Re- 
membrance), text by Armand Silvestre, 
music by Massenet. Six numbers, the last 
of which is an ejsitaph. Dedicated to Mrs. 
Charles Moulton, and published by G. Hart- 
mann (Paris). 

POEIME PASTORAL, scenes forvoice and 
pianoforte, text by Florian and Armand 
Silvestre, music by Massenet. I. Pastorale 
avec choeur ; H. Musette ; IH. Aurore ; IV. 
Paysage ; V. Crepuscule ; VI. Adieus :\ la 
jirairie. Published by G. Hartmann (Paris). 



POET AND PEASANT. See Dichter und 
Bauer. 

POETE ET LE MUSICIEN, LE, French 
opera-comique in three acts, text by Du- 
paty, music by Dalayrac, first represented 
at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, May 30, 
1811. 

POHLENZ, CHRISTIAN AUGUST, bom 
at Saalgast, Nether Lusatia, July 3, 1790, 
died in Leij^sic, March 10, 1843. Organist 
of the Thomaskirche in Leipsic, and con- 
ducted the Gewandhaus concerts, until suc- 
ceeded by Mendelssohn iu 1835, when he 
still retained the direction of the Sinji- 
akademie. "Works : Polonaises for piano- 
forte ; Choruses for male voices, and songs, 
some of which, especially his " Auf, Matrosen, 
die Anker gelichtet," became very popular. 
— Mendel ; Fetis ; Riemanu. 

POISE, (JEAN ALEXANDRE) FERDI- 
NAND, born at Nimes, June 3, 1828, still 
living, 1890. Dramatic composer ; after tak- 
ing his degree of Bachelier-es-lettres of Paris, 
pupil at the Conservatoire, in 1850, of Zim- 
merman and of Adolphe Adam for compo- 
sition, and won in 1852 the second grand 
prix. His first opera, Bonsoir, voisin, 
given at the Theatre Lyrique iu 1853, had 
an immediate success and was played one 
hundred nights. He went to Italy and 
Germany to follow the course prescribed 
by the lustitut, and since then has been a 
popular composer of operas played at the 
best theatres of Paris. In 1872 he took the 
musical prize of the Acadumie des Beaux- 
Ai"ts, instituted by Baron Trt'mont. Works : 
Les charmeurs. Theatre Lyrique, 1855 ; 
Le the de Polichinelle, Bouffes Parisiens, 

1856 ; Le roi Don Pudre, Opera Comique, 

1857 ; Le jardiniergalant, ib., 1861 ; Lesab- 
sents, ib., 1864 ; Les moissonneurs, cantata, 
ib., 1866 ; Le coiTicolo, ib.,1868 ; Les deux 
billets, Athem'e, 1870 ; Les trois souhaits. 
Opera Comique, 1873 ; La surprise de 
I'amour, ib., 1877 ; L'Amour medecin, 1880 ; 
Le joli Gilles, 1884 ; Le medecin malgre 
lui, 1887. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, ii. 
355. 



1S6 



POISOT 



POISOT, CHARLES fMILE, born at I cinque voci concertati (ib., 1634) ; Motetti a 
Dijon, France, Jul}' 8, 1822, still living, I voce sola e a duoi (ib., 1637) ; Messe a 5 e 
1890. Pianist and -ivriter on music, pupil : 8 voci concertati, etc. (ib., 1639) ; Salmi 
of Jules Senart, Louis Adam, Stamaty, and concertati a 3 e 5 voci ; do. a 8 voci (ib.. 



Tbalberg on the pianoforte, of Leborne in 
counterpoint, and at the Conservatoire 
(184:4-48) of Haluvy. He was one of the 
founders of the society of composers in 
Paris, created the Conservatoire at Dijon, 
of which he was made director in 18G8, 
and founded there in 1872 the society for 
sacred and classical music. Works — Op- 
eras : Lo paysan, given at the Ojicra Co- 
mique, 1850 ; Le prince de Galles, 1854 ; Les 
Sj)endlcrs ; Francesco. Parlor operas : Le 
coin du feu ; La cle du secretaire ; Les res- 
sources de Jacqueline ; Les terreurs de M. 
Peters ; Eosa la rose ; Les deux billets. 
Jeanne d'Arc, cantata ; Motets ; Stabat 
Mater ; Requiem ; Trio for pianoforte and 
strings ; Pianoforte pieces. He published 
a Cours d'harmonie and Traite de contre- 
point et fugue ; also Notice sur Jean-Philippe 
Eameau (1864), and Notice sur Jules Mer- 
cier (1869), etc. — Fctis ; do.. Supplement, 
ii. 356. 

POISSL, JOHANNNEPOjMUK,Freiherr 
VON, born at Haukeuzell, Bavaria, Feb. 15, 
1783, died at Munich, Aug. 17, 1865. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil of Danzi. He was 
appointed iutendaut of court music in 1823. 
Works : Die Opernprobe, 1806 ; Antigone, 
1808 ; Merope, 1810 ; Ottaviano in Sicilia, 
1812 ; Aucassiu undNicolette, 1813 ; Athalie, 
1814 ; Der Wettkampf zu Olympia, 1816 ; 
Nittetis, 1817 ; Die Prinzessin von Provence, 
1825 ; Der Untersberg, 1829 ; Der Erudte- 
tag, oratorio ; Psalm xcv., for soli and 
chorus ; Stabat Mater, 2 Miserere, etc. — Fe- 
tis ; Riemann. 

POLIDORI, ORTENSIO, church com- 
poser of the seventeenth century, born at 
Camerino, Papal States, about the middle 
of the 16th centui-y. He was maestro di 
cappella of the cathedral at Fermo about 
1621, afterwards at Cbieti, Naples, and at 
Pesaro. Works : Messe a 5 e 8 voci con 
ripieni e 2 violiui (Venice, 1631) ; Salmi a 



1641) ; do. in 2 cori, etc. (ib., 1646).— Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

POLIDORO, German opera by Karl 
Heinrich Grauu, first represented in Bruns- 
wick in 1726. This was the composer's 
first of)era. Other operas of the same title, 
in Italian, by Antonio Lotti, text by Pio- 
vene, Venice, 1714 ; in French, by Battistin 
Struck, text by the Abbe Pellegrini, Paris, 
Feb. 15, 1720 ; in German, by Sigismund 
von Rumling, Schloss Carlsberg, near Mu- 
nich. 

POLIUTO, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Cammarano, after Corneille's " Poly- 
eucte," music by Donizetti, written for rep- 
resentation in Naples in 1838, but forbidden 
by the censorship. The libretto was sug- 
gested by Adolphe Nourrit, who designed 
the part of Poliuto for himself. The opera 
was rearranged and given as Les martyrs, 
Paris, April 10, 1840. First represented 
in its original form at the Theatre Italien, 
Paris, April 14, 1859, with this cast : 

Poliuto M. Tamberlik. 

Paoliua Mme Penco. 

Severo M. Cojtsi. 

Felix M. Patriossi. 

Callistene M. Manfredi. 

Nearco M. Soldi. 

Poliuto was one of Tamberlik's best charac- 
ters. The opera was first performed in New 
York, Jan. 25, 1859, with Brignoli as Poli- 
uto ; Amodio, Severo ; Barilli, Felix ; and MUe 
Piccolomini as Paolina. Scene in Mitylene, 
in the third century after Christ. Poliuto, 
a Roman, has become a Christian, but hia 
wife, Paolina, daughter of Felix, Governor 
of Armenia, is not a convert. Severo, her 
former lover, is sent by the Emperor Decius 
to extirpate Christianity, and finds to his 
grief that Paolina is married. Nearco, a 
friend of Poliuto, is arrested and taken to 
the temple of Jupiter, where he is ordered 



lOT 



POLLAEOLO 



to disclose the names of bis Christian friends. 
He refuses and is about to be executed, 
when Poliuto enters, proclaims his faith, 
and destroys the idols. He is taken to 
prison, and Severe tries to save him. Felis 
promises to f)ardon Poliuto if he will re- 
nounce his religion, and Paolina takes 
him this news, but whUe visiting him in 
prison she becomes converted. The opera 
closes in the amphitheatre, where the Chris- 
tians, including Poliuto and Paolina, are 
thrown to the wild beasts. The principal 
numbers are : " D' un alma troppo fervida," 
and " Percho distolto giubilo," sung by 
Poliuto and Paolina in Act I. ; the chorus 
of greeting to Severo, " Plausi all' iuclito 
Severo ; " his aria, " II piti lieto de' viventi ; " 
Poliuto's aria, " Sfolgoro diviuo raggio ; " 
the chorus, " Vieni ! ^deni al circo ; " and 
the last duet of Poliuto and Paolina," II 
suon deir arpe angeliche," one of Donizetti's 
best compositions.- — Revue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1859), 128 ; Clement et Larousse, 
537 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 98. 

POLLAROLO, CARLO FRANCESCO, 
born at Brescia in 1G53, died in Venice in 
1722. Dramatic composer, pupil of Le- 
grcnzi, who entered him in 1G65 as a singer 
in the ducal chajjel of S. Marco. In 1G90 
he was appointed organist of the second or- 
gan and in 1G92 vice-maestro di cappella. 
He was one of the most prolific and favour- 
ite opera composers of his time ; at Venice 
alone he brought out sixty-four operas in 
1G8G-1721. Among those written for other 
cities were : Antonino Pompeiano, Brescia, 
1G89 ; Circe abbandonata, Piacenza, 1G92 ; 
Ascanio, Milan, 1702 ; Arminio, Pratoliuo, 
1703; L' eqnivoco, Rome, 1711 ; Amore in 
gare col fasto, Rovigo, 1711 ; L'Astinomo, 
Rome, 1719. Jefte, oratorio, Vienna, 1710, 
and sevei'al other oratorios ; Fede, valore, 
gloria e fama, cantata, 171G. His son An- 
tonio (1G80-1750) succeeded him in 1723 
at S. Marco, and Lotti in 1740 as first ma- 
estro di cappella. He composed eight 
operas for Venice, and some church music. 
— Fetis. 



POLLEDRO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 

born at Casalmonferrato alia Piova, near 
Turin, June 10, 1781, died there, Aug. 15, 
1853. Violinist and composer, first in- 
structed at Asti by Mauro Calderara and 
Gaetano Vai, then at Turin by a musician 
named Paris, and for a short time pupil 
of Pugnani, who caused him to be ad- 
mitted in the orchestra of the Teatro Regio 
at the age of fifteen. He made his first 
appearance in public in Turin in 1797, then 
in Milan, 1801, and became first violin- 
ist at Sta. Maria Maggiore at Bergamo in 
1804. Beginning a long professional tour, 
he remained five years in Moscow ; then 
went to St. Petersburg, Berlin, and Dresden, 
where he was Conzertmeister in 1814- 
24 ; was recalled to Turin in 1824 by 
the king to reorganize the Royal Chapeh 
In 1844 he retired from public life. "Works : 
8 concertos for violin and orchestra; Airs 
varies for do. ; Trios and duos for string 
instruments ; Mass for 4 voices and orches- 
tra ; Miserere f<n- do. ; Sinfonia pastorale, 
for full orchestra ; Concerto for bassoon 
and orchestra. — Fetis ; do.. Supplement, ii. 
357 ; Storia del violino in Piemonto (Turin, 
1863) ; Hart, The Violin, 232 ; Wasielewski, 
Die Violine, 108 ; Riemann ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling. 

POLLINI, FRANCESCO GIUSEPPE, 
born at Laybach, Carniola, in 17G3, died in 
Milan, Sept. 17, 184G. Pianist, pupil of 
Mozart in Vienna ; about 1793 he went to 
Milan, where he studied composition under 
Zingarelli. He wrote the opera buffa La 
casetta nei boschi, 1798 ; and a cantata, 
n trionfo della pace, 1801, on the occasion 
of the Peace of Amiens. Soon after he 
went to Paris, and on his return to Milan was 
appointed professor at the newly founded 
(1809) Conservatorio. He originated the 
stj'le of playing a melody in the middle of 
the kej'board, using the thumb of each hand 
alternately, while the hands are also em- 
ployed with elaborate passages above and 
below it. This invention has been attribut- 
ed both to Thalberg and to Parish- Alvars, 



188 



POLOI^IA 



but it appears in one of PoUini's 32 Esercizi 
in forma di toccata (1820), dedicated to 
Meyerbeer, the music being written in 
three staves. Works : Sonata, caprice and 
variations, for two pianofortes (Milan) ; 
3 sonatas for pianoforte ; Sonate facile, 
for violin and pianoforte ; Introduction and 
rondo, for jjiauoforte (i hands) ; Caprices, 
toccatas, rondeaux-fantaisies, etc., for piano- 
forte ; Stabat Mater, with Italian words, 
for soprano and contralto, with 2 violins, 
2 violoncellos, and organ ; Selma (from 
Ossian), for soprano. — F6tis ; Grove ; Eie- 
maun ; Schilling. 

POLONIA, overture for orchestra, in C, 
by Richard Wagner, written in 1832, but 
not published. The score is in Bayreuth. 

POLUS ATELLA, oratorio by Loewe, 
written between 18J:8 and 18G0. 

POLYEUCTE, French opera in five acts, 
text by Jules Barbier and Michel Carr^', mu- 
sic by Gounod, iirst represented at the 




Marie Gabrielle Krauss. 

Academie Royale de Musique, Paris, Oct. 
7, 1878. The libretto is an adaptation of 
Corneille's tragedy. Original cast : 

Polyeucte M. Salamon. 

Pauline Mile Krauss. 

Severe M. Lasalle. 



Published by Lemoine (Paris) ; by Fiirstner 
(Berlin). Same subject, German opera, text 
by Elmenhorst, after Corneille, music by 
Johann PhUipp Fortsch, Hamburg, 1688 ; 
and music to Corneille's tragedy, by Johann 
Adam Scheibe, Leipsic, 1738. — Clement et 
Larousse, 936 ; Huefter, Musical Studies, 
213 ; Athenfeum (1878), ii. 442, 474 ; Si- 
gnale (1878), 801. 

POLYXftNE ; POLTXJ^NE ET PYR- 
RHUS. See Achille et Polyxcne. 

POMONE, ojiera or representation in 
music, text by the Abbu Perrin, music by 
Cambert, first represented at the Theatre 
de la rue Guenegaud, Paris, March 19, 
1G71. This was the first French opera 
heard by the Parisian public, and it was 
the first ojjera represented by the Acade- 
mic Royale de Musique (1671). The story 
is the mythological fable of Pomona and 
Vertumnus. Characters represented : Po- 
mone. Mile de Cartilly ; Vertumne, M. Beau- 
mavielle ; Faune, M. Rossignol. Portions 
of the oj)era were published by Ch. Ballard 
(Paris). Other opieras of the same title : 
In French, by Lacoste, about 1730 ; in Ger- 
man, by Reinhardt Keiser, text by Postel, 
Hamburg, 1702.— Lajarte, i. 19. 

POMPEIA, symphonic fantasy for orches- 
tra, by Jules Massenet, first performed at 
the Casino, Paris, Feb. 24, 1866. I. Pre- 
lude ; II. Hymne d'£ros ; HI. Choeur des 
funerailles ; TV. Bacchanale. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, ii. 181. 

POMPEH. See Dernier jour de Pompei. 

PONCHARD, ANTOINE, born at Bussus 
near Peronne, Picardy, in 1758, died in 
Paris, September, 1827. Church composer, 
received his first musical education as chor- 
ister in a church at Pcronne, subsequently 
in the cathedral at Liege. He was succes- 
sively maitre de chapelle at Saint-Malo, and 
of the cathedrals of Bourges and Auxerre. 
About 1786 he went to Pont^le-Voy, and 
became professor of music in the royal 
college, but at the time of the Revolution 
followed several callings to earn a living. 
In 1803 he settled in Lyons, where he was 



13'J 



PONCniELLI 




chef d'orchestre at the Grand Theatre. He 
went to Paris in 1813 in order to be near 
his son, a favourite singer at the Opera, and 
in 1815 was aj^pointed maitre de chapelle 
of Saint-Eustache. Works ; His church 
music, consisting of 5 masses, a Kequiem, 
considered his best work, psahus, etc., with 
organ and orchestral accompaniment, re- 
mains in MS. — Fetis ; Larousse. 

PONCHDELLI, A:\nLCAEE, born at Pa- 
deruo-Fasolaro, near 
Cremona, Sept. 1, 
1834, died in Milan, 
Jan. IG, 188G. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil 
in 18-13-54 at the Con- 
servatorio of Milan. 
He lived in Piacenza, 
where he was band- 
master of a regiment ; 
subsequently went to Cremona in the same 
capacity. His first opera, I promessi sposi, 
given at Cremona, 185G, and, in an altered 
arrangement, at the new Teatro dal Verme, 
Milan, 1872, won him popularity in Italy, 
where he is considered second only to Verdi. 
He was immediately engaged by the mana- 
gers of La Scala to write a ballet in 7 acts, 
and in 1873 Lo duo gemelle was brought 
out at that theatre, with extraordinary suc- 
cess. In 1881 ho was appointed maestro 
di cappella of the cathedral at Bergamo. 
Works — Operas : I promessi sposi, Cre- 
mona, 185G ; La Savojarda, Cremona, 18G1 ; 
Eoderico, re do' Goti, Piacenza, 18G-1 ; Ber- 
trand de Born, ballet, Viterbo, 18G7 ; La 
Stella del monte, 18G7 ; Clai-ina, ballet, Mil- 
an, 1873 ; H parlatoro eterno, scherzo co- 
mico, Lecco, 1873 ; I Lituani, MUan, 1874 ; 
Gioconda, ib., 1876 ; Lina (a remodelled 
edition of La Savojarda), ib., 1877 ; H fi- 
gliuol prodigo, ib., 1880 ; Marion Delonne, 
ib., 1885. A Gaetauo Donizetti, cantata, 
Bergamo, 1875 ; H 29 Maggio, funeral march 
to the memory of Manzoni ; Another funeral 
march ; Fantasia militare ; Hymn in mem- 
ory of Garibaldi, 1882 ; Eteruamente, ro- 
mance for soprano, with pianoforte and 



violoncello. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 358 ; 
Mendel, Ergiinz., 360. 

POND, SYLVANUS BILLINGS, born 
at Milford, Vermont, April 5, 1792, died in 
Brooklyn, New York, March 12, 1871. He 
went while young to Albany, where he en- 
gaged in the musical instrument business ; 
in 1832 ho removed to New York and asso- 
ciated himself with Firth & Hall under the 
firm name of Firth, Hall & Pond, which, 
after several changes, became William A. 
Pond & Co. He was leader of the choir at 
the Brick Church, New York, and was at 
one time director of the New York Academy 
of Music and of the New York Sacred !Mu- 
sic Society. He composed church music, 
including several popular hymn tunes, 
among them Armenia (1835) and Franklin 
Square (1850), and compiled the following 
collections : Union Melodies (1838), United 
States Psalmodist (1841), and Book of 
Praise of the Reformed Dutch Church (18GG). 

PONLiTOWSKI, J(')ZEF MCHAL 
XAWERY FRANCISZEK JAN, Prince of 
Monte Rotondo, born in Rome, Feb. 20, 
1806, died at Chiselhurst, England, July 
3, 1873. Dramatic composer, and tenor 
singer ; first taught by Candido Zanetti, a 
priest ; and in Florence studied singing and 
comjwsition under Ceccherini. He made 
his di'but as a tenor singer at the Teatro 
Standish in Florence, where in 1838 he pro- 
duced his first opera, Giovanni da Procida, 
in which he sang the title-role, and from 
that time, for more than thirty years, wrote 
ojieras for the theatres of Italy and Paris. 
After the Revolution of 1848 he went to 
Paris as plenipotentiary of the Grand Duke 
of Tuscan^', and was made senator under the 
empire. After Sedan he followed Napoleon 
in. to England, and was on the eve of going 
to America professionally, when he died. 
Works — Operas : Don Desiderio, Pisa, 1839 ; 
Ruy Bias, Lucca, 1842 ; Bonifazio dei Gere- 
mei, Rome, 1844 ; I Lambertazzi, Florence, 
1845 ; Malek-Adel, Genoa, 1846 ; Esmeralda, 
Leghorn, 1847 ; La sposa d' Abido, Venice, 
1847 ; Pierre de M6dicis, Paris, 1860 ; Au 



140 



PONS 



travers du mur, ib., 1861 ; L'aventurier, 
ib., 1865 ; La contessina, ib., 18G8 ; Gel- 
mina, London, 1872. A mass in F, selec- 
tions ijlayed at Her Majesty's Theatre, 1873. 
His song, " The Yeoman's Wedding," was a 
favourite in England. — Grove ; Fc'tis ; do., 
Supplement, ii. 360 ; Sowiiiski, 462 ; Mendel ; 
do., Ergiinz., 361 ; Clement, Mus. Cel., 615. 

TONS, J0Sl5, born at Gerona, Catalonia, 
Spain, in 1768, died in Valencia in 1818. 
Comjjoser of vilhancicos, or Christmas pieces, 
and other church music, pupil at Cordova of 
Jaime Baling. He was maestro de capilla 
of the Cathedral of Gerona, and in 1793 ob- 
tained the same jjosition at the Cathedral of 
Valencia. He is considered by Eslava the 
representative of the Catalan school, which 
is entirely different from the Valencian. 
His vilhancicos were veritable biblical dra- 
mas, in the shape of oratorios with jsarts for 
voices, orchestra, or organ ; they are said 
to be still extensively performed in his own 
country. Other works : Miserere for Holy 
Week ; Eslava gives a letrilla of his, O 
Madre, for 8 voices, in Lira sacro-hisiiana, 
iv. — Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

PONTOGLIO, CIPKIANO, born at Gru- 
mello del Piano, Italy, in 1831, still living, 
1890. Dramatic composer, pu^jil of Antonio 
Cagnoni. Works : Tebaldo Brusato, Bres- 
cia, 1865 ; Don Prospero 1' ottimista, Flor- 
ence, 1867 ; La schiava greca, Bergamo, 
1868 ; La notte del Natale, ib., 1872 ; Eolla, 
ballet, Naples, 1877. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 
361. 

PONZIO, PIETRO, born at Parma, Italy, 
March 25, 1532, died there, Dec. 27, 
1596. Church composer and didactic 
writer ; became maestro di cap23ella of the 
cathedral at Bergamo in 1570, of Santa 
Ambrosia in Milan, 1581, finally of the Cap- 
pella della Steccata in his native city. He 
is less known, now, by his compositions than 
by his writings on music. Works : Mis- 
sarum 4 voc. (Venice, 1578) ; Missarum 
quinque vocibus (ib., 1580) ; do. (ib., 1581) ; 
do. (ib., 1585) ; Psalmi vespertini totius anui 
(ib., 1578) ; do. (ib., 1589) ; Motettorum 



cum quinque vocibus (ib., 1582) ; Missarum 
4 voc. (ib., 1584) ; Magnificat, ib., 1584 ; 
MisscB 6 e 8 voc. (ib., 1590) ; Hymni solem- 
niores ad vespertinas horas canendi (ib., 
1596). His theoretical works are : Ragio- 
namenti di musica, etc. (Parma, 1588) ; Dia- 
logo ove si tratta deUa teoria e pratica di 
musica, etc. (ib., 1595). — Fotis ; Mendel. 

POPOLI DI TESSAGLIA, recitative and 
aria (lo non chiedo eterni), for soprano 
with orchestra, in C minor and C, text from 
Calzabigi's Alceste, music by Mozart, com- 
posed for Aloysia Weber, in Munich, Jan. 
8, 1779. Breitkopf & Hilrtel, Mozart, 
Werke, Serie vi.. No. 19. — Kochel, Verzeich- 
niss. No. 316 ; Andre, No. 76 ; Jahn, Mo- 
zart, ii. 338. 

POPP, WILHELM, born in Prague, 
April 29, 1829, still living, 1890. Flute and 
pianoforte virtuoso, jjupil of Drouet, C. 
Kummer, and A. Spath. At first Hof-pian- 
ist in Coburg, then travelled in Russia, and 
since 1867 has lived in Hamburg, where he 
is solo flute of the Philharmonic Society. 
He has written more than three hundred 
salon- and study-pieces for the pianoforte 
and flute. 

POPPER, DAVID, born in Prague, June 
18, 1845, still living, 
1890. Violoncellist, 
pupil of Goltermann 
at the Conserva- 
torium in Prague ; 
since 1863 has made 
concert tours. He 
received the appoint- 
meutof chamber vir- 
tuoso to Prince Ho- 
henzollern ; was first 
violoncello of the Vi- 
enna court opera in 
the pianist, Sophie Menter, in 1872. Since 
1873 he has appeared in concerts in Lon- 
don, Paris, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Berlin, 
etc. Works : Concerto for violoncello and 
orchestra ; Mazurka, gavotte, polonaise, 
serenade, and other pieces for violoncello. 
— Wurzbach ; Kiemann. 



■^^-^j. 




1868 



POPULUS 



POPULUS, NICOLAS ADOLPHE AL- 
PHONSE, born at Ai-cueil, near Pai-is, in 
1831, still living, 1890. Organist, pupil at 
the maitrise of Saint-Jacques du Haut-Pas, 
■where he was a choir-boy, then pupil of 
BiUard on the pianoforte, of Elwart and 
Charles Maui-y in harmony, of Perez y Al- 
varez in counterpoint, and of Marius Gueit 
on the organ. When only fourteen years of 
age he became assistant organist at Saint- 
Jacques, was made organist at Saint-Nicolas 
du Chardonnet in 1854, at Chaillot in 1855, 
and returned to Saint-Jacques as maitre de 
chapelle. He is also professor of singing 
in the schools of Paris, music du-ector of 
Sainte-Geneviove's school, and professor of 
pianoforte and singing at the school of the 
Sacre-Coeur. Works : Agar et Ismaiil, bibli- 
cal scene in 2 acts ; Several masses, for 3 and 
4 voices, with organ and orchestra ; Motets 
for chorus, etc. ; Chants Hturgiques, for 2 
and 3 voices, with organ ; Rupertoire de 
chants patriotiques, choruses for 4 voices ; 
Recueil de 24 miJlodies religieuses ; Mi'lo- 
dies vocales, organ and pianoforte music. 
— Fctis, Supplement, ii. 3G1. 

PORGI AMOR. See Nozze di Figaro. 

PORO (Porus), Italian opera in three 
acts, text from Metastasio's Aleifsandro nell' 
ludie, which Handel cut freely, music by 
Handel, first represented at the King's 
Theatre, Loudon, Feb. 2, 1731. The orig- 
inal autograph, in Buckingham Palace, is 
dated at the end of the first act, Dec. 23, 
1730 ; at the end of the second, 30 Dee. 
1730 ; and at the end of the third. Fine 
dell' opera Poro, Jan. IG, 1731. It was re- 
ceived with great favour, and was revived 
in 1736. Original cast : Poro, King of 
India, lover of Cleofide (C), Signor Se- 
nesino ; Cleofide, Queen of another part 
of India, in love with Poro (S.), Signora 
Sti-ada ; Gandarte, general of Poro's army 
and lover of Erissena (A.), Signor Bertolli ; 
Erissena, Poro's sister, promised to Gan- 
darte (A), Signora Merighi ; Alessandro, 
the Macedonian King (T.), Signor Annibale 
Pio Fabri ; and Timagene, Alexander's gen- 



eral and favourite, but his secret enemy 
(B.), Signor Comano. This opera contains 
some fine duets and a bravura song of ex- 
traordinary dilficultj', " Serbati a grandi 
imprese," for Alessandro. It was performed 
in Hamburg as Cleofide in 1732. Published 
by W'alsh, and the fourth edition contained 
three interpolated airs by other composers, 
and one taken fi-om Siroe, " Torreute cres- 
ciuto per torbida plena." Edited by Chry- 
sander for the Hiindelgesellschaft (vol. 
79), Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 18G1). 
— Chrysander, Handel, ii. 244 ; Rockstro, 
1G7 ; Burney, iv. 350. 
PORPORA, NICCOLO (Niccola) AN- 
TONIO, born in 
Najiles, Aug. 19, 
1G86, died there, 
February, 17G6 
(17G7?). His Chris- 
tian name is spelled 
Niccola in his auto- 
graphs, but Niccolo 
on the title-pages of 
all works published 
by himself. H i a 
"~ " father, a bookseller, 

sent him to the Conservatorio di San Loreto, 
where he studied under Gaetano Greco, 
Padre Gaetano of Perugia, and Francesco 
Mancini. His first opera, Basilio, re d' Ori- 
ente, was brought out at the Teatro de' 
Fiorentini in 1709, and he was apjiointed 
maestro di cappella to the Portuguese am- 
bassador. His Berenice, given the next 
year at the Teatro Capranica, Rome, was 
praised by Handel. In 1719 he was ap- 
pointed master at the Conservatorio di San 
Onofrio, for which he wrote in 1722 an 
oratorio, II martirio di Santa Eugenia ; the 
year before he had been made virtuoso to 
the Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. He had 
already established his famous school of 
singing, to which Hasse came as a pupU in 
1724, though he soon left it to study under 
Alessandro Scarlatti, a sHght which Porpora 
never forgave him. In 1725 he went to 
Venice, where he wag made a teacher at 




142 



PORPOEA 



the singing school for girls, La Pieti, and 
thence to Vienna, where hia music did not 
meet with the success lie had anticijjated, 
the Emperor Karl VI. not liking his florid 
vocal writing. He soon returned to Venice, 
and was appointed master of the Scuola 
degl' Incurabili, for the pupils of which he 
wrote his vocal cantatas, twelve of which 
were published in London in 1735. In 
1728 he set out for Dresden, on the invita- 
tion of the Electoral Princess Marie An- 
toinette, who was anxious to take lessons 
of him. On the way he stojJlJed in Vienna, 
where, owing to the protection of the Vene- 
tian ambassador, he got an order from the 
Emperor for an oratorio. He was well re- 
ceived in Dresden, where he sustained a 
brisk rivah-y with Hasse and his wife Faus- 
tina ; but he obtained frequent leave of ab- 
sence, retui-ning to Venice in 1729, and 
going to London the same year to maintain 
for a short time an unsuccessful rivalry 
with Handel. He even had his Dresden 
engagement cancelled in order to stay in 
London ; but made at least two trips to 
Venice (in 1731 and 1733), notwithstanding, 
to bring out ojjeras there. In 173G he fi- 
nally quitted London, and established him- 
self in Venice, where he became director of 
the Conservatorio dell' Ospedaletto. In 
1845 he went a third time to Vienna, in the 
suite of the Venetian ambassador Correr, 
published there some sonatas for violin 
with continuo, and was made Kapellmeister 
to the King of Poland. It was on this 
visit that he met and gave advice to the 
young Haj-dn. He returned to Naples in 
1755 or 1760, and succeeded Abos as maes- 
tro di cappella at the Conservatorio di San 
Onofrio. But he had outlived his poi^u- 
larity as a composer, and his last opera, 
Camillo, was a failure. After this he wrote 
only a little church music. His last years 
were passed in gi-eat poverty. The cause 
of his death has been stated by Villarosa as 
pleurisy, and by Gazzaniga as an accident 
to his leg. His burial expenses were paid 
by subscription by Neapolitan musicians. 



Porpora has lived in history rather as a 
great singing teacher than as a composer ; 
he was a cultivated man, well up in Latiu 
and Italian literature, and sjDeaking French, 
German, and English fluently. His operas, 
by no means his best works, were popular 
in their day, though mostly short-lived. As 
a teacher of singing he has never had a peer ; 
among his pupils being Farinelh, Caflarelli, 
Uberti, and others of the greatest singers 
of all time. "Works — I. Ojieras : Dasilio, 
re d' Oriente, Naples, Teatro de' Fiorentini, 

1709 ; Berenice, Kome, Teatro Caprauica, 

1710 ; Flavio Anicio Olibrio, Naples, 1711 ; 
Arianna e Teseo, Vienna, Oct. 1, 1714 ; Te- 
mistocle, ib., Oct. 1, 1718 ; Faramondo, 
Naples, 1719 ; Angelica (serenata), Vienna, 
Nov. 19, 1720 ; Eumene, Rome, 1721 ; Issi- 
pile, ib., 1723 ; Adelaide, ib., 1723 ; Farnace, 
ib., 1724 ; Damiro e Pitia, Munich, 1724 ; 
Germanicoiu Germania, Home, 1725 ; S/face, 
Venice, 1726 ; Imeneo in Atene, ib., 1726 ; 
Meride e Selinuute, ib., 1727 ; Ezio, ib., 
1728 ; Semimmide riconosciuta, ib., 1729 ; 
Ermenegilda, Naples, 1729 ; Tamerlano, 
Dresden, 1730 ; Alessandro nell' Indie, ib., 
about 1730 ; Andromeda, about 1730 ; Anni- 
bale, Venice, 1731 ; Arbace, London, 1733 ; 
Mitridate, Venice, 1733 ; Ariadne, London, 
1733 ; Ferdinaudo, ib., 1734 ; Polifemo, ib., 
1735 ; Aijrippina, about 1735 ; Ifigenia in 
Aulide, London, 1735 ; Eosbale, Venice, 
173G ; Lucio Papirio, ib., 1737 ; Carlo il 
Calvo, ib., 1738 ; P barone di Zampano, 
Naples, 1739 ; Didone abbandonata, about 
1740 ; Statira, Venice, 1742 (?) ; Rosmane, 
Vienna, Feb. 3 (?), 1742 ; Partenope, Na- 
ples, about 1742 ; Le nozze d' Ercole e 
d' Ebe, Venice, 1744 ; Filandro, Dresden, 
July 18, 1747; Tolomeo, re d' Egitto, 
about 1760 ; P trionfo di Camillo, Naj^les, 
1760. 

H. Oratorios : Gedeone ; II martirio di 
Santa Eugenia ; II martirio di 8. Giovanni 
Nepomucene ; II Verbo incarnato ; Davide 
(London, 1735) ; II trionfo della divina 
giustizia ; Oratorio, title unknown, written 
in Vienna for the Emperor Karl VI., and 



143 



PORSILE 



many cantatas, twelve of which were pub- 
lished in London (1735). 

TTT. Church music : Mass for five voices, 
without orchestra ; Mass for five voices, two 
violins, viola, and bass ; Mass for two chor- 
uses, four voices di ripieno, with orchestra 
(Lauuei-, Paris) ; In exitu Israel, for two 
choruses ; Confitebor, for two choruses, two 
violins, viola, and organ ; Domine probasti 
me, for two soprani, two contralti, two vio- 
lins, viola, and organ ; In te, Domine, 
speravi, for five voices, two violins, viola, 
and organ ; Qui habitat, for two soprani, 
two contralti, violins, viola, and organ ; 
Magnificat, for two choruses ; Dixit, for 
four voices, two violins, and organ ; Dixit, 
for four voices ; Stabat, for two soprani, 
two contralti, two violins, viola, and or- 
gan ; Sis duos for soprani on the Passion 
for Holy Week ; Lessons for the funeral 
service ; Laudate, pueri, Dominum, for four 
voices, violin, viola, and oboe ; Te Deum, 
four voices and orchestra ; In te, Domine, 
speravi, four voices ; Beatus vir, four voices ; 
Credidi, four voices ; Lauda, Jerusalem, 
four voices ; Lictatus sum, two choruses 
with violins ; In convertendo, four voices ; 
Cum invocarem, four voices ; Nunc dimittis, 
five voices ; Do profundis, four voices ; 
Confitebor, four voices ; Nisi Dominus, four 
voices ; Introduzione al salmo Miserere, for 
two soprani, two alti, and orchestra ; Lit- 
anies for four voices ; Salve Eegina, one 
voice with instruments, original MS. form- 
erly in the collection of Aloys Fuchs (Vienna); 
2 Kegina Ca'li, one voice with instruments. 

rV. Instrumental works : G symphonies 
da camera, for two violins, violoncello, and 
bass (London, 173G) ; 12 sonatas for the 
violin and bass (Vienna, 1754, also in Paris) ; 
G fugues for the clavecin first published in 
dementi's Practical Harmony (4 vols., Lon- 
don), also in Farrenc's Tresor des pianistes. 
Biografica degli uomini. . . Napoli (Na- 
l^les, 1819). — Fetis, vii. ; Clement, Mus. 
celebres. 

PORSILE, GIUSEPPE, born in Naples 
in 1672, died in Vienna, May 29, 1750. 



Dramatic composer, maestro de capilla in 
the service of Chai-les 11. of Spain ; returned 
to Naples in 1700, and was called to Vienna 
in 1713 as music-master to the Archduchess 
Josephine, subsequently being appointed 
composer to the court. Works — Operas : 
Sisara, given in Vienna, 1719 ; Meride e 
Selinunte, 1721 ; Spartaco, 1726 ; I due re, 
Roboamo e Geroboamo, 1731 ; Giusepi^eri- 
conosciuto, 1733. Twelve oratorios, 9 ser- 
enades. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

PORTA, Fra COSTANZO, born at Cre- 
mona, Italy, first half of the IGth cen- 
tury, died at Loreto in IGOl. Church 
comjjoser and contrapuntist, pupil of Ad- 
rian Willaert in Venice. He was a Fran- 
ciscan monk and maestro di cappella of the 
convent of his order in Padua, then at the 
Cathedral of Osimo, the Metropolitan 
Church of Ravenna, and lastly of the Santa 
Casa di Loreto. He had several celebrated 
pujjils, and was one of the musicians who 
dedicated a collection of jJsalms to Pales- 
trina. His works are grave in style, and 
he was especially careful to preserve their 
modality intact. Works : Five books of 
motets (\'cnice, 1555 to 1585) ; 1 book 
masses (ib., 1578) ; 2 books of introitus, 
(15GG, 1589) ; 4 books of madrigals (1555, 
158G) ; Psalms (1G05) ; Hymns (1G02). 
Padre Martini possessed a MS. of Lamen- 
tationeset Madrigali, and a treatise : Instru- 
zione di contrappunto. Other Composi- 
tions are in the old collections published in 
Venice and Antweii^ in the 16th century. 
Padre Martini has given specimens of his 
works in Saggio fondamentale pratico di 
contrappunto, which Clioron reproduced in 
Principes decomposition des ecoles dltalie. 
Hawkins also has inserted specimens in his 
General History of Music (i. 112-115). 
— Fc'tis ; Burney, Hist., iii. 225 ; Riemann ; 
Mendel ; Gerber ; Schilling; Ambros, Gesch. 

PORTA, FRANCESCO DELLA, born in 
Milan about 1590, died there in 1666. 
Organist and church composer, pupil of 
Ripalta. He was organist of several 
churches in Milan. Works : Villanelle a 



144 



PORTA 




1-3 voci (Rome, 1619) ; Salmi da cappella 
(1637) ; Motetti (Venice, 1645, and Ant- 
werp, 1654) ; Ricercari (Milan). He was 
one of the first comiDOsers to make practical 
use of the basso continuo. — Fetis ; Rie- 
mann ; Jlendel ; ScLilling ; Gerber. 

PORTA, GIOVANNI, boru in Venice, 
end of tlie 17th 
century, died in 
Munich iu 1755. 
Dramatic composer, 
at first music di- 
rector to Cardinal 
Ottoboni ; he re- 
turned to Venice in 
1716, and for 
twenty years was 
chorus-master at the Conservatorio della 
Pieta. After the death of Biffi he com- 
peted for the position of maestro di cap- 
pella at S. Marco, but failing to obtain 
it, went to London, which he had visited 
before in 1729. In 1737 he was appointed 
Kapellmeister to the Elector of Bavaria. 
Works — Operas : La costanza combattuta 
in amore, Venice, 1716 ; Agrippa, ib., 1717 ; 
L' amor di figlia, ib., 1718 ; Teodorico, ib., 
1720 ; L' amor tiranno (with Chelleri), ib., 

1722 ; Rea Silvia, ossia Romolo e Remo, ib., 

1723 ; Gli sforzi d' ambizione e d' amore, 
ib., 1724 ; Antigone, tutore di Filippo (with 
Albinoui), ib., 1724 ; Marianna (do.), ib., 

1724 ; Agide, re di Sparta, Ulisse, ib., 1725 ; 
II trionfo di Flavio Olibrio, ib., 1726 ; Al- 
deso, ib., 1727 ; Amor e Fortuna, Nel per- 
dono la vendetta, ib., 1728 ; Doriclea ripudi- 
ata da Creso, ib., 1729 ; II gran Tamerlano, 
Florence, 1730 ; Farnace, Bologna, 1731 ; 
Numitor, London, 1738 ; Ifigenia iu Aulide, 
Dafne, Munich, 1738 ; Artaserse, Munich, 
1739. Magnificat for 4 voices and orchestra ; 
Motet for soprano, 2 violins, viola, and bass. 
— Fetis ; Schilling. 

PORTER, WALTER, born iu England 
about end of 16th centurj', died in No- 
vember, 1659. Comjjoser of motets, son 
of Henry Porter (Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1600) ; 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1616 ; 



master of the choristers of Westminster 
Abbey iu 1639. In 1644, after losing both 
his f)laces on the suppression of choral ser- 
vice, he found a patron in Sir Edward Spen- 
cer. Works : Madrigales and Ayres of two, 
three, foure and five voyces, with the con- 
tinued bass, with Toccatos, Sinfonias, and 
Rittoruelles to them after the manner of 
Consort Musique. To bo performed with 
the Harpsechord, Lutes, Theorbos, Basse- 
Violl, two Violins or two Viols (1632) ; Mot- 
tets of Two Voyces for Treble, or Tenor and 
Bass, with the Continued Bass or Score. 
To be performed to an Oi'gau, Harpsycon, 
Lute, or Bass-Viol (1057); The Psalms of 
George Sandys, set to Music for two Voyces, 
with a Thorough-bass for the organ (1670). 
Hawkins and Burney mention a collection 
of Airs and Madrigals for two, three, four, 
and five Voices, with a thorough-bass for 
the organ, or Theorbo-Lute, the Italian Way 
(1639), possiblj' a 2d edition of the first- 
mentioned work. — Grove ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling. 

PORTEUR D'EAU, LE. See Deux 
journces. 

PORTUGAL (DA FONSECA), (Porto- 
gallo), MARCOS ANTONIO, boru in Lis- 
bon, March 24, 1762, died at Rio de Janeiro, 
Feb. 7, 1830. Dramatic comxjoser ; learnt 
the rudiments of music in the theological 
seminary where he was educated, became 
a jjupil of Borselli, of the Opera, for singing, 
and of Galluo, mestre de capella of the ca- 
thedral, in counterjjoint. While studying, 
he composed Italian canzonette and airs 
with orchestra which were produced at the 
Lisbon theatre. He followed Borselli to 
Madrid, and became accompanist there at 
the Opera. The Portuguese ambassador 
sent him iu 1787 to Italy to study, and in 
the following year he wrote his first opera, 
for Turin. In 1789 and 1790 he composed 
other successful operas for Venice and Flor- 
ence, and thoroughly established his repu- 
tation in Italy. He paid a visit to Lisbon 
iu 1790, when the king made him his mestre 
de capella ; during the years following he 



145 



PORTUGUESE 



brought out many of his operas in Italy, and 
returned to Lisbon in 1799. In 1810 lie 
followed the royal family of Portugal, which 
had gone to BrazU at the time of the 
French invasion in 1807, and was made 
music director-general in 1811 ; conjointly 
with his brother Simao, he assumed, in 1813, 
the direction of the newly founded Conser- 
vatorio at Vera Cruz. After a last visit to 
Italy, in 1815, he returned to Rio de Janeiro. 
He was the most distinguished composer 
Portugal has produced. Works — Operas : 
Pequeno drama, Lisbon, Dec. 17, 1787, for 
the birthday of Queen Maria I. ; Licenya 
pastoril, ib., 1787 ; Idylio, ib., 1788, for the 
name-day of the Infanta Carlotta Joaquina ; 
L' eroe cinese, Turin, 1788 ; La bacchetta 
portentosa, Genoa, 1788 ; Gratidiio, Lisbon, 

1789 ; A inveja abatida, ib.. May 13, 1789 ; 
A noiva fiugida, ib., 1790 ; Os viajantes 
ditosos, ib., 1790 ; L' astuto, Florence, 

1790 ; II molinaro, Venice, 1790, Breslau, 
1792 ; La donna di genio volubile, Parma, 

1791, Venice, 179G ; A mascara, Lisbon, 

1792, and Venice, in Italian, as La maschera 
fortunata, 1797 ; H Ciuna, Florence, 1793 ; 
I due gobbi, ossia le coufusioni nate dalla 
somiglianza, ib., 1793, Vienna, 1794 ; Ei- 
naldo d' Asti, Venice, 1793 ; H principe di 
Sj^azzacamino, ib., 1793, St. Petersburg, 
about 1795, and Lisbon, as H barono di S., 
May 27, 1799 ; La vedova raggiratrice, 
Florence, 1794 ; Demofoonte, Milan, 1794 ; 
Argenide, St. Petersburg, 1794-95 ; Arta- 
serse, ib., 1794-95 ; H ritorno di Serse, 
Florence and Bologna, 1795 ; Gli avventu- 
rieri, Florence, 1795 ; O mundo da lua, 
Lisbon, about 1795 ; Zulema e Selinio, 
Florence, 1796 ; L' iugauno poco dura, 
Naples, 1796 ; II diavolo a quattro, ossia le 
donne cambiate, Venice, 1797, and IVIilan, 
as II ciabottino, 1801 ; Fernando in Mes- 
sico, Rome, 1797 ; II filosofo seduceute, 
ossia non irritar le donne, Venice, 1798, 
and Paris, 1801 ; L' equivoco in equivoco, 
Verona, 1798 ; La madre virtuosa (amoi-osa), 
Venice, 1798, and Lisbon, as La morte di 
Semiramide, 1801 ; Alceste, Venice, about 



1799 ; Idonte, ossia il sacrifizio d' Ecate, 
Milan, 1799 ; Gli Orazi ed i Curiazi, Fer- 
rara, 1799 ; Adrasto, Lisbon, 1800 ; L' isola 
piacevole, ib., 1801 ; A casa de campo, ib., 
1802 ; Quern busca lii fica tosquiado, ib., 
1802 ; O sapateiro, ib., 1802 ; Sofonisba, 
ib., 1803 ; II trionfo di Clelia, ib., 1803 ; 
Zaira, ib., 1803 ; Oro non compra amore, 
ib., 1804 ; Merope, ib., 1804-5 ; Ginevi-a di 
Scozia, ib., 1805 ; Hduca diFoix, ib., 1805 ; 
La morte di Mitridate, ib., 1806 ; Augurio 
di felicita, ossia il trionfo dell' amore, Rio 
de Janeiro, 1807 ; II trionfo di Gusmano, 
Lisbon, 1810 ; A saloia namorada, Rio de 
Janeiro, 1812 ; O juramento dos numes, 
ib., 1813 ; Adriano in Siria, Milan, 1815. 
Several operettas, burlesques, etc., given 
at Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro, 5 great 
masses with orchestra, 5 masses with organ ; 
2 Te Deum with orchestra ; Psalms with 
do. ; Misereres, etc. — Vasconcellos ; Rie- 
mann. 

PORTUGUESE HYMN (Adeste fideles). 
Its origin is unknown, but it is supposeel to 
have been first sung in England in the Roman 
CathoUc chaj^el attached to the Portuguese 
embassy, from which it takes its name. The 
tune has been attributed to John Reading, 
who wrote " Dulce domum," and also to a 
Mr. Thorley, an English organist. It is con- 
tained in the modern Latin INIanual of De- 
votions of the Roman Catholic Church, en- 
titled, " Thesaurus Animas Christianaj," pub- 
lished by C. Dolman (London, 1857), and a 
note in this book claims it to be a sequence 
for the Nativity of Christ, taken from the 
Gradual of the Cistercian monks. — Notes 
and Queries, Fourth Series, i. 12, 186; si. 
75, 219. 

POSTILLON DE LONJHMEAU, LE, 
opera-comique in three acts, text by Adoljahe 
de Leuven and Brunswick, music by Adolphe 
Adam, first represented at the Ojsera Co- 
mique, Paris, Oct. 13, 1836, with gi-eat suc- 
cess. A postillion of Lonjumcau marries 
a young peasant, Madeleine, of the same 
village, and immediately after the cere- 
mony the guests force him to sing to them. 



146 



rOTIER 



The intendant-general of Louis XV., in 
search of a tenor for the Academie Royale 
de Musique, hears the voice of the young 
bridegroom, and is so pleased that he bears 
him away to Paris. The abandoned bride 
goes to ile-de-FrancQ with an old aunt, 
who dies and leaves her a fortune. After 
ten years have elapsed, during which time 
she has educated herself, Madeleine goes 
to Paris, where she is received at court. 
At the Opura she recognizes the first tenor 
Saint-Phal as her husband, and he falls in 
love with hei-. They are married, and the 
fact that Saint-Phal is a bigamist is discov- 
ered. He is seized, and at this moment his 
wife comes forward in the habit of a jJeas- 
ant, and thus Saint-Phal discovers that he 
has twice married the same woman, who 
now brings him love, beauty, and wealth. 
The chief numbers are : " Combattons, chan- 
tons," sung by Henri ; the couplets, " Oh ! 
qu'il est beau, le postilion de Lonju- 
meau ; " and the air, " Mon petit mari." 
The opera was given in Berlin, Dresden, 
Leipsic, and Vienna in 1837, and first in 
New York in 1839. Published by Schott 
(Mainz, 1836) ; overture for pianoforte by 
Ch. Rummel (ib., 1837) ; German transla- 
tion by M. G. Priedrich (ib., 1837). Ital- 
ian operas, H postiglione di Lonjumeau, 
by Coppola, Milan, Nov. 6, 1838 ; by Spe- 
ranza, Lucca, 1842. — Eevue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1836-37), 367 ; (1880), 329 ; Neue 
Zeitschr., vii. 110 ; Ciicilia, xis. 19G. 

POTTER, HENRI HIPPOLYTE, born in 
Paris, Feb. 10, 1816, died there, Oct. 9, 
1878. Dramatic composer, pupil at the 
Conservatoire of Amedce in solfege, of Zim- 
merman on the pianoforte (2d prize, 1830 ; 
first, 1831), of Dourlen and Lecouppey in 
harmony (first prize, 1832) ; he then stud- 
ied counterpoint and fugue for five years, 
and, on leaving the Conservatoire in 1837, 
began to teach and to compose. In 1850-56 
he was chef de chant at the Opera, and in 
1875 became professor of singing at the 
Conservatoire. Works: Mademoiselle de 
Merauges, at the Opera Comique, 1841 ; 



Le caquet dn convent, ib., 184G ; II signor 
Pascariello, ib., 1848 ; Le vieux prix de 
Rome, Theatre Beaumarchais, 1849 ; Ji^lia 
et Mysis, ou I'Atellane, ballet, Opera, 1853 ; 
Le rosier. Opera Comique, 1859 ; L'ange 
de Rothesay, Theatre International, 18G7 ; 
Madelaiue, Bouffes-Parisiens, 1869 ; Le 
bailly de Suresnes, Le fabliau, Volage et 
jaloux, not given. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, 
ii. 363. 

POTT, AUGUST, born at Nordheim, Han- 
over, Nov. 7, 1806, died in Gratz, Styria, 
Aug. 27, 1883. VioHuist, pupil of Spohr at 
Cassel, where also he made his first appear- 
ance in 1824 ; after travelling iu Denmark, 
Germany, and Austria, he became Conzert- 
meister in 1832 in the grand ducal orches- 
tra at Oldenburg. In 1861 he was pen- 
sioned, and retired to Gratz. Works : 2 
concertos for violin and orchestra ; Varia- 
tions for do. ; do. for violin, with violin, 
violoncello, and bass ; Duos for violins, etc. 
— Mendel ; Riemaun. 

POTTER, (PHILIP) CIPRIANI (HAM- 
BLY), born in Lon- 
don in 179 2, died 
there, Sept. 26, 1871. 
Pianist and conduc- 
tor ; began his musi- 
cal education at seven 
under his father, a 
teacher of pianoforte ; 
then studied counter- 
point under Attwood, 
theory under Callcott 
and Crotch, and the 

pianoforte under Woelfil. In 1816 an 
overture by him was performed by the 
Philharmonic Society, and he made his first 
appearance in the same year at that so- 
ciety's concert, playing a sextet of his own 
for pianoforte and stringed instruments. 
He then went to Vienna, studied composi- 
tion under FOrster, and received friendly 
advice from Beethoven ; after visiting Ger- 
many and Italy, he returned in 1821 to 
Loudon. In 1822 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of pianoforte at the Royal Academy 




147 



rouGm 



of Music, and in 1832, on the resignation 
of Dr. Crotch, he succeeded him as prin- 
cipal until 1859, when he resigned in favour 
of Charles Lucas. Works : 9 symphonies 
for full orchestra (JVLS., 6 in Philharmonic 
library) ; 4 overtures (MS., 3 in ib.) ; 3 con- 
certos for pianoforte and orchestra (MS.) ; 
Concertante for pianoforte and violoncello ; 
Medora e Coi-rado, cantata ; Sextet for pi- 
anoforte, flute, violin, viola, violoncello, and 
double-bass, op. 11 ; 3 trios for pianoforte, 
violin, and violoncello, op. 12 ; 3 sonatas for 
pianoforte ; 9 rondos ; 2 toccatas, in G and 
B-flat, for pianoforte ; Variations, fantasias, 
romances, etc. He published also two 
books of studies for pianoforte, contributed 
to musical periodicals, and edited the Com- 
plete Pianoforte Works of Mozart (Novello), 
and Schumann's Album fiU- die Jugend 
(1857). — Grove ; Fotis ; Riemann. 

POUGIN, (FE.iX^'OIS AUGUSTE) AR- 
THUR (PARROISSE-), born at Chateauroux 
(ludre), Aug. G, 1834, still living, 1890. In- 
strumental and vocal composer, though best 
known as historian and critic, and as com- 
piler of the Supplement to Fctis'sBiograpliio 
dcs musicieus (Paris, 1878-80). The son of 
an itinerant actor, he was first instructed in 
music by his mother, a good amateur ; at 
eight he took up the study of the violin, and 
in 184G entered the Paris Conservaloiro as 
a pupil of Gui'rin and Alard. From the ago 
of thirteen ho plaj-ed in the orchestras of 
theatres, at the same time studying counter- 
point and harmony under Albert Lhote, 
and the violin under Berou ; he then re- 
entered the Conservatoire, to study har- 
mony under Reber, and in 1855 became 
conductor at the Th6;itre Beaumarchais, and 
soon afterwards first violin at the Musaril 
Concerts, where some of his compositions 
were played. In 1856-59 he was vice-con- 
ductor and rc'putiteur at the Folies Nou- 
velles, and in 1860-G3 violinist at the Opera 
Comique. In 1859 he began his first his- 
torical sketches and biographical articles 
on the French musicians of the 18th cen- 
tury, and since then has devoted himself en- 



tirely to literary labours and has published 
many volumes. Works : Le cabaret de 
Ramj^onneau, opera-comique ; Pieces for 
orchestra ; Morceau de concert for violin, 
with orchestra or pianoforte ; Morceaux de 
genre for pianoforte ; Vocal melodies. — Fc- 
tis, Supplement, ii. 363 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 
362 ; Riemann. 

POULE, LA, symphony in G minor, by 
Haydn, written for Paris, 178G. I. Allegro 
spiritoso ; II. Andante ; III. Meiuietto, al- 
legro ; IV. Finale, vivace. Published by 
Simrock, Berlin. 

POURQUOI TREMBLER. See Zampa. 

POWELL, THOMAS, born iu Loudon 
in 1776, died in Edinburgh after 1863. 
Violoncellist ; settled in Dublin iu 1806 to 
teach, and later removed to Edinburgh. 
In 1805 he played a concerto of his com- 
position at the Haymarket Theatre, Lon- 
don. Works : 15 concertos for violin and 
orchestra ; Overtures for orchestra ; 3 duos 
for violin and violoncello ; 3 do. for 2 violon- 
cellos ; Sonatas for pianoforte, violin, and 
violoncello ; do. for pianoforte and violon- 
cello ; Capriccio for violoncello ; Introduc- 
tion and fugue for organ, etc. 

PRADHER (Prad.'re), LOUIS BARTHl^:- 
LEMY, born in Paris, Dec. IS, 1781, died 
at Gray (Haute-Saone), October, 1843. Pi- 
anist and dramatic composer, son of a vi- 
olin teacher ; pupil of his uncle Lefiivre, of 
Gobert, and Berton. He left the Paris Con- 
servatoire to man-y the daughter of the 
composer Philidor. In 1802 he succeeded 
Jadin as professor at the Conservatoire, 
and numbered Henri and Jacques Herz, 
Dubois, and Rosellen among his pupils. 
He taught the family of Louis Philippe, 
and was accompanist to Louis XVHI. and 
Charles X. ; took the actress. Mile. More, 
for his second wife, and retired to Toulouse, 
where he became director of the Conserva- 
toire. Works — Comic operas : Le voisi- 
nage (with others), 1800 ; Le chevalier d'in- 
dustrie (with Dugazon), 1804 ; La folie 
musicale, ou le chanteur prison nier, 1807 ; 
Jeuue et vieille, 1811 ; L'empruut secret, 



148 



rilAGER 



1812 ; Philosophe en voyage (with Kreube), 
1821 ; Jennj' la bouquetiore (with lii-eube), 
1823 ; Les enlevements impromptu, 182-4. 
Concerto for pianoforte ; Sonata for piano- 
forte, violin, and violoncello ; Adagio and 
rondo, for do. ; Rondo for 2 pianofortes ; 5 
sonatas for pianoforte ; Eondeaux and fan- 
taisies, variations, etc., for do. ; 22 collec- 
tions of romances. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Eie- 
maun. 

PRAETORIUS. See rralorius. 

PEAGER, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN 
WILHEKVI, born in Leipsic, Jan. 22, 1815, 
still living, 1890. Pianist, fii-st studied the 
violoncello, but changed to the pianoforte 
on the advice of Hummel. He settled at 
The Hague as a teacher, when sixteen years 
of age, and in 1834 removed to London. 
He was selected by Schumann to be the 
English correspondent of the Neue Zeit- 
schrift f iir Musik ; Las played on the con- 
tinent and been very successful as a teacher. 
Works : Abelliuo, overture ; Live and love, 
battle and victory, symphonic poem (1885) ; 
Symphonic prelude to Manfred ; Trio for jii- 
anoforto and strings. A selection of his best 
pieces for pianoforte was published in the 
Priiger-Album (Leipsic, 2 vols.). — Grove ; 
Riemann. 

PEAGER, HEINRICH ALOYS, born in 
Amsterdam, Dec. 23, 1783, died at Magde- 
burg, Aug. 7, 1854. Violinist and virtuoso 
on the guitar, for some time Kapellmeister 
of an itinerant dramatic comjsauy, then at 
the theatres in Leipsic, Magdeburg, Han- 
over, Cologne, etc. Works : Der Kyff- 
hiluserberg, opera ; Quintet for viola, 2 
clarinets, flute, and bassoon ; do. for strings ; 
Quartets, trios, and duos for do.; Capriccios, 
etudes, etc., for violin ; Themes varids for 
various instruments ; Music for guitar. 
— Futis ; Mendel ; Schilling. 

PRATI, ALESSIO, born at Ferrara, Italy, 
July 16, 1750, died there, Feb. 2, 1788. 
Dramatic composer, pupil of Bighetti. He 
was maestro di cappella at XJdiue, went to 
Paris in 1767, and taught singing in the 
highest circles. Having visited St. Peters- 




burg and Germany, he returned in 1781 
to Italy and became maestro di cappella to 
the King of Sar- 
dinia. Works — Op- 
eras : Ifigenia in 
Aulide, Florence, 
1784 ; Semiramide, 
ib., 1785 ; Armida 
abbandonata, Mu- 
nich, 1785 ; Olim- 
pia, Naples, 1786 ; 
Demofoonte, Ven- 
ice, 1787; 12 so- 
natas for pianoforte and violin ; Concerto 
for flute ; do. for bassoon ; 3 sonatas for 
harp and violin ; Duo for 2 harpis ; Several 
collections of romances and Italian airs. 
— Laderchio, Notizie biografiche intorno alia 
vita di A. Prati (Ferrara, 1825) ; Ffetis ; 
Schilling. 

PRATOEIUS, HIERONYilUS, born in 
Hamburg before 1560, died there in 1629. 
Organist, first instructed by his father, then 
studied music at Cologne, became city can- 
tor at Erfurt in 1580, and succeeded his 
father as organist at St. Jacob's, Hamburg, 
in 1582. Works : Cantiones sacrno, for 5 
to 8 voices (1599) ; Magnificat, for 8 voi- 
ces (1602-22) ; Liber missarum, for 5 to 
8 voices (1616) ; Cantiones sacrro varifc, for 
5 to 20 voices (1618) ; Cantiones novno 
officiosfc, for 5 to 15 voices (1618-25) ; 
Melodeyen-Gesangbuch zu vier Stimmen 
(with his son Jacob, 1604). — Mendel ; Rie- 
mann ; Schilling. 

PRATOEIUS, JAIvOB, born in Erfurt 
about 1580, died in Hamburg, Oct. 21, 
1651. Organist, sou of the preceding, pu- 
pil in Amsterdam of Jan Pieter Swee- 
linck ; after his return to Hamburg he 
became organist at St. Peter's, and later 
held also the honorary posts of vicar and 
dean at the cathedral. Besides the nine- 
teen chorals in the Melodeyen-Gesangbuch, 
edited with his father, there exist only com- 
positions for special occasions, preserved 
in the city library at Hamburg. None of 
his organ music, which was of a high 



14<J 



PRATOllIUS 



order, has come down to us. 
Schilling. 

PEATOBIUS (Praetorius), 
born 



Mendel 




mCHAEL, 

at Kreutz- 
berg, Thuriugia, 
Feb. 15, 1571 
(1572?), died in 
Wolfenbiittel, 
Feb. 15, 1G21. 
The surname i s 
latinized from the 
German Schulz or 
Schulze. He was 
one of the promi- 
nent composers, and especially one of the 
most noted writers on music, of his day 
and countrj-. Little is known of his life, 
save that he began his career as Kapell- 
meister at Liineburg, was afterwards made 
organist, and then Kajiellmeister and Secre- 
tary to the Duke of Brunswick, and was 
appointed Prior of the Monastery of Ringel- 
heim, near Gozlar. Works — I. Musical : 
Musre Sionise, in IX. parts, containing l,2ii 
vocal pieces ; Parts 1 to IV., Konzert- 
gesilnge, 8 to 12 voc, on German psalms 
and Kirchenlieder ; Part V., Lieder and 
psalms, 2 to 8 voc. ; Parts VI. to IX., Kir- 
chenlieder, 4 voc, in counterpoint of the 
first order ; published 1605-10 (Part IX. re- 
published, as Bicinia et Pricinia, IGll) ; 
Musai-um Sioniarum motetse et psalmi, 4 to 
16 voc, I. pars, 1007 ; Eulogodia Sionia, 
60 motets, 2 to 8 voc, for the close of 
Divine Service, 1611 ; Missodia Sionia, 
1611 ; Hymnodia Sionia, hymns 2 to 8 voc, 

1611 ; Megalynodia, madrigals and motets, 
5 to 8 voc, 1611 ; Terpsichore, dance-pieces 
by himself and several French composers, 

1612 ; Polyhymnia caduceatrix et pane- 
gyrica, songs of peace and rejoicing, 1 to 21 
voc, 1619 ; Polyhymnia exercitatrix, 2 to 8 
voc, 1619 ; Uranodia (Uranochordia), 19 
songs 4 voc, 1613 ; Kleine und grosse Li- 
tanei, etc., 1606 ; Epithalamium for Fried- 
rich Ulrich, of Brunswick, and Anna Sophie, 
of Brandenburg, 1614 ; Puericinium, 14 
Kirchenlieder, 3 to 12 voc, 1621. 



II. Literary : Syntagma Musicum, ex vet^ 
erum et recentiorum Ecclesiasticorum auto- 
rum lectione, Polyhistorum consiguatione, 
Variai'um linguarum uotatione, Hodierni 
seculi usurpatioue, ipsius denique Musicte 
artis observatione, in Cautorum, Organista- 
rum, Organopoeorum, ceterorumque Musi- 
cam scientiam amantium et tractantium gra- 
tiam collectum ; et Secundum generalem 
Indicem toti Operi priefixum. In Quatuor 
Tomos distributum (Vol. I., Part I., Wol- 
fenbiittel, 1614; Part II., Wittenberg, 1615 ; 
Vol. II., Part I., Wolfenbiittel, 1619 ; Part 




n, ib., 1620). A most remarkable historical 
and theoretical work, of which only the 
first three volumes were ever j'uhlished. 
— Grove, iii., 25 ; Fetis ; Mendel. 

