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Tins Edition is limited to free hundred 
copies, of which this is No..... 






Rn BY 




Corresponding M?tnl>er of tin- French Institute 





Copyright, 1X85, 1886, by 
Charles Scribner's Sons 



l\i I-'.ue 


Plmtogravure from the original by Messrs. Bonssod, Valadon Sr Co., Paris . 4 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. BotissoJ, l/aladon 6- Co., Paris . 12 


Etching by James D. Smillie 56 


Lewistype by the Lewis Company, Boston 98 


Lewistype by the Lewis Company, Boston .121 



Lewistype by the Lewis Company, Boston . .128 



Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 2/7 



Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 220 


Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co., Paris . 240 


Etching by H. Pruitt Share ... ... .287 


Lewistype by the Lewis Company, Boston 

'2. IDYL 

Photogravure from the original by Messrs. Bonssui/, l/aladon & Co., /'tin's 

** The publishers are indebted for permission to reproduce the paintings in this 
list to W. M. Rossetti, Esq., London (for bis brother's ECCE ANCII.LA DOMINI); to 
Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New York (for Meissonier's EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVEN); 
to John A. Mitchell, Esq., Milwaukee (for Breton's EVENING AT FINISTERE); to 
B. Samuelson, Esq., M. P., London (for Sir Frederick Leighton's HERCULES); to 
D. O. Mills, Esq., New York (for Laurens HONORIUS); to the French Government 
for copies made in the Luxembourg gallery. 









ECCE HOMO .............. 




GAKY ............. ) 

ENTOMBMENT ............. 

ENTOMBMENT ............. 

ENTOMBMENT ............. 

EUROPA, RAPE OF ......... 

EVE, CREATION OF ........ 



LEVI ............. ) 


FEDE, LA ................ 


FISHER, KITTY ............ 


FLORA ................... 

FORNAKINA, LA ............ 

FORNARINA, LA ........... 

FORTUNE ................ 



GAMESTERS ............... 



Titian ......................... Vienna Museum. C 

MU.-HICCW ..... Braucacci Chapel, Curmiue, Florence . 8 

Rubens ...................... Antwerp Cathedral. 14 

Academiu 8. Fernando, Madrid. 15 

Jliclielaii'jelo ila Caramyijio ......... Vatican, Eoiue. 21 

Raphael ................ Palazzo Borghese, Rome. 21 

Titian ............................ Louvre, Paris . 22 

Paolo Veronese .... ........ Palazzo Ducale, Venice. 29 

Miehelanyelo . ... ............ Sistine Chapel, Rome. 30 

Raphael ................... Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 35 

- Paolo Veronese 

Paolo Veronese, 

Venice Academy . 45 

Albrecht Diirer 

William Hogarth 
Sir Joshua Reynolds 

Sebastian del Piombo 
Guido Reni 

1 unn Gallery . 

Prague Gallery . 

Palazzo Ducale, Venice . 

Foundling Hospital, London. 

Lord Crewe. 

Duchesse de Galliera . 

Uffizi, Florence. 

Uffizi, Florence. 

Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 

Accademia de S. Luca, Rome . 

Vienna Museum. 

Palazzo Farnesina, Rome. 

Michelangelo da Caravayyio ....... Dresden Gallery. 

Eustache Lesueur ................... Louvre, Paris . 
















Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 125 





lM P had .......................... Louvre, Paris. 125 

Paolo Veronese ....... S. Giorgio Maggiore, Verona. 126 

Gorreggio ........................ Parma Gallery. 140 



30. GIORGIONE, FAMILY OF Giorgione Palazzo Giovanelli, Florence. 141 

31. GRACES, THREE Itaphae.l Due d'Auiuale, Chantilly . 103 

32. GRANICUS, PASSAGE OF THE. . Charles Ijebrun Louvre, Paris. 169 

33. GREEN GUOCEK Gerard Don Louvre, Paris . 171 

34. GREGORY, ST., MIKACLE OF .Andrea Sacclu Vatican, Koine. 17:5 

35. HAGAR, DISMISSAL OF Guereino Brera, Milan . 11*7 

3C. HELEN, KAPE OF Gnido lleni Louvro, Paris. '228 

37. HEI.ENA, ST., VISION OF. ... I'aolo Veroe.*n Vatican, Rome. 229 

38. HELIODORFS, EXPULSION OF. Raphael Stanza tVEliodoro, Vatican, Rome . 230 

39. HENRI IV. AND THE SPANISH I , \ 13aron Alphonsc | , 

, Dominique Itinres -. , , .. - . Paris. 2.37 

AMBASSADOR ) ( tie Rothschild, ) 

40. HERcri.KS, DEATH OF Guido lleni Louvre, Paris. 240 

41. HEIWTLEN, INFANT I'/os/uio Carrait-i (?) Louvre, Paris. 241 

42. HERMANN AND THI'SXELDA. . . Angel iea K<m(fmann Vienna Museum. 244 


, TT i- Domenichino Louvre, Paris. 245 


44. HILANDERAS, LAS IW.>/<'z Madrid Museum. 257 

45. HII.I.K Bourn: /'/. Ilals Berlin Museum. 259 

4f!. HOLY FAMILY /'ederi</ l!<irc<-i<> National Gallery, London. 274 

47. HOLY FAMILY /'/ Harlolommco Paushanger House, Kngland. 274 

48. HOLY FAMILY Minhelunye.lo Ufli/i, Florence . 275 

49. HOLY FAMILY Mnriltn Louvre, Paris . 276 


,, , Ilatmael Louvre, Paris. 277 


51. HOLY FAMILY Rubens Pala/./o Pitti, Florence. 278 

52. HOLY FAMILY Andrea del Sarln Louvre, Paris. 278 

53. HOLY FAMILY -\ndren del Snr/o National Gallery, London. 279 

54. HOLY FAMILY DEL BACINO. Giulio Romano Dresden Gallery. 280 

55. HOLY FAMILY, CAXKHANI . . .Raphael Munich Gallery. 281 

56. HOLY FAMILY OF FRANCIS I.. Raphael Louvre, Paris. 282 


.- Raphael (?) .Madrid Museum . 282 



f Murillo .Madrid Museum. 283 


59. HOLY FAMILY LA PERLA . . . Raphael Madrid Museum . 284 

60. HORATII, OATH OF THE. . . . .Louis David Louvre, Paris. 291 

fil. IGNATIUS, ST., MIRACLES or. Rubens Vienna Museum . 311 

(52. INCENDIO DEL BOROO Raphael Stanza dell' Incendio, Vatican, Rome . 313 

63. INN, THE Jan Steen Hague Museum. 317 

64. ISABELLA D*ESTE, COURT or .Lorenzo Costa Louvre, Paris. 320 

65. JACOB, BLESSING OF Rembrandt Cassel Gallery. 323 

66. JACOB, DREAM OF Spagnoletto Madrid Museum. 324 

67. JACOB AND RACHEL Giordano Dresden Gallery. 325 

68. JAFFA, PLAGUE OF Antoine Jean Gros Louvre, Paris. 329 

69. JEREMIAH .... Washington Allston Yale College Gallery. 338 




70. JERICHO, BLIND MEN OF Nicolas Pomsin Louvre, Paris. 339 

71. JEROME, COMMUNION OF ST. .Ayostino Carracci Bologna Gallery. 340 

72. JEROME, COMMUNION OF ST. .Domenichino Vatican, Rome. 341 

73. JESUS, SLEEP OF Annibale Carracci Louvre, Paris. 343 

74. JOAN OF ARC IN PRISON . . .Paid Delaroche Duke of Padua. 344 

75. JOB VISITED BY HIS FRIENDS ] r , Contr, p; ar qj.^ 

f Francesco da Voiterra L/ampo Santo, nsa . c>4o 

(History ot Job) . . . . ) 

7G. JOHN, ST., BAPTIST Leonardo da Vinci Louvre, Paris. 347 

77. JOHN, ST., BAPTIST, ON ) . T -p o 10 

i Nicola* Poussin Jjouvre, iraus . oio 


78. JOHN, ST., BAPTIST, IN j y , f ^ _ . .Uffi/.i, Florence. 349 


79. JOHN, ST., EVANGELIST, ) ^^ ^^ _ _ priyatc ^^ Pftris _ 350 


80. JOSEPH, CHASTITY OF JoJwn Bilc.reU Uffizi, Florence. 356 

81. JOSEPH, CHASTITY OF FAonello Spnda Lille Museum . 357 

82. JOSEPH IN PRISON SpaynoMlo Escurial, Spain. 358 

83. JOSEPHINE, CORONATION OF. .Louis Vat-id Versailles Museum. 359 

84. JUDAS, PAYMENT OF 7'Va Anyelico Florence Academy. 3G1 

85. JUDITH CrMofano Allori Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 3G2 

80. JUDITH Philip Van Dyck Hague Museum . 3G2 

87. JUDITH AND HOLOFERNES . . .Artemisia Genlili'schi Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 363 

8<S. JULIAN, ST., HOSPITALITY OF. Cristofano Allori Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 3G4 

89. JUPITER DESTROYING CRIMES . Paolo Vernnem', Louvre, Paris . 367 

90. JUPITER AND lo Correggio Vienna Museum. 367 

91. JUSTINA, ST , MARTYRDOM OF. Paolo Veronese, S. Giustina, Padua. 3G8 


\ Raphael Vatican, Eome . 369 


93. KIRMESS fiubens Louvre, Paris . 388 

94. Kiss, THROWING A Jean Baptise Ureiizc. .Alfred de Rothschild, London . 389 

95. KNIGHT'S VISION liaphael National Gallery, London . 394 



1. East lake, Sir Charles Lock 1 3(5. Francia, Francesco 82 

'2. Eeckhout, Gerbrand van ilen 9 37. Froncken, Frans, the younger ... 85 

3. Elliott, diaries Loring 1(! 38. Francken, Hieronymus, the elder. . IS 7 

4. Klinore, Alfred 1(! 39. Fivmiiiet, Martin '.ID 

5. Elsheiiner. Adam 17 40. Fn re, Kdouard 1(1 

0. Engcrtli, Eduard von 20 41. Frith, William Powell !4 

7. Enhuber, Karl von 20 42. Frolich, Lorens 114 

8. Frdinann, Otto 23 43. Fromeutin, Eugene 95 

!l. Ktty, William 27 44. Frost, William Edward '.HI 

10. Everdingen, Allart von :JO 45. Fiihrich, Josef Kilter von its 

11. Exncr, Jolmiin Julius I!2 4(i. Fuller, (leor^c !IS 

12. Eyck, Hubert van :i2 47. Fuseli, Henry 100 

13. Kyck, Jun van ,'ili 

4S. (iabbiani, Antonio Domenico 101 

14. Fnccini, Pietro 3H 411. ( laddi, Taddeo 102 

15. Faed, Thomas UK 50. (JaiiiKborou^h, Thomas 104 

1(. Fattore, II 41! 51. (iallait, Louis lOli 

17. Ferniri, Luca 52 52. (larbo, KafYaellino del lo'.t 

18. Ferri, Giro 52 ">:}. (lebhardt, Fdunrd von IK! 

19. Feti, Domenico 5,'i 54. fleertx, Julius lls 

20. Feucrbach, Anselm 51! 55. (lenelli, Bonaventura 121 

21. Feyen-Perrin, Augustin 54 5(!. Clenoels, Abraham 122 

22. Fildes, Luko 5(i 57. (ientilesehi. Ora/.io 12:! 

23. Flamenjjf. Fran<;ois Cl 58. Gerard, Francois Pascal ... 12(! 

24 Flaudrin, Hippolyte 02 5!. Gericault, Theodore 127 

25. Flinck, Govaert (55 (iO. Gt'rome, Jean Leon 1 28 

26. Floris, Frans 07 fil. Gcrwx, Henri 130 

27. Fontana, Lavinia (!!) (52. Geselscha]), Eduard 130 

28. Forest, Jean Baptiste 71 (i3. Ghirlandajo, Domenico 132 

29. Fiirster, Ernest Joachim 73 <i4. (Ihirlandajo, Hidolti 133 

30. Fortuny y Carbo, Mariano 75 <!5. Gifford, Robert Swain 131! 

31. Fouquieres, Jacques 77 (i(!. Gifford, Sand ford Hobinson 135 

32. Fragonard, Jean Honor6 78 (57. Gilbert, Sir John 137 

33. Franyais, Francois Louis 78 68. Gillot, Claude 138 

34. Francesca, Piero della 79 69. Giordano, Luca. 139 

35. Fraaceschiui, Marcantonio 80 70. Giorgioue, II 140 



71. Giotto 142 

72. Giovanni da TJdine 144 

73. Girodet de Roussy, Anne Louis . . 146 

74. Giulio Romano 149 

75. Glaize, Leon 1"! 

76. Gleyre, Charles Gabriel 153 

77. Goltzius, Hendrik 15(5 

78. Goodall, Frederick 157 

79. Gow, Andrew C 160 

80. Goya y Lucieutes, Francisco Jose 

de 1<!1 

81. Govc'ii, Jan van 161 

82. (io/.zoli, Beno/zo 162 

83. Gral'f, Anton 164 

84. Graham, Peter 165 

85. Granet, Francois-Marias 167 

86. Grunt, Sir Francis 168 

87. Gray, Henry Peters 170 

88. Greco, El 171 

89. Gregory, Edward John 172 

90. Grouze, Jean Baptiste 173 

91. Gros, Antoine Jean 178 

92. Grosses Franz Theodor 179 137. 

93. Griitzner, Eduard 181 ! 138. 

94. Guide, Hans Fredrik 183 139. 

95. Gudin, Theodore 183 140. 

96. Guercino, 11 184 141. 

97. Guerin, Pierre Narcisso 185 142. 

98. Gallons, Godfroid 186 

99. (iaido (Guido Reni) 187 

100. Guillaumet, Gustavo 

101. Guillemet, Jean Baptiste Antoine 

102. Gussow, Karl 

103. Gysis, Nikolaus 

104. Haas, Mauritz Frederick Hendrick 

de 194 

105. Hagen, Theodor 197 

106. Haghe, Louis 198 

107. Hagn, Ludwig von 198 

108. Hals, Frans 202 

109. Hammer, Guido 205 

110. Hamou, Jean Louis 206 

111. Hanoteau, Hector 207 ! 158. 

112. Hansen, Konstautiu 208 

113. Harlow, George Henry 211 

114. Harpiguies, Henri 212 

Harrach, Ferdinand von ...... 

Hart, James McDougal ........ 

Harvey, Sir George ........... 

Haseuclever, Johaun Peter ..... 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert ..... 

Hebert, Ernest ............... 

Heem, Jan Davidsz de ........ 

Heemskerk, Marten van ........ 

Heinz, Joseph, the elder ........ 

Heist. Bartholomeus van der 
Heudschel, Albert ............. 

Henner, Jean Jacques ......... 

Herkomer, Hubert ........... 

Herrera, Francisco de, the elder 
Herring, John Frederick ...... 

Hess, Heinrich Maria von ...... 

Heyden, August von .......... 

Heyden, Jan van der .......... 

Hildebrandt, Eduard .......... 

Hildebrandt, Theodor ......... 

Hill, Thomas ............... 

Hire, Laurent de la . 


189 145. 

190 | 146. 

191 147. 
193 148. 




Hodgson, John Evan ....... 

Hoft', Karl ................. 

Hogarth, William .......... 

Hoguet, Charles ........... 

Holbein, Hans, the elder. . . . 

Holbein, Hans, the younger. 
Holl, Frank ....... ' ....... 

Homei', Winslow ........... 

Hondocoeter, Melchior d'. . . 
Honthorst, Gerard van ..... 

Hooch, Pieter de ........... 

Hoogstrateu, Samuel van . . . 
Hook, James Clarke ........ 

Horschelt, Theodor ........ 

Horsley, John Callcott ...... 

Hosemann, Theodor ........ 

Houbraken, Arnold ........ 

Howard, Henry ............ 

Huber, Johann Rudolf ...... 

Hiibner, Karl ............. 

Hiibner, Julius ............ 

Huet, Jean Baptiste ......... 

Humbert, Ferdinand ....... 

Hunt, William Holman ..... 

Hunt, William Morris.. 






162. Hltnten, Erail Johannes 



163. Hunter, Colin 



164. Huntingdon, Daniel 



165. Huvsniaus, Cornelia 



166. Huvsuui, Jan vau 




167. Ingres, Jean Augustc Dominique . 



168. Inman, Henrv 


169. In ness, (leorgn 



170. Isabev, Jean Baptiste 



171. Israels, Jo/cf 



172. Jacque, Charles Kmile 



173. Jacquenmrt, NY-lie 



174. Jardin, Karel du 



175. Jeaurat, Ktionno 



176. Jerichau-Baiimann, Elisabeth. . . . 



1 77. Joest, Jan 



178. Johnson, Eastman 



1711. Jonghe, Jan Baptist do 



180. Jordaens, Jakob 



181. Jordan, Rudolf 




182. Kaemnierer, Fredorik Hendrik . . 



183. Kalckreuth, Stanislaus von. . . . . 



184. Half, AVillem 



185. Kalkar, Hans von 



Knrgor, Karl 374 

Kauffmann, Angelica 375 

Kauffniann, Hermann 376 

Kaiiffinani), Hu<^o 377 

Kaulbach, Friedrich 377 

Kanlbaoh, Friedrich August 377 

Kaulbacb, Hermann 378 

Kiiulbacli, AVillieliu von 378 

Keller, Albert 3711 

Keller, Ferdinand 380 

Kensett, John Frederick 3SO 

Kessel, Jan van, the elder 382 

Kefd, Cornelis 3.s:i 

Kevser, Nicaise de 3X4 

Kl.ieker von Khrenstrahl, David . 3!M) 

Kuans, Ludwig 3112 

Kneller, Sir (iodfrey 31)3 

Knille, Otto 3115 

Koch, Josef Anton 3!l'.( 

Koninck. Philip do. 404 

Kotxebue, Alexander von 40(1 

Kraus, FriedriHi 40H 

Kreling, August, von 4 OS 

Kn'iyer, Peter Severin 411 

Kriiger, Fran/ 412 

Kiichler, Albert 413 

Kur/.bauor, Kduard 417 

Kyhn, (Peter) Villielm (Kuril. . . 418 



1. Eberle, Adam 

2. Ebert, Karl 

3. Eeckhout, Gerbrand van den 

4. Ehrhardt, Adolf 

5. Ellenrieder, Mario 

0. Elliger, Ottinar, the younger 

7. Elsheiiner, Adam 

8. Empoli, Jacopo Cliimcnti da 

9. Engelbrechtsen, Cornells 

10. Enliubor, Karl von 

1 1. Es, Jacob van 

12. Escalante, Juan Antonio 

Ill Espinosa, Jacinto Joronimo do ... 

14. Estcnsc, BaMassare 

15. Everdingen, Allart van 

1(5. Evordingeu, Cesar van 

17. Evers, Anton Clemens 

18. Eyck, Jan van 

19. Fabritius, Karel 

20. Falconnetto, Giovanni Maria 

21. Falens, Karcl van 

22. Farinati, Paolo 

23. Fasolo, Lorenzo 

24. Ferrier, Gabriel 

25. Feselen, Melchior 

2C. Feti, Domcnico 

27. Fiacco, Orlando 

28. Flemael, Bartliolet 

29. Flinck, Govaert 

30. Fontana, Lavinia 

31. Forster, Ernst Joachim 

32. Fortuny y Carbo, Mariano 

33. Fragonard, Jean Hoiiore 

34. Francia, Francesco 

3 35. Francia, Giacomo di Francesco ... 82 

4 30. Franck, Franz Friedrich 84 

10 37. Francken, Ambrosius, the elder. . . 85 

12 38. Francken, Frans, the younger. . . . 80 

10 ' 39. Franqnclin, Jean Augustin 88 

10 40. Fraser, Alexander 89 

18 41. Fivminet, Martin 90 

18 42. Fivre, F.douara 91 

20 ' 43. Fries, Ernst 93 

21 44. Fromentin, Eugene 90 

24 45. Furini, Francesco. 99 

24 40. Fvt, Jan . . . 101 

2(1 47. Gabron, Guiliam 102 

31 48. Gaddi, Taddeo 103 

31 49. Gael, Barend 103 

31 50. Gaelen, Alexander van 103 

34 51. Galloche, Louis 107 

52. Garofalo, II Ill 

38 53. Gassel, Lucas 112 

40 54. Gassies, Jean Bruno 112 

41 55. Gaudin, Fraj' Luis Pascual 113 

42 50. Gaufiier, Louis 114 

43 57. Geddes, Andrew 110 

52 58. Geel, Joost van 117 

53 59. Genoels, Abraham 122 

53 (JO. Gentileschi, Orazio 123 

51 ' 01. Gerard, Francois Pascal 127 

03 I 02. Gi'ricault, Theodore 128 

GO i 03. Gerome, Jean Leon 129 

09 : 04. Gillot, Claude 138 

73 05. Gimignani, Giaciuto 138 

70 GO. Giordano, Luca 140 

78 , 07. Girard, Firmin 144 

82 ' 08. Girodct de lloussy, Anne Louis. . . 140 



69. Glink, Franz Xavier 153 

70. Goltzius, Hendrik 15(5 

71. Gool, Jan van 158 

72. Goupil, Jules Adolpbc ICO 

73. Goyen, Jan van 1C2 

74. Gozzoli, Benozzo 1C3 

75. Gmn, Daniel ICC 

76. Granacci, Francesco 16(i 

77. Grandi, Ercolo di (liulio KIT 

78. Granot, Fraufois Marius 1(18 

79. Grabber, Pieter de 171 

80. Greuze, Jean Baptiste; 174 

81. Grevedon, Henri 175 

82. Grittier, Jan 175 

815. Grifficr, IJobcrt 17C 

84. Grimmer, Hans 177 

85. Gros, AntoiiH! Jean IT'.t 

86. Gryeff, Adriimn do 182 

87. Guardi, Francesco 182 

88. Guercino, II 185 

89. Guorin, Pierre Narcisso 18(! 

90. Guibal, Nicolas 1S7 

1)1. Guido Keni 18!) 

92. Haekaert, Jan 195 

93. Hagen, Joris van dor 197 

94. Hallo, Claude Guy 200 

95. Hallo, Noel '. 201 

96. Hals, Dirk 201 

97. Hals, Frans, the elder 202 

98. Hals, Frans, the younger 203 

99. Hamon, Jean Louis 20(1 

100. Harpignies, Henri 212 

101. Haudebourt-Lescot, Mine. Hor- 

tense Victoirc 216 

102. Hubert, Ernest 220 

103. Heem, Cornelia do 222 

104. Heem, Jan Davidsz de 223 

105. Heemskerk, Marten van 224 

106. Heinz, Joseph, the elder 228 

107. Hellemout, Mattheus van 230 

108. Heist, Bartholomeus van der .... 232 

109. Hemissen, Jan van 233 

110. Hennequin, Philippe Auguste. . . . 235 

111. Henner, Jean Jacques 236 

112. Herkomer, Hubert 243 

113. Herp, Guilliam van 245 


114. Herrcra, Francisco de, the younger 247 

115. Hess, Karl 250 

116. Hetsch, Philipp Friedrich von. . . 252 

117. Heusch, Jacob de 253 

118. Heyden, Jan van dor 254 

119. ffickel, Josef 255 

120. Hildebrandt, Theodor 258 

121. Hobbema, Mcyndert 263 

122. Hoocke, Jan van don 205 

123. Hoot, Gerard 266 

124. Hogarth, William 269 

125. Holbein, Huns, the younger . . . 272 

126. Hondecooter, Melohior <!' 286 

127. Hondius, Abraham 287 

1'JS. Honthorst, Gerard van 288 

129. Hooch, Piotor do 289 

130. Hoogstraton. Samuel van 289 

131. Horomans, Jan Joy.ef, the elder. . 292 

132. Houasse, Michel Ango 295 

133. Houbrakon, Arnold 295 

134. Hubor, Johann lludolph 298 

135. Hudson, Thomas 300 

136. Hue, Jean Francois 300 

137. Huet, Joan Baptist c 301 

138. Hughtonbiirgh, Jan van 302 

139. Hutin, Charles 308 

140. Huysum, Jan van 310 

141. Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique. 316 

142. Isabcy, Joan Baptiste 321 

143. Israels, Jo/cf 322 

144. Jacque, Charles Kniile 328 

145. Janssens, Victor Honoiv 333 

146. Jardin, Karol du 335 

147. Jeaurat, Etienne 336 

148. Jongo, Ludolf de 353 

149. Jordaens, Jakob 355 

150. Jouvenet, Jean 360 

151. Kaemmerer, Fredcrik Hendrik. . . 370 

152. Kalf, Willcm 372 

153. Kauft'mann, Angelica 376 

154. Keirincx, Alexander 379 

155. Kessel, Ferdinand van 382 

156. Kessel, Jan van, the elder 382 



157. Keyser, Thomas de 385 1G3. Koekkoek, Barend Cornells 400 

158. Klein, Johann Adam 389 164. Koninck, Philip de 404 

159. Kloeber, August von 391 165. Koninck, Salomon 404 

160. Klomp, Aelbert 391 166. Kulmbacb, Hans von 414 

161. Knaus, Ludwi< 393 167. Kupetzky, Joliaun 416 

162. Kneller, Sir Godfrey 394 



Actul., Academy. 

A.N.A., Associate of the National Academy. 

A.U.A., Associate of tlie Royal Academy. 

A.H.H.A, Associate of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy. 

A. H.S.A., Associate of the Koyal Scottish 

C. A: C., Crowe ami Cavalcaselle. 

Cat., Ciituloguc. 

Ch., Church. 

Col., Collection. 

Gal., Gallery. 

H., Height. 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

Inst., Institute. 

L. of Honour, Legion of Honour. 

Mus., Museum. 

N.A., National Academy or Academician. 

Nat. Gal., National Gallery. 

Pal., Palace, Palais, Palazzo. 

!{., Royal. 

K.A., Jtoyal Academy or Academician. 

R.H.A., Royal Hibernian Academy or 

K.S.A., Hoyal Scottish Academy or Acad- 

S., San, Siuitii. 

SS., Santi, Santc. 

S. M., Santa Maria. 

St., Saint. 

W. & W., Woltmann and Wocrmann. 

* * 

Wwils hi italics Intlicute tht; 

j/luct; of urtltles on th<i subjects 



EAKINS, THOMAS, born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1844. Portrait and 
genre painter ; pupil of Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts, of J. L. Gi'rome, Loon 
Bonnat, and of A. A. Duinont, sculptor. At 
present professor of painting at Pennsylva- 
nia Academy. Studio in Philadelphia. 
Works in oil : William Rush carving his 
Allegorical Representation of the Schuylkill ; 
Surgical Clinic of Professor Gross in Jeffer- 
son College, Jefferson Collection ; Portraits 
of Dr. Brin ton and Professor Rand ; Chess- 
Players (1878), Metropolitan Museum, New 
York; Professional at Rehearsal, T. B. 
Clarke, New York ; Pair-Oared Shell (1870) ; 
May Morning in the Park (1881), Fairnmn 
Rogers, Philadelphia ; Mending the Net, 
Shad Fishing at Gloucester on the Dela- 
ware (1882) ; Singing Girl (1883). Water- 
colours : Whistling for Plover, Base-Ball 

EARL, RALPH, born at Lebanon, Conn., 
about 1751, died at Bolton, Conn., in 1801. 
History and portrait painter, self-taught 
Was at first an itinerant portrait painter ; 
went with the Governor's Guard to Lexing- 
ton and Cambridge, and painted from 
sketches made at the time four scenes of 
the battle of Lexington, engraved by Amos 
Doolittle, which are believed to be the first 
historical compositions by an American ar- 

tist. Went to London after the war and 
studied under Benjamin West, but returned 
to America in 178(>. Among his works are 
a large picture of the Falls of Niagara, and 
portraits of George III., Roger Sherman, 
Judge Ellsworth, Colonel George Willis, 
Dr. Dwight of Yale College, and Governor 
Strong. His son, Augustus Karle, history 
and marino painter, fellow-student at Royal 
Academy in 1813 with C. R. Leslie and S. 
F. B. Morse, was known from his roving 
disposition as the "wandering artist." James 
Karle, portrait painter (died in Charleston, 
S. C., in 1700), was perhaps a brother of 
Ralph. Bryan (Graves), 451 ; French, Art 
in Connecticut (Boston, 1870), 32. 

at Plymouth, Eng., 
Nov. 17,1703, died in 
Pisa, Italy, Dec. 24, 
18G5. History paint- 
er, pupil in London 
of Haydon and of 
Royal Academy ; ex- 
hibited at British In- 
stitute, in 1813,Christ 
raising the Daughter 
of the Ruler of the 
Synagogue. Went 
to Paris in following year to copy pictures 
in Louvre, but the escape of Napoleon from 


Elba obliged him to return to Plymouth, 
where he saw the deposed Emperor on the 
Bellerophon, and from memory and some 
hasty sketches painted him surrounded by 
his officers, a picture, now belonging to 
Lord Lansdowne, which brought him into 
notice. In 1817 he went to Italy, and in 
1819 to Greece, returning to Rome, where, 
and at Ferrara chiefly, he spent in all four- 
teen years. He sent, in 1823, to the Royal 
Academy three views of Rome, but his first 
work which won special praise was The 
Spartan Isidas (1827), now the property of 
the Duke of Devonshire. He became an 
A.K.A. in 1828 and R.A. in 1830 ; was ap- 
pointed, in 1841, secretary to the royal coin- 
mission for decorating the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, in 1842 librarian of the Royal Academy, 
in 1843 keeper of the National Gallery, and 
in 1850 was elected president of the Eoyal 
Academy and knighted. From that time 
until his death he was chiefly engaged in 
selecting pictures to be bought by the gov- 
ernment for the National Gallery. He pub- 
lished " Materials for a History of Painting " 
(1847), and "The Schools of Painting in 
Italy," translated from Kugler (1851); and 
edited "Kugler's Handbook of Painting" 
(1855). Works : Christ lamenting over Je- 
rusalem (replica ; original, 1841), Haidee 
(1831), Escape of the Carrara Family (rep- 
lica, 1850 ; original, 1834), Lord Byron's 
Dream (1827), National Gallery, London ; 
Una delivering the Red Cross Knight (1830); 
Greek Fugitives (1833); Arab selling Cap- 
tives (1837); Gaston do Foix before Battle 
of Ravenna (1838); Christ blessing Little 
Children (1840); Hagar and Ishmael (1843). 
Redgrave ; Art Journal (1855), 277 ; Cat. 
Nat. Gal.; Life by Lady Eastlake (London); 
Quarterly Rev., April, 1870 ; Sandby, ii. 280; 
Kunst-Chronik, i. 3 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 93. 
Akron, O., Dec. 13, 1850. Landscape painter, 
self-taught. Studio in New York. Works : 
At Elyria Ohio (1881); Near Avon New 
York, Apples (1882); Autumn Study of 
Beecli Trees (1883); Marsh Lands, Meadow 

' Brook, Morning at Lakeside (1884); Indian 
Summer, Autumn Days (1885). 

EATON, JOSEPH O., born in 1829, died 
atYonkers,N.Y.,in 1875. Genre and portrait 
painter. An Associate of the National Acad- 
emy in New York, where his professional life 
was spent ; visited Europe in 1873. Ideal 
works : Landscape View on the Hudson 
(1868); Moral Instruction (18G9); Last Chap- 
ter.Dawning Maternity (1871); Greek Water- 
Carrier (1872); Lady Godiva (1874); Tender 
Thoughts, John Hoey, New York. Portraits: 
R. S. Gifford (18G9) ; E. J. Kuntze (belonging 
to National Academy, New York); Rev. G. H. 
Hepworth (1870). The painter's own portrait 
(belonging to the National Academy), and 
Looking through the Kaleidoscope, were 
I exhibited after his death. Water-colours : 
Vision of the Cross (18G9); Little Nell and 
her Grandfather (1871); Two Pets (1874). 

EATON, W T YATT, born at Philipsburg, 

Canada, May G, 1849. Portrait and figure 

painter ; pupil of the National Academy and 

[ of J. O. Eaton in New York, later of Ge- 

I rume in Paris. In 1872 he studied and 

' sketched in England and France. Studio 

in New York. Works : Farmer's Boy (1870); 

Reverie (1875); Harvesters at Rest (1876); 

Boy Whittling, G. A. Drummond, Baltimore; 

Portrait of William Cullen Bryant (1878); 

do. of Miss Ella M. M. (1879); Grandmother 

and Child (1880) ; Portrait (Salon, 1884). 

Sheldon, 169 ; Mag. of Art (1884), 496. 

EBEL, FRITZ, born at Lauterbach, Hesse, 
in 1835. Landscape painter ; was a chemist, 
but took up painting in Darmstadt in 1856, 
and in Diisseldorf under Schirmer in 1857- 
61. Studied nature in Germany, Italy, and 
France, and settled in Dtisseldorf. Works : 
Mountainous Country (1862); View in Rhon 
Mountains ; Hessian Summer Landscape 
(1864); View in Southern Tyrol; Use Val- 
ley in the Hartz ; Autumn Landscape in Teu- 
toburg Forest; Uklei Lake in Holstein (1880). 
Miiller, 151. 

EBERHARD, KONRAD, born at Hinde- 
lang, Algiiu, Nov. 25, 1768, died in Munich, 
March 12, 1859. History and portrait 


painter and sculptor, first instructed by his ' 
father, then studied in Munich and Rome. 
Works : Altarpiece with Historic Develop- 
ment, Propagation, and Triumph of Chris- 
tianity ; Procession of Corpus Christi ; por- 
traits of Dante, Goetho, Cornelius, and 
Plattner. Regnet, i. 87. 

eur), Ary Si-hejfer, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft x 5 ft. 4 in.; signed. Ulrich, son of 
Count Eberhard, of Wiirtemberg, on recov- 
ering from wounds received in the battle of 
Reutlingen, which he had lost, sought his 
father at Stuttgart. The old knight re-' 
ceived him coldly, and when his son took 
his seat opposite him at. table, sei/.ed a knife 
and cut the table-cloth between them. Ul- 
rich, stung by the insult, made extraordinary 
efforts in the next battle, Dolh'ugen, which 
he won at the cost of his life. The picture 
represents the father alone in his tent, 
weeping over his son's dead body, as de- ' 
scribed in Schiller's ballad. Salon, 1834 ; 
Collection of Louis Philippe ; from Luxem- 
bourg. Replicas in Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington, Boston Art Museum, and Rotterdam 
Museum. A second picture (Salon, 1851), 
called Le Coupeur de Nappe, represents the 
father cutting the table-cloth. Art Treas- 
ures of America, i. 5. 

EBERLE, ADAM, born at Aix-la-Cha- ' 
pelle in 1805, died in Rome in 1830. His- i 
tory painter, student of the Academy at 
Ddsseldorf. After Cornelius was appointed 
director, Eberle became his devoted pupil, 
painted two remarkable pictures under his 
influence, and accompanied him to Munich 
in 1825, where he painted a large fresco on 
the ceiling of the Odeon, and another in the 
arcade of the Hofgarten. In 1829 he went 
to Rome. Works : Entombment, St. He- , 
lena and Angels ; Apollo with the Shepherds 
(fresco, Odeon Hall, Munich) ; Investiture 
of Maximilian I. of Bavaria (fres- /y__^ 
co, Arcade of the Hofgarten). / M V 
Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 573 ; Brock- 2 Lt\. 
haus, v. 708 ; FV.rster, Denkmale, iii. 29 ; 
do. Gesch., v. 13, 07, 78. 

EBERLE, ADOLF, born in Munich, Jan. 
11, 1843. Genre painter, son of Robert E., 
pupil of Munich Academy, and from 1856 
of Piloty. Painted his first picture in 1801. 
Medal at Vienna, 1808. Works : Seizure of 
the Last Cow (1801) ; Fruitless Effort ; Out- 
post Scene ; Camp School from Thirty 
Years' War ; Quartering of Pandours ; Love 
Declaration ; Unsuccessful Music Rehearsal; 
Wedding Day; Subhastation (1809), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; After Baptism ; Zither 
Lesson ; Old Innsbruck Woman with Grand- 
daughter; Bridal Dance; Saying Grace; 
The First Deer (1879); Visit to Bcllo 
Family (1883) ; Hunter's Lodge (1884). 
Zcitschr. f. b. K., ix. (Mittheilungcn, ii. 25); 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1884), i. 401, 412 ; N. illustr. 
/eitg. (1878), ii. 510. 

EI5ERLE, ROBERT, born at Meersburg, 
on Lake Constance, July 22, 1815, died at 
Eberfmg, near Munich, Sept. lit, isii'J. 
Animal painter, pupil in Constance of J. J. 
Bidcrmann. Went to Munich in 1830 and 
formed himself by studying nature, Ruys- 
dacl, and Du Jardin ; spent three mouths in 
America (1848), and then settled in Munich, 
where ho died from an accidental pistol- 
shot. Works : Shepherd with Herd return- 
ing Homo (1840) ; Grain Harvest (1848) ; 
Morning at Weinheim, Leaving the Alp 
(1849) ; Frightened Sheep, Cattle returning 
Home, Sheep Resting (1850) ; Return from 
the Fields (1851) ; Alp on Benedictcn Wall, 
Goats starting for Pasture, Sheep resting at 
Noon, Evening in Pasture, Sheep resting 
and Shepherd Boy (1852) ; Sheep during 
Storm, Early Snow (1853) ; Shepherd and 
Sheep (1854) ; Shepherd's Dinner (1855) ; 
Sheep driven by Dog (1850) ; Village; in the 
Morning, Peasant and Shepherd (1857) ; 
Sheep driven over Precipice by an Eagle 
(1858), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Village Scene 
(1859) ; Suabian Shepherd with Herd (1800), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Cows returning 
from Pasture (1801). Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 
574 ; Andresen, iv. 238 ; Brockhaus, v. 708. 

EBERS, EMIL, l>orn in Breslau, Dec. 14, 
1807. Genre painter, pupil of Ddsseldorf 


Academy in 1831 and 1837. Visited Hol- 
land and Normandy with Hitter and Jordan, 
whose style he followed. Lives in Breslan, 
whither he returned in 1844. Works : 

Smugglers about to Land (1830), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Fisher-Hut with Mother on each side, 
and Daughter (1831) ; Smugglers Surprised I Engraved by M. 
(1832) ; Smugglers in Tavern (1833) ; War Dresde, i. PI. 18. 
Scene in small Town ; Rescued Women 

presentation of Christ to the people, after 
scourging, by Pilate (John xix. 5). 

By Annibale Carracci, Dresden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. x 3 ft. 6 in. Christ, half- 
length, crowned with thorns, with an angel 

From Modena Collection. 
Keyl. Gal. Roy. do 

among Fishermen (1841) ; Dutch Smugglers 

By Curregyio, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft, 7A in. Christ, 

on Coast of Normandy (1842); Prussian Hus- [ half-length, with hands bound and crowned 
sars quartered in France (1843); Life-Boat 
(1844) ; Pilot-Boat (1845) ; Storm on In- 
land Sea (1845) ; Mutiny on Brig (184S). 
Andresen, iv. 217 ; Brockhaus, v. 709 ; 
Diisseldf. K., 230. 

EBERT, KARL, born in Stuttgart, Oct. 
13, 1821, died in Munich, March 1, 1885. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art- 
School under Steinkopf. Settled at Munich 
in 1840. Member of Amsterdam Academy. 
W T orks : Starnberg Lake, Suabian Alp near 

the Hohenstaufen, Bathing 
Woods (1807), Stuttgart 

Children in the 
Gallery ; Land- 

scape near Rotterdam ; Storm in the Woods ; 
The Seasons ; Beech Wood with Sheep 
(1871) ; Evening Landscape (1873) ; Wood 
of Tall Trees, Wood 

Interior (1874); 

with thorns ; in front, the Virgin sinks faint- 
ing into arms of Mary Magdalen ; behind, 
Pilate looking out of a window, and on 
other side the head of a soldier. Painted 
about 1510-21 ; bought of the Colonna 
family, Rome, by Sir Simon Clarke, who 
sold it to Murat, King of Naples ; from his 
widow, the ex-Queen, it passed to the Mar- 
quis of Londonderry, who sold it in 1834, 
together with the Education of Cupid, to 
National Gallery for ,11,500. Placed by 
Meyer among the doubtful works of Correg- 
gio. At the end of the ICth century there 
were two Ecce Homos claimed to be by 
Correggio : One belonging to Count Prati 
(engraved by Agostino Carracci, 1587), the 
other to Lorenzo Salviati, Florence. This 

latter, which passed to the Colonna family, 


I . I* Chestnut Wood in I is the National Gallery picture. The other 
* - Tyrol ; Forge in the ' has disappeared. Engraved by Bettelini ; 
Woods; Vranduk in Bosnia (1880) ; Storm ' Doo ; Asioli ; Rosaspina. Meyer, Correg- 
(1882). Brockhaus, v. 712 ; Illustr. Zeitg. ' gio, 357, 487 ; do. Kiinst. Lex., i. 434 ; 
(1881), ii. 441 ; (1SS3), i. 400 ; Kunst- Waagen, Treasures, i. 32(5 ; Kugler (East- 
Chronik, xx. 445. lake), ii. 505 ; Richter, C2. 

ECCE ANCILLA DOMINI (Behold the By Giiiilo Reni, Dresden Gallery ; wood, 
Handmaid of the Lord), Dante Gabriel oval, H. 1 ft. !) in. x 1 ft. 3 in. Head of 
liossetli, National Gallery, London ; canvas, Christ, crowned with thorns, with eyes 
H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 5 in. The Annuncia- turned upward. One of Guide's most cele- 
tion. Head of Virgin painted from Chris- brated pictures, known through many cop- 

tina Rossetti 
angel, but it 

W. M. Rossetti sat for the 
was finished from another 

sitter. Royal Academy, 1850 ; sold in 1853 
to Mr. MacCracken, Belfast, for 52 10s. ; 
Graham sale (1880) bought for National 
Gallery (1880), 850. Art Journal (1884), 

150 ; Athen. (1883), i. 23. 
ECCE HOMO (Behold 

the Mau), the 

ies. Presented by Innocent XII. to Augustus 
II., King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. 
Restored by Palm. Engraved by Ant. Krii- 
ger. Gal. Roy. de Dresde, iii. PI. 26. 

By Guido Reni, Dresden Gallery ; copper, 
H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 1 in. Christ, crowned 
with thorns and holding a reed in his bound 
hand ; around his shoulders a red mantle. 


Formerly in the Imperial Gallery at Prague, 
whence bought in 1748. En graved by C. 
G. Schultze. Gal. Roy. cle Dresde, iii. PL 4. 

By Guido Keni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
x 1 ft. 6 in. Head of Christ, crowned with 
thorns, and surrounded with an aureole ; at 
right, before his shoulder, a reed. Given 
to Louis XIV. iu 109(5 by the Commander 
de Hautefeuille. Filhol, i. PL 53 ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

By Guido Reni, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; wood, oval, H. 1 ft. 9.V in. x 1 ft. 4 in. 
Head of Christ, crowned with thorns. For- 
merly in Collection of Benjamin West, 1'. I!. A. 
Bequeathed to National Gallery by Samuel 
Rogers in 1855. Engraved by William 

By Murillo, Lord Ashburton, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. Christ, crowned 
with thorns, wearing a brown robe, looking 
up, half-length. Purchased in 1N15 from 
General Sebastiani. Stirling, iii. 1430 ; 
Waagen, ii. 102 ; Curtis, 199. 

By Murillo, Cadiz Museum ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. Christ, crowned with 
thorns, and wrists bound, standing front, 
half-length ; upper part of body naked, 
lower part draped with red ; right hand 
holds a reed. Presented to Capuchin Con- 
vent, Cadiz, in 17:50, by Dona Catalina Rod- 
riguez ; deposited in Museum in 1852. Rep- 
etitions, with changes : Mrs. Thomas Birchall, 
Preston, Lancashire ; Robert Baillie-Hamil- 
ton, Langton House, Dunse, Berwickshire, 
Scotland ; William C. Cartwright, Aynhoe, 
Northamptonshire. Ponz, Viage, xvii. Ii.'!!) ; 
C. Bermudez, ii. 02 ; Curtis, 197. 

By Marilln, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 4 in. Bust, three quarters 
right, looking down ; heavy dark hair and 
beard, crowned with thorns, purple robe. 
Companion to Mali-r Dolorosa, Madrid Mu- 
seum. From Isabel Farnese Collection. 
Curtis, 198 ; Madrazo, 487. 

By Murillo ; called The Veronica, original 
lost ? On a napkin, suspended by two upper 
corners, which are formed into rosettes, is 
the face of Christ, crowued with thorns, the 

eyes downcast, the beard short, and the hair 
falling below the chin. Called La Santa Faz 
(The Holy Face); formerly in Capuchin Con- 
vent, Seville, whence disappeared, in what 
way is unknown. Repetitions : Lord Over- 
stone, London ; A. J. Beresford-Hope, Lon- 
don. Curtis, 198. 

By II Sodumti, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
wood, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft. (i in. Christ, half- 
length, crowned with thorns, and hands 
bound with a rope ; behind, three execu- 
tioners. Engraved by I. Bonajuti. Gal. du 
Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 80. ' 

By II Sn/luiii/i, Siena Academy ; fresco, H. 
3 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. Christ, crowned witli 
thorns and bound to the column. Formerly 
in cloister of Convent of S. Francesco ; cut 
from wall in 1841. 

By Lo Sjtiit/iHi, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, H. 1 ft. U in. x 1 ft. Christ crowned 
with thorns, presented by Pilate to the peo- 
ple. Nat. Gal. Cat. 

B\' Tintoretto, Munich Gallery; copper, 
H. 1 ft. 15 in. x 1 ft. Christ sitting, crowned 
with thorns, holding in his bound hands the 
reed sceptre, aided by an oflicer ; in back- 
ground, Pilate. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. Christ lies fainting on the ground, 
with a soldier standing beside him ; on the 
other side, Pilate withdraws the robe from 
the scourged body and points it out to the 
Jews. In treatment, resembles Titian more 
than Tintoretto. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, 
iii. :i52. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; slate, H. 2 
ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 9.1 in.; signed. Figure, half- 
length, turned to the right ; arms bound in 
front of body ; head bent, and blood drops 
from punctures of the crown of thorns. 
Painted in 1547 for Charles V., and carried 
by Titian to Augsburg ; at Yustc at time of 
Emperor's death. A copy, given by Titian 
to Aretino, is perhaps the one of the Averoldi 
collection, Brescia, now in gallery of Due 
d'Aumale ; exhibited at Leeds in 1H(JH and 
iu Paria in 1874. C. & C., Titian, ii. 100. 

By Titian, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 


canvas. Christ, with face inclined and arms 
folded, sorrowing. Painted before 1500. 
C. & C., Titian, i. 58. 

By Titian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
12 ft. x 8 ft. ; signed and dated 1543. Christ 
presented to the people from the top of a 
flight of steps leading from the palace into 
the square below ; the gaoler below looks 
on while Pilate (portrait of Aretino) points 
to the Captive ; the turbaned Turk in the 
crowd below is Sultan Solimau, aud the 

tano, Padua, dated 1574. Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 429 ; C. & C., Titian, ii. 92. 

Subject treated also by Hans Holbein, 
elder, Donauschiugen Gallery ; Lodovico 
Carracci, Pal. Doria, Rome ; Bartolommeo 
Montagna, Louvre ; Fra Bartolommeo, Pal. 
Pitti, Florence ; Lodovico Cardi da Cigoli, 
ib. ; Mabuse, Antwerp Museum. 

ECHENA, JOSE, born in Spain, contem- 
porary. Paints chiefly oriental subjects. His 
picture, The Arrival at Calvary, painted for 

-?M - r*?s " l ' - i/i 
^:: f ,T :^.'b-' -- lj.:1 '-"^ f 

/ m>- 3^S^T P 

Wi^-l/fe/f; M^U" 

Ecce Homo, Titian, Vienna Museum. 

knight is said by tradition to be Charles V., 
but the features are those of Alfonso d'Este. 
Painted in Venice for Giovanni d'Anna, who 
placed it in his palace, now the Palazzo Mar- 
tinengo ; sold in 1G20 to Sir Henry "Wotton, 
English envoy at Venice, for Duke of Buck- 
ingham, who a few years afterward refused 
.7,000 for it ; sold by his son for about 700 
to Canon Hillewervo of Antwerp, who sold it 
to the Archduke Leopold, for his brother, 
the Emperor Ferdinand HI. ; removed from 
Prague to Vienna in 1G88 by Emperor 
Charles VI. Copy in sacristy of S. Gae- 

the high altar of the Cathedral, Madrid, was 
exhibited in London in 1884. Another 
work, Snake Charmers, was painted in 1882. 
ECHTER, MICHAEL, born in Munich, 
March 5, 1812, died there, Feb. 4, 1879. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Munich Academy un- 
der Heinrich Hess, Clemens Zimmermann, 
and Julius Selmorr, then of Olivier ; assisted 
Schnorr in the decoration of the Royal Pal- 
ace in Munich, and in 184G Kaulbach, by 
whom he was much influenced, in that of 
the Berlin Museum. After his return to 
Munich, he became member of the Academy 


in 1862, and professor at the Art School of 
Industry in 1868. Order of St. Michael, 
Belgian Order of Leopold, Bavarian Medal 
for Art and Science. Works : St. George, 
Peter delivered from Prison ; Walk to Ein- 
maus; Battle in Lech Valley in 955 (1800), 
Treaty of Pavia (both in Maximilianeum) ; 
Biirbarossa's Wedding (1865), Burial of Wal- 
ther von der Vogelweide (both in National 
Museum, Munich); Four Elements (18I>5) ; 
Telegraphy and Railroad Travelling (18(!2), 
Central Railway Station, Munich ; thirty 
Scenes from Wagner's Operas (Royal Palace, 
Munich) ; Fancy and Poetry (1873) ; Aurora ; 
Twelve Months represented by Children's 
Figures. Brockhaus, v. 722 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xiv. 369 ; Regnct, i. 104. 

ECHTLER, ADOLF, born at Gorit/, 
Austria ; contemporary, Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Venice Academy un- 
der Karl Blaas, of Vienna Academy under 
Fiihrich, and of Munich Academy. Lives 
in Paris. Gold Medal, Berlin, 1875. Works : 
Difficult Problem ; Peaceful Company ; 
Honi soit qui mnl y penso (1877) ; Souve- 
nir of Italy, " Thou whom I have always 
Loved . . '." (187!)) ; The Kiss (1880) ; Nea- 
politans in Normandy, In the Morning 
(1881) ; Repentant Sinner (1882) ; Ruin of 
a Family, All is Vain (1883) ; Souvenir of 
Venice (1884) ; Five Orphans (1885). 

EMIL), born at Copenhagen, July 2, 1832. 
Marine painter, pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy, but really self-taught ; visited Ger- 
many and Italy in 1853-56, and England, 
France, and Italy in 1873. Works : View 
of Venice ; Fishermen fleeing from Storm 
(1862) ; Fishermen boarding Yacht (1866). 
Weilbach, 139. 

MISTOCLES VON, born in Athens, Nov. 
17, 1842. Landscape and marine painter, 
pupil in Potsdam of Wegener, then in 1861- 
63 in Diisseldorf of Oswald Achenbach ; 
travelled in Germany and Switzerland, took 
part in the campaign of 1870-71, then, after 
visiting many parts of Europe, settled in 

Diisseldorf, where, since 1880, lias painted 
panoramic views on a large scale. Works : 
Thingvalla Lake, Almanadjao, six Icelandic 
views, Square near Mosque in Stambool, 
Chan Street in Stambool (187:!) ; Voring Fos 
in Norway, North Cape, Evening on Bos- 
porus (1875) ; Brusa (1871!) ; View on 
Norwegian Coast (1877) ; Battle of Grave- 
lotto (1880); Battle of Nieuwpoort (1881), 
Entry of Mecca Caravan into Cairo. Brock- 
haus, v. 72<! ; Mflller, 153. 

ECKERMANN, KARL, born in Weimar in 
1834. Landscape painter, pupil from 1841I 
of Preller, then spent 1855 in Brussels, and 
in 185(i went to Carlsruhc to study under 
Schirmer. Travelled afterwards through 
Germany, Belgium, and Holland. Works : 
Rhine Valley and Vosges ; View on Isle of 
Kilgen ; Landscape in Holstein ; View on 
Inn River ; Liineburg Heath ; View mi 
Rhine ; Landscape in Storm ; series of Still- 
Life (Castle Ettersburg, near Weimar). 
Midler, 153. 

HELM, born at Varnacs, Jutland, Jan. 2, 
1783, died in Copenhagen, July 22, 1853. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy under Abildgaard ; won 
great gold medal in 1809, went in 1810 to 
Paris, where ho studied under David, and 
after his return went to Rome in 1813 ; be- 
came in 1817 member of, 1818 professor in, 
and in 1827 director of the Copenhagen 
Academy. Commander of Order of Danne- 
brog. Works : Jacob's Death (18(111) ; Loko 
and Sygin (1810) ; Women at the Holy Sep- 
ulchre (1812) ; Bidder's Death (1817) ; Axel 
and Walburg, Eight Scenes from History of 
Oldenburg (1818 28) ; Christ at Gcthsem- 
anc (1824) ; Crossing the Red Sea (1815), 
Russian Man-of-War (1828), Danish Ship 
under Sail (1835), Sailing Vessels in Sunset, 
Ships off Copenhagen Roadstead (1848), 
four others, Copenhagen Gallery ; Death of 
Balder, Academy, ib.; Calm Sea (1832) ; 
Swedish Fisherman's .Boat (1833) ; Sermon 
on Mount (1834) ; Meeting at Sea ; Pirate 
Schooner ; Krouborg ; Portraits of Oehleu- 


schliiger, Thorwaldsen, and of royal family. 
Brockhaus, v. 728 ; Weilbacli, 140. 

born at Drammen, Norway, in 1822, died at 
Sandwik, July 13, 1870. Landscape painter, ! 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Schir- 
jncr. At the age of eighteen he had been 
placed in a mercantile office in Christiania, 
but during a previous sojourn of several 
years in Holland having imbibed a taste for 
art, relinquished his post and entered the 
technical drawing school, where lie obtained 
a government stipend in 1824, and went to 
Diisseldorf. Returned to Christiauia in 
1848, lived and sketched in Madeira in 
1852-54, and founded the Academy of 
Painting at Christiania in 185'.*. Works : 
View in Saeter Valley, Christiania Gallery ; 
High Plain in Middle Norway; Peak of 
Romsdalshorn ; View in Sigdal ; Series of 
Views in Madeira. 

ELIAS), born at. Greifswalde, Pomcrania, 
Jan. 22, 1803, died Dec. 24, 1852. History 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy, and 
studied in Home in 1830-44. Executed 
paintings for Christiausborg Castle in 1831- 
32, and after his return from Rome began 
to decorate the Chapel of Christian IV- in 
Roskilde Cathedral, but was paralyzed in 
1852. Medals, 1827, 1831, 1833, 1837. 
Member of Copenhagen Academy in 1845. 
Works : David playing the Harp before 
Saul (1837) ; Christ blessing the Children 
(1840 and 1844) ; Staerkadder awaiting An- 
gantyr for Combat; Young Faun (1830), 
Copenhagen Gallery. Weilbach, 14!). 

EDELFELT, ALBERT, born at Helsing- 
fors, Finland; contemporary. Genre painter, 
pupil of Geromc. Lives in Paris. Medals : 
3d ('lass, 1880 ; 2d class, 1882. Works : 
Blanche de Namur and Prince Hacquin 

(1877) ; Duke Charles IX. of Sweden insult- 
ing the Dead Body of his Enemy Fleming 

(1878) ; Episode in Revolt of Finland 
Peasants, 159G, The Cherries (1879) ; Child's 
Funeral in Finland (1880) ; At the Artist's 
(1881) ; Divine Service on Sea-shore (1882) ; 

Old Finland Peasant Woman (1883) ; At Sea 
(1884) ; The Little Ship (1885) ; Under the 
Beeches, Charity(SeneySale,New York, 1885). 
EDEMA, GERARD, born in Friesland in 
1C52, died at Richmond, England, in 1700. 
Dutch School. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Allart van Everdingen, whom he imi- 
tated, and like whom painted chiefly views 
in Norway ; went to England in 1070, and 
thence visited Norway and Newfoundland. 
The figures in his landscapes were generally 
supplied by Thomas Wyck. Works : River 
Scene, Landscape, Hampton Court Gallery. 
iii. 24), Giuseppe Cenari, Louvre ; copper, 
H. 1 ft. <! in. x 1 ft. 2 in. Adam and Eve, 
nude, fleeing to right ; at left, the angel 
with a sword. Collections of Prince de 
Carignan, of Prince de Conti, and of Louis 
XVI. Engraved by Levasseur in Musee 
franeais ; Villerey in Filhol. Landou, vii. 
10; Filhol, ii. 134 ; lli'veil, vi. 385. 

By Masaccio, 
Brancacci Chap- 
el, Carmine, 
Florence ; fresco 
on left wall. 
Adam and Eve, 
their loins cov- 
ered with fig- 
leaves, are fleeing 
before the Angel 
with a sword, who 
appears above. 
Kugler (East- 
lake), i. 222. 

By Tintoretto, 
Venice Academy; 
canvas. Adam 
and Eve driven 
from Paradise. 
Companion piece 
to Death of Abel; 
both formerly in 
Scuola di SS. 

Expulsion from Eden, Masaccio, Bran- Trillitu. Zanot- 

cacci Chapel, Carmine, Florence. . /,Q 



George H. lionghlon, Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; canvas, H. 3 ft. (! in. x 5 ft. (! 
in. Scene from Irving's " Knickerbocker's 
History of New York," Chapter VII. Will- 
iam the Testy, Governor of New Nether- 
lauds, having issued an edict prohibiting 
the smoking of tobacco, a multitude of citi- 
zens, armed with pipes and an immense 
supply of ammunition, sat themselves down 
in front of his house and fell to smoking 
with all their might. The Governor, with , 
cane uplifted, is threatening the rioters, 
conspicuous among whom is Antony van 
Corlaer, the Trumpeter, and BrinkerholV, 
hero of tho clam-aiid-oiiion war against 
the Yankees. Painted in 1877. Original 
study, Charles S. Smith, New York. 

EDMONDS, FRANCIS W., born in Hud- 
son, N. Y., Nov. -22, 1800, died in 18<;:i. 
Genre painter, self-taught. For many 
years connected with the American Bank- 
Note Company, on whose notes several of 
his pictures were engraved. Kxhibited 
first in 18:!C, elected an A.N.A. in 183S, and 
N.A. shortly after ; he was trustee and at 
one time recording secretary of the National 
Academy. Visited Italy in 1840. Works : 
Penny Paper (183!)) ; Sparking (1840, en- 
graved by the Art Union) ; Boy Stealing 
Milk (18413), Jonathan Sturges, New York ; 
Florence, Vesuvius (1844) ; Sleepy Student 
(1846) ; Trial of Patience (1848) ; Speculator 
(1852) ; Taking tho Census (1854) ; Thirsty 
Drover (ISijC) ; Bargaining (1858), Image 
Pedler, "Wind-Mill, 11 L. Stuart, New York ; 
Gil Bias and the Archbishop, John Taylor 
Johnston, ib. ; Dame, in the Kitchen. 
Tuckerman, 414. 

EDOUARD, ALBERT, bom at Caen (Cal- 
vados), April 22, 1845. Historical, genre, 
figure, and portrait painter, pupil of Cornu, 
Geroine, Coguiet, and J. E. Delaunay. Medal, 
3d class, 1882 ; 2d class, 1885. Works : Don 
Juan cast Ashore (1870); Meditation (1874); 
Apollo and Daphne (1875); Odalisque, In- 
discreet (187(5); St. Leonard and the Pris- 
oner, The Toilet (1877); St. James led to 
Execution (1878); Dante and Virgil on the 

Frozen Lake (187!)); Thetis (1880); Caligula 
and the Cobbler (1882); On the Norman 
Coast in August (1883); Khiomara (1884); 
Briseis and her Companions weeping over 
the Body of Patroclus (1885). 

EDRIDGE, HENRY, born at Paddington, 
Aug., 176!), died in London, April 23, 1*21. 
Miniature, landscape, and architecture paint- 
er in water-colours; apprenticed to W. Petlier, 
engraver and landscape painter ; student at 
Royal Academy in 1784; elected an A.K.A. 
in 1820. Was a successful painter of minia- 
tures, among his sitters being the royal fam- 
ily. William Pitt, Lord Macartney, the Spen- 
cer family, Southey, Wordsworth, and Ben- 
jamin West. In 1810 he began painting 
landscapes, and in 1*1'.) architectural sub- 
jects, the first being the Cathedrals of l>eau- 
vais and Rouen. Several of his landscapes 
are in South Kensington Museum. Sandby, 
ii. 65 ; Portfolio (18SO), I'.li;. 

born in Am- 
sterdam, Aug. 
11), 1621, died 
there, Oct. 22, 
1674. Dutch 
school ; por- 
trait and his- 
to ry painter. 
Son of a gold- 
smith and 
after 1635 pu- 
pil of Rembrandt, whose manner lie adopted. 
Works : Christ blessing Little Children, Na- 
tional Gallery, London (bought as a Rem- 
brandt from Suermondt Collection); Christ 
and the Woman taken in Adultery, Adora- 
tion of Magi, Warrior in Repose, National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Dedication of Sam- 
1 uel, Louvre; Male portrait (1640, Copy of 
Rembrandt's Doreur), Solomon sacrificing 
to the Idols (1654), Mother and Child (165! I), 
Sophonisbc receiving tho poisoned Cup 
(1664), Tobias healing his Father, Female 
portrait, Brunswick Museum ; Music Les- 
son (1655), Copenhagen Gallery ; Circum- 
cision, Jacob's Dream (1661)), Cassel Gallery ; 


Christ and the Doctors (1002), Abraham 
casting off Hagar, Isaac blessing Jacob, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; David and Abigail, 
Schleisshcim Gallery; Presentation in the 
Temple, Mercury killing Argus (1GGG), Rais- 
ing of Jairus' Daughter, Berlin Museum ; 
Triumph of Mordecai, Guard House, Lord 
Bute, London ; Portrait of the Historian 

Dapper (1609), 
Stiidel Institute, 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
hollandaise ; Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 053 ; Im- 
incrzecl, i. 210 ; Ivramm, ii. 415 ; lliegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 273. 

DEN, born in Antwerp, Eeb. 0, 1793, died 
in Paris in 1801. History, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Antwerp Academy ; 
then practised sculpture, in which he ob- 
tained a prize in 1821 ; took up painting 
without a master, and in 1823 obtained the 
first prize in Ghent, and soon after a medal 
at Douai. In 1831 settled at The Hague, 
where in 1839 he became director of the 
Academy ; moved to Mechlin in 1844, then 
to Brussels, and in 1859 to Paris. Member 
of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, and Rot- 
terdam Academies. Works : St. Nicholas 
Festival, Checkmate (1823); Peasant plough- 
ing in a Storm (1829); Battle of Bautersnm, 
Conquest of Tirlemout (1831); Doctor's 
Visit, Savoyard with Dog and Monkey, 
Nuptials of Jacqueline of Bavaria with Duke 
Jan of Brabant (1839), National Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Abdication of Jacqueline of 
Bavaria, Peter the Great atZaandam (1840); 
Death of "William the Silent, Death of Van 
Spuyk (together with Wappers), Hambroek 
on Isle of Formosa (1841); Orphans coming 
from Church, Departure of Scheveningen 
Recruits, Domestic Scene at Scheveningeu, 
Paternal Admonition, Old "Woman reading 
aloud, The Poor Blind, Rabbit on the Wall, 
Pay-Day, Return from the Chase, Return 
from Fishing; Collection of portraits of mod- 
ern artists born in the Netherlands (1822). 
Immerzeel, i. 217 ; Kramm, ii. 414. 

EERTVELT. See Artcelt. 

EFFIE DEANS, Sir John Everett Mil- 
lais, Robert Loder, Esq., M.P. ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. in. Scene from Sir 
Walter Scott's " Heart of Midlothian ; " one 
of the clandestine meetings between Effie 
Deans and Geordie Stauuton or Robertson. 
The outlaw, in a slate-coloured coat with 
the deep cuffs of the period and wearing a 
Lowland broad bonnet, is on the further 
side of a wall in a wood ; Effie, on the side 
toward the spectator, attired in a loose pink 
costume and holding her blue snood in her 
hand, turns her eyes upward with a hope- 
less expression as she listens to her betray- 
er's words ; at her feet sits a faithful collie, 
looking wistfully up into her face. Painted 
in 1877 ; Arbuthnot sale (1882), 892. 

London, May 2, 1816, died in Algiers, 
March 25, 1803. History and genre painter, 
pupil in drawing of Henry Sass, and student 
at Royal Academy in 1836 ; became an A.R. A. 
in 1848, and R.A. in 1860. Won a well-de- 
served reputation as a painter of social his- 
tory subjects. Works : Spanish Girl (1838) ; 
Laugh when you Can (1839); Scene from 
Henry IV. (1840); Scene from Le Diable 
| Boiteux (1844), National Gallery ; Bucking- 
ham Rebuffed (1846); Wooing of Katherine, 
Luceutio and Bianca (1847); Peter the Great 
and Catherine (1850); Pepys's Introduction 
to Nell Gwynne (1851); Life of Bucking- 
ham, Death of Buckingham (1855); Knight- 
ing of Esmond (1857); Night before Naseby, 
Madame de Maintenon and Scan-on (1859) ; 
Katherine and Petruchio (1860), his last 
picture. Cat. Nat. Gal.; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
anglaise ; Redgrave ; Sandby, ii. 310. 

EGGERS, JOHANN KARL, born at Neu- 
strelitz, Mecklenburg, in 1790, died there in 
1803. History and portrait painter, pupil 
in Dresden of Matthai. At Rome Le aided 
in the revival of fresco painting, and at Ber- 
lin assisted Cornelius in decorating the por- 
tico of the new Museum with frescos. Works : 
Mater Dolorosa, Sleeping Venus (1819); Cu- 
pid (1823), BeUevue Castle near Berlin ; 



Christ with Mary and Martha ; Washing 
the Lord's Feet ; Choir in Nauniburg Cathe- 
dral. Fresco : Rome Personified (Vatican). 

born at Hildesheini, Sept., 1702, died Jan. 
1C, 1869. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under 
Sohn ; a beautiful and gifted woman at Court 
of Weimar, mentioned by Goethe in his 
poems. Became canoness of Hildesheini. 
Works : Shepherds in the Carapagua (I8U5): 
Girl braiding her Hair ; Hagar in the Des- 
ert ; Exposure of Moses ; portraits of Queen 
Teresa of Bavaria and of Grand Duchess of 
Saxe- Weimar. Allgem. d. Biogr., v. (>8:{. 

born in Leyden, Sept. 22, 1(5(51, died 
in Antwerp, Jan. 8, 1674. Flemisli school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil of Gas- 
par van den Hocck in 1(515, and then of 
Rubens, whom he assisted especially in the 
execution of the Marie de Medici pictures 
at the Louvre. Later was in the service of 
Louis XIII. and Louis XIV., and was 
among the original members of the French 
Academy, founded in 1(548. He worked 
also conjointly with Vouet, and returned to 
Antwerp before Nov. 11, 1(5(50. Works : 
Portrait of Archduke Leopold William, two 
portraits of Philip IV. of Spain, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Maria de' Medici, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery.- Allgem. d. Biogr., v. (587 ; Biog. nat. 
de Belgique, vi. 512 ; Jal, 5'28 ; Rooses 
(Rcber), 318 ; Van den Branden, 7(5(5. 

OF, Louis Gallail, Tournay Museum ; can- 
vas. The Duke of Alva, who under the 
forms of justice had executed his noble 
Dutch predecessors, Count Lamoral of Eg- 
mont and Philip of Montmorency, Count 
Horn, visits their bodies when arranged 
for burial and contemplates them with 
savage satisfaction. Painted in 1851 ; pur- 
chased by city of Tournay. Replica (185!)), 
water-colour (14x19 in.), W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore. Art Treasures of America, i. 88. 

EGOGNI, AMBROGIO. See llorywjnone, \ 

Santander, Spain ; contemporary. Works : 
Don Quixote and the Parson ; Bright Look- 
out ; Boudoir Scene, A. J. Drexel, Phila- 
delphia ; She laughs at his Folly, W. B. 
Bement, Philadelphia ; Disappointed ; Re- 
turn from Walk, C. P. Huntington, New 
York ; Reading Girl, Borie Collection, Phila- 
delphia ; Michelangelo beside the Body of 
Vittoria Colonna ; Charles V. at San Yusto 
(18G8); After a Brawl (186!)); Infant Don 
Carlos and Infanta Dona Juan a swear to de- 
fend the Catholic. Faith (1870); The Be- 
trothed (l,s,s:!). 

EGYPT, FLIGHT INTO. See J-'li./ht. 

EGYPT, REPOSK IN. See fle/ww?. 

EGYPTIAN FEAST, Edwin /,..,,,/, Fine 
Art Society, London ; canvas, H. (5 ft. 2 in. 
X 12 ft. -4 in. A feast spread in a vast dec- 
orated hall of Egyptian architecture, with 
massive columns in background ; in the cen- 
tre slaves are dragging a mummy upon a 
bier, to remind the numerous revellers that 
they are mortal ; in foreground, musicians. 
Engraved by E. Girardet. 

in New York, July 22, 1<S27. Landscape 
and figure painter ; after graduating at Co- 
lumbia College he went to Paris (1847), 
where he studied two years under Couture, 
and then at Diisseldorf. He was at, one 
time employed by a London illustrated 
journal to furnish designs for wood-cuts. 
Elected N.A. in lH(i(). Studio at Saratoga 
Springs. Works: Peter Stuyvesant (1N50); 
Eight illustrations of Miles Standisli (1S.">S); 
Autumnal Landscape (1867); Monk (1S71); 
Vintage in the Valtellina Italy ( 1877;; Twi- 
light from the Bridge of Pan Basses-Pyre- 
nees (1878); Subject for Thanksgiving (187!); 
Lady of the Manor (1882); The Old, Old 
Story (1884). Tuckerman, 4(51. 

Schubert von Ehrenberg), born at Antwerp, 
baptized May 12, Ki.'iO (according to Van 
den Branden in Germany in 1(!.'!7), died 
there iu 1(575 or 167(5. Flemish school ; 
architecture painter, master of the guild in 



1GG2. Excellent in perspective. Works : EIBNER, FRIEDRICH, born at Hilpot- 

Interior of Palace (1GGG, figures by H. van stein, Palatinate, Feb. 25, 1825, died in 

Minderhout), Antwerp Museum ; Architect- Munich, Nov. 18, 1877. Architecture and 

ure in Biset's William Tell, Brussels Mu- landscape painter, self-taught, principally by 

seum ; do. of Art Gallery (1671), Hague copying after H. Schoenfeld ; travelled 

Museum ; do. (1GGG), Old Pinakothek, Mu- through Bavaria (1847), Germany and 

nich ; Church Interior (1GG4), Vienna Mu- \ France (1852), North Italy (1853-56), 

Heinn. Biog. nat, do Belgique, vi. 515 ; and Spain (18GO-G1), whither he accom- 

Cat. du Musi'o d'Auvers (1874), 4G4 ; Van panied Prince Metschersky, in whose pos- 

den Branden, 875. ! session is a valuable series of sixty-five great 

E H R H A II D T, (KARL L IT D W I G) water-colour views from Spain. Among his 

ADOLF, born in Berlin, Nov. 21, 1818. best works are : Cathedrals of Burgos, Se- 

History painter, pupil in the Diisseldorf ville, and Segovia ; Palace of Inquisition at 

Academy under Schadow (1832); after 1838 Cordova ; Ponte del Paradise in Venice; 

assisted Bendemann in decorating the Royal St. Anastasia in Verona ; Church of Our 

Palace at Dresden with frescos and became Lady at Esslingen. Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 

professor at the Academy in 184(5. Works : 178. 

-lephthah's Daughter (1836); Christ with EICHHORN, ALBERT, bom at Freien- 

Mary and Martha (1837); Death of the walde on the Oder, July 7, 1811, died at 

Troubadour Rudello ; Rinaldo and Arinida ; Potsdam, Oct. 10, 1851. Architecture and 
Dante's Dream ; Charles V. in the Monas- , landscape painter, pupil, in Berlin, of Tem- 
tery ; Louis the Bavarian with Frederic the peltei and Biennann, travelled through Italy 

i -^ Fair ; Luther as Squire and Greece, settled in Potsdam, and was 

M/C-l George in Jena (18G4), much employed by King Frederick William 
" Leipsic Museum ; Resur- IV. Works : Views in and about Rome 

rection ; Portrait of Lud- (1842); Taygetus, Temple of Phigalia (1842); 

wig Rich t er. Miillcr, 
155 ; Wiegmann, 152. 


St. Peter's in Rome ; Temple of Corinth ; 
Temple of Zeus, Road of Patras ; City Views 
from Italy ; The Campagna. Allgem. d. 

Strasburg, Sept. 5, 1833. History painter, Biogr., v. 728; Kunstblatt (1853), 2570. 
pupil of Gleyre and of the Ecole des B. EICHLEH, HERMANN, born in Vienna 
Arts, studied two years in Italy, and re- in 1842. History painter, pupil of Christian 
turned to Paris in 18G5. Medals: 1865 Ruben, whose studio he entered in 18G4. 
and 18G8 ; 3d class, 1874 ; L. of Honour, Works : Charles I. meeting Cromwell after 
1870. Works: Siren Fishing (18G5, burned the Sentence; Peter Hele the Inventor of 
in Strasburg, 1870); A Conqueror (Luxem- \ Watches ; Rudolph II.; Count von Helfen- 
bourg Museum, copied at the Gobelins); stein in the Peasants' War ; Oberon ; In the 
Ariadne abandoned by Theseus (1873), ! Shade of the Bormio ; Picnic (1879). Miil- 

water-colour, Luxembourg Museum; Greece, 
Rome, The Barbarians, The Middle Ages 

ler, 156 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. (1881), i. 339. 

(1874), M. Girard, Paris ; Venus passing be- Jean Louis Ernest Meisssonier, Mrs. A. T. 
fore the Sun (1875); The Muses (1877); Re- [ Stewart, New York ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 
publican France leading the Nations to 8 ft. At first called Friedland, but finally 
Peace and Industry (1879); The Fates; The 

Fountain of Youth ; Wisdom uniting Art 

named after the date of the battle. Scene 
-a ceremonial review of the exhausted vic- 

and Industry (1884); The Manuscript (1885). torious troops after the nine hours' fight- 
-L'Art (1876), iii. 297 ; Meyer, Couv. Lex., ; ing which made Napoleon dictator of Eu- 

r\ ff\ 

rope. The Twelfth Cuirassiers galloping 

xviii. 259. 


through the trampled grain arc rising in 
their stirrups, waving their swords, and 
shouting iu a frenzy of enthusiasm as the 
Emperor, on a white horse at left, sur- 
rounded by his Etat-major and Marshals 
Bessicres, Duroe, and 13erthier, salutes them 
by raising his cocked hat. Behind, at Na- 
poleon's left, troops are waiting to fall into 
line, and further on are seen the bearskin 
caps of the Old Guard. In the foreground, 
nt Napoleon's right, in yellow breeches and 
red dolmans, are the four troopers compos- 
ing the avant-garde of the imperial escort. 
Meissonier's masterpiece. Finished in LsTii 
after fifteen years' labour. The costumes 
and trappings were made by tailors, boot- 
makers, and saddlers ; the horses wens 
modelled in wax. Vienna Exposition, LS7S. 
Mr. Stewart paid 800,000 for it. I/Art 
(1K7(!), i. 11 ; Art Treasures of America, i. 

terby, Fiinen, March 1, 1827. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; 
took part in the Schleswig-Holstein cam- 
paign of 1848-50, and afterwards studied 
under J. I'. Moller ; visited France, Switzer- 
land, and the Pyrenees in 1858-00, London 
in 1802, Holland and Belgium in 1871, Vi- 
enna and Salzburg in 1873, and Italy in 
1870. Many of his pictures bought in Ger- 
many and England. Member of Copenha- 
gen Academy, 1871 ; Order of Danebrog, 
1870. Works : Mill near Heden ; Land- 
scape in Southern Fiinen (1855) ; View of 
Himmelbjaerget (1857) ; Gloomy Weather 
iu the Landes, Two Views in the Pyrenees 
(1801) ; Morning at Sorrento, October After- 
noon at Amalfi (1881) ; View in Frysenborg 
Deer-Park (1804), Copenhagen Gallery. 
Sigurd Miiller, 87 ; Weilbach, 152. 

EINSLE, ANTON, born in Vienna in 
1801, died there March 10, 1871. Portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy ; ap- 
pointed court-painter in 1807, and decorated 
with the Order of Franz Josef. Works : 
Count Zichy, The Letter (1842) ; Sculptor 
Klieber (1844) ; Negro Slave (1840) ; Count 

Chotek, Countess Wickenburg (1840) ; Em- 
peror Francis Joseph, Empress Elizabeth, 
Field-Marshal Count Radetzky. Wurzbach, 
iv. 15. 

EIRENE, painter. See frei: 

enna, Feb. 11, 18IHJ. Decorative painter, 
pupil of Leopold Schult/, of the Vienna 
Academy, in 1842-48, and in 185li of Itulil, 
whose indispensable assistant he soon be- 
came. Professor at Vienna Academy since 
1872. Works: Apollo and the Muses (I80!t), 
Musikvcri-in, Vienna ; Ceiling Paintings, 
Grand Hotel, il>. ; Twelve Months, Palais 
Guttmann, ib. ; The Graces and Peace, 
Tiet/. Mansion, ib. ; Scenes from Lives of 
Emperor Maximilian I. and Duke Leopold, 
C'astle Hiirnstein ; Fresco Paintings in the 
Museum of Art and Industry. Graph. K., 
vi. 77 ; Miiller, 150. 

Salzburg in 1034, died in Venice in 10'.I8. 
German school ; landscape, marine, and 
battle painter, self-taught ; went to Venice, 
where he studied after the old masters, and 
soon attained considerable success. His land- 
scapes and seaports embellished with archi- 
tecture were especially esteemed. Works : 
Landscapes with Ruins (2), Dresden Gal- 
lery; Landscape with Cavalry Skirmish, Vi- 
enna Museum. 

born iu Venice in 107'.). Landscape, marine, 
and battle painter, adopted son and pupil 
of preceding, who at Venice had formed a 
friendship with his father, Mattia Brise- 
ghella. After Eismann's death he seems to 
have settled at Ferrara. Works : Skirmish 
under the Walls of a Fortress, Cavalry Skir- 
mishes (2), A Battlefield, Dresden Gallery. 

EKELS, JAN, the younger, born at Am- 
sterdam in 175!), died there June 4, 171)3. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, son and pu- 
pil of Jan E. the elder (1724-81) ; went to 
Paris, and in 1783 up the Rhine to Ddssel- 
tlorf to visit the gallery. Imitated the old 
masters, especially J. Molenaer. Works : 
Young Man Drawing, Peasant lighting his 


Pipe, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort. Immer- 
zeel, i. 220. 

EKWALL, KNUT, born at Siiby, Sma- 
land, April 3, 1843. Genre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Stockholm Academy ; 
devoted himself to illustration in 1870, and 
was engaged in it at Munich and Leipsic 
until 1875, when he studied genre painting 
under Kuaus in Berlin, and settled there. 
Works : Ten Minutes for Refreshments ; 
Family Scene in Dalocarlia ; After Mid- 
night ; Sailor's Return ; After the Bath ; 

ELECTION, Hogarth, Soane Museum, 
London ; four pictures, canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 
in. x 4 ft. 4 in. 1. The Election Entertain- 
ment ; 2. Canvassing for Votes ; 3. Polling 
at the Hustings ; 4. The Chairing of the 
Successful Candidate. These pictures for- 
merly belonged to Garrick ; bought of his 
widow in 1823 for .1,732 10s. Jameson's 
Handbook, ii. 572. 

werp Cathedral ; H. 14 ft, x 15 ft. In three 
parts : centre, the Saviour on the Cross, 

Elevation of Cross, Rubens, Antwerp Cathedral. 

Berlin Fire Department ; Sub Rosa (1880) ; 
Honeymoon (1882) ; He is Coming (1883) ; 
Morning after Wedding, Jolly Morning 
Hour (1884). 

ELAINE, Toby Rosenthal, Mrs. R. C. John- ' 
son, San Francisco. Illustration of Tenny- 
son's "Lancelot and Elaine," where the " lily 
maid of Astolat," stretched upon her bier on 
the funeral galley, "Oar'd by the dumb, went 
upward with the flood." Painted in 1874. 

ELASIPPUS, Greek painter, date un- 
known. One of many reputed inventors of 
encaustic painting. Pliny, xxxv. 39 [122]. 

which nine powerful men are elevating ; 
left wing, the Virgin, the Holy Women, and 
St. John, the latter standing by the Virgin ; 
right wing, mounted Roman soldiers super- 
intending the crucifixion of the two thieves. 
The groups on the wings are painted on the 
inside of the covers of the middle part. On 
the exterior of the covers are : St. Cather- 
ine on one side, and St. Eloi on the other. 
Painted in 1610 for S. Walburge, Antwerp ; 
retouched in 1027 by Rubens, who then 
introduced the Newfoundland dog in the 
corner. Carried to Paris in 1796 ; returned 


in 1815. Engraved by C. L. Masquelier ; 
in three parts by Witdoue. St. Catherine 
engraved by Bolswert, Mariette. Smith, ii. 
1 ; Jameson, Hist. Our Lord, ii. 135 ; llo- 
veil, x. G87 ; Landon, Musee, x. 33. 

By Anton van D'jck, Notre Dame, Cour- 
tray, Belgium ; canvas. The Saviour on 
the Cross, which four men are raising into 
position ; at left, an assistant, with a spade 
in his hand, and two mounted soldiers, one 
of whom is giving orders ; in foreground, 
right, a basket with implements, and a 
spaniel dog. Painted by order of Canon 
Roger Braye in 1(532 ; carried to Paris, re- 
turned in 1815. Etched by A. Boulard. 
Sketch in Collection of M. de Reuck, at 
Wareghem ; engraved by Bolswert, J. Au- 
dran. Guiffrey, 13(5 ; Smith, iii. 11. 

ELIJAH, Washington Allalon, Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. ; canvas. Elijah 
in the desert fed by ravens. Begun in Eng- 
land, finished in Boston ; bought by Hon. 
Mr. Labouehere, afterwards Lord Taunton, 
and taken to England ; purchased (1870) 
after his death by Mrs. Samuel Hooper, of 
Boston, and presented to Museum. Me- 
morial Hist. Boston, iv. 305. 

Dclarochi-, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 
9 in. x 11 ft. 2 in. ; signed, dated 1828. The 
Queen, lying upon cushions, assisted by her 
women, is surrounded by the grand digni- 
taries of her court. Cecil, Secretary of 
State, is kneeling beside her. Salon, 1827, 
although dated as above. Formerly in 
Luxembourg. Engraved by Jazet. An- 
nales des B. Arts, Salon de 1827, PI. (ili. 

EL TIXOSO (The Scald-Head), Jlnrilh, 
Academia S. Fernando, Madrid ; canvas, 
H. 13 ft 9 in. x 10 ft. G in. The Saint, 
dressed as a nun, with a small coronet on 
her head, stands in a portico washing the 
scald-head of a beggar boy, who bends over 
a silver basin on a pedestal ; two ladies and 
a duenna supply lotions ; on left, a second 
boy, a cripple on crutches, and an old 
woman seated ; in foreground, a half-naked 

beggar seated ; in background, the Saint 
and her ladies are serving poor persons 
seated at a table in a gallery. Companion 
to San Juan de Dios. Painted in 1674, one 
of eight large pictures, for Hospital de la 
Caridad, Seville; carried to Paris by Marshal 

St Eluabeth of Hungary, Munllo, Academia S. Fernando, 

Soult, who gave it to Louis XVIII. at the Res- 
toration ; placed in Louvre, but returned to 
Spain in 1815. Original study, with changes, 
John L. O'Sullivan, New York. Engraved 
by P. Boutrois, D. Marline/ ; lithographed 
by Flor. de Craene, Lafosso, F. Chevalier, 
Ch. Vogt, Defrondat, M. Lavigne, Charpen- 
tier, H. Jannin. Curtis, 22!) ; Ch. Blanc, 
Kcole cspagnole ; Yiardot, Elust. Hist. Paint- 
ers (London, 1877) ; Becker, Kunst und 
Kiinstler ; Harpers Mag. (1885), Ixxi. 038. 

stance, March 20, 1701, died there, June 5, 
18(53. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of the miniature painter Einsle, then from 
1813 of Langer in the Munich Academy. 
Worked in 181(5-20 in Constance, in 1822- 
24 iu Rome, where she became a follower 


of Overbcck. Appointed court-painter at 
Baden in 1829 and revisited Rome in 1838- 
40. Works : St. Cecilia (1814) ; Praying 
Girl, Madonna (1824); Holy Virgin reading, 
Madonna in Glory, St. Nicholas, Resurrec- 
tion (1825); St. Anatolica (1820); Martyr- 
dom of St. Stephen (1827), Catholic 
Church, Carlsruhc ; St. Cecilia (1829); Ma- 
donna in the Rose-Hedge (1834), Carlsruhe 
Gallery; Magnificat (1835); St. Charles of 
Borromeo (183>S); St. Felicitas with her 
Sons, Jesus and the Children, St. Anthony, 
Angel bearing Prayers to Heaven 
(1840); Simeon in the Temple; 
Raising of Lazarus ; Baptism of 
Livia ; St. Jerome ; Gratitude. Allgeni. d. 
Biogr., vi. 49 ; Andresen, iv. 30. 

KLLIGEll (Elger), OTTMAR (Ottomar), 
the elder, born at Gothenburg, Sept. 18, Ki33, 
died in Berlin in 1079. Flemish school ; 
fruit and flower painter, pupil in Antwerp 
of Daniel Seghers, called to Berlin as court- 
painter, by the Great Elector, in lf>70. 
Works: Tulip with Roses and Berries on 
a Table (1074), Bouquet on a Table with 
Grapes and Apricots, Dresden Gallery ; 
others in Brunswick, Frankfort, and Stock- 
holm Galleries. Kramm, ii. 422 ; Michiels, 
viii. 303. 

ELLIGER, OTTMAR, the younger, born 
in Hamburg in 1000, died at Amsterdam in 
1732. Dutch school ; history painter, son 
and pupil of Ottmar Elliger the elder ; then 
pupil in Amsterdam of Michiel van Mus- 
schert and of Gerard de Lairesse ; painted, 
in the style of the Litter, wall and easel 
pictures in which he loved to introduce 
grand architecture. Works : Death of Alex- 
ander the Great (1710), Marriage of Peleus 
and Thetis (1717), for Elector of Mcntz ; 
Banquet of Cleopatra, Herodias dancing be- 
fore Herod and his 
Guests, Cassel Gal- 
lery; Woman with 
Goblet and Fruits 
(1714), Vienna Museum ; Allegory, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; others in Brunswick Mu- 
seum. Immerzeel, i. 221 ; Kramm, ii. 422. 

Scipio, N. Y., Dec., 1812, died in Albany, 

Aug. 25, 1868. 
Portrait painter, 
pupil of Trum- 

dor in New York, 
where he spent 
the greater part 
of his profession- 
al life. Elected 
anA.N.A. in 1845 
and N. A. in 1846. 
His pictures are 

to be found in the State Library, Albany, 
the Mercantile Library, Baltimore, and in 
the New York City Hall. Among his por- 
traits are those of : Matthew Vassar (Vas- 
sar College) ; Fletcher Harper ; Fenimore 
Cooper ; Fitz-Greene Halleck ; Governors 
Hunt and Seymour ; Erastus Corning, 
A. B. Durand, N.A., Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; his own portrait, M. O. Rob- 
erts' Collection, New York. Ideal works : 
Falstaff (Vassar) ; Don Quixote ; Andrew 
van Corlaer the Trumpeter, W. T. Wales, 
Baltimore ; Head of Skaneateles Lake, F. 
N. D. Horton ; Falstaff, Leonard Jerome, 
New York. 

ELMORE, ALFRED, born at Clonakilty, 
Ireland, June 18, 
1815, died in 
London, Jan. 24, 
1881. Student 
in London in 
183-2 of Royal 
Academy, where 
he exhibited in 
1834 his Subject 
from an Old Play. 
Made an extend- 
ed art tour to 

Paris, Munich, Venice, Bologna, Florence, 
and Rome, where he remained two years. 
Returned to England in 1844 ; became an 
A.R.A. in 1845, and R.A. in 1856. Works : 
Martyrdom of Thomas a Becket (1840), St. 
Andrew's Church, Dublin ; The Novice 



(1843) ; Rienzi in the Forum (1844); Inven- 
tion of Stocking Loom (1847); Death of Rob- 
ert, King of Naples (1848); Griselda (1850); 
Charles V. at Yustc (1850), Loo sale, 188:5, 
1,412; Incident in Life of Daute (IS.-,*;; 
Tuileries in 1792 (1800); Mario Antoinette 
in the Temple (1801 ); Lucrezia Borgia ( 18<!3 ) : 
Louis XIII. and Louis XIV. (1*70); Across 
the Fields (1872) ; Afterthe Expulsion(187:i); 
Mistress Hettie Lambert (1874); Ophelia 
(1875); Mary Queen of Scots ami Darnlev 
(1877); Pompeii, Judith and Holofernes, 
Columbus at Porto Santo, John Alden and 
Priscilla (1878); Sabina, Greek Ode (187!); 
After the Ruin, Lenore. Art Journal (1857), 
113 ; (1881), 95 ; Sandby, ii. 302 ; Meyer. 
Conv. Lex., xviii. 281. 

bom in Berlin, July 24, 1810, died in 
Rome, Sept. 1, 1845. Landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Blechen ; went to Rome in IS.'il, and 
was much influenced by Fran/. Catel ; mem- 
ber of Berlin Academy in 1841. Works: 
Outlook from Volsker Mountains towards 
the Sea, From the Woods of Calabria ; The- 
atre of Taormina ; Church Interior of Pa- 
lermo ; Convent Yard in Palermo ; Interior 
of St. Peter's in Rome ; View of Roman Ru- 
ins ; Campo Santo in Pisa by Moonlight ; 
Siren Group in Tivoli ; Cloister in Cefalti ; 
View of Tivoli ; Views of Peacock Isle near 
Potsdam. His brother Julius (born in Ber- 
lin in 1815, died in Rome, Dec. 25, 1S59), 
also made a reputation as a landscape paint- 
er. AUgem. d. Biogr., vi. (il ; Brockhaus, 
vi. 81. 

ELSHOLTZ, LUDWIG, bom in Berlin, 
June 2, 1805, died there, Feb. 3, 1850. 
Genre and battle painter, pupil of Berlin 
Academy and of Friinz Kriiger. Works: 
Battle of Leipsic (1833); Battle of Denne- 
witz ; Farewell on Battlefield ; Scene from 
Battle of Bautzen ; Noon-Day Rest during 
Harvest ; Entry of Allies into Paris ; Civic 
Guard ; Beginning of Skirmish (1834), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
vi. 67 ; Brockhaus, vi. 82. 

ELSHEIMER (Elzheimer), ADAM, 
born in Frankfort, baptized March 18, 1578, 
died in Rome in 
K>20. German 
school; landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Philip Uffeubacb; 
called Adam of 
Frankfort at 
Rome, where ho 
fixed his resi- 
dence at an early 
age. Had numer- 
ous pupils, such as Lastman, Jan Pinas. 
and Goudt, and founded a new school 
which treated biblical subjects in the nat- 
ural, anti-classic style afterwards developed 
by Rembrandt, of whom he is regarded as 
one of the precursors. His biblieal and 
mythological scenes are represented in land- 
scapes suggested by Italian motives, and 
the figures are no lay figures, but human in 
dress and sentiment. Each one of his pu- 
pils lirouglit back to Holland something of 
his master, whose inlluenee was communi- 
cated to Rembrandt, through Lastman. 
Works: .Sacrifice at Lystra, llacchus among 
the. Nymphs at Nysa, Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
fort : Landscape witli Mountain Prospect, 
Aurora, Brunswick Museum ; St. Lawrence, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; replica, Montpellier Mu- 
seum : Landscape with St. Jerome, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Walk to F.mmaus, Aschall- 
enburg Gallery; Martyrdom of St. Law- 
rence, Contento, an Allegory, Flight into 
Egypt, Burning of Troy, Woodland Valley, 
St. John Preaching (V), Old Piimkothek, 
Munich ; Six Scenes from Life of Mary, 
Syrinx and Pan, St. Martin and the Beggar, 
Arcadian Wood Landscape, Berlin Museum; 
Flight into Egypt, Joseph put into a Pit by 
his Brethren, Jupiter and Mercury visiting 
Philemon and Baucis, Judith (?), Dresden 
Gallery; Repose in Egypt, Museum, Vienna; 
Realm of Venus, Academy, ib. ; Birth of 
Christ, Czernin Gallery, ib. ; Flight into 
Egypt, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; do., Ferdi- 
nandeum, Innsbruck ; Peter denying Christ, 



Scourging of Christ, Venice Academy ; Ar- ures are good in colour and show thorough 
tist's Portrait, Shepherd playing the Shalm, knowledge of military details. Since 1861 
Ao-laia's Daughters led to Temple by Mer- he has resided in Vienna. Works : Battle 
cury, Hagar consoled by Angel, Uffizi, of Stockach, Assault on Heidelberg Bridge 
Florence ; Six Landscapes with Story of (1857) ; Skirmish near Aldeuhoven (1859) ; 
Icarus, Naples Museum ; Scoffing of Ceres, Episode in Battle of Aspern (1860) ; Taking 
Madrid Museum ; Flight, into Egypt, Good of Camp near Farmars, Park Scene with 
Samaritan, Louvre, Paris ; Martyrdom of Horses, Attack of French Cuirassiers at 
St. Lawrence (copy?), National Gallery, Waterloo, Battle of Wiirzburg (1867) ; Bat- 
London ; Meeting of Elias and Obadiah, tie of Neerwindcn (1872) ; Attack of Divi- 
Marqnis of Bute, ib. ; Repose in Egypt, sion Bonnemain at Elsasshausen ; Battle of 
Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth ; Eight Dijon ; Meeting of Patrols ; Headquarters 
small Landscapes with Saints, Earl of Le- of XIV. Army Corps in Battle of Belfort ; 
,-, -.. confield, Pet- Episode from Battle of Worth ; Victory of 

/+- Tj 4f* worth; Libera- George II. at Dettingen (1879); Cavalry 

' t ^^^ I i * J j. j () 1( (| j v^| Flight near Langenbruck. Kunst-Chrouik, 

\yy\f) r Peter, Lord ii. 1(52 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 292. 

n *Si' Elgin, Broom EMINENCE GUISE. Jean Leon Gerfime, 

Hall, near Edinburgh. Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. J. H. Stebbins, New York. His Gray Em i- 

(i(i ; Ch. Blanc, tfcole allemande ; Bode, nence, the Father Joseph of Bulwer's " Rich- 

Studien, 231 ; Jahrb. der Kiingl. preuss. elieu," is descending a broad flight of stairs; 

Kunstsammlg., i. 51, 245. absorbed in his breviary, he is apparently as 

ELST, PIETER VAN. See JV/rW. unconscious of the servile bows and genu- 

EMANCTPATIOX PROCLAMATION, flections of the courtiers before him as of 

Francis B. C<irpenle,r, staircase of House of the defiant and contemptuous glances of 

Representatives, Capitol, Washington. Presi- those who have passed him. 

dent Lincoln signing the proclamation of EMMET, ROSINA, born in the United 

emancipation of slaves in the United States, States, contemporary. Figure painter, pu- 

January 1, 1863. Painted in 18(54 ; pur- pil of William Chase. Exhibits at the Na- 

chased for $25,000 in 1877 by Miss Marv tional Academy, New York, and is well 

Elizabeth Thompson, and presented to the known as an illustrator and designer. Stu- 

Government. dio at East Rockaway, L. I. Works : Portrait 

EMBDE, AUGUST VON DER, born in of Boy (1881), Alexander Stevens; Apple 

Cassel, Dec. 2, 1780, died there, Aug. 10, Blossoms, Haymaking, Waiting to see the 

18(52. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Doctor (1882) ; Red Rose Land, Elder 

Cassel Academy ; studied the old masters at Flowers, La Mescicana (1883). 

Dresden, Diisseldorf, Munich, and Vienna, ' EMPOLI, JACOPO CHIMENTI DA, 

painted portraits in Cassel until 1830, and born at Empoli in 1554, died in Florence, 

then began to treat child and peasant life Sept. 30, 1640. Florentine school ; pupil 

with much success. Works : Hessian Peas- of Tommaso da San Friano, but formed his 

ant Girl with Letter ; Children playing on style chiefly by studying the works of An- 

Ruins of their Burned Home ; Girls at the ' f~) drea del Sarto, 

Well ; Cinderella ; Children playing at the ^\ /I whose pictures he 

Brook. f j^f/f.f /'"1/J i J copied very clever- 

EMELtf, WILHELM, born at Buchen, in \y^f/^/L/U ^C ly. He "pai nted 

the Odenwald, in 1830. Battle painter, pu- / many pictures, 

pil in Munich of Feodor Dietz, studied the best of which is Christ in the Garden of 
afterwards in Antwerp and Paris. His pict-. Olives, Madrid Museum. Other works are : 



Madonna anil Saints (1579), Louvre ; Crea- 
tion of Adam, St. Yves (1(!1(J), Drunkenness 
of Noah, Sacrifice of Abraham, Um'zi, Flor- 
ence ; Susanna at the Bath (1(500), Vienna 
Museum. Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentinc ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., vii. 1(53 ; viii. 2(51. 

ENDER, EDUARD, born in Vienna in 
1824. History and genre painter, son and 
pupil of Johann E., and student in the Vi- 
enna Academy. Works : Wallenstein and 
Seni (1844) ; Corbeille do Mariano (185<)| ; 
Tasso at Court of Ferrara (1852) ; Francis 
L in Cellini's Studio (1854) ; Emperor Ru- 
dolph II. and Tycho de Brahc (1855); 
Philip IV. Painting Order on Portrait of 
Velasquez (185C) ; Shakespeare reading 
Macbeth at Court of Elizabeth ; Emperor 
Joseph II. meeting Mozart ; Schiller at 
Court of Weimar ; Rembrandt in his Studio ; 
Elizabeth and Van Dyck ; Rudolf IV. on 
Site of St. Stephen's in Vienna ; 1 'outing 
Corner ; Secret Communication ; Drinking 
and Brawl ; Game of Chess (18.">7) ; Puri- 
tans on Guard ; Humboldt and Bonpland on 
the Orinoco ; Marie Antoinette's Farewell 
of Maria Theresa. Brockhaus, vi. 124 ; 
Land und Meer (1872 1, Xos. 4, 21 ; Wurz- 
bach, iv. 38. 

ENDER, JOHANN, born in Vienna, Nov. 
3, 171)3, died there, March 1(5, 1854. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Maurer, 
Caucig, Fiiger, and Lampi in the Vienna 
Academy, where he obtained four prizes 
and the great gold medal. Visited Italy. 
Malta, Corfu, Greece, and Constantinople in 
1818-19. Studied and copied the old mas- 
ters at Rome in 1820-2(5, then went to 
Paris and Vienna, where he painted chiefly 
portraits in the style of Isabey. In 1829-50 
was pi'ofessor at the Academy. Works : 
Marcus Aurclius on his Deathbed (1814), 
National Gallery, Pesth ; Orestes pursued 
by the Furies (1815) ; Minerva showing 
Ithaca to Ulysses (181(3) ; Assumption, 
Sleeping at Christ's Sepulchre (1817) ; 
Judith ; Bacchus finding Ariadne ; Portraits 
of Duchess of Coburg, of Princesses Eszter- 
hazy, Hohenzolleru, Auersperg, Liechten- 

stein, and Taxis, and of Emperor Francis ; 
Madonna in Landscape, Vienna Museum ; 
Crucifixion (fresco, 1850-52), Liechtenstein 
Chapel, St. Stephen's, Vienna. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 105 ; Brockhaus, vi. 124 ; Wurz- 
bach, iv. 38. 

ENDER, THOMAS, born in Vienna, Nov. 
4, 17!):!, died there, Sept. 28, 1875. Land- 
scape painter, twin brother of Johann, pu- 
pil of the Vienna Academy under Mossmer 
and Steinfeld. Won the grand prize in 
181(5. Went in 1817 to the Brazils, and in 
1819 accompanied Prince Metternich to 
Italy, where he remained four years ; in 
182(5 he visited Paris, in 1S3(5 became cor- 
rector, and later was professor at the Vienna 
Academy until 1849. Works: View of Gross- 
glockner, High Go'll with Merchtcsgadcn Val- 
ley, Castle Tyrol, Nons Valley with Castle 
Cles, Coast of Sorrento, all in Vienna Mu- 
seum ; View of Rio Janeiro, Vienna Acad- 
emy ; Chapel in the Woods, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Ruin of the Habsburg, Prospect 
from the Habsburg (18(5(5). Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. !((! ; Brockhaus, vi. 124 ; Kunsf- 
Chronik, i. 53 ; xi. 3(14 ; Wtirzbacli, iv. 41. 

Roussy, Louvre ; canvas, H. (i ft. (i in. 8 
ft. (5 in. Endymion, nude, lies asleep, on 
his mantle and a tiger-skin, under a tree ; 
beside him are his bow and his spear, and 
at his feet, left, his dog lies sleeping ; in 
background, Cupid, in the form of /ephyr, 
draws aside the branches that the moon- 
beams may fall upon him. Painted in 
Rome in 1792 ; acquired, in 1818, with the 
Ddniji- and the Burial of Alula, for 50,000 
francs. Engraved by Chatillon (1810). Re- 
veil, ii. 137. 

By (iinTcino, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 
2 ft. 9 in. x!J ft. 2 in. Endymion, nude, 
seated, leaning his head upon his arm ; 
background, a night landscape, with the 
crescent moon. Acquired by gallery in 
1795. Engraved by J. B. Massard pere. 
Molini, Gal. di Firenze, i. 19 ; Soc. Ed. and 
Paris, Gal. di Fireuze, PI. 133 ; Wicar, i. 
Part 7. 


ENFANT A L'EPEE, Edouard Manet, 
Erwin Davis, New York ; Canvas, H. 4 ft. 
3 in. X 3 ft. ; dated 1801. A child walking 
to left, dragging a largo sword after him. 
Hotel Drouot Sale (Paris, 1881). 

in Leyden in 1408, died there in 1533. 
Dutch school ; son of the wood-engraver 
Engelbert, and himself the earliest known 
painter at Leyden. Two altarpieces in the 
Town Hall there are attributed to him by 
Van Marnier. The stitF and formal fig- 
ures, painted dryly in a prevailing brown 
tone, arc treated without any attempt at 
aerial perspective. Many of Engelbrecht- 
scn's works were destroyed by the Icon- 
oclasts during the Reformation. Authentic 
Works : Altarpiece with Crucifixion, do. 
with 1'ieta, Town Hall, Leyden. Doubtful 
works : St. Leonard, Antwerp Museum ; 
Crucifixion, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; De- 
position, Morit/ Chapel, 
J )y7 Nuremberg; Madonna 
^T"* ' and Child, National Gal- 
lery, London ; 2 pictures, 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Crucifixion, Venice 
Academy. Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 130 ; 
Dobme, 11; Michiels, iv. 339; W. .V W., 
ii. 530. 

ENGELHARDT, GEORG, born at Miilil- 
liausen, Thuringia, in 1823. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Berlin of Eduard Uiermann ; 
travelled repeatedly in the Alpine countries, 
whence he draws most of his subjects. 
Works : Meiring Valley, Mew in Otz Val- 
ley, Tyrol ; View in South Tyrol ; Forest 
with tall Trees (1807); Charcoal-Burner on 
the Brocken ; The Jungfrau ; Autumn Land- 
scape (1872); Mills in Otz Valley. Mailer, 

ENGERTH, EDUARD VON, Hitter, born 
at Pless, Silesia, May 13, 1818. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, where in 1845 he obtained the gold 
medal ; went in 1847 to Rome, and then 
travelled until 1853 in Italy, France, Eng- 
land, and the East. After his return in 1854 


v A m 

j he became director of the Prague Academy, 
and there painted chiefly portraits, and in 
1805 professor at 
the Vienna Acad- 
emy ; was made di- 
rector of the Belve- 
dere Gallery in 1871, 
and rector of the 
Academy in 1874. 
Commander Order 
v of Francis Joseph 
in 1807. Works: 
Hainan and Esther, 
L a d i s 1 a u s and 
Akus (1844); Coronation of Rudolf I.; Jo- 
seph explaining the Dream (1845); Seizure 
of King Manfred's Family (1853), Vienna 
Museum ; Victory of Prince Eugene at 
Zeiita (1805); Marriage of Figaro, Fable of 
Orpheus (1808); Coronation of Francis Jo- 
seph as King of Hungary (1870); Death of 
Eurydice (1877); Group of Prague Ladies ; 
Portraits of Emperor and Empress of Aus- 
tria. Brockhaus, vi. 141 ; Kuust-Clironik, 
i. 84 ; iv. 174 ; v. 172 ; Wurzbach, iv. 49 ; 
xiv. 440 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iii. 5. 

ENHUBER, KARL VON, born at Hof, 
Bavaria, Dec. 10, 1811, 
died in Munich, July 
(!, 1807. Genre and 
animal priinter, pupil 
of Munich Academy 
in 1832. His pictures 
of Suabian life are 
characteristic, hu- 
mourous, and both 
well drawn a n d col- 
oured. Honorary 

member of Munich Academy in 1858. Order 
I of St. Michael. Works : Poachers sought 
by Forester (1835); Tyrolese in Mountain 
Pass, Dying Constable (1830); Shoemaker 
studying, Watercure (1837); Image Carver 
'(1839); Smoking Boy (1841); Peering into 
Cooking Pot (1843); Shoemaker's Appren- 
tice, Civic Guardsman (1844), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Village Painter's Apprentice 
(1852); Interrupted Game of Cards (1858); 



-t, T" 1 

f- 1 ^ 

Stage Coach at the Inn (1850); Court-Day 
in Bavaria (18(JO), Darmstadt Gallery ; Rainy 
Day in the Mountains (1801); Grandfather's 
Delight, Wood-Carver in his Shop, New 
Pinakothek, Munich; Tliir- 
teen Illustrations to Melchior 
Meyr's Novels. Allgein. d. 
Biogr., vi. 145 ; Brockhaus, 
vi. 184; Regnet, i. 118; 
Zeitschr. f. 1). K., i. 253 ; iii. 53. 

ENNEKING, JOHN J., born at Minster, 
O., 1841. Figure and landscape painter ; 
studied art in Cincinnati and Boston, where 
he lives, and was a pupil in Paris of Bonnat 
and of Daubigny. He travelled in Europe 
in 1872. Works: Moonlight on the Giu- 
deeca Venice (1876); Freshly Picked, Drove 
of Cattle on a November Day (1S78); The 
Obersee ; Farm-Yard Scene in France ; No- 

/^&& ': ' 

/ .. r^&^- , \t^J . . 

, Vatican, Rome; canvas, H. !) ft. 11 
in. x (5 ft. 7 in. The body of Christ is borne 
by Nieodenms and St. John, behind whom 
are the Virgin, the Magdalen, and Salome. 
Renowned picture of the master. Formerly 
in S. M. Nuova, Rome. Copy in mosaic in 
chapel of Holy Sacrament, St. Peter's. Copy 
by Rubens in Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Engraved bv Snyderhoef ; Soutman ; T. Pi- 
roli ; P. Audouin ; E. Bovinct ; P. Fontana ; 
G. CraiTonara ; G. Bonajuti ; J. J. Freid- 
hoff, and others. Meyer, Kunst. Lex., i. 
(>20 ; Museo francais. 

By Annibalo C irrw-i, Louvre ; copper. 
H. 1 ft. 5 in. 1 ft. The body of Christ, 
at the entrance of the sepulchre, is sustained 
by the Virgin and Mary Magdalen ; behind, 
Joseph of Arimathea and Mary Salome ; 
further back, to right, St. John. Collection 
of Louis XIV. Engraved by J. Gaudefroy. 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Filh.'.l, v. PI. 337. ' 

By Garufalft, Palazzo Borghese, Rome; can- 
vas. A masterpiece ; most celebrated of his 

Entombment, Michelangelo da Caravaggio, Vatican, Rome. 

Entombment, Raphael, Palazzo Borghese, Rome. 

largo compositions. Painted in 1520 for 
S. Francesco d'Argenta. Another, of simi- 
lar arrangement, but with more repose and 

vember Twilight (1881); Cloudy Day, T. B. intensity, in Naples Museum. Kugler (East- 
Clarke, New York ; November (1884). Ben- lake), ii. 487; Museo Borbonico, ix. PI. 31. 
jamin, 196. By liaphael, Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; 

ENTOMBMENT, Michelangelo da Cum- wood, about G ft. sq. ; signed, dated 1507. 


Christ borne lo the tomb liy two young men; 
near I he body, behind, John, Joseph of Ari- 
nialhea, and Mary Magdalen ; at, right, the 
Virgin mvooning, supported by three women; 
background, rocky landsca|ie with Calvary 
iu distance. I'ainled in I'ernjMii by order of 
Alalanla Ilicdimii, for her chapel in S. Fran 
cesco, where il, remained until IliOM, when 
II, \ya;l removed lo the I'ala/./.o llorghcHc, 
u copy made by the ( '.ivahrre di Al'pilio 
lieing pill lulu ilrt place. Carried in I7'.I7 
|i> I'urin ; reliirned In Valic.-in in I M I ' ', "I 
ler\\ard removed l,o |'iilu/./.o llorghese, Dis 

li.'Miri'd liy Hpliln mid p:iti-lnvi. ('uiiii-i liy I' 1 . 
rrnni ( IMS), Turin < i:illrr\ ; liy < >ru/io Al 
f:mi, rrru.'Mii ( inline ; li\ S:IH .ofrrrnto, S. 
1'ii'lro, I'l'rii; 1 !!! ; mid ollnTs. Tlin-r round 
lllonoi'liniliii'H, I'nili I|I>|M', mid ('li:iril\, 

in i iln- pri'di'llii of Ilic Mnloniliniciit, urn in 
tlm N'lilii'iin. Tlir Imirllc ri'iirrsriilinj; < lod 
Hie l''iitlier MIII rounded liv leu eliernlis' 
lieiiiln ui in (lie lYru;'i:i ( iullerv ; dehi;Mieil, 
bill not painted, bv li:iplinel. St udii'N for Kn 
toinlinieiil in lioinre, llli/i, l'iil:i//o Hoc- 
i;liese, etc-. l'',ii;;ra\cd by Sriilberjj, Collin, 
1'iroli, \olpato, \ni ,1, i Sc'heieh, mid MIIH 
quelier. I'redellu, en;;nived bv Desno\crs 
(1NII), Liindon, Koch. ( '. \('., Itiiphael, 
i. :II5 ; PiiHsiivmil, i 1(5, ii. 57 ; liuinohr, 
Iliilienisclui Foi'si'.hungini, ii. (ill; V-iHiiri, 

e.l. Mil., iv. :t'27 ; Kiigli-r (Eiutlttke), ii. 422; 
Miinl/,, 2:t:i, '217 ; I'erkiiiK, Knmiy, 75. 

lly II IliiHxn, Ijouvre ; oiinvilH, H. 4 ft. 1 
in. x5 ft. .'t in. Tho body of Christ, on il 
cushion at, the entrance of the tomb, is sus- 
taini'd by Nicodemus ; lit left, the Mngdalen 
holds his feet; Hie Virgin, on her kneew, with 
arms extended, swoons in tlm arms of olio 
of the holy women. Probably the pi. -line 
which, according lo Vasari, was painted for 
Sc'imr di I'h mil HUD, or that, CXOCUtfid for 
the ( 'onslabh 1 . Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 15M, 171; 
Villol, Cat. Louvre; Land<in, xii. I'l lil. 

Ily Tiiilofi-lln, I'H rni u 
(iallery. Christ, bornn to 
I he |i in: i i in a desert place, 
with u melancholy sky, 
against which Hie thren 
crosses are seen ill the dis- 
tance, together with the 
ruins of I ho cut lie shed of 
the nativity. In this pict- 
ure sublimity of concep- 
tion mid grandeur of col- 
our are KCCII in Hie highest 
perfection. Ituskin, Mod. 
Painters, ii. I CM ; iii. :t2-l. 
Ily Tin/nri'tln, S. Fran- 
cesco della Yigim, Venice; 
canvas, arched at the top. 
In foreground, the Virgin 
HWooning. attended by l\\o women ; in mid- 
dleground, Christ borne to the tomb liy I lie 
disciples, above them an angel with u wreath ; 
in background, to right, tlm three 
on a hill, \\iih lionmn soldiers. I'.i 
by L. Kilian. Ch. Illiinc, ficolo vunitienne. 
Ily 'I'lliiin, Louvre ; canvas, Jl. \ ft. 1(1 
in. C ft. H in. Tlm body <if Christ, HIIH- 
I" n. led in a cloth, borne, by Nicodemus mid 
Joseph of Arimathea, tho latter with 0110 
knee on a stone ; St. John Evangelist, be- 
hind, holds up one arm ; thi> Virgin and 
Magdiilen at left. Painted in Mmitim in 
15'2:l for Duke I'Vderigo (lon/.iigil ; in inven- 
tory of tho Mantmin Palace in 1C27 ; piiHHed 
thence in collection of Churlos I., lifter 
whose death il, \vas Hold furXl'20 to Jiibuch, 


who disposed of it to Louis XIV. One of pupil of D.'ifweldorf Academy. His picture-* 

the great pictures of the world, in which show inventive jxwer, humour, and toclini- 

tbe grandest drawing, composition, and ex- cal skill. Works: Sitistied Artist; Shot - 

pression are combined with the most effer- maker teaching a Bird to whistle ; Three 

tive chiaroscuro, the most splendid colour, Drunken Men returning from Fair ; Village 

and the deejjest sentiment. An inferior Painter admiring his Work ; Di-.m ived 

copy, probably by a disciple of Titian's, was Lover of Flowers ; Morning after Masijuer- 

sold lately from the Palazzo Manfrini, Venice, adc Ball |I8.~1). -Mnller, 101. 
Original study in the Venice Academy. Kn- KUDMANN, MOI'ilT/, bom at Arneburg 

graved by (i. Itousselet ; Chaperon; Mai- near Slendal, April l'i, IKI.">. Landscape 

son; Joli. de Marc. C. A C., Titian, i. 28:!; painter, pupil of Br-rlin Academy and of 

Vasari, cd. Mil., vii. r>8 ; Filhol, i\. PI. fJI'.i ; Hermann Kvhke ; travelled throu/h G. r 

Mundler, 208 ; K-indon, Mus'c, vii. PI. ~>7 ; manv, Holland, Sw(-den, and, for one year, 

Van der Doort's Cat. ; Scharfu Old London, vi.-jted Italv. Works: Heath on the Ke/eu- 

'.V.W. iteiu in Hart/ Mountains; Morsum ClifTs on 

By Ttlum, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. I I^le of Sylt ; Moonlight in Oallmars Fjord ; 

ft. G ill. X 5 ft, !) ill. ; signed. Theme some- Green ( irotto in ( ' ipri ; Villa of Hadrian at, 

what different, from the I/mvre example. Tivoli ; Arpia ( ,'laudia of Carnpo Santo, N.i- 

and less rich in tints and less engaging in pies; Roman C impagna. Muller, 101. 
form. Painted in 1",!) for Philip II. and KKDMANN, OTTO, born in L ip-i.- in 

sent to Madrid, with the Diana and Act.-eon 18:;(. (Jenre painter, 

and the Diana and Callisto, to take the place pupil of L< ip-ii'- Acad- 

of one despatched in 1~>">7, but lost, on the emy, studied in DP 

way. Placed in Ii')Val Chapel at Aranjue/, den and Munich, and 

and after Phili]>'s death in the Kscorial. in 18."iH set tier I n, I)us- 

Originol sketch at Oxford University. Copies, seldorf. Works: Tal- 

with variations, of picture in Madrid Mu- ented Children ; Suc- 

Heum, the Escorinl, Ambrosiana in Milan, cessful Wooing ; Ulind 

Torrigiani Collection, Horence, and Vienna Man's IJuff (IMO:'.', 

Miiwum. (,'. .^ C., Titian, ii. 28!). I>-ip-,ic .Museum ; K. 

EPAMINONDAS, ancient, pictures. See |>ectation ; IJeceptionof 

AriflnlaiiK, KitjiltriitiHi: Bridegroom; Visit, 

EPHOHl'S, ]>ainter, of Kjihesus, alx>ut from the Country ; Secret Message ; He loves 

'{45 l!.c. F'imt m;tster of A]x-lles. Suid. v. me, he loves me not ; Accepted Suitor ; Ke- 

EPIPHANY. See Mm/I, Adoration of. je.-ted Suitor; Couple in the Woods; Fort 

EPP, IM'DOLF, Ixirn at Kbcrbach, I'aden, une-Tr-ller ; Interrupted Piano I/ sv.n ; Con- 
Jury, 18IJI. Genre and jxtrtrait ]>ainter, vernations; Flattering Ilenommendation ; 
pupil of Carlsmhe Art School undi-r Dev Journey to the Fiancee; lietrothal King 
coudres. Since 1805 settled at Munich. (IH80); Chamlx-rmaid in Uococo-timc, 
Works: Hide and S<-ek (1801); Mother and Found for Life (188 1). Paints also excellent 
sleeping Child ; Christmas Eve ; I {lack For- |xrt raits. Miiller, 101 ; Illustr. /!(/. 
est Idyl ; Hop Harvest ; Mother and Child ; (I88i, i. 2Ht. 

Juggler performing Ix-forc Peasants ; Unwel- KPJIAKDT, GEOUG FKIKDICICH, born 

CfJine Guest ; Cat's Breakfast. Mnller, 101. at Winterboch, Wurtemlx-rg, in IH2"), died 

EHCOLE DA FEHHAHA or FEIIHAIC- in Stuttgart, S.-pt. 20, 1881. Portrait 

ESE. S:e f/rantli. painter, studied first in IV-rlin, then in 

EKDMAXN, LUDWIG, Ix.m atB.lecke, Stuttgart under Gegenbauer, whom he as- 
near Paderborn, iu 1820. Genre paiuUir, sisU;d in UM palace frescos ; frequented the 


Munich Academy in 1848-49, and then set- tenstein Gallery, ib. ; 3 pictures in Madrid 
tied in Stuttgart, whore he received the Museum ; others in Turin, Nancy, Lille, 
great gold medal, and in 1876 became . Ghent, Frank- 

court-painter. Works : Portraits of King I \ / IT"* ^* * ort) an< * Stock- 
Charles of Wiirtemberg, Queen Pauline, J ^^ f* j ^ llolm Museums. 
King William, Quoeu Olga, King Frederic Allgem. d. 

as Prussian Colonel ; numerous portraits Biogr., vi. 330 ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, vi. 
and family groups of Stuttgart aristocracy. 695 ; Kramm, ii. 442 ; Mlchiels, x. 420 ; Van 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 42. den Branden, 1108. 

ERIGONUS, of Sicyon, about 230 B.C., ESBRATT, NOEL RAYMOND, born in 
colour-grinder to AVa/cvs, and afterwards his Paris in 1809, died there in 1850. Laud- 
pupil. Erigonus was the master of J'a*ui.->. scape painter, pupil of Wattelet and Lethiere. 
Pliny, xxxv. 40 [145]. Medals : 3d class, 1844; 2d class, 1847. 

ERILLUS, Herillus, or Phrylus, painter, Works : Lake of Brienz (1844); Banks of 
about 420 B.C. Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. the Seine near Caudebec (1847), Ministry 
GO) as an artist of note. of the Interior ; Fountain near Bourbonne 

KRMELS, JOHANN FRAN/, born near (1842); View iu the Park of Eu (1845); Val- 
Cologne iu 1021 or 1(541, died in Nurem- ley of the Nievre (1848); A Watering Place 
berg, Dec. 3, 10!)!). German school; his- for Horses (1852); Visit of Napoleon III. to 
torv and landscape painter, pupil in Co- Sologne (1853), ordered by State ; Pasture, 
logne of Johann Hulsman. At Utrecht he Mouth of the Somme. Larousse. 
studied the landscapes of Jan Both, and at , ESCALANTE, JUAN ANTONIO, born 
Nuremberg associated himself with Willem at Cordova in 1030, died in Madrid in 1070. 
van Bemmel iu 1000, and painted the tig- Spanish school ; pupil of Francisco Rizi, but 
ures in his landscapes. Works : Christ and imitated Tintoretto. Painted historical and 
Samaritan Woman ; Resurrection, Ascen- : religious compositions. Works : Holy Fam- 
sion (1063), St. Sebaldus, Nuremberg ; Land- ily. Child Jesus and St. John, Abigail, Tri- 
scape with approaching Storm. Landscape umph of Faith over the Senses, Madrid Mu- 
in Evening Light, both in Stildel Institute, seum ; St. Joseph 
Frankfort; Landscape with Animals, Mann- and Infant. Christ, I. 
heim Gallery ; Landscape with ruined Mon- j Hermitage, St. Po- [* 
uinent, Vienna Museum ; Waterfall, Cologne tersburg; Fortune- I 
Museum ; Rocky Landscape, Kunsthalle, ' Teller, Hague Mu- 

Hamburg ; Landscape in Storm, Oldenburg scum. Stirling, iii. 1026 ; Viardot, 289 ; 
Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 231 ; Merlo, ( Madrazo, 395. 
Nachrichten, 110. ESCALIER, NICOLAS (FELIX), born in 

ES (Essen), JACOB VAN, born in Ant- ' Paris ; contemporary. Architecture, figure, 
werp, Oct. 15, 1606, died there, buried and portrait painter, pupil of Andre and De- 
March 11, 1660. Flemish school ; painter launay. Medal, 2d class, 1884. Works : 
of animal and still life, especially fish and , Interior of St. Mark's, Venice, do. of San 
other marine animals; pupil of Omer van Miniato, Florence (1873); The first Model 
Ommcn ; admitted to guild of St. Luke in j (1875); Doge Dandolo the Elder (1870); 
1640. Works: Fruitpiece, Lille Museum; Decorative Panel (1878); A Surprise for the 
Crabs and Fruit, Oysters and Fish, Nancy ' Inhabitants of the Rialto, Venice (1881); A 
Museum ; Fruit with Dead Game and Ves- happy Occurrence (1884); Andante (1885). 
sels, Antwerp Museum ; Fish Market (2), Frescos in Palazzo Lubia, Venice (1873). 
with figures by Jordaens, Museum, Vienna ; ESCALLIER, Mine. ELEONORE, born 
Breakfast Table, Fruitpiece (1640), Liech- at Poligny (Jura); contemporary. Still-life 



painter, pupil of Ziegler. Medal, 18G8. ESCOSURA. See Isnn y Escosura. 

Works: The Pond, The Garden (18(51); ESCRIBANO, EL. Sec 1'rimo, El. 

Young Girl with Fish (18(55); Garden Cor- EHKILSSOX, PETER, born at Billeber- 

ner (1867); Flowers and Birds (1868); Chrys- gn, Schoncn, in 1820, died at Bremo, near 

antheinums (18(59), Luxembourg Museum ; Sigtuna, Jan. 29, 1872. Genre painter ; 

Autumn Flowers (1870); Spring Flowers sub-officer in a Gotha artillery regiment, 

(1872); Peaches and Grapes (1872), Dijon ami bookseller at Gothenburg, before he 

Museum; Decorative Panels for the Palais became the pupil of Tidemand (185:!) in 

tie la Legion d'houneur (187"i). Bellior- Diisseldorf. In 185!) he settled in Stoek- 

Auvray, i. 520. holm, and became member of the Academy 

ESCH, MATHILDE, born at Klattau, in 18(5(5. Works : Mollberg's Bowling Party 

Bohemia, Jan. 18, 1828. Genre, landscape, at Faggons (18(5S), Stockholm Museum. 

and still-life painter, pupil in Vienna of ES()P, I'l'/n.-n/m':, Madrid Museum; can- 

WaldmUller, and in Munich of MoritzMiillcr; vas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. y'.\ ft. An ohl man, full 

studied also in Diisseldorf and Paris, and set- length, standing, with a parchment folio in 

tied in Vienna in 1855. Works : Farm House his right hand, his left thrust into the 

in Moravia, Market Scene in Moravia, Mu- bosom of his grey dress. Probably painted, 

nich Girls in the Cemetery, Girl with Dog with its companion .J/r/uyyo/s, for royal 

(1856); Unexpected Return (1857); Gate and palace, by command of Philip IV. Copy 

Sarkander Pulpit in Briinn Cathedral ; The by Pn'vost in Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. 

Five Senses; Tancred baptixing Clorinda ; Engraved by Esijuivel ; etched by Goya, C. 

Farewell of the Bride. Wur/.bach, iv. 78. Alabern ; Galvan. and others. Ford. Hand- 

ESCHKE, (WILHKLM BENJAMIN) book, ii. (i0 ; L'Art (1878) ; Curtis, IS; 

HERMANN, born in Berlin, May (i, 1823. Madra/o, (5:53. 

Landscape and marine painter, pupil of \Vil- KSl'ALTEH Y RL'LL, JOA^l'IN, born 

helm Krause, then in Paris of Le Poittevin ; in Barcelona ; contemporary. History paint- 

t ravelled through Europe before completing or, pupil of Barcelona Art School, then 

his studies in 1850, and then revisited the studied in Home and in Germany. Works: 

coast of the Mediterranean and the Pyre- Tobias ; Death of Moses ; Dante's Purga- 

nees. Gold medal in 187'.). Professor at torv ; Discovery of America ; The Moor's 

the Berlin Academy since 18H1. Works: Sigh; Melancholia; Portrait of Don Buen- 

Montorgueil from the Sea, St. Aubin's Cas- aventura C. Aribau, Barcelona Museum ; 

tie (18(50); Light-House near L'Etaeq ; West- frescos in 1'iiiversity and other Buildings 

em Coast of Helgoland (18(51); Elizabeth at Madrid. L:i Ilustracion, 1877. 

Castle on Jersey, Isle of Neuwerk (18(5:5); ESPINAI, JUAN DK, born at Seville, 

Pond in Twilight ; Dutch Landscape ; Storm died there in 178:5. Spanish school; liis- 

in open Sea; Blue Grotto at Capri ; Isle of tory painter, son and pupil of Gregoria E, 

Ainrum at Ebb Tide ; Bergen on Riigen ; then pupil of Domingo Martinez, whose 

St. Catherine on Isle of Jersey (18(>K); Bal- daughter he married; was made director of 

tic Sea in Winter, Life-Boat to Rescue of the School of Design at Seville. Works : 

Schooner (1872); Steinbach Valley in the Scenes from Life of St. Jerome, Seville Mu- 

Hartz ; Storm 011 Coast of Capri ; Promon- seum ; Frescos in Collegiate Church, San 

tory of Arkona on Riigen ; Whatcombe Bay Salvador. 

on Isle of Wight ; Light-Houne on Isle (If ESPINOS, DON BENITO, born at Va 

Neuwerk ; Eastern Pier at. Swinemimde lencia, died about 1H17. Spanish school ; 

(1879); Light-House ou the Cliff (187!)), \ flower painter, son of the history painter 

National Gallery, Berlin. Brockhaus, vi. and engraver Josef Espinos (1721-1784); 
350; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 340. | was appointed director of the Valencia Acad- 


emy in 1787. Works : Nine Flower pieces, 
Madrid Museum ; others in the Escorial 
and in Valencia Museum. 


born at Concentaina, Valencia, July 20, KiOO, 
died in Valencia in 1G80. Spanish school ; 
history painter, son and pupil of Rodriguez 
de Espiuosa (15G2-1030), a mediocre painter; 
probably studied afterward under Francisco 
Ribalta, and later in Italy. Painted chiefly 
religions compositions, and excelled in por- 
traits. Warm colour, resembles the best 
Bologncse masters in stylo. Works : Mary 
Magdalen, Christ at the Column, St. John 
Baptist, Madrid Museum ; St. Francis of 
Assisi, Christ, bearing the Cross, Dresden 
Gallery; Communion of Mary Magdalen, 
St. Louis Bertrand, Christ appearing to St. 
Ignatius Loyola. Valencia Museum. Others 
in churches of Valencia. He was aided in 
many of his works by his son Miguel Jeron- 
imo, who imitated his style with moderate 


success. Stirling, ii. 703 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
espagnole ; Viardot, 150 ; Madrazo, 398. 

ESSELENS, JACOB, llonrished at Am- 
sterdam, 17th century. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and figure painter, supposed pupil of 
Rembrandt ; painted villages on the banks 
of rivers, buildings with fountains, stag- 
hunts, and shipping-pieces. Works : Fig- 
ures by a River, Rotterdam Museum ; Fish- 
ing Piece, Copenhagen Gallery ; Rendezvous 
of a Hunting Party, Corporation Galleries, 
Glasgow. Immerzeel, i. 224 ; Kranim, ii. 

ESTE, ALFONSO D', Duke of Ferrara, 
portrait, Titian, Madrid Museum ; wood, H. 
4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Painted about 1518 ; 
acquired in 1533, by Emperor Charles V. 
Iteplica, lately in Kaunitz Collection, by 
some later painter. Second portrait of Al- 
fonso, painted by Titian in 153G, lost. C. & 
C., Titian, i. 189, 3G3, 410. 

chioness of Mantua, portrait, Titian, Vienna 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 
Painted in 1534, from an older portrait by 
some unknown painter. Bought by Arch- 
duke Leopold Wilhelm for his gallery in 
Brussels, and thence passed to Vienna. En- 
graved by Vorsterman from copy by Ru- 
bens ; also engraved by Van tier Stcen, 
Krepp, and others. Replied, with varia- 
tions, at Hermitage, attributed to Paris Bor- 
done ; others at Verona and Padua. C. & 
('., Titian, i. 385. 

school, last half of 15th century. Probably 
of Reggio, as he is sometimes called B:il- 
dassare da Reggio. Supposed illegitimate 
scinii of House of Este, as he received un- 
usual promotion from the Dukes of Ferrara. 
Painted a likeness of Borso I. in 14(59, and 
was sent to Milan to present, it in person to 
the Duke. His frescos in the Rufini Chapel, 
S. Domenico, Ferrara, have perished, but 
his portrait of Tito Strozzi, a tempera on 
canvas, of good outline and finish, dated 
1483, is in the Costabili Collection, Ferrara. 
He seems to have followed in the footsteps 

of Tura and of 

r~* f- Cossa. Baltlas- 

I , <ltsiS '* - m waa 

-* 'J made in 1500. 

C. & C., N. Italy, i. 525 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., iv. 173. 

Sdimiler, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, 
H. fi ft. 5 iu. x8 ft. 3 in.; signed, dated 
185G. Illustration of Esther, Cli. V. Ahasu- 
crus, at left, lowering his sceptre graciously, 
greets Queen Esther, who swoons in the 
arms of her two attendants ; behind him 
the anxious Hainan ; at right, at entrance of 
palace, two soldiers. Figures life size, seen 
to knees. 

By Tintoretto, Hampton Court Palace, 
England ; canvas, H. fi ft. 9 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. 
Esther fainting, held up by a woman and a 
man; the King anxiously descending the 
steps of the throne ; other figures crowding 


round. In collection of Charles I. ; sold in 
1650 for 120 ; returned to royal collection 
at Restoration. Original sketch at Madrid. 
Engraved in reverse by S. Gribelin. Waagen 
says "this is one of the most admirable 
specimens I know of this unequal master." 
Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 24 ; 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 35'J. 

By Paolo I'l-roni'xi; Louvre ; canvas, 11. (> 
ft. (J in. x 10 ft. 2 in. Ahasuerua on a throne 
at right, with his councillors around him, 
looks angrily at Queen Esther, who faints in 
the arms of two of her women ; above, two 
figures in a balcony ; in the middle, a statue 
iu a niche. Formerly in Casa Bonaldi, Ven- 
ice ; bought by Jabach, who sold it to 
Louis XIV. Landon, GEuvres, x\i. PI. 3 ; 
Musec, xix. PI. ;i() ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

ETEX, ANTOINE, born in Paris, March 
20, 1808. Painter, sculptor, architect, en- 
graver, and writer on art subjects. Studied 
sculpture under Dupaty and Pradier, paint- 
ing under Ingres, and architecture under 
Duban. Has worked chiefly us a sculptor. 
Medal, 1st class, 1833 ; L. of Honour, 1841. 
Works: Woman Bathing (1828); St. Se- 
bastian, Joseph explaining his Dream to his 
Brethren (1844); Deliverance (1845); Woman 
of the Roman Campagna, Eurydice (1853), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Asia, Danac, Isaac 
blessing Jacob (1S57) ; Christ on Lake (len- 
ezareth, The Seasons, Europe, Africa (185!t); 
Education of the Medici (18(!1) ; Jacob 
going to meet Joseph in Egypt, Jacob's Fu- 
neral (18G3) ; The Sons of Joseph blessed bv 
Jacob (1805) ; Ancient Slave, Modern Slave 
(18CG); Death of the Child Adeodatus (1875) ; 
Portrait of himself (1877) ; Christ, Glory of 
the United States (1885). 

ETEX, LOUIS JULES, born in Paris, 
Sept 20, 1810. History, genre, and por- 
trait painter, brother of Antoine E., pupil 
of Lethiere and Ingres. Medals : 2d class, 
1833, 1838. W T orks : Adam and Eve (1838); 
Woman carrying PYuit (1840); Madonna, 
Lost the Way (184(i); Woman from Fron- 
tier of Naples (184'J); Christ raising the 
Widow's Son (1851); Stage-Coach during 

'Storm (1852); Vestal re-entering Temple 
swoons nt seeing the Sacred Fire extin- 
guished (18(>8); Souvenir do La Varenne, 

; Vestal dragged out of the Temple (18<>;)); 
St. (Jeiievieve, Evening (1870); St. Philihert, 
Notre-Dame de Lorette, Paris; Portraits of 
Henri I., Due do Montmorency, and of 
Marquis do Sillery, Versailles Museum. 
Bellier-Auvrav, i. 524. 

ETTY, WILLIAM, born in York, March 
10, 1787, died 
there, Nov. 13. 
184!). History 
painter, son of a 
in i Her ; appren- 
ticed for seven 
years with Peck, 
a le 1 1 er-press 
printer at Hull ; 
went to London 
in 180C, in 1807 
became a student at (lie I loyal Academy, 
and in 1808 of Sir Thomas Lawrence. He 
was long unsuccessful, but by persevering 
drudgery at last won his reward; in 1811 
his Telemaehus rescuing Antiope was hung 
in the Royal Academy, and in 1820 his Coral 
Finders, and in 1821 his CIcojKitrtl on the 
Cydnus, brought him fame. In 1822 he 
visited Italy and became an honorary mem- 
ber of the Venetian Academy ; and in 1824 
he was elected an A.R.A., and in 1828 U.A. 
Etty delighted in painting the nude, espe- 
cially the female form, and as a colourist 
had few equals in the English school. 
Works: Sappho (1811); The Deluge (1815), 
Cupid sheltering Psyche (1823), Head of a 
Cardinal (1844), South Kensington Museum ; 
Imprudence of Candaules (1830), Window 
in Venice during a Festa (1831), Youth on 

' the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm (1832), 
Lute-Plaver (1833), Dangerous Playmate 
(1833), Christ appearing to Magdalen (1834), 
II Duetto (1838), Female Bathers sin-prised 
by a Swnn (1841), Magdalen (1842), Bather 
(1844), National Gallery, London ; Deliver- 
ance of Bethulia by Judith (3 pictures, 1827- 
31), Beuaiah (182'J), The Combat (1825), 



National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Ulysses and ' school, pupil of Arixtul of Thebes or of 
the Sirens (1837), Manchester Gallery ; Or- j his son ami pupil Ariston, about 370-336 
igin of Marriage, Bevy of Fair Women (1828), B.C. Master of all artspainter, sculptor, 
.Stafford House, London ; Venus and Cupid, chaser of metals, and writer 011 symmetry 
Henry Bicknell, Cavendish House, Clapham and colour (Pliny, xxxiv. 19 ; Quiu , xii. 10, 
Common ; Eape of Proserpine (1839), Ve- G). He united the traditions of his Theban 
nus Anad'yomene, Three Graces, J. Gillott master with those of the Sicyonic school, 
Collection ; Judgment of Paris ; Venus and , and painted many famous works, both at 
her Satellites (1835); Wise and Foolish Vir- Corinth and at Athens. Upon one wall in 
gins ; Hylas and Nymphs ; Prodigal Son ; | the Stoa Basilicas at Athens he painted 
Prodigal's Return ; Destruction of Temple \ Theseus with personifications of Democracy 
of Vice ; Adam and Eve ; Pandora ; Parting j and the Demos, and upon the opposite one 
of Hero' and Leander ; Death of do. ; Diana j the twelve great gods. There also he repre- 
aud Endvmion ; Amoret freed by Britomart ; sented a tiglit between the Athenian and 
/ephvr and Aurora ; Robinson Crusoe re- Bu-otiaii cavalry at the battle of Mantimea, 
turning Thanks for Deliverance; Joan of with portraits of Epaminoiidas and of Gryl- 
Arc (3 pictures, 1847). Gik-hrist, Life (Lon-lus, son of Xenophon (Pans. i. 3. 2, 3). 
don, 1855); Redgrave; Art Jour. (1849), 13; With reference to the first-named picture 
(1858), 233 ; Sandby, ii. 49; Cli. Blanc, Ecole Euphranor remarked that the Theseus of 
anglaise; Portfolio (1875), 88, 107, 142, 149, Parrhasius had been fed on roses, but his 

own on beef (Pliny, xxxv. 40). Some fa- 

172, 180 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1862), xiii. 208. 

ETZDORF. See Eulorf. 

EUCHEIR, of Athens, mythic painter, 
spoken of as the discoverer of painting in 
Greece, and as related to Diedalus. Pliny, 
vii. 57 [205]. 

EUDORUS, scene-painter and statuary, 
place and date unknown. Pliny, xxxv. 40 

EUMARUS, monochrome painter, of Ath- 
ens, latter part of Cth century n.c. Said to 
have been the first to distinguish men from 
women in his pictures by colour, by which 
is meant, probably, that he painted the flesh 

inous pictures of his at Ephesus are also 
mentioned : Ulysses in his feigned Madness, 
yoking together an Ox and a Horse ; and a 
Warrior sheathing his Sword. 

EUPOMPUS, a noted Greek painter, of 
Sicyon, founder of the Sicyonic school, con- 
temporary and rival of Farrhasiiis and Ti- 
manlhux, about 400 n.c. (Pliny, xxv. 36 [61, 
64, 75 1). Before his time only two schools 
of painting were recognized in Greece, the 
Ionic (Asiatic) and the Attic (Hellenic). 
We know the subject of but one of his 
works, a winner in the Olympic games car- 

ol' the former of a reddish brown and that ! rying a palm of victory in his hand. This 
of the latter white. Also said to have first picture was so marked in its individuality 
marked the differences in age between the 

persons whom he painted. Painting in 
Greece, up to his time on a level with that 
in Assyria and Egypt, took with him the 
first steps iu the path of progress. Pliny, 
xxxv. 34 [55]. 

EUMELUS, painter, of Caria, probably 
about A.D. 190. His picture of Helen was 
in the Roman Forum. Philost. Vita Sophist., 
ii. 5. 

EUPHRANOR, one of the greatest of 
Greek artists, of Corinth, Thebaii-Attic 

that the painter was conceded to have founded 
a third school, the Sicyonic, at the head of 
which stands his scholar PamjjhUtts, the mas- 
ter of Apelles. 

EURIPIDES, painter and poet (485-406 
li.c.). The great tragic poet was a painter 
in his youth, and several of his works were 
preserved in Megara. Snidas, v. and Vita 
Eurip. in Vitas scriptores Grseci minores (ed. 
Westerm. 134, 15). 

EUROPA, RAPE OF, Claude Lorraiu, 
Buckingham Palace ; canvas, H. 4 f t. x 4 ft. 


6 in.; signed, dated Romr, 1007. A sea- 
coast view in early morning light ; Europa 
and the bull in foreground, and group of 
trees in middle distance ; in background, 
left, hills. Replica of picture painted for 
Pope Alexander VII. in 1055. Bought liv 
George IV. at Lord Gwydyr sale (18'2D) for 
2,000. Engraved by Rad civile, and by 
Claude himself. Liber Veritatis, No. l:$0. 
Another Europa, Liber Veritatis, 144, was 
in collection of Sir Philip Miles, Leigh 

whose hands it passed to the Orleans Collec- 
tion ; sold in 171)8 to Lord Berwick for .C700. 
Copy by Rubens in Madrid Museum ; an- 
other, probably by Del Mazo, is in collection 
of Sir Richard Wallace ; poor copy in Dul- 
wich Gallery. C. & C., Titian, ii. HI!) ; \Yaa- 
gen, Treasures, iii. 11). 

By Paolo \'irv>u'x<; Pala/./o Ducale, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. Jupiter, in the form of a bull, 
lying down under trees to receive Europa, 
who, aided by attendants, is beating herself 

Rape of Europa, Paolo Veronese, Palazzo Ducale, Venice. 

Court. Wangen, Treasures, ii. 2:5 ; Patti- 
son, Claude Lorrain, 71, 227. 

By Titian, Cobham Hall, England ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. xO ft. 8 in.; signed. 
Jupiter, in the form of a bull, with Europa 
on his back, rushes through the brine, while 
Eros, with expanded wings, clings to a dol- 
phin following, and two Cupids fly over- 
head ; in the distance Europa's companions 
on the shore bewail her loss. Painted in 
1562 for Philip II. of Spain ; given by Philip 
V. in 1704 to Marquis de Grarumont, through 

on his back; above, two Cupids bring wreaths 

of flowers, and a third holds the bull by a 
cord attached to a wreath around his horns ; 
at right, the bull is seen entering the water 
with Europa on his back, with attendants, 
and Cupid bearing a torch ; in distance, tho 
bull swimming, with attendants on shore 
taking leave of Europa. Left to the Repub- 
lic by Bertucci Contarini in 1715. Taken 
to Paris in 1798 ; returned in 1817. Ruskin 
says : One of the very few pictures which 
both possess and deserve a high reputation. 


