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Full text of "Cyclopedia of painters and paintings"

17, 



This Edition is limited to five hundred 
copies, of which this is No 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 

PAINTERS AND PAINTINGS 



VOLUME I 
AAGAARD-DYER 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 



PAINTERS AND PAINTINGS 



EDITED BY 

JOHN DENISON CHAMPLIN, JR. 



CRITICAL EDITOR 

CHARLES C. PERKINS 

CarresfaittiKg Memttr of the Frrnck Institute 



WITH MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS 



VOLUME I 



NEW YORK 
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

M DCCC LXXXVI 




Copyright, 1885, 1886, by 
Charles Scribner's Sons 



PREFACE, 



THE years of laborious preparation devoted to this work 
show that its projectors have not only believed it to be 
needed, but have expected for it a novel as well as stand- 
ard place among authorities upon its subject. The Cyclopedia of 
Painters and Paintings founds its claim to this position especially 
upon three things : the character and comprehensiveness of the 
information which, through its text and illustrations, it for the 
first time makes accessible ; the new simplicity of its arrangement ; 
and the bibliography, of a kind hitherto unattempted, through 
which it furnishes a key and guide to the whole literature of its 
art. 

It is not only a fuller biographical dictionary than now exists 
of the painters of all times and schools, including prominent con- 
temporaries, but it is as well a dictionary of works : and in a 
form in which the one branch of information is as immediately 
accessible as the other. The important paintings of all periods 
are treated under their own names, in separate articles, in which 
are given an accurate description of each work, its date, its 
place of preservation, its history from the time of leaving the 
painter's easel, notices of its replicas and copies, the names of its 
engravers, and such other facts as make the account as nearly as 
possible exhaustive. Both biographical and descriptive articles 
are based, not upon statements accepted in any sense at second 



PREFACE 

hand, but upon close research, conducted with the hope of making 
this work virtually an original authority their facts being de- 
rived from the latest monographs in all languages on the several 
painters and schools, from the art periodicals of many countries, 
and from autobiographical memoranda and other original material. 
The latest catalogues of all the great art museums of the world, 
and of many private collections, have also been carefully collated, 
so that the information given is the best and fullest accessible up 
to the date of publication. 

The method of arrangement of the Cyclopedia is believed to 
be especially practical, intelligible, and convenient. The bio- 
graphical and descriptive articles are combined under a single al- 
phabet; a novel plan enabling any reader, with no knowledge 
of a well-known painting other than the name, to turn to it 
directly, and trace its history back to its author. A simple cross- 
reference system also enables the reader of the biographical ar- 
ticles to tell at a glance what works of each artist are treated at 
length, the italicizing of a single word in the name of a picture 
showing that under that word a separate article upon it will be 
found. 

The bibliography appended to each article is such as will guide 
the reader to further and more minute investigation than would 
be possible in any book of reference ; even, it may be said, to an 
exhaustive study of the whole literature of the topic. It em- 
braces, besides English works and periodicals, those in French, 
German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, and Danish. 

In the illustration of the work, nothing has been spared that 
could make it valuable and really representative. The articles 
contain portraits of prominent artists, living and dead, fac-similes 
of their monograms and signatures, outline sketches of the im- 
portant pictures of the older masters (intended as aids to the 



PREFA CE 

verbal description, and as memoranda of the compositions) ; and 
there are in addition full-page reproductions, by the best-known 
processes, of representative works of many painters of the modern 
schools. 

The Cyclopedia being intended primarily for English readers, 
each painter is treated under his best-known English appellation, 
whether surname, assumed name, or sobriquet. Thus, Correggio 
will be found under that title, and not under his less-known family 
name of Allegri ; and, in like manner, Domenichino will be used 
instead of Zampieri, Giorgione instead of Barbarelli, Pinturicchio 
instead of Biagi, Raphael instead of Sanzio, Tintoretto instead of 
Robusti, Titian instead of Vecelli, etc. 

The work is under obligations to Mr. Louis von Eltz for his 
efficient labors during its entire progress, and especially for his 
valuable aid in researches connected with the German, Flemish, 
Dutch, and Scandinavian schools of painters. 

Thanks are due, also, to the superintendent and other officials 
of the Astor Library for numerous privileges and courtesies, with- 
out which the work on the Cyclopedia would have been attended 
with great difficulties, if not rendered impossible. 

NEW YORK, January 1, 1886. 



Til 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS 



To face 
Page 

1. ALGERIAN FALCONER 

EUGENE FROMENTIN 
Etching by Stephen J. Ferris after Couteux ... .25 

2. THE ANATOMIST 

GABRIEL MAX 
Etching by Stephen J. Ferris )j 

}. AUTOMEDON 

HENRI REGNAULT 
Lewistype from the original by the Lewis Company, Boston . . . . 83 

4- THE YOUTH OF BACCHUS 

WILLIAM ADOLPHE BOUGUEREAU 

Photogravure from the original by Messrs. BoussoJ, Valadon Sr Co., Paris . 88 

i* 



5 . LE BOURGET 

ALPHONSE DE NEUWLLE 
Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Yaladon Sr Co., Paris . 193 

6. THE BUCKWHEAT HARVEST 

JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET 
Lewistype from the original pastel by the Lewis Company, Boston . .218 

7. CHRIST ON THE CROSS 

LEON BONN AT 
Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Yaladon Sr Co., Paris . 284 



8. THE RETURN TO THE CONVENT 

EDUARDO ZAMACOi'S 

Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., Paris , 

9- LANDSCAPE 

JEAN BAPTISTS CAMILLE CO ROT 
Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 



10. DANSE DU BATON 

JEAN LEON GEROME 
Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, I/aladon Sr Co., Paris . 370 



II. 

EDU/ARD JOHN POYNTER 
Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 402 

12. THE DISCOVERER 

WILLIAM MORRIS HUNT 
Etching by S. A. Scboff after the original fresco at Albany . . . . 4'3 



*** The publishers are indebted for permission to reproduce the paintings in 
this list to Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., in cases where the right of reproduction 
is owned by them ; to the Directors of the Boston Museum of Art (for Regnault's 
AUTOMEDON); to Martin Brimmer, Esq., of Boston (for Millet's BUCKWHEAT 
HARVEST); to Robert L. Cutting, Esq. (for Zamaans' RETURN TO THE CONVENT); 
to E. J. Poynter, Esq. (for bis DIADUMENE); and to Messrs. Knoedler & Co. (for 
Couteux's etching after Fromentin). 



OUTLINE ILLUSTRATIONS OF PAINTINGS. 



PAGE 



1. ABRAHAM AND ANGELS Murillo Stafford House, London . 4 

2. ABRAHAM, SACRIFICE OF Bembrandt Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 5 

3. ABRAHAM, SACRIFICE OF Andrea del Sarto Dresden Gallery. 5 

4. ACHILLES, EDUCATION OF. . .Jean Regnault Louvre, Paris. 7 

5. ADAM, CREATION OF Michelangelo Vatican, Rome . 10 

G. ADAM AND EVE Filippino Lippi Carmine, Florence . 11 

7. ADAM AND EVE Michelangelo Vatican, Eome. 11 

8. ADONIS, DEATH OF II Moretto Uffizi, Florence. 13 

9. AGATHA, ST., MARTYRDOM ) ^^ ^ ^^ j^^ pm> Morence . 15 

OF ) 

10. AGNES, ST., MARTYRDOM OF . . Domenichino Bologna Gallery . 17 

11. AMAZONS, BATTLE OF THE . .Rubens Munich Gallery. 35 

12. AMBROSE AND EMPEROR) T , T . , r op 

c Rubens Vienna Museum . do 

THEODOSIUS ) 

13. ANATOMY, LESSON IN Rembrandt National Gallery, Amsterdam . 38 

14. ANNUNCIATION Fra Barlolommeo Louvre, Paris . 46 

15. ANNUNCIATION Lodovico Carracci Louvre, Paris . 47 

16. ANTHONY, ST., TEMPTATION ) . T\ j /i n ei 

r Pieter Brueghel, the younger Dresden Gallery. 51 

17. ANTHONY OP PADUA, ST., ) ,. ,, .. 

t Munllo Berlin Museum . 52 

AND INFANT JESUS . . ) 

18. ANTHONY OF PADUA, ST., 



, Elisabetta Sirani Bologna Gallery . 53 

AND INFANT JESUS. . ) 

19. ANTIOPE Correggio Louvre, Paris . 54 

20. APOLLO AND DAPHNE Francesco Albani Louvre, Paris . 59 

21. APOLLO AND MARSYAS Guercino Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 60 

22. APOLLO AND MARSYAS Raphael Louvre, Paris . 61 

23. ARCADIA, SHEPHERDS OF ... .Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 64 

24. ARIADNE Luca Giordano Dresden Gallery . 66 

25. ASCENSION Perugino Lyons Museum . 71 

26. ASSUMPTION Rubens Antwerp Cathedral . 75 

27. ASSUMPTION Andrea del Sarto Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 76 

28. ASSUMPTION Titian Venice Academy . 77 

29. ATALA, BURIAL OP Girodet de Roussy Louvre, Paris. 78 

30. ATTILA, MAKCH OF Raphael Vatican, Home. 79 



OUTLINE ILLUSTRATIONS OF PAINTINGS 



PAOK 



31. AURORA ................. Guercino ................ Palazzo Ludovisi, Rome . 82 

32. AURORA ................. Guido Rcni ............ Palazzo Rospigliosi, Rome . 82 

33. AVALOS, ALFONSO D', AL- \ 

LEGORY OF ---- 

34. BACCHANAL ............... Giovanni Bellini and Titian . Alnwick Castle, England. 87 

35. BACCHUS AND ARIADNE ..... Titian .................. National Gallery, London . 88 

36. BANQUET OF THE Civic 



t Titian Louvre, Paris. 83 



T 

B. van dcr Heist ..... National Museum, Amsterdam . 99 
GUARD ........... ) 

37. BELISARIUS ............... Jaques Louis David ................ Louvre, Paris. 126 

38. BELLA DI TIZIANO ......... Titian .................... Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 127 

39. BELLE FERONNIERE ........ Leonardo da Vinci .................. Louvre, Paris. 129 

40. BLIND-MAN'S-BUFF ........ Sir David Wttkie ..... Buckingham Palace, London. 167 

41. BLUE BOY ............... Thomas Gainsborough . . .Grosvenor House, London . 169 

42. BORRACHOS, Los .......... Velasquez ....................... Madrid Museum. 183 

43. BROKEN PITCHER ......... Jean Baptists Greuze ............... Louvre, Paris. 208 

44. BRUNO, ST., DREAM OF. . . .Etistache Lesueur .................. Louvre, Paris. 215 

45. BRUNO, ST., VISION OF .... Guercino ....................... Bologna Gallery . 216 

46. BUUTUS ................. Louis David ............ ........... Louvre, Paris. 217 

47. C.ESAR, DEATH OF ........ Vincenzo Camuccini ......... Palazzo Beale, Naples. 227 

48. CALAIS GATE ............. William Hoijarth ............ Marton Hall, England . 229 

49. CALUMNY ................ Alessandro Botticelli .............. Uffizi, Florence . 231 

50. CALVARY, PROCESSION TO ... Pierre Miynard ...................... Louvre, Paris . 233 

61. CASTOR AND POLLUX ....... Rubens ......................... Munich Gallery . 254 

52. CATHERINE, ST., MARRIAGE ) T 

f Fra Bartdommeo .................. Louvre, Pans . 25o 

OF ............... ) 

53. CATHERINE, ST., MARRIAGE ) - 

t Correggio ......................... Louvre, Paris. 256 

54. CATILINE, CONSPIRACY OF .... Salvator Roxa .............. Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 258 

55. CATO, DEATH OF .......... Charles Lebrun .................... Louvre, Paris . 258 

56. CECILIA, ST .............. Domenichino ...................... Louvre, Paris . 261 

57. CECILIA, ST .............. Raphael ........................ Bologna Gallery . 262 

58. CENCI, BEATRICE .......... attributed to Guido ...... Palazzo Barbcrini, Rome . 263 

59. CHALDEAN SAGES .......... Gioryione ....................... Vienna Museum . 267 

60. CHAPEAU DE PATT.T.R ....... Rubens ................. National Gallery, London . 268 

61. CHARITY ................. Andrea del Sarlo ................... Louvre, Paris . 270 

62. CHARLES I ............... Anton van Dyck. ................... Louvre, Paris. 272 

63. CHARLES I, CHILDREN OF. . .Anton van Dijck ................. Windsor Castle. 273 

64. CHARLES V. .............. Titian ........................... Munich Gallery. 274 

65. CHARLES V. AT MUHLBEHG . . Titian .......................... Madrid Museum . 275 

66. CHATHAM, DEATH OF ....... John Singleton Copley ---- National Gallery, London. 277 

67. CHRIST, BAPTISM OF ....... Francesco Albani ................. Bologna Gallery. 281 

68. CHRIST, BAPTISM OF ....... Andrea del Verrocchio .......... Florence Academy. 282 

69. CHRIST AMONG THE Doc- ) . 

r School of Leonardo da Vinci . National Gallery, London . 285 

70. CHRIST AND EVANGELISTS. . .Fra Barlolommeo .......... Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 286 

xill 



OUTLINE ILLUSTRATIONS OF PAINTINGS 

PAQI 

71. CHRIST IN HOUSE OF JAIRUS . Paolo Veronese Vienna Museum . 289 

72. CHRIST HEALING THE PAR- ) Muriao _ Orwell Park, Suffolk . 290 

ALYTIC J 

73. CHRIST HEALING THE SICK . Benjamin West National Gallery, London. 292 

74. CHRIST CROWNED WITH } ^ _ Berlin Musellm . 293 

THORNS ) 

75. CHRIST CROWNED WITII | ^.^ ^ Louvre, Paris. 294 

THORNS ) 

76. CIRCE Guercino Louvre, Paris. 299 

77. COLUMBINE, LA Bernardino Luini Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 316 

78. CONCEPTION, IMMACULATE . .MurUlo Louvre, Paris. 319 

79. CONCEPTION, IMMACULATE . . Murillo Madrid Museum . 320 

80. CONCERT Michelangelo da Caravayyio Louvre, Paris. 322 

81. CONCERT Gioryione Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 322 

82. CONCERT, RUSTIC Giorgione Louvre, Paris. 323 

83. CRUCIFIXION Lucas Cranach Stadtkirche, Weimar. 354 

84. CRUCIFIXION Andrea JUantegna Louvre, Paris. 355 

85. CUPID, EDUCATION OF Correggio National Gallery, London . 358 

86. CYMON AND IPHIGENIA Sir Joshua Reynolds. . .Buckingham Palace, London. 361 

87. DANAE Correygio Palazzo Borgbese, Rome . 367 

88. DANAE Titian Vienna Museum . 367 

89. DANTE Giotto Bargello, Florence . 371 

90. DARIUS, TENT OF Charles Lebrun Louvre, Paris . 373 

91. DAVID AND GOLIATH Guido Ileni Hermitage, St. Petersburg . 376 

92. DEATH ON THE PALE HORSE. Benjamin West. Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia. 378 

93. DEATH, TRIUMPH OF Sienese School Campo Santo, Pisa. 379 

94. DELUGE Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris . 390 

95. DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. Rubens Antwerp Cathedral. 394 

96. DESCENT FROM THE CROSS . Daniele da Volterra S. Triuitii de' Monti, Rome. 395 

97. DEVONSHIRE, DUCHESS OF . . Thomas Gainesborough AHLorp Park, England . 400 

98. DEVONSHIRE, DUCHESS OF. .Sir Joshua Reynolds Althorp Park, England. 401 

99. DIANA AND ACTION Titian Bridgewater House, London . 402 

100. DIANA AND CALLISTO Titian Bridgewater House, London . 403 

101. DIANTI, LAURA, AT HER ) 

ToI LETTE I JltWn L mre > PariS - 4 4 

102. DIEGO, ST., OF ALCALA. . . .Murillo Due de Pozzo di Borgo, Paris. 407 

103. DONNA GRAVIDA Attributed to Raphael Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 418 

104. DONNA VELATA Attributed to Raphael Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 419 

105. DROPSICAL WOMAN Gerard Dou Louvre, Paris . 426 



liv 



PORTRAITS OF POINTERS. 

(DRAWN BY JACQUES REICH.) 



1. Achenbach, Andreas 6 i 36. Bellini, Gentile 131 

2. Adam, Franz 9 j 37. Bellini, Giovanni 131 

3. Albani, Francesco 20 38. Benczur, Gyula 137 

4. Albertinelli, Mariotto 21 39. Bendemann, Eduard Julius Fried- 

5. Aldegrever, Heinrich 22 j rich 137 

6. Aliense 25 40. Benjamin-Constant, Jean Joseph . . 139 

7. Allan, Sir William 26 41. Berchem, Claas Pietersz 143 

8. Allori, Alessandro 28 42. Bernier, Camille 148 

9. Allori, Cristofano 28 43. Bierstadt, Albert 157 

10. Allston, Washington 29 44. Bigio, Francia 157 

11. Alma-Tadema, Laurenz 29 ; 45. Blake, William 162 

12. Amerling, Friedrich 36 46. Blanchard, Jacques 164 

13. Auguisciola, Sofouisba 44 47. Bloemaert, Abraliam 167 

14. Asselyu, Jan 73 48. Bokelinann, Ludwig Christian 

Louis 174 

15. Bacciccio, H 88 \ 49. Bol, Ferdinand 175 

16. Bacheh'er, Jean Jacques 89 50. Bonheur, Marie Eosa 177 

17. Backhuysen, Ludolf 90 51. Boningtou, Richard Parkes 178 

18. Bagnacavallo, Bartolommeo da. ... 92 52. Bonuat, Leon Joseph Floreutin . . . 179 

19. Balen, Hendrik van 95 53. Bordone, Paris 181 

20. Barocci, Federigo 102 54. Both, Jan 185 

21. Barrias, Felix Joseph 103 55. Botticelli, Alessandro 186 

22. Barry, James 103 56. Boucher, Fra^ois 186 

23. Earth, Ferdinand 104 j 57. Boughton, George Henry 188 

24. Bartolommeo, Fra 105 58. Bouguereau, William Adolphe 189 

25. Bassano, Francesco 107 j 59. Boulanger, Gustave Kodolphe Clar- 

26. Bassano, Jacopo 107 i ence 190 

27. Bassano, Leandro 108 60. Boullongue. Bon 191 

28. Bastien-Lepage, Jules 109 61. Boullongue, Louis de 191 

29. Battoni, Pompeo Girolamo 110 62. Bourdon, Sebastien 192 

30. Baudry, Paul Jacques Aimee Ill 63. Bramer, Leonard 196 

31. Beard, William H. 115 64. Brandt, Jozef 197 

32. Beccafumi, Domenico 117 65. Brce, Mattheus Ignatius van 200 

33. Becker, Karl Ludwig Friedrich. . . 119 66. Breenbergh, Bartholomew 200 

34. Bega, Cornelis Pietersz 122 ! 67. Breton, tirnile Adelard 202 

35. Begas, Karl 123 | 68. Breton, Jules Adolphe 203 



PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS 

PAGE I FAOH 

69. Bridgman, Frederick Arthur 205 ! 115. Cimabue, Giovanni 298 

70. Bril, Pauwel 205 [ 116. Claude Lorrain 302 

71. Brion, Gustave 206 j 117. Clouet, Jean 307 

72. Brouzino, Agnolo 208 118. Coello, Claudio 309 



73. Brouwer, Adriaeu 209 

74. Brueghel, Jan 212 

75. Brueghel, Peeter, the elder 213 

76. Burckmair, Hans 220 

77. Burgess, John Bagnold 222 

78. Bume-Jones, Edward 222 

79. Busson, Charles 223 

80. Butin, Ulysse 224 

81. Butler, Elizabeth Thompson 224 

82. Cabanel, Alexandra 225 

83. Calabrese, II Cavaliere 228 

84. Calame, Alexandra 229 

85. Calderon, Philip Hermogenes .... 230 

86. Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall 230 

87. Cambiaso, Luca 234 

88. Camphausen, Wilhelm 235 



119. Cogniet, Leon 311 

120. Cole, George 312 

121. Cole, Thomas 312 

122. Cole, Vicat 313 

123. Collins, William 314 

124. Compte-Calix, Francois Claudius. 317 

125. Constable, John 325 

126. Cooper, Thomas Sidney 328 

127. Copley, John Singleton 329 

128. Coques, Gonzales 330 

129. Cormon, Fernand 331 

130. Corneliszen, Cornells 333 

131. Cornelius, Peter von 333 

132. Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille 335 

133. Correggio 336 

134. Costa, Lorenzo 338 

135. Courbet, Gustave . . .341 



89. Canaletto, H 238 13(J - Courtois, Jacques 342 

90. Cano, Alonso 239 137 - Cousin, Jean 343 

91. Canon, Hans 239 138 - Couture, Thomas 343 

92. Caravaggio, Michelangelo da 241 , 139 - Coxcyen, Michiel van 344 

93. Caravaggio, Polidoro da 242 14 - Coypel, Antoine 345 

94. Carolus-Duran 244 141 - Coypel, Charles Antoine 345 

95. Carpaccio, Vittore 245 142 - Coypel, Noel 345 

96. Carracci, Agostino 246 1<t3 - Craesbecke, Joost van 345 

97. Carracci, Annibale 246 ^- Craeyer, Caspar do 346 

98. Carracci, Lodovico 247 ^ 5 - Cranach, Lucas 346 

99. Carrefio de Miranda, Don Juan . . 248 l * 6 - Crane, Walter 348 

100. Camera, Rosalba 248 147 - Credi, Lorenzo 349 

101. Carstens, Asmus Jacob 249 148 - Crespi, Daniele 349 

102. Castello, Bernardo 252 149 - Crofts, Ernest 352 

103. Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto . 253 15 - Crowe, Eyre 354 

104. Cerezo, Matteo 264 ^1. Cuyp, Aelbert 3GO 

105. Cesari, Giuseppe 264 

106. Cespedes, Pablo de 265 152. Danhauser, Josef 369 

107. Champaigne, Philippe de 267 153. Daubigny, Charles Francois' ' 374 

108. Chardiu, Jean Baptiste Simoon . . 269 154. David, Jacques Louis 376 

109. Charlet, Nicolas Toussaint 275 155. Davis, Henry William Banks " ' 377 

110. Chase, William Merritt 276 156. Decamps, Alexander Gabriel. . ' 381 

111. Chodoviecki, Daniel Nicolaus 280 157. Defregger, Franz von. 383 

112. Church, Frederic Edwin 295 158. Delacroix,' Ferdinand Victor Eu- 

113. Cignani, Carlo 296 g une 386 

114. Cima da Couegliauo 297 159. Delaroche, PauL '.'.','.'.'.'. 387 

xvi 



PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS 



IfiO. Desportes, Alexander Francois . . 

161. Detaille, Jean Baptiste fidouard. 

162. Diaz de la Pefia, Narciso Virgilio 

163. Dicksee, Frank 

164. Diepenbeeck, Abraham van 

165. Dietrich, Christian William Er- 

nest 

166. Dietz, Feodor 

167. Dobson, William Charles Thomas 

168. Does, Jacob van der 

169. Dolci, Carlo 

170. Domeuichino 



PAGE 

397 
398 
404 
405 
408 



409 



171. Dorc, Gustavo Paul 419 

172. Dossi, Giovanni 422 

173. Don, Gerard 422 

174. Doyen, Gabriel Francois 424 

175. Drouais, Germain Jean 427 

176. Dubufe, Edouard 430 

177. Duchatel, Frans 431 

410 ' 178. Duez, Ernest Ange 433 

414 179. Dupre, Jules 435 

415 180. Durand, Asher Brown 436 

415 181. Ddrer, Albrecht 437 

416 ' 182. Dyck, Antou van 441 



xvii 



MONOGRAMS AND SIGNATURES. 



PAGE 

1. Abbate, Niccolo dell' 2 

2. Achen, Johann G 

3. Achenbacli, Andreas 7 

4. Achenbacli, Oswald 7 

5. Adam, Albreclit 9 



3G. Bacler d'Albe, Louis Albert Guil- 

lain 90 

37. Baldung, Hans 95 

38. Balen, Hendrick van 95 

39. Balestra, Antonio ... 96 



6. Adam, Heinricli 9 40. Barbari, Jacopo de' 99 

7. Adam, Jean Victor 10 41. Basaiti, Marco 106 

8. Adau, Louis Emile 12 42. Bassen, Bartholomeua van 108 

9. Aelst, "Willem van 14 43. Battoui, Pompeo Girolamo 110 

10. Aertszen, Pietcr 14 44. Becker, Georges 119 

11. Ainmiller, Max Emanuel 19 45. Beerstraaten, Jan 122 

12. Albani, Francesco 21 40. Bega, Cornelis Pietersz 123 

13. Aldegrever, Heinrich 22 47. Begas, Karl 123 

14. Alfaui, Domeuico 24 ' 48. Begeijn, Abraham Cornelisz 124 

15. Aliense 25 49. Behaui, Hans Sebald 125 

16. Allori, Alessandro 28 50. Bellini, Giovanni 132 

17. Altdorfer, Albrecht 32 j 51. Bellotto, Bernardo 133 

18. Alunno, Niccolo 33 ! 52. Bellucei, Antonio 134 

19. Amalteo, Pomponio 34 53. Beuner, Jean 139 

20. Anselmi, Michelangelo 49 , 54. Berchem, Claas Pietersz 143 

21. Ausiaux, Jean Josepli Eleouore 55. Berck-Heyde, Job 144 

Antoine 50 j 56. Berruguete, Alouso 149 

22. Appiani, Andrea 62 [ 57. Bertram!, James 152 

23. Arellano, Juan de 65 58. Beschey, Balthasar 152 

24. Arthois, Jacques d' 70 1 59. Bigio, Francia 158 

25. Asher, Louis 72 60. Billet, Pierre .' 158 

26. Asper, Hans 72 61. Biset, Karel Emanuel '.'.'.'.'.'. 160 

27. Aspertini, Amico 72 | 62. Bissolo, Pietro Francesco 161 

28. Asselyn, Jan 73 ! C3 B i eS) Herri de ' 1G6 

29. Aubert, Ernest Jean 80 I 64. Bloemaert, Abraham '.'.', '. 168 

30. Aubry, Etienne 80 | 65. Bloemen, Pieter van 168 

31. Avercamp, Hendrik 85 66. Blondeel, Lancelot 169 

67. Bockhorst, Jan van 170 

32. Baade, Knud 86 ! 68. Boenisch, Gustav Adolf 172 

33. Bach, Alois 88 69. Boeyermaus, Theodor 172 

34. Bachelier, Jean Jacques 89 70. Boilly, Louis Laopold. ... 173 

35. Backhuyseu, Ludolf 90 71. Bol, Ferdinand 175 



MONOGRAMS AND SIGNATURES 

FADE I ,.,..,, 

72. Bol, Hans 175 ( 117. Carolus-Duran 244 

73. Bonnat, Leon Joseph Florentin . . 179 ' 118. Carpaccio, Vittore 245 

74. Boouen, Arnold van 181 119. Carracci, Agostino 246 

75. Bordone, Paris 181 120. Carracci, Aniiibale 247 

76. Borgoguone, Ambrogio 182 121. Carracci, Lodovico 248 

77. Borras, Fray Nicholas 183 122. Carreiio de Miranda, Don Juan . . 248 

78. Bosch, Hieronyinus 184 123. Carricra, Kosalba 248 

79. Bosschc, Balthasar van den 184 124. Casanova, Francesco 250 

80. Both, Andries 185 125. Castello, Beniardo 252 

81. Both, Jan 185 12G. Castiglionc, Giovanni Benedetto. 253 

82. Botticelli, Alessandro 186 127. Catena, Vinccnzo 254 

83. Boucher, Francois 187 128. Caulitz, Peter 259 

84. Bouguereau, William Adolphe . . . 189 129. Cuvedonc, Giacomo 2(K) 

85. Boulanger, Gustave Uodolphe 130. Gazes, Pierre Jacques 2(50 

Clarence 190 131. Cerezo, Mattco 2(54 

86. Bourdon, Sebastien 192 132. Cesari, Giuseppe 2(15 

87. Bourgeois, Loon Pierre Urbain . . 192 133. Cespedes, Pablo de 265 

88. Braekeleer, Ferdiiiandus de 195 134. Champaigne, Philippe do 2(!7 

89. Bramautino 196 135. Ghapliu, Charles Joshua 269 

90. Brainer, Leonard 196 136. Chardin, Jean Baptiste Sinu'on . . 269 

91. Bredael, Jan Fraus van 199 137. Cliodoviecki, Daniel Nicolnus 280 

92. Bree, Mattheus Ignatius van 200 138. Cignani, Carlo 297 

93. Breenbergh, Bartholoineus 200 139. Cinia da Conegliano 298 

94. Brekelenkam, Quiryn 201 140. Clairin, Georges Jules Victor. . . . 301 

95. Brt'ton, Jules Adolphe 203 141. Codde, Pieter 309 

96. Breu, Jorg 203 142. Coello, Claudio 

97. Bril, Pauwel 206 143. Cogels, Joseph . . 

98. Briou, Gustave 206 144. Collantes, Francisco 

99. Brouziuo, Agnolo 209 145. Comerre, Lron Francois. . 

100. Brouwer, Adriaeu 209 146. Compte-CaUx, Francois Claudius. 318 

101. Brueghel, Peeter, younger 214 147. Conca, Sebastiano. . 

102. Bugiardiui, Giuliauo 219 148. Congnet, Gillis. . 

103. Burcknmir, Hans 220 149. Coninck, David de. . 

104. Butiu, Ulysso 224 150. Coutariui, Giovanni . . 

151. Cooper, Abraham 

105. Cabanel, Alexandre 225 152. Corinon, Femand.. 

106. Cagliari, Carlo 228 153. Corneille, Michel . . 

107. Cagnacci, Guido '.. 228 154. Corneliazen, Cornelia. . 

108. Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall 231 155. Correggio 

109. Cambiaso, Luca 234 156. Cossiers, Jan . . 

110. Caraphuyseu, Govert 236 157. Costa, Lorenzo 

111. Campi, Antonio 236 158. Cosway, Richard. . 

112. Cano, Alouso 239 159. Cot, Pierre Auguate. 

113. Capelle, Jan van der 240 160. Courtat, Louis. . 

114. Caravaggio, Polidoro da 242 161. Courtois, Gustave., 

115. Carducho, Yincenzo 243 162. Cousin, Jean . . 



116. Carloni, Giambattista 243 163. Coxcyen, Michiel vau. 



344 



xix 



MONOGRAMS AND SIGNATURES 



164. Coypel, Charles Antoine 345 

165. Coypel, Noel 345 

166. Craesbecke, Joost vau 346 

167. Craeyer, Caspar cle 346 

168. Cranach, Lucas 347 

169. Credi, Lorenzo di 349 

170. Crespi, Daniele 349 

171. Crespi, Giovanni Battista 350 

172. Crivelli, Carlo 351 

173. Cuyleuborch, Abraham van 3GO 

174. Cuyp, Aelbert 360 

175. Cuyp, Jacob Gerritsz 361 

176. Czermak, Jaroslav 362 

177. Daege, Eduarcl 363 

178. Dael, Jan Frans van 363 

179. Danloux, Henri Pierre 370 

180. Daunat, William T , 370 

181. David, Jacques Louis 377 

182. Decaisne, Henri 381 

183. Decker, Cornelis Gerritsz 382 

184. Delacroix, Ferdinand Victor Eu- 

gene 386 

185. Delaunay, Jules lie 388 

186. Delobbe, Francois Alfred 389 

187. Dernier, Baltliasar . 391 



188. Deshays, Jean Baptiste 397 

189. Desportes, Alexaudre Francois ... 398 

190. Detaille, Jean Baptiste Edouard. . 398 

191. Deveria, Eugene Francois Marie 

Joseph 399 

192. Diepenbeeck, Abraham van 408 

193. Dietteiiein, Wendel 410 

194. Does, Simon van der 415 

195. Dolci, Carlo 416 

196. Dossi, Giovanni 422 

197. Don, Gerard 423 

198. Douven, Jan Frans van 424 

199. Doyen, Gabriel Francois 424 

200. Drolling, Martin 425 

201. Drooch-Sloot, Joost Cornelisz . . . 426 

202. Dubbels, Hendrik 428 

203. Dubois, Ambroise 428 

204. Duchatel, Frans 431 

205. Ducreux, Joseph 432 

206. Dughet, Gaspard 433 

207. Dupre, Julien 435 

208. Dupressoir, Joseph Francois 435 

209. Diirer, Albrecht 438 

210. Dusart, Cornelis 438 

211. Dyck, Anton van 443 

212. Dyck, Philip van 443 



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WAAGEN, GUSTAV FRIEDRICH. Ueber 
Hubert und Joliau van Eyck. Broslau, 
1822. 

Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Peter Paul Ru- 
bens : His Life and Genius. Translated 

from the German by Robert R. Noel. 

London, 1840. 
Waageu, Gustav Friedrich. Kunxtwerko und 

Kiinstler in DenUchland. Leijwic, 1848. 
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Treasures of Art 

in Great Britain. London, 1854. 
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Die Gemalde- 

sammlung in der kaiserliehen Ermitago 

zu St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg, 1870. 
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Kleine Schrifteu. 

Stuttgart, 1875. 
Wackerbart, A. J. L. Vergleichendo Ziige 

zwischen A. R. Mengs und Sir Joshua 

Reynolds. London, 1794. 
Walpole, Horace. Anecdotes of Painting in 

England. London, 1849. 
Ware, William. Lectures on Washington Alls- 
ton. Boston, 1852. 
Warneeke, Friedrich. Lucas Cranach der 

aeltere. Gorlitz, 1879. 
Watteau, L. Catalogue raisonne" du Mnsee 

Wiertz. Brussels, 1865. 
Watts. Liber Fluviorum, etc. 1853. 
Wauters, Alphonse J. Rogier van der Weyden, 

sea osnvres, ses Clcves et ses descendant*. 

Brussels, 1856. 
Wauters, Alphonse J. Hughes van der Goe*, 

sa vie et ses ocnvres. Brussels, 1872. 
Wauters, Alphonse J. B.vanOrley. BnuaeK 

1883. 
Wauters, Alphonse J. La peinture flamande. 

Paris, 1884. 
Weale, W. H. James. Catalogue dn Mnee de 

I'AcadiSmie de Bruges. 1861. 



XMVii 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Weale, W. H. James. Notes sur Jan van Eyck. 

London, 1861. 
Weale, W. H. James. Bruges et ses environs. 

Bruges, 1864. 
Weale, W. H. James. Hans Memling. Arundel 

Soc. Pub. 1865. 
Wedmore, Frederick. Studies in English Art. 

London, 1876. 

Wedmore, Frederick. Masters of Genre Paint- 
ing. London, 1880. 
Weilbach, Philip. Dansk Konstnerlexikon. 

Copenhagen, 1878. 
Weinhart, A. Leben der Angelica Kauffmann. 

Bregenz, 1814. 
Wessely, J. E. Adolf Menzel. Sein Leben 

und seine Werke. Leipsic, 1873. 
Wessely, J. E. Adrian Ludwig Richter zuin 80. 

Geburtstag, ein Lebensbild. Vienna, 1883. 
Wessely, J. E. Kunstiibende Frauen. Leip- 
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Westermanns Illustrirte deutsche Monatshefte. 

Brunswick. 
Westrheene, T. Van. Jan Steen. Etude sur 

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Dyck. Leipsic, 1877. 
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Architect, Maler, und Kunstphilosoph. 

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yOUNG, JOHN. Catalogue of the Celebrated 
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fresques, etc. Paris, 1867. 



See Jahrbucher. 

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demia veneta. Venice, 1830. 
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Zimmermann, Robert. Studien und Kritiken. 

Vienna, 1870. 



xxxviii 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



Acad., Academy. 

A.N.A , Associate of the National Academy. 

A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy. 

A.R.H.A, Associate of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy. 

A.R.S.A., Associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. 

C. & C., Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Cat., Catalogue. 

Ch., Church. 

Col., Collection. 

Gal., Gallery. 

H., Height. 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

Inst., Institute. 



L. of Honour, Legion of Honour. 

Mus., Museum. 

N.A., National Academy or Academician. 

Nat. Gal, National Gallery. 

Pal., Palace, Palais, Palazzo. 

R, Royal. 

R.A., Royal Academy or Academician. 

R.H.A., Royal Hibernian Academy or 
Academician. 

R.S.A., Royal Scottish Academy or Acad- 
emician. 

S., San, Santa. 

SS., Santi, Sante. 

S. M., Santa Maria. 

St., Saint. 

W. & W., Woltmann and Woermann. 



%* Words in italics indicate the alphabetical place of articles on tlte subjects qxctfed. 



ixxix 



CYCLOPEDIA 



PAINTERS AND PAINTINGS 



AAGAARD, CARL FREDERIK, bom ' Sehidone in the Palazzo Commuiiale, Mo- 
at Oclensc, Denmark, Jan. 29, 1833. dena, parts of which still exist. In the Mo- 
Landscape painter, first instructed in dena Gallery are four pictures of this master, 
bis native place, then pupil of Copenhagen namely, the Marriage (?), Annunciation, and 
Academy, and in 1853 of P. C. Skovgnard. Presentation of the Virgin, and the Birth of 
Visited Italy before 1871, and in 1875-76. St. John Baptist. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., L 9 ; 
Member of Copenhagen Academy in 1874. Vedriaui, Pittori . . . Modenesi, 102. 
Works: Wild Flowers (1857); View in' ABBATE, NICCOLo DELL', bora in 
Jaegersburg Deer-park (18G5), Copenhagen Modeua about 1512, died in Paris in 1570. 
Gallery ; Views on Island of Moeu. Sigurd Lombard school ; son of a painter named 



Miiller, 3 ; Weilbach, 7. 
AALST. See A, -I*!. 



Giovanni (died at Modena, 1559), but 
whether Abbate is the family name, or a 



AARESTRUP, MARIE HELENE, born patronymic derived from Abba or Abate, a 
at Flekkefjord, Norway, in 1829. Genre village in the territory of Reggio, or was 
and portrait painter ; pupil in Bergen of adopted by Nieeolo in recognition of his 
Reusch, landscape painter, in Paris (185(5) master the Abate Primaticcio, is still uncer- 
of Tissier, and in Diisseldorf of Vautier. tain, although it has Ijeen much discussed. 
Works : Playing Child and Shepherd's Boy, He went with Primaticcio to France about 
Art Union, Christiania ; Interior of Hotel 1531, and after several years returned to 
Cluny in Paris, Flower Girl, Gothenburg Italy and executed many works in Bologna 
Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 2. and Modena ; in 1551 or 1552, he again 

ABATE CICCIO, L'. See Rolimena. crossed the Alps to assist Primaticcio in 

ABBATE (Abate, Abati), ERCOLE decorating the CbUeau de Fontaiucbleau, 
DELL', died Jan. 20, 1613. Lombardo-Mo- where, in 1570, Cutheriue de Medicis com- 
denese school ; eldest son of Giulio Camillo, missioned him to paint frescos of the La- 
and grandson of Niccolo Abbate ; worked bours of Hercules, the Loves of Vcrtuin- 
mostly in Modena. Painted several Ma- nus, and incidents in the life of Alexander 
donnas for the Modeuese churches, also a the Great. Niccolu also painted frescos 
Hercules and the Nemean lion ; but princi- after the designs of Primaticcio in the 
pal work is a fresco of Labours of Hercules, Hotel de Guise, the Hotel de Montmorency, 
executed in connection with Bartolommeo and the Chateau de Beauregard near Blois 



ABBATI 



Essentially an imitator, and an eclectic 
whose style was a mixture of the Corre- 
gesque and Roman schools, Niccolo had a 
great reputation, and is mentioned by Agos- 
tino Caracci in a famous sonnet, as combin- 
ing in his style all the qualities most desir- 
able for a painter to possess. Of his Italian 
frescos, several from the Palazzo Scandiano 
transferred to canvas are in the gallery at 
Modena, the best of which represent singers 



periodicals, but has done good work in 
water colours. Studio in New York until 
1883, when he removed to London. Mem- 
ber of New York Water Colour Society and 
of London Institute of Water Colours. 
Works : Stage Office (1876), R. G. Dun, New 
York; Evil Eye (1877), Lady in a Gar- 
den (1878), J. W. Harper, ib. ; Rose in Oc- 
tober (1879), J. P. Townsend, ib. ; the Wid- 
ower 



(1883); Reading the Bible (1884), 
and players on musical instruments. Twelve Andrew Carnegie, ib. 

subjects are taken from the Mneid. In the | ABBOTT, FRANCIS LEMUEL, born in 
University, also, there is a frieze of men ' Leicestershire, England, in 1760, died in 
and maidens. Of the joint works of Prima- London in 1803. Pupil of Frank Hayman ; 
ticcio and Niccolo at Fontainebleau little is went to London in 1780, and occasionally ex- 
distinguishable, and of that of Niccolo, hibited portraits at the Academy from 
nothing, as the Great Gallery where he 1788 to 1800. Among his best works are 
painted the Gods of Olympus and the j Viscount Bridport, Earl Macartney, Sir 



story of Ulysses was destroyed in 1738. 
Whether the life-size Diana in the chateau 
is by the master or the pupil is uncertain. 
Among Niccolo's few authentic paintings are 
the Rape of Proserpine, Stafford House, 
London ; and a Holy Family in his Corre- 
gesque manner, at Kedlestou Hall, near 



ATA 7)u3- i 



Derby, the 
seat of Lord 
Scarsdale. 



Vasari, ed. LeMon., xi. 211 ; xiii. 5 ; Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., i. 4 ; Burckhardt, 682 ; Miind- 
ler, Essai (Paris, 1850). 

ABBATI, GIUSEPPE, born in Naples 



George Staunton, Nelson, Nollekens, and 
Vancouver in the National Portrait Gallery ; 
Admiral Sir Peter Parker, Nelson, Green- 
wich Hospital. Redgrave ; Catalogue Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, 408. 

ABD-EL-KADER, CAPTURE OF THE 
SMALA OF, Horace Vernet, Versailles 
Museum ; canvas, H. 16 ft. x 71 ft. The 
smala, consisting of his camp, court, harem, 
and treasury, was taken by surprise, May 
16, 1843, by Due d'Aumale at the head of 
two cavalry regiments. Booty of immense 
value and 5,000 prisoners were captured. 
Abd-el-Kader was absent at the time. 



in 1836, died in Florence, Feb. 20, 1868. ABEL, DEATH OF (Genesis iv. 8), An- 
Genre and landscape painter; son and drea Schiavone, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; can- 
pupil of Vincenzo A,, of Naples ; studied ! vas, H. 7 ft. x 6 ft. 2 in. Cain in the act of 
also at Venice Academy until 1852. In striking Abel, who, prostrate, tries to ward 
1860 and 1866 he joined the volunteers off the blow ; background, a wooded land- 



under Garibaldi, and then retired to the 
Tuscan coast to paint nature and peasant 
life, in the treatment of which he resembles 
Jules Breton. Scarcely had he reached a 
prominent place among modem Italian 
painters, when he died of a bite from his 
dog. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 10. 
ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN 



born 



ni 



Philadelphia, United States, in 1852. Genre 



scape, with a dead goat. Baldinucci calls it 
Samson killing a Philistine. Catalogue Pal- 
azzo Pitti. 

By Tintoretto, Venice Academy ; canvas. 
Ruskin says this picture and its companion 
piece, Adam and Eve, are the " best possible 
examples of what, in absolute 
painting, is supremest work, 



power of 
so far as I 

know, in all the world." One of four sub- 
painter, pupil of Pennsylvania Academy of jects from Genesis, painted for the former 
Fine Arts. Best known as an illustrator of ! Scuola della Trinita. Lavice, 462. 



ABEL 
ABEL, JOSEF, born at Asehach, Upper j Museum ; St. Stephen preaching the Gospel 



Austria, iu 17G8, died in Vicuna, Oct. 4, 
1818. History and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Vienna Academy ; obtained iu 1794 the 
gold medal for his Diedalus and Icarus. 



(1817), St. Etienue du Mont ; Baptism of 
Clovis (1824), Cathedral of Reims ; St. Peter 
reviving Tabitha (1827), St. Peter, Douai ; 
Burial of the Madonna, Notre Dame, Paris. 



In 1795 he accompanied Prince Czartoryski Ch. Blanc, ficolo fran<;aise ; Siret, 729 ; 
to Poland, whence, notwithstanding brilliant ! Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 22. 
offers from Russia, he returned to Vienna, ABELS, JACOBUS THKODOKUH, 
and remained there until 1801, when he bora iu Amsterdam, Netherlands, Sept 1, 
went to Rome, where he sketched and partly 1803, died in Abcoude, June 18, 18(!(J. 
finished several of his most important works. Landscape painter ; pupil of Jan van Raven- 
After 1807 he resided at Vienna and became swaay. Went to Germany in 182(5, and 
member of the Academy in 1815. Abel is after his return settled at the Hague, where 
better known by his engravings than by his he married a daughter of the painter P. G. 
pictures. Works : Hector and Andromache, van Os. His moonlight landscapes are es- 
Audromache with Hector's Body, Antigone, pecially noteworthy. Works : Fir Grove 
Prometheus, Socrates saving Therameues, with Cattle, Wood Landscape, View of the 
Klopstock and Homer entering Elysium Downs, National Museum, Amsterdam. 
(1807), Vienna Museum ; Cato of Utica, Die- Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 23. 
dalus and Icarus, Vienna Academy ; Socrates ] ABELDGAARD, NICOLAI ABRAHAM, 
as Sculptor, Amor, Tibullus in Ecstasy, Hor- bom in Copenhagen, Denmark, Sept. 11, 
ace at Tibur, Scene from Olympian Games, 1742, died at Fredriksdal, June 4, 1809. 
Oath over Corpse of Lucretia, Darmstadt Son of Soren A., the Norwegian draughts- 
Gallery ; Socrates dictating his Will, Seiz- man, and pupil of Copenhagen Academy, 
ure of Antigone, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vi- where he won the great medal iu 17G7. 
enna. Andreseu, iii. 70 ; Meyer, Kiiust. Studied iu Italy in 1772-77 ; became, after 
Lex., i. 20. his return in the latter year, a member of 
ABEL DE PUJOL, ALEXANDRE the Academy, professor iu 178G, and its di- 
DENIS, born in Valenciennes, France, rector from 178!) to 1792, and from 1802 to 
Jan. 30, 1785, died in Paris, Sept. 28, his death. His principal work, a series of 
1861. History painter, pupil of the Acad- Allegories (1791) in the castle of Christ- 




Rome, and resided iu that city five years. VUI, delivered his funeral oration. Works 
Legion of Honour, 1822 ; Officer, 1835 ; Philoctetes, Danish Ladies sacrificing their 
Member of Academy, 1835. Earlier works Jewelry to ransom King Svend, Cupid 
are the best, especially the allegorical ones, rates in Ecstacy, Jupiter ; scenes from Hi 
He painted a number of pictures, now iu let, Richard HI., Macbeth, Henry \H 
the Louvre, for the government, and exe- illustrations to Terence, Apuleius, and 1 
cuted works in several churches of Paris gesen. Meyer, Kirnst Lex., i. 
and in the provincial museums. Works : bach, 9. 

Renaissance des Arts, a fresco (1819, de- i ABOUKIR, BATTLE OF, Baron ( 
stroyed in 185G), copy in the Louvre ; Ly- Versailles Museum, 
curgus presenting the Heir Apparent to the 1799. Scene : the final cavalry ch, 
Lacedaemonians (1810), Ecole des Beaux Murat, when the Turks were dn 
Arts ; Isaac Blessing the Children of Jacob the sea. Fort of Aboukir, enem 
(1810) ; Death of Britaimicua (1814), Dijon and ships in back; 



180G. 



ABRAHAM 

En-raved bv A. Lefebre.-Lan- ' Sonlt, who sold it (1835), with the Prodigal 
. Plates 1-3; Galerie de Son by Murillo and St .Francis Borgia by 
Versailles No 660 ; Bertliier, Kelation Velasquez, to Duke of Sutherland for 500,- 
de 1'Expedition d'Egypte, 185. 000 fr. Engraved in outline, Reveil iv. 

ABRAHAM AND ANGELS (Genesis 271. Palomino, 111. 422 ; Cean 1 ermudez ; 
xviii 2) Murillo, Duke of Norfolk, London ; Stirling, ii. 852 ; Ponz, Viage, ix. 147 ; Cur- 
canvas H. 6 ft. 4 in. x 8 ft. 1 in. Three tis, 115 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 68. 
angels, habited as pilgrims and bearing ABRAHAM AND HAGAR. See llagar. 

ABRAHAM, HIS- 
TORY OF. See Raph- 
ael's Bible. 

ABRAHAM, SACRI- 
FICE OF (Genesis xxii.), 
Cris. Allori, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
7 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. Abra- 
ham, about to sacrifice 
Isaac in a rocky place, 
has his arm arrested by 
an angel who points to 
the ram in the thicket ; 
in back-ground, two ser- 
vants and a pack-horse. 
Engraved by Rossi. Gal. 
du Pal. Pitti, i. PI. 2. 

By Murillo, Wm. C. 
Cartwright, A y n h o e , 
Northamptonshire, Eng. ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 9 in. x 3 
ft. 7 in. Abraham, in a 
white turban, blue coat, 
and red mantle, has a 
brazier of coals in his right hand while his 
left rests on his sword ; Isaac, in red and 
blue, walks before, carrying wood. Brought 
from Spain in 17GO by John Blackwood, 
from whom obtained by inheritance. Cur- 
tis, 117. 

By Raphael, Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican ; 
fresco on ceiling. Abraham holding Isaac on 
the altar and about to complete the sacrifice 
when an angel arrests his arm ; another an- 
gel descending from heaven with the ram. 
Painted in 1513-14. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 
346 ; Passavant, i. 159 ; Muntz, 370 ; Gruyer, 
Fresques, 241. 

By Rembrandt, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 3 in Abraham, 




Abraham and Angels, Murillo, Stafford House. 

staves, two seated at a table and one stand- 
ing ; Abraham approaching, bearing a 
dish of smoking meat ; behind him, Sarah 
at the door of the house ; in background, 
Hagar and Ishmael. Engraved by G. E. 
Price ; mezzotint by G. S. and J. G. Facius. 
Curtis, 117. 

By Murillo, Stafford House, London ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 9 in. x 8 ft. 6 in. On left, 
three angels, habited as pilgrims and bear- 
ing staves ; Abraham, kneeling, pointing 
with both hands to his house behind, invites 
them to enter. Companion to St. Peter in 
Prison, Hermitage ; one of eight large pic- 
tures painted in 1670-1674 for Hospital of 
La Caridad, Seville ; carried off by Marshal 



ABSOLOX 



with one hand on Isaac's face, who lies 
bound on a pile of wood, is alxwt to execute 
the command with the other, when an angel 




carried from Holland by French nnd pre- 
sented by Napoleon in 1811. Smaller copy 
in Madrid Museum. Engraved by Surupue 
pi-re. GaL Roy. de Dresde, i. PL 8 ; Vas- 
ari, ed. Mil, v. 51 ; C. & C., Italy, iiL 577. 

By fuxlvma, Duomo, Pisa ; wood, figures 
life size. Painted in 1042. Curried to Paris 
in 1811 ; returned in 1814. Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vi. 397. 

By D. Tenierx, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft 3 in.; signed, dated 
1653. Abraham and Isaac kneeling in prayer 
before an altar, on which is a fire and a ram 
ready for sacrifice ; in distance, a landscape, 
with two sen-ants and an ass. Engraved 
by Berkowez. Gal. de Vieune, iiL PL 157. 

ABSOLON, JOHN, born at Lambeth, 
England, May 6, 1815. Genre painter, 
chiefly in water colours * pupil of Ferrigi ; 
supported himself when young by painting 
^. portraits in oil ; in 1838 became a member 



Sacrifice of Abraham, Rembrandt, Hermitage. 

seizes his arm and the knife falls from his 
grasp. Houghton Gallery, whence passed in 
1779, for 300, to Hermitage. Engraved 
by Murphy; Haide. Ch. Blanc, Rembrandt, 
401. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Dresden Gallery ; 
wood, H. 7 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 8 in.; signed. 
Abraham, about to slay Isaac on an altar, is 
arrested by a boy angel from above ; at one 
side, the ram caught in the thicket ; at the 
other, in background, a naked man watching 
an ass. Painted in 1529, for Francis I, but 
in Andrea's possession at his death in 1531 ; 
presented by Filippo Strozzi to Alfonso 
d'Avalos ; after many wanderings, returned 
to Florence and placed in Tribune of the 
Uffizi ; exchanged for a Correggio with the 
Duke of Modeua, and finally sold to Augus- 
tus EL of Saxony. Copy in Lyons Museum, 



fi -. ' 
if 




Sacnfio of Abraham, Andta del Sarto, Drt*in GallTr. 



of the New Water Colour Society, from 
which he withdrew in 1858, and exhibited 
in Academy an oil picture, Boulogne, 1857 ; 



ACCORDEE 



returned to Water Colour Society in 1861. 
In 1859, he visited Switzerland and Italy. 
Works : Savoyard Boy, First Sup (1839) ; 
Singing for a Wife (1840) ; Vicar of Wake- 
field in Prison (1842) ; Paul and Virginia 
(1843) ; Judgment of Midas, Captain Mac- 
heatli Betrayed (1844) ; Threading the 
Needle (184C) ; Plenty (1849) ; First Night 
in a Convent (1853) ; The Baptism (1856) ; 



(1589), Bonn Cathedral ; Pieta, Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian, do. of Magdalen, Jesuit 
church, Munich ; Altai-piece with Christ 
crucified, Kreuzkapelle, ib. ; nine biblical, 
mythological, and genre scenes, Vienna 
Museum ; liaising of Lazarus, Nativity, St. 
Mary and Carthusian Monk, Portrait of 
Burgomaster Broelman (1588), all in Co- 



lone Museum ; Ave Maria, Christ raising 



Boulogne (1858) ; Tt-te-a-Tete (1860) ;Mdlle. the Widow's Son, Truth victorious under 
de Sombreuil (1861) ; Courtship of Gains- 
borough (1863); The Beacon (1876); 
Returning from Church, Bringing in the 
Maypole (1883). Art Journal (1862), 201 ; 
Ottley; Meyer, Klinst. Lex., i. 34. 



ACCORDEE DE VILLAGE. 
Bride. 



See Village strauieri, 



ACHAED, JEAN ALEXIS, born at Vo- 



reppe, Isere, France, June 8, 1807, died in 
Grenoble, Oct., 1884. Landscape painter, 
self-taught ; went to Paris in 1835, and 
exhibited first at the Salon in 1839 ; has 
travelled in Egypt. Medals : 3d class, 1844 ; 
2d class, 1845, 1848 ; 3d class, 1855. 
Works : Valley of the Isere (1844) ; Grande 
Chartreuse (1845) ; Mill of Cremieux (1848) ; 
Autumn Landscape (1853) ; Sea Coast near 
Honfleur (1861) ; Waterfall (1863) ; Cas- 
cade of Cernay-la-Ville (1866), Luxembourg ; 
View near Cernay (1870). Others in Muse- 
ums at Grenoble and Avignon. Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., i. 38. 

ACHELOUS. See Hercules and Achelous. 

ACHEN, JOHANN or HANS VON, born 
in Cologne in 1562, died in Prague, Jan. 6, 
1615. History and portrait painter, Ger- 
man school ; pupil of C. Jerrigh in Cologne 
and of Kaspar Reins in Venice ; studied 




Protection of Justice, twelve 
portraits of Bavarian princes 
and princesses, all at Schleiss- 
Leim Gallery. Allgem. d. 
29 ; Campori, Artisti italiani e 
245 Kugler (Crowe), i. 271 ; 



Meyer, Kiinst, Lex., i. 39 ; Organ f. christL 
K, xv. 155. 
ACHENBACH, ANDREAS, bom in Cas- 
sel, Sept. 29, 
1815. Land- 
scape and mar- 
ine painter, pu- 
pil of Diisseldorf 
Academy (1827 
-1835) under 
Schirmer, and 
one of the most 
distinguished 
painters of the 
school. His 
early views of the Rhine country are fresh 
and individual. Later, he widened his 
range by visiting Holland (1832-33), Nor- 
way (1835), the Bavarian Tyrol (1836), and 
Italy (1843). After his return to Diissel- 
dorf in 1846, he painted a great number of 
German and Norwegian landscapes, treating 




Michelangelo and Tintoretto in Italy, and mountain, forest, and sea with like ability 

and power. Achenbach is a member of the 
Berlin, Amsterdam, and Antwerp Academies, 



returned home iu 1588. In 1590 he was 
called to Munich by Duke William V., be- 
came painter to the Emperor Rudolph II., 
resided at Prague after 1601, and in 1612 
was appointed court painter to Matthias I. 
He was a mannerist like Goltzius and 



and has received many orders and medals. 
Paris Salon : medal 3d class, 1839 ; 1st class, 
1855 ; 3d class, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1864. 
Works in galleries of Berlin, Munich, Frank- 



Spranger, and very much overrated by his fort, Darmstadt, Carlsruhe, Diisseldorf, and 
contemporaries. Works : Crucifixion (1588), ' in many private collections in Europe ; in 
Protestant church, Cologne ; Entombment the United States, ill collections of Miss C. 



AC11ENHACI1 



M,M. 



L. Wolfe, T. A. Havemeyer, Aug. Belmont, 
R. Hoe, J. W. Drexel, E. D. Morgan, and 
R. L. Cutting, New York ; H. C. Gibson, 
John D. Lankennu, and Mrs. W. P. Wil- 
stach, Philadelphia ; J~ m \ 
H. P. Kidder, Boston ; / I \ 
W. T. Walters, J. W. * -* * 
Garrett, Baltimore ; J. 
Longworth, Cincinna- 
ti. Brockhaus, i. 103 ; 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 43 ; Mailer, 2 ; Nord 
u. Slid, xv. 381 ; Pecht, iii. 328. 

ACHENBACH, OSWALD, born in Diis- 
seldorf, Feb. 2, 1827. Landscape paiuter, 
brother and pupil of Andreas, but his 
conception of nature is more ideal. Vis- 
ited the Bavarian Alps at an early period, 
and went to Switzerland and Italy in 1845, 
1850, and 1851. His representations of 
southern scenery and of peculiar atmos- 
pheric effects are of rare excellence. Medals : 
Paris, 3d class, 1859 ; 2d class, 1861, 1863 ; 
L. of Honour, 1803. Works : Park Laud- 
scape, Villa Chigi, Entry of a Cardinal into 
Ariccia (1851) ; Castel Gandolfo (1853) ; 
Nocturnal Funeral in Palestrina, Pilgrims 
from the Abruzzi (1861) ; Reapers in the 
Campagna (1863) ; Torre del Greco (1868) ; 
Street in Torre dell' Aunuuziata, Olive Har- 
vest at Sorrento, Campo Santo at Naples ; 
Festival in Araceli, Strand of Naples at a 
Church Festival, Naples and Vesuvius, Even- 
ing between Ceprano and Sora (1874) ; Pal- 
ace of Queen Joanna, Breslau Museum ; 
Villa Torlonia at Frascati, Market of Amain, 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Vesuvius after 
Storm, Bay of Naples, Inauguration at Cas- 
tellainare, Castle of Ischia. The following 
are in the United States : Home of Garibaldi 
in Caprera, D. W. Powers, Rochester ; 
Naples at Midnight, F. C. Sales, Pawtucket, 
R. L; Fish Market, Naples, H. Probasco, 
Cincinnati ; Night at Capri, Judge G. 
Hoadley, Cincinnati ; Storm in Roman 
Campagna, View near Rome, C. H. Wolff, 
Philadelphia ; Staircase Street, Mrs. W. P. 
Wilstach, Philadelphia ; Ball-Players ut 
Villa Torlonia, Mrs. J. G. Fell, Philadel- 



| phia ; Street in Naples, Joseph W. Drexel, 
N. Y.; Coliseum at Rome, Sta. Lucia, Tem- 
ple of Vesta and St. Peter's, Convent of 
Vico, John D. Lankenau, Philadel- 
phia ; Bay of Naples, Summer 
Night's Festival at Naples, Win. 
Astor, N. Y. Meyer, Kimst. Lex., L 
Brockhaus, i. 104 ; Muller, 3. 

ACHILLES, ancient picture. See Alhen- 



4G; 



ACHILLES, EDUCATION OF, Jean Hey- 
nanlt, Louvre ; canvas, H 8 ft 6 in. x 6 
ft. 11 in. The young Achilles, nude, about 
to shoot an arrow, turns his head toward 
the Centaur Chiron, who, behind him, left, 




Education of Achillet. Regniult. Louvtt. 

appears to give instruction ; in background, 
a dead lion, and, on the rocks above, a ser- 
pent. Salon, 1783. Engraved by Bervic.- 
Rcveil, v. 305 ; Landon, Musce, L 23. 

ACHTSCHELLINCK (Achtacheflinckx), 
LUCAS, born in Brussels, baptised Jan. 16, 
1626, died there, buried May 12, 169!). 
Landscape painter, Flemish school, pupil 
of Pieter Van der Borelit ; master of Brus- 
sels guild in 1657. Was of considerable 



ACKEK 



merit ; worked for churches and monaster- 
ies. Works : Landscapes (2 with figures by 
Pieter Bout), Dresden Gallery ; three, for- 
merly in Pommersfelden Gallery ; three, 
Museum, Bruges ; two, City Hall, ib. ; oth- 
ers in churches at Brussels. Meyer, Kiiust. j 
Lex., i. 50 ; Weale, Bruges et ses environs 
(1846), 21. 

ACKER, JACOB, flourished in Ulm, sec- 
ond half 15th century. German school. He 
is the only one of a family of painters of 
whom a well-authenticated work exists, viz., 
the pictures on the side wings and the pre- 
della of an altarpiece painted in 1483, which 
is preserved in the chapel of St. Leonard at 
the Cemetery of Eisstipen, Ehingen. They 
represent Christ and the Disciples, and 
male and female saints. Meyer, Kuust. 
Lex., i. 51. 

ACKERMANN, JOHANN ADAM, born 
in Mentz in 1780, died in Frankfort in 1853. 
Landscape painter ; studied in Mentz and 
in Paris under David, then in Aschaffenburg, 
and from 1804 in Frankfort. Most success- 
ful in his winter landscapes taken in the 
Tauuus, Spessart, and Odenwald. Works : 
View of Auerbach, View near Borghetto, 
Darmstadt Gallery. His brother, Georg 
Friedrich (1787-1843), was also a landscape 
painter. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 51. 

ACQUA, CESARE DELL', born in Pira- 
no, Istria, July 22, 1821. History, genre, and 
portrait painter ; pupil from 1842 of the 
Venice, and from 1847 of the Paris Acad- 
emy, then in Brussels of Gallait, whose 
influence is, next to that of the Venetian 
school, most observable in his pictures. 
From 1857 to 18G8, after a previous journey 
to Italy, he won his greatest success with 
historical paintings, among which are a se- 
ries executed in 1858-G6 in the Villa of Mir- 
amar for the Arch-duke Maximilian. Works : 
Last Moments of Niccolo Macchiavelli ; 
Provenzano Silvani begging for Ransom of 
a Friend ; Cromwell on the Battlefield ; 
John preaching in the Desert (1851) ; Jesus 
calling Little Children (1854) ; The Brothers 
Degli Uberti in the Battle of Monte Aperto 



(1851) ; Mary Stuart derided by the People 
of Edinburgh (1854) ; Ferruccio at the De- 
fence of Volterra (1854) ; Trieste proclaimed 
a free Port ; Ugon da Duino entrusted with 
the Government of Trieste (1855) ; Recep- 
tion of the Milanese in Brescia in 1162 
(1857) ; Confession of Louis XI. (1858) ; 
Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi ; Tintoretto 
and his Daughter ; Last Moments of Marino 
Faliero ; Anna Erizzo rejecting Mohammed's 
Love ; Erasmus and Bolognese Students ; 
Youth of Spinoza ; Dante received in Ver- 
ona by Cane della Scala ; Sally of the Mi- 
lanese against Barbarossa (1863) ; The Kelts 
as first Inhabitants of the Rocks at Mira- 
mar ; Roman Festival ; Emperor Leopold I. 
visiting Grignano Monastery ; Archduke 
Maximilian receiving the Delegation from 
Mexico ; Departure of the Imperial Couple 
from Miramar ; Arrival of Empress Eliza- 
beth at Miramar ; Allegory representing 
Maximilian planning the building of Mira- 
mar. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 54. 

ACT/EON. See Diana and Actseon. 

ADAM, ALBRECHT, born at Nordlingen, 
April 16, 1786, died in Munich, Aug. 28, 
1862. Painter of military genre and of 
horses ; at Nuremberg in 1803 painted por- 
traits and small hunting scenes, but after- 
wards, under the influence of Rugendas in 
Augsburg, took up military subjects, for 
which he found ample material during the 
Austrian campaign of 1809. Went with 
Eugene Beauharnais as court painter to 
Italy, and in 1812 to Russia ; returned in 
1815 to Munich, and found employment at 
court. In 1829 he worked in Stuttgart for 
the king of Wiirtemberg, and in 1850 painted 
in Vienna the battles of the Austrian army 
under Radetzky. Works : Battle of Leoben 
(1811) ; Battles of Moschaisk and Malojar- 
oslawetz, besides 85 other scenes from cam- 
paign of 1812 ; sixteen battle pieces from 
Life of Eugene Beauharnais (1841, St. Peters- 
burg) ; Battle of Abendsberg (182G); Paint- 
er's studio (1835), Berlin Museum ; Battle 
on the Moskwa (1835) ; Battles of Custozza, 
Novara, and Sta. Lucia (1850) ; Battle of 



ADAM 



Temesvar (1853) ; Battle of Zonulorf (18C1); 
numerous horse-pieces and small genre 
scenes and portraits. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 44 ; 
Brockhaus, i. 128 ; Meyer, *f\ l r 
Kiinst. Lex., i. C5 ; Reguet, i. 1. 

ADAM, BENNO, born in Munich, July 
15, 1812. Son and pupil of Albrecht, and 
one of the best animal painters of the 
Munich school. Has been called the Ger- 
man Laudseer on account of his skill in 
treating domestic animals, combined with 
human figures. Works ; Fox Chase, Prince 
Karl of Fiirstenberg, Donaueschiugen ; 
Wounded Stag, Prince Max of Fiirstenberg, 
Prague Meyer, Kiiust Lex., i. G9. 

ADAM, EMIL, born in Munich, May 20, 
1843. Painter of horses, equestrian por- 
traits, and hunting scenes ; pupil of his 
father Benno, and his uncle Franz, and in 
figure painting of Portaels at Brussels (18G5). 
Works : Meet at Pardubitz (00 hunters on j 
horseback, 18G8, Princess Maria Kiusky) ; J 
Hunt at Lippspriug (40 persons, 1871, Duke 
of Nassau) ; Hungarian Stud Horses during 
an Inundation ; Stud of Horses (li G. Dun, 
N. Y.) Meyer, Kiiust Lex., i. 72 ; M filler, 5. 

ADAM, EUGEN, born in Munich, Jan. j 
22, 1817, died there, June 4, 1880. Genre 
painter, third son and pupil of Albrecht, 
whom he accompanied (1848) to the seat 
of war in Italy, where he remained until 
1856. Able painter of soldier life in peace 
and war, as also of picturesque customs and 
manners in Hungary, Croatia, and D.ilmatia, 
which he -visited in 1844-47. Manoeuvre 
under command of the Emperor of Austria 
(1851) ; two scenes from Conquest of Mnl- 
ghuera (1852), Collection of Emperor of 
Austria ; Wounded Soldier (1859), Munich 
Gallery ; Cavalry Skirmish (1868). Meyer, 
Kiiust. Lex., i. 71 ; Kunst Chronik, xv. 646 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1880), i. 513. 

ADAM, FRANZ, born in Milan, May 4, 
1815. Painter of military subjects and Hun- 
garian scenes, like his father and master 
Albrecht, and his brother Eugen, with whom 
he followed the Italian and Hungarian cam- 




paigns in 1849 and 1850. Settled at Munich 
in 1850. Member of Munich and Vienna 
Academies ; Order of St Michael ; great 
gold medal at Berlin, 1875. Works : Eques- 
trian Portrait 
of Francis Jo- 
seph (1857) ; 
do. of Field 
Marshal Rad- 
etzky; Episode 
from battle of 
Solferiuo 
(1867); Skir- 
mish between 
Austrian Uh- 
lans and Pied- 
moutese Dragoons (1868); Retreat from 
Russia (1869), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Battle of Sedan (1874), Duke of Saxe-Mein- 
ingeu, replica ( 1879), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Bavarian Corps before Orleans (1879), 
Munich Gallery ; Transportation of Prison- 
ers after Sedan (1880) ; Hungarian Homes 
on the Danube (1881). Brockhaus, i. 129 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst Lex., i. 70 ; Miiller, 4. 

ADAM, HEINRICH, bora at Xiirdliugen 
in 1787, died in Munich, Feb. 15, 1862. 
Landscape painter, brother of Albrecht, 
studied at Augsburg and Munich in 1K08. 
Visited Italy in 1811, 1813, and 1819, after 
which time he gave up etching and devoted 
himself to landscape painting. His views 
of the Bavarian Alps, Switzerland, and Upper 
Italy are true to nature, though somewhat 
sober and dry in execution. Works : View 

S* A of Como (1822) ; Max- 

tT\. 3 J" se l )U Square, and 11 
*^ *** * ' O j2 views of monumental 
buildings ; Marienplatz with 14 frame pic- 
tures, Munich Gallery. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 68. 

ADAM, JEAN VICTOR, born in Paris, 
Jan. 28, 1801, died in Viroflay, Jan. 1, 1867. 
Military and genre painter, pupil of Moynicr 
and Regnault. After 1840 chiefly occupied 
himself with designs for lithographic albums. 
Works: Entry of the French into Meutz, 
Buttles of Castiglioue, Neuwied, Moutebello, 



ADAM 



| ) -j 

L/. , /I I 

ccb>r csbJam 



Surrender of Nordlingen, do. of Meiningen, 

allatVer- 
sallies; 
ThePos- 

tillion 

E e tur n 

from the Chase. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 73. 
ADAM, CEEATION OP (Genesis i. 27), 
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Eome ; fresco 
on ceiling. Adam, fully formed, lies on the 
verge of the earth in the act of rising, as if 
he felt for the first time the spark of life ; 
above, at right, the Eternal, represented as 
an aged man with white hair and beard, 



By A. Diircr, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
diptych ; each panel, H. 6 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 8 
in. Figures full length, life size, nude. I. 
Adam standing under a tree, his hair flowing 
over his shoulders, holding in left hand the 
branch with the apple offered by Eve, while 
the right hangs down, the fingers making a 
deprecatory gesture ; by his side a wild boar 
and a stag's head ; in foreground, a cock- 
pheasant. II. Eve, standing under a tree, 
receives in her left hand the forbidden fruit 
from the serpent, twined around a limb, and 
with the other offers the branch to Adam ; 
behind her a lioness asleep ; two parrots are 




Creation of Adam, Michelangelo, Sistine Chape!. 



upborne by genii, and enveloped in violet- 
grey drapery which is swelled out by the 
wind, stretches out his hand as if to bid 
Adam arise. Engraved by D. Cunego. 
Grimm (Bunnett), i. 333 ; "Wey, Eome, 326 ; 
Kugler, 301 ; Klas. der Malerei, PI. xxii., 
Text, 98. 

ADAM AND EVE, Carlo Cignani, Hague 
Museum; canvas, H. 7 ft. x 4 ft. 10 in. 
Nude, seated, Eve presenting the apple ; at 
left, the tree of life, around which is wound 
the serpent, holding an apple in its mouth ; 
at right, below, a lioness and her cub. Painted 
in 1703. Engraved by Pierron ; Devillier. 
Beveil, xiii. 902 ; Filhol, ii. 98. 



perched upon the tree, and in foreground 
are two partridges. Painted in 1507. In 
IGth century in Eathhaus, Nuremberg, 
whence passed into collection of Emperor 
Eudolph II. Old copies in Madrid and 
Mentz Museums. The latter, probably by 
Juvenel, replaced original at Nuremberg ; 
was carried off by the French in 1796, and 
returned to Mentz. Original engraved by 
Calzi and Ferretti in Bardi. Thausing, ii. 
2. 277 ; Ephrussi, 141 ; Passavant, Christ- 
liche Kunst in Spanien, 142. 

By Filippino Lippi, Brancacci Chapel, 
Carmine, Florence ; fresco on right wall. 
Adam and Eve, the latter with the apple in 



10 



ADAM 



her hand, standing under the Tree of Life, Painted in 1511; a fine composition, ex- 
around which is coiled the serpent with a i tremely pure in style and feeling. Engraved 



woman's head. The Eve is 
one of the first really beauti- 
ful nude figures in modern 
art. Kugler (Eastlake), L 
222. 

By Michelangelo, Sistine 
Chapel, Koine ; fresco on 
ceiling, H. 10 ft. 7 in. x 31 
ft. 10 in. In centre, the Tree 
of Life, coiled around which 
the serpent, having the body 
of a woman, is handing the 
fruit to Eve, who reclines on 
rocks at left ; beside her, 
Adam, standing, is reaching 
up for the fruit ; at right, 
Adam and Eve, bound with 
vine leaves, are fleeing be- 
fore the Angel, who pursues 
from above with a drawn 
sword. Painted in 1512-13. 
Pistolesi, viii. PI. 107 ; Re- 
veil, xiv. PI. 497. 

By Raphael, Camera della 




Adam and Eve, Filippino Lippi, 
Carmme, Florence. 



by V. Solis ; Fr. Muller ; R. 
Wibert, and others. PanHa- 
vant, i. 117; Miintz, 34fi; Ch. 
Blanc, Kri ili- oinbrienne ; 
Gruyer, Fresques, 73 ; Per- 
kins, Essay, 119. 

By Rnltens, Hague Munc- 
um ; wood, H. 2 ft 6 in. x 3 
ft. Figures by Rubens, land- 
scape by Brueghel. Sold in 
collection of Madam Backer, 
Leyden, 17GK, for 7350 flor- 
ins. Smith, ii. 113. 

Subject treated also by 
Lucas Crauach, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Fraus Floris, L'ffizi, 
Florence; Domenichino, Ros- 
pigliosi Palace, Rome ; 
Franceneo Albani, Brussels 
Museum ; Hendrik Goltzius, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Puluia Vecchio, Brunswick 
Gallery ; and many others. 

See also Kilen, Expulsion 



Segnatura, Vatican ; fresco, on ceiling. Eve, from, and Raphael'* 

nude, standing, with one hand on a branch 1 ADAM OF FRANKFORT. See Eluheimer. 




Adam and Eve, Michelangelo, Sistine Chupel 



of the tree, around which is twined the ser- ; ADAMO, MAX, born in Mumch in 1837. 
pent with a woman's head, offers the forbid- History and genre painter, pupil 
den fruit to Adam, seated under a fig-tree. Munich Academy under PhiL 



AD AN 




of Piloty. Works : Alva condemning Peers 
of the Netherlands (1868) ; Full of Robes- 
pierre ; Last Meeting between Egmont and 
Orange ; Meeting between Charles I. and 
Cromwell ; Adept in Laboratory ; Cromwell 
dissolving Parliament. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 77; Miiller. 

ADAN, LOUIS EMILE, born in Paris, 
March 26, 1839. Genre painter, pupil of 
Picot and of Cabanel. Medals: 3d class, 
1875 ; 2d class, 1882. Works : Last Day of 
Sale (1875) ; Arrival at Chateau (1876) ; SL 
Martin's Summer ; Room at Fontainebleau, 
H. B. Hurlbut, Cleveland ; Marguerite at 
the Shrine, D. W. Powers, Rochester, N. Y.; 
Dancing Lesson (1877), O. D. Munu, N. Y.; 
Little Prodigy, Summer at St. Martin (1879); 
Gulliver at Brob- 
dignag (1880); 
Singing Lesson 
(1881) ; Autumn 
Evening (1882) ; The Ferryman's Daughter 
(1883); L'abandonnee ; Old Chateau (1884); 
Anniversary, End of the Journey (1885). 

ADEMOLLO, CARLO, born in Florence, 
Italy, in 1825. Landscape and military 
genre painter, nephew of Luigi A., pupil of 
Bezzuoli ; became first known through land- 
scapes and animal pieces ; painted in 1856, 
by order of government, the Battle of S. Mar- 
tino (Gallery of modern paintings, Florence), 
and since then chiefly military episodes in 
recent Italian history : Death of Cairoli at 
Varese ; Condemnation of Frate Ugo Bassi ; 
Stanislas Bechi going to Execution (1865). 
Meyer, Kiiust. Lex,, i. 84. 

ADEMOLLO, LUIGI, born in Milan, 
Italy, April 30, 1764, died in Florence, Feb. 
11, 1849. History painter, pupil of the Flor- 
ence Academy; studied afterwards in Rome ; 
was much employed in decorating interiors 
in fresco, especially in Milan, Florence, and 
Lucca, His works show superficial skill and 
weak drawing of the nude and of drapery. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 81. 

ADLOFF, KARL, born in Dusseldorf in 
1819. Landscape and architecture painter ; 
pupil of Dusseldorf Academy in 1833-41. 



In his earlier time he treated genuine 
landscape, but later gave the preference to 
Dutch harbour, shore, canal, and street views. 
His subjects are well selected, though dry and 
somewhat feeble in colour. Works : Dutch 
Canal (1841); Harbour at Amsterdam (1846); 
Dutch Winter Landscapes ; Landing-place 
at Dordrecht (1851) ; View of Ehrenbreit- 
stein and Coblentz (1854) ; Sea Harbour in 
Sunlight (1857). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 84. 

ADOLFI, GIRO, born at Bergamo, Italy, 
in 1683, died in 1758. History painter, son 
and pupil of Benedetto Adolfi (1640-1720), 
a painter of little reputation. Executed 
frescos in public buildings in Bergamo. 
Works : Four Evangelists, S. Alessandro 
della Croce, Bergamo ; Deposition from 
Cross, S. Maria delle Grazie, ib. ; Decolla- 
tion of St. John, Church at Colognola. 

ADOLFI, GIACOMO, born at Bergamo 
in 1682, died in 1741. History painter, 
son and pupil of Benedetto Adolfi and 
brother of the preceding. Among his best 
works are : the Coronation of the Virgin in 
the church of the Monastero del Paradiso, 
and the Adoration of the Magi in S. Ales- 
sandro della Croce, Bergamo. Other pictures 
in other churches in Bergamo and elsewhere. 

ADONE. See Doni. 

ADONIS. See Venus and Adonis. 

ADONIS, DEATH OF, Moretto, Uffizi, 
Florence ; canvas, figures life size. Venus, 
nude, wearing a diadem, is seated in a glade, 
attended by three nymphs and Pan playing 
his pipes ; beside her a Cupid, pointing to 
right, where Adonis lies dead, with the boar 
in background. A capital picture, possibly 
by Sebastian del Piombo instead of Moretto. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 416 ; Rosini, v. 241 ; 
Molini, Galleria di Fireuze, i. 145 ; Lavice, 
34 ; Lasinio, i. PI. 40. 

By Paolo Veronese (?), Bridge water House, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 7 in. 
Venus bewailing the death of Adonis, whose 
head is supported by a Cupid ; in back- 
ground, a Cupid and two dogs worry the 
boar. Perhaps by Carlo Caliari. From 
collection of Queen Christina of Sweden 



ADORATION 

to Orleans Gallery ; bought by Duke of anil dead bird on a table, in Antwerp Mu- 
Bridgewater for 150 guineas. Waagen, seuiu. Meyer, Kunsi Lex., j. 80 ; Itoo* 
Treasures, ii. 498; Stafford Gallery, ii. PI. 29. (Reber), 422. 

ADORATION OF JESUS. See Madonna ADULTERESS. See Woman taken in 
in Adoration. I Adultery. 

ADORATION OF KINGS. See Magi. AEKEN, HIERONYMUS VAN See 

ADORATION OF THE LAMB. See Bosch. 
Eyck, Hubert van. AELST, EVERT VAN, born at Delft 

ADORATION OF MAGL See Magi. in 1602, died there in 1658. Dutch school ; 




Death of Adonis, Moreno, Uffiii. 



ADORATION OF SHEPHERDS. See 

Shepherds. 

ADORATION OF TRINITY. See Trin- 
ity. 

ADRIAENSSEN, ALEXANDER, born in 
Antwerp, Jan. 17, 1587, died there, Oct. 
30, 1661. Fish and still life painter, Flem- 
ish school ; pupil of Artus Van Laeek ; 
travelled and came under influence of Ru- 
bens, and was intimate with Van Dyck, who 
painted his portrait, engraved by Van der 
Does. Works : Three pictures in Berlin 
Museum, one dated 1647. Among his best 
are four pictures in the Madrid Museum, 
and one representing fish, lobsters, a cat, 



painted dead game and weapons of the 
chase. Works : Two in Berlin Museum ; 
Game, Dresden Gallery ; others in Augs- 
burg, Schwerin, and Potsdam Galleries. 
Kuglcr (Crowe), ii. 520; Meyer, Kiinst Lex., 
i. 100. 

AELST, WILLEM VAN, born at Delft 
in 1620, died in Amsterdam in 1679. Dutch 
school ; like his uncle and master, Evert 
van Aelst, whom he far excelled, he painted 
dead birds and weapons of the chase, but 
his favourite subjects were fruit and other 
eatables with drinking glasses, etc. In 1643 
he became a member of the Guild of St 
Luke at Delft He visited France and Italy, 



JfiNEAS 



\ / 
V. 




worked at Florence for the Grand Duke, 
who presented him with a golden chain and 
medal, and on his return home in 1G56 set- 
tled at Amsterdam. Sometimes signed his 
name in Italian "Guglielmo." Works: 
Dead partridges, etc., Munich Gallery ; mar- 
ble table with dead birds (1653), do. with 
costly vessels and fruit (1659), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; three similar subjects, Dresden Gal- 

lery ; four in the 

PaL Pitti > Flor - 
ence ; Flowers 

^^ (1663), and Still 

/ x^ r^? Life < 1671 ' for ~ 

merly at Com- 

piegne), Hague Museum. Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 520; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 100; De 
Stuers, 3 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise. 

AENEAS AND ANCHISES, LioneUo Spa- 
da, Louvre; canvas, H. 6 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. 
2Eneas, accompanied by young Ascanius, 
bears on his shoulders his father Anchises, 
who received from Creusa, .ZEneas's wife, 
the penates saved from Troy. Taken to 
France in 1634 by the Marechal de Cre- 
qui ; bought after his death (1638) by Car- 
dinal Eichelieu, who bequeathed it to Louis 
XHL, as a work of Lodovico Carracci. 
Afterward ascribed to Domeuichino. En- 
graved by Outkitie; G. Audran. Villot, 
Catalogue Louvre ; MusOe franQais ; Filhol, 
ii. PI. 85. 

AENEAS AND DIDO, Pieri-e Gutrin, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 9 ft. 8 in. x 12 ft. 9 in. ; 
signed, dated 1813. Dido, reclining upon a 
coach, listens with interest to 2Eneas, who, 
seated at the left, recounts the story of the 
war of Troy ; Cupid, under the form of As- 
cauius, holding one of the arms of the 
Queen, draws off her wedding ring; at right, 
Anna, sister of Dido, standing, looks at 
the false Ascanius. Salon, 1817 ; acquired 
in 1818 for 24,000 fr. Engraved by For- 
ster. Eeveil, vii. 461. 

JENEAS, LANDING OF, Claude Lorrain, 
formerly at Leigh Court ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
4 in. x 7 ft. 4 in.; signed, dated 1675. 
jEueas and his companions landing in La- 



tium. Companion piece to Temple of Apol- 
lo ; formed with it at time of French Revo- 
lution, chief ornament of the Palazzo Al- 
tieri, whence bought by Fagan for 9,000 
scudi ; sold to Mr. Beckford, with four 
Italian cabinet pictures for 10,000 ; the 
two Claudes passed to E. H. Davies and 
thence to Sir Philip Miles, Leigh Court, for 
12,000 ; Leigh Court sale (1884), to Ag- 
new for 5,800 and 3,800 guineas respectively. 
Waageu, Treasures, iii. 181 ; Pattison, 
Claude Loraaiu. 

AEETSZEN, PIETEE, called Lange-Pier, 
bom in Amsterdam in 1507, died there, 
buried Sept. 21, 1573. History and genre 
painter, Dutch school, pupil of Alaert Claes- 
sen ; joined the Antwerp Guild in 1535. 
Most of his large altarpieces were destroyed 
by the Iconoclasts in 1566. Works : Crucifix- 
ion, Antwerp Museum ; do. (1546), Ant- 
werp Hospital ; Egg Dance (1557), Amster- 
dam Museum ; Christ bearing the Cross, 
Berlin Museum ; Market Scene, Vienna Mu- 





seum ; Cook with Vegetables and Fruits, 
Cassel Museum. Kugler (Crowe), i. 248 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 104. 

AEETTINGEE, KAEL AUGUST, born 
in Munich, April 17, 1803. Military genre, 
portrait, and landscape painter. First 
studied in Augsburg under Clemens Zim- 
mermann, then from his 20th to his 25th year 
in the Munich Academy, and in Paris in 
1830-31. At Vienna (1846-48), he painted 
equestrian portraits of the Imperial family, 
and of Archduke Charles with the Austrian 
generals of 1809. In 1849 he joined the 
Eussian army in Hungary, and after the 
campaign worked five years in Poland for 
Prince Paskievich. Since his return to 
Germany in 1854 he has painted chiefly 
genre and landscape. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 107. 

AESCULAPIUS, ancient picture. See Aris- 
tarete ; Nicophanes. 



AESCULAPIUS 



AESCULAPIUS, OFFERING TO, Pierre 
Guerin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 9 ft. 10 in. x 8 
ft 8 in. An old man, convalescent, sup- 
ported by bis two sons, offers thanks before 
the altar of JEsculapius for his restoration to 
health; his daughter, on her knees, shows joy 
at seeing the serpent eat of the fruit placed 
upon the altar. Salon, 1795. Ruveil, iii. 
155. 

ACTION (Ection), painter and sculptor, 
time of Alexander the Great (?), classed by 
Pliny among greatest Greek artists. Most 
famous works, Marriage of Ninus and Sem- 
iramis and Marriage of Alexander and Rox- 
ana. The latter excited such admiration, 
when exhibited at the 
Olympic games, that Prox- 
enidas, one of the judges, 
gave him his daughter in 
marriage. Raphael repro- 
duced it iii a drawing 
(Louvre) from Lucian's 
minute description (Herod. 
4 ; Imag. 7), which Razzi (II 
Sodoma) also followed in his 
fresco in the Farnesina. 
Miiller places Action in the 
age of Hadrian and the An- 
tonines. Miiller (Welcker), 
211, N. 1 ; Pliny, xxxv. 32. 
3G ; Cicero, Brut., 18. 

AFRA, ST., MARTYR- 
DOM OF, Paolo Veronese, 
S. Afra, Brescia ; canvas, 
signed. The saiut about to suffer martyr- 
dom, with angels flying down with palms 
and garlands ; at foot of scaffold lie the 
severed heads of SS. Faustinus and Jovitus, 
that in front being a portrait of Veronese. 
Damaged by restoring. Ridolfi,Marav.,ii.39. 

AGACHE, ALFRED PIERRE, born at 
Lille, contemporary. Figure and portrait 
painter, pupil of Pluchart and Colas. Med- 
al : 3d class, 1885. Works : Fillette (1881); 
The Fates (1882); Study (1883); Decorative 
Figure (1884) ; Fortuna (1885). 

AGAR, JACQUES D', born in Paris in 
1642, died in Copenhagen, Nov. 1C, 1715. 



French school ; a famous portrait painter 
of his day, pupil of Vouet. After the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes (1682), being 
a Protestant he was forced to leave France ; 
went to Denmark and became court pointer 
to Christian V., whose portrait he painted, 
as well as that of the queen, and of himself 
(1093), now in the Uftizi, Florence. After 
1699, he went to England and painted 
many portraits. Meyer, Kiinst Lex., i. 
114. 

AGASSE, JACQUES LAURENT, born in 
Geneva, Switzerland, died in London in 
1846. Animal and landscape painter ; stud- 
ied for some time in Paris, went to London 




Martyrdom of Si. Agatha, S dl Piombo, Pal. Pitti. 

about 1800 and exhibited pictures for sev- 
eral years at the Royal Academy. Some of 
them, including six landscapes, were en- 
graved. Works: Portrait of a Horse (1H01) ; 
Rustic Repast ; Rice Ground ; Market Day ; 
Fishmonger's Shop (1842). 

AGATHA, ST., MARTYRDOM OF, Se- 
bastian del ftombo, Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft, 6 in.; signed, dated 
1520. The saint, stripped to the waist, with 
two executioners about to apply their pin- 
cere to her breasts, at the order of Quinzi- 
ano, Prefect of Sicily, who tortured her be- 
cause she would not give up her foitL ; be- 



16 



AGATllARCIIUS 



hind him are several soldiers ; to right, 
smoke of a fire seen through an arch and 
men carrying wood. Painted for Cardinal 
Kangoni. Belonged afterwards to Duke of 
Urbino and came to the Medici through 
marriage of Ferdinand H with Vittoria 
della Rovere. Carried to Paris in 1799 ; 
returned in 1814. A masterpiece. Shows 
marks of Michelangelo's cooperation. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., v. 581; C. & C., N. Italy, 
ii. 332 ; Rosini, v. 9 ; Lavice, 66 ; Landon, 
Musee, vi. PL 57. 

AGATHARCHUS, painter, born in Sa- 
mos. Won renown in Athens, 5th cent. B. c., 
as a scenic and decorative painter ; aimed at 
optical illusion by means of perspective and, 
like Apollodorus, is classed among the ske- 
nographers or skiographers, i.e., shadow 
painters, showing (Mahaffy, Hist. Clas. Gr. 
Lit., i. 244) that the painting of shadows was 
first attempted to produce effects of perspec- 
tive in scene painting. Agatharchus wrote a 
treatise on perspective and prepared the 
way for the development of painting in a 
modern sense. He decorated the house of 
Alcibiades at Athens (Plut. Alcib. 16), and 
painted a scene for .ZEschylus. Vitruv. 
Prsef., vii.; R. R., Schorn, 168 ; Brunn, ii. 51. 

AGE OF INNOCENCE, Sir Joshua Rey- \ 
nolds, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 1 in. A little girl, 
seated on the grass under trees, with her 
hands crossed. Vernon Collection, 1847 ; 
bought at Harman sale (1844) for 1520 
guineas. Engraved by J. Grozer (1788), 
Ch. Turner, F. Joubert, S. Cousins ; etched 
by A. Mongin. Catalogue National Gal- 
lery ; Pulling, 84 ; Portfolio (1877), 149 ; 
Art Journal (1850), 44 ; Stephens, English 
Children, by Sir J. R. 

AGES, THREE. See Three Ages. 

AGGAS, ROBERT, born about 1619, died 
in London in 1679. Landscape and scene 
painter, much employed by Charles II. A 
landscape by him is preserved in the Painter- 
Stainers' Hall, London. 

AGLAOPHON, Greek painter, of Thasos, 
Ionic school, about 490 B. c. Chiefly noted 



' as father and master of Polyynolus and 
Aristophon, though Quintilian (xii. 10, 3) 
says his pictures were worthy of admiration 
on other grounds than antiquity. Said to 
have been first to represent Victory (Nike) 
[ with wings, and to have painted a horse of 
remarkable excellence. The two pictures 
commemorative of victories of Alcibiades in 
the Olympic games (about 416 B. c.), at- 
tributed both to Aglaophon and to a sup- 
posed grandson of same name, were prob- 
ably the work of his sou Aristophon. Pliny, 
xxxv. 35, 36 [60]; Brunn, ii. 13. 

AGNENI, EUGENIC, born at Sutri, 
near Rome, Italy, in 1819. Pupil of F. Co- 
ghetti in Rome, where he went in 1832. 
When 18, he executed large paintings for 
churches, and in 1847 was employed by 
Pius IX. to decorate the throne-room in the 
Quirinal. He took part in the defence of 
Rome in 1848, and fled to Savona, where he 
aided Coghetti in frescoing the cathedral in 
1849. He then decorated the palaces of 
Rocca, Solari, and Piuma, in Genoa, and in- 
vited by the architect of the Louvre to con- 
tribute to its decoration, went to Paris in 
1852, but only a few months later proceeded 
to London, where he was employed to dee- 
orate the Queen's room in Covent Gar- 
den, and to paint a large picture of the 
royal family. After the liberation of Italy 
he settled in Florence ; in 1866 again served 
as a volunteer under Garibaldi, and has, 
since then, been occupied with decorative 
paintings in Florence. Besides his great 
wall paintings, he has painted many genre 
pictures, and biblical and allegorical scenes. 
Work : Departed Spirits of Great Floren- 
tines protesting against the Foreign Inva- 
sion, Museo Civico, Turin. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 124. 

AGNES, ST., MARTYRDOM OF, Dome- 
nichino, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 15 ft. 
10 in. x 10 ft. 4 in. St. Agnes, on a pile of 
wood in an open court, is stabbed by an 
executioner with a poniard ; at right, three 
women and a child look on with horror ; at 
left, the Prefect Sempronius, surrounded by 



16 



A(JNES 



his guards ; above, the Trinity, with a choir lery ; Thunder Storm, Rainbow, Sunset, 
of angels, to one of whom Christ gives the Pommersfelden Gallery ; Landsca]>es with 
palrn of martyrdom and a wreath for St. Ag- large Rock, Millstone on Sled, Dresden Gal- 
nes. Painted for S. Agnese, Bologna ; car- ! lery ; Ruins of Monument, Vienna Museum ; 
ried to Paris in 1796 ; returned 
in 1815. Engraved by G. Aud- 
ran ; F. Rosaspina. Laudon, 
Mus6e, vi. PL 25 ; Pinac. di Bo- 
logna, PL 52 ; Lavice, 17. 

AGNES, ST., MARTYRDOM 
OF, Tintoretto, S. M. dell' Orto, 
Venice ; canvas. Much injured 
by restoration. Ridolfi, Ma- 
rav., ii. 186 ; Zauotto, Guida, 
328. 

AGNOLO, ANDREA D'. 
See Sarlo. 

AGOBBIO, ODERIGI DA. 
See Oderigi. 

AGRASOT, JOAQUIN, born 
at Orihuela, Spain, contempor- 
ary. History painter ; pupil of 
Academy S. Carlos of Valencia 
and of Fr. Martinez. Works : A 
Prestidigitator ; La Feria de 
Orihuela; Before the Bull Fight 
(1880) ; Starting of the Proces- 
sion (1882) ; After Luncheon 
(1883) ; Fortuny's Studio, J. H. 
Stebbins, N. Y. ; Monk and 
Children, M. Graham, N. Y. 
La Ilustracion (1880), i. 291; 
(1882), ii. 3 ; (1883), i. 259. 

AGRICOLA, CHRISTOPH 
LUDWIG, born in Ratisbou, 
Nov. 5, 1667, died there, in 
1719. Landscape and portrait 
painter ; German school. He 
was a constant traveller in Ger- 
many, England, Holland, and 
France, but preferred to live in 
Naples or Augsburg. He treat- 
ed landscape in the classical style under Morning Dawn, Night, Rainbow, Land- 
Poussiu's influence, and in his glowing at- ' scapes in Rain, Uffizi, Florence ; others in 
inospheric effects resembles Claude. Works: Naples, Bologna, Turin, Gotha, Frankfort, 
two Oriental Landscapes, Mountain View, Sphwerin, and Brcslau Galleries. 
Portrait of Himself, Brunswick Museum ; (Crowe), ii. 567 ; Meyer, Kiinst 
two Landscapes with Figures, Cassel Gal- i 137. 

17 




of S( Agnj$ Oomenichino Boloir . G . M . f , 



AGEICOLA 



AGEICOLA, EDUARD, born in Stuttgart, 
in 1800. Landscape painter, pupil of Berlin 
Academy ; studied afterwards in Italy, 
where, at different times lie spent eighteen 
years. Finally settled in Carlsruhe. Works : 
Waterfalls of Tivoli, Sicilian Landscapes, 
Amalfi, Castel di Portici. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 141. 

AGBICOLA, FILIPPO, born at Urbiuo 
in 1776, died in Rome in 1857. Subject 
painter, pupil of Academy S. Luca, Rome, 
of which he was director in 1843. His 
Marius contemplating Ruins of Carthage, 
for which he was awarded the first prize in 
1812, is in the Academy S. Luca, where is 
also his last work, Assumption, a commission 
from Gregory XVI. Other works : Holy 
Family (1819), Dante and Beatrice, Petrarch 
and Laura, Tasso and Eleonora, Herodias, 
Pygmalion, Madonna, Venus and Cupid, 
portraits of Crown Princess of Denmark 
(1822), of Countess Perticari, of the Poet 
Monti and his Daughter. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 139 ; Kunstblatt (1823)* 87 ; (1843) 
140. 

AGRICOLA, KARL (Joseph Aloys), born 
at Seckingen, Baden, Oct. 18, 1779, died 
in Vienna in 1852. Miniature painter, made 
his first studies in Carlsruhe, then from 
about 1798 at the Vienna Academy under 
Fiiger, iu whose mannered style he painted 
to the last. His water colour miniatures, 
which are more generally known than his oil 
paintings, found great favour in Vienna. 
Works : Madonna, Vienna Museum ; Cupid 
and Psyche, The Hours, Vienna Academy ; 
St. Catharine, Cupid Hunting Butterflies, 
Cupid Asleep. Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., i. 139 ; 
Andresen, iv. 1. 

AGRIPPINA, LANDING OF, Joseph M. 
W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 2 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft. 11 in. Agrippina, 
mother of Caligula and widow of Germani- 
cus, brought home in an urn the ashes of 
her husband, who had died of poison at 
Antioch. She lauded at Brundusium (Tac. 
An. iii. 1), but the picture represents Rome, 
with the Triumphal Bridge and Palace of the 



Csesars in the background. Royal Academy, 
1839 ; Turner Collection. Engraved by A. 
Willmore. Etched by A. Brunet-Debaines 
in Portfolio, 1878. Hamerton, Life ; Cata- 
logue National Gallery. 

AGUADOR DE SEVILLA. See Water 
Carrier. 

AHLBORN, AUGUST WILHELM JU- 
LIUS, bora in Hanover, Oct. 11, 1796, died 
in Rome, Aug. 24, 1857. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy, and of Wach ; after 
1827 resided in Italy and painted Italian 
views in the classic style, though he occa- 
sionally treated scenery in the Tyrol and 
Northern Germany, as well as religious 
subjects and portraits. Works : View of 
Tiber, St. Peter's seen from the Vatican, 
Grotta Ferrata on the Alban Hill, portraits 
of Prince Leopold of Dessau and of Bliicher, 
Castle at Potsdam ; Villa Mondragone, 
Bellevue Castle, near Berlin ; others in the 
Castle of Charlottenburg ; View of Amalfi, 
Royal Palace, Berlin. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 148 ; Rosenberg, Berlin Malersch., 
50. 

AIGEN, KARL, born in Olmiitz, Moravia, 
in 1G84, died in Vienna, Oct. 22, 1762. 
Painter of altarpieces, genre, and landscapes ; 
studied probably in Vienna under P. von 
Strudl ; member of Academy in 1754, and 
superintended school of painting in 1750- 
59. Works : Fair outside a City Gate, 
Kirmess, Vienna Museum ; two winter land- 
scapes, Harrach Gallery, Vienna. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., i. 150. 

AIGNER, JOSEF MATTHAUS, born in 
Vienna, Jan. 18, 1818. Portrait painter, 
pupil of Ameiiing, and early acquired re- 
putation. Being concerned in the revolu- 
tionary movement of 1848, and sentenced 
to death, he was pardoned at the intercession 
of influential persons. His portraits of 
Lenau, Grillparzer, F. Halm, Feuchtersleben, 
Betty Paoli, Rubinstein, Emperor Francis 
Joseph, and Empress Elizabeth, are charac- 
teristic, broadly treated and good in colour. 
Brockhaus, i. 274 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 151 ; Miiller, 7. 



18 



AIGNIEB 

AIGNIER, LOUIS AUGUSTE LAUR- AIVASOVSKI, IVAN CONSTANTINO- 
ENT, born in Toulon, Feb. 21, 1815), died VICH, bom at Feodotoa, Crimea, July 7, 
there, June 8, 1865. Landscape and marine 1817. Marine painter, pupil of the St 
painter, pupil of E. Hubert ; sketched in Petersburg Academy, from 1833, and of 
France and Spain. Works in museums of Philippe Tanneur after the latter's arrival 
Toulon and Marseilles. Meyer, Kiinst. there in 1835. From 1837 he studied inde- 
Lex., i. 152. pendently from nature, and in the same 

AIRMAN, WILLIAM, born at Cairuey, ] year exhibited six pictures which attracted 
Forfarshire, Scotland, Oct. 24, 1C82, died the attention of the Emperor, who enabled 
in London, June 7, 1731. Pupil of Sir John him to travel in the Crimea and Mingrelia. 
Medina; studied in Rome in 1707-10, He went in 1840 to Italy, where ho jMiinted, 
travelled in the East, returned to Edinburgh especially in Naples, his first successful pict- 
in 1712, and practised portrait painting ures, and after having visited Holland, 
with success. In 1723 settled in London, England, and Spain, returned to Russia in 
where lie imitated manner of Kncller. His 1844, was made member of the SL Peters- 
large, unfinished picture of the royal family burg Academy, and executed for the Em- 
is in collection of Duke of Devonshire ; por- peror several views on the Gulf of Finland. 
trait of himself in National Gallery, Edin- In 1845 he made a tour through Southern 
burgh ; portrait of poet Thomson, Lytteltou Russia and Turkey, and then settled in his 
Gallery, Worcester ; portrait of Duncan native town. In 1847-56 he exhibited a 
Forbes (?), National Portrait Gallery, Lon- great number of pictures in Russia ; went 
don. Many of his works are engraved. to Paris in 185(5 and painted there 25 pict- 
Redgrave ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 152. ures during the following winter. Medals : 

AINEMOLO. See Anu'molo. Paris, 3d class, 1843 ; L. of Honour, 1857. 

AINMILLER, MAX EMANUEL, born Works : View of Kertech (1846\ Sunrise 
in Munich, Feb. 14, 1807, died there, Dec. on the Black Sea (1850), Creation, Deluge 
9, 1870. Painter of architecture and re- (18G5), and others, Hermitage, SL Peters- 
viver of glass painting ; pupil of the burg ; Sea Fights at Revel, Wiborg, and 
Munich Academy, afterwards concerned Tchesme, Wreck of the Frigate Ingerman- 
in, and since 1844, director of the royal land, Peter the Great at Krassnaja Gorko, 
manufactory of stained glass, which under Winter Palace, ib.; View of Constantinople, 
his supervision has produced important Colin Sea, Naples by Moonlight, Academy, 
works for the cathedrals of Ratisbon, Co- ib.; Solar Eclipse, Geographical Society, ib. ; 
logne, and Speier, St. Paul's in London, Venice, Storm, two Moonlight Views, Ex- 
and the university church at Cambridge, change, ib.; Lighted Castle on the Sea, 
His Gothic church interiors, which show a Peterhof ; Calm Sea by Moonlight, three 
thorough knowledge of architecture, are Storms at Sea, Monastery of St. George, 
somewhat hard and cold in colour, though Moscow Museum. Meyer, Kiinst Lex., L 
well managed as to light and shade. Works : 15C ; Miiller, 8. 
two interior views of Westminster Abbey, AJAX, ancient picture. Sec ApoUoda 



Munich Gallery ; do., and others, National 



Parrhaxitix, Timanthe*, Timomach- 



Gallery, Berlin ; interiors of Church of our >. 

Lady in Munich, St. Lawrence Church in AKIMOFF, IVAN AKBIOVICF 

Nuremberg, St Stephen's in Vien- , . in St Petersburg, May 22, Io4, d 
na, and Ratisbon and Ulm cathe- TT j 15, 1814. History painter, pupil 

drala Allgem. cl. Biogr., i. 168 ; JiH, St. Petersburg Academy ; studie 

Meyer, Kiinst Lex., i. 154 ; Kunst-Chronik, wards in Bologna and Rome, 

vi. 41 ; Brockhaus, i. 277. copied chiefly Domenichiuo and 



ALAMANNO 



cL In Rome he was under the influence of 
P. Batoni, but later took Guercino for his 
model. After his return to Russia he was 
made member of the Academy, where the 
entire instruction in painting was soon en- 
trusted to his guidance. His talent has 
been greatly overrated by his contempo- 
raries. Works : Prometheus making a 
Statue, Hercules on the Pyre, St. Petersburg 
Academy ; Resurrection, Assumption, The 
Archangel, Alexander-Nevski Monastery. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 163. 

ALAMANNO or ALEMANNO, GIOVAN- 
NI or ZUANE. See Antonio da Murano. 

ALAMANNO, PIETRO, 2d half of 15th 
century. Venetian school ; a mannered imi- 
tator of his master, Carlo Crivelli, alike de- 
void of power as a draughtsman and ao a 
colourist. His style is a mixture of that of 
Crivelli and of Girolamo da Camerino, or in 
other words of the Lombardo- Venetian and 
the Umbro-Paduan schools. Examples in 
churches at Ascoli : Madonna and Saints 
(1489), S. M. della Caritk ; do., Library of 
the Seminary ; do., S. Giacomo Apostolo. 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 98 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 264 ; Burckhardt, 592. 

ALAUX, JEAN, called le Romaiii, born 
in Bordeaux, Jan. 15, 1786, died in Paris, 
March 2, 1864. History painter, pupil of 
Vincent and Guerin ; won in 1815 the 
grand prix de Rome, and resided in that 
city five years. After the restoration of the 
Bourbons, executed many pictures for 
churches, and decorated the new rooms in 
the Louvre ; and under Louis Philippe 
painted much for the new Museum at Ver- 
sailles. He was director of the French 
Academy in Rome in 1846-53 ; became 
member of the Institute in 1851 ; Legion of 
Honour in 1841. Works : Pandora brought 
from Heaven by Mercury (1824), ceiling of 
palace of St. Cloud (destroyed in 1870) ; 
Burial of our Lord, Notre Dame de Loretto, 
Paris ; Poussin and allegorical figures, ceil- 
ing, Louvre ; Battle of Villaviciasa (1836), 
do. of Denain, Conquest of Valenciennes 
(1837), Assembly of Notables in Rouen 




under Henry IV., Meeting of the States Gen- 
eral in 1328, do. in 1614, Reading of the Will 
of Louis XIV. (1850), Presentation of Poussin 
to Louis XIII., etc., altogether 29, Versailles 
' Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 166 ; Art 
Journal (1864), 215; Kunstblatt (1833), 
224 ; (1837), 187 ; (1838), 115 ; (1841), 203. 
ALBA. See Macrino d'Alba. 
ALBANI (Albauo), FRANCESCO, born 

in Bologna, 
March 17, 
1578, died 
there, Oct. 4, 
1660. Bolog- 
nese school. 
Son of Agos- 
tino Albani, a 
silkmerchant; 
pupil of Denis 
Calvaert at 
same time 
with Guido 
Reni, whom he followed to the school of the 
Carracci. After painting in Bologna he ac- 
companied Guido to Rome (1607-8), where 
he was engaged to finish the frescos in S. 
Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, begun \>y Anni- 
bale Carracci. This made his reputation, and 
brought him many commissions. He loved 
to paint mythological subjects, in which he 
could introduce goddesses, nymphs, and 
loves in smiling landscapes ; and as he rep- 
resented them generally on small canvases 
he was called the Anacreon of painting. He 
had a villa delightfully situated, and a beau- 
tiful wife and twelve children, who are said 
to have served as his models. At Rome and 
in Bologna, as teacher and painter, he be- 
; came the rival of Guido, whose disciples 
affected to despise his style as effeminate. 
Albani's large works from sacred history 
show that he was capable of a nobler style 
than he generally attained. Four of these 
are in the Bologna Gallery. Albani executed 
frescos in the Palazzo Verospi (Torlonia), and 
in the church of S. M. della Pace, Rome ; and 
in the Giustiniani Villa, Bassano. Other 
works are : Expulsion from Paradise, Lord 



ALBKKTI 



fAa, 



Wensleydale, London ; Repose in Egypt, 
Dresden Gallery ; do., Uffizi, Florence ; Holy 
Family, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; The Four 
Elements, Turin Gallery ; do., Palazzo Bor- 
gbese, Rome; Annunciation (2), Venus and 
Adonis, Venus and Vulcan, Toilette of Venux, 
Cupid* Disarmed, Mars and Nymphs, Salma- 
cis and Hermaphroditus, Lot and his Daugh 
ters, Hersi- 
lia separat- 
ing Romu- 
lus and U< 
mus, Holy' 
Family, Louvre, Paris. Malvasia, ii. 140 ; 
Lnuzi, iii. 89 ; Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., i. 171 ; 
Amoriui, Vita, etc. (1837) ; Burckhardt, 764, 
770, 785, 791, 801 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole bolo- 
naise ; Dohme, 2iii. 

ALBERTI, ALESSANDRO, bom at Borgo 
S. Sepolcro, Italy, March 9, 1551, died in 
Rome, July 10, 159C. Sou of the architect ' 
and sculptor Alberto A. ; pupil of one Gas- 
pero di Silvestro of Perugia ; went to Rome 
in 1556. He was employed by several 
Italian princes, and painted for churches 
and palaces in Naples and in Rome. Highly 
esteemed as a fresco-painter. Meyer, Kunst. 
Lex., i. 204. 

ALBERTI, ANTONIO. See Antonw da 
Ferrara. 

ALBERTI, GIUSEPPE, born at Cavalese, \ 
Tyrol, in 1(564, died there in 1730. Studied 
medicine at Padua, but gave it up for archi- 
tecture and painting, which latter he studied 
in Venice under Liberi, and then in Rome. 
On his return in 1682, he settled in Trent, 
built there the Crucifix Chapel in the Cathe- 
dral, and became a priest. Afterwards he 
painted a number of religious pictures, vis- 
ited Rome a second time, and is said to have 
stayed there nearly twenty years. Meyer, 
Kiiust. Lex., i. 217. 

ALBERTI, MICHELE, flourished at Flor- 
ence 2d half of 16th century. Florentine 
school, pupil of Daniele da Volterm. Did 
not belong to the Alberti family of Borgo 
S. Sepolcro. He painted in Rome frescos 
after drawings by his master, with whom 




he seems to have been closely allied. 
Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., i. 216 ; Vaaari, ed. Mil, 
vii. (51. 

ALBERTINELLI ( Bertinelli ), MARI- 
OTTO, born in 
Florence, Oct. 
13, 1474, died 
there, Nov. 5, 
1515. Floren- 
tine school, son 
of Biagiodi Bin- 
do and scholar 
of Cosimo Ro- 
selli, in whose 
studio ho con- 
tracted an inti- 
mate friendship with Fra Bartolommeo, of 
whom he became the associate and most suc- 
cessful imitator. They worked together from 
before 1490 (when both left Roselli's studio), 
until 1499. Albertinelli's Clirial apj>earing 
to the Magdalen, Louvre, shows his first 
manner, under influence of Cosimo Rowlli. 
After 1500 he completed the fresco of the 
Last Judgment in S. M. Nuova, Florence, 
left unfinished (Oct., 1499) by Fra Bnrtoloiu- 
rneo, whose continued influence after their 
separation is manifest in the famous I'ixiVa- 
tion, in the Uffizi. Other works by Albert i- 
nelli of high merit are a Holy Family (1503- 
6), Palazzo Pitti. Florence ; a fresco of the 
Crucifixion (150(5). Florentine Certosa ; and a 
Mailonna with Saints (150(5), Louvre. These 
pictures belong to the best period of the 
painter, who afterwards wasted much time 
in experimenting on vehicles for oil paint- 
ing, and took many pupils, among whom 
were Bagiardini, Francia Bigio, Innocenzo 
da Imola, and Pontonno. In 15(19, after a 
separation of nine years, Albertinelli agnin 
became the associate of Fra Bartolommeo, 
and traces of his hand are perceptible in 
the Frate's altarpiece in S. Romano, Luccn, 
the lower part of his Assumption, Berlin, 
and in his Nativity, Saltocchio, near Lucca. 
Among his works of this jx-riod are : Ma- 
donna (1509), Fitxwilliam Museum, Cam- 
bride; Annunciation (1510), Trinity (Wl 



n 



ALBRECIIT 



and Madonna with Saints (1510?), Florence 
Academy. In 1512, the two painters again 
separated and divided the profits of their 
common workshop. The Adam and Eve arid 
the Sacrifice of Abraham at Castle How- 
ard were painted by Albertinelli, after this 
year, during which he for a short time gave 
up painting and kept a tavern near the Porta 
San Gallo, Florence. Other works of his late 
period are the Annunciation (1513 ?), Munich 
Gallery, and a triptych, Poldi Collection, 
Milan, which has been attributed both to 
Raphael and to Fra Bartolommeo. Alberti- 
nelli's last work was the Marriage of St. Cath- 
arine at Viterbo, begun by the Frate for 
the church of S. Silvestro. C. & C., Italy, 
iii. 484 ; Meyer, Kuust. Lex., 218 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 217 ; Lermolieff, 87, 227; Mar- 
chesi, ii. 12 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 
171. 

ALBEECHT, BALTHASAE AUGUSTIN, 
born in Berg on Lake Starnberg, Bavaria, in 
1687, died in Munich, Aug. 1, 1765. History 
and allegory painter, German school ; pupil 
of N. G. Sfcuber, studied in Venice and Rome, 
returned to Munich in 1719, and became 
court painter. His groups of children in 
the Schleissheim Gallery are very attractive. 
Many of his religious pictures are to be found 
in Bavarian churches. Works : Children 
playing, Vintage, Allegory of Painting, do. 
of Sculpture, portrait of Sculptor Straub, 
portrait of himself painting the Muses on 
Parnassus, Schleissheim Gallery. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., i. 234. 

ALBRIER, JOSEPH, born in Paris, Oct. 
4, 1791, died there hi March, 1863. His- 
tory painter, pupil and follower of Reg- 
nault. Imitated Greuze's pictures so closely 
as to deceive many amateurs. Works : Nar- 
cissus, Cyparissus changed into a Cypress, 
Amyntas delivering Sylvia (1822), Daphnis 
and Chloe, Louis XIV. and De la Vallifere 
(1828), Two Scenes from Life of Frederic 
the Great, Meeting of the Chapter of the 
Golden Fleece, Versailles Gallery. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., i. 236 ; Lejeune, i. 286, 



ALCIMACHUS, Greek painter, probably 
about time of Alexander the Great. Painted 
portrait of Dioxyppus the athlete, after he had 
received a prize at Olympia. Pliny, xxxv. 40 
[139]. 

ALCOTT, MAY (Mme. Ernest Nierker), 
1 born in Concord, Mass., in 1840, died in 
1879. Genre painter, studied in School of 
Design, Boston, in Krug's studio, Paris, and 
under Miiller. Professional life spent in 
Boston, London, and Paris. Her copies in 
oil and water-colour of Turner's pictures are 
given to the pupils of the South Kensington 
school, to work from. She also painted still- 
life subjects, and flower panels. 

ALDEGREVER, HEINRICH, born at 

Soest or Pa- 
derborn in 
1502, died 
probably in 
1558. Ger- 
man school ; 
chiefly known 
as an engrav- 
er, and one 
of the most 
accomplished 
of the so- 
called " Little 
Masters." His 

rare oil paintings are hard and dry, the flesh 
of a leathery brown hue. Works : Christ 
crowned with Thorns (1529), Prague Gallery; 
Philip von Waldeck (1535), Breslau Gallery; 
Magdalen Wittig (1541), Brunswick Museum; 
Male portrait (1551), Berlin Museum ; do. 
(1544), Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; Anabaptist 
David Joris, Basle Muse- 
um. Scott, Little Masters, 
I 88 ; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 239 ; Brockhaus, 
i. 363 ; Keane, Early Masters, 181; Allgem. 
d. Biog., i. 325. 

ALDENRATH, HEINRICH JACOB, born 
in Lubeck, Feb. 17, 1775, died in Ham- 
burg, Feb. 25, 1844. Portrait and miniature 
painter, German school ; pupil of Joh. Jak. 
Tischbeiu, and at Lubeck of Friedrich Karl 





ALEM 



Groger, his friend and associate, with whom 
he frequented the Berlin Academy ; studied 
iu Dresden and PariH, and lived in Liibeck, 
Kiel, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, where the 
two settled in 1814, after the conclusion of 
peace. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 254. 

ALENI, TOMMASO, flourished in 1500- 
1515. Lombardo-Cremonese school. Some- 
times called n Fadino. Several of his pict- 
ures exist : Madonna, Bignami Collection, , 
Casal Maggiore ; Nativity (1515), Municipio, 
Cremona, a manifest though weak imitation 
of Perugino ; and St. Peter and St. Anthony, 
Calvalcabo Collection, Cremona. C. & C., 
N. Italy, ii. 449 ; Meyer, Kvinst Lex., i. 2GG. 

ALESIO (Allecio), MATTED PEREZ 
DE, born in Rome about 1547, died about 
1GOO (?). Italo-Spanish school, called also 
Matteo da Leccio. Said to have fonned him- 
self in the school of Michelangelo and after 
Salviati. Went to Malta, returned to Rome 
before 1582, and settled in Seville, Spain, in 
1583. He at once gained reputation, and 
was extensively employed in painting for 
churches frescos of colossal size, the fond- 
ness for which was a peculiar feature of this 
artist. According to Baglione he afterwards 
went to the West Indies and, after having 
accumulated wealth, died there in poverty. 
The report of his return to Rome lucks foun- 
dation. Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., i. 271; Ponz, 
Viage, ix. 25 ; Cean Bermudez, iv. 75. 

ALESSANDRO VERONESE. See Turchi, 
Alessandro. 

ALEXANDER OF ATHENS. Name in- 
scribed on one of four marble slabs, in Royal 
Museum at Naples, found at Resina on slope 
of Vesuvius. All decorated with outline 
drawings in red ; the one bearing name of 
Alexander represents a group of five women 
whose names also are given. Corp. Inscr. 
Gr., 5863. 

ALEXANDER ENTERING BABYLON, 
Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 14 
ft. 9 in. x 23 ft. Alexander, a sceptre in one 
hand, and a sword iu the other, is stand- 
ing in a chariot drawn by two richly ca- 
parisoned elephants, forming part of a tri- 



umphal procession ; in front, an officer given 
orders to slaves bearing a golden vane on a 
litter ; in background, the walls and build- 
ings of Babylon, crowded with j>eoplc. Series 
of History of Alej-andtr. Engraved by G. 
Audran (1G75). Laudou, Musce, x. PL 69 ; 
Filhol, ii. PL 91; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

ALEXANDER AND DIOGENES, Sir 
E. Landsaer, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft 7 in. x 4 ft 8 in. Eight dogs 
grouped to illustrate the interview at Corinth 
between Alexander and the Greek cynic, 
when the latter requested the conqueror to 
stand out of his sunshine. Royal Academy, 
1848 ; bequeathed by Jacob Bell in 1869. 
Engraved by Thos. Landseer. Catalogue 
National Gallery ; Stephens, 91. 

ALEXANDER AND FAMILY OF DA- 
RIUS. See Darin*, Family of. 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, ancient 
picture. See Antiphilus, Ajtfllcn, Xv-ia*, 
1'h iloxcn KK, Protogenes. 

ALEXANDER, HENRY, born in San 
Francisco, California, in 1800. Genre 
painter ; studied seven years in Munich un- 
der Loeffts and Lmdenachmidt Exhibited 
first in Munich in 1879. Studio in New 
York. Works: Sunday Morning (T. B. 
Clarke, N. Y.). 

ALEXANDER, HISTORY OF, Charles. 
Li-brim, Louvre, Paris; five pictures, viz.: Pas- 
sage of the firanicux, Buttle of ArMa, Tent of 
Dariux, Ab-jrandrr and Poms, Alexander en- 
tering Babylon. Ordered by Louis XIV. in 
1GGO for reproduction in Gobelin taj>estry; 
painted in 1GG1-G8. They were engraved by 
G. Audran, who also engraved, after Lo 
Brun's design, a sixth subject, Poms in Bat- 
tle, wliich was never painted. Villot, Cata- 
logue Louvre. 

ALEXANDER AND PORUS, Charles 
Lebmti, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 15 ft. 5 
in. x 41 ft 4 in. King Porus having been de- 
feated on the banks of the HydasjH's, India, 
was earned a prisoner before Alexander, 
who asked him how he wished to l>e treated. 
"Like a king," replied Porus (Plutarch, 
Alex., Ix.). Alexander on horseback, attended 



ALEXANDER 



by his principal officers, extends his hand 
to Porus, who, wounded, is sustained by 
three soldiers; in background, the battle- 
field. Series of History of Alexander. En- 
graved by G. Audran (1678), D. Bertaux. 
Landon, Musee, ix. PI. 21-23; Filhol, iv. PI. 
265 ; Villot, Catalogue Louvre. 

ALEXANDER AND EOXANA, MAR- 
EIAGE OF. See Action. 

ALEXANDER IN TENT OF DARIUS. 
See Darius, Tent of. 

ALEXANDER AT TOMB OF ACHIL- 
LES, Raphael, Camera della Segnatura, Vati- 
can ; picture in grisaille, under the Parnas- 
sus, at left. Alexander the Great, at right, 
orders a bearded man to place the poems of 
Homer in the sarcophagus, the lid of which is 
raised by a youth ; at each side, six soldiers. 
Painted in 1511. Engraved by Marc An- 
tonio, and others. Passavaut, i. 119. 

ALEXEJEFF, FEODOR JAKOVLE- 
VICH, born in St. Petersburg in 1753, died 
there in 1824. Architecture and perspective 
painter ; pupil of St. Petersburg Academy, 
by which he was sent to Italy. At first 
painted flowers and fruits, but in Venice, 
where he arrived in 1774, devoted himself 
to perspective painting under Gaspari and 
Giuseppe Moretti. After his return he was 
official painter of decorations in 1779-87. 
In 1795 he went to Southern Russia to 
paint scenes visited by Catharine H. on her 
tour in 1787. Under Paul I. he was em- 
ployed on decorative works. In 1803 he 
became professor at the Academy. Works 
in Moscow Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 287. 

ALEXEJEFF, NIKOLAI MICHAILO- 
VICH, born in 1815. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Stupin. In 1836- 
40 he was at the head of the school at 
Arsames, Government of Nizhni-Novgorod, 
founded there by his relative Stupin in the 
beginning of the century. Works: Egyp- 
tians in Red Sea, Healing the Blind, Healing 
the Leper, Marriage at Cana, Christ rescu- 
ing Peter, Isaac Cathedral, St. Petersburg. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 288. 



ALFANI, DOMENICO, born in Perugia 
in 1483 (?), died after 1553. Umbrian school, 
son of Paris Pandari Alfani, goldsmith and 
architect ; pupil of Perugino at same time 
with Raphael, who became his intimate 
friend. Raphael invited him to Rome, but 
Domenico preferred to remain in Perugia, 
where he acted as Raphael's agent, and was 
repaid by an occasional sketch. He became 
a registered master in Perugia in 1510. In 
1520 he legitimized his natural son Orazio 
and took him into partnership, after which 
they worked together. Domenico's earliest 
production is a Holy Family (1510), Peru- 
gia Gallery, painted after a drawing by 
Raphael. His Madonna and Saints, dated 
1518, in the Collegio Gregoriano, Perugia, 
is thoroughly Raphaelesque. The Madonna 
with two Angels (1521), in the Cathedral of 
Citta della Pieve, is painted in the same 
style, but the Madonna and Saints of 1524, 
in the Perugia Gallery, shows a change 
from the Umbrian manner of his earlier 
works to the bold treatment of the later 
Florentines. This change is more marked 
in a Madonna and Saints of 1532 in S. Giuli- 

ano, Perugia. 
In 1553 he 

p ainted - with 

Orazio, a Cruci- 
fixion, in S. Francesco, Perugia. C. & C. 
Italy, iii. 364 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 622 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 291 ; Burckhardt, 
575 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole ombrienne. 

ALFANI, ORAZIO, born in Perugia about 
1510, died in Rome in 1583. Umbrian 
school, son and pupil of Domenico Alfani, 
whom he frequently assisted. He was the 
first president of the Academy of Perugia, 
and many pictures there are attributed to 
him, such as a Nativity and a Holy Family. 
The one certain work by this artist is the 
Crucifixion with SS. Jerome and Apollonia 
which he assisted his father in painting 
(1553), or finished after his death. C. & C., 
Italy, iii. 365 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iii. 624 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienue ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 293 ; Burckhardt, 575, 652. 



A 
/| T _ 

/ ,r AT\I 

* I*" 1 A/ U.MJ. 



84 



ALFARO 



ALFARO Y GAMEZ, Don JUAN, born 
in 1G40 in Cordova, died in Madrid in 1680. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Antonio del Cas- 
tillo and of Velasquez, whose portraits he 
learned to imitate. Also an engraver and ', 
writer, both of poetry and prose. Works : ! 
Assumption (16G8), Museo Nacional ; An- ! 
tonio da Solis, portrait, D. Valentin Car- 
derera, Madrid. Curtis, 328 ; Stirling, 809 ; j 
Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., i. 295. 

ALGERIAN FALCONER, Eugene Fro- 
raentin, Albert Spencer, New York. In the 
foreground, an Arab horseman, riding at full 
gallop, holds a falcon perched upon his 
wrist, as high above his head as his arm will 
stretch. His whole action is full of intense 
energy, and the speed of his horse is shown 
by the sand whirling around him. In the 
background are indications of other mounted 
figures. Salon, 1863. Etched by Flameng ; 
Lionel. Several replicas. 

ALIBERTI, GLVNCARLO, born at Asti, ; 
Piedmont, in 1680, died about 1740. One 
of the many skilful masters of the 18th 
century, who excelled in the execution 
of those extensive, quickly-painted . fres-' 
coes, termed macchinose by the Italians. 
His style was a mixture of Roman and 
Bolognese art, showing the influences of 
Maratta and the school of the Carrac- 
ci, with a leaning towards Correggio. 
He frescoed churches in Asti, Pavia, and 
other Italian cities. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 
312. 

ALIBRANDI, GIROLAMO, of Messina, 
born about 1470, died in 1524 ; but De 
Marzo thinks him the painter of an Epiph- 
any in the church of Venetico, Sicily, dated 
1532. Neapolitan school ; studied several 
years in Venice and afterward in Milan with 
Leonardo da Vinci. Returned to Sicily in j 
1514, and painted in Messina ; called some- 
times the Raphael of Messina. Most im- 
portant of his works is u Presentation in 
the Temple, dated 1519, in San Niccol5, 
Messina. Style a mixture of the Leonard- 
esque and Ferrarese. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 312 ; C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 116. 




AUENSE, Iwrn in Greek inland of Milo 
in 1556 (?), died in Venice in 1629. Real 
name Antonio 
Vansilacchi. 
Venetian 
school ; pupil 
of Paolo Ver- 
onese, who 
dismissed 
him, Ridolfi 
says, on ac- 
count of jeal- 
ousy at his 
wonderful progress. Aliense then applied 
himself to the study of the works of Tin- 
toretto, and soon acquired a style which, 
for strength and boldness of design, and 
vigor of colouring approached the best pro- 
ductions of that master. He won a great 
reputation, was patronized by the doge 
and nobility of Venice, and was invited 
to their respective courts by Philip tt of 
Spain, and by Sigistnund IH of Poland. 
But he preferred to remain in Venice, where 
he lived in great state, and executed many 
works for public buildings and churches. 
In the Palazzo Ducale are his Adoration of 
the Magi, Coronation of Baldwin Eni|>eror 
of Constantinople, the Doge Ordelasso Fali- 
ero at the Capture of /ara, and other large 
pictures ; and in S. Apostoli are his Sacri- 
fices of Abraham and Cain and Abel. Ex- 
amples of his work are also in S. Giovanni 
del Rialto, S. Giovanni del Tempio, S. Leon- 
ardo, S. Giovanni Evangelista, S. Zaccheria, 
S. Domenico a Castello, S. Paterniano, S. 
. f Chiara S. Procolo, S. Vi- 

L^Itensis J. t(lle> ftn(l tho Frari) v cn 

ice, and in S. Pietro de' Casinensi, Perugia. 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole vt'nitienne ; Burckbardt, 
745, 750, 753, 754 ; Sansovino, Venetia illus- 
trata, 271. 

AUGNY, CLAUDE FRANCOIS THEO- 
DORE CARUELLE D', bora at Chaumea, 
Nievre, Feb. 6, 1798, died in Lyons, Feb. 25, 
1871. Landscape painter, pupil of Regnault 
and Watelet ; treated landscapes in the his- 
torical style, and attained great distinction 



ALIMPI 



as a follower of the so-called classical school 
under the influence of Ingres. He made 
his studies chiefly after Italian scenery, vis- 
ited Greece and painted several views of the 
Acropolis and around Athens. His color 
wants truth and life, and his handling is 
hard and unsympathetic. Works : Daphnis 
and Chloe (1822) ; Murder of the Druids 
(1831) ; Prometheus (1837), Luxembourg 
Museum; Hay Harvest (1839) ; Landscape 
with praying Monk (1839), Renues Museum ; 
View near Naples, and two other Landscapes, 
Nantes Museum ; Defeat of Du Guesclin 
(1840), Versailles Museum ; Hercules fight- 
ing the Hydra (1842), Carcassone Museum ; 
Bacchus with Nymphs (1852), Bordeaux Mu- 
seum ; Christ at Emmaus (1837), Besanqon 
Museum ; Good Samaritan, Amiens Museum. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 313 ; Kunstblatt . 
(1835), 172 ; (1837), 190 ; (1839), 218 ; Cle- j 
ment, Etudes, 383; Athenasum (1871), i. 
342. 

ALIMPI (Olimpi), llth century, born 
probably in Kiev, said to have died in 1114. 
The earliest Russian painter of altarpieces 
whose name has been handed down to us. 
He learned his art from the Byzantine 
painters, who about 1084 decorated the 
great church in the cave-monastery at Kiev. 
In 1087 he entered that monastery as a 
monk, and is revered as a saint in Russia ; 
supernatural power is attributed to his pic- 
tures, with whose origin is connected many 
pious legends. Madonna, Uspenski Church, 
Moscow. Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., i. 314. 

ALLADIO. See Macrino d'Alba. 

ALLAN, DAVID, born at Alloa, near 
Edinburgh, Feb. 13, 1744, died near Edin- 
burgh, Aug. (J, 179G. After studying at 
Glasgow in Foulis' Academy, and in Rome 
(1764-79), where he gained a gold medal 
from the Academy of St. Luke for his Origin 
of Painting (1773), he returned to London 
with four humorous sketches of the Roman 
Carnival, which won for him the surname of 
the Scottish Hogarth. His fame depends, 
however, rather upon the genre pieces of 
Scottish life which he painted after he had 



settled at Edinburgh in 1792. His illustra- 
tions to some of Burns' poems, and to Al- 
lan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd, which he 
engraved in aquatint, and his pictures of 
the Highland Dance, the Scotch Wedding, 
and the Repentance Stool, met with deserved 
success, and show him to be the worthy 
forerunner of Wilkie. His portraits, one of 
which, that of Sir William Hamilton (1775), 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, are 
chiefly remarkable for a strong, homely re- 
semblance. He was Master of the Academy 
of Arts, Edinburgh, during the last ten 
years of his life. Cunningham ; Redgrave ; 
Seguier. 

ALLAN, Sir WILLIAM, born in Edin- 
burgh in 1782, 
died there, Feb. 
23, 1850. Ap- 
prenticed to a 
coach painter; 
student at Trus- 
tee's Academy, 
Edinburgh, and 
at Royal Acad- 
emy, London, 
where he exhib- 
ited his Gipsy 

Boy in 1803. Failing to meet with success 
in London, he went, in 1805, to Russia, and 
spent ten yeai'S, much of the time in travel, 
visiting Circassia, Tartary, and Turkey. In 
1814 he returned home with many costume 
and landscape studies which he utilized in 
his pictures of Circassian Slaves, Prisoners 
on the Road to Siberia, and Tartar Robbers, 
the last now in the National Gallery, works 
in a measure attractive through local colour; 
but in historical subjects, which he next 
attempted, he was totally wanting. The 
Murder of Archbishop Sharp, the Death of 
the Regent Murray, and the Abdication of 
Mary Queen of Scots, all prove that he was 
a poor draughtsman and a weak colourist. 
Nevertheless, the last named of these pic- 
tures brought him 800 guineas (1825), and 
he received many honours. He became 
A. E. A. in 1825, R. A. in 1835, President 




7 




ALLEGRAIN 

of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1838-50, ; ALLEGRI, POMPONIO, Iwrn in Cor- 
limner to the Queen iu Scotland in 1841, and reggio, Sept. 3, 1521, died in Parma about 
in 1842 he was knighted. In the following 1593. Lombard school ; son of Antonio 
year Sir William exhibited the Battle of Allegri, called (Jorreyyw, who died when 
Waterloo, now at Apsley House. In 1844 Pomponio was twelve years old ; education 
he again went to St. Petersburg, to paint completed by his grandfather ; but some 
Peter the Great at Saardam, now in the think he was taught later by Houdani. Es- 
Winter Palace. He was engaged at the tablished himself in Parma and won a fair 
time of his death upon a picture of the bat- reputation. Decorated the Cappella del 
tie of Bannockburn. His best i>ortrait is Pojxrto in the Duoino, Parma, in 15(iO-C2, 
that of Sir Walter Scott (1832), now in the ' with frescos, some of which still exist! 
National Portrait Gallery. Saudby, ii. 152 ; Several pictures by him in the Parma Arad- 
Catalogue National Gallery ; Art Journal emy. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 122 ; Lonzi, ii. 
(1849), 109 ; (1850), 100. 390 ; Meyer, Kllnst. Lex., i. 481 ; Burc-k- 

ALLEGRAIN, ETIENNE, born in Paris hardt, 701. 

in March, 1644, died there, April 1, 173G. ' ALLEMAND, LOUIS HECTOK FRAN- 
French school ; was a good landscape paint- </OIS, born in Lyons, Aug. 5, 1809. Land- 
er in the style of Poussin and Francisque scape painter ; brought up a merchant, 
Millet ; became court painter to Louis XTV., he first turned his attention to art when 
and associate of the Academy in 1077. Also thirty years old ; studied nature around 
an engraver. Works : two landscapes in Lyons and in Dauphtne, and afterwards 
the Louvre ; seven landscapes at Versailles ; Ruisdael, Hobbema, and Claude Lorrain in 
Moses in the Bulrushes, Hermitage ; pict- the galleries of France, England, and Hol- 
ures in the museums of Dijon, Alenyon, land. Belongs to the new realistic school 
Tours, and Versailles. Villot, Catalogue j of landscape painting in France. Works : 
Louvre ; Lejeune, i. 354 ; iii. 291 ; Meyer, Wood-Border, Road near Pond, Sunset, 
Kunst. Lex., i. 332. ' Morning on the Rhone, Waterfall of the 

ALLEGRETTO NUCCI, or DI NUZIO, Gier, two landscapes, Lyons Museum ; do., 
born in Fabriano in 130G, died in 1385. Nimes Museum. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 
Umbro-Florentiue school ; appears on regis- 484. 

ter of guild of St. Luke, Florence, in 1340. ALLEMAND, FRITZ and SIGMUND L'. 
Earliest picture bearing his name is the See L'Allemand. 

Madonna with Saints, dated 1305, in the ALLEN, THOMAS, born in St. Louis, 
Museo Cristiano of the Vatican. In 1308 Missouri, in 1849. Pupil of Prof. Duckcr 
he finished the Madonna with Saints in the in Dilsseldorf, later studied three years in 
Sacristy of Macerata Cathedral, and in 1372 j France. Exhibited first at National Acad- 
the Madonna enthroned, collection of Signer ! emy in 1870 ; also exhibits in Paris. Elected 
Fornari, Fabriano. Other works : Madonna, A. N. A. in 1884. Studio in Boston. Works : 
and Crucifixion, Berlin Museum. His draw- Maplehurst at Noon (T. B. Clarke, N. Y.). 
ing is precise, his colouring clear and rosy, ALLINGHAM, HELEN PATEHSON, 
his figures slender, with pretty faces ; in- born near Burton-ou-Trent, England, in 
deed, his style lacks the simplicity and dig- 1848. Genre painter, water colours; pupil 
nity characteristic of Giotto and his follow- of School of Design, Birmingham, and of 
ers._C. & C., Italy, ii. 193 ; Meyer, Kdusi Royal Academy, London, in 18G7. In 1868 
Lex., i. 334 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 161 ; sketched in Italy two months, and on return 
ed. Mil., iii. 16, 22 ; Burckhardt, 555 ; Cibo, to England drew on wood for illustrated 
Scuola Umbra (Rome, 1872), 50. i periodicals. Exhibited at Royal Academy 

ALLEGRI, ANTONIO. See Corrcyyio. [ in 1874, under name of Helen Paterson, 



S7 



ALLONGE 



The Milkmaid and Wait for Me. In August, 
1874, married Wm. Alliugliam, the poet. 
Associate of Society of Painters in Water 
Colours in 1875. Works : Young Custom- 
ers (1875) ; Spring Days (1876) ; The Old 
Men's Gardens, Chelsea Hospital. She 
painted many water colour portraits of Car- 
lyle in his last years. Portfolio (1878), 33 ; 
Art Journal (1882), 7. 