PEATT, SILAS GAMALIEL, born, of 

American jsa- 
rentage, i n 
Addison, 
Vermont, 
Aug. 4, 1840, 
still living, 
1890. Pian- 
ist ; studied 
pianoforte in 
1857 in Chi- 
cago ; went 
in 1868 to 
Europe and 
studied pianoforte in Berlin under Beudel 
and Kullak. Having lost the use of his 
right wrist from overwork, he had to aban- 
don the idea of becoming a performer, and 
turned his attention to composition. After 
a trip through Germany, he returned to 
Berlin and studied counterpoint, harmony, 
and composition under R. Wiierst and F. 
Kiehl. In 1871 he returned to Chicago, 




PRAUPNER 



organized the Apollo Club, made a concert 
tour in the winter of 1873-74, and in 1875 
again went to Europe, attended at Bajreuth 
the rehearsals of Wagner's trilogy, gave at 
"Weimar a recital of his own pianoforte 
compositions before Liszt, and studied in 
Berlin score-reading under Heinrich Dorn. 
On July 4, 1876, his Anniversary Overture 
was performed in Berlin, and soou after at 
Weimar. After visiting Paris and London, 
he returned in 1877 to America, gave in 
1878 symphony concerts in Chicago, and 
in 1882 produced Zenobia, his first oj^era, 
at McVicker's theatre in that city. In 1885 
he again visited London, gave concerts of 
his own compositions at the Crystal Palace, 
when the Pi-odigal Son symphony and selec- 
tions from Zenobia were performed, and in 
1886 returned to Chicago to engage in direct- 
ing music festivals and teach pianoforte. 
He is now (1890) professor of pianoforte at 
the Metropolitan Consei-vatory of Music, 
New York. Works : Zenobia, grand opera 
in 5 acts, Chicago, 1882 ; Lucille, lyric opera 
in 4 acts, ib., 1887 ; The Last luca, cantata, 
chorus, solo, and orchestra ; Magdalena's 
Lament, orchestra ; 1st grand symphony ; 
2d grand symphony. The Prodigal Son ; 
Serenade, for string orchestra ; 3 minuets 
for orchestra ; Symi^honic suite, on charac- 
ters in Shakespeare's Tempest, for grand 
orchestra ; Court minuet ; Waltzes, im- 
promptus, mazurkas, polonaises, minuets, 
and other pianoforte music ; Centenary 
hymn to Washington, 1889 ; Suite of 
dances, for orchestra, 1889 ; Songs and 
part songs. 

PRAUPNER, VACLAV, born at Leit- 
meritz, Bohemia, Aug. 18, 1744, died in 
Prague, April 2, 1807. Organist and vio- 
linist, studied music in his native town and 
in Prague, where he taught violin and sing- 
ing, conducted the orchestra of Count Nos- 
tiz's house theatre, and became regens 
chori in different churches, last at the 
Theinkirche, in 1794, when he was ap- 
pointed also Kapellmeister at the Opera and 
at the Kreuzherrenkirche of St. Fi-ancis. 



Works : Circe, opera ; Masses, graduals, 
offertories. Requiem, vespers for 3 choirs ; 
Concertos, symphonies, and arias. — Dla- 
bacz ; Futis ; Gerber ; Wurzbach. 

PRfi AUX CLERCS, LE, opera-comique 
in three acts, text by Planard, music by 
Herold, first represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Dec. 15, 1832, a few weeks 
before the composer's death. The action 
is placed near the Louvre, where Marguerite 
de Valois is retained as a prisoner by her 
brother, Charles IX., in order to check the 
conduct of Henri de Navarre. She has 
under her i^rotection a young girl, Isabelle, 
whom the king intends to marry to the 
comte de Comminge. Henri de Navarre 
sends the baron de Mergy to release his 
wife and her young friend, with whom the 
baron is in love. Marguerite favours his 
suit, and gains the aid of an Italian at the 
court, named Cantarelli, who tells Com- 
minge of de Mergy 's plans for a secret mar- 
riage with Isabelle. This takes place, in 
consequence of which de Mergy and Com- 
minge fight a duel. The latter is killed and 
de Mergy and his bride are left in peace. 
The principal numbers are: " Les reudez-voua 
de noble compagnie," a duet ; Mergy's air^ 
"O ma tendre amie ;" the romance, "Sou- 
venirs du jeune age ; " Isabella's air accom- 
panied by a violin solo, " Jours de mon en- 
fance ; " and the trio, " Vous me disiez sans 
cesse : Pourquoi fuir les amours?," sung by 
Isabelle, the Queen, and Cantarelli. The 
part of Isabelle was written for Mme Ca- 
simir, who appeared in the original cast, 
which included Fargueil, Thenard, Lemon- 
nier, Fereol, Mme Ponchard, and Mile 
Massy. This opera was first given in Ber- 
lin, as Per Zweikampf, in October, 1833 ; 
in Vienna in February, 1834 ; and in Lon- 
don, in French, at the Princess's, May 2, 
1849 ; in Italian atCovent Garden, June 26, 
1880. It received its 1,000th representa- 
tion iu Paris in 1871. Published by Schott 
(Mainz, 1834), German translation by von 
Lichtenstein (ib.) ; overture and airs for 
the pianoforte, arranged by Ch. Rummel 



151 



PEECIOSA 



(ib., 1835) ; also by Diabelli (Vienna, 1837). 
— Clement et Larousse, 5-12 ; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xxxvi. 237 ; Athenaeum (1880), ii. 
25. 

PRECIOSA, cli-ama in four acts, by Pius 
Alexander Wolff, with overture and music 
by Weber, first represented at the Royal 
Opera House, Berlin, March 14, 1821, with 
Mme Stich as Preciosa. The subject is 
taken from a novel of the same title by Cer- 
vantes (1G13), which was fii"st set to music 
by Karl Eberweiu aud rejjresented in Wei- 
mar without success. Count Briihl per- 
suaded Wolff to send his play to Weber, 
who was attracted by the Spanish local 
coloring. Preciosa is the daughter of the 
chief of a band of gypsies, banished to the 
Sierra Nevada, under guai-d of the captain- 
general of Andalusia, whose son falls in 
love with her. He is seizetl by the gypsies, 
who threaten to kill him unless they have 
the privilege of liberty on the road. The 
captain tells them this is only an adopted 
son, and Preciosa, discovering that he is of 
the gypsy race, marries him. She finds an 
underground passage leading to the Alham- 
bra, and the gypsies seal the entrance and 
go thither. When the officers arrive to en- 
force obedience the gypsy camp is deserted. 
The music is treated in Weber's individual 
manner, and is full of Spanish colour, inten- 
sified by the introduction of gypsj' rhythms 
and national airs. The part-songs "Im 
Wald," " Die Soun' erwacht," and the gypsy 
chorus, "Es blinken so lustig die Sterne," 
and Preciosa's song, " Einsam bin ich nicht 
alleiue," are favorites in Germany, and the 
melodrama, " Liichelnd sinkst, du. Abend, 
nieder," is one of the best pieces of the kind 
ever written. The overture played by the 
Philharmonic Society of New York, first in 
the season of 1854-55, is light and sparkling, 
and is based chiefly on a bolero, which is 
repeated in the fii-st chorus. The work 
was first given in Dresden, June 27, 1821 ; 
in Munich and Vienna in 1823 ; in London 
at Covent Garden, April 28, 1825 ; in Paris, 
arranged by Sauvage and Cromont, at the 



Odeon, Nov. 23, 1825 ; at the Theatre Ly- 
rique, in one act arranged by Nuitter and 
Beaumont, April 16, 1858 ; and at Copen- 
hagen, Danish translation by Boie, Oct. 22, 
1822. The original score, in the possession 
of Max von Weber, was pmbUshed by 
Schlesinger (Beriin, 1821). The first two 
editions are full of mistakes, but a third 
has been carefuUy prepared by Ernst Ru- 
doi-ff (ib., 1872). Pianoforte score by the 
composer (ib., 1821). Operas of the same 
title : in German, by Karl Schnabel, Bres- 
lau, about 1840 ; iu Italian, Preziosa, by 
Ruggiero Bassi-Manna, text by Colla, Casal- 
maggiore, 1845, Milan, May 8, 18G1 ; and 
by A. SmaregUa, Milan, Nov. 19, 1879. 
— Jahns, W^cber Verzeichniss, No. 279 ; 
Weber, Weber, ii. 237, 277; Clement et 
Larousse, 543 ; Benedict, Weber, 57 ; Har- 
monicon (1825), 39 ; Grove, iv. 417 ; Ber- 
liner mus. Zeitg., ii. 37 ; Revue et Gaz. Mus. 
de Paris (1858), 125 ; Hanslick, Concert- 
wesen in Wien, ii. 235. 

PREDIERI, GIACOMO CESAEE, born 
at Bologna in the second half of the 17th 
century, died after 1711. Church composer, 
pupil of Giovanni Paolo Colonna, was ap- 
pointed maestro di capjjella of the cathedral 
in 1698. Member of the Accademia Filar- 
monica in 1690, principein 1698, 1707, and 
1711. Works : lezabele, oratorio a sette 
voci, etc. (with Floriauo Aresti) ; Sacred 
and secular cantatas (Bologna, 1G9G). — Fc- 
tis ; Mendel. 

PREDIERI, LUCA ANTONIO, born iu 
Bologna, Italy, Sept. 13, 1688, died there 
in 17C9. Dramatic composer, studied the 
violin under VitaU, and counterpoint under 
his uncle Giacomo Cesare Predieri. Mem- 
ber of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, 
170G, principe in 1723. He was maestro di 
cappella of the cathedral, and in 1739, on 
the recommendation of Fiix was appointed 
Vice-Kapellmeister of the Court Chapel in 
Vienna. In 1746 he became chief Kapell- 
meister, and in 1751 was pensioned and re- 
tired to Bologna. Works^Operas : Gri- 
selda, Bologna, 1711 ; Astarte, 1715 ; Lucio 



152 



PEEINDL 



Papirio, Venice, 1715 ; H trionfo di Soli- 
manno, Florence, 1719 ; Merope, 1719 ; 
Partenope, Bologna, 1719 ; Scipione il gio- 
vane, 1731 ; Zoe, Venice, 1736 ; Sofonisba, 
II sacrifizio d' Abramo, oratorio, Venice, 
1738 ; Isacco figura del Eedentore, 1710 ; 
and Astrea placata, operetta, text by Metas- 
tasio, Vienna, Aug. 28, 1739.— Fc-tis ; Men- 
del ; Schilling. 

PREINDL, JOSEPH, born at Marbacli, 
Nether AiLstria, Jan. 30, 175G, died in Vi- 
enna, Oct. 26, 1823. Organist, pupil of 
bis father and of Albrechtsberger ; became 
in 1793 choirmaster of St. Peter's, Vienna, 
and in 1809 Kapellmeister of St. Stephen's. 
Works : Masses, offertories, graduals, lam- 
entations ; Requiem ; Te Deum ; Cho- 
ruses and other church music ; Concertos, 
sonatas, fantasias, and variations for piano- 
forte ; Melodien aller deutscben Kirchen- 
lieder welche im St. Stephansdom in Wien 
gesungen werden, with cadences, sym- 
phonies, and preludes (Vienna, 3d ed., re- 
vised by Sechter) ; Gesanglehre ; "Wiener 
Touschule, on harmony, counterpoint, and 
fugue (ib., 1827, 2d ed., 1832).— Wurzbach ; 
Mendel ; Fetis ; Riemann ; Schilling. 

PREIS DEE TONKUNST. See Glor- 
reiche Augenblick. 

PRf^LUDES, LES, symphonic poem, by 
Liszt, op. 4, No. 3, first performed in Wei- 
mar at a Pensionskonzert of the Hofkapelle, 
Feb. 23, 1854. It is written on a passage 
from Lamartine's " Meditations poetiques," 
was begun in Marseilles in 1845, and finished 
in Weimar in 1850. It was given in Berlin 
in December, 1855 ; in Vienna, March 8, 
1856 ; in Leipsic, Feb. 26, 1857 ; and by the 
New York Philharmonic Society in the sea- 
son of 1861-62. Published by Breitkopf & 
Hilrtel (Leipsic, 1856). — Neixe Zeitschr., xlv. 
225 ; xlvi. 101 ; Hanslick, Concertwesen in 
Wien, ii. 117 ; Wagner, Gesch. Schriften, v. 
237. 

PREMIER JOUR DE BONHEUR, LE 
(The First Day of Good Luck), opera-co- 
mique in three acts, text by d'Ennery and 
Cormon, music by Auber, first represented 



at the Opera Comique, Paris, Feb. 15, 1868. 
The action is placed in India, during the 
siege of Pondicherry. A young officer, 
Gaston de Maillepre, after many adventures, 
is brought before a court-martial and con- 
demned to be shot, but is liberated, and 
from this time dates his " 23remier jour de 
bonheur." The original cast included Ca- 
poul, Saiute-Foy, Prilleux, Bernard, Mel- 
chissedec, and Mile Marie Roze. Mme 
Cabel and Mile Marie Roze achieved suc- 
cess in the short role of the Indian Djelma. 
— Clement et Larousse, 742. 

PRENDERGAST, ARTHUR HUGH 
DALRYMPLE, born in Loudon, June 28, 
1833, still living, 1890. Vocal composer, pu- 
pil of James Turle. Conductor of the Lom- 
bard Amateur Musical Society. Works : 
Cantate Domino and Deus misereatur ; Fes- 
tival Te Deum, 1882 ; Anthems ; Part-songs 
for male and mixed voices, and songs. 

PRENDI, L' ANEL. See Sonnambula. 

PRENTICE, THOMAS RIDLEY, born 
at Ongar, Essex, England, July 6, 1842, 
still living, 1890. Pianist, pupil, at the 
Royal Academy of Music, in pianoforte of 
Walter Macfarren, and in harmony and 
composition of Sir G. A. Macfarren. In 
1863 he won the silver medal and the Potter 
Exhibition. He started the Monthly Popu- 
lar Concerts at Brixton in 1869, and the 
Kensington Twopenny Concerts in 1880. 
Organist of Christ Church, Lee Park. Pro- 
fessor of pianoforte at Guildhall School of 
Music, 1880, and at Blackheath Conserva- 
tory, 1881. Works : Linda, cantata for 
female voices ; Anthems ; Part-songs ; Pi- 
anoforte music, and songs. The Musician, 
instruction book for pianoforte (London, 
1888). 

PRESCIMONI, NICOLO GIOSEFFO, 
born at Francavilla, Sicily, July 23, 1669, 
died at Palermo (?). Amateur composer, pu- 
pil of Francesco Catalano, while studying 
law at Messina ; obtained his degree as doc- 
tor at the age of twenty-eight, and settled at 
Palermo, to practise his profession. Works : 
La gara de' fiumi, serenade for 5 voices 



153 



PEESCOTT 



(Palermo, 1693) ; La nascita di Sansone, 
etc., dialogue for do. (ib., 1694) ; L' Onni- 
potenza glorificata, etc., do. (Naples, 1695) ; 
Gli angeli salmisti, etc., do. (Rome, 1696) ; 
II fuoco panegirista del Creatore, etc., do. 
(Palermo) ; II trionfo degli dei, serenade 
for 5 voices, 2 choruses, and 6 instruments 
(Messina, 1695) ; La uotte felice, serenade 
for 6 voices (Palermo, 1700) ; La crisi vitale 
del mondo, etc., oratorio for 3 voices (Mes- 
sina, 1701) ; I miracoli della Providenza, 
etc., do. for 5 voices (Palermo, 1703) ; II 
tripudio delle Ninfe, etc., serenade for 3 
voices, and instruments (ib., 1704) ; H giu- 
dizio di Salomone, etc. (ib., 1705) ; La figlia 
unigenita di Gefte, etc., dialogue for 5 
voices (ib., 1705) ; Le virtii in gara, etc. (ib., 
1707) ; II latte di Jaele, etc., oratorio for 5 
voices and instruments. — Futis ; Schilling. 

PRESCOTT, OLWEKL\ LOUISA, born 
in London, Sept. 3, 1842, still living, 1890. 
Instrumental and vocal composer, pupU of 
Lindsay Sloper, and at the Royal Academy 
of Music of Macfarren, Jewson, Folkes, and 
Raljih. She conducts classes for harmony, 
etc., in the University of Cambridge cor- 
respondence system for women. Works : 2 
symphonies ; Several overtures, and some 
shorter j'ieces for orchestra ; Concerted 
music for stringed instruments ; Psalm xiii. 
for solo, chorus, and orchestra ; Psahn cxxvi., 
for voices oulj' ; Lord UUin's Daughter, for 
chorus, with ox'chestra ; Anthems ; Part- 
songs, and songs. 

PRETTY, LOWLY, MODEST FLOW- 
ER. See Purilan's Daughter. 

PREVOST, EUGfiNE PROSPER, born 
in Pai-is, Aug. 23, 1809, died in New Or- 
leans, Aug. 30, 1872. Dramatic composer, 
pupil, at the Conservatoire, of Jelensperger 
and Seuriot in harmony and counterpoint, 
and of Lesueur in composition. He won the 
second grand jjrix in 1829, for the cantata 
Clcopatre, and the pris de Rome in 1831, 
for his cantata Biauca Capello. He mar- 
ried Eleonore Colon the singer, and became 
chef d'orchestre of the Havre theatre, but 
left that city in 1838 for New Orleans, where 



he remained twenty years as chef d'orches- 
tre and singing teacher, though in 1842 he 
was conductor of the orchestra at Niblo's 
Garden, New York. In 1862 he returned 
to Paris, and became chef d'orchestre at 
the Bouifes Parisiens, then at the concerts 
of the Champs-lilysees. He went again in 
1867 to New Orleans, and remained there. 
Works : L'hotel des princes, Lc grenadier 
de Wagram, Theatre de 1' Ambigu Comique, 
1831 ; Cosimo, Ojsera Comique, 1834 ; Le 
bon gar(;on, ib., 1837 ; Blanche et Rene, 
New Orleans ; L'illustre Gaspard, Paris, 
Op^'ra Comique, 1863 ; Several masses. 
— Fetis ; do., Supijlcment, ii. 369 ; Mendel. 

PRfiVOST-ROUSSEAU, ANTONIN, born 
in France, 1824, still living, 1890. Ama- 
teur composer, pupil in 1846—48 of Dourlen 
and about 1852 of Ai-istide Hignai-d. He 
is a lawyer, and became mayor of Cham- 
l)igny-sur-Marne. In 1849 he founded a 
choral society, which he still conducts. 
Works : Les poemes de la natui-e, musical 
poem in 8 pai-ts, Cercle Musical, 1863 ; La 
ferme, symphonie rustique, 1865 ; Les 
songes, symphonie lyrique, 1872 ; Riquet 
a la houppe, opera-comique, fragments of 
which have been performed at concerts ; 
Several masses ; Many choruses, melodies, 
etc. — Fctis, Supplement, ii. 369. 

PREYER, GOTTFRIED, born at Haus- 
brunn, Nether Austria, Mai'ch 15, 1808, 
still living, 1890. Organist and violinist, 
first instructed on several instruments by 
the parson Bohunowsky, then in Vienna, in 
1828-34, pupU. of Sechter in harmony, 
counterpoint, and composition. In 1835 
he became organist of the Lutheran church, 
in 1838 professor of harmony and counter- 
point at the Conservatorium, in 1844 Vize- 
Hofkapellmeister, in 1846 court organist, 
and in 1853 Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's. 
He was director of the Conservatorium in 
1844-48, and jjensioned as Vize-HofkapeU- 
meister in 1876. Works — Operas : WaUad- 
mor ; Freimannshohle ; Amaranth ; Noah, 
oratorio ; Several masses, one for male 
voices ; Requiem ; Te Deum ; Hymneu der 



154 



PRIERE 



grieehiscli-katholischen Kirche (1847), and 
other cliurch music ; Symphony ; 3 festival 
marches for military band, with trio and 
chorus ; String quartet ; Organ and piano- 
forte music ; Choruses and songs. — Wurz- 
bach ; Hanslick, Gesch. des Concertwesens 
in Wien, 302, 355 ; Kochel, Die kaiserl. 
Hof-Musikkapelle (Vienna, 1869), 113 ; Rie- 
mann. 

PRifcRE DU MATIN (Morning Prayer), 
for two-part chorus, by Berlioz, published 
by Escudier (Paris). It may be considered 
as belonging to the Feuillets d' Album, op. 
19. 

PRINCES SANS APANAGES. See 
Hamlet. 

PRmCESSE JAUNE, LA (The Yellow 
Princess), opcra-comique in one act, test by 
Louis Gallet, music by Saint-Saiins, first rep- 
resented at the Opera Comique, Paris, June 
12, 1872. A young Dutch savant fancies 
himself in love with a Japanese image, and 
is indifferent to the love given to him by 
his cousin. He drinks a potion and fancies 
himself in Japan with his idol, who, to his 
surprise, has the face and manner of his 
cousin, and, arousing from his revery, he 
falls in love with her. It was first sung by 
Lht'rie and Mile Ducasse. Published by 
Durand, Schojnewerk & Cie as op. 30 (Par- 
is, 1872-73). German translation by von 
Loen (Stuttgart, 1880).— Clement et La- 
rousse, 808. 

PRINCESS IDA, THE, or, Castle Ada- 
mant, comic opera in two acts, with pro- 
logue, text by Gilbert, music by Sullivan, 
first represented at the Savoy, London, Jan. 
5, 1884. It is called by its authors "a re- 
spectful operatic perversion of Tennyson's 
' Princess.' " It was given at the Fifth Av- 
enue Theatre, New York, Feb. 11, 1884. 
Published by Chajjpell & Co. (Loudon, 
1884).— AthenfBum (1884), i. 63 ; New York 
Tribune, Feb. 18, 1884. 

PRINCESS, THE, overture for orches- 
tra, by George E. Whiting, first performed 
at a concert of the Apollo Club, Boston, in 
the season of 1883-84. 



PRmZ WALDMEISTER, romantic comic 
opera, text by Heinrich Italiener, music by 
Adolf Neuendorif, first represented at the 
Thalia Theatre, New York, May 2, 1887 ; 
at the Walhalla Theater, Berlin, Sept. 3, 
1887. The libretto is an adaptation of Otto 
Roquette's " Waldmeisters Brautfahrt." 

PRISE DE TROIE, LA. See Les 2Voy- 
e)is. 

PRISON D'£dIMBOURG, LA (The 
Prison of Edinburgh), opera-comique in 
three acts, text by Scribe and Planard, mu- 
sic by Carafa, first represented at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, July 20, 1833. The li- 
bretto is founded on Scott's romance " The 
Heart of Midlothian." The opera was first 
sung by Revial, Hebert, Mme Ponchard, 
Mile Massj', and Clai-a Margueron. It was 
first given in Vienna in 1835. Published 
by Schott (Mainz, 1833-34), German trans- 
lation by J. D. Anton (ib.) ; overture for the 
pianoforte for four hands arranged by Ch. 
Rummel (ib., 1835) ; Pianoforte score by 
Joseph Rummel (ib., 1835). — Clement et 
Larousse, 548 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxvii. 
576. 

PROCH, HEINRICH, born at BOhmisch- 
Leipa, Bohemia, July 
22, 1809, died in Vi- 
enna, Dec. 18, 1878. 
Violinist ; studied law, 
but made such pro- 
gress in music, mean- 
while, that he became 
in 1834 a member of 
the imperial orchestra 
at Vienna, in 1837 
Kapellmeister of the Josephstadt Theater 
there, and in 1840-70 of the court opera. 
In 1874 he was Kapellmeister of the short- 
lived Comic Opera. Among his pupils were 
Dustmauu, Tietjens, Csillag, Peschka-Leut- 
ner, and Friedrich-Materna. Works— Op- 
eras : Ring und Maske, Vienna, 1844 ; Die 
Blutrache, ib., 1847 ; Der gefilhrliche 
Sprung, ib., 1848 ; Masses, offertories, over- 
tures, trios, quartets, and other insti-u- 
meutal music, and many songs. —Heindl, 




PEODANA 



Gallerie beriibmter Piidagogen, etc., ii. 
105 ; Hanslick, Gesch. des Concertwesens, 
355, 3GG ; Wanderer (Vienna, 1847), 215 ; 
Wurzbacli. 

PRODANA NEVfiSTA (Die verkaufte 
Braut ; Married for Money), Czech comic 
ojjera in three acts, text by Sabiua, music 
by Friedrich Smetana, first represented at 
Prague, May 30, ISOG. 

PEODIGAL SON, THE, oratorio by Ar- 
thur S. Sullivan, written for and first per- 
formed at the Worcester (England) Festi- 
val, Sept. 8, 1869, with Sims Reeves as the 
chief character. It was given by the Glas- 
gow Choral Union, Nov. 16, 1870. Pub- 
lished by Boosey (London, 18G9). — Athe- 
DiEum (18G9), ii. 377 ; Upton, Standard 
Oratorios, 293. 

PROAIENADES D'UN SOLIT^UIIE 
(Solitary Walks), three suites of comjiosi- 
tions for the pianoforte, by Stephen Heller, 
op. 78, op. 80, op. 8G. They express the 
thoughts, not the person of the author, 
which wander through field and forest, and 
record his impressions of nature from a po- 
etic but not realistic j)oint of view. Suite I., 
op. 78 : No. 1. Allegro vivo, in F-sharp 
minor ; 2. Allegretto quasi allegro, in F ; 
3. Allegro, in B-flat minor ; 4. Andante, in 
B-flat ; 5. Allegretto con moto, in G ; G. 
Assai vivace, in G minor. Suite IL, op. 80, 
Wanderstunden (Reveries d'artiste) : No. 1. 
Poco agitato, in C minor ; 2. Allegretto con 
grazia, in D-flat ; 3. Allegro appassionato, 
in B-flat minor ; 4. Lento con esi^ressioue, 
in F ; 5. Assai vivace, in C minor ; G. Con 
moto, in B-flat. Suite HL, op. 86, In 
Wald und Flur : No. 1. Agrestement, in B- 
flat ; 2. D'un mouvement tres-vif et pas- 
sionnu, in D minor ; 3. Yivement etde bonne 
humeui-, in D ; 4. D'un mouvement agite', 
in G minor ; 5. Molto vivace, in F ; 6. As- 
sai vivace, in A. — Barbedette, HeUer (Brown- 
Borthwiek), 60. 

PROJIETHEUS, by Beethoven. See 
Vomini di Prometeo, Gli. 

PROMETHEUS, overture for orchestra, 
in C, by Woldemar Bargiel, op. 10, written 



about 1864-65. Given by the New York 
Philharmonic in the season of 1805-66. 
Published by Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leipsic, 
1805).— Allgem. mus. Zeitg. (1805), 9. 

PROMETHEUS, overture for orchestra, 
by Ferdinand Hiller, first performed at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipsic, Jan. 28, 1847 ; in 
Dresden, in July, 1847. — Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xlix. 70, 409. 

PROMETHEUS, symphonic poem and 
chorus to Herder's "Entfesselto Prome- 
theus," by Liszt, op. 4, No. 5, written for 
and first performed with the drama at the 
Herderfest, Weimar, Aug. 25, 1850. It was 
given in Vienna in 1800. Published by 
Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leipsic, 1850).— Pohl, 
Liszt, 221, 232 ; Concertwesen in Wien, ii. 
198 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de Paris (1855), 
352. 

PR0PH1^.TE, LE, French opera in five 
acts, text by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer, 
first represented at the OiJura, Paris, April 
16, 1849. This is the composer's third 
grand opera, and, owing to its splendid dra- 
matic and scenic eflects, has always been a 
favourite one. The theme of the libretto 
is John of Lcj'dcn, who was crowned Em- 
Ijeror of Germany by his fanatical followers. 
The time is 1534. The first act opens in 
the suburbs of Dordrecht, Holland, with the 
chateau of the Count of Oberthal in the 
distance. Fidi'S, mother of John of Leyden, 
and Bertha, his betrothed, imijlore the 
Count's permission for the marriage. Struck 
with her beauty, he claims Bertha for him- 
self, and takes her and Fides prisoners. In 
the meantime three Anabaptists from West- 
ishalia, who arrive in Holland to kindle in- 
surrection, take advantage of the Count's 
action to incite his vassals against him. 
The second act is in John of Leyden's house, 
where he imparts his visions of future sov- 
ereignty to the Anabaptists, who, perceiving 
that he will aid theu- designs, assure him 
that he shall be a ruler. As they depart. 
Bertha, who has escajied, rushes in to claim 
his protection. The furious Count follows 
with a guard bringing Fides, whom he 



1B6 



PEOniETE 



threatens to 1 ill unless Bertha ia restored 
to him. To save the life of his mother, 
John delivers up Bertha, and goes off with 
the Anabaptists. The third act is in the 




Pauline Viardot-Garcia. 

Anabaptists' camp by a frozen lake, near 
Mi'mster, which they are besieging. Skaters 
enter, bringing provisions, and dance a gay 
ballet. John of Leyden hears from the 
Count of Oberthal, who is taken prisoner, 
that Bertha has escaj)ed and is in Mi'mster, 
which he rouses his followers to assault. 
The fourth act is in Miinster, after its capt- 
ure. Fidi'S, begging alms in the public 
square, meets Bertha, disguised as a pil- 
grim. The latter tells her intention to kill 
the Prophets, whom she believes to have 
caused John of Leyden's death. The next 
scene, in the cathedral, where the Prophete 
is to be crowned, is one of Meyerbeer's most 
brilliant compositions. It forms a striking 
contrast to the rest of the opera, so gloomy 
with religious and political fanaticism, and 
as a piece of glittering pageantry, with gor- 
geous decorations, pealing bells, solemn 
chants, and stately Coronation March, has 
seldom been surpassed. Fides enters as the 
Prophete is invested with supreme power. 



and claims him as her son. John disowns 
her, and through love she declares that she is 
mistaken. The last act differs from history. 
Instead of being condemned, John is be- 
trayed by the Anabaptists. He visits Fidos 
in prison, and she convinces him of his 
error. Bertha enters, and, learning that 
John is the Prophcte, stabs herself and dies. 
The last scene is in the banquet-hall of the 
palace, whei'e John is revelling. As the 
Anabaptists and the Count of Oberthal 
enter, and Fides rushes in to forgive him, 
an explosion takes place — John's revenge — 
and they all perish in the flames. Among 
the principal numbers of this opera are : 
The pastoral chorus, " La brise est muette ;" 
the duet between Fides and Bertha, " Un 
jour, dans les flots de la Meuse ; " " Le jour 
baisse et ma mere," sung by John, ac- 
companied by the chorus ; FidOs's grand 
aria, " Ah ! mon fils, soit beni ! ; " the 




Roger, as John of Leyden. 



chorus of the Anabaptists in the third act, 
" Du sang, du sang ; " the bass aria, " Aussi 
nombreux que les etoiles ; " the Anabaptists' 
trio, "Sous votre banuiere;" the chant, 



157 



PROSERPINA 



" Eoi du ciel et des anges ; " Fides's coup- 
lets imploriug charity, " Donnez pour 
une pauvre ame ; " the chorus, " Le voila, 
le roi prophete ; " Fides's cavatina, " O toi 
qui m'abandonne ; " and the allegro, "II 
en est temps encore." The part of Fides 
(JM.-S.), the most interesting in the opera, 
was created by Mme Viardot-Garcia, who 
has never been equalled in this character. 
Mme Castellan sang Bertha (S.), and M. 
Eoger, John of Leyden (T.), in the original 
cast This opera had received 348 rep- 
resentations at the Paris Opera in 187G. 
It was first given in Leipsic in 1850 ; in 
Dresden, Jan. 30, 1850 ; in Milan, May 23, 
1855 ; in Vienna, Nov. 8, 1855 ; in London 
at Covent Garden, in Italian, with immense 
success, Mme Viardot and Mario in the 
chief parts, July 24, 1840 ; and first in New 
York, Nov. 25, 1849. It was given in New 
Tork by the German Opera Company at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, Dec. 20, 1884. 
Published by Brandus (Paris, 1849) ; by 
Breitkopf k Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1850). Tran- 
scription for the pianoforte by Franz Liszt. 
Capriccio for the pianoforte by Stephen 
Heller, op. 70, Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 
1850). — Ck'ment et Larousse, 551 ; Lajaiie, 
ii., 203 ; Mendel, Meyerbeer, GO ; Fctis, 
vi. 125 ; Neue Zeitschr., xxxii. 49, 81 ; 
Athenffium (1849), 416, 771, 794 ; Upton, 
Standard Operas, 157. 

PKOSERPINA KAPITA, Italian opera, 
test by Giulio Strozzi, music by Monteverde, 
first represented at the Palazzo Moceuigo, on 
the occasion of the marriage of Lorenzo 
Giustiniani with Giustiniana Mocenigo, 
Venice, April 16, 1630. This opera was 
given with gi-eat splendour, and the choruses, 
dances, songs, and instrumentation created 
immense enthusiasm. The score, dedicated 
to the father of the bride, was published in 
Venice, 1630. A copy of the MS. is in the 
National Library of Florence. Same text, 
music by Sacrati, Venice, 1644 ; same title, 
intermezzo by Benedetto Ferrari, ib., 1641. 
— Vierteljahrsschrift fiir Musikwissenschaft 
(1887), 392. 



PEOSERPINE, tragedie-iyrique in five 
acts with prologue, text by (Juinault, music 
hy Lull}', first repi'esented at Saint-Germain- 
en-Laye, Feb. 3, 1680 ; at the Academie 
Eoyale de Musique, Paris, Nov. 15, 1680. 
The prologue shows the joys of Peace. The 
scene represents the domain of Discord, 
where Peace and her attendants Happiness, 
Joy, Abundance, and Pleasure are chained. 
Victory enters with Heroes, liberates Peace, 
and confines Discord and her followers. 
The libretto, a version of the Eape of Pros- 
erpine, is one of Quinault's best, and is set 
to music with great skill. Published by 
Christophe Ballard (Paris, 1680 ; 2d ed., 
1714). Same text, reduced to three acts by 
Guillard, music by Paisiello, Academie 
Eoyale de Musique, Paris, Mai-ch 29, 1803. 
Other operas on the same subject, in Ital- 
ian, by Bonifazio Asioli, Correggio, 1784 ; 
by Joiio Cordeiro da Silva, Lisbon, 1784 ; 
by Peter von Winter, text by Da Ponte, 
London, 1804 ; by John Franc Westmore- 
land, ib., 1845. Ballet by Batistin (Struck), 
Versailles, about 1713 ; ballet by Schneitz- 
hoffer, text by Gardel, Paris, 1818 ; and 
The Loves of Pluto and Proserpine, or the 
Eape of Proserpine, intermezzo for the 
English pantomime, by John Ernst Gal- 
liard, London, 1725. — Clement et Larousse, 
554 ; Lajarte, i. 3G ; ii. 28. 

PEOSEEPINE, French opera in four 
acts, text by GaUet, after a poem by Bac- 
querie, music by Saint-SaC-ns, rej)reseuted 
at the Opera Comique, March IG, 1887. 
Mile Salla sang the pai't of Proserpine, and 
the original cast included Mile Simonnet, 
Taskin, and Lubert. This opera was not a 
success. — Neue Zeitschr. (1887), 136. 

PEOT, FELIX JEAN, born at Senlis, 
France, in 1747, died in Paris in 1823. 
Violinist, pupil of Desmarais, and in har- 
mony of Gianotti in Paris, whither he went 
earlj' in life. In 1775 he entered the or- 
chestra of the Comedie Franyaise as viola 
player, and in 1822 was pensioned. Works 
—Operas : Le bal bourgeois, Les reveries, 
1779 ; Le printemps, 1787 ; Symphonic con- 



1S8 



PROTTI 



certante for 2 violas ; 6 duos concertants for 
do. ; Duos for 2 violins. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

PROTTI, JOSE, born at Malson, Bale- 
aric Isles, in 1827, still Uving, 1890. Dra- 
matic comj)oser ; settled at Marseilles about 
1843, became organist of Saint-Theodore, 
and in 1856 of Saint-Vincent de Paul. 
Works : Gacela, Spanish opera ; Les gardes 
franyaises, ojjera-comique, Marseilles, 1856 ; 
Le tresor de Jeannot, ib., 1877 ; Mass ; 
Stabat Mater, and other church music ; 
Morceaux de genre, for pianoforte. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 371. 

PROUT, EBENEZER, born at Oundle, 
Northamjit o u s h i r e, 
England, March 1, 
1835, still living, 1890. 
Instrumental and vo- 
cal comjjoser, and 
writer on music ; stud- 
ied pianoforte under 
Charles Salamau. He 
won in 1862 the first 
prize of the Society of 
British Musicians for 
the best string quartet, and in 1865 for a 
pianoforte quartet. In 1871-71 he was 
editor of the "Monthly Musical Record," 
and since successively musical critic of the 
"Academy" and the "Athenaeum." Con- 
ductor of the Borough of Hackney Choral 
Association, 1876 ; professor of harmony 
and composition at the National Training 
School for Music, 1876 ; at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, 1879 ; at Guildhall School 
of Music, 1884. "Works : Love and Taxa- 
tion, comic opera, 1883 ; Hereward, cantata, 
1878 ; Alfred, do., London, 1881 ; Queen 
Aimee, do., for female voices, 1885 ; Hail to 
the chief, chorus with orchestra, 1877 ; 
Freedom, do., 1885 ; Magnificat for solo 
voices, chorus, and orchestra, 1873 ; The 
100th Psalm, for soprano solo, chorus, and 
orchestra, 1886 ; Overture to Twelfth- 
Night, 1880; 4 symphonies, 1873, 1876, 
1884, 1886 ; Minuet and trio for orchestra, 
1877 ; Suite for do., 1878 ; 2 concertos for 
organ and orchestra, 1870, 1883 ; Quintet 




for pianoforte and strings, 1860 ; 2 quar- 
tets for do., 1865, 1881 ; 2 do. for strings, 
1862, 1881 ; Sonata for pianoforte and flute ; 
do. for organ ; Concertante duet for piano- 
forte and harmonium ; 2 Evening Services ; 
Morning and Communion Service ; Magni- 
ficat and Nunc dimittis, in D ; etc. He is 
author also of " Harmony, its Theory and 
Practice " (London, 1889), and a contribu- 
tor to Grove's Dictionary. — Grove ; Men- 
del, Ergilnz., 3C6 ; Riemann. 

PROVENZALE, FRANCESCO, Neapoli- 
tan church composer of the 17th century, and 
one of the most learned and esteemed 
masters of the Conservatorio dclla Pieti de' 
Turchini, at Najsles. Works ; Pauge lingua, 
for 9 voices, with orchestra ; Tantum ergo 
and Genitori, for soprano solo and organ, 
with chorus ; La colomba ferita, sacred 
drama, 1069 ; La Geneviefa, oratorio ; L' in- 
fedeltii abbattuta, do. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

PRUDENT, EMLE (BEUNIE-), born at 
Angouleme, Feb. 3, 
1817, died in Paris, 
May 14, 1863. Pi- 
anist ; received his 
first lessons from a 
pianoforte tuner who 
had adojited him , 
then pujsil of Le- 
couppey, Laurent, 
and Zimmerman, at 
the Paris Conservatoire, which he entered 
at the age of ten. He won in 1833 the first 
prize for pianoforte, and in 1834 the second 
prize for harmony. After Thalberg's ap- 
pearance in Paris in 1836 he formed his 
style in imitation of that virtuoso, and es- 
tablished his reputation by a concert given 
at Rennes in 1840. He first appeared in 
Paris in 1842, and thenceforth made many 
concert tours in France and abroad, played 
a concerto of his own at the London Phil- 
harmonic in 1848, and was heard at the 
New Philharmonic Concerts in 1853. He 
was much sought as a teacher, and formed 
several distinguished pupils. Works : Les 
trois reves, coucerto-symphonie for piano- 




159 



PEUME 



forte and orchestra ; Concerto in B-flat, for 
do. ; Trio for pianoforte and strings ; Etudes 
and transcrij)tions with and without vari- 
ations ; Morceaus de genre, etc. — Fetis ; 
Grove ; Mendel ; Eiemann. 

PKIBIE, FEANgOIS HUBEKT, born at 
Stavelot, near Liege, June 3, 1816, died 
there, July 14, 1849. Virtuoso on the vio- 
lin, son of the organist of his native town ; 
sent, when five years old, to Malmc'dy to 
study under a violinist ; entered in 1827 the 
newly opened Conservatoire at Liege, and 
in 1830 that of Paris, where he became a 
pupil of Habencck. He was appointed in 
1833 professor at the Liege Conservatoire ; 
started iu 1839 on a concert toui', visiting 
Frankfort, Leipsic, Berlin, Prague, Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, and Russia, and returned 
in 1842 to Stavelot. He afterwards played 
in Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp, and visited 
some of the German cities, playing with 
Liszt at Gotha, spent the winter of 1844 
iu Paris, and was recalled to Liege as chief 
professor of violin. When not quite thirty 
he was afflicted with an incurable disease 
of the eye, which resulted iu total blind- 
ness. Works : La molancholie, for violin 
and orchestra or pianoforte, op. 1. (Paris) ; 
Concertino, for do. ; Morceau de concert, for 
do. ; Grande polonaise, for do. ; 6 grandes 
etudes.— Fetis ; Hart, The Violin, 323 ; Men- 
del ; Eiemann ; Schilling, Supplement, 350. 

PEU:\HER, ANGE CONEAD, bom about 
18-21, died in Paris, April 3, 1884. Harp 
jjlayer, son and pupil of Autoiue Piiimier at 
the Conservatoire, where he won in 1836 the 
second pi'ize, in 1838 the first, and iu 1843 
the first prize for fugue. He succeeded his 
father at the Opi'-ra Comique, and after- 
wards entered the orchestra of the Opera. 
In 1870 he became professor at the Conser- 
vatoire. Works : Soli and etudes for haii^ ; 
2 nocturnes for horn and harp ; Offertory 
for military band ; Les trois Nicolas, fan- 
taisie for do. ; Les quatre fils Aymon, 
march ; O salutaris, Agnus Dei, Ave verum, 
Tantum ergo, for tenor, etc. — Fetis, Sup- 
plement, ii. 371. 



PEXBHER, ANTOmE, bom in Paris, 
July 2, 1794, died there, Jan. 20, 1868. 
Virtuoso on the hai-ji, pupil of his mother, 
a clever amateur ; then, at the Conservatoire, 
of Catel in harmony, winning in 1812 the 
second prize. After this he was comjjellcd 
by militai'y law to enter the £cole Polytech- 
nique, but in 1815 gave up mathematics, 
and finished his studies at the Conservatoire 
as a pupil of Eler iu counterpoint. He be- 
came harpist at the Theatre Italien, and iu 
1835 at the Opera Comique ; and in the 
same year succeeded Nadermann as pro- 
fessor of the harp at the Conservatoire, 
where he formed a number of well-known 
pupils. Legion of Honour in 1845 ; vice- 
president, seventeen yeai-s consecutively, of 
the Association des artistes musiciens ; re- 
tired in 1867 from the Conservatoire. He 
published about a hundred fantaisies, ron- 
dos, and airs with variations, for hai-p 
(Paris). — Fetis ; Grove. 

PSALM XLH. (Wie der Hirsch sehreit), 
set to music by Mendelssohn, for chorus, 
soli, and orchestra, op. 42, first performed 
in Leipsic, Jan. 1, 1838. Published by 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1839) ; ar- 
ranged for j)ianoforte for four hands by E. 
F. Eichter (ib., 1841). Breitkopf & Hiirtel, 
Mendelssohn Werke, Serie xiv., No. 89. 
— Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xli. 119, 289 ; Eeiss- 
mann, Mendelssohn, 211. 

PSALM XL"VT. (God is our refuge), set 
to music for chorus, soli, and orchestra, by 
Dudley Buck, and first performed by the 
Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, May 7, 
1874. 

PSALM XC\Tn. (Singet dem Herrn ein 
neues Lied), set to music by Mendelssohn, 
for eight-voice chorus and orchestra, op. 91, 
first performed at the festival sei-vice in the 
Berlin Cathedral, New Tear's Day. 1844. 
Published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mendels- 
sohn Werke, Serie siv., No. 92. 

PSALM CXIV. (.41s Israel aus Aegypten 
zog), set to music by Mendelssohn, for 
chorus of eight voices and orchestra, op. 
51, first performed in Leijjsic, Jan, 1, 1840, 



PSALM 



It was composed in 1838-39, and dedicated 
to the painter J. W. Schirmer, of Diissel- 
dorf. It was sung at the Niederrheinische 
Musikfeste in 1883 and in 1888. Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, Mendelssolin Werke, Serie xiv., 
No. 91. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xlii. 2G ; 
xliii. 289. 

PSALM CXV. (Nicbt uuserm namen, 
Herr), Non nobis Dominc, set to music by 
Mendelssohn, for chorus and orchestra, op. 
31, first performed in Leipsic, Feb. 8, 1838. 
Published by Simrock (Bonn, 183G). Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel, Mendelssohn Werke, Serie 
xiv.. No. 88. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xL 111 ; 
Neue Zeitschr., iv. 133. 

PSYCHE, cantata, text by Lobedanz, mu- 
sic by Gade, op. CO, first performed at the 
Birmingham (England) Festival, under the 
composer's direction, Aug. 31, 1882, with 
Mme Marie Eoze as Psyche and Mr. Santley 
as Eros. It was well received, and is full 
of graceful melodies. It was first given in 
London by the Highbury Philharmonic So- 
ciety, Nov. 27, 1882. Published by Ewer 
& Novello, London. — Athenaium (1882), ii. 
347. 

PSYCH15, tragedie-lyrique in five acts, 
text by Corneille, music by LuUy, first rep- 
resented at the Acadenue Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, April 9, 1G78. Fontenelle 
claimed to have written the text. The 
words of one trio, "Deh, j)iangete al pianto 
mio," are written in Italian. The part of 
Psyche was sung by Mile Desmatins and 
fillle Journet ; Amour, by Cochereau ; Ve- 
nus, by Mile Maupin and Mile Heuse, and 
Psycht-'s father, by Thevenard. Published 
by'christophe Ballard (Paris, 1720). Lully 
also wrote music for a tragi-comedie-ballet 
in five acts, text by Moliere, Quinault, and 
Pierre Corneille, first represented at the 
Tuileries, Jan. 17, 1G71, and at the Palais 
Royal, July 24, 1G71. It was revived of 
recent years at the Comedie Franjaise, 
Paris. — Lajarte, i. 33 ; Hogarth, i. 44 ; 
Clement et Larousse, 556. 

PSYCHE, opera-comique in three acts, 
text by Jules Barbier and Michel Carre, 



music by Ambroise Thomas, first rep- 
resented at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
Jan. 26, 1857. Original cast : Psyche, Mile 
Lefebvre ; Eros, Mme Ugalde ; and Mer- 
cure, M. Bataille. This is a delicate and 
gracefid composition ; it was revived in 
Paris with additions. May 21, 1878. Other 
operas on the same subject : In Italian, La 
Psiche, intermezzo in two acts, by Ales- 
sandro Striggio, represented during the 
marriage of Francesco de' Medici and 
Jeanne d'Autriche, Florence, 1565 ; Cuindo 
e Psiche, by Marco Scacchi, Dantzic, 1634 ; 
Psiche cercando Amore, sereuata by Antonio 
Draghi, Vienna, 1688 ; Psiche, by Benedetto 
Marcello, text by Cassani, Venice, 1711 ; by 
J. J. Fux with Caldara, test by Pariati, Vi- 
enna, Nov. 19, 1720 ; by J. J. Fux alone, ib., 
Oct. 1, 1722 ; Le nozzedi Psiche con Amore, 
by Leo, Naples, 1738 ; L' Amore e Psiche, 
by J. F. Agricola, textby Laudi, Berlin, Oct. 
5, 1767 ; and Amore e Psiche, by Josef 
Schuster, Naples, 1780 : in French, Psyche, 
ballet by Blaise, Paris, about 1755 ; L'A- 
mour et Psyche, by J. J. Cassanea de Mon- 
donville, Paris, June 24, 17G0 ; Psyche et 
I'Amour, by Saiut-Amans, text by the Abbe 
Voisenon, Brussels, 1778, Paris, 1782 ; :fiti- 
enne Nicolas Mehul, same text, ib., 1785 ; 
and L'Amour et Psyche, by August Pilati, 
Paris, Dec. 13, 1856 : in English, by Matthew 
Lock (with Giovanni Baptista Draghi), text 
by Shadwell after Quinault, London, 1675 ; 
parodied as Psyche Debauched, by Th. Dai- 
fet, same music, ib., 1675 : in German, Die 
wunderschOne Psyche, by Eeinhard Keiser, 
text by Postel, for the birthday of Queen 
Sophie Charlotte of Prussia, Hamburg, Oct. 
20, 1701 ; Psyche, ballet by J. J. Rodolphe, 
Stuttgart, 1762 ; Amor und Psyche, by F. 
L. Gassmann, Vienna, Oct. 5, 1767 ; Psyche, 
by Karl Beruhard Wessely, Berlin, 1789 ; 
Psyche, by Peter von Winter, Munich, 
1793 ; and Amor und Psyche, by Johann 
Christian Abeille, Stuttgart, 1801.— Clement 
et Larousse, 556 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1857), 33 ; Hanslick, Musikalische 
Stationen, 120. 



161 



PUCCINI 



PUCCmi, ANTONIO, born at Lucca in 
1747, died there, Feb. 3, 1832. Church 
comi^oser, son of Giacomo Puccini (1712- 
81, organist and maestro di cappella of the 
republic of Lucca), pupil of Caretti at Bo- 
logna ; in 1781 succeeded his father at 
Lucca. Member of the Accademia Filar- 
monica, Bologna. Works : Masses, psalms, 
motets, for 2 to 8 voices ; Requiem for 
the obsequies of Emperor Joseph U. ; 20 
services, with orchestra, for the feast of St. 
Cecilia. — Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 372. 

PUCCINI, DOJIENICO, born at Lucca 
in 1771, died there. May 2.5, 1815. Dra- 
matic and church comjjoser, son of the lire- 
ceding ; studied first in his native city, then 
at Bologna under Padi-o Mattel and at Na- 
ples under Padi-e Tesei. After his return 
to Lucca ho was appointed maestro di cap- 
pella of the republic, replacing his father. 
Works — Operas : Quinto Fabio ; H ciarla- 
tano ; Le frecce d' Amore ; La moglie ca- 
pricciosa ; L' ortolanella. Masses, vespers, 
psalms, hymns, motets, Te Deum for 2 to 
8 voices ; Grand motet, for IG voices and 
double orchestra ; Several cantatas. — Fetis, 
Sujjplcment, ii. 372. 

PUCCINI, mCHELE, born at Lucca, 
Dec. 27, 1813, died there, Jan. 23, 1864. 
Dramatic and church composer, son of the 
preceding, pupil of Fauucchi on the piano- 
forte and in theory, and of Padre Santucci 
and Eugeuio Galli in hai-mony and counter- 
point ; then at Bologna pupil of POoti, and 
at Naples of Mercadante. After his return 
to Lucca, in 1841, he was made director of 
the musical institute. Works : Antonio 
Foscarini, opera ; Cattani, o la rivoluzione 
degli Straccioni, do. ; 2 masses ; Miserere 
and Benedictus ; Several motets, for 2 to 4 
voices, with and without orchestra ; 8 ser- 
vices for 4 voices and orchestra ; Composi- 
tions for 8 voices and 2 orchestras. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 372. 

PUCCITA (Pucita), \TNCENZO, bom at 
Civita Vecchia in 1778, died in Milan, Dec. 
20, 1861. Dramatic composer, pupil at the 
Conservatorio della Pietu, Naples, of Fena- 



roli and Sala. He wrote several small op- 
eras before I due prigionieri, Rome, 1801, 
made him widely known. In 1806 he went 
to London as musical director at the opera. 
He travelled with Madame Catalani, as ac- 
companist, through Scotland, L'eland, Hol- 
land, Belgium, and the Rhine countries, 
and followed her to Paris when she as- 
sumed the direction of the Italian opera 
there. About the end of 1817 he returned 
to Italy and settled in Rome. Works : 
L' amor platonico, Lucca, 1800 ; Le uozze 
senza sposa, Pai-ma, 1800 ; H fuoi-uscito, 
Milan, 1801 ; I due prigionieri, Rome, 1801 ; 
n puntiglio, Milan, 1802 ; Teresa Wilk, la 
fiuta pazza ; Audromacca, Lisbon, 1806 ; 
II marchese d' un giorno, ossia gli sposi 
fehci, Leghorn, 1808 ; La vestale, Loudon, 
1809 ; Le tre sultane, ib., 1811 ; Laodicea, 
ib., 1813 ; L' orgogUo avvilito, Paris, 1815 ; 
La caccia di Enrico IV., ib., 1816 ; La prin- 
cipessa in campagna, ib., 1817 ; La festa 
del ^iUaggio, Rome, 1821 ; I prigionieri, 
Venice, 1831 ; Adolfo e Chiara, Milan, 1833. 
— Fetis ; MeudeL 

PUGET, LOlSA, bom in Pai-is about 
1810, died in Pau, 1889. Vocal composer ; 
she won extraordinary popularity in the reign 
of Louis PhUippe by her songs, composed 
to words by Gustave Lemoine, whom she 
married in 1842. Among the best known 
are : A la grace de Dieu ; Ave Maria ; Le 
soleil de ma Bretagne ; Ta dot ; Mon pays ; 
Les rcves d'une jeune fille. After study- 
ing composition under Adolphe Adam, she 
jjroduced Le mauvais ceil, at the Opera Co- 
mique, in 1836; and La veilleuse, ou les nuits 
de milady, operetta, at the Gymnase, 1869. 
Her songs were published in albums which 
appeared every vear. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

PUGET, PAUL CHARLES MARIE 
CURET-, bom at Nantes, June 25, 1848, still 
living, 1890. Dramatic composer, pupil at 
the Paris Conservatoire of Marmontel on 
the pianoforte, of Bazin in harmony, and of 
Masse in comijosition. He won the prix 
de Rome, 1873, for his cantata Mazeppa. 
Other works : Les jardins d'Armide, opera- 



162 



PUGNANI 




bouffe ; Le maitre danseur, Bouffes-Pari- 
siens, 1869 ; La Marocaine, opora-comique, 
Thoutre Lyrique ; Andrea del Sarto, lyric 
drama. — Futis, Supplc'ment, ii. 372. 

PUGNANI, GAETANO, bora in Turin 
in 1727, died there 



in 1803. Virtuoso 
on the violin, one of 
the best represent- 
atives of the Pied- 
montese school, 
pujjil of Somis, who 
liad studied under 
CorelU, then in 
Padua of Tartini. 
He combined the 

prominent qualities of style and technique 
of both these great masters. He was first 
violin in the court orchestra at Turin in 
1752 ; he travelled in 1751-70, plaj-iug at 
the Concerts Spirituels in Paris, and sjsend- 
ing several years in London, where he 
was for a time leader in the orchestra of 
the Italian opera. In 1770 ho returned 
to Turin, became maestro di cappeUa of the 
royal theatre, and ofiened a violin school 
which became famous for its pupils, among 
whom were Viotti, Conforti, Buini, and Pol- 
ledro. To him may be said to be due the pre- 
servation of the grand stylo of Corelli, Tar- 
tini, and Vivaldi, and its transmission to the 
next generation of riolinists. Works — Ojie- 
ras : Tamas Koulikan, Turin, 1772 ; Adone 
e Venere, Naples, 1784. Nanetta e Lubino, 
opera bufia, Turin, 1781 ; Achille in Sciro, 
ib., 1785 ; Demetrio a Eodi, 1789 ; Coreso 
e Calliroo, ballet, 1792. Two cantatas : 
Issea, 1771, and 1' Aurora, 1775. Nine con- 
certos for violin ; 12 octets (symphonies) 
for string quartet, 2 oboes, and 2 horns ; 6 
quintets for 2 violins, 2 flutes, and bass ; G 
quartets for strings ; 3 sets of trios, 2 do. 
of duos, for violins. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Schil- 
ling ; Wasielewski, Die Violine, 103 ; Hart, 
The Violin, 22G ; Dubourg, The Violin, 
87. 

PUGNI, CESAEE, bom in Milan in 1805 
died at St. Petersburg in January, 1870. 



Dramatic composer, pufjil in 1815-22 of 
Asioli at the Milan Conservatorio. About 
1810 he went to St. Petersburg, where for 
thirty j'ears be composed ballets almost ex- 
clusively. Works : H disertore svizzero, o 
la nostalgia, Milan, 1831 ; La vendetta, 
ib., 1832 ; Eicciardo di Edimburgo, Trieste, 
1832 ; H contrabandiere, Milan, 1833 ; Un 
episodio di San Michele, ib., 1834. Among 
his ballets are : Le fucine di Vulcano, Pai-ma, 
182G ; Eutichio della Castagna, Pelia e 
Mileto, Milan, 1827 ; Esmeralda, ilj., 1845 ; 
La fille de marbre, Paris, 1847 ; Edoardo, 
ib., 1848 ; La vivandiere, ib., 1848 ; Le 
violon du diable, ib., 1849 ; Stella, ou les 
contrebandiers, ib., 1850 ; Le marche des 
innocents, ib., 18G1 ; Diavohna, ib., 1863 ; 
Gli elementi, ib., 1866 ; La momie, St. 
Petersburg, 1862 ; etc. — Fetis ; do.. Sup- 
plement, ii. 373. 

PUIG, BERNARDO CALV6, born at 
Vich, Spain, Feb. 22, 1819, still living (?), 
1890. Organist and singer, pupil of Jos6 
Gallt's, and in composition of Francisco Bo- 
namieh ; then at Barcelona pupil of Jose 
Rose's and of Juan Quintana, the latter of 
whom ho succeeded as organist of Nuestra 
Dama del Pino. He resigned this post to 
become contralto in the Chapel of Santa 
Maria del Mar, and afterwards at the ca- 
thedral. In 1853 he was appointed maestro 
de capiUa of the Church de la Merced. 
Works : Carlo il temerario, opera ; L' astro- 
nomo, comic opera ; Un novio en dos per- 
sonas, zarzuela ; Don Gumersindo ; Don 
Francisco de Quevedo ; 2 oratorios ; Stabat 
Mater ; Miserere ; Service for the month of 
May ; About 200 hymns, motets, psalms, 
etc. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 374. 

PUITS D'AMOUR, LE (The Well of 
Love), opora-comique in three acts, text by 
Scribe and de Leuven, music by Balfe, first 
represented at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
April 20, 1843. A young king, fidouard, 
lives a gay life with his noblemen, and 
forces them to throw him into the puits 
d'amour. This leads into a subterranean 
hall, a rendezvous for the adventurous lords. 



1U3 



FUriLLE 



A young girl, Geraldine, throws herself into 
the well, because she was forced to renounce 
her lover Tony, the sailor, in reality Lord 
Salisbury, by the king, who wanted her for 
a waiting woman to his betrothed, the Prin- 
cesse de Hainault. Guraldiue, arriving in 
the haU among the noblemen, who are dis- 
guised as demons, believes herself to be 
dead and in hell, but Salisbury, who is 
among them, protects her. Edouard is 
seized by the sheriff, is released, pardons 
the shei-iflf, and consents to the union of 
Salisbury with Geraldine. The opera was 
first given in London, as Geraldine, English 
translation by Gilbert a Becket, in August, 
1843. It was given in Vienna as Der Lie- 
besbrunnen in 1845. — Clement et Larousse, 
557 ; Athenanim (1843), 757. 

PUPILLE SDEGNOSE !, contralto aria 
of Muzio, in D major, with accompaniment 
of oboes and violins in unison, and bass, in 
Handel's Muzio Scveola, Act III., Scene 3. 
Published also separatclj', with the accom- 
paniment filled out by Robert Franz (Leixj- 
sic, Kistner). 

PUPPO, GIUSEPPE, born in Lucca, 
June 12, 1740, died in Florence, April 19, 
1827. Violinist, pupil at the Naples Con- 
servatorio ; became a virtuoso in Italy at an 
early age. He went in 1775 to Paris, thence 
to Spain and Portugal, where he is said to 
have amassed a considerable fortune, and 
after spending several years in London re- 
turned in 1784 to Paris, where he became 
first violin at the Theatre de Monsieur, and 
then at the Feydeau, and finally conductor 
of the orchestra at the Theatre Fran<;ais. 
In 1811 he left Paris suddenly, abandoning 
his wife and children, and was next heard 
of in Naples, where he was conductor at a 
theatre ; he went thence to Lucca and to 
Florence, where he finally died in destitu- 
tion in a hospice. His published comijosi- 
tions, consisting of duos, concertos, and fan- 
tasias for violin and pianoforte, are few and 
of little importance. — Grove ; Fotis ; Men- 
del ; Hart, The Violin, 231 ; xiii. 423 ; Wa- 
sielewski. Die Violine, 126. 



PURCELL, DANIEL, born in London in 
1660, died there. Dee. 12, 1717. Organist, 
brother of Henry Purcell ; was organist 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1G88-95, 
and of St. Andrew's, London, in 1713-17. 
Works — ]\Iusic to dramas : Love's last Shift 
(Cibber), 1G90 ; Indian Queen, 1G9G ; Bru- 
tus of Alba, or Augusta's Triumph, 1697 ; 
Cynthia and Endymion (D'Urfey), 1697 ; 
PhaOton, or the fatal Divorce, 1698 ; The 
Island Princess (Motteaux), with Clark and 
Leveridge, 1699 ; The Grove, or Love's 
Paradise, 1700 ; The unhappy Penitent, 
1701 ; The Inconstant (Farquhar), 1702 ; 
The Judgment of Paris, a pastoral (Con- 
greve), 1700. Odes, psalms, instrumental 
and church music, and songs. 

PURCELL, HENRY, the younger, born 
in Old Pye Street, 



Westminster, in or 
about 1658, died in 
Dean's Yard, West- 
minster, Nov. 2 1, 
1695. The second 
son of Henry Purcell 
the elder (Gentle- 
man of Chapel Roy- 
al, IGGO ; member 
Royal Band, 1663; 
died, 1G64), he lost his father when still a 
boy. He entered the Chapel Royal, where 
he studied under Cooke and Humphrey, 
and received instruction also fi'om Dr. 
Blow. In 1675, when only seventeen, he 
got an order from Josias Priest, a theatrical 
dancing-master, to write an opera on Tate's 
Dido and 53neas, to be given at his " board- 
ing school for young gentlewomen." The 
success of this work, though in somewhat 
restricted circles, was such that Purcell 
soon had orders to write overtures, songs, 
and incidental music to several plays bj- 
Dryden, Shadwell, and Jlrs. Behn. The 
last works of this, his first period, were 
music to Shadwell's version of Shakespeare's 
"Timon of Athens," Lee's " Theodosius," 
and D'Urfey "s," The Virtuous Wife." In 1680 
he was appointed organist at Westminster 




^'P^t 



164 



PUllCELL 



Abbey, and for the next six years wrote 
nothing for the stage, but composed several 
occasioual cantatas, " Welcome Songs " to 
the King, and twelve sonatas for two violins 
and continuo. In 1082 ho was appointed 
organist to the Chapel Royal. In 168G he 
began once more to write for the stage, 
with music to Dryden's " Tyrannic Love," 
which was followed by music to other plajs, 
until iu 1G90 he l)rought out his first real 
opera, Dioclesian. Next year followed his 
masterpiece. King Arthur, the score of 
which was published by the Musical Anti- 
quarian Society in 1S43. From this time 
to his death he continued writing operas 
and incidental music to plays, as well as 
sacred music in various forms. His death 
is said to have been Ijrought on by a cold 
caught while waiting one night at bis own 
door, his wife having locked him out as a 
punishment for keeping late hours ; but 
it is more probable that the true cause was 
consumption. He retained all his faculties, 
and even his full musical creative power, to 
the last, and one of his best works, the 
cantata, " From rosy bowers," was written 
during his last illness. He left all his prop- 
erty to his wife, making her solo executrix. 
He was buried on Nov. 2G, 1G95, under the 
organ in the north aisle of Westminster 
Abbey. Purcell was without doubt the 
greatest, perhaps the only really great, mu- 
sical genius England has ever given to the 
world. He was the originator of a form of 
English opera which was followed almost 
universally for over a century and a half, 
and was even, in a certain sense, the father 
of characteristically English melody. His 
chief model in di-amatic music, and the 
composer whose works he principally stud- 
ied, was Jean Baptiste LuUy ; but he far 
surpassed his model in wealth of melody, 
while he equalled him in dramatic power. 
He was equally great in dramatic and 
church composition, and Handel studied 
his odes and anthems with avidity. His 
instrumental chamber-music, although long 
since obsolete, was remarkable for its day. 