Replica in Capitol Gallery, Rome ; anollicr, 
small, with changes, National Gallery, Lon- 
don. Engraved by Rainaldi ; Lefebvre. 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 297 ; Klas. cler 
Malerei, PI. 70 ; Landon. Musee, xv. I'l. 2!) ; 
llighetti, Canipidoglio, ii. I'l. 2t)G ; Rosini, 
v. 274 ; Reveil, xii. 823. 


EUTHYMIDES, third-rate painter, place 
and dale unknown (Pliny, xxxv. 40 |14(iJ). 
Perhaps identical with Euthymides of Ha- 
dria, son of Polius, vase-painter, whose name 
is on a vase found at Yulei. 

EUTYCHIDES, painter, place and date 
unknown. His picture of a two-horse char- 
iot is mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 40 |141|). 
Perhaps identical with the sculptor of the 
same name from (Sic-yon, mentioned by Pau- 
sanias (vi. 2. (J) and Pliny (xxxiv. 78). 

EUXINIDAS, painter, master of Arixtidcs 
of Thebes, about 400-380 B.C. Works un- 
known. Pliny, xxxv. 30 [74]. 

EYANS, DE SCOTT, born in Boston, 
Ind., iii 1847. Portrait and genre painter, 

Cfeation of Eve, Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome. 

pupil of Bouguereau in Paris, 1877-78. 
Studio in Cleveland, where he is professor 
in 11 K! Academy of Eiue Arts. Exhibits at 
the National Academy, New York. Ideal 
works : Mother's Treasure, T. D. Crocker, 
Cleveland ; In the Studio ; Old Tapestrv, 
The Answer (1881); Old Clock, Taxidermist 
(1882); Old Spring House, Morning (1883); 
Birthday Card (1884). 

EVANTHES, painter, of Egypt, 4th cen- 
tury 11. c. Painted an Andromeda and a 
Prometheus for the Temple of Zeus Kasius 
at Pelusium. Achilles Tatius, iii. (edition 

EVE, CREATION OF, Michelangelo, Sis- 
tine Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceiling. II- 
, lustration of Genesis ii. 21-23. 

EYENOR, painter, of Ephesus, father and 
master of J'urrhaxiux, lived about 420 B.C. 
Pliny, xxxv. 30 [GO]; Pans. 1, 28, 2; 
Athen. xii. p. 543. 

born at Alkmaar 
iii 1021 (?), died 
in Amsterdam, 

r .-=* -y, I Nov., 1075. 

V' Dutch school ; 

^-* J* 1 !' landscape paint- 

er, pupil at Ut- 
recht of Roelandt 
Savei\y, and the 
x master of Back- 
"\ huysenandlluys- 
d a c 1. Fro m 

1045 to 1051 lived at Haarlem, and from 
1054 to 1075 in Amsterdam. Everdingen's 
landscapes are poetic and spirited. His 
treatment of rocks and waterfalls, forests and 
sea-views, is truthful and vigourous, both 
in his pictures and his numerous etchings. 
Many of his studies from nature were made 
in Norway, which he visited in 1G40-44. 
Works: Norwegian Landscapes (2), National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Two Waterfalls, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Rocky Landscape, Vienna 
Museum ; Landscapes (2), Louvre ; River 
Landscape (1048), Norwegian Waterfall, Nor- 
wegian Landscapes (2), Wood eel Slope, Cas- 
tle by River, Berlin Museum ; Waterfall with 
Alpine Hut, Norwegian Landscape (1047), 
Brunswick Museum ; Ravine with Torrent, 
Cologne Museum ; Landscape with Waterfall 
(1050), Storm at Sea, 2 Landscapes, Old Pin- 
akothek, Munich; Stag-Hunt (1043), 4 Land- 
scapes, Dresden Gallery ; Mountain Torrent 
in Norway, Breslau Museum ; Stormy Sea, 
Landscape with Mill, Norwegian Landscape, 



Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; High Tide among EWALD, ERNST (DEOD AT PAUL FKIt- 
Cliffs (1G47), Mountain Landscape (1048), D1NAND), born in Berlin, March 17, 1*30. 
three others, Copenhagen Gallery. Others History painter, pupil in Berlin in 1855 of 
in Cosset, Darmstadt, Gotha, Oldenburg, StetVeck, then studied iu Paris in 1850-0:!, 
Hamburg, and ypv , A / including one year under Couture. After 

St. Petersburg ^Al/ /*!,/} visiting Italy, in 18<;:i-(i4, he returned to 

Galleries. All- * 't^' Berlin, and there decorated the new city 

gem. d. Biogr., vi. 4.'i5 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole hall, and a hall in the National Gallery, with 
hollandaise ; F.'irster, iii. 207, 2H; Immer- wall paintings. In I SOS he became in- 
zeel, i. 225; Kramm, ii. 445 ; Quellenschrift- structor, and in 1S74 director, of the, Ger- 
en, xiv. 201 ; Van der AVilligen, 127. man Industrial School, in Isso also of the 

EVERDINGKX, CKSAR VAN, born at Royal Art Sd 1, at Berlin. M'orks : The 

Alkmaar in 1000, died there in 10711. Dutch Seven Deadly Sins (1803), Scenes from Xie- 
school, history, genre, and portrait painter : bclungcn Saga (ISC'.l), National Gallerv, 
brother of Allart vanE. ; pupil of Jan van Berlin. -Brockhaus, vi. Hi:!; Rosenberg, 
Bronkhorst, entered the Alkmaar guild in I'.erl. Malersch.. 2:!0. 

1032 ; went in 1048 to Haarlem, where he EWARD, CHARLKS. born at Nantes 
entered the guild in 1051, but returned to about 1008, died in Rome May 25, liiMi. 
Alkmaar, where most of his pictures are to French school ; history and architecture 
be found in St. Lawrence's Church and in painter and engraver. Formed himself in 
the Town Hall. He painted with vivid con- Italv, where he was member of the Acrid- 
ception and powerful colouring. Works: emv of St. Luke, lii:!5, and after his return 
Diogenes in Search of a Man (1052, figures to France decorated churches and palaces 
portraits of the Steiju family ), National Mil- with second-rate pictures of sacred and pro- 
scum, Amsterdam ; Flora, Pomona, Bacchus, fane historv. He was one of the founders 
V, -| * and Cupid, Dresden and first director of the French Academy at 

\\/f /L e y t Gallery. His younger Paris and (1005) at Rome. Ch. Blanc, Kcole 

^l / brother, Jan (1025- francaise. 

1656), painted still life. Immer/eel, i. 225 ; EXECUTION IN GRANADA, Henri 
Kramm, ii. 445 ; Quellenschriften, xiv. 200 ; /,V</,,r/////, formerlv in Luxembourg Museum; 
Van der Willigeu, 120. 'canvas, H. i) ft. 10 in. t ft. 10 in. A mnr- 

EVERS, ANTON CLEMENS, born on ' ble stairway with two or three steps leads 
the Moritzberg, near Hildesheim, in 1802. to a Moorish court in the style of the Al 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of the hanibra ; in foreground, two ligures, the 
Dresden Academy until 1821), after which he executioner and his victim, the former 
painted portraits in his native town. In standing wiping his cimeter on his tunic, 
1832 he went to Munich, where he cstab- the latter a mangled trunk, the head lying 
lished himself as a painter of Bavarian life in a pool of blood on the marble pavement. 
and sports. "Works: Peter Visclier in Nu- Salon, 1870. Benjamin, 102. 
remberg working on Sebnldus" Monument ; EXILES OF TIBERIUS, Felix Joseph 
Guttenberg showing first Trials of Printing ; /,'<////.-, Luxembourg Museum; canvas, H. 

8 ft. 3 in. x 13 ft. The Emperor Tiberius, 
having retired to Caprea (Capri) to pursue 
his pleasures, punished all who stood in his 
way, including even the wives and children 
of the accused, by banishing thorn to islands 
Luther as Squire George at the Wartburg ; where they could get neither fire nor water 
Huns Sachs composing Poetry in a Bower. (Suetonius). The picture represents a boat 


filled with prisoners going to the island, the 
hills of which are seen in the background ; 
at right, a galley from which prisoners are 
being transferred to another boat. Salon, 

penhagen, Nov. 30, 
1825. Genre and 
portrait painter, pu- ; 
pil of the Copenha- 
gen Academy under 
Lund and Eckers- 
berg. He painted 
portraits and scenes 
from Danish history, 
before devoting 
himself entirely to 
the representation of 

country life in Denmark. Member of Co- 
penhagen (1804), and Stockholm (1800), 
Academies. Professor at Copenhagen Acad- 
emy in 1870. Order of Danebrog, I860. 
Works : Old Woman (1852) ; Sunday Visit 
at Grandfather's (1853), Feast at Peasant's 
on Amager (1854), Grandmother's Greeting, 
Game of Black Peter (1803), Little Conva- 
lescent (1807), all in Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Peasants' Dance in Hedebo (1855) ; End of 
a Bout (1800); Blind Man's Buff (1800); 
Peasant Wedding (1807); Visiting the Sick 
(1870) ; Wooing (1877) ; Interrupted Nap 
(1881); A Discovery (1882). Sigurd Muller, 
95 ; Weilbach, 155. 

Hamburg, Dec. 17, 1813. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of the Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy in 1839-47, under Karl Sohu and 
Schadow. Lived in Diisseldorf from 1851 
to 1853, and afterwards settled in Hamburg. 
Works : Hagar and Ishmael (1845) ; Susanna 
at the Bath (1853), Kiel Gallery; Charity 
(1847), Children Bathing (1858), Hamburg 

EYBEL, ADOLF, born in Berlin, Feb. 
24, 1808, died there Oct. 12, 1882. His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil of 
the Berlin Academy and of Kolbe ; studied 
then in Paris (1834-39) under Delaroche, 

became afterwards member of, and in 1849 
professor at, the Berlin Academy. Works : 
Gleaner (183G); Battle of Fehrbellin (1840), 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Twelve Reformers, 
Royal Chapel, ib. ; Scene from Scott's Wood- 
stock ; Richard Cceur de Lion listening to 
Blondel's Singing ; Scene from Faust. 
Brockhaus, vi. 493; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 24. 
EYBL, FRANZ, born in Vienna, April 1, 
180G, died there April 29, 1880. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil of the Vienna 
Academy ; member in 1843. Works : Smithy 
at (1835) ; Strawberry Seller, Return 
of Husbandman (1844) ; Dressing the Bride 
(1845) ; Old Woman asleep in Arm Chair ; 
Old Woman leaving Church ; Old Woman 
Praying (1840) ; Austrian Peasant Woman 
(1847), Old Beggar (1850), Vienna Museum. 
-Wurzbach, iv. 119. 

VAN, b o r 11 a t 
Maaseyck after 
1300, died in 
Ghent Sept. 18, 
1420. Flemish 
school. There are 
no authentic rec- 
ords of his life 
until 1424, when 
he was living in 
high repute as a 
painter in Ghent. 
The honour of 
perfecting oil 

painting, long known but hitherto undevel- 
oped, belongs to Hubert and his brother 
Jan. They invented a colourless varnish 
which could be applied with safety to oil 
colours, and thus obviated the only impedi- 
ment to their use, namely, their excessive 
slowness in drying, which had been before 
met by the use of a varnish which darkened 
many colours and was therefore objection- 
able. Their new method was that of paint- 
ing with wet upon wet colour. The tints 
were mixed with the drying medium upon 
the palette, and then applied. Hubert's 
one certainly authentic work is that part of 


the great altarpiece in the Church of St. 
Huron (now St. John), Ghent the Adoration 
of the Lamb, which he painted for Jodocus 
Vydt, a rich patrician of Ghent. The fol- 
lowing portions, as differing in drawing, 
colouring, cast of drapery, and treatment 
from the style of Jan, as recognized in his 
other works, may be safely assigned to Hu- 
bert, namely : the Almighty, the Virgin, St. 
John the Baptist, from the upper inner 
series, and the great picture of the Adora- 
tion of the Lamb, being the central portion 
of the lower scries, in the Church of St. Ba- 
vou, Ghent ; St. Cecilia and Angels playing 
on musical instruments, Berlin Museum ; 
both the upper outside wings, with Adam 
and Eve, Brussels Museum. The side of 
the centre picture with the Apostles and 
Saints, and the wings with the hermits and 
pilgrims, with the exception of the land- 
scapes, are also attributed to Hubert Van 
Eyck. The altarpiece in its entirety is one 
of the most wonderful works of art in the 
world. Biog. nat. de Belgique, vi. 775 ; 
Carton, Les trois Frcres Van Eyck (Brussels, 
1848) ; Eastlake, Materials ; Eisenman, The 
Brothers Van Eyck, 20!); Dohme, li. ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecolc flamande ; C. k C., Flemish 
Painters, 34 ; Allgem. d. Biogr. 
Forster, Dcnkmale, iii. 15 ; vi. 
Gesch., ii. (>4 ; Immerzeel, i. 22(! 
ii. 448 ; Michiels, ii. 8:5 ; Sclmaase 
W. & W., ii. 8. 

EYCK, JAN VAX, born at Maaseyck 
about 11581, 
died in Bru- 
ges July 9, 
1440. Flem- 
ish school. 
Jan and his 
elder brothei- 
Hubert are 
supposed to 
have been 
court - paint- 
ers to Philip 
de Charoloia, 
afterwards Philip the Good, Duke of Bur- 

vi. 778 ; 

17; do., 

; Kramm, 

viii. 10:5 ; 

gundy, who, with his wife, Michelle do 
France, resided at Ghent between 1418 and 
1421. In October, 1422, Jan entered the 
service of Duke John of Bavaria as " painter 
and varlet," at The Hague, and after his 
death (May 10, 1425) re-entered that of 
Duke Philip in the same capacities. Dur- 
ing the next three years he lived ;it Lille, 
whence he was sent by the Duke, Oct. Ill, 
1428, to Portugal, to paint the portrait of 
his affianced bride, the Princess Isabel. At. 
Christinas, 1421), Jan returned to Flanders 
with the Princess, and settled at Ghent to 
complete; the great altarpiece of the Adora- 
tion of the Lamb, left unfinished by his 
brother Hubert. Having accomplished this 
work in 14:52, he established himself at Urii- 
ges, where, in consideration of his great. 
merit, the Duke exempted him from taxes, 
and in 14:54 honoured him by becoming 
godfather to his daughter Lycimie. Au- 
thorities differ as to what part of the great 
altarpiece in the Cathedral of St. Bavon al 
Ghent was painted by Jan after his brother's 
death. The question is the more difficult to 
decide, as it is Hubert's one authentic work. 
Many pictures by Jan exist, and these when 
compared with the altarpiece have led "\Yolt- 
mann to conclude that only the paintings 
on the outer shutters, Berlin Gallery, (ire 
by him. They consist of the Annunciation 
and the Prophets and Sibyls who foretold 
the event, and of four figures in niches, two 
of which in monochrome represent Gothic 
statues of SS. John the Baptist and the 
Evangelist, and two in colour, the kneeling 
donors, Jodocus Vydt and his wife, Fran 
Lisbet IJarlut. To these as Jan's work are 
added in Kugler's Handbook (Crowe) the 
wing picture with the singing angels of the 
upper series on the inner side, the side of 
the centre picture of the Adoration of the 
Lamb containing the Patriarchs and Proph- 
ets, etc., and the entire landscape, the wing 
with the soldiers of Christ and the Righteous 
Judges, and the landscapes to the wing with 
the hermits and pilgrims. Other works by 
Jan are the Consecration of Thomas a Becket 


(dated Oct. 30, 1421), Chatsworth, England ; van Eyck ; existence only lately established. 
Seated Madonna (14152), Inoe Hall, near Only work attributed to him, an altarpiece, 
Liverpool, England ; Burghley House Ma- consisting of a centre and two wings (1445), 
donna, Marquis of Exeter ; Portraits of in the Van der Schrick Collection, Louvain. 
John Amolfini of Lucca and his wife (1434), C. &. C., Flemish Painters, 133 ; Kramm, 
and two half-length male portraits (1432- ii. 405. 

33), National Gallery, London ; Virgin and EYCK, MARGARET VAN, born (?), died 
Donor, Louvre ; Madonna with Donor, not later than 1430. Flemish school ; sister 
Rothschild Collection, Paris ; Cardinal della of Hubert, Jan, and Lambert Van Eyck. She 
Croce (1430), Canon Jan van der Leeuw is said to have been a skilful painter, but 
(1430), Vienna Museum ; Paele Madonna none of the works assigned to her are cer- 
(1430), portrait of Jan's wife (1439), and tainly authentic. She died before Jan, and 
Head of Christ (1420), Bruges Academy ; was buried, like Hubert, in the Cathedral 
Lucca Madonna, Stiidel Institute, Frank- at Ghent. A Madonna, National Gallery, 
fort ; Triptych with Christ blessing, Cassel London, is attributed to her. Biog. uat. do 
Gallery ; Head of Christ (1438), Man with , Belgiqup, vi. 800 ; C'. &, C., Flemish Paint- 
the Pinks, Berlin Museum ; Altarpiece, ers, 12!) ; Kramm, ii. 404. 
Dresden Gallery ; S. Barbara (1437), and a EYCK, NICOLAAS VAN, born at Ant- 
Madonna (1439), Antwerp Museum ; Annun- werp, baptized Feb. 9, 1017, died there in 
elation, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Triumph 1079. Flemish school ; military, genre, and 
of the Church, Madrid Museum ; The Fount battle painter, brother of Kaspar van Eyck, 

. of Salvation? Mu- pupil of Theodor Rombouts. Probably 

I l^/lj scum of the Santa several of his works, which were greatly es- 

\s\ P _^ l^^-lO- Trinidad, Madrid, teemed in the 18th century, are attributed to 
/ C'. i^. C., Flemish other masters. Works : Review of Militia 

Painters, 30 ; Car- by Mayor of Antwerp (1073), City Hall, Ant- 
Ion, Les trois Fivrcs Van Eyck; Woale, werp; Two Episodes in Taking of Mechlin 
Notes snr Jean van Eyck (Brussels, 1801) ; in 1580 (about 1050), Mechlin Museum ; 
Schopenhauer, Johann van Eyck und seine Equestrian Portrait, Lille Museum ; Halt of 
Nachfolger (Frankfort, 1823); Ch. Blanc, Soldiers in a Village, Vienna Museum ; Sol- 
Kcole flamande ; Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 778 ; diers wading through River, Turin Galleiy. 
Forster, Denkmale, iii. 15 ; vi. 15 ; do., Van den Branden, 1013. 
Gesch., ii. 04 ; Immerzeol, i. 220 ; Kramm, EYCKEN, JEAN BAPTISTS VAN, born 
ii. 448 ; Michiels, ii. 83 ; v. 447 ; Pucgel, in Brussels, Sept. 10, 1809, died at Schaer- 
Beitrage, i. 3 ; Sclmaasc, viii. 103 ; W. \- W., beck-les-Bruxelles Dec. 19, 1853. History 
ii. 9, 17 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., viii. (Mittheil- and genre painter, pupil at the Brussels 
ungen, i. 0). Academy of Navez ; obtained the great prize 

EYCK, KASPAR VAN, born at Antwerp, in 1835, 'visited France and Italy in 1837-39, 
baptized Feb. 0, 1013, died at Brussels in and soon after his return took rank with the 
1073. Flemish school ; marine painter, pu- foremost artists of his native country. His 
pil of Andries van Artvelt ; master of the works in the chapel of Notre Dame in Brus- 
guild at Antwerp in 1033. Works : Vessels \ sels were the first examples of monumental 
by Fortified Castle, Naval Battle between decoration on a grand scale painted in Bel- 
Christians and Turks, Meu-of-War with gium. Professor at Brussels Academy in 
Rocks in View, Madrid Museum. Van den 1839, member in 1848. Gold medals : Brus- 
Branden, 1044. j sels, 1839 ; Paris, 1840 ; Order of Leopold, 

EYCK, LAMBERT VAN, 15th century. 1847. Works : Holy Women at Christ's 
Flemish school. Brother of Hubert and Jan Tomb (1835) ; Young Mother with her Dead 



Child (1837), Lisieux Museum ; Entomb- 
ment (1837), Liege Museum ; Divine Mercy 
(1839) ; Ransom of Captive Christians (1840), 
St. Boniface imploring the Virgin (1841), 
glisc de la Chapellc, Brussels ; Descent 
from the Cross (1841), Eglise de Thourout, 
ib. ; Entombment, St. Andrew's, ib. ; Christ be- 
wailing Jerusalem (1844), Vatican, Rome ; 
Prisoner's Wife, St. Cecilia's last Song, Abun- 
dance, Revery (1848) ; Falling Leaves ( 184!i) : 
Studio Scene, National Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Fourteen Scenes in Christ's Passion 
(1851), figlise de la Chapelle, Brussels. 
Biog. nat. de Belgique, vi. 804 ; Immcr/cel, 
i. 230 ; Kramni, ii. 4(!(>. 

Jean (!r<>.<, Louvre, Paris; canvas, H. 17 ft. 
(i in. x 2G ft. 4 in. ; signed, dated 18(18. Na- 
poleon visiting the battlefield of Eylau (Feb. 
!), 1807), before reviewing his troops. Near 
the centre, the Emperor, in a pelisse of gray 
satin bordered with fur, raises his hand with 
a gesture indicating grief at the sight of the 
dead and wounded around him. Among his 
staff arc, at right, Soult, Davoust, and Mu- 
rat ; at left, Berthier, Bessieres, and Cau- 
laincourt. Kneeling Lithuanians implore 
his pity. In background, Eylau in flames, 
lines of French troops with prisoners defil- 
ing before them, and the dead on the bat- 
tlefield partly hidden by snow. Salon, 180S. 
Gros received 1(!,0"0 fr. Engraved by Val- 
lot, Oortman. Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

Posneck, Meiniugen, Feb. 28, 1801, died 
in Munich Dec. 18, 1851. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy. Trav- 
elled extensively, both on the Continent and 
in England. Studied Ruysdael and Evcr- 
dingen, and loved to paint Nature in her 
more sombre aspects. He was appointed 
court-painter to the Duke of Saxe-Mein- 
ingen, and member of Stockholm Academy. 
Works: Waterfall with Mill (1830); Land- 
scape with Castle in Park (1H37); Iron 
Works by Waterfall (1840), New Piuako- 
thek, Munich ; Storm (1841) ; Huntsman by 

Beech Trees (1842); Karlssteg in Ziller Val- 
ley (1850); Fisherman's Hut on Lake, Laud- 
scape with Bathing Girls. Andresen, iv. 
249 ; Brockhaus, vi. 407 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 

E/.EKIEL, .lUi-lii-huKjflo, Sistiuc Chapel, 
Rome ; fresco on ceiling. 

E/EKIEL, VISION OF, /!{,//, Pala//o 
I'itti, Florence; wood, H. 1 ft. 4 in. 1 ft. 
lehovah, in a glory of light and of seraphim, 
seated like Olympian Jove upon an eagle, 

Vision of Ezekiel, Raphael, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

the symbol of St. John, with a winged lion 

and bull, symbols of SS. Mark and Luke, 

beneath him, and the angel, symbolic of St. 

Matthew, beside him, extends his arms, up- 

held by two angels, to bless the world, seen 

at an immeasurable depth below ; through 

the clouds a ray of light falls on E/.ekiel and 

his steed in the distance. Painted about 

1 1517 for Count Vincenzo Ercolani of Ik>- 

i logna. Carried to Paris in 1799 ; returned 

1 in 1815. Copy formerly in De Launay, then 

in Orleans Collection, sold to Lord Berwick 

' for 800; now at Strattou, seat of Sir Thomas 


Baring. Engraved by Marri, Longhi, Cala- 
inatta, Larmessin, Poilly. Vasari, eel. Mil., 
iv. 350 ; Miintz, 51!) ; Passavant, ii. 151 ; 
Gal. (lu Pal. Pitti, ii. PL !)3 ; Filhol, iii. PI. 
187 ; Cab. Crozat, i. PI. 28 ; Musi'e franrais, 
I.; Landon, Musec, ii. PI. 21 ; Malvasia, i. 
44 ; Perkins, 174. 

By Tinturaftii, Seuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
oval, on ceiling of upper room. Heavy and 
dead in colour, but in some measure worthy 
of the master, in the wild and horrible en- 
ergy with which the skeletons are leaping 
np about the prophet. Buskin, Stones of 
Venice, iii. 347. 

NIO DE, flourished at beginning of 18th 
century. Spanish school ; landscape and 
history painter, pupil of Antonio Palomino. 
Works : Neptune with Tritons and Nereids, 
Museum, Madrid ; Series of Saints, San Fe- 
lipe Neri, ib. 

FABARIUS, WILHELM, born at Miilil- 
heim, on the 'Ruhr, -Ian. 25, 1815. 
Landscape and marine painter, pupil 
at Dii.sseldorf of A. von "Wille, and studied 
after the works of Andreas Achenbach, then 
in Holland and Belgium from nature and 
after the old Dutch masters. Works : Dutch 
Herring Fishers ; Stranded Three-Master 
on Dutch Coast; Launching of Life-Boat; 
Fisherman's Bark wrecked on Norwegian 
Coast ; Storm in the Shears on Swedish 
Coast. Mtiller, 105. 

FABER, JOHANN, born in Hamburg, 
April 12, 1778, died there Aug. 2, 184(5. 
Landscape painter ; after treating biblical 
subjects went to Italy, and, under the influ- 
ence of Koch and Beiuhart, turned to land- 
scape painting. Works : Suffer Little Chil- 
dren to come unto Me, St. Catharine's, 
Hamburg ; Capuchin Monastery near Na- 
ples (1830), National Gallery, Berlin. Cat. 
Berlin Nat. Gal. 

Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart, June 3, 1828. 
Battle painter, pupil in Munich of Kotze- 

bue, in Paris of Yvon, and studied also Ver- 
net's battlepieces at Versailles ; served in 
the army until 1807. Studio in Munich. 
Works : Lfitzow's Riflemen ; Napoleon's Re- 
treat from Russia ; Hungarian Horse Past- 
ure ; Battle of Champigny ; Delivery of 
French Cavalry Horses after Sedan (1872); 
Death of Ophelia, Departure of Frederic of 
the Palatinate from Prague (1874); Attack 
of Chasseurs d'Afrique ; Equestrian Portrait 
of German Crown Prince (1879); Camping 
Arabs ; Joseph sold by his Brethren ; Wiir- 
temberg llcgiment, " Queen Olga," at Cham- 
pigny (1883); Ambulance by a Barricade 
(1884); Fantasia a la Rencontre de deux 
Tribus (1885). Midler, 105. 

FABIUS, CAIUS PICTOR, of the noble 
Roman house of the Fabii, lived about 
300 B.C. One of the few Roman painters 
known to us. Ho decorated the Temple of 
Salus (dedicated 302 u.c.) with a mural 
painting representing a buttle won by the 
Dictator C. Junius Brutus Bubulcus over 
the Samnites (Valor. Maximus, viii. 14, 0). 
This is the earliest recorded Roman paint- 
ing. Fabius's style was marked by simplic- 
ity and absence of mannerism. An excel- 
lent draughtsman, he combined in his work 
the clear outlines of the Old Attic with the 
rich colouring of the Theban Attic school. 
On account of his eminence in his art his 
surname, Pictor (Painter), was given to a 
family of the Fabia gens, and borne by his 
descendants. Pliny, xxxv. 19. 

born at Montpellier, April 1, 1700, died 
: there March 1(5, 1837. History painter, 
pupil of J. Coustou and of David, won grand 
prix de Rome in 1787 ; was at Rome in 1793, 
and afterwards in Naples and Florence, where 
he became a professor in the Academy and 
is said to have secretly married the Count- 
ess of Albany, after the death of Alfieri. 
He returned in 1820 to Montpellier, and 
founded there the Kcole des Beaux Arts, 
of which he became director. Medal, 1808 ; 
L. of Honour, 1827 ; officer, 1829 ; cre- 
j ated baron, 1830. At his death he bo- 



queathed to the city the collection called IV., which have :ill perished. Among his 

after him, the Musee Fabre. Works: No- other works are: Coronation of the Virgin 

optolemus and Ulysses taking from Philoc- with Saints, and a predella with live sub- 

tetes the Arrows of Hercules, Louvre ; Death jects, Brera, Milan ; Virgin adoring the In- 

of Abel, Holy Family, Death of Narcissus, fant Jesus, hull of the Pia Casa, and Adora- 

Musee Fabre, Montpellier ; Portrait of Alii- tion of the M:i!_;i, S. Domenieo, Pisa ; Virgin 

eri, do. of Countess of Albany, Ulli/.i, Flor- enthroned with Saints and a Donor, Berlin 

ence ; Judgment of Paris ; Death of Milo ; Museum. C. A: C., Italy, iii. '.>">, N. Italy, i. 

Family of Kings of Ktruria (1804), Madrid 100 ; Vasari, ed. Mil , iii. 5, 15 ; Bernascoui, 

Museum. Villot, Cat. Louvre. Studii, 51 ; Burckhardt, 555, 588 ; Ch. Blanc, 

FABRIANO, GKNTILK DA, born at Fab- Keolc ombrieiine ; Si ret, :!58 ; Cibo. Niccol;. 

riano in 1370 (?), died in Home in 1450 (?). Ahumo e la Scuola Umbra (Itoina, 1872). 'JO, 

Umbrian school. Real name Gentile di Nic- 5:!; Liihke. Gcsch. ital. Mai., i. 2L'i. 

colo di Giovanni Massi. Pupil probably of FABKITIUS, JIKKNAKT, born about 

Allegretto Xuzi, who died when Gentile was 1020, died after lOO'.t. Dutch school; liis- 

fifteen years old ; has been called both master fury and portrait painter, pupil of l{cm- 

and pupil of Fra Angelico, but rather on ac- brand!, whom in his portraits lie imitated 

count of a certain superficial resemblance successfully; received into guild at Leydeii 

between them than from any real affinity, in 1058. Works : 1'ortrait of Young Man 

He left Fabriano some time before 1521 to (1050), Birth of John Baptist (lli(ill), Stadel 

become court-painter to Paudolfo Malatesta, Gallery, Frankfort ; Goliath ( 1057), Camber- 

for whom he decorated a chapel at Brescia, lyn Collection, Brussels; St. Peter in House 

Thence Gentile probably went to Venice to of Cornelius <105:>i, Brunswick Museum; 

paint a fresco of the battle between Doge Presentation in the Temple (1008), Copen- 

Ziani and Otho, son of Barbarossa, in the hagen Gallery ; Herodias receiving the Head 

Hall of the Grand Council, Palazzo Ducale, of John the Baptist, Amsterdam Museum 

destroyed by lire in 1574. Jacopo Bellini (under Drost); Bust of Shepherd, Vienna 

was his pupil there and accompanied him in Academy ; Adoration of Shepherds, Birth of 

1422 to Florence, where Gentile painted, John Baptist, Cassel Gallery; Portrait, of 

the next year, his most famous picture, the Young Man (1050), (?) Old Piuakothek, 

Adoration of the Mnr/i, now in the Academy, Munich ; Family Repast (1050), Alchymist 

n work whicli entitles him to be called the in his Laboratory, Stockholm Museum. 

Umbrian Fra Angelico. Like him, Gentile Hiegel, Beitr.ige, ii. 2S4 ; Burger, Musees, 

paints in the spirit of the old school, with ii. 100, 170 ; Xeitschr. f. b. K., iii. 2'.)0 ; xvi. 

the gay colouring of tho early Umbrian 404 ; Gax. des B. Arts (HS(>()), viii. 1S(> ; 

masters, the profuse use of gilt relief orna- (1804), xvi. 77 ; (Is05), xviii. 80 ; (1874), \. 

meut, and the somewhat formal system of 40S ; Havard, A. it A. Holl., iv. 5!! ; Jour, 

composition peculiar to the Florentines be- des B. Arts (1808), l:{, 27. 

fore Masaccio ; but pleasing and poetical as FABRITIUS, KAKKL, born in 1021. 

the result is, Gentile shows in it none of the killed Oct. 12, 1654, by the explosion of a 

deep mystical fervour of Angelico, and in powder magazine at Delft, while painting 

this more nearly resembles Beuozzo Go/./.oli the portrait of Simon Decker, sacristan of 

than his master. Among his other works the old church. Dutch school ; pupil of 

Gentile painted a charming fresco of the llcmbrandt and painter of the first order, 

Madonna at Orvieto (142G), being on his especially in portraits. AVorks : Male Por- 

way to Rome. He remained in the latter trait, Rotterdam Museum ; do., Berlin Mu- 

city until his death, and executed many mas- scum ; do. (attributed), Cologne Museum; 

terpieces for Popes Martiu V. and Eugeiiius The Gold Finch (1054), Aremberg Gallery, 




ix. 441 

Brussels ; Portrait (ascribed to Velasquez), 
Nantes Museum ; Portrait of Young Man, 
Writing Master (?), 
Old Piuakothek, 
Munich. Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1864), xvi. 
77 ; xvii. 103 ; 
xviii. 80 ; (1866), xxi. 308 ; (1874), 
(1877), xvi. 281 ; Havard, A. & A. 
lioll, iv. 43 ; Vosmaer (1868), 166. 

FABEITIUS, KILIAN, flourished about 
1 (533-80. German school ; landscape painter, 
employed at the court of the Elector John 
George II. of Saxony in 1633-80. Works : 
Expulsion of Hugar (1650), Stockholm Mu- 
seum ; Landscape, Darmstadt Museum ; do., 
Vienna Museum ; Euinsof Burg Weisscnfels 
Saxony, Wiesbaden Gallery. 

FABULLUS (Famulus, Famulis, Ainu- 
lius), Roman painter, about (50 ,\.n. Em- 
ployed to decorate the Golden House of 
Nero ; also painted a picture of Minerva. 
His style was simple and severe. It was his 
custom to paint but few hours in tho day 
and always to wear his toga when at work, 
out of respect for the dignity of his profes- 
sion. Pliny, xxxv. 37 [120]. 

FACCINI, PIETEO, born at Bologna in 
1562, died in 1(502. 
Bolognese school ; 
history painter, pu- 
pil of Amiibale Car- 
racci ; founded a 
school in opposi- 
tion to that of the 
Carracci, which was 
successful only a 
short time. Works : 
Patron Saints of Bo- 
logna, Madonna, Bologna Gallery ; Virgin 
appearing to St. Francis, S. Domcnico ; 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, S. Giovanni in 
Monte ; Adoration of the Magi, S. Mattia ; 
Madonna and Saints, Marriage of St. Cath- 
erine, Dresden Gallery. Lanzi (Eoscoe), 
iii. 124 ; Nagler, iv. 214. 

Fray, born in Valencia, June 29, 1520, died 

there Dec. 23, 1583. Spanish school. Son 
of a tailor from Sicily ; became a Franciscan 
monk in 1538, and spent his life in religious 
duties and in painting frescos in the cloister 
of S. Maria at Valencia. Chief work a Ma- 
donna there, selected for prize engraving 
by Academy of S. Carlos at Valencia. Canon- 
ized as a beato or saint of the second order 
by Pius VI. (1786). None of his works 
known to exist. Stirling, i. 368 ; Cean Ber- 

FADENO, IL. See Aleni, Tommaso. 

FAED, JOHN, born at Burley Mill, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, Scotland, in 1820. History 
and genre painter ; first painted miniatures 
with success, removed to Edinburgh in 1841, 
where lie turned his attention to genre and 
portrait painting. Member of R. S. A. in 
1851. Works : Boyhood (1850) ; Cruel 
Sisters (1851) ; Cotter's Saturday Night 
. (1854) ; Philosopher (1855) ; Household 
Gods in Danger (1856); Job and his Friends 
(1858) ; Ruth and Boaz (1860) ; Fine Old 
English Gentleman (1862) ; Catherine Sey- 
ton (18(54) ; Old Age, Stirrup Cup (1867) ; 
John Anderson 1113' Jo (1869) ; Old Mare 
'Maggie (1870); After the Victory (1873); 
Morning before Flodden (1874) ; Blenheim 
(1875) ; In Memoriam (1876) ; Goldsmith 
in his Study (1877) ; Leisure Hour, Old 
Basket Maker (1878) ; Poet's Dream (1882). 

FAED, THOMAS, born at Burley Mill, 
Scotland, in 1826. 

Genre painter, broth- 
er and pupil of John 
Faed, and student of 
Edinburgh School of 
Design. Became an 
A.R.S.A. in 1849; 
went to London in 
1852 ; was elected an 
A.R.A. in 1861, and 
E.A. in 1864. Ranks 
high as a delineator of Scottish life, in the 
school of Wilkie ; many of his pictures have 
been engraved. Works : Rustic Toilet, Mrs. 
O. Roberts, New York ; Shakespeare and 
his Contemporaries, Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 


ington ; Sir Walter Scott and his Friends 
(1849) ; Burns and Highland Mary (1852) ; 
Mitherless Bairn (1855) ; My Ain Fire-side 
(1859) ; From Dawn to Sunset (18G1) ; New 
Wars to an Old Soldier (1802) ; Last of the 
Clan (18(55) ; Flower o' Dunblane, Jeannie 
Deans and the Duke of Argyll (1808) ; High- 
land Mother (1870) ; God's Acre (1872); 
Violets and Primroses (1874) ; She never 
told her Love (187(i) ; Runaway Horse 
(1878); Free from Care (187!)); School' 
Board in the North (1881) ; The Wakefu' 
Heart (1883) ; Keeper's Daughter, Seeing 
them off, Of what is the wee Lassie think- 
ing? (1884). Sandby, ii. 348. 

FAES, PETER VAN DER Sec /.</</. 

born in Stockholm, Feb. 5, 1825. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Stockholm 
Academy, then in Diisseldorf of Karl Sohn, 
and in Paris of Couture ; visited Holland, 
and settled in Diisseldorf. Member of 
Stockholm Academy and court-painter to 
the King of Sweden in 18(i5. Medal, Paris, 
3d class, 18(17. Works : Young Smokers, 
Jealousy, Stockholm Museum ; Fisherman's 
Family (18(!2) ; Love Declaration ; Wooing ; 
Bachelor's Perplexities, Christiania Gallery ; 
Sick-Boom; Rejected Suitor; Without Com- 
fort ; Old Couple; One too Many (187!)); 
A Deserter (1882); Honeymoon (1884). 
Mailer, 100 : Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 305 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 54!). 

in diocese of Stora Tuna, Dalecarlia, Nov. 
29, 1774, died Jan. !), 18G1. Landscape | 
painter, pupil of P. Ljung. Fond of north- 
ern subjects. Professor in 1825. Knight of 
the Order of Gustavus Vasa. Works : 
Scenes from Frithiof Saga ; Views of Stock- 
holm ; Christiania ; Spam-holm and Bonus ; 
Hills of Smedjebakken ; Framnas Promon- 
tory ; Balestrand ; Don are Waterfall. 
Brockhaus, vi. 522. 

Heidelberg, Dec. 10, 1835. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Ddsseldorf Academy under 
Schinner; continued his studies, 1853, in 

Munich, and afterwards settled in Diissel- 
dorf. Works : View in Heidelberg Stadt- 
wald (1873) ; Landscape in the Odenwald ; 
View near Carlsruhe ; Beech-wood in Au- 
tumn ; Evening on Trout Brook near Hei- 
delberg ; Moonrise over Castle Seefeld, Ba- 
varia. Miiller, 100. 

FAIRMAN, JAMES, born in Glasgow, 
Scotland, in 1K20. Landscape painter ; 
settled in the United States in earlv youth, 
and entered the National Academv, New 
York. In 1H71 visited Europe, and studied 
ten years in the art schools of Diisseldorf, 
Paris, and London. Studio in Chicago. 
Works : Sunset in the Androscoggin Valley 
-Maine (lS(i7); Pleasant River Valley'; 
Stratford on Avon ; Caernarvon Castle 
North Wales; Adieu to the Land (1SS1). 

FAISTENBEIiGEU (Feistenberger), AN- 
TON, born at Innsbruck in 1078, died at 
Vienna in 1722. German school ; landscape 
painter, pupil of Bouritzsch, an obscure ar- 
tist at Salzburg; painted in the style of Gas- 
pard Poussin, whoso works lie studied in 
Rome. Invited to Vienna by the Emperor, 
who employed him several years. Hans 
Graf and A. Van Bredael assisted him in 
painting his figures. Works : Landscape 
with many figures, Travellers attacked by 
Robbers, Dresden Gallery; others in Vi- 
enna and Weimar Museums, Liechtenstein 
and Vienna Galleries. Wur/.hach, iv. 

Innsbruck in 1084, died at Vienna in 1735. 
German school ; landscape painter, brother 
and pupil of Anton F., whom he assisted in 
some of his works. Was a skilful imitator 
of Salvator Rosa. Works : Ravine (under 
Rosa), Berlin Museum ; Landscape with 
Animals (by Tamm), Weimar Museum ; 
Mountainous Landscape with Sheep, Land- 
scape with Shepherds and Herds, Museum, 
Vienna ; others in Liechtenstein Gallerv, 

FAITH, Morelto, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; H. 3 ft. 4 in. x '2 ft. in. A symbolic 
female figure, half-length, in red tunic and 


yellow mantle, with a transparent veil on ] vador, Valencia ; Conception, Franciscan 
her head, holds a chalice surmounted by the . Nuns, Valencia ; Two Altai-pieces of Life of 
wafer in her right hand and embraces a St. Benedict, Cistercian Monastery, Val- 
cross with her left ; bunch of roses and ! digna ; Pictures of Life of San Louis Bel- 
jessamine in lower part of picture, and a tram, Dominicans, Murcia. Stirling, 1071. 
scroll. Formerly attributed to Palma Vec- FALCONE, ANIELLO, called 1'Oracolo 
chio. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 404 ; Cat. Her- delle Bataglie, born in Naples in 1000, died 
nu'tage, 40. I there in 1005. Neapolitan school, pupil of 

FAIVRE, TONY, born at Bcsam/on, May Spagnoletto ; became famous as a painter 
24, 1830. Genre, portrait, and decorative of battle scenes, whose subjects were taken 
painter, pupil of Picot ; visited Italy and from sacred and profane history, and from 
(1800-02) Russia. Medal, 1804. Works : the poets. During the insurrection of Ma- 
Battledore and Shuttlecock (1857) ; Blind- saniello, he, with his pupils and partisans, 
man's Buff (1804) ; Idyl (1807); First Hours formed the Compagnia della Morte (Band 
of the Day (180!)) ; Repose of Venus, Fam- of Death), and massacred many Spaniards 
ily Reunion in a Park (1870) ; The Missive, in revenge for the death of a relative and 
Header (1873) ; On a Visit, Tea/ing, At the scholar killed by their soldiery. On the 
Bath (1874); In the Green-house (1875) ;' death of Masaniello, Falcone fled to France 
The Secret (1877) ; Good Remedy (1878) ; and painted in Paris until about 1G50, when 
En Famille (1880) ; Autumn (1884) ; Sum- he was permitted to return to Italy. In the 
mer (1885). Bellier dc la Chavignerie, i. Naples Museum are interesting pictures by 
530. him relating to the revolt of Masaniello, and 

FAIVRE -DUFFER, LOUIS STANIS- to the plague of 1050. Other works in the 
LAS, born at Nancy, April 17, 1818. Genre Madrid Museum, and a Fight between Turks 
painter, pupil of Orsel ; chiefly known by and Cavalry, in the Louvre. Falcone was 
his decorative works. He re-stored Phili- the master of Salvator Rosa. Lauzi, ii. 50 ; 
bert Delorme's Diana of Poitiers, a coiling Ch. Blanc, "ficole napolitaine. 
in the Castle of Anet. Studio in Paris., FALCONER, ALGERIAN. See Algerian 
Medals: 3d class, 1851 and 1801. Works : Falconer. 

Scenes from lives of Henri II, of Due de FALCONNETTO, GIOVANNI MARIA, 
Vendome, and of Diana of Poitiers (Castle born in Verona in 1458, died in Padua in 
of Anet) ; Venus Reposing ; Pomona; Flora ; 1534. Neapolitan school. He was more 
Cupids ; Isabelle and the Vase, Weakness ! noted in his time as an architect than as a 
Survives where Strength Succumbs (187!)) ; painter, and it has been said of him that he 
Mater Dolorosa, A Study (1881) ; Jacques was overrated as an architect and under- 
(1885). ' rated as a painter. The figures in some of 

Valencia in 1041, died there May 14, 1711. 
Spanish school ; history painter, pupil of 
Esti'ban March, after whose death he studied 
in Madrid. On his return to his native 
city he maintained a school of design in his 
own house, and executed many altarpieces 
for churches in Valencia and Murcia. In his early frescos are correct neither in ac- 
his later years he was paralyzed and blind. \ tion nor in outline, and without style in 
Works : Two Pictures of Life of St. Eloy, draperies ; but his later pictures, especially 
S. Salvador, Madrid ; Two Pictures of Mi- the religious allegories executed in 1509-10 
raculous Image of Christ of Beyrout, S. Sal- ! for S. Pietro Martire, Verona, are less de- 



formed by mannerism, and show affinity bought for 4,000 at Pereire sale. Etched 

with Liberate and Pisano. The last of his by Flameng. Gaz. des B. Arts (1804), xvi. 

life was devoted to architecture, chiefly at 1!)8 ; L'.cuvre de Delacroix (Paris, 18S5), 

Pavia. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 4GD ; Burck- 48. 

Lardt, GOG. FALL OF BABEL, Wilhelm von Knul- 

FALENS, KAREL VAN, born in Ant- ////, New Museum, Berlin ; mural painting, 
werp, baptized Nov. 24, I(i8,'i, died in Paris, staircase hall. The dispersal of the nations 
May 2G, 17315. Flemish school ; painter of at the fall of Babel. Nimrod, seated on a 
limits and landscapes, pupil of Constantyn golden throne in front of the Tower of Balxl, 
Francken ; imitated Wouwcrmans with which is falling in ruins, with his wife and 
great success. Went in 1703 to Paris ; made children and overthrown idols at his feet, 
member of the Academy in 172li. Works : defies Jehovah, who is seen above in clouds, 
Rendezvous of Huntsmen, Halt of Hunters, surrounded by angels, hurling thunderbolts; 
Louvre ; Departure of Falconers, Dresden at right, his servants and priests deride the 
Gallery; Landscape with Horsemen, Stock- Almighty; below, the children of Sheni, 
holm Museum ; Winter Landscapes (2), Ham, and Japhet dispersing. 
Darmstadt Mu- j FALL OF THE DAMNED. ///,, Mu- 
seum. Biog. I I fi rt nich Gallery ; wood, H. S ft. 11 in. - (1 ft. 11 
n at. de Bel- II ' \A ffl/l/l A '"' '"'' Mi ( 'hacl, armed with lightning, ac- 
gique, vi. 802 ; \l I MLAjC/' t/l) companied by angels, hurling the damned 
Michiels, ix. ^ into the bottomless abvss. Engraved 1>\ 
34(i; Van den Branden, 1209 ; Ch. ISlanc, Snyderhoef, 10 12. Smith, ii. G5 ; Eastlake. 
Ecole flamande ; Jal, 5(51. Notes, 181!. 


JOSEPH, born in Toulouse, Sept. 7, 18151. Rocco, Venice ; oval, on ceiling of upper 

Genre painter, pupil of Jouft'roy ; began as room. The vegetation is rich, but faces 

a sculptor, won the grand prix de Rome in coarse, and composition uninteresting. 

185'J as such, and modelled many tine Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 1548 ; Ridolli, 

works. Medal, 2d class, 1875 ; Mem. of In- Marav., ii. 197. 

stitutc, 1882. Works: The Wrestlers (1874); FALLEN ANGELS, Tinl-.Mtn, Dresden 
Cain carrying away Abel's Body (187li) ; Gallery; canvas, H. 10 ft. 5 in. 7 ft. '! in. 
Susanna (187!)) ; Slaughter of a Bull ( 1881 ) ; Sometimes called Overthrow of Babel. lie- 
Fan and Poignard (1882), Luxembourg Mu- stored and relined in 18IS8. 
seum ; The Sphinx (18815) ; Hylas, Oiler- FAME, (,'ni,l<, Reni, Turin Gallery ; wood. 
ing to Diana (1884); Acis and Galatea H. 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. A winged female figure. 
(1885). draped, standing on one foot on the globe of 

FALIERO, MARINO, DEATH OF, En- the world, blowing a trumpet. Engraved 

gene Ihilwruir, Sir Richard Wallace, Lon- by Lasinio. Gal. di Torino, i. PI. 15. 

don ; canvas, H. 4 ft. !) in. x3 ft. '.) in. The FAMULUS, painter. Sec l-'uhullii*. 

body of the Doge Marino Faliero, condemned FANTIN-LATOUR, HENRI, born at 

to death for having conspired against the Grenoble, Jan. 11, 183<i. Genre and pr- 

Republic of Venice, lies decapitated at the trait painter, pupil of Lecoq de Boisbaudran ; 

foot of the Staircase of the Giants, in the famous for his portraits. Medal, 1870 ; 2d 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; beside it stands ' class, 1875 ; L. of Honour, 1879. Works : 

the executioner and others, and at the top Three Studies from Nature (18(!1); Reading, 

of the staircase are many spectators. Painted Fairy (18G3); Delacroix and his Friends 
in 182G ; Salon of 1827 ; Exposition Univer- ! (18(54); The Toast (18G5); Dead Nature 

selle, 1855. Sold originally for 1,800 francs ; (18GG); The Levee (18G9); A Studio (1870); 



One End of a Table (1872); Flowers and 
other objects (1S74); Flowers, Birthday of 
Berlioz (1870); Heading (1877); Last Scene 
of Eheingokl (1880); Woman Embroidering 
(1881); Spring Night, The Study (1884); 
Around the Piano (1885). 

FAEINATI, BATTISTA, born at Verona ' 
in 1532, died in 1502. Venetian school ; ' 
history painter, nephew and probably pupil 
of Paolo ; was the fellow-student and friend 
of Paolo Veronese, whom he assisted in his 
works in the Palazzo della Soranza at Castel- 
franco, and in public buildings in Venice. 
Works : Conversion of St. Paul, Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes, Vicenza Cathedral ; The 
Virtues, The Studies, Palazzo Ducale, Ven- 
ice ; Frescos in Villa Obizzo at Catajo ; 
Holy Family, Lochis-Carrara Gallery, Ber- 

FARINATI, PAOLO, born in Verona in 
1524, died in 1(!00. Venetian school. He 
belonged to a famous Florentine family, the 
Farinati degli Uberti, who in the 13th cen- 
tury were at the head of the (ihibellines of 
Florence. Dispersed by the Guelphs, a 
branch of the family settled in Verona, 
where Paolo became its most distinguished 
member. His first master was NiccoK> Giol- 
iiuo, on leaving whom he is said to have gone 
to Venice to stud}' Giorgione and Titian ; 
but his style resembles rather that of Giulio 
Romano than that of either of those masters, 
and it is certain that he spent some time in 
Mantua, where lie painted a St. Martin for 
the chapel of the Sacrament in the Duomo. 
Ten of his pictures are in the Museum at 
Verona. In S. Maria in Organo are four, 
of which the Massacre of the Innocents is 
dated 1500, and in S. Auastasia two, one of 
which, a Christ between SS. Peter and Paul, 
is dated 158'J. In S. Giorgio Maggiore is 
the Multiplication of the Loaves, painted in 
1003, when Paolo was seventy-nine years 
old. Other examples of his work are in the 
Duomo, in S. Giovanni in Fonte, in S. Pi- 
etro in Monasterio, in S. Tommaso, in S. 
Nazzaro e Celso, and in the Palazzi Carlotti, 
Serego, and Murari. Fariuati paiuted much 

in fresco. His son and pupil, Orazio, was 
also a history painter ; works in S. Paolo, S. 

M. del Paradise, 
and S. Stefauo, 
Verona. Va- 
sari, e d . Le 
Mon., xi. 135, 139, 249 ; xiii. 109 ; Bernas- 
coni, Studij, 347 ; Barekhardt, 192, 746 ; 
Siret, 308 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole veiiitienue. 

portrait, Titian, Naples Museum ; canvas, 
tigurc to knees, life-size. Painted in 1543. 
Bust of same, attributed to Titian, in Palazzo 
Corsini, Rome. C. <k C., Titian, ii. 89 ; Va- 
sari, cd. Mil, vii. 44G. 

FAHNESE, PIER' LUIGI, portrait, Ti- 
tian, Palazzo Eeale and Museum, Naples ; 
wood, figure to knees, life-size. In silk 
doublet and velvet cap. Painted in 1543, 
when Pier' Luigi was Duke of Castro. A 
second portrait in the Museum, painted in 
1540, when he was Duke of Parma, repre- 
sents him in armour, bareheaded, near a 
helmeted soldier, who bears the standard of 
Parma. C. k C., Titian, ii. 88, 130. 

FAENY, HENRY F., born at Eibeauville, 
Alsace, 1847. Figure and genre painter ; 
went to America in his seventh year. Pupil 
of Munkacsy in Dtisseldorf and of Professor 
Diez in Munich. Sketched and painted in 
different parts of Europe in 1807-70. Stu- 
dio in Cincinnati. Works : Silent Guest ; 
Idyl. Am. Art Rev. (1881), 1. 

FAREEB, HENRY, born in London, 
March 23, 1843. Landscape and marine 
painter ; self-taught. Went to America in 
1801. Paints in oil and water-colour, but 
is best known by his etchings. Has exhib- 
ited in London, Paris, and New York. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Quiet 
Pool (1878) ; Sunset Gowanus Bay ; Road 
to the Landing (1881) ; Winter, Autumn 
(1882) ; Now came Still Evening on (1883) ; 
Sweet Restful Eve (1884). Water-Colours : 
Sunset, When the Silver Habit of Clouds 
comes down upon the Autumn Sun (1884). 
Am. Art Rev. (1880), 55. 
FARREE, THOMAS C., born in London; 


contemporary. Landscape and architecture Louvro. By his Ron nnd pupil, Bernardino 

painter, younger brother of Henry Farrer ; Fasolo, also called Fasola da 1'avia, are piet- 

lived several years in New York, where he iires in the , 

was one of the early members of the Amor- Berlin and r/\rr)i Av DA lAVlA 

ican Society of Painters in Water-Colours. Dresden CJul- ' *^ \r 

Studio now in London. Works: Twilight leries and in ^v 

on the Hudson (18f>7) ; Beach at Hastings, the Louvre. 

English Farm (1871) ; Caernarvon Castle, FASSKTT, C. ADELE, born at Owasco. 

Interior of St. Mark's Venice, Rochester \. Y., in ls:M. Portrait painter, juipil of 

Castle (1K72) ; Early Spring (1874) ; Sunset .]. 15. Wandesforde, English painter in New 

(1875) ; The Brook (1877) ; Yorkshire Trout York, and of Castiglione, La Tour, and 

Stream, Coining through the Lock (1878) ; Matthieu in Paris. Studied in Paris and 

Autumn Evening (18711) ; Evening Mists Rome two years, has since lived and painted 

(1880); October Evening, Full Moon (1881); in Chicago and \Yashingfon. Member of 

Land of Windmills, Evening in Holland the Chicago Academy, and of the Woshing- 

(1882); II Traghetto Venice, Venetian ton Art Club. She has painted the port raits 

Fishing Boats waiting for Wind, Solitude of inanv distinguished people. Among 

(18811) ; Towers amid the Moonlight, Music them are : Chief Justice \Vaite ; the sculp- 

and Moonlight Venice (1884) ; "Soon as tor Vela, Corcoran Gallery. Washington; 

the Evening Shades prevail the Moon takes Mrs. Lamb (1878); and Clara Barton the 

up the wondrous Tale," Morning on the Philanthropist, Her historical painting of 

Northern Coast (1885). The Electoral Commission in Open Session 

FAIUTT'TNI, FEDEPJCO, born at, Sesto contains two hundred portraits. 
San Giovanni in 181!;!, died in Milan in FATA MORGANA, George Frederick 
1870. History painter. Works: Archi- ' ]\'<i//.-; London. Subject from Boiardo's 

tecta presenting to Cardinal Sfor/.a a Model " Orlando Inamorato." Nude female figure. 

of the Duomo of Pavia ; Dante in Youth ; representing Opportunity, Hitting through 

Evening on the Ticino ; Titian and his the woodland, preceded by the figure of a 

Daughters in a Gondola ; Sala del Cambio ; boy, is caught by her lloating hair by a he] 

Macchiavelli and C;esar Borgia (bSIKi, gold meted and gauntleted knight, seen in back 

medal, Paris), which he also engraved. ground. Royal Academv, 187(1, Art Jour- 

FASOLO, GIANANTONIO, born at Vi- nal (18S4), 2.' 

cenza in 1528, died in 1572. Venetian FATTORE, IL, born in Florence 1 Iss r.'i. 
school ; history painter, pupil of 15. Xolotti died in Naples 

and of Paolo Veronese, whose manner he /^ ^K 152S/'.'i. I'm- 

followed. Woi-ks : Pool of Bethesda. S. Hoc- , J S?' OR brian school. 

/ -Ji ' ^^^ f\ 
co, Vicenza ; Mutius Scsovola before Porsen- ' J^,', ZZ$ V Heal name 

no, Horatius defending the Bridge, Marcus ^a^'-V. ~jA '' ' v a " " ' 

Curtius leaping into the Gulf, Prefect's HCBI- ,:'> t ! , ^ ,, Francesco 

dence, Vieenza. Nagler, iv. 251. '(* ^ ' / ' Penni, but 

FASOLO, LORENZO, called Lorenzo da \ ( \ , \V- < o m m o n 1 y 

Pavia and Fasolo da Pavia, born at Pavia (?), '' f A\^Nv-lx "'' \^ N called as above 
died at Genoa before 1520. Lombard " -. 1 because he 

school, master unknown ; employed by Lo- was Hnphael's 

dovico Sforza in 1490 in the decoration of journeyman 

the Porta Giovia Palace at Milan. Works : (fattore). Next to Giulio Romano he was 

Deposition from Cross (1508), Church of S. Raphael's favourite pupil, and they were 

Chiara, Chiavari ; Family of the Virgin (1513), joint heirs and executors of his art property. 


Penni assisted liis master in the Vatican and 
in the Faruesina frescos, and he painted the 
greater part of the celebrated Cartoons from 
Raphael's designs. He made copies of Raph- 
ael's Transfiguration and Entombment, the 
former of which is in the Sciarra Colon- 
na Gallery, Rome. Raphael's Visitation, 
Madrid Museum, and Madonna del Passeg- 
gio, Bridgewatcr Gallery, are attributed to 
I'enni, after Raphael's designs. His St. 
George and the Dragon and St. Michael are 
in the Dresden Museum. After Raphael's 
death Penni and Giulio Romano worked to- 
gether for a while, but they finally separated 
and the former settled at Naples. Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., viii. 241 ; cd. Mil., iv. G43 ; 
Burckhardt, (i(i(), (ill, (!78, 083 ; Siret, GOO ; 
Ch. Blanc, Keole ombrienne ; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., ii. 300. 

FATTOKI, GIOVANNI, Cavaliere, born 
at Leghorn, Sept. 28, 1828. Landscape, 
animal, and battle painter, pupil of Florence 
Academy, where ho is now a professor. 
Medals at Vienna and Philadelphia. Works : 
Urunelleschi's Plan for Construction of Cu- 
pola on Florence Cathedral, Battle of Ma- 
genta (1859), Florence Academy ; Gleaners 
(1800); Wounding of Prince Amadeo at 
Custozza, Brcra, Milan ; Battle near La Ma- 
donna delle Scoperte, Leghorn Town-Hall ; 
Horse Market in Piazza Montanara, Rome. 
Miiller, 108. 

FAURE, EUGENE, burn at Seyssinet, 
near Grenoble, in 1822, died in Paris, Feb., 
1879. Genre and portrait painter, pupil in 
Paris of David d' Angers and of Rude ; went 
to Italy in 1849 and studied in Rome, Flor- 
ence, and Venice ; settled in Paris in 1851. 
Medal in 1804 ; second class, 187'2. Works : 
Landscape (1847), First Steps in Love 
(1801), Grenoble Museum ; Dreams of 
Youth (1857); Education of Cupid, Ten- 
fold (1859) ; Confidence (18G3) ; Eve (1804), 
Due de Morny, Paris ; The Source (1878) ; 
Venus plucking her Pigeons ; Chlo; ; with 
Kid ; Daphnis and Chloi 1 leading their 
Herds; Male and Female Portrait (1878). 
Kuust-Chrouik, xiv. 525; Meyer, Gesch., C02. 

FAUST WITH THE CUP, Ary Scheffer, 
Count Kucheleff ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 3 in. x 
3 ft. 4 in. Faust, hearing the sound of the 
church bells, sets upon the table the cup of 
poison which he was about to swallow ; in 
background, the shadow of Mephistopheles 
dimly seen in the smoke of the lamp. Sa- 
lon, 1858. 

GARDEN, Ary Kch>-/>-r, Samuel Ashton, 
England. The couple, young and hand- 
some, stand in a natural attitude, expressive 
of their newly awakened love. Salon, 

fred Louis Jacumin, James H. Stebbins, New 
York , canvas. Faust seated behind a table 
in his study ; Mephistopheles, standing, at 
left, a study of the singer Faure as he ap- 
peared in Gounod's Faust at the Grand Op- 
era, Paris. Painted in 18(59. Art Treas. of 
Amor., i. 101. 

FAUST IN HIS STUDY, Ary Sche/e.r, 
Rothschild Collection, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. Instead of the old al- 
chemist of Goethe, the artist has painted a 
young and handsome man seated in his 
study before a volume at which he looks 
with a melancholy air ; behind him, Meph- 
istopheles, smiling sardonically at the tor- 
ments of his pupil. Salon, 1831. 

Ary Scheffer painted a series of subjects 
illustrating the Faust legend. For others, 
see Jliirywi'i/i: Subject also treated by 
Eugene Delacroix, Hans Makart, Gabriel 
Max, Alexander Liezen-Mayer, and others. 

FAUST, HEINRICH, born at Reinsdorf, 
Oct. 0, 1843. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of George Koch, of Professor Miiller, 
and of the Cassel Academy. Studied under 
I van Lerius in Antwerp ; visited Italy, where 
he was especially attracted by the old Vene- 
tian masters, and then settled iu Cassel. 
Paints in the style of Makart. Works : Por- 
trait of a Lady (1808); German Legends ; 
Children's Figures ; The Flowers' Revenge ; 
Egyptian Princess ; Titauia ; Mediiuval Ger- 
man Lady. Miiller, 1C9, 


nich, Feb. 1C, 1815, died there, April 1, 
1884. Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy, and of the ani- 
mal painter Moritz Lost-he ; then studied 
glass painting under Ainmiller, who em- 
ployed him in the royal manufactory of 
stained glass, and after whoso death he was 
made its director. His highly esteemed oil 
paintings are mostly in private collections. 
His son Luitpold, burn in Munich, July 10, 
1845, is a good landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy under Piloty. Kunst- 
Chrouik, xix. 484. 

History and genre painter, pupil of the D.'is- 
seldorf Academy in 18IM-41, then studied 
three years in Munich, and two years in 
Paris under Paul Delaroche. After his re- 
turn to Diisseldorf he painted Italian sub- 
jects exclusively, though he did not visit 
Italy until the latter part of his life. Works : 
St. Gangolfs Well (ls:iT); (icnovcfa (1K:!S) ; 
Samson and Delilah (IKH'.I), Cologne Muse- 
um ; Cleopatra (1841); Scene from Faust; 
llomeo and Juliet (184(1); Christmas, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg. Allgem. d. P>iogr., vi. .".(Ml ; 
Ulanckarts, !)i) ; Kunst-Chronik, x. (1U7 ; \V. 
Miiller, Dilsseldf. K., 71 ; Wiegmann. :i(H>. 

&&* IB 

m/AFr* * A-i 





Feast m House of Levi (Luke v. 29), 

FAUVELET, JEAN, born at Bordeaux, I 
June 19, 1819. Genre and flower painter, 


pupil of Lacour the younger. Has not ex- 
hibited in Salon since 1869. Medal, 2d class, 
1848. Works : Young Man Reading (1845); 
Concert, Two Roses (1847) ; Indifference 
(1848); Sculptor (1850), Luxembourg Muse- 
um ;DrawingTeaclier (1852); Garden (1S.~>:!); 
Young Mothers, Two Female Musicians 
(1855), Luxembourg Museum ; Amateur, 
Fireside (1857); Van Loo, Agreeable Doc- 
tor (1859); Three Ages, Seamstress, Guitar- 
Player (1861); Smoker, Family Meal (1863); 
Book of Ruth, Pleaders (1864); Karel Du- 
jardin, Flowers (1865); Prodigal Son (1869). 
FAY, JOSEF, bom in Cologne, Aug. 10, 
1813, died in Dusseldorf, July 27, 1875. 

FE.YKNLEY, THOMAS, born at F.vd- 
crickshall, Norway, Dec. 27, 1S02 (Feb. 
1804?), died in 'Munich, Jan. 16, 1SJ2. 
Landscape painter, trained in the art-school 
at Christian!* (1821), at the Copenhagen 
Academy, and under Dahl at Dresden. 
Travelled in Italy, Kngland, and Northern 
Europe, before settling at Munich in 1SH. 
Works: View of Copenhagen (l<S2:i); The 
Marumelf, Justeldas Glacier, Duck-Shoot- 
ing on the Konigsee (1H28 ;iO); Homsdal- 
horn, Babrofall near Kongsberg, Grindcl- 
wald Glacier (18:(6-:t8); Waterfall near 
Sawmill, View near Vindliellen, (ttidvangen, 
Sorrento, View of Babrofall (18:i'.l); Ma- 
dumsfall, Castellamare, Moonlight (1840); 
G ravens Fjord (18^!)), Norwegian Land- 


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oppimitido him, Mary Ma; ;diilcn. who, Kind (he ('inM. i. il,..ul |., ),, downed I.-, two 

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two lalilcH, Hpread in a eirculiir portico ,.l (In i,,i ,,,,,, (',,,,, : ,,,,, .,,, (., |, IMI | 

adorned with colnmnn, me tilled with the in.', mid all nrc In in;' crowned will, . ,, 

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lory of (!nnvent ..f the Seivil. :. \'. me. . |n . me |)lir. r nnd In i lii.iel I 'n e|, lieinn i 
Hdited liy Itepnlilir of Venice in |r,i;.'i (,, mdn 
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picture allowed liy the j;ov 
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former lioldin;; m ne;.-i d>. .1 




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territory. Kn.mivcd 
hy V. Iji'felivic. Kcldii. n. 
i. T2'.\, 7:!0 ; Uidnlli, MH 
rnv., ii. 'J'.l; l/midnn, MIIH. e, 
'2<\ Col . in. I'l. V.l ; Muid. 
hardl, 7 IS. 

My 1'anlii l'< ////...-.<, Turin 
Gallery ; cniivm, II Id ft.. 
4 in. - I I ft. '> in. The 
ladle Hpreud m I lie |>nrhco 
of a IIOIIHII of I'lllHHic m <ln 
I. 'Inn from the lialcony 
of which aliovc I In ee women 
and a man look doun ; ad 
the ri.dil, end of the tll |,| ( , ^,_. . 

HitN ChriHt, partly in H!III.|. >^. S^Mft ..-'. / r"V '\i~-' /' ,^ ' 

ow, con venting with a fe- 
male . I in. In," I., id. him, 

wliiln Mary Ma.;daleu linointH llin fed ; the Inlild. I'ainted liy order of the (Imld of 

diwiplcM mid other jnieHln arc .'ronji. d fiermmi Merchant-t in Venice; j,m. |,n... d 

an m i id I lie till ile, .ludim occupy in;; a cent nil liy 1 1 in Kinpcror Kildolph II for In . IK . 

placd in front, next, to a column. I'ninlid at, l'm;nie ; Hold in 17^'J liy Kmpci or Jo -.. |,li 

Illiont I .M, carried to I'arm in I'. ' i .' Iml II.; llciniircd in li'i! liylhc I'rcmoimtratcn 

returned in IS|5. l''ormerly in l'ala/,/,o nian Al.lny of Hl.mliovv lit l'ra;;ue, whence 

Durum, Genoa ; wold for I OO.OOO frmicn liy removed iii ISH.'i lo I'MCMIC (Inllciy II i ' 

the MurijiiiH |)iira//,o lo Kinc; ( !hmleM Allii 1 1, injured and much over-] tain ted, ' "|'. v . 

wlio placed it in the gallery in IS!IH. Sketch with diaii.;cM, l/yomi Mn.,i nm ; do. Amlum 

III Sloiirhead HOIIHC, I'in.daiid. Kn^raved ('nllcdion, Vienna. Ku;der (Crowe), j. I5'.l, 

liy MMi Ih I!. ,.l. Gall, di Torino, iv. I'l. Kunnl.l.lafl ( ISf.J), 2dd; ThmiHinj; ( Kalon). i. 

121 ; Kolihion. i. 7'^ii ; Hidolli, Marav., ii. iiS. :i(( ; dm. dcH Ii. Artw (ISKI ), xxiv. ;i7. 


Diirvr, l'rn{rui! Gallery ; niguod, diitod lOOIi. WoHk'r - Sdinateliilll, SchlcHwi); - llnUtein, 


May 20, 1848. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy and 
of Oswald Achenbach, then of the Weimar 
art-school ; visited Poland, Russia, and a 
great portion of Germany, Austria, and Italy. 
Works: Russian Horse-Herds in the Steppe; 
Roman Ghettos ; View in llomau Campagna ; 
Horse-Herd, Breslau Museum ; In a Roman 
Park (1883), Munich Ex. Muller, 170. 

FEDE, LA (Faith), Titian, Palazzo Dueale, 
Venice ; canvas, figures life-size. Doge 
Grimani, attended liy a page and soldiers, 
kneeling before Faith, who stands on a 

La Fede, Titian, Palazzo Ducale, Venice 

cloud within a glory of angels, supporting 
the cross with one hand, and bearing a 
chalice in the other ; to left, St. Mark ; be- 
neath the cloud in distance the Venetian 
tleet at anchor and the Ducal Palace and 
Campanile. Begun in 1555, but did not 
leave the studio until Titian's death, when 
it was finished by his pupils. Deserves to 
rank amongst the most magnificent and ef- 
fective decorative pieces of Titian's later 
years (C. & C.). C. & C., Titian, ii. 244; 
Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 209 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 457 ; Landon, Musee, xi. PI. 29. 

called Alessandro del Barbiere, born at 
Florence in 1543, died there in 1592. Flor- 
entine school ; history painter, pupil of 

Ghirlandajo, of Piero Francia, and of Maso 
da San Frediano. He had a bold and fer- 
tile genius, adapted to the large historical 
frescos he executed, and in which he intro- 
duced fine architecture and grotesque fig- 
ures. One of his best works is the Flagel- 
lation in Santa Croce, Florence. 

FEID, JOSEF, born in Vienna in 1807. 
died at Weidling, near Vienna, in 1870, 
Landscape painter, studied in Vienna, and 
from nature in the Austrian Alps. Works : 
Nymphs Bathing (1828), View near the 
Schneeberg, Wood Landscape (1841), Ap- 
proaching Storm (1847), 
Vienna Museum ; Wood 
Landscape (1853) ; Forest 
Mill (1855); Attcr Lake 
( 185(5); Lake of HaUstadt, 
Gosau Valley, Grinding 
Mill, Wood Landscape 
(1857). Allgem. d.Biogr., 
vi. 599; Wurzbach, iv. 159. 

in Bermuda, latter half of 
18th century, aged about 
forty-four. Probably born 
on Long Island ; said to 
have learned to paint in 
Spain, whither he was 
taken as a prisoner. Worked in Newport, 
New York, and Philadelphia (174G). His 
portraits are in Bowdoin Collection, Bruns- 
wick, Me., and in the Rhode Island Histor- 
ical Society, Providence. One of the best is 
the portrait of Lady Wanton, in the Red- 
wood Library, Newport, R. I. 

Seville, canvas, H. 9 ft. 8 in x G ft. 4 in. 
The Saint kneeling, with infant Jesus in his 
arms, beholds a vision of the Virgin, who, 
on clouds, accompanied by three cherubs, 
stretches out her arms to receive her Son. 
Painted about 1G7G for Capuchin Convent, 
Seville. Curtis, 230. 

FELIX, EUGEN, born in Vienna, April 
27, 1836. Portrait and genre painter, pu- 


pil of Waldmitller, then in Paris of Cogniet ; 
travelled extensively, and settled in Vienna 
in 1868. Works: The First Friend, Vi- ' 
enna Museum ; Painter's Studio ; Little 
Congratulators ; Falconer ; Pun with Bac- 
chantes ; Portraits of Professor Rokitansky, 
of Anton Rubinstein, and of Duke Philii> of | 
Wiirtemberg. Meyer, Conv. Lox., xviii. MID; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 4!!). 

FELTKE. See Murtn da Feltre. 

FELU, CHARLES, born in Belgium in 
1820. Born without arms, but learned to 
draw with his right foot, and having made a 
fine sketch in pen and ink, was admitted in 
1859 to the Antwerp Academy, where he 
learned to paint. Chiefly copies other mas- 
ters, but also paints good portraits, among 
which that of the actress Victoria Lafontaine 
is notable. Works: Widow Wadmaii and 
Uncle Toby, William Warner, Philadelphia. 

FEMME COUCHFiE, Jules Joseph /.<- 
ft-liure, William Astor, New York ; canvas. 
H. 5 ft. x 10 ft. Female figure, full-length, 
nude, lying, with back to the spectator, 
upon crimson cushions, the head resting 
upon the left hand ; only the profile of the 
face is seen, as she glances towards a per- 
fume-burner near her feet. Art Treasures 
of America, ii. 70. 

By Jules Joseph Lefebvre, Alexandra Du- 
mas, Paris ; canvas. Female figure, full- 
length, nude, lying, on right side, front to 
spectator, on cushions covered with drapery, 
the right hand doubled up under the chin, 
the left extended along the back of the 
lounge. Painted in 18(J5. Study in col- 
our (12 in. x 18 in.), John Wolfe, New York. 
Art Treasures of America, ii. 54, 5f>. 

FENDI, PETER, born in Vienna,.Hcr.t. 
4, 1790, died there, Aug. 28, 1842. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil of the Vi- 
enna Academy under Fischer, Haubert, 
Maurer, and Lampi ; visited Venice in 1821, 
and received the gold medal for his view of 
the Grotto of Corgnole near Trieste. Works: 
Archduke Ferdinand and Philippine Welser; 
Eginliard and Emma ; Girl in front of Lot- 
tery Shop (1829), Vienna Museum ; Officer's 

Widow ; Seizures ; Cloister with Worship- 
pers ; Girl at Post-Office ; Inundation Scene ; 
Emperor Francis and the Sentry ; Poor 
Fiddler ; Christmas Eve ; Milkmaid ; Morn- 
ing Prayer ; Portrait Group of Imperial 
Family (1K:!4). Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. CIS. 

FERABOSCO (Foraboseo), (ilROLAMO, 
born at Padua, flourished in Venice about 
Ki.'iO-IKI. Venetian school ; history and 
portrait painter, considered one of the best 
Venetian artists of his time. Especially ex- 
celled in portraits. Works: Young Woman 
sei/ed by the Hand of Death, Dresden 
Gallery; David, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vi- 
enna. Ltui/.i (Roseoe), ii. 252. 

FEPiG, FRAN/ DE PAULA, born in Vi- 
enna, May 2, KJS'.l, died in London in 17 Id. 
German school; genre; and landscape painter, 
pupil of Joseph Orient and Hans Graf. Went 
to Dresden in 1718 and to London in 1724. 
'Works: Two Italian Market Scenes, Vienna 
Museum; Towerlike Buildings with Bridge, 
Ruins with Bridge and Figures, Buildings 
on Lake with Figures, Landscape \\itli 
Bridge, Landscape with Figures, all in 
Dresden Gallery; Marine, Cassel Gallerv ; 
Four Seasons, Market Scene, Rural Fea^f, 
'Brunswick Museum ; Landscapes with Itnins 
and Figures (2), Market Scenes (2). Knnst- 
' hallo, Hamburg. Allgem. d. Miogr., \i. 
711; Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande ; Wnrz- 
bach, iv. 184. 

FERGUSON, HENRY A., born at Glens 
Falls, X. Y., Jan. 14, 1S42. Landscape and 
architecture painter, studied in Paris and 
Rome (1K7(!-7H), having previously spent 
three years in Chili (1S7D 7:i), where In- 
painted local scenery with success. Went 
from Venice to Egypt in 1S7K, returned to 
New York in 1S7!, visited Mexico in 11SS1, 
and Europe again in 18K4. Elected A.N.A. 
in 1885. Studio in New York. Works: 
Baths of Caucanies (1H7M), replica, Lake 
Aculeo, View on Doule River Ecuador ; 
Morning in Peruvian Andes (1K74) ; Street 
of Bab-el-Nasr Cairo, Chimborazo, En- 
trance to Rug Bazaar Cairo (1H80); Dogana 
and Ducal Palace Venice (1882), Mrs. T. A. 



Walker; Peaks of Illoniza (1882) ; River and FERNBACH, FRANZ XAVER, born at 
Peak of Orizaba Mexico, Franconia Val- Waldkirch, near Freiburg, Breisgau, in 
ley (1884) ; Interior of St. Mark's Venice, j 1793, died in Munich in 1851. History 
Mosque of Mohammed All Cairo (1885). painter, pupil of the Munich Academy ; in- 
FERNANDEZ, YASCO, commonly known ! ventor of a process of encaustic painting, 
as Gran or Grao Vasco (Vasco the Great), used by Julius Schnorr, in decorating the 
born at Vizeu, Portugal, in 1552. History great hall of the royal palace at Munich. 
painter, sou of Francisco F. ; flourished dur- Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 713 ; Meyer, Conv. 
ing the reign of Dom Sebastian, and, ac- Lex., vi. 703. 
cording to Portuguese testimony, was one FERON, FIRMIN ELOI, born in Paris, 

of the greatest painters that ever lived. 
Said to have followed the school of Perugi- 
no, but seems rather to have formed hini- 

Dec. 1, 1802, died at Conflans-Sainte-Ho- 
norine (Seine-et-Oise) in 187G. History 
painter, pupil of Gros and of l5cole des 

self under the influence of Albrecht Diirer. , Beaux Arts, where in 1823 he obtained the 
He lias been variously cited as Ferdinand second and in 1825 the grand prix de Rome ; 
de Yi/eu, Fernandez Yasco do Cazal, Gran ' returned to Paris in 1833. Medal, 1st class, 
Yasco de Vizeu, and Yasco Pereira. Works : 1835 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : Damon 
Calvary, Pentecost, St. Peter, Baptism of and Pythias (1825) ; Hannibal crossing the 
Christ, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, Thirteen Alps (1833), Marseilles Museum ; The King's 
Half-figures of Saints, Yi/eu Cathedral. i Promenade at Pierrefonds (1833) ; Raising 
The Christ on the Cross in the Misericordia i of Lazarus (1835) ; Entry of Charles VIII. 
at Oporto, attributed to Holbein, is also into Naples in 1495, Skirmish near Giinters- 
probably by him. Raczynski, Les Arts en dorf, 1805 (1837), Battle at Foruoue in 
Portugal, 117-190, 297-308, 3G5-374, 399, 1495 (1838), Conquest of Rhodes in 1310 
487, 505. ' (1840), Battle of Arsur in 1191 (1844), Bat- 

FERNANDO, DON, brother of Philip tie of Putaha, 1159, Battle of Hauau, 1813, 
IV., portrait, I'clasqnez, Madrid Museum; Portraits of Bertrand du Guesclin (1835), 
canvas, H. G ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. G in. About of Marshals Raiz, Loliuac, Praslin, Noailles, 
nineteen years old, full-length, standing, in of Counts Montgomery and d'Olivarez, of 
hunting costume, holding a gun with both Henri de Lorraine II., Due de Guise, Ver- 
hands ; a dog seated before him ; landscape sailles Museum ; Funeral of General Kleber 
background. Painted about 1G35 ; second (1843), Strassburg Museum ; Victorious 
manner. Etched by F. Goya; B. Maura; Gladiator dying iu the Arena, Soldier of 
J. J. Martinez ; C. Alabern ; Guerard ; J. Pompey, Arras Museum. Bellier de la 
Burnet. Ch. Blanc, Kcole espagnole ; Gal. Chaviguerie, i. 544. 
Esp. ; Curtis, GO ; Madrazo, 615. FERRAMOLA, FLORIANO (Fioravante), 

FERNANDO, SAN, Mitrillo, Madrid Mu- ! born latter half 15th century, died in Bres- 
seum ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. cia, July 3, 1528. Venetian school. While 
About thirty-five years old, three quarters Brescia was being sacked by Gaston de 
left, wearing armour and an ermine mantle, Foix (1512) he worked on regardless of the 
kneels with hands joined in prayer ; above, assault until he was surprised by the plun- 
two cherubs draw aside a red curtain ; a derers at his easel. Gaston compensated 
crown and sceptre on a red cushion beside him for his losses and ordered a portrait of 
him. Probably painted about the time of himself. Among Ferramola's few extant 
the canonization of King Ferdinand in 1G71. pictures, frescos, dated 1514, and parts of 
Engraved by M. S. Carmona, L. F. Noseret; an organ screen (1518) in S. M. di Lovere, 
lithographed by A. G. Vilamil. Curtis, ! frescos in Casa Borgondio, Brescia, and a 
232 ; Madrazo, 480. j Christ carrying his Cross in the Tosi Collec- 


tion, Brescia, are characteristic specimens, j used colour harmoniously, especially in his 
They show that he was educated under the frescos, but lit- was ;it times capricious 
influence of Foppa, Costa, and Francia, and and extravagant, and his conipo.sitions arc 
hardly suggest that he was a contemporary often overcrowded and wanting in beauty 
of Titian and Pordenone. C. A C., X. Italy, of arrangement. He painted many works 
ii. 362 ; Vasari, xi. 263, N. 2. ; Lubke, GescL at Varallo, in 1504, 1513, 1524, and 1531, 

ital. Mai., ii. 607. 

the earliest of which are in S. M. di Loreto, 

FERRARA, ERCOLE DA. See Grumli. and S. Marco, the best in S. M. dclle Gra/ie, 

FERItAllA, LODOVICO DA. See J//r> ' where he decorated the choir with scenes 

zolino, Lodovico. from the Passion, and painted the Prcsen- 

FERRARI, DEFEXDEXTE DE, Hour- tat ion in the Temple, Christ among the 

ished at Chivasso first half Kith century. Doctors, and other subjects in chain-Is at 

Lombard school; history painter, perhaps the Sacro Monte. In 1511! he went to Rome 

pupil of Macrino d'Alba. Works: Altar- and is said to have worked in the Farnesina 

pieces (1519-21), Cathedral of Ivrea ; Christ with Raphael, after whose death he was as- 

iii the Temple (152G), Stuttgart Gallery; sociated with Giulio Romauo and Perino del 

Altai-piece (153(1), Marriage of St. Catherine, Vaga. Other frescos by Ferrari may be seen 

Altai-piece in several compartments, Turin in the Brera, Milan, and in the Pilgrims' 

Gallery ; Nativity with Saints (1531), Church Church at Saronno, where he painted in 

of Ranverso ; Pieta, Cathedral of Chivasso ; 1534, as also a Flagellation in S. M. delle 

Adoration of Shepherds, Bergamo Gallery ; Gra/ie, Milan. His last fresco (1542) is in 

St. Catherine, Princess Charles of Darm- S. Giuliano, on an island in the Lago d'Orta. 

stadt. Morelli (Richter), 413; Turin Gal. Among his pictures are the Baptism of Christ, 

Cat.; Lubke, Geseh. ital. Mai., i. 505. S. Celso, Milan ; Martyrdom of S. Catherine, 

FERRARI, FRAXCESCO BIAXCHI, Brera, Milan ; Christ bearing the Cross, Ca- 
called II Frari, born at Modena (?) in 1447, nobbio ; Lnxl. Supper (1543, unfinished), S. 
died there, Feb. H, 1510. Modcnese school ; M. della Passione, Milan ; S. Peter and Do- 
history painter, enjoyed great reputation in nor, Entombment, Turin Gallery, Madonna, 
Modena, where some excellent works of his Oldenburg Gallery; St. George, and St. 
are still to be found. Supposed to have Anthony of Padua, Historical Society. Xe\v 
been Correggio's first master. Works: York. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. (!52 ; vi. 518; 
Madonna enthroned with Angels and Saints, ed. Le Mon., vi. 5S ; viii. 248; xi. 275; 
Louvre; Annunciation (1510, finished by Burekhardt, 705; Lan/.i, i. 3!>'.l ; ii. 4!lti ; 
Scaccieri in 1512), Modena Gallery. Ch. Ch. Blanc, Ecole milanaisc ; Liibke, Gesch. 
Blanc, Ecole lombarde ; C. & C., X. Italy, ' ital. Mai, ii. 4(il. 
i. 373 ; Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 346. FERHAHI, GIOVANNI AXDREA DE. 

FERRARI, GAUDEXZIO, born at Val- born in Genoa in 15!)S, died there in 166!l. 
duggia in 1481, died in Milan in 1546 or ' Genoese school ; pupil of Bernardo Castello 

1547. Lombard-Milanese school. Called and of Bernardo Strozzi. Won reputation 

by Vasari Gaudenzio Milanese ; asserted as an historical and portrait painter ; many 

pupil of Stefano Scotto, Girolamo Giove- works in the churches and palaces of Genoa. 

none, and Perugino, whose influence is un- Became an ecclesiastic in old age. Was an 

mistakable in Gaudenzio's fine altarpiece able teacher and the master of Benedetto 

(1514-15) in S. Gaudenzio, Xovara. Af- Castiglione, Valerio Castello, and Carbone. 

fected also by Raphael, whose fellow-student Lanzi, iii. 267 ; Ch. Blanc, l^cole geuoise ; 

he had been, and by Leonardo da Vinci, his Burckhardt, 77!). 

later style acquired life and energy. He FERRARI, GIULIO CESARE, born at 

had considerable power of expression, and Bologna in 1818. History and portrait 



painter, professor at, Bologna Academy, won 
several medals. Works : Tusso reading his 
I'oem to Leonora; Daughter of Jephtha ; 
The brazen Serpent. 

I'orto Mauri/io in 1044, died at Genoa in 
1720. Genoese school ; history painter, 
pupil of II Sarzana ; studied in Parma 
works of Correggio. whom he imitated suc- 
cessfully ; was much employed iu (lenoa, 
Turin, and Marseilles. Works : Apollo and 
the Muses, Plato and Aristotle with their 
Scholars, Genoa University ; St. Michael, in 
Madonna delle Vigne, Genoa ; others in Pa- 
lazzo Ualbi, ( ieuoa. His son, Lorenzo (KiSO- 
1744), wasa still better imitator of Correggio, 
and excelled in fresco ; works in Palazzo 
Doria, Palazzo Caregi, and in churches, 
Genoa. Ch. Blanc, I 

(lloscoe), iii. 2. r >S, 281 

cole gcnoisc ; Lanzi 
Nagler, iv. 291. 
FERRARI, LUCA, called Luca da lleg- 

gio, born at 
R e g g i o , in 
16(13, died at 
Padua in 1652. 
A" e n e t i a n 
school; h i s- 
tory painter, 
pupil of Guido 
Reni; lived and 
taught in Pad- 

;,' ua, among his 

pupils being Minorello and Circ'llo. Works : 
Pieta, S. Antonio, Padua; The Plague (1630), 
The Dominicans, Padua; Magdalen, Death 
of Cleopatra, Tomyris with the Head of Cy- 
rus, Estense Gallery, Modcna ; Painting 
crowned by Fame, Bordeaux Museum. 
Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 267, 363. 

called da Imola, born at Florence in 1692. 
Florentine school ; history painter, pupil of 
Giovanni Gioseffo del Sole; painted mostly for 
the churches and palaces of Florence, Pisa, 
Leghorn, Siena, Pistoja, and Imola. Among 
his best works are a Martyrdom of St. Bar- 
tholomew in S. Bartolommeo, Pisa, and the 
cupola painting in S. Filippo Neri, Pistoja. 

FERRI, GIRO, born in Rome in 1G34 ; 
died there, Sept. 13, 1G89. Roman school; his- 

tory painter, 
pupil of Pietro 
da Cor ton a, 
whose style he 
imitated so 
closely that it 
is difficult to 
his work from 
that of his mas- 
ter. He fin- 
ished Cortona's frescos in the Palazzo 
1'itti, Florence, and other uncompleted 
works in Rome. His best original works 
are the ceiling of the Annunziata, baroque 
style, and the cupola of S. Agnesc in the 
Piazza Navona, Rome, which he left unfin- 
ished at his death. Works : Repose in 
Egypt, Madonna with St. Martina, Old Pin- 
akothck, Munich ; Christ appearing to Mag- 
dalen, Vienna Museum ; Marriage of the 
Virgin, Amsterdam Museum; Rape of Helen, 
Darmstadt Museum ; St. Theresa, Oldenburg 
Gallery ; David and Saul, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Christ on the Cross, Alexander reading 
Homer, Artist's portrait, Uflizi, Florence ; 
Coriolanus and his Family, Roman War- 
rior, Estense Gallery, Modena ; Vision of St. 
Catherine of Siena, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Triumph of Bacchus, Hampton Court. 
Lanzi, i. 498 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole ombri- 
enne ; Burckhardt, 149, 708. 

TFN) GABRIEL, born at Nimes, Sept. 29, 
1847. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Lecoq de Boisbaudran ; 
won grand prix de Rome in 1872. Medals : 
2d class, 1876 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 

our, 1884. Works : Greek Improviser, B.C. 
30 (1872); Abduction of Ganymede (1875); 
David Conqueror of Goliath, Nimes Museum ; 
David and Bathsheba (1876), Martyrdom of 



\ Q ( 
' J ^ 

St. Agnes (1878), Judith, Rouen Museum ; 
Inquisition in Spain (187!)) ; Salammbo 
(1880); Springtime (1881); "Hail King of 
the Jews" (1882); Guardian Angel (1885). 
Mailer, 172. 

FESELEN, MELCHTOR, born at Passau, 
died in Ingolstadt, April 10, 1538. German 
school ; history paintei', evidently influenced 
in his later pictures by Albrecht Altdorfer, 
his contemporary. Works : Crucifixion, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Porsenna besieging 
Rome (1529), Cicsar besieging Alesia (1533), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Adoration of the 
Magi (1531), Nuremberg Museum ; Mary of 
Egypt (1523), Historical Society, Ratisbon ; 
Crucifixion, Be- 
heading of St. Bar- 
bara, Church of 
Our Lady, Ingol- 
stadt. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., vi. 723 ; W. ,t W., ii. 418. 

FETI, DOMKNICO, born in Rome in 
15N1), died in 
Venice in 1624. 
Roman school ; 
pupil of Cigoli 
in F 1 o r e n c e ; 
afterwards went 
to Mantua, stud- 
ied w o r k s of 
Giulio Romano, 
and was m a d e 
there by Duke 
Ferdinando Gonzaga, whence sometimes 
called II Mantovano. Painted many small 
pictures, chiefly Bible subjects, vigorous in 
colour and good in execution. Works : 
David with Head of Goliath, Martyrdom of 
St. Agnes, Return of the Prodigal, Good 
Samaritan, and 7 others, Dresden Gallery ; 
Ecce Homo, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Market-Place, Flight into Egypt, Lcander, 
Moses and the Burning Bush, Marriage of 
St. Catherine, Triumph of Galatea, St. Mar- 
garet, Vienna Museum ; David and Goliath, 
Dsodalus and Icarus, Adoration of Shepherds, 
Tobias healing his Father, Conception, Her- 

mitage, St, Petersburg ; Visitation, Flight 
into Egypt, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Ex- 
pulsion of Hagar, Return of Prodigal, Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Elijah in Wilderness, Berlin 
Museum ; Magdalen Penitent, Oldenburg 
Gallery; Sleeping Girl, Buda-Pesth Gal- 
lery ; Meditation, Venice, Academy ; Arte- 
misia, L'fti/i, Florence ; Lost Coin, Labourers 
in the Vineyard, Palazzo Pitti, ib.; Christ in 
Garden, Christ and Pilate, Crowning with 
Thorns, Entombment, Palaz/o Corsini, ib. ; 
Nero, Rural Life, Melancholy, Guardian An- 
gel, Louvre, Paris ; Beheading of John Bap- 
list. National 
Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; David 
with Head of 
Goliath, Hamp- 
ton Court.- - Ch. Blanc, Kcole ombrienne ; 
Burckhardt, 7!)3, Kill) : Seguier, CS. 

FEUERBACH, ANSELM. b..rnat Speyer, 
Sept. 12, 1K2!>, died 
in Ven ice, Jan. I, 
ISSlt. History 
painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy 
under Schadow, then 
in Munich under 
Ha 111 and Genelli ; 
having frei|iientei] 
the Antwerj) Acail - 
emy in IS 50, he 
studied in Paris 

under Couture in 1S51-52, went to Carls- 
ruhe in 1H53, to Venice in 1854, and to 
Rome in 185(! ; was appointed professor at 
the Vienna Academy in 1873 ; decorated the 
ceiling of the Museum of Casts with a fresco 
of the Titans. Works : Death of PictroAre- 
tino (1853) ; Silenus with Young Bacchus 
and two Satyrs, Poetry (1854), Dante with 
the Ladies of Ravenna (1857), Carlsruho 
Gallery ; Iphigenia (18(il) ; Francesca da 
Rimini and Paolo (1861), Pieta (18(12), Ari- 
osto with Ladies in Ferrara (18(i3), Petrarch 
seeing Laura in Church (1864), Singing Boy 
and Girl overheard by Nymph, Madonna 
with Angels, Group of Bathing Children 



(18(55), Hafiz at, the Fountain, Idyl from 
Tivoli, Roman Family Scene, Portrait of 
Nanna, Schack Gallery, Munich ; Medea 
preparing for Flight (1870), New Pinako- 
thek, ib. ; Medea brooding over Infanticide 
(1871) ; Boys and Dryad (1805), Medea 
mourning over the Urn (1873) ; Banquet of 
Plato (18(57); Orpheus and Eurydice (1870); 
Iphigeniii (1871), Stuttgart Gallery ; Gyp- 
sies dancing in the Woods, Judgment of 
Paris (1870), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Battle 
of Amazons (1872); Romeo and Juliet ; Mel- 
ancholy ; Prometheus ; Banquet of Plato 
(1873); Concert of Venetian Girls (1879). 
Brockhaus, vi. 751 ; Graph. K., iii. 1 ; 
Kunst-Clmmik, xv. 238; xvii. 393, 429, 
459 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1880), i. 88 ; ii. 504 ; 
N. illustr. Zeitg. (1880), i. 250 ; Schack, 
Meinc Geniiildcsammlung, 95; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, viii. 1G1. 

FEYEN, EUGENE, born at Bey-sur- 
Seille (Meurthe), Nov. 13, 1815. Genre 
painter, pupil of P. Delaroche ; paints fish- 
ermen in a very attractive way. Medals : 
18(i(5 ; 2d class, 1880 ; L. of Honour, 1881. 
Works : Street Musicians, Promenade in 
the Park (1860) ; Souvenirs, Idyl on a Wall 
(18G8); Gleaners of the Sea (1872), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Oyster-Fishing at Caucale, 
Bull-Head Fish, On the Shore (1874); Res- 
cued Child, Fisherman's Return (1879); Can- 
cale Fishwives returning in a Boat, Nurse 
Asleep (1880); Fishing on Foot for Oysters, 
Fishermen's Departure (1881); Harvesters 
Resting, Low Tide (1882); Fishing, Repair- 
ing the Nets (1883); Departure for Fishing, 
Fisherman's Wife (1884); Before the Storm, 
Bay of Caucale (1885). 

LAS) AUGUSTIN, born at Bey-sur-Seille in 
1829. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
L. Cogniet and Yvon. Medals : 1 8(55 ; 18G7 ; 
3d class, 1874 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : 
Return to the Cottage (1855); Charon's Boat 
(1857), Nancy Museum ; Dante's Circle of 
the Voluptuous (1859); Venetian Festival 
(1861); The Muse of Beranger (1863), Dr. 
Velpeau's Lesson in Anatomy, On the Beach 

(1864); The Elegy, Finding the Body of 
Charles the Bold after the Battle of Nancy 

(1865) ; Women 
of Batz Island 
waiting for the 
Ferry (1866) ; 
Woman winnow- 
ing Grain (1867); 
Wreck of the 
Evening Star 
(1868); Circle of 
^7 /. the Stars (1869); 
(1870) ; Spring- 
Time (1872) ; Cancale Women at the Spring, 
Return from Market (1873), Return of the 
Oyster-Fishers (1874), Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; Cancale Women (1876) ; Parisian 
Woman at Cancale (1877) ; Death of Orphe- 
us (1878) ; Women knitting by the Sea 

(1879) ; Return from Fishing at Low Tide 

(1880) ; Astarte, Fishing on Foot (1881) ; 
Drunkenness, The Corniche Road (1882); 
Spring-Time, Dancing by Twilight (1883); 
Armorica, The Bath (1884); Remorse, The 
Bath (1885). Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 318. 

FIACCO (Flacco), ORLANDO, born in 
Verona, flourished about 1560. Venetian 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of Francesco Torbido, ac- __ , _., 
cording to others, of Badile ; I I H H 
praised by Vasari especially ^-' ! ,*- ' 
for his portraits. Works : 
Ecce Homo, Crucifixion, S. 
Xazario, Verona. Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 208 ; 
Nagler, iv. 310. 

FIALETTI, ODOARDO, born in Bologna 
i in 1573, died in Venice in 1638. Venetian 
school ; history painter, pupil of Gio. Bat- 
tista Cremonini at Bologna and of Tinto- 
retto in Venice, where most of his paintings 
are to be found. Works : Crucifixion, S. 
Croce, Venice ; others in S. 

I* S~\ Marco, Venice, and S. An- 

V~/ , T^ drea, Murano ; Senators of 

Venice in Senate House, 

Hampton Court Palace. Lanzi (Roscoe), 

ii. 195 ; Nagler, iv. 310. 



FTALKA, OLGA VON, born in Austria ; 
contemporary. Genre painter ami illustra- 
tor, pupil of Matejko and of Eisenmeuger. 
Illustrated the works of Lessing. Girl Gar- 
dener (1880). 


in Paris, Aug. 30, 1820. French school ; 
genre painter, pupil of P. Delaroche ; paints 
small pictures, carefully and skilfully exe- 
cuted, somewhat in stylo of Meissonier. 
Medals: 3d class, 1857,' 1801, 180!); L. of 
Honour, 1870. Works : Holy Family (184!)); 
Harvey proving the Circulation of the Blood 
(1851), Paris Medical School ; Dressing, 
Levee (1853) ; Morning Intimacy (1855) ; 
Draniatic Matinee, Game of Chess (1857) ; 
Provincial Restaurant, A Smoker (185!)) ; 
Camacho's Wedding, Baptism of Mile. C'lai- 
ron (1801) ; Library Corner, Lively Party, 
Arrival at the Inn (18G3), bought by State ; 
Party of Smokers, Audience at the Minister's 
(1804) ; Napoleon I. planning Manoeuvres, 
General Bonaparte returning his Father's 
Sword to Eugene Beauharnais (1805) ; Dide- 
rot and Rame-au's Nephew (1800) ; Ama- 
teur at a Painter's, Open in the King's 
Name ; Cabinet of Medals in the Itoyal Li- 
brary (1807) ; Chess Player, Body Guard 
(18G8) ; Night of August 24, 1572, Fool sell- 
ing Wisdom (180!)) ; Party of Four (1870); 
Founding of the French Academy in 1035 
(1872) ; Button in his Study, Grand Recep- 
tion (1873) ; Laeepede writing las History 
of Fishes, Daubenton in his Laboratory 
(1873), Vienna Exposition ; Louis XVI. 's 
Forge (1874) ; Departure of the Coach 
(1875) ; A Foreign Festival (1870) ; Tavern 
of Ramponneau (1877) ; Soldiers and Gri- 
settes (1878) -, Curate's Nephew, Master's 
Last Acquisition (1879) ; Restaurant, Sign- 
ing the Contract (1880) ; At the Tailor's, 
The Bill to Pay (1881) ; End of the Dinner, 
Last Throw of Dice (1882) ; Jaurat in the 
Tavern, Card Players (1883); Before the 
Receipt, After the Receipt (1884) ; A Game 
of Cards (1885). 


Gemignano in 1G05, died in IfiOO. Floren- 
tine school ; history painter, pupil of Jacopo 
da Empoli ; called Felice Riposo from his 
indolence, but his few pictures are remark- 
able for elegance of design and harmony of 
colour. His copies of Perugino, Andrea del 
S;irto, and others have been mistaken for 
originals. Works : St. Anthony, S. Maria 
Nuova ; Adam and Eve driven from Para- 
dise, Palazzo Rtnuccini, Florence ; Tarqiiin 
and Lucre tia, Dresden Gallery. Lan/.i (Kos- 
coe), i. 211); Nagler, iv. 310. 

FIEDLER, BERNHARD, born in Berlin, 
Nov. 23,181(i. Landscape and architecture 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy, then of 
Gerst and of Krause. In 1855 he accom- 
panied the; present King of the Belgians to 
Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, and revisited 
Egypt in 1S05-00. Member of Venice! 
Academy. Lives in Trieste. Works : Am- 
phitheatre; in Pola (1N4I>), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Cairo (1HIJ4), Vienna Museum ; 
Tower of Rhode's, Entrance to Mosque in 
Cairo, Granite Quarries near Siena, Cologne 
Museum ; Ruins of Baalbee- (1S72) ; Jerusa- 
lem (1S7!>). BreH-khaus, vi. 7!5; M filler, 171. 

at Pirna, Saxony, in 1007, die-el at Darm- 
stadt in 1708. French school ; history and 
portrait painte-r, pupil in Paris of Rigaiid 
and Largilliere ; became court-painter at 
Darmstadt. Works: Burial of Christ, The 
Seasons, Artist's portrait, and othc-rs, Darm- 
stadt Museum. 


FIGIXO, AMBROGIO, born in Milan 
about 1548, died afte-r 15!)5. Lombard 
school, pupil ejf Giovanni Paolo Lomoz/.o ; 
became an exe-ellent histe>ric:al and portrait 
painter, ami was a tolerably successful imi- 
tator of Michelangelo's elesigns. Works : 
Madonna with Saints and Satan, ami por- 
trait of the Mare'-e-hal Foppa, Brera, Milan ; 
St. Matthew, St. Paul, S. Rafacllo, ib. ; Vir- 
gin crushing Head of Serpent, S. Antonio 
Abate, ib. Lanzi, ii. 503 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole 
milanaise ; Burckhardt, 70'J. 



FIKENTSCHEE, OTTO, born at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Feb. 28, 1831, died in Diisseldorf, 
Nov. 12, 1880. Buttle painter and illus- 
trator, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under 
Theodor Hildebrand ; spent several years in 
Stuttgart and Munich, then settled in Diis- 
seldorf. Works: Bliicher saved by his 
Adjutant at Quatrebras ; Attack of Cuiras- 
siers at Mars-la-Tour ; French Dragoons 
Repulsed. Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 122. 

Liverpool, Oct. 14, 
1844. Genre painter, 
pupil of South Ken- 
sington schools and 
of Royal Academy. 
Made many drawings 
on wood for the Lon- 
. don Graphic, Corn- 
hill Magazine, and 
other periodicals, and 
illustrated Ihe Last 

works of Dickens (Edwin Drood) and of 
Lever. Exhibited his drawing called Night- 
fall at Royal Academy in 18G8, and his first 
oil picture, Fair Quiet and Sweet Rest, in 
1872. This was followed by Simpletons 
(1873) ; Applicants for Admission to a ( 'x- 
nal Ward (1874) ; Betty (1875) ; The Wul- 
oircr (187G) ; Marianina, Playmates (1877) ; 
Return of a Penitent (187',)) ; Doubts, Dolly, 
Venetian Girl (1881) ; (Nina 1882) ; Village 
Wedding (1883) ; Venetian Life, Venetian 
Flower Girl (1884) ; Venetians (18S5). Mr. 
Fildes was elected an A.R.A. in 1879. Mrs. 
Fildes is also a genre painter. Among her 
works are : Cottage Door (1877) i Peeling 
Potatoes (1878). Meynell, 103; Portfolio 
(1878), 05; Century,' Feb., 1884; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xviii. 319. 

FILIPEPI, SANDRO. See liollMli. 
FILIPPI, SKBASTIANO, called Bastian- 
ino, born in Ferrara in 1532, died there, 
Aug. 1(5, 1G02. Lombard school. Called 
also Gratella (Gridiron), from his custom of 
covering large pictures with crossed lines to 
reduce them to a small scale. Sou and pu- 
pil of Camillo Filippi, a painter of some 

reputation in Ferrara ; went when eighteen 
years old to Rome, and became a favourite 
disciple of Michelangelo, of whom he was a 
weak imitator. His best work is the fresco 
of the Last Judgment in the Cathedral of 
Ferrara, now greatly damaged by restora- 
tion. Works : Raising of the Cross, Cer- 
tosa ; Madonna with Saints and Annuncia- 
tion, Ferrara Gallery.- Lanzi, iii. 205 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole ferraraise ; Burckhardt, 7G1. 

FILIPPINO. See Lippi, Filippino. 

FILIPPO, FRA. See Lippi, Filippo. 

Filippo d'. 

garth, Foundling Hospital, London. The 
march of the Guards to Scotland in 1745. 
While the straggling vanguard are winding 
away to the horizon, the foreground is filled 
with the confusion incident to departure. 
The most prominent figure is a young and 
handsome Guardsman hopelessly embar- 
rassed by the rival adieux of two ladies ; a 
drummer is drowning his grief by a vigor- 
ous attack on his drum ; an officer kisses a 
milkmaid, while a soldier pours her milk 
into his hat, and another steals the pieman's 
wares while directing his attention to the 
episode. Painted in 1750 ; engraved by L. 
Sullivan. The picture was dedicated to the 
King of Prussia, who made a handsome 
acknowledgment of the honour. Dobson, 
Hogarth, 70. 

ton, John A. Mitchell, Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin ; canvas, H. about 3 f t. x 4 ft. A 
party of white-hooded Brittany women near 
a hamlet at sunset. Painted in 1882 ; Se- 
ney sale, New York, 1885. 

FINSONIUS (Finson), LOUIS, born in 
Bruges about 1580, drowned in the Rhone 
near Avles in 1032. Flemish school, his- 
tory and portrait painter ; passed his youth 
in Italy and followed the school of Caravag- 
gio. Went to Naples in 1G12, returned to 
Aix in 1G13, and settled at Aries in 1G14. 
Good colourist, style vehement, scrupulous 
observer of material effects. Works : Resur- 


rection (1610), Si John's Church ; Ineredu- FIORENZO DI LORENZO, born at Pe- 

lity of Thomas (1613), Church of the Saviour, rugia about 1440-50, died after 1521. Um- 

Ais ; Female portrait (1624), Museum, ib. ; briau school, probably a pupil of Benedetto 

Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1(514), Aries Mu- Boufigli. In 1472 he contracted to paint an 

seum ; Magdalen, Marseilles Museum ; An- Assumption of the Virgin, the principal 

nunciatiou (1612), Naples Museum. Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, vii. 70 ; Kraiuni, ii. 487. 

lantonw del Fiore. 

flourished 1400-1439. Venetian school. 

parts of which are now in the Perugia 
Academy. Though the figures are of com- 
mon typo and the action is broken and ex- 
aggerated, the drawing is good and tlio ex- 
ecution careful. The influence of Perugino 
upon Fiorenzo shows itself in a fresco (1475) 

^m^^to: o 
^^^^gc; -.: 

'^^^^S^^mfy : 

March to Finchley, William Hogarth, Foundling Hospital, London. 

Son of Francesco del Fiore, president in 
1376 of the guild of painters in Venice, a 
position held also by Jacobello 1415-36. 
Painted in the method of the earlier Vene- 
tians ; work marked by incorrectness of 
drawing, harshness of colour, and tawdri- 
ness of ornament and of drapery. His Lion 
of St. Mark (1415) in the Ducal Palace, 
Venice, his Madonna (1436) in the Venice 
Academy, and a large picture in the Sacristy 
of the Duomo at Ceneda, are fair specimens 
of his manner. C. & C., N. Italy, i. 2 ; 
Burckhardt, 588 ; Lermolieff, 395. ' 

of the Eternal in a circular glory between 
Saints, in S. Francesco of Dirtita, one of the 
most important wall-paintings recovered in 

1 our day. There are other pictures by him 
in the Perugia Academy ; a Madonna on a 
gold ground, dated 1481, Berlin Museum ; 
Madonna, S. Giacomo, Assisi ; Altai-piece 
(1485), S. Francesco, Tend ; Head of Christ 
and Saints, Madrid Museum. C. .t C., Italy, 
iii. 151 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vi. 30, 56 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Kcole ombrienne ; Cibo, Niccolo 
Alunno e Li Scuola Umbra, 113 ; Liibkf, 

.Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 424. 


FIORI DA URBINO. See Barocci, Fe- Woods, Under the Oak Trees, Solitude in 


Eifel Mountains, Vienna Museum ; Wood- 

FIORINI, GLAMBATTISTA. See Aretuxi, ' border in Tyrol, Hamburg Gallery ; Hessian 

Cesare. Landscape, Darmstadt Gallery ; On the 

FISCHBACH, JOHANN, born in Castle Heights in Eifel Mountains ; Heath at Sun- 

Grafenegg, Nether Austria, April 5, 1797, : set (18CC) ; Evening on Baltic Sea. MUller, 

died in Munich, June 15, 1871. Landscape 175. 

and genre painter, pupil of Vienna Academy ' FISCHER, JOHANN GEORG, born at 

under Potter and Krafft. Extensively known Augsburg in 1580, died in Munich in 1G43. 

by his charcoal drawings. In 1840 he German school ; history painter, studied in 

moved from Vienna to Salzburg, lived there Prague and Italy, imitated Albrecht Dtirer. 

until 1851, then in the country, and from Works : Taking of Christ, Old Pinakothek, 

I860 in Munich ; was made member of the Munich ; Twelve Apostles, 11 Battle Scenes, 

Vienna Academy in 1843. Works : Poach- Schleissheim Gallery ; Ecce Homo, Moritz 

crs, Rosenlauig Glacier in Switzerland Chapel, Nuremberg ; Trinity (after Diirer), 

(1838) ; Peasant Boy quarrelling with Girl Pommerafelden Gallery. Nagler, iv. 354. 
about a Bird (1830), Widow in Graveyard FISCHER, JOSEF, born in Vienna, Jan. 

(1838), Museum, Vienna; Ideal Landscape 30, 1709, died there, Sept. 5, 1822. Ger- 

(1830), Huntsmen Resting (1845), Liech- man school ; landscape painter, pupil of the 

tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Anxious Expectation Vienna Academy, of which he became a mem- 

(1844), Children Found (1845), View near ber in 1815. In 1802 he was made director 

Sal/burg (1858), New Pinakothek, Munich ; of the Eszterhazy Gallery, Vienna. Works : 

Sal/ach Valley and Watzmann (1851). All- View of Vienna and the Danube, Vienna Mu- 

gem. d. Biogr., vii. 47; Andrcsen, v. 78; seum ; Landscape, Vienna Academy ; Storm 

Wurzbach, iv. 23I>. Landscape, Prague Gallery ; others in Na- 

FISCHKR, GOTTLOB, born in Stutt- ' tional Gallery, Pesth. Allgem. d. Biogr., 

gart, June 27, 1829. History and portrait vii. 70 ; Wurzbach, iv. 240. 

painter, studied sculpture hi Holland, and , FISCHER, JOSEF ANTON, born at 

painting (1853 55) in Paris under Ary Obersdorf, Allgiiu, Feb. 28, 1814, died in 

Schefter ; returned to Holland, and in 1857 Munich, March 20, 1859. History painter, 

settled in Stuttgart. Works: Bacchante pupil of the Munich Academy under Schlott- 

(185G) ; Protestant, Service in a Barn; hauer. Visited Italy with Forster and Schrau- 

(1859) ; Rembrandt in his Studio (18C5) ; dolph in 1832, and studied under Heinrich 

Spinoza and the Spiders (18G(i) ; King Lear Hess in 1834-40. In 1843 he revisited Italy, 

and Cordelia (1873) ; Tasso in Prison (187G) ; studied Fra Angelico, and was influenced by 

Portraits of King and Queen of Wiirtem- Overbeck. Works : Flight to Egypt (1841), 

berg (1875), of Prince Frederic, Baron von Adoration of the Magi (1844), Visitation 

Thumb, Baron von Cotta, Count Taube. (1845), Entombment (1848), New Pinako- 

Mliller, 175. thek, Munich; Assumption; Descent from 

FISCHER, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN) the Cross ; Nativity ; Birth of Mary ; Adora- 

RICHARD, born in Dantzic in 182G. Land- tion of the Magi. Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 77 ; 

scape painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy Regnet, 133. 

under Karl Sohn, Theodor Hildebrandt, and FISCHER, THEODOR, born in Schwerin 

Schirmer. From 1854 to 18G2 he lived in 1816, died there, March 30, 1873. His- 

alternately in Berlin and Dantzic, and then tory and portrait painter, pupil in Schwerin 

settled in the latter place. Works : Sultry of Schumacher, then in Dresden of Bende- 

Noontide, Early Morning, Noon in the Val- mann and Richter. Pictures in Schwerin 

ley, Dantzic Museum ; Evening in the Gallery and Grand Ducal Palace, in Ros- 



lock University, and in many churches and 
chapels of Mecklenburg. Kunat-Chronik, 
viii. 431. 

FISCHER, VIXCENZ, born at Schmid- 
ham, Bavaria, April 2, 1729, died in Vienna, 
Oct. 26, 1810. History, architecture, and 
landscape painter, first apprenticed with an 
obscure painter at Passau, then pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy ; went to Italy in 1753 to 
study under Tiepoloaud Cignaroli, and after 
his return in 17(iO became member of the 
Vienna Academy, and professor in 1704, as 
which he enjoyed considerable reputation. 
Works : Moses and Pharaoh's Crown (1700), 
Academy, Vienna ; Roman Colonnade with 
Procession (1702), Similar Subject (171)!)), 
Museum, ib. ; in fresco : Agamemnon shoot- 
ing Diana's Sacred Doe, Castle Laxenburg, 
near Vienna ; others in Royal Palace at Buda- 
Pesth, Royal Chapel at Pressburg. All- 
gem, d. Biogr., vii. 82 ; Wurzbach, iv. 247. 

FISEN, ENGELBERT, born at Li.'ge in 
1655, died there, April 15, 1733. Flemish 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of Fletnael, then in Rome (from 1071) of 
Carlo Maratti, whose style he followed close- 
ly ; returned to Liege in 107!). Of the 053 
pictures and portraits he painted, only a few 
have survived. Works : Martyrdom of St. 
Bartholomew, Christ on the Cross, St. Bar- 
tholomew's, Liege ; Descent from the Cross, 
Chapelle desFemmcs incurables, ib. Biog. 
nat. de Belgique, vii. 78 ; Michiels, x. 171. 

FISH-GIRL, Murillo, Lady Cranstoun, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x'2 ft. 8 in. 
Peasant girl, seated, full-length, looking 
front, holding up with left hand the end of 
the scarf which covers her neck ; right hand 
on handle of basket of fruit, beside which, 
on ground, is a dish of fish ; background, 
landscape. Probably Aguado sale (1843), 
6,900 fr.; bought about 1804 from Mr. Bur- 
ley. Engraved by Blanchard, in Gallery 
Aguado. Curtis, 283 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
espagnole ; Art Union, 1846 ; Art Journal, 
Sept., 1864 ; Scott, Murillo. 

FISHER, KITTY, portrait, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Lord Crewe. Kitty Fisher, the 

Phryne of her day, daughter of a German 
staymaker. She married in 1760 Mr. N.>r- 
ris, son of the M.P. for Rye, and died in 
1771. Half-length, sitting, with a white 
dove in her lap and another fluttering from 
the back of the sofa to join its mate. 

Kitty Fisher, Sir Joshua Reynolds. Lord Crcwe 

Painted in 175!) ; repetitions in Munro Col- 
lection, London, and in Lenox Gallery, New 
York. Another portrait, at Petworth House, 
represents her half-length, full face, sitting 
behind a table on which she rests her anus, 
with an open letter before her ; a third de- 
picts her as Cleopatra dissolving the pearl 
(engraved by Fisher) ; a fourth, Lord Lans- 
downe, in profile, with a parrot on her fin- 
ger ; a fifth, Lord Carysfort, an unfinished 
head in powder, and a fly-cap, perhaps the 
loveliest of all. One sold by Chrystie (1874), 
114 gs. Leslie & Taylor, Life, i. 163 ; Pull- 
ing, 22. 

sachusetts, contemporary. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of George Inness, and afterwards 



studied in Europe. Opened a studio in hof, Bremen ; Brema with her Children, 
Boston, but, meeting with little success, re- ' Feast of Bacchus, Four Praisers of Wine, 
moved to London. Lived in 1884 at Stey- Roland and Hose, Rathskeller, Bremen ; 
ning, Sussex. "Works: Noon (1872); Early Five Continents, Four Winds, Bremen's Sea- 
Sunimer (1875) ; Scotch Hillside, On the Trade (1880), Exchange, Bremen. Muller, 
Cam (187(5) ; The Meadows (1877); Pas- 175; Kunsl^Chronik, x. 291, 312 ; xiii. 489 ; 
torals (1878) ; Pevenscy Castle, Spring, xiv. 5G9. 
Weaned Calves, Spring Labour (187!)) ; FLACCO. See Fiasco. 
Coast Pastures, List of Autumn, Normandy FLAGELLATION (Fr., Christ a la 
Orchard (1880); Milking Time (1881); Sun- Coloime ; Ital., Nostro Signore flagellato 
li"ht and Shade, Melancholy Days, Mar- alia Colouna ; Sp., Cristo a la columna ; Ger., 
guerites (188'2): Timber Wagon, Early Geisselung Christi), the scourging of Christ 
Summer (1883); Sussex Pasture, Homewards previous to crucifixion (Matt, xxvii. 26; 
(1884); Low Tide, A Sketch in Ireland, A Mark xv. 15; Luke xviii. 1C; John xix. 1). 
Kerry Pastoral (1885). Sometimes called Christ at the Column. 

FISHERS OF THE ADRIATIC, Leopold By Murilfa, Duke of Wellington, London; 
Hubert, Neuchatel Museum ; canvas, dated canvas, H. 1. ft. 4 in. x 10 in. An execu- 
1834. Paturle sale (Paris, 1872), 3,320. ; tioncr scourges the Saviour while another 
FITCH, JOHN L., born in Hartford, prepares the crown of thorns ; in back- 
Conn., in 1831!. Landscape painter, pupil ; ground, a wall and a grated window. Three 
in Hartford of George F. Wright ; went to figures, full-length. Companion to Pieta, 
Europe in 1855 and studied under Albert, also in possession of Duke of Wellington. 
Max, and Richard Zimmerman in Munich Subject treated also by Sodoma, Siena 
and Milan. Exhibits at the National Acad- Gallery ; Antonello da Messina, Venice 
pmy, of which he is an Associate. Studio Academy; Paolo Morando, Verona Gallery ; 
in New York since 1866. Works: Mountain Murillo, Louvre ; Gaudeuzio Ferrari, S. M. 
Brook (1870); Outlet (1871); In the Canon- 1 delle Grazie, Milan ; Sebastian del Piombo, 
Granville (1873); Stray Sunbeam (1875); In S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome; Lodovico 
the Woods, Autumn (187G); Twilight on Carracci, Bologna Gallery; Alonso Cano, 
Gill's Brook (1878); Study on Long Island Madrid Museum; Zurbaran, Berlin Mu- 
(1879); On Spruce Creek (1880); Study of seum ; David Teniers, younger, Madrid 
Beeches (1881); Path near Blue Mountain Museum ; Pelegrino Tibaldi, ib. ; Th. van 
Lake (1882); Study on the Croton, Pastoral , Tulden, Brussels Museum; Fr. Vanni, 
(1883); Study on the Raymondskill, Neg- ! Vienna Museum ; Ambrogio Borgognone, 
looted Road (1884). Brera, Milan ; Pedro Ruiz, Dresden Gallery ; 

FITGER, ARTHUR, born at Delmen- Joseph Heiuz, ib.; Karl Lehmann, Church 
horst, Oldenburg, Oct. 4, 1840. History of St. Nicholas, Boulogne-sur-Mer ; Hans 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy, where Holbein, elder, Munich Gallery ; Hans Hoi- 
he was much influenced by Cornelius and bein, younger, Basle Museum. 
Genelli. In Antwerp he studied Rubens, | FLAGG, GEORGE WHITING, born at 
and in Italy (18B3-65) the old Venetian mas- New Haven, Conn., June 26, 1816. Subject 
ters. Settled in Bremen in 1870. Works : painter, pupil of his uncle, Washington All- 
Fisher-Boat attacked by Mermaids ; German ' ston ; later studied three years in Europe. 
Saga on Giant's Grave ; Erlking's Daughters; Painted six years in London before settling 
Procession of Witches ; Waking of Barba- finally in New York ; elected N.A. in 1851. 
rossa ; Night and Dreams ; Prodigal Son, Works : Jacob and Rachel at the Well ; Por- 
Good Samaritan, Remberti Church, Bremen ; trait of Mme. Pico as Cenerentola ; Good 
Development of German Civilization, Ruteu- Samaritan ; Landing of the Atlantic Cable ; 



Murder of the Princes in the Touer ; Young 
Greek ; Landing of the Pilgrims ; 'Washing- 
ton receiving his Mother's Blessing (often 
engraved); Mouse Boy ; Match Girl ; Haidee; 
Scarlet Letter; Columbus and the Egg (1807); 
Tennyson's Maud (1881); Hester Prynne, 
Portrait of Dr. Eben M. Flagg (1883); Por- 
trait of a Lady in Fancy Dress, Mrs. S. P. 
Cleveland, Boston. Tuckerman, 407. 

New Haven, Conn., June l(i, 1820. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of his brother, 
George W. Flagg, and a short time of Wash- 
ington Allston. Elected N.A. in 184'.!, on 
exhibiting Angelo and Isabella. Mr. Flagg, 
who was instrumental in organizing the 
Yale College Art Gallery, became a clergy- 
man of the Episcopal Church in 1854, since 
which time he has rarely exhibited, though 
he still paints. Ideal works : Measure for 
Measure (184!)) ; Paul before Felix (1850) ; 
Grandfather's Pet; Poet's Captive (1877) ; 
Intercepted Letter ; Holy Thoughts. Por- 
traits : Of his Father (18:iO) ; Commodore 
Vanderbilt (1870) ; Bishop Littlejohn (1880); 
Revcrdy Johnson ; Henry Stanbery ; Judge 
Peckham ; Chief-Justice Church (1884). 
His sons, Montague and Charles Noel, both 
pupils of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, are 
genre painters in New York. Tuckerman, 

FLAHAUT, LEON, born in Paris, Dec. 
6, 1831. Landscape painter, pupil of L. 
Fleury and of Corot. Medal in 180!) ; 2<1 
class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1881. Works : 
Canal of Briare ; Sheepfold at Salles, The 
River Loing ; Beach of Berneval ; Land- 
scape ; Evening ; Under the Wood, Souve- 
nir of the Normandy Coast (180!)) ; Farm at 
Sunset, The Loing (1874) ; High Sea at 
Puys, Environs of Montbouy (1878) ; Even- 
ing (1879); Bridge at Mortuaille, The 
Croisic (1880) ; Returning to the Farm 
(1881); Solitude (1882); The River Loing 
(1883); Feme de la Brosse (1884); October 
Morning, On Shore of a Pond (1885). 

FLAMENG, FRANCOIS, born in Paris 
in 1859. History painter, son of the en- 

graver Leopold Flameng; pupil of Cabanol, 
Edmond Hedouin, and Jean Paul Laurens. 
Medal, 2d class, 
187!) ; prix du 
Salon, 187!). 
Works: Reading 
Desk (1875); 
Portrait of aBish- 
op, BarbaroBsa 
visiting Charle- 
magne's Tomb 
(1870) ; Portrait 
of his Father 
(1S77) ; The Gi- 
rondins Summoned (18711) ; Capo di Monte 
Road at Naples, Conquerors of the Bastile 

(1881) ; In the Woods, Camille Desmoulins 

(1882) ; A Duel (188:!) ; M,;- of Maehe- 
coul, Rehearsal in 18th Century (1884) ; 
Howlers, Marie Antoinette going to Execu- 
tion (18S."i). Larousse. 

Metz (Lorraine), July 17, 184)!. Landscape 
and marine painter, pupil of Palianti, E. Vcr- 
rier, Dubufe, Ma/.erolle, K. Delaunay, and 
Puvis dc Chavannes. Medal, 3d class, 1881. 
Works: Village in Lorraine (1870) ; Valley 
of Yaneotte, Normandy (1872) ; Low Tide at 
Cancalc (1874); Fishing Boat at Canoale 
(1875) ; Oyster Women in the Hay of Mont 
Saint Michel (1870); Fishermen at Cancalc 
(1878) ; Banks of the Seine at Ivry, Yport 
(187!)) ; A Corner of the Sea at Saint-Vaasf- 
la-Hougue, Sea- weed at Low Tide in La 
Manche (1880) ; Fishing Boat at Dieppe 
(1881), Luxembourg Museum ; Three-Mast- 
er leaving Havre, Schooner at, Wharf (1882) ; 
Bassin Van ban at Havre (188:5); Fishing 
Bark (1884) ; Calc dc mcssagcrics maritimes 
at Bordeaux (1885). 

FLAMM, ALBERT, born in Cologne in 
1823. Landscape painter, pupil in Dussel- 
dorf of Andreas Achenbach ; later much in- 
fluenced by Oswald Achenbach (1840-41), 
with whom he travelled through Italy. 
Works : Wood Landscape in Sunset (1845) ; 
Morning Landscape (1840) ; View in North 
Italy (1850) ; Approaching Storm in the 



Campagna (1802) ; Castel Gandolfo (1867) ; 
Pilatus on Lake Luzerne ; Grave-Ruins near 
Rome ; Outlook on Bay of Naples ; View 
near Nerina in Volsker Mountains ; Via Ap- 
pia near Eomc, Kunathalle, Hamburg ; View 
of Cumso, National Gallery, Berlin ; Sieben- 
gebirge (1880) ; Coast of Sorrento (1884). 
M filler, 177 ; Wiegmann, 381. 

in Naples, Aug. 15, 1809, died in 1876. 
Landscape and marine painter, studied in 
Italy, accompanied the French expedition to 
Constantino in 1836, visited Persia in 1840- 
41, and Assyria in 1844 ; published, with the 
architect Pascal Goste, "Voyage en Perse," 
(Paris, 1843-54), which made him famous, 
followed by several other publications on 
his travels, notably "L'Orieut" (1856-64). 
Medal, 2d class, 1837 ; L. of Honour, 1842. 
Works : View of Venice, Bridge of Sighs 
(1830) ; View of Hotel do Ville in Algiers 
(1837) ; Storming of Constantino (1838) ; 
View of Golden Horn and of Stamboul, Great 
Mosque of Ispahan, View of Constantinople, 
Entrance of the Bosporus (1855) ; Interior 
of St. Mark's, Venice, View of Tripolis (1857); 
Corner of Doge's Palace, Venice (1866). 
Larousse, viii. 431. 

in Lyons, March 23, 
1801), died in Rome, 
March 21, 18(54. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, son of a poor 
miniature painter ; 
studied under the 
sculptor Legendre 
and under Revoil in 
the Lyons Academy ; 
then, with his younger 
brother, Paul, a pupil 

of Ingres in Paris. Won in 1832 the grand 
prix de Rome with his Theseus recognizing 
his Father, and after living in Rome six 
years returned to Paris (1838) and executed 
many decorative works, especially in St. 
Germain des Pres (1842-61), St. Paul, 
Nimes (1847-49), St. Vincent de Paul, Paris 

(1850-54), Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers 
(1854), and Church of Ainay, near Lyons 
(1855). L. of Honour, 1841 ; Officer, 1853 ; 
Member of Academy, 1853 ; professor of 
painting, 1857. Works: St. Clair healing the 
Blind (183C), Nantes Cathedral ; Reverie, 
Nantes Museum ; Euripides (1835), Dante 
and Virgil in Purgatory (1836), Lyons Mu- 
seum; Christ blessing Little Children (1837), 
Lisieux Museum ; Savonarola preaching in 
Florence (1840) ; Mater Dolorosa (1844) ; 
Study of Figure (1855), portrait of Young 
Girl (1863), Louvre, Paris ; Tower of Babel 
(1861), Lille Museum ; portraits of Cheru- 
bim after Ingres, Marie Anne de Bourbon, 
Marie Fr;\m;oise de Noailles, Cardinal de 
Tournon, Diana of Poitiers, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; and portraits of Napoleon III., Je- 
rome Napoleon, Comte Duchatel, Comtesse 
Duchatel, Comte Walewski, and M. Say. 
Delaborde, Lettres et Pensees (Paris, 1865) ; 
Christian Painter of 19th Century (London, 
1875) ; Ch. Blanc, Artistes de mon Temps, 
263; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xvii. 105, 
243 ; (1865), xviii. 66, 187 ; (1868), xxiv. 20. 
FLAND1UN, JEAN PAUL, born in Lyons, 
May 8, 1811. Landscape painter, brother 
of Hippolyte, pupil of Ingres. Medals : 2d 
class, 1839 ; 1st class, 1847 ; 2d class, 1848 ; 
L. of Honour, 1852. Works : Exile's Fare- 
well (1839) ; Shepherds' Brawl, Lioness Hunt- 
ing (1847); Penitents of the Roman Cam- 
pagna (1840); Solitude, Sabine Mountains 
(1852), Luxembourg Museum ; Nymph's 
Grotto, Gorge of Atlas, The Archers (1855); 
Jesus and the Canaanite Woman, The Rhone, 
(1857); Environs of Marseilles (1859), Angera 
Museum ; Flight into Egypt, Ministry of State; 
Park of Vaux-le-Peng (1861) ; Valley of Mont- 
morency (1863); Souvenir of Yeres, Souvenir 
1 of Southern France (1865); View in Langue- 
doc, Souvenir of Bugey (1866); Solitude 
(1867); By the Water, Abandoned Race- 
Course (1868); Idyl, During the Harvest 
(1869); Grove of Green Oaks, Palace of the 
Popes at Avignon (1870) ; Souvenir of Pro- 
vence (1873); Souvenir of Provence, Idyl, 
Meadow near Nantua (1874); Souvenir of 


Bas-Breau, Bonier of a Pine Wood at For- 
nic (1875); Landscape, In the Woods (1871!) ; 
Garden near Nimes (1877); View near Eire- 
tat (1878) ; View in Provence, View at Bugey 

(1879); River Alberine, Road of Etroits near 
Lyons (1880); Souvenir of Bugey, Provence 
(1881); Road near Montmoreney, View from 
the Heights above Sevres (1882); Landscape, 
Autumn near Montmorency (1881$); In Au- 
tuinu, Diggers at Work (1884); Autumn 
Reminiscence, Shades (1885). Pictures in 
the Museums of Nimes, Lyons, and Langres. 
His elder brother, Auguste Rene (1804 43), 
pupil of Ingres, was director of Lyons Aead- 
emy. Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 551!. 

FLATZ, GEBHARD, born at WoltVurt, 
Vorarlberg, June 11, 1800. History painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy ; then studied at 
Munich, and went to Rome, where, except- 
iug a short stay at Innsbriick, he has since 
lived, forming himself after the works of 
Fra Angelico and Raphael, allied in close 
friendship with Overbeck, and, like him, 
among the foremost modern painters of re- 
ligious subjects. Most of his works have 
been bought for England and America, 
Works : Paris challenged by Hector (1827), 
Ferdinandenm, Innsbriick ; Allegory on In- 
carnation of Christ (1842); Madonna (1843); 
Transfiguration of St. Francis (1845); Abra- 
ham and the Angels ; Madonna adoring the 
Infant ; Fiesole after a Vision painting the 
Madonna ; Mary with Martha, John and 
Lazarus listening to the Lord ; Christ be- 
stowing upon Souls in Purgatory the Boon 
of his Sacrifice (1854); Bishop of Lodi, 
the Founder of Figlie del sagro Cuvrc at 
Trent ; Mary and Joseph adoring the new- 
born Saviour, Imperial Chapel, Vienna ; St. 
Francis Xavier on his Death-bed ; Cycle of 
Five Scenes in Life of Christ (1858). In 
fresco : Cycle representing the Teaching of 
Christ. Wurzbach, iv. 2(i4 ; xxvi. 370. 

born at Liege, May 23, 1614, died there, 
July 10, 1675. Flemish school ; history 
and portrait painter, son of Renier Fie- 
inael, glass-painter ; pupil of Gerard Douf- 

fct and of Jordaens ; went to Italv in 1G38, 
stayed principally at Rome and Florence, 
and on his way homeward painted with 
great repute in the Carmelite and Angus- 
tin churches in Paris, where, on a second 
visit in 1(!70, he was made member anil pro- 
fessor of the Academy. Returned to LK-ge 
in 1<>47, and two years later took up his 
abode temporarily at Brussels. Shows the 
influence of Nicolas Poussin. Works : Chas- 
tisement of Heliodorus, Brussels Museum ; 
Flight of ^neas from Troy, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Alexander leaving for Asia, Death of 
Lucretia, C'assel Gallerv ; Raising of the 
Cross, Crucifixion, Lii'-ge Museum ; Nativ- 
ity, Ca."n Museum; Mysteries of (lie Old 
and New Testa - 
ments, Louvre. 
Biog. nat. de l!el- 
gique, vii. !)(! ; Hel- 

big, Hist, de la peinture u Liege ; Fi'tis, Les 
Artistes beiges a IV-tranger, ii. 371. 

FLERS, CAMILLE, born in Paris. Feb. 
15, 1802, died at Annet (Seine-et-Marne), 
June '27, 1868. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Paris. Bred in the old school of land- 
scape painting, but became a leader of the 
new in 1831. His best works were painted 
before 1855. Medals: ltd class, 1810; 2.1 
class, 1847; L. of Honour, 184!t. Works: 
Cascade of Pissevache (18:11); Mill on the 
Marno ; View of the Meillerave ; Road in 
Normandy, Environs of Dunkirk ; Animals 

, in a Pasture, Castle of Arques ; Environs of 

: Compiegne ; Mill of Toucque, Island of Sa- 
moi's (181(8); Banks of the Marno (1818); 
Four Seasons (1855); eight views and in- 
teriors (1857); Willows on the Beuvronne ; 
Mill of Coillour (185!)); Hazel Trees on 
Banks of the Bresle ; Orchard at Aumale ; 
Henriette Island at Annet ; Tuileries du Pcr- 
rey at Havre ; Water-Mill near Quillelxeuf ; 
Washing-Places on the Bresle ; Mill at An- 
net (1861); The Allier at Vichy after an In- 
undation ; Mill at Aunay (1863). Bellier de 
la Chavignerie, i. 557. 


[ born in Paris, Dec. 18, 1804, died Oct. !!, 



1858. Landscape and history painter, son | 
and pupil of Claude Antoine F., history and 
portrait painter of beginning of 19th cen- 
tury ; later pupil of Herseut and Berlin, i 
Subjects usually taken from central France. 
Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 2d class, 1837 ; 1st 
class, 1845 ; L. of Honour, 1851. Works : 
Baptism of Christ, St. Marguerite, Paris ; 
Saint Genevieve, St. Etienne du Mont, ib.; 
Ischia (1833); Environs of Maubeuge, View! 
of Clermont, Hell's Hole, The Bridge of j 
Archo (1840); Village of ('agues (1845), for- 
merly in Luxembourg Museum ; Monte Calvo, j 
near' Nice, Mill of Coutivert (1847); The' 
Clrove, Pasture in Normandy, Environs of j 
Trouville (1852), bought by the Emperor;! 
View on Coast of Genoa, Orleans Museum ; 
Landscape, Nantes Museum. Gaz. des IS. 
Arts (185!)), i. 302. 

FLICKEL, PAUL, born in Berlin, April 
8, 1852. Landscape painter, pupil of Wei- 
mar Art School under Theodor Hagen, went 
in 1874 to Diisseldorf, and settled in 187G in 
Berlin ; travelled in Germany and Austria, 
and in 1877 in Italy. Works : Garden near 
Naples ; Villa d'Este ; View of Naples from : 
Capo di Moute. Miiller, 178. 

Egypte ; It., Fuga in Egitto ; Sp., Huida a 
Egipto ; Ger., Flucht nach Egypten). The 
flight of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph into 
Egypt to escape the pursuit of Herod. 

By (Jlaude Lorrain, Dresden Museum ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, 
with Jesus in her arms, is mounted upon an 
ass, which is preceded by an angel ; behind, 
Joseph, leaning on his staff. The landscape, 
one of the most beautiful by the painter, has 
a cascade in the iniddleground, which forms 
a rivulet crossed by a bridge ; in background, 
a city and mountains. Other figures, besides 
the Holy Family, are two travellers in an- 
tique costume, and a shepherd and shep- 
herdess. From the Mazarin Collection. An- 
other Flight into Egypt by Claude, engraved 
by Morel, is iu the Ashburton Collection, 

By Alexandre ZM-aw^.s, private gallery, 

Paris ; canvas, H. 9 in. x 1 f t. 1 in. The 
Holy Family about to cross a torrent at 
evening ; an angel leads by the bridle the 
ass upon which the Virgin and Child are 
sitting. Salon, 1850 ; Pereire sale (1872), 
15,150 francs. 

By Edwin Lony, London ; canvas, H. 8 
ft. x 10 ft. Called by the painter Anno 
Domini. The Holy Family in foregi'ound, 
the Virgin and Child seated upon an ass, 
beside which walks Joseph ; beyond, issu- 
ing from the gate of an Egyptian temple in 
background, at the left of which the Pyra- 
mids are seen, marches a procession min- 
strels followed by bearers of the golden im- 
age of Isis, by priests, by a Roman officer 
iu a chariot, and by the sacred bull Apis. 
In the foreground, near the Holy Family, 
are a young lover fastening an amulet around 
the neck of his betrothed, a negro carrying 
for sale a tray of Egyptian gods, and a 
mother holding in her arms a sick child, 
before whose unconscious face three girls 
and a negro girl-slave hold up images of 
the gods. 

By Holman Hunt. See Triumph of the 

By Mnrillo, Duchesse de Galliera, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. x 5 ft. G in. The Virgin, 
mounted on an ass walking to right, ten- 
derly regards the Child, who lies with his 
head on her right arm ; St. Joseph, in broad- 
brimmed hat and mantle, walks leading the 
animal : night scene landscape of arid 
country with tree on left. First manner. 
Painted about 1G48 for convent of La Mer- 
ced Calzada, now the Seville Museum ; car- 
ried off by Soult ; sold at his sale for 51,500 
fr. C. Bermudez, ii. 59, Carta, 55 ; Ponz, 
Viage, ix. 107 ; Curtis, 167. 

By lliibe.ns, Louvre ; wood, H. 2 ft. G in. 
x 3 ft. 3 in. Night scene, the stars and the 
moon reflected in the water of a river which 
the Holy Family are about to cross. Mary, 
holding Jesus in her arms, is seated upon 
an ass led by an angel, while a second angel 
flies at her right ; Joseph, walking with his 
staff, turns and looks with anxiety at two 



horsemen galloping to right on the river- 
bank ; in background, left, under a rock 
shaded by trees, shepherds and their flocks 
around a fire. Collection of Louis XIV. 
Engraved by I. C. Marinus ; C. Galle ; 11. 

Flight into Egypt, Munllo, Duchesse de Galliera. 

Lowry. Same composition with changes, 
Cossel Gallery, to which it was returned in 
1815 from Paris. 

By Tiiitori'lto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. A lovely landscape, with the Ma- 
donna and St. Joseph pacing along a shady 
path on the banks of a river. The Virgin's 
head is very beautiful ; the head of the ass 
is wonderfully painted. Ruskin, Stones of 
Venice, iii. 328. 

By Adrian van der Wrrff, Hague Museum ; 
wood, H. 1 ft. C in. x 1 ft. 3 in.; signed, dated 
1710. The Virgin, with Jesus in her arms, 
is seated upon an ass led by Joseph beside 
a stream, near which are trees and the ruins 
of a portico. Painted by the artist for his 
daughter, who sold it for 4,000 florins to 
J. van Schuyleuburg, at The Hague, from 
whom it passed through several other hands 

to the Hague Museum. Carried to Paris 
under the empire ; returned in 1815. En- 
graved by Avril in Musee fran<;ais. Filhol. 

Subject treated also by Guido, Brussels 
and Naples Museums; Carlo Marat ti, Vi- 
enna Museum ; II Scarsellino, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Alessandro Turchi, Madrid Museum ; 
Luca Cambiaso, Palazzo Barberini, Rome ; 
(iaudcnzio Ferrari, Church of Minorites, 
Varallo ; Lodovico Cardi, Louvre ; L. Bas- 
sano, Madrid Museum ; Murillo, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg; id., Pesth Gallery; 
id., Mrs. Culling Hanbury, Bedwell Park, 
Herts ; Adam Elsheimer, Munich and Dres- 
den Galleries, Louvre, and Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna; Domenico Feti, Vienna 
Museum; Filippo Lauri, ib. ; Herri de Dies, 
ib.; Joachim de Patinir, Munich and Madrid 
Museums and London Gallery ; Velvet Brue- 
ghel, Besaneon Museum ; Frans Fraucken, 
elder, Dresden Museum ; Frans Franeken, 
younger, Uftix.i, Florence ; Francois Boucher, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Eugene Deveria 
(Salon, 18t58); P. A. Jeanron (Exposition 
Universelle, 1855); Joseph Beaume (ib.); J. 
J. Bellel (ib.); Paul Flandrin (Salon, 1HIJ1). 

FLLXCK, GOVAFRT, born at Cleves, 
Jan. '25, 1(11 5, 
died in Amster- 
dam, Feb. 2, i <;<;o. 

