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Full text of "Cyclopedia Of Painters And Paintings Volume III"

1 161 










Corresponding Member of the French Institute 






FRONTISPIECE. Diana's Hunting Party, by Hans Makart ; etched by Sidney L. 
y with the permission of the owner, Mrs. James H. Banker. 



1. LAMBTON, MASTER. Sir Thomas Lawrence Earl of Durham . 10 

2 LANZAS, LAS Velasquez Madrid Museum. 21 

8. LAST JUDGMENT Fra Bartolommeo S. M. Nuova, Florence . 24 

4. LAST JUDGMENT Michelangelo Vatican, Rome . 2(5 

5. LAST JUDGMENT Rubens Munich Gallery . 27 

6. LAST SUPPER Philippe de Champaigns Louvre, Paris . 28 

7. LAST SUPPEB Otto Vaenius Cathedral, Antwerp . 31 

$. LAST SUPPER Leonardo da VITICI S. M. delle Grazie, Milan . 32 



r Rubens Munich Gallery. 37 

10. LAWRENCE, ST., MARTYR-) _.,. ~ __ . , _ . ~ ... T , . OQ 

^ * > Titian S. M. Assunta dei Gesmti, \emce . 38 


11. LAZARUS, RAISING OF Sebastian del Piombo National Gallery, London. 41 

12. LAZARUS, RAISING OF Rubens Berlin Museum . 42 

13. LAZARUS, RAISING OF Otto Vaeniun Cathedral, Antwerp . 42 

14. LEDA Correggio Berlin Museum . 48 

15. LEDA Tintoretto Norton Collection, England . 49 

16. LEO UL, OATH OF Raphael Vatican, Rome . 62 

17. LEO X , POPE Raphael Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 63 

18. LEONIDAS AT THERMOPYLAE . . Jacques Louis David Louvre, Paris. 65 

19. LION HUNT Rubens Munich Gallery. 86 

20. LORENZO GIUSTINIANI, ST., ) ^.^ , Antonio Pordenone Venice Academy. 100 

G-IX5RY OF . . . ) J 

21. LOT, PLIGHT OF Luca Giordano Dresden Gallery. 102 

22. LOT, FLIGHT OF Paolo Veronese Louvre, Paris . 103 

23. LOVE, BIRTH OF EiJLstache Lesueur Louvre, Paris. 107 



24. LOVE, SACRIFICE TO Caspar Netscher Uffizi, Florence . 107 

25. LOVE, SACRED AND PROFANE . Titian .- Palazzo Borghese, Rome . 108 

26. LITCRETIA AND TARQUiN Guido Caynacci Accademia di S. Luca, Eome. 110 

27. MADONNA WITH ANGELS . . . Rubens Louvre, Paris . 127 

28. MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO .Raphael Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 128 

29. MADONNA, BELLE JARDINIERE. T&z^teZ Louvre, Paris . 129 

30. MADONNA OF BURGOMASTER) ^ TT . ^ . ~, , ,. ^ ^ , ,, - on 

.., r Hans Holbein. .Princess Charles of Hesse-Darmstadt. 1.-50 


31. MADONNA DEI CANDELABRI. . .Raphael Butler-Jobnstone Collection, London. 131 

32. MADONNA DEL CARDELLINO . .Raphael Utiizi, Florence, 132 

33. MADONNA DELLA CASA v'Aixk. Raphael Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 133 

34 MADONNA DELLA CESTA Correggio National Gallery, London. 134 

35. MADONNA DEL COLLO JjONG0.2 J armigianino Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 135 

36. MADONNA DEL CONIGLIO Titian Louvre, Paris. 13(> 

37. MADONNA WITH DIADEM Raphael Louvre, Paris . 1 37 

38. MADONNA DI FOLIGNO Raphael Vatican, Home . 138 

39. MADONNA OF THE GREEN) . _ 07 . T ^ . - ... 

~ f Andrea Solans Louvre, Paris . 140 


40. MADONNA, ORLEANS Raphael Chateau de Chantilly, France. 142 

41. MADONNA DEL PASSEGGIO. . . .Raphael Bridgewatcr House, London. 143 

42. MADONNA DEL PESCE Raphael Madrid Museum . 144 

43. MADONNA OP THE ROCKS Leonardo da Vinci National Gallery, London. 145 

44. MADONNA DEL EOSARIO Dowenichino Bologna Gallery . 147 

45. MADONNA DE' EUCELLAI Gimabue S. M. Novella, Florence. 149 

46. MADONNA DEL SACCO Andrea del Sarlo.SS. Annunziata de' Servi, Florence. 150 

47. MADONNA WITH ST. ANNA. . . Leonardo da Vinci Louvre, Paris. 150 

48. MADONNA or ST. GEORGE. . . Correggio Dresden Gallery. 152 

49. MADONNA WITH ST. MAR-] . . . 

{ Parmiyiamno Bologna Gallory . 153 

50. MADONNA OF ST. MATTHEW. .Annibalu Oarracci Dresden Gallery. 154 

51. MADONNA DI SAN SISTO Raphael Dresden Gallery . 155 

52. MADONNA WITH SAINTS Giovanni Bellini S. Zaccaria, Venice . 157 

53. MADONNA WITH SAINTS Guido Reni Dresden Gallery . 150 

54. MADONNA WITH SAINTS Titian Vienna Museum, Louvre, Paris. 102 

55. MADONNA WITH SAINTS Paolo Veronese Louvre, Pans. 102 

56. MADONNA WITH SAINTS Paolo Veronese Louvre, Paris. 163 


,, f Guercmo Louvre, Paris . 164 


58. MADONNA DELLA SCODELLA . . Gorreggio Parma Gallery. 165 

59. MADONNA DELLA SEDIA Raphael Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 165 

60. MADONNA DELLA VITTORIA. . .Andrea Mantegna Louvre, Paris. 167 

61. MAGDALEN Correggio Dresden Gallery. 171 

62. MAGDALEN \. Charles Le Brun Louvre, Paris. 172 

63. MAGI, ADORATION OF Gentile da Fabriano Florence Academy. 175 

64. MAGI, ADORATION OF Raphael (?) Berlin Museum . 176 



05. MAGI, ADORATION OF Rubens Brussels Museum . 177 

6f>. MANNA, FALL OP Nicolas Poitssin Louvre, Paris. 189 

G7. MARGARET, ST Raphael Louvre, Paiis . 196 

G8. MARK, ST Fra Bartolommeo Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 199 

G9. MARK, ST., MIRACLE OF Tintoretto Venice Academy . 200 

70. MARK, ST., KING OF Para Bordone Venice Academy, 201 

71. MARRIAGE AT OANA Tintoretto & M. della Salute, Venice. 204 

72. MARRIAGE AT CANA Paolo Veronese. Louvre, Paris. 205 

73. MABTIN, ST, DIVIDING HIS ) Jn<onwn Church at Saventhem . 210 


74 MARTIN, ST., DIVIDING HIS ) n , ' TT- i n u 011 

T. , \ Rubens Windsor Castle . 211 


75. MASS OF BOLSENA Raphael Vatican, Borne. 215 

76. MASSACRE OF INNOCENTS . . . Guido Eeni Bologna Gallery . 216 

77. MATTHEW, Sr., CALLING ox.Lodovico Carracci. Bologna Gallery. 223 

78. HINDI, MARIA DE', BDU- 1 ^^ Louvre, Paris. 230 


79. MEDICI, MARIA nrf, MAR- U Mftew Louvre, Paris. 231 


80. MEDUSA, RAFT OF THE Jean Louis Gericault Louvre, Paris. 232 

81. MENINAS, LAS Velasquez Madrid Museum. 244 

82. MERCY, SEVEN WORKS ov.. David Teniers, younger Louvre, Paris. 247 

83. MICHAEL, ST Raphael Louvre, Paris. 258 

84. MICHAEL, ST Raphael Louvre, Paris. 258 

85. MISERS, THE Jan Moneys Windsor Castle. 276 

8G. MONA LISA Leonardo da Vinci Louvre, Paris. 282 

87. MON^ADA, FRANCISCO DE . . .Anton van Dyck Louvre, Paris. 283 



89. MOSES, FINDING OP Nicolas Poustin Louvre, Paris. 302 

90. MOSES, LAST COMMANDS ov.Luca Signorelli Vatican, Rome. 303 

91. MOSES STRIKING THE BOCK . -NiEco&w Pou&dn Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 304 

92. MUSCIPULA Sir Joshua Reynolds. . . .Lansdowne House, London. 319 

93. MUSES, DANCE OF THE Giidio Romano Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 320 

94 MUSES AND PIERIDES, CON- 1 ^ jj^ Louvre, Paris. 321 


95 MOTIUS SOJEVOLA Claries Le Bran Louvre, Paris. 322 

96. NAK>LEON CROSSING THE ) ^^ ^^ Versailles Museum. 327 


97. Nmvrrv Lodoinco Carracci Louvre, Paris. 329 

98. NATURE Sir Thomas Laurence . . .Y. P. Oalmady (?), London. 331 

9a NOTTE, LA Oamggio Dresden Gallery. 355 

100 PAN SCHOOL OF Luca Signorelli. Palazzo Corsi, Florence. 389 

101 PAWS, JODOMENT OF fens Dresden Gallery. 393 

102. PABNASSCS. Andrea Mantegna Louvre, Pans. 395 



103. PARNASSUS Raphael Vatican, Rome. 896 

10 4. PEACE AND WAR Rubens National Gallery, London. 407 

105. PETER, ST., CHRIST'S) ... , . Tr ,. T> lrkl 

' r Pietro Perucnno Vatican, Koine . 424 


106. PETER, Sr., MARTYRDOM ov.FLlippino Lippi Carmine, Florence. 425 

107. PETER MARTYR, ST., ) m . t . i oa /T -o i xr tc^n 

^ r Titicm.. . .Formerly in olS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. 427 


108. PETRONILLA, ST Guwdno Capitol Gallery, Borne . 4W 

109. PHILOSOPHERS Rubens . Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 4J56 

110. PIETA Correggio Parma Gallery . 441 

111. PIETA Anton van Dyck Munich Gallery . 442 

1 12 PIETA Rubens Brussels Museum . 4415 

113. PLAGUE OF ASHDOD Nicolas Poussm .Louvre, Paris. 450 

114. PRESENTATION IN TEMPLE. . Fra Bartoloimneo Vienna Museum . 470 

115. PRESENTATION IN TEMPLE. Gu-ido Reni Vienna Museum. 471 

116. PRODIGAL SON David Teniers, younger Louvre, Paris. 476 

117. PRODIGAL SON, RETURN ov.Murillo Stafford House, London. 477 

118. PSYCHE AND CUPID Francois Gerard Louvre, Paris. 481 




1. Laar, Jan Hendrik van de 

2. Laar, Pieter van 

3. La Farge, John 

4. La Fosse, Charles de 

5. Lairesse, Gerard de 

6. Lancret, Nicolas 

7. Landseer, Charles 

8. Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry 

9. Lanfranco, Giovanni. 

10. Lansyer, Emmanuel 

11. Lantara, Simon Mathuiin 

12. Largilliure, Nicolas 

13. Lasch, Karl Johann 

14. Lathrop, Francis 

15. Laufberger, Ferdinand 

16. Laurens, Jean Paul 

17. Lavieille, Eugene Antoiue Samuel . 

18. Lawrence, Sir Thomas 

19. Lawson, Cecil Gordon 

20. Leader, Benjamin Williams 

21. Le Brun, Charles 

22. Le Brun, Marie Louise Elisabeth.. 

23. Lefebvre, Jules Joseph 

24. Lefdvre, Claude 

25. Legros, Alphonse 

26. Leibl, Wilhelm 

27. Leighton, Sir Frederick. 

28. Le Jeune, Henry. 

29. Leloir, Alexandre Louis 

30. Lely, Sir Peter 

31. Le Moyne, Fra^ois 

32. Lenbach, Franz. 

33. Leon y Escosura, Ignacio 

34. Leoni, Ottavio 



35. Lepieie, Nicolas Bernard 66 

36. Le Poittevin, Eugene Modeste Ed- 

mond , . . . 66 

37. Leroux, Hector. 68 

38. Leslie, Charles Robert 68 

39. Leslie, George Dunlop 69 

40. Lessing, Karl Friedricb 69 

41. Le Sueur, Eustache 71 

42. Lethiere, Guillaume Guillon 71 

43. Leutze, Emanuel 72 

44. Levy, iSmile 73 

45. Levy, Henri Leopold 74 

46. Leyden, Lucas van .' 74 

47. Leys, Hendrik 75 

48. Lievens, Jan 79 

49. Liezen-Mayer, Alexander. 80 

50. Lirnboreh, Hendrik van 81 

51. Lindemann-Frommel, Karl August 81 

52. Lindenschmit, Wilhelm 82 

53. Lingelbach, Johannes , . . . 83 

54 Linnell, John 84 

55. Linton, Sir James Drogmole 85 

56. Liotard, Jean Etienne 86 

57. Lippi, Filippino 87 

58. Lippi, Fra Filippo 88 

59. LofSer, August 91 

60. Loffler, Ludwig. 92 

61. Long, Edwin 93 

62. Loo, Charles Andre" van. 95 

63. Loo, Jean Baptiste van. 96 

64. Loose, Basile de 98 

65. Lossow, Heinrich 102 

66. Loth, Johann Karl 103 

67. Lotto, Lorenzo 104 


68. Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques. 

69. Liiben, Adolf 108 

70. Lucas, Seymour 109 

71. Luiui, Bernardino 112 

72. Luminais, fivariste Vital 113 

73. Lund, Fredrik Christian 113 

74 Lundbye, Johan Thomas 

75. Luti, Benedetto 116 

76. Mabuse, Jan van 

77. Macbeth, Eobert William 

78. McEntee, Jervis 

79. Maclise, Daniel 

80. MacNee, Sir Daniel 

81. McWhirter, John 

82. Madou, Jean Baptiste 

83. Madrazo, Kaiinundo de 

84 Maes, Nicolaas 

85. Magnus, Eduard 

86. Maignan, Albert 

87. Makart, Hans 

88. Mander, Karel van 

89. Manet, Edouard 

90. Mannozzi, Giovanni 

91. Montegna, Andrea. 

92. Manuel, Nicolaus 

93. Maratti, Carlo 

94 Marko, Karl 

95. Marks, Henry Stacy 

96. Marseus van Schrick, Otho 

97. Marstrand, Vilhelin Nikolaj 

98. Martin, John 

99. Masaccio, Tominaso 

100. Mason, George Herning 

101. Massys, Quinten 

102. Matejko, Jan B. Aloysius 

103. Mathieu, Lambert Joseph 

104. Max, Gabriel 

105. Mazo, Juan Bautista Martinez del . 

106. Mehus, Lieven 

107. Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest. . . 

108. Melbye, Daniel Herman Anton. . . 

109. Memling, Hans 

110. Mengs, Anton Raphael 

111. Menzel, Adolf Friedrich Erdmann 

112. Mesdag, Hendrik Willem 






























































































Metsu, Gabriel 250 

Meulen, Adam Frans van der . 252 

Meyer, Johann Georg 254 

Meyerheim, Friedrich Eduard . . . 255 

Meyerheiin, Eduard Franz 256 

Meyerheim, Paul Friedrich 256 

Michallou, Achille Etna 259 

Michelangelo 260 

Miel, Jan 263 

Mierevelt, Michiel Janszen van . . 264 

Mieris, Frans van, elder 265 

Mieris, Willem vjui 26(> 

Mignard, Nicolas 267 

Mignard, Pierre, elder 268 

Millais, Sir John Everett 270 

Millet, Francis Davis 272 

Millet, Francois 272 

Millet, Joan Fran<;ois 273 

Mintrop, Tlieodor 275 

Mola, Pietro Francesco 278 

Molyn, Pieter 281 

Mompcr, Jodociis do 282 

Moni, Louis de, younger 284 

Monnoycr, Jean Baptiste 2S5 

Moor, Karel de, elder 288 

Moore, Albert 288 

Moore, Henry 288 

Mor, Antonis 289 

Moran, Edward 290 

Moran, Thomas 291 

Moreau, Gustave 292 

Moretto, II 21)4 

Morgenstern, Christian Ernst 

Bernhard 295 

Moritz, Louis 296 

Morland, George 296 

Morone, Francesco 298 

Morot, Aim6 Nicolas 298 

Morris, Philip Richard 29!) 

Morse,- Samuel Finley Brees<> 2i)0 

Morto da Feltre 300 

Moucheron, Isaak de 306 

Mulready, William 313 

Munkdcsy, Mihaly 314 

Murillo, Bartolom< Est6ban 316 

Musscher, Michiel van 320 

Muziano, Girolamo 323 







Natoire, Charles Joseph ........ 

Navarrete, Juan Fernandez ..... 

Navez, Franyois Joseph ......... 

Neal, David ................... 

Neer, Eglon Hendrik van der ... 
Neher, Beruhard von .......... 

Netscher, Caspar .............. 

Neureuther, Eugen Napoleon . . . 
Neuville, Alphonse Marie de ____ 

Newton, Gilbert Stuart ......... 

Nicol, Erskine ................ 

Niss, Thorvald ................ 

Northcote, James .............. 

Noter, Pieter Franyois de ....... 

Nuyen, Wynand Jaii Joseph ..... 

Odevaere, Joseph Dionisius ..... 

Oehine, Enviu ____ ............ 

Ommeganck, Balthazar Pauwel . . 
Oost, Jucob van, younger ....... 

Opie, John ................... 

Oppenheim, Moritz ............ 

Orcagna, Andrea .............. 

Orchardson, William Quiller ____ 

Orley, Bernaert van ............ 

Os, Georgius Jacobus Johannes 






Os, Jan van 

Os, Pieter Gerardus van 

Ostade, Adriaan van 

Ostade, Isaak van 

Ottesen, Otto Didrik 

Oudry, Jean Baptiste 

Ouless, Walter William 

Overbeck, Johann Friedrich 

Pacheco, Francisco 

Padovanino, H 

Paelinck, Joseph 

Page, William 

Paggi, Giovanni Battista 

Palamedesz, Antonis 

Palamedesz, Palamedes 

Palma, Giacomo, called Vecchio . 
Palma, Giacomo, called Giovane . 

Pftlrnaroli, Vicente 

Pannini, Giovanni Paolo 

330 203. Pareja, Juan de 392 

33'2 ! 204. Parmigianino, H 394 

332 : 205. Parrocel, Charles 397 

333 ! 206. Parrocel, Joseph 398 

335 ] 207. Pasini, Alberto 399 

336 i 208. Passerotti, Bartolommeo 400 

339 I 209. Passignano, Domenico da 401 

341 1 210. Passini, Ludwig 401 

342 | 211. Paton, Sir Joseph Noel 403 

343 | 212. Pauwels, Ferdinand 406 

213. Peale, Eembrandt 408 

f 214. Pecht, August Friedrich 409 

352 j 215. Peeters, Bonaventura 410 

354 ! 216. Pelouse, Leon Germain 418 

356 i 217. Pencz, Georg 413 

I 218. Pepyn, Marten 415 

359 ' 219. Perugino, Pietro 420 

360 - 220. Peruzzi, Baldassare 421 

364 1 221. Peschel, Karl Gottlieb 422 

222. Pettie, John 430 

223. Philippoteaux, Henri Emmanuel 

Felix 435 

224. Phillip, John 435 

225. Pickersgill, Henry William 438 

226. Pieneinan, Jan Willem 439 

227. Pieneman a Nicolaas 440 

228. Pierre, Jean Baptiste Marie 440 

229. Pietro da Cortona 443 

230. Pille, Charles Henri 444 

231. Piloty, Ferdinand 445 

232. Piloty, Karl von 445 

233. Pils, Isidore Alesandre Auguste . 446 

234. Pinturicchio, Bernardino 446 

235. Pionibo, Sebastiano del 448 

236. Pixis, Theodor 449 

237. Plockhorst, Bernhard 452 

238. Poelenburg, Cornells van 454 

239. Pohle, Friedrich Leon 456 

240. PoUajuolo, Ajatonio 457 

241. Pontormo, Jacopo da 458 

242. Poole, Paid Falconer 459 

243. Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio Li- 

einio da 460 

244. Portaels, Jean Fra^ois 461 

245. Porter, Benjamin Curtis 462 

246. Portinan, Christiaan Julius Lode- 





247. Potter, Paulus 463 

248. Pourbus, Frans, younger 465 

249. Pourbus, Peeter, younger 466 

250. Poussin, Nicolas 466 

251. Poynter, Edward John 468 

252. Preller, Friedrich Johann Chris- 

tian Ernst 469 

258. Primaticcio, Francesco 472 

254. Prinsep, Valentine Cameron 474 

255. Procaccini, Camillo 474 

256. Procaccini, Giulio Cesare 475 

257. Protais, Paul Alexandre 479 

258. Prout, Samuel 480 

259. Prud'hon, Pierre Paul 480 

260. Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre 484 

261. Pynacker, Adam 484 

262. Quartley, Arthur 487 

263. Quellinus, Erasmus, younger 487 



1. Laar, Pieter van 

2. Lagrenee, Jean Jacques 

3. Lagrene, Louis Jean Fra^ois. . . . 

4. Lairesse, Gerard de 

5. Largilliere, Nicolas 

6. Lastman, Pieter 

7. Laugee, Georges .... , 

8. Laurens, Jean Paul 

9. Lazerges, Hippolyte Jean Raymond 

10. Lebarbier, Jean Jacques Fra^ois . 

11. Le Brun, Charles 

12. Le Brun, Marie Louise Elisabeth . 

13. Lecomte-du-Nouy, Jules Jean An- 


14. Lef evre, Robert 

15. Lelienbergh, Cornelia 

16. Leloir, Louis 

17. Lely, Sir Peter 

18. Lematte, Jacques Francis Fer- 


19. Le Moyne, Francois 

20. Le Nain 

21. Lengerich, Heinrich 

22. Lens, Andries Cornells 

23. Lenthe, Gaston 

24. Leonardo, Jose 

25. Lepicie", Nicolas Bernard 

26. Le Prince, A. Xavier 

27. Le Prince, Jean Baptiste 

28. Leyden, Lucas van 

29. Leys, Hendrik 

30. Lhermitte, Leon Augustin 

31. Liemaeker, Nicolaas 

32. Lies, Joseph 

33. Limboreh, Hendrik van 

34. Lingelbach, Johannes 







































































Lomazzo, Giovanni Paolo 93 

Loo, Charles Andre van 95 

Loo, Jakob van 96 

Loo, Jean Baptists van 96 

Looten, Jan 98 

Lorrne, Anton de . . . . 101 

Lotto, Lorenzo 105 

Lunrinais, fivariste Vital 113 

Lys, Jan van der 117 

Maas, Dirk 117 

Mabuse, Jan van 118 

Maes, Godfried 169 

Maes, Nicolaas 170 

Maignan, Albert 180 

Maillart, Diogene Ulysse Napoleon 181 

Mulchin, Karl Wilhelm Christian . 183 

Mander, ELarel van 186 

Manuel, Nicolaus 192 

Maratti, Carlo 193 

March, Esteban 193 

March, Miguel 194 

Martens, Theodor 208 

Martinez, Sebastian 211 

Massys, Jan 217 

Medard, Eugene 229 

Meer, Barend van der 232 

Meer, Jan van der 233 

Melbye, Daniel Herman Anton 238 

Memling, Hans 241 

Meneses Osorio, Francisco '. ^ 242 

Mesdag, Hendrik Willem 249 

Metsu, Gabriel 251 

Meulen, Adam Frans van der 252 

Mierevelt, Michiel Janszen van. . . . 264 

Mieris, Frans van, p elder. 265 


70. Mieris, Frans van, younger 266 

71. Mieris, Willein van 267 

72. Mignard, Pierre, elder 268 

73. Mignon, Abraham 269 

74 Minderhout, Hendrik van 274 

75. Mol, Peeter van 278 

76. Molenaer, Comelis 278 

77. Molenaer, Jan Miense 279 

78. Molenaer, Nicolaas 279 

79. Molyn, Pieter de, elder 280 

80. Molyn, Pieter, younger 281 

81. Mommers, Hendrik 281 

82. Momper, Frans de 281 

83. Moni, Louis de. 284 

84 Monnoyer, Jean Baptiste 285 

85. Montagna, Bartolommeo 286 

86. Monten, Dietrich 286 

87. Monvoisin, Baymoncl Auguste 

Quinsac 287 

88. Moor, Karel de 288 

89. Mor, Antonis 290 

90. Moreau, Adrien 292 

91. Moreelse, Paulus 293 

92. Morland, George 297 

93. Morone, Francesco 298 

94 Moucheron, Frederik de 306 

95. Moucheron, Isaak de 307 

96. Moyaert, Nicolaas 308 

97. Mozin, Charles Louis 308 

98. Mttcke, Heinrich 309 

99. Murillo 318 

100. Musscher, Michiel van 321 

101. Mytens, Johannes 324 

102. Naigeon, Jean Guillaume Elzidor. 325 

103. Naldini, Battista 326 

104 Nason, Pieter 328 

105. Natoire, Charles Joseph 330 

106. Nattier, Jean Marc 331 

107. Navez, Fra^ois Joseph 332 

108. Neck, Johan van 333 

109. Neeffs, Peeter 334 

110. Neer, Aarb van der 335 

111. Neer, Eglon Hendrik van der 335 

112. Neher, Michael 336 

113. Nerenz, Wilhelm 337 

114 Nerly, Federigo.* 338 

115. Netscher, Caspar 340 

116. Netscher, Theodorus 340 

117. Neuville, Alphonse Marie de .... 342 

118. Nickele, Isaak van 345 

119. Nieulant, Willein van 347 

120. Nolpe, Pieter 350 

121. Noort, Adam van . . . , 851 

122. Noort, Lambert van 3,51 

123. Noter, Pieter Franyois de 354 

124. Nuvolone, Carlo Francesco 355 

125. Nuvolone, Giuseppe 355 

126. Oenicke, Clara Wilhelmine 360 

127. Oliver, Isaac 363 

128. Oliver, Peter 363 

129. Ommeganck, Balthazar Puuwel . . 304 

130. Oost, Jacob van, elder 305 

131. Oost, Jacob van, younger 80(5 

132. Oosterwyck, Maria van 3(5(5 

133. Opie, John 307 

134. Opstal, Caspar Jacobus van 367 

135. Orley, Bernaert van 370 

136. Orrente, Pedro 371 

137. Os, Jan van 372 

138. Ostade, Adriaan van . 374 

139. Ostade, Isaak van 374 

140. Ott, Johann Neponmk 375 

141. Oudry, Jean Baptiste 377 

142. Paggi, Giovanni Batfcista 383 

143. Palamedesz, Antonis 384 

144 Palamedesz, Palarnedea 384 

145. Palma, Giacomo 386 

146. Pannini, Giovanni Paolo 390 

147. Parrocel, Charles 397 

148. Parrocel, Joseph 398 

149. Pasini, Alberto 400 

150. Patel, Pierre 402 

151. Pater, Jean Baptisto Joseph 402 

152. Pauditz, Christoffer 403 

153. Paulsen, Fritz 405 

154 Pecht, August Friedrich 401) 

155. Peeters, Jan 411 

156. Pennacchi, Pietro Maria 414 

157. Penni, Luca 415 

158. Pepyn, Marten 415 

159. Pereda, Antonio de 416 



160. Perrault, Leon Bazile 417 

161. Perrier, Fran9ois 418 

162. Perugino, Pietro 421 

163. Peschel, Karl Gottlieb 422 

164. Pesne, Antoine 423 

165. Peyron, Jean Fra^ois Pierre . . . 431 

166. Piazzetta, Giovanni Battista 437 

167. Pierre, Jean Baptiste Marie 440 

168. Piola, Domenico 447 

169. Pistorius, Eduard 449 

170. Pizzolo, Niccolo 449 

171. Platzer, Johann Georg '452 

172. Poel, Egbert van der 454 

173. Poelenburg, Cornelis van 455 

174. Poorter, Willem de 459 

175. Pose, Eduard Wilhelm 463 

176. Potter, Paulus 464 

177. Pourbus, Frans, elder 465 

178. Poussin, Nicolas 467 

179. Preller, Friedricli Johann Chris- 

tian Ernst 470 

180. Preyer, Johann Wilhelm 472 

181. Procaccini, Giulio Cesare 475 

182. Protais, Paul Alexandre 479 

183. Prud'hon, PieiTe Paul 481 

184. Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre 484 

185. Pynacker, Adam 485 

186. Quast, Pieter 487 

187. Quellinus, Jan Erasmus 488 

188. Querfurth, August 489 


Acad., Academy. 

A.N.A , Associate of the National Academy. 

A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy. 

A.R.H.A, Associate of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy. 

A R.S. A., Associate of the Royal Scottish 

O. & C., Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Cat., Catalogue. 

Ch., Church. 

CoL, Collection. 

Gal., Gallery. 

H., Height. 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

Inst., Institute. 

L. of Honour, Legion of Honour. 

Mus., Museum. 

N.A., National Academy or Academician. 

Nat. GaJL, National Gallery. 

PaL, Palace, Palais. Palazzo. 

R, Royal. 

R.A., Royal Academy or Academician. 

R.H.A., Royal Hibernian Academy or 

R.S.A., Royal Scottish Academy or Acad- 

S., San, Santa. 

SS., Santi, Sante. 

S. M., Santa Maria. 

St., Saint. 

W. & W., Woltmann and Woermann. 

Wwds in italics Indicate the alphabetical place of articles on the subjects specified- 



at Rotter- 
dam, Jan. 
1, 1807, died there, 
May 15, 1874. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Cornells Bakker 
(born in 1771), and 
in Antwerp of 
Wappers; returned 
in 1830 and lived 

first at The Hague, afterwards at Rotter- 
dam, whence he again visited Antwerp, ! Campen (1590?- 
spending there two years. Member of Am- 1650) ; went with 

his brother Roe- 
land about 1623 

Two Allegories on Music representing Rot- 
terdam in 1829 and the Netherlands in 1854 
(1854); Benvenuto Cellini and Cosmo de' 
Medici (1859) ; Divorce Case, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum. Iinmerzeel, ii. 146 ; Rrarnm, iii. 929. 
LAAR (Laer), PIETER VAN, called Barn- 
boccio (cripple), 
born at Haarlem 
about 1600, died 
there after 1658. 
Dutch school; 
genre painter, 
pupil of Jan van 

sterdam Academy in 1852, and professor. 
Works : Heroic Death of Herman de Ruyter 
(1840) ; Daughter craving her Father's Par- 
don (1842), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Pil- 
grim returning from. Holy Land ; Fugitives 

through France to Italy, and remained for 
sixteen years in Rome, living in friendly in- 
tercourse with Poussin, Claude Lorrain, and 

Hiding ; Alice (after Walter Scott) ; A Bap- . Sandrart, but going his own way in art, 
tism in 1600 ; Salvator Rosa drawing GhTs j which differed widely from that of those 
Portrait ; Wedding in 17th Century ; Benve- ' masters. He avoided the ideal, and treated, 
nil to Cellini in his Workshop ; Jacob van J with much humour and truthfulness, realis- 
Campen and the Fortune-Teller ; Rem- ! tic subjects, such as scenes from Italian 
brandt's Journey ; Adriaan van Ostade draw- \ popular life, markets, jugglers, gypsies, etc. ; 
ing from Nature ; Erasmus in his Study ; I also landscapes, finding many imitators, no- 
Retreat of the Waldenses ; Protestant Ser- tably Cerquozzi and Jan Miel, so that the 
vice in 17th Century; Emigrants Ready to " bambocciate " formed * a special branch in 
Start ; Patriotic Women at Delft in 1573 ; art His nickname was given him partly on 
Allegory on Engraving (1852); Resurrection ; account of his deformity, partly for his 


artistic whims. He returned to Holland in 
1630, first to Amsterdam, but settled after- 
wards in Haarlem, where he is said to have 
committed suicide in a fit of melancholy. 
Works : Travellers leaving Inn, Shepherds 
with Cow and Goats, Louvre, Paris ; Halt 
"before Inn, Brunswick Museum ; Mounte- 
hank showing his Patent, Brawl among Ital- 
ian Peasants, Rural Frolic, Bom an City-Gate, 
Cassel Gallery ; Landscape with Shepherds 
and Travellers crossing a Bridge (1657), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Scenes from Italian 
Life (2), Monk distributing Food, Man busy 
with White Horse, Paying the Vintagers, 
Dresden Museum ; Horseman conversing 
with Peasant, Mus6e Rath, Geneva ; Horse- 
man and Bathers by a. Ruin, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Two Horses in a Stall, a Third 
being Saddled, Italian Porters playing under 
the Wall of a Fortress, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Guard-Room (1646), Oldenburg 
Gallery ; Bandits playing Morra, National 
Gallery, Pesth ; Travellers' Halt, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Smithy in Roman Ruin 
(1685), Italian Peasants' Frolic in a Grotto, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Various Animals with 
Shepherds, Stuttgart Museum ; Landscape 
with Ruins, Stockholm Museum ; Peasants' 
Frolic, Boy waiting on Dismounted Peasant, 
Museum, Vienna ; A Singer, Halt of Shep- 
herds before Iiin, Shepherds with Cows, 
Robber Scene at Night, Camp at Night, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Man giving three 
Dogs to Drink, Landscapes with Figures 
(2), Cottage with Peasants and Horses, Beg- 
tn fff ar Seated, Portrait 

P \f 1/3JOLAS of Himself, TJffizi, 

. / __ Florence. Allgem. 

/ O/ d- Biogr., xvii. 461 ; 

Ch. Blanc, ."ficole hollandaise ; Engerth, Bel- 
vedere Galerie, ii. ; Kramm, iii. 926 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii: 429 ; Riegel, Beitriige, 
ii. 315 ; Sandrart, ii. 311. 

painter at Rome, 1st century A.D. Pliny 
says (xxxv. 7 [27]) he prided himself on his 
small pictures, which only excited ridicule. 
Brurm, ii. 306. 


born in Paris, May 17, 1807, died there, 
Jan. 26, 1842. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Victor Bei-tin in 1824, and of Picot in 1827. 
He painted nature in its subtlest details and 
yet preserved unity of effect. Medal, 2d 
class, 1831. Works : Diligence bringing 
News of July Revolution (1831); The Coun- 
try Doctor (1832); Old Woman with a Sheep 
(1836); Sunset (1839), Louvre; Milkmaid 
with Pitcher of Milk ; Forest of Viriere ; 
Dog and Master ; Interior of Chateau ; Fish- 
erman with Fish. Ch. Blanc, J^cole Iran- 
yaise, iii.; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 741. 

LABORDE. See Defaborde. 

born at Nantes, Nov. 26, 1807, died in 
Paris, March 28, 1873. History painter, 
pupil of Paul Delaroche, having first bec k n 
placed in a commercial house at Antwerp, 
and visited the United States in 1827, China 
in 1832, and having spent a year in Italy in 
1836. Medals : 3d class, 1843 ; 2d class, 
1846. Works : Ulrich von Hutten, Henry 
of Saxony, Charles V. in London (1844); 
Luther, Melanchthon, Pomeranus, and Cru- 
ciger translating tho Bible (1846); Richelieu 
and Father Joseph (1847); Albrecht Ditrer 
painting Emperor Maximilian (1848); Ge- 
neva Discussion (1850); Erasmus and Sir 
Thomas More, Luther in Wittenberg, Charles 
V. crossing the Elbe at Battle of Miihlber^ 
(1855) ; Luther at the Diet of Worms (1857) ;, 
Luther Praying ; Incident of War in the- 
Cevennes (1864); Lucas Cranach painting 
Luther's Portrait, Luther's Family at Prayer 
(1865); Death of Luther, Charles V. his Son 
Philip and Cardinal Granvelle in Conference 
at Bruges (1866); Olympia Morata in Fer- 
rara (1869); Portrait of Guizot (1863); Pen- 
serosa (1870). Bellier, i. 861 ; Larousse. 

Xavier Gabriel de Gazean, Comte de La 
Bouure), born at La Bouore, near Jallais. 
(Maine-et-Loire), April 1, 1801. Landscape- 
and architecture painter, pupil of Bruue and 
Picot ; served in the army from an early 
age, and took part in the campaigns of 


1823 iu Spain, when lie was decorated with I 
the L. of Honour, and of 1830 in Africa, 
after which he took up painting, visited the 
East, and studied for several years in Rome ; 
also spent two years in Spain. Several of 
his works, mostly Eastern subjects, have 
been acquired by the State. Works: Au- 
tumn Morning (1833) ; Pontiue Marshes, 
Sacred Isle of PhilcB Nubia (1838); Ruins 
of Karnak at Thebes (1841) ; View from 
Villa d'Este at Tivoli (1842) ; Harvest in the 
Cainpagna (1844) ; Wind of the Desert in 
Plain of Memphis (1846) ; Villa near Borne 
(1864) ; Interior of the Generalife at Granada, 
La Antigua at Valladolid (1866) ; Sorrento 
(1867) ; The Generalife and the Alhambra 
(1868) ; Environs of the Alhambra (1870) ; 
Theatre of Taormina in Sicily (1869 and 
1870) ; Sunset in Algiers (1833), Desert of 
Suez (1840), Factory of Poussin (1842), Val- 
ley of the Tombs (1848), View of the Alham- 
bra (1867), Angers Museum. Bellier, i. 
861 ; Vapereau (1880), 1049. 

Bourg ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Bonnat Medal, 3d class, 
1879. Works : The Sabbath (1876) ; Beg- 
gar Woman (1877) ; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds (1878) ; At the Sermon (1879), Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Women selling Fowl 
(1880) ; Leaving Church (1881) ; Mould 
Seller in Brussels (1883) ; A Baptism in 
Bourbonnais, Mother Auberger (1884) ; The 
Kosary (1885). 

Neuss in 1820, died in Dilsseldorf, June 25, 
1868. Animal painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy. Works : Horses pursued by a 
Bear (1848) ; Lion Family surprised by Ti- 
gers (1850); Buffaloes attacked by Pan- 
thers ; Eagles fighting in the Air ; Rein- 
cleers pursued by Wolves ; Marauders with 
Stolen Herd ; Young and Old (1861), Kon- 
igsberg Museum ; Cavalry Fight (1866) 
Scenes from Eeynard the Fox. Blanckarts, 
16 ; Kunst-Chronik, iii. 160. 

Turin, Jan. 24, 1810, died in Paris, Oct. 26 ; 

1878. Landscape painter, pupil of Corot ; 

talented and careful painter. Medals : 
3d class, 1842 ; 2d class, 1843, 1848. Works: 
View of Bonnelles, Campagna at Rome 
(1841) ; Catalonian Fishermen at Port Yen- 
ares (1842) ; Excursion on the Water (1844); 
Miser who has lost his Treasure (1847) ; 3 
Yiews of Bougival (1848) ; Women Bathing, 
Erigone (1850) ; Mercury putting Argus to 
Sleep (1852) ; Banks of the Morin (1853) ; 
Green Path near Meaux (1855) ; Daphnis 
and ChloS (1861) ; Hay-Stacks, The Banks 
of the Marne (1863) ; Yiew of Eomainville 
(1865) ; The BeU-Flower (1868) ; A Land- 
scape (1869) ; Environs of Palaiseau, Woman 
Bathing (1870) ; Landscape (1870) ; Land- 
scape (1872) ; 2 Yiews of the Park of Gigoux 
at Palaiseau (1873) ; The Yilla Gigoux, 
Avenue des Maronniers (1874) ; Yiew at 
Palaiseau (1876); At the Potteries (1877). 

-Bellier, L 866 ; Larousse, x. 41. 

LAECK, P. YAN, flourished probably at 
Utrecht about 1640. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and figure painter in the manner of 
Poelenburg, although his treatment is hasty 
and his figures are coarse in conception. 
Works : Si Magdalen in a Grotto (1638), 
Mentz Museum ; Italian Landscape with 
Yenus punishing Cupid (1640). Bode, 
Studien, 332. 

henfeld, Bavaria, Dec. 9, 1813, died at Pont- 
levoy (Loire-et-Cher), April 25, 1871. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Reguault and Picot ; 
went to Paris when ten years old, became a 
naturalized Frenchman in 1835. He re- 
stored, in 1825-39, with Alaux, the Prinia- 
ticcio Gallery at Fontainebleau. Medals : 
3d class, 1841 ; 2d class, 1843, 1859. Pro- 
fessor at the School of Design in 1855. 
Works : John the Fearless, Philip the Hardy, 
Raymond Dupuy first Grand-Master of the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1842), 
Philippe d'Artois, Marshal Boucicault, Yer- 
sailles Museum ; Chastity of Joseph (1839); 
Awakening of Adam (1841); Tabitha re- 
vived by St. Peter (1843) ; Charity (1846), 
formerly in Luxembourg Museum.; Jacob's 



Ladder (1847) ; "Vision of Zacliariah (1850), 
Rochefort Museum ; Music (185*2) ; Diana 
and Endymion (1857) ; Job (1859) ; Loves 
of the Angels (1862) ; Orpheus (1866) ; 
Hope (1868). In fresco : Three Episodes 
in Life of St. Remy, St. Clotilde's, Paris. 
Beffler, i. 867 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), iii. 
186; (1862), xiii. 367, 383; Meyer, Gescli., 
405 ; Larousse. 

LAENEN. See Lamm. 
LA FARGE, JOHN, born in New York in 
1835. Landscape 
and figure paint- 
er, decorator, 
glass painter, and 
sculptor, pupil of 
William M. Hunt, 
Since 1856-57, 
when he fi r s t 
went to Europe, 
he has repeatedly 
crossed the At- 
lantic. His illustrations of Browning's 
poems, published in 1859, were followed by 
many figure, still-life, and landscape pieces, 
and these by a great deal of decorative work. 
Latterly he has devoted himself almost ex- 
clusively to glass painting. His chief work 
in sculpture is the King family monument 
at Newport, B. I (1878). Member of So- 
ciety of American Artists. Elected N.A. in 
1869. Studio in New York. Works : St. 
Paul (1861) ; Various Flower Pieces (1860- 
65) ; Altai-piece for St Peter'sNew York 
(1863) ; New England Pasture Land (1866) ; 
The Last Valley (1867); Boy and Dog 
(1868) ; The Golden Age (1869) ; Trinity 
Church Decorations Boston (1876) ; Chan- 
cel of St. Thomas' Church New York 
(1877) ; Battle Window Harvard Memorial 
Hall (1880) ; Staircase WindowsWilliam 
H. Vanderbilt's House (1881) ; Ceilings for 
Cornelius Vanderbilt's House (1882) ; Apple 
Orchard in Spring (1884). Art Journal, 
(1885), 261. 

LAFAYE (Lafaist), PBOSPEE, born at 
Mont-Saint-Sulpice (Yonne), in 1806. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Coucler ; 

unsuccessful in painting landscapes, lie 
tried history and genre with better result, 
but since 1850 has confined himself chiefly 
to glass decoration. Medal, 2d class, 1835. 
Works : Village Drum (1833) ; Violence of 
Nogaret and Colonna toward Pope Boni- 
face Vni (1834) ; Battle of Bouvinea 
(1835) ; Louis XIV. departing for the Con- 
quest of Franche Comte, Cholera in Paris 
(1837); Song of Departure (1838); Bat- 
tle of Ceramo (1839), Versailles Museum ; 
Holbein at Court of Henry VIII (1839) ; 
Samson and Delilah ; Bedroom of Louis 
XIV. at Versailles (1840) ; Battlo of Ascalon 
(1841), Versailles Museum ; Masked Ball, 
Brother and Sister (1843) ; The Labourer 
(1844) ; Hall of the Crusaders, The Unem- 
ployed (1845); Josephine (1848); Interior 
in Style of Louis XIV., Raveno Gallery, 
Berlin : Child's Slumber (1880) ; Low Mass 
at Saint-Gervais (1881); Oomplonieutaireg, 
Expulsive Seizure (1882) ; Battle of For- 
migny 1450, Taking of Gray, do. of Chateau 
Sninte Anne in 1668, Six Copies of Battles 
by Martin, Versailles Museum. Bellier, i. 

Pv-rigueux (Dordogne), Jan. 27, 1817, died 
in Feb., 1886. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Gros and Delaroche. Medal, 3d 
class, 1843 ; L. of Honour, 1859. Works :' 
Communion of the Virgin (1843) ; Christ on 
the Waters (1844) ; Holy Family (1846) ; 
Death of St. Francis Xavier, do. of St. Pa- 
ter of Verona (1848) ; Denis Augusts Atfre, 
Archbishop of Paris ( 1849), liodez Museum; 
Episode in Massacres in Syria (1861) ; Louis 
XVH and Simon in the Tower of the Tem- 
ple (1863) ; Saint Jean de Dieu Founder 
of the Order of that Name (1865), Christ 
among the Doctors (1867), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Kiss of Judas (1875, 1877) ; The 
Magdalen at the Sepulchre, The Orphans 
(1880). Bellier, i. 871; Meyer, Gesch., 

LAFOND, ALEXANDKE, born in Paris, 
April 24, 1815. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Ingres. His portraits are energet- 


ic and expressive, and carefully executed. | 
Paints also on porcelain. From 1863 to j 
1874 be was director of the School of Art \ 
in Limoges. Medals, 2d class, 1857, 1861, 
1863. Works : Flagellation (1848) ; Inte- 
rior (1852) ; Clouds, Man Drinking (1853) ; 
St. Sebastian (1855); Fall of the Rebel 
Angels (1857) ; Orpheus charming Wild 
Beasts, Grandmother (1859) ; Head of an 
Old Man (1861) ; Dancing Fauns (1867) ; 
Adoration of Shepherds (1872) ; Good Sa- 
maritan (1875) ; Deluge (1876) ; Raising of 
Lazarus (1879) ; Evening (1880) ; Poor 
Man (1881) ; The 14th of July (1883). 
Bellier, i. 872 ; Larousse. 

PHAEL, born iu Pans in 1774, died there 
Jan. 16, 1835. History painter, pupil of 
Barthelemi, Suvee, and Regnault. Medals : 
3d class, 1804 ; 2d class, 1808 ; 1st class, 
1817 ; L. of Honour, 1831. Works : Good 
Samaritan (1804) ; Empress Josephine sur- 
rounded by Children (1806) ; Death of Ja- 
cob in Egypt (1808); Clemency of Napoleon 
towards Mile, de Saint-Simon (1810), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Saul (1814), Dijon Muse- 
um ; JSiieas on Mount Ida (1817) ; Taking 
of Montereau-Faut-Yonne by Charles YH. 
(1819), Melun Museum ; Numa Pompilius 
and the Nymph Egeria (1819), Versailles 
Museum ; Episode in War in Spain, "Waking 
of Psyche (1819); Due de Bordeaux present- 
ed to the People (1822) ; Chaste Susanna, 
Love and Discord contemplating their Work, 
Homer blind and reduced to Beggary (1824); 
Annunciation, Sacred Heart of Christ, Ap- 
parition to St. Clo tilde, St. Louis in Prayer 
before Battle (1824), Chapel of Princess de 
Conde, Temple, Paris ; Prodigal Son ; Christ 
on Calvary (1831), Ministry of Public Works, 
Paris ; Eve seeing herself in a Wave, Sappho 
singing her Last Verses, Psyche Abandoned, 
Inflexions (1831). Bellier, i. 871. 

Paris, June 15, 1636, died there, Dec. 13, 
1716. French school ; history painter, pu- 
pil of Chauveau and Lebrun up to 1658 ; 
then studied in Koine after Baphael, and for 


~-~^L '--^Jtekl) 

three years in Venice. On his return he 
painted in St. Eustache, the choir and roof 
paintings in ^---^-_ 

the Assump- 
tion, and ex- 
ecuted frescos 
in Versailles 
and Meudon, 
Went to Lon- 
don in 1689 
and 1690 
decorate the ; 
country house 
of Lord Montagu, and after his return ex- 
ecuted (1692-1707) paintings in the cupola 
of the Church of the Invalides. Member 
of the Academy in 1673, professor in 1674, 
director in 1699, rector in 1702, chancellor 
in 1715. Works: Moses saved from the 
Waters, Annunciation, Marriage of Virgin, 
Rape of Proserpine (1673), Triumph of Bac- 
chus, Sacrifice of Iphigenia, Louvre ; Christ 
served by the Angels in the Desert, Hope 
and Temperance, Faith and Charity, Gren-, 
oble Museum ; Christ giving the Keys to St. 
Peter, Lille Museum ; Aristotle in Love, 
Montpellier Museum ; Assumption, Scenes 
of the Deluge, Nancy Museum ; Deification 
of JEneas, Venus asking Arms of Vulcan, 
Jupiter overcoming CaUisto, Nantes Muse- 
um ; Pan and Syrinx, Daphne fleeing from 
Apollo, Jethro presenting his Daughter 
Zipporah to Moses, Orleans Museum ; Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, Sunrise, Rouen Mu- 
seum ; Clytia changed into a Sunflower, 
Apollo and Thetis, Annunciation, Trianon 
Palace ; Resurrection, Apsis of Chapel, Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Apollo on his Chariot 
accompanied by the Seasons, Augustus 
causing the Port of Mycene to be built, 
Vespasian directing the building of the 
Coliseum, Coriolanus raising the Siege of 
Rome, Alexander restoring to Porus his 
Lands, Salon d'Apollon, ib.; Jason and the 
Argonauts landing at Colchis, Alexander 
at the Lion-Hunt, Sacrifice of Iphigenia, 
Salle de Diane, ib. Bellier, i. 873; Ch. 
Blanc, ICcole Fransaise, i ; Jal, 724 ; La- 


rousse, x. f>4 ; Momoires in edits, ii. 1 ; Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

born in Stockholm, Oct., 1737, died there, 
Dec. 6, 1808. Genre, portrait, and history 
painter, pupil of his father, a Swedish minia- 
ture painter ; went to Paris in 1771 ; made 
a member of the Stockholm Academy and 
court -painter in 1773, but returned to Paris 
in 1774, where he painted many rococo 
pieces in the style of Laucret, Pater, and 
Fragonard. In Stockholm, after 1791, he 
painted portraits, small historical scenes, 
and rural fetes. Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 
280 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Mtiler desxviii. Jahrh., 

LAGAKDE, PIERRE, born in Paris; 
contemporary. History, genre, and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Busson, Humbert, 
Dubufe, and Mazerolle. Medals : 3d class, 
1882; 2d class, 1885.' Works: Valley of 
Bethoncles (1878) ; Susanna at the Bath 
(1879); Education of a Parrot (1880) ; The 
Virgin in the Desert (1881) ; Annunciation 
to the Shepherds (1882) ; Christ and the 
Woman of Samaria (1883); End of the Day 
(1884); Super Flumina Babylonis, The Vigil 

bom in Paris in 1775, died there, April 27, 
1832. History, genre, and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Louis Jean Frai^ois La- 
grenee and pupil of Vincent ; served in the 
army during several campaigns ; went to St. 
Petersburg in 1823, painted portraits for 
the Emperor Alexander and some excellent 
pictures of Russian life. On his return to 
France gave up history for miniature paint- 
ing.- Bellier, i. 880. 

Paris in 1740, died there, Feb. 13, 1821. 
History painter, pupil of his brother Louis 
Jean Fran 9013, with whom he went to Rus- 
sia in 1760, and to Rome in 1763. In 1775 
he became member of the Academy, and 
professor in 1781. Made many designs for 
Sevres porcelain, on the manufacture of 
which he exercised much influence. Works : 

Melancholy, Louvre; Winter (1775), Ceiling 
in Galerie d'Apollon, ib. ; A Marriage in An- 
tiquity (1776), Angers Museum ; Equestrian 
Portrait of General Rapp with his Aides-de- 
Camp, Colmar Museum ; St. John preaching 
in the Desert, Grenoble Museum ; Taurea 

Jubelhis stab- 

billg bimself be ~ 

fore the Procon- 
sul Eulcius 
(1790), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; 
Artemisia at the 
V A*/) To nib of Mauso- 

/ QV lus, Orleans Mu- 

seum ; Portrait of a General, Strassburg 
Museum. Bellier, i. 879 ; Oh. Blanc, Ecole 

born in Paris, Dec. 30, 1724, died there, 
June 19, 1805. History painter, pupil of 
Carle van Loo ; won the grand prix ; went 
to Rome in 1750, and returned in 1753 ; re- 
ceived into the Academy in 1755, and made 
professor in 1758. In 1760 the Empress 
Elizabeth Petrovna called him to St. Peters- 
burg to replace Le Lorrain as director of the 
Academy and court-painter, but he returned 
to Paris in 1763, and in 1781 became direc- 
tor of the French Academy in Rome. Na- 
poleon made him chevalier of the L. of 
Honour and rector of the ]2cole des Beaux 
Arts in 1804 Works: Abduction of De- 
janira (1755), Justice and Clemency (1765), 
Louvre ; Alexander visiting the Family of 
Darius (1785), Mercury committing Bac- 
chus to the Nymphs of Naxos, Angers 
Museum ; Genii of the Arts, Bayeux Mu- 
seum ; Diana at the Bath, Besan<;on Mu- 
seum ; Two Widows of an Indian Offt- 
cer (1783), Dijon Museum; Empims 
Elizabeth Petrovna, Museum, Douai ; Res- 
urrection, Assumption, St. Peter's, ib.; 
Cupid chained by the 

Graces, Marseilles / uarQ>WPf. + 
Museum ; Alexander * J 
consulting Oracle at Delphi (1789), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Visitation of the Virgin, 


Madrid Museum. L' Art (1877), xi. 25, 
137, 235 ; Bellier, i. 877 ; Oh. Blanc, ICeole 
fran9aise, ii.; Jal, 729 ; Lejeune, Guide, iii. 

LAG YE, VICTOR, born in Antwerp; con- 
temporary. Genre painter, pupil of Leys ; 
takes his subjects principally from life of 
14th and 15th centuries. Lives in Antwerp. 
Order of Leopold. Works : Antiquary ; 
Mother laying her Child into Cradle ; Sculp- 
tor at Close of 15th Century ; Bridal Pro- 
cession ; Gypsies ; Archer ; Enchantress, 
Brussels Museum ; Flemish Interior, Eob- 
ert Hoe, New York ; Fair Amanuensis, Mrs. 
Paran Stevens, ib. ; Historiographer, H. R. 
Bishop, ib. ; Departure, H. L. Dousman, 
St. Louis. Mailer, 316; Eiegel, Wand- 
malerei in Belg., 42. 

LAHOEIO, LEON, born in Kussia in 
1827. Landscape painter, pupil of St. Pe- 
tersburg Academy, where he won the first 
prize in 1850 ; then studied in Italy, and 
afterwards became professor in St. Peters- 
burg. Works : Well near Rocca di Papa ; 
Castello Fusano ; View near Sorrento ; Shore 
on Black Sea ; Landscape in the Caucasus 

LA HYRK See Hire. 

LAIA, painter. See Ma. 

LAIRESSE, GERARD DE, the elder, born 
at Liege in 1640, 
buried at Amster- 
dam, July 28, 
1711. Dutch 
school ; history 
an d allegory 
painter, pupil of 
his father, Renier 
de Lairesse, and &>.$ 
of Bartholet Fle- 
mael, but formed 
himself chiefly after Nicolas Poussin, whence 
sometimes called the Dutcji Poussin. Emi- 
grated early to Holland, and lived succes- 
sively at Bois-le-Duc, Utrecht, The Hague 
(where mentioned as member of the guild 
in 1684), and Amsterdam ; having become 
blind in 1690, he gathered around him a 

circle of artists and patrons of art, to whom 
he communicated his ideas ; thus originated 
the work published by his son, "Het Groot 
Schilderboek." His three brothers, Ernst, 
Jakob, and Jan, were all painters, and his 
sons, Abraham, Gerard, and Jan, were his 
pupils and imitators. Works: Institution 
of the Eucharist, Cleopatra landing at Tar- 
sus, Dance of Children, Choice of Hercules, 
Louvre ; Two Allegories, Mars, Yenus and 
Cupid (2), Diana and Endymion, Seleucus 
ceding his Wife and Sceptre to Antiochus, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Death of Pyrrhus, 
Brussels Museum ; Achilles recognized by 
Ulysses, Bacchus consoling Ariadne, Apothe- 
osis of William IDL, Hague Museum ; Bac- 
chus and Pomona with Nymphs, Basle Mu- 
seum ; Bacehanale, Musee Rath, Geneva ; 
Achilles among Daughters of Lycomedes, 
Venus Mourning, Dancing Children, Smithy 
of Vulcan, Bacchanal, Ulysses and Calypso, 
Ariadne and Bacchus, Rape of Sabines, 
Brunswick Gallery; Baptism of Achilles, 
Satyr and Nymphs, Berlin Museum ; Achilles 
dragging the Body of Hector, Bacchus with 
Bacchantes, Death of Germanicus, Male Por- 
trait, Cassel Gallery ; Alexander and Roxana, 
Jeroboam's Pagan Altar, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Adoration of the Magi, Darmstadt 
Museum ; Apollo and the Muses on Parnas- 
sus, Festival of Priapus, Fauns in a Land- 
scape, Dresden Museum ; Allegorical Repre- 
sentations of an Artist's Life (2), Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Woman and Four Children, 
Priestess Offering, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Dido caressing Cupid in the Guise 
of Ascanius, Ulysses and the Sirens, Minerva 
restoring to Ulysses his Form, Solomon offer- 
ing to the Idols, Artist's Portrait, Schleiss- 
heirn Gallery ; Seleucus ceding his Wife and 
Throne to Antiochus Soter (1673. replicas in 
Carlsruhe and Oldenburg Galleries), Hunt- 
ing Booty of Diana, Satyrs and Nymphs in 
Jolly Combat (1687), Children's Scene in 
Italian Park, Children's Round-Dance, Schwe- 
rin Gallery ; Venus and Cupid, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Artillery Post, Soldiers and Wom- 
en Carousing, Neptune and Amphitrite 


received by Cybele, Museum, Vienna ; Al- ! 
legory, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Portrait 
of Himself, Uffizi, Florence ; others in Augs- 
burg Gallery. Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise; 

Fetis, Les Ai 
tistes beiges 
Fetranger, i 
r 1G7; Mich 
^C- iels, x. 184 
y Inimerzeel, ii 

^ ' *S*S 15(T;Kramm 

iii. 932 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 320 ; Riegel 
Beitrage, ii. 307. 

the younger, Basle Museum ; wood, H. 1 ft 
2 in. x 10 in. ; inscribed Lais Corinthiaca 
1526. Portrait of a young woman, Doro 
thea Offenburg, half-length, elegantly clad 
as Lais. From Auerbach Collection. En- 
graved by Frederic Weber. The same lady 
figures also as Venus in another picture 
by Holbein in the Basle Museum. Wolt- 
mann, Holbein, ii. 100 ; Mantz, Holbein, 

LAKE GEORGE, Jolm Frederick Ken- 
wtt, Morris K. Jesup, New York ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. x 6 ft. At right, an open foreground 
of rocks, with a fallen tree ; in background, 
high hills ; and between, the placid lake, 
with wooded islands and steep forest-clad 
headlands. Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876., 
L'ALLEMAND, FRITZ, born at Hanau 
in 1812, died in Vienna, Sept. 20, 1866. 
Battle and military genre painter, pupil of 
the Vienna Academy. Attracted general at- 
tention in 1840 by an episode from the Span : 
ish guerilla-war, and was encouraged by nu- 
merous orders from the court and the nobility 
to treat the same class of subjects. Was 
appointed professor at the Vienna Academy 
before 1865. Works : Skirmish near Znaim ; 
Scenes from Radetzky's Campaign in 1849 ; 
Archduke Charles at Stockach ; Skirmishes 
near Oberselk ; Oeversee and Veile in 1864 ; 
Banquet at Schonbrunn ; Banquet of Repre- 
sentatives of the Army in Schonbrunn Park. 
-Allgem. d. Biogr., xviL 530 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, i. 142 ; Wurzbach, xiv. 13. 

enna, March 8, 1840. Battle and genre 
painter, nephew and pupil of Fritz, and 
scholar of Vienna Academy under Ruben ; 
exhibited his first important works in 1864, 
after the Schleswig-Holstein campaign, in 
which he had taken part. He also followed 
the Austrian army to Italy in 1866. Med- 
als : Paris, 2d class, 1867, 1878. Member 
of Vienna Academy. Works : Storming of 
the Konigsberg, Battle at Oeversee (1864); 
Victory of the Austrians at Kollin (1867); 
Battle of Caldiero ; Scenes from Italian 
Campaign oJf 1859 ; Battle of Custozza in 
1866 ; Mute Cry for Help ; Equestrian Por- 
trait of General Laudou (1878); Victory at 
Martinestie in 1781) (1879). MQUer, 9; 
Wurzbach, xiv. 15. 

at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1830. Portrait, genre, 
and flower painter, studied with his father, 
J. R Lambdin, portrait painter, and then 
in Munich and Paris. Professional life 
spent in Philadelphia, with the exception of 
two years (1868-70) in New York. Elected 
N.A. in 1868. Works : Our Sweetest Songs 
are those which tell of Saddest Thoughts 
(1858); Dead Wife (1867); Twilight Reverie ; 
Happy Mornings of Life and of May, Mrs. 
Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia ; Ask me no 
more; Little Knitter; June Roses (1880); 
Willow Seat (1881) ; La Pactole and La 
France, Roses (1882); As Tar as Angels 
Ken, Viva (1884) ; Pink and Yellow Roses 
(1885); Hesperus (1886). Tuckerman, 

LAMBERT, GEORGE, born in Kent in 
1710, died in London, Nov. 30, 1765. Pu- 
)il of William Hassel and of John Wooton ; 
tainted landscapes chiefly, after the manner 
>f Caspar Poussin. Some of his figures are 
attributed to Hogarth, of whom he was a 
onvivial friend. Lambert was first presi- 
lent of the Society of Artists, and founder 
>f the Beefsteak Club. With Scott, painted 
ix large pictures of Eastern settlements 
bat were in the India House. Redgrave ; 
Taylor, Fine Arts, ii. 94. 


LAMBERT, LOUIS EUGENE, born in \ In the Month of May, Environs of Delft 
Paris, September 25, 1825. Genre and ani-j (1857); In the Fields (1859); Banks of the 
mal painter, pupil of Delacroix ; especially | Seine at Bougival, River Yeules (1861); Vil- 

noted as a careful and humorous painter 
of cats and dogs. Medals : 1865, 1866, 
1870 ; 3d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1874 
Works : Stable (1852); In the Curtain, Rab- 
bits (1855) ; Dead Nature, Expiation, Cat 
and Parrot (1857) ; Hunting-Dogs (1859) ; 
Remedy Worse than the Disease, Market in 
a Small Town (1861); Market (1863); Drink- 
ing-Place, Hunting (1864) ; Fox-Terrier, 
Clock is Too Fast (1865); Relays of Hunt- 
ing-Horses (1866); Fire-Place for the Guard, 
Envied Spot (1837); Coming Storm, Thief 
scaling the Wall (1868) ; Masters of the 
House (1869); Cat and Kittens, Antecham- 

lage in Normandy (1863) ; Autumn at SL 
Marc-la-Bruyere, Morning at Yvre-1'Eveque 
(1864) ; Course of the Yvetta (1865), Be- 
san yon Museum : River under the Trees 
(1866) ; Dock at Dieppe, The Valley of 
Arques (1868); Coast of Xormamly (1869) ; 
Oak at Ynv-FE\vque, Lock at Bougival 
(1870) ; Slopes of Jonchere at Bougival 
(1872); Pond in Woods in November (18 73); 
Seine at Bougival, Normandy Pasture, Coun- 
try in Autumn (1874) ; Bluff at Croissy 
(1875) ; Summer, The Bas-Prunay (1876) ; 
Village of Quineville (1877) ; Noon, H. R 
Bishop, New York ; Landscapes, KV.New- 

ber (1870); Covetousness, Fallen Greatness ! comb, ib., J. T. Martin, Brooklyn, E. B. 
(1872) ; Lst us Drink, Interrupted Sleep Warren, Philadelphia, Fairnian Rogers, 

(1873); Temporary Installation, Meal-Time 
(1874); The Enemy, Parcel (1875); At Home 
(1876); During Service (1877); Richelieu's 
Cats, Fallen Greatness (1878) ; Strand at 
Villerville (1879); Evening in the Marshes, 
Low Tide (1880); Banks of the Somme 
(1883); Duck-Hunters Hut by Moonlight 
(1884); Banks at Pont-de-1'Arche, Ash-Tree i 

ib. ; Flowers of May, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, 
ib.; Landscape with Figures, T. Wiggles- 
worth, Boston ; Mill Stream, J. W. McCoy, 
Baltimore ; Boy Fishers, Charles Parsons, 
St. Louis ; Landscape (1865), Seney sale, 
New York. Bellier, i. 890 ; Fine Arts Quar- 
terly Rev., i. 253 ; Larousse ; Jarves, Art 

at Mutrecy (1885); Feline Family, Miss C. j LAMBRECHTS, JAN BAPTIST, born at 
L. Wolfe, New York ; Cat and Kittens, M Antwerp, baptized Feb. 28, 1680, diedprob- 
K Jesup, ib.; Cats, Fletcher Harper, ib.;!ably in Germany, after 1731. Flemish 
Kittens Playing, Charles Stewart Smith, ib. j school ; genre painter, self-taught ; went in 
Bellier, i. 889 ; Montrosier, i. j 1703 to Lille, and returned in 1709, when 

LAMBINET, EMILE, born at Versailles, j he became master of the guild ; left Ant- 
Jan, 13, 1815, died at Bougival, Jan. 1, 1 werp in 1731 and probably went to Ger- 
1878. Landscape painter, pupil at first of ! many, where most of his works are to be 
Boiselier, later of Drolling and of Horace j found. Works : Peasant Family at Dinner, 

Yeraet. Medals : 3d class, 1843 ; 2d class, 
1853, 1857 ; L. of Honour, 1867. Visited 

Augsburg Gallery ; Men and Women Drink- 
ing, do. assembled before a House, Bruns- 

the East, Algeria, and Holland. Works : wick Museum ; Men and Women before 
View of Senlisse (1833) ; do. (1836), Cam- 1 Tavern, Gotha Museum ; Tavern Interiors 

brai Museum ; View in Dauphiny (1837) ; 
Valley of Cherreuse (1839); Banks of Gar- 
don (1840), Avignon Museum ; The Torrent 
(1843); Cemetery of the Dwarf Palms 
(1846) ; Women Bathing (1849), Amiens 
Museum ; Autumn Morning (1850), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Plain of Malvoisin (1853); 
Road ia a Hollow, Under the Trees (1855); 

(2), Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Peas- 
ants around Table before Inn, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; Family Conversations (2), 
TJffizi, Florence ; Young Man and Wife be- 
fore Dish with Dessert, Man and Wife by a 
Barrel, Three Men at Table Drinking, Man 
and Wife in Kitchen, Stockholm Museum. 
Van den Branden, 1201. 



born at Saint-Calais (Sarthe), May 13, 1836 
History and genre painter, pupil of Flandriu 
andGleyre ; aims at attracting the public by 
peculiar, bizarre subjects, treated with great 
talent, humour, and technical skill. Works : 
A Flaneur (1859); Ash Wednesday, Reunion 
of Friends (1861); Deception (1864); Ma- 
donna (1865), Angers Museum ; An Execu- 
tion (1866) ; Clown, Difference (1868) ; Cu- 
pid and the Widow (1869); Clown and 
Dwarf (1872); Sea Swallow, The Victor, Ba- 
zile (1875). 
LAMBTON, MASTER, Sir Thomas Laiv- 

Master Lambton, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Earl of Durham, 

rence, Earl of Durham. Son of J. G. Lamb- 
ton, Lord Durham; full-length, seated on 
the rocky edge of a precipice, overlooking a 
landscape. Royal Academy, 1825. Engraved 
by S. Cousins "(1827), G. H. Phillips (1839). 
Gower, 45, 73. 

JACOB VAN DER, born at Antwerp or 
Brussels about 1615, died at Antwerp short- 

I ly after Sept. 22, 1651. Flemish school ; 
genre painter, son and pupil of Jacob van 
der Larnen (born in 1584) ; master of the 
guild at Antwerp in 1636. When not 
signed, his pictures usually pass under the 
names of Jan le Ducq and Palamedes, as 
in the museums of Darmstadt, Frankfort, 
Gotha, and Meiningeu. His best are in 
Italy. Works: Musical Party, Game of 
Tric-Trac, Young Man's Portrait, Th. van 
Lerius, Antwerp ; Game of Tric-Trac, Dun- 
kirk Museum ; Company of Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen at Play, Lille Museum ; Soldiers and 
Women carousing, Madrid Museum ; La- 
dies and Gentlemen dancing, Gotha Muse- 
um ; Card Players, Hanover Gallery '; do. 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Soldiers and 
Women carousing, Madrid Museum ; Con- 
versation-pieces (8), Mansi Collection, Luc- 
ca ; Married Couple plundered by Robbers, 
and another (both attiibuted to Rubens), 
Palazzo Corsini, Rome. Bode, Studien, 172; 
Rooses (Reber), 383 ; Van den Branden, 
1009 ; Van Leiius, Artistes Anversois, ii. 

LAMI, LOUIS EUG15NE, born in Paris, 
Jan. 12, 1800. Histoiy and genre painter, 
pupil of Gros and Horace Vernet. Gained 
his first laurels as a water-colour painter of 
scenes in fashionable life ; has since paint- 
ed historical subjects and pictures of life 
in Russia. Medals : 2d class, 1865 ; L. 
of Honour, 1837 ; Officer, 1862. Works : 
Studies of Horses, Battle of Puerto de Mira- 
vento (1824), Versailles Museum ; Battle of 
Tramaced (1827) ; Fight in the Balkan ; 
Charles L receiving a Rose when on his Way 
to Prison (1831); Skirmish at Claye (1831), 
Versailles Museum ; Manoeuvres at Corona- 
tion of Nicholas I. (1827); Racing to Church ; 
Muscovite Courage (1834) ; Masqueraders 
in a Wagon (1836) ; Battle of Hondscoote, 

1793 (1836), Lille Museum ; do. (1838), and 
Fight in Defiles of the Argonne (1835), Bat- 
tle of Wattignies, Taking of Maestricht 

1794 (1837), Surrender of Antwerp 1832 
[1838), Versailles Museum ; Reception at 
Si James's (1853) ; Ball at the Tuileries ; 



Eace at Chantilly ; Capture of Coustantine ; 
Eeview of Chasseurs ; Ball at the Opera 
(1846); Battle of the Alma (1855, bought by 
State); Fete at Versailles on Yisit of Queen 
Victoria (1855) ; Via Novissima in Genoa 
(1855): Supper in Salle de Spectacle at Ver- ; 
sallies (1857), Church Interior, Luxembourg ; 
Museum ; Abdication of Mary Stuart (1867); I 
Last Auto da-Fe in Madrid in 1670 (1873) ; ! 
Knox preaching before Mary Queen of Scots ; 
(1877) ; Four pictures from History of l 
Charles IX. (1878) ; Seven water-colours, ] 
Hertford House, London, Sir Eichard Wai- j 
lace. Bellier, L 891 ; Bitard, 763 ; Mailer, j 
317. ' 

Dordrecht, Sept. 27, 1812. Genre painter, 
son and pupil of Arnoldus (died, Eotterdam, 
1856); then studied in Paris under his cous- 
ins, Aiy and Henry Scheffer. Gold med- 
als : Eotterdam, 1836 ; Paris, 1845. Works : 
Family Scene from 16th Century (1836); Ja- 
cob Simonsz de Eyck returning from Span- 
ish Captivity ; Patriotism of Adriaan van der 
Werff ; Guard-Eoom in 17th Centuiy ; Dan- 
gerous Post ; Old Dutch Interior (1845); 
Surprise of Spanish Post ; The Water-Gueux 
at Dordrecht on June 25, 1572 ; Prince Wil- 
lem proclaimed Stadtholder ; Maximilian 
van Egmont taking Leave of his Family ; 
Buwaard de Wit compelled to annul Edict 
(1853) ; Mme. de Montigny begging Ann of 
Austria for her Husband's Life (1854); In- 
terior of Ary Schefter's Studio, C. C. Per- 
kins, Boston. Immerzeel, ii. 154 ; Kramm, 
iii. 939. 

Antwerp, April 28, 1828. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Antwerp Academy; studied 
much from nature. Medals in Brussels 
(1857), Vienna (1873), Paris (1878); Order 
of Leopold (1860); Officer (1869); Command- 
er Order of Frauds Joseph of Austria 
Honorary member of Eotterdam (1864) and 
Prague (1877) Academies. Studio in Ant- 
werp, and professor at the Academy since 
1885. Works : View near Spaa, View near 
Edeghem, Brussels Museum ; Eocky Land- 

scape (1853), Ghent Museum ; Interior of 
Burnham Forest ; English Snow Landscape ; 
. Summer Landscape near Antwerp ; Swamp ; 
; Morning in the Ardennes; First Autumn 
I Days (1878); Isle of Walcheren (1878), Ant- 
; werp Museum ; Solitude (1878); Wartburg 
near Eisenach ; Four Seasons. Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 526 ; Mailer, 318. 

the elder, born at Eomeno, Tyrol, Dec. 31, 
1751, died in Vienna, Feb. 11, 1830. Por- 
trait painter, first instructed by his father, 
a village painter, then from 1768 pupil of 
Unterberger in Salzburg, and from 1771 of 
Lorenzi in Verona, where he became a mem- 
ber of the Academy. After his return home 
settled in Trent, became renowned for his 
portraits, was called to Vienna in 1783, and 
was made professor and councillor of the 
Academy in 1786. The following year he 
painted in Warsaw the royal family of Po- 
land, and in 1791 in Si Petersburg Cather- 
ine IL and the whole imperial family. He 
returned to Vienna in 1798 and was knighted, 
During the French invasion in 1805 he did 
much towards the preservation of paintings 
and other objects of art. Honorary mem- 
ber of the St. Petersburg and Stockholm 
Academies. Works: Young Lady Artist, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Little Girl feeding 
Bird, Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donauesching- 
en ; Artist's and another Male Portrait, 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; Artist's Portrait, 
Vienna Museum ; Portraits of Archduchesses 
Elizabeth and Maria Anna, of Counts En- 
zenberg and Auersperg, of Joseph TL (1784), 
Vienna Academy ; Emperor Francis L ; King 
of Sweden ; Canova ; Prince Kaunitz ; Baron 
von Sperger ; Lucretia and Tarquin ; Flight 
of the Vestal Virgins from Borne. His two 
sons, Johann Baptist (1775-1837) and Franz 
(1783-1852), also attained to considerable 
reputation, the former as a portrait painter, 
the latter as marine and landscape painter. 
Portraits by the former, of Canova and Field- 
Marshal Prince Johann Liechtenstein, are in 
the Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. Allgexn. 
d. Biogr., xviL 580 ; Wurzbach, xiv. 57, 


LANA, LUDOYICO, born at Modem (or 
at Codigoro, near Ferrara ?) in 1597, died in 
Koine (or at Modena?) in 1646. History 
painter, pupil at Ferrara of Scarsellino, and 
at Bologna of Guerciuo ; afterwards became 
director of Modena Academy. Works : 
Death of Clorinda, Madonna, Death of Abel, 
Erminia dismounted presents herself to Old 
Man who is listening to Children's Singing, 
Figures of Saints (2), Galleria Estense, Mo- 
dena ; Delivery of Modena from the Plague, 
Chiesa nuova, ib. ; Death of Clorinda, Turin 
Gallery. Laclerchi. 

LANCE, GEORGE, born at Little Easton, 
March 24, 1802, died near Birkenhead, 
June 18, 1864. Still-life and history painter, 
pupil of Benjamin Haydon ; especially noted 
for painting fruit and flowers. First exhibit- 
ed in 1828. Works : The Brothers (1837) ; 
Gil Bias (1839) ; May I have this? (1840) ; 
The Ballad (1841) ; The Microscope (1842) ; 
Village Coquette (1843) ; Marshal Due de 
Birou (1845) ; Preparations for a Banquet 
(1846) ; From the Garden and from the 
Lake (1847) ; The Blonde and the Brunette 
(1851) ; The Seneschal (1852) ; Harold 
(1855) ; Fair Italy (1857) ; A Sunny Bank 
(1861) ; Gleam of Sunshine (1862) ; Basket 
of Fruit, Reel Cap, Fruit, National Gallery, 
London. Redgrave; Cat. Nat. Gal.; Art 
Journal (1857), 305. 

Madrid in 1586, died there in 1658. Span- 
ish school ; history painter, the most note- 
worthy pupil of Patricio Caxes ; was em- 
ployed to paint for the Jesuits' convent at 
Madrid, and for the Carthusians of Paular, 
and, according to Cean Bermudez, who saw 
his pictures, ranks among the best painters 
of Spain. Stirling, ii. 691. 

bora atLods (Doubs), March 17, 1794, died 
in Besancon, Aug. 5, 1874. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Girodet-Tiioson. Custodian of 
the Besangon Museum, and corresponding 
member of the French Institute. Medals : 
1st class, 1817 ; L. of Honour, 1860. Works : 
Tobias restoring his Father's Sight (1817), 

'Besanyon Museum; Male Portrait, ib. ; 
Apotheosis of St. Genevieve (1827), St. Lau- 
rent, Paris ; Peace, Justice, Abundance ; 
The River Scamander (1824), Amiens Mu- 
seum ; Alpheusand Arethusa (1831) ; Child 
playing with a Dog (1845). Bellier, i. 895. 
LANQRET, NICOLAS, born in Paris, 
Jan. 22, 16i)0, died 
there, Sept. 14, 
1743. French 
school; genre paint- 
er, pupil of Dulin 
(1669-1748) and 
Gillot ; formed him- 
self chiefly after 
Watteau, who broke 
with him in 1719 
when both were 
admitted to the Academy. The pictures of 
the two masters are often confounded from 
similarity of subject and treatment, though 
Watteau is far the greater artist. Works : 
Spring- Time, Summer, Autumn, Winter, 
Gascon Punished (1738), Actors of the The- 
atre Italian, The Cage, Turtle-Doves, Bird's 
Nest, Gallant Conversation, Louvre ; Italian 
Kepast ; Blind Man's Buff ; Miles. Salle and 
Camargo Danseuses performing in a Gar- 
den ; The Maid Justified ; The Five Senses; 
Amorous Turk ; Beautiful Greek ; Mill of 
Quiquengrogne, The Ages, The Elements, 
Women Bathing, Rouen Museum ; Wedding 
Dance, Wedding Feast, Summer, Winter, 
Augers Museum ; Landscape with Figures, 
Fou tain eblean ; Game of Four Coins, Min- 
uet, Besanyon Museum ; Walk in Garden of 
Marly, Rustic Scene, Bordeaux Museum ; 
Masked Ball, Arrival of a Lady, Portrait of 
the Dan sense Camargo, Two Cavaliers offer- 
ing Flowers to Ladies, Nantes Museum ; 
Ham Breakfast, Orleans Museum ; Prome- 
nade at Longchamps, Perpignan Museum ; 
Turtle-Doves' Nest, Valenciennes Museum ; 
Arcadian Scene in a Landscape, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Dancing in the Open Air, Two sim~ 
ilar Subjects, Dresden Museum ; Social 
Gathering in a Park, Schleissheiru Gallery ; 
.do., Schwerin Gallery ; Musical Assembly 


in a Garden, Love Couples with Birds' 
Nests, Girls Bathing, Kitchen Interior, Sim- 
ilar Subject, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Infancy, Youth, Manhood, Age, National 
Gallery, London ; and many in private col- 
lections in England and France. Bellier, i. 
895 ; Oh. Blanc, Ecole franyaise ; Dohme, 
3 ; Houssaye, Gal. du xviii. Siecle, i. 263 ; 
Jal, 734 ; Larousse ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 219 ; 
Villot, Cat Louvre; Wedmore, 183 ; Wurz 
bach, 24. 

LANDELLE, CHAKLES, bom at Laval 
(Mayenne), June 2, 1821. Genre painter, 
pupil of Delaroche and of Ary Scheffer, 
whom he vainly tried to approach in depth 
of expression. Executed decorative works 
in the Elysee Palace and in St. Sulpice, 
Paris, and painted many portraits. Medals : 
3d class, 1842 ; 2d class, 1845 ; 1st class, 
1848 ; 3d class, 1855 ; L. of Honour, 1855. 
Works: Era Angelico (1842); Elegy, Char- 
ity (1844) ; Virgin and Holy Women at 
Tomb (bought by State); Fleurette aban- 
doned by Henry IV. (1845); Little Gypsies 
(1846); Young ^Egyptian Woman (1847); 
St. Cecilia (1848) ; The Itepublic (1849); 
Christ with St. Peter and St. John, St. Ver- 
onica (1850), Pau Museum ; The Antiquary ; 
Beatitudes (1852), Laval Museum ; Renais- 
sance (1853), Louvre ; The Virgin Resting 
(1855), St. Germain TAuxerrois, Paris ; Jew- 
ess of Tangiers ; Armenian Woman, Finland 
Girl (1857), M. Achille Fould ; Portrait of 
Admiral Baudin (1857), Versailles Museum ; 
Presentiment of the Virgin (1859), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Girl with Birds (1859) ; 
Emperor and Empress at Glass Works of 
St. Gobain ; Captive Jewesses in Babylon 
(1861), Montauban Museum; Procession of 
the Cross at Brest (1861) ; Idleness (1863) ; 
Awakening (1864) ; Meditation (1865) ; Ar- 
menian Woman, Fellah Woman, Prison in 
Tangiers, Child of Aisaout (1867); Moorish 
Woman (1868) ; Mountaineer of Aragon 
(1869) ; Velleda (1870) ; The Alrneh (1872) ; 
Samaritan Woman, Young Servian Gypsy 
(1873), Nantes Museum; Re very at Sixteen 
(1874) ; Angel of Purity, Angel of Grief 

i (1875) ; Salmacis (1877) ; Ismenis (1878) ; 
| Messenger of Storms, Siren (1879) ; Nymph 
of Fontana, Venetian Woman (1880) ; Wom- 
an of Siloam in Jerusalem, Young Fellah 
Woman in Cairo (1881) ; Naiad, Woman of 
Boghari (1882); Woman of Bethlehem, 
| Carpet Bazaar, Cairo (1883) ; Country of 
Golden Fruit (1884); Modern Law, Little 
Orphan Girl (1885 ) ; Roman Girl, Virlan- 
dese Girl, Circassian Girl, Robert Hoe, New 
York ; Angel's Watch, Israel Corse, ib. ; 
Dolce far niente, C. P. Huntington, ib. ; 
Greek Girl, G. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Egyp- 
tian Fellah Girl, C. H. Wolff, Philadelphia ; 
Neapolitan Girl, W. B. Bement, ib.; Paid 
and Virginia, B. Wall, Providence ; Egyptian 
Girl of Thebes, J. W. Garrett, Baltimore. 
Bellier, i. 896 ; Bitard.. 765 ; Eevue des Deux 
Mondes, June, 1871; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1878), xvii. 156; Larousse; Hamerton, 
Painting in France, 62 ; Meyer, Gesch., 367, 

LANDI, GASPAKO, Cavaliere, born at 
Piacenza in. 1756, died in Kome, Feb. 24, 
1830. History and portrait painter, pupil 
in Borne of Pompeo Battoni and Corvi, and 
studied the great masters of the 16th cen- 
tury, acquiring a certain purity of style and 
excellent colouring. Won the first prize at 
the Academy of Parma in 1781 ; at an ear- 
ly age became director of the section for 
painting in the Academy of San Luca in 
Borne, and in 1817 president. He is looked 
upon as one of the founders of modern 
Italian painting, and is famous for his por- 
traits, especially that of Canova. Works : 
The Three Marys at the Tomb of Christ, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Burial of the Vir- 
gin, Assumption, Piacenza Cathedral ; To- 
bias and Sarah ; Christ at Golgotha ; QEdi- 
pus in Colonos ; Mary Stuart leaving France ; 
Portrait of Canova, Bergamo Gallery ; The 
Three Marys at the Sepulchre, Florence 
Academy. Goethe, Winkelmaun, ii. 154; 
Nouv. Biog. iiniv., xxix. 348. 

LANDO, LOBENZ DI. See Vecchietta. 

Nonant (Orne) in 1760, died in Paris, March 



5, 1826. Genre painter, pupil of Regnault ; 
won the grand prix in 1792, and studied in 
Rome for five years ; was a better colouiist 
than draughtsman. He was painter to the 
Due de Bern, corresponding member of th 
Institute, custodian of the Louvre Gallery 
and knight of the L. of Honour. Published 
" Annales du Musee " (29 vols., 1801-17) 
" Vies et (Euvres des Peintres les plus Ce- 
lebres " (22 vols., 1803-17), and other works 
"Works : Eleazer refusing to eat Forbidden 
Meat (1792) ; Mother's Lesson, Pastoral 
(1800) ; Virginia Bathing (1801) ; Ledo 
with Castor and Pollux (1806), Louvre 
Venus and Cupid (1810) ; Paul and Virginia 
(1812) ; Daedalus and Icarus. Bellier, i. 
896 ; Biogr. univ., Supplement ; Villot, Cat, 
Louvre ; Larousse. 

LANDSEER, CHARLES, born in 1799, 
died in London, Ju- 
ly 22, 1879. History 
painter, son and pu- 
pil of John Land- 
seer, engraver (1769 
-1852), and elder 
brother of Sir Ed- 
win Henry Land- 
seer; student also 
with Haydon and in 
schools of Royal 

Academy ; exhibited at Royal Academy his 
Dorothea in 1828 ; became A.RA. in 1837 
and R.A. in 1845, and keeper in 1851. 
Works : Clarissa Harlowe in the Sponging- 
House (1833), Bloodhound Bitch and Pups, 
Pillaging a Jew's House in Reign of Richard 
I., Sacking of Basing House, National Gal- 
lery ; Cromwell at Naseby, 1645, National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Eve of Battle of Edgehill 
(1845). Cat Nat Gal. and Royal Acad. ; 
Sandby, ii. 176. 

in London, March 7, 1802, died there, Oct 
1, 1873. Animal painter, third son and pu- 
pil of John Landseer, engraver; began to 
draw animals when very young, some of his 
sketches, made when five, seven, and ten 
years old, being preserved at South Kensing- 

j ton. When fourteen he became a student 
of the Royal Academy, and exhibited the 
next year Heads of 
a Pointer Bitch and 
Puppy. He soon 
won an unrivalled 
reputation as an 
animal painter, and 
became A.R.A. in 
1826 and RA. in 
1830. In 1850 he 
was knighted, and 
in 1855 received at 

the French Exhibition the large gold medal, 
and in 1873 the medal at the Vienna Exhi- 
bition. Works: Dogs Fighting (1819) ; St. 
Gothard Dogs finding Traveller in Snow 
(1820) ; Two Dogs, Dog and the Shadow 
(1822) ; Sancho Panza and Dapple (1824) ; 
Highland Breakfast, Suspense (1834), 
Drover's Departure (1835), Jack in Office 
(1833), Comical Dogs, Old Shepherd's Chief 
Mourner (1837), and others, South Kensing- 
ton Museum ; Cat's Paw (1824) ; 67wu//. 
Chace (1826), Duke of Bedford ; lietum from 
Deer-Stalking (1827), Windsor Castle; 
Monkey who had seen the World (1828) ; 
Illicit Whiskey-Still (1829), Highland Music 
(1830), Low Life, High Life (1831), Hunted 
Stag (1833), Sleeping Bloodhound (1835), 
Dignity and Impudence (1839), Defeat of 
Comus (1843), Shoeing (1844), King Charles 
Spaniels (1845), Peace (1846), War (1846), 
Alexander and Diogenes (1848), Dialogue at 
Waterloo (1850), Maid and Magpie (1858), 
National Gallery, London ; Poachers Deer- 
Stalking (1831), Hermon sale (1882), 840 ; 
Sir Walter Scott aud his Dogs (1833) ; 1M- 
'on Abbey in Olden Time (1834) ; Return 
from Hawking (1837); Liftftsin the Old Dog 
yet (1838) ; Van Amburgh (1839) ; Laying 
down the Law (1840) ; Otter and Salmon 
1842) ; Otter Speared (1844) ; Shepherd's 
Prayer (1845); Monarch of the Glen, Titania 
and Bottom (1851); Children of the Mist 
1853); Kough and Beady, Uncle Tom and 
Wife, Braematr (1857), G F. H. Bolckow ; 
Deer-Stalking (1858) ; Doubtful Crumbs 


(1859) ; Flood in the Highlands (1860) ; 
Scenes in Highland Deer Forest, The Shrew 
.Tamed (1861); Hfett-Bred Sitters, Piper and 
Pair of Nut-Crackers (1864); The Connois- 
seurs, Prosperity, Adversity (1865) ; Lady 
Godiva's Prayer, Odds and Ends, The Chase 
(1866); Her Majesty at Osborne, Wild Cat- 
tle of Chillinghani (1867) ; Rent Day in 
Wilderness (1868) ; Swannery invaded by 
Eagles, Study of a Lion (1869); Queen meet- 
ing Prince Albert on Return from Deer- 
Stalking, Doctor's Visit to Poor Relations 
at Zoological Gardens (1870) ; Baptismal 
Font, Lion and the Lamb (1872) ; Tracker, 
Sketch of the Queen (unfinished, 1873); 
Man Proposes but God Disposes, Holloway 
Institute, Egham, near London ; Stag at 
Bay, Lord Godolphin ; Dogs and Duck, ex- 
Governor E. D. Morgan, New York ; After 
the Chase, TV 7 . H. Vanderbilt Collection, ib. 
More than three hundred engravings have 
been made after his works. He designed 
the four colossal lions at the base of Nel- 
son's column, Trafalgar Square, London. 
Graves, Cat. of Works of Sir E. Landseer, 
(London, 1875); Redgrave; Cat. Nat. Gal.; 
Eraser's Mag., July, 1856 ; Stephens, Early 
Works of L. (London, 1869) ; do., Sir E. L. 
(London, 1880) ; Sandby, ii. 143 ; Portfolio 
(1871), 165 ; Athenaeum, Oct., 1873, 440 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii. 327 ; Zeitsch. f. b. 
K, x. 129, 163. 

born in Parma 
in 1580 or 
1581, died in 
Rome, Nov. 
29, 1647. Ro- 
man school ; 
pupil of Agos- 
tino Carracci, 
then at Fer- 
rara; on his 
master's death 
(1601) he went to Rome and assisted Anni- 
bale Carracci, from whose designs he exe- 
cuted frescos in the Palazzo Farnese. 
Among his earliest original works are the 

! Assumption, in a chapel of S. Agostino 
1 (which gave him reputation), and a Virgin 
j in the Clouds with Saints (1621-25), cupola 
of S. Andrea della Valle. This work had 
been promised to Domenichino, who had 
already painted the walls, and Lanfranco 
was thus brought into direct competition 
with that great artist In 1631 he went to 
Naples and executed works in the Gesii, now 
destroyed, and in other churches, remaining- 
there until 1646, when he returned to Rome. 
Among his best pictures are St. Louis feed- 
ing the Poor, Venice Academy, and Libera- 
tion of St. Peter, Palazzo Colonna, Rome. 
Other works in public galleries : Mary Mag- 
dalen, Si Peter in Tears, do. with Book and 
Keys, Artist's Portrait, TJfftzi, Florence ; As- 
sumption, Ecstasy of S. Margherita da Cor- 
tona, Palazzo Pitti, ib.; The Virgin with 
Christ liberating a Soul, Virgin in the Clouds 
and Saints, Satan enchained by Angels, Re- 
pose in Egypt, St. Jerome roused by Trum- 
pet of Last Judgment, Infant Christ adored 
by Saints, Naples Museum ; History of Mo- 
ses, Last Supper, Quirinal, Rome; Hagar 
in the Desert, St. Peter, Separation of SS. 
Peter and Paul, Coronation of the Virgin, 
Louvre, Paris; St. John Baptist, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Jacob's Dream, Basle Mu- 
seum ; Mary Magdalen, Berlin Museum ; 
St. Paul in Malta throwing the Adder into 
the Fire, Cassel Gallery ; Cimon nursed by 
Ms Daughter Pero, Darmstadt Museum; 
Peter Penitent, Four Old Sorcerers, Dres- 
den Museum ; The Angel showing to Hagar 
the Spring, Mater Dolorosa, Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Madonna 
appearing to Hermits, Vienna Museum ; Ob- 
sequies of Julius Csesar, Roman Soldiers 
receiving Crowns, Banquet of Patricians, 
Roman Mock Sea-Fight, The Auspices, Ma- 
drid Museum. Ch. Blanc, iScole ombrienne ; 
Burckhardt, 764, 794, 798 ; Baldinucci, iv. 

LANG, HEINRICH, born at Ratisbon, 
April 24, 1838. Horse painter, pupil of the 
Munich Academy under Friedrich Voltz ; 
visited the studs of Wtlrtemberg and military 



pageants; spent eight years (1860-G8) in 
Hungary, tlie Banubian principalities, and 
in Paris ; took part in. the campaign of 
1870-71. Works : Hungarian Inn (1861) ; 
Horses in the Rushes (1865) ; Csikos driv- 
ing Horses back to the Herd (1865) ; Race- 
Course of Longehanips (1867) ; Hussar-Pa- 
trol, Steeple-Chase, Transportation of Horses 
(1868) ; Hungarian Market-Scene, Attack of 
Brigade Bredow in Battle of Vionville, Bat- 
tle of Sedan (1872) ; Episode in Battle of 
WOrth (1875) ; Bay of Galata ; Second Ba- 
varian Army Corps crossing the Seine at 
Corbeil (1885) ; Catching Wild Horses in 
Hungarian Puszta, Dresden Museum. M fil- 
ler, 319. 

LANG, LOUIS, born at Waldsee, Wiir- 
temberg, Murch 29, 1814. Portrait and 
figure painter ; studied in Paris and Stutt- 
gart in 1834 ; -went to America in 1838, and 
has since lived in New York, making fre- 
quent visits for study to Venice, Rome, 
Florence, auJ Paris. Elected N.A. in 1832. 
Works : Asleep in Prayer (1869) ; Old Mill 
at Greenwich, Conn. (1870) ; Blind Nydia, 
Jephthah's Daughter (1871) ; Cinderella, 
Cleopatra (1875) ; Lauding of Market-Boat 
at Capri (1876) ; Mary Stuart distributing 
Gifts, Maid of Saragossa, R. L. Stuart Col- 
lection, New York ; Country Girl, Museum, 
ib.; Fresh Cherries, Neapolitan Fisher Fam- 
ily (1878); Ronieo and Juliet (1882). Tuck- 
erman, 434. 

LANGE, JAN. See Jlockhorxt. 

LANGE, JULIUS, born in Darmstadt, 
Aug. 17, 1817, died in Munich, June 25, 
1878. Landscape painter, pupil of the Mu- 
nich Academy in 1834, then from 1835 of 
Schirmer in Dttsseldorf. In 1840 he was 
attracted to Munich again by Rottmann, 
and soon became a favourite for his moun- 
tain landscapes. In 1854 he visited Upper 
Italy, where he painted studies for the Ven- 
ice Academy and two large pictures for the 
Milan Academy, and was made a member 
of both institutions. Numerous orders 
from King Max induced him to return to 
Bavaria in 1858. He was appointed court- 

painter by Louis II. in 1867. Works : Vil- 
lage in Forest (1840) ; W T ood in Evening 
Light ; View in the Ramsau ; Morning on 
the Alp (1848); Partenkirchen (1858); Land- 
scape in North Italy (I860), Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Castle Kolovrat in Bohemia, Stutt- 
gart Museum ; View near Dachau (I860) ; 
Morning Landscape ; Zugspitze ; Part of 
Gosau Lake (2, 1865), View near Parten- 
kirchen (1871), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Seven Idyls from Aniper, FOring on the Isar 
(1874). Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 644 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xiii. 687 ; Reber, ii. 200 ; Regnet, 
ii. 1. 

LANGE-PIEK See Aerlwu. 

LANGENDYCK, DIRK, born in Rotter- 
dam, March 8, 174S, died there, Doc. 15, 
1805. Painter of battles and marine pieces, 
pupil of D. A. Bisschop. His pictures are 
rich in composition, of striking effect, and 
well drawn. Works : A Camp, Cavalry 
Fight, Wounded General, Rotterdam Muse- 
um. Immerzeel, ii. 156 ; Krannn, iii. 945. 

RICH, born at Dusseldorf in 1750, died in 
Vienna, Dec. 31, 1807. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Dasseldorf Academy ; be- 
came court-painter at Mannheim in 1782, 
and afterwards director of the gallery in Vi- 
enna. Works : Rape of the Sabines (1783) ; 
Venus bringing Cupid to BLon, Homor; 
Calliope with Homer, Mann lieim Gallery; 
Dancing Bacchantes (1796), Acis, Galatea 
and Polyphemus, Dessau Gallery ; Portrait 
of Queen Augusta Wilhelmina of Bavaria, 
Schleissheim Gallery. Wurzbach, xiv. 107 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiv. 316. 

born on the Michaels! >erg, near Kolhcsim, 
April 4, 1854. History painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy and of Piloty ; instructed 
in 1875 the Princess of Anhalt-Dessau. 
Medal in Munich in 1876. Works: Capt- 
ure of the Chemist Lavoisier in 1794, Mfln- 
ster Gallery ; Three Pictures with Amor- 
ettes, Savonarola's Sennon against Prodi- 
gality (1879). Mailer, 319; Leixuer, D. 
mod. K., ii. 75. 



fit Kalkum, near Dttsseldorf, in 1756, died 
in Munich, Aug. 6, 1824. History painter, 
pupil of the Dttsseldorf Academy under 
Zrahe ; became professor at the Academy in 
1784, director in 1789, and in 1801 director 
of the Gallery. In 1806 was appointed di- 
rector of the Munich Academy, -which he 
reorganized. His antiquated school, which 
was extolled immoderately by his contem- 
poraries, was superseded by that of Corne- 
lius, and subsequently sank into undeserved 
oblivion. Works: Six scenes from Fable 
of Psyche ; Chiist blessing Little Children, 
Studienkirche, Munich ; St Luke painting 
Madonna ; David before Saul ; Philoctetes 
at Lemnos (1814) ; Small Family (1817) ; 
Cupid consoling Psyche (1820) ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives, Lady Jane Grey in the 
Tower (1823); Nativity, Christ blessing Lit- 
tle Children (sketch for painting in Studien- 
kirche, Munich), Madonna and St. John, 
Death of Ananias and Sapphira, Expulsion 
from Paradise, Man about to Write, Chem- 
ist reading, Artist's Sons, Artist's Wife, Sons 
of Spanish. Ambassador, Male Portrait, Head 
Studies (2), Schleissheim Gallery. Allgern. 
d. Biogr., xvii. 678 ; Forstrer, iv. 168 ; 
Kunstbl. (1825), Jan. 6, No. 2 ; Nagler, 
Mon., iv. 100. 

LANGER, ROBERT VON, born in Dus- 
aeldorf in 1783, died at Haidhausen, Mu- 
nich, Oct. 6, 1846. History painter, son 
and pupil of Johann Peter, and studied also 
in Dresden, Berlin, and Cassel ; accompa- 
nied his father to Paris in 1799, and visited 
Italy in 1804. Was professor at the newly 
organized Munich Academy in 1806, secre- 
tary-general in 1820, and director-general 
of the Bavarian picture galleries; member 
of the Vienna, Ghent, and Antwerp Acad- 
emies. Works : Christ healing the Lame 
and Blind ; Seven Works of Mercy ; Ma- 
donna with Saints ; Descent from the Cross ; 
Adoration of the Magi, Dtisseldorf Gallery ; 
Education of Bacchus, Royal Gallery, Stutt- 
gart; Virgil conducting Dante in to the Low- 
er World, Museum, ib.; Great Mythological 

! Cycle of fire subjects (fresco), Palace of 
Duke Maximilian, Munich. Allgem. d. 
! Biogr., xvii. 679. 

| born in Genoa in 1635, died in Venice, Sept. 
21, 1676. Genoese school ; pupil in Rome 
of Pietro da Cortona, and in Venice of Gio- 
vanni Francesco Cassanna ; became a good 
colourist in the Venetian style. Painted 
some historical pieces, but chiefly portraits, 
heads of old men, philosophers, and ancho- 
rets. Work : Apollo and Marsyas, Dresden 
Museum. Lanzi, iiL 277 ; Ch. Blanc, eole 

LANGKO, DIETRICH, born in Ham- 
burg, June 1, 1819. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Hamburg of Martin and Jakob 
Gensler ; painted at first decorations, then 
studied after the etchings of Dutch masters. 
Removed to Munich in 1840. Works: 
Moonlight Night on the Elbe (1861) ; View 
on Chieni Lake, Carf Lake near KOnigs- 
dorf (1862), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; View 
near Road to Thalkirchen ; The Elbe below 
Hamburg by Moonlight; Evening Land- 
scape in Bavarian Oberland (1863); View in 
Isar Valley ; Swamp Landscape ; Sunset in 
Moorland. Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 533 ; 
Muller, 320. 

LANGLEY, WALTER, bom in England; 
contemporary. Genre painter, water-col- 
ours. Member of Institute of Painters 
in Water-Colours. Works: Wandering 
Thoughts, For Men must Work and 
Women must Weep, A Crown of Years, My 
Little Friend (1883) ; In Memoriam, Among 
the Missing (1884) ; Waiting for the Boats 
(1885) ; Fisher's Daughter, Sunny South 

Beaumont-en-Auge (Calvados), July 22, 
1789, died in Paris, March 24, 1870. Bat- 
tle painter, pupil of Girodet, Gros, and 
Horace Vernet. Became a colonel in the 
army in 1849. Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st 
class, 1834 ; L. of Honour, 1814 ; Officer, 
1832 ; Commander, 1860. Works : Battle 
of Larsobispo ; Capture of the Great Re- 



doubt of Moskowa ; Passage of the Lech in 
1796; Cascade of Mt, Dore (1824); Battle 
of Walls; Passage of the Beresina (1827); 
Battle of Benouth, Campillo de las Arenas 
(1827), Versailles Museum ; Battle of Na- 
varino, Ministry of Marine ; Convent of 
Mont-Serrat (1831) ; Battle of Sidi Feruch 
(1834); Taking of Chateau de Moree (1836), 
Battle of Castalla, Battle of Polotsk, Battle 
of Moskowa (1838), Battle of Smolensk, In- 
terview at Navarino (1839), Battle of Mon- 
tereau, Battle of Champeaubert (1840), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Battle of Toulouse (1840) ; 
Battle of Polotsk (1838), Arras Museum; 
Battle of Krasnoti (1841) ; Battle of Naefels 
(1842) ; Battle of Hoff (1849), Versailles 
Museum ; Battle of Wesen (1849) ; Passage 
of the Linth (1850) ; Ruins of Karnac ; 
Capture of Smolensk ; Battle of the Mosko- 
wa (1855). Also painted several panoramas, 
such as Battle of Navarino, View of Algiers, 
Battle of Moscow (1835) ; Burning of Mos- 
cow (1839) ; Battle of Eylau (1843) ; Battle 
of the Pyramids (1849) ; and Capture of 
the Malakoff (1858). Bellier, i. 901 ; La- 

in Paris, March 11, 1779, died there, Dec. 8, 
1838. History painter, pupil, assistant, and 
imitator of David ; won the 2d prix de Rome 
in 1805 for his Death of Demosthenes, and 
the grand prix in 1809 for his Priam at the 
Feet of Achilles. Medals : 2d class, 1817 ; 
1st class, 1819 ; L. of Honour, 1822 ; Mem- 
ber of Institute, 1838. "Works : Abduction 
of Dejanira (1813), Angers Museum ; Cas- 
sandra imploring the Vengeance of Minerva 
(1817), Diana and Eudymion (1822), Lou- 
vre; Alexander yielding Campaspe to Apel- 
les (1819), Toulouse Museum ; Abhu Sicard 
teaching the Deaf-Mutes, Asylum for Deaf- 
Mutes, Paris ; St. Hillary writing against 
the Arians (1822), Cathedral of Bordeaux ; 
Portrait of Bishop Belsunce (1824), Mar- 
seilles Museum ; Death of Hyrnetho (1827); 
Portraits of Marshals Bellegarde, Matignon, 
d'Estrees, Breze, Versailles Museum. Bel- 
Her, i. 900 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Larousse. 

CIEN THEOPHILE, born at Mortin 
(Manche) in 1803, died in Paris in 1845. 
History painter, pupil of Gros; painted 
few and generally large pictures of religious 
subjects. Opened a successful school of 
painting at Rouen after his return from 
Italy, and later became director of the Mu- 
seum at Cherbourg, and professor of draw- 
ing in the College at Paris. Works : Appari- 
tion of the Virgin, Church of St. Patrick, 
Rouen ; Boy with Melon, Berne Museum. 

celli about 1510, died about 1578. Lom- 
bardo-Milanese school ; pupil and good imi- 
tator of Gaudenzio Ferrari ; painted chiefly 
in fresco. An altarpiece, dated 1539, in 
Church of Borgo-Sesia, is one of his best 
works. Other examples : Adoration of Magi, 
Cathedral of Novara ; Concert of Angels, 
St. Martha, and others, Brera, Milan ; Sac- 
rifice to Pan, Academy, ib. ; Holy Family, 
Descent from the Cross, Madonna En- 
throned, Madonna (15G4), Turin Gallery ; 
Holy Family (1543),^ National Gallery, Lon- 
don. Cb. Blanc, Ecole milanaise ; Lanzi, 
ii. 503 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 47(5. 

LANMAN, CHARLES, born at Monroe, 
Mich., June 14, 1819. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of A. B. Duraud ; elected A.N.A. 
in 1842. Lives in "Washington; life chief- 
ly devoted to literature. Works : Seaside 
Sketches, Brookside and Homestead (1880); 
Morning Fog (1881) ; Home in the Woods 
(1881), Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; 
Salmon River in Canada, Upper Potomac 
(1882); Other D.iys, Harvest Home (1883); 
Frontier Home (1884). 

Versailles, Oct. 14, 1812, died at Ivry, Jnn, 
21, 1872. Landscape- painter, pupil of V. 
Bertiu, Horace Vernet, and of the Kcolo don 
Beaux Arts ; won the 2cl prix for landscape 
in 1837, the grand prix in 1841 ; went a 
second time to Italy, as also to Russia and 
Holland, and returned to Paris a landscape 
painter of the naturalistic school. ModalH : 
2d class, 1847, 18G1 ; L. of Honour, 1804. 



Works : The Seine at Rouen (1833) ; Aque- 
ducts of BUG (1835) ; Sassenage (1839) ; 
Terracina (1844) ; Etruscan Tombs near 
Naples (1847) ; Villa of Hadrian at Tivoli, 
Souvenirs of the Villa de' Medici (1848) ; 
View in Capri (1848), Lisieux Museum; 
Roman Aqueduct (1850), Avignon Museum ; 
Chigi Palace, Park at The Hague (1852) ; 
St. Benedict at Subiaco (1854) ; Banks of 
the Neva, View near Nantes (1855) ; Pine 
Forest of Gombo (1861), formerly in Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Villa Pallavicini, Roman 
Forum, Woods of Frascati, Villa Conti, 
View of Mont Janvier (1861) ; Great Baths 
of Albano, Excavations on Mt. Palatine, 
Parasol Pines near the Sea (1863) ; The 
Tiber (1864), formerly in Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Ruins of Villa of the Quintilii (1864) ; 
Chateau of St. Privat (1865) ; Pont du Gard 
(1865), Nimes Museum ; Rock of Nazon 
(1866), Avignon Museum ; Ravine of Cannet, 
Environs of Cannes (1868) ; View of Ariccia 
near Rome ; Landscape with Figures, Dijon 
Museum ; View in Fontainebleau Forest, 
Cambrai Museum. Bellier, i. 903 ; La- 

born at Tulle (Correze), Oct. 1, 1803. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Langlois 
and Ary Scheffer ; made a special study of 
horses, and painted several equestrian por- 
traits. Medals : 3d class, 1836 ; 2d class, 
1838. Works : Incident of Missolonghi, 
Girl at Fountain, Courage of Commandant 
Daru (1842) ; Scene from Jean-Jacques 
(1846) ; Huntsmen in a Marsh (1852) ; 
Regimental Chaplain, Trumpeter of the 
Guides (1855) ; Horses let Loose, English 
Terrier (1857); Siege of Vallon (1859); Cow 
in a Meadow, Death of Ravenswood (1861) ; 
Dejanira and the Centaur Nessus (1863) ; 
Charles, IL (1864); St. Gerard de Lunel 
(1866) ; The Broken Strap (1868) ; Russian 
Team (1869) ; Hunting in Winter, Com- 
mander of Pyrenean Mountaineers in 1793 
(1876) ; Charles I of England (1877) ; A 
Page (1878) ; Equestrian portraits of Mar- 
shal de La Palice (1835), and of Constable 

Olivier de Clisson (1847), Versailles Museum ; 
! Horse-pieces (2), Bordeaux Museum. Bel- 
! lier, i. 904 ; Bitard, 768 ; Larousse. 
' in Bangor, Me., March 30, 1846. Marine 
j painter, pupil in Bangor of J. P. Hardy. 
j Member Boston Art Club, 1877. Medals : 
! 1878, 1881, 1884. Judge of awards of fine 
iarts for Dominion of Canada, St. John, 
I New Brunswick, 1883. Visited Europe in 
j 1884, and studied in Paris, Venice, and 
: Holland. Studio in Boston. Works : Fish- 
ermen in a Colin (1878), Smith College ; 
Steering for Home, Trawlers making Port 
j (1881) ; Waiting for the Tide (1882), Oli- 
; ver Ames ; Fishermen Becalmed (1882), 
i Frank N. Ames ; Calm off Seguin (1882) ; 
| Twilight Fishing Boats bound Home 
! (1882), John Quincy Adams ; Fleet off Shore 
; (1883), heirs of Charles W. Slack ; Midnight 
I Arrival (1883) ; Return of the Fleet, In 
! Penobscot Bay (1884), George C. Folsorn ; 
| Veteran of the Heroic Fleet (18S4), Massa- 
chusetts Charitable Mechanics Association ; 
Dutch Boats (1885), owned in Paris. 

de-Bouiu (Vendee), 
( Feb. IS, 1835. 
'Landscape and 
marine painter, 
pupil of Courbet, 
Violet-le-duc, and 
Harpignies ; usu- 
ally paints views of 
Brittany and the 
neighbourhood of 
Bordeaux. A good 

draughtsman and colourist. Medals : 1865, 
1869 ; 3d class, 1873 ; L. of Honour, 1881. 
Works: Pine-Trees on the Breton Coast 
(1864); September Morning at Douarnenez, 
River Ellee at Faouet (1865) ; River in Brit- 
tany, Washing-Place on the Breton Coast 
(1866), Tours Museum ; Women at the Foun- 
tain (1867) ; Spring in Brittany (1868); Cha- 
teau of Pierrefonds (1869), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Walk in Autumn, River Pouldahut at 
Low Tide (1870) ; Alps at Mentone, Cistern 



among Olive Trees at Mentone (1872) ; Bay 
of Treffeutee at High Tide, Keefs of Kil- 
vouarn, View from Pont des Arts in Paris 
(1873) ; Breakers at Staug (1874) ; Heath of 
Kerlouarneck (1874), Luxembourg ; Eocks 
of Arveclieii at Low Tide, High Tide at 
Plouruanach, Bay of Plomach (1875) ; Death 
of an Oak Tree, Coast of Fiuisterre (1876) ; 
April Blossoms, Windmills near Lille (1877); 
Moors in Bloom (1878) ; Bay of Douarnenez 
at Low Tide, Ocean at Granville, (1879) ; 
Glare on the Shore at Granville, Park of Me 
nars (1880) ; End of Storm, Downs at Don- 
ville (1881) ; Fine Morning on the Breton 
Coast, Cloisters of Mont St. Michel (1882) ; 
The Eeef, Dew (1883) ; October Mist The 
Cliff (1884) ; Vineyards of Mariaude, Sunrise 
on the Sea (1885). Bellier, i. 905 ; Bitard, 
768; Larousse. 


Oney (Seine- 
et-Oise), March 
24, 1729, died 
in Paris, Dec. 
22, 1778. 
French school; 
painter of 
great talent 
but little in- 
dustry, who 
painted little, was always poor, and died in 
the charity hospital. Bernard, Joseph Ver- 
net, Casanova, Berre, and Taunay often sup- 
plied the figures in his landscapes. Works : 
Sunset (1761), Louvre ; Morning, Evening, 
Banks of a Eiver, Besaneon Museum ; Banks 
of the Loing, Chateauroux Museum ; Moon- 
light, Nantes Museum ; A Castle, Farm Ex- 
terior, Valenciennes Museum ; Two Land- 
scapes, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Bellier, 
Eecherches historiques sur Lantara ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole franchise ; Houssaye, Gal. du 
xviii. Siecle, iii. 177 ; Jal, 735 ; Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Lejeuue, Guide, i. 291. 

LANZANI, POLIDOEO, called Polidoro 
di Venezia, born in Venice in 1515, died 
there, July 21, 1565. Venetian school ; 

history painter, pupil, or at least follower, 
of Titian ; copied his contemporaries so ef- 
fectually that his works rarely pass under 
his own name. Works : Venetian Noble- 
man dedicating to the Madonna his Child, 
Betrothal of St. Catherine of Siena with 
the Infant Christ, Dresden Museum ; Ho- 
ly Family, Vienna Museum ; Last Supper 
(1545), Venice Academy. 

LANZAS, LAS (The Lances), Velasquez, 
Miadrid Museum ; canvas, H. 9 ft. 10 in. x 
12 ft. The surrender of Breda : The Mar- 
quis de Spinola, accompanied by officers, in 
the presence of the Flemish and Spanish 
armies, advances to receive the keys of the 
city from Justin of Nassau (1625) ; at light, 
soldiers with lances, which give the picture 
its name ; on extreme right, the soldier with 
wide collar and hat with white plumes is 
said to be the artist himself. One of the 
finest historical pictures in the world. 
Painted about 1647 for Palace of Buen Eo- 
tiro. Copy, partly by H. Eegnault, in Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, Paris. Sketch offered for 
sale in Paris in 1859, but returned to Spain. 
Etched by Laguillermie ; B. Maura. Palo- 
mino, iii. 335 ; Curtis, 21 ; Madrazo, 599. 

LAP (Lapp), JAN, flourished second half 
of 16th century. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter in the manner of Moucheron and 
Pynacker; must have studied in Eonie. 
Works : Italian Landscapes with Figures* 
(3), Hague Museum. Bode, Studien, 834. 

Paris in 1817, died there, March 28, 1886. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Bertin ; an in- 
dustrious and painstaking artiwt of no great 
originality. Medals : 2d class, 1848, 1863 ; 
L. of Honour, 1869. Works : Daphnis and 
Chloc (1845) ; Abbey of Thelemo (1847) ; 
Of what are the Girls Dreaming? Boboli 
Garden in Florence (1848); Fountain of 
Egeria, The Seasons (1850) ; Sunset, Under 
the Oaks (1855) ; Woods in Springtime, 
Woods in Winter (1859) ; Eock of Milly 
(1861) ; Sunset, Bar of the Loing (1863) ; 
En the Woods (1865) ; Garden of Fontaine- 
bleau (1866) ; Cutting in Woods of Cham- 


pagne (1868) ; Moonrise (1869); Poacher in ficole des Beaux Arts. Pictures more sat- 
Ambush (1870) ; Landscape (1872) ; Sunset, isfactory to the public than to the critics. 
"Woods of Fontainebleau, Fountain of Fon- Medals : Rodez, 1868 ; Vienna, 1873. La- 
tainebleau (1874) ; In the Woods (1875); rousse. 

Twilight (1876). Bellier, i. 907 ; Larousse ; | LAPOSTOLET, CHARLES, born at Ve- 
Mtffler, 321. - | lars (Cute-d'Or), Sept. 26, 1824 Marine 

LAPITO, LOUIS AUGUSTS, born at j painter, pupil of L. Cogniet. His pictures 
Joinville-le-Pont (Seine), Aug. 18, 1803, , are pleasing in general eft'ect, but superficial 

Medals : 

died at Boulogne-sur-Seine, April 7, 1874. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Heim and 
Watelet; drawing and composition good, 
but colour often inharmonious. 
2d class, 1833 ; 1st 
class, 1835; L. of 
Honour,- 1836. 
"Works: The Sim- 
plon, In Auvergne 
(1827); Chalet 
(1831) ; Lake Mag- 
giore (1833) ; View 
near Lake of 
Brientz (1833), 
Cambrai Museum ; 
Andelys (1836); 
The Cascatelles 
(1842) ; Cemetery 
of Sisteron (1852) ; 
Gulf of Rap all o 
(1855) ; Valley of 
Royat (1857) ; Tor- 
rent of Royat, Men- 
tone (1859) ; River 
Tessino, St. Lau- 
rent, Town and 
Harbour of Bastia 

in treatment of detail. Medal in 1870 ; 2d 
class, 1882. Works : Canal St. Martin (1870), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Low Tide at Trou- 
ville (1872) ; The Seine near Si Denis, 

Las Lanzas, Velasquez, Madrid Museum. 

(1861) ; Genoa, Lillebonne, Hills of Fontana 
in Auvergne (1863) ; View of Lisieux (1864); 
Ajaccio at Sunset, Valley of Royat (1865); 
Pont-Evque (1866) ; The Somme at Abbe- 
ville, Souvenir of Auvergne (1868) ; Vinti- 
miglia, King of Holland ; View of Savonne, 
Musee Leopold, Brussels ; Italian Land- 
scape with Shepherds, Castle Villiers on the 
Rhone, Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Bellier, i. 
907 ; Larousse. 

Geniez cYOlt in 1839. Genre painter, pupil 
of Cabanel, Gustave Boulanger, and of the 

Rouen ; Coast of Villerville ; Canal of the 
Giudecca at Venice (1878) ; Port of La Ro- 
cheUe at Low Water, Port of Nantes (1883); 
Environs of Nantes, La Rochelle (1884) ; 
Dunkirk, Bassin de Deauville (1885). Bel- 
lier, i. 909. 

LARCHER, JULES, born at Choloy 
(Meurthe-et-Moselle) ; contemporary. His- 
tory, portrait, and still-life painter, pupil of 
: Sellier and Boimat. Medal, 3d class, 1880. 
Works : Still Life (1877, 1878) ; Christ in 
the Tomb (1880) ; Daphnis and Chloe 


Paiis, Oct. 10, 1656, died there, March 20, 

1746. French 
school; history 
and portrait 

i 3aiuter > P U P U 

of Ant. Gou- 
bau at An t- 
werp, where 
his father had 
settled; re- 
ceived into St. 
Luke's Guild 
in 1672. Went 
to England in 1674, where he restored 
pictures of old masters at Windsor, under 
Sir Peter Lely's direction, and also painted 
some compositions of his own. In 1678 he 
went to Paris and gained great reputation 
as a portrait painter during the next six 
years, after which he returned to England, 
where he painted James II and his queen. 
Member of the Academy in 1686, professor 
in 1705, rector in 1722, and chancellor in 
1743. Oh. Blanc says he painted about fif- 
teen hundred portraits. Works: Banquet 
given to Louis XIV. in 1687 by City of 
Paris, Marriage of Duke of Burgundy in 
1697 (destroyed in Revolution) ; An Ex- 
Voto, St. Etienne du Mont ; Erection of 
the Cross, Flight into Egypt, Assumption, 
Portrait of Charles Le Bran (1686), do. of 
Count de la Chatre, Provost and Aldermen 
of Merchants of Paris (1687), Artist with 
his Wife and Daughter, An Alderman (1704), 
A Magistrate (1718), Portrait of Du Yaucel 
(1724), four other portraits, Louvre, Paris ; 
Portrait of himself, do. and Family, Sculp- 
tors Nicolas Coustou and Jean Thierry, 
three others, Versailles Museum ; Portraits 
in Museums at Arras (2), Avignon, Besan- 
9011 (2), Chartres, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille 
(Jean Forest), Metz, Nancy, Nantes (2), 
Nimes, Niort, Orleans (himself), Rouen (2), 
Strassburg, Toulon, Toulouse, Madrid (5) ; 
Hercules slaying the Hydra, Aschaffenburg 
Gallery; Portrait of Jean Forest, Young 
Nobleman (?), Berlin Museum; Jean Bap- 

tiste Tavernier, Count Dehu, Brunswick 
Museum ; Madame Adelaide de France as 
Flora, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Count Siuzen- 
dorff, Darmstadt Museum ; Duke cle la 
Rochefoucauld, Portrait of a Man with a 
Wig, Dresden Museum ; Portraits of the 
Painters J. Antoine Arlaud and Hyacinthe 
Rigaud, Musee Rath, Geneva ; Lady's Por- 
trait, Old Pinakothek, Munich; Male Por- 
trait, Schwerin Gallery ; Meeting of Pro- 
vost and Aldermen of Paris Merchants, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Portraits of 
Jean Baptiste Rousseau, and of himself, 

Uffizi, Florence; 

Female Portraits 

< 2 )' Historical s - 
> 1 A C 'i e ty 5 New York. 
'/ 5 H Bellier, i. 911 ; Ch. 

Blanc, ificole frangaise ; Houssaye, Gal. du 
xviii. Siecle, i. 214 ; Jal, 737 ; Larousse ; 
Dezallier, Peintres ; Van den Brauden, 976 ; 
Cat. Louvre. 

DE, born in Paris, Sept, 30, 1798, died in 
1876. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Gtierin, Girodet, and Gros ; won 2d prize 
in 1819, and grand prix de Rome in 1824 
His works, though meritorious, did not ful- 
fil the promise of his youth. He painted 
many battle and ceremonial pictures theat- 
rical in style, also portraits, and designed 
the cartoons for the Cathedral of Dreux. 
Medals : 1st class, 1831, 1855 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1836. Works: Prisoner in the Capi- 
tol visited by his Family (1827); The Plague 
of Rome (1831), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; Tasso Sick in the Monastery of 
St. Onofrio, Two Monks Meditating (1831) ; 
Interview of Francis I. and Pope Clemens 
7HL at Marseilles in 1533, Due fTOrli'aus 
arriving at the Hotel de Ville (1836), Battle 
of the Downs (1837), Bayard wounded at 
Capture of Brescia (1888)* Battle of Coche- 
rel (1836), Battle of Castillon (1839), Battle 
of Mons-eu-Puelle (1841), Raising of Siege 
of Malta (1843), Battle of Ascalon (1844), 
Capture of Bologna, Entry of French into 
Belgium, Return of the Prince-President to 



Paris iu 1852, Portraits of Louise cle Savoie, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, of Duke of Orleans, 
of Jean de La Valette, of Vauban (1834), of 
Gerard, Rochambeau, Drouet, Eoussin, Bu- 
geaud, and several other Marshals and Ad- 
mirals of France, Versailles Museum ; Gen- 
eral de Runrigny (1833), Amiens Museum ; 
Jean Martial Bineau, Minister of Finances j 
(1856), Angers Museum ; Christ on Mount ! 
of Olives, Bordeaux Museum. Bellier, i. I 
911 ; Larousse. i 

UEL, born in Copenhagen, Sept. 15, 1823, j 
died there, Sept 24, 1859. Marine painter, ! 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy under Eck- j 
ersberg and Kloss ; visited in 1845 Iceland I 
and the Faroe Islands, and in 1852 Eng- 
land, Holland, and France. Works : View ; 
from the Long Line ; View near Marseilles, j 
(1854), Before Noon in the Oere Sound 1 
(1856), Copenhagen Gallery ; Nieuwe Diep, j 
in North Holland. Weilbach, 402. j 

LASCH, KARL JOHANN, born in Leip- i 
sic, July 1, 1822. Genre 
painter, pupil of Dres- 
den Academy and of Ben- 
deniann ; went in 1844 
to Munich, where, under 
the influence of Kaulbaeh 
and Schnorr, he painted 
several historical sub- 
jects ; went to Italy in 
1847, and soon after to 
Moscow, where for ten years he painted por- 
traits with success. In 1857 went to Paris, 
studied under Couture, and settled in Dtls- 
seldorf in 1860. Gold medals in Dresden, 
1843, Berlin, 1868, 1872 ; medals in Vienna, 
1873 ; Philadelphia, 1876. Honorary mem- 
ber of Dresden, Vienna, and St. Petersburg 
Academies ; professor since 1869. Works : 
King Enzio in Prison, Count Eberhard the 
Kauschebart, Christ at Emmaus (1844-47), 
Children on Hay-Cart (1861), Dresden Mu- 
seum ; At the Young Widow's (1862) ; Giv- 
ing his Opinion (1863) ; Return from Kir- 
mess (1864) ; Village Physician in Perplexity; 
Old Teacher's Birthday (1866), National Gal- 

lery, Berlin; Suabian Wedding Feast (1868); 
: Forsaken by his Last Friend ; Punch and 
Judy at Suabian Fair (1870); Toast at 
Wedding Feast (1871) ; Tale of the Wound- 
ed, Capture (1873); Male Portrait (1880), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Bavarian Girl go- 
ing to Church, J. H. Warren, Hoosie 
Falls, N. Y. Jordan (1885), ii. 134 ; Holler, 
321 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., is. (Mittheilungen, 
ii. 56). 

LASENSKY, GUSTAV, bora in Coblentz, 
Oct. 27, 1811, died in Mentz, April 21, 1870. 
History painter, brother of Johann Adolf, 
pupil of the Dusseldorf Academy in 1S29- 
38 ; lived afterwards in Coblentz, Cologne, 
Mentz, Dttsseldorf, and iu Rhenish Prussia 
and W'estphalia, where he executed numer- 
ous orders, chiefly religious subjects. He 
treated biblical as well as romantic-histori- 
cal subjects, besides smaller equestrian and 
battle-scenes ; and executed fresco paintings 
in the Mentz Cathedral after compositions 
by Philip Veit. His works are less known 
than they deserve. Works: Liberation of 
Peter ; Paul and Jacob ; Crusader ; TelTs 
Death ; Gustavus Adolphus taking Leave of 
the States at Stockholm (1840) ; Death of 
Prince Ludwig in the Battle of Belgrade, 
Mentz Museum. Allgem. cL Biogr., xvii. 
732 ; Blanckarts, 35 ; Merlo, 252. 

Simmern, near Coblentz, Oct. 16, 1808, died 
in Dttsseldorf, Sept. 6, 1871. Landscape 
painter, pupil from 1827 of the Dttsseldorf 
Academy, where, with Lessing and Schir- 
mer, he was among the first to cultivate 
landscape independently and to obtain rec- 
ognition for this branch of art Settled in 
Coblentz in 1837 ; moved afterwards to Co- 
logne, and from 1850 lived agaiu in Diissel- 
dorf. Works : Schloss Eltz (1831) ; The 
Obersteiu (1834) ; replica (1836) ; Old 
Watchtower in Moonlight (1835) ; Waterfall 
near Pyrmont (1835) ; Narrow Pass, with 
Gypsies ; Panorama of Cologne ; Dutch 
Landscape (1850) ; Views from Hereditary 
Lands of Hohenzollern. Allgem. d Biogr., 
xviL 732 ; Blanckarts, 52 ; Kunst-ChroniL, 


TL 189 ; Merlo, 252 ; Wolfg. Mailer, Dtis- 
seldorf. K., 352. 

LAST OARTEIDGES (Les dernieres car- 
touches), Alphonse de Neuuilte, private gal- 
lery. Episode of the battle of Sedan. The 
marines composing part of the Twelfth 
Coips, which held the village of Bazeilles, 
two miles from Sedan, Sept. 1, 1870, fought 
gallantly until every cartridge was spent. 
The scene represents the interior of ^a house 
in the thick of the battle, its ceiling rent by 

Last Judgment, Fra Bartolommeo, S. M. Nuova, Florence. 

a shell, its doors unhinged, and furniture 
shattered ; at left, several marines are firing 
their last cartridges through a broken win- 
dow, under the direction of a wounded offi- 
cer, who leans .for support against a book- 
case ; at right, a soldier whose ammunition 
is expended stands nonchalantly with his 
hands in his pockets ; in background, 
through the open door, is seen the glare 
and smoke of battle, with many figures. 
Salon, 1873. 

LAST JUDGMENT, Fra Angelica, Flor- 
ence Academy. The Saviour on high, sur- 

rounded by seraphim and cherubim, presides 
over the judgment, to which souls are called 
by the trump of angels beneath him ; below 
his right is the paradise, to which angels 
dancing in a flowery meadow lead the blessed 
through a gate ; on his left, the condemned 
and demons. Painted for Convent of the 
Angeli, Florence. Repetition, with changes, 
in Dudley House, London ; a third, nearly 
the same, in PaL Corsini, Borne. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., ii. 515 ; C. & C, Italy, i. 586 ; La- 
rousse, ix. 1080. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, S. 
M. Nuova, Florence ; fres- 
co, 12 ft. sq., arched at top. 
Above, Christ sitting in 
judgment, in a glory of 
cherubs' heads, with Apos- 
tles on clouds on each side ; 
in middle, a seraph with 
symbols of the Passion and 
Redemption, and on each 
side an angel with a trum- 
pet ; below, Michael divid- 
ing the wicked from the 
blessed. Painted in 1498- 
99 on wall of the cloister 
cemetery of S. M. Nuova ; 
lower part, left incomplete 
when he became a monk, 
finished by Mariotto Alber- 
tinelli. The figure to the 
right of Christ, looking 
downward, is a portrait of 
Fra Angelico* The picture 
has been sawed from the wall and placed in 
the court, where it is fast decaying. Vasa- 
ri, ed. Mil, iv. 177 ; C. & C., Italy, Hi 486. 
By Peter von Cornelius, Ludwigs Kirche, 
Munich ; fresco, on wall back of high altar, 
H. 60 ft x 40 ft. Above, Christ sitting as 
judge, amongst saints and angela, with the 
Virgin and John Baptist kneeling at sides ; 
on his left are Abraham, Noah, Moses, and 
David ; on his right, Peter, James, John, 
and Paul; beneath him, angels sounding 
trumpets, and the book of life and death. 
Below, left, the damned, with hell and 


fiends, and Satan sitting on a throne at the 
entrance ; right, the blessed ; between them, 
the Archangel Michael ; and at the bottom, 
they who are rising from the dead. Among 
those whom the angels are bearing to heaven 
are Dante and Fra Angelico, the poet and 
painter who have most successfully depicted 
the nether world. Cornelius 1 most remark- 
able work. Designed in Rome, finished in 
1840. Larousse, is. 1082. 

By Jean Cousin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 
ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. First plane, left, the 
dead coming out of their graves and an- 
gels holding sickles ; middle, the resurrect- 
ed precipitating themselves into a cavern ; 
right, demons dragging sinners. Second 
plane, a circular temple at which the elect 
are received by angels ; middle, the resur- 
rected running in opposite directions ; right, 
a tower beside a moat and a bridge leading 
to a ruined edifice with a gibbet. In back- 
ground, a destroyed city. Above, Christ in 
glory, surrounded by angels, the elect, etc. 
Engraved by Pierre de Jode. Cat. Louvre ; 
Larousse, is. 1082. 

By Giotto, S. M. dell' Arena, Padua; 
fresco, on wall above the door. On each 
side of three small windows, two warrior 
angels seem to hold back a curtain, disclos- 
ing the celestial hall of justice ; beneath 
them, legions of warriors with swords and 
shields, and angels with flags and tapers, 
hold guard in three divisions over the maj- 
esty of the Saviour, who sits below in a 
glory ; at the four cardinal points, archan- 
gels sound trumpets, while the Redeemer 
blesses the chosen with his right hand and 
curses the evil-doers with his left ; on each 
side, on thrones, sit the Apostles ; to left 
of the Saviour's feet, the Virgin, crowned 
and leading St. Anna, heads the procession j 
of the happy ; amongst them, in a corner, ' 
to left, stand three figures in profile, the 
central one of "which is said to be Giotto 
himself ; the cross, in the centre, separates 
the elect from the damned ; between it and 
the procession to Paradise, the donor, En- 
rico Scrovegno, kneels before a group of 

f three female figures, presenting to their no- 

; tice a model of the chapel, held by a priest 

| in white ; below, left, the resurrection ; and 

! right, the bottomless abyss, with Lucifer 

i sitting amidst fire and struggling souls. 

I Painted in 1305-6 ; one of a series of fres- 

i cos, illustrating the lives of the Virgin and 

the Saviour, in the chapel erected in 1303 

by Enrico Scrovegno, a rich citizen of Padua 

who had been ennobled by the republic of 

Venice. Yasari, ed. MiL/i. 400; C. & C. f 

I Italy, i. 271, 289; Selvatico, Sulla Cappel- 

j lina degli Scrovegni, etc. (Padua, 1836) ; 

Baldinucci; Cicognara. 

By Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, 
Rome; fresco, on end wall opposite en- 
trance, H. 54 ft. 6 in. x 43 ft. 8 in. In cen- 
tre, Christ, sitting on the great white throne, 
with the Virgin at his right, surrounded by 
angels and apostles ; above, the Holy Ghost 
and God the Father, with angels and ser- 
aphs on each side bearing the instruments 
of the Passion ; below the feet of Christ are 
St. Bartholomew, holding in his right hand 
the knife with which he was flayed, and in 
his left his skin ; St. Lawrence, with the 
gridiron on which he was martyred, and 
other martyrs, and below them the seven 
angels, with their trumpets, and the record- 
ing angels ; on each side, the companies of 
the blessed are received into glory, while 
below them the damned are meeting their 
punishment ; in left corner, rent rocks and 
opening graves, with angels aiding the elect 
and demons dragging down the lost ; at the 
right, Charon is crossing the Styx in his 
boat, crowded with the condemned, who 
pass into the presence of Minos. Contains 
314 figures, counting heads, and many of 
them are heads and shoulders only. Paint- 
ed in 1534-41. Regarded by the critics of 
the day as the painter's masterpiece, but 
ranks in our time after the frescos of the 
ceiling. Greatly deteriorated through time, 
smoke, and attempted repairs. Restored 
first in 1555-59 by Daniele da Volterra, who 
draped certain nude figures ; retouched in 
1566 by Giuliano del Fano, and again in 


1762, under Clement XIH, by second-rate 
painters under direction of Gio. Battista 
Pozzi. Copy by M. Venusti in Naples Mu- 
seum ; by H. Levoyer (1570), formerly in 
collection of Marquis de Las Marismas ; by 
Sigalon (1836), Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. 
Engraved by Fr. Bartolozzi, in outline ; do. 
in small for Duppa's Life of Michelangelo ; 
Ch. Alberti, Studies of Figures and Groups; 
Nic. Beatrizet in 11 plates (1562), retouched 

Last Judgment, Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. 

and reprinted by Thomassin in 1620 ; Giulio 
Bonasone ; Amb. Brambilla ; Mario Carton 
(1569) ; Niccolo della Casa ; Gio. Battista 
Cavalieri (1567) ; Doni. Cunego (1780) ; 
Cl. Duchetti ; Seb. Fulcaro ; Giorgio Ghisi; 
Matteo Greuter; Ignoto (1556); Michele 
Lucchesi ; Corrado Metz (1808) ; Giov. Mit- 
terpok for Pistolesi's Vaticano illustrato, viii. 
PI. 86 ; Niccoletto da Modena ; C. Normand 
(1803); Martino Kota (1569, 1573, and 
1576) ; Jacopo Vinio ; Niccolo della Volpe ; 

Pietro Woeiriot (1570). Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 204 ; Duppa, Dissertation on L. J. (Lon- 
don, 1801) ; Metz, Giudizio universale 
(Rome, 1808-16) ; Lenoir, Observations sur 
le Genie de M. A. (Paris, 1820) ; Guillemot, 
Jugernenfc dernier (Paris, 1829) ; Revue des 
Deux Mondes (1837), 337 ; Blackwood's 
Mag. (1839), xlv. 257 ; Journal Speculative 
Philosophy (1869), iii. 73 ; Black, Michael 
Angelo (London, 1875), 202 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1876), xiii. 168, 
175, 284 ; Grimm (Bun- 
nett), Life, ii. 210 ; La- 
rousse ; Gotti, Vita, i. 
265 ; Roveil, xi. 787. 

By Andrea Orcagna, 
Campo Santo, Pisa; 
fresco. Above, to left, 
Christ, enthroned in an 
almond-shaped glory, 
with one hand raised, 
the other pointing to the 
wound in his side ; at 
his right, the Virgin, in 
a similar glory, looks 
down with pity on the 
condemned; above them, 
six angels bear the sym- 
bols of the Passion ; be- 
low them, the apostles 
seated in a row in the 
clouds, six on each side ; 
immediately beneath the 
Saviour and the Virgin 
are four heavenly mes- 
sengers ; further down, 
on the Saviour's right, 
the army of the blessed is grouped be- 
hind St. John Baptist; on the other side, 
angels drive the condemned towards hell, 
which occupies the whole right side of the 
picture, showing the damned undergoing 
torture in four stories, one above another, 
with Satan presiding in the middle. Re- 
stored in 1379 by Cecco di Pietro, who 
probably painted the second circle and ten 
figures by Lucifer's side. C. & C. attribute 
this fresco, as well as the Triumph of Death, 


DO a Sienese painter, perhaps Pietro Loren- 
zettL C. & C., Italy, i. 447. 

By fiubens, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 
18 ft. 9 in. x 14 ft. 3 in. Above, the three 
persons of the Trinity in clouds, at the top 
of the composition the Father, beneath him 
the Holy Ghost, and beneath it Christ, half 
enveloped in a red mantle, with the Virgin, 
in a white robe, inclining before 
him ; near them the apostles, the 
patriarchs, and prophets, seated 
upon clouds ; angels sound trum- 
pets, and Michael, with thunder- 
bolts in his hands, stands at the 
feet of Christ ; below, on one 
side the elect are rising, on the 
other the damned are being cast 
down. Among the elect is Helena 
Forman. Rubens's largest pict- 
ure. Painted in 1617 for Church 
at Neuberg. Sketch in Dresden 
Gallery. Engraved by Visseher ; 
Ch. Hess. Riegel, Beitrage, 287; 
Larousse, is. 1081. 

By Luca Signorelli, Cathedral 
of Orvieto ; fresco, one of a series 
illustrative of the end of the 
world. D Agincourt, Arts au 
moyen Age, Peinture, PL 156; 
Larousse, ix. 1080. 

By Tintoretto, S. M. dell Orto, 
Venice ; canvas, H. 60 ft. x 30 ft 
On right wall of chancel. A gran- 
diose and colossal work. Painted 
about 1546. Ruskin says : "By 
Tintoret only has this unimagin- 
able event been grappled with in 
its verity ; not typically nor sym- 
bolically, but as they may see it who shall 
not sleep, but be changed." Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 317 ; do., Mod. Painters, ii. 
177; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 184; Zanotto, 327. 
By Roger van der Weyden, Hospital of 
Beaune, France ; H. 7 f t. 4 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. 
Altarpiece in nine compartments, with paint- 
ed shutters. The most comprehensive ex- 
ample of the master extant. Painted in 
1443-47 for the Burgundian Chancellor 

Rollin, whose kneeling portrait, with that 
of his wife, is on the outside of the shutter. 
Illustration in Kugler. Kugler (Crowe), L 
81 ; Larousse, is. 1081 ; Forster, x. 

LAST MUSTER, Hubert Herkomer, Hol- 
loway Institute, Egham. The kst act in the 
drama of war. A quiet Sunday service in 
the chapel of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, 

Last Judgment, Rubens, Munich Gallery. 

one old man, the principal figure, evidently 
at his last muster ; in background, the vet- 
erans of war at rest, with tattered banners 
overhead. Royal Academy, 1875. L'Art 
(1875), iii. 252. 

LAST PRAYER, Jean Leon Gerome. See 
Christian Martyrs. 

LAST REBELS, Ztew/amw-Constant, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; canvas, H 5 ft. 8 in. x 
11 ft. 4 in. The principal chiefs of the re- 


voltecl tribes, dead and living, are brought 
before the Sultan at the gates of the city 
of Morocco. Salon, 1880. 

LAST SUPPER., FIK Angelica, Convent 
of S. Marco, Florence ; fresco on wall. 

By Francesco P>assano, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. x 7 ft. Table set at an an- 
gle in a hall of Eoman architecture; St. 
Peter, at right of Jesus, holds a knife ; in 
front, Judas, with his back to the spectator ; 
in the angle of the table a dog and a cat 
quarrelling over a bone. Madrazo. 

By Bonifazio, Uffizi, Florence. Christ has 

By Philippe de Chanipoigne, Louvre ; 

canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. x 7 ft. 8 in. In centre, 
1 Christ, seated before a table, surrounded by 
1 the disciples, raises his eyes to heaven and 
[ blesses the bread. Painted in 1648 for Abbey 
1 of Port Royal. Repetitions, with changes, 

Lyons Museum, and in chapel of Chamber 
' of Peers in the Luxembourg. Engraved by 

A Girardet in Musoe fran<;ais ; Chataigner. 

Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, v. PI. 295 ; 

Reveil, vi. 376. 

By Michael Coxcie, Brussels Museum ; 

triptych. Central panel, Last Supper ; right, 

Last Supper, Philippe de Charr.paigne, Louvre. 

his hand on the shoulder of St. John, who 
leans his head upon the table, as in the 
fresco of Andrea del Sarto, in S. Salvi, Flor- 
ence. Larousse, iii. 703. 

By Dierick Bouts, St. Peter, Louvain. 
This picture, an altarpiece, with wings, 
bears the signature of Memling, but the 
best critics regard it as the work of Bouts. 
The figures are distributed with great artis- 
tic judgment around a quadrangular table, 
and exhibit an admirable variety in action, 
character, and expression. Completed in 
1467. Kugler (Crowe), i. 108 ; Larousse, 
iii. 704 ; Van Even, Nederlandsche Konste- 
naers (Amsterdam, 1858). 

Washing of Feet ; left, Christ in Garden. 
Formerly in Church of St. Gudule ; placed 
in Museum in 1794. 

By Lucas Cranach, the elder (?), Church 
of Wittenberg ; triptych. Centre, L:int Sup- 
per, with disciples seated around a cmiular 
table ; right wing, Sacrament of Baptism, 
administered by Melanchthoii in presence of 
an assistant and three sponsors ; left wing, 
Confession, the confessor a portrait of Bu- 
genhagen. Predella, with Christ Crucified 
in centre, and on one side a pulpit with 
Luther preaching. Larousse, iii. 704 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), i. 193 ; Schadow, Wittenberg's 
Denkmaler, etc. (1825). 


By Daniele Crespi, Brera, Milan ; canvas, 
H. 10 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. Christ has his 
hand on the shoulder of St. John ; two 
apostles in foreground ; above, two angels 
with a banderol. 

By Gaudenzio Ferrari, S. M. della Pas- 
sioue, Milan ; in chapel of left transept. St. 
John leans upon Christ's shoulder ; in back- 
ground, an open window with two boys 
looking in. 

By Eduard von Gebhardt, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; canvas, EL 6 ft. 5 in. x 9 ft. 11 
in. ; signed, dated 1870. Christ seated in 
the centre of the table, with his left hand 
raised ; at his right, John inquiringly pkces 
his hands on the Saviour's arm ; on the 
other side, James, son of Alphseus, with his 
hand upon his mouth, looks searchingly at 
the Master ; Nathanael, risen from his seat, 
is standing behind him ; at the left, next to 
John, are sitting Simon Zelotes, Andrew, and 
James the son of Zebedee ; in the fore- 
ground right, Matthew trying to console 
the youthful Thomas, who hides his face in 
his hands, weeping ; at the left Judas, look- 
ing down sadly ; next him the empty chair 
of Judas Iscariot, who has risen and, no- 
ticed only by Bartholomew, is leaving the 
room. Jordan (1885), i 35. 

By Domenico Ghirlandajo, Convent of S. 
Marco, Florence ; fresco on wall But little 
varied from an earlier fresco by him in the 
refectory of the Ogni Santi, Florence. 

By Giotto, S. M. dell' Arena, Padua; 
fresco on wall One of same series as Last 
Judgment by Giotto. Another Last Supper 
(fresco) by Giotto in Convent of S. Croce, 
Florence. C. & 0., Italy, L 271 ; Larousse, 
iii. 702. 

By Hans Holbein, the younger, Basle Mu- 
seum. Shows influence of Da Vinci, but the 
head of Judas, which is decidedly vulgar, 
shows the painter's realistic tendency. A 
Last Supper by Holbein, the elder, part of 
an altarpiece completed in 1501 for the Do- ! 
minicans of Frankfort, is in the Stadel Gal- 1 
lery, Frankf ort Kugler (Crowe), L 141,! 

By Vicente Joanes, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 4 f i 2 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. Christ 
seated in middle before a long table, with 
St. Peter at his right and St. John at his 
left ; Judas leans on table, holding a purse 
in his hand. The masterpiece of the paint- 
er. Lithographed in Madrazo. Another 
Last Supper by Joanes in Cathedral of Va- 
lencia. Madrazo ; Larousse, iii. 704. 