If, instead of dying at the age of thirty- 
seven, he had lived to see Italian opera 
introduced into England, and, most of all, 
enjoyed an artistic intercourse with Handel, 
the very greatest things might have been 
ex25ected of him. As it is, ho shares an 
undeserved oblivion — as far as the musical 
world at large is concerned — with all other 
composers of the pre-Handelian period. 
A Purcell Club, organized in London in 
183G, existed until 18G3. During this 




Birthplace of Purcell. 

period many of Purcell 's works were per- 
formetl and published. The valuable li- 
brary of the club was given to Westminster 
Abbey. A commemoration to celebrate the 
bicentenary of Purcell's birthday was held 
in London, Jan. 30, 1858. On Feb. 21, 
1S7G, a Purcell Society was founded to pub- 
lish his MS. and to perform his works. 
Works — I. Operas and music to tragedies 
and comedies, all brought out in London : 
Dido and J3ueas (text by Nahum Tate), 
1G75 (published in score by the Musical 
Antiquarian Society, 1840) ; Aurenge-Zebe 
(Dryden), 1G7G ; Epsom Wells (Shadwell), 
1G76 ; The Libertine (do.), 1G7G ; Abdelazor 
(Mrs. Behn), 1G77 ; Timon of Athens (Shad- 
well's adaptation of Shakespeare), 1678 ; 
Theodosius, or the Force of Love (Nat. Lee), 
1G80 ; The Virtuous Wife (D'Urfey), 1G80 ; 
A Fool's Preferment (do.), 1G88 ; The Tem- 
pest (Shadwell's adaptation of Shakcsiseare), 
1690 ; The Prophetess, or the History of 
Dioclesian (Betterton, after Beaumont and 
Fletcher), 1690 (published in score by sub- 



165 



PUECELL 



scription, 1691) ; The Massacre in Paris 
(Nat. Lee), 1690 ; King Ai'thur (Dryden), 
1691, and with additions by T. A. Ai-ne, 
1770 (pubhshed in score by the Mus. Antiq. 
Soc, 1843) ; Distressed Innocence, or the 
Princess of Persia (Elkanah Settle), 1691 ; 
The Gordian Knot untyed, 1691 ; Sir 
Anthony Love, or the Rambling Lady 
(Southerne), 1G91 ; Amphitryon (Dryden), 

1691 ; Tlie Indian Queen (Howard and Dry- 
den), 1692 (published in part by May and 
Hudgebutt, 1695, and entire by Goodison) ; 
The Indian Emperor (Dryden, sequel to the 
foregoing), 1692 ; Cleomenes (do.), 1692 ; 
The Wives' Excuse (Southerne), 1692 ; The 
Marriage Hater match'd (D'Urfey), 1692 ; 
CEdipus (Dryden and Lee), Act HL, 1692 ; 
The faii'y Queen (anonymous adai^tation of 
Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Di'eam), 

1692 ; The Old Bachelor (Congreve), 1693 ; 
The Eichmond Heiress, or a Woman once 
in the Eight (D'Urfey), 1693 ; The Maid's 
last Prayer (Southerne), 1693 ; Henry the 
Second (Bancroft), 1G93 ; Don Quixote 
(D'Urfey), Parts I. and H., 1694 ; The 
Double Dealer (Congi'eve), 1694 ; The Mar- 
ried Beau (Crowne), 1694 ; The Fatal Mar- 
riage (Southerne), 1604 ; Love Triumphant 
(Dryden), 1694 ; lionduca (PoweU, after 
Beaumont and Fletcher), 1695 (published 
in score by the Mua. Antiq. Soc.) ; The 
Mock Marriage (Scott), 1695 ; The Eival 
Sisters (Gould), 1695 ; Oroonoko (South- 
erne), 1695 ; The Canterbui-y Guests (Ea- 
venscroft), 1695 ; The Knight of Malta 
(Beaumont and Fletcher), 1695 ; Don Quix- 
ote (D'Urfey), Part HI., 1695 ; Circe (Charles 
Davenant), Act I. (never perfonned, and 
not surely authentic). 

IL Odes : Address to the King, 1669 ; 
Elegy on the death of Matthew Lock, 
1677 ; Welcome song for His Eoyal High- 
ness's return from Scotland, What shall be 
done in behalf of the man?, 4-part sym- 
phony, solo, and 4-part chorus, 1680 ; Song 
to welcome His Majesty home from Wind- 
sor, 1680 ; Ode for the King, Swifter, Isis, 
swifter flow, 4-part symphony, solo, and 



chorus, 1681 ; Ode to the King on his re- 
turn from Newmarket, Oct. 21, 1682 ; Ninth 
Ode of Horace imitated in a dialogue be- 
tween the poet and Lydia ; Music for the 
Lord Mayor's show, 1682 ; Three odes for 
the festival of St. Cecilia, 1683 ; Welcome 
song for the King, Fly, bold rebellion, 

1683 ; Ode for Prince George of Denmark's 
marriage with the Princess Anne, From 
hardy cHmes, 1683 ; St. Cecilia's Ode, 

1684 ; Ode to welcome the King on his re- 
turn to Whitehall after his summer's j)ro- 
gress, 1684 ; Ode in honour of the King, 
Why are all the Muses mute ?, 1685 ; Ode 
for the King, Ye tuneful Muses, 1686 ; 
Elegy on the death of John Playford the 
younger, text by Mi-. Tate, 1687 ; Ode for 
the King, Sound the trumpets, beat the 
drum, 1687 ; Ode for the King, 1688 ; Ode, 
"At the Prince of Denmark's coming home," 
1689 ; Arise, my muse, D'Urfey's ode for the 
Queen's birthday, April 29, 1690 ; Sound 
the trumpet, ode for King William, 1690 ; 
Ode for the Queen's birthday. Welcome, 
glorious mora, 1691 ; Sir Chai-les Sedley's 
ode. Love's goddess sure was blind, for the 
Queen's birthday, 1692 ; Brady's ode. Hail, 
great Cecilia, for the anniversary of St. 
Cecilia, 1692 ; Commemoration ode for 
Trinity College, Dublin, Great Parent, hail, 

1693 ; Celebrate this festival, ode for the 
Queen's birthday, 1693 ; Come, come, ye 
sons of art, ode for the Queen's birthday, 

1694 ; The art of descant, ode for John 
Plaj'ford, 1694 ; Who can from joy refrain?, 
a birthday ode for the Duke of Gloucester, 
1695. 

ni. Church music and anthems : O God, 
thou art my God, 4q)art anthem ; O God, 
thou hast cast us out, 6-part anthem ; O 
Lord God of Hosts, 8-part anthem ; Thy 
way, O God, is hol^', 2-part anthem ; Be 
merciful unto me, O God, 3-part anthem ; 
It is a good thing, 4-part anthem, with 
symijhony, or prelude, two violins and bass ; 
O praise God in his holiness, with violins 
and bass ; Awake, put on thy strength, 
ritoruels, solo, and chorus ; Bless the Lord, 



166 



PURCELL 



O my soul, six voices, two choruses, and 
symphony ; Why do the heatlien?, three 
voices and symphony ; Unto thee will I cry, 
three voices and two violins ; I will give 
thanks, five voices ; Praise the Lord, sym- 
phony for two violins and bass, solo, and 
duets ; O sing unto the Lord, four and five 
voices, chorus, and symi^hony, two vioUns 
and bass ; Behold, I bring you glad tidings ; 
Thy word is a lantern ; O give thanks ; They 
that go down to the sea in ships, composed 
at the request of the Kev. Mr. Gostliug, 
when the Iving was at sea (1G7'J) ; Peace be 
within thy walls ; Lord, how long ; I was 
glad when, ritornel ; The way of God ; O be 
joyful ; Blessed is he ; Blessed is the man, 
and. Thou knowest. Lord, for Queen Mary's 
funeral (1C95) ; Two elegies upon the Queen's 
death (1695) ; My beloved spake ; My song 
shall be alway ; Rejoice in the Lord alway, 
for three voices with symphonies ; Praise 
the Lord, O my soul ; Save me, O God ; We 
give thanks ; I was glad, and, My heart is 
indicting, for the ceremony of James II.'s 
coronation at Westminster Abbey, 1G85 ; 
Thanksgiving anthem for the recovery of 
James II.'s Queen ; Blessed are they that 
fear the Lord, 1G88 ; The Lord is King, 
1G88 ; Church service in B-flat ; 5-pai-t 
Gloria Patri ; Two Psalms ; Crucia in hac 
flamma, hymn for two voices ; Hymns and 
psalms for three and foui' voices ; and a 
Te Deum and Jubilate in D, with orchestral 
accompaniments, for the festival of St. Ce- 
ciUa, 1694. 

IV. Cantatas and songs : How pleasant in 
this flowery plain, pastoral song, two voices, 
chorus, two flutes, and bass, imfiuished ; 
Hark, how the wild musicians sing, pastoral 
for three voices, chorus, two violins, and 
bass ; Hark, Damon, what Musick's this ? 
pastoral ; Above the tumult of a busy state, 
pastoral duet ; Dialogue between Charon 
and Orpheus, cantata for one and two 
voices ; No, to what purpose should I speak, 
cantata, with chorus ; Job's curse. Let the 
night perish, song ; Amidst the Shades, etc., 
song; See where she sits, etc., duet, two 



violins and bass ; In deep vision's intellect- 
ual scene, recitatives, arias, and chorus ; 
With sick and famished eyes, lamentation ; 
Flj', bold rebellion, solo and finale for seven 
voices ; Oh, oh, what a scene, etc., 2-part 
song ; Though my mistress be fair, do. ; 
Sylvia, thou brighter eye of night, do. ; Go 
tell Aminta, gentle swan, duet ; From those 
serene and rapt'rous joys, choruses and 
airs ; Cease, anxious world, your fruitless 
pain, song ; They say you're angry, cantata ; 
W^hen Teucer from his father fled, 2-part 
song ; Sighs for Charles H., If pray'rs and 
tears ; In some kind dream, 2-part song ; 
Awake, awake, and with attention hear, one 
voice ; Here, here's to thee, Dick, 2-part 
song ; If ever I more riches did desire, can- 
tata ; Anacreon's defeat. This poet sings the 
Trojan wars, song ; Celestial music did the 
gods iusfiire, Aug. 5, 1789 ; In each truck, 
2-i)art song ; Sing, all ye Muses, Fair Chloe 
my heart so alarms ; When Myra sings ; 
From rosy bowers, sung by Mrs. Cross, as 
Altifidora, in Don Quixote ; Sweet tunes 
are so bad, dialogue ; Now the maids and 
the men, do. ; Many ballads, glees, rounds, 
and catches. 

V. Instrumental : 12 sonatas of three 
parts, two violins and bass, with organ or 
harpsichord, 1683 ; Lessons for the harpsi- 
chord or spinnet, 1696 ; 10 sonatas in four 
parts for the clavecin, the ninth of which is 
called the Golden sonata, 1697 ; March and 
quick-stejj, afterwards adajjted to the Irish 
ballad, Lilliburlero ; Overtures, dance-tunes, 
and music for the theatre. Two collections 
of Purcell's works were published by his 
widow, " Orpheus Britannicus " (2 vols., 
London, 1698-1702 ; 2d ed., 1706-13) ; 
and "A collection of Ayres compiosed for the 
theatre and other occasions by the late Mr. 
Henry Pureell" (Loudon, 1697). Many of 
Purcell's works are contained in Playford's 
Theatre of Music (London, 1687) ; in the 
Harmonia Sacra (ib., 1688) ; and others in 
\ the collections of Boj-ce, Arnold, and Page. 
A collection of "Purcell's Sacred Music" 
was published by Vincent Novello (London, 



167 



PURITANI 



1826-36). Henry Purcell's only surviving 

son, Edward (1689-1740), was organist of 

Af w St. Clement's, 

^iT^PnAJCjMj> Eastcbeap, and of 
7' j^UA-^^ -^-^ g^ Margaret's, 

"Westminster, 1726. He left a sou Henry 
(died about 1750), wbo succeeded bis fatber 
as organist. — W. H. Cummings, Purcell 
(London, 1881) ; Hawkins, iv. 495 ; Burney, 
iii. 483 ; Fc'tis, vii. ; Grove, iii. 

PUKITANI DI SCOZIA, I (Tbe Puritans 
of Scotland), Italian opera in two acts, text 
by Count Pepoli, music by Bellini, first rep- 
resented at tbe Thi'atre Italien, Paris, Jan. 
25, 1835. Tbe bbretto is tbe poorest iu all 
Bellini's operas, but tbe score contains some 
of bis best melodies. Scene in England, 
during tbe reign of diaries II. Tbe Puri- 
tan Elvira, daugbter of Lord Walton, wbo 
bas been promised to Sir Riccardo Fortb, 
gains bcr fatber 's consent to ber marriage 
witb Sir Aiiuro Talbot, a Cavalier, wbo is 
admitted to tbe fortress beld by Lord 
Walton. On tbe day for tbeir nuptials Ai- 



I and sentenced to deatb. At tbis crisis a 
berald announces tbe defeat of tbe Stuarts, 
and Cromwell pardons tbe political of- 
fenders. Tbe joyful news restores Elvira 
to bealtb, and sbe is married to Arturo. 
Tbe principal numbers are tbe quartet 







'^<t-K\yJi 



i 



Giovanni Batlista Rubini. 

tiu'o aids Enricbetta, the widow of Cbarles 
I., and a prisoner tbere, to escape, and El- 
vira, believing tbat be is eloping, loses her 
reason. On bis return Ai-turo makes an 
explanation to Elvira, and they renew their 
vows ; but Arturo is arrested for treason, 




"A te, o cara ; " "Sou vergin vezzosa," a 
polonaise sung by Elvira ; " Non casa, 
non spiaggia," tbe final chorus of tbe first 
act ; Elvira's mad song, " Qui la voce ; " ber 
aria, "Vien, diletto;" " Suoni la tromba," 
duet between Riccardo and Giorgio, known 
as tbe "Liberty Duet; "and Arturo 's ro- 
manza, " A una fonte, afflitto e solo." Bel- 
lini wrote tbe score for tbe four great ar- 
tists wbo sang in tbe original cast : 

Elvira (S.) Mme CJrisi. 

Arturo (T.) Signor llubini. 

Riccardo (B.) Signor Tamburini. 

Giorgio (B.) Signor Lablache. 

Tbis was Bellini's last work, for be died on 
Sept. 23, 1835. At his funeral a Laciymo.sa 
was sung by Rubini, Ivanoff, Tamburini, 
and Lablache, tbe music of which was ar- 
ranged from the tenor aria, " A una fonte, 
afflitto e solo," from IPuritani. This opera 
was first given iu Loudon, at tbe King's 
Theatre, for the benefit of Mme Grisi, May 
21, 1835, and sung by Grisi, Rubini, Tarn- 



PURITAN'S 



buriui, and Lablacbe, long known as the 
" Puritani Quartet." Mme Bosio also was 
successful as Elvira. This work was first 
given in Berlin, Vienna, Milan, and Rome 
in 183G, and first in New York, Feb. 3, 
1844. Full score published by Schott 
(Mainz, 1835) ; pianoforte score by Tado- 
lini (ib.), and by Ch. Rummel (ib., 1839), 
and Grande Fantaisie for the pianoforte 
by Liszt, op. 7 (ib., 1839). Edition by 
Natalia Macfarreu, Novello, Ewer & Co. 
(London, 1872).— Clement et Larousse, 
558 ; Grove, i. 213 ; Edwards, Hist. Opera, 
ii. 253 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxviii. 113 ; 
Neue Zeitschr., iv. 130 ; Athenjcum (1835), 
418 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 54. 

PURITAN'S DAUGHTER, THE, Eng- 
lish opera in three acts, text by J. V. Bridg- 
man, music by Balfe, first represented at 
Covent Garden, London, Nov. 30, 1861. 
The action takes place in England in the 
reign of Charles II. Original cast : 

Mary Miss Louisa Pyne. 

Clifford Mr. Santley. 

Rochester Mr. Harrison. 

Wolf Mr. Corn. 

Seymour Mr. St. Alban. 

King Charles Mr. Patey. 

The chief numbers are : Mary's ballad, 
" Pretty, lowly, modest flower ; " the duet 
between Mary and Clifford, " Oh would that 
I had died ere now ; " " Let the loud tim- 
brel," a duet between two of the Puritans ; 
Rochester's drinking-song, " Let others sing 
the praise of wine ; " the quartet, " Ere 
long Death, perhaps, shall lay me low ; " 
Rochester's song, " Hail ! gentle sleep ; " 
and Mary's ballad, " My father dear, though 
years roll by."— Athenseiim (1861), ii. 772 ; 
Upton, Standard Operas, 36. 

PUZONE, GIUSEPPE, born at Naples, 
December, 1821, still living, 1890. Dramatic 
and church composer, pupil, at the Conserva- 
torio di San Pietro a Majella, of Ferrazzano 
and Rossi on the oboe, of Lanza on the pi- 
anoforte, of Gennaro Parisi in harmony, of 
Francesco Ruggi in counterpoint, and of 



Donizetti and Mercadante in composition 
and orchestration. In 1844 he became 
maestro concertatore at the Teatro San 
Carlo, where he is now maestro di cappella. 
Works — Operas : II marchese Albergati, 
Naples, 1839 ; II figlio dello schiavo, ib., 
1845 ; Elfrida di Salerno, ib., 1849 ; II 
dottor Sabbato, o^jera bufPa, ib., 1852. Lo 
tre ore d' agonia, oratorio ; 3 masses, with 
orchestra ; 2 Credo, do. ; 2 Taiituni ergo, 
do. ; Many motets, with and without or- 
chestra ; Several overtures for orchestra, 
etc. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 375. 

PYGMALION, melodrama, text by Jean 
Jacques Rousseau, music by Georg Benda, 
first represented in Gotha about 1771, in 
Leipsic in 1780. The story is that of Pyg- 
malion and Galatea. It was given in Ber- 
lin, Nov. 14, 1808, with Horr ItHand as 
Pygmalion. Other operas, melodramas, 
and cantatas on this subject : In Italian, 
Pimmaglione in Cipro, by Antonio Draghi, 
text by Minato, for the birthday of the Em- 
press, Vienna, 1689 ; Pimmaglione, by Gio- 
vanni Alb. Ristori, about 1750 ; same title, 
ballet by Florian Deller, about 1750 ; can- 
tata by Ziiigarelli, Nai:)les, 1779 ; drama, 
with music, by Bonifazio Asioli, Turin, 
about 1789 ; operetta by Cimadoro, Ven- 
ice, 1788, Milan, Nov. 20, 1795 ; by Cima- 
rosa, Vienna, 1792 ; by Sirotti, Milan, 1793 ; 
and opera, by Giovanni Battista Gordigiani, 
Prague, 1845 : in French, Pygmalion, by La 
Barre, in Le triomphe des arts, text by La- 
motte, Paris, May 16, 1700 ; melodrama by 
J. J. Rousseau, set by Horace Coignet, Paris, 
Oct. 30, 1775, and by Antoine L. Baudron, 
ib., 1780 ; L'Anti-Pygmalion, by Jean Bap- 
tiste Rochefort, Paris, 1778 ; Le nouveau 
Pygmalion, by Christian Rheineck, Lyons, 
about 1780 ; duodrama by Benedetto 
Bonesi, text by Du Rosoy, Paris, Dec. 16, 
1780 ; scene with orchestra, by Christian 
Kalkbrenner, Paris, 1799 ; ballet pantomime 
by Lefebre, text by Milon, Paris, Aug. 20, 
1800 ; opera-comique by Cherubini, Paris, 
Nov. 30, 1809 ; by Halevy, 1823, not given ; 
Galatee, by Victor Masse, Paris, April 14, 



QUAGLIATI 



1852 ; Monsieur Pygmalion et la statue, 
operetta by Auguste Leveillu, Paris, about 
1865 ; and Pygmalion, operetta by Mme de 
Saiute-Croix, Paris, Feb. 9, 1875 : in Ger- 
man, Der wunderbar vergniigto Pygmalion, 
by Couradi, text by Postel, Hamburg, IGOi ; 
Pygmalion, Singsj^iel by Franz Aspelmayer, 
Vienna, about 1775 ; ballet by Karl Hanke, 
in the castle of Graf Haditz, Eosswalde, 
1777 ; Singspiel by T. A. Kuutz, Prague, 
1781 ; cantata by Fnuiz Benda, 1785 ; mo- 
nodrama (?) by Ant. Schweitzer, about 
1785 ; Singsisiel by Justin Heinricli Knecbt, 
about 1790 ; Pj'gmalion oder die Keforma- 
tion der Liebe, Singspiel by Herklots, com- 
poser unknown, Berlin, 1792 : Die Reue des 
Pygmalion, ballet by Josef Weigl, Vienna, 
Oct. 1, 1794 ; Pygmalion, comic oi:)era by 
Karl Jakob Wagner, Darmstadt, 1809 ; 
Singsjjiel by Franz Volckert, Vienna, 1827 ; 
Singspiel by J. C. H. Kemde, Weimar-, 
183G ; and Die scliOne Galathea, ojieretta by 
Franz vou Sup2X', text by P. Henrion, Vi- 
enna, Sept. 9, 18G5. 

PYERHUS ET POLYX^NE. See AchiUe 
et Polyxene. 



QUAGLIATI, PAOLO, Roman hai-psi- 
cbord player of the 17th century. 
He was maestro di cappella of Santa 
Maria Maggiore in 1G12 and published 
Carro di fedelta d' amore (IGll), one of the 
oldest musical dramas in existence, and Mo- 
tetti e dialoghi a 2-8 voci (1G20).— Fctis ; 
Mendel. 

QUAISAIN, ADRIEN, born in Paris in 
17G6, died there. May 15, 1828. Dramatic 
singer and composer, pupil of Berton ; made 
his debut in 1797, and was chef d'orchestre 
of the Theatre de TAmbigu-Comique in 
1799-1819. Works: Sylvain et Lucette, 
ou la vendange, 1797 ; La musicomanie, 
Les deux ivrognes, Lo mari d'emprunt, 
1800 ; Une etourderie, ou I'une pour I'au- 
tre. La dot, ou le mari d'un jour, 1801 ; Les 
amants absents, 1803. — Fctis ; do.. Supple- 
ment, ii. 377. 



QUAL COR TRADISTL See Norma. 
QUAL FARFALLETTA, soprano aria of 
Partenope, in A major, with accompaniment 
of two violins and bass, in Handel's Parte- 
nope, Act n., Scene 7. Published also sepa- 
rately, with the accompaniment fiUed out 
by Otto Dresel (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hilr- 
tel). 

QUAND JE QUITTAI LA NORMAN- 
DIE. See Hubert le Diable. 

QUANDO RAPITA IN ESTiVSL See 
Lucia. 

QUANT' ^ Plil BELLO L' A:M0R CON- 
TADINO, nine variations for the pianoforte, 
in A, by Beethoven, on a theme from Paisi- 
eUo's opera. La Molinara, composed in 1796, 
and dedicated to Sua Altezza il Signoro 
Principe Carlo de Lichnowsky. Published 
byTraeg (Vienna, 1796). Breitkopf & Har- 
tel, Beethoven Werke, Serio xvii.. No. 6. 
— Thayer, Verzeichniss, 15. 

QUANTO AMORE. See Eli>;lre d' amore. 
QUANTZ (Quanz), JOHANN JOACHDI, 
born at Oberschedeu, 
Hanover, Jan. 30, 1697, 
died in Potsdam, July 
12, 1773. Virtuoso on 
the flute, and the famous 
instructor of Frederick 
the Great ou that instru- 
ment. The sou of a 
blacksmith, ho early 
played double-bass at 
village festivals ; and was taken by his un- 
cle, Justus Quantz, to Merseburg to be 
brought up as a musician. He learned sev- 
eral instruments and studied the pianoforte 
under Friedrich Kiesewetter. When his 
apprenticeship was over, in 1713, he became 
assistant musician at Radeberg, then at 
Pirna, and in 1716 in Dresden. He stud- 
ied counterjjoint under Zelenka and Fux in 
Vienna in 1717, and in 1718 joined the Po- 
lish royal orchestra of Warsaw and Dres- 
den, playing first the oboe, and later the 
flute under Buffardin. In 1724 he went to 
Italy in the suite of the Polish ambassa- 
dor, Count Lagnasco, received instruction in 







170 



QITAEENGHI 



counterpoint from Gasi^erini in Eome, and 
made the acquaintance of the Neapolitan 
masters ; in 1726 he remained several 
months in Paris, where he improved the 
flute by adding a second key ; in 1727 vis- 
ited London, wliere Italian opera was flour- 
ishing under Handel ; and returned to 
Dresden aud entered the royal orchestra 
again in 1728. His playing in Berlin in- 
spired the crown prince to learn the flute, 
and twice a year he had to visit Berlin, un- 
til his pupil succeeded to the throne and 
became Frederick the Great, when in 
1741 he was ajjpointed chamber musician 
and court composer, with a yearly salary 
of 2,000 Thalers, extra payment for every 
composition, and 100 ducats for every flute 
he should make. Until his death he re- 
mained in high favour with Frederick the 
Great, and was eminent as a virtuoso and 
teacher. Works : 300 concertos and 200 
other pieces for one and two flutes, trios, 
and quartets, most of them presei-ved in 
Potsdam. He irablished 6 flute sonatas 
with bass, 6 flute duets, and Neue Kii-cheu- 
melodien, or music to 22 of Gellert's odes ; 
a few songs ; a serenade ; Versuch einer 
Anweisung die FliUe traversiere zu spielen 
(1752), a flute method that was translated 



into French and Dutch ; Application pour 
la flilte traversiere a deux clefs. — Mendel ; 
Schilling ; Eiemann ; Fetis ; do., Supple- 
ment, ii. 377 ; A. Quantz, Leben und Werke 
des Fldtisten J. J. Quantz (Berlin, 1877) ; 
Winterfeld, Kirchengesang, iii. 467 ; Eeiss- 
mann, Illustr. Gesch. der Mus., 400. 

QUARENGHI, GUGLIELMO, bom at 
Casalmaggiore, Oct. 22, 1826, died in Mil- 
an, Feb. 4, 1882. Violoncellist, pupil at 
the Conservatorio, Milan, where he became 
professor of double-bass in 1851. He was 
appointed maestro di cappella of the catlie- 
dral there in 1879. Works : II dl di San 
Michele, opera, Milan, 1863 ; Several masses; 



Quartets ; Caprices, fantasias, etc., for vio- 
loncello. — Fetis, Supjjloment, ii. 377. 

QUATRE FILS AYMON, LES, opera- 
comique in three acts, text by de Leuven 
and Brunswick, music by Balfe, first repre- 
sented at the Opera Comique, Paris, July 
15, 1844. Four wanderers return to their 
fatlier's castle, and find themselves beggars 
instead of heirs. Near the Chateau Aymon 
dwells the Baron de Beaumanoir, who wishes 
to marry his daughter Hermine to the wealth- 
iest of his neighbours, and places his three 
nieces in a convent to obtain their patri- 
mony. An old seneschal, Ivon, invents the 
story that the eldest Aymon, Olivier, is 
wealthy and eccentric, assuming poverty. 
But Hermine refuses to marry before her 
cousins. This difficulty is overcome, for 
the three cousins accept the brothers of 
Olivier. The text and music are trivial and 
the ojjera was not as successful as Le ini'ds 
d'amour, which it followed. It was given 
at the Princess's Theatre, Loudon, as The 
Castle of Aymon, or the Four Brothers, 
Nov. 20, 1844.— Athenreum (1844), 1074; 
Clement et Larousse, 560. 

QUE CES MUBS COQUETS. See Am- 
ba.'isadrice. 
QUEEN CAROLINE'S TE DEUM, by 
Handel, written on 
the death of Queen 
Caroliue, one of his 
best friends, and first 
performed in King Henry VH.'s Chapel, 
Westminster Abbey, at Her Majesty's inter- 
ment, Dec. 17, 1737. This work was com- 
posed three weeks after the Queen's death. 
The text was probably selected by Handel. 
The first chorus is based on the German 
choral, " Herr Jesu Christ, du hOchstes 
Gut," known in Saxony as the Funeral 
Hymn, "Wenn mein Stiindlein vorhanden 
ist," used also by Mozart as the cantus firmus 
of the first movement in his Requiem. The 
original autograph, in Buckingham Palace, 
is dated London, December 12, 1737. It 
contains a Vorspiel, ten choruses, and two 
quartets. Burney considered this the finest 



171 



QUEEN 



of all of Handel's works. Part of this Fu- 
neral Authem was sung at the Handel Com- 
memoration, June 3, 1784. First pub- 
lished by Arnold (London) ; Chrysander's 
edition for the Hiindelgesellschaft, piano- 
forte score by Im. Faisst, published by 
Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leipsic, 18G1).— Chry- 
sander, Handel, ii. 43G ; Hawkins, v. 416; 
Burney, iv. 419 ; Eockstro, Handel, 206. 

QUEEN OF SHEBA. See Kdnicjin von 
Saba ; Heine de Saba. 

QUESTA O QUELLA. See rdgolelto. 

QUI LA VOCE. See Purilani. 

QUINTO FABIO, Italian opera in three 
acts, by Cherubini, first rejiresented in Ales- 
sandria, Piedmont, in the autumn of 1780. 
This was the composer's first opera, and it 
was rewritten and given in Rome in Jan- 
uary, 1783. The subject is Quiutus Fabius 
Maximns, the Roman hero of the Punic 
wars. Other Italian oijeras of this title, by 
Dimitri Bartnansky, text by Metastasio, 
Modena, Dec. 26, 1778 ; by Bertoni, Padua, 
1778 ; by Marinelli, Rome and Naples, 1791 ; 
and by Puccini, about 1800.— Fetis, ii. 783. 

QUbl ! C'EST VOUS (^U'ELLE PRfi- 
FERE ! See JjAfausse magie. 



HABBONI, GIUSEPPE, born at Cre- 
mona, Italy. July 16, 1800, died at 
Yarenna, Lake Como, Jane 10, 1856. 
Virtuoso on the flute, pupil at the Jlilan 
Conservatorio (1808-17), of Buccinelli, 
whom he succeeded in 1827 as professor. 
H(! was also first flutist at the Teatro 
della Scala, and made numerous concert 
tours, mostly in company with the clarinet- 
ist Ernesto Cavallini. His compositions 
for the flute number about sixty-seven 
works, and were highly esteemed by the 
Italian virtuosi on that instrument. — Fctis, 
Supplement, ii. 382. 

RABE, CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB, born 
at Halle, Oct. 18, 1815, died, Feb. 27, 1876. 
Instrumental and vocal composer, pupil of 
Tiirk. In 1839 he was Kaijellmeistcr to 
Count Hahn, who, with his opera troupe. 



travelled through North Germany ; in 1844 
he returned to Halle, and was employed at 
the Institute for the Blind ; in 1846-47, Ka- 
pellmeister at the Stadttheater in Cologne, 
then at Basel and Ziirich. In 1848 he be- 
came music director and organist at Lenz- 
burg, which position he resigned in 1875 
on account of ill-health. Some of his op- 
eras were given at Bernburg ; he left many 
instrumental and vocal compositions in 
manuscript. 

RABUTEAU, VICTOR ALFRED PEL- 
LETIER-, born in Paris, June 7, 1843, stiU 
living, 1890. Pianist and violinist, pupil, at 
the Conservatoire, of Bazin in harmony and 
of Ambroise Thomas in fugue and compo- 
sition ; won in 1865 the first jjrize for har- 
mony, and in 1868 the grand prix de Rome. 
Works : Le passage de la mer rouge, ora- 
torio, 1874 ; Suite symphonique. — Futis, 
Supplement, ii. 384. 

RACHEL! QUAND DU SEIGNEUR. 
See La Juive. 

RADAMSTO, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Nicholas Haj-m, after an episode in 
the "Annals" of Tacitus (xii., cap. 51), 
music bj' Handel, first represented at the 
King's Theatre, London, April 27, 1720. 
The original score, in Buckingham I'alace, 
is unsigned and undated. This opera was 
received with extraordinary enthusiasm. 
Burney calls it " solid, ingenious, and full 
of fire," and Handel considered the aria 
" Ombra cara," sung by Radamisto, one of 
his best solos. The bass aria for Tiridate, 
"Alzo al volo," is acccompanied by two 
horns, then new instruments in a London 
orchestra. Characters represented : Rada- 
misto, son of Fai-asmene (S.) ; Zenobia, 
his wife (A.) ; Farasmene, King of Thrace 
(B.) ; Tiridate, King of Armenia (B.) ; Polis- 
sena, his wife, daughter of Farasmene (S.) ; 
Tigrane, Prince of Pontus (S.) ; and Fraate, 
brother of Tiridate (S.). In the following 
November, 1720, when the score was re- 
vised, the pai't of Radamisto was changed 
to conti'alto for Senesino ; Tiridate was 
made a bass ; and the character of Fraate 



172 



EADECKE 



was omitted. The elaborate aria, " Sposa 
ingrata," smig by Polissena, originally writ- 
ten for one of Handel's early cantatas, 
" Castri amori," was altered for Faustina in 
1728, when the work was revived. It was 
first given in Hamburg, as Zenobia, in 1721. 
The score was first published by Richard 
Mearcs, at Handel's order (London, 1720). 
The only other edition is that revised by 
Chrysander, and published for the Hiindel- 
gesellschaft, by Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leip- 
sic, 1875). Other Itahan operas on this 
subject : Zenobia e Radamisto, by Giovanni 
Legrenzi, text by Matteo Noris, Ferrara, 
16G5 ; same text, music by Chelleri, Venice, 
1722 ; by NicoloPiccinni, Naples, 1776 ; and 
Eadamisto e Zenobia, by Pietro Raimondi, 
Naples, 1817. See Zenobia. — Rockstro, 
Handel, 130 ; Marshall, Handel, 08 ; Bur- 
ney, iv. 259 ; Hawkins, v. 295. 

EADECKE, ROBERT, born at Ditt- 
mannsdorf, Silesia, Oct. 31, 1830, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Pianist, organist, and violinist, 
pupil at Breslau of Ernst KOhlcr on the pi- 
anoforte and organ, of Liistner on the vio- 
lin, and of Brosig in composition ; then, at 
the Lcipsic Conservatorium, of Moscheles 
and Hauptmann. In 1850 he became first 
violinist in the Gewandhaus orchestra, in 
1852 second director of the Singakademie 
with Ferdinand David, and in 1853 musi- 
cal director of the Stadttheater of Leipsic. 
After serving a year in the army he settled 
in Berlin, gave chamber concerts, played 
second violin in Laub's quartet, and in 
1858-G3 established choral and orchestral 
concerts with great success. He was ap- 
pointed musical director of the royal opera 
in 18G3 with Taubert and Dorn, and in 
1871 was made royal Kapellmeister for life. 
Works : Kimig Johann, overture for orches- 
tra ; Am Strande, do. ; Die Monkguter, 
Liederspiel ; Symphony, and other music 
for orchestra ; About 100 songs ; Vocal 
duets, trios, and quartets. — Mendel ; Rie- 
mann ; Fetis. 

RADECKE, RUDOLF, born at Ditt- 
mannsdorf, Silesia, Sept. 6, 1829, still liv- 



ing, 1890. Brother of the preceding, pupil 
of Mosewius and Baumgart at the Academi- 
cal Institute for Church Music, in Breslau 
(1851-53), then of Rietz, Hauptmann, and 
Moscheles at the Conservatorium, Leipsic ; 
settled in Berlin in 1859, was professor at 
Stern's Conservatorium in 1804-71, con- 
ductor of the Cilcilien-Verein in 1804-08, 
then founded a singing society, named af- 
ter him, and in 1809 a musical institute, of 
which he is director. Works : Symj^hony ; 
Overtures ; Trios ; Duos ; Choruses and 
songs. — Mendel ; Riemann. 

RADICATI, FELICE ALESSANDRO, 
born at Turin in 1778, died, April 14, 1823. 
Violinist, pupil of Pugnani ; made a tour 
through Lombardy in 1816 and was in Vi- 
enna two years later. He married the 
singer Teresa Bertiuotti. His death was 
the result of injuries received in being 
thrown from a carriage. Works : Ricciar- 
do Cuor di Leone, opera, Bologna ; Quin- 
tets, quartets, and trios for strings ; Duos 
for violins ; Themes varii's for violin, and 
orchestra, or quartet ; Italian ariettas, with 
pianoforte. — Fc'tis. 

RADOUX, JEAN TH1^:0D0RE, born at 
Liege, Nov. 9, 1835, still living, 1890. Dra- 
matic composer, sou of and first instructed 
by an artisan, then pupil, at the Conserva- 
toire, of Bacha on the bassoon. On his 
master's death, in 1856, he obtained his 
l^lace by competition, also won the first 
prize for pianoforte ; studied counterpoint 
and fugue under Daussoigne-Mt'hul, whose 
favourite pupil he became. In 1857 a Te 
Deum by him was performed at the Liege 
Cathedral, and in 1859 he took the Brussels 
grand prix de Rome for his cantata Le juif 
errant. He then studied in Paris under 
Halevy, and from that time became a pro- 
lific composer. In 1872 he became director 
of the Lioge Conservatoire. Officer of the 
Order of Leopold, 1877. Works : Le Bi'ar- 
nais, opera-comique, Liege, 1800, Brussels 
(remodelled) ; La coupe enchantee, do., 
Brussels, 1872 ; Cain, oratorio, Lii'ge, 1877 ; 
La fille de Jephte, cantata for soli, chorus, 



173 



KADZIWILL 



and orchestra ; Le printemps, chorus for 
female voices, with orchestra ; Le festin de 
Balthazar, tableau symphonique, Liege, 
1861 ; Te Deum (ordered by the govern- 
ment), Sainte-Gudule, Brussels, 1863 ; Epo- 
pee nationale, ouverture symphonique, ib., 
1863 ; Several other national hymns and 
symphonies, executed at Liege and Brus- 
sels on state occasions ; Sacred pieces for 
one or several voices, with and without 
chorus, and organ accompaniment ; chor- 
uses for male voices ; ]\Ielodies for voice 
and pianoforte ; Romances sans paroles for 
pianoforte, etc. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 
385 ; Mendel, Erganz., 372 ; Gregoir, ii. 
87 ; Viotta. 

E.^DZnVILL, Prince AXTON HEIN- 
RICH, born at Wilna, June 13, 1775, died 
in Berlin, April 8, 1833. Amateur violon- 
cellist and vocal comijoser. Married to 
the Princess Luise, sister of the distin- 
guished amateur Prince Louis Ferdinand 
of Prussia, he was known in Berlin not only 
as an ardent admirer of good music but as 
a singer of much taste and ability and a 
liberal patron, and it was to him that Beet- 
hoven dedicated the Namensfeier Ouvertiire 
in C, op. 115. Ho was best known by his 
music to Goethe's " Faust," which was 
repeatedly performed during several years 
in Berlin, Dantzic, Hanover, Lcipsic, 
Prague, and other places. He was one of 
the patrons of Frederic Chopin, whom he 
placed in one of the best colleges of War- 
saw. Works : Romances for voice and 
pianoforte ; Songs with guitar and violon- 
cello ; Duets with pianoforte ; Many part- 
songs composed for Zelter's " Liedertafel " 
(MS.).— Fetis ; Sowifiski ; Mendel. 

RAFAEL, FRANTISEK KAEEL (Franz 
Carl), born at Senftenberg, Bohemia, in 
1795, died at Pettau, Styria, Nov. 14, 1864. 
Bass singer and double-bass player, pupil 
at the Conservatorium in Prague on the 
double-bass, which he afterwards jslayed in 
the theatre orchestra at BrQnn, but aban- 
doned to become a dramatic singer. When 
his voice began to fail he taught music, and 



organized an orchestra, which was among 
the most poj^ular in the city. He then 
acted as Kapellmeister at several theatres, 
in 1837 at Breslau, then at Troppau, and in 
1843 at Marburg and at Pettau, where he 
settled, teaching music after 1845. Works : 
Solemn mass ; 2 Requiems ; Salutaris hostia ; 
Tantum ergo, and other church music ; 
Songs. — Wurzbach. 

RAFAEL, FRANZ, born in Briinn in 
181G, died in Gratz, April 19, 1867. Dra- 
matic composei", son and pupil of the fol- 
lowing, was for a number of years Kapell- 
meister of the theatre at Gratz. Works : 
Wittekind, opera, Gratz, 18G1 ; Hcinrich 
der Fiukler, do., Olmiitz, 1860; Die Sfiiun- 
stube, operetta, Gratz, 1864 ; Burschen- 
schwiinke, do. — Wurzbach. 

RAFF, (JOSEPH) JOACHDI, born at 
Lachen, on the Lake 
of Zili-ich, May 27, 
1822, died in BerUn, 
Juno 26, 1882. Ho 
began his education 
at Wiesenstetten, in 
Wiirtemberg, then 
entered the Jesuit 
Lyceum at Sehwyz, 
where ho won first 
prizes in German, Latin, and mathematics. 
Poverty comjielling him to stoj) his musical 
studies, he turned school-master, but con- 
tinued the study of music without a teacher, 
making much progi'ess on the pianoforte 
and violin, and in composition. In 1843 
he sent some MS. compositions to Mendels- 
sohn, who gave him an introduction to 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, which led to the pub- 
lication of several of his works. From that 
time to his death Raff continued to com- 
pose and publish almost unceasingly. His 
poverty continued for some time unabated ; 
but he succeeded in interesting Liszt, who 
invited him to join him on a concert tour. 
Meeting Mendelssohn at Cologne, in 1846, 
he was invited to go to Leipsic to study 
under him, and accordingl}' severed his 
connection with Liszt for that purpose ; 




174 



RAFF 



but Mendelssolin's death frustrated tbis 
plan, and Kaff was fain to stay in Cologne, 
■where he supported himself for a time, 
partly by musical criticism. Liszt again 
tried to help him, and through his instru- 
mentality Eaff was just about to enter into 
remunerative relations with Mechetti, the 
Vienna jjublishei*, when the latter also died. 
Eaff returned to his studies, pursuing them 
partly at home, and partly at Stuttgart, 
where he had the good luck to fall in with 
von Billow, who helped his rei^utatiou not a 
little by playing his Couzertstiick in public. 
In 1850 he went to Weimar to be con- 
stantly near Liszt. Here he remodelled an 
opera, "KOnig Alfred," which had been 
given at Stuttgart, and brought it out with 
flattering success. Ho also became en- 
gaged to Doris Genast, the actress (daugh- 
ter of manager Genast), whom he followed 
to Wiesbaden iu 185G, and finally married 
in 1859. In Wiesbaden he was for a long 
while in great request as pianoforte teacher. 
In 1863, his first symphony, An das Vater- 
land, got the prize offered by the Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde of Vienna. In 
1870 his opera. Dame Kobold, was pro- 
duced at Weimar. In 1877 he was ap- 
pointed director of Hoch's Conservato- 
rium at Frankfort. If not a great genius, 
Raff certainly was a man of prodigious 
talent. He was a hard student, and suc- 
ceeded in attaining a mastery over the most 
intricate technical details of composition 
such as very few of his contemporaries 
could boast of. Although his larger works 
abound in passages in which quite excep- 
tional difficulties have been conquered, he 
always seems to write with consummate 
ease. His fertility of melodic invention 
was immense, and he rarely, if ever, re- 
peated himself. In elaboration and perfec- 
tion of workmanship, he compares favorably 
with the best writers of his day. His be- 
setting fault is a certain lack of nobility of 
inspiration, and real depth of feeling. The 
extraordinary facility with which he wrote, 
and the almost constant necessity he was 



under of writing rapidly, to satisfy eager 
publishers, made him careless of self-criti- 
cism. In fact, his poverty was the great 
bane of his talent, as it was of his life. Of 
over two hundred opus-numbers that he 
gave to the world, by far the greater pro- 
portion were mere pot-boUers, salon pieces 
of questionable value, and few even of his 
greater works are wholly free from a cer- 
tain tawdriness of stylo. Yet, for the later 
half of his hfe, he was assuredly one of the 
most prominent musical figures in Ger- 
many, and one of the leaders of musical 
opinion. His best known works are also 
his best ones. Among them are the second 
symjihony, in C, oj). 140, third symphony 
Im Waldo, fifth symphony Lcuore, the con- 
certos for pianoforte, op. 185, for violin, op. 
206, and for violoncello, op. 193, the suites 
for orchestra, op. 101 and op. 194, and a 
great deal of chamber music. Works : 

I. For Voices and Orchestra : " Wachet 
auf " (text by Geibel) for men's voices and 
orchestra, op. 80 ; Deulschland's Aufersteh- 
ung, festival cantata for the 50th anniver- 
sary of the Battle of Leipsic, for do., op. 
100 ; Do profundis (Psalm CXXX.) for 8 
voices and orchestra, op. 141 ; Im Kahn 
and Der Tanz, 2 songs for mixed chorus 
and orch., op. 171 ; Blorgenlkd, for do., op. 
186 A. ; Eiuer Entschlafenen, for soprano 
solo, chorus, and orch., op. 186 n. ; Die 
Jiigerbraut and Die Hirtin, 2 scenes for a 
solo voice and orch., op. 199 ; Die Tages- 
zeiten, 4 movements for pianoforte, chorus, 
and orch., op. 209 ; Weltende, Gericht, neue 
Welt, oratorio to words from the Apoca- 
lypse ; 4 Antiphons of the Virgin, 5-8 voc, 
Kyrie and Gloria, 6 voc. a cappella. Pater 
uoster and Ave Maria, 8 voc, without ojsus 
number, and in MS. ; 2 choruses. Die 
Sterne and DornrOschen, do., do. 

II. Dramatic : Konig Alfred, opera, Wei- 
mar, 1850 ; Dame Kobold, comic opera, op. 
154, ib., 1870 ; Die Eifersiichtigen, do., 
not performed ; Die Parole, do., not per- 
formed ; Benedetto Marcello, lyric opera, 
not performed ; Samson, grand opera, not 



RAFF 



performed ; Music to Genast's Bernhard 
von Weimar, ^Yeimar, 1858. 

ni. Songs : About 85 songs for a voice 
with pianoforte : op. 47-53, G6, 98 (Sauges- 
frubliug, 30 songs), 172 (Maria Stuart, 
Cyclus of 11 songs), 173, 191, 211 (Bloudin 
de Nesle, cyclus), and two without ojjus 
number ; 12 duets with do., op. 114 ; G 
songs for 3 female voices with do., op. 184 ; 
30 four-i)art songs for male voices, oj). 97, 
122, 195 ; 10 do. for mixed voices, op. 
198. 

IV. For Orchestra: 11 symj^honies : No. 1, 
All das Vaterland, op. 9G ; No. 2, in C, op. 
140 ; No. 3, Im Widde, in F, op. 153 ; No. 
4, in G minor, op. 1G7 ; No. 5, Lenore, in 
E, op. 177 ; No. C, Gelebt, gestrebt— gelit- 
teu, gestritteu — gestorben, umworben, in D 
miu:or, op. 189 ; No. 7, In den Alpen, in B- 
flat, op. 201 ; No. 8, FrUhlingskldiuje, in A, 
op. 205 ; No. 9, Im Sommer, in E minor, 
op. 208 ; No. 10, Zur Herbstzeit, in F mi- 
nor, op. 213 ; No. 11, Der Winter, in A mi- 
nor (posthumous, edited by Erdmanns- 
dOrfer), op. 214 ; Sinfonietta for 10 wind 
instruments, op. 188. Four suites : No. 1, in 
C, op. 101 ; No. 2, In unQari»vher\i eise, iuF, 
op. 194 ; No. 3, Italiiinische S., in E minor, 
without opus number ; No. 4, Thiiriuger S., 
in B-flat (MS.), op. 204. Nine overtm-es : 
Jubelouverli'ire, op. 103 ; Festouferturc, m A, 
op. 117 ; Conzertouverture in F, op. 123 ; 
Festouvertiire for wind instruments for the 
50th anniversarj' of the Deutsche Burschen- 
schaft at Jena, op. 124 ; Overture on Ein' 
feste Burg, op. 127 ; do. to Shakespeare's 
Borneo and Juliet (MS.), no opus number ; 
do. to Othello (MS.), id. ; do. to Macbeth 
(MS.), id. ; do. to The Tempest (MS.), id. 
Festmarsch, op. 139; 
Abends, rhapsody, op. 163 
B. ; Elegy (MS.), no opus 
number ; Fugue (MS., un- 
finished), id. ^ 

V. For Pianoforte with 
Orchestra : Ode au printemps, op. 76 ; Con- 
certo in C minor, op. 185 ; Suite in E-flat, 
op. 200. 



VI. For Violin with Orchestra : La fOte 
d' Amour, op. 67 ; Concerto No. 1, in B mi- 
nor, op. 161 ; Suite, op. 180 ; Concerto No. 

2, in A minor, op. 206. 

Vn. For Violoncello with Orchestra : 
Concerto No. 1, in D minor, op. 193 ; do. 
No. 2, in G (MS.), no opus number. 

VILL Chamber Music : Octet for strings, 
in C, op. 176 ; Sextet for do., op. 178 ; 
Quintet for jjianoforte and strings, in A mi- 
nor, op. 107 ; 10 String quartets : No. 1, in 
D minor, op. 77 ; No. 2, in A, op. 90 ; No. 

3, in E minor, op. 136 ; No. 4, in A minor, 
op. 137 ; No. 5, in G, op. 138 ; Nos. G, Suite 
iilterer Form, 7, Die schOno Miilleriu, 8, 
Suite in Canon-Form, op. 192 ; Nos. 9, in G, 
10, in C minor, op. 202. Four trios for pi- 
anoforte and strings : No. 1, op. 102 ; No. 
2, in G, op. 112 ; No. 3, op. 155 ; No. 4, in 
D, oj). 158. Five sonatas for pianoforte 
and violin : No. 1, in E minor, op. 73 ; No. 
2, in A, op. 78 ; No. 3, in D, op. 128 ; No. 

4, in G minor, op. 129 ; No. 5, in C minor, 
op. 145 ; Suite for do., op. 210 ; Other 
pieces for do., op. 58, 63, 203 ; one duo in 
MS. Duo in A for jsianoforte and violon- 
cello, op. 59 ; 2 Fantasiestiickc for do., op. 
86 ; 2 Romances for horn or violoncello, op. 
182 ; Sonata for pianoforte and violoncello, 
op. 183. 

IX. For Pianoforte : 2 Sonatas ; No. 1, 
with fugue, in E-flat minor, op. 14 ; Fan- 
tasie-Sonate in D minor, op. 168 ; 3 sona- 
tillas, op. 99 ; 7 suites : op. 69 ; in C, oj). 
71 ; in E minor, op. 72 ; in D, op. 91 ; in G 
minor, op. 162 ; in G, op. 163 ; in B-flat, op. 
204 (from the orchestral suite) ; about 125 
opus numbers of other pianoforte music in 
various forms. Two Humoreskeu for pi- 




anoforte 4 hands, in D, op. 159, Todtentanz, 
op. 181 ; Other 4-hand music, op. 82, 160, 
174 ; Chaconne in A minor for 2 piano- 



176 




-'s*'^ '""* 
W -- 



THE SEW YORK 
PUBLIC UBRARY 



ASTBH, tCN«X 
,. TH.DtN F OUNPATiaMa 

. — M 



RAFFAEL 



fortes, op. 150 ; Phantasie in G minor for 
do., op. 207 A.; The same arranged for pi- 
anoforte and strings, op. 207 b. Kaff also 
made a masterly orchestral arrangement of 
Bach's D minor chaconne, and wrote the 
pamphlet Die Wagnerfrage (1854). — Grove ; 
Mendel ; Riemann. 

EAFFAEL (Raphael), HYNEK VACLAV 
(Iguaz Wenzel), born at Munchengriltz, Co- 
liemia, Oct. IG, 17C2, died in Vienna, Feb. 
23, 1799. Dramatic and church composer, 
studied music in Prague, and first attracted 
attention in 1781 as a tenor singer and or- 
ganist. Kajoellmeister of a theatre in Pesth 
several years, he settled afterwards in Vi- 
enna, where he obtained a government 
jjosition. "Works : Das Veilchenfest, ballet, 
Vienna, 1795 ; Pygmalion, do. ; Virginia, 
melodrama ; Pater noster, with orchestra ; 
Te Deum, do.; Canons with organ ; Songs 
and pianoforte music. — Dlabacz ; FOtis ; 
Wurzbach. 

EAGUE, LOUIS CHARLES, French 
amateur harp player, lived in Paris in 
1775-92, then in the neighborhood of Mou- 
lins. Works : Memnon, opera, Comedic 
Italienne, 1781 ; L'amour filial, do., ib., 
178G ; Concerto for harp and orchestra ; 3 
symphonies for orchestra ; Quartets, and 
trios for harp and strings ; Duos, sonatas, 
etc., for hai-p. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

RAIK, DIEUDONNE, born at Lit'ge, 
1702, died at Antwerp, Nov. 30, 1764. Or- 
ganist, entered the choral school at Antwerp 
as a boy, became a priest in 1726, went as 
organist to Louvain in 1727, to Ghent in 
1742, and finally was recalled to Antwerp, 
where ho became vicar and choir director. 
He published six suites, and three sonatas 
for pianoforte ; other compositions remain 
in manuscript at Ghent, Louvain, and Ant- 
werp. — Mendel. 

RAIMONDI, IGNAZIO, born in Naples 
in 1733, died in 1802. Violinist, pupil of 
Barbella, settled at Amsterdam about 1762, 
and established there regular concerts, which 
be conducted until about 1780 ; he then 
seems to have gone to Paris, and afterwards 



to London. Works: Les aventures de 
Tc'lemaque, symphony, Amsterdam, 1777 ; 
La muette, opera-bouffe, Paris, 1791 ; 3 con- 
certos for violin ; 6 quartets for strings ; 3 
trios for do. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

RAUIONDI, PIETRO, born in Rome, 
Dec. 20, 1786, died there, Oct. 30, 1853. 
Dramatic and church composer, and dis- 
tinguished conti'apuntist ; pupil at the Con- 
servatorio della Pieta de' Turchini, Naples, 
of La Barbara and Tritto for six years, but 
was then forced to leave because the relative 
who had sup^jorted him refused to do so 
any longer. After many wanderings he 
was called to Florence in 1810, to Naples in 
1811, and in the following twenty-five years 
wrote operas and ballets for Naples, Sicily, 
Rome, and MUan. He was director in 1824 
-32 of the music in the Royal Theatres at 
Naples, and in 1832 became professor of 
composition at the Palermo Conservatorio, 
where, during eighteen years he educated 
some remarkable pupils, among others 
Chiaramonti. He was called to Rome in 
1850 to succeed Bassilj as maestro di cap- 
pella at St. Peter's. His operas would prob- 
ably have been more successful but for 
Rossini, who was then dwarfing all others. 
His church compositions and oratorios 
placed him in the front rank. Among his 
more remarkable works are three oratorios, 
Potifera, Faraone, and lacob, designed to 
be performed either separately or in combi- 
nation as one work, under the name of lo- 
sef. When given at the Teatro Argen- 
tino, Aug. 7, 1852, the success of the single 
oratorios was moderate, but when united, 
the three orchestras and three troupes 
forming an ensemble of 400 musicians, the 
enthusiasm knew no bounds. Works — Ope- 
ras : Le bizzarrie d' amore, Genoa, 1807 ; II 
battuto contento, ib., 1808 ; Ero e Leandro, 
ib., 1809 ; Eloisa Werner, Florence, 1810 ; 
L' oracolo di Delfi, Naples, 1811 ; H fanatico 
deluso, ib., 1811 ; Lo sposo agitato, ib., 
1812 ; Amurat Secondo, Rome, 1813 ; La 
lavandaia, Naples, 1814 ; R ventaglio, ib., 
1831, and all over Italy ; and 45 other 



RALNrElTHTER 



operas ; 20 ballets, Naples, 1812-1828 ; 7 
oratorios ; 4 masses with full orchestra ; 2 
do., with full chorus acappella ; Mass for 8 
and 16 voices ; Credo for 16 voices ; The 
whole Book of Psalms alia Palestrina for i, 
5, 6, 7, and 16 voices ; Many Te Deum ; 
Stabats ; ]\Iisereres, Tantum ergo, etc. ; 2 
books of 90 j)artimenti, each on a sej)arate 
bass, with 3 different accompauimeuts ; Col- 
lection of figured basses with fugued ac- 
companiments as a school of accompani- 
ment ; Several collections of fugues for 4-8 
voices, etc. — Cicconetti, Memorie intorno 
Pietro Eaimondi (Rome, 1867) ; Fetis ; 
Grove ; Mendel ; Eiemann. 

EAINPRUHTER, JO H ANN NEPO- 
MUK FRANZ SERAFIN, bom in Bavaria, 
May 17, 1752, died at Salzburg, April, 1812. : 
Violinist and church composer, first in- j 
structed by his father, a musician at Alien- j 
Otting, Bavaria ; then jsupil of Leopold 
Mozart at Salzburg, where he became choir 
director in the monastery of St. Peter about 
1773. "Works : 3 solemn masses ; Other 
masses, vespers, oifertories, litanies, etc. ; 
Symphonies ; Concertos for various instru- 
ments ; Quartets, trios, duos, serenades, 
etc. — Wurzbach. 

rIkOCZY INDULO, the most cele- 
brated of Hungarian tunes. It shares its 
name with a number of older Hungarian 
marches, dating from the beginning of the 
18th century, when the Transylvanian 
prince, Rakoczy Ferencz, made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to resist the power of Aus- 
tria. It is thought that he composed this 
march, the performance of which on public 
occasions has been prohibited by the Aus- 
trian government. The tune, which is stir- 
ring, is much loved by the Austrians. Ber- 
lioz introduced it into the Damnation de 
Faust, writing it the night before he left 
Vienna for Prague, during his first visit to 
Austria. Berhoz's arrangement has been 
adapted for the pianoforte for two bands, 
by Ed. Wolff, published by Bote & Bock 
(Berlin) ; and for four hands, by Julius 
Benedict (ib.). Arrangements, by Liszt : 



Marche de Rakoczy for the pianoforte, edi- 
tion populaire (Kistner, Leipsic) ; Rakuczy- 
Marsch, symphonic arrangement for full or- 
chestra, also for the pianoforte for four and 
for eight hands (Schuberth, Leipsic) ; and 
Rakoczy-Marsch for the pianoforte, Rliap- 
aodie, hongroise. No. XV. There are various 
arrangements by other composers. — Engel, 
the Study of National Music, 192 ; Apthorp, 
Beriioz, 52. 

RAMANN, BRUNO, born at Erfurt in 
1830, still living, 1890. Instrumental and 
vocal comjioser, pupil of Brendel, Riedel, 
and Hauptmauu ; lives and teaches at Dres- 
den. Works : Lob der Frauen, for male 
voices and pianoforte ; Ein Tanz-Poem, for 
pianoforte four hands ; Three songs for 
mixed chorus ; Album fiU'stlicher Minne- 
siinger und Lieder ; Pianoforte pieces, etc. 
RAMEAU, JEAN PHILIPPE, born at 
Dijon, France, Sept. 
25, 1683, died in 
Paris, Sept. 12, 1764. 
Dramatic composer, 
son of an organist at 
the Dijon cathedral. 
He was intended for 
the magistracy, but 
he so neglected his 
studies at the Jesuit 
College for music that his parents were 
asked to take him away. He was already 
an accomplished clavecinist, for at the age 
of seven he could play quite difficult mu- 
sic at sight. He soon mastered also the or- 
gan and violin, and in 1701 made a short 
visit to Italy, but soon joined a theatrical 
company, with whom he travelled through 
South France as first violinist. In 1706 he 
was living at Paris as organist to the Jesuit 
convent in the rue Saint- Jacques, and of 
the chapel of the Pores de la Merci. It is 
not known how long he stayed in Paris, 
nor where he lived up to the time of his 
second visit in 1717. In this year he failed 
to get the post of organist at the church of 
Saint-Paul, and went to Lille, where he was 
organist at Saint-lfitienne for a while, going 




178 



KAMEAU 



theuce to Clermont in Auvergne, where be 
succeeded his brother, Claude, as organist at 
the cathedral. In the quiet of this secluded 
mountain town, Eameau gave himself up to 
the study of the writings of Descartes, Mer- 
senne, Kirehei-, and Zarlino, and gradually 
drew up his famous " Treatise on Harmony 
reduced to its natural principles," a truly 
epoch-making work. Kameau's system of 
harmony was based upon the equal division 
of the monochord, and was the first attempt 
ever made to reduce the theory of harmony 
to scientific principles. For many genera- 
tions it was the basis of all theoretic writ- 
ings on the subject in France, Germany, 
and Ital}', and although it has now been 
suj)erseded by other sounder systems, Ka- 
meau's theory of the inversion of chords 
has held good to the jsresent day. This 
was, indeed, his one really important dis- 
covery. As soon as he had completed his 
work, which he did in four years, he was 
anxious to go again to Paris, but the long 
engagement which he had signed with the 
Clermont chajjter had still several years to 
run, and his only means of obtaining a re- 
lease was persistently to scorch the ears of 
the congregation by such outrageous freaks 
of improvisation on the organ, that the 
chapter had to let him go iu self-defence. 
When he arrived in Pai-is he had his " Traito 
d'harmonie " published by Ballard (1722). 
The work did not attract much notice at 
first, and Rameau had to give music lessons 
for a living. In this way he soon became 
fashionable, notably with ladies of rank ; he 
also got the post of organist at the church of 
the Sainte-Croix de la Bretonnerie. On Feb. 
25, 1726, he married Marie-Louise Mangot, 
a good singer, then only eighteen years old. 
By this time his " Traite d'harmonie " had 
excited considerable notice, as had also the 
music he wrote to several little pieces of 
Alexis Piron for the Theatre de la Foire, 
and some cantatas and clavecin works he 
had published. But iu spito of his growing 
rejjutation both as theorist, organist, and 
composer, it was not until 1733 that he 



succeeded in having a five-act grand opera, 
Hippolyte et Aricie, brought out at the 
Academic de Musique, which made more 
stir than anything that had appeared since 
Lully's day, and became the subject of con- 
siderable controversy. It was followed by 
a long list of other operas and ballets, 
written either for the Academic de Musique, 
or for the court. He was certainly the 
greatest French composer since LuUy, and 
did much toward expanding the form of 
French opera which Lully had established. 
He introduced new forms, a more careful 
and varied treatment of the orchestra, richer 
harmony, and more frequent modulation. 
He was an unequal writer, but would prob- 
ably have been less so had he not persist- 
ently refused to recognize the fact that he 
wrote best when thoroughly inspu-ed by 
his subject. Unlike LuUy, who threw the 
whole weight of his genius upon truth of 
dramatic expression, and was always care- 
ful to secure the best possible libretti, Ea- 
meau had a theory that it mattered little to 
a composer what he set to music, and was 
correspondingly careless in his choice of 
opera-texts. Still, when at his best, he 
wrote music the beauties of which can 
hardly be dimmed by time, and he has 
always been esteemed the greatest figure 
in the history of French opera between 
Lully and Gluck. Works — I. Operas : Sam- 
sou (not f)erformed, written 1732) ; Ilijjpo- 
lyte et Aricie, tragedie-02:)era, Paris, Aca- 
demie Eoyale de Musique, Oct. 1, 1733 ; 
Les Indes galantes, opera-ballet, ib., Aug. 
23, 1735 ; Castor Qi Pollux, tragedie-lyrique, 
ib., Oct. 24, 1737 ; Les fOtes d'Hube, ou les 
talents lyriques, opera-ballet, ib., May 21, 
1739 ; Dardanus, tragedie-opera, ib., Nov. 
19, 1739 ; La princesse de Navarre, comedie- 
hcroique, Versailles, Feb. 23, 1745 ; Les 
fetes de Polhymnie, opera-ballet, Paris, 
Academic Eoyale de Musique, Oct. 12, 1745 ; 
Le temple de la glorie, do., Versailles, Nov. 
27, and Paris, Academic Eoyale de Musique, 
Dec. 7, 1745 ; Les fetes d'Hymeu et de 
I'Amour, ou les dieux d'Egypte, ballet- 



170 



RAMEAU 



heroique, Versailles, March 15, 1747, and 
Paris, Academie Koyale de Musique, Nov. 5, 
1748 ; Zais, opura-ballet, ib., Feb. 29, 1748 ; 
Pygmalion (act from Laroche's opera Le 
triomphe des arts, reset by Rameau), ib., 
Aug. 27, 1748 ; Platoe, ou Junon jalonse, 
comudie-ballet, ib., Feb. 4, 1749 ; Nais, 
opera-ballet, ib., April 22, 1749 ; ZoroaMre 
(the music of Samson remodelled on a new 
libretto), tragedie-lyrique, ib., Nov. 5, 1749 ; 
Acanthe et Cophise, ou la sympathie, pas- 
toral-heroique, ib., Nov. 19, 1751 ; La guir- 
lande, ou les fleurs euchantccs, opera-ballet, 
ib., Sept. 21, 1751 ; La naissauce d'Osiris, 
ou la fete de famille, do., Versailles, 1751, 
and Paris, Academie Eoyale de Musique, 
1754 ; Daphnis et Egle, do., Versailles, 

1753 ; Lj'cis et Dclie, do., ib., 1753 ; Zephire, 
opera, Pai'is, Academie Royale de Musique, 

1754 ; Nelee et Myrtis (not performed, 
written about 1755) ; lo, opera-ballet (id., 
about 175G) ; Le retour d'Astree, prologue, 
Paris, Academie Eoyale de Musique, 1757 ; 
Anacreon, ballet-hc'roique, ib., May 31, 
1757 ; Les surprises de I'amoui', ojiera-bal- 
let, ib.. May 31, 1757 ; Les Si/harites, opera, 
ib., July 12, 1757 ; Les Paladins, opera- 
ballet, ib., Feb. 12, 17G0 ; Le procureur 
dupe, opcra-comiquc (not performed, written 
about 1760) ; Linus, tragedio-lyrique (id., 
about 1700) ; Abaris, ou les Boreades, do. 
(id., about 17G2) ; Roland (left unfinished, 
1764). Also divertissements for L'enrole- 
ment d'Ai'lequin, Paris, 1726 ; and for the fol- 
lowing Inlays by Piron : L'Endriague, Paris, 
1723 ; Les coui'ses du Tempe, ib., 1734 ; 
La rose, ib., March 5, 1744 ; Le faux pro- 
digue, ib., 1744. II. Cantatas : Thetis ; 
L'impatieuce ; La musette ; Aquilon et 
Orithie ; Le berger fidele ; L'enlovement 
d'Orithie ; Orphee et les amans trahis ; 
Medee ; L' absence. IIL Instrumental : 
Premier livre de pieces de clavecin (Paris, 
1706) ; Deuxic'me livre (ib., 1721) ; Trois- 
ieme livre, pieces de clavecin avec uue table 
pour les agremens (ib., 1730) ; Nouvelles 
suites de pieces de clavecin avec des re- 
marques sur les differens genres de mu- 



sique (ib.) ; Three concertos for the clavecin, 
violin, and bass viol, published by Leclerc 
(Paris, 1741 ; also in London) ; and pieces 
for the organ in MS. Some of his harpsi- 
chord music has been published in the 
"Tresor des pianistes ; " in Pauer's "Alte 
Klaviermusik ; " in Pauer's " Alte Meister ; " 
and in "Lesperlesmusicales." IV. Church 
music : Motets with choruses : In conver- 
tendo quam dilecta ; and Deus noster re- 
fugium (in MS.) ; Motet, Laboravi for five 
voices and organ (in Le traite de I'harmo- 
nie, vol. iii.). V. Theoretical works : Traite 
de I'harmonie ri'duite ;i ses principes natu- 
rels (three books), (Paris, 1722 ; 3d book 
translated into English, London, 1737 ; 3d 
English ed., ib., 1752) ; Nouveau Systeme de 
musique theorique, etc. (Paris, 1726) ; Dis- 
sertation sur les differentes methodes d'ac- 
compagnement pour le clavecin ou pour 
I'orgue (ib., 1732 ; 2d ed., 1742) ; Lettre 
au P. Castel au sujet de quelques nouvelles 
reflexions sur la musique (in Menioires de 
Trevoux, July, 1736) ; Generation barmo- 
nique, etc. (Paris, 1737) ; Demonstration du 
principc de Tharmonie, servant de base a 
tout I'art musical (1752) ; Reflexions de M. 
Rameau sur la maniore de former la voLx, 
d'apprendrc la musique, et sur nos facultes 
pour les arts d'exercice (Mercure de France, 
1752) ; Extrait d'uno reponse de M. Rameau 
a. M. Euler sur I'identite des octaves, d'oh 
resultent des verites d'autaut plus curieuses 
qu'elles n'ont pas encore etc soupgonnees 
(1753) ; Observations sur notre instinct pour 
la musique et sur son principe (1754) ; 
Erreurs sur la musique dans I'Encyclopcdie 
(1755) ; Suite des erreurs sur la musique 
dans I'Encyclopedie (1756) ; Reponse de M. 
Rameau a MIVL les editeurs de I'Encyclo- 
pi'die sur leur dernier avertissement (1757) ; 
Lettre de M. d'Alembert a M. Rameau, cou- 
cernant le corps sonore, avec la reponse de 
M. Rameau (1758) ; Prospectus du code de 
musique (1759) ; Code de musique pra- 
tique, etc. (1760) ; Origine des sciences 
suivie d'une controverse sur le meme sujet 
(1761) ; Lettre aux philosophes, concemant 



180 



KANDEGGEll 



le corps sonore et la sympathie des tons 
(Memoires de Trevoux, 1762) ; Traite de la 
composition dea canons en 
musique ; Verites interes- 
santes peu connues jusquTi 
nos jours ; Des avautagea que la musique 
doit retirer dea nouvelles decoiivertes (un- 
finished). — Ducbager, Reflexioua sur divers 
ouvrages de M. Rameau (Rennes, 1701) ; 
Rameau aux Cbamps-Elysces (Amsterdam, 
1764) ; Ordro clirouique des deuils de cour 
l)our raunc'e 1704 ; Palissot, Nucrologe des 
liommes ceK'bres pour I'anuee 1705 (Mercure 
de France, 1705, vol. i.) ; Maret, Eloge bis- 
torique de Rameau (Paris, 1700) ; Jean- 
Francois, poem entitled " La Rameide " 
(Paris, 1700), parodie "La nouvelle Ra- 
meide;" Gautier Dagoby, Galerie franjaise 
(1771) ; Croix, Ami des arts (Paris, 1776) ; 
Apotbeose de Rameau, scenes lyriques, text 
by M. . . music by M. . . (Dijon, 
1783) ; Rameau, ballet-allegorique in one 
act, by M. Lefebvre, for the centenary of 
Rameau's birth, Paris, 1784 ; Maunce Bour- 
ges, Gaz. mus. de Paris (183!)), 201, 205, 
22S, 230 ; Adolphe Adam, Rameau (Paris, 
1804) ; Charles Poisot, Notice sur Rameau 
(ik, 1804); Th. Nisard, Mouographio do 
Jean Philippe Rameau (ib., 1807) ; Deliber- 
ation du conseil municipal de Dijon sur la 
projiosition d'eriger une statue a Rameau, 
rapport presente par M. Muteau (Dijon, 
1870) ; H. Grique, Rameau, sa vie, ses ouv- 
rages (Dijon, 1876) ; Ai'thur Pougin, Ra- 
meau, Essai sur sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 
1876) ; Diderot, Le neveu de Rameau (many 
editions) ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Grove ; Rie- 
mann. 