Dutch school ; 
history and por- 
trait painter, pu- 
pil of Lambert 
Jacobzen at Leeu- 
warden, then of 
Rembrandt, un- 
der whom his 
talent developed 

so rapidly that after one year his pictures 
could scarcely be distinguished from those 
of the master. He left Rembrandt in l(!l!8, 
and took the freedom of Amsterdam in Ki5'J. 
After Eeckhout, he was the scholar who ap- 
proached nearest to Rembrandt. His best 
pictures are of the period KJ40-50 ; later, 
having studied the old Italian masters, lie 
aimed at precision of form rather than at 




chiaroscuro effects, and lost ground. He 
enjoyed the favour of the Elector William 
of Brandenburg, and of Prince Maurice of 
Nassau, for whom he executed many pict- 
ures. Works : Annunciation to the Shep- 
herd, Portrait of a Young Girl (1G41), 
Louvre ; Female portrait (1040), Brussels 
Museum ; Loving Couple (attributed), Ant- 
werp Museum ; Isaac blessing Jacob (1G38), 
Frte of the Civic Guard (1048), National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Marcus Curius Den- 
tatus, Solomon praying for Wisdom, Royal 
Palace, ib. ; The Archers (1042), City Hall, 
ib. ; Portrait of a Man and his Sister (1G4G), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Solomon and Queen 
of Sheba (with Dirk van Delen), Lille Mu- 
seum ; Female portrait (1030), Brunswick 
Museum ; do., Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Woman and Child, Darmstadt Museum ; 
Guard Room, Old Pinakothek Munich; 3 
male portraits (two dated 1G39, 1G43), David 
and Uriah, Dresden Gallery ; Female por- 
trait (1641), Expulsion of Hagar, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; 2 portraits, Copenhagen Gallery ; 3 
portraits (one dated 1G37), Hermitage, St. 

Petersburg ; Portrait of Old Man (1051), 
Vienna Museum ; Portrait, of a Lady 
(1G48), Marquis of Bute, London ; Bath- 
sheba's Appeal to David, National Gallery, 
Dublin. Allgom. d. Biogr., vii. 122 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Havard, A. <fc A. 
hoi., ii. 73 ; Repertorium f. K., iv. 108 ; 
Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 2G9 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
x. 224, 381. 

FLORA. See Columbine. 

FLORA, Titian, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
life-size figure, seen to hip. A woman, 
lightly clad, her hair looped with a silken 
cord and falling in waves to the bosom, 

strives with one hand to hold the muslin 
falling from her shoulders while presenting 
roses, jessamines, and violets with the other 
to some unseen person. Painted about 
1520. Once owned by Don Alfonzo Lopez, 

Flora, Titian, Uffizi, Florence. 

who also owned the Ariosto of Cobham 
Hall ; first exhibited in Florence in 1793, 
when taken from the Duke's Guardaroba. 
C'. A C., Titian, i. 270 ; Lavice, 53. 

FLORA, TRIUMPH OF, Nicolas Pou^in, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. X 7 ft, 
11 in. At right, Flora, seated upon a char- 
iot, drawn by two loves or zephyrs, and pre- 
ceded by women and men singing and danc- 
ing, is accompanied by nymphs, youths, and 
loves bearing flowers ; two loves, flying, are 
[ about to crown her ; a warrior, standing, 
offers flowers in a buckler. Painted about 
1G30 for Cardinal Omodei, whence passed to 
collection of Louis XPV. Engraved by E. 
Fessard (1770), Audran, Marie Horthemels. 
Filhol, iii. PI. 199 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

FLORE. See Fiore. 



banel, J. H. Warren, Hoosic Falls, N. Y. A 
young poet reading one of his compositions 
to youthful listeners, seated on a marble 
bench in a garden. Salon, 18(51. Engraved by 
A. Huot. Replica, Israel Corse, New York. 

born about beginning of 16th century, died 
after 1543. Venetian school ; pupil and 
son-in-law of Pellegrino. In 1525 he painted 
an altarpiece for S. M. di Villauuova near 
San Daniele, and later the Conception, now 
in Venice Academy. The St. George and 
the Dragon in S. Giorgio of Udine was 
ordered in 1529. He afterwards painted in 
Padua until 1533. In 1539 he killed a man 
in a quarrel at Udine and tied to Cividale, 
where he remained until 1543, when he re- 
turned to Udine. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 300 ; 
Vasari, ix. 30 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 

born in Ant- 
werp about 
1517-18, died 
there, Oct. 1, 
1570. Flem- 
ish school ; 
history and 
portrait paint- 
er, son and 
pupil of Cor- 
nelis de V., a 
stone - cutter, 
then at Liege pupil of Lambert Lombard ; 
also studied in Italy under influence of 
Michelangelo. In 1540 admitted into the 
guild at Antwerp, where he opened a school, 
frequented by many scholars, among whom 
were several afterwards great masters. Led 
a very wild life, which prevented his attain- 
ing the fame and fortune that his great tal- 
ent and the patronage of his friends offered 
him. His sons, Jeau Baptiste and Frans, ; 
were both painters. Works : Fall of the 
Angels (1554), Adoration of the Shepherds, 

do Vriendt), 

St. Luke painting the Virgin, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Nine Muses, Christ and Little Chil- 
dren, Water-Wedding at Middelburg, Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Last Judgment (15(!(i), 
Adoration of the Magi (finished 1571 l>y 
Hieronymus Franeken), Brussels Museum ; 
Falcon Hunter (1558), Mars and Venus 
surprised by Vulcan, Venus and Cupid, 
Brunswick Museum ; Taking of Christ, Cas- 
sel Gallery; Cain ami Abel, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Venus and Mars (1517), Lot and 
his Daughters, Berlin Museum ; Figure, (if 
a Woman, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Adam 
and Eve under tlie Tree, Adam and Evo 
driven from Paradise, Holy Family, Vienna 
Museum ; Deluge, portraits (2), Madrid Mu- 
seum. Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 15ig. 
nat. do Belgiqiie, vii. 120 ; Cat. du Museo 
d'.Vnvers (1S74), 13!); Dolimc, lii. ; F.'-tis, 
Cat. du Mus. royal, 317; Michiels, v. I'lfJ ; 
Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 17 ; Rooscs ( Iteber), 1)3; 
Van den Branden, 17:!. 

f.iv/it; South Kensington Museum ; canvas, 
H. 1 ft. II in. X 2 ft. 5 in. Scene from Win- 
ter's Tale, Act IV., Scene 3. Perdita, stand- 
ing, presenting (lowers to Polyxcnes and 
Camillo, seated at right in shepherd's cot- 
tage ; behind her is Florixel, and at her side, 
at left, Dorcas, a true shepherdess. Hoval 
Academy, 1S37. Engraved by L. Stocks. 
Art Journal (18(57), 4. 

FLOWER GIRL, Mnrillo, Dulwich Gal- 
lery ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. X 3 ft. 2 in.; has 
been enlarged, original size 3 ft. 5J;x2 ft. 
9J. In white turban, yellow robe, white 
sleeves, seated on a stone bench, holding 
with both hands the end of a brown em- 
broidered scarf which falls from her left 
shoulder, and smilingly offering to the spec- 
tator the four roses it contains ; on left a pi- 
laster ; at right a landscape with cloudy sky. 
Countess de Verruc sale, 1737 ; Blondel de 
Gagny sale, Paris (177(5), 12,000 liv.; Ca- 
lonne sale, London (1795), (572, to Mr. 
Desenfans, whose heir, Sir Francis Bour- 
geois, bequeathed it to Dulwich College. 
Old copy in Akademie der Bildeudeu Kuust, 



Vienna. Engraved by J. H. Robinson, P. 
Lightfoot, S. C. Hull, 11. Graves, A. H. 
Payne, H. Cockburn, C. Cousen. Curtis, 
281 ; Art Journal, 1877 ; Art Union, 18-11 ; 
Scott, Murillo ; Waagen, ii. 340 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Murillo, l(i ; Jameson, Public Galleries, 483; 
Richter, Dulwich Cat., 99. 

FLOWER MARKET, Firmiu Giranl, T. 
R. Butler, New York. Scene on the quay 
where the flower-market of Paris is held, 
with groups buying and selling ; in back- 
ground, the Seine and architecture. Salon, 
187G. Etched by Gustavo Greux. I/Art 
(1870), ii. 300 ; iii. 240. 

FLUGGEN, GISBERT, born in Cologne, 
Feb. 9, 1811, died in Munich, Sept. 3, 1859. 
( Jeiiro painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy. In 1835 he settled in Munich. Has 
been called the German Wilkie on account 
of the similarity in subject and character of 
his works to those of the Scotch master. 
Works : Servants Surprised (1839), Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; Chess Players, Inter- 
rupted Marriage Contract (1840); Unlucky 
Player (1841), Mentz Museum ; Deciding 
the Lawsuit (1847); Betrothal, Tasting Wine, 
Morning Kiss, Opening of Will, Money 
Changers (1850) ; Seizure for Debt at Young 
Musician's (1854); Disappointed Legacy i 
Hunters (1848), Hanover Gallery ; Specula- 
tors ; Last Moments of King Frederic Au- 
gustus of Saxony ; Anteroom of a Prince 
(1859), New Pinakothek, Munich. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., vii. 140 ; ISrockhaus, iv. 982. 

FLUGGEN, JOSEF, born in Munich, 
April 3, 1842. History and portrait painter, 
son of Gisbcrt, pupil of Munich Academy 
and of Piloty, went in 1800 to Paris, Lon- 
don, Brussels, and Antwerp, where he was ' 
influenced by Leys. Now professor in Mu- 
nich Academy. Works : Elizabeth of Thu- 
ringia (1807); The Hostess' Daughter (1809); 
Family Happiness ; On Coast of Genoa ; 
Pouting Love-Couple ; Milton dictating 
Paradise Lost ; Landgravine Margaret tak- 
ing Leave of her Children ; Regina Imhof 
(1877); Baptism of Emperor Maximilian I. 
(1879); First Booty (1881); Last Jewel, 

(1884); King Karl's Sea-trip (1885), Royal 
Palace, Bucharest. Brockhaus, vi. 929 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1882), i. 9 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. 
(1880), ii. 503 ; Land und Meer (1870), i. 
212 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 135. 

first half of 10th century. Venetian school ; 
a native of the district of Friuli, he was ap- 
prenticed at Vicenza, and spent some of his 
later years in San Vito ; painted also in Por- 
denone and in Trent. His early work is in 
the manner of Verlas and Speranza, but his 
later pictures show the influence of Raph- 
aelesque models. Among the latter are the 
; Virgin crowned by Angels in the Santissima 
Trimta, Trent, and the Madonna and Saints 
in the church of Bovo, near Trent. C. & 
C., N. Italy, i. 443. 

EOHR, DANIEL, born at Heidelberg, 
May 13, 1801, died at Baden-Baden, June 
25, 1802. Landscape painter, brother of 
Karl Ph. F., self-taught, came in 1829 to 
Munich, where he rapidly gained reputation. 
Works : Wood Landscape with Mazeppu, 
View of Konigsee (1830) ; The Steinberg 
near Berchtesgarten (1837), Four Seasons 
or Four Epochs of German History, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery. 

FOHR, KARL PHILIPP, born at Heidel- 
berg, Nov. 20, 1795, died in Rome, June 29, 
1818. Landscape painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy. Influenced by Josef Anton Koch 
at Rome, where he was drowned while bath- 
ing in the Tiber. Works : In Carlsruhe 
and Darmstadt Museums, and Stadel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort. Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 
147 ; Dieftenbach, Leben des Malers K. F. 
(Darmstadt, 1823). 

FOLTZ, PHILIPP, born at Bingen, May 
11, 1805, died in Munich, August 5, 1877. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf and Munich Academies under Corne- 
lius, whom he assisted in the decoration of 
the Glyptothek. After painting some fres- 
cos in the new Royal Palace, he went to 
Rome in 1835, and on his return became 
professor at the Munich Academy in 1839, 
and director of the Central Gallery in 1855. 


Works : Suliote Woman keeping Watch for FONTAINEBLKAU, FOREST OF, Nar- 

her Father, Huntsman on Rocky Cliff, Fish- ciso Duiz do la Pefia, T. W. Walters, Balti- 

eriuaidcn on Strand, Fisherman's Family more ; canvas, H. 2 ft. (i in. x 2 ft. 1 in. ; 

expecting Father, Fisherwoman on Achen dated 1871. Autumn scene. Dia/. painted 

Lake, Two Chamois Hunters, Hunter and many views of the Forest of Fontainebleau, 

Shepherdess, Knight and his Sweetheart, some of which are in the following collec- 

Greek Women on Battlefield all in (1820 tions : W. H. Vunderbilt, New York ; Sani- 

35); Two Madonnas, Holy Family, The uel Hawk, ib.; M. Graham, ib.; J. W. Drexel, 

Diver, The Princess, Count of Hapsburg ib.; J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; R. C. Tuft. 

(1835-38); Minstrel's Curse (18:!8), Cologne Providence ; H. P. Kidder, Boston; Mrs. 

Museum ; Scene on the Isar near Munich, W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia. 

Darmstadt Museum ; Madonna (1839) ; Em- By Theodore HnKnai'iin, Louvre; canvas, 

peror Sigismund, ROmersaal, Frankfort ; H. 4 ft. 7 in. x (> ft. 5 in. ; signed. Sunset 

Frederic Barbarossa kneeling before Henry scene on the border of the forest. Salon of 

the Lion (1852); Age of Pericles, Maximili- 1855 ; formerly in Luxembourg. Rousseau 

aneum, Munich ; Italian Mother with Chil- spent many years in the Forest of Fontaine- 

dren by the Sea, Pilgrimage in the Moun- bleau, which supplied him with numerous 

tains, Peasant Woman and Child ; Scene subjects. 

from Defence of Tyrol, Brera Gallery, Mi- FONTANA, LAVIN1A, born in Bologna, 

Ian ; two great Hunting Scenes ; Rhino Lc- Aug. 2(i, 1552, 

gends, Schonborn Palace, Munich ; G<itz died in Rome 

von Berlichingen and the Monk, Vienna in 1<!14. Bo- ( ' ,1 

Museum ; King Louis I. and Family look- lognesc school ; K ^-~ , \ '<& 

ing at Painting, Madonna, Frauenlob. Fres- daughter and (7 V ' ~' * ' 

cos: Foundation of Academy of Science, pupil of Pros- 

and four Allegorical Figures, Arcades, royal pero Fontana ; 

garden, Munich ; twenty-three scenes from married Paolo (_ ,<f 

Schiller's and nineteen from Burger's Bui- Zappi, son of a -T~T-/,- v ; 

lads, Royal Palace, Munich ; Times of Dav, rich merchant | ^ \ X, -'<<' j[ /".- 

Gods of Greece instructing Man, Schonborn of Imola, who ' ^'^>j-^i'\ 

. . * "^ / '^ 

Palace, Munich. Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. aspired to be a 

150 ; Brockhaus, vi. 943 ; Kunst-Chronik, painter, but without success. I^ivinia went 
xii. 771 ; Illnstr. Zeitg. (1881), i. lili:!. to Rome about 15!)2, and won considerable 
FONTAINE, EDME ADOLPHE, born at reputation us a portrait painter. She also 
Noisy-le-Grand (Seine-et-Oise), May 8, 1814. executed several altarpicces like her father's 
Portrait, genre, and landscape painter, pu- in colour, but inferior in design and execu- 
pil of Leon Cogniet. Medal, 3d class, 1852. tion. Works at Bologna : Virgin and Saints, 
Works: Ibrahim Pasha at the Military School S. Giacomo Maggiore ; do., La Madonna del 
of Saint Cyr (1847-85); Supreme Court at 
Versailles (1850-55) ; Visit of Napoleon HL 
to School of Saiut-Cyr (1853) ; The Let- 
ter (1857) ; Attack of Sclinghinsk Earth- 
work, February 23, 1855 (1859); Mass at /I V/ V/ A 
Pont 1'Abbe, Studio Interior (1861) ; Cscsar L 
nnd his Fortune (1863); Bay of Audierne, f/JA/TA/i/AP 
Finistere, Villa of Quintiliau ou the Via Ap- **** 
pia (1875) ; Studio Interior (1878). Bellier Baracano ; Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, 
de la Chavignerie, i. 561. Chicsa dei Heudicauti ; Crucifixion, S. Lu- 


cia ; Birth of Virgin, S. Trinita ; Madonna, j tie of Gaillard (1804), Lisieux Museum ; 
Ascension, Pieve di Cento. Malvasia, i. 173; Seine near Euins of the Castle of Tancar- 
Lanzi, iii. 42 ; Ch. Blanc, cole bolouaise ; ville, Top of the Sulphur Mine in Guada- 
(Jualaiuli, Guida, 138, 140, 100. j loupe (18G5) ; Village of Unterseen, Church 

FONTANA, PHOSPERO, born in Bo- i of St. Bernard de Comminges (186G) ; Vil- 
logna in 1512, died in Home in 1597. Bo- lage of Vezillon, High Tide between Havre 
lognese school, pupil of Innoceuzo da Im- and Houfleur (18G8), Laval Museum ; Seine 
ola ; went to France to aid Primaticcio at between Rouen and Havre (1869) ; View in 
Foutainebleau, but was taken ill and had to ; Valley of the Touque (1870) ; Road from 
return. Painted chiefly in Bologna and in Meyringen to Goutan (1872) ; Farm near 
Rome. He was devoted to pleasure, and Rouen (1874) ; Seine at LesAndelys (1875) ; 
his many (chiefly historical) works are cxe- j Ruins of Castle in Valley of Lauterbrunnen 
cuted with little care. His best pictures are ' (187G); Farm on Heightsof Avranches(1877); 

his portraits. Among his works are : Dec- 
orations in Vigna di Papa Giulio near 
Rome ; Altarpiece, S. Salvatore, Bologna 

Villiers (1878) ; Farm near Pontorson, Pic 
du Midi near Pau (1879) ; Coast of Honfleur, 
Farm in Normandy (1880) ; Farm in Pi- 

Entombment, Bologna Gallery ; Charity of cardy, View near Villiers-sur-Mer (1882) ; 
S. Alexis, S. Giacomo Maggiore, Bologna ; Squall on the Coast of Normandy, Cliffs at 
Holy Family, Dresden Gallery ; Annuncia- Puy (1883) ; Cliffs near Chateau of Dieppe 
tion, Brera, Milan ; Visitation, Estense Gal- (1884); Last Judgment, Entrance to Dieppe 
ler\', Modena. Malvasia, i. 173 ; Lanzi, iii. ' (1885). 

42^; Ch. Blanc, Kcole bolonaise ; Vasari, ed. i FON VILLE, HORACE, born at Lyons in 
Le Mon., ix. 95 ; xii. Ill ; xiii. 5, 183. 1832. Landscape painter, pupil of his 

FONTANA, ROBERTO, born in Milan in father and of Appiau. Works : Chateau de 
1S44. Genre painter, pupil of Milan Acad- la Pape near Lyons (1833) ; View of Lyons 
emy. Medal, Milan, 1871!. Works: Scene (1840); Landscape in the Haut-Bugey (1864); 
in Robert le Diable ; Wooing ; JEsop relat- At Rossillon, Ain (1870) ; Road in Moun- 
ing his Fables (1870). tains of Haut-Bugey (1874), Luxembourg 

FONTENAY, ALEXIS DALIGH DE, Museum ; Ain River at Neuville (1876); 
born in Paris, April 21), 1813. Landscape Souvenir of Virieux-le-Grand (1877) ; Land- 
painter, pupil of Watclet and Hersent. Has scape in Bugey (1879). 

won a good reputation as a faithful deline- 1 FOPPA, VINCENZO, the elder, born at 
ator of nature. Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; Foppa, province of Pavia, died in Brescia in 
2d class, 1844, 1801, and 1863. Works :' 1492. Lombard school ; a disciple probably 
View on the Grimsel Road (1841) ; View on | of Squarcione, but nothing known of him 
Road to the Maladetta, Pyrenees (1843), before his engagement in Milan in 1456, 
Marseilles Museum ; Environs of Luz (1844); when he called himself a citizen of Brescia. 
Great Sulphur Mine (1845) ; Fort Royal In 1461 he was in Pavia, where he painted 
(1847) ; Bernese Oberland (1848) ; Road in 1462 frescos in the Carmine, and in 1465 
from Bastia to Ajaccio (1852) ; Isle of Elba a chapel in the Certosa. At a later date he 
(1852), Montauban Museum ; Farm and worked in Savona and in Brescia. His 
Castle (1855), Nantes Museum ; Valley of earlier pictures show the prominent charac- 
Lauterbrunnen (1857), Moutpellier Museum; teristics of the Paduan school, but in the 
Gulf of Ajaccio (1859), Strassburg Museum ; course of years he shook off Mantegnesque 
Wetterhorn and Grindelwald (1861) ; Castle peculiarities and gained the mastery which 
of Unspunneu (1803), Saint-Quentin Muse- comes from long practice. Among his best 
um ; View in Bernese Oberland, Gallery at ' extant works are the St. Sebastian, Brera, 
Monaye (1863) ; View near Unterseen, Cas- , Milan, and the altarpiece in sis panels in S. 


M. di Castello, Savona, dated 1480. Other 
examples are : Adoration of the Magi, Na- 
tional Gallery, London, ascribed to Barto- 
lonimeo Suardi, and frescos in the Carmine, 
Brescia, also St. Jerome, Crucifixion, Ber- 
gamo Gallery. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 2 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mou., iii. 285 ; vi. 84 ; Siret, 
3*23 ; Calvi, Notizie, etc., 55 ; Ch. Blanc, 
f'cole milanaise ; Burcklmrdt, 007 ; Liibke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 487. 

FOPPA, VINCENZO, the younger, of 
Brescia, IGth century. Lombard school ; 
probably son and pupil of above, in his fres- 
cos in S. Giulia, S. Sal vat ore, and S. M. 
in Solario, Brescia. In his later works, in 
S. M. delle Grazie and S. Nazzaro c Celso, 
Brescia, he shows himself a follower of Mo- 
retto and Romanino. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 
432 ; Burckhardt, 010. 

FORABOSCO. See F<rah<>.<cn. 

FORBES, EDWIN, born in New York in 
1839. Landscape and genre painter, pupil 
of A. F. Tait in 1850. During the American 
civil war he acted as special artist for Frank 
Leslie's illustrated paper, and subsequently 
painted his Lull in the Fight. His Life 
Studies of the Great Army, etchings on cup- 
per, were presented to the United States 
Government by General Sherman, and are 
preserved in the War Office at Washington. 
In 1877 he was elected an honorary member 
of the London Etching Club. Studio in 
Brooklyn. Works : Earl}- Morning in an 
Orange County Pasture (1870); On the Skir- 
mish Line, Stormy March, Roughing, On 
the Meadows (1880); Evening in the Sheep 
Pasture (1881). 

AUGUSTE, Comte de, born at Chateau de 
la Roquo d'Anthcron (Bouches-du-Rh<'>ne), 
Aug. 19, 1777, died in Paris, Feb. '23, 1841. 
Landscape and interior painter, pupil in 
Lyons of Boissieu and in Paris of David ; 
took part in the several campaigns between 
1705 and 1800, when he resigned, and in 
Rome devoted himself to art ; returned to 
Paris in 1814, and after the restoration was 
made member of the Institute and director 

of the royal museums. He reorganized the 
Louvre, and founded the Luxembourg Mu- 
seum. In 1817-18 he visited Syria, Greece, 
and Egypt, and in 1810 published a splen- 
did work, "Voyage dans le Levant." The fig- 
ures in his pictures were supplied by Granet. 
Chamberlain ; L. of Honour, 18(10 ; Otlicer, 
1S17 ; Commander, 1S22 ; Order of St. Mi- 
chael ; member of many Academies. Works : 
Interior of Ancient Monument (1SOO); Death 
of Pliny at Eruption of Vesuvius (1SOI1); 
Nun in Prison of Inquisition (IS'"); Death 
of King Andrew of Hungary, Inez de Castro 
(1810); Interior of Monastery (l*2t); Pro- 
cession of the League (1S31); Vestibule of 
Monastery (1830), Chapel in Coliseum (1N34), 
with Granet, Louvre ; Moor accused of aid- 
ing Flight of a Nun. Larousse, viii. 5SO ; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Mever, Geseh., I IS 

Paris in 1030, 
il i e d there, 
March 17, 1712. 
French school ; 
landscape paint - 
er, son and pupil 
of Pierre Forest, 
then in Rome 
pupil of Pietro 
Francesco Mola; 
ha vi n g a 1 s o 
formed himself after Titian and Giorgione, 
he returned from Italy after a sojourn of 
seven years, and was received into the Acad- 
emy in 1074. Visited Italy a second time, 
commissioned by M. de Seignelav, Minister 
of State, to buy pictures by old masters, of 
which he was a great connoisseur. Some of 
his works are in the Museum at Tours, but. 
most of his pictures have become blackened 
from his use of perishable pigments. Ch. 
Blanc, T-icole francaise, i.; D'Argenville, v. 

Santo Domingo in 1787, died in Paris, Dec. 
23, 1874. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Vincent and David, then of EVole des Beaux 
Arts ; won grand prix de Rome in 1813 and 



went to Rome ; after his return also painted 
genre scenes. L. of Honour, 1832. Works : 
Anacreon and Cupid ; Ecce Homo (1819); 
Christ healing a Young Man Possessed (1827), 
Louvre ; Calling of St. Fronto (1831), Min- 
istry of Public Works ; Good Samaritan 
(1835), Prefecture de la Seine ; Funeral of 
William the Conqueror (1855). Larousse. 

FORMANN, HELENA, Rubens, Blen- 
heim Palace ; canvas, H. G ft. G in. x 4 ft. 
G in. Rubens' second wife, full-length, in 
a black silk dress, with white satin sleeves 
adorned with pearls, and a black velvet cap, 
walking in the open air, followed by a page 
with his hat in his hand. Engraved by 
Earlom. Other portraits of her by Rubens 
at Windsor Castle, and in Dresden, Munich, 
Berlin (St. Cecilia], Vienna, The Hague, 
Louvre, and Hermitage Galleries. Waagen, 
Art Treasures, iii. 12G ; Smith, ii. 242. 

FORNARINA, LA, Sebastian del Piombo, 
Blenheim, England ; wood, life-sixe. Abeau- 

a striped cloth tied over the crown of the 
head ; low white dress showing neck ; right 
hand supporting the fur collar of a red vel- 
vet mantle, the left holding a basket of fruit 

La Fornarina, Sebastian del Piombo, Uffizi, Florence. 

La Fornarina, Raphael, Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 

and flowers. Called also Dorothea. Attrib- 
uted to Raphael ; engraved as a Raphael by 
Bernardi, T. Chambers, and others. Infe- 
rior replica in Casa Persico Cittadella, Ve- 
rona. C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 320 ; Waagen, 
Treasures, iii. 125. 

By Sebastian del Piombo (attributed to 
Raphael), Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
2 in. xl ft. 10 in.; dated 1512. The bust 
of a young and beautiful lady of rank, nearly 
full face, with a wreath of gold leaves on 
her head ; dress, a blue velvet bodice with 
muslin chemisette, and a green velvet man- 
tle with panther-skin collar. The gold chain 
on her neck is by some restorer. In posses- 
sion of the Medici, Florence, since 1589. 
Kugler thinks it a portrait of Vittoria Co- 

tiful woman sitting, turned to left, her head lonna ; others, of the Improvisatrice Beatrice 
almost facing the spectator ; her hair, bound da Ferrara. Copy attributed to Giulio Ro- 
in a mass at the back of the neck, set off by mano in Palazzo Corsini, Rome. Engraved 



as a Rapliael by R. Morghen and others. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 357 ; v. 507 ; C. & C., N. 
Italy, ii. 319 ; Passavant ; Kugler (Eastlakc), 
ii. 4G5 ; Rosiui, iv. 241 ; Burckhardt, 000, 

By Itaphai'l, Palazzo Barberini, Rome ; 
figure to the knees. A half-nude woman, 
seated in a myrtle and laurel wood, with a 
striped yellow cloth about her head and her 
hair bound with a circlet of gold with leaves 
and flowers, garnished with precious stones ; 
her right hand holds light gauze against her 
breast, her left lies carelessly on the red gar- 
ment over her knees. On a bracelet on her 
left arm is inscribed Raphael Urbinas. Com- 
monly called Raphael's Mistress ; name For- 
narina (bakeress), given about middle of last 
century. Many copies. Painted about 1501) ; 
in 15!)5 was in the Casa Sanla Fiora, Rome ; 
acquired about 1042 by Barbcrini family. 
Engraved by Cunego, Desnoyers, Godefroy, 
Anbert. Vasari, cd. Mil., iv. 355 ; Runiohr, 
Ital. Forsch., iii. ll:i; Passavant, ii. !)!) ; 
Milntx, 387, 0()(i ; Gruyer, Portraits do la 
Fornarina ; Archivio della Societa Romana 
di Storia Patria, ii. (1878) 40; iii. (18711) 
234 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 405 ; Springer, 
251, 5(l!t. 

FORNASO, IL. See <'i, ;;<>, i,,. 

near Altenburg, April 
8, 1800, died in Mu- 
nich, April 2!, 1SH5. 
History and portrait 
painter and art writ- 
er, pupil in Berlin 
of K. /immermann 
and W. Sehadow, 
studied then in Dres- 
den, and from 1832 

in Munich under Cornelius. In 1824-25 
he painted frescos in the Hall of Bonn 
University. He twice visited Italy, and in 
1837-40 discovered and restored Altichieri's 
wall paintings in the Chapel of St. George 
in 8. Antonio, Padua. Lives in Munich. 
Works : Hellas Liberated ; Giotto and Ciui- 

abue ; Portraits of Duke and Duchess of 
Altenburg and Children. Frescos : The- 
ology (1824-25), Aula, Bonn University ; 
Liberation of German Army 
through Otto von Wittelsbach, 
near Verona, Arcades, Royal 
Garden, Munich ; Scenes from 
Goethe's Poems and Scenes from 
Wieland's Musarion and (irazien 
( 1833), Royal Palace, Munich. Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xx. 003 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., vi. 1148. 

FORHTERLJNG, O1TO, born in Berlin, 
June 18, 1843. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Berlin Academy and of Julius 
Schrador, settled in 18(17 at Klein /schaeh- 
witz, near Dresden, whence lie visited Ger- 
many, Austria, and Italy. Works : Morning 
Dew; Nymph of (he Spring; Woodland 
Tale ; Snow-Drop ; Water-Sprite in Grotto ; 
Fight, between Centaurs and Tigers ; Judas 
in the Storm during the Crucifixion (1885). 
Miiller, 180. 

called Simeon-Fort, born at Valence (Drome), 
Aug. 28, 171)3, died in Paris, Dec. 24, 1801. 
Landscape painter in water-colour, pupil of 
C. Bruno. Was employed with Morel and 
Puissant to continue Bagetti's water-colours 
in Versailles. Medals: 2d class, 1831 ; 1st 
class, 1830; L of Honour, 1812. Works: 
Study near Marly ; Falls of the Doubs ; Mill 
of Dugny ; Convent of the Virgin del Sasso; 
Town and Palace of St. (.'loud (Conite I'o/./o 
di J5orgo) ; Wolf's Gorge ; Bottoms of Uo- 
chat ; Slopes of Bellevue ; Banks of the 
Mouse; Manufactory in Dauphine; Banks 
of Lake Maggiore ; Chateau d'Ku ; views in 
Africa; Oaks of the Doubs ; Nimplon Road ; 
Maritime Alps ; Hollow Road, Valley of the 
Meudon ; Smugglers ; Young Woman of 
Nivernois, Portrait of a Child (1824 to 1853). 


FORTIN, CHARLES, bom in Paris, Juno 
12, 1815, died there, Oct. Ii), 1805. Land- 
scape and genre painter, pupil of Beaume 
and Camille Roqueplan ; painted chiefly 
subjects of peasant life in Brittany. Medals : 
1st class, 184'J, 1857, 1851), and 1801 ; L 



of Honour, 18G1. Works : Sailors making 
Merry, Rag-Dealer, Return to the Cottage, 
Cobbler's Shop, Corner of tlie Hearth, Vil- 
lage Barber (1835 to 1847) ; Cottage in 
Morbihan, Butcher's Shop, At the Castle of 
Baz (1849) ; The Country Tailor (1850) ; 
Chouans (1853), Lille Museum ; The Bless- 
ing (1855), Luxembourg Museum ; During 
Vespers (1855), Grenoble Museum ; Hut in 
Morbihan, Music Lesson, Smoker (1855) ; 
( irandfather's Festival, Whip-Lash, Cancans, 
Country Interior (1850) ; Storm, Country 
Tailor, Old Story, Interior, Pap (18G1) ; Be- 
tween two Dilemmas (18(14). Larousse. 

FORTUNE, Gitido Ileni, Aceademia di S. 
Luca, Rome ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x4 ft. 3 
in. Fortune personified by a female figure, 
nude, with light drapery floating from her 

Fortune, Guido Reni, Accademia di S. Luca, Rome. 

shoulders ; she holds in her left hand a kind 
of purse from which gold pieces drop, and 
in her right a sceptre and palms. Under 
her feet is the world, and from behind a 
winged boy grasps her hair, which floats in 
the wind. In sonio copies Fortune bears 
instead of a purse a crown. Carried to 

Paris in 179G ; returned in 1815, and in Vat- 
ican until 182G. Filhol, vi. PI. 397, Musue 
fran<;ais, i. ; Landon, viii. PI. 32. 

FORTUNE CHASE (Jagd nach dem 
Gliick), Rudolf Friedrich Hennebery, Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, H. G ft. 3 in. 
x 12 ft. G in. A youth, in the costume of 
a German nobleman of the Ifitli century, 
chases on horseback the phantom of Fort- 
une, who flees before him strewing gold in 
the path and holding up a crown ; the Devil, 
who accompanies him, changes into Death, 
and with a scornful grin unfolds his flag ; 
at a bridge leading over a ravine lies the 
youth's guardian angel, over whom he has 
ridden, hiding her face on the ground ; in 
background, beyond the ravine, the battle- 
ments of a mediicval town. 

FORTUNE-TELLER, Michelangelo da 
Carawgyio, Capitol Gallery, Rome. One 
of his earliest works. Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
i. G14. 

By Michelangelo da C'rtravayyio, Louvre ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. A gypsy 
holding the right hand of a young man ele- 
gantly clad, who appears to listen atten- 
tively. Bellori says that Caravaggio painted 
this picture to prove that one can be a good 
painter without having studied the antique 
and Raphael, his theory being that the ex- 
act imitation of nature should be the sole 
aim of art. Collection of Louis XIV. En- 
graved by E. Audran. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Filhol, viii. PI. 537 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 93. 

By Sir Joshua Reynold*, Duke of Marl- 
borough, Blenheim ; canvas. Lady Char- 
lotte Spencer, as a little gypsy girl, telling 
the fortune of her brother, Lord Henry 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Earl Amherst, 
Knowle Park, near Sevenoaks, Kent. Young 
girl seated, with her right hand held out, 
by a young man with a red cap, to a gypsy, 
who is telling her fortune ; background, 
landscape. Painted in 177G ; sold to Duke 
of Dorset for 300 guineas. Engraved by 
Sherwin. Copy by J. R. Powell at Somerby, 
seat of Earl of Normautou, mistaken by 



Waagen for an original. Waagen, Art Trea- 
sures, iv. :UO, :170 ; Athenipum (180:5), 5. 4 il). 

FORTUNE, WHEEL OF, /^/-w-Joncs, 
Arthur Balfour, Esq. , M.I'., L(jntlon ; large 
upright picture. Tlie goddess Fortune, a 
tall, sad figure, clad in grayish blue, stands 
at left, turning round in a listless \vav the 
terrible wheel, on which are bound three 
nude figures, the laurel-crowned poet, the 
sceptred king, and the slave, alike cowed 
and wretched, the victims of a cruel and all 
powerful chance. Grosvenor (lallerv, 188:5. 

at Rriis in Catalonia, 
June 11, 18:58, died 
in Koine, Nov. '21, 
1874. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of 1'alau, of 
Claudio Loren/.ale/, 
and of the Barcelona 
Academy, where he 
wontheprix duRonio 
in 1850. At Koine, 
which became thence- 
forth his principal residence, he studied 
Raphael and made sketches of Roman life. 
In 185'J he was sent to Morocco by the gov- 
ernment to paint the incidents of General 
Prim's campaign, and during this and a 
second visit painted a large picture of the 
Battle of Tetuun, besides making many 
sketches of Moorish life. In IKIili he went 
to Paris, where through Zamacoi's he entered 
into business relations with Goupil ; and 
then to Madrid, where (18(!7) he married the 
daughter of Madra/.o, director of the Madrid 
Museum, and studied the works of Velas- 
quez, Ribera, and Goya. With the exeep 
tiou of a year in Paris (18(!!)-70) and three 
years in Spain, lie spent the rest of his life 
in Rome. His vigorous and original style, 
correct drawing, and fine colour gained him 
a great reputation, and the auction sale of 
the contents of his studio after his death 
brought 800,000 fr. ($100,000). Works : A 
Glory (1854), original destroyed, sketch be- 
longs to Mr. Galceran, Barcelona ; Virgin of 
I'ity (1855), Mr. Soberauo, Reus ; St. Paul 

before the Areopagus (1855), Charles of An 
jou on the Shore of Naples, Benin ger 111. 
nailing the Arms of Barcelona to the Cas- 
tle of Foix (1857, won the prix de Rome), 
Odalisque, The Little Count, 17 faces from 
Nature, Studies in Morocco (ISflli), Battle 
of Tetuan, Barcelona Museum : View of the 
Tiber, Nereids on a Lake (lS."i,S); St. Mari- 
ano, Church of Reus; Bacchantes (185!)) ; 
studies in Morocco (oil and water-colour, 
18(i(l) ; Arabs Dane-ing, Mr. Chartrand, 
Cuba; Head of a Negro (18(51), the Col- 
lector of Engravings (ISO:!), The Ma>ks, 
Roman Countrywoman, Old Koman Peasant, 
Fruit Shop in Granada, Study of Chickens, 
Academicians of St. Luke choosing a Model, 
Street in Morocco, Arab Reclining ( 18011 1, 
Stairs of Casa de 1'ilatos in Seville, The 
Drunkard, Arquebusier, Tribunal of the AI- 
hambra, Returning to the Convent, Cafi' des 
Hirondelles (18(!(J), Arab Fantasia, The An- 
tiquaries, Mr. W. Stewart, Paris ; Arab Sen- 
tinel, Mr. d'Arthe/., Tarragona; Three <)<la- 
lisques, Arab shoeing a Donkey, Mi 1 . San/, 
Madrid; Pond near Tangiers ( l*ii">). Man 
with Helmet, Mr. Goupil, Paris ; Collectors 
of Engravings, Woman in a Garden, Koman 
Peasant Woman, Departure of the Proces- 
sion, The Library, Carpet Merchant (1870 1, 
Aral) on a Rug, Mr. Murrieta, London; The 
Masks, The Butterfly (IS07), Arab Seated, 
A Concert, Mr. de Goyena, Seville ; Stand- 
ard Bearer, Mr. Ha/el tine, Komi! ; Faust 
(land Marguerite, Persian, Idyl, Old Man, 
Arab on Horseback, Mr. Ramon Erra/.u, 
Paris ; An Arab, Mr. Cusino, Peru ; De- 
parture of the Procession, Arabs feeding a 
Vulture, A Fan, The Butterfly (1808), Mr. 
Gargollo, Madrid ; Bull King at Seville, 
Bull-Fighters Salute, the Butterfly, Door of 
the Church of San Gines, Mr. F. De Ma- 
drazo, Madrid ; The Carnival, Mr. Ayala ; 
Spanish Marriage. (1809), Mine, de Cassin, 
Paris ; Sit/ik-i- Charmers, Mr. Ed. Andre, 
Paris ; Bull-Fighter, Mr. Le Roy, Paris ; 
Arquebusier, Mr. d'Epinay, Rome ; Court 
of the House of Cliapiz in Granada (1871) ; 
Arab Praying (187'2), Mr. Oppeuheim, Paris ; 


Tia Giulia in Rome (1873) ; Recitation in a FOSSANO. See 

Garden, Mr. Hoeren, Paris ; Shore of Por- 
tici, Two Children in a Japanese Room, 
The Butcher, water-colour portraits of Mine. 

FOSTER, BIRKET, born at North 
Shields, Feb. 4, 1825. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of E. Lanclells, engraver, 

Fortuny and of Mine. Agrasot (1874). Works from whom lie learned to draw on wood; 
in United States : Camels at Rest, Miss C. after illustrating many books, began about 
F. Wolfe, New York ; portrait of Mine. Gar- 1859 to draw in water-colours. He was 
cia, Pifierari, J. H. Stcbbins, New York; elected an associate of the Water Colour So- 
Santa Lucia Naples, Sency sale, New York, ' ciety in I860, and a member in 1801. Later 
(1885); Dead Donkey, A. J. Antclo, Philo- has painted somewhat in oil-colours. Many 
delphia ; Mandolin Player, C. S. Smith, works engraved and lithographed. Water- 
New York ; Tete-a-Tetc, Court of the Myr- ; colours : Holmwood Common, Race down 
ties, Horsemen of Morocco, Arab and Dogs, Hill, Feeding the Ducks, Arundel Mill, The 
It. L. Cutting, ib. ; Arab Fantasia at Tan- Beach Hastings, Weald of Surrey, Prini- 
giers, Court Fool, W. H. Vanderbilt Collec- rose Gatherers, Race up Hill, Castle of Rhein- 
tion, ib. ; Snali' Charmers, Mrs. A. T. Stew- 1'els, Sailing the Boat. Works in oil : Thames 
art, ib. ; Breakfast in Garden of Alhambra, near Eton, Bass Rock, A Brook (1877). Art 
Arabs hunting Frogs, La Manola, Seraglio Journal (1871), 157 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
Sentinel, Boric Collection, Philadelphia ; 335. 

Council House in Granada, H. C. Gibson, FOUBERT, KMILE LOUIS, born in 

. ib. ; An Ecclesi- Paris ; contemporary. History painter, pu- 

V^ astic, Don Quix- pil of the Ecole municipale at Bayonne, then 

Vi ote (18(19), The of Bonnat, Busson, and H. Li'vy. Medals: 

\dvW\\\\ Mendicant, W. 3d class, 1880; 2d class, 1885. Works: 

\| *1 1, T. Walters, Bal- St. John in the Desert (1875) ; Chastise- 

timore. Davil- ment of Caiphas (1876) ; Hesiod and the 

Her, Fortuny, Vie et (Euvre>s (Paris, 1875); Muse (1877); Christ at the Pillar (1878); 
(la/, des B. Arts (1875), xii. 2(!7, 351; Nymphs and Faun (1879); Satyr teased by 
L'Art (1875), i. 3(11, 385 ; Kunst-Chronik, Nymphs (1880); The Spring (1881); Satyr 
x. 120, 219 ; Xeitschr. f. b. K, ix. 341 ; Old and Traveller (1882); Eclogue (1883); Start 
and New, xi. 357. \ for the Chase (1884); Temptation (1885). 

FOSCARI, TWO, Eugi'no IMacroiz, Due j FOUCQUET, JEHAN, born at Tours 
d'Aumale, Chantilly ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 4 about 1415-20, died about 1477 or 1480. 
ft. 3 in.; signed, dated 1855. The Doge French school. At Rome, about 1443, he 
Foscari, obliged to be present at the exccu- painted the portrait of Pope Eugenius IV., 
tion of the sentence of torture and banish- and in 14G1 in Paris he painted a life-size 
mcnt of his son, Jacopo Foscari, falsely con- portrait of the deceased Charles VII. He 
victed of treason to the Republic, is seated was afterwards in the service of Louis XI. 
on his throne at left, clad in his splendid Payments were made to him for large paint- 
robes of office, while the executioners do ings as well as miniatures as late as 1475. 
their duty at the right, before many spec- Foucquet stands at the head of the Italo- 
tators. Jacopo, writhing with torture, holds Flemish school of miniature painting in 
up his wounded hands for the kisses of his : France. Works : Madonna, Antwerp Mu- 
wife. Salon, 1855 ; Faure sale (1873), 79,- I seum ; St. Stephen (the other half of the 
500 fr.; Oppenheim sale (1877), 70,500 fr. Antwerp altarpiece), Forty Miniatures in 
Engraved by Charles Courtry. L'CEuvre de Prayer-Book (1641), Brentano Collection, 
Delacroix (Paris, 1885), 340; Gaz. des B. Frankfort ; male bust portrait, Liechtenstein 
Arts (1881), xxiv. 324, 331. { Gallery, Vienna; portraits of Charles VIL 



and Chancellor Guillnumc Juvenal, Louvre ; 
miniatures in Josephus' History of tlie Jews, 
Bibliothcque national?, Paris ; niiniaturcs 
in Boccaccio, Court Library, Munich. 
Pattison, Renaissance of Art in France, i. 
254 ; Schnaase, viii. 300 ; "\V. fc W., ii. 77 ; 
Revue de Paris, Aug. and Nov. (1857); Gaz. 
cles B. Arts (18(57), xxiii. 97 ; (18(58), xxiv. 

born at Rouen, March 2(>, 1821. History, 
genre, landscape, and portrait painter, pupil 
of Delaroche and of G ley re. Medal, 1809. 
Works: Sermon on the Mount (185.")); Bu- 
rial at La Trappe (1857); Victims sacrificed 
by the Druids in Gaul (1859); Violet Seller 
(18(i3); Harvest Evening (1866); Last Mes- 
sage (18(!7); At a Spring (LSI!',)); Erigonc 
(1870); Naiads (1872); Daphnis and Chloc 
(1874); Mowers, The Toilet (1875); Morn- 
ing in the Meadows (187(!); Souvenir du 
Trieux (1878).- Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 

bom in Ant- 
werp about 
1600, died iu 
Paris in 1659. 
school ; land- 
Kcape painter, 
pupil of Joost 
de Mo in per 
and of Velvet 
Brueghel, and 
perhaps also of Rubens, for whom he painted 
backgrounds ; master of the guild at Ant- 
werp in 1614. Invited by the Elector Pala- 
tine Frederick V., he went about WIG or 
1618 to Heidelberg to decorate the castle, 
and in 1621 to Paris, where Lis art found 
much favour in the eyes of Louis XIII., who 
employed him to paint views of the chief 
French cities. Jealous of the favour shown 
to this painter, Poussin left France. After- 
wards Fouquieres fell into disgrace, and died 
in great misery. He was the master of Phi- 
lippe de Cbampaigne. Works : Stag Hunt, 

Berlin Museum ; Wood Landscape with 
Horseman, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; A Hunt, 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Landscape (1(>20), 
Valenciennes Museum ; do. in Bordeaux. 
Grenoble, Nantes, Darmstadt Museums, and 
Historical Society, New York. Ch. Blanc, 
Kcole tlainande ; Biog. nat. de Bclgiqiie, vii. 
210 ; Fi'tis, Les Artistes beiges :'i 1'etran- 
ger, i. .'Ci5 ; Michiels, viii. 198. 

FOURMOIS, THEODORE, bora at Pres- 
les, Hainaut, Oct. 14, 1M4, died in Brussels, 
Oct. 1(3,1871. Landscape painter and illustra- 
tor, self-taught ; tookluHsubjectschieflyfroin 
environs of Brussels and the Ardennes. ( )r- 
ler of Leopold, 1851 ; Officer, l.S(l:i. Works : 
Hut in the Cani[iine ; Old Mill; View iu 
Baden (184N); Pool, lload across Heath 
(ISliO), Brussels Museum ; Views in Park of 
Count d'Outremont (1S6:>). Brockhaus, vii. 
47 ; Lnrousse, viii. 680. 

FOURNIER, EDOL'AHD, born in 1'aris ; 
contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of Ca- 
banel ; now at the French Academy in 
Rome. Medal, lid class, 1SS5. Works: 
Djanileh, Son of the Gaul (1SS5). 

FOWLER, FRANK, b,.rn in New York ; 
contemporary. Portrait and figure painter, 
pupil of E. White in Florence and of Caro- 
lus Duran in Paris; in 187S he assisted the 
latter in painting the fresco of the Apothe- 
osis of Marie de Medieis in the Luxembourg 
Museum. Studio in New York. Exhibited 
Young Bacchus in 1878 ; portraits in Is7x, 
188U, 1884 ; Fatima (1885). 

ISTE, born at Grasse, 1'rovence, Oct., 
17K(t, died in Paris, Nov. 10, 1850. French 
school ; history painter, son of Jean Hon- 
ore, pupil of David, and for a long time one 
of the most distinguished adherents of the 
classical school. Also a sculptor. Medals : 
4; L. of Honour, 1819. Works: Citi/ens 
of Calais before Edward ; Entry of Maid of 
Orleans (1822), Orleans Museum ; Maria 
Theresa showing her Son to the Hungarians 
(1822), formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; 
Queen Blanche liberating the Prisoners of 
Chatenay (1824), Blois Museum ; Francis L 



knighted by Bayard (1819), Francis I. and ' 
Lis Sister looking at Pictures brought by 
Prhnaticeio, Fine Arts crowned by Genius 
(1827), ceilings in Louvre ; Battle at Marig- 
11:1110. Wall paintings in the Luxembourg, 
and at Versailles and Orleans. Larousse, 
viii. 700 ; Ga/. des B. Arts (1881). 

at Grass c, 
1' rove n c e, 
April 5, 
1732, died in 
Paris, Aug. 
2-2, 1800. 
Genre and 
painter and 
e n graver, 
p u p i 1 of 
Chardin and 
Boucher. In 1752 obtained the grand prix 
de Rome for his Jeroboam, now in the Kcole 
des Beaux Arts. In Italy studied especially 
Tiepolo ; after his return, received into the 
Academy in 1705. He treated the same class 
of subjects as his master, Boucher, with sur- 
prising lidelity and unbridled license. His 
step-sister, Marguerite Gerard (born 1751), 
assisted him in many works. Works : The 
High-Priest Coresus sacrificing himself to 
save Callirrhoo (1705), Landscape. Music 
Lesson, Nymphs at their Bath, The Shep- 
herd's Hour, Storm, Bacchante Asleep, 
Young Woman and Cupid, Guitar Player 
(1709), Study, Inspiration, Fancy Figure of 
Young Man, Woman and Child, Louvre, 
Paris ; Portrait of a Boy, Nantes Museum ; 
Plutarch's Dream, Rouen Museum ; Portrait 
of Bayard, Versailles Museum ; Adoration 
of Shepherds, Lille Museum ; The Dinner 
on the Grass, Amiens Museum ; Young Girl 
at Fountain, Grenoble Museum ; Young 
Boy, Nancy Museum ; The Woes of Love, 
Orleans Museum ; City of Marseilles pro- 
tected by Mercury, Marseilles Museum; The 
Swing, Fountain of Pleasure, Garden of 
Fontainebleau, Hertford House, London ; 
Farmer's Children, Hermitage, St. Peters- 

burg ; Sacrifice of Callirrhoc, Acudemia S. 
Fernando, Madrid ; The Kiss, La/ienski 
Gallery, Warsaw ; family portraits, Due 
d'Aumale ; Oath of Love, Narischkine sale 
(1883), 42,000 fr.; Return to Lodgings, do., 
17,000 fr. Gaz. des B. Arts (1805), xviii. 
32, 132 ; (1885), xxxii. 481; Portfolio (1873), 
iv. 2 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole fran<;ais ; Dohme, 
3 ; Goucourt, L'art du xviii. Siecle, ii. 311 ; 

Houssaye, Hist, de 1'Art fran<;ais, 325 ; Jal., 
005 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Maler des xviii. Jahrh., 

Plombieres (Vos- 
ges), Nov. 17, 
1814. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Gigoux and Co- 
rot. Paints 
French and Ital- 
ian scenes. Med- 
als : 3d class, 
1841 ; 1st class, 
1848,1855, 1807; 
medal of honour, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1853 ; Officer, 1807. W T orks : Song under 
the Willows (1837) ; Old Garden (1841), 
View near Paris (1844), Plombieres Museum; 
Under the Willows (1852), Tours Museum ; 
End of Winter (1853), Orpheus (1803), 
Daphnis and Chloe (1872), Setting Sun, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Ravine of Nepi, View 
near Rome (1853) ; Path through the Wheat 
(1855) ; Brook of Neuf-Pre (1857) ; River 
Gapeau, Beech Trees on Coast of Grace 
(1859), Bordeaux Museum ; View at Lower 
Meudon, Prince Napoleon ; Evening (1861), 
Epinal Museum ; By the W 7 ater (18G1), 
Nantes Museum ; Sacred Woods, Italian 



Villa (1804) ; New Ruins of Pompeii (1805); painted by Ingres for Prince Salerno, Naples. 

Environs of Rome, Environs of Paris (1866) ; Larousse, xiii. 1218. 

Country-House (1807) ; Harvest, Valley of By Ary ,SV/V//'<T, Sir Richard Wallace, 
Monster (1868) ; Mt. Blanc from St. Cergnes Manchester House ; canvas (Dante, Inferno). 
(1869) ; View at Vaux de Cernay (1872); Salon of 18155, under title : Dante and Virgil 
Souvenir of Nice (1873) ; Spring, Terrace at encountering in Hell the Spirits of Fran- 
Nice (1874) ; Ravine of Puits-Noir (187.")) ; cesca da Kiniini and Paolo. Francesco, her 
Mirror of Seey (1870) ; Mont Ccrvin, Lake eyes closed, her hair dishevelled, hangs ten- 
Nenii (1878) ; Valley of Rossillon, Morning derly on the neck of Paolo as they float 
(1879) ; Highway at Combs-la- Ville, Evening through the air, while the two poets con- 
(1880) ; Castle of Gandolfo on Lake of template the touching scene in silence. 
Alhano, Washing-Place near Pierrefonds Painted for Due d'OrU'ans ; bought in 1853 
(1881); Villafelipa, Villefranche (1882); l>y Prince DemidutVfor 43, Odd fr. ; DrmidnlV 
Beach at Capri, Part of a Villa at Nice sale ( 187<I) to Lord Hertford for 100,000 fr. 
(18815); Morning at Clisson, Last Days of Engraved l>y Calamatta ; etched by Vey- 
Autumn (1884) ; Lake of Neini, Sliady River rasset. Replica, painted 1855, exhibited 
(1885). IK.")'.), owned by Mine. Marjolin, the artist's 

FRANCES Y PASCUAL, Don PLA- daughter.- Lamusse, xiii. 1218. 

CIDO, born at Valencia; contemporary. By George Frederick U'ntt.-; London; 

Genre painter, pupil of Valencia art school, canvas, H. 5 ft. -4 ft. 1 in. Francesco and 

Medals : 1st class, Saragossa ; 3d class, Ma- Paolo, phantoms pale and death-like, clasped 

drid. Works: The King's Order, What is in a Living embrace, are swept onward bc- 

she thinking of? (187'.t) ; Proclamation of fore the wind against a background of clouds 

Boabdil (1884). -La Hustracion (187!)), ii. and fiery rain. Painted in 1*7'.). Exhibited 

5',); (1884), i. 302. , in New York in issl. 


See Paulo and Francesco. 

Borgo San Sepolcro 

Bv Dominique Imjriv, Angers Museinn ; in 1411! (?), died 

canvas. Illustration of the mediaeval story there, Oct. 12, 14'. 12. 

of Franccsca da Rimini, as related by Dante Umbrian s c h o o 1 . 

and Boccaccio. Francesca, the wife of Gio- Real name Pietro di 

vanni Malatesta, called from his lameness Benedetto dcgli 

from birth Gianciotto (commonly made into Franceschi ; first 

Laneelotto), fell in love with her handsome masterunknown. In 

brother-in-law, Paolo Malatesta, a liaison 143!) he assisted Do- 

which ended in the death of the two at the menico Veneziano 

hands of the enraged Gianciotto. In the in painting the fros- < 

picture the couple are represented as just cos in S. M. Nuova, 

having finished reading the story of Lancelot Florence, where ho was brought into eon- 

and Guinevere. The book has fallen from tact with many eminent painters, and laid 

Francesca's hands ; Paolo, bending forward, the foundation of his great scientific knowl- 

givesher the fatal kiss, and Lanciotto, lifting edge of linear and aerial perspective. In 

the drapery, advances with drawn sword to the projection of shadows, the perfecting of 

take his revenge. Painted in Rome ill 1819 ; mediums for oil painting, the delineation 

bought by M. Turpin de Crissee, who be- of architecture in backgrounds, and the 

queathed it to Angers Museum. Original correct balance of light and shade, he had 

sketch, Mine. Montett-Gilibert. Litho- few rivals. So perfect was his rendering 

graphed by A. Lecomte, 1834. Replica of nature, that had he been guided by a 



principle of selection in form, he would 
have ranked with tho greatest Italian paint- 
ers. Between 1447 and 1452 Picro worked 
at Loreto, and at Rimini for Sigismond Pan- 
dolfo Malatesta, for whom lie painted, in the 
Chapel of the Relics, S. Francesco kneeling 
before his patron saint, with two eouchant 
greyhounds at his heels. The fresco, dated 
1451, is an admirable piece of quattrocento 
work. "We next find Piero at Arezzo paint- 
ing the Legend of the Cross around the 
choir of S. Francesco, between 1453 and 
1454, and then at Borgo S.m Sepolcro, em- 
ployed upon an altarpiece on panel for the 
Confraternity of tho Misoricordia, which 
still exists in the Church of tho Hospital, 
formerly occupied by the Brothers. Other 
works by this painter in his native town are 
a fresco of the Resurrection, in the Monte 
Pio, and another of St. Louis (1460), in the 
Municipal Palace. His Baptism of Christ, 
National Gallery, London, is pure in outline, 
and, like all his works, most carefully elab- 
orated in every detail. In same gallery arc 
a Nativity, portrait of Isotta da Rimini, and 
portrait of a Ladj-. In 14(10 Piero went to 
Urbino, where he painted a Flagellation, 
now in the Cathedral, and an Apotheosis, 
with portraits of the Duke and his wife, 
Battista Sfor/.a. The well-known profile 
portraits of this same ducal pair, in the 
Uffizi Gallery, are masterpieces of their 
kind, painted about 1472. Piero was the 
author of a highly esteemed Treatise on 
Perspective, the MS. of which belongs to the 
Saibanti Library, Verona. Vasari, ed. Mil., 
ii. 487 ; C. & C., Italy, ii. 520 ; Burckhardt, 
557 ; Cibo, Scuola Umbra, 26, 50 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrieuue ; Lilbke, Gesch. ital. MaL, 
i. 392. 

FRANCESCHI, PAOLO (Paul Fran choys, 
Francesco Paolo cle' Freschi, Paolo Fiam- 
mingo), born at Antwerp in 1540, died in 
Venice in 1596. Flemish-Venetian school ; 
landscape, animal, history, and portrait 
painter, pupil and assistant of Tintoretto in 
Venice, whither lie went when very young, 
and where he acquired reputation as one 

of the best landscape painters of the time. 
By order of the Venetian Senate he painted 
the large picture in the Ducal Palace, and 
for the Emperor Rudolph II. two Alle- 
gories. Works : Pope Alexander III. bless- 
ing the Doge Ziani, Ducal Palace, Venice ; 
Descent from the Cross, St. John preaching, 
Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, S. Maria dei 
Frari, ib. ; Landscape with Prodigal Son, 
Academy, ib. ; Pieta, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich. Fc'tis, Les Artistes beiges a IV'tran- 
ger, i. 377. 

valiere, born at Bolog- 
na in 1648, died there 
in 1729. Bolognese 
school; history paint- 
er, pupil of Gio. Maria 
Galli, and of Cignani, 
whose assistant he be- 
came. Called to Ge- 
noa, in 1702, to deco- 
rate the Hall of Public 
Counsel with pictures 
on the history of the 

Republic (destroyed by fire in 1777) ; invited 
to Rome by Pope Clement XI., in 1711, to 
Genoa in 1714, and to Crema in 1716, to 
execute fresco paintings. He was the head 
of a school in Northern Italy similar to that 
of Cortona in Lower Italy ; adhered at first 
to manner of Cignani, but later developed a 
remarkable style of his own. Works : Mag- 
dalen, Birth of Adonis, Dresden Gallery ; 
Charity, Magdalen, St. Borromeo during the 
Plague in Milan, Museum, Vienna ; Venus 
and Cupid, Czernin Gallery, ib. ; Jacob and 
Rachel, and others, Liechtenstein Gallery, 
ib. ; Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Brunswick 
Museum ; Diana at the Chase, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; S. Tommaso da Villanova dispens- 
ing Alms, Agostiuiani of Rimini ; Pieta, 
Agostiniani of Imola ; BB. Fondatori, Ser- 
viti of Bologna. Frescos : Recess in Palazzo 
Ranuzzi, Cupola and Ceiling in Church of 
Corpus Domini, Tribune of S. Bartolommeo, 
Bologna ; Corbels of Cupola, Piacenza Ca- 
thedral. Brockhaus, vii. 61 ; Lanzi (Ros- 


coe), iii. 157 ; Larousse, viii. 752 ; Burck- 
liardt, 773, 785 ; Seguier, 70. 

Zagnnelli, Francesco. 

(Francesco Rizo), born about 1480, at 
Santa Crocc, near Bergamo, flourished there 
and in Venice in 1504 1541. Venetian 
school ; history painter, pupil of Giovanni 
Bellini ; developed probably under the, in- 
fluence of Carpaccio and Bellini's followers. 
Works : Adoration of Magi, Berlin Museum ; 
replica, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Ma- 
donna with Saints, Count Paul StroganofF, 
ilj. ; Annunciation (1504), Madonna and 
Saints, Bergamo Gallery ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Museo Civico, Verona; Madonna with 
Saints (1507), S. Pietro Martire, Murano : 
Christ appearing to Magdalen (151:!), Ven- 
ice Academy. Liibke, Gescli. ital. Mai., ii. 

FRANCHOYS (Francois), LUCAS, the 
elder, born at Mechlin, Jan. 23, 1574, died 
there, Sept. 1(5, 1(543. Flemish school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, master of the guild 
in 15!)!), and elected dean six times ; went 
to Paris and Madrid, in both of which places 
he was made painter to the king, and re- 
turned to Mechlin in l(i()5. Works : De- 
scent of the Holy Ghost, St. John's, Mech- 
lin ; Male Portrait (KU'.t), Museum, ib. ; 
Dead Christ on his Mother's Lap, St. 1 Sa- 
von's, Ghent. Biog. de Belgique, vii. 
235 ; Michiels, viii. 223. 

FRANCHOYS, LUCAS, the younger, 
born at Mechlin, June 28, l(!l(i, died there, 
April 3, 1(581. Flemish school ; history and 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Lucas 
Fraiichoys, the elder ; then pupil of Ru- 
bens at Antwerp, where he remained some 
years after his master's death ; spent several 
years in France, in favour at court, before 
returning to Mechlin, where he became 
master of the guild in 1055, and dean in 
16G3. Works : Pope Honorius sanctioning 
the Rule of the Carmelites, St. Onophrius 
fed by Angels in the Desert, Prophet Eli- 
jah, St. Paul the Hermit, St. Andrew heal- 

ing the. Blind, The. Virgin followed \>y 
Carmelites, Christ in his Mother's Lap. 
Museum, Mechlin ; St. Koch healing tin- 
Plague stricken, St. John's, ib. ; Martyrdom 
of St. Lawrence and of St. John, Holy Fam- 
ily, St. Catharine's, ib. ; Decapitation of 
St. John (ll!50), St. t^uentin's, Tournav ; 
Insurrection (11)57), Cathedral, il>. ; Educa- 
tion of the Virgin, The Virgin appearing to 
St. Simon Stock (both attributed to Lucas 
the elder), Antwerp Museum. Biog. nat. 
de Belgique, vii. 23(i ; Kramm. ii. 510 ; Mi- 
chiels, viii. 227 ; i\. 23!) ; Ncefs, Hist, de la 
peint. :'i Malines, i. 317 ; Van den Braiidcn, 

FRANC 'HO VS. PAUL. See Fraiuwhi. 

FUANCHOYS, PEETKU. born at Mech- 
lin, Oct. 20, lliOC., died there, Aug. 11. 
1054. Flemish school; portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Lucas the elder, and stu- 
dent at Antwerp of Gccraard /cgers ; re- 
turned to Mechlin in 1(135, then painted at 
the court of France, spending four years in 
Paris, and was in great favour with Arch- 
duke Leopold at Brussels ; settled at Mech- 
lin in 1(54(5, where he became master of the 
guild in Kll'.l. His works on a small scale 
were compared to those of ( ion/.ales Cot pies, 
and his large; portraits valued equally highly. 
Works : Portrait of a Prior, Tongerlno Ab- 
bey ; do. of Luc Fay d'herbe, Mechlin Mu- 
seum ; do. of Gilbert Mutsaerts (1(545), Lille 
Museum; Male Portrait (1(550), Cologne 
Museum ; Man with Pistol, Dresden Muse- 
um. Biog. nat. de Belgic|iie, vii. 23* ; Ini- 
iner/eel, i. 252 ; Kramm, ii. 511 ; Michiels, 
viii. 22(5. 


FRANCIA, ALEXANDRE. born in 1S13, 
died in Brussels, Aug. 24, 1884. Marine 
painter ; took his subjects from Holland, 
Ireland, and Italy. Gold medal, Brussels, 
1855 ; Orders of Leopold, Christ, Mauritius, 
Lazarus, Oak Crown, and Medjidie. Works : 
On the Meuse ; Strand of Scheveningen ; 
Riva dei Schiavoni ; Lake of Killarney ; 
Harbour of Calais; Wreck of the Amphitrite. 



logna in 1450, died there, Jan. 5, 1517. 

school. Real 
name Frances- 
co di Marco di 
Giacomo llai- 
boliui ; sou of 
poor parents, 
apprenticed to a 
goldsmith, ma- 
triculated in 
, 1482, became 
steward of the 
guild iu 1483, and afterwards Master of the 
Mint under Bcntivoglio. Ho was painter, en- 
graver, and medallist, as well as goldsmith. 
His master was Lorenzo Costa, but he may 
have studied under Marco Zoppo. His 
Madonna, Berlin Museum, and his St. 
Stephen, Palazzo Borghcse, Rome, are ex- 
amples of his prc-PerugineHquo manner, 
which show the hand of the goldsmith 
trained, to careful finish and precision. In 
1490 Franeia had become the ablest draughts- 
man and master of composition in North 
llalv. An Umbrian character, derived from 
the study of Perugino's works, shows itself 
from this time ; as in his fine Madonna 
with Saints, Nativity (1499), Madonna of St. 
George, Annunciation (1500), Bologna Gal- 
lery; Madonna with Angels and Saints (1499), 
S. Jacopo Maggiore, Bologna ; Madonna 
with St. Joseph, Dudley Gallery, London; 
The Deposition, Parma Gallery ; Madonna 
with Angels (doubtful), Madonna in Adora- 
tion, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Madonna 
with Saints (1502), Holy Family, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Madonna, do. with Saints and An- 
gels, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Francia's 
third manner, uniting Umbrian softness 
with Florentine energy and power, was in- 
fluenced by Raphael, whom he may have 
seen in 1505 or 1500 at Bologna, with whom 
he corresponded, and for whom he had 
a deep admiration. His portraits show a 
gradual change from the style of Perugiuo 
to that of Raphael, and the frescos by Fran- 

cia (1509) in S. Cecilia, Bologna, are Rapli- 
aelesque. Other works are : Coronation 
of the Virgin, Duomo, Ferrara ; Annuncia- 
tion, Brera, Milan ; do., Gallery Estense, 
Modeua ; Assumption, S. Frediano, Lucca ; 
Pieta, Virgin enthroned with Saints, and 
Madonna with Saints, National Gallery, Lon- 
f don; Baptism of 

Gallery. Vn- 
sari) cd. Mil., iii. 

533 ' 551 ; c - & c - 

N. Italy, i. 55 G; 
Burcldiardt, 112, 387, 583 ; Baldinucci, i. 
598 ; Ch. Blanc, lOcole bolonaiso ; Liibke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai, i. 447. 

born before 1480, died in 1557. Bolognese 
school. Was the most noted, as a painter, 
of Francesco Francia's sons. In the fresco 
of the Baptism of St. Valerian, Oratory of 
S. Cecilia, Bologna, by Giacomo, the figures 
arc lifeless, coarse in outline, and of short 
proportions. His Martyrdom of St. Cecilia, 
ib, was probably painted after his father's 
design. Other works by Giacomo are : 
Christ on the Cross adored by Saints, Ma- 
donna with Saints (1520), Saints and the 
Painter, Bologna Gallery ; Angels, S. Pe- 
tronius, Bo- 

Florence Academy; Virgin and Saints (1544), 
Brera, Milan. C. & C, N. Italy, i. 574 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Mil, iii. 558 ; Lavice, 12, 150. 

June 13, 1533, died May 13, 1575. Bologn- 
ese school. Son of Giulio and grandson of 
Francesco Fraucia ; a poor painter, though 
a rich man, none of whose works can be 
authenticated. Many inferior pictures which 
pass under the name of his grandfather, 
Francesco Fraucia, may safely be attributed 
to him. C. & C, N. Italy, i. 574 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil, iii. 558. 

born in Bologna (?), Aug. 20, 1487, died (?) 


Bolognese school, Ronof Francesco Franeia. manner. Appraised in 1834 at 70,000 reals. 
The St. Margaret and the Dragon, signed Curtis, 234 ; Madrazo, 471. 
and dated July 10, 1518, in the church of By Murilln, Heirs of tlio Infant Don Se- 
the Ahno C'ollegio di Spagna, Bologna, is a bastian, Pan, France ; canvas, H. 14 ft. 1 
joint work of Giulio and Giacoino. The in. > 1) ft. 8 in. The Saint, kneeling at left, 
only picture by Giulio alone is a Descent of at an altar placed in centre, \vith out- 
the Holy Ghost, Bologna Gallery. C. it ('., stretched anus, looks up to the Saviour, 
N. Italy, i. 574 ; Vasuri, ed. Mil., iii. 558 ; seated on clouds above the altar, who wup- 
Gualandi, 04. ports with his left hand a cross and extends 

FRANCIS I., portrait, Tit inn, Louvre ; his right in benediction ; on the left, tho 
canvas, H. 3 ft. (H in. x'2 ft. 11 in. Painted Virgin, kneeling on clouds, intercedes with 
in 1533 from a medal, for Titian probably her Son for the grace of Jubilee nf the Por- 
never saw the king. Original in Palazzo ciuucula, whence called also La Porcinncula ; 
Giustiniani, Padua. Titian painted a third, above the altar, a group of cherubs scatter 
which Vasari saw in the palace of Urbino. on the Saint roses which have sprung from 
Engraved by G. E. Petit ; J. B. Massard ; the thorns he has used as a scourge ; a lav- 
M. Leroux. Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 4.'i7 ; C. brother faintly seen on the left of the altar; 
ft. C., Titian, i. 383 ; Ridolli, Maraviglio, i. above, many angels and cherubs. Painted 
202; Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 142; Filhol, vi. PI. about 1070 for Capuchin Convent, Seville. 
431 ; Must'e franeais, ii ; Miindler, 20!) ; Cli. Given to 1). Joaquin liejarano for restoring 
Blanc, Kcole venitienne. church and its pictures after French ocen- 

FRANCIS OF ASSIST, ST., Mtn-illo, Se- pat ion ; sold for 1S,0(HI reals to 1). Jose de 
ville Museum ; canvas, H. !) ft. x (! ft. Tlie Madra/o, from whom Infant Don Sebastian 
Saint, standing with his right, foot on a bought it for 1)0,000 reals. Lithographed by 
globe, embraces the crucified Saviour, who V.Camaron. Palomino, iii. 422 ;( 1. de Leon, 
has released his right hand from the cross ii. 200 ; Ford, Handbook, 70S ; Curtis, _!;>:!. 
to place it on the shoulders of the Saint; FRANCIS BORGIA, ST., I W</x 7 ,;, Staf- 
nt right, two cherubs in clouds hold an ford House, London ; about 5 ft. 10 in. .4 
open folio. In his vaporoso (vaporous) or ft. 2 in.; eight figures, lifc-si/.e. St. Francis, 
last manner. Painted about 1070 for Cap- in white dress, with plumed hat in hand, 
uchin Convent, Seville. Engraved by M. presents himself to St. Ignatius Loyola, who, 
Gutierrez, Mine. Soyer (outline) ; litho- in black dress, advances to receive him ; be- 
graphed by Jacott ; etched by L. Flameng. hind former, two attendants and head of a 
Repetition, George Salting, London; sketch, black horse ; behind latter, three priests in 
Henry G. Bohn, Twickenham, Middlesex. a doorway. Captured in Spain by Soult, 
Curtis, 231. I who sold it (18:55), with Murillo's Abraham 

FRANCIS OF ASSISI, ST., or LA POR- and Angels and Prodigal Son, to Duke of 
Clt'NCULA, Miirillo, Madrid Museum; can- Sutherland for 500,000 francs. Copy in 
vas, H. ft. ! in.x4 ft. 9 in.; figures a little Chapel of S. Francisco Borgia, Church of 
less than life-size. The Saint, kneeling on Logrofio. Stirling, ii. 078 ; Curtis, 11. 
right before an altor placed on left, looks up FRANCIS DE PAUL, ST., Murilf.t, 
to the Saviour who is seated on clouds, one George Perkins, Chipstead Place, Kent, 
hand in benediction, the other supporting a England ; a large picture. The Saint, kneel- 
cross ; the Virgin is seated on the right, with ing in prayer, looks np at the word Caritas 
the left hand extended ; above, heads and in the sky above ; cherubs hover over him. 
cherubs ; beneath the Saviour, three cher- Perhaps picture sold at Ashbnrnham sale 
ubs ; all showering roses on St. Francis. (1850) for C 1,050. Repetition, without the 
In the painter's second or calido (warm) cherubs, Madrid Museum. Curtis, 23'J. 





I x^v T -? 

:/.,,;, \~,J. , 

1 ' < "- 

FRANCIS XAVIER, ST., Mimllo, John ' rious positions around ; behind the multi- 
S. W. Erle-Drax, Olantigh Towers, Kent, , tude rises a splendid temple with idols, one 
England ; canvas, figures full-length, life- of whicli is falling upon its affrighted wor- 
size. The Saint kneeling with eyes upraised ; shippers ; above, in clouds, the Virgin with 
a stream of light falls on his breast, from a chalice, surrounded by angels bearing a 
which issues a flame ; in background, group j cross, in a stream of celestial light. Painted 
of Indians in a landscape. Belonged to D. for Jesuits' Church, Antwerp ; bought in 
Francisco Artier, from whom purchased 1774 by Empress Maria Theresa for 18,000 
about 1800 by Mr. Campbell, Buchanan's florins. Original sketch also in Vienna Mu- 
seum. Engraved by Mariuus ; J. 
Blaschke. Smith, ii. 18 ; Gal. de 
Vienne, iii. PI. 13G. 

FRANCISCA, daughter of Ve- 
lasquez (?;, rulaxijxez, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 1 ft. 
G in. About seven years old, half- 
length, standing, in grayish dress 
with slashed sleeves and bow of 
red-and-white ribbon on breast ; 
holds a bunch of flowers on a white 
cloth, her hands touching each 
other. Etched by B. Maura. An- 
other portrait, resembling this, 
except that the hands do not touch 
and bow of ribbon is red, also in 
Madrid Museum. Curtis, 103 ; 
Madrazo, G22. 

FRANCISQUE. See Millet. 
RICH, born at Augsburg in 1G27, 
died there in 1G87. German 
school ; history painter, son and 

fT ^JL_ v-^ -T V'r^'^rir pupil of Hans "DlrichF. (1603-80). 

f , ! %j^v3sv?^ I ^^M . J-i -- ,|) Works: Jacob and Esau, St. Ann's, 

Augsburg ; Job and the Orphans, 
Esther, David (all of 1G74), Or- 
phan Asylum, ib. ; St. Francis Dy- 
ing, Obermiinster Stift, Ratisbon ; 

1 '/- -^ 


" >-^~ 


Ii IP 

; ! : .J:> 

... \ 


St. Francis Xavier, Rubens, Vienna Museum. 

agent in Spain ; passed to Mrs. Grant, who | Arrival of Jacob at Joseph's in Egypt, St. 

sold it to C. O'Neil, whence purchased by 
Mr. Drax. Palomino, iii. 421 ; Davies, Mu- 
rillo, Ixiii.; Passavant, Tour in England, ii. 
20 ; Curtis, 241. 

By Rubens, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 
17 ft. x 12 ft. G in. St. Francis Xavier, 
standing upon a high pedestal, habited in 
the black robes of his Order, is healing the 

Ann's, ib. ; Table with Musical Instruments 

(2), Gotha Museum ; Portraits of Man and 

sick and the dying, who are grouped in va- I Wife (1G74), Nuremberg Museum ; Male 



Portrait, Vienna Museum. Allgcm. d. 
Biogr., vii. 211. 

elder, born at Hcrenthals in 1544, died in 
Antwerp, Oct. 16, 1G1H. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter. Son of Nico- 
las (died 15%), a mediocre painter ; pupil 
of Frans Floris ; when twenty-five years old 
went to Fontainebleau to study tho great 
frescos of II Rosso and of Primal iecio. In 
1573 free master of St. Luke's Guild at Ant- 
werp, and in 1581-82 its dean. "Works : 
Madonna with Angels (wreath of flowers by 
Jeronimus van Kessel), Dresden Gallery ; 
Martyrdom of St. Crispinus, Miracle of the 
Loaves (1508), Last Supper, Martyrdom of 
St. George, four episodes from life of St. 
Sebastian, twelve others, Antwerp Museum ; 
Christ and the Adulteress, liaising of Jairus's 
Daughter, Christ on Mount of Olives (1(500, 
masterpieces), The Trinity (1(J()S), several 
Portraits, St. Jacob's Church, Antwerp ; PA it 
from the Ark, Valenciennes Museum. Am- 
brosius, the younger (died 1G32), who was 
a master in the Antwerp guild . ^ 

in 1(524, was son and pupil of ^/j* 
Frans the elder. Biog. nat. 
de Belgi(|ue, vii. 243 ; Cat. clu Musee. d'An- 
vers (1874), 15!) ; Michiels, vi. 318 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 110; Van den Branden, 351. 

Antwerp, baptized April 5, 1(5(51, died there, 
Jan. 12, 1717. Battle painter, grandson of 
Frans Francken, the younger ; went to 
France at an early age, worked for years in 
Paris and Versailles, and after his return to 
Antwerp entered the guild in l(!ir>. Works : 
Battle of Eekorcn, Retreat of General Mar- 
ten van Rossum, City Hall, Antwerp. Van 
den Branden, '.(78. 

FRANCKEN, FRANS, the elder, born at 
Hereuthals about 1540, died in Antwerp, 
Oct. G, 1G1G. Flemish school ; history paint- 
er, brother of Ambrosius the elder ; pupil of 
Frans Floris ; obtained the citizenship of 
Antwerp in 1507, and in the same year was 
admitted as free master to tho guild of St. 
Luke, of which in 1588-89 he was the dean. 

Works : Eteocles and Polynices, Museum. 
Antwerp ; Triptych, with Jesus among Doc- 
tors (1587), Cathedral, ilj.; Burial of Christ, 
Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalen, St. -la- 
cob's Church, ib. ; Destruction of Pharaoh's 
Army, Blenheim, pjigland ; History of Es- 
ther, Louvre ; Flight into PIgypt, Christ led 
to Golgotha (151)7), An Allegory, Creation 
of Eve, Creation of Animals (landscape of 
last two by J. Brueghel), Dresden Gallery; 
Banquet with Music, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Curiosity Simp, Assembly of Ladies 
and Gentlemen, Piece Homo, Vienna Mu- 
seum. Biog. nat. de Belgi<|iic, vii. 242 ; 
Cat. dii Mus. d'Anvers (1.S74), Id',: Mi 
chiels, vi. 315 ; Kie^el, Bcitriigo, ii. 7 t ; Van 
den Brandon, 312. 

FR.VNCKKN.FKAXS, the younger, called 
Don Francisco, 
bo rn in Ant- 
werp. May (>, 
1581, d'ied 
t here, May I!, 
1(542. Flemish 
school ; history, 
landscape, and 
interior painter, 
son and pupil of 
Frans P'rancken, 
the elder ; went at an early ago to Italy, and 
studied after tho, old masters in Venice, where 
ho is said to have acquired his surname. 
Master of the guild at Antwerp in 1(5(15, dean 
in 1(515. Painted the foreground figures in 
pictures of Velvet Brueghel, Neefs the elder, 
and Josse de Momper. His various modes 
of signature have caused the greatest dilli- 
culties in attributing certain works to him 
or to his father, but it seems now sufficiently 
certain that in his father's lifetime lie signed 
" den jon. P\ l'\," after the death of the elder 
Frans (1616) signed his name without ad- 
dition, occasionally prefixed " Do., D"." (Don, 
DominusV), but also still "Den jon.." and 
after 1(530, "D., Do.," or " D'ouden" (the 
elder), as then his son, Frans III., may have 
begun to work independently. He is the 
most famous of this numerous family of ai- 


lists ; his works ai-o distinguished for grace- 
ful treatment, remarkable harmony, spirited 
touch, and capital drawing. Works: Christ 
Sentenced, St. John Preaching, Ecce Homo, 
Taking of Christ, Neptune and Amphitrite, 
Interior of Church in Flanders, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Passion of Chrisl, Prodigal Son, 
Prince visiting Treasury of a Church, Lou- 
vre, Paris; Chrisl, bearing the Cross, Lille 
Museum ; Magdalen washing Christ's. Feet 
(I(!'2S), Noire Dame, Bruges; Cnesus and 
Solon, Brussels Museum ; Martyrdom of the 
Crowned (K1'2I), Works of Mercy (1(108), 
Miracle of SI. Bruno's Grave, Interior of Art. 
Cabinet, Antwerp Museum ; Ball at Court of 
Allierf and Isabella (1(U 1), Parable! of Prod- 
igal Son, Adoration of Christ and Virgin 
(Kill!), National Museum, Amsterdam ; Mu- 
sical Company in a great Hall, Rotterdam 
Museum; Galatea, Adoration of (he Magi, 
Joseph's ( 'olli 1 1 and Destruction of I he Kgyp- 
tians ('2), King Midas, The Royal Banquet, 
Brunswick Museum ; Homage to Flora, Cas- 
sel Gallery; Destruction of the Fgypt ians 
(Hi'2l), Kiinslhalle, Hamburg; do., Mann- 
heim (iallery ; do., and Parable of Prodigal 
Son, Carlsruhe Gallery; the World doing 
Homage to Apollo (1l!'2!h, Oldenburg Gal- 
lery ; Apclles painting Campaspe, The Five 
Senses, Copenhagen Gallery; Rape of Hel- 
en, Stockholm Museum; Feeding of the 
Five Thousand (KHil), Dessau Gallery; 
Neptune and Amphitrite, Belsha/./.ar's 
Fcasl, Triumph of David, Solomon and the 
(^uccn of Sheba, Solomon showing his 
Treasures to the Prophet, Martyrdom of St. 
Andrew, Solomon seduced to Idolatry, 
Sword of Damocles, ( iotha Museum ; Christ 
on Mount of Olives, Washing of Feet, Solon 
and Cro'sus, Temptation of St. Anthony ('!), 
Berlin Museum ; Christ bearing the Cross 
(151)7), Christ and the Woman taken in 
Adultery (IfiO(i), Dresden Gallery; Martyr- 
dom of St. Lawrence, Asehafl'enbnrg Gal- 
lery; Seven Works of Mercy (UiUO), Cav- 
alry Skirmish (Klltl), An Allegory, Old 
Pinakothek. Munich; Christ and Nicode- 
uuis, Crucifixion (1(10(1), Witches' Sabbath, 

do. (1007), Croesus and Solon (attributed to 
Frans the elder), Vienna Museum ; Witches' 
Sabbath, St. Elizabeth nursing the Sick, 
Berne Museum ; Executions in the Nether- 
lands by order of Duke of Alva, Musee 
Rath, Geneva ; Seven Works of Mercy, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg; Dives, the Rich 
Man of the Gospel, Museum, New York ; 
Passage of the Red Sea, Crucifixion (both 
attributed to Frans the elder), Historical 
Society, ib. ; Artist's portrait, and three 
others (?), ITffi/i, Florence; others in Pa- 
la/,/.o Pitti, ib., Augsburg, and Schleissheim 
'Galleries, in Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna, 
s- t~ and Bor- 

/ fraAs cfttA/ Kh(S< (Jal - 
/ / A //?, r 1(rji Rome> 

' J S\ /V I) ].;,,,, n|lt 

/ -I f deBelgi(|ue, 

Jj)~cts*cKe/v ^^v' 11 

\2S * 1>1 TM 1 

Blanc, hcole 

llamande ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
1(17; Meyer, Gomiildo d. Kojigl. Mils., 1(17; 
Ricgel, Boitriigo, ii. 74 ; Rooses(Reber), 151! ; 
Van den Brandon, (!15. 

FRANCKEN, FRANS HI., called do Ru- 
bensche Francken, born in Antwerp in 1(107, 
died there, Aug. '21, 1(1(17. Figure painter, 
son and pupil of Frans Francken, the 
younger, with whom he worked conjointly 
probably until Ki.'i'.), when he became mas- 
ter of the guild ; afterwards greatly inllu- 
enced by Rubens, whence his surname. 
Works: St. John Baptist preaching, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Figures in Church 
Interior by Noofs the elder (1(154), National 
Museum, Amsterdam ; do. (1(!5'2), Schwerin 
Gallery ; St. John's Head given to Herodias, 
Mr. Theodoor van Lcrius, Antwerp ; Scourg- 
ing of Christ, Miss Vcrschuylen, ib.; Conti- 
nence of Scipio, Mr. Dufraisne, Cambrai. 
Michiols, viii. '2(i5 ; Van den Brandon, G1H. 

tist?), born at Antwerp in 1581, died there, 
Dec. 24, lfi'24. Flemish school ; history 
painter, nephew and pupil of Ambrosius 
Franekon, the older, then studied in Paris, 
and returned to Antwerp in KiOS ; formed 


himself after Rubens and Van Dyck ; inns- Bridge (UV20), Antwerp Museum; F.sihcr 

tor of the guild in Kill. His portrait by before Ahasiierus. 

Van Dyck is in the Amsterdam Museum. FUANC'KKN. JOHANNT.S. born in Ant 

Works : Christ among the Doctors, Descent worp about 1500 (?). Flemish scliool ; his- 

uf the Holy Ghoul, Bruges Museum. Copies tory and landscape painter, supposed pupil 

lifter Rubens: Visitation of Mary, Assunip- of .lacoli van t'treeht; seems to have left, 

tion, Adoration of tho Sliepherds, il>. ; I )e- Antwerp at an early period, and in l.ViOsct- 

capitatiou of St. John, Brussels Museum: tleil in Naples, \\liere he was called Franco, 

Christ and Magdalen (in landscape liy Vel- and where Wenecslaus Coherghcr lived \\ith 

vet Brueghel), Kotterdam Museum ; Heads him, and niarrieil his daughter. Work : 

of Seven Apostles (attributed), Dresden Mil- Adoration of th<' Magi (l.Vi(i), Franciscan 

scum. Van den Branden. !!.'!',(, (J'J'J ; Kraiiiin. Church, Naples. Biog. nal. de BelgitpK', 

ii. filtS ; Fetis, Cat. dii Mus. Koyal. :{__'. vii. :].">:! ; Imnier/eel. i. 'JIT. 

FKANCKF.N, HIKUONYMUS (Jcrooiu), FRANCKF.N. 1'. II. (II 1'. '.'i. flourish, ,| 

the elder, born at about tho middle of 17(h century. Flemish 

HerenthiUs in 1">1'2, . f / school; history painter, recalling in his works 

died in Paris (V), i /' fi the school of Kubi-ns. NVorKs : St. Francis 

May 1, KilU. Fleni- 'if.J' 3* & "f Assi^i. Th,. Poisoned Cup. Si. I ,ouis as a 

isli school; history Crusader. St. Anthonv of 1'adiia ( 1 ll.'i'J I. \nl 

mid portrait painter, -.V <^^ werp Museum. Cat. du Musi'-e d'An\ers 

l.rotherof Fransand Jk "*wT (ISTI). 171. 

Ambrosiustheeldc r; 1,1 FKANCKF.N S !'. 15 V S T I V \ N . Sei- 

i > 11 i-i- T"V\v .. 

pupil of r runsr Ions, \ .> \ram\r, 

went to France, be- FRANCO, J5( )!,( X iNKSK. en. I of |:tih 

came ]>ort rait jiaint- and earlv ]>art of 1 Ith centur\. BologneM- 

er to Henry III., and, continuing in favour school; mentioned by Haute as a nnniatur- 

at court under Henry IV. and Louis XIII., ist in connection with Odcrisio ( I'urgatory, 

was called the j>ainter of kings. Visited c\i. 7'.M. Malvasia says that he founded in 

Italy either before or after having lirst set- Kologna the school out of which arose Yi- 

lled in Paris. In l.V.IO he retired to Ant- tale, Loren/.o, Simone, .lacopo. and Cristo- 

wcr]i, where he attracted all the pupils of fano, but there are no authentic records of 

his old master, Floris, latelv deceased, but him. Perhaps a pupil of Odcrigi d'\-..l. 

soon returned to Paris. Works : Abdication bio, when that painter wan working at I!" 

of Charles V., National Museum, Amster- logna in PJiiS. A Madonna ('nthroned. in 

dam ; Charles V. taking Orders, Lillo Mu- the collection of Prince F.rcolani. Bologna, 

seum ; Decapitation of St. John the Bap- bears his name and the date IIH'J. It has 

list (Ki(MI), Dresden (lallery ; Assembly of been ri'paintecl, but it seems a picture of 

tho Sea-(!ods, Stockholm Museum. Biog. tin; 1 Ith century with some of the affected 

nal. de Belgiipie, vii. '2 1 1 ; Jal., (>P2; Mi- grace of nioveiiKMit peculiar to th(> artists of 

duels, v. ;U7 ; vi. .'!1'2; Van den Branden, (lubbio and Fabriano. C. A ('., Italy, ii. 

:tltl. -J(Mi ; Siret, It:!:!; Cibo, Scuola t'mbra, PJ ; 

FUANCKKN, HIKHONYMfS, the Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice, i. L'.'i. 

younger, born in Antwerp, baptised Sept. FRANCO, ( ilOVANNI BATTISTA, born 

12, 1578, diecl there, March 17, 1623, Flem- at Udino in 1510, died in Venice in 

ish school, son of Fraim tho elder ; histori- I'mbrian school; family name Semolci, ac' 

cal tiguro painter, jinpil of Ambrosiiis cording to /anetti. Went early to Homo 

Franckcn ; master of tho guild in l(i()7. and studied works of Michelangelo ; becanm 

Works : Horatiuu Codes lit tho Subliciim a very able designer, but wits less success- 


fnl as a colourist. He executed frescos in 
Rome, TJrbino, Venice (1550), and other 
places, and made many designs for architect- 
ural decorations. "Was also an engraver, 
and Bartsch enumerates ninety-three of his 
etchings. Works : Battle of Montemurlo, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Baptism of Christ, 
S. Francesco della Yigna, Veiiiee, Madonna, 
S. Giobbo, ib. Ch. Blanc, Kcole ombri- 
enne ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 317 ; Bartsch, 
xvi. 111. 

TIN, born at Namur, March 1!), 1759, died 
in 1851. Flemish school ; history painter, 
pupil of Andreas Lens ; visited Italy in 
1778-81 and 1789 92, and France and Ger- 
many repeatedly. Among his pupils were 
Nave/, Decuisne, and Madou. Order of Leo- 
pold in 1845. Works : St. Germain bless- 
ing St. Gencvu've (Church du Sablon), and 
Four Evangelists (Church des Minimes), 
Brussels ; Marius amid the Ruins of Car- 
thage, National Gallery, ib. ; Sylla Tiburius, 
Portrait of Mine. Du Barry, Arenberg Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Assumption, Ghent Academy : 
Physician consulted by two old Women, 
Haarlem Museum. Immerzeel, i. 251 ; 
Krannn, ii. 511. 

FRANC UCCI. See Iutln. 

FRANK, JULIUS, born in Munich in 
1820. History painter, son of the glass 
painter, Michael Sigismund Frank (died 
1847), pupil of Schraudolph. Works : St. 
George, Diinkelsbiihl ; The Good Shepherd, 
The Guardian Angel, Saalfelden ; Mater 
Dolorosa, St. Sebastian, Cycle of wall paint- 
ings from sacred and profane history of Ba- 
varia, National Museum, Munich ; do. from 
New Testament, Philippine Congregation 
in Gostyn, Posen. Many easel pictures, 
chiefly Madonnas. Miiller, 182. 

SEPH, twin brothers, born at Buis (Drome) 
in 1774. French school ; history painters, 
pupils of David, enjoyed reputation under 
the empire, and often worked conjointly. 
Pierre painted pictures of large dimensions 
in the style of his master, and was employed 

at the Louvre and in making copies and 
restorations in Versailles Museum. Medal, 
2cl class, 1812 ; L. of Honour, 1836. Joseph 
went to Naples in 1813, where be became 
professor at the Academy. Works by Pierre: 
Battle of /iirich (1812, with Joseph, gold 
medal) ; Josabeth saving Joash from Fury 
of Athaliah (1817), Niraes Museum ; Con- 
version of St. Paul (1819), Dijon Museum ; 
Angelica and Medor (1822), Besancon Mu- 
seum ; Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida 
(1822), Montauban Museum ; Crossing the 
Rhine (1835) ; Siege of Lille (1830), Battle 
of Lens (1841, with Alaux), Versailles Mu- 
seum. Works by Joseph : France in Anar- 
chy appearing to Bonaparte on Banks of 
Nile (formerly in Luxembourg Museum). 
Larousse, viii. 787. 

in Paris, Sept. 1, 1798, died there, Jan. 4, 
1839. French school ; history and genre 
painter, pupil of Regnault. Medal, 2d class, 
1827. Works : Christ leaving the Temple 
1 (1819), Tours Cathedral ; Death of Malvina 
(1819), Fontainebleau Palace ; Daughter of 
Jairus (1822), Amiens Museum ; Baptism of 
Christ (1824), Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; 
Conquest of Brisach, 1703, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Young Woman with her Child and a 
Dog, Grenoble Museum ; Mother at Cradle 
of sick Child, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Bra- 
gella, the Sailor's Wife (after Byron), Italian 

Woman with Sick Child praying before 
Madonna, Leipsic Museum. Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, ii. 580. 

FRARI, IL. See fttawhi, Francesco. 

FRASER, ALEXANDER, born in Edin- 
burgh, April 7, 1786, died at Hornsey, Feb. 
15, 1805. Genre painter, studied at Trus- 
tees' Academy, Edinburgh ; went in 1813 to 
London, where he became assistant to Wil- 
i kie, and painted the details and still-life in 
his pictures for twenty years. His own 
works, mostly relating to Scottish life, show 


Wilkic's influence. Some of his pictures 

Lave been engraved. Works : Deoch-an- 

dornis (1830) ; Village Sign-Painter (1837) ; 

Sir Walter Scott dining with a Blue-Gown 

Beggar (1844); 

The Glass of Ale; 

ItobiiiMon Crusoe 

reading the Bible 

to Friday ; Last 

Moments of Mary C^ueeu of Scotts. Red- 

grave ; Art Journal (18C.1), 125. 

Linlithgowshire, Scotland ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter, member of U.S.A. Stu- 
dio in Edinburgh. Paints Scottish scenery 
attractively. Works : At Barncleuth, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh ; Glen Arnan, 
Trout Stream in Highlands, Springtime at 
J)ingleton (1878). 

FRASER, CHARLES, born in Charles- 
ton, S. C., in 1782, died there in 18CI). 
After practising law several years, devoted 
himself in 1818 to art, and became a suc- 
cessful painter, especially of miniatures, 
though he also painted historical and genre 
pictures and landscapes. In 1857 a collec- 
tion of his works was exhibited in Charles- 
ton, including 311$ miniatures and llt'J other 
pieces. He numbered among his sitters 
many prominent people. 

FRAUSTADT, F. A., born at Lauchstadt, 
near Halle, April !), 1821. History painter, 
pupil in Dresden of Bendemaun, Kietsehel, 
and Schnorr ; has lived since 1857 in Ant- 
werp. His large compositions glorify the 
Nibelung Saga and form a kind of cycle. 
Formerly painted many portraits. Works : 
Krimhilde's Dream ; How Siegfried was be- 
trayed ; Siegfried's Farewell ; How Hagen 
did not rise before Krimhildo ; Tot/el's In- 
dulgence Sermon ; Rope Dancers ; Interior 
in Time of the Merovingians ; Goths in 
Rome ; Portrait of Composer Grctry (1880 1. 

Karl Wilhelm Kulbe, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. x 10 ft. 5 in. 
Upon a high bier, formed of lances and car- 
ried by four knights, the dead king lies in 

state, crown on head and sword in hand, 
surrounded by banners and escorted bv 
Crusaders mounted and on foot ; preceding 
him a bishop with crosier, accompanied bv 
monks and ministrants with censors ; in 
background, the battle has begun around 
the city of Antioch, from which smoke is 
rising. Bought in 18(>',( from the artist's 

FKKDI, BAKTOLO 1)1. See /;,/, /, 
im-ii di Manfredi. 

Nova Scotia in 1808, died in Rome. Nov. 21. 
1884. Figure painter, pupil in New York of 
the National Academy ; studied ;md painted 
many years in Rome, where lie resided. 
Elected N.A. in LSI):!. Works : Mother and 
(Child 1808); Beggars; Youn^Italv. Flower 
Girl; Savoyard Hoy in London; Girl and 
Parrot, 11. P. Kidder, Boston; Study of a 
head for Judith, Lucchcse Peasants on the 
Sands of the Serchio (188:!). 

FREER, FREDERICK \V.. born in Chi- 
cago, 111., in 184'.). Genre painter, pupil of 
the Munich Academv. Member of Socielv 
of American Artists. Exhibits at. the Na- 
tional Academy. Studio in New York. 
Works iu oil : Choosing a Study, T. I! Clark, 
New York ; Souvenir of Gainsborough 
(1881); Wait ing (188-2); In Ambush ( bss:!); 
Adagio, Jeanette Portrait Study, lieliind 
the Fan (188 J). Water-colours : Arranging 
the Bouquet, Veiled Head (1881); Dream- 
Life, The Mirror (1885). 

FREESE, HERMANN, born in 1'omerania, 
May 14. 1S11I, died at. Hasenfelde, July 2.",, 
1871. Animal painter, pupil in Berlin of 
Brticke and of Stell'eck. Works : Stags 
Fighting (18.">7), Stags attacked by Wolves; 
Stags Pursued, Boar Hunt, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; In the Pasture. Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malerseh., 202. 

neva in 1777, died there, Oct. !, 1811). 
Landscape painter, lived for many years in 
Berlin, where he was made member of the 
Academy iii 1820 ; returned to Geneva in 
182'J, and went to Dessau in 183i). Works: 


/ ' ' >y. 

/ V; 




Rhone Valley near Geneva, Lake of Geneva, 
National Gallery, Berlin. 

FREMINET \Fivminel), MARTIN, born 

in Paris, Sept. 
24, 1507, cliocl 
there, June 18, 
1010. French 
school ; first 
instructed by 
his father, a 
painter, then 
by Jean Cou- 
sin. Went to 
Koine (1591), was influenced by the Cava- 
liere d'Arpino, and studied the works of Par- 
migianino and Michelangelo. After spend- 
ing sixteen years in Italy lie rctunicd to 
.France, by way of Savoy, where he executed 
several large paintings for the duke's palace, 
and in KJ02 became court-painter to Henry 
IV., who intrusted him with the decoration 
of the chapel at Fontaineblean, which he had 
nearly completed at the time of his death. 
Was surnamed the French Michelangelo. 
Works : Several paintings in the Royal 1'al- 
^ ace, Turin ; Mercury 
<^l, commanding JKneas 

- |- to abandon Dido, 
1 IX K Louvre ; SS. Mat- 
* thcw, Mark, Luke, 

J o h n , 
A u g u s - 
tine, Je- 
rome, Gregory, and Ambrose, Orleans Mu- 
seum. Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 589 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecolc franchise ; Jal., (515 ; Lc- 
jeune, i. 121 ; iii, 302; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 
in Paris, July 10, 1837. Genre, landscape, 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Ed- 
ouard Frere, and pupil of Couture. Medal, 
2d class, 1848; medal, 18G5. Works : Mule- 
teer in the Alps (1805) ; Chariot Race (1807) ; 
Stable Interior (1808); Basket-Sellers, Stu- 
dio Interior (1870); Horses unlading Trees 
(1872); Before the Rain (1875); Snow (1870); 
A Comer of Paris (1877) ; Gramigua Lava- 

I tory at Naples (1879); Donkey Tavern at 

j Trt'port, Wood-cutting at Ecouen (1880) ; 

, Hotel de Heaume in Paris, Chestnut- Trees 
at Bh'mur (1881) ; Truck at Ecouen, Studio 
(1882); Plaster Quarry at St. Brice, Isle of 
St. Denis (1883); Surgical Operation (1884); 
Press-house at Chatel-Guyon, Farriery in 
Paris {1885). 

in Paris, June 24, 1815. Genre and land- 
scape painter, pupil of J. Cogniet and Roque- 
plan. Exhibited first picture in 1834. In 
1830 he took part in the Algerian Expedi- 
tion, and afterwards spent some time in 
Egypt. Chiefly paints Eastern scenes. 
Medals: 2 d class, 1848 and 18G5. Works: 
Stable of Loiret (1835) ; Street of the Jews 
in Constantino (1842); Caravan at a Ford 
(1844); Market of Constantino (1848) ; Arabs 
Halting (1850), Ministry of the Interior; 
Mosque at Beyrout, Bazaar in Damascus 
(1855) ; Bazaar in Beyrout, Halt at Ghizeh 
(1857); Harem in Cairo, Donkeys and Don- 
key-Drivers in Cairo, Cafe Mohammed 
(1S59) ; Evening Halt at Minieh, Arab drink- 
ing at a Fountain in Cairo, Arabian Restau- 

| rant at the Gates of Choubrah, Festival at 
Ulema's in Constantinople (1861); Ruins of 
Karnac at Thebes, Bazaar in Girgeh, Potter 
at Esne (1803); Okale in the Morning 
(1804); Cafe of Galata, Island of Philso 
(1805); Arab Wedding in Cairo, The Even- 
ing Prayer (1800); Caravan of Mecca, Ruins 
of Palmyra (1808); Simoom, Theatre of 
Karaguez (1809); Evening Halt on Banks 
of Nile (1870), Caravan for Mecca, Twilight 
in Cairo (1875); Tomb of the Caliphs in 
Cairo (187C); Evening in Upper Egypt 
(1877) ; The Nile, Evening, Desert at Noon- 
day (1878); Beni Souef, In Cairo (1879); 
Copt Street in Cairo (1880) ; Jerusalem from 
the Valley of Jehoshaphat (1881); Simoom 
near the Sphinx, Morning near Cairo (1882); 
Cairo from the North (1883); The Nile at 
Nagadi (1884) ; The Pyramids and Plain of 
Gizeh, Street in Cairo '(1885); View of Kar- 
nac, Ruins of Luxor, Laval Museum ; Arabs 
resting in Caravansary, Nancy Museum ; 



Well near Xebemy, Stettin Museum ; De- 
parture from Jerusalem for Jaffa, New York 
Museum. Bellier cle la Chavignerie, i. 581); 
Larousse, viii. 817. 

Paris, Jan. 10, 1819. 
Genre painter, 
brother of Thco- 
dore, pupil of Paul 
Delaroche and of 
Ecole iles Beaux 
Arts. He gained 
his first success in 
1840, an<l has since 
steadily improved, 
his best works bo- 
ing some of tho 

least laboured. Medals : Oil class, 1S.">0 and 
18:55; 2.1 class, 1852; L. of Honour, IS."). 
Works : Preparing for C'hurch (1805), Cor- 
coran Gallery, Washington ; Little Glutton 
(1840) ; Little Mountebank, Hen with the 
Golden Eggs (18-18); Studio (184!)) ; Cook, 
Laundress (1850), Chartres Museum ; Going 
to School, Helping Herself (1850), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Little Purveyor, Good 
Friday, Dinner, Reading Lesson, Young 
Woman Combing (1855); Sunday Toilet, 
Sweeper (1857) ; Little Housekeeper (1857), 
Little Dressmaker, Cold Day (1858), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Lesson on Flute, Lit- 
tle Shiverers (185!)); Little School, Dieppe 
(18G1); Return from Woods, Effect of Snow, 
Grandmother (ISliO) ; Women Spinning, 
Girl Sewing (18(14); Palm Sunday, Work- 
shop at Ecouen (1800); First Steps, Prayer, 
Blessing, Library, Little Woodcutters, In- 
terior at Royat, Stove (1807); Women Sew- 
ing (1808); Preparing Dinner (1808), De- 
votion, Prayer, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; 
Girls leaving School, Boys leaving School, 
Porch of Church of Saint Paul at Antwerp ; 
Exercise (1880), J. J. Astor, New York ; 


frj . from thc Val - 

ley of J e- 
hosliaphat (1881) ; Blessed Water (1882) ; 
Poor Man's Cider, Before Going In (1880); 

Pull I'p, Storm in a Tub (1RS4) ; A Bivouac, 
Bakehouse (1885). Bellier de la Chavigne- 
rie, i. 5'JO ; Larousse ; Hamerton, French 

in Berne, June 10, 1745, died there, Aug. 
15, 1S01. French school ; genre painter, 
pupil of Emmanuel Handinann, but, went, 
to Paris at twenty, and there was assisted in 
his studies by Wille, Boucher, Greu/.o, and 
R<">slin. Painted portraits and genre pieces 
in Watteau's style, after liis return home, as 
well as Scripture scenes. Works: Horo- 
scope Reali/.ed, Fifteen Scenes from Popular 
Life in Canton Berne, Berne Museum; Por- 
trait of Haller, City I.ibrarv, Berne ; Lov- 
er's Present (177(1), Historical Societv, New 
York. Allgem. d. Biogr., vii. 055; Dolnne, 
; Wur/bach. Fr. Mali riles \\iii. .lalirh., Oil. 

Basle in 1S10, diecl at F rascal i, near Koine, 
ill 1805. Landscape painter, studied prin- 
cipally in Italy ; in IS 12 he accompanied 
Professor Lepsius to Egypt, whence, on his 
return in LSI:!, he brought many excellent 
sketches. Works: The Caudine Forks, 
Yiew near Granada, do. near Rome, do. 
near Monreal Sicily, Caravan surprised by 
Saniimi, Wood Landscape in Roman Moun- 
tains (last, work), Basle Museum ; The Stat- 
ues of Memnon near Thebes, the Samum 
in the Desert, New Pinakothek. Munich ; 
Clmmsyn in the Desert (1845), Emperor of 
Germany; Statues of Memnon, Sphinx Co- 
lossus near Memphis (1858), Leipsic Mu- 

YON, born in Stnisburg, March 24, 17H7, 
died in Munich, Jan. 1, 1847. History and 
portrait painter, daughter and pupil of Jo- 
hann Stunt/, landscape painter. Studied in 
Munich, and in 1821-22 in Rome, where she 
was influenced by Overbeck, and was made 
member of the Academy of St. Luke. Works: 
Madonna, /achariah naming St. John, Boy 
Flute-Player, Xew Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Holy Family, Birth of St. John (182!)); 
Three Holy Women at the Grave, Madonna, 


Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. retersbnrg ; 
Charity, life-size Portrait of Artist, All- 
gem. (1. Biogr., vii. 304 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 

FREYBERG, KONRAD, born in Stettin, 
March 14, 1842. Horse anil military genre 
painter, pupil in Berlin of Steffeck, especially 
successful in equestrian portraits on a small 
scale. Works : Prince Charles of Prussia 
and Suite (1872); Ride of Prince Charles to 
a Stag-Hunt (187(5); Prince Hohenlohc at 
Clamart, Arrival of Prince Frederic Charles 
on Battlefield of Yionville, Surrender of 
Metz (1877) ; Group of Officers of Garde du 
Corps (1878); Encounter at Fermc St. Hu- 
bert, life-size Male Portrait (18711). Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malerseh., 2i3. 

FRIANT, EMILK, born at Dieuze (Alsace- 
Lorraine). Cienre painter, pupil of Caba- 
nel. Medals: :id class, 1884 ; 2d class, 1885. 
Works: Studio Interior, Prodigal Son 
(1882); A little Rest (188:i); Favourite 
Corner (1884); The Sketch, Portrait (1885). 

FRICH, J., born in Christiania in 1810. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy, then studied in Dresden and Mu- 
nich. Generally paints Norwegian subjects. 
Member of Stockholm Academy. Works : 
Six Norwegian Landscapes (1852), Oscars- 
hall, near Christiania ; View in Hallingdal, 
Wood Landscape from Thalemarken, Chris- 
tiania Gallery. Miiller, 185. 

Queiehheim, near Landau, March 11, 1802, 
died in Munich, Nov. 2, 1870. History, 
genre, portrait, and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Stuttgart and Augsburg art schools, 
then from 1822 of Munich Academy under 
Langer and Cornelius. From 1834-37 lived 
in Rome and Naples, came to Munich in 
1842, and was appointed Conservator of the 
Art Union in 1845. Works : Margaret at 
Spinning Wheel, Knight Toggenburg, Hunt- 
ing Party by Castle Trifels, Blue Grotto of 
Capri, New Piuakothek, Munich ; View of 
Hohenschwangau; Wounded Knight; Italian 
Pifferari ; Cloister of S. Scolastica; Vintage 
Assembly ; Views in Sabine Mountains ; 

Tivoli ; Views in the Palatinate. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., vii. 387. 

Kohljanowitz, Bohemia, Jan. 10, 1825. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy, and of Waldmiiller ; visited Italy 
in 1850, Diisseldorf and Paris in 1852. 
Member of Vienna Academy since 180(5. 
Works : Death of Tasso (1852); False Play- 
ers ; Kirmess at Mariabrunn ; At the Jewel- 
ler's ; Interrupted Division ; After the Lot- 
tery ; Adoption of Child ; Shop Politicians 
(1803); Seizure of Incendiary (1804); Hour 
of Rest (1805); Pawn Shop, Coburg Gallery ; 
House of Invalides, Tasting Wine (18(50); 
Return Home (18(58); The New Comrade 
(1808), Vienna Academy ; Service of Friend- 
ship ; Strawberry Sellers (1872), The Inva- 
lides (1875), Vienna Museum ; News, The 
Examination (1883); Distribution of Wine 
(1884). Miiller, 18<i ; N. illustr. Zeitg. 
(1883), i. 340 ; Wurzbach, iv. 358 ; 
f. b. K., viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 21). 

Greifswalde, Sept. 5, 1774, died in Dresden, 
May 7, 1840. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, then from 1798 in 
Dresden. Became professor at Dresden 
Academy in 1817, and member of Berlin 
Academy in 1840. Works : Abbey in Oak- 
wood, Wanderer on Seashore, Royal Palace, 
Berlin ; Harz Landscape, Moonrise by the 
Sea, National Gallery, ib. ; Moonlight Scene 
(1810), Giant's Grave, Rest during Harvest 
(1835), Dresden Gallery ; Woman on Sea- 
shore beaconing to Ship, Gotha Museum ; 
Crucifix on Hill after Sunset ; Thirty-six 
views of Riigen. Brockhans, vii. 353. 

Dantzic, June 29, 1824. Genre painter, 
pupil in Diisseldorf of Marie Wiegmann, 
then of Jordan and Wilhelm Solm. Works : 
Convent - School ; Polish Country Mail ; 
School-Children crossing Lake ; Polish In- 
surgents in Cellar ; Loving Couple in Boat , 
Old Church in Mazovia ; Children in Rome 
during Carnival ; Friday Evening in Jewish 
Quarter at Amsterdam ; Polish Rag-Pickers 


(1880); Polish Raftsmen (1881); Carpet Em- 
broiderers in Amsterdam (1882). Midler, 
186; Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), ii. 52:5; (1882), 
ii. 359 ; (1883), i. 4G3. 

FRIES, BERXHARD, born at Heidel- 
berg, May 10, 1820, died in Munich, May 
21, 187!). Landscape painter, studied first 
in Heidelberg, then in Carlsruhe under 
Koopman, and in 1835-37 at Munich Acad- 
emy. Lived in Rome in 1838 45, and set- 
tled at Munich in 1S4G. "\Vorks: (llaciers 
of Mont Blanc ; Lake of Geneva ; Lake of 
Como ; Ravine near Xemi ; N'eckar Valley ; 
Landscape in Storm ; View in Heidelberg 
Garden ; Morning and Evening in Woods 
of Heidelberg; Cycle of forty Italian Land- 
scapes ; Mountain Landscape, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; View in Sabine Mountains, Oreto 
Valley near Palermo, Schack Gallery. Mu- 
nich ; On Lake Constance, /iirich Gallery. 
Kunst-Chronik, xiv. 038; W. Miiller, Diis- 
seldf. K., 332. 

FRIES, ERXST, born at. Heidelberg, 
June 22, 1S01, died in Carlsruhe, Oct. 11. 
1833. Landscape painter, pupil in Heidel- 
berg of Rottmann and in Carlsruhe of Karl 
Kiint/. Spent four years in Italy (1823-27), 
then lived in Munich and moved to Carls- 
ruhe (1S31), where he was appointed court- 
painter. Works : View of Tivoli ; Sorrento 
with Tasso's House; Po/.x.uoli with Bay of 
Baiif ; Cape Misenum ; Landscape 
in style of Roman Mountains, Cas- 
tello near Amalti, Carlsruhe Gallery; 
Waterfall near Isola di Sora, Xew 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Castle at Massa ; View 
of Heidelberg, do. of Heidelberg Castle 
(182!)), Valmontane (1833), Xational Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; View in Sabine Mountains, 
Leipsic Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 
72 ; Jordan (1885), ii. GO. 

FRIES, HAXS, born at Freiburg, Switzer- 
land, in Jan., 1405, died about 1520. Ger- 
man school; worked in Basle in 1487-88, 
made city painter in Freiburg (1501 ), where 
he painted the Last Judgment in the City 
Hall and decorated the Episcopal Palace. 
About 1518 he settled at Berne. His works 

show affinity to the schools of Augsburg 
and Cohnar, though generally hard in tone 
and inharmonious in colour. His contem- 
poraries ranked him with the greatest GIT 
man and Italian masters of his time. Works : 
Six Scenes from Life of Virgin (1512). T\\o 
Scenes from Life of St. John the Baptist. 
Martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist 
(1514), Basle Museum; Four pictures of 
Saints, Freiburg Museum ; Legend of St. 
Anthony (15()(i), Franciscan Monasterv, 
Freiburg; Madonna ( 15(11 i, St. Ann, SI ig- 
matization of St. Francis, Martvrdom of St. 
Sebastian, ^ irgin going to the Temple, 
Marriage of the Virgin (1512), Nuremberg 
Museum. Allgem. d. Miogr., viii. 73 ; His. 
Jahrb. f. K.. ii. 51 ; \V. \ \V., ii. Is:!. 

Winnweiler, 1'alatinatc, Nov. -Jd. |s:!1. ,li,.,| 
at St. Gallen. Dec. 23. 1S71. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academv, then of 
Berdelle, and in Vienna of Ralil. Lived 
many years in Italv. Works : Wine. Wo- 
man. and Song (1S02|; Hercules and ()m- 
phale (18G4); Auro Doceo in the Abru/./i ; 
excellent copies after Titian and Palma Ycc- 
chio. Kunst-Chronik, vii. 2(13. 

FRIIS, HANS GABRIEL, born at Skov- 
gaard, near Hobro, Jutland, Sept. 7. 1*3'.). 
Landscape j)ainter, pupil of Lund and Kit- 
tendorf, afterwards of Hkovgaard ; visited 
Dresden and Berlin in 1S70, Swit/erland 
and Italy in 1.S71 72. Works : Summer 
Day in Jutland (1SGS), Copenhagen Gallery. 
- Sigurd Miiller, 100; Weilbach, 1*1. 

FRK^'FT DE V.U'RO/E (Vaux-Rose), 
JACQl'ES, born at. Troves (Aube), in 10IS, 
died in Paris, June 25, 1710. French 
school ; history painter, pupil of S. Bour- 
don, after whose designs he painted, about 
1GG3, in the gallery of the Hotel of M. de 
Bretonvilliers. Professor and member of 
the Academy in 1070. Works: Peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle (1070), Louvre, Paris ; Moses 
brought to Pharaoh's Daughter (1073); 
Daughters of Jethro, Martha and Magda- 
len at Christ's Feet (10!)!l); Triumph of 
Thetis. Madonna (17(14). Jal.. G'JII. 


in Berlin in 1730, died there in 1815. His- 
tory painter, pupil of B. Rode, afterwards 
studied in Rome, became court-painter and 
director of Berlin Academy. Works : Myth- 
ological subjects and scenes from life of 
Frederic the Great in Royal Palaces of Ber- 
lin, Potsdam, and Sans-souci. 

FRITEL, PIERRE, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Ainu' Millet and of Cabanel. Medal, 
2d class, 1ST 1 .). Works: St. John Baptist 
(187C); Despair of CEdipus (1877); Electra 
(1878); Mater Dolorosa (1878), Prefecture 
de la Seine, Paris; A Martyr (1870); Fifer 
(1881) ; Remorse, The Widow (1882); Solum 
Pah-iii' (1885). 

^-s\. .,, Studlev, near Ripon, 

'- ';, in 1819. Genre 

painter, pupil of 
Royal Academy, 
London, where he 
exhibited his Mal- 
volio and Countess 
Olivia in 1840. 
Elected an A.R.A. 
in 1<S45, and R.A. in 
185:5 ; member of 

Royal Academies of Vicuna (180!)), Belgium 
(1871), Sweden (187:5), and Antwerp. Medal, 
Paris, 2d class, 185.") ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Othello and Desdemona (1810) ; 
Leicester and Amy Robsart (1841); Duel 
from TwelfthNight (1843); Knox and Queeii 
Mary (1844); Nora Creiua (1840); Coming 
of Age (1849) ; Pope and Mary Montagu 
(1852); A Dream of the Future (185C); 
Derby Day (1858) ; Claude Duval (18(50); 
Jlailimy Station (18(52); Marriage of Prince 
of Wales (1805) ; Before Dinner at Boswell's 
(18(58) ; Henry VIII. (1872); Pamela (1875); 
Road to Ruin (1878); The Private View 
1881, Kate Kearney, Honeymooning in 
Switzerland, La Belle Marquise (1883) ; 
Beatrice overhears that Benedick loves her, 
Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Siddons, Cruel Ne- 
cessity, London Flower-Girl (1884); John 

Knox at Holyrood (1885). Art Journal 
|(185G), 237; Sandby, ii. 2!)7 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (18G2), xiii. 215. 

FRITSCH, MELCHIOR, born in Vienna, 
Jan. 2, 1825. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, where he studied drawing 
under Mossmer. Although self-taught in 
painting, he obtained the Imperial prize in 
1845. Works : Burning Village after Storm ; 
Pass near Giinsling in Tyrol ; Landscape in 
Storm with returning Villagers (1874) ; 
View on Langbath Lake (1875) ; Burning 
Village (1877). Miiller, 187 ; Wurzbach, iv. 

FRIT/, ANDREAS, born at Parsonage of 
Mou, near Aalborg, Jutland, Nov. 2, 1828. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy under Kobke, Gertner, and Mar- 
strand ; visited Paris in 1855 and 1878; went 
abroad again in 1871. Medals, 1854, 1855. 
Works: Jutland Gleaner Girl (1850); Views 
in Jutland (1870-80). Sigurd Miiller, 111 ; 
Weilbach, 186. 

born at Dreileben, near Magdeburg, Oct. 28, 
1845. Genre painter, first instructed in 
Bremen, then pupil in Munich of Griitzner 
and Liezen-Mayer, also much influenced by 
Kotzebue and Alexander Wagner. Moved 
to Stuttgart in 1880. Works : In Foreign 
Lands ; Portraits.- Miiller, 188. 

FROLICH, LORENS, born in Copenha- 
gen, Oct. 25, 1820. 
History and genre 
painter, and illus- 
trator, pupil of 
Rorbye, then of 
Hetsch and Eck- 
ersberg. Went 
in 1840 to Munich, 
and in 1842 to 
D r e s d e n, where 
f he studied imder 

Bendemaun, then (1846-51) in Rome, and 
1851-54 under Couture in Paris, where 
he went again in 1857, then settled in Co- 
penhagen in 1873. Has illustrated many 
works of Danish authors. Danebrog Order 


in 1857 ; member of Copenhagen Academy 
in 1877. Works : Ingeborg and Fritjof 
(1837); Peasant pursued by "\Volves (18158) ; 
Deer in Forest-Valley ; Palnatokc shooting 
King Harold Blaatand (Blue-tooth), King 
Hvavelame forcing the Dwarfs Dyrin and 
Dvalin to forge the Sword Tyrving (1840) ; 
Cupid and the Watersprite (1845), Leipsic 
Museum ; Return from Harvest Field (1852); 
Waldemar Sejr as Founder of Jutland Law, 
Frederic IV. receiving Homage of Schles- 
\vig( 1854-57), Court of Appeals, Flensburg ; 
Family of a Wood-God, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery. Sigurd Miiller, IK! ; Wcilbach, 190. 

FROHLICHEU (Frolicher), OTTO, born 
at Soleure, Switzerland, in 1840. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Munich of J. G. Stellan, then 
(1804 05) of Dilsselilorf Academy ; studied 
especially the hills of Bavaria ami the Swiss 
Alps. Works: Group of Trees in Jura 
Mountains (1800) ; View in Bernese Alps 
(1809) ; Mountain-Brook in Uri, View in Inn 
Valley (1808) ; Landscape in Upper Bavaria, 
View in Bernese Oberland, Berne Museum; 
Village in Nether Bavaria, Saint Gall Mu- 
seum ; Woodland in Upper Bavaria, Xiirich 
Gallery ; Moonlight Scene (1884). -Miiller, 

FROM EXT, (Froment-Dolormel), 
Paris, June 17, 1820. History, genre, and 
landscape painter, pupil of Jollivet, Lecomte, 
and Anifiury-Duval. L. of Honour, ISO:!. 
Works : Indians surprising Camp of Hostile 
Tribe (184!)) ; Pawnee Children on the 
Platte River (185:!;; Love Disarmed, Egg 
Dance (1859) ; The Graces (1807) ; Love 
Captive (1870) ; The Dance, The Seasons. 
Spring (1875). Bellicr de la Chavignerie, i. 

FROMENT, NICOLAS, born at Avignon, 
flourished 1401-76. French school. This 
master, whose name lias only recently been 
found in the archives of Marseilles, flour- 
ished at the court of King Rein' of Anjou. 
In the Flemish character of his works he 
approaches the style of Rogier van der Wcy- 
den. Works : Triptych, with Burning Bush 

and Madonna in centre, Saints on the Wings, 
Aix Cathedral ; Triptych witli Raising of 
Lazarus (1401), Ulli/.i, Florence. W. A W., 
ii. 7l! ;, 019. 

UochehY (Tha- 
i-ant e - 1 n f r r i - 
eure), Oct. 21, 
1S20, died at 
St. Maurice, 
near La Jto- 
c hello, Aug. 
27, 1870. ( ienrc 
p a i n t c r , pu- 
pil of Iiemond 
a n d (' a bat ; 
visited Algiers in 1840 48 and in 1852 .">:!, 
and brought home many sketches, from 
which he painted his characteristic pictures 
of Oriental life. He was the author of a 
successful romance, "Dominique" (1803), 
and of admirable; works on art an traveld. 
Medals: 2d class, 1st'.!, IS."; 1st class, 
1859; L. of Honour, 1859; Ollicer, 1*09. 
Works: Farm near La Rochelle, Mosque 
near Algiers, View in Gorges of the ChitVa 
(1847); live Algerine Pictures ( 1849) : 11 
Pictures on Voyage; to Biskra (1850) ; Moor- 
ish Burial (185I5); Arab Falconers, Halt of 
Merchants before Aghouat, and live others 
(1857); Negro Jugglers, Street in Aghouat, 
Border of Oasis during Sirocco, Souvenir of 
Algiers, Audience with a Chalif (1859); 
Couriers of Ouled-Nayls (1801 ) ; Squall in 
Plains of Alfa (18(14); Heron ('hast! (18(J5); 
Nomad Tribe on Journey (18(i(i); Women of 
Ouled-Nayls (1807); Centaurs (1808); Fan- 
tasia (1H09); ('anal Grande and Molo in 
Venice (1872); Algerian Falconer, or The 
Quarry (1N73), Arab Encampment (last 
work, unfinished), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Ravine (1874) ; The Nile, Souvenir of Esneli 
(1870). Works in United States: Alge- 
rian Falconer (1803), Albert Spencer, New 
York ; Arabs crossing a Ford, Miss C. L. 
Wolfe, ib. ; Halt, A, Belmont, ib. ; Arab 
Falconer, J. H. Warren, Hoosic Falls, N. 
Y. ; Arab Falconer, B. Wall, Providence; 


Arab Horses going to Water, H. P. Kidiler, 
Boston ; Street Scene in Algiers, H. Pro- 
basco, Cincinnati ; Aral) Horsemen Hearing 
a City, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; 
Cavalcade, A. J. Antclo, Philadelphia; On 
the Nile, J. C. Runkle, New York ; Arabs 
Marching, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Chase, 
C. P. Hunting-ton, New York ; Donkey at a 
Ford, It. L. Cutting, New York; Street in 
Cairo, Halt in Desert, Returning from the 
Expedition, Win. Astor, New York ; Cross- 
ing the Ford, Arabs watering Horses, W. H. 
Yanderbilt, New York ; Halt in the Desert, 
H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; The Halt, Boric 
Collection, Philadelphia ; The Halt (1872), 
At the Well (1875), Encampment in Atlas 

(, - Mountains, W. 

tt<4-Trotntnt"w-v T - ^alters, 
' 1 Baltimore. 

^ Gonse, Eug. 
Fromentin (Paris, 1881) ; L'Art (1877), viii. 

11, 25; Galaxy (18(ill), ii. 533 ; Gax.. des B. 
Arts (1878), xvii. 401 ; xviii. 81; (1879), xix. 
240; xx. 281; (1880), xxi. 50, 4<M; xxii. 
139, 21(i, 31!), 404; Meyer, Gesch., 708; 
Nation (1881), xxxii. 402.' 

Birkenfeld, Oldenburg, April 2'.), 1781), died 
at Ispringeu, near Pforzheim, Feb. 0, 1803. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Philipp Jakob 
Becker (17('>3-1829, Baden court-painter, 
and director of Carlsruhe Gallery). Studied 
Claude Lorrainand Poussin in Paris in 1810- 

12, then went to Rome and Naples, and in 
1817 became professor at the Carlsruhe art- 
school. He founded the Art and Industry 1 
Union of Baden ; visited England in 1824, 
and was made director of the Carlsruhe 
Gallery in 182'J. Works : Sorrento ; Out- 
break of Vesuvius ; Blue Grotto of Capri ; 
Scylla in Calabria ; Cemetery of Salzburg ; 
Castle Hoheustaufen ; Castle Tyrol ; View 
of Rome ; St. Goarshausen ; Monastery near 
Sorrento (1840), Castle Heiligeuberg on 
Lake Constance (4, 1853-54), Fiirstenberg 
Gallery, Doanueschingeu ; Etna, and Taor- 
mina ; View of Tivoli ; Bellaggio on Lake 
Como ; Tasso's House at Sorrento ; Villa 

Serbelloni on Lake Como ; W T aterfall near 
Tryberg (2), View of Heidelberg, Rocky 
Landscape in Murg Valley, Castle Alt- 
Eberstein, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Landscape, 
Stettin Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 
144 ; Brockhaus, vii. 374 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
viii. 11. 

Paris in 1701, died at Lyons, Sept. 2, 1753. 
French school ; history and portrait painter, 
pupil of Claude Halle ; won the first prize 
at the Academy in 1728 ; received as mem- 
ber in 1744 ; went to Lyons, where he be- 
came director of the art-school. Works : 
Vulcan attaching Prometheus to the Rock 
(1744), Louvre, Paris ; Moses raising the 
Brazen Serpent (1743), Saiute Croix, Lyons ; 
Nativity (1745), Museum, ib. Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i. 595 ; Jal., (>23. 

FROSCHL, KARL, born in Vienna in 
1818. Genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, then in Munich of Wil- 
helm Diez. Spent several years in Italy. 
Works : Italian genre scenes, Portrait of his 
Wife. Midler, 189 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xv. 

Wandsworth, Sept., 
1810, died in London, 
June 4, 1877. Sub- 
ject painter, pupil of 
Sass's Art Academy 
and of the Royal 
Academy, where he 
won the gold medal 
in 1839 for his Pro- 
metheus Bound ; be- 
gan as a portrait 
painter, but finally 
devoted himself to painting ideal figures, 
especially the female nude. Elected an 
A.R.A. in 184G, and R.A. in 1871. Works : 
Bacchanalian Dance (1844) ; Sabrina (1845); 
Diana and Actrcon (1846); Una (1847); Eu- 
phrosyue (1848); Naiad, Syrens (1849); 
Chastity (1854); Sea-Nymph (1855); Narcis- 
sus (1857); Zephyr and Aurora (1858); 
Daughters of Hesperus (I860); Graces and 


Loves, Sea- Nymphs (18(53); Deatli of A<lo- Institute, Frankfort, then in Munich of Ber- 

nifl (1865) ; Hylas and Nymphs (18(>7); Puck delle and in Paris of Couture ; also studied 

(18(5!)); Haunt of Diana, Cupid Disarmed in Homo. Copied several pictures by old 

(1870) jMusidora (1871); Nymph and Cupid masters for the Schack Gallery in Munich, 

(1872); Bacchante (1874). Art Journal whore ho lives. Gold medal, Munich, 18IW. 

(181!)), 184; (1857), 5; (1877), 280; Sand- Miiller, Is'.!. 

by, ii. 21!; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 3(52 ; FUGER, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH, born 

Kunst-Chronik. xii. (558. iuHeilbronn, Wiirtemberg, Dec.8, 1751, died 

FRUWIHTH, KAHL, born in Vienna in in Vienna, Nov. 5, 181S. Gorman school; 
180!), died there, Jan. 17, 1878. Still-life history and portrait painter, pupil in Stutt- 
aiitl genre painter, studied in Vienna ; was gart. of Guibal and in Leipsie of Oeser. In 
also a skilful restorer of old paintings. ] 77 I he went to Vienna and iu 177(5 to Homo, 
Works: Venetian Fishermen in approach- where he studied the Carracci and Donieni- 
ing Storm (1846); Little Noll in the Cnri- chino, as well as H iphael Mengs and Hattoni. 
osity Shop (1847); Still Life (1850), Vienna In ITS'J lie was patroni/.ed liy Count Lam- 
Museum ; Wine, Woman, and Soiig (1850); berg, the Austrian ambassador at Naples, and 
Dinner on Fishing Bark (1853); Armoury oxecutod paintings for the King. The next 
(1857). Wur/.liach, iv. 388. year he was appointed vice-director of the 

FUECHSELL, HERMANN, born at Vienna Academy, and in 17!I5 director, 
Brunswick, Germany, Aug. 8, 1833. Land- which post lie held until ISO!!, wlien he lie- 
cape painter, pupil of Lessing in Diisseltlorf came director of the Belvedere Gallery. 
in 1855. Prize for life-drawing, Brunswick Works: Death of Ciesar ; Farewell of Corio- 
Collego, 1852. Studio in New York since Linus, C/.ornin Gallery, Vienna; Death of 
1858. Works: Scorn; on Staten Island Genuanicus (178!)), Vienna Academy; 1'ro- 
(18<!!)); On the Saeo North Conway, N. If. metheus, Count /in/endorf, Vienna ; Ari- 
(187!)); On the Hills near Bolton Lake adno at Naxos, Joseph II. as Ally of Cathe- 
Georgc (1880); View from Crow's-Nest rine of Russia, Field-Marshal Laudon as 
North River (1881); Break-Nock Hills on Conqueror of Belgrade, Mrs. d ( ; Witt in 
the Hudson (1882); Camping Scene Adi- Greek Costume, Philip at Bed of Alexander, 
rondacks, View on Lake George (1884). Krasistratus at Bed of Antiochus (17ss !)ii); 

FUES, CHRISTIAN FHIEDHICH, born portraits of Joseph II. (1787). of Artist's 
in Tiibingen in 1772, died in Nuremberg, Father (1788), of Elector of Mont/, of 
Sept., 183(i. German school ; history, genre, Marehese Gallo, Princess of France (six 
and portrait painter, pupil of the Stuttgart times); Socrates before the Judges; ()r- 
art-school, under Hetsch and Harper ; lived phous in Hades; Judgment of Brutus; Dido 
for some time in Brunswick, then in Niirem- on the Funeral Pyre ; Adam and Eve mourn- 
berg, where he became professor at the art- ing Abel's Deatli (17!)'.)), John the Baptist 
school. Works: Minnesinger (1821); Fam- (1811), Magdalen (181(i), Allegory on Peace 
ily of Old Knight (1827); Politicians at Cof- of Vienna, Vienna Museum; Somiramis 
fee-House, Girl Resting, Wiirtomborg Cos- hearing of Revolt of Babylon, Death of 
tunics (18150); Village Fair (1827); Kirmess Virginia (1801); St. John in the Desert 
(18:53); Laughing Peasant, Suabian Girl (1804); Christ Crucified (1813) ; Bath- 
braiding her Hair (1834); Summer and Win- sheba, National Gallery, Pesth ; Magdalen, 
ter (1835); nine portraits of distinguished Graces and Cupid, Schleissheim Gallery; 
Nurembergers, City Hall, Nuremberg. Alcestis consecrating herself to the Gods, 
Andresen, iv. 280. Minerva and Saturn defending Art and 

FUESSLI, WILHELM, born at Zurich Science, Ment/ Museum ; Zeus appearing 

in 1830. Portrait painter, pupil of Stiidel to Phidias, Achilles by the Body of Pa- 



troclus, Hercules and Omphale ; St. Mag- 
dalen, New Piiiakothck, Munich ; Venus 
Anadyomeiie ; Portrait of Count Ludolft', 
Brunswick Museum ; do. of Nelson (1800), 
National Portrait Gallery, London. Allgein. 
d. Biogr., viii. 177 ; Andrescu, ii. 89 ; Brock- 
haus, vii. 398 ; Wurzbach, v. 1. 

FUGITIVES, Lt'on Glaize ; private gal- 
lery. People are escaping from Athens 
during a siege by being let down from the 
walls at night by means of ropes. Several 
groups are represented suspended in mid- 
air, with a shadowy abyss below, and the 
city walls, lighted by the mooii-beams, be- 
hind them. Salon, 1877. 

FUHKICH, JOSEF, Hitter VON, born 
at Kratzau, Bohemia, 
Feb. 9, 1800, died in 
Vienna, March 13, 1870. 
German school; history 
painter, pupil of Prague 
Academy under Berg- 
ler, went in 1820 to 
Koine, where he joined 
N , the German Pre-R:iph- 
aelites, and assisted 
Overbeck in painting 
the frescos in the Villa Massimi. Called to 
Vienna in 1831 as custodian of the Academy 
Gallery, he was appointed professor at the 
Academy in 1841. In 1854-01 he was oc- 
cupied in painting frescos in the Altlerchen- 
feld Church, a monumental work, for which 
he was knighted and decorated with the or- 
der of the Iron Crown. Gold medal in 1841, 
member of Munich and Berlin Academies; 
Commander of Order of Francis Joseph in 
1872. Works : Death of Otto von Wittels- 
bach (1817); St. Ivan found by Duke Bori- 
voj (1817); Christ on his Way to Mount of 
Olives ; Joshua before Jericho ; The Jews 
Mourning ; St. Adelheid and Francis of As- 
sisi ; Incarnation ; Boaz and Ruth ; St. Gu- 
dule ; St. Filomena ; Mary and Joseph on 
Journey to Bethlehem ; Christ in Glory ; 
Christ asleep in the Ship during Storm ; 
Moses receiving Commandments from God, 
Apparition of Fighting Horsemen frighten- 

ing Inhabitants of Jerusalem (1844), Mary's 
Walk over the Mountains (1841), Vienna 
Museum ; Triumph of Christ, Raczynski 
Gallery, Berlin ; St. Ann (1844); Disciples 
on Way to Emmaus ; Joseph's Dream ; 
PietTi ; Shepherds on Way to Manger ; 
Peter's Draught of Fish (1850); Judgment 
of Solomon ; First Baptism in Samaria ; 
The Body of St. John of Nepomuk found in 
the Moldau, Triumph of Christianity in Ger- 
many, Schack Gallery, Munich ; Beheading 
of St. James, Leipsic Museum ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives ; Jacob and Rachel ; Ma- 
donna ; Rudolf von Hapsburg and the Priest 
| (1870). Frescos : Three Scenes from Tasso's 
Jerusalem (1827-29), Villa Massimi, Rome; 
Fourteen Stations on Christ's Walk to Gol- 
gotha, St. Nepomuk, Vienna ; Raising of Laz- 
arus, Last Judgment, Fall of the Condemned, 
Altlerchenfeld Church, Vienna. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 185 ; Brockhaus, vii. 401 ; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1874), ii. 451 ; (1875), i. 487 ; Schack, 
Meine Gemaldesamrnlung (1885), 79 ; Wurz- 
bach, v. 5 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iii. 189, 209 ; 
vi. 198 ; xvii. 33 ; Zimmermaun, Studien 
uiul Kritiken, ii. 340. 

FULLER, GEORGE, born at Dcerfield, 

Mass., in 1822, 
died in Boston, 
March 2 1,1884. 
Figure and por- 
trait painter, 
studied in Bos- 
ton, New York, 
London, and on 
the Continent 
of Europe. 
Painted por- 
traits at first, 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1857 ; 
member of Society of American Artists. 
Memorial exhibition of his works at Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1884. Works : 
Cupid (1854), Miss I. M. Ames, New York ; 
Negro Nurse with Child (1801), Waldo Hig- 
ginson, Boston ; At the Bars, Farmyard 
(1805), Mrs. M. Y. Wynne, Boston ; Shear- 
ing the Donkey (1877-79), C. R. Grant, 

for many years. 


Boston ; Romany Girl (1877-79), J. T. Wil- ; Ruin on Lake, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
liams, New York ; original study for do., T. Landscape in Storm (18(i!)), Cologne Ma- 
li Clark, New York ; Hannah (18,sO), F. H. scum ; View in the Eifel, .Stuttgart Gallery ; 
Lovell, Brooklyn ; The Quadroon (1880), S. Summer Day on the Rhine ; Autumn Land- 

D. Warren, Boston ; Maidenhood (1881), W. scape after Storm ; L'rach Waterfall ; Wood 
F. Matchett, Boston; Winifred Dysart (1881), Landscape in Briihl Valley; Outlook on 
J. M. Scars, Boston ; Psyche (1882), W. A. Chiem Lake ; Chestnut Wood near Mcran ; 
Tower, Boston ; Nydia, Berry Pickers, Driv- Chillon Castle in Approaching Storm. 
ing Home the Calf (1882); Turkey Pasture Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 202 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
(1882), W. H. Abercrombie, Brookline ; Pris- xiii. 11)4 ; xiv. 2'.)4 ; W. Miiller, Diisseldf. 
cilia (1882), F. L. Amos, Boston ; Puritan K., :?.">:! ; Wiegmann, 'M 

J3oy (1883), C. G. Weld, Boston; Pasture FURINI, FRANCESCO, l.oni in Florence 

with Geese, Fagot Gatherers, Twilight on about 1GOO, died there in Ki4i). Florentine 

Prairie, Arethusa, Girl and Calf (188;!); No- school ; pupil of his father, Filippo Furini, 

vember (1882-84); Fedalma (18813-84), C. and successively of Passignano, P.ilevelt. 

E. Lauriat, Boston. Harper's Mag., Sept.. and Matteo Itosselli. Afterwards studied 
1884. works of Guido in Rome. On return to 

FUNGAI, BERNARDINO, born about Florence won considerable reputation for 

14(50, died in 151(5. Sienese school; pupil painting the nude, generally choosing snb- 

of Benvenuto di Giovanni or of Matteo da jects in which he could introduce the forms 

Siena; was associated with Giacomo Pac- of women and children. His flesh tints are 

chiarotti and influenced by Pinturicchio. very mellow and tender. Among his works 

He was one of the last representatives of are, Magdalen in the Desert, Siena Academy, 

the old school. In his Coronation of the do. (2), Vienna Museum ; Daughters of Lot, 

Virgin (1500V) in S. M. do' Servi, the fig- Madrid Museum ; Ye- 

uros are rigid, awkward in movement, and mis and Adonis, Buda- l) 

sfifHy draped. His Madonna and Saints Pesth Gallery; Crea- 'T'f 

(1512) in the Carmine, Siena, is better pro- tion of Kvc, Pala/xo n 

portioned, though less characteristic than Pitti, Florence; Birth 

the Coronation in Church of the Madonna of Cyrus, New York Museum. Ch. Ulanc, 

di Fontegiusta, Siena, and the Assumption Kcole florentine ; Bnrckhardt, 1 III, '.'<*''. 

in the Siena Academy. His best and per- 392, 305. 

haps his latest work is a Christ between SS. FURSTENBERG, SIEGFRIED, born in 

Francis and Jerome in the same gallery, a Berlin in 1810. Genre and portrait painter, 

weak, rosy-coloured picture, carefully and pupil of Wach in 1820-32, and then of the 

flatly treated. C. k C., Italy, iii. 372; Va- Diisscldorf Academy. In is 1C, he was ap- 

sari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 173 ; Burckhardt, (185 ; pointed teacher of drawing in the Koalschule 

Rio, i. 144. at Treves. His genre pieces and portraits 

FUNK, HEFXRICH, born at Herford, are remarkable for truth to nature and finish. 
Westphalia, Dec. 12, 1807, died in Stutt- Works: Fortune-Teller; Return from the 
part, Nov. 22, 1877. Landscape painter, Kinness ; Father's Friend ; The Widow. 
pupil of his father and, from 1829, of Diis- FURTMEYU, PKRCHTOLD, flourished 
Beldorf Academy; moved in 183(5 to Frank- in Ratisbon, 1470-1501, died about 1502. 
fort, and was from 1854-7(5 professor at the German school ; miniature painter, famous 
Stuttgart art-school. Gold ineditl in Rouen, for his illuminations of a chronicle, a bible 
Orderof Frederic in 1870, order of the Crown (1470-72), and a missal (1481, for Arch- 
in 1873. Works: Ruin of Castle (1834), bishop Bornlmrd of Sal/burg), Court Library, 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Lower Inn Valley, Munich. Forster, Denkmale, iii. 1 ; do., 


Gesch., ii. 254 ; Schnaase, viii. 4G8 ; Sig- 
hardt, Gesch., G40. 