ALLONGE, AUGUSTE, born in Paris, 
March 19, 1833. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1852, and of 
L. Cogniet. First distinguished himself 
in 1855 by charcoal drawings of French 
scenes. His oils are rare, and less remark- 
able than his charcoals. Works : Solitude, 
Fountain of Sta. Barbara, Path to the Foun- 
tain, Brook near Creux, Marsh near Moulin 
Frou (1876) ; View in the Park of Plombieres 
(1875) ; Autumn Morning (1873) ; The Sea 
(1874), Havre Museum ; Valley of Hyeres. 
His treatise on charcoal drawing, Le paysage 
au fusain, 54 plates, Goupil & Co., trans- 
lated by S. D. W. (N. Y., 1876), is justly 
celebrated. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 494. 

ALLORI, AGNOLO, or ANGIOLO. See 
Bronzino. 

ALLORI, ALESSANDRO di Cristofano 

di Lorenzo, 
born in Flor- 
ence, May 3, 
1535, died 
there, Sept. 
22, ICO 7. 
Florentine 
school ; ne- 
phew, pupil, 
and medi- 
ocre imita- 
tor of Ange- 
lo Bronzino, 
with whose 

surname he sometimes signed his pictures. 
Among his works are : Baptism of Christ 
(15GO), Marriage at Cana, Joseph and Poti- 
phar's Wife, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, 
St. Peter Walking on the Waters, St. Fran- 
cis, TJffizi ; Bathsheba in the Bath, Portrait 




of a young man, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Bouaventura Family, Bianca Capello, Berlin 

Ada /(ion 

Museum. Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentine ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 503 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., viii. 34, ix. 100, xii. 302. 

ALLORI, CRISTOFANO, born in Flor- 
ence, Oct. 17, 
1577, died 
there in 1621. 
Flo r en tine 
school ; son 
and pupil of 
Alessandro 
Allori, and af- 
terward pupil 
of Santo di Ti- 
to, both schol- 
ars of Angelo 
Bronzino, 
whose style 
Cristofano at 

first followed, but abandoned for the new 
Florentine eclectic manner based on that of 
Correggio. He became one of the best ar- 
tists in Florence of his time, but his habits 
were irregular and he left but few pictures. 
He excelled in portrait painting. By far 
his best work is Judith, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence. Other examples : Hospitality of St. 
Julian, St. John in the Desert, Pitti ; Ador- 
ation of the Magi, Infant Christ, Magdalen, 
TJffizi, Florence ; Isabella of Aragon implor- 
ing Charles VHI. for her Father. Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole florentine; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., i. 508; 
Baldinucci, x. 259. 

ALLOU, GILLES, born in Paris in 1670, 
died there, Feb. 2, 1751. French school ; 
portrait painter ; became member of Acad- 
emy in 1711. His portraits, which rival 
those of Rigaud andLargilliere, found much 
and well-deserved favour. He was em- 
ployed in the Royal Carpet Factory at 
Beauvais. Works : portraits of Coypel and 




ALL SAINTS 




Coysevox, Versailles Museum ; portrait of 
Boullogue, Kcole des Beaux Arts. Meyer, 
Kiiust. Lex., i. 513 ; Jal, 29. 

ALL SAINTS. See Trinity, Adoration ot 
ALLSTON, WASHINGTON, bom at 1 
Waccamaw, South 
Carolina, Nov. 5, 
1779, died at Cam- 
bridgeport, Mas- 
sachusetts, July 9, 
1843. History and 
portrait paiuter, 
pupil in miniature 
painting of Ed- 
ward Malbone 
was graduated at 
Harvard College in 
1800, and in 1801 entered the schools of 
the Royal Academy, London, of which 
his countryman Benjamin West was then 
president. In 1804 he went, with Van- 
derlyn and C. B. Leslie, to Paris, to study 
in the Louvre, and thence to Rome, where 
he spent four years. After a visit to Amer- 
ica, during which he married a sister of 
Dr. Channiug, he settled in London in 
1811, and in the following year won a prize 
of 200 guineas from the British Institution 
for his Dead Man revived by Touch of Eli- 
sha's Bones, now in the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. This was 
followed by the Liberation of St. Peter by 
the Angel, which was taken to America in 
1859 and presented by Dr. Hooper in 1877 
to the Worcester (Mass.) Lunatic Asylum ; 
Jacob's Dream, Petwortli Gallery ; and Uriel 
in the Sun, Stafford House, for which the 
British Institution awarded him a prize of 
150 guineas. The first sketch of Belshazzar's 
Feast was painted about the same time. 
He visited Paris again in 1817, was elected 
an A R A in 1818, and in the same year 
returned to America, and taking a studio in 
Boston began to work on his Elijah and 
Belshazzar's Feast. But, afflicted by the 
death of his wife and by ill-health from 
overwork, and removed from the art atmos- 
phere to which be had been accustomed, he 



painted irregularly and produced but few 
other pictures comparable to bin early per- 
formances. In 1830 bo married again and 
removed to Cauibridgeport, where he re- 
sided the remainder of his life. Among his 
other works are : Jeremiah (Yale College) ; 
Witch of Endor (W. H. Gardiner), Mirinm 
(F. Sears), Beatrice (Pres. Charles Eliot), 
Rosalie (N. Appleton), Amy Robsart (L A 
Lowell), The Valentine (Mrs. Geo. Ticknor), 
Boston ; fyialalro, Bride, Spanish Girl, Tus- 
can Girl, Evening Hymn, Lorenzo and Jes- 
sica, Flight of Florimel, Roman Lady, The 
Sisters. Allston also glinted landscapes and 
portraits, among the latter being Benj. West 
(Boston Athemcum), and Coleridge (Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, London), and pub- 
lished volumes of poems and prose. Menio- 
rial Hist. Boston, iv. 392 ; Sandby, i. 399 ; 
Tuckemian, 13(J ; Knickerlx>cker Mag., xiv. 
163, xxiv. 205 ; N. Ainer. Rev., L 358 ; Dem. 
Rev., xiii. 431; Atlantic Mag., xv. 129; 
Meyer, Kdnst. Lex., i. 513 ; Ware, Lectures 
on (Boston, 1852). 

ALMA PARENS, William Adolphe Hou- 
(jnereau, Geo. R. Blanchard, New York ; 
canvas, H 8 f t 8 in. x 5 ft. 9 in. A female 
figure seated, draped, with nine children, 
nude, grouped around her ; the one at left 
is the infant Si John. Paris Salon, 1883 ; 
sold for $20,000. Art Journal (1883), 331. 

ALMA-TADEMA, LAURENZ, born at 
Dronryp, Fries- 
land, Jan. 8, 183C. 
Educated at the 
gy m nasiuni of 
Lee u warden, 
where he con- 
ceived a passion 
for Egyptian and 
Greco-Roman ar- 
chaeology, which 
has had a great in- 
fluence on his art 
life ; student of 
art in Antwerp Academy in 1852 ; subse- 
quently pupil of Baron Henry Leys. Exhib- 
ited in Antwerp, 1801, 




Education of the 



ALMA-TADEMA 



Children of Clotilda ; and in Amsterdam, 
1862, Venantius Fortunatus at Badagonde, 
which was awarded a gold medal. In 1865 j 
he sent to London his Egyptian Games, 
which was followed by several others, among 
them Roman Dance (1866), and Phidias and 
the Elgin Marbles (1868). In 1869 he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, A Ro- 
man Amateur (1868), and Pyrrhic Dance 
(1869), and in 1870 The Convalescent, Un 
Jongleur, and a second Roman Amateur. 
In this latter year he married Miss Laura 
Epps, an English lady, and removed from 
Brussels to London, which he has since 
made his home. He has won many honours, 
is a knight of many orders, and is a member 
of the Royal Academies of Amsterdam 
(1862), Munich (1871), Berlin (1874), Lon- 
don (A. R. A, 1876 ; R. A, 1879), Stockholm 
(1878), Vienna (1878), and Madrid (1879). 
Medals: Paris, 1864; 2d class, 1867; 1st 
class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1873 ; officer, 
1878. Other works : How they Amused 
Themselves in Egypt 3000 Yearsago (1863) ; 
Fredegonda and Pretextatus (1864) ; Egyp- 
tian Game, Catullus at Lesbia's, Soldier of 
Marathon (1865) ; Entrance to a Roman 
Theatre, Agrippiua visiting the Ashes of 
Germanicus, Roman Dance (1866) ; The 
Mummy, Tarquinius Superbus (1867) ; The 
Siesta, Flowers, Flower Market (1868) ; A 
Negro, Wine Shop (1869) ; Vintage Festival 
(1870) ; A Roman Emperor, Une Fete In time, 
Greek Pottery (1871) ; Reproaches, Mummy ! 
in Roman Period, Improvisatore, A Halt, 
Death of the First Born, Greek Wine (1872) ; 
The Dinner, The Siesta, The Cherries, Fish- 
ing (1873) ; Joseph Overseer of Pharaoh's 
Granaries, Sculpture Gallery, Picture Gal- 
lery, Autumn, Good Friends, On the Steps 
of the Capitol, Water Pets (1874) ; After 
the Dance, Hide and Seek, Audience at 
Agrippa's, Cleopatra (1876) ; Four Seasons, 
Between Hope and Fear, The Sculptor 
(1877); Sculptor's Model, Love Missile, 
Bacchante, Architecture, Sculpture, Paint- 
ing (1877) ; Cherries (1878) ; Hearty Wel- 
come, Down to the liiwr, Pomona Festival, 



On the Way to the Temple (1879) ; Frede- 
gonda, Spring Festival, Question, Garden 
God, Pastoral (1880) ; Sappho, In the Tep- 
idarium, Ave Caesar, lo Saturnalia (1881) ; 
Torch Dance, An Audience, Early Affections, 
Barnay as Marc Antony (1882) ; Venus and 
Mars, An Oleander, Antony and Cleopatra, 
Xanthe and Phaon, 'Twixt Venus and Bac- 
chus (1883). Portfolio (1874), 109 ; (1878), 
145 ; Art Journal (1875), 9 ; (1883), 33, 65 ; 
Univ. Mag. (1879), 706 ; Blackwood (March, 
1883), 401 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1878), ii. 113. 

ALMA-TADEMA, Mrs. LAURA, wife of 
Laurenz Alma-Tadema. Figure painter ; 
exhibits at Royal Academy, and at Grosvenor 
Gallery, London. Works : Blue Stocking 
(1877) ; Daffodowndilly (1878) ; Hunt the 
Slipper, A Good Book (1880) ; Winter, Sis- 
ters (1881) ; Asleep, Granny's Needle (1882) ; 
May I come In (1881). Art Journal (1883), 
345. 

ALMEH, DANCE OF THE, Jean Leon 
Gcrume, John Hoey, New York. The dancer, 
her garments slipping off from her body, is 
posturing before a group of soldiers, seated 
at left in a Cairo tavern ; at right, three 
musicians. Photogravure in Art Treasures 
of America, ii. 80. 

ALOISI, BALDASSARE, called II Gal- 
anino, born at Bologna in 1578, died at 
Rome in 1638. Bolognese school ; history 
and portrait painter ; pupil of the Carracci. 
Went to Rome in time of Urban VTTT. and 
painted many portraits of illustrious persons. 
Works : Visitation, La Cariti, Bologna ; 
Madonna with SS. John Baptist and Fran- 
cis, S. Paolo in Monte, ib. ; Coronation of 
Virgin, GesH e Maria, Rome. 

ALOPHE, ALEXANDRE, born in Paris, 
June 6, 1812, died there in August, 1883. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Roque- 
plan and of Delaroche. Medals : 3d class, 
1844; 2d class, 1847. Works: A Page, 
Evening Lull (1869) ; In the Woods 
(1870) ; In the Open Fields (1877) ; Read- 
ing of Faublas, Discouragement (1879). 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 521. 

ALOVIG1, ANDREA See Lujegno. 



30 



ALSLOOT 



ALSLOOT, DENIS VAN, born before 
1628. Excellent landscape painter, Flem- 
ish school ; pictures very rare. Court painter 
to Archduke Albert, Governor of the Neth- 
erlands, about 1599. Works: Landscape (with 
figures by H. de Clerck), Vienna Museum ; 
Masquerade on the Ice, two pictures of Pro- 
cessions of Guilds in Brussels, Madrid Mu- 
seum; Castle and Park of Mariemont (1020), 
Brussels Museum ; Abbey of La Cambre 
(1009), NantesMuseum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 527 ; Viardot, 107 ; Michiels, Rubens, 347. 

ALT, JAKOB, born in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, Sept. 17, 1789, died in Vienna, Sept. 
30, 1872. Landscape painter, studied at 
Frankfort and, after 1811, in Vienna. 
Painted scenes in the Austrian Alps, on 
the Danube, in Upper Italy, which he vis- 
ited in 1828 and 1833, and Rome. Works : 
Isle of S. Giorgio Maggiore (1834), Vienna 
Museum ; Grave Yard at Hallstadt ; Garg- 
nano on Lake Garda. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 532; Kuust-Chronik, viii. 20, xi. 
345 ; Allgem. d. Biogr., i. 355. 

ALT, RUDOLF, born in Vienna, Aug. 28, 
1812. Landscape and architecture painter, 
chiefly in water colours ; son and pupil of 
Jakob Alt and student at Vienna Academy. 
Has travelled extensively in Austria, Ger- 
many, Italy, Switzerland, and the Crimea. 
Is a member of the Vienna Academy. His 
few oil paintings are inferior to his water 
colours, which command high prices in 
Vienna. Works in oil : St. Stephen's 
Church (1832), Giardiui pubblici in Venice 
( 1834), Vienna Museum ; Gate of Pi-ague, 
Venice, Well in Nuremberg. Water col- 
ours : Cloister Yard of Monreale, Harbour 
of Palermo, Arch of Titus in Rome, Castle 
Hollenegg, Well in Nuremberg, Bird's-Eye 
View of Danube, Old and New Vienna, 
Orvieto Cathedral, Milan Cathedral, Campo 
Vaccino, S. Marco in Venice, Coast near | 
Naples, DUrrenstein, Temple of Vesta, j 
His brother Franz (born 1821) went through 
same course of study and paints similar sub- 
jects. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 533 ; M filler, 
11 ; Wurzbach, L 15. 



ALT, THEODOR, Iwrn nt DOlilau, Bava- 
ria, Juno 23, 1840. Genre painter, pupil of 
Kreliug in Nuremberg, and of the Munich 
Academy. His pictures of subjects from 
modern life show great talent for composi- 
tion, feeling for nature, and harmonious 
colour. Meyer, Kim -I. Lex., i. 535. 

ALTAMURA, SAVEIUO, born at Foggia, 
Italy, in 1824. History painter, pupil of 
the Naples Academy, and one of the most 
distinguished Italian masters of modern 
times ; has painted since 1850 mostly in 
Florence ; in 1802 visited France and Eng- 
land. Favourite subjects, historical genre. 
Studio in Naples. Works: Origin of the 
Guelphs and Gliibellines in Florence ; Ma- 
rius Conqueror of the Cimbri (1801), Senate 
Chamber, Florence ; Old Hatred and New 
Love ; Madonna Enthroned ; Tasso in Sor- 
rento ; Salvator Rosa among the Robbers ; 
Doubt and Faith. Meyer, KUnst. Lex., 
i. 535. 

ALTARPIECE OF BRESCIA. See Br<-*- 
cia. 

ALTDORFER, ALBRECHT, born be- 
fore 1480, died at Ratisbou, Feb. 12 or 
14, 1538. History and landscape painter, 
strongly influenced by Dilrer, possibly his 
pupil ; came from Amlx>rg to Ratisbon, was 
admitted to burgher rights in 1505, and 
afterwards elected alderman and city archi- 
tect. One of the most remarkable mastcrH 
of the Old German school. Works : Birth 
of Mary, Altai-piece with Christ on the Cross 
(1517), Augsburg Gallery ; Pietik, Madonna 
in Glory, Susanna at the Bath (1520), Land- 
scape with St George (1510), Battle of Ar- 
bela (1529), Pinakothek, Munich ; Altnq>ieco 
with SS. Narcissus and Matthew, Univer- 
sity, ib.; Christen the Cross (150C), Burg, 
Nuremberg ; St. Stephen before the Judge, 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen, St Quirimis 
lifted out of the Water, St. Jerome in 
Prayer, Maurice Chapel, ib.; SS. Francis 
and Jerome (1507), Landscape with Satyr 
Family (1507), Repose in Egypt (1510), 
Landscape with Illustration of Proverb 
(1531), Berlin Museum ; Madonna (1515), 



31 



ALTICHIERO 



Vienna Museum ; do. (1511), Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib.; Christ with Mary and St. John, 

Abbey of 




Biog.,i.356; 
Keane, Early Masters, 164 ; Meyer, Kttnst. 
Lex., i. 536 ; Scott, Little Masters, 24. 

ALTICHIERO DA ZEVIO, born at Zevio, 
near Verona, about middle of 14th cen- 
tury. Worked alternately in Verona and 
Padua. Vasari says he painted the siege of 
Jerusalem by Titus, after Josephus, in the 
hall of the palace at Verona, and other great 
works. He also executed a series of frescos 
in the Cappella S. Felice, S. Antonio, Padua, 
which shows a strong Giottesque influence, 
and after Giotto's frescos in the Arena Chapel 
are the most important works of their kind 
painted in N. Italy during the 14th century 
(C. & C.). In this work he is said to have 
had an assistant, one Jacopo Avanzi, with 
whom his name is always coupled by Vasari. 
This painter was a Paduan, a Veronese, or a 
Bolognese ; but if the latter, he is not to be 
confounded with Jacobus Paoli of Bologna, 
whose crucifixions, Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
say, are evidently not by the painter of the 
S. Giorgio frescos. Other frescos in the 
Capella di S. Giorgio are ascribed by 
Forster to the same Jacopo Avanzi, but 
C. & C. say they are identical in execution 
with those of S. Felice. C. & C., Italy, ii. 
232 ; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 555 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., vi. 86; Burckhardt, 519; 
Forster, Die Wandgemalde der St. Georgen- 
kapelle zu Padua (Berlin, 1841) ; W. & W., 
i. 480 ; L'Anouimo Morelli (Bassano, 1800), 5. 

ALTISSIMO, CEISTOFANO DELL', 
flourished at Florence about and after 1550. 
Family name Papi ; pupil of Pontormo and 
of Angiolo Bronzino. Is known principally 
through the collection of portraits (more 
than 280) which he painted for Cosimo I. 
of Tuscany ; was of ordinary ability. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vii. 608 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 557. 



ALTMANN, ANTON, the younger, bom 
in Vienna, June 4, 1808. Landscape painter ; 
son of Anton, landscape painter (1777- 
1818) ; pupil of the Vienna Academy, 
under Mossner. His pictures are good 
in choice of subject, carefully executed, 
and show a fine feeling for nature. Works : 
Cloister in Bohemia (1838), View in Styria, 
(1840), Wood Landscape (1840), Landscape 
with large ferns (1846), Swamp (1846), Eve- 
ning Landscape (1847), Well near Wood- 
land, Mountain Mill (1851), Wood Land- 
scape (1851), After the Rain (1852), Vienna 
Museum. Andresen, iii. 187; Meyer, KiinsL 
Lex., i. 558 ; Wurzbach, i. 19. 

ALTOBELLO MELONS. See Melone. 

ALTOMANTE, MARTIN, born in Na- 
ples, May 8, 1657, died at Stift Heiligen- 
kreuz, Lower Austria, Sept. 14, 1745. Real 
name Hohenberg, of German parentage. 
History painter, pupil in Rome of Bacciccio, 
then of Carlo Maratta and of Academy ; 
went in 1684 to Warsaw and became court- 
painter to King John Sobieski, after whose 
death in 1698 he left Poland for Germany, 
and in 1703 went to Vienna, was made mem- 
ber of the Academy in 1707, and settled at 
| Linz, Upper Austria, in 1720 ; his last years 
he spent as a lay brother at Stift Heiligen- 
kreuz. Works : Raising of Siege of Vienna, 
Principal Assault of the Turks on the Lowel 
Bastion, The Polish Diet (these three prob- 
ably in Warsaw Museum) ; St. Martin, and 
others, Chodkjewicz Gallery, Lemberg ; Su- 
sanna at the Bath (1709), Vienna Museum; 
St. John's Altar and Ceiling in Sacristy, 
St. Stephen's, ib. ; Holy Family, St. Michael, 
St. Peter's, ib. ; Raising of Youth at Nain, St. 
Charles Borromeo's, ib. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 562 ; Wurzbach, i. 19. 

ALTOVITI, BINDO, portrait, Raphael, 
Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 1 ft. 10 in. x 1 
ft. 4 in. Half length of a youth about 
twenty years old, with long fair hair and a 
black cap, looking over his shoulder at the 
spectator ; his hand on his breast. Erro- 
neously considered by Rumohr, Bottari, 
and others, a portrait of Raphael himself. 



ALUXNO 



Painted about 1512-13 ; formerly in Caua 
Altoviti, Florence, and later in Palazzo Al- 
toviti, Rome, whence obtained in 1808 for 
Crown Prince Louis of Bavaria for 3 500 se- 
quins. Engraved by R. MorgLen as Ra- 
phael. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 351; Rumohr, 
ItaL Forsch., iii. 109 ; Passavant, ii. 117 ; 
Mttntz, 290, 387 ; Gruyer, Raphael, Peintre 
de Portraits, i. 5, 17. 

ALUNNO, NICCOLO, born at Foligno 
in 1430 ? died Aug. 1502 ; Umbriau school ; 
son of a painter at Foligno, and pupil of 
Bartolommeo di Tommaso, through whose 
assistant, Benozzo Gozzoli, the scholar of Fra 
Angelico, his early style was affected by that 
Florentine influence which they brought to 
bear upon Umbria. Later his pictures give 
evidence of a North Italian influence, shown 
in the increased action of his figures, and 
their somewhat exaggerated facial expres- 
sion. In the Madonna de' Consoli (1458), 
S. Francesco, Deruta, his drawing is stiff 
and defective, the colour si prevailing reddish 
brown ; but the sentiment is deep, and the 
naive Umbriau feeling marked. Other works 
in Alunno's first manner arc : Banner in S. 
Antonio Abate, Deruta, in which the St. An- 
thony on one side recalls Gozzoli, and the 
crucifixion on the other Bai-tolornmeo di 
Tommaso ; Madonna and Angels, Duomo, 
Assisi, painted before 14G5, to which year 
belong parts of an altarpiece, Brera, Milan ; 
Annunciation (140(i), Perugia Gallery, show- 
ing traces of Gozzoli's influence which con- 
tinued up to about 14G8. After 1471 that 
of Crivelli predominates, as in the altarpiece, 
Duomo, Gualdo ; Annunciation, Bologna 
Gallery ; Birth and Coronation of the Vir- 
gin (1483), Duomo, Nocera. The altarpiece 
in S. Niccolo, Foligno (1492), of which the 
Predella is in the Louvre, Paris, may be con- 
sidered as Alunno's masterpiece in his sec- 
ond, eclectic style. unplN NICfH Al 
One of his latest gfjf jSJ^K L 
works is the Ma- FULG1NATJS 1499. 

donna with Angels and Saints (1499) in a 
Church at La Bastia, between Assisi and 
Perugia. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 508 ; Rossi, 



Pittori di Foligno (Perugia, 1872) ; Meyer, 
Kunst Lex., i. 565 ; Rowini, ii. 34, 162 ; C. 
| & C., Italy, iii. 125 ; Burckhardt, 55C, 557 ; 
Miiller, 19 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole oiubrienne ; 
Ldbke, Gesch. Hal. Mai., L 242. 

ALVAREZ, Don LUIS, born in HIHUII, 
contemporary. Genre painter ; pupil of 
Madrazo, the elder. Studio in Rome. 
Works : Spanish Birthday Festival, Mrs. E, 
D. Morgan, New York ; Flirtation in a Gon- 
dola, Dressing for Ball, Selling Ticket* for 
Charity Bull-Fight, J. P. Morgan, ib.; An- 
cient Coquette, Modern Coquette, R. C. 
Hawkins, ib. ; Cardinal's Reception, Toilette 
of Duchess de Berri, H. Hilton, ib.; Jeal- 
ousy, Mrs. A. T. Stewart, ib.; Hide and 
Seek, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Flower-Shop, 
Samuel Hawk Collection, ib.; Hallwrdier, 
Obliging Suitor, R. L. Stuart Collection, 
ib. ; Inopportune Visitor, R. G. Dun, ib. ; 
Our Forefathers' Diversions, M. Graham, ib. ; 
Distribution of Prizes in Palazzo Borghese 
(1885), M. Munn, ib. ; Spinners, A. J. An- 
telo, Philadelphia ; Concert, J. D. Laukenau, 
Philadelphia ; Amateurs, C. H. Wolff, Phila- 
delphia ; Preparing for Masquerade, W. B. 
Bemeut, Philadelphia ; Rousseau and Ladies 
picking Cherries, S. A. Coale, Jr., St. Louis ; 
Marriage of Pauline Bonaparte and Prince 
Burghese, H. L. Dousman, St. Louis ; Intro- 
duction of the Betrothed, Ch. Parsons, St. 
Louis ; Flirtation, D. Catlin, St. Louis ; New 
Baby, J. A. Scudder, St. Louis ; Carnival in 
the Prado in 18th Century (1884) ; La B- 
lustraeion (1884), i. 131 ; (1885), i. 6. 

AMADEI, STEFANO, bora in Perugia, 
Italy, Jan. 20, 1589, died there, Jan. 20, 
1644. First devoted to science, he conceived 
a passion for painting while studying per- 
spective with Giulio C. Augeli. He found- 
ed an art school in Perugia, and painted 
many altarpieces ; acquired a certain reputa- 
tion as a portrait painter, which procured 
him numerous orders in Rome. Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., i. 575 ; Pasaavant, Raphael, 
ii. 61. 

AMALTEO, POMPONIO, born in SanVito, 
Friuli, in 1505, died there in 1584. Venetian 



AMATO 



school ; pupil and son-in-law of Pordenone, 
whose style he imitated and to whom some 
of his productions have been ascribed. Most 
successful in fresco; painted few easel pieces. 
Among the most important of his works is 
a series of frescos representing the history 
of the Virgin, in the choir of the church of 
the hospital at San Vito, for which he re- 
ceived a patent of nobility in 1535. On the 
same large scale are the frescos in S. M. delle 
Grazie at Prodolone (1542), the Duomo of 
Valvasone (1544), the church of Baseglia 

. (1544-50), the church of Lestans 
Pompom (154g ^ and otbera _ c & c N _ 

Fnulensis ^ H 3Q4 . Meyei . ; Kfljujt 
fecit 1578. Lex L 587 . vasari, ed. Mil., v. 
119; Joppi, Doc. iued. sulla Tita. . . Pomp. 
Amalteo (Udine, 1869). 

AMATO, GIOVANNI ANTONIO D', the 
elder, born in Naples in 1475, died there in 
1555. Neapolitan school ; pupil of Silvestro 
de' Buoni ; studied later works of Perugino, 
and painted both in oil and in fresco. Works: 
St. Michael and other Archangels, SS. Sever- 
ino e Sosia, Naples ; Madonna with Angels, 
Naples Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 
595. 

AMATO, GIOVANNI ANTONIO D', the 
younger, born in Naples in 1535, died there 
in 1598. Neapolitan school ; nephew and 
pupil of the preceding, and husband of Ma- 
riagnola Criscuolo, who painted some Ma- 
donnas in the Neapolitan churches. After 
his uncle's death he studied under Giov. B. 
Lama, and besides him, took Francesco 
Curia and Ippolito Borghese for models. 
Works : S. Maria Visitapoveri (1571), Ma- 
donna Enthroned, Naples Museum ; Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, Church of Monte de' Po- 
veri ; others in S. Patricio, S. Pietro ad Aram, 
S. Giuseppe, S. Domenico Maggiore, Sta. 
Margarita, S. Niccolo alia Dogana, and 
Chiesa nuova, Naples. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 596. 

AMAURY-DUVAL, EUGENE EMMAN- 
UEL, born in Montrouge (Seine), April 16, 
1808. History and portrait painter ; son of 
the diplomat archaeologist Amaury ; pupil 



of Ingres. Studied the antique, the Flor- 
entine quattrocentists, and Raphael. After 
a visit to the Morea in 1829, he exhibited, 
from 1833, a series of portraits, which es- 
tablished his reputation, and in 1839-40 
and 1848-53 executed several large wall 
paintings at St. Merry, St. Germain 1'Auxer- 
; rois, and St. Germain en Laye (1848-1853), 
' in the traditional style of the older Italian 
masters. Medals : 2d class, 1838 ; 1st class, 
1839 ; L. of Honour, 1845 ; officer, 1865. 
Works: Portraits of Alex. Duval (1848), 
the actor Geoffrey, Rachel (1855) ; Infant 
Christ asleep (1857), Head of Young Girl 
(1859), Birth of Venus (1863), Lille Museum; 
Young Girl with Doll (1864) ; Daphnis and 
Chloe (1865) ; Psyche (1867) ; Study of a 
Child (1864), Luxembourg Museum, Paris. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 597; Kunstblatt 
(1841), 146; (1846), 138; Meyer, GescL, 
353, 380 ; Miiller, 11. 

AMAZONS, BATTLE OF (Amazoneu- 
schlacht), Rubens, Munich Gallery; wood, H. 
3 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 11 in. Victory of Theseus 
over Thalestris, Queen of the Amazons, on 
the bridge over the Thermodon. Theseus, 
mounted upon a rearing horse, closely at- 
tended by his followers, is about to cast his 
javelin at the Amazons, who are turning in 
flight at the other end of the bridge ; many 
of them are falling from the bridge, or 
struggling in the stream below. Subject 
supposed to have been borrowed from Titi- 
an's Battle of Cadore. Painted about 1619 
for M. van der Gheest. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
285 (PI.) ; Cat. Munich Gallery. 

AMBERG, WILHELM, born in Berlin, 
Feb. 25, 1822. Genre painter, pupil of 
Herbig, the Berlin Academy, and of Karl 
Begas. In 1844-45 he studied under Leon 
Cogniet in Paris, after which he visited Italy. 
After his return in 1847 he at first painted 
mythological subjects and portraits, then 
genre, both serious and humorous, and, more 
recently, landscapes with figures. Subjects 
attractive, treatment ingenious, and colour 
always effective. Since 1869, member of the 
Berlin Academy. Works : Consolation in 



34 



AMBERGER 



Music (I860) ; Servant Maid Smoking, Ser- 
vant Maid Drinking (18C3) ; Ophelia, The 
Widow's Comfort (1878) ; Heading Werther 
(1870), National Gallery, Berlin ; replica, 
Raczynski Gallery, ib. Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., 
L 599 ; Miiller, 12 ; Rosenberg, Berlin Ma- 
lersch., 71. 

AMBERGER, CH1USTOPH, born in 
Amberg, Ulm or Nuremberg, about 14'JO or 
1500, died in Augsburg in 1561 or 1562. 
German school ; portrait painter, perhaps 



Madonna Enthroned, StRoch in a Landscape, 
Pinakothck, Munich ; Hieronyuius Sulczer 
(1542), Gotha Gallery ; Portrait of Old Man, 
Wurlitz Gallery; Portrait of Charles V. 
(1532), Sebastian Mfluster, Georg von 
Freundsberg, St Augustine, Berlin Museum; 
Duko Louis of Bavaria (1540), Martin Weiss 
(1544), Male and Female portrait (errone- 
ously called Thomas Morus and Wife), Male 
Bu8t-jM>rtrait, Vienna Museum ; do. (attrib- 
uted to Holbein), Uffizi, Florence ; Portrait 




Battle of the Amuoni, Rubnf, Munich Gallery. 



pupil of Hans Burgkmair, and one of the best 
masters of the sixteenth century. Received 
into Augsburg guild in 1530, and appears 
there until 15CO ; was in Italy about 1535. 
Works : Portraits of Win. Morz and Afra 
Rehm (1533), of Kounul Peutinger and Wife 
(1543), Maximilians Museum, Augsburg ; 
Altar with Madonna (1554), Cathedral, ib. ; 
Christ with the Wise and Foolish Virgins 
(1560), Transfiguration of Christ, St Ann's, 
ib.; Afra Rehm and Male Portrait (1533), 
Archeological Museum, Stuttgart; Trinity, 



of Charles V. (1532, attributed to Holbein), 
Siena Academy ; Matthaus Schwartz and 
Wife (1542), formerly in Baron von Frieacn'a 
Collection, Dresden. Allgem. d. Biog., L 
390 ; Kunst-Chronik, ix. 190 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 600 ; W. & W., il 452. 

AMBROGIO DA FOSSANO. See lior- 
ijofjnone. 

AMBROGIO DI LORENZO. See Lo- 
renzetli. 

AMBROGIO DA SIENNA See Loren- 



AMBROSE 



AMBROSE, ST., APOTHEOSIS OF, 

Luigi Vioarini, S. M. de' Frari, Venice ; wood. 




Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius, Rubens, Vienna Museum, 

St. Ambrose on a throne between SS. George, ' 
Vitale, Gregory, Augustine and a monk on 
one side ; SS. John Baptist, Gervase, and 
Protase on the other ; SS. Sebastian and 
Jerome in foreground ; in lunette, Corona- 
tion of the Virgin. Begun in 1503 ; finished 
by Basaiti after Luigi's death and placed on j 
altar in the Cappella Milanesi. Has been 
wrongly assigned to Bart. Vivarini. C. & 
C., N. Italy, i. 68, 259. 

AMBROSE AND EMPEROR THEO- 
DOSIUS, llubens, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 7 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft. 5 in. The Emperor 
Theodosius, whose hands were stained by 
the blood of the inhabitants of Thessalonica, 
is refused admission into the Cathedral by 
Archbishop Ambrose of Milan (A. D. 390). 



Ambrose, in canonicals, with mitre and cro- 
zier, with six attendants, meets the Emperor, 
who is followed by three offi- 
cers, at the entrance, and 
presses him back with his 
hand. Eleven figures, nearly 
all full length. Kett, 49 ; 
Gal de Vienne. 

AMERIGHI, MICHEL- 
ANGELO. See Caravaggio. 
AMERLING, FRIED- 
RICH, born in Vienna, April 
14, 1803. Portrait and fig- 
ure painter, son of a poor ar- 
tisan, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy under Redl. By illumin- 
ating maps and engravings 
gained enough to enable him 
to study in London under Sir 
Thomas Lawrence for nine 
months, and in Paris under 
Horace Vemet. A first prize 
given him at Vienna for two 
historical paintings enabled 
him, in 1831, to go to Venice 
and Rome. After his re- 
turn he entered on a success- 
ful career as a portrait paint- 
er, under the patronage of 
the Imperial family. In 
184114 he resided at Rome 
and Florence. Works : Archduke Rudolph, 
Emperor Francis (1832), Laxenburg Palace ; 

Prince Schwar- 
zenberg, Count 
Zichy, Count 
Nugent, Princess 
Khevenh tiller, 
Thorwaldsen, 
Gr illparzer, 
Prince "Windisch- 
gratz on horse- 
back; Lute Hay- 
er, Artist'sBroth- 
er as Fisher-boy, 
St. Paul (1833), 

Artist's portrait, Museum, Vienna ; Moses 
and Brazen Serpent, Baron Pereira, ib. ; 




AMES 



Italian Girl, Oriental Woman, Felnor Col- 
lection, ib. ; Sleeping Children, Count Ber- 
oldiugen, ib. ; Greek Woman, Muse of 
Tragedy (1863) ; Girl with Doves (1868). 
Brockhaus, i. 551 ; Meyer, Kiinsi Lex., 
i. 627 ; Miiller, 12 ; Kunstblatt (1834), 294, 
308 ; (1842), 122 ; Wurzbacb, L 29. 

AMES, JOSEPH, born in New Hamp- 
shire in 1816, died in New York in 1872. 
Portrait painter ; studied in Rome. Passed 
his professional life in Boston and New 
York. Elected an A. N. A. in 1869, and N. 
A. in 1870. Ideal works : Miranda ; Night ; 
Morning ; Death of Webster (1871) ; Ideal 
heads and a few landscapes. Portraits : Pius 
IX., Portrait of himself (1872, N. Academy); 
Ristori ; Prescott ; Daughter of Benjamin 
F. Butler ; Clarence H. Seward ; R. W. Emer- 
son ; Rachel ; Webster ; Choate. 

AMIDANO, GIULIO CESARE, nourished 
at Parina, 1560-1628. Pupil of Pamiigia- 
nino, or at least a close imitator of that mas- 
ter ; painted afterwards also in the style of 
other masters, and shows on the whole little 
individuality or independence. Meyer, 
Kunst. Lex., i. 629. 

AMIGONI (Amiconi), JACOPO, born in 
Venice in 1675, died in Madrid in 1752. 
Venetian school. After having attained a cer- 
tain reputation in Italy, he went to Munich, 
and in the service of the Elector frescoed 
several ceilings in the castle at Schleissheim ; 
also painted oil paintings for churches and 
the court. In 1729 he went to London, 
where he found many patrons, and, besides 
painting frescos, was soon in great demand 
as a portrait painter ; through the Russian 
ambassador he also received orders for the 
court of St. Petersburg. In 1736 he was, for 
a short time, in Paris, and in 1739 returned 
to Venice a wealthy man. In 1747 he re- 
paired to Madrid as court painter to Ferdi- 
nand VI. In his time this master stood in 
high repute, but later was severely criticised ; 
he is in fact a weak follower of Sebastiano 
Ricci and Solimena, though a certain ease 
and mastery of treatment cannot be denied 
to him, which, wherever his art is confined 



to a decorative character, produces graceful 
effects. Works : Children playing with a 
Goat, Boys playing with a Lamb, Hampton 
Court ; Joseph in Pharaoh's Palace, Benja- 
min, St. Ferdinand receiving the Surrender 
of Seville, Portrait of an Infanta, Madrid 
Museum. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 631; Ccan 
Bennudez. 

AMSTERDAM MUSKETEERS. See 
Sortie. 

AMULIUS. See Fabullux. 

ANASTASI, AUGUSTE PAUL 
CHARLES, bora in Paris, Nov. 15, 1820. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Delaroche and 
Corot, entered the Kcole des Beaux Arts in 
1849. Style classical, inclining to the real- 
istic. Though his pictures are attractive, 
their treatment is decorative and often 
superficial, and their colouring mannered. 
Medal, 2d class, 1848 ; medal, 1865 ; L. of 
Honour, 1868. In 1869 he became blind. 
Works: The Last Rays (1850); Harvest- 
Time (1852); Huts in Normandy; The 
Seine near Chatou ; View near Bougival ; 
Banks of the Spree (1855) ; Banks of the 
Maas (1857) ; Lake in Tyrol, Return of the 
Herd (1861) ; Villa Pamfili (1864), Luxem- 
bourg Museum, Paris ; Sunset near Dord- 
recht ; Forum Romanum, Banks of the Tiber 
(1865). Others in museums of Marseilles, 
Lille, and Reunes. Meyer, Kunst Lex., i 
1 671; Miiller, 13; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), 
xvii. 13, 14. 

ANATOMIST, Gabriel Max, Private Gal- 
lery, Munich ; canvas. The anatomist, an 
elderly man with a thoughtful face, is 
seated in an arm-chair, gravely contem- 
plating the features of a fair young girl, 
whose dead body, lying upon the dissecting 
table beside him, is draped with a sheet, ex- 
cepting the face and neck which he has un- 
covered ; in the background a table, with 
books, papers, and several skulls upon it. 
Munich Exhibition, 1869. Art Journal 
(1881), 177. 

ANATOMY, LESSON IN, Rembrandt, 
National Gallery, Amsterdam ; canvas, H. 5 
ft 4 in. x 7 ft 1 in.; signed, dated 1632. 



37 



ANAXANDER 



Lecture by Nieolaas Tulp, of the Anatomical 
Institute, Amsterdam, to pupils gathered 
round a table, on which lies the dead body 
of a man which he has partly dissected. 
Eight figures, those iu foreground seen half- 
length, all portraits. Rembrandt's fame 
dates from this picture, which is remarkable 
in composition, expression, execution, and 
beauty of colouring. Painted for Guild of 



able mistake, in the inscription on his por- 
trait of a singer. Eustath. ad Od., p. 1622- 
38. 

ANCHER, ANNA (nee Brondum), born 
at Skagen, Denmark, Aug. 18, 1859. Figure 
painter, pupil iu Copenhagen of Kyhn, 
married in 1880 to genre painter Michael 
A. Works: Old Man cutting Pegs, Old 
Woman from Skagen (before 1880) ; Mother 
and Child, Coffee is ready 
(1881). Sigurd Muller, 8. 
ANCHER, MICHAEL 
PETER, born at Ruthsker 
Sogn, near Bornholm, Den- 
mark, June 9, 1849. Genre 
painter, pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy. Works : 
A Lying-in-Room in Jut- 
land (1874) ; Tavern Scene 
(1875) ; Fishermen launch- 
ing Lifeboat (1876) ; Lay 
Preacher conducting Di- 
vine Service on Skagen 
Beach (1877) ; Fisherboy 
returning from Seagull 
Hunt, Sunday Evening on 
the Beach (1878); Two 

Lesson in Anatomy, Rembrandt, National Gallery, Amsterdam. Youn^ Girls Bovs ftt Mpfll 

Surgeons, Amsterdam ; in their hall until (1879) ; Mother's Reading Lesson, Will He 
1828, when sold to king for 36,000 florins, clear the Point ? (1880) ; Figures in a Land- 
Etched by L. Flameng. Engraved by J. de scape, Old Man laughing, Infant Class at 
Frey. Similar subject previously painted Skagen (1881).- Sigurd Muller, 12 ; Illustr. 
by Aert Pietersen (1603), Thomas de Keyser Zeitg. (1882), ii. 163. 

(1619) ; Nieolaas Elias (1625), and Pieter j ANDERSON, A. A., born in New York, 

van Mirevelt (1617). Kugler (Crowe), ii. Aug. 11, 1847. Portrait and figure painter ; 
368 ; Ch. Blanc, Rembrandt, 379 ; Mollett, 




23 ; Smith, vii. 61 ; Fromentin, Les Maitres 
d'autrefois, 291; Vosniaer, 23, 425. 

ANAXANDER, painter, date unknown. 
Mentioned as by no means without reputa- 
tion. Pliny, xxxv. 40 [146] ; Brunn, 
300. 

ANAXANDRA, painter, daughter of Ned- 



studied in 1873 under Bonnat in Paris. 
Studio in New York. Ideal Works : Street 
Scene in Cairo (1875) ; Young Oriental 
(1876) ; Palm Sunday (1878) ; De la Richesse 
ii la Pauvrete, Cafe Lion d'Or, Paris (1883). 



ces, lived about 200 B. c. Worked iu Cicyon 
and in Egypt. Clem. Alexandr. Strom., iv. 
124 ; Brunn, ii. 291. 



. Portraits : Mrs. A. A. A. (Salon, 1877) ; E. D. 
Morgan ; Nathaniel Hawk ; H. B. Claflin. 

ANDERSSON, NILS, born in East Goth- 
land in 1817, died in Vaxholm, near Stock- 



holm, June 19, 1865. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of the Stockholm Academy ; 



ANAXENOR, painter, of Magnesia, date made an art tour through Europe in 1851, 
unknown. Name recorded, through a laugh- and studied in Paris in 1854-56. After his 



ANDES 



return he became a member of the Academy 
in 1857, and a professor in 1858. Works : 
Landscapes with animals, Stockholm Mu- 
seum ; Fowler Art Union, Ckristiania. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 681. 

ANDES, HEART OF THE, Frederic R 
Church, David Dows, New York ; canvas, H. 
G ft. 8 in. X 10 ft. Composition from studies 
made in the central mountainous regions of 
Ecuador. Painted in 1858 for Win. T. Blod- 
gett, N. Y., at the sale of whose collection it 
was sold for $10,000. On its first exhibition 
nu enthusiastic description of it was written 
by Theodore Winthrop : see his volume en- '. 
titled "Life in the Open Air." Art Journal, 
Oct., 1859 ; Harper's Weekly, May 7, 1859. 

ANDRADAE, Don ANDRES "DE, por- ! 
trait, Murillo, Earl of Northbrook, London ; ' 
canvas, H. 6 ft. C in. x 3 ft 10 in. Full 
length, standing ; about fifty years old, with 
dark doublet with slashed sleeves, knee 
breeches, white stockings, right hand on 
head of a dog seated by his side, left holding 
hat Bought from D. Antonio Bravo by Sir 
J. H. Brackenbury, British Consul at Cadiz ; 
sold to Louis Philippe for .1000 ; at his sale 
(1853), to Thos. Baring for 1020. Copy by 
Gutierrez in Acadernia S. Fernando, Madrid. 
Curtis, 292 ; Athenseum(1853), 623. 

ANDRfi (Andray), JEAN, bom in Paris, 
in 1662, died there in 1753. Studied at Rome 
under Carlo Maratti, in whose house he lived. 
Became a Dominican monk, and devoted him- 
self to painting religious subjects. Works : 
Jesus in Simon's House, Lyons ; Marriage at 
Cana and Multiplication of Loaves, Bor- 
deaux ; two pictures from life of St. Vincent 
de Paul, St Lazare, Paris. Larousse ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 684. 

ANDRE, JULES, born in Paris, April 19, 
1807, died there, Aug. 17, 1869. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Jolivard and Watelet. He 
worked for ten years (1845-1856) in the 
manufactory at Sovres, but painted pictures 
for the Salon at the same time. Medal, 2d 
class, 1835 ; L. of Honour, 1853. In 1848 
was conservateur of the drawings at the 
Louvre. Works: Bridge of Tauron (1855), 



bought by the State ; View in the Valley of 
the Streture (1863) ; Panels with Laud- 
scapes, Pavilion Mollieu, Louvre. 

ANDRE, MICHEL FRANCOIS, born in 
Aix, Provence, baptized May 22, 1700, died 
in Paris, April 13, 1783. Family name Bar- 
don. History painter, pupil of J. F. de Troy. 
In 1725 carried off second Academy prize for 
painting, then spent six years in Italy, where 
he painted a colossal picture for the City 
Hall (1729), now in the Aix Museum, and 
allegorical figures of the Virtues. In 1737 
made Associate of the Academy. Returned 
to Paris in 1752 and elected professor in 
the Royal Academy of Painting. Founded 
the Academy of Art at Marseilles alx>ut 1750, 
and was its director. Was also a poet and 
musician. Works: Christ Crucified, St Je- 
rome, Aix ; Tullia, Montpellier Museum. 
Meyer, Kilnst. Lex., i. 685. 

ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO. See C'aa- 
tagno. 

ANDREA DI CIONE. See Orcayna. 

ANDREA DA FIRENZE or DA FLO- 
RENTIA of Florence, 14th century. He 
began in 1377 the series of frescos in the 
Campo Santo, Pisa, illustrating scenes from 
the life of S. Ranieri, assigned by Vasari to 
Simone of Siena, which was finished in 1386 
by Antonio Veneziano C. & C., Italy, i. 
395, ii. 84 ; Meyer, Kiinst Lex., ii. 2 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 93. 

ANDREA DEL GOBBO. See Mario. 

ANDREA DEGLI IMPICCATL See 
Caslagno. 

ANDREA MICHIELI, called Vicentino 
(from Vicenza), born about 1539, died in 
1614. Venetian school ; supposed pupil of 
Jacopo Palma the younger ; nothing known 
of his life. Executed important works in 
the Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; among them are 
the Doge Ziani presenting the Son of Barba- 
rossa to the Pope, the Assault of Kara in 
1202, Otho presented to the Pope, Baldwin 
elected Emperor of the East by the Cru- 
saders, the Siege of Venice by Pepin, the 
Defeat of Pepin, the Victory of the Vene- 
tians over the Turks, the taking of CatUro, 



39 



ANDREA 



and the Entry of Henry III. into Venice. 
In the Venice Academy are his Deposition 
from the Cross and his Madonna iu Glory 
with Saints ; and others of his works are at 
Vicenza, Padua, Treviso, Eovigo, etc., and 
iu the Venetian churches of S. Zauipolo, 
S. Fantino, S. M. della Celestia, and the 
Frari. His compositions, though rapidly 
conceived and hastily executed, are well 
worthy of attention. In the latter part of 
his life Andrea went to Munich and deco- 
rated the Imperial Hall of the Palace with 
fourteen large paintings of sacred and class- 
ical subjects. Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 709. 

ANDREA MILANESE. See Solario, An- 
drea. 

ANDREA DA MURANO, end of 15th 
and beginning of 16th century. Venetian 
school ; pupil of Bartolommeo Vivarini, and 
thoroughly impressed with his style, though 
far inferior to him in the treatment of 
colour. Earliest authenticated work an 
altarpiece painted for S. Pietro Martire in 
Murano, parts of which are in the Brera, 
Milan, and the Academy at Venice. He 
painted in 1501 an altarpiece for the church 
of Trebaseleghe near Treviso, and in 1502 a 
Madonna with Saints in the church of Mus- 
solone near Asolo. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 77 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 707. 

ANDREA DA SALERNO, born at Sa- 
lerno about 1480, died iu Naples (?) about 
1545. Neapolitan school ; real name Andrea 
Sabbatiui. Started for Perugia to study the 
works of Perugino, but attracted by the 
fame of Raphael became his assistant ; and 
finally settled in Naples, where he painted 
many pictures. His best picture is the 
Adoration of the Magi in the Museum at 
Naples. Other works in various churches 
at Naples and Salerno. May be classed 
with Jacopo Siculo and Pacchia of Siena. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 106 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., vi. 40, ix. 115 ; Burckhardt, 683 ; 
Seguier, 184 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole napolitaine ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 373. 

ANDREA DEL SARTO. See Sarto. 



ANDREA DI VANNI or ANDREA VAN- 
NI, born in Siena in 1332, died in 1414. 
Sienese school ; in 1353 he was painting in 
partnership with Bartolommeo di Man- 
fredi. In 1368 he took part with those who 
expelled the nobles from Siena, and as a 
reward for his services was elected in 1370 
one of the great council. He was a gonfa- 
loniere in 1371, envoy to the Pope at Avig- 
non in 1372, went on a mission to Florence 
in 1373, and was envoy to the Pope at Na- 
' pies in 1384. Although Lanzi calls him 
" the Rubens of his time," painting appears 
to have been with him a business rather 
than a passion. Damaged remains of some 
of his frescos are iu the Miuutoli Chapel, 
Duomo, Naples, and in a chapel of S. Do- 
menico, Naples, and a portrait of St. Cather- 
ine of Siena in S. Domenico, Siena. There 
is also a Virgin Enthroned by him in the 
sacristy of S. Stefano, Siena, a picture of a 
common class, combining most of the de- 
fects of Bartolommeo di Manfredi. C. & 
C., Italy, ii. 152 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 
692 ; Milanesi, Siena e il suo Territorio, 
168 ; Kugler (Eastlake), i. 173. 

ANDREA VICENTINO. See Andrea 
Michieli. 

ANDREAE, KARL, born at Miihlheim, 
near Cologne, Feb. 3, 1823. History painter, 
pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy in 1839-44, 
under Karl Sohu and Schadow. From 1845 
to 1849 he studied in Rome ; was especially 
drawn towards Cornelius, whom he followed 
to Berlin, where he remained until 1865 and 
then settled in Dresden. In 1859 he founded 
in Dresden the Saxon Christian Art Union, 
of which he has been president since 1864. 
Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., i. 713 ; Miiller, 13 ; 
Christl. Kunstblatt (1869), 164. 

ANDREW AND JEROME, SAINTS, 
Tintoretto, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. x 8 ft. St. Andrew standing, hold- 
ing a cross ; St. Jerome reclining at his feet. 
Companion picture to St. George and the 
Dragon. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 296. 

ANDREW, ST., MARTYRDOM OF, 
Carlo Dolci, Palazzo Pitti, Floi-ence ; canvas, 



ANDKOKIUS 



H. 4 ft x 3 ft. 3 in.; signed, dated 164G. St 
Andrew kneeling, while an executioner re- 
moves his clothes ; at left, three others pre- 
pare the cross ; behind the saint, a centuri- 
on and soldiers ; in background, down the 
hill, the rabble. Painted for Marquis Carlo 
Gerini ; bought of his heirs by Grand Duke 
Ferdinand HL Engraved by G. Guadag- 
nini. Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PL 41. 

By MurUlo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. x 5 ft 3 in. The Saint, nearly nude, 
his white hair and beard streaming in the 
air, is fastened with cords to a saltier cross 
formed of the trunks of trees ; above, cher- 
ubs with the crown and palm of martyrdom ; ! 
beneath, executioners, two of whom tighten 
the cords on his feet ; at left, in front, a 
group of spectators ; at right, two soldiers 
on horseback, and others on foot Latest 
manner. Repetition : Sir Philip Miles, Bart, 
Leigh Court, Somerset (not mentioned by 
Waagen). Curtis, 209 ; Madrazo, 482. 

ANDROBIUS, painter, place and date un- 
known. Painted picture of Scyllis, the diver, 
cutting away the anchors of the Persian 
fleet Pliny, xxxv. 40 [138] ;Brunn, ii. 299. 

ANDROCYDES, Greek painter of Cyzi- 
cus, contemporary and rival of Zeuxis, about 
400-377 n. c. Plutarch mentions (Pelop. 25), 
a picture by him representing a cavalry skir- 
mish near Plattta shortly before the battle of 
Lcuctra, and another of Scylla surrounded 
by fishes. Athen. viii.; Plut. Sympoa, iv. 2, 
3, 8 ; Brunn, ii. 124 ; Pliny, xxxv. 36 [64]. 

ANDROMACHE AND PYRRHUS, P. N. 
Guerin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 10 ft, 7 in. x 
14 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 1810. Subject 
from Racine's Andromaque. At right, 
Orestes, standing, demands Astyanax in the 
name of the Greeks ; in centre, Pyrrhus, 
seated, stretches his sceptre over the child 
which Andromache, kneeling and in tears, 
puts under his protection ; at left, Hermi- 
one, jealous of her rival, goes out in anger. 
Acquired in 1822 for 10,000 fr. Engraved 
by Richomme. Reveil, ii. 95. 

ANDROMEDA, ancient picture. See 
Evanthus, Nicias. 



By J. J. //m wr, Mmr. Raffalovich, Paris ; 
canvas. Nude, standing, her head Iwnt 
down, hair dishevelled, chained to two iron 
rings fixed in the rock on the borders of 
the sea. L' Artiste (1882), i. 58. 

By Ritbfns, Blenheim Palace ; wood, H. 
ft. G in. x 3 ft. 1 iu. Chained to the rock, 
' in terror at the approach of tho monster ; 
over her head Cupid with his torch ; in dis- 
tance, Perseus, mounted on Pegasus, de- 
' scending from skies. Probably painted iu 
Italy. Waagen, Art Treasures, iiL 129. 

ANDROMEDA, RESCUE OF. See Per- 
seus and Andromeda. 

ANESI, PAOLO, flourished at Rome first 
half of the 18th century, born about 1700. 
Landscape painter ; frescoed in 1761, with 
Ant Bicchierai and Nic. LapiccoLo, three 
rooms in the Villa Albani, Rome, in the 
style of Locatelli. His pictures, which are 
rare, are often mistaken for those of Giov. 
Paunini. Four Landscapes, Hohenzolleru 
Gallery, Lemberg ; three others (1760), at 
Schloss, Sagau. Meyer, Kuust Lex., ii. 30; 
Nagler, Mon., i 497. 

ANGE, FRANCOIS DE L', Ixmi in Savoy 
in 1675, died April 17, 1756. History 
painter, pupil of Crespi, at Bologna, 170<i. 
Ho painted small, well-drawn, and bril- 
liantly-coloured pictures. Worked long for 
the Marchese LucatellL Entered Order of 
S. Filippo Neri in 1735. Meyer, Kiiust. 
'Lex., ii. 31 ; Fclsina Pittrice, iii. 271. 

ANGELI, BATTISTA. Sec M,,ro. 

ANGELI, FILIPPO D', called Filipixi 
Napoletano, born iu Rome near end of 
16th century, died in Naples alwut 1640. 
Neapolitan school ; pupil of his father, 
who painted in Rome for Pope Sixtus V., 
and afterwards was employed in Naples 
by Cardinal Pallotta. After his father's 
death Filippo returned to Rome to con- 
tinue his studies, devoting himself chiefly 
to landscape painting, but also painted 
architectural views with well-executed fig- 
ures. His pictures are commended for good 
aerial perspective and well-grouped acces- 
sories. Works : Satyr and Peasant, Louvre ; 



ANGELI 



Cavalry Skirmish, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Portrait of himself, Uffizi, Florence. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 43 ; Miindler, Essai, 26. 

ANGELI, GIULIO CESAKE, boru in 
Perugia about 1570, died there iu 1630. 
Bolognese school ; pupil of Lodovico Car- 
racci, whose influence is not very apparent 
in his paintings ; his drawing, especially of 
the nude, is negligent, while composition 
and colouring show talent. Works : Ma- 
donna with Saints, Perugia Cathedral. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 44. 

ANGELI, GIUSEPPE, born in Venice 
about 1710, died in 1798. Venetian school ; 
pupil of Gio. Batt. Piazetta, from whom he 
derived his blackish shadows and disagree- 
able yellowish tint. His drawing is skilful, 
composition vivid, and in his later period 
the colouring becomes more light and pleas- 
ing, but is lacking in strength. He painted 
a great deal in oil and fresco for the churches 
in Venice and neighbouring cities. Works : 
Little Drummer, Louvre ; Lot and Daugh- 
ters, Mentz Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
ii. 44 ; Zanotto, Storia, 102 ; Zanetti, Pit- 
tura Ven., 614. 

ANGELI, HEINEICH VON, born in 
Oedenburg, Hungary, Feb. 8, 1840. His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil in 
1854 of the Vienna Academy, then of Gus- 
tav Mailer, and with Loutze went to Diissel- 
dorf in 1856. In 1859-62 he was in Mu- 
nich, and in 1862 settled in Vienna, where he 
soon became the favourite portrait painter 
of the aristocracy. His portraits are dis- 
tinguished for truth, an air of high breeding, 
and elegance of arrangement, and his genre 
pictures are full of dramatic life. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1878. Professor in Vienna 
Academy since 1876. Works : Mary Stuart 
Sentenced (1857); Louis XI. and Francis 
de Paula (1859); Antony and Cleopatra 
(1860) ; Csesar and Antony ; Jane Gray be- 
fore Execution ; Avenger of his Honour 
(1869) ; Youthful Love (1871), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Italian Lovers (1872) ; Denied Abso- 
lution (1873) ; Portraits of Grillparzer, 
Alex. Dumas, Lady in Black (1872), Cos- 



tenoble (1873), Queen Victoria (1875), Em- 
peror of Austria, Emperor William, Crown 
Prince and Princess of Germany, Prince 
Frederic Charles, Baron Manteuffel, Prin- 
cess of Montenegro. Brockhaus, i. 641 ; 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 45 ; Miiller, 14 ; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 251 ; (1875), ii. 255 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, v. 143; Zeitsch. f. b. K, 
vi. iii. 147. 

ANGELICA AND ROGER, Jean Ingres, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 
3 in. ; signed, dated Rome, 1819. Roger, 
mounted upon a hippogriffe, plunges his lance 
into the monster, about to devour Angelica 
chained to a rock. Subject from Ariosto. 
Painted in 1819, sketches in Montauban 
Museum ; first sketch for figure of Angelica, 
retouched in 1867, Ph. Burty. Cat. Louvre. 

ANGELICO, Fra GIOVANNI, born in 
Vicchio in 1387, died in Rome in 1455, 
Florentine school ; real name Guido or Gui- 
doliuo di Pietro ; called also Fra Gio. da Fie- 
sole and II Beato (the Blessed); may have 
studied under Stamina, but was probably 
bred with his younger brother, Benedetto, 
in the monkish school of miniature. To- 
gether they took the vows iu 1407-8, either 
at Cortona or at the Dominican Convent, 
Fiesole, where they remained until 1409, 
when with the brethren who adhered to 
Gregory XH. they retired to the Dominican 
lonvent at Foligno, and lived there and at 
iortona until 1418. The next eighteen 
years were passed by Fra Angelico in Fie- 
sole, after which he spent nine years (1436- 
1445) in the Convent of S. Marco, Florence. 
Prom 1445 until his death, with the excep- 
tion of three months' (1447) employment in 
Orvieto, he resided in Rome, where he 
painted frescos in two chapels of the Vati- 
an for Eugenius IV., and his successor, 
Nicholas V. The residence of Fra Angelico 
at Foligno during an early period of his 
ife favoured his peculiar development. At 
Assisi, which lies at no great distance from 
Foligno, he saw and studied the works of 
Giotto, of whose school he may be called a 
follower, inasmuch as he exclusively devel- 



ANGELINI 

oped one of its chief elements ; while at Magi, St. Peter Martyr, S. Marco, Florence ; 
Foligno he perfected himself in the art of ; Frescos, Lives of SS. Laurence and Stephen, 
illuminating choir books and missals. Kvi- Chapel of St Nicholas, Vatican, Home (1450- 
dence of Angelico's training as a miniaturist ', 55) ; God the Father and Prophets (1447), 
is to be found in the dryness, precision, ceiling, Duomo, Orvieto ; Coronation of tho 
and extreme simplicity of his style, and in I'iryin, Miracles of St Dominic, Louvre, 
the thinness and meagreness of his execu- Paris ; Last Judgment, Berlin Museum ; 
tion. Mosolino may have taught him how Adoration of the Magi, Christ with Angels 
to make his draperies more transparent by and the Blessed, National Gallery, Lon- 
new methods of glazing, and how to use don. Vasari, ed. MIL, ii. 505, 527 ; C. 
other freshly discovered technical processes, & C., Italy, L 659; Marchesi, L 185; 
but nevertheless he remained a mystic in an Burckhardt, 530; Rio, ii. cap. xL; Life of 
age of growing naturalism ; a medievalist F. A, Arundel Soo. Pub. (London, 1850) ; 
in the first period of the Renaissance, work- Cartier, Vie de F. A. (Eng. trans., London, 
ing in the fifteenth century in the spirit of 18G5) ; Forster, Leben und Werke (Ratis- 
the fourteenth. Angelico with all his tech- 1 bon, 1859) ; Dohme, 2 L 
nical incompleteness has never been ex- ANGELINI, ANNIBALE, Cavaliere, born 
celled in depicting the seraphic. His angels at Perugia, Italy, in 1812. Landscape painter, 
are birds of Paradise, whose faces glow with pupil of Perugia and Florence Academies. 
beatitude, whose forms are just enough Professor at Academy of S. Luca, Rome ; 
like those of human beings to make them member of most of the Italian Academies, 
comprehensible, but not so much so as to Several orders. Works : Six Landscapes 
veil their divine nature. Another point in j with Architecture, Vatican, Rome ; Land- 
which Angelico stands alone is in his power scapes, Quirinal, ib. ; Ceiling Fresco, Palazzo 
of depicting in the faces of his saints and Doria, ib. Muller, 14. 
devotees the deep emotions which stir na- j ANGELO, MICHAEL. See Hwhelan- 
tures like his when absorbed in the contem- gelo. 

plation of divine mysteries. > The counte- ANGELS, FALL OF, Luca Giordano, Vi- 
nances of some of the great teachers and enna Museum ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 4 in. x 8 ft. 
founders of religious orders in his fresco of 10 in. ; signed, dated 1666. The Archangel 
the Crucifixion (after 1436), in the Chapter Michael, sword in hand, in a glory of angels, 
House, S. Marco, Florence, are instances in overcomes the rebellious angels and casts 
point. Some of the most remarkable of An- them down. Engraved by Eissner. GaL de 
gelico's works are : Altarpiece, Lunette over Vienne, ii. PL 89. 

portal, S. Domenico, Cortona (before 1418);! ANGELUS, J. F. Millet, M. Secretain, 
Predella of same, Annunciation, Gestl, Cor- 1 Paris ; canvas. Evening ; two peasants, a 
tona ; parts of an altarpiece, Perugia Gal- man and a woman, at work in a field, hear 
lery ; Predella of same, Vatican, Rome ; j the bells of the Angelus from a chapel seen 
altarpiece (after 1418, repainted by Lorenzo in the distance. They rise, stop work, and 
di Credi), S. Domenico, Fiesole ; Corona- standing bareheaded, recite with downcast 
tion of the Virgin (1433), Coronation of the eyes the words of the prayer, " Angelus do- 
Virgin, and many small panels (1436), Uflfizi, ; mini nuntiavit Mariw." Painted in 1859; 
Florence; Last Judgment, Paradise, and j sold to J.W.Wilson, Paris; at his sale (18* 
Deposition from the Crow, 35 subjects from 160,000 fr. Original design, W. T. Walters, 
Life of Christ, two altarpieces, Florence : Baltimore. Etched by C. Waltner ; by A. 
Academy ; Angels kneeling on Clouds, Turin ' P. Martial in Art Journal (1884), 3 
Gallery ; Crucifixion, Madonna della Stella, j ANGIOLETTO DA GUBBIO, of Gubbi. 
Coronation of the Virgin, Adoration of the j fourteeth century. Worked as a mosaist at 



ANGIOLILLO 



Orvieto (1321-1329), and afterward at Assisi. 
A series of small panels iu tempera, origin- 
ally parts of one picture, in the Ranghiasci 
Brancaleone collection, Gubbio, have been 
assigned to him. These have all the char- 
acter of the Urbinese school at the close of 
the fourteenth century. The figures are 
long and slender, but the heads are oblojig 
and the features small. The colour of the 
flesh is rosy, and the general tone gay and 
pleasing. C. & C., Italy, ii. 192; Meyer, 
Kttust. Lex., ii. 59 ; Cibo, 41. 

ANGIOLILLO DA ROCCADIRAME, 
flourished about 1450, died about 1460 (?). 
Neapolitan school ; pupil of Antonio Solario, 
and his assistant in many of his works. 
Painted altarpieces for churches in Naples. 
Lanzi, ii. 12 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole napolitaine. 
ANGUISCIOLA, SOFONISBA, born in 

Cremona 
about 1535, 
died in Gen- 
oa in 1G22 (?). 
Lombard 
school ; schol- 
ar of Bernard- 
ino Campi and 
of Bernardino 
Gatti ; attract- 
ed attention at 
Rome about 
1554 by her 
portraits, one of the earliest of which is 
perhaps her own likeness of that year in the 
Vienna Museum. She frequently represented 
herself in different situations, with brush 
and palette, Uffizi, Florence ; seated at the 
clavichord, Althorp, England ; at her easel, 
Keir, Scotland ; playing chess with two of 
her sisters, Eaczyuski Gallery, Berlin. In 
Spain, where she resided for several years 
and was raised to the rank of first lady in 
waiting to the Infanta Clara Eugenia, she 
painted portraits no longer extant of mem- 
bers of the royal family, and stood high in 
favor with Philip II., who made her splen- 
did presents and assigned her a considerable 
pension on the occasion of her marriage and 




return to Italy. Until the death of her hus- 
band she lived at Palermo, where she painted 
some religious pictures of merit inferior to 
her portraits, and later, having remarried, 
she settled at Genoa, where she was admired 
and followed for her talents and accomplish- 
ments. Her five sisters, Elena, Lucia, Mi- 

Sofonisba Genlisdona Cretnonese. 

nerva, Europa, and Anna Maria were all 
painters. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. C4; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vi. 498 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole lombarde; 
Wessely. 

ANIEMOLO (Ainemolo), VINCENZO, 
bora in Palermo, towards end of fifteenth 
century, died there in 1540. Neapolitan 
school ; the most noted artist in Sicily in the 
sixteenth century, holding some rank as An- 
drea da Salerno on the mainland. Probably 
visited Naples and studied Perugino and 
later went to Rome, where he studied Rapha- 
el's masterpieces and learned to imitate them 
in arrangement and expression. His works 
are chiefly in Palermo ; the best, a Madonna 
between four saints, in S. Pietro Martire. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 117; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
ii.71; De Marzo, Belle Arti in Sicilia, iii. 207. 

ANKER, ALBERT, bom at Anet, near 
Neufchatel, Switzerland, April 1, 1831. 
Genre painter ; pupil in Paris of Charles 
Gleyre and of the licole des Beaux Arts. 
His historic and domestic geni'e pictures are 
spirited and excellent in drawing, but some- 
what dull in colouring. Medal, Paris, 1866 ; 
L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Evening Prayer 
(1861), Neufchatel, City Museum ; Village 
School in the Black Forest, (1859) ; Luther 
at Erfurt (1861) ; Burial of a Child (1864) ; 
Children Bathing (1865) ; Writing Lesson 
(1866) ; Marionettes (1869) ; Soldiers nursed 
by Peasants (1872) ; The Snow-Bear (1873); 
Little Musician ; Engineer, Good Little Girl 
(1885). Other pictures at Berne, Bayonne, 
Auran, and Lille. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 
72 ; Miiller, 14. 

ANNA, BALDASSARE D', end of six-' 
teenth and beginning of seventeenth cen- 
tury ; of Flemish descent, but probably 



44 




ANNE 



born in Venice about 1560, died after 1G39. 
Venetian school ; pupil of Leonardo Corona, 
several of whose pictures he finished after 
his master's death in 1G05. His original 
works surpass those of Corona in softness of 
execution, but are inferior in design. His 
Annunciation of the Virgin over the high 
altar of S. M. Maddalena in the island of 
Zucca, and a large picture in S. M. Formosa 
at Venice are two of his best works. Meyer, 
Kdnst. Lex., ii. 75 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., is. 
36, xiii. 20, 43. 

ANNE PAGE AND SLENDER, Sir A. W. 
Calli-oll, S. Kensington Museum ; canvas, H. 1 
ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 4 in. Anno inviting Slender 
to enter the house ; in background, Simple. 
(Merry Wives of Windsor, Act i., Scene i.) 
Painters of Georgian Era, 74. 

ANNUNCIACA.O, THOMAZ JOSE D', 
bom at Ajuda, near Lisbon, in 1821, died 
in Lisbon, April 3, 1879. Animal painter of 
great repute in Portugal and Spain ; di- 
rector of Lisbon Academy, in whose gallery 
as well as in those of the palaces D'Ajuda 
and Das Necessidades, his principal works 
are to be seen. Others are in England, 
Brazil, and the United States. Works : 
Oxen Treading out Corn, View on the Tagus, 
View of the Penha de Franca, View of 
Amora, Shepherd's Rest (1852), Galena Na- 
cioual, Lisbon. Chronique des Arts (1879) f 
120. 

ANNUNCIATION (Fr. Aunonciation, Ital. 
Anminziazionc, Sp. Anunciacion, Ger. Ver- 
kiludigung), the announcement by the 
Angel Gabriel to the Virgin of the Concep- 
tion of Christ (Luke i. 26-31). Sometimes 
called the Salutation (Fr. Salutation ange- 
lique). 

By Mariotto Albertindli, Florence Academy; 
canvas, signed, dated 1510. Below, Gabriel 
making the announcement to the Virgin ; 
above, God the Father in a glory of angels. 
Painted for the Compagnia di S. Zanobi, 
Florence, whence passed to Academy. Much 
repainted. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 223 ; C. & 
C., Italy, iii. 487. 

By Mariotto Alberlinnlli, Munich Gallery ; 



wood, H. 5 ft 4 in. x 6 ft, 3 in. The Virgin, 
standing in an arched hall, receives the mes- 
sage from the angel who kneels ; above, tho 
Holy Ghost descending ; in niches at sides, 
SS. Sebastian and Ottilia. Painted in 
1513 (?). Bought in Florence in 1832 by 
King Ludwig I. A fine picture, but much 
repainted. Meyer, Kdnst Lex., i. 222 ; C. 
& C., Italy, iii. 490. 

By Fra Anyelico, Mus. di S. Marco, 
! Florence ; fresco ; others in Gesti, Cortoua ; 
S. Alessiuulro, Brescia ; Madrid Museum. 

By Fra Bartotammeo, Louvre ; wood, H. 
: ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. ; signed, dated 1515. 
The Virgin, with a book in her hand, en- 
throned in a niche, looking at Angel Ga- 
. briel who appears in the air bearing a lily in 
his hand ; at sides, stand SS. John Baptist, 
Paul, Jerome, and Francis, while SS. Mar- 
garet and Mary Magdalen kneel Painted 
j for the Dominicans of Florence ; belonged 
j to collection of Francis L Landou, Mus<k>, 
[xiL PI. 37; Marietta, Abecedario, ii. 76; 
Villot, Cat Louvre. 

By Lodovico Carracci, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 1 ft 8 in. X 1 ft 1 in. The Virgin, 
kneeling, receives tho announcement from 
Gabriel, who, kneeling upon clouds, points 
; upward where the opening heavens disclose 
I a choir of angels and cherubim. Collection 
of Louis XTV. Villot, Cat Louvre ; London, 
Musce, xiv. PL 63. 

By Carlo Crieelli, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, tempera, H. 6 ft 10 in. X 4 ft 10 
in.; signed, dated 1486. An elegant house 
and interior court ; the Virgin below in her 
chamber, kneeling, the Dove hovering over 
her head, which is illumined by a golden 
ray from a glory above ; opposite, in the 
open court, tho angel kneeling, with St 
Emidius, patron of Ascoli, at his side, pre- 
senting a model of the city. Presented, 1864, 
by Mr. Labouchere ; acquired by him from 
Lolly Collection; previously in Convent of 
SS. Aununziata, Ascoli. Richter, ItaL Art 
in Nat GaL, 83 ; Cat Nat GoL 

By Guido Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 10 
ft. 6 in. x 7 ft 3 in. The Virgin kneeling 



ANNUNCIATION 



with hands clasped ; at left, Archangel Ga- 
briel, borne on a cloud ; above, the Holy 
Spirit descending, surrounded by a choir of 
angels. Landon, Musee, v. PI. 53 ; Filhol, 
xi. PI. 32. 

By Murillo, Hospital of La Caridad, Se- 
ville ; canvas, H 5 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 2 in. 
The Virgin, on left, kneeliug beside a desk, 
in front of which is a basket containing linen 




Annunciation, by Fra Bartolommeo, Louvre. 

and scissors ; on right, the angel, in red 
robes, holding lilies in left hand, kneels on 
right knee, pointing to Dove ; above, cherubs 
and heads. Painted for Hospital about 1674. 
Repetition in Amsterdam Museum, formerly 
attributed to Rubens. Curtis, 144 

By Murillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 4 
ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. The Virgin kneeling at 
right, her left arm resting on desk, on which 
is a book and vase of lilies, and in front of 
which is a basket of linen ; at left, the angel, 



kneeling on right knee, pointing with left 
hand to the Dove ; above, cherubs and heads. 
Bought by Philip V. in Seville in 1729 ; Isabel 
Farnese Collection. Lithographed by M. 
Lavigne ; F. Decraene. Repetition of smaller 
dimensions in Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
lithographed by Huot. Curtis, 145 ; Mad- 
razo, 474. 

By Murillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 6 
ft. x 7 ft. 4 in. The Virgin 
kneeling at right beside a 
desk ; angel at left kneel- 
ing on left knee, pointing 
to Dove with right hand 
and holding lilies in left ; 
between them a basket of 
linen and a chair ; on each 
side, a column ; above, 
cherubs and heads. Col- 
lection of Charles ffl. ; for- 
merly in Academy of S. Fer- 
nando. Lithographed by 
A. Guglielmi. Curtis, 145; 
Madrazo, 4C8. 

By Murillo, Seville Mu- 
seum ; canvas, arched, H. 
10 ft, 6 in. x 7 ft. 2 in. 
The Virgin, on left, kneel- 
ing before a desk, looking 
up at angel who kneels on 
clouds, holding lilies in left 
hand and pointing with 
right to the Dove ; above, 
cherubs and heads ; centre 
foreground, a basket of lin- 
en. Painted about 1C76 
for the Capuchin Church, 
Seville ; placed in Museum in 1840. Repe- 
tition : Philip W. S. Miles, King's AVeston, 
Gloucestershire, England. Curtis, 144. 

By Murillo, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., 
London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 3 
in. The Virgin kneeling on left, her left 
arm on a desk ; on right, the angel, kneel- 
ing on clouds, holding lilies in left hand 
and pointing with right to Dove ; above, five 
cherubs. Sale of M. Rayneval, formerly 
French Ambassador to Madrid, in 1838 for 



ANNUNCIATION- 



IS, 000 fr. ; Aguado sale (1843), to Marquis brother, supposed to bo Filippo Benizi, 
of Hertford, 27,000 fr. Engraved by A, founder of the order ; in background, a 
Lefevre, J. Rogers, W. Hulland (varied) ; building. Painted about 1512 for the ab- 
lithographed by Andre, Lafosse, Blummer. bey of San Godenzo ; bought by Carlo do" 
Curtis, 145 ; Waagen, ii. 153. , Medici, who put in its place a copy, now in 

By Andrea Previtali, S. M. del Mesco, ' the Casa Visani at San Oodenzo. Much re- 
Ceneda ; wood, H. 8 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft 6 in.; ' painted. Engraved by Rosini. Vasari, ed. 
signed. The Virgin, at a 
desk in a room, bends hum- 
bly towards the angel kneel- 
ing with a lily in his hand ; 
through window is seen a 
cock attacked by a wolf. Ri- 
dolfi says that Titian ad- 
mired this picture, and fre- 
quently stopped on his way 
to Cadore to see it. C. & 
C., N. Italy, L; Ridolfi, Mara- 
viglie, i. 184. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 5 ft. 11 in. x5 ft. 6 in. 
The Virgin, standing before 
a reading desk, receives the 
announcement from Gabriel 
holding a lily and kneeling 
on a cloud ; in back-ground 
a building with an open por- 
tico, under which are three 
figures ; at the base, steps, 
on one of which sits a nude 
youth ; in the distance ruins 
and mountains, and in the 
air the Holy Ghost in form 
of a dove. Painted in 1512 
for Convent of the Osser- 
vanti outside the Porta San 
Gallo ; transferred on its de- 
molition in 1529 to S. Jacopo 
tra' Fossi ; placed in Pitti in 
162G. Engraved by Rossi. 
C. & C., Italy, iii. 553 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, 
v. 17 ; Gal. du'Pal. Pitti, i. PL 113. 




Annunciation, Lodovico Carried, Louvit. 

Mil., v. 17 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 578; Gal du 
Pal. Pitti, iv. PI. 113. 



By Andrea del Sarto, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- By Tintoretto, S. Rocco, Venice. " A dis- 
ence ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. G in. The agreeable and dead picture, having all the 
Virgin receives the announcement from faults of the age, and none of the merits of 
Gabriel in presence of the Archangel Mi- ! the painter." Ruskiu, Stones of Venice, iii. 
chael, with sword and scales, and a Servite 322. 



AXSALDO 



By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. "The most remarkable feature is 
the troop of cherubim flying through the 
roof." Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 326. 

By Titian, S. Niccolo, Treviso ; wood, 
figures of life size. The Virgin, half-stoop- 
ing, half-kneeling, listens tremulously to the 
announcement of Gabriel, who, with out- 



Carlo Crivelli, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort; 
Antonio and Pietro Pollajuolo, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Eogier van der Weyden, Antwerp 
Museum ; Garofalo, Uffizi ; Pinturicchio, S. 
M. Maggiore, Spello ; Correggio, Annun- 
ziata, Parma (fresco, lately removed) ; Gior- 
gio Vasari, Louvre ; Le Sueur, Louvre ; 
Charles Jalabert (1852). 



stretched wings and carrying the lily ofj ANSALDO, ANDREA or GIOVANNI 
purity, points upwards with his forefinger ; , ANDREA, born at Voltri in 1584, died in 
scene, the portico of a palace, with a moun- Genoa, Aug. 20, 1638. Genoese school ; 
tainous landscape beyond ; in the back- pupil of Orazio di Luca Cambiaso and stu- 
ground the donor, Canon Malchiostro, dent of Paolo Veronese, among whose fol- 
kneeling. Painted in 1519 for S. Niccolo. lowers he is generally classed ; painted nu- 
Injured by splits, cleaning, and repainting. , merous frescos in churches in Genoa, Voltri, 
C. & C., Titian, i. 222 ; Burckhardt, 719. Tortona, and Sarzano, and in palaces in 



By Titian, S. 
figures life size ; 



Salvatore, Venice ; canvas, Genoa. Chief work, the cupola of 1'Annuu- 



signed. The Virgin, kneel- 



ing, looks around at winged angel ; above, 
four angels and many cherubs flutter above 
the Dove, rays from which are darting to- 
wards Mary's head. Painted about 1565. 
Engraved by C. Cort. Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 
449 ; C. & C., Titian, ii. 353 ; Burckhardt, 
722. 

By Titian, Scuola di San Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas, figures life size. The Virgin kneels 
at her desk near a pillar ; angel to the left, 
with the lily in one hand, points with the 
other to the Dove descending. Painted 
about 1525 ; bequeathed in 1555 by Amelio 
Cortona to brotherhood of S. Rocco. C. & 
C., Italy, i. 304 ; Burckhardt, 717. 

Subject treated also by Niccolo Alunno, 
Perugia Gallery, Bologna Gallery; Fran- 
cesco Albani (2), Louvre ; Annibale Car- 
racci, Bologna Gallery ; Francesco Francia, 



ziata del Guastato. His best picture in oil 
is a Deposition from the Cross, Academy, 
Genoa. Lanzi, iii. 269 ; Ch. Blanc, iScole 
genoise ; Soprani, 141 ; Baldinucci, xi. 479 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 80. 

ANSANO or SANO DI PIETRO DI 
MENCIO or DOMENICO, born in Siena, 
Nov. (?), 1405, died in 1481. Sienese school ; 
pupil of Stefano di Giovanni (II Sassetta), 
who, dying in 1460, while painting a fresco 
of the Coronation of the Virgin over the 
Roman Gate of the city, left it to be finished 
by Sano. Sano has been called the Sienese 
Angelico from the sweetness and depth of 
his religious feeling, but his types are alto- 
gether different, his forms rounder, and his 
feeling less spiritual. The faces of his Ma- 
donnas 'and Saints are lit up by round- 
shaped, placid eyes of a gentle and almost 
pathetic expression. Tender in colour, and 



Bologna Gallery, Galleria Estense, Modena, most careful in execution, Sano had little 



Brera, Milan ; Dosso Dossi, Ferrara Gallery ; 
Lorenzo di Credi, Louvre, Uffizi ; Simone 
di Martino, Uffizi ; Timoteo Viti, Brera, 
Milan ; Federigo Barocci, Vatican ; Am- 
brogio Lorenzetti, Siena Academy ; Filippo 
Lippi, Palazzo Doria, Rome, Naples Mu- 
seum ; Munich Gallery, National Gallery, 
London ; Petrus Cristus, Madrid Museum, 
Berlin Museum ; Agnolo Gaddi, Louvre, 
Uffizi ; Taddeo Bartoli, Siena Academy ; 



feeling for light and shade. He is most 
agreeable in his miniatures where the figures 
are small and their defects in drawing less 
observable than in his panels, of which the 
Siena Academy contains many examples. 
Among these are a Virgin and "Saints (1444), 
and an Ascension of the Virgin (1479). His 
fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin (1445), 
in the Municipal Palace, Siena, and Madonna 
and Saints in a chapel of the Osservanza, 



ANSCHtTZ 



are the most important of his larger works 
in his native city. Many other pictures in 
European galleries. His skill as a miniatur- 
ist is shown in an Antiphonary, a Breviary, 
and a Psaltery in the so-called Library of 
the Cathedral at Siena. Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., vi. 183 ; Rio, i. 114 ; Milanesi, Siena, 
170. 

ANSCHUTZ, HERMANN, born in Cob- 
leutz, Oct. 12, 1802, died in Munich, Aug. 
30, 1880. History painter; pupil of the 
Dresden Academy, in 1820, under Hart- 
maim and Muthiii, and from 1822 in Ddssel- 
dorf of Cornelius, who called him to Munich 
in 18*26, with Eberle and Kaulbach, to paint 
the ceiling- frescos in the Odeon. In 1830- 
31 he studied antique wall-painting in Pom- 
peii, executed decorative works in Munich, 
and then devoted himself to painting relig- 
ious subjects in oil. In 1874 lie was ap- 
pointed professor at the Munich Academy. 
Works : Fresco paintings in the Odeon, Mu- 
nich (1827) ; Large altarpiece (1857), Cob- 
lentz ; Resurrection, Assumption (1861). 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 82 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvi. 8. 

ANSCHUTZ, THOMAS P., born in Ken- 
tucky, in 1851. Subject painter ; pupil of 
Thomas Eakins and of Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy. At present assistant professor of 
painting and drawing at the Pennsylvania 
Academy in Philadelphia. Works : Iron- 
worker's Noon-time (T. B. Clarke, New 
York) ; The Way they Live, Farmer's Wife 
(1880). 

ANSDELL, RICHARD, born in Liver- 
pool in 1815, died in April, 1885. Genre 
and animal painter ; self-taught, exhibited 
first at Royal Academy in 1840 ; removed 
to London in 1847 ; visited Spain in 1856 
and 1857 ; elected an A. R A. in 1861 and 
R A. in 1870. Pictures of animals painted 
between 1843 and 1850 show Landseer's in- 
fluence ; in 1850-60 painted chiefly domestic 
animals in association with Creswick, who 
added the landscape backgrounds. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1855. Works : Death of Sir 
W. Lambton at Marstoii Moor (1842) ; The 



Death (1843) ; Mary Queen of Scots return- 
ing from the Chase (1844) ; Fight for the 
Standard (1848) ; Mules Drinking Seville, 
Ploughing Seville, The Water Carrier 
(1857) ; Spanish Shepherd (1858) ; Sheep- 
Washing in Glen Lyon (1859) ; Lost Shep- 
herd, Buy a Dog Ma'am (1860); Hunted Slave 
(1861); Going to the Festa at Granada 
(1863); Highland Spate (1864); Poacher at 
Bay, Treading out the Corn (1865); Feeding 
the Goats in the Alhambra (1871) ; West 
Highlands (1872); Gathering the Herd, The 
Tethered Yowe (1873) ; Anxious Mother 
(1875) ; Wandering Minstrel (1876) ; Home 
of the Red Deer (1877) ; Stray Lamb, On 
Guard (1879); Farm of the Allminbra, Lucky 
Dogs, Morning Rehearsal (1881) ; Return- 
ing from Fair at Seville, Vega of Granada 
(1882) ; Water Carriers of the Alhambra, 
Hunting the Boar (1883). Meynell, 218; 
Art Journal (1860), 233 ; Sandby, ii. 346 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 82. 

ANSELMI, MICHELANGELO, born in 
Lucca in 1491, died in Parma after 1554. 
Lombard school ; called sometimes Michel- 
angelo "da Lucca," and oftener "da Siena." 
Pupil in Lucca of II Sodoma, and afterwards 
at Parma a disciple and imitator of Cor- 
reggio. In 1522, when Correggio was en- 
gaged to paint the cupola and the tribune 
of the Cathedral of Parma, Anselmi was se- 
lected, with Rondani and Parmigianino, to 
decorate the chapels, but the work was not 
begun until 1548. He painted at Parma fres- 
cos still extant, in the church and cloister of 
S. Gio. Evangelista, before 1522. Also two 
altarpieces in the Duomo, Parma, one dated 
1526 ; March to Calvary and Holy Family 
in Academy, 
Parma ; Ma- 
donna and 
S:iints, Lou- 
| vre; Corona- 
tion of the Virgin (fresco), in Madonna della 
Steccata, Parma. Lanzi, ii. 399 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole lombarde ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 86. 

ANSIAUX, JEAN JOSEPH ELfiONORE 
ANTOINE, born in Liege, in 1764, died 




ANSUINO 



in Paris Oct. 20, 1840. History painter ; landscape painter (died 1859) ; studied in 
studied at Antwerp and in Paris with F. A. i Paris from 1834 to 1840, when his first 
Vincent ; he attained distinction through his picture was exhibited at the British Insti- 
pleasing talent and a certain skill of treat- 1 tute. Influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite 
ment received several medals and the L. of school. Works : Lake of Killarney (1845), 
Honour Works : Kleber in the Battle of i bought by Prince Albert ; Sunday Morn- 
Heliopolis (1799); Sappho and Leda (1801);; ing (1846), Harvest Home (1847), Elm at 
Angelica and Medor (1810) ; Assumption j Eve (1850), Village Bridal (1851), Monarch 
(1812) ; Resurrection (1812) ; Conversion of | Oak (1852), Stratford on Avon (1853), Stone- 
St. Paul (1814), Liege Cathedral ; Richelieu henge (1859), Hesperus (1860), Relic of Feu- 
introducing Poussin to Louis XIII. (1817), , dal Time (1863), Rest for the Weary (1865), 
Bordeaux "Museum ; Rinaldo and Armida j Lerida Spain (1869), Night and Storm 
(1817); Education of Cupid, Judgment of (1871), Hazlewick Mill Sussex (1872), Even- 
Paris, Diana's Nymph (1819), Return of the song (1873), Incident by the Wayside (1878), 
Prodigal Son (1819), Town Hall, Liege ; St. Trawlers Morning (1883). Meyer, Kunst. 
Paul at Athens, St. JCtienne, Paris ; Scourg- Lex., ii. 101. 

ing of Christ, Metz Cathedral; Resurrection, ANTHONY, ST., TEMPTATION OF, 
. Arras Cathedral ; Pieter Brueghel, the younger, Dresden 
Adoration of the ! Gallery ; copper, H. 11 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. ; 
Magi, Mans Ca- signed, dated 1604. The Saint praying in 
thedral ; Erection his cell at left, is tempted by a beautiful 
of the Cross, Angers Cathedral ; St. John young woman, richly habited, who is ac- 
censuring Herodes, Finding of Moses, Lille companied by numerous demons ; at right, 
Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 90. a rocky country, with buildings in back- 

ANSUINO or ANSOVINO DA FORLI, ground. Reveil, xii. 837. 
Paduan school (1443-1460). Pupil of Squar- By Lucas van Lei/den, Dresden Gallery ; 
cione, co-labourer with Mantegna in the dec- wood, round, diam. 9 in. St. Anthony retired 
oration of the Eremitani, and with Pizzolo | apart to pray, is tempted by the Demon in 
and Fra Filippo in the chapel of the Podesta ' the form of a young and pretty woman, 
in the Santo. The Adoration of St. Christo- f richly dressed, holding in her hands a scep- 
pher in the Eremitani is his work. In it I tre and a casket, indicative of power and 

wealth. Reveil, xii. 844. 

By David Teniers, younger, Berlin Muse- 



Paduan art begins to present the character 
afterwards known as Mantegnesque, without 



showing much progress in the blending of um; canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 10 in. ; signed, 
light and shade, or feeling in the production ' dated 1647. The Saint kneels in anxiety be- 



of tone. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 312 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 91. 

ANTENORIDES or ANTORIDES, paint- 
er, mentioned as pupil of Aristides. Pliny, 
xxxv. [111]. 

ANTHONISSEN, H. (Hendrik?) VAN, 
flourished middle of 17th century. Dutch 
school ; marine painter in style of J. van 
Goyen and Jan Parcellis. Works in Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg and Prague Gallery. 

ANTHONY, MARK, born at Manches- 
ter, England, in 1817. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of his uncle, George W. Anthony, 



fore a stone altar, the corners of which are 
shooting out into heads of monstrous beasts ; 
beside him stands an old hag who is placing 
before him a Brabant beauty, offering a 
goblet of wine ; around him are imps in 
many forms, twitching at his garments and 
performing all manner of mad tricks, sing- 
ing, shouting, and screaming; and the air 
is filled with flying demons and reptiles. 
Kugler (Crowe), 326 ; Smith, ix. 408. 

By David Teniers, younger, Louvre, Paris ; 
wood, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft. 8 in. The Saint kneel- 
ing in a grotto before a book placed against 



50 



ANTHONY 



a skull on a rock, beside a crucifix and on 
hour-glass ; around him, demons in many 
forms. Collection of Louis XV1IL Villiot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

By David Tenierx, younger. Examples in 
Amsterdam, Dresden, Vienna, and Madrid 
Galleries, and in private collections. 

By Tintoretto, S. Trovaso (SS. Gcrvasio e 
Protasio), Venice ; canvas. The Saint sur- 
rounded by a demon, trying to pull off his 
mantle, and three female figures ; the one 



ft. 2 in. St. Anthony enthroned on 
with alabaster panels ; at sides. SS. Corne- 
lius and Cyprian ; in front, a page kneeling 
holding a large volume. From S. Antonio. 
island of Torcello, near Venice. Eastlake, 
Brera, 82 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 52. 

ANTHONY THE ABBOT AND PAUL 
THE HERMIT, Velagqun, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft 4 in. x G ft St. Anthony in 
white and St. Paul in brown robe, seated 
before a grotto, thanking Heaven for food 




Tmpttion o St. Anthony. Piter Bru.fh.l, th young.r. Otdn GMry. 



on the left, representing avarice, a bright- 
eyed Venetian beauty, has one hand in a' 
vase of coins, while she shakes golden ; 
chains with the other ; the one on the other 
side, a type of the lusts of the flesh, ap- 
pears to have been baffled for the time ; the 
recumbent one may possibly mean indo- 
lence. A picture of careful finish and noble 
workmanship. Engraved by Agos. Carracci 
(1582). Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 360 ; 
Bartsch, xviii. 69. 

ANTHONY THE ABBOT, ST., Paolo 
Veronese, Brera, Milan ; canvas, H. 9 ft x 6 



brought them by a raven ; at left, two lions 
making a grave, while St. Anthony is pray- 
ing over dead body of St. Paul Painted in 
1659 for Hermitage of S. Antonio at Buen 
Retiro. Original sketch sold for 25 at 
King Louis Philippe sale. Madrazo, 595 ; 
Curtis, 8. 

ANTHONY OF PADUA, ST., GLORY 
OF, Morel to, S. M. delle Grazie, Brescia; can- 
vas, life size. St Anthony of Padua with 
the palm, seated high up in a large niche, 
beneath which stand SS. Nicholas of Tolen- 
tiuo and Anthony the Abbot, the latter with 



81 



ANTHONY 



the staff and bell. Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 345; 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 405 ; Burckhardt, 736. 

ANTHONY OF PADUA, ST., AND IN- 
FANT JESUS, Murillo, Baptistery of the 
Cathedral, Seville ; canvas, H. 18 ft. x 10 
ft. 11 in. The Saviour, attended by cher- 
ubs and angels, descends in a glory to visit 
the Saint, who, kneeling in his cell, wel- 
comes him with outstretched arms; on a 
table, an open book and vase of lilies ; at 
left, cloisters seen through an open door. 
Murillo's largest painting and the first no- 
ticed in any printed book. Painted in 1656 ; 
in November, 1873, the picture was muti- 
lated by thieves, who cut out the figure of 
St. Anthony; the stolen part, much damaged, 
was offered in New York, Jan. 2, 1875, to 
William Schaus, the picture-dealer, who 
bought it for $250 and returned it to 
the Spanish consul, and it was reinstated in 
its old place with much ceremony, October 
30, 1875, after skilful restoration by Seiior 
Cubells. Lithographed by Aug. Lemoine. 
Curtis, 210 ; C. Boutelont, Estudio de 
S. Antonio de Murillo (Seville, 1875) ; A. de 
Latour, Comment un tableau de Murillo fut 
vole (Sceaux, 1878); Gaz. des B. Arts, Feb., 
1875; Graphic (London), June 30, 1875; 
Harper's Weekly, Feb. 20, 1875. 

By Murillo, Berlin Museum ; canvas, H. 
5 ft, 5 in. x 6 ft. 6 in. The Saint, kneel- 




St. Anthony of Padua, and Infant Jesus, Murillo, Berlin Museum. 

ing, presses his cheek to that of Infant 
Jesus, whom he holds in his arms ; five 



cherubs in a glory, and two others on 
ground at left ; background, hilly landscape. 
Probably picture taken by Soult in 1810, 
with aid of a troop of infantry, from Convent 
of S. Pedro de Alcantara, Seville ; bought in 
Paris in 1835. Engraved by A. H. Payne ; 
lithographed by Locillot de Mars ; centre 
only engraved by Caspar, Schultz, and L. 
de Mars. Study in bistre, J. C. Robinson, 
London. Eepetitions, with changes : Dud- 
ley House, London ; Henry Hucks Gibbs, 
London ; Muuro sale (1878), 2,362 (Earl 
of Rosebery?). Curtis, 212 ; Cean Berniu- 
dez, ii. 58 ; G. de Leon, ii. 198. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft 2 in. x 5 ft. 6 in. The 
Saint, full length, kneeling, encloses in his 
arms, without touching, the Infant Jesus, 
who stands on the open book of the Gos- 
pels placed on a rock, his right hand in 
benediction, his left in St. Anthony's right ; 
above, five cherubs. Belonged to M. Laneu- 
ville ; purchased in 1852 for 30,000 fr. 
Curtis, 214 ; Cat. Hermitage, 130. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. The Saint, three-cjuar- 
ters length, with lilies in right hand, kneel- 
ing and embracing the Infant Saviour, 
who stands on an open book, with his 
right hand on the Saint's head. Painted 
about 1676 for Capuchin Convent, Seville ; 
placed in Museum in 1840. Repetition : 
Condesa de la Mejorada, Seville. Curtis, 
212. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 5 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. The Saint, 
full length, kneeling, with lilies in right 
hand, embraces with left the Infant Sav- 
iour, who, seated on an open book, places 
his right hand on the Saint's head ; above, 
four cherubs. Painted about 1676 for Ca- 
puchin Convent, Seville ; placed in Museum 
in 1840. Probably finest of Murillo's pic- 
tures of the subject. Curtis, 211 ; Robin- 
son, Great Painters (London, 1877) wrongly 
called St. Francis. 

By Elisabetta Sirani, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 4 in. x 5 ft. 4 in. The In- 



ANTIDOTUS 



fant Jesus standing, nude , upon a richly 
draped altar, ou which are burning candles, 
lilies, and an open book, is embraced by St. 
Anthony, who kneels on a stool before it ; 
above, cherubs' heads in clouds, and, at 
right, an angel, with wings extended and 
hands raised. Formerly in S. Leonardo, 




St. Anthony of Padua, and Infant Jesui, Eliubetta Sirani, Bologna 
Galltry. 

Bologna. Engraved by G. Mitelli ; G. Ros- 
aspiua. Pinac. di Bologna, PL 37. 

ANTIDOTUS, pupil of Euphranor and 
master of Niciax, about 350-330 B.C. Be- 
longed to the Theban-Attic school, so called 
because it originated in Thebes and was 
transferred, after the decadence of that city, 
first to Corinth and then to Athens, always 
preserving its original traditions. His works, 
among which were a Warrior, a \Vrcstler,and 
a Trumpeter, were severe in style and elabo- 
rate in treatment. Pliny is the only an- 
cient writer who mentions him. Pliny, 
xxxv. 40 [130J ; Brunn, ii. 193. 



ANTIGNA, JEAN PIERRE ALEXAN- 
DRE, born in Orlt'ans, France, March 7, 
1818, died March 8, 1878. Religious and 
genre painter ; pupil of Paul Delaroche. 
Medals in 1847-48-51-55 ; Legion of Hon- 
our, 1861. Works : Birth of Christ (1841) ; 
Vision of Jacob (1842) ; Temptation of St. 
Anthony (1843) ; Women Bathing (1845) ; 
Storm (184C), Avignon Museum ; Conflagra- 
tion (1850) ; Inundation of the Loire (1852), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Children Dancing 
(1853) ; The Emperor visiting the Slate 
Workers of Angers during the Inundation 
of 1856 (1857), Angers Museum ; Scene of 
the Civil War, Steep Decline, Noon-day 
Sleep (1859) ; The Mirror in the Woods, 
Episode of War in La Vendee (1864), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Rising Sea, After the Tem- 
pest (1874) ; Yvonne and Marc, Two Voices 
(1875); Women and the Secret (1876); 
Game of Strength, Fire of the Fete of St. 
John (1877) ; L'Enfer (1878). Larousse ; 
Meyer, Kflnst Lex., ii. 103. 

ANTIOCHUS, GABINIUS, pupil of Sopo- 
lis, who is referred to by Cicero (Ad. Att, iv. 
16) in connection with a lawsuit of 53 B.C. 
Brunn, ii. 305. 

ANTIOPE, Gorreggio, Louvre ; wood, 
transferred to canvas, H. 6 ft 1 in. x 4 ft 
I A nymph, nude, asleep on blue drapery 
spread on the ground in a thicket, with 
Cupid sleeping on a lion's skin at her feet; 
near her head a satyr (Jupiter?) holding up 
the garment he has lifted from her form. 
Formerly called " Venus, a sleeping Cupid, 
and a Satyr." A masterpiece. Painted 
about 1521 (?) ; in Gonzaga Collection, 
Mantua, in 1627 ; Collection of Charles L 
of England in 1630, when valued at 1,000 ; 
sold to Jabach, and passed to Cardinal 
Mazarin and Louis XIV. Engraved by 
: Godefroy, Basan, Queverdo, Chataigner, 
| Massard, Blanchard. Meyer, Correggio, 
337, 491 ; Kiinst. Lex., L 437 ; Musee fran- 
9ais, i.; Landon, (Euvres, viii. PL 61 ; 
Musi'e, iv. PI. 1 ; Filhol, vi. PI. 415. 

ANTIPHILUS, pupil of C'teaidemus, latter 
half of fourth century B.C. Born in Egypt 



53 



ANTOLINEZ 



but went early to the court of Philip of 
Macedon. The latter part of his life was 
spent at the court of Ptolemy Soter, who 
is said to have had him sold into slavery 
for falsely accusing Apelles. Among his 
works were a portrait of the young Alexan- 
der ; a group of Athena, Philip, and Alexan- 
der ; a Dionysus ; an Hippolytus alarmed at 




Antiope, Correggio, Louvre. 

the bull ; a Cadmus and Europa, preserved 
in the Curia of Pompey, Rome ; a Satyr with 
a panther's skin, shielding his eyes from 
beams of light coming from a fixed point ; 
and a boy blowing the fire with his breath. 
Though he had great fertility of invention 
and skill in managing the effect of light, 
Pliny places him in the second rank of ar- 
tists ; but Quiutiliau mentions him among 



the most eminent painters of his age. 
Pliny, xxxv. 37 [114], 40 [138J ; Brunn, ii 
247. 

ANTOLINEZ, Don JOSE, born in Seville 
in 1639, died in Madrid in 1676. Spanish 
school ; pupil of Francisco Rizi ; became a 
good colourist, his best works being land- 
scapes with small figures. Works : Magda- 
len, Madrid Museum ; St. An- 
thony of Padua, Academia S. 
Fernando, Madrid ; Concep- 
tion, Madonna in Glory, Mu- 
seo Fomento, ib.; St. Jerome 
in a Cavern, Munich Gallery. 
Stirling, iii. 1106 ; Viardot, 
211 ; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 
115 ; Madrazo, 345. 

ANTOLINEZ Y SARABIA, 
Don FRANCISCO, born in 
Seville in 1644, died in Ma- 
drid in 1700. Spanish school ; 
nephew of Joso Antolinez ; 
studied law at first, but en- 
tered school of Murillo and 
became an amateur of consid- 
erable skill, painting especial- 
ly small religious subjects, 
sometimes on copper. Went 
in 1672 to Madrid, obtained a 
provincial judgeship, but did 
not hold it long, and returned 
to Seville and painted secretly 
while practising as an advo- 
cate. Works : Nativity, Seville 
Cathedral ; St. Joseph and In- 
fant Jesus, St. Joseph Dream- 
ing, Due de Montpensier, San 
Telmo ; Purification of Virgin, 
Adoration, Flight into Egypt, 
Annunciation, Marriage of Virgin, Museo 
Nacional, Madrid. Stirling, iii. 1108 ; Viar- 
dot, 212 ; Ch. Blanc, licole espagnole ; Mey- 
er, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 115 ; Curtis, 342. 
ANTON VON WORMS. See Woensam. 
ANTONELLO DA MESSINA, born in 
Messina about 1444, died in Venice about 
1493. Neapolitan school ; said to have been 
a pupil of Colantonio del Fiore, but this 



54 



ANTONELLO 



is doubtful. Probably first instructed in 
Sicily, where he worked for several years ; 
went to Naples and saw an oil picture 
painted by Jan Van Eyck in the possession of j 
King Alphonso of Aragon. Struck with the 
superiority of the new method he went to 
Bruges to study it, and in 14G5 returned to 
introduce it into Italy. After remaining at 
Messina for about seven years, he went to . 
Venice (1473) where he remained the rest 
of his life. That he there met Donienico ' 
Veneziano and taught him how to paint 
with an oil medium is doubtful, if not im- 
possible, as that artist died in 1461 at Flor- j 
ence, and as neither he nor any other Ve- ( 
netian artist until long after 1465 painted 
otherwise than in tempera. It is also well 
to say that while we have no positive evi- 
dence that Autonello went to Flanders, it j 
was not necessary for him to do so in order 
to learn the Van Eyck method, for not only 
were Flemish pictures brought into Italy, 
but several distinguished scholars and fol- 
lowers of Van Eyck, such as Roger van der 
Weyden, Memling, Hugo van der Goes, and 
Justus of Ghent worked in Italy about the 
middle of the fourteenth century. That 
Antonello was acquainted with the oil 
method, and influenced by the Flemish 
school, is evident in his earliest extant work 
(1465), The Saviour, National Gallery, Lon-' 
don, as in a bust picture of the same sub- 
ject (1470), in the Gaetano Zir Collection, 
Naples. A progress in technic is visible 
over these pictures in an altarpiece (1472) 
at S. Gregorio, Messina, which shows the 
same Flemish influence in drapery and use 
of gold. After 1473, when Antonello went 
to Venice, he painted three small portraits, 
one of which is lost, one was lately disposed 
of at the Hamilton sale, and one (1475) is 
in the Louvre, Piiris, where it shines as a 
masterpiece of truth to life, intensity of ex- 
pression, and exquisite finish. The small 
Crucifixion, Antwerp Museum, belongs to 
the same year. The portrait of a young 
man in the Berlin Museum (1478) is one of 
the finest of Autonello's pictures, and the 



first in which the flesh tints are clear 
like those of Gio. Bellini, instead of be- 
ing of the reddish hue common to the 
Flemish school. The much restored St. 
Sebastian, Stiidel Institute, Frankfort, be- 
longs to the same late Venetian period 
of Antonello's career, as do the Madonna 
(?) and the St Sebastian, Berlin Gal- 
lery. There seems to be no doubt that 
this remarkable painter adopted and taught 
the Flemish system of painting, which grad- 
ually spread over Italy and raised oil to a 
level with fresco painting, and that through 
his manner and mode of representation he 
had great influence upon the technical 
development of Italian Art. As a portrait- 
painter he was tacitly admitted by his con- 
temporaries to be the originator of the 
models improved in subsequent years by the 
higher genius of Bellini, Giorgione, and Ti- 

* ANTONEILVSMESSANE?IS*P* 

tian. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 118 ; Eastlake, 
Materials, 192 ; Lermolieff, 416 ; C. & C., 
N. Italy, ii. 77 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., ii. 563, 575 ; 
Gaz. des Beaux Arts (1862), 12 ; Ch. Blanc, 
cole napolitaine ; Liibke, Gesch. itnl. Mai., 
i. 558. 

ANTONELLO DA PALERMO, of Paler- 
mo, beginning of sixteenth century. Nea- 
politan school ; son of the painter Antonio 
Crescenzio. In 1527 he was assistant to the 
sculptor Gazino, and in 1537 and 1538 he 
made copies of Raphael's Spasimo, now pre- 
served in the Monastery of Fazello near Sci- 
acca and in the Church of the Carmelites in 
Palermo. The only composition by which 
we can judge him is a Madonna dated 1528 
in La Gangia of Palermo. It is of an at- 
tractive design and carefully finished, but 
faulty in execution. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
116 ; Di Marzo, Belle Arti in Sicilia, iii. 
157 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 128. 

ANTONELLO DE SALIBA, of Messina, 
end of fifteenth and beginning of sixteenth 
century ; either born in Messina or early 
settled there. Neapolitan school ; formerly 
held to be identical with Autouello da Mes 



ANTONINUS 



sina, but now recognized as an independent 
artist. The earliest work bearing his signa- 
ture is a Madonna in S. M. del Gesu, near 
Catania, dated 1497. His drawing is care- 
ful and accurate but hard, his style is 
marked by timidity of chiaroscuro and mo- 
notony of flesh-tint, and his use of gold 
superabundant. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. Ill ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 127. 

ANTONINUS, ST., GLOEY OF, Lorenzo 
Lotto, S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice ; canvas, 
arched, figures life size ; signed. The beat- 
ified bishop of the Florentines enthroned, 
ministered to by angels ; in the sky behind, ! 
a glory of cherubs ; beneath the throne, the 
agents of his charity stoop from a gallery to j 
give the maidens in waiting their marriage 
portions. Painted about 1530. Vasari, ed. 
Mil , v. 250 ; C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 521 ; Kio, 
iii. 291. 

ANTONIO DI CATALANO, the elder, 
born at Messina, lived 1560-1630. Roman 
school ; pupil of Guinaccia ; studied and 
copied, in his native town, works of Poli- 
doro da Caravaggio ; afterwards taken by a 
Jesuit artist to Rome, where he studied 
chiefly Raphael and Baroccio ; later became 
acquainted with the works of Correggio in 
Parma. Went thence to Bologna, where he 
kept close alliance with Francesco Albani ' 
and Girolamo Boniui, and, owing to his re- 
lation to the Roman school, was called H 
Romano. He laboured in Bologna for a 
number of years, and is said to have been 
called to Malta, whence he returned to Mes- 
sina. His pictures please through their 
graceful figures and harmony of colour, but 
are open to criticism for the great sameness 
in the angels' faces. Works in the Museum 
and churches of Messina. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., ii. 157 ; Malvasia, ii. 189, 196. 

ANTONIO DI CATALANO, the younger, 
born at Messina, lived 1585-1666. Neapoli- 
tan school ; son and pupil of the above, but 
influenced by Giovanni Simone de' Co- 
mande. He painted a great deal and rapid- 
ly, which was then considered as indicative 
of genius. Few of his works are noteworthy. 



Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., ii. 158 ; Kunstblatt 
(Stuttgart, 1825), 230. 

ANTONIO DALLA CORNA, of Cremona, 
latter half of fifteenth century. Lombard 
school. The only picture which bears his 
name is dated 1478, and is in the Bignami 
collection at Casal Maggiore. In this he 
claims to be a pupil of Mantegna, though 
he really caricatures the disagreeable feat- 
ures of that master. Crowe and Cavalca- 
selle think him identical with Antonio da 
Pavia. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 73, 440 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 144. 

ANTONIO DA CREVALCORE, flour- 
ished about 1480. Bolognese school ; fruit 
and flower painter. A half-length Madonna, 
Berlin Museum, is signed by him and dated 
14 [9] 3 (?). His style in it is not unlike that 
of Bernardino of Perugia. C. & C., N. Italy, 
i. 556 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 143. 

ANTONIO DA FERRARA, born about 
1370-80, died after 1439. Lombard school ; 
real name Antonio Albert! ; pupil of Agnolo 
Gaddi ; married in Bologna Calliope, sister 
of Timoteo Viti. Only one signed picture 
by him exists, a Madonna Enthroned (1439), 
in the sacristy of S. Bernardino, outside 
Urbino. It is a rudely executed tempera, 
by an artist of second or third rate talent. 
C. & C., Italy, ii. 225 ; Meyer, Kiinst Lex., 
ii. 136. 

ANTONIO EL INGLES, portrait, Velas- 
quez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. 
x 3 ft. 4 in. A dwarf with long hair, in 
brown dress and wide lace collar, standing 
beside a black and white mastiff ; in right 
hand, his plumed hat. Latest manner. 
Etched by B. Maura ; Laguillermie. Cur- 
tis, 33 ; Gal. Esp.; Madrazo, 631. 

ANTONIO DA MURANO, flourished 
1444-1451. Venetian school. Sansovino 
says he lived till 1470, in which year he 
decorated parts of S. Apollinare, Venice, 
but this is doubtful. He worked at first in 
partnership with one Giovanni Alamanno 
(the German), otherwise called Giovanni da 
Murano. Ridolfi calls him a brother of An- 
tonio, thus making him a member of the 



66 



ANTOXIO 



family known later as the Vivarini ; but 
Brandolesi has proved that no Giovanni 
Vivarini existed ; and Antonio, though a 
brother of Bartolommeo Vivarini, is not 
known to have used the name Vivarini, 
which is first given to him by Sansovino. 
An Adoration of the Magi at Berlin, painted 
by Antonio between 1435 and 1440, shows 
that he was an accomplished painter before 
he entered into partnership with Giovanni 
Alamanno. In 1440 they founded a work- 
shop at Murano, where during the next 
seven years they executed many altarpieces, 
chiefly for churches in Venice. They clev- 
erly absorbed the principles taught by Gen- 
tile da Fabriano and Vittor Pisano (Pisanel- 
lo), and though they did not add much to 
previous experience as regards contrast by 
light and shade, they imbued their works 
with a more tender spirit and gave greater 
softness to their figures. The earliest work 
attributed to them is a Coronation of the 
Virgin, dated 1440, in the Academy of Ven- 
ice, a repetition of which, dated 1444, is in 
S. Pantaleone, Venice. In S. Zaccaria, 
Venice, is a large picture in three compart- 
ments, signed and dated 1445. Two other 
altarpieces in the same church are similarly 
signed and dated. A Madonna with Saints 
in the Academy, Venice, is dated 1446. An- 
tonio afterward worked with his brother 
Bartolommeo, who took the name of Vivarini 
in his later years. In 1450 they painted the 
Madonna of the Carthusians, Bologna Gal- 
lery. Other examples by them are the 
Glorification of St. Peter in the Public Gal- 
lery of Padua (1451 ?), and two pictures of 
Saints in the Sacristy of S. M. della Salute, 
Venice. Antonio's later works, executed 
alone after 14G4, are comparatively feeble. 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 19 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., ii. 140 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; 
Sansovino, Ven. Desc., 185, 269 ; Lermoheff, 
395, 396. 

ANTONIO DA NEGROPONTE, first half 
of fifteenth century. Venetian school ; imi- 
tated the eccentric style of Jacobello del 
Fiore. His colossal Virgin in Adoration, in 



San Francesco della Vigna, Venice, almost 
his only example, is lavishly decorated with 
low embossments and plastic ornaments. 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 11; Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., 

I ii. 143. 

ANTONIO DA PAVIA, of Pavia, begin- 
ning of sixteenth century. A superficial 

! follower and imitator of Mantegna, who is 
registered among the workmen in the Pa- 
lazzo del T6 in 1528. A signed Madonna, 
tempera on canvas, is in the Museo Virgili- 
ano, Mantua. Crowe and Cavalcaselle think 
him identical with Antonio dalla Corna. 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 419, ii. 73, 440 ; Meyer, 
Kfinst. Lex., ii. 155. 

ANTONIO VENEZIANO, born in Venice, 
latter half of fourteenth century. Floren- 

! tine school. Vasari says he died in 1384, 
aged seventy-four, but documents prove that 
he was Ii ving two years later. Family name 
probably Longhi, baptismal name Antonio 
Francisci de Venetiis. According to Vasari, 
he was a pupil of Agnolo Gaddi, but his style 
is rather that of Taddeo Gaddi. Earliest 
record of him is in the archives of Sieua, 
where he worked in 1370 with Andrea Vanni 

' on the ceilings of the cathedral. In 1386-7 
he painted frescos in the Campo Santo, Pisa, 
representing scenes in the legend of S. Rai- 

' neri. Vasari calls it the finest and best work 
in the building. The parts not obliterated 
appear to justify the assertion and to prove 
that Antonio was no common artist. The 
frescos of the ceiling in the Cappellone dei 
Spaguuoli, Sta. Croce, may possibly be his 
work. Naturalism was the moving principle 
of his art, and as he pursued the imitation 

' of nature in many moods, he forms an im- 

1 portant link in the chain which unites Or- 
cagna to Masolino, Angelico, and Masaccio. 
C. & C., Italy, i. 480 ; Vasari, ed. Le MOD., 
ii. 171; Siret, 956 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 
132. 

ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA, MEET- 
ING OF, ^ma-Tadema, Samuel Hawk Col- 
lection, New York. Cleopatra rowed in her 
barge across the harbour at Alexandria to 
meet Marc Antony, whose barge swings 



B7 



ANTROPOFF 



alongside, his rowers tossing their oars in 
salutation as the Queen approaches. She is 
reclining on an ivory throne under an awn- 
ing of cloth of gold wreathed with roses ; 
on her left crouches a negress a sistrum 
player, on her right a white flute player ; on 
a lower stage three priests of Isis burn in- 
cense. Antony rises from his seat with an 
expression of mingled surprise and anger as 
Cleopatra affects not to see him. Grosvenor 
Gallery, 1883. Portfolio (1883), 42 ; Athe- 
nseum" Jan. 13, 1883, 60. 

ANTROPOFF, ALEXEI PETEOVICH, 
born in 1716, died in 1795. Eussian his- 
tory and portrait painter. Decorated a 
church in Kiev in 1752, painted the ceilings 
in the Palace Golowin, Moscow, in 1756. As 
a portrait painter imitated Rotari, and was 
popular in St. Petersburg. He founded 
there the first school for the painting of 
altar pictures, and was among the painters 
sent to Moscow to represent the festivities 
at the coronation of Catherine II., whose 
portrait he painted. Also painted portraits 
of Peter HI. (17C1) and of Peter the Great 
(1769). Among his religious pictures are 
The Trinity (1784), and Paul and Mary Mag- 
dalen (1788). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 161 ; 
Brunn, ii. 286. 

ANTUM, AART VAN, flourished about 
1604-8. Dutch school ; marine painter in the 
manner of Hendrik Vroom. Works : Naval 
Battle (1604), Berlin Museum ; Marine 
(1608), National Gallery, Amsterdam ; do., 
Madrid Museum.- Meyer, Konigl. Mus., 15. 

APATURIUS, from Alabauda, Caria, 
fourth century B. c. Scene painter, said to 
have shown great skill in decorating the 
small theatre at Tralles. Vitruv., vii. 5, 4. 

APELLES, most famous of Greek paint- 
ers, pupil of Ephorus, of Pamphilus, and of 
Melanthius ; born probably in Colophon, 
Ionia, though Pliny and Ovid call him of 
Cos, and Strabo and Lucian of Ephesus ; 
flourished 352-308 B. c. The best part of 
his life was spent at the court of Philip and 
Alexander the Great, of both of whom he 
painted many portraits. Alexander forbade 



any one else to paint his likeness. Apelles 
probably accompanied Alexander into Asia, 
for he painted at Ephesus several pictures 
of him, one of which, for the rebuilt Temple 
of Diana, represented him with thunderbolts 
in his outstretched hand. This, which Plu- 
tarch saj's was the best portrait of the king, 
gave rise to the remark that Philip's Alexan- 
der was invincible and Apelles's inimitable 

! (Alex. 4 ; Fort. Alex. 2). In another picture 
Alexander was represented in a triumphal 
chariot followed by a chained figure of War ; 
and in a third, walking with Castor and Pol- 
lux and the Goddess of Victory. Pliny says 
(xxxv. 36) the last two pictures were placed 
by the Emperor Augustus in the Forum, 
and that Claudius had the head of Augustus 
substituted iu each for that of Alexander. 

I Apelles painted portraits also of Clitus, An- 
tigonus, Neoptolemus, and other followers 
of Alexander, and a nude picture of Cam- 
paspe or Pancaste, Alexander's favourite con- 
cubine. Pliny says that the artist fell in 
love with her and that the king gave her to 
him ; also that she was his model in his 
painting of Venus Anadyomene; but Athen- 
seus (xiii.) avers that the courtesan Phryne, 
whom the artist had seen at Eleusis going 
naked into the sea at the Festival of Posei- 
don, served him in this capacity. This, the 
masterpiece of Apelles, represented the god- 
dess rising from the sea. In it the painter 
reached the acme of that grace and sensuous 
charm for which his art was especially dis- 
tinguished. The picture was painted for 

1 the temple of .ZEsculapius at Cos. Augustus 
paid 100 talents for it and took it to Rome, 
where he dedicated it in the Temple of Ju- 
lius Caesar, who claimed descent from the 
goddess. There it decayed in time, as no 
one dared to repair it, though Dorotheas 
made a copy of it. Pliny says that Apelles 
was painting another Venus for the people 
of Cos, at the time of his death, which would 
have excelled the first. Among his other 
works were a King Archelaus on horseback, 
a Diana and her Nymphs sacrificing, an An- 
cscus, and a Hercules. After the death of 



68 



APOLLO 



Alexander Apelles went to Egypt, where lie 
was favourably received by King Ptolemv, 
notwithstanding the jealousy of the court 
painter Antiphilus, who accused him of tak- 
ing part in a conspiracy. The charge being 
disproved, Antiphilus was sold into slavery 
and Apelles took a painter's revenge in au 
allegorical picture of Calumny, from Lu- 
cian's minute description of which Jlotticelli 
painted a well-known picture now in the 
Uffi/.i. It was perhaps when on his way to 
Alexandria that Apelles visited Rhodes to 
see Protogenes. Finding him absent from 
his studio the visitor, says Pliny (xxxv. 30) 



and tho next day the cobbler proceeded to 
1 criticise the leg, whereupon tho artist bade 
him stick to his last. From this arose tho 
saying "Ne sutor ultra crepidom " (Let not 
the shoemaker go beyond his last). Once, 
too, when Alexander the Great attempted to 
j criticise one of his pictures, Apt-lies advised 
him to be silcut,as the colour-boys were laugh- 
ing at him. Apelles was uusuqwssed in dili- 
gence, and never allowed a day to pass with- 
out its accomplished task. Ho carried his art 
to tho highest degree of excellence, surpass- 
ing all who hail preceded him. Ionic elegance 
and charm were blended in his stylo wifh 




Apollo and Daphn, ft. Albtni, Louvrt. 



drew with a brush upon a panel a line so 
fine that Protogenes, when he saw it, knew 
that only Apelles could have done it Draw- 
ing a still finer line, ho went away again, and 
Apelles on his return divided the two with 
one even more subtile. Seeing this, Proto- 
genes owned himself conquered and went 
to seek his guest Apelles shamed the 
Khodians into recognizing the merits of his 
great rival by offering an immense sum for 
his pictures, and said that he himself ex- 
celled him in one thing, viz., that he knew 
when to stay his hand. Among other anec- 
dotes of him told by Pliny (L c.) is that of 
the cobbler who detected a fault in a shoe 
of one of his figures. Apellcs corrected it, 



Doric severity and correctness, and it is tho 
| universal testimony of ancient writers that 
his best work exhibited an indefinable grace 
| of conception and refinement of tnte and feel- 
ing such as that of no other painter ever hail. 
APOLLO AND DAPHNE, Fr. Albani, 
Louvre ; copper, H. OJ in. x 1 ft. 2 in. 
Daphne closely pursued by Apollo, flies 
toward her father, tho river Peneus ; above, 
Cupid, in a cloud. Daphne was changed 
into a laurel as Apollo was about to seize 
her. Villot, Louvre; Filhol, v. PL 338; 
Lamlon, Must-e, x. PL f>C. 

By Ant I'ollajttolo, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, H. 11 in. x 7J in. Daphne in 
the embrace of the god, who has just caught 



APOLLO 



her as she flies toward the Peueus ; her arms 
have already sprouted into laurels. Cat. 
Nat. Gal. 

APOLLO AND MARSYAS, Claude Lor- 
rain, Earl of Leconfield ; canvas, H. 3 ft 9 
in. x 5 ft. Liber Veritatis, No. 95. Engraved 
by Muller. Collections Passart, Haye, 
Sir T. Coke. Another Apollo and Marsyas 
(Liber Veritatis, No. 45), formerly in Crozat 
Gallery, now in Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. Pattison, Claude Lorrain, 231, 246. 




Apollo and Marsyas, Guercino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 



By Guercino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 11 in. X ft, 7 in. Apollo 
nude, is flaying Marsyas, who lies upon his 
back with his hands bound to a tree upon 
which are suspended a violin and bow ; be- 
hind Apollo, two figures, partially concealed, 
are looking on. Engraved by Massard ; L. 
Martelli. Wicar, ii. Part 17 ; Gal. du Pal. 
Pitti, i. PI. G. 

By Guido Eeni, Munich Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. Apollo flaying 
Marsyas ; the lyre of the god hangs upon 
a tree. Figures life size. 

By Raphael, Camera della Segnatura, 



Vatican ; fresco, on ceiling, Apollo seated, 
with his lyre in his hand, is ordering a 
shepherd to flay Marsyas, who is bound to 
a tree ; another shepherd holds a laurel 
crown over Apollo's head. Painted in 1511. 
The victory of Apollo is that of true over 
false art which merits punishment. En- 
graved by R Wibert. Passavant, ii. 89 ; 
Miintz, 347. 

By Jtaphael, Louvre, Paris ; wood, H. 15^ 
iu. x 11^ in. Apollo standing with a staff, 
listens disdainfully to the 
strains of a pipe played by 
Marsyas, who is sitting on a 
bank ; background a land- 
scape with river, hills, and a 
town. Painted in Perugia 
in 1504-5 (?). Collection of 
John Barnard ; sold in 
1787 to M. Duroveray, at 
whose death, bought in 
1850, by Mr. Morris Moore, 
of Rome, who sold it to 
the Louvre in 1883 for 
8000. Authenticity de- 
nied by Waagen, Passavant, 
and Mundler, but their 
opinion not generally ac- 
cepted. Has been attribu- 
ted to Mantegna, and with 
more reason to Timoteo 
Viti. C. & C., Raphael, i. 
209 ; Passavaut, ii. 354 ; 
Muntz, 224 ; Grayer, Raph- 
et 1'Antiquitt' 1 , ii. 421 ; Eitelberger, 



ael 



Rafael's Apollo und Marsyas, Vienna (1860) ; 
Battc, Le Raphael de M. Morris Moore, Paris 
(1859) ; Graphic, London, May 26, 1883. 

APOLLO AND THE MUSES. See Mu- 
ses, Dance of. 

APOLLODORUS, of Athens ; old Attic 
school ; about 408 B.C. Dr. H. Bruun re- 
gards him as the first real painter, inas- 
much as he no longer marked contours by 
actual lines, but represented objects as they 
appear to the eye. He changed the rigid 
architectural character of painting, distin- 
guished before him by a formal and rhyth- 



Al'OU.ONIO 



mical arrangement of figures, by treating 
his backgrounds in perspective, by connect- 
ing instead of juxtaposing tones, and by re- 
lieving the flat appearance of painted sur- 
faces by a skilful use of light and shade. 
He is classed with Ayatharchus as a skio- 
grapher or shadow painter. Pliny (xxxv. 
30) says that he opened the doors of art 
through which Xe.urix entered, meaning 
that he discarded the lint tints and shadow- 
less outlines in use by 1'vlyijnntu.a for 




Apollo and Marsyas, Raphael, Louvre, Paris. 



blended and harmonious tints, chiaroscuro 
effects, and other modem pictorial artifices. 
Among his works were an Ajax of Locris on 
a ship struck by lightning, and a Priest 
Praying. Bruun, ii. 51. 

APOLLONIO, GIACOMO, born at Bas- 
sano in 1582-4, died there, Dec. 1, 1G54. 
Venetian school ; history and landscape 
painter, pupil of Girolamo and Giambattista 
Bassano, and a very happy imitator of their 
style. Works in Italian churches. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 178. 

APOLLO, TEMPLE OF, Claude Lorrain, 
formerly at Leigh Court ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 9 



I iu. x 8 ft 3 in. ; signed, dated 16(53. A moun- 
tainous, richly-wooded landscape, with sea 
in distance ; in foreground, the Temple of 
Apollo, in which an ox is being sacrificed. 
One of the master's finest pictures. Liber 
Veritatis, No. 157. Formerly in Palazzo Al- 
tieri, Koine, with its companion, Landing of 
*Knean, which see, for history. Engraved in 
Miles Gallery, and by W. Woollet (1700). 
Sketches in British Museum and at Wind- 
sor. Pattison, Claude Lorraiu, 220, 232 ; 
Waogeu, Treasures, iii. 180. 

APPEUT, EUGfiXE, born in Angers, 
France, Dec. 28, 1814, died at Cannes, March 
8, 18G7. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Ingres. Medal of the third class, 1844 ; 
honourable mention, 1855 ; Legion of Hon- 
our, 1859. Works : Sarah and the Poachers 
(1841) ; Nero gazing at the Corpse of Agrip- 
pina (1842) ; Vision of SL Ovens (1844), 
bought by State ; Assumption (1845) ; De- 
scent from Cross (1N46) ; Death of St Jo- 
seph (1847) ; An Amour (1850) ; An Informer 
(1852); Adoration of Magi (1853), belongs 
to State ; Sisters of Charity in the Crimea 
(1855) ; Woman Spinning (1857) ; Sedairo 
cutting Stones, The False Scent (1861); 
Venice (1863) ; Pope Alexander HI, Peo- 
nies (1864). Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 
187. 

APPIAX, ADOLPHE, born in Lyons, 
France, in 1819. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Corot and Daubigny ; belongs to the 
most recent school of French realists, who 
care more for play of light and shade and 
general effect than for the working out of 
details. Celebrated for his charcoal draw- 
ings. Works: Cattle Market (1865); Bois 
des Roches (1870) ; Environs of Monaco 
(1873), Luxembourg Museum ; Luxembourg 
Souvenir (1873) ; Panton atBeaulieu (1874) ; 
Environs of Corqiu'ranne (1883). Meyer, 
Kiiust. Lex., ii. 187 ; Muller, 16. 

APPIAN WAY IN THE TIME OF 
AUGUSTUS, G. R. C. Boulanyrr, Mrs. A. 
T. Stewart, New York ; canvas. The Appian 
Way, with tombs and trees iu background, 
ami passing in front horsemen, chariots, 

GI 



and ladies in Sedan-chairs borne by slaves 
and preceded by naked Africans in silver 
collars and badges, who beat off the 
beggar boys ; in foreground, light, flower 
girls seated. Photogravure in Art Treasures 
of America. 

APPIANI, ANDREA, born in Milan, 
March 23, 1754, died there, Nov. 8, 1817. 
Pupil of De Giorgi, and of Giudici ; then 
studied in Bologna, Parma, Modena, and 
Florence. Afterward went repeatedly to 
Rome, studied Raphael's frescos, and be- 
came the first fresco painter of his time. 
After a brilliant career, during which he 
produced many meritorious decorative works 
for churches and palaces in Milan, he 
painted remarkable portraits of prominent 
men, repeatedly that of Napoleon, who 
greatly favoured him. He was struck by 
paralysis in 1813, and losing his pension 
afterword, through the Emperor's deposi- 
tion, fell into penury, and died of a second 
paralytic stroke. The paintings he executed 
in 1808-12 in the Royal Palace, Milan, the 
best specimens of his art, show good compo- 
sition, correct forms and grace of motion, 
bright colouring and a masterly freedom of 
treatment. Works ; Napoleon on the Dan- 
ube, Versailles Gallery ; Napoleon sur- 
rounded by allegorical figures, 
Leuchteuberg Gallery, St. 
Petersburg ; Parnassus, in f res- 
co> R oya i p a i ace) Milan. Mey- [ 
er, Kilnst. Lex., ii. 100 ; G. Beretta, Opere 
di A Appiani (Milan, 1848). 

APPIANI, ANDREA, born in Milan 
about 1812, died there, Dec. 18, 1867. His- 
torical genre painter ; pupil of Frangois 
Hayez, obtained several medals from the 
Accad. S. Luca in Rome, and in 1838 the 
great prize of the Milan Academy. Works : 
Petrarch at Avignon, Italian Emigrant Girl 
Caressing the National Colours (1855). 
Vapereau (1865), 53. 

APPIANI, FRANCESCO, born at Aucona 
in 1704, died at Perugia, March 2, 1792. 
Pupil of Domenico Magatta, then influenced 
by Francesco Trevisani, and later by Fran- 



[ cesco Mancini. Grief over his wife's death 
induced him to leave his native town for 
Perugia, of which city he received the free- 
j dom, Dec. 2, 1773, and where his principal 
works may be seen in different churches. 
He was one of the most remarkable fresco 
painters of that time. Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., 
H. 188. 

APSHOVEN, THOMAS VAN, born in 
Antwerp, baptized Nov. 30, 1622, died in 
1664 or 1665. Flemish school ; genre and 
still-life painter, pupil of Teuiers, the 
younger, whom he imitated, and many of 
whose works he copied successfully ; master 
, of the guild in 1645-46. Works : Rustic 
Scene (1656), Darmstadt Museum ; Still- 
! life, Dresden Gallery ; Guard-room, Prague 
Gallery. His brother, Ferdinand, the 
younger (baptized March 1, 1630, buried 
April 3, 1694), was also a pupil and even 
more successful imitator of Teniers, to 
whom several of his pictures are probably 
attributed. Works : Rustic Interior, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Interior with two Figures, 
Dunkirk Museum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 
197. 

ARAGO, ALFRED, born in Paris, died 
in 1883. Historical genre painter, pupil 
of Delaroche. Medals : 3d class, 1846 ; L. 
of Honour, 1854 ; Officer, 1869. Works : 
Charles V. at San Yuste (1841) ; Recreation 
of Louis XL (1846); Petrarch at Virgil's 
Tomb (1847) ; Abraham viewing Sodom 
and Gomorrah (1852). Vapereau (1880), 
64. 

ARALDI, ALESSANDRO, born in Parma 
about 1465, died there in 1528-30. Lom- 
bard school ; pupil of Cristoforo Caselli ; 
first public work an altar-piece painted 
in 1500 for S. Quirino, Parma. Among 
his existing works are a Madonna (fresco), 
Duomo, Parma, dated 1509 ; Annunciation 
(1514), Pnrma Gallery, and frescos in S. 
Paolo and S. Sepolcro, Parma. He had no 
originality, and shows a decided leaning 
to the Umbrian models of Francia. C. & C., 
N. Italy, i. 589 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 
209. 



G'i 



A1U5ASIA 



ARBASIA, CESARE, born at Saluzzo 
about middle of IGth century, died in 1614. 
Italo-Spauish school; employed in Spain, 
where he executed frescos for churches and 
palaces, in 1579-81-8(3 ; must have re- 
turned to Italy about 1595, as he was one 
of the originators and first members of the 
Accad. S. Luca in Home, founded in that 
year. Later painted frescos in Saluzzo and 
neighbourhood, which, according to Mdn- 
dler, suggest the manner of Federigo Zuc- 
caro, and of B. Lauiui. Meyer, Kilust. Lex., 
ii. 213 ; F. Quilliet, Arti Italiaue in Ispagna 1 
(Rome, 1825), 33. 

ARBELA, BATTLE OF, Albrecht Alt- 
(Jorfcr, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 4 ft. 11 : 
in. x 3 ft. 8 in. ; signed, dated 1529. A ' 
spirited battle scene, with thousands of 
small figures on foot and mounted ; in centre 
Alexander and Darius ; background, a land- 
scape with mountains and sea. Painted by 
order of Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria. Carried 
to France in 1800 ; nt St. Cloud a favourite 
picture of Napoleon I. ; returned in 1815. 

By Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 15 ft. 5 in. x 41 ft. 4 in. Accord- 
ing to Q. Curtius (IV.), the soldiers of 
Alexander saw, in the height of the battle, 
an eagle hovering over the head of Alex- 
ander, which Aristander, the chief sooth- 
sayer of the king, pointed out as an infallible 
omen of victory. The Macedonians pressed 
on with renewed vigor, and Darius, who was 
mounted upon a lofty chariot, seeing all 
hope lost, sought safety in flight. Series of i 
History of Alexander. Engraved by G. 
Audran (1G74), D. Bertaux. Filhol, iii. PL 
151 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

ARBO, PETER NIKOLAI, born in Dram- 
men, Norway, in 1831. History painter ; 
pupil, in Copenhagen, of Helsted, then from 
1852 at the Dtisseldorf Academy under Kail 
Sohn ; studied in Paris in 1861-70. He is \ 
a knight of the order of Vasa and director ! 
of the drawing school at Christiania. Works : 
The Walkyries, The Wild Chase, Asgard's 
Reigen, Christiauia Gallery; Ingeborg, 
Bjarke's and Hjalte's Death, The Day, 



Scenes from the Thirty Years' War, do. from 
Time of Louis XIV., Battle of Waterloo. 
' Mailer, 16. 

ARBORELIUS, OLOF PER, born in 
Orsa, Dalecaiiia, Nov. 4, 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil of the Stockholm Academy, 
where he won in 18(59 a prize and went in 
1870 to Diisseldorf and later to Rome. 
Paints chiefly Swedish and Italian scenes. 
Works : Cliffs on Swedish Coast in a Storm 
| (1874), Stockholm Museum ; Scene from a 
Bear-Hunt. Mailer, 16. 

ARCADIA, SHEPHERDS OF (Bergers 
d'Arcadie), Nicolas Powvin, Louvre, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft 9 in. x 4 ft Allegory illus- 
trative of the brevity of life. In the middle 
of a desert plain, with mountains in back- 
ground, three shepherds and a young girl, 
in antique costume, have paused before a 
tomb shaded by trees ; at left, the oldest, 
kneeling, points with his finger to the words 
cut in the stone : ET IN ARCADIA EGO. 
Collection of Louis XTV. Engraved by 
Picart le Romain ; M. and A. ReindeL Rep- 
etition in Devonshire House, London, has 
tomb at one side. This engraved by Ravenet. 
Filhol, ii. PL 109 ; Landon, Musce, vL PL 
37 ; Mus6e royal ; Villot, Cat Louvre. 

ARCANGELO, ANDREA DI CIONE. 
See Orcayna. 

ARCESILAUS, Greek painter, son of the 
sculptor Tisicrates, of Sicyon, about 286 ac. 
Painted a picture of the Athenian gen- 
eral Leostheues, which Pausanias (i. 1, 3) 
saw in the Pineus. Pliny, xxxv. 40, 42 
[146]. 