RANDEGGER, ALBERTO, born at 
Trieste, April 13, 1832, still living, 1890. 
Dramatic composer, and professor of sing- 
ing, pupil of Lafont on the pianoforte, and 
of Luigi Ricci in composition. He was 
musical director at Fiume, Zara, Sinigaglia, 
Brescia, and Venice, and about 1854 left 
Italy for Paris, then went to London, where 
be has since resided as a successful vocal 
teacher. He became in 1808 professor of 




singing at the Royal Academy of Music, and 
subsequently director of that institution and 
member of the com- 
mittee of manage- 
ment. In 1857 be 
conducted a series 
of Italian operas at 
St. James's Theatre, 
and in 1879-85 the 
Carl Rosa companj-. 
He was also, in 1880, 
conductor of the 
Norwich Festival, and baa conducted oth- 
er festivals. Works : La fidanzata di Castel- 
lamare, ballet, Trieste, about 1850 ; La 
sposa di Appenzello, do., ib. ; II lazzarone, 
opera bufi'a (with Rota, Zelman, and Beyer), 
ib., 1852 ; Bianca Capello, opera, Brescia, 
1854 ; The Rival Beauties, comic opera, 
Leeds, 1804 ; 3Iedea, dramatic scena, Leip- 
sic, 1869 ; Saffo, do., London, 1875 ; Fri- 
dolin, cantata, Birmingham Festival, 1873 ; 
Psalm CL, Boston Festival, 1872 ; Funeral 
anthem in memorj- of the Prince Consort ; 
Scena, text from Byron's "Prayer of Na- 
ture," for tenor and orchestra, 1887 ; Many 
songs, and concerted vocal music with or- 
chestra or pianoforte. — Fetis, Supplement, 
ii. 394 ; Grove ; Riemann. 

RANDHARTINGER, BENEDICT, born 
at Ruprecbtshofen, Nether Austria, July 27, 
1802, still living, 1890. At the age of ten 
he became a choir-boy in the court chapel 
of Vienna, studied later under Salieri, and 
was very intimate with Schubert. After 
studying law, he was for seven years pri- 
vate secretary to Count Szechenyi, a court 
official ; then he became tenor singer of the 
court chapel in 1832, Vize-Kapellmeister in 
1844, and Hof-Kapellmeister on the death 
of Assmayer in 1862. He was pensioned 
in 1806, and decorated with the Franz Jo- 
seph Order. He travelled much during bis 
vacations. Works : KOnig Euzio, opera ; 20 
masses ; 2 Requiems ; 60 motets ; 42 gradu- 
als and offertories ; 20 sacred arias with har- 
monium and violoncello ; 2 symphonies ; 
Quintet for strings ; 2 quartets for do. ; 



181 



liANZ 



Trio for pianoforte and strings ; marclies 
and variations for pianoforte (4 hands) ; 400 
songs ; 10 three-part and 76 four-part songs ; 
4 books of Greek popular songs ; Greek 
ritual songs, and much other music. Of 
his works, numbering more than 600, only 
about 124 have been published. — Wurz- 
bach ; Schilling ; Mendel ; Fetis. 

EANZ DES VACHES (Kuhreihen, Kuh- 
reigen, in the Appenzell patois Chiiereiba), 
a strain blown upon the Alpine horn to call 
the cows to pasture. The word Ranz, 
which has been derived from various roots, 
means the procession, or march of the cows. 
There are numerous Ranz des vaches, vai-i- 
riously played in the different cantons of 
Switzerland, and possessing great charm 
when heard in the Alpine valleys. The 
most celebrated is that of Appenzell, a copy 
of which is supposed to have been sent to 
Queen Anne of England, who was especially 
fond of the Swiss melody. The Ranz des 
vaches is used with great eftect by Rossini 
in his overture to Guillaume Tell, and also 
by Grotry in the overture to his opera of 
the same title. It has also been arranged 
by Weigl, Webbe, and by Adam in his " Mc- 
thode de riauo du Conservatoire." It was 
first iwinted in Georg Rhaw's "Bicinia" 
(Wittenberg, 1545). The Ranz des vaches 
has been arranged by ]\Ieyerbcer, for one 
and two voices, with French and German 
test (Schlesinger, Berlin, 1828). One version 
in Rousseau's " Dictionnaire de Musique," 
arranged for four voices by Laborde, is 
printed in his '" Essai sur la musique." 
Ranz des vaches, melodie by Ferdinand 
Huber, with variations by Liszt, dedicated 
to Adolphe Pictet. — Dissertation on Nostal- 
gia in Zwiuger's " Fasciculus Dissertationum 
Medicarum " (Basel, 1710) ; Cappeller, Pi- 
lati Montis Historia (1757) ; Stolberg, Reise 
im Deutschland der Schweiz (1798) ; Ebel, 
Schilderung der Gebirgsvijlker der Schweiz 
(1798) ; Sigmund von Wagner, Acht Schwei- 
zer Kuhreihen (1805) ; Casteluau, Conside- 
rations sur la Nostalgic (1806) ; Edward 
Jones, Musical Curiosities (1811) ; Tarenne, 



Sammlung von Schweizer Kuhreihen und 
VolksUedern (1818) ; J. R. Wyss, Texte zu 
der Sammlung von Schweizer Kiihreihen 
und VolksUedern (Berne, 1826) ; Huber, 
Recueil de Ranz des vaches (1830) ; Tobler, 
AppenzeUischer Sprachschatz (1837) ; Grove, 
iii. 75 ; Harmonicon (1824), 37, 58 ; AUgem. 
mus. Zeitg., xxx. 599. 

RAOUL DE COUCY. See Counj. 

RAOUL DE CREQUI, comedie-lyrique 
in three acts, text by Slonvel, music by 
Dalayrae, first represented at the Italiens, 
Paris, Oct. 31, 1789. It was first given in 
Berlin, Nov. 19, 1804 ; in Vicuna in 1805. 
A ballet was arranged to the music by Vi- 
gano, Berlin, 1797. Italian operas on this 
subject : Raoul di Crequi, bj' Simon Mayr, 
text by Romauelh, Jililan, Dec. 26, 1809 ; 
by Francesco Morlacchi, Dresden, April, 
1811 ; by Valentino Fioravanti, Naj^les, 
1811 ; and by Francesco AltaviUa, Turin, 
about 1848. 

RAOUX, LOUIS ALEXIS, born at Cour- 
trai, Sept. 11, 1814, died at ]5vcre-les-Bru- 
xeUes, Nov. 15, 1855. Dramatic composer, 
pupil of J. H. Mees' music academy at Brus- 
sels ; became in 1827 instructor at the royal 
school of music, and in 1831 founded a 
free music school. In 1833 lie became 
professor at the Conservatoire, in 1835 
opened an academy of music, and in 1839 
founded a conservatoire for classic and 
sacred music. Works : Les deux pro- 
ceptcurs, opera-comique ; Le mariage a 
I'anglaise, do. ; Choruses to Athalie ; Sym- 
phonies, overtures, masses, motets, an ora- 
torio, cantatas, etc. — Fetis, Sujjplument, ii. 
395. 

RAPDIENTO DI CEFALO, IL (The 
Rape of Cephalus), Italian opera in five acts, 
with prologue entitled La poesia, text by 
Chiabera, music by Caccini, first represented 
at the Pitti Palace, Florence, Oct. 9, 1597. 
It was composed by order of the Gi'and 
Duke of Tuscany for the marriage festivi- 
ties of Maria de' Medici and Henri FV. of 
France. The choruses were written by 
Stefano Veuturi del Nibbio, Piero Strozzi, 



182 



KAPPOLDl 




and Liica Bati. It was represented after- 
wards in a theatre in Florence, and was 
published in 1605. Same subject, II ratto 
di Cefalo, Italian opera, text by Berni, mu- 
sic by Andrea Mattioli, given in Fen-ara, 
1651, when new machinery invented by 
Carlo Pasetti was used. — Futis, ii. 140 ; Am- 
bros, iv. 272. 

RAPPOLDI, EDUAED, born in Vienna, 
Feb. 21, 1839, still 
living, 1800. Vir- 
tuoso on the violin, 
pupil of Jausa, Hell- 
mesberger, and 
Bohm, and in com- 
position of Sechter 
and HUler. He was 
a member of the 
opera orchestra in 
Vienna, in 1854-61, concertmeester in Rot- 
terdam in 1861-66, Kapellmeister in Lii- 
beck, Stettin, and Prague in 1866-70. 
Then he became instructor at the royal 
school of music in Berlin, where he was a 
colleague of Joachim's and a member of his 
quartet, and in 1876 was apjDointed royal 
professor. In 1877 he became Conzert- 
meister at the Opera and professor at the 
Conservatorium in Dresden. In 1874 he 
married the pianist Laura Kahrer. Though 
a virtuoso of the first rank, he prefers artis- 
tic inteq^retation to display. Works : Sym- 
phonies, quartets, sonatas, and songs with 
p)ianoforte accompaniment. — Mendel ; Rie- 
maun ; Mus. Wochenblatt, ix. 480. 

RAPPRESENTAZIONE DELL' ANDLi 
E DEL CORPO, LA (Representation of 
the Soul and the Body), Italian musical 
drama, text by Lauro Guidiccioni, of the 
house of Lucchesini, music by Cavalieri, first 
represented in the oratory of Santa Maria 
in Vallicella, Rome, in February, 1600. It 
is one of the first works in which the in- 
strumental bass (basso continuo) differs 
from the vocal bass. It is evident that the 
composer felt the need of modulation, but 
his harmonies are crude and in false rela- 
tion. The choruses are rhythmical, and 



belong to the style of the Neapolitan viUa- 
nelle, and the arias resemble those of Peri 
and Caccini. Published by Alexander Gui- 
dotti (Bologna, 1600).— Ambros, iv. 275. 

RASOUMOWSKY QUARTETS, three 
quartets for two violins, viola, and violon- 
cello in F, E minor, and C, by Beethoven, 
op. 59, dedicated to Count Rasoumowsky, 
probably first played at the Count's house 
in Vienna by his quartet — Schuppanzigh, 
first violin ; Count Rasoumowsky, second 
violin ; Weiss, viola ; and Lincke, violon- 
cello. The original MS. of the first quartet, 
in the possession of Paul Mendelssohn, is 
dated "Quartette angefangen, 26 May, 1807." 
These three quartets were finished and 
played before Feb. 27, 1807. Mendelssohn 
considered the quartet in F, op. 59, and that 
in F minor, op. 95, the most Beethovenish 
of all his works. The finale of the quartet 
in F has a Russian theme in D minor for 
its chief subject. No. 1, in F : I. Allegro ; 
n. Allegretto vivace e sempre scherzando ; 
in. Adagio molto e mesto ; IV. Finale, 
Allegro. No. 2, in E minor : I. Allegro ; II. 
Molto adagio ; III. Allegro ; IV. Presto. 
No. 3, in C : I. titroduzione. Andante con 
moto ; n. Andante con moto quasi alle- 
gretto ; m. Minuetto grazioso ; IV. Finale, 
Allegro molto. Published by Andre (Offen- 
bach) ; by Heckel (Manheim) ; by Lanner 
(Paris) ; by Peters (Leipsic) ; by Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, Beethoven Werke, Serie vi., Nos. 
7, 8, 9. — Lenz, Beethoven, ii., part i. 14-48 ; 
Marx, Beethoven, ii. 34-52 ; Thayer, Ver- 
zeichniss, No. 127 ; Grove, iii. 77 ; Nohl, 
Beethoven, ii. 243, 495 ; Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., ix. 400. 

RASTRELLI, JOSEF, born in Dresden, 
April 13, 1799, died there, Nov. 14, 1842. 
Dramatic and church composer, son of the 
following ; pupil of Poland on the violin, of 
the organist Feidler in harmony, and at 
Bologna, whither he accompanied his father 
in 1814, pupil of Mattel in counterpoint. 
In 1817 he returned to Dresden, and en- 
tered the royal orchestra as violinist, vis- 
ited Italy again in 1824, was appointed in 



183 



RASTKELLI 



1829 second Kapellmeister of the court 
opera in Dresden, and in 1830 Hof-Kaisell- 
meister. Works — Operas : La distruzione 
di Gerusalemme, Ancona, 181G ; La scbiava 
circassa, Dresden, 1817 ; Le donue curiose, 
opera buffa, ib., 1821 ; Velleda, ib.; Amina, 
Milan, 1824 ; Salvator Eosa, Dresden, 1832 ; 
Bertha de Bretague, ib., 1835. Der Raub 
Zetulbeus, ballet ; Music to Macbeth ; Sev- 
eral masses ; Vespers ; Miserere ; Salve Ee- 
gina, etc. — Fetis; MendeL 

KASTRELLI, \TNCENZO, born at Fauo 
in 17G0, died in Dresden, March 20, 1839. 
Church composer, pui)il of Mattel in Bo- 
logna, having already been a successful in- 
structor of singing in his native city, whither 
he returned in 1786 to become maestro di 
cappella of the cathedral. Shortly after- 
wards he entered the service of the Elector 
of Saxony as composer of the court chapel, 
and remained in this i)Osition until 1802, 
when he went to Moscow. About the end 
of 180G he visited Italy, and was soon re- 
called to Dresden, but resigned in 1814 to 
make another journey to Italy. After his 
return to Dresden, he taught singing, and 
in 1824 was reinstated in his post as court 
composer, and pensioned in 1831. Works : 
Tobias, oratorio ; 10 masses ; 3 vcspei-s ; 
Canzonette, arias, duos, etc. — Fctis ; Men- 
del. 

RATAPLAN. See Fille du regiment; 
Hitguenotf. 

EATHGEBER, VALENTIN, composer, 
born at Ober-Elsbach, Bavaria, about 1690, 
died after 1744. He was a Benedictine 
monk at Bantheln in Franconia, and a most 
industrious composer. Works : Masses ; 
Vespers ; Offertories ; Litanies ; Psalms ; 
Hymns ; Chelis sonora (1728), containing 
concertos and sj'mpbonies concertantes for 
different instruments ; Musikalischer Zeit- 
vertreib auf dem Klavier (1743) ; Songs and 
other pieces. — Walther ; Gerber ; SchiUing ; 
Mendel ; Fetis. 

RATTI, LAURENTITJS, born in Perugia, 
second half of the 16th century, died at 
Loreto in 1630. Church comi^oser, pupil 



of Vincenzo Ugolini in Rome, where he was 
afterwards maestro di cappella in the Ro- 
man seminary and the German coUege. 
Later he occupied the same position in the 
church at Loreto. Works : MadrigaU a 
cinque voci, 1st book (Venice, 1615) ; do., 
2d book (ib., 1616) ; Mottecta, 1st book 
(Rome, 1617) ; do., 2d book (ib., 1G19) ; 
Motetti a 1-G voci (Venice, 1620) ; Litanie 
della Beata Vergine a 5-12 voci (ib., 1626) ; 
Sacra) modulationes, seu Graduali et Offer- 
torii 1-12 vocum (ib., 1628); Cantica Salo- 
monis 1-5 vocibus concinenda, etc. (ib., 
1632).— Ft'tis. 

RATZENBERGER, THEODOR, born at 
Grossbreitenbach, Thuriugia, Ajjril 14, 
1840, still living, 1890. Pianist, pupil of 
Liszt, and in theory of Peter ComeHus. 
He played with great success in concerts at 
Geneva, Berne, Zurich, and other cities of 
Switzerland, and in 1859 at Sonder.shausen, 
where he was made court pianist ; in 1863 in 
Switzerland, Belgium, and Paris, settled at 
Lausanne in 1864, at Wilrzburg in 1866, 
and at Diisseldorf in 1868. Works : 2 con- 
certos for pianoforte ; Orchestral works ; 
Pianoforte pieces and songs. 

RAUB DER S.ABINERmNEN, DER, 
(The Rape of the Sabines), dramatic cantata 
for chorus, soli, and orchestra, text by 
Arthur Fitger, music by Georg Vierling, 
op. 50. Published by Leuckart (Lei23sic, 
1877). Operas on the same subject in Ital- 
ian : II ratto delle Sabine, by Draghi, text 
by Minato, Vienna, 1674, on the birthday of 
Leopold I. ; by Pietro Simone Agostini, 
text by Bussani, Venice, 1680, Bologna, 
1689 ; by Zlngarelli, text by Rossi, Venice, 
1800 ; and by F. Palmieri, text by Alfano, 
Naples, Dec. 4, 1878 ; Le Sabine, by Lauro 
Rossi, text by Peruzzini, Milan, Feb. 21, 
1852 ; and Le Sabine in Roma, ballet by 
Peter Lichtenthal, text by Vigano, Milan, 
Dec. 26, 1820. L'enlevement des Sabines, 
in French, by Fran9ois Devienne, text by 
Picard, Paris, Oct. 31, 1792 ; Der Raub der 
Sabinerinnen, in German, by von Zaytz, 
text by Betty Young, Aug. 4, 1870 ; and 



184 



RAUCIIENECKER 



by Josef Platzer, Munich, Nov. 1876 ; and 
El robo de las Sabinas, by F. Barbieri, Mad- 
rid, Feb. 17, 1879.— Signale (1877), 99. 

EAUCHENECKER, GEOIIG (WIL- 
HELM), born in Munich, March 8, 1811, 
still living, 1890. Instrumental and vocal 
composer, j'upil of Theodor Lachner on 
the pianoforte and organ, of Baumgartner 
in counterpoint, and of Josef Walter on the 
violin. Li 1800-G2 he was violinist at the 
Grand Tlicdtre iu Lyons, vmtil 18C8 maitre 
de chai^elle at Aix and Carpentras, then 
director of the Conservatoire at Avignon, 
and since 1873 music director at Wiuter- 
thur. Works : Le Florentin, opera ; Ni- 
klaus von der FlUe, cantata (prize), music fes- 
tival, Ziirich, 1874 ; Symphony ; 3 quartets 
for strings, etc. — Eiemann. 

KAULT, FELIX, born at Bordeaux in 
173C, died iu Paris after 1800. Flute 
player, pupil of Blavel in Paris, where he 
entered the orchestra of the Opera in 1753 ; 
Member in 17G8-92 of the King's jDrivate 
orchestra. During the reign of terror he 
lost his pension from the Opera, granted 
in 1776, and on the close of the orchestra 
of the Theatre de la Cite, where ho played, 
became destitute. Works : 2 concertos for 
flute and orchestra ; Trios for flutes and 
bassoon ; Do. for flute and strings ; 6 duos 
concertants ; Sonatas for flute and bass ; 
Duos, recueils d'airs, etc., for flutes. — Fe- 
tis ; Mendel. 

'EAUS MIT DEM NASS. See Straddla. 

EAUZZINI, MATTEO, born in Eome in 
1754, died in Dublin iu 1791. Dramatic 
singer and composei-, brother of the follow- 
ing, whom he joined at Munich iu 1770, 
and accompanied to England in 1774 ; 
shortly after he was engaged at the theatre 
in Dublin, and settled there to teach sing- 
ing. Works : Le finte gemelle, opera buffa, 
Munich, 1772 ; II ro pastore, DubHu, 1784. 
— Fetis. 

EAUZZINI, VENANZIO, born in Eome 
in 1747, died at Bath, England, April 8, 
1810. Dramatic composer, pupil in com- 
position of a cantor of the Pontifical Chapel. 




He made his debut in 1765 ; sang in Vi- 
enna in 1767, and next in Munich, where 
four of his ojseras 
were represented. 
In 1774 he mado 
his first appearance 
at the King's The- 
atre, London, where 
he remained until 
1787 as a singing 
teacher, number- 
ing among his pu- 
jiils Miss Storace, 
Braham, Miss Poole, and Incledon. In 
1787 he settled at Bath, as a teacher and 
concert giver. He entertained there Haydn, 
who wrote a 4-part canon or round to his 
dog Turk. Works — Operas : Piramo e 
Tisbe, Munich, 1769 ; L' ali d' amore, ib., 
1770 ; L' eroecinese, ib., 1770 ; Astarte, ib., 
1772 ; La regina di Golconda, Loudon, 
1775 ; Armida, ib., 1778 ; Creusa in Delfi, 
ib., 1782 ; La vestale, ib., 1787. String 
quartets ; Sonatas for pianoforte ; Italian 
arias and duets, and English songs ; 
Eequiem, produced at Haymarket Theatre 
in 1801. — Grove ; Fetis ; Hogarth, Mem. of 
Mus. Drama, ii. 174; Burney, Hist., iv. 51 ; 
Schilling ; Gerber ; Mendel ; Harmouicon 
(1832), 147. 

EAVAL, SEBASTIANO, Spanish contra- 
puntist of the end of the 16th and begin- 
ning of the 17th century. After occupying 
various positions, he became maestro di 
cappella to the viceroy of Sicily in the ca- 
thedral at Palermo. Works : II prinio libro 
di canzonette, etc. (Venice, 1593) ; Libro de' 
Motetti a 3-8 voci, etc. (Palermo, 1601) ; 
Madrigali a 5 voci (Venice, 1585). — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

EAVENSCEOFT, JOHN, English com- 
poser of the close of the 17th century, died 
about 1745. He was one of the Waits of 
the Tower Hamlets and violinist at Good- 
man's Fields Theatre. He published a col- 
lection of hornpipes, two of which are given 
in Hawkins's History, and a set of sonatas 
by him in three parts (two violins and vio- 



185 



KAYENSCROFT 



lone or arch-lute) were printed in Kome in 
1695. 

EAVENSCROFT, TH0:MAS, bom in 
England, about 1582, died in London about 
1635. He was a chorister of St. Paul's un- 
der Edward Pearce, and was graduated in 
1G07 as Mus. Bac. at Cambridge. Works : 
PammeUa . . . Roundelayes and de- 
lightful Catches of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 
Parts in one (London, 1G09 ; 2d ed., 1618), 
the earliest coUectiou of rounds and catches 
published iu Britain ; Deuteromelia, a col- 
lection of roundelays and catches (ib., 
1609) ; Melismata, Musical Phansies . . 
to 3, 4, and 5 voyces (ib., 1614) ; The Whole 
Booke of Psalmes . . composed into 4 
parts by Sundry Authors (ib., 1G21 ; 2d 
ed., 1633). Four of his anthems (MS.) 
are preserved at Christ Church, Oxford. 
—Grove. 

KA"VTNA, JEAN HENRI, born at Bor- 
deaux, May 20, 1818, still li\-ing, 1890. Pi- 
anist, pupil at the Paris Conservatoire of 
Laurent and Zimmerman ; won the second 
prize in 1832, the first in 1834, and aj> 
pointed assistant instructor in the same 
year ; studied composition under Reicha 
and Leborne. Having obtained the first 
prize for hai-mouy in 1835, he resigned his 
j)osition in Februai-y, 1837, to appear in 
public as a vii'tuoso. He travelled iu Russia 
iu 1858, and in Sixain iu 1871. Legion of 
Honour, 1861. Works : Concerto for pi- 
anoforte and orchestra ; Morceau de con- 
cert, for do. ; £tudes de concert ; Etudes 
caracteristiques ; Rondeaux, fantaisies, etc. 
— Fctis, Sujiplcment, ii. 395. 

EAYITS (Ravets), ANTOINE GUIL- 
LAUME, born at Louvaiu, in 1758, died at 
Antwerj), iu 1827. Church composer, pupil 
of Mathias Van den Gheyn. He was organist 
at St. James' Church in his native city, after- 
wards at the Augustine Church in Antwerp. 
Works : Many motets and organ preludes 
with orchestra ; Quis sicut Dominus ; 
Requiem with orchestra ; De j)rofundis for 
2 voices, organ, and orchestra ; Jesu Corona 
vu'ginum ; Confiteantur ; Verbum super- 



num ; Tecum principum ; Juravit Dominua 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

RAYMOND, EDUARD, born at Breslau, 
Sept. 27, 1812, still living, 1890. Violinist, 
Ijupil of Karl Luge, with whom he played 
in pubUc at the age of fourteen. In 1834- 
38 he was a member of the theatre orches- 
tra in his native city, in 1839 became con- 
ductor of the Laetitia Society, and in 1844 
of the Sonntags - Gesellschaft. Works : 
Three operas (MS.) ; 2 symphonies ; 2 over- 
tures ; Nocturne for strings, flute, clarinet, 
bassoon, and horn ; Grande polonaise, for 
violin, with orchestra or pianoforte ; Grande 
fantaisie, for do. ; Pieces for violin and pi- 
anoforte. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

REA, WILLLUI, born in London, March 
25, 1827, still living, 1890. Organist, pu- 
jiil on the pianoforte and organ of Josiah 
Pittman, whose deputy he was for several 
years ; appointed in 1843 organist to Chiist 
Church, Watney Street. He studied for a 
time under Sterndale Bennett, in 1849 in 
Leipsic under Moscheles and Eichter, and 
in Prague under Dreyschock. On his re- 
turn to England in 1853 he gave concerts, 
and became organist to the Hai-monic 
Union. In 1856 he founded the London 
Polyhymnian choir, in 1858 became organ- 
ist of St. Michael's, Stockwell, and in 1860 
to the corporation of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
In 1880 he became organist of St. Hilda's, 
South Shields. Works : Organ and piano- 
forte music ; Anthems ; Songs. — Grove ; 
Riemann. 

READ, DANIEL, born at Rehoboth, 
Massachusetts, Nov. 2, 1757, died in New 
Haven, Connecticut, Dec. 4, 1836. He was 
of American parentage (son of Daniel and 
ilary Read), and was a comb-maker by 
trade. One of the earliest of American 
psalmodists, his music is full of vigour, and 
several of his tunes, especially Sherburne, 
Winter, Windham, Lisbon, and Russia, are 
still sung. In 1778 he removed to near 
Stratford, Conn., and thence to New Haven. 
Works : The American Singing Book (New 
Haven, 1785) ; The American Musical Maga- 



18t 



EEALM 



zine (ib., 178G) ; The Child's Instructor in 
Vocal Music (ib., before 1793) ; Columbian 
Harmonist (No. 1, ib., 1793; No. 2, ib., 
1794 ; No. 3, ib., 1795 ; 2d ed., with sup- 
plement of 24 pages by Joel Read, Dedliam, 
Mass., 1804 ; 3d ed., supplement of 32 pages 
by Daniel Read, ib., 180G — enlarged, Bos- 
ton, 1807; 4th ed., Boston, 1810); Now 
Haven Collection (New Haven, 1818). His 
brother Joel (born, 1753) wrote music and 
published, besides the above supplement, 
The New England Selection, or Plain Psal- 
modist (1809). Another brother, William 
(born, 17G4), also wrote music, and a neph- 
ew, Ezra Read (born, 1777), was associated 
with Daniel in pubUshing music books. 

REALM OF FANCY, THE, cantata for 
soprano solo, chorus, and orchestra, music 
by John Knowles Paine, op. 36, set to 
Keats's poem of this title, written for and 
first performed by the Boylston Club, Bos- 
ton, in 1882. — Upton, Standard Cantatas, 
288. 

REAY, SAMUEL, born at Hexham, 
Northumberland, England, March 17, 1S2G, 
still living, 1890. Organist, pujiil of his 
father (organist of Hexham Church) ; chor- 
ister in Durham Cathedral, where he stud- 
ied under Rev. P. Penson, and later under 
James Stimpson. In 1843 he became or- 
ganist of St. Andrew's, Newcastle ; in 1847 
of St. Peter's, Tiverton ; in 1854 of St. 
John's, Hampstead ; in 185G of St. Saviour's, 
Paddington ; in 1859 of St. Peter's College, 
Radley, and in 1864 of church at New- 
ark-on-Trent. Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1871. 
Works : Morning and evening service in F ; 
Anthems and other church music ; Songs 
and part-songs. 

REBEKAH, English oratorio, text by 
Arthur Mathison, music by Joseph Barnby, 
first performed at St. James's Hall, Loudon, 
May 11, 1870. It contains but two scenes : 
the meeting of Abraham's servant and Re- 
bekah at the well, and the meeting of Isaac 
and his bride. — Athenaeum (1870), i. 685. 

REBEKKA, biblical idyl, for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra, text from the Bible, music 



by Ferdinand Hiller, op. 182, first performed 
in Stuttgart, under Hiller's direction, June 
19, 1878. Full, and pianoforte score pub- 
lished by Alt & Uhrig (Cologne, 1878). 

REBEL, FRANyOIS, born in Paris, June 
19, 1701, died there, Nov. 7, 1775. Violin- 
ist, son and pupil of Jean Ferry Rebel ; 
joined the orchestra of the Opera at the age 
of thirteen, became intimate with Fran9ois 
Francceur, and conjointly with him com- 
posed ten operas. Both were chefs d'or- 
chestre at the Opt'ra in 1733-44, later in- 
spectors, and in 1753-57 directors there, 
and then till 17G7 impresarios. Louis XV. 
appointed Rebel superintendent of music, 
and in 1772 inspector-general of the Opera. 
Works : Pyrame et Thisbc'', given at the 
Op6ra, Paris, 172G ; Tharsis et Zelie, ib., 
1728 ; Scanderbeg, ib., 1735 ; Le ballet de 
lapaix, ib.,1738 ; Les Augustales, prologue, 
ib., 1744; Zeliudor et Ismone, ib., 1745; 
Les genies tutelaires, ib., 1751 ; Le prince 
de Noisy, ib., 1760 ; Te Deum ; De pro- 
fundis. Concert Spirituel. — Fotis ; Mendel ; 
Riemaun. 

REBEL, JEAN FERRY, born in Paris 
iu 1G(!9, died there in 1747. Violinist, 
entered the Opera orchestra in 1699, became 
accompanist and in 1707 chef d'orchestre. 
Ciiamber composer to the King and one of 
his 24 violins. His opera, Ulysse, given in 
1703, had little success, but a pas-seul, Le 
caprice, written for a then celebrated dan- 
seuse, remained a favourite ballet piece for 
years. He composed violin solos for other 
ballets, duo sonatas for violin, and a book 
of trios for two violins, with basso con- 
tinue for harpsichord. — Fetis ; Lajarte, 
Biblio. mus. de I'Opera, i. 1661 ; Riemann ; 
Schilling. 

REBELLO, JOlO SCARES (or Lau- 
renyo), born at Caminha, Portugal, in 1609, 
died at San Amaro, near Lisbon, Nov. 16, 
1661. Church composer, entered the ser- 
vice of the house of Braganza at the age of 
fifteen, and was the teacher of King Joao 
IV. Contemporary writers exalt him as 
one of the greatest Portuguese composers. 



187 



llEBEFt 




Of his numerous works only a book of 
psalms for 16 voices, Magnificats, lamenta- 
tions, and Misereres ■with continuo, were 
published (Rome, 1057). Masses and other 
music are in manuscript at Lisbon. — Fctis ; 
Vasconcellos. 

REBEK, NAPOLlfiON HENRI, bom at 
Miihlhauseu, Alsace, 
Oct. 21, 1807, died in 
Paris, Nov. 24, 1880. 
Dramatic composer, 
pupil of Reicha and Le- 
sueur at the Paris 
Conservatoire, where 
he became professor 
of harmony in 1851, 
and of composition in 
18fi2, succeeding Ha- 
Icvy. In 1853 he was elected member of 
the Acadi'mie, and in 1871 appointed iu- 
sjiector of the branch schools of the Con- 
servatoire. He distinguished himself in 
instrumental composition, in the spirit of 
the German classics. "Works — Operas : La 
nuit de NoOl, given at the Ojn'ra Comique, 
1848 ; Le p^re Gaillard, ib., 1852 ; Les pap- 
illotes de M. Benoist, ib., 1853 ; Les dames 
capitaines, ib., 1857 ; Le mt'ui'tricr a la 
cour, comic opei'a, and Nairn, grand opera, 
not given. 4 sj'mphonies ; Overture for 
orchestra ; Suite for do.; Iloland, sci'ucs 
lyriques for do., Paris, 1875 ; Quintet for 
strings; 3 quartets for do.; Quartet for 
pianoforte and strings ; 7 trios for do. ; 
Pieces for violin and pianoforte ; Do. for 
pianoforte (2 and 4 hands) ; Chorus of 
Pu-ates for three-part male chorus and pi- 
anoforte ; Le soir, for four-part male chorus 
and pianoforte ; Ave Maria and Agnus Dei, 
for 2 soprani, tenor, bass, and organ. His 
Traite d'harmonie (18G2) counts among 
the best modern theoretical works. — Fotis ; 
Mendel ; Rieniann. 

REELING, GUSTAV, born at Barby, 
Magdeburg, July 10, 1821, still living, 1890. 
Virtuoso on the organ and church com- 
poser, first instructed by his father, then in 
Dessau, in 183G-39, pupil of Friedrich 




Schneider. He was appointed in 1839 or- 
ganist of the French church at Magdeburg, 
in 1847 instructor at 
the seminary, in 1853 
choinnaster at t li e 
cathedral and vocal 
teacher at the gym- 
nasium, and in 185(5 
court music director. 
Since 1858 he has 
been organist of St. 
John's church. In 
1846 he established the Kirchcngesangve- 
rein. Works : Psalms for 4-8 voices a 
capella ; Do. for one voice with organ ; Mo- 
tets ; Music for organ ; Do. for pianoforte ; 
Sonata for violoncello ; Choruses ; Songs. 
— Mendel ; Riemauu. 

RECHENBERG, ERNST, born at Frie- 
dersdorf-am-Queiss, SUesia, Oct. 12, 1800, 
died (?). Church and instrumental com- 
poser, pupil in Berlin at the royal institute 
for chui-ch music, and of B. Klein in com- 
position. He devoted himself to teaching, 
and settled in Berlin as professor of music. 
Carl Eckert is one of his pupils. Works : 
Gott ist unser Heil, Psalm for voices, or- 
chestra and organ ; Allgemeines Choralbucli 
with jireludcs and conclusions, selected 
from the works of old masters ; Pianoforte 
music ; Songs. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

REDEIU^TION HYMN, for contralto 
solo, chorus, and orchestra, text from 
Isaiah (liii.), music by James C. D. Parker, 
first performed by the Handel and Haydn 
Society, Boston, May 17, 1877, when the 
solo was sung by Annie Louise Cary. It 
has been given by various musical societies 
throughout this country. The pianoforte 
score is published by Oliver Ditson & Co., 
Boston. — Upton, Standard Oratorios, 296. 

REDEMPTION, LA, oratorio or sacred 
trilogy in three parts, text and music by 
Gounod, first performed at the Birming- 
ham (England) Festival, Aug. 30, 1882. 
The solos were sung by Mme Albani, Mme 
Marie Ruze, Mme Patey, Jlr. E. Lloyd, Jlr. 
W. H. Cummings, Mi-. Santley, Mi-. F. King, 



188 



EEDERN 



and Signer Foli. Gounod began this work 
in 18G7, in Rome, wbere be wrote tbe 
words, and two fragments of the music : 
tbe " March to Calvary," and " The Pente- 
cost." Tbe comjioser calls it a "lyrical set- 
ting forth of tbe three great facts on which 
depends the existence of tbe Christian 
Church." Prologue, tbe Creation ; I. Cal- 
vary ; n. From the Resurrection to tbe As- 
cension ; in. Tbe Pentecost. Characters 
represented: Jesus (Bar.) ; Mary (S.) ; and 
two Narrators (B. and T.). This oratorio 
was first sung in Loudon at Albei't Music 
Hall, Nov. 1, 1882 ; in Vienna, Nov. 4, 

1883 ; in Paris at the Trocade-ro, April 3, 

1884 ; in Rome, in April, 188.5 ; and first in 
New York by the New York Chorus Society, 
Dec. 15, 1882 ; and it was one of tbe prin- 
cipal works given at bis festivals in various 
cities of the United States in tbe spring of 
1884. Pubbsbed by Novello, Ewer & Co. 
(Loudon, 1884) ; pianoforte arrangement 
by Berthold Tours ; German translation by 
J. Weyl. — Godard, Joseph, Reflections on 
Ch. Gounod's Sacred Trilogy, Tbe Redemp- 
tion (London, 1882) ; Atheureum (1882), ii. 
316, G05 ; Neue Zeitschr. (1884), G7 ; Up- 
ton, Standard Oratorios, 98; Sigualc (1883), 
1057. 

REDERN, FRTEDRICH ^VILHELM, 
Graf VON, born in Berlin, Dec. 9, 1802, 
died there, Nov. 5, 1883. Amateur com- 
poser, pupil of Grell in 1859. Ho studied 
law, entered the government service in 1823, 
was intendant general of tbe royal opera in 
1828-42, and after that of tbe royal court 
music, having also had the sujJervisiou 
of the Domcbor and of all tbe military 
music. He was also royal Prussian lord 
steward, privy councillor, and chamberlain. 
Works : Christine, opera, given in Berlin, 
18G0 ; Laut t/ine uuser Lobgesang, cantata, 
ib., Singakademie, 1858 ; Liturgy for 4 
voices and chorus ; Musica sacra ; Agnus 
Dei ; Adoramus ; Veni Sancte Spiritus ; 
Sanctus Dominus ; Nunc dimittis ; Hymnus 
angelicus ; Magnificat ; Cbristus factus est ; 
Overture for orchestra, Berlin, 1820 ; Con- 



cert overture, for do. ; Triumphal march to 
tbe tragedy Kaiser Friedrich HI. for piano- 
forte ; Torchlight dances, marches, quad- 
rilles, etc. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

REDIN (Redein), JEAN FRAN(;^OIS, 
born in Antwerp, baptized Nov. 5, 1748, 
died there, Feb. 24, 1802. Violinist, about 
wbo.se musical education nothing is known. 
He was first-violin at tbe Cathedral of Ant- 
werjj, and seems to have resided in London 
in 1789. Works : G duos for 2 violins ; 6 
sonatas for do. ; 6 symphonies for 2 vio- 
lins, viola, bass, 2 oboes, and 2 horns ; 6 
quartets for strings. — Fotis ; Mendel. 

REEVE, WDLLIAM, born in London, in 
1757, died there, aa'^ 

June 22, 1815. Or- 
ganist, and dramatic 
composer, pupil of 
Richardson, organ- 
ist of St. James, 
Westminster. He 
was organist at Tot- 
nes, in Devonshire, 
from 1781 to 1783, 
when h e became 
composer at Astley's Theatre, London, 
and was an actor in several theatres. In 
1791 be was commissioned to finish the 
music of a ballet j)antoinime, Oscar and 
Malvina, left unfinished by Shield, and was 
appointed composer to Covent Garden, and 
in 1792 organist of St. Martin's, Ludgate 
Hill. Works— Music to plays : Oscar and 
Malvina, Tippoo Saib, 1791 ; Orpheus and 
Eurydice, ballet, adapted froniGluck, 1792 ; 
Tbe Apparition, British Fortitude, Hercules 
and Ompbale, Tbe Purse, 1794 ; Merry 
Sherwood, 1795 ; Ramah Droog (with Maz- 
ziugbi), 1798 ; The Turnpike Gate (do.), 
1799 ; The Cabinet (with Braham, Davy, 
and Moorebead) ; Family Quarrels (with 
Braham and Moorebead), 1802 ; and many 
others, in all nearly a hundred. — Grove ; 
Futis ; Schilling ; Gerber ; Mendel. 

REEVES, DAVID WALLIS, born at 
Owego, New York, Feb. 14, 1838, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Mostly self-educated, but stud- 




ies 



KEFORMATION 



ied the violin and comet under Thomas 
Canham, Owego, and harmony under 
Jacob Kochkeller, New York. He was solo 
cornet in Dodworth's Band, New York, 
1864-GG, when he succeeded Joseph C. 
Green as director of the American Band 
and Orchestra of Providence, Rhode Island, 
a position he still retains. He has been 
also conductor of the Eocky Point Musical 
Festivals, 1875-78, bandmaster of several 
military organizations, and director of the 
Khode Island Choral Association. He has 
made six visits to Eurojie, playing the cor- 
net in concerts in London, Liverpool, and 
other English cities, and in Berlin and 
Dresden, and has made concert tours in all 
parts of the United States. "Works : The 
Ambassador's Daughter, comic opera, given 
in Providence, 1879 ; The Mandarin Zune, 
do. pis.) ; More than 70 military marches 
(45 published) ; Arrangements and trans- 
criptions for band and orchestra. 

REFOEMATION SYMPHONY, for or- 
chestra, in D, by Mendelssohn, op. 107, first 
performed, under the composer's direction, 
in Berlin, November, 1832. This, his fifth 
symphony, was written with a view to per- 
formance at the Tercentenary Festival of 
the Augsburg Protestant Confession (June 
25, 18'50), presented in 1530 l)y Luther and 
Melanchthon to the Emperor Charles V., 
but, owing to the fierce opposition of the 
Roman Catholics to the celebration, it was 
not given. In 1832 it was rehearsed in 
Paris, but was again deferred, and after 
Mendelssohn first conducted it in Berlin, 
for the benefit of the "Orchestral Widows' 
Fund," it was not again given until revived 
at the Crystal Palace, London, Nov. 30, 1867. 
It was first given by the New York Philhar- 
monic in the season of 1867-68. The sym- 
phony is constructed in strict form, and illus- 
trates the conflict between the old and new 
faith. The first movement contains the 
passage used for " Amen " in the Catholic 
Church of Dresden, known as the " Dres- 
den Amen," which is employed also by 
Wagner for a Leitmotif in Parsifal. The 



fourth movement is, in part, based on 
Luther's hymn, " Ein' teste Burg ist unser 
Gott," which is combined with a fugue. I. 
Andante. Allegro con fuoco ; II. Allegro 
vivace ; IH. Andante ; IV. Chorale, Alle- 
gro vivace, AUegi-o maestoso. Published 
in score and in parts by Novello & Co. 
(London) ; and by Simrock as Symphony 
No. 5, op. 107, Posthumous works No. 36. 
Breitkojif & Hilrtel, IMendelssohn W^erke, 
Serie i.. No. 5. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxxv. 
22 ; Athenfcum (1SG7), ii. 771 ; Grove, iii. 
93 ; iv. 31 ; Upton, Standard Symphonies, 
185. 

EEGINA DI CIPRO, LA (The Queen of 
Cyprus), Italian opera, music by Pacini, 
first represented in Turin in 1846, with 
Frezzolini, Fraschini, and Balzar in the 
cast. Subject, Catarina Cornaro, the fa- 
mous Queen of Cyprus. It was given in 
Naples, March 10, 1847, and in Trieste in 
1864. Other operas on the same theme : 
Catarina Cornaro, by Donizetti, Venice, 
1844 ; Katherina Cornaro, by Franz Lach- 
ner, Munich, 1841 ; an<l La rriiic de Chypre, 
by Halovy, Paris, 1841. — Allgem. mus. 
Zeitg., xlix. 231. 

REGIS (De Roi), JEAN, known also as 
Koninck or De Coninck, one of the cele- 
brated Belgian composers of the middle 
and last half of the 15th century. Ho was 
contemporary with Okeghem, Busnois, and 
Caron, and, according to Tiuctoris's " Pro- 
portionale " (1476), one of the most clever 
musicians of his time. Little else is known 
of him ; from the researches made by de 
Burbure and Pinchai't, it is certain that he 
never was a member of the ducal chapel of 
Burgundy, nor of the Cathedral of Antwerp, 
as so many of the composers of that time 
were. Works : Credo for 5 voices from his 
mass, Village, in Petrucci's fragments of 
masses by different celebrated authors 
(1508). In the first book of motets by the 
same collector there are 4 by Regis : Ave 
Maria ; Clangat, plebs, floret ; Salve Sponsa 
tui genitrix ; Lux soleranis adest. In the 
3d vol. of Harmonice Musices Odhecaton 



190 



EEGNARD 



(Venice, 1503) is the clianson franjaise 
for 4 voices, S'il vous plaisist. Several of 
his masses in MS. are in the Pontifical 
Chapel, Eome. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Van der 
Straeten, vi. 47. 

EEGNARD (Regnart), FRANQOIS, born 
at Douai in the first half of the 16th cen- 
tui-j-. Chm-ch composer and writer of chan- 
sons, brother of Jacques Regnard. He was 
first attached to the Cathedral of Tournay, 
and was maitre de chapelle also for a short 
time about 1573 ; afterwards musician to 
the Archduke Mathias. Woi'ks : Missfe 
tres, quatuor et quinque voc. (Antwerp, 
1583) ; Cinquante chansons a quatre et cinq 
jjarties convenant tant aux instruments 
qu'a la voix (Douai, 1375) ; Poesies de P. 
Ronsard et autres pontes mises en musique 
a quatre et cinq parties (Paris, 1579 ). — Fu- 
tis ; Riemann ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Mendel. 

REGNARD (Regnart), JACQUES, born at 
Douai about 1531, died in Prague in 1600. 
Composer, tenor, and Vize-Kapellmeister 
in the imperial chaj^el at Prague under Maxi- 
milian n. and Rudolph II. from 1564 to 
1599. He was educated in the Jesuit Col- 
lege of Douai, and began composing early, 
as his works were published in 1552, in a col- 
lection of Magnificats by different authors. 
Twenty of his motets are in Joannelli'a 
Thesaurus musicus (1568). He married 
Anna Fischer, of Munich, in 1570, and Fe- 
tis says he was called about that time to 
Munich by Orlando Lasso to serve in the 
chapel of Albert, Duke of Bavaria. Works : 
Fifteen collections of chansons and masses 
(1573 to 1593). The last were posthumous, 
and were published by his wife. Among 
the first, Fetis specifies Teutsche Lieder mit 
dreyer Stimmen nach Art der Neapolitanen 
(Munich, 1573) ; Neue kurzweilige teutsche 
Lieder mit fiinf Stimmen zu singen und auf 
allerley Instrumenten zu gebrauchen (Nu- 
remberg, 1580) ; Canzoni italiane a cinque 
voci, lib. i. et ii. (ib., 1581). Among the 
collections of masses are : IX. Missse sacrse 
(Frankfort, posthumous, 1602) ; 2d suite 
(ib., 1003) ; and another posthumous pub-, 



lication : Corollarium missarum sacrarum, 
etc. (Munich, 1603) ; etc.— Fetis ; Biog. Gen., 
xli. 844 ; Dutihceul, Galerie douaisienne ; 
Gerber ; Riemann, 749 ; Mendel ; Ergilnz., 
377 ; Van der Straeten, v. 109-115 ; Viotta, 
iii. 213. 

REGNAVA NEL SILENZIO. See Lucia. 

REICHA, ANTON, born in Prague, Feb. 
27, 1770, died iu Paris, May 28, 1836. In- 
strumental composer and didactic writer, 
nephew and ijupil of Joseph Reicha, at 
Bonn, where he entered the Elector's or- 
chestra as flutist in 1788, and enjoyed the 
intercourse of young Beethoven, who played 
the viola in the same orchestra. After the 
dissolution of the latter in 1794, Reicha 
settled at Hamburg, to teach, and there 
composed a French opera, which he hoped 
to bring out in Paris, in 1799. This plan 
failed, but he won success as an instrumen- 
tal composer, with two symphonies, played 
iu the then celebrated concerts of the rue de 
Clury. In 1802 he went to Vienna, where he 
renewed his intimacy with Beethoven, and 
entertained friendly relations with Haydn, 
Albrechtsberger, and Salieri. He left Vi- 
enna in 1808, at the time of the French in- 
vasion, and settled in Paris, where he suc- 
ceeded in producing several operas, though 
without any great success, so that he de- 
cided to devote himself thereafter to instru- 
mental composition. He established a new 
system of teaching composition which drew 
many pupils, among them BoiUy, Jelensjjer- 
ger, Bienaime, Millaut, Lefebvre, Elwart, 
Pollet, Lecai-pentier, and Dancla. In 1818 
he succeeded Mehul as professor of coun- 
terpoint and fugue at the Conservatoire. 
He married in Paris and was naturalized in 
1829 ; Legion of Honour, 1831 ; Member of 
the Institut, 1835. Works— Operas : Obal- 
di, ou les Franjais en Egj'pte ; Ai'gina, regina 
di Granata, Vienna ; Cagliostro, Paris, 1810 ; 
Natalie, ib., 1816 ; Sapho, ib., 1822 ; 2 sym- 
phonies ; overture ; Diecetto for 5 strings 
and 5 wind instruments ; Octet for 4 strings 
and 4 wind instruments ; 24 quintets for 
flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, and bassoon ; 6 



m 



REICIIA 



quintets and 24 quartets for strings ; Quin- 
tet for clarinet and strings ; Quartet for 
pianoforte, flute, violoncello, and bas- 
soon ; Do. for 4 flutes ; 6 quartets for flute, 
violin, viola, and violoncello ; Trio for vio- 
loncellos ; 6 trios for strings ; 24 do. for 
horns ; G duos for violins ; 22 do. for flutes ; 
12 sonatas for pianoforte and violin ; a num- 
ber of sonatas and other jjieces for ijiauo- 
forte. Theoretical works : £tudes ou theo- 
ries pour le pianoforte, etc. (1800) ; Traitu 
de melodic, etc. (1814) ; Cours de compo- 
sition musicale, etc. (1818) ; Traitu de haute 
composition musicale (1824-20) ; L'ai-t du 




^^-/.' 




compositeur dramatique, ou cours complet 
de comi)osition vocale (1833) ; Petit traite 
d'harmonie pratique. — Futis ; do., Supple- 
ment, ii. 398 ; Diet. delaConv., xv. 327 ; La- 
rousse, xiii. 873 ; Wurzbach ; Riemann ; 
Schilling ; Gerber ; Mendel ; do., Ergiinz., 
377. 

REICHA, JOSEPH, born in Prague in 
174G, died at Bonn in 1795. Violoncellist 
and instrumental composer. After several 
years in the service of the Count von Wal- 
lerstein, he was appointed in 1787, by the 
Elector of Cologne, Conzertmeister and 
conductor of the orchestra, at the National 
Theatre at Bonn. Works : 3 concertos for 
violoncello and orchestra ; 3 symphonies 
for 10 instruments ; 2 synq)honics concer- 
tantes for violin and violoncello ; S^'mphonie 
concertante for 2 horns ; G duos concertants 
for violin and violoncello ; Symphonic con- 
certante for 2 violins, or violin and violon- 
cello ; 3 duos for violin and violoncello. 
— Meudel ; Eiemann ; Fetis. 

KEICHAEDT, GUSTAV, born at Schmar- 
sow, near Demmin, Pomerania, Nov. 13, 
1797, died in Berlin, October 19, 1884. Vo- 
cal composer, pupil of Bernhard Klein ; 
settled in Berlin to teach music, and was 
for several years conductor of the Lieder- 
tafel. He composed only thii-ty-six works, 
mostly songs, among which " Was ist des 



Deutschen Vaterland ? " has made his name 
widely popular. — Mendel. 

REICHAEDT, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, 
born at Konigs- 
berg, Prussia, 
Nov. 25, 1752, 
died at Giebich- 
enstein, near 
Halle, June 17, 
1814. Dramatic 
composer, pujiil 
of Carl GottUeb 
Richter on the 
pianoforte and in 
composition, and of Veichtuer on the vio- 
Hn. He studied in 17G9-70 at Kiinigsberg 
University, and in 1771 at Leipsic University ; 
then travelled over Germany, and embodied 
his observations in a book. On hearing of 
the death of court Kapellmeister Agricola, 
he applied to Frederick the Great for the 
place, and received it in 177G. In 1783 he 
founded the Concerts Spirituels for the 
performance of novelties with short analj'- 
litical jjrogi-ammes, but his position hardly 
allowed him to produce his own works as 
much as he would have liked. In 1782 he 
made a brief trip to Italy, and in 1785 he 
availed himself of a leave of absence to visit 
London and Paris, obtaining in the French 
capital an order for the composition of two 
operas, and went to Paris again in 1786 to 
prepare for their performance ; but the news 
of Frederick the Great's death recalled him 
to Berlin to wi'itc the customarj' funeral 
cantata. Under Friedrich Wilhelm H. his 
orchestra was enlarged and he secured new 
singers from Italy, but his enemies informed 
the king of his sympathies with the French 
Revolution and so prejudiced the monarch, 
that his position became untenable. First 
he received a three years' leave of absence 
with full pay, and in 1794 was dismissed, 
and settled in Altona. In 1797 he was ap- 
pointed inspector of salt works at Halle, 
and after the king's death he appeared 
again in Berlin as a composer. He visited 
Paris also several times. The French inva- 



193 



REICIIEL 



sion of Germany drove him from home in 
180G, but the fear of losing his fortune 
eaiiseJ him to return, and Jerome Napoleon 
api^ointed him Kapellmeister at Cassel. 
He could not long retain this place, and was 
given leave to visit Vienna. As he did not 
succeed to his satisfaction, he went back to 
his estate near Giebichensteiu, and remained 
there until his death. It seems to have been 
difficult for him to live in harmony with his 
associates. His writings show that he was 
more of a literary musician than a learned 
one. While culture, melody, and dramatic 
feeling are found in his compositions, they 
lack the fertility of invention which belongs 
to genius. He was one of Mendelssohn's 
favorite composers ; his Singspiele are im- 
portant factors in the develoj)ment of Ger- 
man oj)era, and his Lieder are interesting 
as being among the earliest of their kind, 
so that he must always hold a considerable 
place in musical history. Works — Operas : 
Hilnschcn uud Gretchen, KOuigsberg, 1772 ; 
Amor's Guckkasten, Riga, 1773 ; La gioja 
dopo il duolo, o le feste superbe, Berlin, 
177G ; Andromeda, ib., 1788 ; first act of 
Protesilao, 1789 ; Brenno, 1789; Olimjjiade, 
1791 ; Tamerlan,and Panth(Je,French ojieras, 
not performed ; Rosamunda, Italian opera, 
1801; Das Zauberschloss, 1802; Bradamante, 
Vienna, 1808 ; L'heui-eus naufrage, 1808 ; 
4 Singspiele to Goethe's Claudina von Villa- 
bella, Jery und Biltely, Erwin und Elmire, 
and Lilla ; Die Geisterinsel, SingS23iel after 
Shakespeare's Tempest ; Other operas and 
Singspiele ; Oratorios and cantatas ; Music 
to Biirger's translation of Macbeth, Goethe's 
Faust, Egmont, Tasso, and to other dramas ; 
Many songs, including Goethe's lyrical 
poems ; Ouvertura di Vittoria and Schlacht- 
symphonie in honor of the battle of Leipsic ; 
(5 other symphonies : Concertante for string 
quartet, and orchestra ; 14 concertos for 
pianoforte ; 17 sonatas for do.; 11 do. for 
violin ; concerto for do. ; 6 trios for strings ; 
2 quartets for pianoforte and strings ; Quin- 
tet for pianoforte, 2 flutes, and 2 horns ; 
Sonata for flute, etc. He edited several mu- 



sical periodicals, and, besides lesser literary 
works, wrote : Briefe eines aufmerksamen 
Reisenden die Musik betreffend (Frankfort 

and Leipsic, 1774) ; Ueber die deutsche 
komische Oper (Hamburg. 1774) ; Vertraute 
Briefe aus Paris (ib., 1804-5) ; Vertraute 
Briefe, geschrieben auf einer Reise nach 
Wien (Amsterdam, 1810). — Autobiography 
in Berhn Musikalische Zeitung (1805) ; 
Ft'tis ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Schlettcrer, J. 
F. Reichardt, sein Leben (Augsburg, 18G5) ; 
Gerber; Schilling; do., Supplement, 357; 
Lindner, Geschichte des deutschen Liedes, 
132. 

REICHEL, ADOLF (HEES'RICH JO- 
HANN), born at Tursznitz, West Prussia, 
in 181G, still living, 1890. Vocal and in- 
strumental composer, pupil at Elbing, of 
Cantor Brandt, and later, in Berhn, of Dehn 
and Louis Berger in composition. After 
travelling in Germany and Switzerland, he 
settled in Paris, where he taught music 
fourteen years. In 1857 he was appointed 
instructor of composition at the Conserva- 
torium in Dresden, and director of Dreis- 
sig's Singakademie, and in 18G7 went to 
Berne, as director of the city music. 
Works : Mass ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, 
and violoncello ; 4 preludes and fugues for 
pianoforte ; Sonatas and mazurkas for do.; 
Choruses ; Songs. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

REICHEL, FRIEDRICH (CARL), born 
at Oberoderwitz, near Zittau, Jan. 27, 1833, 
still living, 1890. Instrumental composer, 
pupil in Dresden of F. Wieck on the piano- 
forte, and of Julius Otto and Rietz in 
theory. At the age of twelve he took part 
in the church music of his native town, 
playing the organ, the violin, the flute, the 
horn, and the trombone, or singing. About 
1852 he settled in Dresden as instructor of 
music, and in 18G0 became director of the 
Liedertafel there, in 18G9 leader of the 
Neustadter Chorgesangverein, and in 1870 



EEicn 



director of the Amateur Orchestra Society. 
Works : Die geangstigten Diplomaten, ope- 
retta, given at the Dresden Court Theatre, 
1875 ; Symphonies ; Octet for wind instru- 
ments ; Quartets for strings ; Gesang der 
wandernden Musensohne, for chorus and 
orchestra ; Festival song, for do. ; 4 cho- 
ruses for men's voices ; 4 terzets for female 
voices ; 5 songs for mixed chorus ; Piano- 
forte music ; Songs. — Mendel. 

REICH MIR DIE HAND, seven varia- 
tions for two oboes and an English horn, 
in C, by Beethoven, on the theme, Reich 
mir die Hand (Lt'i ci darem la mauo), from 
Don Giovanni. The original autograph, in 
the possession of Artaria & Co., was pub- 
lished (Vienna, 1800). 

REIF, WILHELM, born at Schwallung- 
en, in 1833, still living, 1890. Clarinet 
player, music director of the court orches- 
tra at Meiuingen ; has composed several 
operas, among which Abu Said was espe- 
cially successful, and symjjhonies, overtures, 
suite for orchestra, festival marches, Con- 
zertstilcke for solo instruments, pianoforte 
pieces, etc. 

REDUNN, IGNAZ, born at Albendorf, 
Silesia, Dec. 27, 1820, died at Rengersdorf, 
ib., June 17, 1885. Church composer, pu- 
pil at the Seminary at Breslau. Works : 
7-1 masses ; 24 Requiems ; 4 oratorios ; 4 
Te Deums ; 37 Htanies ; 83 offertories ; 50 
gradiials, cantatas, etc. ; 9 overtures, and 
other works for orchestra. — Riemann. 

REINAGLE, JOSEF, born, of German 
parentage, at Portsmouth, England, in 
1762, died at Oxford, in 1836. Violoncel- 
list, entered the king's service as a hoi-n 
player, but afterwards took up the violon- 
cello, and became director of concerts at 
Edinburgh. In 1789 he went to Ireland, 
1)ut returned to London and finally lived 
at Oxford. Woi-ks: 30 progressive duets 
for 2 violoncellos ; Quartets for strings ; 
24 lessons for harpsichord ; Method for 
violoncello. His brother Hugo (born at 
Portsmouth, 1766, died young at Lisbon) 
was a virtuoso on the violoncello, pupil of 




Crosdil. He composed solos and duos for 
his instrument. 

