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Full text of "Cyclopedia of painting : containing useful and valuable information on the following subjects : adulteration of paint, blistering of paint, brushes, calcimining, carriage painting, china painting, colors, color harmony, color mixing, color testing, exterior painting, gilding, graining, house painting, marbling, mildew, oils and driers, oil painting on glass, painting a bath tub, painting in distemper, paperhanger's tools, paperhanging, pigments, plain oil painting, primary colors, priming, scenic painting, sign painting, stains, staining, stencilling, turpentine, varnishes, varnishing, water color painting, when not to paint, practical points on painting, useful information"


IVMCTWIWntllMII 



Cyclopedia of Painting 

Containing Useful and Valuable Information 
on the Following Subjects 



Adulteration of Paint — Blistering of Paint — Brushes — Cal- 
cimining — Carriage Painting — China Painting — Colors — 
Color Harmony — Color INIixing — Color Testing — Exte- 
rior Painting— Gilding— Graining— House Painting — 
Marbling — Mildew — Oils and Driers — Oil Painting 
on Glass — Painting a Bath Tub — Painting in Dis- 
temper — Paperhanger's Tools — Paperhanging 
— Pigments — Plain Oil Painting — Primary 
Colors — Priming — Scenic Painting — Sign 
Painting — Stains — Staining — Stencilling 
— Turpentine — Varnishes — Varnishing 
— Water Color Painting — When Not 
to Paint — Practical Points on 
Painting — Useful Information 

BY 

GEORGE D. ARMSTRONG 



OVER 100 ILLUSTRATIONS 




CHICAGO 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO., PUBLISHERS 

1908 



Copyright, 1906. 
By Fbeoebick J. Drake & Ca 



INTRODUCTION. 



The character of this work is indicated by its title. 
The topics are treated with a view to technically instruct 
those who desire to make a study of the art of painting 
as practised in the paint-shops of this country. 

Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in all 
the statements made. The employment of engravings, 
wherever it was necessary to more fully explain the text, 
will be found to add greatly to the value of the work, 
while the many extended articles will, it is believed, be 
interesting even to those who read only for information 
on general topics. 

The book is one easy of consultation, virtually a 
Cyclopedia, and readily distinguishable from a collection 
of scientific treatises. 

The Author. 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING. 



ADULTERATION OF PAINT. 

To understand this subject intelligently it will be neces- 
sary to possess some slight knowledge of chemistry and 
of the materials used by chemists, but any intelligent person 
can, by careful reading of these descriptions, test substances 
qualitatively without the aid of expensive apparatus or ex- 
ternal assistance of any kind. For quantitative analysis 
a delicate chemical balance will, of course, be required. 
Take paints first. White lead is now very seldom sold in the 
dry state, but samples are occasionally met with. Its cover- 
ing power being superior to that of any other known paint, 
it is very largely used, and it is frequently adulterated 
with substances of inferior quality. The most common adul- 
terants are sulphate of baryta and chalk. 

Sulphate of Baryta. Treat a small quantity with dilute 
nitric acid, and heat on the sandbath. If any insoluble re- 
mains, it is either sulphate of barj'ta or insoluble silicates. 
Filter, take a portion of the insoluble on a piece of clean 
platinum wire moistened with hydrochloric acid, and test 
at the blowpipe. If the flame be colored green, the precip- 
itate is sulphate of baryta. By moistening the wire in 
hydrochloi'ic acid the green color is reproduced many times. 

Insoluble Silicates. If no green color appears, the in- 
soluble is a silicate. This may be proved by forming a bead 
with microcosmic salt on a loop at the end of the platinum 
wire, and taking some of the precipitate on this bead, fusing 
it again in the blowpipe flame. If small infusible particles 
whirl around within the bead while in the flame, the pres- 
ence of silicates in the precipitate may be inferred. 

5 



6 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Chalk. The presence of chalk can only be ascertained after 
separating the lead. This is best done by adding ammonia 
solution to the nitric acid solution until alkaline, then sul- 
phate of ammonia in excess, and boiling for five minutes. 
Filter ofit" the black precipitate which is formed, and to the 
tiltrate, first tested with an additional drop or two of sul- 
phate of ammonia to insure the removal of the whole of the 
lead, add ammoniac oxalate. If a white precipitate appear, 
it is calcic oxalate. Test a portion of this precipitate at the 
blowpipe. A brick-red color imparted to the flame verifies 
the presence of chalk. 

White Lead. The presence of lead should be ascertained. 
This is indicated by the black precipitate given v;ith sul- 
phate of ammonia. It may be best ascertained by boiling 
the nitric acid solution to expel the free nitric acid, adding 
dilute sulphuric acid to the clear solution, dissolving the 
white precipitate of sulphate of lead thus formed in ain- 
inoniac acetate, and adding potassic ehromate to this solu- 
tion. A heavy yellow precipitate (ehromate of lead) forms 
when load is {)resent. 

Sulphate of Baryta and Silicates. Take 20 grains of the 
sample, treat with dilute nitric acid as before. The quan- 
tity taken for analysis may be weighed in a watch-glass or 
a small basin, but should be transferred to a beaker, and the 
glass or basin washed with distilled water before the acid is 
added. If this precaution be not taken, and the acid added 
directly in the watch-glass or basin, to be washed into the 
beaker afterwards, the violent effervescence which takes 
place on the addition of the acid will occasion considerable 
loss by spurting. If, after heating with nitric acid, an in- 
soluble remains, a few crystals of chlorate of potash may 
be added to the boiling liquid to insure the solution of all 
soluble substances. The boiling is continued for a few 
minutes, then cold water is added, and the whole passed 
111 rough a filter. The insoluble on the filter is washed with 
Iiof water until the water leaving the filter is no longer 



ADULTERATION OF PAINT 7 

acid to litmus paper. It is then dried on the water-bath, 
ignited, and weighed. Test at blowpipe as before. Sulphate 
of bai'yta and silicates, if both present, are not usually 
separated. 

Weighing Precipitates. This general direction applies to 
almost all precipitates. If strong acids or acid and chlorate 
of potash are used, the liquid should invariably be diluted 
before filtering. In washing, allow the whole of the wash 
water to drop from the filter before adding more water. 
When thoroughly washed, fold the filter paper flat in the 
funnel, or, better, transfer the filter paper and its contents 
to a large watch-glass or flat basin, and dry on a water-bath. 
When dry, carefully unfold the filter over a quarto sheet of 
stiff glazed paper, with a feather brush off every particle of 
the precipitate adhering to the filter paper, collect the pre- 
cipitate on the glazed paper, again using the feather, and 
cover over the precipitate with the funnel. Fold the filter 
paper till it assumes the appearance of a solid cylinder about 
one inch in length, and ignite with the Bunsen burner over 
a weighed platinum or porcelain capsule. After a while the 
filter paper becomes a charred mass of smaller dimensions, 
and drops from the wire into the capsule. The wire is 
cleaned into the capsule, by means of the feather, of any 
adhering particles, the charred paper is crushed with a glass 
rod, and ignited over a Bunsen until the ash is no longer 
black. The capsule is then stood on a porcelain slab, and the 
precipitate carefully transferred from a glazed paper into 
the capsule, the feather being employed to remove the last 
traces. The capsule is then ignited over an Argand burner 
until the weight is constant. The filter paper must always 
be ignited before the bulk of the precipitate is transferred 
to the capsule. 

White Lead. The nitric acid solution obtained a& before 
is boiled nearly to dryness, and if a precipitate forms a little 
water is added, then dilute sulphuric acid in small quantity, 
and the boiling continued for some minutes to expel the last 



8 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

trace of nitric acid. An excess of sulphuric acid 
is then added to precipitate the whole of the lead 
and lime as sulphates, which appear as a white 
heavy powder. The beaker and its contents are then cooled 
by immersion in cold water. When cool, double the bulk 
of alcohol is added, and the whole allowed to stand for some 
time — over night if possible. It is then filtered and washed 
with alcohol until the washings are no longer acid, dried, 
ignited in a porcelain capsule, and weighed as above. From 
the weight obtained deduct .05 grain, the amount of ash 
contained in an ordinary Swedish filter paper, the remainder 
multiplied by five for the percentage of sulphate of lead, 
and (if chalk is present) this again by .852 for the percentage 
of white lead. If the sample contains chalk, the percentage 
of white lead must not be estimated until the percentage bf 
chalk is determined. The percentage of chalk is converted 
into its equivalent of sulphate of lime. This latter de- 
ducted from the percentage of sulphates of lead and lime, 
and the remainder multiplied by .825 for the percentage of 
white lead. 

Chalk. The readiest way to estimate chalk is to divide 
the nitric acid solution obtained above into two equal parts, 
in one estimate the lead as above (multiplying the weight 
found by ten instead of five), and in the other estimate the 
chalk. The lead is removed with ammoniac sulphide in the 
manner described before, to the clear filtrate, ammoniac 
oxalate is added, if chalk is present, a white precipitate of 
calcic oxalate is produced. This precipitate is assisted in 
its separation by boiling. Then collected on a filter, washed 
with hot water, dried and weighed. The ignition is complete 
when the contents of the capsule assume a tinge of gray 
color. The weight obtained after deducting .05 grain of 
filter ash is multiplied by ten for the percentage of chalk. 
In inexperienced hands it will be better to ignite strongly 
and weigh as lime, multiplying by ten for percentage of lime 
and by 1.7857 for percentage of chalk. This chalk may be 



ADULTERATION OF PAINT 9 

converted into sulphate of lime by multiplying by 1.36, and 
the product deducted from the percentage of lead and lime 
obtained above, prior to calculating the percentage of white 
lead. The chalk precipitate should be tested at the blow- 
pipe for its characteristic brick-red flame. Some analysts 
treat the mixed precipitate of sulphate of lead and calcium 
with concentrated solution of ammoniac acetate, and weigh 
the insoluble as chalk. This method is unreliable. The oil 
must first be burnt off, and the ignition continued until no 
black carbonaceous matter remains. It must be ignited in a 
porcelain basin over an Argand burner, turned low at first 
and gradually raised. The ignition must be completed over 
a Bunsen. Much time is saved and the analysis rendered 
more accurate by spreading the mixed paint in a thin layer 
over the bottom of the basin, and when the ignition is nearly 
complete, by crushing the scaly crust with a glass rod, care- 
fully remove the adhering pieces on the glass rod by means 
of a feather. The difference in weight before and after igni- 
tion represents the oil plus loss by reductions of white lead 
to metallic lead. The residue is washed into a beaker with 
water as before, and afterwards with nitric acid. The metal- 
lic lead, which adheres strongly to the bottom of the basin, 
must be rubbed vigorously with the end of a glass rod until 
entirely removed. This requires a little patience, but it 
yields to persistent rubbing. The remainder of the process 
is the same as in the case of dry white lead. 



BLISTERING OF PAINT. 

In the following- lines are laid down some general rules 
that govern this phenomenon^ and from the same draw some 
practical conclusions, the object of which will be to set the 
question at rest. The blistering of paint is in a large measure 
traceable to the position of the surface, it is usually found 
on work presenting a south aspect, or exposed to the full 
rays of the sun. As a defect it is associated with the sum- 
mer season, winters being opposed to its action. The deduc- 
tion to be drawn from this is that it is the effect of heat. 
Paint is a body both mineral and metallic, made into a 
plastic condition by oil, the object of which is to keep out 
the moisture from exposed surfaces in buildings, and to offer 
on intei-nal work a uniform and pleasing surface to the eye. 
The oil used is linseed, which by boiling attains setting or 
drying qualities and becomes better by keeping, its thick 
or heavy nature when loaded with mineral and metallic 
matters being reduced for Avorking purposes by spirits of 
turpentine, a volatile spirit that is a mere aid to the spread- 
ing of paint. Paint so largely composed of oil will never 
fairly set or assume a dry state. However dry and brittle 
if: may appear, it is capable of being rendered soft and 
plastic by the application of heat, and hence the hand stove 
of the painters is the most ordinary instrument for the re- 
moval of old paint. We mention this, for it is clear that, 
approach the subject as Ave will, we find heat the prime cause 
of the blistering of paint. Closing in with the subject, and 
bringing it into narrower lines, blistering, properly speaking, 
is wholly confined to wood as a base or groundwork. It is 
true it is not unknown to iron or plaster, but in these cases 
it is variant in form, and not blistering in the true sense of 
the term. The blistering of paint on iron is not traceable to 

10 



BLISTERING OF PAINT 



11 



the softening of the paint, and the shelling up of the same, 
but to water making its way to the naked iron through some 
crack or defect in the paint, and becoming an active agent in 
oxidization. The blister thus forced is clearly the separa- 
tion of the film of paint from the iron by the formation of 
rust upon the face, which, as a foreign material, forms an 
effectual separation of the two bodies. The extension of 
these blisters is dependent upon the supply of water, and, 
unlike the true blister, is not dependent upon heat or a 
south or sunny aspect. The blistering of paint on iron occurs 
in any aspect or position, in the full light or in the dark, 




Fig. 1. Ordinary Paint Brush. 



in the summer or the winter, the destructive agent being 
water, it is dependent upon no other conditions. The blister- 
ing of paint upon plaster is in a large degree analogous to 
that of iron, inasmuch as it is formed by the disintegration 
of the base by the action of water. Painted plaster-work, 
so long as water can be kept from percolating through the 
cracks or faults, or gaining entrance from above by filtra- 
tion, or from below by capillary action, is a highly durable 
material, but the moment water gains a footing the lime 
in some degree is dissolved, and, upon being removed and 
redeposited, undergoes the process of I'ecrystallizatioji, a 
powdery substance is thus formed that comes as a s,tranger 



12 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

between the paint and the plaster, in wliich respect it bears a 
strong resemblance to rust, the result of the oxidization of 
iron. Large faces of plaster are subject to fractures from 
expansion under the heat of the sun, or from the lifting 
the upper members of a building, consequent upon the adm 
sion of water from gutters or copings, the lifting being t. 
result of secondary crystallization set up in the joints ot 
mortar. This is an explanation of the fact that the blister- 
ing of paint always occurs in the neighborhood of craeks 
or fractures in the plaster, and is more pronounced in tht 
cornice or upper part than in any other part of a building. 
In proof of its being the result of crystallization, the face 
of the plaster is always found to be covered over with 
powdered lime. The painter, finding this, takes care to 
saturate the disintegrated face of the framework in effect- 
ing repairs, but this, as he finds to his chagrin, is no protec- 
tion against a recurrence of the evil, for so long as water or 
moisture is admitted at any point, so long will this abnormal 
llistering ensue. The blistering of paint upon plaster work, 
like that upon iron, is not dependent upon heat, it is a 
chemical action set up by water upon a body of dry lime 
in a partial state of crystallization, it is caused by the 
lime dissolving, and its removal — it may be but in an infini- 
tesimal degree — and its recrystallization. Upon the water 
evaporating, the result is a dry powder that works an ef- 
fectual separation between the film of paint and the ground- 
work of plaster, and it does not attach itself to either of the 
bodies, but remains a powder until the film of paint or 
blister is removed, when it may be dusted off with a brush. 
The blistering of paint upon wood is distinct in its order, 
and is the general blister known in the trade. It occurs on 
the face of woodwork exposed to the sun, and is traceable 
to the influence of heat. It is not pronounced in the case 
of new work, where the body of paint is not great; but it is 
a great evil and an eyesore on old work, where the coats of 
paint are layered one on the other. Wood, as a groundwork. 



BLISTERING OP PAINT 13 

is a porous body highly charged with moisture in a natural 
state, and never free from it in a so-called dry state when 
used in exposed situations. It may be taken that wood, dur- 
2; the winter season, or one-half of the year, is absorbing 
aoisture. This is seen in outer doors, gates, sliding sashes, 
jnd shutters, as the carpenter is constantly being called into 

' requisition to ease the same. This moisture, so largely pres- 
ent in the atmosphere, cannot be kept out of the wood 
by the most careful painting. In store fronts it has ready 

racct'ss to the back of the woodwork, the face sides being 
the only ones which are painted, in doors and gates it is 
absorbed from the sills or the ground, from the fact that 
the lower edges are unpainted. There is always some por- 
tion of the woodwork hidden from the eye which is un- 
painted, and there the system of absorption is active during 
the winter or rainy season. Wood in this state during the 
hottest days in summer will make efforts to thi'ow off this 
moisture. Then the heat of the sun is applied with great 
force to the painted face, and the unpainted face is in the 
cold shade. The effect of this powerful heat is to draw the 
moisture to the face of the wood, where its course is arrested 
by the sundry impervious coats of paint, it is here generated 
into ste.im, the expansive power of which forces away the 
paint, and the familiar blister is formed. Paint, as a mineral 
or metallic body, does not incorporate with the wood, it 
simply adheres thereto, forcing its fronds, so to speak, in 
the pores of the wood, and filling up the interstices formed 
by the bundles of fibers. Hence we find that paint fails to 
adhere to highly resinous or greasy woods, and the knots 
themselves, from being hard and compact, must be faced 
with knotting composition as a ground for the paint. 



BRUSHES. 

Cheap goods of any kind never reflect credit on the maker. 
Neither do they give satisfaction to the consumer or dealer. 
It requires skill and art as well as quality of material to 
produce high grades of goods, and such must always bring 
their price and never fail to give satisfaction. For this 
reason, the intelligent, practical and thoughtful workman 
will alwaj's look for the best tools. Good bristle brushes can- 
not be made of any substitute for imported bristles, and 
cheaper grades are always produced by adulteration and 
mixtures. The cheapening of goods is generally done so that 




Fig. 2. Badger Hair Flowing Brush. 

it shows least to the eye, in the center of the brush, and 
covered by good quality to make the goods as marketable as 
possible. Such goods cannot be expected to be durable or 
give satisfaction. 

First-class goods can also be ruined or lose half their 
value if they are not properly cared for. Paint and varnish, 
as well as calcimine and whitewash brushes, should never be 
allowed to stand on the ends of bristles over night, but should 
always be cleaned thoroughly before quitting work, and care- 

14 



BRUSHES 15 

fully bung up, paint and varnish brushes in oil or varnisb, 
and calcimine and whitewash to dry. It will injure any 
brush to let it remain in water. Should paint, varnish, 
leather-bound whitewash or wall brush be found that has be- 
come loose from shrinkage, take a tablespoonful or so of 
Mater, open the brush and pour the water into the center. 
This will swell the parts and make the brush as firm as when 
first made. 

New brushes when first put in work are apt to shed any 
loose bristles that have not been fastened when made, and * 
while such loose bristles are always cleaned out before the 
goods are put up for market, not all such loose bristles or 
hair can be cleaned out, and such are sure to come loose 
when the brush is first used. This defect will cure itself in 
one day's use. 

Do not condemn the maker if one brush is brought back 
by a practical workman, who possibly has had one or more 
brushes out of the same dozen that were all right and gave 
perfect satisfaction, but look for the cause or defect in the 
user. Remember that goods are made up in large quantities, 
and when the bristle is prepared it is in large batches. It 
must naturally follow that if one brush, or one dozen, or any 
quantity of such a lot is good that all must be, or if one is 
bad all must be so. 

The greatest annoyance that manufacturers have to con- 
tend with is the improper or careless use and care of good, 
first-class brushes. 

Good goods of all kinds are a credit to the manufacturer, 
give satisfaction to the mechanic in use, and pleasure and 
profit to the dealer to sell. They are sure to bring their 
own reward. 

Brushes are made of bristles and of hair, bound to a 
handle by cord, wire, metal stamped to imitate wire, tin, 
copper and brass. The oval and round paint and varnish 
brushes are generally bound with cord, wire or its imita- 
tions, and copper and brass. The flat bristle, fitch, badger. 



16 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

bear and camel 's-hair brushes with tin. The ordinary paint 
brushes contain the inferior or coarser grades of bristles, 
the varnish brushes are selected or finer qualities. The oval 
and round brushes are numbered by the brush-maker to 
designate sizes, from No. 6 down to No. 1. thence from one 
to 000000. For carriage painting the sizes between one 
and four naughts are considered best, the smaller ones may 
be used, but it is advantageous to use as large a brush 
as possible on most of the Avork. Small brushes called tools 
are numbered from 1 up to 10, the latter being the largest. 
Brushes are genei'ally used in sets, as, for example, in 
painting a body or gear, a large brush for laying the paint 
would be used, and a small tool for cleaning up around 
the moldings, nuts and bolt-heads. It would be an almost 
endless task to illustrate and describe all of the many 
varieties of paint and varnish brushes, and a few of the 
principal ones only will receive attention here. Russia is 
the great bristle growing country, and her exports reach as 
high as 5,000 tons of this commodity every yeai'. Hogs in 
countless herds roam the deep Muscovite forests, where the 
oak, the pine, the beech, larch and other nut bearing trees 
cover the ground with acorns and nuts to the depth of a 
foot or more. But these swine are not all of value for 
their bristles. The perfect bristle is found only on a 
special race, and that race fattened in a certain way. On 
the frontiers of civilization all over the Muscovite territory 
are the government tallow factories, where aiiiinals reared 
too far from the habitation of men to be consumed for 
human food are boiled down for the sake of their fat. The 
swine are fed on the refuse of these tallow factories at cer- 
tain seasons, and become in prime condition after a few 
months' feeding. It is from these animals that the bristles 
of commerce mainly come. When the swine are fattened, 
and their bristles in fine color, they are driven in kraals 
so thickly that they can scarcely stand — irritated and 
goaded by the herdsmen till they are sullen with rage — 



BRUSHES 



17 



kicking, striving, struggling- and scrambling together in 
feverish rage, they are seized one by one, by the kak koffs, 
a class of laborers educated to plucking swine, a»nd their 
bristles pulled out by the roots. The perspiration into 
which the poor creatures are thrown by their exercise 
causes their bristles to yield easily. The process is pleas- 
ant neither to the eye nor the ear. The hog strenuously 
resists with loud outcries, and vehement opposition. It 
does no good. Once seized, he is instantly divested of 




Fig. 3. Fitch Varnish Brush. 



his clothing and then immediately released, goes grunting 
off to the woods. 

The so-called French bristles are principally from Rus- 
sia stock, cleaned and bleached to render them white and 
exceedingly elastic, yet soft as an infant's hair. From 
these are made the fine pencils of the artist. Length, elas- 
ticity, firmness and color are elements that constitute their 
excellence, and the bristle expert can readily assort them 
for their special uses. 

The ordinai-y paint brush for general work is made either 
from selected Russia bristles, or with an inferior gray 
center, inclosed by fine white bristles. Can-iage and wagon 



18 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

painters usually select the best Russia bristles, and the 
size known as 0000 is used for rough-stuff and foundation 
coats, while the house painter would choose a larger one 
possibly. A new brush of this description will not work 
well unless bridled, that is having an extra binding added, 
and this may be done in several ways. 

By winding a strong cord around the bristles to about 
the middle of the same, or, as far from the original bind- 
ing as desired. By covering a portion of the bristles with 
leather stitched on tightly. By wrapping a piece of muslin 
around the brush, then tying a cord at the center of the 
bristles turn the muslin back and tie it securely to the 
handle. By using a patent metallic band or binder, and 
by other means, the object being to shorten the exposed 
bristles until the brush is partly worn down, when the 
extra binding may be removed. 

Badger-Hair Varnish Brush. The badger-hair brush is 
next in importance. It is well bound in tin, hair set in 
glue, handle nicely japanned, and chisel-pointed. For var- 
nishing small panels or parts of a body it has no equal. 
The best badger-hair is imported on the skin fi-om Germany 
and Russia. 

Camel's-Hair Brush. For laying fine color no better 
brush can be had than the camel 's-hair brush, called by some 
mqttlers, by others blenders, and again by others spal- 
ters, each term, however, is foreign to the American painter, 
and the camel 's-hair brush is by far the most appropriate, 
and most commonly used. The hair used in these brushes, 
however, is not all taken from the camel, much of it being 
from the tail of the Russian brown squirrel. The hair is 
first cut from the tail with scissors, the wool or under fur 
combed out, and then tied in bunches ready to be straight- 
ened. This requires skill and practice. The hair is placed 
in metal cups having a thick, loaded bottom, and by quick 
motion of the hand, drummed on the bench for a consider- 
able time, until the pointed or fine ends are all even with 



BRUSHES 19 

each other. In the process of cutting and cupping the 
lengths are kept separate as far as possible. The hair is 
now ready for the brush-maker, who cups and combs it out, 
weighs the quantity required, and places it into the ferrules 
or tin bands. It requires skill to handle the short, slippery 
hair and keep it in shape. It is not many years since 
work of this kind was all done abroad. Now, it is claimed 
by experts that the American manufacture of most kinds 
of brushes excels the foreign goods. The chiseled camel 's- 
hair brush is something entirely new, and is certainly a 
very fine brush and well calculated to do smooth, particular 
work. Another class of these goods are made extra thick 
and from picked camel 's-hair, the binding of brass having 
its edge turned under, which gives additional security to 
the hair and prevents cutting the hair on the edge of the 
binding, which too frequently happens. 

Camel's-Hair Tool. Small brushes, called tools, made 
of camel 's-hair are used for blacking irons, lacquering, 
and other work of like nature. The next brush to be con- 
sidered is the camel 's-hair duster, a tool used mostly by 
gilders in removing the loose gold leaf from their work 
when gilding. These are bound in split quill and fastened 
with wire. The next to claim attention is the gilder's 
camel 's-hair tip. This is made by laying a thin layer be- 
tween two pieces of card-board and gluing the whole firmly 
together; it is used to lift and carry to the work the pieces 
of gold leaf. A slight moisture or stickiness is given the 
hairs by simply passing them over the face or hair of the 
head, and then the gold leaf can be easily lifted from 
the cushion on which it has been cut and dexterously laid 
upon the gilding size. 

For painting walls a large flat bristle brush is used, made 
of all white bristles, bound in copper, brass or galvanized 
iron. It has always been a difficult task to make a wall 
brush to stand the hard usage it generally receives, but 
now that machinery of the most approved pattern has been 



20 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



introduced in the brush factory these brushes are made 
under warranty. 

Flat Bristle Varnish Brush. These are made of the best 
white bristles, set with glue, doubled nailed, soft yet very 
elastic, with chiseled points. They are considered the best 
brush made by many of the best varnishers. They are put 
up in sets from one inch in width to three inches. These 
brushes, if used with care, will wear a long time. 

Flat Chiseled Brush. Flat paint brushes are preferred 
by some. These are chiseled or ground off on the sides to 
form a thin edge. They are bound in tin or rubber and 
are graded in size by their width. 




Fig. 4. Flat Varnjsh Brush. 



Flattened Round Tool. This is superior to the sash tool 
for cleaning between the spokes, and for finishing around 
the various parts of the gear. This brush is tin-bound, well 
riveted, and the bristles are set in glue, which is insoluble 
in turpentine and oil, and therefore superior to the cement 
used by some brush-makers. The size best suited for the 
carriage painter is about one and a quarter inches in width. 
This is also an excellent tool for varnishing, in trimming 
up around moldings. 

Fitch-Hair Brush. This brush was formerly in extensive 
demand as a varnish brush but of late years the badger has 



BRUSHES 21 

supplanted it, owing, in a degree, to the numerous imita- 
tions in the market, and also to the liability of the rotting 
away or breaking of the hairs when in use. The hair is 
mostly from the tail of the skunk. 

Sash-Tool. A sash tool, or small brush, is necessary as 
an auxiliary to the large brush, for cleaning up in corners, 
etc. 

Oval Varnish or Paint Brush. As the under parts of a 
carriage are not rubbed with lump pumice-stone, the 
same as the body, the paint must be applied with greater 
care, and the 000 oval brush will work best, laying the 
paint smoothly and leaving but few, if any, brush marks. 
The chiseled brush should always have preference over a 
partly worn one, as the bristles are as a rule softer upon 
their extreme ends. 

The Care of Brushes. However good a brush may be 
it will soon be ruined unless it is properly treated when out 
of use. The following hints will suffice as a guide in this 
respect : 

Writing Pencils. Wash in turpentine until quite clean, 
and if they are not to be used for some time, dip in olive 
oil and smooth from heel to point. 

Stipplers. Wash thoroughly in pure soap and hot water, 
rinsing with cold water. Place point downwards to dry. 

Varnish Brushes. The best method of keeping varnish 
brushes is to suspend them in the same description of var- 
nish as that they are used for. As this is not always pos- 
sible, boiled oil may be used instead. 

Brushes made for Use in Color should first be soaked 
well in water to swell the bristle in the binding. This ap- 
plies also to whitewash brushes which are bound either by 
wire or leather. 

A Brush after use should be thoroughly cleansed out in 
turps or soap and water. If left in water any length of 
time they are liable to twist, and the bristles lose their 
elasticity. 



22 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

A Brush made for Paint should not be used in varnish, 
the spirit of which dissolves the cement with which it is set, 
and loosens the bristles. "When a ground brush has been 
well woi-n down in color, it may be used in varnish. 

Varnish Brushes when not in use should be suspended in 
either varnish or oil, the brush not resting on the bristles. 
No brushes should on any account be kept in tuipentine. 

Stippling Brushes should be well cleaned and dried after 
use, the bristle being carefully kept from crushing; a box 
in which they can be slid, allowing the bristle to hang 
downwards is recommended. 

Should a Brush become quite hard with Paint it should be 
soaked for twenty-four hours in raw linseed oil, after which 
time in hot turpentine. 

Cleaning Paint Brushes. All brushes, after being used, 
should be carefully cleaned. This is best effected by im- 
mersing the hair of the brushes in a little raw linseed oil, 
the oil should afterwai'ds be washed out with soap and 
w^arm water, till the froth which is made bj' rubbing the 
brushes on the palm of the hand is perfectly colorless. The 
brushes should next be rinsed in clean water, and the water 
pressed out by a clean towel. The hair should then be 
laid straight and smooth, and each brush restored to its 
proper shape, by passing it between the finger and thumb, 
before it is left to dry. Care should be taken not to break 
the hair by too violent rubbing, as that would render the 
brushes useless. Many painters use turpentine instead of 
linseed oil in the cleaning of brushes, it effects the object 
more quickly, but the only use of turpentine that should 
be permitted is to rinse the brushes in it slightly when it 
is required to clean them quickly, but on no account should 
they be permitted to remain soaking in turpentine, as this 
practice is certain to injure the brushes, rendering the hair 
harsh and intractable, and frequently dissolving the cement 
by which the hair is held in the socket of the handle. 



BRUSHES 



23 




iSiili F-T ' '■ . ■-! ; " 

wm'i'' vi'i,''i'M'''v''i''';':ij)''';V-,r:,;'i 

Mu, ;/:;,^'l;'ir^(i:!i:^'';7';:!V:!',-,| 

Fig. 5. Oval Chiselled Varnish Brush. 



CALCIMINING. 

Plaster ceilings are usually finished with calcimine, which, 
besides the advantages of cheapness and of covering in 
one coat, where with oil paint three would be required, 
shows superiority in many other respects. 

In places where people congregate, the moisture in the 
atmosphere, unless the ventilation of the apartment is ex- 
ceptionally good, will condense upon a painted surface and 
run down the walls. When calcimine is used in such situa- 
tions, no unpleasant effect is seen, the distempered surface 
will absorb the moisture for the time being, and ultimately 
give it forth again without any detriment to its color. 

This property of distemper also indicates the necessity 
of removing, with brushes and water, all old coloring and 
calcimine from the ceiling, instead of which, the dirty un- 
healthy coating is in many cases coated over with size. The 
size binds the dirt, and the opacity of the distemper does 
not show the dirt through, nevertheless, it is a practice to 
be condemned by all who desire sanitary homes. This labor- 
saving plan would be used to a greater extent but for the 
fact that continuous coats of distemper and size soon dis- 
cover the bad worker by the surface cracking and peeling 
off, owing to excess of size. 

When about to calcimine a ceiling, the first thing is to 
have the room as clear as possible, and to protect the wall- 
paper. 

Next with hot water thoroughly wash off from the ceiling 
the old calcimine, being careful to wash only the ceiling, 
and not to let the dirty water run down the wall-paper nor 
splash about. 

It is important to have the board at such a height from 
the floor that the ceiling can be comfortably reached. Have 

24 



CiVLCIMINING 25 

at each end of the board a pair of steps. Now, with a pail 
of clean hot water, a distemper brush, a large piece of 
sponge, and a piece of coarse canvas on a board or table, 
start at one corner of the room to lay or soak in a patch 
with water, gently stirring the old distemper with the 
brush. Get the old distemper thoroughly soaked, then 
wash it off with the canvas, finishing with the sponge, fre- 
quently rinsed in water. This is to get rid of every trace 
of the old distemper. This is a most important process, 
which cannot be too strongly insisted upon. Neglect in this 
part of the work will result in a dirty or uneven appear- 
ance in the finished ceiling. If only the loose portions are 
removed, even the most skilful application of calcimine 
cannot hide the patches. They will be either of a different 
color or else will show the shade from a different level of 
surface. Do not wet the surface more than necessary, and 
frequently change the water as it gets dirty. Sometimes the 
calcimine is especially difficult to get off on account of the 
original coat having been bound down, as it is called, in- 
stead of having been washed off before it was last calci- 
mined, which is very often done for the sake of cheap- 
ness. Liquid ammonia in a separate pail half full of 
water will greatly assist when soaking bound distemper. 
Avoid touching the wall-paper with the brush, but finish 
the last inch or so of margin with the sponge or canvas. 

When the surface of the ceiling has dried, any rough 
patches there may be should be scraped or rubbed smooth. 

If there are any cracks in the ceiling, run the point of 
a small trowel along them, to clear out any loose bits; with 
a sash-tool wet the parts of the ceiling where the cracks 
are, and then, using a stopping-knife, fill them in with plas- 
ter of Paris mixed with water in which a little alum has 
been dissolved. A little whiting mixed with the plaster 
will keep it from setting too quickly. 

Or mix fine plaster of Paris with glue size, and fill up 
holes and cracks, and when dry level with a knife or 



^6 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



coarse glass-paper. Whiting mixed with glue water is also 
suitable. Use a square piece of wood to mix the cement 
upon, and nail a handle to the other side. 






-sw- 


^^^ 






^^^ 


^^^ 


■"=— ^^ 




-- J 




'%' ' 9 


#> 


• 


'm 


• 


' A' 


• 


« 


© ft « 


♦111 


\ 




' -- 


- 






■"^ •■ 


. 1 







'^'^9 




lllllllllllllllllhllilill 

Fig. 6. Wall Brush. 



If the cracks are bad, they should be cut out, the face 
of the plaster on each side cut away for half an inch, and 
the gap then finished to a level surface with plaster laid 



CALCIMINING 27 

on with a small trowel. A broad thin strip of wood with 
a bevelled edge is very useful when stopping plaster walls, 
for in trying to stop a crack or hole with a sharp steel 
stopping knife, the surrounding face of the plaster may be 
badly scratched, which is only seen when the job is finished. 

Repairing should be done to new ceilings before the finish 
is applied, and to old ceilings at the time they are washed 
off, that is, when the old coating of dirty distemper is re- 
moved with water and brushes. 

If necessary, when dry, the ceiling can be rubbed quite 
smooth with glass-paper,- and is then ready for re-calcimin- 
ing, after which, if carefully done, the repaired cracks will 
be invisible. 

If there are stains in the ceiling that cannot be removed 
by washing, the stain should be painted white, in flat color 
or paint mixed with turpentine. If this has to be done, it 
will be well to paint also the filling with which the cracks 
have been stopped. 

Finally, the ceiling should be rubbed down with a cloth 
previous to applying the calcimine. 

To prepare the calcimine, break into large pieces about 
four balls of whiting, and put them into a pail, and just 
cover the material with water, let it stand all night. In 
the morning pour off all water that will run away, and 
thoroughly mix the wet whiting by hand until it becomes 
a thick even paste. Add about half an egg-cupful of dry 
ultramarine blue, stirring it well in with the whiting. Next 
put 2 pounds of patent size in a saucepan over the fire, 
with only just sufficient water to keep it from burning, 
and stirring it all the time, taking great care that it neither 
boils nor burns. When it is thoroughly dissolved, pour it 
on the whiting, and mix the whole well together. The 
proportion of size is about one teacupful to two gallons of 
the mixture. Now set it aside in a cool place until it 
turns to a jelly. When it is quite cold, with a distemper 
brush rub it through a coarse piece of canvas stretched 



28 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAlNTINa 

over the top of a clean pail, and it will then be ready for 
use. 

Before commencing the actual calcimining, lightly rub 
over the whole of the ceiling with a piece of fine glass- 
paper, to take off any little knots or brush-hairs left on 
the finishing coat. Then dust the ceiling before proceeding 
to whiten it. 

In laying on the wash, a large flat brush should be em- 
ployed, and if this is not over-charged a ceiling or wall 
may, with a certain amount of care, be white or color- 
washed with little or no splashing. The way to lay the 
distemper on is not to take up too much in the brush, 
and not to flick the brush at the end of each stroke, or you 
will splash everything. "Work the brush in any direction, 
but be sure that everj- part of the ceiling is covered with 
the calcimine taking care to keep the edges of the patches 
going, that is, do not let any edge get dry before coming 
to it again. To do this, it is essential to have a scaffold 
that is easily movable from one end of the room to the 
other. The calcimining must be done very expeditiously, and 
any ceiling over 14 feet square should not be attempted 
single-handed without some previous practice. 

Ceilings should always be calcimined by working away 
from the light. Two men are required to do a good-sized 
ceiling-flat; they should start at the window end, and, keep- 
ing their work in one general line, spread the distemper 
from the end as far towards the center as they can both 
conveniently reach. The scaffold is then brought forward 
and another shift covered, and so on until the whole ceiling 
is finished. The solvent used for distemper work being 
water, it will be seen that extreme heat or a draught of air, 
such as will evaporate the water, is to be avoided during 
the process, but so soon as a ceiling is completed, the ob- 
ject is to dry it off as quickly as possible, and hence it is 
well to open every door and window to create a draught. 

Properly executed distempering should have a level, but 



CALCIMINING 



29 




Fig. 7. Wall Brush. 



30 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

not perfectly smooth, surface, which should show no joints 
or coarse brush-markings, and should have a perfectly dead 
appearance, be solid and uniform throughout, and should 
not rub off by ordinai^y wear or leaning against. 

Distemper of any kind should never be spread over old 
or dirty stuff, these should be first washed off. An expect 
will not flap his brush in working well-made distemper, 
but will use the tip of the brush only, and make very little 
noise. Calcimine or any distemper can be laid on in any 
direction from the outer or working edge. Splashes result 
from the use of watery wash and want of experience in 
working'. 

A distemper brush should be worn oft' a trifle before 
being used to whiten a ceiling. The work of washing off 
a ceiling- will be sufficient to wear down a new brush to a 
fit condition. After the brush is done with, wash it out 
thoroughly and lay it by, before attempting to use it, soak 
it in water, or the hairs may fall out, through it being too 
dry. This last caution applies to nearly all brushes used 
in house decorating. 

If there is a delicate ornamental cornice in the room 
that cannot be got at with the ordinary distemper brush, 
a smaller brush, called a distemper tool, is used both for 
the washing off and whitening. In the whitening-, push 
this brush up into the ornamented parts. It does not much 
matter how the distemper is laid so long as it is put on 
evenly, and all the surface covered. 

There appears to be an idea that a new ceiling requires 
some special treatment before it is calcimined, but this is 
not so. Providing that the ceiling has been left by the 
l>histerer in a proper condition, it is a more simple job 
than wliitening an old one, on account of there being no 
washing-off or making-good to do. The most ordinary cause 
of failure is that the ceilings are not thoroughly dry before 
the wliitewash is put on. If there is the least sign of sweat- 
ing or moisture on the ceiling, it mav be taken to indicate 



CALCiMiNma 31 

that the ceiling is not dry, and if this is so, no amount of 
care in making or putting on the calcimine will make the 
ceiling white. Another cause of failure may be due to the 
fact that some people do not consider it neeessaiy to finish 
a new ceiling. This is also a mistake, for the finish stops 
absorption, and if there is a little whiting in it, it helps 
to cover, and, moreover, makes the distempering a much 
easier job, as it prevents it dragging, and, to use a paint- 
er's term, the distemper spreads like butter. The addition 
of a little alum is also an improvement to the finish. 

The following is a brief list of tints that are most usual- 
ly required on ceilings and the method of producing them: 

Cream. A variety of cream colors of different shades 
and hues are produced by mixing ochre, which gives a yel- 
lowish cast. A little umber or Venetian red may also be 
added. 

Gray. A nice effect is produced by a gray ceiling, espe- 
cially when the walls are highly colored. Blue black is the 
best for the purpose. 

Green. Very light greens look very pretty, but if they 
are too dark the effect is wholly spoiled. A variety of lime 
greens are made suitable for mixing with lime, and a very 
small quantity will be required. A touch of blue black may 
also be added when a neutral green is required. 

Pink. A little Venetian red gives a nice pink, but if 
something more pronounced is required lake may be used. 

Blue. A large variety of blue tints can be obtained by 
using the color sold under the name of "lime blue." These 
blues are really a variety of ultramarine. 

Browns. Very light browns may be obtained by using 
sienna or umber or a mixture of both. 

Almost as great a variety of colors in distemper may be 
obtained as in oil colors, but certain colors cannot be used 
with whiting at all. The following is a list of them : Prus- 
sian blue, Antwerp blue, Naples yellow, veimilion, lakes 



32 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



and chrome yellows. White lead and red lead are also un- 
suitable for the purpose. 

For all ordinary distemper work one of the many sani- 
tary distempers which are to be obtained in a wide range 
of colors is recommended. They are sold in di'y form, and 
require but the addition of water to* render them ready for 
use. 

The secret of success in applying distemper is to get as 
much on the surface as possible without making a mess 




Fig. 8. Wall Brush. 



or splashing any of it on the walls and floor. The brush 
must be used smoothh-, and not slapped against the work! 
Dip fairly deeply and squeeze out some of the calcimine. 
Then apply all around as far as the brush will reach. Be 
very careful not to go over the work a second time. Dis- 
temper is unlike oil paint. If it does not look satisfac- 
tory when applied, the only thing to be done is to wash 
off and commence again. It is usually necessary to have 
a stick in the pail with which to occasionally stir up the 
mixture. 



CARRIAGE PAINTING. 

After the body is completed by the wood-worker, the 
painter gives it a thorough dusting inside and out, and pro- 
ceeds to prime it. Pouring from the can a small quantity 
of filler with an ordinary paint brush, perfectly clean, or 
one kept for the purpose, and not used for paint, he coats 
over a portion of the body, the back, or one side, taking 
no great pains to spread it evenly, he may daub it on, then 
immediately wipe over and rub in every part with rags. 
This rubbing with rags spreads the priming evenly, and 
forces it into the pores. Go on in this manner until the 
whole is done, over wood and iron alike, leaving no surface 
coat as of paint or varnish, the hand should scarcely be 
soiled or greased if passed over a finished portion of the 
work. The canvased parts inside, if any, may be painted 
with slush paint, for they would absorb a great amount of 
filler with no corresponding benefit. It cannot be too 
strongly impressed upon the mind of the painter desiring 
to make a successful use of the filler, that it must be put 
on sparingly and be well wiped or rubbed into all parts of 
the work, and that only one coat should be applied. 

The body should now be set aside to dry, and forty-eight 
hours should be given, unless the weather is favorable, when 
the time may be shortened to 36, and even to 24 hours with- 
out detriment. There will be a thin film covering the hard 
parts of the wood, and the iron work, and the filler being- 
composed principally of oil and a gummy or filling sub- 
stance will have entered the pores and sealed them against 
the entrance of dampness or the liquids from subsequent 
coats of paint. 

Priming the Wheels and Under Parts. When the wheels, 
beds and bars are finished by the wheelwright, and before 

33 



34 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the grain of the wood is i-aised by the atmosphere, a coat 
of filler is put on every part in the same manner as the 
body, wiping it well with rags, being careful to coat the 
bottom of bars and tread of wheels, for this material is 
a bar to all dampness, and will thus render the work more 
durable. This preliminary coat is not properly the priming, 
for it is put on to prevent the grain of the wood from ab- 
sorbing oil and dirt from the smith's hands, and to prevent 
the rims or felloes from swelling with the water used in 
putting on the tires. When the ironing is completed, every 
part of the wood is sandpapered and filed down until noth- 
ing but clean wood and iron are seen, and eveiy trace of 
filler is removed from the surface — for the preliminary coat 
has fulfilled its mission. 

The preparation of the gears at this stage is the main 
operation, for if they are well done, but little labor re- 
mains to be accomplished. The priming is now in ordei', 
and going over every part with the filler in the same man- 
ner as at first, this is soon ready for standing aside to dry. 
The wood pores are sealed up, the surface of the wood has 
a thin film covering it as also the ironwork, and a more 
tenacious coating is not easily found. The time employed 
so far upon the gears has been trifling, compared to the oid- 
fashioned method of filling up with white lead and oil. 

White Lead Priming. White lead, the base or founda- 
tion, should be pure, but dealers have many means of adul- 
terating it with sulphate of baryta, or barytes, gypsum, or 
plaster of paris and carbonate of lime, or common chalk, 
all of which are detrimental. Linseed oil, the purest raw 
oil, should be used, but this is often adulterated with fish 
oil or cotton-seed oil. The next requisite is pure black, in 
order to form a gray or lead color. With these ingredi- 
ents the priming is formed. The white lead is beat up with 
the raw oil until of paint-like consistency, then a little of 
the black is added to form a clean lead color. Some add 
driers, such as brown japan or japan gold size, but many 



CARRIAGE PAINTING 



35 




w'l.lliillJil.UiijIU 

Fig. 9. Sash Brushes. 



36 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

prefer to use none whatever. The priming thus made is 
now spread on the wood, and the painter runs the job out 
in the drying shed or other convenient place to dry. The 
oil of the priming gradually leaves the pigments, white lead 
and black, and seeks the interior of the Avood, sucked in, 
as it were, by capillary attraction, and the pigments are 
thus virtually strained and left upon the surface in a semi- 
dry porous state, Avhile the oil that entered the wood, not 
being a gummy or filling substance, stains the interior of 
each little pore only. Next, a coat of white lead and oil 
of similar consistency is put over it. The oil from this 
coat is absorbed in by the porous pigments, through which 
it passes and spreads itself over the stain which the first 
coat gave to the pores, and the second coat pigments are 
strained and left porous, so on until possibly five coats 
of lead color are given, by which time the pores may have 
become filled by the successive layers of oil, and the pig- 
ment on the surface too, is finally cemented together or 
partially so. This is called the foundation, and it was the 
only known way to paint a carriage for many years. 

Rough- Stuff. The leveling or rough-stuff coats consist 
of a coarse mineral paint, designed to level down or fill up 
all imperfections in the surface of the carriage body, such 
as plane and file marks or brad holes. 

The pigment is mixed with oil, japan varnish and tur- 
pentine, and although the painter may have a good recipe 
for this paint, and may mix it himself, he cannot rely 
upon getting exactly the same amount of elasticity at one 
time as at another time, if mixed in small quantities. There- 
fore the ready-prepared paint, mixed from a formula, which 
experience and careful tests have proved best, and mixed 
in large quantities by weight and measure is bj' far the sur- 
est and safest to use. The filler priming on the body being 
dry, it only requires a good dusting when it is ready for 
the rough-stuff. This for the first coat should have a very 
little raw oil added to make it more in keeping with the 



CARRIAGE PAINTING 37 

elastic priming, and it must not be spread too thick, thick 
coats are apt to show brush marks, and brush marks in 
the rough-stuff will show in the finishing varnish. Put the 
rough-stuff on smoothly and set the body away for 48 hours 
to harden, or, if preferred, when 24 hours have passed the 
largest holes may be puttied part full, then give the other 
24 hours for drying. 

The second, third and fourth coats of rough-stuff may 
be put on one day apart, then a thin coat of stain, to guide 
the workman while rubbing, some yellow ochre or other 
cheap pigment mixed in japan and turpentine, may be add- 
ed. 

Rough-stuff will always give better satisfaction when 
applied in a medium thin coat. It is entirely against com- 
mon sense to plaster on a great mass of this paint, with 
the desire to level the work quickly. 

When the work of rubbing is completed, the body should 
be washed clean, and well dried off with a chamois skin, 
then set aside for the evaporation of moistuve from the por- 
ous paint. 

This drying out is of vital importance, and should never 
be neglected. 

Rough-stuff, providing it is good-rubbing rough-stuff, is 
necessarily porous, no matter what pigment or vehicle is 
used, and a portion of the water used in rubbing is absorbed 
by it, therefore it is essential, after the moisture has all 
been evaporated, that the pores be closed, in order that the 
oil of subsequent coats may not be absorbed by them. 

It is the aim in this system of painting to form a non- 
absorptive surface, and it will be seen that if the filler 
closed up the pores of the wood it will assuredly 
close up the pores of the leveling paint, therefore, a coat- 
ing is applied to the rubbed surface of paint in the same 
manner as in priming the wood, wiping off all that will read- 
ily leave the surface, thus rendering the paint elastic, yet 



38 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



proof against the entrance of oil from all subsequent coats 
of color or of varnish. 

Coloring the Body. The filler put on over the rough-stuff 
having been allowed from 24 to 48 hours for drying, the 
coloring is now in order. The surface must not be disturbed 
by sandpaper, but a simple dusting off may be necessary. 
It is customary with some painters to lay on a ground coat 
of some color corresponding with the color they intend to 
make the job, but this is more to economize time in making 
a solid job and to save expensive color, and with the ex- 
ception of a few extra fine or transparent colors, which are 
intensified or made more brilliant by application over par- 




Fig. 10. stucco Wall Paint Brush. 



ticular grounds, the color projier may bo laid directly on 
the prepared surface. 

For black, either lamp black or coach black may be used 
for the first coat, having sufficieut oil in the mixture to 
cause an egg-shell gloss, lay it on with a camel's hair brush 
and give 12 hours for drying. 

To better illustrate the painting of a body, take, for ex- 
ample, a job to be painted a dark grccMi. w'licli is a standard 
color and one of the most durable colors used in carriage 
work, and can-y it through to the finish. The panels only 
are to be put in color, the remainder to be black. The first 
duty is to prepare a ground or ]ii-eparation coat, and the 
following will be found a good foniiula : 

To produce a dark green ground, mix lamp black and 



CARRIAGE PAINTING 39 

chrome yellow, with coach japan and tuxpentine to a proper 
consistency for grinding in the mill, approximating as nearly 
as possible the desired shade of green. When ground add 
a tablespoonful of raw oil to a pint of paint, and when well 
stirred together test its drying qualities by spreading a 
little on the thumb-nail and blowing upon it to hasten 
evaporation, if it dries dead add a few drops of oil or rub- 
bing varnish, or if too glossy add turpentine until an egg- 
shell gloss is obtained. 

This ground work or preparation coat should be put on 
with a camel 's-hair brush as smoothly as can be, allowing 
no laps or brush marks to remain visible. 

The black portions are next to be done, and this paint 
may be mixed in the same manner as the green, of lamp 
black or ivory black. When all is coated set the job aside 
to dry until the next day, at which time it should be well 
inspected and if any scratches or indentations are found, 
soft dark putty must be used to fill them, then rub over 
gently with No. 1 sandpaper, partly worn, to prepare it 
for the color proper, dark green and ivory black. The dark 
green may be made as follows: 

Pulverize, on the stone, some Dutch pink, and mix it 
with half and half japan gold size and turpentine and grind 
it fine. Then mix in the same manner some Prussian blue 
and grind it into another cup. Now, little by little, add the 
blue to the Dutch pink, stirring it constantly, until the de- 
sired shade of green is obtained, and temper the mixture 
with raAv oil in the same manner as explained for the ground 
coat. Apply with camel 's-hair brush. The back parts 
may now receive another coat of ivory or drop black. If 
ready-mixed colors are used, instead of mixing them as 
above, take royal gi'een for the green parts, and jet black 
for the black portions, tempering them as described with 
oil. 

It is the usual custom to make color-and-varnish by add- 
ing to a partly filled cup of varnish a little color, but it 



40 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



is considered best by some of the first-class painters to 
grind the dry pigment directly in varnish, and thus over- 
come the objection to the oil and turpentine in the color- 
and-varnish. However, in the work in hand it is desired to 
produce a rich or deep shade of green, and to carry out 
the plan, the color is glazed, instead of putting on color- 
and-varnish, in its ordinary mixture. Yellow lake possesses 
the power, when used for a glazing over green, to increase 
the intensity or depth of the color, and many handsome 
shades are made in that way. It may be mixed as follows: 

Pulverize the lumps and mix it in hard-drying body var- 
nish, grind fine, then add a very little of the Dutch pink 




Fig. 11. Painter's Duster. 



color. Stir well and apply with badger-hair varnish 
brushes. 

The black parts are now ready for color-and-varnish and 
as in the case of the panels, a first-class black is desired, 
so, instead of using ordinary color-and-varnish, black japan 
is used. Three coats of this well rubbed with pulverized 
pumice between each coat, will give a good, jet-black surface 
for finishing over. 

The glazed panels having been rubbed lightly with pum- 
ice-stone, and a coat of hard drying body varnish given, at 
the time the black japan was applied, the whole is now 
ready for a final rubbing down and finishing coat of wear- 
ing body varnish. 

The Gears. After 24 hours apply either a thin coat of 



CARRIAGE PAINTING 41 

lamp black color, or a thin lead color, the object of which 
is to see the open grain and imperfection so that putty may 
be used to plaster over and fill them. The surface of the 
filler must not be rubbed, the paint should be applied as 
smoothly as possible, for no great amount of sandpapering 
is to be done. Putty all imperfections after the paint has 
dried, which will be about 48 hours, for this first coat over 
the filler should be a little more oily than is necessary in 
any other coatings. 

When the putty is dry, gently rub over with fine sandpa- 
per, but do not cut through the paint. When done, dust off, 
ai^ply the color and color-and-varriish, as usual, moss down, 
give a second coat of eolor-and-varnish, rub this latter with 
pumice-powder, wash off, stripe, and give a coat of clear 
elastic leveling varnish, let dry, rub again and finish with 
elastic gear varnish. 



CHINA PAINTING. 

Mediums. These are requisites, and upon the kind used 
and upon their qualit}' depends, to an extent greater than 
is generally supposed, the appearance of the finished work. 
The mediums are, as their other general name of vehicles in- 
dicates, the carriers of the paint, the means by which it may 
be spread. The mediums in general use and which give every 
satisfaction are of two kinds, a spirit and an oil, the latter 
being the vehicle projDer, the former, the thinning agent to 
render practicable the spreading of the mixed oil and paint 
in a coat of any desired depth or thickness. The spirit and 
the oil are both either of turpentine or of tar, spirit and 
oi{ of turpentine being used together, and spirit and oil of 
tar. 

Turpentine. The ordinary turpentine of the house-painter 
will answer the purpose, but it will be fount! best to pro- 
cure rectified spirits of turpentine as sold by the druggist, 
which is as clear as the proverbial crystal, and as limpid 
as the purest water. The common turiDcntine may be used 
for washing brushes. The oil of turpentine is also known 
as fat oil. It is viscid, much of the consistency of golden 
syrup, and has something of the color of clouded amber. 
This may be purchased for a few cents a small bottle, but 
it may be prepared from spirits of turpentine by any one, 
thus: Into a flat saucer pour a little spirits of turpentine, 
say a tablespoonful, according to the size of the saucer, and 
over the saucer place a layer of muslin, sufliciently close 
in texture to prevent dust getting to the turpentine, and yet 
not so close as to prevent evaporation. The saucer with the 
muslin drawn tight over it should now be put in a place 
where evaporation will be free, but not over the fire or 
stove so as to hasten evaporation, or the heat miglit dis- 
sipate the whole. When the spirituous part of the liquid has 

42 



CHINA PAINTING 



43 



passed off there will be found left the oil at the bottom of 
the saucer. Fresh spirit may be added, and the process re- 
peated until there is enough oil to pour off. 

Tar. The spirit of tar is in two shades, one a rich amber, 
the other a dark brown, but both are alike in nature. The 
oil of tar corresponds to it in the same way as the oil of 
turpentine does to the spirit of turpentine. The spirits of 
oil of tar are of similar use to the other spirit and oil, and 
are employed principally by those who object to the vapor 
of the turpentine as causing headache or affecting the throat. 
The spirits of turpentine and of tar are extremely volatile, 
the former being somewhat more so than the latter; and 




Fig. 12. Painter's Flat Duster. 

during the working, sufficient may pass off to render the 
paint somewhat troublesome to deal with. This difficulty is, 
however, only a slight one, and is easily overcome by the 
use of a little 

Oil of Lavender. Oil of spike, as it is sometimes called, 
is a perfectly volatile and fluid oil, but very much less vo'a- 
tile than either of the above mentioned spirits, and a small 
quantity is added to the other mediums used when it is 
desired to keep the work open, to counteract its drying or 
fattening through loss of spirit. 

The mediums should be kept in bottles with closely fit- 
ting stoppers, especially the spirits, as otherwise these would 
quickly become "fat" by evaporation. 



44 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



Paint. The colors used in painting upon china or earth- 
enware are, for the most part, oxides of certain metals. A 
few colors, however, such as the deep transparent blues, and 
j'ellows from one source, are really, to a certain extent, 
stained glass, the glass having more or less completely dis- 
solved the coloring matter. China or enamel colors then, 
from their containing, as an essential constituent, a glass 
or flux of vitrifiable composition, are called vitrifiable pig- 
ments. 

The following list of colors in dry powder will serve all 
purposes : 

Black. 

Soft. 
Deep. 

Blue. 

Azure. 

Old Tile. 

Turquoise Outremer. 

Schwartzenburgh. 

Brown. 
Austrian. 
Brunswick. 
Chestnut. 
Chocolate. 
Fawn. 
German. 
Golden. 
Olive. 
Sepia. 
Vandyke. 

Cannine. 
Carmine. 
Pink. 
Rose Coral. 



Gray. 


Red. 


Black. 


Flesh. 


Pearl. 

White Shadow. 


Ordinary. 
Salmon. 




Scarlet. 


Green. 




Celadon. 


Silver. 


Deep. 


Prepared, 


Dover. 

Emerald. 

Gordon. 

Rose-leaf. 

Sevres. 


Violet. 
Lilac. 
Mauve. 
Violet. 


Orange. 


White. 
Hard. 


Dark. 
Light. 
Opaque. 


Medium. 
Soft. 


Strong Deep. 


YeUow. 




Buff. 


Purple. 


Ivory. 


Ordinarj'. 


Light. 


Royal. 


Opaque. 


Ruby d'Or. 


Persian. 



CHINA PAINTING 45 

Moist Oil-Colors. These, as well as moist water-colors 
prepared expressly for this kind of painting, can be pur- 
chased at any large paint dealer's store. 

Having all the general requisites at hand we are ready 
to begin work. Before, however, we bring out the brushes 
and mix the colors, we must decide where the color is to 
go when it is mixed. The first concern is .the design, and 
this whether we intend to have a background or not. There- 
fore, the first operations will be directed toward producing 
the outline. 

According to the method which may be adopted for 
sketching the outline, there will be required a black lead 
pencil, HB or B, lithographic crayon, a tracing point, trac- 
ing paper, transfer paper, a pounce, Indian ink, rose pink, 
or lamp black, and gummed paper or modelling wax. 

Lithographic crayon may be made by mixing 32 parts 
bees-wax, 4 parts purified tallow, 24 parts soap, 1 part 
nitrate of potassium, dissolved in 8 parts water, 6 parts 
lamp black. 

The surface of the china having been thoroughly cleaned 
by washing and dried, the design may be marked on by 
either of the following plans : By marking with lithograph- 
ic crayon, black lead pencil, pricked stencil pattern and 
pounce-bag, copying or transfer paper. The design being 
drawn on the ware proceed to mix the color with the 
mediums. Different pigments require different proportions 
of medium, and the same pigment requires varying propor- 
tions, according to the end sought. It may be said gen- 
erally that the ordinary blues, rose, and purple take most 
fat and the yellows the least. More fat, again, is required 
when it is desired to lay color flat, as in backgrounds, either 
with the brush, or when the use of the dabber is contem- 
plated, or to have the color flow to a very slight extent 
as in delicate shading, or to lay a very thin tint. 

Powder Color. In mixing powder color, the orthodox 
direction is to lay a little powder on the slab, and add to 



46 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



it just so much oil as will make it into a thick paste, to 
be subsequently reduced to the requisite thinness by spirit. 
The grinding is done on the slab with the muller, and when 
ground to a thick cream consistency it is called prepared 
color. 

Moist Oil-Color. Those who adopt moist oil-color in 
tubes will find that the color when fresh contains exactly 
the right quantity of oil. The color only requires thinning 
to be fit for use. 

Moist Water-Colors. Require no grinding, simply dilu- 
tion, but it must be remembered water-colors cannot be 
used where the outlines are made with lithographic crayons, 




Fig. 13. stucco Wall Paint Brush. 



for these being greasy would grease the brush, and the wa- 
ter-color instead of laying flat, would ridge and spot. 

Firing. The ware being painted the next step is to make 
the work imperishable by fire; this part of the pi'ocess need 
not be done by the painter, for the maintenance to a nicety 
of different definite degrees of heat in furnaces of special 
adaptation are not to be found united except in factories 
devoted to the business. If the painting has gone to the 
kiln with too much oil in it, it is certain that the color will 
blister. If it comes back with a dry powdery look, with 



CHINA PAINTING 47 

the color scarcely adhering, it shows that the color was 
over-diluted with turpentine. 

The remedy for dryness is simply repainting, using more 
oil. The remedy for blistering is simply chipping off the 
blisters, and then rubbing down the irregularities. 



COLORS. 

Blacks. Lamp black is the soot produced by burning oil, 
resin, small coal, resinous woods, coal tar or tallow. It 
is in the state of very fine powder, works smoothly, is of 
a dense black color and durable, but dries very slowly in 
oil. 

Vegetable black is a better kind of lamp black made 
from oil. It is very light, free from grit and of a good color. 
It should be used with boiled oil, driers and a little var- 
nish. Raw linseed oil or sj^irits of turpentine keeps it 
from drying. 

Ivory-black is obtained by calcining waste ivory in close 
vessels and then grinding. It is intensely black when prop- 
erly burned. Bone-black is inferior to ivory-black, and 
prepared in a similar manner from bones. In Europe some 
other blacks are used, but are seldom met with in this 
country. 

When camphor gum is burned and the soot collected by 
means of a paper funnel or a saucer inverted over it, the 
result mixed with gum-arabic will be found far superior to 
the best ivoiy-black. 

Black japan is a composition of asphaltum and oil, and 
is a liquid of about the same consistency as varnish, of a 
jet-black color, although of a brownish tint wlien applied 
over a light color, or on tin or glass. While ordinary 
blacks have a greenish hue when varnished, this article will 
retain its jet color. It has no grains as a mixture of pig- 
ment and varnish, and its flowing qualities are good. Many 
err in supposing that it Avill cover at once, and thus take 
the place of color, and furnish with two or three applica- 
tions a perfect surface over any ground, but this is not the 
case. It was never intended for such a purpose, it is 

48 



COLORS 



49 



semi-transparent, and when put upon a white ground pro- 
duces a brownish tint or glaze. 

Besides the black pigments described above, there are 
several other substances known as Prussian black, black 
lake and tannin black, which have been proposed as black 
pigments, but their use is so limited that it is not neces- 
sary to give a description of them. 

Frankfort black is made of the lees of wine, from which 
the tartar has been washed, by burning in the manner of 
ivory black. Similar blacks are prepared from vine twigs 
and tendrils which contain tartar, also from peach-stones, 
etc., whence almond black and peach black, and the Indians 
employ for the same purpose the shell of the cocoanut. 




Fig. 14. Handled Roofing Brush. 



Inferior Frankfort black is, in fact, merely the levigated 
charcoal of woods, of which the hardest, such as box and 
ebony, afford the best. Fine Frankfort black, though al- 
most confined to copper-plate printers, is one of the best 
black pigments we possess, being of a fine neutral color, 
next in intensity to lamp black and more powerful than 
that of ivory. Strong light has the effect of deepening its 
color, yet the blacks employed in the printing of engrav- 
ings have proved of very variable durability. It is prob- 
able that this black was used by some of the Flemish paint- 



50 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

ers, and that the pureness of the grays is attributable to 
the propert}- of charred substances to prevent diseolonnent. 

Blue black is a well-burnt and levigated charcoal, of a 
cool neutral coloi*, and not differing in other respects fi'om 
the common Frankfort black. Blue black was fonnerly 
much employed in painting, and, in common with all car- 
bonaceous blacks, has, when duly mixed with white, a pre- 
serving influence upon that color in two respects, which it 
owes chemically to the bleaching power of carbon, and chro- 
matically to the neutralizing and contrasting power of black 
with white. A superior blue black may be made by calcin- 
ing Prussian blue in a close crucible, in the manner of ivoiy 
black, and it has the important property of drying- well in 
oil. Innumerable black pigments may be made in this way 
by charring. 

Vegetable black is a pigment now very extensivelj'^ em- 
ployed, superseding to a great extent the use of lamp black, 
to which it is in every way superior. The best way to 
procure it is to buy it in a dry state, in which it resembles 
soot, and is so exceedingly light that an ounce or two will 
fill a gallon measure. It is free from gi'it, and only re- 
quires to be rubbed up with a palette knife on a marble 
slab, instead of grinding. It should never be diluted with 
linseed oil, because, if it were, it would never dry, and it 
is not advisable to employ turpentine, but always the best 
boiled oil, and a little varnish will improve it. A small 
quantity of driers should be added, to ensure its drying 
with a uniformity of surface. 

Blues. Prussian blue is made by mixing prussiate of 
potash with a salt of iron. The prussiate of potash is ob- 
tained by calcining and digesting old leather, blood, hoofs 
or other animal matter with carbonate of potash and iron 
filings. This color is much used, especiallj' for dark blues, 
making purples and intensifying black. It dries well with 
oil. Slight differences in the manufacture cause consider- 
able variation in tint and color, which leads to the material 



COLORS 51 

being known bj^ different names, such d^ Antwerp blue, 
Berlin blue, Harlem blue and Chinese blue. Indigo is pro- 
duced by steeping certain plants in water and allowing them 
to ferment. It is a transparent color, works well in oil or 
water, but is not durable, especially when mixed with white 
lead. 

Ultramarine was originally made by grinding the valuable 
mineral lapis lazuli. Genuine ultramarine so made is very 
expensive, but artificial French or German ultramarines are 
made of better color, and cheaply, by fusing and washing 
and reheating a mixture of soda, silica, alum and sulphur. 
This blue is chiefly used for coloring wall papers. 

Cobalt blue is an oxide of cobalt made by roasting co- 
balt ore. It makes a beautiful color and works well in 
water or oil. 

Smalt, Saxon blue and royal blue are colored by oxides 
of cobalt. 

There are a few other blues, such as celestial or Bruns- 
wick blue, damp blue and verditer, that are chemical com- 
pounds, compounds of alum, copper, lime and other sub- 
stances. 

Brunswick blue is essentially a mixture of Prussian blue 
and barytes. It is prepared by thoroughly mixing barytes 
with water, adding a solution of copperas, then a solution 
of red or yellow prussiate of potash, stirring constantly so 
as to ensure the thorough incorporation of the barytes with 
the blue. After filtering, washing and drying, the blue is 
ready for use. 

As a pigment it is quite peraianent and resists exposure 
to the air, light and most of the other influences which act 
on pigments. It has the curious property of fading a little 
on exposure to light and of recovering its original intensity 
of color in the absence of light. 

Prussian blue can be mixed with nearly all other pig- 
ments without being affected or changed by them or affect- 
ing them in any way. 



52 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



Indigo, or Indian blue, is a pigment manufactured in the 
East and "West Indies from several plants, but principally 
from the Anil, or Indigofera. It is of various qualities, 
and has been long known and of great use in dyeing. 

In painting it is not so bright as Prussian blue, but is 
extremely powerful and transparent, hence it may be sub- 
stituted for some of the uses of Prussian blue, as the lat- 
ter now is for indigo. 

It is of great body and works well both in water and oil. 
Its relative permanence as a dye has obtained it a false 
character of extreme durability in painting, a quality in 
which it is verj- inferior even to Prussian blue. 




Fig. 15. Roofing Brush. 



Indigo is injured by impure air, and, in glazing, some 
specimens are firmer than others, but not durable, in tint 
with white lead they are all fugitive; when used, how- 
ever, in considerable body in shadow it is more permanent, 
but in all respects inferior to Prussian blue in painting. 
Intense blue is indigo refined by solution and precijiitation, 
in which state it is equal in color to Antwerp blue. By this 
process indigo becomes more durable and much more power- 
ful, transparent and deep. It washes and works admirably 
in water; in other respects it has the common properties of 
indigo. 



COLORS 53 

The indigo plant, in its general appearance, is not un- 
Kke the lucerne of our fields. The seed is sown in drills, 
about 18 inches apart, and soon makes its appearance above 
the ground, when it requires incessant care to keep the 
weeds down, which would otherv/ise soon choke so tender 
a crojD. In about two months the plants begin to flower, 
and are then cut down, but shoot up again and give two 
or three more crops in the same year. Formerly indigo 
was carefully dried after being cut, and even fire heat was 
sometimes used for the purpose; but now, at least in India, 
the practice is abandoned, and it is fovmd in every respect 
better to use the plant whilst fresh and green. The first 
process is to place in a shallow wooden vat as much as Avill 
loosely cover the bottom of it; water is then let in so as 
to cover the plants about three inches, and heavy wooden 
frames are put on the top to prevent them from floating. 
Being left in this state for from fifteen to twenty hours, 
fermentation is set up, and much gas is disengaged, the 
water becoming a light green color. The green liquor is 
then run off into the second vat, which is placed below the 
level of the first, in which, whilst the fermentation proc- 
ess is being repeated upon a fresh supply in the first vat, 
it is violently agitated by being beaten with poles; this 
causes the grain, as it is called, to separate, and the green 
matter suspended in the liquor becomes blue and granular, 
and this change is promoted by the addition of a little lime- 
water from time to time. When this operation is sufficiently 
advanced the contents of the vat are allowed to settle, and 
in a short time the now intensely blue granular matter has 
sunk to the bottom, leaving the supernatant liquor almost 
as clear as water; this is then run off nearly to the bottom, 
and the sediment is run into the third vat, which is below 
the level of the second; here it awaits several other addi- 
tions from successive operations, and, a sufficient quantity 
being accumulated in the third vat, it is suffered to subside 
and when thoroughly settled the clear liquor is drawn off, 



54 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

and the granular matter is removed and filled into coarse 
bags, which are hung up to drain. When sufficiently 
drained the blue paste is filled into very small boxes, about 
three inches square, and set to dry in the sun, which soon 
renders it fit for packing. 

There are, of course, other blues, but the above will be 
sufficient for all purposes, and the painter is urged not to 
adopt others until he knows their qualities from actual trial, 
and from having watched the effect which time and ex- 
posure to atmospheric action have had upon them. 

Browns. Browns generally owe their color to oxide of 
iron. Raw umber is a clay similar to ochre colored by 
oxide of iron. The best comes from Turkej'; it is verj' dur- 
able both in water and in oil; does not injure other colors 
when mixed with them. 

Burnt Umber is the last mentioned material burnt to 
give it a darker color. It is useful as a drier, and in mix- 
ing with white lead to make a stone color. 

Vandyke Brown is an earthy dark brown mineral; it is 
durable both in oil and water, and is frequently employed 
in graining. 

Purple Brown is of a reddish-brown color. It should be 
used with boiled oil and a little varnish and driers for out- 
side work. 

Burnt Sienna is produced by burning raw sienna. It is 
the best color for shading gold. 

Brown Pink is a vegetable color often of a greenish hue. 
It works well in water and oil, but dries badly, and will not 
keep its color when mixed with white lead. Spanish brown 
and brown ochre are clays colored naturally by various 
oxides. 

Sepia is a brown pigment, of slightly varying hue, and 
is obtained from various species of cephalopodous animals. 
It is a blackish-brown pigment of a very fine texture, mix- 
ing well with both oil and water. It is much used by ar- 
tists, especially for monochrome work. It is a fairly per- 



COLORS 



55 




Fig. 16. Kalsomlne Bruslj. 



56 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

manent pigment, being but little affected by exposure to 
light and air. 

Manganese brown is an oxide of manganese, of a fine, 
deep, semi-opaque brown, of a good body, and dries well 
in oil. It is artificially prepared from the waste still-liquors 
of the chlorine manufacturer by precipitating the liquors 
with sodium carbonate, collecting the precipitate and cal- 
cining in a furnace to a low red heat, until samples taken 
out and allowed to cool show the desired shade. It is a 
good and permanent pigment, but it is difficult to use on 
account of its excessively strong drying properties. 

Greens. These, of course, may be made by mixing blue 
and yellow together, but such mixtures are less durable than 
those produced direct from copper, arsenic, etc. The latter 
are, however, objectionable for use in distemper or on wall 
papers, as they are very injurious to health. Brunswick 
green of the best kind is made by treating copper with sal- 
ammoniac. Chalk, lead and alum are sometimes added. 
It has rather a bluish tinge, dries well in oil, is durable, 
and not poisonous. Common Brunswick green is made by 
mixing chromate of lead and Prussian blue with sulphate 
of baryta. It is not as durable as real Brunswick green. 
Mineral green is made from bi-basic carbonate of copper; 
it weathers well. Verdigris is acetate of copper. It fur- 
nishes a bluish-gi-een color, durable in oil or varnish, but 
not in water; it dries rapidly, but requires great care in 
using owing to its poisonous qualities. Green verditer is a 
carbonate of copper and lime; is not veiy durable. Prus- 
sian gTeen is made by mixing different substances with 
Prussian blue. There are a number of other greens made 
from copper, but they ali possess in a greater or less de- 
gree the same qualities as the foregoing. Emerald or 
Paris green is made of verdigris mixed with a solution of 
arsenious acid. It is of a very brilliant color, but is very 
poisonous; is difficult to grind, .mikI drios badly in oil. It 
should be purchased ready ground in oil, as in that case 



COLORS 57 

the poisonous particles do not fly about, and the difficulty 
of grinding is avoided. Seheele's green and Vienna green 
are also arseniates of copper, and highly poisonous. 
Chrome green should be made from the oxide of chromium, 
and is very durable. An inferior chrome green is made by 
mixing chromate of lead and Prussian blue, as above men- 
tioned, and is called Brunswick green. The chrome should 
be free from acid or the color will fade; it may be tested 
b}' placing it for several days in strong sunlight. 

Bremen green is essentially copper hydrate, and forms 
an extremely loose and pale blue mass, the color of which 
has, however, a somewhat greenish tinge. When used as 
a water color it gives a pale blue, but when employed as 
an oil paint the original blue color turns green in 24 hours, 
owing to the copper oxide combining with the fatty acids 
of the oil to a green copper soap. 

Reds. Carmine, made from the cochineal insect, is the 
most brilliant red color known. It is, however, too expen- 
sive for ordinary house painting and is not durable. It is 
sometimes used for inside decoration. 

Red lead is produced by raising massicot, which is the 
commercial name for oxide of lead, to a high temperature, 
short of fusion, during which it absorbs oxygen from the 
air and is converted into red lead or minium, also an oxide 
of lead. The color is lasting, and is unaffected by light 
when it is pure and used alone, but any preparation con- 
taining lead or acids mixed with it deprives it of color, and 
impure air makes it black. It may be used for a drier, as 
it possesses many of the properties of litharge; it is also 
often employed in painting wrought iron work, to which 
it adheres with a tenacity not equaled by any other paints; 
it is sometimes objected to for this purpose, on the ground 
that galvanic action is set up between the lead and iron. 

Vermilion is a sulphide of mercury in a natural state as 
cinnabar. The best comes from China. Artificial vermilion 
is also made, both in China and in this country, from a 



58 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



mixture of- sulphur and mercury. Genuine vermilion is 
very durable, but when mixed with red lead, as it is some- 
times, it will not stand the weather. It can be tested by 
heating in a test tube; if genuine it will entirely volatilize, 
German vermilion is the tersulphide of antimony, and is of 
an orange-red color. 

Indian red is a ground hematite ore brought from Ben- 
gal; it is sometimes made artificially by calcining sulphate 
of iron. The tints vary, but a rosy hue is considered l..e 
best. It may be used with turpentine and a little varnisli 
to produce a dull surface, drjdng rapidly, or with bulled 
oil and a little drier to produce a glossy surface. 




Fig. 17. Flat Knotted Badger Blender. 



Tuscan red is essentially a mixture of Indian red with 
some sort of lake color. The cheapest article is made from 
a reduced Indian red and rose pink. The richness of such 
article is very fleeting, particularly if the rose pink be sim- 
ply whiting colored with a coal tar dye. It is apparent that 
the real value of a Tuscan red lies in the permanency of 
the lake coloring material employed to give it richness. 

Orange is a chromate of lead, brighter than vermilion, 
but less durable. Orange ochre is a bright yellow ochre 
burnt to give it warmth of tint; it dries and works well in 
water or oil, and is very durable. It is known also as Span- 
ish ochre. Orang^e red is px'oduced by a further oxidation 



COLORS 59 

than is required for red lead. It is a brighter and better 
color. 

Chinese red and Persian red are chromates of lead, pro- 
duced by boiling white lead with a solution of bichromate 
of potash. The tint of Persian red is obtained by the em- 
ployment of sulphuric acid. 

Venetian red is obtained by heating sulphate of iron 
produced as a waste product at tin and copper works. It 
is often adulterated by mixing sulphate of lime with it 
during the manufacture. When pure, it is called bright 
red. Special tints of purple and brown are frequently re- 
quired, which greatly enhance the value of the material. 
These tints should be obtained in the process of manufac- 
ture, and not produced by mixing together a variety of 
different shades of color. When the tint desired is at- 
tempted to be obtained by this latter course it is never so 
good, and the materials produced ai'e known to the trade 
as faced colors, and are of inferior value. 

Venetian red originally consisted of a native ferric oxide 
or red hematite. But of recent years the name appears to 
have been transfen-ed to a particular quality of artificial 
ferric oxide made by calcining green vitriol. When this 
salt is heated in a crucible the upper portion of the prod- 
uct, which has been less strongly heated than the lower, is 
of a brighter red than the remainder, and after washing 
and grinding is sold as Venetian red. 

Rose pink is made of a sort of chalk or whiting stained 
with a tincture of Brazil wood. It fades very quickly, 
but is used for paper-hangings, common distemper and for 
staining cheap furniture. 

Lakes are made by precipitating colored vegetable tinc- 
tures by means of alum and carbonate of potash. The 
alumina combines with the organic coloring matter and 
separates it from the solution. The tincture used varies 
in the different descriptions of lake. The best, made from 
cochineal or madder, is used for internal work. Drop lake 



60 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

is made by dropping a mixture of Brazil wood through a 
funnel onto a slab. The drops are dried and mixed into 
a paste with gum water. It is sometimes called Brazil wood 
lake. Scarlet lake is made from cochineal, so also are 
Florentine lake, Hambui-g lake, Chinese lake, Roman lake, 
Venetian lake and Carminated lake. 

Whites. The most important gi'oup of painters' colors 
are the white pigments. White is the basis of nearly all 
opaque painting designed for the laying and covering of 
grounds, whether they be of woodwork, metal, stone, plas- 
ter or other substances. It should be as pure and neutral 
in color as possible, for the better mixing and compounding 
with other colors without changing their hues, while it 
renders them of lighter shades, and of the tints required; 
it also gives solid body to all colors. It is the most advanc- 
ing color; that is, it comes forward and catches the eye be- 
fore all other colors, and it assists in giving this quality to 
other colors, with which it may be mixed, by rendering their 
tints lighter and more vivid. 