FUSELI (Fuessli), HENRY (Heinrich), 

born in Zu- 
rich, Feb. 7, 
1741, died in 
London, April 
1G, 1825. His- 
tory painter 
and writer on 
art, son of Jo- 
hann Caspar 
Fuessli (1707- 
81), portrait 
and landscape 
painter of Zurich ; took holy orders after 
graduating from Zurich Vnivci'sity (17(51), 
left on account of some theological dispute 
in 17C>:5, and after \yandoring through Ger- 
many, where he supported himself by mak- 
ing translations, went to England in 17(55, 
and in 17G7 adopted painting as his profes- 
sion, by tho advice of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Three years later he went to Italy, and re- 
sided there from 1770 to 1770, studying 
Michelangelo especially, and forming a fan- 
tastic stylo which also betrays the influence 
of Goltzius and Spranger. After his return 
to London he attracted attention by a pic- 
ture called Tho Nightmare (1782). From 
the year 1774 to 1825 he exhibited sixty- 
nine pictures and drawings at tho Royal 
Academy. In 1788 he was elected an A.R.A. 
and in 1700 R.A. ; was made professor in 
1700, and keeper in 1805. A fantastic and 
prolific designer rather than a painter, he 
had neither tho judgment to control, nor 
the technical knowledge to adequately rep- 
resent, the fancies of his powerful but ill- 
regulated imagination. His literary abilities 
were of no mean order, and the lectures 
which he delivered at the Royal Academy 
give evidence of thought, study, and critical 
acumen, and are remarkable as specimens 
of English writing by a foreigner. Works: 
Ugolino and his Sons ; Celadon and Amelia; 
Romeo and Juliet ; Lady Macbeth ; Fran- 
cesca and Paolo; An Incantation ; Hercules 

1 and Theseus. Redgrave ; Sanclby, i. 205 ; 
Ch. Blanc, JCcole anglaise; Allgem. d. Biogr., 
viii. 2GO ; Art Journal (18G1), 325; Port- 
folio (1873), 50 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., vii. 
204; Wornum, Epochs, 52C ; J. Knowles, 
Life and Lectures of Fuseli. 

FUTERER, ULRICH, nourished at Land- 
shut about 1480. German school ; history 
painter and poet. He painted, conjointly 
with Gabriel Maechselkirchner, from 14G7 
for Kloster Tegernsee, and Duke Albrecht 
IV. of Bavaria. Work : Crucifixion, Schleiss- 

, heiin Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 271 ; 
Schnaase, viii. 4(i4. 

FUX, JOSEF, born at Steinhof, Nether 
Austria, in 1842. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Ruben ; talented colourist. Works: 
Scene in a Deer Park ; On a Perilous Road; 
The Roman Dove-Seller; Children's por- 
traits ; Lute-Player ; Cardinal Praying ; Sa- 
voyard with Monkeys. Miiller, "l8 ; N. 

'illustr. Zeitg. (188:!),' i. KJ7. 

FYOLL, KONRAD, flourished in Frank- 
fort in 14GO-!)8. German school ; son 
and probably pupil of Scbald Fyoll, whose 
name appears in Frankfort documents in 
143!)-fi2 as having executed wall-paint- 
ings. The pictures in the Stiidel Gallery 
under the name of Konrad are not authen- 
ticated. Schuaase, viii. 377 ; W. \- W., ii. 

FYT, JAN, born at Antwerp, baptized 
March 15, 1(511, died there, Sept. 11, 1GG1. 
Flemish school; animal and still-life painter, 
pupil of Jan van den Berch and of Frans 
Snyders, next to whom he was the greatest 
animal painter of the Flemish school ; mas- 
ter of the guild in 1G20, visited France 
(1(533-34 in Paris) and Italy, and often 

worked conjointly with Jordaens and Van 
Dyck. Works : Dead Birds, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Dogs with Dead Game, 

I Hawk striking a Duck, Grosveuor Gallery, 
ib. ; Poultry Yard, Cock Fight, Fancy Birds 
(1GG1), nine others, Madrid Museum; Dead 
Game (3), Dog devouring Game (1G51), 
Louvre, Paris ; Hare pursued by Dogs, 
Boar Hunts (2), Nantes Museum ; Cart 



with Game drawn by Dogs, Flowers and poror and some historical subjects for the 

Fruits in a Landscape, Brussels Museum ; Imperial Gallery. On his return to Flor- 

Eagle's Repast, Two Greyhounds, Antwerp once he executed 

Museum; Dead Game watched by Dog, several altar- 

Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; do. (4), Cassel pieces, notably a / f 

Gallery ; do. (1), Augsburg Gallery ; do. St. Philip, in the f r '? <\ 

(4), Schleissheim Gallery ; Deer pursued by Church of the 

Dogs, Bear Hunt, Dead" Game (1050), Boar Padri dell 1 Ora V\ "" 

Hunt, Dogs Fighting, Old Pinakothok, Mu- torio. He was 

nich; Dead Game watched by Dogs (KM'.l), killed by a fall , ; 

Dead Birds, Diana by her Booty (figures by from a scatlbld. 

Quellinus, the younger), Deer Hunt, Berlin Works: Rape of 

Museum; White Dog with Boy and Dwarf Ganymede, Ma- 

(1052, figures by Bosschaert I, Still Life (5), donna, portrait of 

Dresden Museum; Diana and Nymphs after himself (lOS(i), I'tli/.i, Florence; Christ at 
the Chase (1050), Still Life and Dog (1C,52|, the House of Simon, Dresden Gallery ; St. 
Dead Game (2), Room in Hunting Lodge, Francis of Assisi receiving the Stigmata, 
Museum, Vienna ; Deer Hunt, (1055), Birds St. Peter of Alcantara, formerly in Old Pina- 
and Hare (1058), Cock Fight, Fox Hunt, kothek, Munich. Lan/.i ( Koscoe). i. 2 I'.t. 
Dogs attacking Bear, four others, Lieehten- (iAI'JNIt'S, ANTIOCHl'S, Koman paint- 
stein Gallerv, ib.; others in Geneva, Lyons, or, middle of 1st, century i;.r. Pupil of So- 
Lille (2), Valenciennes (2), Dunkirk (2), polls. Cic. ad Attic., iv. 10: It.-Rochette, 
Darmstadt (2). Brunswick (1), and Stockholm Schoru, :!15. 

(5) Museums, Hermitage, St.. Petersburg (2), GAI5L, ALOIS, born at Wies, Tyrol, in 

Utlix.i, Florence, Museum and 1845. Genre painter, pupil of Munich 


/ f ^ Historical Society, New York, Academy under Scliraudolph and Ham berg. 
l" 1 j and Pennsylvania Academy, then under Piloty ; followed Defregger in 
i -* the choice of his subjects. Was professor 

at Munich Academy from 1878 to 1SS-J. 
Gold modal in 1881. Works: Haspinger 
preaching Itevolt ( Is72 ): Recruiting in Ty- 
rol (187:!), New York Museum ; Blessing the 
Philadelphia. -Biog. nat. do Belgiquo. vii. I'-nda! Chamber ( 1*75) ; Forbidden Dance- 
:W4; Ch. Blanc, Keole ilamande ; Gax. des M " si(l ' His Reverence as Cmpirc (1H77) ; 
B. Arts (180:5), xv. 5:50; Michiels. ix. lill; Trial of Sewing-Machine (1H78) ; Spinning- 
Rooses(Rebcr), 42:5; Van don Brandon, 1085. Tx-sson (17!M: Brewery Inn at Munich, 

Three Magi and their Star (1*8:!) ; v accma- 
tionRoom (1885). Miiller, bS'.l ; Brockhaus. 

GABBIANI, ANTONIO DOMENICO, vii. 412; /eitschr. f. b. K., x. (Mitthoil- 
born at Florence in 1(!52, died there ungen, iii. 7(1), xix. 1:51, 208. 
in 1720. Florentine school; history GABRIFLLO, ONOFKIO. born at Mes- 
and portrait painter, pupil of Justus Suster- sina in 1017, died in 1700. Neapolitan 
mans and Vincenzo Dandini, then, through school; portrait painter, pupil of Antonio 
the patronage of Grand Duke Cosmo III., Riicci ; afterward, in Rome, of Pietro da 
for three years in Rome, of Ciro Ferri. Vis- Cortona, and for nine years in Venice of 
ited Venice, where he improved his colour Maroli ; returned to Messina, where he re- 
in" ; was invited to the court of Vienna, mained till the revolution in 1674 compelled 
and painted there the portrait of the Em- him to leave Sicily, when he went to Padua. 



His best works are in the Church of San 
Francesco di Paola, Messina, and in the Pa- 
lazzo Borromeo, Padua. 

GABRON, GUILIAM (Willem), horn at 
Antwerp, Oct. 28, l(ili), died there, Aug. 
2, 1(178. Flemish school ; still-life painter, 
instructed probably by liis father ; master 
of the guild in lf>41 ; visited Italy, spending 
several years in Rome, whence he returned 
before lf>f>0. Works : Table with Turkish 
Cover, Parrot, etc. (1052), Brunswick Mu- 
seum ; Table spread (?, attributed by Bode 
to Heda), Old Piuakothek, Munich; Similar 

^ >aJ> 

subjects in Darmstadt Museum (2) and 
Aschaft'enburg Gallery. Bode, Studieu, (ilfi; 
Itooses (Keber), 427 ; Van den Branden, 


GADPI, AGNOLO, died in Florence, 
Oct., HV.Hi. Florentine school ; son and 
pupil of Taddeo Gaddi, and like him a fol- 
lower of Giotto. His early labours were in 
the church of S. Jacopo tra' Fossi, Florence, 
where the liaising of Lazarus was treated, 
according to Vasari, in an exceedingly real- 
istic manner ; but he must, have changed his 
style, as there are no traces of such realism 
in his later frescos. Those in the parish 
church of Prato (13fi5), a double series, at 
the ends of a central aisle, representing the 
legends of the Virgin and tho sacred girdle, 
are the best and probably the earliest of his 
works. In them he was evidently guided 
by Giotto's maxims in regard to the compo- 
sition, and thej" are more perfect in balance 
and therefore more pleasing than any of 
Taddeo's. The figures also have more re- 
pose and dignity, and more nature and in- 
dividuality. The drawing is free and bold, 
though not always correct, and the colouring 
bright, clear, light, and transparent in its 
tones. But, though superior to Taddeo, 
Agnolo was inferior to Orcagna, and art in 
his hands had somewhat degenerated and 
become decorative. Other examples of Ag- 

nolo's work are eight frescos of the legend 
of the Cross, in the choir of S. Croce, Flor- 
ence ; and a Madonna, Angels, and Saints, 
Florence Academy ; Annunciation, Uffizi, 
Florence ; do., Louvre. C. & C., Italy, i. 
4G3 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 148 ;' Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon.,ii. 150 ; Seguier, 79; Bal- 
diuucci, i. 225 ; W. & W., i. 455. 

GADDI, GADDO, born in 1239, died in 
1312. Florentine school. An intimate friend 
of Cimabuc, whom he survived twelve years. 
He laid the foundation of a fortune which 
raised his family to the highest social dis- 
tinction. According to Vasari, he executed 
mosaics in the Baptistery, and in S. Maria 
del Fiore, Florence. In 1308 he was in- 
vited by Clement V. to Rome, and certain 
mosaics in S. Maria Maggiore are assigned 
to him. They are more modern in style 
than Rusutti's mosaic in the same church, 
and mark the transition between Cimabue 
and Giotto. Vasari says that he painted 
many easel pictures, and he probably took 
part in the decoration of the upper church 
of Assisi. C. & C., Italy, i. 229 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., i. 345 ; Baldinucci, i. 89. 

GADDI, TADDEO, born about 1300, 
^ died after 1300. Flor- 

) entine school ; son and 
\ pupil of Gaddo Gadd i, 
and godson and dis- 
j) ciple of Giotto, with 
whom he worked 
twenty-four years. 
After the death of his 
master he was consid- 
ered the first in his 
art, which, however, 
but dimly reflected that of Giotto. His 
artistic career began when Giotto went to 
Naples, at which time (1352-50) he painted 
the frescos of the legend of the Virgin 
1 assigned to him in the Baroncelli chapel in 
| S. Croce, Florence. These show that he had 
little fancy, and that his execution was rapid, 
decorative, and conventional. Remains of 
other frescos by him are in S. Francesco, 
Pisa. A Madonna with Donors and Saints, 



Berlin Museum, is signed and dated 
and a Virgin Enthroned with six Angels, 
Siena Gallery, is dated 1U55. Two small 
panels, Berlin Museum, part of a, series of 
which twelve more are in the Florence 
Academy, though ascribed to Giotto and de- 
signed by him, are evidently painted by 
Taddeo. The Baptism of Christ, and Six- 
teen Saints, National Gallery, London, lie- 
long to this painter's school, and the predella 
of an altarpiece, three subjects, Louvre, is 
attributable to him. Taddeo was also an 
architect, and designed the Poute Vecchio 
and the Pon- 
te a S. Trin- 
Italy, i. 354 ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 140 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., i. 571 ; Baldinueei, i. 217; W. \, W., i. 

GAEL, BAIIEND, born in Haarlem about 
1(!45. Dutch school ; painted hunts, land- 
scapes, kirmesses, and horse markets ; pupil 
of I'hilip \You\verman. His pictures arc 
finely coloured and correct in drawing. 
Works : Peasant Woman baking Cakes, 
Horseman Dismounting, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Horsemen playing at Cards, Brunswick 
Museum ; Swine Market, Augsburg Gallery ; 
two in Liechtenstein Gallery, 
Vienna; Fish .Seller in a Land- 
scape, Halt of Travellers before 
Inn, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Poultry Market, Hog 
Market, New York Museum. 
Immerzeel, i. 257 ; Itiegel, Beitriige, ii. 

Amsterdam in 1C'70, died in 172H. Dutch 
school ; painter of battles and hunts, pupil 
of J. van Huchtenburgh, whom he assisted, 
and with whose pictures his own are often 

confounded. Lived long in Diisseldorf at 
the court of the Elector of Cologne, for whom 

he painted battles, hunts, and animals. Went 
afterwards to London. Works : (jucen Anne 
driving to Parliament ; Royalist Battles ; 
Battle of the Boyne. Immerzeel, i. 25!). 

Ley den, died there in January or February, 
1IJ50. Dutch school ; genre and portrait 
painter in the manner of Gerard Don ; mas- 
ter of the guild at Leyden in HU'.). His 
works are very rare. Works: Portrait of 
Young Man, Amsterdam Museum ; The 
Seamstress, Berlin Museum. 

born at Miihlhausrn, Alsace. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Leon Cogniet and 
ofSoulary. Medal, :i<l class, 1SS4. Works: 
Arehiepiscopal Palace at Sal/.burg (1S77); 
Sea-shore at (Irandelmnip (1S"S); Shrimp- 
Fishers at Grandchamp (Is"'.)); After Dam- 
age at Sea (lSS:i); Women j licking Stranded 
Goods (1SS3); Pere Bustel's Farm, La Tons- 
saint (ISM); Fish Market, Farm Yard 

Bourg-Pivy-Dijon (C'>te d'Or), Sept. 21, 
1750, died at Florence, Aug. IS, 17115. His- 
tory and battle painter, pupil of Devosges, 
then studied in Home ; was awarded the 
first prize for his Soranus and Servilia, four 
years after his death. Court-painter to King 
of Sweden in 17(S'.I. Works : Sorauus and 
Servilia, Dijon Museum ; Cavalry Attack, 
Landscape, Montpellier Museum ; Genius of 
Peace checking the Horses of Mars, Musce 
Rath, Geneva ; Interview of Gustaviis 111. 
of Sweden with Pope Pius VI., Royal Palace, 
i Stockholm. 

GAIL, WILHELM, born in Munich, 
March 7, 1K04. Landscape and architec- 
ture painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
under Peter Hess, visited Italy in 1S25, 
France in IM.'iO, and Spain in 1S:!2. Works : 
Corridor in Palazzo Dueale, Venice (IMl); 
Lion's Court in Alhambra, Balcony of Lin- 
daraja, Sanctuary of Mosque in Cordova, 
Ruin of Convent in Toledo ; Convent Cross- 
way, Interior of Convent Courtyard, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Church Interior at Cordova, 



Interior of Hall in Palazzo Ducalo, S. Laz- 
y.aro in Venice, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Convent S. Martino in Piedmont (1857), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Devotees before 
Shrine on Spanish Coast (1837), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg. Brockhaus, vii. 453 ; Faber, iv. 
L'4G ; Miiller, 100. 

GAILLOT, BERNARD, born at Versailles, 
Feb. 17, 1780, died in Paris, June 17, 1847. 
History painter, pupil of David. Medal, 2d 
class, 1S17. AYorks : Cornelia, Mother of 
the Gracchi (1817); Conversion of St. Au- 
gustine (1810), Vision of St. Monica (1822), 
Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; St. Louis 
with the Crown of Thorns (1824), Sens Ca- 
thedral ; others in Versailles Museum. 
Slid bury, Suffolk, 
baptised May 14. 
1727, died in Lon- 
don, Aug. 2, 1788, 
British school ; 
went to London in 
1741, and became 
a pupil of Gravelot, 
the French engrav- 
er ; then of Francis 
Hay m an, with 
whom he studied drawing. After an un- 
successful struggle as a portrait and laud- 
scape painter in London, he returned home 
in 1744 or 1745, and in 17(iO settled in 
Bath, where he devoted himself chiefly to 
portraiture ; in 1774 he went again to Lon- 
don, and won such a reputation that he was 
considered the rival of Keynolds in portrait, 
and of "Wilson in landscape, painting. In 
17GG he became a member of the Society of 
Artists, and he was one of the foundation 
members (1708) of the Royal Academy. Sir 
Joshua Keynolds observes of him : " Whether 
he most excelled in portraits, landscapes, or 
fancy pictures, it is difficult to determine," 
and Buskin calls him "the purest colourist 
of the English school." His pictures com- 
mand high prices. Works : Market Cart, 
Watering Place (2), Huxidora, liuxtit- Children, 
The Brook, and portraits of Mrs. Siddoiw, 

Balph Schomberg, Edward Orpin the Parish 
Clerk, Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Bart,, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Lord Amherst, G. 
Coleman, Marquis Cornwallis, National Por- 
trait Gallery; Jiluc Boy (1779), G'ottaye 
Door, Peasant's Family, Fisherman's Fam- 
ily, Grosvenor House ; Mrs. Sheridan and 
Mrs. Tickell, Mr. Linley and his Grandsons 
Samuel and Thomas, J. P. Loutherbourg, 
R.A., Mrs. Moody and her Children, Dul- 
wich Gallery ; Hon. Mrs. Graham, National 
Gallery, Edinburgh ; Miss Haverneld, Por- 
trait of a Lad}', Hertford House ; portrait 
of himself, Royal Academy ; Daughters of 
George III., sketch for Blue Boy, South 
Kensington Museum ; portrait of his wife, 
V\'. Sharpc ; portrait of himself, of Lady 
Mary Bowlby, and Gainsborough Dupont, 
George Richmond, R. A. ; Cows in Meadow, 
Bridge water House; Young Girl, Stafford 
House ; Family of Country People, Wynn 
Ellis Collection ; Landscape, Baring Collec- 
tion ; Johann Christian Fischer the com- 
poser, Col. St. Leger, and others, Hamp- 
ton Court ; Miss McGill, Cobham Hall ; 
two portraits, Arundel Castle ; Landscape, 
Petworth; Duke of Argyll (1770); Jlar- 
M*l "Wagon, Lord Tweedmouth ; John Duke 
of Bedford, Blenheim ; Cattle in Land- 
I scape, Bowood ; Peasants going to Market, 
Stourhead House ; Duke and Duchess of 
Montague, Duckwith Palace ; Landscapes 
with Cattle (2), Belvoir Castle ; Lady Chat- 
ham, Orwell Park ; Duchess of Devonshire 
(1775), Earl Spencer, Althorp ; Landscape, 
Historical Society, New York. Other of 
the 220 portraits by him, are : George 
III. (8), Pitt (7), Garrick (5), Lord Chan- 
cellor Camden, Sir William Blackstone, 
Johnson, Sterne, Richardson, Clive, Burke, 
Sheridan, Wiudham, Franklin, Canning, 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lady Ver- 
non, Lady Maynard, and the Bishops of 
Worcester and Ferns. A collection of 21(i 
of Gainsborough's works were exhibited at 
the Grosveuor Gallery, London, in 1885. 
Pratt, Life (London, 1788); Thickuesse, Life 
(London, 1788); Fulcher, Life (London, 



185C); Brock-Arnold, Biog. Great Artists; 
Redgrave : Cunningham ; Ch. Blanc, Keole 
anglaise ; Waagen, Art Treasures; Black- 
wood's Mag., Nov., 1807 ; Eng. Painters of 
Georgian Era (London, 1870); London 
Acad., Aug. 4, 1883, 80 ; July 21, 188:5, 51 ; 
Portfolio (1872), 10!>, 178. 

Augsburg, Nov. 21, 1825. Genre painter, 
pupil in Augsburg of Johann Geyer, then of 

Munich Academy under Clemen s 

Zimmermann, but studied chielly 
after the old masters in the 1'ina- 
kothek. Having held a position as 
Intructor at Augsburg in 185H-OI5, 
he settled in Munich. Received a 
medal in London. Works : Family 
Concert (18(!7); Miinchhausen 
among the Ladies ; The Tough 
Goose ; The Last Lesson ; Soldiers 
Quartered ; Secret Love Message ; 
Game of Chess ; Hans Fugger in 
Family Circle ; Cienr a Tout ; Con- 
tented People ; Lupus in Fabula ; 
Brother Cellarer ; The Improvisa- 
tore ; Letter of Introduction. All- 
gem. Kunst-Chronik, ix. (Jt)8. 

first half of 15th century, dead in 
147:5. Lombard school ; son of a 
tailor and master-painter of Fer- 
rara. Name appears in 1450 5:5 in 
account books of house of Este, 
where he is called Maestro Galusso 
cle Matheo Calegaro, in connection 
with the decoration of the palace of 
Belriguardo. In 1455 he composed 
the Assumption and finished a portrait of 
Cardinal Bessarion in Santa Maria in Monte, 
Bologna. Vasari says he went to Venice and 
acquired there the use of oils, but it is doubt- 
ful if lie ever used them. Much more has 
been made of him than he deserves. His 
pictures show bad drawing, affected or spas- 
modic action, and skinny flesh. Examples : 
Trinity, Ferrara Museum ; Entombment, and 
Virgin with Saint and Donor, Costabili Col- 
lection, Ferrara. C. &, C., N. Italy, i. 514 ; 

Vaaari, eel. Le Mon., iv. 213 ; Cittad, -11... No- 
ti/.ie di Ferrari, 2C, 558 et sej. ; Cli. Blanc. 
iCcole ferraraise. 

lazzo Fariiesina, Home; fresco, figures life 
si/.e. Galatea, half nude, standing in a shell, 
attended by tritons and sea-nymphs, isdrawu 
over the waves by two dolphins, which she 
guides by reins, aided by a Cupid ; above, 
three Cupids are discharging arrows, and a 

u> i. 

. ( . 

.' - . 

-- i 


/-v .. 

~'^%"y I 
<v i *;$-? ^.,-j^, 

'<i;s ; .>'v * :: ' 

*Jv ../ >^ .'. ^ 


i V \ ' OV"" 1 *'";'. '.' -^-a/ \ *'S s ** / 

>- ;*^i ' ' * - \'> rW \ ~~/ -> / 

ph of Galatea, Raphael. Pala:;o Farnes'na R 

fourth, half hidden in clouds, is preparing 
his darts. Painted in 1514 for Agoutino 
Chigi, owner of the Pala/./.o Chigi (now Far- 
nesina). Subject probably from Philostratus 
(Imagines, ii. xviii.) or Politian (Giostni, i. 
118). Engraved by Marc Antonio; Marco 
Dentc ; H. Golt/ius; Richomme ; B. J)es- 
noyers. Copy by Giulio Romano, Acca- 
demia di S. Luca, Koine. Vasari, ed. Mil, 
iv. :54() ; Pa.ssavaiit, ii. 14.'J ; Mlintz, 48!) ; 
Forster, Famesina Studien ; Gruyer, Ra- 



phael et 1'Antiquite, i. 279 ; Springer, 2GO ; 
Perkins, Essay, KiO. 

Subject treated also by Francesco Albaui, 
Dresden Clallery ; Nicolas Poussin, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; Agostino Carracci, Pa- 
lazzo Farnese. Rome ; Luca Giordano, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Domenico Feti, 
Vienna Museum ; School of Botticelli, Dres- 
den Museum. 

GALATON of Alexandria, time of Ptol- 
emy Philopater (222-205 n.c.). .Elian (Var. 
hist. xiii. 24) says he painted a picture in- 
tended to cast ridicule on the epic poets of 

in Paris, June ',W. 1810, died at Ncuilly 
sur-Srine in June, 1885. Genre mid por- 
trait painter, pupil of Richomuie and Reg- 
nault. Medal 18(!5. Works : St. Medar- 
dus (1850); Chambermaid (1855); Girl 
Scholar (1805); Young Housewife (1870); 
Consolation (1875); Reverie (1878), Pan 
Museum ; The King's Cake (1880); Woman 
Darning (1882); Gypsy Girl (1885). 

GALE, WILLIAM, born in London in 
18I!2. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Koval Academy ; first exhibited in 1845 
Young Celadon and his Amelia. Spent 
several years in Italy and travelled in Syria, 
Palestine, and Algeria. Works : Weeping 
Place of the Jews in Jerusalem (18G:>); En- 
trance into Jerusalem (18(>7); Return of the 
Prodigal (180'.)); Cupid's Ambassador (1871); 
Abraham and Isaac going to Sacrifice (1872) ; 
Eyes to the Blind (1873); Spring-Time in 
the East (1874); The Competitive Examina- 
tion (1875); Chess-Players, Love-Tale (187(5); 
Spoils of War (1877); Algerian Interior 
(18G8); Song of Miriam (1881); Helweh 
(1883). Meyer, Com-. Lex., xviii. 378. 

Charles Louis Jfiil/cr, Charles S. Smith, 
New York ; canvas. The astronomer re- 
ceived by his friend Cardinal Barberiui, 
who afterwards became Pope Urban YIH. 

GALILEO IN PRISON, Karl von Pilot,,, 
Cologne Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x 7 f t 
3 in. The astronomer hi pensive attitude 

looking at some mathematical lines he lias 
drawn upon the floor, upon which falls a ray 
of sunlight. In the background a grated 
window through which two monks are ob- 
serving him. 

in Paris, March 25, 1813, died at Montigny- 
le-Cormeilles (Seine-et-Oise), Jan. 17, 1880. 
Genre painter, fellow pupil with Ingres 
under A. Hesse. Medals : 3d class, 1835 ; 
2<1 class, 184G. Works : Lady of the Cas- 
tle in the ICth century ; Holy Women at 
the Tomb of Christ (1835); Liberty leaning 
on Christ (183(i); Nnusicaa (1841); Angel 
(1845); Ode (184(>), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Virgin at Prayer ; Jealous Juno ; Christ 
Blessing (1848), Cathedral of Perigueux ; 
Virgin in Tears (1849), Church of Jonzac ; 
Leda (1857); The Papacy (18G8); Portrait 
of Hesse (1870) ; Pre-des- Lions in June 
(1875) ; St. Louis, King of France, Henri 
Jules de Bourbon, Versailles Museum. 
Bellicr de la Chavignerie, i. 001 ; Chronique 
des Arts, January 24, 1880 ; Am. Art. Rev., 
March, 1880 ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 38G ; Vap- 
ereau (1880), 7C3. 

GALLAIT, LOUIS, born at Tournay, 
March 10, 1810. 
History, genre, and 
i_- x . 'Jj portrait painter, pu- 

ffi&$ i" 1 of Tourna y Ae:u] - 

emy under Henne- 
q u i n . Having 
obtained the first 
prize at Ghent in 
1831, he studied at 
the Antwerp Acad- 
emy, and in 1834 

went to Paris, where his portraits and his- 
torical paintings were soon highly esteemed. 
His Abdication of Charles V., painted at 
Brussels in 1841, placed him at once at the 
head of Belgian historical painters, and won 
for him the Belgian Order of Leopold, and 
the French Legion of Honour. The city of 
Brussels struck a medal in his honour. 
Member of Brussels, Antwerp, Paris, Berlin, 
and Munich Academies. Prussian Order of 



Merit ; Order of Oaken Crown of Holland. 
Works : Render unto Ctrsar the things thaf 
are Caesar's (1831), Ghent Museum ; Christ 
healing the Blind (1833), Tournay Cathe- 
dral ; Duke of Alva in the Netherlands. 
Travelling Musicians (1834); The Beggars 
(1834), Liege Museum ; Job and his 
Friends (1835), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum; Death of Palestrina ; Montaigne 
visiting Tasso in Prison (1830), King of 
Belgium; The Penitent (1830); Battle of 
Mont Cassel (1837), Conquest of Antioch 
by Godfrey de Bouillon (1840), Count Bald- 
win crowned at Constantinople in 1204 
Due de Biron (1835), Versailles Museum 
Abdication of Charles V. (1841), Brussels 
Museum ; replica (1849), Stiidel Gallery 
Frankfort ; Temptation of St. Anthom 
(1848), King of Belgium; Triumph of Ge- 
nius, Broken Violin-Bow (1850) ; Obsequies 
of ti/iiuiiil and Horn (1851), Tournay Mu- 
seum ; Slavic Musicians (1852), Ravein' Gal- 
lery, Berlin; Gypsy with Children (1852); 
Song of Prisoners (1855); Francis I. in Leo- 
nardo da Vinci's Studio (1857); Egmont's 
Last Hour (1858), Capuchin Monk, National 
Gallery, Berlin; Joanna la Folio (185!)). 
Brussels Museum ; Oath of Vargas, San 
Donato Gallery ; Alva contemplating the 
beheaded Counts Egmont and Horn, Art 
and Liberty (1859), Power of Music (1800), 
Peace, War (1872). W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; Alva signing Death-Warrants ( 1803); 
Monk feeding the Poor, New Pinakothek. 
Munich ; The Prisoner, W. H. Vandorbilt, 
New York ; Italian Revenge ; Samson and 
Delilah ; Fisherman's Widow ; Murillo find- 
ing Model for his Madonna ; Prayer after 
Vintage; Plague in Tournay (1882), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Portraits of Pius IX. (1801), 
and of Cardinal Antonelli (1802); Fifteen 
historical portraits of Warriors, Legislators, 
and Patrons of Art and Letters, Senate 
Chamber, Brussels. Art Journal (1800), 
101; Brockhaus, vii. 470; Imnier/oel, i. 
259 ; Kramm, ii. 520 ; Springer, Gesch., 
198; Zeitsohr. f. b. K., xvii. 370; Riegel, 
Wandmalerei in Belgien, 30, 44. 

rnanca about 1475, died there in 155(1. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Pedro Berriiguote, 
but painted in the manner of Roger van dor 
Weyden. One of his best works, a Madonna 
with SS. Andrew and Christopher, was exe- 
cuted for the chapel of S. dementi in the 
Cathedral of Salamanca. Works : Altar- 
piece in Cathedral at /amora ; Two Bishops 
and Two Saints, Academy, Valladolid ; Vis- 
itation. Life of St. John the Baptist (5), 
Madrid Museum. Stirling, i. 12O. 

GALLERVNI. CKCILIA, portrait, Leo- 
nardo da \\in-i, lost (?). Painted in Milan 
about 1485-8'J, for Lodovico Sforxa (II 
Moro). Duke of Milan, whose mistress she 
was. She afterwards married Count Ix>do- 
vico Pergamino. In last, centurv this pict- 
ure was in possession of Marquis Bom-sana, 
Milan. A replica, or eopv. belonging to 
Professor Franchi. Milan, passed for a St. 
Cecilia. Another portrait of her by Leo- 
nardo belonged to the Pallavicini family of 
San Calorero. He also painted her as a 
Madonna, called the M. della Rosa. In this 
picture, which Ainoretti saw in Milan, the 
Virgin is urging Jesus to bless a rose. 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 7 ; Rigollot, Hist, des 
Arts, etc.. i. 29!) ; Ainoretti, Mem. storic. di 
L. da Vinci, 3S, 80, 105 ; Hoaton, 27'.), 28(1. 

GALLI. See l;il,i,;,n. 

GALLOCHE, LOl'IS, born in Paris, 
Aug. 24. 1070. died July 21, 1701. French 
school ; pupil of Louis de I.oiillongno ; ob- 
tained the first prixe in 1095, spent two 
years in Rome, and after his return to France 
opened a school. Was received into the 
Academy in 1711, made professor in 1720, 
rector in 1740, and chancellor in 1754. He 
had a pension from the king, and w;is lodged 
at the Louvre. 
Works: A Ices- f 
tis restored to V-Vl *- L.O CAiJO 
Admetus(1711), ( ) 
Louvre; St. ^""^ /j 

Peter in Cap- 
tivity, Rennes Museum ; St. Ambrose reviv- 
ing a Child, Nancy Museum ; Angelica and 



Medora, Caen Museum ; Coriolanus entreat- 
ed by his Family to assume the Command 
of the Roman Army, Orleans Museum. 
Ch. Blanc, JCcole fraiu/aise ; Lejeune, Guide, 
i. 357, iii. 104, 302 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

GAMBA, ENRICO, born in Turin, Jan. 
3, 1831, .lied there in Nov., 1883. History, 
genre, and landscape painter, studied in 
Turin, at the Stiidel Institute, Frankfort, 
and in Homo. Works : Victor Amadcus 
protecting the Poor, End of Vacation, Sou- 
venir of the Upper Rhine ; Frescos in S. 
Gioachino, Turin, and in Alessandria and 
Chiari Cathedrals. Kunst-Chronik, xix. 5(i. 

GAMBARA, LATTAN/K), of Brescia, 
born 1541, died 1574. Lombard school ; 
studied under Antonio Campi of Cremona, 
but afterwards became the disciple of Roma- 
nino, whose daughter he married. Vasari, 
however, calls him the son-in-law of Moretto 
da Brescia. His style is a combination of 
Campi's and Romanino's. Among his most 
spirited compositions are the damaged fres- 
cos in the Castello of Brescia. Another im- 
portant work is an altarpiece of the Nativity 
in S. Faustino, Brescia. The twelve; large 
frescos illustrative of the history of Christ, 
in the cathedral at Parma, were executed by 
him, with the aid of Sojaro, between 15(58 
and 1572. C. A: C., N. Italy, ii. 437 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 250, 2(!4 ; Burckhardt, 
1!>2, 7158. 

GAMESTERS, Michelangelo da Caravay- 

rades, playing cards. A good picture. From 
Prague Gallery, 1748. Engraved by P. 
Tan jo ; J. C. Loedel. Replica in Palazzo 
Sciarra, Rome, painted for Cardinal del 
Monte ; formerly in Palazzo Barberini. En- 
graved by J. Volpato ; T. Verkruys ; P. P. 
Montagnani. Gal. Roy. de Dresde, ii. PI. 
28 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. G14, G20 ; Rosini, 
vi. PI. 133. 

GANYMEDE, RAPE OF, Corregrjio, Vi- 
enna Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 
3 in. Jupiter, struck with the charms of 

Gamesters, Michelangelo da Caravaggio, Dresden Gallery. 

(/i'o, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 4 
ft 4 in. A young soldier with two com- 

Ganymede, Rape of, Eustache Lesueur, Louvre. 

Ganymede, son of Tros, King of Troy, and 
one of the most beautiful of mortals, took 
the form of an eagle and bore him off to 
heaven, where he served as cupbearer to the 
gods (Ovid, Metamorphoses). In the pict- 
ure, Ganymede is borne by the eagle in the 
air ; below, the plains of Lycia, where Gany- 
mede had tended his flocks ; in foreground, 
his dog, howling at the loss of his master. 
Painted about 1530 (?). In possession of An- 
tonio Perez, favourite of Philip II. ; sold in 
1003 to Rodolph II., and sent from Spain to 
Prague with the Leda, but probably taken 
early to Vienna. Assigned in Spain to Par- 
inigiano. Ancient copy in Madrid Museum. 
, Another Ganymede, with changes, a fresco 



transferred to canvas, in Modena Gallrry. 
Engraved by Fr. Van der Steen ; Jos. Eiss- 
ner. Meyer, Correggio, 341, 402 ; Kiinst. 
Lex., i. 438 ; Gal. de Vienne, i. PL IS. 

By Eustache J^e.tiit'itr, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. The eagle 
bears aloft the young prince, whoso atten- 
tion is directed earnestly to the earth, seen 
below. Painted for the hotel of President 
Lambert. Collection of Louis XVI. En- 
graved by Beauvais. Landon, Musee, vi. 17; 

By liemliraiult, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft, 9 in. x4 ft. 2 in.: signed, dated 
1035. Ganymede borne to Olympus by an 
eagle. Acquired in 1751. Engraved by ('. 
G. Schultze ; Canlon. Vosmaer, 442. 

Florence in 14(i(!, 
died there i n 
1524. Florentine 
school. Heal 
name Capponi, 
but commonly 
called del Garbo 
(tlie Graceful). 
Puj)il of Filippi- 
no Lippi, with 
w h o in he r o - 
niained until about 1490. 
follower of his master's style. He appears 
to best advantage in his Miulannn with An- 
gels ; Madonna with Saints and Angels ; and 
Madonna with Angels, Cherubs, and Saints, 
Berlin Museum. The first-named group is 
almost Haphaelesque in its conception. 
Among other examples worthy of note are : 
Madonna with Saints, Dresden Gallery ; 
Coronation of the Vinjin, Louvre; Jlrxiirrrr- 
tion, Florence Acad em y. C. & C., Italy, iii. 
415 ; Ch. Blanc, EVole florentine ; Liibke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 375 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
vii. 190; ed. Mil., iv. 233. 

born in Seville ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Seville Academy ; 
studied later in llome. Works : Burial of 
St. Clirysostoui (1864) ; Apparition of St. 

He was a weak 

i Agnes (1S07) ; Starting for the Bull-Fight 


born at Calatayud, Saragossa ; contempo- 
rary. History painter, pupil of Madrid 
Academy. Works : liaising of La/ams 
(lSf><;), Museum do la Trinidad, Madrid ; 
The I Covers of Temel (1S59) ; Death of King 
Don Sanclio ; Death of Poet Macias ; Lil>- 
eration of Francis I.; Charles II. as a Sor- 
cerer ( 1S7IJ) ; Procession of Our Lady ( 18S1 1; 
Penitent (1884). 

at Exeter, N. H.; contemporary. Figure 
painter, pupil of H. Merle, I.ei'ebvre, and 
Bouguercau in Paris. Exhibits at National 
Academy, New York, and Paris Salon. 
Honourable mention, Paris Salon, l.s~'.i. 
Studio in Paris. Works: Cinderella, < '. 
Crocker, San Francisco; Cornelia and her 
Jewels (187'J); Coriime (l!S~lt; Sorceress 
(1875); Fortune-Teller (ls7li); Ruth and 
Naomi (T. Wigglesworth, Boston), Moses in 
the Bulrushes (1878); Mau.l Mnller ( 1S71I): 
Priscilla, Water's Edge (1HS1); Da]>hnis 
and Chloe (1882); Captive (188:!): Portraits. 
J. H. Stebbins, New York ; Improvised Cup 
(1SS4), Corner of the Farm ( 1SS5), Kn<ed- 
ler & Co, New York. Portfolio (1*79), 

GAREIS, ANTON, born in Prague in 
ls:!7. (Jenre and portrait painter, pupil of 
his father and of Prague Academy under 
Engerth ; visited Dresden, Vienna, and Hun- 
gary. Works: Twelfth Night (1M!2); Kir- 
mess (18li:i); Tavern Scene (1S(>4); Hunga- 
rian Gypsies Playing, Sunday Music in 
Croatia (18118); Child's Play, Four Cartoons 
to "As you Like It." Muller, 192. 

\ in Paris, Feb. 19, 17S!!, died there, Sept. 11, 
1 1857. French school ; marine painter, pu- 
pil of his father, Jean Francois (1755-1837), 
portrait and genre painter, and scholar of 
David. Love of adventure led him in 179(! 
to India, where he took part in several sea- 
lights, and was taken prisoner in 180i; by 
the English, who retained him in captivity 



at Portsmouth until 1814. Ho exhibited 1 
his first marine in 1810, became painter to 
the Duke of Angouleme in 1817, and in 
1833 director of the Museum of Rouen. 
Medals in 1810 and 1855 ; L. of Honour, 
1852. Works : Tower of London, Three- 
docker cast on the Rocks, A Storm, Road- 
stoad with Yossols (1819); View of the 
Scheldt (1833), Douai Museum ; Battle of 
Augusta, lG7(i (183(1), Battle of Navarino, 
Napoleon's Return from Elba, Versailles 
Museum ; View of Sidon at Sunset, Bou- 
logne Museum ; Capture of the Kent by the 
Corsair Confiance (183(i), La Rochollo Mu- 
seum ; Cod-Fishing on Banks of Newfound- 
land (183!)), Rouen Museum ; Frigate Vir- 
ginie attacking English Squadron, Rochefort 
Museum ; Incident in Battle of Navarino 
(1853), Nantes Museum ; Porpoise-Fishing, 
Cherbourg Museum ; View of the Furnes 
Canal (1855), Marseilles Museum. -Bollier 
de la Cliavignerie, i. 007 ; Lrirousso ; Le- 
jeunc, Guide, iii. 105 ; Art Journal (185S), 

born in Paris, Aug. 24, 1759, died Nov. l(i, 
184!). French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Duramcau, Doyen, and 
Vien, studied afterwards in Rome ; painted 
scenes from Greek and Roman history and 
mythology, in the shallow theatrical pathos 
of his time, but with skill and effective col- 
ouring. Member of Institute in 181(! ; L. of 
Honour, 1828. Works : Nebuchadnezzar 
causing the Children of /edekiah to be 
Killed (1787), Mans Museum ; Desolation 
of Priam's Family (1800), ordered by the 
Director}' ; Roman Charity, Diana appear- 
ing to Hercules (1801); Napoleon (1808); 
Burial of Dagobert (1814), Sacristy of St. 
Denis ; Eponina and Sabinus (1814), Angers 
Museum ; Procession of St. Charles Borro- 
meo during the Plague at Milan (1827), 
Church of St. Germain ; St. Louis arbitrat- 
ing between the King of England and his 
Barons (1827); Reception of the Duke of 
Angouleme at Chartres on his Return from 
Spain (1831); Entry of Duke and Duchess I 

of Angouleme into Chartres, 1823 (1827), 
Chartres Museum ; Portrait of Cardinal 
Maury (1838). Avignon Museum ; Marriage 
Ceremony of Napoleon and Marie Louise 
(1840), Versailles Museum. Bellier de la 
Cliavignerie, i. CIO ; Larousse ; Lejeune, 
Guide, iii. 105. 

Paris, Jan. 22, 1847. Genre painter, stud- 
ied first in Toulouse, then pupil of Gi'rome 
in Paris ; travelled in Holland, Spain, and 
Morocco, paints mediaeval subjects with ex- 
treme archicological accuracy. Works : The 
Bather, Mile, de Sombreuil drinking a Glass 
of Blood (1809); Adam's Dream, Jus Primre 
Noctis (1872); Vassals' Taxes Debris (1873); 
Lo Roi s'anmso (1874); Execution in Kith 
Century, Nude Female Figure (1875); Pun- 
ishment of Adultery in Middle Ages (1870); 
Stranded (Joods, The Favourite (1877); Lib- 
erator of the Territory (1878); Village Fes- 
tival, Temptation (1879); Rabelais, the Par- 
son of Meudon (18HO); Distribution of 
Standards, July 14, 1880 (1881); Reveil 
(1KS2); Truth (1883); Jolly Drinkers (after 
Rabelais's Gargantua, 1884). Miiller, 193; 
Meyer, C'onv. Lex., xviii. 381. 

GAROFALO, IL, born in Ferrara in 1481, 
died there, Sept. fi, 1559. Lombard-Fer- 
rarese school. Real name Benvenuto di 
Piero Tisi, but called Garofalo (Gilliflower) 
from his use of that flower as a device. 
Pupil of Domenico Panetti, of Niccolo Sori- 
ani, and of Boccacini, from whose studio he 
ran away to Rome (1499) and studied about 
a year under Giovanni Barrini. In 1502 he 
was in Mantua, where he must have remained 
four years if, as Vasari says, he studied with 
Lorenzo Costa, who entered the service of 
the Gonzagas in 1500. In 1508 he went 
again to Rome and became intimate with 
Raphael. Later he worked at Ferrara for 
Duke Alfonso, in whose palace (Scrofa Cal- 
cagnini) he decorated a hall with mytholog- 
ical subjects. Other pictures in Ferrara : 
Old and New Testament, Adoration of the 
Maiji (1537), (Jhriyt in the Garden, Massacre 
of the Innocents, Madonna del Pilastro, Ma- 



donna with Saints, Madonna del Riposo, 
Raising of iMzurim, St. 1'i-lrr Martyr, Dis- 
covery of the Crux.-; Municipal Gallery ; and 
several in the Dnomo. Works in other 
cities: Tiburtino Silii/l, La Xini/nn-lld (.'), 
Holy Family, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; An- 
nunciation, Uffizi, ib. ; Madonna with Saints 
(1518), Venice Academy ; Deposition from 
Cross, Crucifixion, Brera, Milan ; Madonna 
with Saints, Modena (lallery ; Entombment, 
Deposition, Palaz/o Borghese, Rome ; Ad- 
oration of Magi, Deposition, Naples Mu- 
seum ; Triumph of Jlui'i-ltux, Mars ami 
Venus, Xi'jittim- and ] 'alias, Madonna in 
Adoration, Dresden Gallery ; ///</ Family, 
Vatican, Rome. The pictures of Garofalo 
are almost always pleasing. He was a good 
draughtsman and colourist, though some- 
times a little too vivid in his reds and 
greens for perfect harmony of effect Ac- 
cording to Vasari he was totally blind dur- 
ing the last 
nine years 

of his Hfe. 

V a s a r i, 

cd. Mil., vi. 

451) ; Burckhardt, 01)1 ; Seguier, 208 ; Cit- 

tadella, Mem. di Ben. Tisi (Fcrrara, 187::); 

Ch. Blanc, Ecole ferraraise ; Liibke, Gesch. 

ital. Mai, ii. 378 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., x. 210. 

GARRARD. See (leerart*. 

Hogarth, Earl of Fcversham. Painted in 
1740. Hogarth was paid for it by Mr. Dnn- 
combe, of Duucombe Park, Yorkshire, C200 ; 
"more," he says, "than any English artist 
ever received for a single portrait." Dob- 
sou, 03. 

COMEDY, Sir Joshua lii-ijtmbls ; canvas. 
Gurrick, seen to knees, standing, looks with 
an appealing, half-ashamed expression at 
Tragedy, while turning towards Comedy, 
unable to resist her allurements. Painted 
in 17G1 ; sold to Lord Halifax for 300 guin- 
eas ; at bis sale to Mr. Angersteiu for 250 
guineas. Engraved by E. Fisher. 






Q (. 

IPP), born in Berlin, June 2, 1X01, died there, 
Feb. 'JL'l, 1877. Architecture painter, pupil 
in Cassel of Maler Miiller ; returned to Ber- 
lin in 1S13 and for six years was apprenticed 
in the porcelain factory, made a tour to the 
North Sea in ISiH, studied in Paris in IWt 
J7, and painted for the ( in St. Peters- 
burg and Moscow in ls:i7-!i'.). Member of 
Berlin Academy in I*:!:!. Works: The for- 
mer licet/en Street in Berlin (1S31 ), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; others in the Royal Palaces, 
ib. Jordan ( 1SS.~, ii. OS. 

GARTNER, FRIKDRK'H, born in Mu- 
nich, Jan. 11, is-jl. Architecture painter, 
pupil of Munich Academv and of Siinonsen, 
studied then in Paris under Jiiccjunutl ; trav 
died extensively, and settled in Munich in 
1S."> 7. AVorks: From the Alhambra ; Inte- 
rior of House in Tetuan ; Street in Algiers; 
Mos([iie El Kebir in Algiers; Convent Yard 
in Moonlight, Interior of Moorish Muilding, 
New Pinakothek, Munich. Miiller, I'M ; 
Brockhaus, vii. 504. 

GARTNER, HEINRICII, born at N. u- 
St relit/, ^lecklenburg, in IS^S. ]^mdsca]ie 
painter, pupil in Berlin of Schirmer, and in 
Dresden of L. Richter. He was much in- 
tlnenced by Genelli at Munich and by Cor- 
nelius at Rome ( bS.")(|). Works: Landsca[H> 
with Return of Prodigal Sou ( 1 S.V.I), Leip.sic 
Museum ; Scenes from Life of Psycho 
(lS05-G(j(, Villa Diirr, near Leijisic ; Cycle 
of landscapes (14) representing Develop 
ment of Sculpture (in fresco, 1S7S|. 
Miiller, 1114; Brockhaus, vii. 504; Xeitschr. 
f. b. K., ii. St. 

(iASCAR, HENRI, born in Paris in lO:!.",, 
died in Rome, Jan. IS, 17(11. French 
school ; portrait painter. Long lived in 
England, where he became Lcly's competi- 
tor, and was patronized by the Duchess of 
Portsmouth. Left England about 1080, 
having made, it is said, 10,000 in a few 
years. Member of the Academy in 1080. 
Work, The Duchess of Portsmouth as 
Flora, Hampton Court. Redgrave, Jame- 
son, Hand-Book to Public Galleries, 5112 ; 
Taylor, The Fine Arts, ii. 300. 



GASSEL, LUCAS, born at Helmont, Bra- [ Guard in Courtyard of Louvre (1831); En- 
bant, about 1500, died at Brussels about : trance to Harbor of Boulogne ; Needles at 
1550. Flemish school ; practised landscape Isle of Wight; Shakespeare Cliff; View of 
painting in Brussels, where he was an inti- 
mate friend of the painter-poet Lampsonius. 
He painted in the fantastic manner of Pate- 
nicr, and enlivened his landscapes with Old 
and New Testament subjects. His pictures Loch Lomond. Bellier de la Chaviguerie, 
are rare, as he painted but little. Works : i. G14 ; Lejeune, Guide, iii. 105 ; Larousse. 
St. George, Louvre, Paris ; Landscape, Lille J GASTIXEAU, HENRY, born in 1797, 
Museum ; Landscape with Judah and Tamar died at Camberwell, Surrey, in 187G. Land- 
(1548), Vienna Museum. The Land- scape painter in water-colours, pupil of the 
ft^ scape in the Contest between Apollo Royal Academy ; commenced as an engraver, 
V*f*. and Pan, by Goltzius, Dresden Gal- then took up oil-painting, and in 1818 be- 
Icry, is ascribed to Gassel. Allgem. came an associate and in 1824 a member of 
d. Biogr., viii. :i(i ( .) ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, the Water-Colour Society ; was intimately 
vii. 4117;. Jour. desB. Arts (18G4), 88; (187S), Connected with Turner, David Cox, and 
118 ; Kramm, ii. 5:54. : Copley Fielding. Works : Penrliyn Castle, 

GASSEN, GOTTLIEB, born in Coblentz { Netley Abbey, South Kensington Museum, 
in 1805 or 1807. History painter, pupil , London ; Klamme Pass in Styria (1855); 
and follower of Cornelius, among the first j Glenarm Antrim, Hospice and Pass of St. 
to paint in fresco at Munich for King Louis Gothard (18G2); Pass of Killiecrankie (18G7). 
I. Works : Storming of the Godesberg near \ GASTON DE FOIX (?), Girolamo Sa- 
Bonn by Duke William V. of Bavaria, Ar- rulilo, Louvre; canvas, H. i5 ft. x 4 ft.; 
cades, Royal Garden, Munich ; eleven scenes , signed. A knight in armour, half recum- 
t'rom Poems of Walthcr von der \ ogelweide, bent, in a gloomy chamber, his form re- 
Royal Palace, Munich ; ceiling paintings in i fleeted in mirrors. Long called a portrait 
Loggia of Pinakothek ; paintings in Trinity of Gaston de Foix, by Giorgione ; but prob- 
Church, Wcissenthurm, near Coblentz. ably a picture painted to show that painting 

GASSIES, JEAN BRUNO, born in Bor- is preferable to sculpture, because a given 
deaux, Oct. 25, 1780, died in Paris, Oct. form can be reproduced on canvas by the 
12, 18:52. French school ; history, genre, judicious use of reflecting surfaces. Rep- 
und landscape painter, pupil of Vincent lica, formerly belonging to Charles I., at 
and Lacour in Paris. Painted many bibli- Hampton Court. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; C. & 
cal, as well as French mediaeval and mod- C., N. Italy, ii. 419 ; Law, Hist. Cat. Harnp- 
crn subjects. Works : Labourer holding tor. Court, 43. 

Skull and Rusty Sword (1810), Douai Mu- GATTA, Don BARTOLOMMEO DELLA, 
scum ; Hagar and Ishmael (1811), Brus- , born about 1408, died in Arezzo in 1491. 
sels Museum ; Virgil reading the /Eueid to t Florentine school. Learned miniature 
Augustus (1814); Horace at Virgil's Tomb ; painting in the Camaldolensian Convent of 
(1817); Portrait of Louis XVIII. (1819), the Angeli, Florence, where he was a friar ; 
Bordeaux Museum ; Christ and Peter walk- j became abbot of the Convent of S. Clemente, 
ing on the Sea, Homer reciting to tlie Shep- , Arezzo, and decorated its walls with frescos, 
herds (1819); St. Louis visiting the Plague- ' now destroyed. Some panels by him in the 
Stricken Soldiers, Fight of the Thirty (1822); public gallery, Arezzo, one dated 1479, show 
Clemency of Louis XII. (1824), Versailles careful and patient execution, but little sense 
Museum ; Shipwreck of a Fisherman and of colour. In 1479-8(5 he was in Rome, 
his Child (1827); Bivouac of the National where he worked in the Sistine, according 



to Vasari, with Signorelli and Perugino. painter, more noted as an engraver and etcher; 

His later pictures, as, for instance, :i MH- pupil of Viollet-le-Duc, with whom he visited 

donna with Saints and Angels, in tlic Col- Italy and Sicily. Medals : 3d class, 1S53 ; 2d 

legate churcli at Castiglioue Fiorentino, class, 1X55, 18511, 18(11, 18(!3 ; L. of Hon- 

display little power, though they show that our, 1SI14. Works: Tintoretto's House in 

he had learned to imitate Signorelli. C'. .V: Venice (1874); View of Saintes ; Evening at 

C., Italy, iii. 3(! ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., v. 44 ; Arroinanches ; Banks of the Adnur at Sun- 

Marchcsi, 2d ed., i. 203. set (1875); St. 1'eter's, Home ; Torcello, near 

(JATTI, BEKNAKDO (Bernardino), l)orn Venice (1*7(1); dill's of Saint-Jouin (1877, 

at Cremona about 14'.)ll (?), died in 1575. IST'.l); Tho Little Mount at Tort Navalo 

Lombard school; called II Sojaro or Sog- (l.ST'.l); (Jorge of Arnochat (1871). Bellier 

liaro (the cooper) from liis father's trade, de la Chavignt He, i. (118 ; Meyer, Conv. 

Went early to I'arma to study under Cor- Lex., xvii. 3H7 ; Miiller. 11(5. 

reggio, and became his ablest pupil. He < l.U'DKN'/K) M IL ANESE. See /;/;</;/, 

left numerous works in I'arma, I'iacen/.a, (!audcn/io. 

and Cremona. In S. M. di Campagna, 1'ia- (JAl'DIN, Fray Ll'lS PASCl'AL, born 

cen/.a, he painted a fresco, St. George and at Villafranea, Catalonia, in 15(!li, died at 

the Dragon, in competition with I'onlenone's the Chartreuse of Scala Dei in 1(121. Span- 

St. Augustine, and on the death of that ish school. Uecame a Carthusian monk in 

painter was selected to tinish his frescos of 151(5; adorned many chambers in his l i- 

the Life of the Madonna, in the tribune asterv, also painted 1 

of the churcli. Lan/.i praises his Miracle of for Ihe ( Jrand Char- I Jo (. (tA/i/V l/Pt 

the Loaves and Fishes, in tin; refectory (reuse in Lorraine, L / / s- fj 

of the 1'adri Lateranensi, Cremona; it is for the Chartreuse ' l\3tv 

dated 1552. He afterwards (about 15(10) of Seville, and a Last Supper and other 

painted the cupola in the Madonna della works for that of 1'orlacieli (Scala Deil, 

Steccata, I'arma. His Assumption of the near Valencia. Stirling, i. '2'M. 

Virgin, in the Cathedral of Cremona, his (JAL'KKMANN, FKIF.DKICH, born at 

last work, is said to have been painted Miesenbach, Nether Austria, Sept. l!U, 1M)7, 

with his left hand, his right having been died in Vienna, Julv 7, lSli'2. Animal 

paralyzed. An Kcce Homo, and a Cruci- painter, son and pupil of -Jakob (!., but 

tixion, are in the Naples Museum. Vasari, formed himself chiefly by copying old mas- 

ed. Mil., vi. 41>l! ; Lanzi, ii. 400 ; Ch. Blanc, tei's in the Vienna galleries and studying 

Kcole lombarde ; Vidoni, 1'ittura Cremo- nature during his travels in 1S25-44. Mem- 

nese ; liurckhardt, 701, 7158 ; Lavice, 20(1 ; ber of Mttni<:h Academy in 18:!(>. He left 

Lan/.i (lioscoe), ii. 400, 4.'i(l. l.Olit oil-paintings, 5(11( drawings, and 15 

GATTI, GEKVASIO, Ijombard school unfinished pictures. Works : Resting from 

(1578-l(i:Jl). Nephew and pupil of Ber- Labour in the Fields (1821)) ; Husbandman 

nardo Gatti, from whom he inherited his ploughing (1834), Vienna Museum ; Wolves 

surname of II Sojaro. Studied also works and Bears, Itocky View with Bears (18ltl); 

of Correggio, and painted some pictures Vultures and Stag, Bears with their I'rey 

with much success ; but he had a deplorable ( 18152); Chase, Rural Smithy, Boar attacked 

facility of execution, and his works are very by Wolves (18IM); Stormy Lake, Wolves and 

unequal. Lanzi conjectures that Uriel Gat- Stags (18155); Harvest Scene, Wild Boars 

ti, also called II Sojaro, was his brother. (18;{(i); Dying Stag and Eagle (1837); Cat- 

Lanzi, ii. 431 ; Ch. Blanc, Eeolo lombarde. tie; Market (1838); Wolves on High liork, 

GAUCHEUEL, LrX)N, born in Paris, Harvest Wagon in Storm, Embarking of the 

May 20, 181G. Landscape and architecture Herd (183'J); Hunting Scene, The 1'as.seyer 



Pass near Meran (1840); Target Shooting in ' pearing to Abraham (1793), Louvre; The 
Tyrol (1841); Smithy in the Ramsau (1842); ( Shepherd Faustulus carrying Romulus and 
Zell am See (1843); Daehstein and Gosau Remus, Cherbourg Museum ; Roman Ladies 
Lake. Hunting Scene, Mountain-Path near offering their Jewels to their Country ; 
Meran (1844); Evening, Chamois Hunt, Achilles recognized by Ulysses ; Jacob and 
Poachers (1845); Four Seasons (1847); Alp, : Rachel ; Sacrifice to the Manes ; Raising of 
Ein Sehill'zug (1848); Chamois-Hunt, Peas- Lazarus, Perpignan Museum; Seven in Mont- 
ant Horses, Return from Stag-Hunt (1850); pellier Museum ; others in Marseilles, Tou- 
Well in Tyrol (1852), Smithy in Salzburg ' 
(1853), National Gallery, Berlin; Cows, 
Sheep, and Horse in Shallow Water, Lcip- 
sic Museum ; Wolves and Dead Horse, 
Htiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Evening in Ty- 
rolesc Alps, Stettin Museum ; Wolves and 
Deer, Wild Boar and Wolf, South Kensing- 
ton Museum, London ; On the Alter Lake, 
Cows and Sheep (1858). Allgem. d. Biogr., Ion, and Narbonne Museums, and Uffizi, 
viii. 420 ; Andrcsen, iii. 1 ; Brockhaus, vii. Florence. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Lejeune, 
594 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 335, 517 ; Dios- ' Guide, i. 395 ; iii. 302 ; Larousse. 
kuren (1SC2), 242 ; Eitelberger, Kunsthist. I GAUGENGIGL, IGNAZ (MARCEL 
Schr, i. 1)2; Wurzbach, v. 104; ix. 414 ; MICHAEL MARTIN JOSEPH), born in Pas- 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviii. 137, 177, 251, 282, sau, Bavaria, in 185(!. Genre painter, pupil 

of the Munich Academy under Professor 
Raab and Wilhelm Die/.. Removed to Amer- 

321 ; xix. 17G. 

GAUERMANN, JAKOB.born at Oeffingcr, 

Wttrtemberg, in 1773, died in Vienna, March ica in 1879, and settled in Boston. Works 

27, 1843. Landscape and genre painter, 
pupil of Stuttgart Academy. After travel- 

Le Refugee (1882), W. Weld, Boston ; My 
Studio (1883), Henry S. Shaw, ib. ; Bellissima 

ling through Switzerland in the service of a (1883), Col. Jonas H. French, ib. ; Difficult 
Heilbronn savant he went to Vienna in 1798, Question (1884), Josiah M. Fiske, New York; 
became member of the Academy, and in 1818 The Story (1885), H. W. Rice, Boston ; After 
painter to Archduke John, for whom he ex- the Storm (1885), John A. Lowell, ib. ; On 
ecuted many views in the Austrian Alps, the Promenade (1885), Willard White, ib. 
Works : Eighty views in Styria (1811-21), ' GAUL, GILBERT, born in Jersey City, 
Archduke John's Collection ; others in Al- N. J., in 1855. Genre painter, pupil of J. G. 
bertina Collection, Vienna Academy, and in Brown and of the National Academy. Exhib- 
private galleries of England. Allgem. d. ited first at National Academy in 1872; elected 
Biogr., viii. 422 ; Andresen, v. 2G8 ; Brock- A.N.A. in 1880, N.A. in 1882. Works: In- 
haus, vii. 594 ; Wurzbach, v. 107. ' dian Girl, Coquette (1880) ; Old Beau (1881); 

GAUFFIER, LOUIS, born at La Rochelle ' Charging the Battery, Stragglers, News from 
in 1761, died in Florence, Oct. 20, 1801. ' Home (1882) ; Silenced, Cold Comfort on 
History painter, pupil of Hugucs Taraval, ' the Outpost (1883) ; On the Look-out, Gue- 
won the grand prix de Rome in 1784. He rillas returning from a Raid (1885). 
married at Rome Pauline Chatillon, genre GAUL, GUSTAV, born in Vienna, Feb. 
painter, pupil of Drouais, several of whose C, 1830. Portrait painter, pupil of Rahl ; 
pictures were engraved by Bartolozzi. ; visited Germany, Holland, France, and 
Works : Abraham and the Angels, Alexander Italy ; studied especially Rubens and Rem- 
and HepLuestion (1789); Cornelia Mother of brandt and the old Venetian masters, 
the Gracchi (1792), Three Young Men ap- ! Works : Portraits of Sophie Schroder (I860) 



and other celebrities of the stage, of Louis 
Spoil r, Bogumil Goltz, Professors Skoda 
nnd Hvrtl ; Procession of Bacchus and 
Scenes from Myths of Cupid, Psyche, nnd 
Venus, Palais Todesco, Vienna ; Scenes from 
Legends of Austria, Villa Wanda, near 
Gmundcn ; Francesca and Paolo, Cologne 
Museum; Head of Spanish Woman, Female 
Portrait, Male Portrait (188;$). 

GAULLI. See Jlaffim'ii. 

GAUTHEUOT, CLAUDE, born in Paris 
in 17(5!', died in 1825. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of David ; acquired great 
perfection in the representation of pathetic, 
subjects. Works : Portrait of Marshal Da- 
voust, Ttiileries, Paris ; Napoleon on the 
Bridge of Lech (1808), Versailles Museum ; 
Miirius at Minturn.-e (1791!) ; Pyramns and 
Tliisbe (170!)), Melun Museum ;' do. (1800); 
Burial of Atala (1802) ; Xapoleon wounded 
at Hatisbon, Interview at Tilsit (1810). 

GAUTIER, AMAXD, born at Lille, June 
1'.), 18-2."). (ienre anil portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Souclion and of Cogniet. Medal, 3d 
class, 1882. Works: Sisters of Charity 
(185!)); After Mass (18(17); Councillor 
Krespel, Sunday Morning (18G8) ; Surprised 
at the Bath (1874j ; Prisoner (1875); Re- 
fectory (1878); The Republic (1879) ; Re- 
heai-sal at the Convent (1880) ; Casting the 
Net, Washing at the Convent (1881) ; Indo- 
lence (1882) ; Portrait of the painter Diane, 
Medical Lady Student (1885). 

GAUTIER, ETIENNE, born at Mar- 
seilles ; contemporary. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Chantigny. Medals : 
2d class, 1873 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1871. Works : Money-Changer, Study 
(18G7) ; St. Sebastian (18G9) ; St. George 
(1873) ; St. Cecilia (1878). 

ice in 1809. History painter, pupil of Venice 
Academy under Politi, formed himself after 
the great Venetian masters, and became 
professor at the Collegio Raffitele, Venice. 
Works : The Lord appearing to Abraham, 
Mecliitarists, Venice ; St. Anthony of Padua, 
S. Giacouio, ib. ; St. Sergius, Greek Church, 

ib. ; Queen of Cyprus, Girolamo Contarini, 
Venice Academy ; Fugitives of Pargha bless- 
ing the Remains of their Fathers ; Marco 
Polo in Prison at Genoa ; Ali Pasha of Ja- 
nina. Wurzbach, v. 111. 

GAVARXI, PIERRE, born in Paris; con- 
temporary. Genre and animal painter, pu- 
pil (if Froinentin and of Busson. Medal, 
lid class, 1874. Works: Wedding at the 
Madeleine (1874) ; Repose (1875) ; Wedding 
in Paris, Diplomatic Dinner (187(1) ; An- 
dromeda, Stand in a Riding School (1X79) ; 
Steeple-chase (1881); Promenade (18X2) ; 
Corner on the Beach (1X8:5) ; Steeple-chase 
at Saint-Ouen (18X5). 

(i.VY. EDWARD, born in Ireland in lx:!7. 
Landscape painter, pupil of James Hart in 
Albany, X. Y., in 18(12 (17 ; studied in Ger- 
many, under Schirmer in Carlsruhe, and 
Lessing in Diisseldorf. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1X70. Studio at Ml. Vernon, N. Y. 
Works in oil : Alt. Wasser, 1) J. Lathrop, 
Albany; Suburbs; Twin Lukes; Muhawk 
Valley Home ; Late Afternoon near Albany 
(I87(i); Last Load Harvest Time (1878); 
(lathering the Leaves (1880) ; Old Estate 
(18X1); Banks of the Thames (1882) ; On 
the Sogne Fjord Norway, Gulden Grain 
(188.'i) ; Norwegian Scene (1X8J). Water- 
colours: Foggy Morning by the Lake 
(187(!) ; Sin-ing Morning (1X77) ; Waving 
Grain, Riverside, Haymaking (1X81); live 
Fields in early June, Hill-side, Oyster Beds 
inPelham Bay, Salt Marshes (1XX5). 

GAY, WALTER, born in Massachusetts; 
contemporary. Genre painter, nephew of 
William Allan Gav, pupil of Bonnat in Paris 
in 1X7!!. Has exhibited in Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and Paris. Honourable mention, 
Paris Salon, 1885. Works: Fall Flowers 
(1870) ; Landscape, Past Asleep, Unsuccess- 
ful Musician (1878) ; Conspiracy under 
Louis XVI., Armourer (1883) ; The Appren- 
tice, The Cabbages (1884) ; Spinners, No- 
vember, The Tailor (1885). 

GAY, WILLIAM ALLAX, Ixirn in Mas- 
sachusetts in 1821. landscape painter, 
pupil of R W. Weir at West Point and of 



Troyon in Paris, where and in Italy lie spent 
several years. Has travelled much in Eu- 
rope and the East. Works : Mackerel Fleet 
off Beverly Coast, Harbour Bar at Cape Ann 
(18(59); Palazzo Ducale at Venice (1875) ; 
Windmills at Delfthaven (187G); Forest Sanc- 
tuary (187S) ; Minieh on the Nile (1S79). 

at Neusalx, Silesia, Oct. 15, 1777, died at 
Aarhus, Jutland, Sept. 15, 1S31. Animal 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy and 
of Loront/en ; went to Dresden in 1813, 
where lie painted military scenes, and espe- 
cially illustrated Cossack life. Visited Ger- 
many in 1827, and afterwards established a 
school of drawing at Aarhus. "Works : The 
Stud (1807); Horse Fair ( 1810) ; Stags light- 
ing (1823), Landscape witli Cattle (1824), 
Bull and Cow, Sleighing near Munich 
(1H28), Copenhagen Gallery. "Wcilbaeh. 
St. Johannis, Esth- 
land, June 1 (13), 
1838. History paint- 
er, pupil of St. Peters- 1 
burg Academy under 
Lessing, and of Carls- > 
ruhe Art Scliool, then 
in Diisseldorf under 
Wilhelm Sohn; trav- 
elled throiighEurope, 
and settled at Diissel- 
dorf, where he became 

professor at the Academy in 1873. Mem- 
ber of Munich and Berlin Academies. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1872 ; Medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works: Christ's Entry into Jerusalem ( 1803 ) ; 
Raising of Jairus' Daughter (18(54) ; Dives 
and Lazarus (18G5) ; Christ on the Cross 
(1806), Cathedral, Reval ; Religious Conver- 
sation (1800) ; Vibrations of the Pendulum ; 
The Brothers van Eyck ; Last Supper (1870), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Descent from the 
Cross (1872); Ecce Homo, Crucifixion (1873), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Disciples at Einmaus 
(1870) ; Reformer at Work (1877), Leipsic 
Museum ; Old German Housewife (1879) ; 
Ascension, Christ walking on the Sea (1881) ; 

The Convent Scholars (1882) ; Pieta, Cruci- 
fixion (1884). Brockhaus, vii. 013 ; Miiller, 
190 ; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 405 ; xix. 35, 128 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., vii. 301 ; Westermanu's 
Monatshefte, li. 279. 

GEBHARDT, LUDWIG, born in Munich, 
July 20, 1830. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy, then studied from nature 
in the Bavarian Alps and in North Italy. 
Works : Ammerland on Lake Starnberg, St. 
Bartholomew on the Konigsee, View on Lake 
Constance, Lcutstetten with Lake Starnberg, 
Upper Isar Valley, Mountains by Moonlight, 
View in filler Valley. Miiller, 197. 

Dresden, Sept. 18, 1838. Animal painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy, then in Munich 
of Piloty. Rivals the old Dutch masters in 
his finely-painted and humourous pictures. 
Medals in Berlin (1874) and Munich (1883). 
Works : Rest in the Wood at Noon, Obsti- 
nate Sheep, Disturbed Domestic Peace 
(1803); Spoiled Repast, Sheepfold (1870); 
Poodle as Watchman in Sheepfold (1873); 
Art-Critics in the Stable (1873), Sheep and 
Spaniel (1878), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Visit to the Stable (1870); Sheep returning 
before Storm, Expectation, Two Poachers 
(1880), Dresden Gallery; Reynard's End 
(1883), New Piuakothck, Munich. Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1884), i. 90 ; Miiller, 197 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xxi. 309. 

GEDDES, ANDREW, born in Edinburgh 
in 1789, died in London, May 5, 1844. Por- 
trait and subject painter ; pupil in 1807 of 
the Royal Academy, where he exhibited in 
1810 his Draught-Players. Then spent four 
years at Edinburgh painting portraits. Vis- 
ited Paris in 1815, Italy in 1828, and Hol- 
land in 1839. Returned to England in 1831, 

and was elect- 
ed an A.R.A. 
in 1832. He 
was a good 
etcher, par- 
ticularly of 
portraits. Works : Discovery of the Scot- 
tish Regalia (1821); Christ and the Woman 



of Samaria (1832); Devotion; Dull Reading, gory, Hague Museum ; Children with Goat, 

National Gallery, London. - Redgrave ; Lille Museum ; Cupid and Psvehe with 

Sandby, ii. 210; Art Union Journal, Sept., Genii, Imitation of an allegorical Bas-relief 

1844 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. (1775), Museum, Vienna; Four Bas-reliefs 

GEEFS, FANNY (Isabellc Marie Fran- (two dated 1752, 175:i), Liechtenstein Gal- 

(,-oise Corr), born in Brussels in 1814. His- lery, ib. Cat. du Musce d'Anvers (1S74), 

tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil of ITS; Kramni, ii. 542 ; Rooses (Reber), 441 ; 

Nave/; wife of the sculptor Willem Geefs. Van den Branden, 1215. 
Medals in Paris (lid class, 184:( ; 2d class, (iF.KHAKTS (darrard, Gheeraerts, (!.'- 

1845), Tlie Hague, Met/., Ghent, and D.iuai. rani), MAKCl'S, the elder, born in Bruges, 

Works: Sailor's Daughter (18155); Young first half of l<Jth centurv, died in London 

Girl accompanying her Sister to Church, before 1(501. Flemish school ; history, por- 

Madonna, Castellan of Cri'Ve-Coour (iNiili); trait, and landscape painter, pupil of Martin 

St. Cecilia (18:57); Hagar in (lie Desert de Yos ; held some ollice in the guild of 

(1840); Christ appearing to Disciples, Vir- Bruges in 1558, and was entered as master 

gill consoling the Afflicted, St. John's Hos- of the guild of Antwerp in 1577 ; settled in 

pital, Brussels ; Bianca on the Shore ; ( )phe- England and became court-painter to Queen 

lia ; Young Mother; First Lesson; Return Elizabeth in 1571, but was in Antwerp in 

Home. Immer/eel, i. 2U5 ; Kramm, ii. 5:!(> ; 1585 Mi. His paintings are greatly valued. 

M filler, l'.)7. Works: Descent from the Cross, Notre 

GEEL, JOOST VAN, born in Rotterdam D.ime, Bruges; Portraits of Mary Countess 

in Kilil, died in 1(>!(8. Dutch school ; genre of Pembroke, Lord Bnrghlcy. and William 

and portrait painter in the style of Gabriel Caniden, National Portrait Gallery, London ; 

Met/u. wherefore lie is thought to be his Portraits of Queen Eli/.abetli. Lord Burgli- 

]>uj)il. Travelled in France, (iermanv, and ley, and Earl of Essex, Bnrghley House ( 'ol- 

England, where he was patroni/.ed by (,'rom- lection; Male and Female Portrait, Vienna 

well. Works; Museum; Procession of Quc< 11 Kli/abt th to 

Portrait of *J -^ Blackfriars in KiOll. Allgeni. d. Biogr.. viii. 

himself, S J f I'.ll ; Biog. nat. de Belgicjue, vii. 550; 1m- 

Anisterdam O^CLsf\. ^70 f nier/.eel, i. 270; Kramni. ii. 512. 
Museum; A ^ GKERARTS, MARCl'S, the young.-r, 

Concert, Her- ^J& Ctft" born in Bruges in 15(51, died in London in 

initage, St. l(i:!5. Flemisli school; history and jior- 

Petersburg ; Rendez-vous of Smugglers, His- trait painter, son of Marcus the elder, whom 

torical Society, New York. Immerzeel, i. he followed to England after 15Sn, and l>e- 

2(>'.( ; Kramni, ii. 541. came court-painter to Elizabeth and after- 

GEERAERTS, MARTIN JOSEPH, born wards to Queen Anne. Works: Procession 

in Antwerp, baptized April 7, 1707, died of Queen and Knights of the < larter ( 1584 I; 

there, Feb. 1(5, 171(1. Flemisli school. DCS- Portrait of Elizabeth, Lord Darnley's Col- 

tined to be a merchant, but early showed lection; do., and portraits of Lords Burleigh 

such talent that he was apprenticed toAbra- and Essex, Marquis of Exeter's Collection. 

ham Godyn, where he soon became an able Allgeni. d. Biogr.. viii. 4112 ; Kugler 

master. Excelled in grisaille, imitating (Crowe), i. 255 ; Kramm, ii. 515. 
sculpture. In 1741 he l>ecanie professor GEERTGF.N VAN (or tot), SINT-JANS 

and director of the Antwerp Academy. (Gerrit van Haarlem), second half of 15th 

Works- The Fine Arts (17(50), Antwerp century (14(50 88?). died at Haarlem <?), 

Museum ; Seven Biblical Subjects in Bas- aged 28. Dutch school ; history painter, 

relief, Brussels Museum ; Autumn, an alle- supposed pupil of Albert van Ouwattr. 


Lived with the knights of St. John at Haar- 
lem, and hence was called Geertgen tot Sint 
Jans, although not of their order and prob- 
ably a native of Leytlen. He painted for 
the church of the order an altarpiece, two 
wings of which are preserved in the Vienna 
Museum, one a Pieta, the other representing 
the Legend of the bones of St. John the 
Baptist. Other works attributed to him are : 
Scene from the Legend of St. Lucy, in the 
Lippmann Collection at Vienna ; View of 
Haarlem Cathedral, in that edifice ; Crucifix- 
ion, in the Galleria Estense at Modena. Dr. 
"Bode is inclined to assign to this master also 
an Adoration of the Magi in the Prague Gal- 
lery, the Expiatory Offering in the Amster- 
dam Museum, and Christ in the Tomb sur- 
rounded by the Instruments of the Passion 
in the Archiepiscopal Museum at Utrecht. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 261 ; Bode, Studien, 
(5 ; C it C., Flemish Painters, 248 ; Dohme, 
li.; Kramm, ii. 516 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 01 ; 
Riegel, Beitriige, i. 59. 

GEKRTZ, JULIUS, born in Hamburg, 
April 21, 1837. Genre 
painter, pupil in Ham- 
burg of the brothers 
Gensler, then in 185(5- 
00 of the Carlsruhe Art 
School under Des Cou- 
dres, and, after a short 
stay in Munich, of Ru- 
dolph Jordan in Diissel- 
dorf ; studied in 18(54 in 
Paris, visited Brittany 
and Holland, and settled in Diisseldorf. 
Works : Sour and Sweet, Maternal Joy, The 
Student (1807) ; Disturbing Return Home, 
Consequences of School-Arrest, Shut In, 
Watch on the Rhine (1870) ; Prisoners of 
War, At the Menagerie, Criminal after Sen- 
tence (1873) ; Organ Grinder, Last Orna- 
ment (1874) ; Catching Flies, Girl with 
Bird's Nest, Capitulation (1876) ; Beggar's 
Penny (1877). Illustr. Zeitg. (1874), i. 79 ; 
(1875), i. 187 ; Kunst-Chrouik, ix. 342 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 149. 


ENTIN, born at Maignelay (Oise), July 29, 
1804. Genre painter, pupil of Amaury- 
Duval. Educated a lawyer, but married an 
actress and went on the stage. Though he 
had considerable success as a painter, he is 
best known as an actor. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 ; 2d class, 1841 and 1857. Works : 
Virgin and Child ; Pierre Corneille ; The 
Actor Mirecourt (1840) ; The Members of 
the Comudie Fran<;aise (1841), Coim'die 
Fran(;aise ; Ariadne and Theseus (1844) ; 
MoliiTe and his Characters (1857) ; Sgan- 
arello in the School for Husbands (1863) ; 
Members of the Comedie Franyaise (1864) ; 
Hylas (1868). Larousse. 


born at Wangen, W r iirtemberg, March 0, 
1800, died in Rome, Jan. 31, 1876. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Robert von Langer. Studied in Rome, espe- 
cially after Raphael, in 1823-26, and after his 
return was appointed court-painter to the 
1 King of Wiirtemberg, for whom (1836-54) 
he decorated the royal palace in Stuttgart 
with frescos from Wiirtemberg history. 
Works : St. Sebastian (1820) ; Two Shep- 
herds, First Parents after Loss of Paradise, 
Moses striking the Rock (1823-20), Royal 
Palace, Stuttgart ; Hercules and Omphale, 
Stuttgart Gallery ; Cupid and Psyche, As- 
sumption, Madonna, Aphrodite, Crucifixion 
(1829 -35) ; Sleeping Venus and two Satyrs, 
Leda, several Aphrodites and Madonnas, 
Portraits (1836-50) ; Apollo and Muses, 
Bacchus and Ariadne, Venus and Cupid, 
Ceres and Jason, TEolus and yEola, Pluto 
and Proserpine, Neptune and Thetis, Genii 
and Amorettes (all 1800), Royal Palace, 
Stuttgart. Frescos : Hercules and Omphale 
(1826), Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen ; 
Jupiter giving Immortality to Psyche, Mar- 
riage of Cupid and Psyche, Four scenes 
from Life of Psyche, Four Seasons, Aurora 
(all in 1826-29), Villa Rosenstein ; Sixteen 
scenes from History of Wiirtemberg (1836- 
54), Royal Palace, Stuttgart. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 495 ; Brockhaus, vii. 652 ; 
Kuust-Chronik, xi. 349 ; Reber-Pecht, ii. 229. 



Gothenburg, Sweden; contemporary. Land- 
scape painter, meinbcr of Stockholm Acad- 
emy ; studio in Paris. Works : 'Wood in 
Winter ; Snow Landscape in Sweden ; By 
the Sea ; Return of Fishermen : Swedish 
Village ; Landscape in Holland (1877) ; View 
on Coast of Normandy (1878) ; Winter 
Evening in Sweden, Sunset in Waxholm 
Sweden, Dutch Marine View (188.'!) ; Village 
in Dalec-arlia (1884) ; Winter Night near 
Siljan (1885). 

GEIGER, KARL, born in Vienna, Dec 1 . 
14, 1822. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Fuhrich, attracted attention 
by his talent for composition when only 
thirteen, was afterwards much influenced by 
Kaulhach. Works : Altai-pieces in St. Ste- 
phen's, Vienna ; Allegorical Paintings in Pal- 
aces of Duke of Coburg and Prince Kinsley, 
and Hotel Imperial, ib. Brockhaus, vii. 
082 ; Wurzbai-h, v. 122. 

born in Vienna, Jan. 11, 1805, died there, 
Oct. 21), 1880. History painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, but formed himself chiefly 
by studying the old masters. In 1850 he 
accompanied the Archduke Ferdinand Max; 
to the East. Was professor at the Vienna 
Academy from 1853 to 1871. Although lit- 
tle known to the public at large, he ranks 
among the most excellent artists of Austria. 
Works : Storming of Malborghetto, Battle 
of Lilt/en, Battle on the Iselberg, Entry of 
Archduke Leopold into Brussels, collection 
of Emperor of Austria ; Slave Market in 
Smyrna, Banquet at a Pasha's, A Ferry, 
Castle Miramar, near Trieste. Brockhaus, 
vii. G82 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 182 ; Wurz- 
bach, v. 123. 

GEIRNAERT, JOZEF, bom at Eecloo, 
East Flanders, Aug. 27, 1790, died in Ghent, 
March 20, 185'J. Flemish school ; history, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil of Ghent 
Academy and in Antwerp of Herreynn, and 
then in Ghent of Paelinck ; obtained the 
first prize in 1818, and a gold medal in 
Paris in 1835. Works : Warrior bringing 

to his Family the Saver of his Life (1818) ; 
Harp Lesson (1820), Seizure for Debt 
( 1835), Ghent Museum ; Consultation at the 
Doctor's, Brussels Museum ; The School- 
master, Mechlin Museum ; Doctor's Visit, 
Haarlem Museum ; Proposal; Card-Players; 
Painter's Studio; Peasant Women Resting; 
Little Fruit-Thieves ; Return from Kirmess; 
Children blowing Soap-Bubbles ; Bride and 
Bridegroom ; Return of Fisherman ; Capture 
of Count Egmont (1823) ; Diirer visiting 
Grave of Hubert van Eyek ; Jan Steen and 
van (ioyen; Maria Theresa visiting a Poor 
Woman (1837). Biog. nat. de IIelgi<|iie, 
vii. 557 ; Immerzeel, i. 272 ; Kramm, ii. 

Wiirzburg, Oct. 15, 1835, died in Munich, 
Dec. 15, l8licS. Landscape painter, pupil of 
his father, Andreas (died 1SI50), and in Mu- 
nich of Fritz Bamberger. On Ins return 
from Italy, in May, 18(17, he settled at Mu- 
nich. Works: Ideal Landscape (I85(i); 
View near Polling (1857); View in Khi'>n 
Mountains, View near Miltenbcrg (1857 
58), Munich Art Fnion ; Rh'">n Landscape 
(IS(iO) ; Idyl (I8fill, Wiesbaden Gallery; 
Rainy Day (18(il), Sunday Morning on 
Kochel Lake (18(13), Cologne Art Union ; 
View in Tyrol Mountains ( 18(!2) ; Evening 
on the Main (18(53) ; Lonely Mountain-Lake. 
View in Franconian Switzerland (l*(il); 
View in the Campagna (I860), Ruins of 
Theatre in Tusculum, Ravine near Tivoli 
(18(>7), Ruins of Aqueduct in Campagna 
(18(!8), Munich Art Union ; Italian Land- 
scape (18(J7), Wiirzbach Art Union. Allgem. 
d. Biogr.,viii. 528; Andresen, iii. 207; Kunts- 
Chronik, iv. 142 ; Regnet, i. 148 ; /eitschr. 
f. b. K., vii. 11)7. 

at Dordrecht in 1(545, died there, or in Am- 
sterdam, in 1727. Dutch school ; history 
and portrait painter, pupils of Samuel van 
Hoogstraten, then for two years (10(55-(57) 
of Rembrandt, whose manner he closely 
followed. He was a fine eolourist, fond of 
picturesque effects, and had a broad and 


masterly touch. Works : Portrait, of Peter 
the Groat, Judah and Tliainar, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; An Eastern Prince (1G85), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Simeon in the Temple, 
Darmstadt Gallery ; Portrait of Old Woman 
(1085). Sti'ulel Gallery, Frankfort; Jewish 
Bride, Study for Portrait of Old Man, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Ecce Homo (1071), 
Dresden ( iallery; Judah and Thamar, Vienna 
Academy ; Male Portrait, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; Portrait of a Dutch Admiral, 
New York Museum ; Twenty-two Scenes 
from Christ's Passion. Iminer/eel, i. 273 ; 
Krainin, ii. 555 ; De Stiu rs, 333 ; Vosmaer, 

( 1ELDORP (Gualdorp). GOUT/JUS, horn 
at Louvain in 155.'!, died in Cologne in 
1(516 or 1018, Flemish school ; history and 
portrait, painter, pupil in Antwerp of Frans 
Francken the elder, afterwards of Frans 
Pourbus the elder. Entered the service of 
the Duke of Terra Nova, with whom he 
went to Cologne in 1571). His portraits are 
lively in conception, expressive, and finely 
coloured ; pictures mostly painted on wood. 
Works : Portrait of Jansenius, Aremberg 
Gallery, Brussels ; Christ on the Cross, 
Penitent Magdalen, Madonna (?), Portraits 
of Husband and Wife (1572), Male Portrait 
(Kill)), eight others, Cologne Museum ; 
Male Portrait (Kill), Weimar Museum ; do. 
(102S), and Female Portrait, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Lucretia, Male Portrait, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Portraits in Augsburg Gal- 
lery, Brera, Milan, Darmstadt ('2), Gotha (4), 
and Vienna Museums. His son, Melchior 
Geldorp (nourished 1020-40), also painted 
history and portraits. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
viii. 5:!1 ; Biog. nat. de Belgique, vii. 503 ; 
Kramm, ii. 558 ; Merlo, 128. 

at BagiuTcs-de-Bigorre (Hautes-Pyrenees), 
Nov. 20, 1834. Animal painter, pupil of 
his father and of Toulouse Academy under 
Griffoul-Dorval. Medal, 1809; 2d class, 
1883. Works: Wolf attacked by Dogs, 
Rallye-Sivry ! (1809); Exit from Kennel 
(1872); After the Hunt in Fontaiuebleau 

Forest (1873); Swamp near Belle Croix 
(1874); Young Hounds in the Thicket ; 
Hunting Episode in Scotland, New Ac- 
quaintances (1875); Sweet Repose (1878); 
Stag beating the Water, The Victors (1880); 
Rendez-vous, A First Experience (1881); 
Taken, In a Mass (1882); Wounded, Alert 
(1S83); Limehounds, Ready to Start (1884); 
Capture of a Young W T olf, Hearing the Dogs 
Attack (1885). Bellier de la Chaviguerie, 
i. 029. 

GELLKE. See Ctnuilc Lorrain. 

GEMMEL, HERMANN, born at Barten, 
East Prussia, in 1814, died in Konigsberg, 
March 22, 1808. Architecture painter, pu- 
pil of Bierinann and of W. Schirmer, be- 
came professor at the Konigsberg Academy 
in 1S45, and visited Italy in 1850 and 1855. 
Works : Family Hall in Medi;eval Castle 
(1855); Chapel of Cardinal Zeuo in St. 
Mark's ; Baptistery in St. Mark's, Venice. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 550 ; Dioskuren, 
18(iS, 127 ; Brockhaus, vii. 741. 

GKNDRON, AL'GUSTE, born in Paris, 
March 17, 1817, died there, July 23, 1881. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Dela- 
roche, studied for several years in Italy 
after the old masters, to the detriment of 
his originality, and returned to Paris about 
1847. Decorated St. Gervais, the Louvre, 
Palais dc Justice, Hotel Pereire. Medals: 
3d class, 1840, 1855 ; 2d class, 1849 ; L. of 
Honour, 1855. Works : The Willis and 
Sylphids (1844); Boccaccio commenting 
upon Dante (1845); The Hone and Nereids 
(1840); St. Catherine buried by Angels, 
After Death (1847); Isle of Cythera, Aulic 
Scene (1848); Young Christian Girl con- 
verting her Lover (1849); Human Sacrifice 
by the Druids (1850), Nimes Museum ; Ve- 
netian Fantasy (1850); Tiberius on Isle of 
Capri (1852), Marseilles Museum ; Autumn 
Evening (1853); Florentine Sunday in 15th 
Century (1855), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; Burial of Young Venetian Lady 
(1859); St. Catherine of Alexandria (1803); 
Nymphs at the Grave of Adonis (1804); Ti- 
berius at Capri, Marseilles Museum ; Man 



between two Ages, ami his Two Mistresses, 
TLe Foolish Virgins (1878); Landscape in 
Tuscany, Sacrifice to vEseulapius (187")): 
Tribute of Athens to Minotaur (187(!); M. 
Purgon arrive mol-a-propos (1H77). La- 
rousse, viii. 1130 ; Meyer, Geseh., <>05 ; Mul- 
ler, l!l!) ; Revue des B. Arts (1859), ii. 

Berlin, Sept. 28, 
1708, .lied in Wei- 
mar, Nov. 13, 1H(!8. 
History painter, 
pupil of Berlin 
Academy under the 
in Hue nee of his 
uncle, the architect 
Hans Christian Ge 
nt'lli. Lived from 
1822 to 18152 in 
Koine, and was much influenced by Cars- 
tens, Koch, and Thorwaldsen. In IKiJIJ lie 
removed from Leipsic to Munich, and in 
18.1!) to Weimar by invitation of the (irand 
Duke. One of the most ingenious designers 
of modern times. Weimar Order of Falcon, 
18(!2. Member of Vienna Academy, 1808. 
Works: Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne 
(water-colour), Leipsic Museum ; Hercules 
playing tin; Lyre ; Eliezar and Rebekah ; 
Jason and Medea robbing the Golden Fleece ; 
Life of a Libertine (18); Illustrations to Ho- 
mer (49); Life of a Witch (10); Illustrations to 
Dante (3(i); Life of an Artist ; ..Esop telling 
his Fables (water-colour), Leipsic Museum ; 
do., and Homer reciting his Songs, Sappho 
reciting her Poems, Apollo among the Shep- 
herds, Baron Sinn, Vienna ; Sisyphus led 
away by the Youth with the Torch, Acad- 
emy, ib. ; Colossal Head of Don Quixote ; 
Lot in Zuiir ; Samson and Delilah ; Kebekah 
at the Well ; Joseph and Potiphar's Wife ; 
Vision of Ezekiel (185!)), Kapc of Europa 
(1800, cartoon to it (1857) in National Gal- 
lery, Berlin), Hercules and Omphale, Tri- 
umph of Bacchus and Ariadne, Abraham and 
the Angels (18G2), Battle of Lycurgus (18G3, 
cartoons to last two in Leipsic Museum), 
Drop Curtain with Allegories, Bacchus 

among the Muses (18f8), Schuck Gallery, 
Munich ; Abraham and the Angels (water- 
colour), Lt.-ip.sic Museum ; Centaur Family 
(18I>2); Jupiter and Eros on the Wings of 
Xight (18(i4), Bacchus among the Pirates 
(IKON, cartoon, Lust work), Weimar Museum. 
His son, Cnmillo (1840-07), was a designer 
and painter of great promise. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viii. 502 ; Brnckhaus, vii. 750 ; Fi'irs- 
ter, Denkmale, XII. iii. 21) ; Graph. K., iv. 1 ; 
lllustr. /eitg. (18I1S), 415; Kunst Clironik, 
iii. Ill ; iv. 17 ; I'echt, ii. 271 ; Krgnet, i. 
l.V.; Kiegel, Kunststudien, 2 ( .)1 ; Schack, 
Meine Geniiildcgalleric 1 1SK4), 1 ; Land und 
Meer (isii'.l). i. :{.->! ; /citschr. f. b. K., v. 1; 
xi. 11 ; xii. 25, '.Ml. PJ-J. -J17 : xiii. ll.'i, 1*1, 

221. 25<i. :uii, :!.v>; xviii. 257. 

GEXEYIEVE, S.VINT, I'uvis de O,,,- 
i'ii tines, Church of St. Gcncvieve (Pantheon ), 
Paris. St. Genevieve of 1'aris, who incliild- 
hood tended sheep, went with others to 
meet St. Germain when he came to spend a 
night at Xanterre. \Vhen the bishop saw 
her he was made aware bv inspiration of the 
sanctity of her character, and hanging round 
her neck a medal marked with the cross, lie 
blessed her as one consecrated to God's 

GEXG.Y, GIROLAMO, born at L'rbino in 
147(i, died there, July 11, 1551. L'mbrian 
school ; pupil of Luca Signorelli, whom he. 
aided in his frescos in the Duomo of Or- 
vieto. Genga afterwords was I'erugino's 
assistant for three years, and in his school 
became acquainted with Raphael. Painted 
in the Pala/./o Petrucci, Siena, and then 
with Timoteo Vite at L'rbino. Afterwards 
worked in Kome, Pesaro, and Florence, 
both as painter find architect. Works: Res- 
urrection (lolO), Siena Duomo; Madonna, 
lirera; Resurrection, S. Caterina da Siena, 
Rome; Holy Family, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 
His son, Bartolommeo Genga (born 1.")18, 
died 1558), was better known as an archi- 
tect than as a painter. Ch. Blanc, Kcoki 
ombrienne ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 8(! ; 
ed. Mil., VL 315 ; Siret, 35(i ; Boldinucci, 
ii. 03. 


St. Omcr (Pas-dc-Ciiliiis) in 1805, died in ! 
1860. Architecture painter. Works: View 

in Dominican Antwerp (1843); 
Church Interior (1845), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
bury ; Burial Chapel at Dreux (1850) ; In- | 
terior of Collegiate Church at St. Licrre 
near Antwerp (1852), Ravenc Gallery, 
Berlin ; St. Lawrence's at Nuremberg, Stet- 
tiii Museum. 

GEXXERICH, OTTO, born in Berlin in 
1823. History painter, pupil of Berlin 
Academy. Continued his studies in Italy 
(1841-42) with Lengerich. After his return 
he taught and wrote on perspective. Works : 
Gotz von Berlichingen at Heilbronn (1848) ; 
Last Will of Great Elector (1852) ; Visit of 
Electoral Family of Brandenburg to Re- 
mains of Gustavus Adolphus at Wolgast 
(1809). -Miiller, 200. 

iu Lyons, Sept. 20, 1790, died there, July 
25, 1802. Genre painter, pupil of Ruvoil, 
and one of the best painters born at Lyons. 
His pictures are agreeable, true to nature, 
and carefully executed. Medal, 2d class, 
1811); L. of Honour, 1855. Many of his 
works have been engraved. Works: Mother 
wit li a Sick Child (181!)) ; Father's Blessing, 
Hospital Sister (1822) ; Soldier's Farewell 
(1824), Lyons Museum ; Young Mother 
mourning for her Sou (1824) ; Cupid and 
Psyche; Prisoners of State under Louis XIII. 
(18I55); Monk in the Pyrenees ; The Golden 
Wedding (1855) ; The Prisoner (1857) ; The 
King Drinks! A Painter's Apprentice (1801). 

GEXOELS, ABRAHAM, called Archi- 
medes, born in Antwerp, May 25, 1040, 
died there, May 10, 1723. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of Jacob Backerell, 
and at Bois-le-Due of Fierlants ; went to 
France in 1059, where he was employed by 
Lebrun to paint the backgrounds in his Bat- 
tles of Alexander the Great, and in 1004 was 
made member of the Academy. In 1672 
he entered the guild of Antwerp, whither lie 
returned after having spent the period from 

1674 to 1682 in Rome, where his knowl- 
edge of mathematics acquired him the sur- 
name of Archi- 
medes. Works : 
Minerva and the 
Muses, Antwerp 
Museum ; Land- 
scape, Bruns- 
wick Museum. 
Allgem. d. 
Biogr., viiL 509; 
Cli. Blanc, Ecole 
flamande ; Cat. 
du Musee d'Anvers (1874), Fetis, Les Ar- 
tistes beiges a 1'etranger, i. 215 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 414 ; Riegel, 
Beitriige, 130 ; Van den Bran- 
dcn, 1074. 

GEXSCHOW, GEORG, born at Rostock 
in 1829. Landscape painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Andreas Achenbach, 
and afterwards studied nature in the Bava- 
rian Highlands, Switzerland, and the Car- 
pathian Mountains ; Lives at Diisseldorf. 
Works : Mountain Lake (1853), View r in the 
Hartz, Mill in the Mountains (1859), Sea- 
shore at Sunset (1801), Schweriu Gallery ; 
Waterfall in Carpathian Mountains (1862), 
Kiel Gallery ; Wood Brook (1804), Fall in 
Tatra Mountains (1800), Evening Landscape 
(1807), Mill on River Erft (1808). Miiller, 

GEXSLER, GUXTHER, born in Ham- 
burg, Feb. 28, 1803. Portrait painter and 
writer on art, studied in Dresden, the Neth- 
erlands, and Italy. Works : Two Groups of 
Artists (1849 and 1800), Old Art Amateur 
(1867), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Assembly of 
Hamburg Artists (1859), Cologne Museum ; 
Hour of Rest in the Studio (1854), Leipsic 
Museum. Miiller, 200. 

GENSLER, JAKOB, born in Hamburg, 
Jan. 22, 1808, died there, Jan. 26, 1845. 
Genre painter, pupil of Rachau and Gerdt 
Hardorff, the elder, then in Eutin of Wilhelm 
Tischbein ; went in 1827 to Dresden, and 
thence to Munich, where he frequented the 
Academy. Visited the Tyrol, then continued 



elements i>f Ins art 
uinler his brother 
Aurelio ainl his uncle 

r> i 

he went t 

'ormed his stvle bv studv 


his studies in 1830 at the Vienna Academy, him in portraits. Among her works are : 

and returned to Hamburg in 1831. Works: Mary Magdalen, Judith, and Judith and 

Hessian Cart men (182li) ; Tavern in Hart/ Holofernes, in the Pala/./o Pitti, Florence ; 

Mountains (1830) ; Cartmen before Inn, Birth of St. John Baptist, Woman caressing 

Tyrolese Smugglers, Tyrolese Village (1831); Pigeons, Madrid Museum; Her Portrait, 

Klosterneuburg on the Danube ; Fishing Hampton Court ; Christ among the Doctors, 

Expedition ; Spinning Women of Blanken- Historical Society, New York. I Aim, i. 2.'!2; 

esc ; Coast on Baltic Sea ; Cemetery of Els- Ch. Blanc, Kcole tlorentine ; Walpole, Anec- 

torf (1837), Kunsthalle, Hamburg; Blanken- dotes, isc ; Wesselv, 17. 
ese Women at the Well ; Sunday Morning ; GENTILKSCHI, OKA/IO, born in Pisa. 

Hay-Harvest ; Boys going to Ritle-match ; July '.). 15r>2. died in 

Winter Scene on the Elbe; Fishermen on London in 1(147. 

Baltic Sea; Dutch Coast by Moonlight; Florentine school. 

Arrival of Fishermen at Xandvoort ; Fruit- Real name Lomi, 

Harvest. Andresen, iii. 42. brother and pupil of 

GENSLER, MARTIN, born in Hamburg, Aurelio Lomi, but 

May '.I, 1811, died there, Dee. 15, ISSl. took name of Genti- . 

Genre and architecture painter, pupil of Ra- leschi from an uncle. 

chau and of his brother Giinther, studied in Having mastered the 
1835-30 in Munich. Works: Hall in St. 
John's Convent, Hamburg, Players of 
Draughts in Tavern (1830) ; Silver Foundrv 
(18311; Sacristy (1835), Wanderer asking 
for Shelter (1851), Kunsthalle, Hamburg; 

Mediaeval Scholar (1841), Cassel Gallei-v ; upon important works for Clement VIII., 

Praying Knight (1845); Hospitable Hearth Paul V.. and Cardinals Borghese and Aldo- 

(1847); Well in Hospital (bSl'.h; Castle, brandini. [n 1(121 went to Genoa, then for 

Yard (1850); Refugees in Castl<; (1852); two years to France, and in 1<'>2<; to Eng- 

Hospitallers at the Well (1854) : Repose in land, where he remained till his death, much 

Egypt (1855); Fisherman's Dwelling in esteemed and employed by Charles I., who 

Autumn (1850) ; Feeding the Poor at a Con- gave him a yearly salary. Van Dyck painted 

vent (18(11); Tinker (1X02) ; Fisherman's his portrait. Among his works art' : Repose 

Hut on the Elbe (18GO) ; Castle Sentinel, of Holy Family (painted for Charles I.I. and 

Christ iania Gallery. Andresen, iii. 2; Kunst- a young man's portrait. Louvre ; Joseph and 

Chronik, xvii. 287. Potiphar's Wife, Sibyl, Hampton Court ; 

GENTILE DA FABRIANO. See l-'nhri- Madonna and Saints, Moses saved from the 

aim. Waters, Madrid Museum ; Adoration of the 

GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA, born in Magi, Annunciation, Turin Gallery ; Magda- 

Rome in 1590, died in London in 1042. leu in a Grotto, Flight into Egypt, Vienna 
Florentine school ; daughter and pupil of 
Ora/.io Gcntileschi ; also studied at Bologna 
under Guido Reni. Lived in Naples in 
1C30-37 ; as famous for her amours as for 
her painting. Finally joined her father in 
England, where she was well received and 
painted many of the royal family and nobil- rtC/T. 

ity. Walpole says she was not. inferior to Museum. Lan/.i, i. 232 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole 

her father in historical painting, and excelled tlorentine. 


i -a 


GENTZ, WILHELM, horn at Neu-Rup- 
pin, Dec. 9, 1822. History and genre paint- 
er, pupil in Berlin of Klober, then in 1845 
of the Antwerp Academy, and in 1840-52 in 
Paris under Glcyrc and Couture ; travelled 
in the East and throughout Europe. Mem- 
ber of and professor at Berlin Academy. 
Great gold medal in Berlin (1870), medals 
in Vienna (1ST:!) and Munich (1870). 
Works': Christ and Magdalen at Simeon's, 
Prodigal Son, Christ among the Pharisees 
and Publicans, Chemnitz Museum ; Trans- 
portation of Slaves through the Desert, Halt 
of Caravan, Stettin Museum ; Camp of Mec- 
ca Caravan, Bedouin Camp, Giving Alms in 
Cairo, Prayer of Mecca Caravan, Meeting of 
Two Caravans (18GO-70); Nile Landscape, 
Story-Teller at Cairo, Funeral near Cairo 
(Dresden Gallery), Village School in Upper 
Kgypt, Snake Charmer, Coffee-House in 
Cairo, Fellah-Houses in Cairo (1870-72); 
Entry of Gorman Crown Prince into Jeru- 
salem in 18f>!) (187(i), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Grave of Rabbi in Algiers, Leipsie 
Museum; Idyl in Thebaid (1883); Evening 
on the Nile (1884). Brockhaus, vii. 785; 
Illustr. Xeitg., Mar. 10, 1801 ; (187:!), ii. 
123; (1877), i. 221; Rosenberg, Berl. Ma- 
le rsc.h., 219. 

GEOFFROY, JEAN, born at Marennes 
(Cliarente Infri'ieure); eon temporary. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Levasseur, 
Adan, and Bin. Medal, 3d class, 188;i. 
Works: First, Lessons (1878); Abandoned, 
Unwarranted Resemblance (1879); Resigned 
Victim, A Future Scholar, Stirrup-Cup, Great 
Culprit (1880); Little Class, Quarter of an 
Hour of Rabelais (1881); Afternoon Lunch- 
eon, In Quarantine (1882); Hour of Return, 
The Unfortunate (1883) ; Basket-Maker, 
Sewing Lesson (1884); Review of Scholar 
Battalions, Washstand (1885). 

March 28, 1834. Portrait painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy under Rahl, studied then 
for some years in Hungary ; one of the best 
portrait painters of Vienna. Medal in 1873. 
Works : Effect of Wine (1853); Richard TIL 

(1857); portraits of the actors Wild, Staud- 
igl, Lowe, Beckmann, Findeisen, DambGck, 
of the painter Angeli, of Professor Roki- 
tausky, of Count Hoyos, Minister Lasser, 
Archduke Louis Victor. Miiller, 201. 

St. George of Cappadocia, the patron saint 
of England, was, according to the legend, a 
tribune in the army in the time of Diocle- 
tian. When on the way to join his legion, 
he overcame a terrible dragon, near Selene, 
in Libya (or Berytus, Syria, according to 
another account), and rescued the king's 
daughter, Cleodolinda, who was about to 
be sacrificed to appease the beast. St. 
George suffered martyrdom in the persecu- 
tion of Diocletian. The combat with the 
dragon has been illustrated by nearly all 
the great painters. 

By Marco J>nxaiti, S. Pietro di Castello, 
Venice ; canvas, figures half life-size ; signed, 
dated 1520. St. George on horseback, tight- 
ing dragon ; Princess Cleodolinda in back- 
ground holding on to a tree. Close imita- 
tion of Carpaccio. Painted by order of 
Patriarch Antonio II., Contarini (1508-24). 
Xanotto, Pinac. Yen., PI. 17 ; C. & C., N. 
Italy, i. 270. 

By Andrea Mantryiia, Venice Academy ; 
wood, tempera, H. 2 ft. x 1 ft. St. George, 
in armour, holding the stump of his lance, 
with the dragon at his feet. Painted about 
1404. Formerly in Palazzo Manfrini. C. 
it C., N. Italy, i' 387 ; Burckhardt, 578. 

l>y G. A. I'lirtknone, Quirinal, Rome ; 
wood, arched, H. 9 ft. x C ft. 2 in. ; signed. 
The saint, on horseback, tilts at dragon with 
his lance ; background, a landscape with 
Cleodolinda kneeling. Formerly in church 
at Noale, near Treviso.-C. & C., N. Italy, 
ii. 287. 

By liajihai-l, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
wood, transferred to canvas, H. lOf x8J in. 
St. George in armour, on a white horse, 
charges out of the foreground and trans- 
fixes the dragon with his lance ; background, 
a wilderness with a cave to the right, and 
Cleodolinda kneeling in prayer ; behind her 


n landscape with two towers in distance. 
Painted in Florence in 1500 ; presented by 
Guidobaldo I., Duke of Urbino, to Henry 
VII. of England, in return for the insignia 
of the Garter ; registered in inventories of 
Henry VIII. and Charles I., after whose 
death sold for tloO ; afterwards in Paris in 
possession of Marquis de Hourdis, and <>f 
M. de In None, who paid 500 pistoles for it. 
In Musi'e Napoleon in ISO'2. Engraved by 
L. Vorstennan ; DCS Clranges ; N. do Lar- 
inessin. Tapestry made at Mortlake in time 
of Charles I. and at Irnhani, Lincolnshire. 
Sketch in the Uflixi, Florence ; engraved by 
Vorstennan from a ropy. C. X ('., Itaph- 
ael, i. 27H ; Are.lueologia, 2!>S ; Felibien, En- 
tretiens, i. 2'2S ; Landon, Musi'e, iii. PI. !.">. 
By l!/i],!ia<-t, Louvre ; wood, H. 12 in. X 10 
in. St. George in armour, on a gray horse, 
gallops into the foreground, and having 
broken his lance upon the dragon, is about 
to despatch him with his sword ; in the dis- 
tance, Cleodolinda starts in flight, with 

Perugia in 1504. Ik-longed to Cardinal 
Maxarin ; bought of his heirs for Louis XIV. 

St. George and the Dragon, Raphael, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

arms extended ; background, a beautiful 
landscape of trees and rocks. Painted in 

St. Gonrgi', Truf 1h.> D'lt'nn Rlp k >el, ! .. 

(C. \ ('. } ; but Villot says it w:is iu the col- 
lection of Francis I., and thinks it the pict- 
ure cited by Lonm/xo (i. -IS), as painted for 
the Duke of t'rbino in 15(tli. Studv in the 
I'tli/.i. Engraved by X. Lannessin ; Vorst- 
erman ; ,1. I,. Petit. C. \- C'.. I!apha<'I. i. 
20(1 ; Passavant, ii. -2-2; Miintx, lid; Call. 
Croxat, i. PI. 1(1 ; Musi'e roval, i : L-inili>ii. 
Musee, iv. PI. (1-2 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Fil- 
liol, i. PI. 1!. 

P>y Tin/iiri'/ln, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. X ! ft. '! in. Princess 
Cleodolinda kneels in foreground ; in mid- 
dle distance a dead body, and beyond on 
the hillside St. George on horseback driving 
the dragon into the sea ; in background a 
castle, and a golden sky with glory of an- 
gels. Splendid colour and masterly treat- 
ment ; painted with the inspired freedom of 
an improvisation. Bequeathed in IS.'U by 
Rev. W. H. Can-. Kit-liter, Italian Art in 
Nat. Gal., SO. 

By Tinturelln, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
The saint, armed and on horseback, attacks 
the dragon, near which lies the body of a 


man killed by the monster; to right, in GEORGE, ST. , MARTYRDOM OF, Paolo 
background, St. Alexander, and beyond a Veronese, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Verona ; 
building. Presented to Emperor Alexander canvas. St. George, kneeling, with eyes 
I. by M. Narischkine. Cat. Hermitage, 54. raised to heaven, is insensible to the exhor- 
Bv Tintoretto, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; tations of the priest of Apollo, who points to 
canvas, about H. C ft. x 8 ft. The princess the image of the god ; behind, an execu- 
tioner with his sword ; in front, an- 
other trying to place the saint in apo- 
sition to be decapitated ; two mount- 
ed men and other soldiers look on ; 
above, the Virgin and Child, with SS. 
Peter and Paul, and Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, surrounded by angels and 
cherubim, one of whom bears the 
palm of martyrdom and the crown 
to St. George. Painted about 15G8 
for S. Giorgio, Verona ; carried to 
Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. 
It was probably finished by Vero- 
nese's pupils. Landon, Musee, xii. 
PI. 9 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 35. 

USTE ALBERT, born at Caen (Cal- 
vados) ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Gc'rome 
and Lecomte du Nouy. Medal, 3d 
class, 1879. Works : Greek Cour- 
tesan (1874) ; Lyrical Debut (1875); 
Beheading of St. John (187G) ; Gaul 
Sentinels (1877) ; Cradle of a Spar- 
tan (1878) ; St. Jerome in the Desert 
(1880) ; Death of Gaudri, Bishop 
of Laou (1882) ; Fishermen at the 
Inn (1883) ; The Victors of Yester- 
day (1884) ; Mending Nets (1885). 
born in Rome. 
March 14, 1770, 

Martyrdom of St. George, Paolo Veronese, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Verona. 

sits astride on the dragon's neck, holding 
him by a silken bridle ; St. George, in 
armour, stands behind, holding his hands 
over her head ; on the right a monk, stand- 
ing, looking gravely on. Study in Palazzo 
Manfrini. A similar picture at Hampton 
Court. Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 290 ; 
Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 54. 

By Bartolommeo Virarini, Berlin Museum; 
wood, H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. ; signed, 
dated 1485. Saint on horseback 
with dragon ; Cleoilolinda in 
& C., N. Italy, i. 47. 



distance. C. 

in Paris, 
11, 1837, 
French school ; 
history and por- 
trait painter, pu- 
pil of the sculp- 
to r Pnjou, of 
Brenet, and of 
David ; won the 

prix de Rome in 1789 with his Joseph 



discovering Himself to his Brethren, now in 
the Angers Museum. In 1702, after a short 
stay in Rome, he settled in Paris, and was 
assigned a studio iu the Louvre, but his rep- 
utation was not established until 1800, when 
Napoleon appointed him his otlicial portrait 
painter. He executed many important works 
under the Empire, and was patronized by 
Louis XVIII., Charles X., and Louis Philippe. 
Member of the Institute, 1812 ; L. of Hon- 
our, Order of St. Michael ; lirst painter to 
the king. 1817 ; and in 181!) was created a 
baron. Works: liflixnriitx ; Entry of Henri 
IV. into Paris (replica), I'xyi-lw and Cupid 
(17'J8), Ihqihuix and Chloe (1824), Victory 
and Fame, History and Poetry, portrait of 
Isiibey (17!)(i), do. of Canova, do. of Charles 
X., Louvre, Paris; The Three Ages (IsiiS) ; 
Battle of Aiixln-litz (1H10), Entry of //<,/// 
IV. into Paris (1S17), Philippe V. of France 
called to the Throne of Spain (1824), Coro- 
nation of Charles X. (1827), Proclamation at 
the Hotel de Ville in Paris (l:ili). Signing 
the Concordat, portraits of Joachim Murat, 
Madame Bonaparte, Empress Josephine, 
Empress Marie Louise and the King of 
Koine, Charles X., Due de Herri, Duchesse 
de Berri and Children, Versailles Museum ; 
The Three Ages (1801!), Naples Museum ; 
Sappho (1810), Htiidel Gallery, Frankfort; 
Coriiini' ut Cape Misenum (1811)), Lyons 
Museum ; Ndjuilemi in Coronation Ilobcs, 
Dresden Museum ; Plague at Marseilles, 
Sanitary Department of Marseilles ; portrait 
of La Reveillere Lepeaux, Angers Museum ; 
do. of Louis XVIII., Toulouse, Marseilles, 
find Ajaccio Museums ; do., Hatlield House, 
London ; Christ descending upon Earth and 
scattering Darkness (18157. last work), Or- 
leans Museum ; portraits of Napoleon (18D.S), 
Josephine, Queen of Naples (1810), King of 
Two Sicilies, Duke of Montebello (1812), 
Empress Marie Louise (1814), King of Rome 
(1814), Comtc d'Artois, Due d'Orleans (1810), 
Duchesse d'Orleans (1810), Due de Char- 
tres (1822), Duchesse do Berri (1824), Due 
de Bordeaux (1824), Due de Dalmatic 
(1826), Madame Pasta (182G). Bellier de 

la Cha\ ignerie, i. fi.'Jfi ; Oh. Blanc, Ecole 
frain;aise ; Meyer, Gesch., !)<> ; Villot, Cat. 


Louvre ; Lejeune, (iuide. i. 'Ml ; Xeitschr. 
f. 1). K., xx. 2.1i;. 

GERHARDT, EDfARD, born at Erfurt, 
April 21), 1S1:{. Landscape and architecture 
painter, studied from 1N.'!7 in Munich, when! 
he settled in 1X.">1 after ten years spent in 
Italy, Spain, and England. Works : Views 
of Cologne Cathedral (1SHK); Views in Ven- 
ice ; Views in the Alhambra ; San Ildefonso ; 
Gardens of Generalife ; ('anno Church in 
Lisbon ; Cintra ; S. Marco and S. Maria 
della Salute in Venice ; North View of Al- 
hambra ; Moonlight in Spanish Town ; Pal- 
ace of Inquisition at Cordova (1'SIJ.i), Lion's 
Court of Alhambra, Interior of St. Mark's 
in Venice, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Lion 
Court in the Alhambra, Palax/.o Moro. and 
Pala/./o Vendramin, at Venice, The Genera- 
life at Granada, Comares Tower of the Al- 
hambra, Schack Gallery, ib. Brockhaus, vii. 
821); Miiller, 201. 

born at Rouen, 
Sept. 20, 17111, 
died in 1'aris, 
Jan. 18, 1824. 
History and ani- 
mal painter, pu- 
pil of Carle Ver- 
net and of Gue- 
rin. In 1817, 
after serving in 
the army three; 

years, he went to Italy and studied in Home 
and Florence. His Raft of the Mi'dnxii 
(1811), Louvre) was loudly denounced by 
the critics on account of its bold realism ; 
but its exhibition in London brought the 
painter 20,000 francs and on his rctuni to 
Paris a gold medal. He executed after- 
wards many studies in crayon and water- 


colour, and many lithographs ; also mod- 
elled for sculpture. Works : Raft of the 
Medusa (1819), Officer of the Imperial Guard 
Charging (1812), "Wounded Cuirassier He- 
treating (1814), The Derby at Epsom (1821), 
A Carbineer, The Plaster Kiln, Turkish Horse 
in a Stable, Spanish Horse in a Stable, Five 
Horses in a Stable, Louvre ; Portrait of Lord 
Byron, Two Horses in a Stable, Montpellier 
Museum ; Others in Grenoble, llouen, Nan- 
tes, Chalon-sur-Saone, Aix, and Avignon Mu- 
seums ; Wreck of the Medusa, Historical 
Society, New York ; Village Smithy, Child 
feeding a Horse (exhibited in 1824, after 
his death); Cavalry Charge, Still Life, B. 

Wall, Providence. Ch. Blanc, ftcole fran- 
yaise, iii. ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Lejeune, 
Guide, i. .524 ; Chesneau, Peinturc fran- 
yaise (Paris, 1883); Gaz. dcs B. Arts (1874), 
ix. 72. 

GERIXI, LORENZO, Florentine school, 
beginning of 15th century. Son of NiccoK> 
Gerini and equally mediocre. A fair painter 
among the third-rates, and of considerable 
practice. His most important work is the 
Coronation of the Virgin, an altarpiece with 
predella, painted in 1440, in S. Domeiiico, 
Cortona. C. & C., Italy, ii. 2;!. 

entine school, 14th century, died after 1401. 
He was a careful and diligent painter, but 
in colour wanting force and fusion. In his 
frescos he continued the school of Taddeo 
Gaddi, but, as compared with Agnolo Gaddi 
and Spiuello, his painting is lifeless and 
third-rate. His earliest and most important 
work is a series of frescos in the Convent of 
S. Francesco, Pisa, dated 1392. C. & C., 
Italy, ii. 19 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 
151 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 197, N. 1. 

GERINO DA PISTOJA, Umbrian school 
(1502-29). Vasari says he was a friend of 

Pinturicchio, a diligent colourist, and a fol- 
lower of Perugino. His Virgin of Succour 
(1502) in S. Agostino, Borgo S. Sepolcro, 
shows that he was a fair copyist of his mas- 
ter when he painted it. His Madonna and 
Saints (1509), S. Pietro Maggiore, Pistoja, 
'. is a mixture of Perugiuo, Pinturicchio, and 
Raphael. He grew feeble later ; his Ma- 
donna and Saints (1529), Uffizi, Florence, 
is gray and dull, with none of his early rich- 
ness of tint. C. & C, Italy, iii. 349 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole ombricune ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., v. 27(5. 

von Pilot ij, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 17 
ft. 8 in. x 24 ft. G in. Triumphal entry into 
Rome accorded by Tiberius to Germanicus, 
A.I). 17, after his victory over the Germans 
on the Elbe, in which he recovered the 
eagles lost by Varus (Tae. An., ii. 41). 
: Thnsnelda, wife of Arminius, leading by 
the hand her little boy Thumelicus, walks 
in the procession, while Segestes, her father, 
through whose treachery she had fallen in- 
to the hands of the Romans, sits near Ger- 
j manicus as an ally. Painted in 1873 ; sold 
for 35,000 florins. Replica, Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New York. Art Trcas. of Amer., 
i. 2G. 

GERUME, JEAN LF.ON, born in Vesoul, 
May 11, 1824. His- 
tory and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Paul Delaroche, 
whom he accompa- 
nied to Rome, and 
of Gleyre after his 
return from Italy. 
Failed to obtain the 
prix de Rome, but 
obtained a 3d class 
medal for his Cock Fight in 1847, and in- 
creased his reputation by his Anacreou in 
the following year. Then visited Russia, 
where he painted a successful picture of 
Russian Musicians, and Egypt, whence he 
brought back valuable material afterwards 
treated (1857). Since this period he has 



painted a variety of subjects ancient and tor, ih. ; After the Hath, William Astor, il>. ; 
modern, which have gained him a place as Prayer in the Desert, I. Corse, ib. ; Bull- 
one of the best-known modern French Fighter, Guard of Louis XIV., T. 1!. Butler, 
painters. Gerome has also exhibited sev- ib. ; Snake-Charmer, Albert Spencer, ib.; 
era! sculptured groups, and has executed Arab Seated, Mrs. Paran Stevens, ib. ; Cru- 
inural paintings for the city of Paris, among rilixion, Frank Work, New York ; Bonaparte 
Uiem the Plague at Marseilles in St. St'-verin. in Egypt, Call to Prayer, R. L. Kennedy, ib.; 
Medals: 3d class, 1847; 2d class. 1S4S, Pifferari in London, J. C. Uuukle, ib. ; Muez- 
1855; of honour, 1807, 1874, 1878; for ziu's Call to Prayer, J. W. Drexcl, ib. ; iHith- 
sculpture, 1878; L. of Honour, 1S55 ; ()|Vi- at Ravenna, M. K. .Jesup, ib. ; Runners of 
cer, 1807; Commander, 1878; Member of the Pasha, It L. Stuart, ib. ; ('/>, / ml ru before. 
Institute, 1805. Professor in Hcole des C;esar (1800), Diogenes. J). (). Mills, ib. ; 
Beaux Arts, 180K. Works: Cud: Fight Woman of Syria, C'. 1'. Huntington, ib.; 
(1847), Luxembourg Museum; Madonna Street Scene in Cairo, Playing Chess, C. S. 
and St. John (1848); Anacreon with Bac- Smith, ib.; Turkish BiitcheivUoy (l<SO:i), 
chus and Cupid (1848), Toulouse Museum; Dance of the J/m7i (1804), J. Hoev, ib.; 
Bacchus and Cupid Intoxicated (185(1), Bor- Louis XIV. and the (irand Condi', Asking 
deaux Museum ; Greek Interior, Souvenir Alms in a Mosque, Sword Dance, Bashi-Ba- 
of Italy (1851); View of IVstum (185:2); An /oiik, W. If. Vanderbilt, ib. ; Une Collabora- 
Idyl (1853); Russian Concert, Age of An- timi, CU-I-HK Maximus, (;iinli<tt<:<, Mrs. A. T. 
gustus (1855), Amiens Museum ; Egyptian Stewart, ib. ; Syrian Shepherd, H. 1'robas- 
Reeruits crossing the Desert, Memnon and co, Cincinnati; Circassian (iirl, 11. V. New- 
Sesostris, Camels at Watering-Place (1857); comb, New York ; Oriental Woman, Leland 
Gladiators saluting C;esar, King ('uidlaiili't Stanford, San Francisco; Sword Dance in 
(1859); I'ltryiii- before the Tribunal, Alcibi- the CatV-, ('. Crocker, ib.; Arnaut Soldier, 
a<les in House of Aspasia, Rembrandt Etch- Mrs. W. P. Wilstaeh, Philadelphia ; Almehs 
ing (1801); Prisoner (180IJ), Nantes Muse- playing Checkers, Mrs. T. A. Scott, ib.; 
lira; Reception of Siamese Ambassadors at Old Clothes Dealer in Cairo, H. C. Gibson, 
Fontainebleau, Prayer (1805); Cleopatra and Philadelphia; On the Desert, Diogenes 
Ciesar, Door of Mosque of El Haeamyn (1800), Christian M<ir/i/r.t (18S.'!|, />,'/ after 
(1800); Slave Market, Clothing Merchant, the Masquerade ( 1857), W. T. Walters. Bal- 
Death of Ciesar (1807); Seventh of Decem- timore ; Ciesar Dead, Corcoran Gallery, 
ber, 1815 (18G8); Jerusalem, Cairo Pedlar, .. rrROMF ^ 'iwhington. Claret ie, 
Promenade of the Harem (1809); Ii>:r Tibi- AL^t-K " fc Peiutres (1884), ii. 57; 
cen, Santon at the Door of a Mosque, Worn- Meyer, Gesch., 070 ; Monti-osier, Artistes 
en at the Bath (1870); St. Jerome, Turk- modernes ; Ga/. des B. Arts (1808), xxiv. 
ish Bath, Bashi-Bazouks Dancing, Return 147 ; (1871.), xiv. 218, 334 ; Portfolio (1875), 
from the Chase (1878); Slave Market in 82 ; Hamerton, French Painters. 
Rome, Night in the Desert, Van** du Baton GERRIT VAN HAARLEM. See (lo-rl- 
(1884); Great Bath at Brusa (1885). Works yen van Sint-Jans. 

in United States : Female Figure, T. A. GERRY, SAMUEL L., born in Boston in 
Haveineyer, New York ; Abyssinian Chief, 181.'}. Landscape and genre painter, self- 
Sheik at Devotions Ancient Mosque in taught ; has travelled and studied nature in 
Cairo, Miss C. L. Wolfe, ib. ; Slave Market, Europe, especially in France, Switzerland, 
A. Belmout, ib. ; Eminence Grise (1874), and Italy ; studio in Boston. One of 
iluli&re Breakfasting with Louis XTV., J. H. foundation members and early president 
Stebbins, ib.; Arabs in Desert, W. Rocke- of the Boston Art Club. Works: Land of 
feller, ib.; Death of Clawr (1807), J. J. As- Beulah ; Over the River ; Bridal Tour of 



John and Priscilla Aldon ; Artist's Dream ; 
American Tourists ; Pasture (late. 

Nyboder, Copenhagen, May 10, 1818, died 
in Copenhagen, March 21), 1871. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy, painted at iirst also landscapes 
and interiors. Member of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1850 ; professor. Medal in 
1843. Works : Thorvaldsen's Studio at 
Charlottenborg (1836), Shepherd driving his 
Flock (1838), Portrait of his Mother (184G), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Portraits of Thorvald- 
sen (1840), Provost Trydes (184:5), Dahl, 
Eckersberg (1850), Count Moltke, Banker 
Gedalia (185'.)), King Frederik VII. (1801), 
Count FITS von Frysenberg ; The Two 
Friends. Weilbach, 200. 

GERUNG, MATTHIAS, born at Nord- 
lingen, Bavaria, flourished in Neiiburg, Lau- 
ingen, and Augsburg about middle of Kith 
century. German school ; history painter, 
perhaps pupil of Hans Burgkmair the 
younger. Works: Camp of Charles V. near 
LauingcH (1551), Town Hall, Lauingen ; 
Story of Paris, Destruction of Troy (1540) ; 
St. Lawrence, St. Cyriacus, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort; Justiciadormit (1543), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Series of Scenes from the Apoc- 
alypse (1544). Allgcm. d. Biogr., ix. 75 ; 
Kunstblatt (1841), 4:50 ; (1851), 4:51 ; Xa- 
gler, MOIL, iv. 569, 573 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
iv. 359. 

GEKVEX, HENRI, born in Paris in 
1848. History and 
genre painter, pu- 
pil of Cabanel, 
Brisset, and Fro- 
inciitin. Medals : 
2d class, 1874, 
1870. Works: 
Satyr playing with 
a Bacchante 
(1874), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; 
Diana and Endymion (1875) ; Autopsy in 
the Hospital, In the Woods (1876) ; Com- 
munion at Church of Trinity, My Friend 


Brispot (1877); Return from the Ball (1879); 
Souvenir of the 4th of December (1880) ; 
Civil Marriage (1881), Mayor's Office of 19th 
District, Paris ; Reservoir of La Villette 
(1882) ; The Department of Charities (1883); 
First Communion (1884) ; Meeting of the 
Jury on Painting (1885). 

sterdam, March 22, 
1814, died in Dttssel- 
dorf, Jan. 5, 1878. Genre 
painter, pupil in Wesel 
of Welsch, then in 1834 
-41 of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Schadow. 
First painted romantic 
genre and history, after- 
wards scenes of do- 
mestic life, with great 
poetic charm, and soon ranked among the 
foremost artists of Diisseldorf. Member of 
Amsterdam Academy. Works : Faust in 
his Study (1839) ; Fiancee at Grave of her 
Lover (1840) ; Giitz von Berlichingeu before 
Council of Heilbroun (1842) ; Death of Val- 
entine (1844) ; Romeo and Juliet (1845) ; 
Entombment (1840) ; Herodias with Head 
of St. John (1847) ; Adoration of Magi, 
Finding of Body of Gustavus Adolphus 
(1848) ; Night Camp of Wallenstein's Sol- 
diers in Old Church (1849) ; Christmas 
Presents (1850) ; St. Nicholas' Eve (1852) ; 
Grandmother's Bible, Children's Bath on 
Saturday, Old Woman at Spinning Wheel, 
Grandfather rocking Grandson to Sleep ; 
St. Martin's Eve (18G2), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Singing School (18G7), Musical Even- 
ing Party (1867), Maternal Joy (1868), Co- 
logne Museum ; Christmas Morn, Stockholm 
Museum ; Endangered Meal, Stettin Mu- 
seum ; Mother's Birthday ; Evening Service. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 86; Kunst-Chrouik, 
xiii. 258; Wolfg. Miiller, Dttsseldorfer Kstl., 
272 ; Wiegmann, 304. 

GESSI, FRANCESCO, born in Bologna, 
Jan. 20, 1588, died in 1649. Bolognese 
school ; pupil of Calvaert and of Cremonini ; 
afterwards of Guido, whose assistant he was, 



together with Sementi, in his great works 
in Ravenna, Naples, and Mantua. Some of 
his earlier pictures nearly approach the ex- 
cellence of his master, but his facility of 
execution led him to abuse his talents, and 
his later works show the coldness of a man- 
nerist. He had a well-attended school at 
Bologna. Many of his pictures are in Bo- 
logna, c.</., St. Francis receiving the Stig- 
mata, Madonna, Christ praying to the East. 
Holy Family and Angels, St. Bonaventura, 
Madonna with Angels, in the Pinacoteca ; 
Martyrdom of St. Catharine, in S. Caterina ; 
Madonna and Saints, in S. M. della Carit.i ; 
St. Francis at the Xunziata. Other works : 
St. Francis, Estonse Gallery, Modena ; Cu- 
pid, Madrid Museum ; Madonna with Saints, 
Brera, Milan ; Morpheus appearing to Hal- 
cyon, Vienna Museum ; Magdalen, Dresden 
Museum ; Diana and Acheon, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Infant Christ, Christ crowned with 
Thorns, Stockholm Museum. Ch. Blanc. 
Ecole bolonaise ; Burekhardt, 7f!4 ; Gual- 
itiuli, Guida, 117, 1155 ; Malvasia, ii. 24:5 ; 
Lan/i, iii. !I7. 

GESSXER, SALOMON, horn in Ziirich, 
April 1, 17:50, died there, March "2, 17SS. 
German school. Well-known Swiss poet. 
Landscape painter, self-taught ; began to 
paint in Berlin, where he was sent in 1741) 
to learn the book trade. Later in Hamburg, 
and on his return home, he devoted himself 
alternately to poetry and painting, and to 
the latter art exclusively after 17(!f>. Works: 
Well in the Woods, Dreamer, Arcadian Well, 
Fisherman, /cinch Gallery. His son, Kon- 
rad, painted with some reputation in Eng- 
land and Scotland. Works : Cavalry Skir- 
mish (2), View in Park (2), Driving up Hill, 
Horses Grazing, Ziirich Gallery. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., ix. 122 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 5()(>. 

Hnthi-rmi'1, Memorial Hall, Fail-mount Park, 
Philadelphia; canvas, H. 1!) ft. x 15:5 ft. 
Painted in 1871 for State of Pennsylvania ; 
$25,000. Art Journal (1872), 20. 

GEYER, ALEXIUS, born in Berlin in 
1826, died there, July 10, 1883. Landscape , 

painter, pupil of Berlin, Munich, and Dres- 
den Academies ; studied then several years 
in Rome and Paris, and travelled for ten 
years through Italy, Greece, the East, ami 
the greater part of Germany, Switzerland, 
Belgium, and Holland. Works : Ten pict- 
ures for King Frederick William IV. ; Series 
for Archaeological Museum in Rome; Cyclo- 
rama of the Bosphorus ; do. of the Nile ; 
Termini ; Civita Lavigna ; View in Volsker 
Mountains ; Palermo ; Arabian Landscape. 
- Brockhaus, viii. 7 ; Milller, 20:5. 

<;EYKK. .JOHAXX, bom at Augsburg, 

Jan. 1, 1807, died there, Nov. 2(i, 1875. 
( ienre painter, pupil of Augsburg art-school 
and of Munich Academy under Clemens 
Zimmerman!) ; visited France ami Belgium, 
and was from ISIi.'i until 1M!."> professor at 
the Polytechnic School in Augsburg. Treated 
rococo genre scenes with exquisite humour, 
and represented stuH's, especially satin, with 
great skill. Works: Cousiliuni Mcdicum, 
End of Masked Ball, Physician feeling Lady's 
Pulse, New Pinakothek, Munich; Concert 
Rehearsal ; Christening Feast, Menagerie 
(IS!!.")), Leipsic Museum ; Frightened Watch- 
man ; Quarrelling Ministrants ; Capuchin's 
Sermon in Wallenstein's Camp; Council of 
Augsburg receiving Louis the Bavarian 
(1844), Town Hall, Augsburg; Painter and 
Doorkeeper (1840) ; Fornarina in Raphael's 
Studio ; Reception of a Prince in Small 
Town, Hanover Gallery; Charles V. in Ti- 
tian's Studio (1850); Betrothal (18.V2) : 
Anteroom of a Prince (185(!) ; Opening of 
Will (1857), Sei/.ure of a Patrician (1S<;:1), 
Bremen Gallery; Got/ von Berlichingeil 
(185!t), Erfurt Gallery ; Duke of Alva at, 
Castle Rudolstadt, Prague Gallery. Brock- 
haus, viii. 7 ; Kunst-Chronik, xi. 1!(I5. 

GKYLING, RUDOLF, born in Vienna in 
1840. (ienre painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy under Ruben and Wurxinger ; spent 
some time in Italy, and settled in Vienna. 
Works : Homeward Journey with Siegfried's 
Body (1808); Playing Amorettes ; Floren- 
tine Girl; Interior of Peasant's Yard ; In- 
terior of Convent ; Sacrilcgists, Vienna 



Academy; Peasant Woman in Studio; Labor 
in Vain ; View in Siena. M filler, 204 ; 
Zeitschr., xiii. Ii75. 

GHENT, JUSTUS OF. See Justus of' 


GHEHINGH, ANTON, died at Antwerp 
in 1008. Flemish school ; architecture 
painter, master of the guild at Antwerp in 
1GG2. Works : Church Interior (1004), 
Dresden Museum ; Interior of Jesuit Church 
at Antwerp (1GGU), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
do. (1005), Vienna Museum ; do., Madrid 
Museum. Rooses (Ileber), 435 ; Van den 
Branden, 1035. 

GORDI called, born in Florence in 1458, 
died there, July 17, 1407. Florentine 
school. Brother of Domenico Ghirlandajo, 
for whom he chieflyworked during the great 
painter's lifetime. To this mediocre paint- 
er, who lived several years in France, and 
was richly recompensed by the king, are 
ascribed a Resurrection, Berlin Museum ; 
St. Lucy, in S. M. Novella, Florence ; and a 
Christ on the way to Golgotha, Louvre. 
C. A: C., Italy, iii. 518 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
xi. 284. 

called, born in Florence, March 14, 1452, 
died there in 1525. Florentine school. 
Brother of Domenico and Benedetto ; mas- 
ter in guild of Florence when Domenico 
died. He was a mere mechanical work- 
man, with little talent, but superior to Bene- 
detto. Employed himself chiefly with mo- 
saics. David assisted his nephew Ridolfo 
in painting the Madonna della Miscricordia, 
S. Felice, Florence. C. & C., Italy, iii. 520; 
Burckhardt, G39. 

Florence in 1449, died there, Jan. 11, 1404. 
Florentine school. Real name Domenico di 
Tommaso Curradi di Dosso Bigordi ; took his 
surname from his father, a goldsmith, who 
was called Ghirlandajo (garland-maker) from 
the wreaths of gold and silver, worn as head- 

ornaments, which he made. Domenico's 
earliest recorded works were painted about 

1480, before 
which he had 
perhaps re- 
ceived in- 
struction from 
Alesso Baldo- 
vinetti, and 
had learned 
much by 
studying the 
of Masaccio at the Carmine. He began his 
career by decorating the Vespucci chapel 
in the Ogni Santi, Florence, with a series 
of frescos, now destroyed, of whose quality 
a St. Jerome in the church and a IMXI 
Supper in the refectory give no very high 
idea. In those representing the Apothe- 
osis of St. Zanobins, the Madonna, and sev- 
eral Roman heroes afterwards executed in 
1481 in the Sala dell' Orologio, Palazzo Vec- 
chio, the style is still unformed, though ad- 
vance in technic is manifest. Called to Rome 
by Sixtus IV. in 1482, Ghirlandajo painted 
the Calling of Peter and Andrew upon the 
walls of the Sistine Chapel (finished before 
1484), in which he showed himself a fol- 
lower of Masaccio in composition. The dig- 
nity of the Saviour, the somewhat formal 
though varied grouping of the attendant 
figures, and the vast landscape which fills 
the background combine to form an impres- 
sive and effective picture. In his next work, 
the frescos in the Chapel of S. Fina, San 
Gemignano (before 1485), Ghirlandajo mani- 
fested a hitherto unrevealed grace and ten- 
derness, especially in that which represents 
the body of the Saint lying on a bier. After 
painting a Last Supper in the Convent of S. 
Marco, Florence, which is little varied from 
his first in the Ogni Santi, Ghirlandajo exe- 
cuted the frescos of the Life of St. Francis 
(1485) in the Sassetti Chapel, S. Trinita, 
Florence, in which he gave the whole meas- 
ure of his admirable powers. Here laud- 
scape and architectural backgrounds with 



local features are used to set off groups of 
figures conceived in a spirit of noble real- 
ism ; the compositions are formed in the 
spirit of Masaccio ; the heads, many of them 
portraits, are drawn with the accurate and 
faithful pencil of a Holbein. In the por- 
traits of the donors, Francesco Sassetti and 
his wife Nava, Ghirlandajo equalled the great 
Gentian master in truth, in character, and 
in modelling. The altarpiece of this chapel, 
an Adoration of the Shf/thenlx (1485), is now 
in the Florence Academy. Even more im- 
portant than the frescos at S. Trinita are 
those of the Life of the Vinjin (14!)0) in the 
choir of S. M. Novella. Among them, the 
Birth of the Virgin is a typical example of 
Ghirlaudajo's style. Of the former altar- 
piece of this chapel, the Munich Gallery pos- 
sesses the Madonna appearing to St. Domi- 
nic and other Saints, together with side- 
panels of Saints Catherine and Laurence ; 
and the Berlin Museum the Resurrection of 
Christ and Saints. Other works by Ghir- 
landajo are, a Madonna with Saints, and a 
predella, sacristy of S. Martino, Lucca ; Ma- 
donna with Saints and Adoration of the Mniji 
(1487), Adoration of Xhi-phenl* (1485, t r |1!/i), 
Florence ; Minion na with Saints, Academy, 
ib. ; Adoration of the Mayi (1488), Chapel of 
the Hospital of the Innocent!, ib.; (Jliri.--/ in 
Glory, Palazzo Publico, Volterra ; Vinitiitimi 
(1491), Louvre ; St. Anthony, New York 
Museum. C. it C'., Italy, ii. 459; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 25:?, 27!) ; Dohme, 2i. 

called, born in Flor- 
ence, Feb. 14, 1488, 
died there in 1561. 
Florentine school ; son 
of Domenico ; brought 
up under guardianship 
of his uncle, David. 
Vasari says he studied 
under Fra Bartolom- 
meo, but he was prob- 
ably most indebted for 
guidance in art to Granacci, Piero di Cosi- ! 
ino, and perhaps Rosselli. His Procession 

of Christ and the Marys to Calvary, in Pa- 
lazzo Antinori a S. Gaetano, Florence, and 
his Coronation of the Virgin (1504), Louvre, 
arc among his earliest works. Later works 
show the influence of Fra Bartolommeo and 
of Raphael, as the Nativity, Berlin Museum; 
Nativity, Kszterha/.y Collection, Vienna; and 
a predella in the Oratory of Bigallo, Flor- 
ence. Raphael had great esteem for his 
talent, and vainly tried to persuade him to 
join him in Rome in 1508, as Ridolfo was 
satisfied with his success in Florence. His 
skill reached its highest point in his richlv- 
coloured, well-composed, and expressive St. 
/(iiKtliiii* raising a Dead Child, and the Bur- 
ial of St. Ziinuliitix, rili/.i, Florence. His 
Madonna dropping her Girdle to St. Thom- 
as is in the church at Prato, and M. della 
Misericord ia in S. Felice, Florence. Ridoll'o 
became the most noted painter of his time 
in Florence, where lie executed manv com- 
missions for the Medici. C. \ C., Italy, iii. 
518 ; Vasari, ed. I,e Mon., \i. 284 ; Mar- 
chesi. ii. 141 ; Cli. Illanc, Kcole tlorentine. 