REINECKE, KARL (HEINRICH CAR- 
STEN),bornatAltona, 
June 23, 1824, still 
living, 1890. Pianist, 
pupil of his father, an 
able theorist ; made 
his first concert tour, 
in 1834, to Denmark 
and Sweden, and after 
perfecting himself at 
Leii^sic, where Men- 
delssohn and Schu- 
mann then highly influenced the musical 
world, played again iu the northern cities 
of Germany, and at Copenhagen, where in 
1846-48 he was court pianist to Christian 
Vni. ; then lived for some time in Paris. 
In 1851 he became instructor at the Con- 
servatorium of Cologne, was music director 
at Barmen in 1854-59, at Breslau in 1859- 
60, when he was appointed Kapellmeister 
of the Gewandhaus at Leipsic, and professor 
at the Conservatorium. He still continues 
to appear as a virtuoso, playing with suc- 
cess in London and other cities, and on his 
annual tours to Scandinavia, England, Hol- 
land, and Switzerland always meets with an 
enthusiastic reception. As an interpreter of 
Mozart he has few rivals. Among his pupils 
in composition are Bruch, Grammann, Grieg, 
Klauwell, Sullivan, Svendsen, etc. ; among 
those on the pianoforte, Josefly, Louis Maas, 
Kwast, etc. He is at present undoubtedly 
the most prominent musical figure of Leip- 
sic. Works — Operas : Konig Manfred, five 
acts, given at W^iesbaden, 1867, Leipsic, 
1885 ; Der vierjilhrige Posten, not given ; Aiif 
hohen Befehl, Hamburg, 1886 ; Ein Aben- 
teuer Hiindels, Schwerin, 1874. Belsazar, 
oratorio; 2 masses ; Music to Schiller's Wil- 
helm Tell ; Ilakoit Jarl, for male chorus, 
soli, and orchestra ; Die Flucht nach Agyp- 
ten, do. ; Sommerbilder, do. (1885) ; Schnee- 
uiUchen, for female chorus, soli, and piano- 
forte ; AschenbrOdel, do. ; DornrOschen, 
do. ; Die wilden Schwiine, do. ; 20 canons 



194 



REINECKE 



for 3 female voices, -with pianoforte ; 2 sym- 
phonies. Overtures : Dame Kobold ; Ala- 
din ; Friedensfeier ; Fest-Ouvertilre, op. 
148 ; Zeuobia ; In memoriam, introduction 
and fugue with choral for orchestra ; Fu- 
neral march for Emperor Wilhelm I., op. 
200 ; Concerto for violin ; do. for violon- 
cello ; do. for hai-p ; 3 quartets for strings ; 
4 concertos for pianoforte and strings ; Quin- 
tet for do. ; Quartet for do. ; G trios for do. ; 
2 sonatas for violoncello ; 4 do. for violin ; 
Phantasie for pianoforte and violin ; Undine, 
sonata for flute and pianoforte ; Sonatas, 



fantasias, caprices, etc., for pianoforte ; Sev- 
eral collections of songs ; Choruses for 
male, and mixed voices, etc. — Mendel; Eie- 
mann. 

EEINECKE (Eeinicke), KARL LEO- 
POLD, born at Dessau, in 1774, died at 
Quedlinburg, Oct. 22, 1820. Dramatic 
composer, first instructed on several instru- 
ments by his father, court musician at An- 
halt-Dessau, later pupil of Eust on the vio- 
lin, and in 179G-98, in Dresden, of Nau- 
mann in composition. In 1798 he was aj)- 
pointed Conzertmeister and music director 
at Dessau. Works — Operas : Adelaide von 
Scharfeneck ; Feodora ; Peronka und Al- 
fred, given at Dessau. Symphonies ; In- 
strumental pieces ; Songs. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

EEENE DE CHYPEE, LA (The Queen 
of Cyprus), opera in five acts, text by Saint- 
Georges, music by Halevy, first represented 
at the Acadomie Eoyale de Musique, Paris, 
Dec. 22, 1841. The time of the action is 
14G9. A Venetian patrician, who has prom- 
ised his daughter, Catarina Cornaro, to a 
French nobleman, Gerard de Courcy, is 
informed by Mocenigo that the Council of 
Ten orders her to be given in marriage to 
Lusignan, King of Cyprus. He yields only 
on threat of death, and Catarina is forced 



to renounce her lover. The third act is 
placed in Cyprus, where Gerard is discov- 
ered, attacked, and saved by one who is un- 
known to him. He still resolves to kill 
Lusignan, and during a fete is about to take 
his life when he recognizes him as his de- 
liverer, and Lusignan again protects him. 
After several years, during which Catarina 
has become reconciled to her fate and Ge- 
rard has been made Chevalier of Ehodes, 
the latter discovers a plot against Lusignan 
and tells Catarina of it. Mocenigo appears 
at this moment, and says he will fasten the 
crime upon them. Lusignan, who over- 
hears this threat, orders Mocenigo to prison, 
but the latter has had time to give signal 
for the Venetians to attack the city. Dur- 
ing the conflict Lusignan is seconded by 
Gerard, but is wounded, and dies in Cata- 
riua's arms. She brings out her son to her 
subjects, who proclaim him their sovereign, 
and Gerard returns to Rhodes. Original 
cast : 

Catarina Mme Stoltz. 

Gerard M. Dnprez. 

Lusignan M. Baroilhet. 

Mocenigo M. Massol. 

This opera was first given in Leijisic, Sept. 
19, 1842. Published by Lemoine (Paris, 
1842) ; by Schlesinger, German translation 
by Griinbaum (Berlin, 1842). Pianoforte 
score by Wagner (Paris, 1841). See Cata- 
rina Cornaro. — Clement et Larousse, 567 ; 
Lajarte, ii. 1G9 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xliv. 
705 ; Neue Zeitschr., xvii. IIG. 

EEINE DE FEANCE, LA (The Queen of 
France), symjDhony in G minor, by Haydn, 
supjjosed to have been written in 178G. I. 
Adagio, Vivace ; II. Eomanze, allegretto ; 
III. Menuetto, allegretto ; IV. Finale, 
piresto. Published by Simrock. 

EEINE DE SABA, LA (The Queen of 
Sheba), French opera in four acts, text by 
Jules Barbier and Michel Carre, music by 
Gounod, first rejDresented at the Opera, 
Paris, Feb. 28, 1862. The Queen of Sheba, 
Balkis, visits Solomon, and falls in love with 



195 



REINER 



an artisan, Adoniram, with whom she runs 
away. The last act takes place in the ravine 
of Cedron, where Adoniram is assassinated 
by three other artisans, whose demands for 
salary he had ignored. The work ends 
with the Queen's distress, she believing the 
murder to have been instigated by Solomon 
for revenge. Original cast : 

La reine (Balkis) Mmc Gueymard. 

Adoniram J\I. Gueymard. 

Soliman M. Belval. 

Phanor M. Marie. 

Benoni lllle Hamackers. 

An English version, entitled Irene, by H. 
Famie, was given as a concert at the Crystal 




Mme Gueymard. 

Palace, Aug, 12, 1865. Published by Chou- 
dens (Paris, 18G2) ; Schott (Mainz) ; Eng- 
lish edition by Cramer & Co. (London). 
Transcription for the pianoforte by Liszt. 
— CU'ment et Larousse, 5G8 ; Athenaeum 
(18G5), ii. 253. 

REINER, AMBROSIUS, church com- 
poser of the 17th century, about the middle 
of which he lived in Prague, then at Inns- 
bruck, as composer and Kapellmeister to 
the Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria. 
Woi-ks : Motets for 2-4 voices, with 



vioUns (Munich, 1645) ; Motets for 4-6 
voices, with 2 violins (ib., 1648) ; Motets for 
8 voices (ib., 1654) ; Psalms for 8 voices 
(ib., 1G54) ; Mass for 5 voices and 3 instru- 
ments (Innsbruck, 1655). — Fetis ; Mendel. 

REINER, JAKOB, born about 1560 at 
Altdorf, "Wiirtemberg, died in the Convent 
of Weingarten, Aug. 12, 1606. Church 
composer, first instructed in the Convent 
school at Weingarten, then, in Munich, 
pupil of Orlando Lasso. Ho was ap- 
pointed vocal instructor, and later choir- 
master of the Convent of Weingarten. — 
Works : Liber cantionum sacrarum, 22 mo- 
tets for 5-6 voices (1579, new ed. by O. 
Dressier, 1872) ; Schone neue deutscho 
Lieder, 32 songs for 4-5 voices (1581) ; 
Christliche Gesang, teutsche Psalmen, 15 
psalms for 3 voices (1589) ; Selectse pireque 
cantiones, 20 motets for 6 voices (1591) ; 
Cantica sive mutctfc, 29 songs for 4-5 voices 
(1595) ; Liber motettarum, 32 motets for 
6-8 voices (1600) ; Liber motettarum, 18 
motets for 6 voices (1603) ; Sacrarum 
missamm, for 5-6 voices (1G04) ; Glorio- 
sissimfc Virginis Magnificat, for 8-12 voices 
(1604) ; Miss.T) tres cum litaniis for 8 
voices (1G04) ; Miss«3 aliquot sacrre cum 
officio B. M. V. et Antiphonis, for 3-4 
voices (1608) ; Many songs in MS.— Fi'tis ; 
Mendel ; Riemann ; IMonatshefto fiir Mu- 
sik-Geschichte, iii. 97. 

REINE TOPAZE, LA (Queen Topaz), 
opera-comique in three acts, text by Lock- 
roy and Leon Battu, music by Victor Jlasse, 
first reijresented at the Theatre Lyrique, 
Paris, Dec. 27, 1856. Topaze is a young 
girl, who in infancy was stolen from her 
parents, and becomes queen of a band of 
gypsies. She loves the captain, Rafael, 
whom she wins from his betrothed, a 
wealthy noblewoman. He falls in love with 
Topaze, but hesitates to marry her until 
the secret of her birth is revealed to him 
by the gypsies. The success of this opera, 
one of the composer's best, was greatly 
owing to the brilliant execixtion of Mme 
Miolan-Carvalho, whose name is inseparably 



196 



KEINIIOLD 



conrioctefl with the work. Tlie Carnaval 
de Venise, with Pagaiiiui's variations, which 




In ff^- -^^ 

Euphrosyne Parepa-Rosa. 

is interpolated in the second act, was sung 
by her with gi'cat facihty find precision. 
Original cast : 

La reinc Topaze . . . Mme Miolan-Carvalho. 

Lc cajiitaino It.ifacl M. Montjauzc. 

Annibal M. Meillet. 

Francai3pa ]M. Balanque. 

Fritellino M. Froment. 

Filomolo Mile Pannetrat. 

This ojiera was given a,t Her Majesty's, 
London, with ]\Ille Parepa in the title-role, 
Dec. 24, 18G0. Published by Schott 
(Mainz, 1857). — Clement et Larousse, 569 ; 
Eevue et Gaz. mus. de Paris (1857), 2 ; 
Athenffium (1860), ii. 301 ; Neue Zeitsch. 
(1859), i. 32. 

EEINHOLD, HUGO, born in Vienna, 
March 3, 1854, still living, 1890. Instru- 
mental composer, pupil at the Vienna 
Conservatorium, of Bruckner, Epstein, and 
Dessoff in 1868-74, and received a silver 
medal. His compositions are very prom- 
ising. Works : Prelude, minuet, and fugue 
for orchestra ; Suite for pianoforte, and 




strings ; String quartet ; Im Walde, and 
Fantasie-Bilder, for pianoforte (4 hands) ; 
Other pianoforte f)ieces, and songs. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 399 ; Riemann. 

REINKEN (Eeinke, Eeinicke), JOHANN 
ADAM, born at _ ,,. , 

D e V e n t e r, Hol- 
land, April 27, 
162 3, died in 
Hamburg, Nov. 
24, 1722. Organ- 
ist, pupil of Jan ,, 
Pieter Sweelinck 
in Amsterdam ; 
became in 1654 
organist of t h e ^' *» ^ 

church of St. Catherine, in Hamburg. So 
great was his reputation that Johanu Sebas- 
tian Bach walked twice at least from Lune- 
burg to Hamburg to hear him. On the latter 
occasion Bach in turn played for the aged 
organist, who exclaimed "I thought that 
this art was dead, but I see that it still lives 
in you." Works : Hortus Musicus for two 
violins, viola, and bass (Hamburg, 1704) ; 
Toccata for organ ; 2 arrangements of 
chor.als ; 2 variations for clavier. — Mendel ; 
F6tis ; Schilling ; Mattheson, Ehren-Pforte, 
292. 

EEINTHALEE, KAEL (MAETIN), born 
at Erfurt, Oct. 13, 
1822, still living, 
1890. Pupil of G. 
A. Eitter and A. B. 
Marx ; visited Paris, 
where he studied 
singing under Ge- 
raldi and Bordogni, 
then spent some 
time at Naples, Mi- 
lan, and Eome. He became instructor of 
singing at the Cologne Conservatorium, in 
1853 ; was appointed city music director, 
organist of the Cathedral, and director of 
the Singakademie at Bremen in 1858, and 
later conductor of the Liedertafel there. 
He is royal Prussian music director, and 
since 1882 member of the Berlin Academy. 




197 



REISS 



Works — Operas : Edda, Bremen, 1875 ; 
KiitLcben von Heilbronn, Frankfort, 1881. 
Jephtha and bis daughter, oratorio ; In 
der Wiiste, for chorus and orchestra ; 
Das Miidchen von Kolab, do. ; Symphony ; 
Psalms ; Choruses ; Songs. — Mendel ; Rie- 
mann ; Fotis ; do., Supplement, ii. 400. 

REISS, CARL HEINRICH ADOLF, 
born in Frankfort-ou-the-Main, in 1829, 
still living, 1890. Pianist, pupil, in Frank- 
fort, of Rosenhain on the pianoforte, of 
Ferdinand Kessler in harmony, and later, 
in Leipsic, pupil of Moritz Hauptmann. At 
the age of fourteen, he appeared with suc- 
cess in a concert in Frankfort, and when not 
yet twenty years old, was appointed chorus- 
master in the Stadttheater of Mainz. He 
was music director successively at the thea- 
tres of Berne, Basel, and Wiirzburg, and 
in 1854 returned to Mainz as first Kapell- 
meister of the Stadttheater. In 1856 he 
was called to the Court theatre at Cassel, 
where later he succeeded Spohr as Hof- 
Kapellmeister ; in 1881-86 he filled the 
same position at "Wiesbaden. Works : Otto 
der Schiitz, opera, given in Cassel and 
Mainz ; Pianoforte music ; Songs. — Fctis ; 
Mendel ; Riomann. 

REISSIGER, FRIEDRICH AUGUST, 
bora at Belzig, Prussia, July 26, 1809, died 
at Frederikshald, Norway, March 2, 1883. 
Brother of the following, first instructed 
by his father, then pupil of Schicht and 
Weinlig at the Thomasschule in Leipsic, 
and of Dehu in Berlin. He was music 
director at the theatre in Christiania in 
1840-50, and thence went to Frederikshald, 
as organist and miUtary Kapelmester. 
Works : Music to Tie Saters, and to Ogte- 
mandens Reprsesentant ; Several masses ; 
Requiem ; Cantatas ; Concert overtures ; 
Pianoforte music ; Many songs, and chor- 
uses for male voices. — Mendel. 

REISSIGER, KARL GOTTLIEB, born 
at Belzig, Jan. 31, 1798, died in Dresden, 
Nov. 7, 1859. Dramatic composer, pupil 
in 1811 of Schicht at the Thomasschule, 
Leipsic. In 1818 he began the study of 




theology, but soon gave himself up to mu- 
sic ; pursuing his studies in Vienna, in 
18 21, he appeared 
the following year as 
a singer and pian- 
ist. He then visited 
Munich, where he 
became the pujjil of 
Winter, went to Ber- 
lin in 1823, and trav- 
e 1 1 e d in Holland, 
France, and Italy in 
1824-25, to inform himself about the musi- 
cal institutions of those countries, by order 
of the Prussian government. He was then 
for a short time instructor at the royal in- 
stitute for church music, and in October, 
1826, was summoned to The Hague, to or- 
ganize the Conservatorium, which is still 
flourishing. In the same year he succeeded 
Marschner as music director of the Ger- 
man Opera in Dresden, and soon after was 
appointed Hof-Kapellmeister to succeed 
Weber. Works — Operas : Das Rockenweib- 
chen (1821, not given) ; Didone abban- 
donata, Dresden, 1823 ; Der Ahneuschatz 
(1824, do.) ; Yelva, melodrama, Dresden, 
1827 ; Libella, ib., 1828 ; Die Felsenmiihle 
von Etalieres, ib., 1829 ; Turandot, ib., 
1835 ; Adole de Foix, ib., 1841 ; Der Schiff- 
brueh der Medusa, ib., 1846 ; Overture and 
entr'actes to the tragedy Nero, Munich, 
1822. David, oratorio ; 10 masses ; Hymns, 
j)salms, motets, vespers, etc. ; Symphony for 
orchestra ; Overture for do. ; Concerto for 
flute ; Concertino for clarinet ; Quintet for 
pianoforte and strings ; 6 quartets for do. ; 
27 trios for do. ; Quintet for strings ; 8 
quartets for do. ; 2 sonatas for violin and 
pianoforte ; Sonata for clarinet ; Sonatas 
(4 and 2 hands), rondos, variations, and 
other music for pianoforte ; Many songs, 
some of which have become veiy popular. 
— Ftitis ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Schilling ; 
Schumann, Ges. Sehriften, ii. 292. 

REISSHLiNN, AUGUST, born at Fi-an- 
kenstein, Silesia, Nov. 14, 1825, still living, 
1890. Dramatic composer, and writer on 



19S 



EEITER 



music, pupil in his native place of Heinrich 
Jung, and in Breslau of Mosewius and 
Baumgart in theory, of Ernst Richter on 
the pianoforte and organ, of Liistner on the 
violin, and of Kahl on the violoncello. 
The favourable reception given his com- 
positions sti-engthened his purpose to be- 
come a composer, but a residence in 1850- 
52 in Weimar, vphere the new school of mu- 
sic had its most ardent chamjiions, turned 
him more to literary work. After living 
several years at Halle, he settled in 1863 in 
Berlin, where he lectured in 18GG-74: on 
musical history at the Couservatorium ; and 
afterwards took up his residence in Leip- 
sic. He was a prominent contributor to 
Mendel's Musikalisches Conversations-Lexi- 
kon, and after his death continued and 
completed it. In 1875 the degree of Ph. D. 
was conferred upon him by Leijjsic Uni- 
versity. His compositions have not at- 
tracted great attention, and his literary 
works are sometimes injured by liis fond- 
ness for putting all music into a system, 
but his industry and good use of his op- 
portunities have made him of considerable 
authority in the musical world of Germany. 
Works — Operas : Gudi'un, Leipsic, 1871 ; 
Das Gralspiel (not given) ; Die Biirger- 
meisteiin von Schorndorf, Leipsic, 1880. 
Two dramatic scenes, Drusus Tod and Lo- 
reley ; Wittekind, oratorio ; 2 sonatas for 
pianoforte and violin ; Concerto for violin 
and orchestra ; Suite for do. ; Many songs 
and ballads, duets, terzettos, and choruses. 
Writings : Von Bach bis Wagner (Berlin, 
18G1) ; Das deutsche Lied in seiner his- 
torischen Entwickelung (1861), rewritten 
as Geschichte des deutschen Liedes (1874), 
his most important work ; Allgemeine Ge- 
schichte der Musik (1863-65, 3 vols.) ; Allge- 
meine Musiklehre (1861, 2d ed., 1874) ; 
Grundriss der Musikgeschichte (1865) ; 
Robert Schumann (1865, 3d ed., 1879) ; 
Lehrbuch der musikalischen Komposition 
(1866-71, 3 vols.) ; Felix Mendelssohn-Bar- 
tholdy (1867, 2d ed., 1872) ; Franz Schu- 
bert (1872) ; Die konigliche Hochschule 



fiir Musik in Berlin (1875) ; Leichtfassliche 
Musikgeschichte (1877) ; Zur Aesthetik der 
Tonkunst (1879) ; Joseph Haydn (1879) ; 
Illustrirte Geschichte der deutschen Musik 
(1880) ; J. S. Bach, and G. F. Hiindel (1881) ; 
Gluck, and Weber (1882) ; and other works. 
— Mendel ; Riemann ; Fctis, Supplement, 
ii. 101. 

REITER, ERNST, born at Wertheim, 
Baden, in 1811, died at Basel, July 14, 
1875. Violinist, professor at the Conserva- 
torium at Wiirzburg, where he apj)eared 
also in concerts in 1835-37. In 1839 he 
went as music director to Strasburg, and 
in 1841 to Basel. In 1843 he conducted 
the music festival at Lucerne. Works : Die 
Fee von Elverhoe, Wiesbaden, 1865 ; Das 
neue Paradies, oratorio, Basel, 1845, Vienna, 
1847 ; 2 quartets for strings ; Songs. 

REJOICE GREATLY, soprano aria in 
B-flat major, with accompaniment of violins 
in unison, and coutiuuo, in Handel's 3Ies- 
mih. Part I., No. 16. 

RELLSTAB, JOHANN KARL FRIED- 
RICH, born in Berlin, Feb. 27, 1759, died 
at Charlottenburg, Aug. 19, 1813. Com- 
poser and writer, pupil of Agricola and 
Fasch. His father's death compelled him 
to take charge of a printing establishment 
in Berlin, to the business of which he added 
music printing and selling, and in 1785 
opened a circulating music library. In 
1787 he founded a concert for amateurs, 
and the concerts given by the Singakademie 
and others were often held at his house and 
expense. The war of 1806 caused the loss 
of almost his whole fortune, but his love of 
music revived on the return of peace. He 
wrote musical criticisms for the Vossische 
Zeitung, lectured on harmony, inspired 
wealthier men to give private concerts, and 
instructed his children musically. In 1811 
he visited Italy and Vienna. His composi- 
tions are little more than mechanical, but 
his books give evidence of critical observa- 
tion. Works : Die Apotheke, opera ; Die 
Hirten an der Krippe zu Bethlehem, can- 
tata ; Pygmalion, do. ; Ode ; Passion ora- 



199 



EEMBT 



torio ; Mass ; Te Deum ; Marches, waltzes, 
sonatinas, and other music. He published 
Versuch iiber die Vereinigung der musi- 
kalischeu und oratorischen Deklamation (Vi- 
enna, 1785) ; Ueber die Bemerkungen eines 
Reisendeu (Berlin, 1789), a reply to a work 
by Reichardt ; Anleitung f iir Klavierspieler, 
den Gebrauch der Bach'scheu Fingerset- 
zung, die Manieren und den Vortrag be- 
treffend (ib., 1790).— Fotis ; Gerber ; Men- 
del ; Kiemann ; Schilling. 

EEMBT, JOHLV^vN ERNST, born at 
Suhl, Prussian Saxony, in 1749, died there, 
Feb. 2G, 1810. Organist, formed himself 
by the study of Bach's works, of which he 
was an eminent interpreter. Ho was organ- 
ist in his native city from 1772, and left it 
only once in his life, to visit Leiiisic in 
1797. Works : G trios for organ (1787) ; 6 
do. ; 50 four-part fughettas for do. ; Cho- 
rals, fugues, preludes, etc., for do. — Fetis. 

REMDE, JOHANN CHRISTIAN HEIN- 
RICH, born at Berka-ou-the-Ilm, Saxe- 
Weimar, iu 1790, died at Weimar (?) after 
1840. Dramatic comiioser, first instructed 
by his father, then pupil of Tiirk at Halle. 
He taught music in Berlin, then lived at 
Leipsic and at Memmingen, Suabia, and 
settled at Weiruar, where he attracted Goe- 
the's attention, and was appointed music 
director of the court theatre, and professor 
at the pages' school. Works — Operas : Die 
lustigen Studenten ; Der Zaubersee, given 
at Weimai-, 1836 ; Die entwaffnete Rache ; 
Pygmalion, melodrama. Der Wandel des 
Irrthuuis, cantata. Pianoforte music, part- 
songs, ballads, and songs. — Fetis. 

REMfiNYI, EDUAED, born at Heves, 
Hungary, iu 1830 ; reported drowned off 
^Madagascar iu 1887, but living at Cape 
Town, South Africa, in 1890. Virtuoso 
on the violiu, pupil in 1842-45, at the Vi- 
enna Conservatorium, of BOhm. He took 
an active part in the insurrection of 1848, 
and was adjutant to the famous general 
GOrgey ; when the revolution was crushed 
he left his countiy and travelled in the 
United States in 1849-50, giving many 



successful concerts. In 1853 he went to 
Weimar to study under Liszt, and in 1854 
to London as solo 
violinist to the 




Queen, 
obtained 
nesty in 
returned 



Having 
an am- 
18G0, he 
to Hun- 



gai-y, and was made 
solo violinist to 
the Emperor of 
Austria. In 18G5 
he appeared successfully in Paris ; then vis- 
ited Germany, Holland, and Belgium, and 
in 1875 settled temporarily in Paris. He 
went to London again in 1877, to America 
in 1878, travelled extensively in the United 
States, Canada, and Mexico, and stai-ted on 
a new concert tour around the world in 
188G. Among his works are a concerto for 
violin and orchestra ; most of his other 
compositions consist of aiTangements which 
he has made for his own jjlayiug, chiefly 
of Hungarian airs, and of Field's, Chopin's, 
Schubert's, Bach's, Rameau's, and Mozart's 
music, which he has i^ublished as Nouvelle 
£cole de violon (Paris). — Fetis, Supple- 
ment, ii. 402 ; Wui'zbach ; HansUck, Con- 
certweseu in Wien, ii. 2G7. 

RfiMUZAT, JEAN, born at Bordeaux 
(Gironde), May 11, 1815, died in Shanghai, 
Sept. 1, 1880. Virtuoso on the flute, jDupil 
of Tulou at the Conservatoire, Paris, where 
he won the first i^rize iu 1832 ; appeared 
successfully in many concerts, then settled 
in London, where he became first flutist at 
the Queen's Theatre ; in 1853 he returned to 
Paris, and was engaged in the same capa- 
city at the Theatre Lyrique. He composed 
concertinos, fautaisies, airs varic's, and mor- 
ceaux de salon for his instrument. — Fetis. 

RENAUD, tragedie-lyrique in three acts, 
text by Lebceuf, music by Sacchini, first 
represented at the Academie Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, Feb. 28, 1783. This opera 
was a re-arrangement of Sacchini's Armida 
e Rinaldo, first given in Milan iu 1722. 
The French version was given in Paris, 



SCO 



RENAUD 



through the influence of Marie Antoinette, 
with Mme Saint-Huberty as Ai-mide. It is 




Antoinette C^cile Saint-Huberty. 

one of the best of the many settings of the 
subject. See also Armidc et Kenaud. — Cle- 
ment et Larousse, 570 ; Lajarte, i. 333. 

EENAUD D'AST, comeilie in two acts, 
in prose, text by Radet and Barre, music 
by Dalayrac, first re2:)reseuted at the Italions, 
Paris, July 19, 1787. The libretto is an 
imitation of La Fontaine's "L'oraison de 
Saint-Julien," taken originally from Boccac- 
cio. The music was popular, and the airs 
were long sung in the Paris vaudevilles. 
Same title, French ojiera in two acts, text 
by Lemonnier, music by Trial and Vachon, 
previously given in Paris, Oct. 22, 1765. 
Italian comic oj)eras on this subject : Eiu- 
aldo d' Asti, by Marcos Portugal, Venice, 
1793 ; by Niccolo Isouard, Malta, 1796 ; by 
Francesco Morlacchi, Parma, 1809 ; and by 
Carlo Coccia, Rome, 1816. 

RENDEZ-VOUS BOURGEOIS, LES, 
opera-bouifou in one act, text by Hoffman, 
music by Niccolo Isouard, first represented 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, May 9, 1807. 
The libretto is the most amusing of Hoff- 
man's works for the stage, and the music 
is gay and thoroughly French in chai'acter. 
It was given in Berlin as Das SteUdicheiu, 



Oder Alle fiirchten sich, in 1831 ; in Vi- 
enna, Aug. 18, 1826.— Clement et Larousse, 
571. 

R£ PASTORE, IL (The Shepherd King), 
dramatic cantata in two acts, text by Metas- 
tasio, music by Mozart, first represented at 
Salzburg, April 23, 1775. The libretto was 
written in 1751, set to music by Bono, and 
given in Vienna in that year. Mozart was 
ordered to compose music to this text in 
March, 1775, for the entertainment of the 
Archduke Maximilian, son of the Empress 
Maria Theresa, who was expected to visit 
Salzburg the following month. The so- 
prano Cousoli, from Munich, sang the prin- 
cipal 2:)art, and Mozart composed a new bra- 
vura air for her. Characters represented : 
Alessandro, King of Macedonia ; Amiuta, 
shepherd descendant of the Kings of Sidon, 
and lover of Elisa ; Elisa, shepherdess ; Ta- 
miri, fugitive princess, daughter of the tyrant 
Stratone, loved by Agenor ; and Agenor, 
noble of Sidon, lover of Tamiri, and friend 
of Alessandro. Alessandro, having taken 
Sidon, puts to death the tyrant and usurper 
Stratone, and places on the throne the 
rightful king, Aminta, who has been liv- 
ing as a shepherd. Alessandro wishes to 
marry him to Tamiri, daughter of Stratone, 
who loves Agenor, and Aminta, rather than 
give up the love of Elisa, a shepherdess, re- 
turns the crown to Alessandro. The latter 
is so delighted with his fidelity that he 
unites him with Elisa, and establishes them 
upon the throne. He also gives Tamiri to 
Agenor, and promises him the next king- 
dom he may conquer. Amiuta's aria, " Aer 
tranquiUo," was sung by Mile Weber in 
Mannheim in 1778. Another aria of Amin- 
ta's, " L' amero," was a favourite with Jenny 
Lind. The original autograph, in the 
KOnigliche Bibliothek, Berlin, was {jub- 
lished by Breitkopf & Hilrtel, Mozart 
Werke, Serie v.. No. 10. — KOchel, Verzeich- 
niss. No. 208 ; Andre, do., No. 37 ; Jahn, 
Mozart, i. 399 ; Gehriug, Mozart, 54. 

Rfe PASTORE, IL, Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Metastasio, music by Giuseppe 



201 



EEQUIEM 



Sarti, first represented in Venice in 1753. 
This opera bad an immense success, and 
quickly sjiread the fame of its composer. 
Other Italian operas on Metastasio's text, by 
Giuseppe Bono, SchOnbrunn, near Vienna, 
1751 ; by Johaun Agricola, Berlin, 1752 ; 
by Johann Adam Hasse, Hubertusberg, 
near Dresden, Oct. 7, 1755 ; by Nicolo 
Jommclli, Stuttgart, 1757 ; by Zonca, Mu- 
nich, 17(50 ; by Piccinni, Naples, 17C0 ; by Jo- 
hann Christian Richter, Dresden, 1762 ; by 
Pietro Guglielmi, Naples, 17G7 ; by Fran- 
cesco Uttiui, Venice, about 1773 ; by Matteo 
Rauzzini, Dublin, 1784 ; by Parenti, Naples, 
1788 ; and by Luciano Xavier dos Santos, 
Lisbon, 1793 ; and a French opera on the 
same subject, Le jardinier de Sidon, in two 
acts, text by Renard de Pleinchene, music 
by Philidor, first given at the Italiens, Paris, 
July 18, 17G8. 

RE(iUIE:M, by Berlioz. See J/esse des 
Morts. 

REQUIEM, in C minor, by Chcrubini, 
written for the anniversary of the execution 
of Louis XVI. (Jan. 21, 1793), and first per- 
formed at the Abbey Church of Saint- 
Denis, Pai-is, Jan. 21, 1817. Berlioz con- 
sidered this the greatest work of its com- 
poser, and especially admired the Agnus Dei. 
It is one of the gi-eatest musical expressions 
of Itahan Catholicism, and its general tone 
is that of deep religious feeling and mourn- 
fulness. The Credo for eight voice.s, a 
cappella, is a striking example of Cherubini's 
mastery of counterpoint. The Requiem was 
sung in the same church at the funeral ser- 
vice of the due de Berri, Feb. 14, 1820. 
It was first performed by the Sacred Har- 
monic Society of London, under the direc- 
tion of Sir Michael Costa, March 23, 1881. 
Full score published by Frey (Paris), and 
by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic). Cherubini 
■wrote also another Requiem, in D minor, for 
three male voices (two tenors, and a bass), 
first performed at a concert of the Conser- 
vatoire, Paris, March 25, 1838, the Dies 
irffi having been previously given at the 
same place, March 19, 1837. This, Cheru- 



bini's last masterpiece, was written in his 
seventy-seventh year, and it was sung at his 
own obsequies at Saint-Roch in 1842. It is 
a more dramatic work than the one in C 
minor, and in some respects it is greater. 
It was first sung in London as a funeral 
service in the Roman Catholic chapel in 
Farm Street. Published by Frey (Paris). 
— Bellasis, Cherubini, 230, 334 ; 337-347 ; 
Grove, iii. Ill ; Monthly Musical Record 
(1872), ii. 71 ; AthenfBum (1881), i. 468. 

REQUIEM, by Gossec. See Messe des 
Morts. 

REQUIEM, for chorus, soli, and orches- 
tra, by Mozart, written in 1791, and first per- 
formed in Jahn's Hall, Vienna, 1796. This, 
the composer's last work, was undertaken in 
consequence of a visit in July, 1791, from a 
mysterious stranger, who brought Mozart a 
commission to write a Requiem mass. The 
\'isitor was Herr Leutzeb, the steward of 
the Count Franz von "Walsegg, who, having 
lost his wife, wished to honor her memory 
by a funeral mass, which he proposed to 
have performed as his own composition. 
Owing to the weakness of impaired health, 
and worn with overwork, Mozart soon be- 
lieved that this strange visitor was a mes- 
senger from the other world, and that the 
mass was for his own funeral. This ner- 
vousness probably hastened his death (Dec. 
5, 1791), which occurred before the MS. 
was finished. His widow, fearing that she 
might be forced to refund the payment 
already received for the Requiem, gave the 
copy to the Hof-Kapellmeister, Joseph von 
Eybler, to complete ; but, after filling in 
the instrumentation as far as the Confutatis, 
and wi'iting two measures in continuation of 
the Lacrymosa, he abandoned the task in 
despair. The MS. was then given to Franz 
Xaver Siissmayer, an accomplished musi- 
cian, intimate with Mozart's methods of 
working. Mozart had completed the first 
two movements, the Requiem and Kyrie, in 
full score, and the Dies irse, excepting the 
last verse, was sketched out ; the voice 
parts were comj)letely wi'itten with the 



S02 



EEQITIEM 



basso-continuo ; and the instrumental jjarts 
where the accompaniment is independent. 
The movements of the Offertorium, the 
Domine Jesii Christe, and the Hostias were 
also partially written. Siissmayer's task 
was to fill in the necessary instrumentation 
and to compose the Sanctiis, Agnus Dei, 
Benedictus, and the concluding part of the 
Lacrymosa. He made a skilful transcript 
of the entire Eequiem, and his handwriting 
resembled Mozart's so closely that Count 
von Walsegg accepted the MS. with the be- 
lief that it was in the autograph of the great 
composer. A copy of the MS. was in the 
possession of Mozart's widow, who sold it 
to Breitkopf & Hilrtel, and it was printed 
by them for the first time in full score 
(Leipsic, 1800). Its authenticity was 
doubted immediately. Siissmayer claimed 
to have completed the instrumentation of 
the Eequiem, Kyrie, Dies irae, and Domine, 
and to have composed the Sanctus, Bene- 
dictus, and Agnus Dei. In 182.5 Gottfried 
Weber published an attack on the Requiem, 
which he considered unworthy of Mozart, 
and attributed the whole to Siissmayer. 
Mml von Nissen (Frau Mozart) afterward 
aided Joliann Andre in publishing a new 
edition of the score marked, on the author- 
ity of the Abbe Stadler, M. and S. to distin- 
guish the parts written by Mozart from 
those by Siissmayer (Offenbach, 182G). 
Andre published also Mozart's original 
sketches of the Dies ivce, Tuba Mirum, and 
Hostias (ib., 1829). The motif of the first 
number of the Requiem is the same as that 
chosen by Handel for his Queen Caroline's 
Te Deum, which has the old choral, "Herr 
Jesvi Christ, du wahrer Gott," or " Weuu 
mein Stiindlein vorhanden ist," for its cantus 
firmus. The motif of the Kyrie is the same 
as the subject of the chorus, "Hallelujah 
we will rejoice in Thy salvation," in Han- 
del's Joseph, and the chief subject of the 
Kyrie eleison is the same as the fugue 
"And with His stripes" in the Messiah. 
Haydn said : "If Mozart bad written noth- 
ing except his violin quintets and his 



Requiem, he would have rendered his name 
immortal." This work was first performed 
by the Siugakademie, Berlin, in memory of 
its founder Fasch, Oct. 8, 1800 ; in memory 
of the Queen of Prussia in 1805 ; of the 
Akademie director Frisch in 1815 ; of Prince 
Radziwill in 1833 ; of Count Briihl in 1837 ; 
of Friedrich Wilhelm III. in 1840 ; and of 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV. in 18G1 ; and in 
Paris under Cherubini in 1801. It was 
given also in Berlin in memory of Andreas 
Romberg in 1821 ; of Bernard Klein in 
1823 ; of Ludwig Berger in 1839 ; in Leip- 
sic in memory of Schicht in 1821 ; in Lem- 
berg, under the direction of Mozart's son, 
on the anniversary of the composer's death, 
Jan. 5, 1827 ; and in Vienna on the anni- 
versary of Weber's death, Sept. 5, 1826 ; 
and of Beethoven's, April 3, 1827. A lover 
of music in Venice left a legacy for the an- 
nual performance of three Requiems, in- 
cluding Mozart's ; and a society was founded 
in 1857 in Senftenberg, Bohemia, to per- 
form this Requiem annually on June 18th. 
It was given in Rio Janeiro in 1819 ; by the 
Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, Jan. 
18, 1857, and by the Oratorio Society of 
New York, Dec. 1, 1887. The original 
score was obtained gradually by the Im- 
perial Library of Vienna. In 1831: the 
Abbe Stadler bequeathed to it the auto- 
graph of the Dies irse, with the excej)tion 
of the last movement ; von Eybler sent 
soon afterward the MSS. of the Lacrymosa, 
Domine Jesu, and the Hostias ; and in 1838 
the Library purchased the entire MS. sold 
to Count Walsegg. From these " Ur- 
schriften," or sketches, it is proven that all 
of Mozart's work is extant, and that these 
sketches were filled in by Siissmayer, who 
did not write the Eequiem and the Kyrie 
as he claims to have done. An edition for 
the pianoforte without words was published 
by Hasliuger (Vienna, 1828). Other edi- 
tions, by Schlesinger (Paris) ; by Novello & 
Co. (London) ; and by Breitkopf & Hilrtel, 
Mozart Werke, Serie xxiv. No. 1. Tran- 
scriptions of the Confutatis and Lacrymosa, 



KEQUIEM 



were made by Liszt for the pianoforte. 
— Kochel, Verzeichniss, No. C2G ; Jahn, 
Mozart, iv. 679-739, 775 ; do. (Townsend), 
iii. 352-392 ; Nissen, Mozart, 563, 573 (An- 
hang, 168) ; Oulibicheflf, Mozart, iii. 419 ; 
Fetia, vi. 339 ; Mosel, Ueber die Origiual- 
Partitur des Kequicm von W. A. Mozart 
(Vienna, 1839) ; Habu, Mozarts Requiem 
(Bielefeld, 1867) ; Rocblitz, Fiu- Freunde 
der Tonkuust, i. 159 ; Lobe, Comj)ositions- 
lehre, iii. 195 ; Sievers, Mozart und Siiss- 
maier, 8 ; Pobl, The Story of Mozart's Re- 
quiem (London) ; Erdmann, Ergcbnisse der 
bisberigen Forscbungen iiber die Ecbtbeit 
'des Mozart'scben Requiem (2 vols., Sebott, 
Mainz, 1826-28) ; Stadler, M., Vertbeidigung 
der Ecbtbeit des Mozart-Requiem ; Cilcilia, 
iii. 205-230 ; iv. 120, 257-352 ; v. 237 ; vi. 
133, 193-230 ; xiv. 147 ; sx. 279 ; Allgem. 
mus. Zeitg., i. 147, 178 ; iv. 2, 23 ; sxv. 
685 ; xxviii. 105, 729 ; xxix. 519 ; xxx. 209 ; 
xli. 81, 317 ; xlii. 54 ; Berliner mus. Zeitg. 
(1825), 370, 378, 389 ; Neue Zeits., x. 10 ; 
Grove, iii. 110 ; Upton, Standard Oratorios, 
230. 

REQUIEM, Missa pro Defunctis, by Pa- 
lestriiia. Tins work, wbicb is very beauti- 
ful, was left incomplete by tbe composer. 
It consists of tbe Kyric, in wbicb tbe Plain 
Cbaiint of tbe Credo is so plaintive and ten- 
der tbat it almost conceals tbe enormous 
skill displayed in tbe contrapuntal treat- 
ment ; tbe Oflfurtoriura ; Sanctus ; Benedic- 
tus ; and tbe Agnus Dei. Tbe otber num- 
bers are supposed to bave been sung in 
unison Plain Cbaunt, still tbe custom at 
Roman funerals, but Palestriua bas left two 
settings of tbe Libera me, in wbicb tbe 
Gregorian melody is exquisitely treated. 
One of tbese MSS. is in tbe Archives of tbe 
Pontifical Cbapel, Rome ; tbe otber in tbe 
Lateran Basilica. Tbis work was first pub- 
lished as a supplement to the third edition 
of Palestrina's " First Book of Masses " 
(Rome, 1591). It was reprinted by Alfieri 
in bis " Raccolta di Musica Sacra," vob I. 
(1841) ; by Latage, " Cinq Messes de Pales- 
trina," pubUshed by Launer & Cie. (Paris), 



and by Sebott & Co. (London) ; by the 
Prince de la Moskowa (Josejjb Napoleon 
Ney) in Vol. IX. of bis " Recueil des mor- 
ceaux de musique ancienue," etc. ; and by 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Palestriua Werke. 
—Grove, iii. 109. 

REQUIEM (The Manzoui), by Verdi, first 
performed in tbe Church of San Marco, Mi- 
lan, May 22, 1874, ou tbe anniversary of 
Alessandro Mauzoni's death. The solos 
were sung by Teresa Stoltz, soprano ; Maria 
Waldinan, alto ; Giuseppe Capponi, tenor ; 
and Orniondo Maini, bass. Soon after 
Rossini's death (Nov. 13, 1868), Verdi con- 
ceived the idea that tbe Italian composers 
should unite in writing a Requiem to his 
memory, to be performed in tbe cathedral 
of Bologna every centenary of Rossini's 
death, and at no other place and on no 
other occasion. The numbers were as- 
signed as follows : I. Requiem aiternam, 
in G minor, Buzzola ; 11. Dies irre, in C 
minor, Bazziui ; m. Tuba mirum, in E-flat 
minor, Pedrotti ; IV. Quid sum miser, in 
A-flat, Cagnoni ; V. Recordare, in F, Ricci ; 
VI. Ingeraisco, in A minor. Mini ; VII. Con- 
futatis, in D, Bouchenon ; VIII. Lacrymosa, 
in G and C minor, Coccia ; IX. Domino 
Jesu, in C, Gaspari ; X. Sanctus, in D-flat, 
Platania ; XI. Agnus Dei, in F, Pctrella ; 
XII. Lux iuterna, in A-flat, Mabollini ; and 
XTTT. Libera me, in C minor, Verdi. 
When put together the numbers were found 
to be so different in treatment and style, 
tbat tbe work was condemned as incohe- 
rent and so wanting in unity tbat the MSS. 
were returned to tbe various composers. 
Signor Mazzucato, who examined the 
Requiem, was so imjiressed with Verdi's 
contribution that be entreated him to com- 
pose an entu-e Requiem, and on the death 
of bis fi'iend, the poet Manzoni, in 1873, 
Verdi wrote this work, to which he trans- 
ferred tbe Libera me originally intended 
for the Requiem of Rossini. It has been 
enthusiastically praised by Verdi's admir- 
ers and enthusiastically denounced by the 
German critics. Hans von Biilow calls it 



S04 



EEQUIEM 



an " opera in ecclesiastical costume." I. 
Requiem and Kyrie (quartet and chorus) ; 
II. Dies Ir«! (chorus), Tuba IVIirum (chorus), 
Liber scriptus (chorus and fugue). Quid 
sum miser (trio for soprano, alto, and 
tenor), Rex tremendse (quartet and cho- 
rus), Recordare (duo for soprano and 
alto with chorus), Ingemisco (tenor solo), 
Coufutatis (bass solo), Lacrymosa (quartet 
and chorus) ; III. Domiue Jesu (quartet) ; 
IV. Sanctus (fugued double chorus) ; V. 
Agnus Dei (duo for soprano and alto with 
chorus) ; VI. Lux roterna (trio for alto, tenor, 
and bass) ; VII. Libera me (solo for so- 
prano, chorus, and final fugue). This work 
was given in Paris under Verdi's direction, 
June 4, 1874 ; in London at the Roj'al Al- 
bert Hall, under Verdi's direction. May 15, 
1875.— Grove, iv. 252 ; Upton, Standard Ora- 
torios, 303 ; Athenaeum (1875), i. 604, 
COG. 

REQUIEM for six voices, comjjosed by 
Vittoria, for the funeral of the Empress 
Maria, the widow of Maximilian IE., in 1G03. 
This is the composer's last work of impor- 
tance, and it is considered the " greatest 
triumph of his genius." The full title is 
" Officium Defunctorum sex vocibus, in 
obitu et obsequiis Sacrso Imj)eratricis," and 
it consists of a G-part Missa pro defunctis ; 
a G-part Versa est in luctum ; a G-part Re- 
spousorium, Libera ; and a 4-part Lectio, 
Tajdet anima. The movements are based 
on the Cautus firmus, but the music is sur- 
prisingly modern on account of its j^ower- 
ful harmony. The score, dedicated to the 
Princess Margaret, daughter of the Em- 
press, was published in Madrid in 1603. 
The Lectio was reprinted by Joseph Schrems 
in continuation of Proske's "Musica divina" 
(Ratisbon, 1869).— Grove, iii. 139 ; iv. 316. 

REQUIEM FUR mGNON, for soH, cho- 
rus, and orchestra, text from Goethe's 
" Wilhehn Meister," music by Schumann, 
op. 98 B, composed in 1849, and first per- 
formed at Diisseldorf, Nov. 21, 1850. It 
was first given in America by the Arion 
Club, Providence, Dec. 2, 1885. This is 



one of Schumann's most delicate and sym- 
pathetic compositions. First published by 
Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leipsic). Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, Schumann Werke, Serie ix., No. 6. 
— Reissmann, Schumann, 180 ; Neue 
Zeitschr., xxxv. 219. 

RESTA, O CARA, aria for soprano with 
orchestra, in C, by Mozart, composed for 
Mme Duschek in Prague, Nov. 3, 1787. 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart Werke, Serie 
vi., No. 37. — Kuchel, Verzeichniss, 528 ; 
Jahn, Mozart, iv. 304. 

RESURRECTION, THE, oratorio in two 
parts, text by Dr. E. G. Monk, music by Sir 
George Alexander Macfarren, first per- 
formed at the Birmingham (England) Festi- 
val in August, 1876. It was sung by Mr. 
Santley, Mr. Lloyd, Mme Lemmens, and 
Mme Patey, and conducted by Walter Mac- 
farren, brother of the composer. Other 
oratorios on this subject: in German by 
Eberlin, Salzburg, about 1756 ; in English 
by Samuel Arnold, London, 1777. — Athen- 
Kum (1876), ii. 314. 

RESURREZIONE, LA, (The Resurrec- 
tion), Italian oratorio in two parts, text 
founded on Scriptural narrative, music by 
Handel. The author of the simple and dra- 
matic libretto is unknown. This, Handel's 
first oratorio, differs but slightly from the 
ordinaiy operas of that period. It is dated 
" Roma la Festa di Pasque dal Marche, e 
Ruspoli (11 d' Aprile) 1768." It was written 
in the palace of the Marchese di Ruspoli, and 
is supposed to have been first performed in 
the jjalace of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. 
The first violin part, which is of special 
prominence, is said to have been played 
by Coi-eUi. The string orchestra is some- 
times divided into six j)arts, the first and 
second violins being subdivided. Charac- 
ters represented : Angelo (S.) ; Maddalena 
(S.) ; Cleofe (A.) ; San Giovanni (T.) ; Luci- 
fero (B.); and Voce (S.). The original 
score, in Buckingham Palace, was first pub- 
lished by Ai-nold (London, 1797) ; Chry- 
sander's edition for the German Hiindel- 
geseUschaft, Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 



ao6 



RE TEODORO 



1878).— Chrysander, Handel, i. 2U ; Rock- 
stro, 52 ; Schcelcber, 19. 

E£ TEODORO m \^NEZL\, IL (King 
Theodore in Venice), Italian opera bufl'a, 
text by Casti, music by Paisiello, first rej)- 
resented in Vienna, Aug. 23, 1784. This 
opera, which contains some of the com- 
poser's best music, was written for the Em- 
peror of Austria, Joseph 11. The septet 
became very popular. The work was given 
at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, Feb. 21, 
1789. The hero is Theodorich, King of 
the Goths, called by the German Minne- 
singer, Dietrich von Bern. Other Italian 
operas on this subject : Teodorico, by Gio- 
vanni Porta, text by Salvi, Venice, 1720 ; 
by Giuseppe Maria Buiui, Bologna, 1729 ; II 
Teodoro, by Stefano Pavesi, test by Rossi, 
Venice, 1813 ; and II re Teodoro in Venezia, 
by Luigi Finali, Parma, December, 182G. 

RETURN, OH GOD OF HOSTS, alto 
aria of Micah, in E-flat major, with accom- 
paniment of two violins and bass, in Han- 
del's Samson, Act H., Scene 1. Published 
also separately, with the accompaniment 
filled out by Otto Dresel (Leij)sic, Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel). 

REUBKE, JULIUS, born at Hausnein- 
dorf, near Quedliuburg, IMarch 23, 183G, 
died at Pillnitz, Saxony, June 3, 1858. 
Pianist, pupil of Kullak, and in composi- 
tion of Marx in Berlin, then studied under 
Liszt at Weimar, and became one of his 
favourite puijils. Works : Grand sonata for 
pianoforte (dedicated to Liszt) ; Psalm xciv. ; 
Sonata for organ, etc. His brother Otto 
(born Nov. 2, 1842), is virtuoso on the organ 
and pianoforte, pupil of Bulow and Mai-x, 
and lives at Halle as conductor of a musical 
society. 

REULING, WILHELM, born at Darm- 
stadt, Dec. 22, 1802, died at Munich, April 
27, 1877. Dramatic composer, pupil of 
Rinck, then in Vienna of Seyfried and of 
Emanuel Fijrster. The gi-eat success of 
some compositions for the Josej^hstadt 
Theater led to his appointment in 1829 
as its Kapellmeister. He occupied the 



same position at the Kiirnthnerthor Theater 
in 1830-54, and retired to his native city, 
devoting himself exclusively to composition. 
Works — Operas : Ulysses ; Die Riiuber- 
hOhle ; Der blinde Harfuer, Die Feuer- 
braut, given at Trieste, 1829 ; Alfred der 
Grosse, Vienna, 1840 ; Der letzte Graf von 
Anxor. Ballets, 1830-3G : Die Vestalin ; 
Clorinde ; Oberon ; Der Kobold ; Soj)hie, 
Grossfiirstin von Moskau ; Der Rekrut ; 
Die Heimkehr ; etc. Many operettas, pan- 
tomimes, and Singspiele ; Fest-Ouvertiire ; 
Couzert-Ouvertiire ; Adagio et Rondo con- 
certant, for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, and 
bassoon, with orchestra ; Octet for piano- 
forte, strings, flute, clarinet, and horn ; 3 
quartets for pianoforte and strings ; 3 trios 
for do. ; Other chamber music ; Cantatas, 
and choruses for male and mixed voices. 
— Wurzbach. 

REUTER, ROMANUS, born at Kallmiinz, 
near Ratisbon, in 1755, died in the Abbey 
of Priifening in 1800. Benedictine monk ; 
at fii'st a choir boy in the Abbey of Priife- 
ning, then pupil of Schuhbauer in the semi- 
nary at Neuburg on the Danube. Having 
studied philosophy at Ambei"g, he entered 
the Abbey of his order, and greatly im^ 
proved the standard of the much neglected 
choir. Works : Naboth's Weinberg, melo- 
drama ; Masses, motets, sonatas for harjisi- 
chord. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

REUTTER, GEORG, the elder, born in 
Vienna in 1G56, died there, Aug. 29, 1738. 
Organist and theorbist, became organist of 
St. Stephen's in 1G8G ; played the theorbo 
in the court chapel in 1G97-1703 ; was 
made court and chamber organist in 1700 ; 
succeeded Fux as Kajjellmeister at the 
Gnadenbild of St. Stephen's in 1712, and 
three years later was ajjpointed Kapell- 
meister of the Cathedral itself. In 1095 
he was made a knight in Rome by Count 
Francesco Sforza. Woi-ks : Miserere a due 
cori air uso romano ; Organ toccatas and 
fugues in manuscript ; Requiem and mass 
in Berlin Library. — !Mendel ; Wurzbach ; 
Riemann ; Gerbcr ; Schilling. 



S06 



REUTTER 



REUTTER, GEORG (KARL), the— Clement et Larousse, 810; Atlienffium 
younger, born in Vienna, Ajoril 6, 1708, (1870), i. 31. 

died there, March 12, 1772. Sou and pupil REVENGE, THE, ballad for chorus and 
of Georg Reutter, was appointed in 1731 orchestra, test from Tennyson, music by 
court composer. In 1738 he succeeded his Charles Villiers Stanford, first performed 



father as Kapellmeister of St. Stephen's, in 
17i6 became second court Kaj)ellmeister, 



at Leeds, England, Oct. 14, 188G. Pub- 
lished by NoYello (London). — Athenseum 



acted from 1751 as chief court Kaj)ellmeis- (1886), ii. 541. 

ter, and received the title in 1769 on the \ REVENGE, TIMOTHEUS CRIES, bass 
death of Predieri. It was during his time aria in D major, with accompaniment of 
that the court chapel of Vienna sank to its trumpet, 2 oboes, and strings complete, in 
lowest ebb of efficiency, partly in con- Handel's Alexander's Feast, Part II., No. 
sequence of administrative changes. He \ 12. The second j)art of this air, Behold 



engaged the boy Haydn for the choir of 
St. Stei^hen's, and treated him very badly. 
In 1731 he married the singer, Theresia 
Holzliauser, and in 1740 he was ennobled. 
His compositions were more showy than 
substantial, and are now almost forgotten. 
Works : La forza dell' amicizia, opera (with 
Caldara), Vienna, 1728 ; La pazienza di 
Socrate con due mogli, a dramatic diver- 
tissement (do.), 1731 ; Le C'inesi, operetta 
in one act, text by Metastasio, Vienna, 
1735 ; La gara, operetta in one act, text 
by Metastasio, Vienna, 1755 ; La divina 
Providenza in Ismael, oratorio ; R ritorno 
di Tobia, do.; Belulia liberata, do., 1734; 
Masses ; Augurio di felicita, cantata for three 




a ghastly band, in G minor (marked No. 
18, as a separate air, in Mozart's score), is 
accompanied by two violas, violoncelU ri- 
pieni, three bassoons, and bass. 

REY, JEAN BAPTISTE, born at Lau- 
zerte (Tarn-et-Garonne), Dec. 18, 1784, died 
in Paris, July 15, 1810. Dramatic com- 
poser, educated at the Abbey of Saint- 
Sernin, where he was a choir boy. At 
the age of seventeen he became maitre 
de chapelle of the cathedral at Auch, and 
in 1754 chef d'orehestre at the opera in 
Toulouse. Ha^ang filled similar positions 
at Montpellier, Marseilles, Bordeaux, and 
Nantes until 1776, he was summoned to 
Paris, where he conducted the Opura orches- 
tra for thirty years, at first assisting 
Francceur, and from 1781 as his suc- 
cessor. In 1781-85 he conducted 

^^C'T^'li^'r^f*^^ ^^®° ^^® Concerts Spirituels, and in 
^ • 1770 was annointed director of the 



l^c^^l^^ 



voices, text by Metastasio, Schonbrunn, 
1749 ; Other cantatas for different occasions ; 
Motets, and other music. — Wurzbach ; Men- 
del ; Schilling ; Rieraanu ; Futis ; Burney, 
Present State of Music in Germany, i. 356. 

RfiVE D'AMOUR (A Dream of Love), 
opera-comique in three acts, text by Den- 
nery and Cormon, music by Auber, first 
represented at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
Dec. 20, 1869. This is Auber's last opera. 
Capoul, Gailhard, Sainte-Foy, Prilleux, 
Mile Priola, Mile Girard, and JRle Nau 
appeared in the original cast. The opera 
was given in London in December, 1869. 



1779 was appointed director of the 
chamber music by Louis XVI. He lost 
his post through the Revolution, but was 
elected a member of the administrative 
committee of the Opera in 1792, and ap- 
pointed professor at the Conservatoire in 
1794. As an adherent of Rameau's and an 
opponent of Catel's system, he was pensioned 
at the reduction of the faculty in 1802, but 
in 1804 was appointed maitre de chapelle 
by Napoleon. Works : Apollon et Coronis, 
Paris, 1781 ; Diane et Endymion, ib., 1791 ; 
3d act to Sacchini's Arvire ed Evelina ; Bal- 
let music in Salieri's Tarare ; do. in Sac- 
chini's (Edipe a Colone ; Masses with or- 



807 



RET 



chestra, motets, etc. His brother, Louis 
Charles Joseph (1738-1811), was for forty 
years violoucellist at the Opera in Paris, 
and published trios and duos for violin and 
violoncello. — Fetis ; Mendel ; Eiemann. 

EEY, JEAN £TIENNE, born at Tou- 
louse, Aug. 3, 1832, still living, 1890. Dra- 
matic composer, pupil at the Conservatoii-e, 
Paris, of Carafa in composition, and of 
Rovial in singing ; obtained an accessit de 
chant in 1854, and in 1855 mamed Mile 
Balla, the singer, who had won in 1854 the 
second prize. In the following year she 
was awarded the first prize in singing in 
opera and opora-comique, and received a 
promising engagement to travel. Her hus- 
band thenceforth gave up his own profes- 
sional career as a singer, and while travelling 
with her thi'ough Italy, Belgium, Spain, 
and Portugal, gave much time to composi- 
tion, some of his best works being brought 
out in the principal cities of those countries. 
After her death he remained in Paris, de- 
voting himself to composition in various 
branches. Works — Operas : La gitana, 
Bordeaux, 1864 ; J'ai coupe le roi ; L'a- 
mour villageois ; Stribor ; Le taUsman des 
sultanes, opera-bouffe ; Balthazar ; Irene. 
Le mai'tyre de Saint-Saturniu, oratorio, Tou- 
louse, 1856 ; Choruses for 4 male voices ; 
12 sacred melodies for one voice ; Sacred 
choruses for 4 male voices ; and other vocal 
music in every style ; Eequiem mass for 4 
male voices, and other church music ; 7 
symphonies for orchestra ; Many pieces for 
pianoforte, violin, and other instruments. 
He has published also a Methode de chant, 
and easy sonatas for the pianoforte, and 
violin, for beginners, etc. — Fetis, SuppU'- 
ment, ii. 406 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 385. 

REYER, LOUIS fiTIENNE ERNEST 
(Rey, called), bom at Marseilles, Dec. 1, 
1823, still living, 1890. Dramatic composer, 
and writer on music, pupU at Barsotti's 
music school in Marseilles ; entered the 
government service in Algiers and did not 
take up music as a profession until 1848, 
when he went to Paris, and became a pupil 




of Mme Farrene, his aunt. He is deemed, 
by his countrymen, one of the most prom- 
inent representa- 
tives of the modern 
French romantic 
school. As a writer 
he has won reputation 
as a worthy successor 
of Berlioz, whom he 
replaced as librarian 
of the Grand Opera. 
He is also musical edi- 
tor of the Journal des 
Debats, where he succeeded d'Ortigue, who 
followed Berlioz in that position. His prin- 
cipal articles have been published under 
the title " Notes de musique " (Paris, 1875). 
Member of the Academy, 1876 ; Legion of 
Honour, 1862, Officer, 1886. Works— Ope- 
ras : Maitre Wolfram, Theatre Lyrique, 
1854, Opera Comique, 1873 ; La statue, ib., 
1861, Opera Comique, 1878 ; Sacountala, 
ballet, 1858, EroMrate, Baden-Baden, 1862, 
Paris, 1871 ; Sigurd, Theatre de la Monnaie, 
Bi-ussels, 1884, Opera, Paris, 1885 ; Sa- 
lammbo, founded on Flaubert's romance, 
Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, Feb. 1, 
1890. Vicloire, cantata, Paris, 1859 ; Le 
Selam, ode-symphony, 1850 ; L'union des 
arts, hymn ; Salve Regiua ; Ave Maria ; O 
salutaris, etc. — Fetis ; Supplement, ii. ? 
Mendel, Ergiinz., 313 ; Riemann. 

RHAPSODIE D'AU\T:RGNE, for piano- 
forte and orchestra, in C, by Saiut-Saens, op. 
73. The score, dedicated to Louis Diemer, 
is pubUshed by Durand, Schcenewerk & Cie 
(Paris). 

RHAPSODIES HONGROISES (Hun- 
garian Rhapsodies), fifteen works for the 
pianoforte by Franz Liszt. I. in E-flat, 
dedicated to E. Zerdaheli ; H. in C-sharp 
! minor and F-sharp, dedicated to Count La- 
dislas Teleki, also for four hands, and an 
easy edition for two hands ; HI. in B-flat, 
dedicated to Count Leo Festetics ; IV. in 
E-flat, dedicated to Count Casimir Eszter- 
hiizy ; V. Huroide elogiaque in E minor, 
dedicated to the Countess Sidonie Reviczky ; 



EHAW 



VI. in D-flat, deflicfited to Count Antoine 
d'Appouyi ; VII. in D minor, dedicated to 
Baron Fery Orczy ; VIII. in F-sharp minor, 
dedicated to M. A. d'Augusz ; IX. in E-flat, 
Le carnaval de Pe.sth, dedicated to H. W. 
Ernst ; X. Preludio in E, dedicated to 
Egre.s.sy B6ny ; XI. in A minor, dedicated 
to Baron Fery Orczy ; XII. in C-sLarp minor, 
dedicated to Josef Joachim ; XTTT. in A 
minor, dedicated to Count Leo Festetics ; 

XIV. in F minor, dedicated to Hans von 
Billow ; XV. in A minor, Rakoczy-Marscli. 
Nos. I. and 11. published by B. Seufif (Leip- 
sic) ; No. n. arranged for orchestra by K. 
Miiller-Berghaus (ib.) ; Nos. IE., IV., V., VI., 
and VII. published by C. Haslinger (Vienna), 
and by Schlesiuger (Berlin) ; Nos. VIII., IX., 
and X. by Schott (Mainz) ; and Nos. XL, XII., 
Xni., XIV., and XV. by Schlesinger (Ber- 
lin). Nos. XI., Xn., Xin., XIV., and XV. are 
arranged for the pianoforte for four hands 
by F. G. Jansen (Schlesinger, Berlin) ; No. 

XV. for eight hands by August Horn (ib.) ; 
and No. XH. for violin and pianoforte by 
J. Joachim (Sehuberth, Leipsic). Nos. II., 
v., VI., IX., XII., and XIV. were arranged for 
full orchestra by Franz Liszt and F. Dop- 
pler ; I. (No. XIV.), in F minor, dedicated to 
Hans von Billow ; H. (No. XII.), transposed 
to D minor, dedicated to J. Joachim ; HI. 
(No. VI.), transposed to D, dedicated to 
Count Antoine d'Apponyi ; IV. (No. II.), 
transposed to D minor and G, dedicated to 
Count Ladislas Teleki ; V. (No. V.), in E 
minor, dedicated to Sidonie Eeviczky ; and 
VI. (No. IX.), transposed to D, dedicated to 
H. W. Ernst, Pester Carnaval. Published 
by Sehuberth (Leipsic). Arrangement for 
the pianoforte for four hands by Liszt (ib.) ; 
for eight hands by August Horn. — Neue 
Zeitschr., xli. 2G9 ; Weitzmann, Geschichte 
des Clavierspiels, IGl. 

