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Full text of "Cyclopedia of painters and paintings"

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CYCLOPEDIA OF 

Painters and Paintings 



Volume IV 
RAAB— ZYL 



CYCLOPEDIA OF 



PAINTERS AND PAINTINGS 



EDITED BY 

JOHN DENISON CHAMPLIN, JR. 

CRITICAL EDITOR 

CHARLES C. PERKINS 

Corresponding Member of the French Institute 

WITH MORE THAN TIVO THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS 



VOLUME IV 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 
MCMXIII 



Copyright, 188^. 1886. 1887, by 
Charles Scribner's Sons 




NP30 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



OUTLINES OF PAINTIhlGS. 



PAGK 



1. Kainbow Rubens Louvre, Paris. 4 

2. Raphael leaving Tobias . . .Rembrandt Louvi-e, Paris. 12 

3. Reading the Will Sir David Wilkie. New Munich Gallery . 14 

4. Rebekah and Eliezer Murillo Madrid Museum . 14 

5. Rebekah and Eliezer Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris . 15 

6. Rebekah and Eliezer Paolo Veronese (?) Louvre, Paris . 16 

7. Rent Day Sir David Wilkie John Chapman, England. 26 

8. Resurrection Annibale Carracci Louvre, Paris . 28 

9. Resurrection Pietro Perugino Vatican, Rome . 29 

10. Resurrection Raffaelino del Garbo Florence Academy . 29 

11. RiNALDO AND Armida DomenicMno Louvre, Paris. 47 

12. RocH, St., giving Alms. . . .Annibale Carracci Dresden Gallery. 57 

13. RoMUALD, St., Vision of. . . Andrea Sacchi Vatican, Rome . 65 

14. Rubens and Isabella Brandt. i?M6ens Munich Gallery . 85 

15. Rubens and Helena Four- ) „ , t>i i • t. i t-< i i o.^ 

r Rubens Blenheim Palace, England . 86 

MENT ) 

16. Rubens's Sons Rubens .Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 86 

17. Sabines, Rape of the Luca Giordano Dresden Gallery . 96 

18. Sabines, Rape of the Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris . 97 

19. Sabine Women Louis David Louvre, Paris . 98 

20. Seven Sacraments Nicolas Poussin Bridgewater House, London. 100 

21. Salome Guercino Louvre, Paris . 106 

22. Samson and Delilah Anton van Dyck Vienna Museum . 108 

23. Samson and Delilah Rembrandt Cassel Gallery . 109 

24. Samuel appearing to ^KVL.Salvator Rosa Louvre, Paris. 110 

25. Sapphira, Death of Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 114 

26. Saskia van Ulenburgh Rembrandt Cassel Gallery . 116 



463392 



OUTLINE OF PAINTINGS 



PAGE 



27. Satvr and Peasant Jacob Jordaens Old Pinakothek, Munich. 118 

28. Saviour, The Titian Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 119 

29. School op Athens Raphael Vatican, Rome . 144 

30. Scio, IVIassacre of Eugbne Delacroix Louvre, Paris. 158 

31. SciPio, Continence of Primaticcio Louvre, Paris . 159 

32. Sebastian, St Anton van Dyck Louvre, Paris. 163 

33. Sebastian, St Guido Rem Louvre, Paris . 163 

34. Sebastian, St Antonio PoUajuolo National Gallery, London. 164 

35. Shepherds, Adoration of. .Anton Raphael Mengs Madrid Museum. 174 

36. Shepherds, Adoration of . . Nicolas Poussin Munich Gallery . 175 

37. Sibyls Raphael Santa Maria della Pace, Rome . 179 

38. SiDDONS as the Tragic Muse.«S'w- Joshua Reynolds Grosvenor House, London . 180 

39. SiLENus, Triumph of Rubens National Gallery, London . 184 

40. Simplicity Sir Joshua Reynolds . . . .E. F. Watson, England. 188 

41. Snake in the Grass Sir Joshua Reynolds National Gallei*y, London. 195 

42. Socrates, Death of .Louis David Marquise de Verac. 198 

43. Solomon, Judgment of. . . .Nicolas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 202 

44. Sortie of the Banning ) „ , ,, a i. j t»t onnr 

^ ^ C Rembrandt Amsterdam Museum. 205 

Cock Company ) 

45. Spalatro Washington Allston H. R. Bishop, New York . 208 

46. Spasimo di Sicilia Raphael Madrid Museum. 210 

47. Stephen, St., Martyrdom of. Charles Lebrun Louvre, Paris. 226 

48. Strawberry Girl Sir Joshua Reynolds. ..Sir Richard Wallace, London. 235 

49. Supper at Emmaus Titian Louvre, Paris . 242 

50. Supper at ExMmaus Paolo Veronese Louvre, Paris . 243 

51. Susanna Lodovico Carracd National Gallery, London. 244 

52. Susanna Tintoretto Louvre, Paris . 245 

53. Susanna Paolo Veronese Madrid Museum , 246 

54. Syndics OF the Arquebusi- ) „,, ,^^, 4,-,,,r c^^r. 

I Bartholomeus van der Heist .... Amsterdam Museum . 250 

ERS ) 

55. Thomas, St., Incredulity of . Cima da Conegliano Venice Academy. 266 

56. Thomas, St., Incredulity of . Guercino Vatican, Rome . 267 

57. Thomas, St., Incredulity oF.Cecchino del Salviati Louvre, Paris. 267 

58. Titus and Vespasian, Tri- 



f Giulio Romano Louvre, Paris . 