GHISOLFI (Grisolli), GIOVANNI, born 
in Milan in l(i:!2, died there in l(>s:!. Ro- 
man school ; architecture, landscape, and 
history painter, pupil in Rome of Salvator 
Rosa; esteemed as a painter of architecture, 
he devoted himself after his return to Milan 
to large histories and altarpieces, and ex- 
ecuted frescos for the Certosa of Pavia and 
the Santuario of Varese. Works : Ruins of 
Carthage, Ruins of Splendid Buildings, 
Ships in a Seaport, Dresden Museum ; 
Ruins (2), National Gallery, Edinburgh. 

GIACOMELLI, HECTOR, born in Paris 
of foreign parents; contemporary. Bird 
and (lower painter in water-colours. L. of 
Honour, 1878. Works : Birds and Flowers 
(1878, 187!)); Wounded (187!)); Perch in a 
Cage, Farniente (188:?). 

Quingey (Doubs), Nov. 18, 1828. French 
school ; genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Picot and the Kcole des Beaux Arts ; won 
the grand prix de Rome in 1854. In 185!) 
he sent to the Salon his portraits of Edniond 



About and of Jules David. His pictures GIBRALTAR, SIEGE OP, John Single- 
have a certain elegance of style and are ton Copley, Guildhall, London ; canvas, 
agreeable in colour. Medals in 1804, 18G5, Scene : the repulse of the Spanish floating 
and 1800 ; L. of Honour, 1807. Works : batteries ; the firing has partly ceased, and 
Martyrdom of St. Hippolytus, Nymph and the English officers are endeavouring to res- 
Satyr (18(11), Besancon Museum ; Love cue the sufferers from the burning vessels, 
quenching his Thirst (1803); Agrippina Painted in 1789-90 for Court of Common 
leaving the Camp (1804), Lillo Museum ; Council of City of London. Study (4 ft, 4 
Abducfion of Amymonc (18(55), Luxem- ' in. x C ft. 2 in.) in National Gallery; en- 
bourg Museum ; Christ blessing Little Chil- graved by William Sharp. Cat. Nat. Gal. 
dren (1867); Cormela's Last Pin (1868); Pen- GIDE," THKOPHILK, born in Paris, 
tecost (1870); Cupid and Venus (1878); j March 15, 1822. History and genre painter, 
Calvary, The Cemetery (1875); Soimino pupil of Delaroche and Cogniet. Usually 
(1870); Night (1877); Christ among the ! paints scenes from life in Italian monas- 
Doctors, Christ blessing the Children, De- teries. Medals : 3d class, 18G1 ; Medal, 
scent of the Holy Ghost, St. Etienne du 1805, 1800; L. of Honour, 1800. Works: 
Mont, Paris ; Portraits of Generals Marulax Condemnation of Cinq Mars (1855); Raising 
and Morand, Hotel do Ville, Besan<;on ; of Youth at Nain (1857); Sully leaving the 
Portrait of Chancellor d'Aguesseau, Palais Court of Louis XIII. (1863), Angers Muse- 
de Justice, Paris; La Giottina (1879); Gen- um ; Farewell to the Convent (1804), Ami- 
taur and Nymph (1880); Innocence (1884). i ens Museum; Neapolitan Singer (1804); 
Bellier dc la Chavignerie, i. f>43 ; La- Studious Monks (1805), Alem;on Museum ; 
rousse. Pius IX. visiting a Convent ; Practising a 

GIAMBOXO, MICH E L E , Venetian Musical Mass (1800), Roubaix Museum ; 
school, middle of 15th century. A humble School ; Letter of Recommendation, Co- 
follower in the path of Jacobello del Fiore, ligny visited by Charles IX., Two Bad Ac- 
but showing an improvement in technical quaiixtanees, Cooper's Shop (1874); Indis- 
handling, due to the study of Gentile da creet Confidence, Another Glass ! (1875); 
Fabriano and of Pisanello. Giambono Charles IX. forced to sign the Order for the 
treated mosaic with more skill than painting. Massacre of the Huguenots (1870); Interior 
C. & C., N. Italy, i. 13 ; Lermolieff, 395. of St. Mark's in Venice, Louis XI. surprised 

GIANNICOLA BITTI. Sec .llmini. by his Fool when at Prayer (1877); Young 

GIANNU/7J, GIULIO PIPPI DE'. See Invalid (1878); Othello narrating his Ad- 
Ginlio Romano. ventures, Father Fiorista (1879); Marie An- 

GIBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE ADOLPHE, toiuettc in the Conciergerie (1880); Cavalier 
born at Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe, January and Maid-Servant, Interior of a Monastery 
24, 1803. Landscape painter, pupil in Paris in Nice (1881); Mazarin receiving a Mes- 
of Gnillon-Lethirre and of the Ecole des senger (1882); The Importunate Person, 
Beaux Arts ; obtained in 1829 the grand Visitors to the Palace of Fontainebleau 
prix de Rome, in which city he settled. (1883); Take Care! Checkmate (1884); No 
Works : Forest of Nettuno ; Battle of Eck- Jesting with edged Tools (1885). Bellier 
mi'thl, Versailles Museum ; Calydoniau Boar- de la Chavignerie, i. 045. 
Hunt; Banks of the Teverone (1850); Acrop-j GIERYMSKI, MAX, born at Warsaw, 
olis of Athens (1853); View in Pontine Oct. 15, 1846, died at Reichenhall, Bavaria, 
Swamps (1855), Avignon Museum ; View of Sept. 10, 1874. Landscape and genre paint- 
Ardea (1859); View of Abu Mandarin Egypt I er, pupil of Munich Academy under Alex- 
(1863); View from Terrace of French Acad- ander Wagner, then of Franz Adam, and 
emy in Rome (1872); Views in Sicily. j later led to landscape by Eduard Schleich. 



A visit to Poscn in 1872, to Mr ran in 187:5, 
anil to Home in the winter of 1873-4, failed 
to restore his health, broken by privations 
undergone in Poland during the insurrec- 
tion, iu which he took part in 180:5, with 
the rank of officer. Honorary member of 
the Berlin Academy. Works : Return with- 
out the Master, Attack of Cossacks, Funeral 
in Polish Town (1808); Alarm-Shot, Recon- 
noitring, Spinning-Room in Poland, Duel 
on Horseback, The Train is Coining, Light- 
Horse Marching (LSI!!)); Return from the 
Chase, Spring Promenade (1870); Meeting 
before the Chase, On the Vistula, After the 
first Ball, Starting for the Chase, Hunting 
Scene (1871); Night Scene, Country Road 
in Poland, Ride through Beech-drove, Po- 
lish Village Street, In front of Polish Inn 
(1872); Morning in Polish Camp, Moonlight 
Scene, Advance Guard Alarmed, Cossacks 
on the March (187:!); Stag-Hunt in Eigh- 
teenth Century (187-1), National Gallery, 
Berlin. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 150 ; Allgem. 
Zeitg., Aug. 27, 181-2, Bcilage, 210; Dios- 
kuren (1874), :!57 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 7 ; 
x. 440. 

Leipsic, Dec. 151, 1810, died in Munich, 
Sept. '21, 1847. History painter, pupil of 
Dresden and Munich Academies, in the lat- 
ter under Julius Schnorr, from whose car- 
toons he painted live great compositions in 
the new Royal Palace. Works : Scenes from 
Life of Charlemagne, Rudolph von Haps- 
burg, and Frederick Barbarossa, and 4 other 
pictures, Royal Palace, Munich ; Prodigal 
Son. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. l(i(i. 

New Bedford, Mass., in 1844. Landscape 
and bird painter ; wife of Robert Swain 
Gifford ; studied at the Cooper Institute 
schools, New York, and under Samuel Gerry 
of Boston. Studio in New York. 

the Island of Naushon, Gosnold, Mass., Dee. 
23, 1840. Landscape painter and etcher ; 
studied in New Bedford under Albert van 
Beest, marine painter, iu 1804, and settled 

in New York in 1800 ; made sketching 
tours iu California and Oregon in 18011, and 
in Europe and 
North Africa in 
1870 71, and again 
in 1874-75. Began 
to paint in water- 
colours in 18(55, 
and soon became 
a prominent mem- 
ber i if the Water 
Colour Society. 
Klected an A.N.A. 

in 1870, and N.A. in 1878. Works in oil: 
Scene at Manchester (I8li7); Mount Hood 
Oregon (1870); Kntnmco to Moorish 
House Tangier. View of the' Golden Horn 
(187:5); Halting for Water, Passenger Boats 
on Nile (1871); Uootli in Algeria, Rossetti 
Garden- Cairo (1875); Freight Boat on 
Nile, Egyptian Caravan (187(1); Border of 
the Desert (1877); Dartmouth Moors (1878); 
Sailers Beach (187'.l); Coast of New England 
(1880); Hillside, Old Fields (1881); Non- 
iniitt Cliff (1882); Near /aandam Holland, 
Salt Marshes (188:5); Point Road, /nyder- 
7ee (1884); On the Paskamansctt, Shores 
of Bu/./.ard's Hay, Salt. Mills at Dartmouth 
(1885). Water-colours: Deserted Whaler 
(18(17); Autumn on the Sea-shore (18C>8); 
Return from Phihe Egypt (1871); Low 
Tide, Old Fort (1874 ); Venetian Companion, 
Guerande (187(i); Evening in the Sahara, 
Scene on the Campagna, Oasis of Filiarch 
Algeria (1877); On the Lagoon Venice 
(1878). Am. Art Rev. (1880), 417. 

born at Greenfield, N. Y., July 10, 182.'!, 
died in New York, Aug. 2!), 1880. Land- 
scape painter, graduate of Brown University 
in 1842 ; in 1844 went to New York, and 
became pupil of J. R. Smith and of the 
National Academy. Elected an A.N.A. in 
1851, and N.A. in 18.54. In 1855-57 studied 
in Paris and Rome, and sketched in differ- 
ent parts of Europe ; in 1808-G9 sketched in 
Italy, Greece, Syria, and Egypt, and in 1870 
in the Rocky Mountains. Works : Kauters- 


kill Clove, Twilight (185!)) ; Bivouac of the 
7th Regiment at Arlington Heights (1861) ; 
Shrewsbury River 
(1808) ; San Giorgio 
(1869) ; Fishing-Boats 
oil the Adriatic, Charles 
Stewart Smith, New 
York ; Pallanza, Tivoli 
(1870); S. M. cli Salute 
Venice, R. C. Tuft, 
Providence ; Lago 
Maggiore, It. L. Stew- 
art, New York ; Monte 
Ferro(1871); <!<>M<;iiH<.mi (1872); Venetian 
Sails (1874), J. J. Astor, New York ; Pallauza 
Lago Maggiore, T. B. Clarke, ib. ; Castle 
of Chillon, Samuel Hawk Collection, ib. ; 
October in the Catskills, J. P. Morgan, ib. ; 
Luke, Mountains of Vermont, M. K. Jesup, 
ib. ; Autumnal Scene, Marine anil City, J. C. 
Coale, Baltimore ; View in Venice, H. B. 
Hurlbut Collection, Cleveland ; Mansfield 
Mountain Vermont, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, 
Philadelphia ; At Beni-Hassan, Near Paler- 
mo (187G) ; Leander's Tower, Sunset on the 
Hudson, Fire Island Beach (1877); Sunset 
Bay of New York (1878) ; Villa Malta- 
Rome, Claversack Creek, Sea-shore, looking 
Eastward at Sunset (1879) ; Ruins of the 
J'url/n'iiun (1880), Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington ; Sunrise on the Matterhorn (1880). 
Am. Art. Rev. (1880), 851 ; Kunst-Chrou- 
ik, xvi. '25. 

GIGNOUX, REGIS, born in Lyons in 
181(i, died in 1882. Landscape painter, 
lirst instructed at Freiburg, Breisgau, then 
pupil of Lj'ons Academy, and in Paris of the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts and of Delaroche ; 
went to America in 1844, became member of 
the National Academy in New York in 1851, 
and returned to France in 1870. Works : 
Bernese Alps by Sunrise, Indian Summer in 
Virginia, Niagara in Winter ; Four Seasons 
in America, Baron Rothschild, Paris ; Dis- 
mal Swamp ; Mount Washington, Mrs. A. 
T. Stewart, New York ; Niagara by Moon- 
light, August Belmout, ib. ; Mammoth Cave, 
Historical Society, ib.; Winter Scene, Cor- 

coran Gallery, Washington ; Moonlight on 
the Sagueuay (Johnston Sale, New York, 
1876); Spring. Milller, 205 ; Tuckerman. 

Besaneon, Jan. 8, 1806. History and genre 
painter, pupil of the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 
A skilful painter, and a good lithogra- 
pher. Medals : 2d class, 1833 ; 1st class, 1835 
and 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1842 ; officer, 
1880. Works : Henry IV. writing Verses in 
the Missal of Gabrielle d'Estrees (1833) ; 
Mine. Dubarry Dressing ; A Good Advent- 
ure ; Count Comminges recognized by his 
Mistress ; Death of Leonardo da Vinci 
(1835), Besanyon Museum ; Anthony and 
Cleopatra after the Battle of Actium ; He- 
loi'se receiving the Remains of Abelard ; 
Magdalen, bought by State ; St. Genevieve ; 
St. Philip healing a Sick Man ; Baptism of 
Clovis (1844), ordered by State ; Nativity 
(do.) ; Death of Mauon Lescaut ; Death of 
Cleopatra (1850), Good Samaritan (1857), 
Portrait of Fourier, Luxembourg Museum ; 
Charlotte Corday (1848) ; Galatea (1852) ; 
The Vintage (1853) ; The Eve of Austerlitz 
(1857), Besaneon Museum ; An Arrest dur- 
ing the Terror (1859) ; Head of Sarassin 
(1861) ; Poetry of Southern France (1866) ; 
First Meditation (1867) ; Magdalen (1870) ; 
The Fisherman and the Little Fish (1872) ; 
Father Lacour (1875) ; A Boy (1876) ; Youth 
of Do Ruyter (1877) ; Fountain of Youth, 
Magdalen in the Desert (1878) ; Beauty 
Asleep in the Woods (1879) ; In the Desert, 
Martha (1880) ; A Luxurious Man (1883) ; 
Capture of Ghent, Portrait of Charles VHL, 
Versailles Museum. He has also executed 
the decorations of a chapel in Saint Gervais, 
Paris, and religious pictures for St. Germain 
1'Auxerrois, St. Merri, and St. Protais. 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 646 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1864), xvi. 168 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
286 ; Mnller, 205. 

GILBERT, Sir JOHN, born at Black- 
heath, Kent, in 1817. History and portrait 
painter, self-taught, excepting a few lessons 
from George Lance ; began as an illustrator 
for newspapers and books ; exhibited first 



v V 

oil pain ting at Royal Academy in 1830. After- 
wards turned his attention to water-colour 
painting ; elected 

an associate of the 
Water Colour So- 
ciety in 1852, a 
member in I853 t 
and president in 
1872, when lie was 
knighted ; became 
also an A.K.A. in 
1872, and H.A. in 
1870. Medal, Par- 
is, 3d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Don Quixote giving Advice to San- 
cho (1841) ; Kin" Henry IV. (LSI.",) ; Des- 
deiiiona, Charlemagne visiting the Schools, 
Death of Cardinal Beaufort (1840); Murder 
of Thomas a Bccket (18111) ; Touchstone and 
the Shepherd (1850) ; Destruction of Job's 
Flock (1851) ; Royalist Cavalry at Edgchill 
(1857) ; Cardinal Wolsey and the Duke of 
Buckingham (1802) ; Army on tho March 
(1803) ; Rembrandt (1807); Cnin-ofiilimi of 
Clergy (1871 1 ; Charles I. leaving Westmin- 
ster Hall after Sentence) (1872); Xaseby, 
First Prince of Wales (1873); Field of the 
( 'lot li of ( Sold ( 1871) ; Wolsey at Leicester Ab- 
bey, Doge and Senators of Venice in Council 
(1877); May Dew, Ready (1878); Return of 
the Victors (1871);; Fair St. George (1881); 
Youth and Age, Fight for tho Standard, 
Winchelsea in Sussex (1882) ; Don Quixote 
and Sancho, Trumpeter, Thomas a Beeket, 
The Baron's Raid (188:5); Morning of Agin- 
court (1884); A Standard Bearer (1885); 
Rubens in his Studio, W. H. Vanderbilt, 
New York. Meynell, 17; Art Journal 
(1857), 241 ; Portfolio (1871), 49; 111. Lon- 
don News, 180!). 

Paris ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Adam, Levasseur, and Bus- 
son. Medal, 2d class, 1880. Works : Prep- 
arations for Dinner (1873); Vender of 
Household Utensils, Poultry Vender (1878); 
Corner in Fish-Hall (1880); Pavilion de la 
Maive-Halles ceiitrales, Soup Vender (1881); 

Departure for Night-fishing, Return from 
Fishing (1HK2) ; Stall in Pavilion de la Man'e 
(1NN3); Viand Carriers (1SS4) ; Sunday 
Afternoon in a Parisian Market, Bather 

GILDER. See Don-nr. 

New York ; contemporary. Figure, and 
still-life painter. Visited Europe in 1S7'.I. 
Olid of founders of Society of American 
Artists. In 1877 she contributed The Last 
Arrow to its first exhibition. Sent to tho 
National Acadcmv in 1H7S, Young Mother; 
in 1SS1, Flowers ; in lS8:t, Portrait and 
Water Lily. Studio in New York. 

GILLEMAXS, .JAN P.U'WEL, the elder, 
born at Antwerp in 1018, died there after 
Aug. 12, 1075. Flemish school ; still-life 
and portrait painter, master of tho guild in 
10IS. Works: Silver Plate with Grapes, 
etc., Table with Ham, Beer-mug, etc., Tli. 
van Lei-ins, Antwerp ; Fruit-piece, Rotter- 
dam Museum; do., Lille Museum; Table 
spread, with Fruit, Ovsters, etc., Liechten- 
stein Gallery, Vienna; Garland around Ma- 
donna, Bamberg Gallery; Fruit-piece, Ta- 
ble spread, with Flowers, Fruit, costly 
Vessel, and Lute, Schwerin Gallery. Van 
den Branden, 111)!. 

er, born at Antwerp, baptized Sept. :!, 1051, 
died there after March 31, 1702. Flemish 
school; still-life painter, son of Jan Pauwel 
G., tho cider, pupil of Joris van Son; master 
of tin; guild in 1074. Works: Offering to 
Mercury, Jos. de Bom, Antwerp; Garden 
Fruits, Breakfast Table, Schwerin Gallery; 
Still Life, Sehonborn Gallery, Vienna. - 
Rooses(Reber), 433; Van den Branden, 11 15. 

GILLIG, JACOB, born at Utrecht about 
1030, died there in 1088 (?). Dutch school ; 
still-life painter, especially of fish, which ho 
represented with great skill ; afterwards 
also painted portraits, and, it is said, land- 
scapes. Works : Dead Fish (1008), Berlin 
Museum ; do. (1(578), Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Burning of Troy(V), Cassel Gallery. Kramm, 



GILLISEN, KARL, born at Aachen, 
April 2:?, 1842. Military genre painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy under Nicaise do 
Keyser, and in Dilsseldorf of Hunteii; joined 
in 1804 the Belgian Corps for Mexico as a 
volunteer, returned in 180G, and took part 
in the campaign of 1870 in France. Works: 
Guerillas are Coming! (1870); Morning 
after Battle, Volunteer Nurses on Battle- 
lield ; Temporary Dressing ; Outposts near 
1'aris ; Indians before Invasion of Mexican 
Estate; Prairie Hunters iu Flight. Miiller, 



CLAUDE, born at Laugres, 
Haute-Marne, in 
1073. died iu Paris, 
May 4, 1722. French 
school; genre paint- 
er and engraver, 
first instructed by 
his father, then pu- 
pil of J. B. Corneille 
in 1'aris. He was 
one of the first ar- 
tists in France to 










~1N- ^ 

>i' 3 -V,' 

Vv - 

paint conversation pieces, tragic and comic 

actors, satyrs and fauns, charlatans, mas- 

querades and balls. These paintings, clev- 

erly conceived, and executed with spirit and 

iaste, were for a long time the object of 

universal admiration, and led to his admis- 

sion into the 

Acadcmv in 

1715. Works: 

Feast of Pan; 

do. ofBac- pi^ ^ 

chus, llaczyu- ^ / **** U '?/<> 

ski Gallery, 

Berlin ; do. of Diana disturbed by Satyrs ; 

the Milkmaid. Ch. Blanc, Kcole francaisc. 

GILMAN, Mrs. C. II., born at Steubeu- 
ville, O. ; contemporary. Flower painter, 
pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Arts, later of Carol us Duran. Studied abroad 
from 1878 to 1882. Studio in Philadelphia. 
Work, Roses, T. B. Clarke, New York. 

GILPIN, SAWREY, born at Carlisle, 
England, Nov. 11, 1733, died at Brompton, 

March 8, 1807. Pupil of Samuel Scott, 
marine painter, London, but devoted him- 
self to painting of animals, especially horses. 
Exhibited in 1703-04 at the Society of Ar- 
tists, of which he was for a time president, 
portraits of horses ; in 1770, Darius obtain- 
ing the Persian Empire by the Neighing of 
his Horse ; and in 1771, Gulliver taking 
leave of the Houyhnhnms. In 1795 he 
became an A.R.A., and in 1707 R.A. His 
brother, Rev. William Gilpiu (1724-1804), 
was an amateur landscape painter and a 
writer on art; and his son, William Sawrey 
Gilpin, was a water-colour painter, and h'rst 
president (1804) of the Water Colour So- 
ciety. Redgrave; F. do Couches, 344; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 310. 

GDHGNANI (Gemignaui, Giminiani, 
Geminiani), GIACINTO, born at Pistoja in 
1G11, died in 1081. History painter, Ro- 
man school ; pupil at Rome of Nicolas Pous- 
sin, whom he followed in composition and 
design, and later in the school of Pietro da 
Cortona, whose style of colouring he adopt- 
ed. He painted in fresco in the Baptistery 
of S. Giovanni in Latcrauo, Rome, subjects 
from the life of Constantino. Works : Le- 
auder, Ariadne, Uffizi, Florence ; Rebekah 
at the Well, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; two pictures 

/ (j 



from life of St. John, S. Giovanni, Pistoja ; 
St. Roch, Duomo, ib. His son, Lodovico 
(l(i44-97), excelled in fresco ; also painted 

Paris, July 28, 1818. Military and horse 
painter, pupil of Chariot and of Abel de 
Pujol. In 1840 ho followed the campaign in 
Algeria, and in 1840 one in Spain. Medals : 
3d class, 1857, 1801 ; 2d class, 1803 ; L. 
of Honour, 1878. Works : Duo d'Orleans 
during the Campaign of Teniah (1841); Re- 
view in Champ de Mars (1849), Versailles 
Museum ; Colonel Daumas receiving the 



Submission of Mahi-ed-Din in 1835, Algiers sold. He acquired at this time tho surname 

Museum ; Bull King at Seville (185:!), Due of Fa-Presto, because he painted with such 

de Montpensier ; Towing tho Daumont extreme rapidity. 

(1855); Death of General Dosaix at Marongo In 1(57',) Lnea was 

(1857), Versailles Museum ; /ouaves in the called to Florence 

Battle of Afroun, Camp of Chalons (1857) ; by the Grand Duke, 

Military Exercises (1850); Return of the who gave him large '|' 

Army of Italy to Paris in 185!) (18(51 ), Ver- commissions, :jr ' 

sailles Museum ; Journey of the Emperor through which ho 'KT*' J. 1 ' 

to Algiers (18(53); Fantasia (18(54); Tow- acquired a great ^Tf^^ 

Horses, Arab Horseman (18(55) ; The Grand reputation. In '^^'~ 

Sherif Adi-Ali-Ben-Brahim (1S(5(5); El Halib K5D2 ho was invited 

(18(58); Column returning from a Raid to Spain by Charles 

(18(5!)) ; Horse of (Jaada (1870); Algerian II., who gave him titles, honour, and wealth. 

Campaign of 1840 (1872) ; Review of June 'Giordano painted manv frescos in the Esco- 

2!), 1871 (1871!), bought by State ; Assembly rial, in tho palace of Kuon Rotiro. theCathe- 

of a Goum by the Caid (1871) ; On the Road, dral of Toledo, and other churches, and 

Entrance to the Stable, A Hurdle (1875); numerous portraits. He returned to Italy 

The Sherif, Tho Retreat (187(!) ; Artillery in 1702, was splendidly received by Clement 

on the March (1878); The Horse Follefte XI., and settled in his native city. Giordano 

(187!)). Milller, 207. was the last of the great, Italian painters. 

GINGELEN', JACQUES VAN, born at Some of his works show marks of genius, 

Borgonhout, near Antwerp, July 21, 1810. and with more conscientious labour he 

Landscape painter, pupil of Moerenhout, might have equalled the greatest masters, 

then in Paris of Lo Poitteviii. Works : View but owing to his fatal facility of execution 

of Antwerp (183S) ; View of Boulogne he violated all the rules of good taste. 

(1839) ; View in Normandy (1840) ; DC Ver- Works: Christ driving out the Money- 

wachting ; Return of Fishermen. Immer- Changers, S. Filippo, Naples; Ceiling I'ros- 

zeel, i. 271). 'cos, S. Martino, ib. ; Judgment of l'nri.<, 

GIOCONDO, MADONNA LISA DEL. Berlin Museum : St. Francis Xavior bapti/.- 

Soo Mnnun Lisa. ing, Mm/minii del Rosario, Naples Museum ; 

GIOLFINO, NICCOL* >, bom at Verona ceiling fresco, Pala/./o Riccardi, Florence; 

about 14(!5, died after 1518. Venetian Galatea, Portrait of himself, Ufli/.i, ib. ; 

school ; history painter. Works : Portraits 1 {ape of the Sabines, Pala/./o Adorno, Genoa ; 

of the Giusti Family (2), National Galleiy, Clorinda, Pala//o Brignole Sale, ib. ; Per- 

London ; Madonna and Saints, Berlin Mil- sens, Pala/./o Realo, ib. ; Madonna with 

seum ; do. (2), Musco Civioo, Verona ; Fros- Saints, Brora, Milan; Descent from tho 

cos in Santa Maria in Organo, ib. 

GIORDANO, LUC A, called Fa-Presto, 

Cross, Venice Academy; Fall of the .-Im/i'/x 
(1(5(5(5), twelve others, Vienna Museum ; I.u- 

born in Naples in H5IJ2, died there, Jan. 12, en-tut and Tarquin, /'TSCI/X and Phineus, 
1705. Neapolitan school ; son of Antonio Jfi-rrnlt'x and Omphale, Ilapo of the Siiliiiirx, 
Giordano, a poor painter, who taught him Lt and his Daughters, Suxannii, J<irnl> and 
design; studied nine years with Spagnoletto, ' Rachel, Ariailim, and others, Dresden Gal- 
then went to Rome and became pupil and i lory ; Massacre of the Innocents, Artist's 
assistant of Pietro da Cortoua for three Portrait, five others, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
years. Visited Bologna, Parma, Venice, and ' nich ; Judgment of Paris, three others, Co- 
other cities, making many copies of the plot- pcnhagen Galleiy ; Glorification of St. Cath- 
ures of the great masters, which his father arine, An Astronomer, Portrait of a Priest. 


Cologne Museum ; Mart and Venus, Lou- ' 
vre ; Pietu, Sleeping Bacchus, Diana and 
Callisto, and others, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; G8 pictures in Madrid Museum. 



Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 508 ; Burckhardt, 7G8, 
etc.; Lavice, 41, etc. 

GIORGTONE, IL, horn at Castelfranco 
about 1477, died at 
Venice in 1511. Ve- 
netian school. Real 
name Giorgio Barba- 
relli ; pupil of Giovan- 
ni Bellini and fellow- 
pupil of Titian, who 
ii f forwards became his 
(Giorgione's) pupil. 
Of his life nothing is 
\ known, save that it 

was passed at Venice and Castelfranco, in 
which latter place the house where he was 
born, now called Casa IVllizzari, contains 
remains of his decorative frescos. Giorgi- 
one decorated the exterior of many houses 
and palaces at Venice with frescos now ef- 
faced ; his oil paintings, owing to the short- 
ness of his life, are comparatively few. He 
treated subjects of the class introduced by 
Bellini, such as allegories, legendary epi- 
sodes, and bacchanals, in which figures are 
set off by landscape with the happiest effect, 
and painted many splendid portraits. His 
works are conspicuous for rich and brilliant 
colour, for breadth and nobility of style, and 
for a poetical, sensuous charm which fas- 
cinates and delights the beholder. Works : 
Ordeal of Moses, Judgment of Solomon, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Concert, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; 
Family of Giorgione, Prince Giovanelli, ib.; 
Madonna with Saints (before 1504), Parish 
Church, Castelfrauco ; Christ bearing Cross, 

Casa Loschi, Vicenza ; Judgment of Solo- 
mon, Kingston-Lacy, near Wimbom, Eng- 
land ; Adoration of Magi, Leigh Court, near 
Bristol, England ; Nativity, Beaumont Collec- 
tion, London ; Knight in Armour, Story of 
Myrrha (Hamilton Palace sale, 1,350), Na- 
tional Gallery, ib. ; Chaldean Sages, Vienna 
Museum. Among works ascribed to him 
are : Rustic Concert, Holy Family, Louvre ; 
Assumption, Madrid Museum ; Entomb- 
ment, Monte di Pieta, Treviso ; Knight of 
Malta, Uffizi, Florence ; Nymph and Satyr, 
Finding of Moses, St. John Baptist, Portrait 
of a Lady, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Youth attacked 
by a Soldier, Vienna Museum ; Jacob and 
Rachel, Adoration of Shepherds, Horoscope, 
Dresden Gallery ; Finding of Moses, Brera, 
Milan ; Apollo and Daphne, Archiepiscopal 

' S -O-- .] *-l^ t - '*i& i ,,<''' 

^ ',W. ' 

II Giorno, Correggio, Parma Gallery. 

Seminary, Venice ; Repose in Egypt, Prince 
of Palermo, Historical Society, New York. 
C. & C., N. Italy, ii. 119 ; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., ii. 485 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 91 ; 
Lermolieff, 193 ; W. & W., ii. 721 ; Meyer, 


Kfinst Lex., ii. 692; Dohme, 2iii ; Cli. Blanc, 
ficole venitienne. 

Palazzo Giovanelli, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. 9 in. x 2 ft 5 in. A man in tights and 
slashed doublet, said to be Giorgione, stand- 
ins; leaning on a staft' to the left ; a mother 

GIOTTIN'O, born (?), died after 1300. 
Florentine school. Probably identical with 
Giotto di Maestro Stefano, whoso name ap- 
pears in the register of Florentine painters 
in 13(>K. Vasari calls him Tommaso di Ste- 
fano, and says he was born in 1324, thus 
confounding him with Maso di Banco (died 

seated on the bank, giving the breast to her after 1351), whom Ghiberti makes the pupil 

child, to the right ; background, a beautiful of Giotto, and who was admitted to the guild 

landscape. Formerly in 

Palazzo Manfrini, Venice. 

C. A: C., N. Italy, ii. 130; 

Zeitschr. f. b. K. (1800), 

No. 11. 

GIORNO, IL (The Day), 
or Madonna of St. Jerome. 
Correggio, Parma Gallery ; 
wood, H. ft. in. x 4 ft. 
H in. The Virgin, with Je- 


. - 




BUS on her arm, sitting ; 
Jesus is playing with the 
hair of the Magdalen, who 
is half kneeling beside him; 
behind her is a boy with a 
vase of ointment ; on the 
other side, St. Jerome, with 
the lion behind him, is 
standing, carrying a book 
which an angel aids him 
in supporting. Called 11 
Giorno because represent- 
ed in full daylight, and to 
distinguish it from La 
Nutti'. Ordered in 1523 by- 
Donna Briseido Colla Ber- 
gonzi.of Parma, and placed 
iu 1528 in S. Antonio Ab- 
bate. Carried to Paris, but returned in I of Spe/iali in 1343, and to the Company 
1810, though the French government is said of St. Luke in 1350. To Maso, Ghiberti as- 
to have offered 1,000,000 francs for it. Many cribes the series of frescos in the chapel of 
copies : one in Bridgewater House, supposed S. Silvestro in S. Croce, Florence, represent- 


by Lodovico Carracci ; another in 1'alazxo 
Pitti, Florence, by Baroeci. Engraved by Aug. 
Carracci ; Villamena ; Cort ; Giovanni ; Des- 
bois; Strange ; Devilliers ; Boviuet. Meyer, 
Correggio, 313, 477 ; Landon, (Envres, viii. 
PL 27; Musee, j. PI. 37 ; Musee royal, ii. PL1 ; 
Filhol, ii. PI. 79 ; Klas. der Malerei, i. PI. 4'J. 

ing the legend of Constantine, while Vasari, 
who made one painter out of two, gives them 
to Giottino. The fresco of the Last Judg- 
ment in the Bardi Chapel, S. Croce, belong- 
ing to the monument of Ubertino de' Bardi, 
is probably by the artist who painted two 
frescos, the Birth and Crucifixion of Christ, 





in the mortuary clmpel of the Strozzi, Flor- 
ence, and in a panel in the Uffizi, the Be- 
wailing of Christ. The last is given in the 
catalogue to Clioltino, but whether it and 
other works mentioned belong to him or to 
Maso remains to be proved. 0. & C., Italy, 
i. 410 ; Liibke, Geseh. ital. Mai,, i. 153 ; Bal- 
(linucci, i. 253 ; Vasari, eel. Mil., i. 022 ; W. 
\- W., i. 453. 

( 1IOTTO, born at Colic in the district of 
Vespignano in 12f>(! ; 
(1 i e d i n Florence, 
Jan. 8, 1337. Flor- 
entine school. Son 
of a shepherd named 
Bon done; found 
drawing sheep upon 
flat stones, by Cima- 
bue, who, struck 
with his talent, took 
him to Florence and 
ht him to paint. Dante tells in the 
Divina Commedia (Purgalorio, xi. 93) how 
the master was outdone by the pupil, who 
is called the reviver of painting, because he 
broke loose from Byzantinism and took nat- 
ure for his guide. In simple and unaffected, 
although necessarily imperfect, language, he 
represented scenes from holy writ, legends 
and allegories, according to the dogmas of 
the Church ; and, though living at a time 
when art was wholly in her service, worked 
in a comparatively independent spirit. In 
his pictures there is no striving after ideal 
beauty, DO attempt at deceptive imitation of 
natural objects, no difference of handling in 
the treatment of flesh, drapery, or architect- 
ure, and but a scant supply of that techni- 
cal knowledge which in later times enabled 
men of infinitely less genius to surpass them 
in execution, in chiaroscuro, perspective, 
drawing, and colour. In all these things 
the apprentices of the next century were 
Giotto's superiors ; though in earnestness, 
in the power of telling a story with dramatic 
effect, and in truth of expression, but few of 
their masters equalled, and still fewer sur- 
passed, him. He worked in many parts of 

Italy : in Assisi before 1296 ; in Rome from 
1298 to 1300 ; in Florence from 1300 to 1304 ; 
in Padua from 1304 to 1306 ; later in Rimini, 
and in Naples, where he painted the Miracle 
of the Loaves and Fishes in the old convent 
church of S. Chiara (but not the Incoronata 
frescos), from 1330 to 1333. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed master of the 
works at the Duomo, Florence, for which he 
designed the fa<;ade, commenced but after- 
wards destroyed, and built its exquisite cam- 
panile. Giotto's twenty-eight frescos repre- 
senting scenes from the lives of the Saviour 
and of St. Francis, in the aisle of the upper 
church of S. Francesco, Assisi, were proba- 
bly painted before the ceilings of the lower 
church(129G), in which ho allegorized thevirt- 

I ues of the Franciscans, Poverty, the spouse 
chosen by St. Francis, Obedience and Chas- 
tity, the rules of his Order. In Rome Giotto 
next decorated the tribune of the church of 
S. Giorgio in Yelabro with frescos, designed 
the so-called Navicella represented by a mo- 
saic in the portico of St. Peter's, and painted 
the three panels of a predella- now in the 

I sacristy of the canons of St. Peter, represent- 
ing the Redeemer and Angels, the donor 
Cardinal Stefaneschi, and the Martyrdoms 
of St. Peter and St. Paul. The same Apos- 
tles, with the Madonna and Saints, appear 
upon other predella panels in the sacristy. 
In the Lateran Basilica is a fragment of a 
fresco by Giotto representing Pope Boni- 
face VIII. proclaiming the opening of the 
Jubilee in 1300, when Giotto and Dante 
w r ere in Rome. The frescos of the Palazzo 
del Podesta or Bargello, Florence, portions 
of which have been recovered, were paint- 
ed about 1302 or 1303. As containing the 
well-known portraits of Dante, and some of 
his contemporaries, that which represents an 
incident in the feud of the Bianchi and the 
Neri factions has a peculiar interest. About 
1305, Giotto went to Padua to paint the thirty- 
eight frescos of theCappella dell' Arena of En- 
rico degli Scrovegni. They represent scenes 
from the lives of Christ and the Virgin, the 
Last Judgment, and the Virtues and Vices, 



and are the most important works of the 
master. Several Crucifixes by (liotto exist ; 
one is in the Sanctuary of this chapel, others 
in S. Marco, S. Felicita, ami the Gondi Doni 
chapel of the Ogni Santi, Florence. Other 
mural paintings by the master are : Incidents 
from the lives of SS. Anthony and Francis, in 
the chapter house of S. Antonio, Padua ; a 
ceiling with the four Doctors of the Church 
nud the four Evangelists, in S. Giovanni 
Evangelista, Ravenna ; the frescos of the 
Peruzzi, Giugni, and Bardi chapels, S. (Yocc, 
Florence ; and the remnants of frescos in 
the Carmine. Among the works of (liotto 
ill public galleries are : a Madonna with 
Angels, and many small panels of incidents 
in the lives of Christ and St. Francis, Flor- 
ence Academy ; two of the same series in 
the Berlin Museum, and two at Munich ; 
Madonna, Brera, Milan ; St. Francis receiv- 
ing the Stigmata, Louvre, Paris ; Two Apos- 
tles, National Gallery, London. W. A: W., 
i. 4:55 ; C. A: C., Italy, i. 1>:>4 ; Liibke, (lescli. 
itttl. Mai., i. ll:i; Vasari, ed. Mil., i. W.) ; 
Burckhardt, 4'J2 ; Dohme, '2i.; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole florentine. 


da Murano. 

GIOVANNI U'ASCIANO, of Siena, born 
in Asciano, tlourished latter part of 14th 
century. Sienese school ; pupil of Barna, 
and a weak imitator of his style. He iin- 
ished the frescos in the church at S. Gimig- 
11:1110. begun by his master. Vasari says he 
executed paintings in the hospital of Siena, 
and in the ancient palace of the Medici, 
Florence, which gave him reputation, but 
they are all lost. C. & C., Italy, ii. 110 ; 
iii. G2 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 103. 





born latter half loth century, died at T'dine. 
Aug. !!((, 1535. Venetian school. Son of 
Martino da Tolmez/.o, a carver of Udine, and 
called Martini to distinguish him from his 
cousin, Giovanni Mione. Pupil of Luigi 
}~ivariiri, but how long he was in Venice 
is not known. Had returned to I'dine in 
14117, where he resided until his decease, 
his later days being principally devoted to 
carving. As a painter he imitated Luigi 
Vivarini's early style, and in many respects 
he recalls Jacopo da Valentin. Works : Ma- 
donna (It'.lH), Museo Civico, Venice; St. 
Mark Enthroned (1501}, Cathedral, t'dine ; 
others in the Spilimbcrg Cathedral, and in 
the Brera, Milan. ('., N. Italy, ii. 1S-J ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 5S 

GIOVANNI DA .MILANO, born in Milan 
in 14th century. Florentine school. Keal 
name Giovanni Jacobi ; long an assistant to 
Taddc'oGaddi ; settled at Florence in i:iti(i. 
He made no advancement in composition 
beyond Taddeo, \>\\i he was less conventional 
than his master, and more finished and 
elaborate in execution. His earliest extant 
picture, a Bewailing of Christ, in the Flor- 
ence Academy, dated llt(J5, shows excessive 
conscientiousness, but lacks elevation. A 
larger and more important picture is the 
Virgin Enthroned, Municipal Gallery, 1'rato. 
An altarpiecc in five compartments, in the 
Ufli/i, Florence, and the frescos of scenes 
from the story of the Virgin and Mary Mag- 
dalen, in the Uinuccini Chapel, S. Croce, 
are also by this painter. C. A; C., Italy, i. 
{(}> Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 143; Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 115, 17!) ; ed. Mil., i. 
572 ; W. A W., i. 455. 

da Murano. 

GIOVANNI DI PAOLO, died about 1481. 
Sienese school. Commonly called del Pog- 
gio. On the roll of Sieneso artists in 142S ; 
in the service of Sano di Pietro in 1447. 
According to Ricci, he attended the school 
of Gentile da Fabriano. His strange fancy 
in composition and awkwardness in repre- 
senting action are shown iii a Last Judgment 



(1453) in the Siena Academy, and in seven ' Coast of Villerville, The Sea at Trouville ; 

panels, llainboux Collection, Cologne. C. ! Le Vieux Deauville, Norman Pasture (1882) ; 

& C., Italy, iii. 80 ; Vasari, ed Lc Mou., iv. ' Arab Hunters in Mountains of Blidah, 

168 ; vi. 186. I Strand at Villerville (1883) ; Oat-field in 

GIOVANNI DI PIETRO. See Sparjua. Picardy, Marsh of Conde-Folie, ib. (1884) ; 

GIOVANNI DA SAN GIOVANNI. See Charity Office of the Twentieth Arrondisse- 

Mtuniozzi. ' nient, On Way to Work (1885). 

GIOVANNI DA L'DINE, born in Udiue, '' GIRARD, FIRMEST, born at Poncin (Ain), 
Oct. 15, 1487, died May 31, 1838. Genre painter, pupil of 
in Rome in 1564. Gleyre; paints fresh and brightly coloured 
Umbrian school, pictures of trivial subjects. Medals : 3d 
Real name Giovan- class, 1863 ; 2d class, 1874. Works : Flower- 
ni do' Eccamatori, Girl (1872); Japanese Toilet (1873); Revery, 
son of Francesco Fishing, Betrothed (1874) ; Godmother's 
de' Eecamatori (of Garden, First Caress (1875); Bear-Trainer 
the Embroiderers), at Aurillac (1877) ; Wedding in the 18th 
Pupil of Giorgione, Century (1878) ; Caught in the Eain (1879); 
but afterwards of Close of Autumn, Going to Market (1881); 
Raphael, under Visiting the Farm (1882); Christening in 
whom he superintended the ornamental the 18th Century (1883) ; Sunday at Bas- 
decorations in the Vatican Loggie, such as Meudon (1884); A Happy Meeting, An Alley 
animals, birds, fruit, llowers, and grotesques, of Roses (1885). Works in the "United 
His arabesques have ever since been con- States : Toilet, A. Belmont, New York; Fish- 
sidered models of their type. In 1527, when ing, G. I. Seney sale (1884), ib. ; Street in St. 
Rome was sacked by the Constable de Bour- Rambert Loire, R. Hoe, New York; Wed- 
Ixin, he went to Florence and painted for ding in the Last Century, K. G. Dun, ib.; 
the Medici ; worked also in Udine, Venice, Paris /Yww-Market (1876), Study for do., 
and in other cities, but finally returned to T. R. Butler, ib.; Book of Hours, Fishing, 
Rome about 1550. Most of his works are Betrothal, E. D. Morgan Collection, ib. ; 
mural decorations. Among the easel pict- j Coming Shower, C. S. Smith, ib. ; Spring- 
ures attributed to him are : Christ among 

the Doctors, Holy Family, Venice Academy; p" I R/^ | JY ' G I RA R D ' 
Madonna and Saints, Palazzo Manfrini, Ven- 
ice ; do., Museo Civico, ib. The only au- Time, William Astor, ib. ; Scene in Japan, 
thentieated work of this kind is a Madon- ' H. C. Gibson, Philadelphia ; Pensive, Tete- 
na Enthroned (1517), belonging to Signor a-tete, Borie Collection, ib. Miiller, 208. 
Frizzoni, Bergamo. Ch. Blanc, Ecole om- GIRARDET, EDOUARD HENRI, born 
brienne; Vasari, ed. Mil, vi. 549; ed. Le ] at Neufchatel, July 21, 1819, died at Ver- 
Mon., xii. 300 ; Burckhardt, 178 ; Liibke, sailles, Jan. 5, 1880. Genre painter, son 
Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 374. and pupil of Charles Samuel Girardet, the 

GIOVANNI DELLE \TTE. See Hiel. engraver. Medals : 3d class, 1842 ; 2d class, 
GIRARD, ALBERT, born in Paris, Dec. 1847, 1859, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1866 ; 1st 
13, 1839. Genre and landscape painter, class, for engravings, 1861 and 1863. Works: 
pupil of his father, of Flandriu, and of The Common Bath (1839); Wounded Goat 
Bellel. Medal, 3d class, 1882. Works : ! (1840); Fortune-teller, Barber-shop in Brit- 
Moorish Festival at Algiers (1873) ; Negro tany, Snowball Fight, After the Battle, Basle 
Dance at Algiers, Moorish Interior (1875); Museum; Grandmother's Story (1842); Fa- 
Women Bathing (1877); Nymphs (1879) ; ther's Blessing (1843); Interrupted Meal 



(1844); Mother's Love (1840); Revelations 
(18411) ; Departure of the Lamlsturm in 
17!)8, Ncuehatel Museuin ; Blind Beggar in 
Cairo (1845); Peasants and Bears, Ditlicult 
Letter, Little Apple Thieves (1846); Wooing 
in Bernese Oberloud, Alms, Going to School 
(1848), Berne Museuin; Sick Child, Xiirich 
Gallery ; Nest of Blackbirds (1841)); Bad 
Weather on the Mountains (18.10); A Land- 
Slide ; Village Wedding (185'J). Was also an 
engraver. Bellier de la Chaviguerie, i. G55 ; 
Vapereau (1880), 80!). 

GIHARDKT, Jl'LES, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of Cabanel. Medal, :i.l c-lass, ISfSl. 
Works: Little Fadctto (1877); Return from 
Market at Tanjier (1878); Skaters (bST'.l); 
Environs of Biskra (1880), Episode in Siege 
of Soragossa (1881); Defeated Army of Gen- 
eral Lescure passing the Loin; ( 188'J ); Rout 
atClialet, October, ll'M (18S.'t); The (iiron- 
din Louvet and his Friend Lodoiska, An 
Arrest during the Reign of Terror (1884); A 
Failuiv (1885). 

GIRARDET, KARL, born at Lode, 
Switzerland, May l:'>, 1810, died in Paris, 
April '24, 1871. Genre and landscape paint- 
IT, brother of Kdouard Henri, pupil of Leon 
Cogniet. Travelled much in Europe and 
the Levant, and accompanied the Due de 
Montpensier to Spain. Medals: :id class. 
18137 ; 2d class, 1842 ; Grand Medal of 
Prussia, 184:5; Member of Academy of Am- 
stcrdain, 185:i ; honourable mention, 185."). 
Works : Hedge-School, Rabbits' Breakfast 
(1830); The Righi, Starting for the Market 
over Brientx Lake (18H7); Protestants snr- 
prised at Worship (1842), Neuchatel Mu- 
seum ; Views of Sorrento, Capri (1842), and 
Vesuvius (1843); The Nile; Mosque in 
Cairo, Due de Montpensier; The Bey's Tent 
at Isly, loways dancing in the Tuileries 
(1846), Versailles Museum ; Egyptian La- 
bourers (1847) ; Restaurant on the Nile 
(1849); Odalisque, Soldier's Return (18.10); 
Old Franciscan Convent at Alexandria, Lady 
Claypole reproaching her Father Cromwell 
with the Death of Charles! (1853); Cere- 

inony of Hand-Kissing in Hall of Ambassa- 
dors at Madrid, Liike of Urieii/, View in 
Val-de-Travers, Village and Lake of Brien/, 
Neuchatcl Miiseiini ; Episode in Battle of 
Moral <1S5(!), Berne Museum ; Meadow on 
the Aar, View on the Eure, Solitude (1K.V,); 
live views of Valais, Drinking-Place on the. 
Moors of Gascony (18(>1 ); View near Simi, 
Fishermen of Albengo (18(>:i); Mouth of the 
Toccia, Moors of Gascony (1864); Sunrise 
on Lago Maggiore (18(!(i); Storm in the 
Valais, Lake of Wallenstadt (INTO). Made 
designs for illustrations of the Orlando Fu 
rioso, Thiers's Consulate and Empire, and 
other works. Bellier de la ( 'havigncne, i. 
l'<~>~> ; Vapereau (, Its. 

GKNE, born in Paris, Aug. ',), 1SOC, died in 
Paris, Dee. 2'.i, 18S1. Genre painter, pupil 
of Theodore Kichomnie, of Hersent, and of 
the Kcole des Beaux Arts, where he won the 
grand prix de Rome for engraving in 182(1. 
After his return from Italv he travelled with 
Alexander Dumas in Spain, and later in Al- 
geria and the Levant. Medals: :!d class, 
LSI!:}; 2d class, 18C3; L. of Honour, 1S.11 ; Of 
ficer, IHlid. Works: Volunteer Enlistments 
(18;).")) ; Marcel saving the Dauphin Charles 
(ISii(i); Armies of Conde and of ('oligny 
crossing the Loire (iNlt'.l); The Promenade, 
The Guide's Children (1840); Wasps (1 M:( ). 
111 of a Fever in the Roman Campagna 
(184(i); Dance in a Posada, The Gust of 
Wind, Fire in Constantinople (1851!); Alge- 
rian Women, Flower-Girl (185'J); Henri IV. 
in the Tower of St. Germain-des-Pn's, Gypsy 
Woman of Seville (18(il); Overflow of the 
Nile, Mouchoraby in Cairo (1863) ; Dancing 
Girl in Cairo (18(!(!), formerly in Luxom- 
bourg Museum ; Night in Paris (18(56); Corn- 
ing from Vespers, Fatima (18(!8); La Devi sa, 
or Incident of a Bull-Fight (18()'.t), formerly 
in Luxembourg Museum ; Confession before 
the Battle, Hunting for Herbs (1870); Mes- 
sage, Defended Gate (1872); Conde going 
to the Army, Disenchanted (1873); Rest, 
Jeweller in the Seraglio (1874) ; Second- 
hand Booksellers (1875) ; Flower-Market 



under the Directory (187(5); Criminal Court, 
Return from the Tavern (1877); Terrace 
near the Nile, Agreeable Meeting (1878); 
Hungarian Csarila (1880). Bellier de la 
Chavignerie, i. G58 ; Meyer, Gesch., 70(5 ; 
Vapereau (1880), 814. 

in Paris, Jan. 18, 181'J. Genre painter, 
brother and pupil of Eugene, and pupil of 
the Ecolc des Beaux Arts. Has accompa- 
nied as artist various expeditions, such as 
that under Prince Napoleon to Northern 
Europe, and lias visited America. L. of 
Honour, 1847. Works : Studio, Scene in 
Hayti (1851!); End of the Haytian War, 
Princess Mathilde's Diuing-Room, M. de 
Niemverkerke's Library (1859); Fifteenth 
Century Interior, View of Tinyvalla in Ice- 
land (18G1); Hunter Returning (1803), Be- 
sancon Museum ; Fifteenth Century Inte- 
rior (18G3); Interior of a Conservatory, 
Breton Tavern (18(i5); Napoleon III., Gal- 
lery of the Louvre, Interior of a Parlour 
(1866); Room in the Musee Cluny (18G7), 
Luxembourg Gallery ; Torture Room in 
Castle of Pierrefonds (18(!8); Bowling at 
Pont-Aven (18<5!t); Return from Fishing 
(1870); Women Spinning (1873); Landing- 
Place at Brienz (1874); The Farewell (1875); 
Flemish Interior (187G); Gathering Apples 
(1877); A Sunday in Brittany (1878); Fif- 
teenth Century Interior (1883). Bellier de 
la Chavignerie, i. G59. 

GIRAUD, VICTOR, born in Paris, Jan. 
1-2, 1840, died there, Feb. 21, 1871. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of Eugene, and pupil 
of Picot, Works : Slave Merchant (1867), 
formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; The 
Husband's Return (18(!8), Montpellier Mu- 
seum ; The Charmer (1870). 

called Girodet Triosou, born at Montargis 
(Loiret), Jan. 5, 17GG, died in Paris, Dec. 9, 
1824. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Luquin and of David; won 
2d prix de Rome in 1788, and grand prix in 
1789. After five years in Rome he returned 
to Paris, won the ten-years prize for history 

(1810), and entered upon a successful career. 
He painted few pictures, but made many 
studies and de- 
signs, and illustra- 
ted n u m e r o u s 
books. Member 
of Institute, 1815 ; 
L. of Honour, 181G. 
Louis XVHI. or- 
dered the cross of 
an officer of the L. 
of Honour to be 
placed on Girodet's 
coffin. Works: Death of Tatius (1788), 
Angers Museum ; Joseph discovering him- 
self to his Brethren (1789) ; Hippocrates re- 
fusing the Presents of Artaxerxes (1792), 
Ecole de Medecine, Paris ; Antioehus and 
Stratonice (1793) ; Danao (1798), M. Chatil- 
lon ; Landscapes representing the Four 
Parts of the Day (1798) ; The Seasons (4 
pictures, 1799, for King of Spain, copied in 
1817 for Palace of Compiegne) ; Ossian and 
his Warriors (1802), Leuchtenberg Collec- 
tion, St. Petersburg ; Ddtirje (1810), Sleep 
of Endijmion (1792) ; Burial of Alula (1808), 
Louvre ; Napoleon receiving Keys of Vienna 
(1808), Revolt of Cairo (1810), Versailles 
Museum; Minerva, Apollo, Mercury, Nymphs, 
and Bacchus (G pictures), Hymen and Fe- 
cundity (1817), Gods and Nymphs (1818), 
Titon and Aurora, Dance of Greeks, Dance 
of Nymphs, Justice and Valour, etc. (4 pict- 
ures, 1822), Departure and Return of the 
Warrior, all at Compiegne ; Napoleon's 
Father (1805) ; Portrait of Napoleon L, 
Chateauroux Museum ; Male portrait, Cher- 
bourg Museum ; Young Woman's Head, 
Lyons Museum ; Burial of Atala, Amiens 
Museum; Gorgon Head, Perpiguau Museum; 
Anacreon, Dante and Virgil, Old Man, and 
others, Montpellier Museum ; Au- 
rora (180G), Leipsic Museum ; Pyg- 
malion and Galatea, Count Som- 
mariva sale, 1839, 14,000 francs; |QiO 
Head of the Virgin (1812), Count 
Perregaux sale, 1841, 3,155 francs; Fair 
Elizabeth (his favourite model), M. sale, 



1857, 3,100 francs. Bellier do In Chavig- and 1520, are in the Berlin Museum ; Ma- 

nerie, i. 601 ; Ch. Blanc, Keolc francaise ; donna and Saints, dated 1518, L'Annun/i- 

Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Gaz. des 11 Arts (1S74|, ata, Panna ; Marriage of the Virgin, and 

x. 464 ; Gauticr, Guide au Louvre, IIJ ; the Annunciation, Nativity, and Flight into 

Meyer, Gesch., 91. Egypt, in a predella, Bologna Pinae. Va- 

GIROLAMO DI BEXVEXUTO, born in sari says lie was chiefly known as a portrait 

1470, died in 1524. Sienesc school ; son painter. ('. \ C., X. Italy, i. <!01 ; Vasari, 

and pupil of Ben venuto del Guasta. Painted ed. Mil., v. 1*2; Cli. Blanc, Eeolebolonaise. 

in 1508 a Virgin of the Snow, in S. Donien- GIROLAMO DAI LIHRI, born in Verona 

ico, Siena, which, though resembling his in 1474, died July 22, 1555. Venetian 

father's productions, is more pleasing, school. Son of Francesco dai Libri, a inin- 

There are several pictures by him in the iaturist (or illuminator of books, whence he 

Siena Academy, and a S. Chiara with a got his name), of whom no vestige has been 

kneeling Pilgrim in the Osservanza out- preserved, and grandson of Stefano da /evio. 

side Siena. 0. <t C'., Italy, iii. 71!. His first picture, Christ deposed from the 

GIROLAMO BRESCIANO. See ,SVa,W</.,. Cross, in the Church of Malscsinc, painted 

GIKOLAMO DA CARPI, born at Ferrara when sixteen years old, is an illustration of 

about 1501, died about 15(11. Lombardo- liis education in the school of a miniaturist, 

Ferrarese school. Real name de' Sellari or but in his later works, inspired by a deep 

de" Livizzani, but called da Carpi because study of the Mantcgnesques, lie exhibits the 

his father, Tommaso, was born there. Pu- form and the spirit of a greater art. His 

pil of Benvenuto Garofalo ; afterwards Madonna and Saints, lately in Hamilton 

painted at Bologna, and later studied works Palace, near Glasgow, is a good example of 

of Correggio and Parmigianino in Modcna this style. Later he shows the influence of 

and Parma. Though he imitated them, he Francesco Moroni 1 , as in the Madonna and 

was not a servile copyist, but had a style of Saints, Berlin Museum. Still later he ac- 

his own. Painted in fresco and in oil, and quires a more modern treatment in (-very 

was very successful in port raits ; was also an branch of pract ice, as seen in the Concep- 

architect. Among his works are: Adora- tion, in S. Paolo, Verona. The culminating 

tion of the Magi, and Madonna, Bologna point in his career is reached in the Virgin 

Academy ; Christ in the House of Martha in Glory and the Madonna and Saints 

and Mary, Uth'xi, Florence; Entombment, (15:50), Verona Museum; and in the Ma- 

Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Portrait of Archbishop donna and St. Anne, National ( lallery, Lon- 

Salimbeni, ib. ; Christ on the Mount of ()1- don. Beginning as a miniaturist, he rose to 

ives, ib.; Venus and Cupid, Dresden Gal- a high place amongst the painters of North 

lery. Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 400; Lanzi, iii. Italy, being neither a plagiarist noraservilo 

204 ; Ch. Blanc, EYole ferraraise ; Cittadella, copyist. His son, Francesco (born 1500), 

Memorie di . . . Garofalo (Ferrara, 1872); was a miniature and oil painter. C. <V ('., 

Lavice, 0.'5. X. Italy, i. 4'M ; Burekhardt, (IOC, ; Liibke, 

GIHOLAMO DA COTIGXOLA, born in Gesch.'d. ital. Mai., ii. 578. 

Cotignola about 1481, died in 1550. Bo- GIROLAMO DA SAXTA CROCK, born 

lognese school. Heal name Girolamo Mar- at Santa Croec ('!), near Bergamo, flourished 

cLesi, son of Antonio M. ; pupil of /aga- at Venice in 1520-4!). Venetian school; 

nelli (?) and of Francesco Franeia, but in his history and landscape painter, perhaps pu- 

later days an imitator of Raphael and Michel- pil and assistant of Francesco da Santa 

angelo. A Nativity of 1513, in his early Croce, of whom he may and may not have 

style, is in Lord Ashburton's Collection, been a relative ; further developed under 

Examples of his later manner, dated 1516 influence of Giovanni Bellini and the great 



Venetian masters. Works: Nativity, Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian, Coronation of the 
Virgin, Crucifixion, Berlin Museum ; Na- 
tivity, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, Dres- 
den Gallery; St. Thomas Aquinas Enthroned 
(1520), S. Silvestro, Venice ; Adoration of 
the Magi, Manfrini Gallery, ib. ; Resurrec- 
tion (early work), Last Supper (1549), S. 
Martino, ib. ; Head of Christ, A Bishop, 
Academy, ib. ; Crucifixion, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, Museo Civico, Verona ; Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, God Father and Holy 
Family, Museo Civico, Padua ; several in 
Bergamo Gallery ; Nativity, Resurrection, 
Basle Museum. Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 

Sermoneta about 1510 ('{), died in Rome 
about 1580. Cmbrian school. Real name 
Girolamo Siciolante ; pupil of Perino del 
Vaga, whom he assisted in his frescos in 
Castello S. Angelo and in other works. 
Employed by Gregory XIII. in the decora- 
tions of the Sala Regia in the Vatican ; also 
executed works in many churches in Rome. 
His best work is the Madonna and Saints, 
in S. Bartolommeo, Ancona. Said to have 
been a good portrait painter. His style is 
antiquated, more like that of the Perugi- 
nesques than of any of his contemporaries. 
Vasari, cd Le Mon., x. 170, 1S5 ; ed. Mil., 
vii. 571 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole ombrienne. 

GIROLAMO DA TREVISO, the elder, of 
Padua, latter half of 15th century. Vene- 
tian school. Probable pupil of Squarcionc, 
but painted chiefly at Trcviso, where ho is 
said to have finished an altarpicce and fres- 
cos in S. Niccolo in 1470. His oldest known 
picture is the Death of the Virgin, at Lo- 
nigo, painted in 1478. Better than this is 
the Christ at the Column, in Casa Rinaldi, 
Treviso, in which there is an echo of Auto- 
nello da Messina. Virgin with Saints, Du- 
omo, Treviso (1487). C. & C., N. Italy, i. 
355 ; Kugler (Eastlake), i. 204. 

GIROLAMO DA TREVISO, the younger. 
See PeniKicchi, Girolamo di Pier' Maria. 

GIRON, CHARLES, born at Geneva; 

contemporary. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Cabanel. Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 
2d class, 1883. Works : Education of Bac- 
chus, Musee Rath, Geneva ; The Two Sis- 
ters, Mary (1883); Portraits. 

Pilot ij, George A. Drummond, Montreal ; 
canvas. Scene : the Place de la Revolu- 
tion, now called Place de la Concorde, with 
the guillotine in background, left ; in front, 
the Girondists dragged to execution in carts, 
amid the jeers of the fishwives, who sit, knit- 
ting in hand, on platforms under umbrellas. 
In the rear cart is the dead body of Vala/e, 
who stabbed himself with a concealed dag- 
ger on the passing of the sentence. Photo- 
gravure in Art Treasures of America, ii. 00. 

GIROUX, ANDRE, born in Paris, April 
30, 1801. Genre and landscape painter, son 
and pupil of the animal painter, Achille G., 
of Thibaulf, and of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts ; won grand prix de Rome in 1825. 
Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. 
of Honour, 1837. Works : Preparing the 
Market (1819); The Basement, Stable, Mar- 
ket by the S:-a-shore (1822); Fish-Market, 
Orpheus and Eurydice (1824); View of 
Capri (1827); View in the Sabine Country, 
Shepherd of Casaprota, Sixtus V. and the 
Gypsy Women (1831); View at Larco Os- 
curo near Rome (1831), Douai Museum ; 
Plain of Givsivaudan near Grenoble (1834), 
Luxembourg Museum ; French Alps (1837), 
Ministry of Interior, Paris ; Ruins of Resti, 
Chalets (1837); Knife-Grinder's Shop (1857); 
Ravine of Golling in Austria (18G3); Valley 
of Gri'sivaudan near Grenoble (1800); Val- 
ley of the Dranse in Savoy (1808); Valley 
of Maglan in Savoy, Mill at Vichy, View at 
Willegen, Switzerland (1874) ; Landscape, 
Raveno Gallery, Berlin. Bellier de la Cha- 
vignerie, i. 003 ; Meyer, Gesch., 772. 

thenburg, Silesia, in 1822, died in 1870. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Breslau of Resell, 
went to Munich in 1849, studied four years 
there and from nature in the Bavarian High- 
lands and the Tyrol ; lived some time at 



Lieguitz, and in 1854 went to Berlin. 
Works: Mill in Silesia; Windmill; Moon- 
light Night in Tyrolese Alps ; Ttmcru Moun- 

GIRTIN, THOMAS, born at Southwark, 
Surrey, in 1775, died in Ijondon in 1*02. 
Landscape painter, one of the founders of 
the English school of painting in water-col- 
ours, and next in importance to Turner, 
with whom he was intimate ; exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1 794-180 1. Works : 
View of Bridgenorth, (treat Hall in Con way 
Castle, Ethel Castle, Melrose Abbey, View 
of Ripon, York Cathedral, Interior of Can- 
terbury Cathedral, and others, British Mu- 
seum, London; Hievaulx Abbey (1798), View 
on the Thames, Warkworth Hermitage, 
three others, South Kensington Museum, ib. ; 
View of St. Asaph, Jedburgh Abbey, Nation- 
al Gallery, Dublin. 

Miller, Turner and (lirtin's Picturesque 
Views (London, iHot). 

GISP.ERT, ANTONIO, born at Alcoy. 
Valencia ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Madrid Academy. Direc- 
tor of S. Fernando Museum, Madrid. Med- 
als : Paris, 18<;r>, 18(17; Otliccr L. of Hon- 
our, 1S70. Works: Landing of Puritans 
in North America ; Execution of Padilla ; 
Death of Don Carlos ; Francis I. meeting 
his Betrothed ; Columbus embarking at 
Palos ; Paolo and Francesca ; Guitar Player. 
Grandfather's Birthday, Flute Player, In 
the Garden, Students' Household ; Modern 
Paris and Three Graces (1882); Prestidigi- 
tator, William Astor, New York. Miiller, 

G I SL E R , EDOUARD ; contemporary. 
History painter, pupil of Nave/. Works: 
Jeremiah on Huins of .Jerusalem (18IU!), St. 
Gudule's, Brussels; The Virgin (1841). 
Immer/eel, i. 280. 

Susa, North Italy, in 1825. Genre and land- 
scape painter, professor at Milan Academy. 
Works : Faust and Marguerite ; Parisina ; 
Difficult Passage ; In Thoughts ; Drinking 
Girl (18(5). MUller, 209. 

GH'LIO ROMANO, bom in Rome in 
1492, died in Mantua. Nov. 1, 154li. lieal 
name Giulio Pippi de'(ii- 
annuz/i, but called Romano 
from his birthplace. Um- 
brian school ; became the 
assistant of Kaphael when 
quite young, and with II 
Fat tore and Pellegrino da 
Modena aided him in the 
decoration of the Vatican. 
He was Raphael's favour- 
ite pupil and was, with II 
Flit tore, his heir and art executor. He 
painted frescos in Koine in the Villa Lanti, 
in the Villa Madama. which he built, and 
in Trinita de' Monti. Having fulfilled his 
duties towards Raphael by finishing his 
incomplete works in the Vatican, and in 
painting, with II Fat tore, the Assumption 
which Kaphael had promised to the Convent 
of Monteluce, now in the Vatican, he went 
(bvJll to Mantua and end-red the service of 
Duke Federigo ( ion/.aga. There he directed 
works in architecture as well as in painting, 
having under him many scholars and assist- 
ants. While under Raphael's care he was a 
close imitator of his style ; but when left to 
himself his taste soon became depraved, and 
he was largely responsible for the decay of 
Italian art. Among his works in Mantua 
are frescos in the Pala/./o del Te, which In- 
built. They represent the Defeat of the 
Giants, and the Hist or v of Cupid and Psyche, 
the latter with a licentious freedom of treat 
ment which ill accords with the traditions of 
tin; school in which lie was bred. He also 
painted other frescos in the I'lli/io della 
Scaccheria and in several churches in Man- 
tua. In l")4(i he was chosen architect of St. 
Peter's, Koine, as successor toSansovino, and 
was about to set out for that city when he 
died. Among the best of his few easel pic- 
tures are : Minimum del Bacino, Pan and the 
young Olympus, Dresden Gal.; Martyrdom 
of St. Sti'/ilii-n, S. Stefano, Genoa; Madon- 
na, Sacristy of St. Peter's, Rome; Julius II. 
(copy of Raphael), Foruariua (copy of the 


Barberini picture), Venus, Borghese, Rome; 
Galatea (copy of Raphael's fresco), Accad. 
S. Luca, Rome ; Madonna, Uffi/i, Florence ; ' 
Dance of Muse*, Pal. Pitti, ib. ; Madonna 
della Gatta, Naples Mus. ; Nativity, Triumph 
of Titus and Vespasian, Vfnnx and Vulcan, 
Madonna and St. John, Repose of Holy 
Family, and portrait of himself, Louvre; 
Madonna and Child, do. with St. John, 
and several others, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Infancy of Jupili'i; Vision of the 
Magdalen (fresco). Capture of Carthage, 
Continence of Scipio, Abduction of the Sa- 
bine Women, Nat. Gal., London ; Jmin and 
Hercules, Bridgewater House, London ; Ma- 
(luiiiia with Saints, S. Francesco, Brescia ; 
Madnnna with Saints, S. M. dell' Anima, 
Rome. Vasari, ed. Le. Mon., x. 87 ; ed. 
Mil., v. 5-2:!, r>C>:i ; Burckhardt, 8, 128, 171), 
180 ; Cli. Blanc, Kcole ombrienne ; Dohmo, 

Gll'NTA PISANO, of Pisa, first half of 
13th century. First mentioned as master 
in 1210, anil still living at Pisa in 1255. 
Frescos bv him or by artists of his school 
are in S. Pietro in Grado, near Pisa. He 
is said to have painted in 123(i, in the 
upper church of S. Francesco Assisi, a Cru- 
cifixion with Father Klias. Other pictures 
in the Academy, and in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa, are ascribed both to him and to Cima- 
Ime. C. & ('., Italy, i. l(i(i; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., i. 8<i ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., i. 221, 
307 ; Morrona, Pisa Illustrata (Leghorn, 
1812), ii. IK!. 

GirSEPPlNO. See Oxar, Giuseppe. 

entine school, flourished second half of 15th 
century. Son of Andrea di Giusto, Masac- 
cio's assistant ; worked under Neri di Bicci 
in 1458-5!), with Fra Filippo in 14fiO, and 
assisted Benozzo Gozzoli in the Campo 
Santo, Pisa. His style is a mixture of that 
of Fra Filippo and of Gozzoli, but inferior 
to both. By him are, perhaps, a Madonna 
and Saints in S. Gimignano Gallery (attrib- 
uted to Gozzoli); do. in S. Girolamo, Vol- 
terra ; do. iu Gallery Comuuale, Prato ; do. 

in Florence Academy. C. & C., Italy, ii. 
51G ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 258 ; iv. 191. 


GLADIATORS (Combat de Gladiateurs), 
Jean Leon Glri'nne, Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New 
York ; canvas. Scene in the Coliseum, Rome. 
The victor in a gladiatorial combat stands 
over his prostrate foe and turns to the spec- 
tators for the signal of life or death, given by 
turning the thumbs, whence the picture is 
sometimes called Pollice Verso. 

GLAESER, GEORG, born at Altorf, near 
Nuremberg, in 1719, died at Baireuth in 
1748. Portrait and history painter ; became 
court-painter to Margrave Frederic of Bai- 
reuth, who sent him to Vienna and then to 
Italy, where he remained seven years. 
Works : Death of Lucretia, Death of Cleo- 
patra, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg: Alex- 
ander's Entry into India, Baptism of Christ, 
Portrait of a Rabbi (17.'!5), Landauer Briider- 
haus, ib. 

born at Montpellicr, Dec. 15, 181:1 Genre 
painter, pupil of the brothers Deveria ; be- 
longs to the realistic school ; is more suc- 
cessful with mythological than with Chris- 
tian subjects. Medals : 3d class, 1842 ; 2d 
class, 1844, 1848, and 1855 ; 1st class, 1845 ; 
L. of Honour, 1855. Works : Flight into 
Egypt, Luca Signorelli lamenting his Son 
killed in a Duel (183(i); After the War 
(1838); Faust and Marguerite, Angels com- 
ing for the Body of the Magdalen (1839) ; 
Vision of Saint Theresa (1841); Flight into 
Egypt, Interior with Holy Family, Psyche 
(1842); Women Bathing, Humility of Saint 
Elizabeth (1843); Susannah at the Bath, St. 
Elizabeth begging her Bread (1844); Acis 
and Galatea (1845); Blood of Venus (184G), 
Montpellier Museum ; Dante writing under 
the Inspiration of Beatrice and Virgil (1847); 
Death of the Precursor (1848), Toulouse 
Museum ; Women of Gaul (1852), Autun 
Museum ; The Pillory (1855); What One sees 
at the Age of Twenty (1855), Montpellier 
Museum ; Cupids at Auction (1857), Beziers 
Museum ; Before the Shop of a Mouey- 



Changer (1857) ; Address of the Emperor 
on the Distribution of Envies (ordered by 
State in 1855); Around the Bowl (1801), 
Anvers Museum ; Misery (18(il); Dangerous 
Reefs (18(!4), Luxembourg Museum ; Slav- 
ery (1805), Narbonne Museum; St. Gcne- 
vicve stopping Attila, St. Genevieve saving 
Lives of Prisoners, Devotion to St. ( lene- 
vieve (1805, frescos), St. Gervais, Paris; 
Moima Belcolore (1800); Posterity address- 
ing Joan of Arc (1807); Blood of a Martyr 
(]8(iS); Caligula's Jest (ISO!)); Insulting 
Christ (18(i!l), Ministry of Fine Arts, Paris; 
Jesus the Saviour, Psyche Abandoned ( 187(1); 
Spectacle of Human Folly (1872); Path in 
Roscbois (1874); Two Neighbors (187!)); 
Psyche (1880); First Steps (1881); Foolish 
Virgins, Subject, from Musicus (1882); Vote 
of Gaspard Duchatel (188:!); Around the 
Truth, Hours of Life (1884). Bellier de la 
Chavigneric, i. (JU5 ; Claretie, Peintres, etc. 
(1871), lit!) ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 4():i ; 
M filler, 201). 

in Paris, Feb. ;{, 
1842. History and 
genre painter, son 
and pupil of Aug- 
uste, and pupil of 
Geronie ; received 
honourable mention 
in 18 5 !) for his 
Treason of Delilah. 
Medals : 1804, 1800, 
and 18(!8 ; 1st class, 
1878 ; L. of Honour 
and Nymphs (18(!1), Montauban Museum ; 
Samson taken by the Philistines (1801) ; 
./Esop at House of Xanthus (18(53), Dijon 
Museum ; Samson breaking his Bonds 
(1804), Mulhouso Museum ; Christ and 
the Ten Lepers (1800), Church of White 
Friars, Paris ; Penelope's Nights (18(!(!), 
Brussels Museum ; Minerva's Shield (1807), 
Montauban Museum ; Young Girl facing 
Death (1869) ; The First Duel (1870), Aries 
Museum ; Death of Saint Louis (1872), 
Church of St. Louis d'Antiii ; Lucia, Bielle 


1877. Works: Faun 

the Bouquet-Seller (1874); Conspiracy in 
Early Home (1875), Luxembourg Museum; 
Orpheus (1870) ; l-'iti/ilin:* (1877); portrait 
of J. L. Gen'ime (187!)) ; Tin: Awakening 
( 1881 1 ; Feast in Honour of Theseus (18S5). 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 005 ; Miiller, 

Hall, Tyrol, in 1001, died at Bo/cn in \~'1'1 
German school ; history painter, pupil of 
Deutenhofer, then in Venice of Heinricli 
Frisch and Carlotto ; travelled in Italy, 
Switzerland, visited Munich, and settled in 
Dozen in 1080. Painted also attractive 
genre pieces, with ligures in Tyrolese cos- 
tume, found in many private collections. 
Works : Legend of St. Francis of Assisi 
(1712), Franciscan Church, Bo/.en ; The 
Three Magi, St. Catharine, Parish Church, 
ib. ; Christ feeding the Five Thousand, City 
Hall, ib. His son and pupil, Josef Anton 
(1695-1750), was also an able and versatile 
artist, who worked for many years at Wiir/ 
burg. Wur/.bach, v. 205. 

GLASS, JAMKS W., born about, 1825. 
died in 1857. Historical genre painter, pu- 
pil of Huntington in New York in 1815. 
Lived and painted in London from 1817 to 
1850. His Last Return from Duty, an 
equestrian portrait of the Duke of Welling- 
ton, painted in England, was bought by 
Lord Ellesmere, and repeated for the (^ueen. 
Works: Free Companion; Puritan and 
Cavalier; Edge Hill; Battle of Naseby, 
Wright Collection ; Royal Standard. Tuck- 
crinan, 421. 

GLAUBER, JAN, called Polydor, born at 
Utrecht in 1040, died at Amsterdam or 
Schooiihovcn in 1720. Dutch school; land- 
scape painter, pupil of Berchcm. After 
spending a year (1071) in Paris with the 
flower- painter, Picard, and two years in 
Lyons with Arij van der Kabel, ho went to 
Rome, in company with his brother, Jan 
Godlieb, and his sister, Diana, also a skilful 
artist, and was received under the name of 
Polydor into the society of Dutch and Ger- 
man artists there, called the SchilderbeuL 



Having spent two years in Rome, one year 
in Padua, and two years in Venice, lie went 
iu 1080 to Hamburg, and resided there and 
in Copenhagen until 10S5, when he settled 
in Amsterdam, in the house of Gerard de Lai- 
resse, who pointed ligures in his landscapes. 
His pictures show a conception kindred to 
Poussin, combining elevated composition 
with excellent drawing. In colouring, chi- 
aroscuro, and individuality, he often sur- 
passed his model. Works : Landscapes in 
the Louvre, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Bruns- 
wick, Cologne, Berlin, Vienna, and Madrid 
Museums, and Augsburg, Munich, Dresden, 
Copenhagen, Oldenburg, and Christiania 
Galleries, and Historical Society, New York. 

Cli. Diane, Kcole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, 
i. 2cSO ; Kramm, ii. 575 ; Riegel, Beitrage, 
ii. .112. 

til, born at Utrecht in 1050, died at Brcslau 
in 1701!. Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
brother and pupil of Jan, whom he after- 
ward accompanied to Italy, where his charm- 
ing pastorals earned him the nickname 
Myrtil. After his return he sojourned in 
Vienna, Prague, and Breslau. His pictures, 
in the style of his brother Jan, are of poetic 
composition, warm in colouring, and care- 
ful in execution. Works : Landscapes, 
Augsburg Gallery, and Vienna Academy ; 
.Snake in the Grass, Glasgow Gallery. Im- 
merzeel, i. 280 ; Kramm, ii. 575. 

GLAUCION, painter of Corinth, date un- 
kiiown. Master of At/ii'miin. Pliny, xxxv. 
10 [134], 

GLEANER, Jules ISrclon, Luxembourg' 
Museum ; canvas, H. 7 ft. in. :: 4 ft. 1 in. 
Full-length, with bare head, arms, and feet, 
standing with her left arm akimbo, her 
right holding a sheaf upon her left shoul- 
der ; in background, other gleaners. Salon, 

GLEANERS, Jean Francois MUM, Bis- 
fichoffslieiin Collection, Paris. Three wom- 
en gleaning in the foreground of a wheat- 
field ; in background, two great stacks of 
grain, on one of which men are packing 

sheaves which another man is pitching up 
from a wagon drawn by oxen. Salon, 1857 ; 
Exposition universelle, 1807. 

des Glaueuses), Jules Jlretoii, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 5 ft. 9 in. The 
gleaners, a dozen or more women and girls, 
at work in a field on a sultry evening, arc 
called from their labours by a " garde chani- 
petre," who, leaning against a post at left, 
with his dog beside him, is shouting with 
both hands up to his mouth. Painted in 
1859. Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), ii. 288. 

GLEICHAUF, RUDOLF, born at Hiifin- 
gen, Baden, July 20, 1820. History painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Julius 
Schnorr, whom he followed to Dresden, 
where he copied in the Gallery, then studied 
in the Stiidel Institute in Frankfort, and 
devoted himself especially to monumental 
painting. Works : Decorations in New 
Theatre at Carlsruhe ; Frieze in Castle Heili- 
genberg on Lake Constance ; Frieze in 
Trinkhalle at Baden-Baden ; Scenes from 
Schetlel's Aventiure ; several altarpieces ; 
allegories in fresco in building of United 
Col. at Carlsruhe. Miiller, 210. 

LUDWIG VON, Baron, born at Greifen- 
stein-ob-Boiniland, Bavaria, Oct. 25, 1830. 
Landscape painter, grandson of Schiller, 
pupil of Weimar Art School under Max 
Schmidt and Theodor Hagen. Works : On 
the Harbour-Pier at Bregenz ; Summer 
Afternoon ; Beech Wood in Autumn ; In 
Harvest-Time. Miiller, 211. 

at Chevilly, Switzerland, May 2, 1800, died 
in Paris, May 5, 1874. Genre painter, pu- 
pil in Paris of Hersent for a short time, then 
worked by himself until he went to Egypt, 
where lie spent several years ; visited Italy 
on his way home, in 1833, and in 1840 ex- 
hibited at the Salon his St. John, which at- 
tracted much attention. In 1849 he had a 
quarrel with the administration, and thence- 
forth sent his pictures to Swiss exhibitions. 
He had many pupils. Medals in 1843, 1845. 



Works : Young Nubian Woman, Diana in 
the Bath (1838); Vision of St. John (1810); 
Lost Illusion* (1843), 
W. T. Walters, Balti- 
inorc ; Departure of 
the Apostles (1845); 
Nymph Echo ; Dance 
of the Bacchantes 
(184!)) ; Vfiius on a 
Ram (1855); Death of 
Major Duviil, Battle of 
Lake Leman (1858), 
Portraits of General 
Joinini ami of M. W. Haldimand, Lausanne 
Museum ; Diana Hunting, Xausica'i, Daph- 
nis and Chloi' 1 , Virgin with Christ and St. 
John, Joan of Arc in the Forest, Ruth and 
Boa/, Delude, Return of Prodigal Son (all 
before 18(13); Hercules and Oniphalc (18(i:i); 
Minerva and the Graces, Sappho ; 1't'nlheitx 
pursued by the Mainades, The Charmers, 
Basle Museum; Young Roman's JiaHi (18G8), 
C. S. Smith, New York. Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1875), xi. 233, 404; Larousse, viii. 1301; 
Meyer, Gesch., MM ; Clement, Life (1858). 

at Wolfenbiittel, Brunswick, Dec. 2li, 1822, 
died in Dresden, April 25, 1872. Portrait 
painter, pupil of the Dresden Academy 
under Julius Hiibner. Was for many 
years the favourite portrait painter in Dres- 
den. Works : Jew's Head, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Portrait of King John of Saxony, 
Leipsic University. Allgem. d. Biogr., i.\. 

GLINK, FRANZ XAVIER, born at Uur- 
gau, Bavaria, in 17'J5, died in Munich, Feb. 
22, 1873. History painter, pupil of the 
Munich Academy under Peter von Lander ; 
went in 1824 to Rome, and after his return 
painted altarpieces and subjects from Ger- 
man epics and from Tasso ; then 
turned again entirely to religious 
art. Works : Flight into Egypt ; 
Mary's Visit to Elizabeth ; Madon- 
na ; Christ as a Gardener ; St. Cecilia ; 
Christ iu Glory ; Sermon on the Mount ; 
Cycle from Wilkiua Saga and the Niebel- 

' ungon ; Scenes from Tasso; Story of An- 
tharis. Allgoin. d. Biogr., i\. 'J37. 

GLIN/ER, KARL, born at Breitenau. 
near Cassel, in 1802, died at Ciissel in 1878. 
History and landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy, and, in 1825, of Diisscl- 
dorf Academy under Schadow, then of Gros 
in Paris ; visited Rome and Naples in 183:!. 
Works: Susanna at the Bath ( 1837), Kunst- 
lialle, Hamburg ; Joseph's I Moody C'oat 
(ISliS); Good Samaritan; Slave Dealer 
(184()i; Pan and Syrinx (1852). 

GLORIA, LA, Tilutn. Ma.lrid Museum; 
canvas, H. 11 ft. 4 in. x 7 ft. 10 in.; signed. 
High in the heavens, in a halo of light, the 
Father and the Son are seated, with ervstal 
orbs and sceptres in their hands ; around 
them countless cherubim and seraphim fail- 
ing away in a brilliant mist ; lower down in 
the clouds the Virgin stands interceding f. >r 
sinners, at whose head Charles V., to tin- 
right, with the crown at his feet, is kneel- 
ing ; behind him is the Empress ; lower 
down Mary of Hungary, Philip and his sis- 
ter, all in winding-sheets, praying; still 
lower an; Job (portrait of Vargas), Moses, 
Noah, and the Magdalen, and to the left iu 
ascending lilies the Evangelists and Proph- 
ets. Painted in 1554 for Charles V., who 
ordered it as a record of his intention to 
<(iiit the throne. On his abdication (1555), 
he took it, with other pictures, to the Monas- 
tery of Yuste, where it was hung at the foot, 
of his bed. Charles ordered the picture, 
which he called the Last Judgment, to he 
placed after his death on the high altar of 
the Monastery, but Philip removed it to the 
Escorial, from which it passed to the Mu- 
seum. Sometimes called also the Trinity. 
Engraved byCort; in reverse by Hondins. 
Vasari, cd. Mil., vii. 451 ; C. X C., Titian, 
ii. 232 ; Gachard, Retraite et Mort de Charles 
V. (Brussels, 1855), ii. 'JO ; Revue Universelle 
des Arts, iii. 227. 

at Cracow in 1802, died there, July 28, 1847. 
Landscape and portrait painter, pupil of 
Cracow Academy, then studied in Prague 



and under Steinfeld at the Vienna Academy, 
and after his return to Cracow became pro- 
fessor at the university. Visited Munich, 
and having spent two years in Home, re- 
turned in 1835. His landscapes, views in 
the Carpathian mountains and in Galicia, 
were in great demand, and are mostly in 
private collections at Cracow. Wurzbach, 
v. 220. 

GOBAl'T, GASPARD, born in Paris, 
December 27, 1814. Landscape and battle 
painter, pupil of his father and of Simeon 
Fort. Medal, 3d class, 1847 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1871. Works: Eleven water-colour 
views in Algiers, nine views near Paris 
(1847); Siege of Home in 1849 (1852); Bat- 
tles and Skirmishes in Italian Campaign of 
185',) (10, 1801); Views in Jura Mountains, 
Pyrenees, etc. (18(14-70) ; Kittles of Magenta 
and Solferino (1870); Ann of the Seine, 
Skirmish at Villersexel in 1871 (1877). 
.1 Jollier de la Chavignerie, i. (i(i7. 

GOBBO, ANDREA DEL. Sec Snhri,,, 

GOBBO DA MILANO. See Su/ano, An- 

GOBEL, KAHL, born in Vienna in 1824. 
Portrait, genre, and landscape painter in 
water-colours, son of Karl Peter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy ; travelled extensively in 
France, Spain, Italy, Hungary, and Russia. 
Works: Fisherman's Family returning 
Home ; Camp of Army-Train ; Gibraltar ; 
Cathedral of Valencia ; Escorial ; Painters 
in Gypsy Camp ; Pilgrimage to Mariazell ; 
Coal Sledge ; Pifl'erari. Miiller, 02 ; Wurz- 
bach, v. 2:34. 

GOBEL, KAHL PETEll, born at Wiirz- 
burg in 1701, died in Vienna in 1823. 
Portrait and history painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy, where he won several 
prizes. Works : Jacob blessing Sons of 
Joseph (1820), Vienna Museum ; Moses 
(1821); Death of Dido (1822). Wurzbach, 
v. 234. 

Fra Bartolommco, Lucca Gallery ; wood, 
figures under life-size ; dated 1509. The 

Eternal, enthroned on the clouds, attended 
by cherubim and seraphim, with right hand 
raised in benediction ; below, St. Catherine 
of Siena on the left, and Mary Magdalen on 
right, both kneeling in ecstacy and raised 
from the ground by a band of cherubim. 
Painted for Convent of S. Pietro Martire, 
Murano ; but it remained in the hands of 
Fra Bartolommeo, who is supposed to have 
presented it to the Prior Santi Pagnini, of 
the Convent of S. Homano, Lucca ; removed 
lately to the gallery. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 
102 ; Marchese, ii. 52, 240, 303 ; C. & C., 
Italy, iii. 448. 

Stanza d' Eliodoro, Vatican ; fresco on ceil- 
ing. God the Father, accompanied by two 
angels, descending from heaven, and about 
to address Noah, who kneels in adoration ; 
one of Noah's sons is near him, the two 
others with their mother, who, holding one 
in her arms, looks out from the door of her 
house. Vasari calls this the Covenant with 
Abraham. Painted in 1513-14. Engraved 
by Fr. Aquila; Michel Corneille; S. Rouille- 
mont. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 34G ; Miintz, 
370 : Passavant, ii. 128. 

W. Turni-r, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x 1 ft. The Goddess of 
Discord choosing the apple of contention in 
the Garden of the Hesperides. The three 
daughters of Hesperus, ^Egle, Hespere, and 
Erytheis, dwelt in the garden, where they 
had charge of the tree of the golden apples, 
the gift of Earth to Juno on her wedding- 
day. The Hesperides and the garden were 
guarded by the dragon Ladon, destroyed by 
Hercules in his eleventh labour. The God- 
dess of Discord, not having been invited to 
the marriage feast of Peleus and Thetis, 
procured one of these apples, and writing 
upon it, "For the most beautiful," threw it 
among the guests at the feast. It was 
claimed by Juno, Minerva, and Venus. 
Jupiter, to end the strife, ordered that the 
dispute should be settled by Paris, the 
shepherd of Mt. Ida. The Judgment of 



Paris, who Awarded it to Venus, that god- clear in tone. Attributed to him is also an 

dees having promised him Helen of Sparta Annunciation in the Old Pinakotliek at Mu- 

for his wife, led to the Trojan war. In nicli. Allgem. d. Biogr., i*. 322 ; Ch. Blanc, 

Turner's picture, n glorious mountain land- TCeole rlamande ; Kd. De Busscher. Rechcr- 

scape, with the River Lethon and nymphs dies sur les pcintrcs Gantois, (I."), 1(15, ll;i, 

in foreground, the Goddess of Discord is 117, 205 ; ('. A: ('., Flemish Painters, 15.'); 

seen receiving the apple from the Hesperi- Forstcr, Dcnkmale, XI. iii. 1 ; Immerxeel, 

des ; in the background, the fiery dragon is ii. l>2 ; Kramni, iii. 7l>4 ; Wauters, Hugues 

lying at length along the summit of a lofty van der Goes, etc. (Brussels, 1872) ; ^'. \ 

crag. British Institution, 180(5. Engraved \V., ii. 27. 
by T. A. Prior in Turner Gallery. GOKT/LOF. KARL \\UA\ KL.M, born in 

GODS AND THEIH MAKERS, Edwin Dresden in !8<r.{, die,l at Naples in bSCC. 
Loin/, Thomas Taylor, London ; canvas, II. Landscape painter, went to Italv in 182.'! ; 
4 ft. 1) in. x 7 ft. !) in. Interior of an Egyp- member of Dresden Academy in 18:55. 
tian studio, with grotesque images against Sorrento, Capo iii Monte, Naples, with 
the wall ; at right a sculptor modelling a cat dancing Italians i 18:511), Kimstlialle. Ham- 
after a living model, held by a negress ; at burg; Two Scenes from Taking of Catania, 
left, young girls seated on tloor painting Berne Museum. 

images. Royal Academy, 1878 ; sold at GOLDEN CALF. Cliimlf Lorrain, Gros- 

Thomas Tavlor's sale (188:5), for (.'2,725. venor House, London; canvas. H. 4 ft. 7 in. 

(iOES, HUGO VAN DER, born in Ghent X 8 ft. 1 in.; dated K',5:!. Cunii>anioii to 

about 14:50, died in the Rooden Cloister, XtTiiiuit on the Mount. The golden calf 

near Brussels, in 1482. Flemish school; upon a high pedestal in a rocky valley, with 

history and portrait, painter. In 14(15 lie Israelites worshipping it. Liber Veritatis, 

was a member, and in 14715-75 dean, of the No. 1211. Engraved by Ja/et, Paris, by 

painters' guild at Ghent, where, in 14(!8, he Lerpinirre (1781), and in Grosvenor Gal- 

assisted in preparing decorations for the lery. Study in bistre, British Museum: 

marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret sketch in Louvre.- Pattison, Claude Lor- 

of York. About 1475 he took refuge in the rain, 7:5, 218. 2:5 I ; AVaagen, Treasures, ii. 

Rooden Cloister, of the Augustine Choir- 171. 

Masters, whence, in 1470-80, he was called GOLDEN CALF, Til<>n-lt<.. See .l/,,>rx 

to Louvain, as one of the greatest painters on the Mount. 

in the country, to value an unfinished pict- GOLDEN HORN, Sandford R. '.'///.//,/. 
ure by Dierick Bouts. About 1481 he be- private gallery, New York ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
came insane. The one authentic picture by X in. ' 4 ft. The harbour of Constantinople, 
Hugo van der Goes is the altarpiecc in the so named in ancient times from the wealth 
Hospital of S. Maria Nuova, Florence, which of its commerce. The picture shows an ex- 
was ordered at Bruges by Tommaso Porti- pause of rippled water, to which the noon- 
nari, and painted about 1470-75. The mid- day sun gives a golden glow ; on each sido 
die picture represents the Adoration of the rows of shipping extend back until almost 
Shepherds ; on the wings are the portraits lost in the golden hax.c through which the 
of Tommaso Portinari and his two sons, roofs and spires of the city are just visible. 
presented by SS. Matthew and Anthony, GOLDMANN, OTTO, born in Berlin, 
and of Folco Portinari, with his wife and April 8, 1844. Genre painter, for a short 
daughter and their patron saints, Margaret time pupil of Berlin Academy ; since 1878 
and Mary Magdalen. Heads earnest and has followed the realistic manner of Karl 
severe, draperies broken into still' folds, Gussow. Works: Not Alone? Check and 
colour wanting in harmony, cold, though Mate? In (Jreat Expectation; Disturbed 



"Rest ; Quod erat demonstrandum. Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1882), ii. 435 ; Leixner, D. mod. K, 
ii. 07 ; Rundschau, xviii. 30G. 
GOLTZIUS, HENDRIK, born at Miihl- 
brecht, Duchy of 
Jnlich, in Feb., I 
155S, died inHaar- 
1cm, Dec. 29, 
1010, or Jan. 1, 
1017. Dutch 
school ; his to ry, 
portrait, and land- 
scape painter, al- 
though his great 
reputation rests 
upon his skill as an engraver, which was ex- 
ceptional. He did not begin to paint until 
he was forty-two years old. Unhappily 
married to a rich widow much older than 
himself, he lost his health, and by the ad- 
vice of his physicians travelled through 
Germany (1590), then went to Rome and 
(1592) to Naples. After his return to Haar- 
lem he suffered from the harsh climate and 
gradually declined. Ho was a versatile, 
skilful, and extravagant mannerist, who, like 
Spranger, delighted in forced attitudes and 
unnaturally-developed muscles, and carica- 
tured the style of Michelangelo, whom he 
endeavoured to emulate. Works : Female 
portrait, Brussels Museum ; Adoration of 
the Magi, St. Maurice Chapel, Nuremberg ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Ecce Homo, Gotha Gallery ; The Del- 
uge (1592), Oldenburg Gallery"; Titius at- 
tacked by the Vulture (1013), Haarlem 
Museum ; Mercury presenting the Eves of 
Argus to Juno (1015), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Adam and Eve, Wiesbaden Gallery; Circum- 
cision, Baptism of Christ, Adam and Eve, 
Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg; Family Group, 
Historical Society, 
New York. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., ix. 301 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole hol- 
landaise ; Immerxeel, i. 287 ; Kramm, ii. 
584 ; Van der Willigeu, 133, 348. 


GOMEZ, JACINTO, born at San Udefon- 
so in 174G, died in 1812. Spanish school. 
History painter, pupil of Francisco Bayeu ; 
chamber painter to Charles IV. Works : 
The Angelic Hierarchy adoring the Holy 
Spirit, Madrid Museum. 

GOMEZ, SEBASTIAN, called El Mulato 
dc Murillo, born about 1040 (?), died in Se- 
ville in 1082 (?) or 1000 (?). Spanish school, 
the mulatto slave of Murillo ; learned his 
art by watching his master at work. Accord- 
ing to the story, he ouce ventured to finish 
a Virgin's head which had been sketched 
by Murillo, who thereupon encouraged and 
aided him. His pictures, mostly religious 
subjects, are defective in drawing and in 
composition, but are much like Murillo's 
in colouring. Works : Holy Family, Seville 
Cathedral ; Conception, Seville Museum ; 
St. Francis of Assisi, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. Stirling, ii. 928 ; Viardot, 220 ; Cur- 
tis, 340. 

born in Dresden, May 30, 1813. Genre, 
history, and portrait painter, pupil of Dres- 
den and Antwerp Academies ; lived then in 
Berlin, Munich, and Rome, visited France, 
England, and Sweden, and became professor 
at the Dresden Academy in 1857. Honor- 
ary member of the Dresden Academy in 
1854, and of Antwerp Academy in 1859. 
Works : Card-Players ; Antiquary ; Robber's 
Repentance ; Ballad-Singer ; Conventional 
Marriage ; Kiss of Judas ; Burning Mem- 
ories (1809), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Lady 
Macbeth (1872) ; Banquet in 10th Century 
(1874) ; Portrait of King John of Saxony, 
City Hall, Leipsic ; Clown in State of De- 
jection, Pennsylvania Academy, Philadel- 
phia. Brockhaus, viii. 190 ; Miiller, 212. 

Mantua, portrait, Raphael, lost (?). Begun 
in 1513, but left unfinished. Represents a 
young man of great beauty, dressed in black, 
with a white shirt, and a red cap on his 
head. Waageu and Passavant think it the 
portrait at Charlecote Park, near Warwick, 
England, which was formerly in collection 



of Charles I., nnd then in possession of Mr. gossa ; has acquired reputation esj>ecially 

Edward Gray, London ; but Campori is of since the Philadelphia Exhibition of 187(5. 

opinion that it perished in the sack of Man- Medal, Paris, 3d class, 18G7. Works : Ca- 

tua in 1030. Mflntz, 380 ; \Viiagen, Treas- thedral de lo Seo in Saragossa, Chapels and 

ures, ii. 47(5 ; Passavant, ii. !)(! ; Campori, Mausoleum of Ferdinand and Isabella in 

Gaz. des B. Arts (1872), ii. 357. Granada Cathedral, Chapel in Avila Cathe- 

GON/AGA, ISABELLA. See AW-' (ion- dral, Sacristy in do. (187(1); View of Canal 

zaga ; //(//< Ferronierre. Grande, Interior of S. Marco, Venice. - 

GON/ALES, BARTOLOMH, born in Val- Miiller. 212. 

ladolid in 15(14, died in Madrid in 1(127. GOOD, THOMAS SWORP, born at IW- 

S])anish school; pupil of Patricio ('axes in \\ick-on-Tweed, Dec. 4, 17S'.. died there. 

Madrid; employed by Philip III. at the April 15, 1872. Genre painter. Bred a 

Pardo in Ki08, and afterwards in various house-painter, then studied Wilkie's style, 

works in Burgos, Valladolid, Lenna, and and in 1820 sent .his picture, A Scotch Shep- 

the Escorial ; succeeded Fabricio Castello herd, to the Royal Academy, where he e\- 

as royal painter in 1017. Painted many hibited for fourteen years. Went to Lon- 

portraits of tlie queen and the infantas, and don to reside in 1822, but in 1833 inherited 

devotional subjects for convents. Works : a fortune and gave up painting. Works : 

Portraits of Queen Margaret of Austria, and Scotch Shepherd (I820i; Music, Two Old 

of the Infanta Clara Eugenia, Madrid Mu- Soldiers, Northumbrian Piper, Rummaging 

seiim ; Interior with Young Scholar and an Old Wardrobe; Practice (1.823); Idlers 

Wife, Family Group in Painter's Sitting- ( 182'.); The Truant ( 183d); Medicine (1831); 

Room, Cassel Gallery; Portrait of Infanta Industrious Mother; Merrv Cottagers; 

Margarcta Francesca, Germanic Museum, Smugglers Resting; Fishermen ( 1832), No 

Nuremberg. Stirling, i. 431 ; Madrazo. News, The Newspaper, Study of a Boy, Na 

GON/ALKS, JUAN ANTONIO, born at tional Gallery, London. Redgrave; Cat. 

Chiclana, Spain; contemporary. Genre Nat. Gal. 

painter, pupil of Pils and of Rodriguez. GOOPALL, FRKDKRICK, born in Lon- 
Medal, Paris, 3d class, 187(5. Works : don, Sept. 17. 1822. 
Sancho Pan/a relating the Adventures of Genre painter in oil 
Don Quixote (18(10); Gallery of Armour and water-colour, son 
Museum of Cluny, Before the Evening Party and pupil of Edward 
(1870); After the. Ball (1872); Coquetry, Goodall, engraver; 
Young Woman and Cat (1873); Persuasion won silver medal of 
(1874); Music Lesson, Grandpapa's Portrait Society of Arts for his 
(1875); Return from Baptism (187(i); Wed- first oil picture. Find- 
ding Presents (1877); At the Impresario's ing of Dead Body of 
(1870); Romance (1880); Grandparents' a Miner by Torchlight; 
Visit (1882). La Ilustracion (1877), ii. 241 ; first work exhibited 
(1883), ii. 170. at Royal Academy, French Soldiers playing 

GON/ALKS, PEDRO RUIZ, born in Cards (1830); elected an A. R. A. in 1852,' and 

Madrid in 1033, died there in 1700. Span- It. A. in 18G3. Has sketched in Ireland, 

ish school ; pupil of Escalanto and of (Jar- France, Italy, and Egypt. Works : Tired 

reno ; painted chiefly religious compositions, Soldier (1842), Village Holiday (1847), Na- 

but also water-colour and crayon pieces. tional Gallery, London ; Hunt the Slipper 

Stirling, iii. 1028. (1840); Woodman's House (18/50); liaising 

GON/ALVO Y PEREZ, PABLO; con- the Maypole (1851); Last Load (1852); Cran- 

temporary. Architecture painter, in Sara- mer at the Traitor's Gate (185(5); Summer 



Song, Song of the Nubian Slave (18G4); Museum ; Landscape with Satyrs, Lille Mu- 
Ilising of the Nilo (18G5) ; Bedouin Mother . seum ; Wood Landscape with Figures and 

;ind Child (1872); Arab Improvisatore, Sub- 
siding of the Nile (187:$); Time of Roses, 
Egyptian Water-Carriers (1877); Palm Sun- 

Herd (1719), Schwerin Gallery. Immerzeel, 
i. 288 ; Kramin, ii. 589. 

GOOSE GIRL (Gardeuse d'Oies), Jean 

dav, Daughter of Laban (1878); Water for Francois Millet, private gallery, New York, 
the Camp (1879); Road to Mecca, Return A little peasant girl watching a flock of 
from Mecca, Artist and Model, Rebecca ' geese. Sold by Pillet in Paris (1881), for 
(1881); Memphis (1882); Cato at Cairo, :!5,000 francs. 

Crossing the Desert (188;!); Gordon's Last; GORDON, Sir JOHN WATSON, born iu 
Messenger (1885). His son, Frederick Edinburgh in 1790, died there, June 1, 
Trevelyan Goodall (died April 11, 1871), 18f>4. Son of Captain Watson, R.N., and 
was a painter of much promise. Art Jour- \ nephew of George Watson, portrait painter; 
nal (1850), 21;?; (1855), 108; Sandby, ii. assumed name of Gordon in 1820. Having 
:?:?! ; Cat. Nat. Gal. j first tried historical painting with little suc- 

GOODWIN, ALBERT ; contemporary, cess, he turned his attention to portraiture, 
Water-colour landscape and genre painter, and became the leading portrait painter in 
Exhibits at Royal Academy and Grosvenor t Edinburgh, after the death of Raeburn. 
Gallery. Works: Venice, from S. Giorgio, Elected in 1841 an A.R.A., and in 1851 
Venetian Butterflies (1875); Sixth Voyage R.A.; succeeded, in 1850, Sir William Allan 
of Sindbad the Sailor, An Arabian Night as President of the Scotch Academy, being 
(1879); Low Tide in the Harbour (1880); A appointed at same time limner to the Queen 
Summer Sea, St. Michael's Mount Corn- in Scotland, and knighted. Works : Sir 
wall (1881); Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, David Brewster, National Gallon-, London ; 
Fisherman and Genius (1882); Enchanted Marquis of Dalhousie, De Quincey, Profes- 
Lake, Scene from Tempest (188:?); Pass- sor J. Wilson, National Portrait Gallery, ib. ; 
ing, Unveiling of the Enchanted Palace Lord Murray, Lord Cockburn, Sir Walter 
(1884). I Scott, Grandfather's Lesson, six other male 

GOOL, JAN VAN, born at The Hague in portraits, National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Earl 
1(!90 or 1091, died there in 1705. Dutch of Hopetoun, Earl of Dalhousie, Archers' 
school ; landscape and animal painter, pupil Hall, ib.; Sir James Hall, Royal Society, ib. 
of Mattheus Terwesten and of Simon van der Redgrave; F. de Conches, 41C ; Sandby, 
Does. Imitated Paul Potter. Ho published i. 287. 

"De nieuwe Schonburg der Nederlantsche GORGASUS, painter and modeller in 
Kunst-schilders," biographies of the artists clay. Decorated, in company with Ihmo- 
of the Netherlands, which work may be i>hiluf, the Temple of Ceres, Liber, and 
considered as a continuation of that by Ar- Libera, at Rome (dedicated 494 B.C.). Pliny, 
nold Houbraken. Twice visited England, xxxv. 45 [154] ; Brunn, i. 5:?0; ii. 57. 

GOSSART (Gossaert), JAN. See Mabuse. 
born in Paris, Oct. 2, 1787, died at Soncourt 
(Haute-Marne), Feb. 9, 1878. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Vincent ; painted 
in a hall of the Louvre scenes from Greek 
His works show the decadence of the and Roman mythology. Medals : 3d class, 
Dutch school in colouring, effect, and style. 1819; 2d class, 1824 ; L. of Honour, 1828 ; 
Works : Landscape with Cattle, Amsterdam Officer, 1870. Works : Crossing the Styx 
Museum ; Girl milking a Cow, Rotterdam (1819); Adoration of the Magi (1827) ; The 



Wounded of the July Revolution (18:5:5) ; he executed several decorative fresco paint- 
St. Vincent dc Puul (1824), formerly in ings for English lords, us well as portraits. 
Luxembourg Museum ; Death of St. Yin- In 1<S6:!-G5 lie was in Lucerne. Works : 
cent Ferrer (1845), Yannes Cathedral ; Bisli- Jurisprudence, Medicine, Philosophy (18:52), 
op of Lisieux protecting Protestants on St. IJonn I'niversity (cai-toons iu Carlsruhe Gal- 
Bartholomew's Night (18155), Lisieux Muse- lery) ; Cycle in fresco, Chapel at Niersh in, 
inn ; Napoleon receiving Queen of Prussia Hesse ; Scries with Fairy-Tales from Black 
at Tilsit, Meeting between Napoleon and Forest (1844), Trinkhalle, Baden-Baden; 
Alexander at Erfurt, Arrival of Charles X. Decorative Cycle in fresco, Bridgcwatcr 
at Notre-Dame, Louis Philii>pe refusing House, England. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 515; 
Crown of Belgium ottered to Due de Nc- Forster, v. 11 : Knnst-Chronik, ii. 7. 
niours, Portrait of Marshal Conttides, Yer- <lori!.Vt" ((iouliou, Goebouw), AN- 
sailles Museum. Bellier de la Chavignerie, TOINF, horn at Antwerp, May '21, 1G1G, 
i. 070; Yapereau (18KO), 8I54. died there. March 11, K11I8. Flemish school; 
GOSSELIN, CHARLES, born in Paris, landscape and genre painter, pupil of .Ian 
Jan. 2(1, 18:54. Landscape painter, pupil of de Facius (FuriusV); master of the guild in 
Gleyrc and Bnsson. A distinguished painter l(i:i(i, then spent, several years in Italy, 
of tlie realistic school. Medals : 18(15. 1S70; Works: Study of Arts in liome ( 1GG2), Pi- 
2d class, 1874 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works: a/./.a Navona, ib. (l(!8(l|, .Museum, Antwerp; 
Woods in Autumn (18G3); Autumn Evening Last Supper, St. .lames', ib. : Italian Market 
(18154); Road (18(15) ; Environs of Bougival (1G51), Baron de 1'ret, ib. ; do., Lille Muse- 
(18GG); In the Woods (1807); Drinking- urn; Landscape, Hague Museum; Landscape 
Place, Twilight in Woods (18(18); Hollow with Roman Ruins, Brunswick Museum; 
Road, Environs of Foncine-le-Bas (18(1!)) ; Adoration of the Magi (1(170), Amalienstift, 
Road in the Woods (1870); Summer Even- Dessau ; do., and Soldiers at Cards. Selnvcnn 
ing (1872); Environs of Crotoy, Farm of Gallery; Rocky Landscape with Ruins ami 
Hedouville (187:5); Woodsmen (1874) ; Low Figures, Augsburg Gallery: Vestal in a 
Tide, Borders of the Woods (187.)) ; Pasture Landscape, Old Man playing Guitar, t'tli/.i, 
on the Downs (187(i) ; Forest of Isle Adam Florence. Cat. du Musc'e d'Anvers (1S74), 
(1877) ; Mouth of the Somme (1878) ; De- 1'JO ; Kramm, ii. 571); Messager des sciences 
ceniber Landscape (187'.) ; Ford of St. historiqucs (18(18), IMG ; Riegel, ii. ll'.l; 
Martin 1'Egliso (1880); Moor of Yarenge- Rooses (Rebcr), 1)5, 408 ; Van den Branden, 
ville (1881) ; Horses in a Meadow (1882) ; 1010; /citschr. f. b. K., xiv. :544. 
Castle of Annies (188:5) ; Between Dieppe GOL'BAU, FIJANS, born at Antwer]., Sept. 
and Tourville (1884). 27, 1(122, died there, Oct. 20, 1(178. Flemish 
GOTTLAND, PETER. See R<>il<l,'l*lt:<ll. school; history and portrait painter, prob- 
GOTZENBERGER, JAKOB, born at ably pupil of Geeraard Zegers ; master of 
Heidelberg in 1800, died in Darmstadt, Oct. the guild in 1(141). Works: Adoration of 
(J, 18GG. History painter, pupil of Corne- the Holy Sacrament (1G50), Museum, Ant- 
lius from 1820 in Ddsseldorf, and from 1824 werp ; The Dead Christ (1G55), Portrait of 
in Munich ; went in 1828 to Rome, and in Pastor Frans van den Bosschc ( 1G57), St. 
1832, with Forster and Hermann, painted the James', ib. Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
frescos representing the Faculties, in the 11)0; Van den Branden, 931. 
aula of the university of Bonn. Was made GOUBIE, JEAN RICHARD, born in 
court-painter and director of the Mannheim Paris, Jan. 12, 1842. Genre and animal 
Gallery, visited Paris and London with Cor- painter, pupil of Gerome. His animals are 
nelius, and being dismissed for some misde- well drawn, but rather carelessly painted, 
meauour, went in 1847 to England, where Stylo spirited and subjects interesting. 



Medal, 3d class, 1874. Works : "So Fond 
of those Animals," An Academy in the 18th 
Century (1874) ; Return from Hunting Sea- 
Birds (1875) ; Wedding Journey (187G) ; 
Flight across the River, Horse and Donkey 
(1877) ; Buying Marcs, Amorous Lion, Edu- 
cation of Fillette, Theft of the Crow (1878) ; 
Lunch in the Ruins of Hunaudaye (1879) ; 
Chasseurs walking their Horses, Morning 
Meeting (1880) ; The Ladies' Carriage, Vis- 
iting the Mothers (1881) ; Sunday After- 
noon in the Zoological Garden in Paris, 
Catching a Crab (1882); On the Way to the 
Fair (1883); Chamaut's Equipage at Belcroix 
(1884) ; A Bowl of Milk, Spring (1885). 

GOULD, W ALTER, born in Philadelphia 
in 1829. Portrait and subject painter, pu- 
pil of J. R. Smith in Philadelphia, and a 
student in Paris. Has lived and painted in 
Florence, Italy, since 1849, making sketch- 
ing tours in the East. Works : Portrait of 
Kossuth, Governor of Hungary (1851, 
painted in Asia Minor) ; Grand Vizier, Res- 
chid Pasha, Sir Stratford Canning (painted 
in Constantinople) ; An Eastern Story Teller, 
Matthew Baird, Philadelphia. 

Paris, May 7, 1839, died at Neuilly, April 
30, 1883. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Ary Schert'er. His genre pieces are 
carefully drawn and bright in colour, but of 
no great depth. Medals : 3d class, 1873, 
1874 ; 1st class, 1875 ; 2d class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1881. Works : Trying on the 
Dress (18G4) ; Calling on a Young Mother 
(18G5) ; Charity (18GG) ; News, For the 
Poor (18G7) ; Sister's Festival (18G9); News 
in the Provinces (1872) ; Young Citizen of 
the Year V. (1873) ; The Betrothal (1874) ; 
In 1795, Interior of a Studio (1875) ; Visit 
of Condolence (1877); A Village Woman, 

Not at the 
Place of 
(1878) ; The 
Friend, Rest (1879) ; Mine. Roland's Last 
Day in Prison (1880), Luxembourg Muse- 

um ; A Dining-Room (with David de Noter), 
New York Museum. 

in Paris, June 13, 1813, died there, March 
7, 18G9. Landscape painter, pupil and imi- 
tator of Corot. Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 
honourable mention, 1855. Works : Cima- 
buc and Giotto, Island of Capri (1841); In- 
fancy of Bacchus (1844), Chartres Museum ; 
Baptism of Christ (184G); Autumn Evening, 
Seine at Meudon, Grottos of Cervara (1848); 
Sunset (1850), Rodez Museum ; Street in 
Rome (1852) ; Village of Saint Georges 
(1853); Springtime, Autumn (1855); Au- 
tumn Day (1857), Nancy Museum ; Banks 
of the Seine (18G3); Banks of the Tiber 
(18G7); Baptism of Christ (18G8). 

bom at Antwerp, baptized Aug. 30, 1589, 
died there, Sept. 13, 1G2G. Flemish school; 
landscape painter in the manner of Jan 
Brueghel, and possibly his pupil ; master 
of the guild in 1G07, its dean in 1G23. 
Works : Oak Wood (1G12), Hague Museum ; 
Allegory of Autumn (attrib. to Jan Brueghel), 
Brussels Museum ; Repose of Diana (1G14), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Landscape with Abra- 
ham's Sacrifice (1G15), Brera, Milan ; The 
Four Elements (1G24), Brunswick Museum; 
Wood Landscape with Huntsmen, Gottiugeu 
University; do. Schweriu Gallery ; Two 
Landscapes, Augsburg Gallery. Gaz. des 
B. Arts (18G8), i. 119 ; Michiels, v. 374 ; Rie- 
gel, Beitriigc, ii. 95 ; Van den Branden, 4G1 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xvi. 59 ; xx. 217. 

GOW, ANDREW C., born in London in 
1848. Genre painter, 
pupil of his father and 
student at Heatherly's 
School of Art. First 
exhibited picture at 
Royal Academy, A Sus- 
picious Guest (1870). 
Member of Institute of 
Painters in Water Col- 
ours in 1868 ; elected 
an A.RA. in 1881. 
Relief of Leydeu (187G); Tumult 

Works : 


in House of Commons (1877); War Dispatch 
at Hotel <le Ville, News from the Front 
(1878); No Surrender, Story by 
Chopin (1879); Last Days of Edward VI. 
(1880); Montrose atKilsyth (1881); Jacobite 
Proclamation (1882); Consuelo, Trophies of 
Victory (1883). Art Journal (1881), ',).">. 

JOSfi DE, born at 
Fuendetodos, Ara- 
gon, March 30, 
1746, died at Bor- 
deaux, April 15, 
1828. S p a n i s li 
school ; history, 
genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil for 
five years of Lujan 
Martinez at Sara- 
gossa ; spent several years in Rome, paint- 
ing little, but making a careful study of the 
great pictures there. In 1772 he took the 
second prize at the Academy of Parma, and 
three years later returned to Madrid and 
painted many genre pictures which soon 
made him popular. In 17SO he became a 
member of the Academy of San Fernando, 
in 1705 director of the same, and painter in 
ordinary to Charles IV., an honour continued 
under Ferdinand VII. Goya painted also 
religious compositions and portraits, but he 
is best known as a satirist and caricaturist, 
of very remarkable, though eccentric, genius, 
as his many etchings and sketches abundant- 
ly show. He has been called the Hogarth 
of Spain. Works : Equestrian Portrait of 
Charles IV., do. of Queen Maria Luisa, 
Charles IV. on foot, Queen Maria Luisa do., 
Charles IV. and his Family, Episode in 
French Invasion of 1808, Scenes of May 3, 
1808, thirteen others, Madrid Museum ; 
Equestrian Portrait of Ferdinand VII, do. 
of Prince of the Peace (Godoy), Madhouse, 
Bull-Fight, Gallant Dressed, Gallant Nude, 
and others, Academia San Fernando ; Cruci- 
fixion, Museo de Fomento ; St. Francis 
Preaching, S. Francisco el Grande, Madrid ; 
Treason of Judas, Toledo Cathedral ; Sta 


Just inn and Rufina, Seville Cathedral ; St. 
Francis de Borja's Farewell to his Family, 
Valencia Cathedral ; Portraits (2), Valencia 
Museum ; do. (2), Louvre ; Frescos in Er- 
inita de San Antonio de Florida, Madrid, 
and Madonna del Pilar, Saragossa. Stir- 
ling, iii. 1200 ; Viardot, 305; Cli. Blanc, 
Kcole espagnole ; Gax. des 13. Arts (1807), 
xxii. 108; (180S), xxiv. 100, 3S:> ; (1875), 
xii. 500 ; (1S70), xiii. 330 ; (1871!), xiv. 500 ; 
La Ilustracion ( 1882), i. 371 ; Madra/o, 404 ; 
Portfolio (1870), 38, 07, 00; L'Art ( 1S77), 
ix. 25 ; /eitschr. f. b. K., x. 103 ; x\. 25 1. 

GOYEN. JAN VAN, born at Leyden, Jan. 
13, 1500, died 
at The Hague 
in 1050. Dutch - 
school ; became 
pupil of Esaias 
van de Yclde in 
Haarlem about 
1010, after hav- 
ing studied 
under various 
art ist s of no 
great repute, and 

France. In 1018 settled in Leyden and 
married ; in 1031 removed to The Hague, 
where in 1040 he was president of the guild. 
The date 1057, on a picture which he left 
unfinished at the time of his death, was 
added by his son-in-law, Jan Steen, who 
painted in the figures. Works : ^ iew of 
Nymwegen, Grosvenor Gallery, London ; 
River Views (2), Marine, Winter Scene, two 
others, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ; 
River Scene (1044), Marine View, Canal in 
Holland (1047), River in Holland (165:3), 
Banks of Canal (1656), Louvre, Paris ; Land- 
scapes (8), Rothan Collection, ib. ; River 
Scene, Lille Museum ; View of Dordrecht 
(1044), Brussels Museum; River Scene 
(1645), The Valkeuhof at Nymwegen, View 
on the Mouse, Amsterdam Museum ; River 
in Holland, Rotterdam Museum ; Halt of 
Travellers (Sal. Ruisdael ?), Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Landscapes (4), Cassel Gallery ; do. 
(7), Augsburg Gallery ; do. (3, 1621), 1640, 


tour through 



1043), Old Pinakothek, Munich; do. (3, 
1033, 1C43), Dresden Gallery ; View on 
Canal (1053), Leipsic Museum ; Village 
Scene (1023), Pasture (1035), Brunswick 
Museum ; Flat Country with Halt of Trav- 
ellers (1028), do. with Peasants Conversing 
(1031), View of Nymwegeu (1042), FortLillo 
on the Scheldt (1043), Gotha Museum ; 
Canal with Boats, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
do. (2), Musee Bath, Geneva ; Landscape 
(1045), Amalienstift, Dessau ; View of Forti- 
fied Town, Marine (?), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Winter (1021), Summer, View in the Downs 
(102!)), View of Arnheim (1040), do. of Nym- 
wegen (1049), Winter Landscape (1050), 
River-Bank, Berlin Museum ; Flat Country, 
Museum, Vienna ; Marine View, Academy, 
ib. ; Dutch City (1045), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Village on Canal, View of Vliessiugen (1043), 
Downs near Scheveningen, Landscape with 
Skaters (1045), View of the Meuse (1045), 
Canals with Buildings (2), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg; Moordykc, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, New York ; Castle and Seaport, His- 
torical Society, ib. ; Moonlight, Bivcr Scene, 

Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia. All- 
gem. d. Biogr., ix. 522 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole 
hollaudaise ; Dohme, lii. ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1875), xii. 138, 298 ; (1878), xvii. 134 ; Im- 
rncrzeel, i. 2S)0 ; Kramm, ii. 590 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xix. 28, 002 ; Eiegel, Beitri'ige, ii. 
352 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ix. 12. 

GOYET, EUGfcNE, born at Chulon-sur- 
SaAne, Feb. 7, 1798, died in Paris, May 17, 
1857. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Gros. Son of Jean Baptiste Goyet, genre 
painter (1779-1854). Medals: 2d class, 
1831 ; 1st class, 1839. Works : Cimabue 
or the Renaissance of Painting (1831) ; 
Chancellor Voysin and Louis XIV. (1833); 
Christ (1839), Chulon Museum ; Foulques 
de Villaret (1841), Versailles Museum ; St. 

; Luke healing a Sick Child (1841), St. Luke's, 
Paris ; Four Evangelists (1842), Church 
\ of St. Mtklard, ib. ; Simon the Just, 
St. Cecilia (1842); St. Germain, Bishop of 
Auxerre (1843), Montpellier Cathedral ; Ap- 
parition of Christ to St. James (1844); Jesus 
in the Garden of Olives (1845); Portrait of 
Pius IX. (1848); Massacre of the Innocents 
(unfinished, 1857), Montpellier Museum. 
Bellier dc la Chavignerie, i. 084. 

GOZZOLI, BENOZZO, born in Florence 
in 1424, died 
there in 1498. 
school. Real 
name Benozzo di 
Lese di Sandro; 
pupil of Fra An- 
gelico, whom he 
followed to 
Home, and his 
' assistant at Or- 
vieto in 1447. He parted from him in 
1449, and established himself at Montcfalco, 
near Foligno, where he remained until 1450 
and executed many important works in the 
manner of his master, though they are far 
from approaching him in spiritual power. 
Those in S. Fortunate consist of a Madonna 
with Saints and Angels, an Apotheosis of 
the titular Saint, an Annunciation, and St. 
Thomas receiving the Girdle, now in the 
Museum of St. John Lateran, Rome. In S. 
Francesco, Benozzo filled the choir with a 
triple course of episodes from the life of St. 
Francis, and painted a Madonna and Saints 
and other frescos in the Chapel of St. Jerome 
in the same church. In 1450, after paint- 
ing in Perugia the Madonna and Saints, 
now in the Academy, Benozzo returned to 
Florence, and was employed by Piero de' 
Medici to paint a series of frescos represent- 
ing the Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem, 
in the Chapel of the Palazzo Riccardi. In 
these, like the realists, he made Scripture 
incidents a vehicle for the treatment of rich 
costume, animal life, and landscape. In 
' 1403-07 he painted in S. Agostino, San 



Gimignano, a series of scenes from the life 
of St. Augustine, and other subjects in the 
Pieve. Between 1400 and 14H5 he painted, 
in the Campo Santo, Pisa, a series of frescos 
representing 24 subjects from the Old Tes- 
tament, the most pleasing of which is \HU/I 
and his Family, which contains the charm- 
ing episode of the vintage and a rich archi- 
tectural and landscape background. Among 
his extant easel pictures are the Triumph of 
St. Thomas Aquinas, Louvre ; Conception, 
Pisa Academy ; Miracles of St. Hyacinth, 
Vatican, Rome ; Madonna with Saints, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Miracles of S. Jacinto, Vati- 
can ; 3Fadoinia with Saints, Rape of Jfflr/i, 
National Gallery, **. 
London; History of [I \ f t\ 
Lueretia, National (/ I {-* / 
Gallery, Dublin. -^ L/ 
C. A: C., Italy, ii. /) /^ 
408 ; Vasari. ed Le l\ /T 
MOD., iv. 184; Bal- U \J Q 
dinucci, i. 41)0 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole florentine ; Burckhardt, 5.'i8; 
L'Art (1881), xxvii. 125 ; Liibke, Gesch. 
d. ital. Mai., i. 318; Gautier, Guide au 
Louvre, 01. 

GRAAT, BAREND, born in Amsterdam 
in 1028, died there in 1700. Dutch school ; 
landscape, genre, and history painter, pupil 
of his uncle, an animal and landscape 
painter ; studied much from nature, and 
took Pieter van Laar for his model. He 
established a school of design at his house, 
where the best artists of his time congre- 
gated to draw from life. Works : Home 
Scene, Buckingham Palace, London ; Hunt, 
Coursing (both with Reinier de Vries), New 
York Museum. Immerzcel, i. 200 ; Kramm, 
ii. 598. 

GRAAUW, HENDRIK, born at Hoorn, 
North Holland, in 1027, died at Alkmaar in 
1682. Dutch school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Pieter de Grebber and of 
the architect Jacob van Campen; was then 
employed by Prince Maurice of Nassau to 
paint frescos in the cupola of the Palace in 
the Wood, which established his reputation; 

went in 1048 to Rome, where he was inti- 
mate with Poussin ; returned after three 
years, and lived successively at Amsterdam 
and Utrecht until 1072, when he removed to 
Hoorn. For the family of Bronckhorst he 
painted a series of historical and fabulous 
subjects, which were much admired. Im- 
incTzeel, i. 2'.>1. 

G RACKS, THIiKE, /',,/nw Vecchio, Dress- 
den Gallery; wood, H. 15 ft. 1 in. :' 4 ft. 4 in. 
Three young women, half-length, grouped 
in a landscape. Sometimes called I'ahua's 
daughters, but it is doubtful whether they 
were painted from three models or from 
one. In 1525 in collection of Taddeo Con- 
tarini, then in Giustiniani and Cornari 
families ; bought from the Procurate&sn 
Coniaro della Casa Grande for 000 ducats. 
C. A. C., X. Italy, ii. -ISO; Bottari, Rao- 
colta, vii. .'i74. 

Bv ItdfilifU'l, Due d'Aumale, Cliantilly ; 
wood, II. OJ in. : 4J in. Threo Graces, 
nude, grouped in the classical form, each 
holding one of the apples of the Hcsperides. 

Three Graces, Raphael, Due H'Aumale, ChanMly. 

Probably suggested by the antique marble 
group in the Opera del Diionict, Siena. 
Painted in Perugia in 1504-5? Passed from 
the Borghese Collection to M. Reboul. 



then through the hands of the Woodburns 
to Sir Thomas Lawrence ; thence to Lord 
Ward, afterwards Earl Dudley ; sold (1885) 
to Due d'Aumale for 25,000. Sketch of 
two Graces in Venice Academy. Engraved 
by F. Foster ; J. K. Sherwiu. C. & C., 
Raphael, i. 207; Gruyer, Raphael ct 1'Anti- 
quitr, i. 22!) ; Miintz, !)0, 220; Passavant, ii. 
50; Perkins, 03 ; Liibke, Raphael, 19, 135. 

The Hague in 15!):?, died in 1(547. Flemish 
school ; pupil of Raphael van Coxcyen. 
Principally known through a meritorious 
work on anatomy for artists, published at 
The Hague in 1(534, but must also have been 
a good painter, to judge from an excellent 
portrait by him in the Weimar Museum. 
Spent most of his life in Italy. Kramm, ii. 

in Berlin, March 18, 181(5, died there, April 
8, 1884. Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Gerst and of Berlin Academy ; 
visited Switzerland, Southern France, and 
Paris, and in 1843 Italy and Sicily. Was 
made court-painter in 1851, professor in 
1855, and member of the Berlin Academy 
in 18(50. Great gold medal in 1854 ; mem- 
ber of Amsterdam and Vienna Academies. 
Works : View of Palermo (1848) ; Cross- 
Way in Ratisbon Cathedral (1850); Interior 
of Halberstadt Cathedral (1854), Italian 
Landscape (1855), Cross-Way in a Monas- 
tery, Fontana Medina in Naples, Ravene 
Gallery, Berlin ; Strand of Amalri, Mauso- 
leum of Charlottenburg (1855); City, Castle, 
anil Park of Muskau, Stolzenfels ; Graves of 
Mansfeld Family in Eisleben (18(10), View 
in Halberstadt Cathedral (1800), Thurin- 
gian Mill, National Gallery, Berlin ; Old 
City Hall in Berlin (1807)"; Choir of St. 
George's in Tiibingen (1809) ; Interior of 
Synagogue in Prague ; two views of ancient 
Athens and of Olympia, Berlin Museum. 
Allgem. Kunst-Chronik, ix. 114 ; Brock- 
haus, viii. 254 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Maler- 
schule, 348 ; Kuust-Chrouik, xix. 445, 402 ; 
xx. 181. 

GRAEB, PAUL, bom in Berlin in 1842. 
Architecture painter, sou and pupil of Karl 
Graeb ; travelled in Germany, Switzerland, 
and North Italy. W'orks : Vestibule of St. 
George's, Tiibingen (1809), Raczynski Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; S. Fosctv at Torcello near Ven- 
ice. Muller, 215. 

GRAEF, GUSTAV, born at Konigsberg, 
Dec. 14, 1821. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Th. 
Hildebrandt and W. Schadow ; was in Italy 
in 1840-50, acquired a simpler and grander 
style, and settled in Berlin in 1852 ; visited 
Munich and Paris in 1853, Vienna and North 
Italy in 1872, London and Scotland in 1873, 
and Italy in 1874-75. Since 1802 has de- 
voted himself more especially to portrait 
painting. Member of and professor at Ber- 
lin Academy. Works : The Niebelungeu 
Lay (184(5) ; Jephthah and his Daughter ; 
Charlemagne and Wittekind ; four scenes 
from Myth of Hercules and Theseus ; De- 
parture of Prussian Landwehr (1800) ; 
Voluntary gifts in 1813 (1801), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Farewell of Lithuanian 
Landwehrman, Solon, Phidias and Demos- 
thenes (1808-70), Ki'migsberg University. 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1880), ii. 345 ; Miiller, 215 ; 
Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 137 ; Lcix- 
uer, Mod. K., i. 23 ; ii. 44 ; D. Rundschau, 
ix. 470 ; Zeitsch., xv. 47. 

GRAFF, ANTON, born at Wiutertlmr, 
Switzerland, Dec. 20, 
1730, died in Dres- 
den, June 22, 1813. 
German school ; por- 
trait painter, pupil of 
Johann Ulrich Schel- 
lenberg ; went about 
1750 to Augsburg, 
whence, being ham- 
pered by the guild in 

the free exercise of his art, he proceeded 
to Ansbach, where he aided the court- 
painter Schneider in his portraits of fam- 
ous personages, and studied industriously 
after Itigaud and Kupeczky. In 1759 he 
returned to Augsburg, and soon acquired 



great reputation ; in 1700 was railed to 
Dresden as court-painter and professor at 
the Academy. There he developed an ex- 
traordinary activity, painted temporarily 
also in Berlin and Leip.sie, besides making 
excursions into Southern Germany and 
Switzerland. According to his own state- 
ment, he painted, in 1700-71!, 1143 portraits 
and family groups, besides copying old mas- 
ters for the Russian court and for his own 
improvement. "\Vorks : Portrait of Frederic 
Augustus of Saxony, do. ()i) of himself, of 
(iellert, and six others, Dresden Gallery; 
do. of the Actor KckhoiV (1771), Gotha Mu- 
seum ; do. of the Painter /ingg, Saint Gall 
Museum ; seven portraits, Leipsic Museum ; 
six do., Weimar Museum ; two do., /iirich 
Gallery ; two do., National Gallery, Berlin ; 
two do., Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Prince 
Friedrich Albrccht of Anhalt, Brunswick 
Museum ; portraits of himself in Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich, and Christiania Museum ; 
do. of Lessing, Herder, Schiller, Moses 
Mendelssohn, Weisse, Rainier, Sul/.er (Berne 
Museum), Hagedorn, Tiedge, Gluck, C'hodo- 
wiecky, King Frederic William II. His 
son, Karl Anton (born in Dresden, March 
10, 1774, died there, March 1), 18:52), was an 
able landscape painter, pupil of /ingg in 
Dresden. Allgem.d. Biogr.,i.x. 505 ; Brock - 
haus, viii. 20!) ; Muther, Ant. Graff, sein 
Leben, etc. (Leipsic, 1881). 

GRAFLE, ALBERT, born at Freiburg, 
Baden, May 2, 1801). History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Cornelius and Sehnorr ; and in Paris in 1840 
under Wiuterhaltcr ; returned to Munich, 
went in 1848 to Alsace, where he painted 
portraits, then to England, again to Paris, 
and settled in Munich in 1852. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1840. Works : Madonna, 
Triumphal Procession of Arminius, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; altarpieces in Lrihr and Dun- 
denheim, Baden ; Four Seasons, Royal Pal- 
ace, Carlsruho ; Procession in Dachau ; 
Intimate Friends at Beethoven's ; Dance of 
Elves ; Woman with a Hose, Provin/ial Mu- 
seuui, Hanover ; portraits of Queen Victoria 

and Family, Princess of Wales, Crown Prince 
and Crown Princess of Prussia, Grand Duch- 
ess Louise of Baden, Emperor Maximilian 
and Empress of Mexico. Miiller, 210. 

GRAHAM, JOHN, born in Scotland in 
1754, died at Edinburgh in 1817. History 
painter, first apprenticed to a coach painter 
in Edinburgh, then in London pupil at the 
Royal Academy, where he exhibited from 
1780 to 17117. Appointed in 17HS master 
of Trustees' Academy in Edinburgh, where 
he had among his pupils Wilkie, Allan, 
Burnett, and Gordon. Works: Daniel in 
Lions' Den (17SII); TIKI (17<s:!|; Ceres in 
Search of Proserpine (1780); Escape, of Marv 
Stuart from Lochleven (1788), Portrait of an 
Alderman, Stationers' Hall, London ; Marv 
Stuart before Execution il7'.l^|: David in- 
structing Solomon (17H7); The Disobedient 
Prophet, National Gallcrv, Edinburgh. 

GRAHAM, MARY, 'port rait, Thomas 
(iiiiii.ilxirniii/li, National Gallerv, Edinburgh ; 
canvas. The Honourable Mrs. ( iraham, wife 
of Thomas Graham, of Balgowan, afterwards 
Lord Lynedoch ; full length, standing. 
Painted in 177S ; after death of Lord Lyne- 
doch (184;i), came into possession of Itohert 
Graham of Rcdgorton, who be<|iieathed it, 
in 185!) to National Gallery. Study for the 
tched by Waltner ; 

>. -Brock-Arnold, 
Portfolio (188(1), 

head in same Gallery. 1 
('. ( ). Murray in Portfol 
Biog. Great Artists, 50 
2 ; Athena-urn, Aug., 1S( 

GRAHAM, PETER, born in Edinburgh 
in 1830. Landscape 
painter, pu p i 1 of 
School of Design, 
Edinburgh ; removed 
to London in 1800 ; 
elected an A.R.S.A. 
in 18(i(), but resigned 
in 1877, when he was 
made an honourable 
membe r ; A.R.A. in 
1877, R.A. in 1882. 
Paints chiefly Highland scenes with cattle, 
and rocky shores. Works : Spate in the 
Highlands (1800), Hermou sale, 1882, 787 ; 



Crossing the Moor (187/5); Glint of Sun- 
shine, Gently Heaving Tide (1877); Wan- 
dering Shadows (1878); Cloudland and 
Moor, Sea-Birds, Resting Place (1879) ; 
Mountain Road, Scotch Cattle (1881); After 
Rain (1882); Quiet Noon, Lonely Shore 
(1883); Dawn, Sea Mist (1884). Portfolio 
(1870), 148. 

GRAHAM, THOMAS, born in Scotland ; 
contemporary. Figure painter, educated 
in Edinburgh ; studio in London. Works : 
Monks playing Bowls (1807); The Dominie 
(18G8); Lairds Pew, Billet-Doux (18G9); 
Wayfarers (1870); Imogen in the Cave 
(1874); The Tire- Woman (1877); Mudlark, 
Philosopher's Breakfast (1878); Clang of 
Wooden Shoon (1879); Pleasant Pasture, 
Spring-Time (1881); Eyes to the Blind 
(1881!) ; Stobhall Perthshire (1884). 

(ilasgow in 1794, died there, June 5, 1800. 
Portrait and genre- painter, pupil at Royal 
Academy, London, where he won the gold 
medal in 1821, then studied for two years 
in Italy, especially the Venetian masters ; 
returned to London, and in 1827 went to 
Edinburgh, where he was made member of 
the Academy in 1830 ; soon after settled at 
Glasgow, where his collection of paintings 
forms a valuable feature of the Corporation 
Galleries. Works : Women at a Foun- 
tain (1840) ; Roman Girl (1804) ; Portrait of 
Walter Scott, National Portrait Gallery, ' 
London ; do. of Watson Gordon, John Gib- 
son, sculptor, Italian Nobleman, Bandit's 
Bride, National Gallery, Edinburgh. Bryan 
Graves, 592. 

GRAN, DANIEL, born at Vienna or in 
Moravia in 1094, died at St. Piilten, Nether 
Austria, April 14, 1757. German school ; 
history painter, said to have studied in Vi- 
enna under Ferg and Wernle, and afterwards 
in Venice under Ricci and in Naples under 
Solimena, though this is doubtful. After 
his return from Italy he became the first 
German fresco painter of his time, and exe- 
cuted frescos and oil paintings for churches 
and palaces in Vienna and Moravia. Be- 

came court-painter between 1720 and 1726. 
Works : Ceiling frescos, Court Library 
(1730) and Schwarzenberg Palace, Vienna ; 
do., Summer Palaces at Hetzendorf (1742) 
and Schonbrunn ; do., Schwarzspanier 
Kirche, Vienna ; Holy Family, Vienna Mu- 

D . Crcun 

seum ; St. Elizabeth, Karlskirche, Vienna. 
Allgem. d Biogr., ix. 578 ; Brockhaus, viii. 
280 ; Wurzbach, \. 307. 

Florence, July 23, 1477, died there, Nov. 
30, 1543. Florentine school; pupil of Do- 
menico and David Ghirlandajo at same time 
with Michelangelo, with whom he formed an 
intimate friendship. His early tendency 
was to imitate the Michelangelesque, at the 
same time endeavouring to acquire the tech- 
nical improvements of Mariotto Albertinelli 
and of Fra Bartolommeo. He was one of 
those whom Michelangelo invited to Rome 
in 1508 to aid in the frescos of the Sistine 
Chapel, but he did not satisfy him, and this 
led to their estrangement. After that Gra- 
nacci came under Raphael's influence. On 
his return to Florence he became Ridolfo 
Ghirlandajo's partner, and devoted himself 
chiefly to the painting of banners and stage 
scenery. Among his best pictures are Vir- 
gin in Glory, Uffizi, Florence ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Virgin and Saints, 
Academy, ib. ; Madonna and Saints, The 
Trinity, Berlin Museum ; The Virgin ador- 
ing the Child, Four Saints, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Nativity, Hermitage, St. Peters- 

burg. C. & C., Italy, iii. 534 ; Vasari, ed. 
Le Mon., ix. 217 ; Ch. Blanc, l5cole floren- 
tine ; Baldinucci, ii. 89 ; Liibke, Gesch. d. 
ital. Mai., ii. 181. 

Ferrara about 14(!2, died there, .lulv, 1531. 
Lombard school. Called also Ercole da 
Ferrara. Son of Giulio Cesare Grandi; 
was in the service of the Duke of Ferrara in 
14JI2 !)'J. He was a disciple of Costa, or 
rather of Francia as represented by Costa, 
in his later period. Among his typical 
works may be cited the Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian in S. Paolo, Ferrara, and the St. 
George and the Dragon in the Corsini Gal- 
lerv, Rom c ; 


Conversion of / / 

St. Paul, Na- L\ 

tional Gallery, / /, 
London. C. & 

C., N. Italy, i. 

531, 550 ; *Cit- 

tadella, Notizie di Ferrara, 422 ; Vasari, ed. 

Mil, iii. 141 ; ed. Le Mon., iv. 247 ; Biuvk- 

hardt, 582. 

in Ferrara before 1513. Lombard school. 
Called also Ercole da Ferrara or Ferrarese. 
Son of Roberto Grandi, and partner of his 
brother as a painter and gold-beater in Fer- 
rara in 1471). Salaried by the Duke of Fer- 
rara, by whom he was frequently employed; 
finished a view of Naples in 1490-1)3 ; 
and painted in 1494 the likeness of Hercules 
I. for Isabella of Mantua. Vasari, who con- 
founds him with Ercole the disciple of Costa, 
ascribes to him the frescos in the Garganelli 
Chapel of S. Pietro, now destroyed. His 
Capture and Procession to Golgotha in the 
Dresden Museum (the centre-piece, belong- 
ing to these, a Pieta, is in the Royal Insti- 
tution at Liverpool) show that he was a 
close follower of Mantegna rather than of 
Costa. In similar style are : Christ on the 
Mount, Ravenna Gallery ; Crucified Saviour, 
Museo Civico, Venice ; and the Lucretia, 
Modena Gallery.--C. & C., N. Italy, i. 530 ; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 247; ed. Mil., iii. 
141; Cittadella, Notizie di Ferrara, 583; 
Burckhardt, 582. 

leans, March 18, 1825. Landscape painter, 

pupil of J. Noel and Jules Dupre. Tcachei 
of drawing in the Kcole drs Artset Mi-tiers, 
Paris. L. of Honour, 1H74. Works : Pont 
du Moulin (18(i5), Orleans Museum ; The 
Brook (l.S(ili), Nantes Museum ; River 
Meurthe (1874); Mill of Simoncau. Road to 
Fountain of St. Guinole (1877) ; View near 
Gratain, Pasture in Sologne (18~S) ; Valley 
of Plainfaing (18711) ; Valley of Baiim, River 
Meurthe (188(1) ; Port of Dieppe, Canal at 
Tivport (1881 ), Luxembourg Museum ; Val 
ley of the Bagnerot in November (1882) ; 
The Campinc at Antwerp, Dieppe (1HSU); 
Kattendyk at Antwerp, Canal at. Antwerp 
(1884) ; Sunrise, Sunset Antwerp (1885). 
Bellier de la Chavigneric, i. (iS7. 