RHAW (Rhau), GEOEG, born at Eisfeld, 
Franconia, in 1488, died in Wittenberg, 
Aug. 6, 15-48. Church composer, cantor 
until 1520 at the Thomasschule in Leipsic, 
where a mass for twelve voices and a Te 
Deum of his composition were executed on 



the occasion of Luther and Eck's disputa- 
tion. In 1524 he established a printing 
press at Wittenberg, principally for bring- 
ing out the works of Protestant composers. 
He also published a theoretical work, En- 
chiridion musices (1518-20). — Futis ; Men- 
del ; Riemann. 

RHEIN, CHARLES LAURENT, born at 
Toulouse, Feb. 24, 1798, died in Paris, Oc- 
tober, 1864. Pianist, nej)hew of the flutist 
Friedrich Rhein (1771-98) ; first instructed 
by his father, a pianist and oboe player, 
then pupil at the Paris Conservatoire of 
Pradher on the pianoforte, of Dourlen in 
harmony, and of Eeicha in composition. 
In 1817 he won the second prize for piano- 
forte, in 1818 the first, and then taught un- 
til 1832 in Paris. After a concert tour 
through the south of France, he settled in 
1836 at Bordeaux, then lived at Lyons, and 
afterwards returned to Paris. Works : So- 
natas for pianoforte and violin ; Roudoletto 
for do. ; Duos for do. ; Sonatas for piano- 
forte and flute ; Duos for harp and piano- 
foi-te ; Duos, fantaisies, rondeaux, etudes, 
etc., for pianoforte. — Ft'tis. 

RHEINBERGER, JOSEPH (GABRIEL), 
born at Vaduz, in the 
principality of Liech- 
tenstein, March 17, 
1839, still living, 
1890. The sou of 
the receiver of rev- 
enues for the princi- 
pality, he began to 
play the pianoforte at 
the age of five, and at 
seven played the organ quite well, and had 
already tried his hand at composition. He 
studied first under PiJhly, then at the Royal 
Music School in Munich, in 1851-58, under 
Herzog, Leonhard, and J. J. Maier. After 
graduation he became teacher of pianoforte 
at the Music School, and in 1859 teacher of 
theory. Shortly before this he was ap- 
pointed organist at the Hofkirche of St. 
Michael, and director of the Oratorienverein. 
From 1865 to 1867 he was repetitor at the 




S09 



EHEINEK 



Court Opera, and, on relinquisliing this 
post, was made professor and inspector at 
the Music School, and Hof-Kapellmeister, 
conducting the choir of the royal chapel, 
but not the opera. He has for years taught 
composition and advanced organ playing 
at the Music School, and 
counts many of the young- 
er generation of German 
and American composers 
among his pupils, notably 
George W. Chadwick and 
Horatio W. Parker. Eheiuberger has long 
stood in the front rank of contemporary 
German composers ; although his talent 
is not marked by especial originality, 
and one finds a certain dryness of inspira- 
tion in much that he has written, his un- 
usually solid musical education, and his 
rare mastery over the technique of com- 
position, have gone far to compensate his 
natural shortcomings. His writing, too, 
is marked by great refinement, and sound 
musicianly feeling. He has not been a 
very voluminous composer, his most note- 
worthy works being : Ghristoforus, or- 
atorio, op. 120 ; Toggenhiirg, cantata, o\). 
76 ; Waldmorgen, do. ; Klilrchen auf Eber- 
stein, do., op. 97 ; Konig Erich, ballad, 
for chorus with pianoforte, op. 71 ; Witie- 
kind, do., op. 102 ; Das Tlial des Espingo, 
do. ; Requiem for those who fell in the 
Franco-Prussian "War, op. GO ; 2 Stabat 
Mater ; Mass for double chorus, dedicated 
to Leo XHL, oji. 100 ; Die sieben Eaben, 
romantic opera, op. 20, Munich, May 23, 
1869 ; Music to Calderon's Magico prodi- 
gioso, op. 30 ; do. to Eaimund's Die unheil- 
briugende Krone ; Thiirmer's TOchterlein, 
comic opera, op. 70, Munich, April 23, 1873 ; 
Wallendein, symphonisches Tongemillde, op. 
10 ; Florenlinische Sinfonie ; Fantasia for 
orchestra, op. 70 ; Concerto for pianoforte 
and orchestra in A-flat, op. 94 ; do. for or- 
gan, strings, and 3 horns ; Overture to 
Der Widerspenstigen Ziihmung (Taming 
of the Shrew), op. 17 ; Do. to Dcmrtrius, 
op. 110 ; ?Hwwip/i-Ouverture ; Nonet for 



flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, and 
strings, op. 139 ; Theme with 50 variations 
for string quartet, op. Gl ; Quartet in E- 
flat, for pianoforte, violin, viola, and violon- 
cello, op. 38 ; Symphonische Senate for pi- 
anoforte, op. 47 ; 9 Organ sonatas ; Much 




pianoforte music, songs, and part-songs. 
— Kiemann ; Fctis, Supplement ; Grove. 

EHEINEK, CHEISTOPH, born at Mem- 
mingen, Nov. 1, 1748, died there in 1796. 
Dramatic composer, entered upon a com- 
mercial careei", lived for some time at Lyons 
and in Paris, then returned to his native 
place to keep an inn left him by his father. 
Works : Le nouveau Pygmalion, opera-co- 
mique, Lyons ; Le fils reconnaissant, do., ib. ; 
Einaldo, grand opera (German), Memmin- 
gen, 1779 ; Der Todesgang Jesu, oratorio, 
1778 ; Mass ; 6 concertos for pianoforte ; 4 
collections of songs, etc. — Fotis ; Mendel. 

EHEINGOLD, DAS (The Ehine-Gold), 
music drama in four scenes, by Eichard 
Wagner, first represented (without the au- 
thor's authorization) at the Hofoper in Mu- 
nich, Sept. 22, 18G9 ; the first regular per- 
formance was at Bayreuth, Aug. 13, 1876. 
The first drama (Vorabend) in Der Ring des 
Nibelungen. The original Munich cast was 
as follows : 

Wotan August Kindermann. 

Donner. Herr Heinrich. 

Froh Franz Nachbaur. 

Loge Heinrich Vogl. 

Alberich Emil Fischer. 

Mime Carl Schlosser. 

Fasolt Herr Polzer. 

Fafner Herr Bausewein. 

Fricka Fri. Stehle. 

Freia Frl. Miiller. 

Erda Frl. Seehofer. 

WogUnde 



RHEINGOLD 



Wellgunde Fran Vogel. 

Flosshilde Frl. Eitter. 

The original Bayreuth cast was : 

Wotan Franz Betz. 

Donner Eugen Gura. 

Frob Georg Uuger. 

Loge Heinrich Vogl. 

Alberich Carl Hill. 

Mime Carl Schlosser. 

Fasolt Albert Filers. 

Fafner Franz von Reichenberg. 

Fricka Friedericke Griin. 

Freia Marie Haupt. 

Erda Luise Jaide. 

Wogliude Lilli Lebmann. 

Wellgunde Marie Lebmann. 

Flossbilde Minna Lammert. 

In tbe deptbs of tbe Ebine lies a nugget of 
gold, jealously guarded by tbe three Ebine- 
daugbters, Wogliude, Wellgunde, and Floss- 
bilde. Whoever shall gain possession of this 
gold, and fashion it into a ring, shall have 
supreme power over the world ; but only 
be who has first forsworn love can compass 
tbe charm by which tbe ring is to be made. 
Tbe first scene of the drama opens on tbe 
bottom of the Ehiue ; the Ehine-daugbters 
are seen swimming in sportive gambols 
around tbe Ebeingold, which rests on tbe 
top of a high cUif. Soon appears Alberich, 
the Nibelung, and, attracted by tbe beauty 
of tbe girls, be makes love first to one, then 
to another of them. They treat bis ad- 
dresses with scorn, and, as the Ebeingold 
begins to glow with a magical effulgence, 
join together in singing praises of its secret 
power, feeling sure that their treasure is 
safe from anyone of Alberich's amorous 
disposition. But tbe Nibelung, stung to 
frenzy by their taunts, and his innate greed 
of power stimulated by what be has beard, 
clambers up the cliff, seizes upon tbe gold, 
renounces love for evermore, and plunges 
headlong with his prize into the darkest 
depths of tbe river, followed by tbe Rhine- 
daughters' shrieks of dismay. The waters 
roll tumultuously downward, and resolve 



themselves first into clouds, then into a 
lighter and lighter mist, which at length 
evaporates, and discloses to view tbe new- 
built castle Valhalla, glistening in tbe 
morning light, while across tbe Ebine val- 
ley lie Wotan, chief of tbe gods, and bis 
spouse Fricka, asleej). On awaking, Wotan 
is lost in joyous contemplation of the castle, 
which the Giants have just built him ; but 




Carl Hill, as Alberich. 

the anxious Fricka reminds him of the re- 
ward he has foolishly promised tbe Giants. 
This reward is nothing less than the person 
of Freia, goddess of Youth. Soon Freia 
herself rushes in for protection from tbe 
two Giants, Fasolt and Fafner, who come 
to claim her of Wotan, according to the 
contract, the terms of which are graven on 
the shaft of Wotan's s^jear, and which can- 
not be broken, save by the consent of both 



su 



EllEINGOLD 



parties, so long as the spear lasts. Wotan 
knows not what to Jo ; for he never intended 
to give up Freia, but was persuaded into 
the contract with the Giants by Loge, the 
god (or demigod) of Fire, who promised to 
find some way to help him out when the 
time came. Soon, however, Loge is seen 
coming up from the river, and Wotan 
harshlj' upbraids him for leaving him in the 
lurch. Loge replies that he has been all 
over the world to find something that the 
Giants would accept in Freia's stead, but 
that he found that nothing in water, on 
earth, or in air would ever give up the love 
of woman. The Rhine-daughters, however, 
had told him of one Alberich, who had for- 
sworn the love of woman, and made himself 
a magic ring, by the power of which he had 
amassed great treasure of gold and precious 
stones, and now ruled over all Nibelheim. 
Fasolt and Fafner, hearing of this treasure, 
and of the new power of their old enemy 
Alberich, tell Wotan that they will give uji 
Freia if he will get the Nibelung's treasure 
for them. This Wotan, after some demur, 
and still advised by Loge, agrees to do. 
The Giants withdraw, taking Freia with 
them as an hostage, and Wotan and Loge 
descend together into Nibelheim. Here 
they soon find iUberieh in his glory ; he 
has the Ring on his finger, has forced his 
brother. Mime, to make him a Tarnhelm, or 
cap-of-darkness, and is obeyed by all the 
Nibcluiigs. But Loge's cunning is too much 
for him, and he soon finds himself bound, 
a prisoner of the two gods, who drag him 
up out of Nibelheim, to where Fricka and 
the other gods are awaiting their return. 
Alberich has to summon all tlie Nibelungs 
to bring the Treasure, and lay it at Wotan's 
feet ; nest he has to give up the Tarnhelm, 
and then Wotan wrenches the Ring itself 
from his finger, and puts it on his own. 
The hapless Nibelung is unbound, and told 
to go his way. Alberich, mad with help- 
less rage, curses the Ring to bring misfort- 
une, death, and destruction ujion everyone 
into whose hands it comes, and then departs. 



The two Giants come to return Freia, and 
claim the Treasure, and it is agreed that 
they shall have as much of the latter as will 
suffice to cover up Freia. It takes the 
whole, and more, for Wotan has to add the 
Tarnhelm to the pile, and at last even the 
Ring, being advised thereto by the old 
goddess Erda, who appears to him and 
warns him not to keep the Ring that Albe- 
rich had cursed. As soon as Freia is thus 
ransomed, the Giants quarrel between them- 
selves about the division of their bootj', 
and Fafner strikes Fasolt dead with his 
staff, the first effect of Alberich's curse. 
As Fafner goes oft' with the Treasure, Don- 







Fanny Moran-Olden. 

ner, the god of Storms, summons up a 
mighty thunder-storm, and when it has 
subsided a rainbow bridge is seen leading 
across the Rhine Valley up to the gates of 
Valhalla. Wotan, who has been sunk in 
thought, suddenly leads the way, as if hav- 
ing formed a great, secret determination, 
and the gods cross the bridge together, 
Loge following at a distance ; just as they 
set foot upon the bridge the voices of the 
Rhine-daughters are heard, bewailing their 
loss of the Gold. The most notable pas- 
sages in the music are the orchestral intro- 
duction, which is a marvel of instrumenta- 
tion, and, although 136 measures long, runs 
throughout in the chord of E-flat major ; 
The Rhine-daughters' terzets : " Rheingold ! 
leuchtende Lust," in Scene 1, and " Rhein- 



212 



KIIEINISCHE 



gold ! reiues Gold ! " at tlie close of Scene 
4 ; Wotan's apostrophe to Valhalla : " Voll- 
endet das ewige Werk ! " and Loge's narra- 
tive : " Immer ist Undank Loge's Lohu ! " 
in Scene 2 ; the thunder-storm and the rain- 
bow-music ill Scene 4. Das Rheingold was 
first given in America at the MetroiJolitan 
Opera House in New York, Jan. 3, 1889, 
with Emil Fischer as Wotan, Max Alvary 
as Loge, Joseph Beck as Alberich, Fanny 
Morau-Oldeu as Frieka, and Sophie Traub- 
mann, Felice Koschoska, and Hedwig Eeil 
as the Rhine-daughters. Text-book pub- 
lished by Schott (Mainz, 1869) ; full and pi- 
anoforte score, Schott (ib.) ; score for piano- 
forte, four hands, by A. Heinz, Schott (ib., 
1878).— Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 30G ; Sig- 
nale (1869), No. 46, No. 49 ; Neue Zeitschr. 
(1869), 315, 324, 344; Mus. Wochenblatt 
(1871), 210; (1875), 565; (1876), 366; 
(1887), 257, 269, 373, 349, 281, 289, 301, 
386, 545 ; Bayreuther Blatter (1880), 144, 
149, 193, 252, 301 ; Glasenapp, Wagner, 
i. 357, 368 ; Jullien, Wagner, 191 ; Clement 
et Larousse, 871 ; Krehbiel, Review (1888- 
89), 50. 

RHEINISCHE SINFONIE (Rhenish or 
Cologne Symphony) for orchestra, in E-llat, 
by Schumann, op. 97, first performed in Diis- 
seldorf, Feb. 6, 1851. This, which Schumann 
numbers as his third symphony, was written 
between Nov. 2 and Dec. 9, 1850, and he 
records that it was intended to convey the 
imj)ressions which he received during a visit 
to Cologne. It was first given in Cologne, 
Feb. 25, 1851 ; at the Gewandhaus, Leip- 
sic, Dec. 8, 1851 ; and first in London at a 
concert given by Signor Arditi, Dec. 4, 
1865. L Lebhaft ; U. Scherzo ; III. Nicht 
schnell ; IV. Feierlich ; V. Lebhaft. Pub- 
lished by Simrock (Bonn, 1851) ; Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, Schumann Werke, Serie I., No. 3. 
Arranged for the pianoforte for four hands 
by Carl Reinecke, for two pianofortes for 
eight hands by Ph. Lampe, and for piano- 
forte solo by J. B. Krall. — Reissmaun, 
Schumann, 182 ; Maitland, do., 82 ; Neue 
Zeitschr., xsxv. 278. 



RIARIO SFORZA, II duca GIOVANNI, 
born in Naples, May 21, 1769, died there (?), 
Dec. 4, 1836. Amateur composer, attained 
the rank of captain in the nav}', but left the 
service on the death of his eldest brother, 
and devoted himself to music. Works : 
Piramo e Tisbe, opera ; Saffo, do. ; Armida, 
dramatic scene ; Mass for 4 voices, chorus, 
and orchestra ; Salve Regina, for 3 voices 
and orchestra ; Tantum ergo, for bass and 
orchestra ; Dixit, for bass, chorus, and or- 
gan ; Stabat Mater, for 3 voices, and do. ; 
Magnificat, for chorus (4 parts) a cappella. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

RICCARDO 1°., Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Paolo Rolli, music by Handel, 
first represented at the King's Theatre, 
London, Nov. 11, 1727. Characters repre- 
sented : Riccardo, King of England (C.) ; 




Faustina Bordoni. 



Costanza, Princess of Navarre, his wife (S.) ; 
Berardo, cousin and tutor to Costanza (B.) ; 
Isacio, tyrant of Cyprus (B.) ; Pulcheria, 
his daughter (S.) ; and Oronte, Prince of 
Syria (A. ). The original cast included Sene- 
sino, for whom the part of Riccardo, one of 
Handel's finest and most difficult roles, was 
written ; Signora Cuzzoni, Costanza ; and 
Signora Faustina, Pulcheria. The opera 
was given in Hamburg in 1729. Costanza's 
aria, " Caro vieui," was sung by Miss Can- 
tello at the Handel Commemoration, May 
22, 1784. The original autograph, iu Buck- 



213 



RICCI 




ingliam Palace, dated " Fine dell' opera, 
May 16, 1727," and dedicated to George 11., 
wasfirst published by Cluer (London, 1727) ; 
and "Airs for the Flute," from this work, 
was printed by Walsh (ib., 1728) ; Chrj'- 
sander's edition for the Hiludelgesellschaft 
by Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leipsic, 1877). 
— Chrysauder, Hiiudel, ii. 177 ; Rockstro, 
1.5.5 ; Barney, iv. 326 ; Burney, Handel 
Coiniuemoratiou, 51. 

KICCI, FEDERIGO, born at Naples, 
Oct. 22, 1809, died 
at Couegliano, Dec. 
10, 1877. Dramatic 
composer, brother 
of Luigi Ricci, pu- 
pil at the Couservato- 
rio di San Pietro a 
Majella, Naples, of 
Furno, Bellini, 
Raimondi, and Zin- 
garelli, but left before his studies were 
com2)leted in order to join his brother. A 
very strong tie existed between the two, and 
in the operas which they afterwards wrote 
together their stj-les resemble each other so 
closely that it is impossible to find where 
one leaves off and the other begins. He 
wrote in all nineteen operas, some of which 
were in collaboration with Luigi. He was 
ia Paris in 1841:, passed several years in 
Spain and Portugal as music director of the 
theatres at Madrid and Lisbon, and went in 
the same capacity to St. Petersburg in 1853. 
The successful production of Crispino e la 
comare (written with his brother), in Paris, 
caused him to take up composition again in 
1860, after a long interval. He retired to 
Couegliano shortly after the failure of his 
last opera. Works — Operas : Monsieur 
Deschalumeaux, Venice, 1835 ; La prigione 
d' Edimburgo, Trieste, 1838 ; Un duello 
sotto Richelieu, Milan, 1839 ; Michelangelo 
e RoUa, Florence, 1841 ; Corrado d' Alta- 
mura, Milan, 1842 ; Vallombra, ib., 1843 ; 
Isabella de' Medici, Trieste, 1844 ; Estella, 
Milan, 1846 ; Griselda, Venice, 1847 ; I due 
ritratti, ib., 1850 ; II marito e 1' amaute. 




'■m\ \ 



Vienna, 1852 ; II paniere d' amore, ib., 1853 ; 
Una follia a Roma, Piu-is, 1869 ; Le docteur 
Rose, Une fete a Venise, ib., 1872 ; and 
the operas written with his brother. La 
felicitata, cantata, Genoa, 1842 ; 6 masses, 
6 albums or collections of vocal pieces 
and many detached songs and albums of 
songs. — Futis ; do., Supplement, ii. 412 ; 
Florimo, Cenni storici uella scuola musicale 
di Najjoli ; Riemaun ; Mendel ; Clement, 
Mus. celebres, 508. 

RICCI, LUIGI, born in Naples, June 8, 
1805, died in 
Prague, Dec. 30, 
1859. Dramatic 
composer, pupil at 
the Couservatorio 
di San Pietro a 
Majella of Gio- 
vanni Furno and 
Zingarelli ; studied 
for a while under 
Generali, who also 
helped him with 
advice when he wrote his first opera, L' im- 
jsresario in angustie, j'erformed in 1823 
by the students at the Conservatorio. He 
wrote also in collaboration with his brother 
Federigo. In 1836 he was appointed maes- 
tro di cappella at the Cathedral of Trieste, 
and director of the chorus at the theatre. 
His last opera, H diavolo a quattro, Trieste, 
1859, was given just before he began to 
show symptoms of insanity. He died in an 
asylum at Prague. Works : La cena fras- 
tornata, Naples, 1824 ; L' abbate Taccarella, 
ib., 1825 ; II diavolo condannato a preuder 
moglie, ib., 1826 ; La lucerna d' Epitteto, 
ib., 1828 ; Colombo, Parma, 1829 ; L' orfa- 
nella di Ginevra, H sonnambulo, Rome, 
1829 ; L' eroina del Messico, ossia Fer- 
nando Cortez, ib., 1830 ; Annibalein Torino, 
Turin, 1830 ; La neve, Chiara di Rosem- 
berg, Milan, 1831 ; II nuovo Figaro, Parma, 
1832 ; I due sergeuti, Milan, 1833 ; Un' 
avventura di Scaramuccia, ib., 1834 ; Gli 
esposti, ossia erano due ed or son tre, Turin, 
1834 ; Chi dura vince, Rome, 1834 ; H co- 



814 



RICCIO 



lonello (with Federigo), Naples, 1835 ; Cbi- 
ara di Moutalbano, ]VIilau, 1835 ; La serva e 
r ussaio, Pavia, 1835 ; II disertore per 
amore (with Federigo), Naples, 1836 ; Le 
nozze di Figaro, Milan, 1838 ; La solitaria 
delle Asturie, Odessa, 1844 ; L' amante di 
ricLiaiuo (with Federigo), Turin, 1846 ; II 
birrajo di Preston, Florence, 1847 ; Crisjnno 
e la comare (with Federigo), Venice, 1850 ; 
La festa di Piedigrotta, Naples, 1852 ; II 
diavolo a quattro, Trieste, 1859 ; Cola di 
Rieuzi, Venice, Feb. 21, 1880. Ulisse, can- 
tata, Naples, 1828 ; Mass for 4 voices and 
orchestra, and many other sacred compo- 
sitions ; 2 albums of vocal melodies. — Fetis, 
Supplement, ii. 410 ; Florimo, Cenni storici, 
etc. ; Riemann, 7G3 ; Clement, Mus. celebres, 
508 ; Villars, Notices sur Luigi et Federigo 
Eicci, etc. (Paris, 1866) ; Rada, I fratelli 
Eicci (Florence, 1878) ; Dal Torso, Di Lu- 
igi Eicci e delle sue opere (Trieste, 1860). 

EICCIO, ANTONIO TEODOEO, born 
at Brescia about 1540, died after 1583. 
He was a learned musician and composer of 
madrigals and of some church music ; was 
at first maestro di cappella at Ferrara, after- 
wards in the service of the emperor at Vi- 
enna. He left the last j^osition in order to 
go to Dresden, where he embraced the Ee- 
formed religion, married, and became in 
1579 chaplain to the Margrave of Branden- 
burg. Works : Two books of madrigals, 
for 5, 6, 7, 8, and 12 voices (Venice, 1567) ; 
H primo lib. delle canzoni alia uapolitana, 
etc. (Nuremberg, 1577) ; Cantiones sacrse, 
5, 6 6 8 voc. (ib., 1576) ; a book of masses, 
and one of motets (KOnigsberg, 1579-80) ; 
Introitus, etc. (Venice, 1589). — Fetis ; Ger- 
ber ; Schilling ; Mendel. 

ElCCroS, AUGUST FEEDINAND, born 
at Bernstadt, near Herruhut, Saxony, Feb. 
26, 1819, still living, 1890. Instrumental 
and vocal composer, first instructed by the 
cantor of his native place, then pupil of 
Ziramermann at Zittau. He went to Leip- 
sic to study theology, but soou devoted him- 
self entirely to music, and became conductor 
of the Euterpe concerts. In 1855 he suc- 



ceeded Eietz as director of the theatre or- 
chestra, and in 1864 went as Kapellmeister 
to Hamburg, where he was afterwards ac- 
tive as a musical reporter. Works : Over- 
ture to Schiller's Braut von Messina ; Die 
Weihe der Kraft, cantata ; Entr'actes ; Trios, 
duos, pianoforte music ; Songs and cho- 
ruses. — Mendel ; Fetis. 

RICCIUS, KARL AUGUST, born at 
Bernstadt, Saxony, July 26, 1830, still Hv- 
ing, 1890. Nephew of the preceding, pu- 
pil in Dresden of Wieck, Karl Kriigen, and 
Schubert, on the pianoforte and violin, then 
at the Conservatorium in Leipsic of Men- 
delssohn, Schumann, Hauptmann, Richter, 
and David. In 1847 he entered the royal 
orchestra iu Dresden as violinist, was made 
Correpetitor at the opera in 1859, chorus- 
master in 1863, and royal music director in 
1875. Works : Es sjuikt, comic opera, Dres- 
den, 1871 ; Music to Schneewittchen, Diium- 
ling, Aschenbrodel, Der gestiefelte Kater, 
Ella, etc. ; Several ballets ; Dithyrambe 
(Schiller), for chorus, soli, and orchestra, 
1854 ; Pianoforte music and songs. — Men- 
del. 

RICHARD CCEUR DE LION, comedie 
in three acts, text by Sedaine, music by 
Gretry, first represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Oct. 21, 1784. The work 
was given in four acts, Dec. 21, 1785, and 
reduced again to three acts, Dec. 29, 1786. 
The libretto pictures the deliverance of 
Richard by Blondel, and, in spite of many 
anachronisms and episodes, the work has 
kept its interest up to the present time. 
This opera is Gretry's masterpiece, written 
at the ijeriod of his highest development. 
The air, " O Richard, o mon roi, I'univers 
t'abandonne," has become very celebrated, 
and is of historic value, for it was sung 
during the French Revolution at a bancjuet 
at Versailles, Oct. 1, 1789. The duo, " Una 
fie^vre brrtlante," between Richard and Blon- 
del, always effective on the stage, was long 
a favourite theme for variations. Beethoven 
wrote a set of eight for the pianoforte, in C, 
published by Traeg (Vienna, 1798) : Breit- 



S16 



RICHARD III. 



kopf & Hiirtel, Beethoven Werke, Serie 
xvii., No. 10 ; and a set of seven variations 
for the pianoforte, in C, have been attributed 
to Mozart. The original cast included M. 
Philippe, as Richai'd, and M. Clairval, as 
Blondel. The opera was arranged for the 
German stage by Ignaz von Seyfried, and 
was given in Vienna, Nov. 28, 1810. It was 
given at the Opera Comique, Paris, Sept. 
27, 1841, ^vith new instrumentation by 
Adolphe Adam, and it was given in Paris 
in 185() with Roger as Richard and Masset 
as Blondel. It was revived at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, Doc. 20, 1880. Piano- 
forte score by Fritilrich Ludwig Seidel, 
published by Schlesinger (Berlin, 1814). 
Other operas on the same subject, in 
French : Rosanie, in three acts, bj' 
Henri Joseph Rigel, text by Devismes, 
Paris, July 24, 1780 ; revision, July 14, 
1700 ; Richard en Palestine, in three acts, 
by Adolphe Adam, text by Paul Fouchcr, 
ib., Oct. 7, 1844. In English: Richard 
CcBur de Lion, by William Shields, Lon- 
don, 1786. In German : Richard LOwen- 
herz, ballet bj' Josef Weigl, Vienna, Feb. 
2, 1795 ; and Richard und Blondel, opera 
in three acts, by Daniel Elster, text by F. 
Adami, Meiningen, December, 1835. In 
Italian : Ricciardo Cuor di Leone, by Radi- 
cati, Bologna, about 1820. — Clement et La- 
rousse, 574 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de Paris i 
(1850), 165, 173 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xii. 
1057 ; xiii. 83 ; xvi. 275 ; Gretry, Essais 
sur la musique, i. 367 ; Grove, iii. 127 ; 
Thayer, Beethoven Verzeichniss, No. 61. 

RICHARD IIL, overture and music to 
Shakespeare's tragedy, by Friedrich Robert 
Volkmann, op. 73. The overture, in which 
the Scotch &ir, "The Campbells are com- 
ing," is introduced, was given at the Crys- 
tal Palace, Loudon, Oct. 30, 1875. It was 
given at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, in March, 
1882. Operas on this subject : Richardus 
impius Anglife res, etc., in Latin, by Eber- 
lin, Salzburg, Sept. 4, 1750 ; Riccardo HI., 
in Italian, by Giovanni Battista Meiners, 
text by Codeb6, MUan, Nov. 12, 1859 ; by 



Luigi Canessa, text by Fulgonio, ib., Nov. 
10, 1879 ; and by Gervais Bernard Sal- 
vajTe, text by Blavet, St. Petersburg, Dec. 
22", 1883.— Athenteum (1875), ii. 017 ; Mus. 
Wochenblatt (1882), 76. 

RICHARD EN PALESTINE, French 
opera in three acts, text by Paul Foucher, 
music by Adolphe Adam, first represented 
at the Academic Royale de Musique, Paris, 
Oct. 7, 1844. Original cast : Richard, Bar- 
roilhet ; Ismaiil, Levasseur ; Kenneth, Ma- 
rie ; Berengei'c, Mme Dorus-Gras ; and 
Edith Plantagenet, Mile Mequillet. This 
opera received only thirteen representa- 
tions. 

RICHARD LOWENHERZ, ballad for 
tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra, text by 
Wolfgang von KOnigswinter, music by Fer- 
dinand Hiller, op. 200, first performed at 
the Musical Festival in Cologne, in 1883. 
Published by Kistner (Leipsic, 1883). — Sig- 
nale (1883), "562. 

RICHARD, O MON ROL See Eichard 
Cceur de Lion. 

RICHARDS, (HENRY) BRINLEY, born 
at Carmarthen, Wales, 
Nov. 13, 1817, died 
in London, May 1, 
1885. Pianist, i)u- 
pil at the Royal 
Academy of Music, 
where he obtained 
the King's scholar- 
ship in 1835 and in 
183 7. He gained a 
high position in Lon- 
don as a pianist and 
composer. He devoted liimself specially to 
the study of Welsh music, upon which he 
lectured, and exerted himself greatly in 
promoting the interests of the South Wales 
Choral Union on its visits to England in 
1872 and 1873. Works : Overture in F 
minor, for orchestra, Paris, 1840, London, 
1841 ; Additional songs for the English 
version of Auber's Crowni Diamonds, 1846 ; 
God bless the Prince of Wales, 1862, and 
other songs and part-songs ; Up, quit thy 




RICHAEDSON 




bower, trio ; Pianoforte music. — Grove; Fe- 
tis, Suppk'meut, ii. 414 ; Riemanu ; Men- 
del, Ergimz., 389. 

RICHAllDSON, JOSEPH, born in Eng- 
land in 1814, died in 
London, March 22, 
1862. Flutist, con- 
nected with several 
London orchestras ; 
was a member of Jul- 
lien's orchestra, in 
which he played solo 
many years, and later 
became principal flute 
in the Queen's j^rivate 
baud. His rapidity of execution was won- 
derful, and his compositions for his instru- 
ment were noted for brilliancy and dilSculty. 
Works : Many fantasias, variations, arrange- 
ments and original pieces for Hute ; Songs, 
etc. — Grove. 

mCHTER, EENST FRIEDRICH EDU- 
ARD, born at 



Gross - Schonau, 
Lusatia, Oct. 24, 
1808, died in Leip- 
sic, April 9, 1879. 
Organist, pupil at 
the gymnasium of 
Zittau; in 18 31 
went to Leipsic to 
study music under 
Weinlig. When 
the Leipsic Conservatorium was founded, in 
1843, he became with Hauptmann instruc- 
tor of harmony and composition. After 
the death of Pohlenz he was director of the 
Singakademie until 1847 ; he was appointed 
organist of the Peterskirche in 1851, of 
the Neukirche in 18G2, and soon after of 
the Nicolaikirche. In 1868 he succeeded 
Haujitmann as cantor of the Thomasschule 
and musical director of the principal 
churches, and became also a royal profes- 
sor. The Leipsic University granted him 
the honorary title of University Music Di- 
rector. His theoretical works enjoy an im- 
mense circulation. Works : Chi'istus der 




Erloser, oratorio, 1849 ; Schiller's Dithy- 
rambe for the Schiller celebration of 1859 ; 
Masses, motets, and i:)salms ; String quar- 
tets ; Violin sonatas ; Organ pieces ; Sona- 
tas for pianoforte, and other music. He 
was author also of Die praktischen Studien 
zur Theorie der Musik (Leipsic, 1853 ; 14th 
ed., 1880), which has been translated into 
English and other languages. — Riemann ; 
Mendel ; Fetis ; Mus. Wochenblatt, x. 214. 

RICHTER, ERNST HEINRICH LEO- 
POLD, born at Thiergarten, near Ohlau, 
Prussian Silesia, Nov. 15, 1805, died at 
Steinau-on-theOder, April 24, 1876. In- 
strumental and vocal comj^oser, pupil of 
the organist Ernst in his native place, then 
of Hientsch, Berner, and Siegert at Breslau, 
and finally of Bernhard Klein and Zelter 
at the royal institute for church music in 
Berlin. In 1826 he returned to Breslau, 
and became in 1827 instructor at the 
teachers' seminary, continuing his connec- 
tion with it after its removal to Steinau in 
1847. At Breslau he conducted also the 
chorus of the Singakademie, and other sing- 
ing societies. Works : Die Contrebande, 
comic opera, Breslau ; Symphony ; Psalms, 
motets, and cantatas with orchestra ; Pre- 
ludes for organ ; Mass for 4 voices and or- 
chestra ; Domine salvum fac regem, for 
male voices and orchestra ; Psalm Ixxs., for 
chorus and organ ; Sacred and secular songs 
for 4 male voices ; Several collections of 
songs, with pianoforte, etc. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

RICHTER, FRANZ XAVER, born at 
Holleschau, Moravia, Dec. 1, 1709, died in 
Strasburg, Sept. 12, 1789. After finishing 
his musical education he was for some 
years court musician at Mannheim. He 
was appointed Kaiiellmeister of Strasburg 
Cathedral in 1747, where Ignaz Plej'el was 
his assistant from 1783. Works : Twenty- 
six symphonies ; Concerto for pianoforte ; 
3 trios ; 6 string quartets ; 7 masses ; Te 
Deum, hymns, motets, and psalms, mostly in 
MS. in the Cathedral of Saint-Die', Vosges. 
He was author of the treatise, Harmonische 



SIT 



TIICIITER 



Belehruugeu, oder griiudlicLe Auweisung 
zu der luusikalischen Toukunst, translated 
by Kalkbrenuer as Traite d'harmonie et 
de composition (Paris, 1804). — Wurzbach ; 
Mendel ; Schilling ; Riemann ; Gerber ; Fe- 
tis. 

EICHTEE, KARL GOTTLIEB, born in 
Berlin, 1728, died at Konigsberg, summer 
of 1809. Organist, pupil of Scbaffratli, a 
musician in the service of Princess Amalia 
of Prussia. He settled afterwards at Ko- 
nigsberg, to teach music, and quite late in 
life became organist of the cathedral there. 
Works: 11 concertos for pianoforte ; 6 trios 
for 2 flutes and bass. — Fotis ; Mendel. 

RICONOSCI IN QUESTO MIPLESSO. 
See Nozze di Figaro. 

EICORDATI, inO BEN, duet in B-flat 
major, for soprano and alto (Vitige and Te- 
odata), with accompaniment of violins in 
unison, viola, and bass, in Handel's Flavio, 
Act I., Scene 1. Published also separately, 
■with the accompaniment filled out by 
Robert Franz (Leipsic, Kistuer). 

RIDE OF THE VALKYRIOR. See Il'a/- 
ktlre. 

RIECK, CARL FRIEDRICH, born about 
the middle of the 17th century, died at Ber- 
lin (?) in 1704. He entered in 1G83 the 
service of the Elector of Brandenburg, and 
■was appointed in 1G98 director of the cham- 
ber music, receiving in 1700 the title of 
royal Kapellmeister. Works : La festa del 
Imeneo, ballet-oijera (with Ai-iosti) ; Can- 
tatas : Peleus und Thetis, oder das GlUck 
der Liebe, Oranienburg, 1700 ; Der Tri- 
umph der Liebe, 1700 ; Der Streit des 
alten und neuen Siieculi, 1701. — Futis ; 
Mendel. 

RIEDEL, KARL, born at Kronenberg, 
near Elberfeld, Oct. G, 1827, died in Leip- 
sic, June 4, 1888. He was a silk dyer ujs to 
1848, when the disturbance of his business 
by the revolution induced him to devote 
himself to music ; he became a pupil of Karl 
Wilhelm, at Crefeld, and in 1849 entered 
the Leij)sic Conservatorium. In 1854 he 
founded a singing society, named after him- 




self, whose first public concert was given 
the following year ; established the Leipsic 
ZweigvereLn ; and 
assisted in founding 
the Beethoven stift- 
ung. He was pres- 
ident of the All- 
gemeine deutsche 
Vereiu and of the 
Leipsic Wagner- 
Verein ; was a sup- 
porter of the Wag- 
n e r performances 
given at Bayreuth in 
1876, and did much for vocal associations in 
Germany. Works : Songs and choruses. He 
edited Schiitz's Siebeu Worte ; J. W. Franck's 
Geistliche Melodien ; Eccard's Preussische 
Festlieder ; Priitorius's Weihnachtslieder ; 
Altbohmische Hussiten- und Weihnachts- 
lieder ; ZwOlf altdeutsche Lieder. — Mendel ; 
Riemann ; Mus. Wochenblatt, iii. 213, 229. 
REEDER, A3IBR0SIUS, born atDobling, 
near Vienna, Oct. 10, 1771, died (?). Or- 
ganist ; formed himself by the study of 
Turk's, Kirnberger's, and Marpurg's theo- 
retical ■works, and ■was afterwards a pujiil of 
Albrechtsberger. In 1802 he became choir- 
master in the church at Petersdorf, near 
Vienna. Works : Mass for chorus and or- 
chestra ; Requiem for 4 voices, orchestra, 
and organ ; Graduals, offertories, etc. ; 
Quartets for strings ; Sonatas for piano- 
forte, violin, and violoncello ; Fugues and 
preludes for the organ ; Many songs, ■with 
pianoforte. — Fc'tis ; Mendel. 

RIEDT, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, born 
in Berlin, Jan. 5, 1710, died there, Jan. 5, 
1783. Virtuoso on the flute, pupil of Graun 
and Schaffrath ; became in 1741 chamber 
musician, and in 1750 director of the mu- 
sical societ}' in Berlin. Works : Sym- 
phonies ; Quartets ; Sonatas for 2 flutes ; 
Sonata for flute and violoncello ; 6 trios for 
2 flutes and bass. He isublished also sev- 
eral theoretical works. — Ft'tis ; Mendel. 

RIEGER, GOTTFRIED, born at Tro- 
2)lowitz, Austrian Silesia, about 1764, died 



218 



EIEGER 



at Briinn, Moravia, after 1837. Dramatic 
and cliurch composer, first instructed by 
the village schoolmaster, then at Weiss- 
wasser, by a musical friar, in counterjjoint. 
He went afterwards to Briinn, where he 
assumed the direction of the theatre, and 
whither he returned after a short stay on 
the estate of Count Haugwitz ; he then 
conducted the church choir, and established 
concerts. Works — Operas : Das wiitliende 
Hear ; Die Todtenglocke ; Schuster Flink ; 
Die vier Savoyarden ; 3 solemn masses ; 13 
short masses for male chorus and orchestra ; 
German mass, with organ ; Hymns, offer- 
tories, motets, cantatas, and oratorios ; Con- 
certos for pianoforte and orchestra ; Quar- 
tets for strings ; Trios for pianoforte and 
strings ; Sonatas for pianoforte and violon- 
cello ; do. for pianoforte and flute ; Sona- 
tas, rondos, variations, etc., for pianoforte. 
— Fotis ; Mendel. 

EIEGER, JOHANN NEPOMUK, born 
in Berlin in 1787, died in Paris, February, 
1828. Pianist ; settled in Paris in 1811, to 
teach his instrument. Works : Symphonic 
concertante, for pianoforte and violin, with 
orchestra ; 2 concertos for pianoforte ; Ron- 
do pastoral, with orchestra ; Trio for piano- 
forte and strings ; Sonatas, nocturnes, ron- 
dos, fantaisies, etc., for pianoforte. — Fetis. 

EIEM, 'SVTLHELM FEIEDRICH, born 
at CoUeda, Thuringia, Feb. 17, 1779, died 
in Bremen, April 20, 1837. Organist, self- 
taught up to his fifteenth year, then pupil 
of Hiller at the Thomasschule in Leipsic, 
where he became organist of the Reformed 
Church in 1807, and at the Thomasschule 
in 1814 In 1822 he was appointed organist 
of the cathedral in Bremen. Works : Cantata 
for the celebration of the Augsburg Confes- 
sion, Bremen, 1830 ; Quintet for strings ; 
3 quartets for do. ; Sonatas for pianoforte 
and violin ; Rondos, sonatas, polonaises, 
for pianoforte (4 hands) ; Sonatas, caprices, 
variations for do. (2 hands) ; Siimmtliche 
Orgel-Compositionen zum Gebrauch des 
Gottesdienstes, a collection of organ-pieces ; 
Choruses for 4 voices. — Fetis ; Mendel. 



EIEMENSCHNEIDER, GEORG, born 
in Stralsuud, April 1, 1848, still living, 
1890. Instrumental composer, j)upil of A. 
Lorenz at Stettin, of A. Haupt on the or- 
gan, and of Kiel in Berlin. Kapellmeister 
successively of several theatre orchestras ; 
since 1875 at Lubeck. Works : Die Eis- 
jungfrau, opera ; Nachtfahrt, Julinacht, 
Todtentanz, Donna Diana, Fest-Prilludium, 
for orchestra. 

RIEN NE PLAtT TANT AUX TEUX 
DES BELLES. See Ami de la Maison. 

RIENZI, DER LETZTE DER TRI- 
BLTSfEN (Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes), 
tragic opera in five acts, text and music by 
Richard Wagner, first represented at Dres- 
den, Oct. 20, 1842, with the following cast : 

Cola Rienzi (T.) Herr Tichatschek. 

Irene, his sister (S.) Frl. Wiist. 

Stefano di Colonna (B.) Herr Dettmer. 

Adriano (S.) Mme SchrOder-Devrient. 

Paolo Orsini (B.) Herr Wiichter. 

Raimondo (B.) Herr Rheinhold. 

Baroncelli (T.) Herr Joachim Vestri. 

Cecco del Vecchio (B.). . . .Herr Carl Risse. 
Ein Friedeusbote (S.) Frl. Thiele. 

The libretto is an adaptation of Bulwer's 
novel of the same title (London, 1835), 
Wagner first read it at Dresden in 1837, 
and, impressed by its adaptability for oj)- 
era, began his sketch at Riga in the autumn 
of the same year. He completed the book 
in the following summer, began the music 
in the autumn of 1838, finished two acts 
by the spring of 1839 at Riga and Mittau, 
and wi'ote the remainder in Paris. He 
offered it in vain to the Opera and the 
Theatre de la Renaissance, and in 1841 
sent it to Dresden, where its success the 
following year brought him the position of 
Hof-Kapellmeister, with a salary of 1,500 
Thalers. The overture, which is in the ac- 
cepted form, derives its themes from the 
body of the work. In the first act are 
Rienzi's aria, "Wohlan, so mOg' es sein," 
leading up to the terzetto between Rienzi, 
Irene, and Adriano, " Adriano du ? Wie ein 



RIENZI 



Coloiina ! " and the scena between Irene 
and Adriano, " Er gelit und liisst dich 
meinem Schutz ; " tlie double chorus, " Ge- 
griisst, gegrtisst," shouted by the populace 
and the monks, interrupted by Rienzi's ap- 
peal, " Erstehe, hohe Roma, neu." The 
second act opens with the reception of the 
peace messengers, including a lovely song, 
" Ich sah die Stiidte, sah das Land," by one 
of the messengers, leading to a terzetto be- 
tween Adriano, Orsini, and Colouna, fol- 



"7 






,^^ 



Tichatschek, as Rienzt. 

lowed by a chorus " Ei-schallet Feierkliinge," 
and a ballet, and closing with a grand 
septet and finale " O lass der Gnade Him- 
melslicht." The third act, which is full of 
action, contains the call to arms by Rienzi, 
"Ihr Rijmer, auf," the answering chorus of 
the people, Adriano's prayer, " Gerechter 
Gott," changing to the allegro, " "\Vo war 
ich ? " as he hears the toll of the Capitol bell, 
the signal for slaughter, Rienzi's battle- 
hymn, " Santo spirito cavaliere," the duet 



between Adriano and Irene, • Lebwohl, 
Irene," and the jubilee chorus, " Auf ! im 
Triumpf zum Capitol." In the fourth act 
are the terzetto and chonis, " Wer war's 
der euch hierher beschied ? " and the finale, 
which closes with the malediction of the 
monks, "Yx, vpb tibi maledicto." The last 
act opens with Rienzi's praj-ei', " Alliniicht'- 
ger Vater," followed by the duet between 
him and Irene, " Verliisst die Kirche mich," 
Rienzi's aria, " Ich liebte gliihend," and a 
second duet between Adriano and Irene, 
" Du hier, Irene," and closes with an ener- 
getic finale, chiefly choral. Rienzi was first 
given in Berlin, Oct. 2G, 1847 ; in Prague, 
1854 ; in Paris, April G, 1869, French trans- 
lation by Nuitter & J. Guillaume ; in Mu- 
nich, June 27, 1870 ; in Vienna, May 20, 
1871 ; in Venice, March 15, 1874 ; in Lon- 
don, in English, Jan. 27, 1879 ; in New 
York, by the German Oisera Company, Feb. 
5, 1880. Full and pianoforte score pub- 
lished by Fiirstner (Berlin) ; vocal score in 
Italian by Augener (London) ; in French, 
by Diu-and, Schcenewerk & Cie (Paris). The 
Messengers of Peace and Rienzi's prayer, 
published separately in German and English 
by Augener (London). Other operas on this 
subject, in Italian : Rienzi, by Georg Dam, 
Berlin, about 1835 ; by AchiUe Paer, text 
by Piave, Milan, Dec. 26, 1862 ; by Kasch- 
peroff, Florence, 1863 ; Cicco e Cola, opera 
buffa by Miggliaccio, te.\t by Vecchio, Na- 
ples, October, 1871 ; Cola di Rienzi, by 
Persicchini, text by Cossa, Rome, June 28, 
1874 ; by Luigi Ricci, text by Bottura, 
Venice, Feb. 21, 1880 ; and a ballet, Rienzi, 
by Bemardi, Milan, October, 1878. — Wag- 
ner, Ges. Schriften, i. 41 ; Glasenapp, 
Wagner, i. 127 ; Julhen, Wagner, 41 ; Hans- 
lick, Moderne oper, 274 ; Kastuer, Wagner 
Catalogue, 5 ; AUgem. Wiener Mus. Zeitg. 
(1846), 585 ; Allgem. Mus. Zeitg., xlvii. 
253 ; xlix. 883 ; Leipziger Dlust. Zeitg. 
(1873), No. 7; Neue Zeitschr., xvii. 148, 
168 ; XX. 125 ; xxvii. 285 ; (1865), 148 ; 
Athenaeum (1879), i. 159 ; Upton, Standard 
Operas, 245. 



230 



RIES 



at Bonn, 




EIES, ADOLPH, born in Berlin, Dee. 20, 

1837, still living, 1890. Sou of Hubert Ries, 
and pupil of SteiflfensantI, Kullak, and BOh- 
mer. He settled in London as a teacher in 
1858. Works : Trio for pianoforte and 
strings ; Violin sonata ; Pianoforte pieces ; 
Songs. — Grove ; Fctis ; Mendel. 
EIES, FERDINAND, born 
Nov. 28, 1784, died 
in Frankf ort-on-tbe 
Main, Jan. 13, 1838. 
Pianist, son and pupil 
of Franz Anton Ries ; 
studied the violoncello 
under Bernhard Rom- 
berg. At the age of 
thirteen he became 
pujnl of a friend at 
Ai-nsberg, but was superior to his teacher, 
and studied the violin by himself. On re- 
turning home he wrote out the quartets of 
Haydn and Mozart in score, and arranged for 
the pianoforte Haydn's Creation and Sea- 
sons, and Mozart's Requiem. In 1801 he re- 
ceived a few lessons from Winter, at Munich, 
and when this master departed for France, 
he went to Vienna with but seven ducats 
in his purse and a letter from his father to 
Beethoven, who had been intimate with his 
family in Bonn. Beethoven received him 
kindly, helped him financially, and gave him 
lessons on the pianoforte, but for compo- 
sition referred him to the aged Albrechts- 
berger. Nearly four years of association 
with Beethoven had a profound influence 
upon him, though their relations sometimes 
tended toward unpleasantness. Bonn then 
being in the possession of the French, he 
was summoned as a conscript in 1805, but 
was exempted, because he had lost an eye 
from the small-pox in his childhood. He 
next lived in Paris for two years, and re- 
turned to Vienna in 1808. Then he went 
to Cassel, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Stock- 
holm, and St. Petersburg, where he found 
his old teacher, Bernhard Romberg, and 
made a concert tour with him in Russia. 
The French invasion in 1812 causing him to 



leave Russia, he went in 1813 to England, 
and became prominent in Loudon as a com- 
poser, virtuoso, and teacher. Having made 
a fortune, he removed in 1824 to Godcs- 
berg, near Bonn, where he had bought an 
estate. In 1830 he settled in Frankfort; 
visited London in 1831, Italy in 1832 ; di- 
rected the Nether-Rhenish Festivals .several 
years ; was chosen director of the city or- 
chestra and the Singakademie of Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1834, but returned in 183G to 
Frankfort, where in 1837 he became head 
oftheCiicilieu-Verein, founded by Schelble, 
his last official position. He was among 
the best pianists of his time, though his 
technique was not perfect ; as a composer, 
his style was an emanation, if not a direct 
imitation, of Beethoven's, and while his 
later works show a striving for greater 
freedom from the influence of his master, 
they do not rise to such an excellence of 
originality as to make them immortal. His 
work on Beethoven is of the highest au- 
thority, and to some extent he may be re- 
garded as the Boswell of Beethoven. Works 
— Operas : Die Riuiberbraut, Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, 1828 ; Liska, given as The Sor- 
cerer, London, 1831 ; Eine Nacht auf dem 
Li ban on (1835, not given) ; Der Sieg des 
Glaubens, oratorio ; Die Kimige Israels, 
do.; 6 .symphonies; 4 overtures; 9 con- 
certos for pianoforte and orchestra ; Con- 
certo for violin ; Octet for pianoforte, 
strings, clarinet, and horn ; Septet for do.; 

2 sextets for pianoforte and various instru- 
ments ; Quintet for pianoforte and strings ; 

3 quartets for do. ; 5 trios for do.; 6 quin- 
tets for strings ; 
14 quartets for 

do. ; Trio for two yy ^^^ ,- £/^x^/}m 
pianofortes and ^ i ^T/ 

harp ; 20 sonatas 
for pianoforte and violin ; Sonata for do. 
and violoncello ; Manj' sonata.s, rondos, 
fantasias, and other pieces for pianoforte ; 
and songs. His book on Beethoven, writ- 
ten with Dr. F. G. Wegeler, is entitled : 
Biographische Notizen iiber Ludwig van 




EIES 




Beethoven (Coblentz, 1838).— Fetis ; Ger- 
ber ; Mendel ; Eiemann ; Schilling ; do., 
Supplement, 359 ; Harmonicon (1824), 33. 
EIES, FEANZ, born in Berlin, April 7, 
1846, still living, 
1890. Violinist and 
composer, son and 
pupil of Hubert Eies, 
and studied compo- 
sition under Kiel. 
He was also a pupil, 
at the Paris Conser- 
vatoire, of Massart, 
in 18C6-C8 ; appeared 
in London in 1870, 
and when forced by 
illness to give up playing in public, estab- 
lished himself in 1873 as a music-dealer in 
Dresden. Works : Concerto for violin and 
orchestra ; An overture ; Quintet for 
strings ; 2 quartets for do. ; 2 suites for 
violin and pianoforte ; More than 100 songs 
for one and two voices ; Pianoforte and 
vioHn music. — Eiemann ; Fetis, Supple- 
ment, ii. 420 ; Mendel. 

EIES, HUBEET, born in Bonn, April 
1, 1802, died in Beriin, Sept. 14, 1886. 
Violinist, son and pupil of Franz Anton 
Eies, studied violin also under Spohr, and 
composition under Hauptmann. He went 
to Berlin in 1824 and joined the orchestra 
of the KOnigstiidter Theater ; was attached 
to the royal opera next year ; visited Vienna 
professionally in 1830 ; and on returning to 
Berlin in 1833 founded quartet concerts 
with BOhmer, Maurer, and Just. He was 
director of the Philharmonic Society in 
1835-71 ; became Conzertmeister in 1836, 
member of the Eoyal Academy in 1839 ; 
and besides having many private pupils, 
was head of the orchestral school connected 
with the roj'al theatres. He was pensioned 
in 1872. Works : A Violin School, of which 
two editions and an English translation 
have been published ; 15 violin studies ; 12 
concert studies for violin ; 2 concertos for 
violin and orchestra ; Violin duets ; Quai'- 
tets, exercises, songs, and other composi- 



tions. His oldest son Louis (born in Ber- 
lin, Jan. 30, 1830), also a violinist, was in- 
structed by him and by Vieuxtemps ; went 
in 1852 to London, where he shortly suc- 
ceeded in making for himself an esteemed 
and lucrative position. — Mendel ; Schilling ; 
Supplement, 359 ; Eiemann ; Fetis. 

EIETZ, JULIUS, bom in Berlin, Dec. 8, 
1812, died in Dresden, Oct. 1, 1877. The 
family name was originally Eitz. Both his 
father and elder brother Eduard (a violinist 
of note) were j^rofessioual musicians, and he 
was educated under their care. He studied 
the violoncello under Schmidt, of the royal 
orchestra, and later under Bernhai'd Eom- 
berg and Moritz Ganz. He studied com- 
position under Zelter, and from the begin- 
ning was intimate with, and much under 
the influence of, Mendelssohn. In 1828 he 
was engaged as violoncelhst in the orches- 
tra of the Kunigstadter Theater, during 
which engagement he first made his mark 
as a composer, writing incidental music to 
Holtei's play "Lorbeerbaum und Bettel- 
stab." In 1834 he was appointed assistant 
conductor to Mendelssohn at the opera in 
Diisseldorf, and on the latter's resignation, 
in 1835, became first conductor ; but next 
year he exchanged the position for that of 
Stiidtischer Musikdirector, the duties of 
which were to conduct the subscription 
concerts, the principal choral society, and 
the music at the Andreaskirche. In 1847 
he resigned his Diisseldorf jiost in favom* 
of Ferdinand Hiller, and went to Leipsic to 
conduct the opera and the Singakademie. 
In 1848 he accepted also the posts of con- 
ductor to the Gewandhaus orchestra, and 
teacher of composition at the Conserva- 
; torium. In 1860 he was appointed con- 
' ductor at the Eoyal Opera in Dresden, and 
of the music at the Eoman Catholic church, 
besides being made artistic director of the 
Dresden Conservatorium. In 1876 he was 
awarded the title of General-Musikdirector. 
Eietz was an excellent violoncellist, but gave 
up playing when he left Diisseldorf to de- 
vote his whole time to comj^osition, teach- 



222 



EIETZ 



ing, and conducting, and, during the later 
part of his life, to editing important works 
of the great masters. His work in this 
last capacity is of great value ; Mozart's 
operas and symphonies, and the symphonies 
and overtures in Breitkopf & Hiirtel's 
complete edition of Beethoven, as well as 
the whole edition of Mendelssohn, passed 
through his hands. He did much work 
also on the great editions of the German 
Bach and Handel Societies. His editions 
of some of Handel's scores compare favour- 
ably with all but the very finest modern 
"additional accompaniment" work. As a 
conductor, he was justly famous ; although 
his beat was awkward, and not very distinct 
to those who were not accustomed to it, 
his command over chorus and orchestra 
was absolute, and he was an admirable re- 
hearser. He was chief conductor at the 
Lower-Rhine Festivals at Diisseldorf in 
1845-5G-69, and at Aix in 1864-67-73. As 
a composer, Rietz was one of the most dis- 
tinguished of Mendelssohn's followers ; he 
was a complete master of musical form, 
and treated the orchestra with consummate 
skill. His style is vigorous and straight- 
forward ; yet, he could hardly be called a 
man of true genius. His musical scholar- 
ship exceeded his inventive jjower, and too 
many of his works are dry and laboured, 
rather than spontaneously inspired. Eietz 
was an extreme classicist, and had little 
sympathy with the musical doings in Ger- 
many since Mendelssohn. He viewed the 
tendencies of Schu- 
mann, not to speak of 
those of his followers, 
with much suspicion. 
He naturally abhorred 
both Liszt and Wag- 
ner, although, as a 
conductor, he was un- 
avoidably fascinated 
by the technical diffi- 
culties to be overcome in the latter's works, 
and delighted in conducting performances 
of Wagner's operas. His most successful 




compositions are the concert overture in A, 
the symphony in E-flat, the Altdeutscher 
Schlachtgesang and Dithyrambe (both for 
male choi-us and orchestra). Two operas 
written at Leipsic, Der Corsar and Georg 
Neumark, were failures. In 1859 the Leip- 
sic University conferred on him the hono- 
rary degree of Ph.D. Works — I. Operas : 
Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab, three acts, 
text by Karl von Holtei, Berlin, Feb. 13, 
1833 ; Das Miidchen aus der Fremde, Sing- 
spiel, Diisseldorf, 1839 ; Jery und Biitely, 
Berlin, about 1840 ; Der Corsar, Leipsic, 
1850 ; Georg Neumark und die Gambe, 
one act, text by E. Pasquc, Weimar, 1859. 
H. Symphonies : No. 1, in G minor, op. 
13 ; No. 2, op. 23 ; No. 3, in E-ilat, op. 31. 
ni. Overtures : Militilr-Ouvertiire, op. 3 ; 
Conzert-Ouvertiire, in A, op. 7 ; Hero und 
Leander, op. 11 ; Lustsjjiel-Ouvertiire, op. 
18 ; Overture in F to Shakespeare's " Tem- 
I^est," op. 14 ; Ouvertiire zur Feier der gol- 
denen Hochzeit des Konig und der Konigin 
von Sachsen, op. 53. IV. Instrumental : 
Conzertstiick, Idyllische Scene, for orches- 
tra, op. 41 ; String-quartet in D, op. 1 ; 
Fantasia for violoncello and orchestra, op. 
2 ; Concertos for do, op. 16 and op. 32 ; 
Concerto for the pianoforte and orchestra 
in G, op. 34 ; Concerto for violin and or- 
chestra, op. 31 ; Concerto for clarinet and 
orchestra, op. 29 ; Couzertstiicke for oboe 
and orchestra, Adagio, Litermezzo, and 
Finale, op. 33 ; Arioso for violin and or- 
chestra, op. 48a ; Scherzo capriccioso for 
the pianoforte, in B minor, op. 5 ; Sonata 
for the pianoforte, in A minor, op. 17 ; do., 
in E-flat, op. 21 ; Sonata for the pianoforte 
and flute, o\). 42 ; Twelve Kinderstiicke for 
the pianoforte ; Jubelmarsch for the piano- 
forte. V. Vocal : Cantata for the inaugura- 
tion of the monument to Weber ; Festival 
Cantata ; Altdeutscher Schlachtgesang for 
male chorus and orchestra, op. 12 ; Das 
grosse deutsche Vaterland, hymn by Pabst, 
op. 51 ; Dithyrambe by Schiller, for male 
chorus and orchestra, op. 20, an-anged for 
the pianoforte for four hands by A. Horn ; 



EIFAUT 



Eheinsage, Lieder for male voices (in Sihig- 
erhalle, Baud HI., Heft 8) ; 6 duets for 
soprano and alto with pianoforte, op. 9 ; 2 
Lieder for male voices from Froebel's " Ee- 
publikaner ; " G songs for male voices, op. 
40 ; do., o}}. 47 ; 7 songs for voice and jii- 
auoforte, op. 27 ; Concert aria for sojsrano, 
Was ist mir, op. 38 ; 4 Lieder, An die Rose ; 
Ein Stiiudlein vor Tag ; Trost im Scbeiden ; 
Aiideuken ; Deutsche Liederhalle, Volks- 
lieder, for male voices (six books), op. 22 ; 
Lied vom Wein, by E. Geibel, male chorus 
and orchestra ; G geistliche Lieder, for so- 
prano, alto, tenor, and bass, op. 36 ; Mai- 
enzeit uud Morgenlied (in Kej)ertorium 
fiir deutschen Miinnergesang, Heft I.) ; 
Kecitative and cavatina for soprano, Sagt 
mir ihr kosenden Luftchen, op. 19 ; Deut- 
scher Siingerhaiu, Volkslieder for soj^rano, 
alto, tenor, and bass (two books) ; Twelve 
Gesilnge (two books), op. 2G ; do. (two 
books), op. 28 ; Bardalo deutscher Volks- 
lieder ; Seven Lieder, op. 27. VI. Church 
Music : Mass in F ; G Psalms for tenor or 
bass, op. 25 ; Te Deum laudamus, for male 

voices, op. 50 ; Salvum fac regeni, Doniiue, 
chorus and orchestra ; Offertorium, Laudate 
Dominum, for baritone solo, chorus, and or- 
chestra, op. 48 ; Motets. — Mendel ; Eie- 
mann ; Grove. 

RIFAUT, LOmS VICTOR fiTIENNE, 
born in Paris, Jan. 11, 1798, died in Or- 
leans, March 2, 1838. Dramatic composer, 
son of a contrabassist at the Opera, pupil 
at the Conservatoire of Adam the elder on 
the pianoforte, later of Berton in harmony 
and composition. He won the first prize 
of the Institut for composition in 1821, 
for his cantata Diane et Eudymion. After 
living in Rome, Naples, Vienna, Munich, 
and Dresden, he returned in 1825 to Paris, 
and became accompanist at the Ojx'ra Co- 
mique. In 1828 he became chef de chant 



at the same theatre, and in 1820 professor 
of accomjjanimeut at the Conservatoire. 
Works : Le duel, ou une loi de Frederic, 
Opera Comique, 182G ; Le roi et le ba- 
telier (with Halevy), ib., 1827 ; Le camp du 
draiJ d'or (with Batton and Leborne), ib., 
1828 ; Un jour de reception, ib., 1828 ; 
Andre, ou la sentinelle jierdue, ib., 1834 ; 
Ga.sparo, ib., 183G. — Fetis ; do., Sujiple- 
ment, ii. 421 ; Mendel. 

RIGATI (Rigatti), GIOVANNI ANTO- 
NIO, Italian comjsoser of the 17th century, 
died in Venice about the end of 1G49. 
Church composer, priest in the Church of 
Sta. Maria Formosa ; was a singer at S. Mar- 
co about the middle of the 17th century, 
and also vocal instructor of the young 
ladies in the Conservatorio degl' lucurabili. 
Works : Messe e salmi, parte concertati, 
etc. (Venice, 1640) ; Prima parte de' Mo- 
tetti a 2-4 voci, con alcuni cantilene (ib., 
1640) ; Motetti a voce sola con partitura 
(ib., 1643) ; Messe e salmi ariosi a 3 voci 
concertati (ib., 1643) ; Salmi diversi di 
compieta, etc. (ib., 1G4G) ; Messa e salmi a 
3 voci, etc. (ib., 1648).— Fetis ; Mendel. 

RIGEL, HEINRICH JOSEF, born at 
Wertheim, Frauconia, Feb. 9, 1741, died 
in Paris in May, 1799. Dramatic com- 
poser, ])upil of Jommelli at Stuttgart ; went 
to Paris in 1768, was very successful as a 
teacher and composer, became musical 
director of the Loge Olympique, and of 
the Concerts Spirituels, and afterwards 
professor at the Conservatoire. Works — 
Operas : Le savetier et le financier. Opera 
Comique, 1778 ; Blanche et Vermeille, ib. ; 
L'automate, ib , 1779 ; Rosanie, ib., 1780 ; 
Aline et Zamorin, Theatre des Beaujolais; 
Lucas, ib. ; Le bon fermier, ib. ; Les 
amoiu's du Gros-Caillou, ib. ; Alix de Beau- 
caire. Theatre Moutansier ; Cora et Alonzo, 
grand opera, not given. Oratorios : La 
sortie d'Egypte ; Jephte ; La prise de 
Jericho. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

RIGEL, HENRI JEAN, born in Paris, 
May 11, 1772, died at Abbeville, Dec. 16, 
1852. Son and pupil of the preceding ; 



S34 



TH." NEW YORK 

PUBUC LIBRARY 



TiLBtw FOUNDATHW 



pjGiimi 



became, when only thirteen, repetiteur at 
the royal school of singing, accompanied 
Bonaparte on his expedition to Egyj)t in 
1798, and conducted the music at the 
French theatre in Cairo. He returned in 
1800 to Paris, resumed his functions as 
teacher of the pianoforte, and was made court 
pianist to Napoleon. He was especially 
distinguished as an accompanist. "Works : 
Les deux meuniers, opera, Cairo, 1799 ; 
Le duel nocturne, Paris, 1808 ; Goduou, 
sacred cantata ; Judith, do. ; Le retour 
de Tobie, do. ; Symphony ; 2 overtures ; 4 
concertos for pianoforte ; Trios for piano- 
forte, harp, and violin ; Sonatas for piano- 
forte and violin ; Duos, sonatas, fautaisies, 
etc., for pianoforte. — Fetis ; Mendel. 