White is the nearest among colors in relation to yellow, 
and is in itself a pleasing and cheerful color, which takes 
every tint, hue and shade, and harmonizes with all other 
colors, and is the contrast of black, added to which it gives 
solidity in mixture, and a small quantity of black added 
to white preserves it from its tendency to turn yellow. 
The most important of the white pigments is 
AVhite lead, which may be obtained either pure or mixed 
with various substances, such as sulphate of baryta, sul- 
phate of lead, whiting, chalk, zinc white, etc. These sub- 
stances do not combine with oil as well as does white lead, 
nor do they so well protect any surface to which they are 
applied. Sulphate of baryta, the most common adulterant, 
is a dense, heavy, white substance, very like white lead in 
appearance. It absorbs very little oil, and may frequently 
be detected by the gritty feeling it produces when the paint 
is rubbed between the finger and thumb. 



COLORS 



61 



Oxide of zinc, or zinc white, is durable in water or oil; 
it dissolves in hydrochloric acid; it does not blacken in the 
presence of sulphuretted hydrogen, and it is not injurious 
to the men who make it, or to the painters who use it; but 
on the other hand, it does not combine with oil well, and 
is wanting in body and covering power, and is difficult to 
work. It is easily acted upon by the carbonic acid in rain 
water, which dissolves the oxide, and it therefore is unfit 
for outside work. The acids contained in unseasoned wood 
also have a great effect upon it. When pure and used for 
inside work, it retains its color well, and will stand washing 




Fig. 18. Camel's-Hair Lacquering Brushes. 

for many years without losing any of its freshness. When 
dry it becomes very hard, and will take a fine polish. This 
paint is suitable for any place that is subjected to vapors 
containing sulphur, or in places where foul air is emanated 
from decaying animal matter. 

The purity of white lead is ascertained by dissolving a 
sample of it in pure dilute nitric acid, 1 part of acid to 
two parts of water. On adding dilute sulphuric acid to the 
solution, after diluting it with water and filtering off the 
precipitate of lead sulphate thus obtained, no further pre- 
•ipitate should be formed on successively adding ammonia, 



62 CYCLOPEDL\ OF PAINTING 

ammonium sulphide and ammoniuui oxalate to the filtrate. 

The purity of zinc white in oil may be tested by buni- 
intif out the oil by means of a blast lamp, on an iron spoon 
or ladle. Take of the zinc white a piece al)out the size of 
a pea, place it in the center of the spoon and dii'ect the 
blast on it until it is burned white and perfectly dry. Crush 
the white cinder which is left to a line powder and drop 
this into a glass of diluted sulphuric acid, 1 part of acid 
to 10 parts of water. If the powder be fine and very little 
dropped in at a time, it will, if pure, dissolve completely 
before reaching- the bottom and without effervescence. If 
there be any effervescence it indicates the presence of whit- 
ing, which will precipitate as sulphate of lime, which is, 
however, sparingly soluble, barytes is insoluble, and a con- 
siderable adulteration of terra alba is not readily soluble; 
clay is insoluble. 

Gypsum mixes well with either water or oil, and, being 
neutral in its properties, it can be mixed with all other pig- 
ments without affecting them or being affected by them. 
It is used very largely by paper stainers and makers of 
wall paper, who prefer it to barytes on account of its hav- 
ing more body when used for that class of work. It is used 
in finishing of cotton goods, in paper making, and for a 
variety of other jDurposes where a cheap white pigment is 
required. 

Whiting is sold under a variety of names, such as Span- 
ish white, Paris white, English white. Whiting is the car- 
bonate of calcium, purified by washing. It is prepared by 
grinding chalk under water to a very fine powder by pass- 
ing it through several mills. The powder is run into tanks 
in which the coarser and heavier particles settle, while the 
liner chalk passes on to other tanks in which it settles. When 
the settling tanks ai"e full, the chalk or whiting is dug out 
and dried. When partially dry it is cut into masses of a 
cubical shape and dried. When dry it is ground. 

Paris white is a finer quality of whiting, but the grinding 



COLORS 63 

is more thoroughly done. Spanish white is a name given 
to Paris white sold in a cylindrical form prepared by mould- 
ing the wet material into that form, and allowing it to dry 
in the open air. 

Whiting is a dull white powder of an amorphous char- 
acter, and soft to the feel. It is quite insoluble in pure 
water, but is soluble in water containing carbonic acid gas. 

Kaolin or China clay is essentially a hydrated silicate of 
alumina. It is a natural product and only requires levi- 
gating and drying to prepare it for use as a pigment. It 
occurs in large deposits along with other constituents of 
undecomjDosed granite, the china clay usually forming from 
15 to 20 per cent of the whole deposit. 

Kaolin is a fine, white amorphous powder, having slight 
adhesive properties and adhering to the fingers when moist. 
The best qualities have a very soft unctuous feel and a 
pure white tint, while the common qualities are rather 
rougher and of a more or less yellowish hue. 

As a pigment kaolin is quite permanent, resisting expos- 
ure to the atmosphere and to light for any length of time. 
It is, however, not much used as a pigment. In oil it 
loses its body and becomes more or less transparent. It 
can be used in water colors and in distemper work with 
good results, and is emjDloyed in paper-making and paper- 
staining. 

Yellows. Chrome yellows are chromates of lead, produced 
by mixing dilute solutions of acetate or nitrate of lead and 
bichromate of potash. This makes a medium tint known 
as middle chrome. The addition of sulphate of lead makes 
this paler, when it is known as lemon chrome, whereas the 
addition of caustic lime makes an orange chrome of a 
darker color. The chromes mix well with oil and with 
white lead either in oil or water. They stand the sun well, 
but like other lead salts, become dark in bad air. Chrome 
yellow is frequently adulterated with gypsum. 

Naples yellow is a salt of lead and antimony, supposed 



64 



CYCLOPEDIA OP PAlNTINdl 



to have been originally made from a natural volcanic prod- 
uct at Naples. It is not so brilliant as chrome, but has the 
same characteristics. King's yellow is made from arsenic, 
and is therefore a dangerous color to handle, or use for in- 
ternal work. It is not durable, and it injures several other 
colors when mixed with them. Chinese yellow, arsenic yel- 
low and yellow orpiment are other names for this yellow. 

Yellow ochre is a natural clay colored by oxide of iron, 
and found abundantly in many parts of the world. It is 
not very brilliant, but is well suited for distemper work, 
as it is not affected by light or air. It does not lose its 




Fig. 19. Round Badger Blender. 



color when mixed with lime washes as many other colors do. 
There are several varieties of ochres, all having the same 
characteristics differing only in color which varies from a 
golden to a dark brown. 

All the hues and tints, from the palest lemon cadmium 
to the orange red, are due to one compound only of cad- 
mium, namely the sulphide, which contains 112 parts by 
weight of cadmium to 32 parts of sulphur. As commonly 
prepared cadmium yellow is of an orange hue; when this 
compound separates slowly from a solution, or is made in 
any way to take a dense or aggregated form, it becomes 



COLORS 65 

of a decided reddish orange. The orange-yellow variety, 
when very finely ground, becomes less red and more in- 
clined to yellow. Some of the jialest cadmium yellows con- 
tain white pigments or flour of sulphur, added to reduce 
their depth of color. Yellow cadmium is prepared in sev- 
eral ways. A slightly acid solution of any cadmium salt is 
prepared and through it is passed a current of sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas. The product thus obtained has a pure 
chrome yellow shade. A lemon yellow shade may be ob- 
tained by dissolving 1 pound of cadmium sulphate in 4 gal- 
lons of water and adding 1^4 gallons of the ordinary yel- 
low ammonium , sulphide. 

Cobalt yellow is a compound of the nitrates of cobalt and 
potassium. It is prepared by precipitating cobalt nitrate 
with sodium carbonate, dissolving the precipitate in acetic 
acid and adding a strong solution of potassium nitrate. On 
allowing the mixture to stand for some time the color is 
gradually precipitated, and is collected, washed and dried, 
when it is ready for use. 

Cobalt yellow is a pure yellow color, and is almost trans- 
parent whether used in water or oil painting. 

Orange ochre also called Spanish ochre is a very bright 
yellow ochre, burnt, by which operation it acquires warmth, 
color, transparency and depth. 

Mars orange is an artificial ochre similar to the above. 
It is made by taking equal weights of ferrous sulphate and 
alum, and adding a solution of cai'bonate of soda, thereby 
precipitating the iron and alumina. The precipitate, which 
forms a yellow pigment, the so-called Mars yellow, is col- 
lected, washed well with water, dried and converted into 
orange, by slightly calcining. 

Oxford ochre is a native of the neighborhood of Oxford, 
England ; it is semi-opaque, of a warm yellow color, and 
of a soft argillaceous texture, absorbent of water and oil, 
in both ©f which it may be used with safety, according to 



66 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the general character of yellow ochres, of which it is one 
of the best. 

Stone ochre has been confounded with the preceding, 
which it frequently resembles, as does also Roman ochre. 
True stone ochres are found in balls or globular masses of 
various sizes in the solid body of stones lying near the sur- 
face of rocks among the quai-ries in Gloucestershire, Eng- 
land, and elsewhere. These balls are of a smooth compact 
texture, in general free from grit, and of a powdery frac- 
ture; they vary exceedingly in color, from yellow to brown 
murrey and gray, but do not differ in other respects from 
the preceding, and may be safely used in oil or water in 
the several modes of painting. Varieties of ochreous colors 
are produced by burning and compounding with lighter, 
brighter and darker colors, but often very injuriously and 
adversely to a certainty of operation, effect and durability. 

Raw sienna is a ferruginous, or impregnated with iron, 
native pigment, and appears to be an iron ore which may 
be considered as a crude, natural yellow lake, firm in sub- 
stance, of a glossy fracture, and very absorbent. It is 
in many respects a valuable pigment, of rather an impure 
yellow color, but has more body and transparency than 
the ochres, and being little liable to change by the action 
of either light, time, or impure air, it may be safely used, 
according to its powers, either in oil or water, and in all 
the modes of practice. By burning, it becomes more trans- 
parent and drying, and changes color to a red brown. Raw 
sienna is a valuable color in graining. 

There are several pigments called yellow lake, varying 
in color and appearance according to the coloring substances 
used, and modes of preparation; they are usually in the 
form of drops, and their colors are in general of a bright 
yellow, very transparent, and not liable to change in an 
impure atmosphere, qualities which would render them 
very valuable pigments were they not soon discolored 
and even destroyed by the opposite influences of oxygen 



COLORS 67 

and light, both in water and oil, in which latter vehicle, 
like other lakes in general, they are bad dryers, and do not 
stand the action of white lead or metallic colors. If used, 
therefore, it should be as simple as possible. 



COLOR HARMONY. 

The most difficult subject with which the painter has to 
deal is that of color harmony. In other words, how to use 
different colors in decoration in such a manner as to pro- 
duce a perfect harmony and a pleasing result. The sub- 
ject is a difficult and comprehensive one, and it would be 
impossible within the limits of this book to do justice to it 
A few general hints, however, will no doubt be of service. 

It should first be recognized that there are distinct rules 
and laws regulating harmony in color. Just as some people 
have an ear quick to recognize the slightest discord, so 
some are fortunate enough to possess an inherent talent 
for recognizing color haiTaony. It ie to be feared that while 
the musical ear, so to speak, is fairly common, the ability 
to harmonize colors is much rarer. Speaking generally, 
ladies have more natural talent in matters concerning color 
than men have. Possibly the reason is that they are called 
upon more frequently to choose and determine upon matters 
relating to color in connection with their dress. It is true 
that if one is inclined to be satirical one might suggest that 
some ladies, judging by the extraordinai-y combination of 
colors they wear, must be color blind. It has been proved 
by statistics that one person in ten is color blind, but this 
does not mean wholly devoid of the ability to distinguish 
one color from another, but simply that there are certain 
colors which the person who is color blind cannot distin- 
guish from others. 

In almost everyday work the painter is called upon to 
mix colors that shall harmonize, as, for instance, to paint 
the woodwork of a room in colors that will harmonize with 
the wallpaper. 

68 



COLOR HARMONY 



69 



Matching the Wallpaper. The simplest plan, and there- 
fore the one which is usually followed, is to take the pre- 
vailing color of the wall and to use this on the woodwork 
and introducing other colors which may occur in the paper- 
hanging as may be thought to be judicious. If the room is 
a bed-chamber and the paper has a cream ground with a 
floral pattern printed in green with a pink flower, the stiles 
and rails of the doors might be painted a light green, the 
panels cream, and the mouldings, or a portion of them, 
pink. The same plan may be followed successfully with 
many papers, but on the other hand much more pleasing 




Fig. 20. Ox Hair Fresco Brushes. 



and artistic results may often be obtained by using a dis- 
tinct, but harmonizing contrast. A single example will 
suffice. A striped wallpaper, printed in brilliant red, might 
cause wonderment in the eyes of a novice as to how it 
could possibly be used successfully in an ordinary room. 
The excessive brilliancy might at first sight appear to be 
certain to produce an effect too glaring to make a comfort- 
able living-room. Yet such a paper used in a room very 
soberly furnished say, with old dark oak, ebony or black 
walnut, would look very handsome, or in a more modern 
room tlie doors, skirting, in fact the whole of the wood- 



70 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

work, might be finished in white enamel, and the effect 
would also be very g'ood. 

Contrasting Harmonies. From this single example it can 
readily be seen that contrasting colors often give the 
very best results. A Avail painted green may look very 
monotonous, but if a frieze, having some bright red used 
liberally in it, is used in conjunction there will be a vast 
difference in the ajipearance of the apartment. 

RED. 

A Red Wall. Red may graduate from Indian red to 
Avhat would i^ractieally be a warm gray. Any color going 
with a selected tone or tint needs to be modified so as to 
harmonize with it. If a wall has a paper colored in light 
red and gold, and it is desirable that the woodwork should 
be red too, it must differ from the color of the wall in tone 
and in intensity. 

A Crimson Wall may have amber woodwork with cream 
colored mouldings, or they maj' be heliotrojie for contrast. 

A Scarlet Wall may have light snuff brown, or a sage 
green, for the woodwork, with yellow green mouldings, or 
they may be white. 

A Yellow Red Wall, in which scarlet has been tempered 
Avith an excess of chrome, will bear a raAV .umber tone of 
brown for the Avoodwork, with ivory or white mouldings. 

A Pink Toned Wall. With this the Avoodwork may be a 
yelloAvish green, Avith or Avithout straw colored mouldings, 
or two shades of citrine, with pearl gray for contrast in 
the mouldings. 

For a Dark Red, inclining to purple, the AvoodAvork may 
be a sage or myrtle green, Avith amber mouldings. 

A Poppy Red. Gray green, lavender and black may be 
used for this. 

All warm tones and shades of green or gray may be used 
with red, provided they get their hues by contrast Avith 
the red. Any blue associated wi1li red must be slaty or 



COLOR HARMONY 71 

piu-ple in tone. If the color of a wallpaper is heliotrope, 
inclined to red, the woodwork m?y be cream. If the helio- 
trope inclines to yellow, straw color should be adopted. 

BLUE. 

A Blue Wall of a Purple Tone. With this yellowish 
orange, amber, salmon pink or terra cotta will harmonize 
according to the value of the wall color. 

A Peacock Tone or Blue Wall. This calls for orange 
red, deep amber, warm brown, cool brown, or both. 

A Sapphire Blue Wall. Chocolate woodwork in two 
tones, with amber mouldings. Pearl gray and cream will go 
with this color, 

A Wall of an Ultramarine Tone. Light warm gray and 
cool yellow brown go happily Avith this. 

A Neutral Blue Wall will unite with citron and choco- 
late, or a warm gray green, or a blue green gray and sal- 
mon. 

A Slate Colored Wall of a Blue Tone. For this there is 
plum color and lavender, i^uee and orange to choose from. 

YELLOW. 

This color ranges from a rich sienna to a lemon tone, 
from citrine to a cream 

A Yellow Wall. Plum coloi% slate, brown or citrine may 
be used with this. 

A Gold Colored Wall. The woodwork may be in two 
tones of lavender, with citrine mouldings. 

An Orange Colored Wall. The color for the wood may be 
purple tone of red, with maroon mouldings, or if light 
mouldings be required, citrine would serve. 

A Canary Colored Wall. Vellum color, with deep ivory 
mouldings, may be adopted for the woodwork. 

A Deep Terra Cotta WaU. A selection from buff, sage 
green, Indian red, vermilion, white and black either or any. 
may be selected, the strong colors in the small parts. 



72 



CTCLOPEDLV OF P.UNTINa 




Fig. 21. Fresco Bristle Brushes. 



COLOR HARMONY 73 

A Primrose Tone of Wall. Tones of snuff orown, me- 
ilinin yellow green, and lavender may be selected. 

A Neutral or Drab Wall. Shades of olive green, Vene- 
tian red, and lilac go well together. 

BROWN. 

This color is perhaps the best wearing color for wood- 
work. There are infinite tints and shades, from sober to 
rich, from cool to warm. Blue agrees especially with brown. 

Deep brown, light bine, and gold go well together. 

Light Purple Tone of Brown Wall. The woodwork may 
be yellow red, with cream mouldings. 

A Brown Ingrain Wall. The woodwork may be in t\^o 
tones, made from indigo blue, with amber mouldings. 

A Gold Colored Brown Wall would unite with woodwork 
of a red tone of purple, with plima colored mouldings, or a 
warm gray may be used. 

Burnt Sienna Brown Tone of Wall. With this, salmon 
and myrtle harmonize. 

GREEN. 

This color, so extensive in nature, will agree with all 
colors, provided they are toned to suit each other, warm 
or cold, neutral or bright. 

An Olive Green Wall will agree with maroon woodwork 
with a crimson lake, straw or pink tone for the mouldings. 

A Medium Green Colored Wall. If two tones of red, 
a crimson tone and a yellow tone be adopted, the mould- 
ings, if desired, may be a salmon buff. 

A Gray Green Wall may have a primrose tone of wood- 
work, with a scarlet tone for mouldings. 

A Moss Green Tone of Wall will associate well with 
citrine woodwork, and salmon colored panels or mouldings. 

A Pea or Leaf Green Wall goes well with a chocolate 
and a lavender. 



74 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 



GRAY. 

This neutral color agrees with and helps every other 
color. 

A Warm Gray Wall. With this the woodwork may well 
be a tawny leather color, with either buff or cream in 
the mouldings. A quiet red would also suit. 

A Silver Gray Wall sympathizes with a salmon color, as 
well as with a deep blue. Should there be blue and red 
in the pattern on the paper, the styles of the woodwork 
could then be a delicate raw umber tone of broAvn. The 
mouldings the same brown, with burnt sienna added to it. 
The panel may be a cameo pink. A snuff colored brown 
would also do well. 

A Drab Tone of Wall, having an ornament upon it, low 
in tone, a citrine for instance, would need some force in 
the woodwork. A rich burnt sienna brown suggests itself 
for this, with a reddish brown for the mouldings. 

These schemes of color can be reversed. Should the 
general tone of the wallpaper be that tone suggested here 
for the woodAvork, it takes then the color of the paper. 

Color Combinations. The following list is based upon 
Chevreul, Briicke, Rood and other experimenter's: 

Normal red Avith violet Bad. 

" blue Excellent. 

" blue green Good, but strong. 

" green Good, but hard. 

" green yellow Fair. 

' * yelloAV Unpleasing. 

Scarlet Avith violet Bad. 

' ' turquoise Good. 

" blue Good. 

'* yellow Unpleasing. 



COLOR HARMONY 



75 



Orange red with violet Good. 

" purple Fair. 

' ' blue Excellent. 

" turquoise Good. 

' ' blue green Unpleasing. 

' ' yellow green Fair. 

Orange Avith purple Bad. 

' ' violet Good. 

' ' blue Good, but strong. 

" turquoise Good. 

" blue green Good. 

" green Fair. 

Orange yellow with purple Good. 

" violet Excellent. 

" blue Good. 

' ' turquoise Fair. 

" blue green Moderate, 

' ' green Bad. 

Yellow with violet Excellent. 

purple Good. 

normal red Poor. 

turquoise Moderate. 

blue green Bad. 

green Bad. 

Greenish yellow with purple Good. 

" violet Excellent. 

" scarlet Strong and hard. 

" orange red Fair. 

" turquoise Bad. 

" normal blue Good. 

Yellowish green with normal red Good, but hard. 

" purple Difficult. 

" blue green Bad. 

" blue Good. 



7o CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Normal gTeen with i)urple Strong, but hard. 

" scarlet Difficult. 

' * orange red Hard. 

'* turquoise Bad. 

Blue green with purple Fair. 

" violet Good. 

" blue Bad. 

*' green Bad. 

*' yellowish green Bad. 

*' turquoise Bad. 



COLOR MIXING. 

The following compound colors or tints can be made by 
mixing the colors as given herewith. The exact shades re- 
quired can be made to suit by the exercise of a little judg- 
ment in proportioning the colors. 

BLUES. 

When it is desired to tone a blue down, a little burnt 
sienna and white should be added. 




Fig. 22. Angular Bristle Fresco Blushes. 

Antwerp Blue. This color should always be bought i-eady 
made. If necessary to imitate it, mix one part of bright 
green with two parts of ulti'amarine, add a very little zinc 
or other white, but not lead. Brunswick blue is frequently 
used in the place of Antwerp blue. 

Azure Blue. One part of ultramarine blue and forty 

77 



78 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

parts of zinc white. Another shade may be obtained by 
mixing forty-four parts of white, twenty-nine of green and 
twenty-seven of blue. Or celestial blue and a little red 
on a base of white will give an azure shade. 

Berlin Blue. This is another name for Prussian blue. 

Blue Grass Tint. One part of Prussian blue, three parts 
of emerald gi'een, seven parts of white lead. 

Bremen Blue. This is a color to be bought only ready 
made. It is not much used, and is not suitable for an oil 
color. 

Bronze Blue. A dark blue color, which may be made by 
mixing three parts of black with one of Prussian blue. 

Brunswick Blue. This is sold ready made, but can be 
imitated by adding white lead to Prussian blue in sufiicient 
quantity' to obtain the desired tint. 

Coeruleum. This is an artist's color of a light and some- 
what greenish blue tone. An imitation may be made from 
ultramarine and white, with a little yellow, although the 
color is a difficult one to imitate successfully. 

Celestial Blue. About equal parts of Prussian blue, 
chi'ome g-reen and white lead will give this color, but there 
should be most white, and the tint should be more blue than 
green. 

Chinese Blue. Another name for Prussian blue. 

Cobalt. This color is one of the best artist's colors, and 
cannot be successfully imitated. It is a beautiful and most 
useful color, but unfortunately it is expensive, and it is 
therefore used only in the finest w'ork. 

Dark Blue. Obviously this is no definite color. Manufac- 
turers often use one part of white, two of chrome green, 
and seven of Prussian blue. But ultramarine, or indeed 
any blue, may be used, and this may be first lightened with 
white, and black added as may be desired. 

Fog Blue. Equal parts of burnt sieinia and Prussian 
blue, lightened up with about twenty parts of white lead. 

French Blue. Mix four parts of while, one of green, and 



COLOR MIXING 79 

four of ultramarine blue. The name is also applied to the 
best quality of artificial ultramarine. 

Grobelin Blue. Mix together four parts of ivory black, 
two of white, one of chrome green, and three of Prussian 
blue. 

Granite Blue. To produce this shade mix two parts of 
black with six of white and one of ultramarine blue. 

Heliotrope. This color is obtained by using two parts 
of zinc white, three of bright red, and four of ultramarine 
blue. 

Implement Blue. This is made simi:>ly by mixing ultra- 
marine with white. Barytes and zinc mixed are frequently 
used for the white, as lead cannot be employed in the pres- 
ence of ultramarine. 

Indigo. This dark blue is a natural vegetable pigment. 
An imitation may be produced by using nine parts of black 
and four of Prussian blue, but this will not look like the 
real thing. Indigo should not be mixed with lead or lead 
chromates. It is a very useful color and deserves to be 
used to a much greater extent than it is at present. 

Lavender. Three parts of ultramarine blue and one part 
of carmine, added to zinc as a base, give a very good laven- 
der tint for inside work. Ivory black mixed with a little 
carmine and ultramarine and added to white lead may be 
employed for outside work. 

Light Blue. This is simply an ultramarine blue tint 
jiioduced by the addition of zinc white, or the color may be 
obtained by tinting Avhite lead with Prussian blue. 

Lime Blue. This is a color much used formerly for mix- 
ing distemper, but artificial ultramarine has to a great ex- 
tent supplanted it. It must not be used in oil. The color 
usually sold for lime blue is a variety of ultramarine. 

Marine Blue. A very dark blue, which is obtained by 
mixing one part of laltramarine blue with nine of ivory 
black. 

Mascot. This is a very dark blue shade, which is got 



80 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



by mixing black and blue in the proportion of seven parts 
of the former to one of the latter with a very little green. 

Mauve. Four parts of cobalt, twelve parts of oxide of 
zinc, and one part of carmine lake give an excellent mauve, 
or the color may be obtained by mixing j-ellow ochre, blue 
black, and Venetian red with a little white lead. Another 
shade is obtained with blue, red and white mixed in the fol- 
lowing proportions: blue three parts; white, two parts; red, 
one part. Or white may be tinted with ivory black, carmine 
and ultramarine. 




Fig. 2.".. (\iiiul Hair Striping Pencils. 



Methyl Blue. Mix green with twelve times its (luantity 
of blue and a touch of red. 

Mountain Blue. One part of ivory black, two parts of 
rose madder, three parts of cobalt blue, and four parts of 
white lead. This color is only intended for artists' use. 

Navy Blue. Ivoiy or drop black mixed with one-fourth 
the quantity of blue will give this shade. 

Neutral Blue. A series of neutral blues may be made 
by tinting white lead with Prussian blue and adding burnt 
umber, the quantity of blue and umber being varied accord- 
ing to the tint required. Good neutral l)lues may also be 
madfl by tinting white with raw umber and a Little Prussian 



COLOR MIXING 81 

blue. Add either a little burnt sienna if a warm neutral 
is requii'ed, or a little black if one cool in appeajrance is de- 
sired. 

Nile Blue. Mix a little white with Prussian blue and 
chrome green, using- rather less of the latter than the 
foi-mer. The result is a pale greenish blue. 

Normandy Blue. To get this greenish blue shade mix 
green and blue in about equal proportions with white. 

Oriental Blue. One part of lemon chrome yellow, two 
parts of Prussian blue and twenty parts of white lead. 

Peacock Blue. This color is one upon which opinion 
varies considerably. A splendid color is made by taking 
cobalt as a base and adding a little white and a little 
Chinese blue. 

Perfect Blue. Some manufacturers produce this beau- 
tifully rich color. It is very like cobalt, but slightly darker. 

Pompeian Blue. This is made h\ tinting white Avith 
ultramarine and adding a little vermilion and Italian ochre. 

Porcelain Blue. To get this shade mix one part of zinc 
white and chrome green with four parts of ultramarine blue 
and a touch of black. 

Prussian Blue. This color is certainly the most import- 
ant blue the painter has. It cannot be imitated. It works 
well in both water and oil, and is transparent. It is very 
strong and care must be exercised in using it lest too great 
a ciuantitj' is added to a batch of paint, which might be 
spoilt in consequence. 

Quaker Blue. Add a little black to Prussian blue, and 
lighten up vv'ith Avhite. 

Robin's Egg Blue. Use white for base, tint with ultra- 
marine until a fairly strong blue is obtained, and then tinge 
with a little lemon' chrome green. 

Royal Blue. This is made by adding a little white to 
Prussian blue with a touch of crimson lake. Some manu- 
facturei"s make -a very rich blue, which they sell under the 
name of Royal blue. 



82 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Sapphire Blue. One part of Chinese blue mixed with 
double the quantity of oxide of zinc. This should not be 
used for outside work. 

Sea Blue. Two parts of Prussian blue, three parts of 
raw sienna, thirty parts white. 

Sky Blue. One part of Prussian blue added to one hun- 
dred and twenty parts of white lead give a sky blue, but 
some prefer cobalt, and this is for many purposes doubt- 
less the best. Still another method of obtaining sky blue 
is to tint white lead with a little lime blue, adding a very 
little middle chrome, but the latter is more suitable for a 
distemper color than it is for an oil paint, as lime blue 
is not very lasting in oil. 

Steel Blue. Zinc white tinted with lime blue gives this 
color for distemper. 

Stone Blue. One part of raw umber, twice the quantity 
of Prussian blue on a base of white lead will give this color. 

Transparent Violet. Mix together four parts of ultra- 
marine blue and one part of crimson lake. This is suitable 
only for artists' use. 

Turquoise Blue. Two parts of cobalt blue, one part of 
emerald green, twelve parts of white lead. 

Ultramarine. This is one of the chief blues used by 
painters, and must be bought ready made. It cannot be 
imitated, but it can be bought in many different qualities. 
It must not be mixed with chromes or white lead, as it con- 
tains sulphur. 

BROWNS. 

The painter will probably be surprised at finding the 
number of browns obtainable. 

Acorn Brown. This is very similar to a rich chocolate, 
and may be made in the same way. 

Alderney. This is an orange brown in hue, and may be 
made by mixing fourteen parts of black, one of white, two 
of orange and three of yellow. 



COLOR MIXING 



83 



Arabian Brown. This is a dark terra-cotta, and may be 
made by adding white and black to Indian red. 

Argus Brown. This is a very dark brown, and may be 
made by mixing twelve parts of black with two parts of 
orange and one part of yellow. 

Auburn Tan. Mix together one part of burnt umber, three 
parts of golden ochre and twenty parts of white lead. 




Fig. 24. Camel Hair Pencils. 



Autumn Leaf. This is also called leather lake. It may 
be made by mixing on a base of white lead, French ochre, 
orange chrome yellow and Venetian red. 

Bismark. A shade of this name may be produced by using 
two parts of black, one of red and one of orange, which 
mixed together fonn an orange brown. 

Bismark Brown. This color is obtained by mixing with 
six parts of black, one part of orange and one of yellow, 



84 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Bistre. This color is principally used by artists. It must 
not be mixed with oil, and it is not always reliable for its 
permanency. It may be imitated by mixing together ten 
parts of black with two of red and a little green. 

Bronze Brown. Black colored with a little orange chrome 
and bright green. 

Brown. The methods of obtaining different browns will 
be found under the headings of the respective names, such 
as Chestnut, etc. A good average brown may be obtained 
by mixing together three of Indian red, two joarts of lamp 
black and one part of 3'ellow ochre. A lighter color is ob- 
tained by using more ochre and less black, in fact, a large 
variety of brown tints may be produced by varjdng the pro- 
portions of ochre and black. 

Burnt Rose. This is a dark red brown shade. To produce 
it use eight parts of black, one and half parts of red, two 
parts of orange, and one of blue. 

Burnt Sienna. This is a sienna calcined, the effect being 
to produce a darker shade. 

Burnt Umber. This is a rich dark greenish brown, but the 
shade varies considerably in different qualities. Turkey 
umber is the richest. Umbers should always be purchased 
ground ready for use. 

Cafe au Lait. To produce this shade mix five parts of 
black, three of white, one of yellow and a little orange. A 
little red may also be added if desired. 

Cappagh Brown. This is an artist's color of a reddish 
brown color, being very like umber. 

Chestnut. This rich brown may be obtained by mixing 
four parts of medium chrome yellow and two parts of Vene- 
tian red. One part of yellow ochre maj' be added if desired. 

Chocolate. Five parts of burnt sienna and one part of 
carmine or lake give a rich chocolate. A less expensive 
color is obtained by mixing Indian red and lamp black with 
a little yellow ochre. A touch of vermilion will clear and 
brighten this mixture. Another way to produce chocolate 



COLOR MIXING 85 

is to mix twenty, parts of black with three parts of red, but 
this gives a more or less muddy shade. 

Cinnamon. Six parts white lead, two pai'ts burnt sienna, 
and one part of golden ochi'e make a good cinnamon, or 
French ochre, English Indian red and a little lamp black 
will produce the same color. Another way is to mix Italian 
sienna and burnt umber. 

Clay Drab. Mix equal parts of white lead, raw umber 
and raw sienna, and add a little chrome if desired. Some 
painters prefer to add a little medium chrome yellow. 

Cocoanut Brown. This shade may be obtained by mix- 
ing one part of white lead with double the quantity of burnt 
umber. 

Coffee. To produce this color mix together five parts 
of burnt umber, two parts of yellow ochre and one part of 
burnt sienna. 

Copper. Tint zinc white with French ochre, Italian sienna 
and lamp black. A very good copper shade is obtained by 
mixing two parts of medium chrome yellow, one part of 
Venetian red, and one part of drop black or two pai'ts of 
lamp black, three parts of medium chrome yellow and six 
parts of Venetian red. 

Cork Color. Tint white lead with French ochre, Indian 
red and a little lamp black, or with raw Italian sienna and 
burnt umber. 

Dark Drab. French gray, Indian red and lamp black 
added to white lead give this color. 

Dark Lava. Mix French ochre, Indian red and lamp 
black, and lighten with white lead. 

Dark Oak. Add French ochre and Venetian red to white 
lead as a base. 

Doe Color. This may be produced by mixing raw Italian 
sienna and burnt umber with white lead, or French ochre 
and mineral brown with a little lamp black. 

Dove Color. White lead, with a little Prussian blue and a 
touch of ivory black will produce an excellent dove color, 



86 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



but French ochre, Indian red, and lamp black may be em- 
ployed, or a mixture of raw and burnt Turkey umber and 
Italian sienna. 

Drab. A good drab is made by using burnt umber and 
white lead in the proportion of one of the former to ten 
of the latter, but raw umber and a little Venetian red may 
be used instead. 




Fig. 25. Red Sable Brushes. 



Fawn. This might also be called deep drab. It is pro- 
duced b}' tinting white lead with a mixture of French ochre, 
Indian red and lamp black, or raw Italian sienna and raw 
Turkey umber. Another shade of fawn is obtained by using 
eight parts of white lead, one part of chrome yellow, one 
part of Indian red, and one part of burnt umber, or eight 
parts of white lead, two parts of medium chrome yellow, one 
part Venetian red, and one part of biu'nt umber. 



COLOR MIXING 87 

Fawn, Light. Tint white with sienna and a touch of raw 
umber. 

Foliage Brown. Mix burnt umber with raw and burnt 
sienna and lif^hten with white as may be necessary. 

French Ochre. This color, of course, is sold ready made, 
and it must be observed that, in addition to the fineness, 
the particular tone of this color is very important, especially 
to grainers. 

Grolden Brown. Sixteen parts of white lead are mixed 
with one of burnt sienna and three parts of yellow ochre. 

Indian Brown. Mix equal parts of Indian red, lamp black 
and yellow ochre. 

Lava. An orange brown lava shade can be had by mixing 
fifteen parts of black, five parts of orange, four of yellow 
and a very little white. 

Leather Brown. Four parts of yellow ochre, three parts 
of Venetian red, two parts of white lead, and one part of 
blue black give a rich leather brown. If a lighter tint is 
required less black should be used. Or the following recipe 
may be used : mix white with three times the quantity of 
red and the same amount of yellow. Some painters use 
French ochre for a base and tint with burnt umber or Vene- 
tian red. 

Light Lava. A mixture of raw umber and raw sienna 
added to white will give this color. 

Light Oak. Add French ochre and Venetian red to white 
as a base. 

Lizard Bronze. Fifteen parts of black, one of oi'ange, 
live of yellow, and four of green will produce this dark 
greenish yellow shade. 

Madder G-reen. A reddish brown madder shade is pro- 
duced with one part blue, three parts each of orange and 
red, and six parts black. 

Mahogany. Mix orange and yellow in equal proportions 
with five times the quantity of black. 

Mast Colored Paint. The following recipe gives good 



88 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

results. Mix twelve parts of genuine dry white lead with 
two parts of French ochre, two parts of gray bai-ytes, and 
o«e part of genuine oxide of iron. 

Nut Brown. Equal quantities of red and j^ellow mixed 
with ten times as much black will give this shade. 

Old Wood. To get this shade mix one part of blue and 
red, two of orange and five of black. 

Olive Brown may be made by mixing three parts of burnt 
umber and one part of lemon chrome yellow; or another 
shade is given by mixing equal quantities of orange and 
green with about twelve times as much black. Some paint- 
ers add lemon chrome yellow to raw umber for a base. 

Orange Brown. Two parts of orange chrome yellow mixed 
with three parts sienna. 

Pomegranate. A golden brown shade sometimes called 
by this name is given by mixing three parts of red, six of 
orange, four of yellow with twenty parts of black. 

Purple Brown. Mix four parts of dark Indian red with 
one part of ultramarine blue and of lamp black. The addi- 
tion of white lead will usuall^^ make a more satisfactory 
tint, if the shade is too purple, a similar quantity of blue 
should be added, if too red, more black may be used, or a 
little j-ellow added, but purple brown pigment is cheap. 

Raw Sienna. Siennas are valuable earth colors most use- 
ful for staining or tinting, but jDractically useless as body 
colors. The degree of transparency determines to some ex- 
tent the quality. 

Raw Umber. A valuable earth color. 

Russet Brown. Indian red lightened with white produces 
a tint sometimes called by this name. 

Russet. A very good russet shade is got by mixing twen- 
tj^ parts of black, twelve of red, ten' of orange, three of yel- 
low, and five of green. Oi' medium chrome green, raw umber, 
and a little orange chrome yellow added to white as a base 
will give an excellent russet. 



COLOR MIXING 



89 



Sandstone. A tinting color made by mixing raw and 
burnt umber will produce this color. 




Fig. 26. Plat Bristle Fitches. 



Seal Brown. Four parts burnt umber, one part golden 
ocbre. 



y 



90 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Sepia. This is a natural color used chiefly by artists. It 
cannot be imitated and it must not be used in oil. 

Sienna Brown. The color is variously called sienna brown, 
teak brown, and other names. It is made by mixing burnt 
Italian sienna and French ochre with pure zinc. 

Snuff Brown. French ochre and Indian red added to 
zinc white will produce this coloi-. Another way to pro- 
duce a snuff color is to mix four parts of medium yellow 
and two parts of Vandyke brown, or burnt umber may be 
substituted for the Vandyke brown if desired. Another 
snuff color may be obtained by mixing burnt umber and yel- 
low ochre, tinging with a little Venetian red. 

Tan. Mix ten parts of burnt sienna and four parts of 
medium chrome yellow with three parts of raw umber. 
White lead and burnt sienna, to which has been added a 
very little lamp black, will also produce a tan color. A 
very rich tan color may be made from ochre, burnt Turkey 
umber and a little orange chrome with white lead. 

Thrush Brown. One part yellow ochre, three parts burnt 
umber, twelve parts white lead. 

Vandyke Brown. This is an important brown to the 
house painter. It cannot be imitated, although a little red 
added to umber produces a color somewhat similar to it. 

Vienna Smoke. The best burnt umber should be tinted 
with lemon olirome yellow and a little Venetian red. 

Wallflower Brown. This beautiful brown may be made 
by a mixture of medium chrome jellow and brown lake. Or 
crimson lake and burnt sienna may be mixed with medium 
chrome. 

GRAYS. 

Argent. A reddish gray tint, which can be produced by 
mixing together nine parts of black, sixteen of white, one 
of red and a little orange. 

Ash Gray. Lamp black and a little French ochre added 
to white lead give this color. Another mixture is as fol- 



COLOR MIXING 91 

lows: two parts of burnt sienna, three parts of light ultra- 
marine blue, sixty party of zinc white. 

Black Slate. Mix togetlier black and Prussian blue in the 
l)roportion of about thirteen parts of the former to one of 
the latter and add a little white. 

Dark G-ray. Mix eight parts of black, one of white and a 
touch of red or blue to produce this shade; but practically 
any admixture of black and white in which the former pre- 
dominates and to which has been added a little color will 
give a dai'k gray. 

Dark Lead. This is a dark gray, being produced simply 
by adding lamp black to white lead. 

Dark Slate. This also is black added to white. The mix- 
ture under Black Slate would answer. 

Deep Lead. Black, a little bright blue, and Indian red 
mixed with white lead produces this color. 

French Gray. This can be made by tinting white with a 
little ivory or drop black and adding a little carmine oi 
crimson lake and ultramarine. This produces a very slight 
violet tinge. White tinted with a little ultramarine and 
Venetian red also gives a good French gray. Celestial blue 
or cobalt may be used instead of the ultramarine if desired. 
Another good mixture is made by tinting white lead with one 
part of black and two parts of orange chrome. 

Granite. French ochre and lamj] black added to white 
lead produce this color. 

Graystone. — Mix five parts of black with three of white 
and three of blue and add a little red. 

Gray Drab. Mix five parts of black with four of white 
and a little deep chrome yellow. 

Green Slate. Same as lead, but with more black and 
blue. 

Iron Gray. Mix eight parts of black with two of white 
and a little orange. 

Jasper. This may be described as a pepper and salt shade. 



92 



CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 




Fig. Z7. Artist's Bristle Urusljes. 



COLOR MIXING 93 

Mix nine parts of black with two of white, with a touch of 
deep chrome. 

Lead. This is simply a dark gray, and is made by adding 
lamp black to white lead with sufficient blue. 

Light Gray. Mix together one part of Prussian blue, one 
part of lamp black, ten parts of white lead. By adding 
more or less white lead a darker or a lighter shade mav be 
obtained if required. Another shade is obtained by mixing 
two parts of black, eight parts of white and one part of 
blue. 

Mastic. This is a dark gray shade. To produce it mix 
twelve parts of black with one of white, rather less than one 
of yellow and just a touch of orange. 

Moss Gray. Tint Avhite lead with French ochre, a bright 
green and a little lamp black. 

Mouse Color. Eleven parts burnt umber, to which has 
been added one part of Prussian blue, mixed with about 
twenty times the bulk of white lead, will give this tint. An- 
other shade may be had by mixing sixteen parts of white, 
three of black and one of blue. Some painters tint white 
with lamp black and add a veiy little Venetian red and burnt 
umber. 

Neutral Tint. An artist's color is sold under this name. 

Olive Gray. Three parts of lamp black, one part of 
chrome green, with about forty times the quantity of white 
lead, will give this color. 

Opal Gray. One part of burnt sienna, two parts of cobalt 
blue, and thirty parts of zinc white. 

Payne's Gray. Is an artist's color, which may be de- 
scribed as a gray having a lilac tinge. 

Pearl. This is the same as French gray, but is much 
lighter. 

Pearl Gray. Forty parts white lead, five parts of ver- 
milion and one part of deep chrome green. Some deco- 
rators tint white lead with lamp black and call that pearl 
gray. Strictly speaking, however, it should not be called pearl 



94 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

gray, there being no color present. Six parts of white lead, 
two parts of Venetian red, and one part of lamp black gives 
a somewhat dark pearl gray, but a lighter tint may easily be 
obtained by adding more lead. Ivory black answers equally 
as well as lamp black. 

Quaker Drab. This greenish gray shade is produced by 
mixing two parts each of yellow and gi-een and five parts of 
white. 

Rustic Drab. Tint white lead with French ochre and 
lamp black. 

Silver Gray. Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp 
black, or yellow may be employed instead of the ochre if 
preferred. White lead tinted with a little lamp black and 
indigo gives an excellent silver gray. 

Smoke Gray. Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp 
black. 

Steel Gray. Tint white lead with a mixture of lemon 
chrome and medium chrome and lamp black. 

Stone Gray. Add black and chrome to white lead. 

Verdant Gray. Two parts of oxide zinc and one part of 
terra verte. 

Warm Gray. Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp 
black or sienna and lamp black. A better mixture is pro- 
duced by taking white as a base and adding a little burnt 
sienna and raw umber with a very little burnt umber and a 
touch of Prussian blue. 

GREENS. 

Aloes. A pale sage green shade. To obtain it mix six 
parts of black, three of white, one of chrome yellow, and 
three of Brunswick green. 

Apple Green. The simplest way to obtain this is to mix 
medium chrome green with about thirty times the quantity 
of white lead, but other greens may be employed with the 
addition of a little Prussian blue when necessary. Or a little 
orange chrome yellow may be added to the medium chrome 



C30L0R MIXING 95 

green and white lead. A very good shade ean be produced 
by mixing one part of white with four of yellow and nine 
of green. 

Autumn Green. Mix one part of chrome yellow with 
seven of black and two of emerald green. 

Blue Green. Equal proportions of deep chrome green and 
cobalt, or three parts of chrome green and one of Prussian 
blue, added to white lead in the proportion of about four 
times the quantity of lead to the mixture of green and blue, 
will give a tint which is sometimes called blue green. 

Bottle Green. Mix together five parts of medium chrome 
green and one part of blue black. A similar color may be 
obtained by adding Prussian blue and blue black and lemon 
chrome. Another shade is made by using four parts of black 
and one of green. 

Bronze Green. The usual method is to mix black with 
deep chrome yellow, but indigo may be used instead if de- 
sired. A much brighter color is obtained from a mixture of 
medium chrome yellow, Prussian blue and burnt sienna. Or 
the following recipe may be used: Medium chrome green 
five parts, blue black one part, burnt umber one part. A 
light bronze color may be obtained by adding more green or 
by using light instead of medium green. Other shades of 
bronze green may be got by adding a little lamp black to 
dark chrome green, or by taking medium chrome green 
and adding lamp black and a little raw umber. 

Brunswick Green. This color is sold in three shades. It 
may be imitated by a mixture of Prussian blue and chrome 
yellow, but chrome green, toned down with black, is some- 
times used. 

Chartreuse. This is a light yellowish green color. Mix 
four of chrome yellow and five of chrome green lightenino- 
up with white. 

Chrome Green. This color can be bought ready made. 
To produce it by admixture, add Prussian blue to lemon 



96 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

chrome yellow in the proportion of about one part of blue 
to eight parts of yellow. 

Eau de Nil. Tint white lead with medium chrome yel- 
low, emerald green and a touch of Prussian blue. 

Egyptian Green. Add two parts of raw umber and one 
part of lemon chrome yellow to white lead. Give the green 
tone to it by means of a little Prussian blue. 

Elephant Green. A dark green, obtained by adding a 
little emerald green to black. 

Emerald Green. This beautiful, bright gi-een cannot be 
successfully imitated. It must not be mixed with ultramarine. 
The pigment is a great favorite with some painters, while 
others never use it. In this country the pigment is known 
as Paris green, but it is not used to any extent by painters, 
although it is used as an insecticide. In the absence of the 
real thing, a more or less presentable imitation may be ob- 
tained by mixing eight parts of white lead and one part of 
medium chrome green, or a light shade of chrome green may 
be used without lead. Emerald green, although so bright, 
has very little body, but it is very useful for glazing. A 
thin finishing coat is given over a good green ground to 
brighten it. 

Foliage Green. One part of blue black may be mixed with 
four parts of lemon chrome. Use medium chrome yellow 
if a darker sliade is required. 

French Green. This is a bright yellowish green, which 
may be obtained by adding to emerald or deep chrome green 
about one-tenth part chrome yellow. Yellow ochre is some- 
times used instead. 

Gage Green. This is a variety of sage green. It may bo 
made in the same way as pea green, and when that is 
reached a little black should be added to bring it to the re- 
quired sage color. 

Genuine Green. This is usually to be had ready mixed, 
but it varies considerably in name as well as in the exact tint. 

Grass Green. The color sold as extra light chrome green 



COLOR MIXING 97 

makes a splendid grass green without any addition, but if it 
is not available, lighten up medium or dark chrome green 
with chrome yellow. 

Green Slate. Tint white lead with a bright green toned 
down with ochre and lamp black. 

Green Stone. Twelve parts white lead tinted with one 
part medium chrome green and one part of raw umber give 
this tint, or the tinting colors may be French ochre and 
emerald green with a little lamp black. 

Gray Green. Use ultramarine blue, lemon chrome yellow, 
blue black and white lead. 

Invisible Green. A dark green made by mixing nine parts 
of black and one of bright green. 

Ivy Green. This is produced by a mixture of French 
ochre, lamp black and Prussian blue. 

Leaf Bud. This color is suitable for inside work. It is 
made by mixing orange chrome yellow, light chrome green 
and white lead in equal proportions. 

Light Green. Equal quantities of white and blue and 
rather more than twice the amount of green give a very good 
shade. 

Light Olive Green. Mix three parts of middle chrome, 
two parts of black, and one part of burnt sienna and lighten 
up with white lead until the desired color is obtained. 

Lime Green. This is sold ready for use, and is only suit- 
able for distemper. It cannot be used with oil. 

Manse Green. This is produced from a mixture of a 
bright green, medium chrome yellow and French ochre. 

Marine Green. Mix one part of middle chrome green with 
four of black. 

Medium. A green of this name may be purchased ready 
made. It is very similar to middle Brunswick green. 

Mignonette. This is a dark green shade, obtained by 
mixing one part of chrome yellow and one of Prussian blue 
with three parts of chrome green and fifteen parts of black. 

Muscovite. This is a dark sage-yellow greenish shade. It 



98 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

may be obtained by mixing six parts of Prussian blue, 
thirteen of chrome green, three of orange chrome, eight of 
■white, and twenty of black. 

Moss Green. Tint white lead with French ochre, a bright 
green and a little lamp black. 

Moss Rose. This pale greenish shade is obtained by mix- 
ing chrome or Brunswick green, bright yellow and white in 
the proportions of one part green, four of yellow and three 
of white. 

Mountain Green. Add to medium chrome yellow sufficient 
cobalt to produce the desired hue, adding a little white if 
necessary. 

Myrtle. Three parts of dark chrome green, one part of 
ultramarine blue, and a little white lead will give an excel- 
lent myrtle color. 

Night Green. Seven parts of chrome green and three 
parts of yellow ochre will give this shade. 

Nile Green. Five parts of white, nine of emerald green 
and six of Prussian blue will give this shade. 

Olive. Mix together ten parts of lemon chrome yellow, 
one part of ultramarine blue and one part of light Indian 
red. Another method is to use eight parts of lemon chrome 
yellow, one part of blue black and one part of Prussian blue. 
Or the following proportions give very good shades: three 
parts black, four parts white, four parts red, two parts yel- 
low, and eleven parts green. Or, fifteen parts of white, 
twenty of red, twelve of yellow, and fifty-three of green. 
Some painters add equal portions of Prussian blue and lamp 
black to lemon chrome yellow for a base, or the base may be 
ochre instead of chrome, and a little of the yellow be added. 

Oriental Green. Is made by mixing equal proportions of 
raw umber and lemon chrome yellow. 

Royal Green. This color is sold ready made. 

Peacock Green. A mixture of seven parts of white, fifty 
parts of emerald green and forty-three of Prussian blue will 
give this shade. A little yellow is sometimes added. The 



COLOR MIXING 99 

color is best produced by giving a final transparent coat over 
a ground color. For the ground mix a rich green, a very 
deep Brunswick green and middle chrome. Over this apply 
a very thin coat of a deep bluish green made from Prussian 
blue and lemon chrome. 

Pea Green. Forty-eight parts of white lead and one part 
of chrome green will give this color, or emerald green may 
be used if desired. Some makers mix medium chrome green 
and white lead in the proportion of five parts of the latter 
to one part of the fonner to obtain a pea green, but the 
proportions may be varied considerably according to the 
exact shade required. 

Persian Green. This is only another name for emerald 
green, the vivid and somewhat staring hue being sometimes 
employed in oriental decorations and being then termed Per- 
sian green. 

Pistache. This is a yellowish green shade. It may be ob- 
tained by mixing seven parts of black, one of yellow ochre 
and one and half of chrome green. Or chrome yellow may, 
if desired, be substituted for the ochre. 

Prussian Green. To produce this, mix five parts black, 
three parts chrome yellow and twelve parts emerald or me- 
dium chrome green. 

Quaker Green. Mix equal proportions of Venetian red 
and medium chrome j'ellow and add blue black. Add to 
this mixture a quantitj' of chrome green equal in bulk to 
the three. This will give an excellent quaker green. 

Reed Green. Mix white, chrome yellow and chrome green 
in about equal quantities to produce this shade. The name, 
however, has no special significance, and an admixture of 
almost any yellow and green, lightened up with white, might 
be used instead. 

Sage Green. This maj' be produced by tinting white lead 
with four parts of light chrome green and one part of ivory 
black, or the white lead may be tinted with a mixture of 
French ochre, lamp black, and Prussian blue. Another re- 



100 CYCLOPEDLV OF PAINTING 

cipe is as follows: Add raw umber and chrome green in 
the proportion of about one part of the former to two parts 
of the latter added to white lead until the desired shade is 
obtained, A pale Brunswick green and a very little black 
used to tint white also gives a good sage green. 

Sap Green. Mix with white lead, medium chrome yellow 
and a very little lamp black. 

Sea Foam. Tint white lead with medium chrome yellow 
and emerald green, or if too bright, use medium chrome 
green instead of the emerald. 

Sea Green. This color is obtained by adding deep chrome 
to white lead. Another sea green, and a very good one, is 
obtained by mixing light Brunswick green, raw sienna or 
ochre and white. 

Seered Green. Tint white lead with French ochre, medium 
chrome j'ellow and a little bright green. 

Starling's Egg Green. A mixture of light chrome and 
Prussian blue, lightened up with white, will produce this 
color. 

Tea Green. Medium royal green, chrome j'ellow and lamp 
black added to white lead will give this color. 

Velvet Green. Mix three parts of burnt sienna, five parts 
of light chrome green and eight parts white lead. 

Venetian Green. Lighten up dark chrome gi'een with 
white lead. 

Water Green. Raw sienna mixed with a little deep 
chrome green and added to white lead gives a water green 
tint. 

Willow Green. Tint white lead with medium chrome 
green, and add a little burnt umber or ivory black. 

JAPANS. 

Rich Dark Red. Mix Indian red with a little black Japan. 

Rich Dark Brown, Mix crimson lake and bh\ck Japan, 

varying the amount of each according to the depth required. 

Chocolate Brown. Mix orange chrome with black Japan. 



COLOR MIXIJNG 101 

Leather Color. This is obtained in exactly the same way 
as chocolate brown excepting that rather more chrome is 
used. 

Bottle Green. Mix together Prussian blue, Dutch pink and 
black Japan. 

Invisible Green. Use the same mixture as for bottle green 
but use less Japan. 

Light and Dark Reds. A series to which there is no end, 
may be obtained by mixing either vermilion or vermilionette 
with black Japan in varying proportions. 

Neutral Green. This is produced by adding lemon chrome 
to a little black Japan. 

REDS. 

Acacia. This may be described as a dark maroon. It is 
made by mixing five parts of black, three of Indian red and 
one of Prussian blue. Less of the black will give a more 
pleasing shade. 

Amaranthine. This is a crimson which can be made by 
mixing three parts of vermilionette with one of Prussian 
blue. 

Anemone. This is a reddish purple, and may be made 
by mixing two parts of black, one of white, six of a bright 
red, and six of Prussian blue. 

Apricot. Mix middle chrome yellow with a little vermilion 
and add a very little lake. 

Armenian Red. Mix one part of yellow ochre with two 
parts of Venetian red. 

Aurore. A dull pink shade, which can be produced as 
follows : Mix together one part of Indian red, two of 
orange chrome, a little lemon chrome, and two of blue, light- 
ening up with white. 

Bay. Mix together five parts of black, three of Venetian 
red, and a little orange chrome. 

Begonia. A dark red purple, which may be obtained by 



102 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

mixino: six parts of lamp black, five of bright red, and four 
of Prussian blue. 

Black Maroon. Take eight parts of black and mix them 
with one of a bright red and a little Prussian blue. 

Blood Red. Any bright red toned down with a little 
black will produce a shade sometimes called by this name. 

Bordeaux Red. Take nine parts of black and mix with 
it two parts of orange chrome and one of Prussian blue. 

Brick. Use two parts of French ochre to one part of 
Venetian red and one part of white lead, adding more ochre 
if required to lighten the color. This gives a good tint, 
sometimes called brick red, and is suitable for outside work. 

Bright Scarlet. Mix twenty parts of vermilion, seven 
parts of pale chrome, and one part of golden ochre. A good 
vermilionette slightly toned down with yellow answers the 
same purpose. 

Bronze Red. This is a red toned down with about a 
fourth part of black, a little bright yellow or orange being 
added. 

Cambridge Red. Vermilion, to which is added about one 
twentieth part of Prussian blue, gives a color called Cam- 
bridge red. 

Carmine. This is an artist's color, its rich red tint can 
hardly be imitated. A light vermilionette of good grade, to 
which is added a little bright yellow, may be used. 

Carnation Red. Three parts of carmine lake and one 
part of white lead give a carnation color, but a better result 
is obtained by taking pure vermilion as a base and adding 
carmine and zinc white until the desired rich color is ob- 
tained. This color is not suitable for use outside. 

Carnation Rose. White lead tinted with Indian red or 
vermilioM, or one of the fast reds. A beautiful color can 
be obtained by simply tinting white with permanent crim- 
son madder. 



COLOR MIXING 103 

Cherry Red. Mix together crimson lake, burnt sienna and 
azure blue, or two parts of vermilion and one part of car- 
mine. 

Claret. Mis two parts of carmine with one of ultramarine 
blue. A little vermilion may be added if desired, and this 
may render a little yellow necessary to tone down the color. 
A less rich color may be made by mixing Venetian red and 
yellow ochre. 

Coral Pink. This color is useful only on inside work. It 
is made by mixing five parts of vermilion, two parts of 
white lead and one part of chrome yellow. Another recipe 
for producing shades of coral pink is : one part of white, 
three of red, five of orange, and three of blue. 

Dregs of Wine. This shade is produced by mixing Vene- 
tian red with a little lamp black and white lead* 

Egyptian. A dull yellowish crimson made by using five 
parts of black, one and half of white, two of orange, and 
one of blue, and a very little red. 

Firefly. A dull orange red produced by mixing two parts 
of black, three of red, one of orange, and a little yellow. 

Flesh Color. One hundred and twenty parts white lead, 
two parts yellow ochre, and one part Venetian red will pro- 
duce an excellent flesh color. Or mix eight parts of white 
lead, two parts of orange chrome yellow, and one part of 
light Venetian red. An increased proportion of red may be 
employed where desired. A mixture of orange and white in 
the proportion of one part of the former to three parts of the 
latter may also be used, or a mixture of medium chrome yel- 
low, ochre, and Venetian red added to white. 

French Red. Use equal parts of Indian red and vermilion, 
and glaze with carmine or permanent crimson madder. 

Gazelle. To obtain this mix Venetian red, lamp black and 
Indian red, and add sufficient white lead to produce the de- 
sired shade. 

Geranium. To produce this color use nine parts of bright 
red and one of blue. Or Indian red may be used, afterwards 



104 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

glazing with madder lake foi- good work. Most of the lar- 
ger color manufacturers make geranium red which is better 
than can be obtained by mixing. 

Indian Pink. Tint white lead with a little Indian red. 

Indian Red. This is a good permanent pigment to be 
fcought ready made, and is most useful in mixing with other 
colors. 

Light Pink. Tint white lead with a little pure vermilion. 
The word pink does not bear any very definite meaning, as 
almost any bright red such as carmine or crimson added to 
plenty of white give a good pink just as vermilion does, but 
of another hue. A very pretty and useful pink is made by 
adding white to permanent crimson madder. 

Light Salmon. Tint white lead with raw Italian sienna, 
burnt Italian sienna, and burnt Turkey umber. Or tint white 
with any bright red, toning down with sienna. 

Lilac. A great deal of difference of opinion exists as to 
this tint. One part of ultramarine to one part of bright 
carmine, added to eighty parts white lead, give a very good 
lilac. A cheaper way is to use Indian red and lamp black 
as a tinting color, or rose pink may be added to the lead 
only. Yet another method for producing a lilac is to mix 
three parts of bright Indian red, three parts of white lead, 
and one part of ultramarine blue, but less white lead is pre- 
ferred by some painters. A touch of yellow will help this 
color if too raw for the purpose. 

Madder Lake. This is principally used by artists, but it 
is useful to the house decorator for glazing the best work 
where a bright red is required. 

Magenta. Carmine and vermilion, with a little ultrama- 
rine blue, produce this color. 

Maroon. This color is obtained by mixing carmine and 
blue black, and adding a small quantity of medium chrome 
yellow. It may also be made by mixing one part of ultra- 
marine blue with three parts of Tuscan red. This gives a 
tint that is often considered a little too red, but this defect 



COLOR MIXING 105 

may easily be remedied by adding more blue. Some paint- 
ers add ivory black and a little chrome yellow to carmine. 

Mexican Red. Mix one part of red lead with four parts 
of Venetian red. 

Mikado. Three parts of blue and seven of red, mixed 
with a little white, give this purplish red shade. 

Moorish Red. Mix together three parts of vermilion and 
one part of rose pink. 

Mulberry. This is a very dark purple obtained by adding 
a little blue and just a tinge of red to black. 

Old Rose. Tint white lead with French ochre, Indian red 
and lamp black, or Venetian red and a very little lamp black 
may be used if desired. 

Opaque Pink. Tint white lead with red lead. 

Opera Pink. Tint white lead with a mixture of five parts 
of vermilion and one part of medium chrome green. 

Oriental Red. Mix one part of red lead with two parts 
of Indian red. 

Orange Scarlet. This color may be obtained by adding 
two parts of orange lead to one part of white lead. 

Orange Vermilion. Orange lead comes nearest to this 
color. The tone may be made by adding chrome to vermil- 
ion. 

Peach Bloom. This is a mixture of white lead and Vene- 
tian red. Or it may be produced by adding sufficient In- 
dian red to white lead to give a warm tint and mixing it 
with equal proportions of white lead, lemon chrome yellow, 
ultramarine blue and light Indian red. Or a mixture of 
three parts of Indian red with seventeen parts of white is 
sometimes used. 

Pink. White lead tinted with orange lead gives a bright 
pink. 

Plum. Mix with equal parts of white lead. Indian red 
and ultramarine blue in the proportion of two parts of 
lead to one of each of the other colors. This makes a 
dark plum that is only suitable for inside work. If a light 



106 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

tint is desired add more white lead. A very rich plum 
may be obtained by mixing tog-ether ultramarine blue and 
carmine, and adding a little white and a little jellow. 

Pompeian Red. Small quantities of bright red and orange 
are mixed with black to produce this shade. 

Poppy. Blue and vermilion mixed in the proportion of 
one of the former to twenty-four of the latter give this 
shade. Some color mixers prefer to add a bright yellow 
instead of the blue. 

Purple. Light Indian red, four parts; white lead, three 
parts; ultramarine, blue, two parts; or a purple may be ob- 
tained by mixing Indian red and white. A mixture pre- 
ferred by some painters is made by mixing ultramarine and 
vermilion with a little white. A little crimson lake gives 
richness to the color. 

Red Ochre. This earth color is cheap, and can be readily 
bought in most places. It can be imitated by mixing In- 
dian red and chrome and adding a little vermilion. 

Red Terra Gotta. Use equal proportions of burnt sienna 
and white lead. The tone may be varied by the addition 
of either of the umbei's and the chromes. A good bright 
terra cotta is also made by using Venetian red as a base 
and coloring up with ochre and a touch of lake. 

Regal Purple. Mix together four parts of white lead, 
two parts of cobalt blue and one part of carmine lake. 

Roan. Mix black with half its quantity of red and add 
a very small proportion of blue and white. 

Rose. Five parts of white lead mixed with two parts of 
carmine give a rose color that is suitable for inside work 
only. An admirable rose color may be obtained by using 
zinc white instead of white lead, as the zinc is a much 
purer white than the lead, and hence gives a purer tint. 

Rose Carnation. Mix together one part of rose madder 
and eight parts of oxide of zinc. This is a beautiful color, 
but the madder is too expensive for use except by artists. 



COLOR MIXING 107 

A very successful color can be produced from permanent 
crimson madder. 

Rose Wood. To produce this color, red is mixed with 
about twelve times the quantity of black and a very little 
green. The shade given is a very dark red. 

Royal Pink. Mix together two parts of zinc white and 
carmine lake. This will only do for inside work. 

Royal Purple. Mix one part of vegetable black, one and 
one-half of rich red, and seven of Prussian blue. 

Salmon. Six parts of white lead, one part of vermilion, 
and a little lemon chrome yellow. This mixture produces 
a color somewhat bright. Another salmon color is made 
by a mixture of raw sienna, burnt sienna and burnt umber. 
A tint preferred by some is produced by adding to the 
white, Venetian red, burnt umber and French ochre. An- 
other method is to add vermilion and golden ochre to white, 
which gives a nice bright color. Venetian red and chrome, 
added to white, gives a duller color. Still another mix- 
ture is Venetian red, vermilion, yellow ochre and white. 

Scarlet Lake. A color very similar may be obtained in 
one of the many vermilionettes on the market. It will be 
convenient to remember that all vermilions are lightened 
by the use of pale chrome instead of white lead. Lead 
takes down the brilliancy of the color, producing a pink. 

Scarlet Red. It is the name given to the brightest of the 
oxide paints. 

Shell Pink. This color is sometimes made by adding a 
little good Indian red to white, but some decorators prefer 
to use vermilion with a little chrome yellow and burnt 
sienna. 

Shrimp Pink. Mix Venetian red, burnt sienna and white 
lead, and add a little vermilion. 

Signal Red. This is usually made by mixing orange 
lead, vermilionette and Paris white, or orange lead by itself 
may be tinted with vermilionette. 



108 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Salmon Pink. Tint white lead with equal parts of orange 
chrome and v«rmiIion. If zinc white is used instead of 
lead the color will be found brighter. 

Terra Cotta. Mix together two parts of white lead and 
one part of burnt sienna. One of the best ways to produce 
a good terra cotta wall is to give a good under coat of 
white lead, orange chrome and a little Venetian red, and 
when dry to apply a finished coat made from Venetian red 
and a little orange chrome to which has been added a little 
white, 

Turkish Crescent Red. Mix equal proportions of Indian 
red, vermilionette and rose pink. 

Tuscan Red. This can be bought ready made, and may 
be imitated by mixing ten parts of Indian red with one 
part rose pink. Indian red is very similar in color but 
somewhat darker. 

Venetian Pink. Tint white lead with a little Venetian 
red. 

Venetian Red. This color is one of the most useful that 
the house painter has, being cheap, and having good cover- 
ing power and body. It is not very good for tinting pur- 
poses. It would not, of course, be often imitated, but In- 
dian red — a very similar pigment — could be tinted with 
red. Or it may be imitated by mixing vermilion, yellow 
ochre, madder, carmine and a little Cappagh broAvn, which 
is an artist's color and is rarely used by house painters. 

Vermilion. This bright red cannot be imitated by an 
admixture of ordinary pigments, but there are many excel- 
lent substitutes on the market, most of them being vermil- 
ionettes. 

Wine Color. Add a little ivory black to a mixture of car- 
mine and vermilion. 

WHITES. 

A very little ultramarine green added to white lead makes 
a white sometimes called Japan white. 

Equal parts of white lead and oxide of zinc are frequent- 



COLOR MIXING lOd 

ly used as a white paint, although two parts of lead to one 
of zinc gives a better mixture. 

Some painters are under the impression that inasmuch 
as lead and zinc are both derived from metals they will 
not mix together to form a good paint, there being some- 
thing of the nature of a galvanic action set up between the 
two metals. This, however, is an error, for although lead 
and zinc cannot properly be mixed together by hand, yet 
if they are ground by the ordinary paint manufacturers' 
machinery the result is a most durable paint. 

On the other hand, it is doubtful whether the mixture of 
lead and zinc is a good policy to follow. Many painters 
get excellent results by using white lead for the under 
coats and zinc white for the final coats. 

Commercial White. Seventeen parts of white lead, three 
parts of barytes. This is intended to be mixed in oil, not 
water. 

Permanent White. The best quality barytes or blane 
fixe makes a permanent white when ground in water. In 
oil it lacks body. For many purposes a white which will 
last a considerable length of time is made by mixing two 
parts of zinc white with one part of barytes. 

YELLOWS. 

If a yellow is too bright it may be lowered by adding a 
small quantity of blue and red. Instructions for obtaining 
the various grades of yellow are given explicitly herewith. 

Alabaster. This is yellowish white in color. Mix four 
parts of white with one of middle chrome yellow. 

Amber. An imitation of amber can be produced by mix- 
ing equal portions of burnt sienna, burnt umber, blue black 
and orange chrome yellow, and adding a quantity of white 
lead until the desired tint is obtained. 

Antique Bronze. Add ivory black to orange chrome yel- 
low in the proportion of about five parts of black and one 
part of orange. 



110 CYCLOt»EDU OF PAINTING 

Asiatic Bronze. One part medium chrome yellow, two 
parts raw umber, and lighten with white lead. 

Brass Yellow. This may be obtained by mixing forty 
parts of white lead, twelve parts of light chrome yellow, 
one part raw umber, and one part burnt umber. Or a mix- 
ture of French ochre and medium chrome yellow, added to 
a little umber, with a touch of blue, may be used to tint 
white as a base. 

Bronze. Take fourteen parts of black and add one part 
of yellow and two of green. 

Bronze Yellow. Mix together five parts of medium 
chrome yellow, three parts of white lead, and one part 
of raw umber. A mixture preferred by some painters is 
obtained from chrome yellow, French ochre and a little 
burnt umber. 

Buff. Two parts of white lead and one part of yellow 
ochre produces a good buff, or white lead may be tinted 
with French ochre alone. Other shades are obtained with 
mixtures of two parts of black, four of white, one of red 
and one and one-eighth of yellow. 

Buttercup. White lead tinted with lemon chrome gives 
a nice buttercup yellow. 

Cadmium Orange. This is an artist's color of consider- 
able value, but is, generally speaking, too expensive for 
house painters. It should not be mixed with chrome yel- 
low or emerald green. It is made in three shades: pale, 
medium and deep, and it cannot be successfully imitated. 

Canary. This is practically another name for straw tint, 
and it may be mixed in the same way. The proportions for 
an ordinary shade of canary are three parts of lemon 
chrome yellow to one part of white lead, but less yellow is 
often preferred. Another shade is obtained by mixing two 
parts of white, six of yellow and two of green. Some manu- 
facturers make an extra light chrome yellow which they call 
by this name. 



COLOR MIXING 111 

Chamois. A dull yellow made by mixing four parts of 
white, five of yellow ochre and one of green. 

Chamoline. Mix together five parts of white lead, three 
parts of raw sienna and one part of lemon yellow. 

Citrine. Although this is a tertiary color, and theoretical- 
ly can be made from green and orange, opinions as to the 
exact shade somewhat differ. It may be made by mixing- 
four parts of medium chrome yellow and one part of raw 
umber; or five parts of lemon chrome yellow and two parts 
of raw umber. 

Citron. To produce this color use Venetian red as a base 
and add one part of Prussian blue, two of chrome yellow 
and two of white. 

Colonial Yellow. Medium chrome yellow mixed with white 
lead and a little dark orange chrome yellow gives this tint. 

Cream. A good shade is obtained by mixing eight parts 
of white lead, two parts of French yellow ochre and a touch 
of Venetian red. French ochre and lead alone are often em- 
ployed. Equal parts of raw sienna and orange chrome used 
to tint white gives a nice cream. There are many other 
methods of obtaining this tint. 

Daffodil. Lemon chrome mixed with a little Venetian red 
will give this color. 

Deep Cream. This color is made by tinting white lead 
with yellow ochre and a little Venetian red. 

Ecru. Tint white lead with French ochre and medium 
chrome yellow. A tint which is sometimes called stone 
color is produced in the same way. Another shade of ecru 
may be obtained by mixing three parts of black, eight parts 
of white, three of medium chrome yellow and one of Bruns- 
wick green. 

Jonquil Yellow. Tint white lead with medium chrome yel- 
low to which has been added a very little vermilion red. 
One of the favorite methods is to employ sixteen parts white 
lead, one part of indigo and two parts of light red, adding as 
much chrome yellow as may be desired. Another way of 



112 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

making jonquil yellow is by simply mixing with a little green 
about forty times the quantity of yellow. 

Gamboge. This is an artist's color. It is a gum resin, 
is somewhat fugitive, and is useless for the purpose of the 
house painter. 

Gold. To obtain the color known as gold, white lead may 
be tinted with five parts of golden or yellow ochre and one 
part of vermilion, or a mixture of light chrome j-ellow. 
French ochre and vermilion maj^ be used instead to tint 
the white lead. The quantitj- of yellow used should be con- 
siderably more than the ochre. 

Hay Color. French ochre, medium chrome yellow and 
lamp black used as tinting color for white lead will give a 
hay color, or raw Italian sienna and lamp black may be em- 
ployed if desired. 

Ivory. The addition of a very little medium chrome yel- 
low to white lead produces this tint, or a very little golden 
ochre may be used. Another way is to tint white very slight- 
ly with middle chrome and a touch of black. 

Leghorn. This is a pale yellow shade, which is obtained 
by mixing white and medium chrome yellow in about equal 
proportions. 

Lemon. For this color, lemon chrome yellow is used alone,, 
but the tint may be made by using white lead for a base and 
adding medium chrome yellow until the desii-ed tint is ob- 
tained. The tint that is usually preferred is obtained by 
mixing five parts of chrome to two parts of white lead, and 
adding a little green. However, lemon chrome yellow pur- 
chased ready made is the best. 

Light Buff. A little yellow ochre added to white lead 
gives a good buff color, the tint varying with the quantity 
of ochre. 

Light Stone. Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp 
blafk. 

Lemon Yellow. This is also called lemon chrome, and is 
the palest shade of lemon chrome yellow. It is very useful 



COLOR MIXING 113 

foi- preparing- the lighter shades of yellow, and may be 
imitated by adding cadmium yellow to zinc white. 

Corn Yellow. Mix yellow and white in the proportion of 
about three parts of the former to one of the latter to get 
this liuht yellow shade. 

Manilla. Is made by tinting white lead with French 
ochre and chrome yellow. Or a mixture of white with four 
times the quantity of yellow will produce a shade of ma- 
nilla. 

Marigold. This is obtained by mixing a very little bright 
yellow with orange chrome. 

Melon. Mix equal quantities of black and white. Add 
twice the bulk of orange chrome and a quantity of medium 
chrome equal to the mixture of black and white. 

Mushroom. A dull yellow shade, which may be obtained 
by adding one part of orange and two of yellow to ten 
parts of black. 

Middle Stone. Mix as described under Stone, but use 
more umber and ochre. 

Naples Yellow. This yellow is not now much used, chrome 
yellow having to a large extent taken its place. It may be 
imitated by tinting zinc white with cadmium yellow and a 
very little yellow ochre. 

Naples Yellow. This is obtained by mixing orange with 
twice as much yellow and three times as much white. It 
is also the name given to an artist's color. 

Ochre Yellow. Mix orange and yellow in about equal 
proportions with a rather larger quantity of black. 

Old Gold. Use middle chrome with a little vermilion and 
burnt sienna, and add a very little cobalt. A cheaper color 
may be made by mixing ochre and burnt sienna. One part 
of green and three of bright yellow mixed Avith a little white 
will give an old gold shade. Or it may be obtained in the same 
way as gold, but a little burnt umber may be added. Some 
painters prefer to tint white lead with a mixture of chrome, 



114 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

raw sienna and vermilion. White tinted with a little orange 
chrome and burnt umber also gives a good old gold tint. 

Olive Yellow. This color is sometimes called olive brown. 
It is made by mixing three parts of burnt umber with one 
part of lemon chrome yellow, a larger quantity of yellow 
being added if a lighter shade is required. Another method 
is to mix ten parts of black, one of orange, twelve of yel- 
low and five of green. 

Orange. Mix white, yellow and orange in the following 
proportions: One part each of yellow and white and eigh- 
teen parts of orange. Or another shade is got with seven- 
teen parts of orange^ six of yellow and two of white. Orange 
chrome yellow can be easily purchased, however, and gives 
this color without any admixture being necessary. 

Persian Orange. Mix fourteen parts of orange chrome, 
five parts of yellow ochre and one of white. 

Pompeian Yellow. Tint white with Italian ochre and add 
a very little ultramarine and vermilion. 

Portland Stone. Mix equal parts of yellow ochre and raw 
umber and lighten up with white until the desired tint is 
obtained. 

Primrose Yellow. Lemon chrome used by itself answers 
admirably. 

Primrose. Ten parts of white, three parts of green and 
four parts of yellow will give this light greenish yellow. 
Another shade is got by mixing one part of orange, two 
parts of green and five parts of yellow. 

Spruce Yellow. Add a little Venetian red to a mixture of 
French ochre and white lead. 

Stone. This color, so much used, is usually made by mix- 
ing together five parts of white lead, two parts of French 
yellow ochre and one part of burnt umber. By adding a 
little raw umber, the tint may be varied as desired. This 
color is suitable for outside work. Another method for ob- 
taining the shade is to tint white with medium chrome yel- 
low and burnt umber. 



COIX)R MIXING 115 

Straw Color. Lemon chrome mixed with raw umber. 

Straw. White lead tinted with a little chrome yellow pro- 
duces an excellent straw tint, but some prefer to add a 
little French ochre. Or medium chrome yellow may be used 
as a base, and a mixture added of white, French ochre and 
Venetian red. 

Yellow Lake. This is a somewhat fugitive color which 
has but little body, but is useful for glazing. To imitate it 
use equal parts of burnt umber and white lead and tint 
with chrome yellow and lake. Or, mix umber and white in 
equal proportions and add Naples yellow and scarlet lake. 
To obtain this color in its full richness it is quite necessary 
to glaze either admixture with yellow lake. 

Yellow Ochre. The ochres are natural mineral pigments, 
which are among the cheapest and most useful at the com- 
mand of house painters. They can be used in any vehicle 
and are quite permanent, while they do not affect any other 
color with which they may be used. 

Zinc Yellow. This is a chromate of zinc which is quite 
fast in light, and possesses the advantage of permanence 
even in the pi-esence of impure sulphuretted hydrogen. It 
may be mixed with other colors, without adversely affecting 
Ihem. 



COLOR TESTING. 

Although to accurately test the quality of a color requires 
somewhat elaborate experiments, both chemical and prac- 
tical, yet there is no reason why the painter should not de- 
termine with a sufficient degree of accuracy for his purpose 
the quality of the color he uses. Indeed, if this was done 
more generally, much of the adulterated trash would be 
driven from the market, and none would rejoice more at 
such a result than the color manufacturers themselves. 
The manufacturers assert that they are as desirous that the 
trade should use pure colors as the painters can possibly 
be. Even the biggest houses produce cheap grades of colors, 
and this they do, as a rule, almost under a protest and sim- 
ply because they are compelled by painters demanding colors 
for certain low prices, far below that at which it would be 
possible to produce the pure article. Make careful com- 
parison between pure colors and those being used. At the 
same time, compare the prices and see which is cheaper 
to use. If even they come out at the same price, remember 
that by using a pure color all the benefit of the purity of 
tone so necessary for the execution of good work is 
gained. 

The first thing to be done . in testing any paint material 
is to have a standard. There must be no doubt about this. 
Unless we have in each case something with which to com- 
pare the particular sample of color that is being examined, 
we shall have no useful information concerning it. Take, 
therefore, good decorators' colors of well known make. If 
necessai-y purchase small tubes of the best colors, such as 
are put up for artists' use. This will be rather a severe 
trial, but still it will afford a standard. Having such sam- 
ples and going through the tests we are about to describe, 

116 



COLOR TESTING 117 

the painter can, after some amount of trouble, arrive at re- 
sults which are almost as accurate as those which could be 
deduced by a chemist. An expert on this question some years 
ago summarized the characteristics of colors which should 
be considered in making the examination, under the follow- 
ing heads: 

1. Purity of the material. 

2. Purity of the tone, brilliancy; richness, which indi- 
cates the amount of care in selection. 

3. Fineness of grinding or preparation ; this means the 
degree of the division of the particles and upon the com- 
pleteness of such division will depend 

4. Its spreading capacity. 

5. Its body. This applies, of course, only to opaque or 
semi-opaque colors. Body is opacity, and means capacity to 
conceal the surface to which the paint is applied, and must 
not be confused with spreading. It is an inherent quality. 