Gl JANET, FRANrolS-MAUirs, born 
in Aix, Provence, 
Dec. 17, 1775, 
died there, Nov. 
21, 1811). Archi- 
tecture painter, 
first instructed 
by an unknown 
Italian, then by 
the landscape 
painter Constan- 
tin, and after- 
wards by David in Paris, 
to Rome, where he spent, the greater part of 
his life and painted most of his pictures. 
They were chiefly interiors of churches, 
monasteries, etc., with historical scenes. 
Returned to Paris in 1811), made custodian 
of the paintings of the Louvre in 1821!, and 
member of the Institute in 18:!(). After 
the revolution of 1848 he retired to Aix, and 
bequeathed to his native city his fortune 
and all his pictures to found a museum. 
Medal, 1808; L. of Honour, 181!) ; Officer, 
1833 ; Order of St. Michael, 182(5. Works : 
Interior of the Coliseum (180(!), The Painter 
Sodoma carried to the Hospital (1815), In- 
terior of the Basilica of St. Francis of Assist 
(1823), Ransom of Prisoners in Algiers 
(1831), Portrait of Himself, Louvre, Paris ; 
Funeral Honours to the Victims of Fieschi's 
Infernal Machine (1839), Invalides, ib. ; 

In 1802 he went 



Godfrey of Bouillon hanging up the Trophies 
from Ascalon iu the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, Versailles Museum ; Choir in 
Capuchin Monastery near the Piazza Bar- 
barini at Rome (181!), was repeated fifteen 
or more times) ; replica in Buckingham 
Palace ; St. Louis delivering French Prison- [ 
ers at Damietta (1827), Amiens Museum ; 
Captivity of Vert-Vert (1834), Reception of . 
a Cardinal by Carthusian Monks in Rome; 
(183G), Hermits building a Chapel (1843), [ 
Eudorus the Martyr visiting the Catacombs, 
Michel Nostradamus, Christians drawing a 
Martyr's Corpse from the Sewers of Rome, 
A Quarter of an Hour before Service, Cele- 
bration of Mass in Reign of Terror (1847), 
Capuchins Writing (1849), Burial in a Crypt, 
and several others, Aix Museum ; Choir of 
St. Scolastica at Subiaco, Reception of 
Jacques de'Molay into the Order of Tem- 
plars (1843). Avignon Museum ; Choir of 
Capuchin Monks of Piazza Barbarini, Ex- 
amination of Savonarola (184G), Lyons Mu- 
seum ; Ruins of the Coliseum, Dijon Muse- 
um ; Alchymist's Laboratory, Stafford House, 
London ; Savonarola in his Cell, New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Jacques Stella in Prison 
painting the Madonna (1810), Leuchtenberg 
Gallery, St. Petersburg; Franciscan Monks 
at Early Mass (1818), Hermitage, il>. ; Choir 
of Church at Assisi, 

I Academy, ib. ; Bene- 
dictines in the Ora- 
tory, New York Mu- 
seum. Bellier do la Chavignerie, i. G88 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Keole franyaise, iii. ; Larousse, 
viii. 1453 ; Meyer, Gesch., 145. 

GRANGER,' JEAN PERIN, born iu Paris, 
May 10, 1779, died there, Dec. 1, 1840. 
History painter, pupil of David, and a skil- 
ful imitator of his style. Won the grand 
prix de Rome in 1801. Painted chiefly 
Greek and Roman mythology and history. 
Medals, 1812, 1817, and 1820. Works: 
Ganymede (1812), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Apollo and Cyparissus (1816), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; St. Charles Borromeo (1819), Church 
of St. Sulpice ; Homer and Glaucus the 

r~ ~T 
/V t- I 

Shepherd (1819), Dijon Museum ; Titus re- 
ceiving the Homage of the Campanians 
(1822), Amiens Museum ; Jesus healing the 
Sick (1839), Notre Dame, Paris ; Marshal 
Boucicault forcing Bajazet to raise the Siege 
of Constantinople (1840), Versailles Muse- 
um ; Mercury carrying Bacchus into Olym- 
pus, Besancon Museum ; Wounded Soldier, 
Nancy Museum. Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
i. G89*. 

Lcbnin, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 15 ft, 5 
in. x 33 ft. 9 in. Alexander, contrary to the 
advice of his generals, crosses the rapid 
stream at the head of his cavalry, under a 
shower of missiles from the Persians, who 
occupy the opposite bank. He is attacked 
by Roosaces and Spithridates, two Persian 
captains, but, aided by Clytus, overthrows 
them ; and the Macedonian phalanx cross- 
ing at the ford, the Persians are put to 
rout (Plutarch, Alex., xvi.). Series of His- 
tory of Ak.randi'r. Engraved by G. Audran 
(1072). Landou, Musce, iii. PI. 45 ; Filhol, 
i. PI. 5. 

GRANT, Sir FRANCIS, born at Kilgas- 
ton, Perthshire, 
Scotland, in 1804, 
died in London, 
Oct. 5, 1878. 
Portrait painter, 
relinquished the 
law for art, and 
first became 
known in 1835- 
40 as a painter of 
sporting pictures 
contaning portraits of noted huntsmen and 
horses, such as Meet of the Queen's Stag- 
Hounds (1837), and The Melton Hunt (1839), 
well known through engravings. Later lie 
turned his attention to portrait painting ; 
in 1841 exhibited an equestrian portrait of 
the Queen, and was elected an A.RA. ; in 
1851 became R.A., and in 1866 succeeded Sir 
Charles Eastlake asP.R.A., and was knighted. 
His portraits were noted for striking resem- 
blance, elegance, and simplicity. Among his 


many distinguished sitters were the Puke 
and Duchess of Beaufort; Dukes of Cam- 
bridge, Roxborough, liutlund, und Bucking- 
ham ; Duchess of Sutherland ; Earls of Derby, 
Fife, and Elgin ; Lords Piilmcrston, Her- 
bert, and Stanley; Sir Colin Campbell, Gen- 
eral J. Sir Hope Grant (his brother), Dis- 
raeli, Landseer, Maeaulay, and Lockliart. 
Ottley ; Art Journal (1878), 2:(2. 

GRAN VASCO. See Fernandez Vasco. 

tian, Besan;on Museum ; canvas, figure to 
liips, largo as life. The Chancellor, in state 
dress, with white beard falling to his chest ; 

gians (1848); Russian 15ear Hunt ; St. Was- 
sily ; Russian I'ilgrinis ; Odalisque ; Horses 
in Flight; Russian Invalid; Halt of Geor- 
gians ; Till Eulenspiegel ; Fight between 
Circassian and Russian ; St. William ; Scene 
from Nathan the Wise ; Portrait of Fran/. 
Lis/.t. Many dog and horse portraits. 
Kuust-Chronik, xi. 514. 

Serben, Livonia, Oct. S (I'.t), 17(17, died in 
Koine, Aug. 4, 1814. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Zurich of Ludwig Hess, visited 
1'aris in 1801 ami with Rehfurs went to It- 
aly in 1803, where he spent considerable 

*T Tjapi i f " , '* ' ' ^V \? '-\-TTl ' ' 

E) 5f !'** V ^ ' "" jc** '' ~"*''- > ^ ; - * '/^*" 

; spt^ 



Passage of the Granicus, Charles Lebrun, Louvre, Paris 

the chain of the Golden Fleece round his 
neck. Painted in Augsburg in 1548. C. & 
C., Titian, ii. 18;!. 

GRASHOF, OTTO, bom at Prenxlau, 
Brandenburg, in 1812, died in Cologne, 
April 23, 1876. German school ; history, 
genre, portrait, and animal painter, pupil of 
Dlisseldorf Academy under Schadow ; spent 
several years in Russia, visited Mexico, and 
the La Plata States in South America, and 
settled in 1845 at Cologne. He became 
blind in 1861. Works : Realm's Salvation 
(1834); The Cid (1835); Guardian Angel 
(1845); Christ and Samaritan Woman (184(5); 
Presenting the Sword, Wolves by Dead Horse 
(1847) ; Battle of Shumla, Vanguard of Les- 

time in Sicily. Works : Spring Morning 
in Valley San Angelo di Brolo ; Concordia 
Temple near Girgenti ; Falls of Carcacci 
under Ml. Etna ; Idyl after Theocritus ; 
Two views of Mt. Etna (1S1 1). Brocklmus, 

1 viii. 301?; Tielemann, Karl Grass (Riga, 

la Fourmi), Jehan Georges I'ibi'ii. Comte 
de Camondo, Paris. Illustration of La Fon- 
taine, Fables, i. 1. Salon, 1875. 

GRASSI, JOSEF, born in Vienna, April 
22, 1757, died in Dresden, Jan. 7, 1838. 
German school ; portrait and history paint- 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy ; was in War- 

! saw during the revolution of 17'J3, and 


underwent grout perils, hut escaped by the 
aid of Kosciuszko. Went by invitation of 
the Duke of Coin-land to Sagan, and thence 
to Dresden, where in 17!)'.) he became pro- 
fessor at the Academy. In 1816-21 was in 
Koine as director of the Saxon art pension- 
aries. Distinguished and decorated by the 
King of Saxony and the Duke of Gotha ; 
also member of several Academies. Works : 
St. John Baptist. St. Peter, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; The Arcadians, Callisto asleep, St. 
Ann instructing the Virgin, Female Figure 
walking. Fairy on Chariot, Portrait of Duke 
Frederic IV. of Saxe-Gotha, do. of Minister 
von Lindenau (1814), and copies after Al- 
bani, Correggio, and Raphael, Gotha Gal- 
lery. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 5!)'2 ; Wur/- 
bach, v. 314. 

GEATELLA. See /''i/i/ipi, Sebastiano. 
GRAY, HENRY PETERS, born in New 
York, June 23, 181!), 
died there, Nov. 12, 
LS77. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil 
of Huntington. Vis- 
ited Europe in 1840, 
studied in Rome and 

Venice ; went abroad 


again in 1846, and to 
Florence in 1871, re- 
maining four years. 

Elected N.A. in 1842, President of National 
Academy from 1809 to 1871. Works : Pride 
of the Village, R. M. Olyphant ; Wages of 
\Yar, Metropolitan Museum, New York ; 
Portrait of William Cullen Bryant, Histori- 
cal Society, ib. ; Cupid begging his Arrow, 
Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia ; Judg- 
ment of Paris, Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton ; Twilight Musings ; Blessed are the ' 
Pure in Heart ; Truth ; Ophelia ; Normandy 
Girl ; Jessica or the Pride of the Rialto ; 
Model from Cadore ; Immortality of the 
Soul, Edwin Hoyt ; Birth of our Flag (1875); 
Flower of Fiesole, Just Fifteen (1875), M. 
O. Roberts, New York ; Apple of Discord 
(1876). Tuckerman, 442. 


in Philadelphia in 1857. Genre painter, 
pupil of Pennsylvania Academy and in Paris 
of Gerome. Works : Breton Idyl (1881) ; 
Going to Market (1882) ; Un fichu temps 
(1883); Ohe, lecanot! (1884); Fisher-chil- 
reu at Concarneau (1885). Art Journal 
(1884), 222. 

GRAZIANI, ERCOLE, born at Bologna 
in 1088, died in 17G5. Bolognese school. 
History painter, pupil of Donato Creti 
(1671-174!), a coronation of Charles V., by 
whom is in the Bologna Gallery), whom he 
surpassed in both design and colouring ; 
painted a great number of pictures for pub- 
lic buildings at Bologna and Piacenza, and 
especially for the churches of Bologna. 
A\ orks : St. Peter consecrating St. Apollin- 
aris amidst an Assembly of Early Clmstiaus, 
Bologna ; Marriage of St. Catherine, St. 
Ann teaching the Virgin to read, S. Bar- 
tolommeo di Reno, ib. ; Ascension, Chiesa 
della Puritii, ib. ; Annunciation, Madonna 
delle Rondiui, ib. ; replica of first-named, and 
Baptism of Christ, Sant' Apollinare, Rome. 

GREATOREX, ELIZA, born at Manor- 
Hamilton, Ireland, Dec. 25, 1820. Land- 
scape painter ; settled in New York in 1839. 
Pupil of Emile Lambinet in Paris, in 1861 ; 
earlier helped by the criticisms of Cafferty, 
W. W. Wotherspoon, and James M. Hart. 
Has visited Europe repeatedly. Elected an 
A. N.A. in 18G8. Studio in New York. 
Works : Road Scene in Connecticut ; Old 
House in Bloomingdalo ; Joy Bridge Pel- 
tigor, Ireland ; Amsterdam ; Fort Hamil- 
ton Long Island ; Bay Ridge ; Normandy 
Cottage (1881); Fontainebleau Forest, Cres- 
sonieres-Yeules en Caux (1882); Laurel Run 
Virginia ; Louis Philippe House in 1868 
Bloomingdale, M. de Mendonya ; Somer- 
endyke Lake Bloomingdale (1884). Kate 
and Eleanor, daughters of Mrs. Greatorex, 
also paint and exhibit at the National Acad- 
emy ; they have studied abroad and under 
their mother, whose studio they share. 
Miss Kate Greatorex has exhibited : Last 
Bit of Autumn (1875); Goethe's Fountain 
Frankfort (1876); Thistles (1877); Algo- 



rian Messenger Boy (1882) ; Hollyhocks 
(1883). From Tuba's Kitchen Ober Am- 
raergau, was exhibited by Miss K. Great- 
orex in 187G, ami The Bath in 1884. Am. 
Art Rev. (1881), 12. 

bom at Haarlem in 1570 or 1570 (V), died 
there in 1049. Dutch school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil of Jacques Savery. 
Dean of the guild at Haarlem in 1027. 
Works : Four Banquets of City Guard OtH- 
cers (1GOO, 1010, 1(51!)), Haarlem Museum ; 
Lot and his Daughters (V), Schweriu Gallery. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 018 ; Schlie, 220 ; 
Van der Willigen, 1155. 

GREBBER, PIETER DE, born at Haar- 
lem in 1000, died after 1005. Dutch school ; 
history and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of Frans Pietersz and scholar of H. Goltzius. 
His pictures recall Rubens and Last maim. 
Works: The Shepherds (1028), Works of 
Charity (1028), Barharossa and the 1'utn- 
nrch of Haarlem (10:50), Hippocrates refus- 
ing the Presents of Artaxerxes (1037), Haar- 
lem Museum ; The Apostles giving Alms to 
the Poor, Oudemannenhuys, Haarlem ; Ja 
cob receiving from his Sons the Bloody 
Garment of Joseph, City Hall, Haarlem ; 
Portraits (.'!), Moses in tho Bulrushes 
(1(534), Dres- 
den Muse- 
urn ; Hera- 
clitus and 
All gem. d. 
Biogr., ix. G18 ; Van der Willigen, 137 ; 
Rembrandt, ses Precurseurs, etc., 7(5. 

GRECHETTO, IL. See Citttiyli'one, Gio- 
vanni Benedetto. 

GRECO, EL, born in Greece (or in Ven- 
ice of Greek parents?) about 1548, died in 
Toledo in 1G25. Spanish school ; Real 
name Domenico Theotocopuli (Teoacopoli) ; 
surnamed in Venice, where he studied under 
Titian, D Greco (The Greek). Settled at To- 
ledo about 1577, and became known by an 

altarpiece, Parting of Christ's Raiment, in 
the sacristy of the cathedral, quite, in Ti- 
tian's style. Called 
to Madrid to paint 
at the Escorial by 
Philip II. Tfi's 
best work is the 
Burial of the 
Count of Or-'a/, 
S. Tome, Toledo. 
Later ho adopted 
a grayish style of ' \ >] 

colouring, and 

greatly deteriorated. He left some, good 
portraits. Works: Dead Christ in the Arms 
of God the Father, St. Paul, Crucifixion, An- 
nunciation, Holv Familv, Baptism of Christ, 
Male Portraits (S |, Mailrid Museum. --Stir- 
ling, i. 270; Viardot, 1(17 ; Ch. JJlanc, I : ><>1.. 

(HtKKNCiKOCKlJ, Gerard /'..//, Louvre. 
I'aris ; wood, H. 1 ft. 3 in. '.I in.: signed. 

- ' \ 


Greengrocer, Gerard Duu, Louvre, Paris. 

dated 1047. At right, a woman, tho green- 
grocer, standing behind a table holding bal- 
ances in her hand ; on other side of table, 



mi old woman counting money ; a young 
servant with a wooden pail, and a boy carry- 
ing a vase. The whole is seen through a 
window, on the sill of which are vegetables 
and a jug. Beunengen sale, Amsterdam 
(1710), 1,200 florins ; Backer sale, Leyden 
(170(5), 7,150 florins; llaudon de Boisset 
sale (1777), 15,500 livres ; Comte de Vau- 
drenil sale (1784), 10,901 livres; Due de 
Praslin sale (1793), 34.850 livres. Engraved 
by Dambrun. Filhol, v. PI. 350. 

GREENKLLL, JOHN, born at Salisbury' 
in 1041), died in London, May 19, 107(5. 
Pupil of Sir Peter Lely, whose style he imi- 
tated botli in oil and crayons. Left a few 
line portraits, but dissolute habits injured 
his reputation. Died suddenly by an acciden- 
tal fall in Long Acre. Works : Bishop Seth 
Ward, Town Hall, Salisbury ; Charles II., 
Karl of Shaftesbury, National Portrait Gal- 
lery, London. Redgrave; F. do Conches, GO. 
GREFE, KONRAD, born in Vienna, 
Sept. 7, 1823. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Schindler, then of Vienna Academy under 
Miissmer and Gscllhofer, but studied chiefly 
from nature ; devoted himself for several 
years to etching, and since 1S55 has painted 
in water-colours the mediieval churches of 
Austria. Works : Woodland in Fog, Sun- 
set (1852); Ruin in Park of Schonbrunn, 
View near the Schneeberg (1853); Ruins 
near Hainburg, Evening Landscape (1855); 
Old Jewish Cemetery at Prague (185(5); 
Deserted Mill (1858); Storm Landscape ' 
(1S59). Wurzbach, v. 321. 

Southampton in 1850. 
Portrait and landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Southampton and 

South Kensington Art 

Schools. Elected 
member of Institute ' 
of Painters in Water 
Colours, where he ex- 
hibited his St. George 
in 1870. First exhib- 
ited at Royal Academy in 1875 ; elected an 

A.RA. in 1883. Visited Italy in 1882. 
Works : Portrait of Duncan McLaren, M.P. 
(1877); Portrait of Rev. Thomas Stevens 
(1879); The Signal, A Rehearsal (1882); 
Piccadilly Drawing-Room Day, Grand 
Canal Venice, Boat-Builder's Yard Ven- 
ice, Gates of Arsenal Venice, Cl d'Oro 
Venice (1883); Startled, Fishing in Marlow 
Backwater (1884). -Art Journal (1883), 95 ; 
Portfolio (1878), 101 ; Mag. of Art (1884), 

DECRETALS, Raphael, Camera della Seg- 
natura, Vatican ; fresco, right of window. 
Pope Gregory IX. (portrait of Julius II.) 
seated, blessing the Decretals, which he 
hands to a kneeling jurist of the Consistory; 
among the prelates around him are Giovanni 
de' Medici (Leo X.), Alessandro Farnese 
(Paul III), and Antonio del Monte. Illus- 
trates the consecration of Canon Law ; com- 
panion piece to Justinian promulgating the 
Pandects. Painted in 1511. Engraved by 
Fr. Aquila ; Giangiaconm- Passavant, ii. 
87 ; Miintz, 345 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 337. 

Sacchi, Vatican ; figures life-size. Some 
ambassadors desiring to carry certain relics 
into their country were given by Gregory 
the Great a vase containing cloths which had 
touched the bodies of saints. They having 
expressed dissatisfaction at the gift, Greg- 
ory took one of the cloths, and, piercing it, 
showed them, to their astonishment, drops 
of blood falling from it. Carried to Paris 
in 1799 ; returned in 1815. Landon, Mu- 
sc'e, 2d Col., ii. PI. 41. 

Vasari, Bologna Gallery ; wood, H. 12 ft. 2 
in. x8 ft. 4 in.; signed, dated 1540. Pope 
Gregory I. (the Great) always had twelve 
poor men to sup with him ; but one night 
he saw thirteen at the table, though his 
steward could count but twelve, and he be- 
lieved the odd one to be Christ himself. 
The picture represents this scene. For- 
merly in refectory of monastery of S. Mi- 
chele in Bosco. Engraved by G. Tomba. 



Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 19 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 664 

GREIL, ALOIS, born at Linz, Upper 
Austria, ill 1841. Genre painter and illus- 
trator, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Christian Ruben ; lived alternately in South- 
ern Germany and Upper Austria, and in 

Miracle of St. Gregory, Andrea Saccht, Vatican. 

1873 settled in Vienna. His water-colours 
fetch high prices, and are to be found in 
many private galleries. Works : Imperial 
Huszars marching through Suabian Coun- 
try Town (1880) ; School Examination 
(1882) ; Knight Drama (188:!). None 
illustr. Zeitg. (1881), i. 27 ; (1882), i. 8, 14 ; 
(1883), i. 3. 

COIS (Francisque Martin Grcnicr), born in 
Paris, July 22, 1793, died there, Dec. 21, 
18G7. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Pierre Gucrin, of David, and of the Fwcole 
des Beaux Arts. He was n skilful genre 
painter, and several of his works have been 
engraved. Medals: 2d class, 1810; 1st 
class, 1834 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : 
Atala Dying (1810); St. Genevieve allaying 

a Storm (1822, 1827); Sentinel by a Gabion 
(1822), Montpellier Museum ; Battle of Cam- 
pillo do Arenas (1823); Surrender of Ulm 
(1831); Little Peasants surprised by a Wolf 
(1833), Nantes Museum ; Little Thieves ar- 
rested by a Gamekeeper, Old Vagabond 
(1834); Marriage Proposals (1836); Battle 
of Muga (1H38), Incident in Battle of Aus- 
terlit/. (1S40), Versailles Museum; Stolen 
Child (1841 1, Uodcy. Museum; Napoleon's 
Farewell to his Son (1844); Smuggler 
(1848); Poacher asleep in his Hiding-Place 
(1855); Rabbit Hunt ( 1857), Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Country Doctor (185!!); A Discovery 
(18fi3); Young Mother (18<;4>; The. Brook 
(18I!5). His sons, Henri Gustave and Tln'o- 
phile Yves IJem', were also j)ainters. Bel- 
lierde In Chavignerie, i. f'.'.t.'i ; Meyer, Gesch., 

GUETCHEN. See Mi ri /n<-rit<: 
Tourmis (Saone- 
et-Loire), Aug. 
21, 1725, died 
in Paris, March 
21.1805. French 
school ; genre 
and portrait 
painter, pupil in 
Lyons of (Iran- 
don, and in Paris 
of the Academy 
in 1755. His picture of the Father reading 
the Bible to his Children was exhibited and 
greatly admired in the same year, at the 
close of which he was taken to Italy by the 
Abbe Goujenot. After his return he ex- 
hibited at the Salons of 1757, 1751), and 
1761, at which latter his Aceordee dii Vil- 
lage (Louvre) excited the greatest enthusi- 
asm. Angry at being received into the 
Academy (1767) as a genre ami not as a 
history painter, Greu/e retired for a time to 
Anjou, whence he returned to exhibit pict- 
ures in his studio which attracted all Paris. 
He amassed a large fortune, hut lost it at 
the Revolution. Neglected by the public, 
which admired only the new school of David, 



Greuze passed his last years in misery and j Lesson Book, two studies of Girls, National 
regret. His wife, Mile. Babuty, whose Gallery, Edinburgh ; Child's Head, Sulky 
charming face appears in so many of his Boy, Glasgow Gallery ; Young Woman and 
pictures, was an extravagant and worthless j Child, Rotterdam Museum ; Portrait of 
woman, from whom he was separated long Louis XVI, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Emperor 
before his death. Works: Septimius Scv- Caracalla, Gotha Museum ; Young Girl, Old 
orus reproaching Caracalla (17G9), Yilkije Pinakothek, Munich ; do. (1787), Berlin 
Bride (1761), Broken Pitcher, Father's Curse, Museum ; do., Leipsic Museum ; Father 
Punished Son, Portrait of Greuze (1701), reading the Bible to his Children (1755), 
Portrait of the Painter Jeaurat (17G9), two Dresden Museum ; Paralytic with his Chil- 
studies of Young Girls, Head of Young dren, Young Girl, Boy with School-book, 
Girl, do. of Young Man, Danai's Artist's and Male Portrait, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
two other portraits, Louvre, Paris; Pelo- Girl with Doll, Academy, ib. ; nine pictures 
tonneuse, Inconsolable Widow, Female Por- in Leuchteuberg Gallery, ib. ; Five Studies 
trait, two Children's Heads, Duo do Morny, of Heads, Academy, Vienna ; Others in 
ib.; Return from Tavern, Little La/.y One, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Contemplation, 
Madeleine, and others, Baron Rothschild, Accademia San Luca, Rome; Study for Head 
ib.; Triumph of Galatea, Study of a Child, , in Father's Curse, Museum, New York; 
Aix Museum ; Lady with Spaniel, Angers Nymph of Diana, Portrait of Louis XVII., 

Museum ; Boy's Portrait, Girl's Head, Be- 
san<;on Museum ; Male Portrait, Cherbourg 

.lo. of Duo do Choiseul, Replica of L'Aveu- 
glc trompe, Virginie, two Female Heads, 

Museum; Psyche crowning Love, Lille Mu- Historical Society, ib. Nearly all of his 

seum ; Artist's Portrait, Lyons Museum ; works have been engraved. Bellier de la 

Male Portrait, Marseilles Museum ; Danai' 1 , Chavignerie, i. 095 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 

Baechante, liov's Bust, Male Portrait, Metz raise ; Dohme ; Gautier, Guide au Louvre, 

Museum ; Morning Prayer, Twelfth Cake 1S4 ; Gaz. dcs B. Arts (18GO), vii. 349 ; viii. 

(1774), Little Mathematician, The Paralytic, 195, 230 ; (1802), xiii. 401, 512 ; (1870), iv. 

Idle Child (1755), six studies of Girls, 277 ; (1874), x. 193 ; (1877), xvi. 201 ; Gon- 

Montpellier Museum ; Portraits of M. de St. 

Maurice and Son, Nantes Museum; Girl's 

Head, Narbonne Museum; Old Woman's 

Head, Nimes Museum ; Male Portrait (1770), 

Troyes Museum ; Napoleon as Consul, Por- 

trait of Fontenelle (17!)3), Versailles Muse- 

urn ; Old Woman with Crutch, Madrid Mu- 

scum ; Girl with Apple, two studies of 

Girls, National Gallery, London ; La Trom- 

pet to, two studies of Girls, Buckingham court, L'art du XVIII. Siecle, i. 291 ; Hous- 

Palace, ib. ; Innocence, Portrait of Artist's save, Gal. du XVIH. Siecle, iv. 1G1 ; Jal, 058 ; 

Mother, South Kensington Museum, ib. ; Meyer, Gesch., 7 ; Renouvier, Hist, de 1'art 

Innocence, Girl with Doves, Reflections, Sir pendant la Revol., etc. (Paris, 18G3) ; Wurz- 

R. Wallace, ib.; Throwing a Ki**, Young bach, Fr. Maler des XVIII. Jahrh., 35; Zeifc- 

Girl with Watch, The Letter, Baron Alfred schr. f. b. K, xx. 251. 

de Rothschild, ib. ; Portraits of Madame de . GREVEDON, (PIERRE LOUIS) called 

Pompadour and of Louis XVI., Hampton HENRI, born in Paris, Oct. 17, 1776, died 

Court Palace ; Beggar Boy, Fitzwilliam Mu- there, June 1, 1800. Portrait painter and 

seum, Cambridge ; Interior of Peasant Cot- lithographer, pupil of Regnault. After ex- 

tage, Girl with Dead Canary, Boy with hibiting (1804) a picture of Achilles landing 



on the Shores of Troy, for which he received nation of Esther, Sentence of Hainan, Palais 
a first-class medal, he spent several years in Ephrussi, ill. ; 1'oscidon's Wedding Proces- 
St. Petersburg, where lie painted many tint- sion. Demons of Storm, Guardian Spirits of 
tered portraits, and was made _ *~ the Sea, Baron Sina, Venice; Wedding of 
Member of the Academy. l*\ Jr* Aphrodite and Adonis, Villa Simon, Hict- 
In 1812 he went to Stock- ^VA |ptf /m ^ r . "ear Vienna ; Venus Urania, Genii of 
holm, then painted portraits I I ji \\Ji Truth and Fancy, Myth of Prometheus, Al- 
in England, and after his re- N-y* \^/ legorical Figures of Plastic Art (1S~S), 
turn to France in 1811! be- ^*S Augusteum, Oldenburg; Myth of Prome- 

caine popular as a lithographer. Medals: 2d theus, Academy of Science, Athens ; thirteen 
class, 1824 ; 1st class, 18I51 ; L. of Honour, pictures from Antique Mythology and His- 
18152. Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. <!!I7. tory, House of Lords, Vienna. Brockhaus, 

GREVEN, ANTON, born in Cologne in viii. 117; Illustr. /eitg. (IS*;:,); Kunst- 
1810, died there in 18!!8. Portrait and Chronik, i. iv. ; xx. 7. ">.",; Miiller. 217. 
genre painter, studied in Diisseldorf and GUIFFIER, JAX, born in Amsterdam in 
Munich. Works : Drinking Monks ; Coffee- 1 (!">(>, died in London in 1718. Dutch 
Drinkers; Knight and his Sweetheart; school ; landscape painter, pupil of Roeland 
Count Eberhard the Rauschebart, The To- Hogman, in whose atelier he became! ne- 
per (1H.'S4). (juainted with Rembrandt, Ruvsdael, Adriaan 
GREY, LADV JANE, EXECUTION OF, van de Velde, and Lingelbach. In 1(1(17 ho 
Paul ItfluriM-hi', H. \V. Eaton, M. P., London; went to London, where he painted Italian 
canvas. Beheading of Lady Jane Grey in landscapes with ruins, ami views of tho 
the Tower of London, February 12, 15~>4. Thames. As the latter found great, favour, 
She is kneeling upon the scaffold beside lie bought a vessel in lli'.l."> and sailed about, 
the block, her eyes bandaged, her hands ex- between Windsor and Grnvesend in order 
tended, while a priest encircles her form to study coast, scenery. In 1 ('.'..") he sailed 
with his arm and whispers consolation ; at for Rotterdam, but was wrecked and !<>>( all 
right, the executioner, standing, holding his his property. Nevertheless, he bought a 
axe; at left, two women overwhelmed with new vessel and again cruised from place to 
grief. Painted in 1834. Bought at San Do- place to paint. In 17*7 he returned to 
nato sale (1868), 110,000 francs. Engraved England, where his pictures were greatly 
by P. Mercury. L 'Illustration (1870), i. 100. valued. Works: Ruins, View of Windsor 
GRIEF. See (Inji-Jf. Castle, Hampton Court Palace: Landscape, 
GRIEN or GRUN. See lial'tiniy. Fitxwilliam Museum, Cambridge ; View on 
GRIEPENKERL, CHRISTIAN, born at the Khine (2), Louvre, Paris ; do. Bordeaux 
Oldenburg, March 17, 18:ii). History and Museum ; River View, Amsterdam Museum ; 
portrait painter, pupil in Vienna of Itnlil ; a Landscapes (2), Stuttgart Gallery ; do. (2), 
masterly colourist, with a predominant fancy Augsburg Gallery ; do. (2), Brunswick Mu- 
for allegories ; executed decorations in the 
Vienna Opera House with Bitterlich after 7 
Itahl's compositions, then in 1878 in the \ / & \ ) F* f~* I f- 
Augusteum at Oldenburg, afterwards in the j s~+f H 
Academy of Science nt Athens, nnd in the / 
new Houses of Parliament in Vienna. Pro- Jk' /~ n j ITTt T 171 Q 
fessor at Vienna Academy since 1875.1 (J . 17 AJ Vf 1 C,JV. 
Works : Gixlipus led by Antigone, Scenes 

from Anacreon, Baron Todesco, Vienna ; seum ; Winter Lnndscnpe near Leyden, with 
Myth of Oq)hcus, Opera House, ib. ; Coro- Skaters, Uotha Museum ; do. (15), Dresilen 



Gallery ; Soldiers crossing a River, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Rhine Views (2), Vienna j 
Museum ; Landscape, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. His younger son, Jan (died about 
1750), was noted as a copyist of Claude Lor- 
rain. Ch. Blanc, Kcole hollandaise ; Iinnier- 
zeel, i. 285 ; Kramm, ii. 604 ; Quellen- , 
schriften, xiv. 425. 

GRIFFIER, ROBERT, born in London, 
Oct. 7, 1688, died there or in Amsterdam in 
1750. Dutch school ; son and pupil of Jan 
G rimer, whom he often surpassed in painting 
Rhine views, marines, and battle pieces. He 
had an extraordinary talent for imitation, and 
deceived even connoisseurs with his clever ! 
^^ copies after 

Wo uwe r- 
m an, Van 
de V e 1 d e , 
ven. Works: 
Landscape, Amsterdam Museum ; do., 
Darmstadt, Museum; do., Schwerin Gallery; 
do., Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Immerzeel, 
i. 296. 

born at Rorai-grande di Pordenoue, Aug. 
29, 18(11, died in Venice, Feb. 10, 1870. 
History painter, pupil of Venice Academy. ! 
Visited Florence and Rome, and settled in , 
Venice, where in 1839 he became professor 
at the Academy. His works, distinguished 
for their fine colouring, recall the old Ve- 
netian masters. Works : Jupiter caressing 
Love (1825) ; Last Interview of the two 
Foscari, Museum, Vienna ; St. James and 
St. Joseph, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Fran- 
ccsca da Rimini ; Odalisques at the Bath ; 
Jacob receiving Joseph ; St. Paul preaching 
at Ephesus ; Prodigal Son ; Madonna, St. 
Anthony's, Trieste ; Christ on Sea of Galilee, 
Brescia Cathedral ; Altai-pieces for Cathe- 
drals of Erlau and Arad, and Assumption 
(1846) for Cathedral of Gran, Hungary. 
Wurzbach, v. 336. 

GRUFF. See Gryfff. 
born at Bologna in 1606, died in Rome in 

1680. Bolognese school. Called sometimes 
II Bolognese. Pupil of the Carracci ; be- 
came one of the leading landscape painters 
of his day. Employed many years in Rome 
by different popes, and in Paris by Cardinal 
Mazarin and Louis XFV. Works : Scenes 
from Old Testament, Quirinal, Rome ; Series 
of Landscapes, Palazzo Borghese, ib. ; Land- 
scapes with Figures (2), Washerwomen, 
Louvre, Paris ; Landscapes, Bibliotheque 
nationals, ib. ; do., National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; Baptism of Christ, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum. Lanzi, iii. 132 ; Ch. Blanc, l5cole bo- 
lonaise ; Burckhardt, 764, 808. 

GRIMANI, ANTONIO, Doge, portrait, 
Titian, Palazzo Giustiniani, Padua ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Painted in 1521; 
in Titian's house till his death ; sold in 1581 
by Pomponio Vecelli to Cristoforo Barber- 
igo, and inherited by Count Giustiniani. 
Another, painted same time, in possession 
of Mr. De Rosenberg, Vienna ; and a third, 
also same date, in Morosini-Gattersburg 
Collection, Vienna. C. & C., Titian, i. 243. 

FORE FAITH. See Fale. 

GRIMER, ABEL, born at Antwerp about 
1575, died there before 1619. Flemish 
school ; history and landscape painter, son 
and pupil of Jacob Grimer ; master of the 
guild in 1592. Works : Christ bearing the 
Cross (1593) ; Skaters under the Bridge of 
Sint Jorispoort Antwerp (1604), Th. van 
Lerius, Antwerp ; Christ with Martha and 
Mary (1614), Brussels Museum. Van den 
Branden, 300. 

GRIMER, JACOB, born at Antwerp about 
1526, died there before May, 1590. Flem- 
ish school ; landscape painter, pupil of Ga- 
briel Bouwens, Matthys Cock, and Christiaan 
van den Queeckborne ; master of the guild 
in 1547. One of the best landscape painters 
of his time. Works : View of the Kiel at 
Antwerp (1575), City Hall, Antwerp; Village 
Kirmess (1586), Th. van Lerius, ib.; Legend 
of St. Eustace, Brussels Museum ; Christ 
and the Adulteress, Ghent Museum. Rooses 
(Reber), 116 ; Van den Brauden, 297. 



GRIMM, LUDWIG EM1L, bom at Ha- 
nau, May 14, 17'JO, died at Casscl, April -I, 
1863. Histor}', genre, auil portrait painter, 
pupil in Munich of Karl Hess ; took part in 
the campaign of 1814 against France, re- 
turned to Cassel, and in 1815 spent some 
time in Munich. Visited Italy in 1810, and 
then settled in Cassel, where he became 
professor at the Academy iu 1833. Works : 
Madonna (1818) ; Holy Family ; Baptism"!' 
the Moors ; Death of St Elizabeth ; Hessian 
Peasant Girl in Sunday Attire ; Young Peas- 
ant Girl going to Church ; Peasant Woman 
at a Grave ; Portraits of Artist, of Ludwig 
Hasscnpflug, Baron von Dornberg, Clemens 
Brentano. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 08!) ; An- 
drescn, v. 117. 

GRIMMER, HANS, German school, 10th 
century. Portrait painter, pupil at Mont/ 
of Matthias Gritnewald. Works: Altar wings, 
Stiiilel Gallery, Frankfort ; Portraits (157(1). 
Vienna Muse- 
um ; do., Rat- 
isbou Gallery; 
Male and Fe- 
male Portrait, 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 18K ; W. &, W., ii. 440. 

GRIMOU (Grimoux, or Grimoiul), 
ALEXIS (Jean '?), born at llomont, Switzer- 
land, about 1080, died in Paris about 174(1. 
French school. Trained himself by copy- 
ing works of Van Dyck and Rembrandt ; 
painted mostly female half figures, repre- 
sented as singing or playing, or as pilgrims. 
Received into the Academy in 1705, but 
struck off the list in 1709 on account of his 
habitual drunkenness and disorderly life. 
Works: Portrait of Himself (1724),' Man 
Drinking (1724), Young Officer (2), Female 
Pilgrim (1729), Louvre ; Mme. Lebaif, Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Portrait of Little Girl, 
Nimes Museum ; Young Woman, David 
and Goliath, Besauyon Museum ; Female 
Portraits (3), Avignon Museum ; Capuchin, 
Young Pilgrim, Female Musician, Bordeaux 
Museum ; Head of a Young Man, Grenoble 
Museum ; Portrait of an Architect, Nantes 

Museum ; do. of an Actor, Orleans Museum ; 
Artist's portrait, Perpignan Museum ; Girl 
as Page, Basle Museum; Female Portraits 
(2, 1731), Carlsrtihe Gallery; Portrait of 
Young Man, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Boy 
playing a Flute, Dresden Museum ; Por- 
trait of a Woman, Dulwich Gallery ; copy of 
Murillo's Good Shepherd, Lord Ellesmere ; 
Woman holding a Mask, M. Furtado ; Head 
of a Young Woman, M. Adolphe Fould. 
licllier de la Chavignerie, i. Oll'.l ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole franeaisc ; Lejeune, Guide, i. i'2- ; 
Mariette, Abecediiri". '2. 

GRISWOLD, C. C., born in Ohio in 
1834. Landscape painter, formerly had a 
studio in New York ; has lived several years 
in Home. Elected an A.N.A. in 1800, and 
N.A. in 1807. Works: Autumnal Scene, 
December, Last of the Ice (1*01); Winter 
Morning (180.")); August Day Newport 
(1800); Early Spring ( 18011 ); Purgatory 
Point, Newport, Seaside Landscape (187(1); 
Lago de Nemi (1N74); Ponte Nolle; across 
the Tiber (1878), E. B. Haskell ; View on 
the Hudson, J. J. Astor, New York. 

GRITTI, ANDREA, Doge, portrait, Ti- 
tian, Palax.xo ( iiustiniani, Padua ; canvas, H. 
3ft. Ill in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Painted in 1524 ; in 
Titian's house until his death ; sold in 1581 
by Pomponio Vecelli to Cristoforo Barbe- 
rigo ; thence passed by inheritance to Count 
(Iiustiniani. Many replicas by Titian ; cop- 
ies by Pordenone in C/crnin Collection, Vi- 
enna, by Tintoretto in Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg, and by Rubens, exhibited in Royal 
Academy, London, 1870. C. & ('., Titian, 
i. 2'.t!l ; Ridolti, Maraviglie, i. 202 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vii. 43S. 

GROB, KONRAD, born at Andeltingen, 
Switx.erland, in 1828. Genre painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy under Ramberg, after 
he had studied (1842-45) the elements of 
art in Winterthur, and spent many years in 
Italy. Works : Captured Mouse (1870) ; 
Italian Beggar Children ; Painting a Peasant 
Girl ; Painter on Study Trip, Zurich Gallery ; 
Visit on the Ladder ; Sunday Afternoon in 
Switzerland ; Father Pestalozzi (1879), Basle 



Museum. Milller, 218; Kunst-Chronik, xi. ; 
Zeitschr., xii. (Mittheilungen, v. 10). 


Plocn, Holstciu, Oct. 14, 17GO, died in Ham- 
burg, Nov. 9, 1838. Portrait painter, self- 
taught. In 1789 lie went with Aldcnrath 
to Berlin, frequented the Academy for some 
time, then went to Hamburg, and in 1798 
studied in Dresden. Painted for several 
years in Kiel and Copenhagen, and finally 
settled in Hamburg. Works : Portrait of 
the Artist, Dresden Gallery ; Portraits of ' 
Man and Wife (1829), Portrait of Pastor 
Klefeker, do. of Aldenrath, do. of himself, ] 
his adopted daughter, and Aldenrath (con- 
jointly with the latter), Kunsthalle, Ham 
burg ; others in Liibeek, Kiel, Copenhagen 
Galleries. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 708 ; Weil- 
barh, 218. 

GKOXLAND, THEUDE, born at Altona, 
Aug. 31, 1817, died in Berlin, April 1(>, 
1870. Landscape and still-life painter, pu- 
pil of Copenhagen Academy ; lived then for 
three years in Italy, as long in England, and 
twenty-five years in Paris. Settled in 18(i8 
in Berlin, where he had many pupils. Mem- 
ber of Copenhagen Academy. Medals : ! 
Paris, 1st elass, 1848 ; 2d class, 1855. 
Work, Fruit-piece, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. His son, Rene, born in Paris, Oct. 3, ' 
1849, painted similar subjects. Weilbach, 
213; Jordan, 108; Rosenberg, Berl. Mal- 
ersch., 852. 

GRONVOLD, MARCUS, born at Bergen, 
Norway, July 5, 1845. Portrait and genre ! 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen and of Munich 
Academies, and studied from 1870 to 1878 i 
under Wilhelm Diez, Otto Seitz, and Piloty ; 
won several medals, visited Italy in 1874, 
Berlin and Diisseldorf in 187G, and Paris in 
1878 ; member of jury at Diisseldorf Ex- 
hibition in 1880. Works : The Burgomas- 
ter ; Consolation ; Uninvited Guests ; Poach- 
ers ; Sunday Morning ; Scene from Saga of 
Wieland the Smith, Cologne Museum ; Por- 
trait of Knut Baade. Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), 
i. 41 ; Miiller, 218 ; Leixner, D. mod. K, ii. 


GROS, ANTOINE JEAN, Baron, born in 
Paris, March l(j, 1771, died there, June 27, 
1835. History and 
portrait painter, 
son of Jean Antoine, 
miniature painter, 
and pupil of David ; 
competed unsuc- 
cessfully for the prix 
de Rome in 1792, 
supported himself by 
painting portraits, 
and in 1793 went to 
In 179(5 he was presented to Gen- 
eral Bonaparte at Milan, and obtained his 
favour by painting him on the bridge at 
Areole. The General had the picture en- 
graved by Longhi, gave the plate to Gros, 
appointed him review inspector, and put 
him on the commission charged to select 
works of art to bo sent to France. In 1799 
he escaped from Genoa on an English ship, 
arrived half dead at Antibes, and in 1801 
gained at Paris a competition prize for 
a sketch of Battle of Nazareth, an historical 
picture never executed. Up to 1812, he 
painted battles of the Empire and portraits, 
then was commissioned to paint the cupola 
of St. Genevieve, which he finished in 1824, 
when he was ennobled. In 1815 directed 
the school of David during that painter's 
exile ; iu 1810 named member of the Insti- 
tute, counsellor of Royal Museum, professor 
of Ecole des Beaux Arts ; 1819, Order of 
San Michel ; 1828, L. of Honour. His por- 
trait of Charles X. (1827), some ceilings at 
the Louvre, and a Hercules exhibited in 
1835, were so severely criticised that Gros 
fell into a state of melancholy and drowned 
himself. Between 1S1G and 1835 he had 
formed more than four hundred pupils. 
Works : Girl Bathing (1791), Female Por- 
trait, Besancon Museum ; Female Portrait 
(1798), Marseilles Museum ; Battle of Naz- 
areth (1801, sketch), Nantes Museum ; 
Plague of Jaffa (1804), Battlefield of Eylau 
(1808), Francis I. and Charles V. visiting the 
Tombs in St. Denis (1812), Louvre, Paris ; 



Battle of Aboukir (1800), Capitulation of 
Madrid, Battle of the Pyramid* (1810), In- 
terview between Napoleon and Emperor of 
Austria (1812), Louis XVIII. quitting the 
Tuileries in 1815 (1817), Charles X. at the 
Camp of Reims (1827), portraits of Massena 
and Duo do Belluuo, Eugene Beauharnais, 
King Jerome (1808), Marshal Duroe, Count 
Daru, General Count Fournier-Sarlovesc 
(1812), of himself, Versailles Museum ; L'm- 
barcation of Duchesso cVAngouleme (isl'.l), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Venus and Cupid (lls:!2 ), 
Hercules and Diomedes (18:!")), Portraits of 
himself and Madame Ciros, Toulouse Muse- 
um ; eleven miniatures, Montpellicr Muse- 
um ; Portrait of Marshal Duroe, Nancy 
Museum ; Portraits of Napoleon, King of 
Westphalia, King of Naples, Louis XVIII., 
Charles X., and many contemporary persons 

of note. Delestre, Gros, Vie et (Euvres ; 
Bellier dc la Chavignerie, i. 702 ; C'li. Blanc. 
cole franeaise ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Clus- 
inan ; Chesneau, Chefs d'Kcolc (Paris, 18SI5); 
Meyer, Gesck, 10!) ; Kunstblatt (1N:W), No. 

Wesserling (Alsace) ; contemporary. Genre 
])ainter, pupil of Meissonier ; his pictures 
an; well-drawn and characteristic. Medals : 
18G7 ; 2d class, 187(5. Works : The Mis- 
eries of War (18713); The Arquebusier, Fish- 
ing with a Line, Cloister of St. Barthelemy 
at Nice (1874); Conspirators against Cardi- 
nal Mazarin, A Smoker, House of a Peasant 
near Nice (1875); Sitting for a Portrait 
(187C); Lying-in- Wait, The Critic (1878); 
The Blow with the Spur (1879); Pergolese 
in Vernet's Studio (1880); Two Philosophers, 
A Gentleman (1881); Maurice of Nassau 

GROSCLAUDE, LOUIS, born at Lode, 
Switzerland, Sept. 2(5, 1788, died in Paris, 

Deo. 11, 1800. Genre painter, pupil of 
Hegnault ; widely known through his agree- 
ably-composed and well-coloured pictures. 
Associate member of the Berlin Academy, 
1H27. Medals : :id class, 18:i5 ; 2d class, 
ls:iS ; 1st class, LSI") ; 1st class at Geneva 
and Brussels. Works : The Drinkers (1S27); 
Soap Bubbles (1N:W); Toast to the Vintage 
of l!S:!4 (1S:{.">); Military Salute (1H:J7); The 
Little Breakfast (1SHS) ; Fortune-Teller 
(ls:i'.l); Three Gossips (1841); Marino Fali- 
ero (1S42), Drinker <1N40|, Ncuehatel Mu- 
seum ; Magdalen (184")), Collection of Duke 
of Treviso ; Nonua (1H1.">); Saint Cecilia 
(1S48); Reading the News of the Capture 
of the MalakotV, Two Little Friends (185!>); 
Interior of a Stable near Geneva (IfStiJ); 
Departure of the Enrolled (IsO'.l), Mus.'e 
Ratli, Geneva. Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 

CiROSS, RICHARD, born in Munich in 
1H48. Portrait and figure painter ; taken 
to America in childhood ; pupil of the Na 
tional Academy schools. New York, and 
studied in Munich. Bronze medal, Royal 
Academy, Bavaria. Studio in Munich (1SS2). 
Works : Savant ; Old Nuremberg : Lady of 
Shalott; Portrait of William Chambers, 
Lady of the 17th century (ls7!l); Initial 
Painter (1.SS2). 

Dresden, April 2:i, 
182'.). History and 
portrait painter, 
pupil of Dresden 
Academy under 
Bendemann, whom 
he assisted in the 
decoration of the 
Royal Palace, and 
then executed 
paintings in the Dresden Museum ; went in 
1858 to Florence, and in 185!) to Rome, 
where he studied Raphael. After his return 
he decorated (1804-71) the Loggia of the 
Leipsic Museum ; became professor at the 
Dresden Academy in 1807. Works : Leda 
with the Swan (1852), Sketch for Curtain to 


Royal Theatre, Dante and Virgil (1879), Al- ' anil of which he became professor in 1835. 
legories in Cupola and Venetian Room l In 1839 he was made member of the Milan 
(fresco, 1854), Dresden Museum ; Scenes Academy. Works in the Museum, the 
from History of House of Solms (1850-58), Academy, and Imperial Library, Vienna. 
Castle Wildenfels ; Abraham and the An- His brother, Karl Franz (1803-45), and his 
gels (1862); Beigu of Creative Power (1865- sister, Katharina (1807-59), were also able 
71, fresco), Lt'ipsic Museum ; Myth of Bac- flower painters. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 791; 
elms, cycle in fresco (1877), Foyer, New Wurzbach, v. 379. 

Theatre, Dresden ; Science, Plato and Aris- GRUND, JOHANN, born in Vienna in 
totle with their Disciples, Cicero (1885). 1808. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Frescos : Aula, St. Afra's School, Meissen : Vienna Academy, where he obtained two 
Apollo and Marsyas (1885). Brockhaus, first prizes ; went then to Munich, Diissel- 
viii. 5:55 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 387 ; dorf, and Paris, lived for some time in Rome, 
(1873), i. 124 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 700 ; settled in Carlsruhe, and afterwards in 
xxi. 81. Baden-Baden. Works : Child and Guardian 

GROTTGER, ARTHUR, born at Ottyno- Angel (1835) ; Hungarian Tinker (1838) ; 
wice, Galicia, Nov. 11, 1837, died at Aim-lie- Bathing Girl (1840); Flight into Egypt, 
les-Baius, Pyrenees, Doc. 13, 1807. His- Italian Robber Asleep, Italian Woman and 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil in Child, Deborah, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Roman 
Vienna of Karl Blaas ; painted many excel- Peasant Woman playing with her Child 
lent portraits, and, taking up political genre, (1843), Vienna Museum ; Invalid ; Playing 
attained renown through his able and orig- Sisters ; Girl going to Nunnery ; Country 
inal treatment of patriotic subjects. Works: Parson's Birthday; Group of three Young 
Meeting of John Sobieski with Leopold I. Girls (1853), Medea (1855), Last Rose (1805), 
(1859); Warsaw in seven scenes (1801); Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; 
Poland iu nine, and Lithuania in six pic- Young Smokers ; Margaret in Prison ; Deb- 
tures (1803) ; In the Valley of Tears thir- orah ; Judith ; Hagar and Ishmael ; Diana ; 
teen scenes (1805). Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. Esther ; Magdalen ; Rebekah at the Well 
784; F. M. Aren, Arth. Grottger ; Brock- ' (1879) ; Ganymede (1885). Miiller, 220; 
haus, viii. 540; Illustr. Zeitg. (1800) | Wurzbach, v. 398. 
(1807); Wurzbach, xi. 420. GRUND, NORBERT, born in Prague in 

GROUX, CHARLES CORNEILLE AU-'l714, died there in 1707. Genre painter, 
GUSTR DE, born at Comines, West Flan- pupil in Vienna of Ferg ; travelled in Ger- 
ders, in 1825, died March 30, 1870. His- many and Upper Italy, and returned in 1741 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Brussels to Prague, where he soon became the favour- 
Academy under Navez. Medal, 1857 ; Or- ite and the most prolific painter of his time, 
der of Leopold, 1800. Works: The Idler; His numerous excellent pictures, consisting 
Ash Wednesday ; Tavern-Brawl ; Last Fare- of battle scenes, kirmesses, pastorals, and 
well; Sick Child ; The Walk (1855); Saying children's play scenes, landscapes, and ma- 
Grace, Brussels Museum ; Protestant Ser- rines, are in private collections in Prague 
mon ; Death of Charles V. ; Citizens of Ca- and in the castles of the Bohemian nobility, 
lais before Edward III.; Pilgrimage ; Alms ; A Rural Dance, and A Banquet in a Garden, 
Doctor's Visit ; Decorations in Market Hall ; attributed to him, in the Dresden Gallery. 
at Ypres. j Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 34 ; Wurzbach, v. 

GRUBER, FRANZ XAVER, born in Vi- 397. 
enna, Sept 28, 1801, died there, April 12, GRUNDMANN, OTTO, born in Dresden 

1802. Flower painter, pupil of Vienna 

in 1848. Portrait and genre painter, stud- 

Academy, where he obtained four prizes, ied uuder Professor Hiibner and Van Lerius, 



and in Dresden, Antwerp, Dilsseldorf, and ' 
Paris. In 187(i became one of the directors 
of the Boston Art Museum drawing and 
painting schools. Medal at Dresden. Paints 
chiefly interiors with figures, especially fish- 
ermen. Works : The Lorelei ; .Scene from 
Schiller's Kabale uiul Liebc ; Portrait of 
Rev. Dr. Waterston and of Franklin. 

in the Rosenau, near Coburg, March 22, 
1849. Genre painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy under Strahuber, Anschiit/, and 
Diez ; studied especially the Dutch masters 
of genre; visited England in 1875. Works: 
Meeting after Hour-Hunt (1H75) ; End of 
Card Game (187(1) ; Lansquenets at Dice 
(1877) ; Retainer (1878).- Miiller, '221. 

GRUXEXWALI), JAKOB, born at Bilnz- 
wangen, Wiirteniberg, Sept. .'!(), 1821. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Stuttgart 
Art School under Dietrich mid Xelier; con- 
tinued liis studies in Munich, and became 
professor at the art-school of Stuttgart in 
1*75. Works: Christ healing the Sick; 
Bridal Couple at Grandmother's ; Shepherd's 
Keturn ; Hail-Storm (18(55), Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Interrupted Wedding Procession 
(18(]8) ; Return Home ; German Family of 
IGth Century (18711) ; Surprised Gypsies ; 
Battle of Sendling (fresco, 18(J.'{), Xational 
Museum, Munich. Brockhaus, viii. 572 ; 
Kunst-Chroiiik, xiv. 78 ; Miiller, 221. 

Aschaffenburg, died there after 1520. Ger- | 
man school ; history painter, one of the 
great masters, styled by Sandrart the Ger- 
man Correggio, with whose works his show 
ft striking affinity; lived in his native town 
nnd in Mentx. the greater part of his life, 
but called by contemporaries Matthes von 
Aschaffenburg. Works : Altar of Isen- 
heim, Colnmr Museum ; St. Lawrence, St. 
Cyriac, Frankfort Museum ; Conversion of 
St. Maurice, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Resurrection, Basle Museum (lately con- 
tested); St. Anthony, Cologne Museum ; 
Crucifixion, Schleissheim Gallery ; Last 
Judgment, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 

several (recently verified), Vienna Museum. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 52 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole 
allemande ; Dohme, li. ; Forster, Denkmale. 
VIII. iii. 11 ; Kunstblatt (1841), 104 ; (181(1). 
152, 48 ; Kunst-Clironik, xv. (!:!:{ ; xvi. 721 ; 
Repertorium f. K., i. 411 ; vii. l:M, 245; 
\Volt inanii. D. Kunst i. Elsass, 217 ; W. \ 
W., ii. 4:i<; ; /eitschr. f. b. K., i. 257: vi. 
l:(8; viii. 321. 

GRl'SS, AXTOX, born at Schaab, Boln- 
mia, in 18114, died in Vienna in 1872. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Prague Academy 
under Kadlik ; became director nf the Har- 
rach Gallery in Vienna. Works: St. Alov- 
siusdSIW) ; St. IVterandSt. Paul ; Mad.m- 
na ; St. Wenccslaiis ; Last .ludgment ; Faith, 
Hope, and Love. Allgem. d. Miogr., x. (>(!. 

GIU'SS, JOHAXN. born at Schaab, Bo- 
hemia, Nov. 22, 17'.)(l, died iii Leitmerit/.. 
Aug. 8, 1855. History painter, pupil of 
Prague Academy ; perfected himself by 
copying in tlie I Vague and Dresden Gal- 
leries. Works: Great Altai-piece, Stadt- 
kirclie, Reichstailt ; St. Philomena ; St. Ce- 
cilia. Allgem. d. Hiogr., x. (>7. 

GRiT/XKR, KIH'AUI), born at Gross 
Carlowitx, Sile- 
sia, Ma y 2 (>. 
184(5. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Munich Acad- 
emy and of Pi- 
li >tv ; d e voted 
himself to hu- 
mourous genre, 
and at once at- 
tained great suc- 
cess with his scenes from Shakespeare. After- 
wards the amusing sides of monastic and 
hunting life became his principal themes. 
Professor at the Munich Academy. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1872. Honorary Member 
of Munich Academy, 1885. Works : The 
Seven Arts ; In the Convent Cellar; Tasting 
Wine ; Sleepless Xight ; Falsluft' at the Inn 
(180SI) ; Tippling Scene from Ivanhoe ; Fal- 
staff reviewing his Recruits ; FalstalV and 
Companions in Woods (1870) ; Scene from 



As You Like It ; Scene in the Wardrobe, I York ; Rabbits and Fowl, Mrs. Joseph Har- 
Scene from Merry Wives, Mephistopheles rison, Philadelphia. Van den Brandeu, 
behind the Scene, Unmistakable Defeat HOG. 

(1873) ; Capuchin mending his Cowl ; Dif- ! GSELLHOFER, KARL, born in Vienna, 
ficult Choice ; Ekkehard and the Cellarer ; Oct. 28, 1779, died there, May 17, 1858. 
Hunter's Cant (1874) ; Convent Brewery ; History, portrait, landscape, and miniature 
Once and Now (1877) ; Humourous Reading painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
in Convent Library (1879); Art Amateur in Fuger; became professor there in 1819. Many 
Curiosity Shop, Sunday Hunter (1880) ; of his landscapes are in the collections of 
Siesta in the Monastery, Bright as Gold the Imperial family. Wurzbach, v. 403. 
(1881); Peasant Theatre (1882); Tavern GUARDI, FRANCESCO, born in Venice 
Scene (1883); Monastic Hospitality, Sile- in 1712, died in 1793. Venetian school; 
siiiu Tipplei- and the Devil (1884) ; The : architecture and landscape painter, pupil 
Convent Pike, In the Liquor Shop, Game | and imitator of Canaletto ; painted many 
of Tarock, Faust in Auerbach's Cellar (1885); i views of Venice, which, though less precise 
Abbe's Weakness, Testing Wines, John D. in perspective and architectural detail than 
Lankenau, Philadelphia. Brockhaus, viii. , those of his master, are charming in style 
578 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1874), i. 371 ; ii. 190 ; and execution. Works: View of Venice, S. 
(1878), i. 7, 13; ii. 285; (1881), ii. 308 ;, M. de la Salute, Fete of Corpus Domini, 
(1882), ii. !), 008 ; (1884), i. 479 ; Deutsche , Fete of Jeudi Gras, Procession of Doge to 
illustr. Zeitg. (1885), i. 98 ; Die Kuust fur S. Zaccaria, Grand Hall in Palazzo Ducale, 
Alle, i. 75 ; Ktinst-Chronik, v. 122 ; ix. 240; , Louvre, Paris; Isle of S. Giorgio, Museo 
x. 475; xix. 4.SO ; xx. 744; Muller, 222 ; Civico, Venice; Views (2) in Venice, Verona 
Zeitsehr. f. b. K., viii. 121; x. 31. | Museum ; Views in Venice (3), Bergamo 

GHYEFF (Grief, Grijff), ADRIAAN DE, Gallery; Grand Canal, Fondaco dei Tedes- 
born at Antwerp (?) in 1070 (?), died at Brus- chi, Modeiia Museum; Interior of S. Marco, 
sels (?) in 1715. Flemish school ; landscape, Brussels Museum; Views (2) in Venice, 
animal, and still-life painter in the manner Nantes Museum ; do. (4), Berlin Museum ; 
of Jan Fyt. There is no evidence of his View in Venice, Church and Piazza of S. 
birth at Antwerp, where he appears first in Marco, National Gallery, London ; View on 
1GS9, when married ; seems to have lived at the Grand Canal, Seven Views of Venice, 
Brussels until 1G92, then settled at Ant- Bridgewater Gallery, ib. ; Church on Grand 
werp, where he entered the guild in 1099. Canal, South Kensington Museum, ib. ; 
Said to have afterwards returned to Brus- Views in Venice, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cam- 
sels. Works : Landscape with Dead Game, bridge ; Church of San Giorgio, Piazetta of 
Huntsman and Dogs, Louvre, Paris; Dead ' San Marco, Glasgow Gallery; The Doge's 
Birds, Fruits and Vegetables, Lille Muse- j State Barge, Na- 

u m ; Poultry, Dead Game, Cherbourg Mu- /^ f _ t tional Gallery, 

scum ; Dead Game (2), Rouen Museum ; / (- H^GL^sCs* Dublin ; The Ri- 
Hares and Partridges, Dijon Museum; Dogs *j alto, Santa Maria 

and Dead Game (3), Basle Museum ; Laud- *+S della Salute- 

scapes with Dead Venice, New YorkMuseum. Seguier; Wurz- 
Game and Dogs (2), bach, vi. 7. 

Poultry Yards (2), GUARIENTO DA PADUA, 14th century 
Hermitage, S t. ! (1316-75). Venetian school. He painted 
Petersburg; Allegory frescos in the Eremitani, Padua, which, 
on War and Peace, New York Museum ; , though much repainted, show that he in- 
Dogs and Game, Historical Society, New herited the Byzantine manner of the prede- 


eessors of Cimahnc and Giotto. Ho was the 
first to adorn the Sala del (Iran C'onsiglio, 
Venice, in 1365, with a Paradise, afterward 
replaced by Tintoretto. A Crucifixion bv 
Lini is in the Pinacoteca, Bassano, and fres- 
cos in the choir of the Eremitani, Padua. 
C. A: C., Italy, ii. 252 ; Vasari, ed. Lo Mon., 
vi. 86 ; xi. 833, X. 3 ; Ridolti, Le Maraviglie 
dell' Arte ( Venice, 1(5 48), 27 ; Burckhardt , 5-2 1 . 

XI DI MEO DEL, died in 1517 (V). Si, n- 
ese school. Described in a record of 1455 
as employed in the baptistery of S. Gio- 
vanni, Siena, but his first extant picture, 
(14<>(i) is the Annunciation in S. Girolaiuo, 
Volterra. Its counterpart is in the. sacristy 
of SS. Piero e Paulo at Buonconvento. 
Other of his pictures are in the Siena Acad- 
emy, and in churches there. His hard and 
precise style somewhat resembles that of II 
Veccbietta. C. A:. C., Italy, iii. 70 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., iv. 163 ; xi. 173 ; xii. S5 ; Liib- 
ke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 385. 


GUAY, GABRIEL, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Genre painter, pupil of Gerome 
and of Lequien. Medal, 3d class, 1878. 
AVorks : I'lysses suspended over Charybdis 
(1873) ; Slumber, After the Ball (1874) ; In 
Carnival, Incorruptible (187t!) ; In the ab- 
sence of the Master, Latona and the Peas- 
ants (1877) ; The Levitcof Ephraim (1878); 
The Tallianuni during the Persecution 
(1880) ; Mater Amabilis, Souvenir de Vcules 
(1881) ; La Source, Cosette (1882) ; Father 
Rabu, Mother Race (1884) ; The Wounded 
Dove (1885) ; Birth of Spring, Mrs. 1). D. 
Colton, San Francisco. 

GUDE, HAXS FREDRIK, born in Chris- 
tiania, March 13, 1825. Landscape and mar- 
ine painter, pupil of Andreas Achenbach, 
and of Ddsseldorf Academy under Scliir- 
mer; visited Norway in 1843-46, lived in 
Christiania in 1848-50, became professor at 
the Dilsseldorf Academy in 1854 ; went to 
England in 1862, and to Carlsruho in 1864 
as professor at the art-school. Since 1880, 
professor at Berlin Academy. Member of Am- 

sterdam, Rotterdam, Stockholm. Berlin, and 
Vienna Academies. Great gold medal in 
Berlin (1 852 and 
18IJO) and Weimar 
(1861). Medal, Paris, 
2d class, 1855, 1861, 
1SI>7. Numerous Or- 
ders. Works: Hijjh 
Plain with Reindeer 
(1847); Bridal Pro- 
cession on Hardan- 
ger Fjord (1848) ; 
Birch Wood (1848), Christiania Gallery; 
Four landscapes from S<>gne (18411-50), ()s- 
carshall, near Christiania ; Night-Fishing in 
Norway (1851); Mountainous Landscape 
with Pine Wood (18.V2I; Funeral in Sogne 
Fjord, Lledr Valley in Wales, Stockholm 
Museum; Norwegian Mountains; Mountain 
Shepherdesses with Herd; Fishermen in 
Evening Landscape; Summer Evening on 
Norwegian Lake (1851, figures by Tidc- 
niand), Norwegian Coast (l87di. National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Cliristiania Fjord (1S57), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Norwegian Harbour 
of Refuge (1873), Bremen Gallery; do., 
Carlsruhe Gallery; Calm-Sea, Cologne Mu- 
seum ; do., Stuttgart Gallery ; Cliiem Lake, 
Vienna Academy ; Harbour of Cliristiania ; 
Pilot-Houso on Norwegian Coast ; View on 
Nether Rhine; Scotch Landscape (1878). 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1882), i. 387 ; Kunst-ChroniK, 
v. 124 ; W. Miiller, Diisseldf. K., 311, 343 ; 
Wiegniann, 388; Zeitschr., vi. 17(i ; xvi. 151; 
xxi. 40. 

DORE, born in Paris, 
Aug. 15, 18()'_', died at 
Boulogne -sur-Sei ne, 
April 11, 1880. Marine 
painter, pupil of Girodet- 
Trioson, but soon aban- 
doned his style. His 
early and best pictures, 
landscapes, and marines, 
are fine in colour and 
bold in execution, but the 
later are tamo and conventional in style. 



He was marine painter to the court under to Cento in 1G23, and in 1G42 established 
Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. Medals : himself in Bologna. His house in Cento, 
2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1848, 1855; L. of Casa di Guercino, 
Honour, 1828; Ofiicer, 1841; Commander, contains many of his 
1855. AVorks: Return of the Fishermen, works ; others are 
Burning of the Kent (1827) ; Rescue of the in the Church del 
Passengers of the Colomb, Frigate Siren in Ilosario. His statue 
a Gale, Explosion of the Emperor's Fort at by Galletti is in the 
Algiers, A'iew of Constantinople looking to- Piazza. Guercino . 
ward Pera, A'ieu- of Saleuelles at the Mouth painted at first in 
of the Orne, Schooner Hazard captured by the manner of the 
Boarding (1830 to 1840) ; On the Shore of Carracci, but after- 

the Channel, Evening on the Shore of the ' ward inclined to imitate Caravaggio, and a 
North Sea (187!)), Sunrise on the lie de few of his latest works approach the man- 
Bourbon, Sun rising over Vesuvius (1880) ; nor of Guido ; but he is very unequal, and 
Sixty Marines (1838-55), A'ersailles Muse- some of his pictures are crude and marked 
urn ; A'iew of Havre, Avignon Museum ; De- by an insipid mannerism. His masterpiece 
votion of Captain Desse, Bordeaux Museum ; is St. PetronUla raised from the Tomb, Cap- 
Others in Nantes, Perpignan, and Rodez itoline Gallery, Rome. AVorks : Investiture 
Museums ; Coast Scene, Brussels Museum ; of St. Guglielmo (1G20), St. John Evangelist, 
Fishermen on the Beach, Kunsthalle, Ham- \ Death of St. Peter Martyr, A'ision of St. 
burg ; A'iew on French Coast (182(5), I Jiruno in the Desert, Bologna Gallery ; St. 
Schwerin Gallery ; Coast of Brittany (1844), j Sebastian (2), Madonna della Rondinella, 
Smugglers on Coast of Biscay (1845), Na- Apollo and Marsyas, St. Peter raising Ta- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Coast Scene (1839), bitha, Moses, St. Peter, Susanna at the 
Storm at Sea (1843), Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Bath, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Samian Sibyl 
Shipwreck on Coast of Genoa (1837), Agi- 1G51), Endymion, Uffizi, ib. ; Dying Clco- 
tated Sea (1839), Leipsie Museum ; Naval pntra, Death of Cato, Holy Family, Palazzo 
Battle in Time of Louis XIV. (1852), Dres- Brignoli-Sale, Genoa ; Mutius Sctcvola, Pa- 
den Gallery ; Agitated Sea with Vessels, lazzo Palavicini, ib. ; Andromeda, Death 
Kasle Museum. Art Journal (1880), 300; of Cleopatra, Palazzo Balbi, ib. ; Dismis- 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 70G ; Kunst- ' sal of Hayar, Brera, Milan ; May<lal<', Mar- 
Chronik, xv. 450 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1880), i. 37. , riage of St. Catherine, Deposition, Naples 

GUELDRY, JOSEPH FERDINAND, Museum; Mater Dolorosa, Return of the 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Gerome; Prodigal, Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; Persian 
member of Inst. Medal, 3d class, 1885. AVorks: Sibyl, St. Petroitilla, Cleopatra and Octavius, 
Regatta at Joinvillc (1881); Arrival from. John Baptist, Capitol Gallery, ib. ; Au- 
Cruise (1882) ; Ferry-man at Bry-sur-Marne , rora, Fame with Force and Virtue, Palazzo 
(1883) ; On the Bluff (1884); Foundry (1885). I Ludovisi, ib. ; Christ at the Well, Ecce 

GUERCIXO, IL, born at Cento, Feb. 8, Homo, St. Jerome, Palazzo Corsini, ib. ; 
1591, died in Bologna, Dec. 22, 1GGG. Bo- Death of Dido, Palazzo Spada, ib. ; In- 
logncse school. Real name Giovanni Fran- credulity of St. Thomas, St. Margaret of Cor- 
cesco Barbieri, but called Guercino because tona, Maydalen, Vatican, ib. ; Martyrdom 
he squinted. Son of a peasant and mostly of St. Peter, Mars, Venus and Cupid, Mo- 
self-taught, but studied the works of the dena Gallery ; Ecce Homo, St. Francis of 
Carracci ; afterward studied under Bene- [ Assisi, St Jerome, St. Elizabeth Queen of 
detto Gennari and later in Venice and Bo- Hungary, St. James, St. Frances, Return of 
logna. AVent to Rome in 1621, returned Prodigal, and others, Turin Gallery ; Ma- 



donna and Saints, Brussels Museum ; ?'/<.> 
and Adonis (2), Birth of Adonis, C<'i>hnlux 
and Procris, Diana, Seiniramis, Durinda 
Wounded, Lot and his Daughters, Holy 
Family, and others, Dresden Museum ; 
Christ crowned with Thorns, Madonna, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Prodigal Son, Return 
of Prodigal, St. John in the Desert, Sol- 
dier counting Money, Museum, Vienna ; 
Saint and Angel, Liechtenstein Gallery, il>. ; 
IjiA and his Daughters, Madonna, Raising 
of Ijazani*, Naluine receiving Head of John 
Baptist, Vision of St. Jirn; SS. Benedict 
and Francis of Assisi, Madnniia with Patron 
Saints of Modena, Jfrrsiliu separating Rom- 
ulus and Tatius, C'iri'i', St. Ci'cilia, John 
Baptist, Portrait of Guercino, Louvre, Paris ; 
St. Peter in Prison, Susanna at the Bath, St. 
Augustin, Magdalen, Allegory on Painting, 
Diana, Disinterested Love, Madrid Museum ; 
Angels weeping over Dead Christ, National 
Gallery, London; Beatrice Cfnci, Bridge- 
water House, ib. ; St. Cecilia, Dulwich Gal- 
lery ; Assump- 
tion, Martyrdom 
of St. Calherini; 
St. Jerome, Her- 
mitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg. Cal- 
vi, Life (Bologna, 1808) ; Malvasia, ii. 250 ; 
Lanzi, iii. 108 ; Cli. Blanc, Eeole bolonaise ; 
Dohme, 2iii. ; Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., iii. 1. 

l>orn in Toulon, March 25, 1783, died in 
Paris, Jan. 1!), 1855. French school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Vincent. 
His pictures are heavy in style, though good 
in colour. Medal in 1817 ; L. of Honour, 
1822 ; professor, same year. Works : Cain 
after Murder of Abel (1812); Christ Dead 
(1817), Catholic Church in Baltimore ; Christ 
on the Virgin's Knees (1819); Anchises and 
Venus (1822); Ulysses resisting the Attacks 
of Poseidon (1824), Rennes Museum ; Adam 
and Eve expelled from Paradise ( 1827) ; Holy 
Family (1829), Toulon Cathedral ; Death of 
Christ, Church of Noailles ; Chevalier Rose 
during the Plague at Marseilles ( 1834) ; St. 

f Car- 



Catherine (1838), St. Iloch, Paris; Re very, 
Conversion of St. Augustine (1844); Ann of 
Austria, Regent, Portraits of Marshals Roche- 
fort, Roquelaure, and Duke de Chatillon, 
Versailles Museum. Bellier de la Cliavig- 
nerie, i. 714. 

born in Paris, March 23, 1K3H. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of H. Flaiulriti, 
Dumas, and G'ornu. Medal, 18U7. Works: 
Before the Feast, of Bacchus (1S(;.">); Hagar, 
The Refuge (1SC7); Pieta ( 18C8) ; St. Cecilia 
dying hears a (,'rlestial Concert (isii'.li; Tlie 
Danaiiles (ISTli); Tlie Golden Age (1*77); 
St. Mary of Egypt (1878); Souvenir 
nival (187!>); Love of Thetis and 
(1880); Ugolino and his Children 
St. Agnes (1885). 

born in Paris. Mav 
13, 1774, died in 
Rome, July 1(1, 
1833. French 
school; gen re 
painter, pupil of 
Regnault ; became 
one of the most 
successful paint- 
ers of his day, 
and had among 
liis pupils Gericault, Sigalon, Delacroix, and 
Ary Sehefter. His pictures, though masterly 
in technique, and correct in drawing, are 
treated in a somewhat cold and stitt'stxle. 
Guerin won the grand prix de Rome in 
171)7. L. of Honour, 1803 ; Order of St. 
Michael, 1819 ; was made Member of Insti- 
tute same year ; appointed director of the 
French Academy in Rome, 1822 ; Baron, 
1829; Officer of the L. of Honour, 1832. 
Works: Offering to ,f>W(/y>n<.< (1795), 
Louvre, Paris ; Murder of Geta, Coriolnnus 
and the Body of Brutus (1791!); Death of 
Onto (1797); Return of Marcus Scxtus (1799), 
Louvre ; Oqiheus weeping over the Grave 
of Eurydice (1801); Phffidra and Hipjx>- 
lytus (1802), Louvre ; Replica in Bordeaux 
Museum ; Napoleou pardoning the Rebels 




in Cairo (180P>), Versailles Museum ; Andro- 
mach<- and Pyrrhus (1810), Louvre, Replica 
in Bordeaux Museum ; Cephalus and Au- 
rora (1810) ; Dido listening to Story of 
Awms (1817), Louvre ; Clytemnextra urged 
by Egisthus to murder Agamemnon (1817), 
Louvre ; Murder of Priam, St. Louis ren- 
dering Justice, Angers Museum ; Death of 
Marshal Lannes in Battle of Essling, Valen- 
ciennes Museum ; Portrait of Henri do la 

liochejacqueliii (1817). Bellicr de la Cha- 
vignerie, i. 71-t ; Ch. Blanc, Keole franyaiso ; 
Larousso ; Leuormant, B. Arts et Voyages, 
i. 142 ; Meyer, Gesch., 125. 

Fitz-James (Oise), April 27, 1843. Genre 
painter, pupil of Laiuothe. Medals : 2d 
class, 1872 ; 1st class, 1873. Works : Ma- 
zeppa (1872); Roland at lloncevalles (1873); 
Barbarians in a Roman Villa (1875) ; Hunt- 
ing (1882). 

in Meaux (Seine-et-Marne), Jan. 24, 1801, 
died in Paris, Nov. 2!), 1871. Genre painter, 
pupil of Hersent and of Horace Vernet. He 
gathered his subjects from many countries, 
and exhibited regularly from 1819 to 1850. 
Medals : 2d class, 1822 and 1831 ; 1st class, 
1839 ; L. of Honour, 1846. Works : Cui- 
rassiers of the Guard (1822); Little Organ- 
Player ; Soldier's Return ; Military Stable ; 
Oyster-Bed at Grandville ; Fishermen of 
Grandville and Cancale ; A Barbarism ; 
Trout-Fishing ; Pluck the Rose in the 
Morning of Life ; The Panniers, Marino 
Faliero and Helena ; Norman and Breton 
Sailors ; Sick Child ; Phoebus and Mine. 
Gondelaurier ; Phcebus and Esmeralda with 
Falourdel ; Return from the Fields ; Return 
from Market ; The Fountain ; Mother's 
Caresses ; Preparing for the Ball ; Mag- 
nolia ; Woman Bathing ; Revery, Coming 
from the Bath. Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
i. 717. 

Madrid in 1632, died at Malaga in 1698. 
History painter, pupil of Miguel Manrique 
and of Alonso Cano. His works in Malaga, 
Granada, and Cordova have been compared 
to those of Van Dyck. 

GUFFENS, GODFROID, born atHasselt, 
Limburg, July 23, 1823. History painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy tinder Nicaise de 
Keyser, then with his fellow-student Jan 
Swerts visited Paris in 1847, the art centres 
of Germany in 1850, and Italy in 1850-52. 
After their return they worked conjoin tly un- 
til 1874, when Swerts became director of the 
Prague Academy. In 1858 they were sent 
by the government to Munich, to report on 
the first great German Art exhibition, which 
caused the exhibition in Brussels in 1859 of 
cartoons by Cornelius, Kaulbach, Schwind, 
etc., greatly influencing Belgian art. Hon- 
orary member of Munich, Dresden (1859), 
and Amsterdam (1861) Academies, of Ger- 
man Art Union (1859); corresponding mem- 
ber of Institut de France (1873); member 
of Brussels (1876) and Antwerp (1880) 
Academics. Gold medals, Brussels, 1848, 
1851 ; Order of Leopold, 1855 ; Officer, 
1869 ; Baden Order of Ziihringer Lion, 
1860 ; Order of Oaken Crown, 1861 ; Wei- 
mar Order of White Falcon, 1865 ; Papal 
Order of Gregory, 1871 ; Order of Francis 
Joseph, 1875. Removed from Antwerp to 
Brussels in 1871. Works : Galileo in Pris- 
on ; Coronation of Virgin ; Count van Looz 
granting Community of Hasselt the Privi- 
lege of City ; Scene from Destruction of 
Pompeii ; Prayer of the Three Sisters ; Im- 
prisoned Blanca von Felsenstein in Prayer ; 
Christ allaying the Storm ; Hymnus Mysti- 
cus ; Lucretia and her Women ; Pausias 
and Glycera ; Eouget de Lisle singing the 
Marseillaise for the First Time, Pennsylvania 
Academy, Philadelphia ; Julia and her Moth- 
er ; Return from Holy Sepulchre, Altarpiece 
with Madonna and Saints ; Portraits. Fres- 
cos : Seven Sorrows of the Virgin (1855-70), 
Notre Dame at St. Nicolas, near Antwerp ; 
Scenes from Life of Christ (1859-71), St. 



George's, Antwerp ; Episodes in History of 
Flanders (1861-69), Town Hall, Ypern ; 
Christ and Two Angels (1870), luce Blun- 
dell Hall, near Liverpool ; Scenes from 
Local History (1873-73), Town Hull, Cour- 
tray ; Fall of Mini, Redemption, Baptism of 
Christ (1879), St. Quentin's, Hasselt ; Sacri- 
fice of Melchisedek, Last Supper, Entry 
with the Ark of the Covenant into Jerusa- 
lem, Procession of Corpus Christi (1NM), 
St. Joseph's, Louvain. Midler, 223 ; Rie- 
gel, Wandmalerei in Belgien, lit, 39, 42, 4(J 
-62, 86, 105, 247 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (18(14), 
xvii. 4(ir) ; (1868), xxv. 74 ; Fiirster, Denk- 
male, VIII. iii. 23 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 

GUGEL, KARL, born at Bergzabern, 
Rhenish Palatinate, April 12, 1820, died in 
Munich, June 26, 188"). Genre and por- 
trait painter; painted :it tirst in imitation of 
Murillo's style, which lio abandoned for the 
representation of ideal female heads and 
figures in the manner of Giorgione. Has 
lived in Munich since 1852. Works : Lute- 
Player ; Gypsy Girl; After the Bath; Girl 
Writing ; Girl Reading ; Gardener-Maul ; 
Mother and Child ; Reading Aloud ; Witch- 
es' Ride to the Blocksberg ; L'idy of 17th 
Century, New Pinakothek, Munich. Miil- 
ler, 224 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 669. 

GUIAUD, JACQUES, born at Clmmbery 
(Savoy), May 15, 1811, died in 1876. Land- 
scape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Watelet and of Cogniet. Medals : 3d class, 
1843 ; 2d class, 1846. Works : Landscapes 
and City views in Italy, Tyrol, and Germany 
(1831-42); do. in Italy, Spain, and France 
(1847-76); Castles Gieberg and St. Ulrich 
at Ribeauvillc Haut-Rhin, View of Procida 
(1843); Castle of Henry IV. at Pan, View of 
Steinach Tyrol (1846); View of Antwerp 
Cathedral, Amiens Museum ; Chateau de 
Madrid and Bois de Boulogne, Chateau and 
Park at Monceaux (1866), Galerio desCerfs, 
Fontainebleau. Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
i. 719. 

GUIBAL, NICOLAS, l>orn at Luneville, 
Nov. 29, 1725, died in Stuttgart, Nov. 3, 

1784. French school ; history painter, son 
of the sculptor Barthelemi G., pupil of Claude 
Charles in Nancy, and of Natoire in Paris. 
Called in 174!) to Stuttgart by Duke Charles 
Eugene of Wiirteinberg, who sent him in 
1752 to Rome, where he studied under 
Mengs. On his return in 1755 he was ap- 
pointed first painter to the Duke, as well 
as professor anil director of the gallery 
of paintings. Works : Ceiling of Bath 
House, Schwet/ingen ; Ceilings in Library, 
ib.; also at Hohenheim, Monrepos, and 
chapel at Ludwigsburg ; Paintings in 
churches at Zwiefalten, Giniind, and Solo- 
tburn. Allgem. deutsche Biogr., x. !()'_' ; 
Dussieux, Les artistes francais :'i 1'etranger, 
2:i'.l ; Hankh, Beitriige, 5 ; /eitschr. f.b. K.. 
xii. 151. 



See Mn.wi-ii>. 

GUIDO (Guido Reni), born in Bologna, 
Nov. 4, 1575, 
died there, Aug. 
18, 1(142. Bo- 
lognese school. 
Son of Daniele 
Reni, a musician ; 
pupil of Denis 
Calvart, afterward 
of the Carracci. 
Fora time he was 
the favourite pu- 
pil of Lodovico, but ho soon aroused so 
much jealousy that lie was dismissed from 
the academy. After painting several years 
in Bologna, where his pictures excited much 
admiration, he went to Rome about 16(18, 
with his fellow-pupil Francesco Albani, and 
notwithstanding the opix>sition of Caravag- 
gio and of Annibale Carracci, then at work 
in the Palaz/.o Farnese, he soon won an 
honourable position. Caravaggio was then 
the fashion in Rome, and when Cardinal 
Borghcse gave Guido an order for the Cm- 




cifixion of St. Peter, he coupled it with the the Well, Death of Cleopatra, Charity, St. 
command that it should be iu the manner Elizabeth, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Cumean 
of that painter. Guido obeyed, but he gave : Sibyl, Bradamante and Fiordaspina, portrait 
his composition a grandeur and dignity be- of Guido, Madonna with St. John, Virgin, 
yond the powers of Caravaggio. Paul V. Uffizi, ib. ; Christ on the Cross and Saints, 
employed him to decorate the private chapel Lucca Gallery ; SS. Peter and Paul, Apostle 
in the Palace of Monte Cavallo, a work which Reading, Brera, Milan ; Christ on the Cross, 
gained him groat reputation and made him Modena Gallery ; Atalanta's Race, Four 
main r enemies, even his friend Albani be- j Seasons, Infant Christ, Nausicaii, Vanity 
coming inimical when he found that Guide's and Modesty, Museum, Naples ; Nativity, S. 
fame was likely to exceed his own. After Martino, ib. ; John Baptist, Madonna, Fame, 
an absence in Rome of twenty years, Guido j St. Francis of Assisi, St. Catherine, Apollo 
returned to Bologna, where he painted the , and Marsyas, Group of Cherubs, Lucretia, 
Massacre of the Innocents for S. Domenieo, Turin Gallery; David and Goliath, Annun- 
iiow in the Bologna Gallery, and St. -Paul j ciation, Purification of Virgin, Madonna, 
reproving St. Peter, for the Palazzo Zam- , Madonna and St. John, Cltrist and Saniari- 
pieri, now in the Brera, Milan. Paul V. tan Woman, Christ giving Keys to Peter, 
soon induced him to return to Rome, where Christ in the Garden, Kcce Homo, Mayda- 
he executed works in S. M. Maggiore and leu (?), St. Sebastian, Union of Design and 
other public buildings, his most famous one Colour, Hercules and the Hydra, Hercules 
being the fresco Aurora, in the pavilion of and Achelous, Rape of Dejanira, Death of 
the Palazzo Rospigliosi. Guide's produc- , Hercules, Rape of Helen, Sleep of Jesus (at- 
tions vary much in manner according to the tributed), Louvre, Paris ; Lucretia, Cleo- 
time of their execution, and may be assigned patra, Madonna de la Silla, St. Sebastian, St. 
to three different periods : The first, marked James, Assumption, St. Jerome in the 
by strong contrasts of light and shade; the Desert, Martyrdom of St. Apollonia, Mag- 
second or transition period, stronger and dalen, and others, Madrid Museum ; St. 
more natural ; the third, pale-gray tones ! Jerome, Magdalen, Youthful Christ and St. 
and insipid sentiment. Works : Massacre j John, Lot and his Daughters, Susannah and 
of Innocents, Madonna della Pieta, Clirixt on the Elders, Coronation of the Virgin, Ecce 
the Cross, Samson Victorious, St. Sebastian, Homo, National Gallery, London ; St. John 
Madonna of the Rosary, Coronation of Vir- iu the Wilderness, St. Sebastian, Dulwich 
(/in, Ecce Homo, Bologna Gallery ; Bacchus Gallery ; Venus and Graces, Ecce Homo, 
and Ariadne, Fortune, Cupid, Accademia di National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Venus and 
S. Luca, Rome ; portrait of Beatrice C'enci (?), Cupid, Nin us and Semiramis, Ecce Homo 
Palazzo Barberini, ib. ; Concert of Angels, (2), Christ crowned with Thorns (2), Christ 
Cappella di S. Silvia, near S. Gregorio, ib. ; appearing to Virgin, Madonna in Adoration, 
St. Andrew adoring Cross, S. Andrea, ib. ; Madonna with Saints, Bacchus, Dresden 
Head of Joseph, Palazzo Borghese, ib. ; St. Gallery ; Madonna and Saints, Berlin Mu- 
Sebastian, Capitol Gallery, ib. ; Salome, seum ; Cleopatra, Cassel Gallery ; St. Je- 
study for Crucifixion of St. Peter, Ecce ! rome, Apollo and Marsyas, Assumption, Mu- 
Homo, Mater Dolorosa, St. John, Con tern- nich Gallery ; Magdalen, Presentation in 
plation, Palazzo Corsini, ib.; Madonna, Pa- Temple, Baptism of Christ, Vienna Museum ; 
lazzo Doria, ib. ; A urora, Palazzo Rospigliosi, Adoration of Shepherds, Jupiter and Anti- 
ib. ; Rape of Helen, portrait of Cardinal : ope, Descent from Cross, Liechtenstein Gal- 
Spada, Palazzo Spada, ib. ; Madonna in lery, Vienna ; David and Goliath, Adoration 
Glory and Saints, Crucifixion of St. Peter, \ of Mayi, St. Josejjh and Infant Christ, Ma- 
Vaticau, ib. ; Bacchus, St. Peter, Rebecca at donna and St. Francis, St. Peter, Dispute of 



the Fathers, Youthful Virgin with Maidens, 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Ch. Blanc, 

Ecole bolo- 

naise ; Des- 

camps, iv- C IX/^C/O 





hardt, 7(i4, 

770, 773 ; Lanzi (Roscoe), iii. 93 ; Malvasia. 

ii. 5 ; Rosini, vi. 55. 

GUIDO, portrait, by himself, Uftizi, Flor- 
ence. Upper part of head broad and line, 
chin wants character. Eyes lively and in- 
telligent. Engraved by L. F. Mariage. - 
Wicar, ii. Part 22 ; Livice, 40. 

GUIDO DI PIETIU). See .\,><jdl<;>, Fra. 

o/ti, Massimo. 

GUIDO DA SIENA, Sienese school, lat- 
ter half of 13th century. The Madonna in 
S. Domenico, Siena, falsely dated 1221, was 
painted probably in 1281 ; and Guido is 
probably identical with Guido Graziani, who 
appears in documents of 1278. The inscrip- 
tion has been often retouched, and the 
heads of the Virgin and Child have evi- 
dently been entirely repainted. This is im- 
portant, as upon it rests the question 
whether Florence or Siena was the cradle of 
the revival of painting in the 13th century. 
By the rectification of the date, the priority 
of the Florentine Cimabue to the Sienese 
Guido is established, and the honour remains 
to Florence. The Madonna in the Academy 
at Siena, also ascribed to Guido, is much in- 
ferior to the one at S. Domenico. A Ma- 
donna with Saints, attributed to him, is in 
the Gallery of the Historical Society of New 
York.-C. & C., Italy, i. 180 ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mou., i. 233 and N. 1 ; Milanesi, Delia vera 
eta di Guido Pittore Sieuese (Florence, 


GUIGNARD, G ASTON, born at Bor- 
deaux ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Ferry. Medal, 3d class, 1884. 

Works : Foraging, After the Storm (1874) ; 
Scouts in Flight (187.1) ; Behind the Tav- 
ern (1876); Halt of Nomads (1877) ; Farm 
Yard (1878); Winter (1879); Marsh of 
Montferrand (1880) ; Morning Dawn in Au- 
tumn (1881); Requisitions in Beance in 
1870-71, Return to the Park (1882); La- 
gunes of Gnyan-Mestras Gironde, Convoy 
in Marshes of (juiberon (188:5) ; In the Or- 
chard (18S4) ; Open Pasture (1S8.">). 

GriGNET, ADRIEX, born at Annecy, 
Savoy, Jan. 21, 1S1C>, died in Paris, May !'., 
1854. History painter, brother and pupil 
of Jean Baptiste (!., and pupil of Blonde! ; 
took Salvator Rosa and Decamps for his 
models. Medals: 3d class, 1841; 2.1 class, 
1848. Works: Moses exposed on Xile, 
Lost Travellers attacked by Bear, Joseph re- 
lating his Dream, Hagur in the Desert 
(1840); Salvator Rosa among the Robbers 
(1844) ; Defeat of Attila by .I'.tins ; 1-YaM 

>f Armid 


of Belshazzar ; (iardeus 
velle Biogr. gt'nenile. 

Paris, March 2(1, 1840. 
Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Pi- 
cot, Barrias, and of 
the EVolc des Beaux 
Arts. Won the 2d 
prix de Rome in 18(53, 
and then made the 
tirst of many visits to 
Algeria. In 1805 he 
painted the portrait 

of the late Sultan Abdul A/iz. Medals : 
18<;r, and 18(17 ; 2d class, 1872 ; 3d class, 
1878 ; L of Honour, 1878. Works : Even- 
ing Prayer in the Sahara (18(!3), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Arab Market in Plain of 
Tocria (18(i. r >), Lille Museum ; Flute-Players 
at the Bivouac (18(!(!) ; Ain Kerma or Source 
of the Figuier, Tlie Douar (18(i7) ; Douar 
Women at the River (1872), Dijon Museum; 
Algerian Interior (1874) ; Bivouac of Camel- 
Drivers (1875) ; Arab Market (1877); Peace 
in the Evening (1878) ; Laghouat or Sou- 
venir of the Sahara (187!), Luxembourg 


Museum ; The Palanquins (1880) ; Dwell- ] GUILLON, ADOLPHE IREN^E, born 
ing on the Sahara (1882); La Seguice in Paris, March 29, 1829. Landscape 
Algiers, Wool Spinners at Bou-Saada (1885). painter, pupil of Noel and Gleyre. Trav- 
Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 725. j elled much in Southern France, and then 

GUILLEMET, JEAN BAPTLSTE AN- : settled at Vezelay (Youne). Medal in 1867; 
TOINE, born at 2d class, 1880. Works : Winter Morning 
Chantilly (Oisc); at Cannes, Moonlight at Cannes (18G7) ; 
contemporary. Shi- River Cure in Burgundy, Beggar, Summer's 
dio in Paris. Land- ; Day (1874) ; Vezelay (1880) ; August (1882); 
scape painter, pu- Walnut Trees of Cordellc (1883) ; Vezelay 
pil of Corot and of (1885). 

Oudinot. Medals:' GUILLOU, ALFRED, born at Concar- 
' 2d class, 1874 and neau (Finistere) ; contemporary. Land- 
187(! ; L. of Hon- scape paintei', pupil of Cabanel and Bou- 
our, 1880. Works : guereau. Medals : 3d class, 1877 ; 2d class, 
Low Tide at Tiller- 1881. Works: Low Tide at Concarneau 
ville (1872), Grenoble Museum ; Bercy in (1874) ; Shrimp Fishing (1875) ; The Pilot 
December (1874), Luxembourg Museum ;' of Concarneau (1879); Lobster Fishing at 
Beach at Villiers (1878) ; Chaos at Villiers Benodet (1880) ; The Last Seaman of the 
(1879); Old Quay at Bercy (1880); Old Vengeur, Fishing with a Line (1881); De- 
Yillerville, Beach at St. Vaast-la-Hougue parture of the Fishermen, Return of Shrimp- 
(1881); Morsalines (1882); Saint-Suliac Catchers (1882) ; The Fishing Lesson, Re- 
(1883) ; Yilk-rville, Meudon (1884) ; View turn of the Tide (1883) ; Chasse en Mer 
of Paris (1885). I (1884) ; Grandfather's Canoe, Marianne 


born in Paris, Oct. 15, 1817, died at Bois le GUISE, DUG DE, ASSASSINATION 
Roi (Seine-C't-Marne), Oct., 1880. Genre OF, Paul Ddaroche, Due d'Aumale, Chateau 
painter, pupil of Gros, painted scenes from de Chantilly ; canvas. The body of Henri 
daily life of the middle classes, then sub- de Guise lies near the foot of a bed, at right, 
jects from Brittany and the Pyrenees ; also in a richly-furnished apartment ; at left, 
hunting pieces. Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; the murderers, eight in number, with naked 
2d class, 1845, 1859 ; L. of Honour, 1801. swords ; one of them speaks to the king, 
Works : First Artistic, Attempt (1840); Vic- Henri III., who enters at a door and casts a 
tim of Interesting News, Happy Family, timid and curious glance at his enemy. 
Souvenir of Glory (1841) ; Holy Family, M. Geffroy, of the Comedie-francaise, is 
After Emigration, Picture Seller, Love in said to have posed for the king. Salon, 
the City (1845) ; Collector of Treasures 1835 ; painted for Duo d'Orleans, 10,000 
(1855);" The Gallant Bearnese, The Blue francs ; engraved by T. V. Desclaux (1852). 
Boys passing Brittany in 1793 (1859) ; Larousse, i. 768 ; Ch. Blanc, cole fran- 
Women winnowing in the Pyrenees, Distri- j caise, iii. 

bution of Consecrated Bread in Church of GULLIVER AND THE LILLIPTJ- 
Fontainebleau (1861) ; Joy at the Hearth, TIANS, Georges Jean Vibert, W. T. Walters, 
Orden del Senor Alcalde (1865) ; La Trilla, Baltimore ; canvas, H. 2 ft. x 4 ft. ; dated 
Sculptor's Studio (1869) ; Los Pordioseros, 1870. Gulliver fastened to the ground and 
La Mariposa (1877) ; Notre Dame d'Aragon surrounded by the Lilliputians. 
(1879) ; Pictures in Toulon Museum. Bel- GUNKEL, FRIEDRICH, bom in Cassel 
Her dela Chavignerie, i. 728 ; Meyer, Gesch., in 1820, died by suicide in Rome, Feb. 24, 
694. 1876. History painter, pupil of Cassel and 



Berlin Academics and of Cornelius ; went to 
Rome in 184 7. Works: Resurrection; Bat- 
tle of Arminius, Moximilianeum, Munich ; 
Drusus induced to Return ; Buttle on the 

GUNTHEK, OTTO, born at Hulle, Sept. 
30, 1838, died at Weimar, April 20, 1S84. 
Genre painter, pupil in 1858-01 of Diissel- 
dorf Academy, and in 1803-0(5 of Weimar 
Art School under Prcller and liamberg. 
Professor at Konigsberg Academy in 1877- 
80, then returned to Weimar. Gold medal, 
Berlin, 187(5. Works: Wedding Procession 
in Thuringia ; The Widower (1874), In 
Prison (1878), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Last Farewell of Emigrant Woman ; Dis- 
puting Theologians (1871!), Cologne Muse- 
um ; Friendly Neighbours, Home Again ; 
The Criminal (1877) ; Virgin, Lucifer, find 
Death (1878) ; Last Visit (187!)) ; Village 
Revolt (1880) ; Allegorical Figures in Cen- 
tral Hall, Leipsic. Illustr. Zeitg. (1875). i. 
293 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 484 ; xx. 184 ; 
Leixner, D. mod. K., i. 93 ; ii. 102 ; D. 
Rundschau, xvii. 301. 

GURK, EDUAR1), born in Vienna in 
1802, died in Jerusalem, March 31, 1841. 
Architecture painter, pupil of the Vienna 
Academy. Early favoured with orders by 
the Emperor, and made court-painter, he 
went with the Archduke Frederic on the 
expedition to Syria, to paint the most in- 
teresting monuments of Palestine for the 
court. Works : St. Thomas's Church in 
BrUnn ; Interior of Maria/ell ; Cathedral of 
Koniggriitz ; Imperial Burg in Prague ; Cor- 
onation of Emperor Ferdinand in Prague. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 182 ; Wurzbach, vi. 

GURLITT, LUDWIG, born at Altona, Hoi- 
stein, March 8, 1812. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil in Hamburg of Bendixen ; then studied 
in Munich in 1832-35, and at Copenhagen 
Academy in 1835-38 ; visited Norway, Swe- 
den, and in 1839 Upper Italy, Tyrol, and 
Munich ; after his return became member 
of the Copenhagen Academy. In 1843 he 
went to Dusseldorf, and soon after to Rome, 

Naples, and Sicily ; lived in 1840 48 in Ber- 
lin, then at Castle Nischwitz in Saxony, and 
in 1851-59 in Vienna, whence he visited 
Dalmatia (1855), Italy (1850), and Greece 
(1858). From 185!) he lived partly at 
Gotha, partly at Castle Siebleben, which 
Duke Ernest had placed at his disposal, 
visited Spain and Portugal in 18I>7 tiS, set- 
tled in Dresden in 187:i, and lives now in a 
villa at Plauen. Member of Copenhagen 
and Madrid Academies ; profess' >r. Works : 
North Shore of l^ike Garda ( 1839), Castell 
Gandolfo (1845), View in Sicily, Leipsic: 
Museum; Crissean Plain in Greece; Plain 
near Thebes; Roman Campa^na (1841!) ; 
Landscape in Albanian Mountains (is.">(l) t 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Valley near Sor- 
rento (1851), Kunsthalle, Hamburg; Lake 
of N'emi ; Landscape from Sabine Moun- 
tains ; Keller Lake in Holstein (18G5); Gib- 
raltar (1877); Evening in Busaco Monastery 
(1878), Dresden Gallery; Beech Wood on 
Ploli Lake ; View in Jutland ; The Acropo- 
lis at Athens, Gotha Museum ; View near 
Berchtesgaden, New Pinakothek, Munich. 
Brockhaus, vii. 033; Illustr. Xeitg. (1878), 
ii. 141! ; Miiller, 220 ; /eitschr. f. b. K., x. 
(Mitthcilungen, iii. 2(1) ; Weilbach, 210 ; 
Wuiv.baeh, vi. 38. 

Brandenburg, in 
1841!. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil 
of Weimar Art School 
under Ramberg and 
Pauwels; went in 
1807 to Munich, and 
after a visit to Italy 
returned to Weimar. 
In 1871 he became 
professor at the Art 
School, in 1874 at the Carlsruhe Art School, 
and in 1875 at the Berlin Academy. Gold 
medal, 1875. Member of Berlin Academy 
in 1883. Works: Diana Hunting (1870); 
Faun and Nymph ; Woman going to Church ; 
Blind Mail's Buff; Sweetheart's Portrait 
(1872); Sewing Girl, Morning Hour (1873); 

at Havelberg, 


Little Cat, Lover of Flowers, Lost Happi- ! Sail Francisco ; Making a Train, G. Whit- 
iiess, Peasant's Family (187G); Washing ney, Philadelphia; Spirit of 76 (1880); 

Statue of Venus ; Welcome (1878); Still 

Waiting (1882) ; See-Saw Margery Daw 

Life, Studio, Fruit-Seller, Portrait of Old j (1884). Sheldon, 05. 

Lady (1878); Two Old People (1880); Ar- GYARFAS, EUGEN, born in Hungary ; 

tilleryman's Story of the Battle, Ghent contemporary. Genre painter. Works : 

Museum. -Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii. 473 ; ! The First Tooth; Judgment at the Bier 

Midler, 227; Rosenberg, Berliner Maler- . (1883); Joys of Winter (1884). La Ilus- 

schule, 308 ; Leixncr, D. mod. K., i. 42 ; D. tracion (1884), i. 395 ; Kunst-Chrouik, xix. 

Rundschau, ix. 319 ; xiii. 328 ; Zeitschr., xv. j 351 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 230. 

45 ; xvi. 145. GYNECEUM (Le Gym-cue), Gustave Bou- 

GUTERBOCK, LEOPOLD, born in Ber- lanyer, Paris. The female apartments in a 
lin, died March 21, 1881. Genre painter, Pompeiian house. In a Corinthian atrium 
chiefly of historical and Oriental scenes, the mistress of the house, seated under an 
which he executed with humour and fine awning, watches her children at plaj', while 
colouring. Works : Scene from Gutz von her husband comes in at the background 
Berlichingcn ; Severe Lecture ; Drug-Store and is greeted by the dog, which runs to 
in llth Century; Old Toper; Recruiting meet him; around their mistress, maid- 
in Thirty Years' War ; Columbus at La Ra- servants drive away flies and water flowers, 
bida ; At City Hall of a German Town at Salon, 1875. 

the End of Thirty Years' War ; Forbidden GYSELS (Geysels, Gijzens, Gysen), PEE- 
Reading, Stettin Museum. Miiller, 227. TER, born in Antwerp, baptized Dec. 3, 

GUTHEHS, KARL, born in Switzerland 1021, died there in 1090 or 1091. Flemish 
in 1844. Portrait and genre painter, went school ; pupil of Jan Boots, perhaps also of 
to America with his parents in 1851, and Jan Brueghel the younger, but formed him- 
painted portraits at Memphis, Tcnn.; went self after Jan the elder; painted flowers, 
in 1808 to Paris, where he studied under fruit, and still life, also small landscapes. 
Cabasson, Pils, and at the Ecole des Beaux Master of the guild at Antwerp in 1050. 
Arts ; studied in Brussels and Antwerp in His works are distinguished for good com- 
1870, and in 1871 went to Rome ; returned position and graceful treatment. Works : 
to Memphis in 1873, and moved to St. Louis Dead and Living Animals, Mr. Hope, Lou- 
in 1874. Works : Awakening of Spring don ; Dead Game, Marquis of Bute, ib. ; 
(1871); Ecce Homo ; Evening on the Nile ; do., Brussels Museum ; Still Life (last work), 
Sappho ; American Women. Many excel- i Antwerp Museum ; Game with Hunting Im- 
lent portraits. Miiller, 227. \ plements, Hague Museum ; do., Darmstadt 

GUY, SEYMOUR JOSEPH, born in ' Museum ; A Town, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Greenwich, England, Jan. 10, 1824. Genre ten pictures (landscapes and still life), Dres- 
painter, pupil of Buttersworth and of Am- den Gallery ; Dutch Village, Landscape, Ber- 
brose Jerome, English painters. Settled in lin Museum ; Windmill in level Country, 
New York in 1854 ; elected an A.N.A. in ' Old Pinakothek, Munich ; do., Schleissheim 
1801, and N.A. iu 1805. Studio in New Gallery ; Breakfast Table, Schwerin Gallery ; 
York. Works : The Spring (1805); Sorrows " Fruit-piece, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
of Little Red Riding Hood ; Orange Girl ; Immerzeel, i. 300 ; Kramm, ii. 615 ; Mich- 
Fair Venice ; Supplication ; Knot in the iels, v. 378 ; Rooses (Reber), 416 ; Van den 
Skein ; The Gamut ; Children catching the ' Branden, 416. 

Bird; Little Sweeper, C. P. Huntington, G YSIS, NIKOLAUS, born in Isle of Tinos, 
New York ; Bedtime Story, T. B. Clarke, Greek Archipelago, March 1, 1842. History 
ib. ; Cash in Hand, First Up, T. M. Scott, j and genre painter, pupil of Munich Acad- 



emy and of Piloty. In 1872 ho went to 
Athens and travelled through Asia Minor. 
Since 1874 has resided 


in Munich, where he 
1ms painted several 
Oriental subjects and 
recently some large; al- 
legorical pictures. 
Medal, Paris, lid class, 
1878. Works : Joseph 
interpreting theDreoin; 
Dog-Visitation (187(1); 
The Orphans ; News 
of Sedan (1H71); The 
Chicken Thief (187:() ; Betrothal of Children 
in Greece ; Pilgrimage of Painters in the 
East ; Child's Confession (1878), Darmstadt 
Museum ; Art and its Genii (18711); Charity, 
New York Museum. Brockhaus, viii. (170 ; 
Kunst-Chrouik, vi. (i : Miiller, 228. 

HAACH, Ll'DWIG, born in Dresden 
in 1811S, died in Home, March 21. 
1812. History painter, pupil of the 
Drawing School at Meissen, ami in I8.'!(l of 
Dresden Academy, then, in 18JS7, under 
Hildebrandt, of Diisseldorf Academy ; in 
1841 went to Home, where he undermined 
his health by overwork. In 18i!(> ho deco- 
rated a hall in the house of the bookseller 
Barth at Leipsic with convivial scenes. 
Works : Christ in the Storm (18IJ8); Isaac 
and Ilebekah (1840); The Three Kings be- 
fore Herod (1842, unfinished). Andresen, 
L 44 ; W. Muller, Diisseldf. K., 42. 

HAAG, KARL, born at Erlangcn, Wiir- 
temberg, April 20, 1820. Genre painter, 
pupil of Nuremberg Art School, continued 
his studies in Munich and Home ; went in 
1847 to England, where he took up paint- 
ing in water-colours exclusively ; visited It- 
aly, and, in 1858, the Libyan Desert, dwelt 
for months among the Bedouins, and lias 
since made repeated visits to Egypt and 
other parts of the East. Since 1807 has 
lived at Hampstead, London. His pictures 
are distinguished by ethnographic interest 

as well as characteristic conception and 
masterly chiaroscuro. Court- painter to 
Duke of Coburg-Gotha ; member of Royal 
Society of Painters in Water Colours since 
l!S.~>o ; honorary member of Soeiete Beige 
des Aquarellistes ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works: Ancient Vestibule beneath Temple 
Area in Jerusalem ; Golden Gateway ; Holv 
Ruck in Mosque of Omar; Aghile Agha re- 
ceiving Prince of Wales; Tribe of Ana/eh 
Bedouins leaving Palmvra ; Bivouac in the 
Desert ; Arrival at Well in Desert ; Prepar- 
ing Evening Meal ; Desert Hospitality; On 
the Alert; Heady for Defence; Terror of 
the Desert; Danger in the Desert ; Sabine 
Woman; liedouin's Devotion; Ruins of 
Baalbek ; Panorama of Palmyra ; Sphinx of 
Ghi/eh ; Pyramid of Cheops (1SSII); View 
in Bavarian Alps; High-Priest at Nablus ; 
A Dragoman ; Acropolis at Athens ; Young 
Nubian Woman ; Nargileh ; Evening at Hal- 
moral ; Royal Familv ascending Loch-na- 
Garaidh ; Stags brought Home ; Queen and 
Prince Consort, fording Pool TartV. Art 
Journal (18S:i), 71 ; Hrockhaus, viii. (172; 
Miiller. 228 ; Men of the Time ( l8St). 50S ; 
Portfolio (1878), SI. 

at Utrecht, Aug. 2.'!, 1S07. Genre and land- 
scape painter, son and pupil of Casparis van 
Haanen ( 1778 -184!)); studied from nature on 
his travels (about 1842) through Germany 
to Vienna, whence he made studv-trips to 
Hungary, visited Antwerp, and since 1854 
seems to have settled at Cologne. His pict- 
ures are distinguished for exquisite light 
effects and line execution. Member of Am- 
sterdam Academy in 18IS5. Works : Even 
ing School ; Peasant Inn : Quiet Evening, 
Vienna Museum; Dutch Vestibule (1811), 
Leipsic Museum ; Oak Wood in Hungary, 
Meadow in the Woods after Rain, Lady 
with Artist's Sketch-book (1847); Dutch 
School by Candlelight (1851); Market at 
Night, View in Bakony Forest Hungary 
(1852); Paternal Instruction, Halt before 
Dutch Inn, Old Dutch Church in Evening 
Light (1853); Dutch Interior in Sunlight 


(1857). His sister and pupil, Elisabeth 
Alula (born in 180!), died in 1845), mar- 
ried to the genre painter, Petrus Kiers, 
was an artist whose able work was cut short 
by an untimely death ; honorary member 
of Amsterdam Academy in 1838. Immer- 
zeel, ii. 2 ; Kramm, ii. 01!) ; Wurzbach, vi. 

HAANEN, REMY (Ilcmigius Adrianus), 
VAN, born at Oosterhoudt, North Brabant, 
Jan. 5, 1812. Landscape painter, brother 
of Georges Gillis, pupil in Hilversum of 
llaveuszwaay ; since 1834 lias visited the 
greater part of Europe, with long sojourns 
in Frankfort, London, and St. Petersburg, 
and in 1842 settled in Vienna. Member of 
Amsterdam, Milan, Venice, and St. Peters- 
burg Academies. Has etched many of his 
own works. Works : Landscape on Theiss 
River ; Winter Landscape (1835), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; do. (184G), Ravem' Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Oak Wood in Winter (18114); 
View in Gelderland; Wood-Interior; Storm 
after Sunset ; Wood Landscape in manner of 
Hobbema(1877); Wood Landscape (1884) ; 
do. (3, 1885). His sou Cecil is also an able 
landscape painter. Brockhaus, viii. C73 ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 3 ; Kramm, ii. G19 ; Dio- 
skuren, 18G5-G7 ; Midler, 22!) ; Wurzbach, 
vi. 101. 


;/fii van Sint-Jans. 

LEONARDUS DE, born at Hedel, North 
Brabant, March 25, 1832, died iu Brussels, 
Aug. !(!, 1880. Animal painter, pupil in 
Haarlem of Van Oos, went in 1857 to Brus- 
sels, and within a few years achieved a bril- 
liant success. Gold medal, Munich, I860. 
Works: After the Flood (18G1); Horses in 
Rainy Weather ; Young Bull at the Ferry ; 
Landscape with Cattle ; Bull with Cow ; 
Donkey in the Downs (18G!)); Trio of Don- 
keys, Lisbon Gallery ; Cattle on the Rhine ; 
Three Comrades ; Cows at Pasture, National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Pasture on Banks of the 

Yssel, Brussels Museum; Cattle-piece, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Milking Woman ; Common 
Pasture ; Labourer's Cow ; Approach of 
Storm ; Noonday Rest on North Sea ; Cat- 
tle on River-bank in Holland. Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xvii. 427. 

DRICK DE, born in 
Rotterdam, Dec. 12, 
1832. Marine paint- 
er, pupil of Spoel and 
Bosboom, and later of 
Louis Meyer at The 
Hague. Sketched 
along the coasts of 
Holland and Eng- 
land; in 1851 studied 
water-colour iu Lon- 
don ; settled in 1858 in New York, where 
he still resides. Elected an A.N.A. in 18G3, 
and N.A. in 18G7. Works : Admiral Farra- 
gut's Fleet passing New Orleans (18G7) ; 
Coast of France (18G8) ; Sunset at Sea 
(1871) ; Beach at West Hampton (1875) ; 
Beach at Granville Coast of France, Fish- 
ing Smacks iu the English Channel (1878); 
Sunset at Pigeon Cove, H. P. Kidder, Bos- 
ton ; Moonlight at Sea, H. B. Hurlbut Col- 
lection, Cleveland ; Gros-Nez Castle Isle 
of Jersey, Lelaud Stanford, San Francisco ; 
Sunrise in a Fog near Newport, E. D. Mor- 
gan Collection, New York ; Wreck on the 
Isle of Jersey, Tropical Sunset at Sea, R. L. 
Stuart, ib. ; Shipwreck, August Belmont, ib. ; 
Sunset on Connecticut Coast, C. S. Smith, 
ib.; Sunset at Sea, Mrs. Joseph Harrison, 
Philadelphia; Sea View, C. H. Clarke, ib.; 
After the Collision Moonrise (1879); Men- 
haden Boats off Long Island Beach (1880); 
Hen-ing Boats off Scheveningen (1881) ; 
Breezy Day Moutli of the Tyne (1882) ; 
At Sea, Moonlight New England Coast 
(1883); Off Marblehead Mass., Waiting for 
the Mackerel, Fresli Breeze (1884). 

born iu Rotterdam, June 15, 1830, died in 
Fayal, July 16, 1880. Marine painter, 
brother of preceding ; pupil of the Rotter- 



dam Royal Academy and of Jan Bosboom 
at The Hague. In 1854 went to New 
York, where he passed his professional life. 
Works : Sunrise on the Susqiieluuma (1N07); 
Fishing-Boats ofFMt. Desert, Boon Island 
Coast of Maine (1874); Midsummer Noon, 
Biddeford Beach Maine (1875) ; Lower 
Harbour of Halifax, Evening at Halifax 
(1870); Narragansett Pier (1877); Near St. 
John's Newfoundland (1878); Near South- 
West Harbour Mt. Desert, Morning on the 
Coast, Near Grace Harbour Newfoundland 
(1879). Am. Art Rev. (1*80), :>r>l. 

in Munich, March 2!), 1818, died there, 
May 7, 18(i8. Landscape and animal painter, 
pupil of Ailler, and in 182'.) of the Munich 
Academy ; studied nature in the environs 
of Munich and in the Bavarian and Tyrolese 
Alps; visited Italy in 1S40. Modelled ani- 
mals in clay and wax with much skill, and 
was an engraver of merit. Works : Cows 
at Pasture (1N8K); Alp with Herds-women 
before a Cottage (1844) ; Alpine Cow-keeper 
crossing Foot-bridge (1847); Hay Harvest ' 
(1850); Peasants in the Field, Morning in 
the Country, Herd of Cattle (1851); Forester 
and Shepherd, Morning in the Mountains 
(1854); Starting for the Alp (1854); Snipe 
Hunting, Ravine at Sunset, Railroad through 
the Woods (1804). Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 
2(i(i ; Andresen, iii. 1<)8. 

HABEHLIN, KAHL, born at Oberess- 
lingen, Wiirtemberg, Dec. 1(J, 1882. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School, 
from 1852 of Diisseldorf Academy under 
Scliadow, and from 1858 in Munich, of Pi- 
loty ; visited France and England, and in 
1804 Italy, and settled in I860 in Stuttgart, 
where he became professor at the Art School 
in 1808. Resigned the latter position in 
188U. Works : Death of Sickingen (1854); 
Storming of Convent (1850); Jew Siiss ; 
Dissolution of Alpirsbach Monastery (1802), 
Stuttgart Museum ; Battle of Belgrade, 
Royal Gallery, ib. ; Women of Scliorndorf 
in 1C88 ; Tel/el's Journey through Saxony ; 
Scene in Court Room ; Capture of Robber- 

Gang ; Savonarola ; Siege of Stralsund ; Ja- 
cobea of Bavaria (fresco, 1804), National 
Museum, Munich. Brockhans, viii. OS8 ; 
Miiller, 221). 

HABRON, painter, country and date un- 
known. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40 |141|) 
among his works a Friendship and Peace 
and several images of the gods. 

HACKAEltT (Hakkert), JAN, born in 
Amsterdam about 1080, died there in lO'.l'.l 
or 170S. Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
pupil of Jan Wynants. In 1000 75 studied 
from nature on a journey through Germany 
and Switzerland ; to judge from his pictures 
must have visited Italy. Lingelbach, Adria- 
an van de Velde, Wouwerman, and Bercliem 
frequently supplied the tigures in his pict- 
ures. Works: Stag-Hunt, National Gallery, 
London; Landscape, Station! House, ib. ; 
Avenue of Ash Trees, Landscape, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Mountainous Landscape, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; do., and Landscape with 
Cattle, Copenhagen ( lallerv ; Hunting Scene, 
Old Piuakothek, Munich ; Italian Landscape 
with Herds, Berlin Museum ; High- Road with 
Figures, Dresden Gallerv ; < irove with Stag- 
Hunt, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Italian 
Landscape, Historical Society, New York ; 
others in 
Stadcl Gal- 
lery, Frank- 
fort, and Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 
Immer/eel, ii. 5 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 481! ; 
Kramm, ii. 022. 

HACKER, HORST, born in Leipsic in 
1842. Landscape painter, pupil in Munich of 
Richard Zimmermann, visited Italy, Swit/cr- 
land, and the Austrian Alps. Works : The 
Wctterhorn ; Obersee near Berchtesgaden ; 
N(!w Axen Road near Fliielen ; Smithy in 
Winter ; Moonlight Night ; Lake of Yier- 
waldstiidt ; View in Rosenlani Valley. - 
Miiller, 2:50. 

Prcnzlau, Brandenburg, Sept. 15, 1787, 
died at Careggi, near Florence, April 28, 
1807. German school ; landscape painter, 
pupil of his father, Philipp, and in Berlin 



Academy of Le Sueur. After visiting Stral- Adam, a graceful Eve, two or three Vene- 
sund (17G2), the Isle of lliigen, ami Stock- tians in court dress, and a Satan represented 
holm, he went to Paris in 1705, painted in as a handsome youth, recognizable only by 
Normandy, and rapidly acquired a name and the claws on his feet. Much injured and 
wealth ; with his brother, Johann Gottlieb, , little to be regretted." Painted in 15G8. 
ho went to Rome in 17C8, and there estab- Probably mostly scholars' work. Ruskin, 
hshed his fame by six pictures representing Stones of Venice, iii. 290 ; Zanotto, 383. 
the Naval Battle at Tschesme and the Burn- HADRIAN, Roman Emperor (117-138 
ing of the Turkish Fleet, painted by order A.D.), amateur painter and sculptor. The 
of Catharine II. In 1772 he visited London, fulsome panegyrics of his admirers are no 
returned to Italy, and in 17SG became court- ; evidence of his artistic ability. Aurel. Viet., 
painter to the King of Naples, and enjoyed ' Epit. de Cxs., 14, 2 ; Dion Gas., Ixix. 4. 

much distinction, imtil the revolution caused 
him to leave for Florence in 17!)!). He bought 
a villa at Careggi in 1803. Although one of 
the most noteworthy landscape painters of 
the 18th centurv, he was a clever mannerist, 

HAECHT, TOBIAS VAN. See Verhaegt. 

called Walraven, born at Gorcum (?), flour- 
ished in 1G77-170!). Dutch school ; genre 
and portrait painter, chiefly of scenes in low 

who by his many pictures attained to greater life. Works: Scissors-Grinders at Cards, 
reputation than he deserved. Works: Ital- Company in Tavern amused by Smoking 
ian Landscape, C'assel Gallery ; He-float at , Monkey, Basle Museum ; Fishseller (1704), 
a Brook (177*!), Weimar Museum ; Ideal Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Landscapes (2, 1782), Gotha Museum ; Coast 
View with Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Italian 
Landscape (1704), Oldenburg Gallery. He 
had four brothers, all painters : Karl Lud- 
wig (1740-1800), Johann Gottlieb (1744-73), 
Willielm (1748-80), and Georg Abraham 

NES VAN, born in Utrecht in 1G42, died at 
The Hague in 1705. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and portrait painter, pupil of Poelen- 
burg, whom he imitated successfully. Works: 
Diana and Callisto, Stuttgart Gallery ; The 

( 1 755-1805). They followed their In-other , Man with the Skull, Augsburg Gallery ; Por- 
to Italy, where they often worked conjointly, trait, Berlin Museum ; Annunciation to the 
and for many Englishmen, the Pope, the Shepherds, Adoration of the Shepherds, 
Kniperor Joseph II., Catherine II., and the Adoration of Magi, Assumption, Landscape, 
court of Naples. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 295 ; Dresden Museum ; Italian Landscapes (G), 
Brockhaus, viii. G88 ; Goethe, Phil. Hackert, St. John Preaching, Portrait of a Lady 

HADAMARD, AUGUSTE, born at Metz, (1G8G), Schweriu Gallery. Immerzeel, ii. 

Dec. 1, 1823, died in 188G. Genre painter, 4 ; Kramm, ii. G20. 

pupil of Delaroche. Works: Jewish Pass- HAERT, HENRICUS VAN DER, born 

over Feast (1847); Interior of Studio ; Bak- at Louvain about 179G, died in Ghent, Oct. 
ing-Room; Forbidden Fruit, (18G9); Temp- ; 5, 184G. History and genre painter, pupil 

tation ; Reprimand (1870); Between Cat of Ghent Academy, then of Jacquin and 

and Dog, The Absent (1872); Franc-Tireur David ; in 1841 became professor and direc- 

Watching ; The Women and the Secret tor of Ghent Academy, which he thorough- 

(1874); Fce-aux-Mouettes, Fantasia (1883); ly reorganized. Works: Three Children 

Good Little Corner, A Bad Character (1884); mourning their Mother's Death ; Expulsion 

Road to Switzerland, Evening Song (1885). of Hagar, Ghent Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 

He illustrated Ch. Blanc's "Histoire des 7; Kramm, ii. G28. 

peintres de toutes les ecoles." HAFFTEN, KARL VON, born at Wis- 

HADES, DESCENT INTO, Tintoretto, S. j mar, Mecklenburg, Jan. 29, 1834. Land- 
Cassiauo, Venice. " A somewhat haggard , scape painter, pupil of Munich Academy 



after having visited, from 184I> to 18.">(;, 
England and Scotland, North America, Bra- 
zil, aud Australia. After three years in Mu- 
nich he spent one year in Italy, attracted 
especially by the ruins at Pola, Istria ; took 
part in the campaigns of 18<><> and 1S70, 
exhibited his works in Dresden for the ben- 
efit of the Albert Union in 187:5, and settled 
in Berlin in 1874. Works : Moonlight on 
the Coa-st (18;">8), Sclnvcrin Gallery ; several 
in Collection of Emperor of Germany. 
Schlie, 28. 

HAG All, DISMISSAL OF, Giterrii>, 
Brera, Milan ; canvas, H. '! ft. 8 in. < 5 ft. 
Abraham sending away Hagor. This picture 
was much admired by Lord Byron. Hagar, 

Dismissal of Hagar, Guefcino Brera, Milan 

her face red with weeping, holds her son by 
the hand and turns her eyes to the patriarch. 
Surah, in purple, is seen further back. Half- 
figures. Acquired in 1811 from Galleria 
Sampler!, ISologna. Engraved by It. Strange. 

HAGBO11G, AUGUST, boni at Gothen- 
burg, Sweden ; contemporary. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy and in Paris of Palmaroli. Medal. 
Paris, 3d class, 1870. Works : Spring Tide 
in La Manche (1879), Luxembourg Museum ; 
In the Cemetery of Tourville (188.'{); An 
Alarm (1H84); Preparation for Fishing, 
Fisherman's Daughter (1885) ; Fisherwoman, 
Charles Crocker, San Francisco ; First Quar- 
rel, J. A. Scuddcr, St. Louis. 

HAGEMANS, MAURICE ; contemporary. 

Landscape painter in Brussels. Works : 
March Sun near Chiinay ; Pond of Forge- 
Gerard ; Meadow with Birch Trees. 

HAGEN, BLANCA VOX, born in Bres- 
l:iu, Nov. 4, 1S4:>. Portrait and genre 
painter, studied in Berlin ami Dresden, 
then pupil in Munich of Benczur, and in 
Berlin of Gussow ; visited Italy and Paris, 
and settled in Berlin. Works : Wallachiaii 
Girl ; After Mass : On an Art Tour ; Hagar 
and Ishmael ; At the Sick-bed. - Miiller, 

HAGKN, J011IS VAN DEIl (Verhagen), 
died at The Hague, burieil May 'J:!, IdCll. 
Dutch school: landscape painter, strongly 
intluenced by Kuvsdael. Settled at. The 
Hague in 1C>\'2. and was one of tlie found- 
ers there, of the new painters' guild, 1'ir- 
tura, in 1 <!.">(">. His pictures are truthful 
in details, but the colouring is dark and 
heavy. Works: Two Landscapes, Louvre; 
View near Arnheim (I'il'.t), View in Guel- 
dres, Hague* Museum; View over Canals, 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Hilly Landscape with 
Felled Tree, Town Hall, ik ; Dutch Land- 
scape with Cattle, Berlin Museum ; Evening 
Landscape, IJiver Shore, Carlsruho Gallery ; 
Landscape with Stag-hunt 
(figures by Lingelbach), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Land- 
scapes ('_') willi Figures (by 
J. le Due), two others, Copcn- 
hagen Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., \. :!:!'.> ; 
Burger, i. 1.11, -2C7 ; De Stuers, III. 

HAGKN, THKODOK, born at Diissel- 
d.,rf. May '21, 184'2. 
Landscajie ]>ainter. 
jiupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy under An- 
dreas and Karl Miil- 
ler, then of Oswald 
Achenbach ; trav- 
elled in Switzerland 
and the Tyred, be- 
' came, in 1871, pro- 
fessor at, and in 1877 
director of, the Weimar Art School ; re- 
signed his professorship in 1881. Works: 

. ^ 
**W /I 

\*f ^ 



Westphalian Landscape; Approaching I 

Storm ; Guffern Alp ; St. Gotluml Road ; 
Kanderthal in Switzerland ; View at Sche- 
veningen ; Rhenish C'ity in Evening Light 
(1S7!>), Dresden Gallery; Storm Landscape, 
Breslan Museum. Miiller, 230. 

HAGHE, LOUIS, born at Tournay, 
March 17, 180C, died 
at Stockwell, Eng- 
land, March 9, 1885. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Chevalier de la Bar- 
riiTe, a French eini- 
grant, whom he 
afterwards assisted 
in the publication 
of views in Belgium: 

went to London in 1823, where he partici- 
pated in the publication of several litho- 
graphic works, and afterwards took up 
painting in water-colours ; in 1835 became 
member of the Institute of Painters in "Water 
Colours, and afterwards its president. Mem- 
ber of Antwerp Academy ; Order of Leo- 
pold ; Medals: 1834, 1855. Painted with 
his left hand. Works : "\Var Council at 
Courtray (183!)), National Gallery, London ; 
Scene at Convent Gate of S. Geronimo 
(1840); Oath of Vargas (1841); Cromwell 
with the Letter of Charles I, The Town 
Hall of Courtray (1813) ; Last, Moments of 
Zurbaran (1844) ; Ferdinand with Rubens 
(1845); Rubens painting the ('liafM'aii de 
Faille, Interior of Brewers' Corporation 
Room at Antwerp, Staircase in the House 
of that Corporation (184(1) ; Meeting Room 
(1847) ; Capuchin Monks at Matins, C'haf- 
foir in Town Hall of Mons, Michelangelo 
attending his Sick Servant Urbino (1848) ; 
Vespers in Church of St. Anne, Bruges 
(1840) ; Miseries of War, Guard-Room 
(1850) ; Interior of St. Gomer, Sierre (1851); 
Audience Chamber of Magistrates of Bruges 
Visit of Marguerite of Parma (1852) ; 
Happy Trio, Salle d'Armes in Castle of Salz- 
burg (1853) ; Corps de Garde (1854) ; Holy 
Water Vase in St. Peter's, Rome, Post- Office 

at Albano, Convivial Meeting of Brewers' 
Corporation at Antwerp, Fair Reckoner, 
Comfortable Quarters, The Report, Work 
first and Play afterwards (1855) ; Choir of 
Santa Maria Novella, Florence (185C, first 
picture in oil) ; Antechamber in Tribunal of 
Inquisition, Venice, View of Ducal Palace, 
ib., Town Hall of Oudenarde (1850) ; Sunny 
Hours (1857, in oil) ; Incident in Life of 
Cornells Vroom, Public Letter-Writer in 
Rome, Remains of Portico of Octavia, Rome 
(1857) ; The Spy, Peter Boel arranging his 
Model, Drinking Song, Transept of St. 
Mark's, Venice (1858). Art Journal (1854), 
25fi ; (1850), 13 ; Athen. (1885), i. 352 ; 
Kramm, ii. 030 ; Miiller, 231. 

VON, born in Munich, 
Nov. 23, 1820. Genre 
painter, pupil in Ber- 
lin of Krause, then of 
Munich and Antwerp 
Academies, at the lat- 
ter under Wappers, 
and in 1847-50 at 
Brussels of Eugene de 
Block ; lived then suc- 
cessively in Brussels, 

Berlin (1850-53), where by the pictures of 
Menzel and those in the palaces at Potsdam 
and Sans Souci he was led to the cultivation 
of rococo subjects, and Paris (1853-55), and 
settled in Munich, whence he visited Rome 
and Florence (1803-05). Member of Munich 
Academy since 1807. W T orks : Unwelcome 
Wooing' (1851), Schwerin Gallery; The 
Sweet Tooth, Musical Entertainment (1801); 
Alchemist 1 1802) ; Promissory Note ; Walk 
in Versailles ; Conversation in the Park 
(1800), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Italian 
Garden Scenes (2), Schack Gallery, ib.; Sun- 
day Walk (1863) ; Fish Market in Rome 
j (18G5) ; Goldoni (1800) ; Bowling Alley 
(1807); Roman Library (1808); Munich 
' Beer Cellar (18G9) ; Duel in 17th Century ; 
Hall in Versailles; Faring Minstrels; Garden 
' Scene in 18th Century ; Walk in the Woods; 
Contrasts ; Audience with Pope Leo XHI. 



(1880) ; Tintoretto in the Seuola di San 
Rocco (1881) ; Procession of Corpus Christi 
in Munich ill lasl Century (1884), City Hull, 
Munich. Brockhaus, viii. 700 ; Miiller, 231; 
Graph. K., v. 43 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 352 ; 
Lcixncr, D. mod. K., ii. 1)3. 

HAILElt, MAX, born iu Munich in 1818. 
History painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
under Schlotthauer, painted for four years 
under Cornelius in the Ludwigskirche. 
Works : Baptism of L)uke Theodore and his 
Son, Ratisbon Cathedral ; Emperor Charles 
VII., Kaisersaal, Frankfort. 

HAL, JACOB VAN, born at Antwerp, 
An-,'. 27, 11)7:2, died there, April 20, 1750. 
Flemish school ; history painter, pupil of 
one Marcus Lommeliii ; dean of the guild 
in 1705. Works: Fall of Manna, Adoration 
of the Holy Sacrament, St. James's, Ant- 
werp; Nativity, Jesuit College, ib. Van den 
Branden, 1108. 

HALAUSKA, LUDWIG, born at Waid- 
hofen, Nether Austria, in 1827, died iu Vi- 
enna, April 2'J, 18S2. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Steinfeld, but studied mostly from 
nature, travelling through the mountainous 
districts of Tyrol, Styria, anil Bavaria, and 
on the Rhine. Member of Vienna Academy 
since 1870. Works : Calm Lake (1804) ; 
Morning in the Mountains (1805) ; Church 
Ruin in Evening Light (1800) ; Old Earth- 
work near Landeck (1807), Austrian Art 
Union; Mountain-Brook in Storm (18G8), 
Vienna Academy ; Summer Landscape from 
Main Country ; Burgau on Alter Lake 
Village on the Main, Vienna Museum 
View near St. Andril ; View near Salzburg 
Ferry on the Main. Miiller, 2.'i2 ; Wurz- 
bach, vii. 230 ; Zeitsch., x. (Mitlheiluugen, 
iii. 74). 

HALBREITER, ULRICH, born at Frei- 
sing, July 11, 1812, died in Munich, Nov. 
20, 1877. History painter, pupil of the 
Munich Academy under Schlotlhauer, whom 
he accompanied lo Upper Italy (1834). 
After he had assisted Heinrich Hess in the 
Basilica, and Cornelius in the fresco of the 
SI. Louis Church in Munich, he spenl Ihree 

years in Athens, painting historical scenes 
in the Royal Palace, and at the end of 1843 
went to Constantinople, Egypt, and through 
the desert via Julia to Jerusalem, of which 
city he painted a panorama (18 ft. x 100 ft., 
Lateran, Rome). Works : Battle at Kar- 
bouissi, Devastation of the Morea under 
Ibrahim Pasha ; Defence of Missolonghi, 
Hoyal Palace, Athens; Adoration of the 
Shepherds (1840) ; Assumption (1851). 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 403 ; Allgem. Zeitg., 
Dec. Ill, 1X77, Beilage, 353. 

HALE, E. MATTHEW, born in England; 
contemporary. Genre painter. Exhibits 
chielly in Grosvenor Gallery. Works: 
Psyche's Toil in Venus' Garden (18711) ; 
Three Princesses (1XX1); Psyche before 
Venus, Irish Flower Garden (1S,S3| ; Going 
to the Play, Criticism (1XX4) ; In the Days 
of Phidias (1885). 

England ; contemporary. Landscape and 
marine painter; associate of Society of 
Painters in Water Colours since 1x71. 
Works: Glen Logan, Loch Maree (1X73); 
On the Coast of Somerset, Great Hock of 
Coigach (1X7X) ; Twilight in a Coombe 

HALEN, ARNOUD (Arend) VAN, died 
in Amsterdam in 1732. Dutch school ; 
portrait painter, signed his name often 
Aquila ; started, under the title Pan Poeti- 
con Batavum, a collection of portraits of 
Dutch poets, of which he painted two hun- 
dred. Other works : Portraits of Jan van 
Huysum, Isaak Mouchcron, Gerard de Lai- 
resse ; Woman with Book. Immerzeel, ii. 1* ; 
Kramin, i. 25 ; ii. 031. 

HALEN, PEETER VAN, born at Ant- 
werp, baptised Jan. 12, 1012, died there, 
buried May 22, 1087. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter ; master of the guild in 
1041, dean in 1050. Supplied his land- 
scapes with many highly- finished small fig- 
ures. Work, The Deluge, Cassel Gallery. 
Van den Branden, 915. 

HALL, GEORGE HENRY, bora in Bos- 
Ion in 1825. Subjecl aud figure painter ; 



studied in Diisseldorf in 1840, and painted i in the Stable (187G) ; Horses on Towing- 

in Paris in 1850-52 ; sketched in Spain in ; Path (1877). 

18(iO and 1800 ; elected N.A. in 1808. Vis- [ HALLE, C. E. ; contemporary. Figure 
ited Italy in 1872, Egypt and Cairo in 1875. and portrait painter. Son of the eminent 
Professional life passed chiefly in New York, musician Charles Halle. Exhibits chiefly in 
Studio in Koine (1884). Works: Group of the Grosvenor Gallery. Works : Little Blue- 
Spanish Children (1808) ; Young Lady of Stocking, Friends, the Gareloch, Arrochar, 
Seville and her Duenna (1870) ; Seasons, 4 Nuremberg (1877) ; Rain Cloud (1878); To 
pictures (1871), llichard Butler, New York ; God and My Love's Eight Arm (1879) ; Cup 
Pomegranates (1874); April Showers (1870), of Tea, St. George and Dragon, Premi ! 
Graziella, Governor Fairbanks; Spice B:i- (1880); Dance of Shepherdesses, Wild Boar 
xaar Cairo (1879) ; Studies of Grapes, Hunt (1881) ; Nora Creena, Judith, Prep- 
J. J. Astor, New York ; Turner's Shop arations (1882) ; Youth and Age, Hebe, 
Catskill (1880) ; Bric-u-Brac of Damascus, Phyllis (18815) ; Feeding the Pigeons, An 
Home, and Seville (1881) ; Catskill Mountain Unfrequented Path, portrait of Mary Ander- 
Laurels, Peaches (1882) ; Window in Yen- sou (1884) ; The Mirror, Pets, Fortune-Tel- 
ice, Strawberries (1883). Tuckerman, ler, two portraits (1885). 
4S3. HALLK, CLAUDE GUY, born in Paris, 

HALL, SYDNEY P., born at Newmar- Jan. 17, 1052, died there, Nov. 5, 1736. 
ket in 1842. Genre and portrait painter, French school ; history painter, son and pu- 
pupil of Hoyal Academy and of Arthur pil of Daniel H. (history painter, 1031-75) ; 
Hughes ; special artist of London Graph- won first prize of the Academy in 1075. 
ic. Accompanied Prince of Wales to India Painted many well-composed, but not always 
in LS70 as staff artist. Works : Heview well-drawn, pictures for French churches 
in Windsor Park July 10, 1877, Queen and palaces. Member of Academy, 1082 ; 
visiting Camp at Ascot Heath 1877 (1878); professor, 1702 ; rector, 1730. Works : St. 
Chapter of Order of Star of India Cal- Paul preventing his Jailer from killing Him- 
cutta, January 1, 1870 (1880), painted for self, Louvre ; Christ driving out Money- 
Lord Northbrook ; Their First Voyage Changers (1080); Annunciation, NotreDame; 
(1882) ; Duke and Duchess of Teck receiv- Submission of the Doge of Genoa to Louis 
ing Officers of Indian Contingent (1883); XIV., Versailles Museum ; St. Nicholas giv- 
Descent on Italy, portraits of Princesses ing Alms, Grenoble Museum ; lo changed 
Louise, Victoria, and Maud of Wales (1884); into a Cow; 
A Lord Chamberlain, Portrait of Major- I j A I I C 1 ( | r Jesus at Em- 
General Earlc (1885). U mans ; Holy 

HALLATZ, EMIL, born in Frankfort- Family ; Sacrifice to Cupid. Bellier de la 

on-the-Oder in 1837. Animal painter, Chavignerie, i. 737 ; Jal, 070 ; Lejeune, 

pupil of Berlin Academy and of StefFeck ; Guide, iii. 121. 

went in 1802 to Paris to study the works HALLE, NOEL, born in Paris, Sept. 2, 

of Troyon and Rosa Bonhcur, and visited 1711, died there, June 5, 1781. French 

Italy in 1803. Works : Percheron Horses ; school ; history painter, son and pupil of 

Crossing Jutland Frontier ; Importation ' Claude Guy Hallo ; won 2d grand prix in 

of Grain into Normandy (1808) ; Herd in 1734, and grand prix de Rome in 1736. 

Approaching Storm ; Stag Hunt (1872) ; Though a good draughtsman, he was weak 

Village Scene ; Coast Scene near Dieppe ; in composition and colour. He became 

Journey of the three Magi ; Life-boat ; Fes- ! Member of Academy, 1748 ; professor in 

tive Riding at Harvest (1875); Snow-storm > 1755, assistant rector and treasurer in 1777, 
in the Puszta ; The Old Hypochondriacs ' and rector in 1781 ; superintendent of Go- 



belinsin 1771 ; director of the School of Art 
in Rome in 1775-77 ; Member of Order of 
St. Michael, 1777. Works : Delilah cutting 
Samson's Hair (17:54) ; Passage of the lied 
Sea (173(i) ; Dispute between Minerva and 
Neptune (1748), Fonhiinebleau ; Flight into 
Egypt (17;)!)), Archbishop Flavian interced- 
ing for Inhabitants of Antioch (1702), Or- 
leans Museum ; St. Vincent de Paul Preach- 
ing (17(il), Church of St. Louis, Versailles ; 
Ceiling of Baptistery, St. Snlpice, Paris; 
Autumn, Geniuses of Poetry, History, Phys- 
ics, and Astronomy (1701), Simon the Athe- 
man (1777); 
Cornelia, JJ 
Mother of the r' 
Gracchi (17711). Bellier de la Chavignerie, 
i. 7:57 ; Jal, 070 ; Larousse ; Lejeune, Guide, 
i. 238. 