ARCESILAUS, Greek painter, of Paros, 
probably fifth century B.C. Said by Pliny 
(xxxv. 39 [122]), to have been, with Pol>j<j- 
notus, one of the earliest painters in encaus- 
tic. Perhaps identical with the sculptor, 
son of Aristodicus, on whom Simouides 
wrote an epigram (Diog. Laer. Arces. xxi.). 
A painter of the same name is mentioned by 
Athenanis (x. p. 420), as a tutor of Apelles. 
Brunn, ii. 55. 

ARCHER, JAMES, born in Edinburgh 
in 1824. Genre uiid portrait painter ; 



ARCHERS 



pupil of Thomas Duncan in the Trustees' 
Academy. Edinburgh ; exhibited in 1849 
first picture, Last Supper, at Royal Scottish 
Academy ; elected an A.RS.A. in 1850, 
and RS.A. in 1858. Removed in 1862 to 
London, where he still resides. Visited the 
United States in 1884. Works: Time of 
War (1857) ; Hidden Sorrow (1858) ; Fair 
Rosamond and Queen Eleanor (1859) ; 
Playing at Queen (18G1) ; Puritan Suitor 
(1865); Times of Charles I. (1867); Against 
Cromwell (1869) ; Sir Patrick Spens (1870) ; 



of the company of cross-bow men, on some 
public occasion ; capital picture, many fig- 
ures. Formerly in Hesse-Cassel Collection ; 
then at Malmaison, whence passed to Her- 
mitage. Smith, iii. 265. 

ARCHERY PRIZES, AWARD OF. See 
Syndics of the Arquebusiers. 

ARCHIGALLUS, picture. See Parrha- 
sius. 

ARCO, ALONSO DEL, born in Madrid 
in 1624, died there in 1700. Spanish school ; 
born deaf and dumb ; pupil of Pereda, 




Shepherds of Arcadia, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris. 



Henry Irving as Mathias in "The Bells" 
(1872) ; Irving as Charles I. (1873) ; Spring- 
tide (1875) ; Little Bo-Peep (1876) ; Rose 
(1877) ; Trysting Tree (1878) ; Sacrifice to 
Dionysus (1879) ; Betrothal of Burns and 
Highland Mary (1881) ; Peter the Hermit 
preaching the First Crusade (1883) ; St. 
Agnes, in the Second Century (1884) ; por- 
traits of James G. Elaine, Andrew Carnegie 
(1884). Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 248. 

ARCHERS OF ANTWERP, David Ten- 
iers, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 5 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. Represents a meeting 



whence commonly called el Sordillo (the 
dumb) de Pereda. Was a good portrait 
painter. Works in churches of S. Juan do 
Dios, S. Andres, S. Felipe, S. Bernardo, 
and S. Sebastiano, Madrid ; Child Jesus 
sleeping under the Cross, Academia S. Fer- 
nando ; several pictures in Museo Nacional, 
Madrid. Stirling, iii. 1006 ; Meyer, Kunst. 
Lex., ii. 221. 

ARDICES, painter, Corinth, early period. 
Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 5 [15]), in con- 
nection with Telephan.es of Sicyon, as first 
to use shading lines within outline drawings. 



64 



AREGIO 

AREGIO, PABLO DE, beginning of is lost, but a canvas in Palazzo Giustiniani, 
10th century. Spanish school ; painted in Padua, attributed to Tintoretto, may pos- 
1506, with Francisco Neapoli, scenes from sibly J>o the original study. Aretiuo is the 
the life of the Virgin on twelve panels of Pilate in the Knv Homo of Titian, Vicuna 
the wings of the high altar of Cathedral at Museum. C. fi. C.. Titian, ii. 10H, i. 319 ; 
Valencia, for which the two were paid 3000 Gal. du PaL Pitti, i. PL 111 ; Burckhardt, 
ducats. Their manner resembled so much 720 ; Lavice, 77. 

that of Leonardo da Vinci that they were ARETUSI. See /'ellegrino da Modena. 
called his pupils. They also painted part ARETUSI, CESARE, born in Modena, 
of the walls in fresco. St. Catherine, col- second half of 10th century, died there in 
lection of Don Pedro Pelegner, Madrid. 1012. Bolognese school ; muter unknown, 
Stirling, i. 97 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 232 ; but style formed after that of Bagnacavallo. 
Tilbinger Kunstblatt (1823), 33. Highly successful jK)rtrait painter in the 

AREGON, Greek painter, of Corinth, manner of Correggio, whose pictures be 
early period. Strain > says (viii. 3, 12) that copied Ix'tter than any other painter of the 
his picture of Diana riding upon a griffin time. Worked much in collaboration witli 
was preserved in the Temple of Artemis Giambattista Fiorini, pupil of B.ignacavallo 
Alphieoiiia, near Olympin. Bruun, ii. 5!)7. and assistant of Zucchero, who was a better 

ARELLANO, JUAN DE, born at Sautor- designer than Aretusi, but inferior as a col- 
ca/. in 1014, died in Madrid, Oct. 12, 1G70. ourist. They painted together a chapel in 
Spanish school ; scholar of Juan de Solis, S. Petrouio, Bologna ; Deposition from the 
but unsuccessful until thirty-six years old, Cross, Saints Benedict and Francis de Paul, 
when he began to copy the flower pieces of in S. Benedetto ; Nativity of the Virgin, in 
Mario del Fiori (Nuzzi), and finally won S. Giovanni in Monte. Malvasia, i. 24!t ; 
wealth and fame as a painter of flowers, Lanzi, ii. 410, iiL 50 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole bo- 
fruits, and birds. Six flower pieces in Mad- lognese ; Meyer, Kdnst. Lex., ii. 239 ; do., 
rid Museum. Decorated the sacristy of the Correggio, 107, 301, 310. 
church of St. Jerome at Madrid with genii, ARGONAUTS, EXPEDITION OF, pict- 
flowers, etc. Works in Academia S. Fer- ures. See Cydiax, Miron. 

ARGUNOFF, IVAN, flourished about 
middle of 18th century. Russian portrait 
l )ainter - instructed by foreign masters, 
enjoyed considerable reputation in St. 
uando and Museo Nacional, Madrid. Petersburg. His Cleopatra is in the Mos- 
Stirling, ii. 718; Ch. Blanc, Kcole espag- cow Museum. Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., ii. 247. 
nole ; Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., ii. 232 ; Madrazo, ARIADNE, Luca Giordano, Dresden Gal- 
348. , lery ; canvas, H. 6 fi x 8 ft in., signed. 

AEELUUS, Roman painter, first century Ariadne, abandoned by Theseus, whose ship 
B.C. Profaned his art, Pliny says (xxxv. 37 is seen in the distance, sleeping (nude) on 
[119]), by painting goddesses in the like- the shore of Naxos ; at left, a crowd of Bar- 
ness of his mistresses. Brunn, ii. 305. chantes and satyrs announce the coming of 

AEETINO, or D'AREZZO, SPINELLO. Bacchus. Engraved by F. Busan. Gal. 
See Spindli, Spinello. Roy. de Dresdo, i. PI. 39. 

ARETINO, PIETRO, portrait, Titian, Pa- } ARIADNE AND BACCHUS. See Itac- 
lozzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 ! chits. 

in. x 2 ft. in. Painted in 1545. En-! ARLVS FERNANDEZ, ANTONIO, born 
graved, reversed, by F. Petrucci and T. Ver in Madrid early part of 17th century. 
Cruya An earlier portrait by Titian (1527) died there in 1084. Spanish school : pupil 

66 




ARIEKTI 



of Pedro de las Cuevas ; painted when 
fourteen years old pictures for high altar of 
the Carmelites in Toledo, and at twenty-five 
reckoned one of the best painters in Madrid. 
Employed with Camilo, Alonzo Cano, and 
other distinguished artists to paint the por- 
traits of the kings of Spain, when the an- 
cient hall of the kings in the Royal Palace 
was renovated. Executed many pictures 
for churches and convents. Works : Trib- 
ute Money, Charles V. and Philip II., Mad- 
rid Museum. Died in want at the general 



ward director of the Bologna Academy. 
, Works : Beatrice di Tenda, Jeremiah, Ores- 
tes, Phaedra and Hippolytus, Francesca da 
Rimini, Origin of the Lombard League 
(Quirinal, Rome) ; Portrait of Bellini (Naples 
Conservatory of Music) ; Barbarossa (Royal 
Palace, Turin). Kunst-Chronik, viii. 466. 

ARIOSTO, portrait, Titian, Cobham Hall, 
England ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 1 in. ; 
signed. The poet is walking, the upper 
part of his body seen in profile behind a 
parapet, the face turned toward the specta- 




Ariadne, Luca Giordano, Dresden Gallery. 



hospital of Madrid. Stirling, ii. 715 ; Viar- 
dot, 284 ; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 248 ; Ma- 
drazo, 350. 

ARIENTI, CARLO, born in Milan in 
1800, died in Bologna, April 3, 1873. 
History painter, pupil of the schools of the 
Brera, Milan ; was professor at the Milan 
Academy when called to Turin by King 
Charles Albert, who ordered him to paint 
for the staircase of the palace a victory of 
the Italians over the Austrians. This exiled 
him from Milan, but lie was made president 
of the Academia Albertini, Turin, and after- 



tor. History unknown ; not certainly a 
portrait of Ariosto, but may be the picture 
of the Lopez collection, sold in London in 
time of Charles I.; and this in turn may 
have been the portrait which Bartiffalcli says 
was sent to Padua in 1554 by Ariosto's son 
Virginio. The copy formerly in the Palazzo 
Manfrini passed to Barker collection in 1857, 
and was afterward sold. Other copies in 
the Viceuza Gallery, in the Tosi collection 
at Brescia, and in the Butler-Johnstone col- 
| lection, London. C. & C., Titian, i. 197 ; 
Baruflaldi's Ariosto, 251. 



ARIO8TO 

ARIOSTO, portrait, Titian (?), National j ARISTOCLEIDES, Orock peinter, date 

Gallery, London ; wood, transferred to can- unknown. Decorated Temple of AI* .11, i at 

vas, H. 2 ft. 8J in. x 2 ft Half length, in Delphi. Pliiiy, xxxv. 40 [138] ; 11 R, 

a crimson and purple dress ; an open but Schoru, 225 ; Brunn, ii. 208. 

sensual face, the hair falling in masses on AHISTODEMUS, painter, of Curia, about 

the neck, one hand playing with a rose, the 200 a c, Philostratus refers to him more 

other holding a pair of gloves. Answers especially as a writer on painting (Prooein. 

the description given by Ridolfi in 1G4G of Icon. p. 3, Didot), but says ho painted 

a picture in the Renier collection, Venice, after the manner of Eumelus. Brunn, ii. 

Might have been painted by Pellegrino da 309. 

San Daniele or Dosso Dossi (C. & C.). Ac- ARLSTOLACS, Greek painter, son and 

quired by National Gallery in I860. C. & pupil of i'uttxiax, about 308 a c, Pliny says 

C., Titian, i. 197 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglic, i. 210 ; (xxxv. 40 [137]) his style was severe, and 

Campori, Raccolta di Cataloghi, 442. mentions among his works an Epamiuondati, 

AllLSTARETE, painter, daughter and a Pericles, a Medea, a Theseus, an emblem- 

pupil of Xcun-ltHx. Pliny (xxxv. 40, 43 [147J) atical picture of the Athenian People, and 

says she was noted for her picture of J3scu- a Sacrifice of Oxen. Brunn, ii. 154. 

lapius. Brunn, ii. 300. ARISTOMACHUS or ARISTOMENES, 

ARISTLEUS, painter, Thebes, Theban painter, of Thasos. Vitruvius (iii. Prooem. 

Attic school, father and master of Nicoma- 2) says through adverse circumstances ho 

chit*, lived probably in the first part of the did not obtain renown equal to his merit, 

fourth century a c. Pliny xxxv. 3C [108J ; Among his works was n votive picture of 

Brunn, ii. 159. three women, dedicated by them in the 

ARISTIDES, Greek painter, of Thebes, Temple of Aphrodite as a thank-offering 

Theban Attic school, brother and pupil of for wedded happiness. He is called also 

Nichorttachwi ; pupil also of Euxcuidas and Aritnues and Arimenes. Varro do Lang, 

master of Euphranor ; probably about 37G- Lat., ix. 6, 12 ; Brunn, ii. 301. 

336 B. c. Though hard as a colourist, he ARISTOMENES. See Ariflomachwt. 

was an admirable draughtsman and master ARISTON, Greek painter, of Thebes, son 

of the most subtile shades of expression, and pupil of Arixtiili-s. Only recorded work 

He rendered these with surpassing power is a Satyr crowned with vino leaves, holding 

in his Captured City, in which a mother was a goblet in his hand. Pliny, xxxv. 3G [122|; 

represented lying mortally wounded in a Brunn, ii. 181. 

street, with her infant vainly striving to ARISTONIDAS. See Mnanlimu*. 

draw nourishment from her breast. Alex- AUISTOPHON, Greek painter, son of 

ander the Great carried off this picture from Aylaojjhoii of Thasos and brother of J'olyy- 
Thebes toPella. King Attalus of Pergamus ( nofux, about 45G a c. He was of tho old 

offered 400 talents for his Dionysius, which Attic school, which knew nothing of j>er- 

Mummius carried from Corinth to Rome, spective, foreshortening, or oppositions of 

and dedicated in the Temple of Ceres, where light and shade, and painted in broad, flat 

it was finally burned (31 a t\). Mnason, tones, with only four colours, white, red, 

tyrant of Elatea, paid Aristides 1000 mime yellow, and black. His works were distin- 
for his picture of a Persian battle, which ' guished for their expressive qualities. Ho 

contained a hundred figures. Other pict- painted Philoctetes (Plut De And. Poet 3), 
ures by him are mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. ] and Ancrcus wounded by tho boar, subjects 
36). Brunn, ii. 171. [ which gave opportunity for the display of 

ARISTOBULUS, second-rate painter, of his capacity for rendering what tho Greeks 

Syria. Pliny, xxxv. 40 [146J ; Bruuu, ii. 286. call pathos, an all-pervading emotion of iain, 



A KM AND 



whether physical or mental. Pliny, xxxv. 40 
[138J; Brunn, ii. 53. 

ARMAND - DUMARESQ, CHARLES 
EDOUARD, born in Paris, Jan. 1, 1826. 
Genre painter, especially of military scenes ; 
pupil of T. Couture. In 1854 he accom- 
panied the French troops to Algiers and 
Italy, to paint battle scenes and camp life. 
Medal : 3d class, 1861, 1863 ; Order of St. 
Maurice, 1859 ; L. of Honour, 1867 ; Offi- 
cer, 1881. Works: Christ (1850), Church 
of Dole ; St. Bernard preaching a Crusade 
(1852) ; Martyrdom of St. Peter (1853), 
Cathedral of Caen ; Attributes of the Arts 
and Sciences, Death of General Kirgener, 
Second Zouaves in Ambush (1855) ; Capture 
of the Great Redoubt in the Battle of Mos- 
kowa (1857) ; Death of General Bizot (1859), 
Versailles Museum ; Battle of Solferino (1859) ; 
Charge of Devaux's Division (1862); Prince 
Imperial taking a Walk, Vive 1'Empereur 
(1864) ; Colour Guard, Chaplain of the Regi- 
ment, Battle of Solferino, Passage of the 
Adda (1865); Charge of Cuirassiers at Eylau, 
Chasseurs on Foot, Carrying off the Wounded 
(1866); Charge of Cuirassiers (1867); Return 
from Elba (1868) ; Day before Austerlitz, 
Day before Solferino (1869); Defence of St. 
Quentin (1872) ; Signing the Declaration of 
American Independence (1873) ; Council of 
War, The Spy (1874) ; Surrender of York- 
town, a Prussian Uhlan (1875) ; Battle of 
Saratoga (1879) ; Prince of Wales reviewing 
the Grenadiers in 1777 (1880) ; Battle of 
Bapaume, Each in his Turn (1883); Lecture 
de TAunuaire de la Cavalerie (1884). La- 
rousse ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 260 ; Bel- 
lier. 

ARMENINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 
born at Faenza in 1540, died there, May 13, 
1609. Roman school ; went when fifteen 
years old to Rome, where he was allied with 
Taddeo Zuccaro, and copied Michelangelo's 
Last Judgment. From 1557 he wandered 
for nine years through Italian cities, mostly 
working for, or cooperating with other ar- 
tists, and finally became a priest. He wrote 
a book on the theory of painting, which, as 



! late as the last century, was valued in Italy 
and Germany. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 261; 
Gualandi, Mem., ii. 78, 192. 

ARMIDA. See Einaldo. 

ARMITAGE, EDWARD, born in Lon- 
don, May 20, 1817. History painter ; pupil 
in Paris (1836) of Paul Delaroche, whom 
he assisted in painting the Hemicycle in 
the Paris Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1840 
he sent Prometheus Bound to the Paris 
Salon, and in 1843 he was awarded a prize 
of 300 at the Westminster Hall Exhibition, 
for his cartoon of the Landing of Caesar in 
Britain. His cartoon, The Spirit of Religion, 
gained a prize of 200 in 1845, and his Battle 
of Meanee (Sindh), a prize of 500 in 1847. 
The latter was purchased by the Queen. In 
1852 he painted the fresco of the Thames, 
and in 1854 that of the Death of Marmion 
in the Parliament House. Having studied 
two years, 1849-51, in Rome, he visited the 
Crimea during the Russian war, and made 
important studies from which he painted 
Balaklava and the Guards at Inkerman. 
Elected A. R A. in 1867, R. A. in 1872 ; ap- 
pointed professor and lecturer on painting 
at Royal Academy at 1875. His lectures 
were published in the United States in 
1883. Works: Death of Nelson, Henry 
VIIL and Catherine Parr (1848) ; Vision of 
Ezekiel (1850) ; Samson (1851) ; City of 
Refuge (1853) ; Lotus Eater (1854) ; Ravine 
at Inkerman (1856) ; Souvenir of Scutari 
(1857) ; Retribution (1858) ; St. Francis be- 
fore Innocent HI. (1859), Christ and the 
Twelve Apostles (1860), Catholic Church 
at Islington ; Pharaoh's Daughter (1861) ; 
Burial of a Martyr in Time of Nero (1863) ; 
Ahab and Jezebel (1864) ; Esther's Banquet 
(1865) ; Remorse of Judas (1866) ; Feast of 
Herod (1868) ; Gethsemaue (1870), National 
Gallery ; Simplex Munditiis (1873) ; Julian 
the Apostate (1875) ; Phryne, the Hymn of 
the Last Supper (1876) ; Serf Emancipation 
(1877); Pygmalion and Galatea (1878); 
Charity, Samson and the Lion (1881) ; St. 
Francis and St. Dominic at Rome, One of 
Raphael's Models, Sea Urchins (1882). Art 



ARMSTRONG 

Journal (1803), 177; Portfolio (1870), 49; ARNZ, ALBERT, Ixirn in Dusseldorf, 
Meyer, Kiinst, Lex., ii. 263. Jan. '24, 1N32. Lnndscai>e painter, pupil 

ARMSTRONG, THOMAS, born in Man- of the Dusseldorf Academy, under his 
Chester, England, in 1835. Figure painter ; brother-in-law, Oswald Acheubach, with 
pupil in Paris of Ary Scheffer. In later years whom he visited Italy and Switzerland, 
he has sought to combine modern French Most of his subjects are taken from Rome; 
style with Pre - Raphaelite simplicity and and Naples, though he has also painted 
agreeable colour. Works : Josephine, Morn- views in Westphalia and the Nether Rhine 
ing, Peach Gathering, The Lesson, exhibited countries. Works : The Regeusteiu in the 
at Royal Academy since 1865. Portfolio Hartz Mountains, Swiss Landscii]>e, Wood 
(1871), 65. Landscape with Sheep, Summer LaudHca]M>, 

ARNDT, FRANZ, born at Lobsenz, near On the Ruins of Rome (I860) ; The Coloa- 
Posen, Aug. 20, 1842. Landscape and genre seum, Coast near Naples (1H71). Meyer, 
painter ; pupil at Weimar Art School under Kiinst. Lex., ii. 21)7 ; Miiller, 19. 
Alex. Michaelis, and Tueod. Hagcii ; visited ARPINO, CAVALIERE D'. See Cemri, 
Italy in 1872 and 1877, was appointed pro- Giuseppe. 

fessor at the Art School in 1876, and secre- AR1UVABENE, GIULIO CESARE, bom 
tary in 1879. His landscapes show close in Mantua in 1800. History and figure 
study of tree forms ; his genre pieces are painter ; . pupil of the Milan Academy, 
generally humorous in design. Works : from which he received a prize in 1833. 
Elegy, Scherzo (1872), Children's Jokes Afterwards spent several years in Rome, 
(1873), Summer Morning, North German where he painted historical pictures, somo 
Church. Meyer, Ktiust. Lex., ii. 270 ; allegories in fresco for a palace, and in 
Miiller, 18. Mantua and its neighbourhood madonnas 

ARNOLD, HERMANN, born in Munich, and saint* for churches. Since 1853 he 
May 7, 1846. History and genre painter ; has been settled in Florence, and has painted 
pupil at Munich Academy under Hilten- mostly scenes from sacred history. Works : 
sperger, Anschiitz, Alex. Wagner, Schrau- Ruth, Duke of Sutherland's Collection ; 
dolph, and Piloty. Works : Altarpiece, In- Macbeth, Mr. Waring's Collection, London. 
uudation Scene, Schiitzenkiinig, Neighbour's Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., ii. 303. 
Children, Christ; Dream of Roses (1883). ARSENICS, JOHANN GEORG, born 
Miiller, 18. at Klemmestorp, Westergothland, Feb. 4, 

ARNOLD, KARL JOHANN, born in 1818. Painter of horses ; pupil of Wahl- 
Beiiin, Aug. 30, 182'.). Portrait, animal, bom in 1849-50, and of the portrait painter 
and genre painter ; pupil of the Cassel Staaf in 1843. In 1852 he went to Das- 
Academy, of the Antwerp Academy, and seldorf and thence to Paris, where he 
after his return to Berlin of Adolf Menzel, studied under Horace Vernet ; in 18C5 be- 
who led him through a thorough study of came a member of the Stockholm Academy, 
nature in all her aspects. Works: Siesta, He is a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Swed- 
Fanuy and her Admirers, Where is Fanny ? ish cavalry. Works: Race (1864); Halt. 
Welcome in the Green, Hessian Peasant Fire in a Stable (1866) ; Horses Frightened 
Girl, Wicliff Persecuted, the North German by Locomotive, Quarry near Lugnaas, Nor- 
Parliament, the Great Headquarters at wegian' Sledge-Trotter, Grey Span, Dis- 
Paris, Boar Hunt, Altarpieoe ; portraits of carded Cavalry Horse, Rigolboche, Jane, 
Louis Spohr, Bettina von Arnim, two of Lisa Bleuda, Stallion Aurico. Meyer, Kdust. 
King William, German Imperial Family ; Lex., ii. 305. 

Dinner in honour of the Congress. Meyer, ARSESNE, LOUIS CHARLES, born in 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 277 ; Miiller, 18. Paris, Dec, 23, 1780, died there, Aug. 3, 



ART 



1855. Religious painter, pupil of David. 
He illustrated the works of Chateaubriand 
and Lamartine, and wrote a valuable book 
on the fine arts, entitled Painter's and 
Sculptor's Manual (Paris, 1833). Works : 
St. Louis Disembarking at Hyeres (1841) ; 
The Pious Women at the Tomb of Christ, 
Jesus in the Garden of Olives. 

AET AND LITERATURE, Adolphe Wil- 
liam Bouyuereau, E. Walter, New York. 
Two female figures, full length. Painted 
for the late J. S. Jenkins, Baltimore ; sold 
(1881) to Mr. Walter. Photogravure in Art 
Treasures of America, iii. 7G. 

ARTARIA, MATTHIAS, born in Mann- 
heim, June 19, 1814. Genre painter, pupil 
of the Dusseldorf Academy, where he prof- 
ited by intercourse with Andreas Achen- 
bach. He has painted peasant life in Tyrol 
and Spain, as well as mediaeval subjects. 
Works : Heroic Struggle of the Tyrolese in 
1809 ; Defence of the Iselberg ; Wedding 
in the Ziller Valley, Going to Church Christ- 
mas Night, Munich Gallery ; Postillion, Cas- 
tle Elche, Improviser at a Well, Market Scene 
in Valencia, Guerillas Fleeing, Captive Hu- 
guenots, Arrest of Ravaillac, Guard Room 
in Thirty Years' War, Maid of Saragossa. 
Meyer, Kiinst, Lex., ii. 307 ; Mttller, 19. 

ARTEMIDORUS, painter, 1st century 
A. D. Among his works was a Venus on 
which Martial wrote an epigram (V. 40). He 
was perhaps an historian and amateur 
painter of a bad picture of Minerva. 
Brunn, ii. 310. 

ARTEMON, painter, place and date un- 
known. His pictures, Apotheosis of Her- 
cules and Laomedon, King of Troy, were 
preserved in the Portico of Octavia, Rome. 
Other works were Danae with Robbers in 
Admiration ; Queen Stratonice ; and Her- 
cules and Dejanira. Pliny, xxxv. 40 [139] ; 
Brunn, ii. 284. 

ARTHOIS, JACQUES D', born in Brus- 
sels, baptized, Oct. 12, 1613, died after 
1C84. Flemish school ; eminent landscape 
painter ; pupil of one Jan Mertens. His 
compositions, often grandly poetic, with 



Scriptural subjects in foreground, were fre- 
quently placed in Belgian churches. The 
figures in his pictures are chiefly by Gas- 
pard de Craeyer, Gerard Zegers, David Te- 
niers the younger, and Van Herp. Jacques 
had a brother Nicholas (born 1617) and a 
son Jean Baptiste (born 1638), both of 
whom were painters. Best works in Brus- 
sels, Vienna, Dresden, Madrid, and English 




private galleries. Biog. nat. de Belgique, i. 
437 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole flamande ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 310. 

ARTISTS, MEETING OF, Velasquez, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
Thirteen persons, in three groups, standing, 
in conversation ; among them, at left, Velas- 
quez and Murillo. Sometimes called Con- 
versation of Velasquez. Presented to Duch- 
ess of Alba by Don Gabriel, son of Charles 
in. ; sold, at her death, and finally bought 
from M. Laneuville in 1851, for 6,500 fr. 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Art Journal 
(1852), 364 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1879), xx. 
237 ; Curtis, 16. 

ARTVELT, ANDRIES VAN, born in 
Antwerp, baptized March 25, 1590, died 
there in 1652. Flemish school ; marine 
painter ; master of the guild in 1609-10, 
went to Italy probably after Sept., 1627, but 
had returned to Antwerp in 1630. His por- 
trait of Van Dyck, painted in 1632, is in 
the Augsburg Gallery. Works : Shipwreck 
of Turkish Vessel (1623), Ghent Museum ; 
Naval Battle, Th. van Lerius, Antwerp ; 
Marine, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chap- 
elle ; do. with Men-of-War, Vienna Museum. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 316. 

ASAM, COSMAS, born at Benedict- 
beuern, Bavaria, Sept. 18, 1686, died in 
1742. Italian school ; history painter, pupil 
of Ghezzi in Rome, where he won the first 
prize at the Academy. One of the most 
skilful and characteristic imitators of the 
Italian Rococo style, painted chiefly in 



7U 



ASCENSION 



fresco, and decorated innumerable churches little valley ; and in foreground a reclining 
and monasteries in nnd out of Bavaria, figure (St. Peter?). Ruskin, Stones of Yen- 
working conjointly with his brother Aegi- ice, iii. 340. 

dius, sculptor, notably the Cathedral of Subject treated also by Sebastiano Ricd, 
Freising, 1723-24. He was court painter SS.Apostoli, Home,, Dresden Gallery ; Giotto, 
to the Elector of Bavaria. Works : Vulcan ; S. M. dell' Arena, Padua ; Correggio, H. 
forging Anns for .Eneas, Ceiling in the Giovanni Evangelist!, Parma ; Andrea Or- 
Chapel, Schleissheim Castle ; Decorations cagna, National Gallery. London ; Tintoretto, 
in Chapel and Staircase, 
Grand-ducal Pnlace, Mann- 
heim ; do. in St. John's, 
Munich. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., ii. 321. 

ASCENSION (Fr. As- 
cension, Ital. Ascensione, 
Sp. Ascension, Ger. Him- 
melfahrt, Aussteiguug), the 
ascension to Heaven of 
Christ after the Entomb- 
ment (Acts i. 9-11). 

By P. 1'erugino, Lyons 
Museum, France ; wood, 
transferred to canvas ; fig- 
ures nearly life size. Christ, 
draped below the waist, and 
attended by angels, two on 
each side, is supported by 
two other angels in a glory 
of cherubs' heads. He 
points upward with both 
hands, where two seraphs 
attend the Eternal, in a cir- 
cular glory of same kind, 
in benediction ; below, the 
Virgin, SS. Peter and Paul, 
and Apostles looking up- 
ward. Formerly central 
part of great altarpiece of 
S. Pietro, Perugia ; taken 
to Paris and cleaned in 1815, and given to II Redentore, Venice ; Rubens, Jesuits' 
Lyons by Pius VH C. & C., Italy, ii. Church, Antwerp (burned, 1718). 
205. ASCLEPIODORUS, painter, sculptor, and 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; writer on art, Athens, second half of 4th 
canvas. Christ ascending, sustained by j century ac. Praised by Apelles for skill in 
angela Beneath, a sort of epitome of ' rendering the relative proportions of objects, 
events preceding the ascension ; in ilia- and regarded by him as his superior in com- 
tance, two apostles going to Emmaus ; position. His picture of the twelve great 
nearer, a group round a table set in a gods was purchased by Muasou, tyrant of 




Ascension, by Prugino, Lyons MuMum. 



71 



ASIIER 



Elatea, for 360 talents. Pliny, xxxv. 36, 69 
[107] ; Brunn, ii. 256. 

ASHEK, LOUIS, born in Hamburg, June 
28, 1804, died there, March 7, 1878. His- 
tory and genre painter ; pupil in Hamburg 
of Gerdt Hardorf and of Leo Lehmann, 
then from 1821 at the Dresden Academy, 
and in Diisseldorf under Cornelius, whom, 
in 1825, he followed to Munich. In 1827 
he returned to Hamburg ; settled in Ber- 
lin in 1830 ; visited Italy in 1832 and 
1839. Works : Roman Woman at the Well, 
Maria 1'Ortolana, King Lear and Cordelia 
- (1854), Hamburg Gallery ; St. Ce- 

J5T ci ^ a ' Resurrection (1851); Albanian 
ty-V Shepherd Family (1835) ; Roman 
* Shepherd Boy, Ave Maria, Portrait 
of Jenny Liud. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 306. 

ASKEVOLD, ANDERS MONSSEN, born 
in Parish of Askevold, Bergen, Norway, Dec. 
25, 1834. Landscape and animal painter, 
pupil of Reusch in Bergen, and in 1855, of 
Gude in Diisseldorf. Spent four years in 
Paris after 1860. Studio at Bergen. His 
favourite subjects are the Norwegian moun- 
tain pastures ; the figures in them are less 
successful than the cattle, which he repre- 
sents with rare truthfulness. Meyer, Kiiust. 
Lex., ii. 329. 

ASPER, HANS, born in Zurich in 1499, 
died March 21, 1571. German school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, held in much re- 
pute by his fellow citizens, and elected 
member of the great council, in 1545. Of 
his numerous facade decorations but one, a 
lion with shield 011 the Kyborg Castle door, 
has been preserved. His portraits are ear- 
nest and careful, though dry and uninterest- 
ing. Works : Portraits of Zwingli and 
Daughter, City Library, Zurich ; r -r. 
three portraits (1538), Artists' Asso- }/T\ 
ciation, Zilrich ; three do. in a pri- 
vate collection at Solothurn. Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., i. 331 ; W. & W., ii. 484. 

ASPERTINI, AMICO, born in Bologna 
about 1475, died in 1552. Bolognese school ; 
probably pupil of Ercole Roberti Grandi and 
Lorenzo Costa. Was a very rapid painter, who 



filled the porticoes and covered the facades 

of many churches in his native city ; travel- 

led in Italy and left many works, the earli- 

est in St. Cecilia, Bologna. Between 1506 

and 1510 he painted frescos in S. Frediano, 

Lucca, and in 1514 the front of the library 

of S. Michele in Bosco. His composi- 

tions are poor in arrangement, his figures 

strained in action, and his flesh tones red 

and fiery. As a sculptor his only known 

work, produced in 1526, is the Dead Christ 

in the Arms of Nicode- 

i /\ mus in the lunette of 

, the great portal of S. 

I . Petronius, Bologna. He 

, U ) / showed signs of insan- 

rfl ' l1 I 
' { 




\Q * 



. 



*^ toward the close of 
his life. Among his 
works are : Adoration 
of Shepherds, Berlin 
V Museum ; Rape of Sa- 
bines, Madrid Museum; 
Madonna and Saints, 
fy\ Lucca Gallery. His 

brother, Guido Asper- 
\ tini, painted an Adora- 

tion of the Magi, Bo- 
logna Gallery. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 575 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ix. 4, 84 ; ed. Mil., v. 
179; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., ii. 337; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; Gualandi, Mem., 
1st Series, 33 ; 2d do., 9, 11 ; 3d do., 178. 

ASSCHE, HENRI VAN, born in Brus- 
sels, Aug. 30, 1774, died there, April 10, 
1841. Landscape painter, first instructed 
by his father, an amateur artist, then pupil 
of J. B. de Roy ; visited Italy, Holland, 
Germany, and Switzerland ; painted espe- 
cially waterfalls with great skill. Mem- 
ber of Ghent, Brussels, Antwerp, and Am- 
sterdam Academies. Several medals. Or- 
der of Leopold, 1836. Works : Storm 
(1805), Antwerp Museum ; Falls at Toccai, 
Switzerland, View of a Mill, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; View near Brussels during Storm, 
Bruges Museum ; Rhine View, Falls near 
Rochefort, Haarlem Museum. His niece and 
pupil, Isabella v. A. (bom in Brussels, Nov. 



ASSEI.T 



23, 1794) was also a good landscape painter, 
won first prize by Ghent Academy in 182'J. 
Work : View of Boitsfort near Brussels, 
National Gallery, Amsterdam. Biog. nat 
de Belgique, i. 500 ; Messager des Sciences, 
etc. (1841), 293 ; Meyer, KOnsL Lex., ii. 344. 

ASSELT, JOHANNES VAN DER, flour- 
ished 13G4-1386, at Ghent. Flemish school ; 
the earliest Flemish painter whose name is 
known to us. Employed by Louis de Male, 
Count of Flanders ; afterward by Philip the 
Hardy, of Burgundy. Probably painted the 
frescos in the chapel of Notre Dame, Cour- 
trai, full lengths of the Counts of Flanders 
since Philip d 'Alsace, now greatly injured. 
Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., ii. 347 ; C. & C., Flem- 
ish Painters, 12. 

ASSELYX (Asseliu), JAN, called Kralv 
betje, born at 
D i e p e n in 
1010, died in 
Amsterdam in 
16GO. Dutch 
school ; laud- 
scape painter, 
pupil of Esaias 
van de Velde ; 
resided in 
Rome from 
1G30 to 1645, 
where he was 
influenced by 
Jan Miel and Pieter van Laar. Works : 
View of the Tiber, Landscape with Travel- 
lers, and two other pictures, Louvre ; Swan 
Defending her Nest, Landscape, National 
Gallery, Amsterdam ; Italian Landscape, 
^~7\ Brussels Museum ; Ruined Cas- 
/ I tie, Munich Gallery ; Woman and 

J-4 ' Cattle, Sir Th. Baring, England. 

J I - Kugler (Crowe), ii. 445 ; 
^ A Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 348 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole hollandaise. 

ASSERETO (Axareto), GIOVACCHINO, 
born in Genoa, about 1600, died there, July 
28, 1649. Pupil of Luziano Borzone and of 
Ansaldo. From his sixteenth year he painted 
ultarpieces for churches and monasteries in ] 




| Genoa, and in 1639 went to Rome ; after Ins 
return painted chiefly frescos ; was in his 
time the best {winter in Genoa. Meyer, 
; Kiinst. Lex., ii. 351 ; Lavice, Musvcs dltalic, 
! 114. 

ASSISI, ANDREA D . See Inyegno. 

ASSMUS, ROBERT, bom at Stuhm, 
West Prussia, Dec. 25, 1K42. Landscape 
! painter ; studied from nature and after 
Calamc ; went to Berlin in 1H59, and was 
much impressed by the works of Trogon 
and Lessing. Supported himself by work- 
ing for illustrated papers, until after the 
war of 1870-71, when lie took up landscape- 
painting, settled in Munich, visited Upper 
Italy, Hungary, the B:iltic Sea, Switzerland, 
etc., and published an illustrated work. 
Alsace-Lorraine, which was most favourably 
received. Works : The Gemmi Pass, Wood 
Lake, View near Stuttgart, Village in the 
Carpathian Mountains, Aussee, Landscape 
in Lorraine, On the Banks of the AVcichsel, 
Evening, Windmills in a Storm. Meyer, 
Kflnst. Lex., ii. 354 ; Midler, 19. 

ASSUMPTION (Fr. Assomption, ItiiL 
Assunzione, Sp. Asuncion, Ger. Maria Him- 
melfahrt), the ascension to Heaven of the 
Virgin after death, according to the legend 
of the Latin and (Jreek churches. 

Bv Fra Bartoiommeo, Besam/on Cathedral, 
France. The Virgin and Child on a throne 
carried by Angels in clouds ; below, left, 
SS. John Baptist, Sebastian, and Stephen ; 
right, the patron Jean Carondelet, knee-ling, 
and behind him St. Bernard and another 
aiint. Of the master's best time. Placed 
first by Jean Carondelet, archbishop of Pa- 
lermo, in his family chapel in S. Ktienne, 
Besam;on ; after his death (1544) cnme into 
cathedral. C. <k C., Italy, iii. 477. 

By Fra liart<ilvmm<-<>, Naples Museum ; 
wood, arched, figures life size. The Virgin, 
rising to heaven, rests one foot on the head 
of a little angel whose hands ore crossed 
under his chin ; below, SS. John and Cath- 
erine of Alexandria, the latter holding a 
palm, kneel at her tomb, which is filled with 
flowers. Painted in 151G for S. M. in Cas- 



73 



ASSUMPTION 



tello, Prato ; on suppression of church sold 
for six scudi to Giulio Porini, chancellor of 
Florence ; sold by him to an Englishman in 
Florence, who transferred it to Mr. Milton 
for 150 zecchini ; the latter disposed of it 
to Pius VI. for 3000 Roman crowns ; disap- 
peared from Rome at time of invasion, and 
long supposed to be lost. Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 193 ; Marchese, ii. 117 ; C. & C., Italy, 
iii. 470 ; Lavice, 200. 

By Sandro Botticelli, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft. 5 
in. Below, the Apostles round the tomb of 
the Virgin, with the donor and his wife, 
and views of Florence and Pistoja in back- 
ground ; above, the Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, and below that three circles in the sky, 
each formed of ^three rows of figures the 
Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Evangelists, 
Martyrs, Confessors, Doctors, Virgins, and 
Hierarchs. Painted for S. Pietro Maggi- ' 
ore, Florence, on commission of Matteo 
Palmieri, who gave the whole scheme for 
the work. Vasari says the painter and his 
patron were charged with heresy, and the 
work was interdicted and covered from view. 
Hamilton Palace sale (1882), -4777 10s. 
Waagen, Art Treasures, iii. 296 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., 314. 

By Agostiuo Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 10 ft. 2 in. x G ft. 1 in. The 
Virgin in glory, upheld by angels ; below, 
the Apostles around the tomb. Formerly 
in S. Salvatore, Bologna ; carried to Paris 
in 1796 ; returned to Bologna in 1815. 
Engraved by Mitelli ; G. Wagner ; G. Asioli. 
Pinac. di Bologna, PL 64 ; Landon, Mu- 
see, ii. PI. 40. 

By Auuibale Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. The Virgin 
in the clouds, borne up and surrounded by 
angels ; below, the disciples around the 
empty tomb gazing upward in wonder and j 
awe. From the suppressed church of S. 
Francesco, Bologna. Engraved by Mitelli ; 
Rosaspina. Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 9. 

By Aunibale Carracci, Dresden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 13 ft. 6 in. x 8 ft. 8 in. The 



Virgin in glory above, with an angel choir ; 
, below, the Apostles around the tomb a 
Roman sarcophagus near a ruined temple. 
Painted for the chapel of S. Rocco, Reggio ; 
removed to Este Gallery, and thence to 
Dresden. Engraved by J. Camerata. Gal. 
Roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 19. 

By Correggio, Cathedral of Parma ; fresco 
on ceiling of cupola. The Virgin, borne 
aloft on luminous clouds by numberless an- 
gels, is received in the heavens by the Arch- 
angel Gabriel and by joyous groups of an- 
gels and saints ; below, within a parapet, 
which appears to form an encircling socle to 
the dome, are the Apostles, standing be- 
tween the windows, mostly in groups of 
two ; behind them are genii holding cande- 
labra, swinging censers, and pouring per- 
fumes ; in the four divisions of the dome, 
borne on clouds by genii, stand the four 
patron saints of Parma, John Baptist, 
Thomas, Hilary, and Bernard. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iv. Ill ; Heaton, Correggio, 166. 

By Guercino, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
The Madonna surrounded by angels rises on 
a cloud to heaven, with her eyes raised. 
Below her the Apostles stand round an 
empty tomb adorned with a bas relief. 
Painted in 1623 at Bologna for Alessandro 
Tanari. Considered one of the painter's 
masterpieces. Amorinici, Vita di Franc. 
Barbieri, 44. 

By Guido Reni, Munich Gallery ; silk 
cloth, H. 9 ft. x 6 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, 
with outstretched arms, standing upon 
clouds, upborne and surrounded by angels, 
is rising heavenward in a glory of light. 
The best example of Guide's manner of 
treating the theme. Jameson. 

By Andrea Mantegna, Trivulzi Gallery, Mi- 
lan ; canvas, figures life size ; signed, dated 
1497. The Virgin and Child in an ellip- 
tical glory in the sky, above a landscape ; 
at the sides, SS. John Baptist, Romualdo, 
and a bishop ; three boy angels in front. 
Dimmed by repeated varuishings. C. & C., 
N. Italy, i/409. 

By Murillo, Alfred Fletcher, Allerton 



74 



ASSI'MI'TION 



Hall, Liverpool, Eng ; canvas, H. 8 ft. x 5 works. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. Mt\ C. Si C., 
ft. 4 in. The Virgin soars upward, with her N. Italy, iii. 207. 

left hand raised ; sis cherubs at her feet By Pietro 1'eruginn, Florence Academy ; 
and many heads above ; seven Apostles wood, arched, H. 13 ft, 4 in. x 7 ft 9 in. ; 
around sarcophagus, which contains a white signed, dated 1500. The Virgin seated in 
rose. Formerly in Capuchin Convent, clouds, surrounded by seraphs and a choir 
Genoa ; bought at Walsh 
Porter sale (1810), 730. 
Curtis, 140. 

By Muri/ln, Earl of 
Northbrook, London ; can- 
vns, octagonal, 1 ft. 1 in. 
x 1 ft. 1 in. The Virgin 
upborne ou clouds ; be- 
low, the twelve Apostles 
and two Marys around 
the open tomb. Stirling, 
iii. 1419 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 181 ; Curtis, 139. 
By Murillo, Sir Kichard 
Wallace, Bart., London ; 
canvas, about 2 ft. (5 in. x 2 
ft. The Virgin seated ou 
clouds, surrounded by 
cherubs ; below, the sar- 
cophagus, with the three 
Marys kneeling behind it; 
five Apostles on left, and 
seven on right. From 
Stowe collection. Curtis, 
140 ; Waageu, Treasures, 
ii. 153. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; canvas, 
H. G ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. 
The Virgin, standing on 
clouds, with right hand 
outstretched ; below, thir- 
teen cherubs ; above, ten 
heads. From Houghton 

/-i n i i . , Assumption, Rubtni, Antwerp Cathedral. 

Gallery; appraised at 700 

when Lord Orford's pictures were sold to | of angels playing instruments ; above, the 
Empress of Russia. Engraved by Val. Eternal, with seraphs and angels ; below, 
Greene in 1766. Curtis, 140 ; Cat. Hermi- Cardinal S. Bernardo degli Uberti, S. Gio. 
tage, 130. (iualberto, St. Benedict, and Archangel 

By Pietro Peruyino, Cappella Rabatta, Michael. Painted for church at Vallom- 
SS. Annunziata de' Servi, Florence, painted brosa ; removed to Academy in 1810 on 
about 1502. Not one of the master's best suppression of monastery by the French 




ASSUMPTION 



government. One of Perugiuo's best -works. 
Engraved by F. Livy. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 
577 ; C. & C., Italy, iii. 215 ; Gall, dell' 
Acead. di Firenze, PI. 51. 

By Nicholas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. The Virgin stand- 
ing, her eyes upraised and arms extended, 
is sustained on clouds by four angels ; be- 
low, a vast plain with a city's towers in dis- 
tance. Pciinted in 1650 for M. de Mauroy, 
Ambassador of France at Rome ; passed 
thence to crown. Engraved by J. Pesne ; 
G. Duquey ; Laugier (1815) ; P. Bettelini 
in Musee Franc;ais ; Annedouche. Kcveil, i. 
15 ; Filhol, viii. 5C1 ; Landon, iii. 60. 

By Girolamo Ilomanino, S. Alessandro, 
Bergamo ; canvas, arched, life size. The 
Virgin ascending amidst angels ; above, the 
Eternal ; below, the Apostles around the 
tomb. Painted about 1525-30. C. & C., 
N. Italy, ii. 389. 

By Rubens, Antwerp Cathedral ; wood, 
arched, H. 13 ft. 6 in. x 8 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, 
ascending seated on clouds, surrounded by 
a host of angels, some of whom bear the 
skirt of her robe and mantle, while others 
have wreaths and palms in their hands, and 
two are soaring to place a chaplet on her 
head ; below, the Apostles and three wo- 
men, assembled at the deserted tomb, which 
stands in front of the open sepulchre. Car- 
ried off by the French and placed in the 
Louvre, whence returned in 1815. En- 
graved by Bolswert. Smith, ii. 6. 

By Rubens, Brussels Museum ; canvas, H. 
17 ft. 2 in. x 10 ft. 11 in. The Virgin as- 
cending, with twelve angels floating among 
the clouds beneath her and many cherubim 
above ; below, the Apostles and holy women 
visiting the deserted tomb. Painted for 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, Brussels, but, be- 
ing found too small, bought by Jesuits for 
their church. Carried to France ; returned 
in 1815 and placed in Museum. Engraved 
by Bolswert, Loemans. Smith, ii. 20. 

By Rubens, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 
13 ft. 1 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. The Virgin as- 
cending, attended by numerous angels ; 



above, the Saviour welcoming her with open 
arms ; below, the Apostles and holy women 
arcmnd the tomb. Formerly in Notre Dame 
de la Chapelle, Brussels. Engraved by P. 
Pontius, Masson. Smith, ii. 61. 

By Rubens, Vienna Museum ; wood, H. 
14 ft. 6 in. x 9 ft. 8 in. The Virgin ascending, 
accompanied by a vast company of angels ; 
below, the Apostles surrounding the tomb, 




Assumption, Andrea del Sarto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

at the side of which are three women, two 
of whom are showing flowers taken off the 
winding sheet, while Mary Magdalen leans 
on the shoulder of one of them. Bought at 
Antwerp in 1774, with another picture, for 
18,000 florins. Smith, ii. 88. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Madrid Museum ; 
wood, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 5 in. Bought for 
230 from collection of Charles I. of England, 
and sent by Philip IV. to Escorial, whence 
brought to Museum. Cat. Museo del Prado. 



ASSUMPTION 



By Andrea del Sarto, Pal. Pitti, Florence; from tlie tomb, half leaning on an angel ; 
wood, arched, H. 12 ft. 1 in. x fi ft. 11 in. ' above, a circle of cherubs and angeln. 
The Virgin seated in clouds surrounded by ; Once a noble picture, but now ruined by 
angels ; below, the Apos- 
tles grouped around the 
sepulchre ; in front, kneel- 
ing, a female saint and. 
Saint Nicholas of Ban. 
Painted about 1526 for H. 
Antonio del Poggio, Cor- 
tona, whence taken to Flor- 
ence in 1G39 by Ferdinand 
H Vasari, ed" Mil., v. 34 ; 
C. & C., Italy, iii. 578. 

By Andrea del Sarto, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
wood, arched, H. 11 ft. 10 
in. x G ft. 7 in. The Virgin 
seated in clouds surround- 
ed by angels ; below, the 
Apostles urouud the open 
tomb. The Apostle in 
front, looking at the spec- 
tator, is Andrea himself. 
Ordered by Bartolommeo 
Panciatichi, but left unfin- 
ished by Andrea at his 
death (1531). Acquired 
for the Pitti by Grand 
Duke Pietro Leopoldo. " A 
masterpiece for lightness, 
aerial perspective, and fin- 
ish "(C. feC.). Engraved 
by Paradisi. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., v. 33 ; C. & C., Italy, 
iii. 577; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, 
iii. PI. 115. 

By Saxsoferralo, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 2 
ft. 10 in. The Virgin, in 
a glory, standing upon 
clouds, her hands joined, 
and eyes raised ; below, 

three cherubs' heads, and, Au mp tion, TO. 

on each side, three others placed symmetri- restoration. Raskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 
cally. Villot, Cat. Louvre. I 332. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Ven- By Titian, Cathedral of Verona : canva 
ice; canvas. The Madonna ascending arched on top, figures in foreground life size. 







77 



ASSUNZIONE 



The Virgin sitting in light on the clouds 
above the tomb, around which the Apostles 
are grouped gazing upward ; St. Thomas 
catches her girdle as it falls. Painted in , 
1543 ; carried to France close of last cen- { 
tury and returned in 1815. C. & C., Titian, 
ii. 69 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 229 ; Vasori, ed. 
Mil., vii. 445 ; Burckhardt, 720 ; Landon, 
Musee, viii. PI. 11. 

By Titian, Venice Academy ; wood, arched 
at top, 22 ft. 8 in. X 11 ft. 9 in. ; signed. The 
Virgin, with hands upraised and eyes turned 
towards heaven, from which the Eternal wel- 
comes her with outstretched arms, is ascend- 




Burial of Atala, Girodet de Roussy, Louvre. 

ing attended by a swarm of cherubs and 
angels arranged in a circle of clouds around 
her ; below, the Apostles, in shadow, are 
grouped around the tomb, gazing upward 
with awe-stricken faces. Painted in 1516-18 
for the high altar of S. M. dei Frari, Venice, 
where it was first exposed to public view, 
March 20, 1518. So dimmed even in the 
16th century by candle-smoke and other 
causes that Vasari says it could scarcely be 
seen. The French did not think it worth 
carrying to Pai'is. Since removal to Acad- 
emy, somewhat injured by cleaning and ex- 
tensive repainting in lower part ; upper part 
fairly preserved. Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 436; 



C. & C., Titian, i. 211; Kugler (Eastlake), 
ii. 534 ; Klas. der Malerei, i. PI. 58 ; Burck- 
hardt, 716 ; Lavice, 464 ; Viardot, 331. 

Subject treated also by Moretto, Brera, 
Milan ; Pinturicchio, Naples Museum ; Ru- 
bens, Palazzo Coionna, Koine, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna; Palma Vecchio, Venice Acad- 
emy ; Taddeo Bartoli, Berlin Museum ; Fra 
Bartolommeo (attributed), Berlin Museum, 
Earl of Warwick ; Francisco de Ribalta, 
Valencia Museum ; Ambrogio Borgognone, 
Brera, Milan ; Paolo Veronese, Venice Acad- 
emy; Giovanni Moroni, Brera, Milan ; Tin- 
toretto, Gesuiti, Venice ; Giorgio Vasari, Ba- 
dia, Florence ; Domenico 
Ghirlaudajo, S. M. Novella, 
Florence ; Bernardo Po- 
cetti, S. FelicitA, ib. 

ASSUNZIONE. See As- 
sumption. 

AST, BALTHAZAR VAN 
DER, first half of 17th cen- 
tury, died at Delft after 
1650. Dutch school ; still- 
life painter, master of St. 
Luke's guild at Utrecht in 
1619 and still living there 
in 1629. Works: Apple 
Blossoms with Insects, 
Fruit-pieces (2), Berlin 
Museum ; Fruit-piece, 
Dresden Gallery ; Others 
in Amalienstift, Dessau 
and Gotha Gallery. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
ii. 3.55. 

ASTRONOMERS, Giorgione. See Chal- 
dean Sages. 

ASTRONOMY, Eapliael, Camera della 
Segnatura, Vatican ; fresco, on ceiling. Fe- 
male figure, leaning over a celestial globe, 
gazing at the planets ; on each side a little 
genius holding a tablet. Painted in 1511. 
Passavant, ii. 90 ; Muntz, 349. 

ATALA, BURIAL OF, Girodet de Roussy, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 10 in. x 8 f t. 9 in. 
Scene from Chateaubriand's Atala (Genie du 
christianisme). At the entrance to a grotto, 
Chactas and Father Aubry are about to Jay 



78 



ATA LA NT A 



in a grave, which they have dug, the body 
of Atalo, whose hands, joined upon her 
breast, hold a cross. Salon, 1808 ; acquired 
in 1818, with Endymion and the Deluge, for 
50,000 fr. Engraved by Roger ; R U. Mas- 
sard. Re' veil, i. 5. 

ATALANTA AND MELEAGER, Itubens, 
Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 1 in. x 8 
ft. 6 in. Atalauta and Meleager participat- 
ing in the chase of the Calydonian boar ; 
background a woody landscape. Collection 
of Philip IV. Mndrazo, Cat. Madrid Mus. 

ATALANTA'S RACE, Edward J. Poyn- 



Said by Pliny (xxrv. 40 [134]) to Iwvo been 
compared to Nicias and even preferred to 
him by some. He was more sombre in his 
colouring than Nicias, yet more pleasing. 
Among his works were, at Eleusis a Phyl- 
archus, and at Athens a Synzenicon (family 
group) ; Ulysses Detecting Achilles in Fe- 
male Costume ; and Groom Leading a Horse, 
which contributed more to his fame than 
any other of his pictures. Pliny adds that 
if Atheuion had not died young, no one 
would have been comparable to him. 
Brunn, ii. 294. 




March of Attiia, Raphael, Stanza d'EliodOto, Vatican. 



ter. Atalanta, when her father desired her 
to marry, made it a condition that each of 
her suitors should contend with her in a 
footrace, to be put to death in case she con- 
quered him. Milauion, who had received 
three golden apples from Venus, dropped I 
them one after the other , and as Atalanta 
stopped to pick them up, won the race. 
Academy, 1876. Engraved by F. JouberL 

ATHENA (Minerva), pictures. See An- 
tiphilus, Cleanthes, Fabullus. 

ATHENION, Greek painter, of Maronea 
in Thrace, pupil of Glauciou of Corinth. 



ATHENS, SCHOOL OF. See School of 
Athens. 

ATTILA, MARCH OF, Kapharl, Stanza 
d'Eliodoro, Vatican ; fresco. Attiia, King of 
the Huns, marching with his savage hordes 
towards Rome, is met by SS. Peter and Paul, 
patrons of the holy .city, who appear in the 
clouds, sword in hand ; this so terrifies At- 
tiia (on the black horse in the middle) that 
he submits to the terms of Leo L (portrait 
of Leo X. ), who is on a white horse at the 
left, surrounded by his retinue. Runted in 
1540 ; in allusion to the expulsion of the 



TO 



AUBERT 



French from Italy. Studies in Louvre and 
at Oxford. Engraved by Volpato ; S. Bern- 
ard ; P. Anderloiii ; F. Coliguon. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv., 347; Miintz, 366 ; Passavant, i. 
146 ; Springer, 204 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 
435 ; Gruyer, Fresques, 215 ; Perkins. 135. 
AUBERT, AUGUSTIN RAYMOND, born 
in Marseilles, Jan. 23, 1781, died there, Nov. 
5, 1857. History, portrait, and landscape 
painter ; pupil of Guenin at Marseilles, and 
of Peyron in Paris. In 1804 returned to 
Marseilles, and in 1810, was made director 
of the school of drawing and of the Museum ; 
in 1845 he retired to his country seat near 
Marseilles, where he died. Exercised much 
influence upon art in his native city and 
educated a number of able pupils. "\Vorks : 
Noah's Sacrifice (1817), Marseilles Museum ; 
Visit of the Virgin to S. Elizabeth (1822), 
Glorification of Christ (1838), Annunciation 
(1827), Martyrdom of St. Paul (1836), 
Church of St. Paul, Beauvais. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 371. 

AUBERT, ERNEST JEAN, born in Paris, 
in 1824. Genre painter, pupil of Paul De- 
laroche and in engraving of Martinet. Won 
the prix de Rome for engraving in 1844, 
and lived five years in Italy. Devoted him- 
self chiefly to engraving until 1853, when he 
turned his attention to lithography and 
afterward to painting. Medals for painting : 
3d class, 1861; 2d class, 1878. Works: 
Confidence (1861) ; Martyrs under Diocle- 
tian (1863) ; Youth (1865) ; Early Breakfast 
(1867) ; Broken Thread (1872) ; At the 
Fountain (1875) ; Coming Love (1877) ; Le 



JEAN 




barde Hyvarnion et Ravanone (1883) ; Menu 
de 1'Amour (1884) ; Aurora Cools the Wings 
of Love (1885). 

AUBLET, ALBERT, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter ; 
pupil of Jacquaud and of Gerome. Medals : 
3d class, 1880; 2d class, Munich, 1883. 



' Works : The Siesta, Interior of a Stable, 
Interior of a Courtyard, Farm at Treport 
(1874) ; Men of the Reserve in a Barrack 
at Cherbourg (1879) ; Selene (1879) ; Meet- 
ing of Henri III. and the Due de Guise 
(1880) ; Inhaling Room at Mont-Dore 
(1881) ; Dancing Dervishes at Scutari (1882) ; 
j On the Beach, Treport (1883); Nero Poison- 
! ing Slaves (1876), St. FJienne Museum ; 
Esqui Djamlidja Broussa (1884) ; Bathing 
Time at Treport (1885). 

AUBRY, fiTIENNE, bom in Versailles, 
Jan. 10, 1745, died in Paris, July 21, 1781. 
Portrait and genre painter, pupil of J. G. 
Silvestre and Joseph Vien. Member of the 
Academy in 1775. His genre paintings of 
*-* .. I 1779 show an incli- 

CL J\ lArV^y nat i n to imitate 

J Greuze. Bore the 
^^ title of painter to the 
king. Portrait of the Artist, Louvre. Mey- 
er, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 378; Wurzbach, Fr. 
Maler d. xviii. J., 40. 

AUDEN-AERD (Audenaerde, Oude- 
naerde), ROBERT VAN, born in Ghent, 
Sept. 20, 1663, died there, June 3, 1743. 
Flemish school ; history and portrait painter, 
pupil of Frans van Mierop and of Jan van 
Cleef, then of Carlo Maratti in Rome, where 
for many years he was employed by his 
patron, Cardinal Barbarigo ; returned to 
Ghent in 1723, after an absence of thirty- 
eight years. Works : Abbot and his Canons 
in Chapter, Assumption (1725), Museum, 
Ghent ; Assumption, St. Nicholas', ib.; 
Martyrdom of St. Catherine, St. James', ib. ; 
Christ among the Doctors, Petit-Beguinage, 
ib. Biog. nat. Belgique, i. 535; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 383. 

AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES, born in 
Louisiana, May 4, 1780, died in New York, 
Jan. 27, 1851. Animal painter ; studied 
under David in Paris in 1795 or '96. Made 
many expeditions down the Ohio and in 
Florida to sketch birds ; visited Europe 
again in 1826 and 1832; published, in 
1828-44 his " Birds of America " and his 
"Ornithological Biography," the former il- 



80 



AUERBACH 



lustrated and coloured from his own draw- 
ings. He projected also a work on the 
"Quadrupeds of America," which was 
finished by his sons after his death. The 
New York Historical Society owns many of 
Audubon's original drawings ; his Covey of 
Blackcock and Canada Otter were in Phila- 
delphia Exhibition, in 187G. Mrs. Audubon, 
Memoir (New York, 1869). 

AUERBACH, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, 
bornatMulhausen, Thuringia, Oct. 28, 1697, 
died in Vienna, Aug. 3, 1753. German 
school ; portrait painter, from about 1716 in 
Vienna, where he became court painter in 
1735 and member of the Academy in 1750. 
Works : Portrait of Charles VI. ; Portrait of 
Prince Eugene, Vienna Museum ; do. Salz- 
dalum Gallery. Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., ii. 43(5. 

AUGUIN, LOUIS AUGUSTIN, born in 
Rochefort, in 1824. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Jules Coignet and Corot ; settled 
in Bordeaux and has exhibited, since 
1846, many landscapes of poetic character. 
Medals at Vienna (1873) ; Paris, 3d class 
(1880); 2d class (1884). Works: Fields 
around Saintonge, June Day (1872) ; Evening 
in the Valley (1873) ; Height of Aleucoh, 
Banks of the Bramerie (1876) ; Dunes of 
Montalivet (1883) ; Summer Day at Grande 
Cote (1884). Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., ii. 438. 
AUGUSTIN, JEANBAPTISTE JACQUES, 
born in SainlxDie, Lorraine, Aug. 15, 1759, 
died in Paris, April 13, 1832. As a painter 
of portraits, in miniature, of the most emi- 
nent persons of his time, he attained a 
European reputation, and educated a great 
number of meritorious artists. In 1819 
was appointed first painter to the king. 
Exhibited at Paris from 1791 to 1831. 
Works : Two portraits of Napoleon, Portrait 
of Louis XVIEL, two female portraits (1815 
and 1824), Sir Richard Wallace, London. 
Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., ii. 440. 

AUGUSTINE, ST., Murillo, Joseph T. 
Mills, Rugby, Warwickshire ; canvas, H. 5 
ft. 10 in. x 4 ft 5 in. The Saint, in bishop's 
robes, with mitre and crook, stands on sea- 
shore conversing with a child who is trying 



to fill a hole in sand with water taken from 
sea in a shell According to the legend, the 
child said he was going to empty the sea 
into the hole. "Impossible," said the Bish- 
op. "No more impossible," replied the 
child, " than for you to explain the Trinity, 
on which you are meditating." Louis 
Philippe sale, 680. Same subject by San- 
chez Coello in Escorial, Guercino in Madrid 
Museum, and Garofalo in National Gallery 
of London ; fresco attributed to Raphael in 
Vatican. Curtis, 219 ; Cat. Nat Gal. ; Stir- 
ling. 

By Murillo, George Tomline, Orwell Park, 
Suffolk, England ; full-length, life size. The 
Saint, in a robe lined with red, kneels in 
ecstasy before a flaming heart which ap- 
pears in clouds, with an inscription ; on 
the floor, three books, a mitre, and a cro- 
zier. Painted about 1678 for Convent of 
S. Augustine, Seville ; taken to Paris by 
Marshal Soult, who sold it about 1846 to 
Mr. Tomliue. Dr. Waagen calls it the finest 
single figure he knew by the master. Copy 
in Cadiz Museum. Waagen, Treasures, iii. 
441 ; Curtis, 218. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; wood, H. 
8 ft 3 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. The Saint, seated 
behind a table, holding a pen over an open 
book, beholds a vision of the Trinity, above 
on his right, in a glory of cherubs and 
heads. Painted about 1678 for Convent of 
S. Augustine, Seville ; companion to above. 
Curtis, 217. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; wood, H. 
8 ft 3 in. x 4 ft 4 in. The Saint, in 
the habit of the Order of St Benedict, 
kneeling, presents to Infant Jesus, seated 
on lap of Virgin, a flaming heart which 
the Child transfixes with a dart ; above, 
cherubs and heads. Painted about 1678 
for Convent of S. Augustine, near the Car- 
mona Gate, Seville, which was suppressed 
at the beginning of this century. C. Ber- 
mudez, ii. 60 ; Carta, 96 ; Ponz, Viage, is. 
135 ; Curtis, 217. 

AUGUSTUS AND THE FRIENDS OF 
VIRGIL, liaphael, Camera della Segnatura, 



ATTROEA 



Vatican ; picture in grisaille, under the Par- 
nassus, at right. Emperor Augustus pre- 
venting the friends of Virgil, Tucca and 
Varius, from burning the MS. of the .ZEneid, 



and effect. Engraved by P. Pozzi (1880). 
Burckhardt, 773. 

AURORA, Guido Reni, Palazzo Rospigli- 
osi, Rome ; fresco, on the ceiling of the gar- 




Aurora, Guercino, Palazzo Ludovisi, Rom 



as the poet had directed ; on right, eight 
other figures. Painted in 1511. Passavant, 
ii. 91. 

AURORA, Guercino, Palazzo Ludovisi, 
Rome. Painted on the ceiling of a casino 
in the gardens of the villa. Apollo seated 
in a car dragged above the clouds by heavy 
mottled horses, is surrounded by the Hours. 



den pavilion. Aurora precedes Phoebus, 
who, sitting in a chariot drawn by horses, 
is attended by the Hours, graceful figures 
varied in action. Best work of the master 
for composition and color. Engraved by 
J. Frey ; Pasqualiui ; R. Morghen ; C. 
Preisel. Ch. Blanc, licole bolonaise ; Kug- 
ler (Eastlake), ii. 489 ; Lavice, 383. 




Aurora, Guido Reni, Palazzo Rospigliosi, Rome. 



The fresco resembles that of the same sub- 1 AUSTERLITZ, BATTLE OF, Gerard, 
ject by Guido at the Palazzo Rospigliosi, ! Versailles Museum ; fought, Dec. 2, 1805. 
but is inferior to it in composition, color, ; Scene : Gen. Rapp, wounded, gallops to an- 



AUTEIIOCIIE 



nounce to the Emperor, who is seated on 1824, to Florence in 1826, but returned to 
his horse surrounded by his staff and by offi- Rome, and thence to Paris. Was associate 
cers of the enemy made prisoners, the de- of the Institute, officer of the Legion of 
feat of the Russian Imperial Guard. Painted Honour, and knight of the Order of St 
in 1808: Salon, 1810. Engraved by Blanch- Michael Works: Jealousy of (Enone, 8t 
ard. Landon, Musee, Salon de 1810, PI. ; Louis Captive, Banquet of Damoclea, SL 
37-40 ; Gal. de Versailles, iv. No. 797. j Paul in Athens (1827) ; Sacrifice of Guutier 

AUTEROCHE, ALFRED, born in Paris \ de ChatUlon (1827), Cambrai Museum ; 
in 1831. Landscape and animal painter ; Spartan Fugitive, Raising of Pepin the Short 
pupil of Brascassat and of L. Cogniet. to the Throne, Mcleager's Death, Valen- 
Works : Cattle (Wm. Astor, N. Y.), Large j ciennes Museum. Meyer, Kflnst Lex., 
Oak, Pasture on Coast of Nonnandy (1868) ; ii. 452 ; Lejeune, iii. 14. 
Pasture near Trouville, Little Shepherdess ! AUZOU, PAULINE, born in Paris, March 
(1874) ; Ravine of MandaUles, The Prairie 24, 1775, died there, May 15, 1835. History 
(1879) ; Brood Mares (1880) ; Dogs and and portrait painter ; pupil of Regnault, ex- 
Sheep in South Jersey (1882). j celled especially in female portraits ; first 

AUTISSIER, LOUIS MARIE, bom in exhibited at Salon in 1793. Early subjects 
Vannes, Brittany, Feb. 8, 1772, died in taken from Greek history. Works : Arrival 
Brussels, Sept. 4, 1830. Studied with j of Marie Louise in Cotnptegne (1810), Mario 
Vautrin, and at fourteen by himself from Louise Taking Leave of her Family, Versailles 
nature. Served two years in the army, ! Gallery ; Agnes de Mlranie (1808) ; Diana 
then went to Paris and afterwards to Brus- of France and Montmorency (1814); Por- 
sels, where he painted miniatures, and to traits of Volney (1795), Regnault (1800), 
Holland. In 1817 he painted William L, Picard the Elder (1806). Meyer, KOimL 
King of the Netherlands ; exhibited at Lex., ii. 454. 
Paris in 1820-22. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii.. 
449. 

AUTOBOLUS, painter. See Olympian. 

AUTOMEDON, Henri Itegnault, S. A. 
Coale, Jr., St. Louis, Mo.; canvas, H. 10 ft 
4 in. x 10 ft. 9 in. Automedou, charioteer 
of Achilles, nude, struggling with the horses 
of Achilles, Xanthus (chestnut) and Balius 
(piebald), when about to yoke them to the 
chariot for the use of Patroclus (II. xvi.). 
Painted in Rome, 18G7 ; bought by L. P. 
Morton, N. Y.; sold in 1882 to Mr. Coale 
for $5,900. Placed in 1884 on exhibition in 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and will prob- 
ably remain there. Photogravure in Art 
Treasures of America, iii. 121. 

AUTUMN, N. Poussin. See Spies, Re- 
turn of the. 

AUVRAY, JOSEPH FF.UX HENRI, 
born at Cambrai, March 31, 1800, died 
there, Sept. 11, 1833. History painter; 



AVALOS, ALFONSO D', ALLEGORY 




Alltgory of Alfonso D'Avlo, Titian, Lou. 



ULKU.UJ kjcuu J-x, j.jw. *"*j j __ 1/4, o / i 

pupil of Valenciennes Academy and, in OF, TOwn, Louvre ; canvas, 
Paris, of Gros (1820); went to Rome in 1 6 in. The Marquia del Vasto, 



AVALOS 



armour, about to go against the Turks, 
parting from his wife, Mary of Aragon, but 
consoled by Victory, Love, and Hymen. 
Painted about 1533 ; from collection of 
Louis XIV. Engraved by Natalis and Oort- 
man. Variations of the subject in Vienna 
Museum. Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 442 ; C. & 
C., Titian, i. 373 ; Filhol., x. PL 711 ; Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre ; Miindler, 210 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole venitienne. 

AVALOS, ALFONSO D', ALLOCUTION 
OF, Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 
4 in. x 5 ft 5 in. The Marquis del Vasto, 
in armour and a red mantle, with a baton 
in one hand, gesticulates with the other to 
a company of halberdiers on right ; his son 
Francesco holds his helmet. Painted in 
1541 ; was in 1G21 in the Alcazar of Madrid, 
where it was injured by fii'e and repainted, 
so that little remains of Titian's handling. 
A similar picture in the Mantuan collection 
passed to Charles I. of England. C. & C., 
Titian, ii. 51 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 448. 

AVALOS, ALFONSO D', Marquis del 
Vasto, portrait, Titian, Cassel Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 2 in. x 5 ft. 5 in.; signed. Full 
length, in red doublet and hose and plumed 
cap of a duke, with a spear in right hand ; | 
at his feet on the right is a white dog, and 
on the left Cupid raising aloft a plumed hel- 
met ; background, a landscape. The title 
d'Avalos, Marquis del Vasto, needs confir- 
mation. Painted about 1550? C. & C., 
Titian, ii. 427 ; Cassel Cat. 

AVALOS, D', AND HIS PAGE? Titian, 
Hampton Court ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 4 in. x 3 
ft. 1 in. Seen to the knees, in armour, his 
right hand on a table on which is his hel- 
met ; a page to the right ties the laces of 
his breast-plate. Called Marquis del Guasto 
and Page in catalogue, but on slight 
grounds. Features are not unlike those of 
Duke of Alva in picture by Antonio Moro 
in Windsor Castle. C. & C., Titian, ii. 428 ; 
Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 39 ; Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 414. 

AVANZI (Davanzi) JACOPO, born in 
Verona, second half of the 14th century. 



Not to be confounded with his contemporary 
Jacopo degli Avanzii of Bologna. Worked 
at Verona and Padua, where he assisted 
Altichiero da Zevio in painting the frescos 
of the Chapel of S. Giorgio, and himself 
painted the frescos of S. Michele, Padua, 
which correspond in technic, though in- 
ferior in composition. To the same paint- 
er, who, with Altichiero, propagated the Gi- 
ottesque style in the north of Italy, may be 
attributed the fresco fragments of the Tri- 
umph of Marius in the Hall of the Em- 
peror, now Library, Padua. Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., ii. 454; Schuaase (2d ed. 1876), 
vii. 494 ; Ltibke, Gesch. d. ital. Mai., i. 
20. 

AVANZH, JACOPO DEGLI, latter half 
of the 14th century. Bolognese school ; 
imitated the second-hand followers of Giot- 
to, and combined ugly types, exaggeration 
of movement, and feeble execution. There 
are a Crucifixion by him in the Palazzo Co- 
lonua, Rome, and a Crucifixion and three 
damaged panel pieces in the Bologna Gal- 
lery ; also frescos at Mezzarata. He is not 
to be confounded with the above nor with 
Jacopo di Paolo Avanzi Bolognese, begin- 
ning of the 15th century, Padua. C. & C., 
Italy, ii. 212, 233 ; Bemasconi, Studj, v. 29 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iii. 40, iv. 90 ; Meyer, 
Kiiust. Lex., ii. 455. 

AVED, JACQUES ANDRF, JOSEPH, 
born in Douai, Jan. 12, 1702, died in Paris, 
March 4, 17G6. Portrait painter, pupil in 
Paris (1721) of Alexis Simon La Belle, and 
in Amsterdam of Picard, member of the 
Academy in 1734. He was intimate with 
Boucher, Chardiu, C. Van Loo, and the fore- 
most artists of his time, and painted many 
prominent men and women. Exhibited in 
Salons in 1737-1759. Works : Portrait of 
William IV., Amsterdam Museum ; of Mira- 
beau, Louvre ; of the painters Cazes and de 
Troy, cole des B. Arts, Paris ; Madame de 
Tencin, Valenciennes Museum ; Said Pasha, 
Versailles Gallery ; Louis XV., J. B. Rous- 
seau. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 458 ; Dus- 
sieux, 254. 



84 



AVELLIXO 



AVELLINO, GIULTO, or GIACINTO, 

called II Messinese, born in Messina, about 
the middle of 17th century, died in Ferrura, 
Aug. 3, 1700. Neapolitan school ; pupil 
of Salvator Rosa iii Naples ; returned to 
Messina and married the daughter of Maffei, 
his first teacher in perspective and architect- 
ure. Having wounded a priest in a quarrel, 
he fled to Naples, but pursued by the love 
and jealousy of a woman, who attempted to 
poison his wife, went to Rome, and after- 
wards to Venice. After visiting other cities 
he settled in Ferrara and there successfully 
revived the art of landscape painting, which 
had been extinct since the death of Dossi. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 407. 

AVERCAMP, HENDRIK, surnamed de 
Stomme (Mute) van Kampen, born prob- 
ably at Kampen on the Yssel about 1585 (?), 
died about 1635 (?). Dutch school ; land- 
scape painter, closely approaching the style 
of W. Buytenvrecb. and E. van de Velde ; 
painted chiefly winter landscapes. His 
highly esteemed water-colour sketches and 
drawings are in the Taylor Museum, Haar- 
lem (8), Hamburg Gallery (4), Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort (10), Berlin Museum (3), j 
Albertiua, Vienna (4). Works : Landscape, 
Antwerp Museum ; River Landscape, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Landscape (1G20), Amali- 
eustift, Dessau ; Dutch Kirmess on the Ice 
(2), Dresden Gallery ; Frozen River with 
Skaters (2), Berlin Museum ; Winter Land- 



scape, Schwerin Gallery. Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., ii. 469. 

AVERNUS, LAKE, the Fates, and the \ 
Golden Bough, J. M. W. Turner, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 5 in. x 5 ' 
ft. 4 in. Lake Avernus, near Cuniie, Italy, 
with Baiae and Vesuvius in distance. Sup- 
posed to be fed by the Acheron, the river of 
the infernal regions hence the entrance to 
Hades. The golden bough was a branch of 
the tree of Proserpine which, when plucked 
by the favour of the Fates, enabled mortals 



to visit and return from Hades (jEneid, VL), 
Royal Academy, 1834 ; Vernon Collection, 
1847. Engraved by T. A. Prior, J. T. Will- 
more. Cat Nat. Gal.; Hamerton,' Life. 

AVONT, PEETER VAN DEN, born at 
Mechlin, baptized Jan. 14, 1600, died at 
Deurne, near Antwerp, Nov. 1, 1652. Flem- 
ish school ; history and landscape painter, 
master of Antwerp guild in 1622-23, be- 
came a citizen of Antwerp in 1G31. Often 
supplied the landscapes of Vinck-Boons, 
Jan Brueghel the elder and the younger, 
Lucas van Uden, Jan Wildeus, J. d'Arthois, 
Luc. Achtschellinck, and Lod. de Vadder with 
delicately painted small figures. Works : 
Holy Family, St. James', Antwerp ; Madon- 
na, St. Nicholas' Chapel, ib.; do. and Angels 
in a Landscape, Ghent Museum ; Wooded 
Landscape with Holy Family, do. with Ma- 
donna and St. John, Flora with Genii, Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; Landscape with Diana Aim- 
ing at Mother with two Children, Madonna 
and Angels, Silenus and Bacchus, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, ib. ; Holy Family and Angels, 
Munich Gallery. Kramm, i. 36 ; Meyer, 
Ktlnst, Lex., ii. 479. 

AXARETO. See Assereto. 

AZE, ADOLPHE, born in Paris, March 
6, 1822, died there, March 25, 1884. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Robert-Fleury ; vis- 
ited Italy and the East and first exhibited in 
the Salon in 1845. Medals : 3d class, 1851, 
1863. Works: Diana Surprised by Endy- 
miou ; Council of Cardinals (1851), Rodez 
Museum ; Jean Goujon Decorated by Duke 
of Anjou(1855), Bagui'res-<le-Bigorre Muse- 
um ; Cosimo de Medicis Assassinating his 
Son in the Streets of Venice ; Interview be- 
tween Philip II. and Don Carlos. Chrou- 
ique des Arts (1884), 105. 

AZEGLIO (Massimo TapareUi), MAR- 
CHESE D', born in Turin, Oct 24, 1798, 
died there, Jan. 15, 1866. Landscape and 
genre painter, pupil of M. Verstappeu in 
Rome ; excelled especially in landscapes, 
which he enlivened with figures. In 1833 
he exhibited in Milan seventeen pictures 
which were most favourably received. Prime 



S3 



BAADE 



minister of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel 
and distinguished also as a scholar. Works : 
Fight of Italian and French Knights at 
Barletta, Origin of the Sforza Family, Ulys- 
ses Received by Nausicaa, My Wood, Battle 
of Legnauo. Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., ii. 494. 



BAADE, KNUD, born near Stavenger, 
Norway, March 28, 1808, died in 
Munich, Nov. 24, 1879. Landscape 
and marine painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1827-30. After painting por- 
traits in Christiania, went to Dresden, where 
he studied under Dahl in 183G-39 ; went 
again to Dresden in 1843 and settled in Mu- 
nich in 1846. He was Swedish court painter 
and member of the Stockholm Academy. 

Works : Moonlight Night on Nor- 
U? wegian Coast, Christiania Gallery; 

do., Munich Gallery ; Steamboat on 
the Cliffs. Am. Art Rev. (1880), 179; Kunst- 
Chronik, xv. 194 ; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 
499 ; Regnet, i. 11. 

BAADER, LOUIS MARIE, born at Lan- 
nion, June 20, 1828. History and genre 
painter ; pupil of Yvou and of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts. After treating antique 
subjects, exhibited in Salons in 1866-68, 
his humorous picture of a man shaving a 
poodle dog (The Toilette) had great success 
in the Salon of 1873. Medal 1866 ; 3d class, 
1874. Works : Destruction of Camulodu- 
num ; Hero and Leander ; Ulysses and Nau- 
sicaa ; Salmacis and Hermaphrodites ; Post- 
humous Fame (1874) ; Savoyard's Lyre, Re- 
morse, Tinker, Episode in Sparta (1877); 
Mistake, Faience Mender (1878). Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 500 ; Miiller, 20 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, viii. 86. 

BAAGE, CARL EMIL, bom in Copen- 
hagen, Aug. 22, 1829. Marine painter, pupil 
of Copenhagen Academy ; visited Iceland 
and Norway and made several cruises on 
royal men-of-war. Works : Vessels in the 
Sund (1855) ; Frigate Facing Storm in the 
Atlantic (1872). Sigurd Mttller, 17; Weil- 
bach, 38. 



BABUREN, THEODOR VAN, born prob- 
ably at Utrecht in 1570 (?), died there in 
1G24 (?). Dutch school ; history and genre 
painter, closely resembling G. Honthorst in 
choice of subjects and realistic treatment. 
Works: Entombment (1617), S. Pietro in 
Montorio, Rome ; Portrait of Young Singer 
(1623), Castle Langenstein near Halberstadt; 
Clarinet Player, Conversation, Prometheus 
Bound (1623); Adam and Eve; Bacchanal. 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 503. 

BABYLONIAN MARRIAGE MARKET, 
Edwin Long, Holloway Institute, Egham, 
near London. The sale of a tall, fair damsel, 
standing on a platform before a crowd of 
Babylonians, whom her uncommon charms 
have evidently stirred to the heart. At the 
salesman's bidding she raises her white veil, 
while a negress shifts the long light robe 
from her torso, of which we see only the 
back ; in front, a row of dusky beauties. 
Royal Academy, 1875 ; C. Hermon sale 
(1882), 6,615. Art Journal (1875), 250 ; 
Atheu., May, 1875, 490. 

BACCHANAL, Giovanni Bdlini and Titian, 
Alnwick Castle, England; canvas, 6 ft. square; 
signed, dated 1514. The gods, feasting and 
drinking in a woody glade ; background, a 
rocky hill, with a castle view of Cadore, 
seen from the point of Previs. Begun in 
1514 for Duke Alfonso of Ferrara by Bellini, 
who sketched and dated it, but was pre- 
vented from finishing on account of his 
great age, says Vasari ; finished by Titian. 
Was in the Ludovisi and Aldobrandini col- 
lections, Rome, before going to England. 
Much retouched. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 191; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 433 ; Campori, Tiziano 
e gii Estense, Nuova Antologia, Nov. 1874 ; 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 412, 418. 

By Dosso Dossi, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, 4 ft. 9 in. square. A motley group of 
ladies and gentlemen, some of them half 
nude, pressing round a table on which lie 
masks, musical instruments, etc. Kugler 
(Eastlake), ii. 488. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 4 in. ; signed. Bacchantes 



86 



BACCHANTE 



anil their companions celebrating an orgy ; bears a large vase. Engraved by E. Beis- 
Ariatlne in foreground at right, insensible son ; V. della Bruna. Wicar, ii. Part 13 ; 
from wine ; in the distance the galley of Gal. du PaL Pitti, i. PI. G7; Lavice, 68. 
Theseus sailing away. Painted in 1519-20 
for Duke Alfonso of Ferrara ; same subse- j 



By Velasquez. See Jiorrachos. 
By Leonardo da Finci(?), Louvre ; canvas, 
quent history as the Ven us Worship. Copy by H. 5 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. Seated on a stone, 



Rubens in Royal Palace, Stockholm. C. & 
C., Titian, i. 231, 265 ;Sainsbury Papers, 823. 



crowned with vine leaves and leaning on a 
thyrsus. From collection of Louis XTV. 



BACCHANTE, Annibale Carracci, Uffizi, i Ascribed, in inventory of the Restoration, 
Florence ; canvas, life size. A bacchante, to a scholar of Leonardo. Passavant thinks 
seen from behind, nearly nude, half reclining i it was originally a John Baptist in the Des- 
under a tree, with a fly- 
ing Cupid crowning her 
with a wreath ; at left, 
the god Pan offers her 
a dish of grapes, while 
a little satyr embraces 
one of her legs. Paint- 
ed for the Bologuetti 
family, who sold it to 
the Medici. Copy, for- 
merly in Faruese collec- 
tion, now in Naples Mu- 
seum. Malvasia, i. 378 ; 
Molini, i. 53; Soc. Ed. 
& Paris, Gall, de Firenze, 
PI. 97; Museo Borbon- 
ico, viii. PL 47 ; Lasinio, 
i. PI. 16. 

By George Romney, 
National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 7 
in. x 1 ft. 3 in. Bust por- 
trait of Emma Lyon, af- 
terwards Lady Hamilton, wife of Sir Wm. 
Hamilton and mistress of Lord Nelson. 
Painted about 1786 ; Vernon Collection. 
Engraved by C. Hall. Art Journal (1854), 
88. 




Bacchanal, Giovanni Bellini and Titian, Alnwick Castle, England. 



BA.CCHIACCHA. See Ulx-rtini. 

BACCHUS or Dionysus, ancient pictures. 
See Ariatidett, Ctesilochus ; Liber, see Echion, 
Nicias. 

By Guido Reni, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 



ert, as there is a picture like it, save the 
crown of leaves, representing the Saint, in 
S. Eustorgo, Milan ; the vine leaves and the 
thyrsus are evidently additions. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iv. 60; Villot," Louvre; Rigollot, Hist, 
des Arts, &c., j. 288 ; Heaton, 255 ; Gaz. des 
Beaux Arts (1866), xx. 47. 

BACCHUS AND ARIADNE, Claude Lor- 
rain. See Ulysses and Nausicaa. 

By Tintoretto, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; 



canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. Bacchus, ' canvas. Figures nude. Bacchus, crowned 



half length, crowned with grapes and leaves, 
bearing a salver and cup ; a wicker flask 
hangs from his finger ; in front, a nude boy 



with vine leaves, and with leaves and grapes 
about his loins, stands in the water at the 
edge of tho sea, offering a ring to Ariadne, 



87 



BACCHUS 



who sits on the shore ; above, Venus, float- 
ing in the air, crowns Ariadne with stars. 
Once one of the noblest pictures in the 
world, but now miserably faded by the sun, 
which falls on it all day long. Euskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii, 297 ; Klas. der Malerei, 
PI. 64 ; Burckhardt, 752 ;Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 
217. 

By Titian, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 3 in.; signed. Sub- 
ject from Catullus (Peleus and Thetis, Ixiv. 
252). Ariadne, on the shore of Naxos, turns 
as if to flee from Bacchus, who is eagerly 
leaping from his leopard-drawn car ; a bois- 
terous procession of Satyrs and Menads issue 
from a wood on right. Painted in Ferrara 




Bacchus and 



National Gallery, London. 



BACCHUS, YOUTH OF, Adolphe Bou- 
guereau, Paris ; canvas. The boy-god, mount- 
ed upon the shoulders of a shepherd and 
surrounded by dancing nymphs and satyrs, 
is the centre of a procession passing through 
a glade ; centaurs lead the throng on the 
right, and Silenus on his ass brings up the 
rear. Salon, 1884. Art Journal (1884), 180. 

BACCICCIO, IL, born in Genoa May 8, 
1639, died in Rome 
April 2, 1709. Gen- 
oese school ; real 
name Gio. Battista 
Gaulli ; pupil of Lu- 
ciano Borzone, went 
early to Rome and 



by studying works of great 
masters formed a style 
which brought him into 
repute. He distinguished 
himself especially as a ma- 
chinist ; his most conspic- 
uous work is the dome of 
the Gesu, Rome, where he 
represented St. Francis 
Xavier taken up into 
heaven. Also celebrated 
for his portraits; painted 
seven popes and many 
other persons of rank. 
Lanzi, i. 515, iii. 275 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole geno- 
ise. 




in 1523 ; removed in 1598 to Rome, where it 
was in the Barberini and Aldobrandini col- 
lections ; purchased from latter in 1806 for 
Mr. Buchanan ; sold in 1826 to National 
Gallery. Copies by Varotari in Bergamo 
Gallery ; copies by Poussin at Alnwick Cas- 
tle and in Accademia di S. Luca, Rome. 
Engraved by G. A. Podesta (1636), and J. 
Juster (1691). C. & C., Titian, i. 259 ; Ri- 
dolfi, Maraviglie, i. 257 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 434 ; Richter, 86. 



BACH, ALOIS, born at Eschelkamm, Ba- 
varia, Dec. 12, 1809. Painter of horses, 
genre subjects, and landscapes. In 1828 
entered the Munich Academy 
j under Heinrich Hess, then 

I / ^J studied works of Albrecht 
/V^"""\ Adam and Peter Hess, and 
/ l\ I later was strongly influenced 
by his friend Ed. Schleich. 
Works : Mail Coach in the Snow, Storm 
Approaching, Bavarian Village in Harvest 



68 



ess, then 






BACHE 



Time. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 509 ; Muller, 
20. 

BACHE, OTTO, born at Roeskilde, Den- 
mark, Aug. 21, 1839. Genre painter, pupil 
of Copenhagen Academy, under Marstrand, 
where he obtained prizes in 1856-57-6C ; 
completed his studies in Paris. Excels also 
in portraits and animals, and is noted for 
brilliant colouring. Medal, Copenhagen, 
1872. Works : Drive to a Kirmess (1863) ; 
Wagons by Brickyard (1864), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Badger with her Young (186(5) ; 
Centaur Playing with his Son (1869) ; Do- 
mestic Animals at Peasant's, Cart-Horses, 
Feeding the Dogs (1870); Father and Sou 
(1871); Daniel in the Lion's Den, Visit to 
Young Mother (1874); After the Boar-Hunt 
(1875) ; Admiral Tordenskjold at Carlsten 
(1876); Team of Horses by Tavern (1878); 
In the Mill (1879); Staghunt (1881); Winter 
Morning at the Exchange (1882). Sigurd 
Mttller, 18 ; Weilbach, 39. 

BACHELIEE, JEAN JACQUES, born in 
Paris, 1724, 
died there, 
April 13, 1800. 
Flower, ani- 
mal, and his- 
tory painter, 
pupil of Pierre. 
Received into 
the Academy in 
1751 as flower 
painter, and in 
1763 as history painter. In 1766 he estab- 
lished a free school of design for artisans, 
which, in 1767, passed into the hands of the 
Government. As instructor in the factory 
at Sevres he exercised a marked influence 
upon French porcelain p.. luting. He made 



/ 



the first researches in the use of wax for en- 
caustic painting, and thus became intimate 
with Count Caylus and other French ar- 





chaeologists. His Cimon in Prison is in the 
Louvre. Ch. Blanc, cole fran<;aise, ii.; 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 512. 

BACHELIN, AUGUSTE, born in Neuf- 
chatel, Switzerland, Sept, 27, 1830. His- 
tory, genre, and landscape painter, pupil in 
Neufchatel of Moritz and in Paris (1852) 
of Gleyre and Couture. Confined himself 
at first to genre and landscape, but after 
1859, when he accompanied Garibaldi's vol- 
unteers, painted chiefly military scenes. 
Afterwards travelled through France ; spent 
the winter of 1864-65 in Italy, where he 
painted popular life. Works : March of 
a Swiss Battalion (1860) ; Bourbaki's Army 
Entering Swiss Territory ; Scene from De- 
fence of Switzerland (1866) ; Death of En- 
sign Montmollin (1866), Neufchatel Mu- 
seum ; Haymakers of the Alps (1863) ; 
Poachers of Uri (1863) ; Wrestlers of Hasli 
(1867) ; Two Fancy Scenes from Prehistoric 
Times. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 513 ; Mul- 
ler, 21 ; Kunst-Chronik, v. 189 ; vii. 108. 

BACKER, ADRIAEN, born in Amster- 
dam in 1636, died there in 1686. Dutch 
school ; history and portrait painter, nephew 
of Jacob B. ; followed at first the traditions 
of the school of Utrecht, afterwards formed 
himself entirely after Italian models. Works: 
Allegory, Antwerp Museum ; Semiramis 
(1669), Last Judgment, National Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Anatomical Lecture (1670), 
Athenteum, ib.; Managers of Medical Col- 
lege, ib.; male portrait, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; do. and female portrait, Endymiou 
and Diana, Sleeping Girl and Shepherd, 
Rape of Sabine Women (1671), Bruns- 
wick Gallery. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., ii. 519 ; 
Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 300. 

BACKER (Bakker), JACOB, born at 
Haerlingen in 1608 or 1609, died at Amster- 
dam, Aug. 27, 1651. Dutch school ; portrait 
painter, pupil at Leeuwarden of Lambert 
Jacobsz, then at Amsterdam (1635-38) of 
Rembrandt, but later yielded to the influ- 
ence of Van der Heist and others. Works : 
Syndics, Two Archery Pieces (one of 1642), 
National Museum, Amsterdam ; Venus, 



89 



BACKEKEEL 



Adonis, and Cupid. Cassel Gallery ; Por- 
trait of F. de Vroucle (1643), Berlin 
Museum ; male and female portrait, Old 
Man in Prayer, Dresden Gallery. Meyer, 
Kilnst. Lex., ii. 517 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 
300. 

BACKEREEL, GILLES, born in Antwerp, 
master of the guild in 1C29, died after 1652. 
Flemish school ; history painter, studied in 
Rome and then lived mostly at Antwerp. 
Works : Vision of St. Felix, Adoration of 
the Shepherds, Brussels Museum ; Hero 
bewailing Leander, Vienna Museum. 
Rooses (Reber), 156. 

BACKHUYSEN (Bakhuizen), LUDOLF, 

born at Em- 
den, Dec. 18, 
1G31, died at 
Amsterdam, 
Nov. 17, 1708. 
Dutch school ; 
marine painter, 
pupil of Aldert 
van Everdin- 
genand ofHen- 
drick Dubbels, 
but chiefly stud- 
ied from na- 
ture, often ex- 
posing himself to great danger to observe 
the sea in its various aspects. Also painted 
portraits on a small scale. Peter the Great 
visited his studio in Amsterdam. Works : 
Dutch Shipping (1683), four others, National 
Gallery, London ; Boats in a Storm (1696), 
Dulwich Gallery ; Dutch Squadron (1675), 
four others, Louvre ; Man-of-War, Antwerp 
Museum ; Port of Amsterdam (1673), Em- 
barkation of Jan de Witt (1690), Agitated 
Sea (1692), The Zuider Zee (1694), two 
Marines, Disembarkation of William III. 
(1692), Entrance of Dutch Port (1693), 
Building Yard of East India Company at 
Amsterdam (1696), National Museum, Am- 
sterdam ; Ice Landscape, Marine (1689), two 
others, Copenhagen Gallery ; Sea Harbour, 
Stockholm Museum ; Storm at Sea, Portrait 
of Himself, several others, Ludwigslust Gal- 




lery ; Shipwreck, Portrait of Old Man, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Stormy Sea, 
Slightly Agitated Sea (1664), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Coast View, Bamberg Gallery ; View 
on the Y (1700), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
/f i Approaching Storm 

it i/But*"' at Sea> Kiver Land " 

J*^ scape, Vienna Mu- 

seum ; Agitated Sea (1669), Palazzo Pitti, 




158 



Florence. Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 502 ; Meyer, Kilnst. 
Lex., ii. 521. 

BACLER D'ALBE, LOUIS ALBERT 
GUILLAIN, Baron de, born at St. Pol (Pas 
de Calais), Oct. 21, 1762, died in Sevres, 
Sept. 12, 1824. Landscape painter, studied 
from nature in the Alps of Savoy ; entered 
the army at the outbreak of the revolution 
and took part in the sieges of Lyons and 
Toulon ; was afterwards director of the topo- 
graphic corps and brigadier-general under 
Napoleon. Left the service in 1813. Works : 
Battle of Lodi ; Crossing the Po ; Battle of 





Rivoli ; Battle of Arcola ; After the Battle 
of Austerlitz, Versailles Gallery. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., ii. 525. 

BACON, HENRY, born at Haverhill, 
Massachusetts, in 1839. Subject painter ; 
in 1864 visited Paris, where he became a 
pupil of the Ecole des Beaux Arts and of 
Cabanel; and in 1866-67 studied under 
Edouard Frere at Ecouen. Studio in Paris. 
Works : Paying the Scot (1870), W. B. Be- 
ment, Philadelphia ; Boston Boys and Gen- 
eral Gage (1875,) C. R. Rogers, Philadel- 
phia; Franklin at Home (1876), J. B. 



90 



I3ADALOCCHIO 



Thomas, Cimrlestown, Mass. ; Land ! Land ! 
Lea Adieus (1878) ; Luck of Roaring Camp 
(1881) ; Lovers' Quarrel (1882) ; Le Plei- 
nairiste, In Normandy (Paris Salon, 1883.) 

BADALOCCHIO, SISTO, born in Parma 
in 1581, died in Bologna in 1C47. Bo- 
lognese school. By Malvasia called Sisto 
Rosa ; pupil of Atmibale Carracci, who took 
him to Rome and employed him in the 
Palazzo Farnese. With Lanfranco, who had 
been his co-disciple in Bologna, he made 
drawings from Raphael's frescos in the Log- 
gie of the Vatican. After C.irracci's death, 
in 1C09, he returned to Bologna, and was 
later employed in Parma by the fatuity of 
Este. A good draughtsman, but execution 
rather sketchy. Work : St. Francis Receiv- 
ing the Stigmata, Parma Academy. Meyer, 
Kilnst. Lex., ii. 527 ; Malvasia, iii. 517 ; 
Burckhardt, 871. 

BADIN, JULES JEAN, born iu Paris, 
contemporary. Figure and portrait painter, 
pupil of Cabanel and Baudry. Employed at 
national manufactory at Beauvais. Medal, 
3d class, 1877. His Queen of Sheba is 
owned by T. A. Haverneyer, New York. 

BADIN, PIERRE ADOLPHE, born at 
Auxerre, France, in 1805. Genre painter : 
exhibited nothing after 1848. Medal, 3d 
class, 1839 ; Legion of Honour 1849, officer 
1855 ; 1848 to 1850 director of the Gobe- 
lins ; 1850 to I860 director of the Beauvais 
manufactory ; 18GO to 1870 again director 
of the Gobelins. Works : Beggar Seeking 
Shelter from a Storm (1833) ; Country Doc- 
tor (1839) ; St. Germain of Auxerre, Eoarix 
King of the Alans (1844), ordered by State ; 
Defence of St. Jean de Losue against the 
Spaniards in 1636 (1847) ; St. Dominic 
Preaching (1848). Larousse. 

BAEHR, JOHANN KARL, born at Riga, 
Aug. 18, 1801, died in Dresden, Sept. 29, 
1869. Portrait and history painter, pupil of 
Friedrich Matthiii in Dresden ; visited Italy 
in 1827-29, and returned to Riga, but finding 
no artistic or intellectual incentive there, 
settled in Dresden in 1832, and became pro- 
fessor at the Academy in 1840. His Death 



of Ivan the Cruel is in the Dresden Gallery. 
Allgein. d. Biogr., i. 769 ; Meyer, Kilust 
Lex., ii. 536 ; Kunst-Chronik, v. 53. 

BAEN, JACOBUS DE, born at The 
Hague, March, 1672, died in Vienna in 
1700. Dutch school ; son and pupil of Jan 
de Baen. In 1688 went to England in suite 
of W T illiam IIL and there painted a much 
admired portrait of the Duke of Colchester. 
Afterwards went to Florence and painted 
for the Grand Duke, and later to Rome, 
where he executed historical and genre pict- 
urea On account of his gigantic propor- 
tions he was called the Gladiator by his 
colleagues in Rome. He afterwards worked 
in Vienna. Siret, 58 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
ii. 537. 

BAEN, JAN DE, born in Haarlem, Feb. 
20, 1633, died at The Hague, buried March 
8, 1702. Dutch school ; portrait painter, 
pupil of his uncle Piemaus at Emden, and 
of Jacob Backer at Amsterdam ; greatly es- 
teemed in his time and employed by the 
courts of England (where he painted Charles 
IX and the queen), France, Brandenburg, 
and Tuscany. Established at The Hague 
about 1660. Returned from England in 
1676, when he is mentioned in the registers 
of the guild of painters at The Hague. 
Works : Portraits in most of the public gal- 
leries of Holland ; one of the best is that of 
Prince John Maurice of Nassau, National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Portrait of Himself, 
Dresden Gallery ; portraits in the Schloss, 
Berlin. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 536 ; De 
Stuers, 5. 

BAER, MAXIMILIAN, born at St. Jo- 
hannis near Nuremberg, Aug. 24, 1853. 
Still life, history, and genre painter, pupil 
of Nuremberg Art School under Raupp, 
with whom he travelled in the Bavarian 
Alps, and of Munich Academy, under Alex. 
Wagner and Lindenschmit, where he won 
several prizes. Mttller, 25. 

EAGER, JOHANN DANIEL, born at 
Wiesbaden, in 1734, died Aug. 17, 1815. 
Portrait, genre, landscape, and fruit painter, 
pupil of Fiedler in Darmstadt and of Justus 



BAGGE 



Junker in Frankfort. Best works in Stiitlel 
Gallery, Frankfort, and Darmstadt Gallery. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 545. 

BAGGE, MAGNUS THULSTRUP VON, 
born at Christiansund, Norway, Aug. 9, 1825. 
Landscape painter ; studied first in Copen- 
hagen under Thorwaldsen, then in Chris- 
tiania, and in Diisseldorf under Andreas 
Achenbach, Gude, and Leu ; travelled then 
in Norway, Sweden, Bavaria, and Switzer- 
land, and settled in Berlin. Works : Nor- 
wegian Landscapes ; Sunset on Bygdin 
Lake, Norway ; Moonrise. M filler, 22. 

BAGLIONE, CESABE, born in Bologna 
in middle of IGth century, died at Parma in 
1612. Bolognese school ; decorative paint- 
er, rival of Cremonini ; excelled in landscape, 
but painted also history, animals, fruits, 
and flowers. Frescos in many palaces in 
Bologna and Parma. Malvasia, i. 253 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
ii. 546. 

BAGLIONE, GIOVANNI, Cavaliere, born 
in Borne about 1572, died about 1645. 
Roman school ; pupil of Francesco Morelli ; 
employed in many considerable works in 
Rome under Sextus V., Clement VIII, and 
Paul V., especially in the Vatican, in S. Gio- 
vanni Laterano, and in St. Peter's. But he is 
best known as the author of Lives of the 
Painters, Sculptors, and Architects in Rome 
from 1572 to 1042. Lanzi, i.470 ; Ch. Blanc, 
cole ombrienne. 

BAGNACAVALLO, BARTOLOMMEO 
DA, born at Bag- 
nacavallo (Ro- 
magna) in 1484, 
died in Bologna 
in August, 1542. 
Real name Bar- 
tolommeo Ra- 
x menghi. Bologn- 
\ ese school ; his- 
tory painter, 
pupil of Frances- 
co Francia, but 
also studied in Rome with Raphael, after 
whose death he returned to Bologna. He 




had a considerable reputation, and was em- 
ployed in decorating many public buildings. 
Several churches in Bologna possess pictures 
by him. Among his works are : Circum- 
cision, Louvre ; Holy Family and Saints, 
Bologna Gallery ; Madonna in Glory and 

; Saints, Dresden Museum, quite in the style 
of Dosso Dossi, as are his three Saints in 

; the Berlin Gallery. Baguacavallo's son, 
Giovanni Battista, worked at Rome with 
Vasari and assisted Primaticcio at Fontaine- 
bleau. Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; Vas- 
ari, ed. Mil., v. 175 ; Burckhardt, 684 ; Liib- 
ke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 375. 

BA11E, BAY OF, J. M. W. Turner, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 
in. X 7 ft. 9 in. A beautiful expanse of 
land and water, almost purely imaginative, 
with Apollo and the Cumsean Sibyl seated 
under tall pine trees. Castle of Baiae seen 
on right, and Pozzuoli (anc. Puteoli), oppo- 
site. Royal Academy, 1823 ; Turner Col- 
lection. Engraved by R. Brandard. Ham- 

: erton, Life ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 

BAILLET, ERNEST, born at Brest, 
contemporary. French school ; landscape 
painter, pupil of Saunier and of Pelouse. 
Medal : 3d class, 1883. Works : Pont^Scorff, 
Brittany (1883) ; Market of Lanuion, Le 
Yaudet, Brittany (1884) ; Old Wash-houses 
at Vitre (1885). 

BAILLU (Bailly), ERNEST JOSEPH, 

: born at Lille, Oct. 17, 1753, died in Ghent, 
Jan. 21, 1823. Flemish school ; history and 
landscape painter, pupil of Ghent and Ant- 
werp Academies, and in 1775-77 of the 

cole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Gold medal, 
Ghent, 1811. Works: Contempt (1792), 
Ghent Museum ; CEdipus at Colonus (1796), 
Allegory on Birth of King of Rome (1811), 
Societe royale des Beaux Arts, ib. Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, i. 651. 

BAILLY, DAVID, born at Leyden in 
1584, died after 1661. Dutch school ; por- 
trait painter, first instructed by his father, 
Pieter B., then pupil of Adriaan Verburg, 
and in Amsterdam, 1602-8, of Cornelis van 
der Voort ; went to Italy, spent some time in 



BAISC11 



Germany, and returned to Leyden in 1G13. 
Works: "Female Portrait (1624), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Male Portrait, Gcittingen "Uni- 
versity ; Young Man at Table (1561), A Du- 
mont, Cambrai. Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollan- 
daise ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1860), viii. 306 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 563. 

BAISCH, HERMANN, born in Dresden, 
July 12, 1846. Landscape painter ; after 
studying in the Stuttgart art school, went 
to Paris in 18C8, and was much influenced 
by the landscapes of Rousseau and Dupre. 
In 1869 he entered the studio of Lier at 
Munich, and soon attracted attention by his 
simply-treated though effective views of the 
neighbouring country. Professor of Carls- 
ruhe Art School since 1880. Medals : Vi- 
enna, 1873 ; Munich, 1883. Works : Brook 
with Willows, Spring Morning, Pasture 
with Cattle, Morning Landscape, Herd by a 
Canal in the Rain, Mill by Moonlight (1878), 
Stuttgart Gallery ; Wood Interior in Au- 
tumn (1879) ; At the Watering Trough 
(1883), Hanover Museum. Meyer, Ki'mst. 
Lex., ii. 565 ; Miiller, 23. 

BAKALOWICZ, LADISLAUS, born in 
Cracow, Poland. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Academy of Warsaw. Works : 
Portrait of the Empress (1865) ; Falcon 
Chase, Secret Reading (1867) ; Amusement 
at Court (1870) ; Lady with Parrot (1870) ; 
They Follow Us (1872); Girls Drinking Wine 
(1873) ; Louis XIII. Inviting Richelieu to a 
Game of Chess (1876) ; Henry V. ; The 
Visit ; Richelieu's Cats ; Necklace ; Secret ; 
Response (J. Hoey, New York) ; Casket (F. 
Rogers, Philadelphia) ; Morning Call (W. 
B. Bement, Philadelphia); Mirror, Love- 
Bird (T. Dolan, Philadelphia); In the Li- 
brary (A Adams, Watertown, Mass.); Peti- 
tion to the King, Lady and Bouquet, Ladies 
and Mandolin (Mrs. Paran Stevens, New 
York). Kunst-Chronik, v. 129, 149; viii. 
86 ; 370. 

BAKER, GEORGE A., born in New 
York in 1821, died there, April 2, 1880. 
Portrait painter, pupil of National Acad- 
emy, and studied two years (1844-46) in 



Europe. Noted for his portraits of women 
! and children. Elected N. A in 1851. 
Among his ideal works are : Love at First 
Sight, Children of the Wood and Wild 
Flowers (Mrs. M. O. Roberts, New York) ; 
Faith ; School Girls (W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more). 

BAKER, WILLIAM BLISS, born in New 
York, in 1859. Landscape painter, pupil of 
! Bierstadt, M. F. H. de Haas, and of Na- 
tional Academy. Studio in New York. 
Works: Green Pasture Sultry July Day, 
April Sunshine and the First Green (T. B. 
Clarke); Hiding in the Hay-Cocks (1881) ; 
Brook at Evening (1882); Pleasant Day at 
Lake George (1883). 

BAKER, WILLIAM H., born in 1825, 
died in 1875. Portrait and genre painter ; 
j studied and painted in New Orleans several 
years, came to New York in 1865, and in 
1871 took charge of the Brooklyn Art As- 
sociation schools. Works : May Flowers 
(1870) ; Red Riding-Hood (1871) ; Morning- 
Glories, Cherry -Time, Home Regatta (1872); 
Lilies of the "Field (1873) ; Truants from 
School (1875). 

BAKHUYZEN, HENDRIK VAN DE 
SANDE, born at The Hague, Jan. 2, 1795, 
died there, Dec. 12, 1860. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of J. Heymans, 
but formed himself chiefly through diligent 
study of nature ; member of Amsterdam 
Academy, and Director of School of Design 
at The Hague in 1822. Medals : Brussels, 
1821 ; Antwerp, 1822 ; The Hague, 1839 ; 
Order of Lion, 1847. Works: Land- 
scapes (3) with Animals and Ruins, National 
Museum, Amsterdam. His daughter and 
pupil, Gerardina Jacobus, (born at The 
Hague, July 27, 1826), is a flower and fruit 
painter ; medals : Amsterdam, 1860 ; The 
Hague, 1863 ; pictures in Haarlem and 
Rotterdam Museum. His son and pupil, 
Julius Jacobus (born at The Hague, June 
18, 1835), is also a landscape painter ; 
several prizes, great medal, Amsterdam, 
1871. Immerzeel, i. 24 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., ii., 524 



BAKKEE. 



BARKER. See Backer. 

BAKKER-KORFF, ALEXANDER HU- 
GO, born at The Hague, Aug. 31, 1824, died 
in Leyden, Jan. 28, 1882. Genre painter, pu- 
pil at The Hague Academy of Kruseman 
and J. E. J. van den Berg ; painted humor- 
ous, often satirical, genre and family scenes. 
Was one of the best modern Dutch artists. 
Works : Calumny ; Sick Woman ; The 
Toast (18G4) ; Reading the Newspaper ; 
Lady at Toilet (1867); Daughter of the 
Hero ; Scrubbing Maid ; Bric-ii-brac Shop ; 
Seamstress ; Clothes Basket (J. Hoey, New 
York) ; Old Lady Knitting. Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1867), xxiii. 19 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
ii. 567. 

BALAKLAVA, Mrs. E. Butler, Fine Art 
Society, London. After the return from the 
" Valley of Death." Central figure, a blood- ' 
besmeared dismounted trooper, who ad- ! 
vances with clutched sabre and resolute face, I 
as if still in battle ; behind him a sergeant [ 
of the 17th on a chestnut charger, bearing 
on his saddle-bow a dead young trumpeter ; 
nt left, riderless horses and various touching 
episodes, with the smoke of the Russian 
guns behind. Engraved by F. Stacpoole. 

BALDASSARE DA REGGIO. See Es- 
tense. 

BALDOVINETTI, ALESSO, born in 
Florence, Oct. 14, 1427, died there, Aug. 29, 
1499. Florentine school. Baldiuucci con- 
siders him a pupil of Paolo Dccelli. Regis- 
tered in the Florentine Guild of St. Luke in 
1448, and appears to have had some reputa- 
tion. He was an experimentalist in oil me- 
dium, and the ablest mosaist of his age. 
Vasari says he was the master of Ghirlanda- 
jo. The works which may safely be assigned 
to him are a fresco, with fine landscape back- 
ground, Adoration of the Shepherds (1460), 
Portico of the Auuunziata, Florence ; a Ma- 
donna and Saints, and an Annunciation, Uf- 
fizi, Florence ; Trinity with Saints, Florence 
Academy, and Frescos of Evangelists, Proph- 
ets, and Angels, Chapel of S. Miniato, Flor- 
ence. C. & C., Italy, ii. 372 ; Meyer, Kunst. 
Lex., ii. 613 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., ii. 591, ed. Le 



Mon., iv. 74, 101: Eastlake, Materials, etc., 
i. 223 ; Pierotti, Ricordi di A. Baldovinetti 
(Lucca, 1868) ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentiue ; 
Burckhardt, 541 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
i. 312. 

BALDUNG, HANS, surnamed Grien 
(Griin), born at Gmtind, Suabia, about 1476, 
died at Strassburg, in 1545. German school ; 
history and portrait painter, formed under 
influence of Martin Schongauer, judging 
from the altar wings in the monastery of 
Lichtenthal, near Baden-Baden, painted in 
1496, and afterwards under that of Durer, 
whose pupil he may possibly have been in 
1507-09 ; settled at Strassburg in 1509, is 
classed as the most remarkable painter of 
his time there, and was elected senator in 
1545. Temporarily (1511-18) employed at 
Freiburg, Brisgau. He obtained his sur- 
name from the peculiar green used in his dra- 
peries, perhaps also from his predilection for 
dressing in green stuffs. Works : Two altar 
wings (1496), Kloster Lichtenthal, Baden ; 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (1507) ; Christ 
on the Cross, Nativity (1512), Aschaffenburg 
Gallery ; Deluge (1516), Bamberg Gallery ; 
Death Kissing a Woman, Death Showing to 
Woman an Open Grave (1517), Christ on the 
Cross (1512), Basle Museum ; Christ on the 
Cross, Crucifixion (1512), Adoration of the 
Magi, Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1522), 
Head of Old Man, Berlin Museum ; Death 
of Lucretia (1530), Raczynski Gallery, ib.; 
Noli me Tangere (1539), Darmstadt Museum; 
Triptych with Baptism of Christ, Frankfort 
Museum ; Great Altar in 11 Panels (1511- 
16), Baptism of Christ, Annunciation, Frei- 
burg Cathedral ; Margrave Christoph of Ba- 
den, Margrave's Family Adoring Madonna, 
four panels with Martyrdom of the Ten 
Thousand, Constantino and Helen Testing 
the Cross, Four Saints, Kunsthalle, Carls- 
ruhe; Palatine Philipp (1517), Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Margrave Christoph of Baden 
(1515), Allegorical Figure, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery; Wisdom at the Abyss (1525 ?), formerly 
in Laudauer Briiderhaus, Nuremberg ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Dorothea, Prague Gallery ; 



J4 



JJALKX 




Bust Portrait of Young Man (1515), Vienna 
Museum ; Holy Family, Academy, ib. ; The 
Ages of Man in Six Female Figures, Madon- 
na (1530), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Adam 
and Eve (attributed to Cranach), Schonboru 
Gallery, ib.; Adam and Eve (1507, copies 
after Diirer's in Madrid Museum), Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence; Male Portrait (1539?), 
Hampton Court Gallery ; Age 
and Youth (?, attributed to An- 
tonello da Messina), Royal In- 
stitution, Liverpool. Allgem. d. 
Biog., ii. 17 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande ; 
Keane, Early Masters, 102 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., ii. G17; Woltmanu, D. Kunst im Elsass, 
278 ; W. & W., ii. 440 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., i. 
257, 283 ; viii. 321. 

BALEN, HENDIUK VAN, born in Ant- 
werp in 1575, 
died there, July 
17, 1G32. Flem- 
ish school ; his- 
tory painter, pu- 
pil of Adam van 
Noort ; studied 
for some years in 
Italy ; afterwards 
influenced by Ru- 
bens, and even by 
Van Dyck, his pu- 
pil, who painted 
his portrait. Member of St. Luke's Guild 
in 1593, and dean of it in 1G09-10. His ec- 
clesiastical subjects are less satisfactory than 
his mythological, to which Jan Brueghel 
supplied landscape backgrounds. Cold in 
feeling, mannered in attitudes, glassy in col- 
ouring ; in nude figures pleasing, and in 
melting style of execution very finished. 
Works : Banquet of the Gods, Louvre; Con- 
cert of Angels, St. John Preaching, Holy 
Trinity, Antwerp Museum ; Holy Family, 
Cathedral, ib. ; Trinity, Christ on the Cross, 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Flight into 
Egypt, Resurrection, portraits of himself and 
wife, St. James's, ib.; Fecundity, Brussels 
Museum ; The Seasons' Offering to Cybele, 
Naiads filling Horn of Plenty, Gods of 




Olympus, National Museum, Amsterdam ; 
Diana and Aetux>n (landscajMj by Brueghel), 
Cassel Gallery ; Gathering of Manna, Moses 
Striking the Rock, Brunswick Gallery ; 
Smithy of Vulcan (landscape by Brueghel), 
Berlin Museum ; St. Jerome, Banquet of 
the Gods, Bacchanal, Diana Resting after 
the Chase, Four Seasons (landscapes in 
last seven by Brueghel), Nymplis loading 
Mules with Game (animals by Snyder), 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Diana and Nymphs 
(landscape by Brueghel), Wedding Feast of 
Bacchus and Ariadne, do. of Peleus and 
Thetis, Diana and Actrcon, Dresden Gallery; 
Assumption, Rape of Europa, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Holy Family, Madonna, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Marriage of the Virgin, Uf- 
fizi, Florence. His son and pupil, Jan 
(1G11-54), painted history and landscapes; 
went early to Italy, where he studied the 
works of Albaui, returned to Antwerp in 1G42, 
and was influenced by Rubens. Works: 
Trinity, St. James's, Antwerp ; Garden of 
Love (copy after Rubens's in Madrid Mu- 





scum), Holy Family, Vienna Museum. 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, i. CG5, G68 ; Ch. 
Blanc, cole flamande ; Branden, 478 ; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 642 ; Michiels, vii. 
253; Revue d'hist. et d'arclu'ol., i. 108 ; Rie- 
gel, Beitriige, ii. 55 ; Rooses (Reber), 152. 

BALESTRA, ANTONIO, born at Verona, 
in 1GGG, died there, April 21, 1740. Venetian 
school; pupil of Giovanni Zeffio, then of An- 
tonio Bellucei, and afterward, at Rome, of 
Carlo Maratti. Lived long at Venice and at 
Verona, where he executed many works. He 
was a clever engraver and a reputable painter, 
and his pictures are held in considerable 
estimation. Examples of his work are found 
in Verona in the Duomo, S. Zeno Moggiore, 
S. Bernardino, S. Niccolo, S. Sebastiano, S. 
M. in Organo, S. M. del Paradise, and S. 
Tonirnaso Cautuariense ; and in Venice in 



95 



BALFOURIER 



S. Zaccaria, S. Geminiano, S. Cassiano, S. 

Eustachio, S. Pantaleone, S. Marziale, and 

S. M. Mater 
Domini. Cb. 

B ! anc :. ficole 

v 6 ni tie n ne ; 
Seguier, 9 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 644. 

BALFOURIER, ADOLPHE PAUL 
JiMILE, born at Montmorency, Aug. 11, 
1816. Landscape painter, pupil of Rcmond. 
Medals : 3d class, 1844 ; 2d class, 1846. Has 
often engraved for 1' Artiste. Works : Lake 
Lugano, near Tivoli, Valley of the Cevara 
(1846) ; Mazeppa, Study of Majorca ; Lake 
Nemi ; St. Peter's Wells at Hyores (1863) ; 
Pine Woods near Sea (1864) ; Pond of Co- 
taria (1865) ; Ruins of a Convent (1866) ; 
Mouth of the Gapeau (1867) ; Fountain in 
Majorca (1869) ; Environs of Valencia 
(1874) ; Oil Press (1875). 

BALLAVOINE, JULES FREDERIC, 
born in Paris, contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Pils. Medal : 3d 
class, 1880. Works : Interrupted Seance 
(1880) ; Surprise, Water-colour Painters 
(1882); Flower Market, Little Bohemi- 
enne (1883) ; Paris Bargeman, Before the 
Rehearsal (1884) ; Among the Rocks 
(1885). 

BALLENBERGER, KARL, born at Ans- 
pach, Germany, July 24, 1801, died in 
Frankfort, Sept. 21, 1860. History painter, 
pupil of the Munich Academy under Friedr. 
Hoffstadt, with whom he went to Frankfort 
in 1833, and of the Stitdel Institute under 
Philipp Veit. A medievalist in spirit, he 
painted according to the traditions of the 
early German masters. Works : Portraits 
of Conrad L, Louis of Bavaria, Giinther of 
Schwarzburg, and Ruprecht of the Palatin- 
ate, Kaiser Saal, Frankfort ; Scenes from 
Niebelungen, Scenes from Life of St. Eliza- 
beth, Scenes from Life of the Virgin, Nu- 
remberg Merchants before Emperor Maxi- 
milian in Augsburg, Henry the Lion at 
Erfurt in 1181 ; Gotz von Berlichingen 
among Gipsies, Scenes from Goethe's Faust, 
Spiudler's Jew, Fouque's Magic Ring, Fu- 



neral of Frauenlob. Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 
21 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 651. 

BALLING, OLE PETER HANSEN, bom 
at Christiania, Norway, April 23, 1823. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of one 
Jacob Wuuderlich, and of the Berlin Acad- 
emy ; visited Copenhagen in 1846, Paris iu 

1 1854, and New York in 1856. At the out- 

J break' of the Civil War, he joined the 1st N. 
Y. Volunteer Regiment as captain of a Scan- 
dinavian company, and afterwards com- 
manded the 145th Regiment as lieutenant- 
colonel. In 1863 he resigned and devoted 
himself again to art. In America he painted 
mostly portraits. Works : Portrait of Gen. 
John Sedgwick, West Point Academy ; do. 
of Admiral Farragut, Annapolis Academy ; 
do. of Gen. Geo. H. Thomas, and Gen. Rey- 
nolds, Union League, Philadelphia ; Group 
of 27 Generals on horseback, Agricultural 
Building, Washington. Meyer, Kiinst. 

[Lex., ii. 653. 

BALMER, JOSEF A., born at Abtwyl, 
Switzerland, Nov. 27, 1828. History painter, 
pupil in Lucerne of Anton Butler, then, from 
1852, of the Diisseldorf Academy, under 
Mticke and Schadow, and later iu Carlsruhe 
under Des Coudres and Canon. Has painted 
many cheap altarpieces for Catholic churches 
in Baden and Switzerland. Works: Death of 
St. Joseph, Cycle for Tell's chapel, Fluellen ; 
wall paintings and altarpieces, at Kusuacht, 
Miihlau, Oos, Baldegg, Nottwill, Appenzell, 

I and Meierskappel. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 

' 654 ; Miiller, 24. 

BALSGAARD, CARL VILHELM, born 
in Copenhagen, Denmark, Dec. 29, 1812. 
Flower painter, pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy, where he at first studied history and 
portrait painting ; visited Berlin, Dresden, 
Diisseldorf, and Paris in 1855, and Italy in 
1872-73. Member of Copenhagen Academy 
in 1858 ; title of professor in 1867. Works : 
Two pictures (1858), Copenhagen Gallery, 
two in Moltke Collection, ib. ; Fruitpiece 
(1856), Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Weilbach, 42. 
BALTASAR, CARLOS, Don, eldest son 
of Philip IV., Velasquez, Grosvenor House, 



96 



BALTHAZAR 



London ; canvas, H. 4 ft 9 in. x 6 ft. 11 
About twelve years old, costume en 



n. 



riched with silver and gold, crimson scarf 
and plumed black hat, mounted on a pranc- 
ing pony, in court of the palace, attended 
by several officers, among whom is Olivures ; 
King and Queen Isabel seen at a balcony. 
Probably painted about 1641 ; from Wel- 
bore Ellis Agar Collection. Palomino, iii. 
332 ; Stirling, ii. 630 ; Curtis, 56. 

By Velasquez, Henry G. Marquand, New 
York ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. 
Bust, about ten years old, black velvet dress 
embroidered ; repetition of same picture in 
Vienna Museum. H. Baillie sale (1868), 
194 5s., to Bale ; Charles Sackville Bale 
sale (1881), 871 ; sold to Mr. Marquand 
for 2000. Curtis, 59, 384. 

By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft 7 in. Six years old, 
full length, in hunting dress, standing be- 
side a tree, holding in right hand a gun ; 
on each side, a clog ; background, landscape 
and mountains. Painted in 1635. Etched 
by E. Lemus ; C. Alabern ; lithographed by 
A. Blanco ; E. C. Cos. Curtis, 57 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1881) ; Madrazo, 616. 

By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 8 hi. About six years 
old, galloping oil a chestnut horse ; he 
wears a plumed hat, armour, and a crimson 
scarf which floats behind, and holds a baton 
in his right hand ; landscape background. 
Painted about 1635, second manner. Old 
copy in Dulwich Gallery ; another in Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. Etched by F. 
Goya ; Milius ; J. Burnet. Ch. Blanc, 
JCcole espagnole ; Art Journal (1852), 563 ; 
Curtis, 55 ; Madrazo, 610. 

By Velasquez, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. x 3 ft 2 in. Full length, standing, 
about ten years old, in black velvet dress 
and scarf across breast, with left hand on 
sword, right on a chair. Painted about 
1639. Engraved by B. Moncornet ; P. de 
Jode. Henry G. Marquand's picture is a 
repetition (bust only) of this. Curtis, 58. 

By Velasquez, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., 



London ; canvas, H. 3 f t. x 2 f t 3 in. Full 
length, standing ; dress, black velvet slashed, 
adorned with lace ; behind, a chest covered 
with crimson velvet adorned with gold. 
From sale of Wm. Wells, of Redleaf (1848), 
to Marquis of Hertford for 672 10s. Stir- 
ling, ii. 633 ; Curtis, 57. 

By Velasquez, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 1 in. 
About three years old, in a grey silk frock, 
standing, his left hand on his sword, at- 
tached to a violet scarf, and in his right a 
general's baton, which he uses as a walking- 
stick ; plumed hat on a cushion ; dark 
curtain in background. From Staudish 
sale (1853), at 1680 ; one of the most im- 
portant pictures in Staudish Collection. 
Athenaeum (1853), 710 ; Art Journal (1852); 
Curtis, 5(5. 

By Velasquez, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft 3 in. x 3 ft. 4 in. 
About four years old, black and white dress 
with crimson scarf, on a black horse, at- 
tended by a cavalier and other persons, 
among whom is a dwarf. Purchased in 
Spain about 1827 for Samuel Rogers ; sold 
1 at his sale (1856) for 1270 10s. Stirling, 
' ii. 630 ; Cunningham, Life of Wilkie, ii. 
469 ; Curtis, 56. 

BALTHAZAR, CASEVHR VICTOR ALEX- 
ANDRE DE, born at Hayange (Moselle) in 
1809, died in Paris, April 4, 1875. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Paul Dela- 
roche. Medals : 3d class, 1837 ; 2d class, 
1838 ; 1st class, 1840. Works : Lara and 
! Kaled (1837) ; Gotz von Berlichingen 
(1837) ; Philip VI. after Battle of Crecy 
(1838); Joan of Arc's Vision, Joan of Arc 
in Prison (1840); Death of Lara (1842); 
Clevis's Baptism (1845); Trumpeter Es- 
coffier's Devotion (184(i) ; Christ and tho 
Samaritan Woman (1855); Beside the Foun- 
tain (1859). Many portraits. Larousse. 

BALZE, (JEAN ANTOINE) RAYMOND, 
born in Rome, May 4, 1818. History paint- 
er, pupil of Ingres; brother of J. E. P. 
! Baize, and co-worker, in copying pictures of 
I the Italian masters. Since 1849 has exhib- 



97 



BALZE 



ited pictures of his own in the Salon. Legion 
of Honour, 1873. Works : Saint Cecilia, 
Christ Calming the Tempest (1849), .bought 
by State ; Apotheosis of St. Louis (1855), 
bought by State. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 
661. 

BALZE, (JEAN ETEENNE) PAUL, bom 
in Kome, Aug. 25, 1815, died in Paris, 
March 2G, 1884. History painter, pupil of 
Ingres, for whom he and his brother Ray- 
mond copied in Italy the most important 
works of Raphael. In 18G1 he invented a 
new process of painting on glazed tiles. 
Medal, 1863 ; Legion of Honour, 1873. A 
copyist, with little originality. Among his 
own works are : Stoning of St. Stephen 
(1861); Coronation of the Virgin, St. Sym- 
phorien, Versailles ; Vision of Ezekiel (1864); 
fresco paintings in court of Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, Paris ; Combat between Fitz-James 
and Roderick Dim ; paintings in the churches 
of St. Roch and La Trinite. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., ii. 660. 

BAMBERGER, FRITZ, born in Wiirz- 
burg, Oct. 17, 1814, died in Neuenhain, 
near Frankfort, Aug. 13, 1873. Landscape 
painter, pupil in 1828 of Berlin Academy, 
then of the marine painter Krause, and in 
Cassel under Primavesi. "Went to Munich 
in 1831 ; visited Normandy in 1845, Eng- 
land, France, and Spain in 1851, and Spain 
in 1858 and 1868. Works: Battlefield of 
Hastings, Views of Gibraltar, Algesiras, and 
Granada. A series of his paintings in 
Schack Gallery, Munich. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
ii. 38 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 665 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, ix. 41. 

BAMBINI, NICOLO, Cavaliere, born in 
Venice in 1651, died there in 1736. Vene- 
tian school; pupil of Mazzoni, and in Rome of 
Maratti. After his return to Venice princi- 
pally imitated Liberi, who was then the 
fashion. Works : Fulvia's Revenge, Cassel 
Gallery ; Achilles, Royal Palace, Potsdam. 
Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., ii. 666 ; Zanetti, Pitt. 
Venez., 431. 

BAMBOCCIATE. See Cerquozzi. 

BAMBOCCIO. See Laar. 



BANNISTER, E. M., born at St. An- 
drews, New Brunswick, in 1833. Laud- 
scape painter ; studied at the Lowell Insti- 
tute and under Dr. Rimmer in Boston, 
painting many years in that city. His 
Under the Oaks received a medal at Phil- 
adelphia, 1876. Studio in Providence. 
Works : Storm (1879). 

BANQUET OF THE CIVIC GUARD, 
B. van der Heist, National Museum, Amster- 
dam; represents a company of trained bands, 
twenty-five figures, life-size, full-length. 
The Spanish Ambassador is shaking hands 
with one of the principal figures. Sir J. 
Reynolds says : "This is, perhaps, the first 
picture of portraits in the world." Beechey, 
Reynolds' Works, ii. 197. 

BARABAS, NICOLAUS, born at Markos- 
falva, Transylvania, Feb. 22, 1810. Portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, and of 
Marko ; travelled then in Moldau and Wal- 
lachia and visited Rome. In 1837 he be- 
came member of the Pesth Academy, and 
since 1842 has travelled all over Europe. Is 
noted for his ideal female figures ; has 
painted more recently several historical and 
genre scenes. Works : Portraits of Pala- 
tines Joseph and Stephen, Baron Vesselenyi, 
Bishop Pyrker, Gen. Gorgei, Gen. Klapka. 
Brockhaus, ii. 464 ; Wurzbach, i. 147. 

BARABINO, NICCOLO, born at Pier 
dArena, near Genoa, Italy, in 1833. His- 
tory painter ; studied in Florence, where he 
won reputation with his first picture, Con- 
solatrix Afflictorum, painted, 1859, for the 
hospital at Savona. His principal work is 
the Death of Pope Boniface VUL Mailer, 
25. 

BARBALONGA, JUAN DE. See Ver- 
meyen. 

BARBARA, ST., Palma Vecchio, S. M. For- 
mosa, Venice ; altarpiece in six panels. St. 
Barbara standing with her palm and crown 
on a pedestal flanked by two pieces of can- 
non, on central panel ; SS. Anthony, Sebas- 
tian, Dominic, and John Baptist on sides ; 
the Virgin bending over the dead body of 
Christ, on the pinnacle. Painted for altar 



98 



BARBARELLI 



of the Bombardieri, St. Barbara being the 
patroness of the Venetian artillerists. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 405 ; Rio, iv. 109. 

BARBARELLI, GIORGIO. See Gioryi- \ 
one. 

BARBARI (Barbaris), JACOPO DE', bora 
in Venice between 1440 and 1450, died be- 
fore 151G. Venetian school. Probably iden- 
tical with Jacoino Barberiuo Veneziano, who 
is said to have gone to Germany and to 
Burgundy and there adopted the art of 
those countries. Ephrussi thinks that Ja- 



is on a panel of 1504 in the Augsburg Gal- 
lery, and on a head of Christ in the Weimar 
Museum. Other works : Christ Blessing, 
St. Catherine, St Barbara, Galatea (attrib- 
uted to Botticelli), Dresden Gallery ; Ma- 
donna and Saints, Berlin Museum ; Portrait 
of Young Man, Vienna Museum ; do., Berga- 
mo Gallery. C. & C., N. Italy, i.229; Meyer, 
KUnst Lex., ii. 70C ; Thausing, Ddrer, 216 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (18C1), xi. 311, 445 ; (1873), 
viiL 223 ; (1876), viii. 363 ; Notizia d'opero 
di Disegno, pub. de D. I. Morelli (Bassano, 




Banquet of the Civic Guird, B. van del Heist. National Muleum, Amittrdim. 

1800), 77, 221 ; Lermolieff, 57, 168 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, xii. 339. 



copo went to Nuremberg before 1494, and 
learned the technics of engraving there from 
Wohlgemuth. He was formerly known only 
as an engraver, and called the Master of the 
Caduceus from the mark which he used upon 
his plates. He was the colleague of Mabuse 
in the service of John of Burgundy, Bishop 
of Utrecht, and excelled as a painter and 
engraver. Supposed also by some to have 
been identical with Jacometto of Venice and 
with Jacob Walch, alluded to in Diirer's cor- 
respondence as an artist who had given him 
valuable hints in his youth. His signature 




BARBARI (Barbaris), NICCOI/) DE 1 , 

beginning of 16th century. Venetian school ; 
of northern education, and probably a co- 



BAEBAEOJA 



labourer in Venice with Marziale. His name 
appears on a picture of the Woman taken 
in Adultery, in the Palazzo Alvise Mocenigo, 
Venice, which for hardness of colour, repul- 
siveness of faces, and stiffness of drapery, 
has hardly its equal. It shows a painter of 
the school of Gio. Bellini under strong 
northern influence. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 228; 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., ii. 716 ; Gaz. des B. Arts, 
1st Series, xi. 312, 445 ; Burckhardt, 602. 

BARBAROJA. See Pernia. 

BARBAEOSSA. See Frederick Barbarossa. 

BAEBATELLI, BERNARDINO. See 
Poccetti. 

BARBERIGO, MARCO, portrait of Doge, 
Titian, Palazzo Giustiniani, Padua ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. Painted about 1508; 
sold in 1581 by Pomponio Vecelli to Cristo- 
foro Barberigo. C. & C., Titian, i. 114 ; Sel- 
vatico, Di Alcuni Abbozzi di Tiziano (Padua, 
1875) ; Burckhardt, 715. 

BARBIER, NICOLAS ALEXANDRE, 
born in Paris, Oct. 18, 1789, died at Sceaux, 
Feb. 4, 1864. Genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of Xavier Leprince. Medals : 3d class, 
1839 ; 2d class, 1842 ; L. of Honour, 1842. 
Works : Castle of Muette (1824); Environs of 
Meulan, Village Sacristy (1832) ; Refectory 
of Convent (1833) ; Rural Household in a 
Ruin of the llth Century (1839) ; Banks of ' 
Seine, View in Bourbonnais (1842) ; Chateau 
de Chantilly (1846) ; Te Deum in St. Etienne 
du Mont in 1721 (1848) ; Valley of Fonte- 
nay, Environs of Bagneux (1850) ; Hamlet 
of Brozolles (1851) ; Meeting of Dominican 
Monks, Fontenay-aux-Roses (1857) ; Bur- 
gundy Canal (1859); Road to Sceaux (1861). 

BARBIERI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO. 
See Ouercino. 

BARCLAY, EDGAR, contemporary. 
British landscape and figure painter ; pict- 
ures relate to Moorish, Italian, and English 
popular life. Exhibits at Royal Academy 
and Grosvenor Gallery. Works : Annuncia- 
tion to the Shepherds (1877); Moorish Villa, 
Olive Harvest in Algeria, Bay of Algiers, 
Vesuvius from above Pompeii (1878) ; Olive 
Gathering, By the Severn, Mosque at Al- 



giers (1879) ; Almond Blossoms, Grounds 
of Moorish Villa, Kabyle Woodcutter, For- 
tune-Telling at Algiers (1880) ; Thililit 
Algeria, Sunset in the Jurjura Algeria, 
Evening Prayers Algeria (1881); Going to 
the Fountain, Passing Glances, Squirrels' 
Playground, Autumn Berries (1882) ; Somer- 
setshire Flood, On Sedgmoor, Needless 
Alarm, Among the Bluebells, Bird Nesting 
(1883) ; Sporting with Leaves (1884) ; Hush ! 
(1885). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 12. 

BARDON, M F. See Dandre-Bardon. 

BAREND VAN BRUSSEL. See Orley, 
Bernard. 

BARENTSZ (Barent, Barendsen, Ber- 
nart), DIRK, born in Amsterdam in 1534, 
died there in 1592. Dutch school ; history 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Dooven 
Barentsz, (flourished first half of 16th cen- 
tury), then studied several years in Venice 
under Titian, who evinced especial fondness 
for him; visited France and returned to Am- 
sterdam about 1562. Of his mythological 
and biblical paintings, much commended by 
K.van Mander, none have been handed down 
to us. Works : Two Archery Pieces (one 
dated 1562), Doelenstuk with numerous por- 
traits, Portrait of Duke of Alva, National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Male Bust-portrait, 
Vienna Museum ; do., Liechtenstein Gallery, 
ib. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 15. 

BARGUE, CHARLES, born in Paris, died 
there in 1883. Genre painter, pupil of Ge- 
rome; did not send any pictures to the Salon. 
Began as a lithographer, and was awarded 
medals for lithography in 1867 and 1868. 
His few pictures are noted for excellence of 
colour and technical execution. Works: Play- 
ing on the Flute (Fillet sale, 1881, 30,000 
fr.) ; Bashi-Bazouk (Miss C. L. Wolfe, New 
York); Algerian Guard, Artist and his Model, 
The Almee, Playing Chess on the Terrace, 
his last work (W. II. Vanderbilt, New 
York). 