6. Its staining power or tinting strength with white or 
colors. 

7. The quality of purity of the tint with white. 

8. If a paste color, the consistency of the paste. 

9. Transparency of transparent colors and the quality 
of the transparency. 

10. The permanency of the color. 

It will be observed that all of these tests will not neces- 
sarily be applied to every color. For instance, a transparent 
color would be tested for its transparency, but certainly not 
for its body. The one condition is the converse of the other. 

Purity of the Material. This is sometimes of considerable 
importance, as in the case of white lead, whilst in others, 
for example the earth colors, it can hardly be said that 
there is a standard of purity. As a rule a knowledge of 
practical chemistry is necessary in order to deteiToine wheth- 
er a sample of paint or color is pure or not. 

The purity of white lead, however, can readily be ascer- 
tained by the painter who possesses no chemical knowledge 



118 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

by aid of a blow-pipe. Take a piece of flat charcoal and 
cut out a hollow space from it into which place a small piece 
of white lead to be tested, about the size of a pea. Now 
direct the flame of a blow-pipe upon it, using an ordinary 
candle or a Bunsen burner, taking care that the blue por- 
tion of the flame bears upon the lead. Keep up a steady 
blow for a few minutes and the white lead will be converted 
into metallic lead, which will show in the form of a bright 
silver-like button. If the lead is adulterated the blowing 
will only have the result of making it appear like a cinder. 
To conduct this experiment successfully requires a little 
practice with the blow-pipe in order to obtain a steady 
flame. 

Another method of testing is to place a little white lead 
in a crucible and place this on a hot fire, when, if genuine, 
it will be converted into metallic lead. 

Purity of Tone. Some remarks on this subject will be 
given under the heads of the various groups of colors. Speak- 
ing generally, the richness of brilliancy of tone is easily dis- 
cernible by placing the sample to be tested side by side with 
another of well known excellence. In siennas, ochres and 
umbers the selection of crude material by which the rich- 
ness of tone is assured is of great importance. 

Fineness of Grinding. The method of testing the fineness 
of a pigment usually employed by the painter is to rub 
a little on the finger nail, but this is a crude and unreliable 
method. If the pigment is dry and it is desired to com- 
pare it for fineness with a similar pigment or white lead, 
the following is as good a plan as any: 

Take two tall vertical glass jars, place in them an equal 
quantity of turpentine and then take a small quantity of the 
white lead to be tested. Place it in one jar, and an equal 
quantity of the pigment with which it is to be compared in 
t'le other; thoroughly stir up both and then note the time 
it takes the sample to settle. If graduated marks are made 
to the two jars the observations will be taken more readily. 



COLOR TESTING 119 

Another test is to weigh out equal quantities of the two 
leads, and then to take a very small quantity of the same 
color, say black, and add to each sample, thoroughly mix- 
ing. The lead that is the lightest in color will be the finest. 
The explanation of this is somewhat interesting. Suppose that 
we have a number of cubes of white lead each measuring one 
inch side. This will give us six superficial inches to be col- 
ored. Now suppose that we break up these inch cubes into 
half inch cubes, which Vv'ill give eight half inch cubes to 
each inch cube. Now as each half inch cube has six faces 
measuring half an inch by half an inch, it has a superficial 
surface of three square inches, and as there are eight of the 
half inch cubes, there are twenty-four superficial inches to 
be colored against six in the inch cubes. It will be seen, 
therefore, that by increasing the fineness of a pigment a 
greater surface is presented to be colored, and hence more 
color is required. 

Another test for fineness is to paint different samples 
thinned in turpentine on plate glass; when dry the two 
specimens may be compared and the difference of fineness 
between them will soon be apparent. 

Still another test, and one frequently used by painters, 
is to place a quantity of the color ground in oil that is to 
be tested upon a level surface such as a piece of glass, and 
to run the blade of a spatula or palette knife over it, and 
then over another sample with which it is to be compared, 
noticing carefully the difference in appearance of the two 
samples. By these means the presence of grit is discovered. 

Spreading Capacity or Covering Power. The spreading 
capacity of pigments and their body are very nearly related, 
although of two equal in body one ma}^ possess greater cov- 
ering power or spreading capacity than the other. A prac- 
tical method of testing covering power is to mix a small 
quantity of a standard paint and an exactly similar quan- 
tity of the pigment to be tested, taking care to use precise- 
ly the same amount of oil and thinners in each case. Then, 



120 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



taking a clean brush for each of the paints, paint a door, or 
other surface that has been primed, on two panels side by 
side, continuing to paint till all the pigment has been in 
each case used up. The one that goes farthest has the great- 
er covering power. 

In comparing the two it will be well to notice whether 
the body is equal in both cases, as one may go farther but 
not cover so well. 

Body. The word body, as applied to pigments, is almost 
synonymous with opaqueness. It is the most important 
property of a pigment, and it is because white lead pos- 
sesses the quality in an eminent degree that it is so much 
valued. 

Body is sometimes called covering power, but this term 
IS a little misleading, as some may suppose it to relate to 
the spreading capacity of the pigment. 

If two different white leads ground in oil to an equal 
consistency are applied to different panels of a door, primed 
in the same manner, the one of the two leads that possesses 
the better body will be shown by it hiding the grain of the 
wood better. Some white leads, especially those that are 
manufactured by the new processes, lack this important 
quality of body, and three coats will only cover the work as 
well as about two of old process white lead. 

There are numbers of methods of practically testing the 
body of pigments, among the simplest being the following: 

Prime and paint a board with alternate black and whi'te 
squares, like a chess or draughtboard. Take a sample of 
a pigment, similar to that to be tested, of which the body 
is known to be good, and paint a wide sdip across the chess 
board; then paint a smaller strip of the pigment to be 
tested. When both strips are dry, by comparing them one 
can tell almost at a glance which has the better body, the 
superior pigment covering or hiding the black squares' bet- 
ter than the other. A second coat may afterward be ap- 
plied to each over a portion of the strip, if desired. 



COLOR TESTING 121 

It is important to notice that in all cases of practically 
testing paints the results are obtained by comparisons be- 
ing made, and hence it is necessary in every case to have a 
standard with which to compare the sample to be tested as 
has ah'eady been explained. 

The test of painting over squares of black and white 
may be varied by using stripes instead. The test answers 
equally well for white lead, zinc or any color of which the 
quality of body is of importance. In some colors it is of 
little 'moment. 

Tinting or Staining Strength. Any painter can test the 
tinting sti'ength of any color himself in a very simple man- 
ner. All that is necessary is to have a pair of druggists' 
scales, some blotting paper, a palette knife, some pieces of 
glass or a flat piece of marble and some pieces of waxed 
paper. First weigh out say eighty grains of dry white 
lead or dry zinc. Any other white will answer equally 
well. Place these eighty grains on one side of the glass and 
the second eighty grains on the other. Now take the dry 
color and weigh one grain and add that to one of the little 
piles of white, then weigh a grain of the standard color 
and add that to the other pile. Now add to each pile a 
few drops of oil, taking care that the number of drops is 
the same in each case. With the palette knife thoi'oughly 
mix until no streaks can be seen and the mixture is per- 
fectly uniform. Then by comparing the two the differ- 
ence in tinting strength will at once be apparent. The 
same result would have been produced had ordinary white 
lead ground in oil been used instead of dry lead or zinc. If 
the color is ground in oil a little difference in the method 
must be observed, the reason being that one color might 
be ground much thinner than the other, in other words 
might contain much more oil than the other, and hence 
if equal weights of each were compared the result would 
be misleading. Take then each color in oil, that is the 
standard and the color with which it is to be compared, 



12^ CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

place on a small quantity of blotting papei' anj allow it to 
remain a few minutes so that the oil may be extracted. If 
it is thought necessary the sample can be washed with ben- 
zine, but for painters' purposes the extraction of the oil 
by means of blotting paper is sufficient for the purpose. 
The two samples having remained on the blotting paper 
for a short time one grain of each is weighed out sepa- 
rately on little pieces of wax paper, this being used so that 
the color shall not stick to the scale. Then each grain is 
mixed separately with the white and the result compared 
as before. It is not too much to say that every painter 
should be prepared to make this test, because it infor.iis 
him not only as to the tinting strength of the color, but 
also gives valuable information as to the tone. Of course 
the quantities may be \'aried if necessary, and a larger 
amount used instead of the single grains. It need hardly 
be pointed out that scrupulous cleanliness is necessary for 
successfully carrying out this test. The palette knife must 
be wiped between each operation and every care taken to 
do justice to both samples. 

The Permanence of Colors. It must be admitted that it 
is very disappointing to a painter to find, after taking pains 
to produce the exact color required, that it flies or fades 
after a little exposure to the weather. The tests for the 
permanence of a color when exposed to light are simple 
enough, and are to mix a little of the eoloi's to be tested in 
oil and to spread them on different slips of paper, cut the 
paper in half, number each half with corresponding figures 
or letters, expose one half to a strong light for as long as 
may be deemed desirable and put the other half away into 
a safe place where the light does not penetrate. Waxed 
paper is the best, as it will not absorb the thinners, or, 
better still, glass may be used, this being cut across with a 
diamond after the paint has been applied. It need hardly 
be said that the permanence of water colors is entirely dif- 
ferent from that of oil colors. As far as pigments are con- 



Color testing 123 

eerned, yellow ochres, siennas, umber, Vandyke brown and 
the earth colors generally are permanent, as are Venetian 
red, Indian red, chi'ome yellow and lemon yellow. Ultra- 
marine, Prussian blue and vermilion are also permanent or 
nearly so. 

Colors Fast to Light. Some colors fly or fade very quick- 
ly, while others are perfectly permanent. The following is 
a list of the principal permanent colors under ordinary con- 
ditions: Yellow ochre, light red, Indian red, umber, cad- 
mium yellow, Prussian blue, cobalt blue, Vandyke brown, 
red ochre, sienna, red oxide, Venetian red, vermilion, ultra- 
marine, chrome green, lamp black, and other black pig- 
ments. 

Probably the simplest method of testing the durability 
of colors is to provide a sheet of unglazed cardboard; that 
known as Bristol board will do very well. It must have so 
slight an absorbent property that if any coat of paint is 
placed on the surface it will remain there, and not soak 
into the substance of the cardboard. This sheet of board 
is ruled into squares or rectangles measuring about 3x3 
inches, or 2x2 inches. 

A little of the color to be tested is ground up with a 
little gum water into a smooth paste, and a portion of one 
of the ruled spaces on the cardboard painted with it. It 
is advisable to rule and prepare two sheets at the same 
time. The name of the color can be written either under- 
neath the patch of color in the square, or in a corresponding 
position on the back of the card. It is also advisable to 
grind a little of the pigment with oil, so that the relative 
durability as a water color and as an oil color can be 
tested. 

One of the prepared cards is hung in a place where it 
is exposed to as much sunlight and air as possible, while 
the other card is placed in a drawer away from any such 
influence. After a week or two of exposure the cards can 
be compared to see if any chancres have occurred; they can 



124 CYCLOl>EDlA OP PAINTING 

then be replaced in their respective positions, and from 
time to time are compared together. Any change which 
may have been brought about by the action of sunlight and 
air on the exposed card will be observable; some colors 
will be changed in a few weeks' exposure, other colors re- 
quire months of exposure to produce any effect. 

By placing a card painted in the manner described, with 
different pigments in a closed cupboard, in which is placed 
a vessel containing some ferrous sulphide and diluted sul- 
phuric acid, the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on the 
colors can be tested; if any are affected by this test it is 
certain that they will be similarly affected when exposed to 
the action of impure air. 



ESTIMATING'. 

Exterior Work. To correctly estimate, one must know 
that a square is 100 square feet and that a square yard is 
9 square feet. He must then obtain the actual dimensions 
of the surface to be painted. He must know how many 
square feet there are in the work, the condition of the sur- 
face and the amount of labor and material required to do 
the work, whether one, two or three coats. He must know 
on which part of the work he will have to double and treble 
measure; that is, where the work must be measured two 
or three times to arrive at the amount of time necessary to 
paint it. After he has taken all of these points into con- 
sideration he is ready to make an intelligent estimate; 
however, all rules for measuring a surface to be painted 
will fall short of the desired x'csult if good judgment is 
not used. No definite rules can be furnished which will 
give a basis for ari'iving at the exact amount of labor nec- 
essary on work which is difficult to handle and requires 
extra ladders, staging or scaffolding. Should the estimator 
misflgure, he will either lose money or lose the job. 

To measure a building, take a tape line and begin at one 
corner of the building, measuring all of the same height 
together; multiply this by the height of the building, com- 
mencing at the outer edge of the cornice and running to 
the lower edge of the baseboard, adding 1 to II/2 feet to 
the height for the edges of weatherboarding. This will 
give the number of squai-e feet in the building. 

To measure a gable, take the length of rafters, multiply 
by 1/2 of the height from the square to peak or comb of 
the roof. This will give the number of square feet in any 
gable. 

This is all called plain work when painting and no extra 

125 



126 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

measurements nre allowed for two or throe stor}' woi'k. 
Above three stories, one-half extra measurements are al- 
lowed. Wall work measure solid, no windows or doors de- 
ducted. 

Stave or wainscoting cornices. l^/G measurement. 

Shingle gables, ly^ to double measurement. 

Dormer windows. IV2 to double measurement. 

Dimension shingles cut. 11/2 to double measurement. 

Dimension shingles dressed. Single measurement. 

Dimension shingles cut, undressed. 11/2 to double meas- 
urements, according to the amount of work. 

Spindle work, turned. Measured solid on both sides. 

Shingle work and pickets, square. 3 measurements. 

Veranda railings and columns. Measured solid. 

Veranda ceiliiags, beaded and rafter finished. Double 
measurements. 

Verandas, jilain. Measure floor and ceiling, allowing for 
the brackets and columns. 

Verandas that have heavy columns and rails. Measure 
floor, ceiling and the entire veranda solid. 

Columns, rails, lattice and turned work. Double meas- 
ure. 

More elaborate scroll or ornamental work, also square 
spindle work, close set. Treble measure. 

Outside blinds. 3 measurements, usually done by the pair. 

Lattice work. 2I/2 to 3 measurements. 

Picket fence. 3 measurements. 

Another system for measuring verandas which is con- 
sidered one of the most dillieult by a great manj' painters 
is to measure the floor and ceiling solid, then measuie 
around the veranda the same as in measuring the building, 
taking the height around over cornices to the lower edge 
of base or lattice work, and double this measurement if 
many brackets or raucli scroll work. 

Roof Work. Roofs are measured solid except coping, 
which IS extra if painted a different color. 



ESTIMATING 127 

Inside Measurements. Inside work is measured solid on 
both doors and windows, with three inches allowed on each 
square opening for tracing edges; base never less than one 
foot. Stair, rail and balustrade, three times. 

Wall Work. With wall work, where the doors and win- 
dows are painted, one-half to two-thirds of the openings is 
deducted; where the openings are not painted, one-third is 
deducted; cupboards and pantry shelves, l^/^ measurement. 

Floors measured solid — plain work. 

CONSIDERATION OF SURFACE. 

New Work. In figuring a piece of work, the considera- 
tion of the surface to be painted is of as much importance 
as measurements. There are certain lumbers used for ex- 
terior building which cannot with safety, to produce satis- 
factory results, be finished with two coats of paint, owing 
principally to the great absorption of the lumber, as well 
as its varied grain, ranging from dark to light. If the 
paint is mixed heavy enough to cover the dark grain the 
lumber will not be satisfied, and while a single painting 
may show satisfactory results, it will not sufficiently pene- 
trate nor bind to withstand contraction of future coats, 
thus causing the paint to break from the surface. 

Upon the reputation of a painter depends his success. 
His reputation is his principal stock in trade and should 
not be jeopardized by doing work against his judgment. 
If an architect, contractor or property owner has specified 
two coat work without consideration of the surface, and 
three coats are necessary, an explanation as to the result- 
ing danger through such should be given him. If his views 
can not be changed, don't try to hide the surface by plas- 
tering on the paint, but apply two properly reduced and 
brushed out coats, remembering the surface must be satis- 
fied even at the expense of hiding. It is much better for 
all concerned to have the lumber satisfied, thus leaving a 



128 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

good foundation for subsequent paint coats, even though a 
surface may be left Avhich will soon show signs of wear 
under weather exposure through not having suflficient pig- 
ment to form protection, than to apply heavy coats which 
will not properly penetrate nor bind and with future coats 
soon break away, leaving a surface which will always be 
a treacherous one to paint no matter how much judgment 
may be used in future painting. 

Old Work. The value of a practical painter is his prac- 
tical knowledge in knowing how to treat or repaint a sur- 
face in order to produce the best results, no matter in 
what condition the surface may be. It is impossible to give 
definite instructions regarding old work, as conditions are 
too varied, but there are a number of important points 
which should be carefully considered in figuring on this 
work. In appearance the building may be in first-class con- 
dition and apparently only need freshening up. Examine 
the surface carefully and determine whether the foundation 
coat is properly bound to the surface. Do not be responsi- 
ble for some one else's careless work in not having prop- 
erly satisfied the surface, thus not leaving a foundation to 
which subsequent coats can be applied with satisfactory 
results. If you work over such a surface, you are the one 
who will be blamed, as invariably the statement is made 
that the building was in good condition before the last coat 
of paint was applied. Don't hesitate under such condi- 
tions to recommend that the building stand for a longer 
period before repainting, or, the application of but one 
coat of paint so mixed that it will penetrate through the 
old coating and into the original surface. 

Never apply two coats of paint to an old surface when 
one coat properly reduced will answer the purpose. There 
is as much danger in applying too much paint as too little. 



EXTERIOR PAINTING'. 

New Work. Be sure the character of the lumber is un- 
derstood as to its absorption of the paint, and to assure 
satisfactory results see that the paint is reduced as tliin 
as possible according to the conditions. Do not paint im- 
mediately after rain storms, heavy dews, fogs or in frosty 
weather. See that the surface to be painted is thoroughly 
dry and in proper condition to receive paint. 

Do not follow too closely after the carpenter, as siding 
which has been tied in bundles is very often wet on the 
inside. Allow time for the siding to dry out, remembering 
that it is very hard to secure dry lumber. Do not apply 
shellac too heavy to knots and sappy places. Have it thin 
and brush well into the knots or other places that require 
shellac. Where light shades of paint are to be applied, 
use white or very light colored shellac. 

Priming. It is bad practice to prime a building from a 
carpenter's scaffold. It is best to have the entire building 
ready to prime at one time so that the same mix of paint 
can he used. In this way a more even and better coat of 
priming can be given. 

When a building or any part of it is ready to receive the 
priming coat, the carpenter should remove all scaffolds, 
blocks and braces. This leaves the building with no part 
of the surface hidden and all of it can be primed without 
interference. Ridges are left on a building primed with 
blocks or braces nailed to the corner strips or any part; 
when touched up, it is impossible to hide these spots so 
they will not soon show through the second and third coats. 

It is good policy to always prime a building before the 
plasterer commences his work, as the priming coat will keep 
the dampness and fumes of the mortar beds from 

129 



130 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

penetrating the surface. Reduce the paint according 
to the absorbing properties of the surface. Do not be afraid 
of getting the primer too thin. It must be thin enough to 
both satisfy and fill the surface and not leave an excess of 
pigment on the surface. The reduction must be with oil 
and turpentine, according to the character of the surface. 
Where hard, close grained woods are to be painted, a large 
percentage of turpentine must be used to assist in opening 
the pores of the wood and allow of greater depth of pene- 
tration. 

The main point in priming is to satisfy all of the sur- 
face, thus leaving a uniform, even coating. A soft place 
here and there that is not satisfied and has received only half 
enough paint will soon dry out spotted ; other places, where 
the wood is hard, an excess of paint which will dry with 
a heavy gloss. A good and satisfactory job of painting 
cannot be done over an uneven coat of priming. The prim- 
ing coat should be applied with as much care as the fin- 
ishing coat. Great care should be taken in keeping the paint 
of a uniform consistency. Where it is possible, prime the 
entire building at one time, as it is hard to prime a build- 
ing in patches and obtain uniform results. In priming, use 
a full brush of paint to satisfy the soft spots, brush well 
and do not allow a surplus of paint to remain on the hard 
places. The priming coat should be as thoroughly and care- 
fully brushed out as the finishing coat. To accomplish this, 
a good full stock brush must be used. Do not trj- to use 
a half-worn or cheap brush, as good results cannot be ac- 
complished with poor tools. Use a medium full brush for 
painting under projections, cornices and under edges of 
the siding, being sure to fill all of the joints with paint, 
then use a full brush on the face of the siding and corner 
strips, thoroughly working the paint out under the brush 
so the pores of the wood will be filled. Be careful not to 
use a dry brush on anj' pait of the work. 

A building primed in the foregoing manner will leave ai; 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 131 

even surface over which to work and the second coat will 
go on smoothly and can be brushed out, thereby saving time 
and material. 

Putty. Do not use cheap, ready-made putty. If it is not 
possible to secure putty that is known to be made from 
linseed oil and whiting, it is best for the painter to make 
the putty himself. This will not take much time and he 
can always be assured of overcoming some very annoying 
results. Cheap putty will peel from glass or after being 
traced with paint. Where used in grooves or over nail 
heads, it will turn yellow after paint has been applied. It 
is also ajDt to fall out, which is one of the most annoying 
things that can happen. A formula still in use by old prac- 
tical painters is to take 5 pounds gilder's whiting and 1 
pint raw linseed oil, the whiting gradually added to the 
oil and well kneaded in. As the mixture becomes too stiff 
to work by hand, pound it off with a mallet until all of the 
whiting is added and mixture is of a glazing consistency. 

For a waterproof or harder-drying putty for use in 
floor seams or other exposed places, to the foregoing add 
one pound keg lead well worked in. If the keg lead is of 
a thin consistency, a little more whiting may be necessary 
to bring the putty to the pi'oijer consistency. This latter 
mix will be found to be more durable and produce more 
satisfactory results for glazing and all exterior puttying. 
Knife putty into all seams, cracks and nail holes; do not use 
the thumb in pushing putt}^ into seams and cracks. 

Middle Coat. Be sure the priming coat is hard dry. Do 
not have the second coat too oily, thus drying with too 
high a gloss, as this will cause the finishing coat to crack, 
peel and flatten. Do not paint over dirt, grease or mud 
splashed on the building from down spouts. Do not paint 
over frosts, dews or wet places. Do not paint while the 
plastering is drying out. Be sure the basement is not wet 
or damp. If such is the ease, the moisture is liable to go 
up through the house between the walls and siding and be 



132 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

attracted to the surface, causing dampness between 
Goats, which will result in peeling in a short time. See 
that the basement windows or ventilators are open, allow- 
ing the basement to thoroughly dry oiit before applying a 
second coat of paint. Use a full stock brush that has been 
well broken in, even up by thoroughly brushing any skips 
or uneven places in the priming coat. 

Where light shades are used for trimming, better results 
will be obtained by applying the trimming color on both 
the middle and finishing coats. Medium dark shade trim- 
ming colors can be used for the finishing coat only. Apply 
two coats for solid colors, such as green, black and red, or 
one coat over a suitable ground color. 

Finishing Coat. Do not paint when there are indications 
of rain or the weather becoming cold. Do not work late 
in the evening on cold nights. The paint will pucker or 
crinkle if a frost or cold wind strikes it when half dry. 
Do not attempt to apply paint early in the morning, or on 
a surface that has been- covered Avith frost the previous 
night. Allow plenty of time for the surface to dry. After 
the paint has set, do not attempt to touch up the spots that 
have been missed. This will cause peeling of such places. 
"Wait until the paint is dry, repainting the parts on which 
such spots may show. The paint should be well brushed 
and plenty of elbow grease used. Paint flowed on to cover 
or hide the surface will soon crumble or break away in 
scales. No paint can be properly applied to a surface with- 
out heavy brushing; this makes one coat adhere to the 
other. Heavy brushing also starts oxidation by forcing the 
air through the paint. Thorough brushing keeps the paint 
coat even and uniform and prevents the paint from crink- 
ling or leathering, which is sure to be the result if it is not 
uniformly applied. Improper bi*ushing will produce heavy 
spots which are sure to pucker or crinkle, eventually caus- 
ing the paint to blister or peel on these places. 

Always finish a stretch before leaving for lunch or at 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 133 

night. Do not attempt to touch up ladder or stage marks, 
as such will always show in spots. Paint the whole board 
on which such spots show. Always have the paint for the 
finishing coat free from specks and dirt. Good work cannot 
be done with dirty or lousy brushes. Clean out pots at 
night. Put bi'ushes away carefully. If skins have formed 
or dirt has got into the paint, strain it before commencing 
to work. 

Two-Coat Work — Priming. Before commencing, be sure 
that satisfactory two-coat work can be done on the lumber 
to be painted. Be sure the surface is dry, as the priming 
for two-coat work is of heavier consistency' than for three- 
coat work and there is not the chance for the surface to 
dry out that there is if a thinner coat is applied. Brush 
the paint out well. Do not flow on, leaving the paint heavy 
in one place and thin in another. Remember this coat is to 
help cover the grain, as well as fill the wood, and only one 
more coat is to be applied to complete the work. If not 
uniformly applied, the last coat will soon show the effects 
of bad priming. Work the paint well into nail holes, ci'acks, 
beading and seams. Avoid holidays, as they will show up 
when the second coat is applied. Have the paint of a 
medium thin consistency, carrying sufficient turpentine to 
assist in penetrating and filling the wood. This coat must 
both satisfy and fill and leave sufficient pigment on the sur- 
face to assist in covering or hiding the grain of the wood. 

Finishing Coat — Two-Coat Work. Be sure the priming 
coat is hard dry over the entire surface before commencing 
to apply the second coat. It is very often the case that 
part of the work has been primed for a month or six weeks 
and other portions have stood for only a few days on ac- 
count of the inability of the carpenter to finish the entire 
building, or like causes. Places such as the latter will in 
a short time crack or peel, and when a complaint is entered 
the entire house is given credit for having been primed a 
month or six weeks. Do not apply the finishing coat during 



134 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the time the plasterers are at work, as there is more or less 
trouble caused by the mortar being splashed or thrown over 
the work during this time; this necessitates retouching, 
which cannot be done without showing spots. Do not apply 
the finishing coat during the time the plaster is drying out, 
as it will absorb the moisture from the plaster, causing 
1 rouble through the paint peeling by having dampness be- 
tween coats. Finish the interior of the building before ap- 
plying the exterior finishing coat. This will give time for 
the plaster to dry out somewhat before this finishing coat 
is applied and result in a more clean and satisfactory job. 
See that the basement ventilators are open. This assists 
in properly drying out the basement. See that the surface 
is perfectly clean and free from plaster mortar before start- 
ing the work. Carefully putty all nail holes, seams and 
cracks. Reshellac the knots or sappy places where the 
pitch may have come through the priming. As this is the 
finishing coat, exercise care in having the paint uniform 
and kept to the right consistency to insure proper covering. 
The paint should be of a full oil reduction so as to be elas- 
tic, as this coat must both hide the surface and withstand 
severe exposure; it must be carefully applied and of the 
best matei'ial in order to accomplish these results. Use a 
good stock brush and one that has been properly broken in. 
A new brush will not allow of proper application or spread- 
ing of the paint. Work out well under the brush to insure 
proper binding and a smooth, even coat. Do not use a paint 
which has to be flowed on to hide the surface, as this will 
leave a spongj- coat without proper binding. Bring the 
body and trimming color down together. Wipe off the body 
color from corner strips, door and window frames. Do not 
work this paint ofE with a trimming brush, as this will 
cause spots. Square up the work at noon and night so as 
not to have any laps. 

Three-Coat Work — Priming. See that the surface is dry 
and in condition to receive paint. Study the character of 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 135 

the lumber and reduce the paint according to its absorbing 
properties. Note general information in regard to prim- 
ing new work. The paint should be mixed to a thin con- 
sistency to fully satisfy the lumber with only enough pig- 
ment used to fill the grain of the wood and not leave an 
excess of pigment on the surface. This will allow the mid- 
dle coat to penetrate through the priming coat to a suffi- 
cient depth to adhere to the fiber of the wood, as well as 
the pigment in the primer, thereby assisting in binding it- 
self to the surface as well as to the coats that are applied 
over it. 

If the primer is mixed to a heavy consistency, it will 
retard absorption or penetration and leave an excess of pig- 
ment on the surface that will under contraction and expan- 
sion break loose when successive paint coats are applied. 

Second or Middle Coat. Before applying the second or 
middle coat, be sure the priming coat is hard dry over the 
entire si;rface. As this is the medium between the founda- 
tion or priming coat and the protecting or finishing coat, 
extreme judgment must be used in mixing the paint for this 
coating. It must not be too elastic and should di*y with- 
out a high gloss. The paint for this coat, being the easiest 
working of any applied to the building, requires thorough 
and careful brushing to assure satisfactory results. Reshel- 
lac knots or sappy places if necessary. Knife putty into 
cracks, seams or nail holes. The paint should be mixed 
heavy so as to brush out well, also assist in filling and pene- 
trating the priming coat, leaving a surface to which the 
finishing coat will readily adhere, as well as a surface which 
properly dries from the bottom out. 

Too heavy an oil reduction will leave a high glossy sur- 
face over which the finishing coat will not adhere or prop- 
erly dry. The reduction should be with sufficient turpen- 
tine to form penetration and still make a paint which will 
he elastic enough to Avithstand contraction and expansion 
and dry firm. Over such a surface the finishing coat can be 



136 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

brushed out smoothly and evenly without crawling or slip- 
ping under the brush. The paint will dry without danger 
of iDuckering, leathering, or flattening of the finishing coat 
as would be the case in a short time if applied over a high 
gloss. It is also very apt to crack and peel if oily coats 
are applied one over another. It is almost impossible to 
have solid painting with an excess of oil in undercoats as 
the coats will most alwa3's be spongy, rarely adhering close- 
ly to one another. 

Finishing Coat — Three-Coat Work. See that the under- 
coat is hard dry over the entire surface. The surface should 
be perfectly clean and free from dust and dirt. Reputty 
where necessary. Follow the same precautions as previ- 
ously given for finishing coats. Brush thoroughly and care- 
fully. Use a full stock brush properly broken in. Do not 
use new brushes for finishing coats. The paint for this 
coat should be the most elastic one applied, as it must stand 
the most severe exposure. It should be of good consistency 
with a full oil reduction, mixed so as to brush out smoothly 
and evenly, remain where left without danger of running 
or sagging and dry from the bottom out. The drying and 
gloss are always assisted by having the under or middle 
coats properly reduced and applied. Follow previous in- 
structions as to cleaning off body color on parts that are 
to be trimmed. Bring down and square up the work so as 
not to show laps or poor workmanship. 

Roof. Be sure the surface is dry. Do not use tar oil or 
other offensive smelling oils that will ruin the cistern water. 
Turn supply pipe from cistern when painting the roof. Mix 
the full amount of paint requiied for the first coat, as it is 
very difficult to make two mixes for shingles which will ap- 
pear the same. Apply uniform coats to prevent spotting. 
Have the priming coat thin so it can be easily worked into 
the cracks. Keep ladders from resting on tin or in gutters. 
Hook over the comb of the house. Trim the ridge-board 
and coping as the work progresses. In doing this work do 



EXTERIOR Painting 137 

not go over the roof with the ladders after it is finished. 
The life of a shingle roof can be more than trebled if the 
shingles are dipped into properly prepared paint before be- 
ing laid. 

In dipping the shingles, they should be dipped at least 
eleven inches. This will allow 4I/2 inches to the weather 
and 6^/2 inches for the under lap. Never dip damp shingles; 
break the band around the bunch and spread them out to 
allow of drying before dipping or applying the paint. For 
dipping shingles, use paint of the proper consistency for 
finishing coat, reduced with not less than 50 per cent raw 
linseed oil. When the shingles are laid, finish with one coat 
of paint of a finishing coat consistency. Remember the 
roof is subjected to very severe weather wear and soon 
shows defective work. 

The Paint. The paint for the roof should be of good 
material. A mistake which is often made is that a very 
cheap mixture will do for shingles. Have the priming 
coat thin and enough of it mixed at one time to cover the 
entire roof. Keep the paint uniform while working and 
avoid having heavy laps or spots, as they will soon show 
through the second coat and make an ugly looking job. The 
second coat should be of good consistency and be well 
brushed out, using care to keep from applying the paint 
unevenly. 

roundation and Flues. Do not paint damp brick. Oil 
paint is the best size for brick. If the flues run from the 
foundation to the roof on the outside of the building and 
are to be painted a different color from the house or given 
a ground color of Venetian red, they should be painted be- 
fore the siding is painted, especially the first coat, as it is 
very hard to keep paint from splashing over the siding in 
working on rough brick. Where flues are to be penciled 
and flat brick used, the flat color can be very easily applied 
after the body color has been applied. Never apply less 
than three coats on brick. If after the second coat has 



138 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

been applied the soft brick show, touch them up before ap- 
plying the finishing coat. This will even up the work. 

The Paint. The first coat for brick and foundation flues 
should be mixed thin so as to strike into the brick to a 
good depth and form a foundation for subsequent coats. 
Ten per cent of the total amount of thinners used in the 
priming should be turpentine. The second coat should be 
mixed half flat and well brushed over the surface. The 
third or finishing coat should be elastic, of good consist- 
ency and applied smoothly and evenly. 

Window Sash. If the house is to be finished in natural 
wood on the inside, shellac the sash on the inside and prime 
on the outside. Paint the rabbit for the glass so that putty 
will adhere. Before setting the glass, apply a coat of var- 
nish to the inside and a coat of paint to the outside of the 
sash. This will save a great deal of time in tracing. If 
the sash is to be black or dark color, give the surface a sec- 
ond coat of lead color mixed half flat. Never use black or 
dark sash color on bare wood. 

Outside Blinds. Outside blinds should be primed before 
the carpenter fits them to the window. This will assist in 
keeping the blinds from swelling. Paint for all coats on 
blinds should be thin and well brushed out. Do not allow 
the paint to be heavy on the rail or ends of slats. Lay 
the blinds on a trestle with the stick side up. In paint- 
ing, care must be taken not to get too much paint on the 
ends of slats, otherwise they will stick. If the work is to 
tie painted green or any dark color, finished Avith two coats, 
the best results can be obtained by applying a priming coat 
of oil paint lead color. The finishing coat must be mixed 
with raw oil and sufficient dryer to set the paint. If three- 
coat work, prime with oil paint lead color, second coat with 
a finishing color mixed with part turpentine. Do not paint 
the ends of the slats or inside rails with this coating. This 
surface should receive but two coats of paint. The finish- 



EXTERIOR Painting 1:^9 

ing coat should cover the entire surface and should be 
mixed with raw oil and sufficient dryer to set the paint. 

Brush out well between the slats. Never use paint of 
heavy consistency on blinds. 

When drying, open the slats. Care must be taken never 
to allow the slats to turn down flat when drying, other- 
wise they will stick. 

Veranda Columns and Rails. These should be primed 
as soon as set, as they are usually made of heavy lumber 
and liable to crack if not primed. Do not paint columns 
and rails unless dry. Paint will soon blister or peel on 
heavy timber if the least dampness is present. Do not 
paint over shop or mill priming without thoroughly sand- 
l^apering or scraping off as much of this paint as possible, 
as it is usually a cheap mixture applied heavy, preventing 
penetration and not fit for priming. It will generally peel 
in a short time after another paint has been applied over 
it. Do not be responsible for paint applied over primers 
other than the ones you applied. Do not apply paint heavy 
on round columns, as very little paint is required on a 
round or convexed surface. If applied heavy, it will soon 
blister, crinkle or peel. Carefully guard against an excess 
of paint on this kind of a surface. Use very nearly a dry 
brush and work the paint out well. The same applies to 
spindles and other turned work. Guard against painting 
the toiDS of rails and like surfaces which are damp from 
frosts or dews. 

The Paint. The paint for veranda columns and rails 
should be reduced in the same manner as for the siding, 
but requires an extra amount of brushing. The paint 
should be well brushed out to insure smooth, even coats. 
Knife putty into all cracks and nail holes, using a good, 
hard-drying putty. Sandpaper the columns and rails be- 
fore applying the finishing coat, dust off and apply a well 
brushed coat. This work, together with veranda and porch 
floors, should be the last finished on the exterior of the 



140 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

building, as such v/ill insure the surface from being scuifed 
or damaged by use. 

Veranda and Porch Floors. A heavj^ coat of paint ap- 
plied on the tongue and groove before laying will more than 
double the life of the floor through keeping out the water. 
Do not apply coats which are too oily. Brush well into 
the surface. Do not have an excess of i^aint or pigment on 
the surface. Remember the floors have to be walked on, 
consequently the paint must dry firm and hard. Thorough- 
ly fill all cracks and crevices with paint, then brush out. 
Keep the work clean. Do not paint over mud, grease or 
plaster. Do not use old, fatty or skinny paint for floors. 
It will not make satisfactory work, Avill never dry hard and 
will soon scuff off. Do not paint floors immediately after 
frosts or heavy dews. Allow plenty of time for the sur- 
face to become dry and warm. Sufficient turpentine should 
be used in all coats to assist the paint in drying and hard- 
ening. More trouble is caused from floors not properly 
drying than from any other condition. The finishing coat 
can not drj^ solid if undercoats are spongy; neither will 
the paint wear well Avhere the undercoats are not thor- 
oughly hard. A finishing coat of elastic paint can be 
applied over a flat coat without causing trouble, but a flat 
or quick-drying paint applied over an oil coat will cause 
cracking or peeling. Do not flow paint on floors and expect 
successful work. Two coats will not make a passable job 
on a porch or veranda floor. 

The Paint. For jn-iming, the paint should be of a thin 
consistency, reduced with a liberal amount of turpentine 
so as to penetrate well into the surface. See that the 
priming coat is thoroughly dry before applying subsequent 
coats. Putty all seams, cracks and nail holes with putty 
Avhich will dry hard. The second coat for floors over good 
solid priming should be mixed half flat so as to dry hard 
and firm. Enough paint should be left on the surface to fill 
and form a good protecting coat, but should not dry with a 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 141 

gloss or tack, as such retards the drying of the finishing 
coat. The third or finishing coat should be elastic and of 
good consistency, carrying sufficient turpentine to work 
free, penetrate into the previous coating and dry hard and 
firm. Remember that walking has to be done over this 
coat, therefore it must be brushed out smoothly and evenly 
so as not to leave heavy places which will dry unevenly 
and soon scuff up from usage. 

Fence. Do not neglect the fence. Paint it as well and 
as neatly as the house. The pickets, rails and caps should 
be primed before nailing up, as this will save a great deal 
of time and allow of all edges to be painted. Do not paint 
the tops of rails or caps when damp from rain, dew or 
frost. The paint should be of the same consistency as 
that used on the main building, and if the rails, pickets 
and caps are primed well before nailing up, two coats are 
usually sufficient for the fence. The fence should receive 
the same trimming as the house. The paint should be of 
the same material as used for the main building and as well 
and neatly applied as on any other part of the work. 



EXTERIOR PAINTING. 

Old Work. In repainting an old surface, it is especially 
important that the contractor consult a practical painter. 
Carefully examine the surface to he painted befoi-e com- 
mencing the work and determine whether there is any loose 
paint or whether the undercoat is in condition to break 
loose as soon as an elastic coat is apiolied over it. If 
the building has previously been primed with ochre, watch 
out for spots that have received a heavy coat and are ready 
to break loose. Examine the surface for dampness from 
basements, drain pipes, down spouts and wet soil. Before 
starting to paint, see that dampness has not undermined 
the paint and that the boards do not contain enough mois- 
ture to cause the paint to break loose as soon as other 
coats are aiDplied over them. Look out for loose scales, 
fine or powdered. They do not appear to be dangerous, 
nevertheless, they will keep the paint from adhering solidly 
to the surface and make it soon break away. Be careful 
about mildew, as this condition is always a sure sign of 
dampness, and paint applied over mildew will soon spot or 
peel. Examine the surface to see whether the paint of 
previous coatings has shriveled. Paint applied over a 
shriveled undercoating will soon break loose. Prepare the 
paint according to the surface over which it is to be applied. 

Repainting. When the surface to be repainted is in good 
condition and not cracked or peeled, thoroughly clean the 
building free from dust, dirt or soot. Wash mildewed 
spots with turpentine. It is seldom that one mix of paint 
will answer for all parts of the building. Portions of the 
house that are the most exposed and weather-beaten should 
receive the most elastic coat of paint. Portions that are 

142 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 143 

protected, like under porches and verandas, and portions 
shielded by trees and other buildings, which would render 
them in about the same condition as under verandas, should 
receive a coat of paint mixed so as to penetrate the old sur- 
face and dry hard and firm without high gloss. If one mix 
of paint, which will satisfy the exposed portion of the 
building, is applied over the entire surface and to the pro- 
tected or hard parts of the building, this oily or elastic 
coat of paint will dry with a full or heavy gloss, retarding 
the drying of the second or finishing coat, also causing 
blistering, checking, cracking and flatting in a short time. 

First Coat. For an exposed or weather-beaten surface, 
the paint should be mixed with 2-3 oil and 1-3 turpentine 
to assist in penetrating the old surface, as well as parts on 
which some paint still remains. It should be applied with 
a full brush to fully satisfy the surface and be well and 
evenly brushed out so as not to have an excess of paint ou 
the surface where the old paint remains. 

The cornices and protected portions should receive paint 
that is mixed half flat or with enough turpentine to force 
penetration through the old paint, thus firmly binding this 
coat to the surface and preventing the second or finishing 
coat from crawling. The paint should be applied smoothly 
and evenly and be well brushed in. Do not flow the paint 
on and expect a uniform coat. 

Second Coat. When the surface is thoroughly hard, 
putty all cracks, seams and nail holes, knifing the putty 
well in. One mix of paint for finishing coat can be applied 
over the entire surface. This will dry uniformly. The 
paint should be mixed to medium heavy and elastic con- 
sistency and be well and evenly brushed out. 

Cracked and Peeled Paint. Owing to the many kinds of 
cracked and peeled surfaces, as well as the innumerable 
causes from which they come, it is impossible to give 
definite directions for repainting under all of the varied 



144 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

conditions. Judgment must be exercised in studying the 
surface and treating the same according to its needs. 

The following suggestions as to repainting a cracked or 
peeled surface will meet the most common of both found in 
the general run of painting. 

The preparation of a surface before painting is one of 
the most important matters to be considered. Properlj' pre- 
paring the surface will often go a great way in assisting 
to make a successful job of painting over a very badly 
cracked or peeled surface. 

To properly clean a surface, it should be scraped and 
carefully gone over with a wire brush. The kit should con- 
sist of a good scraper and two wire brushes, one stiff and 
coarse, the other fine and soft. On a surface where the 
cracks are small and fine, a soft brush will assist in clean- 
ing the dirt from the cracks and leaving the surface in bet- 
ter condition than will a coarse brush. On a surface with 
large cracks or a peeled surface, a coarse, stiff brush will 
assist in forcing off the scales, also breaking the peeled 
edges that have begun to turn out and are sometimes very 
hard to break loose. 

The amount of turpentine recommended in the following 
reductions is based upon a gallon of hand mixed or pre- 
pared paint of a full linseed oil reduction. 

Cracked Surfaxies. When the paint is cracked in small 
hair lines, it is usually called crazing of the paint. Gener- 
ally these hair lines run crosswise of the grain the entire 
width of the boards to which the paint is applied. The 
paint is invariably very hard and this crazing is often at- 
tributed to an excess of zinc. It is usually caused from an 
improper reduction or combination of pigments which do 
not dry uniformly, one being more easily affected by heat 
•-^•i o.old than the others, therebv leaving a paint surface 
■wdicfl xs nut anilorm as to coniraccion and expansion. /hiO 
trouble is especially noticeable on parts of work that have 
to withstand a g^reat deal of vibration. If the paint has not 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 145 

been applied too heavy and upon examination is found to 
be perfectly bound to the wood, it can be successfully re- 
painted in the following manner: 

A great deal of care should be taken in the preparation 
of the first coat, as the surface is usually hard and brittle. 
If the paint is mixed half flat it will have sufficient turpen- 
tine to penetrate well into the undercoats, and if well 
brushed will thoroughly bind to them. 

The finishing coat should be of good consistency and 
well brushed. It should contain from 1-32 to 1-16 gallon of 
turpentine to a gallon of paint, as the paint should nut be 
too elastic, otherwise it is liable to blister on this hard sur- 
face if exposed to heat when fresh. 

Paint found to be cracked only through the top coat, 
the checks not running through to the work, makes a very 
treacherous surface to i*epaint, as the first coat applied is 
liable to penetrate only through the hard glaze which has 
already commenced to crack and possibly breaking loose 
from the undercoats, and when a second and more elastic 
coat has been applied this glaze will break loose and cause 
the last coats to peel. The first coat should be mixed with 
14 gallon of turpentine to the gallon of paint, so as to pene- 
trate, if possible, the glazy surface to the undercoats which 
are more firm, thereby binding itself as well as the finish- 
ing coat to the surface. The finishing coat should not be 
applied too elastic. This is to avoid having an excess of 
oil on the surface. 

Large and deep cracks, running to the primer or under- 
coats, are usually caused by coats being applied too rapidly, 
not allowing sufiScient time for pi'oper hardening, or under- 
coats being mixed heavy with boiled or rosin oil or an excess 
of japan which did not allow the paint to properly harden 
and left the under-surface soft and spongy. Such paint is 
usually tough and elastic and the undercoats are found to 
be spongy and easily affected by hot or humid weather. 
This paint usually shows no si^s of peeiiog, ae it is very 



146 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

tough and seems to be firmly adhering to the wood, but to 
repaint the surface requires a gi-eat deal of care in keeping 
the new paint from following the first coats and cracking 
in like manner. Be careful not to have an excess of paint 
on the surface, as such will blister and peel. 

Thoroughly clean the surface with a wire brush. Mix 
the first coat of paint fairly elastic or with 1 pint to II/2 
pints of turpentine to a gallon of paint. This will not dry 
too hard and will be sufficiently elastic to withstand con- 
traction and expansion over this treacherous surface, also 
penetrate to a good depth. Brush out well and do not at- 
tempt to fill the cracks with this coat. The finishing ooat 
should be mixed to a good consistency with 1-32 to 1-16 
gallon of turpentine to the gallon of paint and be well 
brushed over the surface. If, however, all of the old paint 
is solid and dried through, a half-elastic coat, % gallon of 
turpentine to a gallon of paint, can be applied and should 
be well brushed into the cracks. This will dry firm and 
hard and a second coat of elastic paint can be applied over 
it. This, well brushed into the cracks, will to a certaiji 
extent fill them and make a very passable job without 
danger of blistering, which would be the result if a first 
coat of very elastic paint had been applied. 

Alligatored Paint. Where the paint is cracked in every 
direction, forming blocks, triangles, and in fact, every con- 
ceivable shape, it is called alligatoring. This comes from a 
number of causes, but can usually be traced to non-drying 
undercoats and heavy coats of different mixtures. Ochre or 
similar slow-drying pigments mixed with boiled oil will 
very often be found at the bottom of this trouble. Fatty 
paint or the use of adulterated oil also causes paint to 
alligator. Such paint is usually tough and hard except 
where it is well protected and there the undercoats will be 
found to be tacky and spongy. The only successful way to 
repaint this surface is to burn off the paint. This is a very 
difficult job, as the heat softens up the excess of oil and a 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 147 

gummy, sticky mass of paint is the result. This soon gums 
the knife, also fonns a cement over the wood, which is very 
hard to remove. This is especially true where excessive 
painting has been done, the paint having been mixed with 
boiled oil or an excess of japan added, or where the paint 
has cracked when first applied and paint heavily applied 
over it in an attempt to fill the cracks, leaving the surface 
with an excess of oil paint spread over it. 

If it is not possible to burn the paint off, it can be painted 
with fairly good results if first cleaned with a wire brush, 
breaking the edges of the paint that may have commenced 
to show signs of peeling and turning out, also removing 
all the dirt from the cracks, then applying a coat of paint 
mixed with from a pint to a quart of turpentine to the 
gallon of paint, according to the elasticity of the surface. 
Do not apply a heavier coat than is absolutely necessarj'. 
Be particular to brush the paint well. Do not have the 
paint too flat on the protected or more elastic portions of 
the building, as these parts are very easily affected by hot 
or humid weather. Do not attempt to rush the work. 
Allow ample time for the paint to harden, then apply a fin- 
ishing coat of paint mixed to a good consistency reduced 
with 1-32 to 1-16 gallon turpentine to a gallon of paint. 
Brush out well. This will not blister nor pull the under- 
coats and will make a fairly satisfactory job. 

Peeled Paint. In pi-eparing the surface for the repaint- 
ing of peeled work, the same care should be exercised as 
with cracked paint. Where the paint has commenced to 
peel in small chips and upon examination it is found that 
the trouble is with the last or finishing coat, such is called 
chipping or fluffing. The trouble can usually be traced to 
the improper application of the paint or its having been 
applied over dampness caused by dews or frosts, also the 
paint becoming chilled or applied in freezing weather, not 
allowing sufficient penetration, which caused it to soon chip 
or fluff off. This trouble can very easily be overcorqe by 



148 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

scraping or going over the building with a wire brush and 
coarse sandpaper, removing all the loose paint and then 
applying one coat of paint of good consistency mixed elastic 
with Yg gallon turpentine to the gallon of paint. This 
mixture will thoroughly penetrate and bind to the under- 
coats, generally making very satisfactory work. 

If the paint is peeling in small thin scales and the trouble 
only goes as far as the priming, it usually will be found 
upon examination that this coat was of material like yellow 
ochre which has been applied heavy and dried with a gloss, 
the second coat not reduced with a sufficient amount of 
turpentine to penetrate the hard surface. To repaint this 
surface, the scales and loose paint should be scraped and 
brushed off and a coat of paint, mixed with sufficient tur- 
pentine to penetrate the priming coat, applied over the 
spots where the paint has peeled, then apply a well brushed 
finishing coat over the entire building. This should not 
be too oily or elastic, otherwise it will break loose from the 
undercoats, but it should carry from 1-32 to 1-16 gallon 
turpentine to assist in brushing and penetrating the old sur- 
face. 

Where the paint is peeling in patches, exposing the bare 
wood, and it is found upon examination that the backs of 
the scales have a heavy coat of ochre or some other diy 
pigment which is absorbing the oil from the wood, and the 
paint has not been applied uniformly and is breaking away 
in spots, these places can be scraped and thoi'oughly 
brushed, then a coat of paint mixed with a percentage of 
turpentine to assist in penetration applied over these spots. 
One coat of paint can then be applied over the entire build- 
ing, if the surface is in fair condition, and the undercoats 
have not been applied too heavily. However, if the build- 
ing has been standing and one coat is not sufficient, the 
first coat should be mixed half flat so as not to leave an 
excess of oily paint on the surface. This will even up the 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 149 

work and an elastic finishing coat can then be applied over 
the entire building. 

When a building has been painted a number of times 
and the surface is peeling to the bare wood, the only sat- 
isfactory way to repaint this is to burn the surface to the 
wood, following special instructions given for burned sur- 
face. 

Where the paint has peeled in spots from dampness, 
caused either by wet basements or plaster, the surface can 
be successfully repainted after the house has been allowed 
to dry out, by cleaning it and touching up the spots where 
the paint has peeled, then covering with one coat of paint. 
This will even up the surface and avoid repainting the 
entire building if only part of the house is peeling. 

Repainting a Surface on Which the Paint Has Been 
Burned. Where paint is peeling or cracking badly, the only 
satisfactory way is to burn the paint to the bare wood. 
This leaves all of the surface practically new, and if the 
character of the work is understood good results can be ac- 
complished, but it must be borne in mind that all paints 
when burned do not leave surfaces in the same condition 
and the resulting character of each must be understood 
before mixing the priming coat. Where an excess of boiled 
oil has been used in successive repainting and the work has 
commenced to crack or alligator, it will be found very hard 
to get the work in good condition, as the oil will set on the 
surface and form a glaze which is very hard to penetrate; 
likewise where fatty oil or paint with a percentage of gloss 
or rosin oil has been used. While the heat of the burning 
lamp softens the oil and paint, it is very hard to remove 
all of it from the surface. 

To repaint this surface, care should be exercised in thor- 
oughly sandpapering and scraping or breaking this glaze 
where it is possible and a liberal amount of turpentine 
should be mixed with the first coat to force penetration 
through this hard surface. Where dry ochre or similar 



150 CYCLXDPEDIA OF PAINTING 

primer has been used, causing the paint to peel from its 
not having- penetrated the surface, only a small proportion 
of oil having gone into the wood, it is very easy to remove 
with a burning lamp, leaving a surface which is practically 
new, as most of the oil will have been drawn from the wood 
during the process of burning. This surface can then be 
treated the same as any new wood, with possibly the ex- 
ception of some protected parts where the oil has pene- 
trated to a greater depth and the paint is in better condi- 
tion than on exposed j^ai'ts. The cause of blistered and 
peeled work can often be traced to too elastic a coating 
of paint having been applied over a burned surface. This 
is esiJecially true where boiled or heavy oil has been used 
in the primer of the paint which was burned. Boiled oil 
should never be used in a paint applied over a burned sur- 
face, it will not penetrate but will lay on the surface and 
will soon crack, blister and peel. These troubles are often 
laid to dampness or the paint used, or some defect in the 
building which supposedly did not allow the paint to prop- 
erly harden, while the true cause is from the paint not 
having been properW reduced or applied over the surface. 

Blistering. When paint blisters, the cause is usually at- 
tributed to dampness, and it is perhajos true that more 
trouble of this character on new buildings can be traced 
to wet or unseasoned lumber or fresh i^lastering, than to 
any other cause, and on old buildings to bad roofs, leaky 
gutters, broken down spouts and wet basements. There are 
so many chances for dampness to get under the paint of 
eitlier Jiew or old buildings that it naturally follows there 
would be more blisters from this cause than from all others. 

As to buildings being in the foregoing condition, the 
weather before and during the time the paint is applied has 
niucli to do with it. 

Dampness causing blistering of paint is more easily de- 
tected than any other condition. This is especially true 
where the dampness comes from wet plastering, as the 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 151 

blisters will be full of discolored water which stains the 
paint when they break, and upou removing the paint over 
the blisters it will be found that there is very little, if any, 
paint or oil left in the grain of the wood. When examin- 
ing surfaces where the water or dampness is not percep- 
tible at the time of the examination, it is safe to assume, 
without fear of an error in judgment, that dampness has 
been the cause of the trouble, but there are also many other 
causes for paint blistering which are often laid to the fore- 
going. 

Where linseed oil has been used from the bottom of a 
tank and the settlings or foots are mixed with the paint, it 
will cause blistering. This has the appearance of dampness, 
there being spots where the paint has not penetrated and 
the surface is almost bare. This paint will sometimes pull 
away in large blisters, the underneath of which show that 
the paint has adhered to the surface but contained some- 
thing which would not allow of solid dr3dni4'. This trouble 
can be attributed to non-drying mucilaginous matter which 
separated fi'om the linseed oil and did not allow of uniform 
penetration, binding or drying. Such blisters are invariably 
oblong and folIoAv the grain of the wood. 

New linseed oil will often cause the paint to blubber in 
very warm weather, these blubbers causing small blisters, 
that is attributed to the moisture in the oil which the heat 
draws out in the sliape of different sized blubbers, breaking 
and forming small blisters when the paint is dry. 

Paint mixed with rosin oil will blister under extreme 
heat. Paint applied over old work blisters more often from 
the application of excessive oil coats than from any other 
cause outside of dampness. As stated before, dampness is 
easily traced in either old or new work. Numerous coats 
of oil paint will often blister very soon after the paint has 
been applied. The back of these blisters will show that the 
paint has at one time been dry and was hard enough to hold 
to the surface, but when paint was applied over it, it could 



152 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

not stand the tension or pull of the other coats. This is 
caused by numerous coats of oil paint which do not thor- 
oughly cement together and form a solid foundation. This 
can be proven by the backs of the blisters which often 
have glossy spots that would not show had the coats of 
paint thoroughly cemented or adhered. Other parts of the 
blisters show gummy points, proving the paint had once 
been cemented together in spots. This also shows that the 
paint was over-elastic and had pulled away from the surface 
by the heat which broke the coats apart. This latter trouble 
is sometimes called a splitting of the paint. An excess of 
oil on a hard surface like ochre priming, where there has 
not been sufficient penetration, will cause the paint to 
blister on protected parts of the building, such as under- 
neath porches, etc. This trouble is very hard to understand, 
but the true cause is excessive heat on a porch or veranda 
floor, reflecting on the sides of the building, causing blister- 
ing or the raising up and breaking loose of the paint from 
the under-surface, this is especially true where the sun 
reaches porches and verandas which have an enclosed end, 
preventing free circulation of air and causing intense heat. 
Blistering sometimes takes place from excessive paint- 
ing on the sides of buildings where the sun does not reach. 
This is caused by radiation of the heat, which is very intense 
at certain times of the day, and no free circulation of air, 
also from stone or cement walks which become very hot 
from the rays of the sun, radiating this heat and blistering 
the paint for some distance above these walks. Freshly 
painted veranda floors will reflect enough heat on the side 
of a building to cause the paint to blister and break away. 
Veranda ceilings will sometimes blister. The cause can be 
traced to water which has been thrown on the floor or to 
pools of rainwater which reflect the heat of the sun on the 
ceiling, forming a lens the same as would a convex glass 
if laid in the same position. This reflection will cause the 
paint to blister on ceilings and the trouble is often misat- 
tributed to leaky roofs, gutters or like causes. 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 153 

Blistering Over Ochre. If a coat of oil paint is applied 
over a heavy coat of ochre priming which has dried hard 
and flinty, it will often cause it to blister badly when ex- 
posed to the heat of the sun. This result is due to the 
paint not penetrating into the hard surface, thus leaving an 
excess of oil on the ochre coat. Where ochre is mixed dry 
with oil, it is impossible to thoroughly incorporate thfe two 
and when applied will sometimes raise up in small 
blisters: the under part will be found dry and the paint can 
be powdered. This is caused by the dry ochre lying on the 
surface, absorbing all of the oil and leaving nothing to 
satisfy the wood, consequently, the heat of the sun will 
soon pull it away. This is more noticeable after another 
coat of paint has been applied over the priming. 

To successfully repaint blistered work, the character of 
each kind of blister must be understood; study the cause of 
the trouble and repaint the surface accordingly. If water 
or dampness is the cause, the paint for retouching should 
be mixed with a full oil reduction to satisfy the bare wood; 
if from fat oil, it must be mixed with sufficient turpentine 
to penetrate the surface which this oil leaves; if from fatty 
or non-drying oil, the surface must be first washed with 
turpentine to remove the grease, then touched up with paint 
mixed with part turpentine to assist in penetrating to a 
good depth. 

For ochres and like surfaces, the same directions apply 
for touching up as for a peeled surface. On old work where 
the paint has blistered from an excess of oil, retouch with 
paint mixed half flat. This will penetrate through the old 
paint and give a good foundation. After the work on the 
foregoing has been touched up, the entire building can be 
given a coat of paint: this will even up fairly well, but the 
spots caused by the blisters will show to a certain extent. 

Roof. Do not paint damp shingles. Allow time for rain, 
dew or frost to dry off and the roof to become thoroughly 



154 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTINa 

dry. Sweep the roof with a good broom and remove all 
dirt, lint, cinders and soot. 

The mix of paint depends upon the condition of the 
roof. Use good material reduced with raw linseed oil in 
painted shingled roofs. 

On old shingles apply a uniform coat of paint mixed 
to the consistency of satin. It is necessary to have the 
paint of a very thin consistency to fully satisfy the old 
weather-beaten shingles. When thoroughly dry, apply a fin- 
ishing coat of heavier consistency, well worked into the 
cracks. 

If the roof has been pi'eviously painted or the sliingles 
dipped before laying, and are in a fair condition, the paint 
can be used of heavier consistency and one coat is usually 
sufficient to do a satisfactory job on this surface. 

It is sometimes claimed that a roof has faded or spotted 
out in a comparatively short time. This is more often the 
case where combination pigments which go to make up 
greens or olives have been used. In the majority of cases 
such complaints can be traced to the color not fading, but 
the oil having been absorbed by the shingles, these not hav- 
ing been fully satisfied by the undercoat reductions. A little 
oil rubbed over the surface will demonstrate that the full 
color is thei'e but has flatted out through having been robbed 
of the oil required to bring out the original shade or bril- 
liancy. 

Foundation and Flues. Foundations or flues which have 
been painted should be treated the same as new work. 
Wiiere foundations or flues have been kept painted, with oil 
paint, one coat of similar color mixed to a good consistency 
is usuallj' sufficient. This should be applied after the house 
has been finished. If previously finished in flat color and 
is to be painted again in the same manner, one oil paint 
coat of good consistency and one coat of flat color should 
be applied. 

Window Sash.. Break sashes loose so they can be worked 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 155 

without trouble. Scrape off all loose paint and putty, then 
sandpaper. If the putty is soft or broken away, it is best 
to remove all and not attempt to patch up broken places. 
Apply a heavy coat of paint in the groove where the putty 
has been removed. The same paint used for trimming or 
body color is often used for this coat, but should usually be 
of a heavier consistency and requires a different mix, how- 
ever, where blacks or reds are used, it is a good idea to have 
a groundwork of diirk lead color for black and terra cotta 
for reds. If the sash is in good condition, not badly weather- 
beaten, the paint should be mixed half flat and a finishing 
coat of black or red varnish color applied. Before applying 
this finishing coat, reputty the sash where necessary. If 
the putty is to be painted, it is best to reputty some days 
before tracing, so it will become set. 

Outside Blinds. Remove blinds from the building and 
examine the slats to see whether they will work. If stuck 
together from previous painting, they are sometimes very 
difficult to break loose and require a great deal of patience 
to keep them from breaking. Use a sharp knife and cut in 
between the slats, also at the ends. Break one slat loose at 
a time. As soon as broken loose, cut or scrape the old paint 
from the edges of rails, also ends of slats, and break the 
paint from around the staples on stick so they will work 
freely. Sandpaper exposed parts and dust off thoroughly. 
If the blinds have been closed and the inside is in good con- 
dition, they will require only one coat of paint on this part. 
Exposed and weather-beaten parts should receive the first 
coat of paint of medium consistency mixed with 2-3 and 1-3 
turpentine, well brushed out. The ends of slats and inside 
of fi'ame work do not need this coat. After the first coat 
has become hard dry, the blinds should receive a coat of 
paint all over. The paint should be of good oonsisteuey and 
be well brushed out so as not to have an excess of paint, 
causing the slats to work hard. Leave the slats open until 
the paint is dry. If closed, they are very apt to stick. 



156 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Veranda Columns and Rails. Be sure that the surface is 
dry. Scrape and sandpaper loose paint from veranda 
columns and rails before first coating. Fill the cracks and 
nail holes with paint. See that there is no mildew on the 
base, skirting boards or lattice work caused by dampness 
underneath the porches and verandas. Knife putty into 
cracks and nail holes before applying finishing coat. Use 
the same paint as for the building, well brushed out on the 
round columns and turned Avork. 

Veranda and Porch Floors. Sweep the floor clean, also 
remove dirt from cracks so that the paint can be brushed 
into them. Paint applied too heavily on floors will not dry 
solid and will soon scuff up. Be sure there is no damp- 
ness coming from underneath, as such will cause the paint 
to blister or peel and not allow of proper hardening. It is 
very hard to avoid blistering in the repainting of floors 
that have been kept oiled. First wash the floor with tur- 
pentine and wipe off dry, then apply a thin coat of paint 
mixed half flat. Allow ample time for the paint to harden, 
then apply the finishing coat mixed with 2-3 oil and 1-3 
turpentine, well brushed out. 

On old floors that have been kept well painted, one coat 
is often sufficient. Where they are badly weather-beaten 
they should receive a coat of paint of good consistency 
mixed with 2-3 oil and 1-3 turpentine. When hard dry, 
putty the cracks, nail holes and seams, then apply a coat of 
paint of heavier consistency mixed with the same propor- 
tions of oil and turpentine. The floors and steps should not 
receive the finishing coat until all of the other painting has 
been completed. 

The fence should receive the same care as to preparing 
the work for painting as the building. Sweep and dust the 
work thoroughly before painting. The same mixture of 
paint should be used on the fence as on the house and the 
fence trimmed with the same color. 

Old Work— One Coat. Where the paint has stood for two 



EXTERIOR PAINTING 157 

or three years and one coat is to be given over a 
shade similar to the one already on the building, the sur- 
face should be thoroughly cleaned with a wire brush or 
broom, then thoroughly dusted. It is sometimes necessary 
to wash the surface with sponge and water to remove the 
smoke and dirt, which otherwise will work up through the 
paint, changing the color and making un-uniform shades. 
It is almost imiDOssible to brush dirt streaks out and the 
only way to get the work in condition for painting is to first 
wash the surface with water. Allow time for the surface 
to dry, then, if the wear of the paint is found to be uniform, 
one coat mixed to a good consistency with a full oil reduc- 
tion and sufficient turpentine to assist the working will 
make a satisfactory job. If, however, upon examination 
the paint is found to be weather-beaten or weai-ing off in 
spots on the exposed parts, the building will have to be 
touched up on these exposed portions and a coat of paint 
applied to the entire surface to even it up; otherwise it 
will be spotted when the paint has dried out, making an 
unsatisfactory job. 

If the paint has not worn down to the wood and is only 
worn off to the undercoats which are solid, mix the paint 
with half turpentine and half oil, go over the exposed por- 
tions of the building with a smooth, even coat, and as soon 
as hard dry give the entire surface a coat of paint mixed 
to a good heavy consistency, as before directed. The paint 
should dry out even, thus making satisfactory work. 

As all portions of a building do not have uniform expos- 
ure, it is very hard to find a surface where one coat will 
produce satisfactory work over the entire building. On the 
most severely exposed parts of a building, the paint will 
naturally show more wear than on the protected parts and 
thpse exposed parts will need to be touched up or painted 
over CO even them up with the less exposed portions. 



GILDING. 

Gilding may be broadly luulerstooc! to mean the applica- 
tion of metals in thin leaf form to decorative purposes, by 
the use of mordants and vehicles. Oriuiually limited in 
scope to the application- of gold loaf, it has now become 
a general practice to substitute manj^ kinds of metal, both 
in imitation of gold, and in order to produce other metallic 
color effects. This is not altogether to be regretted, as the 
use of the more precious metal in such a form that it is 
ultimatelj' totally lost to the community is a deplorable 
waste, which is not entirely defensible, especially as it 
draws a large quantity of the metal away from its more 
legitimate use in ' the arts of the goldsmith and metal 
worker. The small proportion used for really high-class 
decorative work, as in illuminating and iDerraanent decora- 
tive schemes and pictures, is in proportion less than one 
per cent of the enormous amount used for commercial ad- 
vertising, and the overlaying of plaster and composition 
picture frames. 

The various metals in common use for gilding in the leaf 
form are: 

Platinum. 

Gold, in many degrees of fineness and tint. 

Alloys of gold and copper. 

Alloj's of gold and silver. 

Alloys of copper and silver. 

Alloys of copper and tin. 

Silver. 

Aluminium. 
The alloys are known as metal d'or, Dutch metal, gold 
metal, etc. The commonest and cheapest forms are thick 
and brittle in quality, while the better degrees of gold leaf 

158 



OILDIKG 159 

are beaten to extreme thinness, the malleability and duc- 
tility of the metal allowing as many as 2,500 leaves, 3 
inches by 3i/4 inches, to be obtained from 1 ounce of fine 
gold, or to put it in another way, the total thickness of 300,- 
000 leaves is less than 1 inch. Gold leaf is usually put 
up in books of 25 leaves, each leaf being 31/4 inches square. 
It is sold by the 1,000 leaves — viz., 40 books. Silver leaf 
is usually 4 inches by 4 inches, and metals are made in 
both sizes, and larger. 

Gold leaf is termed white, pale, medium, deep, extra deep, 
citron, red, etc., according to its color. Gold is readily 
damaged in the book by handling, damp, and shaking, for 
this reason good gold leaf of recent make should be selected. 
The best work cannot be produced by any other. It should 
be kept in a dry place, and may, with advantage, be placed 
upon a hot plate, or in the oven prior to using. The red 
powder on gold books is put on to prevent the gold sticking 
to the leaves of the book, it is bole, a red earth from Ar- 
menia, of peculiarly flaky, smooth, and soft texture. A red 
French clay is sometimes used for the same purpose. 

Methods of Gilding. The various methods of applying 
gold leaf used by painters and decorators are termed: Oil 
gilding, Japan gilding, and Water gilding. 

These methods vary in detail upon different kinds of 
grounds. Oil or Japan gilding is used upon painted sur- 
faces, or grounds that have been strongly sized or var- 
nished. 

Oil Gold Size. Oil gold size is a preparation of fat lin- 
seed-oil, which has, by exposure to the atmosphere, lost 
its power of absorbing oxygen, and become viscid and less 
hard drying, it may be prepared by exposing linseed oil to 
the air and light in a wide, open-mouthed vessel for about 
six months. To make it usable and give it a little body and 
color, ochre is ground up in about one-third of the whole 
quantity and added to the whole bulk, a little driers, usually 
litharge, is also required, and, if too thick for use, it must 



160 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

be thinned to proper consistency with boiled oil. A small 
quantity of good varnish, one part to twenty, added to gold 
size, gives it hardness and additional luster. Good oil size 
will be ready to receive the gold at any time between twen- 
ty-four hours and a week from the moment of using it, and 
the longer it holds its tackiness the better is the result, 
provided that the size ultimately dries firm and hard, like 
a piece of gold-beater's skin. 

Japanners' G-old. Size is a quick varnish drying in about 
half-an-hour to two hours, and is ready for gilding as 
soon as sufficiently dry. It must be gilded upon at once 
when this is the ease, as the tack soon changes into a hard 
varnish surface. 

Gilding can be done with varnish, but the excessive gloss 
gives a blackish look to the gold, and as the varnish hard- 
ens it loses its hold of the metal, which will then wash off 
with soap and water. Notwithstanding this fact, it is often 
used in large proportions added to gold size by certain 
decorators, who admire the additional gloss, but do not 
trouble about durability. 

Many special sizes of a varnish nature are made for sign 
writers. 

Water Grold. Sizes vary in their nature for different pur- 
poses. For gilding on prepared wood, papier mache, plas- 
ter, or composition, as for picture frames, two kinds are 
used, burnish and matt gold size. 

Burnish Gold Size is made from pipeclay and black lead, 
with a small quantity of mutton suet added in the grinding. 
It can be purchased ready made, and is used with ordinai-y 
parchment or gelatine size as a binding medium. Gilding 
on this size will take a good polish, or burnish with an 
agate burnisher. 

Matt Gold Size. Matt size is for gold which is required 
to have a matt or dead surface, and is made from pipeclay, 
Armenian bole, and other materials. It can be purchased 
ready for mixing with the clear parchment or jelly size. 



GILDING 161 

Isinglass Gold Size. Gilding upon glass is done with isin- 
glass size. Take a pinch of best Russian isinglass, put it 
into a pint of water, and stand the whole in a covered jar 
in the oven for a few hours, when dissolved or cooked add 
a ^ pint of spirits of wine and strain or filter through 
white filter paper. The spirits of wine removes the solid 
or waste portion of the isinglass, and also serves to counter- 
act grease on the glass, or in the hairs of the brushes used, 
its action is similar to that of wine in milk. 

Clear Size for Gold. Gold is often clear sized to im- 
prove its color and pi-event blooming. This size, as well as 
that used for matt and burnish work, is best prepared from 
finest gelatine, or from boiled parchment cuttings. 

Tools for Laying Gold. The operation of gilding is the 
same, whatever process is used, in as far as laying the gold 
is concerned. The best and general method is by means of 
a cushion and tip. The cushion is a small board about 8 by 
5 inches, covered with flannel, and over this a tightly 
stretched chamois leather. A draught screen of parchment 
is fitted round one half of it, this to prevent the wind re- 
moving, the gold from the cushion. It has a thumb strap 
beneath, and loops for the knife, etc., and is held like a 
palette on the left hand. The other tools required for the 
laying are a gilder's knife and a tip. 

The knife is a long flexible blade of equal breadth 
throughout its length. The tip is a flat brush made by set- 
ting a row of hairs, either camel or badger's, between two 
pieces of card. The fingers of the left hand hold the tip 
and knife alternately when either is not being used by the 
right hand. Dabbers and camel-hair brushes, and mops, 
are required to press the gold down in its place, and remove 
superfluous scraps. 

Laying Gold Leaf. The size being ready to receive the 
gold, about a dozen leaves are put in a heap in the back 
part of the cushion, then the cushion is taken in the left 
band and the knife in the right. 



162 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

The gold is taken from the book by merely opening each 
leaf and gently blowing the gold out on the cushion. With 
the knife a leaf of gold is taken to the front of the cushion, 
laid squarely, and deftly blown out flat, cut to any size re- 
quired by a sharp jerking, saw-like .movement of the knife 
not like ordinary cutting, the knife is then transferred to 
the left hand, and the tip to the right, the gold is then 
taken up by the tip and laid uj^on the work. The whole 
process is extremely simj^le after practice. Breathing must 
be carried on gently thi'ough the nostrils, so as not to dis- 
arrange the gold. "When blowing a leaf flat, aim a smart 
jet of air right into the center of the leaf, sudden and 
short. When cutting, lay the edge of the knife, which must 
not be keen, on the gold leaf firmly, give a little jerk, lift it 
up, and the gold will separate. Take care not to cut the 
leather of the cushion. The knife must not be sharp enough 
to do so. If the gold does not at once adhere to the tip, 
pass the same lightly over the hair or beard to slightly 
grease it; this also sets up a magnetic action which assists 
to hold the gold. It must not adhere too firmly to the tip, 
or the gold will tear in transferring itself to the gold size. 
Always allow each leaf to lay Y^ inch in lajang, to secure a 
good joint. Use whole leaves wherever possible, and fault 
up every hole and crevice before dabbing down. Well press 
down all joints or there will be a slight gap apparent at 
the junction. 

In gilding a plain surface, hammer well down with a firm 
touch and a good cotton wool pad before skewing off, and 
then skew with a soft new stencil tool, using a circular 
motion, and polish with a soft piece of cotton wool. Laying 
gold upon oi'dinary oil or Japan gold size is sometimes done 
by a process of transferring. This process is economical 
and useful for outside work, or for etched and partial gilt 
work. To accomplish the process, the gold must be what is 
known as transfer gold, gold leaf which has been put upon 
tissue paper. Sheets of thin tissue paper are cut into con- 



GILDING 163 

venient sizes and slightly waxed with a tablet of white 
wax. When pressed against the gold leaf in the book, the 
leaf adheres to these waxed sheets and is from them in turn 
transferred to the work. The waxed sheets being slightly 
adhesive, only those portions of the leaf that are in contact 
with the gold size leave the tissue sheet, and so there is no 
waste. The tissue being somewhat transparent the oper- 
ator can see exactly what gold is still left upon the tissue, 
and utilize every portion of it for the work in hand, he can 
also see when the gold size has not been covered with the 
gold. Gold can be transferred to the tissue leaves without 
the necessity of waxing them, by merely interleaving the 
gold book with tissue and putting the book into a copying- 
press and well pressing. 

The exceptions to these two methods of laying the gold 
are fanciful and individual, the most general being what 
is termed laying from the book. "\^nien gilding a large flat 
surface, the gold leaf can be laid direct from the book and 
much time saved thereby, by the use of a long-haired tip 
which can take up a leaf at a time without the necessity of 
cutting. The odd spaces and small bits are afterwards filled 
from the cushion in the usual manner. Another method is 
to dispense with the tip, and by taking the book m the left 
hand, and opening it with the right to turn the leaves 
straight on to the work. This is a great saving of time for 
large letters out of doors or for large flat surfaces of oil 
size gilding, but it requires some dexterity to be sure and 
economical. 

All gilding for interior decoi'ation, and all out-door gild- 
ing that can be conveniently left long enough before gilding, 
should be done in oil gold size. The exceptions are, when 
lime is an object of importance, or where the work is fine 
and intricate, as in small lettering. 

To Prevent Gold Sticking to Ground. The ground for 
■.-old sizing must be free from any tackiness, hard, dry, and 
impervious. If it is not so it must be coated with some 



164 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

preparation to prevent the gold sticking where it is not re- 
quired. The white of an egg beaten up with a little water 
is the best preparation upon varnished or enamelled work. 
The white of one egg to 4 ounces of water is sufficiently 
strong. Upon ordinary painted work, a good rubbing with 
a pounce bag, that is, a small calico bag filled with fine 
sifted whiting, will suffice. A little size and water is also 
effective, and if a little whiting is added to it, it is still 
more so. White of egg must not be used too strong, never 
more than two-thirds water to one-third egg. This is the 
least detrimental to the luster of the gold. Ordinary 
painted work that has to be partly gilt and then varnished, 
may be prepared by rubbing with a piece of very fine glass 
paper and some dry whiting. Whiting preparations have a 
tendency to cause the gold size to run. 

The gold size must be laid evenly and sparely. If laid 
too heavily it will crinkle up after the gilding has been 
done. It is sometimes necessary to add color to the gold size 
in decorative work, so as to see better where the size is put 
on level, etc. Tube colors may be used for this purpose, and 
they should always approximate to the color of gold as 
nearly as possible, as the gold leaf is full of innumerable 
small holes, and the color used in the size has an effect upon 
the appearance of the gold when laid. Chrome, burnt 
sienna, vermilion, or ochre are suitable colors. 

Gold size should never be gilded unless quite ready. The 
size should be just tacky enough to hold the gold leaf, but 
never wet enough to smear or move if rubbed with the fin- 
ger tip. Gold laid upon too wet size will turn black and 
lusterless. The precise condition is ascertained by the ap- 
plication of the clean finger tip, and practice will enable the 
operator to judge very accurately. 

Turpentine should not be used as a thinner in gold size, 
because it leaves behind it, after evaporation, a resinous oil, 
which never properly hardens. A little boiled oil is the best 



GILDING 165 

thinner. Japanners' gold size may be thinned with a little 
turpentine if both are heated to boiling point together. 

Oil gilding should always be well washed down with clean 
water and a soft sponge, and then sized with clean gelatine 
size, this washing hardens the oil, and the size protects and 
preserves the gold and gives it a more uniform luster, in 
place of the broken metallic brilliance it has as the result 
of its beating. Before washing, it should be carefully 
pressed down with cotton wool, all faults made good, and 
the whole dusted off with cotton wool or a camel-hair dab- 
ber. 

In gilding enriched and molded surfaces, the gold Avill 
sometimes require double laying, in order to reach the in- 
terstices of the work. 

All waste gold, known as skew, should be saved and used 
for dusting into the carved portions, and when these are 
dusted out, the skew should be carefully collected in a tin 
canister for future use, or for disposal to the dealer in old 
gold and silver. 

Burnish and Matt Gilding. Burnish and matt gilding are 
much alike in method of procedure. They are principally 
used for enriched ornament, cornices, and picture frames. 
The work is brought up to a good surface in size and whit- 
ing, and then coated with five or six coats of the matt size 
or burnish size, as the case requires, each coat being rubbed 
down with very fine glass paper, and the size laid on with 
a camel-hair brush and allowed to dry thoroughly between 
each coat. When the ground has a sufficient number of 
coats to be perfectly solid, the gold is laid with water only. 
The size is well wetted with water in a camel-hair brush, 
and the gold laid on the water, which, as it dries, carries the 
gold on to the size coat and fixes it there. The leaf must be 
laid immediately following the water while it is yet live, to 
accomplish this quickly, the expert gilder uses the water 
brush with his right hand by clenching it with the two 
little fingers in his fist at the same time as he has the gold 



166 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

upon the tip held between the forefinger and thumb of the 
same hand. The floAving -water catches the gold from the 
tip, and spreads it out smoothly on the surface of the water 
in the moment or two between the application and the ab- 
sorption of the water by the distemper ground. This com- 
pletes the gilding as far as the matt portion is concerned, 
except for a final clear sizing and sometimes coloring or 
coating with ormolu. 