"By Justus of Ghent, Town Gallery, Urbino. 
In the middle of a church-like hall, with 
open doors, in front of a table, Christ stands 
with a plate in his left hand, bending to give 
the host to an apostle kneeling next to him ; 
behind the Saviour, three apostles kneeling; 
behind the first apostle, at the left, the others 
partly kneeling, partly about to kneel, one 
disciple standing with a candle in his hand, 
and St. John with a wine-flask, ready to fill 
the chalice. On the opposite side of the 
table, Duke Frederic of Urbino, turning to 
the Venetian ambassador, Caterino Zeno ; 
behind the Duke, two younger nieti, one of 
whom is said to be Justus of Ghent. 
Painted for S. Agata, Urbino, in 1470-74. 
Furster, Denkmale, xi. iii. 9. 

By Lambert Lombard, Brussels Museum ; 
dated 1531. Christ seated midway at back 
of the table, Judas with the purse in front ; 
two dogs quarrel under the table ; a bas- 
ket with bread and fruit on the floor ; in 
background, a servant bearing two vases ; 
through a window, in a landscape, the city 
of Jerusalem. Fetis, Cat. du Mus. royal, 
130 ; R Leroy sale (1857), 2,300 fr. 

By Murillo, S. M. la Blanca, Seville ; can- 
vas, arched, H. 8 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 8 in. 
Christ and the disciples seated at a square 
table, covered with a white cloth, on which 
is a candle, but neither dishes nor food ; a 
candelabrum on the wall in upper left-hand 
corner dimly lights the scene. If by Mu- 
rillo, a very early work Ponz, Viage, ix. 
85 ; G. de Leon, i. 104 ; Curtis, 196. 

By school of Pemgino (?), S. Onofrio, 
Florence; fresco, figures life-size. Table 
set in front of a colonnade ; Christ seated 
in middle, with SS. James the less, Philip, 


James the elder, Andrew, and Peter on his 
right, and John Evangelist, Bartholomew, 
Matthew, Thomas, Simon, and Thaddeus 
on his left; in front, alone, Judas. Com- 
position resembles that of Dom. Ghirlan- 
dajo, in S. Marco, Florence, but execution 
Peruginesque. Possibly painted by Peru- 
gino's pupils, Gerino da Pistoia, Eusebio, 
or Giannicola Manni. Was at one time at- 
tributed to Eaphael. Another Last Supper, 
in fresco, belonging also to this school, but 
attributed to Kaphael, was recovered in 18J=5 
from under a coat of whitewash in the re- 
fectory of the Convent of S. Onofrio, Flor- 
ence. It has been engraved by Jesi. C. 
C., Italy, iii. 247 ; Jahrbuch, v. 207. 

By Frans Pourbus, the younger, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 9 ft. 5 in. x 12 ft. 2 in.; signed, 
dated 1618. The -apostles seated two by 
two on benches on each side of the table, 
leaving in front an opening through which 
is seen Christ, with a plate, a glass, and the 
bread before him ; at left, Judas, standing, 
holds the purse behind him and protests 
his innocence. Formerly on high altar of S. 
Leu and S. Gilles, Paris. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
10 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 3 in. In a hall adorned 
with Ionic columns, Christ, standing iu 
front of the table, distributes the bread to 
the disciples, who stand or kneel around 
him. Ordered in 1641 by Louis TTTT for 
Chapel of St. Germain-en-Laye. Engraved 
by P. Loinbart; Normand. Cat. Louvre; 
Landon, (Euvres ; Smith, viii. 52. 

By Giulio Procaceini, L'Annunziata, Gen- 
oa. Considered the painter's masterpiece. 

By Raphael, Vatican, fresco on wall of 
Loggia. The disciples are seated on all 
sides of a square table, those seen from 
behind turning their heads so as to show 
their, faces. Engraved by Sisto Badaloc- 
chio, and others. Grayer, Fresques ' de 
Kaphael (Loges), 188 ; Larousse, iii. 704 

By Rubens, Brera, Milan ; canvas, H. 10 
ft. x 6 ft. 9 in. Christ, seated with his dis- 
ciples around a table, holds the bread in 
his hands and lifts his eyes to heaven. 

By Andrea del Sarfo, Convent of S. Salvi, 
near Florence ; fresco on wall of refectory. 
Composition similar to that of Leonardo da 
Vinci, Christ and the disciples being seated 
on the same side of the table ; Judas, at the 
right of Jesus, protests his innocence, while 
the rest show astonishment or indignation. 
Larousse, iii. 704 ; Lavice. 

By Bartolommeo Schidone, Parma Mu- 
seum. Christ has his right hand raised 
above a large platter containing a lamb, his 
left upon St. John's shoulder ; two disciples 
are standing, the rest are seated. 

By Tintoretto, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. [Represented like any large 
supper in an Italian inn, the figures all un- 
interesting ; but the smoke of the lamp 
turns as it rises into a multitude of angels, 
so writhed and twisted together as to be 
at first scarcely distinguishable. Euskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 302 ; Zanotto, 631. 

By Tintoretto, S. Trovaso (SS. Gervasio e 
Protasio), Venice ; canvas. While the rest 
of the apostles are intently listening to 
Christ's words, one of them (Judas?) is 
stooping to help himself to wine from a 
flask on the floor. So much repainted as 
to be hardly worth notice. A similar pict- 
ure, attributed to Tintoretto, in the Louvre. 
Engraved by Sadeler ; Lovisa. Euskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 361. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Kocco, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. Christ at the end of the table, 
which is spread in a sort of large kitchen, 
the host being employed at a dresser in the 
background; only eleven disciples, Judas 
having gone out ; in front, sitting on steps, 
two mendicants wait for the fragments, and 
a dog watches earnestly the movements of 
the company. A most unsatisfactory pict- 
ure. Euskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 338. 

By Titian, Escorial, Spain ; canvas ; thir- 
teen full-length figures of life-size ; signed. 
Table in a vast hall, with an arched opening 
at each side ; Christ seated in middle, with 
the disciples grouped behind and around 
ends of the table, under which a dog is 
gnawing a bone ; on the floor, a vase near 


a shallow bowl, out of which a partridge is 
drinking. Finished in 1564, and sent to 
Philip IL ; hung in the great refectory, after 
the top of the canvas had been cut off to 
make it fit the wall. Greatly damaged by 
repainting. Probably a replica of the pict- 
ure in the refectory of SS. Giovanni e Pa- 
olo, which was burned in 1571. Copy in 
Bridgewater House, probably by Andrea 
Schiavone ; small copy in Lord 
Overstone's Collection, London. 
Engraved by Cort. Yasari, ed. 
Mil., vii 457 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, 
i. 268 ; C. & C., Titian, ii, 337 ; 
Northcote, Titian, L 349. 

By Otto Vaenius, Cathedral, Ant- 
werp, in the south transept. Christ 
seated in the centre of the table, 
around which the disciples are 
grouped, with his right hand 
raised in the act of blessing the 
bread and wine before him. Above 
are suspended two chandeliers ; in 
foreground, a basket of dishes, and 
a servant pouring out wine. Re- 
veil, xii. 819. 

By Giorgio Vasari, formerly in 
Louvre ; wood, H, 3 ft. x 5 ft, 
Christ and the apostles seated 
around a table ; in front, Judas, 
holding a purse ; vases of gold, 
silver, and marble are on the floor. 
Formerly in S. Luigi dei Francesi, 
Eome. Another Last Supper 
(1546) by Vasari is in S. Croce, 
Florence. Villot, Cat. Louvre; 
Larousse, iii. 703. 

By Paolo Veronese, Convent of 
SS. Giovanni e Pietro, Venice; fresco on! 
wall of refectory. Engraved by J. Saenre- , 
dam. ! 

By Leonardo da Vinci, refectory of Con- j 
vent of S. M. delle Grazie, Milan ; wall- j 
painting in oil, H. 14 ft. 10 in. x 28 ft 3 in. j 
Christ and the disciples seated behind a j 
long table in a room, through the open door . 
and windows at the back of which is seen a | 
mountainous landscape. Disciples arranged ' 

in groups of three on each side of Christ, 
who occupies the middle place : on his right, 
first group, John, Judas, and Peter ; second, 
Andrew, James the younger, and Bartholo- 
mew, who stands at the end; on Christ's 
left, first group, James the elder, Thomas, 
with upraised finger, and Philip ; second, 
iilatthew, Thaddeus, and Simon, who is 
seated at the end. Finished in 1498 ; col- 

- T T \ 

Last Supper, Otto Vaenius, Cathedral, Antwerp. 

ours mixed with a defective oil medium and 
faded rapidly; repainted by Bellotti in 
1726, by Mazza in 1770, and by Barozzi in 
18f53. Lower part of central group de- 
stroyed in 1652, when a door was cut 
through wall In 1796 the refectory was 
made into a stable, against Napoleon's or- 
ders, and the picture much damaged by dra- 
goons. In 1800 refectory was flooded for 
fifteen days. Best copy by Marco d'Oggi- 



onno, in Royal Academy, London ; o thers in 
the Louvre, in the Brera at Milan (formerly 
in Convent at Castellazzo di Yigentino), and 
at Ponte Capriasco, Switzerland. Picture 
best known by Raphael Morghen's engrav- 
ing (1800), but it was not made from the 
original, as generally supposed. Morghen 
engraved it in Florence from a drawing 
made by Teodoro Matteini, who was sent 
to Milan for the purpose, but who undoubt- 
edly took many details from Marco d'Oggi- 
onno's copy, in which the heads are not 
closely copied from the original Bern. 

(1859), i. ; Bosi, Del Cenacolo (Milan, 1810); 
Goethe, Abendmahl von L., xxxix. ; Kugler 
(Eastlake), ii. 252 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole floren- 

Subject treated also by Giambattista 
Tiepolo, Louvre ; Jules Elie Delaunay, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Bartolomeo Carducci, 
Madrid Museum; Annibale Carracci, Ferrara 
Gallery ; Andrea del Castagno, Refectory of 
S. Apollonia, Florence ; Benedetto Cagliari, 
Venice Academy ; Pablo de Cespedes, Cor- 
dova Cathedral; Hans Holbein, elder, St. 
Leonard's, Augsburg : Gerard de Lairesse, 

Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, Convent of S M. delle Grazie, Milan. 

Luini is said to have made a copy for Louis 
XH of France, but nothing is known of it 
A copy by Rubens, in his peculiar style, 
has been engraved by Soutman. Another 
engraved by Thouvenet. In 1884 the French 
Ministry of Fine Arts commissioned Gaillard 
to engrave it for 70,000 francs. Reputed 
studies by Leonardo are in the collection of 
the Grand Duchess of Weimar, in the Wind- 
sor Collection, in the Brera at Milan, in the 
Louvre, and in the Venice Academy ; Leo- 
nardo's memoranda concerning the arrange- j 
ment of the figures, in one of his note-books 
in South Kensington Museum. Vasari, ed. 
MIL, iv. 29 ; Detecluze, L. da Vinci (1841); 
Stendhal, Hist de la Peinture en Italie 

Louvre ; Francesco Penni, Naples Museum ; 
Alphonse Perin, Notre-Dame de Lorette, 
Paris; Hippolyte Flandrin, Saint-Germain- 
des-Pres, ib.; Pierre Auguste Pichon (18*56) ; 
Francois Verdier, Caen Museum. 

LAST TOKEN, Gabriel Max, Miss 0. L. 
Wolfe, New York ; canvas, H. 8 f t. x 5 ft 
Scene in the Coliseum in the time of the 
persecutions of the Christians. A fair young 
girl, exposed in the arena to two lions and 
a tiger, which have evidently just come out 
of their den beside her, is timidly resting 
one hand upon the wall and gazing upward 
to see what sympathetic spectator has cast 
down a rose lying at her feet. Art Journal 
(1881), 174 ; Art Treas. of Amer., i. 124. 


LASTMAN, PEETER, born in Amster- 
dam (?) between 1580 and 1584, died at 
Haarlem in 1649 (?). Dutch school ; history 
painter, pupil of Gerrit Pieterz, on leaving 
whose studio, between 1600 and 1602, he 
went to Rome, where for many years he was 
one of tlje* Dutch and Flemish artists who ; 
grouped themselves about Elsheimer and 
regarded him as their master. Before 1622 
Lastinan must have returned to Amsterdam, 
as in that year or the next Rembrandt be- ', 
came his pupil there. Three pictures paint- 
ed in Italy may be taken as examples of 
Lastman's rst manner, namely : Repose in 
Egypt (1608), Rotterdam Museum ; do. 
(1608), and Philip baptizing the Eunuch 
(1608), Berlin Museum. In his second 
transitional manner, under Italian influence, . 
are Ulysses and Nausicaa (1609), Brunswick 
Museum; replica (1619), Augsburg Gal-! 
lery ; Massacre of the Innocents, and David : 
playing the Harp (1618), Brunswick Muse- 
um, In his third (style of Caravaggio), ', 
Manoah and his "Wife, formerly in Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Adoration of the Shepherds 
(1629), Haarlem Museum; Raising of Laz- i 
arus (1632), Hague Museum. Other works ; 
in public galleries : Herodias receiving, the i 
Head of St. John, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; j 
Ulysses and Nausieaa (1619), Augsburg! 
Gallery ; Apollo and the Muses, Cassel Gal- 1 
lery ; Tobias (1618), Moltke Collection, Co- 
penhagen. Allgem. d. Biogr., xviii. 
10 ; Bode, Studien, 341, 616 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1878), L 130 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
160 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 245 ; Kramm, iil 
954 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 201 ; Yosmaer, 
Rembrandt, ses precurseurs, etc. (1863), ! 
105, 177 ; do., Rembrandt, sa vie, etc., ; 
379. j 

LATHROP, FRANCIS, born on the Pa- . 
chic Ocean, near the Sandwich Islands, June , 
22, 1849. Portrait and decorative painter, j 
pupil of T. C. Farrer in New York in 1863, j 
and of the Royal Academy, Dresden, in 
1868. In 1870-73 he studied under Madox 
Brown in London, and assisted William 
Morris, Spencer Stanhope, and Edward 

Borne-Jones in execution of various works. 
Has painter! in the United States since 1873. 
Member of Society of 
American Artists. His 
chief decorative works 
are in the Metropolitan 
Opera House and the 
Hoffman House, New 
York, and in private 
residences in New 
York, Albany, and Bal- 
timore ; in Trinity 
Church and the Bijou 
Theatre, Boston ; and the Chapel at Bow- 
cloin College, Brunswick, Me. He has de- 
signed illustrations for several books. 

TBDDEU, born at Aix, Feb. 2, 1796. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Gros and of the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts. A careful and dili- 
gent artist, of no marked originali ty. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1827; 1st class, 1841. "Works: 
Byranus leaving Olyrnpia (1824); Washing 
the Feet (1827) ; Morality of the People 
during the Suspension of the Laws in July, 
1830, Joseph's Coat (1830) : The Vet- 
eran's Daughter (1838); Incident of the 
History of Shipwrecks (1841) ; Christ heal- 
ing a Possessed Man, St. Paul in Mace- 
donia (1845) ; Mission of the Apostles 
(1847) ; Portraits of Marshals Puysegur 
(1835) and Bereheny, and of Vice-Admiral 
Suflren, Versailles Museum. Bellier, i 917 ; 

born at Saint-Quentin (Aisne), Sept 5, 1704 
died there, Feb. 17, 1788. French school ; 
portrait painter in pastel, pupil in Paris of 
Spoede, an obscure artist ; probably in 1722 
he went to Rheims, and thence to Cambrai, 
where, during the Congress of 1724, he rap- 
idly won a reputation and the favour of the 
English ambassador, who took him to Lon- 
don ; equally successful there, he soon re- 
turned to Paris, introducing himself as an 
English painter, and became so prominent 
in his branch that- the Academy, fearing 
detriment to all other branches, closed its 


doors to pastel-painting in 1749. Member 
of the Academy, 1746 ; court-painter, 1750. 
Works : Jean Restout (1738), Duinont le 
Romain (1742), Louis de France, son of 
Louis XY. (2, 1745, 1748), Louis XV., Marie 
Lecziuska, Marshal de Saxe (1748), Marquise 
cle Pompadour (1755), Dauphine Marie de 
Saxe (1763), Simeon CLardin, Sculptor Rene 
Fimiin, Marquis cTArgenson (?), and him- 
self, Louvre, Paris ; Portrait of himself, Aix 
Museum ; do., and a Canon of Rheims Ca- 
thedral, Marshal de Saxe, Male Head with 
Night-cap, Dijon Museum ; The Poet Cre- 
billon, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Marie Lec- 
zinska, Marshal de Saxe, and thirty-six 
others, Saint-Quentin Museum; Male and 
Female Portrait, Valenciennes Museum. 
Bellier, i. 918 ; Desmaze, M. Q. de La Tour 
(Paris, 1854) ; Goncourt, L'art du xviii. 
siecle (1880), i. 219; Houssaye, Gal du 
xviii. siecle, iii. 160 ; Jal, 745. 

Silver Mills, near Edinburgh, in 1803, died 
in Edinburgh, April 21, 1869. History 
painter, pupil of Trustees' Academy, Edin- 
burgh, whither he returned in 1820 after 
three years in London, where he drew at 
the British Museum and in a private life 
academy. On the erection of the Scottish 
Academy, in 1830, he became one of its first 
members; visited the Continent in 1833, 
and studied for five years, chiefly at Rome, 
Bologna, Florence, and Venice ; after his 
return, in 1838, lived mostly in London ; 
afterwards returned to Edinburgh, where 
he was struck by paralysis in 1861. Works : 
Bride of Lammermuir, Rose Bradwardine 
(1839); Trial of Effie Deans (1840); Ruth, 
Meg Merrilies and the Dying Smuggler 
(1842) ; Hannah presenting Samuel to Eli 
(1845) ; Christ walking on the Sea (1847) ; 
Mother and Child (1848); Christ teaching 
Humility. Redgrave, 262. 

densen, Hanover, in 1836. History painter, 
pupil of Dtlsseldorf Academy, under Bende- 
mann and Deger. Works: St. Vincent de 
Paul (1865) ; Christ Crucified (1868) ; do. 

. (1870) ; St. Elizabeth commending Orphans 
! to Divine Protection (1874) ; Portraits of 
! Artists, Kunsthalle, Sigmaringen. Mtiller, 

Mariaschein, Bohemia, 
Feb. 16, 1829, died July 
16, 1881. Genre and 
history painter, pupil of 
Prague and Vienna Acad- 
emies, at the latter un- 
der Ruben; visited the 
Danubian principalities 
and Constantinople in 
1855, Germany, Belgium, 
England, and France in 
1862, and Italy in 1863, where he stud- 
ied especially the art of the Renaissance. 
Counsellor of Vienna Academy in 1866, 
professor at the Industrial Art School in 
1868. Works: Architecture (1849) ; Tower- 
Watch (1850) ; Woodland Scene (1851) ; 
Scholar observing Solar Eclipse ; Market 
in Upper Hungary ; Travellers resting be- 
fore Peasant's House ; Old Bachelor ; Cozy 
Place ; Genevieve in the Woods ; Visit 
to the Louvre (1862) ; Curtain for Ballet 
and Comic Opera (1867), Opera House, Vi- 
enna ; Sgraffito-Frieze, Museum, ib. ; Eight 
Angels and Four Evangelists, The Four Car- 
dinal Virtues, Votivkirche, ib. ; Scene in 
the Prater (1881). Allgem. d. Biogr., xviiL 
40 ; Graph. K, iv. 53 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvL 
757 ; xvii. 290 ; Mittheilungen d. osterr. 
Mus., xvi. 402 ; xvii. 19 ; N. Blush'. Zeitg. 
(1881), ii. 718 ; Zeitsdhr. 1 b. K, vi. 9 ; viiL 
(Mittheilungen, i. 25) ; xvii. 261. 

Maromme (Seine-Inferieure), Jan. 25, 1823. 
Genre painter, pupil of Picot. He first ex- 
hibited portraits of good quality in the Salon 
of 1845, and then turned to genre and his- 
tory, sacred and profane. Medals : 3d class, 
1851 ; 2d class, 1855, 1859 ; 1st class, 1861, 
1863 ; L. of Honour, 1865. Works : Van 
Dyck at Saventhem (1847) ; Death of Zur- 
baran (1850); Murder of Bizzio (1850); 
Siege of St. Quentin (1851) ; Death of Will- 



iam the Conqueror (1853) ; Le Sueur among 
the Carthusians (1855), Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; Harvester's Breakfast, On the Thresh- 
old, St. Elizabeth of France (1857) ; Rob- 
bers, Biding Lesson (1859) ; Good News, 
Gathering Carnations, Coming out of School 
(1861) ; The Infant, St. Louis cashing the 
Feet of the Poor (1865) ; Little Inquisitive 
(1866) ; Pia clei Tolomei, Little Girl of Pic- 
ardy (1869) ; Baptism of Clovis, St. Clotilde 
helping the Poor (1870) ; Louis IX. and 
his Three Favourites, Hymn to St. Cecilia 
(1874) ; Young Housekeeper (1875) ; An- 
gel bearing a Censer (1876) ; Candle of 
the Madonna (1877), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Going to Matins (1877) ; Old Man, Old "Wom- 
an (1878) ; Triumph of Flora (1879) ; Servant 
of the Poor, The Truant (1880); The Ques- 
tion (1881) ; The Farm's Washing, For the 
Soup (1883) ; Pilgrims (1884) ; Day of the 
Poor at Nauroy (1885). Has also painted 
many portraits and mural pictures in chap- 
els of the Madonna at St. Pierre du Gros 
Caillou, S3. Peter and Paul at St. Quentin, 
and of St. Denis in the Church of the Trin- 
ity, Paiis. Bellier, i 920; Bitard, 779; 
Ch. Blanc, Artistes de Mon Temps, 473 ; 
Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 636. 

LAUGfiE, GEOEGES, born at Monti- 
villiers (Seine-Inferieure) ; contemporary. 
Genre and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of preceding, and pupil of Pils and Henri 
Lehmann. Medal, 3d class, 1881. Works: 
Repast of Mowers (1877) ; Gleaner Wom- 
an of Picardie (1878) ; Beet-Diggers in 
Picardie, Picardie Soup (1879) ; In Au- 
tumn, The Widow (1880) ; In October, 

** 1583 

Poor Blind Man (1881) ; Under Way to 
Harvest (1882); First Steps, The First-born 
(1883) ; Rest (1884) ; Gleaners, Three Ages j 
(1885). I 

LATJRATI, PIETRO. See Lorenzetti. ' 
LAURENS, JEAN PAUL, bora at Four- ! 
quevaux. (Haute-Garonne), March 28, 1838. ; 

1 History painter, pupil of Leon Cogniet and 
of Bida. Though occasionally defective in 
, colour, his pictures are 
| dramatic in style and 
j spirited in execution. 
: Medals: 3d class, 1869; 
! 1st class, 1872; of hon- 
I our, 1877 ; L. of Hon- 
jour, 1874; Officer, 
1 1878. Works: Death 
J of Cato at Utica (1863); 
iDeath of Tiberius / 

(1864) ; Hamlet (1865) ; After the Ball 
' (1866) ; Christ and the Angel of Death, 
; Beaucaire's Supper (1867) ; Toice in the 
1 Desert (1868), Orleans Museum; Christ 
healing a Lunatic, Herod and his Daughter 
(1869) ; Jesus driven from the Synagogue, 
St. Ambrose teaching Honorius (1870) ; 
Death of the Due cVEnghien (1872), Alen- 
on Museum ; replica, Frank Work, New 
York ; Pope Formosa and Stephen YJLL 
(1872) ; The Fishing at Bethsaida (1873), 
Toulouse Museum ; St. Bruno refusing the 
offerings of Count Roger of Calabria (1874), 
Church of Notre Dame des Champs ; The 
Cardinal, Martha (1S74) ; Excommunication 
of fiobert the Pious (1875), Luxembourg 
Museum ; The Interdict (1875), Havre Mu- 
seum ; Francis di Borgia before the Body 
of Isabella of Portugal (1876) ; Death of 
General Marceau (1877), Ghent MuseUni; 
Death of St. Genevieve (1878), Pantheon, 
Paris ; Release of those Immured at Carcas- 
sonne (1879 j, Luxembourg Museum ; Hon- 
orius (1880), D. 0. Mills, New York ; The 
Examination (1881) ; Last Moments of "the 
Emperor Maximilian (1882) ; Pope and In- 
quisitor, Walls of the Holy Office (1883) ; 
Vengeance of Urban YL (1884); Faust 
(1885) ; Portrait of himself, Uffizi, Florence. 

Bellier, i. 923 ; Montrosier, iii. ; Claretie, 
Peintres (1884), ii. 273; London Daily News, 
May 15, 1878. 


GUSTIN, born in Carpentras in 1825. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Delaroche. In 
1847 lie was sent by the State \vith two 
other artists on a journey through Turkey, 
Persia, and Asia Minor, during which he 
made many sketches for future paintings. 
Medals : 3d class, 1853, 1859 ; 2d class, 1861 
medal at Exposition of 1867 ; L. of Honour, 
1868. Also an engraver and lithographer. 
Works : Grande Chartreuse (1840) ; Envi- 
rons of Vaucluse (1845) ; The Danube (1850) ; 
Road to Teheran (1855); Country of Teheran 
(1857) ; Woman making Butter, Black Sea 
at Sinope (1861) ; Station of Tscharvadars 
(1863) ; Washerwomen at Teheran (1864) ; 
Roofs of Teheran in December (1865) ; 
Turkish Cemetery (1866) ; Winter in Per- 
sia (1867) ; Plateau of Auvergne, Fountain 
of Fontainebleau (1868) ; Road along the 
Sands, Gillifbwers and Chrysanthemums 
(1869) ; Lot's Wife (1870) ; The Bosphorus 
(1874) ; Halt at Gate of Teheran, St. Waast 
after Rain (1875); Washerwoman of Au- 
vergne, Frontiers of Khorassan, Evening 
(1876) ; Chrysanthemums (1877) ; Ancient 
Temple at Vernegues, Dahlias in Provence 
(1878) ; Daisies in Provence (1879) ; Rock 
of Vann in Kurdistan (1879), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Walls of Tauris in Persia (1880) ; 
Ravine at Artemare, Street in Persia (1881) ; 
Souvenirs of the Bosphorus (1882) ; Coun- 
try near Constantinople, Chrysanthemums 
(1883) ; Mont Ventoux (1884)"; Souvenir of 
Anatolia (1885). Bellier, i. 923; Bitaxd, 
780 ; Larousse. 

LAURI, FILIPPO, born in Rome in 1623, 
died there in 1694. Roman school; son 
and pupil of Baldassare Lauri (1570-1642), 
a landscape painter of Antwerp, and brother 
of Francesco Lauri (1610-35), a famous pu- 
pil of Andrea Sacchi, but who died young, 
after exciting the greatest hopes. Filippo, 
who was deformed, had instruction from 
Francesco, and afterwards from Caroselli, 
who married his sister ; but he abandoned 
the style of the latter, and devoted himself 
to painting lively and humorous cabinet 

pictures. He executed these with so much 
spirit that his works were in great demand 
in Rome. He worked sometimes conjointly 
with Claude Lorrain, painting the figures in 
the latter 's landscapes. His largest picture 
is Adam and Eve, in S. M. della Pace, Rome. 
Other works : Venus and the Seasons, Pa- 
lazzo Doria, Rome ; St. Francis of Assisi in 
Ecstasy, Offering to Pan, Apollo and Mar- 
syas, Louvre, Paris ; Landscape, Hague Mu- 
seum ; Flight into Egypt, Vienna Museum ; 
St. Ann teaching the Virgin to read, Christ 
appearing to Magdalen, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; Hagar in the Desert, Historical 
Society, New York. Lanzi, i. 501 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole ombrienne. 

LAUS VENERIS, #imie-Jones, private 
gallery ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 11 in. 
A young queen, in a vermilion robe, with a 
golden coronet resting on her knees, is re- 
clining in a half-lighted room, hung with 
tapestry representing the triumph of Ve- 
nus, attended by several lady companions, 
grouped a little apart from their mistress, 
one of whom is reading a hymn to the glory 
of Venus ; through the window are seen six 
young knights in armor riding by, all look- 
ing eagerly in. Grosvenor Gallery, 1878; 
bought by John Graham ; at his sale (1886), 
2,460. Athen. (1876), i. 867. 
UEL, born in 
Paris, Nov. 29, 
1820. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Corot and Le- 
quien. Medals : 
3d class, 1849; 
Medal, 1864, 
1870 ; Legion of 
Honour, 1878. 
Works: Even- 
ng, After the Storm, View on Plateau de 
Marlotte (1849); View on Plateau de Belle- 
Croix (1850), Lille Museum ; April Morn- 
ng, Evening in January (1864); Pierrefonds 
n 1858 (2), Pasture in Normandy, Fernery, 
1870); September Evening in Fontaine- 


bleau Forest (1874), Winter Evening (1875), 
Nantes Museum ; October Night on Bridge 
of Corbienne (1880), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Else of Corbienne River at Bretoncelles 
(1881); Entrance to Forest of Tore, Sandy 
Plains near Moret-sur-Loing (1882) ; Sum- 
mer Night (1885). Beffier, i. 931. 

Jacquier), bom at Strassburg, April 12, 1843. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Coroller. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1875. Works: Fusing Tide 
near Lorient, Low Tide after Rain, ib., Dy- 
er's Street at Arras (1875) ; Strand of Lori- 
ent and Isle des Souris (1876), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Cliffs of Yport (1878) ; Paris in 
1878, Mouth of the Seine near Yfflervffle 
(1879) ; Kourigans Creek near Lorient, Fog ! 
at Yport (1880); Rising Tide, Boulevard; 
Brune in the Snow (1881) ; Sunshine on Isle 
de Groix, Sandy Plain, ib. (1882) ; Calm at , 
Tillers, Storm, ib. (1884). 

dry, grand hall of audience of the Cour de j 
Cassation, Paris. In the centre, Law, per- 1 
sonified by a female figure, sits enthroned ! 
on a pedestal, while Jurisprudence stands; 
on the steps of the sanctuary, at left, con- ' 
templating her. Above Law are two aerial I 
figures, symbolical of Justice (with the sword 
and balances) and Equity (with the metric \ 
rule). At the foot of the pedestal, at left, ' 
Authority leans upon the fasces and holds | 
aloft the tri-colour ; at right, Force reposes ! 
upon a lion, with Innocence (a nude child) 
beside her. Beside the pedestal, a figure in 
the robe of the President of the Court of 
Cassation uncovers his head and salutes the 
Law. Salon, 1881 ; awarded the grand med- j 
al of honour. I/Artiste (1882), L 356. I 

Rubens, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 8 f t. 3 j 
in. x 5 ft. 10 in. Lawrence, a native of j 
Spain, was archdeacon in Rome under Pope | 
Sistus K, in the reign of Valerian, third 
century. After the death of Sixtus, Law- 
rence, commanded to give up the treasures 
of the Church, distributed them among the 
poor, and presenting himself before the 

prefect, accompanied by his beneficiaries, 
declared that these were the riches of the 
Church. The prefect, Cornelius Secularis, 
angered at this reply, ordered him to be 
roasted on a gridiron until he should com- 
ply with his orders. In the picture by Ru- 
bens, two executioners throw down the Saint 
with violence, while a third supplies fuel 
to the fire ; in background, at right, statue 
of Jupiter, seated ; at left, soldiers and a 
horse's head ; above, an angel with the palm 

Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, Rubens, Munich Gallery. 

and crown of martyrdom. Formerly in the 
Elector-Palatine's Gallery at Dtisseldorf. 
Engraved by Lucas Yorstennan ; Cora. 
Galle. Reveil, vii. 495. 

By Titian; Escorial, Spain ; canvas, arched, 
figures life-size ; signed. Similar to St. 
Lawrence of the Gesuiti, Venice ; but a tri- 
umphal arch takes the place of the temple, 
and there are some other variations. Paint- 
ed in 1567 for PhiHp EL of Spain. En- 
graved by C. Cort in 1571. C. & C., Titian, 
ii. 383. 



By Titian, S. M. Assunta del Gesuiti, Yen- ' graved by Oortman. Carried to Paris in 
ice ; canvas, arched, H. 17 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft, ' 1799 ; returned in 1815. C. & C., Titian, 
figures larger than life ; signed. Night ii. 259 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 453 ; Filhol, x. 
scene ; St. Lawrence stretched on an iron ! 691 ; Landon, Musee, iv. PI. 65. 
framework, under which is a fire fed by at-; LAWRENCE, Sir THOMAS, born at 

}I ay 4 , 
1769," died 
in London, 
January 7, 
1830. Por- 
trait paint- 
er, son of a 
Bristol inn- 
keeper who 
had known 
better days. 

At the age of ten he took crayon 
portraits at Oxford and copied his- 
torical pictures, and before he was 
twelve he had drawn Mrs. Siddons 
in crayons and made his studio at 
Bath a fashionable resort. He be- 
gan to paint in oils in his seven- 
teenth year, and succeeded so well, 
in his own opinion, that he declared 
himself ready to stake his reputation 
against that of any painter in Eng- 
land. When, however, he first ex- 
hibited in London (1787), his vanity 
received a salutary check, and feel- 
ing the necessity of study he entered 
the Eoyal Academy, The very next 
year he achieved a success with his 
portrait of Miss Farren, the actress, 
afterwards Countess of Derby, and 
followed it up with portraits of the 
Queen and the Princess Amelia. 
In 1791, through the influence of 
George HI, with whom he was a 
great favourite, Lawrence was ad- 
mitted to the Koyal Academy as supple- 
mentary A.E.A., although under the re- 
quired age, and the next year he became 
painter in ordinary to his majesty. In 1794 
he was elected E.A. To these years belong 
his portraits of J. J. Angerstein and Benja- 
min West, the full length of Mrs. Siddons, 

Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, Titian, S. M. Assunta del Gesuiti. 

tendants ; executioner and soldiers hold the 
Saint, whose legs are toward the spectator ; 
the flames and a torch light the group, and 
a gleam from heaven illumines the sufferer 
and shows the steps of a temple, on which 
figures are seen. Painted about 1558. 
Dark with age and much repainted. En- 



and the portraits of John Kemble as Rolla, ' Hilton, "Wilton House ; Lady Gower and 
Cato, Hamlet, and Coriolanus. At the height Child, Stafford House ; Lord Dover, Lady 
of his reputation he received one hundred ^Dover and Son, Dover House ; Lady Bles- 
guineas for a head, and four hundred for a ; sington, Sir Kichard Wallace, Bart. ; Artist's 
full-length portrait. At this rate per portrait, j Portrait, Gypsy Girl, Satan calling his Le- 
aud with 1,000 a year to draw upon for ( gions, Royal Academy ; Thomas Campbell, 
travelling expenses. Sir Thomas was sent to j Sir J. Mackintosh, National Portrait Gal- 
the Continent by George IV.,, soon after the : lery, London ; Kerable as Coriolanus, Earl 
fall of Napoleon, to paint the allied sover-|of Yarborough. Williams, Life (London, 
eigns, then assembled at Aix-la-Chapelle ; to 1831) ; Cunningham ; Redgrave ; F. de Con- 
Rome to paint Pius Til. and Cardinal Gon- ches, 349 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Art 
salvi (1819), two of his finest works, and to j Journal (1859), 325 ; Sandby, ii 21. 
Tienna to paint Prince Schwartzenberg and ' LAWRIE, ALEXANDER, bom in New 
other Austrian generals. He had been j York in 1828. Landscape and portrait 
knighted by the king in 1815, and five years , painter, pupil of the National Academy, 
later, after his return to England, he was New York, and of the Pennsylvania Acad- 
elected president of the Royal Academy, emy, Philadelphia ; studied in Paris under 
He was a member of the Academy of St. Picot, in Dttsseldorf under Leutze, and 
Luke, Rome, and of many other foreign | painted in Florence. Has worked in Phil- 
academies, and in 1825 was made a cheva- ; adelphia and New York ; studio in the lat- 
lier of the L. of Honour. He painted some ; ter place. Elected an AN. A in 1866. 
large historical subjects, among which his j Works : Autumn in the Hudson Highlands 
Satan calling his Legions was placed by him-; (1869) ; Talley in the Adirondacks (1870) ; 
self above all his other works. Sir Thomas ; Monk playing Tioloncello (1876). Por- 
was the ideal of a fashionable portrait paint- , traits : General Z. Tower, Military Acad- 
er, thanks to his facile use of colour, the 1 emy, West Point ; Judge Sutherland, New 
superficial elegance of his style, and his : York Bar Association ; Colonel J. Porter : 
skill in the art of flattering the many dis- General J. F. Reynolds, 
tinguished people whose portraits he painted.! LAWSON, CECIL GORDON, born at 

He contributed, from 1787 to 1830 inclu-1 Wellington, Shrop- 
sive, 311 pictures to the exhibitions of the! shire, Dec. 3, 1851, 
Royal Academy. After his death, in the j died in London, June 
latter year, a selection of 91 of his works j 10, 1882. Landscape 
was exhibited at the British Institution, j painter, son and pupil 
Among his best works are : Portraits of of William Lawson, 

Julius Angerstein, A Lady, Benjamin West, 
Mrs. Siddons (2), Dowager Countess of 
Darnley, John Faweett Comedian, Child 

portrait painter ; also 
studied under his 
brother, Wilfrid Law- 

with a Kid, Hamlet with Yoriek's Skull, Na- j son, and was strongly 
tional Gallery, London ; Pius VH, Cardinal \ influenced by works of 
Gonsalvi, Emperor Francis IL of Austria, Gainsborough. Exhibited his Cheyne Walk, 

George IV., Count Nesselrode, Hetman Pla- 

Chelsea, at Royal Academy in 1870, but did 

toff, Duke of Wellington, Sir Walter Scott, j not win much reputation until 1878, when 
and others, Windsor Castle ; Master Lamb- his Minister's Garden, now in the Manches- 
ton, Earl of Durham ; Lady Peel, Sir Robert j ter Gallery, and other works were exhib- 
Peel, Bart. ; Nature Children of C. B. Cal- ! ited at Grosvenor Gallery. After this he 
mady, Vincent P. Calraady, Esq. ; Eliza ! had an assured place in English landscape 
Farren Countess of Derby, Countess of \ art, but his career was cut short by death. 



Works: River in Eain, Summer Evening 
at Cheyne Valk (1871) ; Lament (1S72) ; 
Pastoral (1873) ; Hop Gardens of England 
(1876) ; View from Don Saltero's (1877) ; 
TTet Moon Old Battersea, Autumn Sun- 
rise, Strayed, In the Valley (1878) ; Sun- 
down, OldBattersea Moonlight, Wet Moon, 
Morning Mist, 'Twist Sun and Moon, Kent, 
Silver Mist, Golden Mist, Haunted Mill, 
Morning After (1879) ; Moonlight Pastoral, 
August Moon, Yoiee of the Cuckoo (1880) ; 
The Pool, Bardon Moors, Valley of Desola- 
tion, Wharfedale (1881) ; Blackdown Sur- 
rey, Peach Blossom, Doone Valley, Sfcorm 
Cloud, September, On Eoad to Monaco 
(1882). Mrs. Cecil (Constance) Lawson 
contributed to the Grosvenor Gallery in 
1882 Provence Eoses ; in 1888 White Chrys- 
anthemums, Poppies ; in 1884 Almond Blos- 
soms ; and to the Eoyal Academy in 1884 
Peonies, Chrysanthemums, Almond Blos- 
soms. E. W.Gosse, Memoir (London, 1883); 
Acad., June, 1882, 439 ; Athen., June, 1882, 
770 ; Portfolio (188*3), 185 ; Cornyns Carr, 
Modern Landscape. 

LAWSON, F. WILFRED, bom in Shrop- 
shire, England; contemporary. Elder 
brother of Cecil Lawson. Genre painter ; 
began as a designer for periodicals, espe- 
cially The Graphic. Exhibits at Eoyal 
Academy and Dudley Gallery. Has paint- 
ed a series of pictures illustrative of the 
Children of the City. Works : Street Arabs 
(1876) ; Imprisoned Spring (1877) ; Dawn 
(1878); Jesus at the House of the Phar- 
isee (1881) ; A Day in the Country (1882) ; 
A Midway Inn (1884). 

New York in 1845. Portrait and genre 
painter, pupil of Cooper Institute, National ! 
Academy, and of Thomas Hicks in New 
York. Elected an A.N. A. in 1876. Studio 
in New York. Works : Window ; Letter 
(1877) ; Two Friends, J. H. Sherwood, New \ 
York; Watching the Snow (1879). Por- 
traits : John Delafield, Winslow Homer, C. 
C. Griswold, C. C. Colrnan, Miss Fidelia 
Bridges (property of the National Academy, 

Xew York) ; Miss Genevieve Ward, (1882) ; 
' Edwin Booth as Hamlet (1883). 
'< LAYXAUD, ERNEST, born in Paris; 
! contemporary. Landscape painter, son and 
| pupil of Frangois Louis Laynaud. Medal, 
! 3d class, 1883. Works : Quai of Treport, 
' View at Treport Harbor (1878) ; Eocks of 
I Tr6port, Harbor of Treport (1879) ; Fish 
; Market, ib. (1881); Canal Saint-Martin, Tre- 
1 port at Low Tide (1882) ; do. (1883) ; The 
! Seine at La Briche, Quai Corner at Hon- 
fleur (1884) ; Bassin de la Lieutenance, ib. 

Paris ; contemporary. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Picot. Works : 
Misery (1835); Mule Portrait (1836), Eouen 
Museum ; Miracle of Loaves and Fishes 
(1842) ; Bishop Saint Brice giving Benedic- 
tion at Tours (1844), Ministry of Interior, 
Paris ; Saint Hilaire Bishop of Poitiers re- 
entering his Diocese after long Absence 
(1846), ib. ; St. Louis vowing to go to the 
Holy Land (1864), Town-hall, Pontoise. 
Bellier, i. 934. 

(S^EAPHIN), born at Laroche-sur-Bois 
(Drome), Oct. 13, 1834. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Loubon and Cogniet 
and of cole des Beaux Arts. Second prix 
de Eome, 1850; first, 1863; Medal, 2d 
class, 1872. Works : Sophocles accused by 
his Sons (1850) ; Joseph revealing himself 
to his Brethren (1863) ; Brigands and Cap- 
tives (1872), British Museum ; Marsyas 
(1872), fipinal Museum ; Death of Agrip- 
pina, Diogenes (1881) ; Lies de Castro 
(1882) ; Si Sebastian (1883) ; Drove of Bulls 
at Porta del Popolo Eome (1885). Bel- 
lier, i. 934. 

LAZAEUS, BAKING OF, Garofalo, Fer- 
rara Gallery ; wood, H. 8 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft 7 
in. An excellent composition, with figures 
in two groups, accessories of landscape, and 
a sepulchre cut in the rock. Painted in 
1534 for S. Francesco, Ferrara. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vi. 463 ; Ape italiana delle Belle Arti 
(Eome), i. 36. 


By Giotto, S. M. dell' Arena, Padua ; help, out of his grave-clothes : in rear, 
fresco on wall. One of same series as Last Martha and others, offended in their nos- 
Judgment by Giotto. C. & C., i. 271. hils,' cover their faces, while the apostles 

By Guercino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 look on ; near Christ, some fall on their 
in. x 7 ft. 8 in. Composition of eight fig- knees and believe ; background, a river and 
ures. Christ, standing, extends his arm a bridge, with" buildings on a hill, the houses 
towards Lazarus, from whose body a young like those of the Trastevere suburb of Rome, 
man removes the winding-sheet ; Mary and and the ruin a reminiscence of the Basilica 
Martha, sisters of Lazarus, are the 
one on her knees beside Christ, 
the other near the sepulchre with 
two disciples ; at right, a man 
leaning over the grave holds his 
nose. Collection of Louis XVL; 
acquired in 1785. Engraved by 
Y. Denon ; J. B. Pasqualini. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, ii. 
61 ; Landon, Musee, vi. PL 35. 

By Jean Jouvenef, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 9 in. x 
21 ft. 9 in. ; signed, dated 1706. 
Jesus, with Martha and Mary 
" kneeling beside him and sur- 
rounded by many others, stands 
on the steps of the sepulchre 
with his left hand stretched out 
towards Lazarus, who, aided by 
several men, one bearing a torch, 
is rising from the tomb at right. 
Jouvenet himself, with his daugh- 
ters, is among the spectators in 
the first plane. Painted for the 
Church of Saint-Martin-des- 
Champs ; repetition, made by or- 
der of Louis XIV. to be repro- 
duced in Gobelins tapestry, now 
in Lille Museum ; tapestry given 

to Peter the Great, When he Vis- Raising of Lazarus, Sebastian del Plombo, National Gallery, London, 

ited the Gobelins. Original engraved by i of Constantine. Painted in 1519, in rivalry 
Jean Audran ; Duchange. Landon, Musee, [ with the Transfiguration of Kaphael ; exe- 
iv. 61 ; Monteil, Histoire des Fran9ais des ; cuted, according to Tasari, under the super- 
divers iStats, viL ; Larousse, x. 279. j intendence, and after the designs, of Michel- 
By Sebastian del Piombo, National Gal- 1 angelo. It is probable that the latter gave 
lery, London ; wood, transferred to canvas, ' drawings for several of the figures, but of 
H. 12 ft. 6 in. x 9 ft. 5 in. Mary at the feet his superintendence we have no proof. Or- 

of Christ, who stands "with a gesture of com- 
mand ; Lazarus leaning against side of sep- 
Tilchre, under a large tree, struggling, with 

dered by Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, who 
sent it to his bishopric in Narbonne, where 
it was hung in the Cathedral ; later in Or- 



leans Gallery, the regent paying 24,000 | By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
francs for it ; bought by banker Angerstein \ canvas. Christ, half reclining, half sitting, 
for 3,500 guineas ; Mr. Beckford offered ! at the bottom of the picture, while Lazarus 

| is disencumbered of his grave-clothes at the 
! top, on the side of a rocky hill ; the persons 
aiding exhibit neither astonishment nor awe. 
, Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 339 ; Burck- 
! hardt, 745. 

I By Otto Vaeniits, Antwerp Cathedral, 
I Eighth Chapel. Christ, standing in centre 
; surrounded by many people, with women 
1 kneeling in front, raises his right hand ; in 
the foreground, Lazarus, who has just been 
raised from the grave beside him, is assisted 
by two men. Taken to Paris by the French ; 
returned in 1815. Landon, Musee, xiii. PL 

Subject treated also by Leandro Bassano, 
Venice Academy ; Aliense, Perugia ; Giro- 
lamo Muziano, Louvre, and S. M. Maggiore, 
Borne ; M abuse, Brussels Museum ; Lucas 
Cranach, the elder, Dresden Museum ; Otto 
Vaenius, Ghent Cathedral ; Abraham Bloe- 
niaert, Munich Museum ; Johann Rotten- 

Raising of Lazarus, Rubens, Berlin Museum. 

him 15,000 for it, but he insisted upon 
guineas, and the negotiation failed ; sold, 
with 37 other pictures, forming Angerstein 
Collection, to National Gallery in 1824, for 
57,000. One of the noblest pictures in 
existence. Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 570 ; C. & 
C., N. Italy, ii. 329 ; Rosini, v. 8 ; Waagen, 
Treasures, i. 320 ; Angerstein Gal., PL 1 ; 
Richter, 89, 105 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 514 
By Eubens, Berlin Mus. ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 6 
in. x 6 ft. 5 in. Christ stands at right, with 
extended arms, addressing Lazarus, who is 
quitting the tomb, assisted by Peter stand- 
ing behind him, and a woman kneeling in 
front ; another disciple and another woman 
raise their hands in astonishment. A good 
work of Rubens' middle period. Formerly at 
Potsdam. Taken to Paris ; returned in 1815. 
Sketch in Louvre. Engraved by Bolswert. 
Smith, ii. 108 ; Meyer, Museen, 392 ; Lan- 
don, Musee, 2d CoL, i PL 34. 

Raising of Lazarus, Otto Vaenius, Antwerp Cathedral. 

hammer, Vienna Museum ; Rubens, Turin 
Museum ; H. de Hess, All-Saints', Munich ; 
Bon BouUongne, Church of the Carthusians, 


Paris ; EustacheLe Sueur ; Benjamin West; j Banks of the Brook (1877) ; Eepose in Al- 
Eugene Delacroix (1850) ; Verdier, St. Ger- giers (1881; ; Arab Marching (1882) ; Story- 
main-cles-Pres, Paris. teller in Algiers (1883) ; End of Day, ib. 

LAZEEGES, HIPPOLYTE (JEAN HAY- (1884) ; Caravan, ib. (1885). Bellier, i. 935. 
MOND), born at Narbonne (Aude), July 5, ; LAZZARDsI, <3REGORIO, bom atYilla- 
1817. Genre painter, pupil of David d'An- 1 nuova in 1657, died in Yenice in 1735 (?). 
gers and Bouchot Paints religious pictures } Yenetian school; history painter, pupil of 
and oriental scenes \vith care, but without | Francesco Rosa, of Genoa, whose sombre 
much grasp of subject. Has executed works j style he not only abandoned, but alto- 
in Notre Dame de Bon Secours, near Rouen, i gether banished from the Yenetian school, 
and in the Nantes Theatre. Medals : 3d j of which, for accuracy of design and taste 
class, 1843 ; 2d class, 1848, 1857 ; Legion j in composition, he must be pronounced the 
of Honour, 1867. Works : Descent from leader during that period. Works : Her- 

Cross(1843), Chapel of Chateau d'Eu; Christ 
in the Garden (1844), Hospital at Beaune ; 
The Virgin interceding for Sinners (1848), 

cules and Oinphale, Astronomy, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Yenus in a Shell drawn by Dolphins, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Moses strik- 

Limoges Museum ; Springtime personified j ing the Rock, The Fall of Manna, Abra- 
by Young Girl (1849), Roanne Museum ; ham's Sacrifice, Charity, Academy, Yenice ; 
Genius extinguished by Pleasure (1850), Bacchanale, Portrait of himself, Museo Civ- 
Carcassonne Museum ; Susanna Bathing ; ico, ib. ; Male portraits (2), Bergamo Gal- 
Descent from Cross (1855), Luxembourg ! lery ; Portrait of the Patriarch Lorenzo 
Museum ; Albani in his Studio (1857), Nar- ' GiustinianL Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 297 ; Wurz- 
bonne Museum ; Napoleon HL aiding the j bach, xiv. 261. 

Inundated at Lyons (1857), Lyons Museum;; LEADER, BENJAMIN WILLIAMS, 
Peter's Denial (1859), Montpellier Museum ; jborn in Worcester, 
Kabyles Harvesting (1861), Tarbes Muse- j March 12, 1831. 
urn ; Dance of the Aissaouas (1861), Per-! Real name Ben- 
pignan Museum ; Christ bearing the Cross j jam in Williams ; 
(1870), Orleans Museum ; Eve (1872) ; j assumed surname 
Christ of the 19th Century (1873) ; Stabat j Leader as a distinc- 
Mater (1874) ; Christ led to Prison, Resur- j tion. Landscape 
rection, Louis XYL and Marie Antoinette painter ; pupil of 

at Versailles (1876) ; Falma the Singer, 

Royal Academy 

schools. Elected 

an A - RA - fc 1888 - 

Works . ^elshChurchyard (1863) ; Through 

the Glen (1867); Wild Wales (1872); 

Thames at Streatly (1874) ; English Hay- 
\ field (1876); Lucerne, Lauterbrunnen 
Moors in Court of the Marabout (1877) ; A | (1877) ; Autumn in Switzerland, Summer 
Waif (1883) ; Kabyle Women (1884); De- ! in Worcestershire (1878) ; English Hayfield 
scent from the Cross (1885). Bellier, L 1(1879); In the Evening there shall be Light 
935 ; Bitard, 789 ; Yapereau. j (1882) ; Parting Day, Green Pastures and 

LAZERGES, JEAN BAPTISTS 'PAUL, j Still Waters, Autumn Evening (1883) ; The 
born in Paris, Jan. 10, 1845. Genre and j Rivulet, The Ploughman (1884). Art Jour- 
portrait painter, son and pupil of preceding. , nal (1871), 45. 

Medal, 3d class, 1884. Works : Portrait of \ LEANDRO, ST., Murilh, Seville Cathe- 
Sara Bernhaxdt (1870) ; The Bath (1875) ;; dral ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 2 in. x 5 ft 6 in. 


Robed in white and mitred, seated by a ta- j Schwerin Gallery. -Bellier, 936 ; Ch. Blanc, 

ble, holding a parchment in his hands. 
Painted in 1655. Companion to St. Isidoru. 
Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 9 
in. x 5 ft. 11 in. St. Bonaventura on left, 

Ecole fran^aise, iii. ; Larousse, x. 285. 

LEBEL, EDMOND, born at Amiens, in 
1834. Landscape painter, pupil of Leon 
Cogniet. Medal, 2d class, 1872. Works: 
A Vow at -San Germano (1872), Luxeni- 

leaning against a pedestal, with model of a j bourg Museum ; Street at Cassino (1873) ; 

church in his hands ; St. Leandro on right, Butcher of Transtevere Rome (1874), Ponte 

with pastoral staff in left hand, and parch- Rapido at Cassino (1875), Amiens Museum ; 

ment in right; beside him a boy with a Entrance to Abbey of Monte Cassino (1875); 

raitre. Painted about 1676 for church of Cardinal blessing Family of Pilgrims (1877); 

Capuchin Convent, Seville. Companion to | Ecco Fiori ! (1878) ; Street at Belrnonte 

SS. Justa and Rufina. Curtis, 258. (1879). Bellier, i. 939 ; Du Camp, B. Arts, 

COIS, bom at Rouen, Nov. 11, 1738, died in 
Paris, May 7, 1826. French school; his- 
tory painter and illustrator ; won first prize 
of the Rouen Academy in 1756 and 1758 ; 
went to Paris, where he studied under 
Pierre, and after a journey to Rome was 
received into the Academy in 1785. Made 
illustrations for worts of Ovid, Racine, 
Rousseau, Delille, and others. Medal, 1st 
class, 1808 ; Member of the Institute, 1816. 
"Works : Siege of Beauvais (1781), Town- 
hall, Beauvais ; Crillon receiving Letter of 
Henry IV. (1781) ; Henry IV. and Sully 
(1783) ; Jupiter Asleep on Mount Ida (1785), 
Courage of Spartan Women (1787), Lou- 
vre ; Henri Dubois entering first into the 
Bastille (1789) ; Lycurgus presenting his 
Nephew to the Spartans (1791) ; Heroism 
of young Desilles at Nancy (1795), Town- 
liall, Nancy; Helen and Paris (1801); 
Agrippina leaving Camp of Germanicus 
(1808) ; St. Louis about to depart for the 
First Crusade receiving the Oriflamme at 
Saint-Denis (1812), Sacristy of Basilica, St. 
Denis ; Henry IV. and Marquis de Ver- 


JULIEN, born in Paris : 

contemporary. History painter, pupil of 
E. Girard ; of increasing merit and popu- 
larity. Medals : 3d class, 1878 ; 2d class, 
1880. Works : Assassination of Lepelletier 

Saint Fargeau (1874) ; Playing the Game of 
Tonneau (1877) ; Death of" General d'Elbee 
(1878) ; Henry de la Rochejacquelin (1879); 
Skirmish of Fougeres in 1793 (1880) ; Cou- 
riers of the Blues (1882) ; Execution of Gen- 
eral Oharette (1883) ; Diner de I'fiquipage 

LEBOURGET. See Bourget. 
LE BRUN, CHARLES, born in Paris, 
Feb. 24, 1619, died 
there, Feb. 12, 1690. 
French school ; his- 
tory and portrait 
painter, son of a 
sculptor ; pupil of 
Perrier, Vouet, and 
Poussin. Protected 
by the Chancellor 
Seguier. At the 
age of fifteen he 

attracted attention by several pictures 
painted for Cardinal Richelieu, and in 1642 
was taken to Rome by Nicholas Poussin, 
with whom he lived six years, and from 
whom he received invaluable advice. Re- 
called to Paris in 1648, he was received into 
the Academy, protected by Fouquet, pre- 
thea expiring^ on the Body of her Husband ! sented to Louis XIV. by Cardinal Mazaxin, 
(1817) ; CaUisto surprised by Jupiter, ! and made court-painter. In 1662 the king 


nueil (1814) ; Medias assassinating Mania, 
Farewell of Abradatas and Panthea, Pari- 


ennobled him, gave him the general care of mitag e, St. Petersburg : Portrait of Banker 
all works of art in royal buildings, and made Ja bach and his Family, Berlin Museum- 
him director of the Gobelins, and succes- p rop b e t Elijah and the Priests of Baal, Mu- 
sively rector, chancellor, and director of the & Rath, Geneva; Repentant Magdalen, 
Academy of Pamting : In 1666 Le Brun John Evangelist inPatnios, Portrait of Aged 
induced the king to found the French Acad- Woman, Old Pinakothek, Munich; B^ar- 
emy at Rome, where, though absent, he was Hunt, Stuttgart Museum ; Portrait of a Gen- 
made prince of the Academy of St. Luke. e ral, Liechtenstein Gallerv, Vienna ; Ma-- 
After the death of Colbert the fortunes of dalen, Venice Academy ; Horatius defending 
Le Brun declined, through the enmity of the Bridge, The Musicians, Massacre of In- 
Louvois, who brought so much trouble upon nocents, Dulwich Gallery; Centaurs and 
him that he sickened and died. He was an Lapiths, Earl of Damley ; Perseus Rescuin- 
extremely able and prolific painter, who Andromeda, Earl of Yal-borough ; Peace of 
belonged to a theatrical and mannered Niinwegen, National Gallery, Pesth ; Perse- 
school. Works: Adoration of Shepherds us and Andromeda, Lord Ndthorp ; Visita- 
(2), Sleep of Infant Jesus (1655), Holy Fain- t ion, Lord Feversham ; Decorations of the 
ily, Christ served m Desert by Angels, j g^at staircase and ceiling of the great al- 
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem (1689), Christ ' & 

bearing his Cross (1687), Christ on the Cross 
(1685), Crucifix with Angels (1686), Christ ! 
dead on Virgin's Knees, Descent of Holy 
Spirit, Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1651), 
Repentant Magdalen, Fall of Rebellious 
Angels, Zlucius Scsevola before Porsena 
(1639), Death of Goto, Passage of the Gran- 
icus, Battle of Arbela, Tent of Darius, Alex- 
ander and Porus, Alexander entering Baby- 
lon, Meleager and Atalanta Hunting, Death j 
of Meleager, Mars and Venus, Portrait of j lery (1679-80), Versailles ; Mural paintings 
Charles Le Brun, do. of Charles Alphonse ! at St. Germain, and hi Castle and Pavi]- 
du Fresnoy, Louvre ; Establishment of the j ion of Sceaux. Bellier, L 944 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Invalides, Founding of the Order of St. i Ecole fran^aise ; Jal, 751 ; ELeane, Early 
Louis, Baptism of the Dauphin, The King 'Masters, 511; Larousse; Memoires inedits, i. 
visiting the Gobelins, Founding of the Ob- ( 1 ; Stothert, 91 ; L'Art, xiii. 3 ; xvL 137, 238. 
servatory, Louis XIV. apologizing in the j LE BRUN, Mme. MARIE LOUISE 
Name of Spain, Giving the Keys of Marsal ELISABETH (nee 
to Louis XIV., Renewal of the Swiss Alii- Vigee), born in Paris, 
ance, Marriage" of Louis XTV. to Maria of April 16, 1755, died 
Austria, Versailles Museum ; Descent from ' there, March 30, 1842. 
Cross, Rennes Museum; Nymph pursued ! French school; por- 
by a River, Bordeaux Museum; Louis XIV. ; trait, history, and 
with Conquered Nations at his Feet, Lyons! land scape painter. 
Museum ; Baptism of Christ, Daniel in Li- Taught drawing by her 
ons' Den, Last Judgment, Caen Museum ; father, portrait painter, 
Father Eternal in Glory, Nantes Museum ; i and by Briard, paint- 
Hercules and Cacus, Lille Museum ; St. [ ing by Doyen and Jo- 
John the Apostle in Ecstasy, Nimes Muse- ; seph Vernet ; perfected herself by study of 
um ; Christ in the Garden, Crucifixion, Her- 1 the old masters at the Louvre, and at the 



age of sixteen had painted many portraits. 
In 1774 she was made a member of the 
Academy of St. Luke, and in 1783 of the 
French Academy. Long before this she 
had married a picture-dealer named Le 
Brun, \vho made a very free use of the 
money which she earned. At the outbreak 
of the Ee volution Mine. Le Brun went to 
Italy, painted at Naples Lady Hamilton as 
a Bacchante, and was made associate mem- 
ber of the Academies of Bologna and Parma. 
Before returning to France in 1801 she vis- 
ited Germany and Russia, and was made 
associate of the Academies of Berlin, St. Pe- 
terburg, Copenhagen, and Geneva. Later 
she visited England, Holland, and Switzer- 
land, and in 1808 painted Mine, de Stael at 
Coppel In 1809 she settled at Marly, and 
at the age of eighty painted an admirable 
portrait of her niece, Mme. von Riviere. 
In 1835 she published her reminiscences. 
During her life she painted 662 portraits, 
200 landscapes, and 15 historical pictures. 
'Works : Peace bringing Abundance (1780), 
Portrait of herself and Daughter (2), Por- 
trait of Paisiello (1791), Portrait of Hubert 
Robert (1788), Portrait of Joseph Yernet 
(1778), Louvre ; Hebe, Bordeaux Museum ; 
Venus tying the Wings of Love ; Modesty 
and a Vestal (Le Bmn sale, 1842, 1,500 fr.); 
Marie Antoinette and her Three Children, 
Versailles Museum ; Portrait of Maria Caro- 
line Wife of Ferdinand IV. King of Naples ; 
do. of their Daughter the Princess Christina, 

Madrid Mu- 

seum; Madame 
de StaGlj Mu8 e 

Rath, Geneva. 

Bellier, i. 

947; Guhl; 

Ck Blanc, ficole 

fran 9 aise; 
Wurzbach, Fr. MaL des xviii. Jahrh., 11 ; 
Lejeune, Guide, i. 307; Larousse ; Wes- 
sely, 39. 

Schmiegel, Posen, July 27, 1800, died in 
Munich, June 13, 1877. Architecture and 


I landscape painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
under W. von Kobell, Wagenbauer, Dillis, 
and Dorner; excelled especially in water- 
colours. Works : Twenty-seven Memorial 
Leaves from Munich's Past, City Hall, Mu- 
nich ; Ninety-six Views of Bavarian Castles 
and Towns, Historical Society of Upper Ba- 
varia. Allgem. d. Biogr., xviii. 103 ; All- 
gem. Zeitg., July 2, 1877, Beilage, 183 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xii. 643 ; xiv. 754 ; Nagler, 
Mon., i. 939 ; ii. 122. 

LECLAIRE, VICTOR, bom in Paris, 
Dec. 21, 1830, died there in Jan., 1885. 
Landscape and flower painter, pupil of his 
brother, Leon Louis Leclaire (born June 4, 
1829). Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 2d class, 
1881. Works: Resting in the Woods, 
Souvenir of the Woods of Meudoii (1868) ; 
Flowers, Persian Armour and Japanese Ar- 
ticles, Fish and Plums, My Cousin's Studio 
(1874) ; Winter Flowers (1879) ; Autumn 
Flowers (1879), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Field Flowers, Hunting Day (1880) ; Last 
Flowers of Autumn (1881); Flowers (1882); 
Anxiety, Team of Oxen (1883); Chrysanthe- 
mums, Summer Flowers (1884) ; Courtyard 
Interior (1885). 

LE CLEAR, THOMAS, born in Owego, 
N. Y., March 11, 1818. Portrait painter ; 
self-taught. About 1832 painted portraits 
in London, Canada ; in 1839 settled perma- 
nently in New York, exhibiting at the Na- 
tional Academy and occasionally at the 
Royal Academy, London. Elected N.A. in 
1863. Works : Itinerant ; Marble-Players, 
Art Union ; Young America ; Landscape 
(1881). Portraits: McEntee ; Booth as 
Hamlet ; President Fillmore, Dr. Vinton, 
Daniel R. Dickinson (1870) ; E. W. Stough- 
ton, Bayard Taylor, Parke Godwin (1877) ; 
William Page (1878), Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; George Bancroft, Century 
Club, New York ; William Cullen Bryant 
(1880) ; S. R. Giffprd (1881). 

LE CLERC, SEBASTIEN, the younger, 
born in Paris, Sept. 29, 1676, died there, 
June 29, 1763. French school ; history 
and genre painter, son and pupil of the 


engraver Sebastien Le Clerc, the elder ' LiUe Museum ; Job and his Friends (1867); 
(1637-1714), and pupil of Bon Boulogne ; , Ajax's Madness (1868) ; Love which passes 
received into the Academy in 1704 Works : ; and Love which remains ( 1869), Boulogne 
Death of Sapphira, Louvre ; Purification of ' Museum ; The Charmer (1870) ; Bearers of 
JEneas preparatory to Deification (1704), j Evil News (1872), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Trianon ; Rape of Europa ; Pictures in Mu- A Philosopher without knowing it (1873) ; 
seums at Alenon and Stockholm ; Land- i Butchers of Venice, Eros (1874), Tours Mu- 
scapes with Castle and Figures (2), Liech- j seum ; Chosroes' Dream (1875) ; Homer 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna. Meaume, Seb. ! Begging (1876, triptych) ; Door of the Se- 
Le Clerc et son (Euvre, 309; Wurzbach, j raglio (1877) ; Christian Women at the Vir- 
Fr. Maler des xviii. Jahrh., 31 ; L'Art, xv. ! gin's Tomb (1878) ; St. Vincent de Paul 
92. i helping the Alsatians and Lorrainers after 

LECOINTE, CHAELES JOSEPH, bom j their Reunion with France (1879), Church 
in Paris, Feb. 23, 1824. History and land- ! of the Trinity, Paris ; Piabbis commentat- 
scape painter, pupil of Picot and Aligny ; ing on the Bible on Saturday (1882) ; Toil- 
first exhibited in the Salon in 1843, then j era of the Sea, Marabout Prophet Sidna- 
went to Italy ; on his return to Paris he | Alssa (1884) ; Oriental Women, Contem- 
studied in the ficole des Beaux Arts, and | plations (1885) ; Pompeian Market Woman, 
won the grand prix de Borne in 1849. His A. J. Antelo, Philadelphia ; Christian "Wom- 

earlier works are much inferior to those 
painted after his second visit to Italy. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1844, 1855, 1861. " Works : 
Prodigal Son (1844) ; Good Samaritan, Val- 
ley of Chevreuse (1845) ; Flight into Egypt 
(1846) ; Shepherd and the Sea (1847) ; The 

en at the Chapel of the Virgin, H L. 


Dousman, St. Louis. Bellier, i. 959 ; Bi- 
tard; Claretie, Peintres (1874), 323; La- 

Heron (1848), Angers Museum ; The Bar- j rousse ; Miiller, 325 ; Du Camp, B. Arts, 
ren Fig-Tree (1855), Luxembourg Museum ; 1 156. 

Aquae Claudise (1857); Euins of Pierrefonds, 
Campagna at Rome (1859) ; Temptation of 
Christ, Pius IX. walking at Torre di Quinto, 
Roman Peasants playing the Ruzzica (1861), 
Wine-Shop at Tivoli ; Horace at Tibur(1863); 

POLYTE fiMILE, bom in Paris in 1821, 
died there in 1874 Genre painter, pupil 
of Horace Vernet and Leon Cogniet. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1846, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 

On the Shore of the Sea (1865) ; Death and 1864. Works : Farewell (1833) ; Aria Cafe- 
the Woodsman (1866); A Mill (1869) ; Two tiva (1846) ; Aurora, Night, Ugolino, Visita- 
Incidents in the Life of St. Genevieve, tion, Styrian Girl playing with a Panther, 

Church of Si Roch, Paris. Bellier, i. 955 ; 
Mailer, 325. 

ANTOINE, born in Paris, June 10, 1842. 
Genre painter, pupil of Gerome, Gleyre, 
Signol, and of the cole des Beaux Arts ; 
won the 2d grand prix in 1865. Medals : 
1866, 1869 ; 2d class, 1872 ; London, 1862 ; 
Vienna, 1873 ; L. of Honour, 1876. Works : 
Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta 
in the Infernal Regions (1863) ; Death of 
Jocasta (1865), Arras Museum ; Greek Sen- 
tinel (1865); Invocation of Neptune (1866), 

Orpheus and Eurydice, SL Catherine of 
Alexandria (1843 to 1853) ; Queen of Na- 
varre (1855) ; Aniphitrite, Young Roman 
Woman (1859) ; Let Little Children come 
unto Me (1861), Si John the Baptist, St. 
Louis-en-He, Paris ; Syrian Expedition 
(1863) ; Fellah Woman with her Child 
(1864) ; Fellah Woman carrying a Zir, Al- 
meh (1866) ; Fellah Girl playing the Dairea 
(1868) ; Gypsy Girl (1869) ; Fellah Girl, 
Wallachian Girl playing with an Owl (1870); 
Penelope, Almeh (1874). Bellier, L 958; 
Larousse ; Miiller, 325. 



LECTURE CHEZ DIDEROT (Reading j Flowers, Little Red-Cap, Solomon de Caus 
at Diderot's House), Jean Louis Ernest J/e?w-j in Bicetre (1827 to 1852); Christian Soul 
sonier, Baron Edmond de Rothschild, Paris. | (1864) ; Portrait of Due de Retz, Versailles 
The encyclopaedists Helvetius, d'Holbacli, j Museum. Bellier, i. 961 ; Larousse ; Mttl- 
D'Alembert, Grimm, and others are met in | ler, 325. 

Diderot's study to listen to the reading of ; LED A, Correggio, Berlin Museum ; can- 
some work. The reader, at left, clad in j vas. Leda and her companions surprised 
gray, is seated at a table around which are j by swans while frolicking in the water in a 
placed three of his companions, one in pale wood. Painted in 1530-32, probably by 

yellow, another in blue, the third in rosy 
gray ; a fifth is standing near the bookcase, 
a sixth leans upon the back of a chair, and 

Leda, Correggio, Berlin Museum. 

a seventh is seated apart at right Exposi- 
tion universelle, 1867 ; purchased by Paul 

at Dijon, Aug. 13, 1801., Genre painter, 
pupil in Dijon of Anatole Devosge, in Paris 
of Lethiere, and of the ficole des Beaux 

Arts (1822-26). 
2d class, 1846. 

Medals : 3d class, 1844 ; 
Works : Francis L at the 

Tomb of Jean sans Peur, St. Louis at Dami- 
etta, Death of Louis XL, Brigands disguised 
as Monks, Girl giving her Hair to the Poor, 
Resurrection of Jairus' Daughter, Love of 

order of the Duke of Mantua, together with 
the Danae, for a present to the Emperor 
Charles V. ; afterwards in possession of An- 
tonio Perez, fa- 
vourite of Philip 
II., and sold, after 
his fall, to Emper- 
or Rodolf II ; in 
Prague catalogue 
of 1621, and prob- 
ably carried to 
Stockholm when 
the Swedes took 
Prague in 1648; 
passed from col- 
lection of Queen 
Christina, through 
several hands, to 
Orleans Collection 
in 1722. Louis 
the Pious, son of 
the Regent Due 
d'Orleans, insti- 
gated by his father 
confessor, Abbe de 
Saint Genevieve, 

cut out the head of the Leda and otherwise 
mutilated it. The fragments fell into the 
hands of Charles Coypel, the court-painter, 
and either he or a painter named Deslyen 
repaired it and repainted the head. At 
Coypel's sale it was bought by Pasquier for 
16,050 livres, and at his sale (1755) it was 
bought for Frederick the Great for 21,060 
livres. In 1806 the French took it from the 
Palace of Sansouci to Paris, where Prud'hou 
painted in a new head ; it was returned in 
1814, and has been in the Berlin Museum 
since 1830. Lately restored by Schlesinger, 



who put in a still better head. Eeplica in same picture as one in Orleans Gallery, 
Palazzo Rospiglioso, Rome, and in Madrid which was sold to Earl Gower for 300. 
Museum. Engraved by Duchange ; Desro- Waagen, Treasures, ii. 132, 498. 
chers ; Midler ; PorporatL Meyer, Correg- Subject treated also by Francois Boucher, 
gio, 347, 490 ; Kiinst, Lex., i. 440 ; Landon, Stockholm Museum ; Frans Grosse, Dres- 
CEuvres, viii. PL 55 ; Klas. der Malerei den Gallery ; Alessandro Turchi ; Andrea 
(group), i. PL 52 ; Reveil, sii. 859. del Sarto, Brussels Museum ; Pontormo, 

By Michelangelo, National Gallery, Lon- .' Uffizi, Florence ; Jean Brieinond (1845) ; 
don. Leda embracing the swan. A large , Narciso Diaz (1846) ; CaniUle Roquephn 
picture painted in tempera, about 1529. i (1850) ; Hans Makart ; L. E. Rioult (1850;; 
Given to Antonio Mini, his pupil, who car- Louis Riesener (1855); Paul Baudry (1857) ; 
ried it to France and sold it to Francis L; Nicolas Auguste Galiinard (1858) ; Charles 
was at Fontainebleau till reign of Louis ' H. Muller (1861) ; Adolphe Jourdan (1864) ; 
XIV. Desnoyers ordered it to be burned, , Charles Edouard Boutibonne (1864) ; Gas- 
but Marietta is said to have 
seen it in the 18th century. 
A cartoon of it, formerly 
erroneously ascribed to 
Michelangelo and once in 
the Casa Vecchietti, Flor- 
ence, is now in the Eoyal 
Academy, London. Ta- 
sari, ed. Mil, vii. 199 ; 
Clement, 345 ; Waagen, 
Treasures, i. 391; Eevue 
univ. des Arts, xxii. 158 ; 
Rosini, v. 65 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1876), xiii 155. 

By Tintoretto, Norton 
Collection, England ; can- 
vas. Leda, nude, reclining 
on drapery spread upon a 
couch overhung with cur- 
tains, caresses the swan ; at her feet, a little ' ton Saint-Pierre (1865) ; Edouard de Beau- 
dog barking at the swan ; at side, a woman, i mont (1868) ; J. M. Sevestre (1870). 
draped, leaning over as if to take from a ; LEE, FREDERIC RICHARD, born at 
coop a duck with which a cat is playing ; ! Barnstaple, Devon, in 1799, died at Cape 
in background, a bird in a cage. Formerly of Good Hope, June 4, 1879. Landscape 
in Orleans Gallery ; sold to Mr. Willett for painter ; served a campaign as a soldier in 

Leda, Tintoretto, Norton Collection, England, 

200. Engraved by G. Mondet. Ch. Blane, 
Ecole venitienne. 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft 4 in. x 3 ft. Leda with the 
swan. Acquired in 1744 from Casa Gri- 
mani Calergi, Venice. 

By Paolo Veronese, Monro-Johnstone Col- 
lection, London; canvas. Leda with the 

the Netherlands, but returning home in ill 
health became a student at the Royal Acad- 
emy in 1818 ; elected an A.RA- in 1834, 
and R.A. in 1838. Subjects chiefly English 
and Scottish scenery. Painted latterly in 
conjunction with T. S. Cooper. Works : 
Showery "Weather (1834), Cover Side (1839), 
Evening in Meadows (1854), River Scene 


Exquisitely modelled. Probably 1 (1855), National Gallery, London ; Breakers 



at Plymouth (1856) ; Bay of Biscay (1858) ; 
Summer (1860) ; Gibraltar (1861) ; Land 
we Live in (1867) ; Morning in Meadows 
(1869); Land's End (1872). Cat. Nat. Gal.; 
Sandby, ii. 159. 

LEENHAEDT, MAX, born at Montpel- 
lier ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Michel and Cabanel. 
Medal, 3d class; 1884 Works: Aurora 
(1880) ; Ascent of Jacou Herault (1881) ; 
Murder in the Village (1882) ; Martyrs of 
the Reformation (1884); Entre nous (1885). 

LEERMANS, PIETER, flourished about 
1670. Dutch school ; figure painter, sup- 
posed pupil of Frans van Mieris, the elder, 
according to others, of Gerard Dou. Works : 
Christ on the Cross, Brussels Museum ; 
Gentleman with Gun and Dog, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Huntsman resting, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Old Hermit kneeling before his Cell, 
Dresden Museum ; Old Lady Miser, Vienna 

Dordrecht, Nov. 11, 1643, died there, June 
3, 1688. Dutch school ; landscape and ani- 
mal painter, son and pupil of Sebastian van 
der Leeuw (an animal painter and pupil of 
Jacob Gerritse 01133)). Moved early to Am- 
sterdam, visited Rome, and lived fourteen 
years at Turin, where he called himself Le- 
one and successfully imitated Castiglione 
and Rosa da Tivoli. Works : Italian Land- 
scapes (2), Rotterdam Museum ; Bear-Hunt, 
Stag-Hunt, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xviii. 124 ; Immerzeel, 
ii. 165 ; Eramm, iv. 961. 

Dordrecht about 1644 died 1704 Dutch 
school ; landscape painter, brother of pre- 
ceding, pupil of his father, and a zealous 
imitator of Adriaan van de Velde, whom, in 
his best pictures, he nearly rivals. Entered 
guild of St. Luke at Dordrecht in 1669. 
Works : Landscape with Animals and Shep- 
herds, Rotterdam Museum ; Landscapes 
with Cattle (2, 1671), Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Landscape with Cows and Sheep, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Pictures in 

Stadel Gallery, Frankfort. Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 445 ; Burger, Musees, ii. 261. 

LEFEBVRE, CHARLES, born in Paris, 
Oct. 16, 1805, died there, May 19, 1883. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Gros 
and Abel de Pujol ; travelled in Spain, Swit- 
zerland, and Germany. Medals : 2cl class, 
1833 ; 1st class, 1S45 ; 3d class, 1855 ; L. 
of Honour, 1859. Works : Prisoner of 
Chillon (1827) ; Magdalen (1831) ; Louis 
XI. refusing to pardon Nemours (1833) ; 
Miraculous Virgin (1838) ; Souvenirs of 
Normandy (1841) ; Christ on the Cross 
(1845) ; Death of William the Conqueror 
(1851) ; Bacchante (1851), Lille Museum ; 
Satan overcome (1852), Nhnes Museum ; 
Ecce Homo, Wife of Canclaules, Doctor 
Adelon (1855) ; Triumph of Amphitrite, 
Gypsy Girl, Bretons, Gloria, St. Louis land- 
ing at Darnietta (1859) ; Festival of Bac- 
chus, Magdalen (1861) ; Death of William 
the Conqueror, Jacob and Joseph (1863) ; 
St. Sebastian (1866) ; Nereid (1868), Valen- 
ciennes Museum ; David (1869) ; Mehul 
teaching Patriotic Songs to the Parisians 
(1870) ; Lucretia, Lucien (1873) ; St. Anne 
teaching the Virgin (1875) ; Parting of St. 
Peter and St. Paul (1876); Japanese Daimio 
(1877) ; Portraits of Captain Hoche, of Jan- 
senius, Car/imal Dubois, and others after 
originals by older masters, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Portraits of Henii Litolff, Jules Fa- 
vre, etc. Bjllier, i. 965 ; Mttller, 325. 
Tournan, March 
14, 1834 Genre 
and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Leon 
Cogniet; won 
grand prix de 
Borne in 1861 for 
his Death of 
Priam. Medals: 
1865, 1868, 1870; 
1st class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1870 ; Officer, 1878. Works : 
Death of Priam, Christinas Eve (1861) ; 
Roman Charity (1864), Melun Museum; 



Pilgrimage to Sacro Speco (1865), Beue- Grand Auditor of France, Metz Museum. 
dictine Church at Subiaco ; Girl Asleep Argenville, v. 177 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 
(1865) ; Nymph and Bacchus (1866), Luxem- j aise, i. ; Jal, 758 ; Memoires inedits, i. 402. 
bourg Museum; Pius IX. at St. Peters' LEFEVRE, ROBERT, bom at Bayeux, 
(1867) ; Woman Reclining (1868), Alexan- 1 April IS, 1756, died in Paris, Oct. 3, 1830. 
dre Dumas ; Pascuccia (1869); Truth (1870), J Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Re- 
Luxembourg Museum ; La Cigale (1872) ; j gnault ; best known by his portraits. He 
Portrait of Prince Imperial (1874) ; Slave I became private painter to Louis XVJLLL ; L. 
carrying Fruits on a Tray (1874), Ghent Mu- ; of Honour, 1814. Exhibited in many Salons 
seum ; A Dream, Chloe (1875) ; Mary Mag- 1 from 1791 to 1827. Works : Cupid dis- 
dalen (1876) ; Girl Laughing (1876), Amiens i armed by Venus (1795), Louvre; Cupid 
Museum; Chloe, Young Bride (1878) ; Diana ! sharpening his Arrows ; Abelard and Helo- 
Surprised (1879) ; La Fiammetta, Undine \ i'se ; Phocion drinking the Hemlock ; The 
(1881) ; The Betrothed (1882) ; Psyche j Cemetery (1827) ; Portraits of Napoleon L 
(1883); Aurora (1884) ; Laura (1885) ; Mi- > (3, one dated 1806), of Pauline Bonaparte 
gnon, La Cigale, The Dew (La Rosee), Wm. j (1806), Marie Julie Clary, Queen of Naples 
Astor, New York ; Mignon, W. H. Vander- ; (1807), of Marshals Augereau and Oudiuot, 
bilt, ib. ; Graziella, Miss 0. L. Wolfe, ib. ; \ Ministers Regnier (1808) and Savary (1814), 
Virginia, J. J. Astor, ib. ; Sposa da Torrente, \ of General Tharreau, of the Engraver Denon, 
C. Vanderbilt, ib. ; Fruit Girl, M. Graham, I the Poet Malherbe, Versailles Museum ; of 
ib. ; Truth, S. A. Coale, St. Louis ; Morning General Bonaparte, Lisieux Museum ; of 
Glory, La Cigale, D. Catlin, 'ib. ; Evening, J. j Louis XV3H, Colmar Museum ; of Jan 
A. Scudder, ib. BeUier,i. 966 ; Montrosier, I Frans vanDael (1804), Antwerp Museum ; of 
ii. ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 504; dare- ! Madame Letitia, of the Empresses Josephine 
tie, Peintres (1884), ii. 345 ; Art Journal j . 

(1883), 148. 

CLAUDE, bom 
at Fontaine- 
bleau, Sept. 17, 
1632, died in 
London, April 
26 (or in Paris, 
April 5, ?), 1675. 
French school ; 
portrait painter, 
pupil of Lesueur 
andLebrun, hav- 



and Maria Louisa, Pius VEL, Duchesse d'An- 
gouleme, Charles X., etc. Bellier, i. 968 ; 
Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 233 ; ViUot, 
Cat Louvre ; Larousse. 

Bruges, Sept. 1, 1739, died in Paris, Nov. 
23, 1797. Flemish school ; landscape and 
interior painter, pupil at Rouen of Des- 
canips ; went in 1767 to Paris, where he def- 

ing begun to form himself by studying the J initely settled in 1782, having in the mean- 

masterpieces at Fontainebleau. He painted 
the king, the queen, and the principal per- 
sons at court ; was received into the Academy 
in 1663, and subsequently went to England, 

while repeatedly returned to it and to 
Bruges after a visit to Rome (1770), and 
between travels in Italy and Switzerland 
(1776 and 1779) ; was elected member of 

where his portraits were esteemed almost as the French Academy in 1789, and soon after 
highly as those of Van Dyck Works: Mas- made court-painter. Works: Farm Inte- 
ter and Pupil, Male Portrait (1667), Louvre ;jrior, Bruges Academy ; Ruined Barn with 
Portrait of Colbert (1663), three others, j Women and Animals (1789) ; View of Frei- 
Versailles Museum ; Portrait of Olivier I burg ; Grotto Interior with Animals Drink- 


ing ; Forest of Fontainebleau, Farm Interior ' 
(1791) ; A Mine, Stable Interior (1795). 
Imrnerzeel, ii. 166 ; Weale, Cat. Acad. de 
Bruges, 97. ! 

grimage, Liverpool Gallery; Chantres es- 
pagnols, Benediction of the Sea, Eustace 
Smith, London ; The Coppersmith (1875), 
C. A. lonides, London ; The Baptism (1877), 

LEGRAS, AUGUSTS, born at Perigueux ! Sir George Howard ; Repose of Day, Repas 
(Dordogne), June 2, 1817. History and j des Pauvres (1878) ; Jacob's Dream (1879) ; 
portrait painter, pupil of Bonnefond and | LTucendie (1880) ; Old Wood-Burner, St. 
of Ary Scheffer. Medal, 3d class, 1857. Jerome (1881) ; Rocky Landscape, Women 
Works ; Ref ugium Peccatorura, Mater Do- praying in Church Porch (1884) ; Portraits 
lorosa (1857) ; Return of the Holy Women of Browning, Huxle} r , Burne-Jones, Gani- 

from Christ's Tomb (1859) ; The Jewels. 
Little Charmer (1865) ; The Toilet time 
of Louis Xm. (1868) ; The Mirror, do. 
(1869) ; Reverie, do. (1870) ; Child's Prayei 
(1873) ; Arethusa (1874) ; Cherbourg Mu- 
seum ; Mary Magdalen at the Foot of the 
Cross (1877) ; The Four Ages (1881) ; Car- 
men (1882) ; Ave Maria (1883) ; Little Vio- 
let Seller in Time of Louis XV., An Ama- 
teur Rat (1884). Beffier, i. 977. 
LEGROS, ALPHONSE, bom at Dijou, 
May 8, 1837. His- 
tory, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of 
Lecoq de Boisbau- 
clran and Ecole des 
Beaux Arts ; exhibit- 
ed at Salon of 1857 
a notable portrait of 
his father, and in 
1859 The Angelus 
(Seymour Haden, 
London), which attracted attention; went in 
1863 to London, where he still resides ; be- 
came professor of etching at South Kensing- 
ton Art School, and in 1876 succeeded E. J. 
Pointer as Slade professor of fine arts at 
University College, London. Noted also for 
etchings and drawings in chalk and sepia ; 
has exhibited sculptures and bronzes at 
Grosvenor Gallery. Medals : Paris, 1867, 
1868. Works : Ex Voto (1861), Dijon Mu- 
seum ; Messe des Morts (1863) ; Return of 
the Prodigal (1865) ; Martyrdom of St. 
Stephen (1866), Avranches Museum ; Cupid 
and Psyche (1867) ; Amende honorable 
(1868), Luxembourg Museum ; Demoiselles 
du mois de Marie (1868), M. Mieville ; Pil- 

betta, etc. Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 500 ; 
(1876), xiii. 569; Portfolio (1875), 114; 
Athenaeum, 1873 ; Miiller, 326 ; Art Jour- 
nal (1881), 294; Univ. Mag. (1880), v. 198. 
HEINRICH, born at Kiel, Schleswig, April 
14, 1814, died in Paris, March 31, 1882. 
History and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of Leo Lehmann, then pupil of Ingres in 
Paiis. In 1837 he visited Munich, in 1838 
Italy ; then settled in Paris, became natu- 
ralized (1847), and took rank among the most 
distinguished painters of the capital. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1835 ; 1st class, 1840, 1848, 
1855 ; L. of Honour, 1846 ; Officer, 1853 ; 
Member Institute, 1864 ; Member superior 
council of the Beaux Arts, 1875 ; professor 
in Ecole des Beaux Arts. Works : Tobias 
and the Angel (1835) ; Jephtha's Daughter 
(1836) ; Don Diego, father of the Cid (1836), 
Lyons Museum ; The Fisherman (1837) ; 
Death of Robert-le-Fort at Briaserte in 886, 
Battle of Beaug6 in 1421 (1837), Charles VTL 
(2), Louis Vm, Hugues de Payens ftrst 
Grandmaster of the Templars, Gabrielle 
d'Estrees, Versailles Museum ; St. Catherine 
Dome to the Tomb by Angels, Virgin with 
Infant Jesus (1840) ; FlageUation of Christ, 
St. Nicholas, Boulogne ; Maruccia, Women 
near the Water (1842) ; Faustina, Jeremiah 
1842), Angers Museum ; The Creditors, 
Hamlet, Ophelia (1846) ; At the Foot of 
the Cross, Sirens (1848) ; Leonidas (1848), 
Nantes Museum ; Consolation of the Afflict- 
ed, Assumption, Grief of the Oceauides 
1850), Luxembourg Museum ; The Dream 
1852) ; Infant Jesus and Magi, Undine, 
Venus Anadyomene, Dream of Erigone 


(1855) ; Adoration of the Magi and Shep- ' 
herds (1855), Reims Museum; Saint Agnes, ; 
Education of Tobias (1859) ; Best (1864), \ 
Luxembourg Museum ; Sarah's Arrival at the ! 
Home of Tobias (1866) ; Moss-grown Rocks } 
at Cauterets, Sea Rocks at Biarritz (1867) ; 
Calypso (1870) ; ceiling of the great Hall in ' 
the Palais de Justice, and of the Ecole de ' 
Droit, mural paintings in the Throne Hall, ! 
Luxembourg Palace, etc. ; Portrait of him- : 
self, Uffizi, Florence. Appleton's Art Jour., , 
Feb., 1870 ; BeUier, i. 982 ; Bitard, 804 ; ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 360, 374, 611 ; Larousse ;' 
L'Art (1883), i 79 ; Courrier de 1'Arfc (1882), ! 
107, 221 ; Art Journal (1874), 169 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xvii. 494. \ 

LEHMANN, RUDOLF, born at Otten-j 
sen, near Altona, Aug. 19, 1819. Genre ' 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Leo | 
Lehmann, and pupil of his brother Hein-j 
rich ; travelled in Germany, lived for some 
time in England, settled in Rome, and in j 
1866 removed to London. Medals : 3d i 
class, 1843 ; 2d class, 1845, 1848. Works : j 
Women of Procida in a Boat (1841), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Spinning Woman (1842) ; | 
Pilgrim Woman in the Campagna (1845) ;j 
Sixtus V. blessing the Poutine Marshes j 
(1847), Lille Museum ; Carnival Scene, j 
Sibyl, Graziella (1854) ; Morning in the j 
Pontine Marshes (1860) ; Tasso returning! 
to Sorrento ; Roman Serenade, Collection 
of Prince of Wales ; Foundling Hospital at 
Rome ; Fortune-Teller, Favour of an Answer 
requested (1868); After the Fire (1869); Out 
of the World (1870); May we come in? (1871); 
Confessions (1872); Ave Maria (1874); Alma 
and her Pet Kittens (1875) ; After the Sit- 
ting (1876); Dolce far Niente (1881); Plait- 
ing her Golden Hair, Roman Flower Girl 
(1883); Homewards (1884); Portraits of Karl 
of Sttiir, Duchess of Northumberland, Lady 
Harries, Lord Houghton, etc. Meyer, 
Gesch., 540 ; Forster, v. 553 ; Miiller, 327. 

LEHNEN, JACOB, born at Hinterweiler, 
Rhenish Prussia, Jan. 17, 1803, died at Cob- \ 
lentz, Sept. 25, 1847. Still-life painter, j 
pupil of Dttsseldorf Academy ; painted es- j 

pecially kitchen pieces -with different kinds 
of vessels, also hunts and landscapes. 
Works : Breakfast (1830), Still Life (1831), 
Pantry (1854), National Gallery, Berlin; Still 
Life (1839), Ravene Gallery, ib. ; do. (1836 ., 
Konigsberg Museum. 

born in Paris, Aug. 9, 1844. History paint- 
er, pupil of CabaneL A vigorous and ef- 
fective painter, who vron the Salon prize on 
its first bestowal, 1874. Medals : 2d class, 
1873 ; 1st class, 1874. Works : Mercury 
and Argus (1869) ; Henion beside the Body 
of Antigone (1870) ; Bellerophon conquer- 
ing the Chimera (1872), Valenciennes Mu- 
seum ; David and Goliath, An Oceanide 
(1873) ; St. Lawrence the Martyr (1874), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Samson breaking 
his Bonds (1875) ; The Constellation of 
Bootes (1876) ; St. Stephen the Martyr 
(1877); Surprise, The Wrestlers (1878); St. 
John the Baptist (1879) ; The Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes (1880) ; The Baptist, 
Mars (1881); The Suicide, In Flight (1882)^ 
Shepherd choking a Lion (1883) ; Calvary, . 
Baptism of Christ (1884). Larousse. 

LEIBL, WILHELM, born in Cologne, 
Oct. 23, 1844. 
Portrait and genre 
painter, pupil in 
Munich of Piloty ; 
took Van Dyck for 
his model ; went 
to Paris in 1869, 
where he took up 
genre painting; 
received a medal, 
and returned to 
Munich in 1870. 

Works : Portrait of his Father (1866), Co- 
logne Museum ; Female Portrait (1870) ; 
Lady in Old German Costume (1873) ; 
Smoking Woman; Female Head (1879), 
Dresden Gallery ; Conversation in a Tav- 
ern, Peasant Politicians, At Church (1882), 
Vienna Exposition. Zeitschr. f. b. K, sviL 
343 ; Miiller, 328 ; Elustr. Zeitg. (1882), ii 
9 ; N. ill. Zeitg. (1882), i 30. 



IjEICKERT, CHARLES, born at Brus- 1 Honour, 1878 ; Corresponding Member of 
sels in 1817. Landscape and city-views Institute of France ; Member of Academies 
painter, pupil of Bartholoniens van Hove of St. Luke and Florence ; Medal of Honour, 
and Wynand Nuyen, then of Schelfhout ; Antwerp Exposition, 1885. Sir Frederick 

travelled in the Netherlands and Germany, 
and in 1856 became member of the Amster- 
dam Academy. Works : "Winter Landscape 
(1867), Amsterdam Museum ; City View in 
Winter (2), Rotterdam Museum ; Dutch 
City, Kunsthalle, Hamburg* ; Winter Land- 
scape, Stettin Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 167 ; 
Kramm, iv. 961. 

LEIGHTON, E. BLAIR, born in Eng- 
land ; contemporary. Genre painter. Ex- 
hibits at Royal Academy. Works: Until 
Death do Us part (1879) ; Gossip, Uu Gage 
d'Amour (1881) ; The Foreign Bride, In- 
teresting Strangers (1882) ; Duty (1883) ; 
Gladiator's Wife, Abelard and Heloise, 
Conquest (1884) ; The Secret (1885) ; The 
Confessional, Too near to be pleasant 

born at Scarborough, 
England, Dec. 3, 1830. 
History and portrait 
painter ; when eleven 
years old studied draw- 
ing in Rome under 
Francesco Meli ; stu- 
dent in Berlin Acad- 
emy, Florence Acad- 
emy, under E. Steinle 
at Frankfort, at Brus- 
sels, and the Louvre Life-School, Paris; then, 
until 1853, again under Professor Steinle, and 
finally for three years in Rome. Sent to Royal 
Academy, in 1855, Tke Procession of Cima- 
bue's Madonna (Buckingham Palace), which 
attracted great attention and was bought by 
the Queen. After this success he resided four 
years in Paris, studying part of the time un- 
der Ary Scheffer, and sending pictures nearly 
every year to the Royal Academy; was elected 
an A.R A. in 1864, R. A. in 1869, and president 
in 1878, when he was knighted. Created a 
baronet of the United Kingdom in 1885. 
Medal, 2d class, Paris, 1859 ; Officer L. of 

has a splendid studio at Kensington, filled 
with art treasures. He has travelled exten- 
sively in Europe, Egypt, and the East ; is a 
fine sculptor and musician. Works : Tri- 
umph of Music (1856) ; Fisherman and Sy- 
ren, Romeo and Juliet (1858) ; Pavonia, 
Sunny Hours, La Nanna (1859) ; Capri at 
Sunrise (1860) ; Paolo and Francesca, A 
Dream, Lieder ohne Worte, Capri Paga- 
nos (1861) ; Odalisque, Michelangelo nurs- 
ing his Servant, Sea Echoes, Star of Beth- 
lehem (1862) ; Jezebel and Ahab, Girl feed- 
ing Peacocks (1863) ; Orpheus and Eurydice, 
Dante in Exile, Golden Hours (1864); David, 
Widow's Prayer, Helen of Troy (1865); Paint- 
er's Honeymoon, Syracusan Brides (1866) ; 
Venus Unrobing, Roman Mother, Spanish 
Dancing Girl (1867) ; Ariadne Abandoned, 
Acme and Septimius, Actsea (1868); Electra 
at Tomb of Agamemnon, Helios and Rho- 
dos, St. Jerome (1869) ; Hercules wrestling 
with Death (1871) ; After Vespers (1872) ; 
Weaving the Wreath, Industrial Arts of 
Peace (1873) ; Old Damascus (1874) ; Lit- 
tle Fatima (1875) ; Daphnepkoria. Teresina 
(1876) ; Music Lesson, Study (1877) ; Nausi- 
caii, Winding the Skein (1878) ; Elijah in 
the Wilderness, Amarilla (1879) ; Sister's 
Kiss, lostephane Light of the Harem, Psa- 
mathe, Crenaia (1880) ; Elisha Idyl, Whis- 
pers (1881) ; Day Dreams, Wedded, Phryne 
at Eleusis, Antigone, Melittion (1882) ; A 
Dance, Vestal, Kittens, Memories (1883) ; 
Letty, Cymon and Iphigenia, A Nap, Sun 
Gleams (1884) ; Reconciliation of Montague 
and Capulet at Tomb of Juliet, Mrs. Joseph 
Harrison, Philadelphia. Sir Frederick is 
engaged (1886) on mural paintings in South 
Kensington Museum and on a mythological 
triptych illustrating Music, for the ceiling 
of the music-room of Mr. Marquand's house, 
New York. Meynall, 1 ; Portfolio (1870), 
161 ; (1879), 1 ; Univ. Mag. (1879), iii. 49; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 372. 



LEISTEN, JAKOB, bom in Diisseldorf j (1861) ; Early Flowers (1863) ; Wounded 
in 1845. Genre painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Robin (1864) ; The Ride (1867) ; Rather Shy 
Academy ; lived in Munich in 1869-73, but j (1869) ; Great Expectations (1872) ; Much 
returned to Dusseldorf. Medal in London j Ado About Nothing (1873) ; Innocence 
(1877). Works : Love-Letter ; Disturbed (1874) ; Stepping-S tones, Wat e r-Li 1 i e s 
Politician ; First Mitrailleuse ; Werther and (1879) ; Happy Thoughts (1880) ; Little Bo- 
Charlotte : Buried ; Two Widows ; Pros- ' Peep, Golden Flags (1881) ; Little Angler 
elytes ; Marriage Contract; Weekly Tisit at (1882) ; The Burn, Shelter, Golden Treas- 
the Landlord's ; Last of his Name ; Bava- , ures (1883) ; By the Cool Stream, Murmur 
rian Wrestling ; Castle in the Woods ; Start- 1 of the Shell (1884). Art Journal ( 1858 ), 265. 
ing for the Wedding Dance (1880). Mey- [ LELAND, HENRY, born in Walpole, 
er, Conv. Lex., xix. 591 ; Holler, 329. [Mass., in 1850, died Dec. 5, 1877. Portrait 

LEITNER, HEINRICH, bom in Vienna | and figure painter, pupil of Bonnat in Paris, 
in 1842. Marine painter, pupil of Melbye ; ! 1874-77. Exhibited his first portrait at the 
made extensive journeys in the East and in ! Salon of 1875 ; visiting Boston the same 
Italy, and accompanied the German Crown- j year, he painted two portraits which were 
Prince in 1869 to the opening of the Suez j exhibited in Philadelphia in 1876. His 
Canal. Works : Embarking of German ! short professional life was passed in Paris. 
Crown-Prince at Jafta ; Man-of-War Yic- , He sent to the Salon in 1876 a portrait of 
tory ; Embarking of Emperor of Austria at j Mile. D'Alembert; in 1877, Chevalier of Time 
Jaffa ; Corvette Hertha leaving the Golden of Henry HI., and an Italian Girl. His Ex- 
Horn ; Corvette Hertha in Heavy Storm pectation is owned in Boston. In Italy, 
(1879). Milller, 329. '' 1877, he painted his own portrait, A Court- 

LE JEUNE, HENRY, bom in London in j yard in Tenice, and Court Lady of Time of 
1820, Genre paint- 

er, pupil in 1834 of 
the Royal Academy, 
where, in 1841, he 
received a gold 
medal for his Sam- 
son bursting his 
Bonds. In 1845 he 
became head-mas- 
ter at the govern- 
ment school of de- 

i Henry HL (unfinished). 
i LELEUX, ADOLPHE, born in Paris, 
;Nov. 15, 1812. Landscape painter, self- 
| taught ; has painted chiefly scenes in Brit- 
I tany and Normandy, but at times subjects 
j taken from the Spanish Pyrenees and Al- 
geria. Medals : 3d class, 1842 ; 2d class, 
1843 and 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1855. Works: 
Bretons (1841) ; Breton Dance, Spanish 
Smugglers (1846) ; Arab Story-Teller, Arab 
Women of the Desert, Djinns Dancing, 

sign, and in 1848 was appointed curator of Night-Patrol in Paris (1848) ; Pass-Word 

the painting school of the Academy; be- j (1849); Bedouin Family attacked by Wolves 
came an A.E.A. in 1863. Works : Una and (1851) ; Market in Dieppe (1852) ; Treading 
the Lion (1842) ; Prince Arthur's Dream out Corn in Algeria (1853), Lille Museum ; 
(1843) ; Prospero and Miranda (1844) ; Ruth \ Courtyard of a Breton Tavern (1857) ; Wed- 

and Boaz (1845) ; Liberation of the Slaves, 
Bassanio choosing the Casket (1847) ; Hush! 
(1848) ; Ophelia (1849) ; Hour-Glass (1850); 
Anglers, Archers (1851) ; Rush-Gatherers 
(1852) ; Christ blessing Little Children 
(1854) ; See-Saw (1855) ; Little Gretehen 
(1856) ; Children gathering Lilies ; Master, 

ding in Brittany (1861) ; Wedding in Brit- 
tany (1863), Luxembourg Museum ; Festi- 
val in Brittany (1865) ; Breton Winnowers 
(1866) ; Breton Funeral (1867) ; Market- 
Day at Finisterre (1875) ; View of Crenffle 
(1876) ; Clog-Maker's Family (1877) ; De- 
parture (1878) ; Woods of Crenille (1879) ; 

what shall I do ? (1858) ; Sisters of Lazarus ! Babies (1880) ; View of Chaumet (1881) ; 


Vintagers, Wine-Press (1882); Wrestlers, 
Hunters Resting (1883) ; Watering-Place in 
Brittany, The Ass-Driver (1884); Excavators 
iu Paris, Mussel-Beds at Mers (1885). Bel- 
lier, i. 986 ; Bitard, 807 ; Mtiller, 329 ; Va- 
pereau (1880), 1131. 

LELEUX, ARMAND, born in Paiis in 
1818, died there in June, 1885. Genre 
painter, brother of Adolphe Leleux, and pu- 
pil of Ingres. His pictures of monastic life 
in Italy show great skill in the treatment of 
interiors, in regard to play of light and 
shade. Medals : 3d class, 1844 ; 2d class, 
1847, 1848, and 1857 ; 1st class, 1859 ; L. 
of Honour, 1860. Works : Breton Scene, 
St. Jerome (1839); Eeturn from Hunting 
(1840) ; Interior of Stable (1841) ; Studio 
(1842) ; Washerwoman at Fountain (1844); 
Gypsies (1845); Swiss Dance, Alpine Hunt- 
er (1846) ; Spanish Beggar Woman, Span- 
ish Interior (1847) ; Smuggler, Haymaking 
(1848), Grenoble Museum ; Washerwomen 
(1849) ; St. Gothard Guide (1850) ; Swiss 
Woman Knitting (1853, bought by Napo- 
leon HL) ; The Manola Dance, Swiss Foun- 
tain, Lovers in the Woods (1855) ; Harvest- 
Bouquet, Grandfather (1857) ; Girl Asleep, 
The Message (1859) ; Spoiled Child (bought 
by the State) ; Interior of a Studio, Musee 
Rath, Geneva ; The Painter's Maid-Servant, 
Convalescent Girl, Marguerites, The Wheel- 
wright's Family (1861), Lyons Society of 
Art; Wandering Singers in Rome, Dead 
Capuchin (1863) ; Interior of a Capuchin 
Pharmacy in Rome (1863), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Game of Chess, Kitchen of Franciscan 
Convent inRome(1864); Confession in aCon- 
vent(1865); The Notary (1866); Locksmith 
(1869) ; Consultation (1873) ; Protestant 
Marriage in Switzerland (1874), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Duel without Witnesses (1874) ; 
Swiss Tavern (1875) ; Priest's Servant (1876) ; 
Letter of Recommendation (1878) ; Village 
School, Italian Maid (1880); Singing Lesson, 
Sunday Morning in Switzerland (1881) ; An- 
dalusia, Tasting (1882); Two Friends, Covet- 
ousness (1883). Bellier, i. 987; Bitard, 
807 ; MtUler, 330 ; Vapereau (1880), 1132. 

i T/RTTR, ADRIAAN DE, born at Tilburg, 
May 19, 1755, died at Amsterdam, Nov. 30, 
1820. Genre and portrait painter, pupil at 
! Antwerp of Peeters, a painter of ornaments, 
! and of Quertenniont ; also studied at the 
Academy, then for some time in Diisseldorf, 
and settled in Amsterdam. Works : Morn- 
ing Visit (1796), Museum, Amsterdam. 
Imnierzeel, ii. 167. 

at The Hague about 1650-72. Dutch school ; 
still-life painter ; master of the guild at The 
Hague in 1646, and one of the founders of 
the new guild Pictura there in 1656. Works : 
Dead Birds, Hague Museum ; Still Life 
(1652), Berlin Museum ; Partridge and Tur- 
tle Dove (1654), Dresden Museum : Dead 
Rooster and Small Birds in a Pantry, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich; Hunting Booty (4, 
two dated 1661), Poultry for the Kitchen, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Still Life (1671), Wei- 

/D Oo n n n /^ m ^ Museum 

(X JefimDeWhs r ^Eramm, iv. 962 ; 
\J <^j> O' c/ Meyerj Gemmae 

der kongl. Mus. (1883), 236 ; Schlie, 341. 


Paris, March 15, 1843, 
died Jan. 28, 1884. 
Genre painter, son 
and pupil of J. B. 
Auguste Leloir. Com- 
position ingenious, 
and colouring excel- 
lent ; later style not 
unlike that of Meis- 
sonier. Medals: 
1864, 1868, 1870 ; 2d 
class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1876. Works : 
Massacre of Innocents (1863) ; Daniel in 
Lions' Den (1864) ; Jacob and the Angel 
(1865) ; Christening of Savages in the Ca- 
nary Islands (1868) ; Temptation of St. An- 
thony (1869, Johnston sale, New York, 1876, 
for $2,100) ; Rallying (1870) ; Christening 
(1873) ; Slave (1874) ; Grandfether's Birth- 
day (1875) ; Betrothal (1878) ; Fishery 



(1880) ; Fisherman's Wife (1883) ; Rebecca 
and Eleazar ; Ruth and Boaz ; Snake- 
Ohariner ; Counting his Gains, Too Much 
Burgundy (water-colours), Cook's Bargain, 
Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York ; After the 
Supper one must Pay, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; 
Return from Hunting, J. J. Astor, ib. ; 
Grandfather's Birthday, O. L>. Munn, ib.; 
Spanish Lady and Canaries (water-colours), 
F. Harper, ib.; Lady playing the Flute 
(water-colours), Charles Stewart Smith, ib. ; 
Dressing the Dog (G. L Seney sale, ib., 1885); 
Grandfather's Pet, G. Whitney, Philadel- 
phia ; Playing the Guitar, W. B. Bement, 
ib.; Temptation of St. Anthony, H. L. Dous- 
man, St. Louis ; Odalisque (water-colours), 
S. A. Coale, ib.; Kitten-Merchant, Charles 
Parson, ib. ; Bouquet, Daniel Catlin, ib. 

Claretie, Peintres, etc. (1884), ii. 225 ; Mont- 
rosier, i. ; Larousse ; Mtiller, 330. 

GUSTE, bom in Paris, July 1, 1809. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Picot and 
of the cole des Beaux Arts. His earlier 
works (before 1842), which rival David's in 
excellence of design, and Gros' in beauty 
of colour, are superior to later ones. Has 
executed decorative works in St. Germain 
TAuxerrois and St. Merri, Paris, at St. Jean, 
Belleville, and St. Leu, Tavernay. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1839 ; 2d class, 1841 ; L. of 
Honour, 1870. Works: Ruth and Naomi, 
Parable of the Virgins (1835); Good Angel, St. 
Cecilia, Marguerite in Prison (1839); Young 
Peasants at the Foot of the Yia Sacra, Ho- 
mer (1842); Lord's Supper (bought by State); 
Christian Family delivered to "Wild Beasts ; 
Christ and Samaritan Woman; All-Hallow 
Eve ; Christians in Catacombs, Athenian 
Captives in Syracuse, Virgin and St. John 
after Death of Christ (1855) ; Departure of 
Young Tobias (1857) ; Daphnis and Chloc 
(1863) ; Sappho at Cape Leucadia (1864) ; 
Joan of Arc in Prison (1865) ; Magdalen at 

; the Tomb (1866) ; Saint Vincent (1868) ; 
Joan of Arc as a Child (1869): Nysa (1S70); 
; Young Lady of the Castle (1872) ; Spring- 
time (1873); Marriage of the Virgin (1874); 
Martyr in Coliseum (1S76) ; Holy Family 
1 (.1877) ; Horace at Tibur (1878) ; Rinaldo 
! and Armida (1879): Silenus (1880); Mignon 
(1881) ; Maiden Martyr, Leland Stanford, 
San Francisco. Bellier, i. 988; Mailer, 
i 330 ; Tapereau (1880), 1133. 
; LELOIR, MAURICE, born in Paris, Nov. 
i 1, 1853. Genre painter,' pupil of his father, 
; J. B. Auguste, and of his brother, Louis Le- 
i loir. Medal, 3d class, 1878. "Works : The 
1 Marionettes (1876); Robinson Crusoe (1877); 
! Voltaire's last Journey to Paris (1878), Will- 
1 iam Astor, New York ; Last Sheaf (1882) ; 
In the Fields (1883) ; Toilet of the Fields, 
S. A Coale, St. Louis. 

LELY, Sir PETER, bom at Soest in 
1617, died in 
London, Nov. 30, 
1680. Real name 
Peter Tan der 
Faes. Flemish 
school ; portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Pieter de Greb- 
ber in Haarlem, 
but on coming 
to England with 
William of Orange, in 1643, he so closely 
studied the manner of Tan Dyck, who had 
jusfc died, that his earlier portraits often 
approach the great master's style. For 
thirty years he was the most popular por- 
trait painter in England, and amassed a 
large fortune ; nominated court-painter and 
knighted by Charles H. His portraits are 
of elegant conception, clear and warm col- 
ouring ; hands especially finely drawn. In 
his later period he degenerated ; his treat- 
ment grew superficial, his colouring cold 
and heavy, the female portraits mannered, 
with the languishing expression of the 
eyes affected by the ladies of the time. 
Works: Dukes of Albemarle and Buck- 
ingham ; Duchess of Cleveland, May Da- 



vis, Sir H. Grimston, Xell G^ynn, Lord LE1L4IEE-POIJSSIN, JEAN, born at 
Jermyii, Duke of Ormonde, Lord Ossory, Dainmartin, near Paris, in 1597, died at Gail- 
Prince Eupert, Countess of Shrewsbury, T. , Ion (Eure) in 1659. French school ; his- 
Stanley, Sir W. Temple, Duchess of York, tory, portrait, landscape, and architecture 
Charles H, Countess of Grammont, Duke [ painter, pupil of Claude Viguon ; went in 
of lEonrnouth, Lord Sandwich, Mrs. Mid- i 1613 to Eome, where he executed large 
clleton, National Portrait Gallery, London ; works in fresco; returned to Paris in 1623, 
Windsor Beauties, Hampton Court ; Prince | and, having been employed by Cardinal 

Eupert, Magdalen, Sleeping Venus, Wind- 
sor Castle ; Children of Charles L, and 
three others, Colonel Wyndkam's Collec- 
tion, Petworth ; Lady Morton, Blenheim 

Eichelieu, went to Eome again with Poussin 
in 1642, and after his second return to Paris 
was appointed first painter to the king in 
1647. Lodged in one of the pavilions in 

House ; Charles I. on Horseback, One of I the Tuileries, he lost all his possessions 
the Windsor Beauties Sleeping, Hamilton | in a conflagration, and, barely escaping with 
Palace ; Duke of York, Jocelyn Earl of his life, retired to Gaillon. His surname 


Northumberland, Duchess of Eichrnond, 
Castle Howard ; Duke of Gloucester, Went- 
worth House ; Eape of Europa, Chatsworth ; 
Susannah and the Elders, Burleigh House ; 
Portraits of a Dutch Admiral and his Wife, 
Family Group, Hermitage, Sfc. Petersburg ; 
Cromwell, Stockholm Museum ; do., Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence ; Portrait of himself, 
and two others, Uffizi, ib. ; Equestrian Por- 
trait, Brunswick Gallery ; Meleager pre- 
senting to Atalanta the Head of the Boar 
of Calydon, Male Portrait, Louvre, Paris ; 
Young Lady's Portraits (2), Vi- 
enna Museum ; Lady's Portrait, 
Museum, New York ; do., and Dr. 
Bainbridge and Daughter, His- 
torical Society, ib. Art Journal (1865), 7 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande ; Kraimn, ii. 
473 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 308 ; Sckarf, 423 ; 
Biegel, Beitrage, ii. 120 ; Walpole, Anec- 
dotes, iii. 26. 

LEMATEE, LOUIS, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Flower and landscape painter, 
pupil of Jules Dupre and Boulard. Medal, 
3d class, 1884. Works : Pasture in Pas-de- 
Calais (1876) ; Mill in Downs of Merlimon 
(1877) ; Sunset on the Oise (1878) ; Even- 
ing at ViUerville (1879) ; Pasture atVasony, 
Sunset near TrouviUe (1880) ; Sunset at Vil- 
Jerville (1881) ; Peonies and Lilacs, Le Petit- 
Val (1882) ; Eose-bush, Hut at Veulettes 
(1883) ; Group of Peonies (1884) ; Huts 
near Veulettes, Bunch of Poppies (1885). j 

was given him on account of his intimacy 
with Poussin. Works : Views of Ancient 
Monuments in Eome (2), Louvre. Jal, 763; 
Siret (1833), i. 541. 

L'Aigle (Orne), Sept. 15, 1829. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Picot. Honorable 
mention, 1855. Works : Leisure of Virgil 
(1852), Alenoon Museum ; Death of Vittoria 
Colonna (1853), Eouen Museum ; Duel be- 
tween Coliguy and Guise (1855) ; Louis 
XIV. and Mme. Montespan (1861); Cor- 
neille before Louis XIV.; Petit Lever du Eoi 
(1863), Arras Museum ; Louis XIV. and the 
Embassy from Siam (1867) ; Agnes and Ar- 
nulph (1874), Nantes Museum ; The Joy of 
France in 1638 (1876) ; Taking of Cahors 
by the English (1880). Bellier, i. 993; 
Mtlller, 330 ; Vapereau (1880), 1135. 

born at Pontorson (Manche); contemporary. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Gerome, Ea- 
pin, and Pelouse. Medal, 3d class, 1881. 
Works : Farm of Kerin (1875) ; Banks of 
the Ayen (1877) ; Source of the Aven (1878) ; 
Snow in December (1880) ; Foot-Bridge at 
Mesnil, Glaise (1881); Oak-Trees of Bernay- 
sur-Orne (1882) ; Haut Chateau de la courbe 
(1883); Eush Cutter, Willows of Father 
Pierre (1884) ; Partridge Cover, Mesnil-Jean 

NAND, born at Saint Quentin (Aisne), July 



26, 1850. Genre and portrait painter, pupil made professor of the Academy. Spent 
of Cabanel and of the 3cole des Beaux ( seven years in painting the ceiling of the 
Arts ; won the grand prix de Rome in 1870. jChurch of 
Medals : 3d class, 1873 ; 1st class, 1876. | Saint Sulpice 
Works : Death of Messalina, Girls Playing ! and the Salon 
(1870) ; Dryad (1872), Nantes Museum ; \ of Hercules at 
Child with Thistle (1873) ; Rape of Dejanira j Versailles; was 
(1874), Nice Museum ; Orestes and the Fu- ! named fir s t 
ries (1876), St. Quentin Museum ; The ; painter to the 
Widow (1877) ; Nymph surprised by a Faun : king, Tvith a 
(1878); The Family (1879) ; Eruption of; pension of 
Vesuvius, Victoria (1880) ; Woman Fishing ! 4,000 livres. 
(1881) ; Citizen of Reims, Restoration of its j Became insane 
Charter to Reims (1882) ; Peter de Reims j after the death of his wife in 1735, and com- 
mitted suicide. Works : St Louis on his 

Knees (St. Louis, Paris ) ; Flight into Egypt 
(Church of the Assumption); Hercules and 

after Battle of Bovines (1883); Destruction ! Cacus (1718), Hercules and Omphale (1724), 
of Chateau of Archbishop of Reims in 1595 i Education of Cupid, Louvre ; Apotheosis of 
(1884) ; St. Magdalen (1885). MttUer, 331. ! Hercules, Toulouse Museum ; Lahan and 

Nuremberg in 1631, died in Stockholm in 
1713. German school ; military painter, pu- 
pil of Matthaus Meyer and Georg Strauch ; 
went to Rome and Venice (1653), and imi- 

Rachel, Angers Museum; Tancred recog- 
nizing Clorinda, Besan^on Museum ; Mar- 
riage at Cana, Montpellier Museum ; Con- 
tinence of Scipio (1727), Nancy Museum ; 
Louis XV. giving Peace to Europe (1729), 

/ . 

tated Bourguignon and Pieter de Laar, 
though not slavishly. He was afterwards! 
called to Stockholm as court-painter. His j 
compositions are full of life, well drawn, f 
and broadly treated. A Cavalry Skirmish [ 
by him is in the Vienna Museum. Andre- 
sen, Deutsche Peintre-Graveur, v. 193 ; Kug- Versailles Museum ; Hunting Party at 
ler (Crowe), ii. 532. ; Luncheon, Old Pinakothek, Munich. Bel- 

LEMETTAY, PIERRE CHARLES, born | Her, i. 997 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran<?aise, ii. ; 
at Fecamp (Seine-Inferieure) in 1726, died ' Jal, 765 ; Houssaye, GaL du xviii. Siecle, 
in Paris in 1760. French school ; land- \ ii. 260 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Maler des xviii. 
scape painter, pupil of Boucher ; won the j Jahrh., 18. 

grand prix de Rome. After his return from! LEMPENZEDER, BM/THASAR, bora 
Italy he became member of the Academy j at Haidhausen, Oct. 29, 1822 3 died in Mu- 
and painter to the king. His marine pieces \ nich, Nov. 27, 1860. History painter, pu- 
resemble those of Joseph Vernet. Works : ! pil of Munich Academy under Schlotthauer ; 
Roman Shepherds, Bay of Naples. i formed himself after the model of Cornelius, 

LE MOYNE, FRANCOIS, born in Paris who, on a visit to Munich in 1852, embraced 
in 1688, died there, June 14, 1737. French i the young artist on seeing his works. In 
school ; genre painter, pupil of Galloche for j 1854-60 he designed many cartoons for 
twelve years ; won the grand prix in 1711, j glass of church windows. Works : Christ- 
and made member of the Academy in 1718 ; | mas Eve (1848) ; Expulsion from Paradise 
went to Italy in 1723, and after his return ! (1850) ; Cain and Abel (1852) ; Madonna 



(3853). AUgem. d. Biogr., xviii. 241 ; Furs- painting Lady's Portrait, Old Pinakotbek, 
ter, Cornelius, ii. 331. ; Municb ; Entertainment of People of Lower 

LEMUD, FRANCOIS JOSEPH ABIE I Classes, Count Peter Scbuvaloff, St. Peters- 
DE, born at Tbionville, Lorraine ; conteni- ; burg ; Adoration of tbe Sbepberds, Uffizi, 
porary. History painter, pupil of Ecole des , Florence ; Mendicants, New York Museum ; 
Beaux Arts at Metz. Medals : 3d class, Portrait of Marie de Medicis, Adoration of 
1844, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 1865. Works : j / Sbepberds, 

Infancy of Callot (1839) ; Helene Adelsfreit ; LLiMJA,"- Florence Gal- 

(1843) *; Tbe Swallows (1844) ; Moses (1864); 
Fall of Adam (1865), Nancy Museum ; Holy 
Family (1869) ; Tbe Prisoner, Metz Muse- 

LE NAIN (tbe Brotbers), ANTOINE, 
LOUIS (called tbe Roman), and MA- 
TKGEU, bom at Laon (Aisne) about 1598, 

ford House ; 

Le Nain's Stu- 
dio, Luton House. Cb. Blanc, ficole fran- 
yaise, i. ; Cbarnpfleury, Nouvelles recbercbes 
sur la vie et Fceuvre des freres Le Nam 

1593, 1607; Frencb scbool; tbey painted j (Laon, 1862); Gaz. des Beaux Arts (I860), 
domestic and rural scenes. Wben Antoine | viii. 173, 266, 321 ; (1861), xi. 542 ; (1865), 

became master in St. Germain des Pres, bis 
bro tbers were bis apprentices. In 1633 
Matbieu came to Paris, wbere tbe tbree 
brotbers lived togetber for many years. In 
1648 tbey were all received into tbe Acad- 
emy. Antoine and Louis died two montbs 
later, May 26th and May 23d. Matbieu, wbo 
especially excelled in portraiture, died April 
20, 1677. Works : Procession in Interior 
of Cburcb (attributed) ; Blacksmitb in bis 
Smitby, Adoration of Sbepberds, Interior of 
Farm-House, Tillage Scene, Peasant's Re- 
past (1642), Louvre; Birtb of tbe Virgin, 
St. fitienne du Mont, Paris ; Visitation, St. 
Laurent ; Presentation in Temple, Convent 
of tbe Temple ; Eating Oysters, Body-Guard, 
M. George, Paris ; Harvesters, M. de St. Al- 
ton ; Interior of Farm-House, M de Monta- 

xviii. Ill ; xix. 43 ; Jal, 767. 

LENBACH, FRANZ, bom at Scbroben- 
bausen, Bavaria, 
Dec. 13, 1836. 
Portrait painter 
of rare excellence, 
pupil of Municb 
Academy and of 
Grafle, tben of 
Piloty, wbom in 
1858 be accom- 
panied to Rome ; "^ 
painted at first 
genre scenes, and on bis return to Municb 
exbibited bis Forum Romanum, wbicb at- 
tracted attention. In 1860 be became 
professor at tbe Weimar Art-Scbool, but 
resigned in 1862 and went to Italy and 

livet ; Visitation, St. Denis, Libourne ; Ru- j Spain, wbere be studied and copied, for 

ml Interior, Rouen Museum ; Men playing 
Cards, Valenciennes Museum ; St. Micbael 

Baron Scback's Gallery in Municb, after tbe 
old masters. After bis return to Municb 

offering bis Weapons to tbe Virgin, Nevers be devoted bimself exclusively to portrait 

Muse-urn ; Nativity, Angers Museum ; Por- 
trait of Sieur de Marqueglise, Cbartres Mu- 
seum ; Children quarrelling, Douai Museum ; 
Interior Scene, Nancy Museum ; Tbe Vir- 
gin, St. Ann and Infant Cbrist witb Angels, 
Rennes Museum ; Rustic Scene, Interior of 
Peasant's Cottage, Vegetable Seller, Gotba 
Museum; Five Peasant Cbildren Singing 
and Playing, Leipsic Museum ; An Artist 

painting, imitating Rembrandt, and bad 
many orders, especially from Vienna, wbere 
be worked in 1872-74 ; visited Morocco, 
and witb Makart and Leopold Mtiller spent 
tbe winter of 1875-76 in Egpyt. Member 
of Berlin Academy, 1883. Medals : Paris, 
3d class, 1867 ; Municb, 1879 ; Vienna, 
1882; Spanisb Order of Cbarles, 1869. 
Works: Peasant Family in approacbing 



Storm (1857); Forum Romanum (1858); Chapel (1855), Laval Museum; Festival in 
Portrait of Physician (1859) ; Portrait of L. , Venice (1855) ; Venetian Wedding (1857), 
von Hagn (1865); Emperor of Germany M. Emile Pereire ; Moses saving the Daugh- 
(1873) ; Emperor of Austria (1873) ; Bis- ; ters of Midian (1859) ; Virgin on Calvary, 
marck, Moltke, National Gallery, Berlin ; ; (1861), Nantes Museum ; Hours of the Day 
Bismarck (1879), KunsthaUe, Hamburg ; ; and Night, Paris Opera House ; also deco- 
Gladstone, Frauz Liszt, Richard "Wagner, ! rations in St. Anne's Chapel in St. Sulpice, 
Franz Lachner, Helinholtz,. Dollinger, Lip- \ Paris, as well as in other public buildings, 
hart, Paul Heyse and Wife, Baron von | Bellier, i. 1002 ; Muller, 332. 
Schack, Bismarck, King Louis IL of Bava-l LENGERICH, HEINRICH, born in 
ria, Countess Marie von Schleinitz (1880), Stettin in 1790, died in Berlin in 1865. 
Dollinger (1872), Bismarck (1884), Pope I History painter, pupil in Berlin of Wach ; 
Leo Xm. (1885), New Pinakothek, Munich ; j then studied in Italy in 1817-21 after Raph- 
A Shepherd Boy, Artist's portrait, A Fran- ; ael and Correggio, and became professor 
ciscan Monk, Male portraits (2), Female at the Berlin Academy. Works : Descent 
portrait, Head Study, View of the Alhambra, from the Cross, St. Jacob's, Stettin ; Twelve 
do. of Vega of Granada, The Tocador de Christian Mar- r T T 
la Reina in the Alhambra, Schack Gal-' tyrs, Chapel hi I *< r 3-I 3 Z. 
lery, ib. ; Portrait of the Poet Lenthard, : Royal Palace, V- * L * t * * ** 
Zurich Gallery. AUgem. K Ch., x. 354 ;j Berlin; Entombment. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
KiiDstiChronik, xv. 409 ; sx. 444, 524 ; Mid- ; xviii. 250 ; Raczynski, iii 60 ; Rosenberg, 
ler, 331 ; Nord und Sttd, i. 113 ; Pecht, D. , Berliner Malerschule, 55. 
K., ii. 110 ; Reber, iii. 256 ; Schack, Meine LENOIR, PAUL MARIE, born in Paris 
Gemaldesammlung (1884), 161; Zeitschr. f. 'about 1850, died in Cairo in 1881. Genre 
h. K, iv. 16; vi. 303 ; ix. (Mittheilungen), j painter, pupil of Gtrume and Jalabert. 
ii. 45 ; xvii 346 ; Graph. K, iii. 29. j Medal, 1st class, 1876. Works : Cambyses 

LENEPVEU, JDLES EUGENE, bora \ at Pelusium (1867); Japanese Brook (1872); 
at Angers, Dec. 12, 1819. Genre and ; Trained Elephant ; Japanese Festival ; Cairo 
history painter, pupil of Picot and of the '(1879) ; Races at Osaka in Japan (1880). 
ficole des Beaux Arts. Made a brilliant ! L'Art (1881), XXXT. 72. 
beginning at the Salon in 1843 ; -won the ! LENS, ANDRIES CORNELIS, bom in 
grand prix de Rome in 1847, and went to | Antwerp, March 31, 1739, died in Brussels, 
Italy for six years. Has since been a very Marcli 30, 1822. Flemish school ; history 
successful artist. Medals : 3d class, 1847 ; ! and portrait painter, pupil of Karel Eyek- 
2d class, 1855, 1861 ; L. of Honour, 1862 ; lens and BalthasarBeschey; studied in Rome 
Officer, 1876 ; Member of Institute, 1869 ; ; (1764-69), after Raphael and the antique, 
director of French Academy in Rome, 1872 | Professor in Antwerp Academy in 1763-81. 
to 1878. Works : Joseph's Coat given to ! A degenerate scion of a once famous school ; 
Jacob (1841), Samuel anointing David j composition feeble, flesh false in tone, exe- 
(1842), Cincinnatus receiving Delegates of cution uncertain. Works : Annunciation, 
the Senate (1844), Christ in the Prsetorium j Portrait of the Engraver Marteuaise (1762), 
(1845), Sickness of Alexander (1846), Mar- 1 Art Triumphant over Ignorance (1763), Mu- 
tyrdom of Si Saturninus (1847), Antigone \ seum, Antwerp ; Presentation in the Tem- 
andPolynices (1850), Portrait of the Painter, pie, St. Augustine's, ib.; Samson and De- 
Jean Michel Merrier (1847), Angers Muse- ! lilah, Ariadne and Bacchus, Offering to 
urn ; Idyl (1843); Death of Vitellius (1847); [ Bacchus, Brussels Museum ; Annunciation, 
Martyrs' in the Catacombs (1855), Luxem- St. Michael's, Ghent ; Departure of St. 
bourg Museum ; Pius IX. in the Sistine ! Rumbold, Murder of SI Rumbold, Cathe- 



dral, Mechlin ; Zeus Asleep on Mount Ida, ! frescos in Schwerin (1830-33) under Schu- 
Pallas-Athene striking down Aphrodite, Yi- j macher ; visited Italy in 1834, and Paris in 
enna Museum. Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; : 1835 ; became court-painter at Schwerin 

Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 234 ; Immer- 
zeel, ii. 169 ; Kranim, iv. 963 


in 1838. "Works: Crucifixion (1843-44), 
Cathedral, Schwerin ; Sketch of this and 
Gothic Triptych (1857), Eepose in Egypt 
(1859), Hermann and Dorothea (1860), Phy- 


Oath of Leo III., Raphael, Stanza dell' Incendio del Borgo, Vatican. 

(Crowe), ii. 535 ; Michiels, x. 524 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 442 ; Van den Branden, 1223. 

LENTHE, GASTON, born at Dresden, 
Aug. 9, 1805, died at Schwerin, Dec. 27, 
1860. History and genre painter, son of, 
and first instructed by, Friedrich Christoph 
Georg Lenthe (1774-1851, whose portrait, 
by himself, is in the Schwerin Gallery), then 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Retsch, 
whither he returned in 1826 after having 
studied in Berlin in 1825 ; was in Carls- 
ruhe and Munich in 1829, then painted 

sician feeling Lady's Pulse (copy after 
Netscher's picture in Dresden Gallery). 
Schlie, 40. 

LEO HI, OATH OF, Raphael, Stanza 
dell* Incendio del Borgo, Vatican ; fresco. 
Leo IDE. (portrait of Leo X.) clearing him- 
self by oath at the altar, in presence of 
Charlemagne and church dignitaries, from 
accusations made by the nephew of the de- 
ceased Pope Adrian L ; behind him, a young 
priest carries the triple crown ; at left, in 
front of a group of bishops, Charlemagne in 


the costume of a Roman senator ; behind 
the bishops, a great crowd ; and on steps of 
altar, guards and mace-bearers in Italian 
costume of 16th century. Typical of the 
dogma that the Pope is not amenable to 
any earthly tribunal. Painted in 151 7, 
probably by pupils after Raphael's designs. 
Engraved by Fr. Aquila ; Aloisius Fabri. 
Vasari, ed. MiL, vi. 361 ; Passavant, ii. 156 ; 
Miintz, 428. 

LEO X., Pope, portrait, JRaphael, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 5 ft, x 3 ft. 11 in. 
The Pope, dressed in a loose white robe 

Pope Leo X., Raphael, Paiazzo Pitti, Florence. 

with fur-trimmed sleeves and red velvet 
collar and cap, sits at a table on which are 
an illuminated breviary and a silver bell, 
holding an eye-glass in his left hand ; be- 
hind his chair, his two nephews standing, 
at right, Cardinal Giulio de } Medici '(Clem- 
ent VIL), at left, Cardinal Luigi de* Rossi, 
his secretary. A masterpiece of portraiture. 
Painted about 1517-19 ; became the prop- 
erty of Ottaviano de' Medici ; was seen in 
Florence by Federigo H, Duke of Mantua, 

who, coveting it, asked Clement Y1L for it. 
The Pope ordered it sent to Mantua, but 
\ Ottaviano substituted a copy by Andrea del 
Sarto (1525). This copy, which deceived 
:even Giulio Romano, who had taken part 
1 in the execution of the original, is now in 
! the Naples Museum, where it passes as the 
\ original. The Pitti picture was earned to 
' Paiis in 1797 ; returned in 1815. Engraved 
, by Samuel Jesi, Marri, F. Morel, F. Ingnon 5 
Chataignier, and Landon. Vasari, ed. Mil, 
jiv. 352 ; v. 41 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 403, 
; 466 ; GaL du PaL Pitti, iv. PL 91 ; Filhol, 
! ii. PL 107 ; Springer, 254 ; Musee royal, i. ; 
j Landon, Muse, xiv. PL 29 ; Passavant, ii. 
1 269 ; Perkins, 143. 

j LEON, painter, known only as the paint- 
er of a Sappho. Pliny, xxxv. 40 [141]. 
! at Orviedo, Spain; con- 
, temporary. Genre 
j painter, pupil in Paris 
iof Gerome; paints 
interiors and garden 
scenes with historical 
persons of 17th or 18th 
centuries. Orders of 
Isabella the Catholic, 
' of Charles IH of Spain, 
and Christ of Portugal. 
Works : The* Breakfast, Walk in Aranjuez, 
Philip IY. presenting Rubens to Velasquez 
1 (1867) ; Murillo with the Capuchins, Gallery 
I of Philip IV. in the Prado (1868) ; Studio of 
Velasquez, Lucrezia Borgia in Venice (1869); 
The Implacable Enemies, Artist's Friends in 
Time of Louis ^"TTT (1870) ; Convalescent 
Prince (1872), Morgan sale, New York, 
1886 ; Reception of an Ambassador ; Unex- 
pected Visit ; Going to the Audience ; Fight 
in Rue de Rivoli, Paris ; Charles V. at Ti- 
tian's (1882) ; End of the Game (1884), Mor- 
gan sale, New York, 1886. Works in United 
States : Arriving at the CMteau, William 
Astor, New York ; The Heir, W. H. Vander- 
|bilt, ib.; Gallants playing Cards, M. Gra- 
I ham, ib. ; Convalescent Prince, T. R. Bufc- 
iler, ib.; Castle of Blois, Visit, R. L. Stuart, 



ib.; Mary Stuart in Prison, F. Harper, ib.; 
Quarrel "of the Pets, J. T. Martin, Brook- 
lyn ; Visit to the Chateau, D. W. Powers, 
Rochester ; Appointment, C. H. Wolff, Phila- 
delphia ; In the Library, Borie Collection, 
ib.; Interior of a Studio, T. Dolan, ib.; Sans 
Invitation, W. B. Bement, ib.; After the 
Audience, J. W. Bates, ib.; Five Minutes 
too Late, Fairinan Rogers, ib.; Marie An- 
toinette at Versailles, Charles Crocker, San 
Francisco; Eeception of the Ambassador, 
T. Wigglesworth, Boston ; Introduction, W. 
Mason, Taunton; Hardwick Castle, R. C. 
Taft, Providence ; Fencing Lesson, D. T. 
Buzby, Baltimore ; Ancient Regime, G. 
Hoadly, Cincinnati ; Return from the Hunt, 
H. B. Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland. Mfll- 
ler, 162 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvii. 281. 

LEON TVTCATi, SIMON DE, born in Ma- 
drid in 1610, died there in 1687. Spanish 
school ; pupil of Pedro de las Cuevas, but 
improved his style by copying Van Dyck. 
Painted altar-pieces and other religious com- 
positions. Stirling, ii. 720. 

LEONARDO, JOSE, born at Calatayud, 
Aragon, in 1616, died at Saragossa in 1656. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Pedro de las Cue- 
vas, but imitated the manner of Velasquez ; 
became one of the king's painters, and gave 
promise of a brilliant future, when he lost 
his reason from the effects of poison, ad- 
ministered, it is said, by a rival. "Works : 
Surrender of Breda, Episode of the Thirty 

1 L 

Years' War, Madrid Museum. Stirling, ii. 
721 ; Ch. Blanc, ICcole espagnole ; Cean 
Bermudez ; Madrazo, 426. 


LEONE. See Leoni. 

at Freiburg, Saxony, Jan. 19, 1826. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Dresden Academy 
under Ludwig Richter ; spent some years in 
Dasseldorf, and settled at Loschwitz, near 

Dresden. Works: Trout-Fishing; Spring; 
Forest Border ; Solitude ; View in Saxon 
Switzerland ; German Wood Landscape 
(1863), Dresden Museum; Swampy Country 
in Autumn ; Moonrise in the Woods. II- 
' lustr. Zeitg. (1884), L 479 ; Mailer, 333. 
! LEOXI (Leone), OTTAVIO, Cavaliere, 
born in Rome about 
1575, died after June, 
1628. Roman school ; 
son of Lodovico Le- 
oni, a painter of Pa- 
dua, whence Ottavio 
was sometimes called 
H Padovanino. He 
was one of the ablest 
portrait painters of 
his time, popes, car- 
dinals, and the nobility being among his 
sitters. He also engraved many heads of 
painters and others. Among his figure- 
pieces are : Annunciation, S. Eustachio, 
Rome ; Madonna with St. Hyacinth, S. M. 
Sopra Minerva, Rome. He was prince of 
the Academy of St. Luke, and was made a 
knight of the Order of Christ by Gregory 
XV. Ch. Blanc, ICcole ombrienne. 

LEONID AS, painter, of Anthedon, pupil 
of Euphranor, 4th century B.C. Brunn (ii. 
164) thinks him identical with the architect 
who wrote on proportion mentioned by 
Vitruvius (vii. Prsef. 14). Steph. Byz., v,; 
Eust. Ad. Horn. H., ii. 271, 38. 

Jacques Louis David, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 12 ft. 10 in. x 17 ft. 6 in. ; signed, 
dated 1814. Leonidas, holding his arms, 
is seated upon a rock near the altar of Her- 
cules ; beside him, at right, Agis, brother 
of his wife, is putting on his helmet, while 
two young Spartans take their arms, which 
are suspended from a tree ; at left, a soldier 
and the blind Eurytus ; a troop of Spartans 
advance to the sound of trumpets ; a sol- 
dier upon a rock engraves an inscription 
with his sword ; a sentinel on the steps of 
a temple signals the approach of the Per- 
sians. The last picture painted by David 



iii France ; acquired in 1819 with the Sabine 
Women for 100,000 fr. Yillot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Lanclon, Musee, i. PL 27, 28. 

LEONHSCUS, Greek painter, Sicyonic 
school, about 232 B.C. According to Pliny 
(xxxv. 40), he painted a Singing Girl, and 
an Aratus with the Trophies of Victory won 
in the battle of that year between him and 
Aristippus, Tyrant of Argos. 

Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x9 ft.; 

lat. Medal 3d class, 1877. Works : Piiier de 
Halle (1868), Grenoble Museum : Spring- 
time, Deluge (3 views, 1874) ; Fishing for 
Dog-Fish, Boat of Boulogne (1875 ) ; Calm 
in Bay of the Somme, Inundation of the 
Bercy Quay (1876) ; Broken Boat, Tempest 
(1877) ; Departure at High Tide, Return at 
Low Tide (1878) ; Scotch Herring Fishery, 

i Virgin of Grosfiiers in Berck ( 1879 ) ; Ice- 
Gorge on the Loire, Eeturning (1880) ; On 

ithe Watch, Beach at Berck (1881); do., 

Leonidas at Thermopylae, Jacques Louis David, Louvre, Paris. 

signed. Philip EL, in armour, stands at an I Amiens Museum ; Calm Sea at Boulogne, 
altar holding aloft a naked babe, his son Fog in Arctic Ocean (1882) ; Inundation 
the Infante Don Fernando (born two months i of the Seine, Departure of Fishing Boats 
after Lepanto), who stretches his hands (1883); Phantom Ship, Battle of Onessant 
towards the Angel of Victory bearing a , in 1778 (1884) ; Eeturn of the Pilot, Ready 
crown and palm ; at foot of altar kneels a | to put About (1885). Bellier, i. 1012. 
half-naked Turk, with arms bound, andj LEPIClfi, NICOLAS BERNABD, born 
a kettle-drum, flag, and the crescent and ! in Paris, June 16, 1735, died there, Sept 14, 

star of the Ottomans at his feet. Painted 
about 1574 for Philip II of Spain. C. 
C., Titian, ii. 396. 

1784 French school; history and genre 
painter, pupil of Carle van Loo ; became 
painter to the king and professor in the 

, XltlOll, 11. OtJV. -***. ~~ ~ -o 

LEPIC, LTJDOYIC NAPOLEON, Vi- Academy. His style was formal and correct; 
comte, born in Paris, Dec. 17, 1839. Marine his works, admired in their day, were en- 
painter, pupil of Cabanel, Wappers, and Yer- 1 graved by Levasseur and others. Works : 


Education of Achilles (1769), Chateau of Yin- \ ing a Wreck (1836), Leipsic Museum ; Nor- 
cennes; Visitation (1769), Bayonne Cathe- niandy Fishermen, Flemish Cottage (1836); 

dral ; Narcissus 
changed into the 
Flower (1771), 
Trianon ; St. 
Louis rendering 
Justice under an 
Oak at Vincennes 
(1773) ; Piety of 
Fabius Dorso 
(1781), Chartres 

Souvenir of Belgium, Return of the Fisher- 
men (1837) ; Ice, Behind the Downs, Red 
Cap (1838) ; Shipwreck (1839), Amiens Mu- 
seum ; Adrian van der Yelde landing at 
Blankenberg (1840) ; Gulf of Naples (1841) ; 
Naval Battle at Embro 1346 (1841), Taking 
of Baruth 1109 (1844), Versailles Museum; 
Villa d'Este, Blue Grotto at Capri (1842) ; 
Adriaan Brouwer painting Sign at an Inn 
(1843), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Van der 
Velde sketching during a Battle, Fossoyeur 

Museum ; Resur- 
rection (1781), Cathedral, Chalon-sur-Saone ; and his Children (1843) ; Stroke of the Spur 
Zeal of Mathathias (1783) ; Farm Yard, for- , (1845) ; Education of Achilles (1846), Ra- 
merly in the Louvre ; Spinning Woman, vene Gallery, Berlin ; First Wound (1847) ; 

L Portrait of a Young ( No Smoke without Fire, Honeymoon (1848) ; 

^ Painter, Orleans Muse- } The Party-Wall (1849) ; The Shepherd and 

urn ; Female Head, Nan- , the Sea, The Cask of Cider (1850) ; Pirates, 
tes Museum ; The Sister, j Friends of the Farm (1852) ; Right of the 
Historical Society, New j Strongest, Monks of the Cape (1853) ; Win- 
York. ter in Holland (1855 ) ; Winter, Hedge School 
f L ' A r t , (1857) ; Dutch Pilots, Cottage in Normandy 
' (1876), j (1859) ; Pleasures of Summer (1861), Cam- 

iv. 211 ; Bellier, i. 1013 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole | brai Museum ; Country Doctor, Fishing on 
franyaise, ii. ' the Ice, Future Painter of Still Life (1861) ; 

LE POITTEVIN, EUGENE (MODESTE Cinderella's Dream (1864) ; Monks of the 


EDMOND), called Poi- 
devin born in Paris, July 
31, 1806, died there, Aug. 
6, 1870. Landscape and 
genre painter, pupil of 
Ecole des Beaux Arts and 
of Louis Herseni Trav- 
elled much on the Con- 
tinent and in England. 
His first picture, The 
Harvesters (1826), was 
bought by the Duchesse de BerrL Medals : 
2d class, 1831 ; 1st class, 1836 ; 2d class, 
1848 ; 3d class, 1855 ; L. of Honour, 1843 ; 
member of the Antwerp and Berlin Acad- 
emies. Works: Normandy Courtyard 
(1830), Orleans Museum; The Thames, A 
Stable (1831) ; Low Tide, On the Scotch 
Coast (1833) ; Rescuing Scene (1834), Nan- 
tes Museum ; Battle at Wertingen 1805 
(1835), Versailles Museum ; Fishermen sav- 

Cape (1865) ; Souvenir of Scheveningen 
(1866); Shipwreck in Polar Sea (1867); 
Delicate Attention, Gathering Potatoes 
(1868) ; Breaking Ice (1868), Angers Mu- 
seum ; Environs of tretat(1870), formerly 
in Luxembourg Museum ; Fort de 1'GEuf, 
Marseilles Museum ; Landscape, J. J. As- 
tor, New York ; Seaside Life, C. H. Woli^ 
Philadelphia; Dutch Market on the Ice, 
W. Mason, Taunton. Art Journal (1870), 
308 ; Bellier, i. 1014 ; Hamerton, Painting, 

LE PRINCE, A. XAVIER, born in Paris, 
Aug. 28, 1799, died at Nice, Dec. 24, 1826. 
Genre and landscape painter ; studied Cuyp, 

Adrian van de 
Velde, and na- 
ture. Works : 
Embarkation of 
Cattle at Honfleur (1823), Pass of Susten 
in Switzerland (1824), Louvre ; Landscape, 



Bordeaux Museum ; Cows in a Pasture. Golden Age (1861 } ; Joan of Arc (1862) ; 
Ch. Blanc, l5cole frangaise ; Yillot, Cat. Triumph of Virtue (1863). Art Journal 
Louvre ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 330. (1866), 265; (1876), 176; Dioskuren, 


Metz, in 1733, died at St. Denis du Port, ' LEROLLE, HENRY, born in Paris : con- 
Sept. 30, 1781. French school ; genre temporary. History and genre painter, pu- 
painter, pupil of an unknown painter in pil of Lamothe. Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 
Metz, and of Boucher ; spent five years 1st class, 1880. Works : Baptism of SS. 
(1760-65) in Russia, and painted peasant I Agaard and Aglibert (1874) ; The Tears of 
life successfully. Member Academy, 1765. ' Mary Magdalen (1875) ; The Toilet (1876) ; 
Many of his works are engraved. "Works : ( At the Fountain, Druidic Ceremony (1877) ; 
The Body-Guard (1776), Louvre ; Baptism Communion of the Apostles (1878) ; Jacob 
by the Greek Rite (1765), Ministry of Jus- : and Laban (1879) ; In the Country (1880), 
tice ; Two Landscapes, View near Tobolsk, Luxembourg Museum ; At the Banks of the 
Rouen Museum; Walk in the Park, Nancy River (1881); Arrival of the Shepherds 
Museum ; Mountainous Landscape, Orleans (1883) ; At the Organ (1885). 
Museum; Place Louis XV., Besan9on Mu-^ LEROUX, CHARLES (MARIE GITL- 

\ LAUME), born at Nantes, April 25, 1814. 