BARILLOT, LEON,born at Montigny-lez- 
Metz, Lorraine ; contemporary. Landscape 
and animal painter ; pupil of Cathelineaux 
and of Bonnat. Medals : 3d class, 1880 ; 2d 



100 



BARKER 



class, 1884 Works : Lakes of St. Paul-de- 
Varax (1880) ; Gust of Wind on Borders of 
La Mancbe, Noirand and his Mother (1883); 
La barri6re, The Favourite (1884); Autumn, 
At the Top of the Heath of St. Sauveur-le- 
Vicomte (1885). 

BARKER, THOMAS (called Barker of 
Bath), born near Pontepool, Monmouthshire, 
England, in 17G9, died at Bath, Dec. 11, 1847. 
Son and pupil of Benjamin Barker (died 
1793), animal painter ; studied, 1790-93, in 
Rome, and exhibited three Italian landscapes 
in 1796. Painted chiefly rustic subjects, but 
his best work is a large fresco in his house 
at Bath, Inroad of the Turks upon Scio in 
1822. His Woodman, Old Tom, The Gypsy, 
and other rustic groups, were very popular. 
Woodman and Dog in a Storm, National 
Gallery, London. His brother Benjamin 
(177G-1838) was an animal painter of some 
merit Redgrave ; Art Union, 1848 ; Cai 
Nat. Gal. 

BARKER, THOMAS JONES, bom at 
Bath, England, in 1815, died March 28, 
1882. Battle and portrait painter, sou and 
pupil of Thomas Barker, landscape painter, 
and student in 1834 in Paris of Horace 
Vernet ; was a frequent exhibitor at the Sa- 
lon from 1835 to 1845, and painted several 
pictures for Louis Philippe, notably The 
Death of Louis XIV., destroyed at Palais 
Royal in 1848. Returned about 1845 to 
England, where he exhibited many pictures 
at the Royal Academy. Works : The Trouba- 
dour (1849); News of Flodden (1850); Inci- 
dent in Life of William Rufus, Meeting of 
Wellington and Blucher (1851); Allied Gen- 
erals before Sebastopol, Relief of Lucknow, 
Napoleon after the Battle of Bassano, 
Wellington Crossing the Pyrenees, Dawn of 
Victory Lord Clyde (1862); Horse Race at 
Rome (1865) ; Studio of Salvator Rosa (1865) ; 
A Moss-Trooper, Dean Swift and Stella 
(1869); The Melee Charge of Cuirassiers 
and Chasseurs (1872); Riderless War Horses 
after Sedan (1873); Balaklava (1874) ; Re- 
turn through the Valley of Death (1876). 
Meyer, Kiinst Lex., iii. 22 ; Art Journal 



(1858), 126; (1860), 183; (1861), 253; 
(1867), 158. 

BARLOW, FRANCIS, born in Lincoln- 
shire, England, in 1626, died in London 
in 1702. Animal painter, pupil of Win. 
Sheppard, portrait painter. Began by 
painting portraits, but afterwards won rep- 
utation as an animal painter, engraver, end 
etcher. Redgrave ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 
23. 

BARNA (Berna), of Siena, latter half of 
14th century, died in 1381 (?). No traces 
remain of the frescos which, according to 
Vasari, he painted in S. Margarita of Cor- 
tona and S. Agostino of Siena. In 1369 he 
went to Arezzo and executed many fres- 
cos, one of which still exists in the Ves- 
covado, though much injured. The cathe- 
dral at S. Girnignano contains the injured 
relics, remains of a long series of fres- 
cos representing scenes from the New 
Testament, begun by Barna and finished 
after his death by Giovanni d'Asciano. In 
composition Barna appears to be a continu- 
ator of Duccio, while in type he follows the 
lead of Ugolino and Simone di Martino. 
His colour is an exaggeration of that of 
Simone, his drawing is minute, ornamenta- 
tion copious, and treatment flat Vasari 
says he was killed by a fall from a scaffold- 
ing at S. Gimignano. C. & C., Italy, ii. 
107 ; Meyer, Kiinst Lex., iii. 24 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., i. 647 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), 
ii. 170 ; Milanesi, Siena, 168. 

BARNABA DA MODENA (Barnabas de 
Mutina), latter half of 14th century. Bo- 
lognese school. Contemporary of Tommaso 
da Modena, but superior to him ; he also sur- 
passed the Bolognese and Pisans of his 
time, and approached the better Sienese 
painters. His Madonnas, a favourite sub- 
ject, have an affectation of grace, regular 
forms and proportions, pouting lips, and 
long-fingered and coarse-jointed hands. The 
earliest extant work by him, a Madonna in 
the Stikdel Gallery, Frankfort, dated 1367, 
well illustrates his style. Another Madonna, 
dated 1369, is in the Berlin Museum, and a 



101 



BAKOCCI 



f 




Coronation of the Virgin, dated 1374, is in 
the possession of Lord Wensleydale, Eng- 
land. Other examples are in S. Francesco, 
Pisa, and in the Modena Gallery. C. & C., 
Italy, ii. 220 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 25 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 93. 

BAEOCCI (Baroccio), FEDERIGO, called 
also Fiori da Ur- 
bino, born at Ur- 
bino in 1528, 
died there, Sept, 
31, 1612. Ro- 
man school ; son 
and pupil of Arn- 
brogio Barocci ; 
afterward stud- 
ied under Fran- 
cesco Menzocchi 
and Battista 
Franco at Urbi- 

no. Ill 1548 went to Rome and both stud- 
ied and copied works of Raphael four years. 
On return to Urbino painted a St. Margaret 
and other works which gave him a great rep- 
utation. Iii 15GO he was invited to Rome by 
Pius IV., and painted in the Vatican with 
Federigo Zucchero. While thus engaged he 
was poisoned by his rivals, and so injured 
that he was never after able to work more 
than two hours a day. The remainder of 
his life was chiefly spent at Urbino. Ba- 
rocci's style resembles that of Correggio, 
whose works he studied. He was a de- 
cided mannerist, able in design, but in- 
ferior as a colourist. Among his easel pict- 
ures are : Crucifixion, Duomo, Genoa ; De- 
scent from Cross (15G9), Duomo, Perugia ; 
Madonna del Popolo, Christ and Magdalen, 
Portrait of Duke of Urbino, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Madonna di S. Girolamo (copy of 
Correggio), Pitti, Florence ; Martyrdom of 
S. Vitale (1583), Brera, Milan ; Annuncia- 
tion, Ecstacy of St. Michelina, Vatican ; 
Noli me tangere, Palazzo Corsini, Rome ; 
Circumcision (1580), Madonna in Glory, 
Louvre ; Madonna and Saints, Dresden 
Gallery ; Madonna della Gatta, National Gal- 
lery, London ; two Holy Families and Por- 



i trait of a Man, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 27 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vii. 91 ; Burckhardt, 759 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Kcole ombrienne. 

BARON, HENRI (CHARLES ANTOINE), 
born at Besan9on, in June, 1816. Genre 
painter, pupil of Gigoux, made his debut in 
the Salon in 1840, then visited Italy. Medals : 
3d class, 1847, 1855, 1867 ; 2d class, 1848 ; 
L. of Honour, 1859. Works: Sculptor's 
Studio (1840) ; Giorgione Painting Gas- 
ton de Foix (1844); Andrea del Sarto Paint- 
ing Madonna del Sacco", Summer Evening 
(1847) ; Child Sold by Pirates, Spring in 
Tuscany (1848) ; Touch and Hearing, Vin- 
tage in the Romagna (1855), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Harlequinade (1857) ; Painters' 
Festival at Italian Tavern (1859) ; Archery 
in Tuscany (1864); St. Luke's Festival 
in Venice (1867); The Skaters (1870); 
His Eminence at his Nephews', Bowlers 
(1874) ; Street Comer at Catania (1876) ; 
Bt'be (1878) ; Fair Naturalist (Mrs. Paran 
Stevens, New York) ; Archer's Rest (C. H. 
Wolff, Philadelphia) ; Wine and Mirth (C. P. 
Huntington, New York) ; Wild Flowers (J. 
Hoey, New York). Larousse, ii. 249 ; Meyer, 
Kflnst. Lex., iii. 32 ; M filler, 26. 

BARRET, GEORGE, born in Dublin, Ire- 
land, in 1732 (1728 ?), died at Westbourne 
Green, near London, May 29, 1784. Land- 
scape painter, son of a draper and appreu- 

; ticed to a stay-maker, but learned to colour 
prints and became drawing master at the 
West drawing school in Dublin. Went in 
1761 to London, where he became a suc- 
cessful landscape painter, earning, it is said, 
2000 yearly. Became master painter to 
Chelsea Hospital, but died bankrupt and 
left his family dependent on the Royal 
Academy, of which he was one of the foun- 
dation members. H ; s best works are in the 
Portland and Buccleugh Collections. His 
son George (1774-1842) was a water-colour 
painter, and one of the foundation members 
of the Water-Colour Society. F. de Con- 
ches, 183 ; Redgrave ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex , 

\ iii. 40 ; Sandby, i. 100. 



BARIUAS 










BARRIAS, FKLIX JOSEPH, born in 
Paris, Sept. 13, 1822. History painter, 
pupil of Leon Co- 
gniet in 1836, ob- 
tained the grand 
prix de Rome in 
1844, for his pict- 
ure of Cincinnatus 
receiving the Dep- 
uties of the Senate. 
First exhibited at 
the Salon in 1847. 
Painted frescos in 

S. Eustache, La Trinite, in the Grand Hotel 
du Louvre, and other public buildings. 
Medals : 3d class, 1847 ; 1st class, 1851 ; 
2d class, 1855 ; L. of Honour, 1859. 
Works : Roman Spinning Girl, Sappho 
(1847) ; The Exiles of Tiberius (1858), Lux- 
embpurg Museum ; Dante AHghieri (1853), 
Tarbes Museum ; Michelangelo in the Sis- 
tine Chapel, Pilgrims to the Jubilee in 1300, 
Laval Museum ; Landing of French Troops 
in the Crimea, Versailles Museum ; Gauls 
Insulted by Romans, Autun Museum ; ; 
Death of Socrates, Electra at her Father's 
Tomb (1873) ; Conspiracy in Venice in 
1530 ; Titian Painting a Venus ; La Picardie 
(allegorical composition), Amiens Muse- ' 
um ; Olympian Gods, Allegory of Music, 
New Opera, Paris ; Sea Bath en famille at ' 
Dinard (1883) ; Charity at Venice, She was 
an Andalusian and a Countess (1884) ; ! 
Death of Chopin (1885). Meyer, Kiiust. 
Lex., iii. 41 ; M filler, 27. 

BARROSO, MIGUEL, born at Consu- 
egra in 1538, died at the Escorial, Sept. 29, 
1590. Spanish school ; pupil of Becerra, 
became painter to the king in 1589, and 
executed frescos in the chief cloister of the 
Escorial. Stirling, i. 250 ; Meyer, Kunst. ! 
Lex., iii. 45. 

BARRY, FRANVOIS BERNARD, born' 
in Marseilles, May 3, 1813. Landscape and 
marine painter, pupil of Aubert and Th. 
Gudin. His marine paintings are partic- ' 
ularly good. Medals : 3d class, 1840 ; 2d \ 
class, 1843. Works : A Fog, Fishing Boats , 



(1840) ; Leaving the Harbour of Marseilles, 
Tunny-Fishing (1843) ; Arrival of the Queen 
at Treport (1845); After the Storm, Ships 
Becalmed (1849) ; New Parliament House 
in London, Entrance to Marseilles (1855) ; 
Reception of Cardinal Latrizzi in Marseilles 
(1857) ; Napoleon HI. receiving Queen Vic- 
toria at Cherbourg (1859), Marseilles Muse- 
um ; Arrival of the Waters of the Mediter- 
ranean at Lake Timsah (1863), Suez Com- 
pany ; View at Birket-el-Sab (1863), Prince 
Halim ; Ruins of Karnak, First Cataract of 
the Nile (1864) ; Tombs of the Caliphs at 
Cairo (1867) ; Moon-Rise at Sea, View at 
Birket-el-Essabe (1868) ; Constantinople, 
Entrance to Marseilles (1869) ; Ajaccio, 
Tarmouch (1870) ; Alexandria (1874) ; Pi- 
rate fleeing from a Cruiser, Entrance to the 
Bosphorus, Inside the Harbour of Constan- 
tinople (1875) ; Ironclads at Toulon (1876) ; 
Bark in Distress, St. Petersburg in Evening 
(1880) ; Review of Fleet at Cherbourg 
(1881) ; Capture of Sfax (1882). Larousse, 
: ii. 272. 

BARRY, JAMES, born in Cork, Ireland, 
;Oct. 11, 1741, 
died in London, 
Feb. 22, 1806. 
' Studied in Dub- 
lin under Rob- 
ert West ; went 
in 1765, by the 
aid of Edmund 
Burke, to Rome, 
where he re- 
mained five 
years. Though 
the pictures ex- 
hibited on his return met with but moder- 
ate success, he became an A. R. A. in 1772 
and R. A. in 1773, and received in 1782 the 
appointment of professor of painting ; but 
his lectures gave offence and he was removed 
and expelled. After this he lived in quasi re- 
tirement until his death. The defects of his 
education, his violent temper, lack of judg- 
ment, and the blind devotion to high art 
which led him to handle a class of subjects 




103 



BAETH 



whose adequate treatment demanded higher 
powers and much greater technical skill 
than he possessed, prevented Barry from 
attaining that measure of success to which 
his talents fairly entitled him. His picture 
of Venus (Society of Arts), Jupiter and Juno, 
and the Wounded Philoctetes, illustrate his 
ambitious weakness ; his Death of General 
Wolfe, who, together with all the dramatis 
personse, is represented nude, proves the 
absurd extent of his faith in the academic 
style ; while his six pictures of the Civiliza- 
tion and Regeneration of Man, two of which 
are 42 feet in length, painted for the Society 
of Arts between 1777 and 1783, though re- 
markable for the inventive qualities dis- 
played, attest his feebleness as a draughts- 
man and colourist. Among his other works 
are his own portrait in the National Portrait 
Gallery, and his Adam and Eve at S. Ken- 
sington. Fryer, Works of J. Barry (Lon- 
don, 1809) ; F. de Conches, 283 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole anglaise ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 45 ; 
Sandby, ii. 182 ; Portfolio (1873), 150. 
EARTH, FERDINAND, born at Parten- 
kirchen, Bavaria, 
Nov. 11, 1842. 
History and 
genre painter, 
pupil in Nurem- 
berg of Kreling, 
then of the Mu- 
nich Academy 
under Piloty and 
Caspar Braun. 
He took part in 
the campaigns of 
18G6 and 1870, 

travelled through Germany, France, Italy, 
and Switzerland, and became professor at the 
Academy and at the Art School of Industry 
in Munich. Medals in Vienna and Munich. 
Works : Quarrelling Landsknechts, Dance 
of Death, Merchant of Venice, Torquato 
Tasso, Paganini in Prison (1883), Parsifal, 
Cupid at the Door. Miiller, 27. 

BARTHEL, GUSTAV ADOLF, born in 
Brunswick, in 1819. Portrait painter, son 




and pupil of the engraver Friedrich Barthel 
(1785-1846), and pupil of Stieler and Kaul- 
bach at Munich, and of Lessing at Diissel- 
dorf. In 1852 he was appointed painter to 
the Duke, and in 1857 inspector of the Gal- 
lery in Brunswick. Works : Portraits of 
Dukes Ferdinand, Frederic William, Charles 
William, and William of Brunswick, Por- 
trait of Princess Alexandrine of Hohenlohe. 
Miiller, 28. 

BARTLETT, WILLIAM HENRY, born 
London ; contemporary. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Paris of Bouguereau and 
of Tony Robert-Fleury. Exhibits at Royal 
Academy, Grosvenor Gallery, and Paris 
! Salon. Works : Return from Seal-Hunt 
Ireland (1881) ; On the Alert, Loading Corn 
West Ireland, Ellestrin Bay West Ire- 
land (1882) ; Summer-Time Lagoon of 
Chioggia near Venice, Netting Granchios 
Chioggia (1883) ; Bad Wind for Fish (1884). 

BARTOLI (di Bartolo), TADDEO, Sien- 
ese school, born in Siena in 1363, died there 
in 1422. Son of Bartolo di Mino, a barber ; 
early began a successful practice ; in 1389 
was a member of the council on the works 
in the cathedral of Siena. In 1390 he 
painted for S. Paolo of Pisa the Virgin and 
Saints now in the Louvre, and in 1393 for 
Cattaneo Spinola and for S. Luca, Genoa, 
two altarpieces. An altarpiece of the Ma- 
donna and Saints was executed in 1395 for 
S. Francesco, Pisa, and this was followed by 
a series of frescos in the same church, 
among the best of which is the Apostle's 
Visit to the Virgin, a work of great spirit. 
The breadth and motion of drapery, the 
firm decision in the drawing, and the bold 
freedom of action in difficult positions are 
worthy of the 16th century. After com- 
pleting his labours at Pisa, Taddeo re- 
turned to Siena, and painted several years 
in the cathedral. A few panels by him yet 
remain, but most of his frescos there are 
obliterated. He next painted some pictures 
for the Duomo of S. Gimignano, two of 
which are preserved in the Palazzo Commu- 
nale. In 1403 he was at work in Perugia, 



104 



BARTOLO 



where he painted for S. Agostino a Descent 
of the Holy Spirit ; for S. Francesco a Vir- 
gin and Child, now in the Perugia Acad- 
emy ; and for S. Domenico frescos of the 
life of S. Catherine, now obliterated. The 
next year he was again in Siena, where he 
laboured for several years in the Duomo 
and the Palazzo Pubblico. Taddeo stood 
at the head of the Sienese school, yet he did 
not cause it to progress nor exercise any 
improving influence upon his successors. 
Siena really gained less from him than from 
the Lorenzetti. C. & C., Italy, ii. 156; 
Lttbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 178 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 58 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., ii. 33 ; 
W. & W., i. 472. 

BARTOLO DI FREDI, born about 1330, 
buried Jan. 26, 1409. Sienese school ; some- 
times called Bartolomnieo di Maufredi. 
He was associated with Andrea Vanni in 
1353, was registered in 1355 in the guild of 
Siena, and employed in 1361 in the Sala del 
Consiglio, Siena. From 1362 to 1366 he 
was at S. Gimignano, where he had pre- 
viously (1356) decorated part of the parish 
church with scenes from the Old Testament. 
On his return to Siena he was employed 
with Jacomo di Mino in decorating the 
cathedral, and in 1372 he became a member 
of the government. Of his extant pictures 
a Descent from the Cross (dated 1382), in 
the Sacristy of S. Francesco of Montalcino, 
and an altarpiece, part in the sacristy and 
part in the Sienese Academy, show a mixt- 
ure of the styles of Simone and Lorenzetti. 
Adoration of the Magi by him in the Acad- 
emy ; St. Peter, in the Louvre, Paris. Both 
drawing and colour are hard, and the latter 
is flat and red in the shadows. Gold is lav- 
ished on the accessories and ornaments. 
C. & C., Italy, ii. 148 ; Meyer, Kunst. Lex., 
iii. 61 ; Vasari, el. Le Hon., ii. 218, N. 1 ; 
219, N. 4 ; Baldinucci, i. 297 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1870), ii. 29. 

BARTOLOMMEO BOLGHARINI, or 
BOLOGHINI. See Bulgarini. 

BARTOLOMMEO, Fra, born probably at 
Suffiguano, near Florence, in 1475, died in 




Florence, Oct. 31, 1517. Real name Bar- 
tolommeo di Paolo di Jacopo del Fattorino ; 
commonly called 
della Porta from 
the vicinity of 
his house to the 
\ gate of S. Pier 
Gattolino. Ap- 
prenticed when 
nine years old to 
Cosimo Roselli, 
with whom he 
remained until 1490, meanwhile studying 
the frescos of Masaccio and Filippino at 
the Carmine and the works of Perugino 
and Leonardo da Vinci. On leaving the 
studio of Rosselli, where Bartolommeo had 
formed what proved to be a life-long friend- 
ship with Mariotto Albertinelli, the two en- 
tered into a partnership which ceased in 
October, 1499, when Bartolommeo, under 
the influence of Savonarola, gave up paint- 
ing. In obedience to Savonarola's com- 
mand he had iii 1497 burned his draw- 
ings from the nude, and iu the following 
year, when the Convent of S. Marco was 
besieged, had vowed that if he survived 
he would join the Dominicans. This he 
did July 26, 1500, leaving his commenced 
fresco of the Last Judgment in the ceme- 
tery of S. M Nuova to be finished by Al- 
bertiuelli. Retiring into the convent of S. 
Marco, Fra Bartolommeo, as he was thence- 
forward called, renounced painting alto- 
gether until 1506, after which, with the 
assistance of Fra Paolino and Albertinelli 
(1508-1512), he painted a noble series of 
altarpieces and devotional pictures. In 1508 
he went to Venice, in 1510 to Rome, and in 
1512 and 1517 to Pian di Mugnone. With 
these exceptions he lived in Florence until 
his death. After Leonardo, to whom he 
was greatly indebted, Fra Bartolommeo may 
be considered the greatest painter of the 
Florentine school. None excelled him in 
dignity of style, none equalled him in the 
management of drapery, the harmonious 
use of colour, or iu stateUness of composi- 



108 



BARTOLOMMEO 



tion. His altarpieces have that nobility of 
character which springs from the symme- 
try of their arrangement and the perfect 
balance of their parts. Their beauty is the 
beauty of repose, of self-contained though 
earnest expression, of harmony between at- 
titude and action. Works before 1501 : 
Portrait of Savonarola (1496), Sig. Rubieri, 
Florence ; Last Judgment (1498-9), fresco 
in the little Museum of S. M. Nuova ; Trip- 
tych (1500), Poldi Collection, Milan. Works 
after 1505 : Assumption of the Virgin, Be- 
sangon Cathedral, France ; Ecce Homo, De- 
scent from Cross, St. Mark, Christ and Evan- 
gelists (151G), Madonna with Saints (1512), 
Holy Family, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Isaiah, 
Job, Madonna and Patron Saints of Flor- 
ence, Uffizi, Florence ; Meeting of Christ 
and Apostles at Emmaus, Lunette (1507-8), 
S. Marco ; altarpiece, Madonna with Saints 
(1509), S. Martino, Lucca ; God the Father 
with Saints (1509), Madonna della Miseri- 
cordia (1515), Lucca Gallery ; Madonna, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Marriage of St. 
Catherine (1511), Annunciation (1515), Lou- 
vre ; The Virgin Mary Appearing to St. Ber- 
nard, Portrait of Savonarola as St. Peter 
Martyr, Christ Bearing his Cross, St. Vin- 
cent, Florence Academy ; Paul and Peter, 
Quirinal, Rome ; Holy Family, Palazzo Cor- 
sini ; Assumption (151G), Museum, Naples ; 
do., Museum, Berlin ; Holy Family, Pan- , 
shanger, England ; Madonna del Cappuc- 
cino, Gallerie Abel, Paris ; Presentation in 
Temple (1516), Vienna Museum. C. & C., 
Italy, iii. 427; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 175, 
212 ; Meyer, Kiinst, Lex., iii. 63 ; Rio, 479 ; 
Dohme, 2iii. ; Burckhardt, 630 ; Marchesi, 
ii. 1. 

BARTOLOMMEO DELLA GATTA. See 
Gatta. 

BARTOLOMMEO DI MANFREDI. See 
Bartolo di Fredi. 

BARTOLOMMEO DA MURANO. See 
Vivarini, Bartolommeo. 

BARZAGHI - CATTANEO, ANTONIO, 
born at Lugano, Ticino, in 1835. History, 
genre, and portrait painter ; pupil of the 



Milan Academy, but took chiefly the Venetian 
masters for his models ; painted at first por- 
traits and genre scenes with small figures, 
and was gradually led to monumental and 
fresco painting, in which he has achieved his 
greatest success. Works : Beatrice Cenci 
(1861) ; Tasso, Basle Museum ; Republicans 
in Florence Overthrowing Statues of the Med- 
ici, Diana of Poitiers (1870) ; Page (1873) ; 
Musing Girl (1873) ; Old and New Corre- 
spondence (1873); in fresco: Moses as Law- 
giver, Sermon on the Mount (1874, Church 
at Horgen, Lake of Zurich). Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., iii. 87; Miiller, 29. 

BASAITI, MARCO, born about 1450, died 
after 1520. Venetian school. Born in Venice 
of Greek parents, according to Vasari, but 
according to others a native of Friuli. He 
laboured in Venice between 1490 and 1520, 
and was probably a scholar and assistant of 
Luigi Vivarini, though he differed much from 
him. After the death of Luigi (1503), he 
finished his Apotheosis of St. Ambrose in the 
Frari, Venice, without improving it essen- 
tially. Later he was an assistant of Giovanni 
Bellini, whose peculiarities he adopted after 
1510. Still later he imitated Palma, but 
without his richness of colour, and in 1520 
Carpaccio. Charles Blanc calls him a worthy 
rival of Giovanni Bellini and of Carpaccio ; 
but Crowe and Cavalcaselle think his work 
only a superficial imitation, without "the 
pure ring of the choicest metal." His pict- 
ures are in many galleries. Among his best 
are the Calling of the Apostles James and 
John (1510), Christ in the Garden (1510), 
Venice Academy ; St. George and the Dragon 
(1520), in San Pietro di CasteUo, Venice ; 
Assumption, S. Pietro Martire, Murano ; Ma- 




donna Adoring the Child, Museo Civico, Pa- 
dua ; Christ Crowned with Thorns, Rovigo 
Gallery; Calling of Apostles James and John 



1U6 



BASILETTI 



(1515), Vienna Museum; Picta, Altar in Four 
Panels, St. Sebastian, Berlin Museum ; St. 
Jerome Heading, National Gallery, London. 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 259 ; Meyer, Kttnst 
Lex., iii. 88 ; Ch. Blanc, cole vonitienne ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. G46 ; Lermolieff, 14, 399; 
Ltlbke, Gescb. ital. Mai., i. 550. 

BASILETTI, LUIGI,born at Brescia, Italy, 
in 1780, died in 1860. History and landscape 
painter, pupil of Santo Cattaneo, then 
studied in Bologna and in Rome, where he 
painted Canova's portrait. Works : Guard- 
ian Angel with Boy, Duomo nuovo, Brescia ; 
Death of the Niobeds, Temple of Sibyl at 
Tivoli, Isle of Ischia, and others, Tosi Gal- 
lery, ib.; Falls of Tivoli, Brera, Milan. 
Fenaroli, Artisti Breseiani ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 98. 

BASSANO, FRANCESCO, born at Bas- 
sano in 1550, 
died in Venice, 
July 4, 1591. Ve- 
netian school; 
real name Fran- 
cesco da Ponte ; 
eldest son and 
pupil of Jacopo 
Bassano. Estab- 
lished himself at 
Venice; em- 
ployed in decor- 
ating the Palazzo 

Ducale, where he painted the Siege of Padua 
and five other pictures. He also executed for 
churches large works which were deserved- 
ly admired. Became melancholy and killed 
himself by jumping from a window. Works : 
Ascension, S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome ; 
Fish Market, Louvre ; Flight into Egypt 
and Adoration of Magi, Duomo, Padua ; 
Martyrdom of St. Catherine, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; Rape of Sabines, Turin Gallery ; 
Adoration of Shepherds and Christ Clearing 
Temple, Dresden Museum ; Christ at Beth- 
any, Cassel Gallery ; Adoration of Magi, Last 
Supper, Madrid Museum. Ch. Blanc, tfcole 
vdnitienue ; Burckhardt, 750 ; Wornuin, 
Epochs, 259. 





BASSANO, JACOPO, called the elder, 
lx>ru at Bassauo, 1510, died there, Feb. 13, 
1592. Venetian 
school ; real name 
Jncopo da Ponte; 
son and pupil of 
Francesco da 
Poute the elder ; 
afterward pupil /-, 
of Bonifazio Ve- 
neziauo, and lat- 
er, it is said, of JA .' 
Titian. Bassano 
was perhaps the earliest of Italian genre 
painters. He excelled in painting landscape 
and animals, and chose his subjects from 
Scripture scenes in which they could suit- 
ably be introduced. He also painted mar- 
ket scenes, farmyards, and other agricul- 
tural subjects, as well as historical pict- 
ures, altarpieces, and portraits. He had 
four sons and many scholars who worked 
with him in his studio, and enabled him 
to multiply his pictures. Among his best 
works are : Entombment of Christ (1574), 
S. Maria in Vanzo, Padua ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds, Louvre ; Nativity, S. Giuseppe, 
and Baptism of St. Lucillo, S. Valentino, 
Bassano ; Return of Jacob to Canaan, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale, Venice ; St. Roch Interceding 
for the Plague-Stricken, S. Rocco, Piacenza ; 
Raising of Lazarus, Naples Museum ; Moses 
and the Burning Bush, and Bassano's Fam- 
ily, Uffizi, Florence ; Christ Clearing the 
Temple (replica in National Gallery, Lon- 
don), Animals Entering Ark, Noah Leaving 
Ark, Madrid Museum ; Good Samaritan, 
National Gallery, London. Ch. Blanc, cole 
vonitienne ; Vasari, ed. Le Mou., xiii. 42 ; 
Seguier, 153, 713 ; Burckhardt, 750. 

BASSANO, LEANDRO, Cavaliere, born 
at Bassano in 1558, died in Venice in lf>23. 
Venetian school ; real name Leaudro da 
Ponte, third son and pupil of Jacopo Bas- 
sano. Painted for some time in his father's 
style, but some of his portraits having brought 
him fame at Venice, he confined himself 
afterward almost entirely to portraiture. 



107 



BASSEN 




Of his historical works the Resurrection of 
Lazarus, Adoration of the Shepherds, Prayer 
of Jesus in the Gar- 
den, and the Incre- 
dulity of St. Thom- 
as, are in the Venice 
Academy, and the 
Birth of the Virgin, 
in S. Sophia, Venice. 
In the Madrid Mu- 
seum are the Prodi- 
gal Son, Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, 
and the Forge of 
Vulcan. He was knighted by the Doge 
Grimani, whose portrait he painted. Ch. 
Blanc, ficole venitienne. 

BASSEN, BARTHOLOMEUS VAN, died 
at The Hague, buried Nov. 28, 1652. Dutch 
school ; architecture painter. Entered Guild 
of St. Luke at Delft, Oct. 21, 1613, and 
that at The Hague in 1622. The figures in 
his pictures were often painted by Frans 
Franken, the younger, whence it is probable 
that he temporarily lived and perhaps also 
studied at Antwerp. Visited England, then 
returned to Hague, and from 1639 to 1650 
held post of city architect. Works : Church 
Interior (1624), Berlin Museum ; do. (1626), 
Hague Museum ; St. Peter's Square in 
Rome (1623), Copenhagen Gallery ; others 
in Hanover (1624), Gottingen (1625), Stutt- 




gart, Prague, and Pesth Galleries. Meyer, 
Kiinsi Lex., iii. 105 ; De Stuers, 9. 

BASSETTI, MARCANTONIO, born in 
Verona in 1588, died there in 1630. Vene- 
tian school ; pupil of Felice Brusasorci ; then 
studied in Venice, chiefly copying Tinto- 
retto, and later in Rome. After his return 
to Verona, he was counted among the best 
artists of his time and much employed in 
painting altarpieces for churches. "Works : 
Martyrdom of St. Vitus, Munich Gallery. 



Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 107 ; Ridolfi, Marav., 
ii. 477. 

BASSIN, PETER VASSILIEVICH, born 
in St. Petersburg, June 25 (July 7), 1793, 
died there, July 4 (16), 1877. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of St. Petersburg 
Academy ; went in 1819 to Rome, where he 
lived five years, and remained abroad six 
years longer. After his return he became 
member of the Academy, and shortly after- 
wards professor. Works: Christ Driving 
the Money Changers from the Temple, 
Marsyas Teaching Olympus to play the 
Flute, Academy, St. Petersburg ; Elopement, 
La Lavandara di Frascati, Bacchanal, Su- 
sanna at the Bath, Earthquake on Monte 
Cavo, Socrates Saving Alcibiades in Battle of 
Potidaja, Scene from Life of a Robber, Her- 
mitage, ib. ; Coming of the Holy Ghost, four 
scenes from Life of Mary and Jesus, Resur- 
rection, Winter Palace, ib.; Virgin and 
Saints, Twelve Apostles, Four Evangelists, 
Betrayal of Judas, Christ before Pilate, 
Flagellation, Bearing the Cross, Ascension 
of Mary, Four Saints, Martyrdom of St. 
Catherine, Martyrdom of St. Demetrius, St. 
George before Diocletian, Christ Appearing 
to Barbara, Isaac Church, ib. ; God of Saba- 
oth and Angels, Fight of Alexander Nevski 
against the Swedes, Prayer of Alexander 
Nevski, Death of Alexander Nevski, Trans- 
portation of his Relics, Sermon on the 
Mount, Chapel of Alexander Nevski, ib.; 
Mary Entering the Temple, Annunciation, 
Peter and Paul, Archangel Michael, Simeon, 
Rest in Egypt, Moscow Museum. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 10. 

BASTARUOLO, IL. See Mazzuoli, Giu- 
seppe. 

BASTIANI (Sebastiani), LAZZARO, born 
about 1450, died after 1508. Venetian 
school ; commonly called a pupil of Carpac- 
cio, but dates contradict it. He was bred, 
probably, in the Paduan school, where he 
acquired the disagreeable features without 
the redeeming qualities of Mantegna ; but 
in Venice he learned to imitate Luigi Viva- 
rini, without wholly losing the impress of 



IDS 



BASTIANINO 



his early education. He failed to rise to 
the level of Carpaccio, and never attained 
superior distinction, yet he held an honour- 
able position in his guild in Venice. Among 
his works are : Madonna with Saints and 
Donor in the lunette of a side door of the 
S. M e Donate, Murauo, signed and dated 
1484 ; Coronation of the Virgin, Lochis 
Carrara Gallery, Bergamo ; Entombment, 
S. Antonio, Venice ; the Gift of the Relic 
and the Miracle of the Holy Cross, Venice 
Academy ; Annunciation, Correr Museum, 
Venice ; Glorification of St. Veneranda, 
Vienna Academy. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 215 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Eeole venitieune ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., vi. 86, 97, 98 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 
113. 

BASTIANINO, IL. See Filippl, Sebasti- 
ano. 

BASTIEN-LEPAGE, JULES, born at 
Damvillers, Meuse, 
Nov. 1, 1848, died in 
Paris, Dec. 10, 1884. 
History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Caba- 
nel. Medals : 3d class, 
1874 ; 2d class, 1875 ; 
3d class, 1878; L. 
of Honour, 1879. 
Works : Song of 
Spring, Portrait of 
my Grandfather 
(1874); Communicant 
(1875); Adoration of Shepherds, Portrait of 
M. Wallon (1876) ; Portrait of my Parents, 
do. of Andr6 Theuriet (1877) ; Hay Harvest 
(1878) ; Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt (1879) ; 
Potato Harvest (1879) ; Joan of Arc, Erwin 
Davis, New York; Village Love, Ripe Grain, 
October (1883) ; The Forge (1884), Albert 
Wolff. Moutrosier, Artistes modernes, iii. ; 
Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., iii. 116 ; Mttller, 29 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 235. 

BATES, DEWEY, born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1851. Genre and portrait painter ; 
studied at Royal Academy, Antwerp, and at 
licole des Beaux Arts, Paris, under Ger6me. 
Studio in Philadelphia ; was in London in 




[ 1883. Works : Little Jannetje, Dutch Com- 
fort (1875). 

BATH, AFTER THE, Jean Loon Gerdme, 

j Wm. Astor, New York ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 2 
ft. A female figure, nude, sitting, back to the 
spectator, at the edge of the bath, in the 
water of which her form is reflected, with a 
narghileh beside her ; another figure, partly 
draped, sitting at left, and two others in 

i background. Photogravure in Art Treas- 
ures of America, ii. 71. 

BATH, YOUNG ROMAN'S, Charles 
Gleyre, Charles S. Smith, New York ; canvas, 
H 3 f t. x 2 ft. A beautiful female slave, 
partly draped, lifts a babe into an alabaster 
font, in a Roman impluvium, on the opposite 
side of which, nearly in profile, stands a nude 
maiden, resting her hands on the rim of the 
basin, and contemplating the young Roman 
with admiration. Photogravure in Art 
Treasures of America, ii. 88. 

BATHSHEBA AT THE BATH, Francia 
Bigio, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 2 ft. 8 in. 
x 5 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 1523. David sees 
Bathsheba in the bath, while Uriah sleeps 
on the balcony of his house ; on the other 
side, the sending of Uriah with the letter. 
Cat. Dresden Gal. 

Subject treated also by Rembrandt, 
Steeugracht Collection, Hague ; Cornells 
van Haarlem, Berlin Museum ; Jan Frans 
van Douven, Cassel Gallery ; Bernardo 
Strozzi, Dresden Gallery ; Carlo Maratti, 
Leichtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 

BATTAGLIA, DIONISIO, flourished in 
Verona about 1547. Probably pupil of 
Francesco Torbido, to whose style his pict- 
ures bear so close a resemblance that they 
have often been mistaken for them. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 123 ; Bernasconi, Studj., 
301. 

BATTEM, GERARD VAN, second half 
of 17th century. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter ; apparently took Ph. Wouwerman 
for his model ; said to have lived at Rotter- 
dam. Works : Hilly Landscape with Fig- 
ures, Meiningen Gallery ; do., Schleissheim 
Gallery. Meyer, KUnst Lex., iii. 125. 



109 



BATTISTA 




BATTISTA DA SAN DANIELE. See 

Pelleyrino. 

BATTLE, Salvator Rosa, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 7 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. 6 in.; signed. A hand- 
to-hand conflict of horse and foot, near a 
ruined temple on right ; on left, massive 
rocks and burning vessels. Painted in 1652, 
in forty days, by order of Monsignor Cor- 
sini, Papal Nuncio, who presented it to 
Louis XT7. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

BATTONI (Batoni), POMPEO GIRO- 
LAMO, Cavali- 
ere, born at Luc- 
ca, Feb. 5, 1708, 
died in Rome, 
Feb. 4, 1787. 
Roman school ; 
pupil at Lucca 
of Domenico 
Brugieri and of 
Gio. Domenico 
Lombard!; went 
early to Rome, where he studied under 
Conca, Masucci, and Imperial! ; soon won 
reputation and divided with Raphael Nunzo 
the honour of being called the first painter 
of his time ; but his conceptions were supe- 
rior to his power of realization, and his 
works are mannered and shallow. Painted 
historical pieces and miniatures ; but most 
noted for his portraits, numbering among 
his sitters Popes Benedict IV. , Clement XITL , 
and Pius VI., the Emperors Joseph II and 
Leopold II., and many other celebrated per- 
sonages. Among his works are : Marriage 
of St. Catherine, Quirinal, Rome ; Birth of 
Christ, Palazzo Corsini, Rome ; Achilles, 
Uffizi, Florence; Madonna Enthroned, Brera, 
Milan ; Choice of Hercules, .ZEneas with 
Anchises, Return of Prodigal Son, Turin 
Gallery ; Madonna, Louvre, Paris ; St. John 
the Baptist, Magdalen. The Fine Arts, Dres- 



EOTJPCO 



den Gallery ; Portrait of Elector Karl Theo- 
dor (1775), Pinakothek, Munich ; Marriage 
of Cupid and Psyche (175G), Berlin Museum ; 



Return of Prodigal Son (1773), Vienna 
Museum. Lanzi, i. 529 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
romaine ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 119. 

BAUCK, JEANNA, born in Stockholm, 
Sweden, Aug. 18, 1840. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Dresden (1863) in figure painting 
of Professor Ehrhardt ; then in Diisseldorf 
in landscape painting of Albert Flamm. In 
1866 she settled in Munich, where she stud- 
ied under Karl Ludwig, Langko, and Jos. 
Brandt. Visited Tyrol, Switzerland, and Ven- 
ice almost yearly ; lived in Paris in 1879-80, 
and then in Munich, where she has a school 
of painting for young ladies. Paints chiefly 
gloomy forests with dark waters, ruins, 
and trees, with great breadth and boldness. 
Medal, 1878. Works : Village Street with 
Gipsy Band (1878); St. John's Eve (1880). 
Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., iii. 128 ; Mttller, 29. 

BAUDIT, AMEDI3E, born in Geneva, 
Switzerland, in 1829. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Franyois Diday; studio in Bordeaux. 
Medals : Paris, 1859, 18G1 ; Geneva, 1861 ; 
Toulouse, 1866; Rochelle, 1866. Works: 
Shores of Lake of Geneva, Dent du Midi 
(1861); Coast near Terre-Negre (1866); View 
near Cannes (1867) ; Souvenir of Dieppe, 
Les Landes (1867) ; Storm (1868) ; Heath of 
Begaar, Rainy Day at Biscarosse, Pasture in 
the Landes (1875) ; Before the Storm (1883). 
Meyer, Ktiust. Lex., iii, 132. 

BAUDOIN, PAUL ALBERT, born at 
Rouen ; contemporary. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Gleyre, Delaunay, and Puvis de Cha- 
vanues. Medal, 3d class, 1882. Works: 
History of Wheat (1882), frieze for Ecole 
Dombasle, Paris ; View of St. Pons He- 
rault, Mulberries of Port Junenal Herault 
(1883) ; April Morning in Normandy (1884) ; 
Betrothal (1885). 

BAUDOIN, PIERRE ANTOINE, born in 
Paris, Oct. 17, 1723, died Dec. 15, 1769. 
Genre painter, pupil of Boucher, whose 
daughter he married ; Member of Academy 
in 1763. Fond of painting erotic subjects. 
Works : Confessional, Fille econduite, Cueil- 
leur de Cerises, Petite Idylle galante, Le 
Lever, Fille querelloe, Force du Sang (1765, 



no 



BAUD It Y 




\ 



Salon of 17G7) ; Le Coucher de la Mariee, 
Sentiment de L'Ainour, Chaumiure, Eight 
Miniatures with Life of the Virgin (1767) ; 
Modele honnete, Diana and Actseon ; Kpouse 
indiscrete, Sentinelle en defaut, Enlevemeut, 
Jardiniere gallant, Chemin de la Fortune, 
Rose and Colas (1769). Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
francaise ; Goncourt, ii. 520 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 132 ; Wurzbach, Mai. d. xviii. J., 
34. 

BAUDRY, PAUL (JACQUES AIMEE), 
born at La Roche- 
sur-Yon, Vendee, 
Nov. 7, 1828. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, pupil at 
La Roche of Sar- 
toris and in Paris 
of Drolling. Won 
the grand prix 
de Rome in 1850 
by his Zenobia 
Discovered on the 
Banks of the Ar- 
axes. Exhibited first in Salon in 1857. Med- 
als: 1st class, 1857, 1861, 1881; L. of Honour, 
1861 ; Officer, 1869 ; Commander, 1875 ; 
Member of Institute, 1870. He has executed 
important decorative works, the most cele- 
brated being those in the foyer of the New 
Opera House in Paris (1866-74). Has also 
painted many portraits. Works : St. John, 
Fortune and the Child (1857), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Execution of a Vestal (1857), Lille ' 
Museum ; Leda (1857) ; Penitent Magdalen, 
Toilet of Venus, Guillemette (1859) ; Char- ! 
lotte Corday (1861), Nantes Museum ; Am- 
phitrite (1861) ; Pearl and W r ave (1863) ; 
Diana (1865) ; Glorification of Law (1881) ; 
Truth (1882). Among his portraits are: 
Guizot (1861) ; Charles Gamier (1869) ; Ed- 
mond About (1872) ; Gen. de Montaubau 
(1877). Larousse; Meyer, Gesch., 595; do., 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 137. 

BAUERLE, KARL (WTLHELM FRIED- 
RICH), born at Endersbach, Wurtemberg, 
June 5, 1831. Genre and portrait painter ; 
came to America in 1836, returned to Ger- 



many in 1859, and became pupil of the art 
school in Stuttgart under Rustige. In 1863 
he studied in Munich under Piloty, and in 
1864 went to Italy. After his return he ac- 
quired great reputation at Stuttgart by his 
portraits ; went in 1869 to England, where he 
painted several members of the royal family 
and of the aristocracy. Works : Portraits of 
Prince and Princess of Hoheulohe-Langen- 
burg, Group of their Children, Prince 
Arthur, Children of Prince of Wales ; The 
Orphans (1867), Stuttgart Gallery ; Female 
Letter Carrier, Little Barefoot, Spring, The 
Nursery, Attempts at Art. Meyer, Kdnst. 
Lex., iii. 143 ; Miiller, 30. 

BAUGIN, LUBIN, born at Pithiviers, 
Loiret, France, about 1610, died in Paris, 
July 11, 1663. History painter, imitator of 
Guido Reni, whence called Little Guido. 
Works : Holy Family, Louvre ; Madonna, 
Nancy Museum ; Holy Family, Dijon Muse- 
um ; Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, Rouen 
Museum ; Magdalen Consoled by Angels, 
Gregory the Great, Orleans Museum ; St. 
Sebastian, S. Sepulchre; Adoration of Angels, 
St. Lazare; six pictures in Notre Dame, Paris. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 145. 

BAUGNIET, CHARLES, born in Brussels 
in 1814. Genre and portrait painter, pupil 
of J. Paelinck and M. F. Willems. Lives at 
Sevres. First became known by a collection 
of three hundred lithographed portraits of 
distinguished persons. After spending sev- 
eral years in England, settled in Paris and 
devoted himself to painting. Member of 
Ghent Academy in 1836. Appointed de- 
signer to the King of Belgium, 1841 ; Order 
of Leopold, 1843, Officer 1872 ; Order of 
Isabel Catholic of Spain ; of Branche-Ern- 
stein of Saxony ; of Christ of Portugal. 
Works : Sister of Charity, Repentance, First- 
Born, Sailor's Return, Beau Telling a Story, 
The Eldest Daughter (1863) ; Elder Sister's 
Return (1864) ; Visiting the Widow, Trou- 
bled Conscience (1865), Godmother's Visit 
(1866) ; Departure of the Bride (1869) ; Em- 
barrassing Answer, Godmother, Good Ad- 
venture (1870); Burning of Chicago (1871) ; 



111 



BAUMAXN 



Old Arm-Chair, My Little Nephew (187G) ; 
Blind Man's Buff, Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New 
York ; First Heart Trouble (1878) ; Fourth 
of July, 1876 ; Autumn (1879); Washington's 
Birthday (1881); Cottage Hospitality (1882). 
Other works owned in United States : Curi- 
osity, James H. Stebbins, New York ; Ein- 
barrassing Answer, Dead Canary, Dressing 
the Bride, T. E. Butler, New York ; Lady's 
Night Toilet, Mrs. Paran Stevens, New York; 
His Picture, W. Mason, Taunton, Mass. ; After 
the Ball, Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland; 
Autumn, S. A Coale, St. Louis ; Art Studies, 
C. Crocker, San Francisco ; Interesting the 
Convalescent, W. B. Bement, Philadelphia ; 
Toilet of the Bride, Departure of the Bride, 
E. D. Morgan Collection, New York ; Letter 
of Becommendation, Lost Illusions, B. L. 
Stuart Collection, New York ; Autumn, C. P. 
Huntington, New York ; Feeding the Snow 
Birds, C. S. Smith, New York ; Toilet of the 
Bride, J. Hoey, New York ; Good Fortune, "W. 
H. Vanderbilt, New York; Spring Time, Win. 
Astor, New York. Vapereau (1880), 150. 

BAUMANN, (ADOLF) CHRISTIAN, born 
in Munich in 1829, died there in 18G5. 
History painter, pupil of Munich Academy | 
in 1844-48, under Schraudolph, whom he j 
also assisted in his works at the Speyer 
cathedral. After three years spent in Italy 
he returned home and executed a series of ! 
works in fresco, in the style of H. Hess and 
Schraudolph. Two Madonnas, New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; four fresco paintings, Na- 
tional Museum, Munich ; two in Arcades of 
S. Cemetery, ib. ; Crucifixion, I. Sarthor, ib. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 152 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 148. 

BAUMANN, JOHANN HEINEICH, born 
at Mitau, Feb. 10, 1753, died at Neu-Juug- 
fernhof, near Riga, July 7, 1832. Animal 
painter, pupil at Erfurt of J. S. Beck ; after 
his return home lived mostly in Curlandj 
and Livland, and in 1790 became member 
of St. Petersburg Academy ; painted 1,713 
pictures, chiefly hunting scenes, highly es- 
teemed by sportsmen. Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., 
iii. 147. 



BAUMEISTER, FRANZ KARL, born at 
Zwiefalten, Wurtemberg, Jan. 24, 1840. 
History painter, pupil of the Munich Acad- 
emy from 1855 under Hiltensperger and 
Anschutz, and in 1859-65 under Philipp 
Foltz. Works : Christ with Virgin and 
j Saints (1863) ; Holy Women at the Grave 
(1866) ; Eleven Cartoons of Life of St. Wal- 
bert (1869-70) ; Baptism of Christ (1872) ; 
St. Andrew, Immaculata (1872) ; St. Ann 
(1873) ; St. Theobald, St. Maurice, Assump- 
tion, St. Bartholomew ; Foundation of Soci- 
ety of Jesus, St. Catherine. Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., iii. 149 ; Muller, 31. 

BAUMGARTNER, PETER, born in Mu- 
nich, May 24, 1834. Genre painter, pupil 
from 1850 of the Munich Academy, then in 
1857-61 of Piloty. His pictures of Bava- 
rian life are humorous and characteristic. 
J Works : Seven Suabians, Don Quixote's 
Declaration of Love, Interrupted Dinner 
(1861) ; Invalid Asylum, Auction at a Paint- 
er's, On the Way to School (1864) ; The 
Answered Prayer for Rain (1866) ; At the 
Stand, Scene in Photographer's Studio, Ex- 
amination at the Parson's, Forenoon in the 
Parson's Kitchen, The Arrival. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 151 ; Muller, 31. 

BAUR, ALBERT, born at Aachen, July 
13, 1835. History painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy under Karl Sohn, then of Jos. 
Kehreu, and later of Schwind in Munich. 
Settled in Diisseldorf in 1861. After visit- 
ing Paris, Holland, and Italy, was professor 
at the Weimar Art School in 1871-76 ; 
then returned to Diisseldorf. Works : The 
Body of Otto HI. Conveyed over the Alps 
(1866) ; Christian Martyrs (1870), Diissel- 
dorf Gallery ; Otto I. and the Body of his 
Brother Thankmar [1874] ; Paul Preaching 
in Rome (1876) ; Amazons Bear-Hunting 
(1876) ; Young Poet and Girl (1876) ; Seal- 
ing Christ's Sepulchre after Entombment 
(1879), J. D. Lankenau, Philadelphia. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 156 ; Muller, 31 ; 
Ulustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 231 ; Ktinst-Chronik, 
i. 133, ii. 37, iv. 190, vii. 438, xii. 83; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 144. 



BAUR 

BAUR, NICOLAAS, born at Harlingen, I BAYARD, EMELE ANTOESTE, born at 
Sept. 23, 1767, died there, March 28, 1820. La Ferte-sous-Jouarre (Seine-et-Marne,) 



Dutch school ; marine painter, son and 
pupil of J. A. Baur, a portrait painter ; at 
first painted landscapes and city views. 
Meyer, Kiinst Lex., iii. 156. 

BAVON, ST., CONVERSION OF, Rubens, 
National Gallery, London ; wood, H. 3 ft. 5 
in. X 5 ft. 5 in. The Saint, about to enter 



Nov. 2, 1837. Genre painter, pupil of L. 
Cogniet. At first exhibited only charcoal 
drawings, for which he is distinguished, but 
since 1870 has painted some very characteris- 
tic military scenea L. of Honour, 1870. 
Works: Narrow Pass, During the Siege 
(1874) ; Day after Waterloo (1875) ; Couu- 



the monastic life, is met 011 the steps of the try Concert-House, Market in the 18th Cen- 

church of his convent by St. Arnaud, Bishop tury, Women Bathing, Skating (1877) ; 

of Maastricht. Formerly in Palazzo Carezza, Morning of a Debut (1879) ; two decorative 

Genoa ; bequeathed in 1831 to National panels (1882) ; Affair of Honour, Qui trop 

Gallery by Rev. W. H. Carr. Cat Nat Gal.; embrasse (1884) ; Bande joyeuse (1885). 

Smith, ii. 256. j Gaz. des B. Arts (1872), i. 328 ; Meyer, 

BAVON, ST., DISTRIBUTING ALMS, Ktlust. Lex., iii. 168. 

Rubens, Ghent Cathedral ; canvas, H. 16 ft. BAYER, AUGUST VON, born at Ror- 
x 9 ft. The Saint, standing beside a flight schach, on Lake Constance, May 3, 1803, 
of steps, is attended by two servants with \ died in Carlsruhe, Feb. 2, 1875. Architect- 
bowls of money ; before him are two women, ure painter ; studied architecture in Carls- 
one with two infants, kneeling, and behind ruhe under Weinbreuner, and in Paris be- 
them a mendicant ; on opposite side, three fore 1828, when he took up painting, first 
ladies looking on ; in second distance, the in Munich, then in Carlsruhe. His subjects 



Saint, followed by a page and another per- 



were the great monumental buildings of 



son, is ascending a flight of steps to a the Middle Ages, interiors of churches, 

church, at the door of which two bishops halls, etc. Baden court painter. Works : 

and several monks await his arrival. One Interior of Franciscan Church at Salzburg, 

of Rubens's best works, but greatly injured Cloister of Stiftskirche at Berchtesgadeu, 

by restoration. Engraved by F. Pilsen. Convent-hall with Monk, New Pinakothek, 



Smith, ii. 36 ; Beechey, Reynolds's Works, 
ii. 142. 

BAXTER, CHARLES, born in London, 
March, 1809. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of G. Clint in painting portraits and 



Munich ; Interior of Church of our Lady in 
Munich, Cathedral in Chur, Maulbronn 
Monastery, Death of St. Bruno, Organ Play- 
er, Strasburg Cathedral. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
ii. 186 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 169 ; Brock- 



miniatures, in which he was quite success- haus, ii. 616. 

ful ; later, devoted himself to rustic and BAYEU Y SUB1AS, Don FRANCISCO, 
ideal subjects ; first exhibited at Royal Acad- born at Saragossa, March 9, 1734, died in 
emy in 1834. Elected in 1842 member of Madrid, Aug. 4, 1795. History painter, 
Society of British Artists. Works : Olivia pupil at Saragossa of Joso Luzan Martinez, 
and Sophia (1852) ; Lucy Locket, Bacchante ' then in Madrid of S. Fernando Academy 
(1853) ; La Pensoe (1854) ; The Lily (1856) ; ! under Antonio Gonzalez Velasquez ; returned 
Heartsease, Dream of Love (1857) ; Little S to Saragossa, but on the suggestion of 
Red Riding Hood (1859) ; Little Galway Mengs, court painter to Charles HI, was 
Girl (1861) ; Colleen Bawn, Olivia (1862) ; called to Madrid to assist in the decoration 
The Ballad (1863) ; Love me, Love my I of the new Palacio Real, and so decidedly 
Dog ; Peasants at Chioggia (1869). Art adhered to the style of Mengs that he may 
Journal (1864), 145 ; Meyer, Kiinst Lex., be reckoned as of his school. By contempo- 
iii. 168. | raries considered the foremost Spanish paiut- 

113 



BAYKOFF 



er during the second half of the 18th cen- 
tury. Court painter ; honorary member of 
S. Fernando Academy in 1765, director in 
1788. Works : Twenty-five religious, myth- 
ological, and allegoiical paintings in Mu- 
seo del Prado, Madrid. Frescos : Fall of 
the Giants, Apotheosis of Hercules, Con- 
quest of Granada, etc., Palacio Real, ib.; 
Religious Subjects, Chapel-Royal, Aranjuez ; 
Life of St. Eugenius, Toledo Cathedral ; 
many in the cathedral and other churches 
at Saragossa. His brother and pupil, Don 
Ramon, born at Saragossa in 1746, died at 
Aranjuez, March 1, 1793, assisted him in 
many of his works, especially the frescos at 
Saragossa Cathedral. Bermudez ; Madrazo, 
353 ; Stirling, iii. 1257. 

BAYKOFF, FEODOR, died at Tiflis, 
Russian Transcaucasia, in 1877. Landscape 
and genre painter, pupil of St. Petersburg 
Academy ; travelled in the Caucasus in 1846 
and afterwards in southern Russia. Works : 
Circassian Caravan (1873) ; paintings in 
cathedral and theatre at Tiflis. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 171. 

BAZIN, CHARLES LOUIS, born in 
Paris, April 3, 1802, died there, Jan., 1859. 
History, genre, and portrait painter, pupil 
of Girodet-Trioson, and of Gerard. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1844 ; 2d class, 1846. Works : 
Peter the Great in France (1842); Christ 
on Cross (1843) ; Louis XIV. and Mine, 
de Maintenon (1844); Tribute Money (1845); 
Girl with a Lizard (1846) ; Ecce Homo 
(1849); Dissolution of Parliament by Louis 
XIV. (1853). Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), iv. 
308. 

BAZZACCO (Bozzacco, Bozzato), born 
about 1500, died about 1570. Venetian 
school. Proper name Giovan Battista Pon- 
chino. A native of Castelfranco, whence 
sometimes called Bazacco da Castelfranco. 
Vasari, who calls him Brazacco, says he had 
charge of the decorations of the grand hall 
of the Council of Ten in the Palazzo Ducale, 
Venice (after 1552), and that his associates 
were Battista Zelotti and Paolo Veronese. 
The Neptune on his Chariot, the Mercury, 



and the Venice, with broken chains in her 
hands, looking to Heaven, are among the 
frescos there attributed to him. Blanc says 
that his work does not pale beside that of his 
brilliant coadjutors. His picture of Christ 
in Limbo (1552), S. Liberale, Castelfranco, is 
superior to any other work of art in that city, 
save the pictures of Giorgione. Bazacco, 
after the death of his wife, became an eccle- 
siastic with the title of Monsignore. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vi. 594, 595 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 176. 

BAZZANI, GIUSEPPE, born in Mantua, 
about 1690, died there, Aug. 17, 1769. 
Pupil of Giovanni Canti, of Parma, but 
formed himself by studies after Mantegna, 
Paolo Veronese, and especially Rubens, 
whom he took for his model, and soon sur- 
passed his early master. Painted many 
altarpieces and frescos for churches in Man- 
tua ; one of the best is the Dream of St. 
Romualdo, in S. Barnaba. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 177. 

BAZZI, GIOVANNANTONIO. See 6 Y o- 
doma. 

BEALE, MARY, born in Suffolk in 1632, 
died in London, Dec. 28, 1697. Daughter 
of Rev. Mr. Cradock, of Walton-on-Thames ; 
married Mr. Beale, a painter and colour 
; maker. Pupil of Sir Peter Lely, who ob- 
tained for her permission to copy many of 
Van Dyck's finest works. Painted por- 
traits in oil, water-colour, and crayon ; was 
j also reputed as a poet. Her portraits of 
Cowley, Tillotson, Duke of Norfolk and 
Charles II. are in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, and of Archbishop Tillotson in Lam- 
beth Palace. Redgrave ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 231. 

BEARD, JAMES H., bom in Buffalo, 
N. Y., in 1814. Animal painter. He painted 
portraits for many years in the West, Henry 
Clay and President John Quincy Adams 
being among his sitters. Exhibited Caro- 
lina Emigrants at the National Academy in 
1846. Elected N. A. in 1871. Studio in 
New York. Works: A Peep at Growing 
Danger (1871); The Widow (1872); Mutual 



114 



BEARD 



Friend (1875) ; Attorney and his Clients, 
Out all Night, Morning Gossip, There's 
many a Slip (187(i) ; Consultation, Blood 
will Tell (1877); Don Quixote and Saucho 
Panza (1878); Don't You Know Me ? (1879); 
Heirs at Law (1880) ; Which has Preemp- 
tion? (1881); You Can't have this Pup 
(1882); My Easter's all Spoilt, I don't Be- 
lieve One Word of It (1883); Detected 
Poacher (1884). Harry Beard, son of James 
H. Beard, also paints animals. He exhib- 
ited in 1877, Group of Portraits ; in 1878, 
Young Knight, Who Boke Dat, now ? and ; 
Charles, drive me to Stewart's ! and in 1881, 
Newsboy. 

BEARD, WILLIAM H., born in Paines- , 
ville, Ohio, April 
13, 1825. Animal 
painter ; visited 
Europe in 1857, 
studied one sum- 
mer in Diissel- 
dorf.and sketched 
in Italy, Switzer- 
land, and France. 
Elected N. A. in 
1862. Studio in 
New York. Works: 
Dancing Bear (18G7); Naughty Cub (1869) ; 
Pets on a Spree (1871); The Wreckers 
(1874); Horse Market in Brittany (1875) ;| 
Worn Out, Lo the Poor Indian, March of 
Sileuus (1870); Runaway Match (1878); 
Justice must bo Done (1879) ; Voices of the 
Night (1880) ; Spreading the Alarm (1881) ; 
In the Glen (1882); Cattle upon a Thousand 
Hills; Eavesdropper (1884); Bulls and 
Bears (1885). Sheldon, 56. 

BEATO, IL. See Anr/eiico, Fra. 

BEAUBRUN, CHARLES, born at Ain- 
boise, France, baptized Feb. 11, 1604, died 
in Paris, Jan. 16, 1C92. Portrait painter, 
pupil of his uncle Louis, cousin of Henri, 
whose associate lie was until the latter's 
death. He became member of the Acad- 
emy in 1651. Works : Portrait of Anne 
Marie of Burgundy (1655) ; Portrait of 
Marie de Medicia (1655) ; Portrait of Dau- 




phin Louis (1663), Madrid Museum. Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 239 ; Ch. Blnuc, Ecole fran- 
yaise. 

BEAUBRUN, HENRI, born at Amboise, 
Feb., 1003, died in Paris, May 17, 1677. Por- 
trait painter; he entered the service of Louis 
XIII, who took an interest in his education, 
caused him to study architecture and per- 
spective, and ultimately became his pupil. 
He was one of the first twelve members of 
the Academy, founded in 1648. Ch. Blanc, 
ficole frau<;aise ; Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., iii, 
239. 

BEAUC15, JEAN ADOLPHE, born in 
Paris, Aug. 2, 1818, died at Boulogue-sur- 
Seiue, July 13, 1875. Military, genre, and 
battle painter, pupil of C. Baziu. He accom- 
panied the army on several campaigns, and 
so painted correctly, but with little imagina- 
tion or life. Medal : 3d class, 1861 ; L. of 
Honour, 1864. Works : Capture of Abd-el- 
Kader's Smala (1844) ; Charge of Colonel 
Morris at Isly (1845) ; Death of Col. Ber- 
thier in the Battle of Cerisoles(1846) ; After 
Waterloo (1847) ; Capture of the Bridge of 
Si Prix (1848) ; Bravery of the Priest of 
Pers (1852) ; Storming of Laghouat (1853) ; 
The Sharpshooters, Assault of Zaatscha 
(1857) ; Battle of Solferino (1861) ; Entry 
of the French into Mexico (1868) ; Defeat 
of the 16th Uhlans (1874) ; Battle of Pa-li- 
Kiao (1875). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 240 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, ix. 645, 672 ; x. 561. 

BEAULJEU, ANATOLE HENRI DE, 
born in Paris in 1819, died there, June 6, 
1884. Genre painter, one of the most bril- 
liant pupils of Delacroix. Medal, 1868. 
Works : Scene from Spanish Inquisition 
(1844); La Romance cles Abeuci-rages ; Sere- 
nade in Venice ; Bohemian Tavern in Venice, 
1560 ; Turkish Buttery after Bombardment 
of Sinope, 1853 ; The Ostrich-egg (1868) ; 
The Duel (1870) ; Volunteers of the Loire 
Army, Woman in the Pillory in Ancient 
Stamboul, Well in Pillaged House (1874) ; 
The Adder (1875) ; The Douma (ancient 
Slavic ballad, 1877); Jessica (1880); Queen 
of Clubs, Pig Festival at Fest-eu-Hoch (1882); 



115 



BEAUME 



Alcohol (1883) ; La Femme & ITbis, La Fille 
aux Rats (1884). Ckronique des Arts (1884), 
191; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 40 ; ix. 671; x. G46. 

BEAUME, JOSEPH, born in Marseilles, 
Sept. 24, 1796, died, Sept., 1885. History 
and genre painter, pupil in Paris of Gros, 
whose classical style he at first followed ; 
later painted military and historical pictures, 
and since 1870 genre subjects. Also painted 
portraits and marine views. Medals : 2d 
class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1827 ; L. of Honour, 
1836. In 1836-43 he executed for the Ver- 
sailles Museum his principal historical works: 
Passage of Rhine at Diisseldorf ; Battles of 
Diernstein, of Albreto, of Ltitzen, of Bautzen, 
of Oporto, and of Toulouse ; Taking of 
Halle; Napoleon Leaving Elba. Otherworks: 
Eliezer and Naphtali (1819, Fontainebleau) ; 
Death of Henri IE. (1822) ; The King Drinks 
(1828); Death of Grand-Dauphiness in 1690 
(1834) ; Death of Anne of Austria at Val-de- 
Grace (1835) ; Death of Charles V. (1838) ; 
Childhood of Sixtus V. (1839) ; Hagar in the 
Desert (1844) ; Going out of Church (1846); 
Van Dyck (1850) ; Marguerite (1852) ; Gali- 
leo in Prison (1853) ; Flight into Egypt ; 
Mother of the Family (1872); Hunter's 
Breakfast (1877) ; Sancho Panza (1878). 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 243 ; Miiller, 32 ; 
Ottley. 

BEAUMETZ, fiTIENNE, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Cabanel and L. Roux. Medal : 3d 
class, 1880. Works : There they are ! (1880); 
Battalion Leaving for the Frontier (1881); 
Brigade Lapasset Burning its Flags (1882); 
The Liberators ! 1794 (1883) ; At Cham- 
pigny Nov. 30, 1870, The Garrison Leaves 
Belfort 1871 (1884) ; The Bayonet Cham- 
pigny, Dec. 2, 1870, Last Duty (1885). 

BEAUMONT, CHARLES EDOUARD 
DE, born at Lanuion, France, in 1821. Genre 
painter, pupil of Boisselier ; first pictures, 
landscapes from neighbourhood of Cernay 
and Senlis, in Salons of 1838, 1839, and 
1840. Has illustrated several books. Medals: 
1870, 2d class, 1873 ; L. of Honour, 1877. 
Works ; Bohemians (1853) ; Dangers of Life 



(1855) ; Andromeda (18CC) ; Circe (1867) ; 
Leda (1868) ; Perils of Life (1855); Women 
Chasing Truth (1868) ; The Captain's Share 
(1868), Luxembourg ; Seeking Whom He 
Shall Devour, Women are Dear (1870) ; End 
of a Song ; Where is Cupid Hiding? (1873); 
As Stupid as a Goose, Mad Caps (1874); Nest 
of Sirens (1877) ; Torturers of Cupid, H. 
Probasco, Cincinnati. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
iii. 246 ; Miiller, 33 ; Larousse. 

BEAUMONT, CLAUDIO FRANCESCO, 
Cavaliere, born in Turin, June 4, 1694, died 
there, July 21,1766. History painter, studied 
in Turin, then in Rome, after the works of 
Raphael, the Caracci and Guido, and under 
Trevisani ; became honorary member of 
Academy of S. Luca in 1727, returned to 
Turin in 1731, and was made court painter 
and (1736) knighted. Works in fresco : 
Princely Virtues, Four Ages of Man, Judg- 
ment of Paris, Rape of Helen, Royal Palace, 
Turin ; Altarpieces in different churches, 
ib., and in Rome. Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., iii. 
243. 

BEAUMONT, Sir GEORGE ROWLAND, 
Bart., born at Dunmow, Essex, Nov. 6, 1753, 
died at his seat at Coleorton, Leicestershire, 
England, Feb. 7, 1827. Pupil of Rich- 
ard Wilson ; became a respectable amateur 
landscape painter. His two landscapes in 
the National Gallery are pleasing examples 
of the classic school, but cannot lay claim 
to striking originality. He was a supreme 
authority in matters of taste and of para- 
mount influence in founding the National 
Gallery, to which he bequeathed many valu- 
able pictures collected in Italy and England. 
Cunningham, vi. 147; Cat. Nat. Gal.; Mey- 
er, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 245 ; Redgrave. 

BEAURY-SAUREL, Mile. AMfiLIE, born 
at Barcelona, Spain, of French parents ; con- 
temporary. Portrait painter, pupil of Tony 
Robert- Fleury, Bouguereau, and Giacomotti. 
Medal : 3d class, 1885. Works : Portrait of 
Leon Say (1880) ; do. of My Mother (1883). 

BEAUVAIS, ARMAND, born at Bar-sur- 
Aube, Nov. 30, 1840. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of Desjobert and of Gerome. 



116 



BEAUVEUIE 



Medal : 3d class, 1882. Works : Gleaners 
Surprised by Rain, Banks of the Aven (1876); 
April, La Saint-Fiacre (1877) ; On the Cliffs 
at Carteret, End of October (1878); Novem- 
ber, Return from the Fields (1879) ; Sowing 
Season (1881); On the Heights of Omonville 
(1882) ; Walnut Trees of Augis in November, 
Goslings in April (1883) ; Return of the 
Flock, Windy Day (1884) ; In the Fields in 
October, Untilled Land Winter Evening 
(1885). 

BEAUVERIE, CHARLES JOSEPH, born 
at Lyons, France ; contemporary. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Lyons school of 
art, and of Gleyre. Paints well coloured, 
carefully finished pictures. Medals: 3d class, 
1877 ; 2d class, 1881. Works : Morning on 
the Oise, Avignon Museum ; Butcher's Shop 
in Suburbs of Paris, Afternoon in Spring 
(1874) ; June, October Morning, Beggar 
Woman from Brittany, View near Cernay, 
Coming out of School (1879) ; The Forey 
Canal, St. Just-sur-Loire (1880) ; Girl Picking 
Peas, Autumn Evening (1881); Gathering 
Potatoes, Foggy Morning in Autumn (1882); 
Resting in the Fields, Ruins at Auvers 
(1883) ; Before the Rain, Morning at Auvers 
(1884) ; Valley of Amby, The Harrow (1885). 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 253. 

BEAVIS, RICHARD, born at Exmouth, 
England, in 1824. Landscape painter ; in 
1846 entered School of Design, Somerset 
House, London, and in 1850-63 was designer 
in a London carpet factory. ' Exhibited at 
Royal Academy in 1862, Mountain Rill, and 
Fishermen Picking up Wreck, and in 1863, 
In North Wales. Has visited France,Holland, 
Italy, Egypt, and the Holy Laud. Member 
of the Institute of Painters iu Water Colours. 
Works : Escape (1864); Military Train Jer- 
sey, Drawing Timber in Picardy (1865) ; 
Loading Sand Pas de Calais (1867); High 
Tide Mouth of the Maas (1868) ; Hauling 
up a Fishing-Boat Holland (1870) ; Autumn 
Ploughing (1871) ; Collecting Wreck -Am- 
bleteuse (1872) ; Shore at Scheveningen 
(1873) ; Ferry-Boat in Old Holland (1874) ; 
Bedouin Caravau.Ploughing in Egypt (1876) ; 



j Threshing Floor at Gilgal, In the Forest at 

, Fontainebleau (1877) ; Halt of Prince Ed- 
ward (1878) ; Pilgrims to Mecca (1879) ; 

' Bedouin Encampment in Syria (1880) ; Re- 
treat to Coruuna (1883) ; Buckhurst Park, 
Hatfield Park (1885). Art Journal (1877), 
65 ; Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., iii. 253. 

BECCADELLI, Legate, portrait, Titian, 
Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, life size. The 
prelate, seated in an arm-chair, holds in his 
hands an unfolded paper. Painted in 1552. 
Engraved by J. C. Ulmer. C. & C., Titian, 
ii. 216. 

BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO, born near Si- 
ena in 1486, died 
in Siena, May 18, 

i 1551. Sienese 
school; son of Gi- 
acomo di Pace, 
a labourer in the 
service of Loren- 
zo Beccafunii, by 
whom he was ap- 
prenticed to the 
painter G. B. 
Tozzo, called Ca- 
panna, and 
whose surname 

he adopted ; also called Mecuccio or Me- 
cherino, on account of his insignificant 
appearance. Domenico may have met Pe- 
rugiuo in Siena in 1508, and have felt 
his influence. In Rome, where he spent 
about two years (1510-1512), he became 
enamoured of the works of Michelangelo, 
whom he afterwards weakly imitated. On 
his return to Siena (1512) he competed 
with Sodoma with credit to himself, 
though he cannot be justly compared with 
that great artist. His style became more 
and more mannered as he advanced in life. 
The earliest and perhaps the best of his 
works is the St. Catherine Receiving the 
Stigmata (1512) and Saints, Siena Gallery ; 
other works are the Marriage and Death of 
the Virgin, frescos (1518), S. Bernardino, 
Siena ; Visitation, Hospital, Siena ; Nativity 
(1523), S. Martiuo, Siena ; Marriage of St 




117 



BECCAEUZZI 



Catherine, Palazzo Doria, Eome ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Pitti, Florence. Beccafumi designed 
the best compositions which decorate the 
pavement of the Duomo, Siena. Seven of 
his cartoons for this work are preserved in 
the Academy. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 254 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil. v. 633 ; Gaye, Carteggio, 
ii. 244, 355 ; Jansen, Leben und Werke des 
Malers Gio. Ant. Bazzi, Stuttgart (1870), 
117 ; Ch. Blanc, cole floreutine ; Meyer, 
Kttnst. Lex., iii. 254 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., ii. 408. 

BECCARUZZI, FRANCESCO, born at 
Conegliano, flourished in 1527-1544. Vene- 
tian school ; probably pupil of Pordenone, 
but in his pictures a successful imitator of 
Titian, though he shows in some respects, es- 
pecially in his sketchy treatment, the decline 
of the Venetian school. Painted mostly 
altarpieces for churches in Conegliano and 
Treviso. Works : St. Francis with six other 
Saints, Venice Academy. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 259 ; Eidolfi, Marav., i. 207 ; C. 
& C., Italy, ii. 1G6. 

BECERRA, GASPAR, born at Baeza about 
1520, died in Madrid in 1570. Spanish 
school. Passed many years at Rome, study- 
ing painting, sculpture, and architecture ; 
aided Daniele da Volterra in the embellish- 
ment of the Rovere Chapel in Trinita de' 
Monti, where he painted a Nativity of the 
Virgin, and Giorgio Vasari, who calls him 
Bizzera, in the frescos of the Cancellaria in 
the palace of Cardinal Farnese. Returned 
to Spain in 1556, became sculptor to Philip 
II. in 1562 and one of his painters in ordi- 
nary in 1563. He executed frescos in the 
Alcazar of Madrid and many altarpieces, 
few of which have survived, but devoted 
most of his time to sculpture. A Sybil at- 
tributed to him is in the Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg, and a Magdalen in the Museo 
de Fomento, Madrid. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 
229, vii. 60, 681 ; Stirling, i. 241 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole ; Cean Bermudez ; Meyer, 
Kiiust. Lex., iii. 260. 

BECKENKAMP, KASPAR BENEDIKT, 
born at Ehrenbreitstein, near Coblentz, 



Feb. 5, 1747, died at Cologne, April 1, 
1828. German school ; history, landscape, 
and portrait painter, pupil of his father 
and of Januarius Zick, at Coblentz, where 
he found a patron in Clemens Wences- 

i laus, Elector of Treves, and painted many 
princely personages ; settled at Cologne in 

1 1795 and devoted himself chiefly to the 
reproduction of paintings by the Old Ger- 
man masters. Merlo, Nachrichten, 28. 

BECKER, ADOLF VON, born in Fin- 
land, Aug. 14, 1831. Genre painter ; pu- 
pil of Copenhagen Academy in 1856-58 ; 
studied then in Dilsseldorf, and from 1860 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, and 
under Couture, Cogniet, Hebert, Barrias, 
and Courbet. Went to Spain, in 1863, 
and to Italy, in 1866. In 1869 he was 
appointed professor of drawing at Helsing- 
fors University. Works : Boy with Kite, 
French Judge (1863) ; Painter and Model 
(1867) ; Motherly Pride (1868) ; Gamblers 
(1869) ; After Dinner, A Game of Piquet, 
Sick Woman (1878). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
iii. 270. 

BECKER, ALBERT, born in Berlin,* 
Oct. 22, 1830. Genre and animal painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy from 1848 under 
Klober, and long his assistant in fresco 

! painting. After a year in Paris (1860), he 
devoted himself to the representation of do- 
mestic animals, from his skill as a cattle 

I painter was surnamed Cow-Becker. W T orks : 
Blind Man's Buff, Village Scene, By the 

! Roadside in Spring, At the Brook, Uu- 

1 bidden Guests, Before the Parsonage, Halt 
at Forester's House, Before and After the 
Christening. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 270 ; 
Miiller, 35. 

BECKER, AUGUST, bom in Darmstadt 
in 1822. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Darmstadt of Schilbach, then at Dtissel- 
dorf Academy. In 1844 he visited Norway, 
Switzerland, and Tyrol, afterwards the 
Scotch Highlands, and was repeatedly 
called to Balmoral to instruct the English 
princesses in drawing and landscape paint- 
ing. Works: Alpengliihen (1846); the Hu- 



BECK Kit 



rongen in the Midnight Sun (1840); Nonvo- Surprised by ft Storm, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
giaii Table-land (1861); Evening in Berner I nich ; Returning Harvesters. Meyer, K (I list 



Lex., iii. 267 
dorf K, 236. 

BECKER, KARL 
RICH), born in Ber- 
lin, Dec. 18, 1820. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Aug. von Klober in 



Wolfgang Mflller, Diisael- 
(LUDWIG FRIED- 






Oberlaud (1860 and 1867) ; Evening in Ba- 
varian Highland (1862); The Eiger in Switz- 
erland, Kaisergebirge in Tyrol (1864); Ko- 
nigssee (1874) ; Wallensee in Switzerland, 
Inundation on the Nether Rhine, The Dach- 
stein (1876). Brockhaus, ii. 669; Mailer, 
34. 

BECKER, FERDINAND, bora in Mentz ; 

contemporary. Painter of fairy tales, pupil the Berlin Academy; 
in Frankfort of Steiule. First exhibited at j studied fresco under 
Frankfort in 1874. Works: Story of the i A. Hess at Munich 
Little Brother and Sister (1874) ; The Poor ' (1843), and after a 
Servant (1875) ; Story of the Three Esquires i year in Paris and two 
of Roland (1877), Royal Cabinet of Engrav- ' years in Rome (1845- 
iugs, Dresden. Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., iii. i 47) returned to Berlin to paint historical and 
271 ; Kunst-Chrouik, ix. 398, x. 601, xii. , mythological pictures. Visited Venice sev- 
548. | eral times and collected materials for paiut- 

BECKER, GEORGES, born in Paris ing Venetian Renaissance subjects, in repre- 
about 1845. Genro painter, pupil of Gi'- ' sentiug -which his improved colour showed 
rume. Medals : Paris, 1870 ; 2d class, 1872 ; the influence of the masters of that school. 
Philadelphia, 1876. Works : In the Cata- Professor and senator of Berlin Academy. 







Furies 
lUzpah 



combs (1868) ; Orestes and the 

(1870); Martyr's Widow (1872) 

protecting the Bodies of her 

(1873) ; Christian Martyr (1879) 

Seller of 

Pompeii, 

H. P. Kid- 

der, Boston. Kunst-Chronik, viii. 71, x. 

532 ; Am. Art Rev. (1880), 489 ; Meyer, 

Kiinst. Lex., iii. 271 ; Muller, 34. 



GEOHGE$.BECI^ 



Works : Belisarius as a Beggar (1850) ; 
Cecrops as Founder of Athens, Hyllus, 
Children j Mercury and Argus, Hypsipyle and Arehe- 
Irnage- morus, Cadmus as Dragon Slayer (frescos), 
National Museum, Berlin ; Christ on Lake 
Genesareth, Fiddler in the Courtyard, Ca- 
puchin Sermon, Jeweller at Venetian Sena- 
tor's (1855) ; Visit at Venetian Nobleman's 
(1857) ; Visit of Sebastian del Piombo to 
Titian (1861) ; Doge in Council (1864) ; 



BECKER, JAKOB, born at Dittelsheim, The Bravo, Carnival in Venice, Return from 
near Worms, in 1810, died in Frankfort, Carnival, Venetian Balcony Scene, Charles 
Dec. 22, 1872. Genre and landscape painter, V. at Titian's, Scene from Giitz von Berlich- 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Schir- j ingen (1869), Charle* I', and Fugger (1870), 
mer ; after painting landscapes and roman- National Gallery, Berlin ; Dtlrer in Venice 
tic scenes, he took up genre, choosing his (1873) ; Bianca Capello (1874) ; Coronation 
subjects chiefly from peasant life. In 1840 ! of Ulrich von Hutten as Poet Laureate 
he became professor at the Stiidel Institute (1870), Cologne Museum ; In the Picture 
in Frankfort. Works : Knight and his Gallery, Scene from Marriage of Figaro 
Sweetheart, Praying Peasant Family, Even- 
ing at the Well, Departure of the Recruit, 
Returning Soldier ; Wounded Poacher, 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Shepherd struck 
by Lightning, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort : 
Peasant Family on Pilgrimage, Husbandmen i . 



(1874) ; Emperor Maximilian receiving 

Venetian Embassy (1877) ; Othello (1880) ; 

Carnival Festival in Doge's Palace (1881). 
; Works in the United States : Italian 
Mother's Prayer, D. W. Powers, Rochester, 

N. .; Cup of Tea, W. Richmond, Provi- 



BECKER 



dence ; Farewell, W. H. Fosdick, Louis- 
viUe ; Petition to the Doge (1860), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Good Morning, Vene- 
tian Lady, C. H. Wolff, Philadelphia ; Grand- 
father's Birthday, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, 
Philadelphia ; Welcome Guests, J. T. Mar- 
tin, Brooklyn : Petitioning the Doge, C. P. 
Huntington, New York.- Brockhaus, ii. 670; 
Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., iii. 268 ; Mttller, 34 ; 
Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 91, 125 ; 
Land und Meer (1883), ii. 909. 

BECKER, LUDWIG HUGO, born at 
Wesel, July 19, 1833, died in Dusseldorf, 
Dec. 25, 1868. Landscape painter, pupil 
at Dusseldorf Academy of Schirmer and 
Gude, travelled afterwards in Westphalia, 
Switzerland, Normandy, and to the Baltic. 
Works : Sacrifice of the Ancient Germans 
(1856) ; Shepherd in the Pasture, Sunday 
Morning, Passing Storm, Washerwomen at 
the Brook, Village in the Snow, Christmas 
Eve, Boys Bathing, Shepherd Boy, On the 
Heights (1867) ; Vintage on the Moselle. 
Blauckaris, 32 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 270 ; 
Zeitsch. f. b. K., viii. 275. 

BECKER, PETER, born in Frankfort, 
Nov. 10, 1828. Landscape and architecture 
painter ; pupil at Stadel Institute, under 
Jakob Becker and Hessemer. The banks of 
the Rhine have furnished him with subjects 
for many landscapes. Member of Societu 
beige des Aquarellistes. Thirty large views 
of old Frankfort (cartoons), Rhine landscapes 
in oil and water colours. Meyer, Kfiust. 
Lex., iii. 269. 

BECKERATH, MORITZ VON, born at 
Crefeld in 1838. History painter, pupil at 
Dilsseldorf Academy of Kehren, then from 
1859, in Munich, of Schwind. Works : 
Death of Duke Ulrich of Wiirtemberg 
(1869), Burial of Alaric, Schack Gallery, 
Munich ; The Dream, Tragedy by Heine, 
Lear and the Fool, Napoleon's Retreat from 
Moscow (1866); Gotz of Berlichingen with 
the Gipsies, Scenes from Crusades, Offering 
of the German Crown by Louis II. of Ba- 
varia (1874). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 272 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1871), ii. 348. 



BECKMANN, KARL, bom in Berlin, 
March 23, 1799, died there, Oct. 2, 1859. 
Landscape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Wach, visited Paris in 1824 and was in Italy 
in 1828-33. Was professor at the Berlin 
Academy. Works: Monastery of S. Bene- 
detto near Subiaco, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. Jordan, 43. 

BECKMANN, KONRAD, born in Han- 
over, in 1846. Genre painter, pupil, in 
1866-68, of Munich Academy, then of 
Piloty ; paints humorous subjects. Works : 
Tailor reading Newspaper (1868); Best Shot 
(1870); Sacrifice of a Village Poet Kunst- 
Chrouik, v. 108, xiv. 142. 

BECKMANN, LUDWIG, born in Han- 
over, Feb. 21, 1822. Animal painter; stu- 
dio in Dusseldorf. His spirited and truth- 
ful boar and bear hunts have been bought 
mostly in England. Brockhaus, ii. 675. 

BECKMANN, WTLHELM (HERMANN 
ROBERT AUGUST), born in Dasseldorf, 
Oct. 3, 1852. History painter, pupil of Dus- 
seldorf Academy (1869-72), then until 1874 
of RBeudeman, after whose compositions he 
executed some decorations in the Cornelius 
room of the National Gallery in Berlin. 
Works : Communion of the Hussites before 
Battle (1874); Gudrun (1877); Surrender of 
Fortress Rosenberg in 1427 (1880). Kunst- 
Chronik, ix. 682, xii. 665. 

BECKWITH, JAMES CARROLL, born 
in Hannibal, Mo., Sept, 23, 1852. Figure 
and portrait painter, pupil, in 1873, of 
Carolus Duran and of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts in Paris. Sketched in Spain and Nor- 
mandy in 1880-81. Member of Society of 
American Artists. Studio in New York. 
Works: Christian Martyr, Head of a Child 
(1881); Azalea, Model's Breakfast (1882); 
Cordelia, Summer (1883) ; Vivian .(1884). 
Portraits : Wm. M. Chase, Ethel (1882) ; 
Miss Jordan (1883). 

BECQUET, HENRI JEAN, born at 
Bruges in 1812, died there, Oct. 19, 1855. 
History painter, pupil at Bruges Academy 
of Dumery, then at Antwerp Academy of 
N. de Keyzer ; after his return became pro- 



BEDAFF 



fessor at Bruges Academy. Works: Last 
Moments of Mozart ; Holy Family, Acad- 
emy, Bruges ; Martyrdom of St. Philemon, 
St. John's Hospital, ib. Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, ii. 76. 

BEDAFF, ANTONIS VAN, born at Ant- 
werp, Dec. 25, 1787, died at Brussels in 1829. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of the 
Central School at Antwerp, but formed him- 
self principally by study of the Dutch mas- 
ters of the 17th century ; for a long time 
professor and director of the school of de- 
sign at Bois-le-Duc ; settled afterwards at 
Brussels. Works: First Meeting of the 
Estates General at Dordrecht in 1572, Last 
Interview of William of Orange with Eg- 
mont, Confederation of the Nobles, National 
Museum, Amsterdam. Biog. uat. de Bel- 
gique, ii. 76. 

BEDOLO, GIROLAMO. See Mazzola,' 
Girolamo. 

BEECHEY, Sir WILLIAM, born at 
Burford, Oxfordshire, Dec. 12, 1753, died at 
Hampstead, Jan. 28, 1839. Admitted a 
student of the Eoyal Academy, London, in 
1772, and after painting portraits and pict- 
ures in Hogarth's manner several years in 
Norwich returned to London, where he long 
enjoyed uninterrupted favour with the fash- 
ionable world. In 1793 he painted a por- 
trait of Queen Charlotte and was appointed 
by her royal portrait painter, and became 
an A.R.A. In 1798 he painted the large 
equestrian picture, now at Hampton Court, 
of George III. at a Review in Hyde Park, 
and in the same year became R.A. and was 
knighted. He is said to have exhibited 362 
portraits at the Academy. As examples of 
his style may be cited his own portrait, and 
those of Sir F. Bourgeris, George Rose, and 
Mrs. Siddous, in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, the portrait of Joseph Nollekens in the 
National Academy, that of George TTT. in 
the Waterloo Chapel, Windsor, and that of 
Mr. Coffin in the possession of his descend- 
ant, Miss Robbius, in Boston, Mass. He 
was successful in likenesses, but his women 
are wanting in grace and his men in char- j 



acter. Cat. Nat. Port. Gal; Redgrave; F. 
de Conches, 327 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole anglaise ; 
Art Union Journal (1839); Meyer, iii. 277 ; 
Sandby, i. 311. 

BEELT, CORXELIS, second half of 
17th century. Dutch school ; landscape 
and genre painter in the manner of Claes 
Molenaer, and Helmont, the elder. Works : 
Interior of Weaver's Room, Ferdinandeum, 
. Innsbruck ; do., and Coast View, Mannheim 
Gallery ; Strand of Schevoningen, P. von 
Semenoff, St. Petersburg. Meyer, Kdnst. 
Lex., iiL 281. 

BEER, WILHELM (AMANDUS), Ixmi 
in Frankfort, Aug. 9, 1837. Genre painter, 
pupil of his great-uncle, the landscape 
painter Radl, then studied history painting 
in Stadel Institute under Steinle. Having 
visited the Bavarian Alps, he took up genre 
painting, especially peasant life. After re- 
peated sojourns in Russia he returned to 
Frankfort in 1870. Works : Thomas of Bo- 
logna visiting Albrecht Dllrer ; St. Cecilia ; 
The Meistersiugei-8 ; Banquet at a Nurem- 
berg Patrician's ; Arrival of Church Bell in 
Bavarian Village ; Return of the Best Shot ; 
Turkish Prisoners in Russian Town ; Peas- 
ants' Festival on St. Nicholas Day ; Russian 
Gipsy Camp ; On the River-B.inks of a Rus- 
sian Town ; First Turkish Prisoners in Do- 
rogobush. Exhibited at Munich (1883): 
Fair in Slednova, Horse Market in Russian 
Village, Gipsies in a Ravine. Mailer, 36. 

BEERNAERT, EUPHROSINE, born at 
Osteiul, Belgium, April 11, 1831. Land- 
scape painter ; pupil, in Brussels, of P. L. 
Kuhnen ; travelled in Germany, France, 
and Italy. Medals in Vienna (1873), Brus- 
sels (1875), Philadelphia (1H7C), Sidney 
(1879), Melbourne (1880); Order of Leopold 
(1881). Paints chiefly Dutch views. Works: 
The Brook (1867); Old Oaks, lasiere de 
bois dans les dunes (1878); Village of Dom- 
burg (1878); Wood at Oost-Kapel (1878). 
Meyer, Kiiusi Lex., iii. 28G. 

BEERS, JAN VAN, born in Belgium; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait painter ; 
studio in Antwerp. Works : Long Live the 



181 



BEEESTEAATEN 



Gueux ! (1874) ; Jacob van Maerlandt (1875); 
Trial for Witchcraft (1876); Faust and 
Mephistopheles, Black in Black, Evening 
Fancy, Page of 17tli century (1877); Peo- 
ple's Gratitude (1877); L'Enfant au Tarin 
(1878); Triptych with Death of Jacob Van 
Maerlandt (1879); Summer Evening (1880); 
Entombment (1883), Church of Krolingen. 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 287 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xiii. 274, 707 ; xiv. 721. 

BEEESTBAATEN, A., second half of 17th 
century. Dutch school ; landscape painter ; 
flourished probably at Amsterdam ; identi- 
fied, by Havard, with Jan B., but wrongly 
so, as the following works are all signed 
and well authenticated as his : Great Win- 
ter Landscape, Amsterdam Museum ; Fro- 
zen Biver with Skaters, Berlin Museum ; 
Winter Landscape (1664), Copenhagen 
Gallery. Several in private galleries. 
Havard, A. & A., iii. 1 ; Meyer, Gemiilde 
kongl. Mus., 30 ; Eepertorium, iii. 442 ; iv. 
300. 

BEEBSTEAATEN, JAN, born in Am- 
sterdam, baptized May 31, 1622, died there 
in 1G87. Dutch school ; landscape and ma- 
rine painter. His favourite subjects were 
winter scenes, with groups of small figures, 
painted with great harmony of colour, and 
fine contrasts of light and shade. Lingel- 
bach usually supplied the figures in his ma- 
rine pieces. Works : Ancient Port of Genoa, 
Louvre ; Euins of old Town Hall (1652), 
City Interior in AVinter, Sea Battle (1666), 
Two Winter Views of Amsterdam, Winter 
Landscape, Museum, Amsterdam ; St. Olof 's 
Chapel, Six Collection, ib.; Winter View 
of old Town Hall at Amsterdam, An Italian 
Seaport, Eotterdam Museum ; View of 
Dutch Church, Haarlem Gate at Amster- 




dam, Copenhagen Museum ; Winter View 
of Dutch Town, Berlin Museum ; Eocky 
Coast with Vessels, Storm near Coast, 



Dresden Gallery. Havard, A. & A., holl., 
iii. 1 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 287. 

BEEST, ALBEET VAN, born at Eotter- 
dam, June 11, 1820, died in New York, Oct. 
8, 1860. Marine painter, self-taught ; ac- 
companied, when quite young, Prince Henry 
of the Netherlands on a three years' journey 
to the East, went in 1845 to America, where 
he lived mostly in Boston and New York and 
acquired considerable reputation. William 
Bradford and B. Swain Gifford were his 
pupils. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 289. 

BEEST, SYBEAND VAN, flourished at 
The Hague in 1635-71. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and genre painter, apparently influ- 
enced by Jan van Goyen. Works : Parade 
on Coast of Scheveningen (1643), Municipal 
Museum, Hague ; Market Scene, Eotterdam 
Museum ; Vegetable Market (attributed to 
S.Bles), Stuttgart Gallery; do., (1635), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Pig Market (1668), 
Peasant's Boom (attributed to I. van Ostade), 
Stockholm Museum. Archief v. Nederl. K., 
iv. 117, 129 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 289. 
BEGA, COENELIS PIETEESZ, born in 
Haarlem, bap- 
tized Nov. 15, 
1620,diedthere, 
Aug. 27, 1664. 
Dutch school ; 
genre painter, 
one of the best 
pupils of Adrian 
van Ostade, 
though by no 
meanshis equal. 
Works : Peas- 
ants' Concert, 
Scholar in his 
Study, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Saying Grace, Van der Hoop 
Museum, ib. ; Company of Smokers, Lille 
Museum ; Eustic Interior (1662), Louvre, 
Paris ; Two Ballad Singers, Alchymist in 
his Laboratory, Cassel Gallery ; Three (two 
dated 1663), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort; Den- 
tist, Moltke Gallery, Copenhagen; Musical 
Couple, Stockholm Museum; Tippling Scene, 




last 



liEGAS 




Scbwerin Gallery; Peasants in Tavern (1G03), 
Peasant Family, Weaver's Room, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Weaver's Room, Peterhof ; 
Lute Player (1662), Peasant Family, Peas- 
ants in a Tavern, Berlin Museum ; Peasants 
Dancing, Dresden Gallery ; do., Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Room with Peasants, Room 
with two Women (attributed to S.vau Hoog- 
straeten), Vienna Museum ; Satyr Blowing 
Warm and Cold, Pesth Museum ; Lute Play- 
ers, Card 

Uffiz?*- 

Florence; One (16fi2), Dublin Gallerj-. Ch. 
Blanc, Kcole hollundaise ; Meyer, Kflust. , 
Lex., iii. 290 ; Van der Willigen, 75. 

BEGAS, ADALBERT FRAN/ KUGEN, 
boni in Berlin, March 5, 1836. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, third son of 
Karl Begas. Studied engraving for five 
years under Lflduitz, in 18(50 went to Paris 
and copied in the Louvre, and in 18G2 to 
Weimar, where lie became the pupil of Bock- 
lin. Visited Italy in 1863-69, and made 
copies of Titian and Raphael. Painted 
originally idyllic and mythological pictures 
and a great many very good portraits. 
Works : Portrait of himself (1800), Mother 
and Child (1803), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Portrait of a Lady (18G6), Cupid and Psyche 
(18G7) ; Resurrection (1868) ; SL Cecilia 
(1869) ; Cupid finding Psyche (1870) ; Das 
Volkslied, Othello and Desdemona, Genii 
of Spring (1881) ; In Midsummer (1881) ; 
The Last Friend, Little Beginnings, Por- 
traits. Brockhaus, ii. G90 ; Meyer, Kflnst. 
Lex., iii. 305 ; Miiller, 38 ; lUustr. Zeitg. 
(1871), ii. 211 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 
76. 

BEGAS, KARL, born at Heiusberg, Sept. 
30, 1794 ; died in Berlin, Nov. 24, 1854. 
History and portrait painter. Studied at 
Bonn in 1801, under Philippart, and at Paris 
in 1812, under Gros. Passed successively 
under the influence of the old German and 
early Italian masters. Went to Italy in 1822, 
and in 1834 returned to Berlin, where he 
at first painted in the style of the so-called 




Naznrenes (German Pre-Raphaclites) ; but 
afterwards treated history and genre in the 
romantic style of the Dilsseldorf school. Hu 
painted portraits 
of man}* celebrat- 
ed persons, such 
as Humboldt, 
Schelliug, Corne- 
lius, Mendels- 
sohn, etc., and 
was long court 
painter and pro- 
fessor at the Ber- 
1 i n Academy. 
Works : Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1818), Garnisonskirche, 
Berlin ; Coming of the Holy Ghost (1821), 
Cathedral, ib.; Resurrection (1827), Werder 
Church, ib. ; Tobias and the Angel (1835), 
Portrait of Thorwaldsen, National Gallery, 
ib. ; Baptism of Christ, Garnisonskirche, 
Potsdam; Portrait of his Parents (1821), 
Cologne Museum ; Sermon on the Mount 
(1831); Exposing of Moses (1832) ; Lurley 
(1834); Henry IV. at Canossa (1836) ; Maid- 
en from Afar, Mediicval King listening to 
Page playing the Harp (1838); Glorifica- 
tion of Christ (1839) ; Christ prophesying 
the Fall of Jerusalem (1840) ; Three Girls 
resting in the Sliade of an Oak (1842) ; 
Mohrenwilsche (1842) ; replica, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; do., Raveuc Gallery, ib. ; Christ 
on Mount of Olives (1842); Christ Calling 
the Heavy Laden (1844); Christ Crucified 
(1846) . Adam and 
Eve beside the Body 
of Abel (1848); Be- 
trayal of Our Lord (1852). Allgem. d. 
Biogr., ii. 269 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemaudc; 
Merlo, 33 ; Meyer, Kflnst Lex., iii. 300 ; 
Raczynski, iii. 27 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Maler- 
sch., 61. 

BEGAS, OSKAR, born in Berlin, July 31, 
1828, died there, Nov. 10, 1883. History 
and portrait painter, son and pupil at Berlin 
Academy of Karl Begas ; went in 1852 to 
Rome, and after his return, in 1854, devoted 
himself chiefly to portrait painting. Works : 



1*1 



EEGAS 



Fall of Pompeii (1852); Conversation (1853), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Descent from 
Cross (1853), St. Michael's Church, Berlin ; 
Portraits of Sculptor Sussmann (1856), of 
Johannes von Muller (1858), of Count 
Schwerin Putzar (1858), of Cornelius (1861), 
Antwerp Museum ; of Paulina Lucca, Crown 
Prince of Prussia, Princess Victoria (1866), 
Count von Moltke (1868), King William 
(1869), Reception of the Salzburg Protestants 
in Potsdam (1864), Frederic the Great in the 
Chapel at Charlottenburg (1868), Diana and 
Actu-on, Six Scenes from Cupid and Psyche, 
Thirteen Allegories, Berlin City Hall ; Snipe 
Hunting on Riigen (1872) ; Chase iu the 
Woods (1876) ; Venus Resting, Judgment of 
Paris, Mother's Joy, Gretchen, Eva, Editha 
(1881). Brockhaus, ii. 689 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 302 ; Muller, 37; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 75. 

BEGAS, PARMENTIER LUISE, born 
in Vienna ; contemporary. Architecture 
and landscape painter ; pupil in Vienna of 
Schindler ; visited Constantinople, then sev- 
eral times Italy, especially Venice, Rome, 
and Taormina in Sicily ; studio in Berlin 
since 1877, when she was married to Adal- 
bert Begas. Works: Venetian Vistas, Kitchen 
Interior in Sicily, Burial-Ground in Scutari. 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 306 ; Miiller, 38 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiii. 378 ; Kunst-Clrrouik, 
xv. 549. 

BEGEIJN (Bega), ABRAHAM CORNE- 
LISZ, born at Leyden(?) in 1621 or 1622, 
died in Berlin, June 11, 1697. Dutch school ; 
landscape, animal, marine, and still-life 
painter ; settled at The Hague since 1653, 
went to Berlin as court painter to the Elector 
of Brandenburg in 1688. In his earlier 
works he approaches the manner of Asselyn, 
in his later ones that of Berchem. Works : 
Coast near Naples, Brussels Museum ; Still 
Life in Italian Landscape (1653), Bordeaux 
Museum ; Wood Landscape, Landscape with 
Thistles, Butterflies, and Birds, Brunswick 
Gallery ; Landscapes with Cattle, in the 
Louvre, Paris, the Amsterdam (1660) and 
Berlin Museums, Copenhagen (3), Oldenburg, 



Gb'ttingen, Schwerin Galleries, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg (2), Liechtenstein Gallery, 




Vienna. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 307; Riegel, 
Beitnige, ii. 389. 

BEGGROFF, ALEXANDER CARLO- 
VICH, born in St. Petersburg, Dec. 17, 1841. 
Marine painter, son of the water colour 
painter and lithographer Carl Petrovich B. ; 
pupil of St. Petersburg Academy, then in 
Paris (1871-74) of Bogoljuboff. Works: 
Views of Canea, Plymouth, Havre, Rouen, 
Etretat, Fecamp, Dordrecht ; Views in Liv- 
land ; Mouth of the Neva, Baird's Factory, 
and Exchange at St. Petersburg ; Harbor 
at Peterhof ; The Steamships Dershava, 
Grand Duke Constantine, Svietlana (1872- 
81) ; Winter View of St. Petersburg (1878). 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 309. 

BEHAM (Behaim, Behem), BARTHEL, 
born in Nuremberg in 1502, died in Venice 
in 1540. German school ; history and por- 
trait painter, pupil of DOrer. In 1524 he 
was accused of heresy, and exiled, together 
with his brother, Hans Sebald, and George 
Pencz. In 1527 was at Munich, in service of 
Duke William of Bavaria, who sent him 
afterwards to Italy. Was also an engraver, 
and one of the so-called Little Masters. 
Works : Palatine Otto Heinrich (1535), Augs- 
burg Gallery ; five panels with Saints, Christ 
on Mount of Olives, Berlin Museum ; three 
pictures with Saints and Donors, altarpiece 
with Coronation of the Virgin (1536), do., 
with SS. Ann, Andrew, Erasmus, etc., Christ 
on the Cross, four panels with Saints, Fiir- 
stenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; three 
panels with portraits of King Ferdinand's 
Children (?), Amsterdam Museum ; altar- 
piece with Flagellation and Saints, Kunst- 
halle, Carlsruhe ; Miracle of the Cross 
(1530), Death of Curtius (1540), King Louis 
of Hungary, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Christ 
bearing the Cross, Maurice Chapel, Nurem- 



124 



1JKIIAM 




berg ; two portraits of Bavarian Princes, ' 
Nostitz Gallery, Prague; fifteen do., Schleiss- j 
heim Gallery ; Two altar wings with Saints, 
Sigmaringen Museum ; St. Bruno in the ! 
Desert, Stuttgart Gallery. Allgem. d.Biogr., 
ii. 277; Keaue, Early Masters, 151; Meyer, 
Kdnst. Lex., iii. 311; Scott, Little Masters, 
49 ; W. & W., ii. 410 ; Rosenberg, S. & B. 
Beham, Leipsic, 1875. 

BEHAM (Behaim, Behem), HANS SE- 
BALD, born at Nuremberg iu 1500, died in j 
Frankfort, Nov. 2'2, 1550. German school ; 
banished, with his brother Burthel, in 1524, 
but seems to have returned to Nuremberg, 
and afterwards led a wandering life, apj>ear- 
ing iu Munich, 1530, and settled in Frank- 
fort in 1534. Was most prominent as one 
of the Little Masters, excelling as a paint- 
er only iu miniatures. Works : Table-Top, 
with Scenes from Life of David, Louvre ; 
do. with Bathers, etc., Wiesbaden Museum; 
Scenes of 
Ba thing, 
Shippingaud 
Hunting, 
Berlin Mu- 
seum. Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 279; Keane, 
Early Masters, 144 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 179 ; 
Meyer, Kiuist. Lex., iii. 318 ; Scott, Little 
Masters, 49 ; W. & W., ii. 407 ; Rosenberg, 
S. & B. Beham. 

BEHMER, HERMANN, born at Merzien, 
Anhalt, in 1831. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil from 1853 in Berlin of Steffeck, and 
at the Academy, then (1856) in Paris, at the 
cole des Beaux Arts, and of Flandriu and 
Couture. After a two years' journey through 
Italy, Egypt, and Palestine in 1866-68, he 
settled in Berlin, whence in 1873 he re- 
moved to Weimar. Medal, in Philadelphia, 
1876. Works : Girl with Wild Roses, In- 
terior of House at Bethlehem (1868). 
Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., iii. 335. 

BEHR, CAREL JACOBUS, born at The 
Hague, July 9, 1812. Architecture painter, 
pupil of B. J. van Hove ; member of Amster- 
dam Academy, 1837. Works : View of City 
Hall at The Hague (1836); Biuueuhof, ib. 



(1839); Winter Landscape (1840); Hetlango 
Voorhout, Hague (1842); Ruins of old Cu- 
tle, Pavilion, Haarlem. Immerzeel, L 39. 

BEHRENDSEN, AUGUST, born in Mag- 
deburg, in 1810. Landscape pointer, pupil 
at Berlin Academy of Schirmer, to whose 
style he adhered in most of his landscapes ; 
settled in Konigsberg, where, in 1855, Lo 
became professor at the Academy : obtained 
the gold medal in 1862, and was made 
member of the Berlin Academy iu 1869. 
Studio at Merou, Tyrol. Works : View near 
Conegliauo, Landscape in the style of Claudo 
Lorrain, Mill on Mountain Brook, Morning 
in the Alps (Konigsberg Museum); Evening 
iu the Salzburg Mountains, View on the 
Traun Hills, On Lake Como, On the Coast 
of Genoa, Coast near Nice, Evening on the 
Haff, Clearing in Pinewood, Lake in the 
High Alps, From Northern Tyrol. Diosku- 
rt-n (1860), 384 ; (1861), 245 ; (1864), 431 ; 
(1866), 58, 369; (1867), 156; Kugler, KL 
Sehriften, iii. 574, 677; Kunstblatt (1855), 
395; (1866), 432; (1857), 122; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 336. 

BEICH, JOACHIM FRANZ, born at 
Ravensburg, Oct. 15, 1665, died in Munich 
in 1748. Landscape and battle painter, 
pupil and of son Daniel Beich (flourished at 
Ravensburg and Munich second half of 17th 
century); completed his studies iu Italy after 
Poussin, and became court painter to the 
Elector of Bavaria. His pictures ore arti- 
ficial, but often grand in composition. 
Works : Prophet Elijah, John Baptist, and 
others, Old Pinakothek, Munich; eleven great 
Episodes from the Turkish War (1683-88), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; others in Vienna 
Museum ; Brunswick, Manheim, and Stutt- 
gart Galleries. Kugler (Crowe), ii. 567 ; 
Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., iii. 337. 

BEIDEMANN, ALEXANDER JEGORO- 
VICH, born in St Petersburg, Aug. 17, 
1826, died there, Feb. 27, 1869. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of the St Peters- 
burg Academy ; visited Germany, Italy, 
and France in 1857-60 ; after his return 
Ixjcanie member of the Academy, and in 



135 



BEINKE 



1861 professor. In 1863 and 1865 he trav- 
elled in the Crimea, and in 1868 went to 
Paris to paint altarpieces for the Russian 
churches there. Works : St. John Baptist 
in the Desert (1852); Flight into Egypt 
(1853); Come unto Me (1854); Christ in 
House of Mary and Martha (1855); Views 
and Costumes from Italy and Bavaria, 
Procession of the Host in Italy, Savoyard 
Girl at her Mother's Grave, Ruth and 
Boaz, Girl Drinking from a Spring, Lovers 
on a Terrace, Inn in Bavaria (1860), Appari- 




Belisarius, Jacques Louis David, Louvre, Paris. 

tion of the Virgin (1860); Assumption 
(1863). Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., iii. 338. 

BEINKE, FRITZ, born in Diisseldorf, 
April 23, 1842. Genre painter, pupil of the 
Diisseldorf Academy under Millie r, Sohn, 
and Bendemann, then studied, travelling on 
repeated journeys through Germany, and 
northern Italy. Works: Visit of Condo- 
lence (1866); Rag-Picker in Black Forest 
(1868); Prayer (1871); Return from Excur- 
sion (1873); Forester at Breakfast (1873); 
The Juggler (1874); Meeting in the Field 
(1875); Long Live the Emperor! (1876); 
Flower Girl (1877). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
iii. 342. 



BELGIOJOSO, CARLO BARBIANODI, 

Count, born in Milan, Aug. 17, 1815, died 
there, June 22, 1881. Pupil of Milan Acad- 
emy, under Hayez ; in 1840 went to Rome, 
and studied works of Raphael for two years. 
On his return to Milan devoted himself to 
painting until 1854, when he abandoned 
art for a literary career. In 1860-1880 he 
was President of the Academy. His paint- 
ings show little talent, but are carefully ex- 
ecuted. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 347. 
BELIN, JEAN, born at Caen, baptized 
Nov. 9, 1653, died in 
Paris, Feb. 12, 1715. 
Commonly called Jean 
Baptiste Blin, or Blain 
de Fontenay. Painter 
of still life, pupil of 
Monnoyer, whose daugh- 
ter he married. Mem- 
ber of the Academy in 
1G87. Employed by 
Monnoyer in all his 
works in the royal cas- 
tles and public build- 
ings, he soon won the 
favor of Louis XTV., and 
received numerous or- 
ders for works at Ver- 
sailles, Marly, Compi- 
egne, and Fontainebleau. 
Works : Collection of his 
paintings in Grand Tri- 
anon ; two in the Louvre, others in the 
Museum of Caen, Bayeux, Rennes, Orleans, 
Avignon, Tours, and Marseilles. Meyer, 
Ktlnst. Lex., iii. 348 ; D'Argenville, Abrege, 
iv. 280; C16mont de Ris, Les Musees de 
Province, 115 ; Larousse. 

BELISARIUS, Jacques Louis David, Lou- 
vre, Paris; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 3ft. 8 in.; 
signed, dated Paris, 1784. The blind Roman 
general, reduced to beggary, seated at en- 
trance of a temple at right, is recognized by 
one of his old soldiers as a woman drops an 
obolus into the helmet, held by his young 
companion. Salon, 1785. Engraved by 
Morel ; Sisco. This picture is a reduction of 



186 



BELLA 



the original, by Fabre and Girodet, retouched 
and signed by David. The original (about 
10 feet square), painted in 1780, was bought 
by the Elector of Treves, and passed to Lu- 
cien Bonaparte. Landon, Musi-e, i. PL 13; 
Filhol, xi. PL 20 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By F. Gerard, private gallery, Munich ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 8 in. x 5 ft, 7 in. Belisarius, 
full length, standing, bearing in his arms a 
youth who appears to be dying from the 
bite of a serpent, which still clings to his 
leg ; the blind general, seeking the road 
with his staff, is walking along the edge of 
a precipice. Painted in 1800. Engraved 
by Desnoyers. Landon, Musee, ii. PL 5C. 

BELLA DI TIZIANO, Titian, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 2 ft. o} in. 
A slender girl, half-length, in a brownish 




Bella di Tiziano, Titian, Palazzo Pitli, Florence. 



red hat decorated with ostrich feathers and 
pearls ; bracelet of precious stones on arm, 
pearl ear-rings, and necklace. Belonged to 
Crozat Collection. Engraved by Sanders. 
C. & C., Titian, i. 393 ; Cat Hermitage, 44. 
By Titian, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft 3 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. A young 
woman, half-length, in a low dress, with 



braided ornaments and slashed sleeves, her 
auburn hair plaited and twisted around her 
head, and a gold chain on her neck; one 
hand holds a chain of gold. Pointed about 
1534. Called by some a portrait of the Duch- 
ess of Urbino, by others of Violante, daughter 
of Palma Vecchio. Engraved by Guadag- 
nini C. & C., Titian, L 391 ; GaL du PaL 
Pitti, i. PL 112 ; Burckhardt, 719. 

Attributed to Titian, Palazzo Sciarra, 
Rome. " A fine portrait by Palma Vecchio." 
C. & C., Titian, L 66 ; ii. 442. 

By Titian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
3 ft 2 in. x 2 ft. Same portrait as Bella 
of the Hermitage, loosely dressed in a black 
satin pelisse lined with ermine, with hair 
twisted and adorned with pearls. Bought 
in Spain by Charles V. Engraved by Bartsch. 
C. & C., Titian, i. 393. 

BELLANGfi, EUGfcXE, born in Rouen, 
Feb. 16, 1837. Military genre painter, son 
and pupil of J. L. H. Bellango ; pupil also 
of Picot In 1861 he painted scenes from 
the Italian campaign of 1859 ; has recently 
devoted himself to illustrating French sol- 
dier types in water colours (Salon, 1877-78). 
Works: A Morning in Dieppe (1880); The 
Cobbler's House (1883). Meyer, Kiinst 
Lex., iii. 362. 

BELLAXGI5, (JOSEPH LOUIS) HIP- 
POLYTE, born in Paris, Feb. 16, 1800, 
died there, April 10, 1866. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Gros and of the 
ficole des Beaux Arts. First attracted at- 
tention by his lithographs. Exhibited in 
nearly every salon from 1822 to 1866. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1824, 1855 ; L. of Honour, 
1834 ; Officer, 1861 ; Director of the Rouen 
Museum, 1837-54. Many of his works have 
been engraved. Works: Battle of Mos- 
cowa (1822), Plaster-Cast Peddler (1833), 
Return from Elba (1834), Battle of Fleurus, 
Blow with the Stirrup (1836), Battle of 
Wagrain (1837), Battle of Loano (1838), 
Battle of Alteukirchen, Soldier's Family, 
Custom House in Lower Normandy (1839), 
Battle of Hondschoote (1840), Assault of 
Teniah de Mouzui'a, Soldier in the Hospital 



U7 



BELLANGEK 



(1841), Conscript Departing, Soldier Re- 
turning (1842), Battle of Corogne (1843), 
Battle of Ocaiia (1845), Versailles Museum ; 
Trumpeter's Farewell, Kellermann's Charge 
at Marengo (1847), Rouen Museum ; The 
Gallant Hussar (1849); Good Priest, Mayor's 
Harangue (1850) ; Passage of the Guad- 
arrama, Eetreat from Russia, Review after 
the Battle (1852), Emperor of Russia ; 
Charge of Cuirassiers (1853) ; Battle of 
Alma, Night- Watch (1855) ; Capturing a 
Russian Ambush (1857), Farewell Salute, 
Battle in Streets of Magenta, Assault on 
Malakoff (1859), Marseilles Museum ; Two 
Friends (1861); Incident of Battle of 
Magenta (1863) ; Cuirassiers at Waterloo, 
Marching Past after Victory (1865) ; Beaten 
Squadron of Cavalry, The Guard Dies, his 
last work (18G6). Larousse ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 361 ; Meyer, Gesch., 473 ; Revue 
des d. Mondes, 1866, June 1 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, i. 62. 

BELLANGER, CAMELLE FELIX, born 
in Paris ; contemporary. History painter, 
pupil of A Cabanel, and of Bouguereau. 
Medal, 2d class, 1875. Works: Death of 
Abel (1875), Luxembourg Museum ; Cleom- 
brotusll., King of Sparta (1876); Bacchante 
(1877) ; Angel at the Tomb (1877) ; Scene 
from Hell, after Dante (1878); Scene from 
Dante (1879) ; Idyl, Young Faun (1880); 
Twilight and Morning (1881) ; Coucou ! 
(1882); Cupid Asleep, A Florist (1883) ; Au 
Luxembourg (1885). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
iii. 363; Kunst-Chronik, xii. 618. 

BELLAY, PAUL ALPHONSE, bom in 
Paris, March 22, 1826. Portrait and genre 
painter, pupil of Picot and of Heuriquel 
Dupont ; entered in 1851 the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, and received in 1852 the Roman 
prize for engraving. Since 1861 exhibited 
first Italian genre subjects ; then mostly 
water colour copies after Raphael. Medals 
in 1866, 1867, 1869 ; L. of Honour, 1873. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 368. 

BELLE, ALEXIS SIMON, born in Paris, 
Jan. 12, 1674, died there, Nov. 21, 1734. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Franyois de Troy ; 



member of Academy in 1703 ; held in great 
honour by the French and Polish courts 
and the Pretender James HI. Works : Por- 
traits of Maria Leczinska and Son, of Dau- 
phin Louis, of the Sculptor Lerambert, of 
himself, Versailles Museum ; Portraits of 
Louis XIV., his Queen, his Sisters, Duch- 
ess of Orleans, Stanislaus Leczinska, Car- 
dinal Polignac. Dussieux, Memoirs inedits, 
ii. 233 ; Jal, 187 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., 369. 

BELLE, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, born in 
Paris in 1757, died there, Jan. 12, 1841. 
History painter, son and pupil of Clement 
Louis B. Succeeded his father in 1806 as 
I inspector of the Gobelins manufactory. 
Works : Tobias Blessed by his Father 
(1788); Ruth and Boaz(1791); Mars crown- 
ed by Venus (1801); Allegory of Peace 
(1817), Rouen Museum; Hagar in the Desert 
(1819), Tours Museum. Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., iii. 369 ; Bellier. 

BELLE, CLEMENT LOUIS MARIE 
ANNE, bom in Paris, Nov. 16, 1722, died 
I there, Sept. 29, 1806. History painter, son 
of Alexis Simon, pupil of his mother Marie 
Nicole Horthemels and of Fran<;ois Lemoine ; 
member of Academy in 1761 ; professor in 
1765 and rector in 1790. After 1755 In- 
spector of the Gobelins manufactory, Paris. 
Works: Purification of the Churches after 
the Desecration of 1722 (1759), St. Merry, 
Paris ; Archangel Michael as Victor (1767), 
Soissons Cathedral ; Christ, Parliament- 
Building, Dijon ; Return of the Prodigal 
Son, Lille Museum. Larousse ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 369. 

BELLE FERONNIERE, Leonardo da 
Vinci, Louvre ; wood, H. 2 f t. x 1 ft. 5 
in. Bust, head three quarters, turned to 
left, dressed in a red robe, ornamented with 
embroidery and gold bauds ; hair confined 
with a feronniere or frontlet. Long sup- 
posed to be a portrait of the noted mistress 
of Francis I., La Feronniere, so called either 
because she was the wife of a rich feronnier 
(iron-monger) or of a bourgeois named Jean 
Foron, whose jealousy is said to have been 



128 



BELLE 



the primal cause of the king's death. Be- 
lieved by some to be the portrait of Lucrezia 
Crivelli, mistress of Ludovico Sforza, Duke 
of Milan, painted by Leonardo about 1497 ; 
and by M. Delucluze a likeness of Ginevra 
Benci. But the picture is called by Pere 
Dan in his Tresor des Merveilles de Fon- 
tainebleau (1642), portrait of a Duchess of 




Belle Feronniere, Leonardo dt Vinci, Louvre. 

Mantua, and it has lately been shown that 
Leonardo really painted (1500) a portrait of 
Isabella d'Este Gonzaga, Marchioness of 
Mantua. As the features are wholly unlike 
those of Isabella in Titian's picture in the 
Vienna Museum, La Belle Feronniere may 
be considered still unidentified. Vosari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 61 ; Clement, 214 ; Rigollot, 
Hist, des Arts, i. 297 ; Heaton, Leonardo, 
15, 268 ; Acad. (1870), i. 123 ; Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Mdndler, Essai, 123 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Scole florentine. 

BELLE JARDINlfcRE. See Madonna 
Belle Jardiniere. 

BELLEE, LEON (LeGoaesbe) DE, born 
at Ploennel (Morbihan) ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Montfort 
Paints sometimes marine-views. Works : 



Washing at Low Tide, Clearing in the 
Woods, Charcoal-Burners' Hut (1874); 
Fleet of Sardine Fishermen (1875); Cutting 
in the Woods, In the Woods with Hoar- 
Frost (1879); Fish-Pond in Forest of Aigne 
(1880); Before a Storm, Autumn (1881); 
Fishing in Arctic Regions at Hammerfest, 
Town of Karasjok in Lapland (1882); 
Pierced Rock in Calvados, Pond in May 
(1883); Life in the Forest, Swamp in Isle of 
France (1884); Hoar Frost (1885). L'Art 
(1875), i. 281. 

BELLEGAMBE, JEAN (Jehan), born at 
Douai, about 1475 (?), died there after 1533. 
Flemish school ; history painter, and one 
of the best masters in Flanders of that 
period ; enjoyed great fame, especially in his 
native city, and was styled lo maltre des 
couleurs. Works : Polyptych with Trinity 
and eight other pictures (about 1511), Notre 
Dame, Douai ; two altarwings with Glori- 
fication of the Virgin (1526), Museum, ib.; 
Adoration of Infant Christ (1528), Prepar- 
ing for Crucifixion, Cathedral, Arras ; Altar 
with Last Judgment, Berlin Museum ; 
Adoration of the Magi (?), Madrid Museum. 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 126 ; Forster, 
Denkmole, x. iii. 7 ; Meyer, Kdnst Lex., iii. 
371 ; Michiels, iv. 150 ; W. & W., ii. 525. 

BELLEL, JEAN JOSEPH, born in 
Paris, Jan. 26, 1810. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of Onvrie ; sent his first picture to the 
Salon of 1836. In 1856 he visited Alge- 
ria, and has drawn many of his subjects 
from there. He is noted for his charcoal 
drawings. Medal, 1st class, 1848 ; L. of 
Honour, 1860. Works : View of the Close 
of St. Mark in Roueu (1836); Christ and the 
Samaritan Woman, Environs of Clermont, 
Gorge of Atrans, View of Massa (1846), 
Duchess of Orleans ; Daplmis and Chloo 
(1853); Flight into Egypt (1855); Street in 
Constantino (1857); Landscape with Ruins, 
The Halt, Oasis in the Sahara (1859); 
Oasis of Tolga, Road from El-Kantara 
to Bathna (1861), Ch. Evrard, Paris; 
Solitude or Road from Medeah to Bogliar 
(1863), Luxembourg Museum ; Environs of 



EELLEK 



Naples, Chartres Museum ; Joseph led into 
Captivity, Daphnis and Chloe, Crow Lake 
(1864); Gypsies Travelling (1865); Road 
from Chateldon to Montpeyroux, Banks of 
the Therain (1866) ; Arabs running from a 
Fire, Saw-rnill on the River Sillet (1868); 
The Last Fine Days, Environs of Medeah 
(1869) ; Mountains of Lachant (1870); Road 
from Boghar to Boussaada, Environs of 
Cassis (1873) ; Environs of Allevard (1874) ; 
From Constantino to Batna (1875); Arabs 
Looking for Camping Ground (1876) ; Viva- 
rais, Road from Medeah to Boghar (1879) ; 
Environs of Toulon, Across Algeria (1880) ; 
Ravine of Constantine, Arabian Improviser, 
Lachaux Road (1881); View in Trani, Saw- 
mill in Valley of Therain (1882); Kabylia, 
Environs of Puy-Guillaume (1883); Castle of 
Chateldon, Approach to Biskra (1885). La- 
rousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 768, 777 ; Miiller, 
39 ; Vapereau, 175. 

BELLER, ALEXANDER IVANOVICH, 
born in St. Petersburg, Aug. 5, 1804, died 
there, Feb. 25, 1870. Pupil of Venezianoff | 
and of the St. Petersburg Academy. Was 

O J 

a deaf mute, and devoted his whole life to 
the art education of deaf mutes. Works : 
Room in a Palace, Peasant's Room (1833), I 
Twelve Pictures of Saints for Deaf-Mute 
Asylum, and Obuchow Hospital, St. Peters- 
burg. Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., iii. 375. 

BELLERMANN, FERDINAND, born at 
Erfurt, March 14, 1814. Landscape painter ; 
pupil, under Blechen, of the Berlin Acad- 
emy and of Schirmer, visited with Friedrich 
Preller in 1839 Rugen, in 1840 the Nether- j 
lands and Norway, and in 1842, on Hum- 
boldt's suggestion, was sent to South 
America by King Frederick William IV. 
He returned in 1845, with three hundred 
sketches in oil and drawings, now in the 
National Gallery, Berlin, devoted himself to 
teaching in 1849, visited Italy in 1853-54, 
and became professor at the Berlin Acad- 
emy in 1866. Since his second journey to 
Italy in 1877, he has alternately treated 
Italian and Tropical subjects. Works : Stu- 
benkammer on Rugen, Norwegian Land- 



scape, Bellevue Castle, Berlin ; Guachero 
Cave in Venezuela, Replica, with Humboldt 
and Missionaries, National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Plateau of Merida, Coast of Laguayra, Lake 
Umo, three Tropical Wood Landscapes, 
Sierra Nevada, Abrida in the Andes, Valley 
of Caracas, Falls of Terni, Castel Gandolfo, 
Palace of Queen Joanna, Giant's Grave and 
Sacrificial Stone, New Museum, Berlin. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 376 ; Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 328 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 
118. 

BELLET DU POISAT, PIERRE AL- 
FRED, born at Bourgoin, Ist-re, Oct. 5, 
1823, died in Paris in Sept., 1883. History, 
landscape, and marine painter, pupil of 
Drolling and of Flandrin ; entered F,cole 
des Beaux Arts in 1845, followed at first the 
style of Delacroix, later that of the Vene- 
tians, and has more recently, in landscape 
and marine painting, imitated the Dutch. 
Works : Marguerite in Church (1857); En- 
try of the Hussites into the Council of Basle 
(1859) ; Jews in Captivity (1868) ; Christ 
served by Angels, Christ walking on the 
Waters (1875); La Nuit dans le Port (1879); 
Mill of Dordrecht, Canal near Scheveningen, 
Rural Wedding, Fight of the Centaurs with 
the Lapiths (1880); Canal in the Dunes 
(1881); Banks of the Meuse, Marine (1882); 
Entrance to the Harbour of Marseilles 
(1883). Meyer, Gesch., 288 ; Larousse. 

BELLEVOIS, J., second half of 17th cen- 
tury, died in Hamburg in 1684 (?). Dutch 
school ; marine painter ; mentioned as set- 
tled in Hamburg about 1673-80. Works : 
Calm Sea with Vessels, Madrid Museum ; 
Slightly Agitated Sea (1659), Dr. A. Bre- 
dius, Amsterdam ; Storm on Rocky Coast 
(1664), Brunswick Gallery ; Similar subject, 
Consul Weber, Hamburg. Meyer, Ktinst. 
Lex., iii. 378 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 410. 

BELLINI, GENTILE, born probably at 
Padua in 1426-7, died in Venice, Feb. 23, 
1507. Venetian school ; eldest son and pupil 
of Jacopo Bellini, in whose studio he and 
his brother Giovanni laboured until Jaco- 
po's death. Gentile probably settled in 



130 



BELLINI 




Venice about 14GO, but no picture of Iris is 
known earlier than 1464, when lie painted 
the doors of the great organ of San Marco. 
In 1465 be finished 
the apotheosis of 
Lorenzo Giustiui- 
ani, now in the lum- 
ber room of the 
Venice Academy. 
From this time his 
career is obscure 
until 1474, when he 
was appointed to re- 
store the pictures 
in the Sala del Gran Consiglio, Venice. His 
works were highly praised by his contem- 
poraries, and accepted as masterpieces by 
the government. In 147!) he was sent with 
two assistants, at the expense of the state, 
to Constantinople, where he painted the por- 
trait of Mehemet II., now owned by Sir H. 
A. Layard. He also brought back a picture, 
now in the Louvre, representing the recep- 
tion of a Venetian Embassy by the Grand 
Vizier. On his return to Venice he resumed 
Iris labours in the Council Hall, in conjunc- 
tion with his brother Giovanni, and painted 
four great canvases in oil illustrative of the 
legend of Barbarossa, and other pictures of 
events connected with Venetian history, 
which were for the most part destroyed in 
the fire of 1577. But it was not until the 
close of the century that Gentile rose to a 
lofty position. His Miracle of the Cure was 
painted about 1494. He appears at his 
best in the Procession and Miracle of the 
Crosx (1496 and 1500), Venice Academy, 
and in the Sermon of St. Mark, at Alexan- 
dria, Brera, Milan. The last picture, which 
was finished by Giovanni Bellini after his 
brother's death, is fine in composition and 
full of power, showing that he had consider- 
ably advanced beyond his father. Other 
works : Glorification of first Patriarch of 
Venice (1465), Academy, Venice ; Portrait 
of a Doge, Museo Civico, ib. ; do. of Caterina 
Comaro, Pesth Museum ; Madonna, Berlin 
Museum. C. & C., N. Italy, L 117 ; Ch. 




Blanc, rxlo vonitienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 
149, 175; Meyer, KOnat Lex., ill 391; 

OPV5 GENT1LIS' BELLINVJ. 

Labke, Gesch. itaL Mai., i. 534 ; ZeiUchr. 
f. b. K., xiii. 341. 

BELLINI, GIOVANNI, born in Padua, 
or Venice, about 
1428, died there, 
Nov. 29, 1516. 
Venetian school ; 
younger brother 
of Gentile Belli- 
ni, mid with him 
pupil and assist- 
ant of his father, 
Jacopo, in Pad- 
ua. While there 
he was brought 
into contact 

with Mantegna, his future brother-in-law, 
then a pupil of Squarcione, and adopted 
many of his peculiarities, combining them 
with those of his father. This is shown in 
the Paduau character of his Christ's Agony 
in the Garden, National Gallery, London, a 
picture long ascribed to Muntegna. The 
same mingling of the Venetian and Paduau 
styles appears in Iris PieU in the Lochis- 
Carrara Gallery, Bergamo, which is full of 
Mantegnesque grimness. His 1'iettl in the 
Brera, Milan, is less rigid. A third Pieti 
(1472) is in the Palazzo Ducale, Venice. 
About this time he produced his vast tem- 
pera of the Madonna with Saints, burned in 
S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, a noble work 
which proved that he was capable of grand 
composition and loftiness of style. In 1473 
Antouello da Messina introduced at Venice 
the use of oil, and Giovanni, recognizing its 
advantages, laboured earnestly to enlarge 
the practice of the new medium. Constant 
improvement rewarded his efforts, until he 
at last painted his grand altarpiece, the '/ 
donna with Stunts, Venice Academy, which 
established his fame. After this he was 
chiefly employed until his death in painting 
in the Sala del Gran Cousiglio in the Pa- 



131 



BELLINI 



lazzo Ducale, reserving, however, a right to 
accept private commissions. When at the 
height of his fame he had among his pupils 
Giorgione and Titian, who were to perfect 
the rich system of colouring of which he must 
be regarded as the true founder. Kuskin 
says of Bellini that he is the only artist who 
united, in equal and magnificent measure, 
justness of drawing, nobleness of colouring, 
and perfect manliness of treatment, with 
the purest religious feeling. Among Gio- 
vanni's best works are : Transfiguration, 
Naples Museum ; Circumcision, Castle How- 
ard, England ; Madonna (1487), Madonna 
between SS. Paul and George, and the Ma- 
donna of the Admiralty Court, Venice Acad- 
emy ; Madonna with Saints and Angels 
(1488), Sacristy of the Frari, Venice ; Ma- 
donna and Doge Barberigo (1488), S. Pietro 
Martire, Murano ; Baptism of Christ (1501), 
S. Corona, Vicenza ; Madonna with Saints 
(1505), S. Zaccaria, Venice ; Madonna with 
Saints, Louvre. Early in the century Albert 
Diirer visited Venice, and a question after- 
ward arose whether he was influenced by 
Bellini or Bellini by him ; but it is doubtful 
if even Diirer could teach the Venetians any 
secrets of colour. Both he and Diirer had 
great respect for each other's talents, and 
were firm friends. Giovanni's pictures in 
the Sala del Gran Consiglio were burned in 
the fire of 1577. While engaged upon 
them he painted but few other pictures ; 
but there are a Madonna (1510) by him in 
the Brera, and a SS. Christopher, Augustin, 
and Jerome (1513), in S. Giovanni Crisos- 
tomo, Venice, the latter of which bears the 
impress of his assistant, Basaiti. In 1514 he 
began the Bacchanal, Ahiwick Castle, Eng- 
land ; and in 1515 he painted the Venus, 
Vienna Museum. His Portrait of the Doge 
Loredano, St. Peter Martyr, Christ's Ag- 

10ANNES BELLINVS 

ony in the Garden, Landscape with Martyr- 
dom of St. Peter, Madonna and Adoration 
of the Magi, are in the National Gallery, 



London. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 139 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole venitienne ; Seguier, 15 ; Dohme, 2iii.; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 149, 175 ; Ruskiii, Stones 
of Venice ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 400 ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 523. 

BELLINI, JACOPO, born in Venice 
about 1400, died about 1464. Venetian 
school ; pupil of Gentile da Fabriano, whom 
he accompanied in 1422 to Florence, where 
he was known as Jacopo di Venetia. On 
account of a personal encounter with a 
young Florentine he took service on the gal- 
leys of the state. Criminal charges were pre- 
ferred against him in his absence, and on his 
return from sea he was imprisoned for con- 
tempt of court shown in non-appearance at 
the trial He was released in 1425 after 
doing penance and paying a fine, and five 
years after was in Venice, as is proved by 
an autograph note in his sketch-book, now 
in the British Museum. He is afterward 
found in Verona, and later at Padua, where 
he established a studio, in which his sons 
Gentile and Giovanni worked, and where 
his daughter Nicolosia married Andrea 
Mantegna. Jacopo was a draughtsman of 
quick hand and clear perception, and though 
his knowledge of anatomy was not profound, 
he gave fair proportions to his heads. He 
held a middle course between the conven- 
tionalism of his predecessors and the natu- 
ralism or classicism of the rising schools ; 
indeed, he worthily began what his sou Gio- 
| vanni and Titian perfected. He can scarcely 
be judged as a colourist, for only two 
greatly injured panel pictures of his early 
time remain : a half length of the Virgin 
and Child in the collection of the Counts 
Tadini at Lovere, and another of the same 
subject in the Venice Academy. A Crucified 
Saviour on canvas in the Museo Civico, 
Verona, is a good illustration of his style. 
His Crucifixion on the wall in the Cathedral 
of Verona, painted in 1436, was destroyed 
in 1759, but is preserved in a copy in the 
Casa Albrizzi, Venice. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
100 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 149, 175 ; Meyer, 
! Kiiust. Lex., iii. 336. 