The burnished portion, howevei*, requires polishing or 
burnishing. This is done at the moment the gilding is drj', 
and before it becomes so hard as to be brittle. An agate 
or flint stone, set in a handle, is the burnisher. These are 
of different shapes. They are rubbed lightly against the 
gold, which takes a remarkably high polish, and retains it. 
Burnished gold must not be sized. 

Burnish and matt gilding are confined to the flat or curved 
plain portions of the work, and are done first. The en- 
riched and fancy parts are afterwards oil-sized and gilded 
in the usual manner. 

Ormolu for matt gold is prepared from best garnet shellac 
and white sticklac dissolved in spirits of Avine, and tinted 
to the required depth with dragon's blood, a few drops are 
added to the usual gelatine or parchment size to produce 
an even, lusterless and rich surface of any desired depth. 

Glass Gilding. Gilding upon glass is done in the same 
manner as described for water gilding, isinglass size being 
used in the place of water. The glass is well cleaned, freed 
from grease, and set before the operator at a slight angle, 
sometimes the glass is upright, as in a window, and has 
to be done in that position. The isinglass size, before de- 
scribed, is used in precisely the same way as the water in 
water gilding, and the gold laid on the flowing size so as to 
stretch itself out as the size recedes. The size must be used 
freely and allowed to run off quickly. It must not be strong, 
the weaker it is the brighter will the finish of the gold be. 
The less size there is remaining between the glass and the 



GILDING 167 

gold and between the two coats of gold, the better polish 
can be obtained. 

In all other methods of gilding the gold is attached from 
the back of the leaf, and the finished work shows the un- 
alloyed brightness of the metal, but in the case of glass gild- 
ing, the size comes between the gold and the eye, and the 
glass interposes a further medium, so that it is at once ap- 
parent that the cleaner the glass, and the clearer and thinner 
the film of size, the less is the brilliance of the gilding in- 
terfered with. The purity and cleanliness of the size and 
glass will be assured if the size can be laid upon the glass 
without cissing or gathering. If it runs off like water on 
a duck's back, the glass is greasy or the size is not clean, 
or perhaps the water used is too harl, boiled rain water 
makes the best size, but it must be clean and clear. 

Gilding on glass requires a second coat in order to make a 
solid job. The first coat of gold when dry is lightly polished 
with finest cotton wool, and fixed and burnished by scalding 
with very hot water as near boiling as can be used without 
splitting the glass. It may be poured over from the spout 
of a kettle, so as to run over the whole of the gilding, and 
then down on to the ground, or laid over with a broad 4- 
inch camel-hair flat. This removes the scum of the size from 
betAveen the gilding and the glass and adds to its clarity 
and brilliance. The work may then be carefully polished 
with a piece of finest cotton wool. It is then alloAved to dry 
and the whole of the gilding and clearing with hot water 
repeated. After this the gold is backed up by a coat of hard 
Japan or varnish which will dry in about eight hours and 
have a perfect gloss. In cold weather the whole of the glass 
must be treated with the hot water whether gilded or not, 
or breakage will result from the inequality of expansion 
produced, and if the day be frosty, the job must be done 
very cautiously in a hot shop, or defended. The water must 
never be boiling. 

The gold used for glass gilding is specially prepared, being 



168 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

more even in thickness than the ordinary gold, and put up 
in books of special paper that does not require dusting with 
French chalk or Armenian bole to prevent the gold adher- 
ing to the book. The gold thus supplied is much cleaner 
than that used for general purposes. It is important that 
glass gilding be made to dry off quickly and that no time 
be allowed to elapse between the operations, or it will accu- 
mulate dust and get discolored. 
J Although gilding on glass is looked upon as a difficult 
matter to successfully carry through, all the difficulties ai-e 
overcome by the exercise of cleanliness. The cleanliness of 
the glass may be tested by breathing on it, and if the mois- 
ture evaporates quickly, leaving the glass clear, it will do. 
Glass may be made chemically clean by the use of dilute 
nitric acid, and well rinsing with water. 

Tissue paper is a good glass polisher. Filtered rain- 
water makes the best isinglass size, or distilled water, as it 
is free from metallic taint. 

Gilding upon paper, parchment, and vellum can be best 
done by using a size made from yolk of eggs and glycerine. 
This is ground together with a little ochre and thinned with 
water. If used in a very liquid state as a mere water wash 
size, and the gold is laid directly thereon, as in glass gilding, 
it may be tooled or burnished. All gold work should be 
sized before writing or painting upon it. 

Platinum and Silver Laying and Metaling. Platinum leaf 
is used in the same manner as gold lead, and is applicable 
to all the same purposes. 

Silver leaf and gold leaf of very pale tint, that is, which 
contains a large proportion of silver, should never be laid 
on the oil gold size, neither should metals which are subject 
to oxidization, as the oil has a strong affinity for oxygen, 
and the oxidization of the metals is set up and goes on more 
rapidly. If used upon a spirit size or water size, and well 
protected with lacquer or spirit varnish, these metals will 
be perfectly lasting. Their durability depends entirely on 



QlLDINa 169 

their perfect enclosure and envelopment in an air-tight case 
of lacquer or varnish, both under and above them, 

Japanners' gold size, with, or without, the addition of a 
little Venice turpentine makes as good a size as can be had 
for metals. There are many special sizes for the purpose 
prepared ready for use, but nothing is better than a good 
full bodied japanners' size exposed to the air for a few days 
to fatten a little. 

Aluminium leaf may be used best on a mixture of ochre 
ground in oil and japanners'. It is reported to be un- 
changeable, and is so as far as it has been tested in actual 
decorating. It cannot be lacquered into a good gold, but 
silver leaf can. Silver is more lustrous than aluminium, 
which has a rather leaden look when used alone. It makes 
a pretty combination with gold, being grayer than silver. 
The cheaper metals can be laid by hand, as they are so 
thick as to stand handling freely, and can be cut into pieces 
with a pair of scissors. 

The principal qualification for success in gilding is a deft 
and delicate handling of the metals, especially gold leaf, 
and there must also be a ready recognition of the possibil- 
ities and peculiarities of each kind. Always remember that 
whatever the condition of the under size or ground, it is 
hermetically sealed up when the leaf is put on, which thus 
prevents any change or further drying in the ordinary way, 
so that if gold is laid on soft coats of paint, they will not 
all harden off together, but will go on working under the 
gold, expanding and contracting, and will ultimately ruin 
the gold leaf. 

Bronzes. Bronzes have the same qualities as the baser 
leaf metals, and the same precautions must be observed in 
using them. They must not be mixed with oil varnishes, or 
oil mediums, but can be put upon japanners' gold size, or 
upon any spirit varnishes in powder form. They can be 
mixed and ajDplied as liquids in any spirit varnish, or in size 
or gum, though the tendency of gum to become acid some- 



170 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

times turns the bronze black. In bronzing with the powder, 
the size, usually japanners' gold size, is applied, and when 
tacky, the bronze is dusted on with a rabbit's foot, a wad 
of close cloth, or a chamois leather pad. The bronze is pro- 
tected by a thin coat of lacquer, and then varnished in the 
ordinary way. 

Bronzing should never be varnished over with oil cupal 
varnishes, as it will rajndly lose color and oxidize if so 
varnished, some of the commoner house-painters' oak var- 
nishes have so little oil in them that this eft'ect does not fol- 
low rapidl}'. If metals, silver, or gold be sized with a clear 
jelly of gelatine size, or thinly lacquered, they may be var- 
nished with any kind of varnish, as the interleaf of size will 
stop the direct action of the varnish upon the metal. 

Bronzing is sometimes used over paint to give the effect 
of metal. Thus a piece of iron casting may be painted 
green or copper color, and then the highest portions of the 
relief touched with bronze. This is done by coating the 
article with japanners' varnish or gold size, and when 
tacky dusting over a little powder bronze, which can be 
applied by a piece of cloth or velvet rubbed in the powder. 
The bronze should not be applied to the bare oil paint. 
The color of the bronze must bear a correct relation to the 
color of the paint used. 

Lacquer for Metals. Various lacquers are used to give 
gold or metal a different color. Any lacquer can be made 
from an ounce of good shellac dissolved in half a pint of 
spirits of Avine, and tinted with saffron, turmeric, sanders, 
or other dye-woods, dragon 's blood, or any of the aniline 
powders. The most useful colorings are turmeric and drag- 
on's blood, a colorless lacquer may be used, and the tinting 
done by the use of transparent oil colors in varnish. 

The house painter often has to re-lacquer small brass 
fittings. These are better gilded and thou coated Avith 
French polish or a good lacquer. This does not apply to 
bandies, but to certain hooks, curtain pole ends and brackets, 



GILDING 171 

bell pulls, etc., clean, and give them a coat of patent knot- 
ting before gold sizing, gold size with japanners', and 
gild in the usual way. 

Preparing Open Grain Wood and Stone for Gilding. To 
prepare rough cut deal, ash, open grain oak, or stone, foi' 
gilding, give a couple of coats of French polish and spirit 
varnish in equal parts, or two coats of patent knotting, then 
gold size in the usual manner. Japan gold size sometimes 
works cloggy in fine lettering. When working indoors at 
line gold lettering on a black ground, if the Japan size be 
stood in a jar of hot water it keeps fluid and works ex- 
tremely well, setting quickly when once on the work. It 
must not be too hot. A pot may be filled with hot water 
and the size in a smaller pot stood in it. 



GRAINING. 

The art of graining consists in working transparent color 
over an oil ground, the ground being of a color that will 
match the lightest tone in the markings on the wood. The 
transparent colors used for the general markings match 
the colors in the real wood, and are applied with large 
brushes, the effect is further assisted by still darker touches 
of color, put on here and there in places with smaller brushes. 
To produce a good piece of graining, the most important 
matters to be considered are, the ground on which the 
graining is to be worked, the figuring, the over-graining, the 
glazing, the tools, the state of the color and the manner of 
applying it, and, because there are several modes of pro- 
cedure, the particular process to be adopted. There are 
three different kinds of graining — namely, water color (dis- 
temper), spirit color, and oil color, outdoor work is done in 
oil, water color is used for facility and for fine gradation, 
and spirit color for quickness. The several methods are 
frequently combined, as, for instance, water color over oil, 
in order that the second coat of the figure may not disturb 
the first. If water color is used over water color, the under 
coat must be fixed with a mixture of equal parts of varnish 
and turpentine. 

It is assumed that the reader already is acquainted with 
the practical elementary stages of brush work, as the plain 
painting is termed, and that he is capable of producing a 
good ground upon which the graining can be worked. The 
ground of the graining is very important, for although a 
skilful workman could work on a white or even a poorly 
constituted ground, yet he could do far superior work on a 
ground of good tone and in good condition. The ground 
is a technical term involving two distinct ideas, surface and 

172 



GRAINING 173 

color. A properly prepared surface should be free from 
grittiness, from coarse brush marks, from dents, etc., and 
should be hard and smooth. The amount of gloss depends 
on the proportions of linseed oil and turpentine in the 
grounding paint, and is a matter for individual preference, 
some grainers jjrefer a groundwork of a brilliant bright tone, 
trusting to the brown glazing color to break it down, others 
prefer to have the ground of a dull color, and work a 
brighter tone of graining color over it. Some prefer the 
color mixed up with three parts oil to one of turps, others 
prefer the color to be made up of half turps and half oil. 
The former gives a hard gloss suitable for oil-graining with 
steel combs. For water or distemper gi-aining, more tur- 
pentine, giving a dull gloss, is better, for this class of work 
two coats of varnish are ultimately required, while, if the 
ground is hard and oily, only one coat of varnish is neces- 
sary, as the varnish binds the pigment when the water has 
evaporated. A good ground cannot be obtained by the use 
of dead or flatting paint, there must always be sufficient oil 
in the color to allow it to be thoroughly spread and laid off, 
and so ensure the absence of coarse brush marks. The 
color of the ground is determined by the wood about to be 
imitated. Correct judgment as to the combined effect of 
ground and graining colors is the result of much careful 
observation and experience. 

The preparation of the woodwork has been already men- 
tioned. Rough and imperfectly got-up woodwork is often 
grained in imitation of oak, the graining being supposed to 
hide the defects, but to obtain a serviceable grained surface, 
a smooth ground is essential. Ordinary woodwork as it 
comes in its rough state from the carpenter can be filled up 
or levelled in the following manner: First, well rub it down 
with glass-paper, and then remove the dust with a painter's 
dusting brush. Coat any knots with the transparent var- 
nish known as patent knotting, when this is dry, prime 
the wood with a paint made by mixing together three parts 



174 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

of white-lead, one part of red-lead, and one-tenth part of 
liquid driers, then dilute with three parts of linseed oil and 
one part or less of turpentine. When this priming is dry, 
putty up any nail-holes and allow the work to stand un- 
touched for a day or two. The next coat should contain 
much less turpentine and no red-lead, and should be stained 
a few shades darker than the desired ground, this being 
obtained by the application of a third coat. Strain the 
paints before using, and lightly glass-paper down between 
each coat. 

Oil paint is apt, after a time, to present a greasy surface, 
so that it will ciss, even if oil color is laid over it, that is to 
say, the color will not lie, but will curl up into small beads. 
This tendenc}'. as well ;is tlio wnnt of aflinity between water 
and oil, makes it necessary to prepare the ground for the 
reception of the graining color. This ma}' be done in sev- 
eral ways. A small quantity of drj- whiting may be rubbed 
over the work with a piece of flannel, and the superfluous 
whiting brushed awaj', or the work may be brushed over 
with weak ale to Avhich a small quantity of whiting has been 
added, or with water mixed with fuller's earth, or stale 
beer alone, or even size, may be used, the liquid being 
allowed to dry before the graining is begun, but care should 
always be taken not to use too great a quantity or too strong 
a solution. Anything of a solid nature, such as whiting, 
should be cleared away when it has accomplished its pur- 
pose. The ground should be slightly glossy, and should not 
be glass-papered, especially for light woods, as the marks of 
the papering are liable to show. 

Properly prepared graining color works freely and cleanly 
not only from the brush but during the subsequent manipula- 
tion, it also combines the correct and particular color with 
the transparency of the pigment which, when laid upon the 
ground, is to imitate the color of the genuine polished wo*^ 
This matter of combined color eflect must be thoroughly 
grasped, as it is the chief working principle upon which 



GRAINING 175 

the imitation of wood is based. An opaque body grain- 
ing paint wliich shall give the appearance of oak, without 
necessitating the two distinct grounding and graining pro- 
cesses, is impossible. As soon as white-lead is mixed with 
t];e pigments from which the graining color is made, the 
transparency and richness of the latter are decreased, whilst 
the graining color alone, being only a stain, lacks the pre- 
servative qualities of a white-lead or body preparation. 

The graining colors should be purchased in bulk, and if 
to be used merely for practice, obtain such cheap grainers 
and stainers as burnt umber, burnt sienna, Vandyke brown, 
Venetian reds, Italian ochre, and after a little experience 
the madder lakes, scarlets and Prussian blues may be pro- 
cured. Graining colors should be of the best, and in every 
case be ground very fine, since they ' are always used as 
transparent colors. 

The following remarks apply to grounds and colors for oak 
graining. The basis of all oil ground colors for oak grain- 
ing should be white-lead ground in linseed oil. Any colored 
pigments that may be added to obtain a dark ground can be 
considered only as stains, as none of them furnishes the 
opacity, solidity, or durability, for all of which qualities 
white-lead is so noted. Of course, if a very dark ground, 
such as that for antique oak, is required, not so much white- 
lead is used in its comi^osition as for light or medium 
grounds. It may not be out of place to say that the grainer 
who relies on the use of white-lead to obtain a good ground 
seldom produces those unnaturally bright and garish grounds 
that always offend the trained eye. As a general rule, in 
making grounding paint, sufficient white-lead for the pur- 
pose, together with one-tenth the quantity of patent driers, 
should be broken up in linseed oil, and the staining pigments 
added and well mixed in. The paint should be strained 
through a mesh, and then thinned to a working consistency 
with about two parts of linseed oil to one part turpen- 
tine. This gives a good gloss, but if a ground is required 



176 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

which may be quickly grained, the proportions of the lin. 
seed oil and turpentine should be reversed. 

The following are recipes for ordinary oak grounds : Foi 
light oak, use a mixture of white-lead and yellow ochre 
(sometimes with a touch of chrome to brighten it). Oxford 
ochre and Venetian red are used for dark oak, with the 
addition of burnt umber, and raw sienna for still darker 
wood. A rich tone of buff, given by vermilion and chrome, 
is sometimes adopted. A buff ground is made with 7 
pounds white-lead, V2 pound of yellow ochre ground in oil, 
1/^ pound of driers, mixed with linseed oil 2 parts and tur- 
pentine 1 part, and stained when thin enough for use. 
White-lead, stained with orange chrome, and thinned with 
one raw oil to two turps. Mix 1 pound of white-lead, 2 
ounces of patent driers, and 2 ounces of Oxford ochre. 
Thin with oil and turpentine. 

As regards the graining color, for water color work, it 
should be ground up vei'j' fine in beer, and kept in a bottle 
tightly corked, when used it should be thinned with weak 
beer and water. A permanent water color graining is ob- 
tained by melting gum arabic in hot water, and mixing enough 
of the gum with the graining color to bind it. If the gum 
is in excess it will cause cracks. Softness, flatness, variety 
and permanence are produced by this method. The grain 
of oak is frequently done in spirit color. Gilders' whiting 
is ground up stiffly in turpentine, and stained to the re- 
quired tint with burnt umber and raw sienna, which are 
also ground up stiffly in turpentine. A small quantity of 
japanners' gold size and boiled linseed oil or ordinary 
varnish is now added to bind it, and it is then thinned 
with turpentine and strained through a piece of muslin into 
a large-mouthed pot, when it is ready for use. If too much 
varnish is used, the color will set so quickly as to be un- 
manageable. Only a small portion of graining, just enough 
to allow for combing, can be done at a time, as the color 
dries so quickly. The lights arc taken out with a fitch, 



GRAINING 177 

dipped in a fairly strong solution of soda in water or in 
turpentine. Both the soda and the turpentine should be 
stained with a little burnt sienna, otherwise the markings 
will be too staring. Hold in the left hand a rag on which 
to wipe the fitch, so as to prevent the fluid running down 
and spoiling the work. Spirit graining should not be var- 
nished for twenty-four hours, and even then must not be 
rubbed too much. 

When oil is the medium in oak color, raw sienna, with 
burnt umber or Vandyke brown, according to the depth of 
color required, is finely ground in linseed oil. Patent driers 
is then added, this acting as a megilp, giving substance or 
body to the color; I/2 ounce of patent driers to 1 pound of 
color, mixed with equal joarts of oil and turpentine, is the 
proportion. Without this megilp the color will be flat and 
uninteresting. To get the ribbed appearance of the grain 
of oak, beeswax, soft soap, lime-water and rain-water are 
often used when patent driers is not available. The meth- 
od of preparation is as follows : Wax must be thoroughly 
incorporated with oil by shredding the wax into an earthen- 
ware receptacle, covering it with linseed oil and stirring 
Avith a red-hot poker till the wax is thoroughly dissolved; 
then add the staining color, well mix and dilute it with tur- 
pentine. An excess of wax with the color will cause the 
combing to stand up too much. In the natural wood the 
markings are depressions, but in the graining they appear 
as ridges of color. The markings should not, therefore, 
stand up more than is absolutely necessary to produce the 
desired effect. The lines must to a certain extent be dis- 
tinct, although softened down in places. Soft soap must 
be broken up with either patent driers or whiting, a)ul 
thinned with boiled oil, or it may be made up into a lather 
with plain water, and in this state mixed with oil color. 
The objection to soft soap is its alkaline nature, all alka- 
lies weakening and destroying paint. Lime must be slaked 
in water, about 2 pounds of lime and 1 gallon of water, 



178 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

allowed to settle, and the clear liquid poured off for use. 
Sufficient lime-water is mixed with the graining color and 
well beaten up. But graining by this method is liable to 
fade, the lime desti'ojang the color, and causing the paint 
to crack. Rain-water used alone and beaten up thoroughly 
with the color has many advantages; it does not exert in- 
jurious action, the color does not spread and as soon as the 
color has set the water evaporates. 

The best megilp, seldom, however, used for graining on 
account of the expense, is made from mastic varnish and 
boiled oil. To make it, pour the boiled oil into the varnish, 
and use the jelly formed by the mixture. As a hard and 
fast rule cannot be laid down for mixing graining colors, 
the proportions depending on the conditions under which 
the work is done, the colors should always be tested before 
use. The color should rub out cleanly, easily spread, and 
the lines left, by the comb should keep their place, not run- 
ning into each other or settling down. A method of oak 
graining now seldom practiced consisted in first laying the 
markings in with a flat, square-edged fitch, dipped in a mix- 
ture of sweet oil and beeswax. When this was dry, the 
graining colors, made up with weak beer, were applied. 
When the work had thoroughly dried, the beeswax was 
carefully washed off with turpentine. Ordinary graining 
eolor is best made with about equal parts of oil and turpen- 
tine, to which is added paste driers, one-eighth of the whole 
bulk, with sufficient coloring matter. 

The coloring pigments used as ingredients of all oak 
grounding and graining paints may be briefly classified as 
either opaque or transparent. Of the former class are the 
chromes,, yellow ochres and Venetian red, which should be. 
used only in making stains for grounding paints. Raw and 
burnt sienna, or terra di sienna, raw and burnt Turkey 
umber and vandyke brown may be considered as being 
transparent, though the quality is possessed by them in a 
varying degree. They are sufficiently translucent to give 



GRAINING 179 

due effect to any colored ground upon which they may be 
superimposed. For purposes of glazing and overgraining, 
ivory and blue-blacks and Prussian and indigo blue may be 
used, though the two latter are required seldom. 

Prussian blue is a good working and staining color, and 
a quick drier. Venetian red is cheap but permanent, and 
must be procured ready ground in oil. It is useful for 
grounds. 

Lemon and orange chromes, when of best quality, are 
chromates of lead. They are brilliant, have good body 
and covering power, and make good tints when mixed with 
white. When used in oil they must be protected by var- 
nishing, especially if exposed to impure air, which in time 
will turn them black. The chromes destroy Prussian and 
some other blues. The yellow chromes are made in three 
shades; the fourth shade is the orange chrome, a deep rich 
color. The shades are varied by increasing the chromate 
for deep orange, and lessening it for the pale yellows. These 
colors are injured by damp and impure air, sulphur fumes 
and hydrogen, but the orange chrome is said to last better 
than orange oxide of lead. 

Chrome of either middle or orange tint, may be useful to 
a slight extent in staining gi'ound colors, when very bright 
and rich imitations are required. Generally, however, 
chrome conduces neither to good coloring nor to the attain- 
ment of a natural woody effect. The "chrome-yellow tint 
sometimes forms a ground for light oak, whilst orange-red 
is used for medium oak. 

White-lead, the basis of all graining grounds, is one of the 
most frequently used pigments, and also one of the most 
faulty. It is made by suspending rolls of ordinary thin 
sheet lead over malt vinegar or pyroligneous acid, in close 
vessels, the evaporation from the acid being kept up by a 
steam bath underneath. The lead is thus reduced to a 
white powder ready for being ground with linseed oil into 
a paste. White lead improves by keeping and for gop4 



180 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

work should be stocked for at least twelve months after 
purchase. Very pale and old linseed oil should be used in 
the thinning, otherwise it will probably soon discolor. It 
is, however, about the best pigment for preserving wood 
from the effects of the weather. Zinc white is an oxide of 
zinc. It does not discolor and is a very pure pigment. It 
is a substitute for white-lead, but is not so employed in the 
practice of graining. 

Vermilion is used only in the most exceptional cases; it 
can be had as a fine dry powder, free from grit, and is a 
very brilliant color in oil. The best quality only is perma- 
nent, and that is a sulphuret of mercury. Chinese red, or 
vermilion, is of a deep crimson tone, but has bad covering 
power, and, unless well protected, will soon fade under the 
action of light and impure air. 

Indigo possesses great body, and is a good glazing color. 
It is not very durable and is injured by impure air. 

Ivory black is made by placing ivory dust in a covered 
crucible exposed to a great heat. An inferior color known 
as bone black is made by treating bones in a similar way. 
Ivory black, the deepest and purest of the blacks, being 
somewhat hard, requires very careful grinding, and unless 
ground very fine is useless. It is best ground in turpentine, 
and diluted for use with turpentine, gold size and a little 
varnish. In drying it will become dull, so that it should 
not be used unless it is afterwards to be varnished. If 
thinned down too much with turpentine it will not bind, so 
that when the varnish is applied it will rub off onto the rest 
of the work and spoil the whole. Ivory black, when pur- 
chased unground, resembles drops and is sometimes called 
drop black, but bone black is prepared in the same way. 

The various ochres, Oxford, yellow and Italian, are 
u-sed only in the composition of grounding paint, and never 
in graining color. Really, commercial yellow ochre is the 
only one of this class of pigni(>nt there is need to use, since 
the addition of a little Venetian red will give any warmer 



GRAINING 181 

tint desired. This latter tint, a kind of burnt ochre, can 
alone be commended for obtaining warmth in grounds. 
Yellow ochre is not a very bright color; it is best purchased 
in tubes, otherwise it is not thoroughly ground. Ochre is 
an earth found in most countries, and is of all shades, from 
the wai'm yellow of the Oxford ochre to the pale straw yel- 
low of the French earth. The ochres are not liable to 
change through any chemical action, and may therefore be 
considered permanent. 

Umbers, natural pigments consisting of a mixture of clays 
and brown hematite, are valuable on account of their trans- 
parency and of their good drying qualities when in oil; the 
latter qualities are so pronounced that umbers may be em- 
ployed as drying agents. Raw umber is unsurpassed as a 
graining color for light imitations, whilst burnt umber may 
be used for antique oaks from light to the darkest. In 
mixing grounds, also, umbers are invaluable. Raw umber 
does not injure colors with which it is mixed. Burnt umber 
is very permanent, and is sometimes used instead of Van- 
dyke brown. 

Raw sienna is the yellow pigment used for very rich and 
light oak, but, properly, should seldom be required, as de- 
cided yellow and bright tones are not characteristics of real 
oak. The siennas are used in oak colors to produce a forced 
richness. Similar in natui'e and preparation to the umbers, 
they are more ti'ansparent, but lack the natural diying quali- 
ties of umber when used in oil. Siennas are used to pro- 
duce those imitations which are obtained by the use of pig- 
ments ground in water; they are useful for graining in ma- 
hogany, maple and walnut. Raw sienna is rather an im- 
pure yellow, but has more body than the ochres and is also 
more transparent. By burning it becomes burnt sienna, 
which has similar properties. Burnt sienna is a rich, trans- 
parent and red-brown pigment; gold size may be used as a 
drier with it. It dries better than raw sienna, and is verj' 



182 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

permanent, as it is not liable to change by the action of 
light and oxygen, or by damp and impure air. 

Vandyke brown, a transparent earth pigment, is a very 
slow drier, and, if used in oil, requires to be diluted with a 
drying agent. It has a dark color, inclining to neither yel- 
low nor red, but yet extremely I'ich and deep. In oak grain- 
ing, it is generallj' ground in water, its color being warmer 
and richer than when used in oil. It is the principal pig- 
ment used in overgraining oak. It is a bog earth. 

Neutral blacks and blues, previously mentioned, are also 
to some extent transi^arent. Blue-black in conjunction with 
Vandyke brown is largely used for overgraining oak. Black 
enters into the composition of the dark grounds for an- 
tique oak. The effects of transparent blues may be regard- 
ed by some grainers as questionable, but it must be remem- 
bered that richness of color in woods is only a matter of 
compari.son and contrast, and, therefore, if instead, of forc- 
ing the color values by bright grounds, bright graining 
color and rich overgraining, some contrasting cool tones are 
introduced, it is possible to obtain more natural color 
variety and yet retain the subdued contrasts of the real oak. 
Prussian and indigo blues are vastly different when ground 
in v.-ater from what they are in oil; whilst the tints are 
considerably mellowed by the final coating of copal or oak 
varnish. The first stages of oak graining should be worked 
in subdued tones rather than in false bright ones, and any 
desirable enrichment should be left for the glazing and 
overgraining to accomplish in preference to struggling in 
the final phase to modify early faults. 

Megilp is added to oil graining color to, ensure that the 
latter shall not spread when combed. In ordinary and 
cheap oak graining an excess of the drjung agent is made 
to serve the purpose, but the megilp generally acknowledged 
to give the most satisfaction is a preparation of beeswax. 
A few ounces of pure wax is shredded and dissolved, by 
the application of heat, in linseed oil ; add to the dissolved 



GRAINING 183 

beeswax 1 pint each of linseed oil and oil of turpentine, 1 
gill of patent dryer and the pigments ground in oil. The 
wax must be thoroughly mixed with the other constituents, 
or the drying qualities of the color will be affected. It 
must be remembered that wax is not added as a drying 
agent, but solely to make the color more amenable to the 
dividing and wiping-out action of the combs. 

Distemper graining pigments are bound by the use of 
beer. Vandyke brown, however, does not require a binder 
for overgraining in water, nor do the siennas very often. 
When using black or the cool tones, either alone or in com- 
bination with warmer colors, a little beer is necessary, be- 
cause black has no binding power; if mixed with Vandyke 
brown in equal proportions no binder will be required, but it 
is always best to ensure that the overgraining will not work 
up when the varnish is applied. In finishing antique oak 
in black alone, the wash must be strong in beer; for mixed 
washes, one-half beer is a safe proportion. 

For very light oak, the ground cclor is made from white- 
lead paint, and is tinted to a decided cream with yellow 
ochre. The graining color may be stained with raw sienna 
and raw umber, or the latter alone ; the work may be pver- 
grained in water with Vandyke brown and Aveak blue-black, 
or indigo. 

Ordinarily light oak requires a clean buff ground, stained 
by ochre, and occasionally a touch of Venetian red or' um- 
ber. Raw umber is suitable for the graining color, though 
burnt umber gives a richer cast. For the overgraining,. Van- 
dyke brown and blue-black are used. 

Medium oak looks best on a warm buff, the red and lochre 
therein being slightly toned down with umber. Burnt um- 
ber alone makes a good grr.iuing color, whilst Vafidyke 
brown is generally sufficient for shading. 

The grounds for dark oak are best made with three pig- 
ments, ochre, burnt sienna and burnt umber. In this mix- 
ture red should show "prominently, but it should^ together 



184 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 




GRAINING 185 

with the yellowness, be sobered by the umber. For the 
graining color, burnt umber or burnt sienna and black may 
be used, overgraining with washes of black and Vandyke 
brown, used either separately or together. 

Very dark or antique oak has a neutral ground, in which 
the red and yellow are subservient to the umber or black 
tones. The graining color may be Vandyke brown or ivory 
black and burnt umber in oil; blue-black or ivory black is 
used for the overgraining. An overgraining of Vandyke 
alone is rich, but transjDarent black tones are more charac- 
teristic of real antique color. A little Vandyke toning here 
and there is an improvement. 

The use of the graining brushes shown in Fig. 28 are 
given in the accompanying list: 

A — Badger Blender, set in wood. 

B — Camel-Hair Cutter, square. 

C — English Bristle Oval Grainer. 

D— Thin Bristle Mottler. 

E — Bristle Oak Grainer. 

H — Bristle Marbler. 

J — Angular Bristle Cutter. 

K — Bristle Snake Grainer. 

L — Bristle Blender, set in wood, style A. 

M — Knotted Bristle Grainer. 

S — Bristle Pipe Over Grainer. 

In oak there are markings of little black lines, varying 
in length from Vs to % inches, and in width from 1-32 inch to 
a point. These require to be imitated, and nearly every 
grainer has his own dodges and ways of working, which 
are to him the best. These dark markings do not appear 
all over the natural woods, but only in places. They may 
be produced during the overgraining by drawing a coarse 
comb down the whole length of the lines, finishing it after- 
wards with a fine steel one, leaving long, unbroken lines. 
The fine steel comb carried down with a sharp, wavy mo- 



186 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



tion of the. hand breaks up the line. The badger gives the 
rest. A special comb is made, much like a hairdresser's 
comb, in which the teeth are cut in such a manner as to 
cause the hair to divide with a sharp edge at the point. 
This pressed on an overgraining brush will divide the hairs, 
and form up the streaks of color into thin lines. 

Another method of producing the little lines in oak grain- 
in"' is to use an oak combing roller. The rollers are used 
as a mechanical means of printing fine lines or irregular 
lengths on veined work, producing an excellent imitation of 




Fig. 29. Graining Comb. 



the natural grain. The roller has to be fed with a brush 
containing the color while rolling the work. The color used 
is a little blue-black and Vandyke mixed with stale beer. 

After the combing is done and the paint dry, but before 
varnishing, a little black jjaint i.s mixed on the palette. A 
short, stiff, hog-hair brush is dabbed vertically upon this, 
so as to take up color on its end only. The brush is then 
held in the operator's left hand in front of the graining, 
with the handle about parallel with the face of the work 
and a few inches from it. By taking a chip of wood and 
- drawing back the hairs with it so that they will spring for- 



GRAINING 



187 



ward again suddenly, a number of splashes or small dots 
of black are sprinkled over the work. On drawing a small 
badger brush downwards over the dots, they are drawn out 
into the lines noticed. A great deal of oak graining is done 
without these lines appearing in it at all. 

Shading or glazing, which involves the use of oil paint, 
alters the tone or color of either new or old oak graining. 
Very thin color is spi'ead over those parts which require to 
be deepened and enriched. A drying mixture is stained to 




Fig. 30. Graining Comb. 



the required color, the addition of megilp not being neces- 
sary. In matching old graining, the oil-glazing process 
assists in getting the mellowness which, independent of the 
graining, the aging of varnish imparts. The student who 
has mastered the foregoing instructions will find no diffi- 
culty in glazing certain portions of new work, in convert- 
ing light to medium oak or the latter to dark oak. Occa- 
sionally the glazing principle is reversed, inasmuch as a 
panel is rubbed in, figured with lights and half-lights, but 
not combed; when dry, the oil color is again spread, and 



1S8 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



then combed with gutta-percha or cork combs. The grain 
which crosses the lights is wiped out, and the work is then 
overgi'ained and varnished. This method is too tedious for 
ordinai-y purposes, but the student will benefit by studying 
this process, with which far more natural effects can be 
obtained than with the usual methods. 

In glazing over water color, allow the under work to dry, 
then apply a coat of turpentine and gold size mixed. Glaz- 
ing is frequently executed in oil, in which case it is easy 
to wipe out the lights wnth a rag. When the glazing is done 
in water color, the lights are wiped out w'ith a damp wash- 
leather, a sponge being sometimes used to get certain de- 




Fig. 31. Double Line Check Graining Roller. 



sired effects. Vandyke brown, because of its richness of 
tone and transparency, is the color generally used for glaz- 
ing. It is toned with burnt sienna for a warm tone, and 
with blue-black for a cold tone. 

For oak graining a wainscot in oil, make up the color 
for the ground from white-lead tinted with small quanti- 
ties of yellow ochre and burnt sienna to match the lightest 
portion of the grain. If the oak is gray in tone, a touch of 
blue will secure the desired tint. To eveiy 2 pounds of 
white-lead add 1 ounce of driers. When the work is dry, 
and before applying the graining color, rub it over with 
fctale beer to which a morsel of whiting has been added. For 



GRAINING 189 

combing, take raw sienna with burnt umber or Vandyke 
brown, according to the depth of color required. These 
colors can be jDrocured very finely ground in oil. Mix up 
the colors with half oil and half turps, and add 1/2 ounce 
of driers to each pound of color as a megilp to enable the 
color to stand the combing. The overgraining color should 
be gTound in water. Mix it up with equal quantities of 
beer and water. The work should be so managed that the 
overgraining will not contrast with the under work, but 
will darken it. A slight coat of turpentine, with which is 
mixed a small quantity of japanners' gold size, added after 
the work is dry, will bind down the overgrain and allow 
of the work being finally glazed with Vandyke brown mixed 
with oil. 



POLLARD AND KNOTTED OAK GRAINING' 

The distemper or water color method for ordinary oak 
graining has little to recommend it. For graining in imi- 
tation of pollard oak, however, this method is invaluable. 
Pollard, or rather pollarded, oak belongs to the same natural 
class of oak as the ordinary figured variety. Its sticking 
appearance is brought about by combined artificial and nat- 
ural means. When a young oak tree has its branches lopped 
off, and provided that loppings take place at intervals of a 
few years, the wood that comes from the mature tree will 
show clusters of knots — gnarled and twisted grain, with in- 
tervening spaces of plainer grain — in which condition it is 
known as pollard oak. The imi^ortanee of working from 
and studying natural specimens of this wood cannot be too 
strongly emphasized, and really good imitations cannot be 
executed without such previous study. 

The brushes required for this imitation are a large thick 
mottler, a large sash tool such as that used for overgraining 
oak, the badger softener, a piece of old open sponge, a 
wash-leather, medium and small round fitches, sable pencil, 
and sable overgrained in tube. The ground color should be 
made from white-lead, ochre, a little Venetian red, and, 
when the graining is to be cjuiet, a little burnt umber. 

A recipe for pollard oak ground is to mix together 2 
parts of ochre, 2 parts of orange chrome, 1 part of Vene- 
tian red, 1 part of burnt umber, 20 parts of white-lead, 
and 2 parts of patent driers, and to thin for use with equal 
parts of raw linseed oil and turpentine. 

In imitating pollard oak, there are two slightly diiTerent 
methods of treatment, the first aiming at reproducing the 
general effect of the wood in a broad and natural manner 
on a buff oak ground, and the utlier aiming at a eonven- 

190 



POLLARD AND KNOTTED OAK GRAINING 



191 



tional appearance, the ground being made for a warm and 
rich final tone, such as the real wood acquires as the result 
of polishing and age. In the latter treatment, the plain 




Fig. 32. Wiping Out Figure in Oak Graining. 



and knotty features of the grain are more distinctly sep- 
arated and the details are shown more minutely. 

Mix some Vandyke brown with beer in one vessel and 



1^ 



CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTINO 



some burnt sienna with beer in another vessel. With the 
large sash tool rub the sienna wash into the panel, which 
should then be dabbed and rolled with a damp washleather, 




Fig. 33. 0;ik Panel Figurtil ami (Jveri^raiiud. 

to give an irregular but connected mottle. This mottle is 
at once softened by the badger into stronger but softer 
masses. Put in clusters of knots, which should have an 



POLLARD AND KNOTTED OAK GRAINING 



193 



open appearance, with a stiff round fitch dipped into Van- 
dyke brown and blue-black mixed with beer. When, in a 
few minutes, this is diy, pass the mottler, dipped in clean, 




Fig. 34. Wiping Out Sap in Oak Graining. 

cold water, over the work, and, with the sable overgrainer 
charged with Vandyke brown wash, put in fine grain which 
crosses more or less irregularly the plain spaces between 



194 



CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 



the knots. "When a few lines of grain have been done, each 
one is softened by the badger to a dark edge, and when all 




Fig. 35. Oak Panel Finished. 



have been so treated, the numerous fine veins that cross 
the fainter cross grain and work from knot to knot, are 



POLLARD AND KNOTTED OAK GRAINING 195 

painted in black with a sable joencil. "When the work has 
been varnished or coated with a mixture of equal parts of 
japan, gold size and turpentine, it is ready for the final 
glazing or ovei'shading. 

This glazing is a similar process to the first mottling, 
but a weak beer Avash of fine blue-black is used instead of 
burnt sienna. The wash having been well brushed over the 
panel, the sharp lights amongst the knots are wiped out 
with the leather, which is then I'olled over the work in 
such a manner as to give more depth and transparency. If 
these instructions are carefuUj' followed a rich and natural 
woody effect will be obtained, and a panel so treated is an 
admirable foil to the maiden oak stiles of a door. The 
work, after it has been coated with copal varliish and al- 
lowed to stand untouched for a few days, is ready for flat- 
ting or felting down with finest pulverized pumice-stone, 
rubbed Avith folt and water. Finally, a good coat of car- 
riage copal varnish gives a finish that will last, with occa- 
sional re-varnishing for many years. 

Another imitation of pollard oak, based on the same 
principle as that just described, is obtained by slightly dif- 
ferent means. The ground, which is rich and warm, has a 
strong wash of burnt sienna rubbed in. The dark masses 
of knots are dabbed in with a sponge dabbed in the Van- 
dyke wash and also slightly into the blue-black; the con- 
necting touches of dark color are also put in. The color 
surrounding the knots is now Avorked Avith the mottler in 
one direction; use the brush at right angles to the board, 
and get one natural lead across the plain spaces from one 
nest to another. The graining surrounding and amongst 
the knots is Avorked Avith the round stiff fitch into the same 
natural curves indicated by the mottler; anj' knots that 
appear too spotty or set ai-e opened with the fitch. When 
the Avork is dry, wet it Avith beer and proceed to overgrain, 
using the thin overgrainer charged Avith a thin Vandyke 
wash and separated into divisions. Soften the grain to a 



196 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



dark edge, and put in with a sable pencil dipped in a blue- 
black wash the fine markings which cross the gi'ain. The 
varnishing or binding coating is now given, and the work 




Fig. 36. PoUard Oak Graining — First Stage. 

glazed with Vandyke brown, if desired full and rich, or 
with blue-black if the warmth requires to be toned. If 
beer is used with the pigments, the work can always be 
safely wetted to ascertain the color when varnished. Any 
slight alterations or additions can therefore easily be exe- 



POLLARD AND KNOTTED OAK GRAINING 



197 



cuted by rewetting parts that may have dried too quickly. 

Pollard oak in oil is grained similarly to that in water. 

To execute pollard oak in oil, the colors required are umber, 

Vandyke brown and raw sienna, ground to a paste in boiled 




Fig. 37. Pollard Oak Graining — Second Stage. 

oil, placed on separate palettes, and thinned for use with 
tuipentine. With a large hog-hair tool or a sponge, give a 
thin coat of burnt sienna over all the work, and before it 
is dry dapple it over in various directions with the pre- 



198 CYCLOPEDIA OF PxVINTING 

pared colors, putting plenty of color where the knots are to 
be shown. The best tool for this purpose is a well-worn 
flat mottler, having a thin, uneven row of hairs, and it 
should be dipped first in one color and then in another. To 
form the knots, dip the brush into the burnt umber made 
thin with turpentine. The knots can be further shaped by 
taking out the lights witli a brush moistened with turpen- 
tine. Small fitches rinsed in turpentine will take out sharp 
lights. When this color is set, put on in a curly direction 
a thin glaze of burnt umber. There must be enough oil in 
the color to bind and keep it open so that it may be easily 
worked. The softener must be liberally used. A cork is 
sometimes useful for forming knots on the dark part of 
the color, and it should be twisted with the finger and thumb 
to give the light and shade. The heart and sap of the 
wood should be taken out with a fitch, in the same way as 
for light oak, but there is not much of the ordinary figure 
in pollard oak. A flat graining brush, well filled with thin 
black, will produce the top grain in a curly form, and fin- 
ally the work should be glazed with Vandyke brown, with 
a touch either of black or of burnt sienna. The knots and 
dark parts may be finished with a eamel-hair pencil. The 
glazing may be done either in oil-color or water-color. If 
done in oil, the lights can be wiped out with rag. The color 
is made up of Vandyke brown, with a little burnt sienna 
or black, according as warm or cold tones are required. 
Really, final glazing is the same as in the distemper proc- 
ess, except that the colors do not require binding. 

Root of oak is similar to pollard oak. The grain, how- 
ever, instead of flowing from each set of knots, encircles 
the masses of knots in irregular rings of overgrain, and the 
dark pencil veins are more in evidence. 

Knotted oak, so called, combines the knotted and fig- 
ured portions of the wood. It is often employed, when 
graining oak in oil, for the panels, with ordinary oak stiles. It 
has a warm buff ground, containing a dash of umber, whilst 



POLLARD AND KNOTTED OAK GRAINING 199 

for the graining color the best burnt Turkey umber is used. 
The color is rubbed in, and one side of the panel combed, 
while on the other side the dark knots are put in by means 
of a stiff titch dipped m umber and drier. With another 
fitch give these knots and the surrounding space a growing 
motion towards the other half of the panel. Now put in 
llie fine lights across the slightly combed half with a lead 
towards the knots, and then work up the knotted half with 
a pencil and rag. When this is dry, overgrain with a dis- 
temper wash of Vandyke brown. 



GRAINING GROUNDS. 

Maple. White lead tinted with a very little venniliou 
and about an equal quantity of lemon chrome. Some pre- 
fer yellow ochre only, others ochre and raw umber in the 
proportion of four ounces ochre and one ounce umber to 
thirty pounds of lead. 

Medium Oak. Add French ochre to white lead in the 
proportions of about one hundred and twenty of lead to 
five of ochre. Add a little burnt umber. 

Mahogany, Dark. Four pounds of medium Venetian red, 
one pound of orange chrome yellow and one pound of burnt 
umber, or a little less burnt umber may be used according 
to the strength. 

Mahogany, Light. Mix six pounds of pure white lead 
with one pound medium Venetian red and five ounces of 
burnt umber. 

Light Oak and Birch. Eighty parts of white-lead to one 
of yellow ochre produces a good ground, but sixty pounds 
of white lead, half a pound of French ochre and one ounce 
of lemon chrome is sometimes preferred. 

Dark Oak. Sixty parts of white lead and one part of 
golden ochre may be used, or the following mixture if pre- 
ferred. Six parts of white lead, one part of French ochre, 
one part medium Venetian red and one part of burnt um- 
ber. 

Satinwood. Mix six ounces of lemon chrome to fifteen 
pounds of pure white lead and add a little deep English 
vermilion. 

Pollard Oak. Tint one hundred parts of white lead with 
twenty-seven parts of French ochre, four parts of burnt 
umber and three and three-quarter parts medium Venetian 
red. 

200 



GRAINING GROUNDS 201 

Pitch Pine. Tint sixty parts of white lead with half 
part medium Venetian red, and quarter part of French 
ochre. 

Italian Walnut. One part of French ochre mixed with 
ten parts of pure white lead and quarter part of burnt um- 
ber and medium Venetian red give this ground. 

American Walnut. Thirty parts pure white lead tinted 
with nine parts of French ochre, four parts burnt umber 
and one pai't medium Venetian red. 

Antique Oak. Thirty parts pure white lead tinted with 
nine parts of French ochre, four parts burnt umber and 
one part medium Venetian red. 

Ash. White lead tinted with a very little vermilion and 
about an equal quantity of lemon chrome. Some prefer 
yellow ochre only, others ochre and raw umber in the pro- 
portion of four ounces ochre and one ounce umber to thirty 
pounds of lead. 

Birch. Eighty parts of white lead to one of yellow ochre 
produces a good ground, but sixty parts of white lead, one- 
eighth of a part of French ochre and one-sixteenth part, of 
lemon chrome is sometimes preferred. 

Knotted Oak. Sixty parts of white lead, nine parts of 
French ochre and three and one-half parts burnt umber. 

Rosewood and Dark Mahogany. Four parts of medium 
Venetian red, one part of orange chrome yellow, and one 
part of burnt umber, or a little less burnt umber may be 
used according to the strength. 

The graining ground mixtures must be taken as an aver- 
age arrived at from comparison of the methods employed 
by different painters in various parts of the country. As 
has been explained, the mixtures given are those which may 
be considered an average, and a variation of them may be 
made according to individual taste and judgment. 



GRAINING COLORS. 

It will be understood that the method of obtaining a 
graining- color varies just as much as it does in the case of 
the ground color, according to the opinion of the painter. 
The following are given as what may be safely followed to 
get an average good result: 

Light Oak. Mix one-third burnt umber with two-thirds 
raw sienna, and add a very little drop black. 

Bird's Eye Maple. Mix raw umber and raw sienna with 
a little Vandyke brown or ivory black. 

Ash. Same as light oak. 

American Walnut. Burnt umber to which is added a 
little Vandyke brown will give a good graining color for 
walnut. 

Mahogany. Burnt umber, burnt sienna and Vandyke 
brown with the addition of a little crimson lake for over- 
graining, will answer well for mahogany. 

In producing the color for ordinary use, such as, for in- 
stance, Anaglypta or lincrusta or other relief material, mix 
Venetian red with equal parts of burnt umber and burnt 
sienna, and even add a little orange chrome to give bright- 
ness. 

Rosewood. Vandyke brown, with the addition of a little 
black, should be used, and rose pink may be added if de- 
sired. 

Pollard Oak. Mix burnt umbei', Vandyke, raw and burnt 
siennas and add a little black or ultramarine. 

Cherry. Use raw and burnt siennas and raw umber. 

Chestnut. Mix raw sienna, Vandyke and raw umber with 
a verv little burnt sienna. 

202 



HOUSE PAINTING. 

New Work. Do not use cheap ground ochres or Venetian 
red to produce tints or gTound work. They will cause paint 
applied over them to blister and varnish to curl and flake. 

For work that is to be varnished, do not use colors ground 
in oil for the solid ground color; even though reduced with 
tui'pentine and dry apparently flat, they still contain too 
much oil for a satisfactory ground for japan color or to 
allow of varnishing over them with safety. 

For application over the lead coats, use colors ground in 
japan for deep gTOund colors or tints which require a large 
percentage of coloring matter. 

New store fronts, vestibules, etc., which are built of soft 
wood and are to be painted in oil, should receive a priming 
or first coat mixed with 2-3 oil and 1-3 turpentine. Allow 
ample time for thorough drying. Putty and sandpaper. 
The second coat should be mixed with half turiDentine and 
half oil to a good consistency. When hard dry, sandpaper 
lightly and appl,y a coat of oil paint. This will not blister, 
provided the wood does not get wet from the sweating of 
glass or like causes. 

If the fronts are to be painted and varnished, they should 
receive a priming coat mixed with half turpentine and half 
oil. When hard dry, putty and sandpaper and apply a coat 
mixed with 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil. The paint should be 
tinted to approach the shade of the ground work. When 
hard, sandpaper lightly and apply a flat coat of ground 
color. Rub this coat smooth with flne steel wool and apply 
one or two coats of color ground in japan, according to the 
strength of the color. All that is necessary is sufficient 
japan color to make a solid coat. Stripe and ornament ac- 
cording to specifications, then finish with a coat of exterior 

203 



204 CYCLOPEDLV OF PAINTING 

varnish. If more fixpensive work is desired, a coat of color 
varnish can be applied over the japan color. This color 
varnish can be made by adding a small percentage of the 
japan color to the rubbing varnish. When hard, rub smooth 
■with fine steel wool or curled hair. Stripe or ornament as 
desired, then finish with a coat of elastic varnish. 

If the finish is to be black or green, the undercoats should 
be dark lead color; if wine, dark terra cotta or dark I'ed; 
if vermilion, dark yellow for light or terra cotta for dark, 
and vermilion for carmine or lakes where a . deep effect is 
desired. 

Old Work. When store fronts and vestibules are to be 
painted in oil and are in good condition, showing no cracks 
or signs of peeling, they should be sandpapered smooth. If 
two coats are to be applied, the first should be reduced with 
half turpentine. Over this apply an oil paint. It should be 
borne in mind, however, that too much oil must not be 
used, especially where the fronts are exposed to the hot 
sun. 

When store fronts and vestibules are to be repainted and 
varnished and the old paint has stood for two or three years 
and is in good condition, the surface not having received too 
numerous coats, they can sometimes be sandpapered smooth 
and a coat of flat ground color applied, then a coat of color 
in japan. Stripe and ornament, then finish with a coat of 
exterior varnish. 

When the fronts have been repainted a number of times 
with oil paint, they will not stand sun exposure after re- 
ceiving the varnish, without danger of blistering. In such 
cases the paint should be burned off or removed with a 
paint remover. The surface is then practically new and 
the work can proceed as with new work, with the exception 
of the priming or first coat, which should contain a larger 
percentage of turpentine to assist in penetrating through 
any old paint left on the wood. Then proceed as with new 
work, building up the surface in the same manner by using 



HOUSE PAINTING 205 

flat ground colors and color ground in japan and exterior 
varnish. 

Iron Store Fronts. Thoroughly clean the surface. If the 
work has been covered with a shop coat, scrape and thor- 
oughly sandpaper before applying the paint. 

In painting an iron store front in oil or flat color and 
varnish, the treatment should be the same as for a wooden 
front, with the exception of the first coat. The surface 
being non-absorbent, the first coat must be mixed so as to 
dry firm and hard by oxidation and evaiDoration. If to be 
finished in oil paint of a light tint with a lead or zinc base, 
the first coat should be reduced with 1-3 oil and 2-3 tur- 
pentine. If a solid oil is to be used, such as black, red, 
etc., reduce Avith turpentine and a small proportion of japan 
to assist in hardening. Allow ample time for thorough oxi- 
dation. Finish with one coat of oil paint. If to be painted 
and varnished, the first coat should be mixed with % tur- 
pentine and 14 oil> tinted to approximate the shade of the 
ground color to be used. When hard dry, sandpaper and 
proceed with a flat coat of ground color as for a wooden 
surface. 

Interior Finish — New Work. The protection and prepara- 
tion of the surface should be the first consideration and 
should be as carefully planned and carried out for plain 
painting, staining, varnishing or natural finishing as for 
more expensive work, as these are often the foundations for 
a better class of futui'e finishing. 

Inside door frames should not be set until after the plas- 
tering has been completed, then put in with the other finish, 
otherwise the mortar will stain the Avood badly and these 
stains cannot be removed without a great deal of trouble. 
In fact, frames are often ruined by mortar stains and 
bruises from plasterers removing their scaffolding. These 
bruises and stains especially ruin the work when it is to 
have a natural stain or finish. 

If the frames are set, they should be protected before 



206 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the plasterer commences work. If the work is to have a 
natural finish and the frames are hard wood, they should 
first be filled with paste filler, then a coat of shellac or 
liquor filler applied. If the frames are soft wood and are 
to be stained, they should be given a coat of oil stain; if 
to be painted, they should be primed. If water or spirit 
stains are used, cover with a coat of shellac or liquid filler, 
otherwise the lime water in the plaster will change the 
color of water stains. A strip should be tacked to the face 
of the frames to protect them from being bruised or scuffed 
up during the plastering. 

Floors which are to be finished natural or stained should 
not be laid until after the plastering is done. Floors should 
be the last work of the carpenter as well as the painter. 
This requires laying an extra floor. On the best and more 
expensive buildings this is looked after by the architect 
in his specifications. However, there are a number of build- 
ings in which the floors are laid before the plasterer com- 
mences his work, and as these are to be finished either nat- 
ural, stained or painted, they should be protected from plas- 
tering. 

As soon as the caipenter has finished sandpapering and 
dressing down the floors, they should be carefully swojit and 
dusted off. The cracks should be filled with either a good 
linseed oil putty mixed with 1-3 keg lead, or a good crack 
and crevice filler, which is not so likely to be affected by 
shrinkage of the floors as is putty. 

If hard, open-grained wood, the floors should first re- 
ceive a coat of paste filler, then a light coat of shellac or 
floor finish. 

If the floors are soft or hard pine and to be finished nat- 
ural, they should receive a coat of shellac or liquid filler of 
good quality, applied thin. If to be stained, they should 
receive a coat of oil stain. 

When dry, cover the floors with heavy building paper 
or plain carpet lining tacked down solidly. Sprinkle dry 



HOUSE PAINTING 207 

sand ai'ound the walls to keep the mortar from soaking into 
the paper. Allow this covering to remain on the floors until 
after the painting or finishing is done on the other parts of 
the room. The floors should be finished last. 

Before the carpenter turns the work over to the painter, 
he should remove from the rooms all blocks, shavings, etc., 
and turn as much of the building over to the painter at one 
time as is possible. 

The painter should sweep the room clean and thoroughly 
dust off the work before commencing to i^aint, stain or var- 
nish. 

Putty nail holes, joints, etc., with good putty, one which 
will not soften with age or turn yellow if white or light 
tints are applied over it. 

If the work is to be painted, soft pine doors and casings 
should first receive a coat of size to keep them from spot- 
ting. This should be a shellac size if the work will permit. 
Good liquid filler is often used with good results by reduc- 
ing to a thin consistency and applying a smooth, even coat. 
Hard drying varnishes, such as copal and hard oil finishes, 
are successfully used by applying them thin. Glue size 
can also be used if applied hot and very thin. It should not 
be allowed to get cold, as it will not strike into the wood 
but remain on the surface and is liable to break away. It 
is very hard for ordinary dampness to affect glue size after 
it has been properly applied and covered with paint or var- 
nish. Where the price of work will not permit of sizing 
or the specifications do not call for it, satisfactory work 
can be done by mixing varnish with the priming coat. Var- 
nish and turpentine will, to a certain extent, keep the work 
from spotting. 

The paint for interior work should be mixed with a large 
percentage of turpentine. Oil will turn the work yellow. 
If white work, such as flat white, white enamel, is to be 
done, it is absolutely necessary tfiat the priming coat should 
be mixed with turpentine, otherwise the work will yellow 



208 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

in a very short time, especiall}' where sizing has not been 
used. An excess of oil will also cause the work to crack 
and check badly. Too much oil cannot be used for in- 
terior work with safety. Where the work is to be finished 
with oil paints, more oil can be used in the priming. It 
should be borne in mind, however, that interior work should 
always dry hard and firm to insure good results from its 
present painting, also to allow of satisfactorily repainting. 

In giving these directions for the different classes of 
work, the one principal object has been to caution against 
the application of too numerous coats. It is not the amount 
of paint applied to a surface which produces the results, 
it is the manner of application, the proper mixing of the 
paint and the preparation of the surface. lu enameled or 
grained work it is especially true that where too numer- 
ous coats of ground work are apjolied, it is very hard to 
repaint such a surface if at any time a different class of 
work should be desired. 

Throughout the directions for undercoats on all classes 
of work it will be found that vai'nish is specified in place 
of oil and japan. This gives the most satisfactory under- 
coat surface that can possibly be made, especially if a good 
grade of varnish is used. The work will remain in good 
condition for an indefinite length of time; it will not craok 
or check; the grain of the wood will be thoroughly filled 
and with this method of reducing the paint, the number 
of coats to produce satisfactory work can be cut down. 

Mixtures of japan and oil for undercoats are not always 
satisfactory for interior work. Too much oil makes spongy 
work which is liable to crack and check badly. Heavy mix- 
tures of oil and japan will do likewise. 

The directions given are not new but have been tried 
out in the most practical ways and have aiwa3-s proved en- 
tirel}' satisfactory. 

Sandpaper or smooth the surface with fine steel wool 
and dust off thoroughly before applying the paint. 



HOUSE PAINTING 209 

"Where paint, enamel or varnish are retarded in their 
drying by weather conditions or other causes, the work can 
be assisted in dryin^^ and hardening by sandpapering or 
mossing off, killing the gloss and allowing it to be exposed 
to a free circulation of air. This will harden work in a 
few hours as much as if allowed to stand for a consider- 
able length of time. 

Cheap paint should not be used for inside work any 
more than on the exterior of the building, if good results 
are to be expected. It is a mistake to use eheajD ochre for 
priming. The same paint, or something as good, should be 
used for priming or first coat as is used for the finishing 
coats or for building up the ground work for enameling, 
graining and like work. 

Oil Paint in White. Where two coat oil paint work is speci- 
fied, without sizing, the first coat should be reduced with 
half turpentine and half oil to a good consistency, then a 
half pint of good hard drying or enamel varnish added. 
This will dry hard and will not spot as badly on soft pine 
wood as a turpentine oil reduction. After it is hard dry, 
putty crevices and nail holes with good putty, one which 
will not turn yellow, or the puttying can be done before 
the priming coat is applied. Should there be holes that are 
not properly filled, they can be reputtied over the first or 
priming coat. Sandpaper or rub with fine steel wool to a 
smooth, even surface, dust off and apply a second coat 
mixed to a good, heavy consistency with half oil and half 
turiDcntine, or 1-3 good hard drying varnish, 1-3 oil and 
1-3 turpentine. Either mix will dry with a good gloss and 
can be washed. 

For three-coat work the primer should be mixed as be- 
fore stated, the second coat mixed with three parts turpen- 
tine and one part oil or hard drying varnish. This will dry 
with an eggshell gloss. Sandpaper or rub with fine steel 
wool to a smooth, even coat and apply the finishing coat 
of medium consistency, mixed with half turpentii^e and half 



210 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

oil, or 1-3 each turpentine, oil and varnish. This should 
dry with a good gloss and can be scrubbed. This work, 
however, will turn yellow with age, as will enamel if ap- 
plied over it. 

Gloss Work in White. Satisfactory two-coat gloss work 
cannot be done on bare wood. If the work is not filled or 
sized, the primer should be mixed to a thin consistency with 
■% tui-pentine and Vg hard drying or enamel varnish. The 
second coat should be of the same mixture but of heavier 
consistency. If for a size or filled surface, the first coat 
should be of the same consistency and mixture as for sec- 
ond coat over bare wood. This will dry flat. Sandpaper 
or rub with fine steel wool to a smooth, even coat. 

If the work is to be finished in lead, use 1-3 of the sec- 
ond coat flat mixture and 2-3 hard drying or enamel var- 
nish. If a white finish is desired, zinc in place of lead 
should be used. For zinc finish, prime with lead reduced 
as before stated. Second coat with zinc varnish reduced 
with turpentine. Sandpaper between coats and finish with 
1-3 second-coat zinc mixture and 2-3 white or enamel var- 
nish. Either of these finishes will dry with a good gloss 
and should not turn yellow or cheek. 

Oil Paint in Tints. Reduce the priming coat with half 
turpentine and half oil. To one gallon of paint add a half- 
pint of good varnish. The paint should be of good con- 
sistency and applied smoothly and evenly. When hard dry, 
sandpaper, dust off and apply a coat mixed as before stated, 
only of a heavier consistency. This paint will dry with 
sufficient gloss to allow of washing. 

For three-coat work the primer should be mixed as noted 
and the second coat mixed with three parts tui-pentine and 
one part oil. This will di-y about flat and can be sand- 
papered smooth before applying the finishing coat which 
should be mixed with half turpentine and half oil. To a 
gallon of the mixture add a half-pint of good mixing var^ 



HOUSE PAINTING 211 

nish; this should dry with fair gloss and can be washed or 
scrubbed. 

Gloss Work in Tints. The primer can be mixed with half 
oil and half turpentine. It is safer to cut down the amount 
of oil, using 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil. After the priming 
is thoroughly hard, putty and sandpaper and apply a coat 
of flat color of good consistency. When hard, sandpaper to 
a smooth, even surface and apply a coat of 1-3 flat color 
and 2-3 good color mixing varnish. This paint should be 
flowed on smoothly and evenly. It will dry with a good 
gloss and make a very satisfactory finish. 

Flat Finisli in Three Coats. A satisfactory flat finish 
cannot be obtained with less than three coats unless the 
wood has been filled or sized. The priming coat for bare 
wood should be mixed to a thin consistency with % tur- 
pentine and Ys varnish. Putty with good, hard drying 
putty, one which will not show gloss spots or turn yellow. 
Sandpaper or rub with fine steel wool to a smooth surface. 
The second coat should be mixed to a heavier consistency, 
carrying a little larger percentage of varnish so as not to 
leave a surface which is too flat. This same mixture should 
be used for the first coat over a surface which has been 
filled or sized. If for white work, white enamel varnish 
should be used where varnish is specified. Rub smooth with 
curled hair, dust off and apply a finishing coat mixed flat. 
This will dry without gloss spots. It can be mixed with 
either lead or zinc, according to the specifications, also white 
or tints according to the work desired. 

If a dead flat finish is desired, when lead is used, the lead 
should first be washed with turpentine. If a zinc finish, 
use zinc reduced with turpentine. 

Enamel in Three Coats. The priming or first coat should 
be mixed according to directions for flat work. If the lead 
used is soft ground, it should be washed with tur- 
pentine and allowed to stand over night and the turpentine 
poured off in the morning. Reduce the paint with all tur- 



212 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

pentine to which reduction should be added 1-32 to 1-16 
gallon of the enamel to each gallon of paint. This will 
assist in hardening the paint and the mixture can be used 
either on bare wood or over a sized surface. When the 
priming or first coat is thoroughly hard, putty with good 
hard-drj'ing putty, one which will not turn yellow, then rub 
with fine sandpaper or steel wool, after which apply a 
second coat mixed flat, to which has been added a pint of 
the enamel to a gallon of paint. Rub this coat smooth with 
fine sandpaper or curled hair. Apply a good, smooth, even 
coat of enamel of good consistency. If properly applied, 
the enamel can be left in full gloss finish or lightly rubbed. 
If a higher finish is desired, reduce the first coat of enamel 
with a small amount of turpentine, one pint to the gallon 
of enamel. Rub this coat with fine steel wool to kill the 
gloss and level down the surface, then flow on a smooth, 
even coat of enamel. This can be rubbed to the finish de- 
sired and polished after three to four days' standing. If 
desired, zinc can be used for the flat coats in the foregoing 
directions; however, it is best to use lead for building up 
undercoats. 

Zinc Finish. The priming coat for zinc should be as di- 
rected for flat work. Lead is best to use for priming or 
first coat over a sized surface. Where two or three coats 
of flat zinc work are specified, reduce zinc that has been 
ground in varnish with turpentine to a medium thin con- 
sistency and apply over a first coat of lead. When dry, rub 
with curled hair and appl.y a second coat of the same mix- 
ture of a heavier consistency. This will dry flat and make 
a beautiful finish. 

If a gloss finish is desired, apply the finishing coat of 
zinc in varnish reduced with turpentine to a consistency of 
cream. To one part of this mixture add two parts white 
enamel varnish. If a higher finish is desired rub this coat 
with fine steel wool and apply a coat of clear varnish. This 
can be rubbed to the desired effect. 



HOUSE PAINTING 213 

Ebony or Flat Black Finish, \\niere work is to be fin- 
ished in ebony, either in gloss or flat, the wood should be 
prepared according to the finish. If soft wood and is to be 
finished in ebony, it should receive a coat of shellac; putty 
with black putty and apply a coat of dark lead color, mixed 
flat, to which has been added a half-pint of good hard-dry- 
ing varnish to the gallon of paint. When hard dry, rub off 
smooth with curled hair. Over this aiiply a coat of flat 
black. If a gloss or polish is desired, apply a coat of black 
color and varnish or ebony finish. This can be rubbed to 
a dead effect. If a more expensive finish is desired, slightly 
reduce the first coat of varnish color or ebony finish, ac- 
cording to the temperature of the room. When hard dry, 
cut down smooth with fine steel wool, dust off and fiow on 
an even coat of the color varnish or ebony finish. This can 
be rubbed and polished. 

Where grill work and plate rails or hard wood are to be 
finished and the open-grain effect is desired, add to the flat 
black a few drops of oil and apply a coat to the bare wood. 
Allow to stand a short time, then wipe off to the desired 
effect of flat black or Flemish finish. If, however, the hard 
wood is to be finished in gloss or polish, it should first be 
filled with paste filler, then proceed as with soft wood var- 
nish coats, leaving off the dark lead color coat. 

Cupboards and Pantries. When cupboards and pantries 
are to be painted, the first or priming coat should be applied 
to the bare wood and mixed with 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 
oil. This will dry hard and can be sandpapered smooth. 
If two coats only are to be applied, the finishing coat should 
be mixed to dry hard and firm. If oil paint, it can be mixed 
to a good consistency with 2-3 oil and 1-3 turpentine and 
a small amount of good japan, or mix the desired color flat 
and use half color and half good-drying varnish. The 
paint should be of the same consistency as varnish. To 
this a further percentage of turpentine can be added to 



214 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

insure ease of working, or a small percentage of oil can 
be used, but not enough to cause the paint to dry tacky. 

If three coats of oil paint are specified, the second coat 
should be of the same mixture as the primer, but of a 
heavier consistency. When hard, sandpaper and apply a 
coat of paint mixed with 2-3 oil and 1-3 turpentine. If 
sufficient time is allowed, this should dry firm and hard. 
If a varnish finish is desired, the finishing coat varnish color 
can be applied as recommended for two-coat work. 

In painting the pantries, cupboards, etc., it is very essen- 
tial that the doors and drawers should not be closed, so as 
to allow the paint drying hard. A free circulation of air is 
absolutely necessary. 

Graining Ground. Graining grounds which are mixed with 
all oil are very liable to crack and check after varnish has 
been applied over them. Care should always be used in 
noting that the undercoats are thoroughly hard before ap- 
plying subsequent coats. There should not be too much oil 
used. 

If the priming is to be applied to the bare wood, reduce 
with half oil and half turpentine. Allow this to thoroughly 
harden through, putty, sandpaper smooth and apply a coat 
of paint, mixed flat, to which has been added a half-pint of 
hard-di'ying varnish to the gallon of paint. When hard, 
rub smooth with fine sandpaper or steel wool and apply a 
coat of the same paint with the addition of varnish to allow 
of drying with a slight gloss, or a small amount of oil can 
be used, but not enough to cause the paint to dry tacky. 
If the surface has been sized, the first coat should be mixed 
with 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil, smoothed off and finished 
with one coat as recommended for finishing on bare wood. 
Graining color can be worked over this ground without 
danger of cutting through with the graining combs or when 
cutting out growths, as is often the case when oil is used 
in ground work. 

It is best to grain in distemper for interior work. For 



HOUSE PAINTING 215 

exterior work, more oil can be used for building up the 
ground work than for interior. However, if the work is to 
be varnished, most of the oil should be cut out. A great 
many painters prefer not to varnish exterior work, but ap- 
ply a coat of oil, rub off with a soft cloth and let the work 
remain with this finish. Where varnished work is used on 
the exterior, the graining should be done in distemper if 
possible, or the oil graining color should be allowed to 
stand until thoroughly hard before applying the varnish ; 
this insures against blistering and cracking. 

Floors. Where the priming can be allowed to stand a 
sufficient time to thoroughly harden, the paint can be mixed 
with half turpentine and half oil. Where time will not per- 
mit, 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil should be used. Floor paint 
should dry hard, remembering that the priming or founda- 
tion coat is very important. After hard dry, putty and 
apply a second coat of paint mixed with 2-3 turpentine and 
1-3 copal or mixing varnish. This will dry hard with a 
slight gloss. Sandpaper and dust off and apply a coat of 
the same shade mixed with 2-3 varnish and 1-3 flat color. 
This will dry with a good gloss and can be used without 
fear of scratching or peeling if the varnish used is of good 
grade. After the floors have been used and have become 
somewhat worn, they can be renewed by washing clean and 
applying a thin coat of floor finish. This can be repeated 
as often as the floor shows wear. 

STAINING. 

Where it is possible, the wood should be stained before 
being nailed to the wall or as soon as the carpenter has fin- 
ished dressing. This will save time and labor in finishing. 
The stain should be of thin consistency so as to penetrate 
into the wood and not remain in spots on the surface. Al- 
low the stain to remain on the wood a short time, then wipe 
off with a cloth to even up the work. On very soft pine, 



216 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

it is often necessary in order to produce uniform work to 
size the same with a thin sizing before staining. This size 
should be very thin, and it is well to wipe it off immediate- 
ly after appljang so as not to have an excess on the surface, 
thus keeping the stain from striking in and the soft and 
sappy places from absorbing so much of the stain as to 
make the finished work spotted. 

Where size is used, the stain should be allowed to re- 
main on the surface longer than on the bare wood so as to 
allow of good penetration before, wiping off. It is not neces- 
sary to wipe if care is used in brushing on the stain. Where 
it is not possible to stain the wood before nailing to the 
wall, the work should be thoroughly dusted, then puttied. 
Knife the putty into nail holes or cracks, after which apply 
the stain. Allow the stain to remain on the surface a short 
time, then wipe off to even up the work. When hard, sand- 
paper lightly and apply a shellac or liquid filler. When 
hard, rub with fine sandpaper or fine steel wool to a smooth, 
even coat, after which apply varnish, the number of coats 
depending on specifications. 

Cupboards and Pantries. Where cupboards and pantries 
are to be stained inside on the shelving, inside drawers, 
etc., they should receive a coat of shellac or good liquid 
filler over the stain, then a thin coat of hard-drying var- 
nish, one which is not easily affected by heat, otherwise 
there is danger of warm dishes or other utensils sticking 
to it. 

Floors. Where floors are to be stained and finished, they 
should be stained and protected according to instructions 
previously given. Where these instructions have been fol- 
lowed, and as soon as the interior is finished, remove the 
paper and dust off the floors. If there should be dust from 
the plastering which cannot be removed with a duster, dam- 
pen a cloth with a mixture of half turpentine and half oil 
and with this remove all the dust and leave the floors clean. 
Do not have enough of the mixture on the cloth to make 



HOUSE PAINTING 217 

the floor oily, just a sufficient amount to take up the dust. 
If shellac is to be used ovei- the stain, use turpentine for 
cleaning. Apply over this stain a thin coat of shellac or 
good liquid filler. Rub off lightly with fine sandpaper or 
steel wool and aioply a coat of floor finish. This can be left 
in the gloss, rubbed with pumice stone and oil, or sand- 
papered to kill the gloss, then waxed in the usual manner. 
Should a deeper stain be wanted or the floor be marred 
or scratched, use a mixture of 1-3 stain and 2-3 floor finish. 
If the floor has not been protected before the plastering 
was done, it chould be thoroughly cleaned, the mortar 
scraped off, sandpapered and dressed down smooth and the 
cracks filled with crack and crevice filler or puttied with 
good putty; then apply a coat of stain, after which the floor 
can be finished as noted. 

TO PAINT PLASTERED WALLS. 

Plastered walls should receive a coat of size before paint- 
ing. The best size which can be applied to a wall is a thin 
coat of oil paint. This is hard to apply without showing 
laps, but these can be easily covered with subsequent coats. 
When hard dry, apply a coat of warm glue size which will 
fully stop absorption. 

If the walls are to be painted in oil with a full gloss, 
they should receive the finishing coat of a full oil reduction. 
If to be half flat, the finishing coat should be mixed to a 
good consistency with half turpentine and half oil. This 
will cover the work in a solid manner and make good two 
coat work. 

If a varnish size is used, reduce a fair grade of hard oil 
finish or varnish to a thin consistency and apply freely with 
a full brush. When hard dry, apply a first coat mixed with 
half oil and half turpentine. 

If a full gloss is desired, the finishing coat of full oil 
reduction can be applied over this surface, or, if half fiat 



21S CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

is wanted, the same mixture as for first coat can be applied, 
but must be of a heavier consistency. 

If the walls are to be finished flat, three coats over a size 
must be applied. If an oil paint and glue size are used, a 
second coat mixed half flat will produce a satisfactory 
foundation for the flat color. 

If varnish size is used, apply two coats of half flat paint, 
the second coat of a heavier consistency than the first coat. 
If to be left flat, apply one even coat of flat paint mixed to a 
good consistency. 

If to be stippled, the paint should be mixed flat to a 
heavy consistency, carrying- a small percentage of varnish. 

In applying a flat color on large rooms, two men should 
work together in order to avoid showing laps. In stippling 
large surfaces, it is customary for two men to apply the 
paint and one man to follow with the stippler. 

Where the walls are to be stippled in oil paint, the finish- 
ing coat should be mixed to a heavy consistency with 2-3 
oil and 1-3 turpentine. Apply the paint medium heavy and 
allow it to stand a short time, then proceed to stipple. One 
man can apply the paint as well as do the stippling. 

Where walls have been stippled or decorated, they can 
be protected by applying a thin coat of good starch. Boil 
the starch and strain. Be sure it is uniform throughout, 
then reduce to a thin consistency and apply a thin coat and 
stipple the same as with paint. This will protect the deco- 
ration, and after it becomes soiled with smoke it can be 
washed off and another coat of starch be applied in the 
same manner as before, thus saving the decoration for an 
indefinite length of time. 



HOUSE PAINTING' 

Interior Finish — Old Work. In repainting a surface that 
has been painted, varnished, enameled or stained a number 
of times, it is important to know the character of the sur- 
face to be finished, the kind of work that can be satisfac- 
torily done over it, also necessary to know how to properly 
prepare the surface to receive the finish, as well as to know 
that certain kinds of work cannot be successfully done over 
numerous coats. 

Flat white and enamel cannot be applied over numerous 
coats of oil paint, as they will turn yellow and are liable to 
crack. Grained work cannot be successfully done over an 
enameled surface, as the surface is so hard and brittle that 
when oil graining colors are used, it is liable to break loose, 
chip, crack or check. A surface which has been enameled 
cannot be successfully refinished except in enamel. The 
only satisfactory way to remove enamel is with paint re- 
mover or to burn the surface. 

Painting cannot be done over numerous coats of varnish 
without danger of checking or cracking, therefore the var- 
nish should be removed before the paint is applied. Where 
numerous coats of oil paint have been applied and are of a 
spongy character or have not dried solid, the surface should 
be burned or the paint taken off with a paint remover. If 
the surface is cracked or alligatored, it should be cleaned 
to the wood with a burning lamp or paint remover. If the 
work is badly cracked and will not permit of burning, it 
should be painted in flat color. Cracks will not show so 
badly finished in flat as in gloss. 

Oil Paint. Where oil paint is to be used over old work, 
sandpaper the old paint to a smooth surface and apply a 
coat mixed with half turpentine and half oil. If more than 

219 



220 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

one coat is desired, the second coat can be applied of the 
same paint mixed to a heavier consistency; however, one 
coat is usually sufficient over old paint. It is not necessary 
to apply extra coats if the color used is of a similar shade 
to the old paint. A well covered surface can be made with 
one coat. Avoid aiDplying- more paint than is absolutely 
necessary to produce a solid finish. 

Gloss Finish. If the work is to be refinished in gloss, 
clean the surface and sandpaper or rub with steel wool to a 
smooth surface, then apply one coat of enamel or gloss fin- 
ish as directed for new work, finishing coat. 

Flat and Enamel Finish. If the work has received two or 
three coats of oil paint which have dried solid without signs 
of cracking or checking, it can be repainted with fair re- 
sults if first sandpapered smoothly, then covered with a 
coat of paint mixed flat. When this is hard dry, apply a 
second coat if necessary; however, if the one coat will pro- 
duce a satisfactory finish, it is all that should be applied. 
If an enamel finish is wanted over this same surface, the 
enamel can be applied over the flat color. The first enamel 
coat should be reduced with a pint of turpentine to a gallon 
of enamel. When hard, rub the surface with fine steel wool 
to cut the gloss and level the surface, then apply a smooth, 
even coat of enamel, using a full brush and flowing on the 
enamel. This can be rubbed or left in a gloss finish. 

If the work is to be painted or enameled white and the 
surface has received numerous coats of oil paint and good 
results are expected, the old paint will have to be removed. 
Then the surface, if thoroughly cleaned and sandpapered, 
will be in good condition to receive paint and should be 
treated in the same manner as new work which has not 
been sized. 

To enamel over a varnished surface, it is very necessary 
to remove all of the varnish. The ground work for enamel 
should be built up with a portion of the enamel or a good 



HOUSE PAINTING 221 

mixing; varnish added to each coat. The paint should be 
mixed flat, with the enamel or varnish added. The first 
coat should contain from 1 pint to IV2 pints of enamel to a 
gallon of paint. Apply the second coat of the same mix- 
ture of a heavier consistency. Each coat should be thor- 
oughly sandpapered or rubbed smooth with steel wool be- 
fore applying another. The third coat can be applied with 
a good enamel reduced with a pint of turpentine to a gallon 
of enamel. If a deeper luster is wanted, apply a heavy coat 
of enamel of the original consistency. This can be rubbed 
to a flat finish or left in the gloss. If the enamel used is 
of good quality and the undercoats of varnish are not of a 
cheap rosin quality, this work will not check nor crack. 