KJGHmi, VINCENZO, born in Bologna, 
Jan. 22, 175G, died there, Aug. 19, 1812. 
Dramatic composei", pupil in the cathedral 
choir of San Petronio, subsequently of Ber- 
nacchi in singing, and of Padre Martini 
in counterpoint ; made his debut at Parma 
in 1775, then sang for three years in the 
Ojjera Buft'a at Prague, and began to be- 
come known as a composer. In Vienna, 
where he arrived in 1777, he was chosen by 
Joseph n. as singing master for the Ai'ch- 
duchess Elizabeth, and conductor at the 
Opera Buffa. In 178S he entered the ser- 
vice of the Elector of Mainz, and in 1792 
was summoned to Berhn to compose an 
opera, the success of which procured for 
him the appointment as royal Kapellmeister 
in the place of Alessandri, in 1793. As a 
composer he was not in the front rank ; but 
he was a successful teacher, and counted 
distinguished artists among his pupils. 
Works: La vedova scaltra, Prague, 1778; 
La bottega del cafife, ib. ; Don Giovanni, 
ossia il convitato di pietra (same subject as 
Mozart's master work), ib. ; L' incontro iu- 
aspettato, Vienna, 1785 ; II Demogorgone, 
ossia il filosofo confuso, Mainz, 1788 ; An- 
tigouo, ib., 1788 ; Alcide al bivio, Coblentz, 
1789 ; Armida, Aschaffeuburg ; Enea nel 
Lazio, Berlin, 1793 ; H trionfo d' Ariauna, 



Tigrane, ib., 1800 ; Gerusalemme liberata, 
ossia la selva incantata, ib., 1803 ; La 
sorpresa amorosa, cantata, Vienna, 1780 ; 
II natale d' Apollo, do., ib. ; Atalanta e 
Meleagro, festa teatrale, Berlin, 1797 ; 
Minerva belebt die Statuen des Dildalus, 
ballet ; Messa solenne ; Te Deum ; Re- 
quiem a cappella ; Several cantatas ; Many 
scenes for the stage, and songs, etc. His 
best orchestral work is his overture to 
Tigrane, still occasionally played in Ger- 
many and England. His exercises for the 
voice (1804) are among the best that exist. 
— Fetis ; Riemann ; Gerber ; Schilling ; 
do.. Supplement, 360 ; Mendel. 

EIGOLETTO, Italian opera in three acts, 
text by Piave, music by Verdi, first rep- 
resented in Venice, March 11, 1851, with 
the following cast : 

Rigoletto (Bar.) Signor Coletti. 

II duca di Mantua (T.). . .Signor Beaucarde. 
Gilda (S.) Signora Evers. 

The libretto is taken from Victor Hugo's " Le 




Padilla-y-Ramos. 

roi s'amuse," was first entitled "La male- 
dizione," and was also called " Viscardello " 
in Italy. The authorities forbade its per- 
formance for political reasons, and in order 
to secure a representation the character of 



ib., 1793; Ai-mida (rewritten), ib., 1799 ; | Francis L was changed to the Duke of 



225 



EIKIKI 



Mantua ; Saint- Vallier, to the Count of 
Monterone ; and Tiiboulet, to Rigoletto, 
whose name was given to the ojiera. This 
has been regarded by many critics as Verdi's 
■ masterpiece, and, notwithstanding the repul- 
sive story, it still keeps the stage. The prin- 
cipal numbers are : The Duke's aria, " Questa 
o quella ; " his duet with Gilda, " Addio, 
speranza ed anima ;" the chorus of the con- 
spirators " Zitti, zitti," closing the first act ; 
the Duke's aria in Sparafucile's house, " La 
donna e mobile ; " and the great quartet, 
" Bella figlia dell' amore," sung by the 
Duke, Gilda, Rigoletto, and Maddalena, 
and which is one of the composer's best 
inspirations. It was first given at Covent 
Garden, London, in Italian, May 14, 1853, 
with Ronconi as Rigoletto ; Mario, the 
Duke ; Mme Bosio, Gilda ; and Mile Nantier- 
Didiee, IMaddalena ; and it was first given 
in Paris at the Theatre ItaHen, Jan. 19, 
1857, with Corsi as Rigoletto ; Mario, the 
Duke ; Mme Frezzolini, Gilda ; and Mme 
Alboni, Maddalena. The opera was trans- 
lated into French by £doviard Duprez, and 
represented at the Theatre Lyrique, Paris, 
Dec. 24, 1803. The part of Rigoletto is a 
favourite witli IsmaOl and with Padilla-y- 
Eamos. That of Gilda was Mme Bosio's 
greatest part, and it has been sung with 
success by Adelina Patti, Mme Bliolan- 
Carvalho, Mile Battu, and Mme Novello. 
Publi.shed by Ricordi (Milan, 1851). Tran- 
sciiption for the pianoforte by Liszt (Schu- 
berth, Leipsic). — Athcnreum (1851), 1097 ; 
(1853), 625 ; Clement et Larousse, 576 ; 
Revue et Gaz. mus. de Paris (1857), 25 ; 
Neue Zeitschr. (1860), ii. 41 ; Upton, 
Standard Oiseras, 220 ; Hanslick, Modcrne 
Oper, 229. 

RIKIKI, operetta, music by Josef Hell- 
mesberger, Jr., represented at the Carl- 
theater, Vienna, Sept. 27, and tlic Walhalla 
Theater, Berlin, Oct. 27, 1887 ; afterwards 
in Munich and Pesth. 

RBIBAULT, EDWARD FRANCIS, born 
at Soho, London, June 13, 1816, died in Lon- 
don, Sept. 26, 1876. Organist and composer, 



son and pupil of Stephen Francis Rimbault, 
organist (1773-1837), then pupil of Samuel 
Wesley. He became organist of the Swiss 
Church, Soho, in 1832, and later of several 
other London churches. He became in- 
terested in the study of musical history 
and literature, gave lectures on the history 
of music, took an active part in the forma- 
tion of musical societies, and edited many 
musical collections and works. He also 
arranged operas and other works, was 
author of elementary books, and a con- 
tributor to periodical literature. Works : 
The Fair Maid of Islington, operetta, Lon- 
don, 1838 ; The Castle Spectre, ib., 1839 ; 
Country Life, cantata (posthumous). His 
song, Happy Land, was widely popular. 
— Grove ; Fetis ; Riemanu ; Mendel. 
RDISKI-KORSAKOFF, NICOLAI AN- 
DREYEVICH, born 
at Tikhvin, Russia, 
in 1844, still living, 
1890. Dramatic and 
instrumental com- 
poser, one of the fore- 
most representatives 
of the Young-Russian 
\% school. At first an 
officer in the navy, he 
left the service to fol- 
low a musical profes- 
sion. He has been since 1871 professor 
of composition and insti-umentation at the 
St. Petersburg Conservatory, and is direc- 
tor of the free school of music in that city. 
Works — Operas : Pskovityanka (The Maid 
of Pskov), St. Petersburg, 1873 ; The May 
Night, ib., 1880 ; Snegorutchka (Snow- 
drop), ib., 1882. Sadko, legend for orches- 
tra, Altenbvu-g, 1876 ; Antar, symphony, 
Magdeburg, 1881 ; Other symphonies ; Fan- 
tasia for orchestra : Choral works, cham- 
ber music, pianoforte pieces, and songs. 
— Rieraann. 

RINALDO, cantata for tenor solo, male 
chorus, and orchestra, text by Goethe, mu- 
sic by Brahms, op. 50, published by Sim- 
rock (Berlin, 1874). Gade's cantata, Die 




KINALDO 



Ereutzfahrer, op. 50, is on the same subject. 
— Mus. Wochenblatt (1874), 58. 

KINALDO, Italian opera iu three acts, 
text by Adam Hill, translated by Giacomo 
Kossi, music by Handel, first represented 
at the Queen's Tlieatre, London, Feb. 27, 
1711, with the following cast : 

Rinaldo (S.) Signor Nicolini. 

Armida (S.). . .Signora Pilotti Schiavonetti. 
Almirena (S.). . .Signora Isabella Girardeau. 

Argante (B.) Signor Boschi. 

Goifredo (A.) Signora Boschi. 

Eustazio (A.) Signor Valeutini. 

Mago Christiano (A.) Signor Cassani. 

This work, one of the comjjoser's master- 
pieces, was written for the Queen's Theatre, 
and inaugurated Handel's advent in Eng- 
land. It was represented with extraordi- 
nary magnificence for the time. The sjJec- 
tacular realism, especially the scene of 
Armida's garden, into which live sparrows 
were introduced, brought forth the satire 
of Addison and Steele. The oisera was re- 
ceived with enthusiasm, and it was played 
fifteen times without intermission. The 
libretto is founded on Tasso's " Gerusa- 
lemme liberata." The scene is laid in the 
Holy Land at the time of the first Crusade. 
Einaldo, a Knight Templar, is betrothed 
to the daughter of Godfrey de Bouillon, 
Almirena, who is seized by the jealous 
enchantress Armida, and concealed in 
her magic garden. Ai-gante, a Paynim 
King and the accepted lover of Armida, 
falls in love with Almirena as Armida has 
with Rinaldo, who comes to her garden to 
deliver Almirena. To gain his affection, 
Armida summons her powers of magic and 
appears alternately as Almirena and as her- 
self. Rinaldo is rescued by Godfrey de 
Bouillon and Eustazio. Armida and Ar- 
gante are besieged and conquered, and the 
opera ends with their conversion. The 
score contains many arias of great beauty, 
including : " Cara sposa," sung by Rinaldo, 
considered by Handel the best aria that he 
ever wrote; the melody, "Laschia ch' io 



pianga," sung by Almirena upon her cajv 
ture, previously used in the Trionfo del 
tempo, and originally a sarabande iu his 
earlier opera, Almira ; the bass aria, sung 
by Argante, " Sibillar gli angui d' Aletto," 
taken from Aci, Galatea e Polifemo ; Almi- 
rena's air, with violin solo, " Bel piacer," from 
Agrippina ; and Rinaldo's air, " II tricerbero 
umiliato," sung with great eifect by Nico- 
lini, long afterwards became popular in the 
form of the drinking-song, " Let the waiter 
bring clean glasses." The march in the 
third act, with its fiery passages for four 
trumpets, was adopted by the Royal Guards, 
and it was published under the title of 
"The Royal Guards' March" iu "The La- 
dy's Banquet," a collection of music for the 
harpsichord (London, 1720) ; and it was in- 
troduced into the Beggars' Opera by Dr. 
Pej^usch as a chorus to the words, " Let us 
take the road." Rinaldo was rejwesented 
in Hamburg in 1715. The original auto- 
graph does not exist in a complete form. 
Portions are in Buckingham Palace, and 
fragments of the first and third acts are 
contained in the second volume of the 
" Songs and Sketches." The MS. of the 
overture is in the volume entitled " So- 
natas." A complete copy of the conductiug- 
score, in Smith's autograph, with annota- 
tions by Handel, is also in Buckingham 
Palace, and many fragments in Handel's 
autograph are in the Fitzwilliam Librarj-, 
Cambridge. Rinaldo was dedicated to 
Queen Anne, and first published by Walsh 
(London, 1711), afterwards reprinted with 
additions. Chrysander's edition for the 
Hilndelgesellscliaft was published by Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1874:). See Arinide 
et Eeuaud. — Rockstro, Handel, 60 ; Chry- 
sander, Handel, i. 276 ; Schrelcher, 29 ; 
Maitland, 52 ; Burney, iv. 223 ; Hawkins, 
V. 267 ; Hogarth, ii. 2 ; Edwai-ds, Hist. 
Opera, i. 123 ; Spectator, No. 5. 

RING DES NIBELUNGEN, DER, Biih- 
nenfestspiel fiir drei Tage und ein Vora- 
beud (The Nibelung's Ring, a festival stage- 
play for three days and a prior evening), 



EING 



by Richard Wagner. A tetralogy, consist- 
ing of four connected music-dramas : Das 
Rheingold (Tlie Ehine-gold), Die WcdkUre 
(Tlie Valkyr), Siegfried, and Gijlterdam- 
merung (Twilight of the Gods), the subject 
being taken from the Eddas. The first 
sketch of the plot was drawn up bj' Wag- 
ner in 184:8, and is published in his " Ge- 
sammelte Schrifteu uud Dichtungen," ii. 
201 (in English iu Burlingame's " Art-Life 
and Theories of Wagner "). The texts of 
the four dramas were written iu inverse 
order : Siegfried's Tod iu June, 1848 (pub- 
lished in its original form in Ges. Schr. uud 
Dicht., ii. 215), aud remodelled, and the title 
changed to Gotterdilmmerung before 1855 ; 
Der junge Siegfried (the title afterwards 
changed to Siegfried), in 1850 ; Die Wal- 
kure, in 1851 (?) ; Das Rheingold, in 1851- 
52. The music to these dramas was written 
iu the regular order, as follows : Das Rhein- 
gold, begun at Spezzia iu 1853, finished in 
May, 1854 ; Die Walkiire, finished in Zurich 
iu 1856 ; Siegfried, begun in Zurich, aud 
Act I finished in April, 1857 ; Act U, up 
to the Waldwebeii, iu 1857 ; Act II finished 
in Munich June 21, 1865, and Act III by 
the beginning of 1869 ; Gotterdiimmerung, 
begun at Lucerne in 1870, sketch of Pro- 
logue and Act I finished Jan. 20, 1871 ; 
sketch of the whole finished at Bayreuth 
June 22, 1872 ; orchestration finished in 
November, 1874. Das Rheingold aud Die 
Walkiire were given at the Court Opera in 
Munich, without the author's sanction, Sept 
22, 1869, and June 26, 1870, respectively ; 
the whole work was first given at Bayreuth 
Aug. 18, 14, 16, and 17, 1876. The plot, 
which has Uttle in common with that of the 
old German epic, Der Nibelunge Not, will 
be found under the several titles of the 
sepai-ate dramas. — Fischer, Dr. H., Die For- 
schungen tiber das Nibelungenlied (Leipsic, 
1874) ; Gottschall, Die Nibeluugen (1876) ; 
Nieudorf, M. A., Das Nibelungenlied aus 
dem Mittelhochdeutscheu (Berlin, 1854) ; 
Rassmann, A., Die Niflungeu-Saga und das 
Nibelungenlied (1877) ; Reborn, Carl, Die 



deutsche Sage von den Nibelungen in der 
deutscheu Poesie ; Rope, G. R., Die moderne 
Nibelungen-Dichtung (Hamburg, 1869) ; 
Saupe, J., Die Nibelungen ; Lauter, Franz, 
Der Nibelungen Noth und Klage in den 
iisthetischen Excursionen (Leipsic, 1875) ; 
ScheiT, J., Die Nibelungen iu Prosa (1865) ; 
Dahn, Felix, Nibeluugendrama (1875) ; 
Wagner, Ges. Schrifteu, v. 257 ; vi. 1, 365 ; 
is. 366, 371 ; Wagner, Ueber die Auft'iihruug 
des Buhnenfestspiels ; Fritzsch, E. W., Der 
Ring des Nibelungen (1871) ; do., Bericbt 
an tleu Deutschen Wagner- Verein (ib., 
1872) ; Oscar Berggruen, Das Biihuenfest- 
spiel in Baj'reuth (Leipsic, 1877) ; Dollhopf, 
Carl, Der Riug des Nibelungen (Munich, 
1870) ; Dorn, H., Aufsatz iu Ostracismus 
(Berlin, 1875) ; Dullo, Gustav, Ein Wort 
der Aufkliirung iiber Richard Wagner's 
Nibelungen (Kijnigsberg, 1872) ; Ehrlich, 
H., Fiir den Ring des Nibelungen gegen 
das Festspiel in Bayreuth (Berlin, 1876) ; 
Engel, G., Das Biihnenfestspiel in Bayreuth 
(Berlin, 1876) ; Frenzel, Carl, Die Bay- 
reuther Festspiele (Hanover, 1877) ; Gis- 
bert, Der Ring des Nibelungen (Leijjsic) ; 
Gumprecht, Otto, Richard Wagner und 
sein Buhnenfestspiel (Leipsic, 1873-76) ; 
Kahu, A., Die Staatsmusik der Zukunft (Ber- 
lin, 1876) ; Kalbeck, Max, Das Biihnen- 
festsjiiel in Bayreuth (Breslau, 1876) ; Koch, 
Richard Wagner's Buhnenfestspiel (Leipsic, 
1875) ; Koestlein, Carl, Richard Wagner's 
Tondrama ; La Mara, Das Buhnenfestspiel iu 
Bayreuth (Leipsic, 1877) ; Lindau, Paid, 
Niichterne Biiefe aus Bayreuth (Berlin, 
1876) ; Peter Lehmann, Au dramatisehe Ton- 
setzer (Leipsic) ; Melilis, C, GOtterglaube 
und Nibelungenring (Leipsic, 1876) ; do., Im 
Nibelungenlande (Cotta, 1877) ; Mohr, W., 
Richard Wagner und das Kunstwerk der 
Zukunft im Lichte der Bayreuther Autl'iih- 
rungen betrachtet (Cologne, 1876) ; Miiller, 
Dr. Franz, Der Riug des Nibeluugen (Leip- 
sic, 1876) ; Naumann, Emil, Musikdrama 
oder Oper (Berlin, 1876) ; Oesterlein, Ni- 
colaus, Bayreuth (Vienna, 1877) ; Pliider- 
mauu, Die Biihnenfestsj)icle in Bayreuth ; 



RINK 



Wolzogen, H. von, Poetiscbe Lautsymbolik 
(Leipsic, 1816) ; do., DerNibelungen-Mythos 
in Sage und Litteratur (Berlin, 1876) ; do., 
Die Edda (Leipsic, 1876) ; do., Thematisolier 
Leitf aden durcli die Musik zu . . . Der 
Ring des N. (Leipsic, 1882), in English as 
Guide tbiougli the Music, etc., by E. von 
Wolzogen (ib.); do., Eililuterungen zu R. 
W.'s Nibelungen Drama (ib.) ; Gustav Kob- 
be, R. Wagner's Music Dramas ; W. F. Ap- 
thorj). Some of Wagner's Heroes and Hero- 
ines (Scribner's Maga., v. 331) ; do., Boston 
Transcript (1884, April 4, 8, 9, 12, 14) ; Die 
Tragodie in Bayreuth und ihr Satyrspiel 
(Leipsic, 1877) ; Alfred Formann ; The Ni- 
belung's Ring (in English, London, 1877) ; 
Jullien, Wagner, 209 ; Glasenapp, Richard 
Wagner's Leben und Wirken, ii. 327 ; Pohl, 
Wagner, 206 ; Kastener, Wagner Catalogue, 
55 ; Mus. W^ochenblatt (1871), 210, 241, 277, 
307, 323, 356, 370, 387, 433 ; (1872), 719 ; 
(1873), 233, 249, 265, 281, 289, 321, 353, 361, 
409, 433, 465, 489, 521, 593, 609, 633, 661, 
681, 714 ; (1874), 563 ; (1875), 65, 77, 101, 
113, 468 ; (1876), 81, 93 : 252, 277, 313, 
366, 384, 429, 443, 456, 457, 463, 471, 480, 
491, 493, 503, 504, 505 : 461, 469, 477, 489, 
501 ; (1877), 17, 33, 45, 457 ; (1878), 105, 
121 ; (1879), 306 ; (1881), 40 ; (1883), 5, 
19, 33, 43 ; Neue Zeitschr. (1863), i. 191, 
203, 211, 221 ; (1876), 373, 385, 397, 407, 
421, 440, 460, 471, 478 : 401, 503, 515 : 13, 
21, 53, 85, 97, 110, 219, 247 ; (1878), 209, 
409: 101, 113, 125; (1879), 45, 369, 381, 
404, 413, 421, 445, 456 ; (1881), 217 ; 
(1882), 247 ; (1880), 221, 233, 283, 477, 
486, 497 ; Bayreuther Blatter (1878), 263, 
309, 341, 352 ; (1879), 313 ; (1880), 141, 
252, 301 ; (1881), 21, 198, 233, 259; (1884), 
70 ; (1885), 140 ; (1886), 1-35, 337 ; Echo 
(1875), No. 35 ; (1876), Nos. 26, 34, 38 ; 
Revue de la musique (1877), No. 22 ; Le 
MOnestrel (1876), Nos. 38, 39 ; Neue il- 
lustr. Zeitg. (Vienna, 1877), Nos. 13-16 ; 
Leipsiger Nachrichten (1876), No. 227 ; 
Allgem. deutsch mus. Zeitg. (1877), No. 
36 ; Signale (1876), 721, 737 ; Athenreum 
(1876). 



RINK (Rinck), JOHANN CHRISTLA.N 
HEINRICH, born at Elgersburg, Saxe- 
Gotha, Feb. 18, 1770, died in Darmstadt, 
Aug. 7, 1846. Organist, pupil of several 
organists, and finally, in Erfurt, of Kittel, 
who had studied under Bach. He became 
in 1790 organist at Giessen, and in 1805 in 
Darmstadt, where he was also teacher at 
the seminary. In 1813 he was appointed 
court organist, and in 1817 chamber musi- 
cian to the Grand Duke. He was consid- 
ered the best organist of his time, and made 
concert tours, which were very successful. 
He received various decorations, and the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Ai-ts by 
the University of Giessen. Works : Orgel- 
schule (Bonn, 1819-21) ; 2 Choralbiicher ; 
Many choral-preludes ; Der Choralfreund ; 
Variations for organ ; Sonatas for piano- 
forte ; Trios ; Mass ; Charfreitagscantate ; 
Weihuachtscantate ; Todtenfeier ; Hallelu- 
ja ; Pater Noster ; 12 chorals for men's 
voices ; Motets, hj'mns, and other vocal mu- 
sic. — Autobiography (Breslau, 1833) ; Men- 
del ; Riemann ; Fetis ; Schilling ; do.. Sup- 
plement, 360 ; Gerber ; Clement, Mus. 
culebres, 263. 

RIOTTE, PHILIPP JACOB, born at 
Treves, Rhenish Prussia, Aug. 16, 1776, 
died in Vienna, Aug. 20, 1856. Dramatic 
and instrumental composer ; passed the 
greater part of his life in Vienna, where he 
was Kapellmeister at the Theater an der 
Wien. Works : Mozart's Zauberflote, opera, 
Prague, 1820 ; Noureddin, Prinz von Per- 
sien, do., ib. ; Die Lieb' in der Stadt, 
ojjeretta, Vienna, 1834 ; Other operettas, 
and ballets ; Sympihony ; Quartets for 
strings ; Trios for pianoforte and strings ; 
Concertos for pianoforte ; do. for flute ; 
do. for clarinet ; Sonatas for pianoforte and 
violin ; do. for pianoforte. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

RIP VAN WINKLE, English opera, text 
by J. H. Wainwright after Irviug's stoiy, 
music by George Bristow, first represented 
by the Pyne and Harrison Opei'a Company, 
at Niblo's, New York, Sept. 27, 1855. Char- 



RIP 



acters represented : Kip vau Winkle, Mr. 
Strettou ; Dame van Winkle, Miss S. Pyne ; 
Alice, !Miss L. Pyne ; Gardiner, Mr. Har- 
rison ; Nicholas Vedder, Mr. Hayes ; Ville- 
cour, Mr. Horncastle ; and Van Bummel, 
'Mr. Setchell. Same title, French operetta 
in three acts, text by Meilhac and Gille, 
music by Robert Planquette, given in Lon- 
don, Oct. 13, 1882. 

EIP VAN WINKLE, overture for orches- 
tra, by George Whitfield Chadwick, written 
in Leipsic in 1879. The composer was 
awarded a prize by the Leipsic Conserva- 
torium for this work, first performed in Bos- 
ton by the Harvard Musical Association in 
1880. It was given at the Handel and Haydn 
Festival, Boston, in 1880, and at the Wor- 
cester (Mass.) Musical Festival, Sept. 26, 
1889. 

RISCHBIETER, "\MLHELM ALBERT, 
boi'u in Bnjnswick in 1884, still living, 
1890. Violinist, jjupil of Moritz Haujit- 
mann ; occupied positions as violinist at 
Leipsic, Bremen, Nui-emberg, and Liegnitz, 
and in 18G2 became professor of harmony 
and counterpoint at the Conservatorium in 
Dresden. Works : Sj'mjjhony ; Overtures ; 
Other insti'umental and vocal composi- 
tions. 

RI8P0LI, SALVATOR, born in Naples 
about 171:5, died (?). Dramatic composer, 
pui)il at the Conservatoiio di San Onofrio, 
Naples, where he became professor in 1792. 
Works : Ipermestra, Milan, 178G ; Idalide, 
Turin, 1786 ; II trionfo di Davide, Naples, 
1788 ; Church music ; La gelosia, collec- 
tion of duos ; Toccatas for pianoforte, etc. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

RISTORI, GIOVANNI ALBERTO, born 
in Bologna in 1692, died in Dresden, Feb. 
7, 1753. Dramatic and church composer, 
son of an actor, with whom he went in 1715 
to Dresden, and was appointed in 1717 
composer at the court theatre. In order to 
accompany the king-elector to Poland, he 
became also director of the Polish chapel, 
established in 1717. In 1733 he was made 
chamber organist, in 1746 church composer, 



and in 1750 Vize-Kapellmeister. Works 
— Operas : Calandro, Dresden, 1726 ; Don 
Chisciotto, ossia un pazzo ne fa cento, ib., 
1727 ; Le fate, Ai-ianna, ib., 1736 ; Temis- 
tocle, Naples, 1738 ; Adriano in Siria ; 
Nicandro ; Pimmaglione ; Ercole. Ora- 
torios : La deposizione della Croce, 1732 ; 
La Vergine annunziata ; La sepoltura di 
Cristo. Eleven masses ; 3 do., without 
Credo ; 3 Requiem ; 3 Te Deum ; 5 Gloria ; 
2 Kyrie and Gloria ; 1 Sanctus and Agnus ; 
21 motets (offertories), partly for 4 voices, 
partly for soli with orchestra ; 4 Litanise 
lauretana3 ; 5 other litanies ; 6 Alma Re- 
demptoris ; 6 Salvo Regina ; 3 Miserere ; 10 
duetti per la Quadragesima ; 2 Stabat 
Mater ; and other church music, all for 4 
voices with orchestra. Cantatas : 3 for 
special occasions, 1735, 1736 ; Nice a Tirsi, 
1739 ; Didoue abbandonata, 1748 ; Laviuia 
a Turuo, 1748 ; I lamenti d' Orfeo, 1749 ; 
Amore insuperabile ; Madonna in villa ; La 
pesca ; Virtii e Fortuna ; Cantata a alto solo 
con stromenti ; 3 Cantate, do. ; Cantata a 
soprano col basso ; 8 arie (4 a soprano, 4 
a alto) ; Numa Pompilio, serenade ; 6 Inter- 
mezzi ; Concerto for oboe, with strings ; 3 
symphonies for strings, 2 oboes, and 2 
horns.— Mendel ; Fiirstenau, ii. 119, 202. 

RITA, OU LE M.U{I BATTU, opira- 
comique in one act, text by Gustave Vaez, 
music by Donizetti, first represented at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, May 7, 1860. Rita 
marries a sailor, Gasparo, who on their 
wedding-day beats her and then flees to 
Canada. News comes that he has perished 
in a shipwreck, and Rita marries Peppe, 
who allows himself to be beaten. Gasparo 
returns, and, finding that Rita has married 
again, renounces his claims and, after teach- 
ing Peppe how to defend himself from his 
better half, leaves the country forever. 
This opera was sung by Mme Faure-Le- 
febvre, M. Warot, and M. Baiielle. — Clement 
et Larousse, 579. 

RITORNA, O CARO, soprano aria of 
RodeUnda, in G major, with accompani- 
ment of strings complete, in Handel's Rode- 



S30 



RITORNO 



linda, Act 11., Scene 6. Published also 
sejsaratelj', with the accompaniment trans- 
cribed by Kobert Franz (Leipsic, Kistner). 

RITORNA, VINGITOR. See Aida. 

RITORNO DI DON CALANDRINO, IL 
(The Return of Don Calandrino), Italian 
opera in two acts, music by Cimarosa, first 
represented in Rome in 1778. Same title, 
opera by Nicolo Picani, Naples, 1774. 

RITORNO DI TOBIA, IL (The Return 
of Tobias), Italian oratorio, text by Gio- 
vanni Gastone Boccherini, music by Haydn, 
first performed in Vienna, April 2, 1775. 
Characters represented : Tobia, Christian 
Sijecht ; Anna, his wife, Margarethe Spang- 
ler ; Tobia, their son, Karl Friberth ; Sara, 
his wife, Magdalena Friberth ; Raffaele, 
archangel appearing as Azaria, Barbara 
Teyber. This oratorio was given at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipsic, in 1802 ; in Vienna in 
1808. Tlie overture was ijublished by Sim- 
rock (Berlin, 1805) ; also by Artaria (Vi- 
enna). Other oratorios on the same sub- 
ject, in Italian : II ritorno di Tobia, by 
Carlo Agostiuo Badia, text by Negro, Vi- 
enna, 1707 ; Tobia, by Porsile, text by 
Zeno, ib., 1720; Tobia, by Caldara, ib., 
1720 ; II ritorno di Tobia, by Georg Karl 
Reutter, the younger, text by Pa.squini, ib., 
March 5, 1733 ; La pazienza ricompensata 
negli avvenimenti di Tobia, by B. Casali, 
Bologna, 1761 ; by D. Barbieri, Faenza, 
1777 ; La famigliadi Tobia, by Mysliweezek, 
about 1780 ; Tobia idle nozze con Sara, can- 
tata by Gaetano Marin elli, 1781 ; Tobiaj 
matrimonium, by Simon Mayr, text by 
Foppa, Venice, 1791 ; in French : Le retour 
de Tobie, by L. Armand Chardiny, Paris, 
1787 ; Tobie, by Eugene Ortolan, text by 
L6on Halevy, Versailles, April IG, 1SG7 ; 
and Tobie, by Gounod, Paris, 1870.— Bitter, 
Geschichte des Oratoriums, 456 ; Pohl, 
Haydn, ii. 68, 338. 

RITORNO D' ULISSE, IL (The Return 
of Ulysses), Italian opera, text by Moui- 
glia, music by Monteverde, first represented 
at the Teatro San Mose, Venice, in 1641. 
Other Italian operas on the same subject, by 



Gazzaniga, text byMoniglia, Palermo, 1781 ; 
by Giordani, same text, Mantua, Dec. 25, 
1782 ; Ulisse e Penelope, by Alessaudri, 
text by Filistri, Potsdam, Jan. 25, 1790 ; 
by Basilj, text by Moniglia, Florence, 1799 ; 
by Simon Mayr, text by Privadali, Venice, 
1809 ; La finta pazzia d' Ulisse, by Ziani 
text by Matteo Noris, Venice, 1G94 ; Ulisse 
sconosciuto in Itaca, by Pollarollo, Reggio, 
1698 ; Ulisse e Telemacco, by Treu, Bres- 
lau, 1726 ; Ulysse et Penelope, grand French 
opera in five acts, by J. Feny Rebel, Sr., 
text by Henri Guiehard, Paris, Jan. 21, 
1703 ; La casta Penelope, by Antonio Draghi, 
text by Minato, Vienna, 1670 ; Penelope la 
casta, by Niccolini and Pallavicino, text by 
Matteo Noris, Venice, 1685 ; by Perti, 
Rome, 1696 ; Penelope, by Fortunato Chel- 
leri, same text, Venice, 1716 ; by Conti, 
text by Pariati, Vienna, Feb. 6, 1724 ; by 
Galuj)pi, London, 1741 ; by Joiio Sousa de 
Carvalho, Lisbon, 1782 ; Penelope, in French, 
by Piccinni, text by Marmontel, Paris, Dec. 
G, 17S5 ; Penelope, in Italian, by Cimarosa, 
Naples, 1795, and by Rota, text by Bottura, 
Trieste, March 24, 1866 ; L' isola di CalijDso, 
by Bertoni, Venice, 17G9 ; by Abbate Ber- 
nardino Ottani, Turin, 1777 ; by Pietro Carlo 
Guglielmi, the younger, text by Romanelli, 
Milan, Jan. 23, 1813 ; La partenza d' Ulisse 
da Calipso, by Sarti, 1776 ; Kalypso, in Ger- 
man, by Teleraann, text bj^ Priltorius, Ham- 
burg, 1727 ; Calipso abbandonata, by Luigi 
Romano, Briinn, 1793 ; La partenza d' Ulisse 
da Calipso, by Giaccomo lusauguine, Naples, 
1782 ; Calipso, in Italian, by Peter von 
Winter, London, 1803 ; Kalj-j^so, by Joseph 
Kfihn, 1840 ; and L'ile de Calypso, French 
operetta, by Pilati (Ruytter), text by Jullien 
Baris, December, 1857. See Circe and 
Ulisse. 

RITTER, AUGUST GOTTFRIED, born 
at Erfurt, Aug. 11, 1811, died at Magde- 
burg, September, 1885. Virtuoso on the 
organ and pianist, pupil in Berlin of Lud- 
wig Berger, A. W. Bach, and Rungenhagen. 
On his return to Erfurt he became organist 
(1837) of the merchants' church, in 1844 of 



RITTER 







the cathedral at Merseburg, and in 1847 
of the cathedral at Magdeburg. He made 
several concert tours in Germany, and 
appeared often successfully as a pianist. 
Works : 3 overtures for orchestra ; 2 sym- 
phonies for do. ; Concerto for pianoforte 
and orchestra ; Quartet for pianoforte and 
strings ; Motets ; Sonatas, preludes, varia- 
tions, etc., for organ ; Die Kunst des Orgel- 
spiels. — Futis ; Mendel. 

RITTER, FREDERIC LOUIS, born in 
S t r a s b u r g (of 
Spanish origin, 
family name Ca- 
ballero), June 22, 
1834, still living, 
1800. Composer 
and musical writer, 
pupU of Moritz 
Hauser and Hans 
Michel S c h 1 e t - 
terer, and later in 
Paris of Georges Kastner. After two years 
in Germany he returned in 1852 to France, 
and became professor of music in the Prot- 
estant seminary at Fcnctrange, Lorraine. 
In ISrA) he went to the United States, and 
after several years' residence in Cincinnati, 
where he organized the Cecilia (choral) and 
the Philharmonic (orchestral) Societies and 
did much to advance the cause of music, re- 
moved in 1861 to New York and became 
conductor of the Sacred Harmonic and 
Arion Choral Societies. In 1867 he organ- 
ized and conducted the first musical festival 
of importance held in New York, and in 
the same year was appointed professor of 
music at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 
whither he removed in 1874. In 1878 the 
degree of Mus. Doc. was conferred upon 
him by the University of New York. Works 
— Vocal : Psalm xxiii., female voices, op. 8 ; 
Psalm xcv., female voices with organ, op. 
14 ; Psalm iv., baritone solo, chorus, and 
orchestra; Psalm xlvi., soprano solo, chorus, 
and orchestra ; O salutaris, baritone and 
organ ; Ave ISIaria, mezzo-soprano solo and 
organ ; Hafis, cyclus of Persian songs, op. 



1 ; Dirge for Two Veterans (poem by Walt 
Whitman), with melodramatic accompani- 
ment for pianoforte, op. 13 ; Serenade for 
male voices ; More than 100 German Lieder. 
Instrumental : Five symphonies ; Overtures ; 
Concerto for violoncello and orchestra ; do. 
for pianoforte and orchestra ; Fantasia for 
bass-clarinet, and orchestra ; Serenade- 
septet for flute, horn, and string quin- 
tet ; String quartets ; Pianoforte trios and 
other pianoforte music. Literary : His- 
tory of Music (2 vols., Boston, 1870-74 ; 
London, 1878, 2d ed., 1880) ; Music in Eng- 
land (New York, 1883) ; Music in America 
(ib., 1883) ; Musical Dictation (Novello). 
His wife, Fanny Raymond Ritter (born in 
Philadelphia, 1840), is a talented musician 
and writer. Among her publications are : 
Woman as a Musician (London, 1877) ; and 
Some Famous Songs (ib., 1878). She has 
translated also Ehlert's Letters on Music to 
a Lady (ib., 1877), and Schumann's Music 
and Musicians (2 series, ib., 1878-80). — Fe- 
tis, Supplement, ii. 424 ; Riemann ; Men- 
del ; Grove. 

RITTER, PETER, born at Mannheim 
about 1760, died there after 1813. Violon- 
cellist, probably pupil of Abt Vogler in 
composition, travelled in Germany and 
played in 1785 at the court of Berlin, 
where he had to compete against Duport. 
About 1801 be became Conzertmeister, and 
director of the Singspiel at Mannheim. 
Works — Operas : Der Eremit auf Formen- 
tera, Mannheim, 1788 ; Der Sclavenhiindler, 
ib., 1790 ; Die Weihe, musical prologue, 
1792 ; Die lustigen Weiber, operetta, 1794 ; 
Maria von Montalban, Frankfort, 1801 ; 
Die Zitherschliiger, 1813 ; Der Mandarin. 
Chamber music, and songs. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

RITTER, THl^ODORE (BENNET, 
called), born near Paris in 1836, died in 
Paris, April 7, 1886. Pianist and composer ; 
finished his studies under Liszt ; made his 
appearance as a virtuoso, when quite young ; 
travelled in Germany, Belgium, and Eng- 
land, where he was a great favourite. 



rJTTER-BALLET 



Works : Marianne, opera, Paris, 1861 ; La 
dea risorta, do., Florence, 18C5 ; Le paradis 
perdu, scene dramatique ; Mepliistoplielos, 
do. ; Le sacrifice, vocal with orchestra, 
given at the Chatelet, 1875 ; Ave Maria a 
2 vois^ etc. ; Morceaux de genre, for piano- 
forte. — Fetis, .Supplement, ii. 423 ; Rie- 
mann. 

RITTER-BALLET, for orchestra, by 
Beethoven, first performed at the Redouten- 
saal, Bonn, March 6, 1791. It was com- 
posed in 1700-!)1, but not published. The 
original autograj^h is in the possession of 
Artaria & Co. (Vienna). I. Marsch for pic- 
colo, two clarinets, two horns, two clarini, 
timpani, two violins, viola, and bass ; II. 
Deutscher Gesang ; III. Jagdlied ; IV. 
Minnelied ; V. Kriegslied ; VI. Trinkhed ; 
VII. Walzer oder teutscher Tanz ; VIII. 
Coda. 

RIVfi-KING, JULIE, born, of French 
parentage, in Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 31, 
1857, still living, 1890. Pianist, pupil on 
the jDianoforte in Cincinnati of her mother 
(Caroline Staub Rive, 1822-82, a successful 
teacher), in New York of "William Mason 
andS. B. Mills, in Leipsic of Carl Reinecke, 
in Dresden of Blassmanu, and in "Weimar of 
Liszt ; and in theory in Dresden of "Wil- 
helm Albert Rischbieter. In 1873 she made 
a successful debut as a pianist at one of 
the Euterpe concerts, Leipsic, under Rei- 
necke's direction, and was about to make a 
tour in Europe when she was recalled to 
America by her father's death. In the 
following winter she played in Cincinnati, 
and in 1875 at a Philharmonic concert in 
New York, and since then she has appeared 
in the principal cities of the United States 
and Canada. Since 1886 she has made 
her residence in New York. "Works : Im- 
Ijromptu Mazurka, 187G ; Impromptu in 
A-flat, 1876 : Concert etude in A-flat, 1877 ; 
Humoresque, 1878 ; Bubbling Spring, tone 
poem, 1878 ; On Blooming Meadows, con- 
cert waltz, 1879 ; Polonaise heroique, 1880 ; 
Mazurka caprice, 1881 ; Pensees dansantes, 
valse brillante, 1882 ; Knight Templar 



March, 1882 ; Hand in Hand Polka, 1882 ; 
March of the Goblins, 1883 ; Concert etude 
in F-sharp minor, 1887 ; and many transcrip- 
tions. 

RIVOLGETE A LUI, aria for bass with 
orchestra, in D, text from the opera, C'osl 
fan tutte, music by Mozart, composed for 
Benucci in Vienna in December, 1789. 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Mozart "Werke, Serie 
vi.. No. 45. — KOchel, Verzeichniss, No. 584 ; 
Jahn, Jlozart, iv. 526. 

ROBBERECHTS, ANDRlO, born in Brus- 
sels, Dec. 16, 1797, died in Paris, May 23, 
1860. Violinist, pupil of Van der Plancken, 
then in Paris of the Conservatoire and of 
Baillot, finally of Viotti. On his return to 
Brussels, in 1820, he was appointed solo 
violiniist to King "William I., but after the 
political events of 1830 settled in Paris. 
Works : Grande fantaisie for orchestra and 
chorus ; Fantaisie romautique, for violin 
and orchestra ; Grand duo concertant for 
violin and pianoforte ; Airs varies, romances, 
variations, duos, etc., for do. — Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

ROBERT BRUCE, French opera in three 
acts, text by Alphonse Royer and Gustave 
Vaez, music by Rossini, first represented at 
the Academic Royale de Musique, Paris, Dec. 
30, 1846. The subject is from Sir Walter 
Scott's "History of Scotland" (2 vols., 1829- 
30). Robert Bruce defends his crown against 
Edward H. of England, and is aided by the 
Black Douglas, who is accompanied by his 
daughter Marie. She is in love with an 
English officer, Arthur, who saves the life 
of Bruce. He is accused of treason, and 
as he is about to forfeit his life, Douglas 
takes the castle occupied by Edward II. and 
expels the English. The music is a pastic- 
cio arranged by Niedemeyer from four of 
Rossini's operas : La donna del lago ; Zel- 
mira ; Bianca e Faliero ; and Torvaldo e 
Dorliska. The opera was not successful. 
Original cast : Robert Bruce, M. Baroilhet ; 
Douglas, M. Aneoni ; Arthur, M. Bettini ; 
Edward II., M. Paulin ; Marie, Mme Stoltz ; 
and Nelly, Mile Nau. Published by Trou- 



ROBERT 



penas (Paris) ; and by Eicordi (jVIilan). 
— Clement et Larousse, 581. 

EGBERT LE DIABLE, grand opera in 
five acts, text by Scribe and Delavigne, mu- 
sic by Meyerbeer, first represented at the 
Academie Eoyale de Slusique, Paris, Nov. 
21, 1831. It was composed for the Oi^era 
Comique, but was not given until altered 
and adapted for the Acadc-mie, where it was 
represented with splendour and received 
with enthusiasm. It requires all the acces- 
sories of brilliant stage-setting and elab- 
oi'ate mechanical devices, and the ballet 
divertissement is a part of the story. Al- 
though written according to the precise 
rules of the Academic , Meyerbeer broke 
from the conventional school of Eossini, 
and jjursued au independent course. Its 
gi-eat fault is that the legend is not poeti- 
cally treated, but is given over to necro- 
mantic tricks and sui^ernatural situations 
of no dramatic value. This was the first 
of the composer's series of gi-eat works, 
and its success was unparalleled. The 
scene is in Sicily, where Eobert le Dia- 
ble, Duke of Normandy, is banished for his 
misdeeds. He falls in love with Isabelle, 
daughter of the Duke of Messina, and to 
win her hand enters the lists at a tourna- 
ment. "While Alice, his foster-sister, is im- 
ploring Eobert to change his wicked life, 
Bertram, Robert's fiend-father, enters and 
entices him to a gaming-table, where he 
loses his wealth and in consequence fails to 
attend the tournament. Berti-am conveys 
him to the cavern of Sainte-Irene, where 
the former makes a compact with the evil 
spirits holding an orgy there to deliver 
Eobert, and he promises to restore Eobert 's 
wealth and honour if he will gather a mys- 
tic branch from the Abbey of Sainte-Eosalie. 
There among the ruins, Bertram, in an in- 
cantation, raises the buried nuns. Eobert 
siezes the branch and flees to Isabelle, an- 
nouncing his intention to carry her away. 
Moved by her entreaties, he breaks the tal- 
isman, thus destroying the spell. Bertram 
begs him to sign the fatal contract, and re- 



veals himself as Robert's father, but Eobert 
is saved by Alice, who reads to him his 
mother's warning against the fiend. "While 
Eobert is hesitating between good and evil 
the clock strikes, and Bertram disappears. 
The scene changes to a cathedral, where 
Eobert is awaited by Isabelle in her wed- 
ding robes. The principal numbers in- 
clude : The ballad, " Jadis rc-gnait en Nor- 
mandie ; " Alice's romance, " Va, tlit-ello, 
mon enfant ; " the chorus, " Au seul j)laisir 
fidele," with the SiciUenne, " O fortune, a 
ton caprice;" the soprano aria, "En vain 
j'espere ;" the duo, " Ali,rhonnt'te homme ;" 
Alice's couplets, " Quand je quittai la 
Normandie ; " the evocation of the nuns, 
" Nonnes qui reposez ; " the aria, " Eobert, 
toi que j'aime," sung by Isabelle ; the chorus 
of monks ; Bertram's air, "Je t'ai trompe, 
je fus coupable ; " and, above all, the terzets 
"Fatal moment, cruel mystere," and "Que 
faut il faire ? " Original cast : 

Eobert M. Nourrit. 

Alice Mle Dorus-Gras. 

Isabelle Mme Cinti-Damoreau. 

Helena Signora Taglioni. 

Bertram M. Levasseur. 

Eaimbault M. Lafont. 

It was one of the most popular ojjeras in the 
repertory of the Academic, where in 1876 
it received its 593d representation. It was 
first given in London at Drury Lane in 
English as " The Demon, or the Mystic 
Branch," Feb. 20, 1832, and by a rival com- 
pany at Covent Garden as "The Fiend 
Father," Feb. 21, 1832 ; and in French at 
the Iviug's Theatre, June 11, 1832, with the 
Paris cast, excepting Alice, jNIme de Meric, 
and Helune, IVEle Heberle. The opera was 
first given in Berlin in 1832 ; in Leipsic 
and "Vienna in 1833 ; iu Dresden in 1834 ; 
and first in New York, Dec. 17, 1851. It 
was first given in Italian at Her IMajesty's, 
London, May 4, 1847, when Jenny Liud 
made her debut on the English stage as 
Alice, one of her best roles. It was also 
one of Tietjen's best impersonations. Mile 



S84 



EOBEET 



Dorus and Mile Adelina Patti were very 
successful in this character ; also Mine Viar- 
dot, who on one occasion, when the Isabelle 
of the evening was taken ill, played both 
characters with remarkable skill. Full 
score published by Brandus & Dufour 
(Paris, 1831-32) ; and full pianoforte score 
by Schlesinger (Berlin, 1833). — Clement et 




Julie Aimee Dorus-Gras. 

Larousse, 582 ; Mendel, Meyerbeer, Si ; 
Lajarte, ii. 140 ; Liszt, Gesammelte Schrif- 
ten, iii. 48 ; Hauslick, Moderne Oper, 114 ; 
Lavoix, Histoire de Tinstrumentatiou, 407 ; 
Edwards, Hist. Opera, ii. 211 ; do.. Lyri- 
cal Drama, i. 35, 242 ; Harmonicon (1832), 
47, G9, 70, 159 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xxxiv. 473, 483 ; xxxv. 38 ; Athenseum 
(1847), 499; (1871), ii. 567; Dr. Vcron, 
Mumoires d'un bourgeois de Paris, iii. 
218 ; Clayton, Queens of Song, ii. 110 ; 
Upton, Standard Operas, 148. 

ROBERT, TOI QUE J'AIME. See 
Robert le Diable. 

ROBERTI, GIULIO, born at Barge, 
Piedmont, Nov. 14, 1823, still living, 1890. 
Dramatic and church composer, and mu- 
sical critic, pupil of Luigi Felice Rossi in 
Turin, having at first studied law. About 
1850 he went to Pai-is, where he entered 



the service of a railway company, after the 
failure of his second opera in Turin, in 
1858. Still cultivating music in his leisure 
hours, he was induced, by the success of a 
mass in London and other English cities, 
again to devote himself to music, and 
settled in London. Obliged, by family con- 
siderations, to return to his native country, 
he settled about 1867 at Florence, where 
he founded a choral school for the pupils 
of the Pia Casa di Lavoro, in 1869 a gratui- 
tous evening course for choral singing, and 
later a seminary for teachers of element- 
ary singing, all of which were successful. 
In 1873 he founded the Societii Armonia 
Vocale, and organized an orchestra for the 
Greek-Russian chapel of Prince Demidoff 
at San Donate. Invited by the cities of 
Mechlin and Ghent, in 1875, to represent 
Italy at the choral festivals as one of the 
judges, he visited, on that occasion, also 
the principal cities of Germany. In con- 
sequence of the financial calamities at Flor- 
ence about 1876, Koberti removed to Turin, 
as director-general of vocal instruction and 
conductor of the Stefano Temjiia singing 
society. Works : Piero de' Medici, opera, 
Turin, 1849 ; Petrarca, do., ib., 1858 ; Mass 
for 4 voices and orchestra ; do. for 4 male 
voices a cappella ; Music for vespers, for 
mixed voices and orchestra ; Hymns and 
sacred songs for mixed chorus ; Armonia 
vocale, 50 choruses, partly original, partly 
arranged ; 6 chamber terzets for mixed 
voices and pianoforte ; 6 terzets for female 
voices and do. ; Chamber duets for do. ; 
Inspirations italiennes, 12 songs for one 
and two voices, and pianoforte ; L' Album 
di Nina, do ; Sextet for pianoforte and 
strings ; Quartet for do. ; Trio for do. ; 
Quartet for strings ; Les feuillets de Ma- 
delaine, collection of pianoforte pieces ; etc. 
—Mendel, Ergiinz., 394. 

ROBERTO DEVEREUX, CONTE D'ES- 
SEX, Italian opera in three acts, text by 
Cammarano, music by Donizetti, first repre- 
sented in Naples in 1836. The libretto is 
taken from Thomas Corneille's tragedy, 



ROBERTS 



"Le comte d'Essex." The climax is the 
execution of Essex, put to death by order 
of Queen Elizabeth on account of his love 
for the Countess of Nottingham. The 
score contains several fine numbers, and by 
a strange anachronism Donizetti has intro- 
duced into the overture the national anthem, 
God Save the King, not composed until 
many years after the period of the opera. 
The original cast included Baroilhet, Bas- 
sadona, and Mrae Eonzi de Begnis. The 
opera was given in Paris at the Theatre 
Italien, Dee. 27, 1838 ; and at Her Majesty's, 
London, June 24, 1841, with Rubini as 
Essex ; Grisi, Queen Elizabeth ; Tamburini, 
the Earl ; and Mme Granchi, the Countess of 
Nottingham. It was first given in New York, 
Jan. 15, 1849. Published by Breitkopf & 
Hiii-tel (Leipsic, 1840) ; also for the piano- 
forte for four hands (ib., 1840). — Clement 
et Larousse, 581 ; Atheuccum (1841), 510. 
ROBERTS, JOHN V.4JILEY, born at 
Stanningley, ueai- 
Leeds, England, Sept. 
25, 1841, still living, 
1890. Organist, at an 
early age, of St. John's 
Church, Calverley- 
c u m - Parsley, near 
Leeds, then of St. Bar- 
tholomew's, Armley, 
in 1867 of the par- 
ish church, Halifax, 
in 1882 of Magdalen College, Oxford, and 
in 1885 of St. Giles's, Oxford. He is also 
conductor of the University Glee and Mad- 
rigal Society, founded in 1884, and of the 
Oxford Choral Society, and since 188G one 
of the university examiners for musical 
degi-ees. Mus. Bac, Oxford, 1871 ; Mus. 
Doc, ib., 187G ; Fellow of College of Or- 
ganists, London, 1876. Works : Jonah, 
sacred cantata ; Psalm ciii., for chorus and 
orchestra ; Morning and Evening Services ; 
Appendix and Supplement to Cheetham's 
Psalmody ; Anthems ; Organ music. 

ROBESPIERRE. See MaximUien Eo- 
bespieri'e. 




ROBIN ADAIR (Aileen Ai-oon or Eileen 
a Roon : Ellen, the secret treasure of my 
heart), a song. The tune and original 
words are said to have been written during 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by an Irish 
knight, Carroll O'Daly, who, in the guise 
of a harper, carried oft' his fair Ellen during 
the festivities of her enforced marriage. 
This ballad resembles Scott's " Young 
Lochinvar." Many words have been writ- 
ten to this old Irish air, including Burus's 
" Phillis the fair," and " Had I a cave," and 
Moore's " Erin, the smile and the tear in 
thine eye." The words bearing Robin 
Adair's name have had several origins as- 
signed to them, for which see bibliography 
below. The tune first became popular in 
the latter part of the 18th century, when 
Tenducci, one of the original singers in 
Arne's opera, Ai-taxerxes, sang it in Ireland, 
where he learned the song, and in England. 
It was published in London with the L'ish 
words written out phoneticallj', and the mu- 
sic. Braham gave the song Robin Adair 
currency when he sang it at his benefit at 
the Lyceum Theatre, London, Dec. 17, 
1811. Braham's version was published by 
"William Reeve (Loudon, 1811) ; and it was 
introduced by Boieldieu into La dame 
blanche. Beethoven arranged it for so- 
prano, tenor, and bass, with the accompani- 
ment of pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, 
op. 108. Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Englische, 
Schottische, Irische, and Italienische Lie- 
der, No. 259, Beethoven Werke, Serie 
xxiv., No. 7. — Robin Adair, Omnia viucit 
amor (Kearsley, London, 1790) ; Conran, 
National Music of Ireland, 208 ; Notes and 
Queries, 3d Series, iv. 130 ; v. 404, 442, 
500 ; vi. 35, 176, 254 ; 4th Series, is. 99, 
130, 197 ; 5th Series, v. 120 ; Grove. 

ROBIN DES BOIS, pasticcio in three 
acts, from Weber's Der Freischiitz, by Cas- 
til-Blaze and Sauvage, first represented at 
the Odoon, Paris, Dec. 7, 1824. It was 
given again at the Opora Comique, Jan. 15, 
1835 ; and at the Theatre Lyrique, Jan. 24, 
1855. Published by Castil-Blaze (Paris, 



ROBIN 



182G).— Jabu, Weber, Verzeichniss, 316 ; 
Ciicilia, iv. 170 ; Kevue efc Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1855), 25. 

ROBIN ET MARION, LI GIEUS DE, 
the oldest of all opc'ras-comiques. Both text 
and music were written by Adam de la Hale, 
aud, according to Fetis, first rejjreseuted 
about 1285 at the coui-t of Naples, which 
■was at that time essentially French. Other 
authorities place the date of its composition 
before 12G0. The work, a melange of di- 
alogues aud couplets in verse, interrupted 
by graceful ariettas, has the following char- 
acters : Robin ; Marion ; le Chevalier ; le 
Roi ; Gautiers ; Baudons ; Peronelle, or 
Perette ; Huars ; Warniers ; Gios ; and Ro- 
gaus. From this the composer received 
the title of the founder of opuracomique. 
Marion, a shepherdess, loves Robin, a shep- 
herd, and while waiting for him in a field 
meets the chevalier Aubert, riding a fine 
steed, with falcon on wrist, who makes love 
to her. She remains true to Robin, who 
now appears with other shepherds, who 
pipe, dance, and sing. The chevalier re- 
turns, makes battle with Robin, and carries 
Marion away by force ; but she escapes 
and returns to Robin and his companions, 
and the work closes with joyful songs aud 
dances. Although the harmony is crude, 
the music has a quaint and graceful charm. 
Fortunately the composer chose the only 
modes of plain-chauut which accord with 
the modern tonalitj'. The MS., prepared 
by M. Monmerque, was published by the 
Socicte des Bibliophiles of Paris, an edition 
of only twenty copies being issued for mem- 
bers, through Firmin Didot freres (Paris, 
1822) ; the second edition was published 
by Ant. Aug. Renouard in vol. ii. of the 
third edition of "Des fabliaux ou contes de 
Legrand d'Aussy," and the test was also 
printed in the " Theatre fran(;ais du moyen 
age, public d'apres les manuscrits de la 
Bibliothe'que du Roi," by L. J. N. Mon- 
merque and Francisque Michel, published 
by Firmin Didot freres (Paris, 1839). An 
edition of the GSuvres completes du trouvere 



Adam de la Hale was edited by E. de Cous- 
semaker (Paris, 1872).— Ambros, ii. 295 ; 
Coussemaker, L'art harmonique aus XII" 
et Xni" siccles, 87 ; Larousse ; Choquet, 
Histoire de la musique dramatique, 34 ; 
Revue de musique ancienne et moderne 
(October, 185G) ; Fetis, i. 13 ; Mus. "Woch- 
enblatt (1871), 81 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1836-37), 412. 

ROBIN HOOD, pastoral cantata, text by 
George Linley, music by John Liphot Hat- 
ton, written for and first performed at the 
Bradford (England) Triennial Festival in 
August, 1856. The solos wei-e sung by 
Sims Reeves, Mr. Weiss, Mr. Winn, and 
Miss Milner. Other works on same sub- 
ject : Robin Hood and his Crew of Soldiers, 
intermezzo, 1627 ; Robin Hood, musical en- 
tertainment, by Charles Burney, text by 
Mendez, London, 1751 ; Singspiel, by Will- 
iam Shield, London, 1784 ; do.. Maid Marian, 
ib., 1788 ; Robin Hood, by Karl Friedrich 
Baumgarten, ib., 1786 ; English opera in 
three acts, by George Alexander Macfarreu, 
test by John Oxenford, ib., Oct. 11, 1860 ; 
and romantic German opera, by Hermann 
Dietrich, text by Reinhart Mosen, Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, April 6, 1879. A sym2)hony, 
Robin Hood, by Alfred Holmes, was per- 
formed in St. James's HaU, London, March 
31, 1875.— Athenfeum (1856), 1089 ; (18G0), 
ii. 488, 522 ; (1872), i. 759 ; (1875), i. 464 ; 
Upton, Standard Cantatas, 187. 

ROB ROY, overture by Hector Berlioz, 
written in Rome in 1830, and first given in 
Paris in 1831. It was not well received, 
aud Berlioz burned the score immediately 
after the concert. Same title, English 
opera by John Davy, London, 1803 ; and 
French opera by Flotow, text by Duport 
and Forges, Paris, May, 1837. 

ROBUSCHI, FERDINANDO, born at 
Colorno, near Parma, Italy, Aug. 15, 1765, 
died (?). Dramatic composer, pupil of For- 
tuuati at Parma, of Padre Martini at Bo- 
logna, of Sarti at Milan, and of Cimarosa 
at Naples. Ou his return to Parma he was 
appointed court composer. Among his 



ROGUE FORT 



thiity-four operas the most successful were : 
I Castroni, Parma, 1786 ; Attalo, ro di Bi- 
tinia, Padua, 1788 ; II geloso disperato, 
Rome, 1788 ; Chi sta bene nou si muova, 
Florence, 1789 ; La morte di Cesare, Leg- 
horn, 1790 ; La Briseide, Naples ; I tre 
rivali in amore, Venice. — Fctis ; Mendel. 

ROCHEFORT, JEAN BAPTISTE, bom 
in Paris, June 24, 174G, died there in 1819. 
Dramatic comijoser ; studied music as a 
choir-boy in the maitrise of Notre Dame, 
and entered the Opera orchestra in 1775 as 
a double-bass player. Having been direc- 
tor of the little French opera at Cassel in 
1780-85, he returned to Paris, resumed his 
position in the orchestra, and in 1815 was 
pensioned. Works : Daphuis et Flore, pas- 
toral ; Ariane, lyric scene ; L'enlcvement 
d'Europe, ballet ; Jerusalem di'livrce, do. ; 
La prise de Grenade, do. ; Bacchus et 
Ariane, do. ; Toulon soumis, ijiece rt'ijub- 
licaine ; L'inconnue persecutoe, opera-co- 
mique, Paris, 1776 ; L'esprit de contradic- 
tion, do., 1776 ; La pantoufle, do., 1776 ; 
La cassette, do., 1785 ; Dorothue, do., 
1775 ; La porape fuucbre de Crispin, do., 
Cassel, 1781 ; Les nocea de Zerbine, do., 
ib., 1784 ; La force du sang, lyric drama, 
Paris, 1794 ; P^-rame et Thisbc, melodrama, 
ib., 1782 ; Le temple de la jJostrritr, can- 
tata ; 12 quartets for strings ; 6 duos for 
violins. — Fetis; !Mendel. 

KOCHLITZ, JOHANN FREEDRICH, 
born i u Leipsie, 
Feb. 12, 1769, died 
there, Dec. 16, 
1842. Entered in 
17S2 the Thomas- 
schule under Doles ; 
began to study the- 
olog}', but poverty 
compelled him to 
leave the university 
and to support him- 
s e 1 f b}' teaching 
and wi-iting. He founded in 1798 the All- 
gemeine musikalische Zeitung, which he 
edited until 1818, and was from 1805 a di- 





rector of the Gewandhaus concerts. His 
articles in the Zeitung contributed largely 
to the general appreciation of Beethoven, 
Mozart, and Haydn. Works : Die Vollen- 
dung des Erlosers, cantata ; Mass ; Te 
Deum ; Psalm xxiii. ; Choruses for men's 
voices ; Fiir Freunde der Tonkunst (Leip- 
sie, 1824-32 ; 3d ed., 1868) ; Sammlung 
vorziiglicher Gesangstiicke (Mainz, 1838- 
40). — Mendel ; Riemann ; r6tis ; Gerber. 
RODE, (JACQUES) PIERRE (JO- 
SEPH), born at Bor- 
deaux, Feb. 16, 1774, 
died at the Chateau de 
Bourbon, between Ton- 
neins and Aiguillon 
(Lot-et-Garonne), Nov. 
26, 1830. Virtuoso on 
the violin, pupil of 
Fauvel ; at the age of 
thirteen he was sent 
to Paris, where he 
studied under Viotti 
for two years, and in 1790 made his first 
ajipearauce under his auspices. In 1790-94 
he was leader of second violins at the Fey- 
deau. After a concert tour in Holland and 
Germany, and a brief visit to London, he 
went a second time to Holland and Germany, 
and returned to Paris, where he was ap- 
pointed professor of violin at the Conserva- 
toire, then just established. In 1799 he 
visited Spain, where he met Boccherini, who 
wrote for him several concertos. In 1800 
he was appointed solo violinist to the First 
Consul, and in 1803 he went with Boieldieu 
to Russia, where he became first violinist to 
the Emperor Alexander. After his return 
to Paris, in 1808, he travelled in Germany, 
Austria, and Switzerland, and at Vienna 
met Beethoven, who finished his sonata in 
G, op. 96, expressly for him. In 1814 he 
went to Berlin, married, and retired to live 
in his native place. In 1828 he made an 
ill-advised attempt to appear again in Paris, 
but met with a complete failure, and, heart- 
broken, never played in public again. 
Rode was assisted greatly in his composi- 



RODE 




tions by Boccherini, who wrote the orches- 
tral accompauimeiits, Rode being deficient 
in theoretical knowledge. Owing to his 
life of travel he had few pupils, but his 
influence, through his compositions and ex- 
ample, on the violinists of France and Ger- 
many was great. Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honour late in life. Works : 13 concer- 
tos ; Themes varies, with orchestra ; do., 
with quartet ; Fautaisie with orchestra ; 
Cavatine et rondeau, with quartet ; 11 quar- 
tets for strings ; 24 Caprices en forme 
d'etudes, dans les 24 tons de la gamme 
(these, with 
Kreutzer's f a - 
mous 40, hold 
their place as 
indisijeusable in 
the study of the 
violin) ; 12 etudes ; 3 books of duos for 2 
violins ; Methode de violon (with Baillot and 
Kreutzer) ; Romances franjaises ; Arietta. 
— Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 428 ; Hart, 
The Violin, 303 ; Dubourg, do., 197 ; Rie- 
mann ; Mendel ; do., Ergilnz., 397 ; Har- 
monicon (1831), 26. 