; Landscape painter, pupil of Corot. Medals : 

3d class ' 1843 5 2d class > 18i6 > 1848 ' 1S59 ; 

I K of Honour, 1859 ; Officer, 1868. Works : 
O \ / y^i i Souvenir of Fontainebleau, Marshes of the 

II- r S ^ vl<e ' Avenue of Elms (1834-42) ; Festi- 

ou? ot ru?c& 1 1 I* \ Tai fc ^pp 61 * p itoa ( is43 ) j D wns f ES - 

' ' coublac, Prayer of the Young Elms, View of 

seum ; Russian Concert (1770), Angers Mu- Groisic (1848) ; Castle of Batz, Souvenir of 
seum; Ceilings in several Russian palaces. , Pornic (1853) ; Marsh of Rabiniere, Yallon, 
L'Art (1880), xxi. 193 ; Bellier, i 1016 ; Til- , Edge of the Woods (1855) ; The Erdre in 
lot, Cat Louvre; Lejeune, Guide, iii. 151 ;! Winter, The Loire in Spring (1857), Nantes 
Ch. Blanc, iScole franyaise. i Museum ; Islands of the Lower Loire, The 

LERCHE. See Stoltenberg-Jjerche. : Erdre (1859) ; Souvenir of Poitou (1869) ; 

LERIUS, JOSEPH HENRI FRANQOIS ; Mouth of the Loire (1870) ; Souvenir of 
VAN, born at Boom, near Antwerp, Nov. Poitou (1873) ; The Loire near Paimboeuf 
23, 1823, died at Mechlin, Feb. 28, 1876. , (1874) ; Castle of Batz in Storm (1875) ; 
History, genre, and portrait painter, pupil ', High Tide at Prefailles (1876) ; The Loire 
of Brussels and Antwerp Academies, then , at Low Tide (1877) ; Avenue of Chestnuts 
assistant of Wappers in 1841-44 ; visited | (1878) ; Mist rising near Paimbceuf (1879) ; 
Germany and Italy in 1852-54, and became ! Tillage near Soulliers (1880) ; Overflowed 
professor at Antwerp Academy in 1854, | Meadows near Nantes, Marshes of the Low- 
member of Dresden Academy in 1858, and , er-Indre (1882) ; Pond of Thau, Environs of 
of Amsterdam Academy in 1863. Gold j Narbonne (1883); Road near St. Brevin, 
medal ; Order of Leopold, 1861 ; Bavarian ! Dunes of Chenes Yerts (1884); Marsh of the 
Order of St. Michael, 1869. In his latter j Lower Loire, Champ du Coteau-aux-Soul- 
years became insane. Works: Scene from | Hers (1885). Bellier, i. 1022; Larousse; 
Kenihvorth, Milton dictating to his Daugh- ; Mttller, 334. 

ters, Paul and Virginia, Esmeralda (1848) ; | LERODX, ETJGJ&NE, born in Paris, Sept. 
Adam and Eve, Four Ages (1851) ; The j 28, 1833. Genre painter and lithographer, 
First Born (1852) ; Joy and Sorrow (1857) ; ! pupil of Picot ; paints chiefly life in Brit- 



tany. Medals : 1864 ; 3d class, 1873 ; 2d 
class, 1875 ; L. of Honour, 1871. Works : 
New-Born Baby (1864). Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Death-Bed (1868) ; Watching a 
Corpse, Sleepy, The BUI (1872); Private 
Ambulance (1875) ; Czar Alexander IE. giv- 
ing an Audience (1880;; Elder Sister (1882); 
River Isole (1883); Summer Evening (1885); 
Orphans, Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York 
Bellier, i. 1022 ; Mliller, 334. 
LEKOITX, HECTOR, born at Verdun 
(Meuse), Dec. 27, 
1829. Genre painter, 
pupil of Picot and of 
cole des Beaux Arts ; 
won the 2d grand prix 
in 1857. Paints an- 
tique scenes with skill 
and archaeological 
knowledge. Medals : 
3d class, 1863, 1864 ; 
2d class, 1874; 3d 
class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1877. "Works : 
A New Vestal (1863), Verdun Museum ; 
Funeral in the Columbarium of the House 
of the Csesars (1864), Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; Slave of Horace (1865), J. P. Morgan, 
New York; Ancient Serenade (1866), St. 
Germain Museum ; Improvisator with Sal- 
lust (1866); Messalina, The Sorceress (1868); 
Miracle in House of the Bona Dea (1869) ; 
The Vestal Tuccia (1874), Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; Obsequies of Themistocles 
(1876); Trial of a Vestal (1876), C. P. Hunt- 
ington, New York ; DanaMes, William As- 
tor, ib.; The Vestal Claudia Quinta (1877) ; 
little Orphans, Descent of Minerva Polias 
on the Acropolis (1878) ; School of Vestals 
(1880), J. J. Astor, New York; Vestals 
Asleep (1880); Herculaneum on Aug. 23, A.D. 
79 (1881), John G. Johnson, Philadelphia ; 
The Fishermen (1882); Sacrarium, The 
Tiber (1883); 'Seat in the Amphitheatre, 
College of Vestals flying from Rome (1884); 
Mysterious Stone of Pompeii, Se'fla, Daugh- 
ter of Jephtha (1885) ; Trial of Aurelia and 
Pomponia, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Prayer 
to JSsculapius, M. Brimmer, Boston ; Sup- 

Iplicants to Hygieia, W. Richmond, Provi- 
i clence. Montrosier, i. ; Mailer, 334. 
! G-ASTON fiDOUARD, bom at Hennebout 
| (Morbihan), Oct. 9, 1860. Landscape and 
marine painter, pupil of Jules Noel. Medal, 
3d class, 1883. Works : Cliffs of Treport 
at Low Tide (1878) ; Sea Baths of Port- 
Louis, Low Tide at Yeules-en-Caux (1879) ; 
Fishery, ib. (1880) ; Low Tide at Treport 
(1SS1)*; November, ib. (1882) ; Departure 
of Fishermen in Rough Weather (1883) ; 
Preparations for Herring Fishing, Street at 
Mers-les-Bains (1884). 
Clerkenwell, Lon- 
don, Oct. 11, 1794, 
died in London, 
May 5, 1859. His 
father, a watch- 
maker of Philadel- 
phia, returned to 
America in 1800, 
^ and on his death 
\ (1804) Charles was 
' apprenticed to a 
bookseller ; but in a few years he was en- 
abled to go to London, where he became a 
student at the Royal Academy (1813). Al- 
though his first pictures were meritorious, 
it was not until his return from the Conti- 
nent in 1817 that he displayed his special 
talent, in the picture of Slender and Anne 
Page. Two years later he exhibited his Sir 
Roger de Coverley (Marquis of Lansdowne), 
which left him without a rival in this class 
of subjects. He became an A.R.A. in 1821, 
and R.A. in 1826. In 1833 he accepted the 
professorship of drawing at West Point, but 
held the position only a few months. On 
his return to England the same year he 
painted several pictures from the great po- 
ets, and two historical pieces for the Queen, 
her Coronation (1838), and the Baptism of 
the Princess Royal. From 1847 to 1852 he 
was professor of painting at the Royal Acad- 
emy. His somewhat formal and theatrical 
compositions are enlivened by a vein of 


humour which shows itself especially in his 1 Celia's Arbour (1869) ; Xausicaii and her 
treatment of Shakespearean subjects. He \ Maids (1871) ; Lavinia, Elopement Lucy 
was a good draughtsman and colourist, j and Puck (1872) ; Xut-Brown Maid, Five 
though he had a tendency to blackness in ; o'Clock (1874) ; School Revisited,. Banks of 
his shadows, and a want of feeling for those the Thames in A.D. 200 (1875); Roses, Yiolet, 
transparent and harmonious middle tones Lavender (1876) ; Cowslips, Lass of Rieh- 
which should unite them with the higher !mondHill(1877); Home, Sweet Home (1S78V, 
lights. Among his best known works are : | Alice in "Wonderland ( 1879); Hen and Chick- 
Uucle Toby and Widow Wadman (1831), ! ens (1881) ; Molly, Pique, Daughter of Char- 
Sancho Panza and the Duchess, National |ity (1882); Daughters of Eve, "Wayside Rest 
Gallery; Florizel and Perdita (1837), Tarn- \ (1883); Ben son Ferry, Thames Roses (1884). 
ing the Shrew (1832), Autolycus (1836), j Meynell, 124 ; Portfolio (1870), 177. 
Queen Catherine and Patience (1839), Le 1 LESSER, ALEXANDER, bom in War- 
Bourgeois Gentilhonime (1841), Les Fern- ' saw in 1812, died there, March 7, 1884. 
mes Savantes (1845), Who can this be ? History painter, pupil of Warsaw, Dresden, 
(1839), Who can this be from ? (1839), Le and Munich Academies, at the latter under 
Halade iniaginaire (1843), South Kensing- ! Cornelius and Schnorr ; returned to War- 
ton Museum ; Dinner at Page's House ; saw and attained great popularity among 
(1831), Lady Lawley (?) ; Murder of Rutland \ his countrymen by painting scenes from 
by Lord Clifford, Sterne and the Chaise Polish history. Works: David's Thanks 

Yamper's Wife, Uncle Toby and Widow 
Wadman, Olivia '(Twelfth Night), Musidora, 
Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia. Au- 

for his Victory over Goliath ; Daughters of 
the Cid (Villa Rosenstein, near Stuttgart); 
Young Boleslav IEL begging his Fathers 

tobiographical Recollections, with essay by : Permission to fight against the Moravians ; 
Tom Taylor (London, 1860) ; Redgrave, j Defence of Trembowla against the Turks, 
Century ; Art Journal (1856), 73, 105 ; j Gotha Gallery ; Kadlubek, Heinrich von 
Sandby, ii. 39 ; Hamerton, Thoughts about j Liegnitz taking Farewell of St. Hedwig ; 
Art, 304. | Finding of Heinrich's Body on Battlefield of 

LESLIE, GEORGE DUNLOP, born in I Liegnitz ; Finding of Wanda's Body ; Prus- 

London, July 2, 1835. 
Subject painter, son 
and pupil of C. R Les- 
lie ; student in schools 
of Royal Academy in 
1854; exhibited two 
pictures in Royal 
Academy in 1857 ; 
elected A.H A. in 1868, 
and R.A. in 1876. 
Works : Reminiscences of the Ball (1859) ; 

sia's Allegiance ; Ascension ; Magdalen ; 
portraits of all the Polish kings. Dioskur- 
en (1873), 464; Kunst-Chronik, six. 396 ; 
Mailer, 335. 

Breslau, Feb. 15, 1808, 
died in Carlsruhe, June 
5, 1880. History and 
landscape painter, pu- 
pil at Berlin Academy 
of Rosel and Dahlrng, 

Meditation, Matilda, Bethlehem (1860); Fast j then of Schadow, whom' 
Day at the Convent (1861) ; Summer Song 

(1862) ; Lost Carcanet, War Summons (1863) ; 
Flower and the Leaf (1864) ; Defence of 
Lathom House (1865); Clarissa (1866); Wil- 
low Willow, Country Cousins, Ten Minutes 
to Decide, Rose Harvest (1867) ; Home 
News, Empty Sleeve (1868); Cupid's Curse, 

in 1826 he followed to 
Dttsseldorf, where he 
rapidly established his 
reputation. His first works, exhibited in 
Berlin in 1828 and 1830, which created 
great interest, were followed by an excel- 
lent series of historical and landscape paint- 


ings. On Schadow's departure for Italy i lery ; Crusaders in the Desert (1863), Luther 
in 1830, lie became director of the Acad- < and Eck at Leipsic (1867), View in the Hartz, 
erny, and exercised a great influence over j Landscape with Charcoal Burners, Carls- 
the Dtisseldorf school. In 1858 he became > ruhe Gallery ; Evening Landscape (1868), 
director of the Carlsruhe Gallery. Member j Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Landscape, Stettin 
of Berlin Academy, 1832 ; Knight of Order ; Museum ; do., Wiesbaden Gallery ; Morn- 
of Merit ; Medal : 1st class, Paris, 1837. j ing Landscape with Gypsies (1870) : Land- 
Works: Convent Churchyard (1826); Me- i scape in the Hartz, Milan Gallery ; Landscape 
diseval Castle (1828), National Gallery, Ber- ' in the Eifel during Storm (1875), National 
lin ; Mourning Eoyal Couple (1828) ; Coil- . Gallery, Berlin ; Landscape with Accesso- 

vent- Yard in Snow (1828), Cologne Museum; 
Barbarossa at Iconiuni (1829) ; Ravine with 
Ruins (1830) ; Burg Rheinstein (1832) ; 
Mountain Landscape, Great Rocky Land- 
scape, The Robber, Leonore (1832); Convent 
Church-Yard in the Snow (1833), Landscape 
in the" Eifel (183-4), Hussite Sermon (1836), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Landscape (1836), 
Confession in the Woods (1837), Raczynski 
Gallery, ib. ; Evening on the Moselle (1837), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Landscape with Ruins 
of Fire (1835), Millennial Oak (1837), Ezze- 
lino in Prison (1838), Oakwood (1839), Stii- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Frederic Barbarossa 
(1839), Service in Old Chapel (1839), Land- 
scape on the Havel (1841), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Hass before Council of Constance 
(1842), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Henry V. 
before PrUfeningen (1844), Hanover Gallery; 
Mountain Landscape at Noon, Landscape in 
Hailstorm, Wood Landscape with Brook 
(1844) ; Mountain Landscape at Evening 
(1845) ; Wood Landscape with Burning 
Convent (1846), Dresden Museum ; Hunts- 
man on Stand (1846), Ravene Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Mountainous Landscape (1847), View 
in the Eifel, Leipsic Museum ; Arquebu- 
siers defending Height (1848), Head of a 
Knight, Diisseldorf Gallery; Martyrdom of 
JTuss (1850), Defence of a* Pass (1851), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Westphalian Land- 
scape (1852), Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Wood 
Landscape with Figures, Basle Museum : Lu- 
ther burning the Pope's Bull (1853) ; Land- 
scape with Soldiers (1856) ; Seizure of Pope 
Paschal by Henry V. (1858) ; Monk at Coffin 
of Henry IV. (1859), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Rhine -Land scape (1859), Christiania Gal- 

ries from Thirty Years' War (1S77)> Dres- 
den Museum ; Landscape in Franconian 
Switzerland, Stuttgart Gallery; Lorettsberg, 
near Freiburg, Cologne Museum. . Works 

in United States : 
meyer, New York : 

Landscape, T. A. Have- 
Monks' Repose, Mrs. W. 

P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; Mountains of 
Eifel, J. D. Lankenau, ib. ; Moonrise, Fair- 
man Rogers, ib. ; Martyrdom of Huss, After 
a Summer Shower, Landscape with Poach- 
ers, Sunrise in Hartz Mountains, Hymn of 
the Ages, Huss before Council of Constance, 
J. Longworth Collection, Cincinnati ; Am- 
bush, G. Hoadly, ib. His sons Konrad 
and Heinrich have also made a name for 
themselves as landscape painters. Allgein. 
Allgem. Zeitg., June 
351 ; Frankfurter 

cl. Biogr., 
12, 1880; 

xvm. 450: 


Zeitg., June 13, 16, 17, 1880 ; niustr. 
Zeitg. (1878), i. 123 (1880), i. 513 ; Jordan 
(1885), ii. 135 ; Earlsruher Zeitg., June 20, 
18SO ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 601 ; Wolfgang 
Mtiller, DUsseldorf. K, 89 ; Nord und Stid, 
sv. 312 ; Pecht, D. K, iii. 294 ; Raczynski, 
iii. 370 ; Reber, ii. 136 ; Ueber Land u. 
Meer (1868), i. 223 ; Westermann's Monats- 
hefte, xlviii. 729 ; Wiegmann, 102 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., xvi. 33, xvii. 185, 224. 

at Aix in 1812. History and portrait paint- 
er. Medals : 2d class, 1835 ; 1st class, 1838. 
Works : Death of Camoens (1835), Aix Mu- 
seum ; Last Moments of the Painter San- 
terre (1835), Lyons Museum ; Titian and 
Aretino at Venice (1838), Arras Museum ; 
Samson and Delilah (1840) ; Calling of St. 
James (1843), Last Interview of St. Bene- 
dict and his Sister St. Scholastica (1847), 



Prefecture de la Seine, Paris. Bellier, i. 

LE SUEUE, EUSTACHE, born in Paris, 
Nov. 19, 1616, died 
there, April 30, 1655 ; 
French school His- 
tory painter, pupil of 
Simon Vouet, with 
whom he quarrelled 
in 1641, and began an 
independent career. 
Taking his three 
brothers and his 
brother-in-law, M. 

Gousse, into his studio, he with their help 
painted many pictures, whose chaste sim- 
plicity of style and deep though unex- 
aggerated expression entitle him to be 
ranked as one of the chief glories of the 
French school He was one of the first 
members of the French Academy of Paint- 
ing on its foundation in 1648. Most of his 
pictures have been engraved. Works : An- 
gel appearing in Desert to Hagar, Father of 
Tobias giving Orders to his Son, Angelic 
Salutation, Christ bearing his Cross, Descent 
from the Cross, Jesus appearing to Mary 
Magdalen, Si Gervais and SL Protais refus- 
ing to sacrifice to Jupiter, St. Paul preaching 
at Ephesus, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, 
Apparition of St. Scholastica to St. Benedict, 
Mass of Si Martin of Tours, History of St. 
Bruno, St. Bruno examining the Plan of the 
Chartreuse Church in Borne, Plan of the 
Old Chartreuse Church in Paris, Dedication 
of the Chartreuse Church, Birth of Cupid, 
Venus presenting Cupid to Jupiter, Cupid 
reprimanded by his Mother taking refuge 
with Ceres, Cupid receiving the Homage of 
the Gods, Cupid orders Mercury to announce 
his Power to the Universe, Cupid taking 
away Jupiter's Lightning, Phaeton asking 
Apollo for the Chariot of the Sun, Clio, Eu- 
terpe and Thalia, Melpomene, Erato and 
Polyinnia, Urania, Terpsichore, Calliope, 
Bape of Ganymede, Beunion of Artists, In- 
stitution of the Eucharist (attributed), Christ 
at the Column (attributed), Louvre, Paris ; 

Urania, Bordeaux Museum ; Family of To- 
bias thanking God after Departure of the 
, Angel Raphael, Grenoble Museum ; Martyr- 
1 dom of St. Gervais and St. Protais, Faith, 
j Religion, Lyons Museum ; Presentation in 
the Temple, Christ with Martha and Mary, 
I Marseilles Museum ; Sacrifice of Manoah, 
i Montauban Museum ; First Night of Wed- 
. ding of Tobias, Moutpellier Museum ; Rise 
of Aurora, Xantes Museum ; Woman in Sur- 
' prise, Monk in Meditation, Rouen Museum; 
Christ Blessing, Brussels Museum ; St. Bru- 
no in his Cell, Berlin Museum ; Christ in 
; the House of Martha, St. Louis of France 
j at Mass, Old Pinakothek, Munich; Burial 
i Scene, Stuttgart Museum ; Funeral of Cu- 
j pid, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Martyr- 
dom of St. Stephen, Exposure of Moses, 
Darius Hystaspes causing the Grave of 
Queen Xitocris to be opened, Birth of Mary 
the Virgin, Presentation of Christ in the 
' Temple, Presentation of Mary in the Tem- 
ple, Death of the Virgin, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg. Bellier, i. 1132 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole frangaise ; Jal, 780 ; Memoires in- 
edits, i. 147 ; Stothert, 87 ; Cat. du Louvre. 
born at St. 
Anne, Guada- 
loupe, Jan. 10, 
1760, died in 
Paris, April 21, 
1832. Genre 
painter, pupil 
in Paiis of Doy- 
en. His father, / 
Guillon, being 
ashamed to have 
him work under 
the family name, he took that of Lethiere. 
He won the 2d grand prix in 1784, and 
after spending four years in Italy returned 
to Paris ; accompanied Lucien Bonaparte 
to Spain, and was engaged there several 
years in collecting pictures for him. In 
1 1 1812-20 he was director of the French 
Academy in Rome ; in 1825 he became a 
member of the Institute, and soon after pro- 


fessor in the ficole des Beaux Arts. Works : 
Woman of Cana at the Feet of Christ 
(1784), Angers Museum ; Nero causing Ab- 
duction of Junia (1790), Montpellier Mu- 
seum ; Brutus condemning his Sons to 
Death (1812), Death of Virginia (1828), 
Louvre ; The Preliminaries of Loeben 
(1806), Versailles Museum ; View of the 
Plain of Rome and of the Dominican Church 
(1807) ; View of St. Peter's and the Vatican 
(1807) ; View of the Villa Medici (1807) ; 
JEneas and Dido surprised by a Storm 
(1819), Amiens Museum ; View of the Cha- 
teau of Genezano (1819) ; Venus Anadyo- 
jnene (1819) ; St. Louis visiting a Plague- 
stricken Man near Carthage (1822), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; JEsculapius fed by a Goat 
(1822) ; Romulus and Remus fed by the 
Wolf (1822) ; Coast of England near Brigh- 
ton (1822) ; Felucca in Danger near Genoa 
(1822); Foundation of the College of France 
by Frauds I. (1824), College de France ; 
Heroic Firmness of St. Louis at Damietta 
(1827), Council of State ; Philoctetes climb- 
ing the Rocks of Lemnos (1827), Chamber 
of Deputies ; Mary Magdalen at the Feet 
of Christ, St. Roch, Paris ; Homer Singing, 
Judgment of Paris, both in London ; Phor- 
bus releasing QEdipus when a Child, Mass 
in the Catacombs, Departure of Adonis, 
Death of Adonis, Duke d'Alba, Madrid ; 
Portraits of Empress Josephine and of llise 
Bonaparte, Versailles Museum. Bellier, i. 
1035 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole frangaise ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Larousse. 

Monster, March 24, 1818. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Dasseldorf Academy under 
Schirmer; visited Norway (1843, 1847), 
Switzerland (1847, 1865, 1871), Italy (1862- 
63), and Tyrol (1873) ; settled in Dilssel- 
dorf, and in 1882 removed to Berlin. Mem- 
ber of Berlin, Vienna, Amsterdam, and Brus- 
sels Academies ; royal professor ; gold med- 
als in Berlin ; Belgian Order of Leopold. 
Works : Waterf aU in High Plain of Nor- 
way (1844), Konigsberg Museum ; Norwe- 
gian Waterfall with Fir-Wood (1849), Chris- 

; tiania Gallery ; Sogne Fjord (1849), Bremen 
j Gallery ; Waterfall in the Mountains (1847), 
Hardanger Fjord (1851), Swiss Landscape 
(1851), Great Norwegian Landscape (1852), 
i Gallery Ravene, Berlin ; Norwegian Water- 
; fall, Vienna Museum ; High Plain in Norway 
j (1857), KOnigsberg Museum; The High Goll 
near Berchtesgaden (1859), Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; Engstler Alp ; The Kunigsee with the 
Watzmann, Gotha Museum ; The Dachstein ; 
View on Chiem Lake ; Eiger and Monch ; 
View of Capri ; View near Chiavenna ; Sun- 
set near Nice ; Handeck in Switzerland ; 
Anacapri ; Sogne Fjord (1874), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; German Wood Landscape, Pro- 
vinzial Museum, Hanover ; Coast of Monaco, 
Stettin Museum ; Lake Oeschinen in Berne 
(1876), National Gallery, Berlin; Rocca 
Bruna near Nice (1876). D. KunstbL 
(1855), 316; (1856), 407; (1857), 105; 
(1858), 197 ; Miiller, 335. 

and Pollux* 

LEUTZE, EMANUEL, born at Gmund, 
Wtirtemberg, May 24, 
1816, died in Washing- 
ton, July 18, 1868. His- 
tory painter ; taken to 
America as a child by 
his parents, who settled 
in Philadelphia, where 
he was first instructed 
by John A. Smith ; 
went in 1841 to Diis- 
seldorf, and studied under Lessing. Also 
studied in Munich, Venice, and Rome ; 
visited America in 1851 and settled there 
permanently in 1859, living alternately 
in New York and Washington. Elected 
N.A. in 1860. Works : Hagar and Ishmael, 
Indian looking towards Setting Sun, Colum- 
bus before Council of Salamanca (1841) ; 
Columbus' Third Return from America 
(1842) ; Sir Walter Raleigh's Farewell of 
his Wife (1842); Cromwell at his Daughter's 
Deathbed (1842) ; King Ferdinand taking 
the Chains from Columbus (1843) ; First 
Landing of Norsemen in America, Pennsyl- 


vania Academy, Philadelphia ; Columbus at Wolfg. Mtiiler, Diisseldf. K., 135 ; Eeber, 

Gate of La Rubida Monastery (1844); John 
Knox and Mary Stuart (1845) ; Sir Walter 
Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth on a "Walk 
(1845j ; English Iconoclasts, Torquemada 

iii. 194, 323 ; Springer, 158 ; Tuckeriuan, 
333 ; do., Artist Life i New York, 1S47), 171; 
Laud und Meer (1870), L 94 ; Wieginann, 

persuading King Ferdinand to dismiss Em- 
bassy of the Jews (1846) ; Henry VIIL and 
Anna Boleyn in the Park, Puritan surpris- 1 1826. Genre and por- 
ing his Daughter before a Madonna, Festive ' trait painter, pupil of 
Reception of Columbus on his First Return , Abel de Pujol, Picot, 
from America (1847) ; Storming of the Teo- \ and of the Ecole des 
calli (1848); Charles L signing Straftbrd's i Beaux Arts; won the 
Death Wan-ant (1849) ; Washington crossing J grand prix de Rome in 
the Delaware (1850, Gold medal in Berlin), j 1854. Since 1877 he has 
Bremen Gallery ; replica (1851) ; Battle of j chiefly devoted himself 
Monmouth (1852-54); Departure of Colum- j to portrait painting, 
bus from Palos (twice), Rose of Alhainbra Medals: 3d class, 1859, 
(1855) ; Last Soiree of Charles H., Light j 1864, 1866, 1867 ; 1st 

LEUX. See Luycs. 

LEVY, EMELE, born in Paris, Aug. 29, 

and Shade (1856) ; Wood Nymph, Crom- 
well's Visit to Milton (1857), Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington ; Titian's Sail on the La- 

class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1867. Works : 
Xoah cursing Canaan (1855), Aurillac Mu- 
seum ; Supper of the Martyrs (1859), Ami- 

goon, Defeat of General Braddock, Return ' ens Museum ; Ruth and Naomi (1859), Rou- 
of Frederick II. from Spandau (1857); Anna en Museum ; Haymaking (1861) ; Vercinge- 
Boleyn persuading Henry VULJL to dismiss \ torix surrendering to Csesar, Venus putting 
Cardinal Wolsey, Scene from Paradise and on her Belt, Holding Mass in the fields 

Peri, Sergeant Jasper saving the American 
Flag (1858); Star of Empire (1859), Capi- 
tol, Washington; Maid of Saragossa, Ve- 
netian Masqueraders (I860) ; Lafayette in 
Prison at Olmtitz visited by his Relatives, 
Settlement of Maryland by the English 
under Leonard Calvert (1861) ; Elizabeth 
visited in Prison by Archbishop Cranmer 
(1862) ; First Landing of Columbus in 
America, Emigrants attacked by Indians 
(1863) ; Venice Victorious, Departure of 
Moors from Alhambra, Merry Wives of 
Windsor, Margaret of Branksome, Mary 
Stuart hearing First Mass on Return to 
Scotland, Cromwell examining State Docu- 
ments, Lady Godiva, Elaine, Bride of Christ, 
Scene from Bulwer's Richelieu (1864-68) ; 
The Poet's Dream, Pennsylvania Academy, 
Philadelphia ; Portraits of Washington, Lin- 
coln, General Grant, General Burnside, Louis 
Lang, Colonel Lottner, of himself, New York 
Academy. Allgem. d. Biogr., xviii. 500 ; 
Blanckarts, 18; Kunst-Chronik, iiL 188; 

(1868) ; Idyl (1864) ; Diana (1865) ; Death 
of Orpheus (1866), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Rainbow, Lilacs (1868) ; Music, Hesitation 
(1869); Midas' Decision (1870), Montpellier 
Museum ; Scene in the Fields (1870) ; The 
Letter, Girl carrying Fruit (1872) ; A Path, 
A Child (1873)"; Love and Folly (1874) ; 
The Brook, The Boat, Willow Tree, Woman 
Bathing (1876) ; The Meta Sudans (1877) ; 
Caligula (1878) ; Young Mother nursing her 
Child (1881) ; Infancy (1885) ; The Foun- 
tain Basin, Laon Museum ; Love of Money, 
Nantes Museum ; Idyl, Pau Museum ; The 
Stars, The Elements, Salon of Ministry of 
State, Louvre ; Presentation of the Virgin, 
Trinity Church, Paris. Bellier, i. 1042; 
Revue des Deux Mondes (1866), Ixiii. 703 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), L 498 ; Claretie, 
Peintres (1874), 324 ; Mailer, 335. 

LfiVY, (HENRI) LEOPOLD, born at 
Nancy, Sept 23, 1840. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Picot, Cabanel, and Fromentin. His 
dramatic and brilliantly colored mythologi- 


cal subjects are treated in the style of De- j Buxton, 180 ; Art Journal (1858), 41 ; (1876), 

laeroix. Medals : 


LEYBOLD, KABL, bom at Stuttgart in 
1786, died there in 1844. History and 

1865, 1867, 1869; 1st 
class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1872. Works: He- 
cuba (1865) ; Joash 
saved from the Slaugh- 
ter of the King's Sons 1 emy under Wiichter, lived in Rome in 1807- 

portrait painter, son of the engraver Johann 
Friedriek Leybold ; pupil of Vienna Acad- 

(1867), bought by the 
State ; Hebrew Captive 
weeping over the Ruins 
of Jerusalem (1869) ; 
Herodias (1872) ; Christ 
at the Tomb (1873) ; 
(1874), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Christ on the Mount (1879). Eevue des 
Deux Mondes, 1873 ; Miiller, 336. 

London, July 14, 1805, died at Walton, Aug. 
15, 1876. Figure painter, son and pupil of 
F. C. Lewis, engraver and landscape painter; 
began as an animal painter, and in 1825 pub- 
lished a collection of etchings. Became an 
associate of Society of Painters in Water 
Colours in 1828 ; travelled in Germany, 
Spain, Italy, Turkey, and the East, living in 
Egypt ten years ; returned to England in 
1851, and in 1855 was elected president of 
Water Colour Society. Began to paint in 
oils in 1856, and frequently exhibited East- 
ern scenes ; elected an A.RA. in 1859, 
and R A. in 1866. Works in oil : Love Mis- 
sive (1855) ; Frank Encampment in the 
Desert of ML Sinai, Greeting in the Desert, 
Street Scene in Cairo (1856) ; Syrian Sheik 
(1857) ; Waiting for the Ferry-Boat Upper 
Egypt (1859) ; Door of a Cafe in Cairo 
(1866) ; Armenian Lady (1868) ; Prayer of 
Faith (1872) ; Midday Meal Cairo, On the 
Banks of the Nile (1876). Works in water 
colour: Christine Spy before Zumalacarregui 
(1834) ; Easter Day at Rome (1840) ; A 
Harem (1850) ; Arab Scribe (1852) ; Halt 
in the Desert, Camels and Bedouins, Ro- 
man Pilgrims (1854) ; Well in the Desert 
(1855). Frederick C. Lewis (1813-1875), 
his brother, spent many years in the East, , 
especially in India, where he painted nu- 
merous pictures. Sandby, ii, 339 ; Wilrnot- 

15, and removed in 1821 from Yienna to 
Stuttgart, where he became professor at the 
Art-school in 1829, and inspector of the Gal- 
lery in 1842. Honorary member of Yienna 
Academy in 1836. Works : Beneficence of 
Cimon ; Education of Bacchus, Nymphs 
resting by a Spring, Portraits of Dannecker 
(2), Stuttgart Museum ; Portraits of lung 
William and Queen Pauline of Wurtemberg, 
Queen Sophie of the Netherlands, Heinrich 
von Gotta, Cotta's Kunstbl. (1845), 169. 
LEYDEN, LUCAS YAN, born in Leyden 
in 1494, died 
there in 1533 ; 
Dutch school. 
Real name Lu- 
cas Jacobaz; pu- 
pil of his father, 
Huig Jacobaz, 
and of Cornelia 
zen. Historical 
and genre paint- 
er, and one of the great masters of the Dutch 
school Friend of Albert Dtirer, who men- 
tions him in his Diary. Patronized by 
Charles V. and by the Archbishop Margaret, 
he had a vessel splendidly fitted up, in which 
he sailed about the Dutch coasts and rivers. 
Master of Antwerp guild in 1522. His pict- 
ures are rare, but his admirable engravings 
are numerous and highly valued. Works 
characterized by realistic treatment of sacred 
subjects, and thoroughly original as to in- 
vention and execution. He never idealized ; 
even in nis altar-pieces the heads are por- 
traits of living persons ; as a rule, their type 
is ugly but expressive, and he often shows 
considerable dramatic power ; besides, we 
meet in his works with a great variety of 
dramatis personse, such as saints, gods of 



Olympus, noblemen and beggars, warriors 
and peasants, gentlewomen as well as tooth- 
less hags, monks, fools, and pilgrims. 
Works : Last Judgment (1532), Leyden 
Museum ; The Engagement Ring, David , 
playing the Harp before Saul, St. Luke and 
St. Mark, St. Matthew, Adoration of the 
Magi (?), Triptych with Adoration in cen- 
tre, Antwerp Museum ; Game of Chess, St. 
Jerome doing Penitence, Berlin Museum ; 
Madonna and Angels, Darmstadt Museum ; 
Temptation of St. Anthony (replica in Vi- 
enna Museum), Mary Magdalen, Dresden; 
Museum ; Surgical Operation, Gotha Muse- 
um ; Madonna with Mary Magdalen (1522 ), 
Annunciation, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; S 
Christ and the Blind Man of Jericho (1531), \ 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; The Tiburtine > 
Sibyl and Emperor Augustus, Academy, \ 
Vienna ; Antonius and Hilarion, Triumphal | 
Entry of David, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; 
Pietu, St. Sebastian, Bergamo Gallery ; Ma- 1 
donna with Angels, Galleria Estense, Mode- < 
na; Christ Crowned with Thorns, Uflizi, i 
Florence ; A Card Party, Earl of Pembroke, , 
"Wilton House ; The Dentist, Duke of Dev- j 
onshire, Chatsworth ; Calvary (triptych), ! 
Turin Gallery ; Last Judgment, Historical | 
Society, New York ; Portrait of himself, ' 
Brunswick Museum ; Count Edzard L of 
East Friesland, Olden- 
burg Gallery; Emperor 
Maximilian L, Vienna 
Museum ; do., Naples 
Museum ; Portrait of a 
Young Knight, Liverpool 
Institution ; do. of him- 
self, and another, Uifizi, 
Florence. Bartsch men- 
tions 174 engravings by 
him. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
Blanc, cole hollandaise, i. 

six. 338; Oh.' 
Engerth, Bel-| 

vedere Galerie, ii. 239 ; Forster, Gesch., ii. 
137 ; do., Denkmale, xi. iii. 675 ; Immer- \ 
zeel, ii. 171 ; Keane, Early Masters, 231 ; ; 
Kramm, iv. 970 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 121 ; 
Michiels, v. 95 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, i 11 ; ii j 
145 ; Van den Branden, 119. ! 

at Dresden, July 24, 1806, died at Kutz- 
schenbroda, near Dresden, Dec. 31, 1874. 
Landscape painter, honorary member of 
Dresden Academy. Works : View of Ger- 
man Town on a River (1856), Mercury Bas- 
tion in Dresden, do. (1873), Winter Land- 
scape with Ruins of Old Castle (1865), Dres- 
den Museum. 

LEYS, HENDRIK, Baron, born in Ant- 
werp, Feb. 18, 1815, 
died there, Aug. 25, 
1869. History and 
genre painter, pupil 
of his brother-in-law, 
F. de Braekeleer, and 
of Antwerp Academy 
under Wappers ; at 
first adhered to the 
style of the former, /' ~^" I 
but afterwards imitated the French romanti- 
cists and the old Flemish masters. In 1835 
-39 he visited Paris and Holland ; in 1852, 
1859, and 1863, Germany ; in 1855, Paris ; 
in 1862, London. Great gold medal in 
Brussels, 1835 ; Paris, 1855 and 1867 ; Or- 
der of Leopold, 1840 ; Officer, 1856 ; Com- 
mander, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1862 ; made 
Baron in 1862. Member of the Brussels 
Academy in 1845. Works : Little Musician 
by Peasant Cottage (1832) ; Fight between 
Grenadier and Cossack, Skirmish between 
Citizens of Ghent and Bruges (1833) ; Strand 
of Antwerp (1834) ; Furie espagnole, The 
White Caps under Philip the Bold (1835) ; 
Defence of Gueux Family against Spaniards, 
Fortune-Teller, Massacre of Magistrates of 
Louvain (1836) ; Rembrandt's Studio (1837); 
Family Festival in Brittany (1838) ; Inte- 
rior in 17th Century, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Gypsies and Robbers, Flemish Wedding 
(1839) ; Dutch Village Street (1841), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Courtyard of an Inn 
(1842), Sfcadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Flemish 
Interior (1845), Wuydts Collection, Ant- 
werp ; Family Festival (1845), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Restoration of Divine Service in Ant- 
werp Cathedral (1845) ; Wealth and Poverty 



(1837), Entry of Charles H. into Antwerp, ' Charles V. (1859), W. T. Walters, Baltimore. 
Mass in Honor of Bertall de Haze (1855), Annuaire de 1'Acad. roy. de Belgique 
Studio of Frans Floris (1868), Oath of 1 (1872), 201; Art Journal (1866), 197; Ch. 
Charles V. ( 1869 ), Brussels Museum ; Fleni- Blanc, Art. d. in. Temps, 209; Dioskuren 
ish Church in 17th Century (1844-50), | (1869), 253 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1856), xx. 
Dutch Company in 17th Century (1847), I 297 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1872\ i. 211 ; Irniner- 
Diirer painting Erasmus (1857), National | 
Gallery, Berlin ; Armourer, Musical Party ' 
(1847) ; Frans Floris going to a Festival i 
(1850), Archers' Festival in Honor of Eubens 
(1851), Antwerp Museum; Louis XL and 
Tristan the Hermit, Synagogue in Prague, 
Hums Collection, Antwerp ; Artist's Studio \ zee *> 
(1851), Two Flemish Fishermen Scenes,! 84 5 Biegd, Wandmalerei in Belgien, 62; 
Huybrechts Collection, Antwerp; Flemish j Rooses (^ber), 468 ; Rossetti, F. A., 120 ; 
Inn, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; Burgo-| Vau den Branden, 1403 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
master Six in Rembrandt's Studio (1849), xv - 333 > 3m 

173 5 Eramm, iv. 976; Beber, iiL 

Artist's Studio (1850), Prince Gortschakoft; 
St. Petersburg; Feast of Otto Yaenius (1852) ; 
Erasmus in his Study (1853) ; Walk outside 
the Gate, New Year's Day in Flanders, Dii- 
rer looking at Procession in Antwerp (1855); 
Grietje, Bagpipers (1856) ; Plantin and 
Family going to Church, Episode from Ref- 
ormation (1857) ; Mary of Burgundy giving 
to the Poor of Bruges, Sermon of Haein- 

stedes, Luther as Chorister in Eisenach, 
Luther's Home in Wittenberg (1858) ; In- 
stitution of the Golden Fleece (1859); 
Declaration, Portrait of Quinten Massys 
(1863), Calvary (1857), Kirmess Scene in 
Antwerp (1858, fresco in Leys Mansion, 
Antwerp) ; Four Scenes from History of 
Antwerp, Allegorical Figures and Portraits 
of twelve Princes (1864-69), City Hall, Ant- 
werp. Works in United 'States: Halt at 
the Tavern, Historical Society, New York ; 
Marguerite Leaving Church, August Bel- 
mont, ib. ; Revival of Catholic Worship in 
the Low Countries in 1599 by Albert of 
Austria, D. 0. Mills, ib. ; Lucas Cranach 
painting Portrait of Luther, Education of 
Charles V., Conferring Citizenship on Pala- 
vicini, Soldiers' Amusements, W. H. Van- 
derbilt, ib. ; Luther, G. I. Seney sale, ib. ; 
Interview, B. Wall, Providence ; The Mes- 
sage, H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; Guard- i 
Room, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, ib. ; Edict of 

LEYVA, DIEGO DE, Fray, born at 
Haro, Old Castile, about 1580, diedatMira- 
flores, Nov. 24, 1637. Spanish school ; Sup- 
posed to have studied in Rome ; settled at 
Burgos and married ; after death of his 
wife became a monk in the Chartreuse of 
Miraflores (1634), where he spent the rest 
of his life in religious duties and in paint- 
ing devotional subjects. Stirling, ii. 732 ; 
Cean Bermudez. 

in Mont-Saint-Pere (Aisne), Jan. 31, 1844. 
Genre painter, pupil of Lecoq de Boisbau- 
dran. Medals: 3d class, 1874; 2d class, 
1880 ; L. of Honour, 1884. Works : The 
Harvest (1S74); New Wine ; Washing Sheep; 
Market in Landerneau ; Ploumanach's Par- 
don (1879); The Grandfather (1880) ; Party 
of Four (1881) ; Harvesters' Wages (1882), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Harvest-Time, Girl 

L -LhermHte 

Sewing (1883) ; The Vintage (1884), William 
Schaus, New York ; Wine (1885). Bellier, 
i. 1045. 

LIBER, ancient pictures. See Echion, 

born in Verona in 1451, died there, Aug. 12, 
1536. Venetian school ; history painter, pupil 
of Stef ano dai Libri, a miniaturist of Verona, 



by whom he was taught; the art of illuminat- being the best. He was noted for his nude 
iu<?. The choir-books in the cathedrals at Venuses and other subjects, which were 
Chiusi (1467-69) and Siena are examples of treated so freely as to win him the surname 
his skill as a miniature painter. After his re- ; of Libertino. Among his works in Venice 
turn to Verona, about 1745, he took up fresco are : Battle of the Dardanelles, Palazzo Du- 
and oil painting, carrying into them those cale ; Annunciation, S. M. del Pianto ; S. 
habits of excessive detail and minuteness Proculo, Virgin and St. Joseph, Assumption, 
which were derived from his early training. S. Proculo ; S. Mosc, Finding of the Cre/as, 
The Adoration of the Magi (1480-90) in the ! S. Mose ; Massacre of the Innocents, Ognis- 
Duomo, Verona, shows this ; but the Pre- ; santi ; Annunciation, Venice Suppliant, Sa- 
della in the Episcopal Palace is more broad- late ; Crucifixion, S. Agostino. Other ex- 
ly treated, and plainly executed under the arnples : Cupid adorned by Nymphs, Venus 
influence of Mantegna. This is yet more \ | visiting the Smithy of Vulcan, Susanna at the 
evident in the Madonna di Casa Seotti, Mi- Bath, Bathsheba leaving the Bath, Venus 
Ian, which has been attributed to Mantegna. bandaging the "Wounded Vulcan, Hercules 
Among the works of Liberate are : Angels ' and Omphale, Dresden Museum ; Judgment 
with Instruments of the Passion, Casa Gra- , of Paris, Youth protected by Wisdom, Dres- 
denigo, Padua ; Glory of St. Anthony. S. j den Museum ; Mars and Venus playing at 
Fermo, Verona ; Entombment, S. Leone, j Chess, Oldenburg Gallery ; Medor and An- 
Venice ; Assumption of the Magdalen, Sac- j gelica with Cupids in a Landscape, Schleiss- 
risty of S. Anastasia, Verona ; St. Sebastian, i heirn Gallery; Allegory on Motto of Emper- 
Brera, Milan ; replica, Berlin Uuseuxn. The ' or Leopold L: Consilio et Industria, Venus 
frescos of St. Catherine in Glory, Christ in : and Cupid, Vienna Museum. Liberi had a 
the Garden bearing his Cross, and the De- \ son, Marco, who imitated his father's style 
position, S. Anastasia, Verona, have been at- ! almost to caricature. Ch. Blanc, Ecole ve- 
tributed to Liberate. Vasari, ed. Mil, v. ! nitienne. 
274 ; G & C., N. Italy, i. 464 ; Lennolieff, ! LIBEL See Girolamo dai LibrL 

6, 55, 104, etc.; Bernasconi, Studii, 244; 
Lubke, Gesch. d. ital. Mai, i. 479. 


LIBEEI, PIETEO, Cavaliere, bom in 

LOUIS, born at Houdan (Seine-et-Oise), 
July 6, 1629, died in Paris, Dec. 3, 1687. 
French school ; history painter, pupil of 
Louis Boulogne, the elder, and of Le Brun, 

Padua in 1605 (?), died in Venice, Oct 18, He decorated the Church of the Invalides, 
1687. Venetian school ; pupil of Alessandro j became a teacher in the Gobelins, Member 
Varotari ; afterwards studied at Eome the i of the Academy in 1679, and adjunct pro- 
works of Eaphael, Michelangelo, Correggio, | fessor in 1681. Many of his works are en- 
and Titian, and formed from them all a! graved. "Works: Abigail and David (1679), 
style of his own. He became famous both ! Louvre ; Christ on the Cross, Besanc. on Mu- 
in Italy and hi Germany, and, though orig- \ seum ; Ecstasy of St Joseph. Nantes Muse- 
inally poor, won wealth and titles. He is \ urn. Bellier de Chavignerie, Eecherches sur 
considered one of the best designers of the ; Licherie (Paris, 1860). 
Venetian school ; his touch is free and mas- j LICHTENFELS, EDUAED PETTHNEE 
terly, and his colouring agreeable and ten- 1 VON, born in Vienna, Nov. 18, 1833. Land- 
der ; and few artists liave greater variety of scape painter, pupil of Vienna Academy- 

style. His pictures may be divided into 

under Steinfeld and Thomas Ender ; went 

two classes : those executed with a free and in 1857 to Dttsseldorf, where he was much 
rapid pencil, and those finished with great influenced by Lessing ; took part in the 
care and attention to details, the former ! Italian campaign of 1859 ; Member of Vi- 



enna Academy in 1868, and professor in ; at the Bleachery (1883) ; Munich Beer Gar- 
1872. Medai Munich, 2d class, 1883. deu, Setting hi the Loaves (1884). Leix- 
Works : Farm-House near Meran ; Alt-Aus- ! ner, Mod. K, L 53 ; ii. 98 ; Mttller, 337 ; 
see ; Oak Landscape ; Castle Liechtenstein ; ! Zeitschr. f. b. K, viii. 120 ; xvii. 376 : xix. 
Vie wnearMataun; View near Sessana (1868);; 260 ; D. Rundschau, xiii. 336; xvii. 307; 
View near Lundenburg (1873), Vienna Mu- ! xx. 458 ; KunsMZJbronik, xx. 399, 747. 
seum ; View near Pitten ; Danube near ; LEEIDI, ANTON, born at Janegg, Bo- 
Weissenfels ; Landscape in Venetian Moun- , hernia, Jan. 25, 1817, died there, May 27, 
tains ; Coast View near Quarnero ; Hunter's ; I860. Landscape painter, pupil hi Prague 
Hut in the Mountains ; Sketch from Top of ! of Max Haushofer ; lived then in Teplitz in 
Etna (1880) : Five Views in Nether Austria 1 1852-60. Works : View hi the Erzgebirge 

(1883), Baron Albert Rothschild, Vienna : 
Eight Views hi Austria-Hungary (1884), 

(1842) ; do. (1843) ; Castle Steinberg, View 
near Ossegg (1844) ; Mill near Sternberg, 

Museum of Natural History, ib. Miiller, ! "Wolfgang Lake, View on Lake Eben (1845); 
336 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vii. (Mittheilungen, ! Giant's Spring, Mountain Landscape, View 
L 39); ix. 260 ; xviii. 492 ; xix. 568 ; Kunst- 1 near Salzburg (1846) ; Views near Eichwald 

Chronik, xvii. 260 ; xviii. 293, 492, 511 ; xix. 
511 ; Leixner, Mod. K, i. 117 ; ii. 121. 

Hamburg in 1818. Landscape painter, pu- 

and Dux (1847); Other Views in Erzgebirge 
Mountains (1848-52) ; Sunday Morning, 
Wood in Storm, Summer Noonday in Ap- 
proaching Storm (1853) ; Summer After- 

pil of Munich Academy ; paints almost ex- noon, Autumn Landscape (1854) ; Autumn, 
clusively moonlight landscapes, both in oil I Sultry Summer-day (1858) ; Autumn Land- 
and water-colours. Works: Best during scape with Moonrise (1860). Allgem. d. 
the Chase (1844), Leipsic Museum ; Treas- 1 Biogr., xviii. 627. 

lire Digger (1858), Moonlight on the Heath 
(1859), New Pinakothek, Munich; Thun- 
derstorm, Convent Hall by Moonlight (1860); 
Moonrise over Dachauer Moos, Moonlight 
Night (1861); Morning Dawn (1862); Clois- 
ter in Brixen, Moonlight Night on the Ani- 
mer (1866) ; Foggy Morning, Moonlight 
Night on Chiem Lake ; eighteen water-col- 
ours in Holzschuher Collection, Augsburg. 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 541 ; Mtlller, 
336. V 

UCINIO. See Pordenone. 

UEBERMANN, MAX, contemporary. 
Genre painter in Berlin ; since 1873 has at- 
tracted attention by his exaggerations of 
realism, represented in its sound principle 
by Gussow ; but has changed, of late, to a 
more pleasing style. Works : Geese Pluek- 
ers (1873) ; Turnip Field Gossip (1877) ; 
Brother and Sister, Wood-Chopper's Fam- 
ily, Artist's Studio (1878) ; Christ in the 
Temple (1879) ; Orphanage in Amsterdam 
(1882) ; Shoemaker's Workshop, Courtyard 
of Orphanage at Amsterdam (1882); Women 

(de), called Roose or Roze, born in Ghent 
in 1575, died there in 1646. Flemish school ; 
history painter, pupil of Marcus Geerards 
and of Otto Vaenius ; for some time at the 
court of the Prince of Paderborn, returned 
to Ghent, where he was president of the 
guild in 1623-36. Works: The Trinity, 
St. Bernard, St. Norbert, Holy Family (2), 
Bust of Christ (2), Apotheosis of the Virgin, 
Ghent Museum ; Virgin in Glory, Cathedral, 
Ghent; Fall of the Angels (masterpiece), 
Good Samaritan, Consecration of St. Nicho- 

las, St. Nicolaas, ib.; Institution of the Ro- 
sary, Bruges Cathedral. Lnmerzeel, ii. 175 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 293. 

LIER, ADOLF, born at Herrnhut, Sax- 
ony, May 21, 1826, died at Vahra, near 
Brixen, Tyrol, Sept. 30, 1882. Landscape 
painter, pupil hi Basle of Sftffert and in 


jJi vd?4 


Munich of Richard Zhnniennami : studied raining the same brilliancy of colouring, his 
from nature iu the Bavarian Alps, visited works attract more directly than those of 
France in 1861 and 1S64, studying and copy- his master, through vividness of expression, 
ing in the Louvre. Especially attracted by Studied also in Italy. Works : Tiie Enemy 
Jules Dupiv he followed him to Isle-Adam is near 1 1857 ), Prisoners of "War, Antwerp 
in the winter of 1864-65, then visited Eng- Museum ; Justice of Bondewyn Hapkiu, 
land, and returned via North Germany and The Trials of War, Brussels Museum : Eros- 
Dresden. In 1869 he opened a special mus reproaching his Friend Holbein with 
school for landscape painting and soon held 
a position similar to that of Piloty in history 
and genre ; in 1873 he abandoned teaching, 
visited Holland, and in 1876 the Scotch 
Highlands. Honorary Member of Dresden 
(1868) and Munich (1877) Academies ; med- FL ORE A? C E' 

als in Vienna and Berlin. Works : Tillage 

near Habach (1855) ; Evening Landscape in his Mode of Life. Booses (Beber }, 471 ; 
Approaching Storm (1856) ; Stone Image Beber-Pecht, iiL 87. 

with Chapel (1857) ; Starnberg Lake (1858): LEESKE, KARL, born in Gross Schunau, 
View near Dachau (1859) ; Summer Morn- near Zittau, in 1816, died in Munich, March 
ing (1860) ; Evening on the Isar (1862) ; 21, 1878. Animal painter, pupil of Dres- 
Coast near Etretat Normandy, Evening on den Academy ; removed about 1839 to Mu- 
Canal near Schleissheim, Summer on High nich, where he was much benefited by the in- 
Plain (1863) ; Evening Landscape in Meek- tercourse with Theodor Horschelt. Works : 
lenburg (1866); Autumn Morning, Avenue Horse Stable, Leaving the Alp (1843) ; Em- 
in a Fog, Tillage Street by Moonlight (1867); barking of Horses on the Inn (1845) ; Be- 
Moonlight on the Oise (1867), Dresden Gal- , turn to Alp-Cottage (1847); Sumpter-Horses 
lery ; View on the Elbe, Tiew near Schleiss- \ at the Well (1854) ; From Hunter's Life 
heim (1868) ; Morning, Xoon, Evening, (1859) ; From the Bavarian Alps (1865) ; 
Night, Tiew on the Isar (1869) ; Potato Har- : Horses on the Inn (1871); Peasant's Horses 
vest (1870) ; Four Seasons (1871) ; Highway at Watering Place (1873) ; Landscape with 
in Rain, Foggy Morning on Chieni Lake Animals and Figures, Saint Gall Museum. 
(1872); Strand at Scheveningen (1873); Win- . Allgein. d. Biogr., xviii. 638. 
ter Evening (1875); Beech Wood (1876); ' UEVENS (Livens, Lyvins), JAN, born 
Evening on the Isar (1877), National Gallery, at Leyden, Oct. 24, 
Berlin ; Evening Landscape (1878), Munich 1607, died at Am- 
Art Union ; Tiew near Giggenhausen (1881) ; ; sterdam, buried 
Sunset on Scotch Coast, Stuttgart Gallery ; I June 8, 1674. Dutch 
Theresa Meadow (1882, last work), New ! school ; history and 
Pinakothek, Munich. Allgem. d. Biogr., ; portrait painter, 
xviii. 631 ; D. Kunstbl. (1882), 20 ; Elust ! pupil of Joris Ter- 
Zeitg. (1882), ii. 364; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. , schooten, and at 
480; xviii. 23, 364; Tom Fels zum Meeri Amsterdam of Pieter 
(1883), 433. Lastman, afterwards , 

LIES, JOSEPH, bom at Antwerp, July j greatly influenced by 
8, 1821, died in 1865. Historical genre and : Rembrandt ; in 1631 was called to England, 
landscape painter, pupil of Nicaise de Key- where, during a residence of three years, he 

ser, and of Hendrik Leys, whom lie took, in 
every respect, for his model ; while not at- 

painted the royal family and many persons 
of distinction ; after his return settled at 


Antwerp, was received into the guild in 
1635, and took the freedom of that city 
in 1640 ; still living there in 1643, he is 
heard of at Amsterdam as early as 1652, and 
lived temporarily (1652-54 and 1661-71) at 
The Hague, where he was registered in 
the guild in 1661. Works: Visitation of 
the Virgin, Louvre, Paris ; Christ on the 
Cross (1671), Nancy Museum ; Allegory on 
Peace, Portraits of Admiral Tronip and his 
Wife, Amsterdam Museum ; St. Peter, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Scipio Africanus, Town 
Hall, Leyden ; Abraham's Sacrifice, Brans- 
Trick Museum ; St. Luke, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Poistic Interior, Turin Gallery ; Portrait of 
a Boy, Berlin Museum ; Male Portraits (2j, 
Dresden Museum ; do., Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; others in Bergamo, Cassel, Copen- 
hagen, and Oldenburg (2) Galleries, Cologne, 
Vienna, and "Weimar Museums, Czemin Gal- 
lery, Vienna. Allgem. d. Biogr., xix. 21 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Engerth, 
Belvedere Galerie, ii. 243 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
181; Krarnm, iv. 998; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 391 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 253 ; Van 
den Branden, 863 ; Zeitschr. b. K, iv. 5, 

in Eaab, Hungary, Jan. 24, 
1839. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna and Munich Acad- 
emies, then of Piloty; 
made his first success in 
1867 with Maria Theresa 
nursing a Poor Child; 
then illustrated Schiller 
and Goethe, and in 1870 
went to Vienna, where he painted the Em- 
peror. After his return to Munich he paint- 
ed scenes from Cymbeline and Faust, made 
illustrations for Scheffel's Ekkehard, Schil- 
ler's Lay of the Bell, and Goethe's Faust. 
Director of Stuttgart Art School in 1880 ; 
professor at Munich Academy in 1883. 
Works : Coronation of Charles of Durazzo 
(1862) ; Canonization of Elizabeth of Thu- 
ringia, Maria Theresa nursing Poor Child 

(1867; ; Imogen and Jachimo, Faust and 
Margaret, Elizabeth signing Mary Stuart's 
Death-Warrant (1875) ; Inngard and Ingo 
(1877); Portrait of Emperor Francis Jo- 
seph ; Chorus of Nereids (1880), Mira- 
cle of looses (1883), National Museum, 
Pesth; First Love (1884). Dioskuren, 
: 1865 ; niustr. Zeitg. (1873), i. 9 ; (1875), i. 
; 238; ii. 9 ; (1877), ii. 531 ; (1880), i. 454 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xv. 467 ; xvii. 261 ; xviii. 
i 60 ; La Bustracion (1880), i. 363 ; Mtiller, 
', 337 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ii. 97 ; xv. 60 ; xix. 
| 230. 

LIFE, CIRCUIT OF, Hans Canon, Muse- 
! um of Natural History, Vienna ; canvas, on 
; ceiling. One of the largest canvases ever 
| painted, the figures being three times 
I life-size. Allegorical illustration of the 
j birth and death of organic matter. In fore- 
j ground, Thought trying to solve the riddle 
I of life ; in middleground, a bridge with 
i many persons of all ages, their movements 
I expressing the struggle for existence and 
j the strife for fame and power ; at left, a 
| precipice and scenes of death ; in the shad- 
ow of the bridge's arch, the sphinx. Paint- 
I ed in 1884-85. Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 491 ; 
xx. 284; niustr. Zeitg. (1885), ii. 363. 

Edwin Landseer, John Naylor, London ; 
canvas. An old deer-hound,, over- eager in 
pursuit of a deer, has followed his prey in 
a desperate leap from a high cliff ; an an- 
cient sportsman, let down by a rope, sus- 
tains the head of the dog and announces to 
his companions above, in the words which 
give a title to the picture, that he is still 
alive. Royal Academy, 1838 ; Manchester 
Exhibition, 1857. 

TION OF, Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, 
Rome ; fresco on ceiling. 

man Hunt, Keble College, Oxford ; canvas. 
The Saviour standing, with a lantern in his 
hand, at a closed door, under a star-lit sky. 
Painted in 1854. Presented by Mrs. Thom- 
as Combe to Keble College. 



LIJS. SeeZ.w 

LHJTH 3 Dante Gabriel Eo&eiii< Mr. Al- 
exander Stevenson, Tynernouth, England ; 
canvas. Illustration of Rossetti's sonnet, 
Lilitb. According to ancient legend, the 
witch Liiith, Adam's first wife, who was as 
cruel as she was lovely, is immortal, and 
still lures men into her snares. In the 
picture she is lolling back in a chair, con- 
templating her features in a mirror held in 
her left hand, while she draws her right 
hand through her pale golden hair which 
falls in masses about her throat and shoul- 
ders. Painted in 1864 Athenseum (1873), 

TAN, born at The 
Hague in 1680, died 
in 1758. Butch 
school ; history, land- 
scape, and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Adrian van der Werff, 
of whom he was a 
faithful but feeble 
imitator. "Works: 
Repose in Egypt, 

Golden Age, Louvre; Blind Man's Bun; 
Cupid and Psyche, Shepherds, Amsterdam [ 
Museum ; Achilles recognized by Ulysses, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Venus and Cupid, 
Dresden Gallery; Musical Company (?), 
U\/I * I i -Liechtenstein, 

M V LJ| TO b^YCil I Gallery, Vienna. 
Ch. Blanc, ficole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, ! 
ii 178 ; Kramm, iv. 984 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 539. 

LIN, HERMAN VAN, called Stilheid, 
flourished in Utrecht about 1659-70, when 
he appears there as member and several | 
times as dean of the guild. Butch school ; 
genre and battle painter. Works : Battle 
near Rome (1658), Carlsrahe Gallery ; Cav- 
alry Combat under the Walls of a Fortress j 
(1650), Horseman and Horse kden with; 
Beer following Huntsmen, Woman and; 
Child on a Bonkey, Bresden Museum ; ; 
Bead and Wounded Soldiers plundered on 

Battlefield, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Cav- 
alry Combat in the Mountains (1658), Schwe- 
riu Gallery : Cavalry Combat (1664 1, Vienna 
Museum. Schlie, 346. 

in Bresden in 1799, died in Rome in 1S62. 
Genre painter, pupil of Bresden Academy 
i under Christian Ferdinand Hartrnann ; went 
as royal pensionary to Italy, and settled in 
Rome in 1821 ; his truthful scenes from 
Italian popular life met with great favor. 
Works : Thorvaldsen with his Pupils in an 
Italian Inn, Thorvaldsen Museum, Copen- 
, hagen ; October Festival near Rome (1832), 
' Leipsic Museum ; Italian Peasants return- 
ing from Harvest, Villa Rosenstein near 
Stuttgart. Cotta's Kunstbl. (1846), 15. 

LINBEGREN, A-lUTTA born in Stock- 
holm in 1814. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy ; went in 1850 
to Biisseldorf and thence to Paris, where 
she studied until 1854 under Cogniet and 
j Tissier ; then visited Munich and Rome, 
s and Paris again, in 1855-56. Member of 
Stockholm Academy since 1856. Works: 
The Pilgrims ; Mother and Child, Grand- 
father and Granddaughter (1853), Chris- 
tiania Gallery ; Girl with Oranges, Break- 
fast, Bance in Peasant's Cottage, Stockholm 
Museum ; Pifferari Mailer, 338. 

GUST), born at Mar- 
kirch, Alsace, Aug. 19, 
1819. Landscape paint- 
er, nephew and pupil of 
Karl Ludwig Frommel 
in Carlsruhe, where he 
studied after the old - ' 
masters in the gallery 
and from nature ; about 
1840 he visited North 
Italy, and after a year's stay in Munich, 
where he was inspired by Rottmann and 
also influenced by Olivier, returned to Carls- 
ruhe, whence he went to Rome in 1845; 
then to England in 1849, where his water- 
colours were in great demand. Newly at- 
tracted to Munich, he went thence to 



where Ingres showed especial interest in his (1840 j, Castle Landsberg, Meiningen. His 
compositions, and in 1855 settled in Rome, brother Ludwig (born in Mentz, Sept. 4, 
Professor and member of Accademia di San , 1809), pupil in Munich of Cornelius, also 
Luca since 1878. Works : Temple at Pses- distinguished himself as a history painter, 
turn ; Puzzuoli with Procida and Ischia ; but afterwards took up archaeology. All- 
Mount JEtna ; Pontine Swamps ; Villa Mat- gein. d. Biogr., xviii. 695 ; Allgem. K. CL, 
tei ; The Palatine Hill ; Strand of Viareg- ix. 609 ; Cotta's KunstbL (1831), 400 ; (1846), 
gio ; Convent Yard of Albano, Duke of Co- 46 ; D. KunstbL (1857), 263 ; FOrster, v. 64, 
burg, Vienna ; Bay of La Spezia, Carlsruhe 82 ; Piaczynski, ii. 265. 
Gallery; View of Borne (1869), View of' LKDEXSCHMTT, WILHELM, the 

Naples, Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donauesch- 
ingen. D. KunstbL (1851), No. 37 ; (1852), 

younger, born in Munich, June 20, 1829. 
History painter, son of Wilhelm, the elder, 
pupil of Munich Academy, then of Stadel 

13 ; (1853), 198 ; (1858), 25 ; Kugler, 

Kl. Schriften, iii. 715, 731, 736; Land und j Institute in Frankfort, and of Antwerp Acad- 
Meer (1873), ii 890. emy ; continued his studies in Paris, and in 

LIXDENSCHMIT, WTLHELM, the 1 1853 settled in Frankfort ; removed in 1863 
elder, bom in Mentz, | to Munich, where he became professor at 
March 12, 1806, died! the Academy (1875). 

there, March 12, 1848. 
History painter, pupil 
of Munich and Vienna 
Academies ; studied also 
the masterpieces in the 
Belvedere Gallery ; re- 
turned to Munich and 
assisted Cornelius in the 
fresco cycle in the arcades of the royal gar- 
den, and, with Philip Foltz, in the decora- 
tion of the new palace. Called to Meinin- 


Member of Berlin 
Gold medal, Berlin, 1870. Li 

1885 he restored successfully his father's 
fresco painting Victory of Louis the Rich 
at Giengen, in the Arcades of the Royal 
Garden at Munich. Works : Harvest, Ham- 
burg Gallery ; Alva and the Countess of Ru- 
dolstadfc ; Seizure of Francis I. in Battle of 
Pavia (1858, cartoon) ; Episode from History 
of Ltltzow's Corps (1860) ; Death of Franz 
von Sickingen (1861) ; Assembly of Reform- 
ers at Marburg and Institutipn of Order 

gen, he painted in Castle Landsberg a cycle | of Jesus (1862, cartoons) ; Waldbilder (The 
from Saxon history, then returned to Mentz. j Dream, The Duel, etc., 1862) ; German Hall 
Works : Artist's Family ; Fight of Cimbrian | of Fame (1863, cartoon); Luther as a Scholar 

Women against Romans, Munich Art Union ; 
Heroism of Duke Erich of Brunswick, Han- 
over Art Union ; Battle of Arminius (1839), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Old German Huntsmen 
camping beside a Hill ; Battle of Sendling 

singing for Bread ; Fisherman and Mermaid 
(1868), Schack Gallery, Munich ; Institution 
of Order of Jesus (1868) ; Youn'g Luther 
with Andreas Proles (1869); Ulrich von Hut- 
ten fighting French Nobles (1869), Leipsic 

1705, Death of Duke Luitpold in Battle near i Museum ; Knox and the Iconoclasts ; Mur- 
Pressburg, New Pinakothek, Munich ; En- j der of William of Orange (1872) ; Venus 
try of Otto the Great into Augsburg. Fres- 1 beside Body of Adonis ; Narcissus ; Walter 
cos : Victory of Louis the Rich over Albrecht j Raleigh in the Tower visited by his Family 
Achilles of Brandenburg, Arcades, Royal \ (1873), Konigsberg Museum ; Luther's Con- 
Garden, Munich ; Battle of Sendling, Scenes versation with Cardinal Tommaso de Vio, 
after Poems by Schiller, Royal Palace, Mu- Wiesbaden Gallery ; Faust in Auerbach's 
nich ; Two Scenes from Life of Leonardo I Cellar (1880) ; Tetzel's Sale of Indulgences 
da Vinci, Loggia, Munich Gallery ; Cycle j (1881) ; Episode in Youth of Elizabeth of 
from History of Bavaria, Castle Hohen- j England (1881) ; The Civic Virtues (fres- 
schwangau ; Cycle from History of Saxony i cos, 1883), Town-hall, Kaeufburen ; Alarie 


in Eome (1SS6). Allgem. K Cb., is. 609 ; 
x. 384 ; Dioskuren, 1870, 265 ; Mailer, 338 ; 
Reber, iii. 247 ; Regnet, ii. '2*2 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xiL 97 ; xvi. 435 ; xvii. 9, 490, 613 ; 
xix. 125 ; Kunst f. Alle, L 156 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, ii. 97 ; vi. 145 ; x. (Mittheilungen, iil70t. 

LDsDL AB, WILHELM, born at Bergisch- 
Gladbach, Rhenish Prussia, in 1S16. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Dusseldorf Academy 
under Scliirmer. Member of Amsterdam 
Academy. Works: The Jungfrau seen from 
the Wengerna Alp (184S) ; Mill near Mei- 
ringen (1852); Lago Maggiore^l856) ; Vier- 
waldstatter Lake (1857), Fodor Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Mountainous View with "Water- 
fall, Wiesbaden Gallery ; View of Monte 
Rosa (1858) ; Primeval Forest in Kien Val- 
ley, Waterfall in Tal Anzasca. Mailer, 339 ; 
Wiegmaun, D. Kunstakad. zu Dusseldorf. 

LINDSAY, Sir COOTS, Bart, born in 
England ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
founder (1877) and proprietor of the Gros- 
venor Gallery, London. Works: Dower 
House at Balcarres, Sheep returning from 
Pasture, Daphne (1877) ; An Idyl, Golden 
Fetters, Shepherd's Farewell (1878) ; Ari- 
adne, Knight and his Daughter (1879) ; - 
Portrait Study, Evening, Venetian Senator 
(1880) ; Boat of Charon (1881) ; The Fates 
(1882); Venice Fisherman, Japanese Girl 
(1883) ; In Maiden Meditation (1884). His 
wife, Lady Lindsay, of Balcarres, paints 
flowers and still-life, and is a frequent ex- ! 
bibitor at the Grosvenor Gallery. 

the-Main in 
Oct., 1622, died 
in Amsterdam 
in Nov., 1674. 
Dutch school ; 
painted Italian 
seaports, land- 
scapes, bunts, 
and fairs. Went 
to Amsterdam 
in 1637, was in Paris in 1642, then returned j 
to Frankfort, and in 1644 went to Eome, 


where he remained till 1652, when he re- 
turned through Germany to Amsterdam. 
His style was influenced by Wynants, to 
whose pictures he often supplied figures and 
animals, and by Wouvermans, whom he suc- 
cessfully imitated. The cool, delicate, sil- 
very tone of his pictures sometimes degen- 
erates into coldness and want of harmony. 
His composition is skilful, the drawing 
good, the execution careful Works: Hay 
Harvest, National Gallery, London ; Vegeta- 
ble Market ( 1670 1, Seaport, and two others, 
Louvre ; Dentist on Horseback (1651 ), Two 
Italian Harbours (one dated 16C4 ), Biding- 
School, Camping, Thoroughfare ( Landscape 
by Wynants), Hunting, Bet urn from the 
Chase, Amsterdam Museum ; Building of 
New Town Hall, City Hall, Amsterdam ; 
Charlatan on Piazza del Popolo in Rome 
(1658), Brussels Museum ; Port in the Le- 
vant (1670 1, Hay-Making, March of Piince 
Willifim II. on Amsterdam in 1650, Depart- 
ure of Charles IL from Scheveningen 
1660, Hague Museum ; Country People by 
a Spring, Rotterdam 3Iuseum ; Wanderers 
resting at the Foot of a Hill, Aschaffenburg 
Gallery ; Naval Battle between Christians 
and Turks, Brunswick Museum ; Public 
Square in Italian Town (1669), Carlsrahe 
Gallery ; Turkish Galley engaged in a Sea- 
Fight, Copenhagen Gallery ; Landscape by 
the Sea, Christiana Gallery ; Vessels in Port 
with many Figures, Dresden Museum ; Por- 
trait of himself, and others, Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Hunting Party, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Harbour of Leghorn, Ferdinan- 
deum, Innsbruck ; Muleteers by the Sea- 
shore, Kunigsberg Museum ; Hay Making, 
Old Pinakotbek, Munich ; Hunting Party 
Besting, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
Hay Harvest (2), Rest in the Campagna, 
Italian Seaport (2), Queen Christina of Swe- 
den, King Charles X. of Sweden, Schwerin 
Gallery ; Merchants in Italian Harbour, 
Market Square of Italian Town (1666), Gui- 
tar Player and Listeners, Italian Harbour 
witb Figures, Assembly on Horseback, Hunt- 
ing P&rty, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Peas- 


ants conversing, Seaport, Vienna Museum ; ' tre, Samuel Rogers, Lady Lyndhurst, Lord 
Halt of Hunting Party, Uffizi, Florence ;, Lansdowne, Sir Robert Peel, Malthus, 
Sobieski defeating the Turks before Vienna, Whately, and Carlyle. Later painted laud- 
Hawking Party assembled at Country -Man- j scapes with figures, combining great skill 
sion, Dance of Peasants, Metropolitan Mu- in execution with a close study of nature, 
seuni, New York ; Sea, Fight, Figures in j His Quoit Players (1811) belongs to Mr. 

, Simpson, of Eedhill, who 'gave 1,000 for it 
i ^ r> -^ nne ^ was noted as an engraver in 
| line and mezzotint; he was also a writer, 
I chiefly on biblical subjects. Works : St. 
i John preaching in Wilderness (1828-33) ; 
Wood Cutters (1816), Windmill (1847), Na- 
; tional Gallery, London ; Eve of the Deluge 
(1817) ; Last Gleam before the Storm 
j (1848) ; Flight into Egypt (1849, sold in 
i 1883 for 945) ; Eeturn of Ulysses, Sum- 
Landscapes by Jan Both (2), Verboom and - mer Evening (1849) ; Crossing the Brook 
Isaac Moucheron, Historical Society, ib. j (1850) ; Farm Evening (1851) ; Boar-Hunt 
Gwinner, 196 ; Havard, A. & A. holL, i. 113 ; j in England in the Olden Time, Sere Leaf, 
ii. 182 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 381 ; Imrner- Barley Harvest, Timber Wagon (1852) ; 
zeel, ii. 179 ; Krarnm, iv. 987 ; Kugler Weald of Kent, Forest Eoad (1853) ; Har- 
(Crowe), ii. 454 ; Ch. Blanc, cole hollan- j vest Home, Disobedient Prophet (1854) ; 
daise ; Burger, Musees, i. 141, 268. 'Country Eoad (1855) ; Sand Pits, Harvest 

LINNELL, JAMES THOMAS, contem- ' Sunset *(1S56) ; Gravel Pits (1857) ; Shep- 
porary. Landscape painter, son of John ! herds (1858) ; Midday Rest (1865, sold in 
Linnell; first exhibited at Royal Academy i 1883 for 1,585) ; Wayfarers (1866, sold in 
in 1850, Temptation in the Wilderness, and 1 1883 for 819) ; Crossing the Brook (1868); 
in 1851, Job and the Messengers. Works : j Sleeping for Sorrow (1870) ; The Ford 

Haymakers (1862); South Coast (1864); 
Ploughing (1868) ; Reaping (1870) ; Coun- 
try Road (1873) ; Sunset over the Moors 
(1875) ; Dartmoor (1876) ; Cherry Blossoms 
(1877); Redstone Wood (1879)'; Clearing 
up over Snowdon (1884). 

LINNELL, JOHN, born in London, June 
16, 1792, died at 
Redhill, near Lon- 
don, Jan. 20, 1882. 
Landscape painter ; 
pupil of Benjamin 

West, of John Tar- 
and of Royal 
Academy, where he 
exhibited in 
Study from 
Nature, and View near Reading. Began by 
painting portraits, and had among his sit- 
ters Rev. John 'Martin (1812), Lord Inges- 

(1872) ; Coming Storm (1873) ; Hollow Tree 
(1876) ; Autumn (1877) ; The Heath (1878); 
Wood Cutter (1881). Collection of his 
works exhibited at Royal Academy, winter 
of 1882-83. His son William is also an able 
landscape painter, and has been a regular 
contributor to the exhibitions in the Royal 
Academy since 1861. Art Journal (1859), 
105 ; (1882), 261, 293 ; (1883), 37 ; Portfo- 
lio (1872), 45 ; (1833), 41 ; Acacl, Jan. 28, 

1882, 74 ; Athen., Jan., 1882, 131 ; Jan., 

1883, 125; Cat. Nat. Gal.: Dublin Univ. 
Mag. (1877), xc. 535. 

LINNIG, WILLEM, the elder, bom in 
Antwerp in 1819. Genre painter, pupil of 
Leys ; became professor at the Weimar Art- 
SchooL Works : Interior of Tavern in 17th 
Century, Stuttgart Museum ; 01d-"Flemish 
Bowling Game ; Gypsy Fortune-Teller ; 
Spanish Soldiers playing Cards; Robbers 



dividing Booty ; Consultation. D. Kunstbl. LDsTOX, Sir JAMES DROGMOLE, born 
(1855), 300 ; Kranim, iv. 991. in London in 1840. History and 

LIXXIG, WILLEM, the younger, born painter : studied in St. 
in Antwerp in 1849. History and genre Martin's School of Art, 
paiuter, son and pupil of Willem, the elder, and with Mr. Leigh ; 
and of Antwerp Academy ; painted at first member of Institute 
marines and landscapes ; professor at Wei- of Painters in Water 
mar Art-School in 1876 ; resigned in 1888, Colours in 1S67 : suc- 
and returned to Antwerp. Works : Faring ceeded Louis Haghe 
Musicians ; Day after Wedding ; Fashion as president in 1884 
Waltz ; Small Favours thankfully received ; when he was knighted. 
Three Scenes from Life of Luther, Wartburg Exhibited in Phila- 
Cistle, near Eisenach. Mailer, 340 ; Zeit- delphia in 1876, and in Paris in 1878. For- 
S2hr. f. b. K, xvii. 132 ; xviii 36. merly painted in water-colour entirely, but 

LIXT, HEXDRIK TAX, called Studio, since 1878 has changed his medium for oil 
born at Antwerp, Jan. 26, 1684, died after without changing his method. Works : 
1726. Flemish school ; landscape and ani- Haymakers (1862); Ploughing (1868); Em- 
mal painter, son of Peeter van Lint, pupil peror and Empress of Austria washing the 
of Peeter van Bredael, then studied in Rome. Beggars* Feet on Maunday Thursday (1874); 
Works : Two Landscapes, Augsburg Gal- Lotus Eaters. Off Guard (1875) ; Cardi- 
lery ; Return from the Chase, Brunswick nal Minister (1876); Ave Maria (1877); Erui- 
Museum; Seaport in a Calm, Weimar Muse- grt j s(1878); Victorious (1880); The Bene- 
um ; Landscape with Bull-Sacrifice (1726), diction (1881) ; The Banquet (1882) ; The 
Turin Gallery. Van den Branden, 912. Surrender (1883) ; Declaration of War 

LIXT, PEETER VAX, born in Antwerp, (1884) ; Marriage of the Duke of Albany 
baptized June 28, 1609, died there, buried (1885). 

Sept 25, 1690. Flemish school ; history, IJNTON, WILLIAM, bom in Liverpool, 
genre, and portrait painter ; master of the April 22, 1791, died in London, Aug. 10, 
Antwerp guild in 1632. Then went to Rome 1876. Landscape painter ; early subjects 
to complete his studies, and painted the taken from English scenery, but after ex- 
chapel S. Croce in S. Maria del Popolo and tensive Continental tours in 1828-29, 1840, 
three altarpieces for Ostia. In 1644 he re- and 1843-44, painted Italian and Eastern 
turned to Antwerp, and in 1662 became scenes treated ideally. Works : View of 
court-painter to Christian IV. of Denmark, Naples and Vesuvius (1829) ; Marius at 
without, however, leaving Antwerp. Works: Carthage (1831); Embarkation of Greeks 
Portrait of Cardinal Ginnasio (1639), Mira- for Trojan War (1839) ; View of Corinth 
cle of St. John of Capistran, Pilgrims cross- (1841) ; Acropolis of Corinth (1842) ; Tern- 
ing a Ford, three others, Museum, Ant- pie of Paestum (1847), National Gallery, 
werp; Separation of SS. Peter and Paul, London ; Grand Canal Venice (1851); 
St. James's, ib. ; Artist's Portrait (1646), Ruins of the Castellum of the Julian Aque- 
Brussels Museum; Marriage of Alexander duct Rome (1855); The Tiber with Church 
and Roxana, Copenhagen Museum ; Christ of St. Andrew and the Vatican (1856). Mr. 
at Pool of Bethesda, Vienna Museum ; Tri- Linton was a fine engraver on steel, and 
umphs of Love, Triumph of Cybele, Madrid published, in 1856, Scenery of Greece and 
Museum ; St. Jerome, Portrait of Luther's its Islands, containing fifty plates by him- 
Wife, Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia, self. Art Journal (1850), 252 ; (1858), 9 
Cat du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 479 ; Van (1876), 329. 
den Branden, 908. UONAKDO DA YINCL See 



LION AT HOME, Eosa Bonheur, private day, and is killed by the melancholy brute, 
gallery. A grand old lion and lioness He side ; who recognizes that it is her last -visit.. The 
by side, while three tiny cubs press sleep- lion lies crouching on her prostrate form 
ily against their mother. Painted in 1882. and glaring with glassy-green eyes at her 
Engraved by W. H. Simmons and T. L. At- lover, who is seen through the bars of the 
kinson. London Times, Jan. 25, 1884. ' cage with a pistol in his hand. Benjamin, 

LION HUNT (Chasse au Lion), Eugene : 130. 

Fromentin, Collection Verde-Delisle, Paris, j UOTABD, JEAN ETIENNE, born at 
Two horsemen in a rocky defile attacked by ; Geneva in 1702, died there 
a male lion, advancing from left ; one of the j in 1789. French school ; 
riders, overthrown and caught under his j portrait and genre paint- 
prostrate horse, is aiming a pistol at the i er, pupil of Jean Baptiste 
lion ; the second, near whom is an Arab on Masse, and of Lemoyne in 
foot, is reining back his horse ; in back- Paris, whither he went in 
ground, a third horseman is aiming his gun 1725 ; the Marquis Puy- 
at something behind the rocks. Etched by ! sieux took him to Naples, 
E. L. Montefiore. Gonse, Fromentin, 234. ; whence he went to Borne 
LION HUNT, Rubens, Munich Gallery ; , to paint the Pope and the 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 4 in. x 12 ft 4 in. Several . Stuart family. In 1738- 
mounted men engaged in a savage contest j 42 he painted in Constantinople many dig- 
with lions, one of which has pulled from his | nitaries and foreign ambassadors ; in 1749 
horse one of the huntsmen and is tearing him ; he went to Vienna, where he was munificent- 
ly rewarded by the Empress Maria 
Theresa for her and her family's por- 
traits, and thence to France and 
England. In 1772 he visited Lon- 
don again, to remain two years, 
carrying with him a precious collec- 
tion of paintings by famous mas- 
ters, which he sold successfully. 
His portraits in pastel are especially 
remarkable, and preserve to this day 
their brightness of colour. "Works : 
La belle Liseuse (1746), Marshal 
Maurice de Saxe, Empress Maria 
Theresa, do. (1760), Louis de Bour- 
bon son of Louis XV., Marie Jo- 
sephine de Saxe wife of preceding, 
Countess of Marlborough, nine other por- 
traits, The Three Graces, Gamin of Geneva, 
Amsterdam Museum; Artist's portrait in 
Greek Costume, Marshal Maurice de Saxe, 
Vienna Chocolate Girl, La belle Lyonnaise 
(1746), Dresden Museum ; Prince Frederic 
of Saxe-Gotha Altenburg, Gotha Museum ; 
Old Woman fallen asleep over the Bible 
(1760), Vienna Museum; Empress Elizabeth 
Christine, Empress Maria Theresa, Emperor 

Lion Hunt, Rubens, Munich Gallery. 

into pieces, though himself transfixed with 
spears. Formerly in Gallery of Due de 
Eichelieu. Engraved by Bolswert. 

LION'S BBIDE, Gabriel Max, private 
gallery. Illustration of Uhland's poem of 
same name (Die Lowenbraut). A young 
woman, daughter of the menagerie keeper, 
who has been accustomed to go into the 
lion's den with impunity, enters it to bid 
her friend farewell just before her wedding- 



Francis L, Joseph H., Marie Antoinette. Florentine school ; called by Vasari the nat- 

Prince Charles of Lorraine, Marshal Maurice ural son of Fra Filippo Ldppi by Lucretia 

de Saxe, A Princess, Weimar Museum ; Male Buti, but per- 

portrait, Berne Museum ; St. Peter. Ein- haps an adopted 

press Maria Theresa, Portraits of himself son (C. & C. }. 

(2) and his wife, four other portraits, Mu- Tasari says he 

see Rath, Genera ; Portrait of himself, Uf- was a pupil of 

fizi, Florence. Fiorillo ; Fiissli, iii. 161 ; Sandro Bottieel- 

Xagler, vii. 546 ; Cat. du Must-e Rath (1882 \, li, but he was 

34. probably taught 

UPINSKL, HIPPOLYT, born at Neu- first by Fra Dia- 
markt, Prussian Silesia, in 1846, died June rnante. He shows 
28, 1884. Genre painter, pupil of Cracow high power of ex- 
Art-School under Matejko, then studied in pression and composition in the Vision of 
Munich (1871). Works : Palm Sunday, In St. Bernard, in the Badia, one of the most 
Autumn ; Bathing Children ; Grain Market charming pictures in Florence, painted when 
in Cracow ; Procession of Corpus Christi in he was only about twenty years old. His 
Cracow (1883). Land und Meer (1885), Ir. style, though founded upon that of Fra Fi- 
59 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 88. , lippo, is modified by the influence of Botti- 

UPFARIXI, LUDOYICO, born at Bo- celli. Though he occupies a lower place in 
logna, Feb. 17, 1800, died at Venice, March the scale of art than Masaccio, as regards 
10, 1856. History and portrait painter, had ability in composition, verity, and iudividu- 
attained such a reputation at the age of ality of type, he excels him in charm and 
twenty-five that the Academy of Bologna grace. He executed frescos in the Bran- 
elected him an honorary member ; he then cacci Chapel of the Carmine, Florence ; in 
studied in Venice after the works of Jacopo the Strozzi Chapel, S. M. Novella ; and in 
Bassano, Tintoretto, Giorgione, Veronese, the Carafia Chapel, Minerva, Rome. He 
and Titian, and at the Academy under Mat- also completed some frescos in the Brancacci 
teini, whose daughter, also a skilful artist, Chapel left unfinished by Masaccio at his 
he married. Invited to Rome and Naples, ; death. Those now attributed to him are : 
he painted many portraits of distinguished Adam and Eve, Peter in Prison, Martyrdom 
persons ; then studied in Florence the works of Peter , Liberation of Peter. Among the 
of Fra Bartolomnieo, and several years after best of his easel pictures are Madonna with 
in Parma those of Corregio, having mean- Saints (1485), Adoration of Magi (1496), Uf- 
wliile lived again in Bologna. In 1838 he fizi, Florence ; Death of Lucretia, Palazzo 
became professor at the Venice Academy. ; Pitti, ib. ; Madonna and Angels, Palazzo Cor- 
Works: Pisani's Oath not to take Revenge sini, ib.; Madonna with Saints, S. Spirito, 
on his Enemies, Vienna Museum; As- ib.; Altarpiece, S. Michele, Lucca; Christ 
sumption, Cathedral at Gran, Hungary ; \ appearing to the Virgin, Resurrection, 
Achilles ; Erigone (1827) ; Bacchus and (1495), Deposition from the Cross, Old Pi- 
Ariadne ; Youth of Jupiter ; Byron's Oath nakothek, Munich ; Madonna with Saints, 
on the Grave of Bozzaris ; Portraits of Adoration of Magi and St. Francis in Glory, 
Popes Pius VH. and Leo XEL, Marshal National Gallery, London; Madonna (2), 
Marmont, Canova, Rossini, and Thalberg. Christ on the Cross, Berlin Museum ; St. 
D. KunstbL (1856), 129, 183 ; "Wurzbach, Joachim and St. Ann, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
xiv. 225. , Madonna, Dresden Gallery. C. & C., Italy, 

UPPI, FIUPPINO, born at Prato in ii. 431 ; Vasari, ed. Le Hon., v. 242 ; Se- 
1457-58, died in Florence, April 18, 1504. ' guier, 84 ; Burckhardt, 545 ; Ch. Blanc, 



cole florentine ; Dohme, 2L; Liibke, Gesch. ! selected for the representation of holy per- 

d. itaL Mai, i. 358. sonages. His best frescos are the Histories 

IJPPI, Era FILIPPO, bom in Florence : of John the Baptist and of Si Stephen in 

about 1 4 6, ; the choir of the Cathedral at Prato. Those 
died at Spole- '< in the apse of the Cathedral of Spoleto were 
to, Oct. 9, 1469. not finished at the time of his death. Fra 
Florentine Diamante was his assistant in these works, 
school ; son of ' Among the best of his many easel pictures 
a butcher, Tom- are : Coronation of the Virgin, Nativity, 
maso L i p p i 5 ! Florence Academy ; Madonna, Palazzo Pitti ; 
') whose death in j Madonna with Angels, St Augustine, Uffizi; 
( ' 1414 left him , Nativity, S. Domenico, Prato ; Annuncia- 
an orphan. I tion, Palazzo Doria, Rome ; Annunciation, 
When eight I Naples Museum; Madonna in Adoration, 

years old he was received into the Comniu- 1 Madonna della Misericordia, Berlin Muse- 
nity of the Carmine, Florence, where Masac- j um ; Crucifixion, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
cio afterwards painted (1423-28) frescos in j Madonna, Annunciation (2), Old Pinako- 
the Brancacci Chapel ; and he either had thek, Munich ; Madonna, Konigsberg Mu- 
lessons from that master or studied his seum ; Nativity, Madonna with Saints, 

style. Filippo left the convent in 1432, 
and led for a time, it is said, a wandering 
life. Yasari represents him as a man of 

Louvre ; Annunciation, John Baptist with 
Saints, Madonna Enthroned, Madonna and 
Angel, Vision of St. Bernard, National Gal- 

loose habits, and accuses him of the seduc- ' lery, London. C. & C., Italy, ii. 319 ; Ch. 
tion of Lucretia Buti, a novice in the con- i Blanc, cole florentine ; Dohine, 2i. ; Va- 

vent of S. Margherita, Prato, who became 
the mother of Filippino Lippi ; but late re- 
searches seem to cast some doubt upon this 
story. It is certain that he bore the title of 
Frate until his death, that he was poor, 
with six nieces dependent upon him, and 

sari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 114 ; Seguier, 84 ; 
Burckhardt (Clough), 60 ; Baldinucci, i 
507 ; Liibke, GescK. d. itaL Mai., i. 301. 

Philadelphia, Pa. ; contemporary. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil of Leon Bonnat 

that he was chaplain to the nuns of S. Gio- j in Paris. Exhibits in Salon and National 
vannino, Florence, in 1452, and rector of ! Academy. Studio in New York, where he 
S. Quirico, Legnaia, in 1457. Fra Filippo j is professor in National Academy schools, 
was the greatest colourist and the most com- Elected A.N.A. in 1885. Works: Duck's 

plete master of the technical difficulties in 
art of his time. Though inferior in compo- 
sition to Hasaccio, his arrangement of fig- 
ures is always graceful; and none before 
him expressed attitude and motion of living 
figures tinder draperies as he did. He was 
among the first to introduce the element 
of sensuous beauty into sacred pictures, by 
taking the prettiest faces around Mm as 
models for his madonnas. His sacred sub- 
jects, too, are often treated in a realistic style 
that detracts from their dignity, saints and 
even angels being painted in the Florentine 
costume of the time, and low, vulgar types 

Breakfast (1876); Lolotte, Portrait of Miss 
Ethel, Little Prince (1878) ; Comer of a 
Farmyard France (1880); Pont Aven 
Bretagne, Light of the Harem (1881); Loan 
Collection, Two Good Friends, T. B. Clarke, 
New York ; At the Gate Waiting (1882) ; 
Benee, Helena (1883) ; Happy Hours (1884). 
UPPO DALMASIO (di Dalmasio di Ja- 
copo Scannabecchi), born about 1376, died 
about 1410. Bolognese school; pupil prob- 
ably of Yitale de Bologna. Painted figures 
of a broad instead of slender form, with 
marked and deep outline and sharp colour, 
and a tendency to profusion in ornament 


A Virgin by him is in the Ercolaui C'ollec- Gallery ; Man with Glass of Wine (1767), 
tion, a JIadonna del Baraccano in S. Do- Louvre, Paris. 

menico, and another over the portal of S. LISCEWSKA, ANNA KOSESA, born in 
Procolo, Bologna. C. <k C., Italy, ii. 209 ; Berlin in 1716, died in 1783. German 
Burekhardt, 518 ; Gualandi, Guido, 25, 66, school ; history and portrait painter, daugh- 
76, etc. : Malvasia, i. 33. ter and pupil of Georg ; painted when four- 

US (Lys), JAN, called Pan, born at Hoorn teen the portrait of the Princess of Anhalt- 
in 1570, died in Venice in 1629. Dutch Zerbst in Stettin, whither she had accom- 
school; history and genre painter, pupil panied her father ; married the painter David 
in Haarlem of Hendrik Goltzius, whose Matthieu (died in 1755), and in 1760 H. von 
manner he imitated most successfully ; then Gasc in Berlin ; was called as court-painter 
went to France and Rome, where he was to Brunswick in 1764, visited Holland in 
influenced by antique and Italian art, and 1766, and became member of Dresden Aead- 
painted many pictures for the Cardinals emy in 1769. Works : Monime tearing off 
Aretino and Pamphilio ; removed to Venice, her Diadem ; Artemisia ; Female Portrait 
and formed himself after Titian, Veronese, (1770), Brunswick Gallery ; Forty Female 
and Tintoretto. Works : St. Jerome in the Beauties. 

Desert, Tolentini Church, Venice; Adam, LISCEWSKY, CHRISTIAN FRIED- 
and Eve bewailing Abel ; Eaising of Ta- RICH REIXHOLD, born in Berlin in 1725, 
bitha by Peter ; Fall of Phaeton ; Prodi- died at Luclwigslust, Mecklenburg, June 12, 
gal Son ; Bishop and Monks at Devotions : 1794. German school ; portrait painter, son 
in Subterranean Vault, Aschaifenburg Gal- and probably pupil of Georg Liscewsky ; 
lery; Skippers in Tavern, Game of Mora, A ' went as court-painter to Dessau in 1752, 
Bout, Cassel Gallery; Shepherdess with- ! and in the same capacity to Ludwigslust in 
holding Letter from Shepherd, Darmstadt 1 1779, having lived at Dresden in 1768 and 
Museum ; Lute-Player, Penitent Magdalen, removed to Berlin in 1772. Works : Eques- 
Dresden Gallery ; Si Benedict in a Land ! trian Portrait of Duke Eugene of Anbalt, 
scape, Vienna Museum. Allgem. <L Biogr., ; and many other portraits of the Ducal Farn- 
xviii. 748 ; Lnmerzeel, ii. 181 ; Kramm, iv. ! ily, Dessau Gallery ; The Painter PaulCkris- 
995. ! tian Zink drawing (1755), Leipsic Museum ; 

LLSCEWSKA, ANNA DOROTHEA, born I Portrait of Frederic the Great, Schleissheim 
in Berlin, July 19, 1722, died there, Nov. 9, ; Gallery ; Artist's Portrait by .Candle-light, 
1782. German school ; history and portrait ; Schwerin Gallery. His daughter and pu- 
painter, daughter and pupil of Georg Lis- ; pil, Friedrike Julie (born at Dessau in 1772, 
cewsky (1674-1746), a Polish portrait paint- : died after 1838), was also a skilful portrait 
er of some renown who had settled in Ber- , painter. Member of Berlin Academy. 
lin. In 1761 she went to Stuttgart, where ; Schlie, 353 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiv. 316.' 
she painted many portraits, and later be-! LISCHKA, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, born 
came court-painter at Mannheim ; returned ! in Breslau in 1638 or 1639, died in Prague 
to Berlin, and in 1766 went to Paris, re- ! about 1729. German school ; history paint- 
turning home in 1770. Member of Paris jer, pupil of his stepfather, Michael Willmann; 
and Vienna Academies in 1767. Was mar- i enjoyed great reputation in Prague as early 
ried to one Therbusch, therefore also called | as 1660. Works : Stigmatization of St. Fran- 
by that name. Works : Ariadne in Naxos ; i cis of Assisi, Kreuzherren Kirche, Prague ; 
Diana's Return from the Chase ; Portrait of i Glorification of St. Ursula, St Ann, St. Ur- 
herself (1773), Brunswick Gallery ; Mag- i sula's Church, Prague ; St. Teresa, St Wal- 
dalen Penitent (1781), Two Vestals at the i purgis, Minorites Church, Prague ; Achilles 
Altar, Young Girl kissing Dove, Schwerin i bringing to Julius Caesar the Head of Pom- 



pey, Dresden Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xviii. 754 

Merle, Mrs. Paran Stevens, New York ; can- 
vas, EL 2 ft. x 3 ft. Lisette recounting the 
poet's virtues, after his decease, to a com- 
pany of blooming grisettes. Replica, Mrs. 
W. H. Aspinwall, New York. 

died at The Hague in 1669. Dutch school ; 
history and landscape painter, pupil of Poe- 
lenburg ; entered the guild at The Hague 
in 1644, was one of the founders of the new 
guild Pictura there in 1656, and Burgomas- 
ter in 1660-69. Works: Landscape with 
Ruins and Bathers (?), Brunswick Museum ; 
Landscape with Diana and Nymphs (?, kst 
two attributed to Jan van der Lys), Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Pan and Companions danc- 
ing in a Landscape, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Sleeping Nymph, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery; Lot and his Daughters, Landscape 
with Herd and Herdsmen, two other land- 
scapes, Schwerin Gallery ; others in Berlin 
Museum (2) and Mannheim Gallery. Archief 
v. ned. K, iv. 78, 82, 127, 132 ; Bode, Stu- 
dien, 326 ; Nederlandsche Kunstbode (1881), 
iii. 196 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 747 ; Schlie, 

Tienna, March 1, 1830, died in Dusseldorf, 
Aug. 8, 1871. Genre painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy and of Robert "Waldmiiller, 
then of Dusseldorf Academy and of Tide- 
mand ; settled in Dusseldorf ; great gold 
medal and honorary member of Amsterdam 
Academy in 1864. Works: Flight from 
the Convent ; Scene from Thirty Years' 
"War ; Cheap Model ; Humorous Studio 
Scene, Austrian Art Union, Vienna ; Am- 
buscade (1857); Morning and Night (1865), 
In the Laboratory ; Counterfeiters, Wies- 
baden Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., xviii. 783 ; 
Blanckarts, 50 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 199 ; 
"Wurzbach, xv. 279. 

LIVERSEEGE, HENRY, born in Man- 
chester in 1803, died there, Jan. 30, 1832. 
Began by painting portraits at cheap rates, 

; but in 1827 exhibited at Manchester several 
| subject pieces which brought him into no- 
;tice. "Went to London and exhibited at 
I the Academy in 1828, his Wildrake present- 
! ing Colonel Everard's Challenge to Charles 
[ H, and, in 1830, his Black Dwarf. Other 
! works : Grave-Diggers, Hamlet and his 
Mother, Catherine Seyton. Redgrave ; Rec- 
ollections of Liverseege (London, 1832-35). 


i Strasburg, Dec. 18, 1830. Genre and por- 
| trait painter, pupil of Drolling and Bien- 
inoury. Medal, 3d class, 1880. Works: 
j Misfortune to the Conquered (1870) ; Fare- 
well to Mother Country (1872); Evening in 
Dalecarlia (1874) ; Where there is enough 
for two there is enough for three (1875) ; 
St. Margaret (1877) ; Camille Desmoulins 
at the Palais Royal (1880) ; Fatherland 
(1883) ; Andromeda (1884) ; At Golgotha 
(1885). Bellier, i. 1050. 

MAN DE, bom in Seville in 1685, died 
there in 1757. Spanish school; pupil of 
Cristobal Lopez, a painter for the India 
traders, and became a tolerable imitator of 
Murillo. Won some reputation as a painter 
of the Virgin as a Shepherdess, whence 
called M Pintor de las Pastoras. One of 
these is in the Madrid Museum, where it 
was formerly ascribed to Tobar. The Due 
de Montpensier Gallery, Seville, has a small 
St. Rosalia by him. Curtis, 347 ; Madrazo, 
434 ; Washburn, 173. 

LLOYD, THOMAS, born in England; 
contemporary. Landscape painter, associ- 
ate of Society of Painters in Water Colours 
in 1878. W*orks : A Pastoral, Nearly Home 
(1877) ; Taking Home the Cow and Calf, 
Primrose Gatherers, Spring (1880) ; Milk 
for the Calves, Blackberry Gatherers, Ap- 
proach of Winter (1881) ; Sons of the Soil, 
Hurt (1882) ; Great Excitement (1883) ; A 
Curious Fish, Golden Grain (1884). 

LOBRJCHON, TIMOL^ON, born at Cor- 
nod (Jura), April 26, 1831 ; contemporary. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Picot. 
Medal in 1868 ; 2d class, 1882 ; L. of Hon- 



our, 1883. Works : Mud Pies ; First Love : 
Little Sinner : One Year Old ; Red Ghost ; 
Bagage de Croqmitaine, E. D. Morgan sale, 
New York, 1885 ; Going to be "Washed 
t!879) ; Seeing Punch and Judy, Tantaliz- 
ing Situation (1880); Box of Letters, Au- 
rora (1881) ; Warblings (1884); Variations 
on a well-known Theme (1885). Bellier, i. 
1051 ; Montrosier, L ; Hamerton, Painting 
in France, 38. 

LOCATELLI. See LucatdlL 

LOCEXER, ANDREAS, bom at Main- 
burg, Bavaria, May 5, 1824, died in Munich, 
Feb. 13, 1855. History painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy while earning his liveli- 
hood at night as a silversmith ; soon assist- 
ed Professor Johanu Schraudolph, and as 
early as 1851 exhibited his first picture, 
David robbing King Saul's Goblet. Other 
works : Altarpieces for St. Nicholas, Land- 
shut ; Interior of a Chapel (1852) ; St. Jo- 
seph with the Infant Christ; St Wende- 
lin ; Madonna ; Two Scenes from Goethe's 
Faust (1852, 1854). Allgem. d. Biogr., . 
sis. 64. ; 

Stephau. ; 

LOCKHART, W. E., born in Dumfries- 
shire, Scotland, 1846. Genre and landscape ' 
painter, pupil at the Trustees' Academy, , 
Edinburgh, under Robert Scott Lauder ; ; 
went in 1863 to Sydney, and in 1867 to; 
Spain, which he afterwards visited re-1 
peatedly. Elected A.RS.A. in 1871, and! 
R.S.A. in 1878. Studio in Edinburgh.! 
Works: Lovers' Quarrel (1868); Orange 
Harvest (1875) ; Muleteers' Halt ; The 
Queen's Entry into Edinburgh in 1876; 
Scene from Legend of Montrose ; Interior j 
of Boslyn Chapel ; Bride of Lammermoor ; j 
Gil Bias and the Archbishop of Granada, j 
Sunset at St. Andrew's (1878); The Cid and 
the Five Moorish Kings, National Gallery, 
Edinburgh; Cardinal Beaton, Alnaschar's 
Fortune (1883) ; Gil Bias relates his Advent- 
ures (1884). 

Sylvestre, Luxembourg Museum; canvas, 

E. 9 ft. 2 in. x 12 ft, 9 in* Loeusta testing 
on a slave, in the presence of Nero, the poi- 
son prepared for Britarmieus. The two, 
seated at left, are watching the writhings 
of the slave, who has fallen in agony on the 
marble floor. Prix du Salon, 1876! L'Art 
i 18761 iii. 203; Gaz. des B. Arts tlS76i, 
xiii 695, 70S. 

LODI, CALISTO DA. See Piazza, Ca- 

born in Paris ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Pils. Medals : 3d 
class, 1SS3; 2d class, 1885. Works: A 
Brave Man (1878) ; Abdication of Mary 
Stuart (1879) ; Little Peter, Reading of 
Rabelais (1880) ; Pythoness (1881) ; Lucre- 
tia and Tarquin (1882) ; Belisarius (1883 j ; 
The First Murder (1884) ; Punishment of 
Prisoner of War (1885). 

LOFFLER, AUGUST, born in Munich, 
May 5, 1822, died 
there, Jan. 12, 18GG. 
Landscape painter, 
pupil of Heinrich 
Adam and of Julius 
Lange, but was led 
by copying Rott- 
mann's frescos to 
take that painter for 

a model. In 1844 / V T ] ,' J / 
he visited Istria, then, ' / /f 

after studying in Munich (1846) under 
Schorn, Trieste and Upper Italy, in 1849 the 
East ; executed in 1851-53 in Berlin paint- 
ings for the Kings of Prussia and Wfirtem- 
berg, and ihen went to Greece, whence he 
returned to Munich. In 1856 he visited 
Milan and Venice, painted in 1857 again 
for the King of Wurtemberg, and in 1864 
in Brussels in Baron Hirsch's palace. 
Works : Amphitheatre at Pola (1845) ; Je- 
rusalem and the Source of the Lyeus, Palm 
Grove near Cairo (1852) ; Ruins of Jerusa- 
lem (1853), Stuttgart Museum ; Damascus, 
Bethlehem, Dead Sea, Cloister Saba, Sand 
Storm in Desert (1853) ; Bay of Navarino 
(3856); Delphi with Parnassus, Pyramids of 


Giiizeb (1857) ; Two Landscapes from Pal- guage of Floorers ; The Schoolmaster , Last 
estine (1839) ; Lake Genesareth (I860 > ; Ornament. Mailer, 341. 
Temple of Apollo Epicurms, Plain of Jer- ; LOFFTZ, LUDWIG, bom in Darmstadt, 
icho (1857); Egyptian Landscape with June 21, 1845. Genre painter, pupil of 
Finding of Moses (1861); Memphis, Athens, Nuremberg Art-School under Kreling and 
Rome, Jerusalem (1864-65) ; Athens from | of Munich Academy under Wilhelm Diez ; 
the Road to Eleusis, Temple Ruins of Baal- j became assistant professor, in IS 74, and after- 
bee, Athens from Hyinettus, Beirut on the j wards professor at Munich Academy. Mecl- 
Lebanon, Athens from the Grove of Colo-jals in Vienna (1873) and Munich (1883). 
nans (1864) ; Lago di Garda, Lake Kochel j Works : The Walk (1873); Cardinal play- 
(1861); Jerusalem from Mount of Olives j ing Organ (1876) ; Avarice and Love (1879), 
(1863); Greek Landscape, Leipsic Museum ;i "Wm. H. Yanderbilt, New York; Money 
Twenty- two oil sketches (Views in the East), Changers (1884, Morgan sale, New York, 

New Pinakothek, Munich. Allgem. d. Bi- 
ogr.jxix. 101 ; Andresen, iv, 262 ; Kunstblatt 
(1857), 389 ; (1858), 224 ; Regnet, iL 31 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, i 153! 
LGFFLER, LUDWIG, born in Frankfort 
on the Oder in 1819, 
died in Berlin in 1876. 
History painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy, of 
Hensel, and of Wag- 
ner; went in 1843 to 
Paris, where he studied 
from nature and after 
the old masters in the 
Louvre ; visited Italy in 
1844, and returned to Berlin in 1845. 
Works: Cromwell at the Execution of 
Charles I; Charles IX, on Night of Si Bar- 
tholomew; Illustrations to Sterne's Senti- 
mental Journey. -D. KunstbL (1852), 257 ; 
(1853), 319; Land und Meer (1876), iL 

at Rzeszow, Galicia, in 1828. Genre paint- 
er, pupil in Vienna of Waldmtlller ; visited 
Germany and Paris. Member of Vienna 
Academy. Works: Interrupted Betrothal 
(1852), Emperor Rudolf I. in Peril of Ms 
life at Murten, Vienna Museum ; Last Mo- 
ments of Polish General Szarniecki ; Re- 
turn from Slavery ; Duke Alva at Castle Ru- 
dolstadt ; Reunion after Devastations by the 
Tartars ; Refreshing Potion ; Children eat- 
ing Fruit ; Temptation ; The Present ; Un- 
expected Return ; Recommendation ; Lan- 

1886, $4,100) ; Pieta (1883), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Dutch Lacemaker (1884). 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 589 ; Mtiller, 341 ; 
Dlust. Zeitg. (1880), i. 365 ; N. ill. Zeitg. 
(1881), L 278 ; Zeitschr, f. b. K, xv. 28 ; 
xix. 131 ; xx. 148. 

LOHDE, MAX, bom in Berlin, Feb. 13, 
1845 3 died in Naples, Dec. 18, 1868. His- 
tory painter, son of the architect Ludwig 
Lohde, pupil in Dresden of Julius Schnorr, 
then in Berlin of Cornelius and at the 
Academy, where in 1866 he obtained a 
prize ; devoted himself to sgraffito painting, 
for which he discovered a new process, and 
in 1868 went to Italy to study old sgraffito 
paintings. Works : Bride of Messina (1866) ; 
Rape of Helen, Return of Helen, Return of 
Agamemnon, Return of Ulysses (1867), So- 
phien Gymnasium, Berlin ; Fight between 
Centaurs and Lapiths, Horse-Race at Olym- 
pia (1867-68), Riding-School, Ministry" of 
War, Berlin. Allgem. d. Biogr., xix. 115 ; 
niustr. Zeitg., 1868 ; Kunst-Chronik, iv. 60 ; 
Bruno Meyer, Studien u. Kritiken, 354; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 118. 

LOHR, EMIL LUDWIG, born in Berlin 
in 1809, died in Munich, April 21, 1876. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Kupelwieser in 
Vienna, where he devoted himself to relig- 
ious subjects, but, attracted during his fur- 
ther studies in Rome by Josef Anton Koch, 
abandoned them for landscape painting. 
After ten years returned to Germany in 
1840, spending his winters in Munich and 
seeking relief from gout during the summer 


at Gastein, where his pictures of the sur- 
rounding scenery were eagerly sought. Vis- 
ited Hamburg in 1849. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xix. 136; Allgem. Zeitg., May 2, 1876; 
Hamburger, K. Lex. (1854), 152. 

LOIR, LTJIGI, bom at Goritz, Austria ; 
contemporary. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Parma Academy and of Pastolet. Medal, 
3d class, 1879. Naturalized Frenchman. 
Works : In the Avenue de Neuilly on a 
"Winter Day (1875) ; Porte des Temes, Ki- 
osk in the Snow (1876); Comer at Neuilly 
(1877); Quad National at Puteaux (1878)*;: 
Corner at Bercy during Inundation (1879) ; 
The Seine in December, 1879 (1880); Show- ; 
er (1881); End of Autumn (1882); Dawn at j 
Auteuil (1883); Paris as a Seaport (1885). 
Bellier, i. 1053. ; 

in Milan in 1538, died there in 1600. Lorn- 
bard school; pupil of Gio. Battista della; 
Cerva. Lanzi mentions several pictures by 
him. His portrait, by himself, is in the> 
Brera, and there are frescos by him in S. ; 
Marco. Painted but little, as he became 
blind about 1571 ; best known by his "Trat- ; 
tato della Pittura, Scoltura et Architettura " ; 

(Milan, 1584), and "Idea *pv T 
del Tempio delk Pit- L-J I , 
tura" (Milan, 1590). ! <*-* ' 
Lanzi, ii. 500 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xL 275 ; 
Ch. Blanc, JScole milanaise ; Burckhardt, | 
628, 709. 

LOMBARD (Lombardus), LAMBEET, 
born at Liege in 1505, died there, .August, 
1566. Flemish school ; erroneously called 
Lambert Suavius or Sustermann ; painter, 
archaeologist, and poet ; pupil of Arnold de 
Beer and of Mabuse, and afterwards in 
Italy, where he accompanied Cardinal Pole 
(1538), of Andrea del Sarto. On his return 
to Liege he opened a school 'which was nu- 
merously attended. Vasari calls him a judi- 
cious painter and excellent architect Col- 
our, chiaroscuro, and drawing good, but his 
pictures are never quite free from Flemish 
stiffness. Among his works, now very rare, 
are : Deposition from Cross, National Gal- 

lery, London ; Martyrdom of St. Barbara, 
St. Bartholomew's, Lk : ge ; Vision, Collec- 
tion of King of Holland, Hague ; Last Sup- 
per (1531), Scourges of the Almighty, Brus- 
sels Museum ; Madonna, Berlin Museum ; 
Death of Lucretia, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg ; Adoration of the Magi, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg; Adoration of Shep- 
herds, Vienna Museum ; Portrait, Antwerp 
Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xix. 140 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Fetis, Cat. du Mus. 
roy., 129 ; Immerzeel, iL 183 ; Kramm, iv. 
1004;Kugler (Crowe), i.238; Michiels, T. 252. 


LON, GERT VAN, nourished at Geseke, 
near Paderborn, about 1505-21. German 
school ; an able representative of the West- 
phalian school, most probably studied in 
Soest ; has only recently been identified as 
the master of the following works : Altar of 
Willebadessen (1521), Triptych with Holy 
Family and Saints, Triptych with Cruci- 
fixion and Saints, Art-Union Museum, Mon- 
ster ; Altarpiece with Last Judgment, Ado- 
ration of Magi, Resurrection, Ascension, 
Paderborn Cathedral ; Triptych with Cruci- 
fixion, Angels and Saints, Catholic Church, 
Inppstadt, "Westphalia ; Crucifixion, Ahrens- 
burg Collection, near Rinteln, "Westphalia ; 
Crucifixion, Chapel in Castle Wilhelmshohe, 
near CasseL Ltibke, D. mittelalt. Kunst in 
Westfalen, 353 ; Schnaase, viii. 367 ; W. & 
W., ii. 98 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvi. 297. 

LONG, EDWIN, born at Bath, July, 
1829. History and 
portrait painter, pu- 
pil in London of J. 
Phillip; went in 
1857 to Spain to 
study Velasquez, 
and made an ex- 
tended tour in 
Egypt and Syria in 
1874-75, since 
which time his prin- 
cipal works have been painted. Elected an 
AJELA. in 1876, and EJL in 1881. Works : 


La Posada (1864) ; Gypsy Schools going to 
Vespers (1868, sold in 1883 for 1,050); 
Lazarifla and the Blind Beggar (1870j ; 
The Suppliants (1872, sold in 1882 for 
4,305) ; Babylonian Marriage Market (1875, 
Hernion sale, 1882, 6,615); Egyptian Feast, 
An Ancient Custom (1877) ; The Gods and 
their Makers (1878, Taylor sale, 1SS3, 
2,725) ; Henry Irving as Duke of Glouces- 
ter (1878) ; Esther, Yashti (1879) ; Assyrian 
Captive, Henry Irving as Hamlet (1880); 
Diana or Christ, Martyr of Antioch (1881) ; 
Why do his Chariots stay (Judges v. 28), 
The New Fugue, Nouzhatoul-aouadat (1882) ; 
Merab, Michal (1883) ; Judith, Thisbe, Anno 
Domini or Flight into Egypt (1884) ; Ques- 
tion of Propriety (Taylor sale, 1883, 1,260); 
Easter Vigil in Cathedral of Seville (sold, 
1883, 1,155). Art Journal (1881), 254. 

LONGE, ROBERT DE, born at Brussels 
about 1635 (?), died at Piacenza in 1707 
(1709 ?). Flemish school ; history and 
landscape painter, pupil of Jacques de Pot- 
ter in 1658 ; \vent to Italy and studied at 
Cremona under Agostino Bonisoli, probably 
visited Venice, Rome, Florence, and Bo- 
logna, and finally settled at Piacenza. By 
Italian writers he is quoted as Roberto La 
Longe or Uberto Da Longe, and surnamed 
H Fiammingo, the frequent application of 
which surname to Flemish painters make 
it all but certain that many of his works, 
painted during his long residence in Italy, 
are attributed to other masters. He paint- 
ed in a variety of styles, at times imitating 
Guido Reni, at others approaching Guer- 
cino, without ever abandoning the Flemish 
style. Works in fresco : Resurrection, St. 
Francis, Groups of Children, Cathedral at 
Piacenza ; Si Anthony and St. Victor, First 
Bishop of Piacenza, Si Anthony's, ib. Fe- 
tis, Les Artistes beiges a Tetranger, ii. 345. 

Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 23, 1845. Land- 
scape and figure painter ; pupil of Couture 
in Paris in 1865. Sketched in Europe in 
1868-69. Studio in Cambridge. Works : 
Coast Scene Nahant (1871) ; View in Es- 

, sex County, "Mass. ; John and Priscilla 
. (1875) ; Old Mill at Manchester (1876) ; 
Italian Pines Cannes ; Esneh on the Nile 
: (1880) ; Evening on the Nile (1881). Day 
j Dream, Love me Love my Dog (1882) ; 
! Misty Morning Cambridge, Mass. (1883) ; 
;Dana Beach Manchester, Mass. (1884). 
i Benjamin, 106. 

! LONGHE, LIJCA, born at Ravenna, Jan. 
1 14, 1507, died there, Aug. 12, 1580. Bo- 
lognese school ; history painter ; bred un- 
der a mixed Umbrian and Venetian influ- 
| ence ; probably pupil of Nicolo Rondinelli ; 
j inclined to the old manner of Francia's 
school, but instead of the deep feeling of 
that master we find only an expression of 
affected devotion. His chief works are : 
Marriage at Cana, Refectory of Camaldo- 
I lensian Convent, Ravenna ; Madonna with 
I Saints, Brera, Milan ; Madonna Enthroned 
I (1542), Berlin Museum ; Holy Family, Dres- 
den Museum ; The Virgin nursing the In- 
fant Christ, Konigsberg Museum ; St. 
Catherine, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xiiL 14 ; Burckhardt, 
603, 762 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 477 ; Siret, 

LONGffl, PIETRO, born in Venice in 
1702, died after 1762. Venetian school; 
genre, landscape, and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Balestra and in Bologna of H Spag- 
nuolo. Painted pictures of Venetian life, 
conversazioni, and landscapes. Works : Do- 
mestic Group, Exhibition of a Rhinoceros, 
Portrait, National Gallery, London ; Por- 
trait of Cimarosa, do. of Senator Pisani, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. His son 
Alessandro (1733-1813), a good portrait 
painter, is the author of " Compendio delle 
Vite de' Pittori Veneziani . . . del presente 
Secolo" (Venice, 1762). Kugler (Eastlake), 
ii. 510. 

VAN, born in Turin, Aug. 29, 1719, died 
after 1790. French school ; history painter, 
son and pupil ' of Jean Baptiste ; accom- 
panied his uncle Carle and his brother Louis 
Michel to Rome, and after his return was 


called to Berlin, where he executed c num- 
ber of works as court-painter to Frederick 
the Great. Eeceived into Paris Academy in 
1747, professor in 1770, adjunct rector in 
1790. Works: Portrait of Frederick the 
Great, Hampton Court Gallery ; Procession 
of Silenus, Nancy Museum ; others in San 
Souci and Potsdam. Bellier, ii.; Jal, 797; 
Xagler, xix. 363. | 

Vanloo), born at 
Nice, Feb. 15, 1705, 
died in Paris, July 
15, 1765. French 
school ; history 
painter, son of 
Louis van Loo and 
pupil of his brother 
Jean Baptiste, who 
took him to Rome 
and placed him un- 
der Benedetto Luti and the sculptor Le 
Gros. After Le Gros' death (1719) he re- 
turned to Paris, and won the first prize for 
drawing in 1723, and the grand prix de 
Rome in 1724 ; was in Rome again in 
1727, became Member of Academy of St. 
Luke, and was knighted by the Pope in 
1731. Member French Academy, 1735; 
professor, 1737 ; director of Royal School of 
Art, 1749; Order of St. Michael, 1751 ; rector 
of Academy, 1754 ; director of Academy and 
first painter to the king, 1763. Works : 
JEneas carrying Anchises from Troy (1729), 
Marriage of the Virgin (1730), Apollo flay- 
ing Marsyas (1735), Repose from the Chase 
(1737), Portrait of Marie Leczinska (1747), 
Louvre ; Jacob purifying his House (1724) ; 
Apotheosis of St. Isidore (1727), St. Isidore, 
Rome ; St. Francis, St Martha (bought by 
Franciscans of Tarascon) ; Woman with 
Bracelet (owned in England) ; Resurrection, 
Cathedral of Besan9on ; Portrait of Louis 
XV. (1763), Grand Trianon ; do. (2), Archi- 
tect Soufflot, Male portrait (1759), Versailles 
Museum ; Bear-hunt, Ostrich-hunt, Augus- 
tus closing Temple of Janus, Amiens Mu- 
seum ; Wisdom trampling upon Vanities of 

the World, Man between Vice and Virtue, 
Cambrai Museum ; Marshal de Brancas, 
Rennes Museum ; Equestrian portrait, Mar- 
seilles Museum ; Portraits of Louis XV., 
Marie Leczinska, and a Marshal of France, 
Orleans Museum ; Martyrdom of St. An- 
drew, St. Clotilda at Tomb of St. Martin, 
JEneas and Anchises, Ecstasy of St Augus- 
tine, Angers Museum ; Theseus overcoming 
the Minotaur, Besan9on Museum ; Augus- 
tus receiving Ambassadors of Barbarous 
Nations, Bordeaux Museum; St George, 
Martyrdom of St. Denis, Portrait of Louis 
XV., Dijon Museum; Drunken Silenus, 
Portraits of Louis XV. (2), Nancy Museum ; 
Portraits of himself and of his mother, Nimes 
Museum ; Madonna, Rouen Museum ; Ma- 
donna, UfSzi, Florence ; Apotheosis of St. 
Gregory, Juno with Venus and Cupid, Per- 
seus and Andromeda, Portrait of himself 
(1762), Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Portrait 
of Luisa Isabel de Bourbon, Madrid Muse- 

urn ; Roman Charity, Musee Rath, Geneva. 
I/Art (1875), L 289 ; Bellier, ii. 626 ; Oh. 
Blanc, ficole fran9aise, ii; Houssaye, Gal. 
du xviii. Siecle, ii. 250 ; Jal, 797 ; Larousse, 
sv. 766 ; Michiels, x. 47 ; Revue des Deux 
Mondes (1842), xxi. 500; Wurzbach, Fr. 
Mai. des xviii. Jahrh., 29. 

LOO, JAKOB VAN, born at Sluys, Flan- 
ders, in 1614, died in Paris, Nov. 26, 1670. 
Dutch school ; portrait painter, son and 
pupil of Jan van Loo, then pupil of Abra- 
ham van den TempeL Lived in 1652-60 
in Amsterdam, where he painted portraits 
and small figures in the landscapes of Wy- 
nants the elder and Hobbema ; went thence 
to Paris, became naturalized, and was re- 
ceived into the Academy in 1663. Works : 
Regent Pieces (2, 1658, 1659), Haarlem 
Museum ; Portrait of Michel Corneille the 


elder (1663), Female figure, Louvre, Paris ; 
Diana and Nymphs (1648), Berlin Muse- 
um ; do, 5 Brunswick Museum ; Glass Coral 
Factory, Copenhagen Gallery ; Women 
Bathing, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Paris and 
f* (Enone, Dres- 
(/ , den Gallery; 
Concert in the 
Open Air, Old 
TV" oman Spin- 
ning, Hermi- 
tage, St. Peters- 
burg. Bellier, 
ii. 624 ; Jal, 796 ; Michiels, x. 22 ; Biegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 289. 

LOO, JAN VAN, bom at Sluys, Flanders, 
about 1585, died at Delft after June 27, 
1661, Dutch school ; the first painter of 
his name ; registered in guild of Delft, 
March 19, 1657. "Works : Interior of Glass- 
Works, Copenhagen Gallery; Beunion of 
Drinkers (engraved by Houbraken). 
Kramm, ii. 1009 ; Kunst-Chronik, sis. 579 ; 
Michiels, s. 26. 

Aix, Jan. 11, 1684, died 
there, Sept. 19, 1745. 
French school ; history 
and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Louis 
van Loo ; went to Rome 
about 1717, taking 
with him his brother 
Carle, studied with 
Benedetto Luti, and in 
1719 accompanied his 
patron, the Prince de Carignan, to Paris, 
where his works were soon in great demand. 
Beceived into the Academy in 1731; adjunct 
professor, 1733. He restored the gallery 
of Francis L at Fontaicebleau, painted by 
H Rosso and Primatiecio, and executed 
works for the Hotel de Ville and for many 
churches; was in England in 1738-42. 
Works : Institution of Order of Holy Ghost 
in 1578, Diana and Endymion (1731), Lou- 
vre; Replica of last, Brussels Museum; Por- 
traits of Louis XV. (3), Stanislas Leczinski, 

Marie Leczinska, and the Engraver Tardieu, 
Versailles Museum; Portrait of a Magis- 
trate, Aix Museum ; Portrait of Louis XV., 
Amiens Museum ; do., Nancy Museum ; 
Rinaldo and Arinida, Angers Museum ; 
; "VToinan on a Couch, Montargis Museum ; 
I Portrait of Victor Amadeus H of Savoy 
first king of Sardinia, Montpellier Museum ; 
Holy Family, Dominican Church, Toulon ; 
Portraits of Louis XV. and Marie Leczinska, 
Massacre of Zedekiah's Children, Darmstadt 
Museum ; Allegory on Happiness, Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Triumph of Galatea (1722), 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Torment of St. 
Joseph ; Raising of Lazarus ; De Mailly 
Archbishop of Aries ; Assembly of the Gods 
(ceiling) ; Portrait of Prince de Carignan ; 
Portrait of the Prince of Piedmont (about 
1715) ; Holy Family, Christ giving Keys to 
St. Peter (1718) ; Allegory on Birth of the 
+ % Dauphin. Ar- 
J < Tj vOUt^Ss chives de TArt 
** fran9ais, Abece- 

dario, v. 381 ; Argenville, v. 385 ; Bellier, 
ii. 624 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole fran9aise, iii. ; Dan- 
dre-Bardon, Vie de J. B. V. (Paris, 1779) ; 
Larousse, xv. 766 ; Michiels, x. 37 ; Revue 
des Deux Mondes (1842), xxi. 494. 

born in Paris in 1743, died there, July 1, 
1821. French school; landscape painter, 
son and pupil of Carle ; received into the 
Academy in 1784, and became adjunct rec- 
tor in 1790. Works : Tempest, Moonlight 
(1784); Temple of the Sibyl at Tivoli (1785); 
Sunset (1800) ; Conflagration (1802) ; Snow 
Landscape (1804), Louvre, Paris ; do., Cher- 
bourg Museum ; Road from Tivoli to Subi- 
aco, Similar view, Fountain of Aqua Autosa, 
Ponte Molo ; Campagna, Toulouse Museum ; 
Two landscapes, Turin Gallery. Bellier, ii. 

LOO, LOUIS VAN, born at Amsterdam 
about 1641, died at Aix in 1713. Dutch 
school; history painter, son and pupil of 
Jakob van Loo ; went early to France, won 
first prize in Academy, of which he would 
have become a member had he not been 


obliged to leave Paris, whence lie retired to seuni ; Adoration of Shepherds, Assuinp- 
Nice on account of a duel ; travelled after- tion, Brussels Museum ; Marriage of St 
wards in the south of France and settled at Catharine, Infant Christ offered to God, An- 
Aix, where he married in 1683, and became nunciation, B^guinage, Brussels. Kramm, 
the father of Jean Baptiste and Carle van iv. 1010 ; Michiels, x. 346 ; Siret (1883), L 
Loo. There is a St: Francis by him in the 564. 

Chapel of the Black Penitents at Toulon, LOOP, HENRY A., born at Hillsdale, 
and a fresco at Aix. Archives de 1'Art Iran- X. Y., in 1831. Figure and portrait paint- 
9ais, Documents, vi. 162 ; Michiels, x. 36 ; er, pupil of Henry Peters Gray and of Cou- 
Bevue des Deux Mondes (1842), XXL 487. tore. Visited Europe in 1856, and again 
LOO, LOUIS MICHEL TAN, bom at in 1867, studying in Paris, Rome, Venice, 
Toulon, March 2, 1707, died in Paris, March and Florence. Elected N.A. in 1861. Stu- 
20, 1771. French school ; history and por- dio in New York. Works : Undine (1863) ; 
trait painter, son and pupil of Jean Bap- Clytie (1865); Italian Minstrel (1868); Lake 
tiste ; won in 1725 the grand prix de Rome, Maggiore (1870); Venice (1875); Aphrodite, 
and on his return to Paris was received into CEnone (1877) ; Hennia, Marina (1878) ; 
the Academy in 1733, and became adjunct 'Echo (1879); At the Spring (1880) ; Idyl 
professor in 1735. On the death of Ranc of the Lake (1881) ; Love's Crown (1882) ; 
he was appointed court-painter by Philip Awakening (1883) ; Summer Moon (1884). 
V. of Spain, who bestowed many honours ; Portraits : J. M. "Ward ; Dr. Reisig ; J. P. 
upon him. On Philip's death he returned j Townsend (1876); W. Whittredge ; Portrait 
to Paris, and succeeded his uncle Carle as (1879), St. Luke's Hospital, New York; Pro- 
director of the Royal School of Art. Order fessor E. Loomis (1882). Mrs. Henry A. 
of St. Michael, 1748. Works : Apollo pur- ' Loop paints portraits and genre pictures ; 
suing Daphne (1733), Louvre; Portrait of ; pupil of Professor Louis Bail, of New Haven; 
Infante Don Felipe, Family of Philip V., ' studied two years in Rome, Paris, and Ven- 
Young Infanta as Venus, Portrait of Philip i ice. Elected an A.N.A. in 1875. Studio 
V., Madrid Museum ; Portraits of Louis j with her husband. Sheldon, 215. 
XV. (2), Louis Philippe d'Orleans, Due de ; LOOS, FRIEDEICH, born in Gratz, 
Choiseul, Due de Praslin, Louis XVI., ; Styria, Oct. 29, 1797. Landscape painter, 
Comte de Provence (afterwards Louis pupil of the Vienna Academy ; afterwards 
XVJLLL), Comte d'Artois (afterwards Charles ; travelled in the Alps (1821), in Hungary 
X.), Philip V. of Spain, Elizabeth Farnese, j (1823-26), Salzburg (1826-29), Istria (1840); 
Queen of Spain, Philip V. and his Family i visited Rome in 1846, Naples in 1847. In 
(sketch to picture in Madrid Museum), Due ! 1851 finished a panorama of ancient and 
de La Vrilliere (1769), Carle van Loo (1764), ' modern Rome in 17 pictures, equally poetic 
do. and his Family (1757), Portrait of him- j in conception and truthful. He then went 
self, Versailles Museum. Bellier, iL 625 ; i via Berlin to Bremen, Oldenburg, and Co- 

Larousse, xv. 767 ; Nagler, xix. 373 ; Revue 
des Deux Mondes (1842), xxi. 510 ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Madrazo. 

LOON, THEODORUS VAN, the young- 
er, born in Brussels about 1595, died about 
1678. Flemish school; history painter. 
Lived for a long time in Rome and Flor- 
ence, and formed his style after Carlo Ma- 
rattL Colouring often black in the shad- 
ows. Works: Assumption, Antwerp Mu- 

penhagen, and in 1853 settled in Kiel ; vis- 
ited Norway in 1856, and was appointed 
professor of drawing at the University of 
Kiel in 1863. He painted also a few good 
portraits, among them his own (1837). 
Works : Three Views around Salzburg, 
Saw-Hill in Styria (1830) ; Two Views of 
Salzburg (1831) ; The Ramsau near Bereh- 
tesgaden (1836), Vienna Museum; River- 
Bank with Birch-Trees (1837), Alpine Fes- 


tival near Salzburg (1837), Iron-Works in 
Austrian Alps (1838), Yiew on the Kahlen- 
berg near Vienna (1842), Klosterneuburg 
(1843), Yiew on the Danube (1844), Castle 
near Ybbs (1846), Hungarian Village (1844), 
Yienna Art Union ; Mill in the Valley (1838); 
Yiew of Jonnannsdorf (1839) ; Evening on 
the Ruthelstein (1840) ; Mountain Land- 
scape near Yienna (1846) ; Yiews near Ter- 
racina(1848, 1849); Yico near Naples (1854); 
Pirano in Istria (1855) ; Destroyed Giant's 
Grave on Baltic Coast (1860), Oldenburg 
Art "Union ; Ruin of Stor-Hamar Cathedral 
(1857), Christiania Gallery ; Cow-Stable in 
Austria (1866), Kiel Art Union ; Strand of 
Sorrento (1864) ; Old Church in Schleswig 
(1866). Anclresen, ii. 198. 
LOOSE, BASILE DE, born at Zeele, 
Flanders, Dec. 17, 
1809. Genre paint- 
er, son and pupil of 
Joannes Josephus de 
Loose, and pupil of 
Antwerp Academy; 
went in 1835 to 
study in Paris, set- 
tled in Brussels; 
imitates Terburg and 
kindred masters of 
the 17th century. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 
1841. Works : Maiden at Toilet-Table ; 
The Present ; The Swing ; Boys' Tricks ; 
Flemish Kirmess ; Children's Festival at 
School, Lace Maker with Child (1858), Leip- 
sic Museum; Company in Tavern (1846), 
Dutch Family Scene (1846), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Girls* School in the Country, 
Stettin Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 186 ; Mtll- 
ler, 342 ; Kramm, iv. 1011. 

born at Zeele, Flanders, Nov. 22, 1770. 
History painter, pupil of Ghent Academy, 
where in 1794 he obtained the first prize ; 
studied then in Mechlin under Herreyns, and 
afterwards became professor at the Academy 
of Design at St. Nicolaas, East Flanders. 
Works : St. Cornelia blessing Children, Si 
Jacob's, Ghent; Martyrdom of Si Apollo- 

nia ; Martyrdom of St. Barbara ; Christ 
driving the Venders from the Temple (1822); 
Entry of Christ into Jerusalem (1828); Fes- 
tive Scene with sixteen portraits. Iramer- 
zeel, ii 185 ; Nagler, viii. 48. 

LOOTEN (Loten), JAN, bom in Amster- 
dam about 1618, died in London in 1681. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter. Seems 
to have worked first in Switzerland, then in 
Holland, and to have gone to England about 
1662 and painted for Charles H. His usual 
subjects were rocky scenes, dark oak-woods, 
rushing torrents, and wild solitudes. An 
inky colouring detracts much from the ef- 
fect of his finely composed, well-drawn, and 
truthful pictures. Was an imitator of Hob- 
benia. Works : River Scene, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Sportsmen in a Wood (1658), 
Rotterdam Museum; Three landscapes, 
Dresden Gallery ; Stag-Hunt (1659), Berlin 
Museum ; Consecration of a Church, View 

//"* across a River 

/ fl (1656), Copenha- 

c V^00r/^g en Gallery; 
Landscape with 
halle, Hamburg ; Rocky Landscape (1675), 
Beech-wood, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
ELugler (Crowe), ii. 481 ; Kramm, iv. 

in Valencia in 1772, died in Madrid in 1855 
(1850 ?). History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of the Franciscan monk Villanueva, and 
in Madrid of Maella ; became director of 
Valencia Academy, made court-painter in 
1802, and caUed to Madrid in 1814 to in- 
struct the second and third queens of Fer- 
dinand VH. ; appointed director-general of 
Madrid, Saragossa, and Valencia Academies. 
Works : Charles IV. and his Family, Charles 
HL instituting his Order, Adoration of San- 
ta Forma, Death of Abradates, Portraits of 
Queen Maria Christina de Bourbon, Queen 
Maria Amalia, Queen Maria Isabel de Bra- 
ganza, Queen Maria Antonia of Naples, In- 
fante Don Antonio, Francisco Goya, Felix 
Maximo Lopez, Madrid Museum; SS. Au- 



gustine and Rufus, Tortosa Cathedral ; Ceil- fragments remain. Other injured frescos 
ing paintings (fresco), Royal Palace, Madrid, by this painter are to be seen in S. Agostino, 
His son and pupil, Bernardo Lopez y Piquer Siena, and in the Florence Academy. In 
(1801-74), was noted for pastel portraits. 1335 he aided his brother in painting the 
Madrazo. front of the Spedale, Siena, and in 1337-39 

LOREDANO, LEONARDO, Doge, por- he decorated the Sala della Pace in the Pa- 
trait, Giovanni Bellini, National Gallery, lazzo Pubblico, Siena, with three vast alle- 
London ; wood, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft 5 in. ; signed, gories in fresco, illustrative of the advantages 
Painted about 1505 ; long an heirloom of the of justice and peace, and of the evils of 
Grimani family. One of the best of Bellini's tyranny. In this work the Sienese school 
portraits. Originally in Palazzo Grimani, : reaches its zenith, and Ambrogio proves him- 
Venice ; then owned by Lord Cawdor and self a far abler composer than his contempo- 
Beckford, from whom bought in 1844 for rary, Simone di Martino. Indeed, he and 
600. C. & C., N. Italy, i 181 ; Richter, ] his^brother Pietro are the only Sienese who 
79, 105 ; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., iii. 420. j nearly approached the high excellence of 

LOREDANO, LEONARDO, Doge, por- j Giotto in this respect, and their works are 
trait, Catena, Lochis-Carrara Gallery, Ber- so nearly alike in some cases that they are 
gamo ; wood, nearly life-size. Painted about ! with difficulty to be distinguished from each 
1503 ; attributed to Gentile Bellini. Copy ! other. In 1342 Ambrogio completed a Pres- 
at Dresden attributed to Giovanni Bellini ; \ entation in the Temple (1342), Florence 
replica of latter in Correr Museum. C. & C. s ; Academy, which has been so restored as to 
N. Italy, i. 250. | give little idea of his talent as a eolourist 

LORENTZEN, CHRISTIAN AUGUST, ' and draughtsman. His Annunciation (1344) 
born at Sonderburg, Isle of Alsen, Aug. 10, j is in the Siena Academy. The latest record 
1749, died in Copenhagen, May 8, 1828. | of Ambrogio is in 1345, and both he and his 
Portrait, genre, and animal painter, pupil ; brother are supposed to have perished in the 
of Copenhagen Academy ; studied in Ant- ! plague of 1348. C. & C., Italy, ii. 134 ; iii. 
werp the works of Rubens and Van Dyck, ; 75 ; Yasari, ed. Le Mon., L 33 ; ii. 65 ; Burck- 
visited Paris, and after his return became in I hardt, 315, 362 ; Baldinucci, L 222 ; TV. & 
1803 professor at, and in 1809 director of, ; W., L 466 ; Ghiberti, 2d Commentary ; Rio, 
Copenhagen Academy. He was a member ! i. 48 ; Dohme, 2L; Sienesische Malersehule, 
of the Paris and Copenhagen (1784) Acad-ji.; Ltibke, Ital. Mai., L 171. 
emies. Works: Portrait of Count Reci- LORENZETTI, PIETRO, born latter part 
vusky (1794), Copenhagen Gallery ; Rural ; of 13th century, died about middle of 14th 
Smithy, From the Zoological Garden, At- j century. Sienese school ; called, by Yasari, 
tack of Gunboats on Roadstead of Copen- i Pietro Laurati. Elder brother of Ambrogio 
hagen in 1807, Burning of Shipping Store Lorenzetti ; appears in Siena in 1305 as the 
at Copenhagen, Siege of "VYismar, Battles of ! painter of an altarpieee, after which no trace 
Femern and Yolmer, Cycle of Scenes from i of him is found until 1326, when he exe- 
Holberg's Comedies. Nagler,viii 55; Rac- cuted several pictures in the workshop of the 

zynski, iii. 549 ; Weilbaeh, 416. 

school, first half of 14th century. Son of 
one Lorenzo, and younger brother of Pietro 
Lorenzetti ; first heard of in 1324 ; earliest 
productions frescos in S. Francesco, Siena 
(1331), so highly praised by Ghiberti in his 
second Commentary, but of which only two 

Siena Cathedral. The earliest picture signed 
by him is a Yirgin Enthroned, dated 1329, 
in S. Ansano, outside the Pispini gate of 
Siena, in which the figure of the Yirgin is de- 
servedly considered the finest of the Sienese 
school The execution shows that Pietro bad 
already abandoned the dark Sienese colour- 
ing for the light flesh tints and warm shadows 


of the Florentines. In 1333 Pietro painted 
a Madonna above the portal of the Siena 
Duomo, which Luca di Thome afterwards 
restored, and in 1335 an altarpiece for the 
Duomo. In the same year he executed in 
company with his brother a now destroyed 
masterpiece the Marriage of the Virgin, on 

tist. Painted about 1537 for the Renieri 
altar in S. M. dell' Orto, Venice ; taken to 
Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815 and placed 
in Academy. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 284 ; 
Landon, Musee, xi. PL 47. 

LORENZO MONACO, Don, born near 
end of 14th century, died aged fifty-five. 

the front of the Hospital of Siena which is I Florentine school ; a Camaldolensian monk 
highly eulogized by Vasari, who says it was in Florence. His style as a painter is that 
in the manner of Giotto. In 1340 Pietro 
finished for S. Francesco of Pistoja a picture 
supposed to be that now in the Uffizi, Flor- 
ence, and two years later painted the Na- 
tivity of the Virgin, in the Sacristy of the 
Duomo, Siena. His altarpiece in the parish 
church of Arezzo, which is in better preser- 
vation though inferior to Giotto, is a more 
powerful and able work, both in conception 
and execution, than any produced by his 
pupils. Other remarkable works by Pietro 
are the frescos of the Crucifixion, the Pas- 
sion, and St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, 
in the lower church of S. Francesco at As- 
sisi, assigned by Vasari to Pietro Cavallini, 
and those in the Campo Santo, Pisa, repre- 
senting the life of the hermits in the desert 
of the Thebaid. C. & C., Italy, ii 117 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., i. 471 ; ed. Le Mon., ii. 26 ; 
Burckhardt, 516 ; W. & W., L 466 ; Rio, 42; 
Dohme, 2i.; Sienesische Malerschule, i. ; 
Lubke, Ital. Mai, i. 171. 

batini, Lorenzo. 

THEOSIS OF, Gentile Bellini, Venice 
Academy ; canvas, tempera, figures nearly 
life-size ; signed, dated 1465. St. Lorenzo, 
born in 1380, was bishop of Castello and 
first patriarch of Venice ; canonized by Alex- 
ander VKL Painted for S. M. dell' Orto, 
Venice. C. & C., N. Italy, i 122. 

Giovanni Antonio Pordenone, Venice Acad- 
emy ; canvas, arched, H. 13 ft. 6 in. x 10 
ft. 6 in. ; signed. St. Lorenzo standing in 
a niche, with several monks of his order 
around him ; in foreground, SS. Augustine, 
Francis of Assisi kneeling, and John Bap- 

Glory of St Lorenzo Giustiniani, Giovanni Antonio Pordenone, 
Venice Academy. 

of a disciple of Agnolo Gaddi, but while he 
shows more religious sentiment than his 
master, as a draughtsman he is no better. 
In general tone his work is soft and trans- 
parent like that of a miniature painter, and 
his flesh tints are carefully fused. The only 
picture bearing his name is a Coronation of 
the Virgin, dated 1413, formerly in the ab- 
bey of his order at Ceretto, and now in the 
Ufnzi, Florence. Its peculiarities enable us 



to identify him as the painter of such un- 
signed pictures as a Madonna, dated 1404, 
at Empoli ; Madonna and Saints, dated 
1410, church of Monte Oliveto, Florence ; 
Annunciation, S. Trinita, Florence ; and 
Adoration of the Kings, Uffizi, Florence. 
C. & C., Italy, L 551 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
ii 209 ; Burckhardt, 534 ; Baldinucci, L 
314 ; Liibke, Ital Mai., i. 165. 


in 1374, died in (?). Umbrian school ; ear- 
liest example, a much injured Marriage of 
St. Catherine, dated 1400, in San Severino. 
In 1416, with the aid of his brother Jacopo, 
Lorenzo decorated the oratory of S. Giovanni 
Battista, Urbino, with a Crucifixion, and in- 
cidents in the Baptist's life. The figures in 
these frescos are exaggerated in action, lean 
to excess, and ill drawn interesting chiefly 
as a link in Umbrian art between the works 
of Ottaviano Nelli and Gentile da Fabriano. 
C. & C., Italy, iii. 109 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., viii. 69. 