Kitchens and Pantries. Kitchens and pantries, to be re- 
painted, should be thoroughly cleaned. The best way is to 
wash the woodwork and walls with rainwater and washing 
compound, using ^4 pound of Avashing powder or soda to 
three gallons of rainwater. Thoroughly sponge and brush 
the surface, then rinse with clear water. This will remove 
smoke or grease more readily than will turpentine or ben- 
zine. For the walls of the kitchen or pantry to be repaint- 
ed, the first coat should be mixed half flat, then apply a 
full oil coat of a flat color mixed with varnish, in the pro- 
portion of 1-3 color and 2-3 mixing varnish. Either of the 
foregoing will dry with a good gloss and can be washed. 

The woodwoi'k should be thoroughlj' sandpapered, and, 
if in very bad condition, scraped. If the old paint is thor- 
oughly hard and two coat work is necessary the first coat 
should be mixed half flat, then a full oil coat applied over 
this, or flat color and varnish in the proportions directed for 
wall work. 

Shelves in cupboards and pantries should be thoroughly 
washed, sandpapered and then a coat of flat color applied. 
The finishing coat should be mixed with varnish and flat 
color to dry hard and solid so as not to be softened with 
moderate heat. Very warm cooking utensils are often 



222 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

placed in pantries and on shelves, and if the paint is not 
hard dry this is liable to soften it. 

Kitchen and Pantry Floors. Floors should be scrubbed 
three or four days before paint is a}iplied. If there are any 
grease spots, wash them with turpentine or benzine. The 
first coat of paint should bo mixed to dry firm and hard in 
the wood. Reduce lead in t)il with 2-3 turpentine and 1-3' 
good copal or mixing varnish. When hard, sandpaper ligiit- 
ly, dust off and apply a coat of 2-3 mixing varnish and 1-3 
flat color. This will dry with a good gloss, firm and hard 
and make a coating which is not in danger of being scratched 
or scuffed up. 

Graining Ground. If the surface has been previously 
painted and is in good condition, thoroughly sandpaper and 
apply a coat of paint mixed fiat and tinted to the i^roper 
ground color with a pint of hard-drying varnish added. 
Should the paint dry too flat for good working or combing 
of the graining color, an additional amount of varnish can 
be added, or a small amount of oil. If numerous coats of 
oil paint have been applied, or if the surface is badly 
cracked, the paint will have to be burned or removed with 
paint remover, then proceed as with new Avork. 

Where graining is done over an old varnished surface, it 
is best to remove the varnish before applying the paint to 
avoid cracking; however, if it is impossible to do so, the 
ground work can be mixed to a semi-paste with a good mix- 
ing varnish, then reduced to a painting consistency with 
turpentine. A small amount of oil can be used should the 
color not work freely, but not to exceed four ounces of oil 
to the gallon of paint. Should the paint dry too flat for 
good working or combing of the graining color, an addi- 
tional amount of varnish can be used in the second coat to 
produce an eggshell or semi-gloss, whichever is desired. 

Staining. If a surface which has been previously paint- 
ed or varnished is to be stained, it must be handled and 
built up with the proper shade of ground color according 



HOUSE PAINTING 223 

to the wood to be imitated in the same manner as a simi- 
lar surface for graining ground. The stain must be of a 
heavier consistency than for bare wood. Brush out thin 
and even. It cannot be wiped off as on new work and the 
effect depends upon the brushing. If the grain of the wood 
is to be imitated, the surface must be grained. 

Drying, It should be borne in mind that light and air 
are necessarj' to the drying of paint. Paint will not harden 
in tightly closed rooms. This is especially true of kitchens, 
pantries and work of this character where there are numer- 
ous shelves and drawers, and if closed the paint or varnish 
will remain tacky and not harden through. 

Floors which are to be painted should be exposed to a 
free circulation of air from underneath. If they are over 
damp basements or cellars, the windows or ventilators of 
same should be opened to allow of free air circulation from 
underneath, as dead or damp air will prevent the paint or 
varnish on floors from hardening. 



MARBLING. 

Sienna Marble. The ground of Sienna marble is white 
lead; the work is then to be evenly gone over with white 
paint mixed with equal quantities of turpentine and oil. 
After this, mix two light tints, the one consisting of yellow 
ochre and white lead and the other of vermilion and white 
lead, both mixed with equal quantities of oil and turpen- 
tine, and with separate tools dab patches on the white paint 
whilst yet wet, and with a brush well soften the patches 
together, great care being taken not to allow the red tint 
to be too dominant. 

On a palette, on the side of which is placed a tin dipper 
containing turpentine, place a small quantity of blue black, 
the oil colors sold in collapsible metal tubes are the best 
for marbling, and a small quantity of purple lake; then 
with a sable pencil dipped in turpentine take a thin wash 
of the blue black and vein on the wet work, and soften; 
then work up the veins further with more blue black, so 
that the color may be a little darker, but still thin; after 
this, with a flat camel's hair fitch dipped in turpentine, and 
a small quantity of the purple lake and blue black mixed, 
apply very thin washes in some of the open spaces, and 
soften lightly. When dry, put in whites, with white lead 
mixed with turpentine, using a sable pencil, and subsequent- 
ly softening the work with a badger, ^\^)en the paints are 
quite hard, apply a light varnish. 

Italian Pink Marble. Over a white ground apply a coat 
of white paint as in the last case, compound tints of ultra- 
marine and white lead and vermilion and white lead, each 
being mixed with equal quantities of oil and turpentine, 
and with these dab patches, as already described, and soften. 
On the palette place some Indian red and with a small 

224 



MARBLING 225 

pigeon feather dipped in turpentine and some of the In- 
dian red, work the pattern and well soften. When this is 
dry, mix some white lead mixed rather thinly with turpen- 
tine, and flat the whole of the work; then with a feather 
dipped in turpentine scumble over the work and subse- 
quently put in whites with white lead and turpentine. When 
the work is perfectly hard it is to be varnished. 

Verde Antique. The ground of Verde antique is either 
black or dark green, the marbling colors being dark brown 
and green. Scumble over the work with these, then with 
Brunswick green and white lead scumble over again and 
soften with a badger; next with a fitch paint masses of white 
of various shapes, squares, irregular triangles, etc., and 
similar masses of black. 

The painter may here be reminded of the difference be- 
tween scumbling and glazing. In the latter the colors are 
thinly mixed so as to be transparent; in the former, the 
color is mixed thick and thinly spread or rubbed on it with 
a hard brush. 

Egyptian Green Marble. This marble in color nearly re- 
sembles the Verde antique; it is superior serpentine, and 
there are several sorts, which are called by different names, 
which would be of but little service to the painter, as they are 
all for his purposes comprehended under the above title. 
Egyptian green differs from Verde antique in the form of 
the veins, which run in a more horizontal direction, having 
a greater quantity of small fossil substances mixed with it, 
and the dark veins frequently running in streaks which 
often appear as if broken by violence. 

Serpentine. The same kind of marble, though not so 
variegated in vein or color, is found in Germany, Russia 
and England. It is called serpentine from its supposed re- 
semblance to the skin of a serpent and in its rich variety of 
color and almost indestructible hardness, and is therefore 
eminently suitable for architectural ornaments. 

Noble or Precious Serpentine has nearly the same ap- 



226 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

pearance with the green marbles of the East, called Egj'ptian 
green. The green is generally the cold color of the leek, but 
varies in shades, some appearing in the darkest olive. The 
veins which appear black sometimes run in a horizontal 
direction, and then suddenly break and appear nearly up- 
right; in other eases thej^ seem to have undergone a vio- 
lent concussion, and become broken and shivered to small 
pieces. It is the business of the geologist to explain the 
cause of this appearance in one of the most solid of min- 
erals; it is sufificient for the painter to note the character, 
so as to reproduce it as far as possible by means of his art. 

The common Serpentine is found in great abundance in 
the Isle of Anglesea. It is not so bright or so varied as 
the precious; the dark shades of green are much broader, 
and the light veins not so fine and reticulated, and conse- 
quently the fossil remains that are white show more dis- 
tinctly in small, long, square pieces of various sizes and 
forms. The black vein is so mixed with the darkest shades 
of green as to be scarcely perceptible in some instances, and 
this renders the marble somewhat dull and not fit for orna- 
mental painting. 

The mode of producing all the green marbles, both in oil 
and distemper color, must be the same as that directed for 
Verde antique. The ground must in all eases be black and 
the different shades of green may be formed by scum- 
bling the white over the black, more or less thickly according 
to the variety of shade required, and, when the whole is 
finished, glazing with green according to the tint of the 
marble. 

White-Veined Marble. The ground for this marble is 
white laid perfectly smooth. The first vein will be found, 
on inspecting a specimen, to be very faint; it is the broad 
vein of the mica seen through a great depth of the semi- 
transparent body of the white. The shadows of white al- 
ways partake of a yellow hue, and thus the faint vein Avill 
appear of a reddish gray, which is formed by mixing white, 



MARBLING 227 

black and Indian red to a propex' tint. This must be scum- 
bled or spread very thinly in the forms that it is intended 
that the veins should take. In relation to the formation of 
marbles, it must here be observed, that they are beds of 
rock that are veined by metallic or other substances run- 
ning- amongst them, and that the veins always run in the 
direction of the strata, precisely as thin streams of water 
would if poured upon an inclined plane, such as the top 
of a table slightly raised on one side. If this experiment 
is tried it will be found that the streams, if they commence 
regularly, will, from some inequalities of the surface, soon 
alter their course and turn in various directions, sometimes 
joining together, forming a sort of star, and then spread- 
ing into finer threads, while others will join and form a 
thick vein, but still running in various forms towards the 
bottom. This is precisely the way in which the various sub- 
stances sjDread themselves on the limestone, of course pene- 
trating the surface and intersi^ersed with the strata. 

From this experiment the painter will see that however 
the direction of the veins, they must all appear to be trav- 
eling to the same point by different roads and nothing can 
be more contrary to nature than those violent and eccentric 
breaks which painters of veined marbles usually practice. 
This will ajjply to all marbles except Porphyry, Black and 
Gold and Florentine. 

The first broad vein of the marble having been rather 
faintly painted, the veins nearer the surface are next to 
be put in. They are made a little darker by the addition 
of black and are to be drawn very thin, taking the direc- 
tion of the broad faint vein and being divided according to 
pi-evious studies from nature. The veins which are nearest 
the surface must, of course, be darker than the othei'S, and 
the color may be darkened and warmed by the still further 
addition of black, with a little lake and blue. This vein 
should be drawn with a fine sable pencil very thin, and 
made to take nearly the direction of the last veining. Only 



228 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

very little is i-equired, but it must be put in with spirit 
and skill and the beauty of the work will thereby be greatly 
enhanced. 

The whole of these veins are put on one upon the other 
whilst wet and blended together with the badger softener. 
When quite dry the dark vein may be retouched either 
wholly or in parts. 

Lay on a ground of white and put in the veins with a 
marbling craj'on or camel's hair brush whilst the ground 
is wet, and soften with the badger. This is, of course, a 
much inferior method to the above, as the different degrees 
of depth of the veins, and the pale smooth portions caused 
by the confluences described are not as well represented. 

riorentine Marble. The ground for this marble is white, 
Indian red and black, mixed together to form a very light 
reddish neutral tint. The veins are umber or burnt sienna; 
they are laid on very irregularly, while the ground color is 
wet; sometimes they are very close together, and then seem 
to break suddenly into the forms of rocks or ruins, an effect 
which must be studied from natural specimens and must 
be imitated by hand. 

Black-and-Gold Marble. The ground is black. Paint 
the large spots from which the fibrous veins are to run with 
yellow ochre and white, the bright tone of which must be 
heightened by the addition of a little vermilion. These 
masses must be dabbed with freedom upon the ground with 
a l)rush full of color and, whilst quite wet, threads must be 
drawn from them in all directions, some, of course, being 
larger and thicker than olliers. 

A white vein is sometimes seen running in the deepest 
parts of the black, with small threads attached to it, cross- 
ing each other and the yellow veins in all directions. Care 
must be taken that the threads are connected with, and run 
in some degree in the same direction as, the thicker veins. 
If the ground of this is properly prepared, the yellow and 
white veins may both be painted at once in oil color. 



MARBLING 229 

In cabinet work, most beautiful imitations of the finest 
specimens of this marble may be produced by spreading a 
leaf or two of gold in any part of the work where the gold, 
and silver leaf where the white, veins are intended to run. 
The black ground is then to be rather thickly painted over 
the whole surface, covering the gold and silver leaf, and, 
after the color has been on a short time, take a round- 
pointed bodkin, or similar implement, and draw the color 
in small reticulated veins from off the gold and silver leaf; 
the metal will then show in fine lines; the larger masses 
are to be wiped off with the wash-leather spread over the 
point of the thumb or a piece of wood. When the black 
is dry, the yellow and white veins are to be painted as be- 
fore directed, and drawn over the gold and silver, which 
will by this means show through them and give great bril- 
liancy water when the work has been subsequently var- 
nished. 

Paint the ground a deep ivory black; put on the veins 
in white, yellow ochre and burnt and raw sienna, using a 
camel's hair brush; glaze the spaces between the veins with 
a thin coat of gray or white, over which pass a few white 
veins. The veins may also be put in with gold leaf. 

Porphyry Marble. Mix the ground color of Venetian red 
with a little vermilion and white, until it is of the tint re- 
quired. The first layer of spots is produced by sprinkling 
in the following manner: Mix some of the ground color 
with a larger quantity of white, in a paint-pot, and use a 
large brush which has been well worked in the color; hold 
the palette knife over the paint-pot and press the hairs of 
the brush against the edge so that as much as possible of 
the color may be forced out of it; then, taking the handle 
of the brush between the palms of the hands, roll it to and 
fro with a rapid motion, the ends of the hairs being below 
the level of the paint. 

Now hold a stick firmly in front of the work and strike 
the handle of the brush against it; the color that still re- 



230 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

mains in it will thus fall on the surface in a variety of 
small dots. Great care on the part of the painter is neces- 
sary at this stage, so as to distribute the spots equally; 
otherwise, whilst one part of the work will be left only par- 
tially spotted, others may be so thickly covered that the 
urops will become confluent and not be visible as spots 
afterwards. 

When this work has become sufficientlj^ di-y, the sprink- 
ling may be repeated by dipping the brush into a color 
rather deeper than the ground; it may be Indian red, with 
suflBcient white to give it a bod3\ The sprinkling with this 
color must be done very sparingly and rather more in 
some parts than others. 

The last sprinkling is to be done with a clean small tool 
dipped in white paint only and the spots are to be very 
fine; as much color, therefore, as possible should previously 
be removed from the brush, and it will be found that, when 
so little color remains in the brush that it will scarcely 
mark a board when rubbed on it, there will still be enough 
to produce the fine dots when struck against the stick. The 
stick should be held at some distance from the work, as the 
farther away the finer will be the dots. In imitating some 
specimens, the three layers of spots are laid on and, in ad- 
dition, a narrow opaque white vein is to be run amongst 
the spots; from this transparent threads are drawn in vari- 
ous directions; these cannot be added until the whole of 
the sprinkling is quite dry and hard; they must then be 
formed with a sable pencil and the threads drawn out with 
a feather. 

Egyptian Porphyry. The ground for this rare and beauti- 
ful marble is composed of vermilion and white lead. A 
tint of Indian red and lake is then sprinkled over the 
ground by striking the handle of the brush containing the 
color against a stick, and turning the wrist whilst striking; 
some of the dots will thus become elliptical instead of cir- 
cular. The sprinkling of the brush must be spread in every 



MARBLING 231 

direction, and the spots will, as already explained, be larger 
as the brush is struck nearer to the work and smaller as the 
distance is increased. The darker spots are a strong tint 
of lake, sprinkled on the previously made spots by strik- 
ing the brush very smartly once or twice over that part of 
the work where they are required. The whole must then 
be left to dry; after this, a light blue tint must be sprinkled 
very lightly over different parts of the surface, but in no 
part so thickly as to overpower the red. The larger spots 
are to be done with white applied with a sable pencil near 
the darkest sprinkling. Dark spots of a tint formed with 
blue and lake are now to be added, and the work is to be 
completed by white veins drawn with a fine camel's hair 
pencil. 

Blue-and-Gold Marble. The ground for this marble is a 
light blue, and when this is quite dry dab on in separate 
patches light blue, white and Prussian blue, leaving portions 
of the ground visible. Soften these patches together and 
then vein in every direction with white and fill up some of 
the irregular spaces with yellow or gold paint, and finally 
add fine white veins. 

Blue Ruby-Spotted Marble. The blue ruby-spotted mar- 
ble comes from Switzerland; it is light-colored, beautiful 
marble which may be introduced either in large or small 
masses with equally good effect. 

The ground for this marble is a very light blue, with a 
few patches of white in those parts where the yellow spots 
are afterwards to appear. Both the blue and white of the 
ground must be quite dry before any marbling color can be 
applied. A bright tint of Prussian blue nnd white may be 
painted on in spots over the blue ground, and above this, 
whilst wet, a few touches of a darker tint must be laid on 
in large spots sufficiently apart from each other to allow the 
first tint to be seen between them. 

The yellow spots may now be applied over the white 
ground; this is done with King's yellow mixed with a little 



232 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

vermilion. The work must be left to dry before it can be 
proceeded with. The surface being quite hard, paint the 
dark red or ruby veins with a tint of lake and blue. This 
is rather dotted than painted over the blue, taking care to 
avoid the yellow. These marks in some places are quite 
red, and for these lake alone is used. As soon as the ruby 
tint is applied, mix a much stronger tint of lake and blue 
and draw the strong markings over the lake; these lines 
are drawn out in a long succession of spots over the blue. 
It is impossible to give a verbal description of the manner 
of applying the tints in the various markings of this marble, 
but the painter who keeps the general character cannot 
greatly err from nature. 

This is a most excellent pattern for distemper color. The 
ground is white, the light blue is white and Prussian blue; 
this may be sprinkled with a large brush. The darker spots 
are a tint with a little more blue than the first. 

Blue-Veined Swiss Marble. This mnrble is exceedingly 
splendid in color and not very difficult to imitate. The 
ground is white. Light blue spots or broken streaks are 
drawn over the ground so as to let the white be seen be- 
tween them. The blue must be omitted on that part of the 
ground where the yellow markings are seen. On these 
spaces a tint of King's yellow is painted and on this tint 
broad spots or touches of burnt sienna. The work must 
then be suffered to dry, after which the purple tint may be 
applied over the blue spots; this tint is lake and blue; the 
marking upon it is black; a glaze of burnt sienna in differ- 
ent parts will give variety of tint to the representation. 

To execute this marble in distemper the blue may be 
sprinkled upon the ground with a large brush. The yellow 
is King's yellow, touched up with lake; the purple tint is 
indigo mixed with rose pink, and the darkest markings are 
black. 

Dove-Colored Spotted Marble. This differs from the Dove 
marbles commonly seen by the contrast of the strong dark 



MARBLING 233 

and light spots, and the interspersion of thin light veins. 
Dove marbles are used to heighten the effect of white- 
veined or statuary marble in sepulchral monuments, etc. 
The imitation in painting is mostly required for chimney- 
pieces or common dark work, for which it is very appro- 
priate. 

The ground for this marble is a light grey formed with 
black and white, mixed to the tint required; the sprinklings 
on the ground are done with a very dark tint formed of the 
same colors. The large spots are black, laid upon the 
sprinklings while wet with a sable pencil. The white spots 
and the veining may also be painted while the dark sprink- 
ling is wet, as they will then blend with it and have a more 
natural effect than it would if they were painted when the 
dark sprinkling had become dry. 

The process and colors are the same if the work is re- 
quired in distemper, but as it is so easily and quickly per- 
formed in oil it is seldom that distemper color for so dark 
and common a marble can be used with advantage. 

Dove Marble, For the ground of this marble two or three 
coats of good lead-color should be laid, and these should 
each be nicely smoothed with glass paper. The color used 
for marbling is the same as the ground, but thinned with 
turpentine. In order that the work may be satisfactorily 
blended whilst wet, only a small portion must be taken in 
hand, the whole being executed piece by piece until com- 
plete. The marbling color having been rubbed over a cer- 
tain portion, small specks representing fossil remains are 
to be formed in it with a whitish tint, and these must be 
blended into the color, but not so much as to lose their dis- 
tinctions. Veins of various sizes are then to be put in with 
the thinned ground color, using a small sash tool, distribut- 
ing them with taste, and interspersing them with very fine 
veins. The color is then to be made lighter by the addition 
of white lead, and with a feather dipped in this color the 
broader veins are to be passed over, thus forming numerous 



234 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

thread-like veins. Next, with thin white in a camel's hair 
pencil, pass partly over the same veins with short thick 
touches, which may be continued in the narrower parts with 
a fine striping pencil. When the work has become quite 
hard it should be smoothed with very fine glass paper be- 
fore being varnished. 

Jasper Marble. The ground is composed of Venetian red, 
red lead and a small quantity of chrome yellow, mixed with 
oil and turpentine in equal j^arts. Or additional 'brilliancy 
may be given to the color by vermilion or lake instead of 
Venetian red. While the ground is wet, dab on spots of 
white, using either a piece of sponge or a tool, and soften 
with a badger, subsequently repeating the white touches in 
parts to give them increased brilliancy. Spots of blue, brown 
or yellow may be added in the same manner. When nearly 
dry, veins and threads may be put in with a camel's hair 
pencil. 

Granite. Granite is a well-known igneous rock, composed 
principally of three minerals, Quartz, Felspar and Mica, 
united in a confused ci-ystallization, that is, without any 
regular arrangement of the crystals. The following is the 
order in which the ingredients are proportioned: Felspar, 
Quartz, Mica. The name of the stone is derived from its 
granular formation. 

There are very many kinds of granite used in the arts. 
Amongst these are the gray, red, green, violet, rose-colored, 
etc. 

For the gray granite the ground is a gray, mixed of black 
and white, and, over this, spots are to be splashed with 
black and white, used separately, the work being carried on 
as described in relation to Porphyry. For the various shades 
of red granite the ground is composed of Venetian red and 
white, the spots being black, white and vermilion. In the 
same way any of the other kinds may be represented. 



MILDEW. 

Mildew is a serious trouble. This is a vegetable growth 
and always a sure indication of dampness. It is impossible 
to satisfactorily paint a surface on which mildew has formed 
unless the surface is first treated to destroy this growth. 

Ochre primers and ochre colors are particularly liable to 
this really sej'ious trouble, due to the fact that they are 
largely of bog origin and contain the seeds or spores as 
they are called from which the mildew mold develops. Such 
growths result not only in a most serious discoloration of 
the work which at times may be taken as fading or change 
of color, but also are verj' destructive to the paint itself, 
mildew not only developing at times at the expense of the 
vegetable oil itself, but what is even more serious, growing 
between the wood and the paint and thus forcing the paint 
off. 

Vegetable oils like linseed oil are not destructive to this 
vegetable growth, but turpentine is, hence the first thing 
to do in aggravated cases is to wash well and freely with 
turpentine, removing any loose paint; this will very largely 
destroy such growths. In ^addition, an exceptionally large 
amount of turpentine should be used in the first coat ap- 
plied over such a surface; the paint should be well flatted. 
An undereoating well flatted with turpentine applied over 
a mildewed surface which has been washed with turpen- 
tine offers the best possible protection against repetition of 
the trouble. 

235 



OILS AND DRIERS. 

Linseed oil is produced by expression from the seeds, 
either by hydraulic or steam power. This material varies 
in cjuality : According to the goodness of the seed from 
which it is expressed, and according to its age and clear- 
ness; for, when a large stock is kept, it is found that, in 
about six months, there is a considerable amount of accumu- 
lation of refuse at the bottom of the tank, which is only 
fit to be employed in mixing coarse paint for out-door work. 
The best is yellow, transparent, comparatively sweet-scent- 
ed and has a flavor resembling that of the cucumber. Great 
consequence has been attributed to the cold drawing of this 
oil, but it is of little or no importance whether moderate 
heat be employed or not in expressing it. Several methods 
have been contrived for bleaching and purifying this oil 
so as to render it perfectly colorless and limpid, but these 
give it more beauty to the ej-e, in a liquid state, without 
giving it any permanent advantage, since there is not any 
known process for preventing the discoloring after its dry- 
ing, and it is, perhaps, better upon the whole that this and 
every vehicle should possess that color at the time of using 
to which it subsequently tends, so that the painter may 
depend on the continuance of his tints, and a%'oid the dis- 
appointment and annoyance arising from a change of color. 

Linseed oil is sometimes boiled with litharge to make it 
dry quickly, but when it is thus treated it is unfit for best 
work. 

The quality of linseed oil may be determined in the fol- 
lowing manner: Fill a phial with oil and hold it up to 
the light; if bad, it will appear opaque and turbid, its taste 
will be acid and its smell rancid. The oil which is expressed 

236 



OILS AND DRIERS 237 

from good and full-grown seeds should, when held up to 
the light, appear clear, pale and bright; it is sweet to the 
taste and has little or no smell. 

Linseed oil may be purified by the following process: 
Place the oil in a bottle or jar, and drop into it some pow- 
dered whiting, stir or shake up the mixture and allow it 
to stand on the stove, or in an oven, not too hot; the whit- 
ing will very soon carry down all color and impurity and 
form a precipitate at the bottom. The refined oil at the top 
may then be poured off. 

In rare instances, where the least yellowness in the oil 
would be injurious, nut or poppy oil may be used with ad- 
vantage; but, as already stated, linseed is the oil used for 
general purposes. 

Oils of a nature suitable for painting are the most com- 
modious and advantageous vehicle to colors hitherto dis- 
covered, first, because the unctuous consistence of them 
renders their being spread and laj'ed on a surface with 
more evenness and expedition than any other kind of ve- 
hicle; secondly, because, when dry, they leave a strong glu- 
ten or tenacious body that holds the colors together, and 
defends them much more from the injuries either of the air 
or accidental violence than the vehicles formed of water. 
The principal and most general quality to be required in 
oils is their drying well, which, though it may be assisted 
by additions, is yet to be desired in the oil itself, as the 
effects of the pigments used in it are sometimes such as 
counteract the strongest driers, and occasion great delay 
and trouble from the work remaining wet for a great length 
of time, and frequently never becoming thoroughly hard. 
There are some oils that have this fault to an incurable de- 
gree. The next quality in oils is the limpidness, or approach 
to a colorless state, which is likewise vei'y material; for 
where they partake of a brown or yellow color, such brown 
or yellow necessarily mixes itself with the pigments; but, 
besides the brown color which may be visible in the oil 



238 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

when it is used, a great increase of it is apt to appear some 
time afterwards when the oil is not good. There are throe 
changes which oils of the kind i:)roper for painting are 
liable to suffer in their nature, and which affect them as 
vehicles, that are mentioned by painters under one term, 
that of fattening; notwithstanding, these several changes 
are brought about by very different means, and relate to 
very different properties in the oils. 

The first is a coagulation by the mixture of the oil with 
some pigment improperly prepared. This, indeed, is called 
the fattening of the colors, but the real change is in the 
oils and the pigments are only the means of producing it. 
This change is generally a separation of the oil into two 
different substances, the one a viscid body which remains 
combined with the pigments, the other a thin fluid matter 
which divides itself from the color and thicker part. 

This last apjiears in very various proportions under dif- 
ferent circumstances, and, in some cases, it is not found 
where the pigments happen to be of a more earthy and alka- 
line nature, for then only a thick clammy substance that 
can scarcely be squeer.ed out of the bladder, if it is put up 
in one, is the result of the fattening. This fattening not 
only happens when oil and pigments are mixed together in 
bladders or vessels, but sometimes, after they liave been 
laid on the i3roper ground for them, instead of drying, the 
separation will ensue, and one part of the oil Avill run off 
in small drops or streams, while the other will remain with 
the color, without showing the least tendency to dry. 

The second is the change that takes place in oils from 
long keeping. This, if it could be afforded by the oil-manu- 
facturer or the paintei', is by far the best method of puri- 
fying linseed and otlier oils, as, by thus keeping, they be- 
come lighter colored and acquire a more unctuous consist- 
ence; and, though they are said to become too fat, they 
are in a very different state from that before mentioned, 
which is caused by unsuitable pigments. 



OILS AND DRIERS 239 

The third is the change produced by artificial means, from 
exiDosing the oil a long time to the sun, whereby it is freed 
from its grosser and more feculent parts, and rendered color- 
less, and of a more thick and less fluid consistence than 
can be produced by any other treatment; but, at the same 
time, it is made less likely to dry, particularly when used 
with mineral colors, as vei'milion, Prussian blue and King's 
yellow; it likewise becomes disqualified by other bad quali- 
ties that render it of little use as a vehicle for painting. 
Oils in this state are called also fat oils, though it is a 
change that has not the least affinity with either of the 
other, but, on the contrary, differs from both. In speaking, 
therefore, of the fattening of oils or colors, attention should 
be had to the not confounding these three several kinds 
one with the other. 

Linseed oil, from its cheapness, is the only oil in common 
use for house painting, and it may, by proper management, 
be made to answer for every kind of work. This oil is 
jjressed from the seed of flax, and is best when manufac- 
tured in great quantities. The general defect in linseed oil 
is its brown color, and its tardiness in drying, both of which 
are in a much greater degree found in some parcels than 
others. There is also found such as, in consequence of its 
being mixed with the oil of some other vegetable accidental- 
ly growing near it, j^artakes of the nature of olive-oil, and 
cannot be made to dry by any means whatever. The 
faults of the color and want of drying quality may be 
greatly reduced, if not entirely taken away, by keeping 
the oil for a length of time before it is used; it then be- 
comes fat in the second sense of the word, as before ex- 
plained, and is a good vehicle for color without any mix- 
ture; but it is generally used with a proper drier, as it 
never by itself becomes sufficiently pure to use with white 
or other light tints, without imparting a brown color to 
them. 

Poppy Oil. This is a colorless oil, and is in some in- 



240 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

stances used for delicate works where the length of time 
required for drying is no object. It is much celebrated 
in some old books, under the name of oil of pinks and oil 
of carnations, as erroneously translated from the French 
ceillet, or olivet, a local name for the poppy in districts 
where its oil is employed as a substitute for that of the 
olive. It is, however, inferior in strength, tenacity and dry- 
ing to linseed oil, although next to it in these respects, and, 
though it is of a paler color, and slower in changing, it be- 
comes ultimately not so yellow, but nearly as bi'own and 
dusky, as linseed oil, and therefore is not preferred to it. 

Nut Oil is the oil of walnuts, and is used in ornamental 
painting, as it is nearly colorless, and can be used with 
flake white and other delicate colors without the slightest 
danger of tingeing them. 

Driers. Driers are used to hasten the drying of paints. 
These are ground up in oil and are mixed in small quanti- 
ties with the color; some colors, in fact, will not perfectly 
harden without them, but remain stickj', or, as painters 
term it, tacky, until sufficient dust has clung to them to 
render their external surface at least apparently dry; 
though, as can be well understood, it will remain disagree- 
able to the touch and much injured in color. Red lead is a 
good drier, but, of course, can only be used in situations or 
in paints where its color is not objectionable. Sugar-of- 
lead is, however, the best drier, but is more expensive than 
others. Patent driers, ground up in oil, may be purchased 
at the various paint stores. 

Drying Oils. All the fixed oils have an attraction, more 
or less powerful, for oxygen, and by exposure to the air they 
either become hard and resinous, or they only thicken 
slightly and become sour and rancid. Those which exhibit 
the first property in a marked degree — as the oils of linseed, 
poppy, rape and walnut, are called drying oils, and are 
used as vehicles for colors in painting; the others are termed 
glutinous or non-drying oils. 



OILS AND DRIERS 241 

The resinifying or drying qualities of the oils are greatly 
increased by boiling them, either alone or along with lith- 
arge, sugar-of-lead or white vitriol, when the product forms 
boiled oil, or drying oil of commerce. The efficacy of the 
process depends on the elimination of substances which im- 
pede the oxidation of the oil. 

The following methods of preparing drying oils are culled 
from various sources; the quantities of each formula are 
given as in the originals, but these can, of course, be used 
in relative proportions when the preparation is to be car- 
ried on on a smaller scale. 

Linseed oil, 1 gallon; powdered litharge % pound. Sim- 
mer, with frequent stirring, until a pellicle begins to form; 
remove the scum, and when it has become cold and has 
settled decant the clear portion. Dark colored, used by house 
painters. 

Three hours boiling, with litharge one-tenth in weight 
of the oil, renders the oil more perfectly drying than when 
the boiling is continued for a much longer time, when the 
oil acquires a darker color and so becomes injured in trans- 
parency the longer it is boiled. Merely heating linseed oil 
to 170° Fahrenheit, along with a small quantity of peroxide 
of manganese, as completely renders it siccative as any 
amount of boiling, and without any deterioration to its 
color or transparency. It appears probable that litharge 
acts more by its mere presence in inducing the oxidation 
of the oil than by actually giving up oxygen to it, and 
those engaged in boiling oils have remarked that the old 
litharge, with which linseed oil has been already boiled, acts 
more energetically in producing the siccative property in 
it than new litharge. 

Pale Linseed or Nut-Oil 1 pint, litharge, or dry sulphate 
of lead in fine powder 2 ounces; mix, let it stand, frequent- 
ly stirring it for ten days, then set the bottle in the sun, 
or in a warm place to settle and decant the clear portion. 

Sugar of lead 1 pound, dissolved in I/2 gallon of rain 



242 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

water; 1 pound litharge in fine powder is then added, and 
the mixture is gently simmered until only a whitish sedi- 
ment remains; 1 pound of levigated litharge is next dif- 
fused through 21/2 gallons of linseed oil, and the mixture 
is gradually added to the lead solution previously diluted 
with an equal bulk of water; the whole is now stirred to- 
gether for some hours with heat and is lastly left to clear 
itself by exposure in a wann place. The lead solution 
which subsides from the oil may be used again for the same 
purpose by dissolving in it another pound of litharge as 
before. 

Into linseed oil, 236 gallons, pour oil of vitriol 6 or 7 
pounds, and stir the two together for three hours, then 
add a mixture of fuller's earth 6 pounds, and hot lime 14 
pounds, and again stir for three hours. Next, put the whole 
into a copper, with an equal quantitj' of water, and boil 
for about three hours; lastly, withdraw the fire, and, when 
the whole is cold, draw off the water, run the oil into any 
suitable vessel, and let it stand for a few weeks before 
using. 

Pale Drying Oil. The oil should be macerated two or 
three days at least upon about an eighth of its weight of 
litharge, in a warm place, occasionally shaking the mixture, 
after Avhich it should be left to settle and clear; or it may 
be prepared, without heat, by levigating the litharge in the 
oU. Acetate of lead may be substituted for litharge, being 
soluble with less heat, and its acid, being volatile, escapes 
during solution and bleaches the oil, to which coai-se smalt 
may be added to clear it by subsidence, increase its drying 
and neutralize its brown dolor. This affords pale drying 
oil for light and bright colors. 

Boiled Oil. The above mixture of oil and litharge, gently 
and carefully boiled in an open vessel till it thickens, be- 
comes strong drying oil for dark colors. Boiled oil is 
sometimes set on fire purposely, in making printer's var- 



OILS AND DRIERS 243 

nish and printing ink, and also for painting and the prepa- 
ration of japanner's gold size. As dark and transparent 
colors are in general comparative ill driers, japanner's gold 
size is sometimes employed as a powerful means of drying 
them. This material may be prepared in the following man- 
ner: Asphaltum, litharge or red lead, burnt umber or man- 
ganese, finely powdered, of each 1 ounce; stir them into a 
pint of linseed oil and simmer the mixture over a gentle 
fire, or on a sand bath, till solution has taken place, scum 
ceases to rise, and the fluid thickens on cooling, carefully 
guarding it from taking fire. If the oil employed be at all 
acid or rancid, a small portion of powdered chalk, or mag- 
nesia, may be usefully added, and will assist the rising of 
the scum and the clearing of the oil by its subsidence; and, 
if it be kept at rest in a warm place, it will clear itself, 
or it may be strained through a cloth and diluted with tur- 
pentine for use. Gold size for gilding is commonly made 
of boiled oil and fine yellow ochre. 

There is often a difficulty in obtaining the oils bright; 
after boiling or heating them with the lead solutions, the 
best way, on a small scale, is either to filter them through 
coarse woollen filtering pajier, or to expose the bottle for 
some time to the action of the sun, or to place it in a warm 
situation; on a large scale, the fine oils are often filtered 
through Canton flannel bags. The litharge and sulphate of 
lead used in the above processes may be again rendered 
available for the same purpose by washing them in hot wa- 
ter to remove the adhering mucilage. 

Drier for Zinc White. Purified linseed oil is boiled for 
six or eight hours, and to every 100 pounds of boiled oil 
there are added five pounds of powdered peroxide of man- 
ganese, which may be kept in a bag like litharge. The 
liquid is boiled and stirred for five or six hours more and 
then cooled and filtered. This drying oil is employed in the 
proportion of from five to ten per cent of the weight of 
zinc white, and it should be added during the grinding of 



244 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the pigment in oil, the admixture then being more thor- 
ough. 

Drying Oils. Fifteen parts of lime made into paste with 
water are added to 100 parts of oil oxidized by peroxide 
of manganese. The whole is boiled or heated by steam un- 
til the water has evaporated; the oil then forms with lime 
a thick product which is a drier. It may be ground with 
the ordinary oil of tuipentine, or with that of Venice, but 
the dryer is less powerful than when it has been mixed 
with oxidized linseed oil. Three to five per cent of this 
drier are sufficient for a rapid desiccation. 

Other driers may be made by combining lime with resins 
and essence of turpentine in the proportions indicated for 
fixed oils. 

Powdered Drier. Pure sulphate of manganese 1 part, 
pure acetate of manganese 1 part, calcined sulphate of zinc 
1 part, white oxide of zinc 97 parts. The sulphate and ace- 
tate are ground in a mortar to an impalpable powder, which 
is passed through a metallic sieve. Three parts of this pow- 
der arp dusted over the 97 parts of oxide of zinc, spread 
over a board or a slab; the whole is then thoroughly mixed 
and ground. The resulting white and impalpable powder, 
mixed in the proportion of V2 to 1 per cent with zinc white, 
will enormously increase the drying property of this prod- 
uct, which will become dry in from ten to twelve hours. 

Volatile Oils, procured by distillation from turpentine and 
other vegetable substances, are almost destitute of the 
strength of the expressed oils, having hardly more cement- 
ing power in painting than water alone, and are principally 
used as solvents, and media of resinous and other sub- 
stances introduced into vehicles and other varnishes. In 
drying they partly evaporate and partly, by combination 
with oxygen, form resin and become fixed. They are not, 
however, liable to change color like expressed oils of a dry- 
ing nature, and, owing to their extreme fluidness, are useful 
diluents of the latter; they have also a bleaching quality, 



OILS AND DRIERS 243 

whereby they in some degree correct the tendency of drying 
and expressed oils to discolorment. Of the essential oils, 
the most volatile and nearest in this respect to alcohol is 
oil of sassafras, but that most used in painting is the recti- 
fied oil, improperly called spirits of turpentine, preferable 
only on account of its being thinner and more free from 
resin. By the action of oxj'gen upon it, water is either gen- 
erated or set free, and the oil becomes thickened, but is 
again rendered liquid by a boiling heat upon water, in which 
the oxygen and resin are separated from it. When colored 
by heat or otherwise, oil of turpentine may be bleached by 
agitating some lime powder in it, which will carry down 
the color. The great use of this oil, under the name of 
turps, is to thin oil paints, and, in the larger use thereof, 
to flatten white and other colors, and to remove superfluous 
color in graining. It, however, weakens paint in preventing 
its bearing out, and when used entirely alone, it will not 
fix the paint. 

The name of turpentine is applied to a liquid, or soft 
solid product of certain coniferous trees, and of the Pis- 
tachia terebinthus. 

There are several varieties, as follows: American or 
white turpentine, Bordeaux tui-pentine, Venice turpeatine, 
Strasburg turpentine, Canadian turpentine, or Canadian 
balsam, Ohio turpentine and Frankincense. 

In nearly all cases the processes of collecting are similar. 
A hollow is cut in the tree yielding turpentine, a few inches 
from the ground, and the bark removed for the space of 
about 18 inches above it. The turpentine trickles down into 
vessels placed to receive it. The incisions are made about 
the close of March, and the turpentine continues to run 
throughout the vegetative season, especially during the sum- 
mer months. In general character these turpentines have 
much in common; they are oleo-resins, varying slightly in 
color, consistency and smell; they enter into the composi- 
tion of many varnishes. 



246 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Oil of turpentine is obtained by distilling American tur- 
pentine, which has been melted and strained with water in 
an ordinal^' copper still. The distilled product is colorless, 
limpid, very fluid and possessed of a very peculiar smell. 

The residuum, after the distillation of the oil or spirits 
of turpentine, is the common resin of trade. 



OIL PAINTING ON GLASS. 

There are three principal modes of oil-painting on glass, 
as follows : 

Non- Transparent Painting on Transparent Glass. In 
this mode the materials are the same, and the method the 
same, except in one particular, as that employed in painting 
on the front of mirrors. The sole particular in which it 
differs from this kind ol mirror painting is this: it must 
be much less transparent in the shadows and half tints, 
for the reason that it has no silver foil or ground; the 
paint, therefore, must have sufficient body in every part to 
prevent anything dark or bright behind from being visible 
through it, and thus affecting the coloring. This mode is 
much used for decorating unsilvered plates of glass to be 
inserted as panels in screens. As, however, the back of 
the screen is not covered in the usual way, if both sides 
are likely to be seen, and it be found desirable to hide the 
unpleasant appearance of the back of the painting, this can 
only be done by repainting on the back of the glass the sub- 
ject on the front. 

The outlines must be made to coincide with those show- 
ing through and a study of the subject should be used to 
fill in within the outlines^ but less finish will usually suffice. 

Transparent Painting on Transparent Glass. This kind 
of painting is applied to windows, magic-lantern slides, etc. 

Mirror-Painting on the Back of the Glass. This style of 
painting may be done either before or after the silvering. 
The former is the usual course, because simpler and less 
toilsome. In this case it is of the first imports nee that the 
outlines, or rather the boundaries, should be rendered sharp 
and true aiid with a good bod}' of coloi", otherwise their 
ragged or blurred edges will be emphasized by the subse- 
quent silvering. 

247 



248 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

The chief difficulty in painting on the back of the glass 
is to calculate the effect each touch will have when viewed 
in front. On so viewing his touches the artist will often 
be surprised at the discordancy they present, though he may 
have calculated their relative effect very carefully. There 
is no expedient that will materially lessen this difficulty. 
All that can be done is to register, so to speak, the value 
of the transparent, and the solidity of the opaque couches 
of paint, by placing a sheet of white paper behind the 
former, and a sheet of black paper behind the latter. 

The colors that are more or less transparent must be 
applied at the outset, but they will only appear as such 
and of their proper tint and hue when opaque paint is spread 
over them. Of course, the transparent colors must not be 
reserved for final glazing, the whole process of ordinary 
painting being reversed, the last strokes of the latter hav- 
ing to be the first strokes of painting on the back of a 
mirror. 

As the face of the paint must be as smooth as the pol- 
ished surface to which it clings, texture, for the representa- 
tion of the surfaces of objects, can only be obtained by 
means less direct, for the most part, than those available 
for other applications of oil-painting. When using trans- 
parent colors, and texture be required, they must be applied 
in a broken manner, and when using opaque colors for the 
same purpose they should be spread thinly, then scraped, 
and other tints or hues passed over them so as to show be- 
tween the interstices of the scraping, according to the re- 
quirements. 

When the work is otherwise complete a solid coat of 
white should be spread over the whole, and when this is 
dry a thick coat of Brunswick black. The first will pre- 
vent the second from showing through, as it might to the 
great detriment of the coloring. Brunswick black is used 
as the overcoat, because it effectually protects the painting 
proper from injury by the subsequent silvering. 



OIL PAINTING ON GLASS 249 

If the plale is already silvered a separate study should 
be made and the outlines of this study traced on the back 
of the silvering. This being done, the portion of the silver- 
ing that the painting must occupy is etched away by a 
scalpel or other sharp blade, taking care not to scratch the 
glass. The etching may be effected and outlines obtained 
without much trouble if the silvering has been done by the 
mercurial process. But it is not so with the modern silver- 
ing, this being covered with a coat of hard varnish-paint 
that is almost impossible to remove without leaving ragged 
edges. Only for a large plate to be viewed at a distance 
should it be attempted, and then, so great is the labor in- 
volved, it would generally prove more economical to ex- 
change the plate for a new one unsilvered. 

All painting on the back of mirrors has, however, inevit- 
able defects, which are apt to prove somewhat antipathetic 
to artists. Its difficulties, while augmenting the cost to the 
purchaser, preclude commensurate results. For the reason 
that the painter cannot see the progress of his work with 
the usual facility, the coloring can hardly be very har- 
monious. To mix each first touch of paint to the required 
hue or tint and lay it on at once in the right place is not 
easy to an experienced artist, but the difficulty is enor- 
mously increased when the work has to be turned to ascer- 
tain how the last touch behaves relatively to all those which 
preceded it. The coloring must also be comparatively dead, 
owing to the opaque ground. The painting can hardly ap- 
pear other than flat and monotonously smooth, or with little 
spirit of handling, or touch, descriptive of texture and ex- 
pression of light. And, although by this method there are 
no reflections from edges of the painting when the mirrox 
is viewed at an angle, yet the painting is obscured by re- 
flections from the surface of the glass before it, as well 
as lowered in brilliancy by the thickness and any green- 
ness of the glass. 



PAINTING A BATH TUB. 

The method for painting- an ordinaiy room is the plan 
which is followed in most cases of painting. The method 
of painting a bath tub, however, is an entirely different 
one. The wear and tear of an ordinai-y bath tub is very 
gTeat ; the heat of the water is in itself very trying to any 
paint or enamel, especially when, as often happens, the 
water is allowed to enter the bath in a nearh' boiling state, 
there to mingle with the colder water. It will be a hint of 
value to know that the hotter the water the greater is the 
wear and tear on the paint material, and this whether the 
bath tub is of the highest quality or is of a cheaj^er make. 
But apart from the heat of the water, the soap and grease 
which abounds in the bath room is in itself a means of de- 
struction to the paint. In renovating an old bath tub, the 
proper plan would be to have it taken out and sent to an 
enamelling firm, who paint it in a special manner and with 
a special paint, which is known as baking enamel. This 
is a description of paint specially made for articles to be 
placed in a stove of high heat whence the enamel is greatly 
hardened. The trouble and expense, however, of taking a 
bath tub out and sending it away in this manner is very 
great and many, therefore, prefer to paint their own bath 
tubs, if even they have to repeat the operations everj' spring. 

The first thing to be done is to thoroughly clean the sur- 
face and this, as in all operations of repainting, is very 
important. At the risk of being tedious the necessitj' of 
getting every portion of the surface absolutely clean before 
the paint is applied must be emphasized, and in this case 
it must be added absolutely dry also. Sometimes the fau- 
cets of the batli tub leak a little; if so this must be stopped 
before the repainting is commenced, otherwise the job is 

250 



PAINTING A BATHTUB 251 

hopeless. The best way of cleaning a bath tub is to first 
thoroughly scrub with soap and water, using hot water and 
plenty of elbow grease; any ordinary pure soap answers 
the purpose. The next thing is to rinse freely with cold 
water with a sponge or cloth, but even this, as a rule, does 
not remove all the grease, and a further operation is nec- 
essary to the same end of scrubbing with powdered pumice 
stone and water. A small scrubbing brush is moistened 
with water and dipped in the dry pumice stone and then 
the surface is rubbed over briskly so as to literally grind 
off any dirt or gi"ease which may remain. A thorough sluic- 
ing with cold water completes the process and the bath tub 
is, when dry, ready for the first coat of paint. If time 
is limited a clean cloth may be used to wipe off the water 
from the surface, but it is better to let the work remain for 
24 hours until it is thoroughly dry. 

Sometimes it will be found that the previous coats of 
paint have chipped off in places; in that case, if a really 
nice finish is required, it will be necessary to remove all 
the paint and start from the iron, and that is a long and 
tedious process. 

The paint to be mixed for this job is either white lead 
or zinc white, thinned with turpentine only, that is with- 
out oil, but with the addition of a tablespoonful of gold 
size. This paint should be somewhat thin and it will dry 
without gloss. It is called by painters, sharp color. The 
advantage it possesses is that it forms a very thin coat, 
much thinner than ordinary oil paint, and it may, there- 
fore, be applied much quicker, and being thin it is less likely 
to shrivel or crack under the influence of hot water. If it 
is desired to tint the paint this can readily be done by 
adding a little of the color required. For instance, sea 
green can be made by adding a little light Brunswick green 
and a little raw sienna to the white lead or zinc white. As 
a rule bath tubs look best a very light color. A light pink 
looks well, and so does a light blue. 



252 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

An ordinary paint brush will be used and care must be 
taken not to miss any small parts, and not to apply the 
paint too thick; a very thin, even coat is what is to be 
aimed at. The coat of paint will dry in an hour, but it is 
better to leave it for 8 or 10 hours before applying the sec- 
ond coat. A good plan, if the weather is dry, is to apply 
one coat early in the morning and the second at night. If 
the paint shows any sig-ns of roughness it may be lightly 
rubbed over with very fine sandpaper. In that case the 
bath tub must be dusted out before a second coat is ap- 
plied. As a rule three coats will be ample and two will 
usually suffice. If the paint is properly mixed and properly 
applied there will be no difficulty in determining when the 
surface has received a sufficient number of coats; that point 
will be reached when the tub is quite uniform in appear- 
ance. The beginner will be likely to view the work, how- 
ever, at this stage with some doubt, owing to the unfamiliar 
appearance of the flat surface, without gloss. Persons have 
abandoned the work at this stage under the impression that 
the unfamiliar appearance looked too much like whitewash. 
However, this appearance is quite what might be expected, 
but it will quickly be removed by the next process which 
is that of ajDplying a coat of varnish. 

Now it must be very distinctly understood that ordinary 
varnish, even of the best quality, is useless for painting 
a bath tub. It must be special bath varnish, or one made 
specially for resisting hot water. There should not be 
any difficulty in getting a bath varnish at any good paint- 
ers' supply house. Most of the best varnish firms manu- 
facture excellent bath tub varnishes, which may be abso- 
lutely relied upon, and as the quantity required for an 
ordinary bath tub is but very small, the cost is nominal. 

In applying the varnish it should be remembered that a 
thin coat only is required, and it is far better to give a 
second coat after the first coat is dry if a high degree of 
brilliancy is required than it is to apply a thick coat at one 



PAINTING A BATHTUB 253 

operation. Dip just the point of the brush in the varnish. 
Use the brush lightly first one way and then the other, 
finally drawing it lightly in one direction to smooth out 
the brush marks. 

Another little point which seems so obvious as to be 
hardly worth mentioning is to take care that every part of 
the surface is reached by the varnishing brush. To ensure 
this is much more difficult than would appear at first sight, 
because the varnish is almost colorless, and when one looks 
directly at the surface it is almost impossible to see which, 
part is varnished and which is not. It is easy, therefore, 
to skip a small portion of the surface without noticing it. 
The only way to provide against this is every now and then 
to look at the surface from a point at which the light re- 
flects when the lines between the varnished and unvar- 
nished surface will be readily discerned. 



PAIXTIXG IX DISTEMPER. 

This mode of coloiing, which, when applied to fine art 
purposes, is termed tempera painting, is undoubtedly the 
most ancient, and derives its name from the fact that colors 
are mixed or tempered with some liquid or medium to bind 
their separate particles to each other, and to the surface 
on which the paint is applied. 

The Italian noun temi>era admits of the widest applica- 
tion, and would include any medium, even oil; but, in its 
resti'icted and proper acceptation, it means a vehicle in 
which the yolk of egg, beaten sometimes with the white, 
is the chief ingredient, diluted as required with the milky 
juices expressed from the shoots of the fig-tree. This is 
the painting strictly termed a nuovo by the Italians. Vine- 
gar probably replaced the fig-tree juice among the northern 
artists, from the difficulty of obtaining the latter, and in 
modern use vinegar is substituted. Vinegar should be used 
to prevent the putrefaction of the yolk of egg, but the 
early Italian painters preferred the egg vehicle Avhen it had 
been suffered to stand until it had become decomposed, 
hence the phrase "a putrido. " 

The artist is often compelled to have recourse to very 
offensive media to make known his most refined revela- 
tions. On walls, and for coarser Avork, such as painting on 
linen, warm size was occasionally used, but the egg vehicle, 
undiluted, was generally preferred for altar-pieces on wood. 
For various purposes, and at different periods, however, 
milk, beer, wine and media composed of water, and more or 
less glutinous ingredients, soluble at first in water, such 
as gums, have also been used. Such are the media or velu- 
cles described by the chief Italian writers, as used in the 
days of Cimabue, Giotto and Fra Angelico, and by the 

254 



PAINTING IN DISTEMPER 255 

early painters before the invention and improvement of 
oil painting. The tiner egjj tempera in diy climates has 
been found to attain so tirm a consistence as to withstand 
ordinary solvents. The nse of wine in diluting these glu- 
tinous vehicles was common for a long period. Buffalmacco, 
of wliom so many humorous stories are told by Boccaccio 
and Vasari, is related to have persuaded some nuns, for 
whom he painted, to supply him with their choicest wine, 
ostensibly for the purpose of diluting the colors, but really 
to be imbibed by the thirsty painter himself. The northern 
artists were sometimes compelled to content themselves with 
beer. In the works of the northern tempera painters there 
are, however, very marked differences observable in the 
impasto or bodj^ of coloi-s. It is certain, therefore, that 
these painters employed media of different degrees of con- 
sistenc.v. In the distemper of scene-painting, the medium 
is weak size of glue, but plaster of paris, sufficiently dilut- 
ed, is worked with the colors. The carbonate of lime, or 
whiting, is less active as a basis for colors than the pure 
lime of fresco, but it is entirely destructive of transparency. 
When the more viscid media were employed by the tempera 
l^ainters, the effect must, with their purer use of the colors, 
some of which were, moreover, transparent, have been very 
lustrous and powerful in comparison Avith modern scene- 
painters' distemper, and these qualities were heightened 
by the addition of a strong varnish; still, however, tempera 
fell far short of oil painting in richness and transparency. 
The carbonate of lime, or whiting, employed as a basis 
is, however, less active than the pure lime of fresco. The 
vehicles of both modes are the same, and their practice is 
often combined in the same work. Water is their common 
vehicle, and to give adhesion to the tints and colors in dis- 
temper painting, and make them keep their place, they are 
variously mixed with the size of glue, prepared commonly 
by dissolving about 4 ounces of glue in a gallon of water. 
Too much of the glue disposes the painting to crack and 



256 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

peel from the ground, while with too little it is friable and 
deficient of strength. In some cases glue may be abated, 
or altogether dispensed with, by employing plaster of paris 
sufficiently diluted and worked into the colors, by which 
they will acquire the consistency and appearance of oil 
painting, without employing their limpidness or allowing 
the colors to separate, while they will acquire a good sur- 
face, and keep their place in the dry with the strength of 
fresco, and without being liable to mildew, to which animal 
glue is disposed, and to which milk, and other vehicles 
recommended in this mode, are also subject. 

There can be no doubt that distempering has its manifold 
advantages, and that when well done it possesses a degree 
of clearness and brightness, especially in white, pink, blue 
and lilac, which is not attainable in oil colors, owing to the 
admixture of the various oils, and to the changes likely to 
occur in them subsequent to the application of the colors, 

A fruitful cause of failure in distemper work is the 
neglect of proper precaution in preparing the surfaces to 
be colored, the great point at starting, assuming that the 
wall has b'een well smoothed, or if necessary' scraped, in 
order that the surface may present no roughness or inequal- 
ities whatever. The first stage is but seldom attended to 
by painters, who assume that the plasterer, as a matter of 
course, leaves the wall properly finished, but this must not 
always be taken for granted. At all events even if the 
work has been carried as far as it is the plasterer's duty 
to take it, there is no reason why the next stage should not 
be considered to belong to the painter, who is so well aware 
of the conditions on which a good result to his work de- 
pends. 

The process consists in this, the plasterers having left the 
walls, the painters take them in hand. With a bucket of 
water, a sponge, a rag, and a slab of wood, 6 inches broad 
and 7 or 8 inches long, on the back of which a handle 
made of leather is placed, and it must be mentioned that 



PAINTING IN DISTEMPER 257 

th'e wood is cut crosswise, each board being, as it were, a 
slice of a tree. The workman wets the wall with his 
sponge, and applies his wood brush, for this the instru- 
ment practically becomes, since the ends of the fibers, di- 
rected towards the wall, act like so many closely packed 
hairs. 

The wood brush is rapidly worked in a circular direc- 
tion, the wall being kept moistened with the sponge, and 
finally the surface is washed clean and well rubbed with 
the cloth, and then allowed to become thoroughly dry. A 
smooth surface is thus produced, and the next process is to 
stop the absorbent properties of the plaster, and here the 
process ends. The mixture used in this country is thor- 
oughly well adapted for its purpose, and is compounded 
in the following manner: 

Saturate about 12 pounds of best whiting with water, 
and beat it up, with a constant addition of water, until the 
mixture assumes the consistency of a soft paste. Add 
sufficient size to bind the color, 2 ounces of alum and 2 
ounces of soft soap, each dissolved in water. Mix all these 
ingredients thoroughly well, and strain through a coarse 
cloth or metal strainer. Care should be taken that too much 
size is not used, in fact, rather than use the mixture alto- 
gether too strong, it is preferable to give two coats of me- 
dium consistency, which, in effect, are better than a single 
thick one. If the wall is known to be damp, no amount of 
care, and no application on the one side of a wall, will keep 
it dry if it is pervious to moisture on the other or from 
below. The source of the evil must be sought for, and 
efforts should, in the first place, be applied to the removal 
of the cause rather than to ameliorating the injurious 
effects. 

The first and most general application of distempering 
is the process known as calcimining. In commencing to 
calcimine, the walls should be prepared as described above, 
but, of course, if they have been colored before, they will 



258 CYCLOPEDU OF PAINTING 

merely require washing with clean water, scraping smooth 
the rough patches, the cracks being stopped and made good, 
the whole being then passed over with the wood brush. Care 
should be taken that all the scrapings and other debris are 
swept away before the walls are finally rubbed down with 
a cloth and the coloring is commenced. The calcimine is 
made by mixing whiting, which has previously been allowed 
to soak for twelve or fourteen hours in water, to about 
the consistency of cream, care being observed that the mix- 
ture is very smooth. One teacupful of size is then to be 
added to two gallons of the whitewash, or, if a perfectly 
white wash is required, potato starch may be used. In lay- 
ing on the wash, a large flat brush is employed, and, if this 
is not overcharged, a ceiling or walls may, with a certain 
amount of care, be white or color washed with little or 
no splashing. 

The following mixture will be found useful for common 
work: ^2 bushel of lime, 1 pound common salt, ^2 pound 
of sulphate of zinc, and 1 gallon of sweet milk. 

For brickwork exposed to damp: i^ peck of fresh well- 
burnt lime, with water sufficient to make it into a thin 
paste, pass through a fine sieve, add a gallon of clear salt 
which has been dissolved in boiling watei*. Make a thin 
paste of 1 pound of rice flour and i/4 pound of best glue, 
mix this paste, whilst hot, with the previously made com- 
pound, and add 1/4 pound of Spanish whiting dissolved in 
1 quart of water. Stir all well together, cover over, and 
let the whole stand for a week, when it is to be applied 
whilst quite hot. 

In order to produce good work, two things are essen- 
tially necessary in the mixing of the distemper, namely, 
clean and well-washed whiting and pure-jellied size. The 
whiting should be put in to soak with sufficient soft water 
to cover it well and penetrate its bulk. When the whiting 
is sufficiently soaked, the water should be poured off, which 
will remove any rust or foreign matter from the whiting, 



PAINTING IN DISTEMPER 259 

it should then be beaten up or stirred until all the lumps 
are broken, and it becomes a stiff, smooth paste. A good 
workman will do this carefully with his hand, and will 
manipulate it until it is quite smooth, but it may be done 
most effectually with a broad stick or spatula, and then 
strained through a metal or other strainer. The size should 
now be added, and the two lightly but effectually mixed to- 
gether. Care should be taken not to break the jelly of the 
size any more than can be avoided, and this may be best 
done by gently stirring the mixture with the hand. If the 
jellied state is retained intact, the color will work cool, and 
lay on smooth and level. The size, whether made of parch- 
ment clippings, glue, or any other material, should be dis- 
solved in a sufficient quantity of water to form a weak jelly 
when cold. In j^ractice we find that distemper mixed with 
jellied size will lay on better and make a better job than 
when the size is used hot. Color mixed on the former plan 
works cool and floats nicely, while the latter works drj', 
and drags and gathers, thus making a rough ceiling or wall, 
and the difference in the labor required is very much in 
favor of jellied size. A little alum added to the distemper 
has a good effect in hardening, and helps it to dry out solid 
and even. 

In distemper painting, or, as it is more frequently called, 
calcimining, the base generally used for all the tints is 
the finest whiting, which is prepared in large quantities by 
various manufacturers. All the colors should either be 
ground very fine, or should be washed over, so as to ensure 
the most minute division of their particles. 

It will require two coats, and sometimes more, of any 
of the tints to cover plaster well, and to bear out with 
absolute iiniformity. When old plastering has become dis- 
figured by stains, it is necessary, in the first place, to prop- 
erly scrape and prepare the wall, and then to give it one 
or two coats of white lead ground in oil, the second being 
mixed with an additional quantity of turpentine, this, if 



260 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

well and sufficiently done, will cover all the stains, and will 
take the size colors very kindly. 

In order to produce an absolutely level tint in distem- 
per, great care should be exercised in cai'rying on the work. 
Whilst the color is being- laid on, the windows and doors 
should be closed, and all draughts prevented, so that the 
wash may not dry too quicklj', in which case the brush 
drags, and all piecings or brush marks will show when 
quite dry, but the moment the work is finished, all windows 
and doors are to be opened, in order to afford free ingress 
to the fresh air, for the moment the whole of the color 
is laid on, the sooner it dries the better. In order to ensure 
uniformity in drying, and to avoid parts becoming shady, 
the wash must be laid on evenly, and when the ground is 
once covered, no portion of it should be retouched, for 
such portion would then receive an additional coat, and 
would without fail present a more solid and brighter ap- 
pearance than the rest, at the same time there is every 
chance that the brush, passing over the half-dry or partially 
set color underneath, would rub up some of it, and cause 
a rough appearance, whilst the edges of the retouched part 
would be visible, giving the idea of a patch having been 
applied over the spot. 

The colors of which the various tints are to be composed 
should be ground up separately, and should be carefully 
added to the white body. As far as can be calculated, as 
much of any particular tint as ma}^ be required for one 
room or job should be compounded at once, to avoid the 
trouble of matching. Powder color should never be added 
to the body white\ If only a small quantity of any addi- 
tional color is required, it should be well ground on a slab, 
and taken on the point of the palette knife, or at the end of 
a stick, and thus mixed with the general mass. Where this 
is not done, the white gathers around each separate particle 
of the powder color, making a minute ball, with a colored 
center and as it were a white shell, a number of these be- 



PAINTING IN DISTEMPER 261 

come agglutinated. The inexperienced woikman thinks the 
color is well mixed, because he has, during mixing, lost 
sight of the particles of color, but when he comes to spread 
the wash on the wall, the dark specks emerge from their 
temporary cases, and, as they are dragged along by the 
brush, cause lines and streaks of more or less breadth, ac- 
cording to the number of particles which have been bound 
together. These may not perhaps be noticed whilst the 
color is wet, but will soon appear as it dries, and the evil 
result will not be in appearance only, for as these specks 
of color have not been bound by the size with which the 
whole mass has been mixed, the spots and streaks caused 
by them will rub off, leaving the original color of the plas- 
ter, or of the previous wash, visible. Sometimes, too, when 
the powder color is of a heavier character than the mass, it 
finds its way to the bottom of the bucket or pot, and when 
the quantity is nearly used, the last part of it will be found 
to become gradually darker than that previously used, 
whilst if the brush be allowed to touch the bottom, it will 
bring up a quantity of dark color which will be deposited 
with the first stroke on the wall. 

Great care must be taken in mixing tints, for some colors, 
such as Prussian blue, are so strong that a very little of 
them will produce the desired effect, and thus, if they are 
used without consideration, it becomes necessary to add 
more and more white, a greater quantity of the tint required 
is compounded, and waste results. The safer plan is to mix 
a small quantity of the tint in a jar or on a piece of glass, 
and, having spread this on a piece of paper, the painter 
will be able, when it is dry, to judge of the shade, and 
to form an idea as to the relative qualities of the different 
colors required. Other colors again, such as orange lead, 
are of such density, that they will separate from the others 
and sink to the bottom, and therefore tints compounded 
with these must be worked in a size jelly, this, too, will 
be learnt by trial and experience. 



262 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Nearly all of the colors given herewith may be used in 
either oil or distemper painting, the white, in the one case, 
being white lead, diluted with oil and tui'pentine, and, in 
the other, whiting mixed with size. 

STRAW COLOR. 

White lead, Massicot (in oil). 
Whiting, Dutch pink (in distemper). 
Whiting, Chrome j'ellow. 

LAVENDER, LILAC, AND FRENCH GRAYS. 

Produced according to the predominance of white, blue or 
red. 

White, Lake, Indigo. 

" Lake, Prussian blue. 

" Indian Red, Prussian blue. 

" Vermilion, Prussian blue. 

" Indigo, Rose pink. 

PEARL GRAY. 
White, Black, Prussian blue. 

GRAY TINTS. (Of a blue hue.) 
White, Verditer. 
" Blue black. 
" Lamji black. 
" Indigo. 

GRAY TINTS. (Of a brown hue.) 

White, Madder brown, Prussian blue. 

" Madder brown, Prussian blue, Yellow ochre. 

" Indian red, Indigo. 

" Light red, Prussian blue. 

" Burnt sit'iiiia, Lake, Tndijjo. 



PAINTING IN DISTEMPER 263 

BROWN TINTS. 

White, Lake, Prussian blue, Yellow ochre. 
Lake, Indigo, Yellow ochre. 
Raw sienna, Madder lake, Prussian blue. 
Light red, Indigo. 
Vandyke brown. Lake, Indigo. 
Burnt sienna. Indigo. 
Burnt sienna, Lake. 

GREEN TINTS. 

White, Italian pink, Antwerp blue. 
" Italian pink, Prussian blue. 
" Yellow ochre. Indigo. 
" Burnt sienna. Indigo. 
" Brown pink. Indigo. 
" Raw umber, Indigo. 

PEA GREEN. 
White, French gi-een. 
' ' Olympian green. 
" Brunswick green. 
" Prussian blue. Chrome yellow. 

SAGE GREEN. 

White, Prussian blue. Raw umber. 
" Antwerp blue, Stone ochre. 

OLIVE GREEN. 
White, Raw umber, Prussian blue. 

ORANGE TINT8. 

White, French yellow. 
' ' Orange lead. 
" Dutch pink. 
*' Chrome yellow, Vermilion. 



264 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

PINK TINTS. 
White, Rose pink. 
" Crimson lake. 
" Scarlet lake. 

SALMON COLOR. 
Wtite, Venetian red. 
' ' Vermilion. 

PEACH TINTS. 

White, Vermilion, Indian red, Purple brown. 

" Vermilion, Indian red, Purple brown, Burnt stone 
ochre. 

VIOLET TINTS. 
White, Vermilion, Prussian blue, Lamp black. . 

CHOCOLATE. 
White, Spanish brown, Venetian red, Vegetable black. 

SKY BLUE. 
White, Prussian blue. 

FLESH TINT. 
White, Light red, Yellow ochre. 

" Lake, Vermilion, Naples yellow. 

FAWN. 

White, Burnt sienna. 

" Burnt umber, Venetian red 
" Stone ochre, Vermilion, 

BUFF. 
White, Yellow ochre, Venetian red. 
Cream-color is produced by a great preponderance of white. 



PAINTING IN DISTEMPER 265 

DRAB AND STONE COLOR. 
White, Burnt umber. 
" Raw umber. 
" Yellow ochre. 
" Yellow ochre, Lamp black. 
" Raw umber, Lamp black. 

LEAD COLOR. 
White, Black. 

" Black, Indigo. 

It must of course be understood that the colors are not 
to be mixed in equal quantities, but in such proportions as 
will produce the required hue, the slightest predominance 
of any one of the pigments gives the prevailing tone of the 
tints, whilst the addition of a further quantity of white pro- 
duces all the numerous gradations, from lavender and lilac 
to French gray. 

All colors in distemper are lighter when dry than they 
appear in a wet condition. 

White is the basis of all tints, and is necessary in com- 
pounding the endless variety of pale colors required by 
the painter and decorator. Thus, white tinted with blue 
affords Paris white, French grays, silver gi'ays, while among 
the red tints we have pink, carnation, coquilicot, and yellow 
with white gives primrose, straw-color and Isabella. To the 
colors compounded more or less with white we owe the 
innumerable tints of lilac, lavender, peach blossom, pea 
green and sage green, as shown in the preceding list of tints. 

The painter is advised to mix the tints in different hues, 
giving in each experiment a predominance to one or other 
of the component colors. 



PAPERHANGERS' TOOLS. 

A number of the tools used bj' a paperhanger are shown 
in the following illustrations. 

Two styles of shears used by a paperhanger are shown 
in Fig. 38. 

Paperhanger 's paste brushes are shown in Figs. 39 and 40. 

A paperhanger 's smoothing brush is shown in Fig. 41 
and a combined smoothing brush and roller in Fig. 42. 

The felt smoothing rollers as shown in Fig. 43 are made 
of a number of specially prepared felt coils 2^/2 inches in 




Fig. 38. Paperhanger's Shears. 



diameter, which can be tightened or loosed at will. The 
rollers are seamless and very resilient. They can be used 
equally as well on rough as on smooth walls; they do not 
need re-covering and can be easily cleaned. They can be 
used for stippling paint or paper, or stenciling in oil or 
water colors. 

The smoothing roller shown in Fig. 44 is made with a 
foundation of six-ply Canton flannel and a detachable cam- 

266 



PAPERHANGERS^ TOOLS 



267 



brie cover, held in place by removable ferrules, so that it 
may be easily replaced. 

The wall paper tiimmer shown in Fig. 45 has roller 




Fig. 39. Paperhanger's Paste Brush. 

bearings. This reduces the friction of the trimmer to a 
minimum, enabling- the operator to manipulate it back and 




Fig. 40. Paperhanger's Paste Brush. 



forth on the edge of the straight edge with scarcely any 
effort. 

The graduating plumb and level shown in Fig. 46 is made 



268 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



of highly polished brass and will fit any trimmer straight edge 
■without the manipulation of screws by means of the spring 
shown in the drawing. Any graduation for panel or relief 
work is obtained instantly by moving the pointer, which re- 




Fig. 41. Paperhanger's Smoothing Brush. 

mains rigidly at degree of angle desired. By moving the 
pointer to 90 degrees, it can be ascertained how much 
the ceiling is out of level. 

The paper trimmer shown in Fig. 47 has reversible cut 
and automatic shifting relief for the cutters. It has feed 




Fig. 42. Combined Smoothing Brush and Roller. 



guides on both sides of the paper and trims 18-inch length 
at each turn of the crank. The rollers in this machine are 
of hollow composite construction, and will not warp by 
reason of change of climate or temperature. 



PAPEKIIANGERS' TOOLS 



269 



The paperhanger's pasting table, sliown in Fig. 48, is 
made from the best selected and seasoned basswood. The 




Fig. 43. Smoothing Roller. 




Fig. 44. Smoothing Roller. 

top is mode of four pieces, tongned, grooved and glued. 
The legs are riveted in galvanized ii'on boxes. The top 



270 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



folds, enclosing the legs, and has a space inside for straight 
edge and tools. 




Fig. 45. Vail Paper Trimmer. 

Paperhangers ' knives are shown in Fi<j-. 49: A— Polished 
blade, maple handle, natural wood, closed ferrule. B— 




°<S LEVEL 
Fig. 46. Graduating Plumb and Level. 



Blade tempered and polished, maple handle, shellac finish, 
closed ferrule. C— Tempered and polished steel blade, staia 



PAPERHANGERS ' TOOLS 



271 



finish maple handle, closed ferrule. D — Blade tempered 
and polished steel blade, beech wood handle, natural finish, 
open ferrule. 

Paperhangers ' seam rollers are shown in Figs. 50, 51 and 
52: A — Polished oval maple roller. B — Rubber-covered 
roller. C — Polished maple roller^ oval or flat face. D — Rub- 




Fig. 47. Wall Paper Trimmer. 



ber-covered roller. E — Oval rosewood or lignum vitae 
roller. F — Flat rosewood or lignum vitae roller. G' — Side 
ai-m roller, flat or bevel face. H — Corrugated rubber face, 
hardwood core. J — Side arm roller, celluloid covered. K — 
Double arm roller, celluloid covered, oval face. L — Double 
arm roller, celluloid covered, flat face. M — Solid zylonite 
ivory seam roller, for feather edge work. 



272 



CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 



Paperhangers* wheel knives are shown in Figs. 53 and 54: 
A — Short bevel, steel bracket, plain or saw-tooth blade. 





Fig. 48. Paperhanger's Table. 



B — Short bevel, malleable iron handle, serrated, plain or 
saw-tooth blade. C — Double arm, steel bracket, saw-tooth, 



PAPERHANCJERS' TOOLS 



273 





B 




G 




274 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 




B 





D 




Fig. DO. Paperhanger's Seam Rollers. 



P.YPERHANGERS TOOLS 



275 







H 



Fig. 51. Paperbanger'5 Seam Rollers. 



276 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 





& 





M 



Fig. 52. Paperhanger's Seam Rollers. 



PAPERHANGERS ' TOOLS 



277 




.«!!,!!►•». 



ll;R 






•«■',- 




B 




^^mm^ 




Fig. 53. Paperbanger's Wheel Knives. 



278 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 




E 





G 




Fig. 54. Paperijanger's Wheel KnlveB. 



II 



PAPERHANGERS ' TOOLS 



279 



serrated or plain blade. D — Bevelled both sides, steel 
bracket, serrated blade, E — Short bevel, double arm brack- 




Fig. 55. Paperhanger's Wheel Knife. 

et, plain blade. F — Short bevel, washers both sides, steel 
bracket, plain blade. G — Short bevel, malleable iron handle, 




Fig. 56. Paperhanger's Wheel Knife. 

paste cleaner attachment. H — Short bevel, polished handle, 
paste cleaner attachment. 




Fig. 57. Paperhanger's Wheel Knife. 

The wheel knife shown in Fig. 55 has a bevel on both 
sides and blade made with an arbor revolving in the socket, 
paste cleaner "attiachment and rosewood handle. 



280 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



Fig. 56 shows a wheel knife with steel blade ground with- 
out a bevel. It makes a clean cut without crushing the 
edge of the paper. The handle is said to fit the hand per- 




Fig. 58. Paperhanger's Wheel Knife. 

fectly. Fig. 57 shows the position of the wheel knife in 
the hand when in use. The wheel knife shown in Fig. 58 
has a short bevel, off-set steel bracket and maple handle. 




Kig. 5"J. Combination Casing and Corner Knife. 

It may be used on any depth straight edge, as it works on a 
long axle. 

Fig. 59 shows a combination casing and corner knife. 
It has a cutter witli a short bevel, serrated edge. It is 




Fig. 60. Wl^eel Knife witli Paste Cleaner. 

especially adapted for ceiling work. The knife has a fluted 
edge, so that it \yill nut tear tlie iiai)er. 

The wheel knife shown in Fig. GO has a short bevel, 
malleable iron handle and paste cleaner attachment. 



PAINTERS' TOOLS. 

Painters ' scrapers are shown in Fig, 61 : A — Clipped 
point, metal bolster, coeabola wood handle, B — Square 
point, metal bolster, coeabola handle. C — Clipped point, 
steel ferrule, half elastic. D — Square point, flat coeabola 
handle, two rivets, half elastic. 

Painters' putty knives are shown in Fig. 62: A — Beech- 
wood handle, open ferrule. B — Burnt wood handle, open 
ferrule. C — Burnt wood handle, closed ferrule. D — Flat 
beech wood handle. 




Fig. 64. Paint Brush Holder. 

Painters' steel wire brushes are illustrated in Fig. 63: 
A — For removing paint, rust and all foreign accumulations 
from the surface of plain and ornamental metals, stone and 
brick. B — Painter's wire duster, made of very fine steel 
wire. C — Used to apply preparations for removing old 
paint, D — For removing old paint and cleaning moldings. 
E — For cleaning cornices and out-of-the-way places. 

A painter's brush holder is shown in Fig. 64. This is in- 
dispensable for keeping' the brushes in good condition. 

281 



282 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 





B 




Fig. 01. Painter's Scrapers. 



painters' tools 



283 






D 




Fig. 62. Painter's Putty Knives. 



284 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



A 




rfrtr Hendee WireBrustlCr 

liiiii'iiil 





D 




E 




Fig. G3. Painter's Steel Wire Brushes. 



PAPER HANGING. 

When re-papering an old wall the first thing to be done is 
to remove the old paper. Now although this is very neces- 
sary in order to produce a good job, as well as for sanitary 
reasons, it is very frequently neglected altogether, and one 
paper is pasted over another time after time, the accumu- 
lation of dirt, decayed paste, and perhaps various insects 
forming a most unsanitary dwelling place. The paper may 
be usually removed by washing it over with hot water, giv- 
ing a liberal quantity, and allow this to soak in, and then 
scraping off with an old chisel or scraper. 

If the paper is varnished, or is printed in oil, that is, if 
it is of the quality known as sanitary paper, it may be 
necessary to scoi-e over the surface with a chisel before 
applying the water, so as to give an opportunity for the 
moisture to soak in. Commence at the top, taking care not 
to injure the cornice or ceiling, and to get every particle 
of the paper away. Sometimes plastered walls which have 
been papered with half a dozen or more papers are in such 
a bad condition that when these papers are removed a con- 
siderable portion of the plaster will be pulled away. In 
such a ease it may be quite necessary to leave the old paper 
on. In a fairly good wall the paper may be removed with- 
out injury, provided that plenty of water is used, it is very 
probable that there will be some breaks, which will require 
mending before the new paper is applied. This can be done 
without much difficulty by means of plaster of Paris mixed 
in small quantities at the time with a little glue water, and 
applied with a knife or piece of wood, and smoothed off 
to a level surface. In mending the walls of an ordinary 
room in this way it may be necessary to mix the plaster 
half a dozen times, as if sufficient is mixed at one time for 

285 



286 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the whole job it will be found to be set quite hai'd, and 
therefore to be useless before the mending is completed. A 
few drops of glj-cerine added to the plaster will retard its 
setting, but this is not necessary if glue water is used. It is 
best not to pajjer over a patched wall for several days, but 
if time presses a coat of knotting may be given over all 
the jjatches to prevent the plaster affecting the color of the 
newlj'-aioplied paper. Coarse sandpaper should now be 
rubbed over the whole surface, so as to make it as level as 
possible, and then the room is ready for papering. 