132 



BELLOC 

BELLOC, JEAN HILAIRE, l*>rn at Florence ; Old Woman, Madrid Museum ; 

Nantes, Nov. 27, 1786, died in Paris, Dec. do., Stuttgart Museum. Meyer, Kuusi 
9,1866. Genre and portrait painter ; pupil Lex., iii. 430 ; Zauetti, Pitt Venez., 
of Reguault and of Gros. Medal of 1st 513. 

class in 1810, after which exhibited pictures BELLOTTO, BERNARDO, bora in Ven- 
in nearly every salon till 1850. Was di- ice, Jan. 30, 1720, died in Warsaw, Oct 17, 
rector of the free school of design in Paris 1780. Venetian school ; landscape and 
more than forty years. L. of Honour, architecture painter ; nephew and pupil of 
1846, Officer, 1864. Works : Death of Gaul Canaletto, by whose name he is sometimes 
(1810); Traveller in Egypt who has lost his known ; went to Rome, probably about 
Way (1812); Rest of Holy Family (1831) ; 1740, afterwards to Germany ; worked in 
Death of St. Louis, (1838, ordered by State); Munich, and afterwards iu Dresden, where 
Portraits of the Duchess de Berri (1824), he was employed by Count Bruhl and be- 
Count Boissy d'Anglas (1830), of Michelet came court painter to Augustus HL In 
(1845), and many others. Meyer, Kunst. 1758 he went to Vienna, and painted views 
Lex., iii. 427 ; Larousse. of the city and the imi>erial palaces until 

BELLOSIO, CARLO, born in Milan in 1762, when he executed paintings for Au- 
1805, died at Bellaggia, Sept., 1859. History gustus HI. in Warsaw, before returning to 
painter ; pupil of Pelagio Palagi. Ho ad- Dresden, where he became a member of the 
hered to the classical style, but showed Academy in 1764 About 17G6 he is said 
early a certain power of invention, and after to have visited St Petersburg, and iu 1767 
1829, without deserting his school, strong Warsaw, where he was court painter to 
individual talent. He excelled in fresco, King Stanislaus H. in 1770. At first an im- 
but executed also many drawings and oil itator of Caualetto, he developed later an 
paintings. He was overtaken by death independent style, marked by cool light 
when about to execute a colossal painting effects and great clearness in architectural 
for King Charles Albert, the Crossing of detaila Works : Two Views of Turin, Tu- 
the Beresina, to prepare studies for which rin Gallery ; Views of Varese, Brera, Milan ; 
he had made a journey to Russia in 1845. Views in Vienna and of Schonbrunn and 
Works: Scene from the Flood (1839-41), Schlosshof, Ruins of Thebes, Hungary, Vi- 
Institution of the Order of Aunuuciata enua Museum ; Views of Kiinigstein and 
(1842), Royal Palace, Turin ; Beheading of Pirua, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna; View 
St. John, fresco (1830), S. Protaso, Milan ; of Munich (probably also four Views in 
Allegory, Casino della nobile Societ.'i, Milan. Venice, ascribed to Antonio Canaletto), 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 429. Munich Gallery ; Views in Dresden and 

BELLOTTI, PIETRO, born at Volzano Pirna, Venice, Verona, etc. (38), Dresden 
in 1627, died at Ganguano in 1700. Vene- Gallery ; two landscapes, Berlin Museum ; 
tiaii school ; pupil of Michele Ferrabosco, Views in Venice (3), Cassel Gallery ; Views 
in Venice, where he went at twenty. He of Ducal Palace and Piazzeta in Venice, 
faithfully imitated nature with great minute- Darmstadt Gallery ; Ducal Palace iu Venice 
ness of detail, then very unusual. This, (ascribed to 
which madehiina favourite portrait painter, Canaletto), 
is observable in his characteristic figures Stiidel Gal- 
from low life, but in historical scenes he is lery, Frank- 
not free from the mannerism of his time. ; fort ; View of the Brenta, Brussels Museum; 
He was much employed by foreign courts, two Views of Rome, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Works : Half figure of Old Woman, Museo Rialto, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Meyer, 
Civico, Venice ; Portrait of himself, Uffizi, Kuust. Lex., UL 437. 

in 




BELLOWS 

BELLOWS, ALBERT F., born at Mil- Augsburg Gallery; Lot and Daughters, 
ford, Mass. ; contemporary. Genre painter ; Solomon sacrificing to the Gods, Schleiss- 
studied in Paris and at the Royal Academy heim Gallery ; Rebecca at the Well, Isaac, 
of Antwerp, and painted in England and Finding of Moses, Pommersfelden Gallery ; 
Wales. Elected an A. N. A. in 1859, and Mary and Elizabeth, St. John, Nuremberg 
N. A. in 1861. In 1865 he visited England, Museum ; Cupid and Psyche, Cupid and 
where he turned his attention entirely to Venus, Munich Gallery ; Venus feeding a 
water colours. In 1868 was elected honorary Dove, Madonna, Dresden Gallery ; Rape of 
member of the Royal Belgian Society of Helen, Rape of the Sabine Women, Cassel 
Water-Colourists. Studio in New York. 1 Gallery; 

Works in oil: Sorrows of Boyhood, First *^i P tsLzjQ Joc^t Groups of 
Pair of Boots, City Cousins, Lost Child, Ap- Children, 

preaching Footsteps, Sunday in Devonshire ' Venus and Cupid, Liechtenstein Gallery, 
(1876); New England Village School (1878); J Vienna. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 433 ; Nag- 
Parsonage (1879); Building Air Castles : ler, Mon., i. 1785. 

(1880); Bird Song (1881); Near the Head BELLUCCI, GIUSEPPE, Cavaliere, born 
of Tide Water, Country Byway (1882); I in Florence in 1827, died there, Feb. 8, 
Godalming Surrey, England, Hillside 1882. History painter ; pupil of Bezzuoli 
(1883). Works in water colour : Notch at i and of Pollastrini ; professor in Florence 
Lancaster (1867); Afternoon in Surrey Academy ; Knight of Order of SS. Maurice 
(1868); Borders of the New Forest, Surrey and Lazarus. Works : Hagar, Paul before 
Byway, Dark Entry Canterbury, Reaper's Poppa>a, Death of Alessandro de' Medici 
Child, Study of a Head, New England (1865), Genoa Museum ; Emanuel Philibert 
Homestead, Devonshire Cottage, Autumn arranging an Alliance between Savoy and 
Woods, Village School (1878). Tuckerman, France against Austria (1870), Royal Collec- 
486 ; Art Journal (1877), 47. I tion ; Finding of Manfred's Body (1880). 

BELLUCCI, ANTONIO, born at Pieve di Kunst-Chrouik, v. 145. 

Soligo in 1654, died there in 1726. Vene- j BELLUNELLO, ANDREA, bom at S. 
tian school ; pupil of the amateur Domenico Vito, Friuli, flourished 1460-1490 in Udine 
Defiuico, a nobleman of Sebeuico, and and Friuli. Venetian school. A provincial 
formed himself afterwards after Sebastiano master, with whom art in Friuli may be 
Bombelli and Antonio Zauchi. He worked said to have begun. His altarpieces show 
in Treviso, Venice, Vicenza, and Verona, and hard outlines, bony figures, and heavy col- 
in 1709 was called to Vienna by Joseph I., curing. Works : Crucifixion (1476), Town 
who made him court painter. He painted Hall, Udine ; Madonna (1488 and 1490). 
the Emperor's portrait, and was employed Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 435 ; C. & C., North 
also under Charles VI., but especially by Italy, ii. 176. 

Prince Liechtenstein, whose palace he deco- | BELLY, LEON ADOLPHE AUGUSTE, 
rated. From Vienna he was summoned to born at Saiut-Omer, March 10, 1827, died 
Diisseldorf, by the elector John William, in Paris, March 25, 1877. Landscape and 
after whose death, in 1716, he went to Eng- portrait painter ; pupil of Troyou and of 
land, and painted for the court and several T. Rousseau. Travelled in the East, and 
nobles. He seems to have returned to Italy was one of the best French painters of Ori- 
soon after 1722, and in 1724 was also active ! ental life and scenery. Medals : 3d class, 
again in Venice. He was one of the most 1857, 1867 ; 2d class, 1859 ; 1st class, 1861 ; 
prominent masters of the Venetian school ! L. of Honour, 1862. Works : Forest of 
before Tiepolo. Works : Marriage Cere- i Fontainebleau, Shell Fishers of Normandy 
mouy of the Elector John William, Danae, (1855); Village of Ghiseh, Desert of Nas- 

134 



BELMONTE 

soub, Inundation of the Nile (1857); Plain part of which was advanced. Allston hoped 

of Ghiseh, Dyke on the Nile (1857); Even- to finish it in nix months, but, on account 

ing in the Desert of Tyh, The Nile, Pilgrims of criticisms of Gilbert Stuart, determined to 

to Mecca (1861), Luxembourg Museum ; make a radical change in the perspective. 

View of a Harbour (1861), StrossburgMu.se- It remained in his studio until his death, 

urn ; Sackies of Lower Egypt, Street in when it was left unfinished, his last week's 

Cniro (18G3); Fellahs drawing a Dahabieh work having been spent on it Memorial 

(1804); Dead Sea (I860;; Sirens (1867); Hist Boston, iv. 395 ; Knickerbocker Mag., 

Evening, Mahinoudieh Canal (1868); Relig- xxiv. 205 ; Tuckermon. 
ious Festival in Cairo, Dorad Fishing (1869); BELTRAFFIO (Boltraffio), GIOVANNI 

Fairies' Pond, The River Sauldre, Ruins of ANTONIO, born in Milan in 1467, died 

Baalbec (1874); A Pond, A Meadow, The there, June 16, 1516. Lombard school 

Sauldre (1875); Montboulan Ford, Daha- Taught in the old Milanese school of Foppa 

bieh Aground (1877). Bellier ; Larousse ; and Civerchio, he came under the influence 

Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 430. of the new founded by Leonardo da Vinci. 

BELMONTE Y VACOS, MARIANO, His colouring is, however, brighter, and his 

born at Cordova, Spain, died at Valencia contrasts of light and shade more vigorous. 

in 1864. Landscape painter ; was professor His best works are: Mailonna of the Casio 

in the art-schools of Cadiz and Valencia. Family (1500), Louvre ; Madonna, Cosa 

Medals, 1858, 1860, 1862. Works : C.isa Poldi, Milan ; Madonna, Bergamo Gallery ; 

de Campo at Madrid (1859), Grotto of Pa- male portrait, Ambrosian Library, Milan, 

lornas near Valencia (1865), Museo Nacional, and two portraits at the Isola Bella. The 

Madrid. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 437. portrait of the Marechal de Chaumont, 

BELOVED, THE, Dante Gabriel liossetti, Charles d'Amboise, in the Louvre, by Bel- 
George Rae, Birkenhead, England ; canvas, traffic, or Andrea Solario, has l>een attrib- 
Illustration of Song of Solomon. Five life uted to Leonardo da Vinci. Vasari, ed. 
size, three-quarters length female figures and Mil., iv. 51; Burckhardt, 703 ; Miiller, Es- 
a negro girl, the last in front of the group, sai, 122 ; Rio, iii. 205 ; Ch. Blanc, colo 
bearing roses in a golden vase. The marriage milanai.se; Liibke, Gesch. ital. MaL, ii. 446. 
procession has halted, and the bride, clad in BELTRANO, AGOSTDs'O, born at Na- 
apple-green silk, has removed the veil from pies, died there in 1665. Neapolitan school ; 
her face and throat, while her companions history painter ; pupil of Massimo Stanzi- 
pi-ess closely around her, forming a mass of oni, married his fellow-scholar Amelia di 
glowing colour. Atlieureum, Oct., 1875, Rosa, whom he stabbed in a fit of jealousy in 
444 ; Jan., 1883, 93. 1649, fled to France and returned to Naples 

BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST, Washington in 1659. Was a good fresco painter, and 

Allston, Museum Fine Arts, Boston, Mnss.; a colourist in oil of considerable merit, 

canvas, H. 12 ft. 6 in. x 18 ft. 6 in. Daniel Works : Legend of St. Biagio, S. Maria 

interpreting the handwriting on the wall to della Sanita, Naples ; Cupola, S. Maria della 

Belshazzar at his feast (Dan., v.). In fore- Donna Regina, ib.; Ceiling in a Chapel, 

ground, the king, queen, Daniel, and four S. Maria la Nuovo, ib. ; three panels in oil, 

magicians ; behind them a group of Jewish , ib. Meyer, Kiinst, Lex., iii. 447. 
men and women, and beyond the banquet BEMBO. BONIFAZIO or FAZIO, of Cre 

tables with many guests ; in distance on an [ mona, died about 1500. Lombard school 

elevated platform a golden statue of a god, In 1455 was in the service of Duke Fran- 

with worshippers. Begun in England and cesco Sforza, and in 1461-7 was among 

brought, in 1818, to Boston, where it was j decorators of the palaces at Milan and Pa via, 

purchased by several citizens for $10,000, | In 1467-8, painted in fresco portraits of 

UB 



BEMBO 



Duke Francesco, then deceased, and his 
widow in S. Agostino, Cremona. His style 
was formed after that of Vittore Pisano, 
and Gentile da Fabriano. C. & C., N. Italy, 
ii. 438 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vi. 492 ; Calvi, Pro- 
fessori in Milano, 84, 95 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
lombarde. 

BEMBO, GIAN FRANCESCO, called II 
Vetrajo (the Glazier), died about 152G. 
Lombard school ; younger brother and pupil 
of Bonifazio Bembo ; probably studied later 
in Venice and in Rome. His Epiphany and 
Presentation in the Temple, painted about 
1516, in the Cremona Cathedral, were long 
ascribed to Bonifazio. Lanzi praises his 
Madonna and Saints, dated 1524, in S. Pie- 
tro, Cremona. Lanzi, ii. 427 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., v. 147 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole lombarde ; 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 454. 

BEMBO, PIETRO, portrait, Titian, Palaz- 
zo Barberini, Rome ; canvas, life-size, seen 
to elbows. In the red hat and dress of a 
cardinal. Painted in 1540. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vii. 455 ; C. & C., Titian, ii. 28 ; Burck- 
hardt, 718. 

BEMBO, PIETRO, portrait, Titian, Nardi 
Collection, Venice ; canvas, half length. 
Profile, bearded. Painted about 1537 ; rep- 
lica of an earlier one, now missing ? Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vii. 455 ; C. & C., Titian, i. 
418. 

BEMMEL, PETER VON, born in Nu- 
remberg, Aug. 18, 1685, died there in 1754. 
Landscape painter ; German school ; son and 
pupil, though not an imitator, of Wilhelm 
von Bemmel (1630-1708). He travelled 
much, and was held in repute, especially at 
Wiirzburg and Bamberg. Works : Sunrise, 
Sunset (Bamberg); three battle pieces, sev- 
enteen landscapes (Nuremberg) ; twenty 
landscapes (Wih'zburg). His brother 
Johanu Georg (1669-1723), also his sons, 
grandsons, and nephews, were all artists of 
more or less distinction. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 493 ; Fiorillo, iii. 369. 

BENARD, AUGUSTE SEBASTIEN, 
born in Paris in 1810. Horse painter ; pu- 
pil of Granger and of Lafond. Works : In- 



terior of Stable, Road in Normandy (1859); 
Stable Interior (1863); Military Funeral, 
Team Laden with Square Stones (1864); 
The Carrabas, Wagon of Fishmongers 
(1865); Military Funeral under Louis XII. 
(1867). 

BENARD, HUBERT EUGENE, born at 
Bologne-sur-Mer, April 29, 1834. Genre 
and marine painter ; pupil of Claudius 
Jacquand. Bronze medal, Rouen 1860. 
Works : Return from Fishing, Around Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer (1857), Close of Oyster Fish- 
ing, Environs of Ambleteuse, Morning 
(Boulogne Museum); After Shipwreck, Ebb- 
Tide, Unloading of Fishermen's Boats 
(1859); View of Houses of Parliament, Lon- 
don (1863); Return from Fishing on Coast 
of Normandy (1864); Burial of Shipwrecked 
(1865); Saving on the Sea, Mouth of Thames 
(1866); Steamship arriving at Boulogne 
During a Storm (1868); Before the Depart- 
ure, In the Harbour of Boulogne (1867). 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 497. 

BENASCHI (Beinaschi), GIOVANNI 
BATTISTA, Cavaliere, born in Turin in 
1636, died there, Sept. 28, 1688. Pupil of 
the portrait painter Spirito, in Turin, and of 
Pietro del P6, in Rome, where he made draw- 
ings after the frescos of the Carracci. He 
is said to have visited Modena to study the 
works of Correggio. His best pictures 
show graceful action, but the colouring is 
dull and heavy. The fresco style of Lan- 
franco had the most lasting influence upon 
his manner. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 497. 

BENASSAI, GIUSEPPE, born at Reg- 
gio, Calabria, July 29, 1835, died in Flor- 
ence, Dec. 5, 1878. Landscape painter ; 
pupil, in Reggio, of Cavaliere Lavagna, then 
in Naples of Fergola, but soon returned to 
Reggio, and in 1857 went to Rome, where 
he continued his studies independently. 
After his return home he executed many 
works, and in 1863 settled in Florence. 
Visited Egypt in 1869. Works: Torrente 
di Melito, Souvenir of Lago Maggiore, 
Feudal Boundaries, Arrogance and Virtue, 
, The Friendless (1859-63) ; Among Flowers, 



136 



BKXCI 




Among Thorns (1863-64); Hay Harvest 
(1865); Marshes of Ostia (1867); Repose 
(1868); Aspromonte (1868); Suez Canal, 1 
Lion of the Desert, Arrival of Arab Mer-> 
chants at Ghizeh, Bedouin Tents at Lsmailia, 
View of the Pyramids, The Nile near Ele- 
phantine, Sunset in the Desert (1869); 
Camel Buyers at Cairo, Rest in a Palm j 
Grove, Rest in the Plain of Sivert, Caravan 
iii the Desert, Sycamores of Upper Egypt j 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 498. 

BENCI, GINEVRA. See Monat-a, La. 

BENCZUR, GYULA (Julius), bom at 
Nyiregyhaza, Hun- __ 

gary, Jan. 28, 1844. 
History painter ; pu- 
pil, from 1861, of Mu- 
nich Academy under 
Hiltensperger a n d 
Anschutz, then in 1869 
of Piloty ; travelled in 
Ana tria-Hungary, 
Southern Germany, 
France, and Upper It- 
aly ; though invited to 
Weimar and Prague, preferred to settle at 
Munich, where he became instructor in 1875 
and professor in 1880 in the Academy ; now 
director of Pesth Academy. Works : Fare- 
well of Ladislaus Hunyady (1867), Pesth 
Museum ; Arrest of R:\koczy in 1701 (Johns- 
ton sale, New York, 1876, $3,750) ; Scene 
from Hamlet (1869) ; Louis XV. in the 
Boudoir of Dubarry ; Family of Louis XVI. 
during the Assault on Versailles (1872), D. 
O. Mills, New York; Baptism of St. Stephen 
(1875), Pesth Museum; Ladies resting in the 
Woods, The Almsgiver (1877) ; Bacchante 
(1881); Deserted, Hungarian Insurance Con- 
vention in 1857(1883). Meyer, Kiinst Lex., 
iii. 502 ; Miiller, 40 ; Kunst-Chronik, iv. 86, , 
vi. 113, is. 437, 492, si. 370, 531, 563, xiL 
709 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1878), 211 ; (1881), i. 8. 

BENDEL, HANS SIGMUND, born at 
Schaffhausen, Oct. 18, 1814, died there, 
Nov. 28, 1853. History and genre painter ; 
pupil in Munich of Kaulbach and Schlott- 
liauer ; visited the Tyrol in 1837 and Italy 







in 1838, and took part in the Swiss cam- 
paign of 1847. Best known by his de- 
signs for illustrated works. Works : Four 
Scenes from Swiss History (1852-53); Illus- 
trations to Goethe and Schiller Gallery, to 
Hebel's Poems and to Pestalozzi's Lienhanl 
and Oertrud. Mever, Kiiirnt. Lex., iii. 503. 
BENDEMANN, EDUARD (JULIUS 
FRIEDRICH), born 
in Berlin, Dec. 3,1811. 
History and portrait 
painter ; pupil of 
Schadow, whom he 
followed to Ddssel- 
dorf in 1827 and to 
Italy in 1830. After 
his return he at once 
established his fame 
by his Jews in Exile 
(1832, Reichartz Gal- 
lery, Cologne); obtained the great gold med- 
al in Paris, in 1836, and after living for two 
years in Berlin was appointed professor at 
the Dresden Academy. Between 1840 and 
1855, he decorated the throne and ball- 
rooms at the royal palace in Dresden with 
frescos. In 1859-67 he was director of the 
Dflsseldorf Academy, where (1861-66), as 
well as at Xaumburg and Berlin, he painted 
several monumental works. He is member 
of many German Academies, and of the In- 
stitut dc France, has had the degree of 
Doctor conferred upon him by the philo- 
sophical faculty of the Berlin University, 
and is decorated with many medals ami 
orders. Works: Boaz and Ruth (1830); 
Girls at Well ( 1833) ; Servian Princesses 
(1834) ; Jeremiah among the Ruins of 
Jerusalem (1836), Royal Palace, Hanover; 
Harvest (1836); Shepherd and Shepherdess 
(1845); Jeremiah at the Fall of Jerusalem 
(1872), National Gallery, Berlin ; Penelope 
(1877), Antwerp Academy ; Three Caravan 
Scenes (1880); Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1882); 
Emperor Lothair, Romer, Frankfurt ; Por- 
trait of Artist's Wife (1847), Portraits of 
Heinrich Brockhaus (1851), W. Schadow 
(1861), Antwerp Academy; Prince Anton 



187 



BENDEMANX 



von Hohenzollern (1864), Sigmaringen Cas- 
tle ; Jos. Joachim (1868, Berlin, and 1870, 
London), Rob. Eeinick (1873), Gen. von 
Obernitz and Wife (1877), portrait of him- 
self (1879), Antwerp Academy. Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1874), i. 66; (1882), i. 91; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 504 ; Wolfg. Muller, Diis- 
seldf. K, 29 ; Kugler, Kl. Schriften ; Kunst- 
Chronik, i. 132 ; Pecht, iii. 261. 

BENDEMANN, RUDOLF, born in Dres- 
den, Nov. 11, 1851, died at Pegli, near 
Genoa, in May, 1884. History and genre 
painter ; pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy 
under his father, Eduard ; was in Munich in 
1877-79, then visited Egypt. Works: 
Frithiof and Ingeborg (1874); frieze paint- 
ings (1876), National Gallery, Berlin ; : 
Nymph (1877); Beer-Sale (1878); Burial of | 
Frauenlob, Festival in 16th Century, Lute- 
player (1879); Tavern Scene in Bavaria 
(1880); Procession in Cairo, Well in Egypt! 
(1881). Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 511; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 516. 

BENDZ, VILHELM FERDINAND, born 
at Odense, Denmark, March 20, 1804, died 
at Vicenza, Nov. 14, 1832. Genre and por- 
trait painter ; pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy under C. V. Eckersberg, where he won 
several prizes ; studied in Munich 1831-32, | 
visited Tyrol, died on his way to Rome, j 
Works : Model School at the Academy, 
Artist looking at Sketch in Mirror (1826), 
Sculptor working from Life Model (1827), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Beggar Woman and ' 
Child, Portraits of Frederic VII, Christian 
IV. in Battle of Feiuern (1828). Weilbach, 
52. 

BENEDETTO, IL. See Castiglione, Gio. 
Benedetto. 

BENEDICT, ST., Paolo Veronese, Pitti, 
Florence ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 4 f t. 6 in. | 
St. Benedict, in episcopal robes, standing 
between Placidus and Maurus, his disciples ; 
in front kneel five nuns, one of whom bears 
a tiara ; another, St. Scolastica, has a dove at 
her feet ; above, like a glory, the marriage j 
of St. Catherine. Engraved by G. Bonatti. 
Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iv. PI. 20. 



BENEDICTER, JOSEF, born at Fischin- 
gen, Wiirtemberg, June 4, 1843. Architec- 
ture painter ; pupil, from 1863, of Munich 
Academy, lastly under Alex. Wagner, until 
he joined in the campaign against France, 
in 1870. After the war he went to Holland, 
and in 1876 visited Florence, Rome, and 
Naples. His paintings and his cabinet pict- 
ures are masterly in technic and effect. 
Works : Portal of Town Hall in Rothenburg 
(1869); View in Heidelberg Castle (1872) ; 
Young Green-Grocer, Roman Portal, Gothic 
Cloister (1873); Peasant's Room in Sunlight 
(1879) ; Kitchen in Castle Neuenstein, 
Tinker (1881); Alone at Home (Wm. Astor, 
New York); Cradle (J. T. Martin, Brook- 
lyn); Rural Interior (D. O. Mills, New 
York). Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 526. 

BENEFIAL, MARCO, Cavaliere, born in 
Rome in 1684, died there, April 2, 1764. 
Roman school ; pupil of B. Lambert ; began 
to exhibit in 1703. After his marriage in 
1707 met with a series of privations, and 
was obliged to associate himself with one 
Germisoni, a mediocre but busy painter, 
and, for a share of the profits, do the greater 
part of the work. In 1718 he received an 
order from Pope Clement XL, followed by 
others from different churches, which bet- 
tered his situation. In competition with 
Domenico Muratori he painted, in 1731, his 
most important work, the Flagellation of 
Christ. For a short time he was professor at 
the Accademia di S. Luca. Having become 
blind, he depended, during his last years, on 
the charity of his patron, Count Soderini. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 531; Lanzi (Ros- 
coe), i. 511. 

BENFATTO, LUIGI (Alvise), called Dal 
Friso, born at Verona in 1559, died at Ven- 
ice in 1611. Venetian school; history 
painter ; nephew, and for many years in the 
studio of Paolo Veronese, whom, in the out- 
set, he copied even to servility ; afterwards 
gave himself up to an easy and rapid style 
of composition. Works : Constantino's 
Dream before the Battle with Maxentius, 
God the Father with Angels and Evangelists, 



las 



BENJAMIN 




Six Scenes in Life of Christ, S. Niccolo de' 
Mendicanti, Venice ; Christ before Pilate, 
Last Supper, S. Luca, ib. Several in other 
churches, ib. Meyer, Kuust. Lex., iii. 533. 

BENJAMIN-CONSTANT, JEAN JO- 
SEPH, bom in Par- 
is, June 10, 184.5. 
Genre painter ; pu- 
pil of C'abanel and 
of cole des Beaux 
Arts ; usually paints 
Oriental .subjects. 
Medals : 3d class, 
1875 ; 2d class, 
1870 ; 3d class, 
1878; L. of Hon- 
our, 1878; Officer, 

1884. Works: Hamlet and the King (1869); 
Too Late (1870) ; Samson and Delilah 
(1872); Women of Riff, Moorish Butchers 
at Taugiers (1873); Street Corner in Tan- 
giers, Square in Tangiers (1874); Morocco 
Prisoners (Fletcher Harper, New York ; 
sold in 1884 for $1,400); Women of Harem 
in Morocco (1875); Entrance of Mohammed 
II into Constantinople, May 29, 1453 
(1876) ; Thirsty Prisoners in Morocco, 
Harem in Morocco (1878) ; Terraces at 
Evening, Emir's Favourites (1879) ; Last 
Rebels (1880), Luxembourg Museum ; Ca- 
liph's Recreations, Herodias (1881); Christ 
in the Tomb, Da;/ after Victory at the Al- 
hambra (1882) ; Tahamy the Caul (1883) ; 
Les Chcrifas (1884) ; Justice of the Cherif 
Moorish Spain in 15th century (1885). 
Portraits of Emmanuel Arago and others. 

BENJAMIN, SAMUEL GREEN 
WHEELER, born at Argos, Greece, in 
1837, son of an American missionary to the 
Levant. Landscape and marine painter ; 
studied drawing and water-colour painting 
with Carlo Briudisi of the Spanish and Ital- 
ian school ; came to America and became a 
pupil of S. L Gerry and W. E. Norton. 
Professional life spent in Boston and New 
York Mr. Benjamin has illustrated many 
works of which he is author, and at one 
time contributed to the Illustrated London 



News. Is at present (ISSS) United State* 
Minister to Persia. Works: Porta da Cruz 
Madeira (1876), Philadelphia ; Gibraltar. 
Pico Azores, White Maud, Marino Gallery, 
London ; Daybreak off the Corbieu, After 
the Storm, On the Breakers, Twilight on 
the Grand Banks (1879); Shark's Nose- 
Maine (1880); Among the Breakers (1881); 
Stormy Sunrise Manchester by the Sea 
(1882). 

BEXKERT, EMERICH MARIA, born iii 
Vienna, March 27, 1825, died there, Jan. 21, 
1855. Genre, landscape, and portrait 
painter ; pupil of Academy of Design, 
Pesth, then in Vienna of Schrodl and Wald- 
miiller. Works : Poachers on the Track 
(1850); Temptation, Alpine Herdswoinen 
find a Dead Huntsman, Sermon (1851); 
Chamois Hunt, Rest, Mother's Love, Love 'a 
Sacrifice (1852); Adventure in the Moun- 
tains, Mist, View in Styria, Expectation, 
Ideal Landscape (1853);" A Puszta (1854); 
numerous portraits ; Artist's Portrait, Na- 
tional Gallery, Pesth. Meyer, KQnst Lex., 
iii. 538 ; Wurzbach, L 276. 

BEXXER, EMMANUEL, born at Mul- 
house, Alsace, in March, 1836. Genre, 
portrait, and still-life painter ; pupil of Eck. 
Medal, 3d class, 1881. W 7 orks : Game and 
Fruits (1868) ; Guitar Player (1873) ; Rev- 
erie, Rubinello (1874); Abandoned (1875); 
Madeline, The Captives (1876) ; Venus and 
Adonis, Family of the Stone Age (1877); 
Lacustral Family (1878); Bathern, Swans 
(1880); Repose (1881); Three Graces (1883); 
Innocence (1884); Nymphs (1885). 

BENNER, JEAX, born at Mulhouse, Al- 
sace, in March, 1836. Genre, portrait, and 
still-life painter ; twin brother of Emmanuel 
B.; pupil of Eck and of Pils. Medal, 2d 
class, 1872. Works: Petite Falle de Capri, 
Flowers and Fruita (1868) ; Margherita, 
Luisella (1870); After a Storm at Capri 
(1872); After 
Baptism, New 
Years Serenade 
(1874); Trappistin Prayer (1875); Athe- 
nian Women surprised by the Pelasgi of 



1SI 



BENNET 



Lemnos (1876); Briseis and Patroclus (1878); 
Street at Capri (1880); Carmela, House at 
Capri (1881); Girls going to the Fountain 
(1882); Peonies, Alsacian Girl (1883); Belle 
of Scio, Poppies (1884); Poppies (1885). 

BENNET, KARL STEFAN, born in 
Sweden, May 26, 1800, died in Stockholm, 
March 27, 1878. Landscape and genre 
painter ; studied in Italy, and became mem- 
ber of Stockholm Academy in 1840. Works: 
Homage to Charles XIV. ; Military Eeview at 
Ladugardsgiirdet ; Unveiling of Equestrian 
Statue of Charles John (1854) ; several 
of his best works in National Museum, 
Drottningholm. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 
539. 

BENNEWITZ VON LOFEN, KARL, 
born at Thorn, Nov. 15, 1826. Landscape 
painter ; pupil of Schirmer in Berlin and of 
Albert Zimmermann in Munich. After 
travelling in the Tyrol, Upper Italy, South- 
ern France, and Scotland, he settled in 
Berlin (1856), and painted many pictures 
now in private collections. Works : Fish 
Pond before Sunrise, Wood Path, Beech 
Wood on Riigen, Village in Brandenburg, 
Wood Interior, Spring in Brandenburg, 
Autumn Fog, On the Heath, Outlook 
on Baltic Sea. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 
540. 

BENOUVILLE, ACHILLE (JEAN), boru 
in Paris, July 15, 1815. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of Picot ; won in 1845 the grand prix 
de Rome (landscape) for his Ulysses and 
Nausicaa. Long resident at Rome, where 
he painted many pictures of the Campagna 
in oil and water-colour, remarkable for their 
local truth and elegance in design. Medals : 
3d class, 1844 ; 1st class, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 
1863. Since 1867 he has resided in Paris. 
Works : Etruscan Tombs at Sutri in neigh- 
bourhood of Velletri ; St. Peter's ; Tivoli ; 
Torre de' Schiavi ; The Via Nomentana, C. 
C. Perkins, Boston ; Castel Fusano ; Colise- 
um seen from the Palatine (1870); Pic du 
Midi (1872), Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New York ; 
Chateau de Lugagnan (1873) ; After the 
Bath (1883); Border of 1'Auinance, Via No- 



mentana (1884) ; Ford of Malavaux, Cascade 
of I'Ardoisiere (1885). Gaz. des B. Arts, xvi. 
285 ; xvii. 13. 
BENOUVILLE, (FRANCOIS) LEON, 

| born in Paris, March 30, 1821, died Feb. 
19, 1859. History and portrait painter ; 
brother of Achille B. ; pupil of Picot ; won 
in 1845 the grand prix de Rome (history) 
for his Jesus in the Judgment Hall. His 
portraits are remarkable for truth and sim- 
plicity of action. Medals : 2d class in 1852 
and 1855, 1st class in 1853 ; L. of Honour, 

1 1855. Works: Mercury and Argus (1839); 
Hermit and Slothful Knights (1841); Judith 
(1844); Esther (1845); Christian Martyrs 
(1852) : Francis of Assisi Dying (1853), 
Louvre ; two Pigeons, Raphael meeting the 
Foruariua, Poussin on the Tiber (1857) ; St. 
Clara receiving the Body of St. Francis, 
Joan of Arc (1859) ; Portraits of Queen 
Hortense, Napoleon, Artist's Wife and two 
Daughters. Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran^aise ; 

j Meyer, Gesch., 399. 

BENOZZO. See Gozzdi. 
BENSA, ALEXANDER VON, Ritter, 
born in Vienna, July 15, 1820. Genre and 
battle painter, self-taught, imitates, to a cer- 
tain degree, A. von Pettenkofen ; painted 
the figures in Ad. Obermiillner's North Pole 
cycle. Many of his works were bought by 
the Emperor of Austria; several are in the 
Duke of Coburg's collection in Vienna. 

j Works : Retreat from Kiiniggratz, Skir- 
mish at Schweinschedl, Battle near Tannen- 
berg, Hungarian Market, On the Puszta, 
Hungarian Election Scene. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 553. 

BENSO, GIULIO, born in Pieve del Tecco, 
about 1601, died in Genoa in 1668. Geno- 
ese school ; pupil of Gio. Battista Paggi ; 
excelled in architecture painting and in 
perspective. Several works in fresco in 
1'Annunziata del Gustato, Genoa, and in 
S. Antonio, Pieve del Tecco. Was also an 
architect and an engraver. Lauzi, iii. 262 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole genoise. 

BENSON, EUGENE, born at Hyde Park, 
New York, in 1839. Figure and genre 



140 



BENT 



painter ; pupil of National Academy and of J. 
H. Wright, later studied in Paris and Venice. 
Has lived and painted in New York, Paris, 
Venice, and Borne ; and sketched in Egypt 
and Syria. Elected an A. N. A. in 1862. Stu- 
dio in Florence since 1871 ; in Rome in 
1883. Works: Cloud Towers, Strayed 
Maskers, (1873); Interior of St. Mark's 
Venice ; Reverential Anatomist (1876), St. 
Luke's Hospital, New York ; Bazaar at 
Cairo, Hay Boats, Peasants of Cadore at 
Religious Worship, Market-Place Egypt 
(1877); Study of Girl in Blue, Suydam Col- ! 
lection, National Academy ; Hashish Smok- 
ersJerusalem, Slave's Tower (1878) ; 
Thoughts in Exile, Mrs. M. O. Roberts, 
New York ; Reverie ; Making the Best of \ 
It, Artists' Fund Society; Dead Calm on the 
Hill ; Fire Worshippers (1879) ; Mountain 
Torrent (1881) ; Distinguished Company in 
Titian's Garden, State Secret in Venice 
(1882); Spring, Art and Love, Afternoon 
on the Lagoon, Ariadne (1883). 

BENT, JOHANNES VAN DER, born 
in Amsterdam about 1650 (?), died in 1690. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter ; pupil of 
Philips Wbuwerman and of Adriaan van 
de Velde, but appears rather as a follower 
of Berchem. Works : Italian Landscape 
with Shepherds, Rotterdam Museum ; Laud- ' 
scape with Span of Oxen, Stockholm Mu- 
seum ; two Landscapes with Figures and 
Cattle, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. By P. 
Bent, otherwise unknown, an Annuncia- 
tion to the Shepherds, in the Brunswick 
Gallery. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 556 ; Rie- 
gel, Beitrage, ii. 283. 

BENTELE, FIDELIS, born at Tettnang, 
Wurteniberg, April 8, 1830. History paint- 
er ; pupil of Munich Academy, and, under 
Bernhard Neher, of Stuttgart Art-school, then 
studied in Italy, 1856-59. Since 1865 profes- 
sor of drawing at the school of architecture 
in Stuttgart. Works: The Good Samari- 
tan, Allegory on Poetry and Music, Stuttgart 
Gallery ; others in churches at Stuttgart, 
Cannstatt, Ravensburg, Tettnang, etc. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 557. 



BENTELE, MAX, born at Lindenberg, 
Bavaria, July 20, 1825. History painter; 
pupil of Munich Academy, under Zimmer- 
j mann, Schlotthauer and H. von Hess, then 
under Schnorr and Schwind ; in 1850-52 
painted under Schraudolph seven frescos 
in the cathedral at Speyer, and in 1861-63 
under Steinle in the staircase of the Co- 
logne Museum. Works: Ascension (1864) ; 
Twelve Apostles (1865); Coronation of the 
Virgin (1868-69) ; Peter tending the Flock, 
Delivery of the Keys, and three other pic- 
tures (1872-73); Ascension (1874); Altar- 
piece (1878) ; two Ceiling-Paintings (1881) ; 
Glorification of Christ (1882). Meyer, 
Kilust. Lex., iii. 557. 

BENTIVOGLIO, GUIDO, Cardinal, por- 
trait, Anton Van Dyck, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; canvas, H. 6 ft x 4 ft 3 in.; signed, 
dated 1623. Full length, in cardinal's robes, 
seated in an arm-chair before a table, holding 
a paper with both hands. One of the painter's 
masterpieces. Carried to Paris ; restored 
in 1816. Engraved by Piccianti ; Meys- 
sens ; and in bust by J. Morin ; Masquelier 
fils. Etched by Gaujeau (1882). Smith, 
iii. 46 ; Guiffrey, 54 ; Filhol, iv. PI. 245. 

BENVENUTI, GIO. BATTISTA. See 
Orlola.no. 

BENVENUTI, PIETRO, born at Arezzo, 
Jan. 8, 1769, died in Florence, Feb. 3, 1844. 
History painter ; studied in Florence after 
Andrea del Sarto and in Rome after Raphael; 
adhered in his early works to manner of 
David, but developed an independent style, 
and, with Camuccini, was looked upon as one 
of the first of modern Italian painters. Lived, 
after 1805, in Florence, where he became 
director of the Academy. Works : Judith 
with Head of Holofernes, Arezzo Cathedral ; 
Ugolino (1822); Death of Priam, Oath of 
the Saxons after the Battle of Jena, Delphic 
Sibyl, Death of St. Chrysogonus, Ravenna 
Cathedral. Works in fresco : Myth of Her- 
cules, Palazzo Pitti, Florence; Scenes from 
Old and New Testament, Chapel of S. Lo- 
renzo, Florence. Meyer, Con. Lex., iii. 
182. 



BENZ 

BENZ, SEVERIN, born at Marbach, to a Young Girl (1836) ; Music Lesson 
St. Gall, Switzerland, March 14, 1834. His- (1837); Return to the Country (1838); 
tory, portrait, genre and landscape painter ; i Christ Asleep (1839); Consequences of Se- 
pupil of Munich Academy, under Anschiitz ! duction (1840) ; Guardian Angel (1846) ; 
and Piloty, then made a study trip to Ven- Peasant Family (1849) ; The Rich and Poor 
ice and North Italy. His religious paintings Children (1852); Children Surprised by 
are elevated in conception and brilliant in ' Rain (1853); Sleep, The Professor (1857); 
colour. Works : Christ Appearing to Mag- i Repentant Fisherman, Fruit-Seller (1859). 
dalen (1857); Bandits in Ambush, Mother's His daughter Susanne Estelle (Mme. Apoil), 
Happiness (1862) ; St. Joseph, Madonna, distinguished herself as a flower and fruit 
Resurrection (1863) ; Come, ye that are painter. Medal, 2d class, 1858. Meyer, 
heavy-laden ! Descent from the Cross j Kiinst. Lex., iii. 570 ; Larousse, ii. 563. 
(1866); Crucifixion, Christ and the Woman BERANGER, CHARLES, born at Sevres, 
of Samaria (1869) ; Landscape at Wallensee ; Nov. 21, 1816, died in Paris, May 15, 1853. 
Flight into Egypt (1879) ; Christ on the Still-life, animal, genre, and portrait paint- 
Cross (1883). In fresco: Siege of Carmagn- er ; son of preceding; pupil of Ecole des 
ola by the Elector Max Emanuel in 1691 > Beaux Arts and of Delaroche. Medals : 3d 
(1865), National Museum, Munich. Meyer, class, 1839 ; 2d class, 1840. Works : Kitch- 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 565. en Interior (1837) ; Scene in Life of Hen- 

BENZON, CHRISTIAN ALBRECHT ; riette of France (1839); Peasant Woman at 
VON, born in Copenhagen, June 11, 1816, the Well, Maid watering Horse, Laundress 
died in Paris, Sept. 30, 1849. Historical and i (1840); Fruit-seller's Booth (1842); View of 
genre painter; pupil of Copenhagen Acad-jMarcho des Jacobins, Dog Portraits (1846); 
emy ; went to Diisseldorf in 1840 or 1841, Dog and Game (1848) ; Dogs Running, 
to Paris in 1845, where he received a gold < Working Horses, Child with Chickens 
medal from Louis Philippe. Works : Last I (1851) ; Two Roosters (1853). Meyer, KUnst. 
Confession (1842); Sinner on his Deathbed, Lex., iii. 571. 

Death of Don Juan ; Death of St. Canut BERANGER, EMILE (JEAN BAPTISTE 
(1844) ; Norman Chief taking Italian City j ANTOINE), born at Sevres, Aug. 30, 1814. 



(1846); Louis IV. of France recognizing at 
Rouen Richard I. and Descendants as Dukes 



Genre painter ; brother of preceding ; first 
employed in decorating porcelain at Suvres 



of Normandy, Town Hall, Rouen. Weil- with his father, Antoine B. His favourite 
bach, 56. subjects are young women of the working 

BERANGER, ANTOINE, born in Paris, , class in pretty costumes, fresh and clear in 
May 19, 1785, died at Sevres, April 21, colour. Medals : 3d class, 1846 ; 2d class, 
1867. History, genre, and portrait painter ; 1848. Works : Simon Memmi painting 
studied under several masters, and was one | Laura (1840) ; Seamstress, Young Girl 
of the best artists of the older school. For boiling Milk (1846); Day after the Ball, 



years employed at the porcelain factory at 
Sevres, and contributed largely to its ce- 



Reading Lesson, Hiding a Letter (1848); 
Order and Disorder (1863); First Joys 



lebrity. Medals : 3d class, 1839 ; 2d class, , (1864) ; The New Maid (1866) ; Hopeful 
1840 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : Wo- Lad (1868) ; Young Mother, Wm. H. Van- 
man and Children at Husband's Grave derbilt, New York ; Bouquet, C. Parsons, 
(1814); Autumn (1819); Wandering Musi- St. Louis; Voice of the Shell, T. Dolan, 
cians ; Rural Wedding (1822) ; Seduction ! Philadelphia ; Fair Oyster-Opener, Glass of 
(1824); Susanna (1827) ; Young Shepherd Lemonade, Where has it Gone ? Mrs. R L. 
Asleep, Wounded Traveller (1833); Prisoner [ Stuart, New York; Consoling the Widow, 
(1835) ; Old Man interpreting a Holy Book C. P. Huntington, New York ; Madam's 



BfiRAUD 




Eobes, Madam's Chocolate, J. Hoey, New 
York. 

BfiRAUD, JEAN, born in St. Petersburg, 
of French parents ; contemporary. Genre 
and portrait painter ; pupil of Bonnat. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1882 ; 2d class, 1883. Works : 
Leda (1877); Soiree (1878); Condolences 
(1879); Public Ball (1880); Montmartre 
(1881) ; The Intermediary, The Vertigo 
(1882) ; The Brewery, The Prayer (1883); 
Les fous(1884); portrait of Coquelin (1885). 

BERCHEM (Berghem), CLAAS (Nicolaas) 
PIETERSZ, born 
in Haarlem, bap- 
tized Oct. 16, 
1620, died in Am- 
sterdam, Feb. 18, 
1683. Dutch 
school; land- 
scape, animal, his- 
tory, and portrait 
painter ; son and 
pupil of Pieter 

Claasz ; pupil of J. van Goyen, N. Moyaert, 
P. de Grebber, Jan Wils, whose daughter 
he married, and J. B. Weenix. In June, 
1642, he entered the guild in Haarlem, 
where he worked until 1670, having prob- 
ably visited Italy in 1648-55, and finally 
settled in Amsterdam. His early pictures 
resemble the works of Weenix, but his later 
ones, representing landscapes enriched with 
architectural ruins and charming groups of 
figures and cattle, are original and interest- 
ing. His historical and mythological pict- 
ures are not so successful. He was a good 
etcher. Works : Landscape with Ruin, and 
three others, National Gallery, London ; 
Winter Landscape, and six others, Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Pastoral (1648), Wild- 
Boar Hunt, Italian Ford, Convoy Attacked, 
Hague Museum ; Rocky Landscape, and ten 
others, Louvre ; several in Munich Gallery ; 
do, Dresden Gallery ; Shepherds and Cattle, 
Woman on Donkey, Vienna Museum ; 
Winter Landscape with figures, three others, 
Berlin Museum ; Halt of Hunters, Rape of 
Europa (1656), thirteen others, Hermitage, 



St. Petersburg. Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 350 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ftcole hollandaise ; Brockhaus, ii. 
820 ; Dohme, 1. ii. ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 446 ; 




Meyer, Kilnst. Lex., iii. 573; Riegel, Bei- 
triige, ii. 375 ; Van der Willigen, 76. 

BERCHERE, NARCISSE, born at 
Etampes (Seine et Oise), in 1822. Land- 
scape painter ; pupil of Renoux and of Re- 
mond. Paints Oriental scenes with great 
truth to nature ; good in composition, 
drawing, and colour. Medals: 3d class, 
1859, 1861, 1864, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1870. Works : a Caravan caught in a Si- 
moom, Colossus of Memnon (1859) ; Cara- 
van crossing the Desert, Temple of Her- 
montis (1861); Twilight in Lower Nubia 
(1864), Luxembourg Museum ; Mouth of the 
Nile at Lesbeh (1870); three Views on the 
Nile (1875); Mahalet-el-Kebir (1876); The 
Nile between Cairo and Isle of Rodah, View 
at Thebes (1878). Larousse ; Meyer, Kttnst. 
Lex., iii. 582. 

BERCK-HEYDE (Berk Heyde), GER- 
' RIT, born at Haarlem, baptized June 6, 1638, 
1 died there, June 10, 1698. Dutch school ; 
: landscape and architecture painter ; pupil 
probably of Frans Hals, and of his elder 
brother, Job B., whom he accompanied to 
Cologne and Heidelberg, where they were 
employed for some time at the court of the 
Elector Palatine. Master of Haarlem guild 
in 1660. Works : View of Amsterdam 
(1668), Antwerp Museum ; Old City Hall 
(1677), View of the Spaarne at Haarlem, 
three Views of Old City Hall (one dated 
1604), Landscape with Castle Egmond, Am- 
sterdam Museum ; View of Cologne, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; two Views in Amsterdam, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Flock of Sheep 
driven through Gate, Cassel Gallery ; View 
of the Dam (1689), Kunsthalle, Carlsruhe ; 



143 



BERCK 



View of Heidelberg Castle, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; View at The Hague, Berlin Museum ; 
two Views in Amsterdam (one dated 1665), 
do. in Cologne and Bonn, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Square before Ancient Buildings, Hunting 
Party, Dresden Gallery ; View in Haarlem 
(1673, attributed to Job), View in Amster- 
dam, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; View of 
Haarlem Cathedral, View in Cologne, Uffizi, 
Florence. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 586 ; Van 
der Willigen, 79. 

BEECK-HEYDE (Berk Heyde), JOB, 
born at Haarlem, baptized Jan. 27, 1630, 
died there, Nov. 23, 1693. Dutch school ; ; 
landscape, architecture, and genre painter ; j 
pupil of Jacob de Wet, and of Frans Hals ; j 
Master of Haarlem guild in 1654. Went 
with his brother Gerrit up the Rhine as far 
as Heidelberg, where they were patronized 
by the Elector Palatine ; after their re- 
turn to Haarlem they lived together, both re- 
maining unmarried. Works: Interior of Old 
Exchange at Amsterdam (1678), Arenberg 
Gallery, Brussels ; Studio of Frans Hals, 
Joseph's Brethren in Egypt (1669), Interior 
of Old Exchange, Church Interior (1664), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Courtesan's Room, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Interior, Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort ; Family Assembled before 
House, Meiningen Gallery ; Church Interior, 
Gottingen Gallery ; Soldiers on Guard, Ama- 
lienstift, Dessau ; Winter Landscape, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Christ and the Children 
(1662), Man at Breakfast, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Interior of Haarlem Cathedral (1665), 
Dresden Gallery ; two Landscapes, two Ani- 
mal Pieces (?), Liech- * 
tenstein Gallery, Vi- ff &Or. Mydt 
enna ; Artist's Portrait * 
(1675), Uffizi, Florence. Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 585 ; Quellenschriften, xiv. 362 ; 
Van der Willigen, 78. 

BERCKMAN, HENDRIK, born at Klun- 
dert, near Willemstad, in 1629, died at Mid- 
delburg (?) in 1690. Dutch school ; portrait 
painter ; pupil at Haarlem of Philips Wou- 
werman, and in Antwerp of Willeboorts and 
Jordaens; entered the guild at Leydeu in 



1654, probably only for a short time. Court 
painter to Count Henry of Nassau, after 
whose death he settled at Middelburg. De 
Bie speaks highly of his archery pieces and 
the portraits of Admirals de Ruyter and 
Evertsen. Works : Portrait of Vice-Admi- 
ral Bankert (1648), Amsterdam Museum ; 
do. of Joost van Trappen, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 587. 

BERDELLE, JOHANN BAPTIST, born 
in Mentz, May 15, 1813, died in Munich, 
July 19, 1876. History and portrait painter ; 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy, under Scha- 
dow, visited (1841-45) Paris, and North 
Italy, especially Venice, then settled in 
Munich, where he was greatly influenced 
by Genelli and by Rahl. Undeserved oppo- 
sition and disparagement on the part of the 
reigning clique drove him to suicide ; he 
drowned himself in the Isar. Works : Blind 
Nimrod(1847); two Religious Pictures with 
Saints (1854) ; Female Portrait (1856) ; 
Maria Hilf ! The Four Seasons (1861); Myth 
of Ariou, Hageu with the Mermaids (1867); 
fourteen Groups from Greek Mythology 
(1871), Staircase, Polytechnic Institute, Mu- 
nich ; Scene from Life of Psyche (1876). 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 589 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xi. 801. 

BERG, ALBERT, born in Berlin in 1825, 
died at Hallstadt, Austria, Aug. 19, 1884. 
Landscape painter, pupil at Geneva of 
Guigon ; studied from nature in southern 
France, north Italy, and Switzerland ; in 1844 
went from Naples with the Grand Duke 
of Mecklenburg to Malta, Smyrna, and Con- 
stantinople. Studied, 1846-1848, in Paris 
and Italy and, on Humboldt's suggestion, 
went in 1849 to Central and South America, 
and returned to Berlin in 1850, bringing 
with him a rich collection of sketches, now, 
with others from Rhodes and Lycia, in the 
National Gallery. In 1853-54 hs lived in 
Rhodes, visited Lycia, and in 1860 joined 
the Prussian expedition to Eastern Asia. 
After journeys through the Alpine countries, 
Scotland and Greece, he spent the winter 
of 1873-74 in Athens, and in 1878 became 



1-14 



BE1MJ 



director of the Breslati Museum. Works : 
two Views in Primeval Forests of New 
Granada (1852) ; Views in the Tropical 
Woods ; do. in Rhodes and in Lycia ; 
Cairo from Road to Boulak, Kata-men Gate 
at Peking (1873). Meyer, Kdnst. Lex., iii. 
595 ; Kunst-Chronik, viii. 806. 

BERG, ALBEET (JOSEF ALBERT 
SOULT), bom in Stockholm, Sept. 19, 1832. 
Marine painter ; pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy, then of Dtisseldorf Academy, under 
Andreas Achenbach; visited Holland and 
Belgium, studied in Paris under Ary Schef- 
fer, then visited Italy and Sicily, and in 18G5 
settled in Stockholm. He is a deaf-mute, 
and one of the most ardent promoters of 
the education of deaf-mutes in Sweden. 
Works: Fight between Swedish Ship and 
English Men-of-War in 1704 (1870), and two 
others, Stockholm Museum. Meyer, Kttnst. 
Lex., iii. 596. 

BERG, JACOBUS EVERARDUS JO- 
SEPHUS VAN DEN, born at Rotterdam, 
Nov. 8, 1802, died at The Hague, July 20, 
1861. History painter ; son and pupil, at 
Rotterdam Academy, of Gysbertus Johan- 
nes van den Berg (17G9-1817), then pupil 
of Antwerp Academy, and of Herreyns. 
After eight years in Italy attained great 
success in Paris, then became professor, 
and in 1844 director, of The Hague 
Academy. Works: Self-Sacrifice of Admi- 
ral de Ruyter ; Scene from Maid of Perth 
(1839) ; Scenes in Lives of Jacoba van 
Bergeron, Jan van Schaffelaar, and Clau- 
dius Civilis ; Fall of the Angels ; St. Law- 
rence ; Supper at Emmaus. Itumerzeel, i. 
44; Krnmm, viii. 11. 

BERG, SDION VAN DEN, born at 
Overschie, near Rotterdam, Nov. 4, 1812. 
Animal and landscape painter ; pupil at 
Rotterdam Academy of Gillis de Meyer, 
and at The Hague of Pieter G. van Os, then 
settled in Amsterdam, in 1841 at Heem- 
stede, near Haarlem, and in 1875 became 
conservator, and in 1880 director, of the 
Royal Gallery at The Hague. Gold medal, 
Amsterdam, 1838; member of Amsterdam 



1 (1839) and Ghent (1841) Academies. His 
pictures represent mostly cows or sheep at 
pasture. Immerzeel, i. 45. 
BERGAMASCO. See Lotto, Lorenzo. 
BERGAMASCO, IL, born at Bergamo 
about 1500, died in Madrid in 1579. Genc- 

! ese school. Real name Giambattista Cas- 
tello, but called Bergainasco to distinguish 

| him from the noted miniature painter of 
the same name, who died at an advanced 
age in 1637. Came early with the painter 
Aurelio Busso to Genoa, where lie won repu- 
tation as a painter ; studied painting, archi- 
tecture, and sculpture in Rome. In 1567 
went to Spain, at invitation of Philip H., 
and executed works in the Escorial, the 
Pardo, and other palaces. Lanzi, iii. 246 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole Genoise. 

BERGEN (Berghen), DIRK VAN, flour- 
ished in Haarlem in 1661-90. Dutch 
school ; landscape and animal painter ; pu- 
pil of Adriaan van de Velde, whom he imi- 
tated successfully. About 1673 he opened 
a studio in London ; afterwards returned 
home (about 1680 ?). Sometimes painted 
figures in the landscapes of Philips de Ko- 
niuck. Works : Two Landscapes (one dated 

1 1688), Louvre ; do., Amsterdam, Berlin, and 
Vienna Museums ; four, Schwerin Gallery ; 
four (one dated 1682), Dresden Gallery. 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii, 599. 

BERGER, JULIUS VICTOR, born at 
Neutitschein, Moravia, July 10, 1850. 
History, genre, and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Vienna Academy and of Ed. Engerth ; 
won the grand prize for Rome in 1874, and 
spent three years in Italy. Professor at In- 
dustrial Art-School in Vienna since 1881. 
Works : Baptism of Borivoi ; Emperor Ru- 
dolph H. and Keppler (1871); Spring's En- 
try (1878); Portrait of Botanist Fenzl (1879), 
Vienna Academy; All Soul's Day (1881); 
Decorative Paintings (1882), Palazzo Zierer, 
Vienna. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 605 ; Neuo 
illustr. Zeitg. (1878), ii. 663 ; (1881), i. 85. 
BERGERET, DENIS PIERRE, bom 
at Villeparisis (Seiue-et-Marne); contempo- 

| rary. Still-life painter ; pupil of Karl Dau- 



145 



BERGERET 



bigny. Medals: 3d class, 1875; 2d class, 1877. 
Works : Dessert, Lobster (1875) ; Prawns, 
Preparations for Dessert (1877) ; Flies' Feast, 
War Art Eeligion (1880); Lucky Day, 
Present from Pomona (1881); The Tide 
(1882); For the Fete-Days, Salt and Fresh 
Water Crustaceans (1883); Thrushes, Rai- 
sins (1884). 

BERGERET, PIERRE NOLASQUE, 
born in Bordeaux, Feb. 2, 1782, died in 
Paris, Feb. 21, 1863. History, genre, and 
portrait painter ; pupil of Lticour, the elder 
(1745-1814), of Vincent and of David ; ex- 
hibited first in the Salon of 1806, when he 
won the grand prix. Medal : 1st class, 
1808. Works: Raphael's Obsequies (1806); 
Francis I. and Henry VHI. on the Field of 
the Cloth of Gold (1808); Charles V. pick- 
ing up Titian's Brush (1808), Portrait of 
Louis Philippe, Museum, Bordeaux ; Christ 
Crowned with Thorns, Cathedral, ib.; St. 
Louis in Prayer, Notre Dame, ib. ; Czar 
Alexander presenting to Napoleon the Cal- 
niucks, Cossacks, and Bashkirs of the Rus- 
sian Army (1810), Versailles Gallery ; Henry 
IV. on his Bier, Meeting at Tilsit of Alex- 
ander and Napoleon (1810); Anne Boleyn 
listening to her Sentence (1814) ; Francis 
I. writing Verses inspired by Agnes Sorel 
(1817), Rembrandt in his Studio (183C), 
Foutainebleau ; Homer Reciting, Michel- 
angelo, grown blind, touching an An- 
tique Torso (1817); St. Louis at Dami- 
etta, Lippo Lippi delivered from Captivity, 
Poussin's Obsequies (1819); Court of Mar- 
guerite of Navarre, Charles V. in Prison, 
Tintoretto and Aretino (1822); Shipwreck 
of Charles V. (1824); Claude Lorrain and 
Innocent X. (1831); Death of Titian (1833); 
Excavation of the Laocoon, Soliman H. buy- 
ing Roxelana, Henry H. and Diana of Poitiers 
(1835); Education of Jupiter, Republic Tri- 
umphant (1849); Charity, Death of Colum- 
bus (1851). Larousse, ii. 582 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 606. 

BERGH, JOHAN EDVARD, born in 
Stockholm, March 29, 1828, died there, 
Sept. 23, 1880. Landscape painter ; pupil 



of the Stockholm Academy ; won first prize 
in 1853, and studied then in Diisseldorf 
under Gude and in Geneva under Calame. 
Travelled in 1856-57 in Italy ; became, 
after his return, member of, and in 1861 
professor in, the Stockholm Academy. Med- 
als in Stockholm (1866) and Paris (1867). 
Works : Wood-Interior, Stockholm Mu- 
seum ; Beech- Wood, Magnus, Gothenburg ; 
Veblungsniis in Romsdal, Astrup, Stock- 
' holm ; View of Stockholm, Prince of Wales ; 
View in Dalecarlia, Becker, Amsterdam. 
Brockhaus, ii. 819. 

BERGHE, AUGUSTINUS VAN DEN, 
born at Bruges in 1756, died at Beauvais, 
France, in 1836. History, landscape, and 
portrait painter ; pupil in Bruges Academy 
of J. A. Geremyn, then from 1780 in Paris 
Academy of Suvee ; won prize in 1782, re- 
turned to Flanders in 1791, won prize in 
Ghent Academy in 1796, and became pro- 
fessor at the cole centrale at Beauvais. 
Works : Coriolanus with his Family (1786); 
CEdipus at Colonus ; Death of Adonis ; St. 
Anthony of Padua in Ecstasy, Notre Dame, 
Bruges ; CEdipus cursing his Son Polynices 
(1796), Ghent Museum. Immerzeel, i. 46. 

BERGHE, CHARLES AUGUSTE VAN 
DEN, born at Beauvais (Oise), in 1798, 
died in Paris, Dec. 17 (Nov. 19 ?), 1853. 
History and portrait painter ; son of preced- 
ing, pupil of Girodet and Gros. Medal, 
2d class, 1833; L. of Honour, 1839. 
Works : Quentin Durward and Louis XL, 
Portrait of Bertini (1833); Descent from 
the Cross, Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Magdalen Penitent (1836); Alice and Cora ; 
portraits of Generals Vaubois and Greard, of 
j the composer Koutski, and others. Meyer, 
Ktinst. Lex., iii. 612. 

BERGHEM. See Berchem. 

BERGLER, JOSEF, born in Salzburg, 
May 1, 1753, died in Prague, June 25, 1829. 
History painter ; pupil of his father, the 
sculptor J. B., the elder (1708-88), in Pas- 
sau, then from 1776-79 of Martin Knoller 
i in Milan, and in 1786 of Maron in Rome. 
After winning the great prize of the Acad- 



146 



BERJON 



emy at Parma, he became cabinet painter to 
Cardinal Auersperg, prince bishop of Pas- 
sau, and in 1800 director of the newly 
founded Academy at Prague. He painted 
a considerable number of altarpieces for 
churches in Bavaria and Austria, and several 
episodes from German and Bohemian his- 
tory, notably Hermann and Thusnelda, in 
the Prague Gallery ; Libussa as Mediator, 
Sentence of Duke Spitignev II., Rescue by 
Bohemian Knights of Charles IV. at Pisa. 
Allgem. d. Biogr. ii. 390 ; Wurzbach, i. 
309. 

BERJON, ANTOINE, born in Lyons, 
May 17, 1753, died there in Nov., 1843. 
Flower and still-life painter, exhibited first 
in 1791. Medal, 2d class, 1819. Works : 
Wedding Present (1797); Shells and Corals, 
A Hare, A Rooster (1810) ; Flowers and 
Fruit in Baskets, Grapes, Peonies, Bouquet j 
(1813); Fruitpiece, Dessert (1836); Poppies 
(1823) ; Artist's Miniature Portrait (1818), 
all in Lyons Museum. Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., 
iii. 622. 

BERK HEYDE. See Berck-Heyde. 

BERNA. See Barna. 

BERNAERTS (Bernaerd), NICASIUS, 
born at Antwerp in 1620, died in Paris, 
Sept. 16, 1678. Flemish school; animal 
and still-life painter ; pupil of Frans Sny- 
ders, 1633-34, then went to Italy and set- 
tled in Paris, where he was among the most 
esteemed Flemish painters ; after a few 
years he went to Antwerp, was received 
master of Si Luke's Guild in 1654, but 
soon returned to Paris, where he became j 
member of the Academy in 1663. His 
piece of reception was an historical picture 
Chastity of Joseph. In France known al- 
most exclusively under the name of Nicasius. 
Works : Birds, Birds and Quadrupeds, 
Louvre, Paris ; Animals in a Landscape, 
Rouen Museum ; Fight between Cat and 
Dog, Dijon Museum. Biog. nat de Bel- 
gique, ii. 270 ; Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., iii. 631 ; 
Michiels, ix. 76, 288 ; Rooses (Reber), 425. 

BERNARD, ST., VISION OF, Murillo, 
Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 3 in. X 



8 fi 2 in. The Saint in habit of Cistercian 
Order, kneeling iu his cell, beholds the Vir- 
gin, on clouds in a glory of cherubs and 
heads, bearing Jesus on her arm ; with her 
right hand she presses from her breast a 
stream of milk, which falls on the Saint's 
lips ; at left, before a case of books, is a 
table with books, writing materials, and 
lilies ; on floor, in foreground, other books 
and the pastoral staff. Second manner; 
from Palace of S. Udefouso. Engraved by 
F. Muntaner, J. Bromley; etched by A. 
Jameson, C. Alabern. Curtis, 220 ; Ma- 
drazo, 475. 

BERNARDINO DI BETTL See Pintu- 
ricchio. 

BERNARDINO DA COTIGNOLA. See 
Zayanelli, Francesco. 

BERNARDO DE FLORENTIA. See 
Daddi, Bernardo. 

BERNATZ, JOHANN MARTIN, born at 
Speyer, March 22, 1802, died in Munich, 
Dec. 19, 1878. Landscape and architecture 
painter ; pupil at Vienna Academy in 1821, 
and again in 1827-29, meanwhile of Keller- 
hofen at Speyer ; went to Munich in 1829, 
visited Constantinople, Asia Minor, and 
Egypt in 1836-37, Calcutta and Abyssinia 
in 1840-43, and published, in 1852, an ex- 
tensive work under the title : Scenes in 
Ethiopia. Works : Kloster Maulbronn, 
Speyer Cathedral, Cycle of Water Colours 
(1858); Rori River in Highlands of Schoa, 
Nubian Salt Lakes (1871); Church in Mon- 
astery on Mount Sinai (1871 and 1877); 
Court of Suleiman Mosque at Constantino- 
ple (1874); View of Suleiman Mosque (1878). 
Meyer, Kttnst. Lex., iii. 650 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xiv. 227. 

BERNAZZANO, CESARE, of Milan, 
flourished beginning of 16th century. 
Lombard school ; probably pupil of Leon- 
ardo da Vinci. Painted landscapes, fruits, 
flowers, and birds, sometimes in collabora- 
tion with Cesare da Sesto, who added the 
figures in his landscapes. Bernazzano 
painted the fine landscape background to 
Cesare's Baptism of Christ, Casa Scotti Gal- 



147 



BERNE 



lerati, Milan. Vasari, eel. Mil., v. 101 ; 
Lanzi, ii. 487 ; Ch. Blanc, licole milanaise. 
BERNE - BELLECOUR, E T I E N N E 
PROSPER, bora at Boulogne, June 29, 
1838. Genre, landscape, and portrait 
painter ; pupil of Picot and of F. Barrias. 
Medals : 1869 ; 1st class, 1872 ; 3d class, 
1878 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Sou- 
venir of Normandy (1861) ; Road on the 
Borders of Normandy (1864) ; Great Heat, 
View on Norman Coast (18C8); Dismounted, 
A Sonnet, Amorous Man, Pea Shooter 
(1869) ; After the Procession, Shearing 
Sheep in Normandy (1870) ; Cannon-Shot, 
Nest of Cupids (1872) ; Rent-Day (1873) ; 
Intended Husband, Summer Morning 
(1874); Guerillas of the Seine in Battle of 
Malmaison (1875) ; The Desert (1876) ; In 
the Trenches (1877); On the Ground 
(1879) ; Attack on Chateau of Montbeliard 
(1881) ; Manoeuvre of Embarking (1882) ; 
Prisoner, Strategic Point (1883) ; Disem- 
barkation (1885), G. Petit, Works in 
United States : Intended Husband, Miss C. 
L. Wolfe, New York ; In the Trenches, F. 
Harper, New York ; In the Woods, R. L. 
Cutting, New York ; Trumpet Practice, B. 
Wall, Providence.- Larousse. 
BERNIER, CAMILLE, born at Colmar 

in 1823. Land- 
scape painter ; 
pupil of L. ! 
Floury. In, 
1873 was mem- 
ber of the jury 
of the Salon. 
Medals: 1868, 
x 1869 ; 2d class, 
1878 ; L. of 
Honour, 1872. 
Works : Farm 

of Kerluce (1857) ; Rocks near Plous- 
gastel (1859); The Gapeau (1861); Village 
of Plounesur, Bay of Penhir (1863); Beach 
of Guisseny, Mouth of the Elorn (1864); 
Burning Sea-Weed near Kersaint (1865); 
Heath near Bannalec (1867); Pond of Qui- 
merch, Path through the Broom (1868); 




' Heath of Kerbagadie, Fountain in Brittany 
(1869); Road near Bannalec (1870); January 
in Brittany (1872), Luxembourg Museum ; 
D'Anndour at Bannalec (1873); Summer, 
Autumn (1875); Wooden Shoe-Makers in 
the Woods of Quimerch (1877); Abandoned 
Path (1879); Pool (1882); Mist and Sun- 
shine (1884); Little Wood, La Lande (1885). 
Larousse. 

BERNINGER, EDMUND, born at Arn- 
stadt,Thuringia, in 1843. Landscape painter; 
pupil of the Weimar Art School under Theo- 
dore Hagen ; visited Holland, Italy, Corsica, 
and Northern Africa, and settled in Munich. 
Works : London Bridge, Venetian Night 
Festival (1873); Street in Tunis (1876); Isle 
of Capri ; Ruins of Carthage ; View on the 
Thames (1880) ; Street in Cairo ; Several 
Views in Egypt. Exhibited at Munich 
(1883) : Evening near Sorrento, Bay of Al- 
giers. M filler, 45. 

BEROUD, LOUIS, born at Lyons ; con- 
temporary. History painter ; pupil of Gour- 
det, Bonnat, and Lavastre. Medal, 2d class, 
1883. Works : Place Saint-Sulpice (1880) ; 
Place de la Republique (1881) ; Salon Carre 
j at the Louvre, (1882); At the Louvre (1883) ; 
My Studies at Venice (1884) ; Henri IH at 
: Venice (1885). 

BERRES, JOSEF VON, born at Lem- 
berg, Austria, May 30, 1821. Genre painter ; 
pupil of Munich Academy under Piloty (1866 
-69), having until then served in the Austrian 
army where he attained the rank of colonel; 
commanded a regiment during the cam- 
paign of 1866, and was decorated with the 
Order of the Iron Crown. Travelled ex- 
tensively in the East, as far as the Cauca- 
sus and Astrakan. Many of his pictures 
bought for America. Works : Wallenstein 
burning Documents ; Galmuck Wedding ; 
Recruiting in Lower Hungary ; Dismis- 
sal of Huszars ; Romance on the Heath ; 
Evening Sermon in St. Stephen's, Vienna ; 
Hungarian Horse Fair (1873), Vienna Muse- 
um ; Cattle Dealers in the Campagna (1877); 
Stalling of a Picket (1882). Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 679. 



148 



BERRETTINI 



BERRETTINI, PIETRO. See Pietro da 
Cortona. 

BERRETTONI, NICCOL<\ born at Ma- 
cerata, Dec. 14, 1637, died in Rome in Feb. 
1682. Bolognese and Roman school ; history 
painter ; pupil at Bologna of Cantarini, then 
at Rome of Carlo Maratti, who became jeal- 
ous of his pupil's brilliant success. He formed 
for himself a mixed style, imitating Guido 
and Correggio. Works : Marriage of the 
Virgin, S. Lorenzo in Borgo, Rome ; Birth 
and Baptism of Christ, Dresden Gallery; St. 
Magdalen, Augsburg Gallery ; Visitation, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; frescoes in S. 
Maiia de Montescanto al Popolo, Rome, S. 
Maria del Suffragio, ib., Palazzo Altieri al 
Gesh, ib., Palazzo della Ruffina, FrascatL 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 692. 

BERRUGUETE, ALONSO, born at Pare- 
des de Nava about 1480, died at Alcala in 
1561. Spanish school ; pupil of his father, > 
Pedro Berruguete ; went to Florence about 
1503 and studied with Michelangelo, whom 
he also assisted in the Vatican. He practised 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, and 
was among the sculptors chosen by Bra- 
mante to model the Laocoon, to be cast in 
bronze. In Florence he was employed to 
finish an altarpiece left incomplete by Filippo 
Lippi at his death. In 1520 he returned to 
Spain and executed many works, especially 
monumental altarpieces and church screens, 
at Saragossa, Valladolid, Madrid, Toledo, and 
other cities. He was greatly honoured by 
Charles V., who made him a cavalier and 
appointed him his painter and sculptor. He 
became wealthy enough to purchase the 
lordship of Ventosa, near Valladolid. Berru- 
guete did more for Spanish art than any who 
had preceded him, but he was more excellent 




e/ru 




in sculpture than in painting, two specimens 
of which, a Holy Family and Flight into 
Egypt, are in the Museum at Valladolid. 



Stirling, i. 140 ; Ch. Blanc, l5cole espagnole; 
Bermudez, i. 130; Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 161; 
W. & W., iii. 40. 

BERRUGUETE, PEDRO, born at Par- 
edes de Nava, died in Madrid after 1504. 
Spanish school; painter to Philip I., by whom 
he was ennobled. Employed with Rincon in 
cathedral of Toledo in 1483, 1495, and 1497; 
also painted in cathedral of Avila. Bermudez 
ranks him with Pietro Perugino. Bermu- 
dez, i. 144 ; Stirling, i. 93 ; W. & W., ii. 359. 

BERTAUD, Mme. CHERADAME, died 
about 1824. History and portrait painter ; 
pupil of David. Medal, 2d class, 1819. 
Works : Hagar in the Desert (1814); Daugh- 
ters of Minos (1817); Female Gardener, Por- 
traits (1819); Portrait of the Poet Pizere- 
caurt (1822), Nancy Museum; The Fairy 
Urgel ; Portrait of Gen. Devraux de Sainte 
Maurice, Versailles Gallery. Meyer, Ktlnst. 
Lex., iii. 699. 

BERTEAUX, HIPPOLYTE DOMIN- 
IQUE, born at Saint-Quentin (Aisne) ; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter ; 
pupil of Hip. Flaudrin, Galland, and P. Bau- 
dry. Medal, 3d class, 1883 ; 2d class, 1885. 
Works : Studies for ceiling of the Theatre 
Grasliu at Nantes (1881) ; First Lesson in 
History (1882) ; Ce fut la ! souvenir of the 
great war (1883); Young Shepherdess (1884); 
Attempt upon Life of Hoche (1885). 

BERTHELEMY, JEAN SIMON, born at 
Laon (Aisne), March 5, 1743, died in Paris, 
March 1, 1811. History painter ; pupil of 
Noel Hallo, won in 1764 the second and in 
1767 the first prize for Rome, became mem- 
ber of the Academy in 1781, and professor 
in 1792. Works : Cleobis and Biton draw- 
ing their Mother to Temple of Juno (1764); 
Alexander cutting theGordian Knot (1767); 
Conquest of Calais (1771) ; Eustache de St. 
Pierre at the Conquest of Calais (1779) ; 
Martyrdom of St. Peter (1779), Douai Mu- 
seum ; Apollo causing the Body of King 
Sarpedon to be taken to Lycia (1781), I5cole 
des Beaux Arts, Paris ; Eleazar preferring 
Death to eating of Forbidden Meat (1789), 
Angers Museum ; Bonaparte visiting the 



149 



BEKTIIELEMY 



Wells of Moses (1808), Entry of French 
Army into Paris in 1436, Versailles Gallery. 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., iii. 707. 

BERTHELEMY, PIERRE EMILE, bom 

at Rouen, April 3, 1818. Marine painter ; 
pupil of Rouen Art School, then in Paris of 
Cogniet and of Ecole des Beaux Arts. Works: 
Naval Battle Between French Fleet under 
Duquesne and Dutch-Spanish Fleet under 
Ruyter, 1676 (1846) ; Scene from Walter 
Scott's Pirate, Harbour of Fecamp (1847); 
Ship in Distress (1848); Flight of Jean Bart 
(1849) ; Shipwreck of Van Tromp in Bay of 
Trepass6s (1851); do. of Corsair Ship (1853) ; 
Return of Fishing Boats (1857) ; After the 
Storm (1859) ; Burning Vessel (1861) ; Ship 
Le Vaubant in a Storm (1864) ; Mouth of 
the Seine at Sunset (1865) ; Shipwreck of 
Borythenes (1866) ; do. of Evening Star 
(1867); Harfleur Harbour (1868); Return of 
Fishing Boats (1877) ; Various marines 
(1879-85). Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 707. 

BERTHON, NICOLAS, born in Paris, 
Aug. 4, 1831. Genre painter; pupil of Ecole 
des Beaux Arts and of Cogniet. Medal, 
1866. Works : Mowers' Luncheon (1857) ; 
do. (1863); Mowers, Soldier's Return (1864); 
Bowling at Beauce, Peasant from the Moun- 
tains (1865); During Mass (1866); Souvenir 
of the Auvergne (1866), Arras Museum ; The 
Baurree (a dance, 1867) ; Prayer, Spinning 
Woman (1868) ; Pastime (1873) ; The Walk 
(1875); Procession at St. Bonnet (1877); In- 
terior in Auvergne (1878, 1880, 1882); Pro- 
cession of Penitents (1883). Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., iii. 711. 

BERTHON, RENfi THEODORE, born 
at Tours in 1776 or 1778, died in Paris, 
April 9, 1859. History and portrait painter; 
pupil of David ; lived in Venice and Vienna 
at the beginning of this century, and re- 
turned to Paris in 1806. One of the most 
talented artists of the modern school. L. of 
Honour. Works: Chloe bathing in a Grotto 
(1796) ; Portrait of Bonaparte as Consul 
(1801); Surrender of Ulm (1806), Napoleon 
receiving at Berlin Delegation of Senate 
after Battle of Jena (1808), Albert Rampou 



defending Redoubt of Monte Legino (1812), 
Order of St. John taking Possession of Malta 
(1839), Versailles Gallery ; David obtaining 
Saul's Permission to contend with Goliath 
(1822), Passage through Caen of Due de 
Bern in 1814 (1824), Caen Museum ; Na- 
poleon handing to Delegation of Senate the 
Captured Prussian Standards, Compiegne. 
Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 710. 

BERTHOUD, AUGUSTS HENRI, born 
in Paris of Swiss parents, April, 1829. Land- 
scape and genre painter ; pupil of Prottevin, 
and of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, then of 
Ary Scheffer and influenced by Corot, with 
whom he was allied in friendship ; settled at 
Interlaken in 1862, and at Neuchatel, the 
home of his family, 1874. President of the 
Society of Swiss Painters and Sculptors since 
1882. Medal, Vienna, 1873. Works : Re- 
pose sur la Montague (1857) ; Unspunnen 
near Interlaken (1868) ; Summit of the 
Jungfrau ; The Wetterhorn ; Kandersteg 
Valley ; Glacier of Altelo ; Women of Aries 
in Prayer ; Procession of Arlesiennes ; Plus 
heureux qu'un Roi ; Ruth ; Judith ; Mes 
I eleves peignant d'apres nature (1879) ; View 
' near Rosenlani Glacier, Evening Breeze 
(1882); Death of the Chamois Hunter (1872), 
The Jungfi-au and the Vagueren, Neuchatel 
Museum. Meyer, Kiiiist. Lex., iii. 711; 
Kunst-Chronik, xiv. 605. 

BERTHOUD, LEON, born at Neuchatel, 
| Switzerland, in 1827. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of Maximilien de Meuron, then in 
Paris of Leon Cogniet, spent several years 
in Italy, returned to Paris, then settled at 
St. Blaise, near NeucMtel. Works: Crossing 
an Arm of the Tiber at Borghetto, Fortified 
Tower of Chateau d'Estavayer, The Frolm 
Alp on Lake of Lucerne, Neuchatel Muse- 
um ; Aqueducts in Roman Campagna ; Bay 
of Naples ; View of Sorrento ; Temples of 
Psestum ; Monte St. Angelo ; Baths of Cara- 
calla ; Chateau de Chillon ; Lake of Neu- 
chatel. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 711. 

BERTIN, EDOUARD FRANC/OIS, born 
in Paris, in 1797, died there, Sept. 14, 1871. 
Landscape painter ; pupil of Girodet and 



150 



13EIITIX 



Biclault. Turning from the classic and tra- 
ditional style to nature, he successfully 
endeavoured to unite truth in detail with 
breadth of general effect. Works : Meeting 
of Cimabue and Giotto (1827), Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1837) ; Sources of the Al- 
pheus (1853), View of Olevano, Old Tombs 
on the Nile, Forest of Fontainebleau. Ch. 
Blanc, Artistes de mon Temps, 249 ; La- 
rousse, ii. 621; Meyer, Gesch., 766. 

BERTIN, JEAN VICTOR, born in Paris, 
March 20, 1775, died there, June 11, 1842. 
Landscape painter ; pupil of Valenciennes. 
Medal, 1st class, in 1808 ; L. of Honour, 
1817. He was the master of Cogniet, Bosse- 
lier, Corot, Enfantin, and Roqueplau. Works: 
Festival of Pan, Offering to Venus, Cicero 
on his Return from Exile, Flight of Angelica, 
Festival of Bacchus, Arrival of Napoleon at 
Ettlingen. His Temple of Minerva at Pheneus 
is in the Louvre. Villot, Cat. Louvre; Ottley. 

BERTIN, NICOLAS, born in Paris in 
1667, died there, April 11, 1736. Pupil of 
Vernansalle, of Jouvenet, and of Bon Bou- 
logne. When eighteen years old he took 
the first prize for painting for his Building 
of the Ark, and he was sent as a pensioner 
of the king to Rome, where he resided four 
years. He became a member of the Acad- 
emy in 1705, professor in 1715, and adjunct 
rector in 1733. Works : St. Philip baptiz- 
ing the Eunuch, Hercules delivering Prome- 
theus (1703), Louvre ; Chastity of Joseph, 
Susanna at the Bath, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Man with the Gourd, Gardener and the 
Bear (2 illustrations of La Fontaine's fables), 
Dresden Gallery. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

BERTINELLI. See AlbertineW. 

BERTLING, KARL, born at Meppen, 
Hanover ; contemporary. History and por- 
trait painter ; pupil of the Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Schadow and Bendemann ; be- 
came first known through his Death of Abel, 
and is now chiefly reputed for his masterly 
portraits. Works : Death of Abel ; (Edipus 
led by Antigone ; Resurrection (1869); Lore- 
ley; Night and Morning (1875), Villa Boker, 
Bonn. Elustr. Zeitg. (1876), i. 294. 



BERTO DI GIOVANNI, flourished in 
1497-1523. Roman school of Perugia ; 
called also Bertus Joannis Marci. Pupil of 
Perugino at same time with Raphael, who 
engaged him in 1516 as his assistant to paint 
a picture of the Coronation of the Virgin 
for the convent of S. M. di Monteluce, near 
Perugia, which was finished after Raphael's 
death by Giulio Romano and II Fattore 
(1525) and is now in the Gallery of the Vati- 
can. Berto painted for the predella three 
subjects the Birth (dated 1525), Marriage, 
and Death of the Virgin, and a fourth rep- 
resenting the Presentation in the Temple. 
The predella of the principal altarpiece in 
S. Giuliana, Perugia, is perhaps also by him. 
Lanzi, i. 348; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne; 
I C. & C., Italy, iii. 346 ; Mttntz, Raphael, 622. 

BERTON, ARMAND, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter ; 
pupil of A. Millet and Cabanel. Medal, 3d 
j class, 1882. Works : Evening (1880); Por- 
traits (1881) ; Eve, Woman with the Rose 
; (1882); A Grasshopper (1883); Modern Fable 
Seated upon Antique Ruins (1884); Portrait 
(1885;. 

BERTRAND, GEORGES, born in Paris 
in 1849. Genre and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Yvon, Barrias, and Bonnat. Medal, 2d 
class, 1881. Works : The Miser (1876); Fall- 
ing Leaves (1877); The Leap from the Leu- 
cadian Rock (1878) ; Slave's Leisure (1879); 
Patrie! (1881); Spring Passing (1883). 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 101. 

BERTRAND, JAMES, born at Lyons in 
1825. History painter ; pupil of Perin and 
of Orsel, then studied in Rome ; a skilful, 
careful painter, with a graceful, harmonious 
style and much religious sentiment. Medals: 
3d class, 1861, 1863, 1869, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1876. Works : Idyl (1857); St. Benedict 
taking Communion (1859), Lyons Society of 
Art; Conversion of SL Thais (1861), Lyons 
Museum; Brothers of Death taking away a 
Murdered Man in the Campagna (1863), 
Lyons Museum ; Women of Alvito on a Pil- 
grimage, Diogenes at La'is's House (1863) ; 
Mary the Egyptian Repentant (1864) ; Eini- 



151 



BESCHEY 



grants of the Roman Campagna (18G5), Or- 
leans Museum ; Phryne at the Festival of 
Eleusis, Pilgrimage in the Abruzzi Mountains 
(1866); Death of Sappho, Idyl (1867) ; Sere- 
nade, The Curious (1868) ; Inquisitive Little 
One, Death of Virginia (1869), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Marguerite, Death of Manon Les- 
caut (1870) ; Ophelia's Madness, Ophelia's 
Death (1872) ; Cinderella, Caen Museum ; 
Idyl (1873) ; Eomeo and Juliet Dying, 
Montpellier Society of Art ; Anuccia (1874); 
Magdalen, Know Thyself, Lesbia (1875); 
Aurora, Marguerite (1876); Echo, Education 
of the Virgin (1877); Cloister (1878); Gala- 
tea and Acis surprised by Polyphemus, 
Coming out of School (1879) ; The Bird 
Charmer, Marguerite in Church (1880); Love 
drawing Night over the Earth (1881); Cigale 
singing to the Moon, Waiting in Ambush 
(1882) ; The Sirens, Charlotte Corday's 



Last Day (1883); Calvary, Ophelia (1884) ; 
Youth, Study of a Head (1885). Montrosier, 
Artistes modernes ; Larousse. 

BESCHEY, BALTHASAR, born at Ant- 
werp, baptized Nov. 20, 1708, died there, 
April 15, 1776. Flemish school ; history 
and portrait painter ; pupil of Peeter Strick, 
an obscure artist ; master of the guild in 
1733 ; dean in 1756. With him the school 
of Antwerp, abandoning the traditions of 
Rubens, entered on the road to decline. 
Works : Flemish Family (1721 ?), Louvre, 
Paris ; Joseph Sold by his Brethren, Joseph 
Viceroy of Egypt (1744), portrait of himself, 
do. of Martin Joseph Geeraerts, Antwerp 
Museum ; Scene before Peasant's Cottage, 




Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. Cat. de Mu- 
see d'Anvers (1874), 46 ; Michiels, x. 484 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 441. 

BESNARD, PAUL ALBERT, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. History and portrait 



painter ; pupil of A. Cabanel and J. Bre- 
mond. Won the prix de Rome in 1874. 
Medals : 3d class, 1874 ; 2d class, 1880. 
Works: Autumn (1874) ; A Fountain (1877); 
After a Defeat in the 5th Century (1880); 
Plenty encourages Labour, Remorse (1882); 
Souvenir of England (1883); Sickness and 
Convalescence (diptych, 1884); Paris (1885). 

BESSON, FAUSTIN, born at Dole, Jura, 
March 15, 1821, died in Paris, March, 1882. 
Genre and portrait painter ; pupil of Brune, 
Decamps, and Gigoux, and of the cole des 
Beaux Arts ; had especial success with his 
ideal allegorical genre scenes. L. of Hon- 
our, 1865. Works : The Prelude (1844); A 
Summer Day (1846) ; The AVomen and the 
Secret (1848) ; Courtesans and Venetian 
Nobles (1849) ; Return of the Barber of 
Olmedo and of Gil Bias (1850); Youth of 
Lantara (1852), Dole Museum ; The Dauph- 
ine's Promenade (1855) ; Childhood of 
Gretry (1857), Toulouse Museum ; Cous- 
ton's Studio (1861); Callot and the Mounte- 
bank, An Adventure of Queutin de la Tour 
(1866); A Smile (1867). Larousse, ii. 638 ; 
Chronique des B. Arts (1882), 68. 

BETHESDA, POOL OF, Tintoretto, S. 
Rocco, Venice. A noble work, but emi- 
nently disagreeable. A crowd of figures, 
with a background of corrupt Renaissance 
architecture. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 
322. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice. 
A disgusting picture, representing people 
afflicted with all kinds of diseases. Ruskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 341. 

BETHKE, HERMANN, born at Bruns- 
wick, in 1825. Genre painter ; pupil in 
Brunswick of Heinrich Brandes, and stud- 
ied in Munich after the old masters. 
Works : Family Scene ; Broken Pitcher ; 
Siesta ; Card Players (1865); Grandmother's 
Convalescence, Summer Morning (1866); 
Red Riding Hood, Saying Grace, Winter- 
Guests, Love-Letter. M filler, 47. 

BETTANIER, ALBERT, born at Metz ; 
contemporary. History painter ; pupil of 
Pils, Lehrnanu, and Maillart. Medal : 3d 



152 



BETTO 



class, 1885. Works : In Lorraine (1881) ; 
Study, In Lorraine (1882); In Lorraine 
(1883); At Gravelotte (1884); 1870-1880 
(1885). 

BETTO, BERNARDINO DI. See Pin- 
turicchio. 

BEVILACQUA. See Salimbeni, Ventura. 

BEWEIl, CLEMENS, born at Aachen, 
May 30, 1820, died at Bonn, Sept. 2, 1884. 
History and portrait painter ; pupil of the 
DClsseldorf Academy under Karl Sohn ; 
went in 1841 to Paris, where he studied 
with Delaroche and Ary Scheffer. Under 
the latter's guidance he painted for French 
churches copies after Raphael, Andrea del 
Sarto, Titian, Rubens, and Murillo ; re- 
turned in 1847 to DUsseldorf thoroughly 
imbued with French art ; afterwards became 
professor at the Academy. Latterly painted 
portraits almost exclusively. Works : Ro- 
meo and Juliet (1844); Mary Stuart's Flight 
from Lochleven (184G), Cologne Museum ; 
The Elves (1847), Tasso reading at the 
Court of Ferrara (1850), Contest of Min- 
strels at the Wartburg (1851); Education 
of Mary by Anna and Joachim (1852), Find- 
ing of Moses (1862), Loreley (18C7), Judith 
(1872), Cologne Museum ; Portraits of Min- 
ister Stein, Gen. Blumenthal, Archbishop 
von Droste-Vischering. Miiller, 47 ; Wolfg. 
Miiller, Dusseldorf K, 158. 

BEYEREN, ABRAHAM VAN, born at 
The Hague iu 1020 or 1621, died after 1674. 
Dutch school ; still-life painter ; master of 
the guild at The Hague in 1640, at Delft in 
1657 ; mentioned again as member of The 
Hague guild in 1663, and of that of Alkmaar 
in 1674. Works in Amsterdam, Rotter- 
dam, Lille, Frankfort, Berlin, Vienna, Pesth 
Museums, Vienna Academy (1666), Dres- 
den, Hanover, Schwerin Galleries, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg. Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., 
iii. 340. 

BEYLE, PIERRE MARIE, born at Ly- 
ons in 1838. Genre painter ; was a house- 
painter, but with help from the designer 
Philippon was able to send his first picture 
to the Salon in 1867. Medal of 3d class, 



1881. Works: A Bohemian Girl (1867); 
Permission Refused (1868); Toilet of a Sav- 
age Woman (1869); Tour of the City (1870); 
Monkey's Toilet (1872); Dressing in a Stu- 
dio, Merchant of Knick-Knacks (1873) ; 
; Chevalier Bayard and Maidens of Brescia 
! (1875); Gossips of Briquebec (1876); Bazaar 
at Casbah of Algiers (1877); From the 
Mayor's Office to the Church, Party of 
: Ladies (1879) ; On the Cliff, Fleura de 
Ptelu'r (1880) ; Mussel Fishers at Dieppe 
(1881); Fishing at Dieppe (1882); Farewell 
Kiss (1883); Seaweed Burners (1884); Bad 
News (1885). 

BEYSCHLAG, JULIUS ROBERT, born 
1 at Nordliugen, July 1, 1838. Genre painter ; 
pupil, at the Munich Academy, of Philipp 
Foltz, studied afterwards in Paris and Italy. 
His pictures are attractive in subject, and he 
is noted for his graceful treatment of the 
female form. Works : Iphigenia, Mowing 
Woman (1860); Love Scene from Faust, 
Sunday Morning (1862); Birthday (1864) ; 
Girl crowning Youth with Flowers (1870); 
Psyche (1872); Soap Bubbles (1873); Spring- 
Day in the Middle Ages (1874) ; Happy 
Mother, Wedding Procession, Orpheus and 
Eurydice (1879); Sunday Afternoon in Mid- 
dle Ages, Samuel Hawk Collection, New 
York ; Before the Wedding, H. B. Hurlbut 
Collection, Cleveland ; Good Sister, T. Do- 
Ian, Philadelphia. Illustr. Zeitg. (1877), ii. 
136. 

BEZARD, JEAN LOUIS, bom at Tou- 
louse, Nov. 15, 17'J9. Pupil of Pierre Gue- 
riu, of Picot, and of cole des Beaux Arts. 
Won the prix de Rome in 1829. Medals : 
1st class, 1836, 1857, 1859 ; L. of Honour, 
1860. Works : Magdalen in Desert, Mag- 
dalen Resting, Interior of Church of Arcis, 
Incident of Revolution of 1830, In the 
Louvre, Martyrdom of St. Satuminus (1836); 
Reign of Evil upon Earth (1837); Martyr- 
dom of St. Eu trope (ordered by State), 
Mephistopheles, Angel and Child, Neapoli- 
tan Sleeper, Seven Works of Pity, Assump- 
tion, St. Roch praying for the Plague- 
Stricken, St. Michael snatching Souls from 



158 



BEZZUOLI 



the Devil, Seven Sacraments (ordered by 
State). Frescos in St. Elizabeth (1849), 
St. Eustache, and St. Clotilde, Paris. 
Vapereau (1880), 212. 

BEZZUOLI, GIUSEPPE, born in Flor- 
ence, in 1784, died there, Sept. 1855. His- 
tory painter ; pupil at the Florence Acad- 
emy under Piattoli, Petroni, and Desmarais ; 
obtained the gold medal in 1811, studied 
then in Rome after Raphael, Domenichino, 
and Guido, became adjunct professor at the 
Florence Academy in 1814, and professor in 
1816. Works : Ajax defending the Body 
of Patroclus (1811) ; Francesca da Rimini 
(1812); Paul surprised by Lancelot (1813); 
Entry of Charles VIII. into Florence ; Bap- 
tism of Clovis ; Manfred found on Battlefield 
of Beneventum ; Death of Filippo Strozzi ; 
Assassination of Lorenzino di Medici ; Fol- 
ly guiding Chariot of Love ; Death of 
Abel ; Episode from Deluge ; St. Francis 
bringing to Life a Drowned Man (1832), 
Cathedral ; Eve the Sinner, Medea planning ' 
Leghorn the Death of her Children, Young 
Girl at Prayer. Frescos : Alexander with j 
Apelles, Temperance, Justice, Prudence 
and Strength, Exploits of Cscsar in eleven 
scenes (Palazzo Pitti) ; Galileo's Experi- 
ments on Gravitation, Loves of Angelica 
and Medoro, Triumph of Bacchus (Borghese 
Palace, Florence) ; Scene from Boccaccio, 
Entombment (Pistoja Cathedral) ; Ceres 
Searching for Proserpine, Venus's Toilet, 
Venus carrying off Ascanius (Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, Rome). Larousse, ii. 668 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., iii. 380. 

BIAGI, BERNARDINO. See Pintu- 
ricchio. 

BIAGIO, VINCENZO DL See Catena, 
Vincenzo. 

BIANCHI, FRANCESCO, called II Frari, ! 
born at Ferrara in 1447, died at Modena, ' 
Feb. 1510. Lombard school. Vidiiani 
says he was the first instructor of Correggio, 
but if so it can have been but for a short 
time, as that painter was only sixteen years 
old when Bianchi died. Of his many works 
but few remain, such as a fine Madonna 



with Saints, in the Louvre, and an Annun- 
ciation in the Gallery at Modena. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 587 ; 
Morelli (Richter), 238. 

BIARD, (AUGUSTS) FRANQOIS, born 
in Lyons, June 27, 1801, died near Fontaine- 
bleau, July 8, 1882. Landscape and genre 
painter ; pupil of Revoil in Lyons ; travelled 
in Europe, the East, and Africa, settled in 
Paris in 1835, and painted scenes from many 
countries ; visited Greenland and Spitz- 
bergen in 1839, Brazil in 1855. His works 
are distinguished for humour, sentiment, 
and variety. Many of them have been en- 
graved. Medals : 2d class, 1827 and 1848 ; 
1st class, 1836 ; L. of Honour, 1838. Works : 
French Travellers in a Spanish Tavern 
(1831); Arabs Caught in a Simoom, Nimes 
Museum ; San ton preaching to Bedouins, 
Fellah Concert, Wandering Comedians, 
Fools' Paradise (1833); Baptism in the 
Tropics (1834); Barber's Apprentice, Sale 
of Slaves, Good Gendarme (1835); Divided 
Honours, Bathing at Home, Duquesne Res- 
cuing Captives from Algerians (1837); Sac- 
rifice of Brahmin Woman, Scene in Custom 
House (1838); County Militia, Family Con- 
cert, Consequences of a Masked Ball (1839); 
Marriageable Young Ladies, The Great Sin, 
Louis Philippe in a Lapland Hut, Walrus 
Fishing, Reindeer Hunting, Pastor Lwsta- 
dius teaching Laplanders, (1840) ; Du Couc- 
dic's Farewell to his Crew (1841), formerly 
in Luxembourg Museum ; Wreck in Polar 
Seas, Norwegian Hunters at Spitsbergen, 
Jane Shore condemned to Death by Hun- 
ger (1842) ; Magdalen Bay, Apartment to 
Let (1844) ; Shipwrecked Men attacked 
by Shark, Classical Painter, Dessert at the 
Parsonage (1846) ; Four Hours in the Sa- 
lon, Henry IV. and Fleurette (1847) ; Walk 
to Rock of Hertman doe, Council of Re- 
vision (1848) ; Tenor's Triumph (1853) ; 
Water Drinkers, Bombardment of Bomar- 
sund, Seizure of Furniture (1857); Slave 
Quarters on a Slave Ship, Selling Slaves, 
Hunting Fugitive Slaves, Travelling in 
North America, Travelling in South Amer- 



154 



BIBBIENA 



ica, The Virgin Forest, Savages preparing 
Curare Poison (1861) ; Festival of the Su- 
preme Being (1864); The Mammoth, Quar- 
relsome Boatwomen (1867) ; Fishwives 
of Seguasson (1868): Death of Dupetit- 
Thouars, Travellers Annoyed by Mosquitoes 
(1869); Capture of an English Vessel, Death 
of Bisson (1870); Beginning of the Hunt 
(1873); Tardy Guests, Captain Pleville, A 
Spanish Palace (1874); The Avenger, Alsa- 
tian Exiles (1875); House to Let in Country 
(187C); Wrecked Passengers of the Lucie- 
Marguerite, Railway Compartment for 
Ladies only (1877); Captain Lacrosse's 
Oath, Vigil in Samo'is (1879); Savage Wo- 
men Fishing (1881); Caricature Painter in 
Court, Classical Painter before his Model 
(1882). Larousse, ii. 673 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
690 ; Chronique des Arts (1882)" 186. 

BIBBIENA, BERNARDO DOVIZIO DA, 
Cardinal, portrait, liai>had, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; wood, H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. A middle- 
aged person, half-length, nearly full face, 
which is beardless ; red cap, red collar, 
white sleeve resting on a stone balustrade. 
Long called Cardinal Granville, and by some 
Giulio de' Medici (Clement VH.). Painted 
in Rome about 1513. Cardinal Bibbiena 
was the intimate friend of Raphael, whose 
engagement to marry his niece Maria was 
ended by her premature death. Raphael's 
frescos of the history of Venus and Cupid 
in an apartment in the Vatican were exe- 
cuted for him. Replica in Palazzo Pitti ; 
carried to Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. 
Engraved (Pitti) by Bedetti ; Gruner. Ma- 
drazo, Cat. descrip. 6 histor., 189, 341 ; Gal. 
du Pal. Pitti, in. PI. 97 ; Mdntz, 283 ; Pas- 
savant, ii. 146 ; Springer, 253. 

BIBBIENA, FERDINANDO, born in 
Bologna in 1657, died in 1743. Bolognese 
school ; son of Gio. Maria Galli, called Bib- 
biena ; pupil of Carlo Cignani. Devoted 
himself to architectural and perspective 
painting, and became the most celebrated 
decorative painter of his time. Honoured by 
all the princes of Europe ; worked in Ger- 
many and in Spain, and decorated churches, 



palaces, and theatres in many Italian cities. 
He was the inventor of improvements in 
theatrical scenery and machinery. He 
painted also some excellent easel pictures, 
chiefly architectural and perspective views. 
In these the figures were usually painted 
by his brother Francesco (1659-1739), who 
was almost as noted and honoured through- 
out Europe as Ferdinand. Ferdinand left 
three sous, Alessandro (died about 1760), 
Antonio (1700-1774), who painted the 
chapel frescos in monochrome, in S. Giaco- 
mo Maggiore, and built the great theatre at 
Bologna (1756), and Giuseppe (1696-1756), 
all of whom followed his manner. Lanzi, i. 
177 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; Gualandi, 
Guida di Bologna, 94. 

BIBBIENA, GIOVANNI MARIA, born 
at Bibbiena in 1625, died in 1665. Bo- 
lognese school. Real name Gio. Maria 
Galli, but commonly called Bibbiena, and 
same surname used by his descendants. 
Pupil of Francesco Albani ; painted his- 
torical pictures, some of which are in 
churches in Bologna : e. g., St. Andrew 
adoring the Cross, S. M. dei Servi ; Ascen- 
sion, Campo Santo. Lauzi, iii. 177 ; Ch. 
Blanc, cole bolonaise; Gualandi, Guida, 88. 

BICCI, LORENZO DI, born at Arezzo 
in 1350 (?), died in 1427. Florentine school ; 
eldest of the three Biccis, being father 
of Bicci, and grandfather of Neri. No ex- 
isting pictures ; but in 1386 he was paid 
for paintings in the Duomo, Florence. The 
ceiling of the choir in S. Francesco, Assisi, 
assigned to Lorenzo by Vasari, is more prob- 
ably by his son Bicci, with whom he is con- 
stantly confounded by that master. The 
frescos in the Cathedral at Prato represent- 
ing scenes from the lives of SS. James and 
Margaret, and others from the life of S. Ce- 
cilia in the Carmine, Florence, are in an 
earlier style, and possibly by Lorenzo. 
C. & C., Italy, ii. 28 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
ii. 225 ; ed. Mil., ii. 49 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., L 166. 

BICCI, BICCI DI LORENZO DI, born 
in 1373, died at Arezzo, May 6, 1452 (?). 



IBS 



BICCI 

Florentine school ; son of Lorenzo ; painted 1 and Vienna Academies, and a knight of the 
many works between 1420 and 1450, some ' Belgian Order of Leopold, the Bavarian of 
of which are extant, as for example the SS. St. Michael, and the Prussian of the Eed 
Cosmo and Damiau, Uffizi, rather sombre Eagle. Works : Ugolino and his Sons, 
in colour, but careful in drawing ; and Masaniello (1830), Execution of Anne Bo- 



some saints under the windows of a chapel 
in the Duomo, Florence, much repainted. 



leyn, Rubens presented to Charles V., Fla- 
gellation of Christ, Raphael and the Forna- 



Bicci is the author of a group in terra cotta, riua, Eucharis and Telemachus, Paix des 
representing the Coronation of the Virgin, i Dames in 1529, Charles I. decorating 
over the door of the hospital of S. Egidio, Rubens, Alva witnessing the Decapitation 



Florence, which Vasari wrongly attributes 
to Dello Delli. Milanesi, Archivio Storico 
Italiano, 183 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 232 ; 
ed. Mil., ii. 49, 63 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. 30. 

BICCI, NERI DI BICCI Dl'LORENZO 
DI, born in 1419, died in 1491. Florentine 



of Egmont and Horn (1852), Raczynski Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Countess Egmont after her 
Husband's Seizure, and in the Prison after 
his Execution (I860); Council of War of the 
Duke of Parma (1862); Banquet of the 
Gueux, The Teutonic Order electing the 



school ; son of Bicci di Lorenzo, and Great Elector of Brandenburg their Grand 
grandson of Lorenzo. He reduced his art Master. Jordan, 51 ; Mflller, 51. 
to the level of a trade, and filled half BIENNOURRY, VICTOR FRANCOIS 
Tuscany with altarpieces and pictures. , ELOI, born at Bar-sur-Aube, Jan. 10, 1823. 
His masterpiece, San Giovanni Gualber- History painter ; pupil of Martin Drolling 
to enthroned between ten seated Saints, and of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, where he 
in the Regio Lotto of old S. Pancrazio, j won the grand prix de Rome in 1842. 
Florence, is ill drawn, flat, and inharmo- Medal, 1864. Works : Rich Man and Laza- 
nious in colour, but not without character. | rus (1849); Death of St. Joseph (1855), St. 
There are four Annunciations by this j Roch's, Paris; Man chasing Fortune, Man 
painter in the Florence Academy. Many i awaiting Fortune on his Couch (1857); 
of his scholars were so dissatisfied with j Baptism of Christ (1859); The Arts (1863); 
the traffic carried on by Neri in his studio, ! Christ on Mount of Olives (1864); Parthen- 
that they left him before their apprentice- ; ope (1865) ; Socrates exercising Patience 
ship was ended, to find other masters of (1868) ; JEsop composing a Fable (1869). 
higher tone. Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 232 ; In fresco : The Works of Mercy, The Cardi- 
ed. Mil., ii. 49, 69, 261 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. nal Virtues, St. Eustache, Paris ; Scenes in 
32. Lives of SS. Paul and Peter, St. Severin's, 



BICKER. See Miel. 

BIEFVE, EDOUARD DE, born in 



ib.; Institution des Quinze-Vingts (1880), 
St. Louis Lyceum, ib. Larousse, ii. 720. 



Brussels, Dec. 4, 1809, died there, Feb. ; BIERMANN, GOTTLIEB, born in Ber- 
7, 1882. History painter ; pupil of Brus- j lin, Oct. 13, 1824. History and portrait 
sels Academy, then in 1828-30 of Paelinck ; painter ; pupil of the Berlin Academy and 
went in 1831 to Paris, where he remained , of Wilhelm Wach ; went in 1849 to Paris, 
ten years, sending his works to the exhibi- where he studied under ^Cogniet, and 
tions in Antwerp, Ghent, and Brussels. His thence to Italy. Studio in Berlin since 
masterpiece, Compromise of the Nobles at 1 1853 ; painted at first historical subjects, 
Brussels in 1566 (Brussels Museum and ; but now paints chiefly portraits, excelling 
National Gallery, Berlin), exhibited in Ghent , in children's groups and female figures, 
in 1841, and which won him the gold Member of and professor in the Berlin 
medal, was exhibited throughout Germany. Academy. Works : Death of Gustavus 
Member of the Berlin, Dresden, Munich, | Adolphus, Episode from Battle of Kunners- 

150 



BIERMANX 



dorf ; genre scenes from Italian Life ; Vales- 
ka, the Gipsy-Queen (1877); Esther (1880). 
Mailer, K, 50; Illustr. Zeitg. (1882), 
L 252 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 323. 

BIERMANN, KARL EDUARD, born in 
Berlin, July 26, 1803. Landscape painter, 
studied from nature in Tyrol, Switzerland, 
and Italy, and became one of the founders 
of the Berlin school of landscape painting. 
He executed some of the wall paintings 
in the new Museum. Is member of and 
professor in the Berlin Academy. Works : 
Three Views from Switzerland and Tyrol 
(1830-32), National Gallery, Berlin ; View 
in Florence (1834); Milan Cathedral, Tasso's 
Oak (1830); Evening in the High Alps ; Isle 
of Phihe, Temple of Edfu, Temple Courtyard 
at Karnak, Ruins of Amphitheatre at Syra- 
cuse, Berlin Museum ; sixteen views from 
Diilmatia in water colours. Brockhaus, iii. 
36 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., iii. 451; Mttller, 50; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 332. 

BIERSTADT, ALBERT, born in Dttssel- 
dorf, Germany, Jan. 
7, 1830. Landscape 
painter ; brought by 
his parents in 1831 
to New Bedford, 
Mass., where his 
youth was spent ; be- 
gan to paint in oils 
in 1851, went to Diis- 
seldorf in 1853, stud- 
ied four years there 
and in Rome. On his return to the United 
States in 1857 he made a sketching tour in 
the Rocky Mountains, and from this and 
other visits to the West gathered materials 
for his most important pictures. Again vis- 
ited Europe in 1867, 1878, and 1883. Elect- 
ed N.A. in 1860 ; medals in Austria, Ger- 
many, Bavaria, and Belgium ; L. of Honour, 
1867 ; Order of St. Stanislaus, 1869, second j 
class, 1872. The Emperor of Germany re- 
cently sent his photograph with autograph 
to Mr. Bierstadt. Studio in New York. His 
studio at Irvington, N. Y., was destroyed by 
fire in 1882 with many valuable pictures. ' 




Works: Laramie Peak (1861), Academy of 
Fine Arts, Buffalo ; Rocky Mountains 
Lander's Peak (1863), James McHenry ; 
North Fork of the Platte (1864), Henry 
Hilton, New York ; Looking down the Yo- 
seniite (1865), W. H. Crosby ; El Capitau 
Merced River (1866), L. Tuckerman, New 
York; Storm in Rocky Mountains Mt. 
Rosalie (1866), T. W. Kennard ; Valley of the 
Yosemite (1866), James Lenox Collection, 
New York; Burning Ship, August Belmout, 
New York ; Settlement of California, Capi- 
tol at Washington ; Emerald Pool, Mt. 
Whitney (1870), Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New 
York; In the Rocky Mountains (1871); 
Great Trees of California (1874) ; Valley of 
Kern's River California (1875) ; Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg; Mt. Whitney Sierra Ne- 
vada (1#77), Lewis Roberts ; Estes Park 
Colorado, Earl of Duuraven ; Mountain Lake, 
Mt Corcoran Sierra Nevada (1878), Corco- 
ran Gallery, Washington ; Geysers (1883) ; 
Storm on the Matterhorn, View on Kern 
River (J.884); Discovery of Hudson River, 
Capitol at Washington. He is now (1885) 
engaged on a series of paintings represent- 
ing the wild animals of America. 

BIGG, WILLIAM RADMORE, born in 
Jan., 1755, died in London, Feb. 6, 1828. 
Genre painter ; student of Royal Academy 
in 1778; elected an A.R.A. in 1787, and 
R.A. in 1814. His Shipwrecked Sailor 
Boy, Boys relieving a Blind Man, Black 
Monday, and others, are engraved, and 
were popular. Sandby, i. 349. 

BIGIO, FRANCIA, 
born in Florence, in 
1482, died there, Jan. 
14, 1525. Florentine 
school ; real name Fran- 
cesco di Cristofano, but 
commonly called Fran- 
cia Bigio, which Baldi- 
nucci erroneously makes 
into Marcantonio Fran- 
ciabigi. Vasari gener- 
ally calls him H Francia. Pupil of Mariotto 
Albertinelli, whose style he followed, though 




157 



BIGORDI 




later he modified it by study of Andrea del 
Sarto, who became his intimate friend, imi- 
tator, and associate. Among his earlier 
works are the Annunciation (like Alberti- 
nelli), Turin Museum, and a Madonna with 
Job and John the Baptist, Uffizi, Florence. 
In 1513 he painted the Marriage of the 
Virgin in the Court of the Servi, Florence. 
The monks having removed the screens 
which concealed it before it was quite fin- 
ished, Bigio was so angry that he struck out 
the head of the Virgin and some other heads j 
with a hammer. The fresco, which has 
never been repaired, is his masterpiece in 
this kind of painting. His portraits are his 
best works, some of them so fine that they 
have passed under the names of Raphael 
and of Francia. Good examples are in the 
Louvre, Pitti (his own portrait), and Berlin 
Museum. Pictures of his later 
period are : Bathsheba in the 
Bath (1523), Dresden Gallery; 
and the Temple of Hercules, 
Uffizi, Florence. C. & C., Italy, iii. 500 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ix. 96; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
florentine ; Baldinucci, ii. 129 ; Burckhardt, 
G37 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 174. 

BIGORDI, DOMENICO. See Ghirlan- 
dajo. 

BHJ3ERS, JOHANNES WARNARDUS, 
born at Utrecht, Aug. 8, 1811. Landscape 
painter, self-taught ; his conception and 
tone are suggestive of Corot. Went to Wies- 
baden in 1859, invited by the King of Hol- 
land, to paint the panorama of the ruins of 
Kloster Klarenthal, now in the Hague Mu- 
seum. Other works in Amsterdam and 
Haarlem Museums, and Carlsruhe Gallery. 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 143. 

BILEVELT, JOHAN, born at Maestricht, 
in 1576, died at Florence, April 25, 1644. 
Florentine school ; history painter, pupil of 
Cigoli in Florence, whither he went with his 
father, a picture-dealer, very early in life, 
and where his name was transformed into 
Bilivelti, Biliverti, or Bilivetti. Accompanied 
Cigoli to Rome to assist in the decoration of 
St. Peter's, and completed several of the 



pictures after that master's death. "With the 
qualities of Cigoli he endeavoured to unite 
the expression of Titi and the ornamentation 
of Paolo Veronese ; formed several distin- 
guished pupils. Works : Elevation of the 
Cross (masterpiece), Santa Croce, Florence ; 
Holy Family, Chastity of Joseph, Judith, 
Uffizi, ib.; others in S. Gaetano, S. Marco, 
and other churches, ib.; Christ and the 
Woman of Samaria, Vienna Museum. Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, ii. 420 ; Baldinucci, No- 
tizie, xiv. 34 ; Lauzi (Roscoe), i. 213. 

BILLET, PIERRE, bom at Cantin (Nord), 
France ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
pupil of Jules Breton. Medals : 3d class, 
1873; 2d class, 1874. Works: Young Peas- 
ant Woman (1867); Consequences of a Game 
of Cards, Waiting (1868) ; Mayor's Party, 
Fisher at Ambleteuse (1869), Bordeaux Mu- 
seum ; Fishers in Environs of Boulogne 
(1870), Lille Museum; Waiting, High Tide- 
Coast of Normandy (1872), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Return from Market, Women cutting 
Grass (1873) ; Tobacco Smugglers, Women 
gathering Wood (1874); In Winter, Souvenir 
of Ambleteuse (1875) ; Fountain at Yport, 
Young Kitchen Gardener (1876) ; Shrimp 
Fishers (1883); Marsh of Arleux (1884); Re- 
turn from Seashore (1885). In the Uni- 
^^ ted States: 

Brittany 
Peasant 
Girl, Au- 
gust Bel- 
mont, New 
York ; On the Seashore, C. Parsons, St. 
Louis ; Noonday Rest, E. Davis, New York. 
Menard ; Portfolio (1875), 19. 

BILLING, LARS TEODOR, born at As- 
bo, Sweden, Oct. 6, 1817. Landscape painter; 
pupil of Stockholm Academy, but studied 
chiefly from nature. Travelled in Sweden, 
and in 1856-59 in Denmark, Germany, 
Switzerland, Belgium, and France. Works : 
Swiss Landscape, Convent on the Rhine, 
View in Norrland, Stockholm Museum ; De- 
serted Mill ; Summer Evening on Malar 
Lake. Miiller, 25. 




158 



BIN 



BIN, (JEAN BAPTISTE PHILIPPE) 
EMTLE, born in Paris, Feb. 10, 1825. His- 
tory painter ; pupil of Gosse, L. Cogniet, 
and Ecole des Beaux Arts, where be won the 
2d prix de Rome in 1850. His principal 
work has been the decoration of public and 
private buildings. Medals in 1865, 18G9 ; 
L. of Honour, 1878. Works : " Peace, do 
not Grieve" (1861); Orpheus put to Death 
by Bacchantes (1863) ; Atalanta and Hippo- 
menes (1864) ; Perseus and Andromeda 
(1865), Tours Museum ; Hercules killing 
his Wife and Children while Insane (1866), 
Nantes Museum ; Prometheus Chained (1869), 
Marseilles Museum ; Venus Astatic (1874); 
Hail Gesar (1875). He decorated the Poly- 
teehnicon in Zurich (18G5-70), many of the 
ceilings of the Hotel du Louvre and of the 
Grand Hotel, Paris. Vapereau, (1880), 219. 

BINCK, JACOB, bom in Cologne between 
1490 and 1504, died in Kiinigsberg, 1568 or 
1569. German school; portrait painter; sup- 
posed to have been at Nuremberg and taught 
by Durer before he visited Italy at an early 
age. Included among the Little Masters, 
though portrait painting was his chief occu- 
pation, and engraving but an episode in his 
career. Appointed court painter to Christian 
HI. king of Denmark in 1531, he several 
times absented himself from Copenhagen in 
the service of Albert of Brandenburg, which 
he finally entered in July, 1551, and thence- 
forward resided at Konigsberg. He em- 
ployed himself in planning fortresses and 
redoubts, designing monuments, and in 
painting the portraits of his friends. Works : 
Portraits of Christian HI. and Queen Doro- 
thea, Copenhagen Museum. Fine Arts 
Quarterly (1864), 372 ; Scott, 115 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 184 ; W. & W., ii. 491; Allg. d. 
Biog., ii. 642 ; Merlo, 35. 

BINDER, JOSEF, born in Vienna, Feb. 
15, 1805, died there, April 16, 1863. His- 
tory painter ; studied in Vienna and in 
1827-34 in Munich. Painted at first por- 
traits, then historical subjects, in which he 
excelled. In 1836 he became professor at the 
Stiidel Institute in Frankfort, but returned 



to Vienna in 1847; became member of the 
Academy in 1848, and professor in 1851. 
Works: Elopement of Psyche (1832); Angels' 
Watch (1836); Three Magi (1846); Emperor 
Albrecht II, Kaisersaal, Frankfort; Madon- 
na ; Conversion of Julian ; Door-Keeper of 
Heaven ; St. Florian ; St. Catherine of Siena 
visiting poor Family; St. Eustachius Hunt- 
ing, Romulus and Remus, Vienna Museum. 
Meyer, Con. Lex., iii. 488 ; Wiirzbach, i. 
400. 

BINET, ADOLPHE GUSTAVE, bora at 
La RivitTe-Saint-Sauveur (Calvados); con- 
temporary. Genre and portrait painter ; pu- 
pil of Gcrome. Medal, 3d class, 1885. Works: 
The Omnibus (1881); Avenue des Champs- 
Elysees, The Villagers (1882); Idleness, Cor- 
ner of the Meadow (1883) ; Cab-Stand at Quai 
de lHotel de Ville, Sand-Loaders at Quai 
d'Austerlitz {1884); Timber Wagon at Mont- 
I'ouge, Les Anes de Robinson (1885). 

BINET, VICTOR JEAN BAPTISTE 
BARTHELEMY, born at Rouen ; contem- 
porary. Landscape painter. Medal, 3d 
class, 1882. Works : Seine at St. Aubin 
(1880) ; Cote-Pelee (1881) ; Passing Wave, 
Old Road of Arcueil (1882) ; Corner of 
Orchard at St. Aubin-sur-Quillebeuf (1883) ; 
On the Heights of Heurteauville, Morning at 
St. Aubin (1884); Old Road near Bicetre, 
September Morning (1885). 

BING, VALENTIN, born at Amsterdam, 
April 22, 1812. History and genre painter; 
pupil of Kruseman ; since 1838 his pictures 
have met with great success at exhibitions 
in Holland. Works : Mark the Evangelist ; 
Isaac and Rebecca ; John the Evangelist ; 
Woman from Isle of Schockland. Mflller, 
52. 

BIRCH, THOMAS, born in London, 
England, in 1779, died in Philadelphia in 
1851. Portrait and marine painter ; came 
to America in 1793. Painted portraits in 
Philadelphia until 1807, when a visit to the 
Capes of Delaware turned his attention to 
marine painting. He was also successful in 
snow-scenes. Works : Engagement between 
United States and Macedonian ; Engage- 



169 



BlllD 



ment between Constitution and Guerriore ; 
Engagement between Wasp and Frolic, Har- 
rison Collection, Philadelphia ; three Marine 
Views, Claghorn Collection, Philadelphia. 

BIRD, EDWARD, born at Wolverhamp- 
ton, England, April 12, 1772, died at Bristol, 
Nov. 2, 1819. History and genre painter ; 
after learning to paint landscapes, fruits, and 
flowers on Japan ware became a drawing 
master, and in 1807 exhibited some pictures 
at Bath which brought him into notice. His 
first works were genre subjects, such as The 
Blacksmith's Shop, The Young Recruit, and 
The Country Auction, but he soon began to 
paint religious and historical subjects with 
such success that he was appointed painter 
to the Princess Charlotte, and became in 
1812 an A.R.A., and in 1815 R.A. Still, 
his earlier works are the best, his more am- 
bitious conceptions being beyond his ability 
to complete. Works : Raffle for the Watch, 
National Gallery ; Day after Chevy Chase, 
Death of Eli, Stafford House, London ; 
Queen Philippa supplicating for the Lives of 
the Burghers of Calais (1814); Crucifixion 
(1817); Death of Sapphira (1818). Nat. 
Gal. Cat.; Cunningham ; Art Union, 1843, 
92 ; F. de Conches, 329 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
anglaise ; Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 352. 

BISET, KAREL EMANUEL, born at 
Mechlin, baptized Dec. 26, 1033, died at 
Breda in 1680. Flemish school ; genre and 
portrait painter ; went early to Paris, where 
his pictures, representing festal assemblies, 
balls, etc., were much in vogue ; returned 
to Flanders and entered the service of 
Comte de Monterey, Governor of the 
Netherlands ; settled soon after at Ant- 
werp, where he was received into the guild 
in 1661 ; became a citizen in 1663, and dean 




of the guild, and director of the Academy in 
1675. Works : Tell shooting at the Apple 
on his Sou's Head, Brussels Museum ; 



Flemish Interior, Rotterdam Museum. 
Biogr. nat. cle Belgique, ii. 440 ; Fetis, Cat. 
du Musce Royal, 253. 

BISI, LUIGI, Cavaliere, born in Milan, 
May 10, 1814. Architecture and landscape 
painter ; pupil of Fr. Durelli at Milan 
Academy, of which he became professor of 
perspective, and later, president. Paints 
chiefly interiors. W T orks : Interior of Milan 
Cathedral (1840), Vienna Museum ; Orsan- 
michele in Florence, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; S. Marco, Milan Cathedral, in Milan 
Academy ; View of Bellagio ; Choir in St. 
Ambrosius, Milan ; Interior of S. Michele, 
ib. ; Church of St. Francis of Assisi, Amster- 
dam Exposition, 1883. Wurzbach, i. 411. 

BISPHAM, HENRY COLLINS, born in 
Philadelphia, June 9, 1841, died in Rome, 
Dec. 22, 1882. Animal painter ; pupil in Phil- 
adelphia of Edmund D. Lewis and William 
T. Richards, and studied in Paris under Otto 
Weber and E. van Marcke. Professional 
life passed in Philadelphia, New York, Paris, 
and Rome ; served in army in 1862, in the 
Cumberland Valley, in Pennsylvania, and in 
Maryland. Was successful in the delineation 
of wild animals and cattle. W T orks : Cav- 
alry Raid (1863); Dead in the Desert, 
Roman Bull (1867) ; Roman Wine-Cart 
(1868); On the Campagna, To the Front, 
Noonday Rest (1869); Hunting Dogs, Four- 
in-Hand, Polo (1870); Hunted Down (1871); 
The Stampede (1872); Misty Day (1873); 
Ross Castle (1874); Study of Figures (1875); 
The Lion "Sultan" (1879); Pennsylvania 
Academy ; Valee du Var (1880) ; Roman 
Oxen Ploughing (1881) ; Friendly Over- 
tures, Roman Horses (1882). 

BISSCHOP, CHRISTOPH, born at Leeu- 
warden ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
pupil in Paris of Comte and Gleyre. Lives 
at The Hague. Works : Rembrandt going 
to Lecture on Anatomy (1867); Burgomas- 
ter's Daughter, Cradle-Painter (1872); Cu- 
riosity-Shop ; The Victim ; Christening Day 
in Frieslaud ; Wedding Day ; Winter in 
Friesland ; The Prisoner's Song ; The Lord 
has given, the Lord has taken away (1880) ; 



160 



I3ISSOLO 



The Critical Moment, Crown-Jewels, Visit to 
Grandmamma (1883). Mailer, 52. 

BISSOLO, PIETBO FRANCESCO, born 
in Treviso. Venetian school ; painted from 
about 1490 to 1530 ; pupil of the Bellini ; 
fellow-labourer of Catena and Marco Marzi- 
ale in the Sola del Gran Consiglio in 1492. 
He ranked among the better followers of 
Giovanni Bellini, and probably helped him 
in many of his pictures. His earliest known 
work, the Annunciation, Manfrini Gallery, 
Venice, shows careful and conscientious 
work, but a lack of strength. The Resur- 
rection in the Berlin Museum is one of his 
most agreeable works, and his best exam- 
ple out of Italy. One of his largest altar- 
pieces is Coronation of St. Catherine of 
Siena, Venice Academy. Thought by C. & 



C. to be identical with Pietro de' Ingannati, 
author of a Madonna in Berlin Museum. 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 286 ; Burckhardt, 602 ; 
Lermolieff, 179, 412; Lttbke, GescL itaL 
Mai., i. 554. 

BITTERLICH, EDUARD, bora at Stup- 
nicka, Galicia, in 1840, died at Pressbaum, 
near Vienna, May 20, 1872. History paint- 
er ; pupil in Vienna of Waldmuller ; be- 
came afterwards the most prominent assist- 
ant of Rahl, after whose death he executed, 
with Griepenkerl, that master's composi- 
tions for the new Opera House. Works : 
Pompeian Scenes, Palazzo Ypsilanti ; Twen- 
ty Lunettes, Dining Room, Grand Hotel ; 
The Arts, Tietz Mansion ; Paintings in Pal- 
ace Epstein, all in Vienna. Kunst-Chronik, 
vii. 37. 

BIZZERA. See Becerra. 

BLAAS, EUGEN, born at Albano, near 
Rome, July 24, 1843. History painter ; son 
and pupil of Karl Blaas ; studied at Ven- 
ice Academy, and at the Vienna Academy, 
whence he went to Rome and Paris as Aus- 
trian pensionary. Visited afterwards Bel- 
gium and England, and settled in Venice, 
whence he draws most of his subjects. 
Works : Conversion of the Raetians by St. 



' Valentine, Introduction of Decameron Gi- 
otto and Cimabue, Faust and Marguerite, 
Dogaressa going to Church, Bridal Proces- 
sion in S. Marco, Venetian Masquerade, 
The Page, Scene from Decameron, Venetian 
Balcony Scene, Serious Story, Excursion to 
Murano, Vienna Museum. Kunst-Chronik, 
xiii. 376 ; Mttller, 53 ; niustr. Zeitg. (1871), 
ii. 238 ; (1883), i. 525 ; ii. 403. 

BLAAS, JULIUS, bora at Albano in 1843. 
Animal painter, especially of horses ; son 
and pupil of Karl B., went to Rome, where 
he painted genre scenes from the Cam- 
pagna ; afterwards made a trip around the 
world. Works: Race of Intoxicated Sla- 

vouic Peasants (1860), Vienna Museum ; 

! Fox and Stag Hunts, Horse-herds, etc. 

BLAAS, KARL VON, born at Nauders, 
Tyrol, May 28, 1815. History painter; 
pupil of Venice Academy under Lipparini, 
then in Florence and Rome, where, influ- 
enced by Overbeck and Koch, he devoted 
himself to ecclesiastical art, and genre scenes 
of a ritual character. In 1850 he was ap- 
pointed professor at the Vienna Academy, 
painted several frescos in the Alt-Lerchen- 

: feld church, and accepted in 1855 the nomi- 
nation as professor at the Venice Academy. 
Some years later he began to execute for 
the Vienna Arsenal forty-two fresco paint- 

i ings, from Austrian history, which occupied 
him eleven yeara Recently he has, besides 
portraits, painted genre and mythological 

| scenes. Works : Tullia driving over her 
Father's Body (1832); Miracle of Roses, 
Return of Jacob from Labau (1841), Vienna 
Museum ; Madonna in Glory, St. Catherine 
borne by Angels, Christ at Emmaus, Christ 
on Mount of Olives, Mass for Reapers in the 
Campagna, thirty-three frescos for church at 
Foth, near Pesth, Charlemagne visiting 
Boys' School, Vienna Museum ; Portrait of 
Cardinal Primate of Hungary (1854); Rape 
of Venetian Brides in 6th century (1858), 
Innsbruck Museum ; forty-two scenes in 
fresco, Vienna Arsenal ; Rape of a Nymph, 

! Danae, Nymph and Satyr ; Sunday Morning 
at Albano (1879) ; Adam and Eve, C. C. Per- 



161 



BLAGUE 



kins, Boston. Portraits of Francis Joseph I. 
and of Queen of Spain. Miiller, 53 ; Ulustr. 
Zeitg. (1880), ii. 258. 

BLACHE, CHRISTIAN VIGILIUS, born 
at Aarhus, Denmark, Feb. 1, 1838. Marine 
painter and illustrator ; pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy; visited Holland, France, 
Italy, and Germany in 1872-73, Paris in 
1878. Works: Seaport (18G3); View at 
Begtrupvigen (1864), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Danish Men-of-War (1865); High Tide near 
Kronborg (1869); On the Coast of Scheven- 
ingen ; Life-Boat ; Steamboat in Heavy Sea 
(1879); Soren Kannel (1877); Squadron 
(1880); Schooner passing Skagen (1881); 
Calm Sea with Lighthouse on Scotch Coast 
(1882). Sigurd Mtiller, 26 ; Weilbach, 71. 

BLACK BEUNSWICKEES, John Ever- 
ett Millais, private gallery, England. The 
parting between a young officer of the 
Brunswick Hussars and his wife or fiancee, 
perhaps in 1815, when the Brunswick troops 
marched to join the British army. The 
black uniform, faced with light blue, was a 
mourning habit which the corps bound 
themselves to wear until they had avenged 
the death of their late Duke. On the wall 
is hung the engraving of Napoleon crossing 
the Alps. Companion to the Huguenot 
Lover. Royal Academy, 1860. Art Journal 
(1860), 162. 

BLACKBURN, JONATHAN B., born in 
Connecticut about 1700, died after 1760. 
Portrait painter ; worked from 1750 to 1765 
in Boston, which he left, it is conjectured, 
because he felt himself outdone by Copley, 
who is said to have been his pupil. Por- 
traits : Joseph and Mrs. Allan (Miss An- 
drews, Boston) ; Mr. Amory (Ed. Sohier, 
Longwood) ; Ch. and Miss Apthorp (Mrs. T. 
Swett, Boston) ; Col. and Mrs. Th. Atkinson 
(Mrs. M. W. Tredick, Nokesville, Va.) ; Th. 
Atkinson, Jr. (F. A. Freeman, Hanover, N. 
H.); Mrs. R. Ball (W. H. Edes, Charlestown); 
Mrs. Barrell (Miss Barrell, York, Me.) ; Mrs. 
Th. Bulfinch (Mrs. T. Swett, Boston) ; Mrs. 
Cabot (Geo. G. Lowell) ; Members of Cun- 
ningham family (Mr. A. S. Parker, Boston) ; 



two half-length portraits (Dr. Dearing, 
Utica, N. Y.) ; Mr. and Mrs. J. Ewing (Mrs. 
S. Ewing, Boston) ; James and Mary Flag 
(Rev. Geo. E. Ellis) ; Ellis Gray (W. F. 
Gary, Boston) ; Mr. and Mrs. \V. and Mrs. 
J. Greenleaf (R. C. Greenleaf, Boston) ; Mr. 
and Mrs. B. Hall (Dr. Hall Curtis, Boston) ; 
Rev. J. and Mrs. Hancock (Public Library, 
Lexington) ; Mr. and Mrs. D. Henchman 
(D. Henchman, Boston) : Mi 1 , and Mrs. R. 
Inman (W. Arnory, Boston) ; Judge Lowell 
(A. Lowell, Boston); Win. A and Mrs. Oliver, 
Jr. ( Dr. F. E. Oliver) ; James Otis (1755), 
Mr. G. Phillips (Mrs. W. E. Fette) ; Mrs. 
Phillips (Mrs. M. A. Jones, Boston) ; Mr. 
and Mrs. B. Pollard (Miss M. V. Winslow, 
ib.) ; Saltonstall family (R. W. Hubbard, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.) ; Margaret Temple (Hon. 
R. C. Winthrop, Boston) ; P. Tracy (P. T. 
Jackson, Boston) ; Edward Winslow, Gen. J. 
Winslow (Mass. Hist. Soc.) ; Joshua Wins- 
low (Miss M. V. Winslow) ; Winslow family 
picture (1757, S. W. Winslow, Boston) ; 
Mr. E. S. Winslow (Arthur Pickering, Rox- 
bury). A T. Perkins, Sketches of Black- 
bum and Smibert, Proceedings Mass. Hist. 
Soc. (1878), viii. 385. 

BLACKSTADIUS, JOHAN, born at Fal- 
kenberg, Sweden, March 14, 1816. His- 
tory painter ; pupil of Stockholm Academy ; 
painted portraits and altarpieces in Finland, 
in 1845-50, visited Paris and Italy, and re- 
turned to Sweden in 1854 via Switzerland 
and Germany. Fellow of Stockholm Acad- 
emy. His principal work is St. Siegfried 
baptising in Gothland. Miiller, 54. 

BLAKE, WIL- 
LIAM, born in Lon- 
don, Nov. 28, 1757, 
died there. Aug. 12, 
1827. Designer in 
water-colours ; stu- 
dent in drawing at 
Pars' school ; when 
fourteen years old 
apprenticed for sev- 
en years to James 
Basire, engraver ; afterward studied in An- 




163 



BLAKELOCK 



tique School of Royal Academy. Began by I painter ; pupil of Bin and Cabanel. Won 
making designs for book illustrations, of the pris de Rome in 18G7. Medals : 1870 ; 



which he published a great number, many 
of them in colours. He exhibited a few 
works at the Royal Academy, among them 
Death of Earl Godwin (1780); Breach in a 
City the Morning after Battle, War un- 
chained by an Angel (1784); History of Jo- 
seph (1785); Last Sapper (1799); Jacob's 



Dream, Christ 
Angels (1808). 



in Sepulchre guarded by 
In the National Gallery is 



his Spiritual Form of Pitt guiding Behe- 



moth. He also published many works en- 
graved by himself, and poems illustrated by 
himself. Gilchrist, Life (London, 1863); 
Swinburne, Life (London, 1868); Cat. Nat. 
Gal. ; C. Carr, Essays, 35 ; Rossetti, Memoir 
in his edition of Blake's Poems 
(1876), 67. 

BLAKELOCK, RALPH ALBERT, bom 
New York, in 1847. Self-taught. Stu- 



1st class, 1872 ; 2d class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1878. Works : Thetis taking to Achil- 
les the Arms forged by Vulcan, Murder 
of Laius by (Edipus (1867); The First Sin 
(1869); Perseus (1870), Luxembourg; Re- 
moval of the Palladium (1872); The Inva- 
sion (1873); The Rescue, Clovis's Vow in 
the Battle of Tolbia and his Baptism (1876), 
sketch of paintings for the Pantheon ; Brig- 
and's Wife (1878), M. Pasteur ; Judith and 



in 



dio in New York. Works: Indian 
TJinta Tribe, T. B. Clarke, New York 



of Buffalo Hunt, Shooting the Arrow (1880); 
Cloverdale California, Moonlight, Indian 
Fisherman (1882); "Cool wooded shades, 
abode of stately deer," Bannock Wigwam 
in Peaceful Vale (1883). 

BLANC, LOUIS AMMY, born in Berlin, 
Aug. 9, 1810, died in Dusseldorf, April 7, 
1885. Genre and portrait painter ; pupil, 
from 1829, of the Berlin Academy, and 
from 1833, under Hdbner, of the Dussel- 
dorf Academy ; painted at first subjects 



Holofernes, My Lieutenant (1879); Clovis's 
Triumph (1881); The Tiber (1885). 

BLANCHARD, EDOUARD THEO- 
PHILE, born in Paris, April 18, 1844, died 
there, Oct. 24, 1879. Genre, history, and por- 
Portfolio trait painter ; pupil of Picot and of Cabanel ; 
was third in 1866 for the grand prix de 
Rome, second in 1867, and won it in 1868. 
Medals : 2d class, 1872 ; 1st class, 1874. 
Girl Works: Panel for a Dining-Room (1867); 
Story Death of Astyanax (1868), painted with 



from mediueval romance, then portraits in 
Hanover in 1840-42, and in Darmstadt in 
1846-47 ; visited England and France in 
1857. Works: Praying Woman, The 



Regnault and Clairin ; The Courtesan 
(1872); Hylas entrapped by the Nymphs 
(1874); Cortegiana (1875); LeLutriu (1876); 
Fraucesca da Rimini (1880). Kunst- 
Chronik, xv. 107. 

BLANCHARD, (HENRI PETROS LE- 
ON) PHARAMOND, bom at La Guillotiere 
(Rhone), Feb. 27, 1805, died in Paris, Dec. 
19, 1873. History and landscape painter ; pu- 
pil in Paris of Chasselat and Gros ; travelled 
in Spain (1833), Africa, Mexico (1838), Ger- 



many, France, and Russia (1856), and exhib- 
ited at the Salon almost every year after 
1833. Medal, 3d class, 1836 ; L. of Honour, 
1840. Works : Disarmament of Vera Cruz 
Church-Goer (1835) ; Goldsmith's Daughter j (1840), Versailles Museum ; Balboa discover- 
(1836) ; Marguerite in Church (1838); Girls ing South Sea (1855), bought by State ; Val- 
fishing (1838), National Gallery, Berlin ; ley of Jehoshaphat ; March of Division of 
Susanna at the Bath, Otto the Shot, Mar- French Army on Mexico (1865), bought by 
guerite at Martha's, Italian Shepherd-Boy, 
Girl fallen Asleep, Expectation, Red Riding- 
Hood. Meyer, Conv. Lex., iii. 539 ; Muller, 



54. 

BLANC, PAUL JOSEPH, born at Mont- 
martre (Paris), Jan. 25, 1846. Genre 



-Ottley ; Vapereau 



Ministry of Fine Arts.- 
(1865), 202. 

BLANCHARD, JACQUES, born in Paris, 
Oct. 1, 1600, died there in 1638. Pupil of 
his uncle J6r6me Bolley ; went to Lyons in 
1620, and spent four years in studying with 



IK! 



BLANCHE! 




and assisting Horace Le BLanc ; then spent 
two years at Koine, and some time at Venice, 

where bystudy 
of the old mas- 
tershesomuch 
improved as a 
colourist that 
on his return 
home he was 
called the 
French Titian. 
He painted ! 
now destroyed 
works in the Hotel Perault and Hotel Bul- 
lion, Paris, and in Turin the loves of Venus 
and Adonis for the Duke of Savoy. Works : 
Holy Family, The Virgin and St. Anne, 
Charity, St. Paul, Louvre. Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
frai^aise. 

BLANCHET, THOMAS, born in Paris, in 
1617, died in Lyons, in 1689. French school; 
studied in Italy under Albani, Andrea Sacclii, 
and Poussin. After his return painted a St. 
Paul for Notre Dame (1663), and then settled 
in Lyons, where he decorated the Hotel de 
Ville, and founded an Academy (1681), from ' 
which proceeded many able artists. Nearly i 
all his works were destroyed in 1793. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole fran^aise ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1874), x. 278. 