LORME, ANTON DE, flourished in Rot- 
terdam about 1640-66. Dutch school ; ar- 
chitecture painter, whose rare works are 
masterpieces as regards lighting and per- 
spective. Style of Pieter Neefs; perhaps 
worked also at Delft, as Antonis Palamedesz 
painted accessories in several of his pictures. 
Works : Interior of a Church by Candle- 
light, Warwick Castle ; Interior of a Church, 
Lord Northwick, Thirlestaine House ; do., 
Berlin Museum; do. (1649?), Darmstadt 
Museum ; do. (1642), Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich; do. (1641, 1658), Schwerin Gallery; 

. <h Come. 

do. (1662), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; do., 
Metropolitan Museum, and Historical Soci- 
ety, New York. Kramm, iv. 101L 

LORRAIN, CLAUDE. SeeC?a?*feLorrain. 

LOET, GABRIEL, the elder, born at 
Berne in 1763, died there in 1840. Land- 

scape painter, pupil of Aberli (1723-86) and 
Kaspar Wolf (1735-98) ; lived alternately in 
Geneva, Berne, St. Gall, and Herisan (Can- 
ton Appenzell) ; fled during the revolution- 
ary disturbances of 1798-1803 to Lindau, 
and after a sojourn at Neuchatel returned 
in 1812 to Berne, where he was one of the 
founders of the Artists' Union. Works: 
View of the "Wellborn and "Wetterhom 
(1817), Tiew of the Jungfrau (1818), Berne 
Museum. AUgem. d. Biogr., six. 207. 

LORY, GABRIEL, the younger, born at 
Berne, June 11, 1784, died there, Aug. 25, 
1846. Landscape painter, son and pupil of 
preceding, whose changes of abode he 
shared ; visited Paris in 1808, Rome and 
Naples in 1811, and after settling for a 
short time at Neuchatel, in 1812, started out 
again on extended travels ; spent the win- 
ters of 1834-36 in Berlin, where he was in 
favor at court, and received the title of pro- 
fessor. "Worked chiefly in water-colours. 
Works : Tiew of La Cava near Naples, Tiew 
near Albano (1816), Grotta Ferrata nea# 
Rome, Old Devil's Bridge on Si Gotthard - 
Road (1827), City and Castle Esa between 
Genoa and Nice (1846), Berne Museum. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xix. 208. 

LOSSENKO, ANTON, born in (?), died in 
1773. History painter, pupil of St. Peters- 
burg Academy ; then studied in Paris and 
Rome (about 1770); on his return became 
professor, and soon after director of St. Pe- 
tersburg Academy. "Works: St. Peter's 
Draught of Fishes, St. Andrew, Sacrifice of 
Isaac, Grand Duke Tladimir and Princess 
Rogneda (Hermitage, St. Petersburg), Hec- 
tor's Farewell. Raczynski, iii. 535. 

LOSSOW, FRIEDRICH, born in Munich, 
June 13, 1837, died there, Jan. 19, 1872. 
Animal painter, son of the sculptor Arnold 
Hermann Lossow, pupil of Munich Academy 
under Piloty. Since 1860 has painted a 
series of animal pictures full of humour. 
Works : Watch Dog (1860) ; Bitch with 
Puppies (1861) ; Rat Hunt (1861) ; Rat 
and Terrier -(1862); Rural Scene by the 
Oven (1865); Travelling Company of Dogs 



and Monkeys (1866); Badger Dog in Baby ; his two daughters, drains the cup which one 
Carriage (ISTO). Allgeni. d. Biogr., sis. of them has filled ; in background, his wife 
222 ; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 203. changed to salt and Sodom burning. Paint- 

LOSSOW, HEINRICH, born in Munich, ed in 1650 for Girolamo Pavese, of Pavia, and 
March 10, 1843. j acquired by Luigi Manzini, who presented 
Genre painter, broth- < it (1651) to the Duke of Modena ; sold at 
er of preceding, pu- ; sale of Comte de Yaudreuil in 1784 ; ac- 
pil of the Munich quired by Louvre in 1817. Engraved by 
Academy; paints Fr. Providoni ; Raphael Morghen. 
rococo scenes, often , By Guido Reni, National Gallery, Lon- 
strongly realistic. !don; canvas, EL 3 fi 9 in. x4 ffc. 10 in. 
Works : The Hunch- ! Three half-figures of life-size. Bought in 
backed Beau ; Mu- . 1844 from Penrice Collection ; formerly in 
sical Entertainment ; | Palazzo Lancellotti, Rome. Engraved by 
I do as I like ; Lady D. Cunego for the Scuola Italica. "Waagen, 

in a Park ; Honeymoon ; Milliner. Muller, 

LOSSOW, EARL, bora in Munich, Aug. 
6, 1885, died in Rome, March 12, 1861. 
History painter, brother of preceding, pu- 
pil of Munich Academy under Foltz ; much 

Treasures, iL 338. 

By Rubens, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 
7 ft. 1 in. x 8 ft. Lot, with his wife and 
daughters, conducted by two angels from 
Sodom. One of the choicest works of the 

artist's middle period. 

Presented by city 

influenced by Andreas Muller and the works I of Antwerp to Duke of Marlborough. 
of Schwind ; visited Italy in 1856, 
where he was induced by the hered- 
itary Prince of Saxe-Meiningen to 
settle in Meiningen. "Works : Hor- 
and's "Wooing for Hilde in the Name 
of King Hettel, Hagen carried off 
by the Griffin, Hagen's Fight with 
the Griffin, Yilla Carlotta, Lake 
of Como ; Conquest of City of the 
Malians by Alexander the Great 
(1858, Cartoon). Allgem, d. Biogr., 
six. 223 ; D. Kunstbl. (1857), 264, 
296 ; Nagler, Mon., iL 115. 

LOT, MIGHT OF, Luca Gior- 
dano* Dresden. Gallery ; canvas, H. 
5 ft 4 in. x7 fi 2 in. Lot reclin- 
ing, cup in hand, with his two RWrt f Lot ' Luca Glordan ' Dresden 
daughters beside him; in distance, Sodom [graved by Yorsterman. Waagen, Art Treas- 

and Gomorrah burning and Lot's wife turned 
to salt Engraved by J. F. Beauvarlet. 
GaL roy. de Dresde, iL PL 37 ; Eeveil, v. 344 

By Guercino, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 5 fi 9 in. x 7 fi 4 in. Acquired in 1744 
for 4,500 livres from Polignac Collection. 

By Guercino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 f i 7 
in. x 7 ft. 3 in. At left, Lot, seated between 

ures, iiL 124 

By Rubens, Louvre, Paris ; wood, H. 2 fi 
6 in. x 3 fi 10 in. ; signed, dated 1625. At 
right, an angel leads Lot from Sodom ; in 
centre, another angel hastens the steps of 
his wife ; at left, one of the daughters, 
with a basket on her arm and holding the 
bridle of an ass laden with gold and silver 



vessels ; behind, just leaving the city gate, 
the other daughter ; above, four demons 
launching thunderbolts on the city. Paint- ; 
ed after the Blenheim picture, from which 
it differs in composition. Engraved by W. ( 
Swaenenburg. Villot, Cat. Louvre. ' 

By Velasquez, Northwick Park, "Worcester- 
shire, England ; H. 4 ft, 6 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. 
Lot asleep, with head in lap of one daugh- 
ter, who points to Sodom in flames at left ; , 

j Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PL IT; 
Filhol x. PL 650 ; Landon, Musee, sL PL 17. 

; LOT, HENRY, bom in Gendringen, May 

>22, 1822, died in Dusseldorf, May 12, 1878. 
Dutch school ; animal and landscape paint- 

er, pupil in Cleve of Blass and B. C. Koe- 
koek ; afterwards taught drawing at the 
Gymnasium in "Wesel and settled in Dus- 
seldorf in 1S53. Works : Rhine Landscape 
with Cartmen ; Landscape with Cattle ; 

Flight of Lot, Paolo Veronese, Louvre. 

the other daughter seated at his feet, with 
back to spectator. Authenticity doubtfuL 
From Orleans Gallery ; sold to Mr. Hope in 
1799 for 525 ; Hope sale (1816) to Lord 
Northwick ; Lord Northwick sale (1859) to 
present Lord Northwick for 147. En- 
graved by Ph. Triere, in Couche, Gal du 
PaL Royal. -Curtis, 1. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre ; canvas, EL 3 
ft. x 3 ft. 11 in. An angel conducts Lot's 
daughters out of Sodom, which is burning 
in background ; behind, a second angel with 
Lot ; ajid further back, Lot's wife, changed 
into a pillar of salt. In collection of Due 
de Liancourt; then in Orleans Gallery. 
Engraved by B. Audran; J. Lallemand 

f Wood near Newburg ; Inundated Meadow. 
Kunst-Chronik, siii. 629. 

LOTEN. See Looten. 

LOTH, JOHANN KARL, called Carlotto, 
and Carlo Lotti, 
born in Munich in 
1632, died in Ven- 
ice, Oct. 6, 1698. 
Venetian school ; 
history painter, son 
and pupil of Johann 
Ulrica Loth (1590- 
1662, by whom are 
several pictures in 
the Augsburg Gal- 
lery). Went early to Italy, where he soon 



ranked among the best masters ; thought 
by some to be a pupil of Pietro Liberi ; in- 
fluenced by the works of Caravaggio, al- 
though his colouring is often sombre. He 
was much employed for the Emperor Leo- 
pold II., and in Italy for churches and pri- 
vate collections. "Works : Mercury Seat- 
ed, Jupiter with the Thunderbolt, Yulcan, 
Saturn, Return of Prodigal Son, Cassel 
Gallery ; Jupiter brought up in Crete, Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Ecce Homo, Fiirsten- 
berg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; Job with 
his Friends (2), Lot and his Daughters, 
Christ crowned with Thorns, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; St. Dominick, The Angel Baphael 
with a Boy points towards Heaven where 
the Trinity appears, Agrippina borne to 
the Shore, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Holy 
Family, Death of Seneca, Male Portrait, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Jacob blessing the 
Sons of Joseph, Jupiter and Mercury with 
Philemon and Baucis, Yienna Museum ; 
Adam bewailing the Death of Abel, Artist's 
Portrait, Uffizi, Florence ; Death of Abel, 
Adam and Eve, Pennsylvania Academy, 
Philadelphia ; others in Augsburg, Bruns- 
wick, and Christiania Galleries. Nagler, 
viii. 77 ; Lanzi (Roscoe), ii 256. 

LOTTI, CARLO. See Loth. 

LOTTIER, LOUIS, born at La Haye du 
Puits (Manche), Nov. 9, 1815. Marine 
painter, pupil of Gudin. Medal, 3d class, 
1852. Works: Sunset in Egypt (1850), 
Avignon Museum ; Yiew of Cairo (1850), 
Yiew of Constantinople (1852), Ministry of 
Interior ; Harbor of Smyrna (1865) ; Banks 
of the Nile (1867) ; Sunset in Roadstead of 
Smyrna (1867), Perpignan Museum ; Yiews 
around Constantinople and in South of 
France (1868-80) ; Conflagration at Sea, 
Yiew of Si Raphael (1882) ; Environs of 
Beirut (1885). Bellier, i. 1059. 

LOTTO, LORENZO, born at Bergamo 
or Treviso (?) about 1480, died at Loreto 
about 1554. Venetian school; sometimes 
called II Bergamasco, from his long resi- 
dence in Bergamo. Went early to Yenice, 
where, according to Vasari, he was Pal-j 

ma's friend and assistant, and studied the 
works of Giovanni Bellini, and later those of 

He was one 
of the best of 
the second- 
rate artists of 
his time. The 
oldest extant 
picture by 
him, a J/a- 
donna with 
St. Onofrius, 
Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, Rome, is dated 1508, the date 1500 
of the S. Jerome in the Desert, Louvre, be- 
ing an obvious duplicate. A larger pro- 
duction of 1508 is the Madonna of Si Dom- 
inick, S. Domenico, Recanati, in which the 
drawing is precise and minute, the perspec- 
tive correct, and the colours clear and pure. 
Of similar characteristics and of about the 
same time are: Madonna and Saints, S. 
Cristina, near Treviso ; Marriage of St. 
Catherine, Munich Gallery ; and Madonna 
and Peter Martyr, Naples Museum. His 
pictures after this period show a bolder 
approach to the manner of Palma and of 
Giorgione, e.g.: Madonna and SS. Anthony 
and Basil (1506), Duomo, Asolo ; St. Jerome, 
Louvre ; Madonna and Four Saints, Bridge- 
water Collection ; and the Three Ages, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence. Other examples are 
the Entombment (1512), S. Floriano, Jesi ; 
Transfiguration, Collegiata, Castelnuovo ; 
Death of Peter Martyr, S. Pietro Martire, 
Alzano ; Family Group, Portraits of Agos- 
tino and Niccol6 della Torre (1515), Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Throned Madonna 
(1516), S. Bartolommeo, Bergamo ; Ma- 
donna (1521), S. Bernardino, Bergamo ; 
Madonna and Saints (1521), S. Spirito, 
Bergamo ; Christ parting from his Mother 
(1521), SS. Christopher and Sebastian (1531), 
Berlin Museum ; Marriage of St. Catherine 
(1523), Adoration of Sleeping Christ (1533), 
Bergamo Gallery ; Portrait of Andrea Odoni 
(1527), Hampton Court ; Glory of St. Nick- 



olas (1529), S. 1L del C'armine, Venice ; 
Glory of St. Antoninus, S. Giovanni e Paolo, 
Venice ; JIadonna with Saints, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Crucifixion (1531), Church of Monte 
S. Giusto ; Holy Family (1534), TTffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Dead Christ, Brera, Milan ; Mystic 
Marriage of St. Catherine, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Santa Conversazione, Dresden 
Gallery ; A Betrothal in the 15th Century, 
Madrid Museum. In his last years Lotto 
came so much under influence of Titian 
that some of his pictures, especially por- 
traits, have been ascribed to that master. 
About 1548 his powers began to wane, and 
he then resolved to retire to Loreto. His 
pictures at San Giacomo dell' Orto, Venice 
(1546), at S. M. deUa Pace, and in the Gov- 
ernor's Palace, Ancona, give sad evidences 
of his de- t ff 

cline.-C. L LOTWj 

& c., : 

aly, ii. 

Yasari, ed. Le Mon., viL 87, ST. 2 ; is. 115, 
146; ed. Mil., v. 249; Burckhardt, 725; 
Ch. Blanc, fieole venitienne ; Rio, Art Chre- 
tien, 271 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 519 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, six. 421 ; Ltlbke, ItaL MaL, iL 625. 

LOTZ, KARL, born in Hessen-Homburg 
in 1833. History and genre painter, pupil 
in Vienna of Rahl, whom he assisted in dec- 
orating the Greek Church, the Arsenal, and 
the Heinrichshof. Honorary member of 
Vienna Academy. Works : Scenes from 
Hungarian Legends, Children's Groups 
(fresco), Redouten Saal, Pesth ; Scenes 
from Hungary's Civilization, National Mu- 
seum, ib. Milller, 342. 

IJMTTiE, born at Aix, Jan. 12, 1809, died in 
Marseilles, March 1, 1863. Genre painter, 
pupil of Granet, whom he accompanied to 
Rome in 1829. A skilful painter, with lit- 
tle originality. About 1845 he went to 
Marseilles, became director of the School 
of Practical Design, and painted many suc- 
cessful pictures. Medal, 3d class, 1842 ; 
L. of Honour, 1855. Works: Prisoner's 
Communion (1833); Christ and the Samari- 

tan Woman, Genoese at a Fountain (1840) ; 
Incident of the Cholera (1850), Montpellier 
Museum ; Camp in South of France ^1855), 
Aix Museum ; Pass of Gineste, Mule-Driver 
of the Var, Soumabre Farmer's Wife (1855); 
Souvenir of Roman Campagna (1859); Gas- 
cony Women carrying Fish to Bayonne 
(1861) ; Autumn Afternoon (1863) ; Land- 
scape in a Storm, Chalon-sur-Saone Mu- 
seum ; View of Marseilles, Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Animal Piece, Perpignan Museum. 
Bellier, i. 1060 ; Larousse. 

Dfi, Jean Leon Gtrume, W. H. Vanderbilt, 
New York ; canvas, H. 3 ft 1 in. x 4 ft 6 in. 
Photogravure in Art Treasures of America. 
Art Treas. of Amer., iii. 96. 

LOUIS, HUGO, born in Berlin, Feb. 17, 
1847. Genre painter, pupil of Berlin Acad- 
emy under Julius Schroder, then studied 
for three years in Italy. Awarded in 1886 
2d prize of 10,000 marks for designs of fres- 
cos for the staircase of the Berlin Town 
HalL Works : Margaret's Jewels ; Junius 
Brutus inciting the Romans against the 
Tarquins (1877) ; Portrait of an Officer 
(1879); In Good Humour (1882). Elustr. 
Zeitg. (1883), ii. 439 ; Mailer, 342 ; Rosen- 
berg, BerL Malersch., 251 ; D. Rundschau, 
xiii 330 ; xvii. 300 ; xx. 459. 

Alexandra Cabanel, Luxembourg Museum, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 14 ft. 8 in. x 14 ft 2 in. 
Around the monarch's throne are grouped 
the distinguished persons who aided Mm in 
the accomplishment of Ms work : the Sire 
de Joinville, Philippe de Beaumanoir, Pierre 
Fontaine, St. Thomas of Aquinas, Guillauuie 
d'Auvergne, Bishop of Paris, Geofiroi de 
Boileau, Robert de Sorbonne, Sire de Nesle, 
fitienne Boileau, etc. Salon of 1855. 

GEORGES, born in Paris, Sept 12, 1846. 
Genre painter, pupil of Vibert, F. Barrias, 
and Gerome. His spirited and humorous 
pictures are painted in a strong, broad style 
and carefully finished. Works : Thafc Bread 
was not well cut, Brother Fisherman ; After 



Marriage, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; 
Married for Convenience (1879); Wolf in 
the Fold (1880); General's Wife, "Waiting 
(1881); Woman Heading (1882); Betrothed 
(1883) ; Hide and Seek (1884) ; Fencing 
Lesson (1885). 

JACQUES, born at 
Fiilda, Hesse-Cassel, 
about 1740, died at 
Chiswick, England, 
March 11, 1812. 
Landscape, marine, 
and battle painter, 
pupil of his father, 
a miniature painter, 
. and in Paris in 
1755 of F. Casano- 
va, battle painter; member of Academy, 
1767 ; also Academy of Marseilles. Settled 
in England in 1771, became A.R. A. in 1780, 
and RA. in 1781. Exhibited 155 works in 
Royal Academy. Works : Hagar and her 
Son after discovering the Spring (1771), 
Angers Museum ; Two Landscapes with 
Figures, Bordeaux Museum ; Landscape by 
Moonlight, Spinal Museum ; Shepherd with 
Donkey and Sheep, Nantes Museum ; Shep- 
herd and Flock, Orleans Museum ; Land- 
scape with Figures, Queen Victoria ; Lord 
Howe's Victory. Greenwich Hospital ; Cum- 
berland Lake, National Gallery, London ; 
Several Landscapes with' Figures, Dulwich 
Gallery ; Avalanche in the Alps, Wyndham 
Collection ; The Departure, Interior of a 
Stable, Burat Collection ; Burning of Lon- 
don in 1666 (1797), Sir Thomas Baring; 
Destruction of Spanish Armada; Siege of 
Valenciennes ; Huntsman meeting Lady in 
the Woods, Darmstadt Museum ; Storm at 
Sea (1767), Oldenburg Gallery; Tower 'on 
Seashore, Rocky Plateau with Herd and 
Herdsman, Schleissheim Gallery ; Surge on 
Rocky Coast with Shipwrecked People by 
an old Palace (1761), Museum, Vienna ; 
Landscape after Storm (1765), Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib. Ch. Blanc, ficole frangaise; 
Bellier, i. 1063 ; Jal, 808 ; Larousse ; Cat. 

Nat. GaL ; Sandby, i. 191 ; Peintre-graveur 
frane,ais, ii. (1861). 

1 1 AUGUSTS GASTON, born in Paris; con- 
! temporary. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Jules Noel and of Gleyre. L. of Honour, 
! 1876. Works : September in Belgian Ar- 
'dennes (1861); Winter Evening in the Sa- 
jhara (1864); Willerzies in the Ardennes 
j (1865) ; Summer Morning, Village of Saint 
! Germain-sur-Morin, Willows of Villiers-sur- 
Morin (1875); For a Festival, Difficult Pas- 
sage (1876). 

LOVE AND DEATH, George Frederick 
Watts, London ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft 
9 in. Death, represented by a tall figure 
draped in white, whose back alone is seen, 
relentlessly forces his way into the portal of 
a house, thrusting back Love, who vainly 
seeks to bar his entrance, crushing his wings 
against the garlands of roses which grow at 
the side. Begun about 1869 ; exhibited at 
Grosvenor Gallery, London, 1877 ; at Me- 
tropolitan Museum, New York, in 1884-85. 

LOVE AND LIFE, George Frederick 
Watts, London ; canvas, H. 7 f t 2 in. x 4 ft. 
Companion picture to Love and Death. 
Love, represented by the winged figure of a 
youth, is leading the way up a steep ascent 
and guiding over the rough places Life, a 
young girl, nude, who clings to him for 
support ' The half-extended wings of Love 
shade the delicate figure of Life from the 
rays of the sun, and his footsteps can be 
traced by the daisies which have sprung up 
in his path. Painted in 1884; Grosvenor 
Gallery, 1885 ; replica at Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, New York,- 1884-85. 


LOVE, GABDEN OF, Rubens, Madrid 
Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 9 ft. 3 in. 
A company of ladies and gentlemen in a 
flower garden, near the entrance of a pal- 
ace, engaged in conversation and music; 
several cupids are playing with the ladies, 
others are sporting in the air or among the 
flowers and f ouritains. The figures are por- 
traits of Rubens, Van Dyck, De Vos, and 



others of the painter's scholars, and their 
wives. Replicas, with changes, in Dresden, 
Vienna, and Gotha Galleries, and in Collec- 
tion of Duke of Pastrana, Madrid. En- 

Birth of Love, Eustache Lesueur, Louvre, Paris. 

graved by Jegher ; Clouwet ; Lempereur. 
Smith, ii. 132, 166 ; Madrazo ; Klas. der 
Malerei, PL 5. 

LOVE, HAPPY, Paolo Veronese, Cobham 
Fall, England ; canvas, 5 ft. 10 in. sq. Cu- 
pid leading a man and a woman to an un- 
draped female figure seated on a globe, who 
holds an oak wreath over the woman's head ; 
behind, a dog. One of four allegorical pict- 
ures. From collection of Queen Christina 
of Sweden to Orleans Gallery ; valued at 
sale in 1793 at 200, sold for 60 guineas. 
Engraved by L. Desplaces ; Beljambe. 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 499 ; iii. 20 ; Cab. 
Crozat, ii. PL 26; Ch. Blanc, ficole venitienne. 

LOVE, HISTORY OF, Eustache Lesueur, 
Louvre, Paris. Series of six pictures, paint- 
ed about 1650 for the Cabinet de TAmour 
of the H6tel Lambert, Paris ; acquired about 

1776 by Louis XVI., from whose collection 
they passed to the Louvre. The first five 
composed the ceiling, the sixth was above 
the fire-place. 1. Birth of Love (wood, H. 
6 ft. x i ft. 2 in.). Engraved by Desplaces; 
Landon. 2. Venus presents Love to Ju- 
piter (wood, H. 3 ft. 3 in. :< 6 ft. 6 in.). En- 
graved by Desplaces ; Landon ; Filhol. 3. 
Love, reprimanded by his mother, takes 
refuge in the arms of Ceres (canvas, H. 3 ft. 
3 in. x S ft. ). Engraved by Desplaces ; Lan- 
don. 4 Love receives the homage of the 
Gods (wood, H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 6 in.). En- 
graved by Desplaees ; Landon ; FilhoL 5. 
Love commands Mercury to announce his 
power to the Universe (wood, H. 3 ft. 3 in. 
x 8 ft.). Engraved by Landon ; Filhol. 6. 
Love steals Jupiter's thunderbolt (canvas, 
round, diam. i ft. 6 in.). Engraved by 
Beauvais; Landon; FilhoL Villot, Cat 
Louvre ; Landon, Musee, VL 9. 

Sacrifice to Love, Caspar Netscher, Uffizi, Florence. 

LOVE, SACRIFICE TO, Caspar Netscher, 
UfSsa, Florence ; wood, H. 1 ft 11 in. Xl ft 
7 in.; signed, dated 1668. A lady, dressed 
in white satin, is seated playing the lute in 
a garden decorated with statuary ; at her 



right is a fountain, surmounted by a statue ; LOWEXSTEDs, HEIXPJCH, born in 
of Cupid astride of a lion ; behind her, a ser- Dantzic in 1806, died in Berlin in 1841. 
vant offers fruit unperceiTed by her mistress, 'History, genre, and portrait painter, pupil 
whose melancholy countenance shows that of Berlin Academy and of Hensel. Works : 
her thoughts are far away. Eeveil, iv. 274. I Sibyl ; Grandfather Instructing ; Favourite 
LOYE, SACRED AND PROFANE, Titian, j Picture; Joseph interpreting Dreams. 
Palazzo Borghese, Borne ; canvas, figures a! Kugler, El Schriften, ii. 193 ; N. Nekr. d. 
little less than life-size. Sacred and Pro- ; ! D. (1841), 167 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Maler- 
fane Love, or Artless and Sated Love, as ! schule, 89. 

Sacred and Profane Love, Titian, Palazzo Borghese, Rome. 

sometimes called, personified by two wo- 
men, one nude, the other clothed in silk 
attire, seated on the edge of a fountain in a 
pleasure-ground surrounded by a beautiful 
landscape ; Cupid, behind, between the two 
figures, plashing in the water. Painted 
about 1503 ; described by Eidolfi in 1648, 
when it was in the Palazzo Borghese ; in- 
termediate history unknown. The execu- 
tion shows how strongly Titian felt at the 
time the influence of Palma Tecchio. C. & 
C., Titian, i. 62 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 257. 

LOVIGI, ANDBEA. See Ingegno. 

LOW, WILL H., born in Albany, N. Y., 
May 31, 1853. Figure and genre painter, 
pupil of Geroine and Carolus Duran in Paris 
in 1873-77. Studio in New York. Works : 
Portrait of Mile. Albani (1878) ; Summer- 
Decorative Panel (1879) ; Skipper Ireson 
(1880) ; Orchard in Montigny (1876), G. A. 
Drummond, Montreal; Arcades (1881);Ohloe 
(1882) ; Telling the Bees (1884). 

Landseer, National Gallery, London ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 1 in., each picture. 
Two dogs, a bulldog and a staghound, each 
with characteristic accessories. British In- 
stitute, 1831 ; Yemon Collection, presented 
in 1847. Engraved by R Lane ; H. S. Beck- 
with. Cat. Nat. Gal.; Stephens, 62. 

LUBEN, ADOLF, born in St. Petersburg 
in 1837. Genre 
painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin and Antwerp 
Academies, settled in 
Munich in 1876 ; 
paints mostly hu- 
mourous scenes. 
Works: Spilt Medi- 
cine (1872) ; Escaped 
(1872) ; Preparation 
for Biflemen's Festi- 
val (1876); Ash Wednesday; Popular Songs 
in Old Bavaria (1879) ; Auction ; Bachelor's 



Bequest ; Apple Thieves (1882); At the Inn ; (1886). His wife ; Marie Comellissen Lucas, 
(1883); Wood Chopper (1884); Second Hand is also an artist of some repute. Ulus. 
Dealer's Shop (1885). Merer, Cony. Lex., News (1886), L 487. 

xix. 610 ; Miiller, 342 ; fflustr. Zeitg. (1872), LrCATELU (Locateffi), ANDREA, born 
ii. 388 ; (1875), i. 118 ; (1880), L 10, 348 ; | in Home in 1695, died there in 1741. Ro- 
(1883), i. 335. , man school ; pupil of Paolo Anesi ; became 

LUCA DA CORTONA. See Signorelli, ; noted as a landscape and genre painter. In 
Luca. landscape" he "was a pleasing imitator of 

LUCA DA REGGIO. See Ferrari, Luca, 

Claude Lorrain ; in genre he was the rival 

LUCA DI THOME (Tom6), latter half ; of Zuccarelli His small pictures are some- 
of 14th century. Sienese school; third-; times highly finished, and the figures are 
rate artist. Called by Yasari a pupil of | painted with great care. Works: Mercury 
Bama, though his painting shows rather 1 and the Woodchopper, Cassel Gallery ; Mer- 
the influence of Simone. His name is the cury and Argus, Another Mythological Sub- 
third on the register of the Sienese Guild jject, Landscape, St. Petersburg Academy; 
of Si Luke, which was confirmed as a guild I View of Castle San Angelo Rome, Liech- 
in 1355. He restored in 1357 a Madonna j tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Fishermen put- 
painted by Pietro Lorenzetti in 1333 above ting out to Sea, Ray Fishing, Snow Scene, 

the portal of the Siena Cathedral, and he 
was living in 1392. Among his extant 
works are a Crucifixion, dated 1366, Pisa 

Pushing Off, Pennsylvania Academy, Phila- 
delphia. LariTi, L 535 ; Ch, Blanc, cole 

Academy, and an altarpiece, dated 1377, in LUCCARDI, VINCENZO, born at Ge- 

the Capuccini of S. Quirico in Osenna, C. 
& C., Italy, ii 112 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii 
163 ; Milanesi, Siena, 167. 

LUCAS, SEYMOUR, born in England in 
1851. Historic genre 
painter, pupil of St. 
Martin's Government 
Schools and of the 
Royal Academy, where 
he won the gold medal. 
First exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1870 the 
Apothecary from " Ro- 
meo and Juliet." 
Elected A.R.A. in 1886. Works: Inter-! 
cepted Despatches, Danger, The Burgomas- 
ter (1877) ; Gordon Riots (Melbourne Gal- 
lery), Unbreathed Memories (1879); The 
Armada in Sight (1880) ; Reckoning with- 
out his Host, Charles L before Gloucester 
(1881) ; The Favourite, Disputed Strategy, 
Spy in the Camp (1882) ; Whip for Van 
Tromp (1883) ; You don't say so ! After 
Culloden (purchased by Royal Academy 
under Chantrey Bequest, 1884) ; From the 
Field of Sedgemoor (1885) ; Old Cronies 

mona, North Italy, in 1811, died in 1876. 
History painter, pupil of Venice Academy, 
settled at Rome. Professor in Academy of 
San Luca and other institutions in Italy. 
Medals, Venice (9), Florence, and Vienna. 
Works : Cain ; The Deluge ; Raphael and 
the Fornarina ; Hagar and Ishmael ; Cleo- 
patra ; Aida ; Venus ; Four Seasons. 


LUCCHESINO, IL. See Testa, Pietro. 

biaso, Luca. 


LUCIDEL. See Neuchatel 

werp, Aug. 17, 1623, died there after 1653. 
Flemish school ; still-life painter, pupil in 
1640 of Philips de Marlier ; master of the 
guild in Antwerp in 1645, having spent 
about a year at Lille. Was employed by 
the King of Spain. Works : Flower Piece, 
Madrid Museum ; Still Life, Brunswick Mu- 
seum ; do. (2), Professor Wilhelm Sohn, 
Diisseldorf. Kunst-Chronik, xix. 581 ; Bie- 
gel, Beitrfcge, ii 126 ; Van den Branden, 



LUCRETIA, Alexandra Cabanel, Samuel ; length ; Lucretia, with the dagger in her 
Hawk Collection, New York ; canvas, H. 7ft. j right hand ; in the gloom behind, her hus- 
x 4 ft Lucretia, seated at her loom, is sur- ! band Collatinus, who grasps her arm and 
prised at the return of Sextus Tarquinius, | strives to prevent her suicide. Copy at- 
who, leaning upon the back of her chair, j tributed to Paris Bordone, at Hampton 
asks her hospitality. Photogravure hi Art Court ; another by Varotari, in Uffizi. C. 

Treasures of America, ii. 27. 
Bv Albrecht Dilrer, Munich 

& C., N. Italy, ii. 476. 
Gallery ; ! By H Sodoma, Turin Gallery ; wood, H. 

wood, H. 5 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 4 in.; signed, 
dated 1518. Lucretia, nude, life-size, stands 
at the foot of a bedstead furnished in burgher 
style with a red coverlet and blue bolster, 
about to plunge the dagger into her heart 
with her right hand. Several studies, dated 

Lucretia and Tarquin, Guido Cagnacci, Accademia di S. Luc a, Rome. 

1508, in Albertina Collection, Vienna. One 
in British Museum. Thausing (Eaton), ii, 
35, 132 ; Ephrussi, 157. 

By Guido Reni, Turin Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 2 in. X 2 ft. 1 in. Lucretia, half- 
length, nude, holding in her hand the dag- 
ger with which she has stabbed herself. 

Engraved by Lasinio. GaL di Torino, ii. 
PL 65. 

- By Filippino Lippi, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 1 ft. 4: in. x 4 ft 2 in. Ac- 
tion divided into two parts : 1. The death 
of Lucretia ; 2. The exposure of her body, 
in the Forum, with Brutus inciting the 
people against Tarquin. Cai Pal. Pitti. 

By Palma Vecchio, Vienna Museum ; 
wood, H. 2 fi 6 in.x2 fl 1 in. Half- 

3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. Lucretia in act of 
killing herself. Meyer, Kilnst. Lex., iii. 

By Titian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 4 in. Half-length, about 
to kill herself with a dagger. Probably of 
Titian's later time, but not a very 
attractive picture. C. & C., Titian, 
ii. 426. 

Guido Cagnacci, Accademia di S. 
Luca, Rome. Lucretia, nude, on a 
couch, resists Tarquin, who holds 
her with his left hand and threatens 
her with a dagger in his right ; in 
background, an old slave as sentinel 
Formerly in secret Museum of the 
CapitoL Cagnacci's masterpiece. 
Many copies, and often engraved. 

By Luca Giordano, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; canvas, H. 4. ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 
11 in. Lucretia, nude, upon a 
couch ; Tarquin has one hand upon 
her shoulder, and points with the other to a 
black servant beyond. Engraved by P. 
Tanje. Gal. Roy. de Dresde, i. PL 37. 

By Titian, Hertford House, London ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 2 in. X 4 ft. 8 in. ; signed. Lu- 
cretia, nearly nude, on a couch, resists the 
assaults of Tarquin, in green doublet and 
crimson hose, who threatens her with a dag- 
ger ; to left, a man peeps from behind a 
curtain. Painted about 1571 (?) ; passed 
from collection of Joseph Bonaparte to Lord 
Northwick, thence to Mr. Conyngham, at 
whose sale it was bought for 520 guineas by 
Marquis of Hertford. Perhaps the picture 
in the Louvre in 1752-54, which was bought 
by Louis XIV. of Jabach, who obtained it 
from the collection of Charles L of England; 



and this in turn may possibly be the canvas Lore (1865); Surprise (1866); Student's 
sent in 1571 by Titian to Philip IL of Spain. Return (1S67 j ; First Walk to School, 
Much damaged by patching and repainting. Mother's Joy (1868 \ ; Hard Separation, The 
Engraved by C. Cork C. & C, Titian, ii. Widower, Involuntary Sentry, Ungrateful 
392 ; "Waagen, Treasures, ii. 152. ! Audience, Domestic Happiness, Palatable ! 

LUCY, CHABLES, born at Hereford in (1872) ; Boys gathering Shavings (1S75> 
1814, died at dotting Hill, May 19, 1873. , Muller, 343* 

History painter ; studied at cole des Beaux LUDWIG, EARL, born at Romhild, Saxe- 
Arts, Paris, and also under PaulDelaroche ; Meiningen, Jan. 18, 1839. Landscape paint- 
afterwards pupil of Royal Academy, London, er, pupil of Munich Academy and of Piloty ; 
First became known by a series of large his- , visited the Bavarian and Bohemian mount- 
torical cartoons exhibited in 1844 at the ains and North Italy, settled in Diisseldorf 
"Westminster Hall Competition, where he in 1868, became professor at Stuttgart Art- 
was awarded a premium of 100 for his ; School in 1877, and removed to Berlin in 
Caractacus. His works are important on J 1880. Medal, Berlin, 1883. Works : Di- 
account of their subject and the scale on lapidated Park-Gate, Schack Gallery, Mu- 
which they are painted, rather than for their \ nich ; Spring, Summer, and Autumn ; Olive 
originality. Many of them have been en- Grove on Garda Lake ; Lake in Bohemian 
graved. Works: Interview between Milton i Forest ; Old Park Gate in Winter (1S6S) ; 
and Galileo (1840); Departure of the Pilgrim j Landscape in Hartz Mountains ; Smugglers' 
Fathers (1847); Landing of the Pilgrim j Path in High Mountains ; St Gothard Pass, 
Fathers (1848) ; Mrs. Claypole's Deathbed [ National Gallery, Berlin ; Village View in 
(1849) ; Parting of Charles L and his Chil- , the Eifel ; Mountain Road in Thuringian 
dren (1850); Parting of Lord and Lady Rus- j Forest ; Alpine Landscape (1882), Dresden 
sell (1852), Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Phila- Museum. Kunst-Chronik, xv. 467 ; Mailer, 

nolds (1863) ; Garibaldi at Tomb of Foscolo j the school of design of the Societe des Arts 
(1865) ; Intercepted Embarkation of John at Geneva, then in Paris (1819) pupil of 
Hampden (1867) ; Abdication of Mary Stu- 
art (1868) ; Charlotte Corday (1871) ; Co- 
lumbus at La Rabida (1872) ; Portraits of 
Gladstone, Cobden, Bright, Hume, Gari- 
baldi, and Nelson, South Kensington Muse- 
um. Redgrave ; Athenaeum (1873); Art 
Journal (1873), 208. 

IiTJDIUS, Roman painter, time of Augus- 
tus. H3 was the first, according to Pliny 
(xxxv. 37 [116]), to introduce the style of 
mural decoration known to us asPompeian. 

LUDWIG, AUGUSTE, born at Grafen- 
thal, Saxe-Meiningen, in 1834. Genre paint- 
er, pupil in Weimar of Martersteig, in 
Dresden of Julius Scholz, and in DOsseldorf, 
where she settled, of Jordan and Stever. 
Works : Children's Breakfast (1862); Young 

Gros ; two years later in Florence he 
much influenced by Ingres, and in 1826-29 
studied in Rome; lived then in Geneva, 
excepting three years (1835-38) in Paris, 
where he had many commissions and brill- 
iant success. Works: Deliverance of Boni- 
vard at Chillon, Arnold von Melchthal 
defending his Bulls, The Oath on the Rutli, 
Portrait of Engraver Schenker-Scheener, 
Musee Rath, . Geneva ; Taking of Castle 
Rossberg ; William Tell saving Baumgar- 
ten; Prisoner of Chillon; Calvin denying 
Communion to the Libertines; Ruth and 
Boas ; Christ on the Cross ; Hagar in the 
Desert ; John EL, and Louis XL of France, 

Connetables Montmorency and Jean 
Bourbon, Marshal dTSstampes* Duke 



Orleans in the Trenches at Siege of Antwerp, 
1832, "Warhain, Archbishop of Canterbury 
(after Holbein), Versailles Museum. 
Tschamer, Die bilden deii Ktinste iu cler 
Schweiz im Jahre (1884), 55. 

LUGO, EMIL, born at Stockach, Baden, 
June 26, 1840. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Carlsruhe Art-School tinder Schirmer, then 
studied after the old Italian, Dutch, and 
German masters in the Dresden and Munich 
Galleries, and from nature in the Brisgow ; 
was in Italy 1871-74, chiefly at Rome, inti- 
mate and much influenced by Franz-Dreber. 
Works : Waterfall in Bavarian Alps ; Land- 
scape with Mythological Figures ; Storm in 
Autumn ; Solitude ; Morning in Black For- 
est, Late Autumn, ib. (1884), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin. Jordan (1885), ii. 140. 
LUIGI, ANDBEA. See Ingegno. 
LUINI, AUEEUO. See Luini, Bernar- 

nardo), born, at 
Luino between 
1475 and 1480, 
died in Milan, af- 
ter 1533. Lom- 
school ; called by 

kVasari, del Lupi- 
no. Pupil of Ci- 
r^ * yerchio and of 
'' Leonardo da Vin- 

ci, whose manner 
he imitated so closely that many of his pict- 
ures pass for the work of his master. His 
faces wear the Leonardesque smile, though 
it has not the same depth of meaning, and 
his manner of painting is similar to that of 
Leonardo, though it does not reach that al- 
most superhuman degree of finish which 
distinguishes the Gioconda among pictures. 
A Piet& in S. M. della Passione, Milan, is an 
early painting by Luini, but his most im- 
portant works in that city are the frescos in 
the Monastero Maggiore, among which the 
Martyrdom of St Catherine is justly cele- 
brated for composition and expression ; the 

71 fragments of frescos in the Brera, in- 
cluding the famous St. Catherine borne by 
Angels, the Madonna with SS. Anthony and 
Barbara (1521), the Marriage of the Virgin, 
i a Madonna with St. Elizabeth, the Birth of 
I Adonis, and the Flagellation, Anibrosian 
, Library. Other important frescos by Luini 
! are those in the Church of the Pilgrims at 
j Saronno, Marriage of the Virgin, Christ 
I among the Doctors, Adoration of the Magi, 
Presentation in the Temple (1525), Sibyls, 
Evangelists, and Fathers of the Church ; 
and those in S. M. degli Angeli, Lugano 
a colossal Passion over the entrance to the 
Choir, a fresco lunette of the Madonna with 
the Infant St. John, and a Last Supper. 
Among Luini's easel pictures are : large 
altar-piece, Church at Legnano ; several 
small easel pictures, Ambrosian Library, 
Milan ; Madonna, Brera, Milan ; Adoration 
of Shepherds, Adoration of Magi, etc., Du- 
omo, Como ; Salome, Madonna and St. John, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Modesty and Vanity, Pa- 
lazzo Sciarra, Eome ; Virgin and Infant 
Jesus, Naples Museum; Christ among the 
Doctors, National Gallery, London ; Salome, 
Holy Family, Sleep of Jesus, Forge of Vul- 
can, Adoration of Magi, Nativity, and oth- 
ers, Louvre, Paris ; Madonna, St. Sebastian, 
St. Catherine, La Golombine, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Si Catherine, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Infants Christ and St. John Kiss- 
ing, Holy Family, Daughter of Herodias 
receiving Head of St John, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Herodias, St. Jerome Penitent, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Madonna, The Three Marys, 
Historical Society, New York. Bernardo's 
sons, Aurelio (1530-93) and Evangelista, are 
mentioned by Lomazzo in 1584 as among 
the best painters of their time. Pictures 
by Aurelio are in the Brera and in Milan 
churches. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 519 ; ed. Le 
Mon., vii. 43 ; viii. 217 ; xi. 276 ; Lanzi, ii. 
492 ; Burckhardt, 165, 182 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
milanaise; Dohme, 2iii.; Kugler (Eastlake), 
ii. 363 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), ii.; (1870), 
Hi. 47 ; Lubke, ItaL Mai, ii. 450 ; Zeitsclir. 
f. b. K, xiii. 41. 



LULYfiS, JEAN, bom at Mtllhausen, Al- 
sace, in 1834 History and genre painter, 
pupil of Stefteck in Berlin, and of Moller 
in Moscow. Was a civil engineer, but 
turned to painting, and decorated the Cor- 
onation Hall of the Kremlin, and the danc- 
ing hall of the banker Krause at Berlin, 
where he resides. He now paints histori- 
cal scenes and mythological genre with 
much success. Works : The Painter Clouet 
in the Louvre ; Secret Reunion ; Murder of 
Riccio ; Historical Scene of Murder. Mul- 
ler, 344; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 

Nantes. Dec. 14, 
1822. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Leon 
Cogniet and Troy- 
on ; has devoted 
himself chiefly and 
with success to 
painting scenes 
from Breton life. 
Medals : 3d class, 
1852, 1855, 1857, 

1861 ; L. of Honour, 1869. Works : Scenes 
from Civil War under the Republic (1843) ; 
Breton Fair, After the Fight (1847); Defeat 
of the Germans at Tolbiac (1848), Nantes 
Museum ; Siege of Paris by the Normans, 
The Pirates (1849) ; Return from the Fair 
(1850) ; Lobster Fishermen in Brittany 
(1852), Langres Museum ; Breton Shepherd 
(1852) ; Gathering Sea-Weed, Reading the 
Will (1853) ; The Great Racket (1855), La- 
val Museum ; Hunting for Sea-Birds' Nests, 
Lesson in Singing (1855) ; Pasture of Ker- 
lat (1857) ; Cry of the Owl (1859) ; Return 
from the Hunt (1861), Nantes Museum ; A 
Consultation, Tenderness (1863); Two Guar- 
dians (1864), Angers Museum ; Under the 
Hedge (1865) ; The Pirates (1866) ; Two 
Rivals (1868); Gallic Revenge (1869); 
Gauls in Sight of Rome (1870), Nancy Mu- 
seum ; Scouts (1870), Bordeaux Museum ; 
The Invasion, Return from the Hunt (1873); 
Brunhild (1874) ; King Morvan, Herd car- 



ried off by Enemy (1S75) : Consequences of 
a Duel (1876 ) : Firing at Random, Prisoner 
Escaping |1877) ; Death of Chramni. Hunt- 
ing under King Dagobert tlS79j ; Les 
Enenvs de Jumieges (Sydney Museum i. Dis- 
pute over a Female Captive (1SSO ) ; Rapt, 
During the War (18S2j; 
Last Merovingian, Chil- 
dericUL 1 1883}; FHght 
of King Gradlon, A Mad- 
man (1884) ; Death of Chilperic L, Escaped 
Prisoners ( 1885). Bellier, i. 1067 ; Larousse ; 
MuUer, 344. 

LUNA AND THE HOURS, Tintoretto, 
Berlin Museum ; canvas. Luna, in a cha- 
riot, attended by three Hours. 

Copenhagen, Feb. 14, 
1826. Battler, genre, 
and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy, where he received 
medals in 1849 and 1852; 
took part as volunteer in 
the battles of Bau (1848) 
and Fredericia (1849), 
where he was severely 
wounded. Was in Italy 
in 1862-64 and 1874-75. Danebrog Order 
in 1876 ; member of Copenhagen Academy 
in 1877. Works: Episode from Battle of 
Fredericia (1852), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Christ at Emmaus (1857) ; Judith (1863) ; 
Jacob T s Dream, Storming of Copenhagen 
(1869) ; Swedes at Kronborg (1873), Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Swiss Guard (1872) ; 
Caroline Mathilde, In the Convent Kitchen 
(1877) ; Collector of Engravings ; Chancel- 
lor Niels Kaas handing to King Christian 
IV. Keys to Crown Jewels ; Ceiling Paint- 
ings (1876), Viborg Cathedral Sig. Mul- 
ler, 218 ; Weiibach, 421. 

born in Kiel, Oct. 16, 1777, died in Copen- 
hagen, March 3, 1867. History painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy under Abild- 
gaard ; went in 1799 to Dresden, in 1800 
to Paris, where he studied under David, 



and in 1802 to Florence and Rome ; re- , LUNDGREN, EGRONT SELLIF, born 
turned to Copenhagen in 1810, and became i in Stockholm, Dec. 18, 1815, died there, 
member of the Academy in 1814 ; was in ! Dec. 12, 1875. Genre painter, pupil of 
Rome again in 1816-19, and in 1818 be- j Stockholm Academy, and in Paris of Cog- 
came professor at Copenhagen Academy, niet ; visited Switzerland and Italy in 1844, 
Painted also portraits and small landscapes. , Spain in 1849, working especially in Seville 
Officer of Order of Danebrog. Works : j until 1852, when he went to England and 
Andromache beside Hector's Body (1807), j there painted illustrations to Shakespeare 
Copenhagen Gallery ; The Greeks leaving j and court festivals for Queen Victoria ; went 
Troy (1810) ; Habor's and Alger's Return to India in 1858, visited Sweden and Nor- 
froin Battle (1814) ; Apparition of Christ way in 1860-61, Egypt, Spain, and England 

(1815) ; Resurrection (1818) ; Five Scenes 
from Introduction of Christianity in th< 
North, Christiansborg Palace ; The Three 
Nornes (1844), Copenhagen Gallery. Weil- 
bach, 424. 

Copenhagen, Sept. 1 
1818, died near Bes- 
ted, April 26, 1848, 
Animal painter, pupi 
of Copenhagen Acad 
emy, but studied chief- 
ly from nature; wenl 
to Italy in 1845, en- 
tered the Danish army 
as a volunteer in 1848, 
and was killed only a week after, in the 
skirmish near Bested. Works : Coast Yiew 
on Ise Fjord, Open Country in Zeeland 
(1842), Interior of Cow Stable (1844), Oxen 
in the Campagna, Landscape with Sheep 
(1845), Yiew in Zeeland, Horse Study, 
Coast View (1847), Gallery, Copenhagen; 
Old Grave in Zeeland, Thorwaldsen Muse- 
um, ib. Sig. Mttller, 227 ; Weilbach, 432. 

LUNDENS, GERRTT, flourished about 
1652-73. Dutch school; genre painter in 
the manner of Metzu. Works : Fiddler in 
Peasant's Room (1656), Dresden Museum ; 
Surgical Operation, Dttsseldorf Academy ; 
do., Hausmann Collection, Herrenhausen, 
Hanover ; do. (1652), Friesen sale, Cologne, 
March, 1885 ; Cake-baker, School-room 
(both attributed?), Amsterdam Museum. 
Kramm, iv. 1022 ; Kunst-Chronik, six. 581 ; 
xx. 505 ; Nederlandsche Kunstbode (1881), 

in 1862, Italy in 1865, England in 1871 ; 
mostly in Sweden since 1867. Works: Feast 
of Corpus Domini in Rome, Royal Palace, 
Stockholm ; S. Vitale in Ravenna, Library 
of Siena, Stockholm Museum ; Pilgrim's 
Festival in Valencia; The Forsaken Ones. 
Ulustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 337; Kunst- 
Chronik, xi. 243. 

Stockholm, Oct. 3, 1812. History painter, 
pupil of his uncle, Westin, and of Stock- 
holm Academy ; went to Paris in 1843, and 
at the outbreak of the revolution returned 
to Stockholm, where he was director of the 
Museum in 1851-58. Works : Iris visiting 
the God of Sleep ; Reception of Hercules 
in Olympus ; Eve at the Death of Abel ; 
Rebecca at the Well ; Landing of Gustavus 
Adolphus in Germany ; Entry of Gustavus 
Adolphus into Augsburg ; Gustavus Adol- 
phus before Battle of Breitenfeld. Miiller, 

LUNTESCHUTZ, JULES, bom at Besan- 
$on, in 1822. Genre and history painter, 
pupil of Philipp Yeit at the Stadel Institute 
in Frankfort, whither he returned in 1845, 
having meanwhile studied under Alaux in 
Paris. Usually paints religious pictures. 
L. of Honour, 1866. Works: Portrait of 
Schopenhauer, Germanic Museum, Nurem- 
berg ; A Drop of Venus's Blood tinting the 
Roses (1855). 

LUPESTO. See Luini. 

LUTE PLAYER, Michelangelo da Cara- 
vaggio, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. A young 
man in a white shirt, and with a fillet about 
us head, sits singing to the accompaniment 



of a lute behind a table, on which are a vio- 
lin, music-book, a vase of flowers, and fruit. 
Good picture in first manner. Formerly in 
the Giustiniani Gallery. Engraved by Po- 
dolinsky ; lithographed by H. Robillard. 
GaL Imp. de THermitage. 

By Michelangelo da C'aravaggio, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, Vienna. Young woman play- 
ing a lute. Good picture of first period. 
Engraved by Fr. John ; J. Bernard ; L. 
Beyer. Meyer, Kunst-Lex., L 622 ; Perger, 
Kunstschiitze "Wiens, 4 

By Caspar Netscher. See Sacrifice to 


DIET, August van Heyden, Germanic Mu- 
seum, Nuremberg ; canvas, H. 10 ft 3 in. x 
7 ft 5 in. A broad stone-staircase leads to 
the door of the assembly-hall at "Worms, at 
the foot of which a crowd of people are 
kept back by two lanzknechts ; on the land- 
ing meet Luther and Frundsberg, the lat- 
ter addressing the former while laying his 
hand on his shoulder; above, at the en- 
trance, is a herald, at the head of other 
pei-sons, announcing the Elector of Saxony, 
Frederick the "Wise., who is just issuing from 
within ; at the left, beside the stone balus- 
trade, a large banner. Painted in 1866. 
ELunst-Chronik, ii. 20 ; Bruno Meyer, Stu- 
dien u. Krit, 104 228. 

BULL, Karl Friedrich Lestsing, Mr. Notte- 
boom, Antwerp. Luther, surrounded by 
students and his colleagues, before the El- 
ster Gate of Wittenberg, committing to the 
flames (Dec. 10, 1520) the bull of excom- 
munication which Pope Leo X. had issued 
against him, together with the canon law 
and the books of Eck and Emser, his oppo- 
nents. Painted in 1853. 

TWEEN, Julius- Htibner, Dresden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 10 ft 9 in. x 20 ft 3 in. Johanu 
Mayr von Eck, canon of Eiehstadt, and vice- 
chancellor of the University of Ingolstadt, 
was an adversary of Luther and wrote notes 

upon the Reformer's theses. He met Lu- 
ther in the conferences at Augsburg and 
Leipsic, and failing to convince him went to 
Rome and obtained a papal bull against 
him. The picture represents the conference 
'at Leipsic in 1519. Painted in 1863-66. 
Purchased in 1867 for 9,000 thalers. 

By Karl Friedrich Lessing, Carlsruhe 
; Gallery ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x U ft. 8 in. A 
, room at the Pleissenburg in Leipsic : in the 
! middle George, Duke of Saxony, the oppo- 
, nent of the Reformation ; at his right, Bar- 
jnim, Duke of Pomerania, then Rector of 
Wittenberg University; to the right, Eck 
and his adherents, among whom is the 
court-jester of Duke George ; to the left, 
Luther ; behind him, his friend Bugenhagen 
land the adherents of the Reformation, 
among whom are Melanchthon and Profes- 
sor Karlstadt Painted in 1867. 
Gustav Adolf Spangenbrrg, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 4 in.; 
! signed, dated 1870. In his study at "Wit- 
j tenberg the Reformer is seated at a table, 
! pointing with his right hand to a passage of 
the book before him, while, demonstrating 
with Ms left, he is looking at an old rabbi 
who talks to him with lively gesticulations ; 
between the two, Johann Bugenhagen looks 
into Luther's text, and opposite to him, 
Justus Jonas, seen in profile, is gazing at- 
tentively at Luther ; behind the latter, Me- 
knchthon and Rorer stand listening to the 
conversation, while in front of the table, 
Mathesius is seated, pen in hand, and turned 
towards the window, in the niche of which 
another Hebrew scholar is reading in a co- 
dex. Jordan (1885), i. 130. 

LUTI, BENEDETTO, Cavaliere, born in 
Florence in 1666, died in Rome in 1724 
Florentine school ; pupil of Domenico Gab- 
biani ; formed his style by study of many 
masters ; became one of the first painters of 
his time, and is called the last of the Flor- 
entine school. Clement XL entrusted him 
with important commissions and ennobled 
him. He painted in oil and fresco, made 



many pastel drawings, and was a great col- 1 under Seidel and Hauber, and of Vienna 
lector of drawings and engravings. Among ; Academy in 1805-9 ; lectured on art at Ei> 
his works are : Mo- , langen University in 1812, lived then in 
ses saved from the Prague, Vienna, and Presburg, where he 
Waters, Uffizi ; Peni- \ painted thirteen large altar-pieces for differ- 
tent Magdalen, Mag- j ent churches in Hungary ; visited Munich 
dalen in Meditation, j in 1840, and returned to his native city. 
Works : Portrait of General Moreau ; 125 
portraits of Legates to Hungarian Diet. 
Nagler, Mon., i. 348 ; Wurzbach, svi. 142. 

LUYCX (Leux), FRANS, bom at Ant- 
werp, baptized April 17, 1604, died at 
Prague after 1652. Flemish school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Eemakel 
Sina (1618), then of Eubens ; master of the 
guild in 1620 ; went to Italy and painted in 
Rome portraits and allegories, and after his 
return home was called to Prague by Em- 
peror Ferdinand HL, who made him court- 
painter and ennobled him, whence his name 
appears also as Leux de (or von) Leuxen- 
stein. Visited Antwerp in 1652, but re- 
turned to Austria in the same year. "Works : 
Allegory on Vanity, Portraits of Archduke 
Leopold William, Infant Cardinal Charles 
Ferdinand, and a Lady of Distinction, Mu- 
seum, Vienna; Christ appearing to the 
Holy Women, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; 

Louvre ; The Virgin 
Reading, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Moses receiv- 
ing the Tablets on 
Mount Sinai, Darm- 
stadt Museum; Head 

of Christ, Head of the Virgin (1722), Dres- 
den Museum ; St. Borromeo giving Ex- 
treme Unction to the Plague-stricken (1712), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Holy Family with St. 
John and Elizabeth, Boy playing the Flute. 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; James Stuart, 
Hampton Court; Vestment of S. Ranieri, 
Pisa Cathedral Lanzi, i. 250, 498; Ch. 
Blanc, Eeole florentine. 

lin, March 4, 1759, died there, May 19, 
1831. Landscape painter, pupil in Rome of 
Philip Hackert; visited Switzerland, Na- 
ples, and Sicily, returned to Berlin in 1787, 
became honorary member of the Academy, 
and in 1789 professor and senator. Works : 
Castle of Baise, National Gallery, Berlin; 
Italian and German Landscapes in the royal 
palaces at Berlin and Potsdam, N. Necr. 
d. D. (1831), 435. 

LUTTEROTH, ASC AN, born in Hamburg 
in 1842. Landscape painter, pupil in Ge- 
neva of Calame, then in Dtisseldorf of Os- 
wald Achenbach ; spent three years in Rome, 
went to Berlin in 1871, revisited Italy sev- 
eral times, and settled in Hamburg in 1877. 
Works : Views of Capri ; Spring at Villa 
Albani ; Lake of Nemi ; Summer at the Ri- 
viera ; Autumn about Naples ; Winter in 
the Campagna; Punta di Sorrento; Villa 
Doria ; Wood Interior. Mailer, 344. 

Baron, born in Wtozburg, Jan. 24, 1785, 
died there, April 28, 1858. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Munich Academy 

Portrait of Archduke William, Stockholm 
Museum. Engerth, Belvedere Galerie, ii. 
235 ; Van den Branden, 804. 

LUZZI, PIETRO. See Horto da Feltre. 

LTMAN, JOSEPH, JR., born in Raven- 
na, Ohio ; contemporary. Landscape and 
marine painter, studied in Europe in 1864- 
66 ; afterwards pupil of J. H. Dolph and 
Samuel Colman, New York Exhibited in 
National Academy first in 1876. Elected 
A.N.A. in 1886. Studio in New York. 
Works : Summer Night, Evening (1880) ; 
Perce Rock Gulf of St. Lawrence (1881) ; 
Moonlight at Sunset, On the Maine Coast 
(1882); Waiting for the Tide (1883); Street 
in St. Augustine Florida, View in do. 
(1884); Under her own Fig Tree (1885). 

LYS, JAN VAN DER, born in Breda in 
1600, died in Rotterdam in 1657. Dutch 
school ; history and landscape painter, pu- 





pil of Cornelis Poelenburg, whom he imi- 
tated successfully in choice of subjects, neat- 
ness of treatment, and colouring. Works : 
Soldiers and Women, Diana Bathing, Mr. 
Bisshop, Amsterdam ; Landscape with Ro- 
man Ruins and Bathing Shepherdesses (by 
Dirck van der Lisse ?), Mountainous Valley 
with Fishermen 
and Shepherds, 
"Wood Landscape 
with Bathing 
Nymphs, Bruns- 
wick Gallery. Iminerzeel, ii. 191 ; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 189 ; Burger, Musee, ii. 282. 

LYSAKDE (Lyzardi), NICHOLAS, Eng- 
lish painter of 16th century, died in Lon- 
don, April, 1570. In the service of Henry 
V11JL and Edward YL; sergeant-painter to 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth. Painted his- 
torical subjects. Redgrave. 

LYTRAS, K, bom in Athens, Greece; 
contemporary. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy. Works : Anti- 
gone ; Death of Patriarch Gregorius ; After 
Pillage by Pirates ; Oriental Kitchen ; Dis- 
obedient Grandson. Muller, 345. 

seum ; a series of eight pictures, by an un- 
known master, on wood, each EL 3 f t. x 2 ft. 3 
in. Subject: The Passion of Christ, l.Last 
Supper ; 2. Betrayal ; 3. Christ before Pilate ; 
4. Mocking of Christ ; 5. Christ bearing the 
Cross ; 6. Crucifixion ; 7. Entombment ; 8. 
Resurrection. Painted about 1463-90 ; for- 
merly attributed to Israel yon Meckenem. 
Belonged to the Collection of Herr Lyvers- 
berg, Cologne, then to Mme. Baumeister, 
his daughter, from whom passed in 1864 
to the Museum. Cologne Cat.; Kugler 
(Crowe), L 132 ; do., KL Schriften, ii. 301 ; 
W. & W., ii. 95. 

MAAS (Maes), DIRK, born in Haarlem, 
Sept. 12, 1656, died there, Dec. 25, 
1717. Dutch school ; pupil of Hen- 
drik Mommers, of Mcolaas Berchem, and 
of Hughtenburgh, whose style he adopted. 

He painted landscapes with animals in the 
manner of the former, but especially horses 
and battle-pieces in the latter's style. Spent 
some time in England during the reign of 
William ILL, and painted the Battle of the 
Boyne for the Duke of Portland. Works : 
Battle of the Boyne, Colonel Wyndham, 
Petworth, England ; Camp with Horsemen, 
Museum ; 
Party Best- 
ing, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Cavalry Skir- 
mish, Pillage on Battlefield, Moltke Collec- 
tion, Copen- 
hagen; A 
Camp, Her- 
mitage, St. 
Kramm, iv. 1031; 

Imrnerzeel, ii. 192 ; 
Van der Willigen, 205. 


MABUSE, JAX VAN (Mabusius, Malbo- 
dius, Mabog- 
born at Mau- 
beuge (Hai- 
nault), about 
1470, died in 
Antwerp in 
1541. Flem- 
ish school. 
Real name Jan 
saert. History painter, admitted in 1503 
to guild in Antwerp, where he practised till 
1507 5 when he went to Italy, the first artist 
of the Netherlands who visited that coun- 
try; was in Borne, 1508-13, in suite of 
Philip, natural son of Philip the Good, in 
whose service he remained until Philip's 
death at Utrecht in 1524. Before he went 
to Italy he painted chiefly religious subjects 
hi the style of the later Van Eyck school, 
and his pictures show great knowledge of 
composition, warm colouring, and solidity 
of execution. Among his works of this 
period are : Adoration of Magi, Castle How- 



ard, England ; Legend of Count of Tou- j chiels, iv. 425 ; v. 7, 466 ; Riegel, Beitrage, 
louse, Scawby, Lincolnshire ; Four Marys j L 5 ; Booses (Reber), 63 ; Scharf, Archse- 
retuming from Tomb of Christ, Righteous ! ologia, xxxix. 245 ; Van den Branden, 95 ; 
Judges, Antwerp Museum. After 1512 his j Woltmann, Aus vier Jahrhund., 28 ; W. & 

style changed, and he painted mythological 
and allegorical subjects and introduced nude 
figures into his pictures. In his second man 
ner are : Neptune and Amphitrite (1516) 
Madonna (2), Girl weighing Gold Pieces 
Berlin Museum ; Madonna (1527), Danac 
(1527), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Ecc< 
Homo, Antwerp Museum ; Children o: 
Christian IL, Adam and Eve, Hampton 
Court (replica in Berlin Museum) ; Jesus 
at Simon the Pharisee's, Brussels Museum 
Adoration of Magi, Dresden Gallery ; St. 
Luke painting the Virgin, Prague Cathe- 
dral ; Portrait of Jean Carondelet (1517), 
Madonna (1517), Louvre ; Madonna, Ma- 
drid Museum ; Christ in the Prastorium 
(1527), Madonna (2), Historical Society, 
New York. Other works in public gal- 
leries : Madonna, Portrait of Margaret oi 
Austria, Young Lady's Portrait, Antwerp 
Museum ; Ecce Homo, Ghent Museum ; 
Altarpiece with Trinity, Prophets, Saints, 
etc., Cassel Gallery ; Madonna, Fiirstenberg 
Gallery, Donaueschingen ; Portrait of Mother 
and Child (Marchioness van Yere?), Dres- 
den .Gallery ; Adoration of the Magi, Ko- 
nigsberg Museum ; Madonna in Landscape 
with Flight into Egypt, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg ; jMadonna at a Window, Olden- 
burg Gallery ; Madonna, St. Luke painting 
the Virgin, Circumcision, Vienna Museum ; 
Madonna, Wiesbaden Gallery ; do. (2), Ber- 
gamo Gallery ; Male Portraits (2), National 
Gallery, London. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., 
is, 404 ; Biog. nat. 
MAU90DIUS de Belgique, viii. 
124; Oh. Blanc, 

Ecole flamande; Engerth, Belved. Gal., ii 
251; Fetis, Cat du Mus. roy., 119; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1861), xi. 34 ; Immerzeel, ii 
193 ; Kramm, iv. 1034 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
118, 232 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 485 ; Law, 
Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 137, 198 ; Mi- 

W., ii. 517 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, six. 304. 

gyllshire in 1843. Marine and genre paint- 
er, pupil of Eoyal Academy, London. Sub- 
jects mostly drawn from the Highlands of 
Scotland and the north coast. Works in 
oil : Bracken Boat (1870) ; Slack the Main- 
sheet (1873) ; Saithe Fishing in the Kyles 
of Bute (1874) ; Eight Bells, Setting "the 
Storm Jib ( 1875) ; Shearing Wraick on the 
Sound of Harris (1876) ; Caught by the 
Tide, Beetling (1877); Waiting for the Ebb, 
Shrimping (1878) ; Nutting, Water Frolic, 
Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep (1880) ; 
Prawning (1881); Music o'er the Waters 
(1882) ; Fledglings (1885) ; Kiss from the 
Sea (1886). Works in water-colour : Cut- 
ting Peats (1872) ; Catching Sprats (1875) ; 
Burning Kelp (1876); Yo ! Heave Yo ! (1877). 
Art Journal (1880), 149. 

Daniel Maclise, Frederick W. Cosens, Esq. 
A vaulted hall with tables spread with bar- 
baric splendour ; the guests, nearly seventy, 
startled at the apparition of Banquo, whose 
figure is indicated in shadow on a chair in 
foreground ; near it, Macbeth, seated, starts 
back in terror, while his wife, standing, tries 
to calm the guests with an affectation of 
bold assurance. Painted in 1840 for Earl 
of Chesterfield, from whom passed to pres- 
ent owner. Small replica, T. Williams, St. 
John's Wood. Engraved by C. W. Sharpe. 
Art Journal (1879), 36. 

Joshua Eeynolds, Lord Leconfield, Petworth 
louse. The witches dancing around the 
cauldron, as Macbeth approaches. Waagen, 
treasures, iii. 37. 

MACBETH, NOEMAN, born atPortGlas- 
;ow, Scotland ; contemporary. Portrait and 
.gure painter in Glasgow many years. Went 
o Edinburgh in 1860 ; elected RS.A. in 
.880. Exhibits frequently at the Eoyal 



Academy, London. Has painted the por- j MACCARI, CESARE, born in Siena, May 
traits of many distinguished clergymen, ; 9, 1840. History painter, pupil of Siena 
among them Drs. Guthrie, Cunningham, : Academy, then in Florence of Luigi Mus- 
Begg, and John BrucL Ideal work : Four- sini ; continued his studies in Rome, whence 
score Years (1885), Thomas Oliver, Bors- ; he visited Assisi and Venice, acquired repu- 
ham, Kent. He is the father of Robert ; tation especially with fresco paintings exe- 
Walker Macbeth ; of James Macbeth, land- ' cuted by order of Victor Emmanuel in the 
scape and portrait painter ; and of H. R. Chapel del Sudario and in the Quirinal. 
Macbeth, genre and portrait painter, who j Gold medals in Siena and Parma, 1869 ; 
calls himself, for distinction's sake, H. Mac- ' medal in Philadelphia, 1876 ; great prize in 
beth-Raeburn. Portfolio (1886), 25. 'Turin, 1880. Professor at Accademia S. 

Luca in Rome. Member of Rome, Venice, 
Bologna, and Genoa Academies. Order of 
Italian Crown. Works : Rebecca and Ele- 
azer; Leonardo da Vinci painting Mona 
Lisa (1865) ; Vittoria Colonna meditating 
over Michelangelo's Poems (1868) ; Sira 
sacrificing herself for Fabiola (1869) ; Fond 
Memories, Music hath Charms, Descent 

in Glasgow in 
1848. Landscape 
and genre paint- 
er, son and pupil 
of Norman Mac- 
beth, portrait 
painter, and stu- 
dent in London 
of Royal Acad- 

from Cross (1870-73) ; In the Triclinium, 
Flower on Raphael's Grave (1879); Deposi- 
tion of Pope Sylverius (1880) ; Aristocratic 
Pastime, Two Dandling Venetian Women, 

emy ; elected as- 
sociate of the So- 
ciety of Painters in Water Colours in 1871, j Day of First Communion in Venice ; For- 
and A.R.A. in 1883. Is also an etcher of tune Teller, Corcoran Gallery, Washington. 

Frescos: Four Evangelists (1864, Marquis 
Pieri Nerli's Villa at Quinciano) ; Ceilings 
in Chapel del Sudario ; Tobias burying the 
Dead (Chapel at Campo Veramo) ; Triumph 
of the Three Graces, Quirinal. Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xviii 621, 629 ; Mtfller, 345. 

in 1474. Florentine school ; called by Va- 
sari a pupil of Benozzo Gozzoli, but his 
manner is that of one who also studied in 
the school of Fra Filippo. His Coronation 
of the Virgin, dated 1473, Louvre, is not 
one of his best works. Better is the Ma- 
donna and Saints, signed but undated, Pisa 
Academy. C. & C., Italy, ii. 517 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Hon., iv. 191. 

in New York in 1840. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Professor Morse. Has made many 
sketches in New England, Canada, Florida, 
and the West Exhibited first at the Na-r 
tional Academy in 1868. Elected an A.N.A/ 
in 1880.. Studio in New York. Works: 

ability. Works : A Lincolnshire Gang 
(1876) ; Potato Harvest in the Fens (1877) ; 
Sedge-Cutting, Early Morning (1878) ; The 
Ferry (1881) ; Betrothed, Ferry Inn, Wait- 
ing (1882); Sacrifice, Betrothed, The Signal 
(1883) ; Fen Farm, Pied Piper of Hamelin 
(1884) ; Ripe October (1885) ; A Sodden 
Fen (1886). Art Journal (1883), 95. 

MAcCALLUM, ANDREW, born in Not- 
tingham, England, in 1828. Landscape 
painter, pupil of the Nottingham School of 
Art, and in 1849 of the Somerset House 
School of Design, London. Was a teacher 
in Manchester in 1851-53, when he went to 
Italy to select examples of mural paintings 
for the South Kensington Museum. Opened 
a studio in London in 1858. Works : Ap- 
proach of Malaria, Ancient Rome (1868) ; 
Moorland Queen (bought by John Phillip, 
R.A.); Views near Balmoral (painted for the 
Queen) ; Sultry Eve (1876), Centennial Ex- 
hibition, Philadelphia ; Glassalt Sheil Glen 
Muich (1877). 



Sunny side Home of Washington Irving ; 
Cave of the "Winds Niagara (1878) ; Near 
Biddeford Maine, T. B. Clarke, New York ; 
NapanockMills(1879); Hunting Days (1880); 
Winter Evening on the Hudson ^1881); Mar- 
ket-Place Hontreal (1882) ; Vesper Hour, 
"Where Swallows Skim (1883) ; Memory of 
June, Ice Harvest, Cross-Road Bridge (1884); 
Old Mill-Raee on Whippany River New Jer- 
sey, November Day, ib. (1885) ; Long Pond 
New Hampshire, Late Autumn (1886). 

MAcCTJLLOCH, HORATIO, born in Glas- 
gow, Scotland, November, 1805, died in Ed- 
inburgh, June 24, 1867. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Glasgow of John Knox, a locally 
known landscape painter. Exhibited fre- 
quently at the Royal Scottish Academy, 
Edinburgh, of which he was elected an as- 
sociate in 1834 and a member in 1838. 
Removed to Edinburgh in 1847. Painted 
chiefly Scottish sceneiy with great freshness 
and truth. Works : Deer Forest in Skye ; 
My Hejirt's in the Highlands ; Druid Stones 
by Moonlight ; Bridge over the Avon near 
Hamilton. Redgrave. 

MACEDONE, IL. See Clovio, Giorgio 

McENTEE, JERVIS, born at Kondout, 
N. T., July 14, 1828. 
Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of F. E. Church. In 
1869 visited Europe, 
studied in the principal 
art galleries on the Con- 
tinent, and sketched in 
Italy and Switzerland. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 
1860, and N.A. in 1861. 
Studio in New York. 
Works : Virginia in 1863 (1867) ; Venice, 
October Snow (1870); Scribner's Mill (1871), 
Robert Gordon ; Autumn, Robert Hoe, New 
York ; Old Mill in Winter, R. L. Stuart, ib. ; 
Autumn Day, Charles Stuart Smith, ib.; 
Wood Path, Henry James; Cape Ann (1874); 
Song of Summer (1876); Winter in the Moun- 
tains (1878); Clouds (1879); Edge of a Wood, 
November (1880) ; KaatskiU River (1881), I 

| Joseph Cornell, New York ; Indian Summer, 

' Valley of the Humboldt (1882) ; Uplands in 

Autumn, Wintry River, Autumn Memory 

j (1883) ; Kaatskills in Winter, Yellow Au- 

i tunin Woods, Shadows of Autumn (1884) ; 

; Christinas Eve, Sundown in Winter (1885) ; 

Ashokan November, Glimpse of Hunter 

Mountain, Shadows of Autumn, Winter 

Morning (1886). Sheldon, 51. 

Sampans (Jura), Sept. 22, 1839. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Bailie and 
Signol, and of the cole des Beaux Arts. 
Won the grand prix de Rome in 1865. 
Paints gracefully drawn and poetically com- 
posed mythological scenes, and much-ad- 
mired portraits. Medals : 1st class, 1872 ; 
2d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : 
A Fancy (1865); Angelica chained to a Rock 
(1869), Dole Museum ; Narcissus and the 
Spring (1872); Silenus (1874); Psyche sur- 
rendered to Cupid (1876), Transit of Venus 
(1877), Duke of Buccleuch ; Young Woman 
wearing a Hood (1880) ; Death of Medusa, 
Besan9on Museum. Bellier, ii. 6 ; Claretie, 
Peintres (1874), 225, 326, 368 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1865), ss. 286. 

ton, Marquis of Lansdowne, Bowood House, 
near Chippenham. Scene from Gay's Beg- 
gar's Opera (1727). Captain Macheath in 
Newgate, upbraided by Polly Peachum, to 
whom he is married, and by Lucy, whom 
he has promised to marry. Painted in 
1826. Bought by Marquis of Lansdowne 
for 500 guineas. 

MACHEK, ANTON, born at Podlaschitz, 
Bohemia, in 1771, died at Prague, Nov. 18, 
1844. History and portrait painter, pupil 
in Prague of Wenzel Bluma (died in 1794), 
and of Ludwig Kohl, then of the newly 
created Academy (1800), where he won the 
second and soon after the first prize ; finally 
of the Vienna Academy. Having painted 
several members of the Imperial family 
with great success, he rapidly acquired pop- 
ularity as a portrait painter, especially after 
bis return to Prague in 1806 ; also painted 




many altarpieces for country churches in crossed by his compositions for the .lee- 
Bohemia, Works : Portrait of King "Wen- oration of the Houses of Parliament. 
ceslaus IL, Gallery, Prague; Portraits of ciolly by his two large 
Archbishops Chluniezansky and Kolowrat, water-glass paintings 
Karoliimin, ib.; Several other Archbish- Meet in 2" of Wellinsr- 
ops, Archiepiscopal Palace, ib.; Professors ton and Bliiclier after 
Kroinbholz and Johann Fischer, Slavophiles Waterloo t 46 ft. long*. 
Jungmann and Schafarsehik, etc. Allgern. and Death of Nelson 
d. Biogr., xx. 5 ; Wurzbaeh, xvi. 202. 1 1859-64 1. He exe- 

}IACHOLD, JOSEF, born at Beniseh, cuted also a series of 
Silesia, Dec. 24, 1824 History painter, designs The Story of 
pupil of Vienna Academy, but mostly self- the Norman Conquest 
taught ; spent three years in Munich, be- for the Art Union, 
friended and influenced by Julius Schnorr, and many book illustrations. Works : Puck 
whom he followed to Dresden ; entered the disenchanting Bottom (1832); All-Hallow Eve 
army in 1848, fought in twelve battles and (1833); Installation of Captain Eock U834); 
skirmishes during the campaign in Hun- Chivalric Vow of Ladies and Peacock (1835); 
gary, and in 1857 became professor at the J Macbeth and the "Witches (1836) ; Olivia 
military academy in Wiener -Neustadt. jand Sophia fitting out Moses for the Fair 

"Works : Roland Cycle (13 water-colours (1838) ; Banquet Scene in Macbeth (1840; ; 
after Inland's ballad); Singing and Song Malvolio and the Countess (1840>, Play 
(6) ; Three Paintings after Polish Epic Ma- Scene in Hamlet (1842), National Gallery ; 

rya ; Harald (after "Chland's Poem, 1866) ; 
Scenes from Myths of Bacchus, Ceres, and Ye- 

Ordeal by Touch (1846) ; Gross of Green 
Spectacles (1850); Caxton showing his Print- 

nus; Scene from Midsummer-Night's Dream I ing-Press to Edward IV. (1851) ; Marriage 

(1867). Muller, 346 ; Wurzbach, xri. 206. 


McLACHLAN, T. HOPE, born in Eng- 
land; contemporary. Landscape painter; 
exhibits at the Koyal Academy and the 
Grosvenor Gallery. Works: Head of Tees- 
dale, Scene from "Ancient Mariner" (1881); 

of Strongbow and Eva (1854), National Gal- 
lery, Dublin ; Origin of the Harp, Alan Pot- 
ter* Esq.; Scene from JEdas, The Queen. 
In fresco : Spirit of Justice, Spirit of Chiv- 
alry (1850), House of Lords ; Marriage of 
Strongbow and Eva, Alfred in the Danish 
Camp, Eoyal Gallery, Parliament House; 

"Wilderness of the Dead Sea (1882) ; In the | Comus, pavilion of Buckingham Palace.- 
Border Country (1883) ; On Bowes Moor ODriscoll, Memoir (1871) ; Redgrave ; Ott- 

_ _ . _ -.. . . -^. -. -. i -* r-r* i- < r* i TkT 1 i f* _1 C* JT^__ il "1*"1 

Teesdale (1884); Barden Beck, "When Leaves 
fall in Kusset Woods, Nightfall (1885). 

3UACIISE, DANIEL, born at Cork, Jan. 
25, 1811 (Feb. % 1806 ?), died at Chelsea, 
April 25, 1870. History painter, student 
of the Cork Society of Arts, and of the Eoy- 
al Academy, London, where he won the gold 
medal in 1831 for the best historical com- 
position, the Choice of Hercules; became 
an A.R.A. in 1835, and RA. in 1840. He 
painted a few excellent portraits, among 
them Charles Dickens (1839), but his chief 
works are subject and historical pictures. 
The later years of his life were much en- 

ley ; Cat Nat. Gal.; Sandby, ii 161. 
" Sir DANIEL, born at Fintry, 

Stirlingshire, June 
4, 1806, died in 
Edinburgh, Jan. 
17, 1882. Portrait 
painter, pupil of the 
Trustees Academy, 
Edinburgh, under 
Sir William Allan. 
Noted as a portrait 
painter, and bad 
many distinguished sitters, among ivbom 
were Lord Brougham, Viscount Melville, 



Marquis of Lome, Duke of Buccleugh, Hugh 
Blair, and Norman McLeod. He was a mem- 
ber of the Royal Scottish Academy, of which | 
he was elected president in 1876, and he was >. 
knighted by the Queen the same year. Aead- j 
emy (1882), L 71 ; Athenseum (1882), L 132. , 
MACRINO D'ALBA, bom at Alba, died j 
before 1528. Real name Giovanni Jacopoj 
(Giangiacomo) Fava ; also called de AUadio. j 
Piedmontese school, history painter ; prob- 
ably studied in Milan, flourished about 1500 
and worked at Alba, Asti, and Turin. An ex- 
cellent painter, of great expressiveness in his 
countenances, brilliant colouring, masterly 
treatment of details, fine feeling for chiaro- j 
scuro, and solid irnpasto ; the first Pied- 
montese artist who made advances towards 
the realistic style of the Paduans. Works : 
Altarpiece in six panels with Madonna En- 
throned (14:96), Certosa, Pavia; Madonna 
with Saints and Angels (1498), Altar Wing 
with SS. Louis and Paul (1506), do. with 
St. John the Baptist, St Lawrence and St. 
Rose, Descent from the Cross, Several other 
Altar Wings with Saints, Gallery, Turin ; St. 
Agatha, Academy, ib.; Madonna and Saints, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort Lanzi (Roscoe), 
iii. 293 ; Lfibke, Gesch. ital MaL, i. 502 ; 
Meyer, KttnstL Lex., i. 169. 

McWHIRTER, JOHN, born at Inglis 
Green, near Edin- 
burgh, March 27, 
1839. Landscape 
painter; pupil of 
art-school of Board 
of Manufacturers, 
Edinburgh ; has 
travelled in Nor- 
way, Belgium, It- 
aly, the Tyrol, and 
other countries in 
search of subjects. 
Became an A.RS.A. in 1864, and A.R.A*. in 
1878 ; has resided in London since 1869. 
In 1877 he visited the United States, spend- 
ing considerable time in California, making 
studies in the Yosemite Valley. Works : 
Arch of Titus, Campagna (1864) ; Temple 

of Testa at Rome (1865) ; Old Edinburgh 
(1868); Loch Coruisk Isle of Skye (1869) ; 
Daybreak, Depths of the Forest (1870); 
Isle of Skye (1872) ; Fisherman's Haven 
(1873) ; Land of the Mountain and the 
Flood (1875) ; Lady of the "Woods (1876, 
Taylor sale, 1883, 643); Over the Border, 
Source of a River (1877) ; The Tanguard, 
Three Graces (1878); Last Days of Autumn, 
Valley by the Sea (Lee sale, 1879, 1,155), 
Highland Solitude, Highland Pastoral (1879); 
June, Lord of the Glen, May (1880) ; Roses 
and Rabbits, Mountain Tops, Sunday in High- 
lands, Summer Evening Venice (1881) ; 
Ossian's Grave, Highland Auction, Rainy 
Day Venice (1882); Sunset Fires, Nature's 
Mirror, Highland Harvest (1883); Ser- 
mon by the Sea, Windings of the Forth, 
Home of the Grizzly Bear, Forest Solitude 
(1884); Track of a Hurricane (1885); Three 
Witches (1886). Portfolio (1879), 93 ; Art 
Journal (1879), 9. 

New Bedford, Mass., Sept 11, 1853. Land- 
scape painter ; pupil of National Academy. 
Studied in Munich 'four years, two of them 
under Prof essor Velten. Sketched in Da- 
kota and Minnesota in 1879. Studios in 
New Bedford and New York. Works: Lake 
Starnberg, Early Winter (1877) ; Meadows 
near Munich, Landscape (1878) ; Early Sum- 
mer (1879); Bavaria near Tyrol, Forest Scene 
(1880) ; Edge of the Forest Bavaria (1881) ; 
On the Westport River (1882) ; Still Water 
on the Seine (1883) ; Old Forest in Winter, 
Early Winter, Winter Sunset (1884) ; Old 
Mill (1885); January in Bermuda, Somerset 
Bay, ib. (1886). Sheldon, 204. 

MADARASZ, VICTOR, born at Ftinf- 
kirchen, Hungary, about 1828. History 
painter, pupil in Vienna of WaldniCLller ; 
went in 1857 to Paris, where he met with 
success. Gold medal, Paris, 1861. Works : 
Episode in History of Hungary (1855) ; Clara 
Zach ; Helen Zrinyi ; Meeting of Zrinyi and 
Frangepan, Pesth Museum; Beheading of 
LadislausHunyadi. Gaz. desB. Arts (1861), 
xi. 191 ; Wurzbach, xvi. 237. 



sterdam in 1659, died there in 1709. Dutch 
school ; marine painter, the best pupil of I 
Ludolf Backhuyzen, whom he often ap- 
proached in the treatment of water, while 
his skies and aerial perspective are inferior ; i 
was especially skilled in the representation : 
of ships, of which he was also a builder. ! 
Spent most of his life at the court of Fred- , 
erick L of Prussia, and after his return to ' 
Amsterdam became a picture dealer. "Works : i 
Fleet of Frederic L on the Spree, "Whalers, ' 
Berlin Museum (not exhibited); Others in; 
Royal Palaces at Potsdam and Sans-Souci ; ! 
Roadstead of Amsterdam with many Ves- 
sels, Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Kramm, iv. 
1039 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 505. 

MADEE^ GEORG, bom at Steinach, Ty- 
rol, Sept 9, 1824, died at Gastein, May 31, i 
1881. History painter, pupil in Innsbruck ' 
of Hans Mader (1796-1848, by whom is an j 
Allegory on Sacred Music iii the Ferdinan- [ 
deum at Innsbruck) ; then at Munich Acad- ! 
emy of Heinrich Hess, and continued his 
studies under Kaulbach, Storch, and Johann 
Schraudolph ; assisted the latter in the 
frescos in Speyer Cathedral, returned to 
Tyrol, where in 1858-73 he painted cycles 
in fresco in churches at Bruneck and Stei- 
nach, spending his winters at Munich. He 
greatly promoted glass painting in his coun- 
try, and was one of the founders of the in- 
stitute for this branch of art at Innsbruck. 
"Works : Prophecy of Simon, Jesus in the 
Temple (1852), Vision of David and Abra- 
ham (1853), Speyer Cathedral ; Cycle from 
Life of Mary (1858-66), Bruneck, Tyrol; 
Cycle from Life of Christ (1867-73), Stei- 
nach, ib. ; Scenes from Life of the Magdalen, 
Martyrdom of St. Victor, Four Evangelists ; 
Death of St. Joseph, Court Chapel, Inns- 
bruck ; Cycle in Paris Church at Ischl, Up- 
per Austria. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 30 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvL 670; Mtffler, 347; 
Wurzbach, xvi 239. 

MADONNA, Mariotto Albertinelli, Fitz- 
william Museum, Cambridge ; wood, signed, 
dated 1509. The Virgin, with a pomegra- 

nate in her hand, holds the Child standing 
on a parapet ; John Baptist, with the ree J 
cross, looks on ; a bird pecks food ; vase of 
flowers on wall. Much repainted. Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., L 222 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 487. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg; wood, signed. The Virgin, sit- 
ting on the ground, holding Jesus to her 
bosom ; four angels, two of whom play on 
the mandolin. Painted in 1515. Engraved 
by Simonneau ; Sanders. C. & C., Italy, 
iii. 463 ; Hermitage Cat. 

By Giovanni Bellini, Brera, Milan ; wood, 
H 5 ft. x4 ft; signed, dated 1510. The 
Virgin, seated, with Jesus standing on her 
knees, before a green curtain ; background, 
a landscape, with a horseman and a shep- 
herd and flock. Formerly in Sannazaro 
Gallery, Milan. Finely modelled and richly 
coloured. C. & C., X. Italy i 184 ; Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., iii. 411, 418. 

By Lodovico G'arraeci, Louvre ; canvas 
upon wood, round, 3 ft. diam. The Virgin, 
seated, seen to knees, supports Jesus, stand- 
ing, with her left hand, and has the right 
upon a book. Bought by Louis XV. of 
Prince de Carignan for 800 livres. En- 
graved by Bart. Eoger ; Bettelini. Villot, 
Cai Louvre ; Musee royal, i. ; Filhol, viL 
PL 452. 

By GrMio Komano, Uffizi, Florence; wood. 
The Virgin holds a book in her left hand 
and gives flowers with the other to Jesus, 
who smiles at her. The shadows have black- 
ened. Paris, GaL di Firenze, PL 53; La- 
vice, 45. 

By Fra FUippo Lippi, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, round, 4 ft 3 in. diam. The 
Virgin, seated in a chair, holding a pome- 
granate, which Jesus, on her knee, grasps 
with his right hand ; in distance, to left, 
St. Anna in bed, and infant Virgin in arms 
of a nurse, a figure at bedside announcing 
the coming of a servant ; to right, two 
women and a child, with presents, ascend 
steps ; in distance, Joachim and Anna meet- 
ing. Head of the Virgin said to be a por- 
trait of Lucrezia ButL Engraved by GL 



Rossi. C. & C., Italy, ii. 333 ; Vasari, eel. 
Mil, ii. 630. 

By Bernardino Luini, Brera, Milan ; wood, 
H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. The Virgin, seen to 
knees, seated, with Jesus in her lap ; back- 
ground, a trellis work with roses. Group 
finely conceived ; great smoothness of finish. 
Bought from Convent of the Certosa, near 
Pavia, by Signor G. Bianchi, from whom ac- 
quired in 1825. Brera Cat. 

By Andrea JIantegna, Uffizi, Florence ; 
canvas, small figures. The Virgin, sitting 
on a stone, with Jesus asleep on her lap ; 
background, a rock tunnelled by quarry- 
men, a, road with shepherds and their flocks, 
and a castle on a distant hilL Painted 
about 1489. A beautiful little picture. C. 
& C, X. Italy, i. 403. 

By Murillo, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 

5 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. The Virgin, seated 
on a stone bench, holds Jesus on her lap ; 
his head rests on his hand, which is on her 
breast. By tradition, the Virgin is a por- 
trait of Dona Maria de Leganes, an ances- 
tress of the Counts of Altamira. Engraved 
by A. Semmler, D. J. Pound, F. Seiffert 
Curtis, 151 ; Gal. roy. de Dresde ; Bilder 
Brevier, 1858. 

By 3Iuritto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. x 3 ft. 5 in. The Virgin, full- 
length, seated on a stone bench, holds Jesus, 
standing with both feet on her lap. En- 
graved by G. Ballero, L. Martelli, A. Per- 
fetti, M. Steinla ; lithographed by Prat, 
Nap. Thomas. Curtis, 153 ; GaL du Pal. 

By JIurillo, Hague Museum ; canvas, EL 

6 ft 3 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, seated 
on clouds, supports Jesus on her left knee. 
Formerly in monastery at Ypres ; bought 
by William L in Antwerp. Engraved by J. 
Bemme in the Recueil Steengracht, No. 95. 
Lithographed by V. Peemans, in reverse ; j 
F. B. Waanders in Kunstkronijk of 1847. j 
Curtis, 150 ; Musee royal u la Haye ; De 
Stuers, 288. 

By Murillo, Duke of Bedford, London ; 
canvas, EL S ft 3 in. x2 ft 5 in. The Vir- 

gin, in lilac robe, blue mantle, and brown 
, scarf, seated, holds the Child on her lap ; 
her cheek touches his head, which rests on 
her left shoulder ; his left hand rests on the 
bosom of her dress. Calonne sale (1795), 
205 guineas ; Bryan sale (1798), to H. Hope, 
304. Eepetitions: Comtesse Robert de 
Pourtales, Paris ; Henry Mason, New York ; 
j Aguado sale (1843), 2,460 francs. Old copy 
in S. Isidoro, Seville. Curtis, 157. 
i By JIurillo, Lord Overstone, London ; 
! canvas, H. 5 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated on a stone bench, three quarters 
right, tenderly looks at Jesus, who is seated 
| on her lap, looking front, with both hands 
I on the neck of her dress. Formerly an 
altarpiece in house of Marques de Santiago, . 
Madrid, where considered finest small pict- 
ure of the master; carried to England in 
1809 by Mr. Wlis, and sold to Lord Ber- 
wick for 2,500 ; sold at Lord Berwick sale 
in 1825 ; bought by Lord Overstone in 1832. 
Palomino, iiL 421; Buchanan, Memoirs, 
ii. 221 ; Curtis, 154 

By Murillo, Lord Overstone, Lockinge, 
Berkshire, England; canvas, arched, H. 7 
ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, in crimson 
robe, blue mantle, and light blue veil on 
head, standing on clouds, in a glory of 
cherubs, with the Child on her right arm. 
Altarpiece of a church in Seville, whence 
taken by Soult. Before it left Spain, thieves 
cut out the centre part, containing the Vir- 
gin (half-length) and Child, which was sold 
in England to Mr. Gray of Hamnghay 
House, from whom Lord Overstone acquired 
it. Soult took mutilated remainder to 
Paris, where centre was replaced by a copy 
by Lejeune. At Soult sale (1852) the pict- 
ure, then called La Vierge Coupee, was bid 
in at 5,000 francs. In 1885 Lord Overstone 
purchased it of Soult's heirs, and the two 
parts were skilfully reunited after a separa- 
tion of more than forty years. Considered 
by Wornum one of the most beautiful of 
Muiillo's pictures of this class. Engraved 
by Leroux ; lithographed by Maggi, in re- 
verse. Lord Overstone owns also a study 


for it. Wornum, Epochs, 393 ; Curtis, ' Museum and in Bologna Gallery. C. & C., 
149. X. Italy, i. 563 ; Pinakothek zu Miinchen. 

By Murillo, Palazzo Corsini, Rome ; can- ; By Guido Reni, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, 'H. 5 ft, 4 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, | vas, oval, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft 11 in. The 
seated on a stone bench beside a broken ' Infant Christ asleep, adored by his mother, 
wall, holds Jesus seated on her lap. Cur- i Purchased by Prince Xaver and Count Bose, 
tis, 153 ; Sterling, ii. 910 ; Cunningham, 1764, for 860 thalers. 
Life of Wilkie, ii. 257. I By Pietro Perugino, National Gallery, 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, \ London ; wood, altarpiece in three divis- 
arched, H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. The Vir- ! ions ; H. 4 f i 2 in. ; centre 2 ft 1 in. 
gin, seated on a stone bench, holds Jesus i wide, sides each 1 ft 10 in. wide ; signed, 
seated on her lap. Painted about 1641 ; i Centre, the Virgin, kneeling, adoring the 
from Convent of Mercenaries Desealzos de i Infant, who is supported on a white cushion 
S. Jose. Engraved by A. Boilly. Repeti- ! by an angel in a landscape ; above, three 
tion or copy, Berlin Museum. Curtis, 154. 1 angels singing ; left, Archangel Michael in 

By Pietro Perugino, Nancy Museum, | armour ; right, Archangel Raphael and To- 
France ; wood. The Virgin, kneeling, with j bias. Painted about 1503 for the Certosa, 
her right arm on the shoulder of the boy j near Pavia ; purchased from it by a Melzi 
Baptist, who adores Jesus lying on a cash- ! in 1786, and bought from Duke Melzi of 
ion ; two angels kneeling in prayer beside ' Milan in 1856 for National Gallery. Passa- 
the Virgin ; background, landscape. Paint- ! vant thinks Raphael must have assisted in 
ed abo*ut 1504. In Collection of M. de J this meritorious composition. Richter calls 
Brissac in time of Louis XVI Much in- \ it the finest altarpiece painted by Perugino. 
jured and restored. C. & C., Italy, iii. 225. j Richter, Nat. GaL 50 ; Rumohr, It Forsch., 

By Sa8oferrato, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 ft j iii. 27 ; Passavant, Rafael, i. 59. 

6 in. x 2 ft The Virgin, seated, half-length, 
holds in her arms Jesus asleep, and bends 
her head over him ; above, on each side, a 
cherub's head among clouds. Collection of 
Louis XVIIL ; acquired in 1816 of M. 1'Abbe 

donna della Casa d'Alba. 

VAGH, Raphael, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, EL 15 in. x 13 in. The Virgin seated 

de Sambucy. Villot, Cat Louvre ! on a bench under an arcade with Jesus on 

By Tintoretto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; ! her knees, who has just received a pink 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. The Vir- 1 from St. John, standing at right ; back- 
gin, a glory of stars around her head, stand- ground, a hilly country with houses. Paint- 
ing in clouds on the crescent moon, holding j ed in Rome in 1510-11 ; formerly in Aldo- 
Jesus in her arms ; under her right hand, a j brandini (Borghese) Collection, Rome ; 
book. Engraved by MarcuccL GaL du! bought by Lord Garvagh, of London, of 
Pal. Pitti, iii. PL 91. ' Mr. Day for 1,500 ; purchased in 1865 for 

MADONNA IN ADORATION, Francesco National Gallery for 9,000. Many copies 

Francia, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 5 f t 4 
in. x 4 ft. ; signed. The Virgin standing, 
adoring the infant lying on ground before 
her in a garden of roses. Painted about 
1500 ; in Mn.-nt.inm collection till 1786 ; be- 
longed, about 1800, to Baron Si Saphorin, 
Danish envoy at Vienna ; afterwards in gal- 
lery of Empress Josephine at Malmaison, 

in Bergamo, Milan, Urbino, London, Berlin, 
etc. Engraved by AL Mochetti, in d'Agin- 
court ; A. Bridous. Passavant, ii. 107 ; 
Muntz, 377, 380 ; Grayer, Vierges de Raph- 
ael, iii 211 ; Bichter, 55 ; Lfibke,. Baphael, 
54, 104. 

MADONNA, ALFANI, Baphael (?), Casa 
Fabrizi, Terni ; wood, H. 1 ft. 8 in. x 13 in. 

whence bought in 1815. Copies in Berlin The Virgin seated on a bench, holding 



sus, who stands in her lap and clings to her 
veil ; above, on each side, a cherub's head. ; 
Painted in Perugia (1500). Took its name j 
from former owner, Countess Anna Alfani, | 
Perugia, on "whose death it passed to her j 
heiress, Countess Beatrix Fabrizi. Rumohr | 
and Passavant assign it to Raphael, but C. j 
& C. seek in vain for evidences of his hand- \ 
ling. Not engraved. Passavant, i. 55 ; iL j 
11 ; Mtintz, 58 ; Rumohr, Forschungen, iii. 
74 ; C. & C., Raphael, i. 92 ; Gruyer, Yierges 
de Raphael, iii. 9 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 16. 

oration of, Raphael, Berlin Museum. 

menico, Ancona ; wood, arched at top, H. 
10 ft. 5J in. x 6 ft. 8$ in.; signed. The Vir- 
gin and Child on a bank of clouds floating 
in the sky, with Gabriel kneeling to lift the 
hem of her mantle ; below, St. Francis with 
a cross, and St. Blaise, with his hand on the 
shoulder of a kneeling patron, pointing 
heavenward ; in the background, the la- 
goon, with Venice in the distance. Painted 
in 1520 for S. Francesco, but removed 
about 1880 to S. Domenico. C. &, C., Ti- 
tian, i. 233. 

donna del Collo Lungo. 

Florence Academy ; wood, H. 12 ft x S ft. 
2 in. The Virgin, with Jesus on her arm 
in the act of benediction, on a throne sup- 
ported by eight angels ; the throne rests on 
niched supports, in which stand the four 
prophets who foretold Christ's coming. 
Painted for the Badia of S. Trinita, Flor- 
ence. One of Cirnabue's earliest extant 
works; style still closely Byzantine. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., i. 250 ; C. & C., Italy, i. 206 ; 
Gal dell* Accad. di Firenze, PL 1 ; Riepen- 
hausen, Gesch. der Malerei, i. 6. 

By Cimabue, Louvre ; wood, H. 13 ft 10 
in. x 9 ft. The Virgin, enthroned, with 
Jesus on her lap ; on each side are three 
angels, placed at equal distances one above 
another; on the border, forming part of 
the picture, are twenty-six medallions of 

saints and apostles. Painted for S. Fran- 
cesco, Pisa. Vasari, ed. Mil., L 251 ; C. & 
C., Italy, i. 206. 

By Francesco Francia, Munich Gallery ; 
wood, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft 6 in. The Virgin sup- 
ports Jesus who is standing, on a table and 
holding a bird ; in rear, two angels. Paint- 
ed about 1490 ; obtained by Maximilian n. 
from Zambeccari Collection, Bologna, and 
given by hi to Gallery in 1832. C. & C., 
N. Italy, i. 561 ; Pinak. zu Mtinchen, PL 

By RaJfaellino del Garbo, Berlin Museum ; 
wood, round, tempera, small. The Virgin 
standing, with Jesus in her arms, before a 
balustrade in a landscape ; at each side an 
angel, with musical instruments. A notably 
graceful composition, almost Raphaelesque 
in conception. C. & C., Italy, iiL 417. 

By Fra Filippo Lippi, Uffizi, Florence; 
wood, figures life-size. The Virgin, half 
life-size, . seated at left, adores Jesus held 
up to her by two angels. A very fine ex- 
ample. Sketch in the Uffizi. Similar com- 
position, with but one angel and the Virgin 
in act of taking the Child, in the Chiesa 
degli Innocenti, Florence. C. & C., Italy, 
ii. 347 ; MoHni, Gall, di Firenze, iii. 84. 

By Andrea Hantegna, Brera, Milan. The 
Virgin seated on clouds, in a glory of sing- 
ing angels' heads, holding the Infant Christ 
standing on her lap, his arms around her 
neck. This picture was attributed to the 
school of Giovanni Bellini until 1885, when 
it was discovered that the face of the Virgin 
had been reduced in size by some restorer 
in the 17th century, who had painted a 
white cloth enveloping the head. It is be- 
lieved to be the picture painted in 1485 for 
Eleonora d'Aragona, Duchess of Ferrara, 
afterwards taken to Venice, where it was 
placed in the Church of S. Maria Maggiore, 
and whence it was brought to Milan in the 
time of Napoleon I. Vasari, ed. Mil, iiL 
394; Gaz. des B. Arts (1866), xx. 482; 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 436 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xxi. 101. 

By Michelangelo, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, tempera, H. 3 ft 4 in. x 2 ft 6 



in. The Virgin, seated, holding an open : 
book, on which Jesus, standing by her side, 
has placed his right hand ; behind him is 
the infant St. John, and on each side are 
two angels, one of whom is reading from a 
scroll Unfinished. Cat. Nat. Gal 

By fiubens, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. \ 
x 3 ft 3 in. The Virgin, with Jesus in her ; 
arms, is borne upon clouds and sustained 
by groups of wingless angels ; above, two 

Madonna with Angels, Rubens, Louvre. 

suspend a crown over her head while others 
hold palms. Copy at Potsdam by a pupil 
of Eubens. Engraved by Visscher; by 
anonymous, with changes. Cat Louvre ; 
Landon, Muse, v. PL 57 ; Smith, ii. 116. 

tional Gallery, London ; wood, H. 9 ft. x 5 
ft., figures full-length, less than life-size ; 
dated 1506. The Virgin on a high throne 
with Jesus on her knees, both reading from 
a book ; on the left stands John Baptist ; 
on right, Bishop Nicholas of Bari, with cro- 

zier and book Painted at Perugia for An- 
sidei family, as an altarpiece for chapel of 
S. Niceola da Bari in S. Fiorenzo ; bought 
in 1764 by Lord Eobert Spencer, who placed 
in the chapel a copy by Niccola Monti, and 
presented to his brother, Duke of Marlbor- 
ough, whence sometimes called Blenheim 
Madonna; bought for National Gallery 
(1884) for 70,000. Engraved by L. Gru- 
ner (1856). C. & C., Raphael, i. 222 ; Pas- 
savant, ii. 31 ; MOntz, 214 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 127 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Eaphael, 
iiL 447 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 31, 95 ; Portfolio 
(1884), 204. 

bale Carracci, Louvre ; canvas, EL 13 ft 1 
in. x 7 ft. 5 in. ; signed, dated 1592. At 
left, Si Luke, kneeling, implores the Virgin, 
who, with Jesus in her arms and surround- 
ed by the other Evangelists, appears in 
glory ; at right, St. Catherine, her foot upon 
the wheel' Painted, according to Malvasia, 
for the chapel of the notaries in the Cathe- 
dral of Reggio. From Musee Napoleon. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Musee, ii. PL 

Sir William Eden, Bart, London ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft x 3 ft. 3 in. The Virgin holds the 
Child seated on her knee ; he has an apple 
in one hand and with the other clasps one 
of her fingers. Second manner. Bought 
in 1834 from Julian Williams. Curtis, 155; 
Athenaeum, Aug. 18, 1877. 

pies), Andrea del Sarto, Uffizi, Florence ; 
signed, dated 1517. The Virgin (said to be 
a portrait of Lucrezia Fede, wife of Andrea), 
with Jesus in her arms, standing supported 
by two boy angels on a pedestal, on which 
harpies are sculptured; on the left, St. 
Francis ; on the right, Si John Evangelist 
Painted for S. Francesco, Florence ; bought 
by Ferdinando de' Medici, who placed in 
the church a copy by Francesco PetruccL 
One of the best of Andrea's easel picturea 
Engraved in 1832 by J. Felsing ; Lasinio ; 
Lorenzini Vasari, ed. Mil, v. 20 ; C. & C, 



Italy, iii. 561 ; Ch. Blanc, ificole florentine ; Pescia. The original was carried to Paris 
Lavice, 52. ; in 1796, and given by Napoleon to the Mu- 

MADONNA DEL BACINO. See Holy seum of Brussels, but restored to Italy in 
Family del Bacino. , 1815. Much injured by cleaning and by 

MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO (of j the retouching of Agostino Cassana. Stud- 
the Canopy), Raphael, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- j ies in the Louvre, at Chatsworth, and in the 
ence ; wood, EL 10 ft. x 6 ft. The Virgin, j Lille Collection. Engraved by Lorenzini ; 
enthroned, with Jesus on her knees; atlNicolet (1802); G. Morghen ; Biondi; and 
left, SS. Augustine and James ; at right, j Landon. Yasari, ed. 101., iv. 328 ; C. & C., 
SS. Peter and Bernard ; in front, two boy i Kaphael, i. 369 ; Passavant, ii. 90 ; Mtintz, 

196 ; Qruyer, Vierges de Raphael, 
iii. 477 ; Landon, Musee, iv. PI. 33 ; 
Gal. du PaL Pitti, iv. PI. 90 ; Lttbke, 
Raphael, 35, 101. 

(of the Shed), attributed to Lippo 
Dahnasio, church of same name, in 
Bologna. The Virgin and Child en- 
throned within an archway ; angels 
hold candelabra at sides, and, lower 
down, a male and female look up to 
Virgin's face. Repainted in 1472 
by. Francesco Cossa, who added the 
figures below, the male being sup- 
posed to be a portrait of Giovanni 
Bentivoglio, and the female of Maria 
Vinciguerra. The church was es- 
tablished in 1403, in honor of the 
miracles performed by the picture, 
which was painted on a bastion of 
the .city walls. C. & C., N. Italy, L 
524 ; Gualandi, Guida, 139. 

See Madonna della Cesta. 

LIEF, attributed to Leonardo da 
Vinci, Collection of Lord Monson, Gatton 
Park, England. The Virgin, seated, hold- 
ing Jesus, who reaches forward to greet St. 
John; Joseph and Zacharias standing be- 
hind, looking at Jesus ; the bas-relief is seen 
in the lower corner of the picture, under Si 
John. Similar in composition to the Holy 
Family of the Hermitage. Probably painted 
in Milan about 1490. Reduced copy in Fitz- 
william Museum, Cambridge ; copy in Melzi 
Collection, Milan. Waagen attributes this 

Madonna del Baldacchino, Raphael, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

angels singing, and above, two others rais- 
ing the curtains of the canopy over the 
throne. Begun in 1508, for chapel of Dei 
family in S. Spirito, Florence, but left in- 
complete when Raphael went to Rome. 
After Raphael's death bought by Baldas- 
sare Turini for the Cathedral of Pescia, 
whence sometimes called Madonna di Pes- 
cia ; sold in 1697 to Ferdinando de' Medici, 
son of Grand Duke Cosmo HL, who placed 
it in the Pilti. A copy, made at the time 

by Pietro Dandini, is still in the cathedral at ! picture to Marco d'Oggione, Passavant to 



Salaino, and Mtlndler to Cesare da Sesto. 
Engraved by Forster. Heatoru 76 r 238 ; 
Eigollot, Hist, des Arts, etc., i. 274 ; Hand- 
ler, Essai, 114 ; Ch. Blanc, eole florentiue ; 
Kugler (Eastlake), iL 356. 

MADONNA DE BELEN, Jlurilto, Seville 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. :: 3 ft. 2 in. 
The Virgin, seated, holds the Child, \vho 
lies across her lap on a white cloth ; with 
his right hand he seizes the neck of her 
dress ; his left hangs down in front. From 

Belie Jardiniere Madonna, Raphael, Louvre. 

Capuchin Convent, Seville. Probably paint- 
ed about 1676. Curtis, 155. 

donna del Campanello. 

(Bella Giardiniera), Baphael, Louvre ; wood, 
arched at top, BL 4 ft x2 ft. 8 in.; dated 
1507 or 1508. The Virgin is seated in a 
meadow with landscape in background; 
Jesus, with his hand in her lap, stands by 
one knee, and St. John, holding a cross, 
kneels at the other. Supposed to be .the 

picture ordered by Filippo Segardi of Si- 
ena ; left incomplete in Florence by Raph- 
ael, when summoned to Rome, and finished 
by Ridolfo Ghirlaudajo. who painted the 
blue mantle of the Virgin. Segardi sold it 
to Francis I., from whose collection it passed 
to the Louvre. Passavant notes many copies ; 
the best one is in the Townshend Collec- 
tion, Kensington Museum, London. An- 
other belongs to Lord Ashburton, Bath 
House, London. Engraved by E. Rousselet 
(1656); Chereau; N. Poilly ; B. Desnoyers; 
Audouin ; Laugier ; G. Levy ; J. Bal ; Mas- 
sard ; Sasso ; N. Aurelio. Yasari, ed. Mil, 
iv. 328 ; C. & C, Raphael, i. 361 ; Passa- 
vant, iL 67 ; Muntz, 185 ; Cab. Crozat, i. PL 
6 ; Filhol, vL PL 427 ; Kellogg, Researches 
in the History, etc., of La Belle Jardiniere 
(London, 1860); Gruyer, Yierges de Raph- 
ael, iii. 155 ; Landon, Musee, iv. PL 13 ; 
Musc-e fran<;ais, i. : Perkins, 73; Lubke, 
Raphael, 34, 101. 

, viano Selli, S. M. Nuova, Gubbio ; tempera 
on wall, now under glass ; dated 1403. 
Virgin, seated, holding Jesus on her lap, 
j surrounded by saints and angels of different 
sizes arranged symmetrically against a blue 
diaper ground. Their faces are sweet, 
though neither mystic nor elevated in char- 
acter. The system of highly contrasted 
colours, abundant ornament, and minute 
design is characteristic of the earlier TJm- 
brian school, which developed on a Sienese 
basis. Chromo-lithograph in collection of 
Arundel Society. C. & G, Italy, iii. 88. 

di Ansidei. 

Goppo di Marcovaldo. 

dei CandelabrL 

Bridgewater House, London ; wood, trans- 
ferred to canvas, H. 2 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft 10 in. 
The Virgin sitting, with Jesus lying on her 
knees grasping bar veil Painted in Rome 
in 1511-12 ; passed from Seigneky Collec- 



tion to M. deMontarsis, thence to M. Bonde ! MADONNA OF BURGOMASTER 
du Roy, from whom bought by Due d'Or- j MEYER, Hans Holbein, the younger, Col- 
leans { transferred to canvas by Hacquin ; j lection of Princess Charles of Hesse Dann- 
bought by Duke of Bridgewater for 3,000. ; stadfc ; wood, H. 4 ft. 9 in. X 3 ft. 4 in. The 
Old copies in museums of Berlin and Na- Virgin, as Queen of Heaven, standing in a 
pies, National Gallery, London, and Histori- niche, holding Jesus, who extends one hand 
cal Society, New York. Engraved by Bou- in benediction ; on left, kneeling, are Jacob 
langer ; Lannessin ; Romanet ; F. Poilly ; \ Meyer, burgomaster of Basle, and a youth, 
G. Heinzmann ; Giudetti (1827) ; Schuller ! the latter holding a nude infant standing ; 

(1827); Lorichpn (1832); C. Cattaneo; Dul- 
mer ; Landon. Passavant, iL 110 ; Spring- 

Madonna of Burgomaster Meyer, Hans Holbein, Darmstadt 

er (Dohme, 2iL), 74; Cab. Crozat, i. 21; 
Gower, Hist. GaL of England ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, iiL 82 ; Ldbke, Raph- 
ael, 55, 105 ; "Waagen, Treasures, iL 27, 493. 
van JSyck, Marquis of Exeter, Burghley 
House, near Stamford, England. The Vir- 
gin with Infant Christ in her arms, and St. 
Barbara presenting the donor, an ecclesias- 
tic in white robes, who is kneeling. "Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iiL 406. 

on right, kneeling, are Meyer's first wife, 
Magdalen Ber, his second wife, Dorothea 
Kannengiesser, and Dorothea's daughter 
Anna. Painted about 1525-26. Bought in 
Paiis in 1822 from M. Delehante by Prince 
TVilhelm of Prussia for 2,500 thalers. Rep- 
lica in Dresden Gallery. Mantz, Hans Hol- 
bein, 54 ; TV. & TV., iL 469 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
i. 206 ; Forster, v. 

Titian, Burleigh House, England ; half- 
length, half of life-size. The Virgin, seated 
on a stone bench in front of a landscape, 
looks fondly at Jesus, who smiles as he lies 
full-length in her lap. Painted about 1508. 
C. & C., Titian, i. 111. 

parish church of Cadore ; canvas, H. 2 ft. x 
4 ft. 3 in. The Virgin (Titian's last wife-?) 
bends over Jesus, to whom she gives the 
breast ; to the right, St. Andrew (Francesco 
Vecelli), bending under a large cross ; to 
the left, St. Titian of Oderzo (said to be 
Marco Vecelli) kneeling in prayer, with an 
acolyte (Titian himself) bearing a crozier. 
Painted about 1560, after death of his 
brother Francesco Vecelli, probably by 
Orazio Vecelli, though Vasari assigns it to 
Titian. The part containing the Madonna 
and St. Andrew was cut out by a thief, but 
recovered and restored to its place. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vii. 442"; C. & C., Titian, ii. 297 ; 
Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 265 ; Gilbert, Cadore, 
96, 98. 


DE 5 CALZOLARI (of the 

Sodoma, fresco on a house, 

corner of the Piazza de Tolomei, Siena. 
The Virgin, with Jesus in her arms, between 
SS. John, Francis,. Roeh, and Crispin, the 



last with a shoe in his hand. Painted in 
1530 for the Guild of Shoemakers; now 
nearly destroyed by fumes from a metal- 
founder's furnace. Vasari, ed. Mil, vL 391 ; 
Jansen, Leben und Werke des Soddoma 
(Stuttgart, 1870), 162 ; Meyer, -Kimst. Lex., 

LENGffl, Tintoretto, SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 
Venice ; canvas, H. about 7 ft. x IS ft. The 
Madonna, seated in a Venetian loggia, at- 
tended by SS. Sebastiano, Rocco, Marco, 
and Teodoro ; in front, the three Camer- 
lenghi (chamberlains) in their official dress, 
kneel or bend before her as the three Magi ; 

Madonna det Candelabn, Raphael, Butler-Johnstone Collection. 

behind them, three Venetian servants with 
offerings in a sack. Absurd as an Adora- 
tion of the Magi, but perfect as a piece of 
portraiture and artistical composition. For- 
merly in the ex-Magistrato de* CamerlenghL 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iiL 306 ; Za- 
notto, 289 ; Boschini, 265. 

Bell), Bartolommeo Schidone, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; wood, H. 10 in. x 8 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated, with Jesus in her lap ; he reaches 
forward to take a bell from her hand. GaL 
du Pal. Pitti, iiL PL 98. 

Candelabras) or DEI ITACCOLE (of the 

Torches), Raphael, Butler-Johnstone Collec- 
tion, London : round, wood, 2 ft. 1J- in. 
diameter. The Virgin, with Jesus on her 
knees, her eyes downcast, is looking tow- 
ard the spectator. On each side an angel 
holding a torch. These are later additions, 
not by Raphael The principal figures have 
been much restored, but show admirable 
t drawing ; the Virgin is noble and dignified, 
and the Child full of life and action. Paint- 
ed in Home in 1516-17 ; the latest of Raph- 
ael's Madonnas which represent only the 
Virgin and Child. In Rome, in last century, 
in Palazzo Borghese, whence sometimes 
called Borghese Madonna ; passed thence to 
'Lucien Bonaparte, then to Maria Louisa, 
daughter of Charles IV. of Spain and Queen 
. of Etruria, from whom inherited by her son 
i Charles Louis, Duke of Lucca, who sent it 
: to London, where it was bought in 1841 by 
1 Mr. H. A. J. Munro, of Novar ; bought in 
:at his sale (1878), for 20,000, by Ms 
; nephew, Mr. H. A. Munro-Butler-Johnstone, 
who brought it to New York in 1882 and 
! deposited it in the Metropolitan Museum, 
where it was offered for sale at 200,000. 
! Returned to England in 1884 Engraved 
; by Era. Moraces ; Bettellini ; Blot ; Fabri ; 
Folo; Bridoux; Gustave Levy. Grayer, 
, VIerges de Raphael, iii. 97 ; Passavant, iL 
! 243 ; "Waagen, Treasures, iL 132 ; London 
j Times, June 3, 1878 ; London Telegraph, 
June 3, 1878 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 56, 109. 

Family, Canigiani. 

PAELE, Jan van Eyck, Bruges Academy; 
wood, H. 4 ft. x 5 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 
1436. The Virgin enthroned, under a 
canopy in a Roman church, holding Jesus, 
who has a parrot in his hand, in her lap ; 
to right, St. George, standing, raising his 
helmet, and Canon Van der Paele, the donor, 
kneeling ; to left, St. Donatian, standing. 
Painted for St Donatian, Bruges. Old copy 
in Antwerp Museum. Dohme (Keane), 
227 ; W. & W., iL 20 ; C. & C., Flemish 
Painters, 108 ; Le Beffiroi, iL 28. 




Madonna del Baldacchino. 

Bartolommeo (?), Galerie Abel, Paris ; round, 
4 ft. diameter. Virgin and Cliikl, St. Fran- 
cis kneeling between angels and the young 
Baptist giving fruits to the Saviour. Said 
to have been begun by Fra Bartolommeo 
and finished by Eaphael ; but Passavant 
says Eaphael had nothing to do with it. 
Belonged to collection of Cardinal Bonzi, 
who took it to France in 1671. -Marchese, 

Madonna del Cardellino, Raphael, Uffizi, Florence. 

ii. 47 ; Passavant, Eaphael, ii. 413 ; C. & C., 
Italy, iii. 477. 

Bottle), attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, 
Palazzo Borghese, Eome. So called because 
a bottle containing flowers is one of its ac- 
cessories. Painted in Florence about 1472 ; 
belonged to Clement VU, who greatly prized 
it. D'Argenville speaks of it as in the Vati- 
can in 1762. It is probably by Lorenzo di 
Credi. Heaton, 281; Eigollot, Hist, des 

Arts, etc., i. 264 ; Clement, 341 ; Richter, 
Leonardo, 8. 

Goldfinch), Eaphael, Tribune of the Uffizi, 
Florence ; wood, H. 3 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. ; 
figures full-length, under life-size. The 
Virgin, seated in a meadow, holding a book, 
looking at infant St. John, who is offering a 
goldfinch to Jesus ; in distance the city of 
Florence. Painted in 1506 as a wedding 
present for Lorenzo Nasi of Florence. In 
1547, when the Casa Nasi was crushed by a 
landslip from Monte S. Giorgio, the picture 
was broken into pieces, which have been 
cleverly joined. Copies in Geneva Museum, 
in Consiglio di Stato at Florence, and in 
possession of Mr. Verity in London, but 
none by Eaphael. Engraved by E. Morghen 
(1814) ; Martinet ; P. Nocchi ; A. Kriiger 
(1830) ; J. Pavon ; Eeipenhausen. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 322 ; Passavant, i. 34 ; Miintz, 
180 ; C. & C., Eaphael, i. 256 ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Eaphael, iii. 146 ; Molini, Gal. 
di Firenze, i. 121; Perkins, 73; Ltlbke, 
Eaphael, 34, 96 ; Eosini, iv. 48. 

Antonio da Murano and Bartolomeo Viwrini, 
Bologna Gallery ; wood, tempera. In centre, 
the Virgin enthroned adoring Jesus asleep 
in her Lap ; on one side, in a niche, a bishop 
with book and crozier; on the other, S8. 
Jerome, John Baptist^ and Nicholas of Bari ; 
upper course, centre, Christ between angels; 
in niches, SS. Peter, Gregory, Augustine (?), 
and Paul, in half-length. Painted in Venice 
in 1450, by order of Pope Nicholas V., to 
commemorate the services of Cardinal Al- 
bergati. One of the most tasteful combina- 
tions of architectural carving and panel 
painting of its period in N. Italy. The fig- 
ures show the influence of the Paduan school 
as affected by Donatello. C. & C., N. Italy, 
i. 30 ; Eosini, PL 61. 

[of the Alva Family), Raphael, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; wood, round, 9 in. diam. 
The Virgin, in a fine landscape, leans her 
Dack against the trunk of a tree, while Jesus, 


on her knees, takes a cross offered him by Turk symbolize the victory over the Turks 
bt. John kneeling. Painted in Borne in at Santa Mama. Painted in 1526 ; still in 

its original place, near which is Titian's 
tomb. One of the finest art creations of 
any age (C. & 0.). C. & 0., Titian, L 305 ; 

1508-9 ; formerly in the Church of Monte 
Oliveto at Nocera clei Pagani, near Naples 
and bought by the Marchese del Oarpio 
Viceroy of Naples, for about 1,000 scudi 
Later in gallery of Duke d' Alba, Madrid 
Duchess d' Alba said to have left it in 1801 
to her doctor, who sold it to Count Bourke, 
Danish Ambassador at Madrid ; sold by him 
for 4,000 to the banker Coesvelt, who sold 
it in 1836 to Nicholas I of Russia for 14,- 
000. Ancient copies numerous. Engraved 
by Desnoyers (1823); Fr. von Stadler; Vi- 

Madonna delta Casa d'Alba, Raphael, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

tali ; autotype by Ad. Braun & Co., Paris. 
Passavant, ii. 105 ; Mtintz, 377 ; Springer, 
193 ; Gaz. des B. Arts, xvii. (1864), 321 ; 
xix. (1879), 187 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Raph- 
ael, iii. 193 ; Ltlbke, Baphael, 54, 103 ; Re- 
veil, i. 49. 

S. M. de' Frari, Venice ; canvas, arched at 
top, figures larger than life. The Virgin, 
with Jesus in her lap, enthroned in the por- 
tico of a temple ; SS. Peter, Francis, and 
Anthony of Padua implore her intercession 
in favor of Jacopo Pesaro and other mem- 
bers of the Pesaro family, who kneel at the 
foot of the throne ; a man in armour with 
the standard of the Church and a captive 

Moschini, Guida di Venezia, ii. 194. 

da Verona, Casa Scotti, Milan. Formerly 
ascribed to Mantegna. 

Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 
7 in. The Virgin, half-length, standing, 
pressing Jesus tenderly in her arms ; back- 
ground, landscape with town. A master- 
piece which shows an almost absolute aban- 
donment of Umbrian for Tuscan principles 
(C. & C.). Painted in Florence in 1506. 
Long unnoticed, covered with dust in Casa 
Tempi, Florence, where it was as early as 
1677 ; sold in 1829 to Louis L of Bavaria 
for 16,000 scudi. Much damaged sketch, 
of doubtful authenticity, in Husee Fabre, 
Montpellier. Engraved by B. Desnoyers ; 
Ant. Morghen ; S. Jesi ; S. Amsler ; Wag- 
ner ; Th. Kisling. C. & C., Raphael, i. 269 ; 
Passavant, ii. 37 ; Mtatz, 170 ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, iii. 43 ; Ltibke, Raph- 
ael, 33, 97; Pinak. zu Munchen, PL; Ci- 
velli, BelL di Firenze, 282. 

Giovanni Antonio Beltraffio, Louvre ; wood, 
6 ft 1 in. square. The Virgin, seated in cen- 
tre, with infant Jesus on her knees, receiving 
he homage of two kneeling donors, Giaco- 
mo and Girolamo Casio ; the latter, a poet, 
crowned with laurel, presented by S. John 
Baptist ; near him is S. Sebastian attached 

a tree. Painted hi 1500 for the chapel 
of the Casio family in the Church of the 
Misericordia, near Bologna, in commemora- 
ion of the deliverance of Girolamo Casio 
de' Medici, the poet, from captivity by the 
Furks. Passed from the chapel to the 
Srera, Milan, whence it was acquired by 
he Muse*e franais by exchange in 1812. 
Ch. Blanc, iScole milanaise ; Mtlndler, 39. 

Madonna, with Saints, Giorgione. 



na del Gatto ; Holy Family. La Peiia. 

Family del Bacino. 

See GaUerani. 

Faja, of the Swatliing-Band), Murillo, Due 
de Montpensier, Seville ; canvas, H. 4 f t. 6 
in. x 3 ft. 8 in. The Virgin, seated on a 
stone bench, swathes the Child with linen 
while lying in her lap ; on each side, an 

Madonna delta Cesta, Correggio, National Gallery, London. 

angel, one playing a guitar, the other a vio- 
lin ; above, six heads. Second manner. 
Painted for the Marques del Aguila ; re- 
mained at Seville until 1840, when sold for 
60,000 francs to King Louis Philippe, at 
whose sale bought by Due de M. for 1,500. 
Exhibited in Boston, II S., in 1874. Copy 
'*by Tobar in Cadiz Museum. Eepetitions : 
William H. Smith, Greenlands, Henley-on- 
Thames, Buckinghamshire ; Pesth Gallery. 
Lithographed by M. Lavigne, Geoffroy, 
Coquardon, Eicaud, Vayron, and others. 
Oh. Blanc, iScole espagnole ; Curtis, 156. 


Basket), Correggio, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, 1 ft. 14- in. x 15 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated, with a basket of linen near her, 
is putting a shirt on Jesus, who sits in her 
lap ; in background, Joseph at work, car- 
pentering. Painted about 1520. In Royal 
Collection, Madrid; given by Charles IV. 
to his minister, Don Manuel Godoy ; passed 
to France during French invasion of Spain ; 
brought to England by the painter Wallace, 
who offered it for sale for 1,200 in 1813, 
and sold to Lapeyriure, at whose sale in 
1825 it was bought for 80,000 francs by M. 
Nieuwenhuys, who sold it to National Gal- 
lery for 3,800. A work of the rarest deli- 
cacy. Several copies, by G. Carpi, A, Ctxr- 
racci, and others. Eeplica, attributed to 
Correggio, in Bridgewater House, bought 
from Orleans Gallery for 1,200. Copy in 
Madrid Museum. Engraved by Ghisi ; 
Aquila ; Fuccioli ; Doo ; Freeman ; and 
Wright. Meyer, Correggio, 326, 283; 
Ktlnst. Lex., i. 433 ; Waagen, Treasures, i. 
329 ; Eichter, 63. 

donna della Sedia ; Madonna della Silla. 

tributed to Annibale Garracci, Louvre ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. x 3 ft. 2 in. The Virgin, seated, 
with Jesus upon her knees ; at left, St. Jo- 
seph offering cherries. Probably a school 
piece. Musoe Napoleon. Engraved by J. 
Boulanger. Copy in .Berlin Museum. Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Titian, Vienna Museum ; wood, trans- 
ferred to canvas, H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 1 in. 
The Virgin sits behind a parapet, on which 
Jesus stands holding with both hands a 
bunch of cherries, which he offers to her ; 
infant St. John looking up with longing 
eyes ; on one side is St. Joseph with a staff, 
on the other St. Zacharias. Painted about 
1508. In collection of Archduke Leopold 
Wilhelm in middle of 17th century. Copy 
by Teniers at Blenheim, England ; others 
in Prague, Venice, and Padua. Engraved 
by Lefebre. 0. & C., Titian, i. 10S. 




the Long Neck), Parmigianino, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; wood, H. 6 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 3 in.; 
signed. Called also M. degli Angeli (of the 
Angels). The Virgin, seated, gazing on in- 
fant Jesus asleep in her lap ; on one side a 
group of angels, one bearing a vase. Paint- 
ed by order of Elena Bajardi-Tagliafeni 
(1534) for the Cappella dei Tagliaferri in 

Madonna del Collo Lungo, Parmigianino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence 

S. M. de' Servi, Parma; sold in 1674 to 
Cosimo HL de' Medici, and placed in Pitti. 
Carried to Paris in 1799 ; restored in 1815. 
Vasari, ed. Mil, v. 231 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole 
lombarde, Parmigianino ; GaL du Pal. Pitti, 
iii. 76 ; Lavice, 66 ; Landon, Musee, v. PL 

MADONNA, COLONNA (della Casa Co- 
lonna), Raphael, Berlin Museum ; wood, H, 
2 ft 6 in. x 1 ft. 10 in.; figure to the knees ; 
unfinished. The Virgin, sitting, has a book 

in one hand and holds Jesus in her lap with 
the other ; he clings to her dress with one 
hand and tries to rise. Painted in Perugia 
(?) about 1508 ; belonged to the Salviati f am- 
ily, Florence, whence passed by inheritance 
to the Colonna ; bought in Rome of Maria 
Colonna, wife of Duke Giulio Zante della Ro- 
vere, by Chevalier Bunsen for Prussian gov- 
ernment. Probably mostly the work of 
Donienico Alfani. Many copies. Engraved 
by Masquelier (1820); Barocci (1827); Cas- 
par ; Reveil ; P. Lightfoot (1849); Ed. Man- 
del (1855). C. & C., Raphael, i. 349 ; Pas- 
savant, ii. 66 ; Mtintz, 176 ; Grayer, Vierges 
de Raphael, iii. 71; Ltibke, Raphael, 33, 

gio. See Zingarella. 

Rabbit, Vierge au Lapin), Titian, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. X 2 f i 9 in.; signed. 
The Virgin, seated on the grass, with her 
hand on a white rabbit, which St. Catherine, 
with Jesus in her arms, stoops to look at ; 
in background, St. Joseph fondles a black 
lamb near a hut ; a summer landscape with 
distant hills. Painted in 1530 for Federico 
Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua ; belonged to 
Louis 5IV. No copies known. C. & C., 
Titian, i. 338 ; Filhol, viL PL 493 ; Landon, 
Musee, xiii. PL 8. 

STAFFA, Raphael, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; wood transferred to canvas, 6J in. 
sq. The. Virgin, standing in a landscape, 
holds Jesus on her left arm and reads from 
a book, which the Child is trying to grasp ; 
in background, hills covered with snow, a 
boat on a lake, and a man on a white horse. 
"A genuine and almost priceless master- 
piece " (C. & C.)- Picture formerly a round 
in a square, the panel of one piece with the 
frame. Painted 'in Perugia about 1502-3 
for Alfano di Diamante, uncle of Raphael's 
friend, Domenico di Paris Alfani, from whom 
it descended to the collateral branch of the 
Connestabile Stafia family, Perugia. Sold 
by Count Scipione Connestabile of Perugia 



in 1871 for 330,000 francs to the Emperor | knees, whose infant lies dead at her feet. 

of Eussia, and given by him to the Empress, 
who bequeathed it to the Hermitage. Orig- 
inal sketch in Berlin Museum shows the 
Virgin with a pomegranate instead of a book 
in her .hand; when the picture was trans- 
ferred to canvas in St. Petersburg the out- 
line of the hand and the pomegranate was 
found, showing that Raphael changed the 
design on the panel and substituted the 
book, from which the picture was formerly 
named Madonna del Libro (of the Book). 
Copy in Perugia Gallery ; several others 

Madonna del Comglio, Titian, Louvre. 

mentioned by Passavant. Engraved by P. 
Mocchi ; Ant. Kruger ; S. Amsler ; engraved 
from copies by P. Caronni ; Th. Richomme. 
0. & 0., Raphael, i. 171 ; Passavant, ii. 
15 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 16, 92 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1878), xviii. 209 ; (1879), six. 188 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 18 ; Gior- 
nale di Erudizione artistica, VL; Graphic 
(London), May 26, 1883. 

Consolatrice), William Adolphe JSouguereau, 
Luxembourg Museum, Paris ; canvas, H. 6 
ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 11 in. The Virgin enthroned, 
with both hands upraised, offers consolation 
to a mother, lying in despair across her 

Salon, 1877. 

MADONNA, COWPER (the little), 
ael, Panshanger House, near Hertford, Eng- 
land ; wood, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft. 5 in. The Vir- 
gin, half-length, sitting ; Jesus, with one 
foot placed on her outstretched palm, has 
both arms round her neck ; background, 
landscape with a church. Painted in Flor- 
ence in 1505 ; preserved there until bought 
by; Lord Cowper, when ambassador at Court 
of Tuscany. Copy in Lombardi Collection, 
Florence. C. & C., Raphael, i. 250 ; Passa- 
vant, ii. 26 ; Miintz, 169 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raph- 
ael, iii. 37. 

CUP. See Madonna della 

CURTAIN. See Madonna 
della Tenda. 

LTVRANCE, Ernest Htbwt, 
Church at Grenoble. The 
Virgin, seated, with Jesus, 
nude, in her lap, his right 
hand raised to his chin. 
Engraved by A. Huot, 
Book Buyer, Dec. 1884. 

DEM (Vierge au Diademe), 
Raphael, Louvre ; wood, H. 
2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. Called also Madonna 
del Velo or Vierge au Voile (Veil), Vierge au 
Linge (Linen), Sommeil de Jesus, and Si- 
lence de la Sainte Vierge. The Virgin, 
crowned with a diadem, stooping over Jesua 
asleep, raising the veil which covers him to 
show him to St. John, who kneels at right. 
Painted in Rome (1508-13); tradition says 
once split in two and used to cover casks in 
a cellar at Pescia, but an amateur bought 
the pieces and had them skilfully joined. 
Formerly in Chateauneuf Collection, Paris ; 
thence to Prince de Carignan, at whose 
death in 1743 bought by Louis XV. Old 
copies numerous. Engraved by Ingouf; 


A. Poilly ; J. Frey ; Du Flos ; F. Borsi ; M. 
Desnoyers ; J. J. Massard ; L 0. Eecotti ; 
R Metzniacher ; Girard (1845). Passavant, 
ii. 108 ; Miintz, 375 ; Cab. Crozat, i. PL 29 ; 
Klas. der Malerei, i. PL 33 ; Gruyer, Vierges 
de Raphael, iii. 220 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 55, 
104; Landon, Musee, ii. PL 25; Musee 
frangais, i. ; Filhol, iv. PL 217 ; Reveil, i. 13. 
Berlin Museum ; wood, H. 2 ft 2 in. X 1 ft. 

'- :*;**'. '---v-., j 1,1 --_-- ,-, r f;_^'^: af 

: =^.,-v V^y; j '^'fttJ^/Jicj 

Madonna with Diadem, Raphael, Louvre. 

6 in. Virgin supports Jesus on her lap, 
with one hand on the shoulder of the wor- 
shipping St. John; Jesus extends hand 
in benediction. Distinctly Peruginesque. 
B6ught for 980 thalers ($735) in 1841-42 
of Marquis Diotalevi, Rimini, in whose fam- 
ily the picture, assigned to Perugino, had 
been an heirloom. 0. & C., Raphael, i 94; 
Gruyer, Yierges de Raphael, iii. 121 ; Paa- 
savant, ii. 334. 

GO, Giovanni Bellini, S. Pietro Martire, 
Murano ; canvas, figures nearly life-size ? 

| signed, dated 1488. The Doge Agostino 
Barberigo, introduced by SS. Mark and Au- 
jgustine, kneels before the Madonna. In 
I Palazzo Barberigo till the Doge's death 
i (1501), when placed on the high altar of S. 
I M. degli Angeli, Murano ; removed thence 
\ to S. P. Martire. Injured by restoration. 
i C. & C., N. Italy, i. 169 ; Meyer, Kttnst 
j Lex., iii. 408, 417 ; Zanetti, Monastero di S. 
: M. degli Angeli (Venice; 1863), 57. 
.Vincenzo Catena, Palazzo Ducale, Venice; 
| canvas, signed. The Doge, Leonardo Lore- 
dano, under the protection of SS. Mark and 
John Baptist, kneels before the Madonna, 
exactly as in Bellini's altarpiece, Madonna 
and Doge Barberigo, Murano. Painted 
about 1503 for Pregadi Chapel in Palazzo 
Ducale. 0. & C., N. Italy, i. 250. 

Donateurs), Anton van Dyck, Louvre ; can- 
vas, EL 8 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. The Virgin, seated 
upon a rock, holds Jesus on her knees ; be- 
fore her, a man and his wife, clad in black, 
kneel with hands joined ; above, two little 
angels hover, holding flowers. Collection 
of Louis XIV. ViUot, Cat. Louvre. 

della Rosa, Spinelli. 

Family, Canigiani. 

Eszterhazy Collection, Buda-Pesth; wood, 
H. 10 in. x 8 in. Jesus, sitting on a rocky 
ledge, is held with both hands by the Vir- 
gin, who kneels before him ; St. John, kneel- 
ing at lefti reads from a scroll ; background, 
a landscape with ruins and a mountain. As 
a composition, a gem without a flaw, but 
probably finished by a pupil (C. & C.). 
Sketch for it in the Uflizi, but different 
background. Given to Empress Elizabeth 
by Pope Clement XL, and presented by her 
to Kaunitz, from whom it passed to the Esz- 
terhazy family. Copies in Wendelstadt 
Collection, Frankfort-on-the-Main ; in the 
Casa Thiene, Vicenza ; and in the Ainbrosi- 
ana, Milan. Mtintz, 199 ; Gruyer, Vierges 



de Baphael, iii. 273 ; 0. & , Raphael, i. 
367 ; Ltlbke, Kaphael, 35, 102 ; Gas;, cles 
Beans Arts, i. (1870), 187. 


a la Ceinture. 

Madonna del Candelabri. 

donna del Pesee. 

Madonna di Foligno, Raphael, Vatican, Rome. 

au Donataire), Raphael, Vatican, Eome ; 
wood transferred to canvas, H. 9 ft. 5 in. x 
6 ft. 2 in. Virgin, seated on clouds, and 
surrounded by half-length angels, embraces 
Jesus beside her ; both look down on a 
kneeling votary, Sigismondi Conti, first 
secretary to Julius H, who is presented by 
St. Jerome on right ; on left, St. Francis, 
kneeling, and behind him, St. John Bap- 
tist, standing ; between the groups, a naked 
angel standing, with a tablet Painted in 

Borne in 1511 for S. Conti, and placed over 
high altar of church of Ara Coeli on Capito- 
line Hill ; removed in 1565 by Anna Conti, 
a descendant of the donor, to Convent of S. 
Anna, Foligno ; carried in 1799 to Paris, 
where transferred to canvas in 1802 by 
Hacquin, and restored by Boser, of Heidel- 
berg ; returned to Italy in 1815, and placed 
in the Vatican, in room with the Transfigur- 
ation. Engraved by Beisson ; Desnoyers 
(1810); DeviUiers; Pazzi ; Tosetti ; St. 
Evre (1848); Pavon ; Marchetti (1850); 
Landon. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 342 ; Passa- 
vant, ii. 110 ; Mtintz, 377 ; Springer, 211 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 499 ; Liibke, 
Baphael, 56, 105 ; Bapport sur la Bestora- 
tion, etc., de la Madonna di Foligno (Paris, 
An. x. 1813) ; Mus6e royal, i. ; Landon, Mu- 
see, TIL PL 45 ; Filhol, ix. PL 607 ; Spring- 
er, 211 ; Perkins, 133. 

van Eijck, Berlin Museum ; H. 1 ft. 9 in. x 
1 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, with Jesus in her 
arms, standing beside a fountain within a 
hedge of roses, oranges, and cypresses. 
Formerly in Suermondt Collection, Aix-la- 
Chapelle. Ascribed by Hotho to Hubert 
van Eyck, by Waagen to Jan van Eyck ; 
genuineness doubted by C. & C. Zeitsehr. 
(1867), ii. 103 ; (1868), iii. 127 ; Dohnie 
(Keane), 222 ; C. & C., Flemish Painters, 

Family of Francis 1 

MADONNA, GARVAGH. See Madonna,, 

Family La Perla. 

Family del Gatto. 

MADONNA IN GLOBY, Paolo ATorando, 
Verona Gallery ; canvas (?), H. 14 ft. 6 in. 
x8 ft. 9 in. ; dated 1522. The Virgin and 
Child in heaven amidst angels and virtues, 
and adored by SS. Francis and Anthony ; 
below, SS. Elizabeth, Buonaventura, Louis, 
Ivo, Louis of Toulouse, and Eleazar. Paint- 
ed for S. Bernardino, Verona, The finest 



production of the Veronese school in the 
first quarter of 16th century. C. & C., K 
Italy, i. 504 ; Aleardi, PL 26. 

Francesco Albani, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. The Virgin and 
Child in glory, surrounded "by boy angels ; 
below, SS. John Baptist, Matthew, and 
Francis, and an angel. From church of the 
Capuchins in S. Giovanni in Persiceto. En- 
graved by A. MarchL Pinac. di Bologna, 
PL 54 

By Annibale Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft 4 in. The Vir- 
gin and Child in glory, attended by angels ; 
below, SS. Clara, Louis, Alexis, John Bap- 
tist, Francis, and Catherine. Painted for 
monastery of SS. Louis and Alexis, where it 
was kept almost unknown in an inner chapel 
until 1757, when it was placed in the outer 
church. Engraved by G. Tomba. Pinac. 
di Bologna, PL 61. 

By Lodovico Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin with the Child in her arms, standing on 
the crescent moon, in a glory of angels ; at 
sides, SS. Jerome and Francis. Formerly 
over the Bentivoglio altar in the Madonna 
degli ScalzL Engraved by F. Torre ; G. 
Asioli Pinac. di Bologna, PL 39. 

By Giacomo Cavedone, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 12 ft. 1 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. The 
Virgin and Child seated in clouds sur- 
rounded by boy angels ; below, SS. Petro- 
nius and A16 kneeling, and attendants. 
Painted for church of the Mendicanti, Bo- 
logna ; carried to Paris in 1796, returned-in 
1815. Engraved by Mitelli; Trabele&i; 
Rosaspina.- Lanzi, iii. 122 ; Pinac. di Bo- 
logna, PL 4. 

By Guido Reni, Vatican. The Virgin and 
Child in glory ; below, SS. Thomas and Je- 
rome, A' good picture. Pistolesi, Vaticano, 
vi. PL 65 ; Lavice, 314 

By Pietro Perugino, Bologna Gallery; 
wood, H. 8 f t. 4 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. The Virgin 
seated, with Jesus in her arms, in an almond- 
shaped glory of cherubs' heads, with an an- 

gel on each side ; below, standing, SS. 
Michael the Archangel, Catherine, Apollo- 
nia, and John Evangelist. Formerly in S. 
Giovanni in Monta ; carried to Paris in 
1796 ; returned in 1815. Engraved by Eo- 
saspina. Pinac. di Bologna, PL 14 

By Tintoretto, Berlin Museum ; canvas. 
The Virgin and Child in glory, with SS. 
Mark and Luke. 

OF BOLOGNA, Guido Reni, Bologna Gal- 
lery ; silk, H. 11 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. The 
Virgin and Child seated in glory ; above, 
two boy angels about to crown her with a 
wreath, while others scatter flowers ; below, 
the patron saints of Bologna, three of whom, 
kneeling, ask the intercession of the Madon- 
na for the cessation of the plague, while four, 
standing, gaze upwards. Used as a banner 
in processions. Third manner. Engraved 
by F. Torn ; F. Rosaspina. Pinac. di Bo- 
logna, PL 69 ; Lavice, 13. 

See Madonna del Cardellino. 

Grand Duke), Raphael, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 fi 9 in. The 
Virgin, half-length, standing, holding Jesus 
on her left arm. Painted in Florence about 
1504-5. Belonged to Carlo Dolci ; said to 
have been owned, end of last century, by a 
poor widow, who, ignorant of its value, sold 
it to a bookseller for 12 scudi ; bought in 
1799 for 571 scudi for Grand Duke Ferdi- 
nand m. of Tuscany, who took it with him 
wherever he went ; whence sometimes 
called Madonna del Viaggio (of the Jour- 
ney). Placed in the Pitti in 1859. Dam- 
aged by restorations. Engraved by R. Mor- 
ghen (1823); deUa Bella; Fr. Stober; 
Lorichon ; J. Serz ; A. Martinet. C. & C., 
Raphael^ i. 248; Gruyer, Vierges de Ra- 
phael, iiL 26 ; Passavant, ii. 24 ; Mtintz, 
165 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i PL 92 ; Lttbke, 
Raphael, 33, 93. 