Choosing the Paper. This choice is usually left to the 
lad^' of the house, probably on the supposition that she has 
better taste in such matters than her husband. If the 
paper is of a cheap grade in most cases the wallpaper dealer 
will send a book of jDatterns measuring, perhaps, 24 by 18 
inches, and from these small samples the occupant of the 
house is expected to make a selection. It is this which 
gives rise to so much disapiDointment. A small piece con- 
veys a verj' little idea of the appearance the room will pre- 
sent when the walls are covered all over with the same 
pattern, and it is far better, where it is practicable, espe- 
cially in the principal rooms, to obtain a roll or two of 
those papers which appear to be most suitable, and to pin 
them on the wall, so as to gain a good idea of the appear- 
ance they will present. The following hints should be borne 
in mind. For a small room choose a small pattern paper, 
never a large one, which will make it look smaller still. A 
room with a low ceiling will look higher than it is if a 
pattern having vertical stripes is chosen. The reverse of 
this is true of an unusually high room, which will not 
look so high if a paper having horizontal stripes is used. 
Gold papers, or those which have bronze or imitation gold 
in the design, are now rarely used, being rightly considered 
as somewhat vulgar, excepting in public or important rooms. 
Large pronounced patterns are usually not desirable, be- 
cause they detract from the repose or quiet appearance a 



PAPER HANGING 287 

living room should present. A bedroom should always be 
papered with a cheerful design, and geometrical figures 
be avoided as far as possible. 

In choosing a paper for a hall or staircase, or any room 
or apartment which is somewhat bare in appearance or 
devoid of furniture, it is always well to select a hanging 
of bold design and somewhat vivid coloring. Conversely 
a room full of furniture, especially if small and with many 
pictures on the walls, would be wholly spoilt by a bold 
design. During the last few years there has been a distinct 
tendency toward employing papers with little or no pattern 
at all, ingrains are much in vogue. These papers are dj^ed 
in the process of manufacturing instead of being grounded 
or treated with the distemper color on the surface, as is 
usual with ordinary wall papers. An excellent effect is 
produced in decorating a room with such a plain ingrain, 
especially if a good bold frieze is employed to form a finish, 
and take away from the bare effect. The objections to in- 
grains, however, is that they are very apt to lose their 
color, and also that they are very difficult to hang, as they 
are almost like blotting paper in texture, and they rapidly 
absorb the moisture from the paste. For many purposes 
an ingTaiu paper or its equivalent, having printed upon it 
a very small set design, produces good results. In selecting 
papers it should be remembered that it is not necessary to 
pay a high price in order to get good designs. 

Having made a selection of the paper, the next thing to 
be done is to cut off one or more of the margins. This is 
readily done by means of scissors or a trimmer. In some 
wall-paper shops will be found a machine by which the 
selvedge or margins may be rapidly removed, and in some 
cases the paper may be purchased already trimmed, which, 
of course, saves a good deal of trouble. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that the wall-paper manufacturer left the 
selvedge on for a definite purpose, to protect the body of 
the paper, and that without it there is a likelihood of the 



288 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

paper becoming quickly soiled. It should be remembered, 
therefore, that when wall paper is bought ready trimmed it 
is necessary to take great care in handling, so as not to 
dirty or mar the edges. There are two ways of hanging 
paper, one with what is called a butt edge, the other a 
lapped edge. In the former both margins are cut off, and 
the edges of the paper must then be drawn together, so as 
to exactly meet, the pattern, of course, uniting accurately. 
The difficulty of the paperhanger using the butt edge is that 
he sometimes finds a difficulty in bringing the edges to 
meet, and if there is a space between, the white wall under- 
neath shows through. Sometimes the paper shrinks after 
being hung, and produces the same objectionable effect. To 
prevent this it is not a bad plan to mix a little distemper 
to match the ground of the paper, and to paint this down 
the wall exactly where the several seams will come. If in 
this case there is an opening of, say, a thirty-second part 
of an inch it will not be noticed. As a rule, the unskilled 
workman will prefer to use a lapped edge. In this case 
only one margin is cut off, and the paper is lapped or placed 
over the other, care being taken to match the pattern as 
before. The objection to lapping is that the joints show 
somewhat conspicuously, as it will be clear that there will 
be two thicknesses of paper instead of one wherever the 
joins occur. A hint of importance is to remember that the 
laps should be away from the light, as this will render them 
less conspicuous than it would otherwise be. 

Paperhanger 's Paste. There are several ways of making 
paperhanger 's paste, but they all practically come to the 
same thing in the end. Take a sufficient quantity of ordi- 
nary white flour, place it in a big basin, add a littie water, 
stir and beat it up to a stiff batter, and then Ihin with 
additional water, taking care there are no lumps. Care 
must also be taken not to add too much cold water, so as 
to make the mixture too thin. When satisfied that there 
are no lumps, pour in slowly boiling water, stirring vigor- 



PAPER HANGING 289 

ously meanwhile only in one direction. In a short time the 
paste will begin to thicken, which means that it is cooked, 
and is then about right for use. In order to stiffen the 
paste, and also to prevent it becoming rancid, alum is some- 
times added in the proportion of about a teaspoonful of 
ground alum to two quarts of paste, this, however, must 
never be added if the paper to which it is to be applied is 
ingrain, as it is likely to cause the color to fade. It must 
also never be used on gold papers, as it turns the so-called 
gold black. To jjreserve the paste a few drops of oil of 
cloves should be added, or a little carbolic acid. An excel- 
lent preservative is formaldehyde, which may be added 
in the proportion of about a teaspoonful to four quarts. 
The paste should not be used while hot, it is better if it 
stands for a little time. To prevent a skin forming on the 
top a little cold water may be added. If the paper is a 
very stiff one, a small proportion of glue melted in water 
may be added, but this is not, as a rule, necessary. 

Measuring Quantity of Paper Required. It will now be 
necessary to ascertain the number of pieces of paper re- 
quired for the room that is to be re-papered. Paperhangers 
can, as a rule, tell the number of pieces by glancing at a 
room, but the amateur will require to measure. A piece 
of wallpaper is eight yards long, and when trimmed 21 
inches wide, there is, however, more or less waste, and the 
larger the pattern the greater will the waste be. In prac- 
tice the simplest plan to follow is to take a roll of paper or 
a piece of stick out to the right length, and to measure 
around the room, and find out how many lengths will be 
required, then measure the height, and see how many 
lengths can be obtained from the eight yards in length, 
remembering that something must be cut to waste, so as to 
match the paper. The pieces left over will usually be suf- 
ficient to paper over doors, windows, and any odd places. 
The following table may be useful for reference, but it can- 
not always be relied upon, because it is clear that one room 



290 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



may have many more windows or openings in it than an- 
other. 







^\ 


ALL 


Paper 


Table. 








Showing the Num 


3er 


of P 


ieces 


of Wiillpaper, 










21 Inches \^ 


^ide. 










Measure 


round 


the 


Four Walls 


in feet, 


including Doors, | 


Windows, etc. 


















Height ir 


Feet 




Lengths of Fo 


iR Wall 


■; IN- Fkkt. 




from Skirting to 
Cornice. 


24 26.3 29.3 32 


34.3 


37.3 40 42.3 45.3 48 


50.3 


7 and under 7^ 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 9 


9 


7X " 


8 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 10 


10 


8 " 


8X 


5 


6 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 10 


10 


8X " 


9 


5 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


10 11 


11 


9 " 


9% 6 


6 


7 


7 


8 


9 


9 


10 


10 11 


12 


9X " 


10 


6 


7 


7 


8 


9 


9 


10 


10 


11 12 


12 


10 " 


10% 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


10 


11 


12 12 


13 


lOX " 


11 


7 


7 


8 


9 


9 


10 


11 


11 


12 13 


13 


11 " 


11)4 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


10 


11 


12 


13 13 


14 



Hanging the Paper. It is suiDposed the paper is trimmed 
and cut into lengths ready to hang. The lengths are rather 
longer than is actually required, and the paperhanger will 
find that at this point he reaches his greatest difficulty, 
which is to paste the paper and carry it while wet to the 
wall and hang it in a vertical position. A good plan for a 
beginner is to take a plumb-bob, or if one is not available a 
small weight tied to a piece of string answers for the jDur- 
pose, and mark out upon the wall vertical lines at the points 
where the joins of the paper are to come. This will at 
least have the effect of keeping the joins upright. Place 
the paper face downwards on a pasting board, and give it 
a coat of paste, taking care not to apply too much, or it 
will brush out when the paper is applied. If the table is 
not long enough to take the whole length, as it probably 
will not be, paste one half, fold the end toward the center, 



PAPER HANGING 291 

then carefully draw the strip over and paste the other end, 
folding again so as to meet the end already folded. In 
this condition the paper will not leave any of the pasted 
surface outward, and as there are at least two thicknesses, 
it will not be very difficult to lift it from the table. With 
a little care the lower portion of the paper may be folded 
again for convenience in carrying. Commence at a project- 
ing corner of a. door or window, or at any other position 
where a mis-match will show the least. Climb the step 
ladder, Avliich must, of course, be provided, unfold the 
upi3er end of the paper, place it carefully beneath the 
cornice and down the marked line, press it against the wall 
with a brush, taking care that there are no air bubbles left. 
Then unfold another portion, and press this down also, and 
proceed in the same way until the bottom of the length is 
reached, when it will be found that a portion of the length 
which was cut too long projects over the skirting board. 
Draw the point of the scissors lightly along this edge, which 
will mark the paper, pull the lower end of the strip away 
from the wall, and cut otr this superfluous portion of the 
paper, and press the whole back in position; one length of 
paper will thus have been hung. Before pasting the second 
length, see that you have it cut correctly at the top to 
watch when placing it in 230sition. Paperhangers frequent- 
ly manage this on the wall itself, using the lower member 
of the cornice as a guide to mark the upper edge of the 
length, and they cut this suiierfluous top edge while stand- 
ing on the ladder. The paperhanger will do much better 
to get the upper portion right before he pastes the paper. 
A paperhanger 's brush should be used to press the paper 
to the wall. These brushes are usually used where speed 
is required; thej^ require a little practice before one becomes 
expert with them. Where a border or frieze is to be hung, 
the loroceeding is precisely similar to that already described, 
except that the width of the jiaper is much less, and it is, 
of course, hung horizontally instead of vertically. If the 



292 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

paperhanger will take care to fold his paper several times 
after it has been pasted, he should find no difficulty in 
handling it. It must be folded in such a manner as to be 
unfolded piece by jjiece as required to go up in its proper 
position. 

Borders and Friezes. Sometimes in the country, and 
even in well-built houses, rooms are found finished entirely 
without cornices. In such cases it is almost impossible to 
produce a finished effect unless a border or frieze is used. 
The boi'ders should be almost always used in rooms large 
and small, with the exception, perhaps, of the servants' 
bedrooms. They cost very little, and if a comparison is 
made between a room finished without a frieze and another 
in which a good design is employed, the difference will be at 
once apparent. 

Now that plain papers are so much in vogue, the frieze 
becomes an important part of the design, and drawing and 
dining-rooms from which a frieze is omitted is usually 
considered spoiled. 

Hanging Ceiling Papers. Papered ceilings are used at 
present to a very much greater extent than they were for- 
merly; in fact, in the better class of houses they are now 
used almost invariably. A papered ceiling with a papered 
wall gives an appearance of finish and completeness which 
is not apparent when the walls are papered and the ceiling 
is distempered. Distempered walls and distempered ceil- 
ings give the best possible appearance in interior decora- 
tion, but papered walls must always be used to a very con- 
siderable extent, and then the apartment is not finished 
unless paper is used on tlie ceiling also. Those who crave 
for white ceilings can get them in paper, or, rather, they 
can purchase many designs at very moderate prices in 
which the pattern is so delicate and faintly defined that 
it can only be discerned in certain lights. For a drawing- 
room a very pretty paper is one having a cream or nearly 
white ground, with a pattern printed in talc or some bril- 



PAPER HANGING 293 

liant material which, while nearly colorless, shows up very 
prettily under the gas light. Excepting the very elaborate 
schemes of decoration, bright colored ceiling papers should 
never be used. Floral designs are out of the question for 
ceilings, somewhat large geometrical designs, sometimes in 
imitation of ribbed effects, being usually employed. To 
hang a paper on a ceiling requires a good deal of thought 
and planning, and it is by no means as easy as hanging 
the paper on the wall. The paper having been carefully 
schemed out so as to show to the best advantage, is 
pasted and folded as before, and hung in the same man- 
ner, excepting that a lath or stick must be used as an aid 
in holding up the folded portion, while the other end is 
being pressed to the surface. Before the paper hanging of 
the ceiling is commenced, all breaks and cracks should be 
mended in the same manner as already described in dealing 
with broken walls. When cutting the paper around regular 
angles, such as those which arise from a bay window, the 
best plan is to cut the paper roughly to about the angle 
required, leaving it rather longer than necessary, and then 
to mark the exact line against the cornice with the point 
of the scissors, then to cut off the superfluous end. Even 
where care is taken, this will sometimes cause a little 
trouble with the paste coming against the cornice, but this 
can afterwards be made good with whitening or coloring the 
cornice as already mentioned. 

In rooms which have no pretensions whatever to a deco- 
rative appearance, ceilings are often papered in order to 
strengthen. We have seen old ceilings which appeared to be 
about to fall off, kept in position for years by two coats 
of strong paper pasted over them. In this case what is 
known as lining paper is used. It is sold by every dealer 
in paper hangings, and is cheap. It must not be forgotten 
that a ceiling must never be papered in any room in which 
there is steam at any time. For instance, in a laundry it is 
entirely out of place, as the first washing day will mean 



294 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the descent upon one's head of all the paper from the ceil- 
ing. 

Cleaning Wallpaper. The tenant or house owner at those 
unpleasant periods in the j'ear when spring cleaning ap- 
pears to be inseparable from a quiet existence, or when 
()arts of the house are re-decorated owing to a sudden fit of 
generosity on the part of the landlord, often experiences 
a good deal of difficult}' in determining whether a room 
really requires' re-papering or not. Possibly the paper is 
fairly expensive, and is only soiled over a small portion of 
its surface. All ordinary papers maj^ be cleaned without 
difficulty. There are on the market various preparations 
for the purpose which do the work very effectually, but 
their use is not necessar}'. One of the simplest waj's is to 
take a loaf of ordinarj' rj'e bread, which is at least two 
days old, cut off the crust, and trim the crust also from 
around the edge, place on the floor sheets of newspaj^er or 
cloths to catch the crumbs, and then go over the whole sur- 
face of the paper, rubbing it with the loaf from top to bot- 
tom in regular strokes. When the end of the loaf becomes 
dirty cut off a very thin slice with a shai'p knife, trim back 
the edge again, and proceed as before. Even better than the 
loaf is baker's dough, or flour and water mixed to a stiff 
dough answers equally well. A good plan is to add about 
quarter of the bulk of plaster of Paris to the floui', as this 
holds the dough together, and renders it less plastic or yield- 
ing under the strokes. Still another way is to use bran, a 
handful is taken and placed in a piece of flannelj and then 
rubbed against the surface of the paper. If there are any 
grease marks on the paper they can be removed in the fol- 
lowing manner: Mix a little dry Fuller's earth into a paste, 
place it carefully over and around the grease spot, when quite 
dry take a hot flat iron and hold it nearly touching the layer 
of Fuller's earth. This will dry out the grease, and the 
Fuller's earth may then be scraped off, leaving the paper 
comparatively clean and fresh. 



PIGMENTS. 

Names of pigments are not always synonymous with the 
colors. Dutch pink is yellow, verditer is blue, lake is not 
purple-blue always, but sometimes green, yellow, brown, etc, 
or it may be found as a pigment color, with a chalk base, or 
body. 

Before proceeding to describe the actual method of mixing, 
a few general remarks on colors may be given. White lead 
is used for the base of paints, because that pigment possesses 
greater covering properties, or body, as it is technically 
termed, than any other. Zinc whitfe may be used for a base 
under certain conditions, and color mixed with it will not be 
so likely to fade as when mixed with lead. The tendency of 
zinc white, however, to chip and crack renders the addition 
of lead necessary in some cases. When practicable, the nat- 
i;ral earth pigment should be used for tinting purposes in 
preference to those which are manufactured. Raw umbers, 
raw siennas, etc., will be found to last longer than burnt 
umbers and burnt siennas. As a rule, burnt umber should 
not be used for outside painting, but the required shade 
should be obtained by mixing lamp black and an oxide color, 
such as Venetian red. 

Common colors include lamp black, red lead, white lead, 
Venetian red, umbers, and all other common ochres, such as 
greys, buffs, stones, etc. Superior or ornamental colors in- 
clude bright yellows, warm tints, blues, mineral greens, etc. 

In compounding pigments for painting, there is yet a 
further matter requiring some little consideration by the 
painter. All blue pigments are not chemically suitable for 
mixture with yellows or reds, nor all yellows with reds; in 
fact, a knowledge of the chemical source and affinities of 
pigments is almost a necessity to the painter and decorator. 

295 



296 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

As the most brief and simple "way of aiding the student, it 
will be well to mention those ordinary pigments which it is 
usually advisable not to mix together. 

For mixing with oil color paints, chrome is an undesirable 
pigment, and it is particularly to be avoided when compound- 
ing greens from Prussian or Antwerp blues, which latter 
colors it would eventually destroy. In such an instance, for 
common use the best substitute for the chrome would be 
bright yellow ochre, or, as it is often called, yellow paint. 
Raw sienna can also be used with the above blue pigments 
without much detriment to either. In any case where a 
bright mixed green is absolutely necessary the lemon chrome 
can be used in conjunction with good ultramarine blue or 
indigo. 

In compounding the secondary color of purple from blues 
and reds, there is less danger of trouble arising. The best 
and purest is obtained by mixing ultramarine with madder 
lake, which is a beautiful crimson and transparent pennanent 
pigment, while lakes derived from cochineal are unstable, 
ultramarine and vermilion will also answer. Prussian blue 
and vermilion give very deep purple, which may be lighted 
up with white. For common purposes, the cheap purple 
brown is most useful, if required full in strength, but if 
lighter and pure tints are wanted in oil or distemper, ultra- 
marine blue and vermilion, or, for cheapness, Venetian red, 
is necessary. Prussian blue in water would not suit so well, 
but indigo could be used if cost is not a consideration. 

The remaining secondary, orange, is not a color very much 
called for. Orange chrome or orange red is a bright opaque 
pigment, but otherwise like all the chromes, not a com- 
mendable article. Burnt sienna is a very opposite pigment 
in both nature and source. It is semi-transparent, reliable, 
and permanent, and is, when of good quality, a remarkably 
strong stainer, like Prussian blue in this respect. In com- 
pounding orange color, the reds and ochres already men- 
tioned are usually bright enough, yellow ochre and Venetian 



PIGMENTS 297 

red, or raw and burnt sienna together, give with white lead, 
a good and serviceable variety of permanent orange and 
salmon tints. 

The comiDounding of the third division of material colors, 
the tertiary, from either of the two secondaries, is a sub- 
ject that need scarcely here be dealt with. The painter who 
works at this subject will soon find those secondary pig- 
ments of orange and green which j^roduce the tertiary citrine, 
whether bright or sombre, such as occasion requires. Of the 
remaining tertiaries, russet and olive, prepared from the 
secondaries purple and orange, purple and green, respective- 
ly, there is a good supply in the form of simple pigments. 
Notwithstanding, therefore, the necessity and advantage of 
the painter being able to obtain any color by the admixture 
of the three primaries, it is always most desirable to use a 
simi^le article of the desired color when it is to be had. 

In the actual mixing of paints, it must not be thought 
that there is any one way that is exactly right while all 
other methods are exactly wrong. Every painter has his 
own peculiar way. In nearly all cases, the simplest plan is to 
use pigments ground in oil instead of dry powders. With a 
pallet knife break up the lead rather stiff, adding a little oil. 
Thin down each paint until it is rather stiffer than the whole 
will be when ready for actual application, or if dry pigments 
be used, add a little oil, and thoroughly mix. The lead, zinc, 
or other base being ready, add some pigment, and well stir. 
If several pigments are required to produce the tint, be sure 
to add only one at a time, and take great care that each is 
thoroughly mixed before the next one is added. As a further 
precaution, it is well not to add the pigment all at once, 
but to do so a little at a time. When it is certain that a 
thorough admixture has been effected, the next pigment may 
be added a little at a time. It is well to remember that 
some pigments, such as Prussian blue, are very strong, and 
the addition of too much will spoil the job. It is easy to add 
a little more, while it is impossible to take any out. A little 



298 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

precaution in this respect will save much trouble, and al- 
though it takes longer to mix the paint, it is the much safer 
plan. Of course, a practical painter who is used to mixing 
paints can add the necessary amount of colors without taking 
these precautions. 

Having mixed the paint, add as much driers as may be 
necessary, taking care not to use too much. Then the paint 
should be strained through a fine wire strainer. It is well to 
mix up enough of the paint in one batch to do the whole of 
the job in hand, so that there may be no trouble or waste of 
time in matching tints. Paint mixed in cold weather is very 
likely to give unsatisfactory results, because the oil will 
stiffen and be more difficult to form into a perfect admixture. 
To remedy this, a gallon or so of the oil should be heated, 
and this poured in will warm up the paint, and prevent it 
pulling when applied, and so avoid the unnecessary force re- 
quired to draw the brush along. 

In preparing oil paint, the first question to be considered 
is the nature of the surface to be painted, whether of wood, 
stone, or metal, and to Avhat degree it is absorbent; second 
to this must be remembered the conditions and position of 
the work, such as refer to expense, durability, and drying 
qualities; and lasth', to bear in mind the all-important mat- 
ter of appearance and color, whether the paint is for the first 
or last coat. 

The quantities of driers, oil, and turpentine required to 
bring 100 pounds of white lead to the consistency of paint 
is a matter that must be varied according to the conditions 
of the work it is required for. In summer-time, 1 pound of 
good driers to 14 pounds of white lead is ample for out-door 
purposes; in wintei'-time, 1 in 10 would be best. The quan- 
tity of oils required would be about IV2 gallons for 100 
pounds of lead. The proportions of linseed oil and oil of 
turpentine it is advisable to use depends entirely, upon the 
purpose it is intended for. With reference to the question 
of boiled or unboiled oil, it should be remembered that both 



PIGMENTS 299 

oils are glossy when applied in sufficient quantity, boiled 
linseed oil has more body, and is more brilliant than raw 
linseed oil, raw linseed oil is lighter in color, and is not so 
liable to blister as boiled linseed oil, boiled linseed oil dries 
quicker than raw linseed oil. 

To mix 1 pound of ordinary oil paint, take about S ounces 
of pigment the desired color. White lead for white, light 
grays, pinks, cream, etc., Venetian red or vermilion for red, . 
and so on, according to the color desired. Add to this about 
2 ounces of liquid driers, then make up to 1 pound with 
either linseed oil alone or oil and turpentine in equal parts. 
Remember, tlie more oil, the more driers is advisable, but 
never less than 1 part driers in 8 or 10 of entire bulk. If 
only small quantities of paint are wanted, that sold ready 
mixed would be cheapest and would do for ordinary inside 
work. A single pound could not be made cheaply, and some 
of the colors, bright red, for instance, could not be made 
at twice the retail price. 

The ingredients for making about 40 pounds of best paint 
for indoors, tinted to a French gray color, would be 28 
pounds of genuine wdiite lead, 3 pounds of patent driers, 
about 1/2 gallon of raw linseed oil, and 1 quart of turpen- 
tine. Mix up the lead and driers wdth a broad stick to the 
consistency of a thick paste, using linseed oil. If all is to be 
tinted one color, for French gray add a little ultramarine 
blue and either a little Venetian red or lamp black. If a 
warm gray is wanted, add the red, if a cool metallic tint, 
add the black. The ultramarine can only be bought in 
powder; mix this well with a little oil before adding it to the 
paint, the other colors can easily be obtained ready ground 
in oil. For first coating on new jjlastei, nearly all linseed 
oil and a little driers may be used, very little lead. This 
will stop the suction of the plaster. As a rule, new plaster 
requires four coats to get a good surface. 

White Lead. The pure product dissolves completely in 
dilute nitric acid, as well as in potash and in soda. lye. When 



300 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

exposed to the sulphuretted hydrogen or moistened with am- 
monium hydrosulphide it turns brown or black, whereby it is 
distinguished from zine-white. When heated with the access 
of air it yields its carbonic acid, and at 572° Fahrenheit 
passes into lead oxide and finally into minium. When di- 
gested under pressure with carbonated water for some time, 
the water may contain 0.22 drachm of lead per quart. The 
difference in covering power is due to the form, size, density 
and composition of the smallest particles. The white lead 
obtained by the French or precipitation process is looser, 
of a coarser grain, and possesses less covering power than 
the product obtained by the Dutch or German process, which 
is denser, of a finer grain, and never crystalline, and, though 
of a greater specific gravity, requires less oil. 

When exposed to the light and air, white lead is fairly 
permanent and will resist exposure to normal conditions 
for a great length of time; on the other hand, when exposed 
to the fumes of sulphuretted hydrogen and other sulphur- 
ous gases, white lead turns brown or black through the for- 
mation of the black sulphide of lead. The production of 
this body is more likely to occur in large towns, where great 
quantities of gas are used for lighting and other purposes, 
which usually contains some sulphuretted hydrogen or other 
sulphur compounds. 

White lead can be mixed with all pigments except those 
which, like cadmium yellow, ultramarine or King's yellow, 
contain sulphur, such pigments sooner or later causing the 
formation of the black sulphide, and thus bringing about 
the discoloration of the pigment or paint. 

In commerce w-hite lead is found in two forms, as a heavy 
white powder, having a specific gravity of about 6.47 and 
weighing about 180 pounds to the cubic foot, or as a paste 
containing about 8 per cent of tlie linseed oil. To make 
the latter, the dry white lead is first mixed in a mixing mill 
with about 8 to 9 per cent of its weight of raw linseed oil; 
it is then run through a grinding mill several times to en- 



PIGMENTS 301 

sure a thorough mixture of the oil and white lead. This 
form is much liked by painters, it being more readily 
miseible with oil and turpentine to make it into paint. 

In order to obtain a cheaper product, white lead is fre- 
quently mixed with barytes which is distinguished by its 
white color and great specific gravity. The mixture is often 
effected in fixed proportions and for certain varieties of 
white lead, which are known by special names or numbers, 
remains unchanged. Thus Venetian white consists of equal 
parts white lead and barytes, Hamburg white of 2 parts 
barytes and 1 part white lead, Dutch white with up to 75 per 
cent barytes. The so-called Kremnitz white is a pure white 
lead. It is produced by placing trays containing a paste 
made of litharge and either acetic acid or lead acetate upon 
shelves in a chamber built of brick or wood. When the 
chamber is filled carbonic acid gas is sent into it and is 
absorbed by the lead oxide present in the paste. 

Zinc White or Zinc Oxide has, in recent years, made great 
advances in popularity among painters. Compared to white 
lead, it is as white to yellow. It is indeed beautifully white, 
very fine, and easily worked. The whiteness is of impor- 
tance in mixing paints, as the purity of color is retained, 
while when mixed with lead the yellowish east to some ex- 
tent destroys the jDurity of the original color. The fact that 
oxide of zinc is non-poisonous is a point in its favor of 
very considerable importance. It is claimed that paiuters 
who take care to wash themselves frequently and to take 
every precaution, are not likely to contract lead poisoning. 
As a matter of fact, the best of painters are at times careless, 
while in the rush of work, it is often impossible to take 
the precautions required. The most important quality of 
zinc white is its extreme durability. 

Properly mixed it will last, at a moderate estimate, twice 
as long as lead, especially in large cities where the air is 
impregnated with sulphur derived from burning coal. Lead, 
in such circumstances, turns yellow or black and quickly 



302 CYCLOPEDLV OF PAINTING 

decays, and some places, such as stables, where sulphuretted 
hydrogen abounds, it is useless to jDaint with Avhite lead, 
and if zinc is used these disadvantages are avoided. 

Zinc white has a very good body, better, or as good as 
white lead. If a proper comparison be made, and if both 
be thinned out to a consistency suitable to be applied by 
brush, it is true that zinc white will apparentl}' not have 
so good body as lead, but it will spread much farther. If 
an exactly equal quantity of lead and zinc are both i^ainted 
on an exactly equal area, zinc will cover a little better than 
lead. In this state, however, the consistency of the zinc 
paint would be rather too thick. It is easily thinned, more 
so, comparativel}', than the lead would be. 

A consideration of these facts will show the practical 
painter that less zinc than lead will be required to perform 
a good job, and when the durability is also taken into con- 
sideration as well as the beaut}-, it will not take long for 
him to make up his mind as to the superiority of zinc. 

There is one point, however, about its use which must be 
explained. Zinc white is, when compared with lead, quite 
light in weight, or, in other words, its volume is much 
greater than lead. Now, it being an entirely different prod- 
uct, it must not be treated in the same way as lead would 
be. The painter, perhaps, takes some zinc, mixes it with 
raw oil, with a liberal amount of patent driers and a more 
liberal dose of turiDentine, and then he grumbles because it 
does not show up to advantage. What he does is to destroy 
its inherent good qualities. To repeat then, zinc Avhite 
must not be ti-eated in the same way as white lead. 

The proper way to treat zinc white is to mix it with 
refined boiled oil, no driers should be used, and only just 
sufficient turpentine to bring it to the required consistency. 
Being pale, it does not destroy the whiteness of the zinc, 
while it certainly aids considerably in drying. In fact, it 
is the only practical drier for the zinc, far better than patent 
driers, or any other goods of the kind. It is paler than raw 



PIGMENTS 303 

linseed oil, and hence it does not destroy the most delicate 
tints, howevei' light. 

PIGMENTS LIABLE TO CHANGE UNDER THE INFLU- 
ENCE OF SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN, 
AIR AND MOISTURE. 

Yellow. Chrome yellow, mineral yellow, Naples yellow. 

White. Cremintz white, flake white, pearl white. 

Red. Red lead, purple led, iodine scarlet. 

Green. Verdigris, Scheele's green, emerald green, moun- 
tain green. 

Blue. Prussian blue, Antwerp blue. 

Orange. Orange chrome. 

PIGMENTS LITTLE LIABLE TO CHANGE UNDER THE 
INFLUENCE OF SULPHURETTED HYDRO- 
GEN, AIR AND MOISTURE. 

White. Zinc white, constant white, tin white. 

Red. Vermilion, red ochre, Indian red, madder lakes. 

Yellow. Yellow ochre, barium ehromate, zinc chromate, 
aureolin, raw sienna. 

Green. Chrome green, cobalt green. 

Blue. L'ltramarine, smalt, Thenard's blue. 

Brown. Vandyke brown, raw umber, burnt umber, man- 
ganese brown, sepia. 

Black. Ivory black, lamp black, Indian ink, graphite. 

Orange. Orange vermilion, burnt sienna. 

PIGMENTS LIABLE TO DETERIORATION WHEN IN 
CONTACT WITH WHITE LEAD, CHROME OR 
OTHER LEAD PIGMENT. 
Yellow. Yellow orpiment, king's yellow, Indian yellow, 
gamboge. 

Red. Iodine scarlet, cochineal, carmine. 

Orange. Golden antimony sulphide, orange orpiment. 

Green. Sap green. 

Blue. Ultramarine. 



304 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

PIGMENTS WHICH ARE LITTLE AFFECTED BY 
HEAT, AND WHICH MAY BE USED WHEN THE 
MATERIAL HAS TO STAND FIRE. 
White. Tin white, barium white, zinc white. 
Red. Red ochre, Venetian red, Indian red. 
Yellow. Naples yellow, antimony yellow. 
Blue. Smalt and royal blue, ultramarine. 
Green. Chrome green, cobalt green. 
Orange. Burnt sienna, burnt ochre. 
Brown. Burnt umber, manganese brown. 
Black. Graphite, mineral black. 

COLORS THAT MAY BE USED WITH LIME. 

White. Permanent white, baryta white, gypsum, zinc 
white. 

Red. The vermilions, light red, Venetian red, Indian red, 
madder lakes. 

Orange. Cadmium, orange chrome. Mars orange, burnt 
sienna, burnt Roman ochre, light red. 

Yellow. Aureolin, cadmium yellow, lemon yellow, Naples 
yellow. Mars yellow, raw sienna, yellow ochi-e, Roman ochre, 
transparent gold ochre, brown ochre, Indian yellow, Oxford 
ochre. 

Green. Oxide of chromium, transparent oxide of chrom- 
ium, viridian, emerald green, malachite green, verdigris, terre 
verte, cobalt green, chi-ome green. 

Blue. Genuine ultramarine, artificial ultramarine, new 
blue, permanent blue, cobalt blue, cerulean blue, smalt. 

Purple. Purple madder. Mars violet. 

Brown. Bone brown, bistre, Prussian brown, burnt um- 
ber, Vienna brown, Vandyke brown, Cologne earth, asphalt- 
um, Cassel earth, manganese brown. 

Citrine. Raw uml)er, Mars brown. 

Blacks. Ivory black, lamp black, blue black, charcoal 
black, cork black, Indian ink, black lead, drop black, plum- 
bago. 



PLAIN OIL PAINTING. 

The processes of plain oil painting are in themselves ex- 
tremely simple, and depend so much on manipulative skill 
that a description of them must be taken only as a general 
guide, not by any means sufficient in itself to make a good 
paintei'. This result is not arrived at by theoretical knowl- 
edge alone, however sound, but by long-continued and ear- 
nest practice. 

On the other hand, it must be urged on the attention of 
painters the fact that practice alone will not accomplish 
the end desired; a painter who can only spread a quantity 
of paint over a given surface is little better than a machine, 
and it is hoped by the instruction given in the following 
pages, to awaken the interest of the painter, and to show 
him that his occupation is not merely manual, but that each 
branch of the trade, if properly understood, will afford 
scope for the exercise of mental acquirements and for the 
application of knowledge. 

Before the painter can commence the absolute process of 
painting new work, it is necessary that he should clear it 
from any drops of glue or whitening which may have fallen 
on the surface, or which may have been accidentally left by 
the carpenter. 

In this operation he uses the stopping knife. This knife 
is held so that a large portion of its edge may touch the 
surface, and it is slanted so as to be nearly horizontal, and 
thus the edge works as it were under the pieces of glue and 
putty and lifts rather than scrapes them oft". Care must be 
taken that the knife is not held so that its surface would 
be perpendicular to the wood, and that onl^^ the smallest 
possible pressure is used, otherwise indentations might be 
made, and thus more harm than good would be done. 

305 



306 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

It must also be borne in mind that tliis ])rocess is not to 
be a universal scraping; it is merely remedial, to remove any 
excrescences which may exist, but its puipose is not to 
scraj^e or plane the wood. This is supposed to have been 
already done by the carpenter, and if it has not, a tool differ- 
ent from the stopping knife sliould be used. 

The dusting brush, generally called the duster, must be 
freely used during this process so that all the particles 
scraped off may be removed. The largest of the brushes 
used for painting is sometimes employed as a duster pre- 
viously to being devoted to its proper purpose, in order 
that it may be rendered softer; but this is not a good plan, 
for a certain amount of dust necessarily finds its way up 
the brush, and is liable to work out when it is being used 
for painting purposes, thus giving the work a coarse and 
gritty appearance and causing much annoyance. 

The next stage of preparation is that called knotting, 
the purpose of which is to guard against the knots appear- 
ing in the finished work, by stop2:)ing their absorbent qual- 
ity, or closing the apertures of the fibre, and thus prevent- 
ing the effusion of gum or sap. It is, of course, strongly 
urged that wood should be thoroughly dry before it is 
used, but this is not within the power of the painter to 
control; he must take the wood as he finds it, and must 
do his best to counteract the effects of the new wood on 
his work. 

It must be remembered that in the knots the ends of 
fibres, which are so many open tubes, are exposed, and thus, 
if all the sap or gum has exuded, they will present spots 
very much more absorbent than the surface of the board 
itself, whilst if the wood be new and the gum and sap 
fiesh in it, these will from time to time exude and force 
off the paint, or cause it to become stick}'. 

Patent Knotting may be purchased at the color shops, 
and the following are two excellent recipes for making 



PLAIN OIL PAINTING 307 

similar compositions, which arc to be applied with a brush 
of the second size called a tool. 

Add together a quarter of a pint of japanner's gold size, 
one teaspoonful of red lead, one pint of naphtha and seven 
ounces of orange shellac. This mixture is to be kept in a 
warm place whilst the shellac dissolves and must be fre- 
.quently shaken. 

White or rod lead iwwdcr mixed with glue size and ap- 
plied whilst warm. 

Knotting is a composition of strong size, mixed with red 
lead for the first knotting, which prevents the gum com- 
ing through; the second knotting is a composition of white 
lead, red lead and oil, but in rooms where the knots happen 
to be very bad they are often silvered, which is done by 
laying on a coat of gold size and when properly dry a silver 
leaf is placed on them, which is sure to prevent the knots 
appearing. 

When the knots are more than usually bad they must be 
cut out. 

Priming. The first process of painting is called priming, 
which consists of laying on a coat of paint for the special 
purpose of diminishing the absorbent quality of the wood 
or plaster. The paint used for this puipose is generally a 
mixture of white lead and red lead, with a proper propor- 
tion of driers; but when the finishing color is to be black, 
dark green or dark brown the priming may be done with 
a lead color made of vegetable black and white lead in 
equal quantities. 

These colors should be mixed with boiled oil for out- 
of-door, and with linseed oil for in-door work, a small 
quantity of turpentine being added in either case, the pro- 
portions being three parts of oil to one of turpentine. The 
paint should be rather thin so that it may be well adapted 
for rapid absorption by the new wood or plaster. 

Some painters, in order to save the oil coats, have re- 



308 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

sorted to the objectionable practice of spreading a coat of 
size mixed with water and whiting over the new work. 

This may serve for temporary purposes, but it will soon 
be seen that it should not be adopted in good work or where 
durability is expected. To a certain extent the size stops 
the absorbent powers of the wood or plaster, but it pre- 
vents the proper adhesion of the oil paint, which soon 
cracks or peels off. It maj', however, be used with advan- 
tage in old work, where the grease would prevent the proper 
drj'ing of the oil paint, but even in such cases it is best, 
when possible, to scrape the wood or plaster until a new 
surface is reached, on which the oil paint may be success- 
fully applied. 

"When the priming is thoroughly dry, it is to be rubbed 
down with glass paper and this operation, although in it- 
self simple, requires a certain amount of care so that the 
rubbing may be equally effective over the whole surface. 
In order that this result may be attained, the glass paper used 
should not be a mere scrap, rubbed carelessly about in vari- 
ous directions, by which means some parts will be passed 
over oftener than others, and the paint may be nearly 
rubbed off in one spot whilst it is left almost untouched 
on another. A piece of the paper should be wrapped round 
a flat piece of wood, say 4 inches long by 3 inches wide 
and 1 inch thick, forming a kind of brush, and this should 
be rubbed equally over the whole surface, which will thus 
be nicely smoothed, whilst its perfectly level character 
will not be injured. A piece of glass paper which has 
been used several times in this way should be saved for 
use in the later stages of the work, when great refinement 
is required. A strip of glass paper may be wrapped over 
the edge of a piece of wood shaped like a chisel for use 
in the edges of panels and similar situations, or round the 
finger or a piece of rag for the curved parts of mouldings, 
great care being taken that a stiff edge, such as is formed 
by a sudden bend in the glass paper, may not come in con- 



PLAIN OIL PAINTING 309 

tact with the work, producing scratches which are very 
troublesome to get rid of. Al] the dust caused by the glass 
paper must be carefully removed by means of the duster. 
When the priming has been properly rubbed down the next 
operation is that of stopping. 

Stopping consists in filling in and making good all nail- 
holes, bad joints and cracks with putty, or with a paste 
made of putty and white lead, called hard stopping; this 
is done with the stopping knife. 

This is another of the operations which, although simple, 
require a certain amount of care, lest instead of contribut- 
ing to, they may mar the success of the work. Thus let it 
be required to stop a crack in a panel ; it will not be suffi- 
cient merely to press into the interstice a small quantity 
of stopping and then smooth it over, for as the stopping 
dries it contracts and sinks below the surface, and the 
crack becomes just as great an eye-sore as ever. 

In such a case, the stopping should be forced as far 
down into the crack as possible; this may be done with the 
edge of the stopping knife, or with a thin piece of wood, 
leaving the stopping, however, slightly raised above the sur- 
face. In a day or two, before the second painting is pro- 
ceeded with, the stopping will, owing to a certain amount 
of shrinking during drying, be found nearly level with the 
panel and may then be smoothed down with the stopping 
knife. 

The circumstance calling for the greatest care in stop- 
ping, is where a panel or other part of the work has re- 
ceived a blow and a delve or shallow concavity is formed, 
for it will be clear that the mere skin of stopping required 
to level up such a spot, would be almost certain to crack 
off, leaving the place totally uncovered by paint. The best 
way to avoid such a result is to deepen the recess in parts 
by pricking holes in it with a bradawl and these should in- 
cline in different directions and should be more closely 
placed and more numerous near the edges than in the 



310 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

middle of the space. The point of tlie stopping-knife may 
he used for this purpose, and deep fissures will be formed 
thereby; into these fissures or holes the stopping is to be 
forced and the portion spread over the delve will thus be 
as it were nailed to the wood by the filaments penetrating 
into the holes. 

This process should be sloAvly done, an interval being 
allowed to elapse betAveen the first and second stopping, 
but this is supposing a condition which cannot always be 
fulfilled; the exigencies of business in these days of high 
pressure demanding that work shall be pushed on with the 
utmost rapidity; but it is desired to point out the means 
by which failure may be avoided, and the intelligent painter, 
knowing this, will be able in most cases to arrange his 
work in such a way that some portions may be proceeded 
with whilst the necessarj^ delay is afforded to others, and 
thus, by economy of time, and proper organization of labor, 
the desired end may be accomplished. 

The surface having been again touched off with the glass 
paper, the second painting is to be proceeded with. For 
the second coat, the same paint used for the priming, or 
white lead thinned with oil and a little turpentine and 
driers, may be employed, the proportion of driers for ordi- 
nary cases being lYo ounces to 10 pounds of white lead, 
but in winter, or in a damp climate, the jjroportion of driers 
must be increased. The following useful hints are here 
given : 

It should be observed that second color for new work 
is made up chiefly witli oil, as it best stops the suction of 
the wood, but second color for old work is made up chiefly 
with turpentine, because oil color would not dry or adhere 
to it so well. 

The color should be spread on as evenly as possible, 
and to effect this as soon as the whole or a convenient 
quantity is covered, the brush should be passed over it in 
a direction contrary to that in which it is finally to be laid 



PLAIN OIL PAINTING 311 

off; this is called crossing. After crossing it should be laid 
off softly and carefully in a direction contrary to the cross- 
ings, but with the grain of the wood, taking care that none 
of the cross brush marks be left visible. The criterion of 
good workmanship is, that the paint be laid evenly and the 
brush marks be not observed. In laying off, the brush 
should be laid into that portion of the work already done, 
that the joining may not be perceived. Every coat should 
be perfectly dry, and all dust carefully removed before the 
succeeding one is laid over it. 

In the third jjainting some apiDroaeh is made to the 
finishing color. Thus, if the finishing color is to be laven- 
der, Irhe third coat should consist of white, slightly tinted 
with that color. In some cases it is desirable that the coat 
preceding the finishing should be darker than that which 
is to be laid ove*- it. 

In the third painting, the oil and turpentine should be 
used in equal proportions. 

The fourth may be considered as the finishing coat, al- 
though a fifth is often given, and always Avith great advan- 
tage. The finishing coat must not by any means be aiDplied 
unless the third coat proves perfectly satisfactory; that is, 
unless the surface has dried absolutely uniform, as regards 
surface, for if one part is glossy and the other dull it will 
be clear that the absorbent quality is not stopped and the 
third painting must be repeated. 

In commencing to repaint old work, the surface should, 
in the first case, be gone over with the stopping knife, re- 
moving all excrescences, and it is then to be rubbed with 
pumice stone and water, the greasy parts being well rubbed 
with turpentine. 

Parts from which the paint has been entirely removed 
and decayed patches must then be gone over with a coat 
of priming color, and cracks and holes are to be made good 
with stopping. The first coat is then to be given and this 
is to be mixed with turpentine. The quality of the next 



312 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

coat will depend on the manner in which it is to be fin- 
ished. If it is to be painted twice in oil and flatted, the 
next coat should be mixed up chiefly in oil, and tinted like 
the finishing color to form a ground for the flatting. The 
greater the gloss of the ground, the more dead will be the 
finishing coat, or flatting; likewise, the more dead the 
ground the better will the finishing oil shine. It is, there- 
fore, a general rule, that for finishing in oil the undercoat 
should be turpentine, and for finishing flat the undercoat 
or ground color should be oil; but all tui"pentine grounds 
must have a little oil mixed with them, and all oil under- 
coats must have a small quantity of turpentine added to 
them, excepting the priming or first coat in new work. 

In order to attain an absolutely solid appearance, some 
painters apply two coats of the finishing color, b}' which 
no doubt uniformity is secured, but the expense is, of course, 
materially increased therebj'. There are, however, pig- 
ments of a cheaper but still permanent character, which 
approach in tone to the verj^ best, and these may with ad- 
vantage be used as a first finishing coat, over which the 
final color may be applied. Such colors must be carefully 
selected and must be well covered by the finishing coat. 

Flatting, When the work is to be flatted, that is, when 
it is desired that the paint when drj' should present a flat 
or dull appearance without any gloss, the paint used for 
the previous coat should be rather thicker than would un- 
der other circumstances be used ; it should be mixed with 
linseed oil and turpentine and should be rather darker than 
the flatting itself is to be. 

Special care is necessary in laying all the coats which 
precede the flatting; they must be very evenly spread and 
must be smoothed with glass paper in order that they 
may be perfectly level, otherwise the smallest irregularities 
will appear in the finished surface, to the injury of that 
perfectly flat appearance in which the beauty of the work 
consists. 



PLAIN OIL PAINTING 313 

The paint used in flatting consists of white lead with 
which, of course, the necessary coloring matter is mixed, 
turpentine alone being used as the medium with which the 
paint is thinned. The color should be rather lighter than 
is required, as it darkens a little whilst drying; a brushful 
should therefore be tried before the whole surface is paint- 
ed in order to avoid subsequent disappointment. In order 
to assist in drying, japanners' gold size is sometimes used 
instead of driers. 

Although it is, of course, necessary that the coat pre- 
ceding the flatting should be dry, it ought not to be abso- 
lutely hard, for it is necessary that the flatting, which is 
mixed with turpentine only, should slightly dissolve the 
surface, so as to become in a degree incorporated with it, 
by which much beauty and solidity is obtained, whereas, if 
the previous coat had become quite hard the flatting would 
in most cases appear streaky when dry and would be liable 
to crack or peel off. 

Owing to the special composition of the paint used in 
flatting, it dries very rapidly and two men should be en- 
gaged at once in flatting a wall. A plank placed across two 
step-ladders, or otherwise supported, is placed in front of 
the wall at about half the height from the ground. One 
of the painters stands on this whilst the other stands on 
the ground. The last mentioned commences the woi'k, paint- 
ing a strip about 18 inches wide and carrying it up as 
high as he can conveniently reach, he works rapidly, cross- 
ing occasionally, so that no brush marks in any one direc- 
tion may be visible, laying off very lightly; that is, con- 
tinuing the action of his brush, withdrawing it gradually 
so that the points of the hairs may only skim lightly over 
the work. 

The painter above proceeds with the operation from the 
line where his fellow painter left it, and carries it up to 
the top of the wall, the first painter meanwhile getting on 
with another strip, both painters being exceedingly careful 



314 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

that no break shall occur and that the lines at which their 
"work join shall not be visible in the slightest degree. 

Brushes called stipplers are much used; these are broad 
and flat, and in form resemble a hairbrush. In practice the 
stipi^lers are gently dabbed against the wet paint, produc- 
ing a level grain over the whole surface, something like the 
tooth on the drawing paper called not hotpressed. These 
brushes may be obtained of various shapes, the handles 
of some being continuous with the back, whilst in others 
it is fixed above, like that of a black-lead brush. The adop- 
tion cf either form is, of course, a matter of taste. 

In flatting a door, the panels must be finished first, great 
care being taken to carry the paint clean into the edges and 
corners. The stiles or framing should then be done. It is 
convenient to paint the muntins, or munnions, first; these 
are the upright pieces in the middle of the door. Next to 
these come the upper, middle and lower rails, the horizon- 
tals which cross the door, and lastly the upright stiles, 
or external vertical portions of the frame of the door. The 
brush marks, should any appear at the parts where the 
work is necessarily in cross directions, will corresjiond with 
the joints which would in reality exist at these parts. 

Painting Plaster. The first coat is composed of white 
lead mixed with linseed oil and a small quantity of litharge, 
the paint being rather thinner than would be used for gen- 
eral purposes, in order that it may soak well into the ab- 
sorbent surface of the plaster. The next coat should also 
be thin so that the plaster may be thoroughly saturated. 
This will be only partially absorbed, and it will be neces- 
sary to make the third coat much thicker, mixing with it 
turpentine, and some of the coloring matter approaching 
the future tint of the room. The fourth coat should be 
thicker still and should be mixed with equal parts of oil 
and turpentine, together with the dry ingredient, sugar of 
lead, instead of litharge. The color should be much darker 
than that which is to constitute the finishing coat. All 



PLAIN OIL PAINTING 315 

these coats must be laid on with the greatest attention as 
to smoothing, and tliey should each be thoroughly dry before 
the succeeding coat is applied, and should be well rubbed 
down with glass paper. The last coat which is to precede 
the flatting, however, should not be quite hardened before 
the finishing is applied for reasons previously explained. 
The process of flatting has already been described. 

Painting New Walls or Stucco. It does not appear that 
any painting in oil can be done to any good or serviceable 
effect in stucco, unless not merely the surface is dry, but 
the walls have been erected a sufficient time to permit the 
mass of brickwork to have acquired a sufficient degree of 
dryness. 

When stucco is on battened work, it may be painted over 
much sooner than when prepared as brick. Indeed, the 
greater part of the mystery of painting stucco so as to 
stand or wear well, certainly consists in attending to these 
observations, for whoever has observed the expansive power 
of water, not only in congelation, but also in evaporation, 
must be well aware that when it meets with any foreign 
body obstructing its escape, as oil paint, for instance, 
it immediately resists it, forming a number of vesicles or 
particles, containing an acrid lime water which forces off 
the layers of plaster, and frequently causes large defective 
2jatches extremely difficult to get the better of. 

Perhaps in general cases, where persons are building on 
their own property, or for themselves, two or three years 
are not too long to suffer the stucco to remain unpainted ; 
though frequently in speculative works as many weeks are 
scarcely allowed. Indeed, there are some nostrums set forth 
in favor of which it is stated, in spite of all the natural 
properties of bodies, that stucco may, after having been 
washed over with these liquids, be painted immediately with 
oil colors. It is true there may be instances, and in manj' 
experiments some will be found, that appear to counteract 



316 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the general laws of nature, but on following them up to 
their causes it will be found otherwise. 

Supposing the foregoing precautions to have been at- 
tended to, there can be no better mode adopted for prim- 
ing or laying on the first coat on stucco than by linseed or 
nut oil boiled with driers, with a proper brush, taking care 
in all cases not to lay on too much so as to render the sur- 
face rough and iiTegular, and not more than the stucco 
will absorb. It should then be covered with three or four 
coats of ceruse or white lead, prepared as described for 
painting on w^ainscoting, letting each coat have sufficient 
time to dry hard. 

If time will permit, two or three days between each coat 
will not be too long. If the stucco is intended to be fin- 
ished of any given tint, as gray, light green or apricot, it 
will then be proper, about the third coat of painting, to 
prepare the ground for such tint by a slight advance towards 
it. 



POOR TOOLS. 

It is false economy to work with poor or cheap brushes. 
A good painter can not do good work, or the amount of 
work he should, with poor tools. 

Time is money and time is lost by trying to paint with 
a cheap stock brush. 

It is a mistake to try to work half-handed or with too 
few brushes. 

The kit should consist of a good full stock body brush 
for each color, the size depending upon the width of the 
siding to be painted, 3I/2 to 4 inches long stock brush is the 
one usually used, a full stock trimming , brush, well broken 
in. There is no economy in using a half worn out body 
brush for trimming colors. A good trimming brush is just 
as essential as a good body brush, as it is impossible to cut 
in on cornices, corner boai'ds and window and sash frames 
with a ragged edged brush, a good chiseled sash tool or a 
1 inch or IV2 inch chiseled varnish brush for brackets or 
mouldings, also a ^ inch flat chiseled varnish brush for 
sash colors, a good duster and putty and scraping knife. 
This completes an ordinary kit of tools and is sufficient to do 
good work. It is not economy to attempt to work with less. 



317 



PRIMARY COLORS. 

The painter who wishes to obtain a correct knowledge of 
his trade should, in the first place, endeavor to make him- 
self acquainted with the nature and properties of the ma- 
terials he is constantly using. 

The ambition of a man of intelligence should be to rise 
above the position of a mere drudge, and he should, there- 
fore, by availing himself of the opportunities of culture 
at his command, endeavor to develop the faculties with 
which Almighty Providence has endowed him. 

Nor will the time spent in the acquirement of knowledge 
be wasted, for good workmanship will always command its 
price, and thus a painter, who improves his scientific and 
technical education, will without fail rise in the social scale, 
with benefit to himself, his family and his country. 

The facility wdth which ready-prepared colors can now 
be obtained has no doubt led to a neglect of infoi'mation 
as to their composition or special qualities, a small amount 
of knowledge only being picked up in the course of pi-ac- 
tice from the men with whom each painter is associated, 
and who have obtained their own information in a similar 
unreliable manner. 

It is not here intended to advocate the idea that each 
workman should, as in olden times, manufacture his own 
colors and varnishes; the rate of wages as compared with 
the expenses at the present day wholly forbid such a sys- 
tem; but it is strongly urged that the painter should know 
the qualities of the various substances he employs in order 
that he may judge of their fitness for every kind of work, 
and likewise that he should be able to prepare them if cir- 
cumstances require him to do so. 

318 



PRIMARY COLORS 319 

Yellow, Red and Blue are called the primaiy colors, the 
presence of which, either pure or in combination, is found 
to be necessary to satisfy the eye. They have each a differ- 
ent relation to light, and must therefore be used in pro- 
portions which fulfill these conditions. Any two of these 
primaries being mixed, a secondary color is produced, thus 

Blue and Yellow form Green, 
Blue and Red form Pui-ple, 
Yellow and Red form Orange. 

In like manner, by the mixture of any two of the sec- 
ondaries, tertiary colors are formed, thus: Orange and 
Green produce Citrine, or the set of tints of a greenish- 
yellow character approximating to citron; Orange and Pur- 
ple form Russet, or warm brown; whilst Purple and Green 
produce Olive, or dull brownish green. 

By the varied and due admixture of these colors an infinite 
number of hues, shades and tints are produced, whilst by 
an indefinite and disproportionate mixture of the three 
colors, or of the whole together, will be produced the hues 
usually called dirty, or the anomalous color, brown. 

There are five classes of colors: The neutral, the pri- 
mary, the secondary, the tertiary and the semi-neutral. 

Neutral colors are three only, White, Black and Gray. 
According to the laws of optics, the two first comprise all 
others synthetically and afford them all by analysis. These 
are sometimes called extreme colors, gray being their in- 
termediate. 

Thus, if Black and White are mixed. Gray is formed, 
or if a transparent Black is washed over a white surface, 
a corresponding effect is produced. 

Primary colors are three only. Yellow, Red and Blue. 
They are such as yield others by being compounded, but 
are not themselves capable of being produced by compo- 
Bition of other colors. By way of distinction they are occa- 
sionally designated entire colors. Secondary colors are 



320 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

three only, Orange, Green and Purple. Each of these is 
composed of, and can be resolved into, two primaries; thus 
Orange is composed of Red and Yellow, Green of Yellow 
and Blue and Purple of Blue and Red. 

Tertiai-y colors are three only, Citrine, Russet and Olive. 
Each of these is composed of, or can be resolved into, either 
two secondary colors or the three primaries; thus Citrine 
consists of Green and Orange, or of a predominant Yellow 
with Blue and Red; Russet is compounded of Orange and 
Purple, or of a predominant Red with Blue and Yellow, 
and Olive is composed of Purple and Gxxen, or of a pre- 
dominant Blue with Yellow and Red. 

The last three genera of colors comprehend in an orderly 
gradation all those which are positive or definite, and the 
three colors of each genus, united or compounded in such 
subordination that neither of them predominates to the 
eye, constitute the negative or neutral colors of which black 
and white have been stated to be the opposed extremes, and 
grays their intermediates. Thus Black and White are con- 
stituted of, and comprise latently, the principles of all col- 
ors and accompany them in their depth and brilliancy, as 
shade and light. 

Semi-neutral colors belong to a class of which Brown, 
Maroon and Gray may be considered types. They are so 
called because they comprehend all the combinations of the 
primary, secondary and tertiary colors with the neutral 
black. Of the various combinations of black, those in which 
yellow, orange or citrine predominates have obtained the 
name of brown; a second class, in which the compounds of 
black are of a predominant red, purple or russet hue, com- 
prise maroon, chocolate; and a third class, in which the 
combinations of black have a predominant hue of blue, 
green or olive, include gray and slate. 

It must be observed that each color may comprehend an 
infinite series of shades between the extremes of light and 
dark, as each compound color may eomiirise a series of 



PRIMARY COLORS 321 

hues between the extremes of the colors composing it, and 
as the relations of colors have been deduced regularly from 
white or light to black or shade, so the same may be done 
inversely from black to white. On this plan the tertiaries, 
Olive, Russet and Citrine, take the place of the primaries. 
Blue, Red and Yellow, while the secondaries still retain 
their intermediate station and relation to both. 

Thus, Russet and Olive compose, or unite in, dark Purple, 
Citrine and Olive in dark Green, Russet and Citrine in dark 
Orange. The tertiaries have therefore the same order of 
relation to Black that the primaries have to Wliite; and we 
have black primaries, secondaries and tertiaries inversely, 
as we have White primaries, secondaries and tertiaries di- 
rectly. In other words, we have light and dark colors of 
all classes. 

It is important to the painter that he should understand 
the difference between hues, tints and shades. By mixing 
white with the original color, a tint is produced; by mix- 
ing color with color, compound colors or hues are formed, 
whilst from the mixture of colors or tints with black; shades 
result. 



PRIMING. 

This is the most important paint coat applied to any sur- 
face. It must fill and satisfy the surface and leave a foun- 
dation upon which future paint coats can be successfully 
built. It holds the same relative position in painting as 
does the foundation of a house in building. It must last 
and successfully hold the superstructure as long as it re- 
mains. It must carry sufficient linseed oil to not onlj- sat- 
isfy the surface but bind or hold the pigment to the sur- 
face. It must carry sufficient turpentine to cause penetra- 
tion and assist in forcing, by absorption, the oil and pig- 
ment into the surface. The formation of the pigment must 
be such as to allow of penetration into the surface, and 
above all, the primer must be well and evenly brushed out 
and into the surface. 

The common idea that anyone can prime a building is a 
serious mistake. The priming coat offers the best oppor- 
tunity for judging a painter's work. If he is a capable, 
careful man he will use as much or more care in applying 
this coat as he would in the application of the second or 
third coat. He will brush the paint into the wood, satisfy- 
ing the soft grain, and carefully brush the hard grain 
where there is less absorption, leaving an even, uniform 
coating. 

It is impossible to erect a frame building and have all 
of the timber of the same absorbing qualities. The sap- 
wood absorbs paint more readily than the heartwood, which 
is of a harder grain. This fact does not necessitate a dif- 
ferent reduction for each kind of grain in the same lumber, 
but it does necessitate the jiainter's properly applying and 
brushing out the paint. 

322 



PRIMING 323 

In priming- soft wood, the paint should be applied with 
a full brush and enough paint used at all times to satisfy 
the surface. It should be well brushed and especially on 
the harder grain to assist or force the paint into this close 
grain and remove by hard brushing- any surjilus paint that 
remains on the surface. 

On hard or close-grained Avood a medium full brush 
should be used in apphdng- the paint, as this class of wood 
does not possess the absorbing proj^erties of softer woods, 
but requires more brushing in order to force a sufficient 
amount of oil and binder into the wood and at the same 
time not leave an excess of paint on the surface. 

If the priming coat is of the proper consistency, carry- 
ing sufficient pigment to fill and hide the grain, and well 
brushed into the grain of the wood, most of the absorption 
will have ceased with this coat and no excess of pigment 
left on the surface. This thin coat will allow the second 
coat to penetrate through and satisfy any part of the wood 
which was not fully filled at the time of priming, also allow 
the second coat to bind itself to the wood and priming 
coat. 

An excess of paint on veiy porous woods will cause peek- 
ing or chii^ping. This heavy coat prevents the oil from 
penetrating the woods and assists in holding the coat on 
the surface. The oil and binder in the second coat jDene- 
trates into this heavy coat only and does not reach the wood 
so as to assist in forming a solid coat well bound to the 
surface. 

Paint heavily applied to a hard or close grained surface 
will dry with a gloss, forming a hard glaze over the sur- 
face, into which the second coat cannot penetrate to any 
depth; it will only fasten itself to the outside of this glaze 
coat, whereas it should go through to the wood so as to 
help strengthen the second and subsequent coats. 

Do not prime a building and allow it to stand any longer 
than is necessary in order to thoroughly hq,rden the paint 



324 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

and allow of full absorption. If allowed to weather, the 
priming coat will become porous and absorb the life of the 
second coat and there will not be sufficient binder left to 
properly adhere to the surface. 

Never use a cheap primer. While cheap in the first cost, 
it is without exception the costliest in the end. The primer 
should be of the best and of the same material as the in- 
termediate and finishing coats. 

Dry colors mixed by hand should never be used for prim- 
ing. All paint pigments are much more bulky in the dry 
state than when properly handled under pressure and com- 
bined with oil. When a mixture is made without pressure 
the outside particles of the pigment are only coated Avith 
the oil or thinners, and when applied to a surface, the 
wood having a greater attraction for the oil than does the 
pigment, the surface will absorb the oil from the pigment, 
leaving a dry, porous coating to which subsequent coats 
cannot successfully bind. 



SCENE PAINTING. 

When purchasing any burlaps to paint the scenery on, 
confine the selection to a good article, which should not be 
too thick, and should be of a close texture, evenly woven 
and light. The stoutness should, however, be increased 
for very large scenes or drops. In place of burlaps, stout 
unbleached muslin is frequently employed, but it does not 
by any means answer so well. 

With respect to the width of the canvas, that which is 
manufactured two yards wide is the most preferable, as 
the scene will not require so many seams. For ordinary 
sceneiy these seams should always run horizontally, but 
for a moving panorama they must assume a pei'pendieular 
direction, since the canvas on which it is represented has 
to be unrolled from a cylinder placed vertically on the stage 
at the time of exhibition. 

These are the most needful articles to begin with: A 
common iron or tin kettle, in shape resembling a fish kettle, 
to melt the size in and a ladle to pour it out when required 
for use; an earthenware pan, about fifteen or eighteen 
inches in diameter, to contain the whiting that has been 
moistened and made fit for use; about four dozen earthen- 
ware paint pots, from the smallest to the largest; a grind- 
stone and muller, or what would do still better, a gi-inding 
color mill; a large palette knife; a good sized sponge; a 
plumb line; some chalk and a couple of chalk lines; some 
common charcoal, of which only the softest and finest pieces 
are to be selected; some drawing charcoal, the large French 
is the best ; a couple of pounce bags. These can be made 
in the following manner: Take a piece, about eight inches 
square, of very open canvas, of an old stocking, or of any 

325 



326 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

other material that will just allow the pounce powder to 
pass freely through the surface of the bag. Pulverize some 
charcoal, chalk, or whatever other substance may be con- 
sidered best adapted to the purpose, to as fine a powder as 
possible. Place a sufficient quantity of it on the middle 
part of the canvas. Then draw up the four corners and 
tie them together with a piece of string so as to form a 
round pad which is to be rubbed over the pounce to be 
transferred to the canvas. 

Foils. These are used chiefly in fairy scenes, for the 
purpose of imitating gold, silver and jewels of every shade 
and color. They can be purchased at any theatrical ward- 
robe and ornament maker's, as well as at oil and color 
shops. 

White, Gold and Copper-Colored Dutch Metal. This is 
also sold by the above-mentioned dealers. It is, of course, 
cheaper, but tarnishes sooner. 

A couple of wooden palettes, one three feet by one and a 
half, the other four feet by two, which any carpenter can 
make. They should have a ledge three inches high at each 
end, and one at the back to prevent the colors from flow- 
ing off. They may be made with a separate division for 
each color if preferred. Before making use of the palettes 
they must have three or four coats of white lead laid over 
them and afterwards be rubbed down with sandpaper to get 
them as smooth as possible. 

A Flogger, This implement is employed for clearing 
away the charcoal after the sketching in is completed. To 
make one, cut off a piece, about two feet long, from a 
broomstick, and round one end of it nail about a dozen 
strips of canvas or calico, each strip being two feet in 
length. 

Straight Edges. Of these, three or four will be required, 
one being exactly two yards long and four inches wide and 
marked off in feet, to serve as a measure. They should be 
made of thin deal and have a flange at each edge. One 



SCENE PAINTING 327 

of them should be thin and pliable enough to bear being 
bent whenever drawing curves or arches. 

The mode of proceeding will then be as follows: Grasp 
the handle with the left hand and press the lower edge of 
the straightedge against the canvas, keeping the upper edge 
away from it. Now, resting the brush on the upper edge, 
draw it along the canvas and a line is ruled. It would be 
advisable to practice ruling lines in this way as it will be 
found to jDresent a little difficulty at first. 

Brushes. Of these you will require : 

Two each flat hog tools, Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24. 

One each sash tools, Nos. 1 and 12. 

Two each sash tools, Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. 

One 4-inch flat camel hair brush. 

Two each quilled tools, Nos. 2, 4 and 6. 

Six each quilled tools, No. 1. 

Two 9-oz. ground distemper brushes. 

Two No, 8-0 oval ground brushes. 

One No. 4-0 over ground brush. 

One No. 1 oval ground brush. 

One No. 3 oval ground brush. 

COLORS. 

White. Procure the best gilders' whiting, as it is well 
washed and has more body than common whiting, and less 
lime. It is sold in large lumps and only requires to be 
broken up and plunged into as much water as will serve 
to soften it without bringing it into a liquid state. This 
last remark applies to all the colors when they are put into 
the stock pots ready for use. Whiting is used to mix with 
almost all the colors, to reduce them, in the same way as 
Flake white is used in oil painting or as water is used in 
water color drawing. 

Flake White. A fine white, very solid, but turns a little 
brown in distemper, after a short time. It is only used 



328 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

where extra brightness is required and for the highest 
lights. It is sokl in lumps and can be crushed in water 
with a palette knife to be ready for use. 

Zinc White. Verj' white, but has less body than flake 
white, though more permanent. In all other respects it is 
the same and is prepared in the same way for use. 

Lemon Chrome. A brilliant light yellow, sold in lumps, 
and only requires to be crushed as above. 

Orange Chrome. A fine rich bright color, in all respects 
of the same nature as the other chrome. 

Dutch Pink. A most useful yellow for distemper paint- 
ing and mixes well with any other color. It is sold in 
lumps, but must be ground in water to be ready for use. 

Light Yellow Ochre. This is a very useful and cheap 
color. It is sold in a powdered state and only requires to 
be plunged into water to be ready for use. 

Dark Brown Ochre. Of the same nature as the above and 
prepared for use in the same way; unfortunately, it is vei'y 
sandy. 

Raw Sienna. A fine rich golden yellow, for glazing, 
chiefly; sold in broken lumps, very hard, and requires most 
careful grinding in water to be readj- for use. As grinding 
shall be often spoken of let it be understood that it is al- 
ways in Avater. 

Orange Lead. A very bright and powerful red, sold in 
powder; requires only to be plunged in water to be ready 
for use. 

Vermilion. A fine red, sold in powder, and only requires 
to be plunged in water. 

Indian Red. A good color, also sold in powder, and pre- 
})are(l in the same way for use. 

Venetian Red. A very cheap and useful color-, also in 
powdei", and prepared in the same Avay for use. 

Damp Lake. A useful color in distemper. It is sold in 
a damp, pulpy state and only requires to be kept damp for 
use. It is a fine glazing color. 



SCENE PAINTING 329 

Carmine Paste. A magnificent color, has great power, 
and is a fine glazing color. This, also, only requires to be 
kept damp, as it is sold ready for use. It need not be put 
on the palette till required. 

Rose Pink. A useful color, sold in soft lumps, but re- 
quires grinding for use. 

Brown Lake. A good color, requires grinding. 

Burnt Sienna. A fine color, requires most careful grind- 
ing. This is a good glazing color. 

Vandyke Brown. A fine useful color, is a good glazing 
one, requires most careful grinding. 

Raw Umber. A useful color, requires grinding. 

Burnt Umber. A good color, requires grinding, and is 
a good glazing color. 

Drop Black. A very useful color, requires gi-inding. 

Blue Black. Is also useful, requires grinding. 

Indigo. A very useful color, very hard, requires to be 
broken up and steeped in boiling water for some time, then 
ground up in the usual way. A good glazing color. 

German Ultramarine. A good blue, sold in powder, and 
only requires to be plunged in water. 

Prussian Blue. A powerful blue, hitherto scarcely used 
in distemper, but likely to be of much use. Requires good 
grinding. 

Azure Blue. A fine, useful blue, better than Gennan ul- 
tramarine for most purposes. A powder color and has only 
to be plunged in water. 

Blue Verditer. A fine night color, but of a sandy nature, 
and very difficult to work with. A powder color and re- 
quires only water put to it for use. 

Dark Green Lake. A most powerful green and vei-y use- 
ful. Requires grinding for use. 

Light Green Lake. The same as the above, only much 
lighter. 

Emerald Green. A very bright green and should be spar- 
ingly used. Requires no grinding, as it is in powder. 



330 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

MIXING COLORS. 

The most difficult feature of painting: in distemper is 
that the colors dry so much lighter than they are when 
first put on, and many of them have, by gaslight, an en- 
tirely different appearance than they have in the daytime. 
Most colors dry sevei-al shades lighter than they are when 
wet, and, worse still, they do not all diy lighter in the 
same proportion, so that any person new to the Avork can- 
not estimate the particular shade of his paint when first 
laid on. It is, therefore, advisable for the painter to try 
his colors on a small scale at first, and dry them in front 
of the fire. 

To render the colors opaque, a certain proportion of 
whiting or flake white is always mixed with them, accord- 
ing to the shade desired. Transparent and glazing colors 
being an exception to this rule, no whiting is used Avith 
Ihem. The strength of the size also makes a vast differ- 
ence; very strong size darkens. As to the appearance of 
colors at night: French ultramarine, a bright blue by day- 
light, is a muddy purple by gaslight, and thcFcfore unfit for 
distant tints or for brightness. Verditer blue, cobalt blue, 
celestial blue are best. Yellow is much lighter by gaslight, 
and rose pink loses its brightness. The colors being all 
mixed with water to a pulpy state are now put into the 
compartments on the palette, putting no more on the palette 
than is required for immediate use. In scene painting many 
of the different shades are only obtained by mixing one 
color with the other while on the palette. The way to do 
this is as follows: Suppose a purple is wanted, the painter 
would take up a clean brush and dip it in the size-can; he 
would then transfer it quickly to the compartment on the 
palette containing the rose pink, and having got a good brush- 
ful of his color, would spread it on the palette; he would then 
dip the brush in the ultramarine and mix this also with 
the rose pink, and to get it a shade or two lighter he would 



SCENE PAINTING 331 

dip the brush in the whiting pan. Tints composed of three 
or four colors can be rapidly compounded in this way, add- 
ing moi'e size as often as required to render them work- 
able. Where a lot of color is required, as for skies, the 
colors are mixed in pots, and to get the various tints the 
painter dijDs his brush first in one pot and then in another, 
and in this way i^uts in a sky of jDcrhaps a dozen different 
hues. 

For foliage, a quiet general tint may be obtained by mix- 
ing Dutch pink with black, indigo with blue verditer. Light 
ochre with green lake gives a rich green, which may be 
changed to a cool one by the addition of indigo. For sun- 
set skies mix in separate pots the following: verditer and 
indigo; verditer and damp lake; damp lake and orange 
chrome. For clouds, mix verditer and orange red, or Vene- 
tian red and azure blue; rose pink and azure blue. For 
cold gray clouds add a little black. For lights in clouds, 
mix yellow ochre and rose pink, or yellow ochre and orange 
red. For distant foliage mix verditer and rose pink, or use 
Dutch pink alone. For the sea, Dutch pink, verditer, in- 
digo, raw sienna, azure blue and emerald green will be 
found most useful. For rocks some of the following tints 
will be useful : indigo, burnt sienna and rose pink — emer- 
ald green and black — Vandyke brown and ultramarine — 
indigo, rose pink and ochre. Black and Venetian red make 
a useful gra}'. For gold colors mix brown ochre and Dutch 
pink, or Dutch pink and sienna or Vandyke brown, these 
for laying in. For the lights use flake white and lemon 
chrome, orange and yellow chrome, chrome and Dutch pink. 
Purple and mauve look fresh by day, but are dirty and 
muddy by gaslight. For moonlight skies a good tint is ver- 
diter and indigo mixed. For clouds add black and more in- 
digo. Water is genei'ally the color of the sky and the ob- 
jects that are reflected therein, such as trees, banks and 
rushes. For branches and trunks of trees, use indigo, lake 
and yellow ochre — burnt sienna and ultramarine — Dutch 



332 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

pink, burnt sienna and indigo. For grass, use pure greens, 
mixing more or less j'ellow chrome for high lights. In 
painting dead leaves use chrome and burnt sienna. For 
stone buildings, mix yellow ochre, umber and indigo, or 
ochre, celestial blue and red. For bricks, Venetian red, 
and for shadows add ultramarine. Where fire is reflected 
use orange lead. 

Great care should be taken in mixing tints, for some 
colors like Prussian blue are so strong that a very little 
will suffice, so if used without due thought it becomes nec- 
essary to add more of the other colors. 

Some painters mix molasses or golden syrup with their 
size, which makes the colors work more freel}'. In paint- 
ing a scene on a new cloth the first thing to be done, after 
the canvas is strained, . is to size it all over. This is done 
with strong size, size melted in a kettle with just water 
enough to prevent burning. 

MEDIUM FOR BINDING DISTEMPER COLORS. 

Size is sold in firkins or by weight. Tliat called best 
double is to be preferred and when melted must be mixed 
with water in the proportion of one pint of size to four 
pints of water to make what is called working size. An- 
other called strong size, for sizing and priming a cloth or 
any piece covered with canvas, may be made by drop- 
ping the size, exactly as it comes from the shop, into a 
size kettle in which there is just sufficient water to pre- 
vent the size adhering to the bottom of the kettle. The 
size is read}' for using as soon as it is completely melted, 
without having been allowed to boil. Use is frequently 
made of what is called half-and-lialf size, a mixture of 
working size and strong size in equal quantities. 

Should the painter be unable to procure manufactured 
size, the best carpenters' glue is a good substitute for it. 
This can be obtained almost anywhere, and, in an unmelted 



SCENE PAINTING 333 

state, will keep good in all climates. It can be melted in 
a carpenter's glue pot in the usual way and then weakened 
with water till it is of the consistence required. The quan- 
tity of water will depend on the strength of the glue, which 
varies considerably, but, in any ease, keep on adding as 
much water as will allow the glue size to set in the form 
of a firm jelly when cold, and if to one part of this there 
are added four of water, the result will be working size. 
Half-and-half can be made as before. 

In moderately cool weather working size should assume 
the condition of a weak jelly when perfectly cold. Test 
the strength of it without waiting for it to cool, by the fol- 
lowing means : Thin the strong size with water till about 
the right consistency. Then, after dipping your fingers 
into it, put them together a little while; if, on endeavor- 
ing to separate them they adhere ever so little, the size is 
properly made, but if they stick together quickly and rather 
firmly, it is too strong and wants weakening. If, on the 
other hand, the fingers separate quite freely, the size re- 
quires to be made stronger. This method of testing the 
strength of the working size is worth attending to as well 
as practicing; for if use is made of size that is too strong, 
your work will have a shiny appearance and the effect will 
be spoiled, while the colors would soon wear off if the size 
has been made too weak. 

But should even carpenters' glue be unprocurable or not 
at hand when required, use leather or parchment cuttings, 
pieces of skin of any kind, or, in short, of any gelatinous 
substance that has no grease in it. Put them with water 
into any metal vessel and let them simmer till they are 
converted into a strong jelly, from which can be produced 
the same descriptions of size as those already alluded to. 

As size does not keep well during the hot weather, when 
it gives off a very offensive odor, do not make more then 
than will suffice for the day's work. A little carbolic acid, 
however, mixed with the size will prevent its decomposi- 



334 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

tion. The mixed colors, likewise, will probably deteriorate 
before the scene is finished, should the weather be hot. In 
that case, if the color sinks to the bottom of the mixture, 
the size will float on the top. Pour this out and replace 
it with fresh size. 

TO PREPARE THE CANVAS. 

If the dimensions of the canvas do not exceed that of the 
frame, strain it and nail it on with iy2 or 2-inch clout 
nails, about four inches apart from each other, taking care 
that the thx'eads of the canvas have perpendicular and hori- 
zontal directions. The nails should only be driven home 
about halfway, as, Avhen the painting is finished, they will 
all have to be taken out again in order to remove the can- 
vas from the frame. Having thus strained and fastened 
the canvas so as to get it to lie tolerably smooth on the 
frame, apply the size to it as afterwards directed and the 
whole will be stretched as tight as a drum-head. 

But suppose the canvas is too large to allow the frame 
to take in the whole height of the scene, which frequently 
happens even in regular painting rooms, resort must be had 
to what is called a bight in the canvas and pi'oceed thus: 
Nail the top of the canvas along a straight line drawn on 
the top of the frame, and let the remainder lie evenly down 
the front, dropping the portion of the canvas that extends 
beyond the bottom of the frame through the cut, if there 
be one, or gathering it up carefully below. Now drive a 
nail through the end of a seam that is about halfway be- 
tween the top and bottom of the frame, after having pulled 
it slightly downwards, keeping the side edge of the canvas 
even with the side of the frame. Then measure how far 
the nail last drove in is from the top or bottom of the 
frame, and nail the other end of the scam to the other 
side of the frame at the same relative distance. Next 
stretch a chalk line from one nail to the other and make it 



SCENE PAINTING 335 

fast. This will furnish a horizontal line, parallel, of course, 
to the top and bottom of the frame. Now give a downward 
pull to the middle part of the canvas at the bottom of the 
frame till the seam before spoken of is level with the chalk 
line at the center and fasten it to the frame with a clout 
nail. In the same way pull and fasten the canvas at each 
side of the above point, at intervals of four inches, till the 
corners are reached, when the line in which the seam is 
ought to coincide with that shown by the chalk line. In 
doing this be careful not to pull the canvas sideways, but 
quite perpendicularly and so that no wrinkles should form. 
Strain out and nail down the sides, pulling them in a hori- 
zontal direction and not harder than is necessary to make 
the canvas lie tolerably flat. The work being thus far satis- 
factorily' accomplished, remove the chalk line and com- 
mence sizing as follows: Heat some of the strong size 
before described, and with a two-knot brush apply it to 
the canvas, commencing at the top of the frame and work- 
ing crosswise from one side to the other to the depth of 
about two feet. Keep the canvas tolerably well soaked 
with the size, and let no part remain uncovered, except about 
six inches above where the bottom row of nails are driven, 
so that the marks caused by the latter may be afterwards 
got rid of. Continue thus till the whole surface of the can- 
vas is covered up to about six inches from the bottom nails. 
When all the size that has been applied to the canvas is 
perfectly dry, proceed with the priming. The priming is 
made in the following manner: Take as much of the whit- 
ing that has been soaked in water as will suffice to cover 
the whole surface of the canvas, taking care that it is 
thoroughly dissolved and free from lumps. Drain the water 
well from it and mix it with strong size only. The priming 
should now be of such a consistency that when a brush full 
of it is drawn against the side of the pot or pail which con- 
tains it, it will run down and as much remain on the side 
as will leave no part uncovered. The priming should also 



336 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

flow freely from the brush, but yet have euough body in 
it to impart, when dry, a nice even white surface to the 
canvas. 