BLANCKARTS, MORITZ, born in Dus- 
seldorf, April 16, 1839, died in Stuttgart, 
April 12, 1883. Battle painter ; pupil of 
Pliischke and of Vautier, then at Dttsseldorf 
Academy under Christian Kuhler, in 1857 of 
Leutze, and in 1858-59 of Hiinten ; and 
completed his studies by travels through 
Germany and Belgium. Works : Death of 
Korner (1859); Death of Major Schill (1860); 
York at Mockern (1863) ; King William at 
Koniggriitz (1867); Death of Col. Auerswald 
(1872); Bazaine at Mars la Tour(1873); Death 
of Col. Count Finkenstein (1874) ; Prince 
Leopold of Coburg at Kulm (1875) ; Depar- 
ture ; Hussars at the Inn ; Crown Prince of 
Prussia greeting the Bavarians after the Vic- 
tory of Worth. Ulustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 
117; Miiller, 55 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 466. 



BLASHFIELD, EDWIN HOWLAND, 
born in New York, Dec. 25, 1848. Subject 
painter ; pupil of Bonnat in Paris. Visited 
Europe in 1867, remaining abroad eleven 
years. Member of Society of American Ar- 
tists. Elected an A.N.A. in 1882. Studio 
in New York. Works : Emperor Commodus 
leaving the Amphitheatre at the head of 
the Gladiators (1878); Roman Woman (1879); 
The Besieged (1880); Souvenir of Mentone; 
Toreador (1881) ; Music, Suspense, Autumn 
(1882) ; Allegretto, Andante, Minute Men 
(1883) ; Decorative Panels, Morning, etc. 
(1884), H. McK Twombly, New York. 

BLAU, TINA, born in Vienna, Nov. 15, 
1847. Landscape painter ; pupil in Vienna 
of August Schiiffer, and in Munich of Linden- 
schmit. Has travelled in Bohemia, Hun- 
gary, Holland, and repeatedly visited Italy. 
Works : Regulation of the Danube near Vi- 
enna ; Autumn in the Prater ; Canal near 
Amsterdam ; Autumn Day in Holland ; Arch 
of Titus in Rome ; Street in Venice ; View 
near Szolnok ; Bavarian Landscape ; Outside 
the City; Rain and Sunshine; Field-Flowers, 
April-Day, Spring in the Prater (1883). 
Mtiller, 55. 

BLAUVELT, CHARLES F., born in New 
York, in 1824. Genre painter ; pupil of the 
National Academy, and of Charles L. Elliot. 
Professional life passed in New York and 
Philadelphia. Elected N.A. in 1859, mem- 
ber of Pennsylvania Academy in 1864, made 
assistant professor of drawing at the United 
States Naval Academy, Annapolis, in 1878. 
Works : Warming Up ; Lost Child ; Night 
Signal ; Waiting for the Train ; Inquiring 
the Way ; Preparing for School ; Snowed In ; 
Burned Out ; Entrance to Old Fort Severn 
Annapolis (1880). 

BLECHEN, KARL EDUARD, born at 
Kottbus, July 29, 1798, died in Berlin, July 
23, 1840. Landscape painter ; studied at 
the Berlin Academy. In 1827 went to Italy 
and thenceforth painted chiefly Italian land- 
scapes. From 1830 he taught at the Berlin 
Academy, of which he was made member 
and professor in 1835. Works : Camp near 



1G4 



BLEIBTItEU 



Miiggel Lake, Villa Estc, View near Narni, 
Bathing Nymphs, Villa Borghese, Swiss Win- 
ter Landscape, View of Naples, Bay of Spez- 
zia ; View at Tivoli, National Gallery, Berlin. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 700; Kosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 329. 

BLEIBTREU, GEOKG, born at Xanten, 
March 27, 1828. Battle painter ; pupil of 
Dilsseldorf Academy in 1843-48, and again, 
shortly after, under Theodore Hildebraudt ; 
first won success with scenes from the 
Danish war. Later painted battles from the 
wars of Frederick the Great and the German 
war of deliverance. In 1858 he moved to 
Berlin, accompanied in 1866 the Prussian 
army in the suite of Prince Frederick 
Charles, and in 1870 in that of the Crown 
Prince. Member of Berlin Academy in 
18G9. Works : Battle of Holding, Destruc- 
tion of the Kiel Turner-Corps at Flensburg 
(1852); Battles of Grossbeeren, on the Katz- 
bach (1857); Battle of Aspern, Storming the 
Grimma Gate in Leipsic, Duke Ferdinand of 
Brunswick in Battle of Crefeld (1858); Epi- 
sode from Battle of Waterloo (1858) ; Skir- 
mishes on KOnigshiigel at Oeversee ; Cross- 
ing to Alsen, Battle of Koniggrittz, National 
Gallery, Berlin ; The Bavarians before Paris, 
Surrender of Napoleon after Sedan, Meeting 
of Moltke and Wimpffen, King William 
near a Battery before Paris, King W T illiam 
after Battle of Gravelotte, Napoleon's Flight 
after Battle of Waterloo (1878) ; Attack 
of Saxon Corps at St. Privat (1880); Storm- 
ing of Froschweiler by the Wilrtemberg 
Troops (1880) ; The Summons in 1813 
(1881), Arsenal, Berlin. Brockhaus, iii. 
15G; Mttller, 56; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 
157. 

BLEKER, DIRCK, born at Haarlem, 
nourished about 1650. Dutch school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, strongly suggest- 
ing the school of Rembrandt ; became a citi- 
zen of Amsterdam in 1652,and, to judge from 
the prices paid for his pictures, was among 
the most esteemed artists of his time. 
Works: Mary Magdalen (1652); Venus; 
Danae ; Male portrait (1657), Brunswick 



Gallery. Kramm, vii. 14; Riegel, Beitrage, 
ii. 282 ; WiUigen, 82. 

BLEKER, GERRIT CLAESZ, nourished 
at Haarlem, died there, buried Feb. 8, 
1656. Dutch school ; history and landscape 
painter; formed probably under the influence 
of Cornells van Haarlem and of Lastmann, 
later under that of Rembrandt. Works : 
Conversion of Saul, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra (1634), Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; Tobias and the Angel, Pesth 
Museum. Bode, Studien, 348 ; Riegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 223 ; Willigen, 81. 

BLES, DAVID, born at The Hague, 
Sept. 19, 1821. Genre painter ; pupil of 
Kruseman ; studied in 1841-43 in Paris, 
and visited afterwards Belgium and Eng- 
land. Paints chiefly humourous subjects. 
Order of Iron Crown (1850), Leopold (1855), 
L. of Honour (1870). Works : Young 
Household, Imagined Sickness of the Pas- 
tor (1848); Three Mothers, Flower Girl 
(1855); Diana in Painting, Diana in Life, 
Amateur Concert (1860) ; German Dining 
Room in 1795 (1862); Forbidden Novel 
(1863); Children's Duet, Precocious Lover, 
Siesta, Clandestine Correspondence (1864); 
Empty Place at Hearth (1868); Friends of the 
Family (1877); Dutch Booth in 1765 (1879). 
Larousse ; Mailer, 57. 

BLES, HERRI DE (Hendrik met de 
Blesse, Henricus Blesius), called also Ci- 
vetta, born at Bouvignes, near Namur, 
about 1480, died probably at Lii)ge, about 
1550 (? after 1521). Flemish school ; land- 
scape and history painter, in the manner of 
Joachim Pateuier, representing one of the 
last branches of the Van Eyck school, and in 
other respects the transition to the Italian- 
ized Flemish style of the following period. 
Lived also in Italy, painted at Venice and 
Brescia, and was of Mechlin in 1521 (?). 
His pictures (marked by the owl, whence 
the nickname Civetta), show an earlier and 
a later period ; the former characterized by 
great carefulness, the latter by exaggeration 
of naturalistic tendency. The colouring is 
usually grey, in his late examples cold and 



ItiS 



BLESSING 



unpleasant in tone. Works : Christ on 
the Cross, The Magdalen, St. Christopher 
carrying Infant Christ (attributed to Pate- 
nier), National Gallery, London ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, Brussels Museum ; 
Kepose in Egypt, Antwerp Museum ; Holy 
Family, Basle Museum ; St. Hubert Hunt- 
ing, Maurice Chapel, Nuremberg ; Adoration 
of the Magi (signed: Henricus Blessius F.), 
Angelic Salutation, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Male portrait with landscape, Berlin 
Museum ; Pedler robbed by Monkeys, Dres- 
den Gallery; Flight into Egypt (?), St. 
John Preaching, Good Samaritan, Walk to 
Emmaus, Kepose in Egypt (called style of 
Patenier), Museum, Vienna ; Christ bearing 
the Cross, St. John preaching, Academy, ib. ; 
St. Jerome in the Desert (attributed to Pate- 
nier), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Dante's In- 
ferno, Doge's Palace, Venice ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, Museo Civico, ib.; 
Tower of Babel, Academy, ib.; Madonna, 
Working a Mine, Uffizi, Florence ; Christ 
bearing the Cross, Palazzo Doria, Rome ; 

Landscapes (5), 
Naples Museum ; 
Adoration of the 
Magi (?), Milan 
Academy ; do. 
and Landscape 

(attributed to 

Patenier), Ma- 
drid Museum. Biogr. nat. de Belgique, ii. 
471 ; Michiels, iv. 368, 391 ; ix. 115 ; Rie- 
gel, Beitrage, ii. 44 ; Booses (Reber), 114 ; 
W. & W., ii. 522 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 
128. 

BLESSING THE HARVEST, (Benedic- 
tion des bles), Jules Breton, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 10 ft. 5 in. 
Ceremony of blessing the harvest in Artois. 
A procession, headed by young girls in 
white, followed by the priest under a canopy 
attended by choir boys, the village officials, 
and peasants in their old-fashioned holiday 
clothes, pass through the fields ; in fore- 
ground, women and children kneeling. 
Salon, 1857. Meyer, Gesck., 642. 





BLIND FIDDLER, Sir David Wilkie, 
National Gallery, London ; wood, H. 1 ft. 
J 11 in. x 2 ft. 7 in. An itinerant musician, 
seated at left, entertaining a cottager and 
his family by playing on his fiddle. Twelve 
figures ; accessories very elaborate. Painted 
in 1807 for Sir George Beaumont, who pre- 
sented it in 1826. Engraved by J. Burnet, 
T. Nicholson. Cat. Nat. Gal.; Heaton, 
Works of Sir D. W. ; Mollett, 26 ; Waagen, 
Art Treasures, i. 376. 

BLIND-MAN'S-BUFF, Sir David Wilkie, 
Buckingham Palace ; canvas. Cottagers 
playing blind-man's-buff in a kitchen. 
Painted in 1812 for George IV. when Prince 
Regent, who paid for it 300 guineas. Loan 
Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1883. Original 
sketch (1811) in National Gallery. En- 
graved by A. Raimbach, W. Greatbach. 
| Heaton, Works of Sir D. W. ; Mollett, 42, 
46 ; Waagen, Art Treasures, ii. 25 ; Art 
Journal (1860), 108. 

BLOCK, ALEXANDRE, born in Paris; 
contemporary. Landscape and genre paint- 
er ; pupil of Gerome and Bastien-Lepage. 
Medal, 3d class, 1885. Works: At the 
Antiquary's (1880) ; Banks of Seine at Vaux 
(1881), M. Deloru-re; Crab Fisherman, Mill 
of Jarcy (1882); Willows of Bonneuil, Che- 
min du Chapitre at Cretail (1883); Place de 
la Chapelle Paris, Brook of Moc-Souris 
Morbihan (1884); Defence of Rochefort-en- 
Terre April 29, 1793 (1885). 

BLOCK, KARL HEINRICH, born in 
Copenhagen, May 23, 1834. Genre and his- 
tory painter ; pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy ; studied from nature among peas- 
antry of Zealand and on coast of Jut- 
laud, and soon acquired reputation for hu- 
mourous pictures. Studio in Rome from 
1859 to 1865. Since then has painted 
mostly historical subjects. He is a member 
of and professor at the Copenhagen Acad- 
emy. Medals in 1852, 1853, 1864 ; Order 
of Dauebrog, 1867. Works : Peasant's 
Cottage (1854) ; Fisherman's Family on 
Shore (1858); Repast (1859); Fisherman 
from Sorrento (1861), Copenhagen Gallery; 



inc 



I3LOCK 



Old Bachelor, Two Monks (1862); Samson 
at the Mill (1863), Daughter of Jairus 
(1864), Copenhagen Gallery ; Roman Street | 
Barber (1864); Prometheus (1864) ; Twenty-! 
two Scenes from Life of Christ (1866-84), i 
Chapel of Castle Fredericksborg ; Christ 
and the Children, Christ the Consoler, 
Christ at Emmaus, Christ at Gethsem- 
ane, Resurrection, St. Jacob's Church, 
Copenhagen ; Sainson and Delilah (1874) ; 
Fishseller Woman (1876), Copenhagen Gal- 



partly serious, partly humourous. Medal, 
Paris, 1842 ; L. of Honour, 1846. Works : 
Flemish Inn (1833) ; Musical Party, Grand- 
father's Visit, Tavern-Interior, Rural Feast 
near Antwerp (1836) ; Politicians, Going 
Home from School (1855) ; Poacher's Wife, 
Hunter's Boy (1859) ; Flower Girl, Indiscreet 
Belles (1860) ; Reading the Bible, Sunday, 
Cold and Hunger (1862) ; The Smith, He is 
coming ! Art Journal (1866), 73 ; Immer- 
zeel, i. 59 ; Kramm, i. 100. 



==3 II, ', '. i >!!$ /'/////''/// 




Blind-Man's-Buff, Sir David Wilkie, Buckingham Palace. 



lery ; Hans Tavson protecting Bishop Ron- 1 
now, James of Scotland visiting Tycho dc > 
Brahe, Chancellor Niels Kaas and his 
Ward, Prince Christian, King Christian 
as Prisoner in Sonderburg, Interior in 
Time of Christian TV. (1881). Sigurd 
Miiller, 33 ; Weilbach, 72 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xviii. 37. 

BLOCK, EUGENICS FRANS DE, born 
at Grammont, East Flanders, May 14, 1812. 
Genre painter ; pupil at Ghent of Van Huffel, 
and in Antwerp of Braekeleer; since 1833 
has exhibited genre scenes from low life, 



BLOEMAERT, ABRAHAM, born at Gor- 
cum, Dec. 25, 
1564, died at Ut- 
recht about 1658. 
Dutch school ; 
history, portrait, 
and landscape 
painter ; pupil of 
Joost de Beer at 
Utrecht, and, af- / 
ter having stud- 
iedin Parisunder 
different masters in 1581-84, of Hierony 




BLOEMEN 



mus Francken at Herenthals ; returned 
to Utrecht, where, having for some time 
lived at Amsterdam (citizen there in 1591), 
he settled again before 1600, and is men- 
tioned as member and dean of the guild in 
1611-28. Treated all branches of painting 
from religious subjects down to still-life. 
Works : Ave Maria, Nativity (1612), Male 
portrait, Louvre, Paris ; Magdalen Repent- 
ant, Nantes Museum ; Hippomenes crowned 
in the Arena (1626); Marriage of Peleus 
(1638), Hague Museum ; Diogenes and the 
Booster, Eaising of Lazarus (1607), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; St. John preaching, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Argus and Mercury 
(1645), Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Andrew (copy after Caravag- 
gio), Old Man's Head (1635), Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Joseph's Second Dream, Berlin Muse- 
um; Nativity, St. John preaching in the 
Desert, SS. Peter and Paul, Brunswick Gal- 
lery ; Niobe, Venus and Adonis, Hercules 
and Omphale, Copenhagen Gallery. His 
son and pupil, Hendrik, master of the guild 
at Utrecht about 1630-32, repeatedly its 
dean, and last mentioned in 1664, imitated 
at first Italian masters, afterwards Rubens. 
Works : Paul before Agrippa (1634), Maria 
van Pallaes (1657), two others, Utrecht 

Museum; 
Male por- 
trait (1641), 
Brunswick 
Gallery ; do. (1648 ?), Dresden Gallery. 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, i. 
60 ; Kramm, i. 101 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 
166, 181 ; De Stuers, 14. 

BLOEMEN, JAN FRANS VAN, called 
Orizonte, baptized in Antwerp, May 12, 
1662, died in Rome about 1740 (?). Flem- 
ish school ; landscape painter, brother of 
Pieter van Bloemen, pupil of Antonius 
Goubau. Went early to Rome, where he 
painted Italian views, showing influence of 
Claude Lorrain and Gaspar Poussin. In- 
ferior to this master in grandeur of concep- 
tion, he excelled him in the delicate grada- 
tion of distance, whence called 1'Orizonte. 



Ai 




Among his numerous works are : Six land- 
scapes, Louvre ; Flight into Egypt, Lille 
Museum ; Myth of Latona, Berlin Museum ; 
Landscape, Dresden Museum ; Landscape, 
Brera, Milan ; three landscapes, Vienna 
Museum ; Armida, two others, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; several in Academy of St. 
Luke and other galleries, Rome. Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, ii. 488 ; Ch. Blanc, cole 
flamande ; Michiels, x. 334 ; Rooses (Reber), 
415. 

BLOEMEN, NORBERT VAN, called 

Cephalus, born at Antwerp, in Feb., 1670, 

died at Amsterdam, in 1746. Flemish 

\ school ; younger brother of Jan ; studied 

| in Antwerp and in Rome ; painted scenes in 

private life and portraits. Biog. nat. de 

Belgique, ii. 491. 

BLOEMEN, PIETER VAN, called Stan- 
daart, born in Antwerp, baptized Jan. 17, 
1657, died there, buried March 6, 1720. 
Flemish school ; genre, battle, and land- 
scape painter ; pupil of Simon van Douw, 
an imitator of Wouwerman ; master of the 
guild in 1674. Spent some years in Rome, 
where he was a member of the Academy of 
Si Luke ; returned to Antwerp and was 
made director of the Academy there in 1699. 
Works : Farrier, Copenhagen Gallery ; Land- 
scapes, Stockholm Museum ; Ruin with Cat- 
tle (1710), Halt before Inn (1718), three 
others, Dresden Gallery ; two 
Italian Landscapes, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Training School for Hors- 
es (1712), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 492 ; Michiels, x. 
331 ; Rooses (Reber), 408. 

BLOKLAND. See Montfoort. 

BLOMBERG, HUGO VON, Baron, born 
in Berlin, Sept. 26, 1820, died in Weimar, 
June 17, 1871. History and genre painter ; 
pupil of Berlin Academy under Wach until 
1845, then of Leon Cogniet in Paris, in 1847. 
After performing military duty in 1849, he 
resumed his studies in Berlin and moved to 
Weimar in 1867. Works: Dornroschen 
(1844); Neptune and Amymone (1847); 
Mediaeval Town, Merchant of Venice (1866); 




168 



BLONDEEL 




Benvenuto Cellini, King William at Kiinig- 
grate (1867). AUgem. d. Biogr., ii. 719; 
Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 56. 

BLONDEEL, LANCELOT, born at 
Bruges, in 1495, died there, March 4, 1561. 
Flemish school ; was a journeyman mason 
before becoming a painter, and adopted 
the trowel as his mark ; received into guild 
of St. Luke in 1530. He was an accom- 
plished architect, and his pictures are noted 
for their rich architectural backgrounds, 
often in Renaissance style, executed on 
gold ground. His figures, chiefly in the 
Italian style, are often well set in action 
and finished, but mannered and of cold 
flesh tones. Among his works are : Mar- ' 
tyrdom of SS. Cosmo and Damian (1523), 
S. Jacques, Bruges ; 
Madonna with 88. 
Luke and Eligius 
(1545), Cathedral, ib. ; 
St. Luke painting the 
Virgin (1545), Academy, ib.; St. Peter, Brus- 
sels Museum. Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 
525 ; Michiels, v. 48. 

BLOOMER, H. REYNOLDS, born in New 
York ; contemporary. Landscape painter ; 
pupil in Paris of Pelouse. Works : El Do- 
rado (1876) ; After the Shower, Landscape 
(1877) ; Old Bridge at Grez, Waterfall near 
Cernay-la-Ville (1878). 

BLUE BOY, Thomas Gainsborough, Gros- 
venor House, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. ' 
x 4 ft. Portrait of a youth, full length, 
standing in a landscape, clad in a blue satin ; 
Van Dyck dress. Painted, it is said, in 
1779, as a practical refutation of Reynolds's ! 
theory that the cold colours, of which blue 
is the chief, cannot be used effectively in 
portrait painting. Engraved by R. Graves : 
(1868) ; etched by C. Waltner (1880), P. J 
Rajon (1881). History obscure. Another 
Blue Boy, owned in 1873 by J. Sewell, Lon- 
don, seems to have some claims to being the 
original picture, though some think it a 
copy by Gainsborough Dupont. A third, 
smaller, is owned by Mrs. Freake. Fulcher, 
113, 202 ; Redgrave, Century, i. 165 ; Waa- 



gen, Art Treasures, ii. 173 ; Brock-Arnold, 
42, 60 ; Notes and Queries, 4th 8., xi. 485, 
505 ; Eng. Painters of Georgian Era, 14. 




Blue Boy, Gainsborough, Grosvenor House, London. 

BLUM, ROBERT, born in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in 1857. First exhibited in New 
York in 1879 ; studied and painted in Italy, 
and Spain in 1880. Member of Society 
of American Artists. Studio in New York. 
Works: Toledo Water-Carriers, T. B. 
Clarke, New York ; Going and Coming 
(1881); Bright Day at Venice (1882). 

BOAR HUNT, Velasquez, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 6 ft 2 in. '.< 10 ft. 
3 in. Philip IV. and his courtiers hunting 
wild boars in an arena enclosed by canvas 
walls, in the Pardo, a royal hunting seat two 
leagues from Madrid ; the King, with Oli- 
vares near him on a bay horse ; the Cardinal 
Infant, Don Fernando, on a white horse ; 
Juan Mateos, royal huntsman, an old man 
on a white horse with long mane ; specta- 
tors on foot and in carriages. Queen Isabel 
among the spectators in second carriage. 



168 



BOBO 



Painted about 1628 ; formerly in Royal 
Palace, Madrid ; presented by Ferdinand 
Vn. (about 1820) to Sir Henry Wellesley, 
who sold it (1846) to National Gallery for 
2,200. Sketches in possession of Sir Rich- 
ard Wallace, Bart, and Countess Cowper, 
London. C. Bermudez ; Curtis, 23 ; Athe- 
nseum (1855), 407 (1856), 1165 ; Stirling, 
1840. 

BOBO DE CORIA, Velasquez, Madrid 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. 
A jester, in green dress, seated on the floor 
of a chamber ; beside him, two gourds and 
an earthen cup. Second manner, probably 
painted between 1631 and 1649. Engraved 
by L. Croutelle ; etched by Laguillermie in 
Portfolio (1873). Curtis, 30 ; Madrazo, 
633. 

BOCCACCINO, BOCCACCIO, of Cremo- 
na, born 1460, died 1518 (?). Lombard 
school ; educated probably by followers of 
Mantegna at Ferrara, he was already an in- 
dependent master at Cremona in 1497, and 
had painted a series of frescos in Sant' Agos- 
tino. In 1499 Garofalo, his apprentice, de- 
serted him and went to Bx>me, and at a later 
period Boccaccino followed him. Vasari 
says he painted there a Coronation of the 
Virgin in Santa Maria in Trastevere, but the 
public, who had expected great things from 
one who had criticised Michael Angelo, so 
ridiculed his work that he returned to Cre- 
mona. Between 1506 and 1518 he executed 
numerous frescos in the Cathedral, Cremona, 
and also painted important works in Venice, 
of which the Madonna with Saints in S. Giu- 
liano, and the do. with landscape and Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine in the Academy (1511) 
are good specimens. His compositions are 
scattered and his perspective sometimes bad, 
but some of his single figures are good, and 
his colouring is often rich. Ch. Blanc, who 
puts little faith in the story of Vasari, says 
that Boccaccino was one of the best Cremo- 
nese painters, and that he played the same 
role there that Mantegua did in Padua and 
Francia in Bologna. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
441; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 581 ;Ch. Blanc, Ecole 



lombarde ; Burckhardt, 611 ; Eio, iii. 370 ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 478. 

BOCCACCINO, CAMLLLO, of Cremona, 
born 1515, died Jan. 2, 1546. Lombard 
school ; son of Boccaccio Boccaccino, but 
excelled him, as he took pains to avoid the 
faults into which his father's vanity had be- 
trayed him. Lanzi calls him the greatest 
genius of the Cremonese school. The Rais- 
ing of Lazarus and the Adulteress before 
Christ, in Cremona, and the Four Evangelists 
in S. Sigismondo, near Cremona, are exam- 
ples of his works. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 583; 
vi. 493 ; C. Blanc, cole lombarde ; Lanzi, 
ii. 429. 

BOCHMANN, GREGOR VON, born at 
Nehat, Esthland, June 1, 1850. Landscape 
painter ; pupil, from 1868, of the Diissel- 
dorf Academy. Studio since 1871 in Diis- 
seldorf, whence he makes annual study trips 
to his native country, and to Holland and 
Belgium. Medals in Berlin, Brussels, and 
Munich ; Order of Leopold. Works : Church 
in Esthland (1874); Sluice in Holland (1875); 
Potato Harvest in Esthland (1876) ; Wharf 
in Holland (1878), National Gallery, Berlin. 
Brockhaus, iii. 220 ; Mttller, 58. 

BOCK, HANS, middle of 16th century. 
German school ; fresco painter. His colos- 
sal frescos, inside and outside the City Hall 
of Basle, despite their mannerism, are vigor- 
ously treated and have fine landscape back- 
grounds. Kugler (Crowe), 271. 

BOCKHORST, JAN VAN, surnamed 
Langen Jan, born at Mflnster, Westphalia, 
about 1610, died in Antwerp, April 21, 1668. 
Flemish school; history and portrait painter; 
pupil of Jordaens ; master in 1633 of the 
guild in Antwerp, where he had come early 
in life. His portraits have been compared 
to those of Van Dyck. Works : David's Re- 
pentance, St. Michael's, Ghent ; Martyrdom 
^ of St. James, St. James's, ib. ; Mar- 
T 1" J T tyrdom of Legion of Thebes, Lille 
I I \ I Museum ; Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, Museum, Antwerp ; Trip- 
tych with Resurrection, Beguinage, ib. ; 
Finding of the Cross, Augustine ch., ib. ; 



170 



BOCKLIN 



Mercury and Hersa, Ulysses and Achilles, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Nymphs and Satyrs, 
Vienna Museum.- Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii 
556; Gaz. des B. Arts (1872), vi. 491; Mi- 
chiels, ix. 67, 255. 

BOCKLIN, ARNOLD, born in Basle, Oct. 
16, 1827. Landscape and history painter ; 
pupil in landscape painting of Dtisseldorf 
Academy under Schirmer ; then studied 
figure painting in Brussels. Visited Paris, 
Rome, and in 1853 Basle, whence he went 
to Munich. Became professor at the art 
school in Weimar in 1858, but resigned two 
years later and went again to Rome ; lived 
in Munich in 1871-76, and finally settled in 
Florence. Works : Venus Reposing, Pan in 
the Rushes (1857), Munich Gallery; Amazon- 
Hunt ; Sleeping Satyr-Family ; Castle on 
the Sea surprised by Corsairs; Chase of 
Diana, Basle Museum ; The Gods of Greece; 
Anacreontic Shepherd-Boy ; Robbery on 
Italian Coast ; Faun Family ; Pieta, Por- 
trait of himself (1871); Fight of Centaurs; 
Ceres and Bacchus ; Panic Terror, Ancho- 
rite, Portrait of his Wife (1863), Villa by 
Sea (1869), Old Roman Tavern, Shepherd's 
Love Lament, Murderer and Furies, Walk 
to Emrnaus, Dragon's Den, Ride of Death, 
Wood Landscape with Nymph, Ideal Land- 
scape, Shepherdess, Sea-Idyl, Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich ; Descent from Cross (1876) ; 
Isle of the Blessed (1878), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Triton (1880). Brockhaus, iii. 224 ; 
Muller, 58; Pecht, ii. 180 ; Graph. K, ii. 77 ; 
Grenzboten (1879), 397. 

BOCKSBERGER (Boxberger), HANS, 
born in Salzburg, in 1540. German school ; 
son and pupil of Hans Bocksberger ; painted 
chiefly battles, hunts, allegories, mytho- 
logical and historical subjects, in oil and 
water colours, but especially in fresco, dec- 
orating exteriors and interiors of houses 
in Munich, Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Ratisbon, 
Passau, Landshut, and Salzburg. Among 
his works are: Wall paintings at Castle 
Trausnitz, near Landshut, Bavaria (1579). 
Allgem. d. Biogr., ii. 788 ; Brockhaus, iii. 
224 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. 189. 



BODE, LEOPOLD, born at Offenbach, 

March 11, 1831. History painter ; pupil of 

:his father, then of the Stildel Institute 

under Jakob Becker, Passavant, Eugen 

Schiiffer, and from 1850 of Ed. Steinle, who 

i influenced him most. In 1858 he travelled 

, in Bavaria and Tyrol, and in 1860-65 as- 

; sisted Steinle in his frescos in the Cologne 

j Museum. In 1865 and 1875 he visited 

Switzerland. Works : Scene from Ruth's 

History (1856); Visitation ; Workshop with 

the Cross, Chronicle of Travelling Scholar, 

Rudolf von Hapsburg (1868) ; Edelweiss 

I and Alpine Rose ; The Alpine Bride ; Scenes 

j from Legend of Charlemagne's Birth, Schack 

Gallery, Munich. Muller, 60. 

BODE, WILHELM, born in Hamburg, 
j in 1830. Landscape painter ; pupil of the 
Vienna Academy ; lived for eight years in 
Munich ; studio in Diisseldorf. Works : 
Autumn Evening in the Mountains, Sunday 
Morning in Salzburg, Isar-Valley, Morning 
on the Konigsee, View on Kochelsee, On the 
Haidlinger Heights, From the Eifel, Val- 
ley of Lauterbrunn, Morning on the Hinter- 
see, The Rampenwand near Rosenheim, 
The Hundstod, Perspective in the Bavarian 
Mountains, Mill on the Brook. Muller, 60. 

BODENMULLER, ALFONS, born in 
Munich, Aug. 5, 1847. Genre painter; 
pupil of Munich Academy under Ramberg 
and Lindenschmit Mttller, 60. 

BODENMULLER, FRIEDRICH, born 
in Munich, Aug. 11, 1845. Battle painter ; 
pupil of Munich Academy, but mostly self- 
taught. First painted genre and altar pieces, 
but, having served in the German war of 
1870-71 as an officer in the Bavarian army, 
was led to cultivate his present specialty. 
Works : Camping in the Rain, Patrol (1871); 
Fight in the Streets of Bazeilles ; Camp 
near Ingolsheim ; Battle of Sedan (1873), 
Munich Gallery; Battle of Worth; After 
the Battle of Worth ; Camp of the French 
on the Isle of Iges ; Storming of Frosch- 
weiler ; Elegy (1883). Mtiller, 60. 

BODENSTEIN, JULIUS, born in Berlin, 
Aug. 4, 1847. Landscape painter ; pupil of 



171 



BODMER 



Berlin Academy under Schiitze and Her- 
mann Scbnee ; went in 1873 to Munich, 
where he studied under Ad. Lier. Works: 
View near Trafoi with Glaciers; Approaching 
Storm in Jura Mountains ; Twenty-five Views 
in the High Alps (1879); Isle of Sylt. Exhibit- 
ed at Munich (1883) Oyster-Fishing on North 
Sea, Twilight on Isle of Sylt. Miiller, 60. 

BODMEE, KARL, born in Zttrich, Switz- 
erland, in 1805. Landscape painter, chiefly 
woods and wooded landscapes ; pupil of 
Cornu. Has travelled in America and other 
countries with the Prince von Neuwied. 
Medals : 2d class, 1851 ; 3d class, 1855 and 
1863 ; L. of Honour, 1876. Works : Indian 
Costumes and Chiefs (1836), water colours ; 
Forest in Winter (1850), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Dry Leaves (1853); A Pond (1855); 
After the Kain, March Sunlight, In the 
Woods (1857); AtBas-Breau, Morning, Even- 
ing (1859); Chickens under Shelter, Ter- 
riers in the Broom Fields, Forest of Fon- 
tainebleau, Deer Fighting (1861); Family of 
Bears in the Alleghany Mountains ; Wild 
Turkeys in the Woods, View on the Mis- 
souri water-colours (1863); Last Days of 
Autumn, Under the Trees (1865); Wild 
Boars among the Trees (1866); Shelter from 
the Snow (1867); Fox Terrier (1870); Bor- 
ders of a Swampy Forest (1872); Quarry of 
Game (1874); High Woods, Eaux-Fortes 
(1875); Preliminaries of the Fight (1877); 
Group of Hack Horses, Nest of Wrens 
(1878); Boar breaking loose (1879); Volley 
of Curses (1881). His son and pupil, Henri 
(born at Barbizon), is also a landscape paint- 
er. Larousse. 

BOfi, FRANZ (DIETRICH), born at Ber- 
gen, Norway, May 28, 1820. Still-life 
painter ; pupil of Copenhagen Academy, 
and of M. Greenland ; settled in 1849 in 
Paris. Works : Grapes (1850), Louvre ; 
Camellias (1855) ; Pheasant and Partridge ; 
Eagle devouring Fox ; Fishes ; Shells ; Jew- 
elry ; Fruits ; Sea-Plants ; View of Moun- 
tains in Westenaalen (1878). Mttller, 61. 

BOEL, PIETER, born in Antwerp, Oct. 
22, 1622, died there, Sept. 3, 1674. Flem- 



ish school ; animal and still-life painter ; 
pupil of Snyders, and of his uncle, Cornells 
de Wael. Visited Italy and France, settled 
in Paris, and became court painter, and very 
popular, equalling Snyders in composition, 
and in the drawing and truth to nature of his 
animals. His pictures are rare : Sporting Dog 
guarding Game, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Eagle's Repast, Antwerp Museum ; Game 
Piece, Ghent Museum; Dead Game, and 
others, Madrid Museum ; Eagle devouring 
Roe, Frankfort Museum ; Boar Hunt, land- 
scape, Hague Museum. His son, Jan Bap- 
tiste Boel (1650-89), was also a painter in 
the same line. Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 
581 ; Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 52 ; 
Michiels, vii. 426 ; Rooses (Reber), 425. 

BOENISCH, GUSTAV ADOLF, born at 
Soppau, Silesia, Aug. 22, 1802. Landscape 
painter ; pupil of Wach and of Berlin Acad- 
emy ; travelled through the mountains of 
Middle Germany and in Scan- 
dinavia. Works: Mill on a Pond; 
c . Thuringian Village ; Bay be- 
tween Rocks ; House in the 
Mountains ; Rocky Landscape in Norway. 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 59. 

BOESEN, JOHANNES, born in Copen- 
hagen, Aug. 5, 1847. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; visited 
Italy, Switzerland, and France in 1879. 
Works : Apple-tree in Blossom (1873); Wild 
Rose-bush (1875); Sunrise ; Showers in 
September (1881). Sigurd Mtiller, 44. 

BOEYERMANS, THEODOR, bom in 
Antwerp, baptized Nov. 10, 1620, died there, 
in 1677 or 1678. Flemish school ; history 
and portrait painter ; studied Van Dyck's 
pictures. His colouring is warm and har- 
monious in tone. Received in guild of St. 




- / 



Luke, May 17, 1654. Best works : An Am- 
bassador, Pool of Bethesda (1675), The 
Visit, Antwerp the Nurse of Painters, Fe- 



BOGGS 



male Head, Museum, Antwerp ; Assump- ' 
tion, S. Jacques, ib. ; Vow of St. Louis of 
Gonzaga, Nantes Museum ; St. Francis 
Xavier converting an Indian Prince, Jesuit 
Church, Ypres ; Judgment of Paris, Hague 
Museum. Ch. Blanc, cole flarnande ; Biog. | 
nat. de Belgique, ii. 605 ; Michiels, ix. 3 ; 
Itooses (Reber), 331. 

BOGGS, FRANK MYERS, born in New 
York, in 1855. Marine painter ; pupil of 
Gurome and of the ficole des Beaux Arts, 
Paris. Two of his pictures purchased by 
French Government. Studio in Dieppe. 
Works : Marine French Coast ; Return 
from Crab-Fishing (1882); Coast Scene 
Honfleur (1883); Old Canal at Dordrecht,! 
On the Thames (1884); Port of Honfleur \ 
(1885). 

BOGH, CARL HENRIK, born in Copen- 
hagen, Sept 3, 1827. Genre and portrait I 
painter ; pupil of Copenhagen Academy, | 
then studied in Paris, 1860-G1 ; travelled in 
Sweden and Norway. Title of professor in 
1873. Works: Country Scene (1854); 
Horse Dealer (1857); Reunion (1862); Milk- 
ing Place (1870); Reindeer at the Milking 
Place (1875), Copenhagen Gallery. Sigurd 
Muller, 55 ; Weilbach, 91. 

BOGLE, JAMES, bom in South Carolina 
in 1817, died in 1873. Portrait painter ;| 
pupil of Professor Morse in New York, 
where his professional life was chiefly spent. 
He painted portraits of Calhoun, Clay, 
Webster, John A. Dix, Henry J. Raymond, 
and other distinguished men. Elected an 
A.N.A. in 1850, and N.A. in 1861. 

BOGOLJUBOFF, ALEXIS, born in Gov- 
ernment of Moscow in 1824. Marine painter ; 
pupil of St. Petersburg Academy ; won, in 
1853, the first prize, and went to Diissel- 
dorf, where he studied under Andreas 
Achenbach. After hia return exhibited 
more than one hundred paintings ; became 
in 1858 member of, and in 1861 professor | 
in, the Academy. Accompanied the Cesare- 
vich on his travels, and in 1866 revisited 
Germany, where he painted several large 
historical marines, city-views, and sea-bat- 



ties. Decorated with Russian, Austrian, 
Danish, and Belgian orders. Works : Bat- 
tle of Siuope (1853); Battles of Greuhane 
and Petropavlovsk ; First Sea-Battle of Peter 
the Great ; Morning after the Storm ; Dis- 
embarkment ; Battle near Hangut in 1714 ; 
Peter the Great with his Galleys ; Crossing 
near Rilaco in Finland, Battle near Isle of 
Oesel in 1819 ; Views of Naples, Venice, and 
Amsterdam ; Christ walking on the Sea ; 
Christ on Lake of Gennesareth, Ice afloat on 
the Neva (1873); Roadstead of Cronstadt 
(1878). Brockhaus, iii. 241 ; Muller, 61. 

BOHN, GERMANN VON, born at Heil- 
bronn, Wtirtemberg, Feb. 25, 1812. History 
painter ; studied in Stuttgart, then in Paris 
under Henri Lehinann and Ary Scheffer, 
and for two years in Rome ; then lived in 
Paris until 1876, when he was appointed 
court-painter at Stuttgart. Medals : Paris, 
1844, 1849 ; L. of Honour, 1852 ; Wurtem- 
berg Crown Order. Works : Death of Cleo- 
patra (1840), Nantes Museum ; Hagar and 
Ishmael (1843), St. Martin de Tours (1844), 
Tours Cathedral ; Romeo and Juliet, Nancy 
Museum ; All Souls' Day, Villa Rosenhain, 
near Stuttgart ; Serenade (after Uhland), 
Stuttgart Gallery ; Hamlet and Ophelia 
(1849); St. Elizabeth (1866); St. Agnes; 
The Valkyrie ; The Vow, Gelsomina (1868); 
My Mother's Umbrella (1870). Meyer, 
Con. Lex., xviii. 142. 

BOILLY, LOUIS LEOPOLD, born at La 
Bassee, near Lille, July 5, 1761, died in 
Palis, Jan. 5, 1845. Genre and portrait 
painter. Began to paint portraits when 
thirteen, went to Paris about 1787, and it is 
said painted the incredible number of 5000 
pictures, many of them being scenes of the 
Revolution treated rather from the grotesque 
than the tragic side. 
Arrival of the Dili- /^ 
gence (1803), Lou- ^(2. 
vre, Paris ; Isabey's 
Atelier with twenty- 
four portraits of artists, Triumph of Marat, 
Lille Museum. Ch. Blanc, Ecolu frun- 
caise. 




173 



BOIS 



BOIS, CORNELLS DU, flourished about 
1G50. Dutch school ; landscape painter, in 
the style of Jacob Ruisdael, possibly his 
pupil. Works : Wood Landscape (1649), 
Brunswick Gallery ; do., Cassel Gallery ; 
do. (attributed to Guillam du B.), Schwerin 
Gallery. Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 395. 

BOISSELIER, FELIX, the elder, bom at 
Damphal (Haute-Marne), in 1776, died in 
Rome, Jan. 12, 1811. History painter ; 
pupil of Sieti, or Cieti, an Italian decorative 
painter, and later of Reguault. Won the 
grand prize for painting twice successively 
(1805-06), the two subjects being the Death 
of Demosthenes and the Return of the 
Prodigal Son. Went to Rome in 1806, and 
sent from there his Death of Adonis, now 
in the Louvre, which was exhibited in 1812, 
after his death. His younger brother, An- 
toine Felix, called the younger, was a 
painter of history and historical landscapes. 
His Death of Bayard is at Fontainebleau. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

BOISSIEU, JEAN JACQUES DE, born 
at Lyons, Nov. 30, 1736, died there, March 
1, 1810. Landscape and genre painter; pupil 
of Lombard, and of Jean Charles Frontier, 
and formed himself after the Dutch masters ; 
studied also in Paris and Italy. Works : 
Landscape with Washerwomen, Louvre, 
Paris ; Hilly River Landscape, Valley with 
River (1773), Berlin Museum. Larousse, 
ii. 886 ; Notice de Tableaux du Louvre 
(1882), iii. 14 

BOIT, EDWARD DARLEY, born in Bos- 
ton ; contemporary. Marine painter ; studied 
first in Boston, later in Paris under Fran- 
cais ; has also lived and painted in Rome. 
Studio in Paris. Works : La Plage de Vil- 
lers Calvados (1876) ; Beach of Villers 
Normandy (1878) ; Terrace at Grove Farm 
at Leatherhead England (1884); Tun- 
bridge Wells England (1885). 

BOKELMANN, LUDWIG (CHRISTIAN 
LOUIS), born at St. Jttrgen, near Bremen, 
Feb. 4, 1844. Genre painter ; pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy under W. Sohn ; has 
attained considerable reputation with serious 




as well as humourous scenes, and secured a 
place among the foremost genre painters of 
Germany. Medals : 
London, Vienna 
(1873), Ghent, Ber- 
lin, and Brussels. 
Works : House of 
Sorrow (1873); 
Shoemaker's Ap- 
prentice (1873); Ex- 
treme Unction 
(1873) ; Dawn of 
Day (1874); Moun- 
tebank (1875) ; Pawnbroker's Shop (1876), 
Stuttgart GaUery ; Failure of a Bank (1878); 
Camp in Winter-Time ; Opening of the Will 
(1879), National Gallery, Berlin; Last Stage 
of Election Contest (1880). Muller, 63; 
Hlustr. Zeitg. (1879), i. 10 ; (1881), ii. 469 ; 
Land und Meer (1884), i. 426 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, xv. 48, xvL 149. 

BOKER, KARL, born at Barmen, in 1836. 
Genre painter; pupil of the Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Karl Sohn and Schadow ; painted 
at first biblical pictures, but turned to 
genre subjects ; excels especially in humour- 
ous scenes. Works : Chastity of Joseph ; 
St. John ; Flight into Egypt ; Magdalen ; 
Revision of Passport; After School (1866); 
Crab-Fishing and Repast (1867); The 
Good Testimonial (1868); Little Recruits 
(1868) ; Spectacle-Dealer (1869) ; Walk 
to Kirmess (1870); Cupid in the Sculpture 
Gallery (1871); Canary Bird Seller (1872); 
Large Hotel-Bill (1873); Children Swing- 
ing, Mother's Joy (1875); At the Fair (1876); 
Great Misery ; Christmas-Box ; Bird-Thieves 
arraigned ; Your Health ! Muller, 63 ; E- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1873), i. 255. 

BOKLUND, JOHAN KRISTOFER, born 
at Kulla-Gunnarstorp, Sweden, July 15, 
1817, died in Stockholm, Dec. 10, 1880. 
History and genre painter; studied from 
1832 in Lund under Korner, then at the 
Copenhagen Academy, in 1837 in Stock- 
holm, 1846 in Munich, and 1854 in Paris 
under Couture ; returned to Sweden in 1856, 
became member of and professor in the 



174 



HOKS 



Stockholm Academy, and in 1867 inspector 
of the Gallery and director of the Academy. 
Painted, at first, scenes from the Thirty 
Years' War ; then turned to historical 
genre. Much credit is due to him for the 
organization of the Museums in Stockholm 
and Lund. Works : Gustavus Adolphus and 
Axel Oxenstierua ; Charles X. and Erik 
Dahlberg ; Faust in his Study ; Convent- 
Yard in Tyrol ; Meran Riflemen, Stockholm 
Museum ; Portrait of Queen Louise. Mnl- 
ler, 63. 

BOKS, EVERT JAN, born at Beekber- 
gen, Belgium, April 18, 1838. Genre paint- 
er; pupil of Antwerp Academy under De 
Keyser ; studied then in Paris and settled 
in Antwerp. His specialty is servant's life, 
which he depicts in the most amusing man- 
ner. Corpus Delicti (1878) is one of his 
best works. Mailer, 63. 

BOL, FERDINAND, born at Dordrecht, 
in 1611, died 
in Amster- 
dam ; buried, 
July 24, 1680. 
Dutch school; 
pupil of Rem- 
brandt, whose 
studio he en- 
tered about 
1G30, and one 
of his most 

successful imitators. Lived chiefly at Am- 
sterdam, where in 1653 he married Elizabeth 
Dell. Painted many historical pictures, ex- 
celled in portraits, and was an excellent 
etcher. Among his numerous works in 
European galleries the best are : Female 
portrait (1642), Berlin Museum ; Saskia, 
wife of Rembrandt, Brussels Gallery ; Da- 
vid's Charge to Solomon (1643), Dublin 
National Gallery ; Repose in Egypt (1644); 
Jacob's Dream, Joseph presenting Jacob to 
Pharaoh, and his own portrait, Dresden 
Gallery ; Pastor Fido, and half-length fig- 
ures of a man and bis wife, Baring Collection, 
London ; Portrait of a Boy, Castle Howard, 
England ; Allegory of Peace (1644), Town 



Hall, Leyden ; The Regents (1649), Lepro- 
senhuys, Amsterdam ; do., Huysittenhuys ; 
The Astronomer (1652), National Gallery, 
London ; Philosopher, Dutch Prince in a 
Car drawn by Goats (1654), Male portrait 
(1659), Louvre, Paris ; two portraits (1669), 





Hague Museum. C. Vosmaer, Rembrandt 
(Hague, 1877), 138; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
376 ; De Stuers, 16 ; Ch. Blanc, cole hol- 
landaise ; Riegel, Beitnige, ii. 257. 

BOL, HANS, born at Mechlin, Dec. 16, 
1534, died in Amsterdam, Nov. 20, 1593. 
Flemish school ; painted landscapes and 
miniatures, also genre and biblical subjects. 
Worked for two years for the Elector of the 
Palatinate in Heidelberg, then until 1572 in 
Mechlin, next until 1584 in Antwerp, and, 
after short stays in Bergen, Dordrecht, and 
Delft, settled in Amsterdam. He excelled 
in representing subjects reflected in the 
water, and rocks overgrown with moss and 
shrubbery ; his figures, animals, fruits, and 
flowers are notable for their truth, good 
drawing, and finished execution. Works : 
Prayer-Book, illuminated MS., National Li- 
brary, Paris ; small landscapes, Cabinet of 




Miniatures, Munich Gallery ; do., Berlin 
Museum. Biog. nat de Belgique, ii. 626. 

BOLANACffl, CONSTANTINOS, born 
at Heraclium in Candia, March 17, 1837. 
Marine painter ; pupil of Munich Academy, 
under Piloty ; paints effective sea-battles 



175 



BOLDINI 



and coast-scenes, most of which are bought 
in England and America. Works : Battle 
of Lissa (1866) ; Neapolitan Fishermen ; 
Company on Shipboard ; Ship on Fire in 
Mid-Ocean. Mttller, 64 

BOLDINI, G., born at Ferrara, Italy. 
Genre and portrait painter ; studio in Paris. 
His style somewhat resembles Fortuny's. 
Works : A Summer Stroll ; The Connois- 
seur; The Despatch (1879); At the Piano, 
Wm. Astor, New York ; Ladies of First 
Empire, Les Parisiennes, W. H. Vander- 
bilt, New York ; Spring Flowers, After the 
Orgie, A. E. Borie Collection, Philadelphia ; 
Gossips, Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York ; 
Cafe Pigalle, J. A, Scudder, St. Louis ; 
Morning Visit, C. Crocker, San Francisco ; 
Song of the Bird, W. B. Bement, Philadel- 
phia ; Delivering the Despatch, J. M. Fiske, 
New York ; Dolce far niente, J. C. Eunkle, 
New York ; Day Dreams, A. J. Drexel, Phil- 
adelphia ; Kitchen Garden, D. O. Mills, 
New York; Hocking- Chair, F. Harper, 
New York ; Expected Visitor, C. S. Smith, 
New York ; Parrot, Fishing on the Seine, 
E. L. Cutting, New York. Am. Art Bev. 
(1880), 296. 

BOLGHARINI. See Bulgarini. 

BOLOGHINI. See Bulgarini. 

BOLOGNESE, IL. See Grimaldi. 

BOLSENA, MIRACLE OF. See Mass of 
Bolsena. 

BOLTON ABBEY IN OLDEN TIME, 
Sir Edwin Landseer, Duke of Devonshire, 
Chatsworth. The Abbot of Bolton, standing 
at the entrance of the monastery, is intently 
reading a letter, which a monk, who stands 
behind him with a tray of bottles and 
glasses, is also trying to read over his shoul- 
der ; in foreground, a man sitting on the 
steps with a dead stag and wild fowl and 
two dogs beside him, a girl with a tray of 
fish, and a boy with herons on his back, 
perhaps a tenant's tribute or a present from 
some neighbouring lord. Royal Academy, 
1834. Engraved by Samuel Cousins ; W. 
T. Davey. Landseer Gallery. 

BOLTRAFFIO. See Bellraffio. 



BOMMEL, ELIAS VAN, born in Amster- 
dam, in 1824. Marine and architecture 
painter; pupil of the Amsterdam Academy; 
visited Paris, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, 
and North Italy, and settled in Vienna. 
Works : Harbour of Dordrecht, Street in 
Amsterdam (1866) ; View on the Rhine, Har- 
bour of Vlissingen (1867); StiU Water at Am- 
sterdam (1868) ; Rotterdam (1869) ; Storm 
near Coast, Montalbaan's Tower in Amster- 
dam (1872). Mailer, 64. 

BONAPARTE. See Napoleon. 

BONAVENTURE, ST., Muritto, Francis 
Cook, Richmond Hill, Surrey ; canvas, H. 6 
ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 8 in. The Saint, in grey robe 
and doctor's cap, sitting in a red chair beside 
a table, on which are writing materials and 
a crucifix, holds in his left hand a book in 
which he is writing. One of Murillo's ear- 
liest works. Formerly in convent of S. Fran- 
cisco, Seville ; Louis Philippe sale (1853), 
.135 ; Lord Dalling and Bulwer sale (1873), 
257. Old copy: Due de Montpensier, Se- 
ville. Curtis, 220, 225 ; Ponz, Viage, ix. 99 ; 
G. de Leon, i. 60. 

BONDONE. See Giotto. 

BONFIGLI (Buonfiglio), BENEDETTO, 
born about 1425 (?), died in or after 1496. 
Umbrian school. Lived in Perugia, where 
he painted in the Palazzo Communale, in 
1454-G1, a series of frescos illustrating the 
legends of St. Louis of Toulouse and St. Er- 
colano. These, which are a mixture of Um- 
brian and Florentine character, show the 
influence of Domenico Veneziano and of 
Piero della Francesca. It is possible that 
he may have been Domenico's assistant, and 
have worked in company with Piero. The 
frescos were approved by Fra Filippo Lippi, 
and Bonfigli was engaged to continue his 
work, but the series was still unfinished in 
1496. Though much damaged, these frescos 
prove him superior to any of the Umbrians 
of his time except Piero della Francesca. 
According to Vasari, Bonfigli followed his 
friend and assistant Pinturicchio to Rome and 
helped him in the decorations of the Vatican, 
but there is no positive evidence of it Other 



176 



BONHEUR 



examples by him are a Madonna and Saints, 
and parts of an altarpiece, in the Perugia 
Academy. C. & C., Italy, iii. 138; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 505 ; ed. Le Mon., iv. 149, v. 275, 
vi. 30 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne. 

BONHEUR, (FRANCOIS) AUGUSTE, 
born in Bordeaux, Nov. 4, 1824, died Feb. 
22, 1884. Landscape and animal painter ; 
son and pupil of Raymond B. (died 1853), 
a meritorious artist. Auguste had little 
success as a genre painter, but as a land- 
scape and animal painter he attained a con- 
siderable reputation. Medals : 3d class, 1852, 
1857 ; 2d class, 1859 ; 1st class, 1861, 1863 ; L. 
of Honour, 1867. Works : Children in Fields 
(1845); Bath, Happy Mother (1846); Interior 
of Forest (1852); Gorges of the Gordanne 
and of the Puy-Griou (1853) ; Col de Cabre 
(1855); Souvenir of Brittany (1857); Herd 
of Cattle in the Pyrenees, Crossing the Ford, 
Drinking Place (1859); Arrival at Fair, Meet- 
ing of Two Herds, Leaving the Pasturage 
(1861) ; Return from Fair (1865) ; Sleeping 
Place (1866) ; Souvenir of Pyrenees (1867) ; 
Environs of Jalleyrac, Shepherd and Sea 
(1868), R. L. Cutting, New York ; Souvenir 
of Auvergne (1874); Before the Rain (1875). 
Other works in the United States: Normandy 
Cattle, James H. Stebbins, New York; Sheep 
and Shepherdess, R. G. Dun, New York ; 
Cattle at Fontainebleau, H. Probasco, Cin- 
cinnati ; Le Berger et la Mer, R. L. Cutting, 
New York ; Cattle, H. C. Gibson, Philadel- 
phia; Environs of Fontainebleau, Mrs. A. 
T. Stewart, New York. Larousse. 

BONHEUR, JULIETTE (Mme. Peyrol), 
born in Paris, July 19, 1830. Animal 
painter ; daughter and pupil of Raymond 
B. ; assistant of her sister Rosa in the free 
School of Design in Paris. Medal at the 
Exhibition of 1855. Works : Flock of Geese; 
Sheep Lying Down (1875); The Pool, Moth- 
er's Kiss (1878) ; Corner of the Meadow, 
Waste Lands of Beauregard (1879) ; Pond 
with Willows, Meadow (1880); Stray Cow, 
Road at Magny les Hameaux (1881); Cattle 
in a Meadow (1882); Two Good Neighbours, 
Sheep on a Plain (1883); Inn Stable (1884); 




Sheep and Heather, J. H. Warren, Hoosac 
Falls, New York; Sheep-Farm, J. Carey Coale, 
Baltimore. 

BONHEUR, (MARIE) ROSA, born in 
Bordeaux, March 
22, 1822. Animal 
painter ; daughter 
and pupil of Ray- 
mond B. ; began by 
copying in the 
| Louvre, afterwards 
made studies and 
sketches near Par- 
is. Her first two 
pictures, exhibited 
at Bordeaux in 
1841, attracted much attention and were 
followed by others which established her 
world-wide fame. During the Franco-Prus- 
sian war her studio and residence were re- 
spected by special order of the Crown Prince 
i of Prussia. Since 1849 she has been director 
of the Paris free School of Design for Young 
Girls, which she founded. Elected member 
of Antwerp Institute in 1868. Medals : 3d 
class, 1845; 1st class, 1848, 1855 ; 2d class, 
1867; L. of Honour, 1865 ; Leopold Cross, 
1880 ; Commander's Cross of Royal Order of 
Isabella the Catholic, 1880. Works : Two 
: Rabbits, Goats and Ram (1841); Horse for 
! Sale, Grazing Cow, Cattle at Pasture, Twelve 
' Cattle pieces (1845) ; Herd (1848) ; Plouyh- 
i ing in the Nivernais (1849), Luxembourg 
Museum; Horse Fair (1853); Hay Harvest in 
: Auvergne (1855) ; Mare, Rain on the Sea- 
shore, Shepherd in Beam, Ponies from the 
Isle of Skye, Scotch Shepherd (1867); Paint- 
er (1868) ; Sheep at Pasture (1871); Forest 
of Fontainebleau (1873); Meadow near Fon- 
tainebleau, Monarch of the Glen, Pack of 
Wild Boars (1879); Foraging Party, On the 
Alert (1881); Lion at Home (1882)! Works 
in United States : Study of Hound, Wean- 
ing the Calves, Miss C. L. Wolfe, New 
York ; Rendezvous de Chasse, Shepherd and 
Flock, August Belmont, New York ; Ready 
for Market, James H. Stebbins, New York ; 
The Old Monarch, Noonday Repose, Ready 



m 



BOMFAZIO 



for the Hunt, Flock of Sheep, W. H. Vander- 
bilt, New York ; Sheep Scotch Landscape, 
Pyrenees Landscape and Sheep, W. Rocke- 
feller, New York ; Landscape with Sheep, T. 
R. Butler, New York; Scotch Sheep, Mrs. 
Paran Stevens, New York; Horse Fair, Mrs. A. 
T. Stewart, New York ; Cattle and Dog, H. 
Probasco, Cincinnati; Sheep, A. E. Head, San 
Francisco; Scotch Cattle, J. T. Martin, Brook- 
lyn; Maternal Solicitude (1845), L. Tucker- 
man, New York; Deer in Fontainebleau, Mrs. 
R. L. Stuart, New York ; Sheep, D. O. Mills, 
New York ; Highland Sheep, H. C. Gibson, 
Philadelphia ; The Conversation (1858), An- 
dalusian Bulls (1867), W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; Cavaliers caught in a Shower, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York. Meyer,Gesch., 
761; Mttller, 64 ; Larousse ; Portfolio (1875), 
98; Hamerton, French Painters; Montrosier, 
Artistes modernes. Century (1884), xxviii. 
833. 

BONIFAZIO BEMBO. See Bembo. 

BONIFAZIO VENEZIANO, born in 
Venice, flourished 1555-1579. Venetian 
school ; probably son of Bonifazio the elder 
or younger. Works : SS. Jerome and Mar- 
garet, SS. Bruno and Catherine, SS. Barna- 
bas and Sylvester, SS. Anthony and Mark 
(1562), Madonna in Glory with Saints, Ven- 
ice Academy. Lermoheff, 215 ; Morelli 
(Richter), 178, 184. 

BONIFAZIO VERONESE, the elder, 
born in Verona about 1490, died in 1540. 
Venetian school ; pupil of Palma Vecchio, 
but closely imitated Titian. Forms clear 
and rounded ; lights and shadows distinct ; 
for colour one of the first Venetian masters. 
Works : Madonna with Saints (attributed to 
Palma), Casa Andreossi, Milan ; St. John, 
St. Joseph, etc., Ambrogian Library, Milan 
(attributed to Giorgione); Holy Family and 
Saints, Palazzo Colonna, Rome ; do. (1533), 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; do., Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence (attributed by C. & C. to a Trevi- 
san) ; Finding of Moses, Dresden Gallery. 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 543 ; Lermolieff, 215 ; 
Morelli (Richter), 184 ; Ridolfi, L 369 ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital Mai, ii. 565. 



BONIFAZIO VERONESE, the younger, 
born in Verona about 1490, died in Venice, 
Oct. 19, 1533. Venetian school ; near rela- 
tive, perhaps brother, of the above. Pupil 
of Palma Vecchio, but close imitator of 
Bonifazio the elder, with whom he painted 
many pictures. Works : Supper at Emmaus, 
Brera, Milan ; Christ and the Apostles, 
Christ enthroned with David and SS. Mark, 
Louis, Dominic and Anna (1530), Venice 
Academy ; Christ in the Temple, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; Supper at Emmaus, Uffizi 
(attributed to Palma); Prodigal Son, Bor- 
ghese Gallery, Rome ; Adoration of Shep- 
herds (attributed to Palma), Virgin and 
Child with Saints, Dresden Gallery. Ler- 
molieff, 215, 221 ; Morelli (Richter), 184 ; 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 543. 
BONINGTON, RICHARD PARKES, 
born at Arnold, 
near Nottingham, 
Oct. 25, 1801, died 
in London, Sept. 
23, 1828. His 
father, a poor por- 
trait painter, took 
him, when only 
fifteen years old, 
to Paris, where 
the boy procured 
permission to copy in the Louvre. He be- 
came a student in the cole des Beaux Arts, 
and in 1819 entered the studio of Baron 
Gros. After obtaining a considerable repu- 
tation in Paris and winning the gold medal 
(1824) for a marine subject, he went to Ven- 
ice and painted there some elaborate pict- 
ures both in oil and water colours, which 
won him fame and many commissions in 
England, but his promising career was cut 
short by death, the result of a sunstroke. 
Though he painted chiefly landscape and 
marine views, he also executed figure sub- 
jects with much skill, and his influence on 
the French school of genre and dramatic art 
was great. Works : Column of St. Mark in 
Venice, National Gallery, London ; Henri 
IV. and the Spanish Ambassador, Collection 




178 



BONXAT 




of Sir Richard Wallace ; Francis I. and the 
Duchesse d'Etaiupes, Park of Versailles, 
Louvre. Ch. Blanc, cole anglaise ; Cat 
Nat Gal.; Cunningham; Art Journal (1858), 
137. 

BONNAT, LEON (JOSEPH FLOREN- 
TIN), born at Ba- 
yonne, in 1833. 
Genre and portrait 
painter ; pupil in 
Madrid of F. de 
Madrazo and in 
Paris of Leon Co- 
guiet ; also studied 
four years in Italy, 
where he painted 
many small pictures 
of Italian life, for 

which he is best known. Has painted sev- 
eral religious pictures for the Government. 
Second grand prix, 1858 ; medals : 2d class, 
1801, 1863, and 1869; of honour, 1869; 
L. of Honour, 1867 ; Officer, 1874 ; Com- 
mander, 1882 ; Member of Institute. Works : 
Good Samaritan (1859); Adam and Eve 
finding the Body of Abel (1860), Lille Mu- 
seum ; Mariuccia (1861); Pasqua Maria, 
Martyrdom of St. Andrew (1863); Pilgrims 
at Foot of Statue of St. Peter (1864); Italian 
Boy Begging (1864); Antigone leading her 
Blind Father (1865); Neapolitan Peasants 
at the Farnese Palace (1866); St. Vincent 
de Paul taking the Place of a Galley-Slave 
(1866); First Steps of Childhood, Tender- 
ness, Fellah Woman, Street in Jerusalem 
(1870), Assumption (1869); Sheikhs of Aka- 
bah, Woman of Ustaritz (1872); Turkish 
Barber, Sherzo (1873); Christ on the Cross 
(1874); Negro Barber, Wrestling of Jacob 
(1876); Job (1880) ; Martyrdom of St. Denis 
(1885). Works in United States: Girl of 
Albano at Fountain, Misa C. L. Wolfe, New 
York ; Italian Girl, August Belmont, New 
York ; Roman Girl, W. Rockefeller, New 
York ; Don't Cry, J. J. Astor, New York ; 
Little Contadiua, J. A. Brown, Providence ; 
Elder Sister, H. P. Kidder, Boston ; Italian 
Mother and Child, H. C. Gibson, Philadel- 




phia ; Arab plucking Thorn from his Foot, 
W. H. Vanderbilt, New York. Among his 
portraits are : M. Thiers (1877), Victor Hugo 
(1879), Presi- 
dent Gr6vy 
(1880), Leon 
Cogniet (1881, Luxembourg), Hon. L. P. 
Morton (1883). Gaz. des B. Arts (1881), 
xxiv. 32 ; Menard ; Portfolio, 1875. 

BONNEFOND, JEAN CLAUDE, born in 
Lyons, about 1790, died there, June 27, 
1860. Genre painter ; pupil of Revoil ; won 
the first prize in Lyons school of art in 
1813 ; then went to Paris and afterward to 
Italy. Succeeded Revoil in 1831 as direc- 
tor of the Lyons school of art Medals : 
2d class, 1817 ; 1st class, 1827 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1834 ; Corresponding Member of Insti- 
tute, 1854. Works: Bed-Chamber, Little 
Savoyards (1817); Poultry Merchant, Blind 
Man*(1819); Blacksmith (1822), B. Deles- 
sert ; Return of Little Savoyards, Country 
Scene in Spain, Room to Let (1824), Lyons 
Museum ; Tired Pilgrim Woman helped by 
Monks, Shepherds and Shepherdesses in 
Roman Canipagna (1827) ; Ceremony of 
Holy Water in a Greek Church (1831), 
Lyons Museum ; Wounded Pilgrim Woman, 
Greek Officer wounded in Ruins of Misso- 
longhi, Christ on the Cross, Court-House, 
Lyons; Roman Gleaner, Vow to the Ma- 
donna. Larousse. 

BONNEFOY, HENRY, born at Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) ; contempo- 
rary. Landscape painter ; pupil of Leon 
Cogniet. Medals : 3d class, 1880 ; 2d class, 
1884. Works : June in Denmark, Monsieur, 
Madame etBebe (1880); Delinquents, Octo- 
ber Evening (1881); Playing Truant, The 
Ox and the Frog (1882) ; In the Woods 
(1883); September Morning, June in the 
Wood (1884); Derriere 1'Oreille, On the 
Border of the Pool (1885). 

BONNEGRACE, CHARLES ADOLPHE, 
born at Toulon, April 2, 1812, died in 1882. 
History and portrait painter ; pupil of Baron 
Groa Medals: 3d class, 1839 ; 2d class, 1842 ; 
L. of Honour, lbG7. Works : St Peter in 



1T9 



BONONE 



Prison (1839) ; Christ in the Tomb (1840); 
St. Laurence the Martyr (1853), ordered by 
State; Christ among the Doctors (1855), 
Toulon Museum; Manna in the Desert 
(1861), St. Louis en He ; Daphnis and Chloe 
(1857); Cupid and Psyche (1859) ; Modesty 
conquered by Love (1861), ordered by Em- 
peror; Birth of Venus (1875). Portraits of 
Anatole de la Forge, Theophile Gautier, 
George Feydeau, Count Flahault, Mme. 
Grisi, of himself (1873). Larousse. 

BONONE, CARLO, born in Ferrara, in 
1569, died there, Sept. 3, 1632. Lombard 
school ; pupil of Giuseppe Mazzuoli, and 
at first followed his manner ; but after visit- 
ing Bologna and Home adopted the style of 
the Caracci so successfully that he was 
called the Caracci of Ferrara. In his 
larger works he resembles Paolo Veronese, 
whose pictures he studied in Venice. He 
was a rival, all his life, of Ippolito Scarsella. 
Many of his works are in the churches of 
Ferrai'a, e.g., Patriarchs and Prophets in 
the Choir of S. M. in Vado ; Marriage at 
Cana, Ateneo ; Arisen Christ and Saints, S. 
Benedetto. Burckhardt, 786, 797 ; Lanzi, 
iii. 214 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ferraraise. 

BONSIGNOEI, FRANCESCO DI AL- 
BERTO, born in Verona, in 1455, died 
at Caldiera, near Verona, July 2, 1519. 
Lombard school ; brought up in the Ver- 
onese school, he came under the influ- 
ence of Mantegna at Mantua after he had 
formed a manner of his own, and acquired 
such proficiency that the Marquis Francesco 
Gonzaga gave him in 1487 a house and a 
salary, and retained him in his service until 
his death. He painted history, portraits, 
architecture, and animals ; was called the 
modern Zeuxis. His earlier style is more 
like that of Montagna, or of Buonconsi- 
glio, than that of Mantegna, but at the close 
of the 15th century he had become an imi- 
tator of Mantegna. Still later he shows the 
influence of Lorenzo Costa. His second 
manner is well illustrated in St. Louis and 
St. Bernardino, Brera, Milan ; St. Sebastian, 
S. M. delle Grazie, Mantua; March to Calvary, 



Academy, Mantua ; Portrait of a Venetian 
Senator, National Gallery (1487), London ; 
Madonna and Saints, Sir A. H. Layard, Lon- 
don ; and Christ carrying his Cross, Doria 
Gallery, Rome. In his last style are : Vision 
of Christ to the Nun Ozanna, Mantua Mu- 
seum ; and Madonna between Saints, chapel 
of S. Biagio, church of SS. Nazaroe Celso, 
Verona, painted in 1514-19. C. & C., N. 
Italy, i. 474 ; Ch. Blanc, cole lombarde ; 
Bernasconi, 250 ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
i. 480. 

BONVICINO, ALESSANDRO. See Mo- 
retto. 

BONVIN, FRANgOIS SAINT, born at 
Vaugirard, near Paris, Sept. 22, 1817. 
Genre painter ; self taught ; studied Dutch 
painters in the Louvre, then painted sub- 
jects from the life of the working classes of 
Paris. Medals : 3d class, 1849 ; 2d class, 
1851 ; L. of Honour, 1870. Works : Ave 
Maria, The Cook, The Piano, Men Drinking 
(1849); Orphans' School (1850), Laugres 
Museum; Woman Knitting (1851); Charity 
(1852), Niort Museum ; Class of Little Ones 
(1852); Regimental School (1853), ordered 
by State ; Woman Reading (1853) ; Nuns 
Knitting, Low Mass, belongs to State ; A 
Cook (1855); The Blacksmith (1857), bought 
by State ; Letter of Recommendation, or- 
dered by State ; The Gossip, The Reader 
(1859) ; Interior of Wine-Shop (1861), 
bought by State ; Nuns returning from 
Church, bought by State ; Copper Fountain, 
Apprentice's Breakfast (1863); Attributes of 
Painting and Music, Poor Bench (1865); 
Grandmother's Coffee (1866); Clergy dis- 
tributing Food, Old Woman Reading (1867); 
Letter of Introduction, Frying Herring 
(1868) ; Nun Knitting, Young Designer 
(1869); Ave Maria, Morning in the Pasture 
(1870) ; The Refectory, The Laboratory 
(1873); The Alembic, The Pig, School-Boy 
kept in (1875) ; Gravesend, Abandoned Boat 
(1876); A Thatcher who has fallen (1877) ; 
Shoemaker's Apprentice, Autumn Evening 
at Port Marlyt (1878) ; During Vacation 
(1879); Corner in a Church (1880). 



180 



BOONEN 



- 

- A l^\ 

: /\Jf J J 



BOONEN, ARNOLD VAN, born at Dor- 
drecht, in 1669, died in 1729. Dutch school; 
portrait and genre painter ; pupil of Gott- 
fried Schalken, imitating the latter in his 
subjects taken by candle-light. He painted 
life-size portraits at some of the German 
courts. His younger brother, Jasper Boon- 
en (1677-1729), and his son Kasper Boon- 
en, were por- 
trait paint- 
ers. Works: 
Young Wom- 
an with Lantern (1695), six others, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Anchorite Reading (1695), 
Brunswick Gallery. Gool, i. 294. 

BOOTHBY, PENELOPE, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Earl of Dudley ; canvas. A little 
girl in a large mob cap, seated out-of-doors. 
Sometimes called tho Mob Cap. Painted in 
1788 ; sold in 1851 to B. G. Windus for 
290 guineas ; bought at his sale (1859) 
by Lord Ward for 1100 guineas. Engraved 
by Thomas Park (1789); T. Kirk ; S. Cous- 
ins ; lithographed in Portfolio. Portfolio 
(1873), 136 ; (1876), 145 ; Athenamm, Aug., 
1874, 185 ; Dec., 1874, 758. 

BOOTT, ELIZABETH, born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; contemporary. Figure paint- 
er ; pupil of W. M. Hunt, of Duveneck, and 
in Paris of Couture. Studio in Boston. 
Works: Head of a Tuscan Ox (1876); Old 
Man Reading (1878); Old Roman Peasant, 
Girl with Cat (1879); Almond Blossoms, 
Still-Life (1882); Pyrus Japonica (1883). 

BORDES, ERNEST DOMINIQUE, born 
at Pau, France ; contemporary. History 
and genre painter ; pupil of Bonnat and 
Cormon. Medal : 3d class, 1884. Works : 
The Concierge is a Tailor (1881); Malaguu- 
na de Seville (1882) ; Jour des Cuivres, Breton 
Woman Spinning (1883); Legend of St. Ju- 
lian the Hospitaller (1884); Tide at Cayeux 
(1885). 

BORDONE, PARIS, born in Treviso, in 
1500, died in Venice, Jan. 19, 1570. Vene- 
tian school ; of a noble family ; pupil of Ti- 
tian, under whom he gave promise early 
of great ability. Afterward studied the 







\ works of Giorgione, whom he imitated 
rather than Titian. He excelled especially 
in portraits, his 
heads being 
inferior only to 
those of Titian. 
His flesh tints 
are wonderful- 
ly brilliant, but 

\ in taste and 
quality of touch 
he was inferior 
to either Titian 
or Paolo Vero- 

j nese. His landscape backgrounds are gen- 
erally classical and elegant. In 1538 he 

; went to Paris, at the invitation of Francis I., 
or, as some say, in 1559, at that of Francis 
IL, and painted the principal personages of 
the court. The most important of his works 
are: The Fisherman presenting the Ring 
of St. Mark to the Doge, and the Tiburtine 
Sibyl, Venice Academy ; Baptism of Christ, 
Brera, Milan ; Altarpiece and Madonna and 
Saints, Berlin Museum ; Diana, Apollo, and 
Marsyas, Dresden Gallery ; Madonna and 
Saints, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Daphnia 
and Chloe, National Gallery, London. There 

O .PARIS -B- 

are portraits by Bordone 
in the Uffizi and Pitti, 
Florence ; and in the Lou- 
vre, Munich, Vienna, and 
othergalleries. Ch. Blanc, 
ficole venitienne; Seguier, 23; Siret, 119; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vii. 82, ix. 143, xiii. 
47; Burckhardt, 741; Morelli (Richter), 
195 ; Ltlbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 568. 

BORESUM (Borssem, Borssum), ABRA- 
HAM VAN, flourished about 1600. Dutch 
school ; landscape and animal painter, in 
the manner of A, Cuyp and A. van der 
Neer. Clever painter and able colourist, 
with a firm touch. Works : Village by 
Moonlight, Rotterdam Museum ; Pictures 
in Van Loon Collection, Amsterdam, and 




BORGOGNONE 



Arenberg Gallery, Brussels. De Stuers, 
115 ; Burger, Musees, ii. 215. 

BORGOGNONE, AMBROGIO, born in 
Milan, about 1440-50, flourished from 1485 
to 1523, some say until 1535 ; but probably 
died at Milan, in 1523. Lombardo-Milanese 
school ; real name Ambrogio Stefani da Fos- 
sano ; perhaps pupil of Vincenzo Foppa and 
of Bernardino Zenale. First manner timid 
and stiff, and never gained much freedom ; 
painted in tempera and then in oil in the 
method of tempera ; flat surface in flesh and 
drapery, and petty detail in landscape dis- 
tances. His best work is in the Certosa, Pavia. 
Used much gilding in his early pictures, as in 
Madonna and Saints, Ambrosian Library, 
Milan ; do., collection of Count Borromeo, 
Milan ; and a triptych in the National Gal- 
lery, London, where are also his Marriage 
of St. Catherine and two family portrait 
pieces. The second style of Borgognone 
shows the influence of Leonardo da Vinci. 
Examples of it are the remains of frescos at 
S. Satire, Milan (1494-95); a series of small 
panels at Lodi ; Coronation of the Virgin, in 
choir, and scenes from the legend of S. Si- 
sinius, in portico, of S. Simpliciano, Milan 
(1524) ; Christ after his Resurrection and 
Christ disputing with a Doctor, S. Ambro- 
gio ; a ceiling in the sacristy of S. M. della 
Passione ; Madonna with Saints (1485), S. 
Eustorgio, Milan. In the Certosa, Pavia, 
are the frescos of the apses, and a Crucifix- 
ion (1490) ; St. Ambrose and Martyrs ; St. 
Sirus in Majesty with Saints ; St. Augustin, 
and many other works completed before 
1494. Other works are : An altarpiece 
(1508), S. Spirito, Bergamo ; Assumption 



(1522), Brera, Milan ; Madonna in Adora- 
tion, Munich Gallery ; do., Dresden Gal- 
lery. Calvi, Dei Professori, etc., 245 ; Rio, 



Art Chretien, iii. 184 ; C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
41 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole milanaise ; Morelli 
(Richter), 419 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 
495. 

BORGONA, JUAN DE, died in Toledo, 
about 1533. Spanish school ; enjoyed the 
patronage of Archbishop Ximenes ; painted 
i in 1495-99 in the cloisters of the Cathe- 
dral of Toledo works now destroyed, and 
'in 1508-11 frescos in the winter chap- 
ter room at Toledo, among which were a 
Nativity of the Virgin and a Last Judgment. 
In 1514 he painted the Conquest of Oran 
on the walls of the Muzarabic Chapel, and 
in 1519 adorned with frescos the Cathedral 
Library. He also painted portraits of all the 
Spanish Primates down to Cardinal de Fon- 
seca. Stirling, i. 93. 

BORJESSON, AGNES, born in Sweden, 
May 1, 1827. Genre painter ; pupil of Bok- 
lund ; studied then in Paris, and from 1860 
in Dtlsseldorf under W. Sohn ; travelled 
afterwards in Italy. Since 1872 member of 
the Stockholm Academy. Works : Old 
Reminiscences, Stockholm Museum ; De- 
parture of the Bridal Pair. 

BORRACHOS, LOS (The Topers), or 
Bacchus, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 5 f i 5 in. x 7 ft. 3 in. Bacchus, half 
nude, crowned with vine leaves, sits on a 
cask and smiles as he places a crown of 
leaves on head of a soldier kneeling before 
him ; on left, a peasant seated, and another 
reclining on bank with a cup in hand ; on 
right, five jovial peasants looking on ; back- 
ground, landscape. Painted about 1629 for 
Philip TV. Old copy in Naples Museum. 
Sketches : Lord Hey tesbury, Wilts ; Robert 
S. Holford, London. Several etchings and 
lithographs. Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; 
Art Journal (1852); Gaz. des B. Arts (1879), 
421 : Klass. der Malerei ; Curtis, 17 ; Ma- 
drazo, 596. 

BORRAS, Fray NICHOLAS, born at Co- 
centayna, in 1530, died at Gaudia, in 1610. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Vicente Joanes ; 
became, in 1575, a monk in the Jeronymite 
convent at Gandia, where he gave most of 



182 






BORRAS 

bis life to its embellishment, covering the invitation of Louis XTV. and painted fres- 
walls of its chapels, chapter-house, cloisters, cos in the Louvre and at Vincennes. Re- 
and refectories with picturea Many of his turned to Genoa the year of his death. 
works in the Museum at Valencia, among Lanzi, iii. 271 ; Ch. Blanc, ]5cole genoise ; 
them a Last Supper, Christ bearing his Soprani, 179. 

Cross, Dead Sa- _^^ BOSBOOM, JAN, born at The Hague, 

viour in Arms of /} Feb. 18, 1817. Architecture painter; pupil 

the Father, and l\f} T^TjOiA of Van Bree > Knight of the Order of the 
Archangel Mi- Vxt-/ s*s^\J Lion, of the Crown of Oak, and of Leopold ; 
chael driving Souls to Purgatory. Bermu- medals in Paris (1855) and Philadelphia 
dez gives a list of his works. Stirling, i. (1876). Works : Franciscan Monks singing 
379 ; Cean Bermudez. Te Deum (1855) ; Holy Communion in 

BOREAS Y MOMPO, Don VICENTE, Protestant Church ; Hall of the Consistory 
born in Spain ; contemporary. Historical at Nymwegen ; Interior of Church at Alk- 
genre painter. Medal, 
2d class, Madrid, 1878. 
Works : Seizure of Riego 
(1878); Dona Maria Pa- 
checo de Padilla (1881) ; 
Antonio Perez after Tor- 
ture receiving his Family 
(1884). La Hustracion 
(1881), ii. 299 ; (1884), iL 
41. 

BORSOS, JOSEF, born 
at Veszprim, Hungary, 
Dec. 20, 1821. Genre and 
still-life painter ; pupil of 
Vienna Academy. Works: 
Still-life (1850), Vienna 
Museum ; Morning after 
Masked Ball (1850), Por- 
trait of Prince Eszterhazy, 
National Museum, Pesth ; Surprise (1850), maar ; Interior of Rotterdam Cathedral ; 
Wounded Soldier (1853), After the Battle Protestant Church at Amsterdam, Munich 
(1853), Austrian Art Union. Wtlrzbach, ii. Gallery"; Tomb of Engelbert H., Le Buffet 
78. d'Orgues (1873). 

BORZONE, LUCIANO, born in Genoa in ; BOSCH, ERNST, born at Crefeld, Ger- 
1590, died there in 1045. Genoese school ; many, in 1834. Genre painter ; pupil in 
pupil of his uncle Filippo Bertolotto and of Wesel, of Schex, then in 1851-50 at the 
Cesare Corte. Painted some historical pict- Dilsseldorf Academy, under Sohn, Hilde- 
ures, but excelled in portraits. Killed by a brandt, and Schadow. Works : The Smug- 
fall from a scaffolding in 1'Annunziata, Igler (1854), Ferry in the Ice, Flying Dutch- 
Genoa, where he was occupied in painting man, Defence of Log-House against Indians, 
a Nativity. His three sons, Gio. Battista Soldier's Serenade, Gipsy Gang, Faithful 
(died 1657), Carlo (died 1657), and Fran- Watchman, Grandfather and Grandson, 
cesco Maria (born 1626, died 1679), were all The Sick Cow, Rogues' School, Autumn 
painters. Francesco M. went to France at Evening (1867), Far-Sighted and Near- 




Los Borrachos (The Topers), Velasquez, Madrid Museum. 



188 



BOSCH 



Sighted, Sleeping Savoyard Boy, Tinker, 
Old Shepherd (1873), The Poachers, Red 
Riding-Hood, Cinderella, the Favourites, 
Old Shepherd and Granddaughter, Idyl. 
Miiller, 67. 

BOSCH (Bos), HTERONYMUS (Hieron- 
ymus van Aeken), born at Bois-le-Duc, be- 
tween 1460 and 1464, died there in 1516. 
Flemish school ; history and genre painter; 
treated scriptural subjects in a fantastic 
and grotesque spirit ; great brilliancy of 
colour and delicacy of execution. His fame \ 
spread rapidly over the Netherlands, Italy, 
and Spain. Works : Adoration of Magi, t 
Temptation of St. Anthony (3), Fall of An- 
gels, Creation (?), Moral Fantasy, Madrid 
Museum ; Christ crowned with Thorns, Va- 
lencia Museum ; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Antwerp Museum ; Fall of Angels, Brussels 
Museum ; Temptation of St. Anthony (2, ?), 
Museum, Vienna ; Last Judgment, Acad- 
emy, ib. ; Holy Family, Naples Museum. 
Allgem. d. Biog. iii. 184 ; Biog. nat. de Bel- 




gique, i. 149 ; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., i. 90 ; 
Michiels, iv. 204 ; Rooses (Eeber), 75 ; W. 
& W., ii. 528. 

BOSEE, FRIEDRICH, born at Halbau, 
Silesia, in 1811, died in Dilsseldorf, Jan. 
28, 1881. Genre and portrait painter ; 
pupil in 1831-34 of Dresden, then, till 1836, 
of the Berlin Academy, and, till 1841, of 
the Diisseldorf Academy. Works : Egmont 
and Clara, Faust and Gretchen, Present to 
the Bride, Brother Sleeps, Wendish Girls at 
Church, Little Flower-Girl, Girl Knitting, 
The Widow, Poor's Box, The Redeemer 
(1870) ; Shooting at the Shawfowl, Looking 
at the Pictures, Mr. Booker, New York. 
Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 343 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex. 
(1874), iii. 550 ; Wolfgang Miiller, Diissel- 
dorf K., 291. 

BOSSCHAERT (Bossaert), THOMAS 
WILLEBRORD, called Willeborts, born at 
Bergen-op-Zoom, in 1613, died in Antwerp, 



Jan. 23, 1654. Flemish school ; history and 
portrait painter ; pupil in Antwerp of Ge- 
rard Zegers, but became afterwards a suc- 
cessful imitator of Van Dyck, to whom some 
of his works are attributed ; master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1636, dean in 1650-51 ; di- 
rector of Academy at Antwerp, 1649. Works : 
The Angels announcing to Abraham the 
Birth of Isaac, Brussels Museum ; St. Sebas- 
tian and the Angel, Munich Gallery ; Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, Berh'n Museum (?) ; 
Mary and St. Francis, Nuremberg Museum ; 
Elijah in the Desert, Vienna Museum. 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 750 ; Kramm, i. 
134, vi. 1865; Michiels, ix. 71; Rooses 
(Reber), 328. 

BOSSCHE, BALTHASAR VAN DEN, 
born at Antwerp, baptised Jan. 6, 1681, 
died there, Sept. 8, 1715. Flemish school ; 
genre and portrait painter; pupil of Gerard 




Thomas. Work: Reception of Burgomas- 
ter in the Guild of Cross-Bowmen (1711), 
Antwerp Museum. Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 426. 

BOSSHARDT, KASPAR, born at Pfaffi- 
kon, Switzerland, in 1823. History painter ; 
pupil of Dtisseldorf Academy under Scha- 
dow and Schirmer ; paints chiefly subjects 
from local history. Studio in Munich. 
Works : Halwyl of Bern before Battle of 
Murten (1868), Basle Museum ; Death of 
Sickingen,Wengi of Solothurn placing him- 
self before a Cannon, Confederate Woman 
in Suabian War, The Favourite, Politicians 
in the Monastery (1879). Kunst-Chronik, 
iii. 66 ; Miiller, 68. 

BOSSUET, FRANCOIS, born at Ypres, 
East Flanders, Aug. 20, 1800. Architecture 
painter ; pupil of Brussels Academy ; trav- 
elled in the Netherlands, Germany, France, 



184 



BOTH 



Spain, and North Africa. Professor at 
Brussels Academy. Member of Rotterdam 
and Philadelphia Academies. Officer of Order 
of Leopold; Portuguese Order of Isabella the 
Catholic. Works : Seville Cathedral (1855), 
St. Amand Abbey at Rouen, Brussels Muse- 
um ; Ruins of Moorish Bridge, Li6ge Muse- 
um ; Gate of Justice at the Alhambra, MODS 
Museum ; Market Halls at Ypres, Ypres 
Museum ; Lions' Court of the Alhambra, 
Court of Honour of the Alcazar at Seville, 
Stuttgart Gallery ; Andalusian Landscape 
(1847), Giralda Procession at Seville (1853), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Roman Aqueduct 
at Seville, Philadelphia Museum. La- 
rousse, ii. 1027. 

BOTH, JAN, called the Italian, born at 
Utrecht, in 
1610, died 
there after 
1650. Dutch 
school. Jan 
and his broth- 
er Andries 
having learned 
the elements 
of painting 
from their fa- 
ther, Dirck, glass painter, were apprenticed 
by him to Abraham Bloemart. The broth- 
ers travelled in France and Italy. At Rome, 
Jan imitated the style of Claude Lorraiu and 
painted some excellent landscapes, in which 
Andries, who followed the manner of Van 
Laar, introduced figures and animals. It is 
said that Jan, after his brother was drowned 
at Venice, returned to Utrecht and died 
of grief soon after. But doubt is thrown 
upon this story by the signature of Jan, 
when dean of the guild in 1649 ; he had re- 
turned to Utrecht in 1644. Works : Eight 
landscapes, Madrid Museum; two, Louvre ; 
do., Hague Museum ; four, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam; two, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; one, Antwerp Museum ; do., Brussels 
Museum ; do., Brunswick Museum ; five, 
Dresden Museum; one (1650), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do., Munich Gallery ; two, Copen- 





hagen Gallery ; Baptism of the Eunuch, 
Buckingham Palace, London ; Landscape 
with Muleteers ; do. with figures (by Poe- 
lenburg) rep- 
resenting 
Judgment of 
Paris, and 
others, National Gallery, London; Land- 
scape, New York 

17 [\ f Museum. Ch. 

TAJ / QJ*() Blanc, Ecole hol- 

*^ ^"^ landaise ; Cat du 

Musee d'Anvers (1874), 62 ; Havard, A. & 

A., iv.171 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 366. 

BOTTALLA, GIOVANNI MARIA, called 
Raffaellino, born at Savona, in 1613, died in 
Milan, in 1644. Genoese school ; patro- 
nized by Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti, who 
placed him at Rome in the studio of Pietro 
da Cortona. Sacchetti called him Raffael- 
lino from his happy imitation of Raphael ; 
but his style is rather that of Pietro, who is 
said to have dismissed him and Francesco 
Rornanelli, for endeavouring to supplant 
him. Afterwards painted in Naples and in 
Genoa. His Meeting of Jacob and Esau is 
in the Capitol Gallery, Rome. Lanzi, iii. 
276; Ch. Blanc, ficole genoise; Soprani, 161. 

BOTTCHER, CHRISTIAN (EDUARD), 
born at Imgenbroich, Rhine province, Dec. 
9, 1818. Genre and landscape painter ; 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Hilde- 
brandt and Schadow. Since 1872 professor 
in Academy. Works : Release of Prisoner 
(1848); Schoolmaster and Village Youths 
(1852); Rhenish Village Youths (1856); 
Evening on the Rhine (1860); Rhenish 
Harvest (1861); Summer-Night on the 
Rhine (1872), Cologne Museum ; Evening 
in Black Forest (1863), Leipsic Museum ; 
Starting for the Vintage (1867); Hay-Har- 
vest on the Lahn, Villa on the Rhine, Mar- 
ket-Well in Rhenish City (1870); Return 
from the Fields (1872); Sunday on the 
Rhine (1875). Wolfg. Mttller, 69; Dus- 
seldorf K., 257 ; Wiegmann, 326. 

BOTTICELLI, ALESSANDRO (Sandro), 
born in Florence, in 1446, died there, 



185 



BOUCHER 




May 17, 1510. Florentine school; real 
name Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, but 

took nameofBot- 
ticelli from his 
master, a gold- 
smith, to whom 
he was appren- 
ticed. Studied 
painting with Fra 
Filippo Lippi, at 
whose death 
(1469) he was, 
says Vasari, the best master in Florence. He 
is the only contemporary whom Leonardo 
da Vinci mentions by name in his treatise 
on painting. The grace, sympathetic feel- 
ing, and imaginative quality of Sandro's 
work give it a greater hold upon the mind j 
than that of many painters who surpassed 
him in technical knowledge and in feeling 
for beauty. Student and illustrator of 
Dante, a reader of Boccaccio, with a taste 
for classical mythology, and of a serious turn 
of mind which brought him under the influ- 
ence of Savonarola, in the latter part of his 
life, this painter poet worked with genuine 
freshness of feeling. His art is always re- 
fined and elevated, though not altogether 
free from a na'ive mannerism whose quaint- 
ness gives it a peculiar charm. As an ex- 
ample of his Lippesque manner see the 
Madonna with Angels, Uffizi, painted about 
1480, to which year belongs the fresco of 
St. Jerome, Ognissanti, Florence. The 
Adoration of the Magi, and the Fortitude, 
Uffizi, show the influence of Pollajuolo, who 
painted the series of Virtues to which the 
latter belongs, an influence which is also 
perceptible in the Calumny of Apelles, and 
the Birth of Venus, Uffizi. The Allegory of 
Spring, Florence Academy, illustrates the 
poetic side of Botticelli's art. Before 1484 
he was called to Rome by Sixtus IV., and 
painted the frescos of the destruction of 
Korah, Dathan, and Abiram ; Moses smit- 
ing the Egyptian at the Well; and the 
Temptation of Christ, Sistine Chapel. 
Other works are four small pictures attrib- ] 




uted to Mantegna, Palazzo Adorno, Genoa ; 
Triumph of Chastity, Turin Gallery ; Judith, 
Holofernes found by his Sdldiers, Adoration 
of Magi, Uffizi, Florence ; Coronation of 
the Virgin, S. Jacopo di Ripoli, Florence ; 
Coronation of the Virgin, Florence Academy 
(1481-84); Madonnas, Pitti and Corsini Gal- 
leries, Florence, National Gallery, London, 
and Louvre, Paris ; Portraits, the Bella 
Simonetta, Pitti, portrait of a man, attrib- 
uted to Masaccio, Palazzo Corsini, Florence, 
and of Lucrezia Tornabuoni, Berlin ; Pieta, 
Munich; Nude Venus, Berlin; Nativity, Mars 
and Venus, Venus Reclining, Assumption, Na- 
tional Gallery, London; Adoration of the 
Magi, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Whether 
Botticelli engraved any of the so-called play- 
ing cards which he designed is uncertain, 
but probably they, as well as his illustrations 

to the edition of 
Dante with Lan- 
dini's Commen- 
tary (1481), were 
engraved by Baldini. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 
309 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. 413 ; Pater, Studies 
in the History of the Renaissance, 38; Burck- 
hardt, 544 ; Dohme, 2i ; Ldbke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., i. 350. 

BOUCHER, FRANCOIS, born in Paris, 
Sept. 29, 1703, 
died there, May 
30, 1770. French 
school ; history 
and genre paint- 
er, mostly self- 
taught ; attended 
three months the 
school of Le 
Moine, then em- 
ployed in draw- 
ing for engravers from his own compo- 
sitions or Wattelet's. In 1723 he obtained 
the first prize at the Academy and later went 
to Rome with Carle van Loo. Returning to 
Paris in 1731, was received into the Acade- 
my in 1734, became professor in 1737, di- 
rector in 1765, and after the death of Carle 
van Loo was appointed first painter to the 




1S6 



BOUCIIOT 



king. He painted many mythological and 
religious subjects, landscapes, animals, theat- 
rical decorations, wall and ceiling decora- 
tions, besides making about 10,000 drawings. 
Works : Venus demanding Arms of Vulcan 
(1732), Rinaldo and Armida (1734), Diana 
leaving the Bath (1742), Vulcan giving Arms 
to Venus (1757), Vertumnus and Pomona 
(1763), Cephalus and Aurora (1768), Jupiter 
and Callisto, Rape of Europa, Venus asking 
Vulcan for Arms, Neptune and Amymone, 
Amynthus freeing Sylvia, The Goal and four 
landscapes, Louvre ; Reunion of the Arts, 
Angers Museum ; Aurora and Cephalus, 
Nancy Museum; Painting, Sileuus Drunk, 
Lille Museum ; Mercury entrusting the In- 
fant Bacchus to the Nymphs of Mt. Nisa, 
Caen Museum ; Amorous Gardener, Educa- 
tion of a Dog, Nimes Museum ; Cupids and 
Flowers, Nude Women Reclining, Toulon 
Museum ; Shepherd and Shepherdess, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Pan and Syrinx, National 
Gallery, London ; Venus and Adonis, Barker 
Collection ; Young Mother Resting, Due 
d'Aumale ; Leda, Douglas Collection ; Por- 
trait of Mme. de Pompadour, M. Henri Di- 
dier ; do., National Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
Madonna, M. Hollond ; three mythological 
subjects, Stevens Collection ; Woman Re- 
clining, several mythological subjects, Nar- 
vaez Collection ; Woman with Straw Hat, 
Chevalier Collection, Paris ; Sunrise, Sunset, 
Lord Hertford ; The Kiss, Egmont-Masse 
Collection ; Toilet of Venus (1746), The Toi- 
let (1746), Are they thinking of Grapes? 
(1747), Leda and Swan, Venus and Graces 
Bathing, Triumph of Galatea or Birth of 
Venus (1740), Stockholm Museum ; Venus 
and Cupid, Berlin Museum ; Peace and 




War, Boston Museum of Fine Arts ; Res- 
cue of Arion, New York Museum ; Voluptu- 
ary, Winter Scene, Historical Society, New 
York. Villot, Cat Louvre ; Dohme, 3; Gou- 



court, i. 177, ii. 510 ; Mantz, Fr. Boucher 
(Paris, 1880) ; Ch. Blanc, ficole francaise ; 
Houssaye Gal., iii. 129 ; Portfolio (1872), 34 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1874), x. 496. 
BOUCHOT, FRAN(;OIS, born in Paris, 

'Nov. 29, 1800, died there, Feb. 7, 1842. 
French school ; history painter, pupil of 
Regnault and Lethiere ; won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1824 ; and then studied for 
seven years in Rome and Naples, during 
which period he sent several noteworthy 

| compositions to Paris. Works : Battle of 
Zurich in 1799, Versailles Museum ; Funeral 

' of Gen. Marceau, Mairie, Chartres ; Intoxi- 
cation of Silenus, Lille Museum ; Magdalen 
under the Cross, Madeleine Church, Paris ; 
Portraits of Gen. Jaubert, of Lablache, of 
Grisi, etc. Ch. Blanc, cole franyaise. 

BOUDEWYNS (Bauduins), ADRIAEN 
FRANS, baptised in Brussels, Oct. 3, 1644, 

I died there about 1700. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of Ignatius van der 
Stock ; admitted to guild, Brussels, in 1665. 
About 1670 he went to France ; in 1677, 

, had returned to Brussels. Painted many 
small landscapes with figures and animals 
by Pieter Bout. Works : Landscapes (9), 
Madrid Museum ; Fish Market at Antwerp, 

i Louvre, Paris ; Village Market (1686), Ant- 
werp Museum ; Landscape with Figures and 
Cattle, Rotterdam Museum ; Fish Market, 
Fruit Market, Stockholm Museum; Southern 
Strand View, Brunswick Museum ; Convent 
Gate with Beggars, nine others, Dresden 
Gallery ; Landscapes (2), Museum, Vienna ; 
do. (8), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; do. (3), 
Uffizi, Florence ; others iu Stuttgart, Des- 
sau, and Wdrlitz Galleries. Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 788 ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 63 ; Jal, 127 ; Journal des B. Arts 
(1869), 35; Meyer, Ktlnst. Lex., iii. 139; 
Michiels, ix. 335. 
BOUDIN, EUGfcNE, born at Honfleur 

j (Calvados); contemporary. Marine painter. 

' Medals: 3d class, 1881 ;2d class, 1883. Works: 
Fishing (1880) ; The Meuse at Rotterdam 
(1881); On the Meuse (1882) ; L'Entrce, La 
Sortie (1883); Low Tide, High Tide (1884); 



187 



BOUGH 




Getting under Sail, The Meuse before Dor- 
drecht (1885). 

BOUGH, SAMUEL, born at Carlisle, 
Scotland, in 1822, died in Edinburgh, Nov. 
1878. Landscape painter, self-taught; re- 
moved to Edinburgh in 1855 ; A.R.S.A. in 
1857, R.S.A. in 1875. Works : Shipbuilding 
on the Clyde ; Kirkwall ; London from 
Shooter's Hill ; St. Monaw's ; Winton Castle; 
Ben Nevis. 

BOUGHTON, GEORGE HENRY, born 
near Norwich, 
England, in 1834. 
Genre painter ; 
taken when three 
years old to Am- 
erica by his par- 
ents, who settled 
in Albany, N. Y. 
Self-taught ; i n 
1853 made a 

\ f x#^ sketching tour 

through the Eng- 
lish Lake country, Scotland, and Ireland. In 
1858 he removed from Albany to New York, 
two years later went to Paris, and in 186 1 fixed 
his residence in London, where he has since 
remained. His Passing into the Shade, ex- 
hibited at British Institution, and his Through 
the Fields and Hop-Pickers Returning, Roy- 
al Academy, 1863, attracted considerable at- 
tention. Elected N.A. in 1871 and A.R.A. 
in 1879. His works are popular, and many 
of them have been engraved. Works : Last 
of the Mayflower, Breton Pastoral (1868) ; 
Age of Gallantry (1870); Colder than Snow, 
Chapter from Pamela (1871); Heir Presump- 
tive (1873) ; Canterbury Pilgrims (1874) ; 
Grey Days, Bearers of the Burden (1875) ; 
Homeward, Snow in Spring (1877); Priscilla, 
Widow's Acre, Restiug-Place (1879) ; Evan- 
geline, Omnia Vincit Amor (1880) ; Rose 
Standish, Dutch Seaside Resort, Island of 
Murken Zuyder Zee (1881); Burgomaster's 
Daughter, Weeders of the Pavement, 
Autumnal Ramble by the Spey (1882); 
Peace-maker, Sacred Mistletoe (1883) ; Mil- 
ton visited by Andrew Marvell, On the Spey, 



Salmon-Fishing (1885). Works in United 
States : Dismal Swamp, August Belmont, 
New York ; Idyl, Samuel Hawk Collection, 
New York ; Pride and Humility, Break, 
Break, Break, Peasant Interior Brittany, J. 
H. Warren, Hoosac Falls, N. Y.; Widow's 
Garden, Th. B. Clark, New York ; Gipsy 
Children, R G. Dun, New York ; Indian 
Summer, R C. Taft, Providence; Girl's 
Head, J. A. Brown, Providence ; Duel from 
" Twelfth Night," J. Carey Coale, Baltimore ; 
Winter, C. H. Wolff, Philadelphia ; March 
of Miles Standish (1869), Going to Seek his 
Fortune, G. Whitney, ib. ; Puritan Soldier, 
J. G. Fell, ib.; Skipper's Watch, W. B. Be- 
ment, ib.; Fisher Girl, H. G. Marquand, 
New York ; Flower Girl, J. P. Morgan, New 
York ; Spring Return of the Swallows, 
Autumn Departure of the Swallows, Win- 
ter Dead Swallows, M. K. Jessup, New 
York ; Puritans going to Church (1867), 
Winter Scene near Albany, Normandy Girl, 
Mrs. R. L. Stuart, New York ; Queen Mary, 
Wife of the Conqueror, Going to Church, 
C. P. Huntington, New York ; Rosamond's 
Poisoner, F. Harper, New York ; Enoch 
Arden and Annie Lee, End of Maying, 
Leaving Home, Down by the River, The 
Waif, Puritan Maiden going to Church, 
j Edict of William the Testy (original study), 
C. S. Smith, New York ; Return of the May- 
flower, F. Rogers, Philadelphia ; Waning 
Honeymoon, Venus and Adonis, W.T.Walters, 
, Baltimore ; Comin' through the Rye, L. 
Tuckerman, New York ; Edict of William the 
I Testy (1877), Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
| ton. Art Journal (1873), 41; Meynell, 21; 
Portfolio (1871), 67. 

BOUGUEREAU, (WILLIAM) ADOLPHE, 
I born at La Rochelle, Nov. 30, 1825. French 
school ; history and genre painter ; pupil of 
Picot, and from 1843 of Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. Won the grand prix de Rome in 1850, 
and while a pensioner in that city sent sev- 
eral pictures to Paris which were much ad- 
mired. On his return to Paris he was en- 
trusted with important decorative works in 
public buildings, and in 1866 painted Apollo 



1S8 



BOUILLON 



and the Muses in the foyer of the theatre at | Family, T. Wigglesworth, Boston ; Tambou- 



Bordeaux. Medals 
1857; 3d class, 
1867; of honour, 
1878, 1885 ; L. of 
Honour, 1859; 
Officer, 1876; 
Member of Insti- 
tute, 1876. 
Works : Martyr's 
Triumph (1854), 
Philomela and 
Procne (1861), 
Madonna of Con- 



2d class, 1855; 1st class, riue Girl, H. P. Kidder, Boston ; La llosit-re, 




J. Carey Coale, Baltimore : Oranges, D. T. 
Buzby, Baltimore ; Italian Mother and Chil- 
dren, Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland ; Little 
Reader, H. V. Newcombe, New York ; Guar- 
dian Angel, Young Bohemians, H. L. Dous- 
man, Si Louis ; Elder Sister, J. J. OTallon, 
St. Louis ; Purloining the Grapes, L. Stan- 
ford, San Francisco ; Pensive, L M. Scott, 
San Francisco ; Two Portraits, A. R Head, 
San Francisco ; Persuasion of Marguerite, 
Mrs. D. D. Colton, San Francisco ; Little 
Marauders, E. B. Warren, Philadelphia ; 
solation (1874), Birth of Venus (1879), Lux- Pastorale, Mrs. T. A. Scott, Philadelphia ; 
embourg Museum ; Venus caressing Love Nymphs Bathing, Alsatian Peasant, C. H. 
(1859) ; Faun and Bacchante, First Quarrel Clark, Philadelphia ; Picking Cherries, W. 
and Peace (1861) ; Poor Family, Shepherd- B. Bement, Philadelphia ; Tambourine Girl 
ess, Spanish Beauty, Bacchante (1863), Bor- (1873), Frank Work, New York ; Charity 
deaux Museum ; Mower, Harvest Time (1874), F. W. Drexel, New York ; Violet, A. 
(1872) ; Bather, Flora and Zephyrus (1875); ' J. Drexel, Philadelphia ; Happy Wife, Bo- 
Madonna and St. John (1875), Mr. Bouci- j hemian Girl, Elder Sister, E. D. Morgan 
cault ; Pieta (1876), Prince Demidoff ; Tri- Collection, New York ; Agnus Dei, M. K. 
inn jili of Martyrdom, Triumph of Venus, i Jessup, New York ; Harvest, Alex. Brown, 
First Caresses, Covetousness, Child with Philadelphia; Twins, John T. Martin, Brook- 
Bird, Spinning Maiden, Neighbour's Love, lyn ; Secret, Mother's Prayer, Mrs. K. L. 
Mowing Woman, Betrothal of St. Ann, Stuart, New York ; Listening to Sea-Shell, 
Nymphs (1879) ; Aurora, Madonna with j D. O. Mills, New York ; Shepherdess, Boy 
Angels (1881); Night (1883); Youth of Bac- \ and Flageolet, C. P. Huntington, New York; 
chus (1884) ; Adoration of Magi, Adoration Spring, Fletcher Harper, New York ; Young 
of Shepherds, diptych for St. Vincent de Scholar, Charles Stewart Smith, New York ; 
Paul, Paris (1885). Among his works owned j Italian Boy, Going to the Bath, W. H. Vander- 
in United States are : Mother's Treasure, bilt, New York ; The Departure, A. E. Borie 
Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York ; Mother and ( Collection, Philadelphia ; Bunch of Grapes, 
Child, Twins, A. Belmont, New York ; Hesi- j R L. Cutting, New York ; Charity, Young 
tating between Love and Riches, James H. Reader, Samuel Hawk Collection, New York; 
Stebbins, New York ; Virgin and Angels, G. Alma Parens (1883), G. R. Blanchard, New 



L Seney, Brooklyn ; Far from Home, Robert \ York 
Hoe, New York ; Little Rogue, M. Graham, more 
New York ; Prayer, W. Rockefeller, New 
York ; La Tricoteuse, J. J. Astor, New York ; 
Maternal Solicitude, T. R Butler, New York; 
Little Marauders (1873), D. W. Powers, Roch- 
ester ; Nymphs and Satyr (1873), Hoffman 
House, New York ; Beggar-Girl, J. A. Brown, 
Providence ; Meditation, Bad Scholar, W. 
Mason, Taunton, Masa ; Homer and his Guide 
(1874), Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New York ; Holy 



Flagellation, W. T. Walters, Balti- 
Early Morning, L. Tuckerman, New 



W-BOVGVEREAV-18/5 

York. Claretie, Peintres, etc. (1874), 49; La- 
rousse ; Hamerton, French Painters ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 400 ; Mflller, 70 ; Perrier, Etudes, 
134 ; Portfolio (1875), 42. 
BOUILLON CLAUDE. See She!*. 



BOULANGER 




BOULANGER, GUSTAVE (RODOLPHE I 

CLARENCE), bom in Paris, April 25, 1824. ( 
History painter, 
pupil of Jollivet 
and of Delaroche ; 
won the prix de 
Rome in 1849 ; re- 
turned from Italy 
in 1856 ; has trav- 
elled in Africa. 
Medals : 2d class, 
1857, 1859, 1863, 
and 1878; L. of 
Honour, 1865; 

Member of Institute, 1882. Works: Ulysses 
recognized by Eurycleia (1849) ; C;i'sar at 
the Rubicon; The Choassa, House of the 
Tragic Poet in Pompeii, Maestro Palestrina 
(1857) ; Arabian Herdsmen, Lucretia, Les- 
bia (1859) ; Hercules at Feet of Omphale, 
Copy of the Flute Player and the Wife of 
Diomed (Prince Napoleon) ; An Arab (1861); 
Csesar at the Head of the Tenth Legion, Ka- 
byles, The Defeat (1863) ; Horsemen of the 
Sahara (1864); Djeid and Rahia, Portrait of 
Hamdy-Bey (1865) ; Catharine I. with Me- 
hemet Baltadji, Woman selling Crowns in 
Pompeii (1866); The Mamillare (1867); El 
Hiasseub, Arabian Story-Teller, Street of 
the Tombs in Pompeii (1869); Tisan Emir, 
The Chaouches of the Hakem, Souvenir of 
Old Blidah (1870) ; Waiting for their Lord 
and Master (1872); The Search of the Aid 
Srir at Biskra (1873) ; A-ppian Way in Time 
of Augustus (1874) ; The Gyneceum (1875) ; 
Summer Bath at Pompeii, Roman Comedi- 
ans rehearsing their parts (1876); St. Se- 
bastian and the Emperor (1877); Repast in 
House of Lucullus (1878); Slave with a Fan 
(1882); Source of the Tiber (1883); Captive, 
Woman of the Ouleid-Nahir (1884); Jewish 
Water Carrier in Algiers, Mother of the 



Gracchi (1885); Turkish Justice, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York. Larousse ; 
Miiller, 70. 



BOULANGER, LOUIS, born at Vercelli, 
Piedmont, March 11, 1806, died at Dijon, 
March 5, 1867. Genre painter, pupil of 
Lethiere and of Achille Deveria; one of 
the leading artists of the romantic school. 
Medals: 2d class, 1827 ; 1st class, 1835; 
L. of Honour, 1840 ; director of the School 
of Art in Dijon after 1860. He exhibited 
in most of the Salons from 1827 to 1866 ; 
has illustrated works of Victor Hugo and 
others. Works : Mazeppa (1827), Rouen 
Museum ; Assassination of Louis of Orleans 
by the Duke of Burgundy (1833), Ministry 
of Public Works ; Hymn of Judith (1833), 
Ministry of the Interior ; Renard the Fox in 
the Gardens of Armida, Death and the 
Woodcutter, Spanish Mule-Drivers (1833); a 
series of brilliant water-colours representing 
scenes from Notre Dame de Paris, Beatrice 
Cenci, Lucretia Borgia, Othello, and King 
Lear (Salons of 1833 and 1834) ; Camacho's 
Wedding (1835) ; Triumph of Petrarch 
(1837); Three Women beloved by Poets 
(1840, Dante's Beatrice, Petrarch's Laura, 
Ariosto's Orsolina) ; Virgil's Shepherds, 
Women Bathing (1845) ; Hecuba's Grief 
(1858), Ministry of the Interior ; Ugolino 
and his Sons (1858) ; King Lear and his 
Fool (1853); St. Jerome and the Roman Fu- 
gitives (1855); Gentlemen of the Sierra, Gui- 
tar-Player, Festival in the Castle of Lirias, 
Romeo buying the Poison (1857); Don Quix- 
ote and the Goatherd, Othello, Macbeth, 
The Message (1859); The Revery of VellSda, 
The Sunday Patrol (1861); Virgil's Georgics 
(1863); Holy Family (1865), bought by 
State ; Fear Nothing, thou bearest Csesar 
(1865) ; Concert in Picardy (1866). La- 
rousse; Kunst-Chronik, ii.113; L'Art, i. 224 ; 
Portfolio (1875), 178. 

BOULANGER, Mme. MARIE ELIZA- 
BETH (nc-e Blavot), born in Paris in 1810. 
Genre painter ; pupil in water-colour of C. 
Roqueplau, and in oil of Louis Boulanger, 
whom she married ; after his death she mar- 
ried F. Cave, director of the Beaux Arts. 
Medals: 3d class, 1836; 2d class, 1839. 
Works : Child crying over its Goat, Jean 



190 



BQULLONGNE 




Jacques and the Little Savoyards, The Poor 
Woman, Bernard de St. Pierre at the Village 
(all water-colours), Paul Veronese's Child- 
hood, Battle of Ivry, The First Ennuis, Louis 
XIII., Convalescence, Kings, Triumph of 
Bacchus (1835-1849); Virgin in Tears, 
Kouen Museum ; Children's Tournament 
(water-colour), triptych (belongs to State). 

BOULLONGNE, BON, born in Paris 
in 1649, died 
there, May 16, 
1717. French 
school ; history 
painter ; eldest 
son and pupil 
of Louis B.; 
studied in 
Rome five years 
under the pen- 
sion of the king, 
became a mem- 
ber of the Academy in 1C77, adjunct profes- 
sor in 1G84, and professor in 1692. He re- 
ceived the favour of Louis XIV., who em- 
ployed him to paint the staircase at Ver- 
sailles, under the direction of Le Brun. He 
also executed frescos in the Church of the 
Invalides, in St. Ambroise, and hi the Tri- 
anon and the chapel at Versailles. Works : 
Annunciation, St. Benedict restoring a 
Child, Marriage of St. Catherine, Hercules 
fighting the Centaurs (1677), Juno and 
Flora, Venus and Loves, Louvre ; Calling of 
Sons of Zebedee, Dublin Gallery. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

BOULLONGNE, LOUIS, the elder, born 
in Paris in 1609, died there, June 13, 1674. 
French school ; history painter, pupil of 
Blanchard; studied afterwards in Rome. On 
his return to Paris he executed several vo- 
tive pictures for Notre Dame and decorative 
paintings for public buildings. In 1656 
he was nominated professor at the Academy. 
His daughters, Genevieve (1645-1708) and 
Madeleine (1646-1710), were also painters 
and members of the Academy. 

BOULLONGNE, LOUIS DE, the 
younger, born in Paris in 1654, died there, 




Nov. 20, 1733. French school ; history 
painter; brother of Bon de B. Obtained the 
academical prize 
when eighteen, 
and went in 
1675 to Rome, 
where he made 
copies, full-size, 

of Raphael's Vat- ^ML** PiA' 
ican frescos for > nKBfc^^'%fccjf ,^ 
the Gobelin tap- 
estry manufac- 
tory. In 1680, 
after visiting 
Lonibardy and Venice, he returned to 
France, and executed many votive and dec- 
orative paintings for Notre Dame and other 
public buildings in Paris. In 1681 he be- 
came Academician, 1693 professor, 1717 rec- 
tor, and 1722 director of the Academy ; the 
same year he was decorated with the order 
of St. Michael, ennobled in 1724, and ap- 
pointed painter to the king in 1725. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole fran<;aise. 

BOUQUET, MICHEL, born at Lorient, 
(Morbihan), Oct. 17, 1807. Landscape and 
marine painter ; pupil of Gudin. Famous 
as a painter on porcelain. Medals : 3d class, 
1839 ; 2d class, 1847, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 
1881. Works : Sunset ; View on the Blavct 
(1839) ; Shoemaker's House in Valley of 
Chevreuse ; Halt of Hunters at Fontaine- 
bleau ; View near Palermo ; Danube in Hun- 
gary (water-colour, 1847) ; Evening hi Wal- 
achia ; Landscape near the Chevreuse ; Last 
Leaves of Autumn, Souvenir of Normandy 
(water-colour, 1848); Cow-Pond in Brittany 
(on porcelain, 1863) ; Spring and Autumn 
(porcelain, 1866) ; Old Mill by Moonlight 
(porcelain, 1877); View on the Seine (1879); 
Isle of Capri (1882). Larousse. 

BOURCE, HENRI (JACQUES), bom in 
Antwerp in 1826. Genre painter ; pupil 
of the Antwerp Academy, under Wappers ; 
travelled in Holland, France, Italy, Ger- 
many, Norway, England, and Scotland. 
Medals : Hague (1857), Brussels and Rotter- 
dam (1863), Amsterdam (1868 and 1876), 



191 



BOURDON 




London (1872 and 1873), Vienna (1873). 
Order of Leopold (1869), Officer (1881); 
Studio in Antwerp. Works : Return from 
Vintage (1853); Marie Antoinette taken from 
the Temple, Summer Evening by the Sea 
(1863), Hague Museum ; Empty Cradle 
(1867), Liege Museum ; Sorrowful Tidings 
(1868), Brussels Museum ; Ripe Cherries 
(1874), Ghent Museum ; Day after Storm 
(1875) ; Return from Baptism. Mtlller, 71. 
BOURDON, SEBASTIEN, born at Mout- 
pellier, Feb. 2, 
1616, died in 
Paris, May 8, 
1671. French 
school ; history 
painter ; pupil 
of Barthelemy 
. ; _^ at Paris until 
\ his fifteenth 
v V year, when he 
went to Bor- 
deaux, where 
he painted in fresco ; and to Toulouse where, 
finding no employment, he enlisted. In 1634, 
having obtained his dismissal, he proceeded 
to Rome, made copies from the old masters 
for a dealer for three years, and then re- 
turned to Paris to escape the Inquisition. 
There during the next sixteen years he 
painted battle pieces, hunts, landscapes, and 
portraits, and the Crucifixion of St. Peter 
for Notre Dame, now in the Louvre. In 
1648 he assisted in founding the Academy, 
and in 1652 went to Sweden, where he be- 
came court painter. Ten years later he re- 
turned to __ ^ 

Paris, and in 
1665 was ap- 
pointed di- 
rector of the Academy. Works : Sacrifice 
f of Noah, Solo- 

T^ ~ mon sacrificing 

J / r\ t* **r )ni ^0 Idols, Adora- 

isuv(/ruui\ tion of Shep . 

herds, Repose of Holy Family, Madonna 
with St. John, Christ and the Children, De- 
scent from Cross, Decollation of St. Protais, 




Martyrdom of St. Peter, Julius Ccesar be- 
fore Tomb of Alexander, Halt of Bohemians 
(2), Laban seeking his Idols, Presentation 
in the Temple, Portrait of Descartes, his own 
portrait, and others, Louvre ; Group of Mer- 
chants, Hague Museum ; Bacchanal, Liver- 
pool Institute ; Death of Dido, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Return of the Ark from 
Captivity, National Gallery, London. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole fran9aise. 

BOURGEOIS, EUGENE (VICTOR), born 
in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter. 
Medal, 3d class, 1885. Works : Corner of 
the Forest, Orchard of Flowers (1880); Les 
Graves at Villerville (1881); Little Bridge of 
Gravoteaux (1882) ; Pointe du Grand-Bee, 
Tuilerie de Maurevert (1883) ; Meadow in 
Environs of Villerville (1884); Le Val at Vil- 
lerville, La Fontaine- Virginie at Pennedepie 
(1885). 

BOURGEOIS, (L^ON PIERRE) UR- 
BAIN, born at Nevers, France ; contempo- 
rary. History and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Sebastin Cornu, H. Flandrin, and Caba- 
nel. Medals : 3d class, 1877; 2d class, 1880. 
Works : St. Sebastian (1877) ; Justinian Em- 
peror of the East (1878), Court of Cassation, 
Paris ; Body of St. Vincent guarded from 
Birds of Prey by Angels (1879); Portrait 
of My Little Daughter (1881) ; Innocence 
(1883); Diana after the Chase (1884), M. J. 
Darcel. 

BOURGEOIS, Sir PETER FRANCIS, 
born in London in 1756, died there, Jan. 8, 
1811. Of Swiss descent; pupil of Lou- 
therbourg ; travelled in France, Holland, and 
Italy in 1776, and on his return attained rep- 
utation for his landscapes with cattle and 
figures. In 1791 he was appointed painter to 
the King of Poland and knighted; became an 




A.R.A. in 1787, R.A. in 1793, and landscape 
painter to George HI. in 1793. He left his 
fine collection of 350 paintings, bequeathed 



193 



BOUKGET 



to him by his friend Noel Desenfans, to Dul- 
wich College, and 12,000 to build a gallery 
for them. Works: Landscapes, etc. (22), 
Dulwich Gallery. Redgrave ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole anglaise ; Richter, Dulwich Gal. Cat. ; 
Sandby, I 300. 

BOURGET, LE, DEFENCE OF, Al- 
phonse de Neuville, W. H. Vanderbilt, New ' 
York ; canvas, H. 5 ft. x 8 ft. Episode of the 
Franco-German war of 1870-71. A handful 
of French eight officers and twenty men 
barricaded themselves in the village church, 
swearing to die together rather than sur- 
render. " It was necessary," wrote Gen. 
Duroc, "to shoot them through the win- 
dows and to bring up cannon to force a ca- 
pitulation." The dying Lieut. Grisou is be- 
ing earned out of the church by two of his 
men. Painted in 1878. Art Treasures of 
Amer., iii. 103 ; Kdnst-Chronik, xv. 387. 

BOURGUIGNON, LE. See Courtois. 

BOUT, PEETER, baptized in Brussels, 
Deo. 6, 1658, died about 1700. Flemish 
school ; executed with Boudewyns a num- 
ber of pictures, which, like those of Velvet 
Brueghel, occupy a place midway between 
landscape and genre, and in which he painted 
the figures. Works : Palace (by Dupont) 
with figures, Ghent Museum ; Figures in 
Winter Landscape by d'Arthois, Brussels 
Museum ; Figures in Landscape by Boude- j 
wyns in Madrid, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Bruns- 
wick, Dresden, and Vienna Museums, Uffizi, 
Florence, and Louvre, Paris. Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 873 ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 68 ; Michiels, ix. 342. 

BOUTERWEK, FRIEDRICH AUGUST, 
born at Tamowitz, Silesia, Feb. 9, 1806, died 
in Paris, Nov. 11, 1867. History painter ; 
pupil of Berlin Academy under Kolbe, and 
in 1831 of Delaroche in Paris, where he set- 
tled after visiting Italy in 1834. He received 
23 medals and many orders. His works are 
pleasing in arrangement, clear in colouring, 
and finished in execution. Works : Orestes 
(1833) ; Arabian Sentry, Romeo and Juliet 
(1836); Patriarchal Repast (1839); Isaac and j 
Rebecca (1840); Neapolitan Scene, Episode 



from Wedding of Camacho ; Jacob and Ra- 
chael (1844); Baptism of the Chamberlain 
(1848) ; Charlemagne in Argenteuil. All- 
gem, d. Biogr., iii. 216 ; Revue artistique 
(1870); Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 186. 

BOUTIBONNE, CHARLES EDOUARD, 
born at Buda-Pesth, Hungary, of French 
parents ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
pupil of Winterhalter. Medal, 3d class, 
1847. Works: Phryne (1868); Susannah 
(1881); Sirens (1883). Works in United 
States : Inquisitive Maid, T. R. Butler, New 
York ; Skating, D. W. Powers, Rochester, 
N. Y. ; Broken Heart, W. Mason, Taun- 
ton, Mass. ; Readers, " Be quiet, Sir ! " A. 
Adams, Watertown, Mass.; Skating, J. T. 
Martin, Brooklyn ; What shall I say to 
Him ? E. B. Warren, Philadelphia ; Travel- 
ling in Switzerland, Mrs. R L. Stuart, New 
York ; On the Ice, F. Harper, New York. 

BOUTIGNY, (PAUL) EMTLE, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. History painter, 
pupil of Cabanel. Medal, 3d class, 1884. 
Works : A Cantonment (1880); Episode of 
the Affair of Quiberon June 26, 1795 
(1881); Episode of Combat of Bapaume in 
1870 (1882); Pousse-cafe (1883); Boule-de- 
Suif (1884); Attack on the Mill (1885). 

BOUTS, DIERICK, born in Haarlem 
about 1410-20, died at Louvain, May 6, 
1475. Flemish school. Called sometimes 
Dirk van Haarlem and Dierick de Louvain. 
Settled in Louvain after 1450. History 
painter of great merit, of the Van Eyck 
school, in which he is almost unequalled in 
glowing depth and transparent clearness of 
colouring ; his delicacy of personification 
and tenderness of execution are only marred 
by the exaggerated stiffness and slimness of 
his figures. Best works : Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus and Last Supper, St. Peter, Louvain. 
Two wings of this altarpiece, Shower of 
Manna and Abraham before Melchisedec, are 
in the Old Pinakothek at Munich, two others, 
Feast of the Passover and Feeding of Elijah, 
in Berlin Museum. Judas taking our Lord, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Martyrdom of St. 
Hippolitus, Bruges Cathedral ; Funeral of a 



198 



BOWLES 



Bishop, Eastlake Collection, London ; Le- 
gend of Emperor Otto III, Last Supper, 
Brussels Museum ; Coronation of the Vir- 



BEACHT, FELIX PROSPER EUGEN, 
born at Merges on Lake Geneva. June 3, 
1842. Landscape painter; pupil of the 



gin, Vienna Museum. C. & C., Flemish Carlsruhe Art School, and from 1861 in Dtis- 
Painters, 321 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; seldorf, under Gude ; gave up painting in 
Dohme, li.; Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 877; 1864 and was for ten years a cotton broker ; 
Michiels, iii. 234 ; iv. 455 ; \V. & W., ii. 40. returned in 1875 to Carlsruhe, and has 
BOWLES, MISS, Sir Joshua Reynolds, since then exhibited some excellent pictures. 
Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., Hertford House, : Medal, Carlsruhe, 1877. Works : Idyl from 
London ; canvas. A young girl seated on ! Heath of Liineburg ; Giant's Grave on Ltine- 
the ground, caressing a spaniel; background, burg Heath ; Stormy Evening on Riigen ; 



landscape, with lowering sky. Called also 
Miss Bowles and her Dog, Girl with Dog, 

Painted in 1775 
by Marquis of 



and Juvenile Amusement, 
for 50 guineas ; bought 



Hertford for 1,000 guineas. Engraved by 
W. Ward (1798), W. Fry, C. Turner, J. Gro- 
zer, S. Cousins. Athen., March, 1875, 365. 



Shepherd on the Heath ; Sandy Road in the 
Heath; Landscape on Rugen(1879). Exhibi- 
ted at Munich (1883), Moonlight Night in 
the Desert, On the Dead Sea. Midler, 72. 

BRACKETT, WALTER M., born at 
Unity, Me., in 1823. Self-taught; first 
painted portraits and ideal heads, later very 



BOXALL, Sir WILLIAM, born at Ox- successful in painting fish. President of the 
ford, June 26, 1800, died in London, Dec. J Boston Art Club many years. Studio in 
6, 1879. Student of the Royal Academy in Boston. Works : After the Battle, Earl of 
1819 ; visited Italy in 1827 and 1833, and Dufferiu ; A Series of pictures : Rise, Leap, 
repeatedly after he became director of Last Struggle, Landed, Sir Richard Potter, 
the National Gallery. When young he exe- j London ; Trout Picture, Grisle (1881). 
cuted a few subject pictures, among them BRADAMANTE AND FIORDASPINA, 
Jupiter and Latona (1823), Contention of Guido Reni, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas. Brada- 
Michael and Satan for the Body of Moses mante, near a fountain, listens to Fiordas- 
(1824), Milton's Reconciliation with his j pina, who relates the sad adventure of 
Wife (1829), and Lear and Cordelia (1831), Roger (Orlando Furioso, Canto L). Procured 
but finally devoted himself to portraiture, | in 1667 from the Casino Mediceo, near S. 
among his sitters being Wordsworth, Lan- Marco, Florence. Soc. Ed. et Paris, PI. 117. 
dor, Lord Coleridge, Gibson, Copley Field- BRADFORD, WILLIAM, born at New 
ing (National Portrait Gallery), Allan Cun- ; Bedford, Mass., about 1830. Marine paint- 



ningham, the Prince Consort, and other 
eminentmen. Became an A.R.A. in 1851 and 



er ; self-taught, but influenced by Van 
Beest, whose studio at Fairhaven he shared 



R.A. in 1863 ; succeeded Sir Charles East- for two years. Began by painting ships in 
lake as director of the National Gallery in the harbour at Lynn, Mass., and on the 
1865, retired on account of ill-health in 1874, ! coasts of Labrador and Nova Scotia ; after- 
and in 1871 was knighted. Cat. Nat. Gal.; wards made several Arctic expeditions with 
Athenaeum, Dec. 13, 1879; Sandby, ii. Dr. Hayes, the explorer, and others, to 

study icebergs and ice-floes, and from the 
sketches painted pictures which were ex- 



326. 



BOYLE, FERDINAND T. L., born in 



the United States, contemporary. Genre hibited in London and bought by the 
painter. Is an associate of the National j Queen, Baroness Burdett-Coutts, and the 



Academy. Studio in New York. 
Gran'ther's Pet (1884). 



Work : 



BOZACCO or BOZZATO. See Bazacco. 



Marchioness of Lome. Elected A.N.A. in 
1874. Studio in New York. Works: 
Steamer Panther among Icebergs in Mel- 



BRACCHETONE, IL. See Volterra. \ ville Bay under Light of Midnight Sun, 



194 



BRAEKELEER 



(Royal Academy, 1875), the Queen ; Fishing- 
Boats in the Bay of Fundy ; Shipwreck off 
Nantucket ; Light-house in St. John Har- 
bour ; Fishing-Boats getting under Way ; 
July Afternoon off Round Hill Light, Fish- 
ing Craft among the Bergs (1882); Fishing 
Craft at Sunset Coast of Labrador (1883); 
Quiet Afternoon in Straits of Belle Isle, 
Return of Labrador Fishing Boats (1884). 
Art Journal (1873), 225. 

BRAEKELEER, FERDINANDUS DE, 
born in Antwerp, Feb. 19, 1792, died there, 
May 16, 1883. History and genre painter ; 
pupil of the Antwerp Academy, and of M. 
I. van Bree ; obtained the great prize in 
1819, and studied three years in Rome, 
where he painted historical subjects in 
the style of David ; after his return de- 
voted himself to genre subjects, especially 
family scenes. He has educated many pu- 
pils who have attained fame. Order of 
Leopold ; Member of Antwerp Academy, 
and director of Antwerp Museum. Works : 
Healing of Tobias, Esau and Isaac, Citadel 
of Antwerp, Day after Surrender, Countess 
of Lalaing at Defence of Domick, Happy 
Domestics, Golden Wedding (Brussels Mu- 
seum), Domestic Quarrel, Matrimonial 
Peace, Jan Steen on the Ice, Love Declara- 
tion, St. Thomas' Day, Village School ; De- 
fence of Antwerp in 1576 (1837), Death of 
Count Frederic de Merode, Antwerp Muse- 
um ; Defence of Antwerp against Due 
d'Alenyon in 1583 ; Quarrel after Dinner, 
The Husband's Toilet (1852), National Gal- 




lery, Berlin ; Happy Family, Unhappy Fam- 
ily (1852), Corcoran Gallery, Washington. 
Larousse, ii. 1186 ; Muller, 73. 

BRAEKELEER, HENRI DE, born in 
Antwerp, contemporary. Genre painter ; 
son and pupil of Ferdinandus de B. Medals 
at Brussels (1872), Vienna (1873); honour- 



able mention, Paris (1880) ; Order of Leo- 
pold. Studio in Antwerp. Works : Interior 
j of Chapel in St. James' Church, Antwerp ; 
Interior of St. Hubert's Chapel in same 
church ; The Tailor ; Manufacturer of 
, Matches. Larousse. 

BRAEMAR, Sir Edwin iandseer, C. F. H. 
Bolckow, Marton Hall, Middlesborough, 
England. Scene in Braeinar, Highlands, 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland. A magnificent 
stag, with a group of does around him, 
stands in the mist on the brow of a hill, 
bellowing defiance to the hunter, or to other 
I males of his own kind ; a rabbit appears in 
the grass. Royal Academy, 1857. Bought 
for 5000. 

BRAITH, ANTON, born at Biberach, 
Wflrtemberg, in 1836. Animal painter ; 
pupil of Art School, Stuttgart, and from 
1860 of Munich Academy. Gold medal, 
Munich, 1869. Works : Cows in the Woods 
(1865); Cows in Cabbage-Field (1868); Yoke 
of Oxen (1870), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Cat- 
tle returning Home (1871) ; Sheep Resting 
(1871); Flock of Sheep in the Woods (1872); 
Herd at the Brook (1873); Herd overtaken 
by Storm (1874); Flock of Sheep by a Dead 
Hare (1875); Goatherd on Mountain Lake 
(1879); Cattle, W. Mason, Taunton, Mass.; 
Cattle, E. D. Morgan, N. . Muller, 73 ; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1870), ii. 50 ; (1877), i. 201. 

BRAKENBURGH, RICHARD, born in 
Haarlem, baptized May 22, 1650, died 
there, Dec. 28, 1702. Dutch school ; genre 
painter ; pupil of Heudrik Mommers ; joined 
the guild of Haarlem in 1687. Influence 
of Adrian van Ostade apparent in his pict- 
ures. Works: Tavern Interior (1692), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Children's Festival (1698), 
Brussels Museum ; Interior with Peasants 
drinking and smoking, Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Sick-room, Rotterdam Museum ; Com- 
pany in Peasant's Room (1689), Brunswick 
Museum ; two pictures (1698), Hanover 
Gallei-y ; Young Peasant with Bottle, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Party of Jovial Peasants, Fes- 
tival of the Beano (1690), Vienna Museum ; 
Two Artist's Studios, Windsor Castle, Eng- 



BEAM ANTING 



land. Ch. Blanc, ]5cole hollandaise ; 
Kramm, i. 148 ; Van der Willigen, 89. 

BRAMANTINO (Bramantino da Milano), 
born in Milan(?), died there about 1535. 
Lombard school ; real name Bartolommeo 
Suardi ; probably taught iu local schools of 
Milan, afterward journeyman to Bramaute. 
Among the earliest pictures assigned to 
him are Crucifixion, Municipio, Milan ; Cir- 
cumcision (dated 1491), Louvre ; and Dead 
Christ, S. Sepolcro, Milan. He followed 
Bramante to Rome in the beginning of the 
16th century, and was employed by Julius 
n. in the Camera dell' Eliodoro, but re- 
turned to Milan after the expulsion of the 
French from Lombardy, and painted there 
probably until near 153C, in which year his 
heirs are mentioned. All his later works 
show the influence of Leonardo da Vinci. 
Among his best are : Madonna and Angels, 
Brera, Milan ; Head of St. John the Bap- 
tist, St. Jerome, Madonna and Saints, Am- 
brosiana, Milan ; Flight into Egypt, Church 
of the Madonna del Sasso, Locarno ; Pieta 
over portal of S. Sepolcro ; St. Sebastian, 




S. Sebastiano, Milan. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 

14 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 17, viii. 14 ; Ch. 

Blanc, Ecole milanaise ; Burckhardt, 609 ; 

Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 494. 

BRAMER, LEONARD, born at Delft in 
1596, died after 
1667. Dutch 
school ; history 
and allegory 
painter. Went 
to France and 
Italy in 1614, 
returnedto Delft 
in 1625, and en- 
tered the guild 
of St. Luke in 
1629. Fond of 
candlelight ef- 

fects, in the manner of Honthorst, and of 





Oriental or Jewish costumes, like Lastman 
and Rembrandt, of whom he became an 
imitator in his later years. Works : Descent 
from the Cross, Rotterdam Museum ; Christ 
among the Doctors, Simon in the Temple, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Christ and the Scoffers, 
Solomon in the Temple, Queen of Sheba 
before Solomon, Dresden Gallery ; Two 
Allegories, Vienna Museum ; Resurrection 
of Lazarus, Turin Gallery ; Hecuba's Grief, 

Abraham 
visited by 
Angels, 
Madrid Mu- 
seum. Ch. Blanc, cole hollandaise; Bode, 
Studien, 351 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 217. 

BRAMTOT, ALFRED HENRI, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 
pil of Bouguereau. Won the grand prix de 
Rome in 1879. Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 2d 
class, 1885. Works: Bashful Love (1879); 
Punishment of Ixion (1882); Compassion 
(1883); Departure of Tobias (1885). 

BRAND, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, born 
in Vienna, Nov. 15, 1723, died there, 
June 12, 1795. German school ; landscape 
painter ; son and pupil of Christian Hilfgott 
(born in Frankfort on the Oder, in 1695, 
died in Vienna, about 1750). He was court 
painter and, from 1771, professor at the 
Vienna Academy, and was considered one 
of the best artists in his line. Works : 
Landscape with Ruin (1741), do. with Peas- 
ants and Herd (1746), Battle of Hochkirch 
(1766), four landscapes (1768, 1771), Vi- 
enna Museum ; ten in Prague Gallery ; 
others in galleries of Germany, France, 
England, and Russia. By his father are 
three Wood Landscapes in the Vienna Mu- 
seum, ten others in the Prague Gallery. 
Allgem. d. Biog. iii. 236 ; Wurzbach, ii. 110. 
BRANDEL, PETER JOHANN, born in 
Prague in 1660, died at Kuttenberg, Bohe- 
mia, in 1739. German school ; history 
painter, pupil of the court painter Schroter, 
whom he soon surpassed ; studied then 
after great masters in the galleries of 
Prague. Works : Baptism of Christ, Prague 



BRANDELIUS 



Cathedral ; Christ and the Woman taken in 
Adultery, Museum, Vienna ; Joseph receiv- 
ing his Brothers in Egypt, Czeruiu Gallery, 
ib. ; St. Jerome, Schonborn Gallery, ib. ; 
Mary Magdalen, Mentz Cathedral. Wurz- 
bach, ii. 113. 

BRANDEUUS, (BENGT JOHAN) GUS- 
TAF, Swedish ; bom at Fredsberg, West- 
Gothland, Oct. 22, 1833. Animal painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy ; studied then 
in 1852 at Upsala ; painted in 1856, when 
lieutenant in the army, at Gothenberg, 
many excellent portraits, and studied from 
1857 at the Diisseldorf Academy under 
d'Unker ; then in Paris, where he copied in 
the Luxembourg and after Troyon. Since 
1874, member of the Stockholm Academy. 
Works : Norman Horses ; Soldier's Child at 
the Gate ; Spring in the Woods (1868); 
First Riding Lesson ; Besieged Favourite ; 
The Future Hussar ; Return from the 
Woods ; Adventure on the Promenade 
(1875). Mailer, 74. 