Cranach, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 1 fi 10 
in. x 1 ft 3 in. ; signed, dated 1512. The 



Virgin, half-length, sitting, presents to Je- 
sus, standing on a cushion before her, 
bunch of grapes ; behind, boy angels and 
curtain. Cat. Munich Gal. 

By Pierre Migmrd, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft x 3 ft. 1 in. (Vierge a la 
Grappe). The Virgin, seated near a table 
with fruit upon it, holds Jesus upon her 
knees on a cushion ; he raises her veil and 
takes a grape which she gives him. Collec- 
tion of Louis XIV. ; was at Versailles in 
1709-10. Filhol, iv. PL 260 ; Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Larousse, xv. 1029. 

Madonna of the Green Cushion, Andrea Solarfo, Louvre. 

By Mai-tin Schongauer, Vienna Museum ; 
wood, H. 10 in.x6 in. The Virgin, 
seated on a wooden bench, holds in her left 
hand a bunch of grapes, from which she is 
picking one for Jesus, who stands on her 
lap embracing her neck; in background, 
Joseph with an ox and an ass. Acquired 
in 1806 from Bohm Collection. Dohme 
(Keane), 81. 

donna in the Meadow. 


(Vierge au Coussin vert), Andrea Solaria, 
Louvre ; wood, H. 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; 
signed. Called also Vierge a, 1'Oreiller vert 
and Vierge allaitant Jesus. The Virgin, her 
head covered with a white veil, is giving the 
breast to the infant Jesus, who is lying on a 
green cushion upon a marble parapet. 
Painted in France in 1507-9 for the convent 
of the Cordeliers at Blois ; given to Marie 
de Medicis, in exchange for a copy by Mos- 
nier ; passed thence to Cardinal Mazarin, 
then to the Due de Mazarin, then to Prince 
de Carignan, from whom bought for Louis 
XV. ; appears in 1784 in royal cabinet at 
Versailles. Copy in Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. Engraved by Demeulemeester ; C. 
Uhner ; M. L. Butavand ; N. Lecompte. 
0. A , N. Italy, ii. 56 ; Mtindler, 203 ; 
Villot, Qat. Louvre ; Musee royal ; Filhol, 
ix. PL 16 ; Landou, Must'e, ii. PL 35. 

the Sun-Shade), Raphael, Palazzo Pitti, Flo- 
rence ; wood, H. 5 ft. x 4 ft. The Virgin, 
standing, about to receive Jesus from arms 
of St. Elizabeth, who is sitting at left ; be- 
hind her, a woman (Mary Magdalen V) 
touches Jesus with her finger ; on the right, 
John the Baptist, seated on a panther's skin, 
points to Jesus. Behind is a window with 
a sun-shade (iinpannata). Painted in Home 
about 1514 for Bindo AltoMi of Florence ; 
afterward an altarpiece in chapel of Duke 
Cosmo's palace ; carried to Paris in 1799 ; 
returned in 1815. Authenticity doubted ; 
probably mostly painted by Giulio Konrnno, 
but a drawing in Royal Collection, England, 
proves that the design is Eaphaer En- 
graved by Fr. Villamena (1602) ; E. Guidi 
(1604) ; C. Mogalli ; Crispin do Pas ; Bal- 
zer (1818) ; E. Esquivel de Sotomayor 
(1825) ; Dissard ; Bertoimier ; Landon ; also 
when in Paris by Lorichon, after design by 
Ingres. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 351 ; Paaaa- 
vant, ii. 327 ; Kttgler (Eastlake), ii. 374 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Eaphael, iii 336 ; Gal. 
clu Pal. Pitti, iv. PL 94 ; Ltlbke, Baphael, 78, 



gio, Uflfizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 ft 6 in. 
x 2 ft. The Virgin, on her kness, bending 
over Jesus, who lies on straw placed on a 
stone ; background, a landscape with ruins. 
Painted about 1519 (?). A present from 
Duke of Mantua to Cosmo H de' Medici ; 
placed in Uffizi in 1617. Engraved by De- 
Hgnon ; Audran ; Gregori. Meyer, Correg- 
gio, 325, 484 ; Gal. de Florence, ii. PL 18. 

gio, probably the one owned by Prince Tor- 
Ionia, Rome ; canvas. The Virgin in the 
act of quieting Jesus, while St. John offers 
him fruit. Engraved by Spiere. Copy, 
canvas, with variations, in Eszterhazy Collec- 
tion, Pesth ; another, on wood, in Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg. Meyer, Correggio, 
329 ; Waagen, Hermitage, 57. 

Pietd, Correggio. 

Madonna della Kosa, Raphael. 


Hans Holbein, Herr Schinitter Hug, Ragatz. 
The Virgin, half-length, behind a balustrade, 
on which she holds Jesus on a cushion ; in 
his right hand is a rosary, while his left 
is touching a peach held by his mother ; 
on the -balustrade, right, a vase containing 
lilies of the valley. Painted in Augsburg. 
Restored by Eigner. Woltmann (Bunnet), 
Holbein, 89. 

See Huna Lisa. 

See Madonna del Collo Lungo. 

Family of Loreto. 

MADONNA DI LUCCA, Jan van Eyck, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; wood, H. 1 ft. 
11 in. Xl ft. 5 in. The Virgin, giving 
the breast to Jesus, is enthroned beneath a 
dais, before which is spread out a rich car- 
pet ; to right, an oil-flask and a basin in a 
niche ; to left, fruit on a window-sill. From 

collection of King of Netherlands for 3,000 
florins. Formerly in gallery of Duke of 
Lucca, whence its name. C. & C., Flemish 
Painters, 112 ; Dohme (Keane), 227 ; W. & 
W., ii. 21. 

See Holy Family del Lagarto. 

gelo, National Gallery, London ; tempera 
on wood, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. The 
Virgin, seated, holding in her right hand 
an open book, on which Jesus, standing by 
side, has placed his right hand ; beside 
stands the Infant Si John ; on each 
side are angels, one of whom is reading 
from a scroll Seven figures, two unfin- 
:shed. Exhibited at British Institute in 
1847 by Mrs. Bonar, who sold it Mr. La- 
bouchere, afterwards Lord Taunton, from 
whose executors purchased for National 
Gallery in 1870 for 2,000. Manchester 
Exhibition, 1857. Formerly attributed to 
Domenico Ghirlandajo. Etched by A Fran- 
is._-flr. & W., ii. 590 ; Richter, Ital. Art 
in Nat. GaL, 44, 109 ; do. Academy (1881), 
205 ; Springer ; Black, Michael Angelo, 

donna della Verdura, Jungfrau im Grttnen), 
Eaphael, Vienna Museum ; wood, H. 3 ft. 9 
in. x 2 ft. 10 in.; dated 1506. The Virgin, 
seated in a flower-strewn meadow, leans to- 
wards the Infant Jesus, and turning her head 
to the left looks at the little kneeling St. John 
who offers him a cross. Painted in Florence 
for Taddeo Taddei, whose heirs sold it in 
the 17th century to Archduke Ferdinand 'of 
Austria. In Palace of Innsbruck until 1663, 
when taken to Schloss Ambras in Tyrol ; 
transferred in 1773 to Imperial Collection, 
Vienna. In good preservation. Old. copy 
on canvas, by Carotto or Garofalo, in sac- 
risty of S. Tommaso Cantuariense, Verona. 
Engraved by P ? Anderloni (1810) ; 0. Agri- 
cola (1812); C. Kotterba ; M. Vogler ; Stein- 
muller ; J. Hahn. 0. & 0., Eaphael, L 259 ; 
Passavant, ii. 35 ; Mtotz, 178 ; Baldinueci, 
Notizie (Milan, 1811), vi, 229; Gruyer, 



Vierges de Baphael, iii. 130 ; Ltlbke, Baph- 
ael, 34, 96. 

MADONNA, MEYER See Madonna of 
Burgomaster Meyer. 

(of Mercy), Fra Bartolommeo, Lucca Gal- 
lery ; canvas, arched, H. 12 ft. 4 in. x 8 ft 
6 in.; signed, elated 1515. The Virgin, 
robed in crimson drapery, the ends of her 
azure veil borne by two angels, stands on a 
pedestal ; her right hand is raised above 
her head, as if in supplication to Christ, 
who is visible in the clouds above, and her 
left points to groups of adorers around her 
throne. Painted for the Convent of S. Eo- 
mano, Lucca ; lately removed to gallery. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 192 ; Marchese, ii. 
109, 144 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 461 ; Dohme 
(Keane), 413. 

By Era Eilippo Lippi, Berlin Museum. 
The Virgin, with many figures under her 
cloak, -which is held up by two angels. C. 
& 0., Italy, ii. 349. 

Madonna de la Servilleta. 

Snow), Matteo di Giovanni, S. M. della 
Neve, Siena ; dated 1477. 

By Alessandro Turchi, Brera, Milan ; can- 
vas, H. 9 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 7 in. The Virgin 
and Child seated upon clouds, surrounded 
by many angels ; below, Pope Liberius and 
several orders of Boman clergy. Formerly 
in S. M. della Neve, Verona. Brera Cat. 

Niccolmi), Raphael, Panshanger House, near 
Hertford, England ; H. about 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 
ft. 6 in.; dated 1508. Virgin, seated, with 
Jesus on a white cushion on her knees. 
Painted in Florence ; described by Cinelli in 
1677 ; bought of Niccolini family, Florence, 
by Earl Cowper when ambassador to court 
of Tuscany. Engraved by Perfetti (1831) ; 
NIC. Hoff; G. T. Doo (1835); J. Bein (1835); 
G. Schorl C. & C., Raphael, i. 357 ; Pas- 
savant, ii. 65 ; Mtlntz, 174 ; Cinelli, Bellezze 
di Firenze, 409 ; Thore, Tresors d'Art ex- 
pose's a Manchester en 1857, 57 ; Gruyer, 

Vierges de Raphael, iii. 65 ; Ltibke, Raph- 
ael, 33, 100. 

MADONNA, NOVAR. See Madonna clei 

Family del Lagarto. 

MADONNA, ORLEANS (Vierge de la 
Maison cVOiieans), Eaphael, Chateau de 
Chantilly, France ; wood, H. 11 in. x 8 
in. The Virgin, seated on a cushioned 
chair with one foot on a stool, bends over 
Jesus seated in her lap ; he grasps the hem 

Orleans Madonna, Raphael, Chateau de Chantilly, France. 

of her dress with both hands, and looks 
towards the spectator. In the background, 
a shelf on which are earthen vessels and. a 
straw-plaited flask. These accessories are 
attributed by some to David Teniera Prob- 
ably painted in Urbino (1506 ?) for Duke 
Guidobaldo L; disappeared at the breaking 
up of the ducal establishment in 1G31 ; 
owned by Due d'Orleans, brother of Louis 
XTV.; passed in 1701, by inheritance, to the 
collection of the regent, Due d'0r!6ans ; 
sold in London in 1798 to Mr. Hibbert for 
500 ; bought at Hibbert sale (1829) for 



300 by Mr. Nieuwenhuys, of Brussels, who 
sold it in 1831 to M. Delaliante ; afterwards 
in the Aguado Collection, Paris, on the sale 
of which, in 1843, bought by M. Delessert, 
Paris, for 27,250 francs ; bought at Deles- 
sert sale in 1869 for 150,000 francs for Due 
d'Aumale, then living at Orleans House, 
Twickenham ; returned to France, and ex- 
hibited in 1874 in Palace Bourbon, Paris, 
with other pictures of the duke's collection, 
and finally placed at Chantilly. It is in per- 
fect preservation. Engraved by 0. du Flos ; 
H. Dupont ; J. J. Huber ; Landon ; J. P. 
Seiter ; B. Hofel ; E. Forster (1838) ; F. 
Gaillard (1869). Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 322 ; 
Passavant, ii 45 ; Mlintz, 171 ; 0. & C., 
Raphael, i. 283 ; Gaz. des Beaux Arts (1869), 
L 106, 322 ; (1876), xiii. 209 ; (1878), xviii. 
209 ; Paillard, Petite Madone d'Orleans 
(Paris, 1878); Cab. Crozat, i. PL 24 ; Gray- 
er, Vierges de Raphael, iiL 53 ; Lubke, 
Raphael, 33, 98 ; New York Evening Post, 
March, 1886. 

tonio Pordenone, Venice Academy ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, her 
mantle held up by angels, is on a pedestal, 
with two saints at her sides; in a gallery 
fronting the pedestal is a monk in prayer, 
and seven members of the family of Ottobon 
kneel and stand. Painted about 1525 for 
Ottobon family at Pordenone; bought in 
Rome by Oanova, and placed in his chapel 
at Possagno, whence acquired for academy 
by exchange. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 265; 
Zanotto, Pinac. Ven. 

MADONNA, PAELE. See Madonna of 
Canon van der Paele. 

donna, Niccoliui ; Madonna, Cowper. 

See JR&pose in Egypt, Anton Van Dyck, Her- 

Promenade), Raphael, Bridgewater House, 
London ; wood, transferred to canvas, H. 2 
ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 11 in. The Virgin, standing 
in a field, clasping the arm of Jesus, who 

stands in front of her ; beside them, St. John 
with the cross, with his face close to that of 
Jesus ; at right, St. Joseph behind a bush. 
Painted for Duke of Urbino, who gave it to 
the King of Spain ; he sent it to Gustavus 
Adolphus of Sweden, whence it passed to 
Queen Christina and the Orleans Gallery; 
bought in 1798 by Duke of Bridgewater for 
3,000. Considered a copy, by Giovanni 
Francesco Penni, of the original, which is lost. 
Many other copies. Engraved by Anderlo- 

Madonna del Passegffio, Raphael, Bridgewater House, London. 

ni ; N. de Larmessin ; J. Pesne ; H. Gutten- 
berg ; A Legrand ; J. Head and S. Middi- 
man ; Tomkins ; Landon. Cab. Crozat, i 
PL 20 ; 'Grayer, Vierges de Baphael, iii. 
377 ; Passavant, ii. 331 ; Ltibke, Baphael, 
78, 114 ; Klas. der Malerei, i. PI. 32 ; Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 28, 403 ; Reveil, vii. 487. 

Madonna del Popolo. 

Pez, of the Fish), Raphael, Madrid Museum; 
wood, transferred (1815) to canvas, H. 6 ft. 



1 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, on a throne, 
holding Jesus, who is half rising from her 
knees ; at left, Angel Kapkael presents young 
Tobias, who holds in his hand the miracu- 
lous fish which has restored his father's 
sight ; on right, St. Jerome reading. Paint- 
ed in Rome about 1514 for S. Donienico, 
Naples ; removed, in spite of the resistance 
of the monks, in 1638, by the Duke of Me- 
dina de las Torres, then Spanish viceroy of 
Naples, who took it to Spain in 1644, In 
1656 became property of Philip IV., and 

Madonna del Pesce, Raphael, Madrid Museum. 

placed in Escorial : carried in 1813 to Paris, 
where transferred to canvas byM Bonne- 
maison; restored to Spain in 1822. En- 
graved by Fr. Selma (1782) ; Bartolozzi ; 
Boucher-Desnoyers (1822) ; F. Lignon 
(1822) ; P. Per6e (1852) ; J. M. Enzig- 
Muller ; Steinla (1856). Passavant, ii. 124; 
Mflntz, 381 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 348 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Eaphael, iii. 533 ; 
Springer, 214 ; Madrazo, 184 ; Ltibke, 
Baphael, 56, 107. 

del Baldacchino. 

Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 20 ft. 10 in. x 
10 ft. 5 in. Above, the Virgin, between two 
angels, standing, laments over the dead body 
of Christ, which is stretched on a bier cov- 
ered with a yellow drapery ; below, San 
Carlo Borromeo with a crucifix, St. Proculus 
in armour, St. Francis, St. Petroiiius kneel- 
ing, and St. Dominick ; beneath them, city 
of Bologna, in relief, and at sides four boy 
angels. Painted by order of Senate of Bo- 
logna, and placed in S. M. della Pieta ; car- 
ried to Paris in 1796 ; returned in 1815. 
Admirable in drawing and colour, this pict- 
ure is regarded as Guido's masterpiece. 
Engraved by Trabalesi ; F. Rosaspina. Pi- 
nac. di Bologna, PI. 23 ; Lavice, 14. 

laster), Garofalo, Ferrara Gallery ; wood, H. 
9 ft. 2. in. x 5 ft. 9 in. The Virgin and Child 
enthroned on a pilaster, attended by SS. 
Jerome, John Baptist, Francis of Assisi, and 
Anthony of Padua ; with a portrait of a lady 
of the Trotti family, the donors. Formerly 
in S. Francesco, Ferrara. Cat. Ferrai*a Gal. 

no original known. Virgin giving a pink to 
Jesus, who is seated in her lap. Many 
copies by Raphael's subordinates exist, the 
best of which is in the collection of Count 
Luigi Spada, Lucca. Others at Alnwick, 
Leipsic, Rome, Urbino, Stockholm, Basle, 
Geneva, and "Wurzburg. Engraved by J. 
Boulanger; J. Wolff; Do Poilly ; J. Con- 
vay; Povelato (1780); Duthc ; Gio. Far- 
rugia (1829); Lehman and Chevron (1852). 
Passavant, iL 63 ; C. & C., Raphael, i. 
343 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 60 ; 
Ltlbke, Raphael, 35, 99. 

ple), Federigo Barocci, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood, figures life-size, signed, dated 1579. 
The Virgin interceding with Christ to give 
his blessing to several gentlemen who are 
bestowing alms upon the poor. Painted 
for the parish church at Arezzo, whence re- 
moved to Uffizi in 1787. -Bellori, Vita dei 
Pittori, 105. 



MADONNA DEL POZZO (of the Well), 
Raphael (?), Tribune of the TJffizi, Florence. 
The Virgin, seated, with arm about Jesus, 
who stands in her lap ; lie turns his head 
towards St. John, who stands holding the 
cross and a scroll inscribed Ecce Agnus 
Dei ; background, landscape with ruins of a 
castle and figures about a well. Attributed 
by Lermolieff to Bugiardini or Francia Bi- 
gio. Molini, Gal. di Firenze, i. 89; Soc. 
ed. and Paris, Gal. di Firenze, PL 47 ; Ler- 
laolieff, 386. 

Pesth Gallery, figures life-size. The Vir- 
gin, seated on clouds, supports Jesus, who, 
standing on clouds, takes bread from a 
basket held by an angel and gives it to 
three aged priests seen at half-length, be- 
low ; above, seven heads. Painted in 1678 
for refectory of Hospital de los Venerables 
Sacerdotes ; carried off by Marshal Soult 
and passed to Prince Eszterhazy, whose gal- 
lery was sold in 1870 to the kingdom of 
Hungary. Copies: Cadiz Museum ; Hospi- 
tal de la Sangre, Seville ; Dean Lopez Ce- 
pero. Engraved by J. Ballin ; J. Axmann ; 
etched by C. Rauscher; lithographed by 
Folger. C. Bermudez, ii. 53 ; Carta, 94 ; 
Ponz, Viage, ix. 124 ; Curtis, 163. 

Holy Family del Lagarto. 

Madonna del Coniglio. 


MADONNA, BIPAU)A. See Madonna 
of St. Anthony of Padua. 

MADONNA DEL BJPOSO (of the Rest), 
Garofalo, Ferrara Gallery ; wood, H. 7 ft 
10 in. x 5 ft. 2 in. The Virgin seated on the 
ground, with Jesus beside her, with St. Jo- 
seph near by sleeping, and beside him a 
kneeling figure, Leonello del Pero, in adora- 
tion ; above, a glory of angels ; background; 
architecture and landscape. Painted in 
1525 for the Cappella del Pero in S. Fran- 
cesco, Ferrara. Cat. Ferrara GaL ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vi. 524. 


delle Eocce, Vierge aus Bochers), Leonardo 
da Vinci, Louvre ; wood 3 transferred to can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. G in. x 4 ft. Jesus, seated, and 
sustained by an angel, is giving his blessing 
to the Infant St. John, who is presented 
by the Virgin ; background, a grotto, with 
rocks piled fantastically. From collection 
of Francis L; said to have belonged for- 
merly to Marquis de Sourdis. Authenticity 
disputed, some claiming that it is a copy by 
Leonardo's scholars of the original in the 
National Gallery, London. Copy in Nantes 
Museum. Engraved by Boucher-Desnoy- 
ers. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 59 ; Clement, 181, 
363 ; Bigollot, Hist, des Arts, etc., 229 ; 
Richter, Leonardo, 100 ; Heaton, Leonardo, 
69, 228. 

By Leonardo da Vinci, National Gallery, 
London ; wood, arched top, H. 6 ft. x 3 ft. 9 

Madonna of the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, National Gallery, 

in. Composition same as preceding. Paint- 
ed, according to Lomazzo, for the Chapel of 
the Concezione, S. Fraacesco, Milan ; sold 



in 1796 to Gavin Hamilton for 30 ducats, it 
being supposed to be a copy ; afterwards in 
collection of Earl of Suffolk, of whom bought 
for National Gallery in 1880 for 9,000. 
Thought by English critics to be the orig- 
inal of the picture in the Louvre, but Rich- 
ter considers ib a copy. Loniazzo, Tratta- 
to, ii. 171 ; Art Journal (1881), 30 ; (1884), 
113 ; Waagen, Treasures, iii. 168 ; Eichter, 
Leonardo, 99 ; ItoL Art in Nat Gal, 101 ; 
Heaton, Leonardo, 228. 

MADONNA, KOGEES, Raphael, Mrs. R 
J. Mackintosh, London ; wood, H. 2 ft. 8 in. 
X 2 ft. 1 in. The Virgin sitting behind a 
parapet on which Jesus stands ; lie has his 
arms around her neck, and she supports 
him with one arm while the other clasps 
one of his feet. Painted in Rome about 
1511. In Orleans Gallery; sold for 150 
guineas to Mr. Willet ; passed to Henry 
Hope and to Samuel Rogers, the poet ; sold 
in 1856 to R. J. Mackintosh. Copies in 
Bergamo, Pesth, and Rome. Study for the 
heads in British Museum. Engraved by J. 
C. Flipart, and others. Cab. Crozat, i. PL 
22 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 76, 194 ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, iii. 91 ; Passavant, ii. 
120 ; Miintz, 377. 

Swallow), Carlo Criudll, National Gallery, 
London ; wood, tempera, 4 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft. 
6 in. The Virgin and Child enthroned, with 
SS. Jerome and Sebastian. Enriched with 
fruit and flowers, and with a swallow. In a 
predella below are : St. Catherine ; St. Je- 
rome in Wilderness ; Nativity ; Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian ; Si George and Dragon. 
Painted after 1490. Formerly in Church 
of Franciscans, Matelica ; acquired in 1862 
from Count L. de Sanctis, Matelica. Cat. 
Nat, Gal; Richter, Italian Art in Nat Gal, 
88, 108. 

the Swallow), Guercino, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; canvas, H. 3 ft 10 in x 4 ft. 7 in. The 
Virgin, seated in clouds, turns her head 
mournfully towards an angel, who presents 
her a rose ; Jesus, in her lap, holds a swal- 

low on his finger. The group of Virgin and 
Child is identical with that in the upper 
part of St. William taking the Monastic 
Habit, in the Bologna Gallery, excepting 
that in the latter picture Jesus has in his 
hand a cross instead of a swallow. En- 
graved by Bonafede. Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. 
PL 17. 

MADONNA DELLA ROSA (of the Rose), 
Parmigianino, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 
4 ft. x 3 ft. 2 in. The Infant Jesus reclin- 
ing and resting one hand upon the globe* 
of the earth, holds in the other a rose 
apparently just received from the Virgin. 
Painted, according to Vasari, for Pietro Are- 
tino, the poet, but presented to Clement VII. 
on his visit to Bologna (1529) to crown 
Charles V. ; afterwards in hands of Zani fam- 
ily of that city. Anx> says it was originally 
a Venus and Cupid, and thinks it was sold 
to Zani. It was bought in Rome in 1752 
by Crespi of the prelate Dion. Zani for Au- 
gustus IH., King of Poland, for 5,000 scudi. 
Engraved by G. C. Venenti ; Dom. Pelle- 
grini. Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 228 ; Afto, Vita 

. . Parniigianino, 71 ; Ch. Blanc, 3cole 
lombarde, Parniigianino ; Gal. roy. de 
Drescle, ii. PI. 3. 

By Raphael, Madrid Museum ; wood, 
transferred to canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 
(Virgen. de la Rosa). The Virgin, seated, 
with Jesus on her knees, with John Baptist, 
at left, offering a scroll inscribed Ecce Ag- 
nus Dei ; behind, St. Joseph, in contempla- 
tion. Painted about 1517 ; placed by Phil- 
ip IV. in Escorial. Sometimes called Holy 
Family of the Legend ; but more commonly 
as above, because a rose was painted in the 
lower part when the picture was restored 
(about 1852). Many copies, with variations. 
Engraved by Forster; Sirain. Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, iii. 372 ; Passavant, ii. 
533 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 79, 115 ; Madrazo, 

By Sassoferralo, Turin Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft 11 in. The Virgin, 
seated, half-length, in front of a curtain in 
a landscape, with Jesus lying in her lap ; 



she holds a rose in her left hand. Engraved 
by Lasinio, Jr. Gal. di Torino, i. PL 22. 

The Virgin 

Temple ; 2d group, at right, the five Dolorous 
Mysteries Christ in the Garden, Flagella- 
tion, Crown of Thorns, Procession to Calvary, 

By Spinello SpineUi, Arezzo. 
behind a parapet on which 
stands Jesus, whom she 
supports with both hands ; 
background covered with 
a rosebush with numerous 
blossoms. Called also Ma- 
donna del Duo mo. Paint- 
ed for the now destroyed 
Church of St. Stefano, Ar- 
ezzo ; removed to a little 
church in the Via delle 
Derelitte, where it now is. 
Vasari, ed. Mil, i. 685 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1874), is. 

By Leonardo da Vinci. 
See Gallerani. 

SAEJO (of the Eosary), 
Michelangelo da Caravay- 
gio, Vienna Museum ; fig- 
ures more than life-size. 
Virgin enthroned ; SS. 
Dominick and Peter Mar- 
tyr distributing crowns of 
roses to people. Van Dyck 
is said by Eosa (Pictures of 
Vienna GaL, 1796, i. 108) 
to have painted in the head 
of the donor. 

By Domenichino, Bologna 
Gallery ; canvas, H. 14 ft. 
8 in. x8 ft. 9 in. Called 
also H Eosario. The Vir- 
gin, seated in clouds in a 
glory of cherubs' heads, 
supporting the Child, who 
stands beside her scatter- 
ing roses on those who in- 
voke his mother's aid. She 
is surrounded by angels, in 
three groups, symbolical of the fifteen myste- j Crucifixion ; 3d group, top, the five Glo- 
ries of the rosary : 1st group, at left, the five rious Mysteries Eesurrection, Ascension, 

Madonna del Rosario, Domenichino, Bologna Gallery. 

Joyful Mysteries Annunciation, Visitation, 

Nativity, Purification, Christ found in the nation. At the left, kneeling on a cloud, is 

Descent of Holy Ghost, Assumption, Coro- 



St. Dbminick, \vlio instituted the rosary iu 
its present form, interceding with the Vir- 
gin ; below, a pope (Leo X.) praying, with 
an old man bearing his tiara behind him, 
two children playing with a rosary, and 
other figures symbolical of the persecutions 
of the blessed who invoke the Virgin rosary 
in hand. Painted by order of the Cardinal 
Agucchi about 1637 for the Cappella Eatta 
in S. Giovanni in Monte, Bologna ; earned 
to Park in 1796 ; returned in 1815. En- 
graved by Gh. Audran ; F. Kosaspiua ; C. 
Normand (outline). Malvasia, ii. 227 ; Lan- 
don, Musee, xi. 1 ; Pinac. di Bologna, PL 33; 
Lavice, 19 ; Viardot, Musee dltalie, IOC. 

By jHurillOy Dulwich Gallery, England ; 
canvas, H, 6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft 2 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated on clouds, with Jesus on her 
knee ; he holds in both hands a rosary, 
which the Virgin also holds with her right 
hand in his lap ; beneath, four cherubs. 
Brought from Spain in 1790 by the English 
ambassador, Mr. Fitzherbert, afterwards 
Lord St. Helens. Engraved by Groser ; W. 
Say ; R. Graves ; in part, by J. Somerville, R. 
Graves, J. Rogers, A. Feart, H. B. Hall, Le- 
couturier, Cottrel; several lithographs. Pict- 
ure repainted in many parts. Curtis, 14=9 ; 
Passavant, Tour in England, i. 64 ; Richter, 
Dulwich Cat. 

By Murillo, Palazzo Pifcti, Florence ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. The Virgin, 
seated on a stone bench, with Jesus on her 
lap holding a rosary with both hands ; she 
also holds it with her right hand. Pur- 
chased by Ferdinand m. from painter Fe- 
dele Acciaj, who had it from a Roman deal- 
er, Cartoni, for 900 scudi. Engraved by P. 
Mancion. Curtis, 151 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti. 

By Nwillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. The Virgin, wearing 
a yellow veil which falls to her waist, sits 
on a stone bench embracing Jesus, who 
stands naked, one foot on the bench, the 
other on her lap ; both hold a rosary with 
their right hands. Second manner. From 
the Escorial, collection of Charles TTT. 
Etched by B. Maura. Repetition, without 

rosary, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., London ; 
engraved by E. Boix. Curtis, 152, 154 ; 
Madrazo, 477. 

By Saasoferrato, S. Sabina, Rome. The 
Virgin and Child, with SS. Dominick and 
Catherine of Siena. One of the painter's 
best works. 

Sir William Eden, Bart., Windlestoiie House, 
Durham, England ; canvas, H. 5 ft, 5 in. x 
3 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, full-length, seated, 
with the Child in her lap ; both hold the 
rosary. Formerly in Convent of Shod Car- 
melites, Seville ; bought from Julian Wil- 
liams in 1834. C. Bermudez, Curta, 1)8 ; 
Curtis, 252 ; Athenaeum, Aug. 18, 1877. 

By Murillo, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., 
London ; canvas, figure three-quarters 
length, life-size. The Virgin, red dress, 
seated on a bench holding the Child, who 
stands with right foot on bench, loft foot in 
her lap : both hold the rosary with their 
right hands. Sold at Hope saJo (1840), 
609. Curtis, L r >2. 

By JJ/unY/o, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 ft. (> in. 
x4 ft. 1 in. (Vierge au Chapelet). Tho 
Virgin, seated on n stone bench, with the 
Child on her lap playing with a rosary. 
Probably an early work. Ran don do BoiHy 
sale (1777); Comte de Voudreuil Bale (1784), 
to Louis XVI, 9,001 livren. Engraved by 
Henriquez ; J. Ballin ; lithographed by M. 
Lavigne ; Ch. Vallet ; Weber. --Curtis/l 51 ; 
Musee franyais ; Lanclon, Must'e, xvi. <>5. 

donna della Rosa. 

(Rosenlaube), JMeister Stophan, Cologne Mu- 
seum. The Virgin, crowned, seated with 
Jesus in her lap in front of a rose-hedge, 
under which are angels ; in foreground, two 
angels on each side playing musical instru- 
ments ; above, God the Father with the 
Dove. Probably his earliest extant work. 
W. & W., ii. 89 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 126 ; 
Forster, ii. 

(hi der Rosenhecke), Francesco Francia, 



Munich Gallery. The Virgin, with hands ; examples ; stippling is practised instead of 
crossed on her breast, standing within a | shading by lines, and there are blending 
hedge over which roses are trained, looking ! half-tones instead of a sharp contrast be- 

down at Jesus, who lies on a cloth spread 
on the ground at her feet ; background, a 
landscape. W. & W., ii. 316. 

(am Eosenhaag), Martin Schongauer, St. 
Martins, Colmar ; H. 7 f t. x 3 ft. 10 
in. The Virgin, with Jesus in her lap, 
seated on a grass-bank in a bower 
of roses, among which birds are 
nestling ; above, two angels sus- 
pending a crown over her head. 
His most important picture. "W. & 
W., ii. 106 ; Dohme (Keane), 80 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), i. 137 ; Kunstblatt, 
Aug. 25, 1846 ; Gontzwiller, Musce 
de Colmar, 36 ; Forster, ii. 

tian, TJffizi, Florence ; wood, half- 
length, a little less than life-size. 
The Virgin, seated, with Jesus in 
her lap ; he stoops to take tlie roses 
which St. John offers him ; at one 
side, St. Anthony, white-haired and 
bearded, leans on his staff. Painted 
about 1508. C. & C., Titian, L 108. 

Cimabue, S, M. Novella, Florence ; 
wood, gabled, H. 13 ft 7 in. x 8 ft. 
11 in. The Virgin, with Jesus on 
her lap, sitting on a chair which is 
borne by six angels kneeling, three 
on each side, one above another ; 
frame ornamented with 30 small 
medallions with heads of saints. 
Painted about 1267 for the Cap- 
pella de' Bucellai, in S. M. Novella. 

tween extremes of light and shade. From 
this picture the Florentine school dates its 
advance, and it is therefore of great in- 
terest. Vasari, ed. Mil, i. 254= ; C. & C., 
Italy, i. 203 ; Riepenhausen, Gesch. der 

Madonna de 1 Rucellai, Cimabue, S. M. Novella, Florence. 

It was 

the largest altarpiece ever painted, in its 
time, and was so much admired that it was 
carried to the church in a festive procession 
of people and trumpeters. la this picture 
the faces have a softer expression than we 
see in the given Byzantine madonnas ; the 
Child is not lifeless, and the adoring angels 
are devotional There is also a decided 
advance in drawing and colour over Greek 

Malerei, i. 7 ; D'Agincourt, Peinture, PL 
108 ; Etruria Pittrice, i. PL 8 ; Bevefl, adv. 

MADONNA DEL SAOCO (of the Sack), 
Andrea del Sarto, SS. Annunziata de' Servi, 
Florence ; fresco, in a lunette over a door 
in the cloisters ; dated 1525. The Virgin, 
seated, with Jesus in her arms ; beside her, 
St. Joseph, leaning on a sack, reading from 
a book. Painted for a lady who had it ex- 



ecuted in commutation of a vow. Yasari 
says that for drawing, grace, and beauty of 
colour, for liveliness and relief, no artist 
had ever done the -like. Now much deteri- 

Madonna del Sacco, Andrea del Sarto, SS. Annunziata de 1 Servi, Florence. 

orated. Engraved "by Zuccherelli ; Chiari ; 
B. Morghen ; Lazzarini. Vasari, ed. Mil, 
v. 45 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 572 ; Has. der 
Malerei, i. PL 29 ; Oh. Blanc, iScole floren- 
tine ; Dohme, 2iiL 2 ; do. (Keane), 438 ; 
RSveil, is. 619. 

da Finci, Louvre ; wood, H. 5 ft. 6 in. x 4 
ft. 3 in. The Virgin, seated on St. Anna's 
knees, leans forward to take Jesus, who is 
caressing a lamb ; background, a mountain- 
ous country. Said to have been bought by 
Francis L, who had it hung in his oratory. 
If so, it found its way back to Italy, for it 
was purchased there in 1629 by Cardinal 
Bichelieu, after whose death it passed into 
collection of Louis XIV. Though its au- 
thenticity has been doubted, it is unhesitat- 
ingly affirmed by some of the best judges. 
A copy, attributed to Salai, formerly in S. 
Celso, Milan, now in Leuchtenberg Gallery, 
Munich ; another in Brera, Milan, with va- 
ried background, attributed to Bernardino 
Luini ; a third in Ufifizi, Florence, attributed 
to Salai. Cartoon, differing in composi- 
tion, in Eoyal Academy, London. Engraved 
by Laugier ; G. Cantini. Vasari, ed. Mil, 
iv. 58 ; Musee fran^ais, i. Part 3 ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Musee, x. PL 58 ; 
Clement, 217, 374 ; Eigollot, Hist, des Arts, 
etc., 268 ; Richter, Leonardo, 100 ; Mttnd- 

ler, Essai, 113 ; Ch. Blanc, 35cole florentiue; 
Heatoii, Leonardo, 84, 230 ; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 360 ; A. Marks, St. Anne of L. da 
V. (London, 1883, reprinted from Transac- 
tions of R Soc. of Litera- 
ture) ; Keveil, vL 367. 

2)hael, ex-King Francis II. of 
Naples ; wood, in two parts, 
main panel 5 ft. 8 in. sq., 
lunette 2 ft. 6 in. high. Virgin 
enthroned, under a canopy, 
with Jesus seated on her 
knee ; beside them kneels St. 
John ; on the sides, to the 
right St. Margaret and St. 
Paul, to the left St. Catherine and Si 
Peter. In the lunette, the Heavenly Fatlier, 

Madonna with St, Anna, Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre. 

with two seraphs behind and a winged 
angel on each hand. Painted in Perugia 
in 1504-5 as an altarpiece for Convent 
of St. Anthony of Padua; sold in 1677 
to Count Antonio Bigazsdni, of Perugia, for 
2,000 scudi ; transferred soon after to the 



Colonna family, Rome, who sold it in 1802 
to the King of Naples. On the expulsion 
of the Bourbons (1860) it fell into the hands 
of the Duke de Ripakla, who sent it to Ma- 
drid. In 1869 sent to Paris, and offered to 
French Government for 1,000,000 francs ; 
exhibited in Louvre in February, 1870, when 
war with Germany ended the negotiations ; 
packed in a box during siege of Paris, and 
sent in June, 1871, to London, where it was 
offered for sale at 40,000. Remained in 
the storeroom of the National Gallery, Lon- 
don, until death of Duke de Ripakla (1883), 
who bequeathed it to ex-King Francis II. of 
Naples. Engraved by T. A. Juvara. The 
five panels which once formed the predella 
of this picture were sold in 1663 to Queen 
Cluistina of Sweden, for 600 scudi, and 
passed thence to the Orleans Collection. 
They are now scattered as follows : Christ's 
Agony on the Mount, Lady Burclett-Coutts, 
London ; Christ on Road to Golgotha (Leigh 
Court sale, 1884, 520 guineas), Lord Wind- 
sor ; Pietii, Mr. M. H. Dawson, London ; 
St. Francis of Assisi, and St. Anthony of 
Padua, Dulwich Gallery. Vasari, ed. Mil, 
iv. 324 ; C. & C., Raphael, i. 218 ; Passa- 
vant, ii. 25 ; Mttntz, 205 ; Giornale di Erud. 
Tosc., iii. 305 ; Gaz. des Beaux Arts, xvi. 
(1877) 259; Art Journal (1872), 28, 94; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 461. 

tian, Madrid Museum ; wood, H. 2 ft. 10 in. 
x 4 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, seated, with Jesus 
in her lap ; he bends forward to take the 
flowers which St. Bridget offers in a basin, 
but turns his face inquiringly towards his 
mother ; saint in armour at left, supposed 
to be St. Hulfus, husband of St. Bridget, 
but may be portrait of a donor. Painted 
about 1508 ; originally in the Escorial ; 
still wrongly catalogued as by Giorgione. 
Copy at Hampton Court, not by Titian. 
C. & C., Titian, i. 110. 

Anton van Dyck, Grosvenor House, London ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft.; figures seen to 
knees. The Virgin, seated under a tree, 

gazing upon the Child in her lap, who is 
worshipped by St. Catherine kneeling, and 
with her hands crossed holding a palm. 
From collection of W. A. Ellis. Engraved 
by Blooteling ; Bolswert ; Guzzi ; Ragot. 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 165 ; Guifirey, 245 ; 
Smith, iii. 3 ; Head, Van Dyck, 34. 

By Tintoretto, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft 4 in. x 5 ft. The Virgin and Jesus 
with St. Catherine ; in front, a Venetian ad- 
miral kneeling. From, the reserved pict- 
ures in 1853. Restored by Sehirmer. 

renzo Lotto, S. Doinenico, Recanati ; wood, 
middle panel 7 ft. 4 in. x3 ft. 5 in.; dated 
1508. The Virgin, enthroned under a pan- 
elled arch, and attended by SS. Urban and 
Gregory, holds the Child in benediction, 
while two seraphs play the viol and rebec 
on the throne steps ; to the left, St Dorni- 
nick bends in devotion before accepting the 
dress of his order presented by an angel ; 
on sides, SS. Thomas Aquinas and Flavian 
and Peter Martyr and Vitale. Painted in 
Venice ; sent to Recanati about 1525. C. & 
C , N. Italy, ii. 498 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 250; 
Ricci, Mem. dell* Arte, etc , della Marca d' 
Ancona, ii. 92. 

gio, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 9 ft. 8 in. 
x 7 ft. 10 in. ; signed. The Virgin, with 
Jesus on her lap, sits on an elevated throne 
under a vaulted canopy ; above her head is 
a glory and a ring of angels' heads, and on 
each side two angels float in space ; on one 
side of the throne are SS. Francis and An- 
thony of Padua, and on the other SS. John 
Baptist and Catherine. Painted in 1514-15 
for Francescans at Correggio ; afterwards in 
Modena Gallery; bought about 1745 from 
Duke Francesco di Este-Modena by Augus-, 
tus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Po-, 
land. Restored by Palmaroli in 1827. Eu- 
graved by Mitelli ; Fessard ; Lutz ; Levy. 
Meyer, Correggio, 304, 478 ; ELtinst. Lex., 
i. 428 ; Gal. Roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 1 ; Lan- 
don, (Euvres, viii. PI. 19 ; Kugler (Eastlake^ 
ii. 499. 



do Reni, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Th 
saint, kneeling, with his hands crossed on 
his breast, adores the Infant Jesus wb 
stands on his mother's knees ; above them 
a violet-coloured drapery held up by three 
angels. Formerly at Mahnaison. 

gio, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 10 ft. 1 in 
X 6 ft. 8 in. The Virgin, with Jesus on hei 
lap, enthroned in a chapel, through the arch 

Madonna of St. George, Corregglo, Dresden Gallery. 

of which is seen a landscape ; below, on ono 
side, St. George in armour, with his foot on 
the dragon's head, and behind him Si Peter 
Martyr ; on the other side, Si John Baptist, 
and behind him St. Geminianus receiving 
the model of the church from an angel ; 
cherubs in foreground. Painted for broth- 
erhood of S. Pietro Martire, Modena, and 
placed in their church about 1530-32; 
came in 1649 into possession of Francesco 
I of Modena, whence passed to Dresden 
Gallery in 1745-46. Copy by Cesare Are- 

tusi in S. Bamaba, Mantua. Engraved by 
Bertelli, Giovanniui of Bologna (1699), and 
by Beauvais. Restored by Hartmann, and 
Schinner (1858). Meyer, Correggio, 315, 
479 ; Gal. Roy. de Dresde, i. PL 2 ; Landou, 
(Euvres, viii. PL 24 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 
504 ; Htibner, Dresden Gal., i. 9 ; Reveil, 
is. 601. 

By Giacorno Francia, Bologna Gallery ; 
wood, H. 8 ft 1 in. x 4 ft. 11 in. ; signed, 
dated 1526. The Virgin, seated, holding 
Jesus, who reaches for the reed cross held 
by the kneeling St. John ; at light, St. 
George, in full armour, holding his banner 
by the staff; at left, St. Sebastian tied to 
a tree and pierced with arrows; behind, 
SS. Francis and Bernard kneeling ; above, 
three angels with palms and flowers. For- 
merly in the suppressed Church of S. Fran- 
cesco, Bologna. Engraved by G. Rosaspinn,. 
Pinac. di Bologna, PL 34 ; Lanzi, iii. 20. 

orno, II. 

van Duck, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 4 ft. 
7 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. The Virgin, half-length, 
standing, holds Jesus standing on an archi- 
tectural fragment; at left, Si John, half- 
length, offers a scroll. Munich GaL, PL 55; 
Eastlake, Notes, 68. 

By Giulio Romano, Louvre ; wood, H. 11 
in. x 10 in. The Virgin, seated, with Josus 
in her arms; behind, to light, Infant St. 
John, with reed cross, pointing with left 
land to Jesus. Supposed to have been 
painted for Cardinal Gonzaga. Filhol, v. 
355 ; Landon, vi. PL 7 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Guido Reni, Louvre ; copper, H. 10 
n. x 8 in. The Virgin, seated, holds on her 
mees the Infant Jesus, who blesses the 
'oung Si John embracing his feet ; at right, 
n window, a vase of flowers. Collection of 
Louis XIV. Many old and well-executed 
opiea Engraved by Vallet ; Bloemaert ; 
Lochon. Filhol, i. PL 62 ; Landon, Musi'e, 

, PL 53. 

By Guido Reni, Uffizi, Florence ; copper. 
The Virgin (half-figure) near Jesus (seated 



on two cushions), one of whose feet Si John 
kisses. Original sketch also in Uffizi. Mo- 
lini, Gal cli Pirenze, ii. 84 ; Soc. Ed., Gal. 
cli Pirenze, PL 117 ; Lavice, 47. 

By Bernardino Luini, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood. The Virgin, kneeling ; at left, Infant 
Jesus ; at right, St. John Baptist playing 
with a lamb. Soc. Ed. and Paris, GaL di 
Pirenze, PL 39. 

By Pietro Perugino, National Gallery, 
London ; wood, tempera,, H. 2 ft. 2 in. x 1 
ft. 5 in. Bought by the late Mr. Beckford 
at Perugia, and of him for the National Gal- 
lery in 1841 for 800. Has been attributed 
to Lo Spagna, though signed by Perugino. 
An unimportant though original work. 
Eichter, Ital. Art in Nat. Gal., 52, 105. 

By Andrea Solaria, Leuchtenberg Gallery, 
St. Petersburg; wood, H. 1 ffc. 6 in.xlOf 
in. The Virgin holds Jesus in the crenel- 
lated opening of a parapet, behind which the 
Baptist stands with a reed cross and fruits ; 
Jesus holds a bird with a string. Painted 
about 1515. A forged signature on this 
panel has led to much controversy. C. & C., 
N. Italy, ii. 60 ; Moschini, Mem. della Vita 
di And. Solario (Florence, 1832) ; Kunst- 
blatt (1832), No. 38. 

MADONNA DI S. LOCA (of St. Luke), 
attributed to Baphael, Accademia di S. Luca, 
Borne ; wood. St. Luke, kneeling on a foot- 
stool "before an easel, painting ther Virgin, 
with the Child in her arms, who appears 
beside it sustained by clouds ; behind the 
saint, an ox lying down and a youth stand- 
ing, supposed to be Raphael himself. Prob- 
ably by Timoteo Viti (C. & 0.) or Francesco 
Penni (Gruyer). Formerly in S. Martino, 
Rome, where is now a copy by Ant Gram- 
matica. Engraved by J. Langlois ; M. Pic- 
cioni. C. & C , N. Italy, i. 581 ; Mtlntz, 
511 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii 570 ; 
Jameson, Sacred and Leg. Art, i. 566. 

Parmigianino, Bologna Gallery ; wood, H. 
6 ft 5 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. The Virgin, seated 
under a tree, presents Jesus to St. Marga- 
ret, who is kneeling with the head of the 

dragon beside her ; behind, at left, St. Au- 
gustine ; at right, an angel and St. Jeroma 
Formerly in S. Margherita, Bologna ; car- 
ried to Paris in 1796 ; returned in 1815. 
Small replica in Louvre, where St. Augus- 

Madonna with St. Margaret, Parmigianino, Bologna Gallery. 

tine is called St. Benedict Engraved by 
G. Ant Belmondo ; G. Trabalesi ; F. Rosa- 
spina; F. Bonassone. Pinac. di Bologna, 
PL 18 ; Musee fran9ais, i.; Landon, Mus4e, 
v. PL 29 ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; RSveil, vii 

bale Carracci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, EL 
13 ft 7 in. x 9 ft. ; signed, dated 1588. The 
Virgin, with Jesus on her knees, enthroned 
at right between two pillars, from which 
two angels are drawing back curtains ; at 
right, St. Matthew, standing, with tablet, 
pen, and inkhorn in hand ; at left, St. John 
Baptist pointing to the Child, whose foot a 
monk is kissin,g ; in front, an angel reclin- 
ing ; and above, in clouds, three boy angels. 



Painted for S. Prospero, Reggio ; afterwards 
in Gallery of. Modena, thence to Dresden. 

Madonna of St. Matthew, Annibale Carracci, Dresden Gallery. 

EngraTed by J. M. Mitelli; N. Dupuis. 
Gal. Boy. de Dresde, i. PL 20 ; Reveil, viii. 

Vatican ; wood, formerly arched at top, but 
squared in time of Pius V3X; H. 13 ft. x 8 
ft. 8 iu. ; signed. The Virgin on a dome of 
cloud with Jesus in her lap ; both bend and 
look downwards at a group of six saints 
standing in the curve of a roofless temple ; 
to right, Si Sebastian ; to left, St. Nicho- 
las and St. Catherine ; and between them, 
SS. Peter, Francis, and Anthony of Padua. 
Painted in 1523 for S. Niccold de' Frari, 
Venice, where Sir Joshua Reynolds saw it 
in 1752 ; Clement XIV. bought it by the 
advice of Hamilton and Volpato, and hung 
it in the Quirinal, whence removed to Vati- 
can under Pius VH Damaged by time and 
smoke. C. <fe C., Titian, i. 288 ; Leslie, Life 
of Reynolds, L 76 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 436. 


Lorenzo Lotto, Palazzo Borghese, Rome; 
wood, H. 2 ft. 1 in. xl ft 8 in.; signed, 
dated 1508. The Virgin, half-length, hold- 
ing the Child, between St. Onofrius and a 
bishop in episcopal robes, who presents the 
transfixed heart of the Redeemer to the In- 
fant Christ. In good preservation. C. 
C., N. Italy, ii. 497. 

rillo, Bel voir Castle, Leicestershire, England ; 
canvas, H. about 6 fix5 ft. The Virgin, 
seated, holding in her lap Jesus, to whom 
St. Rosalie, kneeling, offers roses ; on left, 
four maidens in white with palms ; on right, 
a street scene with a friar preaching ; above, 
cherubs and heads. Carried to England by 
Mr. Stanhope (Lord Harrington) on return- 
ing from his embassy to Madrid in 1729. 
Davies, Murillo, xci.; Waagen, Treasures, 
iii. 398 ; Curtis, 163. 

By Jlfuritto, Sir Richard "Wallace, Bart., 
London ; canvas, half-length, less than life- 
size. The Virgin, seated, with Jesus in her 
lap ; on left, St. Rosalie (?) offers him two 
roses. Curtis, 163. 

reggio, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 9 ft G 
in. x 5 ft 7 in. The Virgin, with Jesus in 
her lap, enthroned on clouds, surrounded 
by cherubs ; below, St. Sebastian, a maiden 
holding the model of a cathedral, St. Goni- 
inianus in his bishop's cloak, and St. Koch 
sleeping. Painted in 1525 for brotherhood of 
St. Sebastian, an archery company at Modena. 
Cleaned and restored probably by Ercole dell* 
Abbate in 1611, and certainly by Fluminio 
Torre; later by Palmaroli, and finally by 
Schirrner in 1858. Engraved by Bertelli, 
Kilian, and Lefovre. Bought for Dresden 
Gallery in 1745. Scanelli, Microcosmo, 287 ; 
Meyer, Correggio, 310, 478 ; Gal. roy. da 
Dresde, i, PL 3 ; Pongileoni, ii. 198 ; Lan- 
don, CEuvres, viii. PL 25; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 504. 

tus), Raphael, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H, 
9 ft 10 in. x 7 ft. 5 in. The Virgin, with 



the Child in her arms, standing on clouds, j 
within a glory of cherubim, between two I 
green curtains which are looped back at j 
the sides ; at the left, St. Sixtus (Pope Six- 
tus IL), in a white tunic and gold-coloured 
pallium turned back with purple, kneels in 
supplication ; on the right, St. Barbara, 
kneeling and looking downwards ; behind 
her is her attribute, the tower; below, a 
balustrade, upon which two angels lean, 
both looking upwards; at left, on 
the balustrade, is the tiara of St. 
Sixtus. A rare example of a pict- 
ure of Baphael's later time, painted 
entirely by his own hand. No study 
known to exist. Every form of eu- 
logy has been exhausted on this 
incomparable masterpiece. The Ma- 
donna's beauty is a human beauty, 
but the Child's is something more 
the divine nature shines through 
the mortal frame and illumines it. 
Here Kaphael's work is above all 
other work. Painted in Borne in 
1518 for the Church of the Monas- 
tery of S. Sisto, Piacenza, where 
Vasari saw it ; in 1754 the monks 
sold it for 40,000 Koman crowns to 
Augustus EL, Elector of Saxony 
and King of Poland, who presented 
to the monastery an old copy by 
Paris Nogari, which still hangs in 
the place of the original. Eestored 
by Palmaroli in 1826. Engraved 
by MQller ; Tosetti (1821) ; W. Say 
(1826) ; J. Pavon ; Dessart ; Thou- 
venin ; F. W. Meyer ; Nordheim ; 
Schultz; Boucher-Desuoyers (1841) ; Steinla 
(1858) ; Keller. Lithographed by Bodmer ; 
Hanfstangl ; Noel ; A Maurin ; L. Maurin 
(1842); L. Zoellner; A Lecompte. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 365 ; Kumohr, iii. 131 ; Pas- 
savant, ii. 278 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Baph- 
ael, iii. 595 ; Klas. der Malerei ; GaL roy. 
de Dresde, iii. PI. 1; Kugler (Eastlake), 
ii. 459 ; Springer (Dohme, 2ii.), 291 ; 
Muntz, 518 ; Oh. Blanc, iDcole ombrienne ; 
Perkins, 188; Htibner, Dresden GaL, i. 

1; Lubke, Baphael, 78, 112: Reveil, x. 

Mantegna, S. Zeno, Verona ; large altarpiece 
in six parts, figures life-size. The Virgin 
and Child, enthroned in a classic portico ; 
to the left, SS. Peter, Paul, John Evangel- 
ist, and Augustine ; to the right, SS. John 
Baptist, Lawrence, and Benedict; about 
steps of throne, angels dancing, singing, 

Madonna d! San Sisto, Raphael, Dresden Gallery. 

and playing instruments ; below, in pre- 
clella, Christ on Mount, Crucifixion, and 
Ascension. Painted between 1457 and 1459 
at the expense of the prothonotary Gregorio 
Conaro. Taken to Paris in 1797 and re- 
turned in 1815, excepting the predella, one 
panel of which (Crucifixion) is in the Lou- 
vre, the two others in Museum of Tours. 
Predella in S. Zeno is a copy. C. & C., N. 
Italy, i. 379 ; Burckhardt, 578 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts, May 1, 1866 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, iii. 394. 



Albani, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 3 
in.xS ft. 4 in.; elated 1599. The Virgin, 
with Jesus in her arms, enthroned, between 
SS. Mary Magdalen and Catherine. For- 
merly in SS. Fabiano e Sebastiano, Bologna. 
Engraved by Kosaspina. Pinac. di Bologna, 
PL 5. 

By Mariotto Albertinelli, Florence Acad- 
emy ; wood, oil, figures life-size ; signed. 
The Virgin and Child, enthroned, between 
SS. John Baptist and Julian standing, and 
SS. Doininick and Nicolas of Bari kneeling. 
Painted about 1510 for S. Giuliano, whence 
removed to the Academy. Vasari, eel. Mil., 
iv. 222 ; C. & C , Italy, iii. 488. 

By Mariotto Albertinelli, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 8 in. ; signed, dated 
1506. The Yirgin, with Jesus in her arms, 
standing on a pedestal ; at sides, SS. Jerome 
and Zanobius, Bishop of Florence, kneel- 
ing ; in distance, scenes in lives of those 
saints. Painted about 1506 for Zanobi del 
Maestro, who placed it in S. Trinita, Flor- 
ence ; carried to Paris before 1813. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., iv. 224 ; Landon, Musee, 2d 
Col., iv. PL 34 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 487 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 222. 

By Fra Angelica, Florence Academy; 
wood. The Virgin and Child enthroned in 
a niche ; at sides, SS. Peter Martyr, Fran- 
cis, Cosmo, Damian, John Evangelist, and 
Lawrence. Painted for Annalena Monas- 
tery, Florence. Engraved by Chiossone. 
GaL di Firenze, PL 23. 

By Fra Angelica, Florence Academy. 
The Virgin and Child enthroned, with an 
<mgel at each side, between SS. Francis, 
Peter Martyr, Anthony, Cosmo, Damian, 
and Louis. In pediment : Pieta, SS. Peter, 
Paul, Bernard, and three others. Painted 
for Convent del Bosco a Frati, Mugello. 
C. & C., Italy, i. 585 ; Gal. Accad. di Fi- 
renze, PL 32. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, S. Martino, Lucca ; 
wood, figures under life-size ; signed, dated 
1509. The Virgin, with Jesus on her knees, 
enthroned, between SS. John and Stephen ; 

above, two angels in act of crowning her ; 
below, in front, an exquisite boy angel 
singing, with a lute. Sketch, made with 
pen, in Uffizi. Engraved by S. Jesi ; M. 
Steinla. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 191 ; Mtu-chese, 
ii. 60 ; C. & C , Italy, iii. 449 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole floreutine ; Klas. der Malerei, i. PL 

By Fra Bartolommeo, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 11 ft. 6 in. x8 ft. 9 in.; 
dated 1512. The Virgin, enthroned under 
a canopy the curtains of which are sustained 
by angels, supports Jesus, who offers the 
ring to St. Catherine kneeling before him ; 
at sides, St. George, in armour, and St. Bar- 
tholomew, with other saints around the 
throne ; in front, two boy angels with lyre 
and lute. Painted for S. Marco, Florence ; 
given in 1588 to Bishop Milanesi ; trans- 
ferred in 1690 to apartments of Prince Fer- 
dinand, son of Grand Duke Cosmo in., 
thence to the Palazzo Pitti. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iv. 186 ; C. & C , Italy, iii. 454. 

By Giovanni Bellini, formerly in SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo, Venice ; wood, tempera ; 
signed. The Virgin, enthroned, supporting 
Jesus erect on her knee ; on one side, SS. 
Thomas Aquinas, Gregory, and Jerome ; on 
the other, St. Catherine of Siena, the Mag- 
dalen, and others ; between them, three 
boys singing from a book. Painted about 
1472 for a chapel in SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; 
burned with Titian's Peter Martyr, Aug. 1(5, 
1867 Vasari calls it one of the best crea- 
tions up to its time in Venice. It was Bel- 
lini's masterpiece. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 155; 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 154. 

By Giovanni BelUni, Louvre ; wood, H. 2 
ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. ; signed. The Virgin stands 
behind a balustrade, on which Jesus stands 
in the attitude of blessing ; at sides, SS. 
Peter and Sebastian ; above, three cherubim 
on clouds. Acquired in 1859 of M. Vau 
Cuyck for 15,000 francs; previously be- 
longed successively to M. Nieuwenhuys, the 
Prince of Orange, Mr. Brentano, and Lord 
Northwick Villot, Cat. Louvre ; C. & G, 
N. Italy, i. 185. 


By Giovanni Bellini, Venice Academy 
wood, H. 15 fix 8 ft. 4 in.; signed. Th 
Virgin, \vith Jesus seated on her lap, en 
throned under the semi-dome of a vaultec 
chapel ; at foot of throne, three angels play 
ing instruments ; on one side, SS. Franci 
Job, and John Baptist ; on the other, SS 
Sebastian, Donoinick, and Louis. Paintec 
about 1480 for S. Giobbe, Venice. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 155 ; Sansovino, 155 ; C. & C 
N. Italy, i. 163. 

By Giovanni Bellini, S. Zaccaria, Venice , 
wood, transferred to canvas, arched, figures 
life-size ; signed, dated 1505. The Virgin 
and Child, enthroned under the semi-dome 
of a vaulted chapel, between SS. Peter and 

Madonna with Saints, Giovanni Bellini, S. Zaccaria, Venice. 

Catherine and Si Jerome and the Magdalen; 
in front, an angel seated on a step of the 
throne, playing a viol Taken to Paris in 
1797, transferred to canvas, and badly re- 
stored; returned in 1815. C. & C., N. It- 
ply, i, 173 ; Vasari, ed. MIL, iii. 162 ; Lan- 
don, Musse, xv. PL 10. 

By Annibale Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 11 in. The 
Virgin, enthroned in a niche, with Jesus 
and Infant St. John ; at left, St. John Evan- 
gelist, holding a chalice from which a ser- 
pent is emerging ; at right, St. Catherine of 
Alexandria. According to Lanzi, Annibale 
imitated Paolo Veronese in the figure of the 
Virgin, Corrcggio in Jesus and St. John, 
Titian in St. John Evangelist, and Parmigi- 
anino in St. Catherine. Painted for S. Gi- 
orgio, Bologna. Engraved by A. Marchi. 
Lanzi, iii 71 ; Pinac. di Bologna, PL 36. 

By Ludovico Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 7 in. ; signed, 
dated 1588. The Virgin, with Jesus in her 
lap, enthroned under a portico at right ; 
above, angels with a crown, censers, and 
flowers ; below, SS. Francis, Dominick, 
Monica, and Mary Magdalen ; behind, two 
angels playing and singing. Engraved by 
Gio. Fr. Nadius ; F. Eosaspina. Pinac. di 
Bologna, PL 2G. 

By Cima da Conegliano, Louvre; wood, 
H. 5 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. ; signed. The Vir- 
gin, enthroned in front of a balustrade, 
with Jesus upon her knees, receives the 
homage of SS. John and Mary Magdalen, 
who stand one on each side, the latter pre- 
senting a vase of perfume ; background, a 
andscape, with view of Conegliano. From 
see Napoleon. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole venitienne. 

By Cima da Conegliano, Parma Gallery ; 
wood, figures two-thirds life-size ; signed. 
?he Virgin, enthroned, lays her right hand 
m the head of St. Daniian ; Jesus, on her 
tnee, turns to bless St. Apollonia ; on sides, 
3S. Cosmo and John, SS. Catherine and 
'aul ; at foot of throne, an angel. Painted 
bout 1500 for Cathedral of Parma. C. & 
i, N. Italy, i. 238. 

By Cima da Conegliano, Parma Gallery ; 
vood, figures two-thirds life-size ; forged 
ignature "Leonardo Vinci, 1492." The 
irgin, resting on a stone near $ ruined 
emple, with Jesus beside her on a broken 
illar ; St. Andrew, with his cross on his 



shoulder ; St. Michael, weighing souls in 
pair of scales. Long in Sanvitale Collec 
tion, where attributed to Leonardo. Amo 
retti, Mem. Stor. di Leo. Vinci, 41 ; C. & C 
N. Italy, i. 238. 

By Francesco Cossa, Bologna Gallery 
canvas, figures life-size ; signed, dated 1474 
Virgin and Child enthroned under an arch 
on left, St. Petronius and Alberto de s Cata 
nei kneeling ; on light, St. John Evangelist 
Painted for Domenico d'Amorini and Al 
berto de' Oatanei. -C. & C., N. Italy, i. 523 
Burckhardt, 579. 

By Lorenzi di Credi, Louvre ; wood, 5 ft 
3 in. sq. The Virgin enthroned, with Jesus 
on her knees in the attitude of benediction 
at left, St. Julian ; at right, St. Nicholas, 
Bishop of Myra, reading. Painted for Mon- 
astery of Cestello, Florence ; carried to 
Paris in 1812. Called by Vasari the best 
work of the master. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 
567 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Musee, 
2d Col, iv. PL 19. 

By Domeniehino, Brera, Milan; canvas, 
H. 13 ft 11 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. The Virgin en- 
throned, with the Child standing on a crim- 
son-velvet cushion ; four angels make music 
for them ; other angels in the sky ; below 
are SS. John the Evangelist and Petronius, 
with two angels. The picture is fine, but 
somewhat cold. Formerly in S. Petronio 
de' Bolognesi, Rome. Lavice,- 156. 

By Dosso Dossi, Ferrara Gallery ; wood, 
H. 16 ft. 5 in. x 16 ft. The Virgin and 
Child, with Infant John Baptist, on a lofty 
throne under a canopy ; above, a glory of 
angels ; below, SS. John Evangelist, Jerome, 
Andrew the Apostle, and others ; on sides, 
in compartments, SS. Sebastian and George 
below, and SS. Gregory and Ambrose above. 
A sumptuous picture, called by Burckhardt 
one of the greatest treasures of art in North 
Italy. Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 488. 

By Francesco Francw, Bologna Gallery ; 
wood, H. 6 ft. 5 in; x 4 ft. 9 in. The Vir- 
gin enthroned, with Jesus on her lap ; be- 
low, SS. Augustine, George, John Baptist, 
Stephen, and an angel. Painted for Church 

of the Misericordia, Bologna ; sent to Milan, 
where it remained some time in the gallery, 
but finally returned to Bologna. Engraved 
by G. Rosaspina. Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 59. 
By Garofato, Ferrara Gallery ; wood, H. 
8 ft. x5 ft. ; signed, dated 1514. The Vir- 
gin and Child seated upon clouds in a glory 
of angels ; below, SS. Jerome and Francis 
of Assisi, with two members of the Suxena 
family praying. Painted for S. Spirito, Fer- 
rara. Restored by Palmaroli in 1826. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vi. 463. 

By Domenico Ghirfandajo, Florence Acad- 
emy. The Virgin and Child between two 
angels, with flowers ; on right, St. Thomas 
Aquinas ; on left, St. Denis Areopagite ; iu 
front, SS. Clement and Dominick kneeling. 
In predella, the Pieta between four episodes 
of the saints' lives. C. & C., Italy, ii. 437. 

By Domenico Ghirlandajo, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; wood, figures life-size. The Virgin 
and Child enthroned ; at sides, two angels 
and St. Michael, two angels and St. Gabriel ; 
in front, SS. Zenobius and Justus kneeling 
in adoration. Painted about 1485 for S. 
Giusto, near Florence ; transferred in 1529 
to S. Giovanni Battista, called della Scalza ; 
cquired by government in 1857. A noble 
ticture. -C. & C., Italy, ii. 487 ; Vasari, ed. 
il., iii. 257 ; Cinelli, Belenze di Pirenze, 
By G-iorgione, Church of Castelfranco ; 

wood, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x4 ft. 9 in. The Virgin 
mthroned, with Jesus on her lap ; on one 
ide, St. Francis ; on the other, St. Libcrale 
n armour. According to some, the two 
aints are likenesses of Giorgioue and his 
mother; according to others, St. laberale 
3 a portrait of Matteo Costauzo, a captain 
>f lances, who died at Ravenna in 1504. 
'ainted after 1504 ; much repainted. Copy 
n Stafford House, London ; study for St. 
Jiberale, called Knight in Armour, National 

Gallery, London. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 129; 
idolfi, Maraviglie, i. 128; Kichter, 86; 

Art Journal (1884), 247. 
By Benozzo Gozzoli, National Gallery, 

London; wood, tempera, EL 5 ft 2 in.x5 



ft. 7 in. The Virgin and Child, enthroned, 
between SS. John Baptist and Zenobius on 
left, and SS. Peter and Dominick on right ; 
in front, kneeling, SS. Jerome and Francis. 
Painted in 1461 for the Compagnia di S. 
Marco, Florence ; passed to Spedale de' 
Pellegrini, Florence; thence to Rinuccini 
family, of whom purchased in 1855 for 137 
16s. 8rf. Nat. Gal. Cat. ; Richter, Ital. Art 
in Nat. Gal., 20, 106. 

By Guido Reni, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 10 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 11 in. The Virgin and 
Child seated on a platform, at the foot of 
which, left, is seated St. Jerome reading ; 
at right, St. Crispin presents his brother, 
St. Crispianus, whose attributes are seen on 

Madonna with Saints, Guido Ren!, Dresden Gallery. 

a block behind him. Painted for chapel of 
the shoemakers' guild in S. Prospero, Reg- 
gio. Obtained from. gallery of Duke of 
Modena. Engraved by Fr. Curti; P. L. 
Surugue, fila GaL roy. de Dresde, i PL 23 ; 
R6veil, viii. 523. 

By Filippino Lippi, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, tempera, H. 6 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. 
The Virgin and Child between the kneeling 
SS. Jerome and Dominick ; on the predella 
(Sin. x 7 ft. 9 in.), the dead Christ support- 
ed by Joseph of Arirnathea, S. Francis, and 
the Magdalen, half-lengths. Painted for S. 
Pancrazio, Florence ; removed to Palazzo 
Rucellai on suppression of church ; sold in 
1857, by G. Rucellai, to National Gallery for 
627 8s. Vasari, ed. Mil, iii. 464 ; C. & C., 
Italy, ii. 451 ; Richter, ItaL Art in Nat. Gal, 
29, 106. 

By Filippino Lippi, S. Spirito, Florence. 
The Virgin enthroned, with Jesus on her 
knees, who takes a cross from Infant Bap- 
tist ; on left, St. Martin in episcopals intro- 
ducing the patron Tanai de' Nerli kneeling ; 
on right, St. Catherine introducing the wife 
of Nerli ; in distance, city of Florence. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil, iii. 467 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. 

By Filippino Lippi, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood, figures life-size ; dated 1485. The 
Virgin, enthroned, holding Jesus, who grasps 
a book ; at right, SS. Victor and John Bap- 
tist ; at left, SS. Bernard and Zenobius ; 
above, two angels with garlands. Painted 
for the Sala degli Otto in Palazzo Pubblico. 
Long ascribed to Domenico Ghirlandajo. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 474 ; Gaye, Carteggio, 
i. 581 ; C. & Q, Italy, ii. 440. 

By Lorenzo Lotto, Vienna Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 3 in, x 4 ft. 7 in. The Virgin, 
seated under a tree in a landscape, presents 
the Child to the adoration of SS. Cather- 
ine and James, who are kneeling ; behind, 
an angel holding a crown over her head. 
Painted about 1530. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
522 ; Gal. de Vienne, i. PL 41. 

By Andrea Mantegna, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, tempera, H. 4 ft. 6|- in. x 
3 ft 9 in. The Virgin, enthroned under a 
lanopy in a landscape, holding Jesus, who 
stands on her knee ; at left, Si John ; at 
right, the Magdalen; both standing. Ad- 
mirably preserved. Acquired in 1855, for 
1,125 12s., of Roverselli ; formerly in Pa- 



lazzo Monti, Milan. W. W., ii. 273 
Eicbter, Ital. Art in Nat. Gal, 65, 106. 

By Bartolonimeo Montagna, Brera, Milan 
canvas ; figures size of life ; signed, clatec 
1499. The Virgin, with Jesus in her arms 
enthroned in a vaulted portico ; on one side 
SS. Andrew and Monica ; on the other, SS 
Ursula and Sigismond ; on the pediment 
three angels with musical instruments 
Painted for the Squarzi chapel in S. Michele 
Vicenza. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 429 ; Ridolfi 
Maraviglie, i. 141. 

By Murillo, Fitzwilliani Museum, Cam- 
bridge ; canvas, arched, H. 2 f i 9 in. x 2 ft 
2 in. The Virgin and Child, surrounclec 
by cherubs and accompanied by SS. Francis 
and Thomas Aquinas, appear to a Francis- 
can, monk who has been reading the theol- 
ogy of St Thomas ; she hands to each of 
the saints a crown, while St. Francis admon- 
ishes the monk to follow the doctrine he 
lias read. Painted about 1639 ; one of the 
earliest of Murillo's works. Until first part 
of present century in Dominican Convent 
of La Eegina Angelorum ; presented to Mu- 
seum about 1852 by representatives of W. 
G. Clarke. Curtis, 164 

By Murillo, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., 
London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. 
The Virgin, with Jesus on her left arm, 
seated on clouds, surrounded by angels and 
cherubs ; beneath, St. John Baptist stand- 
ing, and SS. Justa, Rufina, and Frances 
kneeling, all looking up. Aguado sale 
(1843), 17,900 francs. Engraved by Nar- 
geot. Gal. Aguado, PL 8; Curtis, 163; 
Art Journal (1875), 208. 

By Pietro Perugino, S. Agostino, Cre- 
mona ; wood, H. 5 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. ; signed, 
dated 1494. The Virgin and Child, en- 
throned, between SS. James and Augustine, 
the latter in canonicals. Painted for the 
altar of the Roncadelli family; taken to 
Paris in 1797; returned in 1815. Well 
preserved. Engraved by Normand. C. & 
C., Italy, iii. 194 ; Landon, Muse's, PL 54. 

By Pietro Perugino, Louvre, Paiis ; wood, 
round, diam. 5 ft. The Virgin, with Jesus 

in her lap, seated in a landscape ; at left, 
St. Rosa, at right, St. Catherine, both stand- 
ing ; behind, two angels, standing in ado- 
ration. Acquired at sale of King of Neth- 
erlands in 1850 ; formerly in Lapeyriere 
Collection. -TV. & W., ii. 240 ; Cat. Louvre. 

By Pietro Peruyino, National Gallery, 
London ; wood, H. C ft. x4 ft. 11 in. Tlie 
Virgin, with Jesus in her arms, stands on a 
pedestal in a landscape, while two angels 
suspend a crown over her head ; at sides, 
SS. Jerome and Francis. A masterpiece, 
combining fine proportions with natural 
movement, and graceful outlines "with bright 
warm colour. Painted in 1507 for the ex- 
ecutors of one Giovanni, a carpenter ; later 
in Palazzo Penna, Perugia. Acquired iu 
1879 from Baron de la Penna, Rome, for 
3,200. C. & C., Italy, iii. 231 ; Richter, 
Ital. Art in Nat, GaL, 52, 110. 

By Pietro Pemyino, UfHzi, Florence ; 
wood, figures size of life ; dated 1493. The 
Virgin and Child, enthroned, between SS. 
John Baptist and Sebastian ; in background, 
a temple and landscape. Painted for S. 
Domenico, Fiesole ; in Uffizi since 1786. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 585 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 
191 ; Gall, illus. di Firenze, PL 32 ; Liivice, 

By Pietro Peragino, Vatican, Rome ; can- 
vas ; signed. The Virgin and Child en- 
throned in front of a colonnade, on a ped- 
estal, between the four patron saints of 
the city Lorenzo, HerculauuH, Constantius, 
and Louis of Toulouse. Painted in 1496 
'or the Sala del Magistrate, Perugia ; dia~ 
nembered and taken to Paris by the French, 
who left behind the frame and a Pietti forin- 
ng the pediment, now in the Perugia Gal- 
ery; the Madonna returned in 1815 and 
riacecl in Vatican. C. & C., Italy, iii. 200 ; 
?istolesi, Vaticano, vi. PL 89 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 580. 

By Pietro Perugino, Vienna Museum ; 
wood, figures life-size ; signed, dated 1493. 
?he Virgin and Child, enthroned, betweeu 
SS. Peter and Jerome, and SS. Paul and 
bhn Baptist. C. & C., Italy, iii 191. 



By Girolamo Romanino, S. Francesco, 
Brescia ; wood, arched ; signed, dated 1502, 
but probably not finished until 1512. The 
Virgin and Child enthroned in an open 
archway, the sky being intercepted by a 
green cloth held up by two dancing cher- 
ubs ; at sides, SS. Francis and Anthony, 
standing; in front, SS. Bernardino, Louis 
of Toulouse, Bonaventura, and another, 
kneeling. Ordered by the executors of Fra 
Sansone (died 1499), general of the Fran- 
ciscan order. Formerly the centre of a 
great triptych, on the doors of which were 
compositions from the life of .St. Francis. 
Much injured 0. & C., N. Italy, ii. 371 ; 
Eidolfi, Marav., i. 350. 

By II Rosso, Palazzo Pitti, Florence; 
wood, H. 11 ft. 5 in. x 8 ft. 5 in. The Vir- 
gin and Child, enthroned in a niche, between 
saints; at right, SS. Sebastian, Bernard 
(kneeling), Augustine, James, and another ; 
at left, SS. Peter, Paul, and two others ; in 
front, St. Catherine, kneeling, with a book 
in her hand, and near her a cimeter and a 
broken wheel. Engraved by Clerici. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil, v. 158 ; Gal. du PaL Pitti, iv. 
PL 84 

By Rubens, Cassel Gallery ; canvas. The 
Virgin, sitting in a landscape, holding Jesus 
in her arms ; near her, St. John, standing ; 
before her, the Magdalen and St. Eoch, 
kneeling; at left, SS. Dominick, Francis, 
and George, King David, and a bishop, 
standing. Zeitschr., v. 202; Cat. Cassel 

By Rubens, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; 
wood, H. 13 in. x 9 in. The Virgin, 
seated, holds Jesus, who is caressing a 
lamb, across the neck of which St. John is 
leaning, holding its ear ; behind the tatter, 
St. Elizabeth. Formerly in Houghton- Col- 
lection. Engraved by Earlom. Smith, ii. 

By Rubens, Duke of Kutland, Belvoir Cas- 
tle ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 6 in. x 7 ft The Virgin, 
seated, with the Child in her lap, about to 
place a crown on the head of St. Catherine, 
kneeling with a palm-branch in her hand ; 

| on the other side, SS. Christina and Mar- 
garet, and four angels. One of Rubens* 
most attractive pictures. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, in. 399. 

By Andrea Salai, Brera, Mian ; wood, H. 
6 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. The Virgin and 
Child, to whom St. Peter delivers the keys ; 
behind, St. Paul, standing. Formerly in S. 
Andrea alia Pusterla, Milan. Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 366 ; Brera Cat. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 9 ft. 10 in. x 6 ft. 6 in ; dat- 
ed 1540. The Virgin in glory, adored from 
below by SS. Giovan Gualberto, Caterina, 
Fedele, and Bernardo degli Uberti, Bishop 
of Parma ; rocky background. Ordered in 
1529 for Abbey of Poppi in Casentino ; paid 
for in 1531, though unfinished, and com- 
pleted in 1540, after Andrea's death, by Vin- 
cenzo Bonelli, who added the date. Ac- 
quired in 1818 by Ferdinand IE. Only 
upper part is Andrea's. C. & C., Italy, iii. 
518 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, v. 49 ; Benci, Lettere 
sul Casentino (Florence, 1821), 17. 

By n Sodoma, Pisa Academy ; canvas, fig- 
ures life-size. The Virgin, with Jesus in 
her arms, sits on a stone bench in front of 
a tree ; on one side, SS. Sebastian and Jo- 
seph ; on the other, SS. John Baptist and 
Peter with book and keys ; in front, SS. 
Mary Magdalen and Catherine, kneeling. 
Painted in 1542 for S. M. della Spina, Pisa. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 398 ; Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., iii. 216, 226. 

By n Sodoma, Turin Gallery ; wood, H. 7 
f fc. 4 in x 5 ft. The Virgin, seated, holding 
Jesus, who stands in front of her, enthroned 
on a pedestal under a canopy, the curtains 
of which are held back by two flying cher- 
ubs ; at left, SS. Catherine and Jerome ; 
at right, SS. Lucy and John Evangelist. 
Painted alfout 1512-13 ; formerly at Colle 
di Val d'Elsa. Engraved by A. Lauro. 
GaL di Torino, iv. PI. 125 ; Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., iiL 224. 

By Tintoretto, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 15 ft x 7 ft. 8 in. The Virgin and Child, 
surrounded by angels, enthroned in a nim- 



bus on a half-moon, adored by SS. Barbara, 
Catherine, and two bishops. 

By Titian, Dresden Gallery ; wood, EL 4 
ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 4 in. The Infant Christ on 
the Virgin's knee is supported on the left by 
St. John the Baptist, and presented to the 
adoration of St. Paul, Mary Magdalen, and 
St. Jerome ; background, left, a green cur- 
tain ; centre, a cloudy sky ; right, a plinth 
and colonnade. The Magdalen is splendid- 
ly dressed in white, whence the picture is 
sometimes called Madonna with the White 
Lady. Obtained in 1747 from Casa Griina- 
iii dei Servi, Venice. Engraved by Jacob 
Folkema ; lithographed by Hanfstangl. C. 
& C., Titian, ii. 447 ; Morelli, 172 ; Httbner, 
Dresden Gal., i. 12. 

By Titian, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. 
x 5 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, with Jesus stand- 
ing on her lap, sits to right, in front of a 
building with columns, looking round at St. 
Agnes, who presents her a palm with one 
hand, and with the other caresses the lamb 
led in to left by Infant Baptist. Collection 
of Louis XIV. C. & C., Titian, ii. 422 ; 
Filhol, x. EL 674 ; Landon, Musee, xi. PL 

By Titian, Vienna Museum and Louvre ; 
wood, S. 3 ft. 5 in. x 4 fl 3 in. The Virgin, 
sitting in front of a building, with Jesus in 

Madonna with Saints, Titian, Vienna Museum and Louvre. 

her lap ; on right, St. Jerome, bareheaded, 
holds a book; behind him, St. Stephen 
with a palm and Si George in armour. 
Painted about 1508. Engraved by Lisebe- 

tius. From collection of Archduke Leopold 
Wilhelin ; taken to Vienna in 1657. Dupli- 
cate (canvas) in Louvre, finer and better 
preserved ; but Si Jerome wears a red cap 
and is called Si Ambrose, while St. George 
is named St. Maurice. In collection of Louis 
XIV. C. & C., Titian, i. 107 ; Filhol, ix. PL 
589 ; Landon, Musee, xii. PL 38 ; Handler, 
Essni, 207 ; Oh. Blanc, cole venitienne. 

Madonna with Saints, Paolo Veronese, Louvre, 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. x 14 ft. 9 in. The Virgin, with 
Jesus in her arms, in a recess behind two 
pillars, attended by SS. John Baptist and 
Jerome and an angel, has presented to her, 
by Faith, Hope, and Charity, a Venetian 
family ; in background, a palace on a canal 
with gondolas in front. Tho palace is the 
one constructed by Palladio for the Cocina 
family; hence supposed its members are 
represented in the picture, although RUH- 
kin calls it Veronese himself and his family. 
Prom Modena Collection. Restored by Pa- 
len in 1827, and by Schirmer in 1856. En- 
graved by Kiliau. Gal. roy. de Dregtie, i. 
PL 15 ; Raskin, Mod. Painters, v. 22(>. 

By Paolo Veronew, Louvre ; canvas, H, 1 
ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 1 in. The Virgin, aeated in a 
splendid apartment, with Jesus on her lap ; 


the Magdalen holds the Child's hand to be 
kissed by a kneeling Benedictine nun, who 
is presented by Joseph ; behind the Virgin, 
Si Elizabeth weaves a crown of flowers. 
From collection of Louis XIV. ; belonged in 
1662 to Comte de Brienne. Engraved by 
Boutroi. Musee royal, ii. ; Landon, Musee, 
2d Col, ii. PL 59. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 11 in. The Virgin, enthroned, 
supporting Jesus standing on her knees ; on 

Madonna with Saints, Paolo Veronese! Louvre. 

right, St. Catherine of Alexandria presents 
St. Benedict, on his knees ; on left, St. 
George in armour, with his lance. From 
collection of Louis XIV. ; belonged in 1662 
to Comte de Brienne. Engraved by Brebi- 
ette. Villot, Cat Louvre ; Landon, (Euvres, 
xxi. PL 15 ; Mus6e, iii.PL 34 

By Paolo Veronese, Venice Academy; 
canvas, H. 11 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. 4 in. The Vir- 
gin, enthroned in a semicircular niche, with 
Jesus in her arms ; beside her is Si Joseph, 
and below him St. Jerome ; on the other side, 
SS. Catherine (or Justina?) and Francis; 
all apparently listening to Si John Baptist, 
who stands on a balustrade in front of the 
throne. Painted for S. Zaccaria, Venice; 
taken to Paris in 1797, but returned in 1815 
and placed in the Academy. Filhol, vii. PL 

481 ; Landon, (Euvres, xxi. PI. 12 ; Musee, 
xii. PL 17. 

By Luigi Vwarini, Berlin Museum ; wood, 
oil. The Virgin, enthroned in a portico, 
with Jesus on her lap; to the left, SS. 
John Baptist and Jerome ; to the right, 
SS. Augustine and Sebastian. Painted for 
S. Cristoforo, Murano. C. & C., N. Italy, 
i. 66. 

By Bartolommeo Vivarini, Naples Muse- 
um ; wood, tempera, half life-size ; signed, 
dated 1465. The Virgin, enthroned, ador- 
ing Jesus asleep in her lap ; on each side, 
two saints, full-length, and above them, 
other saints, half-length, issuing from clouds. 
Painted for church at Bari. C. & C., 'N. 
Italy, i. 41 ; Eosini, PL 67. 

By Luigi Vivarini, Venice Academy; 
wood, figures under life-size ; signed, dated 
1480. The Virgin enthroned, with' Jesus 
standing on her lap ; on one side, SS. Ber- 
nardino, Anthony, and Anna ; on the other, 
SS. Joachim, Francis, and Buenaventura. 
Formerly in S. Francesco, Treviso. C. & 
G, N. Italy, i 56 ; Kidolfi, Maraviglie, i. 50 ; 
W. & W., ii. 296. 

GELS, Francesco Francia, S. Jacopo Mag- 
giore, Bologna ; wood, figures life-size ; 
signed. The Virgin and Child enthroned, 
with adoring angels at sides and playing 
angels in front; at right, SS. Florian and 
Augustine ; at left, SS. John Evangelist and 
Sebastian. Painted in 1499 for Giovanni 
Bentivoglio. Well preserved. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 537 ; C. & C., N. Italy, i. 561 ; Gua- 
landi, Guido, 94. 

By Luigi Vivarini, Berlin Museum ; wood, 
life-size; signed. The Virgin enthroned, 
with Jesus on her lap ; to left, SS. George, 
Peter, and Catherine ; to right, SS. Mary 
Magdalen, Jerome, and Sebastian; at foot 
of throne, two angels, one playing the lute, 
the other the flute. Lermolieff calls it one 
of the most remarkable of the 15th century 
Venetian works. Painted in 1501 for S. M. 
dei Battuti, Belluno. In 1815 owned by 
Count Marino Pagani, of Belluno. Vasari, 



eel. Mil, iii. 160 ; C. & C., N. Italy, i. 67 
Lennolieff, 398. 

FRANCIS, Eaphael, Berlin Museum ; wood, 
H. 14 in. x llf in. The Virgin, her head 
covered with a blue mantle, holds Jesus on 
a cushion on her knees, looking lovingly 
at him ; he, clasping her hand in his left, 
raises his right hand in benediction ; St. 
Jerome, in a cardinal's hat, kneels on left, 
and St. Francis, in ecstasy, on right; in 
background, a town and high mountains. 
Painted about 1503 ; belonged successively 
to the Borghese and Aldobrandini families ; 
then passed into Germany to collection of 
Count Von der Ropp, and in 1820 to Berlin 
Museum. Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 
436 ; Passavant, ii. 11 ; Mttntz, 59 ; Lermo- 
lieff, 365 ; Lttbke, Raphael, 15, 92. 

CATHERINE, Titian, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; canvas, EL 3 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. ; 
signed, dated 1533. The Virgin, stopping 
near Bethlehem to rest, sits with Jesus in 
her lap, and takes a bunch of flowers from 
the Infant St. John, whilst St. Catherine 
gazes in rapture ; behind, a beautiful vista 
of undulating country, at evening ; in dis- 
tance, the angel appearing to the shepherds. 
Belonged to the Coesvelt Collection, and 
in 1720 to the Due de Noailles in Paris ; 
thence to the Baucousin Collection, from 
which bought for National Gallery in 1860. 
Copy by Pietro da Cortona in Capitol Gal- 
lery, Rome. Engraved by Audran. C. & 
C., Titian, i. 206; Gilbert, Oadore, 36; 
Richter, 86. 

.NA, Guercino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 10 
in. x 7 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, seated upon 
clouds, and accompanied by two angels, 
holds in her arms Jesus, who is in the act 
of blessing ; at left, St. Geminianus receiv- 
ing from an angel a model of the city of Mo- 
dena ; behind him, another angel bears his 
cross ; St. John Baptist, kneeling ; at right, 
SS. Peter Martyr and George, patron saints 
of the city. Ordered in 1651 by Duke of 

Modena for S. Pietro Martire, but not put 
in place until 1668, after Guercino's death ; 
taken to France in 1796. Malvasia, ii. 269; 
Laudon, Musee, ii. PL 59 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 5. 

Stairs), Correggio, Parma Gallery ; fresco, 
figures above life-size. The Virgin, sitting, 
with Jesus in her lap ; both in a most afitec- 

Madonna with Saints of Modena, Guorcino, Louvre. 

tionate attitude. Painted about 1520 over 
the Porta Romana, or eastern gate of the 
town, or in a room in the gateway. Wall 
used in 1554 as a back wall to a church 
which was built against it, and as the pict- 
ure was high up, steps were erected to reach 
it, whence its name. Demolished in 1812, 
and picture placed in gallery. Much in- 
jured by weather and restorations. En- 
graved by Fritz ; Biot ; Leroux ; Toschi. 
Meyer, Correggio, 303, 473 ; Kttust, Lex., 



i. 427; Vasari, eel Mil., iv. 114; Kugler 
(Eastlake), il 503. 

aux balances), school of Leonardo da Vinci, 
Louvre ; attributed by Waagen to Marco 
cl'Oggiono, by Passavant to Salai, and by 
Handler to Cesare da Sesto ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. x 2 ft 3 in. Virgin, seated, holding In- 
fant Jesus, to whom Archangel Michael, 
kneeling, presents a pair of scales, symbol 
of justice ; near the Virgin are St. Eliza- 
beth and Infant St. John holding a lamb. 
Formerly in collection of Louis XIV. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil, iv. 60 ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; 
Rigollot, Hist, des Arts, etc., i. 281 ; Mtod- 
ler, 114 ; Landon, Muse, v. 1. 

Cup), Correggio, Parma Gallery; wood. 
The Virgin, with Jesus by her side, sitting 
under a palm-tree, holds in one hand a 
plate; Joseph pulls down, a branch with 

Madonna della Scodella, Correggio, Parma Gallery. 

one hand, and gives the Child fruit with the 
other, while angels above appear to aid him ; 
in background, an angel or cherub tying the 

3 to a tree. Scene from the apocryphal 
gospel, representing the rest in Egypt. 
Painted in 1527-28 for S. Sepolcro, Parma, 

Madonna della Sedia, Raphael, Palaz2o Pitti, Florence. 

where it remained until carried to Paris by 
the French; when restored, placed in the 
gallery. Engraved by Briccio; Toschi; 
Masse. Meyer, Correggio, 311, 476 ; Ktinst. , 
Lex., i. 429 ; Landon, (Euvres, viii. PL 3 ; 
Elaa der Malerei, i. PL 50 ; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 503 ; Rosini, iv. 261. 

Chair) or Seggiola (Little Chair), Raphael, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence; wood, round, 2 ft. 6 
in. diameter. The Virgin, seated in a chair, 
clasps Jesus to her bosom with both arms, 
leaning her head against his ; at right, In- 
fant St. John, with hands clasped in adora- 
tion. Painted in Rome in 1516-17, entirely 
by hand of Raphael. In Pitti Gallery since 
1539 ; mentioned in catalogue of 1589 ; car- 
ried to Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. A 
masterpiece of indescribable charm ; per- 
haps the most popular picture ever painted. 
Two sketches in "Wicar Collection, Lille. 
Engraved by R. Morghen ; B. Desnoyers ; 
J. G. Muller ; F. Bartolozzi ; Ck Schuler ; 
S. Raeven ; Sadeler ; Picchianti ; Lorenzini ; 
Ferd. Gregori (1768) ; V. Vanni ; Preisler 
(1784) ; M. S. Carmona (1795) ; Lasinio ; 
Duponchel; R, U. Massard; J. Calendi; 



Weber ; A. Karscher ; Zancon ; Vedovato 
J. Eissen ; Carattoni ; Lizzi ; Cecchi ; Gui- 
dotti ; A. Schleich ; C. Schuler ; A. Perf etti 
E. Schaffer; H. Petersen ; A. Contardi. 
Passavant, ii. 240 ; Mtintz, 512 ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, iii.. 240; Springer 
(Dohme, 2ii.), 21G ; Ltibke, Baphael, 55, 
108 ; Gal. clir Pal. Htti, i. PL 90 ; Musee 
fran9ais, i. ; Landon, Musee, ii. PI. 61 ; Fil- 
hol, ii. PI. 103; Art Journal (London, 
1875), 284 ; Larousse, xv. 1028. 

Madonna della Sedia. 

S. Andrea, Serravalle ; canvas, arched at 
top, H. 14 fix 7 ft,; signed. The Virgin 
and Child on clouds, surrounded by cheru- 
bim in a glory ; below, SS. Peter and An- 
drew; in the distance, Christ in a fishing- 
boat, calling Peter and Andrew from their 
nets. Painted in 1547. Somewhat injured 
by cleaning and retouching. C. & C., Ti- 
tian, ii. 145 ; Burckhardt, 720. 

the Napkin), Murillo, Seville Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 2 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, 
half-length, holds Jesus on her left arm ; he 
is in lively action, apparently struggling out 
of her arms. Painted about 1676 for al- 
tar of Capuchin Church, Seville. Doubtful 
story that it was painted on a dinner-nap- 
kin for a lay-brother who served Murillo as 
cook, the artist having used all his canvas. 
Similar story told by Davies concerning a 
Head of Christ Engraved by Bias Amett- 
ler ; A. Boilly ; lithographed by L. Maurin. 
Stirling, ii. 879; Davies, Murillo, 35; 
Curtis, 159. 

Holy Family, Domenichino. 

Chair), Guido Reni, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. x 4 ft 6 in. The Virgin, seated, 
with Jesus standing on the floor leaning 
upon her knees. Brought by Philip IV. 
from the Escorial. Madrazo. 

MADONNA, SISTINE. See Madonna di 
San Sisto, 

MADONNA, SOLLY, Eaiplwd, Berlin 
Museum ; wood, H. 2 f t. x 1 ft 4 in. Vir- 
gin, reading, holds in her left hand one foot 
of the Child, who is playing with a gold- 
finch. Painted probably about 1500 in Pe- 
rugia ; shows, strongly, influence of Peru- 
gino. Acquired in 1821 from the Solly 
Collection, Milan, to which it had passed 
from a noble family of Modeim. Not en- 
graved ; outline in Eastlake's Kngler. 
Passavant, ii. 10 ; Lermoliefl.; 364 ; C. <fe C., 
Raphael, i. 107 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 15, 91 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 13 ; Kug- 
ler (Easttake), Ii. 329. 

Spasimo di Sicilia. 

MADONNA, STAFFA. See Madonna, 

Madonna della Scala. 

r/elico, S. Marco, Florence. Properly a Cor- 
onation of the Virgin. A small picture 
under glass, a work of great beauty, fin- 
ished like a miniature. Formerly in S. M. 

MADONNA, TEMPI. See Madonna di 
Casa Tempi. 

tain), Raphael, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 2 
ft 7 in. x 1 ft 9 in. The Virgin seated, her 
right arm around Jesus, who sits on her 
knees ; Infant St. John behind, with his reed 
cross, in adoration ; green curtain in back- 
ground. Similar in composition to M. della 
Sedia. Sometimes called Viergo u la Croix. 
Painted in Rome about 151G. A doubtful 
story is, that the picture, formerly in the 
Escorial, was taken to France in 1813, and 
thence to England, where Sir Thomas Bar- 
ing bought it for 4,000, and in 1814 sold 
it to the Prince of Bavaria for 5,000. Such 
a picture was owned by Mr. J. Purling iu 
1789. Many copies; one of best in Tu- 
rin Gallery. Original sketch in possession 
of Duke of Devonshire. Engraved by P. 
Toschi ; Tomkins ; Hopwood ; Vedovato 
(1796) ; J. C. Thevenin (1852). Pinak. zu 



Mtmchen, PL ; Gruyer, Yierges de Kaphael, 
iii. 232 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 56, 108 ; Gal. di 
Torino, >i. PL 29 ; Passavant, ii. 242 ; Bu- 
chanan, Mem., ii. 242. 

Berlin Museum ; wood, round, 2 ft. 10 in. 
diameter. Virgin seated, Jesus lying on her 
knees ; on left, Infant St. John ; on light, 
another child (St. John Evangelist ?). Paint- 
ed in Florence in 1505 for Terranuova fam- 
ily of Genoa, afterwards of Naples ; in their 
possession until 1854, when sold to King of 
Prussia for 30,000 scudi. Fairly preserved, 
and but little retouched. In it the genius 
of Raphael may he seen struggling between 
the tendencies of the Umbrian and Floren- 
tine schools (C. & C.). Studies in Berlin 
Museum and Venice Academy. Engraved 
by J. Scotto (1823) ; Ed. Schaffer. 0. & C., 
Raphael, i. 172, 193, 231 ; Passavant, ii.25; 
Muntz, 176 ; Ltibke, Raphael, 33, 93 ; Gruy- 
er, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 121 ; Lennolieff, 

Throne), Fra Bartolommeo, Uffizi, Florence. 
The Virgin enthroned, with Jesus in her lap 
and Infant St. John kneeling at her feet ; 
behind her, St. Anna, standing, gazing up- 
wards at a choir of angels and cherubs ; on 
each side of the throne, the ten patron saints 
of Florence, and on the steps in front, two 
angels seated. Fra Bartolommeo's last pict- 
ure, left unfinished at his death in 1517. 
Ordered for the grand saloon of the Repub- 
lic of Florence, but placed, in time of the 
Medici, in S. Lorenzo, whence removed to 
Uffizi. Lasinio, i PL 86 ; Vasari, ed. MiL ; 
Soc. Ed. and Paris, GaL di Firenze, PL 

with Diadem. 


donna del Gran' Duca. 

tory ; Vierge de la Victoire), Andrea Man- 
tegna, Louvre ; canvas, H. 9 ft. 1 in. x 5 ft. 

4 in. In an artificially constructed bower, 
the Virgin enthroned, with Infant Jesus 
standing on her knees ; her mantle held on 
one side by Archangel Michael, on other 
by Si Maurice ; in background, SS. Andrew 
and Longinus, protectors of Mantua ; in 
front, near Virgin, stands Infant St. John, 
and below him St. Elizabeth ; opposite her, 
kneeling, is Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of 
Mantua, in full armour. Painted for S. M. 
della Vittoria, Mantua, in honour of the vic- 

Madonna della Vittoria, Andrea Mantegna, Louvre, Paris. 

tory of Fornova, which the Marquis claimed 
to win in 1485 over Charles VUL of France, 
though he was really defeated. Carried to 
Paris in 1797. Ch. Blanc, IScole lombarde, 
Mantegna ; C. & 0., N. Italy, i 410 ; Gaye, 
Carteggio; i. 328 ; Mttndler, 135 ; Rosini, 
iii. 196 ; Mantz, Peinture itaHenne, 140. 




See Madonna with Saints, Titian, Drescle 

MADONNA OF ZOPP^, Titian, Churc 
at Zoppe ; canvas, H. 4 f 1 x 3 ft. Madonn 
enthroned between SS. Joachim and Jeroin< 
and St. Anna in prayer in front. Painted i: 
1528, during a visit made while a pestilenc 
was raging in Venice, for an altarpiece ii 
the chapel founded there by Matteo Pala 
tini. The arms of the Palatini family ap 
pear on the pedestal at the left of St. Anna' 
head. Injured by damp while concealed in 
the wood behind the village during the 
French invasion and by injudcious restora 
tion. C. &. 0., Titian, i. 324 ; Gilbert, Ca 
dore, 79. 

Brussels, Jan. 26 
1796, died there 
April 3, 1877. Genre 
painter, pupil of P 
J. C. Francois ; one 
of the most origi- 
nal among modern 
Belgian artists. He 
was at first a lithog- 
rapher, and from 
1821 to 1840 pub- 
lished a number of valuable collective works, 
such as "Picturesque Views in Belgium," 
" Scenes of Society/' etc. His genre scenes 
from 18th century are often humourous. 
Member of Brussels and Antwerp Acad- 
emies. Medal, and L. of Honour, 1855 ; Or- 
der of Lion ; Commander of Order of Leo- 
pold, 1863. Works : Ambulant Musicians, 
Jeweller (1835) ; The Outlaw, Pages on a 
Farm, Much Ado about Nothing, Peasants 
in Admiration ; Scenes from Lives of Flem- 
ish and Dutch Painters (1840) ; Flemish 
Festival in 18th Century; Bat-Hunt, The 
Driveller, Brussels Museum ; Gallant Feat, 
Artist's portrait, Antwerp Museum ; Poach- 
ers stopped by Forester, Museum Fodor, 
Amsterdam ; Huntsman, Stettin Museum ; 
Importunate Acquaintance, "William Astor, 
New York ; Scolding Wife, W. H. Vander- 

bilt, ib. ; Flemish Cabaret, C. Vanderbilt, 
ib. ; Latest News, Old Friends, Aug. Bel- 
mont, ib.; Pinch of Snuff, J. J. Martin, 
Brooklyn.- Art Journal (1866), 37 ; (1877), 
176 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xvii. 468 ; Iiu- 
merzeel, ii. 193 ; Kramm, iv. 1039 ; KuiiHt- 
bL (1855), 145 ; (1856), 7 ; Kunst-Chroiiik, 
xii. 531. 

born at Santander, April 22, 1781, died in 
Madrid, May 8, 1859. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Madrid Academy, and in 
Paris of David, and finally studied in Rome. 
Became court painter, and in 1818 director 
of the Madrid Academy, and later also of the 
Museum. He did much towards the reform 
of the Academy, and through numerous pu- 
pils greatly influenced modern art in Spain. 
Member of Accademia di S. Luca in Rome, 
and in 1832 honourary member of Dresden 
Academy. Works : Jesus at House of Ana- 
nias, Death of Viriathus, Triumph of Divine 
over Worldly Love, Allegory of Spring, do. 
of Winter, do. of Morning, do. of Noon (1819), 
Equestrian portrait of Ferdinand VII, Ma- 
drid Museum ; Death of Lucretia, Fight of 
Greeks and Trojans over Body of Patrocluw, 
Quirinal, Rome ; Sacred Heart of Jesus with 
Glory of Angels, Salesian Convent, Madrid; 
Madonna with Angels, Battle of Cerignoln, 
Conquest of Breda ; Portraits of Charles IV. 
and Maria Louisa. Kunstbl. (1855), 215 ; 
Passavant, Christl. K. iu Spanien, 118 ; Un- 
sere Zeit (1859), 462. 

DE, born in Rome, Feb. 12, 1815. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, sou and pupil of 
O" Madrazo, and student in Paris of Win- 
erhalter. In 1835 he founded, with hi 
rother-inlaw, Eugenio de Ochoa, tho art 
oumal El Artista. Court painter and pro- 
essor at Madrid Academy, Medals : Paris, 
d class, 1838 ; 2d class, 1839 ; 1st class', 
845, 1855, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1846; Offi- 
er, 1860 ; Commander, 1878 ; Member of 
"toris Academy in 1873. Works: Godfrey do 
r ersailles Museum; Maria Christina as a Nun 



at the Bed of Ferdinand VH (1843); "Worn- 
en at the Sepulchre, Portraits of Queen Isa- 
bella (1845), King Francisco, Duchesses of 
Alba and Medina-Cceli, and many others ; 
New Song; Cigarette; In her Boudoir; 
Matinee Musicale ; Portrait of Count Rac- 
zynski (1850), Raczynski Gallery, Berlin. 
His brother Luis, pupil of his father, took 
the grand prize for Rome in 1848, and is 
especially known through his Burial of St. 
Cecilia in the Catacombs (1855), Madrid 
Museum. Kunstbl. (1855), 215 ; Larousse, 
x. 900 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., sis. Gil ; Mol- 
ler, 347 ; Passavant, Christ!. K, in Spanien, 
118 ; TJnsere Zeit (1859), 462. 

in Rome, July 24, 
1841. Genre and 
portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Feder- 
ico, and student in 
Paris at the E c o 1 e 
des Beaux Arts, and 
later of Leon Cogniet. 
Medal : 1st class, Par- 
is, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our in 1878. Works : 
After Vespers ; Andalusian Singer ; La 
Aventurera; Playing Guitar; The Gypsy; 
End of a Masked Ball (1878), Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New York; The Comic Newspaper, 
Fail 1 Masquerader, William Astor, ib.. ; 
Masqueraders, Fete during Carnival, Wil- 
liam H. Vanderbilt, ib. ; El Jaleo, Henry 
C. Gibson, Philadelphia; Dindon Tendre, 
A. J. Drexel, ib. ; Pierrette (1878), Inte- 
rior of S. Maria della Pace at Rome, 
Alexander Brown, ib.; My Model, La Sou- 
brette (1882); Notturno, The Domino (1883). 
His brother, Don Ricardo, has acquired repu- 
tation as a painter in water-colours: Story- 
Teller of Algiers, Alexander Brown, Phila- 
delphia ; Venders of Fire-Arms in Morocco 
(1879) ; Rrva degli Schiavoni (1882) ; Study 
of a Head (1884). La Eustracion (1879), 
i. 122 ; (1880), i 76, 342 ; (1882), i 3, 99, 
402 ; (1884), i. 115, 378 ; Mag. of Art (1884), 


portrait, Titian, Salvador! Collection, Trent ; 
canvas, figure full-length, life-size. In the 
black robes and hat of a prince-bishop. 
Painted in 1548. Injured by time and res- 
toration. Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 445 ; C. & 
C., Titian, ii. 186. 

flourished about 1460-80. German school ; 
history painter who, from 1467, painted, 
conjointly with Ulrich Faterer, for Kloster 
Tegernsee and Duke Albrecht IY. of Ba- 
varia. His works are characterized by a 
fantastic realism in representing bad or 
noble characters with great ugliness or 
beauty respectively. Works: Christ bear- 
ing the Cross, Crucifixion, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. Forster, Gesck, ii.252 ; Sighart, 569. 

MAES, GODFRTED, the younger, born 
in Antwerp, Aug. 15, 1649, died there, May 
30, 1700. Flemish school ; history painter, 
son of Godfried the elder (designer and en- 
graver, died in Antwerp, 1679), pupil of 
Peeter van Lint; entered the Antwerp 
guild in 1664, became master in 1672, and 
dean in 1682. Works : Martyrdom of Si 
George (1684), Antwerp Museum ; St. Nich- 

70$ 4 

olas (1689), Ghent Museum. Cat du Mus. 

d'Anvers (1874), 238; Kramm, iv. 1041; 

Rooses (Reber), 335; Gaz. des B. Arts 

(1861), xi. 347 ; Van den Branden, 955. 

' MAES (Maas), NICOLAAS, born at Dor- 

drecht in 1632, 

died in Amster- 

dam in Decem- 

ber, 1693. Dutch 

school ; genre and 

portrait painter, 

pupil of Rem- 

brandt, in whose 

manner he at first 

painted warmly 

coloured portraits 

of a reddish tint, 

but gradually came under influence of Flem- 




ish masters at Antwerp, where be was inti- 
mate with Jordaens, and executed his much 
prized genre pictures, treating domestic 
scenes, and seldom containing more than 
one or two figures. Settled in Amsterdam 
in 1678. Painted many portraits, especially 
of children. Works : Cradle, Dutch House- 
hold, Idle Cook, National Gallery, London ; 
Girl Peeping, Buckingham Palace; Girl 
threading Needle, Bridgewater Gallery ; 
Family Group, Stafford House ; Woman 
with Three Children, Mr. Munro ; Woman 
Asleep by a Cradle, Mr. Baring ; Servant 
on the Stair, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart.; 
The Listener, Lacemaker at Work, Mr. La- 
bouchere, Stoke, near Windsor Castle ; Say- 
ing Grace (1648), Louvre, Paris ; Portraits 
of Willem Nieuwport, Dutch Ambassador 
at London, and his Wife (1672), Portraits 
of Lady and Gentleman, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; The Dreamer, Old Woman Spinning 
(2), Portrait of Marten Meulenaer (1675), 
three other portraits, Museum, Amsterdam ; 
The Toad, Six Collection, ib.; Milkmaid, 
Van Loon Collection, ib. ; Old Woman say- 
ing Grace, Felix Meritis Institution, ib.; 
Portrait of Young Man (1660), Rotterdam 
Museum ; Old Woman Reading, Male Por- 
trait, Brussels Museum ; Portrait of Hein- 
sius (1656), Arenberg Gallery, Brussels ; 
Male Portrait, Diana and Nymphs (1650), 
Hague Museum ; A Scholar, Brunswick 
Gallery ; Slaying Pigs, A Bishop Reading, 
Berlin Museum ; Kitchen Interior, Male 
Portrait (1676), Dresden Gallery ; Woman 
Nursing and Three Girls, Old Woman 
Asleep, Hermitage, Si Petersburg ; Por- 
traits of Man and Wife, do. of two Children 
in a Park, Schwerin Gallery ; Portrait of 
Rembrandt, do. of a Burgomaster, Turin 
Gallery; Girl Praying 
(erroneously under 
Caspar Netscher), Uf- 
fizi, Florence ; Diich- 
ess of Mazaiin, New 
York Museum ; Por- 
traits in Munich (2), Oldenburg, Schleiss- 
heim, and Copenhagen (2) Galleries; do., 

Rothan Gallery, Paris. Allgem. d. Biog., 
xx. 47 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole hollandaise ; Bur- 
ger, Musees, i. 53, 221 ; ii. 23, 184 ; Immer 
zeel, ii. 191 ; Krainin, iv. 1032 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 384 ; Riegel, Beitruge, ii. 281 ; 
De Stuers, 72 ; Quellenschriften, xiv. 267 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1872), vi. 303 ; (1873), 
vii. 282. 

WYCK, born in Ghent, Sept. 30, 1794, died 
in Rome, April, 1856. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Ghent Academy under his 
father, received numerous prizes and medals 
from the Art Unions in the Netherlands, and 
in 1821 went to Rome. Member of Ghent 
Academy. Works : Vaccination Rooai( 1819); 
Hagar and Ishinael, Alexander and Diogenes 
(1821) ; Infant Christ and Si Ann (1826) ; 
Good Samaritan (1825), Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Apollo and the Muses, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Roman Girl at a Shrine (1832), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Roman Woman and 
Child Praying (1833), Kouigsberg Museum ; 
do. (1839), National Gallery, Berlin ; Street 
Scene in Rome (1833), Fruit-seller with Girl 
(1849), Roman Woman (1855), Kuusthalle, 
Hamburg ; Mary Magdalen (1841), Villa 
Rosenstein near Stuttgart, Juno, Ghent Mu- 
seum. Cotta's Kunstbl. (1836), 18 ; D. 
KunstbL (1857), 66; Immerzeel, ii. 195; 
Kramm, iv. 1041. 

MAFFEI, GUIDO VON, bom in Munich, 
July 1, 1838. . Animal painter, pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy under Otto Gebler. Medals : 
Vienna, 1873 ; Munich, 1883. Works : Con- 
tested Booty (1869) ; Stag stirred up by 
Boars (1873) ; Wounded Fox attacked by 
Badger Dogs (1877) ; Buck pursued by 
Dogs (1879), Dresden Gallery ; Partridges 
and Badger Dog, Well Hit ! Tid-Bit, Bad- 
ger attacked by Dogs (1882), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Wounded and giving Tongues 
Reynard Fugitive (1883). Allgem. K. Chr., 
ix. 507; Kunst for Alle, L; Mttller, 347; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 321 ; xviii. 497 ; Schor- 
er's Familienblatt, vi. 724. 

born in Marseilles, Aug. 4, 1817. Genre, 



landscape, and portrait painter, pupil of 
Marseilles Academy, then in Paris of Co- 
gniet. Many of hispictures are in the pub- 
lic galleries of Marseilles and other French 
cities. Director of Marseilles Academy since 
1860. Medals : 3d class, 1861 and 1863. 
Works: Environs of Marseilles (1841) ; In- 
cident of the Massacre of the Innocents 
(184=2) ; Christian Captives (1844) ; Descent 
from the Cross (1845) ; Women at the Spring 
(1846) ; Mater Dolorosa (1852) ; Scene from 
Dante's Purgatory ; Plague in Marseilles 
(1860) ; St. Bernard preaching the Crusade 
(1864) ; Condo on Battlefield of Ro- 
croy ; Paul in Athens ; Modesty 
(1874); Diogenes (1882). Beffier, 
ii. 7 ; Mailer, 347. 

MAGDALEN, Pompeo JBattoni, 
Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 4 ft x 
6 ft. 1 in. Reclining in the obscurity 
of a cave, the mouth of which is seen 
at right ; she leans upon her elbows, 
her hands clasped, and reads from a 
book which rests upon a skull at her 
left side ; drapery blue, leaving bare 
her feet, arms, and right shoulder. 
A favourite picture, often copied. En- 
graved by J. S. Bach ; Gius. Came- 
rata; C. Krueger. Httbner, Dresden 
Gal., i. 3. 

By Annibale Oarracci, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 10 in. X 3 ft. 4 in. Standing at entrance 
to a grotto, looking toward a cross at right ; 
below the cross, an open book on a rock. 
Collection of Louis XVDI.; acquired in 1821 
from. M. Scitivaux. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Claudeljorram, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 5 f t 3 in. x 7 ft. 8 in. Kneeling in a 
beautiful valley, in a mountainous and bro- 
ken country ; dawn effect, Madrazo. 

By Correggio, Dresden Gallery; copper, 
H. 1 ft. x 1 ft. 3 in. Reclining at the mouth 
of a cave under dark foliage ; she supports 
her head on one hand, and with the other 
holds the book from, which she is reading on 
the ground. Clad in a blue garment, leav- 
ing feet and shoulders bare. Early history 
unknown ; painted probably about 1530-33. 

Baldinucci describes a similar work in col- 
lection of Cavaliere Niccolo de Gaddi, Flor- 
ence, about 1600, which was copied by Cris- 
tofano Allori. In 18th century it was kept 
in the so-called golden chamber of the Cas- 
tle of Modena, set in a silver frame orna- 
mented with precious stones, enclosed in a 
case opened only on state occasions. Sold 
to Augustus IH, Elector of Saxony, in 1745 
-46, when it was valued at 27,000 scudi. 
Stolen in 1788 from Dresden Gallery by one 
Wogaz, but recovered from his house. Many 
copies ; one, bought from Yallati, Rome, 

Magdalen, Correggio, Dresden Gallery. 

which passed as the original in Lord Ward's 
Gallery, London ; another by C. Allori in the 
Uffizi. Engraved by Daull ; Basan ; Con- 
tius; Niquet; Longhi (1809); Bottcher ; 
Bartolozzi; Stadler. Meyer, Correggio, 336, 
487 ; Gal. roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 4 ; Landon, 
GBuvres, viii. PL 17 ; Klas. der Malerei, i, 
PL 48 ; Httbner, Dresden Gal. i. 8. 

By Carlo Dolci, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
life-size. Bust of a beautiful woman, with 
her hair falling over her shoulders, clad in 
silk embroidered with silver and gold, and 
wearing pearls and diamonds ; in her hand 
an ointment vase. Wicar, iii. Part 29 ; Lasi- 
nio, i. PL 59 ; Soc. Ed. and Paris, Gal. di 
Firenze, 148 ; Baldinucci, xviii. 111. 

By Domenichino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft 6 in. Half- 



length, with hands clasped and eyes up- 
raised, leaning on a stone balustrade. Her 
blonde tresses fall in curling masses upon 
her shoulders. Colour fresh, drawing and 
effect of light good. Bought in 1819 by 
Grand Duke Ferdinand HL of Count Cesar 
Bianchetti of Bologna. Engraved by P. Sup- 
pini. Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iv. PL 124 

By Anton van Dyck, Vienna Museum. 
Half-length, with eyes raised to heaven. 
Engraved by A de Jode ; A. L. Krttger ; 
Blooteling ; Van der Does ; L. Vorsterman ; 
Marinus. Smith, iii. 32 ; Guiffrey, 251. 

By Guercino, Naples Museum ; canvas. 
Half-length, leaning on left arm, contemplat- 
ing the crown of thorns which she holds. 
Head resembles that of the Sibyl at the 
Capitol, though more tender and less sad. 
Engraved by Lasinio fils. Museo Borbo- 
nico, vii. PL 17 ; Lavice, 200 . 

By Guercino, Vatican, Borne. The Mag- 
dalen kneeling ; above, two angels showing 
the nails and crown of thorns. Painted for 
Church of the Convertite, in the Corso. 
Eestored by Camuccini. Pistolesi, Vatica- 
no, vi. PL 66 ; Lavice, 312. 

By Guido Eeni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 
7 in. x 3 ft. 1 in. The Magdalen in a grotto, 
with hands clasped and eyes turned towards 
a crucifix. From collection of Louis XIV., 
who bought it in 1670. Engraved by 
Schmutzer. Musee franyais, i. Pfc. 1 ; Lan- 
don, Musee, xv. PL 71. 

By Guido Keni, Louvre ; copper, H. 2 ft. 
2 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. Bust ; she raises her eyes 
to heaven and clasps her hands on her 
breast, over which her long hair falls. Col- 

By Guido Reni, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 11 in. Half-length, 
draped, leauing upon the left arm, the right 
on the heart ; in contemplation before a 
crucifix. Engraved by Ig. Krepp. Gal. de 
Vienne, ii. PL 67. 

By Jean Jacques Henner, Toulouse Mu- 
seum ; canvas. Full-length, draped below 
the hips, seated on ground in a cave, with 
knees drawn under. Replica, Miss Hitch- 
cock, New York. Photogravure in Art 
Treasures of America. 

By Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris ; can- 

lection of Louis XIV. Engraved by Stoel- 
zel in Musee franyais. Landon, Musee, 2d 
Col., iii. PL 18. 

By Guido Reni, National Gallery, London; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. Half-length, 
size of life. From Orleans Gallery ; sold to 
Mr. Hope for 400 ; purchased in 1840 from 
Sir Simon Clarke for 430 10s Engraved 
by J. Bouillard in Galerie du Palais Royal, 
and by W. Sharp. Waagen, Treasures, ii. 
337 ; Richter, Ital. Art in Nat. Gal., 105. 


Magdalen, Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Parts. 

H. 8 ft, 3 in. x 5 ft, 7 in. Pull-face, 

seated before a table on which is a mirror, 
rending her clothes and lifting her eyes tilled 
with tears towards heaven. At her feet, a 
casket of jewels overturned ; in background, 
an open window. Ordered by M. de Camus 
for the Church of the Convent of the Car- 
melites, where it remained until the Revolu- 
tion. Said erroneously to be a portrait of 
Mme. cle La Valliere. Engraved by G. Ede- 
"inck ; Carmona. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Murillo, Adolph Carstansen, Cologne; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 10 in. In red 



and blue robes, kneeling, with hands joined 
in prayer, in a cavern, looking up to three 
angels, one of whom plays a violin, anothei 
a flute, while the third sings from a sheei 
of music ; on ground, a cross, book, vase, 
and skull. Bought in 1871 from Mr. Nieuw- 
enhuys; Walsh-Porter sale (1810), 420. 
Curtis, 259. 

By Murillo, Academia S. Fernando, Ma- 
drid ; canvas, figure full-length, life-size. In 
white chemise and brown robe, with red 
drapery over limbs, seated front, with hands 
clasped, looking to her right ; in her lap, an 
open book Engraved by S. Brieva. Cur- 
tis, 260. 

. By school of Mitrillo, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 5 f t. x 4 ft. Partly draped in 
gray robe and red mantle, seated nearly 
front, on a rock in a cavern, looking up, her 
cheek resting on her right hand, her left 
holding an open book against her body ; 
beneath her elbow is a skull, and on the 
rock beside it a cross. From Palace of H- 
defonso (?). Lithographed by H. Blanco. 
Curtis, 259 ; Madrazo, 489. 

By Eubem, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 7 in.. Seated at left, in a 
white satin robe and blue vest, with clasped 
hands and streaming eyes turned upwards, 
trampling her casket of jewels under her 
feet ; the tranquillity of a religious life rep- 
resented by a female figure in black seated 
in background. Engraved by Vorsterrnan. 
Smith, ii. 90. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice; 
canvas. The Magdalen in a beautiful land- 
scape, with a. laurel tree near a brook in 
foreground. Companion picture to St. 
Mart/ of Egypt, the two being painted to 
fill narrow spaces between windows. Rus- 
kin, Stones of Venice, iii. 330. 

By Titian, Hermitage, St Petersburg; 
canvas, H. 3 f t 9 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. ; signed. 
Figure, seen to the hip, scantily clad in a 
white garment striped with red and black ; 
well-developed bosom and throat covered 
by long, wavy hair; skull and open book 
to right, little vase to left Painted about 

1561 ; passed in 1581 from Pomponio Ve- 
celli to the Barberigo family, and thence to 
the Hermitage. Replicas, with variations, 
in Naples Museum and Palazzo Durazzo, 
Genoa ; another lately in Ashburton Collec- 
tion, London. Numerous late copies. C. 
& C., Titian, ii. 313 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 
N 454 ; Cat. Hermitage. 

By Titian, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. ; signed. A young 
woman, nude, half-length, her shoulders 
partly covered with golden tresses which 
she presses to her breast; her upturned 
face and eyes and falling tears imply a pen- 
itence which her form belies. Probably 
painted about 1531 for Francesco Maria, 
Duke of Urbino. Original, painted for 
Marquis of Mantua to be presented to 
D'Avalos del Vasto, has disappeared. Many 
copies by Titian's disciple.s and others : two 
in Palazzo Doria, Rome ; two at Hampton 
Court ; fine one, with variations, in Naples 
Museum. Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 454 ; C. & 
G, Titian, i. 348 ; Gal. du Pal Pitti, i. PL 

By Alessandro Turchi, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, 4 ft. 8 in. sq. The Magdalen in 
prayer before a rock, on which are two 
books, a crucifix, and a skull. Cat. Museo 
del Prado. 

By Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. x 3 ft. 4 in. The Magdalen in 
the desert, kneeling with arms crossed and 
eyes turned towards heaven, from which rays 
of light proceed ; at left, on a rock, a cruci- 
fix and an open book, and at her feet a skull. 
Formerly in Palazzo de S. Udefonso. Re- 
plica in Capitol Gallery, Rome (?). Cat. 
Museo del Prado ; Righetti, Campidoglio, 
ii. PL 319. 

By Timoteo Viti, Bologna Gallery ; wood, 
H. 5 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. The Magdalen, 
with hands clasped, standing before a grot- 
X5 ; she wears a short red mantle, beneath 
which her long hair is seen reaching to her 
bare feet. Ordered by Lodovico Amaduzzi 
about 1508 for the Chapel of S. Cipriano, S. 
Martino, Urbino. Engraved by F. Rosas- 



pina ; L. Martelli. Vasari, eel. Mil., iv. 497 
Pinac. di Bologna, PL 42 ; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 484. 

Subject treated also by Cristofano Allori, 
TJffizi, Florence ; Andrea del Sarto, Palaz- 
zo Torrigiani, Florence ; FraBartolommeo, 
Siena Museum ; Angelo Bronzino, Palazzo 
Mozzt, Florence ; Sebastiano Brunetti, Bo- 
logna Museum ; Silvestro Buono, Naples 
Museum ; Guido Cagnacci, Museums oi 
Dresden, Berlin, Munich, and Madrid ; I 
Calabrese, Munich Museum ; Luca Cainbi- 
aso, Palazzo Doria, Genoa ; Andrea Carlone, 
TJffizi, Florence ; Anuibale Garracci, Palazzo 
Doria, Borne, and Louvre ; Andrea del Cas- 
tagno, Florence Academy ; Giacomo Cave- 
done, Modena Gallery ; Carlo Cignani, Mu- 
nich Museum ; Ludovico Cigoli, Uffizi, and 
Madrid Museum ; Francesco Curradi, Uffizi ; 
Carlo Dolci, Munich Gallery ; Luca Ferrari, 
Modena Museum ; Marco Antonio Frances- 
chini, Vienna and Dresden Galleries ; Fran- 
cesco Furini, Vienna Museum ; Benedetto 
Gennari, Naples Museum; Orazio Genti- 
leschi, Vienna Museum ; Francesco Gessi, 
Dresden Gallery ; Luca Giordano, Dresden 
and Toulouse Galleries ; Francesco Granac- 
ci, Munich Gallery ; Guercino, Bologna and 
Madrid Museums ; Guido Eeni, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Lanfranco, Uffizi, and Modena Gal- 
lery ; Pietro Rotari, Dresden Gallery ; An- 
drea Sacchi, Florence Academy ; Bartolom- 
meo Schidone ; Tintoretto, Madrid Museum ; 
Titian, Naples Museum and Palazzo Doria, 
Rome ; Luis de Carbajal, Madrid Museum ; 
Spagnoletto, ib.; Zurbaran, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Hans Memling, Louvre ; Marcel Ver- 
dier (1842); Ary Scheffer ; Nataie Schiavoni, 
Berlin (1852) and Vienna Museums ; Jules 
Joseph Lefebvre (1876). 

MAGES, JOSEF, born at Imst, Tyrol, in 
1728, died at Strassburg in 1769. German 
school ; history painter, pupil of Kapeller ; 
went to Innsbruck, and after several years in 
Vienna, where he studied the master-works 
in the gallery, lived successively at Strass- 
burg, Stuttgart, and Augsburg, where he 
finally settled ; was a proficient in fresco 

painting. Works: Mary of Egypt, Christ 
on the Cross with Mary and St. John, St. 
Salvator's, Augsburg ; Life of St. Augustine, 
Legend of the Holy Sacrament (4), Miracles 
of the Host on the Elements (4), Frescos in 
the Cupola, Church of the Holy Cross, ib. 
Allgein. d. Biog., xx. 59 ; Nagler, viii. 180 ; 
Wurzbach, xvi. 263. 

MAGI, ADORATION OF, Giovanni Bel- 
lini, National Gallery, London. The Virgin 
and Child, with Joseph seated near them ; 
at a little distance, the three Kings respect- 
fully offer gifts. A predella of pure concep- 
tion, delicately executed. Bought at Leigh 
Court sale (1884), 365 guineas. Waagen, 
Treasures, iii. 185. 

By Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood, figures half natural size. The Virgin 
and Child, with St. Joseph behind, the Ma- 
gi, attendants, and spectators ; the one kneel- 
ing is Cosmo de' Medici, the two others 
Giuliano and Giovanni de' Medici. All fig- 
ures in costume of 15th century. Painted 
about 1480 for S. M. Novella, Florence ; 
removed in 17th century to the Villa Reale 
del Poggio Imperiale, whence came to Ilifizi 
in 1796. One of the best pictures of the 
period. Vasari, ed. Mil, iii. 315 ; C. & C,, 
Italy, ii. 419. 

By Albrecht Dttrer, Uffizi, Florence ; can- 
vas. The Virgin, fair-haired, draped in blue, 
with a white veil, sitting at left, with Jesus 
on her knees ; the three Magi, in magnifi- 
cent dresses glittering with gold, approach 
with gifts ; background, a sunny landscape. 
Painted in 1504 for Elector Frederick of 
Saxony ; presented in 1603 by Christian II. 
to the Emperor Kudolph EL; sent in last 
century to Florence, in exchange for Fra 
Bartolommeo's Presentation in the Temple. 
Thausing, i. 298. 

By Garofalo, Ferrara Gallery ; wood, H. 
11 ft. x6 ft. 6 in.; signed, dated 1537. A 
rich composition, with a landscape and archi- 
tectural background ; and in foreground the 
three Kings with their retinue, some on foot 
and some on horses and camels, offering 
adoration and presents to the Child. Paint- 



for S. Giorgio, near Ferrara. One of Garo- 
falo's best works, and still very brilliant. 
Vasari, ed. Mil, vi. 465 ; Cat. Ferrara Gal 
By Gentile da Fabriano, Florence Acad- 
emy ; wood, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 7 f fc. 4 in. ; signed, 
dated 1423. The Virgin, with Jesus in her 
lap, seated at left, attended by St. Joseph 
and two women ; at right, the three Kings, 
the foremost one kneeling to kiss the Child's 
foot, followed by a large retinue of follow- 1 

6 ; Albertini, Memoriale, 14 ; 0. &0., Italy, 
iii. 100 ; Gal. Accacl. di Firenze, PL 22. 

By Domenico Ghirlandajo, S. M. degli In- 
nocenti, Florence ; painted in tempera, dat- 
ed 1488. The Virgin and Child receiving- 
the three Kings, with children kneeling at 
sides ; in distance, fine architecture and a 
landscape ; a cavalcade advances through an 
arch, and far away the angel announces to 
the shepherds ; in fields to right, massacre 

Adoration of Magi, Gentile da Fabriano, Florence Academy. 

ers, grooms, and huntsmen, with horses, 
camels, dogs, monkeys, and parrots. The 
Saviour, the Virgin,' and the annunciating 
angel appear in the medallions of the ga- 
bles ; the predella comprises the Nativity, 
the Flight into Egypt, and the Presentation 
in the Temple, the last of which was carried 
to Paris in 1812 and is now in the Louvre. 
The face of the turbaned man behind the 
last of the Kings is engraved by Vasari as 
Gentile's portrait. Painted for the sacristy 
of S. Trinity Florence. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 

of the innocents ; above, four angels, one 
with a scroll. The fourth figure from side 
of picture, to the left of the Virgin, is a 
portrait of Ghirlandajo. The finest panel' 
by the master. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 258 ; 
Richa, Yin. 128 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. 488. 

By Domenico Ghirlandajo, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; wood, round ; figures less than natu- 
ral size; dated 1487. The Virgin, seated, with 
Jesus on her lap ; the three Kings kneeling, 
one leaning over to kiss the foot of the Child ; 
at sides, several attendants. Painted prob- 


ably for Church of Orbatello. A beautiful 
composition and rich iii colour, but injured 
by retouching. Repetition, with variation, 
in Palazzo PittL C. & C., Italy, ii. 488; 
Eumohr, Forschungen, ii. 285 ; Eosini, iii. 

ByFilippino Lippi, Uffizi, Florence; wood, 
figures less than natural size ; signed, dated 
1496. The Virgin and Child, with St. Jo- 
seph behind, and two of the Magi kneeling 

Adoration of Magi, Raphael (?), Berlin Museum. 

in front, while , the third pauses to let his 
crown be removed ; Moorish and Indian at- 
tendants, with horses and spectators ; up- 
wards of thirty figures in all According to 
Yasari, the astrologer with a quadrant is 
Pier Francesco de' Medici, and other figures 
represent others of the family. Painted 
for S. Donato al Scopeto, Florence. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 73 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. 444. 
By Murillo, Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, 

England ; canvas, H. about 6 f t. x 5 ft. The 
Virgin, nearly full-length, standing on right, 
holding the Child on a box supported on 
trestles ; behind her, St. Joseph ; in centre 
foreground, one of the Kings kneeling, his 
yellow mantle held by two pages ; beyond, 
another in white robes, holding vases ; on 
his right, a third in white turban and two 
children. Early work. Curtis, 167. 

By Nicolas Poutssin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 4 in. x 5 ft. 9 in. The Virgin, 
seated at left in front of the ruins 
of a temple, holds Jesus on her 
knees ; behind her, St. Joseph ; 
the three Kings, followed by ser- 
vants and soldiers, prostrate them- 
selves before the Saviour and offer 
gifts; in background, at right, 
their horses. Painted at Borne 
in 1653 for M. de Mauroy ; passed 
at his death to M. de Boisfranc, 
and then to the Chartreux of Paris, 
from which acquired by Louvre. 
Engraved by Ant. Morghen in 
Musee fran^ais, and by Avice. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Raphael (?), Berlin Museum ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. 
The Infant is lying on a carpet 
spread on the ground, adored by 
Mary and two angels kneeling ; at 
left, St. Joseph, standing, leaning 
upon a staff; at right, the Magi, 
one of whom, kneeling, presents a 
golden vase ; in background, left, 
the stable, with an ox and nn ass 
looking out ; at right, a caravan de- 
scending a mountain ; above, three 
angels, draped, holding a banderol insciibed 
Ecce Agnus Dei. Border decorated with 
arabesques and figures of saints in grisaille. 
Painted about 1503 by Baphael, according 
to local tradition, for Ancajano Ancajani, 
Abbot of the Convent of Ferentillo, near 
Spoleto, 1478-1503. Eemained in Church 
of S. Pietro there until 1700, when it was 
restored and removed to the Chapel of the 
Palazzo Ancajani, Spoleto, a copy by Se- 



bastiano Conca being put in its old place. 
In 1825 the Ancajani family took it to 
Home, where it was sold in 1833 for 6,000 
scudi to the Berlin Museum. Called some- 
times Ancajani Madonna. Another copy 
by Jacopo da Nourcia. Engraved by Ed. 
Eichens, 1836. Ascribed by C. & C. to Lo 
Spagna. Pungileoni, Elogio storico, 18 
Passavant, ii. 319 ; C. & C., Italy, 305 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 411 ; Waagen, Blatter 
fiir bild. Kunst (1834), No. 18. 

By Rembrandt, Buckingham Palace ; wood, 
H. 3 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 
1657. The Virgin, with Jesus on her knees, 
seated at right in a stable, receiving offer- 
ings of the Magi, who are kneeling ; at left, 
several kings and sages ; in background, a 
company with camels, advancing. In Am- 
sterdam and Rotterdam Collections in 1715- 
99; sale of Grandpre Collection (1815), 
withdrawn at 70,000 francs. Engraved by J. 
Burnet. Vosmaer, 303, 490 ; Smith, vii 25. 

By Rubens, Antwerp Museum ; canvas, H. 
14 ft. 6 in. * 11 ft. ; eighteen figures. The 
Virgin, at left, with Joseph standing behind 
her, holding Jesus on a pillow ; before him 
one of the Magi and a youth are kneeling ; 
behind these another king, whose bonnet a 
servant is removing, has a vase in one hand 
and its cover in the other; near them a 
man on horseback and persons looking on. 
Painted for S. Michael, Antwerp, in thirteen 
days. Engraved by Lommelin; Eynhou- 
edts. Smith, ii. 9. 

By Rubens, Brussels Museum ; canvas, H. 
10 ft. 5 in. x 9 ft. ; twenty figures. The 
Virgin, standing near centre, with St. Jo- 
seph beside her, holds Jesus erect on a crib; 
one of the Magi, bowing, embraces his foot; 
a second stands on farther side, and on his 
right an Ethiopian king ; behind these are 
pages with vases of coin, and a negro and a 
boy bearing candelabra ; at left, an armed 
soldier prevents with his shield the entrance 
of several persons. Probably the picture 
painted for the Capuchins at Tournay. En- 
graved by L. Vorsterman ; in reverse by N. 
Lauwers. Smith, ii. 54. 

"By Rubem, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. x 9 ft. The Virgin, seated 
in a cave used as- a stable, with Jesus in her 
lap, before whom one of the Kings is kneel- 
ing; behind him, three others, with their 
train ; behind them, soldiers descending a 
ladder; at left, two men on horseback. 
Smith, k. 253. 

By Rubens, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 9 
ft. 2 in. x 7 ft. 2 in. The Virgin, standing, 
holding Jesus upon a cushion placed on a 
straw which covers a kind of pedestal ; he 

Adoration of Magi, Rubens, Brussels Museum. 

puts his hand into a shell full of gold pieces 
which one of the Kings presents, kneeling ; 
at right, another, also kneeling, with a gold- 
en vase ; the third, a turbaned negro, bears 
an open casket ; at left, behind the Virgin, 
St. Joseph, standing ; in background, cattle 
eating ; at right, a group of four soldiers. 
Painted about 1612 for Church of the An- 
nonciades, Brussels. Engraved by Bols- 
waert ; Panneels ; and by an anonymous 
engraver. Eeplica (8 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 10 in.), 
Blenheim sale (1886), 1,500. Waagen, 
Art Treasures, iii 125 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 



By Rubens, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 

11 ft, 4 in. x 16 ft The Virgin presents 
Jesus to the three Kings, who are followed 
by a splendid train. Smith, ii. 135 ; Ma- 

By Rubens, St. Jean, Mechlin ; canvas, H. 

12 ft, x 10 ft. The Virgin, standing at light, 
with St. Joseph behind her, holds Jesus on 
a pillow for adoration ; the Magi, with 
pages, a man in armour and a negro, and 
several persons beyond, two bearing torches. 
The best of Rubens' works on the subject. 
Painted in 1624, with seven other pictures, 
comprising the covers and predella of the 
altarpiece, in eighteen days, for 1,800 flor- 
ins. Engraved by Vorsterrnan ; Nolpe. 
Sketch in collection of Marquis of Bute, 
Luton House. Smith, ii. 43. 

By H Sod o ma, Cappelki Piccolomini, S. 
Agostino, Siena ; wood, arched, figures life- 
size. Painted in 1536 for the altar of the 
Arduini ; in possession of Piccolomini fam- 
ily since 1612. Engraved by Lasinio, Jr., 
in Pitture di Siena. Meyer, Ktmst Lex., 
iii. 225 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vi. 395. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice; 
canvas. Ruskin calls it the " most finished 
picture in the Scuola, except the Cruci- 
fixion, and perhaps the most delightful of 
the whole." Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 8 in. x 7 ft. 2 in. The Virgin and 
Child, seated under a thatched pent-house 
to the left, with St. Joseph behind, and one 
King kneeling in front ; to right, the oth- 
ers, with a suite of riders, led horses, and 
camels. Painted in 1560 for Philip II 
Replica in the Escorial, probably by a 
Spaniard ; others in Butler-Johnstone Col- 
lection, London, and in Ambrosiana, Milan. 
C. & C., Titian, ii. 308 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 452. 

By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft 8 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. ; dated 1619. The 
Virgin, in red. robe, blue mantle, and white 
scarf, sitting on a platform on right, hold- 
ing Jesus on her lap ; before them, on left, 

two Kings, kneeling, and one, an Ethiopian, 
standing, all with golden vases ; on right, 
St. Joseph ; on left, a servant. Curtis, 5 ; 
Madrazo, 592. 

By Paolo Veronese, Brera, Milan ; canvas, 
arched, H. 14 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft. 5 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated, with Jesus on her knees, receiving 
the adoration of the Magi, who are attended 
by soldiers in armour and attendants, with 
horses and camels, bearing gifts ; in front, 
a, dwarf holding a dog by a leash. Formed 
the middle part of a triptych once in Church 
of the Ognissanti, Venice. The wings, also 
in Brera, have SS. Gregory and Jerome on 
one side, and SS. Ambrose and Augustine 
on the other, with angels playing musical 
instruments above each. Eastlake, Brera, 

By Paolo Veronese, Devonshire House, 
London ; canvas, figures life-size. One of 
the master's best pictures. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 90. 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 3 in. x 16 ft. The Virgin, seat- 
ed, with Jesus in her lap, receiving the 
homage of the Magi, who, attended by a 
retinue of servants and horses and camels, 
offer gifts. From the Modena Collection. 
Restored in 1837 by Schirmer. Engraved 
by Kilian. Gal. royale de Dresde, i. PL 14 ; 
Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 57 ; Hubner, Dresden 
Gal., i. 16. 

By Paolo Veronese, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 11 ft x 7 in.10 ft. 7 in.; 
dated 1573. The Virgin, with Jesus in her 
arms, seated in a ruined building, part of 
which has served as a stable, receiving the 
adoration of the Wise Men, behind whom 
is their retinue bearing presents ; a ray of 
light, with winged cherubs hovering along 
it, falls on the Child. Formerly in S. Sil- 
vestro, Venice ; acquired of A. Toffoli, Ven- 
ice, in 1855, for 1,977. Nat. GaL Cat; 
Richter, Ital Art in Nat. Gal., 106. 

By Paolo Veronese, Vienna Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft 8 in. x 5 ft 5 in. The Virgin, 
with Jesus in her arms, seated in front of 
the columns of a portico ; behind her, St. 



Joseph ; in front, the three Kings (one a 
negro in a turban) with attendants ; in fore- 
ground, at left, a horse and a dog ; in back- 
ground, a camel's head and a horse's head. 
The man in armour is Veronese himself. 
Gal. de Vienne, i. PL 43. 

By Leonardo da Vinci, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood, 7 ft. 9 in. sq. The Madonna, seated 
in foreground, with Jesus in her arms, and 
the Magi and their attendants grouped 
around ; more than 30 figures. Painted 
(1480-83) in brown ; unfinished. Probably 
the picture for which Leonardo received a 
commission in 1481 from the monks of S. 
Donato al Scope to, near Florence. Engraved 
in outline in Eosini's " Storia della pittura 
italiana." Vasari, ed. MiL, iv. 27 ; Bichter, 
Leonardo, 9 ; Clement, 341 ; Gaz. des Beaux 
Arts (1867), jam. 531; Burckhardt, 627; 
Ch. Blanc, ]Scole florentine. 

Subject treated also by Cristofano Allori, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Guido Aspertini, Bologna 
Gallery ; Jacopo Bassano, Vienna Museum ; 
Leandro Bassano, Louvre, Paris, and Ma- 
drid Museum ; Bonifazio, Venice Academy ; 
Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi ; Brusasorchi, S. 
Stefano, Verona; Luca Carnbiaso, Parma and 
Turin Museums ; Benedetto Castiglione, SS. 
Annunziata, Genoa ; Giuseppe Chiari, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Belisario Oorenzio, Naples 
Museum ; Lorenzo di Credi, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Giovanni Antonio Fassolo, Dresden 
Museum ; Gaudenzio Ferrari, Milan Gal- 
lery ; Francesco Francia, Dresden Gallery ; 
Garofalo, Berlin Museum ; Gentile da Fa- 
briano, Trinita, Florence ; Domenico Ghir- 
landajo, Pitti and Uffizi ; Fra Angelico, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Filippo Lippi, Uf- 
fizi ; Bernardino Luini, Cathedral of Como ; 
Mautegna, Uffizi ; Matteo di San Giovanni, 
S. Domenico, Siena ; Girolamo Mazzola, 
Louvre ; Lorenzo Monaco, Uffizi ; Battista 
Naldini, Dresden Museum ; Marco Palmez- 
zano, ib.; Camillo Procaccini, Modena Mu- 
seum ; Luca Signorelli, Louvre ; Sodoma, 
S. Agostino, Siena ; Titian, Vienna Muse- 
um ; Paolo Veronese, Madrid, Vienna, and 
Dresden Museums ; Leonardo da Vinci, 

Uffizi ; Antonio Vivarini, Berlin Museum ; 
Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; Jerome Bosch, 
ib. ; Lucas Cranach, elder, Vienna Museum ; 
Albrecht Ddrer, Uffizi ; Jan van Eyck, Brus- 
sels Museum ; Hans Holbein, Munich Mu- 
seum ; Gerard Seghers, Notre Dame, Bru- 
ges ; Mai-tin de Vos, Dijon Museum ; Ru- 
bens, St. John, Mechlin, Brussels Museum ; 
Jean Jouvenet, Church of La Fosse ; Nico- 
las Poussin, Dulwich Gallery ; Richard Tas- 
sel, Dijon Museum ; Heinrich Lehmann 
(1855), Eheims Museum. 

MAGNIFICAT, Jean Jouvenet, Notre 
Dame, Paris. The Visitation. Jouvenet's 
last work, and one of his best. Painted in 
1715, after he had lost the use of his right 
hand from paralysis. 

of Religion in Arts. 

MAGNUS, EDUARD, born in Berlin, 
Jan. 7, 1799, died 
there, Aug. 8, 1872. 
Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy ; visited 
France and Italy in 
1826-29, Italy again 
and England in 1831- 
35-, France and Spain 
in 1850-53 ; became 
member of Berlin 
Academy in 1837, and professor in 1844 ; 
excelled in female portraits. Medal, 2d class, 
Paiis, 1855 ; Order of Ited Eagle ; Order oi 
St. Michael. Works: Drama with the Golden 
Chain, Return of the Pirate, Pirate's Farewell, 
Two Girls in Sunshine, Children playing with 
Flowers, Country Girl, Fisher-Boy of Nice, 
Return of Greek Fisherman, Female Head, 
Portrait of Jenny Lincl (last three in Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin) ; Portraits of mem- 
bers of Royal Family of Prussia, Field Mar- 
shal Wrangel, Prince Radziwill, Countesses 
Arnim and Rossi, Mendelssohn, Thorwald- 
sen, Curschmann, Adolf Menzel, Henriette 
Son tag, of himself, and of his mother, etc.; 
Countess Wanda Raczynski (1837), Rac- 
zynski Gallery, Berlin. AUgem, d. Biogr., 



xx. 75 ; Art Journal (1872), 255 ; Im neuen 
Reich (1872), ii. 522 ; (1873), 271 ; Jordan 
(1885), ii. 141 ; Kunst-Chronik, viii. 521, 
537 ; Kosenberg, BerL Malersch., 142. 