HALLE/, G. J., born at Framcries, near 
Mons, July IS, 1761), died in Brussels, May 
IS, 1810. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Mous Academy, where he won all the 
pri/cs ; in 1787 travelled through France, 
and after his return was called to Brussels 
to paint portraits of the Emperor of Austria 
and other high personages; in 17'.)(J was 
made professor at the central school of the 
Department Jemappes, and afterwards di- 
rector of Mons Academy ; settled in Brus- 
sels in 1831). Member of Antwerp Academy 
iu 1817. Works: Marshal Bcaulieu and 
Count van Zoou (1811) ; Young Mother and 
Child in Grotto ; Jupiter's Awakening ; He- 
turn (1813); Inundation Scene (I8;i:i) ; 
many portraits. Immerzeel, ii. 10. 

HALLMANN, ANTON, born at Hanover 
in 1812, died at Leghorn, Aug. 21), 1845. 
Architecture painter, and renowned archi- 
tect, pupil in Hanover of Hellner, then of 
Munich Academy ; in 18313 walked to Home, 
and in 1834 to Naples ; returned to Munich 
in 183'J, then went to St. Petersburg, and 
thence to London and Paris ; in 1841 re- 
turned to Rome, and in 1842 visited Dres- 
den. Works : Convent Garden near Fossa 
Nova (1841); Five pictures illustrating Song 
of Mignon (1842) ; Day in Cyprus (1843) ; 

Decayed Villa in Evening Light (1845). 
Brockhaus, viii. 738; Cotta's Kunstbl., 1840; 
Faber, vi. 350. 

HALS, D1KK, born in Haarlem before 
1(10(1, died there, buried May 17, Hl'iil. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, brother and 
pupil of Frans the elder. His works, usu- 
ally representing soldiers, cavaliers, and 
women, eating, drinking, dancing, or listen- 
ing to music, were painted between 1020 
and 1053. His st vie has some analogy with 
that of Peter de Hooch; the predominant 
tone is a cool grav, lending great harmony 
to the light colours ; only in his later works 
a warmer brownish tone is apparent. He 
painted figures in Dirk van Dcelcn's pictures. 
Works : Merry Party, National (lallerv, Lim- 
don; Assembly in a Park (about Kill!), 
Louvre, Paris ; Lady at the Piano, Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam; Five Senses (1(121), D. 
Franken, ib. ; Ball-Scene (1028, interior by 
Van Deelen), N. .J. W. Smallenburg, The 
Hague ; The Topers (11)27), Berlin Museum; 
Conversation-pieces (two 1030, one 1053), 
Figure of Kommelpotspeeler, Amalieiistit't, 
Dessau; Merry Party, Stuttgart Museum; 
Two Cavaliers and a Lady, Kunsthalle, Hani- 
burg; Assembly (1(122), Gallery, Copenha- 
gen ; Game at Draughts (1035), Count, 
Moltkc, il>. ; Assembly of Ladies and Gentle- 
men, Musical Party (attributed to A. Pala- 
medesx), Gotha Museum; Loving Couple, 
Flute Lesson (l(!4(i), Hausmann Collection, 
Hanover; Conversation-piece (1020), Peter 
von Scmenoff, St. Petersburg; do. (1028), 
Violoncello Player (attributed to J. leDucq), 
Academy, Vienna; Loving Couple on a Walk 
(1024), Game of Tric-trac, Assembly, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Assembly in a Park 
(about Ki20), Josef von Lippmaim, ib. ; Lute 
Player (1020), formerly Gsell Collection, ib. ; 
Heading a Letter, Ber- 
gamo Gallery ; Festival, 
Metropolitan Museum, 
New York. Bode, Stu- I 
dien, 121, 613 ; Burger. 
Musces, ii. 121; Gaz. des. B. Arts (18C8), 
xxv. 3'JO ; Zahu, Jahrbucher, 1871. 


HALS, FRANS, the elder, horn in Ant- 
werp in 1584, died in Haarlem, Aug. 26, 
1(566. Dutch school ; 
portrait and genre 
painter of great re- 
n o \vn ; pupil of 
Kurd Van Marnier. 
A most influential 
teacher and founder 
of a national style, 
and a portrait paint- 
er to be ranked with 
the greatest mas- 
ters. Addicted to drunkenness, according 
to Houbrakcn, he was never prosperous, 
despite his long and active life and his un- 
usual talent, which excited Van Dyck's ad- 
miration. In IGGt, reduced to sheer want, 
he was supported by the municipality and 
pensioned. Flesh-colouring unequalled ; 
handling broad, masterly, and vigourous. 
Pictures unequal in merit ; his immense 
facility sometimes led him to be. careless 
and sketchy. Works: Joh. 15ogurdus (1614); 
Banquet of Officers (1616), do. (1627), do. 
(1627), Assembly of Officers (1633), Officers 
of St. George's Guild (1(5:5!)), Regents of St. 
Elizabeth's Hospital (1641), Regents of Old 
Men's Hospital (1664), do. (1(564), Haarlem 
Museum ; portrait of himself and his sec- 
ond wife (1624), The Fool (1(525), Jolly 
Toper (1630), Old Lady (16:5!)), Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Archery-piece (1637), City 
Hall, ib. ; Portrait of John Barclay (before 
1(510), Athena'um, ib.; Male Portrait (1(555), 
Six Collection, ib. ; do., Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Portraits of Dutch Nobleman and 
Wife (1(525), Hague Museum ; Male Por- 
trait, do. (1(545), Museum, Brussels ; Sing- 
ing Boys, Merry Tippler, Arenberg Gallery, 
ib.; De Strandlooper van Haarlem (1(540), 
Male Portrait (1635), do. (1640), Antwerp 
Museum ; Laughing Girl (1630), Portrait of 
a Lady, Portraits (3) of Beresteyn Family 
(1629, 1630), Louvre, Paris ; Topers, Male ] 
and Female Portrait, Rothan Gallery, ib. ; 
Male Portrait (162(5), Old Lady, Young Lady 
(1634), Buffoon, Laughing Girl (1635), Rorn- 

melpotspeeler, Man and Wife (1638), do. 
(1643), Count Mnis/ech, ib. ; Laughing Girl 
(1645), Lille Museum ; Male Portrait (1632), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Singing Boy (1625), 
Male Portraits (1625, 1627, 1656, 1660), Man 
and Wife (1627), Child with Nurse, Toper 
(1(530), Hille Bobbe van Haarlem (about 
1650), Berlin Museum ; Nobleman and 
Wife (1620), Two Boys making Music 
(1(525), Toper (1(540), Male Portraits (3, 
1655, 1(560), Laughing Girl, Cassel Gallery; 
Male Portraits (2, 1630), Dresden Gallery ; 
do. (1(535, 1655), Gotha Museum ; Young 
Man (1624), Man and Wife (1(538), Stiiclel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Boy playing the Flute 
(1(525), Ki'migsbcrg Museum ; do., and Boy 
Drinking, Male Portrait (1630), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Man and Wife (1(543), Stettin Mu- 
seum ; Male Portrait (1650), Museum, Vi- 
enna ; do. (2, 1630, 1644), Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib. ; do. (1655), Old Lady (1638), 
Buron'llothscbild, ib.; Male Portrait (1(550), 
National Gallery, Pcsth ; do. (4, 1635, 1650, 
1(560), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Old 
Woman's Head (1645), National Gallery, 
London ; do. (1640), Bridgewater Gallery, 
ib.; Male Portrait (1630), Buckingham Pal- 
ace, ib. ; do. (1624), Manchester House, ib.; 
do. (1635), Marquis of Bute, ib. ; Artist's 
Portrait (1622), Devonshire House, ib ; 
Herring Seller (1(516), Lord Northbrook, ib. ; 
Male Portrait (1628), Hampton Court Pal- 
ace ; Ilille. Bobbe (?, probably by Frans, the 
younger), Meeting of Trained Bands to cele- 
brate Peace of Miinster (with Dirk Hals), 
Metropolitan Museum, New York ; Por- 
trait (?), Historical Society, ib. ; other pict- 
ures attributed to him in the galleries of 
Munich, Stuttgart, Brunswick, Weimar, Old- 
enburg, etc., are not by him. Of his seven 
sons five were painters : Herman (1611-69), 

H painted conversation pieces ; 
Johannes (died in 1650), fig- 
ures and genre scenes ; Frans 
(see following article) ; Reg- 
nier (1627-89), genre scenes; 
Nicolaas (born in 1628), genre and land- 
scape. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 451 ; Ch. 



f * 
/ Q *f O 

Blanc, F^oole flamande ; Bode, Fr. Hals und 
seine Schule (Leipsie, 1871) ; ilo., Studien, 
35, 612 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xvi. -Jit!) ; 
(1865), xviii. 103 ; (1868), xxiv. 21!), 431 ; 
(1809), i. 102 ; (1885), xxxi. 31!) ; Van der 
Willigen, 139, 348 ; Zcitschr. f. b. K., viii. 
193 ; xviii. 347. 

HALS, FRANS, the younger, born in 
Haarlem between 1617 and 1623, died there 
after 166!). Dutch school ; genre and still- 
life painter, son and pupil of Frans, the 
elder, many of whose pictures he copied. 
Works : Two Children Singing, Arenberg 
Gallery, Brussels ; Heads of Laughing Boys 
(2), Royal Palace, il>. ; Piper and Violin- 
Player, Schweiin Gallery ; Still Life (1038). 
Konigsberg Museum ; do. (1640), Berlin 
Museum ; Hillo Bobbo as Fish-wife, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Interior of Peasant Cottage 
(2,1637, ' 

1638), Carls- 
ruhc (!ul- 
lery. -Bode, Stiulicn, 103, 219, (ill! ; (in;.. 
des 15. Arts (1808), xxv. 398) ; (1869, i. 111.",; 
Van der Willigen, 150 ; /eitschr. f. b. K., v. 
79 ; ix. 299. 

HALSWELLE, KEELEY, bom at liich- 
inond, Surrey, in 1832. Landscape, marine, 
and figure painter ; studied drawing and 
engraving, and drew much on wood for 
Illustrated London News ; went about 1855 
to Edinburgh, and studied in schools of 
Royal Scottish Academy, exhibiting his first 
picture, In Vino Veritas, in 1857, and his 
Bridge of Sighs in 1858. In 1866 he be- 
came an A.R.S.A. In 1868 he went, to 
Rome, and painted there his Roba di Roma 
(1869). Other works : Street Scene in 
Rome (1870) ; Contadini in St. Peter's 
(1871, sold in 1883, 1,732) ; Elevation of 
the Host (1872) ; II Madonajo (1873) ; Ro- 
man Fruit Girl (1874) ; Marriage Proces- 
sion (1875) ; Rome from the Sistine, Non 
Angli sed Angeli (1877) ; Play Scene in 
Hamlet (1878) ; Tug and Timber Barge 
(1880) ; Wittenlmm Clumps (1881) ; Shoot- 
er's Hill Pangbourne (1882), Royal Wind- 
sor Morning, Evening Mists (1883); Glram 

of the Setting Sun, Rokeby, Bed of Water- 
Lilies (1884) ; Kilchurn Castle, Flying 
Scuds (1885). Art Journal (1879), 49. " 

i/i-ln, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceil- 

HAMEL, JULIUS, born at Dillenbnrg. 
Nassau, in 1834. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Stiidel Institute, Frankfort, 
under Jacob Becker, Steinle, and Passavant ; 
visited Dresden (1860), Munich (1861), Bel- 
gium and Holland (1866), and Italy (1869- 
7(1), and settled in Frankfort. Works: 
Christ washing Peter's Feet (1857) ; En- 
tombment (1858), Frankfort Art Union; 
Loreley (1859); Tel/el's Indulgence Trallic 
(1864); Eginhard and Emma (1867) ; Will- 
iam of Orange taking Farewell of Egmont 
(1871); Seasons and Harvest -Joys (1874); 
Taking of Egmont (1876) ; Countess Help- 
cnstcin begging for her Husband's Life 
(1879) ; Portraits of Professor Meeker, Jus- 
timiH Kerner, Arthur Schopenhauer. Miil- 
ler, 231. 

born at Brussels in 166S or 1670, died at 
Augsburg in 1754. Animal and still-life 
painter, son and pupil of James Hamilton 
(1640-1720, an able still-life painter, who 
under Cromwell left Scotland and settled at 
Brussels) ; also pupil of his brothers, John 
George and Philip Ferdinand ; entered the 
service of Bishop Alexander Sigismund of 
Augsburg, for whom ho painted a great 
number of pictures, several of which are now 
in the roval galleries of Bavaria. Works: 
Plants and Fruits, etc., Lyons Museum ; 
Weeds and Reptiles in the Woods, Carlsruhe 
Gallcrv ; Still Life with Plants and Insects 
(2), Darmstadt Museum; do. (3), Stuttgart 
Museum; do. (1), Schleissheim Gallery; 
Recd-I5irds, Quail, Saint Gall Museum ; 
Dead Fox and Game-Birds (1739i, Schwerin 
Gallery ; two do. and two others, Mannheim 
Gallery. Wur/.bach, vii. 264. 

HAMILTON (Hammilton), FRANS DE, 
flourished second half of 17th century. 
Animal and still-life painter, either brother 



or eldest son of James ; entered the service 
of the Elector of Brandenburg at Cleves in 
1GG1, but seems to have immediately re- 
moved to Potsdam, whence, having resigned 
his position, he went to Vienna in 1G70, 
then entered the Bavarian service in 1083. 
Works : Dead (lame, Animal Life in the 
Woods (2), Snliwerin Gallery ; similar sub- 
jects (4), Aschaffenburg Gallery ; do. (4), 
Hchleissheim Gallery. Schlie, 235. 

HAMILTON, GAVIN, born at Lanark, 
Scotland, in 173(1, died in Home in 1707. 
History painter, master unknown ; wentearly 
to Italy, and resided in Rome most of his days. 
More noted for promotion of the line arts 
than as a painter, but left some good pict- 
ures, especially illustrations of the Iliad. 
Works : Achilles with the Dead Body of Pat- 
roclus ; Achilles parting with Briseis ; Achil- 
les dragging the body of Hector behind his 
Chariot ; Andromache weeping over Hector ; 
Apollo. About 1794 ho decorated an apart- 
ment in the Villa Borghese, Home, with the 
story of Paris. Redgrave. 

dlesex Co., England, April 1, 1847. Genre 
painter, self-taught. His family removed to 
America when he was an infant, and settled at 
Cowlesville, Wyoming County, N. Y. In 1872 
he opened a studio in Buffalo and painted 
portraits ; in 1875 visited the Rocky Moun- 
tains and painted the Laramio Peaks (Cen- 
tennial Exhibition, 187<>), now in the Buf- 
falo Fine Arts Academy ; spent 1878 70 in 
Europe, chiefly at Pont Avon, Brittany ; re- 
turned thence to Buffalo, and removed to 
New York in 1881. Member of American 
Water-Colour Society, and New York Etch- 
ing Club ; elected A.N.A. in 18S(i. Works : 
The Peddler's Visit, The Sisters (1882) ; The 
Silver Line, Jump -Sir! Little Sunbeam, 
The Dreamer (1884) ; Interior at New Wind- 
sor N. Y., Farewell, Veiled Head (1885) ; 
Solitude, The Messenger (1880). Hitch- 
cock, American Etchings (New York, 1885). 

HAMILTON, JAMES, born in Ireland in 
1819, died in 1878. Marine painter, taken 
to America as a child, studied first in Phila- 

1 delphia ; spent 1854-55 in London, and 
after his return to Philadelphia furnished 
illustrations for Dr. Kane's Arctic Explora- 
tions and other works. Professional life 
passed in Philadelphia. Works : Egyptian 
Sunset ; Morning off Atlantic City, Mrs. C. 
S. Longstreet, New York ; Moonlight Scene 
near Venice ; Wrecked Hopes ; Old Iron- 
sides ; Escape of Smugglers, Capture of the 
Serapis, Mrs. D. D. Col ton, San Francisco ; 
Death of Steerforth, W. H. Fosdick, Louis- 
ville ; Wreck off the Coast, C. H. Wolff, 
Philadelphia ; Off Delaware Capes, J. W. 
Drcxel, New York ; Vision of Columbus, 
Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia. 

at Brussels in 1GGG or 1(!72, died in Vienna 
in 1740 ('?). Animal and still-life painter, 
son and pupil of .lames (Scotch painter of 
fruit, and still life) ; painted many years 
in Brussels, then joined his brother Philip 
in Vienna ; later lived at the court of Ber- 
lin, but returned to Vienna after the death 
of Friedrich I. of Prussia, and became court- 
painter. Ho painted flowers, fruits, and in- 
sects, but especially horses with great skill. 
Works : Horses and Foals in Pasture (2), Im- 
perial Stud at Lipicxa (1727, with 72 horses 
painted from nature), Stag and two Roes 
in a Landscape, Boar-Head and Hunting 
Implements (1718), Vienna Museum; several 
in Summer Palace at Sehonbrunn, and in 
Gallery of Stift Kremsmiinster ; Dead Hare 
and Birds, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Dead 
Birds Suspended (2), Schleissheim Gallery ; 
White Horse Jumping (1703), Thoroughbred 
(1704), White Horse led by Negro, Sorrel 
led by Groom (1700), Dresden Gallery ; 
Dogs by Dead Game (3), Dead Bird and 
Insects (2), Bear-Hunt, Stuttgart Museum ; 
White Grouse in the Mountains, Zurich Gal- 
lery. His son and pupil, Anton Ignatz (bom 
iu Vienna in 1GOG, died at Hubertsburg, 
Saxony, in 1770), who painted the same sub- 
jects, entered the service of the Duke of 
Saxe- Weimar, and then became court- 
I painter to Augustus III., King of Poland 
, and Elector of Saxony. Kramm, ii. G35. 



HAMILTON, JOHN McLURE, born in in Paris. Gold medal in Brussels, 1848 ; 

Philadelphia in 185;?. Genre painter ; medals in Paris : :)d class, 1853 ; 2d class, 

studied at the Royal Academy, Antwerp, 1859, LSI.;!, 18U4 ; Order of Leopold, 1854 ; 

under Van Lerius, and at the Ecole dcs L. of Honour, 18(i4. Works : Preparations 

Beaux Arts, Paris, under GeV>me. Exhib- for Serenade, Rabelais at the Court of France, 

ited at National Academy in 1877, Le Rire, Hamlet, Charles IX. and his Surgeon Am- 

and at Pennsylvania Academy in 1885, The broise Pare, Louis XIII. and Maria de' Med- 

Old Pioneer and Swiftwater. Stu<lio in ici surprised by Richelieu, Doge Mocenigo 

Philadelphia. and Titian visiting Paul Veronese, Daughter 

HAMILTON, PHILIP FERDINAND of the Criminal (1847-53); Christopher Co- 

DE, born at Brussels in KH!4, died in Vi- lumbus ; Adrian Willaert playing Organ in 

enua in 1750. Animal and still-life painter, Monastery at Bruges, Brussels Museum; 

son and pupil of James; was called to the Workshop of Stradivarius ( IS(i'.l); Tlie An- 

court of Vienna by Charles VI., who cm- atomist Vesalius in Padua; Dante at Ra- 
ployed him extensively. His pictures are , venna (185!)); Entry of Duke Albrecht VII. 

frequently to be met with at the country- and Isabella into Ostend ; The Heptann'ron 

seats and in the castles of the Austrian of Margaret of Angouli'me ; Childliood of 

nobility, and in the public galleries of Yi- Francis I.; Charles V. instructed by Eras- 

enua, Prague, Pesth, Munich, Weimar, DCS- mus(18(!;j). Luxembourg Museum ; AVomeii 

sail. (Karlsruhe, Frankfort, and Oldenburg, of Siena during the Siego (IKC4); Festival 
Kramm, ii. (i!?f> ; Wurxbach, vii. 2<>:i. j of Biicentaur in Venice (IS(IT); Masaniello 

HAMLET, PLAY SCENE IN, Daniel and the Viceroy of Naples ; Murillo in his 
jMiir/; National Gallery, London; canvas, Studio; Huguenot Family in Flight (1870); 
H. 5 ft. < It ft. The play scene in centre, The Secrets of Madame and of the Sou- 
background; in foreground, right, the king brettc (I87.'i); Father's Memories (I.S7S); 
and queen and Polonius, with attendants and ' Grassy Corner in Normandy ( ISHl ); Mead- 
soldiers ; left, Ophelia with Horatio leaning ows of Sunlit' (1882); Farm Yard in Nor- 
on her chair, and behind, attendants and mandy (1883); The Breakers (1884). lour, 
soldiers ; centre, Hamlet lying at feet of des B. Arts (18(iO), 1U8 ; Kramm, ii. <!3(! ; 
Ophelia, gazing on the king's face. Royal Miiller, 1(17. 

Academy, 184'J. Engraved by C. Rolls. HAMMER, (KD.MUNDi ( UTI X ), born in 

Art Journal (1854), 214. Dresden, Feb.' 4, 1821. 

HAMLET WITH YORICK'S SKULL. Animal painter and il- 

Sir Thomas Lawrenci; National Portrait lustrator, pupil of Drcs- 

Gallery, London; canvas, H. 10 ft. x (i ft. (> den Academy and of 

in. Portrait of John Philip Kemble, as Julius Hiibner. In 1*47 

Hamlet, apostrophizing the skull of Yorick, visited Trieste and 

the king's jester, which he holds in his hand. North Italy on foot, and 

Painted in 1801 ; presented in 18,'!(! by King returned home by Mu- 

William IV. Transferred from National Gal- nich and Nuremberg ; 

Icry in 1884. Engraved by S. W. Reynolds has made frequent ex- 
and others. Sketch sold at Sir T. Baring ' cursions into the forests 

sale, 1848, for 50 guineas. Gower, 48 ; Waa- of Saxony, Bohemia, and Silesia, and the, 

gen, Treasures, L 380. Tyrol ; went to Constantinople in 18(!(. 

HAMMAN, (F.DOUARD JEAN) CON- Works : Mort, Saxon Art Union ; Two Stags 
RAD, born at Ostend, Sept 24, 181!). His- Fighting ; Greyhound (1852), Sow with 
torieal genre painter, pupil of Antwerp Grice stopped by Dog (I860), Dresden Gal- 
Academy and of De Keyser ; settled in 184(i lery. Miiller, 235. 



Copenhagen, Dec. 29, 1815. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy under Eckersberg ; entered the 
army in 1848, took part in the campaign of 
that vear, and took his leave as captain in 
1800 "; visited Italy in 1856-58. Order of 
Dannebrog, 18G1 ; Member of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1874. Works : Last Load of 
Hay (1845) ; Peasants' Amusement on Sun- 
day (.1847) ; View of Rome (1803) ; Market- 
Place at Ariccia (1803) ; Market-Day at 
Fredericia (1871) ; Long-Expected Letter 
(1877), Copenhagen Gallery. 

HAMMER, JOHN J., born in Westhofen, 
Germany, Jan. 1, 1842. Genre and portrait 
p.iintcr, pupil in Munich from 187(i of Pro- 
fessors Loeft't/ and Alexander Wagner. .Re- 
moved to New York in 1884. Works : In 
the Shade (18S1), In the Sun (1882), Kunst- 
vereiu, Munich ; Gleaners (18S3), William 
Baum f *arti'ii, New York ; Scenes from Pom- 


peii water-colours (18S3) ; Goose Girl 
(1888), Munich Exhibition ; Little Barefoot 
(1884); Dreams of Childhood water-colours 
(1885) ; Portrait of Mrs. Margaret Carnegie 
(188(1), Andrew Carnegie, New York. 

HAMON", JEAN LOUIS, born at St. Loup, 
near Plouha 
(Cotes-du-Xonl ), 
MayH, 1821, died 
at St. Raphael 
(Var), May 29, 
1874. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Delaroche and of 
xGleyre ; exhib- 
ited in 1848 with 
little success. 
Gleyre then obtained him employment at 
Sevres, where he designed and painted a 
number of vases, among them one for Queen 
Victoria (1851), and another for the Empress. 
Lived in Capri after 18G5. Many of his 
highly poetical and delicately painted pict- 
ures have been engraved. Despite great 
professional success, his life was embittered 
and shortened by sickness and pecuniary 

embarrassment. Medals : 3d class, 1853 ; 
2d class, 1855 ; L. of Houour, 1855. Works : 
Tomb of Christ, Frieze of a Door (1848) ; 
Equality in the Seraglio, Parrot playing with 
two Girls, a Roman Notice (1849) ; Human 
Comedy (1852), Luxembourg Museum ; My 
Sister isn't There (1853); Cupid and his Fol- 
lowers, The Orphans, Nurse with Children, It 
is not I (1855); Tomb of Christ (1805), Mar- 
seilles Museum; Chained Butterfly, Enslaved 
Fly, The Cheap Shop, The Tamer, Love, Wom- 
en Winding (1857); Cupid Visiting (1859); 
Aviary, Smuggler, Guardianship, Virgins of 
Lesbos (1801); Elder Sister, Mountebank 
(1801), Nantes Museum ; Imitator, Day of Be- 
trothal, Aurora (1804); Muses at Pompeii 
(1800) ; Promenade (1807) ; Ophelia on the 
15ank of the Dark River (1873) ; Among the 
Flowers, Museum, New York ; Spring Flow- 
ers, W. H. Van- 

J.L. HAMON lerbilt, ib.-Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1875), 

xi. 119; Athenrvum (1874), i. 835; Hamer- 
ton, French Painters ; Larousse ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 028; Illustr. /eitg. (1879), i. 315, 
321 ; Claretie, Peintres (1882), i. 49. 

Berlin, July 13, 1772, died there, Dec. 29, 
1848. Genre and architecture painter, pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy under Niedlich and 
Friscli. Member of the Berlin Academy in 
1810, professor in 1823, and inspector and 
librarian from 1829. Works : Castle in 
Moonlight (1817), Fountain in Gothic Hall 
(1819), Luther's Room in Wittenberg (1821), 
National Gallery, Berlin. 

HANDLER, PAUL, born at Altenwed- 
dingen, near Magdeburg, March 10, 1833. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin ami Diissel- 
dorf Academies, then in Dresden of Julius 
Schnorr ; visited Italy in 1859, and after- 
wards Paris ; lived in Dresden in 18G1-C7, 
and then settled in Berlin, where lie is pro- 
fessor at the Royal Art School. Works : Cru- 
cifixion (1801); Disciples at Emmaus (1862); 
Battle at Mockern (1864); Christ bearing the 
Cross (1805) ; Wall Paintings for Church 
in Hillerslebeu (1807) ; Doubting Thomas 


(1808) ; Crucifixion (1H71) ; Eece Homo treatment, powerful colouring, and fine im- 
(1872); Resurrection (1872); do. (1873) ; pasto. Works in Vienna Museum. 
ChristCrucified(1873); DisciplesatEniiimus] HANOTEAU, HECTOR-, born in Deci/.o 
(1875); Christ and Peter on the Sea (1870). (Nicvre), May '_."), 
In fresco: St. Paul at Athens, Burning of Pa- 1823. Landscape '^jiV^' 

pal Bull at Wittenberg (1881-83), Gymnasi- painter, pupil of 

inn, Magdeburg ; Cartoons for Stained Glass Gigoux. A pains- n^ --_ 

Windows in Prince Albert Mausoleum at taking and skilful 

Windsor Castle ( 1800). Brockhaus, viii.S(J8; realist. Medals : 

Miiller, 235 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersh , 24X. 1*04,1 8 8 , a n d 


Joseph M. W. TuriKT, National Gallery, our, 1870. Works:' 

London; canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. x 7 ft. Kin. Arab Encampment IV f\/ 

A lurid sun seen through a storm of snow, ( 1855); M eado ws 

which threatens to overwhelm the Cart ha- of Charencv, Pond in N'ivernais (1X57); 

giniaus, toiling through the passes, who are Morning on the Cauna (1X511); Morning's 

also attacked by the savage mountaineers. Fishing (1SOO); Springs at Charency (1801); 

Royal Academy, 1X12. Engraved by J. Horses at Liberty ( 1X03); Paradise of Geese, 

Cnusen in Turner Gallery. Cat. Nat. Gal. Marseilles Museum ; Abandoned Hut (1804); 

HANNEMAN, ADR1AEN, born at The Corner of a Park (1S05); Evening on the 
Hague in 1001, died there in 1008 or 1009. Farm, After Fishing (1800); Larder of the 
Portrait painter, pupil of Ravesteyn; went Fox-Cubs (180S); Reeds ( 1809); Passage of 
to England early in diaries I.'s reign, Great Game (1S09); The Summons (1*7(1); 
painted for 10 years under Daniel Mvtens, Village Pond ( 1870), Luxembourg Museum ; 
the elder, and adopted much of Van Dyck's Cottage (1X72); Honeysuckle (1873); The 
manner. He returned afterwards to The Aumancc, View on the Allier, Benevolent 
Hague (probably before 1040), became mas- Public (1X74); Frogs (1875), Luxembourg 
ter of the guild in 1040, court-painter to Museum ; Laughing Water, Kids (1870); 
Princess Mary of Orange, and in 1050 was Mill, Chief Place by the Fire (1877); Mil- 
one of the founders of the new painters' ler's Excursion (1878); Victim of the Sup- 
guild, Pictura, and its first dean. His por- per (1879); Sleeping Water (18X0); Wooded 
traits are well drawn, full of expression, and Pond, My Garden (1XX1); Autumn, Hoeing 
of fine colouring. Works: Portrait of Con- (1X82); The Middle Row (1883); Septem- 
stantyn Huygens and Children (1040) Hague ber. April (1884); Peaks of the Grove, Use- 
Museum ; Portrait of Jan de Wit (1652), ful Man (1885). -Gax. des B. Arts, xvii. 10, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Family Group engaged 102, 308 ; Larousse. 
in Music, Female Portrait, do. (1001), Bruns- HANS VAN KALKAR. See Knlhir. 
wick Museum ; Portrait of Prince William 1 HANSCH, ANTON, born in Vienna, 
Frederick of Orange (1001), Weimar Mu- March 24, 1X13, died in Sal/burg, Dec. 8, 
seuni ; do. of Great Elector (1059), Wm-Iitz 1870. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Gallery ; do. of Charles I., and of Van Dyck, Academy under Moessmer. Studied the 
Vienna Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 522: old masters, and made frequent journeys to 
Burger, Musees, ii. 227 ; Immerzeel, ii. 13 ; the Austrian Alps, to Switzerland, Upper 
Kramin, ii. 037 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 219. Italy, and Belgium. Gold medal, 1839. 

HANNL, MAX, born in Prague in 1090, Prizes, 1839, 1859, 1800. In 1848 he was 

died in Vienna in 1758. German school ; made member, and in 1871 senator, of the 

portrait painter, said to have been a pupil Vienna Academy. Settled at Salzburg in 

of Kupeczky. His portraits show broad 1873. He was one of the leading landscape 



painters of the Vienna school. Works : 
View near Hiefllau, Styria (183U); Neuwald 
near the Schneeberg (1830); Lake of Con- 
stance, Fir Wood in the Salzkammergut ; 
View at Gollinger Falls ; After the Storm ; 
From the Wilderness of Styria ; At Beruina 
Pass ; View on the Kouigsee (1849), Glacier 
of the Jungfrau (1853), Under the Lindens 
(1858), Museum, Vienna; View in the Salz- 
kammergut, Academy, ib. ; Alpine Forest 
(I860); GossauLakc(lSGi)), Oet/.thal Glacier, 
View on Cliieni Lake, The Wetterliorn. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 525 ; Kuust-Chronik, 
xii. 239; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 435 ; [ 
Wurzbaeh, vii. 325. 

Ghent, July 13, 178(i, died there, March 10, 
18(12. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Ghent Academy under Van Huft'el, ob- j 
tained the lirst prize, and in 180!) went to 
Paris, where he studied under David, won 
the grand prize at Ghent in 1814. and went 
to Italy in 1810 ; became court-painter to 
King of Naples and member of Rome and 
Naples Academies, and, after his return in 
1829, professor at Ghent Academy. Works : 
Sacrifice of Abel (1H14); Martyrdom of St. 
Stephen, Ghent Museum ; Philip van Arte- 
vclde inciting llebellion in Ghent ; Susanna 
at the Bath, Artist's Portrait, National Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Roman Woman Pray- 
ing, Weimar Museum. Immcrzeel, ii. 14 : 
Kramm, ii. (il'J. 

Copenhagen, May 5, 1853. Genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy, where he 
took several prizes. Works : Outside the 
Gate (18G8) ; From a Churchyard (1880) ; 
After Breakfast, Children on the Heath, 
(1881); Troubadours (1882). Sigurd Mid- 
ler, 138. 

HANSEN, HEINRICH, born at Haders- 
leben, Nov. 23, 1821. Architecture painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy. In 1847 
travelled through Germany, and in 1850-52 
visited Western Europe and Spain. Mem- 
ber of, and professor at, Copenhagen Acad- 
emy. Works: Interior of St. Sablou's in 

Brussels (1853), Chamber of Christian IV. 
at llosenborg Castle (1855), Boom in Town 
Hall of Bruges (1858), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
San Marco ; Oratory of Christian TV. ; Coun- 
cil Chamber in Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; In- 
terior of IGth Century in Liibeck (1878). 
Sigurd Miiller, 143 ; Weilbach, 242. 

HANSEN, KONSTANTIN, born in Rome, 
Nov. 3, 1804, died 
March 27, 1880. 
Genre and history 
painter, son of the 
portrait painter Hans 
H. (17G9-1828), pu- 
pil of Christopher V. 
Eckersberg ; was in 
Italy in 1835-41, 
and painted many 
scenes from popular 
life ; after his return executed mythological 
scenes in fresco in the University of Copen- 
hagen. Member of Copenhagen Academy 
in 1804, professor, and since 1873 vice- 
director. Works : vEgir's Banquet, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Reading from Ariosto (1839); 
The Housewife (1851)) ; Interior of Mill near 
Hellebek ; Assembly of the States at Chris- 
tiansborg. Sigurd Miiller, 127 ; Weilbach, 

born in Christiania, April 23, 1823. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Berlin and 
Copenhagen Academies, entered the army 
in 1848, went to America in 1850, took part 
in the Civil War as commander of a regi- 
ment of volunteers, and afterwards returned 
to Christiania, where he portrayed especially 
officers of the Norwegian navy. Works : 
Cavalry Skirmish near Rendsburg ; Portraits 
of General Grant and several other Ameri- 
can generals. Weilbach, 246. 

born at Altona in 1791, died there, May 1, 
18G3. History and portrait painter, first 
instructed in Hamburg ; tried portrait 
painting successfully, went to Stralsund, 
and afterwards to Vienna, whence, with the 
Danish painter Bravo, went to Rome, where 



he improved through intercourse with Ilein- 
hanlt, Koch, iinil Cornelius ; after a short 
visit home, lie passed six years in Italy, and 
then resided in Munich in 1830-45. In 
1845 he painted four large al tin-pieces in 
Austria, before going again to Italy, whence 
he returned to hi* native town in 1)S50. 
Works : Youth at Nain ; Magdalen ; The 
Fisherman after Goethe ( 1S:!3) ; Madonna ; 
Christ on Mount of Olives ; Bathing Girls ; 
Portraits of Baron von Aretin, of the painter 
Morgenstern, and many others ; Scenes from 
Mediieval Life in German Castles; four 
great Altarpieces (1845) ; St. Geuevicvo in 
Prison ; Genius with a Child ; Mother and 
Child; Group of Italian Women. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., x. 543 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1835), 
58; Hamb. K. Lex.; Si'.ltl. 

born at Xeudorf, near Dresden, Marcli I'.l, 
1794, died in Dresden, April :!, 1848. ( lenre 
painter, pupil of Dresden Academy and of 
Rossler. Ho satirized the philistinism of 
small towns and set forth the humourous 
aspects of the school-room in his pictures. 
Works: Saxon Peasant's Room; Village 
School ; Youth hath no Virtue ; Sunday 
Morning (18:iO), Leipsic Museum ; At the 
Dentist's (1839), National Gallery, Berlin. - 
Jordan (1885), ii. 84. 

HAPPEL, FRIEDHICH, born at Arns- 
berg, Westi)halia, May 23, 1825, died in 
Diisseldorf, July 5, 1854. Animal painter, 
brother of Peter Friedrich, pupil of the 
Diisseldorf Academy in 18158 41. Works: 
Foxes fighting about Dying Buck (1844); 
Hounds, Foxes hunting Hares, Fighting 
Stags (1851-52) ; Fox Family, Young Foxes 
Playing, Young Foxes waiting for their 
Parents (1853); Stag Calling (1854) ; Foxes 
attacking Wounded Buck (1855). Allgem. 
d. Biogr., x. 552 ; Andresen, v. 197. 

at Arnsberg, Westphalia, March 2(i, 1813, 
died in Dlisseldorf, May 23, 1854. Land- 
scape painter, pupil from 1829 of the Dds- 
seldorf Academy under Schirmer. Opened 
a studio in 1842 at Ddsseldorf, which he left 

only at intervals for study at Munich and in 
the country. Hi! has been called the painter 
of German summer. Was secretary of the 
Diisseldorf Artists' Association. Works : 
View in Sauerland (1837) ; Mountain Land- 
scape in liain (1839); View in Isar Valley 
(1840); Maleiche (1K42) ; Way to Village 
(1847); Moorland (1848); Harvest Scene, 
Mill (185(1); View in the Eifel, Harvest, 
with Procession, View in thu Odcnwald. 
Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 552. 

HAPPY AS A KING, William GW//,,,-, J. 
dough, Liverpool ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 
ft. 1 1 in. Children swinging on a gate in 
il wood. Painted in 1831! ; sold to Messrs. 
Findcn, 275 guineas. Repetition (IS:!(1) j u 
National Gallery, from Vernon Collection, 
1847. Engraved by E. Finden, C. ('onsen. 
Wilkie Collins, Memoirs, ii. (id, 349. 

HAQl'ETTK, GKOKGKS, born in Paris; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Addlphe Millet, and of Cabanel. 
Medal, :!d class, 1880. Works: Wandering 
Musicians (187<>) ; At the Guardian's (JS77); 
Sceneiit I'olletnear Dieppe 1 18~S); Francine's 
MutV, Interior at Pollet (1879) ; Wandering 
Musicians in Norman Tavern ; Fish-seller at 
Dieppe (1880) ; Interior at Mother Panotte's, 
Father Ma/ure (1881) ; Departure for New- 
foundland, At the Pier (1882); Right of Pas- 
sage, Expectation (1883) ; Salute at Calvary, 
A Baptism (1884) ; The Signal (1 SS 0, Mrs. 
M. J. Morgan, New York ; Landing of Fish- 
ermen, Blast of Wind ( 1885). Bellier, i. 741. 

HARBURGER, EDMUND, born at Ei.-h- 
stiidt, Bavaria, April 4, 184<>. ( lenre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Linden- 
schmitt; subjects mostly humourous. Works: 
Beer-Drinker, Village Barber (1872) ; Con- 
trasts (1873); Senator (1874), Art Union, 
Munich; Old and Young (1875) ; Education 
of Bacchus (187(>); Young Venetian Woman; 
At the Silent Hearth ( 1883) ; Seamstress 
(1884) ; Head Study, Saint Gall Museum. 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii. 2-46 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xx. 743. 

HARDING, CHESTER, born at Conway, 
Mass., Sept. 1, 1792, died in Boston, April 


1, 1800. Portrait painter, self-taught. Orig- | Gurlitt at the Desk, Kunsthalle, Hamburg, 
inally a turner, then a soldier in the war : Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 595 ; Nagler, Mon., 
of 1812, and a house-painter in Pittsburgh, [ ii. 1004. 

he developed a talent for portrait painting, HARDORFF, RUDOLF, born in Ham- 
and going to London in 1832 met with burg, March 8, 181C. Marine painter, son 
much success. After his return ho exer- and pupil of Gerdt ; has visited Holland, 
cised his profession in .St. Louis, Philadel- England, and Scotland, and paints marines 

pliia. and I'.oston. Works : Portraits of 
Dukes of Norfolk, Hamilton, and Sussex ; 

effectively with interesting accessories. 
Works : Sunrise on Coast (1848), Explosion 

Sir Archibald Alison; Samuel Rogers ; : of Danish Mau-of- War Christian VIII. near 
Lord Aberdeen ; Daniel Webster, Bar Asso- Eckernforde (1850), Mouth of the Thames 
ciation, New York ; Washington Allston, S. near Ramsgate (1853), Moonlight on Coast, 
Batchelder ; John Randolph, Corcoran Gal- Shipwreck, Kuusthalle, Hamburg ; Naval 
lei-v, Washington ; Daniel Boone ; General Victory of Germans over the Danes (1858) ; 
Sherman ; Henry Clay ; John C. Calhoun ; | Roadstead at Isle of Wight ; The Log-House 
Chief Justice Marshall; Charles Carroll ; in Hamburg Harbour; Cladda Rock by 
William Wirt ; Presidents Madison, Mon- Moonlight ; Scotch Coast ; Men-of-War in 
roe, and J. (I Adams. i North Sea. Mailer, 237. 

at Deptford, England, in 17'.)8, died at at Windsor, February, 182(i. Genre painter, 
Barnes, Dec. 4, 18(i3. Landscape painter, ! relinquished music for painting ; began to 
awarded in 1818 a medal by the Society of exhibit in Royal Academy in 1851 views of 
Arts, elected in 1821 an associate, and in domestic interiors, which have made him 
1822 a member of the Water-Colour Society, popular. Exhibits chiefly at Royal Acad- 
which he left in 1847 to become a candidate emy. Works : The Sweep (18(52) ; Playing 
for the 11. A., but failing returned to it in at Doctor (1863) ; The Pedlar (180-1); Leaky 
1857. Visited Italy in 1830 ; promoted Roof (1805) ; Threatened Deluge (1806) ; 
lithography, and wrote several works on art. Broken Window (1809) ; Reading the Will 
For his lithographic drawings, exhibited at (1870) ; Housekeepers Alarmed (1871) ; 
the Louvre, he received two gold medals Looking for Father (1873) ; Stirring News 
from the Academic des Beaux Arts. Works: (1875); A Misdeal (1877); Prayer for 
The Alps from Secco to Coino ; The Jung- Those at Sea, Music Party (1879) ; Evening 
frau ; Angers on the Loire ; View of Frei- with Mozart (1881) ; Reading the Spectator 
burg; Falls of Schaffhauscn ; On the Mo- in 1711 (1882) ; In Memoriam (1883); Ves- 
selle, Sir Richard Wallace, London ; Pollards pers (1884). 

in Windsor Meadows, Tintern Abbey, Land- , HARDY, HEY WOOD, born in England; 
scape with Hovels, South Kensington Mu- contemporary. Genre painter. Exhibits at 
seum. Art Journal (1850), 181 ; (1850), Royal Academy and Grosvenor Gallery. 
270 ; (1804), 31), 89. | Works : Christmas Eve (1877) ; Meg Mer- 

HARDORFF, GERDT, born in Hamburg rilies and the Laird of Ellangowan (1879) ; 
Territory (Altenland), May 11, 1709, died in ! Sidi Ahmed ben Avuda and the Holy Lion, 
Hamburg in 1804. History painter, pupil Life's Chequered Ways, Lovers' Meeting, 
in Hamburg of Anton Tischbeiu, and from ' Sleeping Beauty, Little Sisters (1881) ; 
1788 in Dresden of Casanova ; returned in King's Daughter, Slain Enemy (1882); Lion 
1796 to Hamburg, where he became pro- ' in Love, New Arrival, General Assembly 
fessor at the Johanncum. Works : Cain ; (1883) ; Rear Guard, Sale of Cavalry Horses, 
after the Fratricide (1794) ; Last Supper, i Wanderers (1884) ; Roused, Trespassers 
Crucifixion (1790), Magdalen; Director , (1885). 


Paris, Feb. 18, 1847. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Charles Bussou, Bin, Trottin, Pe- 
louse, and Levasseur. Medals : 3d class, 
1880 ; 2d class, 1885. Works : End of Se ( >- 
tember Day (1808); Before the Rain (187(1); 
Banks of the Seine (1875); Day after Fete 
(1878) ; Return from Market, Summer in 
Normandy (187!)) ; Vegetable Garden, 
Trench of Digue-Blanche (1880) ; Moon- 
rise after Rain (1881) ; Banks of the Creu/.e 

(1882) ; Storm, Moonrise in November 

(1883) ; Twilight in July, November Morn- 
ing (1884); Banks of the Creuze, Autumn 
Night (1885). Bellier, i. 742. 

HARLAMOFF, ALEXIS, born at Sara- 
toft', Russia, in 184'.). Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Academy 
under MarkotV; won in 1870 first prix de 
Rome, continued his studies in Paris under 
Bonnat, and spent, two years in Holland and 
Germany, and one year in Belgium. Mem- 
ber of St. Petersburg Academy. Medal, -!d 
class, Paris, 1878. Works : Music Lesson ; 
Children and Flowers; Maiden of Mordva ; 
Portraits of Turgenetl', M. and Madame Vi- 
ardot, Emperor Alexander II., Prince Kots- 
chnbei, Madame TretiakolV. 

London, June 10,1787, 
died there, Feb. 4, 
1810. Portrait paint- 
er, pupil of De Cort, 
Drummond, and Sir 
Thomas Lawrence ; 
first exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1805. In 
1818 he visited Rome; 
was introduced to the 
Pope by Canova, and 

through him made a member of the Acad- 
emy of St. Luke. Best known work, Trial 
of Queen Catherine, with Kemble portraits. 
Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 411. 

Hamburg in 1042, died at Brunswick in 
1708. German school ; landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Ellerbrock in Hani- 

burg ; studied in Rome under Sal vator Rosa, 
whom he imitated successfully. After his 
return he lived long in Dresden, where ho 
painted decorations for the theatre. Works : 
Winter Landscape (1075), Schwerin Gallen ; 
others in Brunswick Museum. His sun, 
August Friedrich (died at Cassel in 1715), 
also painted landscape and architecture, 
but with especial skill dead game, of which 
excellent specimens are in the galleries of 
Brunswick (2) and Copenhagen. In the 
cathedral at Brunswick is an Ascension bv 
him, dated ITliS. He ;ilso wrote on art. 
Allgem. d. P.ioL'r.. x. HI I. 

HAKNKTT. WILLIAM M. born in Phila- 
delphia. Pa., in 1S51. Still-life painter. 
pupil of the National Academv, New York. 
Studied in Frankfort and Munich. IsSIl s|. 
Studio in Munich. Works: Social Club 
(IsT'.l) ; Still Life (1882), T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Fruit, Still Life (188:5). 

I'.erlin, Oct. 17, 1725. died there, June 23, 
ISOIi. Landscape painter, son and pupil of 
Johann H. (horn in Stoi-kliolm in Hiss, died, 
court-painter in Berlin, iu 1710), travelled 
then for eight vears in France ami Italy, and 
studied especially in Koine under diehard 
Wilson. In 175U he entered the Duke of 
Wiirtemberg's service, became court-painter 
in 175'.), professor at the newlyl'ounded 
Academv in 17(il, and afterwards at the 
Karlschule. He was rector of the former 
in 1771-72, and of the latter in 17*5 '.)(, 
and from 1784 director of the galleries. 
Work: The Garden Theatre at the Villa 
Madama. Home ( 17(10) ; many others in the 
Castles of Wiirtembcrg. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
\. (117 ; Goethe, Schwei/er lieise, i. J. 17'.)7 ; 
Haakh, Beitriige, 4. 

HAKPIGNIES, HENPJ, born at Valen- 
ciennes, July 28, 1810. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Achard. Both iu oil and water-col- 
our this artist stands in the first rank of 
living French painters. His water-colours 
have the strength and breadth of the Eng- 
lish school. Has exhibited regularly since 
1852. Medals: 1800, 1808, and 180!); 2d 


class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1883. Works : A Deep Road (1852); View 
of Capri (1855); The 
Hedge School, A 
Panic, Hunting 
Craw-Fish (1857) ; 
The Return, A Storm 
(1850) ; Etlge of the 
Woods, Evening on 
" the Loire, The Loire 
(18(il); The Rooks 
(1803) ; The Prom- 
enade (18G4) ; Rome 

from the Palatine Hill (18G5) ; View at 
Sorrento (1805), Douai Museum ; Vesu- 
vius (1800) ; Evening on the Campagna 
(1SOO), Luxembourg Museum ; Solitude 
(1SI17); Souvenir of the River Meurthe 
(1808), Lille Museum ; Rocky Road (180!)); 
View of Montreal (1870) ; Valley of Egeria 
(1870), Opera House; Ruins of the Castle 
of Hi'risson (1872) ; The Wolfs Jump 
(1873), Orleans Museum; do., Luxembourg; 
River Aunmnce, A Benevolent Public (1>S74); 
Oaks of Chateau-Rcnanl, Valley of Au- 
inancc (1875), Luxembourg ; Meadow in 
Bourbounais (1870) ; Village of Chasteloy 
(1877) ; Old Walnut Tree (1878) ; Pavilion 
of Flora from the Pont Xeuf, Turkeys (1870); 
Return from Hunting in the Evening (18SO); 
Victim of Winter, the Loing at St. Prive 
(1881) ; The Loing, The Loire (1882) ; 
Woods of Tn'mellerie, An Afternoon at St. 
Prive (1883) ; Loing at Tremellerie, Moon- 

rise (1884) ; The Loire at Briare, Farm of 
Cour-Chaillot (1885). L'Art (187!)), xvi. 
200, 281 ; I/irousse ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xxi. 400. 

born at, Silesia, in 1832. Land- 
scape and historical genre painter, pupil 
of Weimar Ail School under Kalckreuth, 
Ramberg, and Pauwels ; took part in the 

campaigns of 1800 and 1870, and spent one 
year in Italy. Lives in Berlin ; member of 
Berlin Academy since 
1873. Works: Cha- 
mois Hunters ; Hem-y 
the Fowler ; Emperor 
Max on the Martin Wall ; 
Scotch Fisherman's 
Family; Chamois Hunt; 
Seizure of Luther on 
his Return from Worms 
(1870), Breslau Muse- 
um ; Arran Island ; Spring's Beginning ; 
Nocturnal Attack ; Opened Garden Door ; 
In the Vineyards of Wi'irth, Outpost on 
Mont Vak'ricn, Napoleon's Letter to King 
William (1872) ; Skating in Thiorgarten, 
Moltke before Paris (1876) ; Death of the 
Sea-King; Abraham's Sacrifice (1877); An- 
nunciation to the Shepherds (1878) ; Peter's 
Denial, Breslau Museum ; Alpine Landscape, 
Female Portraits (2, 1884). Miiller, 238 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 231. 

HARHER, HUGO, born at Hirschberg, 
Silesia, in 1830, died in Rome, Dec. 8, 1870. 
Genre and architecture painter, self-taught. 
Painted his first pictures in Nuremberg, 
then went to Munich, where he was much 
influenced by Piloty, and in 1802 to Rome, 
where he allied himself closely with Passini. 
Returned there after a two years' sojourn in 
Diisseldorf. In sunlight effects took Oswald 
Achenbach for his model ; was strong in 
perspective. View in Olevauo (1870), Berne 
Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 040; Kunst- 
Chronik, xii. 287, 478. 

Paris (?), died in Rome in 1805. History 
painter, pupil of David ; won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1703, and first prize in 1800 
and 1802. In 1803 he went to Rome, and 
died there, leaving his Horatius Codes un- 
finished. Works : Battle of the Horatii and 
Curiatii (1800) ; Androclus and the Lion 

(1802) ; Brutus dying on the Battle-Field 

(1803) ; Horatius Codes on the Subliciau 
Bridge (1805). Seubert, ii. 175. 




Philadelphia, Nov. 28, 1854. Genre painter, 
pupil iu Paris of C.irolus Duran, and of tlio 
JCcole des Beaux Arts under Cabanel. Ex- 
hibited first in Salon of 1881. Returned to 
America in 1882, painted in New Mexico in 
1883. Studio in Paris. Works : Waif from 
the Sea (1881) ; Return from First Com- 
munion (1882) ; November (purchased by 
French Government) ; Little Goose-Herd, 
Motherless, Summer Idyl, Calling Home the 
Cows, Milkmaid, Modern Pompeiian, Friends 
or Foes (1884). 

born in Philadelphia, Jan. 17, 1853. Genre 
and landscape painter, brother of Lowell 
Birge ; pupil of Ecole des Beaux Arts under 
Gere/me. Exhibited first in Salon of 1881 ; 
Honourable Mention, 1885. Gold medal, 
S. Francisco, 1878. Studio in Paris. Works : 
Au Bords de la Mer, Shipwrecked, Coast of 
Brittany (18S1) ; Chateaux en Espagne 
(1882) ; Tlje Amateurs, Little Slave (1883) ; 
Harbour of Concarneau, Pebbly Beach, 
Breton Garden, Twilight, The Shipwrecked 
of Glenans (1884) ; Sea-shore, The Wave 
(18S5). Butler Harrison, n younger brother, 
has studied in Paris since 1881, with Bou- 
langer and Lefebvre. Work, Little Grand- 
mother (1884), Philadelphia Academy Ex- 

Kilmarnock, Scot land, 
May 10, 1828. Land- 
scape painter ; taken to 
America in 18151 ; pupil 
of his brother, William 
Hart, and in 1851 of 
Schirmer in Dilsseldorf. 
Elected an A. N.A. in 
1857, and N.A. in 185!). 
Studio in New York. 
Works : On the Croton, 
Launt Thompson ; Landscape and Cattle, 
J. H. Sherwood, New York ; Morning in the 
Adirondacks, M. O. Roberts Collection, il>. ; 
Summer on the Boquet River, Stewart Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Summer Memory of Berkshire, E. 
D. Morgan Collection, ib. ; Autumn Woods, 

Rush C. Hawkins, ib. ; Glimpse of Cayuga 
Lake, J. W. Pinehot, ib. ; Adirondack* 
(185!)), W. T. Walters, Baltimore; Dr,n-e at 
the Ford (1874), Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington ; Threatening Weather, In the Pas- 
ture (1877) ; Midsummer's Day (1878) ; 
Through Dust-Clouds (18711) ; Farmington 
River, At the Brooksido (1880) ; Loitering 
at Noonday, In our Village (1881) ; Princess 
Lily (188-2); In the Old Orchard, Oaks in 
Autumn (1883) ; So Near and Yet so Far, 
Boughs for Christmas ( 18S1) ; At the Water- 
ing Trough (1885). Art Journal (1877). 


in Plymouth, April, 1801!, died in London, 
June 11, 1881. History and portrait paint- 
er, apprenticed in London to Samuel War- 
ren, engraver : became student, in Koyal 
Academy in 1823, A.U..V in 1835, and \i\. 
in 1840 : was professor of painting (here in 
1854 (13, and librarian in 18U5 81. First 
won notice by his Isaac of York in the Castle 
of Front de B<eiif. Other works: Interior 
of a Jewish Synagogue, National Gallery ; 
Henry I. receiving News of the Shipwreck 
and Deatli of his Son (1840): Execution of 
Lady Jane Grey, Plymouth Gallery; Co- 
lumbus and the Child ; Wolsev and Buck- 
ingham ; Dante; The Hoarder (1881).- 
Cat. Nat. Gal.; Art Journal (1881), 223; 
Sandby, ii. !(>(>; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 

HART, WILLIAM, born in Paisley, Scot- 
land, March 31, 1823. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, self-taught ; brother of James 
McDougal ; taken to America in early youth. 
In 1841* visited Scotland, where he studied 
and painted three years. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1857, and N.A. in 1858. Studio in New 
York. Works: Near Keene, Mt, Desert, S. 
V. Wright ; After the Shower, S. J. Harriot ; 
Peace and Plenty (1855) ; Close of Day 
Mt. Desert (1850); Lake in the Hills (1858); 
White Mountain, E B Warren, Philadel- 
phia; Joy of Autumn (18C5); Golden Hour 
(1872); Morning in the Mountains (1874); 
Kecne Valley (1875); Jersey Cattle (187!)); 


Hillside Pasture (1880); Last Gleam, Cattle 
iu the Lane, Family Group (1881); Land- 
scape and Cattle (1882); Path by the River 
(1883) ; Passing Shower, Napanock Meadows, 
Group of Cattle (1884). 

NAND, born in Stuff g-art, July 14, 1774, 
died in Dresden, Jan. C, 1842. History 
painter, pupil at the Karlsduile under 
Hetsch ; went in 1794 to Rome, which he 
visited again in 1820-23 and 1828 ; worked 
in Stuttgart and Dessau, and lived from 
1803 in Dresden, where he became profes- 
sor of the Academy in 1810, and director in 
1823. Works: Hector's Farewell (1812); 
Theseus and (Edipus (181(5); The Erl-King, 
Death snatching from a Mother her Chil- 
dren, Stuttgart Gallery ; Rape of Hylas, 
Leipsic Museum ; Hector and the Trojan 
Women ; Portraits of Matthison, Quandt 
(182(1), and of himself, the last in the Dres- 
den Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 082 ; 
Haakh, Beitriige, 15 ; Kiigelgen, Jugend- 
Erinnerungen, 114, etc.; Riegel, 98. 

at Kuttenberg, Bohemia, in 1(580, died in 
Prague about 1730 (V). Landscape paint- 
er, a very clever imitator of Jan Brueghel, 
Ant. Myron, a follower of Brueghel, being 
his immediate model ; seems to have set- 
tled in Prague in 1702. Work, The Four 
Elements, Vienna Museum. His son 
and pupil, Fran/, (died in 1730), painted 
in the same style, and found ready purchas- 
ers for his pictures abroad. Dlabacz, i. 

HARTMANN, LUDWIG, born in Mu- 
nich, Oct. 15, 1835. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Munich Academy 
(1857), and of Wagner-Deines. Works : 
Shipping Expedition on the Inn, Horse- 
Dealer coming from Market (1863); Peas- 
ants working in Field (186(5); Potato Har- 
vest (1867); Span (1870); Rest in the Field 
(1872); Camp of Cartmen ; Relay-Horses by 
a Hill (1873); Halt before Tavern (1874); 
In the Shade. Miiller, 240. 


in Frankfort in 1832. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Stadel Institute under 
Steinle and Jakob Becker, and from 1854 
hi Carlsruhe of Schirmer ; went regularly 
to the Black Forest for ten years to make 
studies, and afterwards visited Tyrol, Switz- 
erland, and Southern France. In 1862-6G 
spent his winters in Diisseldorf ; lives now 
in Frankfort. Works : Heather in Black 
Forest ; School Children in Approaching 
Storm ; St. Peter near Meran, Tyrol ; Pict- 
ures in Art Unions of Hamburg, Carlsruhe, 
Berlin, and Dresden. Miiller, 240. 

HARVEST WAGON, Thomas (,'ai>i.-<l>r- 
inii/h, Lord Tweedmouth; canvas, H. 4 ft. 
y 4 ft. 9 in. Scene in neighbourhood of 
Bath ; a harvest wagon passing along a 
sequestered spot at evening, the driver stop- 
ping his team for a girl to mount ; another 
girl seated in wagon ; portraits of two of 
Gainsborough's daughters. Painted about. 
17(!8 for Mr. Wiltshire ; sold at sale of col- 
lection of his grandson, J. Wiltshire (1867), 
to Mr. Davis of Bond Street for X3,0'J7 
10s. Sketch, Sir George Beaumont, Bart. 
Fulcher, 70, 198. 

HARVEY, Sir GEORGE, born at St. 
Ninians, near Stir- 
ling, Feb., 180(5, 
died in Edinburgh, 
Jan. 22, 1876. Sub- 
ject and landscape 
painter; entered 
Trustees' Academy, 
Edinburgh, in 1823, 
was one of origi- 
nal associates of 
the Ro3 r al Scottish 
Academy in 1826, a member iu 1829, and its 
president iu 1867, when he was knighted. 
His subjects were largely drawn from the 
wild scenery and stirring history of Scot- 
land, where he was very popular. In his 
later years he devoted much time to land- 
scape painting. Many of his works have 
been engraved. Works : Covenanters 
1 Preaching (1830) ; Covenanter's Baptism 
(1831); Battle of Diiimclog (1836); Shake- 



speare before SirT. Lucy (1837); Covenant- 
er's Communion (IN III); Highland i'unenil 
(1844); Incident in Life of Napoleon (184:5); 
Bunyan in Bedford Gaol (1838); Mountain 
Pool (1867); (ileiiFiillocb(18(i ( .t); Dismiss- 
ing School (1871); Morning on Loch A\vc, 
The Curlers (1873). Redgrave ; Wilmot- 
Buxton, 158; Art Journal (185(1), 341: 
(1858), 7:!. 

horn in Philadelphia ; contemporary. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Weber in Philadel- 
phia ; also studied in Diisseldorf. Lived 
and painted for many years in Venice and 
Koine. Elected X.A. in New York iu 18(11. 
but rarely exhibits. Works : Castle Rock 
Xahant, Calm Sea, Indian Rock Nahant. 
Jolni Taylor Johnston Collection, New York : 
Ostia, J. P. Morgan, ib. ; Coast of Capri, M. 
K. Jesup, ib.; Sicily, Natural Arch at Capri, 
Ruins of Roman Theatre (I87(i); Coast near 
Amalfi, Fairman Rogers, Philadelphia. 

born at Rem- 
scheid, near So- 
lingen, May 18, 
1810, died in 
Diisseldorf, Dec. 
It!, 185:5. Genre 
a n (1 portrait 
painter, pupil of 
the Diisseldorf 
Academy under 
Schadow ; went 
in 1838 to Mu- 
nich, and thence, with Preyer, in 1840. to 
Italy ; returned to Diisseldorf in 1842, and 
became famous through his humourous 
genre scenes from German burgher life. He 
was a member of the Berlin ( 184:5), Diissel- 
dorf, and Amsterdam Academies, and re- 
ceived a gold medal at Brussels. W< >rks : 
Hieronymus Jobs returning as Student 
(1837) ; do. at the Examination (1842), 
A Family Quarrel, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Tasting Wine, Reading Room (184:5), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Jobs as School- 
master, Portrait of Painter Preyer (184(>), 

Tasting Wine (18471, Portrait of Painter 
Hilgers (1850), do. of himself, .Jobs at the 
Examination (1851 ), do. as Night Watchman 
(1852), Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Gaming Table 
(1844); Labourer and Alderman (184!l); 
Division of the Prize (1850); First Visit to 
School (1852); Tasting Wine (185:5), Diis- 
seldorf Gallery. Allgeln. d. Biogr., x. 732 ; 
Kunstblatt (1854). 2; Faber, vi. 4S3; Illust. 
Xeitg. (188:5), i. 3:50; W. Miiller, Diisseldorf 
K., 27i;. 

ADOLF, born in Berlin. Sept. li:i, ISIIL', 
died at Halberstadt, April 13, 185S. Archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Karl Gropius and 
of Berlin Acadcmv. His tirst large paint- 
ing, exhibited in Berlin and Dresden in 
1823, excited much admiration. He re- 
turned to Halberstadt in 1*21!. and after 
1837 painted chielly views of ruined con- 
vents and castles half buried in snow. 
Works: Cathedral in 15th < Yiitury ( 1823|; 
St. Severin's Church in Krl'nrt ; Convent 
Church in 12th Century, Gothic Cathedral, 
Medieval Castle (182(i 30); Interior of Co- 
logne Cathedral (1S.'!'J); Exterior of Same 
(1833); Erfurt Cathedral (1827). Halber- 
stadt Cathedral, Views in do. (18^8, IS:!!!). 
National Gallery, Berlin; Kloster Halle at 
Sunset (1840), Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donait- 
eschingcn ; Cloister in Winter ( is (II). Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg; Old Castle Yard (1852), 
Schwerin Gallery; Ruined Chapel, Stet- 
tin Museum ; Convents of Wallenried and 
Heisterbach. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 710; 
Kunstblatt (185I1), 20 : Rae/ynski, iii. ^21. 

Frankfort, April 4, 1825. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Stiidel Institute ; in 
1851 and in 1852-57 visited Italy, where he 
painted many copies after old masters, and 
scenes from Roman life. In 18(!0 he be- 
came professor at the Stiidel Institute, and 
later joined an expedition to the North Pole, 
which gave him subjects for many original 
paintings from Arctic life. Works : The 
First Child, Portia after Scene in Court 
(1851); Roman Barber in Theatre of Mar- 

si 5 


cellus, Roman Wine-Collar. Kaulen, 112 ; 
Miillcr, 241. 

enna, Aug. 7, 1812, died at Scheibbs, Nether 
Austria, Aug. 3, 1878. History painter, 
pupil of the Vienna Academy and one of 
the most eminent of modern Austrian ar- 
tists. Works : Genealogical Picture of 
House of Austria ; Maria Theresa and the 
Hungarians in the Reichstag in 1741 ; The 
2d of September, 1081! ; Allegorical Ship 
with Francis Joseph I. at the Helm sur- 
rounded by all the Nationalities of the Em- 
pire ; The Lord's Prayer in seven water-col- 
ours. Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 22 ; Kunst- 
Clironik, xvi. (580 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. 100. 

HAUBEH, JOSEF, bora at Geratsried, 
Bavaria, in 1700, died in Munich in 18154. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy, then studied in Munich 
where he had great success with copies after 
Don, Mieris, Rubens and Van Dyck, and 
became professor at the Academy in 1800. 
There are by him more than fifty altar-pieces 
in Munich and Upper Bavaria. Works : Jo- 
seph's Dream, Christ as Gardener, Church of 
the Holy Ghost, Munich; Christ on the Cross, 
Vision of Ezechiel; Portrait of Abbot Vagler 
(1808), Darmstadt Museum. Nagler, vi. 'A. 

TENSE VICTOIRE, born in Paris, Dec. 
14, 1784, died there, Jan. 2, 1845. Genre 1 
painter and lithographer, pupil of Lethiere. 
Her pictures for the most part represent, 
popular life and manners in Italy. Works : 
Preaching in Church of St. Laurent in Rome 
(1810); Game of Warm Hand, Beggar at a 
Convent (1812) ; Kissing the Foot of the 
Statue of St. Peter (1812); do. (1814), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Incident of the Fair at 
Grotta Ferrata, Pifterari before a Madonna, 
Confirmation in Church of St. Agnes (1814); 
Fortune Teller (1817), Montpellier Museum; 
A Smuggler, Vow to the Madonna during a 
Storm, A Scribe in Rome (1817); Shipwreck 
of Virginia, Nuns at Prayer (ordered by 
State), Interior of the Cloisters of St. fitienne 
du Mont, Dealer in Herbs (1819), Miller 

with Donkey (1819), Neapolitan Woman 
kneeling before Cross, Italian Family Scene, 
Montpellier Museum ; Temple of Vesta at 
Tivoli, Francis I. and Diana of Poitiers 
(1819); Old Man and his Children (1819), 
Dijon Museum ; Puppet-Shows in Rome, 
Dealer in Relics, Sick Mother, Woman sell- 
ing Cloth, Prayer at the Stations, The Ac- 
count with the Host, The Scolded Maid-Ser- 
vant (1822); Scene from Gil Bias, Jew reading 
the Bible, Old Clothes Dealer, Village Con- 
cert, Artists sketching Cascades, Blessing 
the Halls, II Saltarello, The Egg Market 
(1824); Portrait of Herself (1825), Louvre ; 
Inundation, Little Grape-Stealer, Country 
Doctor, Little Smoker (1820); Inundation 
Scene, Two Scenes from Gil Bias (1827); 
Rural Fete near Rome (1831); Poet and his 
Librarian (1835); Duchess of Angouleme 
and Marguerite of Valois receiving News of 
Battle of Pavia, Death of Marie de Cleves, 
wife of Henri I. of Conde (1839); Pope 
Eugene III. receiving Ambassadors of King 
of Jerusalem in 1145 (1840); Pictures in 
Museums at Versailles, Besancon, Cher- 

r M 

t . 

bourg, and Aix. Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran- 
<;aise ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 438 ; iii. 151 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 160 ; Bellier, i. 743. 

HAUSCHILD, MAX, born in Dresden, 
Aug. 23, 1809. Architecture painter, has 
lived for many years in Rome. Works : 
Reception of Expelled Monks at a Monas- 
tery (1848), Dresden Gallery ; Interior of 
St. Mark's, Venice, St. Gall Museum ; Noc- 
turnal Hours ; Interior of Orvieto Cathe- 
dral, Erfurt Cathedral, Grandduke of Olden- 
burg ; Interior of Siena Cathedral ; Church 
Interior, Assisi. Mtiller, 242. 

HAUSCHILD, WILHELM, born at Schle- 
gel, Silesia, Nov. 16, 1827. History painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Phil. 
Foltz ; visited Dresden, Berlin, and Paris, 
and settled in Munich. Works : Crucifixion, 
Maximilianeum, Munich ; Pictures in Greek 



Chapel at Baden-Baden. In fresco : Charles 
XII. of Sweden, Elector Max Eniamiel of 
Bavaria before Belgrade ; Buttle of Pultusk, 
National Museum, Munich. Miiller, 242. 

HAUSHOFER, MAX, born at Nymphcn- 
burg, near Munich, Sept. 20, 1811, died at 
Staruberg, Aug. 24, 1806. Landscape 
painter, studied from nature ; in 18IS5 lived 
for some time in Itome and Naples, and vis- 
ited Sicily ; in 1844 became professor at the 
Prague Academy. He was the first artist to 
introduce Bohemian forest- views, though he 
preferred to paint the Bavarian and Tyro- 
lese Alps, and especially the Cliiem Lake. 
Works: Lake of Agnano (18115), Cassel 
Gallery ; The Konigsec near Berchtesgaden, 
Provin/ial Museum, Hanover ; Sunday Morn- 
ing on Chiem Lake (18:51)) ; Nun at the 
Ijake, Sunday Stillness (1842) ; Blockeustcin 
I^ake (1845) ; Outlook from the Arbor, View 
ofWalhalla (1850); Eibsee (1855) ; Walch- 
ensee (lS5(i), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Klonthal Lake (1858) ; Lake Lu/.erne (185'J), 
Vienna Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. !)2; 
Illustr. Zeitg., July 18, 180:5 ; Kunst-Chron- 
ik, i. 125 ; Rac/ynski, ii. MO ; Kegnet, i. 
174 ; Wurzbach, viii. 87. 

born in Hanau in 1825, died at Hanau, 
March 10, 1880. (Jenrc painter, pupil of 
Hanau Academy under Pelissier ; studied 
in 1848-51 in Antwerp, and copied old mas- 
ters there and in the museums of Holland ; 
went in 1851 to Paris to study under Dela- 
roche, and afterwards visited Rome. Since 
1804 director of Hanau Academy. Works : 
Gypsy Girl Resting ; Gypsy Boys ; Priest 
absconding with Gretehen's Jewels (18111), 
Paris Gamins (1852), Galileo before the 
Inquisition (1801), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Praying Canons ; Pilgrimage in the Cam- 
pugna ; Cinderella's Sufferings. 

HAUSSY, ARSENE DESHtti D', born in 
Paris, Oct. 17, 1830. Animal painter of re- 
markable merit, pupil of Lazergea. Works : 
Lost Sheep (1864) ; Black Cows (1806) ; 
Normandy Steer (1867) ; Dog Watching 
(1868); Pasture near Trouville, Bull-Terrier 

(180!)j ; White-Frost in Valley of Tourc<iueK, 
Breton Cows ( 1870). 

Prague, Jan. 4, 1821. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Prague Academy under Anton 
Manes, and Christian Ruben; travelled in 
Poland, Saxony, Tyrol, Styria, Bavaria, and 
France. His works, mostly on a small 
scale, are remarkable for elaborate detail, 
which lias obtained for him the surname of 
the landscape Deniier. Works : Peasant's 
Farm in Moravia ; Forest Path ; Forest 
Spring; Village Street in Bohemia. 

HAY HAKVKST (Les foins), /;.,//,- 
Lepage, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, If. 
5 ft. 11 in. , ft. I in. Illustration of a 
poem by Andre Theuriet. Mid-day in a 
hay-tield ; in foreground, a woman seated 
on the hay, her hands in her lap, looking 
with dreamy eyes into the future ; behind 
her, a man lying full length on his back, 
with his hat over his eyes. Salon, 1878. 
(la/, des B. Arts (1878), \\iii. (i!). 

at Plymouth, Jan. 
20, 1786, died in 
London, June 22, 
1810. History 
painter, pupil of 
Royal Academy 
in 18(15 ; exhibit- 
ed in 180',) his 
Dentatus mur- 
dered by his own 
Soldiers, but dis- 
satisfied with the 

position assigned it refused to contribute 
anymore. After painting portraits in Ply- 
mouth, he won a considerable reputation in 
1814 bv his Judgment of Solomon, which 
sold for 700 guineas. In 1820 he produced 
Christ s Entry into Jerusalem, the exhibition 
of which in London brought him 3,000 guin- 
eas; but it procured him no commissions, and 
was finally sold for 240 and sent to Amer- 
ica. It is now in Philadelphia. Though in 
great pecuniary difficulties and several times 
the iuuiate of a debtor's prison, he still clung 


to the belief that lie was the great historical professor at the Academy and the head of 
painter of the age, and that his efforts would the romantic school. One of the most 
in time be appreciated. Hisllaisiwg of Laza- prominent among modem Italian painters, 
rus (14 x 20 ft.), now in the National Gallery, especially noted as a colourist. Works: 
was exhibited with sonic success in 1823, Compassion of Ezekiel ; Laocoou (1812); 
and a few years afterwards his Venus appear- Pietro Rossi taking Farewell of his Family 
ing to Anchises, Alexander laming Buceph- (1820), Brcra, Milan ; Sicilian Vespers ; 
alus, and Euclus. By teaching and lecturing Count Carmagnola hearing his Death Sen- 
hc maintained his family for a time, but tence ; Mary Stuart on her way to the Scaf- 
falling into new troubles and overwhelmed fold ; Filippo Maria Visconti and the Queens 
by disappointment, at the cold reception of Aragon and Navarra (182!)) ; Itnelda de' 
given in 1846 to his Banishment of Aristides, Lambertaz/i ; Peter the Hermit ; Fugitives 
and Xero watching the Burning of Home, of Parga ; Maria Theresa at Hungarian Diet ; 
lie committed suicide. Haydon's Lectures The Two Foscari, Vienna Museum ; Foscar- 
on Fainting were published in 1844 4(>, and ini refusing the Hand of Valenza Graden- 
his Life from his autobiography and jour- niga (181)15) ; Last Moments of Marino Fa- 
nals, edited and compiled by Tom Taylor, Hero ; Vittorc Pisani called from Prison 
in 185!!. Works : Portrait of Himself, to take Command of the Army ; Thirst of 
Leigh Hunt, Anti-Slavery Convention, Na- t lie Crusaders ; Bath of the Nymphs ; llape 
tional Portrait Gallery ; Punch or May-Day, of Ida; Leda ; Greek Pirates; The Kiss; 
liaising of La/arus, National Gallery; Cas- Battle of Magenta, Portrait of Cavour (1867) ; 
sandra, Stafford House. Correspondence, Flight of Bianca Capello, National Gallery, 
etc., by his son (London, 187(!) ; Stoddard, Berlin. L'lllustrazionc italiana, 1875 ; 
Life, Letters, etc. (New York, 1876) ; lied- Brockhaus, viii. 1)32 ; Nagler, vi. 18 ; Orloff, 
grave ; F. de Conches. 41!) ; Ch. Blanc, ii. 262. 
Ecole anglaise ; Art Journal (185(1), 181. HAYLS, JOHN, died at Bloomsbury in 

HAYE, REYNIER DE LA, born at The 1679. Portrait painter, the contemporary 
Hague (?), where mentioned as member of and in some degree the rival of Lely ; was 
the guild in Ki(i2. Genre, portrait, and an excellent copyist of Van Dyck. Works : 
still-life painter, in the manner of Terborch Portrait of Samuel Pepys, National Portrait 
and Metsu ; removed from The Hague to Gallery ; Portraits of Bedford Family, Wo- 
Utrecht, where he was received into the burn Collection. Redgrave ; Pepys' Diary, 
guild in l(i(i!t ; then appears as master of Feb. 15, March 17, 30, April 11, June 14, 
the guild at Antwerp in 1(!72. Works : 1606 ; see also do., Mynor Bright's edition 
Lady playing the Lute, Gotha Museum ; (187(i) under April 13, 1666. 
Flowers and Fruits, Festoon of Flowers HAYMAN, FRANCIS, bom at Exeter in 
with Insects, Schwcrin Gallery. 1708, died in London, Feb. 2, 1776. His- 

HAYE/, FRANCESCO, born in Venice, tory painter, pupil of Robert Brown, a por- 
Feb. 10, 17!)1, died in Milan, Feb. 11, 1882. trait and decorative painter (died 1753) ; 
History, genre, and portrait painter, pupil employed as scene painter at Drury Lane 
of Maggiotto and of Venice Academy under and as an illustrator of books. Painted a 
Cicognara ; studied also in Farsetti Gallery, series of designs for Vauxhall Gardens, 
then at Milan Academy, where in 1809 he which won him fame ; became president of 
obtained the prize for Rome, there studied ! the Society of Artists, and one of the foun- 
under Palagi, and then went to Florence dation members of the Royal Academy, of 
and Venice ; painted afterwards frescos in ' which he was the first librarian in 1770. 
the Vatican, Rome, and in Venice Academy ; Works : Finding of Moses, Foundling Hos- 
went to Milan in 1820, and there became |.pital ; Portrait of himself with Sir R. Wal- 



pole, National Portrait Gallery, London. liament, National Portrait Gallon' ; Coro- 

Redgrave ; F. de Couches, 85 ; Sandby, i. !>4. nation of Queen Victoria ; Christening of 

HAYON, LEON ALBERT, born in Paris, Prince of Wales, The Queen ; Angels min- 
Nov. 1C, 1840. Genre and portrait painter, istering to C'hrist (1849), South Kensington 
pupil of Li-ou Benonville, Picot, and Pils. Museum ; Joseph interpreting the Chief 
Medal, 3d class, 18815. Works: After the Baker's Dream; Three Daughters of Ed- 
Harvest, La Cigale (187G) ; Corner in Fan- ward Karl of Derby. Knowsley Hall, 
bourg, St. Honore (1877); The Gleaners HFADK, MARTIN -I., born in Bucks 
(187!)); Dindonnette (18SO) ; Fowl-Plucker County, Pa.: contemporary. Landscape 
(1881); The Day is Done (1882); Return painter; studied .two years in Italy, and 
from Market (1881!) ; Mother Madeleine, sketched in South America. During a visit 
Old Age's Staff (1884) ; Birthday (1885).- to Bra/il he received the decoration of Chev- 
Bellier, i. 747. alior of the Order of the Rose from the Em- 

HAYS, WILLIAM JACOB, born in New peror. His Bra/ilian sketches, originally 

York, Aug. 8, ls:!0, died there in 1875. intended for a book on South American 

Animal painter, pupil in drawing of J. R. Humming-Birds, are now owned by Sir 

Smith, New York ; went in 18CO to the head- Morton P< to, London. Has lived and paint- 

waters of the Missouri to paint the fauna of ed in the Western Sttites and in Boston. 

that region ; afterwards visited Nova Scotia Studio in New York. Works: Point Jn- 

and the northern parts of the United States dith ; Off the California Coast (isTi'o; South 

to study wild animals in their homes. American Scene, High Tide on the Marshes, 

Works: Herd of Bisons (1801); The Stam- Apple Blossoms, Hnrlbiit Collection, Cleve- 

pede, Prairie-Dog Village (18G2); Bison Bull land ; Nicaragua. Fairman Rogers, Philadel- 

at Bay (1865); Bull Moose of Nova Scotia phia ; Sunset Passamaquoddy Hay (1881). 

(1807); Prairie on Fire (180!)); Boiupiet of HEALY, GEORGE PKTKR ALEXAN 

Orchids (1871); Herd of Caribou (1871); DEli, born in IJoston, Mass, July 15, 18(18. 

Mule Deer (1872). Portrait and historv ])ainter, studieil in Paris 

HAYTER, Sir GEORGE, born in Lon- from 1830 ; went to Chicago about 1858, 
don, Dee. 17, 17!)2, died there, Jan. 18. and painted portraits; revisited Europe in 
1871. History and portrait painter, son 18(1!) and resided long in Rome. Exhibits 
and pupil of Charles Hayter, portrait paint- at Paris Salon and at National Academy, 
er ; also student of Royal Academy ; won at New York, of which he is an honorary mem- 
British Institution in 1815 a prize of 200 ber. Studio in Paris, France (1885). Med- 
f or his prophet E/ra. Went soon after to als : Paris, lid class, 1840; 2d class, 1855. 
Rome, where he studied till 1811), when he Ideal works: Franklin urging the Claims 
returned to London ; visited Italy again in of the American Colonies before LOUIH XVI. 
182(J, returned in 1831 via Paris, where he (1855); Webster's Reply to Hayne, Faneuil 
painted portraits of many prominent per- Hall, Boston. Portraits : Marshal Soult ; 
sons. In 18 1(! he was appointed miniature M. Gui/ot ; Pius IX. (1871); Lord Lyons, 
painter to Princess Charlotte, in 1837 por- Thiers, E. B. Washburne, Princess of Ron- 
trait painter to Queen Victoria, in 1841 his- ' mania (1870) ; General Grant (1878) ; Web- 
torical painter to Her Majesty, and in 1842 ster ; Clay ; Calhoun ; Guyot, Smithsonian 
was knighted. Member of Academies of Institute, Washington; Guixot (1841). Presi- 
Rome, Florence, Bologna, Parma, and Ven- dents John Tyler (2), John Quiney Adams, 
ice. Works: Venus complaining to Mars Jackson, Van Buren, Taylor, Fillmore, Polk, 
(1820) ; Trial of Lord William Russell Pierce, Buchanan, Lincoln, Corcoran Gal- 
(1825), Woburn Abbey ; Trial of Queen lory, Washington ; William H. Seward, 
Caroline ; Meeting of First Reformed Par- State Library, Albany ; Cardinal MeCloskey. 



Governor Morgan, Dr. C. R. Aguew (1883); 
Dr. Wyman, Miss Horsford, and others 
(1885). Tuckennan, 339. 

HEAPHY, THOMAS, born in London, 
Dee. 29, 1775, died Nov. li), 1835. Was 
originally a dyer, then an engraver, and 
finally devoted himself to water-colour paint- 
ing ; in 1800 he exhibited two portraits at 
the Royal Academy, and became a student 
in the Academy schools. In 180-1 his first 
subject picture, The Portland Fish-Girl, was 
well received, and in 180!) his Hastings Fish 
Market brought him reputation. He was 
one of the earliest members of the old Water 
Colour Society, but left it in 1812 ; and was 
one of the founders and the first president 
in 1821 of the Society of British Artists, but 
withdrew from it in 182'.). Visited Italy in 
1831, and on his return engaged in the for- 
mation of the new Water Colour Society, of 
which he was one of the first members. He 
painted miniatures of many distinguished peo- 
ple, and was portrait painter to the Princess 
of Wales. His eldest, daughter, Miss Heaphy, 
exhibited miniatures at the Royal Academy 
from 1822 to 1845 ; and another daughter, 
Elizabeth Heaphy, from 1838 to 1844. 

1813, died Aug. 7, 1873. History and por- 
trait painter, son and pupil of Thomas 
Heaphy ; began as a portrait painter, first 
exhibiting at Royal Academy in 1M31, but 
after 1858 painted chiefly historical pieces. 
Member of Society of British Artists. Works: 
Mary Magdalen going tothcScpulchre (184G) ; 
Infant Pan educated by WoodNymphs(1850); 
Parting of Catherine and Bianca (1853) ; 
Kepler in Poverty taken for a Fortune-Tel- 
ler (1803) ; Palissy the Potter taken for a 
Coiner (18G4) ; Unexpected Inheritance | 
(18G5); Mary Stuart at Tutbury Castle 

MiUaix, J. H. Seeker, London ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 4 in. x 7 ft. 5 in. Three English 
ladies (Misses Armstrong) seated at a card 
table, playing whist with a dummy. Royal ' 
Academy, 1872 ; painted for Walter Arru- 

strong; at his sale (1876) 1,300 guineas; 
Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1878. 

NEST, born at Gren- 
oble, Nov. 3, 1817. 
Genre painter, pupil 
of David d' Angers 
and Paul Delaroche. 
Abandoned the law 
for painting on ac- 
count of the success 
of a picture sent to 
the Salon, which was 
bought by the govern- 
ment. Won the grand prix de Rome in 
1839. Made repeated visits to Italy. His 
style is poetical, but often too sentimental. 
Medals : 1st class, 1851 and 1855 ; 2d class, 
1807; L. of Honour, 1853; Officer, 18G7 ; 
Commander, 1874 ; Member of Institute, 
1874 ; director of the French School of Art 
in Rome from 18GG to 1873, and again in 
1885. Works : Tasso in Prison, Cup found 
in Benjamin's Sack (1839) ; Two Odalisques, 
Copy of the Sibyl Delphica (1840-41); 
Oriental Revery, The Siesta, Almeh, Italian 
Priest, Morning in the W r oods, Peasant of 
Gurrande making Butter (1847 and 1848); 
La Malaria (1850), Kiss of Jitdax (1853), 
Luxembourg ; Crescenza, Fienaroles, Girls 
of Alvito (1855), Rosa Nera at the Fountain; 
Girls of Ciroarn (1859), Female Portrait, 
Luxembourg ; Portrait of Princess Marie 
Clotilde, Street in Cervaro (1861) ; Young 
Girl at the Well (1863), Empress Eugenie ; 
Pasqua Maria (1863), Baroness James de 
Rothschild; Black Pearl, Type of Italian 
Woman (1866) ; Adam and Eve driven from 
Paradise (1867) ; Pastorella, Lavandaia 
(1869); Morning and Evening of Life (1870); 
Popular Italian Muse (1872) ; Madonna de 
Di'livrance, Church at Grenoble ; do., Study, 
Mrs. Mary J. Morgan's Collection, New 
York ; Madonna ^r 
Addolorata; Wo- Jn 
man Knitting I 
(1873) ; Muse of the Woods (1877) ; The 
Sultana (1879) ; Saint Agnes (1881) ; Little 



Violinist (1883); Muse (1884); Slave break- 
ing bis Chains, Artist's Portrait, Grenoble 
Museum ; Going to the Well, At the Well, 
Returning from the Well, W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore. Bellier, i. 747 ; Larousse ; Port- 
folio (1875), 50 ; Journal clesB. Arts (1800), 
1(57 ; Meyer, Gesch., 541. 

HECK, ROBERT, bom in Stuttgart in 
18:U. Genre anil portrait painter, pupil of 
Stuttgart Art School under Rustige ; won 
first prize in 1855, visited Southern France 
and Italy. Works : Itinerant Preacher, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Reception of the New- 
Parson ; Peasants in a City Church ; Return 
of the Landwehrman ; Iphigenia on the 
Shore ; Antigone seeking Polynices on the 
Battlefield (187!)) ; Campo Vacciuo ; Forum 
of Nerva ; Neapolitans Praying; Italian 
Woman. Miiller, '245. 

HKCKF, JAN VAN DEN, born at Quare- 
monde, East Flanders, in 1020, died at 
Antwerp, Aug. 22, 1084. Flemish school ; 
genre, still-life, and animal painter, pupil in 
Antwerp of Abraham Hack ; master of the 
guild in Ki42, went to Italy, where he 
painted for the Duke of Bracciano, and re- 
turned to Antwerp in 1044. Said to be one 
of the best artists of his time. Work : Dead 
Game and Hunting Implements watched by 
Dogs (1(558), Schleissheim Gallery. Van 
den Branden, 1015. 

ished about lfi!5l in Alkmaar. Dutch 
school ; history and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Jan Nagel. A descendant of Martin 
Heemskerk. His composition is grand, the 
colouring fine, and the chiaroscuro excellent. 
Works: Death Sentence against, the Bailiff 
of Zuyt Holland ; Judgment of Cambyses, 
Solomon's Judgment, Town Hall, Alkmaar ; 
Tavern Interior (2), Surprisal of Hostile 
Camp (?), Dresden Gallery. Immerzeel, ii. 
21 ; Kramm, iii. 051. 

HECKEL, AUGUST VON, born at Lands- 
hut, Bavaria, in 1824. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Augsburg Art School, then 
of Munich Academy under Schorn and Phil- 
ipp Foltz ; visited Paris, Belgium, and Italy, 

where he remained three years. Works : 
Chaetas and Atalti ; Mignon ; Margaret at 
the Spinning-Wheel ; Emigrants ; After the 
Hail-Storm; Child Found; Mother at the 
Cradle : Judith with Head of Holofernes ; 
Entry of Louis the Bavarian into Rome ; 
Entry of Max Emanuel into Brussels ; 
Founding of Bath Kreuth, National Muse- 
um, Munich ; Lear casting oil' Cordelia ; 
Daughter of Herodias ; C;esar Octavianus 
and Cleopatra ; Morning on Pia/y.a Navona; 
Evening in the Forum ; Cobbler ; Villa 
Mondragone ; Maiden of Albano. Miiller. 

HEDA. WILLEM CLAAS/, born at Haar- 
lem in 15'.)t, died after 107S. Dutch school; 
still-life painter of eminence ; .lean of the 
guild at Haarlem in 10:51 and ll!51; painted 
occasionally also historical subjects. Works : 
Dessert (10:57), Louvre, Paris; Breakfast 
(1(5:58). Still Life, Kunslhalle. Hamburg ; 
Fruits and Vessels, Provin/ial Museum, 
Hanover; Breakfast (li;:54). do. (10:15), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; do.. Schleisslieim ( ial- 
lery ; <lo., Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
do., Darmstadt Museum ; do. (2), Carlsruho 
Gallery; do. <:5, two datecl 1010, 101!)), 
Schwerin Gallery ; do. (1078), Gotha Muse- 
um.-- l'.ode, Shidien, 22:!, 2:50; Burger, 
Muscos, ii. :i2(l ; Immor/oel, ii. 22 ; Kramm. 
iii. 051 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. i:>5; Van der 
Willigen. 150. 

HEDOUIN, EDMONI), born at Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer, July l(i, 1S20. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Paul Delaroche 
and Celestiu Nantenil. Attracted attention 
bv his first picture in the Salon (184 1), and 
followed up his success with many ably 
treated scenes of French and Spanish peas- 
ant life. His later years have been more 
especially devoted to engraving. Medals : 
2d class, 1848; :id class, 1855, 1857 ; L. of 
Honour, 1872. Medal for engraving, 18(58; 
1st class, 1872. Works : AVoodsmen of the 
Pyrenees (1844); The Halt (1810); Souve- 
nirs of Spain (1847); Arab Mill at Constan- 
tino, The Negro Restaurant (1848); Women 
of Ossan at a Fountain (185(1); Evening 


among the Arabs (1852) ; House in Cham- 
baudoin; The Pit-Sawyer (1855) ; Hunting, 
Fishing, The Gleaners (1857), Luxembourg 
Museum ; A Sower at Chambaudoin, A 
Swineherd (1859); Spanish Porters (1861); 
The Sheep-Market at St.-Jean-de-Luz (1803), 
Valenciennes Museum ; Sardine Women of 
Fontarabia, Alice dcs Tuileries (18(J5) ; 
Hunting, Fishing (1800) ; Restaurant in 
Constantino (1808) ; Door of a Mosque in 
Constantino, Street of Fontarabia (1870) ; 
Woman of St.-Jeaii-de-Luz going to a Fu- 
neral (1872) ; Spring-Time, Corner of a 
Park in the Month of May (187:)) ; Interior 
of a Courtyard in Constantino (1874 ) ; Swine 
Market at St.-Jean-de-Luz (1875) ; Coun- 
try Woman (1870); Arabs in a Tent (1S7!). 
Decorative paintings in Galerie dos fetes, 
Palais royal (1801), and Theatre 
i;ais. Bellier, i. 749 ; Du Camp, 15. Arts, 
170 ; Mover, Geseh., (536 ; Yapereau (1K80), 

HEEM, CORNELIS DE, born at Leyden 
(baptized ?), April 8, 1031, died in Antwerp, 
buried May 17, 1095. Dutch school ; still- 
life painter, son and pupil of Jan Davidsz de 
Hoom, whom he followed to Antwerp about 
1035, and there became master of the guild 
in 1000 ; worked also at The Hague, whore 
he is mentioned in documents in 1070 and 
1078. There is little doubt that many of 
his works pass under the name of his fa- 
mous progenitor. Works: Fruit-piece (1(571), 
Brussels Museum ; do., Th. van Lerius, 
Antwerp ; do., Hague Museum ; do., Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Grapes (1059), Bouquet, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Fruits with Vessels, 
Musical Instruments and Globe, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Cupboard, Gotha Museum ; Fruit- 
piece, Oldenburg Gallery ; do., Cassel Gal- 
lery ; do., Berlin Museum ; do., Schleissheim 
Gallery ; do., Leipsic Museum ; do., Weimar 
Museum ; do. (2), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Flowers around Bumper, Fruits and Oyster, 
do. and Glass, Fruits and Lobster, Dresden 
Gallery ; Fruits and Oysters on Silver Tray, 
Museum, Vienna ; others in Liechtenstein 
and Czeruiu Galleries, ib. ; Fruit-piece, 

Fruits and Flowers (2), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Flower-pieces (2), Stockholm Museum. 

Kramm, iii. 051 ; Rooses (Reber), 432 ; Van 
den Brandeu, 870 ; Van Lerius, 249. . 

HEEM, DAVID DE, the elder, born at 
Utrecht in 1570 (?), died at Antwerp (?) in 
1032 (?). Dutch school ; still-life painter of 
distinction, of whose life nothing is known, 
and some of whose works are possibly attrib- 
uted in public galleries to his famous son, 
Jan. As; however, there were besides him 
three other painters called David de Heem, 
namely, his son, David the younger, master 
of the guild at Utrecht in 1008, and to 
whom is ascribed a Fruit-piece in the Am- 
sterdam Museum ; David III. (born in 1028), 
son of Jan Davidsz ; and David IV. (1003- 
1718), son of Cornells, it is difficult to de- 
termine to which of these the following 
works should be assigned : Fruits with 
Oysters and Wineglass (David the elder ?), 
Brunswick Museum ; Fruits on Table, small 
picture with cavern, Flower-piece, Uffizi, 
Florence. Kramm, iii. C52 ; Riegel, Bei- 
triige, ii. 439 ; Van Lerius, i. 213, 217. 

Utrecht, prob- 
ably in 1000, 
died in Ant- 
werp, between 
Oct. 14, 1083, 
and April 26, 
1084. Dutch 
school ; fruit 
and flower 
painter, son 
and pupil of 
David the elder. He first developed the 
art of fruit painting ; works distinguished 
for admirable taste of arrangement, excel- 
lent drawing, fine feeling for nature, and a 
depth and richness of colouring sometimes 
approaching Rembrandt. Works : Fruit- 


pieces (2), Madrid Museum ; do.. Louvre ; 
Fruit and Flowers with Insects, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Still Life, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Table with Fruits, etc., Festoon of 
Fruits and Flowers, Hague Museum ; Fruit- 
piece (1651!), Haarlem Museum ; Garland 
around Allegory by Lambrechts (KiiiK). 
Bouquet, Vanitas, Brussels Museum; Flow- 
ers and Insects, Antwerp Museum ; Festoon 
of Fruits, Berne Museum ; do. of Fruits 
and Flowers, Breakfast, Fruit-pieces (3), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Still Life Fruit-pieces 
(2), Cassel Gallery ; Festoon of Flowers with 
Insects, Darmstadt Museum ; Fruit-pieces 
(2), Bumper on Covered Table, Lemons on 
Plate, "VVatch (1028), Gotha Museum : Fruit- 
piece, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; do., Olden- 
burg Gallery ; do., Copenhagen Gallery: 
do., Wiesbaden Gallery; Fruit pieces (5), 
Flower-pieces (5), Dresden Gallery ; Fruit- 
and Flower-pieces (4, two dated l(!.j(), lli.">l). 
Berlin Museum ; Fruit-piece (1<>53), do. (2), 
Bouquet by Crucifix, Skull, etc., Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; The Host with Symbolical 
Fruits (1<>48), two others, Museum, Vienna; 
Six in Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Flower- 
piece, Fruit-piece, Innsbruck Museum ; Des- 
sert (V), Breakfast Table (2), Festoon of 
Fruits and Flowers, Schwerin Gallery; Still 
Life, Cologne Museum ; do., Stockholm 
Museum; Fruits and Vegetables (1(!55), 
Breakfast (1<!GO), Flower-piece, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Breakfast, Winter Palace. 
ib. ; Fruit-piece, Leuchtenberg Gallery, ib. 

Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 232; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole hollandaise, i. ; Bode, Studien, 229 ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 23 ; Kramm, iii. G53 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 515 ; Itiegel, Beitriige, ii. 439 ; 

I {ooses (Ileber), 431 ; Van den Branden, 
8(J<; ; Van Lerius, i. 213, 21!. 

HEEMSKERCK (Heemskeerck), B., nour- 
ished about 1730. Flemish school ; animal 
and landscape painter, in the manner of 
Simon van Dow and Peeler van Bloemen. 
AN orks : Herd and Herdsman, do. and 
Woman (1730), Landscapes with Cattle (2), 
Schwerin Gallery. Schlie, 24(J. 

elder, born in Haarlem in KilO, died in 
10SO. Dutch school ; genre painter, chiefly 
of tavern interiors, with boors regaling or 
quarrelling, in the manner of Teniers and 
Brouwer. Works : Tavern Interior (2), 
Louvre, Paris; do. (1), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg; do., ( 'arlsruhe Gallery; do. 
(2), Peasant and Broker, Schleissheini ( ial- 
lery ; Old Man, Old Woman, Ulliy.i, Flor- 
ence. Immer/eel, ii. 21. 

younger, born in Haarlem in ltil">. died in 
London in 17l>4. Dutch school; geuro 
])ainter, son of Kghert the elder, jmpil of 
Pieter de Grebber, but adopted the style of 
his father ; settled early in London, where 
his works were greatly valued; {tainted noc- 
turnal gatherings of witches, devils, and 
ghosts, also rustic amusements, in which he 
often introduced his own portrait. Works: 
Interior, Louvre ; Peasants Dancing, do. 
Singing, Basle Museum ; Temptation of St. 
Anthony, Cassel Gallery ; Interior of Dutch 
Kitchen, Darmstadt Museum ; Capuchins 
Praying and Singing, Oldenburg Gallery; 
Riding School. Dance in a Tavern, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Beggars' Meal, Don (Quixote 
and Sancho Panza, Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Card-Players, Men Smoking and Play- 
ing Violin, Uffi/,i, Florence ; Interior, do. of 
Dutch Tavern, Historical Society, New 
York. Immerzeel, ii. 24 ; Kramm, iii. G55. 

Heemskerk in 1498, died in Haarlem, Oct. 
1, 1574. Dutch school. Real name Marten 
van Veen. History painter, pupil at Haar- 
lem of Cornelia Willemsz and at Delft of 
I Jan Lucasz, then at Haarlem of Jan Scho- 


reel, in whose manner he painted there until 
1534, when he went to Italy and became an 
imitator of Michelan- 
gelo. His drawing is 
bold and energetic, but 
his compositions are of- 
ten bizarre. Works : 
St. Luke painting the 
Virgin (1532), Nativity, 
Brazen Serpent, Holy 
Family (1551), Ecce 
Homo (1559), Belshaz- 
zar's Feast (1568), Christ 
crowned with Thorns, Haarlem Museum ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Adoration of 
the Magi (1546), Hague Museum; Entomb- 
ment (1559), Brussels Museum ; Momus 
with Minerva, Vulcan and Neptune (1561), 
Portrait of Young Girl, Berlin Museum ; Bap- 
tism of Christ (15G3), Brunswick Museum; 
do., and Rebekahatthe Well, Cassel Gallery; 
Resurrection, Copenhagen Gallery; The Vir- 
gin in Grief, Dresden Gallery; Venus, Cupid 
and the Cyclops (153G), Nostitz Gallery, 
Prague ; St. John preaching in the Desert, 
Triumph of Silenus, Bacchanal, Vienna 
Museum ; Triptych with Crucifixion, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; St. Paul at Athens, 

Historical Society, New York. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xi. 235 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole hollandaise; 
Immerzeel, ii. 23 ; Jahrb. d. kongl. preuss. 
Kunstsammlung, v. 327 ; Kramm, iii. G55 ; 
Michiels, v. 185 ; Riegel, ii. 150 ; Van der 
Willigen, 157, 349. 

HEERE, LUCAS DE, born in Ghent 
about 1534, died in 1584. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of the sculptor and architect Jan de Heere, 
and the miniature painter Anna Smyters ; 
one of the best scholars of Frans Floris, 

whom he assisted much in his glass-paint- 
ings and drawings for tapestry. Resided for 
some time in France as designer of tapestries ; 
later painted portraits and Scripture pieces. 
Was a poet and an antiquary. Works : Sol- 
omon and the Queen of Sheba, View of St. 
Bavon's Abbey and City of Ghent, St. Ba- 
von's Church, Ghent ; Portrait of Lord Darn- 
ley, Allegorical Portrait of Queen Elizabeth, 
Hampton Court ; Wise and Foolish Virgins 
(1570), Copenhagen Gallery ; Landscape, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Portrait of Queen Mary, 
Stoke Park ; Portrait of Eleanor Brandon, 
Wentworth Castle. Sclmaase, viii. 107 ; 
Waageii, ii. 3G1, 421 ; iii. 342 ; Immerzeel, 
ii. 25 ; Kramm, iii. 659 : Michiels, vi. 51. 

HEERSCHOP, HENDRIK, born at Haar- 
lem in 1G27, died after 1G72. Genre painter 
in the manner of Don, pupil of Willem Claasz 
Heda, then (1G43 or 1G44) of Rembrandt; 
master of the guild at Haarlem in 1G48. 
Works : Portrait of a Moor (1659), Berlin 
Museum ; Soldier and Woman at Cards, 
Cassel Gallery ; Architecture Painter's Stu- 
dio (1G72), Schwerin Gallery. 

HEGER, HEINRICH, born at Haders- 
leben, Schleswig, in 1832. Architecture 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy; trav- 
elled in Germany, and made architectural 
studies especially in Nuremberg and Maul- 
bronn ; lived in Munich until 18G3, in Co- 
penhagen till 18G5, then in Kiel until 1875, 
when he settled in Munich. In 1869 he 
visited the Netherlands, in 1872 the Ger- 
man cities, and in 1874 Venice. Works : 
Oratory in Castle Gottorp, Kiel Gallery ; 
View in Sebaldus Church, Nuremberg ; In- 
terior of Ulm Cathedral ; Hall in Burgo- 
master's House, Liibeck Gallery ; Sacristy 
of San Marco, Dantzic Gallery ; Council- 
Chamber in Dantzic ; do. in Liiueburg, 
i Bruges, and Lfibeck ; Emperors' Hall in 
Goslar, Senate-Chamber in Venice. Miiller, 

Bai-on, called Heidegger, born at Saaralben, 
Lorraine, Dec. G, 1788, died in Munich, Feb. 
21, 1861. Military genre and landscape 


painter, engraver, and lithographer. Stud- 
ied at the /iiricli Art School under Meyer, 
Huber, and Konrad Gessner, then from 
1799 in Zweibriicken, and in 1801 in Mu- 
nich under Quaglio and Hauenstoin. In 
1805 he entered the Bavarian army and 
fought against Napoleon in Spain, Germany, 
and France ; in 181(5-25 he painted in Sal/- 
burg and Munich ; in 1828 was commander 
in Nauplia, Greece, and military governor 
of Argos ; in 1829-313 painted in Munich. 
and in latter year went again to Greece and 
reorganized the army. On his return lie 
was made baron, lieutenant-general, and 
chief of a department in the ministry of 
war. His pictures of wars in Spain and 
Greece are historically interesting, and to- 
gether with his landscapes and genre pieces 
artistically meritorious. Works : Bavarian 
Tree-Fellers (1823), Pallicares near Corinth 
(182!)), National Gallery, Berlin; Camp of 
the Philhellenes before Athens, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Donkey Drivers in Italian Osteria 
(1830), Kunstlialle, Hamburg; Scene in 
Spanish Guerilla War in 180'.) (1824), Leip- 
sie Museum ; Views in Greece and Spain 
(<>), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Angora Gate 
at Athens (18158), Kmiigsberg Museum ; oth- 
ers in Schleissheim and Stuttgart Galleries ; 
and many in the possession of the royal 
family of Bavaria. Allgeni. d. Biogr., xi. 
295; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1835), 15; Nagler, 
Mon., ii. 303 ; Kac/ynski, ii. 387. 

Stuttgart in 1757, died there in 18 Hi. Ger- 
man school ; history and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Stuttgart Academy under Guibal. 
Harper, and Scotti ; became court-painter 
in 1780, visited Italy in 1782-8G, and was 
professor at the Stuttgart Academy in 17'.0 
93. Works : Four Seasons, Exit from The- 
atre, Royal Palace, Stuttgart ; Two Ceiling 
Paintings, Stuttgart Academy ; Altai-piece, 
Rottweil. His son and pupil, Karl Alexan- 
der (born in Stuttgart, Feb. 2, 1788, died 
at Hassfurt, Sept. 28, 18(55), more noted as 
an architect, painted Emperor Maximil- 
ian at the Grave of Duke Eberhard, iu the 

Royal Palace at Stuttgart ; and Knight 
Toggenburg, in the collection of Count 
Fries, ib. Wagner, Gesch. d. Karlsschule, 
i. K12. 

HKI UFA-REICH, Gl'STAV, born in Ber- 
lin in ISI'.I, died there in 1855. History 
painter, pupil in Brcslau of A. F. Ki'inig 
and in Berlin of Wach. Works : Hertlia 
and Odin, The Nonue, 1'lav of the Nixies, 
Combat of Giants, New Museum, Berlin; 
Material and Mental Development of ( Ireece, 
Old Museum, ib. Kunstbl. (185(i), It. 

Paris, May 15, 1S13. Portrait and genre 
painter, son of Josef, pupil of Munich Acad- 
emy, then studied in Paris ; visited Italy 
repeatedly in ls:{ ( .l-.J(!. also Belgium and 
France, and became court-painter in Mu- 
nich. Bavarian medal for Art and Science; 
Member of Socicte beige des Aquarcllistes. 
Works : Portraits of Royal Family of Ba- 
varia ; National Costume Pictures; Genre 
Scenes. Midler, 24(5. 


HEIL. DANIEL VAN, born at Brussels 
in KiOl, died in 1<>(>2. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, master unknown ; after 
having acquired considerable reputation, he 
abandoned his former subjects for confla- 
grations, which lie represented with unusual 
efl'ect. Works : Conflagration. Lille Museum ; 
Winter Landscape, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. Leonard van Heil, his brother (born 
in Brussels in 1(505), painted architecture, 
(lowers, and insects ; and Jan Baptist van 
Heil, a younger brother (born in Brussels 
in 1(50!)), was a history and portrait painter. 
He was living in 1(5(51. 

Hamburg, naturalized in France ; contem- 
porary. Genre painter. At first merely a 
skilful painter of costumes, he developed at 
Rome his peculiar talent for treating life 
and manners with that fine sense of hu- 
mour and insight into character which 
has won him a wide reputation. Medals : 
2d class, 1857, 1859, and 18(51 ; L. of 



Honour, 1801; Officer, 1881. Works : 'of Temple of Jerusalem (1822) ; St. Hya- 
Titian the Younger with his Lady Love einth reviving a Drowned Person (1827), 
(1857), Itaveni' Gallery, Berlin ; Luca Signo- Notre Dame, Paris ; Charles X. distributing 
relli by the Dead Body of his Son (1859), Rewards to Artists at Exhibition of 1824 
Orphans, Watteau and his Sweetheart, Male (1827), Louvre ; Andrieux reading in the 
Portrait, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Absolution Lobby of the Coined ie-f ran <;aise (1847); De- 
in St. Peter's; The Mont-de-Pk'to (1861), fence of Burgos, Louis Philippe receiving 
Luxembourg Museum ; On Monte Pincio, the Deputies come to offer him the Crown 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington; In His (1884), do. receiving the Chamber of Peers, 
Eminence's Waiting Room ; Cardinal enter- Champ do Mai of 1815, Battle of Rocroy, 
ing his Carriage ; Spring-time ; On the Portraits of Marquis de Chamilly, Due de 
River-side, In (lie Fields, William Astor, la Forte, Coiute d'Estrades, Marquis de 
New York ; The Seine ; Fine Weather Bournonville, Versailles Museum ; Vesuvius 
(1881); Idlers in Anteroom of the Vatican receiving Heavenly Fire from Jupiter, The 
(I8S2); Promenade (1884); Lawn-tennis, Revival of the Arts, ceilings in Louvre; 
Presentation (1885). Meyer, Conv. Lex., Charlemagne causing his Capitularies to be 
xvii. 443 ; Quarterly Rev., i. 253. read, Louis the Fat freeing the Towns, St. 

HEILMAYER, KARL, born in Munich, Louis causing the Publication of his Ordi- 
March 5, 182!). Landscape painter, son of nances, Louis XII. organizing the Chamber 
the portrait and landscape painter Emil H., of Accounts, Defeat of the Cimbri and Teu- 
pupil of Munich Academy ; travelled exten- tons (1853), Palais Bourbon ; Victory of Ju- 
sively in Germany, Italy, and France. Works: das Maccabieus (1855); Subject from His- 
Foggy Morning on Lake Starnberg ; Moon- tory of the Jews (1824). Bellier, i. 751; 
light Night in Normandy ; The Lido in Larousse ; Gaz. dcs. B. Arts (1867), xxii. 
Venice ; View on Via Appia near Rome ; 40 ; Meyer, Gesch., 1G7. 
Smugglers crossing Mountain, New Pinako HEIMERDINGEK, FRIEDR1CH, born 
thek, Munich. Miiller, 24(>. in Altona, Jan. 10, 1817, died in Hamburg, 

HEIM, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, born at Oct., 1883. Animal and still-life painter, 
Belfort, Jan. 15, 17S7, died in Paris, Oct. pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Theodor 
20, 18IJ5. History painter, pupil of Yin- : Hildebrandt ; continued his studies in Mu- 
cent, won grand prix in 1807, and lived in nich, whence he visited Switzerland. He 
Rome about six years. With the rise of afterwards founded a preparatory school for 
the romantic school he lost his popularity, artists in Hamburg. Works : Foxes con- 
and was called by the critics the fossil of testing Booty (1848), Kunsthalle, Hamburg; 
the Academy, but his merits were again Scene from Elf Life (1800) ; Lurking Fox 
recognized at the Salon of 1855. Medals : (18G1) ; Nut-Cracker (1871); Plover (1875); 
1st class, 1812 ; Member of Institute, 1829 ; Rabbit and Frog ; Fen-Duck ; Fruit-Seller. 
Professor, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 1825 ; Offi- Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 9 ; Miiller, 247. 
cer, 1855 ; grand medal of honour, 1855. HEINE, WILHELM. born in Diisseldorf, 
Works : Arrival of Jacob in Mesopotamia ' April 18, 1813, died June 29, 1839. Genre 
(1812), Bordeaux Museum ; Ptolemteus painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy, and 
Philopator (1817), Amiens Museum; Joseph's j an artist of great promise at the time of his 
Coat brought to Jacob (1817), Lyons Mu- premature death. Works: Poachers, Smug- 
seum ; Raising of Lazarus, Titus pardoning gler (1834); Tramp (1835); Peasant Cot- 
Conspirators ; Martyrdom of St. Cyr and tage (183G) ; Criminals at Church (1837), 
of St. Juliet (1819), St. Gervais, Paris ; Leipsic Museum ; replica (1838), National 
Martyrdom of St. Hippolytus, Notre Dame, I Gallery, Berlin. W. Miiller, Dusseldorf K, 
Paris ; Rescue of King of Spain ; Capture ' 289. 


HEINEFETTER, JOHANN, born in thai ; Wilderness in Salvaretta Mountains ; 

Mi nt/, in 1815. Battle and landscape Engacliiie Valley ; Huinsof Juvarium; View 

painter, pupil in Munich of D. Monten ; in Smith Tyrol, Xc\v Pimikothek, Munich; 

travelled in France, Italy, Switzerland, and Landscape with Castle Tyrol, Carlsruhe 

the Tyrol. Works: Tavern Scenes and Gallery; View in Orisons (183!), Leipsic 

Skirmishes ; Frescos in Trinkhalle, Baden- Museum ; others in Stuttgart, Hanover, 

Baden ; Pictures in the, Cemetery Brunswick, Men!/, and Prague Galleries. 

Chapel, and several Villas, il>. Dioskuren (I8i;i)|, P.13,201 ; Kunst-Chronik, 

HEINEL, JOHANN PHILIPP, l.orn at xxi. 219; Die Kuust fiir Alle, i. lull ; Miil- 

Baireuth, Oct. 21, 1800, died in Munich, ler, 247 ; Racy.ynski, ii. :C18, 402. 
July 21), 1841!. Genre and landscape painter, HEINUICH OP IH'DERSTADT, monk, 

pupil of the Munich Academy in 1820-21! (iernian school, early part, of 15th centurv. 

under Robert von Langcr ; painted at first His largo altarpiece (1424), now in the li- 

historical subjects, then portraits, and finally brary at. Gottingen, representing the Twelvo 

genre scenes in the Bavarian Alps and land- Apostles, the Crucifixion, and eighteen small 

scapes. Works: Achilles (1S2:!) ; Ossian Passion-Scenes, show that he was influenced 

and Malvina (182(i) ; Group of Bavarian by the school of Cologne. -Kilgler, Gesch. 

Peasant Girls (1829) ; Landscape after Storm d. Malerei, i. 2">7 ; Si-hnaase, vi. 479. 
(18I50) ; Tyrolese Landscape (1832); Priest's J1K1NTSCH. JOHANN GEORG, born in 

Visit, On Lake Starnberg, The Wat/maim, Silesia about, mi. Idle of 17th centurv, died 

Scene on a Tyrolese Alp, Poacher watching in Prague in 17 l.'i. German school ; Lived 

for his Persecutors, Height with Chamois in Prague from ll!7S, married in 1701. and 

(18I54) : Tyroleso Family, Young Tyrolcse took the freedom of the city. ^uiriii .lahn, 

with his Sweetheart, The Bride, Familv his contemporary, says that he belonged to 

Scene, Girl playing Zither, Rocky Land a monastic fraternity. In his later works 

scape, Bavarian Mountain Lake, Glacier he was influenced by Curl Screta, \\hodied 

(18:!:>); Bagpiper (183G) ; Mountain Land- ( 1 I'M 1 ) a few years before Heintsch's arrival 

scape with Like, Tyrolese playing to a Girl, in Prague. Works in Prague: Altai-piece, 

Two Bavarian Peasant Girls (bs:!7); Adora- Jesuit Church : Madonna ( !(!'.)(!), Karlshofer 

tion of the Shepherds (18:i8) ; Shepherdess Stif'tskirche ; Altai-piece, St. Henry's ; Side 

(1840). - Allgein. d. Biogr., xi. lilli! ; An- Altai-pieces. St. Catherine's ; Holv Familv, 

dresen, i. 1(54 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (18:?(i), 8 7. Minorites Church ; Transportation of St. 

HEINLEIN, HEINRICH, born at Weil- Wenceslaus' Body to Prague in 910 (lil'.CJt, 
burg, Nassau, Dec. I!, 180:}, died in Munich, Teinkirche ; several pictures in chapels and 
Dec. 8, 1885. Landscape painter, first in- cloister of the Kreu/.herren-Stift ; Christ in 
structed by his mother, a painter in pastel, the Temple, St. Joseph, St. Clemens adoring 
studied architecture at Munich and drawing the Virgin, St. Ignatius and Trinity, Mar- 
at Mannheim Academy; visited Switxer- tyrdom of St. Vit us, St. Francis Xavier bap- 
land and Italy, and settled in Munich in ti/.ing Moorish Prince, Four Elements, Bust 
1829, and in 1830 had obtained reputation Portrait of Praying Woman, St. Norbert, 
as one of the best German landscape paint- St. Aloysius, Flight to Egypt. Allgeni. d. 
era. Honorary member of the Munich Biogr., xi. li(!0 ; Kugler (Crowe), 528. 
(184(i) and Vienna Academies; Order of St. HEIN/, JOSEPH, the elder, born in 
Michael, 1852. Works: Ravine; Poachers Berne in 151)5, died in Prague, Oct. 15, 
attacked in their Camp (1823); Mountain KiO!). German school ; history painter, 
Lake in a Storm ; Alpine Valley with a Fu- called by Van Mander a pupil of Johann van 
ueral (1825) ; Waldesstille ; Kliisterl am Achen, which seems doubtful, as the latter 
Wachensee ; Upper Gosau Lake ; Windau- went to Venice in 1574. Heinz went to 


HEISS, JOHANN, born at Memmingen, 
Bavaria, in 1G40, died at Augsburg in 1704. 
History and landscape painter, pupil of 
Heinrich Schiinfeld and of Sichelbein. There 
are many altarpieces by him in the churches 
of Augsburg, Ratisbon, and Neustadt. 
Works : Scipio granting Liberty to Allucius 
(1079), Death of Dido, Neptune and Ve- 
nus, Hall with Antiques, Hall with Female 
Models, Brunswick Museum ; The Seasons 
personified, Wiesbaden Gallery ; Exodus of 
the Israelites (1077), Dresden Museum. 

HELEN, ancient pictures. See Etimelux, 

HELEN, RAPE OF, Benozzo Gozzoli, 
National Gallery, London ; wood, octagon, 
tempera, H. 1 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. The wife of 
Menelaus carried off to a ship by Paris and 

Prague, studied at the Academy, and in 
1590-94 was employed by Rudolph H., who 
made him court- 
painter and sent 
him to Italy. There 
he remained four 
years, studying es- 
pecially Paul Ver- 
onese, but after his 
return was strong- 
ly influenced by 
Johaim van Achen, 
Spranger, and Vel- 
vet Brueghel, his contemporaries at the im- 
perial court. Works : Rape of Proserpine, 
Dresden Gallery ; Leda, Artemisia with the 
Ashes of Mausolus, Augsburg Gallery ; Sa- 
tyrs and Nymphs (1599), Sehleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Herod ias, Venus 
Asleep, Venus and Adonis, 
do. and Nymphs (1G09), 
Crucifixion (2), Diana and 
Actteon, Portrait of Ru- 
dolph II. (1594), Vienna 
Museum; Portrait of Him- 
self, his Brother and Sis- 
ter (159G), 
- _ Berne Muse- 
tf um ; Cruci- 
O fi x i o n ('/), 
Schweriu Gallery. All- 
gem, d. Biogr., xi. CGI! ; 
Ftiessli, i. (!1 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 271. 

younger, born about 1590, 
died in 1G55. German 
school ; son and pupil of 
Joseph the elder ; after- 
wards studied with his stepfather Gonde- his companions. Panel probably formed 
lacli in Augsburg. Fond of painting sor- the cover of a cassettone or box for wed- 
cerers and witches. Went to Italy, and ding gifts. Nat. Gal. Cat. 
lived mostly in Venice, where he painted I By Guido Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 
altarpieces. Urban VIII. made him knight 3 in. X 8 ft. 7 in. Paris, preceded by Cupid 
of the Golden Spur. Works : Two Marys and giving his hand to Helen, leads her to 
at Christ's Grave (1G55), All Saints' Chapel, the ship in which his companions are about 
Venice ; Diana Bathing, Venice Academy. to embark ; three women follow Helen, 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. GG4. bearing jewels and a dog ; in front, a little 

Rape of Helen, Guido Reni, Louvre. 


negro with an npe and a dog. This picture, 
celebrated in its time in verse and prose, was 
painted for the King of Spain ; but he find- 
ing the price too high, Guido sold it to M. do 
La Foreade for Maria de' Medici ; the queen 
being obliged to leave Paris, M. Forcade 
sold it to Louis Phelipeaux, Seigneur do La 
Villa-re, from whom it passed through sev- 
eral other hands to the Musee Napoleon. 
Engraved by Desplaces. Landon, Musee, 
xi. PI. f>0. 

HELENA, painter, daughter of Timon of 
Egypt, 4th century lu 1 . The mosaic of the 
Battle of Issus, at Naples, is perhaps a re- 
production of her only recorded work. 
Ptolein. Hephaest. in Phot. Bibl., p. 4S-J 
(ed. Hoeschel). 

HELENA, ST., VISION OF, Paolo !>/-- 
nese, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 

' . ' 

Wtm^fc^m - >; 
3&yfcM$y\ l A 

m^^jA I n, 

Vision of St. Helena, Paolo Veronese, Vatican, Rome. 

6 ft 5 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. The Saint, in sleep 
or revery, reclines on a marble window-seat, 
resting her head upon her right hand ; 
through the open window are seen two 
cherubim bearing a cross. The design ap- 
pears to be after an engraving by Marc An- 
tonio, supposed to be after a drawing by 
Raphael Etched by E. W. Sherboru in 

Art Journal (1884), 257. Nat. Gal. Cat. ; 
Bartsch, xiv. 443 ; Hichter, 74. 

By Paolo }'i-rnni'Ki', Vatican, Koine. Seat- 
ed, asleep, wearing the imperial crown, and 
clad in a rich brocaded Venetian costume, 
her head resting upon her left hand ; at 
right, a little angel standing holds a Greek 
cross. Acquired from Galleria Saechetti bv 
Benedict XIV., who placed it in the Capitol 
Museum, whence removed to Vatican. En- 
graved by Gins. Craffonara. Laronsso, ix. 
1'.': Vaticano descritto, vi. PI. 7(>. 

HELFFT, JULIt'S, born in Berlin. April 
li, 1H1K. Landscape and architecture painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy and of W. Schir- 
mer ; went in 1SI.'{ to Italv, painted there 
a series of views around Florence for King 
Frederick William IV., then visited Rome, 
Naples, and Sicily, and returned in 1S47, 
when he was appointed professor in Berlin 
Academy. Works: Sicilian Cloister Yard 
(1S47), Doge's Palace -Venice (;), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Canal Grande in Ven- 
ice ; San Miniato near Florence. Miillcr, 

HELIODOHUS. painter, of Athens, date 
unknown. Perhaps identical with sculptor 
of same name mentioned by Pliny (xxxvi. 4 
[91]), some of whose statues were in the 
Temple of Jupiter in the Portico of Octavia, 
Itomo. Pausan., 1, :!7, 1. 

iii'/, Stan/a d'Kliodoro, Vatican ; fresco. He- 
liodorus, treasurer of the Syrian king, at- 
tempting to plunder the Temple at Jerusa- 
lem, is driven out by two avenging angels 
(2 Maccabees, ii. '2~>). In background the 
High Priest Onias praying before the taber- 
nacle ; in foreground, right, the answer to 
the prayer Heliodorus overthrown, and his 
soldiers put to (light by two angels with 
scourges and a celestial horseman ; at left, 


the assembled jx-ople and Julius II. in his 
chair of state. The bearer in front is Mare 
Antonio Raimondi, and another farther back 
is supposed to be Giulio Romano. Typical 
of the victory of the Papacy over its enemies, 
especially Louis XII. of France. 1'aiuted in 


1512. Engraved by A. Meldolla ; Mochetti ; 
Volpato ; Friquet ; Amlerloni ; Baillu ; C. 
Maratti. Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 345 ; Miintz, 
300 ; Passavaut, ii. 130 ; Springer, 201 ; 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 433 ; Perkins, 135. 

born at Brussels in 17H7, died there in 1845. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Jean Baptiste 
de Roy ; good eolourist, painted trees with 
great pare. Works : Bois de Soignies, Mech- 
lin Museum ; do., and Mill, Brussels Musc- 

ouring is warm and transparent, treatment 
broad, figures well drawn and full of expres- 
sion. Works : Kirmess, Aremberg Gallery, 
Brussels ; Alchemist in his Laboratory, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; do., Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Interior, Farrier at Work, Lille Museum ; 
Drinker, Dunkirk Museum ; Kirmess, Douai 
Museum ; Shoemaker's Shop, Family Group, 
Brunswick Museum ; Peasants Drinking, 
Betrothal Feast, Peasant Weddings (2), 
Stockholm Museum ; Temptation of St. An- 

(I 1 - J fV-T Vj!y r . M-^-jSV.- 

Expulsion of Heliodorus, Raphael, Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican. 

um ; Landscapes in Gueldors (2, with figures 
by Eugene Yerboeckhoven), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Wood Landscape (1820), Leip- 
sic Museum. His wife, Jean Marie Joseph- 
ine (1796-1837), painted fruit and flowers. 
Immerzeol, ii. 26 ; Kramm, iii. 665. 

VAN, born at Antwerp, baptized July 24, 
1623, died at Brussels. Flemish school ; 
genre painter, pupil of Teniers the younger ; 
visited Italy, and in Paris painted some of 
his best pictures for Louis XIV. Master of 
the guild at Antwerp in 1646, then at Brus- 
sels, having left Antwerp in 1674. His col- ' 

thony, Musical Party, Historical Society, 
New York. Immerzeel, ii. 28 ; Riegel, Bei- 
triige, ii. 127 ; Van den Branden, 1022. 

born at Antwerp, April 17, 1683, died at 
Brussels, Aug. 21, 1726. History and genre 
painter, son and pupil of the portrait painter 



Jan van Hellemont (1050-1710 ?); went early 
to Brussels, mill there painted many pict- 
ures for churches, in which the decline of 
the school of Antwerp after Rubens is ap- 
parent. Works: Martyrdom of St. Bar- 
bara, St. Mary Magdalen's, Brussels ; Tri- 
umph of David, St. Michael's, il>. ; Elijah 
sacrificing before the Priests of Baal, Car- 
melites, ib. ; Christ on the Cross, (ilicnt 
Museum ; Peasants at Cards, Male Portrait 
(1724), Darmstadt Museum ; Dentist in his 
Office, Augsburg Gallery ; Priest distribut- 
ing Bread and Wine, Modena Gallery. - 
Descamps, iii. 1K8 ; Michiels, x. 40:! ; Rooses 
(Ileber), 440; Van den Brandon, 1171. 

Bremen, May 10, 1843. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Dilsseldorf of Oswald Achenboch, 
then studied in Munich, and in 18G4-08 
in Carlsruho under Gude, ISO!) in Paris, 
1S70 in Rome, and in 1871 settled in Diis- 
seldorf. Works : Wood Interior ; Land- 
scape in Black Forest; North German 
Landscape ; Evening in Italy. Midler, 

Kungsor in 1851. History painter, pupil 
of Stockholm Academy and of M. T. Le- 
febvre in Paris ; received a medal for one 
of his first pictures ; lives now in Munich. 
Honourable mention, Paris. Instructor at 
Berlin Academy, January, 1880. Works : 
Ebba Brahe writing on the Window-Pane ; 
Gustavus Vasa accusing Bishop Sonnanviider 
of High Treason ; Opprobrious Entry of Peder 
Sonnanviider and Master Knut into Stock- 
holm (1870), New York Museum ; Louis XI. 
and Tristan at Plcssis-les-Tours ; Death of 
Sten Stures ; The Last Friend (1871!); Ran- 
som of Town of Visby by King Waldemar 
of Denmark in 1301 (1883); Snow Effect in 
Tyroleso Mountains, On a Bench in the 
Woods, Portrait of Professor Thiersch 
(1884); Idyl, Swedish Peasant, At the Har- 
bor of Wolgast, June 15, 1633 (1885). 
Muller, 248; Illustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 11; 
D. illustr. Zeitg., iii. 527 ; Zeitsch., xviii. 
274 ; xx. 116. 

HELLRATH, EMIL, born at Rees, West- 
phalia, in 18;i!>. landscape painter, pupil 
in Diisseldorf Academy of Oswald Achen- 
bach, then visited Munich and Dresden ; 
lived for some lime in Amsterdam, and in 
lS(i:{ settled in Munich. Works: Lmd- 
scape in Rain ; On Lake Chiem ; Convent 
Pond ; Landscape at Early Morning ; View 
in (Quarries near Polling ; Road to Convent, 
Johnston sale, New York, lS7(i, Si, 275. 
Mfiller, -248. 

HELLWEGKR, FRAN/, liorn at St. Lo- 
renx, Tyrol, Sc]>t. 7, ISl'J, died in Innsbruck. 
Feb. 15, isso. History painter, ]>ii]iil of 
Munich Academy under Clemens Zimmer- 
maiin and Heiurich Hess. In LSI.'! passed 
eight months in Rome, then returned to 
Munich, where he assisted Cornelius in the 
frescos in St. Louis' Church, and afterwards 
Steinle in the Cathedral of Cologne, and 
Schraudolph in the Cathedral of Spever. 
In 185(5 he settled in Innsbruck. Works: 
Death of Mary, and three oilier altarpieces, 
Brunneck, Tyrol ; Madonna, St. Ann, I' 
Church, Innsbruck ; Baptism of Christ, Scap- 
ulary Festival, Flight into Egypt, .Male Por- 
traits (-), Innsbruck Museum ; St. Cather- 
ine, Fathers of the Church, Ischl, Upper 
Austria. Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. <!!('.) ; Kimst- 
Chronik, xv. 1571 ; Wurzbach, viii. 2:i7. 

HKLLWIG, THEODOK, born at Jlalber- 
stadt in 1815. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil in Berlin of Men/el, Fran/. Kniger, 
and Magnus ; paints scenes from time of 
Louis XIV. and XV. in the manner of Wat- 
teau, and from peasant life of his native 
country. Works: Rendezvous; Children 
at a Fountain ; Serenade under the Door- 
way. Muller, -218. 

Haarlem in 1G'24, died in Rome in 1<!!)4. 
Dutch school ; history and genre painter, 
pupil of Pieter de Grebber, went to Venice, 
afterwards to Rome, where he was employed 
by Cardinal de Medici. Works : Tempta- 
tion of Christ ; Christ bearing the Cross ; 
Christ before Pilate ; Christ Crucified ; Fran- 
ciscan Monks distributing Food ; Pilgrim 



with Italian Shepherds, Copenhagen Gallery. 
Immerzeel, ii. 27 ; Kramm, iii. 005. 

Magdeburg in 1784, died at Carlsruhe in 
1852. Landscape painter, in 1809 settled 
in Strassburg, where he had many pupils ; 
visited Italy twice, and lived there in 1816- 
20. "\Vorks : Tasso's Oak ; Lake of Neiui. 


born at Haar- 
lem (or Dor- 


d r e c h t ) in 
1(513 (?), died 
in Amster- 
dam, buried;,l(i70. 
Dutch school; 
p o r trait 
i p a i n t c r , 
either stud- 

"> \ 

i o d u n d e r 

Frans Hals or took him as his model, and 
became one of the greatest portrait painters 
of his time. Lived chiefly at Amsterdam, 
where in 1654 he and Nicolaas van Helt- 
Stokade founded the guild of St. Luke. 
His earliest picture is dated 1(539. Some- 
times painted sacred and mythological sub- 
jects. Works : lianqin't of the Civic Guard 
(1648), /S'yiif/ic.s of the Arquebusiers (1(557), 
Portraits of Vice-Admiral Kortenaar, An- 
dries Bicker, Gerard Bicker, Mary Henrietta 
Stuart, Lieutenant-Admiral Van Nes and 
Madame Van Nes (1(568), Female Portrait 
(164(5), Male do. (1G50), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; The Archers (2, 103!) and 105G), 
Hotel de Ville, Amsterdam ; Portrait of Paul 
Potter (1(554), Hague Museum ; Portrait of 
a Preacher (1038), two others (1046), Por- 
trait of Lady and Gentleman (1654), do. of 
Daniel Bernard (100!)), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Man with emptied Glass (1649), Oldenburg 
Gallery ; Aristocratic Young Couple (1(561), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Male and Female Por- 
trait, Man with a Ring (1655), Gotha Mu- 
seum ; Female Portrait (1055), Weimar Mu- 
seum ; Male do. (1003), Schwerin Gallery ; 
do. (2, one dated 1051), Copenhagen Gal- 

lery ; Portraits (3, 1042 and 1643), Cassel 
Gallery ; do. (2), Brunswick Museum ; do. 
(3, one dated 1654), Dresden Gallery ; Por- 
trait of Admiral Tromp, do. of Prince de 
Chabauais, Male (1(549) and Female Por- 
trait, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Dutch Fam- 
ily at Dinner, Innsbruck Museum ; Syn- 
dics of the Arquebusiers (1653, study for 
Amsterdam picture), Portrait (1655), do., 
Louvre ; Presentation of the Betrothed 
(1047), Family Group (1052), New Market 
in Amsterdam (1(5(56), Portrait of Govaert 
Flinck, Male Portrait (1070), three other 
portraits, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Por- 
traits of himself and Wife (1664), Brussels 
Museum ; German Baron and his Family, 
Portrait of a Lady, Historical Society, New 
York. Others in Antwerp, Berlin, Geneva, 
Stockholm, Vienna, and London Galleries. 
By his son and pupil, Lodewyk, is a Portrait 
of Admiral Stellingwerf (1070), in the Am- 

sterdam Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 
709 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Bode, 
Studien, 112 ; Burger, ii. 218 ; Gower, Fig- 
ure Painters, 31 ; Riegel, Beitriige, i. 129 ; 
Scheltema, Amstel's oudheid, i. 159. 

in Copenhagen, April 11, 1847. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of Frederik Ferdi- 
nand Helsted (1809-75), then pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy, where he took a medal 
in 1804 ; went in 1809 to Paris, where lie 
studied under Bonnat, and thence to Italy. 
Works : Portrait of Professor Stephens 
(1809) ; do. of the painter Kuchler (1878) ; 
From the Villa Borghese (1870) ; After the 



Lesson, Lesson with the Parson (1877) ; 
Father with his Children praying to Ma- 
donna (1878); Country Physician (18711) ; 
Clymene and her Sisters at Phaeton's Grave 
(1880); Father and Son (1882); Two Sons 
at their Mother's Deathbed (1883). Sigurd 
Miiller, 151. 

born at Nymwegen about Kilt, died in 
Ki(ii). Dutch school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of David Rykaert the elder ; 
for a time court-painter in Franco, but lived 
mostly in liomc and Venice, though at Am- 
sterdam in 1(!54. Many European princes 
ordered pictures of him, as ho was an excel- 
lent colourist. He supplied the landscapes 
of Wynants, Hackaert, and Da Heusch with 
figures. Works : drain Market under .Jo- 
seph in Egypt, Town Hall, Amsterdam; Fig- 
ures in Border of a Forest (by Wynants, 
1059), Hague Museum ; Susanna at the 
Bath, Leipsic Museum ; Male Portrait, Old 
Pinnkothek, Munich. Immerzeel, iii. 115; 
Kminni, v. 1575 ; Du Stuers, 180 ; Van den 
IJranden, 871. 

HEMICYCLE, Paul Dulnrorhr, Palais des 
Beaux-Arts, Paris ; encaustic painting, H. 
15 ft. x about 50 ft. Scene the portico of 
an Ionic temple ; in centre sits Apelles en- 
throned, with Ictinus on his right and 
Phidias on his left. Near them are live alle- 
gorical figures : in front, Fame, nude, kneel- 
ing, easting out wreaths from a heap at her 
side ; back of her, at left, seated, are Greek 
Art and Gothic Art, the latter (with the 
model of a cathedral) a portrait of Dela- 
roche's wife, daughter of Horace Vcrnet ; 
at right, Roman Art and Renaissance Art. 
On each side of this ideal group extend the 
wings of the picture, in which are grouped 
the great artists of the world, standing or 
sitting in their habits as they moved of old. 
The work contains 75 colossal figures. The 
original, called the Hemicycle because it 
occupies the semicircular frieze of the am- 
phitheatre of the Beaux-Arts, was painted 
in 1837-41. Delaroche received for it 80,- 
000 francs, the price set for a canvas of fifteei 1 

figures, the work originally contemplated. 
It was injured by fire in 1855, but the dam- 
age was repaired by the artist himself, aided 
by Mercier and Fleury. The engraving by 
Heuriquel Dupont cost eight years' labour. 
Delaroche made for Dupont's use a copy of 
the work, in small (1851!), now owned by 
\\ . T. Walters, Baltimore. There is a pho- 
togravure of it iu Art Treasures of America, 
together with a key to the figures. Tho 
original sketch for the large work is in the 
Nantes Museum. --Art Treas. of Amer., i. 
82 ; Mrs. Jameson ; (la/. <les 11. Arts I 180(1), 
viii. IS54. 

HEMISSEN (Ilemishem, HeniM-n), -IAN 
VAN, born at Ilemishem (Hemixenn, near 
Antwerp, about 1500, died at Haarlem be- 
tween 1555 and 1500. Flemish school. 
Real name Jan Sanders. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil at Antwerp of Hendrik 
van Cleve in 15111, master of the guild be- 
fore 1524, its dean in 1548; removed to 
Haarlem in 1551. Although, in his time, 
the influence of the Italian school asserted 
itself strongly, lie adhered to the old tradi- 
tions, and took (^iiinten Massys for his 
model. Works: Calling of St. Matthew, 
Museum, Antwerp ; do., Theodor van Lc- 
rius, ib. ; do., Ghent Museum ; Prodigal 
Son (1550), Brussels Museum ; Tobias re- 
storing his Father's Sight (1555), Louvre, 
Paris ; Christ driving out the Money-Chang 
ers (1550), Nancy Museum ; Madonna, \ il- 
lage Physician, Madrid Museum ; Abraham's 
Sacrifice, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
Calling of St. Matthew (15:!0), Isaac blessing 
Jacob, Holy Family (1541), Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Mocking of Christ (1544), Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Calling of St. Matthew, do. 
(15:i7), do. (1548), St. Jerome, St. William, 
Portrait of Mabusc, Vienna Museum ; St. 
Ursula, Adoration of the Magi, Prince Albert 
Collection, London. His 
daughter and pupil, Catharina, LJ J*j 
was an artist of merit ; went . ... 
with her husband, a musician, 
| to Spain, where both entered the service of 
the Queeii of Hungary. A Male Portrait by 



her, dated 1552, is in the National Gallery, 
London. Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 720 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Kcole ilamaude ; Cat. du Musee 
d'Anvers (1874), 472 ; Kramin, iii. 074 ; 
Rouses (Heber), <!8; Van den Brandon, 98. 

HEMLING. See Jfi'iiiliiiy. 

HEMPEL, JOSEF VOX, Hitter, born in 
Vienna, Feb. '.), 1800. History painter, pu- 
pil of Vicuna Academy under liodl ; went 
to Italy in 1821, studied in Florence and in 
Koine, where he was influenced by Over- 
beck, returned to Vienna in 1825, moved to 
Klagvnfurt in 1S48, where he founded the 
.school of design at the Lyceum, lived four 
years in Tyrol, then in Gratz, and in 1859 
settled on an estate in Croatia. Works : 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria (1822) ; 
Entombment ; Jacob's Dream ; Flight into 
Egypt ; Kaising of Lazarus ; Trinity, and 
many other altarpieces for churches in Vi- 
enna and the Austrian provinces. Wurz- 
bach, viii. 405. 

HEMSEN. See Hcmix*;,. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, May 25, 1841. Marine 
painter, pupil of School of Art at Newcastle ; 
entered Dominican monastery at Newcastle, 
whence he was sent to a branch at Lyons, 
France, but left when twenty-two years old 
and became a painter. In 1803 he became a 

* I 

student at Antwerp of Henri Leys, on whose 
death he returned to London. Works: The 
Shrine, London River, Liinehouse, Barge 
Builders, Blackball, and Chcync Walk (all 
exhibited in Royal Academy, 1872); Ves- 
pers (187!)) ; Cavalry (187!)) ; Saved (1880) ; 
Lobster Boat, Oporto, Rocky Shore, Mill in 
the Gloaming (1881) ; Oporto from Sandc- 
man Wine Lodges, Cinderella and lier Sis- 
ters (1882); Oyster Dredgers, Ferryman, 
Old Putney Bridge in 1882, Bargaining for 
the Catch, Cool of the Morning (1883) ; 
Tipping a Shrimp Trawl, The Trammel Net 
Catch (1884). Art Journal (1881), 225. 

HENDERSON, JOSEPH, born in Perth- 
shire, Scotland, in 1832. Marine and genre 
painter, pupil of Royal Scottish Academy at 
Edinburgh. Has resided since 1852 in 

Glasgow, where he became in 1863 a mem- 
ber of the Institute of Fine Arts ; in 1877 
elected a member of the Scottish Water 
Colour Society. Began with portraits and 
genre pictures, but finally devoted himself 
with success to marine painting. Works : 
Where Breakers Roar (1874) ; A Lively 
Haul (1875) ; Weeding the Garden, Under 
the Sand-Hills (1878) ; From the Cliffs of 
Ailsa, Haymaking in the Highlands (187!)); 
Travelling Cobbler (1883). 

sterdam, June 24, 1747, died at Haarlem, 
Jan. 28, 1831. Portrait, landscape, and 
still-life painter, pupil of Amsterdam Acad- 
emy, where he won three prizes ; visited 
England, and having lived for several years 
at Eden in Gelderland, settled at Haarlem 
in 1780. Was very versatile, and made fine 
drawings after famous masters. Works : 
Female Portrait (1791), Male do. (1811), 
Hunting Party of Henry IV., view in Haar- 
lem, Haarlem Museum. Immerzeel, ii. 30 ; 
Kramm, iii. (!77. 

HENDSCHEL, ALBERT, born in Frank- 
fort, July 9, 1834, 
died there, Oct. 22, 
1883. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Stiidel 
Institute under 
Steinle and Passa- 
v a n t, then u n d e r 
Jacob Becker; vis- 
ited the principal 
galleries of Germany, 
and in 1809-70 Italy. 

Works : Hostess's Daughter ; Fiddler of 
Gemiind ; Cinderella ; Broken Pitcher ; 
Scenes from Gotz von Berlichingen ; Sketch- 
Book (1872-74); Coffee-Party; Wreath- 
Maker ; Judgment of Paris. Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., viii. 81 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1874), ii. 309 ; 
(1883), ii. 408 ; Land und Meer (1884), i. 