In laying in the priming, the flat of the brush, not the 
edge, should fii'st be moved up and down the canvas with 
as long a stretch as possible, then horizontally, and after- 
wards perpendicularly again. Repeat these actions till the 
canvas is well covered, finishing off horizontally. Begin 
at the top, and the splashes will become smoothened as you 
proceed downwards with the priming. Be very careful to 
well cover the canvas, for it is most vexatious to have to 
touch up those places that have been left bare or not suffi- 
ciently covered, and the surface never looks so clear, or is 
so fit to work on as when all the priming is done whilst 
wet. The same precaution, also, must be taken in the 
priming as in the sizing, namely, not to prime nearer than 
six inches from the bottom row of nails. 

As soon as the priming is quite dry, proceed to take in 
the bight before spoken of which is done in the following 
manner: Suj^pose, for example, that the canvas is eight 
feet deeper than the frame. At the distance of three 
inches from the top, which must be allowed for the row 
of nails, measure eight feet downwards on each side of the 
frame, and there strike a line across with charcoal. Then, 
with a pair of carpenter's pincers, draw out all the nails 
except those in the top row. Now let an assistant take 
hold of the canvas at one end of line just struck, and one 
or two other assistants, according to the width of the can- 
vas, are holding the parts that are between. Let all then 
pinch the canvas along the struck line into a straight fold, 
and afterwards lift that part simultaneously till it is just 
under the top row of nails, being careful that the canvas 
which is folding itself at the back is made to lie evenly, 
and with as few creases as possible. If the lifting has 
been properly performed, the canvas vrill not have shifted, 
either to the right or to the left, and will hang tolerably 



SCENE PAINTING 337 

even. Next drive a clout nail a little below and in the mid- 
dle of the fold, and then other ones on each side, at intervals 
of four inches, as before, some one else helping you to 
keep the fold even and parallel to the top line of clouts 
while the tacking is being carried on. All that remains to 
b? done is to tack down the two sides, straining out from 
the center towards each side. If there be a seam in the 
part of the canvas just lifted up, get it horizontal by means 
of the chalk line and nails, as before explained, which would 
also serve to regulate the tacking at the bottom. Now size 
and prime the new surface in the same manner as before, 
using the size and priming hot, and the whole of the canvas 
will present a imiform appearance. 



SIGN PAINTING. 

Before giving some specimens of letters especially adapt- 
ed for sign Avriting, it should be impressed on the sign- 
painter that all eccentricity in the forms of the letters is 
for the purpose quite out of place on inscriptions over a 
store or on a wall, and in the situations where his work 
is called into requisition, however much the purposes of 
posters and placards are supposed to be assisted there; in 
the latter case the object is to catch the eye of the passer- 
by, in spite of the numerous other announcements by which 
each may be surrounded. The question in that ease, be- 
comes how to make one more striking than the other, and 
in this some of the placards succeed admirably. It is in 
fact impossible to speak too highly of the progress made 
in this respect by wood-letter cutters, some of whose works 
may truly be taken as models by the sign-painter. The 
test of beauty is fitness, and as the inscription of the name 
and trade of a storekeeper is not likely to be eclipsed by 
another inscription close to it, that the very architectural 
members serve as a separation, or, as it were, a framing, 
and that therefore no expedient is necessary to protect the 
words from being confused by the proximity or brilliancy 
of another inscription, but that simplicity, boldness and 
clearness are the great conditions to be fulfilled by the 
sign-painter. 

The characters shown in Fig. 65 have been called Sans- 
serif, Celtic and Grotesque, and are well adapted for situa- 
tions when, owing to distance or other circumstances, fine 
lines and minute details would be out of place, or would 
diminish the boldness of the inscription. In Fig. 65 the 
character is given in its heaviest fonn, such as would be 

338 



SIGN PAINTING 



339 



used high up on a wall, and where there is plenty of space 
at the disposal of the painter. This character does not ad- 
mit of shadows or thickness, as it is in itself so solid that 
any addition to its form renders it clumsy. 

For situations nearer the eye, Fig. 66 is given, in which 
the letters are thinner and the general foi-m more open. The 

MART 

Fig. 65. 

form is thus rendered altogether more elegant and may be 
either used plain, or with thickness and shading. The let- 
ters require great care in outlining, so that all the lines 
may be kept of the same thickness, and that the same char- 
acter may be preserved throughout. 

The character shown in the last examiDle is well adapted 
for situations where the inscription is only of moderate 

MAPS 

Fig. 66. 

length, compared with the space at the disposal of the 
painter. Fig. 67, however, shows how the letters given in 
Fig. 66 may be narrowed, or, as it is termed, elongated, so 
as to get a long inscription into a moderate space, and the 
sans-serif letter is better adapted than any other for this 
purpose, being, as it were, self-contained, that is, having 



340 



CYCLOPEDIA OP' PAINTING 



no serifs or projecting ends to take up space. The above 
is not by any means the narrowest letter of the kind, but 
will serve as an indication of the style. 

Fig. 68 shows the character given in Fig. 67 in a lighter 

MUEK 

Fig. 67. 

form, and is perhaps one of the most elegant letters of the 
kind. It may be used plain, or with the addition of thick- 
ness and shading. 

In Fig. 69 is given the Roman character, the most ele- 
gant of all those in use, and requiring the greatest care in 

PLATE 

Fig. 68. 

outlining. It is not well fitted for distant situations, for 
as such a large proportion of the lines are fine, the whole 
of the letter does not strike the eye equally, nor is it, when 
the fine lines are properly rendered, well adapted for shad- 
ing or for raising by means of thickness; it will, of course. 



SIGN PAINTING 341 

be supposed that the whole letter would be made of the 
same thickness of wood, then the representation of this 
would, in the ease of the fine lines, be broader than the 
lines themselves, which would seem, as it were, the edges 

MODES 

Fig. 69. 

of the wood of which the letter is composed, instead of the 
surface. 

As this character is often used for notices and other simi- 
lar inscriptions, in Fig. 70 is given a specimen of the lower 

repairing 

Fig. 70. 

case. Experienced sign-painters adopt two-thirds of the 
height of the capitals as the height of the small letters, 
and this is an admirable proportion. Any one who Avill 
take the trouble to look, will observe that wherever the 

MERCER 

Fig. 71. 

capitals tower above the other letters in an undue propor- 
tion, the general forms and workmanship will indicate that 
the inscription is the handiwork of a second-rate artist. In 
types, the above character is called Canon, and in Fig. 71 



342 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



examples are given of the character called Aldine, a very 
refined letter of a narrower character than the other; these 
are both adapted for situations where a rather long in- 
scription has to be got in, but, although the last looks well 
in print, it is not adapted for letter painting, in which 
characters narrower than those in Fig. 69 should not be 
used. 

DRAPER 

Fig. 72. 

Fig. 72 is an example of a letter now very much used, 
under the name of Runic, but it would be difficult to de- 
fend the appellation, considering that it differs in every 
particular from the truly Runic characters, but in the mul- 
tiplicity of letters it had become necessary to give some 
designation to this style, and on the principle that a rose 
by any other name would smell as sweet, the title by wliich 
this character is known has been bestowed upon it. 

Runic letters possess much of the lightness and elegance 

HAT 

Fig. 73. 

of the Roman, whilst at the same time, owing to the greater 
equalization of the thickness of the lines, they are bolder, 
and may be used with both thickness and shading, whilst 
the thickening of the fine lines is gradually lost in a point- 
ed termination of the sei-ifs. 



SIGN PAINTING 343 

Following up the system of thickening the fine lines of 
the Roman characters, a letter called the Clarendon, Fig. 
73, has been introduced. It is an exceedingly handsome 
and dignified letter, and is, as far as general proportions 
are concerned, similar in every respect to the Roman. It 
is outlined by ruling two horizontal lines at bottom and 
two at to]), to regulate the thickness of the serifs or feet, 
and these may be made to project more or less, according 
to the space at disfjosal, the example presenting the maxi- 
mum in this respect. 

In this, as in the Roman character, the vertical are 
merged into the horizontal lines by curves at the angles, 
and the sign-painter should beware of exaggeration in this 

CASE 

Fig. 74. 

particular. The perpendicularity of the one line, and the 
horizontality of the other, must not in any way be inter- 
fered with; in the sketch they should, in fact, meet and 
form a right angle, which should just be rounded off. Even 
in this particulai', the work of a first-rate sign-painter is 
evident, for in inferior work the curve is often begun from 
the very beginning of the serif of the letter to hide the 
failure in the horizontality of the line. The painter may in 
this, as in other departments of work, be assured that it 
is in the refinement of points such as these where the 
skilled artisan, possibly only another name for the artist, 
is distinguished from the common handicraftsman. 

Fig. 74 is another specimen of Clarendon in a condensed 
form, and nan-ower than this, the letter should never be 



344 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

used, as the beauty of the character is lost when the space 
forbids the proper extension of the feet of the letters. 

We would suggest to the letter painter the use of the 
Clarendon character in notice-boards, Fig. 75, where it is 
bolder than the Roman, and is perhaps more rapidly exe- 
cuted, as the thin lines do not require so much care as do 
the fine lines in the Roman. 

Next in solidity to the Clarendon is the Egyptian, or, 

This Desirable 

RESIDENCE 

t o be Le t> 

For particulars 
apply to 

Fig. 75. 

as it is by some painters and jDrinters called, the Antique. 
It is scarcelj' Avorth while asking which is the more correct 
name, as neither of them is in the slightest degree jus- 
tifiable. The nr.mes seem to have arisen from the letters 
appearing as if made uji of l)l()cks, Iiavin^ thus some simil- 
itude to the massive Egyptian buildings. 

The letter is a most useful one, the boldest there is, and 
is especially adapted for being rendered with thickness and 
shading. It differs from Clarendon in being heavier, and 



SIGN PAINTING 345 

in its angles being accurately rendered, without being 
rounded off as in the Clarendon. When Egyptian letters are 
painted on a very large scale all the lines may be made of 
the same thickness; the letters then have a very striking 
effect. When of a medium or small size, the down strokes 
should be rather thicker than the others. 

DENT 

Fig. 76. 

Fig. 77 is an example of condensed Egyptian, and nar- 
rower than this the letter should not be used, for if the 
space be so limited that such a narrow letter is required a 
sans-serif may be used, and as that character has no pro- 
jecting feet it will allow of a wider letter being employed. 

The characteristic features of what mav be called the 
three great orders of plain letters have been given, and all 

HOUSE 

Fig. 77. 

who would excel in letter painting should study and prac- 
tice these until they become quite proficient in them, since 
all the ornamental letters should be based upon them, the 
general forms being the same, the difference consisting only 
in the lines being curved or in the addition of ornamenta- 
tion. 



346 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



Fig. 78 is called Classic. It is a very useful character, 
elegant in its simplicitj'. The letters should be sketched 
and spaced as for Clarendon, the difference consisting mere- 
ly in the serifs turning round into scrolls. The effect of 
this letter, when jDainted in black on glass with a diapei'ed 
gold background, is very good. The addition of thickness 
and shading to this character, owing to the amount of 

WINE 

Fig. VS. 

draAving required, is a work of some difficulty and time, 
whilst the appearance is not thereby improved. 

The character shown in Fig. 79 goes by the name of 
Tuscan, but it is, as it were, an ornamental rendering of 
the Egyptian, within the outline of which it may very well 
be sketched. The letter is given as usually drawn. 

This letter may be shaded, or rendered with thickness. 




Fig-. 79. 

Fig. 80 shows another letter called open Tuscan. An 
inscription in this charactoi- in a light color on a dark 
ground with a darker line on the right and under side, and 
the pattern on the letter in a ))right color, comes out, to. 
use a technical phrase, very well. The main beauty of the 
letter, however, consists in the correctness of its form, and 
its rather angular character, and if these points are not 
observed, the painter may depend that all his colors, how- 



SIGK PAINTING 



347 



ever brilliant, and ail bis gilding, bowever well done, will 
be thrown avvay or will serve to show only tbe more plainly 
the defects in tbe form. 

Wbicb to admire tbe most, tbe beauty of tbe letter sbown 
in Fig. 81, or tbe plain sense of its designer, wbo, discard- 
ing tbe terms Classic, Runic, Tuscan, or otber names abso- 




lutely inappropriate to tbe character, bas called it simply 
Ornamented, a name wbicb it really deserves, being one 
of tbe handsomest characters in use. Tbe coloring must be 
left to tbe taste of tbe paintei', but it must be pointed out, 
that tbe space between tbe surrounding line and the letter 
itself is not to be filled in, in which case it would form 
a heavy broad border, but it is intended to be a single 
outline only, thus lightening tbe effect of the letter, and in- 
creasing at tbe same time its distinctness. 



mkmM 



Pig. 81. 

Fig. 82 is an example of Rustic character, well adapted 
for tbe name or inscription of a horticulturist or somewhat 
similar trade. In order to elevate the art, tbe sign-painter 
should be prepared to submit sketches of tbe inscription as 
a whole, and of individual letters drawn full size, and a 



us 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



Avell-selected set of patterns in a book will afford the cus- 
tomer an opportunity of examining the different characters 
before giving his order, and the sign-painter may be as- 
sured that this plan will be by far the most satisfactory 
one that could be adopted in the interests of all parties 
concerned. 
A word is given in Fig. 83 in the Elizabethan eharacterj 




Fig. 82. 

which is perhaps the best adapted for business purposes. 
Church text is not well fitted for general inscrij^tions, as 
it is, of course, more or less associated with sacred things, 
and as it has varied from time to time a great amount of 
study is necessary in order to render it correctly. 

In contrasting the Old English character with the G-er- 
man text. Fig. 84, it will be observed that, whilst the for- 
mer is essentially angular and severe, the latter is rounded 

Fig. 83. 

and free. Thus, flourishes seem almost necessary to Ger- 
man text, whilst they are utterly out of place in Old Eng- 
lish or Church text. They should always have some ap- 
parent connection with the letters themselves, and should 
not be used just to fill up a vacant space. A word or sen- 
tence is often too crowded at one part of the surface on 
which it is painted, leaving a blank space at the other, 



SIGN PAINTING 349 

and this is usually filled up with a meaningless flourish. 
By the method already pointed out for spacing the letters, 
this ugly expedient is rendered unnecessary. 

The Old English and German text do not look well when 
rendered with thickness. They are so essentially writing 
characters that fine lines are indispensable to them, and the 
beauty of these and the contrast of them with the thick 




Xixmx 



Fig. 84. 

lines are diminished when both are viewed from the side, 
and are seen to be equal in solidity, both characters, how- 
ever, look well when outlined Avitli a darker color than 
that in which they are painted, but in that case, more than 
ever, the absolute correctness of form must be insisted 
upon. 

Italics, as in Fig. 85, are not by any means the easiest 

MAKER 

Fig. 85. 

characters with which the sign-painter has to deal, the 
main difficulty being the uniformity of slope. In the letter 
M, the right-hand down stroke, which in the Roman char- 
acter would be upright, must take the slant of the general 
mass of letters. 

The A and V afford subjects for some study and trial. 
They may either be drawn so that their down strokes slant 



350 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

like the other letters, or they may be outlined in a paral- 
lelogram, their point being in the middle of one of the 
sides. The X is necessarily drawn according to the latter 
method. Fig. 86 shows the small letters, or lower ease, 
of the Italic character. It is as it were a substitute for 
plain writing, but no flourishes of any kind are admissi- 
ble. 

The words written in Italic small, must not be spread, 
in fact, the character looks much better when packed, or 
placed close together, the down strokes not being too thick. 
It is very important that a uniform slant should be pre- 
served throughout, and this slant should not be quite as 

Good 
Stabling 

Fig. S6. 

oblique as that of writing characters, a set square of a 
different degree to the one already alluded to should there- 
fore be provided for this purpose. Of the Script or writing 
character, the most elegant of all, one specimen only is 
given. Fig. 87, knowing that this character has been more 
studied than any other, since it is the hand taught in 
schools. Yet, Avriting with a pen is very different from 
drawing the letters which are to be painted, the first is done 
in an off-hand manner, the latter should be drawn delib- 
erately and carefully. The writing done with a pen is as 
a rule temporary in character, and the exact form of each 



SIGN PAINTINO 351 

letter and the spacing of the words are matters of but small 
consequence, unless the work be a piece of ornamental 
ealigraphy or illumination. But, a« already stated, the work 
of the sign-painter is to have a permanent object, and must 
therefore be carefully outlined and spaced. The painter 
should take as models the engraved head-lines of some of 
the copy-books now used in the schools, then proceed to 
draw the letters on a much larger scale, outlining them in 
pencil, and subsequently in color, and finally pi-acticing them 
on an upright board. 

As already stated, a fair but not exaggerated slant, and 
much taste, are required in the arrangement of the capitals 
and their heights, and of the heights and lengths of the 




Fig-. 87. 

long letters. If the capitals are too small, a degree of 
meanness is given to the writing, and the effect of the tails 
of the letters being too short is extremely unpleasant. Va- 
rious teachers of writing and engraving have different rules 
as to the lengths of the letters which are to project above 
and below the lines, and these rules, which will be appar- 
ent from the examples above referred to, must be taken as 
standards, to be adapted to the circumstances of the case, 
for the height of the surface on which the work is to be 
executed being limited, and a certain inscription being re- 
quired, the heights of the letters must in some cases be 
modified, the letters should then be kept rather thinner 
than otherwise, or they will look clumsy, the thickness iq. 



352 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

fact of the script character should always be kept within, 
rather than up to, the maximum, as the work never looks 
well when the down strokes are too thick. 

As a rule, the capitals should be at least double the 
height of the line of the other letters, and the long letters 
such as 1, d, etc., should be nearly up to the same level, 
w^hilst the tails or loops of letters such as g or p should 
extend the same distance below the line, the letter t be- 
ing just half the height of the general letters above the 
line. Thus if the body of a line of writing on an archi- 
trave were to be 6 inches, the capitals and long letters 
should be 12 inches high, whilst the latter should descend 
6 inches beloAv the line, and the letter t should be 9 inches 
high. It adds, however, to the dignity of the writing to 
give the capitals still greater height, but the long letters 
should never exceed the proportions laid down, whilst they 
may, if required, be rather shortened. 

Great care is necessary in forming the turns in writing 
characters, so that the junctions of the up and down strokes 
may be gracefuUj^ accomplished, the down strokes must be 
drawn to their exact slant until near the turning, they must 
not be kept, as it were, bending in their whole length, nor 
on the other hand must the bend take i^lace too suddenly. 

It is not advisable either to give the appearance of thick- 
ness, or to shade writing eharactei's, for the lightness and 
elegance of the work is much diminished by either process. 

A very elegant style of writing, called the Italian, is well 
adapted for inscriptions where the business is one of a re- 
fined character. 

It is in fact to such inscriptions Lliat the script character 
seems specially adapted, the heavier or more solid charac- 
ters being better suited to trades with which they har- 
monize. 

This idea cannot of course be carried out to its full ex- 
tent, as the sign-painter is greatly in the hands of his em- 
ployer, but it seems cloai- tliat there should be a certain 



SIGN PAINTING 353 

consonance between the trade and the inscription, for in- 
stance, an inscription in church text must evidently be bet- 
ter adapted to the shop of a bookseller, a clerical robe- 
maker, or a Bible warehouse, than over a shoemaker's, a 
butcher's, or a toy store, while the character of the writing 
should as far as possible accord with the style of architec- 
ture of the store front or building on which it is executed. 



STAINS. 

Mordants are chemical preparations, the effect of which 
is to fix and enhance the colors given by stains and dye- 
stuffs. Spirits of niter is used for the satin-wood stain, a 
strong solution of oxalic acid for the oak, and dilute nitric 
acid for mahogany. 

Mahogany Stains. 2 ounces Dragon's-blood dissolved in 
a quart of rectified spirits of wine, shake frequently during 
process of dissolution. 

Dark. In 1 gallon of water boil % jiound of madder and 
2 ounces of logwood chips, brush the decoction, whilst hot, 
well over, and when dry, paint over the work with a solution 
of pearlash, composed of 2 drams of i^earlash to a quart of 
water. 

Light. In 1 quart of oil of turpentine dissolve 2 ounces 
of Dragon's-blood, keeping the vessel in a warm^ place, and 
frequently shaking it. When completely dissolved, the mix- 
ture is to be applied to the work, or if the latter be small, 
it may be steeped in the stain. 

Grind raw sienna on a slab, using beer as a medium, dur- 
ing grinding, add burnt sienna until the desired color is ob- 
tained. This mixture is then to be thinned, either with 
more beer or with water, and is to be applied with a brush, 
and wiped off with a piece of flannel. It is desirable to 
avoid foxey colored mahogany, and if this stain should give 
too brown a color, a wash made of madder or logwood boiled 
in water may be passed either entirely or partially over it. 
The work may then be oiled, varnished, or polished, as de- 
sired. 

Dragon's-blood is a name given to several resins found 
in commerce, which have a similar appearance, a fine dark 

354 



STAINS 355 

red. They are produced by one or two species of calamus, 
or eane-palm, and are used for coloring varnishes, and for 
dj'eing horn so as to make it resemble tortoise-shell. The 
following are the various kinds of dragon's-blood: In 
sticks, called stick dragon's-blood. Dragon's-blood in drops 
or beads, said to be the best. Dragon's-blood in tears. Dra- 
gon's-blood in lumps. 

Madder is one of the most important coloring substances 
known, and there are several species of it. The plant is 
extensively cultivated in Southern Europe and in Holland. 
Very large quantities of the root come from Smyrna, Trieste, 
Leghorn, and other Mediterranean ports, much of that which 
is received from Holland is in powder, and comes in large 
casks. The Turks formerly understood the manufacture and 
uses of madder better than other nations, and the color thus 
obtained the name of Turkey red. In commerce there are 
the following varieties of common madder: Smyrna, French, 
Syrian, and Italian roots, and French, Dutch-crop, Ombros, 
and Mull ground madders. 

Logwood. The tree producing this dye-wood is a native 
of Yucatan in South America, the principal town of which, 
Campeachy, situated on the river San Francisco in the bay 
of Campeachy, was formerly the mart for logwood, but it 
is now extensively cultivated in Jamaica, and the chief trade 
is removed to Belize, a British settlement in the Bay of 
Honduras, whence immense quantities are annually exported. 

The coloring matter of the logwood tree depends upon a 
peculiar principle called heematin or haematoxylin, a red 
ci-ystalline substance w^hich is so abundant in some samples 
as to exist in distinct blood-red crystals. The stems are cut 
into large logs, and the bark and alburnum or white wood is 
chopped off, the dark i-ed inner wood being the only valuable 
portion. The color of a decoction of logwood is of a brown- 
ish blood-red. Acids change it to the bright color of red 
ink, which is often made of an infusion of logwood chips 
to which acetic acid is added. The alkalies strike a purple 



356 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

or violet, and the salts of iron a dark violet approaching a 
black color. 

Rosewood Stain. In 3 pints of water boil V2 pound of 
logwood until the decoction is of a dark red color, then add 
V2 ounce of salts of tartar. The wood is to receive three 
or four coats of this liquid, which must be used whilst boil- 
ing hot, each coat being allowed to drj' thoroughly before 
another is applied. Veins may be formed in this with the 
black stain, using grainers' combs or other implements, but 
if this is done, the work is removed from mere staining and 
becomes an imitation of graining. Immerse 14 pound red 
sandalwood and I/2 pound of potash in 1 gallon of hot 
water. When the color of the wood is extracted, 2^/^ pounds 
of gum shellac are to be added, and dissolved over a quick 
fire. The mixture may then be used over the stain above 
described. 

Red Sandalwood. This dye-wood is the produce of a large 
tree growing to the height of sixty or seventy feet on the 
mountains and other parts of India. It is usually imported 
in small billets two or three feet in length, of a fine deep 
red color, the concentric circles of the transverse section 
being divided by dark, almost black, lines, with different 
mordants it yields brownish red, scarlet red, deep crimson, 
and yellowish red. These colors are not, however, very per- 
manent. Another dye-wood, also called red sandalwood, 
the native name of which is Rutka-chundun, is the produc- 
tion of the largest trees of India. Neither of these must 
be confounded with the sweet-scented sandalwoods which 
are furniture woods. 

Black Stains. To 6 quarts of water add 1 pound of log- 
wood and two or three handfuls of fresh walnut jieelings. 
Let the whole boil well until reduced to about half the 
quantity of liquid, then strain and add a pint of best vine- 
gar, boil again, and apply the stain whilst quite hot. Dis- 
solve 1 ounce of green copperas in a quart of water, and 
apply this whilst quite hot over the previous stain, Avhich 



STAINS 357 

will be very much improved thereby. In 3 quarts of water 
boil 1/^ pound of logwood chips, and add 1 ounce of pearl- 
ash, strain, and apply whilst hot. Boil 1/2 pound of log- 
wood chips in 3 quarts of water, adding V2 ounce of verdi- 
gris and V2 ounce of copperas. Strain this decoction and 
add 1/2 pound of rusty steel filings. Wash this stain over 
the previous one. 

Brown Stain. Make a decoction by boiling 1 part of 
Catechu, Cutch, or Gambier in 30 parts of water, to which 
add a little soda. Apply this to the wood which is to be 
stained, and allow it to dry in the air. Make a solution of 
1 part of bichromate of potash and 30 parts of water, and 
apply over the stain, which may be varied in color accord- 
ing to the strength of the solutions used. Catechu, which 
is much used in dyeing and staining, is the extract of the 
wood of the Acacia Catechu, the seeds of the Areca Catechu, 
and the leaves of the Nauclea Gambir. The Acacia Catechu 
is a small spiny tree, rarely exceeding twenty feet in height, 
the wood is hard and heavy, the center is of a very dark red 
color nearly approaching to black, it is from this portion of 
the wood that the extract is made. In India, it is made by 
the poorer natives, who move from place to place, selecting 
jungles where the Acacia is most abundant. They cut down 
the trees, and chop the heart-wood into chips, which they 
boil in water, when the water is deeply colored, it is strained 
off and submitted to the process of evaporation, fresh sup- 
plies of the decoction being added until the whole becomes 
sufficiently thickened by evaporation. It is then poured 
into clay moulds and left to dry in the sun. The Catechu 
made from the Acacia Catechu is also called Cutch and 
Terra Japonica. The term Cutch is said to be named from 
the native language, in which the substance is called Kutt. 
Commercially, one variety is called Catechu, and another 
Cutch, although the source is the same. The former has 
been poured out onto mats when about the consistence of 
honey and dried in the sun. When sufficiently hardened, it 



358 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

is cut into small square pieces, and, after being thoroughly 
dried, it is packed into cane baskets for exportation. This 
variety has a light chocolate-brown color, and the cubes are 
about an inch square, having an earthy fracture and exter- 
nal appearance. The other variety, Cutch, is of a darker 
color, rich brown, with a shining appearance and fracture, 
it comes much mixed with broken leaves, in which it has 
been laid to dry, it is packed in a similar manner to the 
Catechu, but is most generally run into one mass. Gambler, 
or Gambir, is an extract of the leaves of the Nauclea Gam- 
bir, this plant belongs to the natural order of the Cincho- 
nas, or Jesuits' bark trees. It is made by boiling the leaves 
and evaporating the decoction to dryness, in appearance it 
resembles Cutch, but it is not so glossy in its fracture, and 
rather lighter in color. It is mostly imported from Singa- 
pore, where it is extensively cultivated. 

Walnut Stain. Boil 1^2 ounces of washing soda, bichro- 
mate of potash ^4 ounce, in 1 quart of water, and add 2V2 
ounces Vandyke brown. This stain may be used either hot 
or cold. 

Red Stains. Boil 1 pound of Brazil-wood in 1 gallon of 
water for three hours or more, add 1 ounce of pearlash, and 
apply it to the wood whilst hot, then brush over it a solu- 
tion made of 2 ounces of alum in 1 quart of water. A solu- 
tion of dragon's-blood in spirits-of-wine makes a veiy good 
stain, as already mentioned. The Brazil-wood is cut from 
a tree about twenty feet high, with prickly branches and 
yellow flowers, the decoction yields, in dyeing, rose-color, 
red, and yellow, according to the mordant used. It is not 
used in dyeing now as much as it was formerly, owing to 
the introduction of superior materials. 

A decoction of Archil forms a very good red stain for 
common work, two or three washes of it should be given, 
after which it should bo l)rushed over with a hot solution of 
])earlash and water. Archil, or Orchil, is the coloring mat- 
ter of the Orchella weed in soluiion. It does not in dyeing 



STAINS 359 

produce a fast color, but it greatly improves other dyes. 
It soaks, however, into the fibers of wood, and is thus a 
useful stain for common work. 

Oak Stain, Mix 2 ounces of potash and 2 ounces of pearl- 
ash in 1 quart of water, which will make an excellent stain. 
Should the color be darker than required, it may be diluted 
with water. It must be used vei'y carefully, as the potash 
will blister the hands if allowed to touch them, the mixture 
should also be used with a very common brush, as it softens 
the hair so as to render it of little value afterwards, 

Ebonizing Stains, The woods best adapted for ebonizing 
are sycamore and chestnut, the work should be very well 
smoothed and rubbed with glass paper before staining, and 
should be finally rubbed with glass paper or cloth which has 
been a long time in use, every particle of dust being rubbed 
off with a smooth cloth. 

Boil 1^ pound of logwood chips in 3 quarts of water, and 
add 1 ounce of pearlash. Apply this whilst hot, then boil 
% pound of logwood chips in 3 quarts of water, and add 5/2 
ounce verdigris, i/^ ounce copperas, strain the liquid, and then 
add 1/2 pound rusty steel filings and some powdered nut- 
galls, and with this go over the wood a second time. When 
dry, the work is to be well rubbed down, and if the color 
should appear uneven, the second stain must be repeated, in 
which case it must be again rubbed down. French polish, 
made darker than usual by the addition of finely powdered 
stone blue or indigo, is then to be used. Or, the black stain 
first mentioned to be first applied, then a plate or slate is 
to be held over a lamp until a quantity of the soot has 
formed, this, which is fine lamp black, is to be collected and 
mixed with French polish, which is then to be used in the 
ordinary manner. This, too, may be repeated if required, 
the work having been previously well rubbed down. 

Boil in a glazed pipkin a handful of logwood chips to 1 
pint of rain-water, allowing it to simmer until reduced by 
about one-fourth, and with this liquid give the wood two or 



360 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

three coats. Now add to the remainder of the liquid two 
bruised nut-galls, a few very rusty nails, or a piece of sul- 
phate of iron about the size of a pigeon's egg, and add rain- 
water until the original quantity of liquid is made up. This 
stain is to be applied hot, and the work is to be French- 
polished, a little blue having been px'eviously mixed with the 
polish. 

Nut-Galls. Gall-nuts, oak-galls and galls are excrescences 
formed upon the young twigs of the various species of oak. 
Galls are also formed upon other plants, but the nut-galls 
of commerce are produced on the species of oak called the 
Quercus infectorius, a small shrub about 5 or 6 feet in 
height. They originate in the puncture of an insect, Cynips 
gallae-tinctoria. The puncture is effected by the ovipositor 
of the insect, and an egg is at the same time deposited. An 
interruption in the ordinary functions of the tissue of the 
plant takes place at the spot where the egg is inserted, the 
consequence is, that an excrescence of vegetable matter, 
principally tannin, is formed round the egg, and furnishes 
a nidus for the grub or larva when hatched. When this 
takes place, the grub eats its way out through the side of 
the gall, after which the vitality of the excrescence either 
decreases or ceases altogether. Several varieties of galls 
are distinguished in commerce, the principal of which are 
the blue and white, the only difference is, that the former 
are gathered before, and the latter after, the insect has 
escaped. The color of the blue galls is a slaty blue, and 
something of a grayish green, the white gall is of a light 
drab color, and much lighter in weight, it is also less 
valuable than the blue variety. Nut-galls are nearly round, 
with a few small excrescences over their surface. They 
yield a fine black color with any of the salts of iron, and 
are used in the preparation of writing ink. 



STAINING. 

The practice of staining light and inexpensive woods 
to the colors of more rich and costly varieties is a branch 
of graining, and the advantage of being able to get a 
permanent and decorative finish upon new wood without 
preparatory painting is apparent to all. 

Under the above heading ai'e two distinct treatments, 
in one, the color effect alone is sought after, and in the 
other, the figure and characteristics of the wood are also 
imitated. Both of these methods have their proper sphere 
and limitations. The description and quality of the wood 
stained is a most important factor of its successful treat- 
ment. For instance, white wood may be stained with the 
colors of light oak or maple, and a rich and satisfying 
effect obtained. Apply, however, the same ti;ansparent 
glaze to sappy and knotty deal, or to light pine with a 
strongly marked grain, and at once it is obvious that color 
and grain do not agree. Ordinary pitchpine may be im- 
proved greatly by staining to the effect of walnut, but if 
afterwards the figure of ordinary knotted or Italian wal- 
nut were grained upon it, then an unnatural attempt at 
combination would be apparent. The very common and 
popular red staining of cheap furniture, presumably in 
imitation of mahogany, strikes in the mind at once a note 
of discord. Mahogany is an expensive wood, and there- 
fore imitations of its color on common stuff are rather 
objectionable. Then, again, the color of even the cheapest 
mahogany cannot be obtained by a bare coating of stain, 
so that it is not satisfactory from either point, consistency 
or appearance. Mahogany, walnut, maple, and other choice 
woods, particularly those which are imitated best in dis- 

361 



362 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

temper color, can, however, be beautifully grained upon 
prepared plain wood, with results almost equal to work 
done upon painted grounds. As in most of these dark 
varieties it is necessary to first stain the wood a general 
color, the pigments and fluids most serviceable for plain 
staining purposes may be considered from the painter's 
and grainer's point of view, not from the polisher's. 

Preparation for plain staining is a matter of circum- 
stance, depending ujion the nature of the wood to be stained 
and of that to be imitated. If the wood is of the poorest 
quality, soft and sappy, coat it with patent glue size of fair 
strength. All common staining requires to be sized to en- 
able the varnish to bear out. It is, however, advisable 
that, for floors and all similar surfaces exposed to hard 
wear, the stain should be applied first; othei'wise, instead 
of sinking into the wood, the color is merely lying on the 
surface, and is more easily worn away. In oil staining 
ordinary house woodwork and cheap panellings, apply the 
size before the stain. When the former is dry, it will be 
found that the oil stain, which now is gi-aining color, also 
can be spread much better and more regularly, and that 
those sappy places which would otherwise have absorbed 
much stain are scarcely noticeable. In sizing white or 
stained wood, poor work often results from the quirks and 
mitres of mouldings receiving too much of the froth of 
the warm size. This can be easily avoided by adding one 
teaspoonful of turpentine to every pint of size. For pre- 
paring a higher class of woodwork whose color it is chiefly 
the desire to alter, there are several better methods avail- 
able. For staining a good specimen of pitchpine to a 
walnut shade, first coat with either japanners' gold size, 
diluted with one-third of turps, or with raw linseed oil, a 
little turps, and about one-tenth part of good liquid driers. 
The dilute gold size is the most costly and quickest, as it 
may be stained upon in a few hours, but for permanence 
and cheapness the drj'ing oil is the best. Both aro brushed 



STAINING 363 

on in the same manner as varnish is applied, only rather 
more sparingly. When plain staining or varnishing white 
wood, it is often necessary to avoid all possible after-dis- 
coloration arising from the oil darkening with age, and, 
since it is prepared from the same source, the gold size 
is liable to the same defect. In such a case, then, clear 
size or patent size should be substituted, and the whitest 
copal oil varnish used for the finish. One drawback com- 
mon to sizing is the tendency of the fluid to raise the sur- 
face grain of the wood, this being particularly the case 
when the size is used hot. 

Mixing oil stains, namely, stains prepared with a drying 
oil and painter's pigments, is a simple matter. Take 3 
parts oil to 1 part of turpentine, add the liquid, or even 
paste, driers as before mentioned, and then the simple 
addition of the pigment or stainer completes the mixture. 
As advised for the preparatory coating, japan gold size and 
turps may be used for the liquid, or, better still, copal var- 
nish may be stained and diluted with turps. The advan- 
tage of using the two last mentioned is their quickness of 
hardening; whilst the cheaper oil mixtures are far better 
for spreading evenly and regularly over large surfaces. 
Herewith are a few particulars of color stains, which, with 
the foregoing, should suffice for all ordinary purposes : 

Light oak oil stain may be made from raw sienna, with 
the addition of a little raw Turkey umber. 

Medium oak oil stain may be made from raw sienna and 
burnt Turkey umber. 

Dark oak oil stain is best made from burnt Turkey umber 
alone; the yellow cast of the copal varnish, which should be 
used for finishing this class of work, is here sufficient to 
give the required trace of yellowness. 

Antique oak stain is a mixture of ivory black, finely 
ground, with a very little burnt sienna. Vandyke brown 
alone makes a deep rich stain, its color, when ground in 
oil, being not so red as when used in distemper. This pig- 



364 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

ment, being a notably bad drier, requires fully double the 
usual quantity of terebine added to the oil fluid. 

Walnut oil stain for varnishing upon, without any after 
glazing and liguring, may be colored with burnt Turkey 
umber and a little ivory black. For a ground color stain, 
that is, one on which walnut figure is to be grained, raw 
umber is the better pigment, since its subdued tone con- 
trasts more naturally with the after figure work. 

Pitchpine oil stains for use on light wood are formed 
with raw sienna, with the addition of a little burnt sienna; 
a little burnt umber can be added if the siennas alone are 
too red. In most instances the pine is cheaply prepared, and 
varnished with copal. The presence of so much resin and 
matter of a discoloring nature in pitchpine soon causes a 
very appreciable darkening of the original color, hence, 
when it is desirous to keep the wood permanently light, the 
copal varnish used should be of the whitest make, and the 
size be either strong parchment, or the special light japan- 
ners'. All holes should be carefully stopped with common 
putty of two shades, colored to match both the ground and 
grain of the wood, after the sizing. Allow it to harden for 
a day or so before varnishing. When the real pine is 
desired to be stained much darker, besides the umbers, 
Vandyke brown, and black pigments, use may be made of 
diluted washes of either black japan or Brunswick black. 
Use only those of a thoroughly good quality, and then with 
pure turpentine. When staining pine dark, it is preferable 
to use the stain before sizing, if the grain is desired to be 
very prominent, a full coat should be spread, and then 
shortly afterwards all the stain lying on the surface may 
be rubbed off with old cloth or rag free from fluffiness. 

Mahogany oil stain can scarcely be obtained of a good 
color by ordinary brush staining. Burnt sienna alone is 
somewhat garish, and the only perfect substitute for the 
victoria lake used in distemper graining is madder lake, 
which is too expensive for ordinary use. Whenever cheap 



STAINING 365 

mahogany stain is required, it sliould be made to match 
ordinary baywood as nearly as possible. For furniture and 
better-class work, a good mahogany effect may be obtained 
by oil staining with burnt sienna and Vandyke, and, when 
dry, over-glazing with ordinary victoria or mahogany lake 
in water. If the wood is at all sappy and strong in mark- 
ings of a nature contrary to mahogany, it must first be 
sized, stopped, and then oil-stained. 

Cheap water stains may be made easily from any of the 
above pigments, which, whether used in oil or water mix- 
tures, should always be purchased ready ground. Nearly 
all these colors have a natural binding quality with water 
alone, but the addition of a little beer will easily bind ivory 
or vegetable black. Water stains must always be applied 
directly upon the wood, and therefore there is a double 
disadvantage in using them. The stain itself has no filling 
power, so that a second coat of either size or varnish is 
necessary, and water stain does not spread so well with the 
brush as oil. Preferably, water stain is applied with a 
pjiece of sponge, and superfluous stain should be wiped off 
the surface. 

Maple and satinwood imitations, when grained on white 
wood, are executed with the same water pigments and proc- 
ess as upon paint. The wood for these two varieties must 
be free from grain or knot, and must first be once sized and 
varnished with the whitest materials. This gives a non- 
absorbent ground for working the distemper stains upon. 
When the figure is completed another good coat of varnish 
gives a capital surface. 

Walnut, mahogany, and similar dark woods must have 
the grounds sized, and then colored with oil stain to the 
shade nearest to the usual grounding paint. The size and 
stain together will suffice for working upon, but two coats 
of varnish are required for dark imitations of this kind. 
With walnut and mahogany the first coating is applied spar- 



3G6 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

ingly before the glazing, and a final flowing coat after- 
wards. 

Flat varnishing or dull polishing may be used to much 
advantage in finishing any kind of copal-varnished or oil- 
stained surface. A simple jjreparation of the former can be 
made from a piece of genuine beeswax the size of a walnut 
dissolved, and thoroughly mixed by heat, in I/2 piiit of 
pure turpentine, and 1 ounce of copal varnish added thereto. 
Dull polishing may be done by carefully dulling either 
varnish or polish with finely ground pumice-stone and felt, 
or a piece of soft cloth, used with water, and then rubbing 
with putty-powder and oil to obtain a soft gloss. 

Matching. The purpose of this process, is, as its name 
implies, to make the different pieces of wood of which 
any piece of furniture is made up, match or correspond, 
so that they may be of a uniform color. It will therefore 
be understood that some parts maj^ require lightening, and 
others darkening. For the first, make a strong solution 
of oxalic acid in hot water, and add a few di-ops of spirits 
of nitre, and wash this carefully over the parts which are 
to be lightened, when quite dry, the surface should have 
two or three coats of white polish. Give the parts to be 
lightened a wash of a clear white stain, and another of 
white varnish, give the intermediate parts a coat of com- 
mon varnish, and oil the untouched white parts, bring all 
up to an equal tint by a darkening stain, if necessary. 

Darkening. The darkeners generally used are logwood, 
lime, brown, soft-soap, dyed oil, and various chemicals, such 
as aquafortis, sulphate of iron and nitrate of silver. An 
intelligent manipulation, however, of the stains themselves 
will render special darkeners i;nnecessary, for in most cases 
the required depth of color can be obtained by repeating 
the stain, or by darkening it for a second wash, and a 
small quantity of coloring matter may also be mixed up 
with the varnish. 

When it is desired to deepen the natural color of woods, 



STAINING 367 

or to restore such as may have become discolored by time 
or other circumstances, the process called Improving is 
adopted, and this differs in no essential particular from 
staining, excepting that its object is merely to improve 
the color and bring out the natural grain of the wood 
itself, instead of attempting to make it represent another 
from which its veining may entirely differ. Barberry root 
boiled in water, Gamboge or Turmeric dissolved in spirit, 
give good yellow stains adapted for the purpose. A good 
red oil for rubbing discolored mahogany or rosewood, or 
for deeping the color of bay-wood, may be made in the 
following manner: Tie up some Alkanet-root in a muslin 
bag, and let it soak over night in some sweet oil. The oil 
which is then pressed from the bag will impart a beautiful 
red color to all the rest. The grain of the wood is well 
brought out by its being rubbed with ammonia before the 
oil is applied. Rectified naphtha, colored with Camwood 
dust, is another good red tint. Discolored ebony may be 
improved by washing over it a strong decoction of gall- 
nuts in which a quantity of steel filings has been immersed, 
this liquid should be allowed to stand a day, and should 
then be carefully strained, and, as before stated, a little 
indigo should be added to the French polish. Raw oil mixed 
with a small quantity of turpentine serves to improve most 
woods when well rubbed into them, and this may be greatly 
enhanced in value by grinding up with it a small quantity 
of the color which it is desired to impart to the wood, or 
by mixing with it oil previously colored in the manner 
already described. 

The well-known pigment called Gamboge is a gummy and 
slightly resinous exudation from the young wood of the 
Gamboge-tree, Though not a dye-stuff. Gamboge is much 
used in coloring, forming a valuable water-color, and is also 
used in coloring lacquer for varnish for brass-work. There 
is some reason to believe that Gamboge is made from more 
than one species. There are three kinds of Gamboge: 



368 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

Pipe Gamboge, which is the best, it comes from Siam in 
rolls one inch and a half in diameter and about twelve 
inches long, through which there is a hole about half an 
inch in diameter. Lump Gamboge, in masses weighing about 
one or two pounds, and having the ai)pearance of a hard- 
ened yellow paste. Gamboge in tears or small drops. 

Turmeric is the rhizone, or root-stalk, of a plant called 
the Curcuma longa. There are several varieties, of which 
the China and Bengal are considered the best. The colors 
produced by Turmeric are various and very beautiful shades 
of yellow. It is not as a dye-stuff considei'ed permanent, 
but in the stains, -when oiled or varnished, this failing is 
materially remedied. 

Alkanet-root. Tlie plant from which this root is obtained 
is of a diffuse character, rarely attaining a height of a foot. 
It is much cultivated in the south of France, and some 
portions of Germany. Its chief use is in giving a fine crim- 
son color to perfumerj- and woods, for which purposes it is 
soaked in oil in the manner above described. 

Cam-wood. This tree is a native of Sierra Leone, and 
has shining leaves and white flowers. It is of considerable 
size, often attaining the height of fifty feet. The stem is 
the part used, it is cut into logs about four feet in length, 
and these, after the removal of the bark and outer wood, 
are split and trimmed square for exportation, they are of 
a deep red color, and yield a brilliant red dye, which is 
rendered much deeper by sulphate of iron. 



STENCILLING. 

Some of the methods by which the embellishment of 
walls and ceilings can be achieved by means of stencilling 
are extremely simple, and their effectiveness when finished 
is far out of proportion to the smallness of the time, the 
labor, and the cost involved. Some of these methods it is 
intended briefly to indicate in this article, and the reader 




3re5:5-^ 



Fig. 88. 

will find no difficulty in following out the directions which 
follow. 

Fig. 88 shows a simple treatment in ashlar work suited 
for ornamenting a dado. Stencils have been arranged with 
a particular aim to their use for a drawing-room or parlor, 
and as giving a sensation of more decided elegance and 
delicacy of environment than does wall paper or paint. 
We have a deep frieze (Fig. 89), a base and scroll-pattern 
border (Fig. 90), and an ornament for the ceiling (Fig. 

369 



370 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



91). It will be seen that the frieze design will require 
much more care in enlarging than the one shown by Fig. 
88, and also that it cannot be extended in the same manner 
as the latter. Some alteration in depth may be effected 
with the dark border-band on top. This may be omitted 
or, to gain width, may be repeated as a base-band to tlie 
frieze. 

It will be noticed that two ground colors are suggested 
in the base-border (Fig. 90). On this feature much of 



■ ^M^— ■■ ,.' ' ' ■— M^— _■-■»■ ... . '- . ■ . 



Fig. 89. 

the charm of the effect will depend, and it well repays the 
trouble of first painting in the upper half with a darker 
or contrasting color. 

The chief danger, and one that must be avoided at all 
cost of color prettiness, lies in the colors and tones not 
being balanced — that is to say, the design must be kept 
equally distinct and plain throughout, and not dying away 
into the wall in some portions. The blending of stencil 
ornament is scarcely a task for the novice, and perhaps the 
best results will be met with when the color-charm is pres- 



STENCILLING 



371 



ent in the contrasting masses of color, and the designs kept 
full in contrast and pleasing by reason of their form and 
arrangement of line and curve. 

A deep Gobelin or greenish blue may be used for sten- 
cilling the frieze design, or a marone brown. The base 
(Fig. 92) should be stencilled with similar color, upon 
grounds of medium Gobelin blue (upper) and wall color 
(lower portion). If the frieze design is done in blue, use 





Figr. 90. 



marone brown for the margin band, which is, of course, put 
in with a small separate stencil. The cornice will be in 
old gold and creams, in tone with wall filling, the ceiling 
gray, and the ceiling stencil in blue and marone brown 
upon a margin having old gold ground. The woodwork of 
room should be nut-brown and fawns, with a little gilding. 
Stencil brushes, as shown in Figs. 93 and 94, specially 
made for this work are to be bought at the dealers. They 



372 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



are of short hair, flattened across the end for the purpose 
of dabbing, fixed in round handles bound in tin or brass. 

Stencilling has a perfect legitimate use as a help in lay- 
ing in decorations which are afterwards to be finished by 
hand pencilling. When stencilling is thus made only a 



W 
>% 



i 



Fig. 91. 

preliminary process, the design may be treated freely. 
Breadth and simplicity are no longer essentials, and in mak- 
ing the plates ties may be put in at random, or wherever 
they will give greatest strength, for all traces of them can 
be removed, as before said, with the pencil, yet a difficult 






-®- • 









Fis. 02. 

matter in purely stencilled work, as the pencil will not give 
precisely the same texture as the stencil brush. Thus used 
stencilling becomes an invaluable aid to an indifferent dec- 
orator, who by this means gets in all the main details leaving 
only unimportant parts to be made good afterwards by 
hand work. 



STENCILLING 



373 



Used as a decorative process, stencilling has a character 
of its own, and an interest in proportion as it is character- 
istic. 

The design drawn, method of producing a stencil from it 
will be described. Stencils may be cut in vellum, paper, 
parchment, lead foil, and thin brass, the two latter are 
unsuitable to the requirements of the decorator, the lead 
foil being used principally by glass writers and embossers. 
Having prepared the paper, the process of cutting out will 
be found to demand the greatest care, and, above all, well 
ground and sharpened tools. Have an oil-stone within 
reach, therefore, and use it frequently. It is quite use- 
less going to work with a blunt knife. There is much 




Fig. 93. 



diversity of opinion as to the most suitable blade for 
stencil cutting. The ordinary penknife blade is scarcely 
graduated enough for the purpose, for sweeping round the 
curve in the pattern shape. 

In cutting, the knife should be held firmly between the 
forefinger and thumb, the thicker part of the blade rest- 
ing lightly against the tip of the second finger. The stencil 
paper should be held in its position by the left hand. In 
cutting a curve draw the paper gently but steadily away 
from the body, and consequently against the cutting blade 
in the direction required by the degree of curvature shown 
in the design. A square of plate glass is the best material 
for cutting on. Perforations of a circular form are made 
by the use of a leather-punch, procurable at any tool ware- 



374 



CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 



house. These punches are made in various sizes, and are 
so constructed that the pieces cut out of the stencil paper 
by the cutting edge pass into the body of the punch, whence 
they are easily removed at the opening in the upper portion 
of the implement. It is not necessary to strike the punch, 
a firm pressure of the hand is generally sufficient for the 
Iturpose required, slightly turning the wrist at the same 
moment. 

A sheet of tin might, and probably does, answer for the 
time, but the repeated indentations of the surface and the 
deep cuts or scratches it receives beneath the pressure to 




Fig. 94. 

which it must of necessity be subjected, militate against 
its use. The edge of the knife may not be so much injured, 
but the point may at anj'^ moment slip into one 
of the scratches, and that simple deviation from the direc- 
tion in which it was intended it should have gone would 
not improbably ruin an early completed stencil-plate. 

It is, again, a frequent mistake to make a stencil on too 
stout a paper. The strength of paper does not depend upon 
its stoutness, a closely woven thin paper often possesses 
greater tenacity than much more bulky specimens. Heavy 
drawing paper may be used for almost every purpose. 



TURPENTINE. 

Turpentine does not burn the paint as many believe. 
Turpentine evaporates the slowest of any of the volatile 
paint solvents. It is used to give ease in working, foi-m 
depth of penetration and assist in drying. Use turpentine 
liberally in priming or middle coats. When used in undei'- 
eoatings, turpentine reduces the gravity of the oil and as- 
sists in opening the pores of the wood, thus allowing of 
greater depth of penetration. If used in middle coats or 
for reeoating old surfaces, it assists in penetrating the pre- 
vious coating and materially helps to cut the oil which 
is the gloss of the paint, leaving a better tooth for the 
binding of the finishing coat. 

Never substitute gasoline or benzine for turpentine, they 
are not substitutes. Gasoline is not a paint solvent, it 
is the lightest of the petroleum products and worthless as 
a substitute for the use to which turpentine is put. Ben- 
zine and naphtha, while better paint solvents than gasoline, 
are light petroleum products of high specific gravity, reduc- 
ing rapidly and evaporating quickl}-, they do not penetrate 
but evaporate on the surface, making the paint work hard, 
retarding the brushing out of paint and preventing working 
the pigment into the pores of the wood, leaving too much 
pigment and a dangerous undercoat without sufficient pen- 
etration or binder. 

Study the siu'face to be painted and use turpentine in 
the reduction according to the condition of the surface. If 
new work, constructed of hard, close-grained lumber, more 
turpentine must be used than if constructed of soft, open- 
grained lumber of quick absorption. The liberal use of 
turpentine in priming improperly seasoned lumber or lumber 

375 



376 CYCLOPEDIA OF 1 AINTING 

which contains moisture will assist in producing better 
penetration. 

In repainting an old surface, the first coat must be re- 
duced with turpentine according to the porosity of the 
surface. If a hard, flinty surface, much more turpentine 
must be used than if porous or weather-beaten. The mix- 
ture should range from flat, half flat to semi-gloss. Never 
apply a heavy coating of full oil reduction. 

Paint which has become fatty and gummy can be par- 
tially remedied by the addition of a small amount of tur- 
pentine. When painting in hot, humid weather, a small 
amount of turpentine added to the finishing coat will aid 
in hardening the paint. 



VARNISHES. 

It is not economical for painters to make these for them- 
selves, as they may be purchased both cheaper and in 
most cases better than they could make them. At the same 
time it is well to know how to make these important com- 
pounds, for it may so occur that the materials may be 
obtained where the varnish itself could not, or other cir- 
cumstances may render it desirable that the varnish should 
be made at home, a few receipts for the purpose are, there- 
fore, given. 

Table Varnish. Take of oil of turpentine 1 pound, bees- 
wax 2 ounces, colophony 1 drachm. Dammar resin 1 pound, 
spirits of turpentine 2 pounds, camphor 200 grains. Allow 
the mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, and the por- 
tion poured off is fit for immediate use. 

Furniture Varnishes. Dissolve l^/^ pounds of shellac in 
1 gallon of naphtha, and it will be ready for use as soon 
as the dissolution is complete. Dissolve 12 ounces of shellac 
and 3 ounces of copal, or an equivalent of Copal Varnish, 
in 1 gallon of naphtha. Dissolve 2 ounces mastic, 1^2 
pounds shellac, 4 ounces seed lac, 4 ounces sandarach, or 1 
gallon of rectified spirits of wine, benzoin, and dragon's 
blood, tumeric and other coloring matters may be added 
as required. 

Mahogany Varnish. Gum sandarach 2 ounces, shellac 1 
ounce, gum benjamin ^ ounce, Venice turpentine 1 ounce, 
spirits of wine 1 pint. Color red with dragon's blood, or 
yellow with saffron, place the vessel containing these in- 
gredients in a warm spot, until the gum has dissolved, then 
strain for use. 

White Furniture Varnish. Dissolve 6 ounces of white 
wax in 1 pint of oil of tarpentine by gentle heat, or white 

377 



378 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

wax 6 parts, petroleum 48. To be applied to the work 
whilst warm; allowed to cool, and then to be polished by 
rubbing with a coarse cloth. 

Dark Varnish for light wood-work. Shellac 16 parts, 
gum sandarach 32, gum mastic cS, gum elemi 8, dragon's 
blood 4, anatto 1, white turpentine 16, alcohol 256. Dilute 
also with alcohol, if required. 

Varnish which resists boiling water. Linseed oil 1^/2 
pounds, amber 1 pound, pulverized litharge 5 ounces, powder 
white lead 5 ounces, minium 5 ounces. Boil the linseed oil 
in an untinned copper vessel, and suspend in it the litharge 
and minium in a small bag, which must not touch the bot- 
tom of the vessel. Continue the ebullition until the oil has 
acquired a deep brown color, then take out the bag, and 
put in a clove of garlic, this is to be repeated seven or 
eight times, the boiling being continued. Before amber is 
added to the oil, it is to be mixed with 2 ounces of linseed 
oil, and melted over a fire that is well kept up. When 
the mass is fluid, it is to' be poured into the linseed oil, 
this mixture is to be boiled and stirred continually for two 
or three minutes. Afterwards, filter the mixture, and pre- 
serve it in a bottle well corked up. When this varnish is 
used the wood must be previously well polished, and covered 
with a thin coat of soot and spirits of turpentine. When 
this coat is dry, some of the varnish may be applied with 
a sponge, taking care that it is equally distributed on every 
part. This operation is to be repeated four times, being 
always careful that each coat be well dried before another 
is put over it. After the last coat of varnish the wood 
must be dried in an oven, and afterwards polished. 

Turpentine Varnish. One pint of spirits of turpentine, 
10 ounces clear resin pounded, put it in a tin can on a 
stove, and let it boil for half an hour. When the resin 
is dissolved, and the mixture has cooled, it will be ready 
for use. 

White, hard, spirit Varnish. In three pints of rectified 



VARNISHES . 379 

spirit dissolve 1 pound of gum sandarach, and add 6 ounces 
of turpentine. Dissolve 4 ounces gum mastic, 1/2 pound 
gum juniper, in 4 pints rectified spirit, add to the mixture 
1 ounce of turpentine. Mastic in tears 2 ounces, sandarach 
8 ounces, gum elemi 1 ounce, Chio turpentine 4 ounces, rec- 
tified spirit 1 quart. 

Mastic Varnish. Immerse 10 ounces of the clearest gum 
mastic in 1 pint of tui'pentine, place the vessel containing 
the mixture in a sand bath until the mastic is all dissolved, 
then strain it through a fine sieve, and it will be ready for 
use, if too thick, it may be diluted by the addition of 
spirits of turpentine. 

Copal Varnish. Melt 8 parts of powdered copal gum in 
an iron pot by slow heat, and 2 parts balsam capivi pre- 
viously warmed. Then remove from the fire, and add 10 
parts spirits of turpentine, also warmed, in order to reduce 
to the necessary' degree of thickness for working. 

Gum Copal is made more soluble in spirits of turpentine 
"by melting the powdered crude gum, and allowing it to stand 
for some time loosely covered. Powdered copal 24 parts, 
spirits of turpentine 40, camphor 1, 4 ounces copal, I/2 ounce 
camphor, 3 ounces white drying oil, 2 ounces essential oil 
of turiDcntine. Reduce the copal to powder, mix the cam- 
phor and drying oil, then heat it on a slow fire, add the 
turpentine and strain. As other soft resins are sometimes 
substituted for mastic, so inferior hard resins are some- 
times employed in the place of copal, in the composition of 
varnishes celebrated as copal varnishes. Copal is difficult 
of solution in turpentine and linseed oils, both of which 
enter into the composition of the ordinary Copal Varnishes, 
which are employed by the coach painter and afford the 
best varnishes used by the house painter and graiuer. 
Combined, however, with linseed oil and oil of turpentine, 
copal varnish affords a vehicle superior in texture, strength, 
and durability to mastic and its megilp, though in its appli- 
cation it is a less attractive instrument, and of more diffi- 



380 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

cult management. As copal swells while dissolving, so its 
solutions and varnishes contract, and consequently crack, 
in drying, and thence linseed oil is essential to prevent its 
cracking. The mixture of copal varnish and linseed oil is 
best effected by the medium of oil of turpentine, and for 
this jiurpose heat is sometimes requisite. 

Iron-work, Varnish for. Dissolve in about 2 pounds of 
tar oil, 1/2 pound of asphaltum and a like quantity of 
pounded resin, mix hot in an iron kettle, care being taken 
to prevent any contact with the flames. When cold the 
varnish is ready for use. This varnish is for outdoor work 
and iron-work. 

Common work, Varnish for. Place 3 pounds of powdered 
resin in a tin can, and add 21^ pints of spirits of turpen- 
tine, shake well, and allow the mixture to stand for a day 
or two, shaking it occasionally. Then add 5 quarts of 
boiled oil, shake the whole, and allow it to stand in a warm 
room until clear. This clear portion is then to be poured off 
for use, and may be reduced in consistency by the addition 
of turpentine. This varnish is intended for protesting sur- 
faces against the effects of exposure to the atmosphere, 
and has been used with great advantage for coating wood 
and iron-work. 

Defects in Varnishes and their Remedies. In api^lying 
oil varnishes to different objects, various defects often make 
their appearance, these are in many cases very obscure in 
their origin, although painfully obvious in their effects. 
The defects may arise through faults in making the var- 
nishes, through defects in the surface of the objects which 
have been varnished, through faulty methods of applica- 
tion, or through climatic changes. Seeing, therefore, that 
there are so many factors which produce defects in var- 
nished surfaces, it is no wonder that the causes of such 
defects are obscure, especially as the varnisher may be of 
an unobservant character and fail to notice faults at the 
time the varnish is being applied. Cracks and pinholes: 



VARNISHES 381 

these are often due to climatic changes, especially liable to 
occur in winter time, when a cold day will follow a hot or 
warm one. Keeping the object in a warm place for some 
time will tend to cure this fault, and take care that the 
varnish cannot get chilled while drying. Peeling, blistering, 
spots, and crawling are defects which may be traced to a 
greasy nature of the surface on which the varnish is ap- 
plied. This may be due to the use of bad pinning, paint, 
or rubbing the v/ork down with oily rags, or to drops of 
oil on the surface on which the varnish is applied, and not 
properly removed in the preparing operations. The remedy 
consists in preventing the application of oily matters to the 
surface, and to see that they are thoroughly removed. Sag- 
ging: this defect arises from two causes, a very greasy 
nature of the surface, or from applying the varnish too 
thickly. The varnisher is tempted to take up too much 
varnish on his brush, and unless he takes care to spread 
this well he will leave it too thick, and then sagging or 
running down may occur. If in the preparatory processes 
too thick a coat of paint is put on, the varnish may tend 
to soften this, and then this defect is liable to occur. Sweat- 
ing and blurring may be due to defects in the manufacture 
of the varnish, the gums used have not been properly melted 
and too much of their volatile constituents left in, or the 
varnish may have been sent out before it was properly ma- 
tured. Varnishing on a damp surface will also develop 
these defects. Deadening may be due to faulty preparation 
of the varnish, but more often it is due to climatic condi- 
tions, varnishing in too damp an atmosphere, on damp sur- 
faces, in the presence of deleterious gases and vapors, too 
porous a subject, too large a proportion of driers used in 
making it, all of which tend to cause loss of lustre in a 
varnish, either immediately or after a time. It is difficult 
under these circumstances to point out a remedy, for one 
will scarcely know the exact cause in any particular case, 
and of course it is obvious that the remedy will vary with 



382 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

the cause, and what will do for one case will not do for 
another. The varnisher should, if he wants to produce a 
good job, take every precaution to prevent defects arising, 
for in this case an ounce of prevention is worth a ton of 
cure. He should see that his varnish is of good quality, 
that his cans and brushes are in good condition and clean, 
that the surface he has to varnish is in proper condition, 
free from grease, dry, and having a smooth surface. He 
should never attempt a job in wet or damp weather, and 
he should take care that, after varnishing, his work is not 
exposed to any bad influences which will retard the drying 
and hardening of the varnish. 



VARNISHING. 

Two grades of varnishes will usually be required by the 
painter, inside and outside. That which is used outside will 
cost a little more than that intended for the interior, as 
it must be made of materials to resist the weather. If the 
color of the work is dark, oak varnish is the best to use, 
but there are various grades of pale varnishes suitable for 
very light work, some can be obtained which have very 
little color at all. A special grade of varnish is made for 
application to wall paper, this, however, is a common grade 
of varnish, and is not recommended. It is much better to 
pay a little more and get a good copal varnish. Before 
paper is varnished it is necessary to give it two coats of 
size. Concentrated size powder may be used for the pur- 
pose, two coats are necessary, so as to ensure no portion 
of the work being missed. If this is not done the varnish 
will soak in the paper and leave a nasty black mark. 

As a rule, a paper wall should not be varnished. The 
distempered surface of an ordinary paper looks much bet- 
ter, and it may be kept quite clean if it is frequently brushed 
down lightly. Dadoes are used in halls and staircases be- 
cause they assist in giving a finished effect to what would 
otherwise have a mere bare appearance, and also because 
when varnished they prevent soiling of the paper by dirty 
hands. The dado is twice sized, care being taken to apply 
the size a little above the edge of the dado, so as to prevent 
the varnish running. 

The application of the varnish to either paper or wood 
work requires some care. The painter is apt to try to get 
over the work too quickly by taking too much in his brush 
at once, and this is certain to lead to nasty running or tears. 
The best way is to dip a little more than the tip of the 

383 



384 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

brush into the varnish, to apply it almost in the same man- 
ner as paint across the work, and then to finish by lightly 
stroking the surface all in the same direction with the tip 
of the brush, so that the varnish flows and the brush marks 
are obliterated. Special brushes are required for varnish- 
ing, and it is useless to attempt to do good work of this 
character with an ordinary paint brush. There is no 
eeonomj' in buying a cheap varnish brush. The work done 
Avith one is very likely to be marred by the bristles coming 
out, and such tools only last a comparatively short time. A 
varnish brush when put aside for a day should be put in 
either raw linseed oil, or, better still, in some of the same 
varnish in which it has been used. It should be suspended 
and on no account to be left to rest upon its bristles. When 
not required for further use for some time it should be 
washed out first with raw linseed oil, and then with tur- 
pentine, and then wrapped in paper and- put away in a 
cool dry place. 

When to Varnish. It might appear that it is unimport- 
ant when varnish is applied so long as the work is inside, 
and is not exposed to showers of rain. As a matter of fact, 
varnish is the most susceptible material used in painting, 
and the better quality it is the more sensitive is its nature. 
In hundreds of cases of varnish which turned out badly, it 
is safe to say that in nine cases out of ten the trouble is to 
be attributed simply to the state of the weather. If var- 
nish is applied on a foggy day, for instance, it is almost cer- 
tain to bloom, that is, a dull appearance almost like the 
bloom on fruit will appear on the surface. This is diilicult 
to get rid of, although a rag dipped in kerosene oil passed 
over the surface will often assist. It sometimes happens 
that a day may be free from rain, and yet a very bad one 
to do varnishing because the atmosphere may be charged 
with humidity. A dry day and a warm one is the best for 
applying varnish. Still, there are other considerations 
which should not be overlooked. A hall which was var- 



VARNISHING 385 

nished showed on one side very badly, while the other side 
was apparently perfect, the same varnish being used by the 
same workman. Such a case appears to be somewhat mys- 
terious, the explanation of such cases is probably that the 
weather was cold, that the door was open during the process 
of varnishing-, which chilled that portion of the surface 
reached by the cold air. 

Varnish manufacturers who understand quite well the 
nature of their products take care to mature their varnishes 
by storing them in tanks for months together, and in all 
well-regulated varnish factories the temperature of the 
maturing room is kept uniform the year round, for unless 
this is done the products would vary greatly in use, and give 
a great deal of dissatisfaction. It will be seen from this 
that in putting varnish aside it is necessary to store it in a 
warm place, and to take care that it does not get chilled, 
if it should become very cold it is well to gently heat it 
before using it. In jDiano factories, carriage shops, and in 
any other places where the varnished surface must be very 
brilliant and uniform, it is often the custom to take the 
most painstaking care to prevent any marring of the var- 
nish by cold, draughts, or dust. The temperature is kept 
always uniform by means of steam or hot air pipes, double 
doors and windows are used, and sometimes the precautions 
taken go to the extent that all the air entering the room is 
thoroughly strained and freed from dust. The workmen 
have clothes which they put on previous to entering the 
room. It is not suggested that painters should take any 
precautions of this kind, but mention is made of the subject 
here in order to impress them with the necessity of taking 
the greatest care with varnishing. 

There are two additional reasons which give rise to un- 
satisfactory varnishing. The first is the habit of mixing 
varnishes. Experienced painters will sometimes assert that 
they can get a better result by mixing two varnishes to- 
gether than they could by using only one. There is some 



886 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

excuse for the practice when the supplj' of a certain var- 
nish runs out, but ordinarily it is entirely against common 
sense. Varnishes are made for so great a variety of pur- 
poses that there is no necessity to mix two together. A 
moment's reasoning will make it clear that if two varnishes 
mixed together would give a better result than either one 
used separately, that the varnish manufacturers themselves 
would make such a mixture before sending the varnish out. 
It is quite possible that the ingredients from which the 
varnish are made would react detrimentally one on the other. 
It is therefore strongly advisable for the painter not to mix 
varnishes under any circumstances. 

The second objectionable practice alluded to is that of 
thinning the varnish by adding linseed oil to it; in cold 
weather varnish sometimes pulls, that is, it is so thick that 
it is a little difficult to apply without considerable strain 
on the wrist. In such eases the workman will sometimes 
add the oil, which may not show up at the time, but it is 
sure to eventually prove disastrous. Cases have been known 
where the painter, to save himself trouble, has smuggled 
in a small bottle of linseed oil, and has added it sur- 
reptitiously to the varnish, and caused a great deal of com- 
plaint to the manufacturers. In the above remarks only 
turpentine and oil varnishes have been referred to, not 
spirit varnish. This, however, is almost invariably mixed 
with stain as far as the painter's use is concerned. Under 
the head of Staining Avill be found information on this 
subject. 

Varnishing can only be properly done by means of 
brushes specially made for the ])urpose. There is a very 
useful grade of varnish made which is known as rubbing 
varnish. This is applied in the ordinary way, and is, when 
dry, rubbed down with felt and water dipped in powdered 
pumice stone. Several coats are usually given, each being 
rubbed down. 



WATER COLOR PAINTING. 

It is difficult to give a list of the colors which are most 
serviceable for water color painting, but from a comparison 
of those employed by others, it would appear that the fol- 
lowing twenty-four may be safely recommended as being 
most useful: 

Black Blue, Brown Madder, Brown Pink, Burnt Sienna, 
Burnt Umber, Cadmium, Cobalt, Emerald Green, French 
Blue, Gamboge, Indian Red, Indian Yellow, Indigo, Crimson 
Lake, Lemon Yellow, Light Red, Payne's Gray, Prussian 
Blue, Raw Sienna, Rose Madder, Sepia, Vandyke Brown, 
Vermilion, Yellow Ochre. 

These colors should be arranged in the box systematic- 
ally. It will be found veiy convenient to place the yellow 
pigments at one end, the reds and browns in the center, and 
the blues at the other end. 

In laying on the colors it must be borne in mind that if 
two tints be mixed the effect will be different from that pro- 
duced by first laying on one and then the other above it, 
and if a transparent color be placed over an opaque one, 
the result will be different from that produced if both be 
blended. Thus cobalt and light red give a cool gray, but 
cobalt washed over light red produces a gray of an entirely 
different character. 

It is not customary to put in the shadows with neutral 
tints before employing the local colors, as it has been found 
that the method Avhich best represents the effects of shade 
is to deaden the local color by the admixture of gray or 
blue tones. 

Colors which are complementary produce harmonious ef- 
fects when opposed to each other. 

387 



388 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Red is complementary to Green, 
Blue " " Orange, 

Yellow " " Purple. 

White placed by the side of any color heightens its in- 
tensity, while black similarly used reduces its power, gray 
renders it more powerful. 

Never touch a color till it is thoroughly dry; whether 
. this is the ease may be ascertained bj^ seeing if the paper 
glistens; should it do so, it is unfit to work upon. 

Have plenty of color in the brush, and do not be afraid 
to carry it boldly up to the outline. 

A little powdered cuttlefish bone may be advantageously 
used in skies or distances to produce a slightly hazy effect. 
It should be rubbed in with the finger, and speedily removes 
any irregularity of color. 

The sun should never be allowed to shine on the paper 
when a sketch is being made, as the eye becomes dazzled 
and incapable of correctly judging the colors. The color 
also is too rapidlj' dried, giving a dirty effect. This is espe- 
cially the case with large washes. 

Depth of tone should be produced by repeated washes of 
color. If the artist attempts to produce it by a single wash, 
it will produce an effect of paintiness, hardness, and want 
of transparency. 

While the sketch is in progress it should be frequently 
viewed from a distance. Many artists throw the drawing 
on the ground, or even view it upside down, so as to judge 
of the effect as a whole, with reference to the arrangement 
of light and shade, and without regard to the subjects 
portrayed. 

Primary colors must be very sparingly introduced, and 
broken colors, composed of various pigments, duly com- 
bined, produce very agreeable results, though it must be 
remembered at the same time that the purest and freshest 
effects result from the combination of a small number of 
pigments. 



WATER COLOR PAINTING 389 

Local Color is the color of objects when viewed in ordi- 
nary daylight, and comparatively near to the eye. Local 
color is, of course, modified by increase or diminution in 
the brightness of the light on the increased or diminished 
distance from the spectator. Cast shadows are darker than 
the objects which throw them. Foreground objects appear 
to exhibit the brightest lights, the most powerful shaded 
sides, and also cast the strongest shadows, while the atmos- 
phere between the sketcher and the objects in the distance 
and middle distance tends to reduce the value of those 
which are furthest from the eye. 

Breadth is a most desirable quality to be aimed at, so 
that the lights and shades may be massed, and not cut up 
into small detached pieces. 

The color of a drawing should not be carried in its full 
intensity up to the very edge, otherwise the subject will 
appear to be cut out, with consequent loss of atmospheric 
effect, and for the same reason the principal objects should 
not be placed too near the margin, and lines such as roads 
should be arranged so as to lead the eye into the picture. 
The area of washes should diminish as the work proceeds. 
The general coloring must not be darkest in the immediate 
foreground, but nearer to the middle distance, where also 
the highest lights should be placed. 

Meaning and decision should always be given to all 
strong and dark touches. 

The entire horizon must never be allowed to cut hard 
against the sky, and endeavors ought to be made to pro- 
duce some appearance of mystery in every drawing. 

Light and color should always be carried through the 
picture, that is, the sky should not be entirely cold whilst 
the landscape is warm, nor vice versa. The sky color must 
always be carried into the landscape. 

Aerial perspective is the modification of light, shade, and 
color which is caused by the atmosphere, or more especially 
by vapor in the form of mist or haze, interposing between 



390 CYCLOPEDLV OF PAINTING 

the spectator and the object represented. The local color 
of objects is modified by the intervention of atmosphere 
and vapor in proportion to the distance of the objects from 
the eye. 

Atmospheric effects influence colors in liii;ht as well as in 
shade, modifying their distinctness, and producing that mys- 
tery which is one of the principal charms of a drawing. 

Aerial perspective is greatly assisted b}' employing retir- 
ing colors, such as blue and gray, for the sky and distance 
of a landscape, colors like madders and broken reds for the 
middle distance, and by reserving yellow, red, and orange 
for the background. It is also assisted by carrying over the 
horizon and distance the colors of the sky and clouds in 
the earlier washes. 

If, during the progress of the drawing, any portions of 
color appear to stand out too distinctly or prominently, 
thej' may be taken out with the paint rag, so that they 
might not obtrude or detach themselves too much from ob- 
jects in the same plane. 

Foregrounds. Here all color sliouhl be more or less 
broken. Trees of which the foliage may be brilliant green 
have twigs and stems of leaves which are of a warm red- 
disli brown, the local colors are thus modified and subdued 
where otherwise they might appear crude. Rocks may ap- 
pear gray, but lichens, with their yellow ov rosy tint, warm 
some portions of the stone, and thus i)rovent the appear- 
ance of coldness. Buildings with their dilferent materials, 
some of which may be toned by age and exposure, exhibit 
broken tints f)f the greatest variety and beauty. 

The great difficulty with an amateur is to fill up the 
foreground iiitclligontly witlKMit undue display of detail. 
It is most desirable therefore that herbage, heath or fore- 
ground plants should be massed as fai' as may be prac- 
ticable, and that, in Die t leal iiicnt nf slones, rocks or 
broken ground, e.\cessi\e light and shade should be avoided, 



WATER COLOR PAINTING 391 

SO as not to attract the eye too strongly and prevent it from 
penetrating further into the scene. 

Trees. In representing these the local color should be 
first laid on, a little warmer in the light and deeper and 
cooler on the shadow side, separating definitely the lights 
from the shadows, and in them showing detail. When the 
foliage is massive, deep shadows must be added. The forms 
of the highest lights must be carefully rendered, and they 
must not be frittered away by any attempt to represent the 
innumerable leaves which go to make up the entire foliage. 

The trunks of trees may be usually treated with warm 
color, purple lake or madder, combined if necessary with 
light red and cobalt. Both trunks and branches should be 
traced up and marked wherever visible. The warmth of 
their colors contrasts well with the coolness of the foliage, 
but care must be exercised that they do not come too for- 
ward, or they will destroy the appearance of roundness. 

In representing trees great assistance is afforded by the 
modern plan of taking out. Where high lights are required, 
vv^ater is ajoplied by the brush in the required form, this is 
removed with blotting-paper, and the color is then sharply 
wiped out with a handkerchief or wash-leather. 

In coloring trees it must be remembered that they rarely 
appear as a true green. The upper part of the leaves reflect 
the blue or gray of sky, and the warm tints of earth are 
reflected on their under sides. Although the local color of 
trees in the foreground may be fully visible, it is nnieh 
modified in the middle distance by their remoteness from the 
spectator, so that the tone becomes more gray than green, 
and the leafage is quite indistinct. In the extreme distance 
neither trunk nor branches are visible, and the mass is 
broken by the shadows occasioned by the varying positions 
of the trees. 

It is most desirable for any one who is anxious to rep- 
resent rocks with accuracy to be acquainted with the differ- 
ent strata and formations and with their colors when they 



392 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

are first fractured and after they are weathered. Rocks, 
by their hardness of foi'm, naturally affect the character of 
the landscape. Too great an exhibition of detail gives the 
impression of smallneSs. 

However delicate the tints of rocks may be, they should 
always be painted with more powerful pigments than those 
employed for the sky and cloud, otherwise they may appear 
weak and feeble. Variety may be given to the local color 
by taking up on the point of the brush when charged with 
the compound tints portions of pure pigment such as mad- 
der, lake, blue or gray. 

Water is most difficult to represent, and the suggestions 
given for different tones and tints may be varied indefinite- 
ly. The colors which appear in both running and still 
water are largely the result of the reflections of sky, cloud, 
and surrounding objects, but they are also produced by the 
light or shade reflected from its surface, and by the color 
of the objects over which it flows. . Smooth water should 
always be treated broadly and be painted as far as possible 
at the same time, and with the same tints, as the objects 
which are to be reflected in it. The reflections, if too 
powerful or too brilliant, may be modified by subsequent 
glazing. 

The surface of smooth water is best represented by work- 
ing the tints in a horizontal direction, but reflections in 
water are generally perpendicular. If the water is turbid 
the shadows will be visible on the surface, but in perfectly 
pure water they can hardly be recognized. 

The first tone should be decidedly graj', as reflecting sky 
and clouds, and on this may be worked raw sienna and 
brown madder, while nearer the eye French blue, Prussian 
blue, or indigo may be employed. For very dark parts 
brown pink, purple madder, and Vandyke brown are useful. 
On the sea the blue should increase in depth towards the 
horizon, possibly, however, with a light streak just where 
the sky meets the water. 



WATER COLOR PAlNTINO 393 

Waves breaking close to the shore will be warm in color, 
owing to the sand and seaweed underneath. 

In the representation of mountains the greatest atten- 
tion should be paid to accuracy of outline and to the irregu- 
larities of form, color, and shade in the general contour. 
The outlines present themselves at such different angles, 
and some will be in shade while others will be in brilliant 
light or half-light. 

To produce the effect of ruggedness on distant mountain 
sides, a brush with dry color may be dragged over the sur- 
face. 

Mountains may be put in with light red, and this should 
then be washed over with cobalt. The shadows should be 
worked with a deeper tint of cobalt. 