MAGRATH, WILLIAM, born in Ireland 
in 1835. Landscape and figure painter. 
Studied and practised art in America. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1874, and N.A. in 
1876. Painted in London in 1883. Studio 
in Washington. Works in oil : Road to 
Kennmir (1870); Reveille (1871); Empty 
Flagon (1873) ; Rustic Courtship, Content- 
ment (1876) ; Girl Spinning, Paddy's Pets 
(1877) ; Adirondack Slopes (1878) ; Court- 
yard with Donkey, F. Harper, New York ; 
First Proposal, Gardener, T. B. Clarke, ib.; 
On the Old Sod (1879) ; Interesting Item 
(1883) ; Sop for Neddy (1884). Water-col- 
ours : Wilds of Connemara ; Irish Interior 
Girl Spinning Yarn ; Dairy Maid ; Fish- 
erman's Daughter ; Grandfather's Pets 
(Charles Stewart Smith, New York), Mus- 
sel-Gatherers (Robert Gordon, ib.), Nora, 
Irish Thatched Cottage, On the Hillside 
(1876) ; Rue d'Epicurie and the Cathedral 
at Rouen, La Grosse Horloge Rouen 
(1884) ; Recreation (1885) ; "Ah ! Rory, be 
aisey, don't taze me no more ! " (1886). 

at St. Ulrich, GrOden, Tyrol, about 1834, 
died in Munich, April 6, 1869. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
under Philipp Foltz and Johann Schrau- 
dolph, then in Vienna of Ftthrich ; spent 
eight months in Venice in 1858, and then 
some time in Rome ; went to Munich again 
about 1862. Works : Christ blessing Little 
Children (1858) ; Philemon and Baucis ; St. 
Notburga feeding the Poor (1863) ; Philip- 
pine Welser with her Children before Em- 
peror Ferdinand at Prague, Portrait of 
Professor Pichler (1854), do. of the Sculptor 
Dominik Mahlknecht, Ferdinandeum, Inns- 
bruck. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 96 ; Wurz- 
bach, xvi. 283. 

MAHU, CORNELIS, born at Antwerp in 
1613, died there, Nov. 15, 1689. Flemish 
school ; still-life painter, master of the Ant- 

werp guild in 1638. Works : Bumper with 
Lobster, Fruit, etc. (1648), Berlin Museum ; 
similar subject, Ghent Museum. Van den 
Branden, 1112. 

MAID AND MAGPIE, Sir Edwin Land- 
seer, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 11 in. A milkmaid, milking 
a cow in a shed, is so intent upon what a 
young man behind her is saying that she 
does not observe that a magpie is carrying 
off a silver spoon placed in one of two wood- 
en shoes by her side. Scene from the tale 
of "The Maid and The Magpie," which Ros- 
sini has made the subject of his opera of 
"La Gazza Ladra." Royal Academy, 1858 ; 
bequeathed by Jacob Bell in 1859. En- 
graved by S. Cousins. Cat. Nat. Gal.; 
Stephens, 97 ; Wornum, Epochs. 
MAIDS OF HONOUR. See Menwas, Las. 
MAIGNAN, ALBERT, born at Beaumont 
(Sarthe); contempo- 
rary. History and 
landscape p a i n t e r, 
pupil of Noel and 
Luminais. Medals : 
3d class, 1874; 2d 
class, 1876; 1st class, 
1879; L of Hon- 
our, 1883. Works: 
Sailing of the Nor- 
man Fleet (1874) ; Insulting tho Prisoners 
(1875, scene from Albigensian Crusade) ; 
Frederick Barbarossa at tho Feet of the 
Pope (1876) ; Christ the Comforter (1878) ; 
Louis IX. consoling a Leper (1878), Angers 
Museum ; Christ and the Afflicted (1879) ; 
Death of Chlodobert (1880) ; Dante meeting 
Countess Matilda (1881), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Abandoned Woman, Fra Angelico's 
Dream (1882) ;. Paying Homage to Clovis II., 
Admiral Carlo Zeno (1883) ; William the 

or n (i885) ; ALBERT MAIGNAN/ 

Assault on | g^5 

Pope Boni- ' 

face VHX at Agnani, New York Museum. 

Bellier, ii. 10 ; MtOler, 348 ; La Ilustracion 

(1882), i. 347. 



POLEON, born at Chaussee-du-Bois-de- 
1'Ecu (Oise), Oct. 28, 1840. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Cormi, Laemmlein, 
and Cogniet. Won the grand prix de Borne 
in 1864 Medals: 1870; 2d class, 1873. 
Works: Thetis arming Achilles; Homer 
giving Drink to Achilles, Hero killing a 
Monster (1874) ; Judgment of Paris (1879); 
Prometheus Chained (1880) ; Same subject 


(1882) ; Stephen Marcel listening to the Or- 
dinance (1883) ; Death of Oorreus (1885). 
Bellier, ii. 11. 

TOESTE), born in Paris, Nov. 17, 1796. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Hersent and 
Picot. Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 2d class, 
1844. Works: View of the Pont de Breuil, 
Euins of St. Jean-de-1'He, Village of Soisy 
(1831); Bridge of Olivet (1835); Foggy 
Morning (1841) ; Valley of Corbeil (1844) ; 
The Rhine, Souvenirs of Mt. Dore, Souvenir 
of Mayence (1848) ; Interior of a Turkish 
House in Damascus, First Cataract of the 
Nile, Village of Zoldoni (1852) ; Evening 
(1859); A Landscape (1863); Environs of 
Thion, Valley of ^tioUes (1864). Bellier, ii. 
11 ; Larousse. 

COLAS, born in Paris, July 30, 1826. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Drolling 
and Picot, and of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
won the 2d prix de Rome in 1850, and the 
grand prix in 1854. Medal, 1867 ; L. of 
Honour, 1870. Works: Zenobia on the 
Banks of the Araxes (1850) ; Abraham wash- 
ing the Angels' Feet (1854) ; Christ and the 
Woman of Samaria (1863); Si John (1867) ; 
Fenelon in Battle of Malplaquet, 1709 
(1870); Apotheosis and Transportation of 
Relics of St. Marcel, Notre Dame, Paris ; 
The Three Theological Virtues, Si Jacques- 
du-Haut-Pas, ib. Bellier, ii. 12. 

Gimignano, died (probably in Florence) iu 

Sept., 1513. Florentine school ; brother-in- 
law and pupil of Ghirlandajo, and his assist- 
ant in some of his greatest works in Flor- 
ence and S. Gimignano. Though inferior 
in every way, his work has been sometimes 
confounded with that of his master, as in 
the Baroncelli Chapel, S. Croce. Most of 
his works are at S. Gimignano. There are 
a fine portrait and a Madonna by him in the 
Berlin Museum, and a Holy Family, attrib- 
uted to Ghirlandajo, in the Louvre. C. & 
C., Italy, ii. 493 ; Vasari, v. 74. 

MAINCENT, GUSTAVE, bom in Paris ; 
contemporary. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Pils and Cabasson. Medal, 3d class, 1883. 
Works: Views in and near Paris (1870, 
1873, 1874, 1877) ; Champs-Elysees (1878); 
Mill de la Galette (1880); Place Pigale 
(1881) ; Slaughter - House at Mericourt 
(1882); Village Wedding, Pont - Marie 
(1883) ; At Saint-Ouen, Keturn from Fish- 
ing (1884) ; Notre-Dame Bridge (1885). 

at Augsburg in 1630, died there in 1704. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Rem-- 
brandt and of Jordaens ; went to England 
and Italy, and after his return to Augsburg 
won great fame as a portrait painter ; was in- 
vited to the imperial and other courts, and 
made court-painter to the Emperor Leopold. 
Works : Apostle Philip reading (1653), Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; Fortune Teller, Tobias and 
the Aagel, Schonborn Gallery, ib.; Artist's 
portrait (1650), Germanic Museum, Nurem- 
berg ; A Philosopher, Brunswick Museum. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 141 ; Sandrart, ii. 

MAISIAT, JOANNY, born at Lyons, May 
5, 1824. Fruit and flower painter, pupil 
of the Lyons Art School, and of Henri Leh- 
mann. Medals : 1864 and 1867 ; 2d class, 
1872. Works : Sweet-brier in Spring 
(1863), Valenciennes Museum; Gathered 
Fruits (1864); Bouquet of Moss Roses 
(1867) ; Border of Path on a Hill in Tou- 
raine (1867), Flowers and Fruits (1868), 
Luxembourg Museum ; The First Flowers ; 
Fruits on the Ground (1873) ; Violets 



(1875) ; Grapes and Peaches ; Banks of the 
Marne near Vignely (1876) ; Washerwomen 
of Vignely, Undergrowth in the Alps (1877) 
Decorative Panel (1879) ; Bouquet of Eoses 
(1881) ; Cut Eoses at Foot of Eosebush 
(1882) ; Pears and Peaches, Broken Branch 
(1883); Eose-bushes in the Old Park, Fruit- 
piece (1885). Bellier, ii. 14; Du Cainp, 
Beaux-Arts, 84, 251, 347. 
MAKAET, HANS, born at Salzburg, May 
29, 1840, died 
in Vienna, Oct. 
3, 1884. His- 
tory painter, 
pupil, in 1858, 
of Vienna Acad- 
emy under Eu- 
ben, but, dissat- 
isfied with the 
^ prevailing meth- 
ods, left it after 
/ a few months, 

and returned on foot to Salzburg, whence, 
through the munificence of the Prince- Arch- 
bishop Maximilian von Tarnoczy, he soon 
proceeded to Munich, and there studied 
first under his relative, the landscape painter 
Schiffinann, and in 1861-65 at the Academy 
under Piloty ; visited London and Paris in 
1863, Italy in 1866, Venice and Vienna in 
1868, Eome in 1869, and in the same year 
settled in Vienna at the invitation of the 
Emperor Francis Joseph, who caused a 
sumptuous studio to be prepared for the 
artist, and in 1876 conferred on him the title 
of professor. The winter of 1875-76 he 
spent in Egypt, then visited Antwerp, and 
in 1877 Spain. Professor at Vienna Acad- 
emy from 1879 ; honorary member of Vien- 
na, Berlin, and Munich Academies. Gold 
medals in Vienna, 1857, 1882 ; Medal of Hon- 
our, Paris, and L. of Honour, 1878; Officer, 
1884. In August, 1884, he became insane. 
Works : Lavoisier in Prison (1861) ; After- 
noon Pastime of Aristocratic Venetians 
(1862) ; Falstaff in the Basket (1864) ; 
Knight and Mermaids (1865), Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich ; Leda (1866) ; Portraits in 

Eembrandt's manner, Eoman Euins (1867) ; 
Modern Amorettes (1868) ; Plague in Flor- 
ence (1868), Count Palfty, Hungary ; Queen 
of Elves (1869), Eaczynski Gallery, Berlin ; 
Juliet on the Bier (1869), Vienna Museum ; 
Abundantia (1870) ; Cycle of Allegories 
(1870-72), Palais Dumba, Vienna ; Four Di- 
visions of Day, Two Scenes from Snow-Drop 
(1873) ; Caterina Gorno.ro (1873, of which 
we give a photogravure), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Scene from Midsummer-Night's 
Dream (1874) ; Cleopatra (1875), Stuttgart 
Museum ; Antique Sail on the Nile, Moor- 
ish Prince, Two Fellah Women carrying 
Water, Two Nubian Girls (1875-76) f En- 
try of Cluxrlex V. into Antwerp (1875-78), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Five Senses (1879) ; 
Ophelia, Diana's Hunting Party (1880), 
James A. Banker, Irvington, N. Y.; Summer 
(1881) ; Spring (1882) ; Cycle to Wagner's 
Trilogy of Nibelungs, Apotheosis of Art, 
Cycle in Art-historical Museum Vienna 
(1883) ; Judith (1884) ; Bathers Surprised, . 
T. A. Havemeyer, New York ; Love-Dream, 
Miss C. L. Wolfe, ib. Academy (1880), i. 
328 ; Allgem. K. C., viii. ; Art Journal 
(1881), 205; (1884), 350; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1869), 101; (1875), i. 211; (1877), ii. 267; 
(1883), i. 292 ; Jordan (1885), i. 168 ; ii. 142 ; 
D. graph. K, ii. 11 ; iii. 27 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
1. 168 ; v. 22, 163, 193 ; vii. 95 ; viii 793 ; ix. 
294 ; x. 694 ; xiii. 441 ; xiv. 598 ; xv. 521 ; xvi. 
465 ; xvii. 1, 309, 490 ; xviii. 11, 302, 462 ; 
xix. 741 ; xx. 13, 95, 383, 525, 557 ; La Ilus- 
tracion (1881), i. 283 ; ii. 178 ; (1884), i. 75, 
379 ; Landsteiner,Hans Makart u. Bob. Hain- 
erliug (Vienna, 1873) ; Leixner, Mod. K., ii. 
6 ; Bruno Meyer, Stud. u. Krit., 326, 345 ; 
Mtiller, 349 ; Neue illustr. Zeitg. (1885), i. 

; Pecht, ii. 340; Portfolio (1884), 223; 
1886), 36, 49; D. Rundschau, xxv. 463; 
Land und Meer (1872), No. 2, 3 ; Wester- 
nann's Monatshefte, xlix. 378 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 42) ; xiv. 25, 
193 ; xxi. 181, 214. 

Moscow, June 30, 1839. Historical genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of the Moscow 



Academy ; then of the St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy, where his Assassination of Czar Fedor 
Borissovich was awarded the second prize. 
He painted portraits almost exclusively for 
several years, but in 1869 he exhibited the 
Carnival in St. Petersburg, now belonging 
to the Emperor. After travelling in the 
East, he painted in 1876 the Transport of 
the Holy Carpet from Mecca to Cairo, also 
in the Emperor's Collection, which was ex- 
hibited with his Bashi-Bazouks at the Ex- 
position universelle, Paris, 1878. Member 
of, and professor in, the St. Petersburg 
Academy. Other works : Roussalki (Water 
Nymphs), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Peter 
the Great in his Workshop ; Player on the 
Psalterion ; Russian Wedding-'Feost (1885), 
Charles William Schumann, New York. 
Portraits : Emperor Alexander II. (1881) ; 
Princess Yourievski and Family ; Family 
of Grand-Duchess Marie Paulovna. Vladi- 
mir Makovski, his brother, is a genre 

ert Leslie, South Kensington Museum, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 2 f t. x 3 ft. 2 in. Scene 
from Moliere's "Malade imaginaire." Ar- 
gan, pillowed in a chair at foot of his bed, 
appeals anxiously to M. Purgon, who is 
leaving the room in a ,rage ; Toinette, be- 
hind her master's chair, enjoys the success 
of her stratagem, while Beralde regards the 
doctor with contempt. R. Academy, 1843. 

MALARIA, Ernest Hebert, Luxembourg 
Museum, Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 
4 in. A boat gliding along the waters of 
the Pontine marshes between flat shores, 
under a sky heavy with pestilential vapours, 
carrying a poor family more or less affected 
by the miasma. Salon, 1850. Study, G. I. 
Seney sale, New York, 1885. See photo- 
gravure, VoL EL, page 220. 

MALBONE, EDWARD G., born in New- 
port, R I, Aug., 1777, died in Savannah, 
Ga., May 7, 1807. Miniature painter, self- 
taught. Painted with success in many cit- 
ies of the United States ; visited London in 
1801 and the West Indies in 1806. His 

best known work is The Hours, in which 
the present, past, and future are represented 
by female figures. It was purchased from 
the Malbone heirs for $1,200, and is now in 
the Providence Athenaeum. 

TIAN), born at Kropelin, Mecklenburg, May 
14, 1838. Landscape painter, pupil of Weimar 
Art School under Theodor Hageu. Works : 
View near Biitzow, Mill at Eixen, View of 
Schwerin (1867) ; Summer Morning on Lake 
(1874), Winter Landscape (1876), Pond 
among Willows (1878), Schwerin Gallery ; 
North German Landscape with Sheep 
(1877), National Gallery, Berlin ; Beginning 
of Spring; y^ 
Evening in (0 
Autumn af- ^ ' 
ter Rain (1883); Village on the Baltic (Jubi- 
lee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). Mtiller, 350 ; 
Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 113 ; Schlie, 44. 

VAN, bom at Denterghem, West Flanders, 
April 23, 1813, died at Brussels, Aug. 26, 
1867. History painter, pupil of Bruges and 
Antwerp Academies, at the latter under 
Wappers ; obtained in 1838 the first prize 
at Ghent and the grand prize for Rome at 
Antwerp ; visited Italy and the East, espe- 
cially Palestine, in 1838-42, and settled in 
Brussels, whither he returned, after hav- 
ing, from 1852, been director of Bruges 
Academy. Works : Fortune Teller (1836), 
Bruges Museum ; Oath of Hannibal (1838), 
Antwerp Museum ; Charles V. in his Cell 
(1838), Ghent Museum ; Rubens finding his 
Wife Dead (1838) ; Madonna, Virgin ap- 
pealing to St. Ignatius, St. Alphonso before 
the Virgin, St. Joseph's Convent, Brussels ; 
St. Simon receiving Scapulary from the Vir- 
gin, Allegory of France (1840); Elijah com-' 
forted by the Angel ; Nativity ; St. Dom- 
inick receiving Rosary from the Virgin ; 
Eleazar and Rebekah; Louis the Kind- 
Hearted giving St. Theodolphus his Free- 
dom ; Si Anthony receiving Pilgrims ; As- 
sumption ; Sermon on Mount ; Flight into 
Egypt ; St. Louis of Gonzaga ; Galileo in 



Prison ; Keturn of Rubens from his Eni 
bassy to Spain ; Festival of Madonna de 
Arco ; Calvary ; Virgin surrounded by An 
gels ; Finding of Moses ; Michelangelo V 
Death on his Way from Malta to Eome 
Death of Lieutenant d'Atteminck (afte 
Walter Scott). -Inimerzeel, ii. 196 ; Kranim 
iv. 1043 ; vii 105. 

at Broekhuizen, near Utrecht, in 1832 
Landscape and animal painter, studied ii: 
Munich ; after visiting North Italy, went ii: 
1865 to Ddsseldorf , and then to Paris, where 
he studied the works of Troyon. Gold 
medal, London, 1876. Works : Parten- 
kirchen ; View in Suabian Alps ; Kochem 
on the Moselle ; Lake of Hallsfcadt ; View 
in Esslingen ; Shepherd's Morning Greet- 
ing, Stuttgart Museum ; View in Verona 
(1866), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Cattle 
Show in the Rain, Sheep in approaching 
Storm ; Table d'Hote in the Stable ; Re- 
turn from the Alp ; Sheep in Spring (1876); 
On the Heights, Midday Rest, Village Life 
(1879) ; Cattle Fair in Winter (1879); View 
of Naples (1882) ; Return of Sheep at Moon- 
rise, Spring (1883) ; St. Johann- in Tyrol 
(1884) ; Morning near AmalfL (Jubilee Ex- 
hibition, Berlin, 1886). Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 566 ; Mttller, 350. 

MALINO, LODOVICO. See Mazzolino, 

at Vestra Ny, East Gothland, Aug. 14, 1829. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Stock- 
holm Academy under N. Anderson, then 
studied in Dtisseldorf, and in Paris under 
Couture ; visited Italy in 1860, then lived 
in Paris until 1864, when he returned home, 
and in 1867 became professor at Stockholm 
Academy. Illustrated Tegner's Frithjofs 
Saga, and similar works. Works : King 
Heimir and Aslaug ; Ragnar's Sons receiv- 
ing News of their Father's Death ; Vikings 
burying .their Dead (together with Gude) ; 
Ingeborg receiving News of Hjalmar's Death ; 
Signe burning Herself; Expedition of Swedes 
to Norway ; Elf Games ; Br&valla Battle ; 

First Ride ; Children's Play ; The Riders ; 
Journey to Market. Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xxi. 611 ; Miiller, 350. 

MALOMBRA, PIETRO, bom in Venice 
in 1556, died there in 1618. Venetian 
school ; pupil of Salviati, but imitated man- 
ner of Pahna Giovine. Painted decorative 
pieces, but was very successful also in por- 
traits and cabinet pictures. A large pict- 
ure of the College of Venice, Madrid Muse- 
um, is remarkable for the many portraits 
which it contains. Lauzi, ii. 242 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole venitienne. 

MALOSSO, IL. See Trotti, Giovanni 

trait, Michelangelo da Camvayyio, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 5 in. Alof de 
Vignacourt, Grand Master in 1601, stand- 
ing, in armour, with baton in hand ; near 
him, a page bearing his casque. Bought by 
Louis XIV. in 1670 from Hoursel Collection. 
Engraved by J. N. de Larmessin. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, xi. PI. 35 ; Landon, 
Musee, iv. PI. 15 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PL 92. 

MALTA, KNIGHT OF, TUian, Madrid 
Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 3 ft. 4 in. A 
bearded man, in black-silk dress, standing 
at a table. A fine example of Titian's mid- 
dle time. Collection of Charles IT. Saved 
from the fire of 1734. C. & C., Titian, ii. 

MALVEL (Melluel), JEAN, died in 1415. 
Flemish school ; from 1397 court-paintor 
x> Philip the Bold of Burgundy, for whom 
he executed several altarpieces in 1402-7 ; 
engaged in decorating the monastery of the 
Carthusians of Dijon. In June, 1400, rcap- 
pointed painter to Jean Sans-Peur, of whom 

painted a portrait sent iu 1415 to Portu- 
gal. 0. & C., Flemish Painters, 17 ; Kug- 
er (Crowe), i. 37. 

Daniel MadiM, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. Scene 
rom Twelfth Night : Olivia's garden ; the 
3ountess, seated, her maid standing behind 
ler ; Malvolio approaching, smiling fantas* 



tically. Engraved by E. Staines. Eoyal 
Academy, 1840. Vernon Collection. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, i. 373 ; Cat, Nat. Gal. 

MAN, CORNELIS BE, born at Delft in 
1621, died there in 1706. Dutch school ; 
portrait and interior painter ; went early to 
Italy, and for nine years studied in Eome, 
Florence, and Venice ; made his reputation 
with a portrait of the Eegents of the Cor- 
poration of Surgeons at Delft, where he en- 
tered the guild in 1642, and was its dean in 
1661-63, and repeatedly afterwards, last in 
1696. Works: Peasant Wedding, Hague 
Museum ; Eustic Interior (1687), Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Interior of Gothic Church, 
Darmstadt Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 197 ; 
Kramm, iv. 1049. 

MAN WITH FALCON, Rembrandt, Gros- 
venor House ; wood, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 2 
in. ; signed, dated 1643. A young man, 
seen to knees, with light hair, holding a fal- 
con on his wrist. His wife (wood, same size), 
in a rich dress and ornaments, with a fan 
in her hand. The two withdrawn at Grand- 
pro sale at 40,000 francs. Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 166. 

au Gant. 

MAN WITH THE HOE (L'homme a la 
houe), Jean Fran9ois Millet, lately in Defoer 
Collection, Paris. A sturdy peasant, wearied 
with toil, has stopped to rest, and stands, 
his body half bent over, leaning upon the 
short clumsy hoe used by labourers in 
France. Painted in 1862; Salon, 1863; 
sold to M. Crabbe, Brussels ; Defoer 
bought it for 175,000 francs ; at his sale, 
Paris (1886), 57,100 francs. Etched by 
Bracquemond. Sensier, 236. 

(L'homme a la ceinture de cuir), Gustave 
Courbet, Luxembourg Museum, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 7 in. Portrait of 
the painter in his youth. Half-length, in a 
blouse with a broad leathern belt, into which 
is thrust the thumb of his left hand ; his 
right elbow leans upon a table, and his face 
is supported on the back of his hand. Sale 

of Courbet's works, Paris (1881), 26,000 
francs, bought by State. 

den Nelken), Jan van Eyck, Berlin Museum ; 
wood, H. 1 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. Bust portrait, 
three-quarters life-size, in gray doublet lined 
i with fur and high fur cap ; in right hand, 
! two red pinks, and in left, which is raised, 
two white ones. From Suermondt Collec- 
tion, 1874. 

Sir Edwin Landseer, Holloway Institute, 
Egham, near London ; canvas. Suggested 
by the finding of the relics of Sir John 
Franklin. In an Arctic landscape a hut 
with relics strewn around, a large white 
bear with a bone in its mouth, and another 
sprawled on the ice dragging part of the 
Union Jack from beneath a spar. Painted 
in 1864 ; belonged to E. V. Coleman, Stoke 
Park ; sold at his sale (1881) to Thomas 
Holloway for 6,615. Stephens, 105 ; Art 
Journal (London, 1882), 317. 

MAN OF SORROWS, Andrea Mantegna, 
Copenhagen Museum ; wood, tempera, H. 1 
ft. 6f in. x2 ft. 6 in.; signed. Christ en- 
throned, with two angels behind holding 
the corners of his winding-sheet ; to the 
left, Jerusalem at sunset ; to the right, Gol- 
gotha. Painted about 1489; formerly in 
collection of Cardinal Yalenti, Secretary of 
State under Benedict XIV. C. & C., N. 
Italy, i. 403. 

Naples in 1813, died at Palazzuolo di Cas- 
trocielo, Province Siracusa, Italy, May 24, 
1875. History painter, pupil of Naples 
Academy, then studied in Rome. Although 
of no extraordinary talent, -he did much to- 
wards the promotion of art at Naples under 
contrary circumstances ; became professor 
at Naples Academy in 1850, and later its 
president. Member of several academies. 
Works : Si Charles Borromeo healing the 
Plague-stricken, S. Carlo all 5 Arena, Naples ; 
Curtain for the Teatro San Carlo, ib.; Ma- 
donna degli Angeli ; Christ in the Garden ; 
Si Clara taking the Bobe of Si Francis of 



Spoleto Cathedral; Death of Si 
Augustine. L'illustr. italiana, 1875 ; Banzi, 
Les beaux arts italiens. 

MANCINI, ANTONIO, born at Narai, 
Province Perugia, Italy. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Morelli and of Lista ; Studio in Paiis. 
Paints realistic scenes from the life of the 
lower classes. Works : Last Slumber, Chil- 
dren going to School (1872) ; Little Scholar 
1876) ; Little Mountebank (1877) ; Feast of 
St. Januarius at Naples, Sailor's Daughter 
(1878). L'Art (1878), iii. 242. 

born at Naples, Jan. 23, 1829. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Naples Academy and of 
Gabriele Smargiassi ; visited Central and 
North Italy, Paris, London, and Vienna. 
Medal, Order of Italian Crown in 1868. 
Works : Return from Madonna Festival, 
Naples Museum ; Rocky Landscape ; Street 
in Torre dell' Annunziata ; Street in Pom- 
peii ; Street in Pozzuoli ; Marine View of 
Casamicciola in Ischia ; Road in the Abruz- 
zi, Marine View of Capri (1880) ; London 
Amazon, Hyde Park, Stone-Breaker (1883). 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 116 ; Miiller, 350. 
MANDER, KARFTi VAN, the elder, born 
at Meulenbecke, 
Flanders, in 
1548, died in 
Sept. 2, 1606. 
Flemish school ; 
pupil of Lucas 
de Heere in 
Ghent, after- 
wards of Pieter 
Vlerick at Cour- 
trai. Went in 1573 to Rome, where he 
stayed three years, and on his return paint- 
ed (1577) in Basle ; accompanied Sprahger 
to Vienna, where he assisted in decorating 
the triumphal arch for the returning Em- 
peror Rudolph; returned to his native 
place, but was soon compelled by the Span- 
ish disturbances to flee to Courtrai, whence, 
in 1582, he went to Bruges, and in 1583 
settled at Haarlem ; with Goltzius and Cor- 

nelis Corneliszen, founded an academy for 
drawing from life ; moved to Amsterdam in 
1604. The subjects of his mannered pict- 
ures are partly historical and mythological, 
partly landscape and genre. His "Het 
Schilder Boek," which forms the basis for 
the history of art in the Netherlands, is his 
chief title to remembrance. Works : Dec- 
orated Shield (1596), Haarlem Museum ; 
The Deluge, Schleissheim Gallery ; Male 
Portrait, Vienna Museum. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xx. 174 ; Engerth, Belved. gal, ii. 
253; Immerzeel, ii. 197; Kugler (Crowe), 

i. 242 ; Kramni, iv. 1051 ; MichieLs, vi. 76 ; 
Nagler, Mon., iv. 232 ; Sandrart, ii. 27(5 ; 
Schnaase, viii. 108 ; Quellenschriften, 109. 

MANDER, KAEELVAN, the younger, 
born at Courtrai in 1579, died at Delft after 
1665. Dutch school; son and probably 
pupil of Karel the elder. In 1616 Christian 
IV., wishing to have the principal events of 
the war against Sweden in 1613 represented 
in tapestry for the Castle of Fredriksborg, 
called Karel the younger to Copenhagen, 
where he made the cartoons for this work, 
which his son Karel the third (born at Delft 
about 1610, died at Copenhagen in 1672), 
who became court-painter to King Christian, 
completed. The latter painted historical 
and genre pictures and excellent portraits. 
Works : Family Group, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg. By Karel the third : Finding of the 
Danish Prince Svend's Body (after Tusso), 
Tartar Embassy in Copenhagen (1655), Pe- 
ter's Repentance, Sight, Hearing, Portrait of 
Admiral Ove Gjedde (?), Gallery, Copen- 
lagen ; Aaron as High Priest, Moltke Collec- 
tion, ib.; Portraits of Governors of Fortress 
Akershus (2), Christiania Gallery ; Portrait 
of Christian IV., Berlin Museum. Allgem. 



d. Biogr., xx. 175; Kramm, iv. 1053; Nagler, 
Hon., iv. 239; QueUenschriften, 109; Weil- 
bach, 453. 

MANES, ANTON, bom at Prague in 
1784, died there in 1843. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil at Prague Academy of Karl Postel ; 
influenced at first by the works of Jacob 
Ruisdael, afterwards of the more realistic 
Johann Christian Dahl; became professor 
at the Academy in 1836. Works: Moun- 
tainous Landscape with River (1827), Prague 
Gallery ; Ideal Landscape with Ruin, View 
near Eger, City of Bensen, Landscape with 
Ruins of Marius (1825-27) ; Views in the 
Riesengebirge (3, 1833) ; Evening Chimes 
in a Village, Approaching Storm (1839) ; 
Mill-brook near Semil, Moonlight, Sunrise, 
Chapel between Lindens (1840) ; View at St. 
Ivan under the Rock, Kopplisch Isle near 
Prague, Spring Morning (1841) ; Woodland, 
Castle Purglitz (1842). His daughter and 
pupil, Amalia, was also an able landscape 
painter. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 183. 

MANES, GUTOO, born at Prague in 1829, 
died there, Aug. 4, 1880. Battle and genre 
painter, son and pupil of preceding, then 
studied at the Academy under Ruben; very in- 
ventive, at an early age, in representing war- 
episodes, he excelled, after 1856, in depict- 
ing humorous scenes from daily life. He 
painted with his left hand. Works : Blttch- 
er's Fall at Ligny (1844) ; Quartering, 
Outpost (1845) ; Episode in Rise of Tyrol, 
1809 (1846); Capture of Andreas Hofer 
(1847) ; Antiquary, Excursion of Sunday 
Riders (1856) ; Curious Messenger, Dain- 
ties-store (1857) ; Bag-piper, Kingong, Em- 
peror of China writing a Panegyric on Tea 
( 1 858) ; Landlord in Anxiety, Obtuse Scholar 
(1859) ; Misfortune in the Kitchen (1860) ; 
Sunday Teaching (1869) ; Girl at the Mir- 
ror (1872) ; First Walk to School, Interior 
in Westphalia (1873) ; Grandfather (1875) ; 
Children playing (1879). Allgem. cL Biogr., 
xx. 185 ; Wurzbach, xvi. 370. 

MANES, JOSEF, bom at Prague in 1821, 
died there, Dec. 10, 1871. History and 
genre painter, brother of preceding ; first 

instructed by his father, then pupil at the 
Academy under Ruben ; went to Munich in 
1845, and returned in 1848. Works : Last 
Moments of Lucas van Leyden (1843) ; The 
Grave-diggers ; Petrarch seeing Laura in 
Santa Agata at Avignon (1844), Baron Heiss- 
ler, Munich ; St. John of Nepomuk ; Mag- 
dalen; Nativity; Albrecht Dtirer on his 
Journey to Italy ; House-Altar with Votive 
Picture (I860). Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 184 ; 
Wurzbach, xvi. 369. 

MANES, WENZEL, born at Prague in 
1796, died there, March 27, 1858. History 
and portrait painter, brother of Anton, pu- 
pil of Prague Academy under Bergler ; won 
several prizes and studied in 1829-32 in 
Italy, whence he returned a strong adherent 
of the old Florentine masters. In 1835-36 
he was temporarily director of the Academy. 
Many of his paintings are in the churches 
and private collections of Bohemia. Works : 
Crowning of the Virtuous Maiden in the 
6th Century, Christ healing the Blind Man 
of Jericho (1833) ; Charity ; Si Joseph, The 
Virgin, Joseph's Dream (1840) ; Fugitive 
Neapolitans before their Patron Januarius 
(1842) ; Christ blessing the Bread, Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1847) ; Madonna with St 
John, Christ appearing to the Magdalen 
(1855) ; Cimon nursed by his daughter, Al- 
banian Woman (1857); Holy Family, Prague 
Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 187 ; Wurz- 
bach, xvi. 369. 

MANET, fiDOUARD, born in Paris in 
1833, died there, 
April 30, 1883. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Couture, with whom 
he studied six years. 
An eccentric realist 
of disputed merit ; 
founder of the school 
of "Impressionistes. 3 ' y ^ji-j^r|^'^ % 
His pictures were sev- W?\//?^ > /5* * n 
eral times rejected at ' 
the Salon. Medals: 2d class, 1881; L. of 
Honour, 1882. Works: Absinthe Drinker 
(1860); Enfant a MSpee, Guitar Player 




(1861) ; Breakfast of Vegetables (18G3) ; 
Christ and Angels, Bull-Fight (1864) ; 
Christ insulted by Soldiers, Olympia 
(1865) ; Lola de Valence (1866) ; Break- 
fast, Balcony (1869) ; Music Lesson (1870) ; 
Kearsarge and Alabama (1872) ; Rest, Good 
Bock Beer (1873) ; Bailway (1874) ; In the 
Press, In a Boat (1879) ; Portrait of Antonii 
Proust, At Father Lathuille's (1880) ; Por- 
trait of M. Pertuiset the Lion-Hunter 
(1881) ; Bar at the Folies Bergeres, Jeanne 
(1882). Art Journal (1884), 109 ; Bazire, 
Ed. Manet (Paris, 1884) ; Claretie Peintres, 
(1874), vii. 108, 203, 402 ; Goz. des B. Arts 
(1864), xvi. 515 ; (1882), xxv. 547 ; (1883), 
xxvii. 342; (1884), xxix. 133;Kunst-Chronik, 
xviii. 543 ; xix. 319 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
566 ; Mailer, 351 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 241. 

MANETTI, RUTILIO, bom in Siena in 
1571, died there in 1639. Sienese school; 
pupil of Francesco Vanni, but a follower 
rather of Caravaggio. Painted much for 
churches in Siena, and worked also at Em- 
poli, Pisa, and Florence. He often intro- 
duced vulgar details of real life into his 
religious pictures. Works : Si Eloi raising 
a Dead Man (1631), St. Paul, Siena Acad- 
emy ; Birth of the Virgin, Siena Duomo ; 
Kesurrection, Hospital of Monna Agnese, 
Siena ; Eli waked by the Angel, Pisa Duomo ; 
St. Margaret raising a Dead Child, Madrid 
Museum; The Lovers, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 
Lanzi, i. 317 ; Ch. Blanc, cole florentine. 

Bartolo di Fredi. 

MANGLAKD, ADKTEN, bom at Lyons, 
March 12, 1695, died in Eome, Aug. 31, 
1760. French school ; marine and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Adriaan van cler Ka- 
bel ; passed most of his life iu Italy, was 
received into the Paris Academy in 1736, 
also a member of the Academy of Si Luke 
in Borne, and was the master of Joseph Ver- 
nei Works : Shipwreck, Storm near a City, 
Louvre, Paris ; Seaport with Fortress, Mont- 
peUier Museum ; Marine, Orleans Museum ; 
Boadstead with Vessels, Seaport with War 
Vessels, do. with Sailors in Foreground, Sea 

with Wreck, Museum, Vionna ; Naval Battle, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Bay of Naples, 
Harrach Gallery, ib.; Castle by the Sea at 
Sunset, Czernin Gallery, ib.; Marines (2), 
Turin Gallery ; Seaport, XJffizi, Florence ; 
others in Genoa Gallery and royal palace 
at Stockholm. Bellier, ii. 21. 

MANNA, FALL OF, Nicolas Potent, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 10 in. x (> 
ft. 6 in. Scene : a rocky desert, with high 
cliffs and trees ou each side, and the tents 
of Israel in a valley in background ; iu mid- 
dle ground, Moses and Aaron, with people 
prostrating themselves before them ; iu fore- 
ground, men, women, and children gather- 
ing manna. Painted in Home iu 1689 for 
M. de Chantelon, whence passed to Louis 
XIV. Engraved by G. Chasteau (1680); B. 
Audran ; Bern ; H. Testelin. Laudon, Mu- 
soe, viii. PI. 33 ; Bcveil, xii. 852. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. liocco, Venice ; 
square, on ceiling of tipper room. The Is- 
raelites in a soft greeu meadow surrounded 
by blue hills with rich trees above them, to 
the branches of one of which is attached 
a gray drapery to catch the manna ; Home 
sheep also catcli manna a it falls, or lick it 
from each others* fleeces ; above, God the 
Father, seen through au opening in the 
clouds. Buskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 346. 

By TMvretlo, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Ven- 
ice ; canvas, square, ceiling of upper room. 
A brook flowing through a mountainous 
country, studded with thickets and palm- 
trees ; the Israelites busied in various man- 
ufactures more than in gathering manna 
one group forging, another grinding manna 
in a mill, another making shoes, a woman 
making a dress, and some washing the 
idea being to express the continuity of the 

PPty- Buskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 302 ; 
Bidolfi, Marav., ii. 198. 

By Paolo Veronese, SS. Apostoli, Venice ; 
left wall, Cappella Maggiore. Zanotto, 366. 

MANNI, GIAN3HCOLA, bom at ditto 
della Pieve about 1470 (?), died in Perugia, 
Oct. 27, 1544. Uinbrian school ; pupil and 
assistant of Perugino, in whose shop he was 



probably a companion of Raphael. Among 
Iris youthful works are a Madonna, ascribed 
to Eaphael, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 
(G. & C.), and a Saviour in Glory between 
the Virgin and Evangelist, Perugia Academy. 
Frescos by him are in various churches in 
Perugia. In the Louvre is a Madonna en- 
throned with Saints, ascribed to llugegno, 
which shows a mixture of Perugino, Pintu- 
ricchio, and Raphael ; in the National Gal- 

71 as pensioner of the French Academy ; be- 
came in 1772 court-painter and director of 
the newly erected Art School at Zweibruck- 
en, and was called to Munich by the Elec- 
tor Maximilian, in 1799, as director of all 
art collections in Bavaria, Works : Artist's 
wife as Magdalen, Scenes from Operas (4, 
one dated 1772), Male portraits (2), Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Baptism of Christ ; Jupiter 
and Leda; Madonna; Two pictures of 

Fall of Manna, Nicolas Poussm, Louvre, Paris. 

lery, London, is an Annunciation. 0. & C., 
Italy, iii. 334 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole ombrienne ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 596. 

VON, bom in Strasburg, Oct. 4, 1740, 
died in Munich, Jan. 3, 1822. History 
painter, son and pupil of Konrad Mannlich 
(1701-59, court-painter at Zweibrticken), 
and studied in Mannheim under Zinzenich 
and Verschaffelt; went to Paris in 1763 
with his patron, Duke Christian IV. of Zwei- 
brttcken, and studied under Fran $ois Bou- 
cher ; having returned to Mannheim in 
1764, he accompanied the duke to Pans 
ao-ain in 1776, then was in Rome in 1767- 


Christ. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 207 ; 
Kunstbl. (1822), 165. 

Giovanni in 1590, died 
in Florence, Dec. 9, 
1636. Florentine 
school; sometimes 
called Giovanni da San 
Giovanni; pupil of 
Matteo Rosselli, whose 
finished style was not 
suited to the capri- 
cious imagination and 
facile execution of his , 
pupil. Though he often fell into absurd 



extravagances, Mannozzi was capable of bet- 
ter things when he saw fit to work seriously. 
"Works : Portrait of a Cook, Eeuniou of 
Huntsmen, Madonna, Pitti, Florence; Ve- 
nus and Cupid, Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Jesus served by Angels, Madonna, Uffizi, 
Florence. Ch.- Blanc, cole florentine. 

Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 7 in. x 10 
ft. ; signed, dated 1641. Manoah and his 
wife kneeling before an altar, on which their 
sacrifice is burning ; above the smoke, the 
angel ascending (Judges, xiii. 20). Smith, 
vii. 14 ; Vosmaer, 458. 

MANS, FEEDEEICUS EL, died after 
1687. Dutch school ; landscape and figure 
painter, about whose life nothing is known ; 
probably worked at Utrecht. His pictures 
are frequently to be found in private collec- 
tions in Holland. Works : View on the 
Downs (1673), Kotterdam Museum ; Win- 
ter Landscape (1668), XMenburg Gallery ; 
Three do. (1677), Dresden Museum ; Dutch 
Landscape, Leipsic Museum ; Skating on 
Village Pond (1687), Vienna Museum. 

FEIED, bom at Bonn in 1736, died in Co- 
logne, March 19, 1817. Landscape painter, 
pupil of his father, a painter of some re- 
pute ; accompanied his patron, the Elector 
Clemens Wenceslaus of Treves, on a jour- 
ney in 1776, was in Coblentz in 1786, and 
settled in Cologne about 1790. His pict- 
ures sold for considerable sums in England, 
Holland, and Switzerland. Works : Two 
Landscapes in Cologne Museum. Merlo, 
Nachrichten, 269. 

about 1770 or 1778, died in Dantzic in 
1827. Landscape painter, son and pupil of 
Bernard, whom he surpassed ; went to Eng- 
land in 1796; was in Germany again in 1805, 
when the Empress Josephine ordered him 
to paint views around Aix-la-Chapelle and 
on the Rhine ; was called to Bonn in 1828, 
afterwards went to Memel, thence to Frank- 
fort, Berlin, and Dantzic, where, having be- 
come destitute, he stabbed himself. Works : 

Castle Dtirnstein on the Danube (1798) ; 
Two Landscapes with Oxen ; Landscape 
with Gothic Ruin. MerJo, Nachrichteu, 

MANSUETI, GIOVANNI, end of 15th 
and beginning of 16th century. Venetian 
school ; pupil of the Bellini in Venice. 
There are extant at least a dozen of his 
pictures, in several of which he nearly ap- 
proaches the excellence of Carpaccio. In 
his Miracle of the Gross (1493), Venice 
Academy, the short, square, rigid, and mo- 
tionless figures are mingled in the manners 
of Gentile Bellini and Carpaccio. In the 
same gallery are St. Mark curing Amanus 
the Cobbler ; St. Mark preaching in Alexan- 
dria, in which he closely approaches Car- 
paccio, and Glory of St. Sebastian (1500). 
Mansueti's latest period may be studied in 
a St. Jerome, and a Pietu, in the Bergamo 
Gallery, and in a Christ in the Temple, 
Uffizi, Florence. Charles Blanc places Mau- 
sueti among the best painters of Gentile 
Bellini's school. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 219 ; 
Oh. Blanc, ICcole venitienne ; Vasari, ed. Lo 
Mon., v. 19. 

MANTEGNA, ANDREA, born near Pa- 
dua in 1431, 
died in Mantua, 
Sept. 13, 150<>. 
Paduan school ; 
history painter, 
pupil of Squarci- 
one, who adopt- 
ed him in 1441 ; 
worked at first 
like the realists 
Zoppo and Schi- 
avone, as his Ecce Homo, in the Communal 
Gallery, Padua, shows, but afterwards came 
so much under influence of the Florentine 
school, which worked at Padua through Do- 
natello and Uccello, and of the Venetian, 
through Jacopo Bellini, whose daughter 
Niccolosia became his wife, that Squarcioue 
quarrelled with him. A fresco of SS. Ber- 
nardino and Anthony, over the high portal 
of his Basilica at Padua (1448), is his earli- 



est extant work, but the altarpiece of St. | 
Luke and Saints (1454), at the Brera, Milan, 
painted for S. Giustina at Padua, is- the 
first which displays the master's character- 
is fcics. It and the St. Euphemia, in the 
Museum at Naples, are the only representa- 
tives of his early Paduan period. After 
1448 Mantegna began to paint a continu- 
ation of the Life of St. James, begun by 
Pizzolo, in the Church of the Eremitani, 
Padua. The Saint exorcising the Devils, 
and Called from his Nets were probably 
designed and partly executed by Mantegna, 
but those of James Baptizing, and on his 
Trial, as well as the rest of the chapel, are 
altogether his work. They show a close 
study of the antique, as well as minute ob- 
servation of common nature, and are char- 
acterized by an excessive display of scien- 
tific knowledge. The human form, regarded 
as a geometrical unit, is treated architectu- 
rally, and perspective is carried so far by the 
precipitation of the lines that the inner parts 
of all the figures, excepting those on the 
very edge of the foreground, are concealed. 
In no other painter's works are to be found 
so strange a mixture of classic feeling, real- 
ism, and science, combined with rare dra- 
matic power and intensity of life, as in those 
of Mantegna ; whose style may be studied 
to advantage, not only in his paintings, but 
in the few precious engravings which he ex- 
ecuted on copper after 1468. About 1460 
Mantegna entered the service of Luigi Gon- 
zaga, Marquis of Mantua, but he did not 
take up his residence there until 1471. In 
1459 he painted the Madonna of San Zeno, 
Verona, and the Christ in the Garden, Bar- 

Marys (1474), Brera, and a Madonna (1485), 
in the collection of Sir Charles Eastlake, 
preceded the famous Triumph of Julius 
Caesar ; probably of the same period (1485?) 
is the Madonna with Angels, identified re- 
cently, in the Brera, Milan. Called to Eome 
in 1488 by Innocent VUL, Mantegna re- 
mained there two years, during which he 
painted some now destroyed frescos in the 
Chapel of the Vatican ; a Madonna, Uffizi ; 
Parnassus, Wisdom victorious over Vices, 
Louvre ; Man of Sorrows, Copenhagen. 
The Assumption, in the Trivulzi Gallery, Mi- 
lan, was painted in 1497, and the Madon- 
na della Vittoria, Louvre, about the same 
time. In the National Gallery, London, are 
the Triumph of Scipio, Summer and Au- 
tumn, Samson and Delilah, and a Madonna 
with Saints ; in the Historical Society, New 
York, a Crucifixion, and an Adoration of 
the Magi. The latter years of Mantegna's 
life at Mantua were full of trouble, on ac- 
count of the banishment of his son Fran- 
cesco and his greatly reduced circumstances. 
His tomb in the Church of S. Andrea is 
marked by an admirable portrait bust in 
bronze, perhaps the work of the great med- 
allist Sperandio. His second son, Fran- 
cesco (1479 after 1517), was the painter 
of a Noli Me Tangere, and a Eesurrection, 
in the National Gallery, London. Art Jour- 
nal (1882), 225; C. & C., N. Italy, L; En- 
gerth, Belved. Gal, i. 200 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1866), xx. 478 ; Keane, Early Masters, 373 ; 
Lilbke, Gesch. d. ital Mal. s i. 458 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 383, 413 ; Bartsch, Le Peintre 
Graveur, xiii. 222 ; Willshire, Int. to Ancient 
Prints, 438 ; W. & W., ii 258 ; Zeitschr. f. 

ing Collection. The Madonna, andthePres- b. K, x. 190 ; xi. 23, 54; xv. 61 ; xvi. 110 ; 

. , . rai i f\ 1 11 IT J_l !.! "I C\*7 w* 1 A1 

entation in the Temple, Berlin Museum, the 
St. George, Venice Academy, and the admi- 
rable St. Sebastian, Vienna Museum, belong 
to the years 14:64-66. Between 1471 and 
1474 Mantegna decorated the walls of the 
so-called Camera de' Sposi in the Castello 
at Mantua with pictures in distemper, one 
of which represents the Marquis of Gonzaga j 

xvii. 197 ; xxi. 101. 

MANTOVANO, ED. See Feti, Domenico. 

MANUEL, NICOLAUS, called Deutsch, 
born in Berne about 1484, died there, April 
30, 1530. German school ; history painter, 
about whose artistic training nothing is 
known. His family name was Alleman, of 
which Deutsch is a translation. Elected 

his family. The dead Christ and the j member of the Great Senate of Berne in 



1511, where he was one of the leaders of the 
Reformation until 1528, and acquired fame 

as a painter, 
poet, soldier, 
and statesman. 
Painted many 
mural decora- 
tions. There 
are many draw- 
ings in the 
Basle Museum 
by this master, 
who must be 
counted among the most noteworthy repre- 
sentatives of the renaissance on this side of 
the Alps. Works : Beheading of St. John, 
Lucretia (1517), David and Bathsheba 
(1517), St. Ann, Pyramus and Thisbe, Judg- 
ment of Paris, Invocation for Deliverance 
from the Plague, Basle Museum ; Altarpiece 
with St. Luke and Birth of the Virgin, Peas- 
ant Wedding in 16th Century, Artist's Por- 
trait (1630?), Berne Museum. Ailgem. d. 
Biogr, xx. 275; A/ K^ . rf - . 
Baechtold, Nik-/* I 1/VYVtJL 
laus Manuel (Frauenfeld, 1878) ; Ch. Blanc, 
33cole allemande ; Griineisen, Nic. Manuel, 
Leben u. Werke, etc. (Stuttgart & Tttbing- 
1 en, 1837) ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 219 ; Nagler, 
Mon., iv. 770;"Repert. f. K, iii. 1 ; W. & 
W., ii. 485. 

at Honfleur (Calvados) ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Busson, Ber- 
chere, and C. de Cock. Medal, 3d class, 
1880. Works : Crossing the Brook (1876) ; 
Forest Border with Animals, Herd in the 
Plains (1877) ; Cows drinking in Forest of 
Touques, Hostelry Yard in Normandy, Sun- 
set (1878) ; Storm near Arundel, Road to 
Blackhurst Farm (1879) ; Pastures of Mer- 
ville, Herd on the Road (1880); Rest in the 
Woods (1881) ; The Ford (1883). 

MA&AK, JULIUS, born at Leitomischl, 
Bohemia, March 29, 1835. Landscape 
painter and illustrator, pupil of Prague 
Academy under Haushofer, then studied 

for a short time in Munich, and settled 
in Vienna in 1858. Works : Congress of 
Storks under the Elms, Vienna Art Union ; 
Runic Stone in Oak Wood ; Moonrise in 
Pine Woods ; Forest Solitude ; Evening 
near Sadowa in 1866 ; Four Seasons ; Four 
Divisions of Day ; View in Lavant Vnlley 
(1884). Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 033 ; 
Mflller, 352; Graph. K, iv. 25; Kunst- 
Chronik, xix. 351 ; Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 
19 ; Wurzbach, xvi. 411 ; Zeitsclir. f. b. K., 
xii. 128. 

MARATTI (Maratta), CARLO, Cavaliere, 
born in Camerano, 
May 13, 1625, died 
in Rome, Dec. 15, 
1713. Roman 
school ; best and 
favourite pupil of 
Andrea Sacchi ; at 
first painted most- 
ly Madonnas, 
whence often sa- 
tirically called Car- 
luccio delle Ma- 
donne. Through Sacchi's influence he ob- 
tained a commission to paint, in S. Giovanni 
in Laterano, Constantine destroying the 
Idols, which was highly prized. From this 
time he was very successful, and he became 
one of the most popular painters in Rome, 
executing many works for churchew and 
public buildings. Among his largent and 
most important works was the decoration 
of the cupola of the church of Urbino, de- 
stroyed by the earthquake of 1782. Under 
Innocent XIC. Maratti was superintendent 
of the paintings in the Vatican, and Clem- 
ent XL conferred on him the Order of 
Christ and commissioned him to restore 
the frescos of Raphael. To this he owos 
much of his fame, but his restorations have 
been severely criticised. He was Prince of 
the Academy of St. Luke at the time of his 
death. Maratti's works are characterized 
rather by absence of defects than by any 



especial merits. His design and colouring | 
are generally pleasing, but his handling is i 
weak and his feeling superficial. He was a I 
close imitator of Guide Reni. Works : Ma- 
donna, Palazzo Doria, Borne ; Annunciation, 
The Virgin, Turin Gallery; Adoration of 
the Shepherds, Basle Museum; Magdalen 
in Meditation, Musee Kath, Geneva; Ma- 
donna (2), The Virgin contemplating the 
Infant Christ, Dresden Museum ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives, Ftlrstenberg Gallery, Do- 
naueschiiigen ; St. John in Patnios (1698), 
Sleeping Child, Portrait of a Cardinal, Old 
Piuakothek, Munich ; The Virgin with the 
Child in the Cradle, Allegory on Vanity, 
Wood Nymph Bathing, Madonna, Children 
by Vase with Flowers, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Holy Family, Weimar Museum ; 
Death of St. Joseph (1676), Presentation in 
the Temple, Holy Family (1704), The Trin- 
ity, Museum, Vienna ; Bathsheba, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, ib. ; Repose in Egypt, Harrach 
Gallery, ib.; Holy Family (2), Czernin Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Adoration of the Shepherds, Ho- 
ly Family, Annunciation, Portrait of Pope 
Clement IX., several others, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Madonna in Glory, Hagar and 
Ishmael, Madrid Museum ; Apollo pursuing 
Daphne, Madonna, Brussels Museum ; Por- 
trait of a Cardinal, National Gallery, Lon- 

don. Vasari, ed. Le Mon., viii. 40, 45 ; 
Burckhardt, 170, 661, 670, 764, 768. 

MARC, (JEAN) AUGUSTS, born at Metz, 
July 12, 1818, died at Suresnes (Seine), May, 
1886. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Drolling, of Delaroche, and of the ficole des 
Beaux Arts. L. of Honour in 1868, when 
he also became director of LT Illustration, of 
which he was then one of the most esteemed 
contributors. Works : Soap-bubbles (1848); 
Allegorical Figure of France (1855), Metz 
Museum ; Assassination of Due de Guise, 
1563 (1857); Mozart playing the Violin; 
Eve Asleep ; Sultana at the Bath ; Christ in 

the Prsetorium, Cathedral of Mexico. Bel- 
lier, ii. 25 ; Chronique des Arts (1886), 

MABC, WILHELM, born at Landshut, 
Bavaria, Oct. 9, 1839. Genre painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy and of Erich Correns ; 
has repeatedly visited Italy ; paints in the 
manner of the old Venetian and Dutch mas- 
ters. Works : Decameron ; Housewife ; 
Concert ; Aphrodite ; Alpine Shepherdess ; 
City and Country (1874) ; Children in Vil- 
lage Churchyard, Venus Anadyomene (1876); 
Evening in Convent Garden ; Recess in 
Boarding-School ; Morning Prayer ; A Ques- 
tion (1883) ; Procession at Wackersberg, 
Music at Eve on the Alp (Jubilee Exhi- 
bition, Berlin, 1886). -Milller, 352 ; Ulustr. 
Zeitg. (1879), ii. 548 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 
213 ; xx. 745. 

Paul Laurens, M. Turquet, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. x 10 ft. Fran9ois Severin des Gra- 
viers Marceau, division commander in the 
French army, was mortally wounded near 
Altenkirchen, Rhenish Prussia, Sept. 20, 
1796 ; and was carried within the Austrian 
lines, where he died three days later, uni- 
versally regretted, even by his enemies. 
The picture represents his body in full uni- 
form upon his death-bed, surrounded by 
several French officers at left and the Aus- 
trian staff-officers at right. Salon, 1877; 
exhibited in New York, 1886. 

MARCELLIS. See Marseus. 

MARCELLO, NICCOLO, portrait of 
Doge, Titian, Vatican ; canvas, EL 4 ft. 11 
in. x 2 ft. 11 in. Painted about 1508. From 
Aldrovandi Collection, Bologna. C. <fc C., 
Titian, i. 112. 

MARCH, EST^BAN, bom in Valencia 
about 1590, died there in 1660. Spanish 
school ; pupil of Pedro Orrente, from whom 
he learned to colour 
in the Venetian man- 
ner. Painted prin- 
cipally battle scenes 
and coarse subjects, but sometimes also re- 
ligious compositions. Most of Ms pictures 




are in Madrid and Valencia ; a great Battle 
Scene by him (1660) is in the Schwerin Gal- 
lery. Works : Portrait of J. B. del Mazo, 
Passing the Red 
Sea, and six other 
pictures, Madrid 
Museum. His son 


and scholar, Miguel (1643-70), who studied 
in Italy, painted similar pictures, but with 
less success, Ch. Blanc, ficole espagnole; 
Madrazo, 438 ; Stirling, i. 756. 


MARCH TO PARIS IN 1814, Feodor 
Dietz, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, H. 
11. ft 6 in. x!3 ft. 10 in.; signed, dated 
1868. Having defeated Napoleon at La 
Rothiere on February 1, 1814, Marshal 
Blucher, authorized by the war-council of 
the allied monarchs, began the advance to- 
wards Chalons on February 2d. The picture 
shows the aged general, with two adjutants 
on horseback, at the head of a young Prus- 
sian Landwehr-Regiment, who shout enthu- 
siastically as he points to the road to Paris ; 
in the middle, to light, cavalry advancing 
across the wintry battle-field. 

bom in Paris, April 10, 1825, died there, 
March 31, 1877. Genre painter, pupil of 
Drolling and Dubois. Improved and pros- 
pered until 1876, when he lost his eyesight, 
and in despair committed suicide. Medals : 
1864, 1866, and 1873. His Alsace has been 
often engraved and lithographed. Works : 
Misunderstanding (1852) ; Van Dyck in Ru- 
bens' Studio (1853); Return from Masked 
BsOl (1855); Mother's Festival (1857); Chil- 
ly, Last Kiss (1859) ; Interior of an Alsatian 
Tavern (1861); Luther's Horse (1863); Ser- 
vant Market (1864), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; Spring Time (1866) ; Katarina 
(1867); Penelope (1868), H. Probasco, 
Cincinnati ; Phryne (1868) ; Secret (1870) ; 
Alsace (1872) ; Morning in Alsace, Evening 
ib. (1875), Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York; 

Booty (1875); 
(1877), ix 48 

First Step (1876). L'Art 

233; Meyer, Gesch., 703; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex;, xvii. 569. 

mo da Cotignola. 

MARCKE, fiMILE VAN, born at Sevres, 
August 20, 1827. Landscape and aniinul 
painter, pupil of Troyon. Medals: 18(57. 
1869, and 1870 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1872. Works: Pastures by the Sea, 
Pastures in the Woods (1868) ; Plain, For- 
est (1874) ; Bridge on the Bresles, River 
Morte at Treport, Village Pasture (1875) ; 
Cliff (1876); Spring at Neslette (1877), 
Mr. Brown, Philadelphia ; Grass at Soreng 
(1879) ; Meadows of Bourbel (18SO) ; Sluice, 
Study (1881) ; Swiss Cow, Norman Cow 
(1882) ; Vache blanche, Samuel F. Borger, 
New York ; In the Landes, Win. Astor, ib. ; 
Cows in a Pool, Cattle, W. H. Vanderbilt, 
ib. ; Cows Drinking, Spring Time, Cattle 
Reposing, Cows in a Pool, On the Cliffs, 
Going to Pasture, Mill Farm, formerly in 
Mrs. Morgan's Collection, ib.; Study from 
Nature, Early in the Morning, Cow, The 
Pool, Misty Morning, Approaching Storm 
(1873), W. T. Walters, Baltimore, Bellier, 
ii. 629 ; Meyer, Gesch., 700. 

lone), born in Oggione, near Milan, about 
1470-80, died about 1530-40. Lombard 
school ; pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. Ex- 
ecuted careful copies of his master's pict- 
ures, especially of his fresco of the Last Sup- 
per, one of which is in the Royal Academy, 
London, a second in the Brera, Milan, and 
a third (small) in the Hermitage, St. PetcrH- 
burg. Oggione painted frescos, also, in 8. 
M. della Pace, Milan, now in the Brera. In 
the Louvre are a Holy Family, and the Mil- 
donna, of the Scales, attributed to him. 
Lanzi, ii. 490 ; Vasari, ed. Lo Mon,, vii. &), 
44 ; ed. Mil, iv. 52 ; Ch. Blanc, ftcole mila- 
naise; Burckhardt, 628, 707; Lttbka, Geseh. 
ital. Mai., ii. 45 ; W. & W., ii. 562. 

MARCONI, ROOCO, native of Treviao, 
end of 15th and beginning of 16th century. 
Venetian school ; Ridolfi calls him a pxipil, 

Claretie, Peintres (1874), | and Burckhardt a follower, of Palma Vec- 



chio, but Zanetti thinks him more probably a 
disciple of Giovanni Bellini. He was an agree- 
able colourist and a fair designer. Among 
his works in Venice are a Descent from the 
Cross, and Christ between SS. Peter and 
John, Academy ; "Woman taken in Adultery, 
S Giorgio Maggiore; and Christ between 
SS Peter and Andrew, S. Giovanni e Paolo. 
The Woman taken in Adultery, Palazzo Cor- 
sini, Rome, attributed to Titian, is by Mar- 
coni (C. & C.) ; same subject in Berlin 
Museum, and Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Ch. Blanc, ficole venitienne ; Burckhardt, 

MAREC, VICTOR, born in Paris; contem- 
porary. Genre and portrait painter, pupil 
of Jean Paul Laurens. Medal, 3d class, 
1885 ; 2d class, and prix du Salon, 1886. 
Works : The Little Patient (1885) ; Morn- 
ing after Pay-Day (1886). 

born at Metz in Feb., 1801. Genre painter, 
pupil of Regnault. Usually painted in wa- 
ter colour or on porcelain and glass. Has 
had many pupils. Medals: 3d class, 1840; 
2d class, 1841 ; 1st class, 1826, 1842, and 
1855 ; L. of Honour, 1846 ; Officer, 1855. 
Works : Job (1826) ; Washerwomen, Ravine, 
Harvest (1835) ; Sisters of Mercy, Hunga- 
rian Woodsmen (1840); Little Gitano, Little 
Student, Study of Heads (1841) ; Masaccio 
as a Child, Pf eiffer House (1841) ; The Clus- 
ter, Herodias (1845) ; Lawyer, St. Clotilde, 
St. Valeria (1853) ; Priest, Student, Galileo 
in Velletri (1855) ; Columbus brought back 
from the New World (1857) ; Young Girl, 
Sisters of Misery, Shepherds, Portrait of 
Marshal Ney, Metz Museum. Has executed 
decorative works in the Ministry of State 
and in the New Louvre. His son and pupil, 
Charles Raphael, is also a genre painter ; 
Medal, 2d class, 1853. Better, ii. 28 ; La- 

MARGES, GEORG DE, born at Stock- 
holm in 1697, died in Munich in 1776. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Peter Martin Mey- 
tens, whom he assisted fourteen years, dur- 
ing which time he also painted the royal 

family of Sweden, and the senators. He 
went in 1724 to Amsterdam, then to Nurem- 
berg, where he studied at the Preussler 
Academy, and won the friendship of Kupetz- 
ky ; thence to Rome via Munich, Innsbruck, 
Padua, and Venice, where he painted minia- 
tures, and completed his studies under Pi- 
azetta ; after a short stay at Augsburg, set- 
tled in Munich, where he became court- 
painter, and painted more than fifty portraits 
of Bavarian Princes. Works: Portrait of 
himself at the Easel, do. of a Physician, 
Portraits of the Painters Albrecht and Beich, 
do. of Bavarian Princes and Princesses (31), 
Schleissheim Gallery. Nagler, iii. 360. 

MARES, PIERRE DES, a Burgundian 
painter, who flourished in the beginning of 
the 16th century. His style resembles that 
of the master of the Holy Kith-and-Kin. 
Works : Crucifixion (1517), St. Maurice re- 
fusing to sacrifice to an Idol, Beheading of 
St. Maurice, Old Pinakothek, Munich. 

MARESCALCO, IL. See Buonconsiglio, 

MARGARET, ST., Eaplwel, Louvre; 
wood, transferred to canvas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. 
x.4 ft. Si Margaret, standing and holding 
a palm, has one foot on the monster, which 
lies, with open mouth, upon its back. Paint- 
ed about 1518, probably for Francis L or 
for his sister Marguerite de Valois, and ac- 
cording to Vasari, almost entirely by Giulio 
Romano from Raphael's design. Cleaned 
by Primaticcio in 1530 ; again in 1685, and 
later much damaged by restoration. En- 
graved by P. Thomassin (1589) from a poor 
copy ; also by G. Rousselet ; L. Surugue ; 
Desnoyers. Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 525 ; Cab. 
Crozat, i. PL 7 ; Landon, Musee, iv. PL 21 ; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 590 ; Passa- 
vant, ii 260. 

By Raphael (?), Vienna Museum ; wood, 
H. 5 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. A repetition of 
the St. Margaret in the Louvre, excepting 
that the Saint holds a cross in her hand in- 
stead of a palm, and looks at the dragon 
instead of at the spectator. Probably by 
Giulio Romano after a drawing by RaphaeL 



In 1528 owned at Venice by Gianantonio 
Venier. Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 
595 ; Passavant, ii. 261 ; Morelli (L'Anoni- 
mo), 72. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
8 ft. x 6 ft. ; signed. The Saint, bearing the 
cross in her left hand, looks at the dragon, 
whose frame stretches from the left fore- 
ground to the mouth of the cavern in the 
background to the right. Painted in 1552 ; 

St. Margaret, Raphael, Louvre, Paris, 

long in the Escorial, where the monks had 
the bare leg painted over with drapery, 
since removed. Two copies in the Escorial. 
0. <fe C., Titian, ii. 222. 

retto, S. Francesco, Brescia ; wood, figures 
life-size ; dated 1530. In middle, St. Mar- 
garet with the double cross, her foot on the 
monster ; to right, St. Francis, to left, St. 
Jerome. C. & 0., N. Italy, ii. 403. 

wife of Philip HI, Velasquez, Madrid Muse- ! 

urn ; canvas, H. 9 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft. 2 in. 
About twenty-five years old, on a chestnut 
and white horse, whose embroidered hous- 
ings fall nearly to the ground ; black dress 
with open sleeves and a ruff ; her red hair 
surmounted by a white plume ; background, 
landscape. Companion picture to Philip 
III. by Velasquez ; painted about 1644 As 
the Queen was dead before Velasquez went 
to Madrid, the likeness was taken from con- 
temporaneous portraits. Etched by F. 
Goya. Curtis, 90 ; Madrazo, 607. 

MARGARITA MARIA (Margarita Teresa), 
Infanta, daughter of Philip IV. and Mariana 
of Austria, and wife of Leopold I, Emperor 
of German}-, Velasquez, Vienna Museum ; 
canvas, H. 4 f t. x 3 ft. 2 in. About three 
years old, full-length, standing, with fan in 
left hand, right resting on a table on which 
is a glass vase filled with flowers ; wears a 
white dress trimmed with black lace, a neck- 
lace, and heavy gold chain. Painted about 
1654. Etched by F. A. Milius. Repeti- 
tions : Duke de Alba, Madrid ; with changen, 
Louvre. Latter engraved by Conquy ; etched 
by Waltner ; H. Meyer ; Milius. Palomi- 
no, iii. 349 Gaz. des B. Arts (1879); Cur- 
tis, 99. 

MARGARITONE (Margheritone), born 
at Arezzo in 1216 (?), died there in 1293 (?). 
I Tuscan school. A rude follower of the By- 
I zantine school, classed with Giuuta Pisuno 
and other painters of crucifixes, portraits of 
St. Francis, etc., of a repulsive type. Tho 
Church of S. Francesco, Arezzo, contains a 
St. Francis and a Madonna by him, and the 
National Gallery, London, a Madonna with 
symbols of the Evangelists, coloured like 
playing-cards. Crucifixes attributed t<_> him 
are in the chapel of the Sacristy, S. Croee, 
Florence, and in S. Francesco, Castiglione, 
Aretino. The Madonna delle Vestighe near 
Monte San Savino is signed with hin name 
and dated 1284. Vasari ascribes to this 
artist the design of the Palazzo di San Ciri- 
aco, Ancona, which dates from the 10th and 
was remodelled in the i3th century, and 
the tomb of Gregory X. in the Duoxno, 



Arezzo, which is evidently by some one of 
the pupils of Niccolo Pisano. 0. & C., 
Italy, i. 18G , Vasari, eel. Mil., L 359 ; Burck- 
hardt, 38, 47, 488, 494 ; Liibke, Gesch. ifcaL 
Mai., i, 98. 

MARGUERITE, Alexander Oabanel, J. T. 
Raynor, New York ; canvas, H. 2 ft. C in. x 
1 ft 9 in. Painted in 1874 ; Latham sale, 
New York (1878), $2,700. 

Muffler, Samuel Ashton, Manchester, Eng- 
land ; canvas, dated 1832. Marguerite, 
sunk before a prie-Dieu, listens to the voice 
of the evil spirit reproaching her for the 
death of her father and mother. Salon, 
1833 ; Paturle sale, Paris (1872), 40,000 

Ary Miejfer, Samuel Ashton, Manchester, 
England ; canvas, H. 7 ft 1 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. ; 
dated 1838. Marguerite, holding her 
prayer-book and her rosary, descends the 
steps of the church; Mephistopheles, in 
red, and wearing a cap with a cock's feather, 
points her out to Faust, who appears pro- 
foundly moved. Salon, 1839 ; Paturle sale, 
Paris (1872), 35,000 francs. Engraved by 
Ad. Caron. 

Ary Schtffcr, Sir Richard Wallace, London; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. Margue- 
rite, absorbed in thought, forgets that her 
pitcher is full and overflowing ; behind her, 
two young girls are laughing at her absent- 
mindedness. Salon, 1858 ; sold to M. Du- 
rand-Ruel ; then to M. Pereiro ; Pereire sale 
(Paris, 1872), 56,000 francs. Replica, A J. 
Nottebohm, Rotterdam. Etched by L. Fla- 
iiioug. Gaz, des B. Arts (1859), iii. 51, 54 ; 
(1804), xvi. 196. 

WHEEL, Ary tkhefftor, Rothschild Collec- 
tion, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft 8 in. x 2 ft. 10 
in. Companion to Faust in his Cabinet. 
Marguerite, sitting in a high-backed chair 
before her spinning wheel, her eyes red- 
dened with weeping, her head drooping, 
lets fall upon her knees her book of prayers. 

Salon, 1831 ; partly burned at the Chateau 
de Neuilly in 1848, and restored by Schef-. 
f er. Replica, A. J. Nottebohm, Rotterdam ; 
another, small, Paturle sale, Paris (1872), 
5,050 francs. 

MARIA TERESA, Infanta, daughter of 
Philip IV. and Isabel of Bourbon, wife of 
Louis XIV. of France, Velasquez, Madrid 
Museum ; canvas, H. 7 ft. x 4 ft. 10 in. 
About ten years old, full-length, standing ; 
rose-coloured dress distended by large 
hoops, on which rest her hands, the right 
holding a handkerchief, the left a rose ; on 
right, a crimson curtain partly hides a chair. 
Face in second manner, remainder in last 
manner of Velasquez. Curtis, 97 ; Madra- 
20, 620. 

By Velasquez, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. About sixteen 
years old, three-quarters length, standing, 
her right hand on a table, her left resting 
on her wide hoops, holding her handker- 
chief ; wears a tulle bertha with perpendic- 
ular red stripes, a plain collarette, and 
pearls ; two watches suspended from hev- 
waist. Curtis, 98. 

MARIANA OF AUSTRIA, Queen, second 
wife of Philip IV., Velasquez, Madrid Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 11 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. 
Full-length, kneeling in prayer behind a 
desk covered with rich tapestry ; in her 
hand, a small Book of Hours ; above, a 
curtain. Latest manner. Companion to 
similar picture of same size of Philip IV. 
in Museo del Prado. Curtis, 93 ; Ma- 
drazo, 618. 

By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. 11 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. About twenty- 
four years old, full-length, dressed in court 
mourning, standing with right hand on 
back of a chair, a large handkerchief in 
left hand ; red hair arranged in ringlets, 
each tied at end with red ribbon ; behind 
her, a bronze clock on a table ; above, a red 
curtain. Latest manner. Probably paint- 
ed in 1659. Repetitions, with changes: 
Madrid Museum ; H. B. Brabazon, Battle, 
Sussex ; Castle Howard (?) ; Historical So- 



ciety, New York ; Francis Clare Ford, Lon 
don. Curtis, 93 ; Madrazo, 618. 

GRANGE, Sir John E. Millai*, Bart., H. F 
Makins, Esq., London ; wood, H. 2 ft. x 1 
ft. 8 in. Illustration of Tennyson's poem 
of same title. Mariana, in a dress of deep 
blue, rises from her embroidery frame, with 
eyes half-closed, wearied and lorn of love 
in front, a window with painted glass 
through which the light falls on a piece oj 
unfinished embroidery ; to the right, an 
oratory, with a lamp burning. Royal 
Academy, 1851. 

Hnller, Mrs. M O. Roberts, New York 
canvas. Scene the small room in the 
Conciergerie, still kept as shown in the 
picture. Marie Antoinette, dressed in 
white, standing to listen to her death-war- 
rant, read by Paris called Fabricius, at 
whose right stands Herrman, Vice-President 
of the Convention ; next to him is Coffin- 
hall, and then Collier, two commissaries 
from the Convention ; a gendarme is seated 
on the table. Photogravure in Art Treas 
ures of America, ii. 41. 

TRIBUNAL, Paul Delaroche, private gallery. 
Salon, 1851. Engraved by A. Francois. 
Original sketch, Pereire sale, Paris (1872), 
6,100 francs. 

MARIENHOF, A., born at Gorcuin about 
1630 (?), died young at Brussels. Dutch 
school; history and portrait painter, sup- 
posed pupil of Teniers, the younger, ac- 
cording to others of Rubens, whom he imi- 
tated. Works : Man kneeling before Sov- 
ereigns enthroned (1648), Dresden Museum; 
Artist in his Studio (1648), Male Portrait, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

MARILHAT, PROSPER, born at Vertai- 
zon, near Thiers (Puy-de-D6me), March 20, 
1811, died there, Sept. 13, 1847. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Roqueplan. Recom- 
mended by his master as the artistic com- 
panion of Baron Httgel, he visited the 
Levant in 1831, and spent a number of 

years in Cairo, where the climate so ruined 
his health that he did not long enjoy the 
fame which awaited him on his return to 
Paris. Works : Pan playing the Flute for 
Shepherds and Shepherdesses (1830), Mans 
Museum ; Square of Ezbekieh in Cairo 
(1834) ; Tomb of Abou-Mandour (1837) ; 
Environs of Beyrut (1841) ; Souvenirs of 
the Nile ; Syrian Arabs Travelling ; Egyp- 
tian City in Twilight ; Tripoli in Syria 
(1844) ; Village in Auvergne (1849), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Caravan on the Libanon, 
View near Tripolis, Leipsic Museum ; View 
of Baalbek ; Rosetta ; Cairo, Comte Ducha- 
tel; Syrian Restaurant; Interior at Ro- 
setta, Lord Seymour ; Feeding the Camel, 
B. Wall, Providence, R. I. He left more 
than two hundred unfinished pictures. 
Oh. Blanc, Ecole franyaise ; Revue des Deux 
Mondes (1848), xxiii. 56 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1860), v. 290. 


de Zeeuw), born probably about 1497, died 
after 1567. Flemish school, flourished iu 
1521-58. Contemporary of Frans Floris, 
and lived chiefly in Zealand. His specialty 
was the painting of money-changers and 
shop-keepers in bright and pastose colours, 
which would seem to indicate the influence 
of Quinten Massys, who may even have been 
;ris master. Works : Two Money-Changers 
m their Office, National Gallery, London ; 
Customs Officer (1560), Copenhagen Gal- 
.ery ; Money-Changer with his Wife (1541), 
Dresden Gallery ; do. (1538), and Agent at 
us Desk (1542), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
do., and St. Jerome (2, one dated 1521), Ma- 
donna, Museum, Madrid ; Money-Changer 
1835), Academy of S. Fernando, ib. ; roplioa, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Parable of the Unjiint 
Housekeeper, St. Jerome, Vienna Museum. 
Hymans, Marin le Zclandais (BrusaelH, 
1884); Engerth, Belved. Gal., ii. 255 ; Jour- 
nal des B. Arts, v. 127 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
117 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 205 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 
1883), 92 ; Itooses (Reber), 62. 



MARIS, JAKOB, born at The Hague, 
25, 1837. Landscape painter, brother 
of Matthys, pupil of Hague Academy, then 
of Strobel and of Hubertus van Hove, whom 
he followed to Antwerp, where he became a 
pupil of De Keyser and of Van Lerius ; went 
to Paris in 186G, studied under Hebert, and 
was greatly influenced by the representatives 
of the "Paysage inthne." He returned to 
The Hague in 1871 ; lives now in Brussels. 
Works : Knitting Girl by a House ; View 
of the Y with Amsterdam ; Coast View ; 
Girl dressing Vegetables; View of Schie- 
dam ; On the Shore, Dutch Landscape 
(1878) ; View in Dutch Town ; By the Sea ; 
Mother and Children (1879) ; Eiver, View 
of Amsterdam (1883) ; Souvenir of Dor- 
drecht, Return of Fishermen (1884). Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xvii. 570 ; Miiller, 353. 

MARIS, MATTHYS, bora at The Hague 
in 1835. Genre painter, pupil of Hague 
and Antwerp Academies, where he was es- 
pecially attracted by Leys ; returned to The 
Hague, went to Paris in 1869, and, influ- 
enced by Hamon, completely changed his 
style, which found great favour in England, 
in the private galleries of which most of his 
pictures, bought at high prices, are to be 
found. For some years past settled in 
London. Works: At the Well; Dutch 
Village ; Reading a Letter ; Baptism ; Rear 
of a House (1863) ; Girl with Butterflies ; 
Girl with Doves (1872) ; Girl and Goats, G. 
A Drummond, Baltimore. Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xvii. 570 ; MttHer, 354 

MARIS, WILLEM, bom at The Hague ; 
contemporary. Landscape and animal paint- 
er, brother of the preceding, greatly esteemed 
in Holland and Belgium for his water-col- 
ours. He is one of the presidents of the 
Teeken Maatschapy at The Hague. Works : 
Pasture in Sunshine (1879) ; Wading Cows 
(1879). Meyer, Oonv. Lex., xvii. 570 ; Mul- 
ler, 354. 

Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 5 
in. x 14 ft. Marius, fleeing from the pur- 
suit of Sulla, landed at Carthage, where a 

message was sent him by the ruling prae- 
tor commanding him to leave the country. 
" Tell the praetor," said he to the messenger, 
" that you have seen Caius Marius a fugitive 
sitting on the rums of Carthage," thus com- 
paring his own changed fortunes, not inapt- 
ly, says Plutarch, to the fate of that city. 
In the picture Marius is seated at left, ad- 
dressing the soldier, who is standing, spear 
in hand, at right ; in background, the sea, 

St. Mark, Fra Bartolommeo, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

and the sun setting. Painted in 1824. 
Reveil, iii. 190 ; Larousse, x. 1220. 

By John Vanderlyn, heirs of Bishop W. I. 
Kip, San Francisco. Marius, seated, with 
lis toga falling from his shoulders, and 
ieaning on his sword ; his helmet is at his 
feet The waters of the Mediterranean are 
seen through the arches of an aqueduct ; in 
bhe distance is a temple, with one of its col- 
umns fallen, and a fox among the ruins of 
its portico. Painted in Rome in 1807 ; Paris 



Salon, 1808, where it was awarded a gold 
medal ; taken to America by the artist, after 
the peace of 1815, and sold to Leonard Kip, 
New York. Atlantic Mag. (1867), six. 228 ; 
Art Journal (1852), 374 

MARK, ST., Fra Jlartolommeo, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood transferred to canvas, 
H. 11 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. St. Mark sitting 
in a niche, with a closed book on his knees, 
and a pen in his right hand. Painted in 
151:4-15 for S. Marco, Florence; sold in 
1692 for 480 scudi to Ferdinando de' Me- 

life-size. St. Mark enthroned between SS. 
Sebastian, Roch, Cosmo, and Damian. Paint- 
ed about 1512 for S. Spirito in Isola. En- 
graved by G. Wagner. 0. & C., Titian, i. 

By Bartolomnaeo Fivarini, S. M. de' Frari, 
Venice ; wood, figures a little less than life- 
size ; signed, and dated 1474. Saint sits in 
benediction on a throne ; at sides and front 
of which are four angels, two foremost 
playing a mandolin and viol ; to the left, 
in niche, SS. John Baptist and Jerome ; to 

Miracle of St. Mark, Tintoretto, Venice Academy. 

dici, who left in its place a copy by Antonio 
Franchi ; taken to Paris in 1799 and trans- 
ferred to canvas ; returned in 1815. Copy 
by Anton Domenico Gabiani in Florence 
Academy. Engraved by Lorenzini ; La- 
sinio. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 189 ; Marchese, 
ii. 115 ; 0. & C., Italy, iii. 468 ; Gal. duPal. 
Pitti, i. PL 32 ; Landon, Musee, ii; PI. 55. 

By Tintoretto, Berlin Museum; canvas, 
dated 1569. St. Mark enthroned, instruct- 
ing three procurators of the Zane, Cornaro, 
and Molino families. 

By Titian, sacristy of S. M della Salute, 
Venice ; wood, arched at top, figures under 

right, SS. Paul and Nicholas. Formerly in 
chapel of Comaro family. 0. <fe C., N. Italy, 
i. 44. 

ANDRIA, Giovanni ftfaw*ue,fi, Venice Aoad- 
emy ; canvas, H. 12 ft. x 19 ft. 1 1 in. ; Rignod. 
People of Alexandria listening to St. MurkV* 
sermon in a distant temple ; many JiguroH 
on foot and on horseback, in Eastern and 
other costume, with a band of musicians, 
and a leopard, stag, and other animals in 
foreground. Painted about 1500 for Scuola 
di S. Marco, Venice. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
Burckhardt, 599. 



MABK, ST., CUEING ANIANUS, Cima j MARK, ST., RING OF, Paris Bardane, 
da Couegliano, Berlin Museum ; wood, H. ' Venice Academy. The fisherman present- 
5 ft. 6 in. x4 ft. '4 in. Long in the Gesuiti, i ing to the Doge, who is seated on a dais, in 

Venice. C. & C,, N. Italy, i. 245. 

an illustrious assembly, the ring which was 

By Giovanni Hansueti, Venice Academy ; given to him by St. Mark. Burckhardt 

calls this the "most beautifully painted 

canvas, H. 12 ft. x 13 ft. 1 in.; signed. 
Anianus, the cobbler, seated with a shoe 

to Paris in 

strapped to his knee, shows his hand 

wounded by an awl ; St. Mark, in the pres- ' 1815. Landon, 

ence of the people, who fill the 

market - place of Alexandria, 

cures him with a blessing. 

Painted about 1500 for Scuola 

di S. Marco, Venice. C. & C., 

N. Italy, i. 221; Burckhardt, 


OF, Paolo Veronese, S. Sebas- 
jtiano, Venice. The Saints are 
exhorted by St. Sebastian to 
meet martyrdom with firmness. 
One of the master's finest 
works. Zanotto, 428. 

Tintoretto, Venice Academy; 
canvas. St. Mark, who is rep- 
resented flying downwards, 
frustrates, by his power over 
physical laws, the attempts of 
the Turks to torture a Chris- 
tian slave for acts of devotion 
to him ; in the centre a stand- 
ing figure exhibits to the over- 
seer the broken tools. Painted 
about 1548 ; one of four pict- 
xires for Scuola di S. Marco ; 

ceremonial picture which exists." Carried 

1806; returned 
Mnsee, 2d 

to Venice in 
Col, iii. 1; 

Ring of St. Mark, Paris Bordone, Venice Academy. 

carried to Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. 
Popularly considered Tintoretto's master- 
piece. Taine thinks it unsurpassed, and 
Ch. Blanc regards it as equal in colouring 
to any other work in Venice ; but RusMn 
says it is excelled in some respects by the 
Death of Abel, and the Fall of Man, near it. 
Vasari, ed. MiL, vi. 592 ; Rosini, v. 254 ; 
Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 186 ; Zanotto, 505 ; Burck- 
hardt, 744 ; Lavice, 462 ; Landon, Musee, 
ix. PL 13. 

Burckhardt, 199 ; Murray, Hand-Book, N. 
Italy, 386. 

MARK, ST., SERMON OF, Gentile Bellini, 
Brera, Milan ; canvas, figures one-third life- 
size. St. Mark, on a platform in front of a 
mosque, preaching ; Venetians and Orientals 
of all ages and both sexes before him, listen- 
ing. Begun by Gentile in 1507 for Scuola di 
S. Marco ; finished after his death, probably 
by Giovanni Bellini. C. & C., N. Italy, L 
135 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i 80 ; Lavice, 134 



Antwerp, Aug. 7, 1824. History paintei 
pupil of Antwerp Academy under "Wappers 
then studied in Munich under Kaulbach 
visited Italy and France, and lives in Brus- 
sels. Member of Antwerp and Amsterdam 
Academies. Order of Leopold. Works 
Rhetoricians of Antwerp in 17th Century 
Brussels Museum ; Evening in the Conven 
(1850), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Death Scene 
Leipsic Museum; Flemish Guild in 17th 
Century. Mtiller, 354. 

MARKET CART, Thomas Gainsborough 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 6 ft 
x 5 ft. A horse with loaded cart passing a 
shaded pool on the road ; two girls on the 
cart, and two boys and a dog walking be- 
side it ; in foreground, left, two other 
ures and a dog ; at right, a boy gathering 
fagots. Purchased at Lord Gwydyr's sale 
(1828) for 1, 102 10s. Similar composition 
possessed by Lord Northwick. Engraved 
by E. Goodall ; and in Jones's National 
Gallery. Cat Nat Gal.; Eng. Painters of 
Georgian Era, 12 ; Fulcher, 206. 
MARK6, KARL, the elder, born at Leut- 
schau, Hungary, in 1790, 
died at Villa Apeggi,near 
Antella, Tuscany, Nov. 
20,1860. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy (1822-24), then 
lived at Eisenstadt until 
1830, when he returned 
to Vienna, and in 1834- 
38 studied in Rome, 
where he rapidly devel- 
oped in the manner of Poussin ; lived after- 
wards in Pisa and Florence, enjoying the 
friendship of Grand Duke Leopold H, and 
finally settled at Villa Apeggi, offered him 
as a home by Count Gherardesca ; member 
of Florence, Venice, Vienna, and Rio Ja- 
neiro Academies. Works : Ideal Landscape 
with Elijah and the Widow of Sarepta (1837), 
Christ in the Storm, Vienna Museum ; View 
Hear Tivoli, Abraham and the Angel, Blind 
Tobias, Diana and Nymphs ; View in the 

Carnpagna, Baptism of Christ, Expulsion of 
Hagar, Jacob and Laban, Diana and Cal- 
listo, Ino and Melicertes, Hungarian Puszta, 
and many others, National Museum, Pesth. 
His sons, Karl, Franz, and Andreas, have 
also won reputation, the former two in their 
father's branch, the latter as animal painter. 
Allgem. d. B., xx. 387 ; Raczynski, iii. 331 ; 
Reber, ii. 274 ; Wurzbach, xvi. 459 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, viii. 45, 106, 140. 
MARKS, HENRY STACY, born in Lon- 
don, Sept 13, 1829. 
Genre painter, stu- 
dent in schools of 
Royal Academy in 
1851, and of Picot 
in Paris in 1853 ; 
elected an A.R.A. in 
1871, and R.A. in 
1878. Works: 
Christopher Sly, 
Bardolph (1854); 
Slender's Courtship (1855) ; Toothache in 
Middle Ages (1856) ; Dogberry's Charge to 
the Watch (1859); Sexton's Sermon (1860); 
Franciscan Sculptor (1861) ; How Shake- 
speare Studied (1863) ; Doctors Differ 
(1864) ; Falstaffs Own (1867) ; Experimen- 
tal Gunnery in Middle Ages (1868) ; St. 
Francis preaching to the Birds, Princess 
and Pelicans (1870) ; Bookworm (1871) ; 
Ornithologist (1873) ; Capital and Labour 
(1874); Jolly Post-Boys (1875); Apothecary 
(1876) ; Bit of Blue, Spicier and the Fly 
[1877) ; Convocation (1878) ; Intellect and 
[nstinct, Old Friends (1879); Episcopal 
Visitation, Author and Critics (1881); Lord 
Say before Jack Cade (1882) ; Professor 
(1883) ; Foolish Justices, Entomologist 
1884) ; Good Story, Treatise on Parrots 
(1885), Delicate Question, Plain Case (1886). 
Meynell, 59 ; Portfolio (1870), 129. 

marnette, born in Brussels, baptized Jan. 22, 
.754, died at Batignolles, Paris, March 24, 
1829. Genre and landscape painter, pupil 
Paris of Gabriel Briard (1725-77). He 
Conceived a great liking for Dutch masters, 


and evidently took Karel Dujardin, Berchem, 
Potter, and Wouwerraan, for liis models. 
Medal, 1st class, 1806, 1819 ; L. of Honour, 
1828. Works : Eoad with Diligence, Fair 
at the Door of an Inn, Starting for a Wed- 
ding in a Village, Louvre ; Halt of Travel- 
lers, Bordeaux Museum ; View on Sea-Shore, 
Cherbourg Museum ; Education of Bacchus, 
Canal with Vessels, Eeturn from Market, 
Farm, Landscape, Montpellier Museum ; 
Fruit Stall in Open Air, Orleans Museum ; 
Italian Landscape, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Dedication Day, Brussels Museum; Street 
on Canal at Eotterdam, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Landscapes with Figures and Ani- 
mals (2), Cattle Fairs (2), Travellers before 
Inn, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Landscape 
with Figures (2), Turin Gallery ; Sea View ; 
Village Fair ; Cattle Market ; Procession on 
Eoad ; Woman Mountebank ; Interior of 
Guard Eoom; Country Schoolmaster; Death 
of Turenne ; Crossing the Ford ; Priest's 
Eeprimand. Bellier, i. 403; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole fran9aise ; Cat. Louvre ; Jal, 838 ; 
Lejeune, Guide, i. 428 ; Michiels, x. 567. 

Brussels, died there in 1877. Landscape 
and genre painter ; marks a new departure 
in modern landscape painting in Belgium. 
Works : Huntsmen surprised by Eain 
(1832) ; Donna Antonia of Portugal singing 
to Charles II of Spain (1831) ; Mill at St. 
Lambert Woluwe (1832) ; View in Forest 
of Soigne with Chase (1834) ; View near 
Brussels, View on Eoyal Estate (1835) ; 
Charles IL of England in Forest of Bosco- 
bel, Landscape with Waterfall (1836) ; 
Wood-Interior (1837) ; View in Black For- 
est (1839). Immerzeel, ii. 204; Journal 
des B. Arts (1860), 150 ; Eaczynski, iii. 467. 
MAEQUEZ, ESTEBAN, born at Estre- 
inadura about 1655, died in Seville in 1720. 
Spanish school. Pupil of his uncle Fernan- 
do Marquez Joya (died 1672 ?), who was of 
the school of Murillo ; became so expert as 
a copyist and imitator of Murillo that his 
pictures have been sold as originals by that 
master. Works : Si Joseph and Infant Je- 

sus, St. Augustine with the Madonna, St. 
Augustine with Infant Jesus, Seville Muse- 
um ; St. Joseph and Infant Jesus, Cadiz 
Cathedral. Curtis, 339. 

MAEON, ANTON VON, born in Vienna 
in 1733, died in Eome in 1808. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy ; said to have gone early to Eome, but 
if so, was in Vienna again in 1768, when he 
painted, the portrait of Winckelmann, and 
also took active part in .the reorganization of 
the Academy. In 1772 he. was ennobled ; 
went in 1773 to Eome, where he married 
the sister of Eaphael Mengs, and was secre- 
tary, and afterwards professor, at the Acad- 
emy of St. Luke. Works: Portraits of 
Maria Theresa and Joseph IL (1775), Vien- 
na Museum ; Family of Leopold of Tuscany, 
Summer Palace at Schonbrunn, Portrait of 
Winckelmann (1768), Weimar Museum. 
Allgem. d, Biogr., xx. 403 ; Wurzbach, xvii. 

MAEOT, FEANQOIS, born in Paris in 
1666, died there, Dec. 3, 1719. French 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of La Fosse ; received into the Academy in 
1702, adjunct professor in 1705, professor 
in 1715. Works : Fruits of Peace (1702), 
Tours Museum ; Christ leaving the Disci- 
ples at Emmaus, Hagar and Ishmael in the 
Desert, Venus engaging Vulcan to forge 
Arms for JEneas (1704) ; Slumber of Mor- 
pheus, Louvre, Paris. 

born in Hamburg in 1809, died in Munich 
Oct. 29, 1871. Genre painter, pupil of Suhr 
and in Altona of Eosenberg, then studied at 
Copenhagen and (1825) Munich Academies; 
visited Italy and settled in Munich. Works : 
Eeturn from Cattle Fair ; Tavern Scene in 
Bavarian Alps; Wild Bull, Suabian Girl; 
Caretta Drive ; Postilion Astray ; Hostess 
in the Snow ; Horse-Market in Tyrol, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Monk on Donkey (1844), New 
Pinakothek, Munich; Eeturn from Kinness, 
Episode in War of 1813 (1885). Kunst- 
Chronik, vii. 152; Kunst fur Alle, i. 25; 
Nagler, Mon., iii. 493. 



MARREL (Morel), JACOB, born at 
Utrecht in 1614 (?), died at Frankfort in 
1685. German school ; flower and fruit 
painter, pupil at Frankfort of Georg Flegel 
(1563-1638), whom he surpassed in compo- 
sition and colouring. Harried at Frankfort 
the widow of Merian, the elder. Works : 
Wreath with Insects and small Landscape 
(1655), Flower Groups around Architecture, 
Darmstadt Museum; Wreath of Flowers 

Marriage at Cana, Tintoretto, S. M. del la Salute, Venice. 

around Coat of Arms (1658), Historical So- 
ciety, New York. Kramm, iv. 1155. 

MARRIAGE AT CANA [John ii. 1-12], 
Moretto, S. Fermo, Lonigo ; canvas, life-size. 
Christ at the table is surrounded by the 
guests, who wonder as the drawer orders the 
wine to be poured into a fresh flask. Paint- 
ed about 1544 ; in refectory of convent till 
1819, when removed to choir of church. 
Worthy to be placed beside the Feast in the 
House of Simon. Unfortunately much in- 
jured. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 410. 

By Murillo, Marquis of Aylesbury, Wilt- 
shire, England ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. x 7 
ft 6 in. The Saviour seated, with the Vir- 

gin and five other figures, at a table in a 
j hall ; near him a small dog ; he points to 
the wine jars which are being filled by at- 
tendants, one of whom is a negro ; other 
attendants waiting on guests ; Second man- 
ner. Julienne sale (1767), 6,000 livres ; 
1'Abbe Guillaume sale (1769), 6,432 livres ; 
Prince de Conti sale (1777), 9,060 livres ; 
Boileau sale (1779 or 1782?), 5,010 francs ; 
G. Hibbert sale (1829), 819. Curtis, 191. 

By Scarsellino, 
Ferrara Gallery; 
canvas, H. 9 ft. 3 
in. x 19 ft. 8 in. 
A vast composi- 
tion with many 
figures and an ar- 
chitectural back- 
ground. For- 
merly in the con- 
vent of the Cer- 
tosa, Ferrara. 
Cat. Ferrara Gal. 
By Tintoretto, 
Sacristy of S. M. 
della Salute, Ven- 
ice ; canvas, H. 
about 15 ft. x 25 
ft.; signed. The 
table is set length- 
wise, instead of 
crosswise as usu- 
al, along one side 

1 of a large court ; Christ seated at farther 
end, conversing with the person on his left ; 
the guests, arranged along the sides of the 
table, men on one side, women on the other, 
await the newly made wine ; servants and 
other attendants in foreground and in dis- 
tance. Painted about 1561, for brotherhood 
of the Crociferi ; formerly in a church on 
the Island of S. Spirito. Ruskin says, " this 
picture unites colour as rich as Titian's, with 
light and shade as forcible as Rembrandt's, 
and far more decisive." Eeplica in theUffizu 
Engraved by G. Volpato; O. Fialetti. Rus- 
n. Stones of Venice, iii. 355; Zanotti, 558. 
By Paolo Veronese, Brera, Milan ; canvas, 



H. 7 ft. 4 in. x 17 ft. Similar in composi- 
tion to others, with new and spirited mo- 
tives, but dull and uninteresting in colour. 
Formerly in convent of the Cappuccini, 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, Iff. 7 ft. 3 in. x 16 ft. Christ seated at a 
table, spread in an open court, among many 
others, male and female, mostly in Venetian 
costume ; among the guests are a Moor, in 
a turban, and a negro. From the Modena 
Collection. Transferred to new canvas in 

his left, cardinals and other ecclesiastics. 
The bridegroom is Alfonso d'Avalos, Mar- 
quis del Vasto; the bride, Eleanor of Austria, 
sister of Charles V. and Queen of France. 
Behind her is the court- jester. The musi- 
cians in the foreground represent the great 
painters of Venice : Titian plays a bass-viol ; 
Bassano, the elder, a flute ; Tintoretto, a vio- 
loncello, and Veronese himself, in a white 
costume, a second violoncello. The stand- 
ing figure at the right, with a goblet in his 
hand, is Benedetto Caliari, the painter's 

Marriage at Cana, Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Paris. 

1827 by Palmaroli. Engraved by Jacob. 
GaL roy. de Dresde, ii. PL 9 ; Bidolfi, Ma- 
rav., ii. 57 ; Httbner, Dresden Gal, i. 15. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre; canvas, H. 
21 ft. x 32 ft. One of the largest easel pict- 
ures ever painted, containing about 130 fig- 
ures, many of them portraits. Table spread 
in a court, with splendid architectural back- 
ground ; Christ seated in the middle ; on 
his right, noted sovereigns of the 16th cen- 
tury, including Francis I, Charles V., Soly- 
man tt, and Queen Mary of England ; on 

brother. Painted in 1563 for refectory of 
Convent of Giorgio Maggiore, Venice ; 
carried to Paris in 1797, and retained, M. 
Denon having persuaded the Austrian Com- 
missioners in 1815 to take instead of it 
Charles Le Brun's Kepas chez le Pharisien. 
Engraved by Mitelli; Jackson; Prevot 
(1854). Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 372 ; Kidolfi, 
Marav., ii. 27 ; Felibien, i. 723 ; Ch. Blanc, 
iBcole vcnitienne ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; Fil- 
liol, ix. PL 601 ; Landon, Mus6e, xvii. PL 



By Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. 6 in. A semi 
circular table spread in a sumptuous room 
opening into a garden, at which sit ten per 
sons, two of whom, Jesus and the Virgin 
occupy the middle ; eight servants attend 
Bought for Philip IV. from collection o 
Charles I of England. Cat. Museo de 

tional Gallery, London ; six pictures, can 
vas, each H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 11 in. A serie 
representing profligacy in high life, or the 
effects of a marriage in which rank anc 
wealth are the sources of attraction. Th< 
peer is neglectful and profligate, the lad} 
faithless ; the husband is killed in a duel b} 
her paramour, who is hanged for the mur- 
der, and the suicide of the lady l}y poison 
closes the tragedy. 1. The Marriage Con- 
tract. Engraved originally by G. Scotin 
(1745); also by Earlom; J. Garner. 2. Short- 
ly after Marriage. Engraved originally by 
B. Baron ; also by Earlom ; T. E. Nicholson; 
and others. 3. Visit to the Quack Doctor. 
Engraved originally by B. Baron ; also by 
Earlom ; C. Mottram ; and others. 4. The 
Countess' Dressing-Room. Engraved orig- 
inally by S. F. Ravenet ; also by Earlom ; 
Armstrong ; and others. 5. The Duel and 
Death of the EarL Engraved originally by 
S. F. Ravenet ; also by Earlom ; T. E. Nich- 
olson ; and others. 6. Death of the Count- 
ess. Engraved originally by G. Scotin; 
also by Earlom ; J. Mansell ; and others. 
The paintings were finished in 1744 ; sold 
by auction, June 6, 1750, to Mr. Lane, of 
Hillingdon, for 110 guineas ; passed by be- 
quest to Colonel Cawthorne, who sold them 
(1797) for 1,381 to Mr. Angerstein, with 
whose collection they were purchased for 
the National Gallery in 1824. Cat. Nat. 
Gal (1882); F. de Conches, 115 ; Ch. Blanc, 
cole anglaise; Nichols, Anecdotes; Ire- 
land, Hogarth. 

MARRIAGE, SPANISH (Le mariage es- 
pagnol or La Vicaria), Mariano Fortuny, 
Mme. de Cassin, Paris. Sometimes called ! 

Mariage dans la vicaria de Madrid, although 
it does not represent the vicaria of Madrid 
nor any existing sacristy, the painter having 
chosen the material for his background from 
several churches, especially from the Cathe- 
dral of Granada and from a church in Rome. 
Represents a wedding party gathered to 
sign the marriage contract in a large sac- 
risty, the walls of which are hung with 
Cordovan leather, and which is separated 
from the church by an open grille in the 
rococo style. Lamps are suspended from 
the ceiling, and pictures and Venetian mir- 
rors adorn the walls, against which stand 
heavy oaken benches and a book-case filled 
with missals and antiphonaries. The groom 
is about to afilx his signature to the con- 
tract in the place pointed out by the scriv- 
ener. A priest stands beside the table, and 
two others are seated, writing. The two 
principal women, the bride and her mother, 
are portraits of Mile. Isabel de Madrazo, the 
painter's sister, and of Mme. Fortuny. An- 
other of the ladies is said to be a portrait of 
the Duchess Colonna ; Meissonier is said to 
bave posed for the officer with the sabre, 
and Henri Regnault for another of the at- 
tendant gentlemen. Begun in Rome, fin- 
ished in Paris in 1869. Exhibited in 1870 
by Goupil, who purchased it and sold it to 
Mme. Cassin. Davillier, Fortuny, 55 ; Gwz. 
des B. Arts (1875), si. 276 ; L'Art (1875), i. 

MARS, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. A nude figure, 
seated, with blue drapery covering middle, 

helmet on his head, and armour at his 
:eet. Probably painted after the artist's 
second journey to Italy (1651), Drawing 
n Royal Institution, Gijon. Engraved by 
R. Le Villain. Curtis, 19 ; Gal. Esp. ; 
Vladrazo, 635. 

Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 ft 6 in. x 4 
t. 9 in. Sylvia, daughter of Numitor, re- 
lining asleep against a hillock, holding the 
ase with which she has come to draw water 
rom the Tiber ; behind her, a cupid asleep, 



two others shooting arrows, and a third fly- 
ing towards Mars, who, attended by Love 
with a torch, is approaching in a chariot 
drawn by lions ; between Sylvia and Mars, 
the Tiber personified, with Romulus and 
Renms, and the wolf. Engraved by Niquet 
in Musee fran9ais. Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, iv. 
PL 228 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PI. 55; Smith, 
viiL 121. 

MARS AND VENUS, Luca Giordano, 
Louvre ; canvas, EL 2 ft. x 2 ft 6 in. Mars 
about to leave Venus, who is reclining, 
nude, on a couch ; at right, two women ar- 
range the toilette of the goddess ; at left, a 
cupid plays with a dog; another is on a 
"globe, around which is twined a serpent ; 
in background, Vulcan working at his forge. 
Engraved by Pierron ; Sixdeniers. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Musee royal, ii. ; Filhol, XL 
PI. 55 ; Landon, Musee, xiii. PL 11. 

By Guercino, Modena Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. Venus, half nude, 
sitting upon a couch ; behind her, Cupid 
aiming an arrow ; at left, Mars, in full ar- 
mour, is drawing aside the curtains of the 
bed. Painted in 1634 for Francesco, Duke 
of Modena ; carried to Paris ; returned in 
1815. Engraved by Giovanni Berselli ; 
Le Villain ; L. A. Claessens. Landon, Mu- 
see, ii. PL 17 ; Filhol, i. PL 9. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
2 ft. 8 in. x 4 fi 9 in. Venus, nude, reclin- 
ing on drapery spread on the ground un- 
der trees ; Mars, with his casque on, half 
reclining behind her; on opposite side a 
cupid with a torch, others, etc. Engraved 
by Blot in Musee franyais ; Niquet Cat 
Louvre; Filhol, iv. PL 259; Smith, viii. 

MARSEN (Marts, Martsen), JAN (the 
younger ?), flourished about 1632-44 Dutch 
school; battle painter, about whose life 
nothing is known ; as he occasionally paint- 
ed backgrounds in the pictures of Michiel 
Miervelt, he may have lived at Delft Works: 
Cavalry Combat (1630), Botterdam Muse- 
um ; Gustavus Adolphus in Battle of Lilt- 
zen (1636), Brunswick Museum ; Fight be- 

tween Cavalry and Infantry (1632), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Cavalry Skirmish (1644), Czernin 
Gallery, Vienna. Kramm, iii. 816 ; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 422 ; Schlie, 365. 

at Nymwegen about 
1619, died at Am- 
sterdam in June, 
1678. Dutch school; 
still-life painter ; ex- 
celled in the repre- 
sentation of plants, 
insects, and reptiles, 
which he painted 4 
with great truth and N 
careful detail. He / 
visited England, France, where he painted 
for the queen mother, and Italy ; was long in 
the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany ; 
lived at Rome and Naples, and in the for- 
mer place was called Snufelaer (Seeker), 
from liis search after insects, plants, etc., in 
the Campagna ; appears as settled in 1663 
at Amsterdam, where he kept a special pre- 
serve for the breeding of insects and reptiles. 
Works : A Nest, Botterdam Museum ; Two 
large Snakes among Plants, Berlin Museum ; 
Snakes, Mushrooms, etc. (1662), Brunswick 
Museum ; Poppy with Butterflies, similar 
subject (1671), Dresden Gallery ; Bouquet 
with Insects, etc., Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Thistle with Snake, etc., Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Animal Life in the Woods (7, three 
dated 1660, 1669, 1676), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Landscape with Shrubbery and Frog, Wies- 
baden Gallery ; Flowers with Snake and In- 
sects (1672), four others, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Reptiles, Birds, and Insects (1667), Histori- 
cal Society, New York Immerzeel, ii 199 ; 
Kramm, iv. 1060 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 522 ; 
Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 437 ; Schlie, 366 ; Siret 
(1883), ii. 18. 

les Landes), Theodore Rousseau. Frederic 
Hartmann sale, Paris (1881), 129,000 francs, 
bought by State. 

MARSHALL, JAMES, born at Amster- 
dam in 1838. History and landscape paint- 



er, pupil of Preller in "Weimar, and in 1856 
of Antwerp Academy under De Keyser ; 
then visited Paris and returned to "Weimar, 
where he was much influenced by Preller's 
and Genelli's ckssical compositions. Works : 
Erasmus of Rotterdam at Basle ; Tartini's 
Dream, Schack Gallery, Munich ; Genius of 
Weimar ; Preparing for the crowning with 
Thorns; Ahasuerus turning the Redeemer 
from his Door ; Landscape with Bacchic 
Procession ; Poetical Justice, and decora- 
tion of ceiling, Royal Theatre, Dresden. 
Kaulen, 122; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
573 ; niustr. Zeitg. (1877), ii. 486 ; Mliller, 

zo Lotto, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
6 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. ; signed, dated 1523. A 
couple exchanging the ring of betrothal ; 
Cupid, crowned with laurel, flutters behind 
and unites them, by a pressure of his hand 
on their shoulders. Painted for Zanin Ca~ 
sotto, of Bergamo. Collection of Philip IV. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 514 ; Locatelli, i. 

born at Copenhagen, 
Dec. 24, 1810, died 
there, March 23, 1873. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy 
under Eckersberg; 
went in 1836 to Mu- 
nich and Eome ; in 
1848 became profes- 
sor at, and in 1853- 
59 was director of, Copenhagen Academy. 
Especially successful in humorous genre 
scenes. Member of Copenhagen Academy 
and medal in 1841. Works: Day of chang- 
ing Servants, Scene in Eating-House, Entry 
into Cellar, Street Scene in Dog-Days, Auc- 
tion Scene, Musical Evening Party (1831- 
35) ; Outside the Prison ; Festival of St. 
Anthony ; Roman Citizens in a Tavern ; 
Beturn from October Festival in Rome 
(1841), Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen ; 

Erasmus Montanus (1844), Lying-in Room 
(1845), Sunday in Dalecaiiia (1853), A Visit 
(1857), Last Supper (1869), Portrait of the 
Painter Constantin Hansen (1862), do. of 
the Art-Historian Hoyen (1869), Roman 
Woman in Carnival Attire, The Misshapen 
Lover, Copenhagen Gallery ; Scene from 
Holberg's Would-be Politician (1852), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg; Holberg and the Two 
Fools ; Minister and Poet ; Historical fres- 
cos in Burial Chapel of Christian IV., Roes- 
kilde Cathedral (1861-66). D. KunstbL 
(1852), 361 ; (1855), 299 ; Sig. Mttller, 237 ; 
Weilbach, 455. 

MARSYAS. See Apollo and Marsyas. 

MARSYAS, YOUNG, Elihu Vedder, pri- 
vate gallery. The young satyr, nude, seated 
at the foot of a large tree-trunk, in a land- 
scape covered with snow, is playing pan- 
pipes, with a circle of hares sitting around 
in a listening attitude. Exposition univer- 
selle, 1878. 

MARTENS, THEODOR, bom at Wismar, 
Mecklenburg, Aug. 26, 1822, died at Portici 
in Oct., 1884. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Dtlsseldorf of Aug. Weber, and in Paris of 
Lambinet ; studied much after Corot, Diaz, 
and Daubigny, whose manner greatly influ- 
enced his art. Works : Landscape on Bal- 
tic Coast ; On the Heights in Tliuringin, ; 
Sunset; Huntsman's Lodge near Wismar; 
Waterfall ; Marine ; Oaks of Ivenau ; Wil- 

lows near Mill Pond (1875), Village of Muh- 
len-Eichsen (1879), Schwerin Gallery. 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 90 ; Mailer, 355. 

HELM, born at Weimar, March 11, 1814. 
Gennan school ; history painter, pupil of 
Weimar Art School (1829-34), of Dtlssel- 
dorf Academy under Hildebrandt and Scha- 
dow, and in Paris of Delaroche ; began with 
genre scenes, then treated events from the 
Thirty Years' War, the Reformation, and 


Swiss history ; returned in 1848, when he 
became member of Berlin Academy. Pro- 
fessor at the Sophienstift, Weimar, since 
1854. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1844 ; 2d 
class, 1845. Works : Boy at Prayer (1836), 
Weimar Museum ; Presentation of the Augs- 
burg Confession (1845), Luther at the Im- 
perial Diet at Worms (1847), John Huss at 
Council of Constance (1848), Ravene Gal- 
lery, Berlin; Luther's Entry into Worms 
(1860); Ulrich von Hutten crowned Poet 
(1861), Cologne Museum; Thomas Miln- 
zer's Last Way; Expulsion of Salzburg 
Protestants (1864); Arrival of Si Elizabeth 
(1848), Wartburg, near Eisenach. Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1836), 387; (1848), 187; D. 
Kunstbl. (1854), 313 ; (1855), 207 ; (1856), 
454 ; (1857), 416 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xi. 
244 ; MiiUer, 355 ; Springer, 335. 

MARTHA, ST., Anton van Dyck, Metro- 
politan Museum, New York ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. St. Martha interced- 
ing with God for a cessation of the plague 
at Tarascon, Formerly in Madrid Museum, 
whence taken by King Joseph Bonaparte ; 
thence to Mr. Fairer, London, and collec- 
tion of David Mclntosh. 

3V1AHTIN, FRANgOIS, born in Paris; 
contemporary. Still-life painter, pupil of 
Jeannin. Medal, 3d class, 1881. Works : 
Dessert (1876); African Fruits (1877); 
Knick-knacks (1878) ; Still-life (1879) ; 
At an Orientalist's (1880) ; Oriental Inte- 
rior (1881). 

born at Toulouse ; contemporary. History 
painter, pupil of J. P. Laurens. Medal, 1st 
class, Paris, 1883. Works : Paolo di Mala- 
testa and Francesca da Rimini (1883); Cain 
(1884) ; The Titans fighting Jupiter (1885). 

MARTIN, HOMER D., born in Albany, 
N. Y., Oct., 1836. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of William Hari Elected an A.N.A. in 
1868, and N. A. in 1875 ; Member of Society 
of American Artists. Studio in New York. 
Works: Thames at Richmond; White 
Mountains from Randolph Hill ; Adiron- 
dacks (1876), Century Club, New York; 

Evening on the Saranac (1878) ; Spring 
Morning, Sand-Dunes on Lake Ontario 
(1879), Montgomery Schuyler, New York; 
Autumn Woods ; Landscape (1880); do., J. 
T. Martin, Brooklyn. Sheldon, 206. 

tin des Batailles, born in Paris in 1659, 
died there, Oct. 8, 1735. French school ; 
landscape and battle painter, pupil of Van 
der Meulen and of La Hire ; accompanied 
Louis XTV. and the great Dauphin on their 
military expeditions, which he afterwards 
represented in numerous paintings. Works : 
Siege of Freiburg in 1677, Louvre, Paris ; 
Taking of Dole in 1668, do. of Conde in 
1676, Departure of the King after the Lit 
de Justice in 1715, Camp of the French 
Army near Fontarabie in 1719, View of 
Chateau de Clagny, do. of Versailles (3), 
Bosquets de Versailles (3), Taking of Orsoy 
in 1672, Crossing the Rhine in 1672 (2), 
Taking of Limburg in 1675, Siege of Na- 
mur in 1692, Coronation of Louis XV. in 
1722, Taking of Doesburg in 1672, besides 
several copies after Van der Meulen, Ver- 
sailles Museum ; View of Douai, View of 
Lille with Entry of French Army in 1667, 
Douai Museum ; A Battle, Metz Museum ; 
View of Elburg, Montpellier Museum ; JJand- 
scapes (2), Orleans Museum ; View of Ro'uen, 
Rouen Museum ; Cavalry Combat by a 
Bridge, Valenciennes Museum. Bellier, ii. 

MARTIN, JOHN, born near Hesham, 
July 19, 1789, 
died in Isle of 
Man, Feb. 17, 
1854. Began 
as a herald and 
coach painter 
in Newcastle ; 
also practised 
there and in 

ing. In 1812 he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy his Sadak in search of the Waters 
of Oblivion, which was followed by Adam's 


First Sight of Eve (1813), Clytie (1814), 
and Joshua commanding the Sun to stan< 
still (1816), the last of which gained him a 
premium of 100 at the British Institution 
and the appointment of historical landscape 
painter to the Princess Charlotte and Prince 
Leopold. His designs for Paradise Lost 
for which he received 2,000, show grea 
poetic grandeur. He painted many clever 
water-colour views of the valley of the 
Thames and other English rivers. Works 
Fall of Babylon (1819); Macbeth (1820) 
Belshazzar's Feast (1821) ; Destruction o: 
Pompeii (1822), National Gallery, London 
Seventh Plague, Paphian Bower (1823) 
Creation (1824) ; Deluge (1825) ; Fall of 
Nineveh (1828) ; Death of Moses (1838) ; 
Last Man (1839) ; Eve of the Deluge, As- 
suaging of the Waters (1840) ; Celestial 
City, Pandemonium (1841); Destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah (1852). Redgrave ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole anglaise; Ottley; Cat. 
Nat. Gal. 

MARTIN, NABOR, born in Ghent in 
1404, died about 1453. Flemish school; 
free of the guild of St Luke in 1437. 
Works: Nativity, with portraits of Philip 
the Good, his Wife, and Child (1448), Grande 
Boucherie, Ghent ; Adoration of Infant 
Christ, fresco, ib. C. & C., Flemish Paint- 
ers, 242 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 90. 

MARTIN, PAUL, born at Kaiserslautern, 
Bavaria, Aug. 17, 1821. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy and of 
Josef Bernhardt; studied in Paris (1846) 
under Gleyre, and settled in Munich. 
Works: Tilly's Entry into Magdeburg 
(1857) ; Cromwell in Meditation before the 
Crown of England (1858); Garibaldi (1860); 
Loreley (1867) ; Boy playing with Dog, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Wood-Nymph ; 
Munich Shoemaker's Apprentices ; Scene 
from Death of Wallenstein (1883) ; Among 
Flowers (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 
Frescos: Count Arco's Sacrifice in Tyrol 
in 1703, Palatine Philip defending Vienna 
against Soliman in 1529, Elector Otto Hein- 
rich building Wing oi Heidelberg Castle in 

11557, National Museum, Munich. Muller, 
' 356 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1878), ii 484 ; (1882), 
ii. 225. 

1673, died in Paris in 1742. French school ; 
landscape and battle painter, pupil of Par- 
rocel and of Van der Meulen; painter in 
ordinary to the king and to the czarina. 
Works : Louis XV. at a Stag-Hunt (1730), 
Louvre, Paris ; Cavalcade of Louis XV. after 
the Coronation (1724), View of Versailles 
(1722), do. of Trianon (2), do. of Chateaux 
de Marly (2), Saint-Hubert, Meudon, Ma- 

st. Martin dividing his Mantle, Anton van Dyck, Saventhom. 

drid, Fontainebleau (1722), Chambord, Bos- 
quets de Versailles (2), Bassin d'Apollon and 
Canal de Versailles, Engine and Aqueduct 
>f Marly, Versailles Museum ; View of St. 
Cloud, Nantes Museum. Bellier, ii. 41. 

TLE, Anton van Dyck, church at Saventhcm, 
near Brussels ; wood, H. about 5 ft. 9 in. x 

ft. 3 in. Nearly the same in composition 
as the picture by Rubens. The woman and 
children are omitted, St. Martin is a portrait 
>f Van Dyck himself, and the horse is the 
>ne given him by Rubens. Painted by Van 
Oyck for a young lady at Saventhem, who 
>resented it to the parish church. Taken 



to Paris ; returned in 1815. Engraved by 
J. L. Krafft ; G. Edelinck ; Jos. Franck 
(1872). Etched by M. A. Boulard. Musfie 
fran9ais ; London, vii. PL 5 ; Filhol, ill 212 ; 
Smith, iii. 12 ; Guiffrey, 22, 251. 

By Rubens, "Windsor Castle ; canvas, H. 8 
ft. 4 in. x 7 ft. 10 in. The Saint, accompa- 
nied by two horsemen and clad in brilliant 
armour, mounted on a gray horse, is divid- 
ing with his sword a scarlet mantle between 
two poor men ; beyond, a woman with a 
child in her arms and another by her side. 
Waagen ascribes the horse, the woman, and 
the children to Van Dyck, who probably 

St. Martin dividing his Mantle, Rubens, Windsor Castle, 

assisted in the work. This picture is the 
original of Van Dyck's St. Martin, in the 
church at Saventhem. It was formerly in 
Spain, whence it was taken about 1750 and 
sold to Frederick, Prince of "Wales, father 
of George HL Engraved by Thomas 
Chambers (1766). Waagen, .Treasures, ii. 
435 ; Smith, ii 240. 

ton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 
10 ft. 6 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. Victory gained by 
Henri IV. of France over the Due de May- 
enne. In foreground, the King, attended 
by Sully, and many armour-clad knights on 
horseback ; in middle distance, an encoun- 

ter between pikemen and arquebusiers ; 
background, a landscape. The animals are 
by Snyders. Taken to Paris in 1800 ; re- 
turned in 1815. Eastlake, Notes, 72. 

MARTINEZ, JUSEPE, bom in Sara- 
gossa in 1612, died there in 1682. Spanish 
school ; studied in Rome ; attracted atten- 
tion of Velasquez, by whose recommenda- 
tion Philip IV. named him, in 1642, one of 
his painters ; afterwards appointed to same 
office by Don Juan of Austria, but he pre- 
ferred to remain in Saragossa, where he 
painted works for the cathedral. He was 
also an engraver and writer on art Stir- 
ling, ii. 737 ; Cean Bermudez. 

in 1602, died in Madrid in 1667. Spanish 
school ; pupil of one of the scholars of Ces- 
pedes ; became painter to Philip 3V. in 1660. 
His Martyrdom of St. Sebastian was painted 
for the Cathedral of Jaen, and he also ex- 

ecuted works for the nunnery of Corpus 
Christi at Cordova ; but most of his pictures 
were for private houses. Stirling, ii. 806. 

RAFIN, born in Spain ; contemporary. 
Genre painter ; professor at Malaga Acad- 
emy. Works : The Author of Yore (1880) ; 
The Eock of the Lovers (1881); Hoy se saca 
anima (1884). La Hustracion (1880), i. 147 ; 
(1881), i. 382 ; (1884), ii. 393. 


ni di Martini da TJdine. 

MARTINI, SIMONE. See Simone di 

about 1433. Sienese school; son of Bar- 
tolommeo di Biagio, a goldsmith ; inscribed 
on roll of Sienese painters in 1389. His 
earliest pictures are in the desecrated 
Church of S. Giovanni, at Cascina, near 
Pisa, whose walls are covered with partly 



obliterated frescos/ executed in 1397, in the 
style of Taddeo Bartoli. These works, 
which are minutely described by Bonaini 
(Not. Med , 53), are third rate in quality, 
as are his pictures in the Academy and in 
S. Domenico, Pisa. C. & C., Italy, ii. 172 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii 31 ; xi. 175. 

MARTINO DA UDINE. See Pellegrino 
da Sau Daniele. 

milage, private gallery, London ; canvas, H. 

12 ft. 6 in. x 9 ft 7 in. The body of a 
young Christian, slain in the arena, at 
Rome, is being lowered into the Catacombs, 
where it is received by the sorrowing rela- 
tions ; in the background, upon a staging, 
stands a workman, ready to put it into its 
last resting-place, one of the oven-like recep- 
tacles in the wall. Royal Academy, 1885. 

MARTYR, CHRISTIAN, Paul Delaroche, 
private gallery ; canvas, EL 4 f t. 9 in. x 5 ft. 
10 in. Martyr in time of Diocletian. The 
body of a young girl, the hands bound, float- 
ing down the Tiber by night, the aureola 
which lights her face reflected in the water ; 
in background, the prow of a galley, and 
two figures watching from the bank. Sub- 
ject said to have been suggested by a dream. 
Painted in 1855. Exhibited in 1857, after 
his death. Engraved by Rousseaux. At 
Delaroche sale, to Goupil, 36,000 francs. 
At same sale, a smaller sketch, 2,400 francs. 
Replica, in small (face and hands by Dela- 
roche, remainder by C. F. Jalabert), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore. 

MARTYR'S TRIUMPH (Triomphe du 
Martyr), Adolphe "William Bouguereau, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 3 in. x 

13 ft 2 in. The body of St. Cecilia, crowned 
and decked with the palms of martyrdom, 
is borne to rest in the Catacombs. Bougue- 
reau's fame dates from the exhibition of this 
picture. Salon, 1855. 

Benouwlle. Scene in the arena of the 
amphitheatre at Rome, with an immense 
audience gathered to witness the death of 
Christian martyrs by wild beasts. The bar- 

riers have just been opened and the vic- 
tims are coming forward, brutally pushed 
by the slaves of the circus and by sol- 
diers. Exposition universelle, 1S55. Orig- 
inal sketch in water-colours, Salon of 1852, 
Luxembourg Museum. Larousse, x. 1290. 

By Gustave Dore, Dor6 Gallery, London. 
Scene at night in the Coliseum, the long 
ranges of seats deserted by the crowd which 
has lately witnessed a festival of slaughter ; 
in the arena lions and tigers are feeding on 
the mangled corpses of the Christian mar- 
tyrs, while from the star-lit heavens a troop 
of white-robed angels are descending. Sa- 
lon, 1874 Claxetie (1884), 124. 

By Jean L6on Gerome, W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 10 in., x 4 ft. 11 
in. Scene in the Circus Maximus, Rome, 
with Christians exposed to wild beasts, 
which are represented as just coming into 
the arena from their dark dens and paus- 
ing in astonishment at the light and the 
great mass of people surrounding them ; in 
the middle distance are prisoners fastened 
to crosses and smeared with pitch, destined 
to be burned alive. 

MARY OF .EGYPT, ST., Tintoretto, Scu- 
ola di S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. Similar 
in plan to its companion piece, the Magda- 
len, opposite, except that St. Mary has her 
back turned to the spectator and the tree by 
the brook is a palm instead of a laurel. 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 331. 

Wilhelm von Kaulbach, private gallery, Ber- 
lin ; canvas. Scene from Schiller's " Mary 
Stuart" (Act iii., Scene 4). A stormy in- 
terview between the two queens ; Elizabeth, 
at right, with clinched fists, is gazing fixed- 
ly at Mary, who, restrained by an attendant, 
is talking angrily, with one hand raised ; be- 
hind Elizabeth are two courtiers, "with sor- 
rowful faces and downcast eyes, the unwill- 
ing witnesses of the scene, 

DEATH-WARRANT, Karl von POoty, pri- 
vate gallery. Mary site at right, with down- 
cast eyes, her rosary and breviary on the 



floor where they have fallen from her lap ; 
behind her, two of her attendants, one on 
her knees, the other standing, horror-strick- 
en ; at left, the Earls of Shrewsbury and 
Kent, the Sheriff of the County with the 
warrant, and Sir A. Melville, the last in ar- 
mour, all standing. Painted in 1869. En- 
graved by Dorris Eaab. Art Journal 
(1878), 228. 

Escosura, Fletcher Harper, New York. 
Queen Mary, robed in full toilet, alone in 
her chamber in Fotheringay Castle ; her 
bed is concealed in a canopy of splendid 
embroideries ; a large crucifix and a Book 
of Hours denote her religion. Art Treas- 
ures of America, ii. 94. 

Ned, D. O. Mills, New York. Queen Mary's 
first interview with David Rizzio. She is 
descending a staircase, preceded by a little 
spaniel and followed by ladies and courtiers, 
and is surprised to see Rizzio fast asleep on 
a bench at the foot, with his viol beside him. 
Painted in 1876. 

Gabriel Rossetti, Lady Louisa Fielding, Lon- 
don. The Virgin and St. Anne sit side by 
side at an embroidery frame, while before 
them stands a little angel, with rose-coloured 
wings, tending the symbolic lily with child- 
like seriousness. St. Anne is a portrait of 
the painter's mother ; the Virgin, of his sis- 
ter Christina ; the angel, of a younger sister 
of the late artist, Walter H. Deverell. The 
picture, his first subject piece, is signed 
Dante Gabriele Rossetti, P.R.B. i. e., Pre- 
Raphaelite Brother. Exhibited in 1849 ; 
sold for 80 to Marchioness of Bath. Athe- 
nfeum (Jan., 1883), 22 ; Art Journal (1884), 

Veronese, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. x 2ft. 2 in. The three Marys, coming 
to the tomb of Christ, are told of the resur- 
rection by two angels clad in white gar- 
ments. Engraved by Lasinio. Gal. du 
Pal Pitti, ii. PL 27. 

MARZIALE, MARCO, beginning of 16th 
century. Venetian school ; a follower of 
Carpaccio, and later an imitator of Albert 
Dtirer. In 1492 he was a journey man em- 
ployed in the Great Hall of Council, Palazzo 
Ducale, Venice. His Christ and the Apos- 
tles at Emmaus (1506),- Venice Academy, 
and do. (1507), in the Berlin Museum, ex- 
hibits the arrangement of Carpaccio with 
the minute details of the German school. 
In the National Gallery, London, are a Cir- 
cumcision (1500), and a Madonna -with Saints 
(1507). 0. & C., K Italy, i. 227 ; Ltibke, 
Gesch. d. itaL Mai., i. 544. 

MASACCIO, TOMMASO, bom at Castel 
San Giovanni 
di Valdarno, 
Dec. 21, 1401, 
died in Rome 
(?) about 1428. 
school; real 
name Tomma- 
so di Giovanni 
di Simone Gui- 
di, but called 
Masaccio (Careless Thomas) from his in- 
difference to appearance ; perhaps studied 
under Masolino da Panicale. In 1421 he 
was enrolled in the guild of the Speziali 
(apothecaries) in Florence, and in 1422 in 
that of the painters. Masaccio is to the 
15th century what Giotto is to the 14th 
the founder of a new school, the opener of 
a new era in painting, and the painter of 
frescos which were studied by all the great 
artists who came after him as models of 
style, composition, treatment of drapery, 
and truth to nature. Before 1421 (?) he 
decorated a chapel in S. Clemente, Rome, 
with frescos from the life of St. Catherine. 
The next eight years were spent in painting 
frescos in the Brancacci Chapel in the Car- 
mine, Florence, which are the chief exam- 
ples of his style and school. The entire 
series was formerly attributed to him ; but 
modern research has shown that these fres- 
cos were begun by Masaccio, and continued 



and completed by Filippino Lippi, and tha 
of them Masaccio painted nine only, name- 
ly : Expulsion from Eden, St. Peter healin; 
Tabitha and curing the Cripple at the Gat 
of the Temple ; Seeking of the Tribut 
Money and its payment by St. Peter ; Th 
Expulsion ; Sermon of St. Peter (?); St Pe 
ter Baptizing ; Distribution of Alms ; SS 
Peter and John curing the Sick ; Besurrec 
tion of the Child and St. Peter in Cathedra 
partly executed by Filippino Lippi. Thi 
takes from Masaccio two of the finest work, 
in the chapel the Crucifixion of St. Peter 
and the Arraignment of SS. Peter and Pau 
before the Proconsul both painted by Filip 
pino Lippi, and therefore to some exten 
diminishes his glory. It, however, leaves 
him enough to entitle him to be considered 
the greatest painter of his time, and to be 
called the father of modern art, through 
careful study of the human form, and inves- 
tigation of the laws of light and shade which 
govern relief, as well as of the management 
of drapery in broad masses ; he rescued 
painting from medisevalism, and gave an im- 
pulse which finally brought the art to that 
perfection which it afterwards attained in 
the hands of EaphaeL Each event repre- 
sented by Masaccio is like a scene upon the 
stage where the actors are grouped with due 
regard to effect. Many of the heads are 
portraits, and all the figures are studied 
from lif e in a naturalistic spirit, which faith- 
fully renders the costumes worn by the men 
and women of the time. Even Raphael did 
not disdain to take Masaecio's noble group 
of Adam and Eve driven from Paradise as 
a model when he treated the same subject 
in the Vatican. The few other extant works 
of Masaccio are : Fragment of a Procession, 
cloister of the Carmine ; The Trinity be- 
tween the Virgin and Si John the Evangel- 
ist, with two donors, S. M. Novella (much 
injured) ; Conception, Florence Academy ; 
and portrait of himself (?), perhaps by Filip- 
pino Lippi, Uffizi ; Adoration of the Magi, 
Diptych with Martyrdom of SS. Peter and 
John the Baptist, Berlin Museum.^C. & 

C., Italy, i. 519 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., ii. 287, 
305 ; Layard, The Brancacci Chapel, Arun- 
del Society (1868) ; Dohme, 2i.; Ch. Blanc, 
jScole florentine ; Baldinucci, i. 460 ; Burck- 
hardt, 529 ; Lttbke, Gesch. ital. MaL, i. 285, 
290 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xi. 225 ; xii. 175. 

MASO. See Giottino. 

Panicale in 1383, died in Florence in Oct. 
(buried, 18th), 1440. Florentine school; 
real name Tornmaso di Cristofano di Fino ; 
pupil of Gherardo da Stamina, and probably 
master of Masaccio. Vasari confounds him 
with Maso di Cristoforo Braccii, and his ac- 
count is therefore untrustworthy. Masolino 
had no hand in the famous frescos of the 
Brancacci Chapel. He was admitted into 
the guild of the Physicians and Apotheca- 
ries in Florence in 1423, and shortly after- 
wards entered the service of Pippo Spani, 
Obergespann of Temeswar, Hungary. Af- 
ter Spani's death (1427) he returned to Italy, 
and executed, about 1428, for Cardinal Cas- 
tiglione, a series of frescos in the Church 
of Castiglione di Olona and in the adjoining 
baptistery. These, which were unknown to 
Vasari, were lately rescued from whitewash 
and are signed with his name. Those iu 
the choir represent events in the lives of the 
Virgin, and of SS. Lawrence and Stephen, to 
whom the church is dedicated. With no 
ittle religious sentiment, which is at times 
so expressed as to recall Fra Angelico, with 
a conscientious care for details of form and 
composition and a system of architectural 
and figure arrangement which has no little 
analogy with that of his great pupil, Masac- 
io, Masolino elaborated detail at the expense 
>f breadth, and made solitary figures unduly 
orominent. His compositions are monoto- 
nous, both on account of lack of variety in 
irrangement and the absence of contrast in 
ight and shade. His heads are character- 
stic, and his extremities carefully studied 
rom nature. In the frescos of the baptis- 
ery at Castiglione, which represent scenes 
n the life of St. John, the faces are excellent 
nd the action is weak. Considerable bold- 



ness is shown in the use of perspective, which 
Masolino, like other painters of his time, 
had learned to apply to painting, tbanks to 
the scientific discoveries of Brunelleschi. 
According to the annotates of Yasari, the 
baptistery frescos were painted in 1435, but 
C. & C. give the date of 1428 as covering 
these as well as those in the Collegiate 
Church. C. C., Italy, i. 499 ; Yasari, ed. 
Le Mon., iii 135 ; ed. Mil, iL 263, 269 ; 
Buldinucci, i. 342 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole floren- 

I ing in the Campagna (1857) ; Mist on the 
; Moors (1862) ; Catch (1863) ; Return from 
'Ploughing (1864) ; The Geese, The Gander 
(1865); Young Anglers, Yarrow (1866); 
Evening Mattock (1867) ; Wetley Moor, 
Evening Hymn (1868) ; Dancing Girls, Only 
a Shower (1869) ; Derbyshire Landscape 
(1870); Blackberry Gathering, Milkmaid 
(1871); Harvest Moon (1872). Portfolio 
(1871), 113 ; (1873), 40 ; Art Journal (1883), 
43, 108, 185 ; Contemporary Eev., xxi. 724. 

Mass of Bolsena, Raphael, Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican. 

tine ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 285 ; Zeit- 
schrift f. b. K, si. 225. 

Wetley, Staffordshire, 
in 1818, died in Lon- 
don, Oct. 22, 1872. 
Genre and landscape 
painter ; forsook medi- 
cine for art in 1844, 
travelled through Eu- 
rope, and resided sever- ^^____ 
al years in Rome ; re- /^^BlRwRrT/ 
turned in 1858 to Wet- 
ley, whence he removed to London in 1865. 
Elected an A.R.A in 1869. Works: Plough- 

MASS OF BOLSENA, Raphael, Stanza 
d'Eliodoro, Yatican; fresco, dated 1512. 
Called also Miracle of Bolsena. Li 1263, 
under Urban IV., a priest who doubted the 
reality of transubstantiation is said to have 
seen blood flow from the wafer, when cele- 
brating mass in S. Cristina, Bolsena. This 
gave rise to the feast of Corpus Christi, in- 
stituted A.D. 1310. The priest is saying mass 
in the presence of Urban IV. (portrait of 
Julius IL), who kneels at right ; behind the 
pope are four cardinals, and below them five 
of the Swiss guard ; on the left are deacons 
and acolytes, and below them people won- 
dering at the miracle. Typical of the vic- 



tory of the church over scepticism. En- 
graved by R Morghen ; Yolpato ; Aquila ; 
P. Fidanza. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 342 ; Miintz, 
362 ; Passavant, ii. 132 ; Springer, 199 ; Kug- 
ler (Eastlake), il 433 ; Perkins, 137. 

Ferrara Gallery ; wood, H. 8 ft. x 6 ft. 3 in. 
Painted in 1519 for Cappella Festini in S. 
Francesco, Ferrara. Highly praised by Va- 
sari. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 464 ; Baruffaldi, 
i. 326. 

By Giddo Reni, Bologna Galleiy ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 2 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. Herod's soldiers 

Massacre of Innocents, Guido Reni, Bologna Gallery. 

slaying children in a court ; above, two boy 
angels with palms. Fine colour and action, 
but too crowded. Formerly in S. Domenico, 
Bologna ; carried to Paris in 1796 ; returned 
in 1815. Engraved by Bolognini ; Barto- 
lozzi ; Eosaspina. Pinac. di Bologna, PL 7 ; 
Landon, Musee, xiv. PL 9 ; Lavice, 13. 

By Bubens, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 6 
ft. 3 in. x 9 ft. 5 in. An excellent picture in 

the artist's free or bravura manner. En- 
graved by P. Pontius ; Depuis. Smith, ii. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. The outer vestibule of a palace, 
with a flight of stairs, clown which rush a 
crowd of women mixed with the murderers ; 
one woman dashes herself down head-fore- 
most, dragging her child with her ; in front, 
a great struggle, with a confused heap of 
mothers and of the slain ; in background, 
women fleeing pursued by soldiers. Bus- 
kin, Stones of Venice, iii. 328 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole venitienne. 

By Daniele da Volterra, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood, small figures. A fine composition, 
with numerous figures. Formerly in Cathe- 
dral of Volterra ; purchased in 1782. 

yois Flameny, Paris ; canvas, H. 20 ft. x 30 
ft. Illustration of a scene in the war of La 
Vendee in 1793. Under the walls of a castle 
lie many bodies, men and women together, 
ghastly and contorted with the agonies of 
death ; at the left, an old man tied to a tree, 
the blood oozing from his wounds ; in cen- 
tre, a group of aristocrats, the lord of the 
manor and his lady friends, daintily picking 
their way over the blood-stained ground. 
A disagreeable but masterly picture. Salon, 
1884. Art Journal (1884), 180. 

MASSARI, LUCIO, born at Bologna in 
1569, died there in 1633. Bolognese school ; 
history painter, pupil of Bartolommeo Pfis- 
sarotti and opponent of the Carracci, but 
afterwards became a zealous adherent of 
Lodovico Carracci and went to Rome, where 
he studied after the antique and the great 
masters. Works : Madonna with St. John, 
Uffizi, Florence ; St. Clara with tho Holy 
Sacrament driving off Invading Saracens, 
Return of Prodigal Son, Angel presenting 
Purified Soul to the Holy Trinity, Pietft, 
Pinacoteca, Bologna ; Four pictures from 
Life of St. Benedict, S. Michele, ib. ; others 
at the Benedictines and Carthusians, ib. 

Gentile da Fabriano. 



MASSONE, GIOVANNI, of Alessandria, 
about 1490. Genoese school ; painted in 
1490, in mortuary family chapel erected at 
Savona by Sixtus IV., an altarpiece in three 
compartments, representing the Nativity in 
the middle, with SiFrancis and Pope Sixtus 
on one side, and Si Anthony of Padua and 
Cardinal Giuliano di Rovere, the pope's 
nephew, afterwards Julius IL, on the other. 
It is now in the Louvre, having been bought 
for Louis XVIH. for 3,000 francs. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre; Ch. Blanc, iScole genoise; 
Lanzi, iii. 234. 

MASSYS (Matsys, Messys, Metsys), JAN, 
bom in Antwerp about 1509, died before 
Oct. 8, 1575. Flemish school ; son and pu- 
pil of Quinten, whose realistic style and 
subjects he imitated, degenerating, how- 
ever, into coarser treatment and, into great 
feebleness in every respect, especially in his 
later pictures. Free of Antwerp guild in 
1531. Was exiled for heresy in 1544, but 
returned to Antwerp a few years later. 
Works : The Misers (copy of Quinten), 
Windsor Castle ; Men and Women playing 
Cards, Wyndham Collection, Petworth ; 
The Virgin and St. Joseph refused Shelter 
at Bethlehem (1558), Healing of Tobias 
(1564), Antwerp Museum ; Danae, Eotter- 
dam Museum ; Chaste Susanna, Lot and 
his Daughters (1565), Brussels Museum ; 
David and Bathsheba, Louvre ; Tax Col- 
lectors, Berlin Museum ; do., Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Elijah and the Widow of 
Sarepta (1565), Carlsruhe Gallery; The 
Two Moneychangers (1551), Leipsic Muse- 
um ; St. Paul (1565), Schleissheim Gallery; 
St. Jerome (1537), Jolly Company and Bag- 
piper (1564), Lot and his Daughters (1563), 



Vienna Museum ; The Saviour, The Vir- 
gin in Contemplation, Madrid Museum ; 
Bathsheba, Stockholm Museum. Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 247 ; Kramm, iv. 1073 ; Kiegel, 
Beitrage, i. 22 ; ii. 14 ; Eooses (Eeber), 91; 

Van den Branden, 138 ; Merlo, Nachrichten, 

MASSYS, QUINTEN, bom in Antwerp 
before 1460, 
died there be- 
tween July 13 
and Sept. 16, 
1530. Flemish 
school ; history, 
genre, and por- 
trait painter, per- 
haps pupil of 
Dierick Bouts. / 
The current story " 
of his having begun life as a blacksmith, and 
turned to art in order to win a painter 's 
daughter for his wife, is not well authenti- 
cated. What we know is, that he married 
about 1480, and again in 1508-9 ; that he 
entered the painters' guild at Antwerp in 
1491, lived there mostly, and perhaps at 
Louvain temporarily ; and that his friends 
were Egidius, Erasmus, and Dttrer. While 
the painters of the Van Eyck school had for 
the most part painted figures of small size, 
Massys painted them of life-size, showing 
in his treatment of religious subjects an 
intense and sometimes exaggerated senti- 
ment. His flesh tones are clear, his dra- 
peries harmonious in colour, and his execu- 
tion is careful and elaborate. His style, 
which marks the close of the early Flemish 
school and inaugurates a new period, is dis- 
tinguished by more independence of thought 
and greater artistic freedom than that of 
any previous painter in the Low Countries, 
excepting the Van Eycks. Works : Trip- 
tych with Legend of St. Ann (1509), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Triptych with Pietd (1508- 
11), Bust Figures of Christ and the Virgin, 
Magdalen, Tax Collector, Antwerp Muse- 
um ; lfonei/-Changer and his Wife (1518), 
Descent from the Cross (attributed), Louvre ; 
Bust Figures of Christ and the Virgin, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Death of Lucre- 
tia, Berne Museum ; Madonna, St. Jerome, 
Portrait of a Young Man, Museum, Berlin ; 
Madonna with the Lamb, Kaczynski Gal- 



lery, ib.; Young Girl caressing Old Man 
Cassel Gallery ; Advocate and Clients, Dres 
den Museum ; The Virgin nursing the 
Child (?), Portrait of Jehan Carondelet, 01 
Pinakothek, Munich; Death of Lucretia 
St. Jerome, Portrait of a Goldsmith, Vienna 
Museum ; The Virgin appearing to Davic 
and his Prophets, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Ecce Homo, Ducal Palace, Venice 
St. Jerome, Portraits of himself and his 
Wife (1520), Uffizi, Florence ; Christ with 
Mary and St. John, Madrid Museum ; BUST 
Figures of Christ and the Virgin, National 
Gallery, London ; Portrait of Petrus Egidius 
Longford Castle ; Triptych, Historical Soci- 
ety, New York. His younger son and pupil, 
Cornelis (bom at Antwerp about 1512, mas- 
ter of the guild in 1531, and still living in 
1580), was a figure and landscape painter, 
by whom is a Vilkge Street Scene (1543] 
in the Berlin Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr. 
xxi. 521 ; Art Journal (1880), 145, 177 ; Ch. 
Blanc, iScole flamande ; Cat. du Mus. d'An- 
vers (1874), 239; Dohme, li.; Engerth, 
Belved. Gal., ii. 259 ; Fetis, Cat. du Mus. 
roy., 138 ; Forster, Denkmale, Tii. 7 ; do., 
Gesch., ii. 131; Gaz. des B. Arts (1861), xi. 
31 ; xii. 154 ; Immerzeel, ii. 215 ; Kramm, 
iv. 1074 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 114 ; Mag. of 
Art (1886), ix. 414 ; Michiels, iv. 287 ; Re- 
pert f. K, vi. 405 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, i. 4; 
Booses (Reber), 34 ; Van den Branden, 40, 
122, 145, 234, 650 ; Van Even, Ancienne 
ficole de Louvain ; Vlaamsche school (1855), 
56, 69 ; Wauters, Peinture flamande, 100 ; 
W. & W., ii 509 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxL 94. 
AND-KIN. German school, in which, dur- 
ing the early part of the 16th century, were 
represented partly the idealism of the old 
school of Cologne combined with the more 
modern tendency to truth and individuality, 
partly an independent and ingenious adap- 
tation of Upper-German influences, and 
chiefly a v close leaning to the contempora- 
neous art Of the Netherlands. This master 
is the brilliant representative of the first- 
aamed tendency. Works attributed to this 

painter : Altar der heiligen Sippe, Cologne 
Museum ; SS. Columba, Ursula, and Ag- 
nes, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; works 
in the Museums of Berlin and Munich. 
W. & W., ii. 97, 488. 

Marten van. 

TAR. See Master of Thomas Altar. 

tury, German school ; his style is closely re- 
lated to that of the brothers Diinwegge. 
Works : Crucifixion, Parish Church, Copen- 
hagen ; Holy Family, Miinster Museum. 
W. & W., ii. 502 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviii. 