BRANDES, HKTNRICH, born at Bort- 
feld, Brunswick, in 1803, died at Brunswick, 
Oct. 6, 1868. Landscape painter ; pupil in 
Brunswick of Barthel, then in 1823-25 at 
the Munich Academy, under Cornelius ; re- 
mained in Munich five years longer, making 
sketching trips into the Tyrolese Alps. In 
1830-31 he visited Italy, especially Rome, 
and after his return settled in Brunswick, 
where, in 1835, he became professor at the 
Carolinum College and inspector of the 
Ducal Gallery. In 1845 he restored, with 
Neumann, the old paintings in the Bruns- 
wick Cathedral. Works : View near Marino ; 
View near Rome; Subiaco; Inundation ; View 
in Oker Valley ; Landscape in the Hartz ; 
several Mountain and Winter Landscapes ; 
Views in Tyrol and in the Hartz Mountains ; 
View near Salzburg, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich. Kunst-Chronik, iv. 21. 

BRANDON, JACOB EMTLE EDOU- 
ARD, born in Paris, July 3, 1831. Flemish 
school ; genre and history painter, pupil of 
Picot, Montfort, and Corot. Medals, 1865, 
1867. Works: Kissof Moses' Mother (1867); 




Parisian Studio (1868); Exhibition of the 
Pentateuch, Talmud Lesson (1869); The 
Sabbath, Examination (1870); Improvisatore 
in the Campagua, Lille Museum. 

BRANDT, ELIZABETH, portrait, Ru- 
bena, T. M. Whitehead, England ; canvas, H. 
4 ft x 3 ft.; dated 1622. The artist's first 
wife, in black dress, with ruff and white 

j cuffs, and gold brocade corset, seated in an 
artu-chair, with altar in background. Ham- 
ilton Palace sale (1882), 1837 10s. Acad- 
emy, xxi. 246, 456. 

BRANDT, JOZEF, born at Szczebrzeszyn, 
Poland, Feb. 11, 
1841. History and 
genre painter ; pu- 
pil in Paris of the 
Ecole Ceutrale, and 
hi Munich of Franz 
Adam and Piloty. 
Studio in Munich. 
Medals : Munich, 
1869; Vienna, 
1873; Berlin, 1876. 
Member of Berlin and Munich Academies ; 
Order of Franz Josef ; mention honour- 
able, Paris. Works : Attack of Polish Cav- 
alry (about 1865); Polish Peasants before 
an Inn (1870) ; Episode from Relief of 

| Vienna (1870); Episode from Campaign in 

I Jutland in 1658 (1870); Cossack Camp in 
17th century (1872); Polish Fair (1872); 

! Battle of Vienna in 1683 (1872); Polish 
Cavalry on Patrol, Rollicking Quartering 
(1873); Cossacks from Ukraine (1874), 
Konigsberg Museum ; Uhlans in a Village, 
Crossing the Carpathian Mountains, Camp 
Scene at the Fire, Cossacks on Outpost 
(1876), Tartar Battle (1878), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; W T allachians fording a Stream, 
J. D. Lankenau, Philadelphia ; Tartars in 
Flight, D. H. McAlpin, New York ; Critical 
Moment (1884); Czabans caught in the 
Snow in the Ukraine (1885). Milller, 74 ; 
N. illustr. Zeitg. (1879), ii. 539 ; (1880), ii. 
714. 

BRASCASSAT, JACQUES RAYMOND, 
born at Bordeaux, Aug. 30, 1805, died in 



197 



BRASEN 



Paris, Feb. 27, 18G7. French school ; laud- 
scape and animal painter, pupil of Richard 
and of Hersent. Won the second grand 
prize for historic landscape in 1825, and 
went to Rome, where he resided six years. 
He was the first to revive the painting of 
animals, which had fallen into discredit. 
Medals : 2d class in 1827 ; 1st class in 
1831 and 1837 ; L. of Honour, 1837. Mem- 
ber of Institute, 1846. "Works : Meleager 
Hunting (1825); Mercury and Argus, Ital- 
ian Views (1827); View of Cassano, Temple 
of Venus at Baise, Castel Rouge, Landscape 
with Animals, Study of a Dog (1831); 
Cow attacked by Wolves and defended by 
Bulls, Bulls Fighting, Nantes Museum ; 
Animals Resting (1837) ; The Bull (1842); 
Landscape with Animals (1845), Louvre ; 
Death of the Boar of Calydon, two land- 
scapes with animals, Bordeaux Museum ; A 
Pasture, Montpellier Museum ; A Sorceress, 
Toulouse Museum ; Study of Horse, B. 
Wall, Providence. Larousse ; Kunst-Chro- 
uik, ii. 202. 

BRASEN, HANS OLE, born at Hillerd, 
Denmark, Jan. 16, 1849. Genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; visited 
North Italy in 1874, Tyrol and Paris in 
1879. Works : Geese driven Home (1875); 
Washing Place at Snip (1875); On Way to 
Market, Scenes near Lago di Garda (1877) ; 
Hussars watering Horses, Mare with Colt 
(1879); Domestic Happiness (1880) ; Court- 
ing (1881). Sigurd Mailer, 47. 

BRAUN, ADAM, born in Vienna in 1750, 
died there in 1827. German school ; genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy at the age of twelve ; member in 1789. 
Highly esteemed as a restorer of old 
paintings. Works : Gentleman threading 
Needle for Lady (1785), Museum, Vienna ; 
Lady resting on Sofa, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, ib. Wurzbach, ii. 118. 

BRAUN, AUGUSTIN, bom in Cologne, 
about 1570, died there after 1627. German 
school ; history and portrait painter. Works : 
Martyrdom of St. Febronia, Wallraf Mu- 
seum ; Seven Scenes from the Passion, St. 



George's Church, Seven Scenes from Life of 
St. Martin, St. Mary's Church, Cologne. 
Allgem. d. Biog. iii. 264 ; Merlo, Nachrich- 
ten, 58. 

BRAUN, LUDWIG, born at Schwabisch 
Hall, Wiirtemberg, Sept. 23, 1836. Battle 
painter ; brother of Reinhold B., pupil of 
Stuttgart Art School ; studied then in Mu- 
nich and Paris. Painted in Nuremberg a 
cycle from the family history of the Counts 
of Huuoldsteiu; visited in 1866 and 1870-71 
the battle-fields of those years, and executed 
for the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg sev- 
eral pictures. Studio in Munich. Works: 
Series of water-colour scenes from war in 
Schleswig-Holstein, Tournament at Nurem- 
berg in 1496, Scenes from Campaign of 
1866, Suabian Kirmess (1869), Episode 
from Battle of Worth, Capitulation of Se- 
dan, Entry of the Mecklenburgers into Or- 
leans, The Germans at Versailles, Entry into 
Paris, Panorama of Battle of Sedan (1880). 
Mttller, 74 ; Elustr. Zeitg. (1870), i. 343. 

BRAUN, REINHOLD, born at HaU, Wiir- 
temberg, April 25, 1821, died in Munich, 
Jan. 22, 1884. Military genre painter ; 
pupil of Stuttgart Art School from 1836, 
then of Munich Academy in 1843-50 ; took 
part in the campaign of 1849 in Baden, at 
the headquarters of the Prince of Prussia. 
Works : Pasture and Market Scenes, Rural 
Festivals, Horses, Manoeuvre Scenes, Sua- 
biau Costumes, etc. Mailer, 75. 

BRAUSEWETTER, OTTO, born at Saal- 
feld, Prussia, in 1835. History and genre 
painter ; pupil of Konigsberg Academy ; 
travelled in Germany, North Italy, and Rus- 
sia. Works: Richard HI. (1860), Dantzic 
Museum ; Charon's Bark (1867) ; Ladies at 
a Sculptor's (1868), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Marauders, Bluebeard (1871); After a Long 
Separation (1872); Autumn Morning (1874); 
Gustavus Adolphus before Battle of Ltttzen 
(1876) ; Lansquenets Travelling (1877) ; 
Home Again (1878). Miiller, 75. 

BRAUWER. See Brouwer. 

BRAY, JAN DE, born at Haarlem, died 
there, buried Dec. 4, 1697. Dutch school ; 



198 



BllAZACCO 



history and portrait painter ; showed influ- 
ence of Frans Hals, and later of Rembrandt. 
Works: Four portraits in a Group of Syndics 
of St. Luke's Guild (1675), National Gallery, 
Amsterdam ; Initiation of Orphans (1663), 
Regents of Orphanage (1663, 1664), Regents 
of Leper-house (2, 1667), Christ blessing i 
the Children, Seleucus (1676), Glorification ' 
of Frederic Henry (1681), Vulcan (1683), ! 
Dutch Family, Haarlem Museum ; David 
with the Harp (1674), Brunswick Museum ; 
David with Head of Goliath, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Portrait of Himself and Family, : 
Hampton Court Palace. Bode, Studien, ; 
109 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 305 ; Van der Wil- 
ligen, 96. 

BRAZACCO. See Bazacco. 

BRAZEN SERPENT, Michelangelo, Sis- 
tine Chapel, Rome ; fresco in corner soffit of 
ceiling. Illustration of Numbers xsi. 6-8. 

By Rubens, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 2 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. Moses and 
Aaron standing to right, the latter pointing 
to an elevated serpent, towards which many 
of the Israelites, suffering from the stings 
of venomous reptiles, are turning for relief. 
Engraved by Bolswert and Galle. Formerly 
in Palazzo Marano, Italy ; Collection of A. 
Wilson (1807), 1200 ; Collection of Wm. 
Champion (1810), 1000 ; belonged to T. 
B. Owen, who sold it to National Gallery 
(1837) for 3000. Duplicates, partly by pu- 
pils, in Madrid Museum and Potsdam Gal- 
lery. Sketch in black and white, Louvre. 
Smith, ii. 216 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 

BREA, LODOVICO, born at Nice about 
1450 (?), died after 1513. Neapolitan school. 
Works, chiefly in churches in Genoa, signed 
and dated from 1483 to 1513. An Annunci- 
ation, etc., attributed to Justus of Ghent, in 
three compartments, in the Louvre, may be 
by him. Brea shows Flemish influences, 
and was perhaps taught by Corrado d'Ale- 
mania, or by Justus of Ghent, who painted 
at Genoa at 1451. Soprani mentions an As- 
cension of Christ in S.M. della Consolazione 
at Genoa, painted for Petrus de' Fazi in 
1483. C. & C., Flemish Painters, 176 ; Ck | 



Blanc, Kcole gcnoisc ; Lanzi, iii. 235 ; So- 
prani, 12. 

BREDA, CARL FREDRIK VON, born 
in Stockholm in 1759, died in 1818. Por- 
trait painter, pupil in London of Reynolds. 
Became painter to the Swedish court and 
was called the Van Dyck of Sweden. His 
son, Johan Fredrik (born in London in 
1788, died in Stockholm in 1835), was also 
a painter. 

BREDA, SURRENDER OF. See Lan- 
zas. 

BREDAEL (Breda), JAN FRANS VAN, 
bom in Antwerp, March 19, 1683, died 
there, Feb. 19, 1750. Landscape painter ; 
grandson of Peeter van B., son and pupil 
of Alexander van B., landscape and genre 
painter (died 1720). He copied success- 
fully paintings of Jan Brueghel and Philip 
Wouverman.and later executed original pict- 
ures in their style. Entered guild of St. 
Luke at Antwerp in 1680; master, 1689. 
Went to London with Rysbraek, the sculp- 
tor, and after his return (1725) became di- 
rector of the Academy of Antwerp. Works : 
Military Camp, Louvre ; Horse-Shoeing, Fal- 
con Hunt, Dresden Gallery ; Village View, 




Amsterdam Museum. Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, ii. 918 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole flamande. 

BREDAEL, JAN PEETER VAN, born at 
Antwerp about 1654, died in Vienna about 
1733. Flemish school ; landscape and battle 
painter, son and pupil of Peeter van. B. ; mas- 
ter of the guild in 1680. Employed by 
Prince Eugene of Savoy, and by the Emperor 
Leopold I., who called him to his court. 
Works: Battle of Peterwardein in 1716, 
Battle of Belgrade in 1717, Falcon Chase, 
Boar Hunt (1717), Vienna Museum. Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, ii. 917. 

BREDAEL, PEETER VAN, born in Ant- 
werp in 1630, died in 1719. Flemish school; 
painter of landscapes with figures, in the 
manner of Jan Brueghel Entered the Ant- 



199 



BEEDAL 



werp guild in 1650, lived some years at the 
Spanish court. Works : Two Italian Land- 
scapes, Bruges Academy; Landscape, Hague 
Museum. Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 914; 
De Stuers, 211. 

BREDAL, NIELS ANDREAS, born in 
Copenhagen, June 22, 1841. Architecture 
and landscape painter ; pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy; visited Norway in 1868, Germany 
and Rome in 1869, then lived in Italy 1871- 
77. Works : Portal of St. Frederic, Copen- 
hagen (1865) ; Street in Christianshavn 
(1867); Street in Bergen, Gate of Frederik- 
berg Fortress (1869) ; Mountain Lake in 
Norway, Autumn Landscape (1869); Ascent 
to Ruins of Imperial Palace in Rome (1875); 
Court- Yard of the Lateran (1876); S.Giorgio 
in Velabro, Rome (1880) ; View of Villa d'Este 
(1881). Sigurd Mttller, 51. 
BREE, MATTHEUS IGNATIUS VAN, 
born in An twerp, 
Feb. 22, 1773, 
died there, Dec. 
15, 1839. Flem- 
ish school ; his- 
tory painter, pu- 
pil at the Ant- 
werp Academy 
of Regemorter, 
then in Paris of 
Vincent; ob- 
tained in 1797 the prix de Rome, and studied 
there until 1804. After his return he became 
professor at the Antwerp Academy, and in 
1827 its director. Member of the Academies 
of Amsterdam, Rome, Munich, and New 
York. Works : Patriotism of Burgomaster 
van der Werfft, City Hall, Leyden ; Prince 
of Orange and the League, Ghent Museum; 




Entry of Bonaparte into Antwerp, Versailles 
Museum ; Death of Rubens (1827), Antwerp 
Museum ; Pest Scene in Louvain, Ugolino 
and his Sous ; Death of Egmont, Prince of 



Orange visiting the Inundated in 1825, Na- 
tional Museum, Amsterdam ; Portrait of 
William I., Brussels Museum ; Portrait of 
Pius VII., Vatican, Rome. Biog. nat. de 
Belgique, ii. 929 ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers 
(1874), 416 ; Rooses (Reber), 458. 

BREE, PHILIPPUS JACOBUS VAN, 
born in Antwerp, Jan. 6, 1786, died in Brus- 
sels, Feb. 16, 1871. History painter; brother 
and pupil of Mattheus van. B. ; studied in 
Paris under Girodet, and in Pavia ; visited 
Germany and England. Was conservator 
of the museum at Brussels. Works : Queen 
Blanca, Study of the Flower Painter Dael, 
Barentz on Nova Zembla, Discovery of New 
Holland, Godfrey de Bouillon at Jerusalem, 
Mary Stuart, Abdication of Charles V., Ant- 
werp Museum ; Procession in Rome, Sixtus 
V. as Swineherd, Brussels Museum. 

BREENBERGH (Breenborch), BAR- 
THOLOMEUS, 
born at Deventer, 
in 1599 or 1600, 
died in Rome in 
1663. Dutch 
school ; painted 
historical and 
mythological sub- 
jects, but is espec- 
ially distinguished 
by his small land- 
scapes. Supposed pupil of Poelenburg; 
went early to Italy, where and in France he 
is known as Bartolomc. He had two styles: 
the first sombre, in which he sought to imi- 
tate Titian and the Carracci, the second more 
clear and transparent. Works : Repose in 
Egypt, Martyrdom of St. Stephen, four views 
in Rome, Louvre ; Monk praying in a Cave, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Landscape with 
Ruins, Vienna Museum; Joseph selling Bread 
during the Famine in Egypt (1644), Dres- 





den Gallery ; Elijah's Offering (1645), Ital- 
ian Landscape, Copenhagen Gallery ; Land- 



200 



BREITBACH 



scape with Figures (by Poelenburg), Schwer- 
in Gallery ; do. and Landscape with Ruins ( 
(1636), View of Tivoli, Hermitage, St. Peters- ; 
burg. Bode, Studien, 335 ; Havard, A. & ! 
A. holL, iv. 69. 

BREITBACH, KARL, born in Berlin in 
1833. Landscape and genre painter ; pupil ! 
of the Berlin Academy, and in Paris of 
Couture ; travelled in Germany, France, and 
England. Painted at first only landscapes ; 
later, genre scenes and successful portraits, j 
Works : Mill of St. Ouen, near Paris ; Park | 
of Trianon ; Huntsman on Stand ; Rest at 
the Chase ; Whestphalian Church ; Noonday 
Prayers ; Kirmess-Joy ; Kirmess-Woe ; Vil- ; 
lage Parade ; Portrait of the Painter Th. 
Weber ; do. of Intendant General von Hul- 
sen, At the Fortune-Teller's, Female Head, 
Male Head, Man's Portrait (1883). Miiller, ' 
75. 

BREKELENKAM (Breklinkam), QUI- 
RYN, bom at Swammerdam, near Leyden, ! 
died at Leyden in 1668. Dutch school ; 
genre painter, probably pupil of Gerard Dou, 
though his works recall both Metsu and Adri- 
anvanOstade. Master of the guild at Leyden 
in 1648. Painted solid, strong, and naive fig- 
ures in warm and harmonious colour. Works : 
Woman feeding her Child, Tailor's Shop 
(16G1); Interior, The Fireside (1664), A 
Mouse-Trap (1668), National Gallery, Am- 
sterdam ; Monk writing, Consultation, Lou- 
vre ; Interior (1662), Lille Museum; Old j 
Couple, The Sandwich, Interior, Leyden Mu- 
seum ; Saying Grace, Cassel Gallery ; Old 
Man with Fish, Old Woman with Vegeta- 
bles, Woman feeding little Girl, Game of 
Cards (1662), Brunswick Museum ; A Brazier 
(1654), Augsburg Gallery ; A Baptism, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Vegetable Vender (1661), Ber- 




lin Museum ; Hermit (1660), Disappointed 
Drinker, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Chro- 
nique des Arts (1878), 69, 75 ; Havard, A. 



& A, holl., iv. 91 ; Wedmore, Masters of 
Genre Painting, 146. 

BREMOND, JEAN FRANgOIS, born in 
Paris in 1807, died March 2, 1868. Genre 
and portrait painter ; pupil of A. Couder 
and of Ingres. Medal of the second class 
in 1833 and in 1863. Principal works: 
Christ (1827); Scene of July Revolution 
(1830); Miseries of War (1833); Francis I. 
visiting Benvenuto Cellini (1834), Narbonue 
Museum ; Death of the Virgin (1837); Char- 
ity (1838); Church of St. Peter in Carcas- 
sonne ; St. Francis of Assisi (1839) ; Archi- 
tecture, Painting, and Sculpture (1842), a 
fresco ; Leda (1845); Susanna at the Bath 
(1847); Presentiment of the Passion (1848); 
Death of Bailly, Muse of Andre Chenier 
(1849) ; Cartoons for frieze in church of Vil- 
letta, Raising of Lazarus, Christ healing the 
Blind Man in Jericho, Sermon on Mount 
(1850); Descent from Cross (1852); Victo- 
rious Love (1853); Bohemian, Flight into 
Egypt (1859); Revery (1861); Slavery and 
Liberty, Caen Museum ; The Butterfly 
(1864) ; Theological Virtues, Cardinal Vir- 
tues (1866), St. Lambert, Vaugirard. La- 
rousse. 

BRENDEL, (HEINRICH) ALBERT, 
born in Berlin, June 7, 1827, died in 1878. 
Animal painter; pupil of Berlin Academy, 
under W. Krause, then in Paris of Couture 
and Palizzi ; visited Italy in 1852, and studied 
in Berlin under Steffeck. Lived in Paris in 
1854-64, and at Barbisou in the forest of Fon- 
tainebleau in summers of 1864-69. Became 
member of the Berlin Academy in 1868, 
and professor at the Weimar Art School in 
1875. Medals : Paris, 1857-59-61 ; Berlin, 
1861; Nantes, 1861; Munich, 1869; Vi- 
enna, 1873. Works: Interior of Sheep 
Stable, Hamburg Gallery ; Horse Stable at 
Barbison, Normandy Horses, Peasant's 
Farm, Sheep leaving Stable, Return of 
Sheep to the Village, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Don Quixote's Sheep, Pasture in Hol- 
land. Mflller, 76. 

BRENDSTRUP, THORALD, born at 
Fjenneslev, Jutland, May 25, 1812. Land- 



301 



BRENNER 



scape painter ; pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy ; visited Portugal in 1839, Rome in 
1847-50 and 1857-61. Member of Copen- 
hagen Academy, and Order of Danebrog 
in 1874. "Works: View on Ise Fjord 
(1835); Views near Frederiksvaerk and Ros- 
kilde, do. on Coast of Oresund ; Landscapes 
on Duero River ; do. on the Rhine ; Views 
in Switzerland ; Temple of Vesta at Tivoli 
(1851) ; Villa Poniatowsky outside Porta 
del Popolo ; Italian Landscapes ; Views in 
Denmark. Sigurd Muller, 53 ; Weilbach, 
81. 

BRENNER, ADAM, born in Vienna, 
Dec. 21, 1800. German school ; history 
painter ; pupil of Vienna Academy ; painted 
at first still-life and genre ; studied in Mu- 
nich about 1844, after the great modern 
masters of Germany. Works : Tinker fright- 
ening Child, Dead Game (1833), Burial of 
St. Stephen (1835), Vienna Museum ; Res- 
cue of Ferdinand II. by the Dampierre 
Cuirassiers ; Raising of Siege of Belgrade. 
Wiirzbach, ii. 132. 

BRESCIA, ALTARPIECE OF, Titian, 
SS. Nazaro e Celso, Brescia ; wood, five pan- 
els, figures life-size ; signed and dated 
1522. Middle panel, the Resurrection; at 
sides, St. Sebastian, Averoldo with patron 
saints, and the Annunciation in two panels. 
The St. Sebastian is best preserved ; other 
panels injured by repainting. Painted for 
the Papal Legate Altobello Averoldo, and 
placed on the high altar of SS. Nazaro e 
Celso, but now between two windows of the 
choir. C. & C., Titian, i. 236, 247 ; Burck- 
hardt, 717 ; Ch. Blanc, flcole venitienne. 

BRESSANO, VINCENZO. See Civer- 
chio, Vincenzo. 

BREST, GERMAIN FABIUS, born in 
Marseilles, July 31, 1823. Landscape and 
architecture painter ; pupil of Loubon and of 
Troyon ; has travelled extensively in Turkey 
and Asia. Works : Turkish Coffee-House 
in Constantinople (1857); Walls of Constan- 
tinople (1857); Banks of the Bosporus 
(1861), Luxembourg Museum ; Caravansary 
in Trapezunt (1864); Ceremony of Kissing 




the Hand in Constantinople, Grand Canal 
in Venice (1866); Ponte Rialto in Venice, 
Interior of Pastry-Bakery (1867); Fisheries 
on the Bosporus (1868); Mosque in Trape- 
zunt (1870); Khan of the Sultana Valide at 
Constantinople (1872) ; Bridge of Sighs 
(1874) ; St. John's Church at Beauvais (1877) ; 
! Entrance to the Bosporus, The Platane of 
Godfrey de Bouillon (1878). Muller, 76; 
; Vapereau (1880), 299. 

BRETON, EMILE ADELARD, born at 
Courrieres ; con- 
temporary. Land- 
scape painter; 
brother and pu- 
pil of Jules Bre- 
ton. Medals: 
1866, 1867, 1868; 
1st class (1878); 
Philad e 1 phia 
(1876); Vienna 
(1873) ;L. of Hon- 
our (1878); Order of Leopold. Studio 
at Courrieres. Works : Morning Light, 
Sunset, Autumn (1861); Twilight in Au- 
tumn, Gust of Wind (1863); Summer Even- 
ing, Twilight (1865) ; A Pond (1866); 
Spring, Snow (1868); Sunset, Entrance of a 
Village (1869) ; Night, Brook of Orchiman 
(1870) ; Winter Morning, Winter Evening 
(1872); Sunset after Storm, Sunday Morn- 
ing in Winter (1873) ; Autumn, Twilight, 
Winter's Night (1874); Courrieres Canal, 
Artois Village in Winter, Shepherd's Star 
(1875); Winter, Marine View (1876); Summer 
Morning (1877); Winter, A Church (1879); 
Sunset at Sea before Storm, Snow in Artois 
(1880) ; The old Willows, Frost in Artois 
(1881); Summer Evening, Winter Evening 
(1882); Moonlight in Winter, Sunset in Au- 
tumn (1883); Mill Artois (1884) ; FaU of the 
Leaves, Evening after the Tempest (1885). 
Works in the United States : Village of Ar- 
tois in Winter, Snow Scene in Holland, 
C. Crocker, San Francisco ; Moonlight after 
Rain, J. G. Fell, Philadelphia ; Stream be- 
tween the Hills, H. R. Bishop, New York. 
Vapereau (1880), 300. 



80S 



BRfiTON 




BRfiTON, JULES ADOLPHE, born at 
Courrieres (Pas-de-Calais), May 1, 1827. 
Genre painter ; pu- 
pil of Drolling and 
Devigne, whose 
daughter he mar- 
ried ; one of the 
best French paint- 
ers of village and 
country life. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1855 ; 
2d class, 1857 ; 1st 
class, 1859, 1861, 
1867 ; medal of honour, 1872 ; L. of Honour, 
1861 ; Officer, 1867. Works : Misery and 
Despair (1849); Harvesters' Return (1853); 
The Gleaners, I. Pereire ; The Day after St. 
Sebastian, Little Peasant Girls telling Fort- 
unes (1855); Planting a Cemetery, Lille 
Museum ; Blearing the Harvest (1857), Re- 
call of the Gleaner* (1859), Evening (1861), 
The Gle.aiwr (1877), Luxembourg Museum; 
The Fire, Weed Gatherers (1861), Comte 
Duchatel ; Consecration of the Church of 
Oignies, M. de Clerq ; Haymaker, Return- 
ing from Fields (1863); Vintage at Chateau 
Lagrange, Comte Duchatel ; Reading, Tur- 
key Keeper (1864); End of the Day, Blue 
Monday, Recall of the Gleaners (1865); 
Spring of Water near the Sea, Harvest-Time 
(1867); Women gathering Potatoes, Helio- 
trope (1868); Plenary Indulgence in Brit- 
tany, Bad Grass (1869); Breton Washer- 
women, Woman Spinning (1870); Girl 
tending Cows, The Fountain (1872); The 
Cliff, When the Cat's away the Mice will 
play (1874); St. John (1875); Village Girl 
(1879); Evening (1880); Artois Woman 
(1881); Evening at Finistere (1882); The 
Rainbow, Morning (1883); Communicants 
(1884); Last Ray, Song of the Lark (1885). 
Works in the United States : Peasant Girl 
Knitting, Grand Pardon in Brittany, Miss 
C. L. Wolfe, New York ; Gleaner, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York ; Harvest, W. 
Rockefeller, New York ; Lookout, R C. 
Taft, Providence ; Fleur de Sable, J. Carey 
Coale, Baltimore ; Gleaners, H. Probasco, 



Cincinnati ; Tired Gleaner, Hurlbut Collec- 
tion, Cleveland; Sea Bird, D. Catlin, St 
Louis ; Burning Brushwood, Little Glean- 
er's Rest, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadel- 
phia ; Departure for the Fields, G. Whitney, 
Philadelphia ; Evening, A. Spencer, New 
York ; Breton Washerwomen at the Sea- 
shore, E. D. Morgan Collection, New York ; 
Gathering Water-Lilies, Peasant Woman, 
J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Tired Gleaner, C. 
S. Smith, New York ; Overdrawn Score, J. 
Hoey, New York ; Close of the Day, Sunny 
Day, Repose, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; 
Potato Harvest, H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; 
Brittany Woman, Rainbow, W. H. Vander- 




bilt, New York ; Reaper's Rest, Wm. Astor, 
New York. Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 642 ; 
Portfolio (1875), 2. 

BRETT, JOHN, born in England ; con- 
temporary. Landscape and marine painter ; 
studio at Putney. Elected an A.R.A. in 
1881. Works : Spires of Channel Islands 
(1875); Sir Thomas's Tower (1876); Cornish 
Lions (1877); Carnarvon Bay (1878); 
Stronghold of the Seison (1879) ; Britan- 
nia's Realm, Sandy Shallows of Seashore 
(1880); St. Ives Bay, Golden Prospects 
St. Catherine's Well (1881); Falling Barom- 
eter, Grey of the Morning (1882); Yellow 
Sands, Welsh Dragons (1883); Norman 
Archipelago (1885). Art Journal (1882), 57. 

BREU (Brew, Prew), JORG (Georg), died 
in Augsburg, 1536. German school ; prob- 
ably pupil of Hans Burgkmair, whose 
style his pictures recall, as well as that of 
Altdorfer. The anatomi- T T *"T 
cal treatment of his figures J ^ 

is defective, but his land- 
scape backgrounds are re- 
markable. Works : Ma- 
donna, Berlin Museum 
(1512); Battle of Zama, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Madonna (1523), Ambras Collec- 



t 

}> 



BREUGUEL 



tion, Vienna ; Adoration of the Magi, Hos- 
pital church, Coblentz. Kunst-Chronik, x. 
388; W. & W., ii. 452. 

BREUGHEL. See Brueghd. 
BREVOORT, JAMES RENWICK, born 
in Westchester County, N. Y., July 20, 
1832. Landscape painter; pupil of Thomas 
Cummings. Visited Europe in 1873, spend- 
ing seven years abroad, chiefly in Florence; 
has sketched at different times in Switzer- 
land, Holland, England, the Abruzzi moun- 
tains, and about the Italian lakes. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1861, and N.A. in 1863 ; pro- 
fessor of perspective at National Academy, 
1872. Studio in New York. "Works : Scene 
in Holland near Arnheim, Lake of Corno 
near Varenna (1878); Storm on English 
Moor (1882) ; May Morning Lake of Como 
(1883); New England Scene, Morning in 
Early Winter (1884). 

BREYDEL, KAKEL, called the Cheva- 
lier, born in Antwerp in 1677, died in 
Ghent, Nov. 4, 1744. Flemish school; 
painter of scenes from military life, in imi- 
tation of Van der Meulen, and views of the 
Rhine in the manner of Jan Griffier : pupil 
of Peeter Ykens, but really formed himself 
in Holland and Germany. He led a very 
erratic life, leaving his wife in Antwerp 
vainly expecting his return. "Works : Com- 
bat of Horsemen, Areniberg Gallery, Brus- 
sels; Two Cavalry Skirmishes. Brussels 
Museum; Landscape (2), Cassel Gallery. 
His brother, Frans (1679-1750), was court 
painter at Cassel, and lived for some time 
in London. Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 37; 
Michiels, x. 518. 

BRICHER, ALFRED THOMPSON, 
born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
April 10, 1839. Landscape and marine 
painter; self-taught. Began to paint in 
1858; sent first picture to National Acad- 
emy in 1868. Elected A.N.A. in 1879. 
Studio in New York. "Works in oil : Mill 
Stream at Newburyport (1868); Ironbound 
Island Coast of Maine; Baby is King, Day 
Dreams, Last of Flying Cloud (1880); En- 
gagement Ring, Castle Rock Marblehead 



(1881); At Curzon's Mills Newburyport 
(1882) ; In my Neighbour's Garden (1883). 
Works in water-colour : Indian Summer's 
Sunset (1869); Maiden's Rock Lake Pepin 
(1870); ML Adams (1871); On the Winding 
Esopus, Time and Tide (1874); Spring 
Morning (1875); Foggy Morning Grand 
Menan (1876); St. Michael's Mount (1877); 
In a Tide Harbour (1878). Art Journal 
(1877), 174 ; Sheldon, 144. 

BRIDE OF LAMMERMOOR, John 
Everett Mtilais, Win. H. Vanderbilt, New 
York. Lucy Ashton, recovered from her 
swoon, but not yet from her bewilderment 
and terror, clings helplessly, yet trustingly, 
to the arm of the Master of Ravenswood, 
whose dark and piercing glance indicates 
the approach of Sir William Ashton, who is 
not seen ; background a rocky recess, re- 
lieved by the sparkle of a tiny burn and by a 
growth of ferns and wild-flowers. Painted in 
1878. Engraved by J. O. Barlow. Builder 
(1878), 449 ; Art Journal (1878), 143. 

BRIDGES, FIDEUA, born in Salem, 
Mass. ; contemporary. Landscape and flow- 
er painter; pupil of W. T. Richards, in 
Philadelphia ; also studied a year abroad. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1874. Works in oil: 
Wild Flowers in Wheat (1869); Views on 
the Ausable (1870); Thistles and Yellow- 
Birds (1873); Salt Marshes (1874); Edge of 
Rye Field (18.75); Old Grave (1876); Rob- 
in'sBath (1877); Daisies; Banks of an English 
Stream, Old Boat's Last Mooring (1881). 
Water-colours: Pickerel Weed (1871); Lily 
Pond (1874); Mouth of River (1875); By 
the Sea, Flock of Snow Birds, Kingfisher 
and Catkins (1876); Kingbird on the Look- 
out (1878). 

BRJDGMAN, FREDERICK ARTHUR, 
born at Tuskegee, Ala., in 1847. Genre paint- 
er ; pupil of Brooklyn Art Association, and 
in 1866 of L. Gerome, in Paris. In 1870-72 
he sketched in the Pyrenees, and in 1873-4 
in Algiers, Egypt, and Nubia. Medals : 
Paris, 3d class, 1877 ; 2d class and L. of 
Honour, 1878. Elected N.A. in 1881. Stu- 
dio in Paris. Works : Apollo bearing off 



BRIELMAN 



Cyrene, Interior of a Harem (1875); Moor- 
ish Interior, Donkey Boy of Cairo, Chapel 
in Brittany 
Noon, Nubian 
Story-Teller 

(1876); Funeral \H* *S 

of a Mummy 
(1877), J. G. 
Bennett, New 
York; Market 
Scene in Nubia, 
Kybelian Wo- 
man (1878) ; Al- 
meh, R G. Dun, N. Y. ; Waiting for Orders 
Souvenir of Coustantine, Algeria (1881); 
Interior of Biskra House Algeria, R H. 
Keene, New York; Eastern Lady (1882), La 




D ... 

JDriaGm 





man ___ temoon 

'88$ Hours, At 
the Window Cairo (1883) ; Caid's Escort 
nt Rest (1884), Thos. B. Clarke, New York; 
Family Bath at Cairo, My Last Price (1884); 
Summer on the Bosporus (1885). Sheldon, 
150. 

BRIELMAN, JACQUES ALFRED, born 
in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter ; 
pupil of Lavieille. Medal, 3d class, 1882. 
Works : Old Trees of Drevant (1881); Even- 
iug in the Cevennes (1882); Oaks in Forest 
of Troncuis, Chateau de la Mothe at Marais 
(1883), Th. Regnault; Falling Eaiu (1884); 
Le Champ-Rouge at Meaulne (1885). 

BRIGGS, HENRY PERRONET, born 
at Walworth in 1792, died in London, Jan. 
18, 1844. Began his art studies in 1811 at 
the Royal Academy, where he exhibited 
a portrait in 1814 ; was for nearly twenty 
years an exhibitor of historical works, but 
during the latter part of his life his pict- 
ures were chiefly portraits. He became an 
ARA. in 1825, and RA in 1832. His 
First Conference between the Spaniards 
and the Peruvians in 1531, and his Juliet 
and the Nurse, are in the National Gal- 
lery, London. Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 
417 ; Art Union, March, 1844 ; Sandby, ii. 
146. 



BRIL (Brill), MATTHEUS, born in Ant- 
werp in 1550, died in Rome in 1584. Flem- 
ish school. Went when young to Rome, and 
was employed by Gregory XHL to execute 
works in the Vatican, chiefly landscapes in 
oil and in fresco. Works : Stag Hunt (2), 
Louvre ; Tobias and his Wife, Boar Hunt, 
Dresden Gallery ; Italian Landscape, Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Landscape with Shepherds, 
Ambras Collection, Vienna ; Hunting Scene, 
Naples Museum. Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 
55 ; Fetis, Les Artistes beiges a 1'etranger, 
i. 143. 

BRIL, PAUWEL, born in Antwerp in 
1554, died in 
Rome, Oct. 7, 
1626. Flem- 
ish school ; 
brother of Mat- 
theus Bril, 
whose success 
in Rome at- 
tracted him 
thither, and 
whom he suc- 
ceeded in the 
Vatican. Pupil of Damien Oortelman, then 
in Rome of his brother ; painted principally 
landscapes, but also executed figures welL 
He left many works in oil and fresco, and ex- 
ercised great influence upon Rubens, Anni- 
bale Carracci, and Claude Lorrain, becoming 
thereby most important for the development 
of landscape art. Works : Landscapes with 
Figures (4), Madrid Museum ; Duck Hunt, 
Diana and Nymphs, Fishermen (1624), Pan 
and Syrinx, St Jerome in Prayer (1609), 
three other Landscapes (1617, 1620), Lou- 

I vre, Paris ; Prodigal Sou, Antwerp Museum ; 
Ruins with Figures, National Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Landscapes with Roman Ruins 

! (2), Brunswick Museum ; Hilly Landscape 
with Castle, Darmstadt Museum ; Christ 

; healing the Possessed (1601), Landscape by 

j Seashore, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Laud- 
scapes (9, four dated 1600, 1608, 1624, 
1626), Dresden Gallery ; do. (4), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do. (2), Hermitage, St Petersburg ; 




805 



BRILLOUIN 



PBKll- 
PAVOLO 
BRILLI 



do. (1), Peterhof ; St. Paul in the Desert, 
Boar Hunt, Triumph of Psyche, and others, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Christ on Calvary, Diana 
and Callisto, three oth- 
c rs ) Palazzo Doria, 
Eome ; Baptism of 
Christ, St. Cecilia, Na- 
ples Museum. Others 
in Milan, Mentz, and 
Stockholm. Biog. nat. 
de Belgique, iii. 56 ; Ch. 
Blanc, IScole flamande ; 
Fetis, Les Artistes 
beiges a l'6tranger, i. 143 ; Michiels, vi. 
156; Rooses (Reber), 117. 

BRILLOUIN, LOUIS GEORGES, born 
at St. Jean d'Angely, April 22, 1817. Fig- 
ure painter ; pupil of Drolling, and of Cabat. 
Medals in 1865, 1869, and 1874. Works : 
Rubens' Studio, Characters from Victor 
Hugo's Poems (1847); Sermon in Provence, 
Visit of the Amateurs, Profession of Arms 
(1857); Rembrandt in his Studio, Messire 
Josue's Pew in Church, Amateurs visiting, 
Page amusing Himself (1859) ; Artist in 
Camp, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; Musi- 
cal Party (1861) ; Medicine, Meditation, 
Backgammon (1863) ; Playing Games, The 
Huntsman (1865); The Outpost, Officers 
making a Reconuoissance, The Gazette, 
The Host's Portrait, The Patrol (1867) ; 
Lantara's Quota, Callot in his Youth (1868); 
Letter of Recommendation, Book Peddler, 
Bibliomaniac, Mau-at-Arms (1869) ; The 
Prince's Education, The Equipment (1870); 
Rural Scene, A Captain (1872); Gossip 
(1873); George Daudin's "Wedding, Lindor 
Moor and the Marsh (1874); Old Papers, 
Old Pipe, Mandoliuata (1875); Profession of 
the Younger Son, Antechamber (1876) ; 
Hunting for Recruits, Bouquet to Chloe 
(1877); Morning on the Meadows, Storm 
and Rain in the Marshes (1879) ; Peasants 
Resting, Singing Songs (1880) ; Family 
of a Condemned Man waiting for last Fare- j 
well (1881); Woods of Bourboule, Even- 
ing on the Plain of Saintonge (1882) ; His 
Highness in the Trenches, The Commune 




of Piepouzin (1883). Vapereau (1880), 
305. 

BRION, GUSTAVE, born at Rothau, Al- 
sace, Oct. 24, 
1824, died in 
Paris, Nov. 4, 
1877. Genre 
painter, pupil 
of Gabriel Gu6r- 
in in Strasburg. 
Painted Alsatian 
life with much 
success. Med- 
als : 2d class, 
1853-59-61-67; 

1st class, 1863 ; medal of honour, 1868 ; 
L. of Honour, 1863; Order of Leopold of 
Belgium. Works: Alsatian Interior (1847); 
Tow-Path (1852); Wood Cutters of the Black 
Forest, Potato Crop in Alsace ; Alsatians 
Threshing (1853); Bretons at the Door of a 
Church during Mass, Funeral on the Rhine 
(1859); Siege of a Town by the Romans, Al- 
satian Wedding, Wedding Feast, Battery of 
Military Machines (1861), bought by Emper- 
or ; Jesus walking on the Sea ; Pilgrims of 
St. Odile (1863), Luxembourg Museum; End 
of the Deluge, Wolf-Hunting in Spain (1864); 
The King's Day (1865) ; Reading the Bible 
(1867); Funeral in Venice (1868); Dance of 
the Cock (1872); Alsatian Wedding (1874); 
Day of Baptism (1875); First Steps (1876); 
Awakening the Pilgrims to Saint Odile (1877). 
Works in United States : Alsatian Christen- 
ing, Leaving Church, Miss C. L.Wolfe, New 
York; Bouquet, R. C. Taft, Providence; Brit- 
tany Peasants at Prayer, J. W. Garrett, Balti- 
more ; Alsatian Peasant Girl, J. Carey Coale, 
Baltimore ; Invasion, C. Parson, St. Louis ; 
Marriage in Alsace, Alex. 
Brown, Philadelphia ; Char- 
coal Furnace, R. L. Stuart, 
New York ; Decking the Vil- 
lage Crucifix, J. Hoey, New 
York ; do., Israel Corse, New York. Meyer, 
Gesch., 702 ; Montrosier, Artistes modernes. 
BRISPOT, HENRI, born at Beauvais ; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait painter. 



15" 



206 



BRISSET 



pupil of Bonnat Medal, 3d class, 1885. 
Works : In the Country (1881) ; La Greve 
des Forgerons (1882); Churchwarden's Pew 
(1883); Baptismal Feast, Portrait of Cormon 
(1884) ; Burial of a Farmer in Picardy (1885). 

BKISSET, PIERRE NICOLAS, born in 
Paris, Aug. 18, 1810. History and genre 
painter; pupil of Picot, and of the ficole 
des Beaux Arts. Won the grand prix de 
Rome in 1840. Medals, 2d class, 1847, 1855; 
L. of Honour, 1868. Works : Death of Pri- 
am (1840); St. Laurence showing the Treas- 
ures of the Church (184G) ; St. Sebastian 
(1855), ordered by State ; Fishermen enter- 
ing a Church (1865) ; Such is the Way to 
Heaven (1868); Two Sisters of Charity (1876). 
Has executed works in St. Vincent de Paul, 
Paris, and other churches. Vapereau (1880), 
306. 

BRISSOT DE WARVILLE, FELIX SA- 
TURNIN, born at Sens (Yonne); contempo- 
rary. Animal painter, pupil of L. Cogniet. 
Medal, 2d class, 1882. Works : In the Plain, 
The Thicket (1881); Sheep in Meadow (1882); 
Flock of Sheep, Leaving the Park (1883); 
Sheep at Rest, The Return (1884); Interior 
of Sheepfold, Return of the Flock (1885). 

BRISTOL, JOHN BUNYAN, born at 1 
Hillsdale, New York, March 14, 1826. Land- [ 
scape painter ; pupil at Hudson of Henry 
Ary. In 1859 visited Florida and painted | 
from his sketches tropical pictures which 
brought him into notice. Elected an A.N. 
A. in 1861, and N.A. in 1874. Studio in 
New York. Works : View of Mt. Oxford 
(1876, medal of honour, Philadelphia) ; On 
the St. John's River Florida; Monument 
Mountains ; Mt. Equinox ; View of Lake 
Champlain from Ferrisburg (1878), pur- 
chased by Directors of Paris Exposition ; As- 
cutney Mountains; Valley of the Housatonic ; 
Delaware River near Port Jervis (1880) ; Lake 
Placid Adirondacks (1881); Near Stock- 
bridge, Mass. (1882); Valley of the Connecti- 
cut, Vermont (1883). 

BRITTEN, W. E. F., born in England ; 
contemporary. Exhibits chiefly at Grosveuor 
Gallery. Works : Music (1879) ; Dancing 



(1880); Flight of Helen (1881), one of a se- 
ries painted for Wyfold Court, seat of lato 
Edward Hermon, M.P. ; Che sara sara, Ang- 
lers, An Idyl, Baby Ida (1882) ; Boys and 
Dolphins, decorative frieze executed for Earl 
of Leconfield (1883) ; Idyl, Genii of Sport 
(1885). 

BROECK, CRISPIN VAN DEN, born at 
Mechlin in 1530 (?), died in Holland about 
1601. Flemish school ; pupil of Frans Flo- 
ris ; entered the Antwerp guild in 1555, be- 
came a citizen in 1559. Was also an archi- 
tect and engraver on both metal and wood. 
Works : Adoration of the Magi, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Last Judgment (1571), Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; do., Brussels Museum ; Holy Family, 
Madrid Museum. Cat. du Musde d'Anvers 
(1874), 428 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 297. 

BROECK (Brock), ELIAS VAN DEN, 
born in Antwerp (?) about 1657, died in Am- 
sterdam in 1711. Dutch school ; flower 
painter, pupil of Cornelis de Heem ; his pict- 
ures are true to nature and fine in colouring. 
Works : Three pictures of still life, Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; two in Liechtenstein Gallery, 
ib. ; Flowers,Rotterdam Museum. Michiels, 
x. 444. 

BROEDERLAM (Brooderlam), MEL- 
CHIOR, born at Ypres. Flemish school ; 
flourished latter part of 14th century, when 
he became painter and valet-de-chambro 
to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. 
In 1398 he painted Scripture subjects on 
the wings of two shrines sculptured by 
Jacques de la Baerse of Dendermonde, for 
the Carthusian Convent at Dijon, and now in 
the museum of that city. His style has the 
faults of the Westphalian school, tempered 
by the more graceful and tender feeling of 
the school of Cologne. C. & C., Flemish 
Painters, 19 ; Biog. uat. de Belgique, iii. 78; 
Michiels, ii. 33. 

BROKEN PITCHER (Cruche cassee), J. 
B. Qreuze, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. x 2 
ft. 9 in. A young girl, in a white dress, with 
a violet ribbon and white flowers in her hair, 
and a gauze fichu which half conceals a 
crushed rose upon her breast, stands holding 



S07 



BROMEIS 



flowers in her robe, and bearing on her 
arm a cracked pitcher. Bought at sale of 
Marquis de Verri (1785) for 3000 fr. En- 
graved by Massard ; A. Leroy. Study in 
National Gallery, Edinburgh. 




Broken Pitcher, Jean Baptists Greuze, Louvre. 

BROMEIS, AUGUST, bom at Wilhelms- 
hohe, near Cassel, Nov. 28, 1813, died in 
Cassel, Jan. 12, 1881. Landscape painter, 
pupil of the Cassel Academy ; studied in 
1831-33 in Munich, then until 1848 in Rome, 
under Jos. Ant. Koch. After his return lived 
in Cassel and Frankfort, and in 1857 moved 
to Dtisseldorf, principally for the sake of 
being near A. Achenbach. In 1867 he be- 
came professor at the Cassel Academy. 
Member of Berlin Academy. Works : Twi- 
light (18G1), View near Olevano, Two Land- 
scapes from the Habichtswald, View in the 
Campagna (1862), Cassel Gallery ; Grave of 
Archimedes, View in Sabine Mountains, 
Moorish Laundry near Palermo, Wood near 
Dttsseldorf, Italian Landscape with Calabri- 
an Shepherd (1869), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Civitella by Moonlight (1866) ; Capri 
(1874) ; From the Campagna (1879). Miil- 
ler, 79 ; Kunst-Chrouik, xvi. 296. 



BRONCHORST (Bronckhorst), JAN 
VAN, born at Utrecht in 1603, died at Am- 
sterdam in April, 1678 (?). Dutch school; 
genre and landscape painter ; first studied 
glass painting under Jan Verburgh, then at 
Arras under Peter Mathys, and in Paris 
under Chamu ; after his return was induced 
by his friendship with Poelenburg to take 
up oil painting, which he studied by him- 
self. Works : Assembly with Young Man 
playing Guitar (1644), do. with Young Girl ; 
Arcadian Concert, Brunswick Museum ; 
Grotto with bathing Nymphs, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; Landscape, Rotterdam 
Museum. Immerzeel, i. 104 ; Kramm, i. 
165 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 185. 

BRONIKOFF, THEODOR, born at 
Schadrinsk, Siberia, in 1826. History and 
genre painter ; pupil of St. Petersburg 
Academy, where in 1853 he received the 
great gold medal ; then studied for five 
years in Germany, France, Italy, and the 
East. Studio in Rome. Works : Peetus 
and Arria, Pythagoreans greeting Sunrise, 
Horace reading his Satires to Augustus, 
Alcibiades and Aspasia before the Archon, 
The Outcast, Names' Day, Meeting of the 
Council of Ten in Venice, Christian Doc- 
trine, Peasant Girl of Nemi, A Master in 
Mosaics before the Tribunal of Three in 
Venice (1867). Miiller, 79. 

BRONZING, AGNOLO (Angiolo), born 

at Monticelli, 
near Florence, 
in 1502-3, died 
in Florence, 
Nov. 23, 1572. 
Florentine 
school; real 
name Agnolo 
or Angiolo di 
Cosimo Allori, 
but commonly 
called H Bron- 
zino. Pupil of Raffaelino del Garbo and 
later of Jacopo da Pontormo, whom he 
assisted in some of his most considerable 
works. He was a great admirer of Michel- 




808 



BROOK 



nngelo, and some of his works show his in- 
fluence, though he was not one of his imi- 
tators. He painted both in fresco and in 
oil, and was a decided mannerist in his his- 
torical pictures. His portraits of members 
of the Medici family, his patrons, and of 
many distinguished men of his time, are by 
far his best works and among the finest of 
the 16th century. His largest work is De- 
scent of Christ into Limbo (1552), Uffizi, 
Florence. Among his best pictures are : 
The Engineer, Pitti, Florence ; Lady, Boy 
with a Letter, Young Sculptor, Uffizi, 
Florence; Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, 
Knight of St. Stephen, Portraits of a 
Lady and of Duke Cosimo L, National 
Gallery, London ; Venus and Cupid, Buda- 
Pesth Gallery ; Dead Christ, Florence 
Academy ; Christ appearing to Magdalen, 

BRONCO TiOKOMTINO 

Louvre. Vasari, ed. Le Mou., xiii. 159, 
170 ; Ch. Blanc, cole florentine ; Burck- 
hardt, 640, 047, 756, 758 ; Meyer, Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 494. 

BKOOK, Thomas Gainsborough, National 
Gallery, London; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 
11 in. A wagoner, standing at left on a 
rustic foot-bridge, is endeavouring to start 
up his team of four horses tandem, which 
have stopped to drink at a brook. Some- 
times called the Watering Place. Vernon 
Gallery ; purchased in 1838 for 220 10s. 
Engraved by J. C. Bentley in Art Journal. 
Brock-Arnold, 25 ; Art Journal (1849), 72. 

BROSAMER, HANS, born probably at 
Fulda between 1480 and 1490, died at Er- 
furt about 1554. German school ; portrait 
painter. One of the Little Masters, and 
more notable as an engraver than as a 
painter. Works : Male Portrait (1520), Vi- 
enna Museum ; others in piivate galleries 
in Cologne and Vienna. Scott, Little Mas- 
ters, 121 ; Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 363 ; W. & 
W., ii. 433 ; Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 494. 

BROUILLET, (PIERKE) ANDRfi, born 
at Charroux (Vienne) ; contemporary. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Gerome 




and J. P. Laurens. Medal : 3d class, 1884. 
Works : Violation of the Tomb of Urgel 
(1881); Women of Paris going to Versailles 
in 1789 to demand Bread (1882); At the 
Dockyard (1883); Exorcism (1884); Jewish 
Wedding at Constantino (1885), M. Chateau. 
BROUWER (Brauwer), ADRIAEN, born 
at Oudenardo 
in 1605 or 1606, 
died in Ant- 
werp, buried 
Feb. 1, 1638. 
Flemish school; 
genre painter, 
and one of the 
great masters 
in this line ; in- 
fluenced by 
Pieter Brueghel 
the elder, and by Rubens. Houbraken's 
assertion that he was a pupil of Frans Hals 
cannot be substantiated. If he went to 
Holland at all, it was not until about 1630, 
when he was a finished artist. He was reg- 
istered in the Antwerp guild between Sept. 
18, 1631, and Sept. 18, 1632. Works: 
Tavern Interior (2), Smoker, two others, 
Louvre ; Drinkers at Table, Brawl in a Tav- 
ern, Brussels Museum ; two Peasant Scenes, 
Cassel Gallery ; Surgical Operation and two 
others, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Peasants 
at Cards, Spanish Soldiers at Dice, two 
Surgical Scenes, Fiddler in Tavern, Card 
Players fighting, and three others, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Fight of Three Peasants 
over Dice, Obedient Hus- 
band, Peasants' Brawl, 
three others, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Peasant asleep in a Tavern, Old Wo- 




man at Toilet, Smoker, Fray at Dice, and two 
others, Berlin Museum ; Interior with Peas- 



209 



BROWN 



ants, and four others, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; others in Liechtenstein, Czernin, Ar- 
taria, and Schtinborn Galleries, Vienna, in 
Schleissheim Gallery in Cologne, Stockholm 
and Madrid Museums, and in private collec- 
tions, England. Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 366 ; 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, iv. 826 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Kcole hollandaise ; Bode, Studien, 208 ; 
Dohme, li; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 417; P. 
Mantz, Adrien Brauwer; Michiels, ix. 156 ; 
Schmidt, Das Leben des Malers A. Brouwer 
(Leipsic, 1873). 

BROWN, FORD MADOX, born at 
Calais, France, of English parents, April 16, 
1821. Studied in Bruges Academy, at 
Ghent, under Van Hanselaer, and in 1837-39 
in Antwerp Academy ; was in Paris in 1841- 
44, and in Rome in 1845, in which year he 
settled in London. Belongs to the realistic 
school, with a tendency toward Pre-Raphael- 
itisni, though he refused to join the Brother- 
hood in 1849. Has exhibited but little at 
the Royal Academy. Works in oil, water- 
colours, and in fresco. Since 1850 he has 
been painting a series of frescos (each H. 
4 ft. 10 in. x 10 ft. 5 in.) in the Town Hall 
of Manchester, illustrative of the history of 
the city. Subjects : The Romans building 
a Fort at Manciuion (A.D. 60); Baptism at j 
York of Edwin, King of Nortlmmbria (627); 
Expulsion of the Danes from Manchester 
(about 910); Establishment of Flemish 
Weavers in Manchester (1330); William 
Crabtree observing the Transit of Venus 
(1639); Defence of Manchester by Bradshaw 
(1642). Works: Wicklif reading his Trans- 
lation of the Bible to John of Gaunt (1848); 
Lear and Cordelia (1849); Pretty Baa-Lambs 
(1851); Last of England (1852); Chaucer 
reading at Court of Edward III. ; Our Ladye 
of Good Children ; Cordelia's Portion ; 
Ehud and Eglon ; Work (1865); Coat of 
Many Colours (1865); Elijah raising the 
Widow's Son ; Jacopo Foscari; The En- 
tombment ; Haydn and Don Juan ; Sardan- 
apalus and Myrrha ; Romeo and Juliet ! 
(1870). His son, Oliver Madox Brown 
(1855-1874) was a painter and author of i 



much promise ; his daughters, Mrs. W. M. 
Rossetti and Mrs. F. Hueffer, are also paint- 
ers. Portfolio (1870), 81, 119 ; Scribner's 
Mag. (1872), iv. 157 ; Art Journal (1873), 
105; (1881), 262; Eraser's Mag., May, 
1865, 598 ; I/Art (1882), iv. 81, 101, 161 ; 
Ingram, Biog. of Oliver M. Brown (London, 
1883). 

BROWN, GEORGE LORING, born in 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 2, 1814. Landscape 
painter ; pupil of Washington Allston, and 
in Paris of Eugene Isabey. Visited Europe 
in 1840 and painted in Antwerp, Florence, 
Rome, Paris, and London ; returned to 
America in 1860. Studio in Maiden. 
Works : Bay of New York (1860), Crown of 
New England (1861), Prince of Wales ; Ven- 
ice, Sunset Genoa, Niagara by Moonlight 
(1876) ; Moonlight Scene in Venice (1877) ; 
Capri (1878); Doge's Palace at Sunset (1881); 
Sunrise Venice (1882) ; Doge's Palace 
Venice (1884) ; do. at Sunrise (1885). Art 
Journal (1880), 370 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, vi. 61. 

BROWNE, Mme. HENREETTE, born in 
Paris, 1829. Maiden name Sophie de Bou- 
teiller ; married in 1853 M. Jules Desaux, 
secretary to Comte Walewski, but adopted 
the name of Browne from a maternal ances- 
tor. Genre painter; pupil of Chaplin. Med- 
als : 3d class in 1855, 1857, and 1859 ; 2d 
class in 1861; 3d class for engraving in 1863. 
Has sketched in the East and in North Afri- 
ca. Works : A Brother of the Christian 
School, Poor School at Aix, Mutual Educa- 
tion, The Rabbits (1855); Puritans, Cate- 
chism, Grandmother, The Lesson (1857) ; 
Sisters of Charity, The -Toilette, A Sister, 
An Apothecary's (1859); Woman of Eleusis, 
A Visit, Harem in Constantinople, Woman 
playing Flute, Consolation (1861); Turkish 
Child (1864) ; Celina and her Sister, The 
Awakening (1868) ; A Court at Damas, Nu- 
bian Dancing Women (1869); The Oranges 
(1870); Alsace (1872); No Matter, The 
Medallion (1873) ; Portraits, Coptic Poet 
(1874) ; The Parroquet (1875); The Ducat, 
A Bibliophile (1876). Larousse; Stephens, 
271. 



210 



BROWN 



BROWN, J. APPLETON, born at New- 
buryport, Mass., July 24, 1844. Landscape 
painter ; pupil of B. C. Porter, in Boston, 
and of Emile Lambinet in Paris. He painted 
his first notable studies in Switzerland dur- 
ing a trip through Europe. Studio in Bos- 
ton. Works : Summer, View at Dives Cal- 
vados France (1875); Old Road near Paris; 
November ; On the Merriinac ; Autumn ; 
Storm at the Isles of Shoals ; Glen Mill 
Brook Byfield, Mass. (1881) ; Springtime 
(1884). Art Journal (1879), 74 ; Sheldon, 
117. 

BROWN, JOHN, born in England, IGth 
century. Was sergeant-painter to Heiiry 
VIZI., with a salary of 10 a year. In 1553 
he built Painters' Hall for the company, and 
his portrait is preserved there. Redgrave. 

BROWN, JOHN G., born at Durham, 
England, Nov. 11, 1831. Genre painter ; 
studied first at Newcastle-on-Tyne, then at 
Edinburgh Academy, and in 1853 in National 
Academy Schools, New York. Professional 
life passed in Brooklyn and New York. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1862, and N.A. in 1863. 
Studio in New York. Works : Longshore- 
man's Noon ; Tough Customers ; Country 
Gallants ; Thrilling Moment ; Dress Parade ; 
Three (Scape) Graces ; Left his Money on 
the Piano ; Curling in Central Park (1876); 
Passing Show (1878); Sunny Day (1879); 
Thrilling Moment (1880); Hiding, Long, 
Long Ago (1881); Old Shaver (1883); Merry 
Air and a Sad Heart, Amused (1884) ; Under 
the Weather, Wounded Playfellow (1884) : 
A Jolly Lot, The Monopolist (1885) Shel- 
don, 141. 

BROWN, JOHN LEWIS, born at Bor- 
deaux, Aug. 16, 1829. Genre painter, chiefly 
military and hunting scenes ; pupil of C. 
Roqueplan and of Belloc. Medals in 1865, 
1866, and 1867; L. of Honour,1870. Works : 
A Drum, Nidjeb (a horse), Colledano Letra- 
do (a horse), Henriot on the 10th of August, 
Custine at Spire (1848); An Outpost, Retreat 
before Wolves, Steeple-Chase, Interior of a 
Stable, Horses on the Turf (1861) ; Dogs 
pausing, One of the Cent-Gardes, In the 



Crimea (1863) ; Hunting Incident, In the 
Woods of Vincennes in 1863, Encampment 
of Spahis at St. Maur (1864); Imperial Mili- 
tary Stud (bought by the Emperor), Pen- 
sioners' Day, At the Outposts (1865); Riding 
School (1866, bought by Emperor); Morn- 
ing in the Camp of Chalons, The Day after 
(1867); two incidents in the War of Inde- 
pendence and in Seven Years' War (1868); 
Battle of Ligny in 1815, Count de Saxo 
(1869) ; Hallali (1870) ; Reichshofen, Dogs 
Running (1872); News of the Defeat of Weis- 
senburg brought to Hagenau, Outposts of 
the First Corps in 1870 (1873); Landscape 
with Animals, Zoological Garden, Incident 
in Battle of Fruschwiller (1874) ; Norman 
Jockeys, Interrupted Journey, Officer arrest- 
ing Salt-Smugglers (1875) ; Rising Tide, 
Sentimental Journey (1876) ; Frenchmen 
beating in Game, Visit to the Salt Marshes 
of Croisic, Dutch Horses (1877); Incident in 

j the military life of Marshal Couflans, Hunt- 
ing Scene (1878); Officer attacked by Plun- 

'. derers, Souvenir of the Isle of Wight (1880); 
Across Country (1881) ; Relay of Omnibus 
Horses (1884) ; Hallali,Return from the Chase 
(1885). 

BROWNING, ROBERT BARRETT, born 
in England about 1848. Genre painter ; 

! son of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 

! ing. Studied at Antwerp and Paris. Works : 
Worker in Brass Antwerp (1878) ; Stall 

I in Fish Market at Antwerp, Dinant on 
the Meuse (1879); Still Life, Disturbed 
Life, Tan Garden Dinant (1881); Vespers 
(1882); Valley of the Meuse (1884); portrait 
of Robert Browning (1885), Baliol College ; 
Landscape, Boston Museum of Fine Arts ; 
Meuse from Bouvigne, New York Museum. 
Exhibited at Grosvenor Gallery (1884) a 

, bronze statue and two busts. 

BROZIK, VACZLAV, bom at Tzemosch- 
na, near Pilsen, Bohemia, in 1852. History 

! painter ; pupil of the Prague Academy, in 
Munich of Piloty, and in Paris of Mun- 

' kacsy ; studio in Paris since 1876. Medal, 
2d class, 1878. Works : Farewell of Ottokar 
IL (1874), The Kias, St Iria, Dagrnar, 



211 



BRUAKDET 



Daughter of Premysl, Ottokar I. taken 
from Convent by Waldemar of Denmark 
(187G) ; The Good Friend (1876) ; Em- 
bassy of Ladislaus of Bohemia to Charles 
VII of Prance (1878), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Game of Chess (1879) ; Meeting of 
Charles IV. with Petrarch and Laura at 
Avignon (1879); Heading the Bible, M. K. 
Jessup, New York ; Condemnation of John 
Huss by Council of Constance in 1415 
(1883) ; My Children (1884) ; First Pres- 
entation (1885). MOller, 82. 

BKUANDET, LAZARE, born in Paris 
in 1755, died there in 1803. Landscape 
painter, in style of Ruisdael. Painted for- 
est views with success. Work : View in 
Forest of Foutaiuebleau (1785), Louvre. 
Siret, 142 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole francaise. 

BRUCK, LAJOS (Louis), born at Papa, 
Hungary, Nov. 3, 184G. Genre painter ; 
pupil of Vienna Academy ; studied in 1869- 
72 in Italy, especially in Venice, where he 
was for a short time a pupil of the Acad- 
emy ; also pupil in Paris of Munkacsy. 
Works: Unwilling Scholar, D. W. Powers, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; Love Letter, M. K. Jessup, 
New York ; Departure for the City (1877); 
The Letter (1878) ; Forsaken (1879) ; Suit- 
able Outfit (1880); Fruit Girl, H. V. New- 
comb, New York ; Children at Play, J. W. 
Drexel, New York ; Noonday Rest (1883) ; 
Foundery (1884) ; L'avare ( 1885). Muller, 82. 

BRUCKMANN, FERDINAND ALEX- 
ANDER, born at Ellwangen, Feb. 21, 1806, 
died in Stuttgart, Feb. 9, 1852. History 
and portrait painter ; pupil of Wachter -in 
Stuttgart, in 1826, and of H. von Hess in 
Munich, in 1827-29. In 1829 he went to 
Rome, and returned to Munich in 1833, 
when he painted in the king's bedchamber 
fourteen subjects from Theocritus, partly 
after sketches by Hess, partly after his 
own. From 1840 he painted almost exclu- 
sively portraits, in Stuttgart, temporarily 
also in Ulm, Augsburg, and Zurich. Be- 
came insane in consequence of an accident 
in 1835, and eventually committed suicide. 
Works : Barbarossa's Body taken out of the 




! Calycadnus, Women of Weinsberg, Thus- 
nelda in Captivity, Stuttgart Gallery ; The 
Maiden from Afar, Royal Castle, Friedrichs- 
hafen ; The Sirens, Romeo and Juliet, Birth 
of Venus, St. Lucas, Allegories of the Fine 
Arts. Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 397 ; Raczynski, 
ii. 205. 

BRUEGHEL (Breughel), JAN, called 

Flu weelen 
(Velvet) 
B r u e g e 1 , 
born in Brus- 
sels in 1568, 
died in Ant- 
werp, Jan 13, 
1625. Flem- 
ish school ; 
son of Peeter 
B. the elder ; 
painted chiefly landscapes, but also genre 
and mythological subjects, animals and still 
[life; pupil at Antwerp of Peeter Goetkint, 
i but mostly self-taught ; highly gifted and 
versatile. After a sojourn in Italy (1593-96), 
settled at Antwerp, where he was master of 
the guild in 1597, dean in 1602 ; a citizen 
iii 1601. Was in Nuremberg in 1616. His 
works are characterized by realism, finish 
to the finest details, brilliancy of colour, 
and correct perspective. Though a con- 
scientious and industrious artist, he was a 
rapid worker ; greatly esteemed by his con- 
temporaries, he had a lasting influence, and 
trained several pupils and followers of re- 
nown ; often worked conjointly with Van 
Balen, Rottenhammer, and Rubens, with 
whom he was allied in close friendship. 
Works: The Five Senses (7), The Four 
Elements (4), Sciences and Arts, Earthly 
Paradise (3), Park of Brussels, thirty-seven 
others, Madrid Museum ; Landscape (1600), 
Bridge of Talavera (1610), Earthly Paradise 
(1611), The Air (1621), three others, Louvre, 
Paris; Sermon of St. Norbert at Antwerp, 
Autumn, Brussels Museum ; Pieta (figures 
by Rubens), Antwerp Museum ; Earthly 
Paradise (figures by Rubens), Flight into 
Egypt (figures by Rottenhammer), City on 



sia 



BRUEGHEL 



a River (1C24), four others, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Christ and the Magda- 
len, Rotterdam Museum ; The Flood, six 
others, Cassel Gallery ; four in Brunswick 
Museum ; Forge of Vulcan (figures by Van 
Balen), Feast of Bacchus (figures by Rot- 
tenhammer), St. Hubert (figures by Ru- 
bens), The Paradise, Still life, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Landscapes (dated 1604, 1605 (3), 
1608 (3), 1611 (2), 1612, 1613), twenty-two 
others, Dresden Gallery ; Flora (figures by 
Rubens), Landscapes (1598, 1599, 1609, 
1610, 1612, 1615, 1616, 1620), eighteen 
others, Old Piuakothek, Munich ; Adoration 
of the Magi (1598), The Four Elements 
(1604, figures by Rottenhammer), Bouquet 
(1625), four others, Vienna Museum ; Land- 
scapes (7), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Christ on Lake Genesareth (1595), Land- 
scapes with Hermits (1595, 1596, 1597), 
Abundance (1605), Bouquet (1608), Daniel 
in Lion's Den (1608), Fire and Water 
(1610, 1611), Ambrosiaua, Milan. His 
son Ambrosius (born Aug. 10, 1617, died 
Feb. 9, 1675), was a distinguished flower 
painter ; pupil of his brother Jan, the j 
younger. AUgem. d. Biog., iii. 403 ; Biog. \ 
nat. de Belgique, iii. 26 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
flamande ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
304 ; Dohme, li.; J. van der Kellen, i. 220 ; 
Michiel, v. 351 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 40 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 127. 

BRUEGHEL, JAN, the younger, born in 
Antwerp, baptized Sept. 13, 1601, died after 
1677. Flemish school ; son and pupil of 
Velvet Brueghel ; went to Italy in 1622, 
returned in 1625, little influenced by Italian 
art. Like his father, he remained essen- 
tially Flemish. He was for a long time un- 
justly ignored, as many of his pictures 
were attributed to his father. Rubens, 
Van Diepenbeeck, Van Tulden, and Van Ba- 
len often supplied the figures in his land- 
scapes. Works: Halt in front of an Inn 
(1641); Landscape, Tower on Seashore 
(1642), Dresden Gallery. Biog. nat. de Bel- 
gique, iii. 34 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Dohme, li.; Michiels, v. 370. 




BRUEGHEL, PEETER, the elder, called 
1 Boeren (Peasant) Brueghel, born at Brue- 
g h e 1 , 11 e a r 
Breda, about 

1525-1530, * 

died in Brus- 
sels about 
1570. Flem- 
ish school; pu- 
pil of Pieter 
Koeck van 
, Aalst, and of 
Hierouymus 

Cock, and greatly influenced by the works 
of Hieronymus Bosch, whose subjects he im- 
itated ; became master of the guild in Ant- 
werp in 1551, and shortly after went to 
Italy ; after his return lived at Antwerp 
until 1563, then settled at Brussels. Paint- 
ed chiefly scenes from peasant life, which 
he treated from a realistic and humorous 
point of view, not always avoiding coarse- 
ness ; also some scriptural subjects and 
ghost and incantation scenes, in the manner 
of Bosch. Left a great number of masterly 
drawings, and some etchings made on his 
travels. Works : Triumph of Death, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Landscape, Village Dance, 
Louvre, Paris ; Job on his Dunghill, Douai 
Museum ; Village Feast, Nancy Museum ; 
Massacre of the Innocents, Brussels Muse- 
Christ on Lake Genesareth, Seaport, 



urn ; 

two Landscapes, Cassel Gallery ; St. John 
preaching, Basle Museum ; do., and Peas- 
ants' Frolic, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; do., 
and Peasants' Brawl, Dresden Gallery ; Con- 
test between Carnival and Lent (1559), Chil- 
dren's Frolic (1560), Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, Christ bearing the Cross (1563), Tow- 
er of Babel (1563), four others, Museum, Vi- 
enna ; St. John preaching, Dance of Death, 
The Blind leading the Blind, and others, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; The Blind leading 
the Blind (1568), Naples Museum ; Christ 
bearing his Cross, Uffizi, Florence. Allgem. 
d. Biog., iii. 400; Biog. nat de Belgique, iii. 
19 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Dohme, li. ; 
Michiels, v. 321 ; Rooses (Reber), 75. 



BRUEGHEL 



BKUEGHEL, PEETEE, the younger, 
called Hollen (Hell) Brueghel, born in Brus- 
sels in 1564, died in Antwerp about 1637. 
Flemish school ; son of Peeter B. the elder ; 
pupil of Gilles van Conincxloo ; registered 
as a master in Antwerp in 1585. He was 
much influenced by the works of his father, 
whose predilection for ghostly and diaboli- 
ical subjects he inherited, but he was his 
inferior in invention, colouring, and techni- 
cal merit. Works : Christ delivering Souls 
from Purgatory, National Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Christ bearing the Cross (1607), Ant- 
werp Museum ; do. (1606) and Peasants' 
Brawl, Berlin Museum ; Hell (1596), Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony (1604), Destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, Dresden Gallery ; 
Rape of Proserpine, Tower of Babel, Con- 
flagrations (2), Landscapes (2), Madrid 
Museum ; Fall of Rebel Angels, Brussels 



Museum. Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 402; Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, iii. 24 ; Ch. Blanc, cole 
flamande; Dohme, li. ; Michiels, v. 343; 
Rooses (Reber), 80. 

BRtiLLOW (Brylow), KARL PAVLO- 
VICH, bom in St. Petersburg in 1799, 
died at Marciano, near Rome, June 23, 
1852. History painter, pupil of St. Pe- 
tersburg Academy under Ivanoff; went 
in 1823 to Rome, and after his return be- 
came court painter and professor at 
the Academy. In 1835 he visited Greece, 
Turkey, and Palestine, and later went again 
to Italy. He was member of the St. Peters- 
burg, Milan, and Bologna Academies. 
Works: Narcissus (1819); Last Day of 
Pompeii (1833), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Murder of Inez de Castro ; Ascension, Kasan 
Church, St. Petersburg ; fresco paintings 
in Isaac Church, many portrait and genre 
scenes in Hermitage. Brockhaus, iii. 619; 
Meyer, Con. Lex., iv. 10. 

BRUMIDI, CONSTANTINO, born in 
Rome, June 20, 1805, died in Washington, 
Feb. 19,1880. History painter; studied in 



j Rome and became member of the Academy 
when thirteen years old ; painted frescos in 
several palaces of his native city and under 
Gregory XVI. for three years in the Vatican. 
After the occupation of Rome by the French 
in 1849, he went to America, where he was 
naturalized in 1852 ; went to Mexico in 1854 ; 
after his return to Washington was made 
captain of cavalry, and afterwards entrusted 
with the decoration of the Capitol. His 
Apotheosis of Washington and scenes from 
American history and allegories in the 
Capitol, Washington, were the first frescos 
painted in America. Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xviii. 158. 

BRUN. See Lebrun. 

BRUNE, Mine. AIMEE PAGES, born in 
Paris, Aug. 24, 1803, died there, Aug. 11, 
1866. Genre and history painter ; pupil of 
Charles Meynier. Medals : 2d class, 1831 ; 
1st class, 1841. Works : Sleep, Awakening, 
Elopement, Undine (1831); Condemnation 
of Anne Boleyn, The Bravo, The Prophecy 
(1833); Sad News (1834); Silvio Pellico 
(1835); Birth in a Fisherman's Family 
(1837); Moses Saved (1841); Jairus's Daugh- 
ter (1842) ; Raphael introduced to Leonardo 
da Vinci by Bramante (1845); Jephthah's 
Daughter (1846); The Virgin offering Flow- 
ers in the Temple (1853). 

BRUNI, FEODOR ANTONOVICH, born 
in Milan in 1801, died in St. Petersburg, 
Nov. 1875. History painter ; studied in 
1834 in Rome, became, in 1849, director of 
the painting department at the St. Peters- 
burg Academy, then rector, and in 1866 
also director of the School of Mosaics. 
Works: Apparition of Virgin (Kasan Church, 
St. Petersburg), Death of Cleopatra, Brazen 
Serpent, Christ on Mount of Olives, Bac- 
chante giving a Child to drink. Ktinst- 
Chronik, xi. 73. 

BRUNNER, HANS, born in Munich, 
March 2, 1813. Genre and portrait painter; 
pupil of Munich Academy, under Cornelius ; 
visited in 1833 the Bavarian Alps and Ty- 
rol ; lived then for some time in Venice. In 
1840 he left Munich and lived until 1865 in 



214 



BEDNNER 



Salzburg and Soutlicrn Tyrol, then went to 
Stuttgart, and in 1869 returned to Munich. 
Works: Legend of the Untersberg near 
Salzburg, Return from the Chase, Gondola i 
Sail (1876), Tasting Wine (1877), Fisher; 
Maiden, Poachers, Meran, Portraits of Aus- 
trian Noblemen. M filler, 83. 

BRUNNER, JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
March 14, 1826. Landscape painter; sou 
of the court painter, Leopold B. the elder : 
(1788-1866); pupil of Zaharaduiczek, and) 
of Jos. Feid ; travelled in Germany, Italy, ' 
Switzerland, and Wallachia. Studio in Vi- 
enna. Works : Black Tower near MOdling, 
View in Silesia, Fir-Trees in Twilight, View 
in the Klause near Modling, View near 
Lundenburg, View on the Traun, Mountain 
Lake in Carinthia. Wurzbach, ii. 175. 

BRUNNER, LEOPOLD, the younger, 
born in Vienna, Sept. 14, 1822, died there, 
Dec. 24, 1849. German school; animal paint- 
er, brother of preceding, pupil of Vienna 
Academy. Works : Feeding the Goat (1849), 
Vienna Museum ; others in National Muse- 
um, Pesth ; Dog Company (1852); Domestic 
Animals on a Hill (1855). Wurzbach, ii. 176. 

BRUNO, ST., HISTORY OF, Eustace 
Lesueur, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 22 pictures, 
each, H. 6 ft. 4 in. x 4 f t. 3 in. The princi- 
pal events in the life of St. Bruno, founder 
of the Chartreuse, Paris, were painted in 
1645-48 for the spaces between the pilasters 
in the little cloister of that monastery, to re- 
place similar pictures upon canvas painted 
in 1508, which were almost destroyed by 
time, and which had been preceded by fres- 
cos painted in 1350. The designs (146) are 
also in the Louvre. In 1776 they were of- 
fered to Louis XVI. for 132,000 livres, the 
convent to receive copies ; but the Order j 
was suppressed soon after, and the pictures 
passed to the crown. After restorations 
they were placed in the Louvre in 1818. 

1. St. Bruno listening to Raymond Dio- 
cres preaching. Filhol, x. PL 686 ; Landon, | 
Musee, vii. PI. 70. 

2. Death of Raymond Diocres. Filhol, 
vL PL 482 ; Landon, Musee, vii. PL 25. 



3. Raymond Diocres responds after 
Death. Filhol, vL PL 379 ; Landon, Musue, 
vii. PL 27. 

4. St. Bruno in Prayer. Filhol, vii. PL 
440 ; Landon, Musee, vii. PL 30. 

5. St. Bruno teaching Theology at 
Rheims. Filhol, iiL PL 145. 

6. St. Bruno exhorting his Friends to 
give up the World. Filhol, ix. PL 705 ; 
Landon, Muse'e, xvii. PL 70. 

7. St. Bruno's Dream. Filhol, ix. PL 693 ; 
Landou, Musee, xvii. PL 68. 




St. Bruno's Dream, Lesueur, Louvre, Paris, 

8. St. Bruno and his Companions giving 
their Property to the Poor. Filhol, ix. PL 
680 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 49. 

9. St. Bruno arrives at Grenoble. Filhol, 
viii. PL 529 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 54. 

10. St. Bruno travelling to the Chartreux. 
Filhol, viii. PL 548 ; Landon, Musee, xv. PL 
33. 

11. St. Bruno building the Monastery. 



-'15 



BRUNO 



Filhol, viii. PL 562 ; Landon, Musce, vii. PI. 
39. 

12. St. Bruno taking the Monastic Habit. 
Filhol, v. PL 343 ; Landon, Musue, viii. PL 5. 

13. Pope Victor III. confirming the Char- 
treuse. Filhol, ix. PL 717; Landon, Musce, 
vii. PL 63. 

14. St. Bruno bestowing the Monastic 
Habit. Filhol, ix. PL 710 ; Landon, Musee, 
vii. PL 65. 

15. St. Bruno receiving a Letter from Pope 
Urban H. Filhol, ii. PL 139 ; Landon, Mu- 
see, vii. PL 34. 

16. St. Bruno before Pope Urban H. Lan- 
don, Musee, viii. PL 37. 

17. St. Bruno refusing the Archbishopric 
of Keggio. Filhol, vi. PL 421; Landon, Mu- 
see, viii. PL 41. 

18. St. Bruno in the Deserts of Calabria. 
Filhol, ix. PL 699 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 
26. 

19. Meeting of St. Bruno and Count Ro- 
ger. Filhol, v. PL 301; Landon, Musee, viii. 
PL 28. 

20. Apparition of St. Bruno to Count 
Eoger. Filhol, iii. PL 205 ; Landon, Mu- 
see, viii. PL 30. 

21. Death of St. Bruno, Oct. 6, 1101. Fil- 
hol, iv. PL 253 ; Landou, Musee, vii. PL 41. 

22. St. Bruno borne to Heaven. Filhol, 
viii. PL 574 ; Landon, Musee, viii. PL 35. 

Series engraved, in reverse, by Chauveau; 
Nos. 15 and 22 by S. le Clerc ; No. 22 by 
F. Poilly. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Laudou, i. 
18-39. 

BRUNO, ST., VISION OF, Guercino, Bo- 
logna Gallery ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 10 in. x 7 f t. 
The Virgin and Child in a glory of Angels ; 
below, St. Bruno in Prayer ; at right a monk 
with a crucifix in his hand, reading. One of 
Guercino's best works. Painted in 1646 for 
the Church of the Certosa, Bologna ; carried 
to Paris in 1796 ; returned in 1815. En- 
graved by G. Rosaspina. Pinac. di Bologna, 
PL 21; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., iii. 4; Landon, 
Musee, xii. PI. 6 ; Burckhardt, 793. 

BRUSASORCI, the elder, bom in Verona, 
in 1494, died in 15G7. Venetian school. 



Real name Domenico Riccio ; pupil of Ca- 
rotto, according to Ridolfi, or of Niccolo 
Giolfino, according to Lanzi. Studied later 
in Venice the works of Titian and of Gior- 
gione, and learned to imitate their styles, 
though not without some originality. His 
mural and panel works are to be seen chiefly 
in Verona. His excellence as a fresco painter 




Vision of St. Bruno, Guercino, Bologna Gallery. 

is shown in the Entry of Clement VH. and 
Charles V. into Bologna, which he painted 
in a hall of the Casa Ridolfi, Verona. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole venitieune; Seguier, 216; Burck- 
hardt, 167, 191, 607, 746 ; Bernasconi, 302. 
BRUSASORCI, the younger, born in 1540, 
died in 1605. Venetian school. Real name 
Felice Riccio, son and pupil of Domenico 
Riccio ; after his father's death, finished 
studies under Jacopo Ligozzi, Florence, and 



216 



BRUSH 



returned to Verona master of a refined and 
elegant style. Many of his works are in the 
churches of Verona, among the best of which 
is St. Helena in S. Elena. There is a Holy 
Family by him in the Louvre, and a Victory 
of the Veronese at Desenzano in the Verona 
Gallery. His sister Cecilia, who studied 
under her father, was an excellent portrait 
painter. Ch. Blanc, Ecole vonitienne ; Ber- 
nasconi, 349. 



Rest, Peasant Delegation, The Prince on the 
Promenade, Pilgrims Returning, Visit at the 
Studio, Power of Music, The Petitioner. 
niustr. Zeitg. (1877), ii. 327; (1878), i. 67. 
BRUTUS, Jean Louis David, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 8 in. x 13 ft. 10 in. ; 
signed, dated Paris, 1789. Brutus, returned 
home after the punishment of his sons, is 
seated at left in the shadow of the statue of 
Roma, holding in his hands the written cvi- 




Brvtus, Louis David, Louvre, Pari. 



BRUSH, GEORGE DE FOREST, born 
in Shelbyville, Tenn., in 1855. Figure 
painter, pupil of the National Academy ; 
member of Society of American Artists ; 
professor of antique class, Art Student's 
League. Studio in New York. "Works : 
Mourning her Brave, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Portrait of A. C. Brush (1882). 

BRUTT, FERDINAND, bom in Ham- 
burg, July 13, 1849. Genre painter, pupil 
at Weimar art school of Pauwels ; settled in 
1876 in Diisseldorf. Works: Disturbed 



dence of their guilt ; at right, his wife and 
daughters are overcome with grief at the 
sight of the lictors in the background bear- 
ing the bodies of the young men. Painted 
for Louis XVI. Salon, 1789. Landon, 
Musce, x. PL 37 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By G. G. Lethtirc, Louvre; canvas, H. 14 
ft. 4 in. x 25 ft. Brutus, with Collatinus, his 
colleague, on his right, sits on a platformover- 
looking the place of execution, with the sen- 
ators behind him ; in the centre, two lictors 
raise the body of one of the sons, already 



S17 



BBUYOKEE 



executed, while the other prepares to meet 
his fate ; in background, architecture. Col- 
lection of Louis XIIL ; Salon, 1812 ; acquired 
in 1819 for 15,000 fr. Reveil, x. 659. 

BEUYCKER, FRANCOIS ANTOINE DE, 
born in Ghent, Belgium, in 1816. Genre 
painter ; pupil of Ghent Academy, and in 
Antwerp of Ferd. de Braekeleer. Gold 
medal in 1860 ; member of Amsterdam 
Academy. Works : Suspicion (1842), Woo- 
ing, Dost Remember? Hot Shells, Spring 
Day, Old Gardener (1857), The Widow 
(1860), Reminiscence of Olden Times, Funny 
Idea, Motherly Caresses, Child and Kitten 
(Leipsic Museum), Envy and Distrust. Art 
Journal (1866), 75 ; Miiller, 84 

BRUYN (Brun), BARTHEL, born in Co- 
logne in 1494, died there between 1556 and 
1557. German school ; history and portrait 
painter ; formed himself after Jan Schoreel, 
the painter of the Death of the Virgin, and 
in his portraits resembled Holbein. Later 
he became a weak imitator of the Italian 
masters, especially of Michelangelo. Works : 
Martyrdom of St. Ursula, Adoration of the 
Magi, Burgomaster Browiller, do. and Wife, 
Two Male Portraits, Old Lady of the Ques- j 
tenberg Family, Cologne Museum ; Corpus 
Christi, Cologne Cathedral ; St. Catherine 
and 18 others, Munich Gallery ; Madonna, 
Burgomaster Ryth, Berlin Museum ; Por- 
traits in Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort, in 
Gotha, Brunswick, and Brussels Galleries ; 
Altarpiece in St. Victor's Church, Xanten | 
(masterpiece). Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 456 ; 
Merlo, Nachrichten, 69 ; W. & W., ii. 497. 

BRYES, Greek painter, of Sicyon, father 
and master of Fauxias, 4th century, B.C. 

BUCHSER, FRANZ, born at Feldbrun- \ 
nen, near Solothurn, Switzerland, about 
1829(?). Genre and portrait painter ; stud- 
ied in Rome, Paris, and Antwerp ; went 
to Spain at the age of twenty-two, and , 
thence to England, where for three years he 
painted genre pictures, but more especially 
horses and portraits ; in 1857 he returned 
to Spain, visited Morocco soon after, and 
again, during the Spanish campaign of 1860, ' 



in the suite of Gen. O'Donnell. Having re- 
turned to Switzerland he went in 1866 to 
America, where he spent five years. Works : 
Three Friends ; Return from Market, Jews 
of Mekiness (1862); Mowers (1867); Mary 
Blanc (1869); Negro Picture (1870); Resig- 
nation (1867), Negro Soldiers in Streets of 
Washington, Rapids of St. Mary on Lake 
Superior, Basle Museum ; Caught by the 
Tide (1879); Singer of Sudan (1881). Por- 
traits of Generals Lee and Sherman, Secre- 
tary Sherman, etc. Ulustr. Zeitg. (1873), 
ii. 140 ; Kunst-Chronik, xiv. 605 ; xvi. 657. 

BUCKWHEAT HARVEST (La Recolte 
du Sarrasin), Jean Francois Millet, Martin 
Brimmer, Boston. In foreground, a woman 
binding sheaves, which another is packing 
in a pannier ; behind them, several women 
carrying panniers to background, where 
men are threshing. This picture is the 
original pastel, made in 1868, which passed 
from the Garet Collection, Paris, to Mr. 
Brimmer. The oil picture, painted from 
it in 1874 and one of the last pictures on 
which Millet worked, was sold at the Fred- 
eric Hartmann sale, Paris (1881), for 47,000 
francs. Etched by Charles Courtry. Gaz. 
des. B. Arts (1875), XL 438. 

BUECKLAER (Beukelaar), JOACHIM, 
born in Antwerp in 1530, died after 1575. 
Flemish school ; genre painter, pupil of 
Pieter Aertszen. Registered in the Antwerp 
guild in 1560. His subjects are chiefly 
market and kitchen scenes, also biblical 
events admitting of combination with genre. 
Works : Purveyor, Lille Museum ; Christ 
before Pilate (1561), Fish-Market (1568), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Christ healing the 
Lame (1575), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, ii. 382 ; Michiels, 
vi. 304 ; Rooses (Reber), 73. 

BUFFALMACCO, BUONAMICO, 14th 
century, died after 1351. Florentine school ; 
real name Cristofani Buonamico. According 
to Vasari, he died in 1340 at the age of sev- 
enty-eight, but his name appears in the list 
of the Florentine Company of Painters of 
1351, and Baldinucci says that he lived later 



815 



Por- 



, which passwi 

Pnria fri \1V 






biblical 



-St 



34th 



BUGIARDINI 



than 1358. Rumohr doubts, and Kugler de- 
nies, his existence. Vasari says he was the 
pupil of Andrea Tafi and represents him as 
a practical joker, who lived a merry life and 
died a beggar ; but that he was an excellent 
painter and able to outdo all others when he 
could be persuaded to work. He assigns 
many works to him, but it is doubtful if any 
examples remain. C. & C., Italy, i. 387 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 499 ; Rumohr, Italien- 
ische Forschungen, 14. 

BUGIARDINI, GITJLIANO, born in Flor- 
ence, Jan. 29, 1475, died there, Feb. 16, 
1554. Florentine school ; studied the an- 
tique in the garden of the Medici, where he 
became the friend of Michelangelo and fol- 
lowed him into the workshop of Ghirlandajo. 
Afterward was scholar of and assistant to 
Mariotto Albertinelli with Francia Bigio in 
Florence, and later was employed by Michel- 
angelo on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. 
His usual theme is the Madonna, sometimes 
with the youthful St. John, and sometimes 
with Saints. Among his works, which are 
usually signed Jul. Flor. (Florentinus), are: 
Birth of Christ, sacristy of Sta. Croce ; Weep- 
ing Madonna, Uffizi, Florence ; Martyrdom 
of St. Catherine, S. M. Novella, ib.; Ma- 
donna and Baptist, Leipsic Museum ; Na- 
tivity, Berlin Museum ; Marriage of St. 

IVL> FLO . FAC * 

Catherine, Bologna Gallery. C. <fe C., Italy, 
iii. 494 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vi. 201 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole florentine ; Burckhardt, 638 ; Lttbke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 176. 

BUHLMEYER, KONRAD, born in Vi- 
enna, Aug. 18, 1835, died there in Nov., 
1883. Landscape and animal painter, pu- 
pil of Vienna Academy ; studied then several 
years in Dilsseldorf, and later in Ziirich 
under Roller. Works : Wood-Path ; View 
near Luudenburg ; View in Salzburg ; View 
in the Ramsau ; On Gmunden Lake ; Driv- 
ing the Cattle to the Alp, Vienna Museum ; 
Animals Resting ; Driving Sheep Home ; 
The Ploughman ; Cows on the Water ; Pas- 
ture (1883). Miiller, 85. 



BULAND, JEAN EUGENE, born in 
Paris ; contemporary. Genre painter ; pupil 
of Cabauel and Yvon. Medal, 3d class, 
! 1885. Works : Offering to God, Lycenion 
and Daphnis (1880); Annunciation, After 
Two Years' Absence (1881); Jesus with 
Martha and Mary, Singing Lesson (1882); 
Penniless (1883); Marriage innocent, Visit 
on the Day after Marriage (1884); Restitu- 
tion to the Virgin the Day after Marriage, 
Decorative Panel (1885). 

BULARCHUS, painter, early period. 
Pliny says (vii. 39 [126], xxxv. 34 [55]) that 
King Candaules of Lydia paid its weight in 
gold for a large picture by him representing 
his battle with the Magnetes. 

BULGARENI, BARTOLOMMEO, died in 
Siena in 1378. Sienese school ; called also 
Bolgharini, and by Vasari Bologhini. Pupil 
of Pietro Lorenzetti ; member of the su- 
preme council in 1362, and finally lay- 
brother in the hospital at Siena. Vasari 
says he painted many pictures in Siena, and 
in other parts of Italy, but none exist. Va- 
sari's portrait of Pietro was copied from 
Bulgaria's. C. <k C., Italy, ii. 172 ; Meyer, 
Kfinst Lex., iii. 60 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 477. 

BUNCE, WILLIAM GEDNEY, born in 
Hartford, Conn., in 1842. Landscape painter; 
pupil of William Hart in New York, Andreas 
Achenbach in Ddsseldorf, and Clays in Brus- 
sels. Lived twelve years in Europe. Studio 
in New York. Works: Venice Night (1876); 
Venice Morning, La Luna Veneziana 
(1878) ; Approach to Venice, Paris Exposi- 
tion ; Twilight in Holland, T. B. Clarke, 
New York; Watch Hill Rhode Island (1880); 
Venetian Boats (1881) ; Satucket Hillside- 
New England, Among the Sails Venice, Bit 
of Harbour Venice (1882); Sun, Sails and 
Sea Venice, Day in May Venice (1883) ; 
On the Lagoon, San Giorgio (1884) ; Vene- 
tian Day, Venetian Night (1885). 

BUNEL, JACQUES, born at Blois, 1558, 
died in 1614. French school, pupil in Rome 
of Federigo Zucchero ; was court painter to 
Henry TV. ; with Dubreuil decorated the 
small Louvre Gallery, which was burnt in 

119 



BUNKER 



1G61. Works: Descent of Holy Ghost, 
Assumption, Bordeaux Museum. Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole franyaise. 

BUNKER HILL, BATTLE OF, John 1 
Trumbull, Yale College Gallery, New Haven, i 
Conn. ; Fought on Breed's Hill, near Boston, 
June 17, 1775. The British troops have 
just become masters of the field, the Ameri- 
cans sullenly falling back ; in centre, Gen- 
eral Warren, dying, supported by a soldier 
on his knees who wards off with one hand 
the bayonet of a British grenadier ; Colonel 
Small, of the British army, is also seizing 
the soldier's musket ; behind him is Colonel 
Pitcairn, mortally wounded ; Generals Howe 
and Clinton are behind the principal group, 
and General Putnam is ordering a retreat. 

BUNNER, ANDREW FISHER, born in j 
New York, in 1841. Landscape painter ; 
studied five years in Germany, France, and 
Italy. First exhibited at National Academy, | 
New York, in 18C7. Elected an A. N. A., in j 
1880. Went to Venice in 1882 and is still 
(1885) living there. Works : Fishing Boats 
on the Maas (1880) ; San Giorgio Maggiore 
Venice (1881) ; off the Campo Santo, 
Canal dei Mati, II Campiello (1882) ; San ; 
Giorgio della Salute, La Guidecca, Rio della 
Verona (1883) ; San Andrea, Venetian Gar- 
den (1884) ; Canale San Severe, San Marsil- 
ian, Casa dei Pescatori, Rio del Aqua (1885). 

BUONACCORSI. See Vaya. 

BUONAMICI. See Tassi. 

BUONAMICO. See Buffalmacco. 

BUONARROTI See Michelangelo. 

BUONCONSIGLIO, GIOVANNI, of Vi- 
cenza, flourished 1497-1530. Commonly 
called II Marescalco. Probably assistant to 
Speranza, where he felt the influence of the 
Paduan school ; subsequently took Autouello 
da Messina for his model. Painted alter- 
nately in Vicenza, in Venice, and in the 
neighbouring provinces. Style much like 
that of Benedetto Montagna, but while he 
improved by study of Carpaccio, Buoncon- 
siglio formed his style under the influence 
of Antonello and Gio. Bellini. Among his 
best works are the Virgin and Child in San 



Rocco, Vicenza, painted in 1502 ; Christ be- 
tween two Saints, in the Gesuiti, Venice ; 
and the Virgin, Child, and Saints, three 
pictures, 1511-1513, much restored, in the 
Duomo of Montagnaua (near Vicenza); Lam- 
entation over dead body of Christ, Gallery, 
Vicenza; Altai-pieces at S. Giacomo dell 
Orto, and S. Spirito, Venice ; Madonna with 
Saints (1497), Venice Academy. C. & C., 
N. Italy, i. 436 ; Burckhardt, 604. 
BUONFIGLIO. See Bonfiyli. 
BUONINSEGNA. See Duccio di Buonin- 
segna. 

BURCHETT, RICHARD, born at Brigh- 
ton, England, in 1817, died in Dublin, in 
1875. History painter, pupil of School of 
Design at Somerset House, London, of 
which he was assistant master in 1845, and 
head master in 1851. He was the master 
of Elizabeth Thompson Butler, of Luke 
Fildes, and of W. W. Ouless. Works : Ed- 
ward IV. withheld by Ecclesiastics from 
pursuing Lancastrians into a Church, Ex- 
pulsion of Peasants from New Forest by 
William the Conqueror, portraits of Tudors 
in Houses of Parliament. 

BtiRCK, I1EINRICH, born in Dresden, 
Nov. 27, 1850. History and genre painter ; 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Theod. 
Grosse, in Antwerp under Pauwels, and in 
Berlin under Karl Gussow ; was in Italy in 
1875-78. Works : Helgi and Sigur (1873); 
In the Abruzzi, In the Woods (1877); Per- 
seus and Andromeda (1880). Muller, 85. 
BURCKMAIR (Burgkmair), HANS, 
the elder, born 
in Augsburg in 
1473, died there, 
1531. German 
school ; history 
and portrait 
painter; son and 
pupil of Thoman 
B., and pupil of 
Schongauer, 
though influ- 
enced in some respects by Diirer. Master 
of the Augsburg guild in 1498. Probably 




sau 



BURCKMA1R 



visited Italy about 1507. He aimed at 
strong characterization rather than ideal 
form, and ranked among the best masters 
of his time. Works : Basilica Pictures 
(1501, 1502, 1504), Christ and Mary (1507), 
Crucifixion (1519), Battle at Canute (1529), 
all in Augsburg Gallery ; Ursula Altar (be- 
fore 1505), Dresden Gallery ; Saints (1505), 
Madonna (1510), both in Maurice Chapel, 
Nuremberg; Madonna (1509), Museum, ib.; 
Pieta, Carlsruhe Gallery; Holy Family 
(1511), St. Ulric, St. Barbara, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; John Evangelist (after 1520), do., 
and St. John Baptist (1518), Duke William 
IV. of Bavaria (1526), ^. 
and Wife, Esther be- lo 
fore Ahasuerus (1528), HNGFBAT- IN' 
Old Pinakothek, Mu- AVCV STA* 
nich ; Portrait of him- n EGIA 

self and Wife (1526), 
Vienna Museum. All- t 1 \\ 1 % 
gem. d. Biog., iii. 576; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole alle- 
mande ; Dohme, li. ; 
Nagler, MOD., iii. 237 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
195 ; Liibke, Geschichte der Renaissance in 
Deutschland, i. 55 ; Woltmann (Bennett), 
Holbein and his Time, 87; W. & W., ii. 
446 ; iii. 237. 

BURCKMAIR, HANS, the younger, 
flourished in Augsburg until 1559. Ger- 
man school ; son and pupil of Hans the 
elder. Many of the pictures and wood-cuts 
ascribed to his father, bearing a later date 
than 1531, may be works of his hand. W. 
& W., ii. 450. 

BURCKMAIR (Burgkmair), THOMAN, 
born about the middle of 15th century, 
died in Augsburg, 1523. German school. 
The founder of a family of painters that 
flourished through several generations. 
According to his own statement in the Augs- 
burg record of painters, he became an ap- 
prentice in 1460. Figures short, flesh 
tones of a heavy brown, and outlines hard. 
Works: Christ conversing with St. Ulric, 
Virgin with St. Elizabeth (1480), Cathedral, 
Augsburg ; Martyrdom of St. Stephen, St 



I Lawrence, and Scenes from the Passion, 
: Augsburg Gallery. Kugler (Crowe), i. 144; 
Schnaase, viii. 455 ; W. & W., ii. 116. 

BURG, ADRIAAN VAN DER, born at 
Dordrecht about 1697, died in 1737. 
! Dutch school ; portrait painter ; pupil of 
Arnold Houbraken, whom he accompanied 
to Amsterdam. Works: Portraits of the 
seventeen directors of the mint, Dor- 
drecht 

BURGER, ANTON, born in Frankfort 
in 1825. Landscape and genre painter ; 
pupil at the Stadel Institute under Jakob 
Becker and Jakob Dielmann ; then for two 
years in Munich, and in 1856 in Diisseldorf ; 
visited Paris, the Netherlands, and Italy. 
Since 1857 settled at Cronberg in the Tau- 
nus. Great gold medal, Munich, 1869. 
I Works: Old City, Village Street, Farm- 
house, Beer Garden, Bowling Alley, Village 
Kitchen, Two Winter-Hunts (1879). Mul- 
ler, 85 ; Zeitscbr. f. b. K, xi. 113. 

BURGER, LUDWIG, born in Cracow, 
Galicia, Sept. 19, 1825, died in Berlin, Oct. 
22, 1884. History painter and illustrator ; 
pupil of Berlin Academy, in 1852 of Ant- 
werp Academy, and in Paris under Couture. 
As illustrator for the Leipsic Illustrirte Zei- 
tung he visited Hungary in 1857, and 
joined the campaigns in Schleswig in 1864, 
and in Bohemia in 1866. From 1869 he 
turned to decorative painting, became mem- 
ber of the Berlin Academy, and visited 
Italy in 1872-73. Medal in Vienna, 1873 ; 
Munich, 1876. Works : Wall and Ceiling 
Paintings (1870), City Hall, Berlin ; Colos- 
sal Figures representing Military Virtues 
(1878), School of Cadets, Lichterfelde, near 
Berlin. Illust. Zeitg., 1876, ii. 145 ; Milller, 
86. 

BURGESS, JOHN BAGNOLD, born in 
London in 1830. Genre painter ; son of 
H. W. Burgess, landscape painter to King 
William IV. ; pupil in London of Mr. Leigh, 
and of the Royal Academy. Draws his sub- 
jects largely from Spain and Morocco, 
which he has visited. Elected an A.R.A. in 
1877. Works : Castilian Almsgiving (1859) ; 



BTJRGKMAIR 




Benighted (I860); Bravo! Toro ! (1865); 
Spanish Monk (1867); Students of Sala- 
manca (1869) ; Gi- 
tano Rico (1872); 
Barber's Prodigy 
(1875) ; Licensing 
Beggars in Spain 
(1877); Student in 
Disgrace (1878;) 
Convent Garden 
(1879) ; Genius of 
the Family (1881); 
Spanish Letter- 
Writer (1882); The Meal at the Fountain 
(1883) ; Una Limosnita (1885). Art Jour- 
nal (1880), 297 ; (1882), 136, 207. 
BUEGKMAIE. See Burckmair. 
BURGOYNE, SURRENDER OF, John 
Trumbull, rotunda of Capitol, Washing- 
ton ; canvas, H. 12 ft. x 18 ft. General 
Gates, standing, surrounded by his officers, 
near the entrance to his marquee, declines 
to receive the sword of General Burgoyne, 
who surrendered to him at Saratoga, Oct. 
17, 1777 ; in distance, troops marching. 
Painted in 1817-24 for $8,000. Original 
study in Yale College Gallery. 

BURKEL, HEINRICH, born at Pirma- 
senz, Rhenish Palatinate, May 29, 1802, died 
in Munich, June 10, 1869. Genre and land- 
scape painter ; pupil of Munich Academy, 
but mostly formed himself, studying and 
copying the Dutch masters in the Munich 
and Schleissheim Galleries. In 1829 he 
went to Rome, and after his return in 1832 
became popular for his humorous genre 
scenes. Was honorary member of the Mu- 
mch,Dresden,aud Vienna Academies. Works: 
Peasant with upset Hay Wagon, Return from 
Bear-Hunt, Pontine Swamps, The Cam- 
pagna, Morning in Tyrol, Entry of the Best 
Shot, Muleteer's Rest. Kunst-Chronik, iv. 
162 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 161. 

BURNE- JONES, EDWARD, born in 
Birmingham, England, Aug. 28, 1833. Stu- 
dent at Exeter College, Oxford, with William 
Morris and Swinburne, the latter of whom 
dedicated to him his first volume of poems ; 




went to London in 1856 and became a pupil 
of D. G. Rossetti, whose manner he imitated 
for several years, but 
he soon formed a 
style of his own, in- 
clining more to ideal- 
ism and abstract 
beauty than to real- 
ism, and he is now 
one of the chief ex- 
ponents in England 
of the romantic 
school. In 1857-58 he was associated with 
Rossetti, Morris, Prinsep, and others, in 
painting the Arthurean frescos on the 
walls of the Oxford Union Debating Room. 
In 1861 he was one of the originators of 
the now well-known house of Morris & Co., 
and he has made many designs for stained 
glass windows and other decorative work. 
His studio is at the Grange, Hammersmith 
Road, in the house of Richardson the nov- 
elist. Elected an AR.A in 1885. Works : 
Green Summer (1863) ; Story of Dorothea 
(1866) ; Day, Night, Spring, Summer, Au- 
tumn, Winter (1867-68) ; Wine of Circe 
(1869); Phyllis and Demophoon (1870); 
Chant d'Amour, Love among the Ruins, 
(1873); Beguiling of Merlin, Days of Crea- 
tion, Mirror of Venus (1877); Temperantia, 
Fides, St. George, Spes, A Sibyl (1877) ; 
Luna, Pan and Psyche (1878); Story of Pyg- 
malion (4), Annunciation (1879); The Golden 
Stairs (1880) ; Danae at the Brazen Tower, 
Tree of Forgiveness, Earth, Perseus and the 
Graise, Feast of Peleus, The Mill, Cupid's 
Hunting Fields (1882); An Angel, Wheel of 
Fortune, The Hours (1883) ; King Cophetua 
and the Beggar Maid, Wood Nymph (1884); 
Laus Veneris. Univ. Mag. (1879), iv. 40 ; 
Portfolio (1870), 17; Scribner's Mag. (1872), 
iv. 748. 

BURNIER, RICHARD, born at The Hague 
in 1826, died at Dusseldorf, March 17, 1884. 
Landscape and animal painter; studied from 
nature and after the Dutch masters, then 
from 1850 in Dusseldorf under A. Achen- 
bach and Schirmer, and from 1855 in Paris 



SW3 



BUENITZ 



after Troyon and the French idyl-painters. 
He then continued his studies in Belgium 
in 1858-61, and in Holland in 1863-67, and 
settled in Diisseldorf. Member of the Am- 
sterdam Academy. Works : After the Storm 
(1857), Liege Museum ; Afternoon on the 
Heath (1859), Interrupted Milking (1871), 
Cows on the Strand (1872), Passing Storm 
(1873), Afternoon in the Meadow (1874), 
Autumn Morning, Evening (1874), The two 
Friends (1875), Wood Path (187(5), Kuust- 
halle, Hamburg ; Wild Bull, Brussels Muse- 
um. Mailer, 87. 

BURNITZ, KARL PETER, born in Frank- 
fort in 1824. Landscape painter, self-taught; 
was a lawyer ; went in 1850 to Paris, where 
he painted for ten years; since 1800 in Frank- 
fort. Works: Wood Landscape (1860), Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort; Starnberg Lake (1871); 
Three Landscapes (1879). Miiller, 87. 

BUSCH, FRIEDRICH, born in Diissel- 
dorf in 1808, died there, Jan. 6, 1875. Genre 
painter ; pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy. 
Works: Spinning Maiden, Huntsman and 
his Sweetheart, Girl at the Well. Kunst- 
Chronik, x. 236. 

BUSH, NORTON, born at Rochester, N. 
T., in 1834. Landscape painter ; pupil of 
James Harris in Rochester, and of Cropsey 
in New York. Lives in San Francisco. In 
1853, 1868, and 1875, sketched in South and : 
Central America. Works : Lake Nicaragua ; 
Bay of Panama ; Summit of the Sierras, 
River San Juan Nicaragua, Crocker Gallery, 
Sacramento ; Mt. Chinaborazo ; Volcano of 
Elmisti Peru; Mt. Meiggs Andes of Peru; 
Western Slope of Cordilleras ; Cordilleras of 
Ecuador. 

BUSI, LUIGI, born at Bologna in 1838, 
died there, June 2, 1884. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Bologna Academy, studied afterwards 
in Rome, and visited Germany and France. 
Professor in Bologna Academy from 1871. 
Order of Italian Crown. Works : Tasso and 
Cardinal Aldobrandini ; Visit of Condolence ; 
Illegal Marriage ; Visit to Young Mother. 

BUSS, ROBERT WILLIAM, born in Lon- 
don in 1804, died there in 1875. Genre and 



history painter ; pnpil of George Clint 
Painted theatrical scenes, and executed many 
illustrations for books. His genre pictures, 
many of which were engraved, were chiefly 
humorous. Works : Christmas in Time of 
Queen Elizabeth; Wooden Walls of Old Eng- 
land ; Bitter Morning ; Stingy Traveller ; 
Musical Bore ; Master's Out ; Old Commo- 
dore ; Watt's first Experiment with Steam ; 
Introduction of Tobacco ; Soliciting a Vote ; 
Biter Bit ; Time and Tide wait for no Man. 

BUSSE, GEORG HEINRICH, born at 
Benuemdhlen, near Hanover, July 17, 1810, 
died at Hanover, Feb. 26, 1868. Landscape 
painter; first instructed in drawing by Giese- 
well in Hanover, studied engraving in Dres- 
den, and spent nine years in Italy (1835- 
1844). After his return in 1844 ho began 
to paint in oil, and from 1849 exhibited 
almost every year at Hanover with distin- 
guished success. Works : Grove of Diana 
(1849); Ruins of Imperial Palace in Rome 
(1850) ; Monte Aventino (1852) ; Wood in 
Albanese Mountains (1853); Ruins at Albano 
(1855) ; Lago d'Agnano (1857) ; Ruins of 
Lambessa (1861) ; Hermit's Rock and Ear 
of Dionysius near Syracuse (1862) ; Monks 
disputing (1862); Lago Trasimene (1863); 
Constantino (1865) ; Cefalii (1866) ; View 
near Athens (1867). Allgem. d. Biogr., iii. 
650 ; Andresen, iii. 230. 

BUSSON, CHARLES, born at Montoire 
(Loir-et-Cher), 
July 15, 1822. 
Landscape painter; 
pupil of Remond 
and F r a n 9 a i s. 
Medals: 3d class, 
1855-57-59-63-67 ; 
1st class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1866. 
Works : View near 
Sassenage (1846); 
The Loire, View in Auvergne (1852); Woods 
in Touraine, Hay (1853); Environs of Mon- 
toire (1855); Ford near Montoire (1857), 
Tours Museum ; The Heath, Before the 
Storm (1859) ; Evening on the Loire, Sun- 




BUTIN 



set, Storm on the Heaths (1863) ; Sunrise at 
Sea, Evening (1864); Autumn Day, Hunting 
in the Marshes (1865), Compiegne ; Game- 
Keeper Returning (1866), Luxembourg; Un- 
derbrush (1867) ; Sunset (1868) ; Euins of 
Castle of Lavardin (1869) ; Eoad near Eed 
Sea (1870) ; Morning in Venice, Evening in 
Venice (1872); Park of Sainte-Claire (1873); 
Ancient Ditch of Castle of Lavardiii (1874); 
After the Rain (1875) ; Before the Storm 
(1876) ; Village of Lavardiu (1877) ; Old 
Weir near Montoire (1879) ; Old Bridge of 
Lavardin (1880); Woods of Saint-Martin 
near Montoire, A Stream (1881) ; Fisher- 
man's Hut at Prazay, Ruins of Lavardin Ch. 
(1882) ; Before the Rain (1883). Larousse. 
BUTIN, ULYSSE (LOUIS AUGUSTE), 
bornatSt.Quen- 
tin, Aisne, in 
1838, died in 
Paris, Dec. 9, 
1883. French 
school; Genre 
painter; pupil of 
Picot and of Pils. 
'Medals: 3d class, 
1875; 2d class, 
1878 ;L. of Hon- 
our, 1881. Works : Mussel-Beds at Viller- 
ville (1874) ; Saturday at Villerville (1875) ; 
Women at the Capstan (1876) ; Departure 
(1877); Burial of a Sailor at Villerville 
(1878), Luxembourg Museum ; The Mari- 
ner's Wife (1879) ; Votive Offering (1880) ; 
Le Depart (1881, Amsterdam Exposition, 



1383 



1883) ; Launching the Boat (1883). Mon- 
trosier, Artistes rnodernes. 

BUTLER, ELIZABETH SOUTHERDEN 
THOMPSON, born at Lausanne, Switzer- 
land, about 1844. Her early life was divided 
between Italy and England ; pupil of S. 
Kensington Art School, and of Mr. Standish; 
studied when twenty-two years old in Flor- 
ence, under Bellucci, afterward painted in 






Rome. Returned to England in 1870 ; ex- 
| hibited in 1873 at Royal Academy a picture 
entitled Missing ; the 
next year her Roll Call 
won for her a popu- 
larity almost without 
precedent in English 
art history. It was 
purchased by the 
Queen, and is now at 
Windsor. In 1875 she 
exhibited The 28th 
Regiment at Quatre 
Bras, in 1876 BalaMam, and in 1877 Return 
from Inkerman. In 1877 Miss Thompson 
married Major Win. Francis Butler, C.B., 
aid-de-camp to the Queen. Later works: 
'Listed for the Connaught Rangers, Rem- 
nants of an Army (1879) ; Scotland for Ever, 
Defence of Rorke's Drift (1881) ; Floreat 
Etona, Charge of the Scots Greys at Water- 
loo (1882). Meynell, 68. 

BUTTI, LORENZO, born in Austria; con- 
temporary. Marine painter of considerable 
merit, made court painter in 1847. Works : 
Stormy Sea near Malamocco (1846), Marine 
with Sirocco Effect, Vienna Museum ; Agi- 
tated Sea with Vessels, Sunset at Sea, Vene- 
tians trying to set on Fire an Imperial Frig- 
ate (1851). Wurzbach, ii. 219. 

BUTTINONE, BERNARDINO, of Trevig- 
lio, born probably before 1436, living in 
1507. Lombard school. Proper name, Ber- 
nardino Jacobi ; disciple of Vincenzo Foppa 
the elder, and partner of Zenale, whose work 
so resembles his that it is hard to distin- 
guish between them. Buttinone ranked first 
in the partnership, and so was probably the 
elder. Their best common example is an 
altarpiece in San Martino, Treviglio, ordered 
in 1485. Pictures by Buttinone are a Ma- 
donna and Saints, in the sacristy of S. Am- 
brogio, Milan, do. in the Palazzo Borromeo, 
at Isola Bella, and a Virgin and Child (1454), 
in the Casa Castelbarco, Milan, very early 
work. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 33, 67 ; Calvi, 
Notizie, P. ii. 103-114 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
milanaise ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai, i. 491. 



224 



BYLE11T 



BYLERT, JAN VAN, horn at Utrecht, 
died there after 1669. Dutch school ; genre 
painter, pupil of Abraham Bloemaert ; went 
via France to Rome, where he worked for a 
number of years; returned to Utrecht about 
1630 and became master of the guild ; in 
1632 and repeatedly afterward mentioned as 
its dean. His pictures are rare. Works : 
Family Pictures (3), Utrecht Museum ; La- 
ban and Rachel, Young Women with Ring, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Young Woman, Cassel ! 
Gallery; Pancake Eater,Girl counting Money | 
(1626), Girl with Zither, Brunswick Gallery; ! 
Family Scene, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna; 
St. Sebastian, Harrach Gallery, ib. Bode, ' 
Studien, 170 ; Kramm, i. 198 ; Riegel, Bei- '' 
trage, ii. 183. 

BYSS, JOHANN RUDOLF, bom at Solo- j 
thurn, Switzerland, in 1660, died in Wtirz- 
burg in 1738. German school; history, land- 
scape, and animal painter ; went to Italy 
about 1700, and was called to Vienna in 1704, 
by Leopold I., to paint the ceiling of the 
great audience room. Lothar Franz Ton j 
Schonborn, Elector of Mayence, and Prince 
Bishop of Bamberg, employed him about 
1712 to paint at Castle Gaibach, and after 
the building of Castle Pommersfelden, made 
him supervisor of its picture gallery. After 
his patron's death he lived at Wiirzburg. , 
Works : Allegory, Paradise (2) with many 
Birds and Animals, Pommersfelden Gallery. 
Others in Bamberg, Wiirzburg, Schleiss- 
heim, and Vienna. Allgem. d. Biog., iii. 
679. 



CABANEL, ALEXANDRE, born at 
Montpellier, Sept. 28, 1823. Histo- 
ry, genre and portrait painter ; pupil 
of Picot ; won the grand prix de Rome in 
1845 ; medal, 2d class, 1852; 1st class, 1855; ; 
of honour, 1865, 1867, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1855 ; Officer, 1864 ; Commander, 1884 ; 
Member of Institute, 1863. Professor in 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He painted pre- 
vious to 1861 in the classical style of David, 




Works : Agony of Christ (1844) ; Death of 
Moses (1852), Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton ; Chapel-Mas- 
t e r' a Window 
(1859) ; Expulsion 
from Paradise 
(1863), Maximili- 
aneurn, Munich; 
Giacomina (1872) ; 
John the Baptist 
(1874); Apotheo- 

sis of St. Louis Vi-Y &> I 

(1855), Death of 
Francesca da Ri- 
mini and Paolo Malatesta (1870), Rape of 
the Nymph, Birth of Venus (1863), Thamar 
(1875), Luxembourg ; Portia in Merchant of 
Venice (1881); Venetian Lady of 6th century 
(1882); portraits of Rouher (1861), Napoleon 
IH. (1864), Mr. Mackay (1879), and others. 
Works in United States : Lucretia and Tar- 
quinius Sextus (1877), Ruth and Boaz, Sam- 
uel Hawk Collection, New York ; Shulamile 
(1876), Portrait of a Lady, Miss C. L. Wolfe, 
New York ; Florentine Poet, Desdemona, J. 
H. Warren, Hoosac Falls, N. Y. ; Flor- 
entine Poet, St. Aglaia and St. Boniface, Is- 
rael Corse, New York ; Angel of the Avo 
Maria, D. T. Buzby, Baltimore ; Ginevra 
Amieri, Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland; Pan- 
dora (1873), Portrait of Mile. Nilsson, W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Eve after the Fall, H. 
L. Dousman, St. Louis ; Eve after the Ex- 
pulsion, S. A. Coale, St. Louis ; Penelope, 
Mrs. C. Crocker, San Francisco ; Italian 
Maiden, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; 
Evening Star, W. P. Beinent, Philadelphia ; 
Phcedra, Mr. Leiter, Chicago; Phrodra (1880), 
J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Magdalen at the 
Tomb, C. P. Huntington, New York ; Echo, 
C. S. Smith, New York ; Samson and Deli- 
lah, Win. Astor, New York ; Pia de Toloniei, 



C 



ABANEL 187* 



W. RVanderbilt, New York; Birth of Venus, 
H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; do., J. Wolfe, 
of which no trace is visible in his later work. | New York ; MarguSrite, J. T. Raynor, New 



5 



CABANEL 



York ; Ophelia (1883), Calvin S. Brice, New 
York. Larousse ; Claretie, Peintres (1874), 
170 ; Du Camp, Les B.-Arts, 32 ; Bruno 
Meyer, Stud. u. Krit., 75 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
598. 

CABANEL, PIERRE, born at Montpel- 
lier ; contemporary. History and portrait 
painter ; son and pupil of Alexander Cab- 
anal Medal, 3d class, 1873. Works: 
Plight of Nero (1873); Death of Abel (1874); 
Nymph surprised by Satyr (1875); Shipwreck 
on Coast of Brittany (1877); Mowers (1878); 
Italians in Paris (1879) ; Prodigal Son 
(1880); Young Neapolitan Girl (1881); Bet- 
tina (1882); Chiffonniers (1884). 

CABAT, LOUIS, born in Paris, Dec. 24, 
1812. Landscape painter, pupil of Camille 
Flers; first exhibited in 1833. Medals: 
2d class, 1834 ; 3d class, 1867 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1843 ; Officer, 1855 ; Member of In- 
stitute, 1867 ; Director French Academy at 
Rome, 1879. Works : View of the Bouzanne, 
Mill of Dompierre, Tavern of Montsouris 
(1833) ; Garden of Beaujon, Pond at Ville 
d'Avray, Woods of Fontenay-aux-Roses, 
Village of Sarasin, Farmhouse in Calvados 
(1834); Wolf's Gorge, Tavern on the Bou- 
zanne, Festival of Virgin on the Water, 
Bird Catcher (1835) ; Plain of Arques 
(1836) ; Forest of Fontaiuebleau (1837); 
Boad in Valley of Narni, View of Lake 
Nemi, Good Samaritan, Young Tobias 
(1840); Lake Bolsena, Pond of Pecquigny 
(1848) ; Autumn Evening (1852); The Ar- 
ques, Hunting Boars, Sunset (1853); Ravine 
of Villeroy (1855); The Seine, He de Crois- 
sy (1856); Pond in the Woods (1859); Lake 
Nemi, Spring in the Woods (1864); Soli- 
tude (1865) ; Huntresses, W T oods of Chante- 
loube (1867) ; After the Shower (1869); 
Stormy Weather (1872) ; Pond, Sunset 
(1873) ; Morning after Shower, Morning in 
Park of Magnet (1877). Larousse ; Cla- 
retie, Peintres (1874), 294 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
743. 

CADORE, BATTLE OF, Titian, former- 
ly in Hall of Great Council, Palazzo Ducale, 
Venice ; canvas. Battle at a bridge span- '' 



ning a stream ; in sight of the Castle of Ca- 
dore, where the troops of the Emperor 
Maximilian were defeated by the Venetians. 
Painted in 1537 ; burned in the fire of 
1577, and known only through a contempo- 
rary print by Fontana, a sketch on canvas 
attributed to Titian, in tjie Uffizi, and a 
drawing of the principal group by Rubens. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 439 ; C. & C., Titian, 
ii. 5 ; Gilbert, Cadore, 154. 

CAESAR, DEATH OF, Vincenzo Camuc- 
cini, Palazzo Reale, Naples ; canvas. Attacked 
by the conspirators in the Senate House, 
Caesar, stretching his left hand toward Bru- 
tus, is falling at the base of Pompey's 
statue ; at right, affrighted senators starting 
from their seats. Reveil, xiv. 942. 

By J. D. Court, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 14 ft. x 17 ft. Mark Antony haranguing 
the populace over the dead body of Csesar : 
in foreground Brutus and Cassius. Salon, 
1827. Formerly in Luxembourg. Cat. 
Louvre. 

By Jean Leon Gerdme, J. J. Astor, New 
York ; canvas, H. 3 f t. x 5 ft. The dead 
body of Csosar lying at the foot of Pompey's 
statue in the Senate Chamber, the seats of 
which have just been vacated by the flying 
Senators, one only remaining in his place as 
if in silent protest ; in the background, the 
conspirators brandishing their daggers as 
they repeat the oath which binds them. 
Painted in 1867, bought by John Taylor 
Johnston ; at his sale (1876), $8000. Life- 
size study of dead Csesar (H. 7 ft. 2 in. 
x 10 ft. 5 in.), in Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington. Engraved by J. C. Armytage in 
Art Journal (1874), 68 ; Art Treasures of 
America, ii. 3. 

By Karl von Piloty, Munich Gallery. 
Brutus kneels and presents the petition, 
while the other conspirators crowd around 
Ceesar, who is seated in the Senate Chamber 
at the base of Pompey's statue ; one, stand- 
ing behind, is about to strike with his dag- 
ger. Engraved by Alex. Becker. Small 
study in colour, D. H. McAlpine, New 
York. 



SS6 



CAESAR 



CJ2SAR, TRIUMPH OF, Manlcyna,' 
Hampton Court ; tempera on twilled linen ; 
9 pictures, each 9 ft. sq. ; not properly car- 
toons, but intended to be stretched on 
frames and affixed to the wall as a frieze, in ' 
a continuous procession 81 ft. long, as now 
arranged. Represent a grand triumphal 
procession of Roman soldiers, captives, and 
spoils ; lastly Ciesar iu a splendid car, with 
a sceptre in his right hand and a palm 
branch in his left. Painted in 1485-92 for 
Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, to 
decorate the palace of St. Sebastian. Bought 



352, 355 ; Passavant, Kunstreise durch Eng- 
land (London, 1883), 189. 

CAESARS, TWELVE, Titian, originals 
lost (?). Twelve canvases, eleven by Titian 
and one by Giulio Romano, painted in 1537- 
38 for Federico Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. 
In Sula di Troja in Castle of Mantua till 
1628, when sold by Vincenzo Gonzaga to 
Daniel Nys, who shipped them to England ; 
in collection of Charles I. till 1636, when 
presented to the Spanish ambassador in 
London ; further history lost Bernardino 
Campi made five copies in 1562, one of 




Death of Caesar, Camuccim, Palazzo Reals, Naples. 



in 1628 by Charles L, together with statues ] 
and other pictures, for .10,500, and placed 
in Hampton Court. Valued at 1000 iu ' 
1651, but reserved by Cromwell and not 
sold, as often stated. They are now greatly 
dilapidated. Tapestries were wrought from ' { 
these designs. Three of the series are at 
Boughton, Duke of Buccleuch. Other sets | 
mentioned in the catalogue of effects of 
James H. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 404 ; Waa- 
gen, Art Treasures, ii. 410 ; Sainsbury, 
Orig. Papers, 321 ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hamp- 
ton Court, 256 ; Evelyn, Diary, June 9, 
1662; Geo. Scharf, Hist, of Old London, 



which, formerly in Palazzo del Vasto d'Ava- 
los, is now iu the Naples Museum. Copies 
by Agostini Carracci were in Palace of Pnr- 
ma till 1734. Engraved by Sadeler. Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vii. 442 ; Gave, Carteggio, ii. 
264 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 313, iii. 443 ; 
C. & C., Titian, i. 420. 

CAGLIARI (Caliari), BENEDETTO, 
born in Verona in 1538 (?), died in 1598. 
Venetian school ; brother of Paolo Veronese, 
and his assistant in many of his works. 
After his brother's death he continued to 
paint, showing himself a faithful imitator of 
Paolo's manner, but he did not rise above 



CAGLIAEI 



mediocrity. His Last Supper and his 
Christ before Pilate are in the Venice Acad- 
emy. Benedetto, whose specialty was archi- 
tecture, was the principal painter of the 
architectural backgrounds in many of Pao- 
lo's pictures. Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; 
Bernascoui, Studii, 336 ; Wornum, Epochs, 
264. 

CAGLIARI, CARLO (Carletto), born 
in 1570, died in 1596. Venetian school ; 
elder son and pupil of Paolo Veronese, 
who, for fear that he would be but an 
imitator of his manner, sent him to study ' 
with Jacopo Bassano. After his father's 
death (1588), Carletto finished several works 
left incomplete by him, and he had begun 
to give promise of a great career when he 
died at the age of twenty-four. He worked 
generally in collaboration with his younger 
Brother Gabriele (born 1568, died 1631), 
and his uncle Benedetto. Several examples 
by him are in the Venice Academy ; works 
executed in collaboration are in the Palazzo 
Ducale and in several churches in Venice, 



stein Gallery, Vienna ; Magdalen, St. Jerome, 
Death of Cleopatra, Vienna Museum ; As- 
sumption of the Magdalen, Hermitage, St. 



. J ->; 





J 

Vicenza, Murano, Brescia, and Treviso. 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; Baldinucci, ii. 
321 ; Burckhardt, 750 ; Seguier, 34 ; Ber- 
nasconi, Studii, 337. 

CAGLIARI, PAOLO. See Veronese. 

CAGNACCI, GUIDO CANLASSI called, 
born at Castel S. Arcangelo in 1601, died in 
Vienna in 1681. Bolognese school, pupil 
of Guido ; painted historical subjects in his 
master's style, exaggerating a little his soft- 
ness and affectation. His later pictures are 
inferior in colour to his earlier ones. He 
died in the service of the Emperor Leopold 
I. Examples : Tarquin and Lucretia, Accad. 
di S. Luca, Rome ; Assumption of the Mag- 
dalen, Pitti ; Jupiter and Ganymede, Uffizi ; 
Sibyl, Borghese, Rome ; St. John the Bap- 
tist, Louvre ; Jacob and Laban, Liechteu- 



Petersburg. Malvasia, ii. 58 ; Lanzi, iii. 
102 ; Ch. Blanc, cole bolonaise. 

CAIN, Fernand Cormon, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 7 in. x 23 ft. 
The first murderer, pale and haggard, fol- 
lowed by his children covered with the skins 
of beasts, and bearing their mother on a lit- 
ter, flees, in the midst of storms, from before 
Jehovah (Victor Hugo). Salon, 1880. 

CAIN AND ABEL, SACRIFICE OF, 
Raphael (?), Signor Enrico Basseggio, Rome ; 
wood, H. 8J in. X 13} in. Abel kneeling on 
left beside an altar with hands raised in 
prayer as he sees a flame descending from 
heaven and firing the wood ; Cain, on the 
opposite side, vainly trying to blow his wood 
into a blaze ; a club in foreground prefigures 
the fratricide. Painted in Perugia in 1504- 
05 (?). Said to have been in Aldobrandini 
collection, Rome ; later, in this century, in 
possession of Mr. Emerson, London. Panel 
injured. C. & C., Raphael, i. 202 ; Passa- 
vant, ii. 315. 

CAJESI. See Coxes. 
CALABRESE, IL CAVALIERE, born at 
Taverna, Calabria, 
Feb. 24, 1613, died 
in Malta, Jan. 13, 
1699. Neapolitan 
school; real name 
Mattia Preti; pupil 
of Lanfranco in 
Rome, according to 
Baldinucci, and of 
Guercino in Cento, 
according to Dom- 
enici. He studied the great masters in most 
of the cities of Italy, and visited France, 
Spain, and Flanders, and finally Malta, where 
he executed many works. Generally chose 




CALABRESE 



gloomy subjects, such as martyrdoms and 
death scenes. He had a fertile invention, 
and his compositions are effective, but his 
design is not always correct, and his chiaro- 
scuro is marked by the strong contrasts 
seen in the works of Guerciuo and Caravag- 
gio. Among his works are : Frescos in choir 
and cupola of the Carmine, Modena ; His- 
tory of Pope Celestiue V., and St. Catherine, 
Transept of S. Pietro a Majella, Naples ; Re- 
turn of the Prodigal Son, Naples Museum ; 
A Concert, Palazzo Doria, Eome. Lanzi, 
ii. 47 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole napolitaine ; Se- 
guier, 158 ; Burckhardt, 790, 798, 800, 803. 

CALABRESE RINGENTILITO. See 
Solimena, Francesco. 

CALAIS GATE, Wm. Hogarth, C. F. H. 
Bolckow, Marton Hall, Middlesborough, 
England. Original title, The Boast Beef of 
Old England. Painted by 
Hogarth as a satire on the 
French in retaliation for his 
arrest and deportation to 
England. A French soldier 
is arresting the artist while 
sketching Calais gate ; in 
centre a French cook stag- 
gers under an immense 
piece of beef, just landed 
from a British packet, and 
directed to Madame Grand- 
sire, the hotel-keeper in 
Calais affected by the Eng- 
lish of the day ; a well- 
fed monk (portrait of Pine, 
the engraver) blesses it, 
while several half-starved 
soldiers look wistfully 
on. Painted in 1748, en- 
graved in 1749. Bought by Earl of Charle- 
niont. Athen., Jan., 1875, 55; Cunning- 
ham ; Dobson, 68. 

CALAIS PIER, Joseph M. W. Turner, 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 7 
in. x 7 ft. 10 in. The eastern jetty of the 
harbour ; French fishermen preparing for 
sea ; the English packet arriving. Royal 
Academy, 1803; bequeathed by Turner. En- 



graved by T. Lupton, J. Cousen ; Etched by 
S. Haden. Hamerton, Life; Cat. Nat. Gal. 
CALAME, ALEXANDRA born at Vevay, 
May 28, 1810, died 
at Mentoue, March 
19, 1864. Land- 
scape painter ; pu- 
pil in Geneva of 
Diday, whom he 
succeeded as head 
master of the art 
school. J Ie was 
one of the best 
landscape painters 
of his day, and the best depicter of Alpine 
scenery. Visited Germany and the Nether- 
lauds in 1839, England in 1840, France in 
1842, and Italy in 1845. Medals : 2d class, 
1839 ; 1st class, 1840 ; L. of Honour, 1842, 





Calais Gate, Hogarth. 

Member of St Petersburg and Brussels 
Academies. Works: Mont Blanc, Jungfrau, 
Lake of Brienz, Pass of Monte Rosa, Pass of 
Monte Cerino, Handeck Falls, Bernese Ober- 
land (1838^4) ; Ruins of Prostum, Storm 
in Woods, Leipsic Museum ; Noonday in 
Summer, Autumn Evening, Night in Win- 
ter ; The Four Seasons, Geneva Museum ; 
The Four Divisions of the Day, Lake of the 



CALAME 



Four Cantons (1842), Schreckhorn and 
Wetterborn, Basle Museum ; Waterfall near 
Meyringen, Berne Gallery ; Lake of Lu- 
cerne (1853), Mountain Valley (1865), Ber- 
lin Museum. Ch. Blanc, cole allemande ; 
Brockbaus, iii. 826 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex. 
(1875), iv. 78 ; Larousse. 

CALAME, (JEANBAPTISTE) ARTHUR, 
born in Geneva in 1843. Landscape paint- 
er ; son and pupil of Alexandre, and in 
1864-66 at tbe Dtisseldorf Academy under 
Oswald Acbenbacli ; travelled in Italy, and 
paints cbiefly Italian landscapes and marine 
subjects. Works : Harbour on Mediterra- 
nean, Coast after Storm, Bay of Naples, Lake 
Lucerne, Coast of Bordigbera. Mtiller, 91. 
CALATES, painter of comic subjects in 
little, lived soon after time of Alexander. 
Pliuy, xxxv. 37 [114]; R.-R., Schorn, 240. 

CALCAE, JAN VAN. See Kalkar, Hans 
von. 

CALDARA, POLIDORO. See Caravag- 
gio, Polidoro da. 

CALDERON, PHILIP HERMOGENES, 
born at Poitiers, 
France, May 3, 1833. 
Subject and portrait 
painter, of Spanisb de- 
scent; pupil of J. M. 
Leigb, London, in 
1850, of Picot, Paris, 
in 1851-52, and of 
Leigb again in 1853- 
54. Exbibited first 
picture, By the Waters of Babylon, at Royal 
Academy in 1853. Elected an A.R.A. in 
1864, and R.A in 18G7. Otber works: 
Broken Vows (1857) ; Gaoler's Daughter 
(1858); Nevermore (I860); Demande en 
Mariage, Releasing Prisoners on tbe Young 
Heir's Birthday (1861); After tbe Battle 
(1862); British Embassy in Paris on Night 
of St. Bartholomew (1863); Her Most High, 
Noble, and Puissant Grace (1866); Home 
after Victory (1867) ; Young Lord Hamlet, 
(Enone (1868); Sighing his Soul into his 
Lady's Face (1869); Spring petting Winter, 
Catherine de Lorraine and Jacques Clement 




(1870); The New Picture (1871); Good 
Night, Moonlight Serenade (1873) ; Queen 
of the Tournament (1874); Toujours Fidele 
(1875); His Reverence (1876); Joan of Arc, 
Constance (1877); La Gloire de Dijon (1878); 
Summer Breezes, Twilight (1879) ; Tbe 
Olive, The Vine, Captives of his Bow and 
Spear (1880); Flowers of the Earth (1881); 
Dympbna, Faithful Heart, Joyous Summer 
(1883); Morning (1885). Meynell, 235; 
Portfolio (1870), 97. 

CALIARI. See Carjliari. 
CALIGULA'S PALACE AND BRIDGE, 
Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 2 in. 
Caligula, to confute a prophecy of Thrasyl- 
lus that he would no more be emperor than 
he could drive his chariot over the Bay 
of Baiao built a bridge of boats from 
the mole at Puteoli across the bay, about 
three Roman miles, and rode and drove 
over it. Turner has assumed that the 
bridge was constructed on arches. On the 
left are magnificent ruins of Caligula's pal- 
ace, with the bridge across the bay in the 
middleground ; on the right, in distance, 
Baife. Royal Academy, 1831. Engraved by 
E. Goodall in Turner Gallery. 