RODE, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, born at 
Kirchscheidungen, near Freiburg, Prussia, 
Feb. 25, 1797, died at Potsdam, Jan. 8, 
1857. Virtuoso on the horn and other 
wind instruments, pujnl of the cantor and 
organist Loewe in his native place, then of 
SchnoiT, city music director at Eisenberg, 
and in composition pupil of Zelter in Ber- 
lin, where in 1817 he had entered the band 
of the royal guard riflemen battalion. In 
1827 he became its director, and in 1852 
was appointed royal music director. Works : 
Die Hubertusjagd, tone-painting ; Die 
freuudlicheu Klilnge der Jagd, do. ; Con- 
certos for horn, and trumpet ; Other mu- 
sic for horn, and many arrangements of 
overtures, symphonies, opera finales, etc. 
— Fetis ; Mendel. 

RODE, THEODOR, born at Potsdam, 
May 30, 1821, still living, 1890. Son and 
pupil of the preceding, and pupil of Wiede- 
mann at Potsdam, then of Louis Berger, 



Elsler, and Dehn, in Berlin. In 1848-52 
he conducted the choir at St. Matthew's 
Church, then for several years a singing so- 
ciety, and in 1862 assumed the direction of 
the new academy for male chorus singing, 
founded by Miicke. He contributed largely 
to several musical periodicals. Works : 
Christmas and Passion cantatas ; Motets, 
psalms, hymns, choruses, etc. ; Sonatas for 
pianoforte ; Music for military band, etc. 
His Theoretisch-praktische Schulgesang- 
bildungs-Lehre is widely known. — Fetis ; 
Mendel. 

RODELINDA, Italian opera in three 
acts, text by Nicolo Haym, music by 
Handel, first represented at the King's 
Theatre, Loudon, Jan. 30, 1725. The scene 
is in the Royal Palace, IMilan. Characters 
represented : Rodelinda, Queen of Lom- 




t-^ 



Francesca Cuzzoni. 



bardy and wife of Bertarido (S.), Signora 
Cuzzoni ; Bertarido, driven from the throne 
by Grimoaldo (C), Signor Senesino ; Gri- 
moaldo, betrothed to Edvige (T.), Signor 
Borosini ; Edvige, sister of Bertarido (A.), 
Signora Anna Dotti ; ITnulfo, a lord of 
Lombardy, counsellor of Grimoaldo, but 
the secret friend of Bertarido (A.), Signor 
Paccini ; and Garibaldo, Duke of Turin, 
friend of Grimoaldo, and rebel to Bertarido 
(B.), Signor Boschi. Senesino won great 
applause by the recitative, " Pompe vane di 



i!39 



EODELIXDA 



morte," and the air, " Dove sei, amato 
bene," published by Arnold in tbe pastic- 
cio, "The Redemption," as "Holy, hoi}-. 
Lord God Almighty." Another air of Ber- 
tarido's, in Act 11., " Con rauco mormorio," 
has been ijublished separately, with addi- 
tional accompaniments by Robert Franz, by 
Fr. Kistner (Leipsic). Cuzzoni was so suc- 
cessful in this opera that the gown of brown 
silli, embroidered with silver, in which 
she appeared, was adopted by fashionable 
dames, and Biu-ney says, "for a year the 
dress seemed a national uniform for youth 
and beauty." The duet, "lo f abbraccio," 
was sung by Mme Mara and Siguor Barto- 
lini at the Handel Commemoration, INIay 
27, 1784. The autograph score, in Buck- 
ingham Palace, was first published by Cluer 
(London, 1725). The opera was repre- 
sented in Hamburg in 1734. — Chrysander, 
Handel, ii. 128 ; Burney, iv. 298. 

RODELINDA, REGIXA DE' LONGO- 
BARDI, Italian ojiera, text by Bottarelli, 
nuisic by Karl Heinrich Graun, first rep- 
resented in Berlin, Dec. 3, 1741. The li- 
bretto was translated into German byRost. 
Other operas of this title: By Perti, Florence, 
1710 ; by Canuti, Lucca, 1724 ; by Cor- 
dans, text by Sarti, Venice, 1731 ; and by 
Francesco IMaria Veracini, London, 1744. 

RODER, GEORG "STNCENT, born at 
Rammungeii, Franconia, iu 1780, died at 
Alt-Getting, Bavaria, Dec. 30, 1848. Church 
composer ; studied at Wannerstiidt, while 
organist in the Augustine monasteiy there, 
then at Wiirzburg, where at the university 
he was pupU of Kurzinger in composition. 
In 1805 he became a member of the newly 
formed Electoral orchestra, and soon after 
was iutrusted with the leading of the opera 
music. In 1830 he went to Augsburg as 
music director, and in 1839 was called to 
Munich as Kapellmeister to King Ludwig 
I. Works : Die Schweden, opera, Prague, 
1842 ; La Messiade, oratorio ; Ciicilie, can- 
tata ; 7 masses ; Te Deum, with orchestra ; 
Psalms and vespers, for all the festivals of 
the year, do. ; Psalms for the Sundays ; 3\Io- 



tets ; Symphony for orchestra. — Fotis ; 
Mendel. 

RODERIGO, Italian opera in three acts, 
music by Handel, first represented in Flor- 
ence in July, 1707. Neither the libretto 
nor the name of its author has been dis- 
covered, and the date of its composition is 
also unknown. The original autograph, in 
Buckingham Palace, is incomplete, consist- 
ing of fragments of the first and third acts, 
and the entire second act. The story is 
that of the national hero of Sj^ain, the Cid. 
Characters represented : Roderigo (S.) ; 
Esilena (S.) ; Florinda (S.) ; Evaneo (S.) ; 
Fernando (A.) ; and Giuliano (T.). Ro- 
derigo's aria, " Dolce amor che mi consola," 
is the same as Eurilla's aria, "Di goder," in 
Pastor Fido. The overture to Almii-a was 
rearranged with a suite of dance tunes for 
the overture to this opera, the success of 
which was extraordinary. The Grand Duke 
presented the composer with 100 sequins 
and a service of silver plate, and Vittoria 
Tesi, who sang the part of Roderigo, fol- 
lowed Handel to Venice so that she might 
take part in the first representation of his 
next gi'eat work, Agrippina. Published for 
the Hiiudelgesellschaft (Breitkojjf <fc Hiirtel, 
Leipsic, 1873). For other operas on this 
subject, see Le Gid. — Chrysander, Hilndel, 
i. 181 ; Rockstro, 47 ; Sehoelcher, 14 ; Main- 
waring, IMemoirs, 49. 

RODIO, ROCCO, born in Calabria about 
1530-32, died (?). Composer of the early 
Neapolitan scliool, celebrated contrapuntist 
and didactic writer ; one of the first mas- 
ters who published rules and examples for 
conti'appunto da mente, in the treatise : 
Regole di Musica (Najjles, 3d ed., 162G). 
There is no date given of the first edition, 
but it is supposed to have been about IGOl, 
when he was living in Naples. Padre Mar- 
tini places him at the head of his school, 
directly after Tinctoris. He pubhshed a 
collection with Giovanni delle Castelle, 
Francesco Antonio Villani, and others in 
1589. The Abbate Santini wrote out sev- 
eral of his masses in score from a collection 



240 



EODOLPIIE 



printed iu Naples in 1580. These are : In 
dominicalibus, Fac tibi, In miuoribus dii- 
jjlicibus, Sancte Alphonse, Mater patris, all 
for four voices ; Sancta Maria, Ultimi miei 
sospiri, Descendit angelus, Missa de Beata 
Virgine, all for five ; the last named is a re- 
markable production, as it can be sung by 
4 voices if the quintus is suppressed, or by 
3 equal voices if the superius is omitted, or 
by 3 supcrii if the quintus and bassus are 
left out. Mass on Adieu mes amours, for G 
voices ; Libro di ricercati a -i voci (Naples, 
1575).— Fi'tis ; Buruey, Hist., iii. 212 ; Kie- 
mann ; Mendel. 

EODOLPHE (Rudolph), JEAN JOSEPH, 
born in Strasburg, Oct. 4, 1730, died iu 
Paris, Aug. 18, 1812. Dramatic composer, 
instructed by his father on the horn and 
violin at the age of seven, then in Paris pupil 
of Leclair ou the violin. For several years 
fiii'st violinist in the theatre orchestras at 
Bordeaux, Montjjellier, and other cities of 
Southern France, he entered about 1754 the 
service of the Duke of Parma, studied har- 
mony and counterpoint under Tractta, and 
in 17G0 went to Stuttgart, where Joramelli 
completed his instruction. Iu 1763 he 
returned to Paris, joined the orchestra of 
Prince Couti, and two years later that of 
the Opera. Appointed professor of com- 
position at the Conservatoire in 1784, he 
lost both positions iu 1789, but was rein- 
stated as professor of singing in 1799, and 
pensioned iu 1802. For several years he 
was also violinist in the orchestra of the 
Theatre Franjais. Works : Mudee et Ja- 
son, ballet-hcroique, Stuttgart ; Psyche, do., 
ib. ; La mort d'Hercule, do., ib. ; Armide, 
do., ib. ; Le mariagepar capitulation, opera- 
comique, Paris, 17G4; L'aveugle de Palmyre, 
ib., 17G7 ; Ismuuor, Versailles, 1773 ; 2 con- 
certos for horn ; Fanfares faciles, for 2 
horns ; 24 fanfares, for 3 horns ; Duos for 
violins ; Etudes for do., etc.— Fetis ; Men- 
del. 

ROD WELL, GEORGE HERBERT 
BONAPARTE, born in London, Nov. 15, 
1800, died there, Jan. 22, 1852. Dramatic 



composer and litterateur ; son of Thomas 
Rodwell, manager of the Adelphi Theatre, 
on whose death he succeeded to his share 
in the theatre. For years he persistently 
advocated the establishment of a National 
Opera. Works— Operettas, etc. : The Bottle 
Imp, The Mason of Buda, 1828 ; The Spring 
Lock, The Earthquake, The Devil's Elixir, 
1829 ; IMy own Lover, The Evil Eye, 1832 ; 
The Lord of the Isles, 1834 ; Paul Clifford, 
1835 ; and many others. His two collections 
of songs, Songs of the Sabbath Eve, and 
Songs of Birds, abound in pleasing melo- 
dies. — Grove. 

ROECKEL, JOSEPH LEOPOLD, born 
in London, April 11, 1838, still living, 1890. 
Pianist, son of Josei:)h August Eoeckel (con- 
ductor and tenor singer, 1783-1870), pupil 
of Eisenhofer and Gotze. Lives and teaches 
at Clifton. Works — Cantatas : Fair Rosa- 
mund, 1871 ; The Ten Virgins ; Ruth ; 
Father Christmas ; The Sea Maidens ; West- 
ward Ho ; Heather Belles ; Mary Stuart. 
Pianoforte music and songs. His brother 
Eduard (born at Treves, Nov. 20, 1816), pu- 
pil of Hummel, is settled at Bath as a pi- 
anist and teacher. He has published many 
works for pianoforte. 

BOEDER, aiARTIN, born in Berlin, April 
7, 1851, still living, 1890. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of the royal school of music in 
Berlin ; went to Milan as chorus-master at 
the Teatro dal Verme, and in 1875 founded 
a society for classical music, with which he 
gave successful performances. In the win- 
ter of 1875-76 he conducted the opera at 
Ponta Delgada in the Azores. Works 
— Operas : Pietro Candiauo IV. ; Giuditta ; 
Vera ; Maria Magdalena, oratorio ; Azoren- 
fahrt, symphonic poem ; Leonore, do. ; 
Trios, sonatas, etc. — Mendel, Ergilnz. 

ROEMHILD, JOHANN THEODORI- 
KUS, born at Salzungen, Saxe-Meiningeu, 
Sept. 3, 1684, died at Merseburg in 1757. 
Organist and church composer, pupil of 
Johanu Jakob Bach at Suhl, then of Schelle 
and Kuhuau at the Thomasschule in Leip- 
sic. In 1708 he became cantor at Sprem- 



24: 



EOGEL 



berg, then at Freistadt, Silesia, ancl fiuallj' 
organist and Kaj)ellmeister at the Cathedral 
of Merseburg. Works : A complete series 
of church music for the entire year ; 12 
secular cantatas, treating the life of man. 
— Fetis; Mendel. 

EOGEL, JOSfi, born at Orihuela, Ali- 
cante, Spain, Dec. 24, 1829, still living, 
1890. Dramatic composer, pujoil of the 
organist of the cathedral, Joaquin Cascales, 
and of the maestro de capilla Josu Gil. At 
the age of nine he arranged operatic music 
for concert and military bands, and com- 
posed waltzes ; and when ten wrote a 
mass which became populai- in his native 
province. His father had destined him to 
the law, but fi-om that time he assumed the 
charge of the orchestra and the military 
band of Orihuela, and although he went 
through the course of six years' study of 
law at Valencia, he gave lessons and studied 
counterpoint and fugue under the organist 
Pascual Perez. He composed several Stabat 
Mater, funeral marches, etc., and a Jota for 
four military bauds which was jjlayed at the 
university. After taking his degi'ee he 
abandoned the law, became conductor of 
several theatres in Madrid, and one of the 
most popular writers of zarzuelas, of which 
he wrote seventy-five. Pougin gives a list 
of sixty-one of these, from 1854 to 1879. 
Some of his works were written in collabo- 
ration with other well-known Spanish com- 
posers. — Fetis, Supplement, ii. 480 ; Men- 
del, Ergiinz., 397. 

ROGERS, BENJAJIIN, born at Windsor, 
England, in 1G14, died in Oxford, June, 
1698. Church composer, son of Peter 
Rogers, lay-clerk of St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor ; chorister there under Dr. Na- 
thaniel Giles, and later lay-clerk. In 1G39 
he became organist of Christ Church, Dub- 
lin, but in 1641 returned as lay-clerk to 
Windsor, and on the breaking up of the 
choir, in 1644, taught music in Windsor. 
Mus. Bac, Cambridge, 1658 ; organist of 
Eaton College, 1661 ; reappointed lay-clerk 
at St. George's, Windsor, 1662 ; organist of 



Magdalen College, Oxford, 1664 ; Mus. Doc. 
Oxford, 1669. He removed from Magdalen 
in 1685, being ejected by order of James 
n. Works : Airs in four parts for violins 
and organ (1653) ; Hymnus Eucharisticus, 
four parts, sung at Guildhall when Charles 
n. died there, July 5, 1660 ; Hymnus Eu- 
charisticus (2d), the first stanza of which is 
sung in Magdalen College Hall as a grace 
after dinner (printed in ajspeudix to Hawk- 
ins's History) ; Evening service in G ; Ser- 
vices in D, A minor, E minor, and F (col- 
lections of Boyce, Rimbault, and Ouseley) ; 
Anthems ; Hymns ; Songs ; Instrumental 
music. — Grove ; Ft' tis ; Barrett, Eng. Church 
Composers, 69 ; Harmouicon (1832), 263. 

ROGERS, CL.\RA KATHLEEN (Clara 
Doria), born in Cheltenham, England, Jan. 
14, 1844, still living, in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, 1890. Vocal and instrumental com- 
Ijoser, daughter of John Barnell (born, 
1802) and of Eliza Emily Lindley Bai-- 
nett (daughter of Robert Lindley, 1777- 
1855) ; pupil of her parents, and from 
1856, at the Leipsic Conservatorium, of 
Moscheles and Plaidy on the pianoforte, 
of David and Rietz in ensemble playing, of 
Papperitz and Richter in harmony, and from 
1858 of Goetze in singing. After gradua- 
tion at Leipsic she studied in Berlin the 
pianoforte under von Billow and singing 
with Frau Zimmermann ; and from 1861 
operatic singing in Italy with San Giovanni. 
In 1863 she made her debut at Turin as Isa- 
bella in Roberto il Diavolo, under the pseu- 
donym of Clara Doria, and afterwards sang 
at Genoa, Leghorn, Florence, and at the 
San Carlo, Naples ; where she appeared as 
Amina and Lucia. In 1866 she went to 
London and sang in concerts five years ; in 
1871 she went to the United States with the 
Parepa-Rosa company, and appeared at the 
Academy of Music as Donna Elvira in Don 
Giovanni, and in other roles, and in 1872-73 
sang with Pauline Lucca in several operas. 
In 1873 she settled in Boston, and gradually 
gave up her career as a public singer to en- 
gage in teaching. She was married, April 



242 



EOGERS 



24, 1878, to Henry M. Kogers. 'Works— pub- 
lished : Six songs for soprano and tenor 
(Schmidt, Boston, 1882) ; Scherzo for pi- 
anoforte, op. 15 (ib., 1883) ; G songs, op. 
20 (ib., 1884) ; Aubade, song with vioHn 
obligato (ib., 1885); 3 songs, op. 22 (ib., 
1885) ; 5 songs, op. 24 (ib., 1887). Among 
her unpubHshed works are a string quartet, 
sonata for violoncello and pianoforte, and 
sonata for violin and pianoforte. 

EOGERS, EDMUND, born in Salisbury, 
England, in 1851, still living, 1890. Chor- 
ister at Salisbury Cathedral, 18G0-65 ; or- 
ganist of St. Thomas's, Portman's Square, 
London. Works— Cantatas : The Bridal 
Lay, 1871 ; Jack and the Beanstalk, 1879 ; 
Blue Beard, 1881 ; Beauty and the Beast, 
1882 ; .John Gilpin, or the Ride to Ware, 
1883 ; The Pilgrim's Progress, 1883 ; The 
Forty Thievesi" 1884. Mass in D ; OCfer- 
tory sentences ; Part-songs, and songs ; 
Organ voluntaries, pianoforte music, etc. 

ROGERS, FREDERICK F., born at 
Cheltenham, England, in 184G, still living, 
1890. Organist and choirmaster, succes- 
sively, at Highworth (18G3-G5), Great Mal- 
vern, College Chapel (18G5-G9), and St. 
Peter's, Malvern Wells. Works : Deborah, 
sacred cantata ; Psalm Ixix., for soli, chorus, 
and organ ; Te Deum ; Offertory sen- 
tences ; Many chaunts and Kyrie ; Songs 
and part-songa ; Pianoforte music. 

ROGERS, Sir JOHN LEMAN, Bart., 
born in England, April 18, 1780, died, Dec. 
10, 1847. Amateur composer, member of 
Madrigal Society in 1819, and president in 
1820-41. Works : Sixteen glees for 3, 4, 
5, and 6 voices (London, n. d. ) ; Church ser- 
vice in F ; Anthems, chants, etc. 

ROGERS, ROLAND, born at West Brom- 
wich, Staffordshire, Nov. 17, 1847, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Organist, successively, of St. 
Peter's, West Bromwich, 1858 ; of St. John's, 
Wolverhampton, 1861 ; Tettenhall, 18G7 ; 
Bangor Cathedral, 1871. Mus. Bac, Ox- 
ford, 1871 ; Mus. Doc, ib., 1875. Works : 
Prayer and Praise, cantata ; Syniphonj' in 
A, for orchestra ; Quintet for strings ; Even- 



ing services in B-flat and D ; Anthems ; 
Part-songs and songs ; Organ music. 

ROHDE, EDUARD, born in Halle in 
1828, still living, 1890. Organist and choir- 
master at St. George's Church, Berlin. 
Works : Schildhoru, cantata for chorus, 
soli, and orchestra ; Motets ; Sacred and 
secular choruses ; Organ and pianoforte 
music. 

ROI DE LAHORE, LE (The King of La- 
hore), French opera in five acts, text by Louis 
Gallet, music by Jules Massenet, first repre- 
sented at the Ojjera, Paris, April 27, 1877. 




-y/y-- ,-' 



f'/^W- -- ,.■'.1-; ^■'■■/>v'"^'4 

Joslphlne De Reszke. 

The libretto resembles Spontini's La vcsiale. 
Alim, King of Lahore, secretly loves Sita, a 
young priestess and niece of the high-priest 
Timour ; Scindia also loves Situ, and is re- 
fused her hand by Timour, because she has 
taken her first vows, which can be annulled 
by the king only. Sitii repulses Scindia, 
and is denounced by him and sentenced to 
death. Her unknown lover now reveals 
himself as the king, and promises to save 
the country from the invasion of the Sultan 
Mahmoud if Timour will consent to his 
union with Sita. He agrees, but Scindia 
vows vengeance. The second act shows the 
plains of Thol, where the battle is fought, 



24.3 



EOI 



during wbicb Alim is wounded and dies in 
Sita's arms. Tlie third act is in the para- 
dise of ludra, where, in spite of heaveulj' 
joys, Ahm mourns for Situ, and Indra prom- 
ises that he may return to the earth as a 
mortal in the most humble condition, but 
he must die the same day that Sitii dies. 
Returning to Lahore, he finds Scindia on 
the throne, and he is treated by the court 
as an impostor. Sita, who has escaped 
from Scindia, takes refuge in the temple 
and intends to renew her vows. Alim joins 
her, and they are about to flee when Scindia 
appears in the sanctuary, having entered by 
a secret door. At this moment Sita and 
Alim die together, and the scene changes, 
showing them in the realms of the blessed, 
while Scindia, recognizing a divine power, 
is punished for his crimes. ]\M. Salomon, 
Lasalle, Boudoui-esque, ]\Ienu, and Mile de 
Keszke and MUe Fouquet appeared in the 
original cast. — Clement et Larousse, 941 ; 
Hueft'er, Musical Studies, 225 ; Athcnicum 
(187!)), ii. 24. 

ItOI DU CIEL ET DES ANGES. See 
Proplidte. 

ROI DTS, LE (The King of Ys), opt'ra- 
comique in five acts, text by Ivlouard BLui, 
music by Edouard Lalo, fii-st represented at 
the Opera Comique, Taris, May 7, 1888. It 
had a great success and was awarded by 
the Academie des Beaux-Arts the Monbinne 
biennial i^rize of 3,000 francs. Scene in 
Brittany in the 6th century ; theme, the de- 
struction of the city of Ys bj' the waters of 
the ocean. This opera had its 100th repre- 
sentation in Paris, May 7, 1889. — Chron- 
ique des Arts (1888), 174. 

ROI DYVETOT, LE (The King of Yve- 
tot), opcra-comicjue in three acts, text by de 
Leuven and Brunswick, music by Adolphe 
Adam, first represented at the Opera Co- 
mique, Paris, Oct. 13, 1842. The libretto 
is a liberal paraphrase of one of Berauger's 
chansons. Josselyn, a cloth-merchant, pos- 
sesses the will of the late King of Yvetot, 
creating him the successor, but, loath to 
assume the cares of royalty, lives a quiet 



life until his housekeeper Jeanneton dis- 
covers the secret and he is proclaimed King 
of Yvetot. The commander of Malta now 
declares war and makes his nephew, Adal- 
bert, the fiance of Josselyn's daughter Mar- 
guerite, a chevalier, and he is forced to 
leave his promised bride. It is soon learned 
that Maiguerite is the child of the com- 
mander of Malta, who had abandoned her 
in infancy. No objections are made to the 
marriage, and the lovers are therefore re- 
united. Beranger's song, " II etait un roi 
d'Yvetot," is introduced into the opera. 
The original cast included Chollet, Josse- 
lyn ; Mile Darcier, Jeanneton ; Mile Rou- 
vi'oy. Marguerite ; Grard, Mocker, and Au- 
dran. Le roi d'Yvetot, opera-bouffe in three 
acts, by M. L. Vasseur, text by Chabrillat 
and Emery, Theatre Taitbout, Paris, April 
3, 187G. — Clement et Larousse, 58.5 ; Neue 
Zeitschr., xvii. 19(5 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
xlv. 438, 801. 

ROI ET LE FERMIER, LE (The King 
and the Farmer), comedie in three acts 
with ariettas, text by Sedaine, music by 
Monsigny, first represented at the Italiens, 
Paris, Nov. 22, 17()2. The story is simple. 
A king of England, tired of the chase, takes 
refuge in the house of a farmer, or inspector 
of the forest, named Richard, and in return 
for his hospitality rewards him by favour- 
ing his marriage with a young girl, Jenny, 
whom one of the king's courtiers wished for 
himself. Same subject, KOuig und Piichter, 
Gcrm.au Siugspicl by Josef Michl (Munich, 
1777) ; and German opera in four acts, by 
Johann Christian Lobe, text by Biedeufeld, 
Weimar, June 22, 1844. — Clement et La- 
rousse, 587. 

ROI L'A DIT, LE (The King has said it), 
opera-comique in three acts, text by Ed- 
moud Gondiuet, music by Leo Delibes, first 
represented at the Opera Comique, Paris, 
May 24, 1873. The action is placed in the 
time of Louis XTV. It was played by Is- 
maol, Sainte-Foix, Lh6rie, Barnolt, and Miles 
Chapuy, Revilly, Priola, Guillot, Nadaud, 
and Thibault. — Clement et Larousse, 873. 



244 



ROI 



ROI LT5AE, LE, overture for orchestra, in 
C, by Hector Berlioz, op. 4, composed in Nice 
and Rome in May, 1831, and first performed 
at the Conservatoire, Paris, under Habe- 
neck's direction, Dec. 9, 1832. It was first 
given in Berlin in 1843 ; in Weimar in 
1844 ; and by the New York Philharmonic 
Society in the season of 1846-47. The 
score, dedicated to M. Armand, was pub- 
lished by Richault (Paris, 1840). Published 
by Hofmeister (Leipsic). Arranged for the 
pianoforte for two and for four hands by J. 
A. Leibrock. Richault (Paris) and Litolff 
(Brunswick). Overture, King Lear, by Baz- 
ziui, London, 1880 ; incidental music to 
Shakespeare's play, by Johann Andre, 1780 ; 
and operas on the same subject : Cordelia, 
by Konradin Kreutzer, text by Wolfi", Do- 
naueschingen, 1819, Vienna, Feb. 15, 1823 ; 
Cordelia, by Semeladis, text by Pacini and 
Deschainps, Versailles, April, 18.54 ; and 
Cordelia, Russian opera, by Soloviefl;' (188.5). 
— Jullien, Berlioz (1888), G7 ; Neue Zeit- 
schr., xxii. 5, 9. 

ROLAND, tragedie-Iyrique iu five acts, 
with prologue, text by Quinault, music by 
Lully, first represented at the Academie 
Royale de Musique, Paris, Jan. 18, 1G85. 
Lully, who gave the idea of the libretto to 
Quinault, regarded it as his best opera. 
Angelique, Queen of Cathay, is loved by 
Medor, an officer of the African king, and 
shares his passion. In the first act Roland, 
nephew of Charlemagne, gives Angelique a 
jewelled bracelet as a token of bis love. 
The next three acts are placed near the en- 
chanted fountain of love iu the midst of a 
forest. Roland enters, and, disappointed at 
not seeing Angelique, who has made herself 
invisible by aid of a magic ring, withdraws. 
Medor appears, and, believing that Ange- 
lique will consent to accept the hand of 
Roland, is about to kill himself, when she 
enters and dispels his fears. Roland re- 
turns and, the shepherds assuring him tliat 
Angelique does not love him, and exhibit- 
ing the bracelet which she left to them, be- 
comes mad. In the fifth act Roland is rep- 



resented asleep, while the shades of illus- 
trious heroes pass before him, calling him 
to glory and the deliverance of his country. 
Roland rouses himself, resolving to follow 
fame and not love. Original cast : 

Angelique Mile Rochois. 

Themire Mile Armand. 

Roland M. Beaumavielle. 

Medor M. Du Mesny. 

The part of Angelique was sung succes- 
sively by Miles Desniatius, Jouret, Antier, 
Le Maure, and Chevalier ; Themire, by 
Bllles Poussiu, Pelissier, Fel, and Jacquet ; 
Roland, by Thevenard for forty-two years, 
afterwards by Chasse ; and Medor, by Pous- 
sin, Cochereau, Tribou, Jelj'otte, and La 
Tour. The score was published by Clir. 
Ballard (Paris, 1685 ; 2d ed., ib., 1709). 
— Clement et Larousse, 588 ; Lajarte, i. 48. 

ROLAND, French opera in three acts, 
text by Marmontel, music b}' Piccinni, first 
represented at the Academie Royale de Mu- 
sique, Paris, Jan. 17, 1778. The libretto 
was taken from Quinault. Original cast : 
Angelique, Mile Levasseur ; Thumire, Mile 
Le Bourgeois ; Belise, Mile Gavaudan ; 
Coridon, M. Laine ; Medoi', M. Legros. 
Published by Dezauche (Paris). Other 
French operas on the same subject : Ro- 
land, by Ranieau, finished by Igiiaz von 
Beecke, ib., 1760 ; Roland a Ronceveaux, 
by Auguste Mermet, Paris, Oct. 3, 1SG4 ; 
and La revue pour rieu, ou Roland a Ronge- 
Veau, a parody operetta by Herve, ib., 1865. 
See also Orlando. — Clement et Larousse, 
588 ; Lajarte, i. 294 ; Futis, vi. 46 ; Schmid, 
Ritter von Gluck, 323. 

ROLAND, scenes lyriques, for orchestra, 
from Quinault, by Henri Reber, first per- 
formed in 1875. Published by Colombier 
(Paris). 

ROLLA, ALESSANDRO, born at Pavia, 
Lombardy, April 6, 1757, died in Milan, 
Sept. 15, 1841. Violinist, studied the pi- 
anoforte under Sanpietro, a priest of the 
cathedral, then under Fioroni at Milan, 
but exchanged it for the violin, which be 



PtOLLE 




studied under Reiizi and Conti. In 1782 
lie was called to Panna, as chamber virtuoso 
and solo violinist, and 
had Paganini for his 
pupil a short time. 
After the death of the 
Duke of Parma he re- 
turned to Milan, in 
1802, and became 
conductor of the op- 
era at La Seala. In 
1805 he was appoint- 
ed first violinist of the 
chamber music of Eugene de Beauhar- 
nais. Vice-king of Italy, and pi-ofcssor at 
the Conservatorio. Works : 3 concertos 
for violin with orchestra ; 4 do. for viola ; 
Divertissement for do. ; Adagio et theme 
varit-, for violin and orchestra ; Quintette 
concertaut for strings ; Several quartets and 
trios, besides duos for \'iolin and viola, and 
for 2 violins. His son and pupil, Antonio 
(1707-18;?7), was first violinist at the Ital- 
ian opera in Dresden in 1823-3G, and pub- 
lished : Concerto for violin ; Rondos alia 
polacca, with orchestra ; Variations bril- 
lantcs, do. ; do. with quartet, etc. — Fotis ; 
Hart, Tlie Violin, 245. 

EOLLE, JOHANN HEINRICH, born 
at Quedlinburg, Doc. 23, 1718, died at 
Magdeburg, Dec. 21), 1785. Dramatic com- 
poser, pupil of his father, who was city 
music director at Quedlinburg, and then 
at Magdeburg. Having studied law at 
Lfipsic, he went to Berlin in 1740 to prac- 
tise it, but failing in his endeavour to make 
a position for liimself as a lawyer, and at- 
tracted by the musical life of the capital, 
he entered the royal orchestra as violinist. 
In 174G he became organist at St. John's, 
Magdeburg, and in 1752 succeeded his fa- 
ther as city music director. Works — Ora- 
torios or musical dramas : Der Tod Abel's ; 
David's Sieg im Eichthale ; Saul, oder die 
Gewalt der Musik ; Orest und Pylades ; Abra- 
ham auf Moria ; Lazarus ; Idamant, oder das 
Geli'ibde ; Jacob's Ankunft in JLgypten ; Die 
Befreiung Israels ; Thirza und ihre Suhne ; 



Hermann's Tod ; MeHda ; Mehala ; Der 
Sturm, oder die bezauberte Insel ; Gedor, 
oder das Erwachen zum besseren Leben ; 
David und Jonathan ; Die Opferuug 
Isaak's ; L' apoteosi di Romolo ; GiJtter und 
Musen ; Die Schiifer ; Die Thateu des Her- 
cules ; Die Regungen der Freude ; Dank- 
barkeit und Liebe ; Simson. Music for all 
the Sundays and Festivals ; Cantatas for 
Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas ; 5 Pas- 
sions ; 20 motets ; Over GO other sacred 
compositions ; Anakrcoutische Lieder ; 
Sammluug geistlicher Lieder ; Sechzig aus- 
erlesene Gesilnge ; Organ and pianoforte 
music; Music for orchestra. — Mendel; 
Fetis ; Riemaun ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Roch- 
litz, Fiir Freunde der Tonkunst, ii. 118. 

ROLLEND IN SCHALOIENDEN WEL- 
LEN, bass aria of Raphael, in D minor, in 
Haydn's Die Schopfung, Part I., No. G. 

ROLLING m FOAIVUNG BILLOWS. 
See Bollend in schiiumenden Wellen. 

ROMA, suite No. 3, for orchestra, by 
Bizet. I. Andante, Andante sostenuto e 
eantabile ; H. Scherzo, Allegretto vivace ; 
HI. Andante, Andante sostenuto c eanta- 
bile ; IV. Carnaval, Allegro vivacissinio. 
Published posthumously by Choudens 
(Paris). Arranged for the pianoforte for 
two and for four hands. This records Bi- 
zet's impressions of Rome, which he visited 
after receiving the gi-and prix. 

ROILVN D'ARLEQUIN, LE (Harlequin's 
Romance), pantomimes enfantines for the 
pianoforte, by Massenet. Published by 
Schott (Mainz, between 1874 and 1879). 

ROMANI, CARLO, born at Avellino, 
Naples, May 24, 1824, died in Florence, 
March 4, 1875. Dramatic composer, pupil 
of Palafuti on the pianoforte, of Picchianti 
in composition, and of his uncle Pietro Ro- 
inani, who was a musical director in Flor- 
ence. He wrote recitatives for Weber's 
Der Freisehiitz at the age of eighteen (Flor- 
ence, 1842^3). Chevalier of the Order of 
the Crown of Italy, and member of the 
Accademia of the Instituto Reale di Musica, 
Florence. Works — Operas : Tutti amanti, 



246 



EOMANO 



Florence, 1847 ; II mantello, ib., 1852 ; I 
baccauali di Roma, ib., 1854 ; I diamanti 
della corona, ib., 1856 ; San Sebastiano, 
oratorio, 1864. He wrote several popular 
patriotic songs, and some chamber, vocal, 
and instrumental music. — Fetis, Supi^lt;- 
ment, ii. 436. 

EOMANO, ALESSANDRO, called Ales- 
.sandro della Viola, born in Rome about 
1530, died (?). Virtuoso on the viol ; en- 
tered the Pontifical Chapel as a singer in 
15G0, and afterwards became a monk in the 
order of Monte Oliveto, under the name 
of Don Giulio Cesare. Works : Two 
books of Canzoui uapolitane for 5 voices 
(Venice, 1572, 1575) ; Set of motets, in 5 
parts (Venice, 1579) ; Concerti a pin voci e 
stromenti, quoted by Adami de Bolsena. 
His five-part madrigal, Non pur d' almi 
sf)lendori, is published in the Libro terzo 
delle Muse (Venice, Gardano, 1561). — Fe- 
tis ; Eiemanu ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Men- 
del. 

EOMANO, GIULIO. See Caccini. 

ROMBERG, ANDREAS, born at Vechta, 
near Miinster, Ajsril 
27, 17 67, died at 
Gotha, Nov. 10, 1821. 
Virtuoso on the vio- 
lin, son of Gerhard 
Heinrich Romberg 
(born, 1748 ; music 
director at Mtinster) ; 
api^earetl in public 
when only seven years 
old ; made a concert 
tour with his cousin Bernhard in 1784, and 
was engaged for the Concerts Spirituels in 
Paris. In 1790-93 he was a member of 
the Elector's orchestra in Bonn, and, after 
travelling in Italy, spent some time in 
Vienna, and in 1797 settled at Hamburg. 
Induced by his cousin, then in Paris, he 
went there in 1800 to bring out some of his 
compositions, but, being unsuccessful, re- 
turned to Hamburg, where he remained 
until appointed in 1815 court Kapellmeis- 
ter in Gotha. The University of Iviel con- 




ferred upon him the degree of Doctor. 
Works — Operettas : Das graue Ungeheuer, 
Bonn, 1790 ; Die Macht der Musik, ib., 
1791 ; Der Rabe, ib., 1792 ; Die Gross- 
muth des Seipio, opera ; Die Ruinen von 
Paluzzi, do. : Don Mendoza (with Bern- 
hard), Paris, 1800 ; 6 symphonies ; 23 vio- 
lin concertos ; 33 string quartets ; 11 rondos 
and capriccios for violins ; 8 quintets with 
flute. Works for chorus and orchestra : 
Die Glocke ; Die Harmonie der Sphilreu ; 
Ode. For solo and orchestra : Die Kindes- 
mijrderin ; Die Macht des Gesauges ; Mo- 
nolog der Jungfrau von Orleans ; Der Graf 
") . von Habs- 

CCt^v*^ ^r»»>^*>r!5i„_-— -'' burg; Selm- 
o sucht; Te 

Deum ; Psalms ; Dixit ; Magnificat ; Halle- 
lujah ; Der Messias ; Selmar und Selma ; 
and other vocal music. — Mendel ; Riemann ; 
Fetis ; Schilling ; Gerber ; Wasielewski, 
Die Violine, 223 ; Dubourg, The Violin, 236 ; 
Rochlitz, Fiir Freuude der Toukunst, i. 
118 ; Harmouicon (1831), 159. 

ROMBERG, BERNHARD, born at Dink- 
lage, Oldenburg, Nov. 11, 1767, died in 
Hamburg, Aug. 13, 1841. Violoncellist, 
son of Anton Romberg, the bassoon-player 
(born, 1777), with whom he ajsiJeared in 
Paris in his fifteenth year ; he and his 
cousin Andreas Romberg were members of 
the Elector's band in Bonn in 1790-93, to- 
gether with Reicha, Ferdinand Ries, and 
Beethoven ; with Andreas he made a con- 
cert tour in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. 
After spending a short time in Hamburg, 
he travelled alone in 1799 in England 
and Sixain ; was professor of violoncello at 
the Paris Conservatoire in 1801-3 ; became 
solo violoncellist in the royal orchestra in 
Berlin in 1805. He travelled in 1807-13 ; 
was court Kapellmeister in Berlin for the 
four years ending 1817 ; and then settled in 
Hamburg ; made concert tours in 1822, 
1825, and the last in 1839. He did much, 
both as a composer and virtuoso, to extend 
the capabilities of his instrument. Works 
— Operas : Die wiedergefundeue Statue, 



EOMEO 



Bonn, 1790 ; Der Schiffbrucli, ib., 1791 ; 
Don Mentloza (with Andreas), Paris, 1800 ; 

Alma ; Ulysses 
und Circe, Ber- 
lin, 1807 ; Bit- 
ter treue, ib., 
1817. Overtures 
to Heinrich TV. 
and to Phiidra ; 
Symplionies ; 9 
(I )ncertos for vio- 
loncello ; 3 con- 
certinos with 
orchestra ; A fan- 
tasia, with or- 
chestra; Bussian melodies for violoncello 
and orchestra ; 9 string quartets ; Caprices ; 





Polonaises ; 2 trios for strings ; Violoncello 
duets and sonatas for violoncello ; Instruc- 
tion book for do. (Berlin, 1840). — Mendel ; 
Biemann ; Fetis : Gerber ; Schilling ; Har- 
mouicon (1831), 159. 

BOMEO AND JULIET, overture to 
Shakespeare's tragedy, by Tschaikowski, 
performed in Munich, March 12, 1876. It 
was first given in London, Paris, Vienna, 
and in New York bj' the Philharmonic So- 
ciety in 1876.— Mus. Wochenblatt (1876), 

BO:\IEO ET JULIETTE, grand dra- 
matic symphony, with chorus, soli, and 
prologue in choral recitative, after Shakes- 
peare, text by fimile Deschamps, music by 
Hector Berlioz, op. 17, first performed at 
the Conservatoire, Paris, Nov. 24, 1839. I. 
Introduction : Combats, tumult, iutei'ven- 
tion of the Prince ; Prologue : Choral reci- 
tative ; strophes for contralto solo ; scher- 
zetto (" La reine Mab ") for tenor solo and 
male chorus. 11. Borneo alone ; melan- 
choly ; concert and ball ; grand fete at the 
house of Capulet. III. Calm night ; Capu- 
let's garden, still and deserted ; the young 



Capulets, coming from the fete, pass by, 
singing snatches of the ball-music ; love- 
scene. IV. Scherzo: "La reine Mab, ou 
la fee des songes." V. Funeral procession 
of Juliette ; Bomeo at the tomb of the 
Capulets — Invocation, awaking of Juliette, 
delirious joy, despair, last anguish, and death 
of the two lovers ; Finale : The crowd 
rushes to the cemetery, quarrel of the Capu- 
lets and Montagus, recitative and air of 
Pero Laurence, oath of reconciliation. The 
introduction. Parts L, II., and IV., and the 
scene of Borneo at the tomb of the Capu- 
lets are pui'ely orchestral. The first part of 
this work was first given in London under 
the composer's direction at the Philhar- 
monic Concerts, IMarch 24 and April 28, 
1852, and the entire work was first 
given in New York by the Sym- 
phony Society; and two move- 
ments were played by the Phil- 
harmonic Society in the season of 
1866-67. The score, first published by 
Brandus (Paris), was dedicated to Paganini, 
who said in one of his letters to Berlioz, 
describing the MS. which was sent to him : 
"Now all is done; envy has nothing left 
but silence." The copy was retouched 
and published again in 1848, and a later 
edition was revised by the composer in 
1857. Published with French and Ger- 
man text, and for the pianoforte, by Bieter- 
Bieder-mann (Winterthur) ; by Hofmeister 
(Leipsic). Arrangement for the j)iano- 
forte by Thuodore Bitter ; Second move- 
ment, La fete chez Capulet, for the j^iano- 
forte for eight hands, by Bichard Pohl 
(Klemm, Leipsic) ; Adagio, Scene d'amour, 
for the pianoforte for two hands, by Theo- 
dore Bitter (Schlager, Berlin). — JuUien, H. 
Berlioz, 123 ; JuUien, Berlioz (1888), 132 ; 
Eevue et Gaz. mus. de Paris (1879), 130 ; 
Signale (1860), 152 ; Neue Zeitschr., xi. 
102 ; xii. 31 ; xli. 1011 ; xlii. 17 ; Apthorp, 
Berlioz, 51, 205 ; Hanslick, Concertwesen 
in Wien, ii. 289 ; Lavoix, Histoire de I'in- 
strumentation, 435. 

BOMJeO ET JULIETTE, opera in four 



248 



EOMfiO 



acts, text by Cbarles Nuitter, music by Bel- 
lini, first represented at the Opera, Paris, 
Sept. 7, 1859. This work was a rearrange- 
ment of Bellini's I Gapidetli ed i Mouteechi, 
iu three acts, Venice, March 12, 1830. The 
third act of Vaccaj's Giulietta e Eomeo was 
substituted for Bellini's fourth act. Origi- 
nal cast : Komeo, Mme Vestvali, who made 
her debut ; Juliette, Mme Gueymard ; Te- 
bald, M. Gueymard ; Frere Laurent M. 
Marie ; and Capulet, M. Coudon. Other 
operas on this subject in Italian : By Josef 
Gotthild Schwanberg, Brunswick, 1782 ; 
by Luigi Mareschalchi, Kome, 1789 ; Giuli- 
etta e Eomeo, by Zingarelli, three acts, text 
by Giusejjpe Fop2)a, Milan, Jan. 30, 17'JG ; 
by Niccolo Vaccaj, three acts, text by Ro- 
mani, ib., Oct. 31, 1825, King's Theatre, 
Loudon, April 10, 1832 ; Eomeo e Giulietta, 
by P. Carlo Guglielmi, about 18 IG ; Eo- 
meo, by Manuel Garcia, New York, 182G ; 
Romeo e Giulietta, by Filippo Marchetti, 
text by Marcello, Teatro Comunale, Trieste, 
Oct. 25, 18G5 ; and by Antonio Mercadal, 
Mahon, Minorca, March, 1873. Ojjeras in 
French : Romeo et Juliette, comedie by 
Dalayrac, four acts, text by Monvel, Paris, 
July G, 1792 ; by Sigismuud von Eumling, 
Schloss Karlsberg, Munich, 1790 ; by Stei- 
belt, three acts, text by M. de Segur, Paris, 
Sept. 10, 1793 ; Les amants de Vcrone, 
five acts, text and music by the Marquis 
d'lvry (Richard Yrvid), Paris, Oct. 12, 1878. 
Operas iu German : Eomeo und Julie, 
Siugspiel, by Georg Benda, three acts, 
text by Gotter, Gotlia, 1778 ; burlesque 
operetta by Storch, text by J. Forst, Vi- 
enna, November, 18G2. In English : Dirge 
in Eomeo and Juliet, by Dr. Thomas A. 
Ariie, London, 1750. — Clement et Larousse, 
592. 

EOMEO ET JULIETTE, gi-and opera iu 
five acts, text by Barbier and Carre, music 
by Gounod, first represented at the Theatre 
Lyrique, Paris, April 27, 18G7. The libretto 
closely follows Shakespeare. The first act 
opens with the ball at Capulet's house ; the 
second shows the balcony-scene, with an 



episode, the interruption of Gregoire and his 
retainers ; the third, the marriage of Eomeo 
aud Juliette in Frere Laurent's cell, and 
the introduction of a character invented by 
the librettists — Stephano, Eomeo's page — 
who iu searching for his master provokes a 
general quarrel, in which Mercutio and Te- 
bald are slain. The fourth act contains a 
long duet in Juliette's chamber, and the 
wedding-festivities of Juliette and Paris. 
The last act is placed iu the tomb of the 
Capulets, where Juliette revives from the 
effects of the potion, and, finding Eomeo 
breathing his last, stabs herself and dies in 
his arms. The opera contains much good 
writing aud several beautiful numbers, in- 
cluding : The song of Queen Mab ; Juliette's 
waltz-song ; the air, " Comme un oiseau 
captif ; " the page's song, " Guardez bien la 
belle ;" and the duet, " Non, ce n'est pas le 
jour, ce n'est jxas I'alouette," between Eomeo 
and Juliette. Mme Miolan-Carvalho appear- 
ed as Juliette, with M. Michot as Eomeo, 
in the original cast. The part of Juliette is 
a favourite with Adehna Patti, who sang with 
Mario as Romeo when this opera was first 
represented iu Italian iu London at Covent 
Garden, July 11, 18G7. Publislied by Cliou- 
dens, p)ianoforte score by H. Solomon (Paris, 
18G7) ; Cramer & Co. (London, 18G7) ; 
Fiirstner (Berlin). Transcription for the 
pianoforte by Liszt. Rhuni et eau en juillet, 
a parody on Gounod's oj^era, by 31. E. De- 
jazet, text by M. de Jallais, was given at 
the Theatre Dejazet, July, 1867.— Clement 
et Larousse, 7i3 ; Revue et Gaz. mus. de 
Paris (1859), 301 ; Hauslick, Moderne Oper, 
207 ; Athenffium (1867), i. 597, GG8, 699 ; 
Neue Zeitschr. (18G7), 225. 

ROMEO UND JULIA, fantasy for or- 
chestra, overture to Shakespeare's "Romeo 
and Juliet," by Jolian Severin Svendseu, op. 
18. The score, dedicated to G. Sgambati, 
of Rome, was published by Breitkopf & 
Hilrtel (Leipsic). 

ROMEO UND JULIE, overture for or- 
chestra, by Woldemar Bargiel, first per- 
formed in Rotterdam before 1871. Over- 



2-Jll 



EOMILDA 



ture of the same title by Joachim Raff, given 
at the Richter Coucerts, London, June IG, 
1884. 

ROMILDA, Italian opera in two acts, text 
by Rossi, music by Ferdinand Hiller, first 
represented iu Milan, Jan. 8, 1839. Pub- 
li.shed by Ricordi (Jlilau, 1810). Other ojj- 
eras on this subject : By Bartolomeo Cor- 
dans, text by Paganicesa, Venice, 1731 ; 
by Giuseppe Mosea, Parma, 1812 ; and by 
Gavazzini, Milan, June 9, 1815. — Allgem. 
mus. Zeitg., xli. 271. 

ROMILDA E COSTANZA, Italian opera, 
music by Meyerbeer, first represented in 
Padua, June 19, 1815. Lippariui, Camjji- 
telli, Biauchi, and Mme Pisaroni appeared 
iu the original cast. — Allgem. mus. Zeitg., 
six. 612. 

RO]\nSCHE LEICHENFEIER (Roman 
Funeral Feast), for mixed chorus, soli, and 
orchestra, text by Hermann Lingg, music 
by Max Bruch, op. 31. Published by 
Leuckart (Loipsic, between 18G8 and 1870). 
Also with pianoforte accompaniment (ib.). 

R0:\1ISCHER TRIU:\IPHGESANG (Ro- 
man Song of Triumph), for male chorus 
and orchestra, text bj' Hermann Lingg, 
music by Max Bruch, op. 19, No. 1. Pub- 
lished by Leuckart (Leipsic, between 1868 
and 1876). Also with pianoforte accompani- 
ment (ib.). 

ROJIOLO ED ERSILIA, ItaUan opera 
in three acts, text by Metastasio, music by 
Johann Adam Hasse, first represented at 
lunspruck, in 1765. The theme is the Rape 
of the Sabines. Characters represented : 
Eomolo, King and founder of Rome ; Ersi- 
lia, illustrious princess of the Sabines, to 
■whose hand Romolo aspii'es ; Valeria, noble 
Roman lady, the promised bride of Acronte, 
and abandoned by him ; Ostillo, Roman 
patrician, friend of Romolo and lover of 
Valeria ; Curzio, Prince of Antemnati, and 
father of Ersilia ; Acronte, Prince of Cenina, 
enemy of Eomolo, and pretender to the 
hand of Ersilia, and chorus of Romans. 
Scene in ancient Rome. Same text, opera 
by Josef Mysliweczek, Venice, 1773. ] 



RONTGEN, JULIUS, born in Leipsic, 
May 9, 1855, still living, 1890. Pianist, 
pujiil of his father (Engelbert EOntgen, 
born in Deventer, Holland, 1829, violin 
professor at the Leipsic Conservatorium), 
and of Hauptmann, Richter, and Plaidy ; in 
1872 studied in Munich under Franz Lach- 
ner. In 1873-74 he made a concert tour 
with Stockhausen, and settled in Amster- 
dam, where he still resides. Works: Sym- 
phony ; Concerto for pianoforte ; Serenade 
for wind instruments ; Sonatas for violin, 
for violoncello, and for pianoforte ; Other 
pianoforte music. — Riemann ; Fctis, Sup- 
jjk'ment, ii. 430 ; Viotta. 

ROOKE, WILLLUI mCHAEL, born 
in Dublin, Sept. 29, 1794, died in London, 
Oct, 14, 1847. Violinist and pianist, mostly 
self-taught, but j^upil of Dr. Cogan in coun- 
terpoint. He became a teacher of violin 
and counterpoint, and had Balfe as a vioUn 
pupil. In 1817 he was appointed chorus- 
master and deputy leader at the theatre in 
Crow St., Dublin. He removed to England 
a few j'ears later, and settled in Loudon as 
chorus-master at Drury Lane Theatre and 
teacher of singing. Works — Operas: Ami- 
lie, or the Love Test, London, 1837 ; Hen- 
rique, or the Love Pilgrim, ib., 1839 ; Ca- 
gliostro (MS.). Pianoforte music and songs. 
— Grove. 

ROOT, FREDERICK WOOD.AIAN, born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, June 13, 1846, 
still living, in Chicago, 1890. Vocal com- 
poser, son and pupil of George Frederick 
Root ; studied also pianoforte under B. C. 
Blodgett, Boston, and pianoforte, harmony, 
and composition under William Mason, New 
York, and Robert Goldbeck, Chicago ; the 
organ under James Flint, New York, and the 
voice under Carlo Bassini, New York, and 
L. Vaunucciui, Florence (1869-70). He 
was a church organist iu Chicago iu 1863- 
89, teacher of voice and harmony iu the 
Normal Musical Institute in 1870-85, con- 
ductor of Mendelssohn Choral Club, 1879- 
85, editor of The Song Messenger (Chicago), 
1872-76, and examiner iu the American 



330 



KOOT 



College of Musicians, 1889. Works : Be- 
yond, song, 1SC8 ; The crimson glow of 
sunset fades, duet, 1870 ; The Extract of 
Opera, quartet, 1872 ; The Landing of the 
Pilgrims, chorus, written for the Beethoven 
Society, 1876 ; Te Deum in G, 1880 ; 3 
songs for a high voice, 1882 ; Sweet lone, 
quartet in canon-form, 1883 ; 2 songs for a 
low voice, 1884 ; Hushaby song, 1888 ; and 
other songs and part-songs. Ho is author, 
also, of several didactic -works and co-editor 
of collections of part-nuisic. 

ROOT, GEORGE FREDERICK, born 
at Sheffield, Mas- 
sachusetts, Aug. 
30, 1820, still liv- 
ing, 1890. Vocal 
composer, pupil 
in Boston of 
George James 
Webb. He be- 
came in 1839 as- 
sistant teacher in 
the music school 
of A. N. Johnson 
and later his part- 
ner ; assistant organist and conductor of 
music in the Winter Street and Park Street 
churches, Boston, until 1844, when he re- 
moved to New York, became organist in 
the Mercer Street church (Church of the 
Strangers), and taught singing in the Rut- 
gers Female Institute, Spingler Institute, 
Union Theological Seminary, and Institu- 
tion for the Blind, and conducted musical 
conventions in various cities. In 1850 he 
visited Paris, and after a year's study re- 
turned home and began composition, his 
first large work. The Flower Queen, given 
in New York, being very successful. In 
1859 he removed to Chicago and became a 
member of the music-publishing firm of 
Root & Cady, which was dissolved in 1871, 
in consequence of losses in the great fire. 
Since then he has continued to reside in 
Chicago. In 1881 he received the degree 
of Mus. Doc. from the University of Chi- 
cago : in 188G he made a second visit to 




Europe. Works — Cantatas : The Flower 
Queen, given in New York, 1851 ; Daniel, 
ib., 1852 ; Pilgrim Fathers, ib., 1854 ; Bel- 
.shazzar's Feast, ib., 1855 ; The Haymakers, 
ib., 1857 ; Song Tournament, 1870 ; and 
others. Many songs and part-songs, in- 
cluding Hazel Dell (1853), Rosahe, the 
Prairie Flower (1855), The Battle Cry of 
Freedom (ISCl), Just before the Battle 
(18(;3), Tramp, Tramp, Tramp (1S{J4), and 
The Vacant Chair (18G5). He has pub- 
lished also many books of collections of 
church music, including The Sabbath Bell 
(185G), Diapason (1860), Triumph (1868), 
Glory (1872) ; of collections for choral so- 
cieties, schools, and conventions, including 
The Silver Lute (1865), The Forest Choir 
(1871), The Palace of Song (1879), Chorus 
Castle (1880), The Realm of Song (1882), 
Pure Delight (1883) ; The Musical Curri- 
culum, an instruction book for the piano- 
forte, and other didactic pianoforte and or- 
gan works. 

RORE, CIPRIANO DE, born at Mechlin 
in 1516, died at 
Parma in 1565. 
One of the most 
noted composers 
of the 16th cen- 
tury, and a brilliant 
light of the Vene- 
tian school. He 
went to Venice at 
an early age, and 
entered Adrian Willaert's music school. 
About 1550 he entered the service of Ercole 
rV. (not Ercole II., as Fetis, Grove, and 
Riemaun have it), Duke of Ferrara, but 
went to Antwerp without leave of absence 
seven or eight years later, and never re- 
turned to Ferrara, as all the attempts he 
made to have himself reinstated in his po- 
sition there in 1559 failed. Soon after this 
he was appointed vice maestro di cappella 
at S. Mai-co, Venice, and on Willaert's death, 
in 15(53, was appointed his successor as 
chief maestro. But he resigned this jDost 
in 1564, and in 1565 accepted the position 




251 



EOSA 



of chori prrefectus to Ottaviano Farnese, ' seriem," 7 voc, " llissa a note nere," 5 voc, 
Duke of Parma. De Kore was Willaeit's in the Municli Library ; Superb MS. vol- 
first great pupil, ami was also one of the ' ume of motets, with miniatures and portrait 



first of the " classic " Venetian school to in- 
terest himself in the then new and much 
frowned down experiments in chromatic 
writing which were beginning to disturb 
the musical world. But although he pub- 
lished five books of " chromatic madrigals," 
it can be seen from these attempts of his 



of de Itore by Hans Mielich, copied for 
Duke Albert of Bavaria, ib. — Ambros, iii. 
514r : Fetis ; Grove ; Riemann. 

ROSA, SALVATOR, born at Aranella, 
near Naples, June 20, 1615, died in Rome, 
March 15, 1G73. Celebrated painter, poet, 
and amateur musician, composer of madri- 



tliat he was no more able than other musi- gals and cantatas, a complete collection of 
cians of his day to make any progress to- ' which, in manuscript, was owned by Dr. 
wards discovering the true nature and laws Buruej-. According to some accounts he 
of chromatic harmony. Upon the whole, his jjlayed on the lute when veiy young, and 
experiments in this direction were of merely was known in Naples as a lute-player much 
secondary importance, and he did not allow in demand for serenades. His life was 
them to divert him from the more refjutable ■ principally spent in Rome, Naples, and 
diatonic couutei-poiut of his school, in which Florence, anol was full of adventure and 
he did all his reallv great work. Works : vicissitudes until the time when he became 



Two books of madrigals, -4 voc. (Venice, 
1542^3; other eds., 1552, 15G9, 1575, 
1582) ; Madrigali della fama, 4 voc. (no 
date) ; Book III. of madrigals, 5 voc. (Ven- 
ice, 1544) ; Books IV. and V. of do. (15G8, 
not first editions, as these have been lost) ; 



celebrated as a great painter, and his early 
struggles heliDed to tinge with bitterness the 
poems composed for his music. Burney 
speaks of a music book of his that was sold 
in Rome in 1770, a collection of cantatas by 
Carissimi, Cesti, Luigi, Cavalli, Legreuzi, 



Madrigali cromatici, 5 voc, 5 books (1560- [ CapeUine, Pasqualini, and Baudini in which 
68) ; Book I. of motets, 4-8 voc. (Venice, I many of the airs are to Salvator Rosa's 



do., 4-5 voc. (ib., 1547) 
voc. (ib., 1559) ; Motets 



1544) ; Book II. of 

Book m. of do., 5 

in Cipriani de R. et aliorura Authorum mo 

tetta, 4 voc. . . . cum 3 lectionibus pro 

mortuis, Josejiho Zarlino authore (1563) ; 

1 Mass, "Doulce memoyre," in Liber mis- 

sarum, 4, 5, 6 voc. (Venice, 1566) ; Fiamme 

vaghe e dilcttevoli, 4-5 voc. (15G9) ; Salmi 

di vespero con Magnificat a 4 voci, 15'J3 ; i Ame, 



/o Pip 



Fantasie e ricercari a 3 voci . . . 
da cautare e sonare . . . com- 
post! da lo eccelleutissimo Adriano 
Vuigliart e Cipriano R. suo disce- 
polo (1549) ; Madrigals and mo- 



1^0.-^ 




words. Eight of the cantatas had words 
and music by Salvator Rosa. Dr. Crotch 
published one of the cantatas in his speci- 
mens of different kinds of music. — Fctis ; 
Burnej', Hist., iv. 155 ; Salfi, Hist. lit. 
d'ltalie, xiii. ; Schilling. 

ROSAMUND, English opera, text by Ad- 
dison, music by Dr. Thomas Augustine 
fii'st represented at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, London, March 7, 1733. 
Susanna Maria Arne (afterwards Mrs. 
Cibber) sang the part of Rosamund, 
and her younger brother that of the 
page. Other operas on the same 
subject — in English : By Sanuiel 
Ai-nold, London, 1767 ; The Fair 
Rosamond, by John Barnett, four 
acts, ib., Feb. 24, 1837. In Italian : 



tetsin many collections published by Susato, | Rosamouda d' Inghilterra, by Carlo Cocchi, 
Phalesius, and others ; 3 IMS. masses : " Vi- I text by Felice Romani, Venice, Feb. 28, 
vat Felix Hercules," 5 voc, " Prrcter rerum ! 1829 ; by Luigi Majocchi, same text, Milan, 



ROSAMUNDE 



Feb. 12, 1831 ; by Donizetti, same text, 
Florence, ISS-t ; by Anselmo Belisario, same 
text, Rovigo, 1835 ; Rosamonda, ossia il eas- 
tello di Woodstock, by Pietro Tonassi and 
Callavo, Venice, 1839 ; Eosmonda d" Ingbil- 
teiTa, by Otto Nicolai, Turin, 1838, Trieste, 
as Enrico U., April 2G, 1839. In German : 
Kiaiig Heinrich II. und Rosamunde, by 
Franz Midler, Laybacli, 1870 ; Rosamunde, 
by Friedrich Lux, about 1860, not given ; 
and Die Rose von Woodstock, by Willielra 
Bennewitz, text by Gustav Bouillon, Chem- 
nitz, April 21, 187G. 

ROSAMUNDE, FURSTIN VON CY- 
PERN, romantic drama in four acts, text by 
Willielmine von Chczy, music by Schubert, 
first represented at the Theater an der 
Wieu, Vienna, Dec. 20, 1823. The libretto, 
originally intended for an opera, was hur- 
ried through in five days, and proved so 
faulty that the work was withdrawn from 
the stage after two representations. The 
libretto, now lost, tells the following story : 
Rosamunde, Princess of Cyprus, brought 
up a shepherdess, is told of her rank on 
coming of age. Fulgentius, who has been 
reigning over Cyprus meanwhile, offers her 
his hand, which she disdains, and his love 
then turns to hatred. He imprisons her, 
and sends to her a poisoned letter by the 
Prince of Candia, who is in love with 
Rosamunde, and who, in order to be near 
her, has disguised himself, and entered the 
service of Fulgentius. He delivers her a 
different letter, tells her the plot, and she 
feigns illness. At an opportune time he 
hands the poisoned letter back to Ful- 
gentius, who dies, leaving Rosamunde free 
to marry her lover. Several numbers of 
Schubert's MS. were discovered in 1867 
by Sir George Grove, in a dusty cupboard 
in the house of Dr. Schreider in Vienna. 
The incidental music was enthusiastically 
received. Its order of performance was : 
I. Overture, in D minor ; H. Entr'acte be- 
tween Acts I. and H., in B minor ; III. Ballo, 
in B minor, and Andante un poco assai, in 
G ; IV. Entr'acte between Acts U. and IH., 



in D ; V. Romance for soprano, Der Voll- 
mond strahlt, in F minor ; VI. Chorus of 
Spirits ; VH. Entr'acte between Acts HI. 
and IV., in B-flat ; VIH. Shepherds' Melody ; 
IX. Shepherds' Chorus ; X. Huntsmen's 
Chorus; XI. Air de ballet, in G. The 
overture, performed before the play, was 
published by Schubert for the pianoforte 
for four hands as Overture to Alfonso und 
Estrella, op. 52 (now op. 69 ; Diabelli, Vi- 
enna, 1827). The overture in C, known as 
the Overture to Rosamunde, op. 26, was 
composed originally for the melodrama of 
the Zauberharfe, given in Vienna, Aug. 19, 
1820, and was published with its present 
name and opus number for the pianoforte 
for four hands by Schubert in 1828. The 
second trio to the Entr'acte No. 7 was 
composed in 1816 as a song, Der Leidende. 
The songs were published with pianoforte 
accompaniment by Sauer & Leidesdorf (Vi- 
enna, 1828) ; The Spirit Chorus, by M. J. 
Leidesdorf (ib., 1828) ; the entr'actes, over- 
ture, and ballet music in full score by 
Spina (ib., 1866-G7), who possessed the 
MS. of the ballet music. All the numbers 
are published by Schreiber (Vienna). The 
Romance, by Breitkopf & Hilrtel (Leipsic) ; 
by Arnold (Elberf eld) ; Senff (Leipsic) ; and 
by Holle (Wolfenbiittel) ; and an arrange- 
ment for the violin and pianoforte, bj' Miska 
Hauser (Siegel, Lei^jsic) ; for violoncello 
and pianoforte, by J. Stansky (Schreiber, 
Vienna) ; and for the pianoforte for two 
hands, by Stephen Heller (Schloss, Cologne); 
by A. Jungmann (Schreiber, Vienna) ; by 
F. Spindler (Siegel, Leipsic) ; and by F. 
von Osten (Schuberth, Hamburg). Over- 
ture for the pianoforte, by Schreiber (Vi- 
enna) ; Andre (Offenbach) ; Litolff (Bruns- 
wick) ; for four hands, by Peters (Leipsic) ; 
Schreiber (Vienna) ; and Holle (Wolfen- 
biittel) ; and for eight hands, by F. G. Jan- 
sen (Schlesinger, Berlin) ; and by F. M. 
Schneeweiss (Schuberth, Leipsic). Entr'- 
actes for the pianoforte for two hands,