GIN, flourished in Cologne first half of 16th 
century, died there, 1556. German school ; 
painter of many altarpieces and portraits, 
identified by some writers with Jan Joest, 
though possibly his pupil, as he worked long 
after the death of that master, whose style 
is traceable in his early pictures. His later 
works resemble those of Quinten Massys and 
Mabuse so closely that they pass in several 
collections under those two masters' names, 
while many of his portraits have been as- 
cribed to Holbein- Of late, attempts have 
been made to identify this master with Jan 
Scorel, which seem to have much in their 
favor, but have called forth a lively con- 
troversy by opponents. Works : Death of 
Virgin, Cologne Museum (1515) ; do., SS. 
George and Nicasius, St. Christina, ChriBt ou 
:he Cross, Repose in Egypt, Old Piimkothek, 
Munich; Scenes from Life of Christ (151(>), 
St. Mary's Church, Dantzic ; Adoration of 
Magi, Berlin Museum; do., Dresden Giil- 
ery; do. (?), Hohenzollern Museum, Sig- 
maringen; Altarpiece with Madonna and 
Angel, Madonna (2), Vienna Museum ; Be- 
wailing Christ, Louvre ; Adoration of Magi, 
San Donato, Genoa ; do., and Crucifixion, 
Naples Museum ; Madonna, Hermitage, Si 
Petersburg; Portraits in Cassel Gallery 
1525), Cologne and Nuremberg (3) Muse- 
um^ Uffizi (1520) and Corsini Gallery, Flor- 


ence, Borghese Gallery, Eome, and Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna. Engerth, Belved. 
Gal., ii. 264; Forster, Denkmale, iii. 25; 
xi. 17; Kugler (Crowe), L 224; Kunst- 
Chronik, x. 74 ; xix. 112 ; xxi. 365 ; W. & 
W., ii. 494 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviii. 30, 46, 
61 ; xxi. 83, 145. 

between 1500 and 1520. German school; 
his works have been erroneously attributed 
to Konrad Fyol. Works: Adoration of 
Magi, Antwerp Museum ; Crucifixion^ Sta- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Holy Family, Frank- 
fort Museum ; Triptych with Madonna and 
St. Ann, Berlin Museum. Meyer, Museen, 
273 ; W. & W., ii. 499. 

MASTEB OF UESBOBN, flourished 
about middle of 15th century. German 
school ; he is known only through a great 
altarpiece, painted about 1465 and repre- 
senting the life and passion of Christ ; for- 
merly at the Abbey of Liesborn, near Mto- 
ster. In the two fragments now at the 
National Gallery, London, the heads are 
peaceful in expression and devout in feel- 
ing. The colouring is clear and agreeable, 
but as regards truth to nature these pict- 
ures are very inferior to those of contem- 
porary Netherlandish painters. "Works : 
Half-length Figures of Six Saints, Annunci- 
ation, Presentation, National Gallery, Lon- 
don. Forster, Denkmale, i. 5 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 133 ; Lilbke, Kunst in West- 
falen, 345 ; Schnaase, viii. 362 ; W. & W., 
ii. 98. 

second half of 15th century. German school ; 
this artist, named after his masterpiece once 
in possession of Mr. Lyversberg, of Cologne, 
whose works were formerly attributed to the 
engraver Israel van Meckenen, was the first 
to bring into prominence the graft of Flem- 
ish realism upon the idealism of the old 
school of Cologne. Works : Eight Scenes 
from Life of Mary, Twelve Apostles, Three 
do. (2), Old Pinakothek, Munich; Five 
Scenes in Life of Mary, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg; Lyuersberg Passion, Cologne 

Museum ; Madonna with Saints, Berlin 
Museum. Kugler (Crowe), i. 131 ; do., kl." 
Schriften, ii. 302 ; Schnaase, viii. 355 ; W. 
& W., ii. 95. 

of 16th century. German school ; contem- 
porary of Martin Schaflher, and much his 
inferior. Works : Altarpiece with Scenes 
from Life of Mary, Hohenzollern Museum, 
Sigmaringen ; other works in Carlsruhe and 
Stuttgart. W. & W., ii. 454. 

ished in Cologne, end of 15th and begin- 
ning of 16th century. German school ; 
though influenced by the contemporaneous 
art of Upper Germany, this master, former- 
ly identified with Lucas van Leyden, and 
later with Christoph, an earlier painter at 
Cologne, was an artist of strong individual- 
ity. Despite the meagre forms and awk- 
ward motions of his mannered figures, they 
are not devoid of a certain grace and ex- 
pression. Works : Bartholomew Altar, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Thomas Altar (1501), 
Crucifixion, Cologne Museum ; Two Altar 
Wings with Saints, Mentz Gallery ; do., 
National Gallery, London ; Descent from 
the Cross, Louvre (attributed to Quinten 
Massys, and formerly to Lucas van Ley- 
den). Forster, Denkmale, XH iii. 1 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), i. 227 ; Bep. f. K, vii. 1 ; W. 
& W. s ii. 488 ; Zeitschr. f. bild. Kunst, xvL 

MASUBE, JULES, born at Braine (Aisne) ; 
contemporary. Marine painter, pupil of 
Corot. Medals: 1866; 2d class, 1881. 
Works: Environs of Antibes ; SeaatFrejus 
(1866) ; Bay of San Baphael ; Cape of An- 
tibes, Gulf of Juan (1868) ; Sunset at Gran- 
ville, Solitude among Bocks at Granville 
(1874) ; Morning at Antibes, Gust of Wind 
at Granville (1879) ; Environs of Nice, Cliff 
in Normandy (1880) ; November Morning 
at Granville, Low Tide (1881); Fishing 
Boats at Granville, The Undertows (1882) ; 
Evening, Bough Sea (1883) ; Autumn After- 
noon (1884). Du Camp, Beaux Arts, 231 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 753. 



MASWTENS, JOSEPH, born at Louvain 
Sept. 19, 1828. Architecture painter, pupi 
of Louvain Academy and of Genisson, then 
in Madrid of Villa-Amil ; travelled in Spain 
(1853-54) and France (1855); paints chief} 
interiors of churches and other buildings 
of great perspective accuracy and excellen 
light-effects. Works: Cathedral of Toledo 
Great Chapel in do. ; Chapel San Isidoro 
Madrid ; Interior of St. Gomar's at Liern, 
near Antwerp ; Former House of Brewers 
Guild at Louvain, Louvain Museum. 
at Cracow, July 30, 
1838. History 
painter, pupil of 
Cracow Art School, 
then of Munich 
(1858-60) and of 
Vienna Academy. 
Came at once into 
prominence with 
dramatic scenes 
from history of 
his native coun- 
try. Director of Cracow Art School since 
1873 ; member of Berlin and Paris Acade- 
mies. Medals: Paris, 1865 ; 1st class, 1867; 
of honour, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1870 ; Or- 
der of Francis Joseph. Works: Simon Staro- 
wolski and Charles Gustavus of Sweden at 
Monument of King Lokietek (1857), Cra- 
cow Art Union ; King Sigismund I. confer- 
ring Privilege of Nobility on Professors of 
Cracow University (1858), Jagellonic Li- 
brary, Cracow ; Poisoning of Queen Bona 
(1859) ; Murder of Wapowski (1860); King 
John Casimir in Bielany (1861) ; John Ko- 
chanowski beside the Body of his Daughter 
Ursula (1862) ; Court Jester Stanczyk (1863) ; 
Jesuit Skarga preaching before Diet of Cra- 
cow in 1592 (1862-64); Veit Stoss (1863-65); 
Diet of Warsaw in 1773 (1864), Vienna Mu- 
seum; Alchymist Sendziwoi before Sigis- 
mund HI; Vladislav the Wise called to 
Throne of Poland ; Union of Lublin in 1569 
(1870) ; Stephen Bathory in the Camp of 
Wielki Luki (1872); Johann Wilczek during 

Defence of Benedictine Monastery ; King 
Sobieski's Prayer before Battle ; Matthias 
Borkowicz thrown into a Dungeon ; Conse- 
cration of King Sigismund's Bell (1875) ; 
Murder of King Przemysl ; Ivan the Cruel 
in the Place of Execution at Moscow ; Battle 
of Tannenberg in 1410, Defeat at Varna 
(1879); Prussia doing Homage to Poland 
(1882); Sobieski before Vienna (1883); Cos- 
sack Wernyhora's Prophecy of Poland's Fut- 
ure (1884) ; Surrender of Archduke Maxi- 
milian to Chancellor Jan Samojski (1884) ; 
The Kepublic of Babin (1885); Entry of 
Maid of Orleans into Eeims (188G), Reims 
Museum. lUustr. Zeitg. (1870), ii. 11; 
(1885), L 256 ; Du Camp, Beaux Arts, 158, 
306 ; Graph. K, ii. 42 ; Kurist-Chronik, ii. 
121 ; v. 22, 150 ; vii. 356 ; xiv. 340 ; xvii. 
498 ; xviii. 109, 759 ; xix. 711 ; Mttller, 357 ; 
Gaz. cles B. Arts (1863), xviii. 506 ; xxiii. 
141 ; La Ilustracion (1884), i. 3, 20 ; Rev. 
iles Deux Mondes, June, 1874 ; Land und 
Meer (1872), ii. No. 50 ; Wurzbach, xvi. 99 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xx. 118. 

MATER DOLOROSA, Guercino, Palazzo 
Borghese, Rome. Draped to the chin and 
the head covered with a mantle. Fa.ce ex- 
pressive of calm but deep grief. Lavice, 350. 

By Murillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. Bust, without hands ; 
lead turned to right, inclined forward ; red 
dress, with white scarf over head and around 
neck ; over scarf, a black mantle. Compan- 
on to Ecce Homo, Madrid Museum. From 
Isabel Farnese Collection. Repetition: Duke 
le Villahermosa, Madrid. Curtis, 140. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; slate, H. 2 
i 3 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. Bust, of life-size ; the 
Virgin, in a violet tunic and blue mantle, 
he latter partly covering the head, on which 
s a white cap, and with upraised hands, la- 
ments the sufferings of the Son. Compan- 
on piece to &ce Homo of Titian, also in 
Madrid Museum. Painted in 1554 for Mary 
>f Hungary, by whom canied to Spain. 
0. & 0., Titian, ii. 233. 

MATHBY, PAUL, born in Paris ; con- 
emporary. History, portrait, and landscape 



painter, pupil of Cogniet, Pils, Mazerolle, 
and Oury. Medal, 2d class, 1885. Works : 
Mephistopheles and the Scholar (1868) ; Be- 
heading of St. John (1870) ; Environs of 
Douarnenez (1879) ; Last Supper (1880) ; 
On the Stone Beach (1881); Portraits 

, MATHIEU, AUGUSTS, born at Dijon in 
1810, died in Paris, March, 1864 Archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Ciceri ; painted in- 
teriors of public buildings. Medals: 2d 
class, 1842 ; L. of Honour, 1859. Works : 
Interior of Church of Nuremberg (1838) ; 
St. Nicholas de Brou (1842) ; Eatisbon ; 
Picardy ; Andernach ; Hall of the Dijon 
Museum ; Cathedral of Ulm ; Cathedral of 
Angouleme ; Mysterious House of Adam 
Krafft in Nuremberg ; Si Gereon in Co- 
logne (1859) ; Chapel of Mont Si Bernard. 
Bellier, ii. 52 ; Larousse. 

at Bure, Belgium, 
May 5, 1804, died at 
Louvainin 1861. His- 
tory painter, pupil of 
Antwerp Academy 
under Mattheus Ig- 
natius van Bree, then 
studied in Paris; re- 
turned in 1833, and 
became director and 
first professor of Lou- 
vain Academy in 1834 ; member of Antwerp 
Academy in 1835. Knight of Order of Leo- 
pold. Works : The Flood (1833), Brussels 
Museum ; Death of Eubens, Philip the Good 
decorating his Lady Love with Order of 
Golden Fleece (1834) ; Christ on the Cross 
(1836), Jesuit Church, Louvain ; Maria of 
Burgundy thrown from her Horse at the 
Chase (1864); Holy Family; Isabella of 
Croy serving Breakfast for Louis XL and 
Quentin Durward (1837); Castellan cares- 
sing Falcon, Falcon Chase (1838); Educa- 
tion of the Virgin, Assumption (1839) ; 
Raphael and the Fornarina ; Daughter of 
Jairus ; Jacob and Rachel (1842). Immer- 
zeel, ii. 207 ; Raczynski, iii 450. 

MATfflLDE, PRINCESS, bom at Tri- 
este, May 27, 1820. Genre painter in water- 
colours, daughter of King Jerome Bona- 
parte, pupil of Eugene Giraud. Medal, 
1865. Works: Head Study (1864); In- 
trigue under the Portico of Ducal Palace 
in Venice (1865); Young Girl's Head (1865), 
formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; Jewess 
of Algiers (1866), Lille Museum ; Turco's 
Head (1867). Bellier, ii. 54. 

MATOUT, LOUIS, born at Renwez (Ar- 
dennes), March 19, 1811. Historical and 
mythological genre painter, pupil of the 
Art School at Charleville ; was at first 
an architect ; painted mediocre decorative 
works, such as frescos in one of the rooms 
of the Louvre. Medals: 3d class, 1853, 
1857 ; L. of Honour, 1857. "Works : Pan 
and Nymphs ; Woman of Boghari torn by 
Lioness (1855), Luxembourg Museum ; Rich 
and Poor (1861),ChateaurouxMuseum ;Mar- 
riage of Bacchus and Ariadne (1875) ; Venus 
Pandemos (1876) ; Christ at Simon's House 
(1879), La Rochelle Cathedral ; Perseus de- 
livering Andromeda (1884) ; Nymph asleep 
in Pan's Forest (1885) ; mural paintings in 
the ficole de Medecine (1857) ; do. in the 
Lariboisiere Hospital, and Imperial Gallery, 
Louvre. Bellier, ii. 55 ; Du Camp, Beaux 
Arts, 27 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1861), x. 94. 

MATSYS. See Massys. 

MATTACCIO, IL. See Sodoma. 

MATTEIS, PAOLO DE, born at Cilento, 
Naples, in 1662, died at Naples in 1728. 
Neapolitan school ; history painter, pupil 
of Luca Giordano and of Giovanni Maria 
Morandi ; worked in Rome for Popes Clem- 
ent XL, Clement XCL, and Benedict "XTTT.; 
invited to France, he acquired during a 
residence of three years celebrity at court 
and throughout the kingdom. After his 
return he deviated from the style of Gi- 
ordano, leaning more towards the Roman 
school. Many of his frescos and easel pict- 
ures are in Genoa and Naples, and he paint- 
ed much at Monte Cassino in 1692, and in 
1706-9. Works : Scenes from Tasso's Je- 
rusalem (3), Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Death 



of Cato of Utica, John of Nepomuk before 
King "Wenceslaus, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Achilles with the Daughters of Lycomedes, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; The Virgin in 
Glory, Schwerin Gallery ; Scene from Tas- 
so's Jerusalem, Museum, Vienna; Venus 
bidding Cupid to wound Adonis, Harrach 
Gallery, ib.; Triumph of Galatea (1692), 
Milan Academy; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, The Paradise, Naples Museum. 
Goethe, Winckelmann, ii. 73 ; Lanzi (Ros- 
coe), ii. 59. 

born about 1435, died in 1495. Sienese 
school ; sometimes called Matteo da Siena. 
Though far behind the Florentines, he was 
the best Sienese painter of his time, and 
may be said to have adopted the manner of 
Sano di Pietro, and improved it by modern- 
izing it. His oldest authentic picture, Vir- 
gin enthroned with Angels (1470), is in the 
Siena Academy ; his masterpiece, the Ma- 
donna della Neve (Madonna of the Snow), 
dated 1477, in S. M. della Neve, Siena ; his 
St. Barbara (1479), in S. Domenico, Siena ; 
Madonna with Saints, in a chapel of same 
church ; Adoration of the Virgin, Siena 
Academy ; and his Madonnas in the Palazzo 
Pubblico and Palazzo Tolomei, Siena, and 
in the Duomo, Pienza, are also favourable 
examples. He was less successful in scenes 
requiring action, as in his Massacres of the 
Innocents, which are melodramatic and full 
of exaggerated sentiment pushed to the 
verge of grimace. One of them (1482) is 
in S. Agostino of Siena, another (1491) in 
S. M. de' Servi of Siena, and a third in the 
Naples Museum. Matteo designed three 
subjects for the pavement of the Cathedral, 
Siena, namely : the Samian Sibyl, the De- 
liverance of Bethulia, and the Massacre of 
the Innocents. In the National Gallery, 
London, are an Ecce Homo and an As- 
sumption.--^. & C., Italy, iii 81 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., vi. 186 ; Bio, 104 ; Lttbke, 
Gesch. d. ital Mai, i. 387. 

MATTEO DA SIENA. See Matteo di 

Peterborough, N. Y., May 9, 1813, died at 
Sherborne, N. Y., Feb. 2, 1884. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil of the National 
Academy, in New York, of which he became 
an associate in 1841, but did not exhibit 
after 1869. Works : Portrait of Mayor 
Havenieyer, City HaD, New York ; Spirit of 
'76, American Art Union ; Pilgrim Fathers ; 
On the Deck of the Mayflower, J. A. Brown, 
Providence ; Examination of a Witch, W. 
D. White, Albany ; Justice's Court ; Cap- 
tain Glen claiming the Prisoners after the 
Burning of Schenectady, J. W. Beekinan 
Collection, New York ; Foddering Cattle, 
At the Stile (1869). Tuckerman, 432. 

sen, Saxony, March 4, 1777, died in Vienna, 
Oct. 23, 1845. History and portrait painter, 
son of the sculptor Johann Gottlob Matthai, 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Casanova, 
then in Vienna of Filger ; was in Florence 
and Rome in 1802-8 ; after his return, in 
1808, became professor at Dresden Acad- 
emy, and in 1823 inspector of the Gallery. 
Works: Death of Bang Codrus, .ZEgisthus 
slain by Orestes, Dresden Museum ; Christ 
Blessing Little Children ; Baptism of 
Christ, Wurzen Cathedral ; Last Supper ; 
Death of Codrus. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 
606 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1845), 424 ; (1846), 
10 ; N. Necrol. der D. (1845), ii. 814. 

See Grtlnewald, Matthias. 

angelo da Caravaggio, Berlin Museum. St. 
Matthew writing ; an angel guides his 
hand. Formerly in S. Luigi de' Francesi, 
Home ; afterwards in Giustiniani Collection 
up to 1815. -Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., i. 622. 

vico Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 
12 ft. 9 in. x 8 ft. 1 in. Christ bidding Mat- 
thew, the publican, to follow him ; the lat- 
ter obeys, with bowed head, to the aston- 
ishment of those around, who evidently 
wonder that he should give up a lucrative 
business for .poverty. Painted for church 


of the Mendicant!, Bologna ; earned to Paris 
in 1796 ; returned in 1815. Engraved by 
Mitelli; Trabalesi; Rosaspina. Pinac. di 
Bologna, PL 3 ; Ch. Blauc, iScole bolonaise ; 
Landon, Musee, iv. PL 35. 

MATURING. See Caravaggio, Polidoro 

VICH, born at St. Petersburg in 1758, died 
in Rome in 1826. Landscape painter, 
among the foremost in Russia. Works: 
Berne, Lake of Bolsena (1819), Waterfalls 

Calling of St. Matthew, Lodovico Carracci, Bologna Gallery. 

of Velino and Tivoli, Near the Papal Palace, 
LagoMaggiore, Falls of Imathra, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Fussli, ii. 801 ; Raczynski, 
iii. 538. 

at Langenargen, on Lake Constance, June 7, 
1724, died in Vienna, Aug. 9, 1796. German 
school ; history painter, pupil in Vienna of 
Van Roi and of the Academy; obtained the 
prize in 1750, and became court-painter and 
member of Vienna (1760) and Berlin Acad- 

emies. Works : Christ Crucified ; Joseph IL 
ploughing the Field ; Apparition of Christ ; 
Male portrait, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck. 
Frescos : Decorations in Imperial Palace 
and Chapel at Innsbruck, in the Library at 
Prague (1794), and in St. Benno's Chapel, 
Hofkirche, Dresden. Allgem. d. Biogr., xx. 
689 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 405 ; Wurzbach, svii. 

MAURER, HUBERT, born at Rattchon, 
near Bonn, June 10, 1738, died in Vienna, 
Dec. 10, 1818. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy under Meytens, 
and of Norbert Baumgartner ; went in 1772 
to Rome, where he remained four years, 
studying especially after Raphael, and then 
took Mengs for his model. After his return 
he executed important orders, which estab- 
lished his fame ; became professor at Vien- 
na Academy in 1785, afterwards councillor 
and member. Works: Venus and Mars; 
Cupid and Psyche ; Paris reproaching Hec- 
tor ; Ulysses liberating his Companions 
from Circe ; Judith leaving the Tent ; De- 
scent from the Cross, Capuchines, Vienna ; 
St. Joseph Dying ; Archangel Michael and 
the Fallen Angels ; Unbelieving Thomas ; 
Visitation ; Trinity ; Ascension ; Pope Leo 
and Greek Bishops; Departure of Peter 
and Paul ; Martyrdom of St. Stephen ; God 
the Father in Clouds ; Christ on Mount of 
Olives ; Peter's Liberation from Prison ; 
Christ and the Children (1814), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Portrait Series of Austrian Heroes, 
Military Academy, Wiener-Neustadt ; Por- 
traits of Emperor Francis I., Stephen, Jo- 
seph IL, Maria Theresa, Prince Kaunitz, 
Norbert Baumgartner, of himself. Raczyn- 
ski, ii. 546 ; Wurzbach, xvi. 140. 

George H. Boughton, Fairman Rogers, Phil- 
adelphia. Scene from Longfellow's "Miles 
Standish." New England Pilgrims watch- 
ing the diminishing sails of the Mayflower, 
seen in the far distance. The two foremost 
persons are John ALden and Priscilla. En- 
graved by Chaut Art Treasures of Ameri- 
ca, ii. 84. 


MAX, GABKTEL, born in Prague, Aug. 
25, 1840. History and genre painter, son 
of the sculptor, 
Josef Max, pupil 
of Prague Acad- 
emy under En- 
gerth in 1854-58, 
then for tliree 
years of Vienna 
Academy under 
Blaas, finally in 
Munich of Piloty, 

1863-67. First 

exhibited in 1867, and has since acquired a 
steadily increasing fame. Honorary mem- 
ber of Munich Academy. Professor in 1879- 
83. Gold medals in Berlin and Munich. 
Works: Eichard Cceur de Lion beside his 
Father's Body (1858); Madonna (1863); 
Martyrdom of St. Ludmilla (1866), Mrs. W. 
P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; Si Julia Cruci- 
fied (1865) ; Adagio ; Margaretha (1868) ; 
The Nun (1869), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; An- 
atomist (1869) ; Mephistopheles in Faust's 
Clothes (1870) ; Spring Legend ; Convent 
Garden ; Orphan and Sister of Charity ; Ny- 
dia,Last Token (1874), Miss C. L. Wolfe, New 
York; Madonna ; Daughter of Jairus (1875), 
G. A. Drummond, Baltimore ; Christ on the 
Cross ; Head of Christ ; The Pianist ; Au- 
tumn Dance ; Subhastation ; Infanticide 
(1878) ; Marguerite before Mater Dolorosa ; 
Marguerite in Prison ; Walpurgis-Night Vi- 
sion; Ahasuerus beside the Corpse of a Child; 
Yenus and Tannhiiuser ; Hostess' Daughter ; 
I/ion 9 s Bride ; Blind Lamp Seller in the Cata- 
combs ; Juliet Capulet ; Spirit's Greeting 
(1879), John T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Zuleika, 
(1880) ; Secret ; Young Tannhauser, Maria 
Eegina (1881); Maid of Orleans at the 
Stake, It is done (1882) ; Beggar Woman 
on Via Appia (1883) ; Conversion, Vivisec- 
tor, SS. Ludmilla and Elizabeth, Homeless, 
Lord forgive them (1884) ; Christ healing a 
Child (1884), National Gallery, Berlin ; Mi- 
gnon (1884) ; Mother and Child, Lady Mac- 
beth (1885) ; Katharina Emmerich (1885), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Astarte (Jubilee 

Exhibition, Berlin, 1886) ; Cupid's Whisper, 
D. 0. Mills, New York ; Watching the But- 
terfly, G. I. Seney sale, ib. ; Dorothea, W. 
Eichmond, Providence ; Head Study, H. B. 
Hurlbut, Cleveland ; Maternal Happiness, 
Head Study, H. L. Dousman, St. Louis ; 
Faust and Marguerite, S. A Coale, St Louis. 
Allgem. K C., viii. 606 ; ix. 267 ; Art 
Journal (1881), 173 ; Graph. K, ii. 92 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, iii. 136 ; vi. 7 ; xvii. 449 ; 
xviii. 384 ; xix. 11, 183, 287, 659 ; xx. 125, 
464, 671 ; xxi. 45 ; Kunst far Alle, i. 98, 183 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1874), ii. 9, 15 ; (1876), i. 51 ; 
(1877), i. 273 ; (1882), i. 107 ; Jordan (1885), 
ii. 145 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. (1882), i. 63 ; Pecht, 
iii. 229 ; Nord und Sttd, xxiv. 374 ; Leixner, 
Mod. K, i. 103; ii. 4; Land und Meer (1874), 
i. 76 ; Wurzbach, xvii. 165 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiv. 325, 351, 375 ; xvi. 304 ; x. (Mit- 
theilungen, iii. 28). 

MAX-EHELEE, LUISE, bom at Flor- 
ence ; contemporary. Genre, still-life, and 
portrait painter ; first attracted attention in 
the latter capacity in 1877. After having 
married Professor Heinrich Max, brother of 
Gabriel Max, she settled in Vienna, and, in- 
fluenced by Hans Makart, painted still-life 
with success ; then turned to genre. Works : 
Doves ; Anxious Hour ; Fan Painter ; Vi- 
sion of Joan of Arc ; Domestic Scene in 
War-time (1884) ; Savings (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). Illustr. Zeitg. (1885), 
i. 61 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 381 ; xxi. 266. 

England in 1824. Portrait, history, and 
genre painter ; taken to America when a 
child ; pupil of Daniel Huntington in New 
York, and of Couture, in Paris in 1851. 
Elected an AN. A. in 1876, but rarely ex- 
hibits. Professional life spent chiefly in 
Europe. Medal, 3d class, Paris, 1855. 
Studio in Paris. Works : Michelangelo 
leaving the Vatican in Anger; Columbus 
making his Will ; Cardinal Mazarin taking 
leave of his Picture in the Louvre ; Death 
of a Brigand (1855); Francis I. lamenting 
the Death of his Son ; Portrait of M. E. La- 
boulaye (1866), Union Club, New York; 


The Beading (1868); Louis XIV. at Marly, 
Portrait of Anson Burlingaine (1869); Lady 
Jane Grey going to Execution, Toilet, Mrs. 
Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia; Arviragus 
bearing the Body of Imogen Scene from 
Cymbeline (1870); Mary Magdalen at the 
Sepulchre (1873), New York Museum ; Sou- 
venir de la Commune, Fin de la Lecture 
(1874) ; Dispute, R L. Stuart Collection, 
New York ; Alsatian Woman, May and De- 
cember (1876) ; Antonia (1877) ; Teresina 
(1878); Study of a Girl's Head (1882) ; Pur- 
sued, Mary Magdalen at the Sepulchre 
(1884). Tuckerman, 501. 

MAYER, ANTON, born in Vienna in 
1843. History painter, son of, and first in- 
structed by, the engraver, Christian Mayer, 
then pupil of Vienna Academy under Rahl 
andFOhrich. Works: Prometheus (1867); 
Cycle from Hermann and Dorothea, Four 
Temperaments, Four Seasons, Six Muses, 
H. Reichel, Vienna ; Judgment of Brutus ; 
Annunciation ; Destruction of the Temple 
in Jerusalem, Baron Rothschild, Vienna. 
Muller, 359 ; Wurzbach, xviii. 82. 

MAYER, CONSTANT, born at Besanyon, 
France, Oct. 4, 1832. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of the ^cole des Beaux Arts, 
and of Leon Cogniet in Paris. Settled in 
1857 in New York, where he still resides. 
L. of Honour, 1869. Works : Consolation 
(1864) ; Love's Melancholy ; Maud Muller 
(1867) ; Episode in Campaign of 1863 
(1869) ; Street Melodies (George King, New 
York) ; Oracle of the Field (M. de Lizardi, 
New Orleans) ; Song of the Shirt (1875) ; 
Song of the Twilight (1879) ; In the Woods 
(1880) ; Vagabonds (1881) ; Good News 
(1882) ; Lord's Day, Lawn Tennis (1883) ; 
Mandolin Player (1884) ; First Grief (1885). 
Portraits : General Grant ; General Sher- 
man ; Mme. de Lizardi, Lady of Honour to 
the ex-Empress Charlotte, and others. 

GUSTE, born at Brest (Finist&re), July 3, 
1805. Marine, genre, and portrait painter. 
Medals : 3d class, 1836 ; L. of Honour, 
1839 ; Officer, 1867. Works : Harbour of 

Brest iii 1698 (1835) ; Battle of the Bucen- 
taur, Battle of the Pluto (1836) ; Corvette 
Recherche in the Ice, Egyptian Frigate 
(1837) ; Burning of the Devonshire by Du- 
guay-Trouin (1838) ; North Cape, Norwe- 
gian Views (1839) ; Breton Cemetery (1841); 
Capture of Episcopia (1841), Versailles Mu- 
seum ; French Fleet forcing Entrance into 
the Tap in 1831 (1841), Dijon Museum ; 
View of Chesmo Asia Minor (1844), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Wreck of the Algesiras ; 
Exchange in Copenhagen ; Harbour of Con- 
quet ; Man Overboard, Evening of a Battle 
(1852) ; Burning of Hamburg Exchange in 
1842 (1857) ; Frigate Herminie. rounding 
Cape Horn, Bay of Trepasses, lie de Groix 
(1861) ; Fishing for Sea- Wrack ; Lighthouse 
of Peninsula of Kermorvan (1863) ; Donjon 
of Castle of Brest, Embarking on School- 
Ship Borda(1864) ; Bay of Pen-Hir, Rescue 
on the Breton Coast (1865); Old Harbour 
of Porsteiu (1869). Bellier, ii. 61. 

MAYER, FRANK B., born in Baltimore, 
Md., in 1827. Portrait and genre painter, 
pupil of Alfred Miller in Baltimore, and of 
Gleyre and Brion in Paris. Travelled and 
sketched in Europe and the United States, 
and in 1851 made some valuable studies 
among the Dacotah Indians of Minnesota. 
Painted in Paris in 1864-69. Studio in An- 
napolis. Works : Indian Thanksgiving ; 
Attic Philosopher ; Marine ; Waiting Or- 
ders (J. W. McCoy, Baltimore) ; Maryland 
in 1750 (Peabody Inst, ib.); Nineteenth 
Century (Parke Godwin, New York) ; King's 
Jester ; Cavalier ; Tailor in 1500 (W. H. 
Herriman, Rome) ; Continentals (1876), G. 
B. Coale, Baltimore ; Trappist (1880). 

MAYER, FRIEDRIGH, born in Munich, 
May 5, 1825, died there, Dec. 26, 1875. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Munich Acad- 
emy. Works : The Old Woldergarten in 
Munich (1861), St. Nicholas Hospital, ib. 
(1862), Castle at Neuberghausen (1863), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Morning in Up- 
per Inn Valley ; Faltschauer Falls in South 
Tyrol (1868); View in Etsch Valley ; Win- 
ter in Tyrol ; Moonrise on Chiem Lake 


(1873) ; Alp in Tyrol by Moonlight (1874) 
View near Wasserburg (1875). Allgem. cl 
Biogr., sxi. 94 ; Kuiist-Chronik, xi. 243. 

Tulz, Bavaria, Jan. 3, 1824. Architecture 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Schlotthauer and Clemens Zirnmennann 
visited Belgium in 1849, and settled as as- 
sistant of Heideloff in Nuremberg, \vhere 
he afterwards became professor at the In- 
dustrial Art-School, and in 1875 conservator 
of the Boyal Galleries. Bavarian Order of 
St. Michael and Cross of Merit, Prussian 
Order of the Crown, Saxon Order of Ernest 
Works : Shrine of Holy Sacrament in St. 
Lawrence's, Nuremberg ; Grave of Sebal- 
dus, ib.; Castle Frohlich Wiederkunf t ; View 
in Rothenburg ; Church in Berchtesgaden ; 
City Hall in Brunswick ; Choir of Augsburg 
Cathedral ; Nave of same ; Yiew in Magde- 
burg Cathedral ; Bridal Door of Sebaldus 
Church and St. Eucharius Chapel, Nurem- 
berg ; View in Halberstadt Cathedral (Mu- 
nich Exhibition, 1883). Mtiller, 360; Schas- 
ler's K Zeitg. (1872), No. 11. 

MAYER, KARL, born in Vienna, Jan. 18, 
1810, died there, June 8, 1876. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Gselhofer, studied from nature in Upper 
Austria, Salzburg, Tyrol, North Italy, and 
on the Rhine ; lived in Rome in 1842-48, 
and became professor at Vienna Academy 
in 1851. Order of Francis Joseph, and Pa- 
pal Order of Gregory in 1860. Works : 
Prometheus rejecting Pandora (1842), Foun- 
dation of Gastein (1837), Vienna Museum : 
Convent Yard of S. Giovanni e Paolo in 
Rome (1843), New Pinakothek, Munich; 
Lancelot du Lac robbed by a Fairy ; Italian 
Peasants; St. Catharine, Dominicans, Vi- 
enna ; Frescos in Altlerchenfeld Church, 
Vienna. Kunst-Chronik, xii. 463 ; Wurz- 
bach, xviii. 149. 

MAYER, LOUIS, born at Neckarbischof s- 
heim in 1791, died at Stuttgart in 1843. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Stuttgart of 
Steinkopf, travelled in Suabia, Switzerland, 
Tyrol, Styria, and (1830-32) in Italy. Works : 

Olevano with Volsk and Albano Mountains, 
View near Ariccia, Stuttgart Museum ; Su- 
biaco ; Hoheustaufen ; Upper Valley of the 
Danube ; Neckar Valley above Berg. Cot- 
ta'sKunstbl. (1843), 370 ; (1844), 27 ; Schwiib. 
Merkur, Nov. 30, 1843. 

MAYER, LUDWIG, born at Kaniow, Ga- 
licia, in 1834. History painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy under Kupelwieser ; went 
in 1857 to Venice, in 1862 to Dresden, and 
thence through Germany and Belgium to 
Paris, then spent two years at Rome. After 
Zupelwieser's death he became a follower 
of Ftlhrich and Rahl. Prize of Vienna Acad- 
emy for his cartoon, Jerusalem. Works : 
St. Martin ; Christ in the House of Lazarus ; 
St. Lawrence (1863); Jerusalem after Death 
of Christ (cartoon, 1866) ; Baptism of Christ, 
St. Elizabeth's, Vienna ; Judas receiving the 
Money ; Christ before Pilate ; Banquet of 
Belshazzar ; Visit to Scene of Fire ; Music 
and Painting, Vienna Museum"; Christ 
(1880) ; Shepherd Boy's Dream of Happi- 
ness, Pietd, (1883). In fresco : Commerce, 
Charity, Science, Education, The Arts, Reg- 
imen, Industry (1885), City Hall, Vienna 
KunskChronik, xxi. 118 ; Mailer, 361 ; 
Wurzbach, xviii. 160. 

3orn in Washington, D. C., March 5, 1843. 
Figure painter, pupil of Royal Academy, 
Antwerp ; painted on the Continent in 1869 
-74, and again in 1877-78. Elected an 
AN.A in 1882 ; N.A. in 1885 ; Member of 
Society of American Artists. Studio in New 
York. Works : A Musician (1879); Bache- 
lor's Breakfast (1880); Portrait of Frank D. 
Millet, Navigators (1881) ; Portrait of his 
Father, Bathers (1882) ; Ancient Mariner 
(1883) ; Old Court Yard, Aurord, Winter 
rteverie, Around the World (1884) ; Grand- 
fatherly Advice, The Strange Gods (1885). 

n 1569, died in Madrid, April 1, 1649. 
Spanish school ; pupil of El Greco ; became 
a Dominican monk in convent of S. Pedro 
!artyr, Toledo, and acquired considerable 
reputation for his altarpieces. Appointed 


drawing-master- to Prince of Asturias, af ter- 
ward Philip IV., and spent rest of his days 
at court. Works : Pacification of Flanders, 
an Allegory, Adoration of the Magi, Madrid 
Museum ; Adoration of the Shepherds, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. Stirling, i. 429 ; 
Viardot, 163 ; Madrazo, 441. 

MAYO, EL. See Vermeyen. 

remberg, Feb. 22, 1806, died April 5, 1871. 
Genre, battle, and horse painter, pupil of 
his stepfather Friedrich Christian Fries 
(1772-1836), and of the Nuremberg Art- 
School under Reindel ; went in 1825 to 
Munich, where he studied in the royal 
stable and the veterinary school, and en- 
joyed the patronage and friendship of Duke 
Maximilian, whom he accompanied on an 
oriental journey in 1838-39. Works : Nu- 
remberg Diligence, Russian Bivouac, Che- 
vauxleger exercising Horses (1830); Skirmish 
between Austrian and Bavarian Cavalry 
(1834) ; Battlefield of Eatisbon (1835) ; 
Transportation of Italian Bobbers (1836) ; 
Austrian Camp (1837) ; Duke Maximilian 
and Suite among Ruins of Karnak, Egyp- 
tian Troops Marching (1840) ; Bedouins 
stealing Horse, Arabian Women Washing 

(1844) ; Stud of Ibrahim Pasha at Cairo 

(1845) ; Egyptian Mosque with Arabs Wor- 
shipping, Doctor's Visit at the Harem, Me- 
hemet AH and Suite (1846) ; Needles of Cleo- 
patra, Temple of Ombos, Bark on the Nile 
with Slaves, Egyptian Bridal Procession, 
Hyena Hunt on the Nile (1847) ; Reception 
of Duke Maximilian in Harbour of Alexan- 
dria (1848) ; etc. -AUgem. d. Biogr., xxiL 
139; Allgein. Zeitg., April 17, 1871, Bei- 
lage 107 ; Yinc. Muller, Univ. Handb. von 
Mttnchen (1845), 160. 

in Paris, June 29, 1826. Genre painter, 
pupil of Dupuis and Gleyre. Medals : 3d 
class, 1857, ,1859, 1861 ; L. of Honour, 
1870; Officer, 1879. Works: Nero and 
Locusta trying Poison on a Slave (1859), 
Lille Museum ; Diogenes (1861) ; Anacreon 
(1863) ; Lesbia's Sparrow (1866) ; Birth of 

Minerva (1868) ; Good Shepherd (1874) ; 
Communion of First Christians ; Victorious 
Love (1865) ; Triumph of Galatea ; Cupid 
and Psyche (1870); Allegory of Wine (1873); 
Agriculture, Commerce (1881); Fairies' Lit- 
tle Girl; The Cascade; The Declaration 
(1885). Bellier, ii. 63. 

MAZO, FELIPE, bom at Barcelona, 
Spain ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter ; studied at first law, but went to 
Paris in 1871 and became a pupil of Bon- 
nat ; his works show vivid imagination and 
great power, but lack careful execution. 
Medals in London and Antwerp. Studio 
in Paris. Works : Columbus and his Son 
(1875), Valparaiso Museum ; Columbus at 
Sea ; Columbus at La Rabida ; Patron 
Saint's Festival at Sitger (1884) ; El Zapa- 
teado (Spanish Dance, 1885) ; Love-song 
(1886), Berlin Jubilee Exhibition. La B- 
ustracion (1877). 

DEL, born in 
Madrid about 
1610, died there 
Feb. 9, 1667. 
Spanish school ; 
pupil of Velas- 
quez, who se 
daughter he 
married ; de- 
voted himself to 
copying his 
works and those of Titian, Tintoretto, and 
Paolo Veronese, and became so skilful that 
his pictures were mistaken for the originals. 
He excelled also in portraiture, but his best 
original works are hunting-pieces and land- 
scapes. He succeeded Velasquez as painter 
to the King (1661). Works : View of Sara- 
gossa, do. of the Escurial, do. of the Cam- 
pillo, Seaport, Landscapes (9) and Portraits 
(2), Madrid Museum ; Two Portraits, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Head of Christ, Land- 
scape, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Madrazo ; 
Cean Bermudez ; Stirling, ii. 711 ; Charles 
Blanc, iScole espagnole ; Viardot, 215 ; Cur- 
tis, 317 ; Madrazo, 442. 

227 . 



MAZZOLA, GIROLAMO, bom at Moile, 
near Parma (1520-80). Lombard school; 
sometimes called II Mazzolino. According 
to Lanzi, lie was son of Michele Mazzola, 
but Zani says his real name was Bedolo, and 
that he took the name of Mazzola on marry- 
ing the daughter of Pier Hilario Mazzola, 
brother of Michele. He was therefore cou- 
sin, or cousin by marriage, of Parmigianino, 
of whom he was the favourite pupil He 
had a great reputation in Parma and paint- 
ed many pictures for its churches. Among 
his works are : Adoration of the Magi, Lou- 
vre, Paris; Madonna and Kneeling St. 
George, an allegory, Dresden Gallery ; Mir- 
acle of the Loaves, fresco, Mantua. Lanzi, 
ii. 406 ; Ch. Blanc, fCcole lombarde ; Zani, 
sub Bedolo. 

MAZZOLINO, IL. See Mazzola, Girolamo. 

rara about 1478 (?), died there towards the 
end of 1528. Lombardo-Ferrarese school ; 
son of Giovanni Mazzuoli; called Malino 
by Vasari ; supposed pupil of Lorenzo Cos- 
ta, but more probably of Domenico Panetti. 
Did not excel in large figures, but his small 
pictures are bright in colour and possess 
rare merit. Examples : Christ with the 
Doctors, Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; do., Pa- 
lazzo Doria, ib.; do., Uffizi, Florence ; Ado- 
ration of the Magi, Ferrara Gallery ; Holy 
Family, Triptych with Madonna Enthroned 
(1509), Christ with the Doctors (1524), Ber- 
lin Museum ; Christ and the Pharisees (1524); 
Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Ecce Homo, Dres- 
den Museum; Holy Family (2, one dated 
1516), Old Pinakothek, Munich; Pieta 
(1526), Hermitage, St. Hermitage, St Pe- 
tersburg ; Circumcision (1526), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Holy Family, Louvre ; Massacre of 
the Innocents (1548), Hague Museum ; Holy 
Family with Saints Adoring (2), Woman 
taken in Adultery, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; St. Jerome, Historical Society, New 
York. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 139 ; Lanzi, iii. 
193; CL Blanc, ficole f erraraise ; Oitta- 

clella, Doc. etc., art. ferrarese (Ferrara, 
1808); Burckhardt, 691 ; Kugler (Eastlake), 
i. 226 ; Ltibke, Gesch. d. ital. Mai., ii. 391. 

See Morazzone. 

MAZZUOLA, FILDPPO, called delT Er- 
bette, of Parma, died in 1505. Lombard 
school ; father of Francesco Mazzola, called 
Parmigianino. His style may be seen in his 
Virgin and Child, dated 1491, in the Parma 
Gallery ; his Baptism of Christ, 1493, in the 
Episcopal Palace, Parma; and his Dead 
Christ, 1500, in the Naples Museum. His 
figures are ill-drawn and stiff, his tempera is 
raw and of a sad gray tone, and lie shows 
no knowledge of perspective. His Madon- 
na, in the Berlin Museum, exhibits more 
study and better forms. C. & C., N. Italy, 
i. 585 ; Burckhardt, 587 ; Ltibke, Gesch. 
itaL Mai, L 485. 

MAZZUOLI, GIUSEPPE, of Ferrara, died 
there about 1589. Lombard school ; com- 
monly called IL Bastaruolo (grain-seller) from 
his father's business. Probably pupil of 
Surchi, who was a scholar of the Dossi. 
Lanzi calls him a learned, graceful, and cor- 
rect artist. His works are mostly in Fer- 
rara ; e.g., Circumcision, S. Barbara. Lan- 
zi, iii. 209 ; Ch. Blanc, ]cole f erraraise. 

Leipsic, Jan. 16, 1745, died in Dresden, 
March 14, 1808. Landscape painter, pupil 
in Berlin of Bernhard Bode and of Le Sueur, 
and in Dresden of Casanova ; went in 1776 
to Rome, where he took Claude Lorrain and 
Philipp Hackert for his models ; returned 
home in 1780 and became a member of Leip- 
sic Academy ; went to Rome again in 1790, 
and after the expulsion of the Pope settled in 
Dresden. Works : View of Rome, Dresden 
Museum ; Abraham entertaining the angels, 
Christiania Gallery ; Castel Gandolf o ; View 
on Tiber with Cincinnatus ploughing ; Albi- 
nus offering his Chariot to the Retreating 
Gauls ; six scenes from life of Abraham ; 
Flight into Egypt. Goethe, Winckelmann, 
ii. 173 ; Meusd, ii. 28 j Nagler, TOL 527. 

MEOHEKENO. See Beccafumi. 



MECKEL, ADOLF YON, born at Carls- 
rube ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Hans Gucle ; travelled in the East. 
Gold medal. Works : Kalaat and Akabat, 
Spring in Palestine (1884) ; Evening near 
the Dead Sea (1885) ; On the Source of the 
Elisa near Jericho, Storm (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). 

Hamburg, Sept 15, 1820, died in Munich, 
June 11, 1882. Architecture painter, settled 
in 1843 in Munich ; was especially success- 
ful in representations of night effects. 
Works : Crossway in S. Zeno, Verona 
(1847), Venice (1861), KunsthaUe, Ham- 
burg ; Cloister of S. Bernardino, Verona 
(1860) ; Cloister in Brixen ; View near Ki- 
alto Bridge by Moonlight ; View in Venice 
at Noon ; View in Si Mark's ; Doge's Palace 
in Starlight ; S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice ; 
S. Maria della Salute, ib.; Riva degli Schia- 
voni, ib. ; Market Square in Ltlbeck ; Piazza 
delle Erbe, Verona ; Interior of S. Anastasia, 
ib.; Canal in Venice by Moonlight (1856), 
Neuturm and Kostthor Munich, Anger- 
thor, ib. (1872), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Canal grande Venice, Mrs. D. D. Colton, 
San Francisco. Allgem. d. Biogr., yri. 266 ; 
Allgem. Zeii, July 3, 1882, Beilage, 184; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 610 ; Mailer, 361. 

MECTJCCIO. See Beccafumi. 

MfiDARD, EUGfiNE, born in Paris; 
contemporary. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Cogniet, Sebastien Cornu, and G6- 
rome. Medal, 3d class, 1879; 2d class, 
1886. Works : Separation of Orpheus and 
Eurydice (1870) ; Bivouac near CMteau de 
Buzenval (1873) ; Birds'-Nester (1874); Con- 
secration of St. Genevieve, Offering to Venus 
(1875) ; Scouts in December 1870, Cupid 
fleeing from Psyche (1876) ; Attack of a Vil- 
lage, 1870 (1877); Triumph of Silenus 
(1878) ; A Entreat (1879, bought by State); 

1870-1871 I87<f 

(1880) ; General Lecourbe defending Bel- 
fort in 1815 (1881), Hotel de Ville, Belfort ; 

Pieinforcements ariving on Battlefield (1881); 
Attack of a Village in 1870 (1883). Bellier, 
ii. 64. 

MEDEA (Medee furieuse), Eugene Dela- 
croix, Lille Museum ; canvas, H. 8 ft 6 in. 
X5ft. 5 in.; signed, dated 1838. Medea, 
pursued, is about to sky her children. She 
is seated near the entrance of a cavern hold- 
ing the struggling little ones with one hand 
and a dagger in the other ; looking back 
over her shoulder with a defiant air, as if 
awaiting her pursuers. Salon, 1838 ; Ex- 
position universelle, 1855. Keplica (1863) ; 
Pereire Collection, Paris; then Laurent- 
Eichard Collection ; another, Arras Museum. 
Sketches, Lille Museum. Engraved by 
Charles Geoffroy ; Milius ; Feyen-Perrin. 
Lithographed by Challemel ; Alophe ; Las- 
salle. Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), svi 196 ; 
(1873), vii. 184 ; Chesneau, L'CEuvre de 
Delacroix, 181. 

MEDEA, ancient picture. See Aristolaus, 

MEDICI, GIULTANO DE 1 , portrait, 
Baphael, lost (?). Youngest brother of 
Pope Leo X., who made him, in 1515, Cap- 
tain General of the Church. He married 
the aunt of Francis I, who gave him the 
title of Due de Nemours. Eaphael painted 
him in 1513" and again in 1514. Copy by 
Alessandro Allori in the Uffizi ; another in 
collection of Grand Duchess Marie, St. Pe- 
tersburg. Passavant, ii. 145 ; Mtlntz, 410 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 352 ; Springer, 253. 

MEDICI, IPPOUTO DE', Cardinal, por- 
trait, Titian, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, 
H. 4 f L 6 in. x 3 f i 4 in. In Hungarian cos- 
tume. Painted about 1533. Copy in Lou- 
vre (by Battista Franco?) ; three-fourths fig- 
ure, turned to left, red bonnet with feathers 
and a jewelled clasp, collar of red garment 
turned up. Collection of Louis XIV. Ti- 
tian painted a second portrait of him in ar- 
mour, which Vasari mentions, but it is lost. 
Engraved by Sivalli. Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 
441 ; 0. & 0., Titian, i. 377 ; Filhol, i. PL 
41 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iii. PL 121 ; Mttnd- 
ler, 214 


bino, portrait, Raphael, lost (?). Son of Pi 
ero de' Medici, nephew of Pope Leo X. an- 
of Giuliano de' Medici, and father of Cathei 
ine de' Medici. Copy in Fabre Museum 
Montpellier. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 352 ; Pas 
savant, ii. 145 ; Mtintz, 411 ; Springer, 252 
caise de Keyser, National Gallery, Berlin 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 5 in.; signed 
dated 1845. Maria de' Medici, queen o 
King Henry IV. of France, on her deathbed 
one hand upon the crucifix, the other hold- 
ing a medallion \vith the portrait of her so: 
Louis XTTL; near by stands a nun carrying 
a candle ; in the foreground, beside the bed, 
a Dominican in prayer ; in the open door in 
the background, through which the priesi 
with the sacrament is passing out, are two 

Rubens, Louvre, Paris ; series of twenty-one 
pictures, canvas. Maria de' Medici (1573- 
1632), daughter of Francis L of Tuscany 
and of the Archduchess Joanna of Austria, 
and wife of Henri IV. of France, having re- 
turned to Paiis after her reconciliation with 
her son Louis STEI., employed Rubens to 
paint a series of decorative pictures for the 
grand gallery (now destroyed) of her Pal- 
ace of the Luxembourg. Rubens went to 
France in 1621, made the sketches in Paris, 
executed the pictures in Antwerp with the 
aid of his scholars, and delivered them in 
1625. He also painted three portraits for 
the gallery : Maria de' Medici as Bellona, 
her Father Francis L, and her Mother Jo- 
anna; all of which, together with the se- 
ries, were removed to the Louvre in 1779. 
Eighteen of the original sketches, in gri- 
saille, are in the Munich Gallery. 

1. Destiny of Maria de' Medici, EL 13 ft. 
x 5 ft Engraved by L. de Chastillon. 

Landon, Muse*e, v. PL 19. 

2. Birth of Maria de' Medici (April 26, 
1573), H. 13 ft.x9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by 
G. Duchange. Landon, Musee, v. PL 13. 

3. Education of Maria de' Medici, H. 13 

ft. x 9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by N. Loir. 
Landon, Musue, v. PL 25. 

4. Henri IV. receiving Portrait of Maria 
de' Medici, H. 13 ft. x 9 ft. 8 in. Engraved 
by J. Audran. Landon, Musee, v. PL 37. 

5. Marriage of Maria de' Medici by Pro- 
curation (Florence, October 5, 1600), H. 13 
ft. x 9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by A. Trouvain. 
Landon, Musee, v. PL 45. 

6. Landing of Maria de' Medici at Mar- 

Education of Maria 0*3' Medici, Rubens, Louvre, Paris. 

eilles (November 3, 1600), H. 13 ft. x9 ft. 
3 in. Engraved by G. Duchange (1710), 
Landon, Musee, v. PL 49. 

7. Marriage of Maria de' Medici and 
Henri IV. (Lyons, December 10, 1600), H. 

.3 ft. x 9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by G. Du- 
hange. Landon, Muse*e, v. PL 61. 

8. Birth of Louis XIH. (Fontainebleau, 
September 27, 1601), H. 13 ft x9 ft. 8 in. 
Engraved by B. Audran. Landon, Muscle, 

. PL 69. 

9. Henri IV. about to depart for the 
Army, intrusts the Government to Maria 

e' Medici (1610), H. 13 ft. x 9 ft, 8 in. En- 



graved by J. Audran. Landon, Musee, vii. 
PL 13. 

10. Coronation of Maria de' Medici (St. 
Denis, May 13, 1610), H. 13 ft x23 ft. 10 
in. Engraved by J. Audran. Landon, Mu- 
see, vii. PL 1, 2. 

11. Apotheosis of Henri IV., H. 13 ft. x 
23 ft. 10 in. Engraved by G. Duchange 
(1708). Landon, Musee, viii. PL 61, 62. 

12. Government of the Queen, H. 13 ft. 

Marriage of Maria de 1 Medici and Henri IV., Rubens, Louvre, 

x 23 ft. Engraved by Picart (1707). Lan- 
don, Musee, vi. PL 45, 46. 

13. Journey of Maria de' Medici to Pont- 
de-Ce, H. 13 ft. x9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by 
Ch. Simonneau (1709). Landon, MusSe, vi. 
PL 61. 

14. Exchange of the Two Princesses (No- 
vember 9, 1615 ; illustrating the double al- 
liance by marriage between France and 
Spain), H. 13 ft. x 9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by 
B. Audran. Landon, Musee, vii. PL 23. 

15. Happiness of the Kegency, H. 13 ft. 
x9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by B. Picart. Lan- 
don, Musee, vii. PL 33. 

16. Majority of Louis XIII., H. 13 ft x 
9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by A. Trouvain. 
Landon, Musee, vii. PL 49. 

17. Flight of the Queen from the Chateau 
de Blois (February 22, 1619), H. 13 ft. x 9 
ft. 8 in. Engraved by C. Vermeulen. Lan- 
don, Musee, vii. PL 13. 

18. Reconciliation of Maria de' Medici 
with her Son, H. 13 ft. x 9 f t. 8 iu. En- 
graved by A. Loir. Landon, Musee, vii. PL 

19. Conclusion of the Peace, H. 13 ft. x 
9 ft. 8 in. Engraved by B. Picart (1703). 
Landon, Musee, vii. PL 29. 

20. Interview between Maria de' Medici 
and her Son, H. 13 ft. x 9 f t. 8 in. En- 
graved by Duchange (1709). Landon, Mu- 
see, viii. PL 25. 

21. Triumph of the Truth, H. 13 ft. x5 
ft. 3 in. Engraved by A. Loir. Landon, 
Musee, viii. PL 51. 

Cat. Louvre ; Michiels, Rubens, 143 ; 
Sainsbury, Orig. Papers, 63 ; GaL du Pal. 
du Luxembourg (Paris, 1710) ; Smith, ii. 

MEDOLA, ANDREA, See Schiauone, 

MEDUSA, HEAD OF, Michelangelo da 
Caravaggio, Uffizi, Florence ; wood, in form 
of a shield. Presented to Grand Duke 
Ferdinand by the Cardinal del Monte. 
Molini, ii. PL 42 ; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., i. 

MEDUSA, RAFT OF THE (Radeau de la 
Meduse), Jean Louis Gericault, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 16 ft. x 23 ft 6 in. The 
frigate Medusa, accompanied by three other 
vessels, the Echo, Loire, and Argus, sailed 
with about 400 persons on board, from 
France, June 17, 1816, for St. Louis, Sene- 
gal. On July 2d the frigate stinick on the 
Arguin shoal and, after five days' useless 
labour trying to float her, the crew and pas- 
sengers took to the boats and a raft. Of 
149 persons on the raft, only 15 were living 
on the twelfth day, when they were picked 
up by the Argus. Salon, 1819 ; exhibited 
in 'London; sold, after painter's death, to 



Dreus: d'Orcy, from whom bought for the 
Louvre. It is Gericault's masterpiece. En- 
graved by S. W. Reynolds. Copy or rep- 
lica New York Historical Society. Ham- 
erton, French Painters, 22; Villot, Cat. 


Newark, N. J, April 21, 1827. Landscape 
painter, pupil of the National Academy. 
Studio in St. Louis. Works: Near the 
Atchafalaya ; The Indian Chief ; Uplands 
(1884) Sheldon, 135. 

of the Florence Academy, with title of pro- 
fessor, in 1883. Studio in Florence. Works: 
A Knickerbocker (1873) ; Little Nell and 
her Grandfather (1876) ; Return from the 
Hunt (1880), H. Witthaus, New York ; Lit- 
tle Waitress (C. A. Bristed, ib.); Amateurs 
and Critics (H. G. Knowlton, ib.); Lace- 
Maker (J. Harper, ib.); Bridal Chamber in 
Palazzo Manzi Lucca ; Titian's Kitchen 
Pieve di Cadore, Kitchen Birthplace of 
Titian, GondolaParty from Giardino Reale 
Venice, Halt at the Golden Lion, Grandpa's 

Raft of the Medusa, GSricault, Louvre, Paris. 

MEEKS, EUGENE, born in New York, 
May 29, 1848. Historical genre painter, 
pupil of Alexander Wust, Dutch landscape 
painter in New York; visited Europe in 
1864, studied at the Hague Academy one 
year, and spent the next five years at the 
Eoyal Academy, Antwerp, under Josef van 
Lerrus and Nicaise de Keyser ; in 1870-72 
painted Under Henri Bourse. Travelled 
and sketched through Central Europe in 
1873, and has passed his professional life 
since in Florence, with the exception of two 
years in New York Elected an associate 

Birthday, Fishing Boats Venice, Tales of a 
Grandfather, Startling Bit of Gossip (1884). 
MEEE, BAREND (Bemardus) YAN 
DEB, born in Haarlem about 1659, prob- 
ably a son of Jan the elder. Dutch school ; 
painted flowers, fruit, and still-life with great 
power and truth. "Works : Grapes and Vase 
with Flowers (1689), Vienna Museum ; Fruit 



/ 5 7 Gallery. 

Van der Willigen, 222 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
v. 321 ; 2 vii. 7, 260. 


MEER, JAN VAN DEB, the elder, born 
in Haarlem, baptized Oct. 22, 1628, died 
there, buried Aug. 25, 1691. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of Jacob de Wet ; 
free of the guild in 1654, and holding an 
office in it in 1667-79. Painted views of 
the downs in Holland with delicate light ef- 
fects and excellent figures ; several of his 
pictures were attributed to his contempo- 
rary Van der Meer van Delft. Works : 
Tavern Entrance (1652), Louvre ; Village 
of Noordwyk (1676), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Horsemen in the Woods, Basle Museum ; 
do., and Hilly Forest Landscape, Old Pin- 
akothek, Munich ; Flat Country, View of 
Haarlem, In the Downs, Berlin Museum; 
Forest-Path with Horseman, Wood Interior, 
View in the Downs, Dresden Gallery ; Land- 
scape in Brunswick, Darmstadt, Hanover, 
Oldenburg, Schwerin, Meiningen, Schleiss- 
heim, Turin Galleries ; Arenberg Gallery, 
Brussels ; Czernin and Liechtenstein Gal- 
leries, Vienna. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 171 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 384 ; Kramm, iv. 1086 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 424 ; Riegel, Beitrlige, 
ii. 386 ; Van der Willigen, 218 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., iv. 346 ; v. 230 ; vii. 200, 349 ; x. 

MEER, JAN VAN DER, the younger, 
born in Haarlem, baptized Nov. 29, 1656, 
died there, May 28, 1705. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, son of Jan the elder, pu- 
pil of his father and of Berchem ; master of 
the Haarlem guild in 1683, when he mar- 
ried the sister of Cornelis Dusart. He had 
a pure feeling for nature, and his execution 
is careful, but the tone of his pictures is cold 
and heavy. Sheep, which he had studied 
thoroughly, form the principal subject in 
his landscapes. Works: Landscape with 
Sheep (1678), fl ( 

Amsterdam ^ JX cJttr- /Mjee>* 

Museum; do. , <* 
(1688), Rotter- *'*>JO'*4k 
dam Museum ; ~T -* 

do. (1679), J (S J.MjU 
Berlin Museum; do. (1679), Gallery, Co- 
penhagen; do. (1681), Moltke Collection, 

ib.; do., Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Lake 
with Donkeys and Drovers (1654), Shep- 
herds and Flock near Cottage, Dresden 
Gallery ; Flocks of Sheep Resting (2), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Three Landscapes (1699), 
Schwerin Gallery ; Dutch Windmill (1693), 
Historical Society, New York. Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1866), xxi. 306 ; Immerzeel, ii. 210 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 452 ; Kranini, iv. 1086 ; 
Burger, Musees, ii. 285. 

MEER, JAN VAN DER, of Delft. See 

MEER, JOHAN VAN DER, of Utrecht, 
born at Schoonhoven in 1628, died in 
Utrecht in 1711. Dutch school ; portrait 
painter; went to Rome in company with 
Lieve Verschuur, and lived there many 
years in friendly intercourse with Van 
Drost and Karel Lot (Carlo Lotti). He 
was dean of the Utrecht guild in 1664. 
Works: Portraits of Regents, Fundatie- 
Huis, Utrecht. Immerzeel, ii. 210 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 384; Kramm, iv. 1087; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1866), xxi. 305. 

MEERTE, PIETER, bom in Brussels in 
1619, died there in 1669. Flemish school ; 
portrait painter, with good conception and 
warm colouring, master of the Brussels 
guild in 1640. Works: Syndics of Fish- 
mongers' Corporation, Brussels Museum ; 
Portraits of a Naval Captain and Wife, Male 
Portrait, Berlin Museum. Fetis, Cat. du 
Mus. roy., 372 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 232 ; 
Kramm, iv. 1089 ; Michiels, ix. 23. 

MEGAN, G. E., flourished about 1660. 
Flemish school ; landscape and figure paint- 
er, said to have settled in Vienna about 
1660. Works : Wood Landscape with Stag- 
Hunt, do. with Attack of Robbers, do. with 
Camp, Museum, Vienna; do. with Ruins, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. Engerth, Belved. 
Gal., ii. 263. 

MEHEMET II, portrait, Gentile Bellini, 
Sir A. H. Layard, London ; canvas, dated 
1480. The Sultan, turbaned and bearded, 
with a fur cape about his shoulders. Paint- 
ed by Gentile on his visit to Constantinople 
in 1479-80. Belonged to Gictviano Muse- 



um, Como. Vasari, ed. ML, iii 166 ; C. 
C., N. Italy, i. 125. 

MEHUS, LTBVEN, bom at Oudenard 
in 1630, died in Flor 
ence, Aug. 7, 1691 
Flemish school ; his 
toiy painter, first in 
structed in Milan 
where his parents 
had settled, by one 
Karel, a Flemish 
battle painter, then 
pupil in Florence o: 
Pietro da Cortona 

fought three years against the Spaniards 
and returned to Florence, where he met 
with extraordinary success. Works: Tri- 
umph of Ignorance, Palazzo Pitti, Florence; 
Abraham's Sacrifice, Christ bearing the 
Cross, Artist's Portrait, Uffizi, ib. ; Madonna 
with Saints, S. Silvestro, Prato, Tuscany; 
Marriage of St Catherine, S. Marco, ib. : 
Communion of St. Theresa, Cathedral, ib. 
Fresco : Cupola, Madonna della Pace, Flor- 
ence. Fetis, Les artistes beiges, i. 191 ; Im- 
merzeel, ii. 211 ; Michiels, x. 322. 

Ghent about 1427, died after 1474 Flem- 
ish school ; free of the guild in 1452, and 
sub-dean in 1472. No record of his life, 
nor authenticated works besides the trip- 
tych in the Church of St Bavon at Ghent, 
representing the Crucifixion, the Baising of 
the Brazen Serpent, and Moses striking the 
Rock. These compositions are remarkable 
for the number of figures, which, however, 
are not skilfully distributed, and are very 
meagre. The many pictures in various pub- 
lic galleries, attributed to this painter, are 
not verified. Among them are : Adoration 
of Magi, Visitation of Virgin, Berlin Muse- 
um ; Triptych with Christ bearing the Cross, 
Entombment, Christ on the Cross, Mater 
Dolorosa, Lady Donor, Antwerp Museum ; 
Count of Henegau with Patron Saint, Por- 
trait of Marco Barberigo, National Gallery, 
London ; Adoration of the Magi, New York 
Museum. AUgem. d. Biogr., xxi 241 ; Oh. 

Blanc, iScole flamande ; Cat. du Mus. d'An- 
vers (1874), 432 ; C. & C., Flemish Paint- 
ers, 147; Dohrne, li.; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
88 ; Kramm, iv. 1093 ; Michiels, iii. 134 ; 
Schnaase, viii. 200 ; Wouters, Sur quelques 
peintres de la fin du XV. Siecle (Brussels, 
1882); W. &W., ii.37. 

DER, born in Antwerp, Dec. 15, 1664, died 
there, or in Vienna (?), in 1708. Flemish 
school ; landscape, marine, and battle paint- 
er, master of the Antwerp guild in 1684-85 ; 
probably visited Italy, and said to have set- 
tled in Vienna at an advanced age ; supplied 
the figures in the landscapes of Baudewyns. 
Works: Two Oriental Harbours (1700), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Pleasure Camp (1698), 
Market outside of a Town (1698), Harbour 
with Many Figures, Dresden Gallery ; Cat- 
le Market, do. with dancing Peasants, Stock- 
iolin Museum ; Military Train entering City, 
Travellers surprised by Peasants, Cavalry 
Skirmish, Caravan in the Mountains, Sea- 
shore with Ships and Walled City, etc.; 
Naval Battle, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Messager des sciences historiques (1840), 
399 ; Van den Branden, 1041 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, vii. 200. 

MEISEL, ERNST, born at Lichte, 
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, in 1838. Histor- 
cal genre painter, pupil in Munich of Pi- 
oty. Works: Marie Antoinette with her 
Son in Prayer ; Last Meeting of Louis XVI. 
vith his Family ; Separation of Madame 
Elizabeth from her Niece Maria Teresa ; A 
Bequest (1879) ; Genre Scene, Presentation 
1883) ; Courtship of an Incroyable, R, G. 
Dun, New York. Miiller, 362. 

n Paris ; contemporary. Genre painter, 
on and pupil of Ernest, like whom he 
mints 18th century scenes in the style 
f the old Dutch masters. Medal, 1866 
Works : Studio ; Antiquary ; Gardeners : 
!n taking Tea, Leusen and Rosine (1866) ; 
Je Fripier, Chaplain reading to the Baron, 
Convent of St. Barth61emy at Nice (1874) ; 
lew near Nice ; Monastic Apothecary ; 




Morning on Coast of Antibes (1878); Break- 
fasting by the Wayside (1882) ; Itinerant 
Musicians (1884); Drawing the Seine (1885); 
On the Staii*, J. J. Astor, New York ; Court- 
ier, H. V. Newcomb, ib. ; Story of the Cam- 
paign, J. H. Stebbins, ib. ; Outside Attrac- 
tions, E. B. Warren, Philadelphia. Meyer, 
Gesch., 665. 

born in Lyons, 
Feb. 21, 1815. 
Genre painter, 
went in 1830 to 
Paiis, where he 
was for four 
months the pu- 
pil of Leon Co- 
gniet ; but he 
formed himself 
chiefly by study- 
ing the works of the old masters, especial- 
ly of the Dutch school. He first became 
known as an illustrator, of books, such as 
"Paul et Virginie," "Chauini&re indienne" 
(1838), "Les Fran9ais peints par eux- 
memes" (1844), etc., but soon began the 
series of masterpieces on a small scale, 
whose wonderful finish, marked character, 
and peculiar individuality have made his 
name famous in every part of the civilized 
world. His first exhibited picture was The 
Visitors (1834). Medals : 3d class, 1840 ; 
2d class, 1841 ; 1st class, 1843, 1848 ; of 
honour, 1855, 1867, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1846 ; Officer, 1856 ; Commander, 1867 ; 
Grand Officer, 1878 ; Member of Institute, 
1861 ; Munich Academy, 1867 ; Honorary 
member of Eoyal Academy, London, and 
other academies. Works: The Visitors 
(1834), The Bravos (1853), Scene from De- 
cameron (1853), Polidiinello (1858), The 
Halt (1862), Napoleon I. in the Campaign 
of France, Throwing Dice, The Connois- 
seurs, Cavalier of Time of Louis XIV., St. 
John in Patmos, Cavalier of Time of Louis 
XIII., Musketeer of Time of Louis XIIL 
Gamblers, Sentinel, Foul Play, Sir Richard 
Wallace, London ; Chess Players, Little 

Messenger (1836) ; Monk consoling a Sick 
Man (1838) ; The Doctor, The Smoker 
(1839) ; The Header (1840) ; Chess Players 
1841) ; Smoker, Violoncello Player (1842) ; 
Amateurs of Painting (1843 ; Khalil Bey 
sale, 1868, 3-3,800 fr.), M. Leon Say ; Paint- 
er in his Studio (1843 ; Lehon sale, 1861, 
11,200 fr.) ; Guard-house, Young Man look- 
ing at Drawings, Game of Piquet (1848) ; 
Skittle Players (1849); Smoker (1850); Lute 
Players (1851), Soldier under Louis XHL, 
Laurent Eichard Collection, Paiis ; The 
Barricade, Man choosing a Sword (1852), 
Reader near "Window, Reader in White, Le 
Dejeuner, M. van Praet ; Sunday, Incident 
of Civil War (1852) ; Young Man Studying, 
Moreau before Hohenlinden (1853); Lec- 
ture chez Diderot (1855), Un Incroyable, 
Polichinello, Baron Edmond de Rothschild ; 
Guitar Player, Baron Adolph de Rothschild ; 
La Eixe (1855), Buckingham Palace ; Con- 
fidence, A Painter, Man in Armour, Harque- 
busier, Art Amateur, Standard Bearer, Man 
at a Window (1857) ; Soldiers at Cards 
(1858 ; Wertheimber sale, to M. Demidoff 
for 28,000 fr.; J. T. Johnston sale, New 
York, 1876, $11,500); Smoker (1860); Card 
Party, Expectation, Musician, The Audience, 
The Farrier (1861); In the Ante-Room, Stir- 
rup-Cup (1862), C. F. H. Bolckow, Middles- 
borough ; Standard Bearer, Musketeer (1862) ; 
Napoleon IE. at Solferino (1864), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Napoleon I in 1814 (1864), 
Ball Players at Antibes (46,700 francs), Le 
Voyageur (30,500 francs), The Laugher 
(25,000 francs), Defoer sale, Paris, 1886 ; 
Une Chanson (1865), Vicomte de Greffuhle ; 
Cavalry Charge (1867); Portrait of the Ser- 
geant, Chess Players, Baron Schroeder, 
London ; Two Lansquenets, M van der 
Vies ; Horseman's Rest (1875), Kunsthaile, 
Hamburg ; Voyageur, L'Adieu (1880); Com- 
pany of Musketeers (sold, 1881, 50,000 fr.); 
Halt of Cavaliers (J. W. Wilson sale, 1881, 
125,000 fr.) ; Smoker (Tence sale, 1881, 
34,000 fr.); Corporal of the Guard (Arbuth- 
not sale, 1882, 514) ; Madonna di Baccio 
(1883) ; Paris in 1870-71 (1884) ; La Ve- 



clette, Reader Seated, Smoker in Black, 
Cavalier of Time of Louis XIH. Sleeping, 
Mme. de Cassin, Paris ; Flute Player, M. 
Pastre, ib.; Header standing under Win- 
dow, M. Malinet, ib.; Under the Balcony, 
M. Boucheron, ib.; Sentinel at Antibes, M. 
Charles Leroux, ib.; Manuscript Reader, M. 
fidouard Andre, ib.; The Spy, M. Crabbe, 
ib.; Polichinello, Mnie. Cottier, ib.; Bravo, 
Shoemaker, Musketeer of Louis XIII., M. 
Levy-Cremieux, ib.; Vin du Cure, Difficult 
Passage, The Secretary, Cuirassiers -1805, 
Two Old Friends, The Two Van de Veldes, 
A Reader, M. Secretan, ib.; Amateurs of 
Painting, Vicomtesse de Tredern, ib.; Por- 
trait of Victor Lefranc, M. Victor Lef ranc, ib. ; 
A Halbardier, Smoker in Red, Baron Gustave 
de Rothschild, ib. ; Sunday in the Village, Due 
de Narbonne, ib. ; Portrait of Alexandre Du- 
mas, The Designer, Affaire Clemenceau, M. 
Alexandre Dumas, ib.; Reconnoissance in 
the Snow, Mme. Isaac Pereire, ib.; Hussar 
on Vedette, Stirrup Cup, Consequences of 
a Quarrel at Play, Wni. Stewart, ib.; Dra- 
goon on Vedette, Altar in S. Marco at Ven- 
ice, Portrait of Mme. Meissonier, Portrait 
of Charles Meissonier, Cavalier by the Sea, 
Washerwomen at Antibes, Ruins of the 
Tuileries, The Song, The Etcher, At the 
Window, Death-bed of Thiers, The Tui- 
leries, Interior of S. Marco, Flemish Inte- 
rior, Chess Players, M. Ernest Meissonier ; 
La Vedette, Amateurs of Painting, Due 
d'Aumale ; Amateurs in the Studio, Vicom- 
tesse de Tredern ; Portrait of Baroness 
Thenard, Baroness Thenard ; Amateur of 
Designs, Baron Hulot ; The Red Umbrella, 
M. Peronne ; The Departure, M. Niven ; 
Cavalier of Time of Louis XTTT., M. Tabou- 
rier ; Smoker of Time of Louis XV., Mme. 
Angelo ; Phoebus and Boreas, M. G. Ltltz ; 
Portrait of Meissonier, Literary Researches, 
M. Gambard ; Ball Players, Terrace of St. 
Germain, M. Charles Heine ; Le Marechal 
Ferrant, M. Bianchi ; Violoncellist, M. E. H. 
Krafft ; Gentleman of Time of Louis 33DL 
Reading, M. Auguste Dreyfus ; Amateurs 
of Painting, Baron Hottinguer ; A Vedette, 

M. Pierre Duche ; Officer of Musketeers, 
Colour Bearer, Mr. James Duncan, London ; 
Regnard dans son Cabinet, Mr. David Price, 
ib.; The Confidence, Mr. John Siltzer, ib.; 
Game Won, ML Steengraehl, The Hague ; 
Portrait of the Sculptor Gemito, M. Gemito, 
Naples ; Apres le Dejeuner, The Bibliophile, 
Baron Springer ; Awaiting the Audience, 
ML TretiakofF, Moscow. Works in United 
States : Artist at Work, Information, Artist 
and his Wife, Ordonnance (1869), Man Read- 
ing, A Reception, Portrait of W. H. Vander- 
bilt, William H. Vanderbilt Collection, New 
York ; L'Aumone (1874), Friedland or Eigh- 
teen Hundred and Seven (1876), another 
(1869), Mrs. A T. Stewart, ib.; The Smoker, 
William Astor, ib.; L'Escalier, J. J. Astor,. 
ib.; Guard Room, T. A. Havemeyer, ib.; 
Antibes, Two Van der Veldes, Sign Painter, 
Miss C. L. Wolf e, ib.; Chess Players, August 
Belmont, ib.; Lost Game, Stirrup-Cup, Cap- 
tain of the Guard, J. H. Stebbins, ib. ; His- 
toriographer, W. Rockefeller, ib.; Vedette, 
N. R Butler, ib.; Halberdier, H. V. New- 
comb, ib. ; Sleeping Gallant, Mrs. Paran 
Stevens, ib.; Marshal ttaxe and Staff (1866), 
Stirrup-Cup, Ante-Chamber, D. O. Mills, ib.; 
Captain of the Guard, R. L. Stuart Collec- 
tion, ib.; Trumpeter, C. S. Smith, ib.; Hal- 
berdier, John Hoey, ib.; Travelling Shoe- 
maker, W. B. Bement, ib.; JScarte Players, 
Gentleman of Time of Charles IX., James 
Gordon Bennett, ib. ; Paris Commission- 
naire, A. J. Antelo, Philadelphia; Republican 
Sentinel, A. J. Drexel, ib. ; Cavalier waiting 
an Audience, H. C. Gibson, ib. ; Jovial Troop- 
er (1865), Court-yard of the Artist's Studio 
(1877), W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; Poetry, 
D. W. Powers, Rochester ; Cavalry Charge 
(1867), H. Probasco, Cincinnati ; Musketeer, 
H. L. Dousman, St. Louis ; Cavalier, H. P. 
Kidder, Boston. Hamerton, French Paint- 
ers, 62 ; Mollett, Meissonier ; L'Art (1876), 
i. 14 ; Bellier, ii. 65 ; Chesneau, Chefs 
d'ficole, 241 ; Ckretie, Peintres, etc. (1884), 
ii. 1 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1862), xii. 419 ; 
(1866), xx. 78 ; (1884), xxx. 5 ; Academy 
(1884), ii 390; AUgem. K C., viii. 481; 


Art Journal (1879), 48 ; Appleton's Journal 
(1869), ii. 118 ; Lippincott's Mag., xiv. 758 ; 
American Architect, v. 54 ; Bruno Meyer, 
Studien, 96; Meyer, Gesch. ; Zeitsch., i. 
173 ; ii. 124 ; viii. 104 ; D. Rundschau, xvi. 
310 ; Vom Fels zum Meer, vii. 106. - j 

Dresden, April 12, 1837. Animal and land- j 
scape painter, pupil of Dresden Academy 
and Kuinmer ; spent 1860-61 in Zurich, 
1868 in Rome, and settled in Munich in 
1870. Many of his pictures are in America. 
Works : Pilgrimage on Lake Kochel ; Mill 
on the Elbe near Dresden ; Transportation 
of Cattle in Winter ; Scattered Sheep, ! 
Vicuna Academy ; Returning Herd in 
Winter (1875), Dresden Gallery ; Sheep on 
Flight ; Sheep with Lambs ; On the Alp ; 
Sunday Afternoon (Jubilee Exhib., Berlin, 
1886. Mailer, 362. 

MEISTER ARNOLD, of Wllrzburg, 14th 
century. German school ; a master of 
equal fame in Franconia to that of Meister 
Wilhelm on the Nether Rhine. No work 
can be attributed to him directly, but the 
altarpiece of Pahl (about 1400), National 
Museum, Munich, is of his school. Meyer, 
KUnst. Lex., ii. 272. 

MEISTER STEPHAN, born at Con- 
stance, died in Cologne in 1451. German 
school ; real name Stephan Lochner. Pos- 
sibly a pupil of Meister Wilhelm, and the 
most famous master of mediaeval art. He 
settled, and bought a house, in Cologne in 
1442 ; the guild of Si Luke chose him to 
represent their corporation in the senate in 
1448, and again in 1451, in which year he 
died in poverty in a hospital In him the 
school of Cologne attained its highest form 
of originality. Works : Triptych (known as 
Dombild, after 1426), Cologne Cathedral ; 
Madonna in der Rosenlaube, Cologne Muse- 
um ; replica (?), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Madonna with the Violets (?), Archiepiscopal 
Museum, Cologne ; Presentation in the Tem- 
ple (? 1447), Darmstadt Gallery ; Three 
Saints, National Gallery, London. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xix. 69 ; CL Blanc, ficole alle- 

inamle ; 0. & C , Flemish Painters, 350 ; 
Forster, Gesch., i. 211 ; ii. 152 ; do., Denk- 
male, ii. 19 ; iv. 13 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 126 ; 
Kugler, KL Schriften, ii. 294-300, 350, 352, 
524 ; Merlo, Meister d. altkoln. Malersch., 
108, 200 ;Schnaase, vi. 413 ; W. & W., ii. 87. 

MEISTER WILHELM, born at Eerie, 
Liinburg, died in Cologne in 1378. Ger- 
man school The earliest known represent- 
ative of the ancient school of Cologne, where 
he painted from 1358 to 1372, and the best 
German artist of his time ; he is mentioned 
in the Limburg Chronicle of 1380, as "a 
famous painter in Cologne, whose equal was 
not to be found in Christendom, and who 
painted a man as though he lived." Child- 
like innocence, tenderness of sentiment, and 
remarkable purity of expression characterize 
the faces and graceful, slender figures paint- 
ed by Master Wilhelm with sweet aud ten- 
der colour. Works : Clara Altar, Cologne 
Cathedral ; Christ Crucified, Sacristy of Si 
Severin's, Cologne ; Small Altarpiece, w. Vir- 
gin w. Bean Blossom, Cologne Museum ; 
Madonna -with Saints, Chapter Room of Hal- 
berstadt Cathedral; St. Veronica with the 
Handkerchief (?), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
do. (?), National Gallery, London. Ch. 
Blanc, ficole allemande ; C. & C., Flemish 
Painters, 346 ; Forster, Gesch., i. 204 ; do., 
Denkmale, v. 7 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 43 ; 
Kugler, El. Schriften, ii. 288-31, 352, 524 ; 
Kunstblatt (1855), 157 ; Merlo, Meister d. 
altkoln. Malersch., 31 ; Schnaase, vi. 391 ; 
W. & W., i. 399. 

MEISTER, NICOLAS, born at Coblentz. 
Landscape painter, younger brother and 
pupil of Simon, with whom he went to Co- 
logne about 1833 ; painted the landscape in 
the panorama and dioramas mentioned un- 
der Simon. Works : Views of Coblentz ; 
Rolandseck with Siebengebirge, and Castle 
Rheinstein (1834) ; Ravine with Ruin 
(1839) ; View of Neuwied (1848). Merlo, 
Nachrichten, 279. 

MEISTER, SIMON, born at Coblentz 
in 1803, died in Cologne, Feb. 29, 1844 
History painter, pupil in Paris of Horace 


Vernet ; after his return, about 1833, settled 
in Cologne ; painted especially battles, ani- 
mals, and equestrian portraits. Works : 
Scenes from Greek War of Independence ; 
Death of Adolphus of Nassau ; Kosciusko 
taken Prisoner ; Napoleon and his Gene- 
rals ; Elector Albrecht Achilles of Bran- 
denburg in Battle of Nuremberg (School of 
Cadets, Berlin) ; Blilcher's Eescue in Battle 
of Ligny ; Lion Hunt ; Lions Fighting 
(1835), Frederic William IV. of Prussia 
returning from Parade, Cologne Museum ; 
Panorama of French Army under General 
Hoche crossing the Ehine (1838-41) ; Dio- 
rama of Battle of Kulm; View of Castle 
Stolzenfels at Sunset (1843 ; last three to- 
gether with his brother Nicolas). Allgem. 
d. Biogr., sxi. 263 ; Merlo, Nachrichten, 
280 ; Raczynski, i. 238. 

MEIXNER, LUDWIG, born in Munich 
in 1828. Landscape and marine painter, 
pupil of Bemhard Stange ; visited Norway 
and Sweden in 1848-51 ; excels in moon- 
light scenes. Works : View in English 
Park near Munich ; Vohring near Munich ; 
Moonlight Landscape, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Lake Constance with Cloud Effect ; 
Landscape at Moonrise ; View on the Un- 
tersberg ; Coast Scene ; Moonlight Night 
on Swedish Coast ; Venice ; The Auer 
Kirche near Munich by Moonlight (1884), 
New Pinakothek, Munich. D. Zunstbl. 
(1857), 261 ; Mailer, 363. 

MELANTHIUS (Melanthus), painter of 
the Sicyonian school; pupil of Pamphilus, 
about 332 B.C. He was a fellow-student of 
Apelles, by whom he was considered supe- 
rior to himself in composition. Pliny says 
(xxxv. 32-[50]), he was one of the four great 
painters (the others being Apelles, Echion, 
and Nicomachus) who executed their im- 
mortal works with four colours only, white, 
yellow, red, and black. The only one of 
his pictures mentioned represented Aristra- 
tus of Sicyon standing beside the chariot of 
the Goddess of Victoiy, which Nealces pre- 
served from destruction. Plut. Aral, 13 ; 
Brunn, ii. 142. 

TON, born in Copenhagen, Feb. 13, 1818, 
died in Paris, Jan. 10, 
1875. Marine paint- 
er, pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy un- 
der Eckersberg, and 
much influenced by 
Rumohr; visited, on 
board of Danish men- 
of-war, the North, Bal- 
tic, and Mediterranean 
seas, obtained a prize in 1843, went to Stock- 
holm and Hamburg in 1846, and the year 
after to Paris, where the Due de Decazes be- 
came his patron. In 1853 he accompanied 
the French embassy to Constantinople, paint- 
ed there for the Sultan, and after his return 
for Napoleon HX ; revisited Copenhagen in 
1858, and having worked for a while in 
Hamburg returned to Paris. Member of 
Copenhagen Academy ; L. of Honour, 1854 ; 
Order of Danebrog, 1858. Works : Ships 
Cruising ; Eddystone Lighthouse (1846), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Boat in Danger ; 
Floating Ice on Coast of Greenland ; Morn- 
ing after Storm ; Roadstead of Copenhagen ; 
do. of Constantinople ; French Men-of-War 
on Greek Coast ; Naval Battle in Kjoge 
Bay (1855), Copenhagen Gallery; Road- 
stead with Ships (1850), Corvette (1851), 
Solitude of the Sea (1852), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg; Agitated Sea after Sunset 
(1867), Schwerin Gallery; 'Moonlight on 
Art Jour- 

Chronik, x. 
330 ; Sig. Mtiller, 250 ; Ny illustrerad Tid- 
ning, 1875 ; Weilbach, 471 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiv. 354. 

HELM (HANNIBAL), born at Elsinore, 
May 14, 1824. Marine painter, brother of 
Anton, pupil of Copenhagen Academy. 
Works: Pilot -Boat in Stormy Weather 
(1847), Copenhagen Gallery ; Roadstead of 


Alicante ; Vie^v of Copenhagen Harbour. 
Sig. Mailer, 255 ; Weilbach, 474. 

Nymphenburg in 1813, died in Munich, 
Sept 9, 1860. Animal painter, son of Georg 
Wilhelm (landscape and portrait painter, 
1780-1826), pupil of Munich Academy ; fan- 
cied especially scenes after a chase. Works : 
Booty watched by Bogs, Fox caught by 
Dogs (1849), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Be- 
fore the Badger's Dwelling ; Cat pinched 
by Crawfish. His brother Josef (born in 
1810) was an esteemed painter of horses. 
AUgern. cl Biogr., xxi. 291 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1848), 234 ; Yinc. Mailer, Handb., 161. 

MELDOLLA, ANDBEA. See Schiavone, 

Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 1 in. x 9 
ft. 4 in. Meleager presenting the head of 
the Calydonian boar to Atalanta, who is 
seated in a landscape at foot of a tree ; be- 
tween them stands Cupid ; several dogs 
and implements of the chase, painted by 
Snyders, near the group. Landscape prob- 
ably by Wildens. Taken to Paris in 1800 ; 
returned in 1815. Similar picture, engraved 
by Bartsch, Dresden Gallery ; another, en- 
graved by Bloemart, Blenheim sale (1886), 
Cavendish Bentinck, 520 ; a third in Ma- 
drid Museum. Smith, ii. 84, 247 ; is. 277. 

By Rubens, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
10 ft 4 in. x 13 ft. Attacking the Calydo- 
nian boar, which is at bay beside a fallen 
tree ; several dogs are wounded, and a man 
lies dead at the feet of the beast ; horsemen, 
with javelins, are galloping up to the aid of 
Meleager and Atalanta, who has just wound- 
ed the boar with an arrow. Animals by 
Snyders; landscape by Wildens. Etched 
by Prenner. Similar subject, with changes, 
Hermitage, St Petersburg; another, en- 
graved by Bolswert, Lady Stuart ; a third in 
Madrid Museum. Smith, ii. 88, 157, 275. 

MELEM, HANS, born at Mehlem, near 
Bonn, in 1493. German school ; flourished 
in Cologne as a contemporary, perhaps 
scholar, of the Master of the Death of the 

Virgin. Bus only certain work is a signed 
portrait of himself (1530), in the Munich 
Gallery. A triptych there, with Crucifixion 
and Saints, attributed to Melem, is by one 
of his pupils. He was inferior in drawing, 
execution, and colouring. POrster, ii. 183 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), i. 228 ; Merlo, Nachrich- 
ten, 283 ; W. & W., ii. 497. 

M^UDA, Don ENRIQUE, contempo- 
rary. Genre painter, pupil in Paris of 
Meissonier ; paints ingenious genre scenes, 
eminently individualized, often humorous. 
Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: Mass in 
Spain (1872), Luxembourg Museum ; Eound 
of the Santo Oficio ; Antechamber of Prince 
de la Paz; Monkey-Story; Falling Flat; 
After the Procession ; First Walk ; Bull- 
Fight Lesson (1879); Illusions to the Winds 
(1880); A Study, Disturbed Festival (1883); 
Herrar, o quitar el banco, Mardi-Gras before 
Theatre of Marcellus at Rome (1884) ; A 
Maja (1885) ; Carmen, Under the Elm-tree 
(1886) ; Consultation (Jubilee Exhib., Ber- 
lin, 1886). La Hustracion (1879), i 283 ; 
(1881), i 138; ii 375; (1883), i. 275; 
(1884), i. 341. 

MEUN, JOSEPH, born in Paris, Feb. 
14, 1814. History and animal painter, pu- 
pil of Paul Delaroche and David d'Angers. 
Medals: 3d class, 1843, 1855; 2d class, 
1845, 1858. Works : Si James pardoning 
his Accuser (1843) ; Christ healing Blind 
Man (1845) ; Battle of Kavenna, English 
Dogs (1847); Asleep (1848); Dogs and Bull- 
Dogs, Boar-Hunting (1850) ; Deer's Cry, 
Dog Barking, Dogs in Leash (1855) ; Un- 
coupled, Belays, Pointer (1857) ; Starting 
Again, Newfoundland Dog (1861) ; Hunts- 
man leading Dogs against a Boar, English 
Pointer (1863); Deer-Hunting (1864) ; Eng- 
lish Dogs, Terriers (1865) ; Vend6ean Dogs 
(1866) ; Bourbon Oxen (1867) ; Terriers 
Fighting, Heads of Yendeean Dogs (1868) ; 
English and Yendeean Dogs (1869); Nymph 
attaching a Dog to its Leash (1873); Deer's 
Cry (1874) ; At Fault (1879) ; Dogs' Heads, 
A Virgin (1880); Hallooing on Foot (1882); 
Lost Dog Barking, Two Scents (1883); Fly- 

ing Relays, Talbot (1885) ; A Fatal Meeting, 
Valet with Dogs (1886) ; Stag and Hounds, 
H. Probasco, Cincinnati. Bellier, ii. 66 ; 

in Paiis, Dec. 28, 1841. History and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Leon Cogniet and 
Gerome. Medal, 1st class, 1877; L. of 
Honour, 1880. Works : Souvenir of Veules 
(1861); Courtyard in Normandy (1863); 
Ceres with the Old Woman (1870) ; August 
24, 1572 (1873); Members of the Third Es- 
tate before the Meeting of June 23, 1789 
(1874) ; May 13, 1588 (1875) ; Brantome's 
Fourth Discourse of Dames galantes (1876); 
Morning of the 10th Thermidor (1877) ; 
Mile, de Montpensier in the Bastille (1878); 
Stephen Marcel and the Dauphin (1879), 
Luxembourg Museum. ; Marat (1880); Mar- 
shal Ferte capturing Belfort, After the Bat- 
tle (1881); General Daumesnil at Vincennes 
(1882); Rouget de Lisle composing the Mar- 
seillaise (1883) ; Desgenettes inoculating 
himself with the Plague (1884) ; Koustan 
(1885). Bellier, ii. 66 ; Larousse; D. Rund- 
schau, xx. 476. 

MELONE, ALTOBELLO, end of 15th 
and beginning of 16th century. Lombard 
school ; probably studied in Bologna and 
Ferrara. He was Boccaccino's competitor 
before Pordenone's arrival in Cremona. 
His seven frescos of scenes in lives of Vir- 
gin and of Christ (1517) are in the nave of 
the Duomo, Cremona, and his Christ on the 
Road to Emmaus is in the National Gallery, 
London. He was not without power as a 
portrait painter, and some of his works have 
been assigned to great men: one, in the 
Stuttgart Museum, to Giovanni Bellini ; 
another, in the Lochis Carrara Collection, 
Bergamo, to Giorgione ; and a third, in the 
Castelbarco Collection, Milan, to Raphael. 
C. & C., N. Italy,' ii. 451 ; Meyer, Ktinsi 
Lex., i 559 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 223, 251 ; 
Ch. Blanc, cole lombarde ; Ltlbke, Gesch. 
itaL MaL, iL 480. 

MELOZZO DA FORLI, born at Forli, 
June 6, 1438, died there, Nov. 8, 1494. 

Umbrian school ; contemporary of Manteg- 
na, whose influence he may have felt, but 
owed his advancement to Piero della Fran- 
cesca, of whom he was perhaps a pupil. 
He had, however, a higher sense of beauty 
find of dramatic life, and his draperies are 
richer and more ample than those of Piero, 
who excelled him in colour. Melozzo was 
called to Rome by Sixtus IV., and painted 
(1475-80) in fresco, in the Vatican Library, 
an Audience of Sixtus IV., now transferred 
to canvas and in the Vatican Gallery, which 
is remarkable for fine characteristic por- 
traiture, rich architectural background, and 
harmonious colour. Part of another fresco, 
Christ among Angels, formerly in SS. Apos- 
toli, Rome, is now on the staircase of the 
Quirinal ; and there are seven fragments of 
Angels playing and singing, together with 
four heads of Apostles, in the sacristy of St. 
Peter's. His works are marked by masterly 
drawing, bold foreshortening, and good per- 
spective. Many of the pictures in galleries, 
attributed to him, are of doubtful authen- 
ticity. Among those which may be consid- 
ered genuine, as they are admirable, are the 
allegorical representations of the Arts and 
Sciences, which probably originally deco- 
rated the library in the Ducal Palace, Ur- 
bino. Of this series, one is in the Berlin 
Museum ; two, Rhetoric and Music, in the 
National Gallery, London ; and one, Duke 
Frederic with his son Guidobaldo and Vit- 
torio da Feltre his Tutor, at Windsor. C. 
& C., Italy, ii. 556 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 
190 ; Burckhardt, 559 ; Lermolieff, 277 ; 
Lubke, Gesch. itaL Mai, i.. 399 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1875), xii. 369. 

MELZI, FRANCESCO, born in Milan in 
1492, died after 1568. Lombard school ; 
pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, and one of his 
most devoted disciples ; an amateur of a 
rich and noble family. Accompanied his 
master to France, and was made heir of his 
designs and manuscripts. His pictures are 
so like Da Vinci's in manner as to be mis- 
taken for them. A Vertumnus and Pomona, 
Berlin Museum, formerly attributed to Leo- 


nardo, is now ascribed to Mm. A portrait 
of himself is in the Melzi Collection, Milan. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 35 ; Baldinucci, i. 602 ; 
Lanzi, ii. 488 ; Ch. Blanc, cole inilanaise ; 
Burckhardt, 707 ; Ltibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 444. 

MEMLING (MemHnc, Memmelinck, Hem- 
ling), HANS, 
born about 1425, 
died at Bruges 
between Dec. 1, 
1492, and Dec. 
10, 1495. Flem- 
ish school ; his- 
tory painter, 
probably pupil 
of Eogier van der 
Weyden; was 
settled at Bruges 
in 1478, perhaps since 1471, if not before. 
According to a popular legend, Memling 
was admitted as a sick soldier into the Hos- 
pital of St. John, Bruges, after the battle of 
Nancy, and in gratitude for the care be- 
stowed upon him painted the celebrated 
wooden shrine of St. Ursula, before Oct. 29, 
1489, with miniatures representing six scenes 
from the legend of the saint, and other 
subjects, still preserved in the hospital. 
Of all the great Flemish painters of the 
time, Memling had the deepest religious 
feeling. His earliest works are : A Diptych 
(1460), Kev. I F. Bussell, Greenhithe, Kent ; 
Last Judgment (1467), St. Mary's, Dantzic ; 
Triptych (1471), Duke of Devonshire, 'Chis- 
wick. His finest portraits are those of Will- 
iam Moreel and wife (1480), Brussels Mu- 
seum ; of the same persons and their eldest 
son, on wings of a triptych (1484), Bruges 
Academy ; and of Mary Moreel, known as 
the Sibyl Sanbatha, and of Martin van Niew- 
enhove, diptych (1487), Hospital of St. John, 
Bruges. Other works are : Madonna, Male 
Portraits (3), Antwerp Museum ; Altar of 
St. John (also called Marriage of St. Cath- 
arine), Adoration of the Kings (1479), Shrine 
of St. Ursula, Diptych with Pietd, (1480), do. 
with Madonna (1487), St. John's Hospital, 

Bruges; Altar of St. Christopher (1484), 
Academy, ib.; Seven Sorrows of the Virgin 
(1479), Passion of our Lord (?), Turin Gal- 
lery ; Seven Joys of the Virgin (1480), St. 
John the Baptist, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Annunciation (1482), Prince Kadziwill, Ber- 
lin ; Altai-piece (1484), Moreel Chapel, St. 
Jacques', Bruges ; Christ on the Cross, Male 
Portrait, Brussels Museum ; Madonna and 
Saint, Man Praying (1487), TJffizi, Florence ; 
Descent from the Cross (?), Palazzo Doria, 
Koine; Triptych with Adoration of the 
Magi (?), Madrid Museum ; Madonna, Berlin 
Museum ; Portrait of Anton of Burgundy, 
Si Christopher carrying the Infant Christ, 
Dresden Museum ; do., "Worlitz Gallery ; 
do., Count Duchatel, Paris; do., and SS. 
John the Baptist and Evangelist, Adam and 
Eve, Christ bearing the Cross, Besurrectiou, 
Museum, Vienna; Madonna (1472), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Great Altai-piece with 
Passion of our Lord (1491), Ltlbeck Cathe- 
dral ; Marriage of St. Catherine, Strasburg 
Gallery ; Two panels of SI John Baptist and 
Mary Magdalen, with scenes from their 
lives, Louvre, Paris. In fresco : Crucifixion, 
Saints and Donors, Notre Dame, Dijon. 



AUgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 307; Ch. Blanc, 
cole flamande ; Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers 
(1874), 253; C. & C., Flemish Painters, 
251 ; Engerth, Belved.. GaL, ii. 272 ; Fetis, 
Cat. du Mus. roy., 132; Forster, Gesch., 
ii. 101 ; do., Denkmale, L 3 ; v. 11 ; viii. 
13 ; ix. 1 ; Gaz. des B. 'Arts (1861), xi. 28 ; 
Hotho, Gesch., ii. 128 ; Immerzeel, ii. 213 ; 
Journal des B. Arts (1861), 21, 23, 35 ; 
Kramm, iii. 670 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 
353 ; Le Beffroi, ii. 264 ; Michiels, iv. 7 ; v. 
464 ; Scnnaase, viii 232 ; Wauters, Peinture 



flamande, 85 ; do. 3 Deeouverte d'un tableau 
date de Hans Memling (Brussels, 1883) 
Weale, Cat. Bruges Acad., 20 ; do., Hans 
Memling, zyn leven, etc. (Bruges, 1871) 
W. & W., ii. 44 ; Art Journal (1885), 318. 

MEMMI, UPPO, died in 1356. Sienese 
school ; an artist of the same school as his 
greater brother-in-law, Simone di Martino, 
with whom he had a common workshop in 
Siena. Though at times content to laboi 
on the mechanical part of Simone's altar- 
pieces, he frequently undertook separate 
commissions, the most important of which 
was the adornment of the Palazzo del Po- 
desta at S. Gimignano in 1317. The spirit 
and composition of this work much resem- 
bles that of Simone ; but it is remarkable 
for the minuteness of its finish, every hair 
and every ornamental detail being patiently 
worked out. Lippo also aided Simone in 
the painting of the Annunciation, now in 
the IJffizi, Florence. Other examples of his 
work are a Madonna with Saints, in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, S. Gimignano ; a Madonna 
and Angels, in the Chapel of the Santissimo 
Corporate, at Orvieto ; the Beato Augustino, 
in S. Agostino, Siena ; a Madonna, in the 
Berlin Museum ; and a Resurrection, in the 
Dresden Gallery. C. & C., Italy, ii. 101 ; Va- 
sari, ed. LeMon., ii. 87, n. 3, 94 ; W. & W., 
i 466 ; Dohme, 2L; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 234. 
MEMME, SIMONE. See Simone di Mar- 

second half of 14th century ; dead in 1397. 
Florentine school ; pupil probably of Gio- 
vanni da Milano ; name in register of Flor- 
entine painters in 1387, but afterwards a 
resident of Padua. A Madonna Enthroned, 
dated 1363, is at Milan, and a Coronation 
of the Virgin, dated 1367, in the National 
Gallery, London. Frescos attributed to him 
are in the Baptistery, Padua, and an altar- 
piece in the adjoining chapel ; and other 
frescos in the Luca Belludi Chapel, Padua, 
and in the Rinuccini Chapel, S. Croce, Flor- 
ence. He was a feeble continuator of the 
style of Giotto, whose colouring is bright 

and well fused, but whose drawing, expres- 
sion, and choice of motives are dull and 
clumsy. C. & C., Italy, ii. 248 ; Kunstblatt 
(1838), No. 13 ; W. & W., i. 484. 

MENENDEZ, Don LUIS, born at Naples 
in 1716, died at Madrid in 1780. Spanish 
school ; history and fruit painter, son and 
pupil of Francisco Antonio Menendez (a 
successful miniature pointer, 1682-1745) ; 
then studied in Rome, and, visiting Naples, 
was appointed painter in ordinary to King 
Charles ; on his return to Madrid, Ferdinand 
VI. employed him to illuminate the choir- 
books of the royal chapel. His favourite 
subjects were bodegoiies, in the deline- 
ation of which he has rarely been excelled. 
Works : Holy Family, Madonna, thirty- 
nine Bodegones and Fruitpieces, Madrid 
Museum. Stirling, iii. 1219. 

at Seville about 1630, died there about 1705. 
Spanish school ; pupil of MuriJlo, his favour- 
ite assistant, and one of his best copyists ; 
painted the glory in the Marriage of St. 
Gathering which cost Murillo his life, and 
also the four lateral pictures. Some works 
ascribed to his master were probably exe- 
cuted by him. He was a member of the 
Academy of Seville from 1666 to 1673, and 
its Mayordomo in 1668-69. Works : Death 
of a Hermit, Last Judgment, Cadiz Muse- 
um ; Virgin appearing to St. Cayetano, 
Church of La Merced, Cadiz ; Institution 
of Third Order of St. Francis, Seville Mu- 
^ seum ; Christ in 

A Ai i *^~/ s-i Garden of Olives, 
/My/ J y^*-/ Duc de Montpen- 
-* sier, S. Telmo. 

Stirling, iii. 1103 ; Ch. Blanc, ICcole espa- 
gnole ; Cean Bermudez ; Curtis, 331. 
MENESTRATUS, painter, 1st century 
D. His pictures were ridiculed in an epi- 
gram in the Greek anthology by Lucillius, 
who says his Phaethon was only fit for the 
fire- and his Deucalion for the water. Brunn 
'ii. 310) thinks it doubtful whether bad trag- 
edies rather than pictures are not here re- 
? erred to. 


PEEEIEA, Visconde de, born at Oporto 
in 1820. History, genre, and portrait paint- 
er, pupil in Eome of Overbeck and Ferd. 
Cavalleri ; attained to great reputation, es- 
pecially in his native country. Member of 
Lisbon Academy. Medal in Oporto in 1865. 
Chamberlain, president of bank of credit, 
attache of Portuguese embassy in Eome, 
knight and commander of several orders. 
Works : Old Village Musician ; Praying 
Monk ; Christ at Emmaus ; Old Beggar ; 
Death of Marco Bozzaris ; Chestnut Sel- 
ler ; Calabrese Shepherd, Lisbon Academy"; 
Blind Soldier ; Young Shepherdess from the 
Abruzzi ; St. Peter of Alcantara ; St. Peter 
the Apostle ; Halt before Tavern ; Salvator 
Eosa among the Bobbers. Miiller, 364 

logne, April 8, 1770, died there, October 
26, 1849. Portrait painter, pupil of Dtts- 
seldorf Academy ; copied the most famous 
pictures of the Dilsseldorf Gallery and paint- 
ed portraits in Cologne and Coblentz in 1790 
-1800 ; lived at Elberfeld in 1800-6, and 
settled in Cologne in 1821. Works : Por- 
traits of Kleber, Bernadotte, Archbishop 
Ferdinand August ; Portrait of Wallraf, Co- 
logne Museum. Allgem. cL Biogr., XXL 347 ; 
Merlo, 285. 

MENGELBEEG, OTTO, born at Dttssel- 
dorf in 1817. History and portrait painter, 
son of Egidius, pupil of DUsseldorf Acad- 
emy under Karl Sohn and Schadow ; visited 
Munich in 1842, then painted portraits in 
Cologne until 1847, when he visited Paris, 
and settled in Dtisseldorf in 1848. Works : 
Death of Moses (1836), Judith (1837), Arch- 
angel Michael (1838), Apostle Church, Co- 
logne ; Loreley (1839), Emperor Hemy IV. 
(1840), EOmer, Frankfort; Ecce Homo 
(1847) ; Prodigal Son (1848) ; Pray First ! 
(I860) ; Eesurrection and Four Evangelists 
(1862) ; Disciples at Emmaus (1866) ; Walk 
of Jesus to Jerusalem (1876) ; Peter's Peni- 
tence ; Melanchthon ; Christ at Gethsemane. 
Merlo, 185 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 582 ; 
Mailer, 364 ; W. Mtiller, Dasseldf. K, 40. 

Aussig, Bohemia, May 12, 1728, died in 
Eome, June 29, 
1779. German 
school ; history 
and portrait 
painter, son 
and pupil of 
Ismael Mengs, 
a distinguished 
miniature and 
enamel paint- 
er, who early 
caused him to 
study the great masters in Dresden and 
afterwards in Eome, where the King of Po- 
land, Augustus HI., permitted him to con- 
tinue his studies in 1741-44, and again in 
1746-49 ; he was made court-painter at the 
age of twenty-three, and removed to Eome 
in 1751, stopping at Venice for five months. 
He was an eclectic who, living at a time of 
extreme degradation in art, excited great 
admiration by his skill in composition and 
his knowledge of technical processes, but, 
as he had little originality or warmth of 
feeling, his works have not stood the test 
of time. Cardinal Albani and Pope Clem- 
ent XIV. employed him to paint for them 
at Eome, and Charles m. of Spain called 
him to Madrid in 1761, where as court- 
painter he received a high salary. His 
writings on painting and painters contain 
many refined observations and valuable no- 
tices of remarkable pictures. Works: Ado- 
ration of the Shepherds, Magdalen, St. Peter, 
sixteen portraits, Madrid Museum ; Clem- 
ent XHL, Brera Gallery, Milan ; do., Bo- 
logna Gallery ; Portrait of himself, Uffizi, 
Florence ; Christ, Stuttgart Museum ; Si 
Joseph incited to Flight by Angel, Madon- 
na, Annunciation, St. Peter Enthroned, two 
portraits, Museum, Vienna ; Cleopatra and 
Augustus, Si Erasmus, Gzernin Gallery, ib.; 
Nativity, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; do., and 
St. Christopher carrying the Infant Christ, 
Head of Christ, do. of Magdalen, Harraeh 
Gallery, ib. ; Angel appearing to Joseph, 


Magdalen, Cupid, thirteen portraits, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Latona -with Diana and Apollo 
Bamberg Gallery ; Holy Family, Portrait o 
Ismael Mengs, Berlin Museum ; do. of him 
self, Darmstadt Museum ; Adoration of th 
Shepherds, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Capuchin 
Friar, Portrait of himself, Kunsthalle, Ham 
burg ; do., Ferdinandeuni, Innsbruck ; do. 
and Capuchin Monk, Old Pinakothek, Mu 
nich ; Girls with Cupids (2), Leipsic Mu 
seurn ; Artemisia at the Sculptor's, Molt 
ke Collection, Copenhagen ; Annunciation 
Coming of the Holy Ghost, Apollo on Par 
nassus crowning a Poet, St. John the Bap- 
tist, Perseus and Andromeda, Judgment of 
Paris, Portrait of himself, Hermitage, St 
Petersburg ; Portrait, Brussels Museum 
Parnassus, fresco, Villa Albani, Koine 
Apotheosis of Trajan, Temple of Fame 
(frescos on ceiling of dining-hall), Boyal 
Palace, Madrid. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 
349 ; Azara, Vita di A R Mengs (Kome, 
1787);. Ch. Blanc, ficole allemande ; Cotta's 
KunstbL (1822), 342 ; Dohme, liL; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (I860), vii. 217 ; Goethe, Winck- 
elraann, ii. 105; Hlustr. Zeit. (1879), iL 
27 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 556 ; Pecht, iii. 1 
Beber, i. 71 ; Wurzbach, xvii. 347 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., xiv. 33, 72 ; Bianconi, Elogio sto 
rico del Cavaliere R Mengs ; Guibal, Eloge 
historique de Mengs ; Ratti, Epilogo della 

MENGS, ISMAEL, born at Copenhagen 
in 1690, died at Dresden in 1764. Minia- 
bure painter, pupil of Benoit Caffre, then at 
Ltlbeck of Johann Harper (of Stockholm, 
1688-1746) and of Paul Heinecke ; usually 
painted portraits on enamel, of larger size 
khan was then customary, but executed a 
few historical subjects. He became court- 
painter at Dresden, whence he twice accom- 
Danied his son Anton Raphael to Kome in 
ihe capacity of a severe mentor. He edu- 
cated his children with so barbarous a disci- 
Dline as to cause his eldest son to run away. 
3Ss two daughters, Julia and Theresia Con- 
jordia, were also excellent miniature paint- 
ers. Works : Artist's portrait (in oil, 174:1), | 

St. Magdalen, Annunciation (enamels), Dres- 
den Museum ; Poifedt of a Merchant (in 
oil), Leipsic Museum. Nagler, ix. 122. 

MENINAS, LAS (Maids of Honour), Ve- 
lasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 
6 in. x 9 ft. Velasquez, in his studio, stands 
on left before an easel, painting portraits of 
Philip 3V. and Queen Mariana, which are 
seen reflected in a mirror ; the Infanta Mar- 
garita Maria, a child, is listening to Doiia 
Isabel de Velasco, and is receiving a glass 
of water from Dona Maria Agustina Sar- 
miento ; on right, two dwarfs play with a 

Las Meninas, Velasquez, Madrid Museum. 

dog ; Dona Marcella de Ulloa converses 
with a "guarda damas;" in background, 
ose* Nieto enters by a flight of steps. Paint- 
d in 1656 ; valued in 1700 at 10,000 doub- 
oons ; injured in fire of 1734, restored by 
uan de Miranda. Engraved by P. Audou- 
n ; etched by F. Goya ; B. Maura ; litho- 
graphed by 0. Nanteuil ; J. Martinez ; E. 
. Cos. The portrait of Velasquez, the most 
uthentic one, etched by St. Kaymond in 
3urtis. Original sketch for picture, with 
ariations, belongs to Walter Ralph Bankes, 
Kingston Lacy, Dorset, England. Palomi- 
o, liii 342; Curtis, 13; Madrazo, 603; 
xiv. 971. 



MENIPPUS, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft 10 in. x 3 ft. An old man, 
standing, with tattered garments, holding a 
cloak to his breast ; on the ground, a jar, 
book, and roll of parchment ; behind him, 
an open folio. Same history as its com- 
panion, JEisop. Copy by Prevost in Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, Paris. Engraved by Es- 
quivel ; etched by Goya ; Laguillermie ; 
Maura. Gaz. des B. Arts (1880), sx. 181 ; 
Gal. Esp.; Curtis, 19 ; Madrazo, 634 

MENZ, MAX YON, bom in Munich in 
1824 History painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy ; paints chiefly scenes from Bava- 
rian history and biblical subjects. Works : 
Duke William V. and Duchess Renata giv- 
ing Alms, Elector Maximilian I. instructing 
his Son, Sail of Duke Albrecht V. on Lake 
Starnberg, Foundation of Primogeniture in 
Bavaria, National Museum, Munich ; Christ- 
mas Eve, Ruth and Naomi, Altars of SS. 
Benno and Corbinian, Frauenkirche, Mu- 
nich ; Charitable Nuns. Mflller, 364 

MANN), born at 
Breslau, Dec. 8, 
1815. History 
and genre paint- 
er and illustra- 
tor, self-taught, 
but for a short 
time in 1833 pu- 
pil of Berlin 
Academy. First 
known by a series 
of pen-and-ink drawings, called "Artist's 
Pilgrimage," followed by a cycle of twelve 
lithographed scenes from the history of Bran- 
denburg. Having illustrated Kugler's His- 
tory of Frederic the Great, and the edition 
de luxe of the king's works, he was led to 
depict the age of Frederic, and produced a 
series of pictures of a pronounced realistic 
style, combining great skill in the treatment 
of details with fine colouring. His water- 
colours are equally excellent. Professor 
since 1866 ; Member .of Berlin, Vienna, and 
Munich Academies, and of Societe beige 

des Aquarellistes. Great gold medal, Ber- 
lin, 1856 ; 2d class, Paris, 1867 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1867; Order pour le merite, 1870; 
Bavarian Order of St. Michael. Works : 
Chess Players (1836) ; Legal Consultation 
(1837) ; Court-day (1838) ; Disturbance 
(1846) ; Gustavus Adolphus receiving his 
Queen (1847) ; Ride of Frederic the Great 
(1849) ; Ball Supper at Sans-Souei (1850) ; 
Round Table of Frederic the Great at Sans- 
Souci (1850), Flute Concert at Sans-Souci 
(1852), National Gallery, Berlin ; Cbrisfi in 
the Temple (1851) ; thirty-three pictures 
of Soldiers of Frederic the Great, Uniform 
Studies of Frederic's Army (1852) ; Christ 
driving out Money Changers (1853) ; Fred- 
eric the Great travelling (1854), Raveno 
Gallery, Berlin ; Frederic and G'eneral Fou- 
quet in the Park of Sans-Souci, Raczynski 
Gallery, ib.; Frederic at the Homage in 
Breslau in 1741 (1855), Breslau Museum ; 
Frederic in Battle of Hochkirch (1856), 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Meeting of Frederic 
with Joseph H. at Neisse (1857); Adam and 
Eve (1857) ; Bliicher and Wellington at 
Waterloo (1858) ; Frederic before Battle of 
Leuthen ; Coronation of King William at 
Kunigsberg (1861-65), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Bathing Boys at Risen (1865); Old 
Synagogue in Prague, Berlin Street Life at 
Christmas, New Shipping Canal in Berlin 
(1866) ; Assembly at a Ball, Sunday in Gar- 
den of Tuileries, Old Man opening Jewelry 
Box (1867) ; Tyrolese Peasants at Passion 
Play in Kufstein, Mission Sermon at Kosen 
(1868); Street Scene in Paris, Old Elephant 
in Jardin des Plantes (1869) ; Intermission 
(1870) ; Departure of King William from 
Berlin, July 31, 1870 (1871), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin; Eszterhazy Cellar in Vienna, 
Bismarck and Moltke (1871) ; Altai-pieces 
in Benedictine Church, Salzburg, and in 
Parish Church, Innsbruck (1872) ; Modem 
Cyclops (1875), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Opportune Moment (1877) ; Frederic the 
Great at the Coffin of the Great Elector ; 
Supper at a Ball (1878),; .Emperor .William 
at Court Ball (1880) ; Return of Procession 



near Gastein (1881) ; Piazza d'Erbe in Ve- 
rona (1884); Morning after Carnival (1885), 
National Gallery, Berlin. Academy (1881), 
i. 441; Allgem. K G, 206 ; Andresen, v. 1 
Art Journal (1882), 136, 200, 345 ; Cour- 
rier de Tart (1885), 232 ; Deutsche illustr. 
Zeitg., ii. 339 ; Dumas, Ad. Menzel, sa vie 
et ses ceuvres (Paris, 1885) ; Gartenlaube 
(1885), 811 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1860), v. 
179 ; (1880), xxi. 201 ; xxii. 105 ; (1882), 
sxv. 596, 603; (1884), xxx. 76; (1885), 
xxxi. 512 ; xxxii. 129 ; Blush-. Zeitg. (1881), 
1. 377 ; (1882), i. 405 ; (1885), ii. 578 ; 
(1886), i. 37 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 147 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, v. 130, 144 ; x. 371 ; xiv. 265 ; 
xviii. 89 ; xix. 445, 601 ; xx, 399, 511, 582 ; 
xxi. 125, 189, 227, 236, 305, 379 ; Kunst f. 
Alle, i. 61, 101 ; Graph. K, i. 60, 92 ; Leix- 
ner, Mod. K., i. 59 ; Mttller, 364 ; N. fr. 
Presse, Abendblatt, Feb. 27, 1886 ; Nord 
und Slid, ii. 122 ; xi. 439 ; Pecht, ii. 305 ; 
Eeber, iii. 358 ; Kosenberg, Berl. Malerscli., 
252; D. Eundschau, ix. 322; xiii. 327; 
xvii. 298 ; xx. 461 ; Land und Meer (1872), 
Nos. 20 and 21 ; Westermann's Monatshefte, 
liii. 461 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 25 ; vi. 22, 
171, 177 ; xi. 1, 32, 41 ; xvi. 49 ; xvii. 229 ; 
xviiL 135, 403 ; xix. 17, 319 ; xx. 269 ; ix. 
(Mittheilungen, ii. 51). 

MEECADlD, Don BENITO, born in Bar- 
celona ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 
pil of Madrid Academy. Medals in 1860, 
1862, 1864, 1866. Works : Columbus beg- 
ging for Bread at Gate of La Ebida Con- 
vent ; Transportation of Body of St. Fran- 
cis ; Last Moments of Brother Carlos Cli- 
maque ; Charles V, at San Yuste ; St. The- 
resa ; Sisters of Charity ; Choir of S. Maria 
Novella. La Ilustracion, 1877. 

DEE, born at s'Gravendeel, Holland, died, 
probably at Leyden, after 1663. Dutch 
school ; portrait painter, who was master 
of the guild at The Hague before 1636 ; 
married there a second time in 1649, and 
must have worked at Leyden in or before 
1657. Works.: Captains of the Archers (3, 
1657), Leyden Museum ; Young Man's Por- 

trait (1640), Berlin Museum ; Portrait of a 
Dutch Scholar (Heinsius? 1642), Olden- 
burg Gallery. Meyer, Gem. der kongL 
Mus. (1883), 283. 

drid Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. x 9 ft. 
9 in. Mercury lulling Argus, the vigilant 
guard of the cow lo, to sleep with the music 
of his pipe. Same subject, Dresden Gal- 
lery, from Carignan Collection, 5,000 livres. 

By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 8 ft. 1 in. Mercury, sword 
in hand, is approaching stealthily, on his 
knees, to kill Argus, who reclines against a 
rock on right, asleep ; behind them, lo in 
form of a cow. Etched by J. Vallejo ; Gal- 
van. Curtis, 20 ; Gal. Esp.; Madrazo, 605. 

Gupid, Education of. 

retto, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; canvas. One 
of the Graces, seated, presents a rose to an- 
other kneeling at the right, while placing 
her other hand on the shoulder of the third, 
who is seated at the left ; Mercury stands 
at the left. Painted about 1578. Engraved 
by Agostino Carracci (1589). Bartsch, xviii. 
104 ; Eidolfi, Marav., ii. 217. 

nese, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ; can- 
vas ; signed. Mercury, with a touch of his 
caduceus, transforms Aglaurus to stone for 
attempting to prevent his access to her sis- 
ter Herse. From Cabinet of Queen Chris- 
ina of Sweden to the Orleans Collection ; 
valued at 200, sold for 105 guineas. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 499 ; iii. 447 ; Cab. Cro- 
zat, ii. PL 20. 

Tenters, younger, Louvre, Paris ; copper, 
H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. ; signed. At left, 
an old man, richly clad, distributes bread 
;o the poor ; behind him', a , woman, aided 
}y a servant, gives clothing to four beggars ; 
in front, a page gives drink to a woman, 
seated, with an infant upon her knees and 
another child near her ; to right, a villager 


invites two pilgrims to enter his house ; a 
cavalier receives at the door of a prison an 
unfortunate whom he has come to deliver : 
in a chamber of same building, a doctor and 
another care for a sick person ; and in back- 
ground, a funeral cortege surrounds an open 
grave. Engraved by J. P. Le Bas (1747). 
Keplicas, Buda-Pesth Gallery ; Steengracht 
Gallery, Hague ; and others. Filhol, ii. 
PL 104 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

MERCY'S DREAM, Daniel Huntington, 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; canvas, H. 

MERIAN, MATTEAUS, the younger, 
born at Basle, Switzerland, in 1621, died in 
Frankfort, Feb. 15, 1687. History and por- 
trait painter, son of the engraver Matthaus 
the elder (1593-1650) ; pupil in Frankfort 
of Joachim von Sandrart, with whom, in 
1637, he went to Amsterdam and in 1640 
to England, where he took Van Dyck for 
his model ; then visited the Netherlands, 
Paiis, and Rome, where he studied after 
the old masters, under SacchL At the cele- 
bration of peace at Nuremberg, in 1650, and 

Seven Works of Mercy, David Tenters, younger, Louvre, Paris. 

7 ft. 5 in. x 5 ft. 9 in. Scene from Bunyan's 
Pilgrim's Progress: "Methought I looked 
up and saw one coming with wings towards 
me. So he came directly to me and said, 
* Mercy, what aileth thee ? ' Now, when he 
had heard me make my complaint, he said, 
' Peace be to thee ! ' He also wiped my 
eyes with his handkerchief, and clad me in 
silver and gold. He put a chain about my 
neck, and ear-rings in my ears, and a beau- 
tiful crown upon my head." Painted in 
1850 ; replica owned by Mr. Carey, Phila- 

at the coronation of Leopold I. at Frankfort, 
in 1658, he painted the portraits of many 
notable persons. Works : Artemisia mix- 
ing her Husband's Ashes in her Drink, Mr. 
H. Burkhard, Basle ; Martyrdom of St. Law- 
rence (1652), Bamberg Cathedral; Resur- 
rection, City Library, Basle; Portraits of 
Electors of Brandenburg, Mentz, the Palati- 
nate, Duke of Zelle, Count Serini, Artist's 
father, his sister Maria Sibylla (Basle Mu- 
seum), of himself (Darmstadt Museum), 
Family Group (1641). By his father are : 
Sunrise (1639), Basle Museum; View of 



Heidelberg, Sclileissheim Gallery ; and 
Landscape with Skippers and Fishermen, Vi- 
enna Museum. Allgeni. d. Biogr., ssi. 424. 

Frankfort, April 2, 1647, died at Amster- 
dam, Jan. 13, 1717. German school ; flower 
and insect painter, sister of preceding, pupil 
of her step-father Jacob Man-el (1614-85), 
and of Abraham Mignon. Haying married 
the painter Johann Andreas Graf (1637- 
1701) in 1665, she settled at Nuremberg ; 
returned in 1684 to Frankfort, and after- 
wards moved to Holland, whence she visit- 
ed the West Indies, painting for two years 
at Surinam (1699-1701) the native insects 
and plants. A former work on insect life, 
and one published as a result of this jour- 
ney, made her famous. Most of the origi- 
nal paintings for them are in the British 
Museum, and in the Academy of Sciences 
at St. Petersburg. In the Vienna Museum 
is a Basket with Flowers, and in the Basle 
Museum, Locust and Chafers. Her daugh- 
ters Johanna (born in 1668) and Dorothea 
(1678-1745) excelled in the -same line ; the 
latter accompanied her to Surinam and aid- 
ed in the above-named work Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xxi. 425. 

MERLE, HUGHES, bom at St. MarceUin 
(Isre), March 1, 1823, died in Paris, March 
26, 1881. Genre painter, pupil of L. Co- 
gniet ; painted life-size pictures of subjects 
taken from the life of the poor, carefully 
drawn but cold in colour and often theatri- 
cal in treatment. Medals : 2d class, 1861, 
1863 ; L. of Honour, 1866. Works : Will 
o' the Wisps (1848) ; Migration of Shep- 
herds in the Alps (1850) ; Eepose of Holy 
Family (1859) ; The Beggar (1861), Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Assassination of Henri 
m., Visit of the Grandparents (1863); Mar- 
guerite trying on the Jewels, Poor Mother 
(1866); Girl of Utretat (1869); Right Road, 
Crazy Woman (1873) ; Pernette Spinning, 
Little Bohemian Girl (1874) ; Day and Night, 
n Bambino (1876) ; Odette, Charles TL, 
Charlotte Corday (1878) ; The Redeemer 
(1879) ; Hebe after her Fall, Carmosine 

i (1880). Works in United States : Autumn 
of Womanhood, Miss C. L. Wolfe, New 
York ; Lisette of Beranger, Good Sister, Mrs. 
Paran Stevens, ib.; Grandmother's Story, 
Going to Church, Marguerite, R. L. Stuart 
Collection, ib.; Ferdinand and Miranda, C. 
P. Huntington, ib. ; Inspiration, Maternal 
Love, W. H. Vanderbilt, ib. ; Petite Ber- 
ceuse (1860), L. Tuckerman, ib. ; Grand- 
mother's Story, Samuel Hawk Collection, 
ib. ; Little Jeannette, William Astor, ib. ; The 
Angelus, Jay Gould, ib. ; Good Sister, A. 
Belmont, ib. ; Mother and Sister, Robert 
Hoe, ib.; Moses in the Bulrushes, W. Rocke- 
feller, ib.; Courtship, Maiden in the Forest, 
Italian, Israel Corse, ib. ; Nursing Baby, 
Frank Work, ib. ; Pauvre Folle, J. T. Mar- 
tin, Brooklyn ; Angel's Prayer, C. H. Wolft; 
Philadelphia ; Fisherman's Family in a 
Storm, Marguerite and Mephistopheles, 
Mrs. T. A. Scott, ib. ; Good Sister, J. Whit- 
ney, ib. ; La FoUe, Mrs. J. G. Fell, ib.; 
Young Girl of iStretat, Fairman Rogers, ib. ; 
Secret, H. Probasco, Cincinnati ; Good Sis- 
ter, Judge Hoadly, ib.; Contemplation, H. 
Hurlbut, Cleveland; Right Path, Return 
from Fields, T. Wigglesworth, Boston ; 
Chasing the Butterfly, H. Kidcler, ib. ; Ma- 
ternal Affection, W. Mason, Taunton, Mass. ; 
Scarlet Letter, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; 
Byzantine Madonna, J. A. Brown, Provi- 
dence ; New Novel, R. C. Taft, ib.; Autumn, 
W. Richmond, ib. ; Poor Mother, Young 
Mother, J, F. Warren, Hoosac Falls, N. Y. 
His son and pupil, Georges Merle, is also a 
genre painter. Art (1881), xxv. 24; Bel- 
lier, ii. 74 ; Meyer, Gesch., 695. 

Jones, private gallery ; canvas, H. 6 f t. x 3 
ft 7 in. Illustration of Tennyson's "Vivi- 
en, " one of the " Idyls of the King." Vivien, 
standing, with a book in her hand, is repeat- 
ing the magic words which she has persuad- 
ed Merlin to teach her ; in background, the 
old wizard is being gradually transformed 
under the magic spell 

MERRITT, ANNA LTA, born in Phila- 
delphia; contemporary. Portrait and fig 


ure painter, pupil of her husband, Henry 
Meriitt, artist and author, in London ; trav- 
elled four years in Europe and exhibited 
first at Eoyal Academy in 1871 ; also a suc- 
cessful etcher. Studio in London. Works : 
Catharine, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Philadel- 
phia ; Juliet (1879) ; War, Ophelia (1880) ; 
Little Quakeress, Luna (1881) ; Taming a 
Bird, War (1883) ; Belle Danie sans Merci 
(1884); Eve (1885); St. Cecilia (1886). Por- 
traits : Mrs. H. G. Marquand (1881) ; Lord 
Walter Campbell ; James Eussell Lowell 
(1882) ; Justine and Bayard Cutting (1883); 
Mrs. F. E. Colman (1884). Am. Art Eev. 
(1880), 229. 

MEESON, LUC OLIVIEE, bom in Paris, 
May 21, 1846. History painter, pupil of 
Chassevent and Pils. Won the grand prix 
de Eome in 1869. Paints well- studied and 
carefully drawn historical pictures in a some- 
what eccentric style. Medals : 1869 ; 1st 
class, 1873 ; L. of Honour, 1882. Works : 
King Edmund the Martyr, Vision of the 
Cross (1873); Sacrifice to Patriotism (1876); 
St. Michael (for the Gobelins) ; Wolf of 
Agubbio (1878) ; St. Isidore, Eepose in 
Egypt (1879) ; St. Francis preaching to the 
Fishes (1881) ; two decorative paintings in 
Palais de Justice, Paris ; Angelo pittore, 
Judgment of Paris (1884) ; Arrival at Beth- 
lehem (1885) ; Repose in Egypt, S. A. Coale, 
St. Louis. Bellier, ii. 76 ; Claretie, Peintres 
(1874), 327, 370, 387 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1868), xxiv. 19 ; La Ilustracion (1883), i. 
43 ; D. Eundschau, xx. 475. 

MfiEY, ALFEED ]MTLE, born in Paris, 
April 17, 1824. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of Beauce. Medals, 1868, 
1878. He has invented a new process of 
painting in water-colours by which all kinds 
of painting can be executed with a single 
preparation. Works : Demolished Nest 
(1865) ; Bees and Hornets Fighting, Yard 
Interior (1866) ; Around a Cherry Tree, Do 
not tease the Hornets ! (1868) ; In Want of 
Something Better, Hen and Mice (1869) ; 
Bee in the Fields (1870); Force before Eight 
(1872) ; Exploits of an Ape (1874) ; Every 

one for Himself (1877); Intervention (1878); 
Unity makes Strong, In my Garden (1880) ; 
Decorative Panel, A Gourmand (1881); Chain 
without End, Cats Studies (1882); Surprised 
in the Bath (1883); Parisian Sparrow (1884); 
Fallen Sultan (1885) ; Larks caught in 
Snares (1886). Bellier, ii. 76. 

at Groningen 
in 1831. Ma- 
rine painter, 
pupil of Alma 
Tadema ; lives 
at The Hague. 
Medals : Paris, 
1870; 3d class, 
1878. Works: 
Boats at Sche- 

veningen (1871) ; Departure of Life-boat 
from Scheveningen ; Eeturn of Life-boat ; 
Strand near Scheveningen (1874), Amster- 
dam Museum ; Sunrise on Dutch Coast, Eot- 
terdam Museum ; Evening on the Strand ; 
Summer Evening ; Twilight ; Heaving the 
Anchor ; Morning on the Scheldt ; Fish- 
market in Groningen (1879) ; Collision 
(1882) ; Looking for Anchors after Storm, 
North Sea (1884) ; On Coast of Holland, 
Evening on Strand of Scheveningen (1885) ; 

In Danger, Arrived (1886). Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xvii. 583 ; Mtiller, 367 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. 
(1882), L 407. 

tonello da Messina. 

MESSINESE, IL. See Avellino, Giulio. 

MESSYS. See Massys. 

Tver in 1834. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil of St. Petersburg Academy, and in 
Geneva of Calame ; won first prize in 1859 ; 
member of St. Petersburg Academy in 1861. 
Works: Winter Party in Finland, Land- 
scapes in Finland. Dioskuren, 1868. 


MESZOLY, GfiZA YON, born in Hun- 
gary ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
studied in Munich. Medal, Munich, 1883. 
Works : Fishermen's Huts on Flatten Lake, 
Pesth Museum ; Twilight on Flatten Lake, 
Banks of do., do. with Fowls (1883) ; Water 
Carrier on Banks of the Theiss (1885). 
Mailer, 367. 

METELII (Mitelli), AGOSTINO, bora 
in Bologna, March 16, 1609, died in Mad- 
rid, Aug. 2, 1660. Bolognese school ; pu- 
pil of the Carracci and of Falcetta the 
architect ; became the collaborator of Co- 
lonna, and after executing many works with 
him iu Bologna, Eome, and other cities, ac- 
companied him in 1659 to Spain, where he 
died. Mai vasia, ii 345; Lanzi, iii. 137; 
Ch, Blanc, cole bolonaise ; Siret, 594 

born at Grosskuchen, Wttrtemberg, Aug. 9, 
1750, died in Si Petersburg in 1825. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil at Schwa- 
bisch Gmtlnd of Urban, and hi Mannheim 
of Brand, then worked in Speyer ; went to 
Holland, and thence, as a soldier, to the 
Cape of Good Hope, where he earned by 
portrait painting enough to buy himself 
off ; returned to Amsterdam ; went in 1775 
for one year to Italy, and then to Munich, 
where he copied especially after Mieris and 
Dou ; settled in 1778 at Augsburg, whence 
he went again to Amsterdam, then to Vi- 
enna, and, in 1786, to St. Petersburg. 
Works : Resurrection (1785), Augsburg Ca- 
thedral ; two genre scenes with portraits of 
Obwexer Family ; two scenes from Gotz von 
Berlichingen. All gem, d. Biogr., XXL 524 

METRODORUS, Greek painter and phi- 
losopher, of Athens, 2d century B.C. Prob- 
ably identical with writer on architecture 
of same name. When L. JEmilius Faulus 
asked the Athenians (168 B.C.) to send him 
a tutor for his children and a painter to 
celebrate his triumph, Metrodorus was se- 
lected as uniting both qualifications in his 
own person* Pliny, xxv. [135], 

METSU, GABRIEL, born in Leyden in 
1630, died in Amsterdam, buried Oct. 24, 

1667. Dutch school; genre and portrait 
painter, son of and probably first instructed 

by Jacob Metsu 
(a Fleming, who 
had settled in 
Holland); then 
pupil of, or at 
least influenced 
by, Gerard Dou, 
and afterwards 
by Rembrandt ; 
, ^, ., , , . entered the guild 
I '/ j J ' of Leyden in 
1648, but left his native place in 1650, 
and settled in Amsterdam, where he mar- 
ried in 1658, and took the freedom of that 
city in 1659. This distinguished master 
shows in his style the influence of Terburg 
and Dou; in refinement of drawing and' 
picturesque composition no painter of small 
subjects equalled him. In pictures of his 
earlier period a warm harmony of great 
clearness predominates ; in his later works 
the tone is cooler, finely balanced, occasion- 
ally somewhat spotty in effect. He painted 
chiefly scenes from the upper classes of so- 
ciety, yet he took pleasure in representing 
market scenes, huntsmen, cook-maids, and 
the like. He treated mythological and alle- 
gorical subjects exceptionally well. Works : 
Duet, Music Lesson, Drowsy Landlady, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Female Fruit Deal- 
er, Gentleman playing Violoncello, Girl 
drinking Champagne, Portrait of himself, 
Buckingham Palace 1 , ib. ; Woman selling 
Herrings, Lady caressing Spaniel, Horse- 
man before a House, Bridgewater Gallery, 
ib.; Sleeping Huntsman, Sir Richard Wal- 
lace, ib.; Young Girl Drawing, Old Woman 
Reading, Lord Ashburton, ib.; Dictating 
the Letter, Gentleman Writing, Lady read- 
ing a Letter, Mr. Hope, ib.; Intruder, Mr. 
Baring, ib.; Corset Bleu, Mr. Neeld, ib.; 
Corset Rouge, W. Long, ib.; Dead Hen 
Suspended, Madrid Museum ; Woman taken 
in Adultery, Vegetable Market of Amster- 
dam, Lady and Officer, Music Lesson, Rev- 
eller, Apple Peeler, Chemist, Portrait of 


Admiral Tromp, Louvre ; Amateur Musi- 
cians, Allegory of Justice, Portrait of a 
Huntsman (1661), Hague Museum ; Break- 
fast, The Old Diinker, Old Woman Medi- 
tating, Hunter's Gift, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Portrait of a Priest, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Luncheon, Museum, Brussels ; Billet-doux, 
Aremberg Gallery, ib.; Family of Gelfing, 
Kitchen Interior, Portrait of his mother, 
Berlin Museum ; Dutch Woman, Brunswick 
Museum ; Tavern Interior (1667), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Tuning the Lute, Poultry Vender, 
Alms, Cassel Gallery ; Apple Woman Asleep, 
Moltke Collection, Copenhagen ; Merry at 
the Inn (1661), Old Poulterer, Female do. 
(1662), Bargaining for a Hare, three oth- 
ers, Dresden Museum ; Physician consult- 
ing Book, Gotha Museum ; Twelfth Night, 
Dutch Cook, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Vi- 
olin-player (1656), Schleissheini Gallery ; 
The Widow's Mite, Schwerin Gallery ; Pris- 
on Scene, Stockholm Museum ; Female Por- 
trait, Stuttgart Museum ; Lacemaker, Mu- 
seum, Vienna; Smoker, Czernin Gallery, 
ib. ; Letter-Writer Watched, Schonborn Gal- 
lery, ib.; Conversation, Baron Rothschild, 
ib.; The Repast, Couple making Music, Sick 
Lady, Prodigal Son in Riotous Living, Oyster 
Luncheon, Hermitage, Si Petersburg ; Do- 
mestic Scene, Return from the Chase, Uffizi, 
Florence ; Taking of Christ, Venice Acad- 

emy. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 519 ; Dohme, 
liL; Bode, Studien, 190, 615; Gower, Fig- 
ure Painters, 57 ; Havard, A. & A. holl., ii. 
187 ; Lnmerzeel, ii. 217 ; Krainm, iv. 1103 ; 
ELugler (Crowe), ii. 396 ; Riegel, Beitrage, 
i. 72, 85 ; iL 330 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1860), 

v. 18, 147, 366 ; (1861), is. 43, 304 ; x. 181 ; 
Wedmore, Masters, 90 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
iv. 125 ; vi. 73 ; x. 35. 

METSYS. See Masys. 

METZ, CASAR, born at Mentz in 1822. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Frankfort of 
Heinrich Funk, then studied in Munich, 
where he settled after having visited Italy 
in 1852-53. Works : View of Kaisergebirge 
from Hochgern ; Roman Cainpagna ; View 
on Lake Albano; View of Vierwaldstadt Lake 
near Brunnen ; Lake of Vierwaldstadt with 
Pilatus Mountain ; Starnberg Lake ; Frau- 
enchiem Lake. Mtiller, 367. 

METZ, GUSTAV, born at Brandenburg, 
Oct. 28, 1817, died in London, Oct. 30, 
1853. History and portrait painter ; aban- 
doned sculpture for painting, which he stud- 
ied in Dresden and Rome ; went to London 
in 1853, and died of cholera. Works : Ab- 
duction of Count Helfenstein; Death of 
Rachel ; Marriage of Tobias (1846), Nation- 
al Gallery, Berlin ; Who does not love Wine, 
Women, and Song, etc. (1849), Leipsic Mu- 
seum. Cotta's Kunstbl. (1848), 185 ; D. 
ZunstbL (1853), 409 ; Kugler, KL Schrif- 
ten, 3, 571, 670. 

born at Niendorf, Lauenburg, Dec. 7, 1833. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Munich of Rich- 
ard Zimmermann ; moved to Berlin in 1862, 
visited Rome and Sicily in 1864^66, and set- 
led in DQsseldorf. Medal in Vienna, 1873. 
Works : Roman Campagna ; Monastery near 
Amalfi ; Lago di Tenno ; Landscape in South 
Tyrol ; Walchen Lake ; Wiesbachorn in 
Pinzgau ; Hercules fighting the Cyclops ; 
Val Tremolo on St. Gothard; Castello di 
Tenno (1876), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Franzensfeste in Tyrol, ' Albulahorn, near 
Bergtin (1883) ; View in Mesocco Valley 
Grisons (1884); On the Alp in Eastern 
Switzerland (Jubilee Exhib., Berlin, 1886). 
Jordan, (1885), ii ; Kunst-Chronik, xii. 
235 ; Mttller, 367. 

METZINGER, EHIAN, born at Aschaf- 
fenburg, June 19, 1806, died in Munich, 
March 17, 1869. Landscape painter, pupil 



and battle paint- 
er, pupil of Pee- 

of Munich Academy. Works : Landscape 
in Approaching Storm ; Moonlight Land 
scape (1837) ; Landscape with Ruin 
Castle and Torrent D. Kunstbl. (1852) 
51 ; Kunst-Chronik, iv. 144 ; Raczynski, ii 
343 ; Soltl, 291. 
born in Brussels 
Jan. 11, 1632 
died in Paris, 
Oct. 15, 1690' 
'':p) Flemish school 

v 1 ''*)'*! 

r ^~u\ genre, landscape. 


V. 2^ > ^ 

' \ 

XIV., was lodged at the Gobelins, had a 

pension of 6,000 livres, and accompanied 
the king to Flanders to paint his battles. 
Member of the Academy of Painting, 1673 ; 
counsellor, 1681 ; first do. 1686. His pan- 
oramic views are painted with facility, but, 
apart from their historical interest, are of no 
great value. "Works : Entry of Louis XIV. 
into Arras, do. into Dinant, Siege of Maes- 
tricht, View of Fontainebleau, and nineteen 
others, Louvre ; Army of Louis XIV. en- 
camped before Tournai, Brussels Museum ; 
Convoy in Mountainous Landscape (1661), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Surrender of City in 
Lorraine, Basle Museum ; Attack of Cavalry, 
Mus6e Rath, Geneva; Winter Landscape 
with Cavalry Skirmish, Aschaffenburg Gal- 
lery ; Convoy passing through Village (1660), 
Augsburg Gallery ; View of Versailles, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Entry of Duke of Alva into 
Brussels, Travelling Train of a Queen of 
France, Cassel Gallery ; Cavalry Skirmish, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Excursion of Louis 
XIV. to Vincennes, Entry of Louis XIV. 
into Arras in 1667, Dresden Museum ; View 
of Fontainebleau, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Taking of Dole in 1668, Siege of Tournay, 
Louis XIV. receiving an Ambassador, while 
bombaixiing ^Oudenarde, Taking of .Lille, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich; Louis XIV. ad- 

vancing towards Dinan, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Group of Horsemen, Cavalry Combat, 
Scbweiin Gallery ; Cavalry Skirmish, Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; Theatre on Market Square, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Sea and Caval- 
ry Fight near Shore, Harrach Gallery, ib. ; 
Louis XIV. and Suite near a Dutch Town 
besieged by him, Skirmishes (2), Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; Attack of Cavalry, 
Madrid Museum ; Battle of Treviii, Siege 
of Chivasso in 1639, Landscape with Trav- 
ellers and Horses, Horse Market, Turin 
Gallery ; Cavalry Skirmish, Vienna Muse- 
um ; five pictures, Buckingham Palace, 
London ; Fleet Review at Dunkirk, Lord 
Scarsdale, Kedleton Hall ; Progress of Louis 

lery, Edinburgh ; Cavalry Combat (2), New 
York Museum. Fetis, Les artistes beiges 

i 1'ctranger, ii, 104. Immerzeel, ii. 221 ; 
Jal, 860 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 340 ; Michiels, 
282 ; Burger, Musees, ii. 346. 
drecht in 1766, died at Scheveningen in 
1834. Portrait and interior painter, pupil 
of Michiel Versteeg, in whose style he 

sainted scenes by lamp- and candle light. 

VIember of Brussels Academy in 1819. 
Works : Old Woman reading, Kitchen by 

Jamp-light (1817), Amsterdam Museum. 
Immerzeel, ii. 219 ; Kramm, iv. 1107. 

MEULENER (Meulenaer, Molenaer), 
PEETER> born in Antwerp, baptized Feb. 
18, 1602, died there, buried Nov. 27, 1654. 