CALISTO DA LODI. See Piazza. 
CALLCOTT, Sir AUGUSTUS WALL, 
born at Kensing- 
ton, Feb. 20, 1779, 
died there, Nov. 
25, 1844. Choris- 
ter boy for several 
years in Westmin- 
ster Abbey ; pupil 
of John Hopp- 
ner ; became a 
portrait painter, 
and executed many figure pieces, such as 
Raphael and the Fornarina (1837), and Mil- 
ton with bis Daughters (1840). But it is as 
a landscape painter that be will be chiefly 
remembered. As such, he ranks among the 
best contemporaries of Turner and Con- 
stable, though he stands at a respectful dis- 
tance from either in point of originality and 




CALLET 



genius. The surname of the English Claude 
which has been given to him, and the large 
prices obtained for his landscapes since his 
death, as, for instance, 3,097 and 514 paid 
in 1863 at public sales, prove the esteem 
felt for his works, in which English scenery 
is treated with unaffected truth to nature. 
Callcott became an A.R.A. in 1800, and R.A. 
in 1810 ; he was knighted in 1837, and in 
1844 he was appointed conservator of the 



school ; history and portrait painter ; ob- 
tained the first prize in 17fi4 for his Cleobis 
and Biton, now in the Kcole des Beaux 
Arts, and became member of the Academy 
in 1780. Painted many allegorical and 
mythological as well as modern historical 
subjects. Works : Winter or Saturnalia 
(1783), Spring or Worship of Juno Lucina 
(1791), Summer or Ftte of Ceres (1789), 
Autumn or F&te of Bacchus (1787), all in 




Calumny, Botticelli, Uffiii, Florence. 



royal pictures. The following pictures by 
him are in the National Gallery : Returning 
from Market (1834), Coast Scene, Landscape 
with Cattle, Wooden Bridge, Benighted 
Traveller, Old Pier at Littlehampton (1812), 
Entrance to Pisa 
from Leghorn 
(1833), Dutch Fer- 
ry (1834), View on 
Coast of Holland. Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Art Un- 
ion Journal, 1845 ; Art Journal (185C), 9 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Kcole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 334. 
CALLET, ANTOINE FRANQOIS, born 
in Paris, 1741, died there in 1823. French ' 



JWC. 



Louvre. Wiirzbach, Mai. d. xviii. J., 10; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

CALLICLES, Greek painter, mentioned 
by Pliny (xxxv. 37 [114]) as having exe- 
cuted some small pictures. Perhaps same 
painter spoken of by Varro (Fragm., p. 236 
Bip.). Brunn, ii. 260. 

CALLTPHON, painter, of Samos, date 
uncertain. Painted episodes of Trojan war 
on walls of Temple of Diana, Ephesus. 
Pausan. v. 19, 1 ; x. 26, 127 ; Brunn, ii. 56. 

CALLISTO. See Diana and Callisto. 

CALLOT, GEORGES, born in Paris; 
contemporary. History and portrait painter, 



m 



CALUMNY 



pupil of Eugene Adan. Medal, 3d class, 
1882. Works: The Chase (1879) ; Twilight 
(1882); The Doves, Portrait (1883); Infancy 
of Orpheua (1884); Diana (1885). 

CALUMNY, picture. See Apelles. 

CALUMNY, Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi, 
Florence ; wood, figures full length, small. 
A magisterial person, seated at right, at- 
tended by Ignorance and Suspicion, stretches 
out his hand to Calumny, who holds in one 
hand the torch of discord, and with the 
other drags Innocence by the hair ; she is 
preceded by Envy and attended by Intrigue 
and Treachery ; behind her, Repentance, 
clothed in black, is covered with confusion 
at the sight of Truth. Painted about 1485 
from Lucian's description of Apelles' picture. 
Given by Sandro to his friend, Fabio Segni. 
-Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 324 ; C. & C., Italy, 
ii. 422 ; Moliui, Gal. de Firenze, i. 159 ; 
Lasinio, i. PI. 41. 

By Federigo Zucchern, Hampton Court ; 
tempera on canvas, H. 4 ft. 8 in. x 7 ft. 8 in. 
Probably a rendering of Lucian's descrip- 
tion of the celebrated picture by Apelles. 
While employed in the Vatican, Zucchero 
had a difference with the Pope's officers, and 
in revenge painted this picture, in which 
he represented those who had offended him 
decorated with asses' ears. The Pope's dis- 
pleasure was the cause of Zucchero's de-| 
parture from Rome. Originally in posses- 
sion of Duke Orsini di Bracciano ; perhaps 
found its way to England in Duke of Man- 
tua's collection, bought by Charles I. in 
1G28. Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 140. 

CALVAERT (Caluwaert), DENIS, born 
in Antwerp about 1540, died in Bologna, 
April 1C, 1G19. Flemish-Bolognese school ; 
called by the Italians Dionisio Fiammingo 
(the Fleming). Pupil of Christiaan Queck- 
bome ; was a good landscape painter when 
he removed to Bologna, where he studied 
figure-painting under Prospero Fontaua 
and Lorenzo Sabbatini. He accompanied 
the latter to Rome, and aided him in the 
Vatican. On his return to Bologna he es- 
tablished a school, and had among his pupils 



Guido, Domenichino, and Albani. He was 
a good designer, but mannered in style. 
His pictures are chiefly in Bologna, in S. 
M. de' Servi, S. Petronio, S. Gregorio, S. 
Giacomo Maggiore, and other churches. 
Works : Assumption, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Transfiguration, Parma Academy ; Mary 
Magdalen borne to Heaven by Angels, 
Turin Gallery ; male portrait, Vienna Mu- 
seum. Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 258 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; Fetis, Les Ar- 
tistes beiges ;\ 1'etranger, ii. 151 ; Michiels, 
vi. 3 ; Rooses (Reber), 104. 

CALVARY. See Christ on Calvary. 
CALVARY, PROCESSION TO, Pierre 
Mignard, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 ft. x 6 ft. 6 
in. ; signed, dated 1684. Christ, in centre, has 
fallen under the weight of the cross, which 
Simon of Cyrene and others are carrying, 
preceded and followed by soldiers and rab- 
ble, up the mountain ; in foreground, left, 
the Virgin, Magdalen, and St. John ; right, 
women and children. Painted for M. de 
Seignelay, and passed to Louis XIV. En- 
graved by G. Audran ; Landou. Reveil, ix. 
629. 

By Rubens, Brussels Museum ; canvas, H. 
15 ft. 8 in. x 11 ft, 3 in. The Saviour, in 
grey vest and scarlet mantle, in centre, 
bending under weight of the cross, which a 
man, assisted by Simon of Cyrene, is remov- 
ing from his back ; the Magdalen, kneeling, 
is wiping his brows with a napkin ; behind 
her, the wife of Cleophas, with two children, 
; and the Virgin, supported by St. John ; at 
left, another woman with an infant in her 
arms ; below, the two thieves, with hands 
bound, guarded by soldiers ; in front, three 
horsemen and others indicated by spears 
and banners. One of Rubens's grandest 
compositions, but now much deteriorated. 
Painted for the abbey church of Affleghem, 
for 1,600 florins, the work occupying sixteen 
days. Engraved by P. Pontius ; Ragot ; 
and with variations by Monaco. Sketch in 
Amsterdam Museum. Smith, ii. 56. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. Troops and attendants climbing 



383 



CALVI 



Calvary by a winding path ; Christ in centre 
bearing the cross, the two malefactors being 
on the nearer path. A strong and effective 
picture. Buskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 353. 
By Tintoretto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 7 in. Christ falling un- 
der the weight of the cross, with Simon of 
Cyrene aiding him; behind, the Virgin, Mary 
Magdalen, and St. John ; in front the two 
thieves, bound ; soldiers, mounted and on 
foot, and rabble. GaL de Vienne, i. PI. 48. 



Buskin, Mod. Painters, v. 230 ; Bidoln, Ma- 
ra v., ii. 67. 

Subject also treated by Pieter Brueghel, 
the younger, Berlin Museum. 

CALVI, LAZZABO, bora in Genoa in 
1502, died there in 1587. Genoese school ; 
son of Agostino Calvi, a respectable painter 
of Lombard origin ; pupil of Perino del 
Vaga at same time with his elder brother, 
Pantalco Calvi (died 1595). The brothers 
painted much in collaboration in Genoa, 




Procession to Calvary, Mignard, Louvre. 



By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 8 in. x 14 ft. 6 in. Christ falling 
under the weight of the cross, which he is 
carrying amid a troop of mounted men and 
rabble ; St. Veronica, with her handkerchief, 
thrust back by one attendant and struck at 
with a knotted cord by another, is trying to 
reach him ; behind, the Virgin, fainting, is 
sustained by St. John, a portrait of Veronese. 
From the Modena collection. Bestored by 
Schirmer in 1857. Engraved by Mitelli ; 
Preisler. Gal. royale de Dresde, i. PL 1C ; 



Naples, and other places, Lazzaro painting 
the principal parts and Pantaleo the orna- 
mental portions. Lazzaro, vain and envious, 
depreciated the works of others, and even 
resorted to poison to rid himself of rivals. 
Defeated in competition with Andrea Semini 
and Luca Cambiaso, he gave up painting 
and led a seafaring life for twenty years, but 
finally returned to his profession. Among 
his best examples are: Phaeton, Apollo, etc., 
ceiling of hall, Palazzo Grimaldi, Genoa ; 
Glory of Saints, choir S. Catterina, Genoa. 



CALVI 



Soprani, 71; Baldinucci, ii. 148 ; Lanzi, 
iii. 242 ; Burckhardt, 759 ; Ch. Blanc, cole 
genoise. 

CALVI, POMPEO, born at Milan in 1806. 
Landscape and architecture painter ; pupil 
of Migliara. Works : Old Fish Market in 
Eome (1834), Interior of Monza Cathedral 
(1838), Vienna Museum. Wurzbach, ii. 
243. 

CALYPSO, pictures. See Irene, Nicias. 
CAMBIASO, GIOVANNI, born in the val- 
ley of Polcevera, near Genoa, in 1495. Gen- 
oese school ; pupil of Antonio Semini, but 
imitated Perino del Vaga and Pordenone. 
Painted chiefly in fresco. Was the master 
of his son Luca. Soprani, 17; Baldinucci, 
ii. 174 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole genoise, Luca Cam- 
biaso. 

CAMBIASO, LUCA, born at Moneglia, 
Oct. 18, 1527, died 
at the Escorial, 
Spain, 1585. Geno- 
ese school. Some- 
times called Luchet- 
to da Genova. Son 
and pupil of Giovan- 
ni Cambiaso ; be- 
came his father's as- 
sistant when fifteen 
years old, and was 
selected when seventeen to paint the ceiling 
of the great hall in the Palazzo Doria. His 
early works border on the gigantesque and 
suggest study of Michelangelo, but he modi- 
fied his style at a later period. He painted 
both in oil and in fresco, and such was his 
fruitfulness of invention and facility of exe- 
cution that he seldom made sketches for his 
works. His reputation reached foreign coun- 
tries, and in 1583 he was invited to Spain by 
Philip IL, who made him court painter and 
gave him a pension of 500 ducats. Cambia- 
so executed many works in the Escorial, the 
most celebrated being the Paradise or As- 
semblage of the Blessed, on the ceiling of 
the church of the Escorial, for which he was 
paid 12,000 ducats. Of his oil pictures the 
best are : Madonna and Saints, Duomo, 




Genoa ; St. Gottardo with Apostles and Do- 
nors, ib. ; Madonna and Saints, Palazzo Ador- 
no, Genoa ; Madonna and Child, Uffizi ; En- 
tombment, S. M di Casignano, Genoa ; two 
mythological pictures, Palazzo Borghese, 
Home ; double portrait of the painter and 
his father, Palazzo Spinola, Genoa ; Martyr- 
dom of St. George, S. Giorgio, ib.; Eape of 
Sabines, Palazzo Imperiale, Terralba, near 
Genoa. Luca had a son, Orazio, who aided 
him in the Escorial Philip n. continued 
r ^~ to employ 

/ f I* + f * him after 

^ ' ^~*Atnbl'& Jlf his father's 
death, but he returned to Genoa in the fol- 
lowing year. Soprani, 35, 51 ; Lanzi, iii. 
244; Seguier, 35; Burckhardt, 760; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole genoise. 

CAMBON, AEMAND, born at Montauban 
(Drome) ; contemporary. French school ; 
genre and portrait painter, pupil of Paul 
Delaroche and of Ingres. Medals : 2d class, 
1863; 3d class, 1873. Works : Morning and 
Evening of Life (1874) ; Echo and Narcissus 
(1875); Eoland fighting the Ork in Defence 
of Olympia (1876) ; Alcinia and Roger (1880); 
Spring Time of Life (1882). 

CAMBTSES AT PELUSIUM, Paul Le- 
noir, Charles Crocker, San Francisco. Illus- 
tration of the story narrated by Polysenus 
(vii. 9), that the Persian monarch captured 
Pelusium almost without resistance from 
the Egyptians, whose religious fears were 
aroused by their being assailed with sacred 
cats. Painted in 1867. Photogravure in 
Art Treasures of America. Art Treas. of 
Amer. iii. 43. 

CAMEELINGHI. See Madonna with the 
Camerlinghi. 

CAMILO, FEANCISCO, born in Madrid 
in 1635, died there in 1671. Spanish school; 
son of Domingo Camilo, a Florentine settled 
in Madrid, whose Spanish widow married 
Pedro de las Cuevas ; pupil of his stepfather; 
painted frescos in the palace of Buen Eetiro 
and religious subjects for the convents of 
Madrid, Toledo, Alcala, and other places. 
Best work, Communion of St. Mary of Egypt, 



234 



CAMLXADE 



church of the Capuchins, Alcala de Henares. 
Stirling, ii. 714 ; Viardot, 275. 

CAMINADE,ALEXANDRE FRANgOIS, 
born in Paris, Dec. 14, 1783, died there in May, 
18G2. History and genre painter, pupil of 
David and Murime'e. Medals : 2d class, 
1812 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 1833. 
Principal works: Flight into Egypt, Marriage 
of the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, St. 
Etieune du Mont ; The Levite of Ephraim, 
Entry of French into Antwerp, Versailles ; 
St. Theresa receiving the Last Sacrament, 
Notre Dame de Lorette. Larousse. 

CAMINO, GIUSEPPE, born in Turin, 
Oct. 29, 1819. Italian school ; landscape 
painter, self-taught, studying nature and 
after old masters ; lived for several years in 
Rome and other cities of Italy, visited Paris 
and London, and settled at Turin, where he 
became professor at the Academy in 1854. 
Works : Primeval Forest ; Storm in the 
Campagna ; Glacier of the Mont-Blanc ; 
Pictures in Museo Civico, Turin. Miiller, 
93. 

CAMPAGNOLA, DOMENICO, born in 
Padua about 1490 (?) died after 1564. Ve- 
netian school ; related to Giulio Campagnola, 
but not his son, as is generally said. First 
taught by Giulio, afterward pupil of Titian, 
and his assistant (1511), at Padua and Vi- 
cenza. Probably accompanied Titian to 
Venice, and lived there awhile. Most of his 
works, both in oil and fresco, are in Paduan 
churches. His frescos in the Scuola del 
Santo almost rival those of Titian in the 
same place. Four pictures of Prophets in 
Venice Academy ; David, Palazzo Manfrini ; 
St. Michael and Lucifer, S. Cristoforo e 
Michele, Venice. Had a brother, Francesco, 
also a painter. Domenico was also a fine 
engraver. Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 385, 639 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; C. & C., Titian, 
i. 127, 132, 140 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), 
xvii. 456, 536 ; Lanzi, ii. 94 ; Bartsch, xiii. 
377. 

CAMPAGNOLA, GrULIO, born in Padua 
about 1480 (?), died after 1513. Lombard 
school ; son and pupil of Girolamo Campa- 



111 



gnola, a noted scholar who had studied paint- 
ing under Squarcione ; painted miniatures 
and several altar-pieces, but best known as 
an engraver. Invited in 1498 to court of 
Hercules L, Duke of Ferrara. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 385, 639; Lanzi, ii. 177; Ch. 

! Blanc, Ecole vunitienne ; Gaz. des R Arts 
(1862), xiii. 332 ; Bartsch, xiii. 368. 

CAMPANA, PED11O, born in Brussels in 
1503, died there in 1580. Spanish school ; 
real name said to liave been Pieter Van de 
Velde. After spending many years in study 
in Bologna and Rome, went about 1547 to 
Seville, where with Louis de Vargas and 
Torregiano he opened an academy, and 
painted for the church of Santa Cruz his 
famous Descent from the Cross (1548), now 
in the Cathedral, which was a favourite 
study of Murillo. Other works in Seville 
churches. Stirling, L 123 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole ; Cean Bermudez. 

CAMPHAUSEN, WILHELM, born 
Dilsseldorf, Feb. 
8, 1818, died 
there, June 18, 
1885. History 
and genre paint- 
er, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy 
under Rethel, 
Sohn, and Schad- 

. ow ; one of the 

j foremost painters 
of battles and 
military life. In 1843-45 he visited Hol- 
land, Belgium, Switzerland, and North 
Italy, made a long tour through Germany, 
and then painted in Diisseldorf mostly 
subjects from the Thirty Years' War and 
the time of Cromwell In 1864, 186G, 
and 1870-71 he accompanied the German 
armies to the field. Since 1859 professor at 
Dflsseldorf Academy ; member of the Ber- 
lin and Vienna Academies ; Prussian gold 
medal for Art ; medals in Berlin and Vienna 
(1873). Works: Tilly's Flight from Breit- 
enfeld (1841); Morgenroth (1842); Wound- 
ed carried from Battlefield (1838), Prince 




23.1 



CAMPHUYSEN 



Eugene at Belgrade (1843), Cologne Mu- 
seum ; Godfrey de Bouillon at Ascalon 
(1845) ; Puritans watching the Enemy 
(1846), National Gallery, Berlin ; Storming 
of English Castle by Cromwellians ; Flight 
of Charles II. after Battle of Worcester 
(1849); Charles I. at Naseby (1851); Puritans 
on Morning Watch (1852), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Captive English Family escorted by 
Puritans, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Eques- 
trian Portraits of Frederic the Great, of 
Seydlitz at Rossbach, of Ziethen, of Keith at 
Hochkirch, of Schwerin at Prague, of Des- 
sauer ; Frederic IT. and Regiment Ansbach- 
Bayreuth at Hohenfriedberg ; Frederic at 
the Parade in Potsdam, Royal Palace, Ber- 
lin ; BlUcher taken Prisoner as Swedish En- 
sign, Prussian Grenadiers after Battle of 
Leuthen, Blucher crossing the Rhine at 
Kaub, Breslau Museum ; Blucher meeting 
Wellington at Belle-Alliance, Konigsberg 
Museum ; Equestrian Portraits of Blucher 
and Gneisenau, Magdeburg Museum ; Dup- 
pel after the Storming (1857), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Fight inside Diippel Earthwork 
tt, Crossing to Alsen (18G6), Bremen Gal- 
lery ; Ordnance Ride (I860) ; Capture of 
Austrian Standard at Nachod (1868) ; Meet- 
ing of Prince Fred. Charles and Crown 
Prince at Chlum (1868); King William deco- 
rating the Crown Prince with an Order 
(1868); Napoleon at Sedan ; Meeting between 
Bismarck and Napoleon ; Entry of Emperor 
William into Berlin ; Great Elector before 
Battle of Fehrbellin ; Storming of Konigin- 
hof ; Cavalry Skirmish at Waterloo ; Em- 
peror William on Horseback with Roon, 
Bismarck and Moltke (1872), Cologne Muse- 
um ; Emperor William with Moltke (1873);' 
Frederic William I. with Dessauer (1879); 
Homage of the Silesian Estates at Breslau 
(1882), Arsenal, Berlin. Brockhaus, iii. 883 ; 
Dlustr. Zeitg. (1880), ii. 389 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xx. 649 ; N. Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), n. 671 ; 
Bruno Meyer, Studien u. Kritiken, 1 ; Rie- 
gel, Kunststudien, 397. 

CAMPHUYSEN, DIRK RAFAELSZ, 
born at Gorkum in 1586, died at Dokkum, 



in 1626. Dutch school ; painted landscapes 
with figures and animals, and interiors of 
peasant houses. In sunsets and snow effects 
he was particularly successful. In 1604 he 
gave up art to study theology. Works : 
Twomoonlight landscapes, Dresden Gallery. 
L'Art (1877), i. 37 

CAMPHUYSEN, GOVERT, born at Gor- 
kum in 1624, died in Amsterdam in 1674. 
Dutch school ; son of Dirk ; animal painter 
of vivid conception and great truthfulness 
in his boldly drawn pieces, remarkable for 
details. Made citizen of Amsterdam, March 
16, 1650. His pictures are scarce and some 
of them are probably attributed to Paul 
Potter. Works : Farm Interior (1650), 
Brussels Museum ; Halt of Peasants at an 
Inn, Rotterdam Museum ; Inn with Shep- 
herds and Peasants, Rocky Landscape with 



J 

do., Cassel Gallery ; Rustic Interior, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Farm Interiors (2), Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg. L'Art (1877), i. 37, 
63. 

CAMPHUYSEN, RAFAEL, born about 
1598, died in 1691. Dutch school ; brother 
of Dirk ; painted moonlight landscapes and 
shepherd pieces. May have been a pupil 
of Paul Potter, but his moonlights are in 
the manner of Van der Neer. Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 440. 

CAMPI, ANTONIO, Cavaliere, born in 
Cremona early part of 16th century, died 
about 1591. Lombard school ; son of Ga- 
leazzo, and brother and pupil of Giulio 
Campi. Painted in the Duomo and in S. 
Sigismondo, Cremona, and in S. Paolo, S. 
Celso, S. Barnaba, and S. Maurizio Mag- 



AN. 



giore, Milan. He sought to imitate Correg- 
gio. Was also architect, sculptor, engraver, 
and author of Cronaca di Cremona (Cremo- 
na, 1585). Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496; Lanzi, 



230 



CAMPI 



ii. 435 ; Ch. Blanc, l5cole lombarde ; Burck- 
hardt, 738 ; Rio, iii. 359. 

CAMPI, BERNARDINO, born in Cre- 
mona in 1522, died there about 1590. Lom- 
bard school ; son of Pietro Campi, a gold- 



decorated with his pictures. He painted 
also St. Jerome in the Cathedral, Mantua ; 
Pentecost (1546), S. Sigismoudo, Cremona; 
Christ before Pilate, Cathedral of Cremona; 
Crucifixion, S. M. della Passione, Milan ; 



smith, of the same family as Galeazzo ; ! and Conversion, Baptism, Miracles, and 
pupil of Giulio Campi, and of Ippolito Costa Death of St. Paul, S. Paolo, Milan ; Ma- 



at Mantua, where he studied the works of i donna with Saints (1527), high altar, S. 



Giulio Romano, as also afterwards those of 
Correggio in Parma, Modena, and Reggio. 
After successfully imitating the manner of 
these painters, ho formed a vigorous and 
brilliant style of his own. He painted 
many excellent portraits. Became among 
the Campi what Annibale Carracci was in 
his family, and received commissions from 
all the neighbouring citiea His most im- 
portant works are in S. Sigismondo, Cre- 
mona, where he painted (1570-71) in the 
great cupola many figures from the Bible, 
representing the concourse of the blessed. 
His many works are described by his biog- 
rapher Alessandro Lamo. Lanzi, ii. 437; 
Ch. Blanc, cole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 
738 ; Kugler (Eastlake), 495. 
CAMPI, GALEAZZO, of Cremona, born 



Abbondio, Cremona ; (Frescos 1547), S. Mar- 
gherita, Cremona, Castelbarco Gallery, Mi- 
lan, picture dated 1530. Lanzi, ii. 432 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
lombarde ; Burckhardt, 738 ; Rio, iii. 380. 

CAMPI, VDJCENZO, born in Cremona 
before 1532, died Oci 3, 1591. Lombard 
school ; youngest son of Galeazzo, and 
brother and pupil of Giulio Campi. Good 
painter of portraits and of still life. Aided 
his brothers, in S. Paolo, Milan, and in 
other churches. Pictures in the Brera, 
Milan ; Descent from Cross, Cathedral of 
Cremona. Vasari, ed. MiL, vi. 496 ; Lauzi, 
ii. 436 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole lombarde. 

CAMPUZANO, Don TOMAS; contempo- 
rary. Landscape painter ; Medal, Madrid, 
1883. Works : In the Bay (1881); Beach 



in 1477, died in 1536. Lombard school ; of Vivero (1883); The Tajo at Lisbon ; The 
style formed on that of Boccaccino. His Tajo at Belem (1884). La Ilustracion 
Raising of Lazarus (1515), now in Casal i (1881), i. 419 ; ii. 65 ; (1883), i. 123; (1884), 
Maggiore, is quaintly treated with senti- ' ii. 219. 

mental realism. Other pictures of his are CAMUCCINLVINCENZO.Cavaliere.born 
the St. Christopher (1516), in S. Sigismondo in Rome in 1773-75, died there, Sepi 2. 
and the Madonna in S. Sebastiano, Cremo- j 1844. Italian school ; history and portrait 
na ; Portrait of the Artist, Uffizi, Florence, painter ; pupil of his brother Pietro, a pict- 
Galeazzo was the father of Giulio, Antonio, ure restorer, and of Bombelli the engraver, 
and Vincenzo Campi. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. but formed himself chiefly by copying the 
447 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 496 ; Ch. Blanc, old masters. Stimulated by the arrival of 
Ecole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 738 ; Rio, iii. David at Rome, he painted, in the classic 
377. j manner, a series of pictures illustrative of 

CAMPI, GIULIO, born in Cremona about Roman history, as well as many religious 
1500, died there in 1572. Lombard school ; ' subjects, which won him reputation. He 
son and pupil of Galeazzo Campi, afterwards was also eminent as a portrait painter, 
pupil of Giulio Romano at Mantua, and among his sitters being Pius VIL, the King 
later studied Raphael and the antique at ' and Queen of Naples, Countess Schouvaloff, 
Borne. Became the founder of the eclectic Countess de Diedrichstein, Due de Blacas, 
school of painting at Cremona Distin- and other notable persons. He was inspec- 
guished both as a painter and an architect tor-general of the pontifical museums, and of 
S. Margherita, Cremona, is almost wholly the factory of mosaics, and of the Neapoli- 

S37 



CANALE 




tan Academy of Rome, member of the 
French Institute, and president of the 
Academy of St. Luke. Pius VII. gave him 
the title of baron, and Francis L the Order 
of the Iron Crown. Works : Horatio Co- 
des, Romulus and Remus, Count de Schiiu- 
born; Death of Ccesar, Death of Virginia, 
Continence of Scipio, Palazzo Reale, Naples ; 
Departure of Regulus for Carthage ; Incre- 
dulity of St. Thomas (mosaic in St. Peter's) ; 
Presentation in Temple, S. Giovanni, Pia- 
cenza ; Death of the Magdalen, Entomb- 
ment (painted for Charles IV. of Spain); 
Mission of Benedictine Monks to England 
(1833) ; Conversion of St. Paul (1834), SS. 
Apostoli, Rome. Ottley. 

CANALE, ANTONIO. See Canaletto. 
CANALETTO, IL, born in Venice, Oct. 
18, 1697, died 
there, April 20, 
1768. Venetian 
school. Real 
name Antonio 
Canal or Canale; 
in Italy also 
called n Tonino. 
Son of Rinaldo 
Canale, painter 
of theatrical 
scenery ; followed same business for several 
years, and thus acquired great readiness of 
hand and fertility of invention. About 1719 
he went to Rome, where he occupied himself 
in studying the antique, and painted many 
views of its architectural remains. On his 
return to Venice he devoted himself to 
painting picturesque views of that city in 
all its aspects its canals, bridges, pubKc 
places, palaces, and churches, and carnival 
and festival scenes full of figures. He vis- 
ited England twice, and painted many suc- 
cessful pictures there, examples of which 
are to be seen at Windsor Castle. The gal- 
lery contains some of his finest pictures, 
views in Rome and Venice. He executed a 
great number of works, and there are few 
large collections without examples by him ; 
but many pictures which pass under his 



name are by his pupils, Bellotto and Guar- 
di. Ch. Blanc says Canaletto is unexcelled 
in painting architecture, in aerial perspec- 
tive, and in rendering slightly ruffled water. 
His drawing is always precise and accurate, 
and his colouring is wonderfully beautiful. 
But Ruskin avers that he is "less to be 
trusted for renderings of details than the 
rudest and most ignorant painter of the 
thirteenth century." His figures are not 
always good, and in some of his pictures 
they were put in by Tiepolo. Among his 
most noted works are the Church of S. M. 
della Salute in Venice, Louvre ; and the Re- 
ception of Count Gergi, and the Marriage 
of the Doge with the Adriatic, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Other excellent examples 
are: View of Ducal Palace, and View in 
Venice, Uffizi, Florence ; View of Venice, 
Turin Gallery ; do., Academia Carrara, 
Bergamo ; Views in Venice (4), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do. (4), Munich Gallery ; View in 
Venice, View on Grand Canal, Piazzetta of 
S. Mark, Scuola di S. Rocco, Ducal Palace, 
View of Eton College, Landscape with 
Ruins, Regatta on Grand Canal, Grimani 
Palace, and others, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; and Seaport, Galleria Estense, Mo- 
dena Ch. Blanc, ]cole venitienne ; Dohme, 
2iii.; Seguier, 36; Burckhardt, 805. 

CANDAULES, KING, Jean Leon Gerome, 
Paris. Candaules, King of Lydia, proud of 
his wife's beauty, exhibited her unveiled 
charms to Gyges, a favourite officer. The 
Queen, having caught sight of Gyges as he 
was stealing from his place of concealment 
in her chamber, gave him the alternative of 
murdering Candaules and receiving her and 
the kingdom, or of suffering death himself. 
He chose the former alternative, and became 
the founder of the dynasty of the Mermna- 
da3. (Herod., i. 7 ; Just, i. 7). Engraved 
by A. Francois. 

CANELLA, GIUSEPPE, born in Verona 
in 1788, died in Florence in 1847. Archi- 
tecture and landscape painter ; sketched in 
France, Germany, and Switzerland. Among 
his best works are : Views of Paris and the 



CANLASSI 




Boulevards ; Cathedral of Milan ; Sta. Croce 
in Florence ; Haven of Honfleur. Wurz- 
bach, ii. 249. 

CANLASSI. See Caynacci. 

CANO, ALONSO, born in Granada, March 
19, 1601, died there, 
Oct. 3, 1667. Span- 
ish school. After 
his father, Miguel, 
removed to Seville, 
Alonso, by the ad- 
vice of Juan del 
Castillo, studied 
sculpture under 
Montanes and paint- 
ing under Pacheco ; was painter, sculptor, 
and architect, whence sometimes called the 
Spanish Michelangelo. Noted for the man- 
ufacture of retablos or monumental altar- 
pieces, of which all parts the wood-carv- 
ings and statues as well as the paintings 
were executed by himself. In 1637 he fled 
from Seville, in consequence of a duel with 
the painter Llano y Vald6s, and went to 
Madrid, where, through the favour of Velas- 
quez, his fellow-pupil under Pacheco, he 
obtained the protection of the Duke de 
Olivares and became painter to the king. In 
1644 he was suspected of the murder of his 
wife, but on being put to the torture was de- 
clared innocent, though the suspicious against 
him were strong. In 1652 PhilipIV. appointed 
him a canon in the cathedral at Granada, 
where he passed his last days in practising 
his art and in charitable deeds. Works : 
St. John Evangelist writing the Apocalypse, 
St. Benedict the Abbot, St. Jerome, Madonna 
in Adoration, Flagellation of Christ, Dead 
Christ and Angel, Gothic King on his Throne, 
and Two Gothic Kings, Madrid Museum ; 
Crucifixion, Academy S. Fernando, Madrid ; 
Madonna, Seville Cathe- 
dral (replica in Herrni- 
tage); Souls in Purgatory, 
Seville Museum; St. Agnes, 
Berlin Museum ; St. Paul, Dresden Gallery; 
Madonna and St. Anthony, Munich Gallery; 
Dominican painting Portrait of St. Dominic ; 





Madonna and Child ; Child Jesus and little 
St. John ; Portrait of himself and of a 
Knight of the Order of the Golden Spur, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Cean Bermu- 
dez; Stirling, ii. 779; Viardot, 65; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Madrazo, 359. 

CANON, HANS (Johann von Straschi- 
ripka), born in 
Vienna, March 
13, 1829, died 
there, Sept. 12, 
1885. Genre, 
history and por- 
trait painter; pu- 
!pil of Waldniiil- 
ler, then in 1848- 
55 cavalry officer 
in the Austrian 

army ; after that devoted himself entirely to 
art ; greatly influenced by Kahl. Travelled 
extensively in the East, France, and England, 
lived in 1860-69 in Carlsruhe, then in Stutt- 
gart, and finally settled in Vienna, where he 
became professor at the Academy. Imitated 
the Venetian masters, especially Tintoretto 
and Titian ; one of the best portrait painters 
of his time. Works : Fishermaiden (1858) ; 
Modern Judith (1860) ; Cromwell beside 
the Body of Charles I., Lodge of St. John 
(1873), Vienna Museum ; Circuit of Life, 
Museum of Natural History, Vienna ; Hans 
Sachs ; Modern Diogenes ; The Page ; Fruit 
Girl ; Treasure Digger ; Lute Player ; Bac- 
chus Intoxicated ; Bayadere ; Butcher's 
Shop ; Girl with Stereoscope ; Flamingo 
Chase ; Dealer in Arms ; St. Benedict, Pope 
Leo the Great, Cassiodorus, Boethius, Male 
and Female Portrait (1883). Brockhaus, 
iii. 912 ; Wurzbach, xxxix. 253 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xx. 734. 

CANTAKINI, SDIONE, born at Oropez- 
za near Pesaro in 1612, died at Verona, Oct. 
15, 1648. Bolognese school ; called also II 
Pesarese and Simone da Pesaro. Pupil of 
Giacomo Pandolfi, with whom he went to 
Venice ; studied next with Claudio Ridolfi, 
and afterwards with Guido; exhibited great 
talent, but grew so vain and arrogant that 



CANTERBURY 



lie was forced to leave Bologna. After 
studying the works of the great masters in 
Home he returned to Bologna and opened a 
school in opposition to Guido. Humiliated 
at his want of success in painting a portrait 
of the Duke of Mantua, he went to Verona, 
and died there, some say of poison. Baldi- 
nucci calls him another Guido, but though 
he copied Guido with great success, he had 
little originality. He was an able engraver. 
Works : Repose in Egypt (2), Louvre ; Mir- 
acle of St. Peter, S. Pietro, Fano ; Assump- 
tion, Bologna Gallery ; Holy Family, Trans- 
figuration, Brera, Milan; Holy Family, 
Madrid Museum ; Joseph and Potiphar's 
Wife, Dresden Gallery ; Holy Family, Re- 
pose in Egypt, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
Malvasia, ii. 373 ; Lanzi, iii. 103 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole bolonaise ; Seguier, 37. 

CANTERBURY PILGRIMS, Thomas 
Slothard, National Gallery, London ; wood, 
H. 1 f t in. x 3 ft. in. A cavalcade of 
numerous figures, all on horseback and rid- 
ing from right to left, illustrating the per- 
sons described in the prologue to Chaucer's 
" Canterbury Tales." Purchased at Leigh 
Court sale (1884). Engraved by the broth- 
ers Schiavonetti and James Heath, 1817. 

CAPANNA, PUCCIO, middle of 14th 
century. Florentine school; disciple of 
Giotto, according to Vasari, who says he 
was a good painter ; but the works assigned 
to him differ much in style, and are all in- 
ferior. Puccio was admitted to the Floren- 
tine painters' guild in 1350. Among the 
works ascribed to him are frescos in S. 
Francisco, Assisi, S. Maria Novella and S. 
Trinita, Florence, and in the Hall of the 
Capitolo, S. Francesco al Prato, Pistoja, and 
pictures in S. M. Novella and S. Triuita, 
Florence. C. & C., Italy, i. 376 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., i. 394 ; Baldinucci, i. 234. 

CAPDEVIELLE, LOUIS, born at Lour- 
des (Hautes-Pyrenees) ; contemporary. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of A. Millet, 
Bonnat, and Cabanel. Medal, 3d class, 
1882. Works : Knife Grinder, First Prize 
(1876); Pork Scalder (1877); Portraits 



(1878, 1879); Workshop of Seamstresses 
(1880) ; Wedding at Laruns, End of Nana 
(1882) ; Land-slip in a Quarry, Study of 
Nude Woman (1884); Gratuitous and oblig- 
atory Instruction, A Model (1885). 

CAPELLE, JAN VAN DER, born in Am- 
sterdam, the freedom of which city he re- 
ceived in 1653. Dutch school ; marine 
painter, pupil of Albert Cuyp. Painted 
| quiet seas under warm and bright skies. 
Works : River with Ships, Amsterdam Mu- 
: seum ; Fishing Boats, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Mouth of the Scheldt with numerous vessels, 
Aremberg Gallery, Brussels ; Marine, Berlin 
Museum ; Strand with Ships, Vienna Muse- 
it um ; Calm at Low Water, 
C(tj9*il National Gallery, Lon- 
/ don ; pictures in the col- 

lections of Messrs. Munro, Baring, and of 
the Duke of Bedford and Lord Overstone. 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 501 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
hollandaise. 

CAPORALI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 
bom in Perugia about 1476, died there 
about 1560. Umbrian school ; son of Bar- 
tolommeo Caporali, an inferior painter of 
Perugia (1472-1521); commonly called Bitte 
or Bitti, an abbreviation of Battista ; errone- 
ously called Benedetto by Vasari. Brought 
up by his father, but went about 1507-8 to 
Rome, where he became acquainted with 
Perugino, Pinturicchio, Bramante, and Sig- 
norelli, and learned to imitate them. On 
his return to Perugia in 1519 he was made 
a decemvir. He was also an architect, and 
built and decorated with frescos the Villa 
Passerini near Cortona. A fresco in S. 
Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome ; Virgin and 
Saints (1492), S. Girolamo, Citta di Castello ; 
Nativity, Duomo, Panicale, and at S. Salva- 
tore, in neighbourhood, are attributed to this 
painter. C. & C., Italy, iii. 360 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 597. 

CAPPONI, RAFFAELLINO. See Garbo. 

CAPPUCCINO, IL. See Strozzi, Ber- 
nardo. 

CARACCIOLO, GIAMBATTISTA, born 
in Naples about 1580, died there in 1641. 



CARAUD 



Neapolitan school ; of good family and edu- 
cation ; pupil of Francesco Imparato, and 
later of Caravaggio when that painter was 
in Naples, about 1606. Roused by the fame 
of Annibale Carracci, he went to Rome, and 
by diligent study of his works in the Pa- 
lazzo Farnese, became a correct designer in 
that painter's style, still preserving the 
strong contrasts of light and shade that he 
had learned from Caravaggio. Some of his 
pictures are in churches in Naples. He be- 
longed to the infamous Neapolitan Cabal of 
which Spaynoletto was the head. Lauzi, ii. 
34 ; Ch. Blanc, f'cole napolitaine. 

CARAUD, JOSEPH, born at Cluny, 
(Sa6ne-et-Loire), Jan. 5, 1821. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Abel do Pujol and Charles Louis 
Miiller. Some of his pictures have been 
engraved. Medals : 3d class, 1859 ; 2d 
class, 18G1 and 1863 ; L. of Honour, 1867. 
Works: Oracle of the Fields (1847); The 
Awakening, Dark and Fair (1849); Dancing 
Lesson, Interrupted Breakfast, A Kitchen ! 
(1855); Marie Antoinette in the Little Tri- 
anon, Abbu Pruvost reading Manon Lescaut 
at an Actress's (1857); Athalie played at 
Saint-Cyr before Louis XIV., Louis XV. 
and Mine. Dubarry (1859); Mile, de la Val- 
liere taking the Veil, The Sedan Chair 
(1861); The Great Conde's Return after the 
Battle of Senef, Signing the Contract, The 
First- Born (1863); Louis XVL making 
Locks (1865); Blessing the Bread, The Alert 
(1867); Scenes from Marriage of Figaro 
(1868); Marie Antoinette and Madame 
Roy ale at Versailles (1870); Soubrette Walk- 
ing, Girl holding a Cut (1872) ; Breakfast 
(1873) ; Parroquet (1874) ; Pointed Finger 
(1875); Little Farmer (1876); Spring-Time, 
Pleased Abbe (1877) ; Louis XV. and Mme. 
Dubarry at the Little Trianon, Coffee Mill 
(1878) ; Pouting, Flower-Girl (1879) ; Sou- 
brette Asleep, Two Friends (1880) ; Magpie, 
Gardener (1882); Parroquet, A Letter (1883); 
Fisher-maiden (1884) ; Spinner, Petit De- 
jeuner (1885). 

CARAVAGGIO, MICHELANGELO DA, 
born at Caravaggio in 1569, died at Porto 




Ercole in 1609. Roman school. Real name 
Michelangelo Ainerighi or Merighi ; son of a 
mason ; em- 
ployed in Milan 
to mix plaster 
for fresco paint- 
ers, and learned 
to paint by 
watching them. 
Went to Venice 
and studied 
works of Gior- 
gione; thence to 
Rome, where he aided Cesare d'Arpino in 
painting ornamental parts of his pictures. 
The novelty of his style, an energetic but 
coarse rendering of nature, without selec- 
tion and without taste, soon attracted 
notice, and his works won such public ad- 
miration that other artists were led to imi- 
tate his powerful though corrupt manner. 
After painting many important pictures in 
Rome, he fled to Naples to escape justice for 
the homicide of a companion, committed in 
a moment of anger. After various wander- 
ings he received the Pope's pardon for this 
crime, and was on his way from Naples to 
Rome by sea when he died at Porto Ercole. 
Among his best works are: Etombment,Vai- 
ican ; Gamesters, Palazzo Sciarra, Rome ; Ju- 
dith and Holofernes, Naples Museum ; Chess 
Players, Venice Academy; Ciq>i<l Asleep, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence; Christ among the Doc- 
tors, Christ and the Tribute Money, Head of 
Medusa, Uffizi, Florence ; Fortune Teller, 
Capitol Gallery, Rome ; Lute Player, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Fortune Teller, A 
Concert, Death of the Virgin, Portrait of 
Grand Master of Malta, Louvre ; Two Men 
Drinking, Modena Gallery ; St. Sebastian, 
Brera, Milan ; St. Matthew and Angel, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Fortune Teller, Gamesters, 
Dresden Gallery ; Lute Player, Christ 
crowned with Thorns, Martyrdom of St. 
Peter, Martyrdom of Si Sebastian, Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg ; Supper at Emmaus, 
National Gallery, London. Ch. Blanc, 
ficole ombrienne ; Seguier, 3 ; Wornum, 



CARAVAGGIO 




Epochs, etc., 332 ; Burckhardt, 767; Dohme, 

CARAVAGGIO, POLIDORO DA, born at 

Caravaggio about 
1490 (?), died in 
Messina in 1543. 
Umbrian school. 
Real name Polidoro 
, Caldara ; while em- 
\\ ployed as a mason 
r i\ in the Vatican when 
- J jA ^ Raphael and his pu- 
/ pils were painting, 
he acquired a taste 
for art, and induced Matmino, a Florentine 
artist, to instruct him. He soon exhibited 
such aptitude that Maturiuo took him into 
partnership, and they executed conjointly 
many works in black and white, now known 
only by engravings. When Rome was sacked 
(1527), Caravaggio went to Naples,and after- 
ward to Messina, where he acquired fame 
and wealth. When about to return to Rome, 
he was murdered for his money. In his 
earlier works Polidoro shows his training in 
the school of Raphael : e. fj. Frieze of the 
History of Niobe on facade of a house in the 
Via della Maschera d'Oro, No. 7, at Rome. 
Later he became an out and out naturalist, 
as in the Christ bearing the Cross, Naples 
Museum. Among his works are : Psyche, 
received into Olympus, Louvre ; Passage of 
the Red Sea, Brera, Milan ; St. Luke, Berlin 
Museum ; Pieta, Turin Gallery; 
Meleager, Capitol Museum, 
Rome ; Cephalus and Procris, 
Vienna Museum. Vasari, ed. 
Mil., v. 141 ; Tassi, Pittura Ber- 
gamaschi (Bergamo, 1708), 76 ; 
Burckhardt, 186 ; Wornum, Epochs, etc., 
235 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole ombrienne ; Dohme, 
2iii. ; Lilbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 375. 

CARBAJAL, LUIS DE, born in Toledo 
in 1534, died after 1613. Spanish school ; 
pupil of Juan de Villoldo, removed early to 
Madrid, and became, in 1556, painter to 
Philip H. Painted in 1570-82 seven altar- 
pieces for the Escorial, and a Magdalen 




(1570), now in the Madrid Museum. In 
1591 he painted, with Bias del Prado, some 
pictures for the Church of the Minorites, 
Toledo ; Portrait of the Archbishop D. Bar- 
tolome Carrauza in the capitular hall of the 
Cathedral at Toledo ; Circumcision, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg. Stirling, i. 261 ; Ma- 
drazo, 365. 

CARBONE, GIOVANNI BERNARDO, 
born in Albaro, near Genoa, in 1614, died in 
1683. Genoese school ; pupil of Gio. Andrea 
de' Ferrari ; studied composition in Venice. 
Painted historical subjects, but chiefly noted 
for his portraits, in which he imitated Van 
Dyck. Works : St. Louis adoring the Cross, 
FAnnunziata, Genoa ; Madonna and Saints, 
Palazzo Pallavicini, Genoa. Lanzi, iii. 267; 
Ch. Blanc, cole genoise; Burckhardt, 779. 

CARCASSONNE, DELIVERANCE AT, 
Jean Paul Laurem, Luxembourg Museum ; 
canvas, H. 14 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. In August, 
1303, the inhabitants of Carcassone and of 
Albi, under the lead of the reformer of Lan- 
guedoc, Jean de Picquigny, released many 
prisoners from the dungeons of the Inquisi- 
tion. Men are engaged in removing the 
stones from the entrance, over which is seen 
the Papal arms, while the reformer is preach- 
ing to people at left. Salon, 1879. 

CARDENAS, BARTOLOME DE, born 
in Portugal in 1547, died in Madrid in 1G06. 
Spanish school ; pupil in Madrid of Alonso 
Sanchez Coello ; painted frescos in the clois- 
ters of Convent of Atocha, Madrid ; in 1601 
went to Valladolid, at invitation of Duke of 
Lerma, for whom he painted altarpieces in 
the church and several religious works in 
the cloisters and chapels of the convent of 
S. Pablo. Some of his pictures are in the 
Museum at Valladolid. His son Juan (flour- 
ished 1620), was a painter of fruits and flow- 
ers. Stirling, i. 432. 

CARDI, LUDOVICO. See Cigoli. 

CARDUCCI (Carducho), BARTOLOM- 

MEO.born in Florence in 1560, died in Madrid 

Jin 1608. Florentine school; pupil of Federigo 

Zucchero, with whom he went, in 1585, to 

Spain, and was engaged as painter, sculptor, 



842 



CARDUCHO 



and architect under Philip IL and Philip 
HI. Painted frescos in the library of the 
Escorial, and several altarpieces, as well as a 
Descent from the Cross, in S. Felipe el Real ; 
also began, in the Pardo, frescos which were 
finished by his brother Vincenzio. Works : 
Descent from the Cross, St. Sebastian, Last 
Supper, Madrid Museum. Stirling, i. 212; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Viardot, 256. 

CARDUCHO, VINCENZO, born in Flor- 
ence in 1578 (?), died in Madrid in 1638. 
Spanish school ; went to Spain in 1585, with 
his elder brother, Bartolommeo, who in- 
structed him in painting. Succeeded his 
brother as painter to Philip III., and finished 
the frescos begun by him in the Pardo. 
Was also painter to Philip IV. In 1626-32 
he painted fifty-four pictures for the Car- 
thusians of El Paular ; twenty-seven repre- 
senting the life of St Bruno, and twenty- 
seven representing the Martyrdoms and 
miracles of the Monks of the Order. These 
are all in the Madrid Museum. He painted 
also historical pictures and portraits, 120 of 
which are mentioned by Cean Bermudez as 
in public edifices in Spain, and wrote the 
Dialogos de las Excelencias de la Pintura, 
the best work on painting in the Castilian 
tongue (Madrid, 1633). Works : Battle of 
Fleurus, Relief of Constance, Capture of 
Rheinfeld (three scenes in Thirty Years' 
War), Birth of the Virgin, Visitation, Pres- 
entation of 
Jesus, As- 
sumption, 



1508. He imitated the great Venetian mas- 
ters so closely that his works are often con- 
founded with theirs, and appear under the 
names of Giorgioue, Palma, and Pordenone. 
There are but two dated canvases among 
the many works ascribed to him, a group in 
the Roucalli collection (1519), and a Madon- 
na in the Casa Baglioni, Bergamo (1520). 
Other examples are in the Lochis-Carrara 
Gallery, Bergamo ; the Brera, Milan ; and 
the Dresden Museum. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
546 ; Tassi, Pittori Bergamaschi, i. 33 ; 
Burckhardt, 737 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 625. 
CARLONI, GIAMBATTISTA, born in 

i Genoa about 1594, died there in 1680. 
Genoese school ; son and pupil of Taddeo 

j Carloni, painter, sculptor, and architect 
(died 1613) ; studied in Florence under Pas- 
signauo and in Rome ; associate of his 
brother Giovanni, and aided him in most 
of his works, especially in the Gesft and in 
the Anuunziata del Guastato, Genoa ; also 
finished his frescos in S. Antonio Abate, 
Milan. Painted frescos at S. Siro, Genoa, 
and painted much in private palacea. Had 
by his wife Niccoletta Scorza twenty-four 



onu 




1670 



VINCENT* 



/ C ^O 



drid Muse- 

urn ; Infant 

Christ and Christ and Angels, with SS. Gon- 

zalo, Francis, and Bernardino (1630), Dres- 

den Gallery. Stirling, i. 417 ; Ch. Blanc, 

Ecole espagnole ; Viardot, 258 ; Madrazo, 

366. 

CARIANI, GIOVANNI BUSI, of Ber- 
gamo, born at Fuipiano about 1480 (?), liv- 
ing in 1541. Venetian school. The earliest 
record in regard to him is a contract of 



children, of whom Andrea or Giovanandrea 
(born 1639, died 1697) and Niccold were 
painters. Lanzi, iii. 263, 278 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole gunoise ; Burckhardt, 799. 

CARLONI, GIOVANNI, born in Genoa 
in 1591, died in Milan in 1630. Genoese 
school ; son and pupil of Taddeo Carloni, 

I and scholar of Pietro Sorri ; finally studied 
in Rome and Florence, where he learned 
fresco under Passignano. Became an able 

I fresco painter ; works in del Gesii, 1'Annuu- 
ziata del Guastato, and S. Domenico, Genoa. 
Was painting the ceilings of S. Antonio 
Abate, Milan, when he died. Lauzi, iii. 
263 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole genoise. 



-i 



CAKLOS 



CAELOS, DON, brother of Philip IV., 
portrait, Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. About twenty 
years old, full-length, standing, black dress. 
Painted about 1627, first manner. Etched 
by J. J. Martinez de Espinosa ; Guerard. 
Curtis, 60 ; Madrazo, 614. 

CAKLSEN, EMCL, born iu Denmark in 
1848. Went to America in 1872, and stud- 
ied in Boston, where he has since lived. 
Works : Still Life (T. B. Clarke, New York.) 

CABLUCCIO DELLE MADONNE. See 
Maratti, Carlo. 

CAEMANIDES. See Charmantides. 

CARMIENCKE, HEKMANN, born in 
Hamburg, Sept. 2, 1810, died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., June 15, 1867. Landscape painter 
and engraver ; pupil of Dahl in Dresden, 
and from 1834 at the Copenhagen Academy. 
In 1837 was again in Dresden and Leipsic ; 
returned to Copenhagen in 1838, visited 
Sweden in 1841, Munich and Tyrol in 1842, 
and Italy in 1845-1846. Was court painter 
to Christian Vin., until after the German- 
Danish war of 1848. Emigrated to New 
York in 1851 and became one of the found- 
ers of the Brooklyn Academy. Works : 
Lake among High Mountains, Ziller Valley 
in Tyrol. Audresen, iv. 46. 

CAENOVALE, FEA, flourished about 
1456. Umbrian school ; real name Bartol- 
ommeo di Giovanni di Bartolo Corradini ; 
entered the Dominican Order, and in 1461- 
88 was curate of S. Cassiano of Cavallino, 
near Urbino. A Madonna with Saints and 
Angels, in the Brera, Milan, is attributed to 
him. It is in the style of Piero della Fran- 
cesca, and if it be the work of Fra Carno- 
vale, he was probably a pupil of that master. 
Vasari makes Fra Carnovale the master of 
Bramante. Other works : St. Michael and 
the Dragon, National Gallery, London ; 
Madonna and Angels, S. M. delle Grazie, 
Sinigaglia. C. & C., Italy, ii. 553 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 147. 

CABOLUS, LTJDOVICUS ANTONIUS, 
born in Antwerp, Dec. 25, 1814. Genre 
painter; pupil of Eeckhout and of F. de 




Braekeleer, and in Paris (1831-34), under 
E. le Poitevin ; settled in 1836 in Antwerp, 
where he acquired reputation. Works: 
Presentation, Music, Visit at the Studio. 
Nagler, Mon., iv. 325. 

CAEOLUS -DUEAN (CHAELES AU- 
GUSTE EMILE 
DU EAND), 
called, born at 
Lille, July 4, 
1837. French 
school; genre and 
portrait painter ; 
N pupil of Souchon ; 
went to Paris, 
where he won a 
prize and a pen- 
sion founded by 
Wicar for his fel- 
low-citizens of Lille, and went to Italy, after- 
wards to Spain. His work shows traces of 
the influence of both countries. Lately he 
has painted portraits, especially female, with 
great success. Is also a sculptor. Medals 
in 1866, 1869, and 1870 ; 2d class in 1878 ; 
medal of honour, 1879 ; L. of Honour, 
1872; Officer, 1878. Works: Evening 
Prayer (1865) ; The Murdered Man (1866), 
Lille Museum ; St. Francis of Assisi (1868); 
Dame au Gant (1869), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; portraits only during the next ten 
years, of which 
one of the most 
noted is Mile. \QXQ\ 
Croizette ; Glo- \%82 

ria Marise Medi- 

cis (1878, ceiling in the Luxembourg) ; 
Child on the Banks of the Tagus (1868) ; 
portraits in 1879, 1880, 1881 ; A Future 
Doge (1881) ; A Burial (1882) ; A Vision 
(1883). Larousse ; Montrosier. 

CAEOTO (Carotto), GIOVAN FEAN- 
CESCO, born in Verona in 1470, died 
there in 1546. Lombard school ; pupil in 
Verona of Liberale, and in Mantua of Man- 
tegna, of whom he is said to have been so 
perfect an imitator that his works passed 
as those of his master. On his return to 



st P 
e. UUT 
^ 



244 



CARPACCIO 



Verona, previous to 1508, his pictures took 
a local tinge reminiscent of Liberale and 
Giolfino. He executed important works for 
Ant. Maria Visconti, iu Milan, and for the 
Marquis of Montferrat, in Casale. Called by 
Maffei the Proteus of Veronese painters, so 
varied are his works in style. Among them 
are : Altarpiece, S. Tommaso, Verona; Christ 
and Saints, S.Cateriua, Insurrection of Laza- 
rus, Virgin and Saints, Verona Gallery ; 
SS. Eoch and Sebastian, S. Giorgio, Vero- 
na ; Madonna and St. Anne, S. Termo Mag- 
giore, ib. ; St. Martin on Horseback, S. 
Anastasia, ib.; St. Ursula and the 11,000 
Virgins, S. Giorgio, ib. (1545). Madonna, 
Stiidel Institute, Frankfort ; do., Collection 
of Baron Sternburg, Lutschena. Vasari 
says he was the first Veronese who painted 
landscapes well. Giovan Francesco had a 
brother Giovanni Caroto, probably his as- 
sistant, but much inferior to him. He is 
noteworthy only as the first master of 
Puolo Veronese. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 481 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 288 ; Baldinucci, ii. 44 ; 
Burckhardt, 158, 1G7, 190; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole lombarde ; Bernasconi, 292 ; Lermo- 
lieff, 167 ; Lflbke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 574. 
CARPACCIO (Scarpaccia, Scarpaza), VIT- 
TORE, born in 
Istria about 1450, 
died after 1522. 
Venetian school. 
It is conjectured 
that Carpaccio 
went to Constan- 
tinople with Gen- 
tile Bellini in 
1479, and it is 
clear that the 
great painter's influence developed his style 
and affected his colour and drawing, but the 
first certain date connected with Carpaccio 
is 1490, when he began to paint the series of 
nine pictures illustrative of the life of St. 
Ursula, Venice Academy. Like Gentile Bel- 
lini's large works, those of Carpaccio preserve 
the features of old Venice, and show the 1 
variety of costume which gave so much pic- j 




turesqueness to her squares and water-ways. 
He had not Bellini's gentleness and sweet- 
ness, but was more energetic in action, hard- 
er and drier in tone. The picture of the 
bleeding Christ adored by Angels (149G), 
Vienna Museum, is painful in subject, and 
stiff in figure action. Between 1502 and 
1508 Carpaccio painted nine small easel 
pictures and an altarpiece for the school or 
refuge of distressed Dalmatian seamen, 
which had been rebuilt under the name of 
Sail Giorgio de' Schiavoni. These pictures 
represent scenes from the lives of Christ 
and the patron Saints of Dalmatia and Al- 
bania, Jerome, George, and Trifou. East- 
ern costumes and landscapes of an East- 
ern character abound in them, as in the 
Baptism of the Gentiles, and the Combat of 
St. George. The altarpiece represents the 
Virgin and Child between two angels. The 
Annunciation (1504), Vienna Academy, the 
Glory of St. Thomas Aquinas (1507), Stutt- 
gart Museum, and the Burial of the Virgin 
(1508), Ferrara Gallery, show that Car- 
paccio's forte lay rather in treating inci- 
dents of legendary history than religious 
episodes. Still, we think that his 1'rexenta- 
tion in the Temple (1510), Venice Academy, 
is his masterpiece. Another fine and char- 
acteristic work is the Supj>er at Emmaus, in 
S. Salvatore, Venice. Other pictures paint- 
ed before Carpaccio began to fail are the 
Vocation of St. Stephen (1511), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; his Sermon at the Louvre, and his 
Dispute with the Doctors (1514), Brera, Mi- 
lan ; and his Martyrdom (1515), Stuttgart. 
The altarpiece at S. Vitale of this year 
shows manifest decline "attributable to 
age, weariness, or much use of assistants." 
Many later works scattered about in Istrian, 



! VICTOR CARPATH1VS 



Lombard, and Friulian churches show still 
further decay. The last, of 1519, are two 



845 



CARPENTER 



altarpieces at S. Francesco of Pirano in Is- 
tria, and of Pozzale near Cadore. Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 627, 661 ; C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
195 ; Ch. Blanc, cole vunitienne ; Liibke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 539. 

CAEPENTER, FRANCIS BICKNELL, 
born at Homer, New York, in 1830. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of Sanford Thayer in 
Syracuse. Professional life passed in New 
York ; elected an A.N.A. in 1852. Works : 
David Leavitt (1852), American Exchange 
Bank, New York ; Asa Packer, Lehigh Uni- 
versity, Pennsylvania; Lieut-Go v.Woodford, 
Senate Chamber, Albany ; Goldwin Smith, 
Cornell University ; Prof. Gibbs, Yale Col- 
lege, New Haven ; Horace Greeley, Tribune 
Association, New York ; Gov. M. H. Clarke, 
President Fillmore, City Hall, New York ; 
Abraham Lincoln (1874), Capitol at Albany ; 
President Tyler, President Pierce, Win. H. 
Seward, Chas. Sumner, and many others. 
His Emancipation Proclamation (1864,) is in 
the Capitol, Washington. 

CAKPI, GIROLAMO DA. See Girolamo 
da Carpi. 

CARR, DAVID, born in England ; con- 
temporary. Landscape and genre painter. 
Exhibits at Royal Academy and Grosveuor 
Gallery. Works: Weed Burners (1879); 
Watercress Gatherers (1880); A la Fontaine 
-Yport (1881); Cliff Ploughing, Violets 
(1882); Waiting, An Old-Fashioued Spring, 
At the Doors of La-Force Paris, 1792 
(1883). 

CARRACCI, AGOSTINO, born inBologna, 
Aug. 16, 1557, died 
in Parma, March 22, 
1602. Bolognese 
school ; son of a tailor, 
Antonio Carracci, who 
was cousin to Vin- 
cenzo, the father of 
Lodovico Carracci. 
Pupil of Fontana, of 
DomenicoTibaldi, and 
of Cornelius Cort, with whom he studied en- 
graving, to which he devoted more time than 
to painting; afterward studied in Parma and 




in Venice, and on his return to Bologna 
(1589), opened the famous Eclectic school 
of the Carracci with Lodovico and Anuibale 
Carracci. He aided his brother Aunibale 
(1GOO), in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome, where 
he painted the Triumph of Galatea and Ceph- 
alus and Aurora, of which his cartoons 
exist in the National Gallery, London ; after- 
ward went into service of Duke Ranuccio 
Farnese in Parma, where he died. Among 
his best works are the Communion of St. 
Jerome, Assumption, Bologna Gallery; Land- 




Bathers, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, 
Florence; 
Infant Her- 
cules, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Rinaldo and Armida, Naples Mu- 
seum. Malvasia, i. 263 ; Amoriui, Vite, etc. 
(Bologna, 1840) ; Baldinucci, iii. 323 ; Wor- 
uum, Epochs, 320; Burckhardt, 699, 784, 
794, 796, 808 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole bolonaise ; 
Dohme, 2iii. ; Seguier, 39 ; Bartsch, xviii. 31. 
CARRACCI, ANNIBALE, born in Bo- 
logna, Nov. 3, 
1560, died in 
Rome, July 15, 
1609. Bolognese 
school ; brother 
of Agostino and 
pupil of Lodo- 
vico Carracci. In 
1580 he went to 
Parma to study 
the works of Cor- 

reggio and of Parmigiano ; also visited Ven- 
ice, and after seven years' absence returned 
to Bologna. He aided his cousin and broth- 
er in the academy which they founded there 
until 1600, when he accepted the invitation 
of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese to decorate 
the vaulted ceiling of a gallery in his palace 
in Rome. In this work, which occupied 
him eight years, he was assisted by his 
brother Agostino, and by Domenichino 
and Lanfranco. It represents various myth- 
ological subjects illustrative of celestial and 




24B 



CARRACCI 



terrestrial love, and is varied with many or- 
namental figures, some in stucco and some 
in chiaroscuro. It excited the greatest ad- 
miration in Rome,and was declared by Pous- 
sin to excel all other works except those of 
Raphael Annibale's pictures are more di- 
versified in style than those of Lodovico and 
Agostino, comprising paintings in the man- 
ner of several of the great masters. Among 
his works are : Annunciation, Assumption, 
Madonna in Glory and Saints, Madonna with 
Saints, Bologna Gallery ; Bacchante, Madon- 
na, Uffizi, Florence ; Last Supper, Ferrara 
Gallery ; Rinaldo and Armida, Pieta, Holy 
Family, Bacchante, Naples Museum ; Pieta, 
Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; St. liwh giving 
Alms, Assumption, Ecce Homo, Madonna of 
St. Matthew, Dresden Gallery; Holy Family, 
Berlin Museum ; Si Sebastian, Maydalen, 
Diana and Callisto, Resurrection, Entomb- 
ment, Dead Christ, Apparition of the Madon- 
na, Sleep of Infant Jesus, Madonna of the 
Cherries, Nativity, Birth of the Virgin, 
Louvre ; Three Marys, Castle Howard, Eng- 
land ; Christ appearing to Peter, Si John, 
Herminia 

and the '&^V A 
S h e p- 
herds, Si- 
1 e n u s, 
Pan and 
Apollo, 

Temptation of St. Anthony, National Gal- 
lery, London. Malvasia, i. 263 ; Wornnm, 
Epochs, 321 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 571 ; 
Burckhardt, 769, 783 ; Gualandi, Guida, 36, 
44 ; Dohme, 2iii. ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolo- 
iiaise. 

CARRACCI, FRANCESCO, born in Bo- 
logna in 1595, died in Rome, June 3, 1622. 
Bolognese school. Nephew of Agostino and 
Annibale, and pupil of Lodovico Carracci. 
Set up a rival academy in Bologna, putting 
over his door, "This is the true School of the 
Carracci," but not succeeding, went to Rome. 
There are a few pictures by him in Bologna, 
such as St. Roch comforted by an Angel, 
Oratory of S. Rocco ; Madonna and Saints, 




S. M. Maggiorc. Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice, 
i. 373 ; Dohme, 2iii. 

CARRACCI, LODOVICO, born in Bo- 

' logna, April 21, 
1555, died there, 

JNov. 13, 1619. 
Bolognese school : 
son of Vincenzo 
Carracci, a butch- 
er ; pupil at Bo- 
logna of Prospero 
Foutana, who ad- 
vised him to give 
up painting, while his brother pupils nick- 
named him from his stupidity the Ox. 
Studied chiefly at Venice under Tintoretto, 
who gave him but little more encouragement 
than Fontana. Afterward painted under 
Pasignano in Florence, and studied the 
works of the great masters in Venice, Man- 
tua, Parma, and Padua. By persevering 
labour he acquired a correctness and sim- 
plicity of style which brought him into re- 
pute and enabled him to found in Bologna 
in 1589 an academy of painting which soon 
became the most important school of the 
time in Italy. He called it the Incamminati 
(Right Road), but it is usually known as the 
Eclectic school of Bologna, because the Car- 
racci sought to unite in this system the ex- 
cellences of each of the great masters. His 
cousins Agostino and Annibalc soon joined 
him, and the three conducted it until 1(500, 
after which Lodovico was its head until his 
death. The best pupils of this school were 
Domenichino and Guido. Lodovico ex- 
celled rather as a teacher than as a painter, 
but left some excellent works, both in fresco 
and in oil, such as, Madonna in Glory and 
Saints, Birth of St. John Baptist, Preaching 
of St. John Baptist, Christ crowned with 
Thorns, Madonna with Saints, Calling of St. 
Matthew, Conversion of St. Paul, Transfigu- 
ration, Bologna Gallery; Scenes from lives of 
SS. Benedict and Cecilia, S. Michele in Bos- 
co, Bologna ; Miracle of the Loaves and 

! Fishes, Berlin Museum ; Pieti, Palazzo Cor- 
sini, Rome; Ecce Homo, Palazzo Doria. 



347 



CAKREE 



Rome ; Annunciation, Nativity, Madonna, 
Pieta, Vision of St. Hyacinth, Louvre, Paris; 
Susannah and the Elders, National Gallery, 

London. 
f / -Malva- 

I f\Sl/} I jl f~ st J f* sia,i. 263; 
fjC/CtL/ l/LLs&LJ Amorini, 



Vite, etc. 




Baldinuc- 

ci, iii. 302 ; Wornum, Epochs, 319 ; Burck- 
hardt, 772 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Dohme, 2iii. ; Seguier, 38 ; Kugler (East- 
lake), ii. 572. 

CAREEE, HENDKIK, the elder, born at 
Amsterdam, Oct. 2, 1656, (1658?), died in 
1721. Dutch school ; animal and landscape 
painter, pupil of Juriaan Jacobsz and of 
Jacob Jordaens. One of his sons, born at The 
Hague, Sept. 27, 1696, died there in 1775, 
and two of his nephews, bore the same name 
and were also painters, either of whom may 
as well be the author of the following works, 
painted about 1710 or later : Cattle among 
Ruins, Cattle and Peasant Woman with 
Basket, Brunswick Museum. Immerzeel, 
i. 129 ; Kramra, i. 221 ; Riegel, Beitrilge, ii. 
418. 

CARREE, MICHIEL, born at Amsterdam 
in 1666, died at Alkmaar. Dutch school ; 
animal and landscape painter ; pupil of his 
brother Hendrik C., then of Berchem, but 
followed the style of Gabriel van der Leeuw ; 
resided some time in England, and about 
1698 was invited to Berlin and made painter 
to King Frederick I., after whose death he 
returned to Holland and lived mostly at 
Alkmaar. "Works : Mad Bull, Cattle and 
Shepherdess playing Flute, Cattle among 
Ruins, do. by Cottage, Brunswick Museum. 
Gool, i. 125 ; Hoet, Aanmerkingen, 13. 

CARRENO DE MIRANDA, Don JUAN, 
born at Avilez, Asturias, March 25, 1614, 
died in Madrid in September, 1685. Of 
noble family. Spanish school; pupil of 
Pedro de las Cuevas, and of Bartolome Ro- 
man ; became assistant to Velasquez, whom 




he aided in the Alcazar and other royal 
palaces ; painted in Madrid and other 
cities many pictures 
for churches and 
convents, and, with 
Francisco Rizi, the 
cupola of S.Antonio 
de los Portugueses. 
Became one of the 
court painters of 
Philip IV. (1660), 
and was honoured 
in the same way by Charles H. (1671). His 
works show correct design and harmonious 
colouring. Painted chiefly portraits and 
religious compositions. Works : Portrait 
Charles II. (2), Queen Mariana, mother of 
Charles H., three others, Madrid Museum ; 
id., Count Harrach, Vienna ; Don Juan of 
Austria, Sir Wm. Stirling Maxwell, London; 
id., heirs of Infant Sebastian, Pau ; Magda- 
len, Academy S. Fernando, Madrid ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian, St. Anthony feed- 
ing the Fishes, Our Lady of Atocha, Muse- 
um Nacioual, Madrid ; Baptism of Christ, 
and St. Damian, Hermitage, St Petersburg. 

J CANNES ACARRENNO 

PICTOH REG. ET,G$r 

FAC ANNO. 1673 

Stirling, iii. 995 ; Viardot, 220 ; Ch. Blanc, 
l5cole espagnole ; Curtis, 321 ; Madrazo, 
374. 

CARRIERA, ROSALBA (Rosa Alba), 
born in Venice, 
Oct. 7, 1675, died 
there, April 15, 
1757. Venetian 
school; daughter 
of Andrea Carri- 
era de Costanti- 
no, chancellor of 
the village of 
Gambarare. 
Worked with her 
mother at making Point de Venise lace un- 
til it went out of fashion, when she learned 




248 



CATIRIERE 




to paint for a livelihood. Studied under 
Antonio Lazzari, Diamantini, Balestra, and 
others, and at the age of twenty-four be- 
came famous for her miniatures and crayon 
portraits. In 1703 she became a member 
of the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, and 
in 1705 of San Luca, Rome. In company 
with her brother-in-law, Antonio Pellegrini, 
she visited Paris in 1720, painted the royal 
family and many other distinguished per- 
sons, and was received into the Academy. 
All the courts of Europe vied in doing her 
honour and in giving her commissions. She 
excelled in painting pretty women, and one 
of her most lovely works is a portrait of 
herself in crayons in the Dresden Gallery, 
where are also many other of her pictures. 
Her heads are especially good, but her arms, 
hands, and busts are often weak in drawing. 
Many of her pictures are in 
the Dresden Museum. She 
became blind from overwork 
in 1746. Ch. Blanc, cole 
venitienne ; Sensier, Journal de Rosalba Car- 
riera (Paris, 1865); Seguier, 17C; Wessely, 
29. 

CARRlfcRE, EUGENE, born atGournay- 
sur-Marne (Seine-et-Oise) ; contemporary. 
Genre painter ; pupil of Cabanel. Medal, 
3d class, 1885. Works: Young Mother 
(1879); The Nymph Echo (1880); Kiss of 
Innocence (1882); Two Friends, Marguerite 
(1884); Sick Infant, The Favourite (1885). 

CARSTENS, ASMUS JACOB, born at 
St. Jiirgen, near 
Schleswig, May 10, 
1754, died in Rome, 
May 26, 1798. Ger- 
man school ; history 
painter. I m- 
pressed by the pic- 
tures of Juriaen 
Ovens, pupil of Rem- 
brandt, in the Cathe- 
dral of Schleswig, 
determined to be- 
come an artist, and tried in vain to study 
under Tischbeiu at Cassel. After five years' 




' apprenticeship to a wine-dealer at Eckern- 
forde, during which he drew and painted in 
his leisure hours, went to Copenhagen (1776) 
and took a partial course at the Academy, 
studied in the Museum, and supported him- 
self by painting portraits. In 1783 went to 
Mantua, but was obliged to return to Lflbcke 
for want of funds. For five years lived by 
portrait painting, then went to Berlin (1787), 
and in 1790 became professor at the Acad- 
emy of Arts. Having a pension from the 
, King, he went to Rome in 1790, exhibited 
j his works there in 1795, and won great ap- 
plause. Had many distinguished pupils, such 
! as Koch, Schick, Cornelius, etc. , and took 
' the position of founder of the new German 
j school. Works : Death of .ffischylus ; JEo- 
lus and Ulysses ; Fall of the Rebel Angels ; 
Banquet of Plato ; Battle of Rossbach ; 
Homer ; Return of the Megapeuthes ; Soc- 
rates saving the life of Alcibiades ; Gany- 
mede and the Eagle ; Battle of Centaurs 
and Lapiths ; CEdipus in Colonus ; (Edipus 
Tyrannus. Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 29 ; F. 
von Alten, Der Maler A. J. C. (Schleswig, 
1865); Ch. Blanc, ficole allemande ; Brock- 
haus, iv. 21 ; Fernow-Riegel, Carsten's Le- 
ben und Werke (Hanover, 1867) ; Grimrn, 
Zehn Essays, 218; Mflller - Schuchardt, 
] Carstens' Werke (Leipsic, 1869) ; Pecht, iii. 
31 ; Sach, Carstens' Jugend und Lehrjuhre 
(Halle, 1881); Schone, Beitrage z. Lebeus- 
geschichte ^Leipsic, 1866); Woltmann, Aus 
vier Jahrhdt., 169 ; Zahn's Jahrbiicher, vi. 
99, 208 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 54 ; Zimmer- 
mann, Studien und Kritiken, ii. 273. 

CARTERIUS, punter, about the middle 
of 3d century B.C. His portrait of the phi- 
losopher Porphyrius has preserved his name 
from oblivion. Porphyr., Vita Plotiui, i. 

CARTERON, EUGENE, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. History, genre, and portrait 
painter ; pupil of B. Glaize and Leon Glaize. 
Medal, 3d class, 1878. Works: Lazarus 
(1877); Prodigal Son (1878); St. Jerome 
(1879); Creation of Eve (1881); Bone-Setter 
(1882); Journeys of St. Sulpice (1848); The 
Two Processions (1885). 



249 



CARTHAGE 



CARTHAGE, Joseph M. W. Turner, 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 
11 in. X 7 ft. 5 in. A river scene, with piles 
of rich architecture on each side. Royal 
Academy, 1828. Painted for Mr. Broad- 
hurst. 

CARTHAGE, DECLINE OF, Joseph M. 
W. Turner, National Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 
ft. 7 in. X 7 ft. 11 in. A scene of architect- 
ural magnificence on each side with an out- 
look upon the sea in centre and the sun set- 
ting in a sombre red gloom ; at left, the 
hostages departing for the Roman camp. 
Royal Academy, 1817. Engraved by J. B. 
Allen in Turner Gallery. 

CARTHAGE, RISE OF, See Dido build- 
ing Carthage. 

CARUCCI, JACOPO. See Pontormo. 

CASADO DEL ALISAL, Don JOS 6; 
born in Valencia, contemporary. History 
and genre painter ; pupil of Academy of 
Madrid, where he won the prize of Rome 
in 1860, and three 1st class medals. He is 
court painter and director of the Spanish 
Academy in Rome. Order of Isabella the 
Catholic. Works : Death of Ferdinand IV. ; 
Bernardo del Carpio ; Semiramis ; Goya's 
Studio, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Zaida, S. 
A. Coale, St. Louis ; Beheaded Arabs ; 
Odalisque in Harem ; Flora (1881); Legend 
of King Ramiro, the Monk (1881), National 
Museum, Madrid; In the Boudoir (1882); 
Temptation (1884); Laura (1885). La 
Ilustracion (1879), i. 36G ; (1881), ii. 387 ; 
(1882), i. 83, 347 ; (1884), ii. 315 ; (1885), 
i. 131. 

CASANOVA, FRANCESCO, born in 
London in 1727, died at Briihl, near Vi- 
enna, July 8, 1805. Landscape and bat- 
tle painter ; taken to Venice at the age of 
six and taught by Guardi and Simouiui. 
Visited Paris in 1751, and returned there 
after passing four years at Dresden. Became 
member of the Academy in 17C3, and was 
employed by Catherine II. of Russia to 
paint her victories over the Turks. Finally 
settled at Vienna. Works : Battle of Fri- 
bourg, Aug. 3, 1G44 (1771), Battle of Lens, 



Aug. 20, 1648 (1771); two Landscapes with 
Animals, Louvre ; Battle, Vienna Museum ; 
Turkish Cavalry Marching, Battle, Nantes 
Museum ; Military Halt, Skirmish, Rouen 
Museum ; Starting for the Hunt, The Walk, 

TheHunt, 
Halt dur- 




Battle of 

Lens, Battle of Fribourg, Lyons Museum. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Ch. Blanc, tfcole fran- 
gaise ; Larousse, iii. 485 ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 
424 ; Wurzbach, ii. 301. 

CASELLI (Casoli, CasteUi), CRISTOFO- 
RO, of Parma (1489-1507). Lombard 
school. Sometimes called also Cristoforo 
da Parma and II Temperello. Journeyman 
at Venice in 1489-92, with the Bellini ; 
painted there in 1495 the Madonna and 
Saints, in the sacristy of S. M. della Salute. 
In 1496 he was a master in Parina, where 
he painted (1499) the Madonna and Saints 
now in the Sala del Consorzio, which ex- 
hibits much of the grace of Cima. Other 
works of his are : Madonna and Saints, 
Parma Gallery; God the Father, in the 
Duomo, Parma, and Adoration of the Magi, 
in S. Giovanni, Parma. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
587 ; Burckhardt, 588, 603 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vi. 485. 

CASENTINO. See Jacopo da Casentino. 

CASILE, ALFRED, born in Marseilles; 
contemporary. Landscape painter. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1885. Works : Cliff in Nor- 
mandy (1879); By the Cliffs (1880); Quaran- 
tine Grounds at Marseilles (1881); Field of 
Mars after the Exposition (1882); Quay on 
the Rhone (1883) ; After the Rain (1884); 
View of Paris (1885). 

CASILEAR, JOHN W., born in New 
York, June 25, 1811. Landscape painter ; 
studied in Europe in 1840 and in 1857. 
Elected an AN.A. in 1835, and N.A. in 
1851. Studio in New York. Works : Swiss 
Lake (1868) ; Genesee Meadows (1871) ; 



960 



CASSANDRA 



September Afternoon (1874); Trout Brook 
(1875) ; Autumn (1870) ; Scene in New 
Hampshire (1877) ; View on Sbemung 
liiver (1878) ; View of the Rocky Mount- 
ains (1881); Scene on Long Island (1883); 
Catskill Twilight. 

CASSANDRA, ancient picture. See Polyy- 
nolus, Theodora*. 

CASSIOLI, AMOS, born in Siena, Italy, 
in 1838. History painter, pupil of L. Mus- 
siui ; won at Florence, iu 18G8, first prize in 
historical painting, for his picture of Lorenzo 
de' Medici showing his Art Collection to 
Galeazzo Sforza. Professor at Florence 
Academy. Works : Battle of Legnano, 
Florence Gallery ; Bianca Capello ; Studio of 
Leonardo da Vinci, Provenzano Solvani re- 
ceiving Gifts for Ransom of a Prisoner, Pa- 
lazzo pubblico, Siena. Mdller, 97. 

CASTAGNO, ANDREA DEL, born at 
Mugello, near Florence, in 1390, died in 
Florence, Aug. 19, 1457. Florentine school ; 
son of a labourer, Bartolommeo di Simone ; 
was observed drawing cattle on flat stones 
by Bernardetto de' Medici, who, struck with 
his talent, took him to Florence and gave 
him opportunity for study. Baldinucci con- 
jectures that he was apprenticed to Masac- 
cio, but he was more probably taught in the 
school which produced Uccello and Pesel- 
lino. He was an intense realist, full of 
energy and truth to common nature, but a 
hard and inharmonious colourist. The two 
Crucifixions in the monastery of the Angeli, 
Florence, which were pointed out as among 
his earlier works, are vulgar in type, 
hard in line and drapery, and without feel- 
ing. Better are the colossal portraits of 
Heroes and Sibyls which he painted for a 
hall in the Villa Paudolfini at Leguaja, now 
transferred to canvas and in the Uffizi. In 
1435, Andrea was commissioned by the 
Florentine government to paint upon the 
walls of the Palace of the Podestk the Peruz- 
zi and the Albizzi, who were declared rebels 
after the return of Cosmo de' Medici. From 
this he derived his surname of Andrea degli 
Impiccati (of the Hanged), he having KO 



represented them. Andrea was employed in 
1444, 144(3, aud 1455 in the Cathedral, 
Florence, and in 1451 in the hospital of 
S. M. Nuova, where he painted various 
works, a St. Andrew, a Last Supper, and a 
series of frescos in the church choir illus- 
trating the life and death of the Madonna, 
all now destroyed. Vasari accuses Andrea 
of having murdered Domenico Veneziano, 
out of jealousy of the superior talent shown 

' by the latter when they worked together at 
S. M. Nuova ; but his innocence is fully es- 
tablished by the certainty that Domenico 
survived him four years. Among the works 
of Andrea are the picture of Niccolo da 
Toleutiuo on horseback (145G), Duomo, 
Florence ; Crucifixion (fresco), Loggia of 
Hospital adjoining S. M. Nuova ; St. John 
and St. Francis, S. Croce, Florence ; Por- 
trait, Pitti ; Altarpiece, also SS. Jerome aud 
John and the Magdalen, Academy, Florence ; 
Last Supper, Refectory of S. Apollonia, 
Florence ; Frescos for the Villa Carducci, 
Uffizi, Florence. Vasari, ed. Mil., ii. 667 ; 
C. & C., Italy, ii. 302 ; Burckhardt, 535 ; 
Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 693 ; Lubke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai, i. 279. 

CASTAN, GUSTAVE, born in Geneva 
iu 1823. Landscape painter, pupil of 

i Alex. Calame ; paints attractive landscapes 
of brilliant execution. Works : Souvenir 
of Franche-Comte, Storm in Winter, Lille 
Museum ; Forest in Winter, Langres Mu- 
seum ; View near Lancy ; Banks of the 
Creuse ; Entrance to Forest in Autumn ; 
Easter iu Winter ; Torrent in the Alps ; 
Lake Lucerne ; Wood-Interior iu Autumn 
(1879). Miiller, 97 ; Larousse. 

CASTELLANO, Don MANUEL, born in 
Spain ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter. His Death of ViUamediaua (1871), 
Museum Fine Arts, Madrid, was awarded a 
medal at Philadelphia Exposition, 1876. 

CASTELLO (Castelli), BERNARDO, born 
at Albaro, near Genoa, 1557, died in Genoa, 
Oct., 1629. Genoese school ; pupil of 
Andrea Serniui and of Luca Cambiaso ; 
travelled through Italy, and formed a grace- 



251 



CASTELLO 





ful and correct style. Was the friend of 
Tusso, for whose Gerusalemme he made the 

designs engraved 
in part by Agos- 
tino Carracci, and 
was eulogized by 
him. In 1G04 he 
was called to 
Rome and paint- 
ed for St. Peter's 
the Calling of St. 
Peter, for which 
a picture by Lanfranco was afterward sub- 
stituted. His works are mostly in the 
churches of Genoa and its neighbourhood. 
Had three 
sons, Giovan- 
ni Maria, Ber- 
nardino, and 
Valerio, all 
painters. Soprani, 115; Lanzi, iii. 250; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole genoise. 

CASTELLO, CASTELLINO, born in 
Genoa in 1579, died in Turin in 1G49. 
Genoese school ; pupil of Gio. Battista 
Paggi. Painted many pictures for churches 
in Genoa and elsewhere, but most noted for 
his portraits. When Van Dyck visited 
Genoa, he and Castello reciprocally painted 
each other's portraits. In 1647 he was ap- 
pointed portrait painter to the court of Sa- 
voy, and removed to Turin. His son Nic- 
colft, who was living in 1GG8, inherited his 
ability. Lanzi, iii. 262 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
gonoise ; Soprani, 125. 

CASTELLO, FABRICIO, died in Madrid 
in 1G17. Spanish school ; son of Giambat- 
tista Castello (II Bergamasco) and pupil of 
his elder brother, Nicolas Granelo Castello. 
Painted frescos in the Escorial and the 
Pardo, and became painter to Philip JL in 
1584, and also to Philip HL Stirling, 
i. 192 ; Cean Bermudez. 

CASTELLO, FELIX, born in Madrid in 
1G02, died there in 1656. Spanish school ; 
pupil of his father Fabricio Castello and of 
Vincenzo Carducho ; painted historical com- 
positions and portraits. Works : Capture of 



a Dutch Fortress by Spaniards, and Disem- 
barkation of Don Fadrique de Toledo at S. 
Salvador, Madrid Museum. Cean Bermu- 
dez ; Quilliet ; Madrazo, 378. 

CASTELLO, GIAMBATTISTA. See 
Beryamasco. 

CASTELLO, NICOLAS GRANELO, 
died in Madrid in 1593. Spanish school ; 
son and pupil of Giambattista Castello (II 
Bergamasco). Named painter to Philip II. 
in 1571 ; executed in 1584, with Taboron 
and Cambiaso, in the Escorial, a fresco of 
the Battle of St. Quentin, and in 1587, with 
Taboron, the Battle of Higuernela ; also 
painted other frescos in ducal palace at 
Alba de Tomus. Stirling, i. 192 ; Cean 
Bermudez. 

CASTELLO, VALERIO, bom in Genoa 
in 1G25, died there in 1659. Genoese 
school ; son of Bernardo Castello ; pupil of 
Gio. Andrea de' Ferrari and of II Sarzana ; 
studied works of masters in Milan and 
Parma. Formed an excellent style of his 
own ; painted in both oil and fresco, but 
excelled in latter. Subjects chiefly relig- 
ious, but painted also battles. Works in 
churches and palaces in Genoa. His Rape 
of the Sabines is in the Palazzo Brignole- 
Sale, Genoa; a smaller example, somewhat 
varied, in the Uffizi. Lanzi, iii. 259 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole genoise. 

CASTIGLIONE, BALDASSARE, Count, 
portrait, llapJiad, Louvre ; wood transferred 
to canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. Half- 
length, three-quarters, turned to left, with 
beard and moustaches ; in black vest and 
cap and gray doublet. Painted in Rome 
about 1516 ; passed from Collection of Duke 
of Mantua to Charles I. of England, after 
whose death bought by Lopez of Amster- 
dam. Copied at this time by Rubens ; 
Rembrandt also made a sketch of it, now in 
Albertiue Collection, Vienna, and R. Persyn 
engraved it. Passed to Cardinal Mazarin, 
from whose heirs bought for Louis XTV. 
Another portrait by Raphael, bust, painted 
in 1519, probably that in Torlonia Gallery, 
Rome. Louvre picture engraved by J. 



S52 



CASTIGLIOXE 







Godefroy ; Nic. Larmessin ; Bautrois ; Sen- 
ter ; Nic. Edelinck. Villot, Louvre ; Filhol, 
v. PL 359 ; Miintz, 534 ; Springer, 253, 
509 ; Cab. Crozat, i. PL 13. 

CASTIGLIONE, GIOVANNI BENE- 
DETTO, born 
in Genoa in 
1616, died in 
Mantua in 1670. 
Genoese school. 
Called, on ac- 
count of the 
beauty of his 
colouring, II 
Grechetto (Lit- 
tle Greek) ; and 
in France II 

Benedetto. Pupil of Gio. Battista Paggi 
and of Gio. Andrea de' Ferrari. Soprani 
says he also had lessons of Van Dyck, but as 
he was only nine years old when that painter 
left Genoa it is probable that he merely 
studied his works. Castiglione painted in 
Florence, Borne, Venice, Naples, Bologna, 
and Mantua, in which city he entered the 
service of Duke Charles I. about 1654. He 
soon won a great reputation, and received 
orders even from France, England, and Ger- 
many. Though he painted large histori- 
cal works, he is best known by his cabinet 
pictures, especially landscapes and pastoral 
pieces, in which he frequently introduced 
animals. Ho left about seventy etchings. 
His brother Salvatore and his sou Francesco 
were his pupils and imitators. Among his 
best examples are : Nativity, S. Luca, Genoa ; 
Madonna with Saints showing true effigy of 
St. Domenic to a monk of his order, S. M. 
di Castello ; Christ on the Cross and St. Ber- 
nard, S. Martino, Genoa ; Abra- 
ham and Melchisedec, Adoration, 
Expulsion from the Temple, Car- 
avan, Bacchantes and Satyrs, 
Birds and Animals, Louvre, Par- 
is ; Noah entering the Ark, Dresden Gallery, 
Munich Gallery, and Uffizi, Florence. Bal- 
dinucci, v. 206; Soprani, 223; Lanzi, iii. 273; 
Seguier, 41 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole genoise. 




CASTIGLIONE, GIUSEPPE, born in 
Naples ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter. Lives in Paris. Works: Visiting 
the Cardinal Uncle, The Warrants, Phila- 
delphia Exposition, 187G ; Terrace of Pa- 
lazzo Reale at Naples, Duel without Wit- 
nesses (1877) ; Paroquet's Lesson (1878) ; 
Plucking the Rose, W. H. Fosdick, Louis- 
ville ; Prospect, W. B. Bement, Philadelphia ; 
Soldiers of Cromwell in Haddon Hall, Visit- 
ing the Cardinal Uncle, Paris Exposition, 
1878. 

CASTILLO, AUGUSTIN DEL, born in 
Seville in 1565, died in Cordova in 1626. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Luis Fernandez ; 
painted in fresco and oil, chiefly in Cordova. 
Works : Adoration of the Magi, Cathedral, 
Cadiz ; Conception, Cathedral, Cordova. 
Stirling, i. 460 ; Viardot, 185 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole espagnole. 

CASTILLO, JUAN DEL, born in Seville 
in 1584, died in Cadiz in 1640. Spanish 
school ; younger brother of Augustin del 
Castillo ; pupil of Luis Fernandez. Chiefly 
noted as the master of Moya, of Alonso Ca- 
no, and of Murillo. Works : Marriage of the 
Virgin, Nativity, Assumption, Visitation, An- 
nunciation, Seville Museum. Stirling, i. 
460 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Viardot, 
186. 

CASTILLO Y SAAVEDRA, ANTONIO 
DEL, born in Cordova in 1603, died there 
in 1667. Spanish school ; son and pupil of 
Augustin del Castillo, after whose death he 
studied in Seville under Zurbaran. Became 
a popular portrait painter in Cordova ; also 
executed some religious compositions, good 
in design but faulty in colouring. Vigorous 
style, with effects worthy of Caravaggio, 
Said to have died of despair on seeing Mu- 
rillo's pictures in Seville. Works : Adora- 
tion of Shepherds, Madrid Museum ; others 
in churches and convents of Cordova, the 
best at the Cathedral and in convents of St. 
Francis and St. Paul ; Visitation, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Stirling, ii. 807 ; Viardot, 
187 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Curtis, 
345 ; Madrazo, 381. 



CASTOR 



CASTOR AND POLLUX, llubens, Mu- 
nich Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 10 
in. Castor and Pollux carrying off Hilseira 
and Phoebe, daughters of Leucippus. One 
of them, mounted on a noble horse, the 
reins of which are held by Cupid, is lifting 




Castor and Pollux, Rubens, Munich Gallery. 



up one of the women, aided by his brother, 
who is holding the other one upon his knee. 
Engraved by Val. Green. Smith, ii. 03. 

CASUAL WARD, Luke Fildes, Holloway 
Institute, Egham, near London. A group 
of wretched and deformed creatures waiting 
for admission to a resting place for the 
night. Wonderfully realistic. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1874 ; Philadelphia Exposition, 1876 ; 
Paris Exposition, 1878 ; sold to Thos. Tay- 
lor, of Wigan ; Taylor sale (1883), 2,205. 
Art Journal (1874), 201 ; Portfolio, May, 
1878. 

CATEL, FRANZ LUDWIG, born in Ber- 
lin, Feb. 22, 1778, died in Rome, Dec. 19, 
1850. German school ; landscape painter. 
Beginning as wood-carver and illustrator of 
books, he practised water-colour, and in 
1806 painted the assassination of Nicholas 
von Bernau, for which he was elected mem- 
ber of the Berlin Academy. Went to Paris 
in 1807, where he commenced oil painting, 
to Switzerland in 1811, where he studied 



Alpine scenery, and to Rome in 1812, where 
his talent developed through intercourse 
with Koch, Overbeck, Schadovv, and Corne- 
lius. With the exception of occasional home 
visits, he remained in Italy, and from 1830 
lived at his country seat near Macerata. 
His landscapes with architectural accessories 
are broadly treated, and effective in chiaros- 
curo. Works : Colonnade of St. Peter's by 
Moonlight ; Storm on Etna ; Monastery near 
Salerno ; Interior of Pantheon ; The Via 
Appia ; View from Cloister at Amalfi ; Gon- 
dolas on the Lagoon ; View of Rome ; Crater 
of Vesuvius ; Ruins of Psestum ; Villa of 
Maecenas at Tivoli. Other pictures in Ber- 
lin, Munich, and Copenhagen Galleries. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 70 ; Riegel, 533. 

CATENA, VINCENZO, born at Treviso 
about 1465, died in Venice, 1531. Venetian 
school ; real name, Vinceiizo di Biagio ; 
known in 1495, when a journeyman in the 
Sala del Gran Consiglio, Venice, as Viucen- 
zo da Treviso. A pupil of the Bellini, he 
copied Giovanni Bellini, without approach- 
ing him in drawing, boldness of treatment, 
or richness of colouring ; but he was a 
painter of great industry and considerable 
reputation, and made friends among the 
wealthy. Among his earlier pictures are a 
Presentation of Christ to Simeon, Commu- 
nal Gallery, Padua ; a Madonna and Saints, 
Liverpool Institution ; and a Trinity, S. 
Simeone, Venice. His skill increased with 
the opening of the 10th century, as is shown 
in his Madonna and Doge Loredano, Palazzo 
Ducale, Venice. His portrait of Loredano, 
Lochis-Carrara Gallery, Bergamo, is as- 
signed to Gentile Bellini, and the copy at 
Dresden to Giov. Bellini. In 1520 Catena 
finished the Glorification of St. Christina, in 




S. M. Mater Domini, Venice. Other pict- 
ures by him are : Madonna and Saints, 
Dresden Gallery ; Circumcision, Leuchten- 



CATHERINE 



berg Collection, St. Petersburg ; Glory of i the curtains of the canopy. Painted for S. 



St. Francis, S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice ; 
and several in the Venice Academy. 

C. & C., N. Italy, i. 247; Ch. Blanc, 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. G28 ; 



Marco, Florence ; presented in 1512 to 
Jacques Hurault, Bishop of Autun, ambas- 
sador of Louis XII. to Florentine Republic ; 
long in sacristy of Cathedral of Autun ; re- 



Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., | moved in 1801 to Musee Napoleon ; be- 

I longed to collection of Francis I. Landon, 

ST., Raphael, National 



Ficole venitienne 
Burckhardt, 601 
i. 549. 

CATHERINE, 

Gallery, London ; wood, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 
9 in. St. Catherine of Alexandria, stand- 
ing, leaning upon the wheel, one hand on 
her heart, her eyes raised heavenward, 
whence rays of light proceed ; background, 
a landscape with hills and a lake. Painted 
in Florence in 1507. In the Aldobrandiui 
and Borghese collections ; bought from lat- 
ter, end of last century, by Mr. Day, who 
sold it to Lord North wick for i'2,000 ; 
bought from Beckford for National Gallery 
iii 1839. Surface injured by cleaning. Copy 
in Trubetzkoy Collection, St. Petersburg. 
Studies in the Louvre and at Chatsworth. 
Eugraved by Marc Antonio ; A. B. Desnoy- 
ers; Leroux. C. & C., Raphael, i. 340; 
Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 579; Pas- 
savant, ii. 56 ; Mttutz, 229 ; Richter, 55. 

By Gitido Reni, Turin Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. St. Catherine, seated, 
seen to knees, with a lamb iu her lap and a Mus6e, 2d Col., iii. PI. 5G ; Villot, Louvre ; 
palm in her hand. Engraved by D. Testi. c. & C., Italy, iii. 451 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 




Marriage of St. Catherine, Fra Bartolommeo, Louvre. 



Gal. di Torino, iii. PI. 86. 



184. 



CATHERINE, ST., IN ECSTACY, Ales. By Boccaccio Boccaccino, Venice Acad- 

Tiarini, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. x e my ; wood, H. 2 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. ; 

4 ft. 7 in. St. Catherine of Siena, support- signed. The Virgin sitting, holding Jesus, 

cd by two angels, about to kneel before a \ wno gives the ring to kneeling St. Gather- 
crucifix. Formerly in church of the con- 1 in e ; St. Rose, standing ; SS. Peter and 

vent of S. M. Maddalena. Engraved by N. John Baptist kneeling. C. fe C., N. Italy, 

Mellini ; A. Marchi. Pinac. di Bologna, PL ii. 445. 

27. By Correygio, Capitol Museum, Rome. 

CATHERINE, ST., MARRIAGE OF, Fra The Virgin, with Jesus on her knees, seated 

Jlartulommeo, Louvre ; wood, H. 8 ft 5 in. under a tree in a landscape ; at right, St. 

X 7 ft. Gin.; signed, dated 1511. The Vir- Catherine, kneeling, with a palm in her 

gin, enthroned, attended by SS. Peter, hand, is receiving the ring from the child ; 

Bartholomew, Vincent, and others, holding a t her feet is part of the wheel and a sword, 
palms, presides at the mystic marriage of Replica in Naples. Righetti, Campidoglio, 

Jesus with St. Catherine, who kneels before jj. pi. 273. 

her ; behind her, to right, SS. Francis and By Correggio, Louvre ; wood, H. 3 ft. 5 

Dominic embracing ; above, angels sustain i u . x 3 ft. 4 in. St. Catherine receives a 



968 



CATHERINE 



ring from Jesus, who is seated on knees of 
Virgin ; behind her is St. Sebastian with 
arrows ; in background the martyrdom of 
the two saints. Painted, it is said, on the 
occasion of the marriage of the painter's 
sister, Caterina Allegri, in 1519. In posses- 
sion of Dr. F. Grillenzoni, Modena, in 1530- 
35 ; passed thence to Cardinal Luiji d'Este 
and later to Countess Santa Fiora, and to 
Cardinal Fr. Sforza di S. Fiora, Home ; in 
1650 belonged to Cardinal Barberini, who 
took it to France and gave it to Cardinal 



Marriage of St. Catherine, Correggio, Louvre, 

Mazarin ; valued in his inventory at 15,000 
livres ; and sold by his heirs to Louis XIV. 
Eeplicas, with variations, in Louvre, Naples 
Museum, and Hermitage. Engraved by 
Picart ; Massard ; Capitelli ; Duthe ; Folo ; 
H. Dupont (1867). Meyer, Correggio, 322, 
484 ; Kiiust. Lex., i. 432 ; Musee Royal, i. 
Pt. 1 ; Landon, viii. PL 20 ; Villot, Louvre ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 116, vi. 471 ; Filhol, vii. 
PI. 439 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 502. 

By Anton van Dijck, Buckingham Pal- 
ace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 10 in. The 
Virgin seated at right, with infant Saviour 
on her knee, holds in her right hand a 
wreath of flowers to crown St. Catherine, 
who, bowing in adoration, extends her 




right hand to receive the ring, while her 
left, holding a palm branch, rests on a 
broken wheel. The beauty of the Virgin 
gave this picture the title of La plus belle 
des Vierges. Formerly in Collection of 
Chevalier de Burtin, at Brussels, at whose 
decease taken to England in 1820 and sold 
to king for 2,500 guineas. Engraved by 
Lommelin. Smith, iii. 69. 

By Lorenzo Lotto, Lochis-Carrara Gallery, 
Bergamo ; canvas, figures under life size ; 
signed, dated 1523. St. Catherine kneels 
before the Virgin, and Jesus presses forward 
to give her the ring ; an angel stands with 
folded arms ; at left Nicolo de Bonghi sits 
attentive. Landscape seen through an open- 
ing on right cut out and stolen ; its place 
now filled by a piece of dark canvas. Prob- 
ably painted for Zaniu Casotto of Bergamo. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 513 ; BidoM, Mara- 
viglie, i. 186 ; Rio, iii. 289. 

By Bernardino Luini, Poldo-Pezzoli Mu- 
seum, Milan. The Virgin, standing, sup- 
ports the infant Jesus, who, sitting upon a 
cushion placed upon a table, places the 
ring upon the finger of St. Catherine ; stand- 
ing at left. Art Journal (1884), 23. 

By Hans Memling, Hospital of St. John, 
Bruges ; triptych. The Virgin, enthroned 
under a portico, with angels above about to 
crown her, holds the infant Jesus, who 
bends to give a ring to St. Catherine kneel- 
ing ; at right and left, the Baptist, Evange- 
list, and St. Barbara, standing ; an angel 
plays an organ, another holds a missal ; be- 
hind St. Catherine, a monk of St. Augustine, 
and further back another monk with a 
gauge for wine and spirits ; in background, 
episodes in life of St. John. On right wing, 
Salome receives the Baptist's head and 
dances before Herod ; on left, Vision of St. 
John Evangelist. Copy, owned by Mrs. 
Davenport, exhibited at Royal Academy, 
London, 1884. C. & C., Flemish Painters, 
251 ; Art Journal (1884), 60. 

By Murillo, Capuchin Church, Cadiz ; 
canvas, H. 13 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft. 8 in. The 
Virgin, seated on a platform in front of two 



CATHERINE 



columns on right, holds on her lap the In- 
fant Jesus, who is about to place a ring on 
the finger of St. Catherine kneeling; be- 
hind the Virgin, three angels ; behind St. 
Catherine, two angels ; in front, three cher- 
ubs, and a sword and broken wheel ; above, 
angels and cherubs in a glory. Painted 
iii 1682, the last work of Murillo ; while 
working upon it he stumbled on the scaffold 
and died from the effects of the fall. This 
picture, one of the richest and most grace- 
ful of Murillo's compositions, is the centre 
of an immense altarpiece (20 x 24 ft. ) which 
fills the arch at the end of the convent 
church. After Murillo's death, part of the 
glory was finished by Meneses Osorio, who 
also painted the four lateral pictures, prob- 
ably after Murillo's designs. Etched by E. 
St. Raymond. Curtis, 221 ; Palomino, iii. 
421 ; Ponz, Viage, xviii. 20. 

By Murillo, Vatican, Rome; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, seated on 
right, holds Jesus on her lap ; he places 
the ring on the finger of St. Catherine, who 
bends reverently forward to receive it. Pre- 
sented in 1855 by ex-Queen Christina of 
Spain to Pius IX. Curtis, 222. 

By Andrea Previtali, sacristy of S. Giobbe, 
Venice ; wood, figures half length, a little 
more than half life-size. The Virgin seated ; 
Jesus, on her lap, holds out the ring to St. 
Catherine ; on other side the Baptist. Com- 
monly attributed to Giov. Bellini. Replica, 
signed and dated 1504, in Collection of 
Sir Charles Eastlake, London. Zanotto, 
Pinac. Ven., PL 25 ; C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
275 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 265. 

By Rubens, Ch. of Augustins, Antwerp ; 
canvas, H. 15 ft. x 11 ft. The Virgin en- 
throned, holding infant Saviour, who is 
bending forward to place the ring on the 
finger of St. Catherine ; behind the Virgin, 
St. Joseph ; on her right, SS. Peter and 
Paul ; on her left, St. John with two angels 
and the lamb ; below, SS. Sebastian, Au- 
gustine, Lawrence, Paul the Hermit, and 
George, the last in armour. Sir J. Rey- 
nolds calls it one of the most considerable 



of the works of Rubens. Engraved by Sny- 
ers ; Eynhouedts. Smith, ii. 24 ; Beechey, 
Reynolds, ii 173. 

By Rubens, Duke of Rutland, Belvoir 
Castle ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 6 in. x 7 ft. The 
Virgin seated, holding Jesus, who bends 
forward to place a crown on the head of 
St. Catherine, who is kneeling ; behind her 
stands St. Agnes, and opposite are St. Chris- 
tina and St. Margaret ; four angels, one 
with a thunderbolt, the others with crowns 
and palms. Sold in 1766 by the Order of 
St. Augustiues, Mechlin, to Chevalier Ver- 
hulst, for 9500 florins ; at his sale, 12,705 
florins. Engraved by P. de Jode ; Alex. 
Voet Smith, ii. 47 ; ix. 256. 

By Pellegrino Tibalili, Bologna Gallery ; 
wood, H. 6 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 5. in. The Vir- 
gin seated, holding the Child, who gives 
the ring to St. Catherine ; at right, St. Jo- 
seph ; background of architecture. For- 
merly in church of the Misericordia, Bo- 
logna. Engraved by Ant. Marchi. Pinac. 
di Bologna, PL 22. 

By Paolo Veronese, S. Caterina, Venice. 
The Virgin enthroned at left, with Jesus on 
her knees, surrounded by many angels 
singing and playing musical instruments ; 
St. Catherine kneeling to receive the ring ; 
about, at right, a glory of angels and of 
cherubim. Painted in 1572. Engraved 
by Agos. Carracci (1582). Zanotto, 313 ; 
Bartsch, xviii. 90. 

Subject treated also by Giuliano Bugiar- 
dini, Bologna Gallery ; Alessandro Tiarini, 
Bologna Gallery ; Ludovico Cigoli, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Domenico Feti, 
Vienna Museum ; Giulio Cesare Procaccini, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Titian, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; Guercino, Galleria Estense, 
Modena ; Andrea del Sarto, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Lorenzo Lotto, Munich Gallery ; Par- 
migianino, Parma Gallery ; Michael Wohl- 
gemuth, Munich Gallery ; Jakob Jordaeus, 
Madrid Museum ; Ambrogio Borgognone, 
National Gallery, London. 

CATHERINE, ST., MARTYRDOM OF, 
Guercino, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. The 



887 



CATHERINE 



Saint, dressed in a yellow tunic and a rich 
red mantle lined with blue, kneels before 
the executioner, who wears a red cap and 
holds a drawn sword ; to left, the wheel ; in 
the sky, an angel with palm and crown ; in 




Conspiracy of Cataline, Salvator Rosa, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

background, a landscape with bridge and 
tower. 

CATHERINE OF SIENA, ST., CORO- 
NATION OF, Pietro Francesco liixsolo, Ven- 
ice Academy ; wood (?), H. 12 ft. x 8 ft. 3 
in.; signed. St. Catherine kneels before 
Christ, who places the crown of thorns on 
her head ; in attendance are angel Raphael 
and Tobit, Mary Magdalen, and SS. Peter, 
James, and Paul ; above, the Eternal and 
cherubs. Originally in S. Pietro Martire, 
Murano. Bissolo's masterpiece as a compo- 
sition, but repainted. Zanotto, Pinac. Ven., 
PI. 10 ; C. & C., N. Italy, i. 289. 

CATILINE, CONSPIRACY OF, Salvator 
Rosa, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 5 
ft. x 5 ft. 11 in. A group of armed men 
standing around an altar ; Lentulus and 
Cethegus, with hands clasped, are mingling 
their blood in a chalice, to strengthen their 
oaths ; the figure in shadow, with a band 
around his hair, is Catiline, near whom 
stands Quintus Curtius. 



Martelli, Florence. Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. PI. 

73 ; Rosini, vi. 168. 

CATLIN, GEORGE, born at Wilkesbarre, 

Pa., July 26, 1796, died in Jersey City, N. J., 

Dec. 23, 1872. Portrait painter, self-taught ; 
began his professional life in 
Philadelphia. In 1832-38 he 
visited the Indians of the 
Yellowstone River, Indian 
Territory, Arkansas, and 
Florida; and in 1852-57 
travelled in South and Cen- 
tral America, after which he 
lived in Europe until 1871. 
Mr. Catlin painted 470 full- 
length portraits of Indians 
and many pictures illustra- 
tive of their life and customs 
which were exhibited in the 
United States and in Europe. 
They are now in the Nation- 
al Museum, Washington. 

CATO, DEATH OF, 
Charles Lebrun, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. 



x 4 ft. 4 in. Cato dying on his bed, holding 
in his right hand the Phaxlo of Plato, which 
he had read before stabbing himself with 
the sword lying beside him ; in background, 




Death of Cato, Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris. 



the heads of a man weeping and of a sol- 
dier. (Plutarch.) Painted at Lyons about 
Duplicate in Casa ! 1645. Landon, Musee, xi. PI. 22. 



CAT'S 



CAT'S PAW, Sir Edwin Landseer, Earl 
of Essex, Cassiobury ; wood. A monkey has 
grasped a cat, and notwithstanding her 
struggles is using her paw to remove some 
roasting chestnuts from the top of a hot 
stove ; in background, a table with a kitten 
upon it beside a basket, out of which another 
frightened kitten is peeping. British Insti- 
tution, 1824 ; sold for 100 and bought a 
few days afterward by Earl of Essex for 
120. Engraved by C. G. Lewis. Stephens, 
52 ; Landseer Gallery. 

CATTANIO, COSTANZO, born in Ferra- 
ra in 1602, died in Rome in 1665. Lombard 
school ; pupil of Guido ; was a bravo, often 
in exile or in defiance of the authorities, and 
his pictures frequently bear marks of his 
character. He painted soldiers and ruffians, 
but some of his works are more in keeping 
with the style of his master. Among the 
latter are a St. Anthony in the church of 
Corlo, and a Last Supper in the refectory of 
S. Silvestro, Ferrara. Lanzi, iii. 220 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole ferraraise. 

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, born at 
Dickleburgh, near Diss, England, Aug. 8, 
1800, died at Clapham Common, July 24, 
1868. History painter, water-colours ; 
studied architecture and became early a 
book illustrator, in which he exhibited much 
archaeological and architectural skill. About 
1830 he began to paint in water-colours, be- 
came a member of the Society of Painters 
in Water Colours, and contributed to their 
exhibitions until 1850, when he withdrew. 
He was awarded one of the two first class 
medals (the other, Landseer) at Paris in 
1855, and was a member of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Amsterdam and of the Belgian So- 
ciety of Water Colour Painters. Works : 
Sir Walter Raleigh witnessing the Execution 
of Essex, Old English Hospitality (1839) ; 
The Castle Chapel (1840); Hamilton of Both- 
wel Haugh preparing to shoot the Regent 
Murray, After the Battle of Newbury (1843); 
Visit to the Monastery, Benvenuto Cellini 
defending the Castle of St. Angelo (1845); 
The Unwelcome Return (1846). In 18G2 he 



exhibited an oil picture, A Terrible Secret, 
at the Royal Academy. Charles Cattermole, 
his nephew, paints in both oil and water- 
colours. Redgrave ; Art Journal (1857), 
209 ; (1868), 180 ; (1870), 92. 

CAUCIG, FRANZ, born in Goritz, Dec. 3, 
1762, died in Vienna, Nov. 18, 1828. German 
school ; history painter. First taught in Vi- 
enna, then spent seven years in Italy, where 
he studied the Carracci in Bologna and in 
Rome. Revisited Italy in 1791, and remained 
six years, studying especially Titian in Ven- 
ice. In 1799 he was appointed professor and 
in 1820 director at the Vienna Academy. His 
subjects, taken principally from Greek my- 
thology and the Old Testament, are aca- 
demic in treatment, and though good in 
drawing are weak in colour. Works : Solo- 
mon's Judgment, Museum, Vienna ; others 
at the Academy and in Liechtenstein, Schon- 
born, and Czernin Galleries, ib. ; Sappho, 
Prague Gallery ; Death of Portia, Orpheus 
at Eurydice's Tomb, Joanneum, Gratz. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., iv. 75 ; Wurzbach, ii. 
312. 

CAULITZ, PETER, born in Berlin about 
1650, died there in 1719. German school ; 
landscape and animal painter ; studied in 
Rome ; painted chiefly Italian landscapes 
and animal pieces, in the Dutch style. 
Works : Chicken Yard, Berlin Museum ; Two 




Landscapes with Temple Ruins, and Bridge, 
Brunswick Museum ; others at the Royal 
Castles in Berlin and Potsdam. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., iv. 76. 

CAUSIERS. See Comers. 

CAVAZZOLA, or CAVAZZUOLA. See 
Morando, Paolo. 

CAVEDONE, GIACOMO, born at Sassu- 
olo in April, 1577, died in Bologna in 16CO. 
Bolognese school ; son of a poor apothecary, 
became page to an art amateur, who placed 
him in the school of the Carracci, and after- 
ward in that of Passarotti. Studied in 



259 



CAXES 



Venice the works of Titian, and acquired a 
style of colouring in advance of most of his 
school. Painted in Bologna, for churches, 
works considered almost equal to those of 
Annibale Carracci. In 1610 went to Rome 
and became assistant to Guido, but home- 
sickness soon took him back to Bologna. 
He bade fair to become famous, when family 
afflictions affected his mind, and he died 
a beggar. Among his works are : Madonna 
in Glory and Saints Alo and Petronius, Bo- 
logna Gallery ; Adoration of Shepherds and 
Kings, S. Paolo, Bologna ; Apotheosis of S. 
Benedict, S. Michele in Bosco ; Madonna 
and Saints, S. M. delle Laudi ; Nativity, SS. 
Filippo and Giacomo ; St. Anthony and 
Prophets, S. Benedetto ; Pieta, Angel and 




Dead Christ, Munich Gallery. Malvasia, ii. 
143 ; Lanzi, iii. 122 ; Burckhardt, 764, 785, 
794, 796 ; Gualandi, Guida, 124, 150 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole bolonaise. 

CAXES, EUGENIC, born in Madrid in 
1577, died there in 1642. Spanish school ; 
son and pupil of Patricio Caxus ; employed 
with his father by Philip III. in the Pardo, 
and in 1612 appointed one of the king's 
painters. Painted many works in churches 
and convents in Madrid and Toledo. Works : 
Disembarkation of English under Lord 
Wimbledon at Cadiz, Virgin and Child, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Fall of Eebel Angels (1605), 
Copenhagen Museum. Stirling, i. 428; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Madrazo, 383. 

CAXES, PATRICIO, born at Arezzo, Italy, 
died in Madrid in 1612. Spanish school ; 
real name Cajesi ; went to Spain with Cinci- 
nato, Spanish ambassador, in 1567, at invita- 
tion of Philip II., and painted frescos in the 
Alcazar and in the Pardo, Madrid. Trans- 
lated into Spanish Vignola's book on the 
Five Orders. Also employed by Philip III., 
in whose service he died. Stirling, i. 195 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole espagnole. 

CAZES, PIERRE JACQUES, born in 



Paris in 1676, died there, June 25, 1754. 
French school ; history painter, pupil of 
Rene Antoine Houasse and of Bon Boul- 
logne ; became member of the Academy in 
1703, professor 1718, rector 1743, director 
1744, chancellor 1746. Painted many altar- 
pieces for churches in Paris and the prov- 
inces, also historical and mythological scenes, 
in the then prevailing style of conven- 
tional elegance. Works : St. Peter reviving 

Tabit h a , 
Louvre ; 
Pharaoh's 
Cup found 
in Benja- 
min's Sack (1698) ; Vision of Jacob in Egypt 
(1699) ; Triumph of Hercules over Achelotis 
(1703). Ch. Blanc, Ecole frai^aise ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

CAZES, ROMAIN, born at St. Beat, (Haute- 
Garonne), in 1810, died in 1881. French 
school ; history painter, pupil of Ingres. 
Medals : 3d class, 1839, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 
1870. Works : Rebecca at the Well (1840); 
Infant Christ asleep(1845); Ascension (1846); 
Three Ages of Man (1859) ; Departure of 
the Apostles (1870) ; Three Theological Vir- 
| tues (1877); Sappho (1878) ; Well at Fonta- 
rabia, Spain (1879) ; Frescos in St. Francis 
Xavier's, Paris, and in the Church at Bagn- 
eres-de-Luchon. M tiller, 98. 

CAZIN, JEAN CHARLES, born at Samer 
(Pas-de-Calais) ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter ; pupil of Lecoq de Boisbau- 
dran. Medal, 1st class, 1880 ; L. of Honour, 
1882. Works: Dock-Yard (1876); Flight 
into Egypt (1877); Art (1879); Ishmael, 
Tobias (1880) ; Souvenir de Fete (1881) ; 
Judith (1883). 

CECILIA, ST., John Singleton Copley, W. 
S. Appleton, Boston ; signed, dated 1806. 
Portrait of Mrs. R. S. Derby ; dressed in 
white picked out with gold, playing on the 
harp, with angels in the air above. A. T. 
Perkins, 50. 

By Carlo Dolci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. St. Cecilia, half- 
length, playing the organ. Painted for 



2GO 



CECILIA 



Grand Duke Cosmo HI., who presented it 
to the Grand-Treasurer of Poland ; bought 
in 1742 for 1,600 livres from collection of 
Prince Carignan, Paris. Engraved by P. A. 
Kilian. Gal. Koy. de Dresde, i. PL 43. 

By Domenichino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
3 in. x 3 ft 10 in. St. Cecilia, a little more 
than half-length, standing, singing to the 
accompaniment of a bass viol ; an angel be- 
fore her holds upon his head a book of mu- 
sic. Painted for Cardinal Ludovisi ; taken 




St. Cecilia, Domenichino, Louvre. 

to France by Sieur de Nogent, who sold it 
to Jabach, from whom it was bought by 
Louis XIV. Engraved by E. Picart ; J. 
Gottard ; Muller. Musee franc.ais, i. Part 
4 : Filhol, v. 332 ; Landon, Vies, PI. 3 ; Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Ouercino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 f t. x 
3 ft. 3 in. Three quarters length, seated, 
playing an organ. Another St. Cecilia by 
Guercino, Dulwich Gallery, England. Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Raphael, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 
7 ft 3 in. x 4 ft. 7 in. St. Cecilia, standing 



between SS. Paul and John, and SS. Au- 
gustine and Mary Magdalen, with musical 
instruments at her feet ; she holds in her 
hands an organ, the instrument of religious 
music, and listens with rapture to a choir of 
six angels singing in the heavens above. 
Ordered by Lorenzo Pucci, Cardinal of 
Santi Quattro, in 1513, but not finished 
until 1516-17, when it was placed in the 
chapel of St. Cecilia, in S. Giovanni in 
Monte, Bologna, which had been built by 
Cecilia Duglioli dell' Oglio, a kinswoman of 
the Cardinal's. Vasari says the musical in- 
struments in the picture were painted by 
Giovanni da Udine. Carried to Paris in 
1796 ; transferred to canvas by Hacquin in 
1803 ; returned to Italy in 1815, recleaned, 
and placed in the Gallery. Much damaged 
by repainting. Many copies : one, by Dio. 
Calvaert, in Dresden Gallery ; another, by 
Guido Reui, in S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome. 
Engraved with variations by Marc Antonio. 
Engraved also by Bonasone (1531), Galli 
(1761), Strange (1771), David, Massard, Ro- 
saspina, Beisson, Bovinet, Gandolfi (1835), 
Pelee (1852), Lefebvre (1857), Landon. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 349 ; Gruyer, Vierges de 
Raphael, iiL 583 ;. Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 1 ; 
Passavant, ii. 148 ; Landon, Musee, v. PL 
33 ; Musee fran<;ais, i. ; Filhol, iii. PI. 193 ; 
Perkins, 174. 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Marquis of Lans- 
downe, Bowood. Mrs. Sheridan as St. Ce- 
cilia. Sir Joshua called this the best pict- 
ure he ever painted. Exhibited at Royal 
! Academy in 1884. Waagen, Treasures, iii. 
160. 

By Rubens, Berlin Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft, 
7 in x 4 ft. 3 in. Helena Forman, the paint- 
er's second wife, as St. Cecilia, singing and 
playing on the harpsichord ; attended by 
four angels, one of whom is seated upon the 
back of a sphinx. Collection of Prince 
Carignan ; sold by Due de Tallard (1756) 
| for 20,050 florins. Engraved by Witdouc ; 
and, with only two angels, by Panneels ; 
Lommelin. Smith, ii. 106. 

By Ary tichejfer. Portrait of Mine. Viar- 



8(31 



CEDEESTE6M 



clot Garcia ; standing before an organ, with 
one hand resting on the keyboard. 

CEDERSTROM, GUSTAV OLAF, Baron, 
born in Stockholm, April 12, 1845. Genre 
painter ; pupil in Stockholm of Malmstrom, 
and Winge, then (1876) in Dusseldorf of 
Fagerlin ; went in 1869 to Paris, where 




St. Cecilia, Raphael, Bologna Gallery. 

he studied under Bonnat and Meissonier. 
Spent a few years in Florence and Rome, 
but settled in Paris. Since 1878, member 
of Stockholm Academy. Works : Early to 
Bed and Early to Rise (1871) ; Mignon 
(1873) ; Sickbed (1874); Epilogue, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Dark Hours (1875) ; Trans- 
portation of Charles XII. (1878) ; The 



Poachers ; Recruiting under Charles XH 
(1879). Miiller, 98 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. 
(1879), ii. 742. 

CEDERSTROM, o THURE, Baron, born 
on the estate of Aryd, Smaland, Sweden, 
June 25, 1843. Genre painter ; cousin of 
preceding; pupil of Dusseldorf Academy 
under Albert Baur, and of 
Weimar Art-School ; trav- 
elled extensively in Europe. 
Medal, London, 1879. 
Works: Dealer in Old 
Clothes ; Spirit of the 
Times (1879). -Mailer, 99. 
GELS, CORNELIS, 
born at Lierre, Brabant, 
June 10, 1778, died in 
Brussels in 1859. History 
and portrait painter ; pu- 
pil in Brussels of A. Lens, 
and in Paris of Suvee ; 
went to Rome in 1801, 
and having spent seven 
years in various cities in 
Italy, settled in Antwerp, 
and in 1815 at The Hague ; 
went to Tournay in 1820 
as director of the Acad- 
emy, and settled at Brus- 
sels in 1827 ; visited Eng- 
land in 1836. Member of 
Academy S. Luca, Rome, 
1807. Gold medal, Ghent. 
Works: Descent from 
Cross (1807), Dominican 
Church, Antwerp ; Visita- 
tion (1808), Augustine 
Church, ib. ; Martyrdom 
of Si Barbara, Bruges 
Cathedral Christ on 
Mount, ftglise des Riches-Claires, Brus- 
sels. Biog. nat. de Belgique, iii. 403 ; 
Immerzeel, i. 133; Journal des B. Arts, 
v. 38. 

CENCI, BEATRICE, portrait, Guercino, 
Bridgewater House, London ; canvas. Un- 
usually bright and warm in tone for this 
master. Differs from Guido's picture, es- 



S6-3 



CENNINI 



pecially in the expression of sorrow. Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 36. 

Attributed to Guide Eeni, Palazzo Bar- 
berini, Rome. Three-quarters face of touch- 
ing beauty. Head enveloped in drapery, 
calm but sad expression, lips tremulous 
with suppressed emotion. If, as is probable, 
painted by Guido, it cannot be the portrait 
of Beatrice Cenci, as she was executed in 




Beatrice Cenci, attributed to Guido. Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 

September, 1599, and Guido did not paint 
at Rome until 1008. Furthermore, the 
picture is not mentioned in the Barberini 
Catalogues of 1C04 or 1623, so that it was 
not in the Gallery until after the latter date. 
Engraved by Perfetti. A. Bertolotti, Fran- 
cesco Cenci e la sua famiglia ; Edinburgh 
Review, Jan., 1879 ; Academy, March 18, 
1878 ; Giornale di erudizione artistica (Peru- 
gia, 1876), v. 276. 

CENNINI, CENNINO DI DREA, born 
at Colle di Val d'Elsa. Florentine school ; 
end of 14th and beginning of 15th century ; 
disciple for twelve years of Agnolo Gaddi. 
As he was in Padua in 1398, it is not im- 
probable that he left Florence after Aguolo's 



; death (1396). His Virgin and Saints, a 
fresco in the Hospital of S. Giovanni Bat- 
tista, Florence, has disappeared, but the 
frescos of scenes in the life of Christ, in the 
church of the Compagnia della Croce di 
Giorno, Volterra, dated 1410 and signed 
Cienni da Firenze, are generally assigned to 
Cenniui. He is best known, however, as 
the author of Trattato della pittura, the 
oldest modern work on the technical pro- 
cesses of painting. C. & C., Italy, i. 
477 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 643 ; Eastlake, Ma- 
terials, etc., 71 ; Baldinucci, i. 308 ; Milane- 
si, H libro dell' arte o trattato della pittura 
(Florence, 1859) ; Quellenschriften, i. 1 ; 
Preface to Mrs. Merrifield's translation of 
| Cennini's Treatise (London, 1844) ; Ltlbke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai, i. 150. 

CENTAUR FAMILY, ancient picture. 
See Ze.uxix. 

CENTAURS AND LAPITHS, BATTLE 
BETWEEN, ancient picture. See Micon. 

CEPHALUS. See Bloemen, Norbert van. 

CEPHALUS AND PROCRIS, Claude 
Lorrain, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 5 in.; signed, dated 
Rome, 1645. Cephalus receiving from Pro- 
cris the presents of Diana the hound Le- 
laps and the fatal dart with which she was 
subsequently killed. Liber Veritatis, No. 
91. Engraved by Browne, by Pye, and in 
Jones's National Gallery. Waagen doubts 
the genuineness of this picture. Cat. Nat. 
Gal.; Waagen, Treasures, i. 341 ; Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain, 227. 

By Guercino, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 6 f t 7 in. x 8 ft. 3 in. Cephalus weeping 
over the dead body of Procris, whom lie has 
accidentally slain with an arrow ; above, a 
Cupid weeping ; at right, two dogs. Painted 
in 1644 for Anne of Austria, Queen of France, 
who presented it to Cardinal Mazarin ; passed 
on his death to the Prince de Carignan, 
from whose collection bought in 1744 for 
4,000 livres. Engraved by L. S. Lempereur; 
Keyl. Gal. Roy. de Dresde, ii. PI. 22. 

Subject treated also by Polidoro da Cara- 
vaggio, Vienna Museum. 



OEPHISODOEUS 



V 



CEPHISODORUS, painter, about 420 
B.C. Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 36 [60]) as 
an able artist. Brunn, ii. 57. 

CEEEZO (Zerezo), MATEO, born at 
Burgos in 1635, died 
in Madrid in 1675. 
Spanish school ; son 
and pupil of Mateo 
Cerezo, a mediocre 
painter ; afterward 
scholar of Carrefio 
in Madrid, where he 
painted with consid- 
erable success during 
his short life. Painted chiefly religious 
compositions, choosing tender and agree- 
able subjects, such as Madonnas and Mag- 
dalens, rather than the ordinary sombre 
ones of the Spanish school. His best pict- 
ure, the Supper at Emmaus, is mentioned 
by Palomino as equal to works of Titian and 
Veronese. Works : The Assumption, and 
the Marriage of St. Catherine, Madrid Mu- 




A1 Cr 



e.z.o 




seum. Cean Bermudez ; Stirling, iii. 1032; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Madrazo, 386. 

CERMAK. See Gzermak. 

CERQUOZZI, MICHELANGELO, born 
in Rome, Feb. 2, 1602, died there, April 6, 
1660. Roman school ; son of a jeweller, and 
for three years pupil of a Flemish painter 
in Rome ; then of Pietro Paolo Bonzi, called 
II Gobbo de Frutti, from whom he learned 
to paint fruit and flowers ; but he soon ap- 
plied himself to painting battle-scenes with 
so much skill that he was called Michelan- 
gelo delle Battaglie. Afterward he was sur- 
named "delle Bambocciate," because he imi- 
tated the Dutch painter Pieter van Laar, 
who was called in Rome II Bamboccio. Cer- 
quozzi painted with extreme facility, and 
generally without preliminary drawings. 
Among his best works are the Four Sea- 
sons, painted for the Palazzo Salviati, Rome ; 



Italian Masquerade, Louvre ; Battle Field, 
Dresden Gallery. Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombri- 
enne; Burkhardt, 768, 804; Seguier, 41; 
Lanzi, i. 486. 

CERVA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA DELLA, 
Lombard school ; flourished about 1550 ; 
pupil of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and master of 
Gio. Paolo Lomazzo. Lanzi speaks of his 
Incredulity of St. Thomas, in S. Lorenzo, 
Milan, as entitling him to high rank in his 
school. Lanzi, ii. 499 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
milanaise ; Lomazzo, Trattato, vi. cap. 37. 
CERVARO, GIRLS OF (Les Cervarolles), 
Ernest Hubert, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 5 in. x 5 ft. 9 in. Group of Women of 
theRomanCampagna, life-size. Salon, 1859. 
Colour study, H. P. Kidder, Boston, Mass. 

CESARE DA SESTO, born at Sesto about 
1485, died in Milan after 1523. Lombard 
school ; one of the best scholars of Leonar- 
do da Vinci ; afterwards became intimate in 
Rome with Raphael, a double influence un- 
der which he painted the mannered Adora- 
tion of the Magi, Naples Museum ; and a 
large circular picture in the Vatican Gallery, 
Rome (1523). These pictures are inferior 
to his best and earlier works, the Baptism 
of Christ, Scotti Gallery, Milan ; and the 
Madonna with St. John, Melzi Collection, 
Milan. In this gallery there is also his large 
altarpiece of a later period, the Assumption 
of the Madonna, and in the Brera a charm- 
ing Madonna sitting under a laurel tree. 
Baldinucci, ii. 291; Lanzi, ii. 485 ; Burck- 
hardt, 708 ; Rio, iii. 209 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
milanaise ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 447. 

CESARI, GIU- 
SEPPE, Cavaliere 
d'Arpino, born at 
Arpino in 1568 (or 
1560?), died in 
Rome, July 3, 1640. 
Neapolitan school; 
called sometimes 
Giuseppino (Fr. 
Josepin, Little Jo- 
seph), and also H Marino de' Pittori, be- 
cause he was a corruptor in painting as 




\ 



264 



CESBIION 



Marino was in poetry. Pupil of his father, 
an obscure painter ; went, when about thir- 
teen years old, to Rome, where he was 
employed by several painters engaged in 
decorating the Vatican. His ability in sketch- 
ing attracted the attention of Pope Gregory 
XIII., who took him under his protection. 
Clement VIII. continued his patronage, made 
him superintendent of the decorations in S. 
Giovanni in Laterano, and knighted him. 
He enjoyed a great reputation in his time, | 
and was enriched and honoured by the ten 
popes under whom he lived ; but posterity 
has failed to accord him the rank in art 
which he enjoyed when living. The taste 
of the time was for glitter and ostentation, 
and Cesari, who had great facility of execu- 
tion, satisfied the popular expectation with- 
out troubling himself with much study. He 
had a well-attended school at Borne, and [ 
was at enmity with Caravaggio and Annibale 
Carracci. Among bis pupils was his brother 
Bernardino, who assisted him in many of 
his works. Works : Expulsion from Eden, 
Diana and Actseon, Louvre ; Roman Battle, 
Dresden Gallery ; Betrayal of Christ, Nymphs 
and Tritons, Cassel Gallery; Perseus and 
Andromeda, Vienna Museum ; Rape of Sa- 
bines, Horatii and Curiatii, Capitol Palace, 
Rome ; Diana, Capitol Museum, ib. ; Annun- 
ciation, Lateran Museum, _ 
ib. ; St. Clara, Hermitage, St. /K 
Petersburg. The ceiling fres- M^ T) 1 VT 
cos in the choir of S. Silvestro * * * ** 
Monte Cavallo, Rome, are among his better 
works. Ch. Blanc, cole napolitaine ; Lan- 
zi, i. 422 ; Burckhardt, 652, 757. 

CESBRON, ACHILLE, born at Oran, Al- 
geria ; contemporary. Flower and fruit 
painter ; pupil of Bonnat and Cormon. 
Medal, 3d class, 1884 Works : Fruits and 
Flowers, Vegetables (1879); In the Shade, 
In the Sun (1880); Roses, Poppies (1881); 
Gardener's Daughter, Street Altar (1882); 
In the Packing Room, Blackberry Road 
(1883); Metempsychosis, Peonies (1884); 
Le puits aux roses, Kitchen Garden 
(1885). 



CESI, BARTOLOMMEO, born in Bo- 
logna in 1556, died there, July 11, 1629. 
Bolognese school ; pupil of Gio. Francesco 
Brizzi, but afterward studied the works of 
Pellegriuo Tibaldi. He became a good 
painter, with a manner of his own, marked 
by suavity and elegance, which served Guido 
as a model. He succeeded best in fresco, 
his most noted works being a series of ten 
pictures illustrating the life of jEneas, in 
the Palazzo Favi, Bologna. His paintings 
in oil were only inferior to those of Tibaldi 
and of Aunibale Carracci. Among the best 
are the Adoration of the Magi, in S. Do- 
menico, Crucifixion of SS. Paul and Andrew, 
in S. Martino Maggiore, Crucifixion in 
S. Giovanni in Men to, Bologna. Malvasia, 
i. 239 ; Lanzi, iii. 49 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bo- 
lonaise ; Gualandi, Guida, 28, 50, 70. 

CESPEDES, PABLO DE, born at Cor- 
dova in 1538, died 
there, July 26, 
1608. Spanish 
school ; of a noble 
family, educated 
at University of 
Alcala, studied art 
in Rome and be- 
came distin- 
guished there, 
where he was called Paolo de Cordova, not 
only as a painter, sculptor, and architect, 
but also as a poet and scholar. The Pope 
conferred on him a canonry in the Cathe- 
dral of Cordova, and in 1577 he returned to 
Spain to attend to the duties of his office, 
finding time, however, for the pursuit of art 

and literature. 
His most famous 
work, the Last 
Supper, is in the 
Cathedral of Cor- 
dova, but much 

faded and injured. Viardot, Peintres de 
1'Espagne, 119 ; Stirling, i. 321 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole espagnole. 

CEULEN (Keulen) CORNEUS JANSON 
VAN, born in Amsterdam (?), about 1590, 





266 



CHABAL 



died between 1662 and 1664 Dutch school ; 
probably of German origin, judging from 
his name, Ceulen (i.e., Cologne). First style 
thoroughly Dutch, afterwards mingled with 
Flemish influence, through Van Dyck, with 
whom he painted for eight years at court of 
Charles I. Went to England in 1618, reign 
of James I, and remained until 1648, when 
he settled at Utrecht. AVorks : Magistrates 
(1647), HagueMuseum ; two portraits (1651), 
Dresden Museum ; three (1640, 1655), 
Brunswick Museum ; four portraits, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; one (1660), Lille Museum ; 
Charles I, Chatsworth ; Prince Henry, 
Kedleston Hall ; Duke of Buckingham, 
Duke of Portland, De Witt and Wife, Luton 
Hall ; Milton, Passmore Edwards, M.P., 
London. Burger, Musees, ii. 225 ; Kramm, 
iii. 798 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 229. 

CHABAL-DUSSURGEY, PIERRE 
ADRIEN, born at Charlieu (Loire), in 1815. 
Flower painter, chiefly in water-colour. 
Painted fourteen panels of flowers and fruit 
for the lobby of the Theatre Franyais; 
and decorated a room for the Empress Eu- 
genie. Medals : 3d class, 1845 ; 2d class, 
1847 ; L. of Honour, 1857 ; professor at 
the Gobelins in 1850. Works : Flowers 
(1842 to 1845); Crown of Flowers around 
the portrait of the Duke of Orleans. Bou- 
quet of Camellias (1846); Springtime (1849); 
Studies of Flowers (1843 to 1852) ; Virgin 
surrounded by Flowers, Corner of a Vine- 
yard in Autumn (1855) ; Crown of Flowers, 
Vase of Flowers (1861); Coucordia (1878); 
A Rose from my Garden (1879). 

CHABRY, MARTIN LEONCE, born 
at Bordeaux, died before April 1, 1883. 
Landscape painter. Medal, 3d class, 1879. 
Works : Pic de Clarabide, Heights of La Val- 
liore (1878) ; In the Laudes of Gascogne, 
Coast of Saintonge (1879); Isolated Rock at 
Valliere, In the Month of August (1880); In 
the old Forest of Buch (1881); Ruins of 
Thebes (1882); The Nile at Erment, Plains 
of Thebes (1883). 

CHACATON, JEAN NICOLAS HENRI 
DE, born at Chezy (Allier), July 13, 1813. 



French school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
Ingres, Hersent, and Marilhat. Has never 
been a popular painter, and has not exhib- 
ited in the Salon since 1857. Has travelled 
in Italy, the East, and Spain, taking his 
subjects from those countries. Medals : 3d 
class, 1838 ; 2d class, 1844 and 1848. Works: 
Prisoner of Chillon (1835); Porta Nuova in 
Palermo ; St. Rosalie's Day, Gorges of 
Amalfi (1838); Turkish Bazaar in Cairo, 
Arab Camp at Suez, Irregular Cavalry of 
Ibrahim Pasha, Valley of Jehoshaphat (1841); 
Factory in the Island of Procida (1842); 
Hourbarych Street in Cairo, Arabian Foun- 
tain, Souvenir of the Villa Borghese (1844); 
Departure of a Caravan, Plane-Trees of Hip- 
pocrates, Syrian Town (1846) ; Turkish 
Family Travelling, Caravan Halting, Arab 
Camp in the Desert, Courtyard in Granada 
(1848); Mosque in Jerusalem (1849); Muez- 

I zin's House in Gaza, Shepherds of the 
Roman Campagna returning from the Fields 
(1852); Arabs at a Cistern (1855) ; Carthu- 

: sian Convent in Syracuse, Souvenir of the 
Tiber, Bull-Fight in Valencia (1857). La- 
rousse. 

CHALDEAN SAGES, Giargione, Vienna 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 5^ in. 
Three astronomers, in Eastern costume, in 
the shadow of a glade. Two of them, an 
old man and one of middle age, stand en- 
gaged in conversation in foreground ; the 

! third, seated, examines the heavens and 
places a compass on an angle, as if to meas- 
ure it. Said to have been finished after 
Giorgione's death (1511) by Sebastian del 
Piombo, but there are no signs of it. In 
collection of Taddeo Contarini in 1535. C. 
& C., N. Italy, ii. 135. 

CHALON, ALFRED EDWARD, born i