Mists or Clouds in the landscape greatly assist the artist 
in producing aerial effects. 

In painting clouds bring up the form sharply and de- 
cisively with the side of the brush. This operation is of 
essential importance. 

Plenty of color should always be kept in the brush, and 
care taken to preserve the purity of the tints. When the 
drawing is commenced cadmium or rose madder may be 
washed very lightly over the entire paper, omitting vei-y 
white clouds or snow. Clouds differ very much in form 
according to the character of the landscape, whether flat, 
hilly, wooded, or mountainous. 

To indicate the direction of the wind, keep the edges of 
the clouds ragged on one side. 

Sharpness of form in painting skies is needed to prevent 
the appearance of woolliness, and when the use of a brush 
with water is not sufficient to produce granulation and 
atmosphere, the paper may be rubbed very carefully with a 
piece of the finest glass-papei', this removes a little of the 
surface. Color afterwards applied will flow freely, and the 
clouds will not appear to have hard edges. The highest 
lights may be taken out with a sharp knife. 



394 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

The foregoing' directions are of the most practical char- 
acter, and in the general hints for coloring various objects 
widely different schemes of color are suggested, but the 
artist's mind selects, refines, exalts the beautiful features of 
Nature, moulding the plastic substance to its will, and 
imbuing it with something- of its own spirituality. 



WHEN NOT TO PAINT. 

There are certain times of the year when outside paint- 
ing should not be done if satisfactory results are to be ex- 
pected. If painting is done too early in the spring, the 
surface is verj' apt to be full of frost and moisture and the 
pores closed through contraction, thus producing uneven 
absorption. The side of the building exposed to the heat of 
the sun will expand and the pores open to a greater extent 
than the protected side of the building. All paints and oils 
are much heavier in cold than in warm weather, and if 
applied under a low temperature there is apt to be too 
heavy a coat over a contracted surface, which will crack 
through expansion under the summer heat. 

Do not paint after a frost or in early spring when frost 
is leaving the gTOund, filling every jjart of the building 
with dampness. Remember that heat ascends and brings 
the dampness with it. 

Paint should never be applied to extremely hot sur- 
faces. Paint applied under extreme heat sets and dries very 
rapidly, and under the direct heat of the sun's rays is very 
apt to blister, especially on old work. Remember that tints 
absorb while white reflects heat, and when it is too hot to 
paint with white, remember it is also too hot to paint with 
tints. This should not be taken as an argument against 
summer painting, but only as a caution against working on 
extremely hot surfaces. 

In spring painting follow the sun with your work. In 
summer painting let the sun follow you. Switch your work 
according to the time of the day. 

Do not paint while the plaster is drying out; allow time 
for it to harden through. Remember there are 80 to 90 
gallons of water used in every 100 yards of plastering, most 

395 



396 CYCLOPEDIA OP PAINTING 

of which must escape some place. If the building is tightly 
closed or is being dried by heat, the moisture will be largely 
driven out through the siding, causing the paint to break 
away, blister or peel. 

Do not paint buildings having damp basements without 
first removing the cellar windows and ventilators so as to 
have a free circulation of air, thus drying out the under 
part of the building, otherwise the dampness will go up 
through the house between the siding and plastered wall 
and be attracted to the surface through the siding. 

Do not paint near fresh mortar beds. The heat, mois- 
ture and fumes from the lime will be absorbed by the oil 
in drying, causing it to flatten out and destroying its life. 

Do not paint in sultry weather or in a heavy, wet atmos- 
phere, as the moisture from such conditions penetrates the 
surface to an extent that it takes several days of good dry- 
ing weather for the building to again be in condition to re- 
ceive paint. 

Do not paint during or immediately after a heavy fog 
or dew. In a few hours lumber absorbs more dampness in 
this kind of weather than from heavy rains. Moisture from 
heavy fogs and dews penetrates lumber to a greater depth 
than from any other source. It is especially important to 
guard against these conditions. 

In most sections of the counti*}' the season of exterior 
painting is comparatively short and it is a great temptation 
for painters who have been obliged to lie idle all winter 
to start early spring painting. The season of painting can 
be easily extended and more satisfactory results obtained 
by using judgment as to the best time of the year to paint a 
building according to its surroundings. There are very few 
I)roperty owners who would not be willing to extend the 
time of painting if shown that better and more satisfactory 
results can be obtained by so doing. 

A building exposed to the sun and weather on all sides 
will dry out much quicker and be in condition to paint much 



WHEN NOT TO PAINT 397 

earlier in the spring than one in a confined space where 
the sides of the building are not exposed to the sun or have 
no opportunity to dry out before the summer weather ar- 
rives. 

A building surrounded by vines or dense foliage is in 
no condition to paint until the heat of the summer has 
drawn the moisture, not alone from the building but the 
ground surrounding it. The building may be so densely 
shaded that it will be paintable only at a time of the year 
when it would be impossible to apply paint to an exposed 
surface without danger of its blistering under the extreme 
heat of the sun. 

Under certain conditions, better results will be obtained 
on a surface which is checked, cracked or shows indications 
of peeling, by allowing the building to stand through the 
summer and deteriorate to the full extent, repainting in the 
fall when the old, loose surface can more easily be re- 
moved. 



PRACTICAL POINTS ON PAINTING. 

Do not expect the paint to do all the work. It won't. 

No paint manufacturer can make one paint which will 
meet everj' requirement. 

Judgment must be used as to the surface to be painted. 

Never use a cheap primer. The priming coat should be 
of the best. It is tlie foundation upon which all subsequent 
coats must be built. 

The best paint, if pi-oiDerly applied or a^Dplied over a 
surface not in condition to receive paint, will not give good 
results. 

A successful j^ainter is one who makes a thorough study 
of the work on hand and knows what is necessary to use 
in order to produce the best results. If oil or turpentine is 
needed, he should know when and how much. 

Good results can not be obtained on poor lumber. 

Moisture is the bane of the painter and paint manufac- 
turer. Possibly more trouble can be traced to moisture than 
to any other cause of paint going wrong. 

Paint will blister, peel and scale if the surface painted 
contains moisture. 

Moisture is always present in improperly seasoned or 
green lumber. It is often present because of defective win- 
dow casings, leaky down spouts and freshly plastered walls. 

It is important that the foundation should have ventila- 
tors or windows, so that there will be a free circulation of 
air underneath the buildings to carry off the dampness. If 
this precaution is not taken, the dampness will go up 
through the space between the plastering and siding and 
the sun and warm air will draw it through to the outside, 
causing the paint to blister, peel and scale. 

Mildew is another serious trouble. This is a vegetable 
growth and is always a sure indication of dampness. 

398 



PRACTICAL POINTS ON PAINTING 399 

Do not be in a hurry with the work. Do not apply the 
paint too heavily. 

A well-brushed-out coat of the proper consistency and 
plenty of time allowed for its hardening through will more 
than repay in the after effects for the time spent. 

There is a difference between paint drying and harden- 
ing. Paint may dry in a few hours, but takes days to 
harden. 

Light and air are essential to the proper diying of paint. 

With inside painting, do not tightly close the room and 
expect the paint to dry. It won't. 

Good results can not be had on an old surface unless it 
is put in proper condition to receive paint and the paint 
prepared and applied according to the condition of the 
surface. 

Paint when struck with frost before it is dry wrinkles 
and loses its gloss. 

Heavy dews on paint not dry also destroj' the gloss. 

Thei'e are certain times of the year when outside painting 
should not be done if satisfactory results are to be expected. 

Do not paint too early in the spring, as the surface is very 
apt to be full of frost and moisture. 

More complaints of peeling can be traced to early spring 
painting than to painting done at any other time of the 
year. 

All paints and oils are much heavier in cold than in warm 
weather. If applied in a low temperature, there is apt to 
be too heavy a coating. 

Painting should never be done in extremely hot weather. 

Better and more uniform results can be obtained if the 
full amount of paint required for each coat is mixed at one 
time. 

Prevent the paint from skinning over as much as possible 
by keeping the mixing keg covered when not in use. The 
formation of skin robs the paint of its drier. 



400 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Paint must be kept of a uniform consistency to give uni- 
form results. 

Where japan is used, always get the best and use it 
sparingly. Never add japan last or after the mixture has 
been thinned down. 

An excess of japan will keep the paint from hardening 
and make spongy work. 

There are very few exceptions to the statement that 
boiled linseed oil should never be used for undercoatings. 

Always use pure raw linseed oil for reducing paints. In- 
sist on having the best. See that it bears the brand of some 
reputable oil crusher. 

There are no substitutes for linseed oil. 

An excess of oil in the middle coat on new work and first 
coat on old work will retard the hardening and cause the fin- 
ishing coat to flatten out, also very apt to cause blistering. 

Tacky Paint. This is more often caused through im- 
proper application of the undercoats than through anj' fault 
of the paint. 

Paint, varnish, or a similar product applied over a glossy 
surface or a surface which is not hard dry is much more 
likely to remain tacky than if applied over a thoroughly 
dry, half flat or flat surface. 

Some paint pigments are natural dr3'ers, while others are 
non-dryers. The non-drying pigments, when used in paint- 
ing, if not properly prepared and applied over a suitable 
surface, are very apt to dry tacky and remain so. 

Varnish added to oil paint will cause tlie paint to remain 
tacky. Colors in oil mixed with varnish will not harden, 
but soften under exposure to heat. 

Always prime a building before the plasterer commences 
his work. 

Never second or third coat a building while the plaster 
is drying out. A building should never be tightly closed 
while the plaster is drying out. 



USEFUL INFORMATION. 

Alabaster, To Clean. Make a paste with quick-lime and 
water, sjiread this well over the discolored article, and 
leave it on for about twenty-four hours, then remove with 
soap and water, applying some friction on parts which are 
worse than others. Alabaster, if not too much discolored, 
may be cleansed with a strong lye of soap and water, or, 
the superficial dirt and grease having been removed, it may 
be washed with diluted muriatic acid. 

Glass, To Remove Grease From. Dissolve carbonate of 
soda in water, in the proportion of 1 of the former to 10 
of the latter, and let the liquid boil in a clean untinned 
iron pot. Slake 8 parts of quick-lime in a covered vessel, 
and add the hydrate thus formed to the boiling liquid, 
stirring it meanwhile. Great care must be exercised in 
using this caustic solution, which must not be allowed to 
touch the hands, the glass must therefore be dipped in it 
by the aid of tongs or pliers. When the grease is dissolved 
the glass is to be well brushed and subsequently rinsed in 
water. 

Gold Size. Heat Yo pound linseed oil in a flask, and 
gradually add 2 ounces of powdered gum animi, stimng 
tlie oil continuously until the whole of the gum is dissolved. 
Continue boiling until the mixture becomes a little thicker 
than tar, when it must be strained through a coarse cloth. 
Previous to use, it is to be ground up with suflBcient ver- 
milion to render it opaque, and turpentine must be added 
ill order that it may work freely. 

The following method of making gold size is derived 
from a verj' old source, and is given in the words of the 
original : 

401 



402 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

To Make Gold Size. Take Gum Animi, Asphaltum, of 
each 1 ounce, minium litharge of gold and umber, of each 
% ounce, reduce all into a very 'fine powder, and add to 
them, of linseed oil 4 ounces, of drying oil 8 ounces, digest 
over a gentle fire that does not flame, so that it may only 
simmer and bubble up, but not boil, for fear it should run 
over and set the house on fire. Keep constantly stirring 
with a stick till all the ingredients are dissolved and incor- 
porated, and do not leave off stirring it till it becomes 
thick and ropy, and is boiled enough, let it stand till it is 
almost cold, and then strain it through a coarse linen cloth, 
and keep it for use. To prepare for use, mix with oil of 
turpentine during heating, and strain again, add vermilion, 
and thin as required with turpentine. 

Iron-work, Paints for preserving. Plumbago and hot coal 
tar. 

Equal parts of asphaltum and rosin dissolved in common 
turpentine. 

For machinery, dissolve 2 pounds india-rubber, 4 pounds 
resin, 2 pounds shellac in 5 gallons of benzine. This may 
be used with any other paint as a vehicle. 

Wrought-iron bridges, are painted with white lead as 
follows: The iron-work is first made clean by scrubbing 
and brushing it with wire brushes, this done, all the cav- 
ities and fissures are filled up with a putty of litharge, 
linseed oil, varnish, and white lead. This filling being dry, 
brushing is repeated. Afterwards paint is applied consist- 
ing of 300 pounds of white lead, 10 gallons of crude linseed 
oil, and li/4 gallons of turpentine. This paint is repeated 
when the previous coat is sufficiently dry, and finally evenly 
overspread with white sand. Galvanizing is also employed 
to prevent rusting. A galvanizing paint consists chiefly of 
zinc powder and oil varnish. Rusting is further prevented 
by rubbing the red hot iron with wax, tallow, pitch, or coal 
tar. Rubbing with heavy petroleum is also well adapted 
for keeping iron-work clean. 



USEFUL INFORMATION 403 

Marble, Jasper, Porphyry. To clean. Mix quick-lime 
with very strong soap-lees until the liquid is about the 
consistence of milk, paint it over the substance to be 
cleaned, and leave it on for twenty-four hours, after which 
it is to be washed off, and the stone is to be well rubbed 
with putty-powder and olive oil. 

Marble which has not been tarnished by exposure to the 
open air may be well washed with potash-water, and sub- 
sequently with water with which a small quantity of hydro- 
chloric acid has been mixed. 

Mix soda, pumice stone, and finely powdered chalk, in 
proportions of two parts of the former to one each of the 
latter, pass these ingredients through a fine sieve, and mix 
them with water so as to form a paste of some consistency. 
This paste on being well rubbed into the marble will re- 
move the stains, the marble is then to be washed with soap 
and water, when a beautiful polish will be produced. 

Clean with diluted muriatic acid, or soap and warm vine- 
gar. Dissolve IV2 pounds of potash in a gallon of watei', 
add 1 pound of virgin wax, and let the whole boil for half 
an hour, then allow it to cool, when a cake of wax will be 
formed on the surface. This cake is to be ground up in a 
marble mortar, soft water being added, until a smooth paste 
is formed, and this laid on the marble, and well rubbed with 
a piece of fla~nnel when dry, will produce a good polish. 

Paint, Anti-corrosive. Take equal parts by weight of 
whiting and white lead, and half the quantity of fine sand, 
gravel, or road-dust, and a sufficient quantity of coloring 
matter. This mixture is made in water, and can be used as 
a distemper-coloi', but it is more durable to dry it in cakes 
or powder after mixing, and then use it as an oil-paint by 
grinding it again in linseed oil. The proportion of oil 
recommended for this purpose is 12 parts by weight of lin- 
seed oil, 1 boiled linseed oil, and 3 sulphate of lime, well 
mixed. One gallon of this prepared oil is used to 7 pounds 
of the powder. 



404 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

Paint, Economical. Skim milk 2 parts, fresh slaked lime 
8 ounces, linseed oil 6 ounces, white Burgundy pitch 2 
ounces, Spanish white 3 pounds. The lime to be slaked in 
water exposed to the air, mixed in one-fourth of the milk. 
The oil in which the pitch is previously dissolved to be 
added a little at a time, then the rest of the milk, and after- 
wards the Spanish white. This quantity is sufficient for 
twenty-seven square yards, two coats. 

Paint for Wire-work. Boil good linseed oil with as much 
litharge as will make it of the consistency to be laid on 
with the brush, add lamp black at the rate of 1 part to 
every 10 by weight of the litharge, boil three hours over a 
gentle fire. The first coat should be thinner than the fol- 
lowing ones. 

Paint, To remove old. Wet the place with naphtha, re- 
peating as often as is required, but frequently one applica- 
tion will dissolve the paint. As soon as it is softened, rub 
the surface clean. Chloroform, mixed with a small quan- 
tity of spirit ammonia, has been very successfully em- 
ployed in removing the stains of dry paint from wood, silk, 
and other substances. 

Paint, To destroy. Mix one part by weight of pearlash 
with three parts quick-stone lime, by slaking the lime in 
water and then adding the pearlash, making the mixture 
about the consistency of paint. Lay the above over the 
whole of the work required to be cleaned with an old brush, 
let it remain fourteen or sixteen hours, when the paint can 
be easily scraped off. 

Paint, To remove. In those cases where it is requisite to 
remove painting entirely from its ground, it is usual to 
resort to mechanical scraping, or to the very dangerous 
operation of setting fire to the painted surface immediately 
after washing it over with oil of turpentine, called tui*ps, 
for burning off the paint from the old disfigured work, 
an operation which may be safely and more easily accom- 
plished by laying on a thick wash or plaster of fresh-slaked 



USEFUL INFORMATION 405 

quick-lime, mixed with soda, which may be washed off with 
Avater the following day, carrying with it the paint, grease, 
and other foulness, so that, when clean and dry, the paint- 
ing may be renev/ed as on fresh work. 

Paint, Metallic. Break common resin into dust or small 
pieces, and dissolve in benzine or turpentine until the solu- 
tion acquires the consistency of syruio or molasses, or, equal 
parts of each of the above hydrocarbons, and any other 
hydrocarbon that will dry and combine with drying oils, 
can be used instead of turpentine or benzine. "When the 
solution is complete, it is gTadually added to oxide of zinc, 
which has previously been made into a paste with boiled 
linseed oil, until the whole mixture acquires the consistency 
of a paint suitable for-use. A white paint of a durable and 
glossy character is thus produced. Other pigments, such as 
sulphate of barj'tes, oxide of iron, Brunswick green, or red 
lead, can be added to make any desired color of paint. One 
great advantage of its use is its effectual resistance to heat 
and moisture. It never blisters or cracks even under the 
hottest sun or in the most inclement weather. 

Painted work, To clean. When painted wainscot or other 
wood requires cleaning, soft soap and fuller's earth should 
be applied with a flannel. The work should proceed from 
the top downwards, and the water should be prevented from 
running on the clean parts as much as possible, or marks 
will be made which will appear after the whole is finished. 
One person should dry with a soft rag as fast as another 
has scoured off the dirt and washed off the soap. When 
the paint is soiled in parts only, and does not require a 
general cleaning, dip a sponge or a piece of flannel into soda 
and water, wash it off quickl}^, and dry immediately, or the 
soda will eat off the paint. When paint simply requires 
to have the dust removed from it, a cloth should not be 
used, but, after blowing off the loose particles with a pair 
of bellows, the operation should be completed with a long- 



406 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

haired brush. With care, paint will look well for a long 
time if guarded from the infiuenee of the sun. 

Painting, Effect of, on Wood. It is, of course, generally 
understood that the main puriiose of painting wood is to 
preserve it from decay, but this effect is only to be ex- 
pected when the wood is previously quite drj', if this is not 
the case, the painting is injurious instead of being beneficial 
to the timber. There is a cause which affects all wood 
most materially, which is the application of paint, tar, or 
pitch before the wood has been thoroughly dried. The 
nature of these bodies j^revents all evaporation, and eon- 
fines the internal moisture, which is the cause of sudden 
decay. Both oak and fir posts may be brought into a pi'e- 
mature state of decay, by their having been painted prior 
to a due evaporation of their moisture, and painting affords 
no protection to timber against dry rot. On the other hand, 
the doors, pews, and carved work of many old churches 
have never been painted, and yet are often found to be per- 
fectly sound, after having existed for centuries. Painted 
floor-cloths are very injurious to wooden floors, and soon 
produce rottenness in the floors that are covered with them, 
as the painted cloth prevents the access of atmospheric air, 
and retains whatever dampness the boards may absorb, and 
therefore soon causes decay, carpets are not so injurious, 
but still assist in retarding fi-ee evaporation. 

Putty, To make. Pulverize the required quantity of whit- 
ing, which has been siDeeially dried, and pass through a 
sieve of about forty-five holes to the square inch, mix the 
powder with as much raw linseed oil as will form it into a 
stiff paste, which should be well kneaded and left for a day 
or so, it must then be worked up, a small quantity at a 
time, so that it may be rendered quite smooth, and that 
balls of the dry whiting powder may not be imprisoned 
in different parts of the putty, for these would make their 
appearance when the putty was being used, and would of 
course injure the adhesiveness of the composition. Putty 



USEIFUL INFORMATION 407 

should be kept in an earthenware pan covered with a wet 
cloth. Putty which has become hardened may be made 
again fit for use by warming and beating it up, and knead- 
ing it whilst in that condition. For particular pur- 
poses, as for fanlights, iron-framed greenhouses, and other 
places where the lap or hold is very narrow, a little white 
lead may with advantage be added. To color putty, mix 
red ochre, lamp black, or other color with the whiting. 

Putty, To soften. Slake some quick stone lime in water, and 
add one-third of the quantity of pearlash, make the mixture 
about the thickness of paint. Apply it with a brush to the 
putty on both sides of the glass, and leave it on for a day 
or so, the putty will then have become so softened that 
it may easily be removed with a glazier's knife, and the 
pane of glass may then be taken out. 

Size, To make. Practically, size is merely glue so much 
diluted with water that it does not for a very long time 
harden in the mass, but preserves a jellified condition, and 
is thus sold in barrels. A better kind is however supplied, 
made into very thin square cakes like glue, which is prin- 
cipally used for sizing wood which has been stained, or for 
i-efined purposes. Parchment size is the best for distem- 
per colors, and is made in the following manner: Place 
a quantity of parchment cuttings in an iron kettle, cover 
them with water, and allow them to soak thoroughly, from 
twenty-four to thirty-six hours will be required for this 
purpose, and should the water have been absorbed, more 
must be added. The whole is then to be boiled for about 
six hours, during which the scum which rises must be re- 
moved. It is afterwards to be strained through a coarse 
cloth. Size prepared in the following manner will keep good 
for several weeks: Dissolve 3 or 4 ounces of alum in boil- 
ing water, and add the solution to every pailful, boil and 
strain the size a second time, and set in a cool place. 

Size, Glove-leather. Take 1/2 pound of the cuttings of 
white glove-leather, put them into water and allow them 



408 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

to steep for about twelve hours, add about 6 quarts of 
water, and allow the mixture to boil down to 1 quart, strain, 
and allow to cool. 

Smell of Paint, To get rid of. Place a vessel full of 
lighted charcoal in the middle of the room, and throw on it 
two or three handfuls of Juniper berries, shut the windows, 
the chimney, and the door, twenty-four hours afterwards 
the room may be opened, when it will be found that the 
sickly and unwholesome smell will have left. The smoke 
of the Juniper berries possesses this advantage, that should 
anything be left in the room, such as tapestry, it will not 
be in any way injured. 

Plunge a handful of hay into a pail of water, and let it 
stand in the newly painted room. 

Fill three or four tubs with about eight gallons of water, 
and an ounce of vitriol, and place them in the newly painted 
room near the wainscot. The water will absorb the ef- 
fluvia from the paint in about three days, but it should be 
renewed each day during that time. 

Soft Putty. This is made of whiting and boiled linseed 
oil, with white lead in the proportion of one-tenth of the 
whiting, a small quantity of salad oil is then to be added 
in order to prevent the white lead from hardening and 
cracking off, as common putty often does in certain situa- 
tions. 

Varnish, Green transparent. Thin some copal varnish 
with turpentine, grind well together etjual quantities of 
Chinese blue and chromate of potash, and mix them thor- 
oughly with the diluted varnish. 

The precise shade of green may be varied by the differ- 
ent proportions in which the Chinese blue and chromate of 
potash are used. 

For Venetian blinds, give the wood a couple of coats of 
light lead-color, and allow it to become perfectly hard. 
Grind some dry white lead in spirit of turpentine, and add 
to it one-third of its quantity of verdigris or navy green, 



USEFUL INFORMATION 409 

which has previously been ground in oil, to this mixture 
add sufficient common oak varnish to bind the color. Two, 
or if required, three coats of this varnish are now to be 
applied, and as it dries very rapidly the whole may be 
finished in a few hours. 

Varnish, To remove, from Pictures or Fine Work. By 
friction, if it be a soft varnish such as that of mastic, the 
simple rubbing of the finger ends, with or without water, 
may be found sufficient, a portion of the resin attaches 
itself to the fingers, and by continuous rubbing removes 
the varnish. If it be hard varnish such as that of copal 
which is to be removed, friction with sea or river sand, the 
particles of which have a rotundity that prevents their 
scratching, will accomplish the purpose. The solvents com- 
monly employed for removing varnish are the several alka- 
lies, alcohol and essential oils used simply or combined. Of 
the alkalies, the volatile in its mildest state, or carbonate 
of ammonia, is the only one which can be safely used in 
removing dust, oil, and varnish from a picture, which it 
does powerfully, it must, therefore, be much diluted with 
water, according to the power required, and employed with 
judgment and caution, stopping its action at the proper 
time by the use of pure water and a sponge. A thick coat 
of wet fuller's earth may be employed with safety, and, 
after remaining on the paint a sufficient time to soften the 
extraneous surface, may be removed by washing. Both 
pictures and gilding have been restored to their original 
beauty by the ajiplication of wet clay. 

Worm in Wood-work, Prevention of. The ravages of 
worms and insects are among the principal causes of the 
destruction of timber. Some woods are more subject than 
others to be destroyed by them, such as alder, beech, birch, 
and in general all soft woods of which the juices are of 
a saccharine nature. Against the common worm, oil of 
spike is said to be an excellent remedy; and oil of juniper, 
or of turpentine, will prevent them in some degi'ee. A free 



410 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

use of linseed oil is a good preservative, and so is a cover- 
ing of copal varnish, but these can be applied to small 
articles onlj". Another application is sulphur which has 
been immersed in nitric acid and distilled to dryness, which, 
being exposed to the air, dissolves into an oil, the parts to 
be secured from the worm are to be anointed with this oil, 
wliieh does not give an unpleasant odor to the wood. Lime 
is an excellent prevention against the worm, and sap-wcjod 
should alwaj's be impregnated with it when used in a dry 
situation. As worms do not attack bitter woods, soaking 
wood in an infusion of quassia has been tried, and is said 
to have the desired effect. 

Zinc, To prepare for painting. In 64 parts of water, dis- 
solve 1 part of chloride of copper, 1 of nitrate of copper, 
and 1 of sal ammoniac, and add 1 part of commercial 
hydrochloric acid, brush the zinc over with this mixture, 
which gives it a deep black, leave it to dry for twenty- 
four hours, when any oil color will firmly adhore to it, and 
withstand both heat and damp. 

A Useful Cement. Alum and plaster of Paris, mixed 
with water and used in the liquid state, form a hard com- 
position and a useful cement. 

Barytes in Chrome Yellow. The detection of baiytes in 
chrome yellow is a very simple matter, and as it is a very 
commonly employed adulterant, the following may be found 
useful : Put a small portion of the yellow into a test tube, 
add a sufficient quantity of concentrate muriatic acid, and 
boil. The yellow is almost immediately resolved into a 
white semi-crystalline chloride of lead and a green solution 
of chloride of chromium. A large amount of water is 
added to the test, which is again boiled. If there is no 
barytes pre.sent, a clear solution will be formed, as chloride 
of lead is soluble in boiling water. The barytes, if pres- 
ent, will be left behind as a heavy, fine white deposit, which 
may be washed by repeatedly boiling with water. 

Bathrooms. These shonld be warm in coloring, to assist 



USEFUL INFOBMATION 411 

a feeling of warmth during the winter toilet, and they 
should of course be washable in every part, as otherwise 
the steam from hot baths may destroy the work in a very 
short time. 

Black Varnish for Ironwork. The following is recom- 
mended as a good recipe for a black varnish for ironwork : 
Take y2 pound of asphaltum and ^^4 pound of resin, and 
dissolve in 1 pint of turpentine, rub 2 ounces of lamp-black 
with a little linseed oil to form a paste, and stir this into 
the first-mentioned ingredients. The mixture, now being 
ready, can be painted on any ironwork with a soft flat 
brush. 

Boiling Points. Mercury, 630° Fahrenheit, linseed oil, 
266° Fahrenheit, olive oil, 412° Fahrenheit, sulphuric acid, 
410° Fahrenheit, oil turpentine, 315° Fahrenheit, water, 
212° Fahrenheit, and alcohol, 174° Fahrenheit. 

Carver's Polish. In 1 pint of spirits of wine dissolve 2 
ounces of seedlac and 2 ounces of white resin. The prin- 
cipal use of this polish is for the carved parts of cabinet 
work, such as standards, pillars, and claws. It should be 
laid on warm, and if the work can also be warmed at the 
time it will be still better. All moisture and dampness 
should be carefully excluded. 

Cement for Marble. Stir to a thick batter with silicate 
of soda, 12 parts Portland cement, 6 parts slaked lime, 6 
parts fine lead, 1 part infusorial earth. This is very excel- 
lent for marble and alabaster. The cemented objects need 
not be heated. After twenty-four hours the fracture is 
firm, and the place can with difficulty be found. 

Cement Mortar. About 8 parts of furnace ashes, slag, or 
coke, 4 parts of slaked lime, and 1 of clay, are taken and 
mixed dry, so as to form a cement, which, on mixing with 
water, sets in the ordinary way. The proportions of the 
materials may be varied so as to produce either an aerial 
or hj-draulic cement. 

Cleaning Paint. Provide a plate with some of the best 



41li CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

wliitinu: to be had, and have ready some clean warm water 
and a piooo of Hannel, which dip into the water and squeeze 
nearly dry, then take as much whitinj,^ as will adhere to it, 
api)ly it to the painted surface, when a little rubbing will 
instantly remove any dirt or grease. After which wash 
the part well with clean water, rubbing it dry with a soft 
chamois leather. Paint thus cleaned looks as well as when 
first laid on, without injury to the most delicate colors. 
It is- far better than using soap, and does not require more 
than half the time and labor. 

Durable Colors. One of the necessary qualifications of 
(he painter is the knowledge of the colors that will stand 
the sun aiui weather. The manufactured chemical colors 
are generally not very durable, and are therefore not very 
suitable for outside work. The chrome yellows, chrome 
greens, and Prussian blues are fugitive, whether used alone 
or mixed. A combination of two colors of durable nature 
is often subject to change of tone. Of the more durable 
colors for external use, the ochres, Indian and Venetian 
reds, burnt and raw umbers, and burnt and raw siennas may 
be mentioned. Zinc white, though of less body than white 
lead, is more delicate and durable, and should always be 
used in place of white lead at the seashore, where it is 
especially durable. The action of the salt air injures the 
lead. The most durable blacks are lamp-black and vegetable 
black, the most durable yellows are yellow ochre and Naples 
yellow, both of wliicli have a good body. Chrome yellow 
is fugitive, and, like other lead salts, it becomes dark in 
bad air. Of the reds, those to be depended on are the 
Venetian red, Indian red, light red, and madder lake; car- 
mine lake, vermilion, and chrome red are best avoided on 
the exterior. The only blue that will stand is ultramarine, 
though it is expensive. Prussian blue, cobalt. Antwerp blue, 
and indigo will fade either singly or in combination. The 
umbers and siennas, burnt and raw, burnt ochres and Van- 
dyke brown, are j)ennanen( colors. Haw umber is very 



USEFUL INFORMATION 413 

durable in both water and oil, and does not injure other 
pigments when mixed with them. The same may be said 
of yellow ochre, a natural-colored clay, which does not lose 
its color when mixed with lime, and hence it is well adapted 
for distemper painting. Mixed greens are not so durable 
as those direct from copper, arsenic, etc., which are, how- 
ever, injurious to health. Emerald green made of verdigris 
and a solution of arsenious acid, and Scheele's green and 
Vienna green, arsenites of copper, are very poisonous. 

Durable Limewash. For one barrel of color wash, V2 
a bushel of white lime, 3 pecks of hydraulic cement, 10 
pounds umber, 10 pounds ochre, 1 pound Venetian red, 
and 14 pound lamp-black. Slake the lime, melt the lamp- 
black with vinegar, mix well together, add the cement, and 
fill the barrel with water. Let it stand twelve hours before 
using, and stir frequently while putting it on. This is not 
white, but oi' a light stone color, without the unpleasant 
glare of white. The color may be changed by adding more 
or less of the colors named, or other colors. This wash 
covers well, needing only one coat, and is superior to any- 
thing excepting oil {)aint. 

Enamelling a Bath. To remove the dirt and grease from 
a bath, make a strong lye of soda, say 2 pounds of soda 
to a pail of water, and well scrub it out with this. Then rub 
it well down with pumice-stone or glass-paper, then wipe 
out all the dust. To make a good job it will want three 
coats of enamel. After giving the first coat let it stand 
for a day, after it is dry, before applying the second, and 
let it be two days between the second and third coats, to 
allow it to get thoroughly dry, a very essential point. 

Enamelling upon Glass. This is a German method for 
enamelling glass: A mixture of dry enamel, thick pine oil, 
and damar lac is laid on the glass in a semi-dried state. 
After drying the drawing is pressed in. The enamel is then 
burned. In this way it is possible to reproduce the forms 



414 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

of figures iu slight relief, the hairs of auiuials, the feath- 
ers of birds, and the veins of leaves. 

Filler-up for Nail-Holes. As a material for filling up 
nail-lioles in wood and broken places, the following is 
recommended as simple and fli'ectual: Take line sawdust 
and mix into a thick paste with glue, pound it into i;he 
hole, and when drj' it will make the wood as good as new. 

Filling, A very complete tilling for open cracks in floors: 
may be made by thoroughly soaking newspapers in a paste 
made of 1 pound of flour, 3 quarts of water, and a table- 
spoonful of alum, thoroughly boiled and mixed, make the 
mixture about as thick as putty, a kind of paper putty, 
and it will harden like papier-mache. 

Filling for Cracked Ceilings. Whiting mixed with glue 
water or calcined plaster and Avater makes a good putty 
for filling cracks in plastered ceilings. 

Frost-withstanding Mortar. Mortar made in the follow- 
ing manner will stand if used in almost all sorts of weather; 
1 bushel of unslaked lime, 3 bushels of sharp sand, mix 1 
pound of alum with 1 pint of linseed oil, and thoroughly 
mix this with the mortar when making it, and use hot. The 
alum will counteract the action of the frost on the mortar. 

Fugitive Colors. Lakes and vermilions are very fugitive 
when exposed to the light, and an endeavor must be made 
to mix them so as to retain their beauty and natural color 
the longest possible time. Varnish containing no resin gum 
has been found by experience to extend their life and beauty 
the longest. 

Gilding on Iron. The following directions are for put- 
ting on japan and gilding on ironwork: The articles to be 
japanned are clean of oil, usually by the use of turpentine, 
and the japan varnish applied, when the articles are placed 
in a hot oven to dry. To gild japanned articles, the part 
to be gilded is covered with oil si/.o, thinned with turpen- 
tine, and gold powder put on with a puff. This is then 



USEFUL INFORMATION 415 

varnished and moderately heated in an oven. Leaf gold 
may be applied in the same way. 

Glass Window Writing. To mix colors: Mix dry fine 
colors with clear varnish or linseed oil, turpentine, and 
driers, also dry colors, gold size, and turpentine. By using 
dry colors a good body is obtained. As to back- 
ground, use quick drying varnish and dry colors or gold 
size and turpentine, these will dry quickly. Rich brown : 
2 parts black, 1 part yellow, 3 parts red, 3 parts turpentine, 
1 part oil, a little gold size, and drier. Olive color: 16 
parts lemon chrome, 2 parts Prussian blue, 2 parts lamp- 
black, 3 parts turpentine, to 1 part oil, driers, and gold size. 
For black letters get as much black as required, and mix 
with gold size and turpentine, turpentine mostly, to required 
thickness. Any other color can be treated in the same way. 
For background use pure white lead, and mix with maple 
varnish and turpentine, for cream color stain with lemon 
chrome and yellow ochre in oil and stipple with a new 
brush. Do not paint letters and background same day, or 
thej' will work into one another. 

Green or Golden Color for Brass. The pleasing green or 
golden color generally to be found on the cheap and light 
brass articles of French manufacture can be easily produced 
at but trifling expense by the following means: 1% ounces 
of caustic soda and IV2 ounces of milk sugar are dissolved 
in 1% pints of water and boiled for a quarter of an hour. 
The solution is as clear as water at first, but gradually 
acquires a dark yellow color. The vessel is next taken from 
the fire, placed on a wooden support, and II/2 ounces of a 
cold concentrated solution of blue vitriol stirred in, A red 
precipitate of suboxide of copper is at once formed, and 
by the time the mixture cools to 167° Fahrenheit the pre- 
cipitate will have settled. A suitable wooden sieve is placed 
in the vessel, and in this the polished articles are laid. In 
about a minute the sieve is lifted up to see how far the 
operation has gone, and at the end of the second minute 



416 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the golden color is dark enough. The sieve and articles are 
now taken out, and the latter are washed and then dried 
in sawdust. If the brass is left longer in the copper solu- 
tion, in a short time a fine green lustre is produced, becom- 
ing yellow at first and then bluish green. After, it turns 
green, then the well-known iridescent colors finally appear. 
To obtain uniform colors it is necessai"}' that they be pro- 
duced slowly, at temperatures between 135° and 170° Fahr- 
enheit. The copper bath can be used repeatedly, and can 
be kept a long time, if bottled up tightly, without change. 
After it is exhausted it can be renewed by adding % of 
an ounce of caustic soda, replacing the water that has 
evaporated, heating to boiling, and adding Yg of an ounce 
of a cold solution of blue vitriol. 

Harmonious Colors. A whole wall, ceiling, or other space 
should not be entirely covered over with rich ornament, 
and so also in a colored piece of drapery or other orna- 
mental work, it is better to have some portion of it much 
less rich and of less complicated pattern than the rest, and 
in some cases to have only a border round a single ground 
destitute of any pattern, as it is apt to fatigue the eye 
when overloaded with an equal richness of detail through- 
out. This is still more important in a colored building, 
where, if the whole walls, columns, and other parts are 
covered with elaborate and colored patterns, the eye feels 
a want of repose, and the same when a building is covered 
entirely with sculptured ornament without color. The 
richly carved part not only requires an unsculptured por- 
tion in order that it shall not fatigue the eye, but is im- 
proved and set off by the contrast, and contrast is as nec- 
essary for effect in fonn^, quantity of detail, position of 
lines, as it is in color. On this principle great effect is 
sometimes given to a colored pattern by having a portion of 
the composition on the wall of the building without any 
color at all, and for the same reason an expanse of wall 
in a room often looks well when painted with a single uni- 



USEFUL INFORMATION 417 

form ground surrounded by a rich pattern. Again, certain 
colors are better suited for some places than for others, and 
the brighter and more transparent for higher positions, and 
if the hangings of a room are scarlet, crimson with gold has 
a richer and better effect for chairs than scarlet and gold. 
A carpet may be darker than the general tone of the drap- 
eries, and some of its colors may be carried up by the 
walls or the curtains, but if the carpet is dark, the furni- 
ture shows better by being of a lighter hue. Red, or a light 
color, is better than blue for table covers, and though green 
is not recommended for daylight, it lights up well at night, 
when blue does not, and this then often appears black, or 
when of a light tone is scarcely to be distinguished from 
green. Much, however, may be done to give blue its proper 
effect, even by artificial light, either by placing a light tone 
of blue close to the darker one, or by interspersing it with 
white, which will often lead the eye to see the darker blue, 
and prevent its appearing black. This may be seen in some 
Persian carpets where two blues are used. And if some of 
these have too much green for daylight, they have a good 
effect at night, except when in excess. Dark green, like 
dark blue, looks darker by artificial light. 

How to Use Grlue. For glue to be properly effective it 
requires to penetrate the pores of the wood, and the 
more a body of glue penetrates the wood the more sub- 
stantial the joint will remain. Glues that take the longest 
to dry are to be preferred to those that dry quickly, the 
slow drying being always the strongest, other things being 
equal. For general use, no method gives such good results 
as the following: Break the glue up small, put it into an 
iron kettle, cover the glue with water, and allow it to soak 
twelve hours. After soaking boil until done. Then pour it 
into an air-tight box, leave the cover off until cold, then 
cover up tight. As glue is required, cut out a portion and 
melt in the usual way. Expose no more of the made glue 
to the atmosphere for any length of time than is necessary, 



418 CYCLOPEDLV OF PAINTING 

as the atmosphere is very destructive to made glue. Never 
heat made glue in a pot thai is subject to the direct heat 
of a fire or a lamp. All such methods of heating glue 
cannot be condemned in terms too severe. Do not use thick 
glue for veneering or joints. In all cases work it well into 
the wood, in a similar manner to what painters do with 
paint. Glue both surfaces of the work, except in cases of 
veneering. Never glue hot wood, as the hot wood will 
absorb all the water in the glue too suddenly, and leave 
only a very little residue. 

Inert Pigments. An inert pigment is one which, when 
mixed with oil, will have no chemical action upon it. It 
will have no chemical effect upon any other substance with 
which it is mixed, as for instance barj'tes, silica and gyp- 
sum. On the other hand, white lead, Prussian blue, and 
chrome yellow, are chemical colors, and are supposed to 
chemically affect the oil and some other pigments. 

Killing the Smell of Paint. Place a vessel of burning 
charcoal in the center of the room and throw on it two- or 
three handfuls of junij^er berries. Shut the windows and 
doors close. Twenty-four hours afterwards the door may 
be opened, when it will be found that the smell of the paint 
has disappeared. This can be done without any injury to 
curtains and tapestries. 

Making Plaster Set Quickly or Slowly. In order to make 
plaster set quickly, mix it witli water into which a little 
sulphate of potash has been dissolved. To make it set 
slowly, mix it with fine slaked lime. The time of setting 
may be )-egulated by clumging the relative quantities. 

Manganese. The various compounds of manganese are 
))erhai)s more used than any other driers. Of these the 
black manganese contains most oxygen, but many regard it 
as less useful than umber, which contains considerable 
manganese, and also iron. Umber is thought by some to 
make a less sensitive oil, tJiat is, a fiuid oil, or varnish, 
which changes less on exjiosure to the cold. Both man- 



USEFUL INFORMATION 419 

ganese and umber lose some of their substance in the oil, 
but to what extent manganese' or iron soaps are formed 
with the oil acids is not known. Both umber and black 
manganese boiled with oil darken it. 

Marbleizing Glass. One method of marbleizing glass con- 
sists in applying a mixture of varnish and oil to the surface 
of water of proper extent, and spraying or blowing upon 
the layer or film of oil and varnish dry colored powders 
to represent the mottled, speckled, veined, or other appear- 
ance of mottled or other stone. The glass is prepared by 
being coated upon one surface with varnish or japan, and 
is then placed upon the powder supported by the oily sur- 
faced water, and the powder immediately adheres or fastens 
itself to the varnish or japan on the glass. The apjoaratus 
for distributing the color consists of a spraying device or 
distributor having a receptacle for the composition, which 
is introduced through a hole covered by a perforated cap. 
There is a diaphragm with holes or perforations, which are 
closed by a slide. This diaphragm separates the space con- 
taining the mixture from a passage or extension, the end 
of the casing of the passage being contracted sufficiently to 
fit upon the end of the bellows. To operate this device 
the receptacle is filled with the composition, the cap is 
secui'ed in its place, and the slide lifted. The bellows are 
then operated, and the pressure of air drives the mixture 
in fine spray or drops upon the surface of the water. The 
device for applying the diy colors to the floating sheet or 
drops of oil and varnish is similar to that described, but in 
order that a number of colors may be sprayed or blown 
upon the floating oil and varnish at the same time, the 
receptacle is divided at the end into two or more parts, 
and a shaft, having agitators, is extended through them. 
The air is forced by bellows or other suitable means through 
perforations in the diaphragm. Caps cover the various 
chambers, etc., and are perforated to permit of the escape 
of the powder. In operation the air from the bellows or 



420 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

other source enters the perforations in the plate, and, pass- 
ing through the chambers, causes the agitators to lift the 
powder and agitate it, and at the same time the air pressure 
forces the powder through the perforations in the cap in 
fine streams of dust, and of course by moving the distrib- 
utor, the dust may be distributed upon the floating oil or 
varnish as may be desired. It is obvious that the design of 
the marble, stone, or other article is produced upon the 
floating body of oil and varnish before it is applied to 
the glass, and it is also obvious that by coating the surface 
of the glass with varnish or other adhesive material of a 
like nature, upon placing the same with the surface having 
the varnish or adhesive material down, so that it shall be 
brought in contact with the coloring matter held by the 
floating surface or layer of oil and varnish, the coloring 
matter will immediately adhere to the japan or other ad- 
hesive coating, and will thereby become fastened to the 
glass, so that upon the removal of the glass the design laid 
out upon the floating layer of japan and oil is removed 
from the water, together with such of the floating oil and 
japan as unites therewith. Of course the coloring or mot- 
tled or other appearance of any marble or other stone, or 
of any other material, may be reproduced upon the glass 
by this process, as it will only be necessarj- to change the 
dry colors to correspond to those of the stone or article 
to be imitated or copied. 

MetaUizing Wood. A new method of treating wood, 
which gives it the appearance of a piece of shining polished 
metal, with a surface so hard and smooth as to be sus- 
ceptible of a high polish, is as follows: The wood is first 
steeped in a bath of caustic alkali for two or three days, 
according to its degree of permeability, at a temperature 
of between 165° and 197° Fahrenheit. It is then placed 
in a second bath of hydrosulphate of calcium, to which a 
concentrated solution of sulpliur is added after some twen- 
ty-four to thirty-six hours. The third bath is one of acetate 



USEFUL INFORMATION 421 

of lead, at a temperature of from 95° to 120° Fahrenheit, 
and in this latter the wood is allowed to remain from thirty 
to fifty hours. After being subjected to a thorough dry- 
ing, it is in a condition for being polished with lead, tin, 
or zinc, as may be desired, finishing the process with a 
burnisher of either glass or porcelain, the appearance of 
the wood being in every respect that of polished metal, 
having, in fact, the semblance of a polished mirror, which 
is unaffected by moisture. 

Moulding Composition. A composition for making good 
some slight portion of a defective moulding is made of 
powdered whiting with glue in solution worked into a 
paste, with a sufficiency of turpentine to destroy the brit- 
tleness, a little linseed oil may be added to prevent sticki- 
ness. The composition may be colored to suit the sur- 
roundings. 

Moulding Wax. To prepare wax for taking moulds, put 
some common beeswax into an earthenware pot, place it 
over a slow fire, and when it is all melted stir into it a 
little white lead or plumbago, about 1 ounce of the lead 
to 1 pound of the wax. This mixture tends to prevent the 
mould from cracking when cooling, and from floating in 
the solution. It should be re-melted two or three times 
before using for the first time. Another kind is made thus: 
Melt carefully over a moderate fire 2 pounds of yellow 
beeswax, add 4I/2 pounds of Venice turpentine, 2 ounces of 
lard, 1% pounds of purified bole, and mix thoroughly. Then 
gradually pour the mixture into a vessel containing water, 
and thoroughly knead several times with the hands. The 
wax should be melted at such a low temperature that no 
bubbles appear upon the melted surface. 

Faint for Iron. The following are anticorrosive paints 
for iron: Take 10 per cent, of burnt magnesia, or even 
baryta or strontia, and mix it cold with ordinary linseed 
oil paint, and then enough mineral oil to envelope the 
alkaline earth, the free acid of the paint will be neutral^ 



422 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

ized, while the iron will be protected by the permanent 
alkaline action of the paint. Iron to be buried in deep 
earth may be painted with a mixture of 100 parts of resin, 
25 parts of gutta percha, and 50 parts of paraffin, to which 
20 parts of magnesia and some mineral oil have been 
added. 

Plumber's Solder. Mix 2 or 3 parts of lead and 1 part 
of tin. It must be free from zinc. 

Polished Floors. These should be rubbed two or three 
times with linseed oil, and then polished every week with 
turpentine and beeswax. The oftener the oil is rubbed in 
to begin with, the darker the boards will be. 

Preserving Painted Iron. A method of preventing paint 
from detaching itself in large flakes from iron surfaces is 
as follows: First wash the surface to be painted with soap 
and water, rinse and let drj'. When dry, go over it \\ith a 
stiff brush dipped in hot linseed oil. When this becomes 
tacky the paint can be applied. If tlie object is small, and 
of such a nature that heating will not hurt it, raise the 
temperature until a drop of oil brought into contact with 
it smokes. Go over the surface carefully with the raw oil, 
and let cool. It is now ready to receive the paint. With 
large objects which cannot be heated, the main point is to 
apply the oil as hot as possible, the nearer to boiling point 
the better. Objects thus painted will jireserve the coat 
of color for an indehnite period, the i^aiut being unaffected 
by heat or cold, excessive moisture or excessive dryness. 
Wood exposed to the weather may be tieated with good 
results in the manner indicated. 

Preserving Putty. (Jood putty is made to harden on 
exposure, and consequently cans should be kept closed, and 
a little water, or, better still, linseed oil, should be kept on 
top of putty in tubs, large cans, and barrels, to prevent a 
hard crust from forming. A putty that shows no signs of 
getting stiff or liaid iifiei- l)oing open and exposed, lacks 
an important element of- value. 



USEFUL INFORMATION 423 

Preventing Glue from Cracking, The addition of a little 
chloride of calcium to glue will prevent its cracking when 
exposed to considerable heat. 

Putty for Polished Wood. Take a small quantity of 
white beeswax, melt it down, and, while liquid, mix with 
whiting, as it gets thick, keep adding boiled oil until you 
have it as you wish it, when using it, sheet the wood over 
solid, let stand until the next day, when you can remove 
the sui"plus by using No. ^^ sandpaper. It is easier and 
cheaper than the shellac, and can be levelled sooner, leav- 
ing nothing but the pores or grain of the wood filled, which 
is better than having the wood all stained up with the 
shellac. 

Eemoving Iron Rust. Iron rust can be removed by salt 
mixed with lemon juice being rubbed on, or either place 
the article in a bowl containing kerosene oil or wrap it in 
a soft cloth well saturated with the oil, allow it to remain 
so for two days, and then scour the rusty spots with brick- 
dust. If very badly rusted, use salt melted with hot sul- 
phuric acid, after scouring well, rinse in boiling water, and 
polish clean with soft flannel and a little sweet oil. 

Removing Spots from Ceilings. A very simple remedy 
for removing rain spots or such caused by water soaking 
through ceilings, has been employed with good results. Take 
unslaked white lime, dilute with alcohol, and paint the 
spots with it. When the spots are dry, Avhich ensues 
quickly, as the alcohol evaporates, and the lime forms a 
sort of insulating layer, painting can be done with size 
color, and the spots will not show through again. 

Removing Oil Stains from Marble Statuary. Make a 
paste with fullers' earth and hot watei", cover the spots 
with it, let it dry on, and the next day scour it off with 
soap. Another recipe is to take i/i pound soft soap, 14 
pound powdered whiting, 1 ounce soda, piece of blue the 
size of a walnut. Boil all together for a quarter of an 
hour, and rub over the marble while hot. Leave it on for 



424 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

twenty-four hours at least, then wash off, and polish with 
a coarse flannel. The above quantity is quite enough for 
an ordinary mantelpiece. 

Restoring Antique Furniture. To restore to their orig- 
inal appearance antique pieces of furniture which have be- 
come unsightly on account of too frequent varnishing or 
besmearing by unskilled hands, the following method should 
be employed : Take equal parts of strong alcohol and good 
oil of turpentine, and heat this mixture in a bottle by plac- 
ing it in hot water. With this Avarm liquid paint the 
article, whereupon the old varnish will dissolve at once. 
The varnish is then removed by scraping and wiping, and 
the spreading, scraping, and cleaning is repeated as often 
as necessary until the surface has become entirely clean 
again, so that the object may be rendered glossy, or dull, 
as required. This process is especially recommended, since 
it does not change or attack the color of the wood, as is 
often the case if lye is used. 

Rotten Stone. This is sometimes harsh and gritty, and 
the best way of trying it is to take a little between the 
teeth, when the least portion of grit may be detected. Care- 
ful workmen will always wash it before they use it. This 
is effected by stirring the fine powder in a considerable 
quantity of water, then allowing it to remain at rest for 
a few seconds, and pouring the water into a glazed earthen 
vessel, the powder which precipitates will be veiy fine and 
smooth, by washing the remainder, the whole of the finer 
parts may be separated from the grit. 

Rust on Marble. To remove rust from marble, an opera- 
tion which depends upon the solubility of iron sulphide in 
a solution of potassium cyanide, is thus effected : Clay is 
made into a thin paste with ammonium sulphide, and the 
rust spot smeared with the mixture, care being taken that 
the spot is only just covered. After a lapse of ten minutes, 
this paste is washed off and replaced by one consisting of 
white bole mixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, 



USEFUL INFORMATION 425 

1 to 4, which is in its turn washed of after a lapse of about 
two and a half hours. Should a reddish spot remain after 
washing off the first paste, a second layer may be applied 
for about five minutes. 

Securing Brass Letters to Glass. Every one who uses 
brass letters on glass windows, and knows how often they 
drop off from unequal expansion, or from the too energetic 
efforts of window cleaners, will find the following useful : 
Litharge 2 parts, white lead 1 part, boiled linseed oil 3 
parts, gum copal 1 part. Mixed just before using, this 
forms a quick-drying and secure cement. 

Size, or Mordant Varnish. One of the best mordants 
or sizes for signs or for work to be exposed to the weather, 
is called fat-oil size. It should be prepared as follows: 
Expose boiled linseed oil to a strong heat in a pan, when 
it begins to smoke, set fire to the oil, allow it to burn a 
moment, and then suddenly extinguish it by covering the 
pan. This will be ready for use, when cold, but will re- 
quire thinning with a little turpentine. 

Softening Putty. When ordinary putty becomes very 
hard, it may be softened for the purpose of easy removal 
by keeping it moist for a short time with caustic potash 
or soda, or if the putty be painted with nitric or muriatic 
acid it will be softened in about an hour. 

Specks. These are liable to appear when varnish is al- 
lowed to skin over. Some varnishes will skin over although 
the can is constantly corked, and this skin being broken 
and mixing with the varnish will cause it to look sandj' or 
seedy. The well-known common causes of specky work 
may be mentioned, dust or pumice powder upon the job, 
dirt present in the air, particularly liable in loosely or 
badly built shops during windy weather, and specks or lice 
in the varnish brush due to a variety of causes. 

Sponges. New sponges should alwaj^s be soaked in 
warm water for several hours before being used, and the 
water should be changed while it is at all colored. Feel 



426 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

the sponge all over before using, as frequently small por- 
tions of rock remain in it, the sharp points of which scratch 
the paint. 

Strong Glue for Damp Places. For a strong glue which 
will hold in a clamp place, the following recipe works well: 
Take of the best and strongest blue enough to make a pint 
when melted. Soak this until soft, pour off the water as in 
ordinary glue-making, and add a little water if the glue is 
likely to be too thick. When melted add three tablespoon- 
fuls of boiled linseed oil. Stir frequently, and keep up the 
heat till the oil disappears, which may take the whole day, 
and perhaps longer. If necessary, add water to make up 
for that lost by evaporation. When no more oil is seen, 
a tablespoonfnl of whiting is added and thoroughly incor- 
porated with the glue. 

Sulphate of Manganese. This is a pink-colored salt, 
useful, especially with zinc white, for exposure to sulphur 
gases. The following is the formula for its use : Sulphate 
of manganese 1 part, calcined sulphate of zinc 1 part, and 
acetate of manganese 1 part. These must be ground and 
sifted into a fine powder, and then dusted over 97 parts 
of zinc white. Another method for its use is : 6 to 8 
ounces of sulphate of manganese to 100 pounds of ground 
zinc white paint, the powder thoroughly mixed with a 
portion of the paint, and this portion thoroughly mixed 
with the whole. Unless care is taken in the mixing, the 
work may be spotted. 

Taking Grease out of Boards. Pipeclay and water mixed 
together until they form a thick paste, and spread over the 
part where there is a stain, will take out the grease very 
soon. Other plans are to cover the part thickly with dry 
fuller's earth, or a mixture may be made of 5 parts of 
fuller's earth to 1 part each of pearlash and soft soap 
with boiling water to make a paste, lay it on quite hot, and 
leave till diy, and then scour it with soap or silver sand 
and water. For simply making the boards a good color and 



USEFUL INFORMATION 427 

to keep them free from insects, use the following mixture: 
14 pound of lime and 3,4 pound of sand to V2 pound of soft 
soap. Lay it on the boards and scrub it in well, wash it off 
with clean water, and make it as dry as possible. If ink 
should he spilt on boards, it may be removed by the appli- 
cation of muriatic acid, and aftenvards simply washed. 
For painted boards, either on the floor or wainscoting, 
nothing' better or more cleansing can be used than fuller's 
earth, with or without soap. 

Testing Plaster of Paris. The method of testing the 
quality of plaster of Paris is by taking a small pinch of 
the powder between the finger and thumb and gently rub- 
bing it, if small joarticles of it are felt, grit indicates that 
parts of the plaster have already absorbed water, and it 
is therefore unfit for use. The same test may be observed 
by taking a pinch of the powder again and placing the fin- 
gers under water, and then rubbing the same way as before. 
If, however, in both of these tests no grit is felt, and under 
water a thin creamy substance is found, which is easily 
rubbed off the fingers, the plaster is in a proper condition 
for use. 

To Clean White Marble. Mix together i/o pound of pearl- 
ash, 1/2 pound of soft soap, and 1 pound of whiting. Boil 
them until they become as thick as paste, and let the mix- 
ture cool. Before it is quite cold spread it over the sur- 
face of the marble and leave it for at least a whole day. 
Use a soft water to wash it off, and rub it well with soft 
cloths. For black marble nothing is better than spirits of 
turpentine. 

To Perforate Glass. In drilling glass, stick a piece of 
stiff putty or clay where the hole is required, and make a 
hole in the putty the size required, reaching down to the 
glass. Pour a little molten lead in the hole, and if the 
glass is not too thick, the piece will at once drop out. 

To Polish Marble. To polish marble, such as table-tops, 
the following mode is followed by masons: With a piece 



428 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

of sanv^stone with a very fine grit rub the slab backward 
and forward, using very fine sand and water, till the marble 
appears, equally rough, and not in scratches, next use a 
finer stone and finer sand, till its surface appears equally 
gone over, then, with fine emery powder and a piece of felt 
or old bat wrapped around a weight, rub till all the marks 
left by the former process are worked out, and it appears 
with a comparative gloss on its surface. Afterwards finish 
the polish with putt}' powder and fine clean rags. As soon 
as the face appears of a good gloss, do not put any more 
powder on the rag, but rub it well, and in a short time it 
will appear as if fresh from the mason's hands. 

To Remove Rust. A mixture of kerosene oil and emery 
powder rubbed on with a piece of cloth makes steel as 
bright as a button. But as prevention is better than cure, 
to prevent the formation of rust the bright steel should 
be painted with wax varnish, made by dissolving 1 part 
of solid paraffin in 15 parts of benzole. This is a much 
more cleanly application than such fatty compounds as 
white lead and oil, and is well suited for steel grates and 
similar goods. 

Transparent Paints for Glass. Take for a blue pigment 
Prussian blue, for red crimson lake, for yellow Indian yel- 
low, for brown burnt sienna, for black lamp-black, and for 
other shades a mixture of the appropriate colors. Rub 
them in a size made as follows: Venice turpentine 2 ounces, 
oil of turpentine 1 ounce, and apply with a brush. For 
temporai-y purposes, fine and brilliant colors are obtained 
by dissolving aniline dyes in white shellac varnish, but 
they are fleeting colors, and do not always i)ay for the 
trouble. 

Useful Size. A useful preparatory size can be made by 
boiling a handful of the leaves of wormwood and two or 
three heads of garlic in a quart of water, until the liquid 
is reduced to one-half, then strain it through a cloth, 
and add half a handful of common salt, and nearly half 



USEFUL INFORMATION 429 

a pint of vinegar. The design of this composition, usually 
employed in gilding looking-glass and picture frames, is 
to obviate the greasiness of the wood, and prepare it the 
better to receive the coats which are to be laid on, and 
to preserve it from the ravages of worms. When used 
it is mixed with a suflicient portion of good glue, boiling 
hot. In applying it to the gilding of plaster or marble, 
the salt must be left out of its composition, as, in damp 
situations, this would produce a white saline efflorescence 
on the surface of the gold. 

Varnishes for Engravings, Paints, and Maps. A piece 
of plate glass is heated, and w^hile yet warm a little wax 
rubbed over it, water is then poured over the plate, the 
moistened picture laid thereon and pressed closely down 
by means of a piece of filtering paper. When dry the 
picture is removed, and will be found to possess a surface 
of great brilliancy, which is not injured by the process of 
mounting. Boil Chio turpentine till brittle, then powder 
and dissolve in oil of turpentine. Canada balsam and clear 
white resin of each 6 ounces, oil of turpentine 1 quart, dis- 
solve. Digest gum sandarach 20 parts, gum mastic 8 parts, 
camphor 1 part, with alcohol 48 parts. The map or engrav- 
ing must previously receive one or two coats of gelatine. 

Waterproof Glue. Dissolve V2 ounce each of gum san- 
darach and mastic in 8 fluid ounces of strong alcohol, to 
which add I/2 ounce of turpentine. Put the dissolved gums 
into a double glue-pot, add by degrees a hot thick solution 
of glue to which isinglass has been added, stir the whole 
over the fire until all the ingredients are thoroughly incor- 
porated. Next strain through a cloth while hot, and it is 
ready for use. It may now be returned to the glue-pot, and 
1/^ ounce of very finely powdered glass added to it. It 
should be used quite hot. Take of shellac 3 parts, india- 
rubber 1 part by weight. Dissolve each separately in ether 
free from alcohol. It is best to do this in stoppered bot- 
tles and without heating, as the ether readily evaporates. 



430 CYCLOPEDIA OF PAINTING 

When solution is complete, mix the two, and keep well stop- 
pered for use. 

Waterproof Wash for Lime. This may be made by mix- 
ing the powder from 3 jiarts rock quartz, 3 parts broken 
marble and sandstone, also 2 parts burned jDorcelain clay 
with 3 parts freshly slaked lime, still warm. In this way 
a wash is made Avhich forms a silicate if often wetted, and 
becomes finally like stone. It is applied thickly to the sur- 
face, allowed to drj* for a day, and the next day frequently 
wetted, which makes it waterproof. 

Whitewash that will not Rub off. Mix up half a pailful 
of lime and watei', ready to i)ut on the wall, then take Vi 
pint of flour, mix it with water, tlien pour on it a sufficient 
quantity of boilini;- water to thicken it, and pour it while 
hot into the whitewash, stir all well together, and it is ready 
for use. 

Writing on Glass. To wiite on glass, or, as it is prop- 
erly termed, to etch, as the letters are eaten out by an 
acid, either liquid hydrofluoric acid or hydrotluoric acid 
gas is required, according to the effect desired to produce. 
The former eats away the glass but leaves it clear, the lat- 
ter gives the i:)art operated upon, a ground-glass appear- 
ance. For the first way, clean a piece of glass, warm it, 
rub over with white Avax or beeswax, and trace the letters 
with a needle or penknife, going down to the surface of the 
glass, make a wall of wax all round the edge of the glass, 
and pour on hydrofiuoric acid, and leave for two or three 
hours, then clean with turpentine. To produce letters with 
a ground-glass a^Dpearance, place in a leaden dish 2 parts of 
powdered fluoride of calcium, pour on 3 parts of sulphuric 
acid, and with a stick mix into a paste. Prepare the glass 
as before, except that there is no need for a wall of wax 
around the edges, cover the leaden vessel with this piece of 
glass, and by warming the vessel gas will be evolved which 
will attack every clear part of the glass. The workman must 
be very careful indeed in u'-ine the acid, of the gas, the 



USEFUL INFORMATION 431 

fumes, if breathed, are highly injurious, causing ulcers on 
the lungs, whilst drops of the acid on the skin will act 
like a red-hot iron, and produce very painful sores, which 
are not very easily healed. Opal can also be treated as 
described above, and the letters colored or enamelled after- 
wards, or china colors may be used and the opal fired. 
White letters on colored glass may be obtained by using 
flashed glass, and treating the flashed side with acid, which 
is soon eaten through, leaving the plain glass underneath. 
Zinc Sheeting Paints. A very durable weathei'-resisting 
paint for zinc sheets is made by mixing oxide of zinc with 
a fluid silicate, such as water glass and potash and soda, 
to which the required pigments are added. The proportion 
should be about three-quarters of a pound of zinc white 
to every pound of silicate, with or without water. This zinc 
silicate paint becomes insoluble in water in about twen- 
ty-four hours. It is equally useful for interior and outside 
work, but it must not be applied to greasy surfaces, nor to 
old coats of paint. New zinc, not being oxidized, should first 
be prepared by the application of a solution of 1 part of 
soda in 10 parts of water, and then be thoroughly washed 
with water only. A quick drying, weather-resisting paint 
of dark color for zinc sheets is made by mixing 5 pounds 
of grajDhite with 1 gallon of vinegar. The oxidized surface 
of the zinc, previously well brushed, is painted with the 
above, one coat giving a sufficiently dark color. New sheet 
zinc, however, requires two coats, and must first be oxidized 
by the following application, which is not strong enough to 
cause any deterioration of the metal : 1 part each of 
chloride of copper, nitrate of copper, and sal ammoniac, 
dissolved in 64 parts of water, and 1 part of hydx'ochlorie 
acid added to the solution. 



INDEX. 



Adulteration of Paint 5 

Blistering of Paint 10 

Brushes 14 

Calcimining 24 

Carriage Painting 33 

China Painting 42 

Colors 48 

Color Harmony 68 

Color Mixing 77 

Color Testing 116 

Estimating 125 

Exterior Painting— New Work 129 

Exterior Painting— Old Work 142 

Gilding 158 

Graining 172 

Graining — Pollard and Knotted Oak 190 

Graining Grounds 200 

House Painting— New Work 203 

House Painting— Old Work 219 

Marbling 224 

Oils and Driers 236 

Painting a Bath Tub 250 

Painting in Distemper 254 

Pai^erhangers' Tools 266 

Painters' Tools 281 

Paperhanging 285 

Pigments 295 

Plain Oil Painting 305 

433 



434 INDEX. 

Poor Tools 317 

Primary Colors 318 

Priming 322 

Scene Painting 325 

Sign Painting 338 

Stains 354 

Staining 361 

Stencilling 369 

Turpentine 375 

Varnishes 377 

Varnishing 383 

Water Color Painting 387 

When Not to Paint 395 

Practical Points on Painting .398 

Useful Information 401 



NOTICE 



To the many workmen who are purchasing the publications under the 
authorship of Fred T. Ihulgson, ami who wo feel sure have been beneflleil 
by his excellent treatises on many Carpentry and HulUIlng subjects, we 
desire to Inform them that the following list, of books have been published 
since lOO:!, thereby makhifj; them strictly iipto-datt^ in every detail. All of 
the newer books bearing the imprint of Frederick J. Drake & Co. are modern 
in every respect and of a purely self-educatlonal character, expressly Issued 
for Home Study. 

PRACTICAL USES OF THE STEEL SQUARE, two volumes, over 500 

pages, Including 100 per ei'livo views au<l floor i)lans of medlnin- 
prleed houses. Cloth, two volumes, price $2.00. Half leather, 
price $3.00. 

MODERN CARPENTRY AND JOINERY, 300 pages, Including 50 house 
plans, perspccllvo views ami lloor plans of medium and low-cost 
houses. Cloth, price $1.00. Half leather, price $1.B0. 

BUILDERS' ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING SELF-TAUQHT, over .^'S0 
pages, liicltidlng 50 house plans. Cioih, prlct< $2.00. Half leather, 
price $3.00. 

JHODERN ESTIMATOR AND CONTRACTORS' GUIDE, for pricing build- 
ers' work, H.")0 pages, IncUidiiig f)0 lu)uso plans. Cloth, price $1.60. 
Half leather, price $2.00. 

MODERN LOW-COST AMERICAN HOMES, over 2(K) pages. Cloth, price 
$1.00. Half l.Mlhcr, price $1.60. 

PRACTICAL UP-TO-DATE HARDWOOD FINISHER, over 300 pageR > 
Cloth, price $1.00. Hall l.c;ilher, pric(> •J 1.60. 

COMMON SENSE STAIR BUILDING AND HANDRAILINO. over 250 

]):iges, luclucllng pcis])cctl\c \ lews and Ildor ])l;i,iis(>r !■>(! medium-priced 
houses. Cloth, price $1.00. Half leather, price $1.60. 

STONEMASONS' AND BRICKLAYERS' GUIDE, over L'OO pages. Cloth, 
price $1.60. Half h-ather, price $2.00. 

PRACTICAL WOOD CARVING, over 200 i)ages. Cloth, price $1.60. Half 
leather, prhe $2.00. 

Sold by booksellers generally, or sent, all charges paid, ui>ou receipt of 
price, to any address in the world. 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 
Publishers 

Chicago* U. S. A. 




Practical 
Up-lo-Date 



By 

George B. Clow 

Over 150 

Illustrations 



A PRACTICAL up-to-date work on Sanitary Plumbine, com- 
prising useful information on the wiping and soldering of 
lead pipe joints and the installation of hot and cold water and 
drainage systems into modern residences. Including the 
gravity tank supply and cylinder and tank system of water 
heating and the pressure cylinder system of water heating. 
Connections for bath tub. Connections for water closet. 
Connections for laundry tubs. Connections for wash-bowl or 
lavatory. A modern bath room. Bath tubs. Lavatories. 
Closets. Urinals, Laundry tubs. Shower baths. Toilet 
room in office buildings. Sinks. Faucets. Bibb-cocks. Soil- 
pipe fittings. Drainage fittings. Plumber's tool kit, etc., etc 
256 pages, 180 illustrations. 



12 Mo. Cloth 



$1.50 



Sold by Booksellers generally or sent postpaid to 
any address upon receipt of price by the Publishers 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE ^ CO. 

Chicago, U.S.A. 



' MODERN ^ 
HOT WATER HEATING 
'iTEAMfiOASflTTING 




1bot 

Iheatindt 
Steam 
and 6as 
iFitting 



By WM. DOMJiLDSOM 



A MODERN treatise on Hot Water, Steam and Furnace 
Heating, and Steam and Gas Fitting, which is in- 
tended for the use and information of the owners of build- 
ings and the mechanics who install the heating plants in 
them. It gives full and concise information with regard 
to Steam Boilers and Water Heaters and Furnaces, Pipe 
Systems for Steam and Hot Water Plants, Radiation, Radi- 
ator Valves and connections. Systems of Radiation, Heating 
Surfaces, Pipe and Pipe Fittings, Damper Regulators, Fit- 
ters' Tools, Heating Surface of Pipes, Installing a Heating 
Plant and Specifications. Plans and Elevations of Steam 
and Hot Water Heating Plants are shown and all other sub- 
jects in the book are fully illustrated. 

256 pages, 121 illvstrations, 12 mo, cloth, price, $1.50 

Sold by Booksellers generally cr sent postpaid to 
any address upon receipt of price by the Publishers 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

CHICAGO. U.S.A. 



yiftodern Carpentry 

ADV^VNCKD SERIES 

- 36v ffrcd C, Ihodgson == 



Vol. 



This is a continuation of Mr. Hodgson's first volume on Modem 
Carpentry and is intended to carry the student to a higher plane 
than is reached by the first volume. The first volume of this series 

mav be considered as the al- 
phabet of the science of car- 
pentry and joinery, while the 
present volume leads the stu- 
dent into the intricacies of the 
art and shows how certain 
difficult problems may be solved 
with a minimum of labor. 
Every progressive workman — 
and especially those who have 
purchased the first volume of 
this series - cannot afford to be 
without this volume, as it con- 
tains so many things necessary 
the advanced workman should 
know, and that is likely to crop 
up at any time during his daily 
labors. The work is well illustrated with over 1 00 diagrams, sketches 
and scale drawings which are fully described and explained in the 
text. Many puzzling working problems are shown, described and 
solved. This is truly a valuable aid and assistant for the progressive 
workman. 

300 pages, fully illustrated. 12mo, cloth, price, $1.50 

Sold by Booksellers generally or sent postpaid to 
any address upon receipt of price by the Publishers 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

CHICAGO, U. S. A. 




®I|^ ^tgntfit B l00k 0f Collected 

./ftt* v A i 1 i ^ Engraved 



Delamotte 




Large oblong 

octavo, 208 

pages, 100 

designs 

Price, $1.50 



N. B.— We 
guarantee this 
book to be 
the largest and 
best work of 
this kind 
pubHshed 



JDLAIN and Ornamental, ancient and mediaeval, from the 
Eight to the Twentieth Century, with numerals. In- 
cluding German, Old English, Saxon, Italic, Perspective, 
Greek, Hebrew, Court Hand, Engrossing, Tuscan, Riband, 
Gothic, Rustic, and Arabesque, with several Original De- 
signs and an Analysis of the Roman and Old English Alpha- 
bets, Large, Small, and Numerals, Church Text, Large and 
Small; German Arabesque; Initials for Illumination, Mono- 
grams, Crosses, etc., for the use of Architectural and En- 
gineering Draughtsmen, Surveyors, Masons, Decorative 
Painters, Lithographers, Engravers, Carvers, etc. 



Sold by Booksellers generally or send postpaid to 
any address upon receipt of price by the Publishers 

^r^h^ritk 3. Brakf Sc (tampan^ 

CHICAGO, u. s. A. 




Hie AMATEUR 

ARTIST 



Or Oil and Water Color 
Peunting without the Aid 
of a Teacher :: :: :: :: 

By F. DELAMOTTE 

^ The aim of this book is to 
instruct the student in the fund- 
amental principles underlying 
tfiose branches of art of which it treats and to teach the application 
of those principles in a clear and concise manner. The knowledge 
it contains is available, alike to the amateur whose only desire it is to 
beautify the home and to pass pleasant hours at agreeable work and 
also to those talented ones who lack the opportunities afforded by art 
schools and teachers who are out of reach. To the latter, this work 
contains elements that will quicken the germ of talent or genius into 
life and send it well on its road to success. ^ This very late and most 
complete work on amateur art gives thorough instructions ia nine 
branches of decorative art. Each part is the product of the pen of a 
famous teacher and lecturer who has made that branch his especial 
life study. ^ Unlike other works on the market, it is brought up-to- 
date — no obsolete branches being dragged in, to fill out space. ^ Each 
chapter contains a complete list of materials and equipment, and 
instruction enough to develop natural ability to a point where the 
student may continue, independent of further aid, and trusting to his 
own individuality of style. 

200 pages, fully illustrated^ price $1.00 

Sold by Bookseller! generally or sent postpaid to 
any idd.ess upon receipt of price by the Publishers 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE t^ CO. 

CHICAGO. U.S.A. 



Concretes, Cements, 

Mort^Lrs, 
Pl^Lsters 
Stviccos 




How to Make and 
How to Use Them 

By 

fred T. Hodgson 

Jtrchitect 



THIS is another of Mr. Hodeson's practical works that appeals 
directly to the workman whose business it is to make and apply 
the materials named in the title. As far as it has been possible 
to avoid chemical descriptions of limes, cements and other materials, 
and theories of no value to the workman, such has been done, and 
nothing has been admitted into the pages of the work that does not 
possess a truly practical character. 

Concretes and cements have received special attention, and the 
latest methods of making and using cement building blocks, laying 
cement sidewalks, putting in concrete foundations, making cement 
casts and ornaments, are discussed at length. Plastering and stucco 
work receive a fair share of consideration and the best methods of 
making and using are described in the usual simple manner so 
characteristic of Mr. Hodgson's style. The book contains a large 
number of illustrations of tools, appliances and methods employed 
in making and applying concretes, cements, mortars, plasters and 
stucco, which will greatly assist in making it easy for the student to 
follow and understand the text 

300 pages fully illustrated. 

12 Mo. Cloth, Price, $l.50 

Sold by Booksellers generally or sent postpaid to 
any address upon receipt of price by the Publishers 

Frederick J. Drake ^ Co. 

CHICAGO, us. A. 



OInntrartor s (^mhi^ 



TO CORRECT MEASUREMENTS of areas and 
cubic contents in all matters relating to buildings of any 
kind. Illustrated with numerous diagrams, sketches and 
examples showing how various and intricate measure- 
ments should be taken :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: 

By Fred T. Hodgson, Architect, and W. M. Brown, C.E. and Quantity Surveyor 




/jTHIS is a real practical book, 
^^ showing how all kinds of 
odd, crooked and difficult meas- 
urejnents may be taken to 
secure correct results. This 
work in no way conflicts with 
any work on estimating as it 
does not give prices, neither 
does it attempt to deal with 
questions of labor or estimate 
how much the execution of cer- 
tain works will cost. It simply 
deals with the questions of 
areas and cubic contents of any 
given work and shows how 
their areas and contents may 
readily be obtained, and fur- 
nishes for the regular estimator 
the data upon which he can 
base his prices. In fact, the 
work is a great aid and assist- 
ant to the regular estimator 
and of inestimable value to the 
general builder and contractor. 



12mo, cloth, 300 pages, fully illustrated, price - $1.50 

Sold by Booksellers generally or sent postpaid to 
any address upon receipt o/ price by the Publishers 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

CHICAGO, U.S.A. 



Easy Electrical Experiments 
and How to Make Them 




3 



By L. P. DICKINSON 

This is the very latest and m'^si 
valuable work on Electricity for the 
amateur or practical Electrician pub 
lis'ned. It gives in a simple an 
easily understood language every 
thing you should know about Gal- 
vanometers, Batteries, Magnets, In- 
duction, Coils, Motors, Voltmeters, 
Dynamos, Storage Batteries, Simple 
and Practical Telephones, Telegraph 
Instruments, Rheostat, Condensers, Electrophorous,' 
Resistance, Electro Plating, Electric Toy Making, etc. 
The book is an elementary hand book of lessons, 
experiments and inventions. It is a hand book for 
beginners, though it includes, as well, examples for 
the advanced students. The author stands second to 
none in the scientific world, and this exhaustive work 
will be found an invaluable assistant to either the 
Student or mechanic. 

Illustrated with hundreds of fine drawings; printed| 
on a superior quality of paper. 

I2mo Cloth. Price, $1.25. 

Sent postpaid to any address upon receipt of prio 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE O CO.. PubUshers.^ 

CHICAGO. ILL. 



The Practical Gas ^ 
Oil Engine ha>td-boo k 




A 







MANUAL of useful in- 
formation o n the care, 
maintenance and repair of Gas 
and Oil Engines. 

This work gives full and 
clear instructions on all points 
relating to the care, mainte- 
nance and repair of Stationary, 
Portable and Marine, Gas and 
Oil Engines, including How to 
Start, How to Stop, How to Ad- 
just, How to Repair, How to 
Test. 

Pocket size, 4x64. Over 
jx^j-:- ■.••;•/; g»jB*«TKjjowi Jj:-. :••••• 200 pages. With numerous 
iV^-:- ■•••■i-^irt(^3C»Jp^^^^- •■'::•■.:•. rules and formulas and dia- 
grams, and over 50 illustrations 
by L. Elliott Brookes, au- 
thor of the "Construction of a 
^j^-:.-: •:.•'••'•■.•.■•'.■ •'■'."•.•;:.v";''.*:'-"-"i>>'*^^ Gasoline Motor," and the "Au- 

^; ■• ^■\.'-':-:''i:'yr'-::":'''2^^^'''^ tomobile Hand-Book." 

This book has oeen w^ritten 
with the intention of furnishing 
practical information regaraing 
gas, gasoline and kerosene engines, for the use of owners, operators and 
others who may be interested in their construction, operation and man- 
agement. 

In treating the various subjects it has been the endeavor to avoid all 
technical matter as far as possible, and to present the information given 
in a clear and practical manner. 

16mo. Popula-r Edition— Cloth. Price $1.00 

Edition de Luxe— Full Lea.tKer Limp. Price 1.56 

Sent Postpaid to any Address In the World upon Receipt of Price 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

PUBLISHERS 

CHICAGO, ILL. 





GETTY CENTER LIBRARY 



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