HENGSBACH, FRANZ, born at Werl, 
Westphalia, in 1814, died in Diisseldorf, Feb. 
25, 1883. German school ; landscape painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer; 

- - , 

it--^-^ - !* 



chose his subjects principally from (lie high Messalina insulted by tlio People ; Doge 

mountains of the Alpine countries. Works: Foseari ; Labourers in the Campagna ; Kale 

Rainy Weather in tlie OilenwaM (1*40), of Objects of Art (1883). 

Schwerin Gallery ; View of Salzburg (1841 ); HENXEQUIX, PHILIPPE Al'Gl'STK. 

The Staufen near Salzburg (1842); Mill in born in Lyons in 1703, died at Lcn/.e near 

Tyrol (1846);Mountaiuou8Landscape (1847), Tom-nay, May 12, 1833. History and genre 

Leipsic Museum; Hallstadt Lake (1848); painter, studied under Taraval, Gois, and 

Gosau Waterfall (1850) ; Hohentwiel and Brenet, and became OIK; of David's best pu- 

Lake Constance ; Alp near Lago Maggiore : pils. Won the grand prix de Rome in 17S8. 

Huts on Seelisberg on Lake Lu/.erne ; Lau- Obliged to leave Italy on account of his lib- 

terbrunnenthal ; Limbnrg on the Lenne by eral opinions, he returne(l to France, where 

Moonlight; Lausanne and Lake of Ge- he several times narrowly escaped death 

neva. Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 418; Miiller, during the Revolution. Inbsll he retired 

24!). to Liege, and finally to Tonrnav, where he 

HENNEBERG, RUDOLF (FRIED- became director of' the Academy in the fol- 

RICH), born at Brunswick, Sept. 13, 18-2."), lowing year. Works: Confederation of July 

died there, Sept. 14, 1870. History and 4, 171)0 ( 17'.) J); liemorse of Orestes (1T'.)8), 

genre painter, pupil ill 1850-53 at Antwerp Louvre; Triumph of Hie French People 

Academy, then for three years in Paris of (IT!)!)), Rouen Museum; Self-sacrifice of 

Couture; visited Italy in 1801-03, lived 300 Citizens of Franchimont (1814); Soc- 

then in Munich until 1805, in Berlin in rates and his Disciples; Catherine de La- 

1800-73, and in Rome in 1873-75. Mem- lain ; Battle of Aboukir, Napoleon in the 

ber of Berlin Academy in 180!) ; gold medal, Camp at Boulogne (180(5), Allegory on Xa- 

Berlin, 1850, 18(!8 ; Vienna, 1873. Works: polcon I., Portrait of Mari|iiis de Perignon, 

Bathing Students (18."):!) ; Gypsy and his Versailles Museum ; Saul and Witch of En- 

Love (1854), Brunswick Gallery ; Wild Hunt- dor, Lyons Museum; Battle of (^uiberon 

er (1850), National Gallery, Berlin; two 1 1804), Toulouse Museum; Crime pursued 

replicas of do. (1871); Regenstein, Hare- by Remorse, Time, Fright, Young Man, An- 

Hunt (1857); Wild Huntsman (185G, replica gers Museum; others in Museums of ( >r 
in Schack Gallery, Munich), Criminal from 
Lost Honour (1800), Furtinu: Chase (18li8), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Fairy Princess, 
Declaration of Love, Objectionable People, 
GermaniaLiberata(1801> 71); Cycle of Wall- 
paintings with Scenes from War of 1870-71 

(1872), Villa Warschauer, Chariot (cnburg ; leans, Mans, and Caen. Bellie;-, i. 7").") ; 

Scenes from the Campagna (1873-75). All- Imineiv.eel, ii. 31; Larousse ; Lejeune. 

gem. tl. Biogr., xi. 7(>8 ; frraph. K., v. 41; Guide, iii. 125. 

Illustr. Zeitg. (1883), i. 245 ; Kunst-Chronik, HEXNER, JEAN JACQIT.S, born in 

iii. 94; xii. 473; Schack, Meino Gemiilde- Bermviller (Alsace), March 5, 1820. Genre 

sammlung (1885), 17!) ; llosenberg, Berl. painter, pupil of Drolling and of Picot ; won 

Malersch., 203. the grand ]>rix de Rome in 1858. His col- 

HEXNEBICQ, ANDRE, bom at Tour- ouring, at first weak and thin, has improved 

nay, Belgium ; contemporary. Portrait and from year to year. Usually paints nude 

history painter, pupil of Portaels. Medals figures. Medals : 3d class, 18(>3, 18(!5, and 

at Brussels (1872), Amsterdam (1874), Paris, ISIil! ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1873; 

2d class (1874); Order of Leopold. Studio Officer, 1878. Works: Bathing Girl Asleep 

in Brussels. Works : Jeremiah's. Lament ; (1803), Colmar Museum ; Chaste Susanna 



f fC^^i^^ 
/ It/ 

/ Q flij 


(1805), /</)// (1872), Naiad, Good Samaritan 
(1874), Luxembourg Museum ; Girl (18GG); 
Biblis (1867), Dijon 
Museum ; "Woman 
Dressing;, Woman 
Reclining (18G9), 
Mulhouse Museum; 
Little Writer 
(1809); Alsatian 
Woman (1870) ; 
Magdalen in the 
Desert (1874) ; 
Dead Christ (1876); 
John the Baptist, Evening (1877); Christ at 
the Tomb, Eclogue (1879); The Fountain, 
Sleep (1880) ; The Spring, St. Jerome (1881); 
Bara (1882); Woman Heading, Nun (1883); 
Christ Entombed, Weeping Nymph (1884) ; 
Madeleine (1885); 
Sleeping Nymph, He- | | |-| fl |\J R 
pose, La Source 

(1881), Fabiola (1885), Mrs. M. J. Morgan 
Collection, New York ; Nymph, W. T. Wai- 
tors, Baltimore ; Andromeda, Mine. Raffalo- 
vitch, Paris. Gay., des B. Arts (18(5!)), i. 4!)5 ; 
Larousse ; Claret it 1 , Peintres (1884), ii. 81. 

Thomastown, Ireland, in 18:$!). Landscape 
and genre painter ; went to New York in 
1849, pupil in 185G of National Academy ; 
became an A.N.A. in 18G2, and N.A. in 18(i:$ ; 
removed in 1870 to London, but resides the 
greater part of the year in Normandy. Works: 
In Memoriam ; Wanderers ; On the Sands ; 
New England Hills ; Summer Sea ; Les 
Bons Amis ; Gypsy Flower-Girl ; New Eng- 
land Barberry Pickers ; Indian Summer ; 
Notre Dame des Flols (1877); Fute-Day in 
Cider Orchard in Normandy (1878); Wait- 
ing for (he Boats, Gloire de Dijon, Nor- 
mandy Pippin, Aftermath, Sunbeam (1879); 
Yisit to the Peacock, Evening 'at Calvados, 
Spring Fantasy, In a Normandy Cider Or- 
chard (1880); Straw Harvest in Calvados, 
Jocund Spring, An Impressionist at Work 
(1881) ; Spring in Calvados, Winter in Cal- 
vados, En Fete Calvados (1882); Pastoral, 
AVith the Birds (1883); 'Twixt Day and 

Night (1884) ; Return from School, The 
Flowers of May (1885). 

Dresden in 1798, died in Leipsic, Jan. 15, 
18G9. History painter, pupil of Leipsic 
Academy, then studied in Rome ; after his 
return became professor, later director, of 
Leipsic Academy, and in 1840 professor at 
Dresden Academy. Works : Christ driv- 
ing out the Money-Changers ; Finding of 
Moses (1848), Dresden Museum ; Annuncia- 
tion, Saltarello Dance, Leipsic Museum. 
-Kunstbl. (185!$), 49; Christl. Kimstbl. 
(1870), 12. 

KENNING, ADOLF, born in Berlin in 
1809. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy and of Wach ; in 1833 
went to Italy for several years. Member of 
and professor at Berlin Academy. Works : 
Portrait of Himself (182G); Girl of Frascati 
(1838), National Gallery, Berlin ; Funeral 
in the Campagna ; Portrait Group of Count 
Raczynski's Family ; Portrait of Sculptor 
Rauch ; St. Luke and St. John, Chapel of 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Colossal Figures of 
Eight Prussian Provinces, Royal Palace, Ber- 
lin; Thetis and Achilles; Ulysses and Leuco- 
thea ; Diana and Iphigenia ; yEueas and An- 
chises ; Ajax Enraged ; Romulus Ploughing. 
Miiller, 250 ; Kugler, Kleine Schriften, 
iii. 175 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malcrsch., 33. 

men in 1838. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Diisseldorf of Oswald Achenbach ; perfected 
himself by repeated journeys to Italy. 
Among his German and North Italian land- 
scapes, those by moonlight are the most 
successful. Has recently exhibited garden 
scenes with figures mostly in rococo-costume. 
Works : Landscape with Gypsies (18G4) ; 
Malsen on Lake Garda (1865) ; Evening in 
Garden of Villa San Lissandro ; Nuremberg 
at Moonrise; Salzburg by Moonlight (18G9); 
View of Passau ; Venice ; Avenue near 
Nymphenburg ; Avenue at Wilhelmshohe ; 
Park with rococo-figures. Miiller, 250. 

HENNINGSEN, ERIK, born in Copen- 
hagen, Aug. 29, 1855. Genre painter, pu- 



HENRI IV. AT IVHY, /.',</,-, Ufti/.i, 
Florence ; canvas, figures more than Hfe- 
si/o. The king, mounted, in (he centre of 
the composition, followed l>v many kni"hts 


who are engaged with the 
of and the preceding picture 

enemy. This 
were painted 

pil of Copenhagen Academy ; visited Paris Rubens has availed himself of several parts 
in 1880, and travelled for two years in Ger- of Mantegna's Triumph of (\r*ar at Hamp- 
many. Works : Dilettante on the Violon- ton Court. Brought from Palazzo Pitti in 
cello (1879) ; Cake-Woman, Old Bachelor 177:1. Sketch in Karl Darnley's Collection, 
Shopping (1880); Morning in Address- Cobham Hall. Waagen, Treasures, iii 23; 
Agency's Yard (1881) ; Confirmation (1882); Cat. Louvre. Rubens, 231. 
Dirty Apprentice, Guard mounting at Ama- 
lieuborg (188:1). Sigurd Miiller, !."><;. 

penhagen, June 22, 1850. (Jenre and por- 
trait painter, brother of preceding, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, and in Paris 
Bonnat ; visited Spain, 
where, especially in Madrid 
in 1878, he studied popu- 
lar types. Works : On a 
Pedestrian Trip (1S77); 
Pond in Zealand (187S) ; 
Ploughing in October 
(1880); Hay Harvest, 
Huntsman with Horse and 
Dog, On the Highway 
(1881); The Old Story 
(1882); Burial, In Front of 
a Smithy (188:5). Sigurd 
Miiller, ICO. 

Francois Gerard, Versailles 



^ -^v' 

. '-V^,<:^ 

I L^K ,-- 
if.' , ~->xx 

Museum ; canvas, H. 1(1 ft. 
9 in. x 31 ft. 5 in.; signed. 

Ill Centre Lllillicr PrOVOst Hen " IV ' andthe Spanish Ambassador, Dominique Ingres, Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, Pi':;. 

of the merchants of Paris, advances at the ' about 1(130 by order of Maria de' Medici. a> 

head of a group of municipal oflicers to pro- part of a series illustrative of the historv of 

sent the keys of the city to tho king, near HenrilV., for her palace of the Luxembourg. 

whom are, on left, Crillon, De Retz, Mont- Transport eel from Palazzo Pitti in 1773.- 

inorency, and Brissac, and on right, Biron, Cat, Louvre, Rubens, 231. 

Sully bearing the king's casque, and Belle- HENRI IV. AND THK SPANISH AM- 

garde, all on horseback ; farther to right, BASSADOR, Richard Parkos Jlniiiiii/lnii. Sir 

Marechal de Matignon, sword in hand; in Richard Wallace, Hertford House, London ; 

a balcony, Gabrielle d'Estrees. Collection canvas, H. 1 ft. 4 in. : 1 ft. 7 in. Tho 

of Charles X., Salon, 1817. Repetition, re- King, on all fours, romping with his three 

duced, in Louvre. Engraved by Toschi. children, one of whom is astride his back, 

Larousse, ix. 18G. turns his head to greet the Spanish ambas- 

By Mullen*, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, fig- sador, who enters nt right through a door 

uresmore than life-size. The king, crowned from which the portiere is drawn bock by a 

with laurel, and mounted on a Roman char- page ; in background, the Queen, seated. 

iot, is making a triumphal entry into Paris '. San Donato sale (1K70), t'3,.'?20. 
after the Battle of Ivry. In this picture' By Dominique fiujrcs, Baron Alphon<e 


de Rothschild, Paris ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 3 in. ' 
X 1 ft. 7 in. The King and his children 
at right, the Spanish ambassador at left 
near an open door ; in background, the 
Queen, seated ; at right, a maid, standing. 
Painted in 1817, for Due de Blacas ; Salon, 
1824. According to Ch. Blanc, Ingres 
painted this subject again in 1828. La- 
rousse, ix. 187 ; Landon, Musi'e, Salon of 
(1824,) i. 34. 

HENRIET, FREDERIC, born in Chateau- 
Thierry, Sept. 6, 1826. Landscape painter ; 
was educated a. lawyer, and took up paint- 
ing after being secretary to Count Nieuwer- 
kerke, inspector of the Louvre. Author of 
" Le Paysagiste aux Champs" (Paris, 1866 : 
2d edition, 187G) ; " Daubigny and his En- 
gravings " (Paris, 1875) ; ' Chintreuil, sa Vie 
et son (Euvre " (Paris, 1874). Knight of the 
Spanish Order of Isabella. Works : Ham- 
let of Montgoin (1867), Chateau-Thierry 
Museum ; The Marnc at Tancrou (1868), 
Yire Museum ; Islands of Mary-sur-Marne 
(1869), Laon Museum ; Shore Road at 
M.'/y (1879); Evening at Ri'vin (1880); The 
Meuse (1881) ; The Way to School (1882) ; 
Gothic Doorway at Armentieres, Tower of 
Guinettc (1883) ; View at Mr/y (1884) ; 
Ruins of Mill in the Ardennes (1885). Bel- 
lier, i. 176. 

Anton van Dyt-k, Windsor Castle. The Queen 
seated, with infant Duke of York in her 
arms, Prince Charles standing by her side, 
and three small dogs at her feet ; in back- 
ground, a curtain, and in distance, West- 
minster Hall. Engraved by R. Strange. 
Other portraits of the Queen at Windsor 
Castle, in collections of Earl of Clarendon, 
Marquis of Lansdowne, Earl of Portarling- 
ton, Earl of Radnor, in Ambrosian Library 
at Milan, and elsewhere. Head, 64 ; Klass. 
der Malerei, PI. 16. 

HENRY, EDWARD L , born in Charles- 
ton, S. C., Jan. 12, 1841. Genre painter, 
pupil of the Philadelphia Academy, and of 
Gleyre in Paris. In 1860-G3 lived in Paris, 
Rome, and Florence ; sketched on the James 

River during the Civil War; revisited Eu- 
rope in 1871, 1875, and 1882, when he 
sketched in France and England. Elected 
N.A. in 1869. Studio in New York. Works : 
Old Clock on the Stairs (1868) ; City Point- 
Grant's Headquarters (1869), Union League 
Club, New York ; Battle of Germaiitown, 
Win. Astor, ib. ; Declaration of Independ- 
ence, Cloister, J. W. Drexel, ib. ; Off for the 
Races (1878), Fairman Rogers, Philadelphia; 
Reception to Lafayette, Samuel Chew, Ger- 
mantown ; Waiting for the Bathers (1879) ; 
Mountain Stage (1880) ; Lovers of Ceramic 
Art, Railway Station (1881) ; In Sight of 
Home (1882); Uninvited Guests (1883); 
Waiting for the Answer (1884). 

HENSEL, WILHELM, born at Trebbin, 
Brandenburg, July 6, 1794, died in Berlin, 
Nov. 26, 18G1. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy ; in 1813 joined the 
army as volunteer, and during the war went 
twice to Paris, where he studied the art treas- 
ures ; in 1825 went to Rome, returned in 
1828, became court-painter, and in 1831 
member of and professor at Berlin Acad- 
emy. Works : Christ on Mount of Olives 
(1812); Christ and W T oman of Samaria (1825); 
Farewell of Vittoria Caldoni ; Christ before 
Pilate, Garnisouskirche, Berlin ; Good Sa- 
maritan, Royal Palace, ib. ; Christ in the 
Desert; Miriam preceding Israel (1839), 
Queen of England ; Christ meditating on 
his Mission, Bridgewater Gallery, London ; 
Emperor Wenceslaus ; Italian Peasants at 
an Antique Well ; Duke of Brunswick at 
the Ball in Brussels in 1815 ; Portraits of 
Frederic William IV., Mendelssohn, Prince 
of Wales, and of nearly 1,000 famous con- 
temporaries. Art Journal (1862), 25 ; Ro- 
senberg, Berl. Malersch., 78. 

HER, THEODOR, born at Roth near 
Leutkirch, Wiirtemberg, July 30, 1838. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art 
School under Neher ; in 1868 went to Paris, 
where he studied after Titian, Palma Vec- 
chio, Paolo Veronese, and Delacroix ; in 
1869 pupil of Ramberg in Munich. Works : 
Spring Day (1872) ; Evening ; Landscape 


with Figures ; Moonlight on Via Appia, Cyril Wiseman, Ixirn in Franco in 1H4K, died 

Morning on Lake Avcnuis (1S84). Ilhistr. in Ixjndon in 1882, was an artist of the 

Zeitg. (187:5), i- 275. brightest promise. Sandby, ii. 17!). 

HEIIBELIN, Mine. JEANNE MA- HERBST (Herbster), HANS, born in 

THILDE (nee Habert), born in Brunoy Strasburg about 1408. German school; 

(Seine-et-Oise), Aug. 24, 1820. Miniature master in 141)2 of the guild of Basic, where 

painter, pupil of her uncle, Belloc. Began Hans Holbein, the younger, painted his por- 

by painting iu oils. Tainted the only min- trait in 151(!. In 1500 painted au altarpiece 

iature ever admitted to the Luxembourg, for the convent of St. Dominick. (iave up 

Has visited Italy. Medals: Jid class, LSI:!; painting after the Reformation, having scru- 

2d class, 1844; 1st class, 1847, 1848, 1S55. pies about ministering to picture-worship. - 

Works: Margaret of Spain (after Velasquez) ; Cotta's Kunstbl. ( 181(1), 40; W. .V; W., ii. 

Rembrandt's Virgin ; Peasant Woman, Bur- 48!J. 

gundian Shepherdess ; The Prayer ; A Sou- HERUSTHOFFER, KARL, born at Press- 

venir ; Child holding a Itose ; Girl playing burg, Hungary, April IT, 1821, died in Paris 

with a Fan (1855). in 1*70. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna 

HERBERT, JOHN" HOMERS, born at Academy under Amerling ; went afterwards 
Maldon, Essex, Jan. 215, 1810. History and to Paris, where he became naturali/ed, and 
portrait painter, pupil in London of Royal adopted Isabey's style. Works: Arpad 
Academy; began by painting portraits and elected Duke of the' ^higvars (1842); 
drawing book-illustrations; tirst subject eradc at Worms in 10th Century. Tasso 
picture exhibited, The Ajipointed Hour, reading to Duchess of Ferrara ( 18 (:!); Hun- 
After visiting Italy, exhibited Brides of Yen- garian Robbers in Ambush ( 184M), Sehwerin 
ice (18;!!l). His conversion to Roman ('a- (lallery ; Episode during the Ini[uisi(ion in 
tholicism (1840) has had a marked influence Holland (1840), owned by State ; Iconoclasts 
on his art. Elected an A.R.A. in 1841, and (184C), Avery Sale, New York, 1870 ; Studio 
It A. iu 184(i, when he was commissioned to of Van Ostade (1849); Daniel in Lions' Den, 
paint frescos in the Houses of Parliament. Lady Macbeth, Episode in Thirty Years' War 
Corresponding Member of Institute of (1850); Temptation (1852); liaising of Laza- 
France. Works: Introduction of Chris- rus (1855), owned bv State ; Studio of Ru- 
tianity into Britain (1842); Sir Thomas bens (1857); Partie Carree, Scene in St. Bar- 
More and his Daughter (1844), National tholomew's Night, Duel on Banks of the 
Gallery; St. Gregory teaching his Chant Seine (185!)); Gunsmith, Antechamber in 
(1845); St. John reproving Herod ( 1848); Time of Louis XIII. (18i;:i), both bought by 
Mary Magdalen (185!)); Virgin Mary (1 800 ); State; Last Resource (1805); Religious In- 
To Labour is to Pray (18(!2); Valley of struction in Jewish Family (18(58); Arrest 
Moses (18G8); Adoration of Magi (1874); (1871); Convulsionnaires in the Cemetery, 
David while a Shepherd, Our Lord after After the Pillage (187(5). Bellier, i. 700; 
Resurrection (1878); Youth of St. John the Kunst Chronik, v. 18!( ; Wurzbacli, viii. :i(!2 ; 
Baptist (1879); Christmas Eve at Bethlehem Xeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 215. 
(1880); Joseph warned that Archelaus Reigns, HERCULAXEUM, Hector h-nxix, John 
Flight from the Sword of Herod (1881); Jus- G. Johnson, Philadelphia; canvas, H. 15 ft. 
tice not always Slow, Happy Valley, Appoint- x4 ft. Destruction of Herculaneum, A.D. 
ed Hour, Esther with Handmaidens (1882); 79, by the eruption of Vesuvius, which is 
Madonna, Captive Musician (1883); Treas- seen in background ; in foreground, a group 
ures of the Home, Ruth with the Reapers of fugitives, mostly women, gazing on the 
at Meal-time, Evening near Windsor, Bend spectacle. Salon, 1881. 
on the Thames (1884). His sou and pupil HERCULES, ancient pictures. See 



Apcllfs, Aiicmoit, Xi'arcliii.--; J'anmmx, 1'ur- 
rhasiux, Zeuxi*. 

chinn, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 5 ft. Her- 
ciili-s overcomes the river-god Achelous 
transformed into a bull, while his father-in- 
law, CEneus, king of Calydon, with one of 
his followers, arc spectators of the combat ; 
meanwhile, two shepherds watch their flocks 
on the banks of the river. Belonged to Car- 
dinal Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XIV. ; 
bought from him by Louis XIV. Engraved 
byDuthenofer. Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Musi'e 
francais, iii. Part 1 ; Filhol, ii. PI. 91 ; Lan- 
don, Vies, PL 114. 

By dttidii Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 
7 in. x C> ft. in. Hercules, covered with 
the lion's skin, struggles with Achelous and 
forces him to bend his body to the ground. 
Painted for Duke of Mantua ; bought by 
Charles I. of England ; on his death sold to 
Jabach, who transferred it to Louis XIV. 
Engraved by G. Kousselet. Landon, Musi'e, 
ii. PI. 15 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Felsina Pit- 
trice, ii. 23. 

cois ]jcm<jne, Toulouse Museum. Same 
subject by Charles Coypel, engraved by Su- 
rugue. Arrival of Hercules at Olympus, 
fresco by P. Cornelius, Glyptothck, Munich. 

Louvre ; canvas, H. -1 ft. x 5 ft. Hercules, 
leaning on his club, drags the body of Ca- 
cus out of his den ; near him, a man points 
to Evander and. Faunus, hastening to his 
aid ; in the background, the cattle of Her- 
cules graze on the banks of a stream ; to 
the right, on a wooded hill, are ruined mon- 
uments. Engraved by Pillement. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Musi'e franyais ; iii. Part 1 ; 
Filhol, ii. PI. 118 ; Landon, Vies, PI. 113. 

Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. G in. 
Hercules, unable to bear the anguish caused 
by the poisoned tunic of Nessus, stretches 
himself upon the funeral pyre which he has 
himself prepared, and expires with eyes and 
hands raised toward heaven. Same history 

as Hercules and Achelous of Guido. En- 
graved by G. llousselet. Landon, Musee, i. 
PI. 41 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

DEATH, Sir Frederick Leighlon, Bernhard 
Samuelson, M.P., London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
G in. x8 ft. Subject from the " Alcestis" of 
Euripides. Admetus, the friend of Apollo, 
married Alcestis ; when his time came for 

Death of Hercules, Guido Reni, Louvre. 

death, the Fates consented to prolong his 
life if another person would die in his stead; 
Alcestis offered herself, but when Death came 
to take his due, Hercules struggled with 
and overcame him. Alcestis, pale and statue- 
like, lies on a bier beneath a canopy hung 
from trees near the sea-shore, which, with 
a vast plain under a lowering sky, is seen 
behind. In the foreground, at right, Her- 
cules struggles with the King of Terrors ; 
at left, a group of attendants ; in front, the 
grave. Behind the bier Admetus, old and 
hoary, sustains a damsel who is overcome 
with terror. Royal Academy, 1871. Athen. 
(1870), i. 203; Art Journal" (1871), 153. 


Reui, Louvre ; cnnvns, H. 8 ft. 7 in x I! ft. <> 
in. Hercules, armed with the club, strikes 
the Lcrncun Hydra, which raises its head 
near a rock. Same history as /Ii-railr* and 
Achelous of Guido. Engraved by G. Rous- 
selet. Laiuloii, Musee, ii. PI. 30 ; Laroussc, 
ix. 214. 

HERCULES, INFANT, attributed to An- 
nibale, but probably by Agostino Carrmi-i, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. (!^ in. x 51 in. The 
young Hercules strangles a serpent with his 
left hand while holding down a second one. 

Ir.fant Hercules, Agostino Carracci (?), Lou 

which has twined about his right arm, with 
his knee upon his cradle. Formerly in Or- 
leans Gallery, but not sold in England with 
the other pictures ; bought in Rome for 
Musee Napoleon. Engraved by Ern. Marace ; 
Count Bizemont-Pruuele. Villot, Cat. Lou- 
vre ; Musee fram;ais, i. ; Filhol, i. PI. 03 ; 
Laudon, Musee, vi. PL 14. 

Giordano, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 
ft. G in. x 9 ft. 2 in. ; signed, dated KiOO. 
Hercules, submissive to the charms of Om- 
phale, has dropped his club and taken up 
the distaff; the two, who sit side by side, 

are surrounded by her companions. Painted 
for Don Andrea d'Avalos, Prince of Monte- 
sarchio. In catalogue of 1722. Engraved 
by ('. Hallos. Gal. Roy. do Dresde, i. PI. 40. 

By Alcssandro Tiin-hi, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 1 in. x 7 ft. 3 in. The god, 
nude, seated in an antique chair, spinning ; 
before him, Oinphalo, nearly nude, her back 
covered with the lion's skin, leans one arm 
on the hero's club, and glances nt her com- 
panions, three other voting women, who 
mock Hercules, while Cupid looks on with 
a pitying expression. Formerly attributed 
to Doinenichino. 

PEN'TS, Sir Joshua Ili-i/nolil.t, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; canvas. In the centre Her- 
cules grasps the serpents by the throat, 
while Iphiclcs cowers in terror beside him ; 
on one side rushes in Alcmena, with attend- 
ants, half clad, as if aroused from sleep; on 
the other, Amphitryon, sword in hand, fol- 
lowed by servants with torches ; Tircsias the 
blind seer (head of Samuel Johnson) stands 
by with uplifted hands ; above, Juno looks 
down from black clouds at the battling of 
her vengeance. Painted in 17SS for Cath- 
erine II. of Russia, who paid for it 1,500 
guineas, and sent Sir Joshua in addition a 
gold snuff-box, on which was her portrait 
with cypher in diamonds. Engraved by J. 
Hodges, J. Walker ; original sketch in pos- 
session of Lord Arran. Lord Fitzwillinni 
owns a repetition of the figure of the Her- 
cules. Leslie Taylor, ii. 4*2. 500, 51U, 538; 
Pulling, 83 ; Northeote, ii. 214 ; Bcechcy. 
i. 244 ; Art Journal (IS(iO), 358 ; Notes and 
Queries, 4th S., ix. 333 ; Atkinson, Art Tour, 

HERCULES, TEMPLE OF, Francia lii- 
ijio, UfHx.i, Florence ; wood. The statue of 
Hercules, on a pedestal, under the portico 
of a temple, with soldiers, philosophers, and 
others grouped around it. Of his late pe- 
riod. Probably part of a cassone or chest. 
C. & C., Italy, iii. 512 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecolc 
florentinc ; Molini, Gal. di Fircuzc, ii. Gl ; 
Lasinio, i. PL (J3. 



VIRTUE, Annibale L'armwi, Naples Muse- 
11111. Scene from allegory by Prodicus, pre- 
served by Xenoplion in the Memorabilia. 
Hercules, seated between two women, ap- 
pears irresolute ; Virtue, chastely clad, pre- 
sents a sword and points heavenward ; Vice, 
reclining upon a couch strewn with flowers, 
displays her charms and invites him to 
pleasure. Engraved by N. Mignard. La- ! 
roiisse, i\. '214. 

By Jliiln:n,t, Uftizi, Florence. Hercules, 
seated in a landscape, with Venus on his 
right, and Cupid embracing his knees ; on 
his left, Minerva, who takes him by the hand 
and points to arms ; above, Time, bearing 
emblems of life ; the god, while turning his 
eyes toward the goddess of pleasure, appears 
ready to follow Minerva. Larousse, ix. 214. 

I'arniiivi; Hope Collection, London ; canvas. 
Hercules, emblematical of strength, is led 
by Wisdom, and gazes tranquilly on worldly 
Love, who is at his feet. From Orleans 
Gallery ; sold in 1793 for 1300. Cab. Cro- 
zat, ii. PI. 24 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 113, 

HEUDTLE, HERMANN, born in Stutt- 
gart, Sept. 20, 1810. Landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, pupil of Stcinkopf; studied 
from nature in Germany, France, Belgium, 
Italy, and Switzerland, and with Pieter 
Francis Peters founded a permanent art- 
exhibition in Stuttgart. Works : Palace 
Interior in Florence, Court-Yard in Verona, 
Lake Lugano, all in Villa llosenstein, near 
Stuttgart ; View of Lake Constance ; View 
of Bregeuz, Castle Friedrichshafcn ; Was- 
sen on St. Gothard ; Misocco Valley ; Bel- 
linzona ; Canal Grande with Rialto Bridge ; 
View in Villa Borghese. Miiller, 252. 

HEREAU, JULES, born in Paris, Aug. 
21), 1830 (1831 ?), died June 20, 1879. Land- 
scape painter, especially skilful in painting 
animals, but his landscapes and city views 
are of great merit. Medals: 18G5, 1868. 
Works : Shepherd and the Sea (18G4), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Impending Storm (1865), 

Amiens Museum ; Shepherd's Song (1866), 
Rouen Museum ; Gathering Seaweed in 
Brittany, Snow-Storm in Paris (1868); The 
Thames near London Bridge, The Thames 
at Gravesend (1873) ; The Meuse at Rotter- 
dam (1874) ; Mouth of the Seine, the Meuse 
(1879); Returning (1880). L'Art (1879), 
xviii. 24 ; Bellier, i. 761. 

HERILLUS, painter. See Erillus. 
in London in 180(5, died there, Dec. 18, 
1879. Landscape painter, studied in Mu- 
nich (1829) and in Italy, settled in London 
(1841), and exhibited often at Royal Acad- 
emy. W T orks : Morning on Lake Lugano 
(18(50) ; Amalfi (1805) ; Head of the Glen 
(1808); Old Red Sandstone Cliffs (1869); 
Sunset after a Storm (1872) ; Outskirts of a 
Wood (1873) ; Kildonan (1875) ; Woodland 
Waters (1876) ; Tormorc (1877) ; Loch Etive 
(1878) ; By the Lonely Tarn (1879) ; Loch 
Etive near Taynuilt (1880). Amer. Art Re- 
view (1880), 180 ; Art Journal (1801), 73 ; 
(1880), 83. 

HERKOMER, HUBERT, born at Waal, 
Bavaria, May 26, 
1849. Genre, land- 
scape, and portrait 
painter ; came to 
America in 1851 with 
his father, a wood- 
carver, but returned 
in 1857 to Europe, 
and settled at South- 

r\\7 \J \ ampton, where he 
entered the school 
of art ; in 1805 visited Munich, and in 1866 
entered the South Kensington Schools under 
Frederick Walker. Member of Institute of 
Water Colours in 1871, A.R.A. in 1879. 
Settled in 1873 at Bushey, Hertfordshire, 
where, in 1881, he established an art- 
school. Revisited America in 1882, painted 
many portraits in New York and Boston, 
and lectured in both cities. Visited America 
again in 1883 and 1885, when he opened a 
studio in Boston. Elected Slade professor 
of art at Oxford, as successor of John Ruskin, 



and member of Berlin Academy, 1885. Modal 
of Honour, Paris, 1878. Paints in both oil 
and water-colours, and is one of the best 
living etchers. Many of his drawings have 
appeared in the Graphic. Works in oil : 
After the Toil of the Day (1873) ; La*t Mus- 
terChelsea Hospital (1875) ; At Death's 
Door (1871!) ; Der Bittgang, Who Comes 
Here? Souvenir of Rembrandt (1877); Even- 
tide (1878) ; Life, Light, and Melody ( 18711); 
Wind-Swept, God's Shrino (1880) ; Missing 

(1881) ; Gloom of Idwal, Homeward | lSS2); 
Natural Enemies (18815) ; Pressing to tin- 
West Scene in Castle Garden, X. Y. ( 1884); 
Found, Grave-Digger's Firewood, First 
Warmth of Spring, Bavarian Forester, Old 
Peasant Woman (1885). Water-colours: Im 
Walde (1874) ; Wood-Cutter's Rest ; Poach- 
er's Fate ; At the Well. Portraits : Richard 
Wagner (1878); Alfred Tennyson (187'.)); 
Lord Stratford do RadclylVe, Odell the 
Actor (1880) ; John Kuskin (1881) ; Richard 
(Jakes, Loren/ Herkomer, Archibald Forbes 

(1882) ; Viscount Eversley ; Dr. A. B. Gar- 
rod ; Hans Richter (188:!) ; Canon Ellison, 
Canon Bradley, Canon Furse, 

Lord Brabourne (1884); Owen 

Grant, C. Villiers Stanford, 

William Sandbach (1885). 

Art Journal (1878), 141 ; (ISS(l), 10!) ; ( 1SS2), 

238; Portfolio (1882), 81. 

HERLEN (Herlin, Herlein, Hr.rlin), 
FRIEDRICH, born at Rothenburg or Nord 
lingen, Bavaria, died at N'">rdlingen, Oct. 
12, 1491. German school ; probably son 
of the painter Han.s Herlen, of Nordling- 
en, about 1442-7<i. Ho lived in L'lm in 
1449-54, then went to Flanders, where 
Roger van der Weyden, whom he closely 
imitated, was probably his master, and after 
his return was employed in Nordlingen, 
perhaps as early as 1459, but certainly in 
1402-63, then in Rothenburg and Dinkels- 
biihl in 14G6-G7, then settled in Nordlingen. 
A noteworthy master, though limited in his 
range and in no sense original. Works : 
Madonna, Circumcision (1459), National 
Museum, Munich ; Adoration of the Magi, 

St. Ottilia (1459), sixteen Panels with Life 
of the Virgin (8), Legend of St. George (3), 
Story of Magdalen ("2), Ladies of Donor's 
Family and Saints (2) (14C2), Madonna en- 
throned andSaints(1488), Town Hall, NV.rd- 
liugen ; Panels on Shrine with Passion of 
Christ (4) and Last Judgment (4) (14l!2), St. 
George's, il>. ; Altai-piece with Life of the 
Virgin (14(>li), St. James's, Rothenburg; 
Nativity, Adoration of the Magi (1472), St. 
Blasius'. Bopfingeu ; Marriage of St. Cath- 
erine, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. 
All.^em. d. Biogr., xii. 115 ; Fi'irster, (iescli., 
ii. IS, 187 ; do.. Denkmale, XII. ii. 2 ; iii. 
3 ; Griineisen \ Mauch. 37; Ku tiler (( 'rowe), 
i. 13S ; 1). Kunstblatt ( 1S51 1, 1*7 ; Schnaase, 
viii. 407 ; Waagen, K. 11. K. in ])., i. 321, 
:'.I7; \V. \ W., ii. 112 ; /eitschr. f. I.. K., 
iii. 37. 

HKRLIX, AUGUST K, born at Lill, . Aug. 
IS, 1.S35. Genre ]>ainter, pupil of Soui-hon; 
paints subjects from everv-dav life with 
spirit and humour. Works : The Wafer, 
Keating Colza, The Alloir (lsi',1) ; Washer- 
woman, The Pleasure-Trip (lsi;:i) ; \'isiting 
One's Colleague, Burial of a Pauper ( 1 SI ill) ; 
The Lotion (1M17); Amusing their Little 
Brother, A Pond (isf.S); Time for tli<- In- 
terview, Returning from the Fields (Isil'.i) ; 
The Interview, The Parade (1S~0): Goiiiu' 
to Harvest, Lake Kvian, Souvenir of Dinar! I 
(1874); A Vision, Woman of Lille, Hour 
for Walking (1875) ; Stella Maris, Atl'iir of 
Honour (1S7<!). Mailer. 253. 

Dresden, Jan. (i, 1S02, died in Berlin. April 
30, 1880. History painter, pupil of (he 
Dresden Academy under Hartmann, then 
from 1822 in Diisseldorf under Cornelius, 
who entrusted him with important fresco 
works in Munich and (IStO) Herlin, where 
in 1841 he became professor at the Acad- 
emy. Works : Theology, Bonn University ; 
Scenes from Parcival (1834), Konigsbail, 
Munich ; Victory of Louis the Bavarian at 
Ampling, Arcades, Royal Garden, il>. ; As- 
cension (1835), Protestant Church, Munich ; 
Patriarchs, Prophets, Evangelists, Apostles 



Peter and Paul (1840-44), 14 frescos, Klos- 
terkircbe, Berlin ; Easter Morn, St. Mat- 
thew's, ib. ; Sermon on the Mount, Fifteen 
Pictures from German History (1844-54). 
Allgem. il. Biogr., xii. 185 ; Allgem. Zeitg., 
May 20, 1880, Beilage, 141 ; Brockhaus, ix. 
145; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1831), 108; (1835), 
42 ; D. Kunstbl. (1853), 40 ; (1854), 31 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xv. 5(iO ; Forster, v. 72 ; 
Rac/ynski, i. 55, G5, 270 ; ii. 230. 

Havre, July 22, 1838. Animal and genre 

ing-Trough, Shepherd Dog (1883) ; In the 
Heath, Tip, A Pug-Dog (1884) ; Welfare 
(1885). Bellier, i. 7G2. 

gelica Kmiffmann, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 4 in. xl ft. 3 in. Scene from one 
of Klopstock's dramas on Hermann (Armin- 
ius). Hermann, having triumphed over the 
legions of Varus, returns, bearing the spoils 
of victory, to sacrifice on the altars of his 
fathers ; Thusnekla presents him the wreath 
of sacred leaves, while her companions strew 

mi ^^mm^. fi 

Hermann and Thusnelda, Angelica Kauffmann, Vienna Museum. 

painter, pupil of Philippe Rousseau and of 
Fromentin. Medals : 3d class, 1873 ; 2d 
class, 1879. Works : Ill-gotten Gains do no 
Good to the Getter, Contempt (1808); Valet 
coupling Dogs, Intermission (1870); Hunt- 
ing Relay (1872) ; Peasants fleeing from In- 
vasion, Who-lioop to the Boar (1873) ; Legend 
of St. Hubert, Fino a Fox-Terrier (1874); 
Galendor and Castillo (1875) ; Mass of St. 
Hubert, Shepherd and the Sea (1870) ; 
Huntsman (1877); Death of Action (1878); 
Who-hoop (1879), bought by State ; Relay of 
Dogs (1880); Maternity, Wolf -Hunt (1881); 
Eve of Lent (1882); Coming from the Water- 

flowers and a priest gives thanks to Woden. 
Engraved by J. B. Durer ; G. Kotterba. 

Pxrvcil, X. 712. 

HERMANS, CHARLES, born in Brus- 
sels, Aug. 17, 1839. Genre painter, pupil 
of Brussels Academy, and in Paris of Ecole 
des Beaux Arts and of Gleyre ; lived in 
18G2-GG in Italy, mostly at Rome. First 
attracted attention in Brussels in 1875 by 
his Morning Dawn in a Large City, for 
which he received the Order of Leopold. 
Works : On the Strand ; On the Terrace ; 
At Dawn of Day ; Monks playing Nine-Pins ; 
! Job and his Friends (1872); Child's Hospi- 



tal (1873); Masked Ball (1880), Pennsylva- . 23, 1(577. Flemish school; history and 
nia Academy, Philadelphia. Mailer, 253. genre painter, pupil of Damiaan Wortel- 
HERMELIN, OLOF, born at Gripenberg, mans, and formed himself further under the 
Smaland, Feb. 8, 1820. Landscape painter, influence of Rubens ; master of the guild in 
pupil of Stockholm Academy under Billings ; 1IJ37. Works : A Festival, Bridgewater ( ial- 
visited in 1870 Copenhagen, Dilsseldorf, lery, London ; Men and Women regaling 
Paris, Belgium, and Holland, and in 1S7:! Themselves, Repast, Marquis of Bute, ib. ; 
went to London. Member of the Stockholm Pharaoh's Dream, Christ bearing the Cross, 
Academy since 1870. Works: Evening in Hampton Court Palace ; Figures with Sheep 

at a Well, Dulwich (iallcrv; Peasant Fam- 

ily, Arenberg (iallery, Brussels; Calling of 


Autumn ; King's Hut in Orebro ; Shower 

in Bohuslan ; Cloudy Evening ; Spring 

Landscape; End of Winter; Autumn Land- St. Matthew, Comic Dulnis de 

scape ; Fish-Market in 

Honfleur ; On Hunting- 

CJround. Miiller, 2.">3. 


vas, H. 4 ft. x 5 ft. 10 in. 
Herminia, in Clorinda's 
armour, addresses the old 
shepherd, whose children 
play the tlute and the pipe, 
and whose sheep are seen 
in the fold (Tasso, Jerusa- 
lem Delivered, Canto vii.). 
Collection of Louis XIV. 
Formerly attributed to An- 
nibale Carracci. Villot, 
Cat. Louvre; Reveil, v. 308. 

HERMOGENES, painter and pliilos- ib.; Conversion of St. Augustine, Baptism 
opher, of Carthage ('?), second half of 2d of do., St. Augustine's, Antwerp ; Abraham 
century, A. i). After his conversion to Chris- and the Angels, Darmstadt Museum; do., 
tianity he incurred the anger of Tertullian, Cassel (iallerv ; Peasant at Domestic Work, 
whose work " Adversus Hermogencm "alone Bam berg (iallery ; Satyr at Repast of Peas- 
lias preserved the painter's name from ant Family, Berlin Museum ; Soldiers in 
oblivion. Peasant's Cottage ( 1(!(>1), Harrach (iallery. 

HERNANDEZ, Don GERMAN, born in Vienna; Christ with Martha and Mary, 
Spain ; contemporary. History painter, pu- Sehwerin Gallerv ; Christ's Kntry into Jeru- 
pil of San Fernando Academy. Works : Soc- salem, Stockholm Museum; Christ before 
rates in the House of Lais ; *. Caiaphas, do. 

Journey of the Virgin and St. John to Eplie- (_f \f- A-rf JPO bearing the 
sus ; Entombment ; Romeo and Juliet ; The * Cross, do. 

Virgin in the Desert ; Return from Ponte crowned with Thorns, Historical Society, 
Molle Rome, Luisa Miller (1883). La II- New York. Kramm, iii. (!80 ; Michiels, viii. 
ustracion (1883), i. 242, 2!)1. 248 ; Van den Branden, JtUJ. 

HERP, GUILLIAM (Willeiu) VAN, born HERP, HKNDRIK VAN, born at Ant- 
at Antwerp in 1U14, died there, buried June werp, baptized May 20, Ifilit, died there in 

nia 3t the Shepherd's House, Domenichino, Louvre. 



1GC7. Flemish school ; history painter, son | Male Portrait (1639), Germanic Museum, 
of and first instructed by Nicolaas van Herp [ Nuremberg. 

(pupil of Hendrik van Balen in 1602, and ; HEREEGOUTS, HENDRIK, born at 
master of the guild in 1606) ; then (1627) Mechlin, April 1, 1633, died at Antwerp 
pupil of Adam van Noort ; master of the before March 3, 1704. Flemish school ; 
guild in 1637. Works : St. Roch adoring history painter, son and pupil of David 
the Virgin, The Plague-Stricken invoking Herregouts (born at Mechlin in 1600), spent 
St. Roch, Godshuizen, Antwerp. Van den several years at Rome studying after the best 
Branden, 922. masters, was at Cologne about 1661, came 

HERPFER, KARL, born at Diukelsbiihl, to Antwerp, and entered the guild there in 
Bavaria, Nov. 30, 183(5. Genre painter, pu- 1664, but soon removed to Mechlin, where 
pil of Munich Academy under Ramberg ; ! he became master of the guild in 1666 ; went 
paiuts mostly rococo scenes, better in draw- ! afterwards again to Germany and Italy, 
ing and colour than in composition. Works : whence he returned to Antwerp in 1679. 
The Coquette ; Good News ; Disagreeable Painted altarpieces for churches in all the 
News ; The Nurse ; Gentle Waking ; Inter- principal cities of Belgium. Works : Mar- 
rupted Festival ; Scene from Medic-re's " Nar- tyrdorn of St. Matthew, Antwerp Cathedral ; 
cisse " ; Disturbed Betrothal (1872), Kunst- ', Last Judgment, St. Ann's, Bruges ; Mar- 
halle, Hamburg. Miiller, 253. tyrdom of St. Basil, St. Basil's, ib.; St. Au- 

HERPIX, LEON, born at Granville, Nor- 
mandy, Oct. 12, 1841, died Oct. 27, 1880. 

gustine in Ecstasy, St. John's Hospital, ib.; 
St. Dominic in Prayer, Notre Dame, ib. ; 

Landscape and porcelain painter, pupil of Assumption, St. Magdalen's, ib.; Apotheosis 
Daubigny, J. Andre'-, and Busson. Medals : of Christ, St. Peter and Paul's, Mechlin ; 
3d class, 1875 ; 2d class, 1876. Works : Trinity, Cologne Museum. Descamps, iii. 
Seine at Sevres (1868); Environs of Dinan , 105 ; Kramin, iii. 681 ; Merlo, 175 ; Van den 
(1869); Views of Bas-Meudon (1870); Island : Branden, 947. 

of Chansey (1872); The Oise, River in the 
Woods (1874); The Marne at Chennevieres, 
The Knoll of Moulineaux (1875); Bridge of 
Si'vres, The Little Bridge of San Jacut 

Gelders about 1640, died at Bruges in 1721. 
Flemish school ; history and portrait painter, 
brother of preceding, like whom he visited 

(1876) ; Environs of Cherbourg, Salt Marshes Italy, then entered the guild at Antwerp in 
of the Pouliquen (1877); Paris at Evening 1673 ; removed to Bruges in 1682, and there 

from the Bridge of Saints Prres (1878), 
Paris from the Pont Nouf (1878), Luxem- 

became master of the guild in 1684. Works : 
Circumcision, Assumption, St. Ann's, Bruges; 

bourg Museum ; do. in 1878 (1879), bought ' Presentation in the Temple, The Virgin and 
by the city ; Castle of Gaillard (1880) ; Old ! Saints kneeling before Christ, Church of the 
Mill at Bonneuil, Gate of La Villette 1 Carmelites, ib.; two portraits (1699, 1709), 
(1881). Amer. Art Rev. (1881), 88 ; L'Art j St. John's Hospital, ib.; portrait of himself, 
(1880), xxiii. 168 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. do. of his Father, Academy, ib. ; The Cardi- 
nal Virtues (3), Town Hall, Ostend. Van 
den Brandeu, 948. 


HERR, MICHAEL, born at Metzingen, 
Wiirtemberg, in 1591, died at Nuremberg 

in 1661. German school ; history and por- born in Berlin, Feb. 6, 1824. Architecture 
trait painter ; seems to have gone to Nurem- and landscape painter, pupil of Biermann ; 
berg early in life, and returned in 1620 after travelled in Germany, France, and Italy, and 
a visit to Italy. Works : The Seven Liberal in 1845 went to Athens, whence by order of 
Arts with Mars and Justice (1622); Nurem- King Otto he travelled through the Morea 
berg during the Siege in Thirty Years' War, in search of ancient monuments. In 1846 



he accompanied the Turkish expedition to 
Asia Minor, Palestine, and Persia, was made 
a Bey by the Sultan ; visited Egypt, Nubia, 
and Abyssinia in 1847, and returned to Ber- 
lin in 1H48 via Italy, France, Spain, and Eng- 
land. In 1855 he moved to Dresden. Works: 
Street in Cairo ; Plain of Thebes ; Street in 
Bagdad ; View of Sidon ; View on White 
Nile ; View on lied Sea ; Colossus of Mem- 
non ; Coast of Paphos in Cyprus ; View on 
Lake Coino ; Canal in Venice ; Acropolis at 
Athens; Temple of Isis on Isle of Phihe : 
Theatre of Taonuina ; Forum at Home : 
Temple of Vesta; Tivoli from Neptune's 
Grotto ; Posilippo. Miiller, 2.")4. 

HEKKERA, ALON/O DE, living at So-, 
govia in 1579, intimate friend of El Mudo. 
Spanish school. In l.T.H) he painted, for 
the high altar of the Church of Villa-Castin, 
six j)ictures illustrating the life of Christ, 
which were ruined in 17:!1 by a bungling 
restorer.- -Cean Bermude/, ; Stirling, i. 21)0. 

(the elder), born 
in Seville about 
I"i7li, died in 
Madrid in l(J5(i. 
Spanish school; 
pupil of Luis 
Fernandez, but 
disdaining to 
imitate him, 
adopted a free 
bold style, and 

became one of the most original and famous 
artists of his time in Spain. He painted 
many religious compositions, and attracted 
numerous students, among whom was Ve- 
lasquez, but his temper was so violent that 
he was abandoned by even his children. 
Accused of coining false money, he took 
refuge in the Jesuits' College, Seville, where 
he painted a noble altarpiece, St. Hermen- 
gild in Glory, now in the Seville Museum. 
Philip IV. on seeing this picture granted 
him a free pardon. In 1050 he settled in 
Madrid. Other works : Last Judgment, S. 
Bernardo, Seville ; St. Peter, Cathedral, ib.; 


St. Basil, Museum, ib. ; Israelites gathering 
Manna, Moses smiting the Hock, Marriage 
at Cana, Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, Arch- 
bishop's Palace, ib. ; St. Augustine and 
Church Fathers, St. Jerome and do., Mont 
pensier Collection, ib.; St. Basil Dictating, 
Louvre ; St. Matthew, Dresden Museum. 
He also executed many frescos, of which but 
few remain. His eldest son, called El Ilu- 
bis, was an artist of merit, but died young. 
--Ch. lilanc, Ecole espagnole ; Stirling, i. 
4") -4 ; Viardot, l!ll. 

(the younger), boni in Seville in KJ'J'J, died 
in Madriil in l(!s.">. Spanisli school ; sun 
and pupil of Francisco de Herrera, el Viejo, 
from whom ho ran awav and went to Home, 
where he learned to paint still-life, espe- 
cially fish, so well that he was called II 
Spagnuolo degli I'esci. Uetiirning to Se- 
ville on tho deatli of his father, he painted 
several large altarpieces for churches. In 
!(!(!() he aided in founding the Academy at 
Seville, of which Murillo was chosen presi- 
dent and Herrera second or vice-president ; 
but, displeased at this inferior position, he 
went in KKIl to Madrid, where ho became 
painter to Philip IV. and superintendent of 
the roval works (1(171). Named royal 
painter to Charles II. Though possessed 
of considerable mechanical facility. Herrera 
did not inherit much of his father's genius ; 
he coloured i 
with some T 
brilliancy, \J 
but his draw- 
ing and his composition are alike affected. 
Works : Triumph of St. Hermengild, Ma- 
drid Museum; two landscapes, Montpcnsier 
Gallery, Seville; Saints appearing to St. 
Dominick, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole espagnole ; Madrazo, 411 ; 
Stirling, ii. !):!(! ; Viardot, 1!)1. 

DE. born in Madrid in IfilO, died there in 
1(!71. Spanish school ; history painter, pu- 
pil of A. Cano, worked especially for the 
Escorial. Works : St. Barnabas, St. Jerome 




in tho Desert, St. John in Patmos, St. John 
Baptist in tlio Desert, Escorial ; Two Wan- 
dering Musicians, Louvre. 

in Antwerp, baptized June 10, 1743, died 
t litre Aug. 10, 1827. Flemish school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, son and pupil of 
Jacob Hcrreyns the younger, a decorative 
painter, and of the Academy, where he won 
prizes in 17(12 and 17(i4 ; professor in 
17G5. After travelling in 17(17, he settled 
in 1771 at Mechlin, where he founded an 
academy. In 1780 he was visited by Gus- 
tavus III. of Sweden, who made him his 
court-painter, and in 1781 by Joseph II. of 
Austria. On the change of the Antwerp 
Academy into a special school for painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, in 1800, he 
was again appointed professor ; exercised 
a favourable influence upon modern art 
in Belgium. Works : Last Sigh of Christ, 
four portraits (17!):}, 180!)), Museum, Ant- 
werp ; Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus 
( 1808), Cathedral, ib. ; Adoration of the Magi, 
Museum, Brussels ; Last Supper, St. Nicho- 
las', ib. ; Scenes in Life of St. Rumoldus(3), 
Cathedral, Mechlin ; Disciples at Emmaus, 
St. Francis of Assisi, St. John in the Desert, 
(lod Father, St. John's, ib. ; Christ on the 
Cross, Seminary, ib. ; Portrait of Emperor 
Joseph II., do. of a Canon, Museum, ib. 
Ch. Blanc, Kcole iluniande ; Immerzeel, ii. 
35 ; Michicls, x. 4!KS ; Rooses (Reber), 447 ; 
Van den Brandon, 1255. 

in Surrey in 1795, 
died at Tun- 
bridge, Kent, 
Sept. 2:i, 1805. 
Painter of horses 
and farm -yard 
scenes, pupil of 
A. Cooper. He 
was animal-paint- 
er to the Duchess 
of Kent. Many 
of his coaching and racing pictures have 
been engraved and lithographed. Among 

his best works arc : The Baron's Charger, 

O ' 

Members of the Temperance Society, lie- 
turning from Epsom, Derby Day, Market 
Day, and Horse Fair ; Frugal Meal (1847), 
National Gallery ; Group of Ducks, Deer- 
Stalker, Glasgow Gallery ; Horse at the 
Trough, National Gallery, Dublin ; Mare 
and Foal (1853), W. T. Walters, Baltimore. 
His son, John Frederick, paints similar 
subjects. Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Art Journal 
(18G5), 328, 381. 

in Wiirzburg in 1720, died at Fulda in 179<>. 
German school ; landscape and genre painter, 
especially of hunts, peasant frolics, and bath- 
ing nymphs, in the style of the Dutch mas- 
ters ; was court-painter to the Prince-Bishop 
of Fulda. Works : Wood Landscapes with 
Huntsmen and Peasants (2), Basle Museum ; 
Charlatan pulling Tooth, Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Singing Toper, Zither-Player, Fruit- 
pieces (2), Boy with Basket, Cassel Gallery ; 
Hunters' Camp in the Woods Night scene, 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; others in 
Stiidel Institute, Frankfort. 

HKRRLICH, PHILIPP, born at Solms- 
Laubach, Hesse, in 1818. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Stiidel Institute, 
Frankfort, under Rustige ; painted at first 
portraits, mostly in water-colours, and after- 
wards genre scenes of life and customs in 
Upper Hesse. Works : Convalescent Child ; 
Hansel and Gretel ; Playing Children ; The 
Stork brought It ; Before Confirmation ; 
Preparation for School ; Grandfather. 

HERSENT, LOUIS, born in Paris, March 
10, 1777, died there, Oct. 2, I860. Genre, 
history, and portrait painter, pupil of Eegn- 
ault. Took his first subjects from Greek 
mythology, like David and Girodet, but 
later also treated historical genre. After 
1824 confined himself to portrait painting. 
Won the 2d grand prize in 1797 ; L. of 
Honour, 1819 ; Member of Institute, 1823 ; 
professor, 1825. Works : Narcissus changed 
into a Flower (1802), Cambrai Museum ; 
Achilles delivering Brise'is to Agamemnon's 
Heralds (1804) ; Atala poisoning herself in 



the Arms of Chactas (1800) ; Fcnelon taking 
back a Cow to some Peasants (18 10) ; Pas- 
sage of the Bridge of Laiulsliut by Count 
Lobau (1810), Versailles Museum ; Las Ca- 
sas taken care of by Savages when Sick 
(1814) ; Death of Dr. Bichat (1817) ; Louis 
XVI. helping the Poor in the Winter of 
1788 (1817), Duke of Bordeaux in his Cra- 
dle, Versailles Museum ; Daphnis and Chloe 
(1817) ; The Abdication of Gustavus Vasa 
(1811), destroyed in 1848) ; Ruth and Boa* 
(1822) ; Monks of St. Gothard helping Fam- 
ilies robbed by Brigands (1824) ; Henry IV. 
of France (1827), Grand Trianon, Versailles. 
Bellier, i. 703 ; Ch. Blanc, Kcole franyaisc ; 
Ga/.. des B. Arts (1800), viii. 128 ; Larousse; 
Meyer, Gesch., 174. 

AND T ATI US, (lucrcinn, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. Hersilia, holding 
the arm of Romulus, looks entreatiugly at 
her father, whose hand, armed with a sword, 
is arrested by a Sabiuc ; in background 
Romans and Sabincs lighting. Painted in 
1045 for the Marquis de La Vaillirre. Yil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

JACQUES, born atRoeroy (Ardennes), Aug. 
28, 1825. Landscape painter ; chiefly known 
by his water-colours. L. of Honour, 1874. 
Works : Storm on the Coast of Africa, Sun- 
rise at Rotterdam, Old Bridge in Holland 
(1874) ; Valley of Sallanches, Forest Border 
(1875) ; Low Tide, Spring (1870) ; View 
near Dordrecht, La Barre Africa (1877) ; 
Interior of Farm-Yard, Chartres Museum. 
Bellier, i. 704. 

HERTEL, ALBERT, born in Berlin, 
April 1'J, 1843. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy, and one of the foremost 
Prussian colourists. Professor at Berlin 
Academy in 1875. Works : Capri ; Via 
Flamiuia near Rome ; View of Cape Porto- 
fino ; After Storm on Coast of Genoa (1878), 
Northern Coast Scene (1883), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Repose in Egypt, Breslau Mu- 
seum ; Ulysses and the Sirens ; Heights of 
A nti mna ; Olive Harvest in Capri ; Summer 

Evening by Brandenburg Gate ; Genovcse 
Still Life (1879). MtUler, 254 ; Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 344 ; Zeitsdir. f. b. K, six. 

HERTEL, KARL, born in Breslau, Oct. 
17, 1837. Genre painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy under Wilhelm Sohn ; visited 
the art centres of Germany, and after set- 
tling in Diisseldorf made annual trips to 
Belgium and Holland. His well-coloured 
pictures show genuine feeling. Works : 
Boys at Play ; Departure of Laudwehr ; The 
Two Friends; Young Germany (1874), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin; replica, and Young 
Wounded Soldier playing on Violin (1*72), 
Leipsic Museum ; Dutch Coast Scene 

HERTERICH, HANS, born at Ansbach, 
Bavaria, in 1843. Historical genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Philipp 
Foltz, and of Piloty ; afterwards studied in 
Koine, where ho painted scenes from renais- 
sance and rococo time. Works: Ingeborg 
at the Sea ; Frederic with the Bitten Check ; 
Not at Home (1870). Illustr. /eitg. (1*71 I, 
ii. 522 ; (1877), ii. 405. 

HERXOG, HERMANN, born in Bremen. 
Nov. 15, 1832. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; vis- 
ited repeatedly Norway, Switzerland, Italy, 
and the Pyrenees, of which countries he has 
painted numerous mountain landscapes ex- 
cellent in drawing and pleasing in colour- 
ing. In 180!) he came to America, and set- 
tled in Philadelphia. Works: Festival at 
Unspunnen, Switzerland (1802) ; Norwegian 
Fjord ; The Wetterhorn ; Twilight in the 
Alps ; Lauterbrunn Valley ; Norwegian 
Waterfall ; Views in Yoscmite Valley ; Nor- 
wegian Landscape, Gotha Museum. Miil- 
ler, 255. 

HESS, EUGEN, born in Munich, Juno 
25, 1824, died there, Nov. 21, 1802. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of Peter Hess, and 
student in Munich Academy. Travelled 
with his father (183!)) in Northern Ger- 
many, Poland, and Russia. Early gained 
repute by bis works, and in 1849-50 


profited by studying the old masters in 
Brussels and Paris. Works: Family in 
Forester's House, Game Poulterer (1840) ; 
Hunter's Good Morning (1848) ; First In- 
struction in Hunting (1850) ; Bavarian Rifle- 
man on Outpost (1853) ; Marshal Wrangel 
overtaken by General von Worth (1855) ; 
Message from Battlefield (1857) ; Looking 
for Pheasants (1802) ; Shakespeare as a 
Poacher before his Landlord ; Visit at the 
Monastery, The Swedish General Wrangel 
escaping capture by the Bavarians in 1047 
while hunting, New Pinakothek, Munich. 
Andrescn, iii. 203. 

in Diisseldorf, April 1!), 
1798, died in Munich, 
March 29, 18(53. His- 
tory and portrait paint- 
er, son and pupil of the 
engraver Karl Ernst 
Christoph Hess, then 
from 1813 at the Munich 
Academy under P. von 
L a n g e r . Having at- 
tracted attention by his 
paintings when only eighteen, he went in 
1821 to Rome, and remained four years. 
In 182747 he was professor at the Munich 
Academy, and in 1849 became director of 
all the galleries. His frescos in the Chapel 
of All Saints (1827-37), and especially those 
in the Basilica (1837-40), arc among the most 
remarkable modern works of their kind. He 
was a member of the Vienna, Milan, Stock- 
holm, and Antwerp Academies. Works : 
Entombment, St. Luke (1815) ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Faith, Love, and Hope (1817) ; Charity, 
Christmas Eve, St. Cecilia, Entombment, 
Descent from the Cross, several portraits 
(1817-21); Portrait of Thorwaldsen, Count- 
ess Florenzi, Parnassus (1821-20); 07 Scenes 
from Old and New Testament, and 11 from 
Church History (1827-37), Life of St. Boni- 
face (1840-45), Church of All Saints, Munich; 
Last Supper (1840), Refectory, Benedictine 
Monastery, Munich ; Madonna Enthroned, 
Last Supper (1803, unfinished); Peasants on 

Pilgrimage to Rome, Portrait of Thorwald- 
sen, do. of Florentine Lady, New Pinakothek, 
ib. ; Portrait of Thorwaldsen, Schack Gallery, 
ib. Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 278 ; Brockhaus, 
ix. 181 ; Art Journal (1805), 97 ; Reber-Pecht, 
ii. 97. 

HESS, HIERONYMUS, born in Basle in 
1788, died there in 1850. History painter, 
pupil in Rome of Koch. Works : Murder 
of Emperor Albrecht by Hans von Schwaben ; 
Battle of the Swiss against the French near 
St. Jacob, Basle Museum. Cotta's Kunstbl., 
1830, 25 ; N. Necrol. d. D. 1850 ; Waagen, 
D, ii. 283, 290. 

Erlau, Hungary, Sept, 18, 1708, died about 
1830. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Maurer, won the first prize 
in 1794, and afterwards became professor of 
drawing at the Engineer Academy. Works : 
St. Stephen, Assumption, John the Baptist 
and John of Nepomuk, Seminary Church, 
Erlau ; Baptism of St. Stephen, Gran Cathe- 
dral. Wurzbach, viii. 424. 

HESS, KARL, born in Diisseldorf in 
' 1801, died at Reiclieuhall, Nov. 10, 1874. 
Genre and animal painter, youngest brother 
of Peter, whom, with Wagenbauer, he took 
for his model. Educated in Munich. Pict- 
ures full of truth, character, and poetry. Also 
an engraver. Works : Thierstilck (1835) ; 
Starting for the Alp, Alp near 

HKochel (1848); On Stahremberg 
Lake ; Alp near Schliersee ; Mu- 
nich Buck-Cellar ; Pasturage ; Ty- 
/ o 3 -3 rolese Landscape, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin. Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xii. 298; Deutsche Warte (1875), 708; 
Kunst-Chronik, x. 137. 

HESS, KARL ADOLF, bom in Dresden 
in 1709, died at Wilhelmsdorf, near Vienna, 
July 3, 1849. Battle and horse painter, 
1 pupil of Klass ; settled about 1809 in Vi- 
enna, where he afterwards became professor 
; at the Academy. His many journeys to 
Hungary, Russia, and Turkey, and in 1829 
to England, enabled him to acquire a thor- 
ough knowledge of the various breeds of 



horses, which he painted with great skill. Marino n Robber defending Himself, 

Works: Attack of Saxon Dragoons (179(1) ; Cossacks crossing the Rhine (1819); Defence 

March of Cossacks through Bohemia of a Bridge near Hanau (1820) ; Skirmish 

(1799); Twelve Pictures The Riding School between French and Austrian Cavalry, Aus- 

(1800-1807) ; Horses' Heads (18-25). All- trian Camp (1822); Plundering Cossacks 

gem. d. Biogr., vii. 2%; Wurzbach, viii. (1820), Sutler Scene, Feast of St. Leonhard 

425. in Bavaria- (1825), French Train-Wagon sur- 

HESS, LUDWIG, born in Zurich, Oct. prised by Austrian Uhlans, Pallicares near 

16, 1760, died there, April 13, 1800. Land- Athens (1829), National (Jallery, Berlin; 

scape painter, studied entirely from nature ; Kncounter at W<">rgel iu iSd'.l, Skirmish near 

visited Florence and Rome iu 17'.)4. Much Pass Strub in 1805, Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube 

influenced by Salomon Gessner. Works: (182S); Wallachian Horses, Entrv of King 

Mont Blanc; Morning iu the Alps; Even- Otho into Nauplia ( 1835), do. into Athens, 

ing on Lago Maggiore ; (iriitli, Tell's Chapel ; The Robber Barbone and Familv defending 

collection of his best paintings (37) in Zurich themselves against Gendarmes, View of San 

Gallery. Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 298 ; Joh. Marino, Rest before Inn, Train of Greek 

Heinr. Meyer, Ludwig Hess (Zurich, 1800). Peasants on Sea-Coast, Chamois Hunter. 

HESS, MAX, born in Munich, Oct. 15, Italian Family at Tivoli. I5;ittle of Auster- 

1825, died at Lippspringe, Westphalia, July litz, Scenes from Greek War of Indcpend- 

19, 18C8. History painter, youngest son ence (40 oil sketches for frescos in Arcades 

and pupil of Peter; also studied in Paris of Royal Garden), New Pinakothek. Munich ; 

and Dilsseldorf. Works: Puritans on Guard ; Duck-Shooting on t lie Moor, Leipsic Mu>c- 

Italian Noblemen on a Veranda ; Pillage of um ; Laying of Corner-Stone of Column of 

a Monastery; Torchlight Procession at Constitution; Landing of Greek Troops at 

Dilsseldorf, 1857, painted for the Princes Nauplia : Battles of Smolensk, Poloczk, Wi- 

of Hohenzollern ; Portrait of the Opera- asma, Yalutina Gora, Krasnoi, Klasigy, and 

Singer Kiudermann. Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. Boroilino, Crossing of the Beresina (1.S39 

299: Blanckarts, 30; Kunst-Chronik, iii. 55); Battle ofLeipsie (1854); Battle of AUK- 

171. terlit/. (185(i). Allgem. d. Biogr.. xii. 300; 

HESS, PETER VON, born in Diisseldorf, Brockhaus, ix. 180 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 1 1C. 
July 2!), 1792, died in Munich, April 4, 1871. HESSE, ALEXANDRE (.IH.VX BAI'- 

Genre and battle painter, son and pupil of TISTE). born in Paris, Sept. :!(), ISOi!, 

Karl Ernst Christoph Hess, and from 180<> died there, Aug. 7, 1879. History painter, 

at the Munich Academy ; served in the nephew and pupil of Auguste Hesse, and 

campaigns of 18115-15, visited Vienna, Swit- pupil of Gros; studied the works of Paolo 

zerland, and Italy (1818), accompanied King Veronese at Venice, and formed his style 

Otho to Greece in 18158, and visited Russia after that master. His pictures are much 

(1839) to make studies for a series of battle- admired for their skilful composition and 

pieces ordered by the Czar Nicolas. One careful finish. Medals: 1st class, 18:5:5; 2d 

of the foremost modern painters of war life, class, 1848; L. of Honour, 1842; Officer, 

Founded with (^uaglio the Art Union at 18(>8 ; Member of Institute, 18(!7. Works: 

Munich. Bavarian court-painter and mem- Titian's Funeral (1833); Leonardo da Vinci 

her of the Berlin, Vienna, Munich, and St. letting loose some Birds (1836); Mower Girl 

Petersburg Academies. Works : Battle of (1837), Girl carrying Fruit (1838), Venetian 

Arcis-sur-Aube, Return of Bavarian Officers Concert, Nantes Museum ; Death of Brissou 

(1813); Hoi-semen seeking Shelter, Cossack (1840); Adoption of Godfrey de Bouillon 

Scenes (1814); Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube by Emperor Alexis Comnenufl (1842), Ver- 

(1817) ; Abruzzi Peasants before an Inn, sailles Museum ; Catalan Fishermen, Young 



Woman of Aries (1844); Pisani's Triumph His pictures, which show the influence of 
(1847), Luxembourg Museum ; The Repub- David's school, are mostly in the Wtlrtem- 
lic (1848); Charity (18C1) ; Mural paintings berg galleries. Works : Anger of Achilles ; 
illustrative of the Life of St. Francis, in Blind (Edipus ; Cupid and Psyche ; Fare- 
chapel of St. Francis de Sales, St. Sulpice, well of Regulus ; Brutus and Portia ; Pa- 
p-u-is. Bellier, i. 7GG ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. pirius and the Gauls ; Marius at Carthage ; 

29 ; Meyer, Gesch., 283. Daniel in the Lions' Den ; Joseph in Prison ; 

HESSE, (NICOLAS) AUGUSTS, born in Ascension ; St. Cecilia ; Mary with Wife of 

Paris, Aug. 28, 1795, died there, June 14, Pilate; Odin's Descent into Hell; Cornelia 

1869. History painter, uncle of Alexandra with her Children ; Albouack's Daughters 

Hesse, pupil of Gros ; won the grand prix before King Alfred, Stuttgart Museum; 

de Rome in 1818. Decorated the churches King Frederic and Suite before Castle Mon- 

of Notre Dame do Lorette, St. Elizabeth, repos ; Brutus seeing the Ghost of Ctesar, 
Bonne Nouvclle, St. Eustache, St. Severin, 
and St. Sulpice, Paris. Painted on glass 
and made designs for other glass painters. 
Seldom exhibited in the Salon. Medal, 1st 
class, 1838 ; L. of Honour, 1840 ; Member 

of Institute, 18(13. Works: Philemon and Darmstadt Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 

Baucis (1818) ; Foundation of College de 320 ; Goethe, Schweizer Reise, i. J. 1797 ; 

Sorbonne (1827), Church of the Sorbonne, Haakh, Beitriige, 8 ; Riegel, 175 ; Wagner, 

Paris ; Mirabeau in the States-General of Gesch. der Karlsschule, i. 463. 

178!) (1838), Amiens Museum ; Christ at the HEUBNER, HERMANN LUDWIG, bom 

Sepulchre (1838), Cathedral of Pi'rigueux ; in Leipsic in 1843. Landscape, genre, and 

St. Mary fainting at the Tomb of Christ portrait painter, pupil of Weimar Art School 

(1845), formerly Luxembourg Museum ; under Pauwels ; was in 18G9-73 director of 

Adoration of Shepherds, Conversion and the Aarland Institute, Leipsic. Works : 

Martyrdom of St. Hippolytus, Notre Dame Lying-in Room ; Going to Church ; Nobody 

de Lorette, Paris ; Jacob and the Angel at Home ; Goats in Entrance Hall ; View in 

(1851), Avranches Cathedral ; Clytia Dying Rhon Mountains. Mailer, 255. 
(1853), Amiens Museum ; Portrait of Girar- 1 HEULLANT, F^LIX ARMAND, born in 

don (1856). In the Hotel de Ville, he Paris, April 23, 1834. Genre painter, pupil 

painted, among other pictures, the Promul- of Picot and E. Giraud. Paints attractive 

gation of the Concordat. Bellier, i. 765 ; pictures of life and manners. Works : The 

Kunst-Chronik, iv. 195. Truant ; The Spring ; Hiding ; Apple-Gath- 

HETSCH, PHILIPP FRIEDRICH VON, ering in Japan ; Greek Washerwomen ; Sac- 
born in Stuttgart, Sept. 10, 1758, died there, rifice to Venus ; Sleeping Endymion ; Lover 
Dec. 31, 1839. History painter, pupil, from ! of the Olden Time ; Soap-Bubbles, Cleo- 
1773 at the Karlsschule, of Guibal and Har- 1 patra (1879) ; Heliogabalus raining Roses, 
per; made court-painter in 1780, and sent The Nest (1880); Origin of Design, Summer 
to Paris, where he continued his studies for (1881); Japanese Concert, Japanese Marriage 
two years under Vien, Vernet, and David ; Car (1882) ; A Harem, A Meeting (1883) ; 
was in Rome in 1785-87, and again in 1795. Finding of Moses, Bouquet de Nice (1884); 
In 1787 he was appointed professor at the \ Iris (1885). 

Karlsschule, in 1798 director of the Ducal HEUR, CORNELIS JOZEF D', born at 

Gallery, and in 1801 member of the Berlin Antwerp, March 27, 1707, died March 12, 

Academy. In 1809 he again visited Paris, 1762. Flemish school ; history and interior 

and in 1816 Leipsic, Dresden, and Berlin, painter, pupil of Kasper Jacob van Opstal, 



of Jan Jozef Horemans, the elder, and of 
Peeter Snyers ; went in 1730 to Paris, where 
he won several medals (1730, 1731, 1732); 
painted chiefly grisailles. Works : Coat of 
Anns of Abbey Saint-Michel, do. of Abbot 
Jacques Thomas, Prudence, Justice, Force, 
Instruction in Perspective (1701), Antwerp 
Museum. Cat. du Musec d'Anvers (1874), 
149; Van den Branden, 1214. 

born at Utrecht in 10?, died in 10!!) 
(1712V). Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
said to have studied in Italy under Jan 
Both, whom he imitated. Dean of guild in 
Utrecht in 104!). Works : Road with Shep- 
herd and Herd (102!>), Dresden Gallery ; 
Landscape with Cattle and Shepherds ( 101)11), 
Louvre ; Italian View with Waterfall, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Italian Landscape. (3), Am- 
sterdam Museum ; do. (2), Hague Museum ; 
Mountainous Landscape, Cassel Gallery ; 
do., Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; do., Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Evening Landscape with 
Ruin, Vienna Museum ; others in Brunswick, 
Frankfort, Copenhagen, and Stockholm Gal- 
leries. Cli. Blanc, Kcolc hollandaiso ; Im- 
merzeel, ii. 30 ; Kramm, iii. (580 ; Do Stuers, 
47 ; Riegcl, Beitriige, ii. 371. 

HEUSCH, JACOB DE, born at Utrecht 
in 1(557, died in Amsterdam in 1701. Dutch 
school ; landscape painter, nephew and pupil 
of Guilliam de Heusch, whom ho imitated ; 
went to Italy, where he studied from nature 
and the works of Salvator Rosa. His pict- 
ures so clearly resembled those of his uncle 
that tho members of tho Schilderbcnt in 
Rome called him Affdruck (copyist). Land- 
scape pleasing, colour good, composition 



well distributed, enlivened with figures and 
animals. Works : Ponte Rotto in Rome 

(1090), Brunswick Museum ; Landscapes 
(2, 1G99), Landing- Place on a Lake (1(599), 
Vienna Museum ; Mountainous Landscapes 
(2), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Immer/.eel, 
ii. 37 ; Quelleuschriften, xiv. 42!) ; Riegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 4 115. 

HEL'SS, EDr.VRD VAN, born at Oggers- 
heim, Rhenisli Palatinate, in 180s, died iu 
ISSO. History and portrait painter ; studied 
in Munich and Koine, where! he joined the 
artistic circle of Cornelius and companions, 
and was on intimate terms with Thorwald- 
sen. On his travels afterwards through 
Holland, Paris, and London lie was much 
influenced by Rubens and Rembrandt. 
Painted more than eighty portraits, many 
lit'e-si/.e, of reigning princes, dignitaries, and 
representatives of science and arl, among 
them Thorwaldsen and Overbeck. Works : 
Rape of Europa ( 1832), Darmstadt Museum; 
Annunciation, Mater Amabilis, Mater (llori- 
osa. Mater Dolorosa, Mater Salvatoris, New 
Piuakothek, Munich. Kunst-Chronik, 

DOR) VON, born in 
Hreslau, June 13, 1827. 
History painter, pupil 
in Berlin of Stell'eck, 
and in Paris of Gleyre 
and Couture ; won the 
gold medal, and after- 
wards repeatedly visited 
Italy to study the mon- 
umental painting of the 
Renaissance. Works : 
St. Barbara as Patron Saint of Miners (1804 ) ; 
Lulhi-i- and Frundsberg before the Imperial 
Diet, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; Lu- 
ther in Wittenberg ; Arion on Waves of the 
Sea (1808), Berlin Opera-House ; Wooing of 
French Ambassador for Princess ('lenience 
(1809) ; The Siesta, The Fairy-Tale (1870) ; 
Festive Morning (1870), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Happy Times, The Anglers, Ride of 
the Walkyries (1872) ; Leucothea, Martyr 
at the Stake, (Edipusand the Sphinx, Olof's 
Wedding Ride (1878) ; Fresco paintings iu 

I Ami', THKO- 




City Hall and National Gallery, Berlin. 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1870), ii. 493 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xix. 5(55 ; Rosenberg, Berl. MalerscL, 
211; D. Rundschau, xiii. 334; xvii. 299; 
xx. 103. 

HFA'DEN, JAN VAN DEH, born at Gor- 
incbem (Gorkum), 
in 1(537, died in 
Amsterdam, Sept. 
28, 1712. Dutch 
school ; architect- 
1 ' lire and landscape 
painter ; views of 
buildings show a 
feeling for the pict- 
uresque, warm and 
transparent tone, 
accurate perspective, and line touch. Ranks 
first among those who represented exteriors 
of buildings. Adriaan van de Yelde, Eglon 
van der Necr, and Lingelbach painted fig- 
ures in his pictures. Said to have visited 
London. Works: Street in Cologne, Land- 
scape, Street in Town, Architectural Scene, 
National Gallery, London ; Cologne Cathe- 
dral, Two Church Views, Sir Richard Wal- 
lace, London ; Dutch House on a Canal, 
Buckingham Palace ; do., Bridgewatcr Gal- 
lery ; Market-Place in Dutch Town, Lord 
Ashburton, London ; Stone Bridge, Draw- 
Bridge, Canal View, View of Amersfoort, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Interior of Dutch 
Town (1(507), Hague Museum ; Amsterdam 
Town Hall (16(58), Market-Place and Church 
in Dutch Town, Village on a River, Land- 
scape with Ruins, Louvre ; Quay of Amster- 
dam, Aremberg Gallery, Brussels ; The Vy- 
vergracht at the Hague, Public Square at 
Veere Zealand, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Palace 
with Dutch Garden, Landscape, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Landscape with Castle, Brunswick 
Museum ; Mordecai's Hide, Landscapes (2), 
Schwerin Gallery ; Square in a City, Palace 
of Duke of Brabant at Brussels, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich; Gothic Church (1078), 
Views of Monasteries (3), Dresden Gallery ; 
Old Castle, Museum, Vienna ; Interior of a 
Town, Academy, ib. ; Dutch Street on Canal, 

Landscape with Town, Canal with Vessels, 
Church, Mountainous Landscape, Three 
Churches and Castle, Perspective View of 
Street, Italian Castle, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; others in Copenhagen and Frankfort 
Galleries ; Old City on the llhine, Chateau 
and Park, Historical Society, New York. 

V I&U 

Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, 
ii. 37 ; Kramm, iii. 687 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 500 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 407. 

HEYDEN, KARL, born in Cologne in 
1845. Portrait and genre painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy and of Wilhelm Sohn ; 
travelled in Germany, Belgium, and France. 
Works : Convalescent ; Women at Grave of 
Fallen Soldier ; Spring Flower ; Apple 
Woman ; Among Favourites. 

HEYDEN, Dr. OTTO, born at Ducherow, 
Pomerania, July 8, 1820. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Berlin Academy under 
Klober and Woch, and in Paris (1847-48) 
of Cogniet ; lived in Italy, especially in 
Rome and Sicily, in 1850-54, and then set- 
tled in Berlin. In 180G he took part in the 
campaign in Bohemia, in the suite of the 
Crown Prince, visited the East in 1869, and 
accompanied the army to France in 1870. 
Court-painter and professor at Berlin Acad- 
emy. Works : Job derided by his Wife 
(1855), Stettin Museum ; Italian Mower, 
Founding of Greifswalde University (1856) ; 
Boguslaw X. attacked by Pii'ates, Girl of 
Sorrento, Stettin Museum ; Field-Marshal 
Schwerin in Battle of Prague, Royal Palace, 
Berlin ; Ride of Emperor William over 
Battlefield at Sadowa (1868), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Meeting of Crown Prince and 
Prince Frederic Charles ; Emperor William 
decorating the Crown Prince ; Bazaar in 
Cairo ; Street Life in Cairo ; Emperor Will- 



iam visiting tlic Wounded at Versailles ; 
Portraits of German Emperor, of Bismarck, 
Moltke, and General Steinmetz. Milllcr, 
266; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersdi., 1SS. 

HEYERDAHL, HANS, born in Sweden ; 
contemporary. Genre painter, j>npil of 
Munich Academy and in Paris of Bounat ; 
now in Florence. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 
1878. Works : Nymph talking to Magpie 
(1K80); Flower-Seller, "How Much?" 
(1881); Dead Child, The Visit (1882); 
Sleeping Nymph and Satyr, Girl lighting 
Fire (1883) ; Bather (1884) ; Norwegian 
Landscape, Young Girl (1HH.">). 

Antwerp, June 11, 1831). Landscape painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy at the age of fif- 
teen, but formed himself chiefly through 
study of nature and of the works of Corof, 
Millet, and Daubigny in Paris. In 18SO he 
exhibited about sixty of his pictures in 
Brussels, with great success. Works : Sun- 
set on Heath (1875), Ghent Museum ; He- 
turn of the Herd ; Moonrise ; Morning Mist 
by the Sea ; Three Marines ; Sunrise ; Snow 
Landscape with Birch Trees; Cows at Pas- 
ture ; Evening on the Scheldt ; Old Avenue 
of Bloemeschot ; Spring Morning in the 
Campine, Ghent Museum ; Swamp, Evening 
Landscape ; Snow-Storm. Miiller, '257. 

HEYN, AUGUST, born at Sophienau, 
Meiningen, Aug. 10, 1837. Genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy, and of Raupp 
and Defregger ; copied in the Munich and 
Dresden Galleries, visited Italy, South Ty- 
rol, Hesse, the Black Forest, and England. 
Works : Scenes from Children's World and 
Peasant Life ; To Her ! To Him ! ; Little 
Barber (1880). Mdller, 257. 

HICKEL, ANTON, bom at Bohmisch- 
Leipa, Bohemia, in 1745, died in Hamburg, 
Oct. 30, 1798. German school ; portrait 
painter, pupil of his brother Josef and of 
Vienna Academy ; went about 1777 to France, 
where he painted Marie Antoinette, then to 
London, where he made a name by his pict- 
ure of the House of Commons, containing 
ninety-six life-size portraits (1793-95), now 

in National Gallery, London (presented by 
Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, 1885) ; 
Turk with Slave making Music, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Portrait of Burgomaster Debary, 
Basle Museum. One of his best works is 
the portrait of the poet Klopstock. Allgem. 
Kunst-Chronik, i\. 5(17 ; Wurzbach, ix. 2. 

HICKEL, JOSEF, born at Bohmiseli- 
Leipa in 173(i, died in Vienna, March 2N, 
1807. Portrait painter, first instructed by 
his father, then pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Martin van Meytens ; went to Italy 
in 17(i8, painted the portraits of many nota- 
bilities in Milan, Parma, and Florence for 
the Empress Maria Theresa, and was made 
member of the Florence and, after his re- 
turn, of the Vienna Academv (177(1 1, and 
court-painter. More than three thousand 
of his works are known. Works : Portrait 
of Joseph II., City Hall. Vienna ; Empress 
Maria Theresa, King Ferdinand of Naples 
and Ojiccn ; Duke Albert, of Teschen and 
Archduchess Christine ; Emperor Leopold 
II.; Emperor Francis; Pope Pius VI.; 
Prince Kaunit/. ; General Baron Lascy ; 


Prince Kinsky ; Elector Charles Theodore, 
Painter Winck, Augsburg ( lallery. Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xii. 3S5 ; Wur/.baeh, i\. 3. 

Lymington, England, in 1824. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Bloomsbiiry School 
of Art in 1843, and of Royal Academy in 
1844. Works: Lark at Heaven's Gate 
(1855) ; Dividend Day at the Bank (1850) ; 
Post-Office (I860) ; Before the Magistrates 
(1800); Reflected Smiles (18(i7) ; Utilizing 
Church Metal (1809) ; Black Monday (1871); 
Ruth the Moabitess (1874) ; Return from 
Gleaning (1870) ; Fisherman's Wife, Wood- 
man's Daughter (1877) ; Forget Me Not 
(1878) ; Cinderella (1883) ; Portraits (1884). 

HICKS, THOMAS, bom at Ncwtown, 
Penn., Oct. 18, 1823. Portrait painter, 
studied in Philadelphia and at the National 
Academy, later a pupil of Couture in Paris. 



In ISl.'i visited Europe, where lie roiniiincd 
four years. First picture exhibited in 1841. 
Klected N.A. in 1851. Studios in New 
York and Trenton Falls, N. J. Works : 
Kdwin Booth as higo : Henry Ward Bcecher ; 
Longfellow; Halleek ; Dr. Kane ; William 
I\I. Kvurts: Dr. Cogswell; Bayard Tuylor ; 
Hamilton Fish ; Luther J5radish (1857), 
Klisha Kent Kane (185!)), Henry Abbott 
(1SH3), Historical Society, New York ; Parke 
Godwin (187!)). Mrs. F. X. (loddard, New 
York ; Portrait, Indian Suiumer (1881); 
Mrs. P>. F. Honiaine (1882) ; Mrs. K. K. Bil- 
lings (1883) ; Dr. James K. Wood (1884), 
New York Academy of Medicine ; Birches 
at Tliornwood Trenton Falls (18~'.t) ; In 
Brittany (1881); Fnd of a Winter Day 
(1885). Dr. liobert Hand. New York. Tuek- 
ernian, 4<!5 ; Benjamin, I'.l, 8(i. 

born at Diisscldorf, Oct. 4, 18211. (lenre 
painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under 
Tlicodorllildebrandt and Willielm>Schadow ; 
travelled in Germany, France, Belgium, and 
Holland, ]>:iintud at lirst historical and ro- 
mantic subjects, then humourous genre, 
scenes. Medals in Vienna (1871!), Philadel- 
phia (ISTli). Works: NYedding and Bap- 
tism ; The Monster ; Concert ; Surprise ; 
Severe Lecture ; Pocket-Revision ; .Philoso- 
phy of the Hall (1858), W. T. Walters, Bal- 
timore; From Bygone Days (18(il) ; School- 
Arrest ; Beginning of Kiruiess (18(>2) ; Am- 
ateur Quartette (18G3),Kdnig8berg Museum; 
Bottle of Champagne; Reunion (1806) ; Re- 
cruiting in Time of Frederic the (Ireat 
(1870), National Gallery, Berlin; Return from 
Afar (1871); Unbidden Neighbours (1872). 
Wiesbaden Museum ; Picnic in the Woods, 
In Compartment of First Class (1874) ; 
Winter Pleasure (1875) ; Funeral in West- 
phalia. Carlsruhe Gallery ; Love Letter 
(1875), Diisseldorf (Iallery ; Desire for Re- 
venge (187(!) ; Physician's Anteroom (1877). 
Illustr. Zeitg. * (1873), i. 32 ; ii. 307 ; 
(1878), ii. 347; Miiller, 258; Neue freie 
Presse, Aug. 18, 1871. 

HIEN, DANIEL, born at Strassburg in 

1725, died at Zweibriicken, Bavaria, in 
1773. Landscape, animal, and still-life 
painter, pupil of Konrad Mannlich, then in 
Milan (174!)) of Crivelli, and in Paris of 
Oudry ; painted especially bunting pieces 
with great skill. Works : Landscape with 
Herd and Figures, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg; Animal pieces (2) (17(>5), Schleiss- 
hcim Gallery ; others in Augsburg Gallery. 

IIV//'/! 1 , Karl of Essex; canvas. Interior, 
with the father of the family sitting at right, 
and the mother standing, holding her baby for 
him to kiss; at their feet, two dogs; in back- 
ground, a girl going out of the door. Painted 
in 1825. Engraved by W. Finden. Heaton, 
Works of SirD. W. ; Paintersof Georgian Era. 

HICiHMORE, JOSEPH, born in London 
in 1(!!I2, died at Canterbury in 1780. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of the Acad- 
emy under Sir Godfrey Kneller ; painted 
portraits of several Knights of the Bath on 
the revival of that order in 1725, particu- 
larly a line picture of the Duke of Rich- 
mond and his esquires, and afterwards, by 
order of George I., a portrait of the Duke of 
Cumberland ; visited the Continent in 1732, 
' chiefly to see the Diisseldorf Gallery, and at 
Antwerp to study the works of Rubens. 
j Works : Hagar and Islunael ; Good Samar- 
itan ; Finding of Moses ; The Graces un- 
veiling Nature ; Portraits of Samuel Rich- 
ardson and Dr. Stebbing, National Gallery, 
London. Bryan (Graves), (J54. 

HILANDERAS, LAS (The Tapestry 
Weavers), ]'ulaxqncz, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, II. 7 ft. 3 in. x 'J ft. G in. Scene in royal 
tapestry manufactory of S. Isabel, Madrid. 
An old woman, at spinning-wheel, turns to 
speak to a girl behind her, who is drawing 
back a red curtain ; girl in centre, carding 
wool, looks at a cat asleep by her side ; an- 
other, on right, winds yarn from a reel ; be- 
hind her, one entering room with a basket; in 
background, three ladies examining tapestry. 
A masterpiece ; painted about 1656 ; former- 
1 ly in palace of Bueu Retire. Copy by Col- 
lier in Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Etched 



7,erland, Tyrol, and Upper Italy, and in 1850 
the Arctic Ocean. Went around the world 
in 1802-04, and brought home 400 watir- 
colours, which, when exhibited in London in 
1800, attracted mucli attention. A selection 
from them, in a portfolio, was published in 
180'J. In 1853 he was made professor and 

by Milius; Gaujean; Galvan; Maura. Ch. Islands, in 1851 It-ily, Egypt, Pali stine, Tur- 
Blanc, cole espagnole ; Gii7, des 15. Arts key. Greece, and the Sahara, in 1S53 Swit- 
(1880), xxi. 527 ; Curtis, 15 ; Madra/o, 003. 

HILARIUS, painter, of Bithynia; removecl 
in reign of Valens (A.I). 304-37!)) to Athens, 
where lie l>ecame noted as a teacher. Slain, 
with all his family, near Corinth, in 37'.t, 
during an invasion of Goths. Eunap , Vitsu 
Philos. et Soph. (eel. Boissonade), 07. 

H I L D E B R A N D , 
ERNST, born at Falk- 
eiiberg, Lusatia, in 1833. 
Genre painter, pupil in 
Berlin of Steft'eck ; spent 
one year in Paris, and in 
1875 became professor at 
the Carlsruhe Art School, 
afterwards at the Berlin 
Academy, which ]>osition 
he resigned in 1885 ; first 
practised decorative paint- 
ing, then turned to por- 
trait, and finally to genre, 
painting, which he treats in 
a realistic manner. 
in Vienna, 1873. Works : 
Mother and Child, Margue- 
rita, Spoletina (1800); Let 
Little Children come unto Me: Pra\ing 
Peasants ; Sick Child ; Kitchen in Hart/ 


Mount-tins; Fervent Entreaty; Repentance-. 
Rococo Interior in Bruchaal ; Wedding Pro- 
cession in Banqueting Hall of Passage, in Sea with Boats, Fisliernien's Children I 
Berlin ; Anxious Hour (1885); Child's P->r- Two Views of Helgoland, IViy with 

in 1855 member of the B<-rlin Academy. 
Works: Am liollwerk ds:{Si; Agitated Sea 
with Vessels, Fishing Boats leaving tlie Har- 
bour, Fishermen and IV>at (1H40); Agitated 

^TJ i : 

trait, Ilavem' Gallery, Berlin. Miiller, 258; Winter Genre Scene Il84.'{|: Tropical Jtain, 

Leixner, Mod. K., i. 74. 



born in 
I*, 1817, 
died in Berlin, Oct. 25, 

Tropical Citv on the Water (I845i: St. I)o- 
mingo Spiare in Me\i<-o (184;i: Street in 
Lyons (1843), Street in Rouen, Fiher-maiden 
on Shore, Hour of Rest. Santa Gloria, Kvi n- 

1808. Landscape and ing in Bay of Rio Janeiro, Children on Shore, 

marine painter, pupil Winter L-indse-ajK-s r2, lH47i, Irish Peasant 

in Berlin of Krause, and Cottage (1850), R.-ivem' Gallery, IV-rlin ; 

in 1841-4:*, in Paris, of Panorama of Madeira (1848i; View of Lis- 

Isabey. Visited in 1840 Iwn, Fort Belcni, Cajx- Vincent, Coxst of 

Denmark. Norway, and Madeira 1 184!li; Const by Moonlight, Moon- 

Great Britain, in 1843- light on Scotch Coast, Irish Genre Scene, 

44 Brazil, in 1847- View of Rio Janeiro ( 1850); Two Views on 

49 England, Scotland, Spain, and the Canary Scotch Coast, Rio Janeiro, Near Palermo, 



Madeira, Evening in Madeira, Fort St. Elmo, j 
Horse-Love, Moonlight on Scotch Coast 
(1851); Naples with Vesuvius, View near ; 
Cairo, Bay of Madeira, Coast of Madeira 
(1S52); Sea of Marmora, Castle and Park, 
Children with Sleigh (1853); Flood-Tide, | 
Strand, On (iosau Lake, Alpengiiihen, San 
Giorgio by Moonlight (1S.")4); Moonlight on 
Scotch Coast, Winter Landscape, On Brienz 
Lake, View of Bethlehem, View of Jerusa- 
lem, Children Playing (1855) ; Pool of Be- 
thesda, Nazareth, Stormy Sea, On the Fish- 
Pond, Under the Willows (185G); Moonlight, 
Sunset, Tropical Landscape, North Cape 
(1857); Village Scene, Coast with Light- 
house (I860); CaveatStafl'a(18(i5); Benares 
on the Ganges, Evening in Siam (18(i(!); 
Holy Lake in Bui'mah, Moonlight near Ma- 
cao, Chinese Fishermen (18(57); Sunlight in 
Jersey, Evening in Siam (1868); Surge on 
Baltic Sea, Dover Castle, Marine with Fort 
Rouge, Winter Landscape, Stettin Museum ; 
Coast of Normandy, WinterLandscape (1846), 
Sea-Shore in Evening Light (1855), Castle 
Kronborg near Elsinorc (1857), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Moonrisc in Madeira, Cor- 
coran Gallery, Washington. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii. 402 ; Illustr. Xeitg. (18G8), 372 ; 
Bruno Meyer, Studien, 37(5 ; Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 335 ; Land mid Meer (1869), 
i. 223 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., i. 25 ; iv. 2(il, 33(i. 
Stettin, July 2, 1804, 
died in Diisseldorf, 
Sept. 2!), 1874. His- 
tory, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil 
from 1820 of the 
Berlin Academy, and 
from 1823 under 
Schadow, whom, in 
182G, he accompa- 
nied to Diisseldorf, ' 
where he soon became celebrated, and was 
made in 1832 assistant, and in 1836 profes- 
sor, at the Academy. In 1829 with Scha- 
dow, and later, he repeatedly visited the 
Netherlands, where he was influenced by 1 

the realistic school of Wappers ; went in 
1830 to Itary, where, as later in Paris, he 
studied the old masters, especially of the 
Dutch school. Member of the Berlin and 
Vienna Academies. Works : Faust and 
Mephistopheles (1824); Faust and Gretchen 
(1825); Lear and Cordelia (1826); Romeo 
and Juliet (1827); Tancred and Clorinda 
(1828); Caution against the Water-Sprite 
(1830); Judith and Holofernes (1830); The 
Robber (1829), Warrior and Child (1832), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Story-teller (1832); 
Sick Senator (1833); Choir Boys in Gothic 
Church (1834); Assassination of Sons of 
Edward IV. (1836), Raczynski Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Christmas Eve (1840); Reception of 
Cardinal Wolscy in the Monastery (1842); 
Doge and Daughter (1843), Stettin Muse- 
um ; Judith (1844); Italian Woman (1845); 
Othello (1847); Lear awakening from In- 
sanity (1851) ; Juliet taking the Poison 
(1853); Arthur and De Burgh (1855); Cor- 
delia reading the Letter to Kent (1859), 
Cliristiauia Museum ; Copy of St. Francis 
by Rubens (1850), Diisseldorf Academy ; 
Portrait of Artist's Father, Cologne Muse- 
um ; Cordelia and King Lear, Mrs. A. T. 
Stewart, New York ; Portraits of Princes 
Frederic, Georg, and 
Albrecht of Prussia, of 
Count Stolberg, of 
Schadow ; do. of Wap- 
pers (1849), Diisseldorf 
; Gallery. Allgem. d. 
]l 'OCtf Biogr., xii. 405; 
C Blanckarts, 75; W. 

Miiller, Diisseldorf K., 180 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1874), ii. 359 ; Kunst-Chronik, x. 39. 

HILGERS, KARL, born in Diisseldorf in 
1818. Landscape painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy ; spent some time in Berlin 
and studied the Dutch and French masters ; 
represents nature, especially in her winter 
aspects, often with architectural accessories, 
with much skill. Works: Dutch Cottages 
in Winter (1839); View near Amsterdam 
(1840 and 1841); WinterLandscape, Chapel 
in the Snow (1845); Casemate on the Dan- 





ube ; Evening Landscape in Hart/ Moun- 
tains ; Dornburg Citadel ; Drifting of Ice 
in the Rhine; Winter Landscape (1847), 
do. (1848), do. (1850), Storm in the Moun- 
tains (1840), Fisherman's Hut (1850), 
Huntsmen with Dogs, Fisherman on Shore, 
Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; Convent Yard in 
Winter by Moonlight (18(57). Schwerin Gal- 
lery. Mailer, 258 ; W. Mailer, Diisseldorf 
K.," 340. 

Perth, Scotland, in 1802, died in Edin- 
burgh, May 17, 1870. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Andrew Wilson ; was in 18ISO 
one of the foundation members of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, of which he was 
secretary until October, 18(i'.l. At first 
painted pictures illustrative of Scottish 
peasant life, and in 184:? he finished a 
large work containing 470 portraits -The 
Establishment of the Free Kirk, which 
now hangs in the Presbytery Hall of the 
Free Church, Edinburgh, but later devot- 
ed himself to landscape. Works : Edin- 
burgh from Mons Meg (1852) ; Ruins of 
Dunfermline Palace (1854); Windsor Cas- 
tle ; Castle of Dunure on Ayrshire Coast 
(18(51); River Tay at Evening (18(52 ): Vale 
of the Forth (18(58) ; Lcith Pier, National 
Gallery, Edinburgh. Redgrave ; Art Jour- 
nal (18(50). 

HILL, THOMAS, born at Birmingham, 
England, in 1820. 
Landscape painter, 
went, to America in 
1841 ; pupil in Paris 
of Paul Meyerheim, 
but mostly self- 
taught. Profes- 
sional life has been 
passed in Philadel- 
phia, Boston, and 
San Francisco. Works: Home of the Eagle, 
J. A. Faull ; Donner Lake (187(5), Leland 
Stanford ; White Mountain Notch, E. Ham- 
lin, Boston ; Great Canon of the Sierras, 
Yosemile Valley, Charles Crocker, San Fran- 
cisco; Early Morning Yosemite, I. M. Scott, 

ib. ; What is It? (1884); Who are You? 

HILLE BOBBE, Frans Hah, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. in. x '2 ft. 1 in. 
The witch of Haarlem, half-length, in a 
white cap, sitting by a table, looking at an 
owl perched on her left shoulder ; in her 
right hand an open beer-mug. Painted 
about 1(15(1; from Suermondt Collection in 
1*74. Etched by Leo. Flameng. Same 
subject (:!0 in. 2t.', iii. i. Metropolitan 
Museum, New York, from Collection of 

l-MIe Bobbe, Frans Had, Berlin M - 

Lord Palm erst on ; (probably by Frans. the 
younger) engraved by Jules .Jiicqiioinnrt. 
Another, engraved by It. V>. Coders, has two 
hands crossed holding a string attached to 
the owl. Still another, in Van Reede Col- 
lection, Utrecht, formerly in Cremer Collec- 
tion, ib.. is a free repetition by V. Hals, the 
younger. A Laughing Woman by Hals 
(about 1(545) in Lille Museum, is errone- 
ously called Hille Bobbe. /eitschr.. v. 7S ; 
Gay., des B. Arts (18(50), i. 1(5-2 ; (1872). vi. 
47(5; Bode, Studien, 10:t. 

HILLEGAEHT (Hilligaard), PAl'WELS 
VAN", died in Amsterdam in Feb., 1(558. 
Dutch school ; battle painter, shows in the 
landscape part of his pictures the influence 



of Jan van Goyen. Works : Disbanding of 
Mercenaries at Utrecht in 1018 (1027), Am- 
sterdam Museum ; A Surprisal, Brunswick 
Museum. Kramm, iii. 092 ; Riegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 424. 

born in Paris, Oct. 13, 1818. History 
painter, pupil of Cogniet. Fond of paint- 
ing episodes in the lives of famous men. 
Medals: 2d class, 1848, 1857; 1st class, 
1801, 1803; L. of Honour, 18(55. Works: 
Death of St. Sebastian (1842); Magdalen at 
the Sepulchre (1845); Old Woman and 
Children (1847) ; Neapolitan Fishermen, 
Confessional (1848); Chess Players under 
Louis XIII. (1840), Rouen Museum ; Satyr 
(1850); Siege of Rouen in 1418 (1852): 
Journey of Vert-Vert (18515), In night by 
Empress ; Rubens painting his Wife's Por- 
trait, Confessional at St. Peter's (1855), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Two Scholars of 
Salamanca, Whist Party (1857); Jupiter in 
Infancy, Moliere consulting his Maid, Boi- 
leau and his Gardener (1851)); Offering a 
Taper to the Virgin in St. Laurent in Paris, 
Cinq-Mars presenting Poussin to Louis XIII. 
(1H(!1), Society of Arts, Lyons; Gutenberg 
and Faust, James Watt, Post-Office in its 
Infancy, Soap-Bubbles (18(!1); Napoleon I. 
with Goethe and Wieland (18(i3); Death of 
Mark Antony (1803). Grenoble Museum : 
The Two Corneilles (1803); Philip IV. and 
Velasquez, Don Juan (1804); Psyche in the 
Lower World, The Bibliomaniac (1805) ; 
Margaret of Anjou and the Robber, Inde- 
cision (1800) ; Little John de Saintre and 
Lady with the Fair Cousins (1808); Aris- 
tides and the Peasant (180!l); Brother Phil- 
ip's Geese (1870); Latona, Three Friends 
(1872) ; The Burgher Gentleman and his 
Professors (1873) ; Turenne Asleep on a 
(inn-Carriage, The Marriage-Box (1874) ; 
Beauty Asleep in the Woods (1875); Entry 
of the Turks into Church of St. Sophia in 
1453 (1870); Archimedes, Phidias (1877); 
Giuliano de' Medici (1878) ; Astolfo and 
Jocunda consulting Fiammetta, Piccolo 
Moneta (1879); Tarpeia (1880); The Broth- 

ers de Witt (1881); Edward Jenner experi- 
menting, Lisabetta of Messina (1884); ^Eneas 
and Dido (1885). Bellier, i. 700 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 001. 

HILLIARD, NICHOLAS, born at Exeter 
in 1547, died in London, Jan. 0, 1019. Was 
goldsmith, carver, and portrait painter to 
Queen Elizabeth and to James I., who gave 
him for twelve years the exclusive privilege 
"to mint, make, grave, and imprint any 
pictures of our image or our royal family." 
He painted portraits of Elizabeth, of Mary 
Queen of Scots, and of other notable per- 
sonages, and was the first English native 
artist of importance whose contemporary 
reputation has been maintained. Hilliard 
was especially noted for his miniatures, of 
which that of Jane Seymour in the Royal 
Library at Windsor is one of the best. The 
influence of Holbein is traceable in his works. 
His son, Lawrence Hilliard, who was living 
in 1034, was also a miniature painter, and 
enjoyed the exclusive patent granted to his 
father till its term expired. Work, Portrait 
of Queen Elizabeth, National Portrait Gal- 
lery. Wilmot-Buxton, 22 ; Redgrave ; Wai- 
pole, Anecdotes. 

at Auburn, N. Y., in 1830. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Lambinet in Paris, sketched 
in England and Scotland. Painted in the 
West before studying in Europe ; has since 
lived in New York and Boston. Studio in 
Paris, 1880-84. Works: Battle-Field of 
Lookout Mountain ; Alatoona Pass 
Georgia ; Castle Rock ; Campton Meadows ; 
Wind against Tide (1878); View near Sark 
Maine (1879); In the Forest, Cernay-la- 
Ville near Paris, Canal Boats near Mont- 
courtFrance (1880); Twilight (1882); At 
Pont A ven, Cottage at Pan France, Un 
Marais dans les Landes (1883); Windmill 
near Giesen Holland (1884). 

DER, born in England in 1828. Genre 
painter, pupil in 1841-45 of the Dilsseldorf 
Academy ; studied in Munich, Rome, and 
Florence, and returned to England in 1804. 



Honorary member of St. Petersburg Acad- ' Greek Painting (1840-50), St. Petersburg 

emy. Works : Petruchio (1800) ; Before Museum ; Herodotus ut the Olviiipian 

the Tournament (18(i8) ; The Armourer ami Games, Emperor Augustus as Protector of 

the Glee Maiden (1872); Munchausen (1873); Arts, Maximilianeum, Munich. Nagler, 

Wanderiugsof Charles Edward Stuart (1874.); Mon.. ii. 1057 ; Rcber-Peeht, ii. 57. 
Manager's Troubles (1875); Incident in HILTON. WILLIAM, born at Lincoln, 

Early Life of Louis XFV. (1877) ; Summons June :), 1781!, died in London, Dec. IUI, 

from the Invisible Judges (18711) ; Ich Uien !:{'.). Sou and pupil of William Hilton, 

(1881); Last D.iys of Sir Philip Sidney portrait painter (died 1822); also studied 

(1882); The Duke's Musicians (1881!) ; In with Raphael Smith, mcx/.otint engraver, 

Presence (1884). ami in 1800 in school of Royal Academy. 

HILLS, ROBERT, born at Islington, Became an exhibitor in lS(i:i, A.R.A. in 1M:1, 
June 20, 1709, died in London, May 14, R.A. in isl'.i, and keeper in lsi'7. He won 
1844. Animal and landscape painter, pupil distinction as a subject painter, his works 
of Gressc ; first exhibited at the Royal Acad- being marked by retined taste in design, 
einy in 1791, and was one of the founders and bv rich and harmonious colon rim.', 
of the Society of Painters in Water Colours though they have much depreciated, owing 
in 1804, subsequently its secretary; some- to the excessive use of asphaltum. Though 
times worked conjointly with Robson and his skill was recogni/.ed by the profession, 
Barret. Works: Deer in a Landscape, his art, was not popular, and want of en- 
Broken Plough (1804), Landscape with couragement weighed heavily upon him. 
Cattle (1807), Ox Team (1810), Wild Boars Works: Serena rescued by Sir Calcpinc 
in a Wood (1820), Stags in Knole Park (Faerie Queen, vi. 8; 18:51), Edith discov- 
(1827), Cows and Sheep, South Kensington ering the Dead Body of Harold (18:54), Cu- 
Museum. Redgrave, 211. pid Disarmed (iK-j.Si, Meeting of Abraham's 

KILTENSPERGER, JOHANN GEORG, Servant wiih Rebecca (1838), National Gal- 

born at Haldenwang, Bavaria, Feb. 2'2, 1800. lery, London ; Rape of Ganymeile (bsis), 

History painter, pupil of Munich Academy Christ crowned with Thorns (1825), Royal 

under Peter von Lauger, then of Diisseldorf Academy, ib. ; Venus seeking Cupid at the 

Academy under Cornelius, with whom, in Bath of Diana, Sir Richard Wallace ; Rape 

1825, he returned to Munich. King Louis of Europa (181S), Earl of Egremont ; Cruci- 

soon after sent him to Naples and Pompeii, fixion (1827), Liverpool Institution ; Trium- 

to study antique painting, and after his re- phal Entrv of Duke of Wellington into 

turn he executed a large number of deeo- Madrid; Portrait of Keats. National 1'or- 

rative works in the Konigsbau. In 1840-50 trait Gallery, London. Redgrave; F. de 

he painted a cycle of pictures in the St. Pe- Conches, 4:50; Ch. Blanc, Kcole anglaise ; 

tersburg Museum, became professor at the Sandby, i. U02. 

Munich Academy in 1851, and afterwards HILVERDINK, JOHANNES, born at 

received extensive orders for the decoration Gri'mingen, Jan. 28, 181:5. Landscape ami 

of the Maximilianeum. Works : Duke Al- marine painter, pupil of Daiwaille, and of 

brecht refusing Crown of Bohemia, Arcade Amsterdam Academy under Pieneman, vis 

of Royal Garden, Munich; twenty-seven ited Belgium, Germany, and the coasts of 

Scenes from Comedies of Aristophanes, the Mediterranean, won several medals with 

Scenes from Hesiod's Poems, Illustrations his marines, and became member of Amster- 

to Homer's Hymns, Cycle from Ulysses, dam Academy in 1852. Works : Coast of 

Konigsbau, Munich ; Pegasus and the Hours, England, Pavilion, Haarlem; Calm Sea, 

Apollo and the Muses, Royal Theatre, Mu- Museum Fedor, Amsterdam; After the 

nich ; eighty-six Scenes from History of | Storm ; The Y near Zeeburg, His son and 


pupil, Ednnrd Alexanclor (born at Amster- 
dam, May 12, 1840), paints landscapes and 
city views. Immerzeel, ii. 40 ; Miiller, 259. 
Milton, Mass.. in 1813. Animal painter, 
jmpil during one winter of an evening school 
in Philadelphia, where he was taught per- 
spective by Mason. Painted portraits and 
landscapes in Boston until 1843, when he 
turned his attention to animal painting. 
Visited Europe in 1851 to study Landseer 
in England, and the Flemish painters. His ' 
pictures are in many private collections in 
the United States ; he rarely exhibits. 
HI1TOCENTAUH, picture. See Zen.ri*. 
HIPPYS (Hippcus), painter, date un- 
known. Pliny (xxxv. 40 [138]) mentions 
his picture of Neptune and Victory, and 
Athenians (\\. p. 474 n.) that of the Wedding 
of Peivithoiis. 

HIKE (Hyre), LAURENT DE LA, born 
in Paris, Feb. 
27, 1000, died 
there, Dec. 29, 
1050. French 
school ; history 
painter, son and 
pupil of Etienne 
do la H., then 
of Lallemand 
at Fon tain e- 
blcau, where he 

studied also the works of that school. 
Painted many finely-executed pictures, some 
of which have been copied in tapestry or en- 
graved. One of the twelve founders of the 
French Academy of Painting (1048), and 
professor in 1048-51. Works: Laban look- 
ing for his Idols (1047), Madonna (1C42), 
Jesus appearing to Three Marys, St. Peter 
healing the Sick with his Shadow (1035), A 
Sketch of the preceding, Pope Nicholas V. 
opening Tomb of St. Francis of Assisi (1C30), 
Landscapes (3), Louvre, Paris ; Assumption 
(in Vienna) ; Descent from Cross, Nativity, 
Adoration of Shepherds, Education of the 
Virgin, Portrait of a Nun, Rouen Museum ; 
Mercury and Herse, Epiual Museum ; The 

Trinity, Lyons Museum ; Repose of Holy 
Family (2), Palm Sunday, Nantes Museum ; 
Disciples at Emmaus, Portico with Figures, 
Rennes Museum ; Christ appearing to Mag- 
dalen, The Breaking of Bread, Grenoble 
Museum ; Judgment of Paris, Dijon Muse- 
um ; Vision of St. Francis, Strasburg Muse- 
um ; Ruins of a Temple, Valenciennes Mu- 
seum ; Finding of Moses, Landscape, 
Montpellier Museum ; Rebecca and Laban, 
Lord Forester's Collection ; Repose in 
Egypt, Gallon Collection ; Conversion of St. 
Paul (1037) ; Theseus seizing the Arms of 
his Father /Egeus, Perseus rescuing Andro- 
meda, Palais Royal ; Madonna, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Infancy of Bacchus, Abraham start- 
ing for the Promised Land, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg. Bellier, i. 881 ; Ch. Blanc, 
tfcolc fran<;aise ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 101 ; 
Larousse ; Mi'moires im'dits, i. 104. 

HIRSCHELY, KASPAR, born in Prague 
about 1701, died there in 1745. German 
school ; landscape, animal, and still-life 
painter, pupil of Angcrmayer ; endowed 
with an unusual talent for imitation, he often 
finished and sold pictures, painted after his 
master's sketches. Works : Flower-pieces 
(2) (1741), Thistles with Birds (2), Schleiss- 
heini Gallery ; others in private collections 
in Prague. Wurzbach, ix. 53. 

in Frankfort in 1721, died there in 1772. 
German school ; landscape and animal 
painter, son and pupil of Friedrich Christoph 
Hirt (1085-1703, landscape and portrait 
painter), whom he surpassed in colouring ; 
in 1757 became court-painter to the Duke 
of Saxe-Meiuingen, after whose death he 
skelched extensively from nature on a tour 
through Switzerland ; painted cattle espe- 
cially well, and often supplied them in the 
pictures of Christian Georg Schiitz. Works : 
Wood Landscapes (2) (1750), Landscapes 
with Herds and Figures (2) (1708), Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Landscape with Fisher- 
men (1754), Gotha Museum ; Landscape 
with Herd, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; do. (2), 
Cassel Gallery ; do., Mannheim Gallery. 




in Iceland in 1771, died at Brunswick in 
1817. German school ; landscape painter, 
pupil at Salzdahluru, Brunswick, of Joliann 
Friedrich Weitsch, whom he even surpassed 
in the treatment of trees. Ho was the six- 
teenth son of his parents, was shipwrecked in 
Denmark, and wandered under great priva- 
tions to Poland, and thence to Brunswick. 
Studied diligently the famous works in the 
Salzdahlum Gallery, and in 1802 visited 
Dresden, where he painted two landscapes 
in the manner of Ruisdael that excited the 
admiration of connoisseurs. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii. i(8I}. 

HLAVACEK, ANTON, born in Vienna in 
184'2. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Steinfeld and Albert Xiiu- 
luermann ; made a study trip to the Bava- 
rian Alps in 18i;:i, then went to Worms, 
whence ho visited the banks of the Rhine 
and the Odenwald. Works : From Environs 
of Vienna (185'J) ; View near Gastein (18(10); 
Mountain Landscape (IStil) ; View near 
Salzburg (18(i'2) ; Morning on Hintersee 
(18(il{) ; View of Worms from Meerstiidt 
Height; Lindent'els in the Odenwald; De- 
parture of Burgrave of Rodenstein from 
Burg Schnellerts ; Morning in Rhenish Pa- 
latinate, Vienna Museum ; Konigsee (I8(i!)); 
The Imperial City on the Danube (1884). 
Allgem. K. Ch., ix. 147 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xx. 2G9, 4'.).",. 

born at Koeverden or at Amsterdam (?) in 
1(!38, died at Amsterdam, buried Dec. 14, 
1701). Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
formed himself under the influence of 
Jacob van Ruisdael. Much neglected in 
his life-time, and little esteemed, this paint- 
er now takes rank as one of the greatest 
masters of landscape art, thanks to the initi- 
ative of England, where nine-tenths of his 
works are to be found. With less inventive 
genius and less poetic feeling than Ruisdael, 
Hobbema surpassed him in truth to atmos- 
pheric effect, in tone, and in brilliancy of 
colour. These qualities give a magical 

beauty to the generallv prosaic scenes which 
he habitually treated. Some of his land- 
scapes are enlivened with figures by Pieter 
Bouts, Adrian van tier Velde, BtTgheiii, Lin- 
gclbach, Storck, Helt-Stokade, B. Gael, and 
Helmbreker. Works : Showery Weather, 
Avenue at Middolharnis, Ruins of Brederode 
Castle (ICIu), Village with Water-Mills. 
Forest Scene, Woody Landscape, Castle in 
Rocky Landscape, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; landscapes in Buckingham Palace (K), 
Bridgewater ('!), Dulwich I'Jl, and Gros- 
venor (2) Galleries, Hertford House, Baring, 
Dudley, Wynn Ellis, Holfonl. Lord Over- 
stone's Collections, ih. ; (ilasgow Gallery 
(.">) ; National Gallery, Edinburgh (2); Lou- 
vre, Paris; Museums cf Iwmlr.-uiv, Antwerp, 
Brussels (llili'i), Amsterdam (:!), Rotterdam 
(2), Berlin, (Kll'.l), Dresden (2), 
Gotha, K"niigsberg, Leipsic (?), Stuttgart 

(->, Vienna, New York; Stiidol Gallery, 
Frankfort (2); Kunsthalle, Hamburg; < >ld 
1'inakothek, Munich ; Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg (!(!<>:!) ; Historical Society, New York 
(2).- Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. .'>!(>; Dohmc, 

lii.; Ga/. desB. Arts (1S.V.I), iv. 28; (ISIU), 
xvi. 214; limner/eel, ii. 41 ; Kramm, iii. 
li!t:i ; vii. 77 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 47"> ; 
Richter, 7(i. 

HODGSON, -JOHN EVAN, born in Lon- 
don, March 1, 1S:U. Subject i)ainter, stu- 
dent in 1855 of the Royal Academy, where 
he first exhibited in 18.">(i. Painted at first 
domestic subjects, then historical pictures 
from 1801 to 18(i5 ; and, after a visit to 
North Africa, subjects of Moorish life, to 
which he has since mostly confined his ef- 
forts. Became an A.R.A. in 1873 and H.A. 



in 1879. Works : Arrest of ;i Poacher nmnn ; settled in Munich in 1780, acquired 

(1857); Canvassing for a Vote (1858); IV reputation through historical paintings, and 

triot Wife (1859) ; j was made court-painter to the Elector 

Sir Thomas More's Charles Theodor, after whose death in 1800 

Daughter in Hoi- he settled at Vienna, where also he became 

bein's Studio (1801); court-painter in 1802. Works: Meeting of 

Return of Sir Fran- Charles Theodor and Emperor Francis in 

cis Drake from Cadiz Munich (1793); Coronation of Emperor 

(1802); First Sight Francis, Banquet in the Homer at Frankfort 

of the Armada (1801), Wedding of Emperor Francis, Wed- 

(1803); Queen Eli/.a- ding Banquet, Laxenburg Palace; Suit of 

both at Pur fleet Prince Berthier for the Hand of Marie Lou- 

(1804); Taking ise, Marriage of Marie Louise, Harrach Gnl- 

Home the Bride (1805) ; Jewess accused of lery, Vienna; Old Peasant, Old Woman, 

Witchcraft (1800); Even Song (1807); Ho- Vienna Museum. Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 

man Trireme at Sea (1808) ; Arab Story- 522 ; Wurzbacb, ix. 89. 

Teller (1809) ; Pasha's Black Guards (1870); HOECHLE (Hechle), JOHANN NEPO- 

Snakc Charmer (1872); Barber's Simp in MUK, born in Munich in 1790, died in Vi- 

Tunis (1875) ; Relatives in Bond (1877); The enna, Dec. 12, 1835. History painter, pupil 

Pasha (1878) : Bound for the Black Sea of Munich Academy under Kobell, and of 

1854 (1881); Painter and Critic (1882) ; Vienna Academy under Fiiger and Dies. 

Egypt (1882) ; The Water Dance (1883) ; In 1815 went to Paris with the Austrian 

Flat Perjury, There Nelson Fell, The Drowsy Emperor, and in 1819 to Rome and Naples. 

East, Gate of the Sea, Church Afloat (1884); In 1833 he succeeded his father, Johann 

Don Quixote and the Galley Slaves (1885). Baptist, as court-painter at Vienna. Works: 

Portfolio (1871), 18. j Battle at Aspern, The Allied Armies cross- 

HOECGEEST. C. (Cornells?), born at ing the Vosges, Vienna Museum; Rudolf 

The Hague, flourished about 1010-51. von Hapsburg and the Priest ; Battle-Pieces, 

Dutch school ; architecture painter, perhaps Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. Allgem. d. 

son of the portrait painter Joachim H., at Biogr., xii. 523 ; Wurzbach, ix. 90. 

The Hague, who entered the guild there in ' HOECKE, JAN VAN DEN, born in Ant- 

1010 ; painted chiefly interiors of churches werp, baptized Aug. 4, Kill, died there in 

with a masterly brush. Works: Interior of 1051. Flemish school ; history and portrait 

New Church in Delft, Interior of Protestant painter, son and pupil of Kasper van den 

Church, Antwerp Museum ; Interior of New Hoecke (master of Antwerp guild, 1003), 

Church in Delft (1050), Monument of Will- then pupil of Rubens. He visited Italy, and 

iain of Orange in same Church (1051), on his return executed many works for the 

Hague Museum ; Choir in Delft Cathedral court at Vienna. Settled in Antwerp as 

(1055), Interior of Flemish Church, Copen- court-painter to Archduke Leopold William 

liageii Gallery ; Interior of Basilica, Olden- in 1047. Good draughtsman and pleasing 

burg Gallery ; Church Interior, Hermitage, 

colourist. Works : St. Francis adoring the 

St. Petersburg. Immerzeel, ii. 43 ; Kramm, Child, Museum, Antwerp; Holy Family, St. 

iii. 099. Willebrordus Church, ib. ; Christ bearing 

HOECHLE, JOHANN BAPTIST, born the Cross, Entombment, Notre-Dame, Mech- 

at Klingenau, Switzerland, Oct. 19, 1754, ' lin ; Entombment, St. John's, ib.; do., St. 

died in Vienna, Jan. 1, 1832. History, Quentin's, Louvaiu ; Christ on the Cross, St. 

genre, and portrait painter, pupil at St. Salvator's, Bruges ; do., Dunkirk Museum ; 

Blasien of Morat, and in Augsburg of Hart- Martyrdom of St. Mary of Cordova, Dijon 



Museum; Resurrection, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Madonna and Angels, Allegory on 
Transitoriness, January and February, July 
and August, September and October, Day 
and Night, Archduke Leopold William in 
Prayer, do. on Horseback, Museum, Vienna ; 
Samson and Delilah, Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, Cimou and Pera, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, ib. 
All ye in. d. 

549; C h . 

Blanc, Ecole 

rtamande; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (1874). 

429 ; Immerx.eel, ii. 42 ; Kramni, iii. 699 ; 

Michiels, viii. 97 ; Rooses (Reber), 317 ; 

Van den Branden, 794. 

in Antwerp, Nov. 30, 1622, died after 1695. 
Flemish school ; genre, landscape, and bat- 
tle painter, son and pupil of Kasper, and 
half-brother of Jan ; master of the guild in 
1645. His style was evidently influenced 
by Teniers the younger, and his pictures 
are admired for great delicacy of tone, 
splendid colouring, and richness of compo- 
sition. While controller of the fortifications 
of Flanders he painted many military camps 
and scenes, executing the figures on a small 
scale and with great minuteness. Works : 
Skating in Town-moat at Brussels (1649), 
View of Ostend, Military Camps (3), March 
of Troops, Halt of Travellers by an Inn, 
Flemish Store-room (1695), Nocturnal Con- 
flagration, Vienna Museum ; Military Camp 
(1665), Dunkirk Museum. Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii. 549 ; Immerzeel, ii. 43 ; Kramni, 
iii. 700 ; Van den Branden, 797. 

at Jonkoping, Aug. 26, 1826, died inGi>teburg, 
Sept. 16, I860. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy under Boklund, 
with whom he went to Munich in 1846. 
After his return (1849) he visited Lapland, 
went in 1853 to Paris, where he allied him- 
self with Max Hess, travelled in 1857 through 
Holland, Belgium, and England, in 1858 
made studies in Dalecarlia, and in 1861 vis- 

ited Spain, Italy, and North Africa. Medals 
in 1857, 18(i(! ; Orders of Wasa and North 
Star. Works: Bandits (184(5); Queen Chris- 
tina ordering Execution of Monaldeschi 
(1853); Divine Service in Lapland Chapel 
(1855); Return from Chase in Lapland ; 
Interior of Lapland Hut (1S57), Lapland 
Wedding (1858), Stockholm Museum ; Res- 
cue of Gustavus Viisa (1858); Peasant Wo- 
man at the Hearth (186-2); Portraits of Bey 
of Tunis (18<!1), and Charles XV.; Burning 
of Palace in Stockholm in Ki'.l" ; Bellman 
in Sergell's Studio ; Dead Bodv of Charles 
XL Tailor. 

in I'esth in 17S(i, died in Vienna in Feb., 
1864. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of KralVt and of Vienna Academy, where he 
won the great pri/e in 1S11 ; visited Italy 
in 181S, and after his return painted many 
altarpieces for churches in Austria and Hun- 
gary. Works: .Egeus recognizing Theseus 
by his Sword (ISlli; Sons of Diagoras as 
Victors at Olympia ( 18-20); Scries of T went v- 
Four Figures for Imperial Palace; Poll rait 
of Ladislaus Pyrker. Wurzbach, i\. H7 ; 
Hormayr, Archiv., 6'23. 

HOEFNAGEL, JOHIS, born at Antwerp 
in 1545, died in Vienna after Kil8. Flem- 
ish school ; genre, landscape, portrait, and 
miniature painter, mostly self-taught, but 
for a time pupil at Mechlin of Jan Bol, after 
having travelled through France and Spain 
in 1563-65, where lie made many drawings 
of notable objects. Returned to Antwerp, 
and uniting with his art the business of a 
jewel dealer, he and his father were pillaged 
of everything on the invasion by the Span- 
iards in 1576, and went to Augsburg, thence 
to Munich, where, after a visit to Italy, he 
spent eight years, patronized by the elector; 
visited England about 158'2 ; worked tem- 
porarily for the Archduke Ferdinand at 
Innsbruck, then entered the service of Em- 
peror Rudolph at Prague, for whom he illus- 
trated four books on natural history, and 
finally settled at Vienna. Works : Minia- 
ture View of Seville (1573, masterpiece), 


Bni-gimdiiin Library, Brussels ; Roman nicl, Aug. 22, 1648, died at The Hague, 

Missal (1582-90), Imperial Library, Vienna. Dec. 2, 1733. Dutch school ; history painter, 

His son Jacobus, born at Frankfort in 1575, son and pupil of the glass painter Moses 

became court-painter to the Emperor Ru- Hoet, then pupil of Warnard van Rysen and 

dolph in 1607. In the museum at Valencia of Poelenburg ; went to The Hague in 1672, 

there is a fine water-colour drawing by him : travelled in Holland and France, and settled 

Samson slaying the Philistines (1600). in Utrecht, where, with H. Schook, he found- 

I'Ytis, Les artistes beiges a IV-tranger, i. 85 ; ed a school of painting ; returned to The 

Michiels, vi. 239 ; Xagler, Hon., iii. 564. Hague when sixty, and there painted in a 

HOEGG, JOSEF, bom in Coblentz in hall the Seven Christian Virtues. Works : 

18-26. Genre painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Landscapes with Figures (2), Marriage of 

Academy, paints chiefly mournful subjects. Alexander and Iloxana, Homage to Alex- 

"\Vorks : Farewell of Emigrant Wine-Grow- auder, Family Scene, Amsterdam Museum ; 

ers (1846) ; At Mother's Coffin (1847); Boy Pyramus and Thisbe, Rotterdam Museum ; 

reading Letter (1848); Blind Grandmother, (,)ueen of Sheba before Solomon, Pyramus 

Iteturn from Cemetery (1849); Grandfather and Thisbe, Cassel Gallery ; Death of Dido, 

and Grandchildren (1850) ; Blind Man Alcestis at Death-bed of Admetus, Copen- 

(1852). Wiegmann, 327. hagen Gallery ; Woman and Children by 

HOEEBERG, PEHR, born at Oefra-Oe, Ruined Wall (1667), Dresden Museum; 

Smaland, Jan. 31, 174(1, died at Oelstorp, Samson and Delilah, Solomon's Idolatry, 

East Gothland, Jan. 24, 1816. History Leipsic Museum ; JEneas and Dido, An- 

paintcr, self-taught peasant. While serving tony and Cleopatra, "Ulysses recognizing 

as a shepherd (1783) he frequented the Stock- Achilles, The Wooers Feasting, Male Por- 

holm Academy, and obtained two prizes, trait, Schlcisshcim Gallery ; Moses striking 

Made member of the Academy and court- f* m . the Rock, Vi- 

painter in 1797, and received a pension I l~ I _ ,~ "r cnna Museum ; 

from Charles XIV. in 1812. Over six him- \** * ' * O *-> ^ ' Callisto's Guilt, 

dred paintings by him are known, among Glasgow Gallery ; Adoration of the Magi, 

which are eighty-seven altarpieces. His Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Immerzeel, ii. 

best fresco paintings are the Combats of 44 ; Kramm, iii. 705. 

Titans at Castle Finsp:ing. He was an ac- HOFF, JAKOB, born in Frankfort in 
complished musician, and invented a new 1838. Genre painter, pupil at Frankfort of 
kind of violin ; his musical compositions are the sculptor Zwerger, then at the Stadel In- 
original and full of sentiment. Pehr Hoer- stitute of Jakob Becker, spent two years in 
berg's Lobens beschreibung (Greifswald, Belgium and Holland, and subsequently 
1819). visited Hungary and North Italy. Works : 

HOERTER, AUGUST, born in Germany ; Kirmess Dance (1861); Under the Linden ; 

contemporary. Landscape painter in Carls- Repose at the Chase. Miiller, 261. 
rube, pupil of Lcssing ; draws his subjects HOFF, KARL, born in Mannheim, Sept. 

mostly from the high mountains of Germany 8, 1838. Genre and landscape painter, pu- 

and Switzerland. Works : Courtyard of pil of Carlsruhe Art School under Schirmer 

Magdeburg ; View of Reichenbach Falls ; and Des Coudres, and of Diisseldorf Acad- 

Landscape about the Hohentviel ; Oak Land- emy under Vautier ; visited Paris in 1862, 

scape ; Wood Brook ; Approaching Storm settled in Diisseldorf, whence he made jour- 

with Mediaeval Horsemen ; Rosegg Glacier ; ueys through Germany, France, Italy, and 

Landscape in the Hiihgau (1868). Miiller, Greece, and in 1878 went to Carlsruhe as 

267. professor at the art-school. Medals in Ber- 

HOET (Hoedt), GERARD, born at Bom- lin (1872), Vienna (1873) ; honorary mem- 

1 1 OFF 

ber of Rotterdam Academy. Since 18G5 
he has painted all the figures in his genre 
scenes in the cos- 
tume of the times 
of Louis XIV. and 
XV. Works: Gyp- 
sies before Bailiff 
(18C1) ; Last Ren- 
dezvous ; The Petti- 
fogger; Noblesse 
Oblige ; Ou the Old 
Field of Battle; Visit \ 
of the Bride (1805); 
Repose during Flight in Time of Louis 
XIV. (18GG); First Criticism (1808); Return 
Home (1870); Tartuffe and Elmire (1872) ; 
Draught on Horseback (187:$) ; Baptism 
of Posthumous Son (1875), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin; Son's Last Greeting (1878); 
Before Departure (1880); Young Lady at 
Balustrade of Garden-Stairs in Moonlight, 
Schwerin Gallery. Miiller, 202 ; Leixncr, 
Mod. K, i. !; ii. 70 ; Zeitsch., xii. (Mittheil- 
ungen, v. G);D. Rundschau, ix. :$2G; xvii. :!12. 
HOFF, KONUAD, born in Schwerin, 
Nov. 1!), 181G, died in Munich, Feb. 18, 
188:{. Architecture painter, pupil of Dres- 
den and Munich Academies ; travelled ex- 
tensively in Germany and later in North 
Italy. His architectural views and interiors 
are distinguished for poetic conception and 
brilliant colouring. Works: Rococo Cham- 
ber, View in Church of Our Lady Munich, 
Renaissance Chamber with Lady Writing 
(I860) ; Sacristy (1801) ; Interior of Old 
House in Neuburg ; Staircase in Castle 
Schleissheim (1HG2); Hall of Country Man- 
sion, Room of a Cardinal (180,'J), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Morning after Banquet ; Interior 
of St. Zeno's Verona, Santa Maria dei 
Miracoli in Venice (1804); Basilica on Isle 
of Torcello (1805); Scuola di San Rocco in 
Venice, Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, 
Bedroom of Charles VII. in Schleissheim 
(1807); Ancestral Hall in Schleissheim ; Last 
Meeting ; Canal Grande ; Riva degli Schia- 
voni; Doge's Palace. Kuust-Chronik, xviii. 
368 ; Mttller, 262. 

HOFFMANN, JOSEF, born in Cologne, 
Oct. 28, 1704, died there, March 0, 1812. 
German school ; history painter, son of and 
first instructed by Valentin Hoffmann (a 
painter of Mentz, who had settled at Cologne 
before 1704), then pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Krahe and Linger ; won tin- 
first prize for decorative painting, then 
twice (1SOO-1801) the Goethe prize in Wei- 
mar, and another in 1805 ; visited Paris in 
17117. Works : Ulysses and Diomcd sur- 
prisingCampof the Trojans (1800); Achilles 
at Court of Lvcoinedcs (1801); Hercules 
cleaning Stables of Augeas (1805); Diana 
with Hunting Suite, Ceiling in Audience 
Chamber, Weimar (sketch of this in ( 'ologne 
Museum); Ceiling in Choir of St. Martin's. 
Diisseldorf (17!t:$-'.)4). Mcreurc du Depart- 
ment de la Ivoi'-r (181'j), 151 GO; Merlo, 

HOFFMANN, JOSKF, born in Vienna, 
Julv 22, 18H1. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Rahl ; went in 1850 to Venire and in 
1857 to Greece. From 1858 to 18IJ4 he 
lived in Rome, perfecting himself by study 
and intercourse with masters of the German 
school. Member of Vienna Academy since 
1807. Works: Remains of Sanctuary of 
Venus; Anacreon's Grave (1805); Athens 
in Time of Pericles; Athens from Gardens 
of the Queen ; Sabine Mountains near Ole- 
vano ; Eight Landscapes, Palace Epstein, 
Vienna; Drama; Idyl and Tragedy; Five 
Views of Ancient Athens (1870), Palace 
Sina, Vienna ; Decorations to Magic Flute, 
Freisehiitz, and Romeo and Juliet (1800), 
Vienna Opera House ; Four Joys of Life, 
Kursalon, Vienna ; Burning of Ringtheatre 
in Vienna (1881); The Hour of Death on 
Golgotha (1882); Cycle of Landscape's illus- 
trating the Geological Epochs (1884), Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Vienna; View of 
Helgoland (1885). Allgem. K. Ch., ix. 4:54 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 259, 407 ; xx. 0:50 ; 
Mdller, 202 ; Wurzbach, ix. 174 ; /eitsclir. 
f. b. K., ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 47). 

H F F M A N N - F A L L E R S L E B 1 1 N , 
FKANZ, boru in Weimar, May I'.t, 1855. 


Landscape painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy and of Weimar Art School under j 
Theodor Hugen ; visited the Baltic coast, 
Westplialia, Hanover, and Thuriugia, and 
settled in Diisseldorf. Works: Giant's 
Grave, Bv a Woodland Cemetery (1877); 
Solitude, After Storm-Tide (1878); Twilight, 
Enchanted Castle (1879); Ancient German 
Oil'ci ing Grove, At the Forest-Border (1880). 
Mailer, 2(53. 

HOFMANN, HEINRICH, born in D.irm- 
stadt, March 11), 1824. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Uiisseldorf Academy 
under Theodor Hildebrandt and Schadow, 
then of Antwerp Academy (1845); visited 
Holland and Paris, and returned to his 
native city, where he painted portraits ; was 
in Munich in 1847, in Darmstadt and Frank- 
fort in 1848- 51, and in Dresden in 1851-53. 
Went in 1854 to Italy, where he spent four 
years, mostly at Home, and was much in- 
fluenced by Cornelius. .Removed to Dres- 
den in 18(!2, became honorary member of 
the Academv in 18(i8, and professor in 1870. 
Works : Scene from History of Longobards 
(1844), Wurtcniberg Art Union ; Entomb- 
ment (184(5), Rhenish Art Union ; Scene 
from llomeo and Juliet (1S47), Cologne Art 
Union; King En/.io in Prison (1851), Frei- 
burg Gallery ; Taking of Christ (1858), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Othello and Desdc- 
mona ; Shylock and Jessica ; St. Cecilia ; 
Venus and Cupid ; Christ and the Adulter- 
ess, Christ in the Temple, Dresden Gallery ; 
Christ's Sermon on the Lake, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Apotheosis of Ancient Heroes, 
Court Theatre, Dresden ; Betrothal of Al- 
brecht the Brave with Princess Sidonie 
(fresco), Albrechtsburg, Meissen ; Dornr.">- 
schen, Leda. Brockhaus, ix. 305 ; Miiller, 

HOFMANN, RUDOLF, born in Darm- 
stadt in 1820, died there in 1882. Genre 
and history painter, pupil in Darmstadt of 
Lucas, then of Diisseldorf and Munich Acad- 
emies ; studied for three years in Rome, and 
became professor in Darmstadt and inspec- 
tor of the Museum there. Works : Scene 

from Peasants' War, Darmstadt Museum ; 
twenty-three scenes from History of the 
House of Ysenburg-Biidingen (1852). Fres- 
cos : Minstrels' War, Scenes from Niebelun- 
geu Lied, Parsifal, Tristan and Isolde, all at 
Wartburg near Eisenach. Miiller, 2(54. 

HOFMANN, SAMUEL, born in Zurich in 
1592, died in Frankfort in 1(548. Portrait 
painter, pupil in Zurich of Gotthard Ringli, 
then in Antwerp of Rubens ; worked at Am- 
sterdam, Ziirich, and Frankfort after 1G38. 
Works : Equestrian Portrait of Peter Ki'mig 
(1(531), Freiburg Museum ; Duke Bernhard 
of Weimar (1G3!)), Entry of Gustavua 
Adolphus into Frankfort, Birth of Erich- 
thonius, Female Portrait, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; The Zinsgroschen, Still Life, 
Portraits, Ziirich City Library and Art 
Union ; Portrait of a Lady, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort. Allgein. d. Biogr., xii. (537; 
Fiiessli, i. 155. 

Zeitz, Nov. 11, 1832. Genre painter, pupil 
in Munich of Schwind. Works : Blue Flow- 
eret ; Ruined and Dead ; Francesca da Rim- 
ini and Paolo ; Surprise. Miiller, 2(54. 


HOGARTH, WILLIAM, born in London, 
Dec. 10, 1097, died 

. 'V'^>-t4.\ tlierc ' Oct ' 26 > 17(U - 
Y/ Sf \| Son of Richard Ho- 

j -** garth, schoolmaster ; 
apprenticed to Ellis 
Gamble, silversmith, 
to learn to engrave 
arms and cyphers on 
plate ; when his time 
had expired (1718), 
became a student in 
St. Martin's Lane Academy, where he 
learned to draw. About 1720 he set up in 
business as a silversmith, and began to en- 
grave book-plates, the first of his prints to 
attract notice being a series of illustrations 
for Butler's Hudibras (172(5). In 1730 he 
clandestinely married the daughter of Sir 
James Thornhill, serjeant-painter to the 



king, whose studio he 1ia<l frequented. As 
his book-plates were not profitable, he set 
up as a portrait painter ami met with con- 
siderable success. In 17:5:5 lie completed 
his series of six pictures entitled the Har- 
lot's Progress (5 burned at Fonthill, 1755 : 

1, the sixth picture, Karl of Wemys, Gos- 
ford House), which was followed by the 
Ital-K's Progress (8 pictures), ami Murrid'/i- a 
la Mode (0), in which ho reached tin- height 
of his art, his more ambitious works, such 
as the (lood Samaritan (17:50), Paul before 
Felix (1748), Moses brought to Pharaoh's 
Daughter (1752), and others, being less suc- 
cessful. Among his other pictures painted 
especially for engraving arc : Southwark 
Fair (17:5:5), Duke of Newcastle ; Midnight 
Modern Conversation (17:54) ; Distressed 
Poet (17:55) ; The Four Times of the Day 
(17:58) ; Strolling Actresses Dressing in a 
Barn (17:58, burned at Littleton House, 
near Staines, 1S74); The Enraged Musician 
(1741); C,ilai.t( late (174!)); March to /'/m-/i- 
/'</ (1750); The Klft-tinii (1755), Soane Mu- 
seum, London. In 1753 he published a 
work entitled "The Analysis of Beauty"; 
iu 1757 he was appointed Serjeant-painter 
to the king. Hogarth painted several por- 
traits of himself ; the be