Flemish school ; landscape and battle paint- 
, grandson of Cornelis Molenaer, perhaps 
a pupil of Peeter Snayers ; muster of the 
guild in 1631-32. Works: Two war 
scenes (1644), Madrid Museum ; Battle of 
Duke Christian of Brunswick (1646), Bruns- 
wick Gallery; Cavalry Skirmish (1650), 
stitz Gallery, Prague. Riegel, Beitriige, 

i. 110 ; Van den Branden, 668. 

els in 1831. History and genre painter, 

>upil .of, Brussels . Academy under Navez. 
Gold medal in Brussels, 1869 ; medal in 


Vienna, 1873 ; Order of Leopold. Works : 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1866), Ghent 
Museum ; Pietfi ; Burial of Trappist Monk, 
Courtray Museum ; Defence of Brabant 
Peasants in 1797, Brussels Museum ; Fres- 
cos in St. Joseph's, Louvain ; Brazier's Shop 
(1880); Casting of Steel (1881); Lassitude 
(1882); Miner's Descent (1885). Mttller, 

MEURANT. See MnranL 

MEURON, ALBERT DE, born at Neu- 
chatel ; contemporary. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, son and pupil of Maximilien 
de Meuron, then in Paris pupil of Gleyre 
and of the lcole des Beaux Arts. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1857. Works : Chamois 
Hunters at Early Morn (1853), Dying Hus- 
band (1853), Berne Museum; Cows at 
Drinking Place, Descent of Cattle in Sum- 
mer (1863) ; Chamois Hunters, Cows in 
Pasture (1865); Bergamo Shepherds, Sou- 
venir de Clarens (1866); Negress carrying 
Fruit and Basket (1866), Berne Museum; 
David Victor over Goliath, Pasture on Road 
to the Faulhorn (1858), Col de la Bernina 
with Herds (1864), Place de Capri (1868), 
Old Fir Trees in Jura Mountains, Neuchatel 
Museum ; Allegory of the Jungfrau (1883). 
Bellier, ii. 81 ; D. Kunstbl. (1854), 462 ; 
(1856), 364 ; (1857), 105 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xix. 233. 

Neuchatel in 1785, died in 1868. Land- 
scape painter of considerable fame in his 
own country, from which he usually drew 
his subjects, Works : View in Ancient 
Rome (Baths of Caracalla), View in Modem 
Rome (1816), Lake of WaUenstadt (1846), 
The Great Oak, Bridge of Corchiano, Val- 
ley of Naefels, Camp of Valangin in 1831, 
The Great Eiger seen from the Wegern 
Alp, Neuchatel Museum. 

Johann Georg. 

MEYER, DBETHELM, born at Baden, 
Aargau, Jan. 28, 1840, died in Munich, Oct. 
13," 1884. Genre painter, pupil of Paul 
Deschwanden at Stanz, then of Anschiitz at 

the Munich Academy, and of Cabanel and 
Breton in Paris ; settled in Munich in 
1869 ; spent his summers in his fatherland, 
where he painted Swiss Alpine life, such as 
mountain festivals and hunting episodes, 
which made him popular throughout Ger- 
many. Works : Woman returning from 
Harvest, Woman and Two Children on a 
Mule, Basle Museum ; Young Girl of Siin- 
menthal (1878), Berne Museum. Academy, 
Nov. 8, 1884 ; Tscharner, D. bild. K in d. 
Schweiz im Jahre 1884, 57. 

MEYER, EDGAR, born iii Tyrol ; con- 
temporary. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy. Works : Sixty archi- 
tectural and landscape views in Italy and 
Tyrol (1878); San Remo (1883); Schwarzen- 
steinLake, Innsbruck Museum; Storm Land- 
scape, National Gallery, Berlin; Graveyard in 
South Tyrol, View in Mola di Gaeta (1884). 
Miiller, 368 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 184. 

MEYER, ERNST, bom at Altona, May 
11, 1797, died in Rome, Feb. 1, 1861. 
Genre painter, pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy, and in Munich of Cornelius ; spent 
some time at Naples and Ainalfi, and in 
1833 settled in Rome ; travelled over nearly 
the whole of Europe in 1844, and visited 
Paris and Switzerland in 1848-51. Mem- 
ber of Copenhagen Academy in 1843 ; Or- 
der of Dannebrog. Works : Two scenes 
from Roman Street Life ; Interior of Fish- 
erman's Hut near Naples ; House in Tivoli 
(Villa Rosenstein, near Stuttgart) ; Lazza- 
roni Family (1831), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Public Letter-Writer (1833), Neapoli- 
tan Fisherman's Family, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg; Old Fisherman looking after the 
Wind, Boy taken to Monastery by his Par- 
ents, The Two Friends, Little Girl by a 
Spring, Boy presented to Parson (1846), 
Gallery, Copenhagen ; several in Thorwald- 
sen Museum, ib. ; Italian Women singing, 
Old Franciscan Monk receiving Letter from 
a Peasant, Harrach Gallery, Vienna. All- 
gem. Zeitg. (1861), 58; Cotta's KunstbL 
(1835), 18 ; (1844), 21 ; 'j6rdaVl98 ; 
bach, 480. 


MEYER, FANNY, bom in Bremen, Aug. | MEYER, HENDRICK BE, flourished at 
28, 1842. Landscape painter, pupil in Bre- Rotterdam about 1645-1660, died before 

1690. Dutch school ; landscape and ma- 

men of Christian Grabau, then at Carlsruhe 
Art School of Gude, with whom she visited th 
Salzkarnrnergut in 1870 ; travelled through 
the Bavarian Alps and the Tyrol ; has live* 
in Bremen since 1873. Works : Cliiem Lake 
Pine Forest ; Alpine Pine ; Golling Falls 
Torrent in High Alps ; Fir Trees in Ravin< 
before a Storm (1879). Miiller, 368. 

MEYER, FELIX, born at Winterthur 
Switzerland, Feb. 6, 1653, died at Castle 
Wyden, near Husen, in 1713. Landscape 
painter, pupil at Nuremberg of Franz Er* 
mels ; afterwards went to Italy, but at Mil- 
an was compelled by sickness to return 
travelled extensively in Switzerland; may 
be considered the head of the Swiss land- 
scape painters. He decorated two rooms 
in fresco in the Abbey of St. Florian, 
Austria. Landscapes by him * are in the 
Ztlrich Gallery and the Vienna Museum. 
Ftiessli, Gesch. der besten K, iL 212 ; Na- 
gler, ix. 214 

MEYER, FERDINAND, bom at Wismar, 
Mecklenburg, Jan. 14, 1833. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Gaston Lenthe, and of Dresden 
Academy, then settled in Munich; spent 
three years in America. Works : In Quar- 
ters, Return Home (1855), Sister as Sick- 
nurse (1857), Boys kept after School (1862), 
The Great Prize (1863), Happy Family 
(1866), Schwerin Gallery. Schlie, 47. 

Mannheim in 1735, died at Ermenonville 
(Oise) in 1809. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Daniel Hien, then in Paris 
influenced by Casanova ; returned with 
Duke Christian IV. to Mannheim, whence 
he visited the banks of the Rhine and Neck- 
ar. After his patron's death he returned 
to Paris, and with J. J. Rousseau lived at 
the Marquis of Girardin's at Ermenonville. 
Works: Evening Landscape with Shep- 
herds, Rocky Ravine with attack of Rob- 
bers, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Meet for Stag- 

Hunt, two landscapes, Schleissheim 
lery. Nagler, ix, 217. 


Dutch school ; 

rme painter. Works : Surrender of Hulst 
(1645); Departure of Charles H. from 
Scheveningen, Amsterdam Museum ; Strand 
of Scheveningen with many Figures, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; River with many Boats, 
Amalienstift, Dessau ; Winter Landscape 
with Skaters (1669), Schloss, ib. Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, vii. 174 

MEYER, JOHANN GEORG, called Meyer 
von Bremen, bom in 
Bremen, Oct. 28, 1813. 
Genre painter, pupil 
of Dusseldorf Acad- 
emy under Karl Sohn 
and Schadow ; painted 
at first biblical sub- 
jects, then travelled in 
the Hessian, Bavarian, 
and Swiss mountain 
districts, stu dyin g 
types for his genre scenes, which have since 
become so widely known ; repeatedly vis- 
ited Belgium, and in 1852 moved to Berlin, 
where he was made professor in 1863. 
Member of Amsterdam Academy ; Order of 
Leopold; Medal in Philadelphia, 1876. 
Works : Elijah in Lion's Den ; Abraham 
with Sarah and Hagar at Destruction of 
Sodom ; Death of Moses ; Christ bewailing 
Jerusalem ; Anniversary of Hessian Parson 
(1842); Christmas Eve (1843); Returning 
Warrior ; Blind Man's Buff (1844) ; Lying- 
n Room (1845) ; The Flooded (1846) ; Pen- 
itent Daughter (1852), Bremen Gallery; 
Little Mother (1854), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Artists' Studio ; Praying Child ; Indus- 
trious Embroideress ; First a Kiss; Girl 
on Sea-Shore ; Welcome (1878) ; Beggar 
Children (1879); Little Brother Asleep; 
Children (4 pictures, 1874). Works in 
Juited States : The Grandmother, New York 
Museum; Letter, Miss C. L. Wolfe, New 
fork ; Awaking, Morning Prayer, R. Hoe, 
b.; Girl at Fountain, M. Graham, ib.; Pre- 
paring for Papa's Birthday, Little Girl, W. 



Rockefeller, ib.; Welcome to Papa, J. J. 
Astor, ib. ; Letter, R. G. Dun, ib.; Little 
Coquette, Leaving Home, Meditation, Pray- 
er, T. R. Butler, ib. ; Watching the Baby, 
Mother and Baby, Mrs. Paran Stevens, ib. ; 
What has Mother brought? Cornelius Van- 
derbilt, ib. ; Toilet, Little Sister, J. W. 
Drexel, ib. ; Girl Knitting, E. D. Morgan 
Collection, ib. ; Inundation, Listener, Little 
Knitter, R. L. Stuart, ib. ; Convalescent, 
Girl and Bible, C. P. Huntington, ib.; 
Brother and Sister, Charles Stewart Smith, 
ib. ; Young Mother (1881), Knoedler & Co., 
ib. ; Little Pleader, Evening Prayer, J. T. 
Martin, Brooklyn ; Reading, D. W. Powers, 
Rochester ; Grandmother's Pet, G. Whitney, 
Philadelphia ; Threading her Needle, Blind 
Man's Buff, Mrs. T. A. Scott, ib.; Grateful 
Convalescent, W. B. Bement, ib. ; Last Look 
at Home, Fairman Rogers, ib.; and many 
others. D. Kunstbl. (1854), 165; (1855), 
298, 461 ; (1856), 403, 430 ; (1857), 121 ; 
(1858), 287 ; Jordan, 199 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
i. 122 ; Wolfg. Mttller, Dtisseldf. K., 262 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 174 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, xvi. 5. 

born in Amsterdam in 1809, died at Utrecht, 
April 3, 1866. Marine painter, pupil of 
Westenberg and Pieneman ; painted land- 
scapes in France in 1827-31 ; lived at De- 
venter, Holland, in 1833-39 ; removed in 
1841 to Paris, where after 1842 he exhibit- 
ed numerous works. Medals : Paris, 1842, 
1844, 1855 ; Angers, 1842 ; Boulogne, 1844 ; 
Brussels, 1851 ; L. of Honour, Order of 
Lion, 1847 ; Order of Leopold, Commander 
Order of Oaken Crown, 1855 ; Member of 
St. Petersburg Academy in 1845. Works : 
Fishermen on Coast of Normandy, Burning 
of Ship India (1842) ; Napoleon landing at 
Frjus (1844), Versailles Museum ; Sea on 
English Coast, Fishing Boat in Open Sea 
(1851) ; Fishermen at Sunrise on Flemish 
Coast (1858) ; Newfoundland Dog ; Combat 
of the Alacrity under Admiral Mackau; Ship- 
wrecked Crew saved by Whalers (1853), 
Storm on French Coast (1856), Storm in 

the Channel, Museum, Amsterdam ; Two 
Marines with Vessels, Museum Foclor, 
ib.; Agitated Sea, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Agitated Sea, Leipsic Museum ; Scheven- 
ingen in Stormy Weather ; Starting out of 
Lifeboat; Storm on Isle of Jersey; Christ 
laying the Storm, A. Belmont, New York. 
Immerzeel, ii. 224 ; Kranim, iv. 1110 ; vii. 
109 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1860) ; *iii 91. 

MEYER> KLAUS, born at Linden, near 
Hanover, Nov. 20, 1856. Genre painter, 
pupil of Nuremberg Art School, then of 
Munich Academy under Wagner and Lofftz; 
successfully imitates the' old Dutch masters. 
Great gold medal, Munich, 1883 ; Berlin, 
1884. Works: In Quarters; Convent 
Scholars ; Would-be Politicians ; Dutch In- 
terior in 17th Century (1882) ; In the 
Beguin Convent (1883) ; Smoking College 
(1884) ; Players at Dice, Smoker (Jubilee 
Eshib., Berlin, 1886). Kunst-Chronik, 
xviii. 369, 578 ; six. 183 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xxi. 637 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviii. 265 ; 
xix. 132 ; xx. 75. 

MEYER, OTTO, contemporary. Genre 
and landscape painter, pupil of Berlin Acad- 
emy, then studied in Italy, whence he re- 
turned in 1848 ; lives in Berlin. Works : 
Southern Life before a Tavern ; Dialogue ; 
From Shepherd Life ; Roman Fruit-Seller. 
Cotta's Kunstbl. (1848), 178 : D. KunstbL 
(1850), 227 ; (1853), 198 ; (1856), 214. 

ARD, born in 
Dantzic, Jan. 7, 
1808, died in Ber- 
lin, Jan. 18, 1879. 
Genre painter, 
first instructed by 
his father, then ' 
pupil of Berlin 
Academy; took 
Ms subjects chief- 
ly from peasant 
life in the Hartz Mountains and Thnringia. 
Member of Berlin Academy in 1836, profes- 
sor in 1855. Medals : 1848, 1850, 1855 ; 
Bavarian Order of Michael, 1859 ; Prussian 


Order of Red Eagle. Works : ALtenburgers 
coming from Church, Altenburgers in the 
Field (1838); Kid, Playmates (1842) ; Little 
Hero (1843) ; Bedfellows, Boarder (1844) ; 
Greeting, Doves, Woman and Child from 
the Hartz, Expectation (1845) ; Grandfa- 
ther's Pet, Mother's Anxiety (1846); Playing 
Children, Taste a Little Bit! Mother's Grief 
(1847) ; Girls from the Hartz, Return from 
Fields (1849) ; Hour of Rest, Knitting Les- 
son (1852) ; Grandmother and Granddaugh- 
ter on Sunday Morning (1853), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Endangered Breakfast (1853); Alten- 
burg Peasant Boy (1855); Old Man at Home 
(1859) ; Little Brother (1860) ; Reward and 
Scorn (1861) ; Before a Cap-Store, Straw- 
berry Girls (1862); Good-for-Nothing (1864); 
Rabbits, Birthday Basket, Eavesdropper 
(1865) ; Kittens, Old Mothers (1866); Girls 
setting Table (1867) ; At the House-Door 
(1869) ; Bleacher "Woman, Turner Girls 
from the Hartz (1877) ; Best Shot (1836), 
Story-Teller at Bleachery (1846), Tid-Bit 
(1852), National Gallery, Berlin ; Woman 
and two Children in a Landscape (1846), 
Girl with Dog, Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Rest 
by Roadside (2, 1847), Domestic Happiness 
(1847), Going to Church (1850), Morning 
Hour (1852), Good Morning, Papa ! (1855), 
Ravene Gallery, ib.; Evening in Venice, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Little Strawberry Picker, 
Stettin Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 
640 ; Autobiography (Berlin, 1883) ; Elustr. 
Zeitg. (1879), i. 120 ; D. Kunstbl. (1851), 
194 ; (1852), 419 ; (1855), 50, 463 ; (1856), 
164 ; (1857), 460 ; Kunst-Chronik, i. 122 ; 
xiii. 244 ; xiv. 289, 342 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersck, 298 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvi. 1, 132. 
in Berlin, Oct. 10, 1838, died at Marburg, 
April 5, 1880. Genre painter, son of Fried- 
rich Eduard, pupil of Berlin Academy; 
then studied in Dttsseldorf, and from nat- 
ure among the peasantry in Hesse and Ty- 
rol ; visited Belgium, Italy, and Switzerland. 
Works : Young Page and Retainer (1858) ; 
Children with Cat (1859) ; Maternal Love 
(1862) ; Market Day (1863) ; Lovesick Girl, 

| Young Mother (1866) ; Hessian Peasant 
Family (1867-68); Schneewittchen, Dorn- 
ruschen (1869) ; Gam- 
blers in Venice ; Musical 
Trio (1875); City Hall 
Chamber in Goslar ; 
Room in Appenzell ; 
Stove in Appenzell 
(1877) ; Country Girl of 
Marburg, Stettin Mu- 
seum. IQustr. Zeitg. 
(1872), i. 47 ; (1875), ii. 
31 ; (1880), i. 341 ; Kunst Chronik, v. 99 ; 
vi. 109 ; xv. 448 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 

born in Berlin, July 
13, 1842. Genre and 
animal painter, son 
and pupil of Friedrich 
Eduard and of Berlin 
Academy ; travelled 
through Germany, 
Tyrol, Switzerland, 
Belgium, and Hol- 
land, studied in Paris, 
and visited London. 
Member of Berlin Academy (1869), and of 
Societe beige des Aquarellistes. Medals : 
Berlin, 1866, 1872 ; Paris, 1867 ; Munich, 
1883. Works: History of Locomotive (7 
pictures), Villa Borsig, Berlin ; Sheep Shear- 
ing ; Snake Charmer in Menagerie (1864) ; 
Goat Market; Circus Riders before Per- 
formance ; Feeding the Marmot ; Wounded 
Lion ; Banquet of Stork and Fox ; Second- 
hand Bookseller (1869), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Dutch Orphan Girl, Savoyard Chil- 
dren (1870); Bremen Town Musicians (1871); 
Court Session of Monkeys ; Monkeys after 
Meal ; Exhibition of Savages (1873), Suer- 
mondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Wood- 
Choppers in the Forest ; Cabbage Harvest ; 
Hay Harvest ; Little Red Riding Hood and 
the Wolf ; Lion Pair ; Charcoal Pile in Ba- 
varian Mountains (1878); Monkey Academy 
(1879) ; Portrait of Artist's Father (1877), 
Dantzic Museum ; Charcoal Burner in the 


Mountains (1878), Kunsthalle, Hamburg 
Village in Thuringia, Stettin Museum ; Por 
trait of Emperor William (1880), Supreme 
Court, Leipsic; Lion's Head, Poulterer, Still- 
Life, Lady of the Manor, Monkeys Scat 
(1883) ; Lioness in Love, Sleep and Death 
(1885); nine paintings representing Nature's 
Life in the different Seasons, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin. Ulustr. Zeitg. (1878), ii. 107 
(1879), i 10 ; (1881), ii. 403 ; (1884), i. 240 
Kunst-Chronik, v. 130 ; xiv. 157 ; Leixner, 
Mod. K, i. 63 ; ii. 23, 121 ; Mailer, 368 ; 
Nord und Siid, xvii. 198 ; Eosenberg, Berl. 
Malersck, 303; D. Rundschau, xiii. 334; 
xx. 463 ; xxi. 149 ; Zeitsehr. f. b. K., v. 123 ; 
vi. 109. 

DER, bom in Dantzic in 1814, died in Ber- 
lin, Jan. 13, 1882. Military, genre, and horse 
painter, younger brother of Franz Eduard, 
with whom he followed the same course of 
study. Works : Three scenes from War in 
Schleswig in 1848; Winter Amusements. 
Cotta's Kunstbl. (1846), 207 ; D. Kunst- 
bL (1850), 178 ; (1854), 160 ; (1855), 383. 

sterdam in 1645, died there, July 17, 1714. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter, son and 
pupil of Frederik Meyiering, a mediocre 
painter ; then spent ten years in France 
and Italy, and after his return executed 
many orders for the royal castles ; with his 
friend and travelling companion, Jan Glau- 
ber, he decorated Castle Soestdyk for Queen 
Mary of England, and is said to have lived 
also in Hamburg. Works : Two Landscapes 
with Nymphs, etc., Berlin Museum; do., 
Brunswick Museum ; do., Schwerin Gallery ; 
do., Moltke Collection, Copenhagen. Ham- 
burg K Lex., 304 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 493. 

MEYNIER, CHARLES, born in Paris in 
1769, died there in 1832. History painter, 
pupil of Vincent and of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts ; won the grand prix de Rome in 1789 ; 
member of the Institute (1816) and profes- 
sor in the ICcole des Beaux Arts. Works : 
The 76th Regiment recovering its Colours 
at Lanspruck (1808) ; Entry of the French 

into Berlin (1811), Versailles Museum ; Pho- 
cion's Ashes, Phorbas presenting (Edipus 
to the Queen of Corinth (1814) ; Si Louis 
receiving the Communion (1817) ; St. Vin- 
cent de Paul and the Foundlings (1824) ; 
Rome giving Justinian's Code to the Earth 
(ceiling in Louvre) ; Infant (Edipus pre- 
sented to Pericles, Louvre. Larousse ; Le- 
jeune, Guide de TAmateur, i. 396. 

Paris, Nov. 4, 1826. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Delaroche, Gleyre, and 
Bridoux. His pictures of religious subjects 
are superficial in feeling. Medals : 1867 ; 
2d class, 1877. Works: First Christians 
(1867); The Miller with his Son and Donkey 
(La Fontaine's fable) ; Staircase of Tersato 
(1868); The Visitation, Church of Bourget ; 
Return from Golgotha ; Victorious Love ; 
Poussin's Walk ; The Bath ; You shall be 
Queen ; Chrysantes and Daria (1877) ; Ve- 
nus punishing Love (1878) ; Virgin's Pre- 
sentiment, Awakening (1879); Angelic Salu- 
tation, Christ followed by the Crowd (1880); 
Acis and Galatea (1881); Charming Woman, 
Woman playing a Flute (1882) ; Truth (1884); 
Mary in Prayer, Women at the Bath (1885); 
Judgment of Paris (1886). Bellier, ii. 83. 

MEYTENS (Mytens),MARTIN VON, born 
in Stockholm, Aug. 24, 1696 (1695, ?), died 
in Vienna, March 23, 1770. German school ; 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Peter Mar- 
tin Mytens, who was a grandson of Daniel 
Mytens, the elder, and called to Stockholm 
as court-painter to the King of Sweden. 
Martin went early to Holland, and in 1714, 
in the suite of George I, to England, thence 
in 1717 to Paris, where he painted Louis 
XV. and Peter the Great ; visited the courts 
of Germany, spent some years in Italy, es- 
pecially in Turin, Florence, and Rome (from 
1724), and in 1726 went to Vienna, where 
in 1732 he became court-painter, and in 
1759 director of the Academy. Works : 
Portraits of Emperor Charles VI and Em- 
press Maria Theresa, Francis L, Stephen, 
King Frederic L, Duke Charles Alexander 
of Lorraine, Joseph H; Five family groups, 



Palace of Schonbrunn, near Vienna ; Family 
of .Charles VI. (1730), Laxenburg Palace ; 
Artist's portrait, Vienna Museum ; do., Uf- 
nzi, Florence ; Old Man's Portrait, Dresden 

St. Michael, Raphael, Louvre. 

Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 662 ; 
Wurzbach, xviii. 193. 

MICHAEL, MAX, born in Hamburg, 
March 23, 1823. Genre painter, pupil of 
Dresden Academy, then in Paris of H. Leh- 
man and Couture ; went to Italy about 1850, 
and with short interruptions lived in Borne 
until 1870. Professor at Berlin Academy 
since 1875. Paints almost exclusively scenes 
from Italian country and convent life. Works : 
Country Girl Writing (1866), Ravene Gallery, 
Berlin ; Genre Scene (1855), Girls' School 
in Sabine Mountains (1874), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg; Neapolitan Fishermen; Pietro 
da Cortona painting an Altarpiece (1876) ; 
Elementary Studies ; Peasant Family (1879); 
Monks in the Choir ; Job and his Friends 

(1880) ; Forest Idyl (1881). Mttller, 369 ; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1882), ii. 419 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xii. 102; Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 
212 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvi. 143. 

MICHAEL, ST., Raphael, Louvre ; wood, 
transferred to canvas, H. 6 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 
5 in.; signed, dated 1518. St. Michael, hav- 
ing descended from heaven, has his foot on 
Satan, and raises his lance with both hands 
to strike him ; red and bluish flames shoot 
up from the crevices of the earth ; back- 
ground, a rugged landscape. Painted in 
Rome for Lorenzo de' Medici, who wished 
to present it to Francis I. to gain his sup- 
port in his pretensions to the Duchy of Ur- 
bino. Restored by Primaticcio in 1530 ; 
again restored in 1685 ; transferred to can- 
vas in 1753, and anew in 1776 and 1800. 
Engraved by ' N. Beatrizet ; Testelin ; G. 
Rousselet ; N. de Larmessin ; F. Chereau ; 
L. Surugue ; A. Tardieu ; Godefroy ; H. G. 
Chatillon. Cld copies numerous. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 365, 389 ; Passavant, ii. 254 ; 
Villot, Louvre ; Cab. Crozat, i. PI. 4 ; Mu- 

st. Michael, Raphael, Louvre. 

see francais, i.; Filhol, iv. PL 235 ; Landon, 
Mus<e, ii. PL 49. 

By Raphael, Louvre ; wood, H. 12 in. x 
10 in.; called the Little Si MichaeL Si 



Michael, in golden armour and winged, 
treads on the neck of the Evil One, and 
raises his sword to strike ; background, sin- 
ners tormented by serpents, and others pass- 
ing before a burning city, whose glare and 
smoke fill the heavens. (Inferno, vii. 23, 24.) 
Painted in Perugia in 1504-5 (?). Belonged 
to Cardinal Mazarin ; bought of his heirs 
for Louis 'XIV. Engraved by Agos. Venezi- 
ano ; Cl. Duflos. C. & C., Eaphael, i 204 ; 
Passavant, ii. 23 ; Miintz, 112 ; Cab. Crozat, 
i. PL 15 ; Landon, Musee, iv. PL 27. 

in Paiis, Oct. 22, 
1796, died there, 
Sept. 24, 1822. 
Landscape paint- 
er, son of the 
sculptor Claude 
Michallon, pupil 
of David, Valenci- 
ennes, Bertin, and / 
Dunouy ; won the { 
grand prix in 1817, 
and a 2d class medal in 1812, when only 
sixteen ; studied four years in Kome, and 
had scarcely returned when his promising 
career was cut short by death. Works: 
View of Saint-Cloud (1812) ; Sunset (1814); 
Sunrise (1817) ; Death of Eoland, Lake of 
Nerni -(1819) ; The Wetterhora and Schei- 
degg Pass (1822); Landscape (1822), Louvre, 
Paris ; Phttoctetes Wounded in Isle of Lem- 
nos (1822), Montpellier Museum ; (Edipus 
and Antigone, View near Naples (Posthu- 
mous Exhibition, 1824). Bellier, ii 85 ; 
Ch. Blanc, iScole fran9aise, iii. 

MICHAU, THEOBALD, bom at Tournay 
in 1676, died in Antwerp, buried Oct 27, 
1765. Flemish school ; landscape and fig- 
ure painter, pupil in 1686 of Lucas Acht- 
schellincx in Brussels, where he became 
master of the guild in 1698 ; entered the 
guildjrf Antwerp in 1710. Successfully imi- 
tated Peeter Bout ; also took Teniers for his 
model. Works: Two Eiver Landscapes, 
Madrid Museum ; Landscape with Figures, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Landscape with Cows 

and Sheep, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Eiver 
Landscapes with Figures (4), Cattle Market, 
Village Kirmess, Augsburg Gallery ; Land- 
scape with Market, Brunswick Museum ; 
Flemish Landscapes (2), Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Landscape, Cattle Market in a Village, 
Schleissheim Gallery; Winter Landscape 
with Skaters, Village Fair, Vienna Museum; 
Landscape, Bergamo Gallery ; do., Caen Mu- 
seum ; do. (3), and Coast Views with Fish- 
monger (2), Cardplayers before Inn, Nantes 
Museum. Ch. Blanc, Ecole fiamande ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), ii. 537 ; Michiels, x. 507 ; Eie- 
gel, Beitrage, ii. 137 ; Van den Branden, 

Fins (Somme), Jan. 15, 1817. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Duhautty, and 
of the Hicole des Beaux Arts. Medals : 3d 
class, 1861; medal, 1865, 1867. Works: 
Crucifixion (1859); Inner Conversion (1861); 
Christ the Source of Life (1865), Amiens 
Museum ; Holy Communion (1866), Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Exiled of the Celestial 
Home (1868) ; Conversion of St. Augustine 
(1870) ; Christ and the Children (1875) ; 
Christ on the Cross (1876); Meditation 
on Death (1877); Patience, Humility (1878); 
Christ the Source of Life (1879) ; Glorifica- 
tion (1880) ; Temptation (1881) ; Entomb- 
ment (1882) ; Humiliation of Christ (1883). 
-Bellier, ii. 87. 

born at Montpellier, July 30, 1833. Genre 
painter, pupil of Picot and Cabanel ; won 
the grand prix de Eome in 1860. A skilful 
young artist of great promise. Studio in 
Montpellier. Medal, 1870 ; L. of Honour, 
1880. Works : Argus put to Sleep by Mer- 
cury (1865), Montpellier Museum ; Daphne 
(1870), Angers Museum ; La Pescivendola 
(1873) ; Decameron (1874) ; Fortune and 
Child, Young Girl in the Fields, Eoman 
Peasants on the Steps of a Convent (1875) ; 
Lisa the Bohemian, The Doves (1876) ; Si 
Martin's Charity (St. Nicolas des Champs, 
Paris), Daphne (1878) ; Glorification (1880); 
Temptation (1881) ; Christ in the Tomb 



(1882) ; Happy Mother (1883) ; Piano in 
the Country (1884). Bellier, iL 87. 

Metz ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Marechal and Migette. Medal, 
1868. Works : Banks of the Ome (1853), 
Nantes Museum ; Olive Harvest (1861), 
Hunt on the Cliff (1868), Metz Museum ; 
Summer Night (1872), Nancy Museum ; Au- 
tumn Sowing (1873), formerly in Luxem- 
bourg Museum; First Shoots, December 
(1881) ; Bois de Meudon in November, View 
in the Vosges (1883) ; Pool of Breuil-Lor- 
raine, Summer Night (1884) ; Downs near 
Haarlem, Environs of Brederode (1885). 
Bellier, ii. 87. 

MICHEL-LlSVY, HENKI, contemporary. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Barrias 
andVollon. Medal, 3d class, 1881. Works: 
Eegatta, Eeverie (1879); Flower Girl (1880); 
Nurse (1881); Ceres (1882); Violoncello 
Player, Public Sale (1884) ; Train of Ver- 
sailles (1885). 

CIATE. See Cerquozzi. 

GLTE. See Cerquozzi. 
HONE, born at the 
Castle of Caprese in 
Casentino, March 6, 
1475, died in Borne, 
Feb. 18, 1564. Flor- 
jentine school; be- 
Scame the pupil of 
Domenico Ghirlan- 
dajo, April 1, 1488, 
* and also studied at 
the Academy in the Gardens of St. Mark, 
where he attracted the notice of its founder, 
Lorenzo de' Medici, who gave him a home 
at the Medici Palace until his death (April 
8, 1492). By the advice of Politian he se- 
lected the Battle between Hercules and the 
Centaurs as the subject of his first bas re- 
lief, preserved in the Casa Buonarroti. Af- 
ter the death of Ms patron, he for a time 

returned to his father's house and devoted 
himself to anatomical studies, but feeling 
bound by ties of gratitude to the Medi- 
ci, he accepted the invitation of Piero de' 
Medici, and resided in his palace until 1494. 
His departure for Venice, shortly before Pi- 
ero's expulsion, closes the first period in his 
life, during which he probably painted a 
Deposition from the Cross, which has been 
attributed to Luca Signorelli and to Baccio 
Bandinelli, and a very fine unfinished Ma- 
donna with Angels, National Gtdlery, Lon- 
don. In the autumn of 1494 Michelangelo 
came from Venice to Bologna, where he 
spent a year in the house of Gian Francesco 
Aldrovandi, working little, and impatient to 
return to Florence. Having sculptured an 
angel for the altar shrine of St. Dominick, he 
returned to his native city before July 15, 
1495. As this notice of Michelangelo relates 
only to his work as a painter, his sculpture 
is only casually referred to. Early in 1496 
he went to Borne and remained there four 
years, during which time he sculptured the 
famous Pietu. at St. Peter's. At Florence, 
before 1504, he painted for Angelo Doni a 
Holy Family, now in the Tribune of the 
Uffizi, one of the least interesting of all cele- 
brated pictures. In October of the same 
year he began a cartoon of Soldiers sum- 
moned to Battle while bathing in the Arno 
near Pisa, intended for a fresco which was 
to have been painted in the Great Hall of 
the Palazzo Vecchio. It was finished in 
Aug., 1505 or 1506, and hung in the hall 
side by side with the rival work of Leonardo 
da Vinci, admired by all and studied by 
young artists until its intentional or acci- 
dental destruction during a popular tumult 
about 1512, though there are reasons for 
thinking that it survived a few years longer. 
In 1505 Michelangelo entered the service of 
Pope Julius H., and from early in that year 
until May, 1506, when he spent three months 
at Florence, he was either employed at Borne 
in designing the Pope's monument or at 
Carrara in superintending the extraction 
and shipment of marbles to be used in -its 


construction. In May, 1506, after a quarrel 
with Julius, Michelangelo fled from Kome 
to Florence. A reconciliation was effected 
between them in August, at Bologna, where 
the artist remained, to cast the Pope's statue 
in bronze, until March, 1508, when he was 
again at Florence for a short time, until his 
forced return to Borne to paint the ceiling 
of the Sistine Chapel. This greatest of his 
works was begun in May, 1508, and the first 
unsatisfactory experiment of painting with 
Granacci, and other assistants, in September 
of that year. Their work having been de- 
stroyed, the great artist grappled with his 
herculean task single-handed. On All Saints' 
Day, 1509, when the ceiling had been half 
completed, the chapel was thrown open to 
the public. Satisfied with the effect, Pope 
Julius then allowed the scaffolding to be 
replaced and Michelangelo to resume his 
labours, which he probably completed in 
1512, although the chapel was not reopened 
until after March, 1513, when the Pope died. 
The vaulted ceiling is divided into compart- 
ments containing scenes from the Book of 
Genesis. Sublime figures of Sibyls and 
Prophets are painted in the pendentives, 
and subjects taken from the Old Testament 
in the lunettes. All these are bound togeth- 
er by a simulated architectural framework, 
vivified by figures representing the genii 
of architecture. The theme of the artist is 
man and his redemption ; the actors in the 
great drama are Adam and his progeny ; the 
assisting chorus, those sublime figures of 
Sibyls and Prophets in which Michelangelo 
displays his unrivalled powers of conception, 
imagination, design, and drawing. Could 
we also add to these power as a colourist, 
we should call him the greatest of painters ; 
but this we cannot do, because colour was 
to him an, in itself, unimportant means for 
the representation of form, upon which his 
essentially plastic genius concentrated itself. 
In the Holy Family, at the Uffizi, his one 
certainly authentic oil picture, the colour is 
cold^nd inharmonious, while in his frescos 
it is of secondary importance. Before the 

death of Pope Clement YE. (1534) Michel- 
angelo had made designs for the fresco of 
the Last Judgment, in the Sistine Chapel, 
and in September of that year it was begun, 
at the bidding of Paul ILL, and finished in 
1541. While the Last Judgment shows no 
sign of diminished power, the frescos of the 
Conversion of St. Paul, and the Crucifixion 
of St. Peter, in the Pauline Chapel (about 
1550), exhibit a marked decline. When Leo 
X. succeeded, in 1513, he appointed Michel- 
angelo architect of the projected, but never 
built, fa9ade of San Lorenzo, and caused 
him to waste three years in marble-buying 
and road-building at Carrara and Seravezza. 
In 1519 he was ordered by Leo to build the 
Chapel of the Medici, begun in 1520, to 
sculpture for it tombs of the famous mem-- 
bers of the family, partially completed in 
1525-29, and to construct the library of San 
Lorenzo, undertaken in 1523, when this 
Pope was succeeded by Clement VII. Six 
years later he besieged Florence to restore 
the Medici, and Michelangelo as commis- 
sioner-general conducted the defence. In- 
this capacity he went to Ferrara to study 
the fortifications, and was commissioned by 
the duke to paint a Leda, supposed to be 
the picture in tempera in the National Gal- 
lery (unexhibited), London. This is the 
only other picture by him, besides those al- 
ready mentioned, in existence, for the Three 
Fates, Pitti Gallery, Florence, belongs to his 
school After Aug. 12, 1530, when Florence 
was betrayed to the Imperial forces, Michel- 
angelo resumed his work at the Medici 
Chapel, and carried it on until 1534, when 
he began to paint the Last Judgment, in 
the Sistine Chapel. Before this time he had 
finished the statue of Moses for the tomb of 
Julius IL, finally completed, on a very re- 
duced scale, in 1545 for the Church of S. Pi- 
etro in Vincula. In 1546 Michelangelo suc- 
ceeded Antonio di Sangallo as head architect 
of St. Peter's, confirmed by papal brief, Jan. 
1, 1547. In February of that year he sus- 
tained, a .severe affliction in the death- of Vit- 
toria Colonna, who had long been the pre- 



siding deity of his life, and to whom he ad 
dressed so many of his finest sonnets. In 
Dec., 1555, he lost Urbino, his faithful ser 
vant more than twenty-five years. The Gran 
Duke of Tuscany tried to induce Michelan 
gelo to leave Kome for Florence, but in vain 
for he feared that if he did so the great cu 
pola of St. Peter's might never be finished 
as he had designed ; and, with the exception 
of a few months spent at Loreto and in th< 
mountains near Spoleto, he did not again 
absent himself from the city. After his 
death his body was secretly taken to Flor- 
ence, where splendid obsequies were cele 
brated in the Church of S. Croce in March, 
1564 Black, M. A. Buonarotti (London. 
1875); AurelioGotti, Vitadi (1875); Spring- 
er, Eaphael and Michelangelo (1878); Heath 
Wilson, Life and Works (1876); Hagen, Acht 
Jahre aus dem Leben M.'s (Berlin, 1869) 
Harford, Life of (1857) ; Burckhardt, 641 ; 
Vasari, eel. Le Mon., xii. 157 ; Quatremere, 
Histoire de (1835) ; Clement, Michel Ange 
(1861), 47 ; Fagan, M in the British Muse- 
um ; C. C. Perkins, Raphael and Michelan- 
gelo (1878) ; Eastlake, Five Great Painters 
(London, 1882) ; Grimm, Zehn Essays, 7 ; 
Lttbke, Gesch. ital. Mai, ii. 82 ; W. & W., 
ii. 575 ; Zeitsehr. f. b. K, i. 223 ; iv. 329 ; 
x. 168 ; xi 26, 56, 94, 117 ; xii. 107, 129 ; 
Bibliography of 300 titles -in Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1876), xiii; L. Passerini, La Biblio- 
grafia di (1875). 

Anselmi, Michelangelo. 

Tibaldi, Pellegrino. 

Anselmi, Michelangelo. 

MICHELE DA VERONA, died May 15, 
1525. Tenetian school ; one of his earliest 
known works, the Crucifixion, in S. Stefa- 
no, Milan, dated 1500, is in many respects 
a copy of Jacopo Bellini. As he repeated 
the same subject on a vast scale in S. M. in 
Vanzo, Padua (dated 1505), it is .likely that 
he had some share in the series which 
adorns the school (Scuola) of the Santo. 

He was again in Verona in 1509, as in that 
year he finished the Eternal with Angels, 

(dated 1508) in S. Chiara. The full meas- 
ure of his ability is given in an altarpiece of 

1523, a Madonna Enthroned, in the Church 
of Villa cli Villa, near Este, where he dis- 
plays a not unpleasant mixture of Morone, 
Cirna, and Buonconsiglio. Other works are 
Pentecost, Miniscalchi, Verona ; Crucifixion 
(1505), Seminario vescovile, Padua. C. & 
C., N. Italy, i. 506 ; Bernasconi, 283. 

fflCHEIINO DA MILANO, 15th cen- 
tury (flourished in 1402-12). Lombard 
school; celebrated for painting auimals; 
decorated parts of Casa Borromeo, Milan, 
with frescos, which show that he had some 
ability in rendering form and in treating 
colour. Possibly identical with Michelino 
da Besozzo or de' Molinari, recorded in 1404 
as a glass painter in the Duomo, Milan. C. 
& C., Italy, ii. 257 ; Burckhardt, 521. 

ster, Dec. 25, 1823, died at Weimar, Jan. 
23, 1868. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; be- 
came professor at the Weimar Art School in 
1863, founded an etching club, and devoted 
lira self to art history. Works : Westpha- 
ian Landscape (1845); Wood-Path with 
Cows ; Hungarian Horses at Sunrise ; Heath 
View, Prague Gallery; Battlefield in Ap- 
proaching Storm ; Elves' Dance ; Destroyed 
Earthwork ; Primeval Forest (1857) ; Wood 
interior, Stettin Museum. Allgem. d. Bio- 
gr., xxi. 693 ; Andresen, v. 259 ; Blanckarts, 

; Dioskuren (1868), 49 ; Kunst-Chronik, 

L 90 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Dasseldf. K., 359 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, ii. 86. 

,t Chieti about 1852. Genre painter, pu- 
}il in Naples of Eduardo Dalbono, then 
tudied in Paris. Lives at Francavilla a 
Mare, near ChietL Works : Procession of 
Corpus Domini at Chieti ; Spring and Love, 
!he Kiss (1878); Shepherdesses in the 
Abruzzi ; Health of the Bride ; Return from 
'ountain ; Child in the Woods ; Driving 
he Flock ; Olive Gatherers ; Through the 


Fields ; Gathering the Flock ; Peasant Girl ; 
Misty Morning Rome ; Children at Foun- 
tain ; In the Fields, Devotees at Shrine of 
S. Pantaleone (1883) ; The Vow, National 
Gallery, Borne. Mtfller, 370 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, xiv. 54. 


MICHOLD, EDMUND, born in Cologne 
in 1818. Genre painter, studied in Cologne 
and Munich, afterwards lived alternately in 
Diisseldorf and Cologne. Works : Tyrolese 
Family ; Musical Shoemaker; Cobbler train- 
ing Bird ; Uncautious Tailor. 

MICON, painter and brass caster of Ath- 
ens, son of Phanochus and fellow-worker at 
Athens of Polygnotus, 5th century B.C. Said 
by Pliny (xxxiii. 56 [160] ; xxxv. 25 [42]) to 
have been the first, -with Polygnotus, to use 
yellow ochre (sil) and black made from 
burned grape-husks. Noted for his skill in 
painting horses. Among his works were 
the Battle of Theseus, and the Athenians 
with the Amazons, in the Poecile at Athens ; 
the same subject, on one of the walls of the 
Theseum, and the Fight between the Cen- 
taurs and the Lapiths, on another wall of 
the same building ; and the Argonautic Ex- 
pedition, in the Temple of the Dioscuri. 
Paus, i. 18, 1 ; Brunn, i. 274. 

MICON, painter, .called the younger by 
Pliny (xxxv. 35 [147]). He was the father 
of Timarele. Brunn, ii. 300. 

MIEL (Meel), JAN, called Bieke, Jamieli, 
and Giovanni 
delle Vite, born 
near Antwerp or 
in Brussels (?) 
in 1599, died in 
Turin in 1664. 
Flemish school ; 
history, genre, 
and landscape 
painter, said to 
be a pupil of 
Geeraard Zegers ; afterwards studied under 
Andrea Sacchi at Rome, then gave up his- 
torical style and painted genre after the 

manner of Pieter van Laar ; called to Turin 
in 1658, as painter to the Duke of Savoy ; 
member of the Academy of S. Luca in 1648. 
His hunting-pieces are much esteemed ; 
figures true to nature and drawn with much 
spirit. Works : Mendicant, Neapolitan Bar- 
ber, Military Halt, Travellers Dining, and 
others, Louvre; Travellers before Italian 
Inn, Rotterdam Museum ; Herdsman with 
Goats, do. with Cattle, Dresden Gallery ; 
See Harbour, Vienna Museum ; Skirmish 
near a Castle, Musee Bath, Geneva ; Prodi- 
gal Son tending Swine, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Venus with Bacchus and Ceres (1645), 
Moltke Collection, Copenhagen ; Mounte- 
bank, Peasants Dancing, Halt of Hunting 
Party, four others, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Feeding of the Poor in Capuchin 
Monastery, Scene in Courtyard of Italian 
House, Schleissheim Gallery; Dead Don- 
key, Stettin Museum; Shepherd Boy and 
Dog, Czernin Gallery, Vienna ; Bustic Scene, 
Bergamo Gallery ; Landscape with Figures 
and Animals, Peasant Family Besting, Herds- 
man and Ox, Two Shepherds with Cow and 
Goats (?), Artist's Portrait, Ufiizi, Florence ; 
Incident of Stag-Hunt, The Meet, Interior 
of Sculptor's Studio, Portrait of Marie de 
Bourbon- Soissons, Turin Gallery; Hunts- 
men Besting, Historical Society, New York; 
Ten pictures in Madrid Museum; Seaport 
with Figures, National Gallery, Edinburgh. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 712 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
225 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 331 ; Kramm, iv. 
1118 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Fetis, 
Artistes beiges a. 1'etranger, i. 315 ; Mi- 
chiels, x. 296 ; Booses (Reber), 408. 

MEELICH (Mtielich), HANS, born at 
Munich in 1516, died there in 1573. Ger- 
man school ; history, portrait, and minia- 
ture painter, perhaps pupil of Sigmund 
Schnitzer (court-painter in Munich about 
1514-36), and influenced by Altdorfer ; ap- 
pears as a master as early as 1546, and after- 
wards became court-painter to Duke Albrecht 
V. of Bavaria. Seems to have visited Italy, 
to judge from an existing copy of Michel- 
angelo's Last Judgment ; excelled in min- 



iature, of which the most remarkable are 
those in the compositions of Orlando d 
Lasso and Ciprian de Rore, in the Cour 
and State Library at Munich. Other works 
Altai-piece with Scenes in Life of Chrisi 
and Mary (1572), Frauenkirche, Ingolstadt 
Christ on Mount of Olives, and Entomb- 
ment, Last Judgment (copy after Michel 
angelo), Frauenkirche, Munich ; Male Por- 
trait (1540), Female do. (1542), Old Pina- 
kothek, ib.; Portrait of himself, National 
Museum, ib. ; Male do. (1540), Museum, 
Vienna ; do. (1543), Liechtenstein Gallery, 
ib.; Duke Albrecht Y. the Magnanimous 
(1545), Philip the Warlike (?), Schleissheim 
Gallery. Nagler, is. 260; Sighart, 707 
D. KunstbL (1853), 413; Kunst-Chronik, 
xx. 715 ; Zimmermann, Hans Mtielich und 
Herzog Albrecht Y von Bayern (Munich, 

YAN, born at 
Delft, May 1, 
1567, died 
there, July 27, 
1641. Dutch 
school ; por- 
trait painter, 
pupil of Willem 
Willemsz and 
of Augustyn, 
then at Utrecht 

of Blockland ; entered the guild of The 
Hague in 1625 ; painted also mythological 
subjects. Charles L invited him to Eng- 
land to paint his portrait. Archduke Al- 
brecht gave him a pension. Works: Por- 
traits of William of Orange (2), Princes 
Philip William and Maurice (1617) of Nas- 
sau, Louise de Coligny and two other 
Princes of House of Orange, Hague Mu- 
seum ; William of Orange, Princes Philip 
William, Maurice, and Frederick Henry of 
Orange, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Jacob 
Cats (2, 1634, 1639), Elector Palatine Fred- 
erick Y, Captain Smeltzing, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Female Portrait (1634), Haarlem 
Museum ; Prince Maurice, Johan van 01- 1 

denbarnevelt (1617), Lady's Portrait (1630), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Count and Countess 
of Nassau, Male Portrait (1627), Female do. 
(1629), Brunswick Museum ; Merry Com- 
pany in Open Ah*, Portrait of Johan van 
Oldenbarnevelt (1617), Gotha Museum ; 
Portraits of Elector Palatine Frederick Y 
and his Consort Elizabeth Stuart (1626), 
Hanover Gallery ; Portrait of the Engraver 
Delff (1638), two others, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Portraits in the Louvre, Paris (3, two dated 
1617, 1634), in Museums of Le Puy (2), 
Lyons (2, 1625, 1631), Berne, Geneva* Ber- 
lin (2, 1624, 1632), Darmstadt (3, one dated 
1630), Dresden (6), Madrid, Naples, New 
York, Nuremberg, Stuttgart (2), Yienna ; 
Galleries of Aschaffenburg, Carlsruhe (1626), 
Christiania, Copenhagen (5, four dated 1621, 
1635, 1638), Oldenburg (2, one dated 1641), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich (2, one dated 1635), 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg (4), Czernin and 
Liechtenstein (1608) Galleries, Yienna ; 
Academy, Yenice ; Uffizi, Florence ; several 



in Town Hall, Delft. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 
713 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole hollandaise ; Des- 
camps, i. 256 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1878), xvii. 
78, 265 ; Havard, A. & A. holl., i. 11 ; Im- 
merzeel, ii. 225 ; Kramm, iv. 1120 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), i 256 ; Kunst-Chronik, xxi. 114 ; 
Nagler, Mon., iii. 1077 ; Riegel, Beitrage, i. 
124 ; ii. 193 ; De Stuers, 78. 

Delft, Oct. 5, 1595, died there, Jan. 11, 
1623. Dutch school ; portrait painter, son 
,nd pupil of Michiel van Mierevelfc, whom 
le successfully imitated. Works : Three 
'ortraits, Dresden Gallery; Husband and 
Wife (1622), Copenhagen Gallery ; Family 
Group, Brunswick Gallery; Lecture on 
Anatomy (1617), Hospital, Delft. Kugler 


(Crowe), ii. 256 ; Kramm, iv. 1123 ; Havard, 
A. & A. holL, i. 34 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, i. 146 ; 
ii. 215 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, viii. 16.. 

MIERIS, FRANS VAN, tho elder, born 
in Leyden, 
April 16, 1635, 
died there, 
March 12, 
1681. Dutch 
school ; genre 
painter, son of 
Jan van Mie- 
ris, goldsmith ; 
pupil of Abra- 
ham Toren- 
vliet, then of 
Gerard Dou, who called him the prince of 
his scholars, and of Adriaen van den Tern- 
pel. His preference for subjects from the 
life of the upper classes shows the influence 
of Metsu ; and a certain humour in some 
of his works, that of his friend Jan Steen. 
Minuteness of execution is carried to the 
highest point in his pictures, his colouring 
is as clear and delicate as it is deep and 
rich, and in the art of painting velvet, satin, 
and other rich stuffs he is unsurpassed. 
Works : Lady in Crimson Jacket, National 
Gallery, London ; Portrait of himself, 
Bridge water Gallery, ib.; Making out the 
Beckoning, Mr. Hope, ib.; Woman reading 
Music, Mr. Baring, ib.; Pedestrian with a 
Flask, Mr. Holford,- ib.; Portraits of him- 
self and of Frank Wouters, Mr. Heusch, ib.; 
Lady at her Toilet, Two Ladies drinking 
Tea, Interior of a Household, Male Portrait, 
Louvre ; Artist and his Wife, Boy blowing 
Soap-Bubbles (1663), Portraits of Florentius 
Schuijl (1666) and of Mieris and his wife, 
Hague Museum ; Lady writing Letter (1680), 
Lady playing Guitar, Frailty, Jacob's Dream, 
Escaped Bird (1676), Amsterdam Museum ; 
Bembrandt's Mother, Brunswick Gallery; 
Boy giving Water to his Bird (1665), Male 
Portrait, Oarlsruhe Gallery; Sent on an 
Errand, Officer with Bumper, Portraits (3, 
one dated 1662), Gallery, Copenhagen; 
Drinking the Health, Beading before School- 

master, Male Portrait (1665), Moltke Collec- 
tion, ib.; Young Peasant Woman drawing 
Water, Girl and Boy with Basket and Pitch- 
er, Woman peeling Apple for Child, Gotha 
Museum ; Man Drinking (1664), Leipsic 
Museum; Oyster Breakfast (1661), Soldier 
in Armor, Lady with Lap-dog, Lady faint- 
ing and Physician (1662), Lady feeding 
Parrot, Lute-player (1663), Conversation 
(1666), Portrait of the Artist, do. of his 
Wife (1667), Boys with Drum and Fife 
(1670), Trumpeter (1672), four others, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Portraits of the Artist 
and his Wife, Lady at the Piano (1658), 
Candaules and Gyges, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Tinker Girl listening to an Old Woman 
(1671), Old Man holding a Pitcher, Young 
Woman with Dog, Old Woman with Flower- 
Pot, Young Soldier Smoking, Old Scholar 
at a Bow Window, Man in Cuirass leaning 
on his Sword, Girl feeding Parrot, Cloth- 
Dealer, The Artist and Wife in his Studio, 
Another Studio Scene, Magdalen (1674), 
Lute-player (1675), Allegory of Poetry, 
Dresden Gallery ; Young Lady before Mir- 
ror, Portrait of Young Man, Berlin Muse- 
um ; The Toilet, Oyster Eepast, The Artist 
and Wife, Female Portrait, two others, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Feeling the Pulse 
(1651), Scene in a Shop (1660), Male Por- 
trait, Museum, Vienna ; Lady Harpist (1668), 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Female Portrait, 
Czernin Gallery, ib.; Portrait of himself, 
do. of his Son Jan, Old Couple at Table, 
Family of the Artist (1675), The Charletan, 

The Sleeper, Old Man offering Money to 
Young Woman, TJffizi, Florence ; The Good 
Mother, Guitar Player, Artist's portrait, Tu- 
rin Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 714; 


Ch. .Blanc, IKcole hollandaise ; Burger, Mu- 
soes, i. 89, 226 ; Dohme, lii. ; Gautier, Guide 
au Louvre, 144-; Gower, Figure Painters, 
73 ; Immerzeel, ii. 226 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 407 ; Kramm, iv. 1124 ; Eiegel, Beitriige, 
ii. 834 ; Quellenschrif ten, xiv. 299 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. IL, xi (Mittheilungen, iv. 17); xvii. 155. 
MIERIS, FRANS VAN, the younger, born 
in Leyden, Dec. 24, 1689, died there, Oct. 
22, 1763. Dutch school; genre and por- 
trait painter, son and pupil of Willem van 
Mieris, but greatly inferior to his father in 
dra'wing, colouring, and finish. He was 
a distinguished antiquary, and published 
\vorks of merit on numismatics and history. 
Works : Hermit in Prayer (1721), Grocer's 
Shop (1715), Pharmacy (1714), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Regents' Piece (1730), Male Por- 
trait, Leyden Museum ; Fishmonger (1747), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Baker and Woman, 
Pedlar and Boy, Cassel Gallery ; Portrait 
of his Father (1737), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Scholar (1717), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Woman and Man conversing by a Stall with 
Eatables (1738), Gotha Museum ; Vertum- 
nus and Pomona (1716), Schwerin Gallery ; 
A Hermit, Christiania Gallery ; The Break- 

fast, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Immer- 
zeel, ii. 228; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 544; 
Kramm, iv. 1126. 

MIERIS, JAJST VAN, born at Leyden in 
1660, died at Eome in 1690. Genre and 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Frans, the 
elder, then of Lairesse ; went via Germany 
to Florence and Borne. As he died when 
thirty, his -pictures are very rare. Works : 
Assembly of Ladies and Gentlemen with 
Lute-Player 3 Gotha Museum ; Surgeon dress- 
ing Wound, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 717. 

MIERIS, WILLEM VAN, born in Leyden 
in 1662, died there, Jan. 27, 1747. Dutch 
school ; genre and mythology painter, son 
and pupil of Frans, the elder, whom in his 

early genre pictures he approached in merit, 
though always inferior in drawing and im- 

pasto. In his 
later time he 
painted mytho- 
logical subjects 
and landscapes, 
which are prosaic 
and totally defici- 
ent in grace. 
Painted small 
easel pictures, es- 
pecially shop in- 
teriors, also historical and mythological 
subjects. Modelled statuettes and vases 
adorned with bas-reliefs. Died blind at 
the age of. 85. Works : Female Poultry- 
Dealer (1713), National Gallery, London ; 
Woman and Violin-Player, Bridgewater Gal- 
lery, ib.; Two Girls, Young Man giving 
Grapes to a Woman, David and Bathsheba, 
Mr. Hope, ib.; Old Woman and a Girl, Mr. 
Baring, ib.; Raree-Show, Mr. Heusch, ib.; 
Three Children, Poultry-Dealer, The Cook, 
Louvre ; Fishmonger (1717), Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Susanna and the Judges, Brussels 
Museum ; Poultry Dealer (1733), Arcadian 
Landscape (1722), Lady and Gentleman, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Grocer's Shop (1717), 
Hague Museum ; Fishmonger with Glass 
of Beer, Basle Museum ; Joseph and Poti- 
phar's Wife, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Old Wom- 
an in Grocer's Shop, Cassel Gallery ; Ceres 
(1719), Copenhagen Gallery; Venus en- 
deavoring to dissuade Adonis from Hunt- 
ing, Darmstadt Museum ; Itinerant Musi- 
cian embraced by Girl (1694), Game Dealer, 
Woman filling Glass for a Man (1699), Man 
blowing a Trumpet (1700), Cephalus and 
Procris (1702), Venus Asleep (1703), Ari- 
adne and Bacchus (1704), Fortune-Teller, 
Girl bringing Drink to a Man (1706), Pre- 
ciosa recognized by her Mother (1709), Ve- 
nus and Paris (1717), Company of Apes 
(1719), Old Cook (1729), Dresden Gallery ; 
Male and Female Portrait, Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; Interior with Lady and Fish- 
monger (1719), Old Pinakothek, Munich; 


Ludolf Bakhuysen as Writing Master (1697), 
Mother's Joy (1708), Game Tender, Male 
Portrait (?), Schwerin Gallery ; Angry War- 
rior (1683), Temptation (1683), Lady in 
Satin Dress (1684), Vienna Museum ; Poul- 
terer, Baron Rothschild, Vienna ; Joseph 
and Potiphar's Wife, Physician attending 
Young Lady, Man with Globe, Old Soldier 
Begging, Looking at a Medallion, Abraham 
casting off Hagar (1724), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Mary Magdalen at the Cross, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Esther before Ahasuerus, 
Milan Academy ; other specimens in Frank- 
fort, Brunswick, and St. Petersburg Gal- 
leries. Allgem- d. Biogr., xxL 716 ; Oh. 



Blanc, .tCcole liollandaise ; Gool, i. 119 ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 228 ; Kellen, i. 17 ; Zugler 
(Crowe), ii. 542 ; Kramm, iv. 1128 ; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 347. 

MIGLLURA, GIOVANNI, born at Ales- 
sandria, Piedmont, Oct. 18, 1785, died at 
Milan, April 18, 1837. Architecture paint- 
er, who won reputation for excellent draw- 
ing and brilliant light effects ; member of 
Milan, Turin, Naples, Vienna, and other 
Academies; court-painter to the King of 
Sardinia. Medal of Honour, Alessandria, 
1829. Works': Convent in Renaissance 
Style (1825), Romeo and Juliet in Lorenzo's 
Cell (1825), National Gallery, Berlin ; Log- 
gia dei Lanzi and Palazzo vecchio at Flor- 
ence/ The Piazetta in Venice, Caiisruhe 
Gallery ; Divine Service in Vaulted Hall, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Interior of Monas- 
tery of S. Paolo near Pavia, Madrid Muse- 
um ; Convent Yard of S. Maurizio Milan 
(1824) ; Monastery of S. Ambrogio ib., 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Piazza del Pan- 
teon in Rome, Bergamo Gallery ; Chapel in 
a Cemetery? Subterranean*Chapel in. a Mon- 
astery, Milan Academy ; View in Venice, 
Interior of S. Marco, ib., S. Zaccaria, ib.; 

Certosa of Pavia, Study from Nature, Carn- 
po Santo at Pisa, A Fountain, View in Mil- 
an, Landscape, Turin Gallery. Wurzbach, 
xviii. 250. 

ice in 1684, died there in 1734. Venetian 
school ; history painter, about whose life 
little is known. He showed .early an un- 
usual talent, which was impaired by an at- 
tack of temporary insanity. Works : Bac- 
chus and Ariadne, Europa sitting on the 
Bull, Joseph interpreting Dreams, Abra- 
ham's Sacrifice, Lot and his Daughters, 
Cain and Abel, Cimon nursed by his Daugh- 
ter Pera, Dresden Museum. 

MIGNARD, NICOLAS, born at Troyes, 
'Feb. 7, 1606, died in 
Paris, March 20, 1668. 
French school; por- 
trait and allegory 
painter, studied at 
first at Troyes, then 
spent several years at 
Fontainebleau, where 
the works of Fremi- 
net, Primaticcio, and / 
Rosso inspired him ' ' ' 

with the desire to visit Italy. In 1644 he ac- 
companied the Cardinal Archbishop of Ly- 
ons to Rome, where he remained two years. 
On his return he "went to Avignon, and when 
that city was visited by Louis XIV. in 1660, 
painted so good a portrait of the king that 
he was called to Paris by royal command, 
and there received all the honours of a great 
painter. Member of Academy in 1663, 
professor in 1664, and rector in 1690. 
Many of his portraits are in private collec- 
tions. Works: Mars and Venus (1658), 
Aix Museum ; Louis XIV. as a Child, Blois 
Museum ; Portrait of Anne Genevieve de 
Bourbon-Condo, Douai Museum; Artist's 
Portrait, Lyons Museum ; Portrait of a 
Bourbon Princess, do. of a Painter, Musue 
Rath, Geneva ; St. John in the Desert, Por- 
trait of Louis .XIV. in his Youth, do. of 
Duchess Cristina of Savoy, Turin Gallery. 
Bellier, ii. 90 ; Ch. Blanc, JScole f rai^aise, 



L; Gaz. des B. Arts (1861), ix. 282 ; (1872), 
vi. 446 ; Jal, 862. 
MIGNABD, PIEERE, the elder, bom at 
Troves, Nov. 7, 
1612 (1610?), 
died in Paris, 
May 30, 1695. 
French school ; 
portrait and al- 
legory painter, 
brother of the 
preceding, pu- 
pil of Jean Bou- 
cher of Bourges, 
and of Vouet. In 1635 he went to Eome, 
where he painted the portraits of Urban 
Vm. and of Alexander VH, and many other 
works, including frescos in churches. In 
1658 he was recalled by the king to Fon- 
tainebleau, where he became the rival of Le 
Brun, to whose honours he succeeded. He 
was court painter, director of the Gobelins, 
and was elected on the same day member, 
rector, chancellor, and director of the Acad- 
emy. Works: Madonna of the Grapes, 
Procession -to Calvary (1684), Ecce Homo, 
Virgin in Tears, St. Luke painting the Vir- 
gin (1685), St. Cecilia (1691), Faith (1692), 
Hope (1692), Neptune offering his Wealth 
to France, The Grand Dauphin and his 
Family, Portrait of Mme. de Maintenon, 
Portrait of himself, Louvre ; Bacchus with 
a River and a Naiad, Amiens Museum ; Ma- 
donna with St. John Baptist, Portrait of 
Madame de Sevigne, Angers Museum ; Chil- 
dren caressing a Lamb, a copy of Guide's 
Magdalen, two portraits, Avignon Museum ; 
Spring-Time, Autumn, Lady of the Court, 
Besane.on Museum ; Portrait of Louis XIV., 
Unknown portrait, Bordeaux Museum ; Por- 
traits of himself and of an unknown paint- 
er, Dijon Museum; Ecce Homo, Douai 
Museum ; Pastorale, Grenoble Museum ; 
Fortune, an Allegory, The Virgin, Judg- 
ment of Midas, Lille Museum ; Portrait of 
Ninon de l*Enclos, two other .Female por- 
traits, Marseilles Museum ; Marshal Vil- 
lars in his Youth, Metz Museum ; Madonna, 

Female portraits (2), Nancy Museum ; Por- 
trait of a Magistrate, Nimes Museum ; Ar- 
tist's Daughter, Orleans Museum ; Holy 
Family, Rouen Museum ; Christ, Three Al- 
legorical Figures, Toulouse Museum ; Diana 
Resting, Brussels Museum ; Jephthah's Re- 
turn, Alexander and Darius's Family, Death 
of Cleopatra, Portrait of his Daughter, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Portrait of Marie 
Mancini, Berlin Museum ; Louis XIV. as 
Endymion with his Mistresses, Darmstadt 
Museum ; Madonna, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Portrait of himself, Portraits of Elec- 
tor Ferdinand, his Wife, and Daughter, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Madonna, Holy Fam- 
ily, Stuttgart Museum ; St. Anthony the 
Hermit, Vienna Museum ; Equestrian por- 
trait of Louis XIV., The Dauphin, Son of 
Louis XIV., Turin Gallery; Ladies 5 por- 
traits (2), Uffizi, Florence ; St. John in the 
Desert, four portraits, Madrid Museum ; 
Madonna (?), Barcelona Museum ; Portrait 
of Louis XIV., Hampton Court Palace ; 
Holy Family, Lady at Toilet, Historical So- 
ciety, New York. Archives de Tart fran- 
c;ais, documents, L 329 ; Argenville, v. 74 ; 
Bellier, ii. 91 ; Ch. Blanc, ICcole franpaise, 
L; Cat du Louvre ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1861), 
ix. 282 ; (1872) ; v. 242 ; vi. 446 ; Jal, 861 ; 

P M 

Keane, Early Masters, 527 ; Memoires ine- 
clits, ii. 86 ; Monville, La vie de P. M. (Paris, 
1730); Stothert, 97. 

MIGNON, Jules Joseph Lefebvre, William 
Astor, New York. Subject from Goethe's 
" Wilhelm Meister. " Full-length, standing, 
with her guitar in her arms, leaning against 
a rock on the shore of the sea, across the 
waters of which she is gazing with sad, 
dreamy eyes. Another, W. H. Vanderbilt 
Collection, New York LUlustration (1878), 


By Ary Scheffer, Duchesse d'Ayen ; two 
pictures, canvas, each H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 2 ft. 8 
in. Subject from Goethe's " Wilhelm Meis- 
ter." 1. Mignon regretting her Country. 
Painted in 1836 ; Salon, 1839. Engraved 
by Aristide Louis. 2. Mignon aspiring to 
Heaven. Painted in 1839; Salon, 1839. 
These pictures met with so pronounced a 
success that Scheffer followed them with a 
third, illustrating the meeting of Mignon 
with her father, entitled Mignon and the 
Old Harper (1844), now belonging to Queen 
Victoria, but it was not so favourably re- 
ceived. The subject of Mignon has been 
treated also by Garipuy (Salon, 1859) and 
Christian Kohler (engraved by Massau, 

MIGNON (Minjon), ABKAEAM, born at 
Frankfort in June, 1640, died at Wetzlar 
in 1679. Dutch school ; flower, fruit, and 
still-life painter ; taken to Holland in his 
twentieth year by Jakob Klarrel, who placed 
him with J. Davidsz de Heem, who per- 
fected him in painting flowers and fruits. 
Works : Flower- and Fruit-pieces, etc., in 
the Louvre, Paris (6); in Museums of Am- 
sterdam (3), Brussels, The Hague (3), Ley- 
den, [Rotterdam (2), Basle, Brunswick (2), 
Dresden (15), Stockholm, Vienna (2); in 
Galleries of Aschaffenburg, Carlsruhe (4), 
Cassel (2), Copenhagen (do., Moltke Collec- 
tion, ib.), Frankfort, Schleissheim (5), Schwe- 
riu (3) ; Old Prnakothek, Munich (2) ; Czer- 
nin, Schonborn, and Liechtenstein (1660) 
Galleries, Vienna ; Hermitage, Si Peters- 


burg (4) ; Uffizi, Florence ; Turin Gallery 
(2). Immerzeel, ii. 229 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii 518 ; Kramm, iv. 1131 ; 'Stagel, B&trage, 
ii. 445 ; Stuers, 87. 

MIGNOT, LOUIS R^MY, bom in South 
Carolina in 1831, died at Brighton, Eng- 
land, Sept. 22, 1871. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Schelfhout, at The Hague. Studio 
in New York, where he was elected N.A. 
in 1859, until 1861, when he settled in 
London. Painted mostly tropical scenery. 
"Works: Tropical Scenery, M. O. Roberts' 
Collection, New York ; Lagoon of Guaya- 
quil South America (1863) ; Evening in 
the Tropics (1865); Tintern, Guayaquil 
Kiver Ecuador (1867) ; Autumn, C. H. 
"Wolff, Philadelphia; Mountain Landscape, 
Village in South America* Corn Field, R. L. 
Stuart Collection, New York) ; Source of 
the Susquehanna (1868) ; Sunset off Hast- 
ings (1870) ; Mi Chimborazo (1871). Art 
Journal (1870), 343 ; (1871), 6. 


MILKY WAY, Eubens, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 6 f t. x 8 ft. Juno, supported 
upon clouds, gives the breast to the little 
Hercules ; his eagerness causes some drops 
of milk to fall into the heavens, where they 
are changed into stars; behind the god- 
dess, her chariot drawn by peacocks. La- 
rousse, xv. 1148. 

By Tintoretto, Cobham Hall, England ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x4 ft 1 in. Juno, 
nude, supported upon drapery in the heav- 
ens and attended by two cupids and two 
peacocks, gives the breast to Hercules, whom 
Mercury is attempting to take from her ; 
drops of milk escaping form the stars of 
the Milky Way. Formerly in Orleans Gal- 
lery, whence sold in 1793 for 50. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 496 ; iii 20 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole v&iitienne ; Larousse, xv. 1148. 

MILL, THE. See Isaac and Rebecca, 
Marriage of. 

born in Southampton, June 8, 1829. Genre, 
landscape, and portrait painter; pupil in 
drawing at Mr. Sass's Academy, and won in 
1838 a silver medal of the Society of Arts 
with a drawing from the antique ; became 
in 1840 a student in the Royal Academy, 


where lie -won in 1843 the silver medal ; he 
exhibited in 1846 Pizarro seizing the Inca of 

Peru, and in 1847 
was awarded the 
gold medal for his 
Benjamites seiz- 
ing the Daugh- 
ters of Shiloh. 
In 1847 he com- 
peted for a com- 
mission to paint 
in the Houses of 

v V, \\ N 

N ^ Parliament, send- 
ing to Westminster Hall The Widow be- 
stowing her Mite, and in the same year his 
Elgiva seized by Odo was in the Acad- 
emy. In the years 1847-49, in connection 
with D. G. Rossetti, Holman Hunt, Wool- 
ner, and others, seven in all, he founded an 
association, afterwards called the Pre-Raph- 
aelite Brotherhood, whose motto was Truth. 
Nothing was to be generalized in their art 
which could and should be expressed in de- 
tail Their theory was that what is common 
in nature is good enough for art. In 1854 
Mr. Millais was elected an A.R.A., being, 
with the exception of Lawrence, the young- 
est artist who has attained that distinction ; 
he became an RA. in 1863, and was created 
a baronet in 1885. He was awarded a 2d 
class medal at Paris in 1855, a medal of 
honour in 1878, in which year he was made 
an Officer of the Legion of Honour, and was 
chosen a Member of the Institute of France 
in 1883. He is a member also of the Acad- 
emies of Edinburgh, Antwerp, Madrid, and 
Rome. Works : Portrait of William Hugh 
Fenn (1848), W. W. Fenn; Grandfather 
and Child (1849), Mrs. Wyatt, Oxford ; 7sa- 
bella (1849), Liverpool Gallery ; Ferdinand 
lured by Ariel (1849), A. C. Allen ; Christ 
in the House of his Parents (1850), F. A. 
Beer ; Mariana of the Moated Grange (1851), 
H. F. Makins ; Return of the Dove (1851), 
Mrs. Combe ; Woodman's Daughter (1851), 
Mrs. Henry Hodgkinson ; A Huguenot (1851), 
Mrs. Miller, Preston ; Ophelia (1852), Mrs. 
FuUer-Maitland ; Proscribed Royalist (1853), 

JohnPender, M.P.; Order of Release (1853), 
Jaiues Renton; Portrait of Ruskin (1854), 
Sir Henry W. Dyke Acland ; The Rescue 
(1855), Holbrook GaskeU ; Random Shot 
(1855), Mrs. Miller, Preston ; Pot Pourri 
(1856), John Pritchard ; Autumn Leaves 
(1856), James Leathart, Tynemouth ; Blind 
Girl (1856) ; Escape of a Heretic in 1559 
(1857) ; News from Home (1857), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore; Sir Isumbras at the 
Ford (1857), John Graham, England ; Spring 
Flowers, Vale of Rest (1859) ; Black Bruns- 
wickers (1860), James Price, England ; White 
Cockade (1862), W. Webster, England; 
The Ransom (1862), C. P. Matthews, Eng- 
land ; Trust Me ! The Sweeper (1862) ; St. 
Agnes' Eve (1863), F. R Leyland, Liver- 
pool ; My First Sermon, Wolf's Den (1863); 
The Conjurer (1864), Major-General Bythe- 
sea, England ; Leisure Hours (1864), John 
Pender, England ; Charlie is my Darling 
(1864), James Reiss, England ; My Second 
Sermon (1864), Charles Gassiot, England ; 
Red Riding Hood (1865), G. Cubitt, MR; 
Swallow! Swallow! (1865), Sir John'Kelk, 
Bari; Joan of Arc (1865), W. C. Quilter, 
M.P.; Eomans leaving Britain (1865), Sir 
L Lowthian Bell, Durham ; Esther (1865), 
Eustace Smith, Tynemouth ; Parable of the 
Tares (1865), John Pender ; The Minuet 
(1866), Sir John Kelk, Bart.; Waking (1866), 
Holbrook Gaskell, England ; Sleeping (1867), 
J. C. Harter, England ; Jephthah (1867), Sir 
William Armstrong ; Stella (1868), Humph- 
rey Roberts, England ; The Sisters (1868), 
C. P. Matthews, London ; Vanessa (1868), 
George Holt ; Rosalind and Celia (1868), A. 
W. Kurtz, England ; Souvenir of Velasquez, 
Pilgrims to St. Paul's (1868) ; Gambler's 
Wife (1869), Humphrey Roberts, England ; 
A Flood (1869), C. P. Matthews ; End of 
the Chapter, Dream at Dawn (both water- 
colours, 1869); Knight Errant (1870), Charles 
Wilson, M.P.; Boyhood of Raleigh (1870), 
James Reiss ; Widow's Mite (1870), T. Agnew 
& Sons, London ; Chill October (1870), Sir 
William Armstrong ; Flowing to the River 
(1871) ; Flowing to the Sea (1871), A. W. 



Kurtz, England ; Victory, Lord ! (1871), 
Mrs. Leopold Reiss ; Yes or No? A Som- 
nambulist (1871); Hearts are Trumps (1872), 
J. H. Seeker, England ; New-Laid Eggs 
(1873), Peter Eeid, England ; Early Days 
(1873) ; Scotch Firs (1873), James Mason, 
England ; Winter Fuel (1873), G. B. Worth- 
ington, England ; Northwest Passage (1874), 
C. F. H. Bolckow, Middlesborough ; Picture 
of Health (1874), Hilton Philipson, England ; 
Still for a Moment (1874), J. S. Morgan, 
London ; Day Dream (1874) ; Forbidden 
Emit (1875), Sir J. E. Millais ; Yes or No ? 
(1875), Mrs. Moir, England ; No ! (1875), 
H. A. Brassey, M.P. ; Deserted Garden 
(1875), D. Thwaites, England; Fringe of 
the Moor (1875), T. H. Ismay, England ; 
Over the Hills and Far Away (1875), Kay 
Knowles, England ; Crown of Love (1875) ; 
Getting Better (1876), Humphrey Koberts ; 
Stitch! Stitch! Stitch! (1876), George F. 
Watts, R.A; Sound of Many Waters (1876), 
David Price, England ; Yeoman of the 
Guard (187C), Mrs. Henry Hodgkinson ; 
Yes ! (1876) ; Good Resolve (1877), Julius 
Keiss ; Bright Eyes (1877), Mrs. Macclon- 
ald, England ; Effie Deans (1877), Eobert 
Loder, M.P.; Jersey Lily (1878), H. Mar- 
tyn Kennard, England ; Princes in the Tower 
(1878), HoUoway Institute, Egham ; St. Mar- 
tin's Summer"(1878); Bride of Laminermoor 
(1878), W. H. Vanderbilt Collection, New 
York; Tower of Strength (1879), J. H 
Eenton, England ; Princess Elizabeth (1879), 
Holloway Institute ; Portrait of Gladstone 
(1879), Duke of Westminster; Cuckoo! 
(1880), Mrs. Bloomfield Moore ; Portrait of 
John Bright (1880), William Agnew, M.P.; 
Portrait of the Painter (1880), Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Caller Herrin' (1881), Walter Dunlop, 
England ; Portrait of Tennyson (1881), James 
Knowles England ; SweetestEyes were ever 
Seen (1881), Everett Gray, England ; Cinder- 
ella (1881) ; Portrait of Earl of Beaconsfield 
(1881), Eight Hon. W. EL Smith, M P. ; Por- 
trait of James C. Hook, RA. (1882), J. C. 
Hook ; do. of Duchess of Westminster (1882), 

J. Dyson Perrins, England ; Pomona (1882), 
Charles Neck, England ; Olivia (1882), E. J. 
Poole, London ; For the Squire (1882), H. 
F. Makins, England ; Princess Marie of Ed- 
inburgh (1882); Gray Lady (1883), T. Agnew 
& Son, London ; Dropped from the Nest 
(1883), W. C. Quilter, M.P.; Une Grande 
Dame, Forget-Me-Not (1883) ; Portrait of 
Marquis of Salisbury (1883), Eight Hon. 
W. H. Smith, M.P.; Idyl of 1745 (1884), 
Frederick Wigan, England; Little Miss 
Muftett (1884), John M. Eleiller, England ; 
Mistletoe Gatherer, Message from the Sea 
(1884) ; Portrait of Henry Irving (1884), 
Garrick Club ; do. of Marquis of Lome 
(1884); do. of Miss Scott (1884), Mrs. T. A. 
Scott, Philadelphia; Ornithologist (1885), 
Sir J. E. Millais ; Orphans (1885), J. S. 
Forbes ; Lady Peggy Primrose, Portrait of 
Gladstone (1885); another Portrait of Glad- 
stone (1885), Christ Church, Oxford. Mil- 
lais has designed numerous illustrations for 
books, including the "Poems of Tennyson," 
'Once a Week," "Good Words," "The Par- 
ables," "Framley Parsonage," and "The 
Small House at Allington." Collective ex- 
hibitions of his works were made at the 
Fine Art Society, London, in 1881, and at 
the Grosvenor Gallery, London, in 1885, 
when 131 oil pictures and 30 water-colour 
and pen-and-ink drawings were shown. 
Sandby, ii. 332; Portfolio (1871), 1; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, v. 309 ; vi. 374 ; Notes on 
Millais's Pictures at Fine Art Soc. (1881) ; 
F. G. Stephens, Notes on Exhibition at Gros- 
venor Gallery (1885); Art Journal (1886), 62 ; 
Spectator, Jan. 2, 1886. 

MILLER, ALFRED J., born in Balti- 
more in 1810, died in 1874. Portrait, fig- 
ure, and animal painter, pupil of Thomas 
Sully ; in 1833 studied in Paris, Rome, and 
Florence ; visited New Orleans in 1837, and 
later sketched in the Rocky Mountains ; 
visited Scotland in 1841, and painted the 
portraits of several members of the> family of 
the Puke of Breadalbane. A valuable collec- 
tion of Indian pictures, from his Rocky Moun- 
tain. sketches, is owned by Sir W. D. Stewart, 



Murthly Castle ; repetitions in water-colour, 
W. T. Walters, Baltimore. Professional life 
spent in Baltimore. Tuckerman, 496. 

New York, March 20, 1842. Landscape 
painter ; in 1867 pupil of Professor Leir in 
Munich, and of the Bavarian Royal Academy ; 
studied in Vienna, Leipsic, Berlin, Dresden, 
and Paris. Elected an A.N.A. in 1873 and 
K A. in 1875. Studio in New York. Works: 
Old MIQ near Munich (1870) ; Sunset at 
Queen's New York, Robert Gordon ; Sun- 
set at Duchau near Munich, Old Mill 
Springfield (1872); Old Oaks at Creedinoor 
Long Island (1874); New York from New- 
town Creek (1876) ; Sunset, East Hampton 
Long Island (1878) ; Cloudy Day (1879) ; 
Fisherman's Home Long Island (1880) ; 
South Side Lane Long Island (1881) ; 
Gray Day on Long Island (1882) ; At Valley 
Stream, Old Mill and Water Gate (1883) ; 
Bouquet of Oaks at Stewart's Pond Jamai- 
ca, L. L (1884) ; Old Mill at Patchogue 
(1885) ; Suburban Wayside, Autumn, Road 
to New York (1886). Art Journal (1877), 
361 ; Mag. of Art (1884), 96. 

MILLER, FRANCIS, bora at Columbus, 
O., in 1854. Figure and genre painter, pu- 
pil of the Pennsylvania Academy, later of 
Carolus Duran in Paris. First exhibit- 
ed at the National Academy in 1883. Stu- 
dio in New York. Works: Potter (1883); 
Local Freight Caboose, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Charity Home (1884) ; Cosey Nook 

MILLET, FRANCIS D., bom at Matta- 
poisett, Mass., in 1846. 
Figure and portrait 
painter, pupil of Yan 
Lerius and De Keyser 
at the Royal Academy, 
Antwerp, where he 
gained medals of hon- 
ourin!872-73. Painted 
in Belgium, Italy, Eng- 
land, France, Austria, 
and the United States. 
Studio in New York. Elected A.N.A. in 

1882; N.A. in 1885. Works: Bay of 
Naples (1875) ; Mouth of the Seine, Bashi- 
Bazouk (1880), J. J. Astor, New York; 
Sweet Mistris Mercie (1881); Koran Read- 
er, Milkmaid (1882) ; Story of (Enone 
(1883) ; Lacing the Sandal, Cottage Gar- 
den, Regina Convivii (1884). Portraits : 
Charles Francis Adams, Samuel L. Clem- 
ens (1877); Miss Kate Field (1881) ; Por- 
trait (1884), Lawrence Barrett ; The Toil- 
ette, A Window Seat, Portrait of General 
Barnes (1885) ; A Handmaid, Cosey Corner 

MILLET, FRANQOIS (Frans Mille), 
called Fran- 
cisque, born in 
Antwerp, bap- 
tized there, April 
27, 1642, died in 
Paiis, buried June 
3, 1679. Flemish 
school ; landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Laurens Franck- 
en, with whom he 
went to Paris, where he formed himself 
after Poussin. Works : View in Italy, Re- 
pose in Egypt, Brussels Museum ; Land- 
scape with Ruins, Bordeaux Museum ; Trib- 
ute to Flora, Nantes Museum ; Italian 
Landscape, Berlin Museum; do., Cassel 
Gallery ; Hagar and Ishmael, Copenhagen 
Gallery; Mountainous Landscape with At- 
tack of Robbers, Darmstadt Museum ; High 
Trees with Buildings, Two Landscapes with 
Figures (?), Dresden Gallery; Landscape 
with Figures and Sheep, do. with Offering 
Ceremony, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Classic 
Landscape, Sea View with Steep Cliffs, Ital- 
ian Landscape, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Landscape, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; do. 
with Nymphs and Satyrs Dancing, Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Italian Mountain Landscapes 
(2), Schwerin Gallery ; Arcadian Landscape, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Mountainous Land- 
scapes (3), Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; 
Landscape with Antique Monuments, Milan 
Academy. Ch. Blanc, ICcole fran9aise ; Fe- 




tis, Artistes beiges ii 1'etranger, ii. 51 ; Jal, 
865 ; Kramm, iv. 1132 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
344 ; Eooses (Eeber), 415 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 1076. 

MILLET, JEAN FRANgOIS, born at Gre- 
ville (Manclie), 
Oct. 4, 1814, died 
at Barbizon 
Jan. 20, 1875. 
Genre painter, 
pupil of Mouchel 
and of Langlois 
in Cherbourg and 
of Delaroche in 
Paris. A peasant 
himself in origin ; his representations of 
peasant Kfe were painted with simple, earnest 
feeling and a comprehension of its pathos 
such as no other painter has reached. His 
best work began in 1849, with contributions 
to the Salon, which were continued up to 
1870. Medals: 2d class, 1853, 1864; 1st 
class, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1868. "Works : 
Milkmaid, Lesson in Riding (1844) ; (Edi- 
pus (1845) ; Jews at Babylon (1848) ; The 
Sower (1849) ; Country Woman Seated, Men 
binding Wheat (1850) ; Shepherds, Harvest- 
ers, Clipping Sheep (1852) ; Grafter (1855), 
Georges Petit, Paris, Hartmann sale (1881), 
133,000 francs ; Gleaners (1857) ; Angelas, 
Death and the Woodcutter, Woman with a 
Cow (1859) ; Waiting, Woman feeding her 
Child, Sheep Shearers (1860) ; Shepherd col- 
lecting his Sheep, Wool Carder, Man with 
Hoe (1863); Shepherdess with her Flock, 
Peasants bringing Home a Calf born in the 
Fields (1864) ; End of Village of Greville 
(1865) ; Goose Girl, Summer (1867) ; Even- 
ing Prayer, Potato Harvest, Potato Planters, 
Sheep-Pasture by Moonlight (1868) ; Knit- 
ting Lesson (1869); November, Woman 
Churning (1870) ; Church at Greville, Bath- 
ers, and crayon sketches, Luxembourg Mu- 
seum. Works in United States: Grafter, 
Water-Drawer, Shepherdess, W. Rockefel- 
ler, New York; Wool Carder, Mrs. Paran 
Stevens, ib. ; After the Bath, Erwin Davis, 

ib. ; Milk-Jar, Blanchisseuse, Farm Yard 
Scene, T. C. Runkle, ib. ; Shepherdess, At 
the Well, Water Carrier, Sower, Hunting in 
Winter, W. H. Vanderbilt, ib. ; Girl Spin- 
ning, Fletcher Harper, ib. ; Milk-Jar, H. V. 
Newcombe, ib. ; Feeding Poultry, Mrs. J. G. 
Fell, Philadelphia; Naiad, Return of Labour- 
ers, and others, Borie Collection, ib. ; Shep- 
herd, H. C. Gibson, ib. ; Ruth and Boaz, 
Buckwheat Harvest, Coming Storm, Rabbits, 
Washerwomen, Knitting Shepherdess, M. 
Brimmer, Boston ; Many pictures and draw- 
ings, Q. A Shaw, ib.; Several, Boston Mu- 
seum; Knitting Shepherdess, R C. Taft, 
Providence ; Pastoral Scene with Sheep, G. 
A. Druinmond, Baltimore ; Breaking Flax, 
Potato Harvest, Wheat Field, Angelus, Shep- 
herd at Fold by Moonlight, W. T. Walters, 
ib.; Birth of the Calf, H. Probasco, Cincin- 
nati. After Millet's death 56 pictures and 
studies in his studio, many unfinished, sold 
for 321,034 francs. Ales. Piedagnel, Sou- 
venirs de Barbizon (Paris, 1876) ; Sensier, 
Vie et (Euvre de J. F. Millet (Paris, 1881) ; 
Ait Journal (1881), 299 ; Athenaeum (1875) ; 
Larousse ; L'Art (1875), L 149 ; Burfcy, Mai- 
tres, 278 ; Claretie, Peintres (1874), 28 ; Cla- 
retie, Artistes et Amateurs, 386 ; Leclerq, 
Caracteres, 115 ; Meyer, Gesch., 640 ; Ros- 
setti, French Artists ; Gaz. desB. Arts (1869), 
ii. 8 ; (1875), xi. 429 ; (1876), xiii. 760; (1881), 
xsiii. 457; sxiv. 56; (1885), xxxi. 473; 
Kunst-Chronik, s. 360 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
ii. 121. 

MELLNER, KARL, born in 1825. Land- 
scape painter, who takes his subjects mostly 
from the Bavarian and Tyrolese Alps, which 
he represents with great truth to nature and 
technical skill, being especially successful in 
painting stone and rocks. Many of his pict- 
ures have been bought for America. Works : 
Evening on the High Kampe (2, 1860), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; GosauLake, TheOber- 
see near Berchtesgaden, Schack Gallery, ib.; 
Alp in Bavarian Highlands (1856), Berne 
Museum. D. Kunstbl (1854), 440. 

MILO, painter, of Soli, pupil of the sculp- 
tor Pyromachus. Pliny, xxv. 40 [146]. 



MILTON, portrait* Cornells Janson van 
Ceulen, Passmore Edwards, M.P., London. 
Milton at the age of ten years ; full face, fig- 
ure seen to waist, life-size. Long in posses- 
sion of T. Hollis, who purchased it in 1760 
bought by Mr. Stanhope of the poet's widow 
for 20 guineas, and is probably the one re- 
ferred to by Aubrey. Sold in 1884, 346 
10s. Engraved by Cipriani ; Boydell (1794) 
appears as frontispiece in Masson's Life of 
Milton. London Times, May 12, 1884 

LOST, Michael MunMcsy, Lenox Gallery, 
New York ; canvas. Milton seated at left 
beside a table, around which are grouped 
his three daughters, one writing, another 
embroidering, the third standing ; all look 
towards their father, as if intent upon his 
words. Painted in 1877 ; medal of honour 
at Paris Exhibition, 1878 ; purchased by 
Robert Lenox Kennedy, of New York. 
Etched by G. Greux, in Portfolio. Port- 
folio (1880), 109; Am. Art Rev. (1881), ii. 
17 ; Amer. Architect (1879), 195. 

MIND, GOTTFRIED, born at Berne in 
1768, died there, Nov. 7, 1814 ; or, accord- 
ing to Wnrzbach, bom at Lipcse, Hungary, 
in 1768, died at Berne, Nov. 15, 1814. Ani- 
mal and genre painter, first instructed by 
one Legel, then pupil of Sigmund Freu- 
denberger, in whose house he thenceforth 
remained, faithfully assisting the master. 
Mind's specialty was the representation of 
cats, in which he had ho equal ; many of 
his pictures became widely known through 
lithographs and engravings, and won him 
the surname of the Cat Raphael. Among 
his genre pictures those of children at play 
were the most successful. Works : Various 
Animals, Cat with her Young, Landwehr- 
mann of Berne, Two Poodle Dogs, Basle 
Museum ; Groups of Cats (3), Berne Mu- 
seum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xxi. 765 ; Wurz- 
bach, xviii. 339. 

in Rotterdam in 1632, died in Antwerp, 
July 22, 1696. Flemish school; marine 
painter, Free of guild at Bruges in 1663, 

moved to Antwerp in 1672, and forthwith 
entered the guild there. Painted harbours 
and rivers with vessels very truthfully, but 
the numerous figures in his pictures are of 
inferior merit. Works: Harbour in the 
Levant (1675), Antwerp Museum ; do., Rou- 
en Museum ; do., Christiania Gallery ; View 
of Reservoir at Bruges (1653), Bruges Acad- 
emy ; Seaport (1673), Dresden Museum ; 
two River Views with Skippers Feasting, 
Madrid Museum ; Storm at Sea, Turin Gal- 


lery. Cat du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 483 ; 
Krarnin, iv. 1134 ; Van den Branden, 876. 

MINERVA or Athena, pictures. See An- 
tiphilus, Cleanthes, Fabullus. 

retto, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; canvas. Mi- 
nerva repels the God of War with her left 
hand, and with her right protects Peace and 
Abundance, who are seated together. En- 
graved by Agos. CarraccL Bartsch, xviii. 
105 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 217. 

Manchester Gallery ; canvas, H. 6 ft. x 7 ft. 
4 in. A tribute to the memory of Oliver 
Goldsmith; suggested by "The Deserted 
Village," though not meant as a portrait of 
"Sweet Auburn." Composition made in 
and about the hillside that crowns the vil- 
lage of Sandhurst. The Minister's Garden, 
an old-fashioned one, with hollyhocks, roses, , 
and marigolds, occupies the foreground on 
ihe slope of the hill which fades away into 
the distance ; at left, under a tree, are bee- 
lives ; in the middle distance, a few figures. 
Grosvenor Gallery, 1878. Mag. of Art (1884), 
483 ; Gosse, Cecil Lawson, 20, 25. 

MINJON. See Mignon. 

Stryi, Galicia, April 12, 1847. Genre paint* 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy under Eduard 
Engerth, settled in Vienna. Medal in Phila- 
delphia, 1876. Works : Tete-a-Tete ; Mom- 
ing Bath ; Studying Monk (1874); Sleeping 



Nymph ; Maximilian I (dining-room, Im- 
. perial Palace,. Vienna). Mtiller, 372. 

MINOR, EOBEKT C., born in New York 
in 1840. Landscape painter, pupil of Diaz 
in Paris and of Van Luppen and Boulanger 
in Antwerp. Sketched in Germany and 
Italy. . Exhibits at the National Academy. 
Member of Society of American Artists. 
Studio in New York. Works : Dawn ; Stu- 
dio of Corot ; Landscape, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Sundown ; Stream (1879) ; October 
Days, Evening (1880); Evening Star (1881); 
Vale of Kennet, Edge of the Wood (1882) ; 
Interior of the Forest, Morning in June 
(1883); Evening, Twilight, Wold of Kent- 
England (1884) ; Twilight, Cradle of the 
Hudson, Sunrise on Lake Champlain (1885); 
Autumn Morning, Evening after Eain, Close 
of Day (1886). 

M. W. Turner, Earl of Yarborough ; can- 
vas. The Minotaur, a 74-gun ship, with 
600 men on board, was wrecked on the 
Haaks Bank, Dutch coast, Dec. 22, 1810 ; 
only 110 persons saved, landed on the Texel 
and made prisoners. The ship lies on her 
side, with only the stumps of her masts 
standing ; enormous waves dash against her 
from behind, and the foreground is filled 
with wreckage, to which many of the crew 
are clinging ; several Dutch craft are trying 
to rescue the survivors. One of Turner's 
masterpieces. Painted in 1811 for first 
Lord Yarborough. Engraved by T. O. Bar- 
low. Athen., Jan., 1875 ; Waagen, Art 
Treasures, iv. 70. 

MINTKOP, THEODOR, born at Bark- 
enhofen, near Warden 
on the Ruhr, Rhenish- 
Prussia, April 7, 1814, 
died in Dttsseldorf, 
June 30, 1870. His- 
tory and genre paint- 
er, son of a peasant, 
at first self-taught, \ 
then, brought to Dtts- 
seldorf by Eduard 
Geselschap, pupil of the Academy under 


Karl Sohn, where his unusual talent was 
rapidly developed and widely noticed after 
the exhibition of his first pictures. Works : 
Madonna with St. John (1852), Dttsseldorf 
Gallery ; Madonna with SS. Ludgerius and 
Benedict (1856-59) ; Maywine Bowl (1869), 
Cologne Museum. In fresco : Frieze with 
the Seasons ; Four Elements ; Trade and 
Industry ; Four Species of Music ; Scenes 
from Life of Apollo ; Triumph of Aurora. 
Allgem. cl. Biogr., xxi. 771 ; Art Journal 
(1870), 308 ; Blanckarts, 36 ; Blustr. Zeitg. 
(1871), L 291 ; (1874), ii. 494; (1875), i. 227 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, i. 136; v. 160; ix. 459; 
Wolfg. Mtiller, Diisseldf. K, 56 ; Zeitschr, 
f. b. K, vi. 104 ; x. 128. 


lini, Venice Academy ; canvas, H 10 ft. x (?); 
signed. Pietro di Lodovico kneeling before 
an altar in an octagon shrine in a choir to 
be cured by the relic of the cross, which is 
presented by a brother ; groups of specta- 
tors in front. Painted about 1494 for the 
Scuola of S. Giovanni Evangelista. Much 
injured by repainting. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
129 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 82. 

Manila, Hospital de la Caridad, Seville ; 
canvas, H. 11 ft. 6 in. x 18 ft. Christ, seat- 
ed on a rock in a hilly landscape, with a 
loaf in his hands, is surrounded by the Dis- 
ciples, one of whom lays four loaves in the 
Saviour's lap ; a boy approaches with two 
fishes in a basket ; the multitude seated on 
the right. Painted in 1670-74 for the hos- 
pital ; companion to Moses striking the Rock. 
Engraved by J. G. Levasseur ; Boilly. Cur- 
tis, 191 ; C. Bermudez, Carta, 74 ; Stirling, 
ii. 852. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. Christ, the Disciples, and the crowd 
of seven thousand poorly represented by 
twenty-one figures ; the landscape, the slope 
of a woody bill, is grand. Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 339. 

St., Miracle of. 



MIBOU, ANTON, flourished 1614-53 in 
Flanders. Flemish school ; painted land- 
scapes with biblical scenes in manner of 
Jan Brueghel ; also hunting-pieces with 
horsemen. Works : "Wood Landscape with 
Hunters (1614), Gotha Museum ; Wood In- 
terior with Christ's Temptation (1607), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Duck-Hunting (1653), 
Berlin Museum ; Landscape with Saul's Con- 
version (?), Museum, Vienna ; two Land- 
scapes, Schunborn Gallery, ib.; Landscape, 
Copenhagen Gallery ; two great Landscapes 
with many figures, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Landscape with Abraham and Hagar, 
Madrid Museum. Nagler, ix. 313. 

MISERS, THE, Jan Massys, Windsor 

The Misers, Jan Massys, Windsor Castle. 

Castle ; wood, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft Two fig- 
ures, a man and his wife, seated at a table, 
the former writing in a ledger, the latter 
leaning one arm on his shoulder and the 
other on the table, on which are jewels, 
coins, an inkhorn, a purse, etc. Long in 
Amsterdam, whence purchased in last cen- 
tury for the royal collection. Attributed to 
Quinten, but probably a repetition by Jan 

Massys of a picture by his father. Engraved 
by Kichard Earlom ; Fittler. Beveil, ix. 
632 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 116. 

William H. Powell, rotunda of Capitol, 
Washington; canvas, H. 12 ft. x 18 ft. 
Fernando de Soto and his followers coming 
in sight of the Mississippi Eiver in June, 
1540, near the present site of Helena, Ark. 
Painted in 18 for $12,000. Engraved on 
back of $10 United States National Bank 

MITELLL See Metelli. 

Melbourne Gallery, Victoria. The interior 
of a cottage ; at right, a mother with her in- 
fant in her arms and an older child stand- 
ing behind her chair ; in centre, the grand- 
mother and two other children ; all are 
looking with sympathy at the mitherless 
bairn, who with downcast eyes stands be- 
side a chair at left. Painted in 1855 ; sold 
at Christie's in 1886 for 945. 

MNASITHEUS, of Sicyon, third-rate 
painter. Pliny, xxxv. 40 [146] ; Brunn, ii. 

MNASITBIUS, third-rate painter, son 
and pupil of Aristonidas. Pliny, xxxv. 40 

MOB CAP. See Bootliby, Penelope. 

MOCETTO (Moceto, Mozzetto), GIRO- 
LAMO, of Verona, end of 15th and begin- 
ning of 16th century. Venetian school ; 
journey man to Giovanni Bellini, and perhaps 
to one of the Vivarini. Best known by his 
copper-plates. He was one of the few Italian 
masters of the time who were not influenced 
by the works of Dilrer. The great window 
of S. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice is signed 
Hieronymus Mocetus. Lazari says it was 
painted from his cartoon in 1473 (?). Among 
his paintings are a Madonna, Chapel of S. 
Biagio, SS. Nazario e Celso, Verona ; anoth- 
er, Vicenza Gallery ; and the bust of a man, 
Modena Gallery. C. & C., N. Italy, L 504 ; 
Ch. Blanc, iScole venitienne ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1859), xi. 321 ; Vasari, ed Le Mon., 
v. 12 ; Burckhardt, 190 ; Bartsch, xiii. 215 ; 



Willshire, Int., 444; Duplessis, Merveilles 
de la Gravure (1869), 35 ; Bernasconi, 265. 

MODEL, CHOICE OF A (La Modela), 
Mariano Fortuny, William Stewart, Paris. 
Academicians of Saint Luke, Eome, choos- 
ing a model. A group of painters, in the 
costume of the 18th century, are examining 
critically a nude young woman who is pos- 
ing upon a marble table. The painter has 
placed the scene in one of the salles of the 
Colonna Palace. Painted in Rome in 1873. 
DaviUier, Fortuny, 97, 113. 

MOELLEE, LOUIS, born in New York 
in 1855. Genre painter, pupil of the Na- 
tional Academy, studied under Duveneck 
and Professor Dietz at Munich; spent six 
years abroad. First exhibited at National 
Academy in 1883. Studio in New York. 
Works : Blunder, Selection, Morning News, 
T. B. Clarke, New York ; Road to School 
(1883) ; Puzzled (1884) ; Short Measure 
(1885) ; An Interior (1886). 

TOIRE FRlSDlSRIC, born in Paris, April 
10, 1784, died in 1867. History painter, 
pupil of Girodet-Trioson. Medal, 2d class, 
1817. Works: Boreas and Orythia (1817); 
Diana and Actseon ; View at Rome ; Holy 
Family (1831) ; Christ taken from Tomb by 
Angels (1842) ; King Candaules and his 
Wife (1846); Waiting, Return (1847) ; Two 
Views of Report (1850); Study of a Wom- 
an (1855); Naiad; Susanna Bathing (1857); 
Circle of Cupids (1859); Birth of Venus and 
Cupid (1861). Beffier, ii. 102 ; Larousse. 

Brussels in 1819, died there, Dec. 7, 1884. 
Architecture and landscape painter ; visited 
repeatedly France and Italy. Medals : Par- 
is, 1853, 1855, 1861 ; Brussels, 1854 ; Ly- 
ons, 1858 ; Metz, 1861 ; Order of Leopold, 
1860. Works : Interior of Studio in Brus- 
sels (1868); Si Gudule's, ib.; Canal in Ven- 
ice (1864); San Marco, ib.; Great Choir in 
San Marco, ib. ; Court of Doge's Palace, ib.; 
Chapel of S. Giovanni in San Marco, ib.; 
Isle of S. Giorgio near Venice; Interior of S. 
Maria in Belein ; Roman Arcades inSpalato ; 

View from Montjuich ; Lion Court of Al- 
hambra ; Mosque of Cordova ; View in Ant- 
werp, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Decorations, 
staircase of Eoyal Palace, Brussels. Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1864), xvii. 372 ; (1865), xix. 
26 ; (1867), xxiii. 16 ; Chronique des Arts 
(1884), 512 ; Miiller, 375. 

born at Eekeren, near Antwerp, May 3, 1801. 
Landscape and battle painter, pupil of Ant- 
werp Academy ; won several prizes, then 
studied at The Hague the masterpieces of 
Wouwermau and Berchem, and in Paris un- 
der Horace Vernet. He painted landscapes 
conjointly with Schelfhout. Works: Out- 
post of Cossacks (1827), Horse-race (1829), 
Stable Interior, Amsterdam Museum ; do. 
(1840), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Skirmish ou 
Yzerenberg near Louvain (1833) ; Winter 
Landscape with Horses and Figures (1840); 
Falcon Chase (1841) ; Sleigh on Frozen Ca- 
nal (1848), Lady riding in Falcon Chase 
(1846), New Pinakothek, Munich. Immer- 
zeel, ii. 232. 

MOEYABT. See Moyaert. 

MOHN, VICTOR PAUJL,, born at Meis- 
sen, Nov. 17, 1842. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy and of Ludwig 
Eichter, then studied in Eome, 1866-69. 
Works : Easter Morning in the Campagna, 
Day in February at Torre del Quinto(1871); 
Sunday in Spring (1872); Wedding Journey 
(1876); Decorations in Eoyal Theatre, Dres- 
den (1876-77). Mtfller, 373. 

MOJA, FEDEEICO, born in Milan in 
1802. Architecture painter, pupil of Milan 
Academy under Migliara, like whom he 
painted exterior and interior views of 
churches, palaces, etc., enlivened with many 
figures. Works : Interior of Milan Cathe- 
dral (1838), Vienna Museum ; San Marco in 
Venice ; Interior of Si Germain's in Paris 
during Siege under Henry IV., do. of Cap- 
pella di Eosario, Venice, Doge's Palace, ib.; 
The Certosa near Pavia (1844) ; San Maria 
de' Frari, Venice (1852) ; Amphitheatre at 
Verona (1853); Interior of Trappist Monas- 
tery ; Canal Grande in Venice (2); San Mar- 



co, ib. ; Certosa near Pavia (1857), Emperoi 
of Austria. Wurzbach. sviii. 449. 

MOL, PEETEE VAN, born in Antwerp, 
Nov. 17, 1599, died in Paris, April 8, 1650, 
Flemish school ; history and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Seger van de Grave ; imitator 
Eubens. Master of the guild in 1622-23, 
went to Paris in 1631, and was one of the 
founders of the Academy of Painting in 
1648. His colour is heavy and wanting in 
harmony. Works : Adoration of Magi, Ant- 
werp Museum ; Descent from the Cross, 
Louvre ; do., in Lille and Reims Museums ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Diogenes with the Lantern, Orleans 
Museum ; Continence of Scipio, Rouen Mu- 
seum ; An Elder, Lyons Museum ; Pharaoh's 
Daughter, Mentz Museum ; Isaac blessing 
Jacob, Berlin Museum; Ecce Homo, Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Head of Si John Bap- 
tist, Copenhagen Museum. ; Portrait of David 
Teniers the elder ; do. of 
(Anna of Austria. Ch. 
Blanc, ficole flamande ; 
Jal, 868 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 316 ; Kramm, 
iv. 1138 ; Rooses (Reber), 327 ; Van den 
Branden, 765. 

Coldre, near Co- 
mo, in 1612, died 
in Rome, May 13, 
1666. Bolognese 
school ; son of 
Giovanni Battista 
Mola, an archi- 
tect ; pupil in 
Rome of Cavaliere 
d'Arpino ; after- 
wards studied in N 
Venice, and settled at Bologna, where he 
became the friend and pupil of Albani. Re- 
turned to Rome and was patronized by In- 
nocent X., by Alexander VIL, Queen Chris- 
tina of Sweden, and by most of the nobility. 
He became prince of the Academy of St. 
Luke, and was invited to France by Louis 
XIV., who offered him a large salary ; but 
Mola died while making preparations for 

his departure. He painted both historical 
subjects and landscapes. His manner is 
somewhat like that of Guercino. Among 
his works are : St. Peter delivered from 
Prison, and Conversion of St. Paul, in the 
Church del Gesti, Rome ; Joseph making 
himself known to his Brethren, Quirinal 
Palace, Rome ; Assumption, St. Michael the 
Archangel, S. Marco, Rome ; Adoration of 
the Magi, do. of the Shepherds, and Paint- 
er's portrait, Uffizi, Florence ; Abraham and 
Hagar, Capitol, Rome ; St. Bruno, Palazzo 
Doria, Rome ; Vision of St. Rombold, Naples 
Museum ; St. John preaching in the Wilder- 
ness, Repose in Egypt, National Gallery, 
London ; Baptism of Christ, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Death of Dido, Hero by the Body 
of Leander, Dresden Museum ; Marriage of 
St. Catharine, Konigsberg Museum ; The 
Magdalen in a Cavern, Abraham casting off 
Hagar, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Jacob in 
Conversation with Rachel (2), Repose in 
Egypt, Hermitage, St.' Petersburg ; Rape of 
Europa, Leuchtenberg Gallery, ib.; St. John 
predicting the Coming of the Messiah, Stutt- 
gart Museum ; Hero finding Leander's Body, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna; Repose in 
Egypt, Harrach Gallery, ib. Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 764, 793, 808. 
MOLENAER, CORNELIS, called Strabo 
or Neel de Scheeler (cross-eyed), born in 
Antwerp about 1540, died there after 1591. 
Flemish school ; landscape painter of great 
merit; master of the guild in 1564. His 
pictures show a certain grandeur of com- 
position, fine colouring and perspective, 
and especially elaborate treatment of trees. 
Painted by the day like a workman and 
often finished a landscape per diem, for 
which he was paid a daelder (1 fl. 50). 
Works: Winter. Landscape with Skaters, 
Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Wood do. with 
Good Samaritan, 
Berlin Museum; 
Peasant Company, 
Flemish School, 
Peasants Dancing, Stuttgart Museum ; Win- 
ter Landscape, Stockholm Museum ; Three 




Marines, Madrid Museum. Michiels, vi 
143 ; Nagler, MOD., ii. 135 ; Eooses (Beber). 
116 ; Van den Branden, 272. 

Haarlem, died there, buried Sept. 19, 1668, 
Dutch school ; genre painter ; imitator, if 
not pupil, of Frans Hals, later influenced 
by Kembrandt. His pictures representing 
peasant life are animated, the colouring 
warm and clear. Works : Peasant Woman 
and Boy, Buckingham Palace, London 
Tailor's Shop, Earl of Shrewsbury, Alton 
Towers ; Dutch Interiors (2), Brussels Mu- 
seum ; Evening Prayer, Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Village Festival (1658), Hague Muse- 
um ; Two Rustic Interiors, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Merry Peasant Party, Peasant and 
Fiddler, Dresden Gallery ; Interior of Flem- 
ish Tavern, Village Wedding, Musee Rath, 
Geneva ; Tavern with Dancer (1659), Bal- 
lad Singer, Berlin Museum ; Guard Room, 
Brunswick Museum ; Peasant Wedding in 
Village Inn, Oarlsruhe Gallery; Jealous 
Wife at the Inn (1650), Gallery, Copenha- 
gen ; Frugal Repast, Moltke Collection, ib.; 
Peasants at Cards in Tavern, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; do. (2), and Peasants Dancing, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Smoker holding a Glass, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Dutch School- 
room, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck; Interior 
of a Smithy, Konigsberg Museum ; Peasants 
Carousing, Leipsic Museum; Winter Land- 
scape with Skaters, Oldenburg Gallery; 
Rustic Interior, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Interior with many Figures, Winter Palace, 
ib.; Peasants at Cards, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Peasant with Mug, Woman Singing, 
Merry Company, Peasants' Brawl, Schwerin 
Gallery ; Peasant Company (2), Feast of the 
Bean, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Boors 
Regaling, The 

ciety, New York Allgem. d. Biog., xxii. 
210 ; Bode, Studien, 199, 615 ; Burger, Mu- 
sees, ii. 268 ; Immerzeel, ii. 234 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii 426 ; Kramm, iv. 1139 ; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 338 ; Zeitschr, f. b. K, xvii. 157. 


born in Haarlem, died there, buried Dec. 
31, 1676. Dutch school; landscape and 
genre painter in the manner of Isaak von 
Ostade and Dekker ; joined the Haarlem 
guild in 1651. Has often been confounded 
with the much earlier Flemish master, Cor- 
nells Molenaer. Works : Bleachery, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Canal with Skaters, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; Winter Landscape, 
Christiania Gallery ; do., Bamberg Gallery ; 
do., Leipsic Museum ; do., and Peasants at 
the Inn, Schwerin Gallery ; do., Historical 
Society, New York ; Two River Landscapes, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Ballad Singer before 
Village Inn (1650), Schleissheim Gallery; 
Two Landscapes, Stuttgart Museum ; Win- 
ter Landscape, and 1* 
two others, Liech- /I 
tenstein Gallery, f 
Vienna. Kugler / vf 
(Crowe), ii. 426 ; Kramm, iv. 1130 ; Bode, 
Studien, 205 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 353, 398 ; 
Van der Willigen, 225. 

MOLENAER, PEETER. See Meulen&>\ 

LOUIS XTV., Jean Leon Gbrdme, James H. 
Stebbins, New York. Scene illustrating a 
doubtful story narrated by Madame Cam- 
pan, that the King, when trying to create 
the drama in France, finding that his gen- 
tlemen refused to dine with Moliere, the 
upholsterer's son, put them to shame by in- 
viting him to his own table. Photogravure 
in Art Treasures of America. Art Treas. of 
Arner., i. 99. 

By Hegesippe Jean Vetter, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. 
Salon, 1864. 

MOUNO, EL See Isaac and Rebekah, 
Marriage of. 

MOLLER, JENS PETER, born at Faa- 
borg, in Fttnen, Oct. 5, 1783, died in Copen- 
hagen, Sept. 29, 1854 Landscape painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; visited Bel- 
gium, France, and Italy, in 1810-13, studied 
n Paris the works of Claude Lorrain, re- 
turned to Denmark in 1815, became profes- 



sor, member of the Academy, and conserva- 1 fessional (1838), Vienna Museum ; Piet&, 
tor of the Royal Gallery in 1826. Order ot Three portraits, Fondazione Poldi-Pezzoli, 

Dannebrog, 1829 ; Officer, 1840. Works 
Views of Castles Kronborg and Frederiks- 
borg, Wetterhorn and Rosenlaui Glaciei 
(1834), Wood-Path near Elsinore (1838), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Strait of Svendborg, 
Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen; Foui 
Divisions of Day, Castle Christian sborg. 
Raczynski, iii. 549 ; Weilbach, 506. 

Drammen, Norway, in 1829. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen and Diissel- 
dorf Academies ; visited Switzerland, Paris, 

and the North of Europe. 
1873 ; lives in Dttsseldorf. 

Medal, Vienna, 
Works : Water- 

uge at Lysakiel ; 
Landscape (1860), 

fall in Norway ; Wetterhorn ; Norntis in the 
Sogne Fjord ; Thun Lake ; Harbour of Ref- 
Pilot Watch; Swedish 
ELunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
View in Lysekil, Sweden, (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). His wife Johanna (nee 
Holmlund, born in 1825, died in Dttsseldorf, 
March 25, 1872), was a skilful genre painter. 
MtiUer, 374 ; Kunst-Chronik, viL 270. 

MOLS, ROBERT, born at Antwerp, con- 
temporary. Landscape and marine painter 
in Antwerp. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1874; 
2d class, 1876. Works : Roadstead of Ant- 
werp, City Hall, Antwerp ; Great Harbour 
Reservoir in Antwerp ; View of Rouen ; Har- 
bour of Havre; Dordrecht (1884) ; On the 
Scheldt (1885) ; Bordeaux (1886) ; Harbour 
of Hamburg (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 
(1886). MtiUer, 374. 

MOLTENI, GIUSEPPE, Cavaliere, bom 
at Affori, near Milan, Oct. 23, 1800, died in 
Milan, Jan. 11, 1867. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Mian Academy ; 
attracted attention in 1829 through the ex- 
hibition of a series of portraits, and in con- 
sequence was afterwards employed at the 
Imperial Court in Vienna ; painted many 
genre pictures of romantic tendency, and in 
1855 became conservator of the Brera Gal- 
lery in Milan, having entered the Senate of 
the Academy in 1850. Works : Holy Fami- 
ly, National Gallery, Berlin ; Lady at Con- 

Milan. Jordan (1885), ii. 154 ; Wurzbach, 
xix. 29. 

MOLYN, PIETER DE, the elder, born 
in London before 1600, died in Haarlem, 
buried March 23, 1661. Dutch school; 
landscape painter ; entered Haarlem guild 
in 1616, dean in 1633. Painted flat and 
hilly landscapes with great truth ; colouring 
warm and forcible, skies of great transpar- 
ency ; excellent draughtsman ; also painted 
military scenes. Works : Night Festival 
(1625), Brussels Museum ; Rural Frolic, 
Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Sandy Height with 
Group of Trees (1626), Brunswick Gallery ; 
Winter Landscape with Skaters (1626), 
Venice Academy ; Village Plundered (1630), 
Haarlem Museum ; Cavalry Attack (1643), 
Palais de I'filysee, Paris ; Landscape with 
Figures (1646), Berg Collection, Stockholm; 
do. (2, 1657), Friesendorff Collection, ib.; do. 
(1660), Redin Collection, ib.; do., Michael- 
son Collection, ib.; do., Sander Collection, 
ib.; Ravine with Figures, Berlin Museum ; 
Horsemen before Inn, Vienna Academy; 
Landscape, Czernin Gallery, Vienna ; do., 
Uffizi, Florence ; Farm Yard, Rotterdam 
Museum ; In the Downs, Bordeaux Muse- 
um; Attack of Robbers (1640), Hanover 
Gallery; River Landscape (attributed to 

Van Goyen), Mannheim Gallery. Kugler 
^Crowe), ii, 462 ; Nagler, Mon., iv. 649 ; 
Eliegel, Beitriige, ii. 350 ; Van der Willigen, 
225 ; Zeitschr. 1 b. K, vii. 168 ; xiv. 96 ; 
xvi. 60 ; xix. 369. 

MOL1N, PIETER, the younger (called 
1 Cavaliere Tempesta), born in Haarlem in 
1637, died in Milan, June 29, 1701. Dutch 
school; son of Pieter the elder. At first 
painted animals and hunts in the style of 



Frans Snyders, and afterwards, while in 
Italy, sea-storms and shipwrecks, whence 
his surname. 
Called also Pietro 
Mulier, or de Mu- 
lieribus, because 
he caused his wife 
to be assassinated 
in order to many 
his mistress, for 
which he was im- V 
prisoned in Genoa 
five years; when 
liberated, he deserted his second wife and 
went to Milan, where he led a wild life, 
under the name of Pietro Mulier. His 
works mark the decline of Dutch as well 
as Italian painting. Works : Plundering of 
a City in Winter, Military Camp, Brunswick 
Gallery ; Italian Landscape with Repose in 
Egypt, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Landscapes with 
Shepherds and Cattle (3), Cassel Gallery ; 
Thunder-Storm (3), Landscape with John 
the Baptist, do. with Man and Oxen, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Sally from a Castle, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg; Signal Tower on Sea 
Coast, Oldenburg Gallery; Storm at Sea, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Four Land- 
scapes, Schleissheim Gallery ; Two Cattle- 
pieces, Museum, Vienna; Destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah (1696), Five Land- 
scapes, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Land- 
scape with Figures and Dog, Czernin Gal- 
lery, ib.; Artist's portrait, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Marine with Jonah and the Whale (2), do. 
with Christ and the Apostles Fishing (2), 
Galleria Estense, Modena ; Cattle-pieces 
(2), Moonlight, Landing of JEneas in Italy, 

Historical So- 

ciet y> New 


and other Ital- 
ian Galleries. Ch. Blanc, Ulcole hollandaise ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 225 ; Museo fiorentino, iii. 
281 ; Nagler, Mon., iv. 649 ; Eiegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 425. 

MOMMERS, HENDETK, born in Haar- 
lem in 1623, died there in 1697. Dutch 
school ; landscape and animal painter, mas- 
ter of the guild in 1647, president in 1654 ; 
studied nature in Italy, and on his return 
home worked in the style of Karel du Jar- 
din. A vigorous and at the same time pleas- 
ing tone prevails in his Italian vegetable 
markets, marines, and pastures. Works : 
Market, Brussels Museum ; Mountain Land- 
scape with Shepherds and Sheep, Rotterdam 
Museum ; Market Square in Rome, Aschaf- 
fenburg Gallery ; Hilly Landscape with Shep- 
herdess and Boys, Berlin Museum; Ani- 
mals drinking at a Well, Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; Animal-piece with Shepherdess 
Milking, Leipsic Museum ; Landscape with 
Cattle and Sheep, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
White Bull, Oldenburg Gallery ; Herd Rest- 
ing, Schleissheim Gallery ; Landscape with 
Sale of Fruit, etc., do. with Riders, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, 
Vienna; Large 
Landscape, Stock- 
holm Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 236 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), ii. 452 ; Kramm, iv. 1140. 

MOMPER, FRANS BE, born in Antwerp, 
died there in 1660-61. Dutch school ; land- 
scape painter, formed under the influence 
of Dutch masters like Van Goyen and Rogh- 
man ; entered guild of Antwerp in 1629-30, 
painted there, at Haarlem, and The Hague. 
Work : View of Amsterdam, Berlin Museum. 

Meyer, Museen, 291, 562 ; Zeitschr. f b. 
K, vii. 172. 

MOMPER, JODOCUS (Joost, Josse) DE, 
the younger, born in Antwerp in 1564, died 
there between Nov. 2, 1634, and March 9, 
1635. Flemish school ; landscape painter, 
son and pupil of Bartholomeus de Momper ; 
entered the guild in 1581, was its dean in 
1611. Jan Brueghel, Frans Francken, the 
younger, Hendrik van Balen, and Teniers, 
the elder, his friends and fellow-workers, 
painted the figures in his pictures. Works : 



Landscape -with Hunting Incident of Arch- 
duke Maximilian, Antwerp Museum; Re- 
pose in Egypt, Antwerp 
Cathedral; Mountain- 
ous Landscape, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Land- 
scapes (4) depicting the 
' Seasons, Mountainous 
" - Landscapes (3), Bruns- 
wick Gallery; Tower 
of Babel, Alpine Land- 
scape, Cassel Gallery; 
do., Berlin Museum ; 
Eocky Landscapes (3), Mountainous do. (4), 
Dresden Gallery; View of St. Gothard, 
Rocky Landscape, Vienna Museum ; Land- 
scapes (4), Copenhagen Gallery; do. (12), 
Madrid Museum ; Landscape, Mass in a, 
Grotto, View of a Castle, Landscape with 
Vintage, Travellers passing Cavern, Aschaf- 
fenburg Gallery; Bird's Eye View of a 
Landscape, Old Pinakothek, Munich; Dutch 
Seaport, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
others in Museums of Cologne, Darmstadt 
(2), Lille, Nantes, Naples; in Galleries 
of Bamberg, Christiania, Oldenburg (2), 
Schwerin (2), Turin ; Harrach and Liech- 
tenstein Galleries, Vienna ; Hermitage, Si 
Petersburg. AUgem. d. Biogr., xxii. 159 ; 
Biog. nat de Belgique, v. 564 ; Ch. Blanc, 
iCcole flamande; Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers 
(1874), 109 , Kugler (Crowe), i. 260;Kramm, 
iv. 1141 , Michiels, ix. 123 ; Eiegel, Beitruge, 
ii 38 ; Rooses (Reber), 120 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 309 ; Zeitschr. f. b, K, viL 172. 

MONA (Monio), DOMENICO, born in 
Ferrara in 1550, died in Parma in 1602. 
Lombard school ; pupil of Giuseppe Mazzu- 
oli ; had great facility of execution, and left 
many large works in Ferrara, whence he was 
obliged to flee after he had killed an officer 
of Cardinal Aldobrandini's household in a 
fit of frenzy. Some of his pictures are 
praiseworthy, but many are inferior. Lanzi, 
iii. 210 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole ferraraise. 

MONA LISA, Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre ; 
wood, H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft 9 in. Portrait of 
Mona (Madonna, Madame) Lisa Gherardi- 

ni, third wife (married 1495) of Francesco 
del Giocondo, whence called La Gioconda 
(Fr., La Joconde). Half-length, life-size, 
seated in an arm-chair, with hands crossed ; 
costume simple, without ornament ; back- 
ground, a mountainous landscape. Painted 
in 1500-1504, Leonardo having had it four 
years in hand. Francis I. paid 4,000 gold 
crowns for it a few years later. Many cop- 
ies, some by pupils of Leonardo : Madrid 
Museum ; Munich Gallery ; Hermitage, St. 

Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre. 

Petersburg ; Prince Torlonia, Rome ; Casa 
Mozzi, Florence ; Villa Sommariva, Lake of 
Como ; Earl of Wemyss, Mr. Hume, Mr. 
Woodburn, London. Engraved by Fau- 
chery ; Massard ; Calamatta ; Bridoux. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 39 ; Clement, 219, 373 ; 
Kigollot, i. 295 ; Heaton, Leonardo, 49, 264 ; 
Gilbert, Cadore, 75 ; Bichter, Leonardo, 88 ; 
usSefransais, ii. Part 2 ; Klas. der Malerei, 
i. PL 18 ; Gaz, des B. Arts (1859), i. 163 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole florentine ; Filhol, xi. PL 
29 ; Larousse, ix. 997. 


MONACA, LA (The Nun), attributed to 
Leonardo da Vinci (?), Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 2 ft. x 1 ft. 4 in. Half-length, in black 
dress, with white veil falling upon shoulders ; 
holds a book in left hand; background, 
seen through two arches, the buildings of 
a city with hill in distance. Supposed by 
some to be a portrait of Ginevra, wife of 
Amerigo Benci, which Leonardo painted in 
Florence about 1500, but the picture is 
probably not by Leonardo. Bought by 
Ferdinand HI of Niccolini family. En- 
graved by Marchi. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 39 ; 
Gal du Pal. Pitti, ii. PL 36 ; Clement, 374 ; 
Bigollot, Hist, des Arts, etc., i. 301 ; Hea- 
ton, 266, 270. 

MONACHESI, NICOLA born at Tolenti- 
no, Italy, in 1795, died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
in 1851. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of the Accademia di S. Luca, Rome, 
under Gasparo Landi, where he won the 
first prize for painting. In 1831 he emi- 
grated to America, made his home in Phila- 
delphia, and soon after became a naturalized 
citizen. Among his earliest patrons were 
Stephen Girard, Madam Rush, and Joseph 
Bonaparte. In 1832 he executed a series of 
frescos in St. John's Roman Catholic Church 
(then the Cathedral), Philadelphia, which 
brought him into prominent notice. These, 
painted upon wet plaster, are said to have 
been the first real frescos executed in this 
country. In 1833-34 he frescoed the Phila- 
delphia Merchants' Exchange, and in 1834 
Matthew Newkirk's residence, the decora- 
tions of which were carefully preserved 
when it was made into Si George's Hall. 
He also frescoed the Roman Catholic 
Churches of St. Mary, St. Joseph, St. Au- 
gustine, and St. Philip, and painted alter- 
pieces for them. In 1841-42 his large his- 
torical picture, The Murder of Jane McCrea, 
was exhibited in Philadelphia. His por- 
traits exist in many old families of Phila- 
delphia and its vicinity. 
MONACO. See Lorenzo Monaco. 
Landseer, EL W. Eaton, M.P., London ; 

canvas, about 5 ft. 6 in. square. A noble 
stag, crowned with twelve tines, stands 
among the clouds on a throne of rock and 
heather, proudly rearing his head, breath- 
ing defiance to all rivals. Painted in 1851 ; 
intended to fill a square panel in the House 
of Lords, but declined. Landseer soon had 
his revenge when the picture won the ad- 
miration of everybody at the Academy Ex- 
hibition. Sold to Lord Londesborough for 
350 guineas ; at Lady Otho Fitzgerald sale 
(1884), 6,510. Engraved by Thomas Land- 
seer. London Times, May 12, 1884. 

Francisco de Mor^ada, Anton van Oyck, Louvre, Paris. 

Anton van Ztycfc, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 
9 ft. 11 in. x 8 ft. Equestrian portrait of 
Mon9ada, Marquis d'Aytona, commander of 
the Spanish forces in the Netherlands (born 
in 1586, died in 1635). He is in armour, 
bare-headed, with a red silk scarf on left 
arm, and a commander's baton in his hand. 
One of Van Dyck's best equestrian pictures. 
Painted about 1632. Engraved by R Mor- 
ghen; Vorsterman. Study (bust) in Lou- 
vre ; engraved by Snyderhoef. Villot, Cat. 
Louvre; Filhol. 



born at Avillers (Vosges), June 12. 1835. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Cor- 
nu, Gleyre, and the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 
Won the grand prix cle Rome in 1863. 
Medals: 1869; 2d class, 1874 Works: 
Four Evangelists (1874, cartoons for fres- 
cos) ; Salvator Mundi (1875) ; Joan of Arc 
(1876) ; Toilet of Venus (1877) ; Fallen Ti- 
tan, Summer, August, October (1878) ; An- 
nunciation (1882) ; Lorraine and its illustri- 
ous Children (1886), Faculty of Literature, 
Nancy; portraits of Victor Hugo (1880), and 
others. Bellier, ii. 107; Claretie (1874), 
Peintres, 328. 

MONDINO. See Scarsella. 

MONET, CLAUDE, bora in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Landscape painter, of the so- 
called Impressionist school Works : Mouth 
of the Seine at Honfleur (1865) ; Cainille, 
Fontainebleau Forest (1866) ; Vessels leav- 
ing Le Havre (1868) ; Lavacourfc (1880) ; 
Portraits of Marshal de Mailly and of Due 
de Noailles, Perpignan Museum. In New 
York were exhibited in 1886 : Breaking up 
of Ice on the Seine, Low Tide at Pourville, 
Snow at Port Villers, La Manne Porte at 
Etretat, Cap d'Antifer, A Farm, Study of 
Willow Trees, Canal in Holland, A Wheat 
Field, The Seine at Lavacour, The Seine at 
Giverny, Cabin at Pourville, Near Monte 
Carlo, The Seine at Argenteuil, and several 
others. Gaz. des B. Arts (1883), xxvii. 342. 

MONEY CHANGERS, Quinten Massys, 
Louvre ; wood, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. ; 
signed, dated 1518 (or 1519?). Called also 
the Banker and his Wife. Two figures, a 
man and his wife, seated behind a table, 
the former weighing gold coin, the latter 
turning over the leaves of a black-letter 
volume. A small round mirror on the table 
reflects the head of a third person- not seen 
in the picture. Acquired in 1806, of the 
Sieur Marivaux, for 1,800 francs. Many repe- 
titions or copies, some by Marianus de Seew. 
Kugler (Crowe), i. 116 ; Cat Louvre. 

MONGIN, PIERRE, born in Paris in 
1761, died at Versailles, May 18, 1827. 

Landscape and battle painter, took part in 
the first campaigns of the republic, and 
painted many of their incidents. Was al- 
so a gifted and witty writer. Works : The 
Emperor's Bivouac near Castle Ebersberg 
in 1809 (1810), Reserve Army passing 
through Defiles of Albarede (1812), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Blessing the Troops de- 
parting for Italy (1814), Marseilles Museum; 
Park Landscapes (4, 1793, 1795), Wood and 
River Landscapes (4, 1795, 1796), Domestic 
Happiness, Mother's Joy, Schwerin Gallery. 
Bellier, ii. 108 ; Kunstbl. (1827), 232. 

MONGINOT, CHARLES, born in Bri- 
enne (Aube), Sept. 24, 1825. Fruit, flower, 
and animal painter, pupil of Couture. Much 
employed in decorative work. Medals : 
1864, 1869. Works : Still Life (1853), Lux- 
embourg Museum ; do., Chartres Museum ; 
Landlord's Impost (1863), Troyes Museum ; 
Blood Drinkers, Milk Drinkers (1883); 
Charlotte and her Pigeons, Ape and Foun- 
tain (1884) ; Corner of Fish Market, Chev- 
alier of the 16th century (1885) ; A Medal, 
with the Feet in the Plate (1886). Meyer, 
Gesch., 713 ; Bellier, ii. 109. 
HONE; LOUIS DE, bom at Breda in 
1698, died at Leyden, 
Sept. 15, 1771. Dutch 
school ; genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of 
Van Kessel and Biset, 
then at The Hague of 
Philip van Dyck, whom 
he accompanied to Cas- 
sel ; lived for many 
years in Leyden ; stud- 
ied Gerard Don, and tried to imitate his 
style. Works : Cavalier offering Purse to 
Girl with Cat, Louvre; Lacemaker (1742), 
Hague Museum ; Woman watering Flowers, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Girl and Fishwife, 
Rotterdam Mu- ^ 
seum ; Maid at /f 
Window opening 7 Q; ^ 
Oysters, Vienna CV/ 
Museum ; .Boy rescuing a Bird from a Cat, 
Fishmonger Woman and Boy, Carlsruhe 



Gallery ; Crabmonger (1723), Man at Break- 
fast, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Ch. Blanc, 
!Ecole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, ii. 236 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), ii. 546 ; KJramm, iv. 1142. 

born in Spain; contemporary. Marine 
painter. Works : Eoadstead of Alicante 
(1881), Madrid Museum ; Canal in Holland 
(1884), Ateneo, ib. ; Shipwreck in Port of 
Loredo (1884). La Hustracion (1884), i. 58, 
99, 109, 395. 

at Lille, July 19, 
1634, died in Lon- 
don, Feb. 16, 1699. 
Flemish school; 
flower and still-life 
painter, studied in 
Lille, went early to 
Paris, where in 1665 
he became member, 
and in 1679 coun- 
cillor, of the Acad- 
emy. Favoured with numerous ord ers from 
Louis XIV. and the nobility ; he was called 
to England by Lord Montague, whose house, 
besides others, he decorated ; often painted 
backgrounds for Kneller's portraits. Works : 
Flower- and Fruit-pieces in the Louvre, 
Paris (8), in Museums of Arras, Grenoble, 
Lille (2), Lyons (4), Montpellier (3), Nantes, 
Orleans (2), Eennes (2), Eouen (3), Toulon 


(2), Troyes; Carlsruhe Gallery (2); Old 
Pinakothek, Munich. Bellier, ii. 110 ; Ch. 
Blanc, liicole fran9aise, i. ; Dezallier, ii 332 ; 
Jal, 880 ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 190 ; Michiels, 
is. 293. 

(L'antichambre de Monseigneur), Georges 
Jean Vibert, M. Botchine, Moscow. An 

antechamber in a cardinal's palace, with 
several persons awaiting an audience ; at 
left, a pretty peasant girl, seated on a sofa, 
holding in her lap a basket containing a 
live hen, with which a jolly monk, sitting 
beside her, is playing ; at right, an austere- 
looking friar, with an open breviary in his 
hands, is peeping suspiciously around from 
behind a column, as if he feared that some- 
thing wrong was going on ; in background, 
two other persons conversing. Salon, 1876. 

inont), born at Saint Trond, Belgium, bap- 
tized Sept. 24, 1582, died at Antwerp, Nov. 
24 1644. History painter, pupil of Rubens, 
who honoured him with his particular 
friendship, and whose travelling companion 
he was in Italy in 1600-1608 ; master of the 
Antwerp guild in 1608. Was employed as 
painter and architect by the Duke of Neu- 
bourg, who ennobled him, and as an engi- 
neer by Philip IV. of Spain. Van Dyck 
painted his portrait. Works : Transfigura- 
tion of Christ, Antwerp Museum ; do., Nan- 
cy Museum. Cat, du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 
107 ; Michiels, viii. 213; Rooses (Reber), 
271 ; Van den Branden, 747. 

Orzinovi, near Brescia, about 1450, died at 
Vicenza, Oct. 11, 1523. Venetian school; 
resident of Vicenza in 1480, and painted an 
altarpiece there in 1483. Bred probably in 
the local school of Vicenza, he was early 
attracted by Bellini and Carpaccio, but his 
style was not fully developed until he vis- 
ited Padua (1491), where he studied Man- 
tegna. From Padua he went to Verona, 
and in 1496 settled down to steady work in 
Vicenza, where he was held in great esteem, 
and accounted the first resident master. 
Among his best works are the Madonna and 
Saints (1499), Brera, Milan; Madonna, in 
S. Maria in Vanzo, Padua; Madonna and 
Saints, Venice Academy ; do. (1487), Ber- 
gamo Gallery ; do. (1499), Milan Academy ; 
do. (1500), Berlin Museum ; and the Pieta' 
(1500), Church of Monte Berico. Other 
examples in the Vicenza Gallery, in the 


Louvre, the National Gallery, London, and 
at Orgiano, Modena, Pavia, Schweiin, and 
Stuttgart C. & C., N. Italy, i. 423; Burck 
hardt, 174 191, 603 ; Oh. Blanc, cole ve- 


nitienne ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vi. 86, 104, 
127 ; Lermolieff, 435 ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., i. 476. 

of 16th century. Venetian school ; son of 
Bartolommeo, though commonly called his 
brother, and his assistant until his father's 
decease. Better known as an engraver than 
as a painter. His father bequeathed him the 
bulk of his property and his practice, but 
Benedetto was not Bartolommeo's equal in 
talent. In 1490 he was master in his guild. 
There are pictures by him in the Duomo at 
Vicenza, in the Brera, Milan (1528), and in 
the Venice Academy (1533). C. & C., N. 
Italy, i. 435 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole venitienne ; 
Bartsch, xiii 332 ; Ltibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
i. 478 ; Wiltshire, 446. 

MONTAGNANA, JACOPO, born before 
1450, died in Padua about 1499, in which 
year he made his will. Venetian school ; 
Vasari classes him among the disciples of 
Giovanni Bellini, but he was probably a fol- 
lower of Mantegna, who somewhat modified 
his later work by study of Bellini and Car- 
paccio. Enrolled among the members of 
the Paduan guild in 1469. His constant 
employment hi later years in the Santo, 
where he painted now destroyed frescos in 
the Chapel of the Sacrament (1476), and the 
important works intrusted to him, show the 
esteem in which he was held. C. & 0., N. 
Italy, i. 361 ; Gonzati, La Basilica di S. An- 
tonio, Padua (1854), i. 59, 258. 

MONTALBA, CLARA, born at Chelten- 
ham; contemporary. Landscape and marine 
painter, pupil in Paris of Eugene Isabey. 
Associate of London Society of Painters in 
Water Colours in 1874, and of Belgian So- 
ciety in 1876. Exhibits at Eoyal Academy 
and Grosvenor Gallery. Works : Festa di 
S. Antonio Venice, Canal Venice (1879) ; 

S. Chiara Venice (1880); Dalmatian Boat, 
i S. Marco Venice (1881) ; Boats Venice, 
' Riva degli Schiavoni Venice (1882) ; Tra- 
bacolo at Custom House Venice, Cement 
Works on Thames (1883); Middelburgh, 
Port of do. (1884); Port of Amsterdam 
(1886). Of her sisters, Ellen and Hilda 
Montalba paint portraits and figure-pieces, 
and Henrietta S. Montalba is a sculptor. 

MONTANO D'AREZZO, of Arezzo, begin- 
ning of 14th century. He was of consider- 
able ability and great industry, and under- 
took large and important works. La 1305 
he painted two chapels in CastelNuova, and 
in 1306 two chapels in the Castel del' Ovo, 
Naples. In 1310 he was knighted by King 
Robert. He adorned a chapel in the Mon- 
astery of Montevergine, near Avellino, and 
he is the traditional author of a Madonna 
there. C. & C., Italy, i. 190. 

MONTEN, DIETRICH, born in Dttssel- 
dorf, Sept, 18, 1799, died in Munich, Dec. 
13, 1843. Historical, genre, and battle 
painter, pupil of Dtisseldorf Academy, then 
in Munich of Peter Hess ; travelled in Aus- 
tria, Saxony, Prussia, Italy, and Holland. 
Works : Victory of Louis the Rich at Gin- 
gen ; Battle of Neerwinden ; Cavalry Skir- 
mish in Battle of Leipsic ; Prussian Artillery 
(1827), Departure of the Poles from Home 
(1832), National Gallery, Berlin ; King Louis 
I in Family Circle ; King Otto of Greece 
and Suite ; Napoleon L with his Generals ; 
Episode in Battle of Ltitzen ; Death of Gus- 
:avus Adolphus at Ltitzen (1835), Hanover 
Gallery; Transportation of Wounded Sol- 
diers, Leipsic Museum ; Death of Duke of 
Brunswick at Quatre Bras; Major Schill's 
Death in Stralsund ; Three fresco paint- 
* n s k Ar cade of Roy- 
al Garden, Munich. 
AUgem. d. Biog., xxii. 189 ; Cotta's KunstbL 
1836), 23 ; (1844), 166 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
155 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 480. 

MONTENARD, FRlfiD^RIC, bom in 
Paris; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
3upil of Dubufe, Mazerolle, Delaunay, and 
?uvisde Chavannes. Medal : 3d class, 1883. 


Works : Hamlet of Chene-Rogneux, Banks of 
the Indre (1875) ; September Morning near 
Brignoles, Environs of Loches (1876) ; Pond 
of Chene-Perce, The Seine at the Pond- 
National, Bercy (1877) ; Autumn Morning 
in Provence (1879) ; Coast of Saint-Waast- 
la-Hongue, Evening in Provence (1880) ; 
Evening in the Fields, On the Cliff (1881) ; 
In Provence, Port of Commerce at Tou- 
lon (1882) ; Transport-Ship leaving Toulon 
(1883), Luxembourg Museum ; Cemetery on 
Coast of Mediterranean (1883) ; Landing 
Place for Oranges at Toulon, Village of Six- 
fours (1884) ; Embarking of Troops at Tou- 
lon ; The Grande Route from Toulon to La 
Seyne (1885) ; On the Coast of Provence 
(1886). Beffier, ii. 115. 

Van Blockland, born at Montfoort about 
1532-34, died at Utrecht in 1583. Dutch 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil in 
Antwerp of Frans Moris, whose style he imi- 
tated. Married at the age of nineteen, and 
settled at Delft. In 1572 he went to Italy 
and studied works of the great masters ; on 
his return settled in Utrecht. His treatment 
of the nude is praiseworthy. His religious 
subjects are distinguished for simplicity of 
feeling. Works : Diana and Actaeon (1573), 
Vienna Museum ; Adoration of Shepherds, 
Berlin Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 237 ; 
Kramm, iv. 1144 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 62. 

born in Paris, April 3, 1802. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Horace Vernet, 
of Gros, and the ]5cole des Beaux Arts. 
Medals : 3d class, 1837, 1863. Works : Pi- 
rates in Greek Archipelago (1837) ; View 
of Nazareth (1844) ; Return to the Tribe, 
Arab Women around Cistern, Village of 
Nazareth Syria (1855); Arab Camp (1859); 
Start for Falcon Chase (1863) ; Syrian Far- 
rier, Street of Latakia (1876); Arab Camp 
in the Desert (1878) ; Enrolment in Syria, 
1838 (1881). Beffier, ii. 115. 

DE, born at Orleans, France ; contempora- 
ry. Figure painter, pupil of Cabanel, Jules 

Lefebvre, Boulanger, and Carolus-Duran. 
Medals: 3d class, 1878; 2d class, 1880. 
Works : Marguerite and Martha at Church 
(1874), Orleans Museum ; Toilet of Truth 
(1877); Good Samaritan (1878); Lesson be- 
fore the Sabbath, On the High Plateaus in 
Algeria (1880); Return from Market in Ka- 
bylia (1882); On the Strand (1885) ; Sun- 
effect in Algeria (1886). 

QUINSAC, bom at Bordeaux, Aug. 3, 1794, 
died at Boulogne-sur-Seine, April 1, 1870. 
History painter, pupil of Guerin ; won the 
grand prix de Rome in 1822. He founded 
a school of art in Valparaiso, where he lived 
sixteen years. Medals : 1st class, 1831, 
1837. He married Domenica Festa (born 
1805, in Rome), a skilful miniature painter. 
Works : Christ healing the Possessed (1819), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Orestes and Pylades 
(1822) ; River Scamander (1824) ; Telema- 
chus andEucharis (1827); Shipwreck (1827); 
Birth of the Virgin (1830), Notre Dame de 
Lorette; Exaltation of Sixtus V. (1831), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Ali-Pasha and Vasil- 
iki, Blanche de Beaulieu, Louis XIV. and 
Mile, de k Valliere (1833); Jeanne LaFolle 
(1834), Amiens Museum ; Death of Charles 
IX. (1835), Montpeffier Museum ; Battle of 
Denain (1837); Session of the 9th Thermi- 
dor (1838) ; Christ on the Cross, Death of 
the Poet Gilbert (1839), Nancy Museum; 
Christ surrounded by Angels ; Paraguayan 
Man and Wife ; Cacique of theAraucanians ; 
Captive Chilian Woman among Araucanian 
Indians (1859); Women Bathing ; The Cor- 
dilleras, Resignation (1863) ; Travelling in 
the Cordilleras, Souvenir of the Cordilleras 
(1864); Creation 'of Man ; John Huss ; Joan 
of Arc at the Fountain ; Joan of Arc wound- 
ed ; Joan of Arc at the Stake ; Christ ap- 
pearing to his Apostles ; Groups of Spirits 

receiving Spiritual Communications; Por- 
traits of five kings of France, of Conneta- 


ble Chatfflon (1835), of Marshals Xaintrail- 
les (1834), Gye, Trivulce (1835), Lavardin. 
Noailles, Dampierre, three others,. Versailles 
Museum. Bellier, ii 117 ; Larousse ; Mey- 
er, Gesch., 277. 

MOONEY, EDWARD, born in New York 
in 1813. Portrait painter, pupil of the Na- 
tional Academy, Inman, and William Page. 
Professional life passed in New York, with 
the exception of four winters in Columbus, 
Ga., and Savannah. Gold medal from Na- 
tional Academy, when a pupil there. Elect- 
ed an A.N.A. in 1834, and N.A. in 1840. 
Portraits : Ex-Mayors Andrew Mickle, Jacob 
R. Westervelt, Isaac L. Varian, City Hall, 
New York ; Achmet Ben Aman (1840), Com- 
mon Council, ib. ; Judge Edmunds (New 
York Bar) ; Governor Seward, State House, 

MOOR, KAREL DE, the elder, born in 
Leyden, Feb. 22, 
1656, died at War- 
moncl, Feb. 16, 
1738. Dutch 
school; history, 
genre, and por- 
trait painter, pu- 
f / /' pil of Gerard Dou, 
/ Abraham van den 
Tempel, Frans van 
Mieris, and God- 
fried Schalcken, whose realistic tendencies he 
followed. He treated both sacred and pro- 
tane history, but excelled in life-size por- 
traits, resembling in animation and mas- 
tery those of Abraham van den Tempel. 
Created chevalier by the Emperor of Austria 
for his portraits of Prince Eugene and the 
Duke of Marlborough. Works : Dutch 
Family, Louvre ; Young Lady with Bou- 
quet, Antwerp Museum ; Portraits of Trus- 
tees, Leprosenhuys, Amsterdam ; Slight into 
Egypt, Offering, Rotterdam Museum ; Brutus 
sentencing his Sons, Town Hall, L