285 

UMPH OF ) 

59. Tobias and the Angel Salvator Rosa Louvre, Paris. 286 

60. Transfiguration Lodovico Garracci Bologna Gallery. 291 

61. Transfiguration Raphael Vatican, Rome . 292 

62. Tribute Money Titian Dresden Galleiy . 296 

63. Tribute Money Valentin Louvre, Pai-is. 297 

64. Trinity, Adoration of TEE.Albrecht Durer Vienna Museum. 298 

65. Trinity, Dispute of the. . .Andrea del Sarto Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 299 

66. Twelfth Night Jacob Jordaens Vienna Museum . 309 

67. Ugolino Sir Joshua Reynolds Knole Park, England . 311 

68. Ursula, St., Embarkation of. Claude Lorrain National Gallery, London. 316 



OUTLINES OF PAINTINGS 



PA OB 



69. Ursula, St., History of. , . Vittore Carpaccio Venice Academy. 317 

70. Venus and Adonis Guercino Dresden Gallery . 337 

71. Venus and Adonis Rubens Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 338 

72. Venus and Adonis Titian Madrid Museum . 339 

73. Venus An.\dyomene Titian Bridgewater House, London . 340 

74. Venus, Birth of Sandro Botticelli Uffizi, Florence . 340 

75. Venus and Cupid Titian Palazzo Borghese, Rome . 341 

76. Venus, Festival of Rubens Vienna Museum . 342 

77. Venus, Toilet of Francesco Albani Louvre, Paris . 343 

78. Venus, Toilet of Titian Cobham Hall, England . 344 

79. Venus of the Tribune . . . Titian Uffizi, Florence . 345 

80. Venus and Vulcan Giulio Romano Louvre, Paris . 346 

81. Venus and Vulcan Anton van Dyck Louvre, Paris. 346 

82. Village Bride Jean Baptists Greuze Louvre, Paris . 368 

83. Village Festival David Tenters, younger Vienna Museum . 369 

84. Village Politicians Sir David Wilkie Earl of Mansfield, England . 370 

85. Virgin, Birth of the. . . . Annibale Carracci Louvre, Paris . 375 

86. Virgin, Birth of the Murillo Louvre, Paris . 376 

87. Virgin, Coronation of THE.Raphael Vatican, Rome . 377 

88. Virgin, Coronation of the. Velasquez Madrid Museum . 378 

89. Virgin, Death of the 3Iichelangelo da Caravaggio Louvre, Pai'is. 379 

90. Virgin, Education op the. Rubens Antwerp Museum . 380 

91. Virgin, Marrl^ge of the. Raphael Brera, Milan. 381 

92. Visitation Mariotto Albertinelli Uffizi, Florence . 383 

93. Visitation Sebastian del Piombo Louvre, Paris . 383 

94. Visitation Raphael Madrid Museum . 384 

95. Visitation Rubens Antwerp Cathedral. 384 

96. Vulcan, Forge of Velasquez Madrid Museum . 399 

97. Wak, Horrors of Rubens Palazzo Pitti, Florence . 406 

98. Water Carrier Velasquez Apsley House, London . 410 

99. Watering Place Philips Wouwerman Munich Galleiy . 411 

100. WiLLL\M, St Guercino Bologna Gallery. 434 

101. Wolfe, Death op Benjamin West Grosvenor House, London. 443 

102. Woman taken in Adultery. McoZas Poussin Louvre, Paris. 444 

103. Woman taken in Adultery. Tintoretto Dresden Gallery . 445 

104. Young Bull Paul Potter. Hague Museum. 458 

105. Zanobius, St Ridolfo Ghirlandajo Uffizi, Florence . 460 

106. ZiNGARELLA, La Correggio Naples Museum. 468 



PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS. 

(drawn by JACQUES REICH.) 



1. Rahl, Karl 

2. Ramberg, Arthur Georg von 

3. Eaoux, Jean 

4. Raphael 

5. Rapin, Alexandre 

6. Rasmussen, Carl 

7. Raupp, Karl 

8. Regnault, Alexandre Georges Henri 

9. Regnault, Jean Baptiste 

10. Reinhart, Johann Christian 

11. Rembrandt van Rhyn 

12. Renouf, Emile 

13. Restout, Jean, younger 

14. Rethel, Alfred 

15. Reynolds, Sir Joshua 

16. Rhomberg, Hanno 

17. Ribot, Augustin Theodule 

18. Richards, William Trost 

19. Richmond, George 

20. Richomme, Jules 

21. Richter, Adrian Ludwig 

22. Richter, Gustav Karl Ludwig .... 

23. Ridinger, Johann Elias 

24. Riedel, August 

25. Riefstahl, Wilhelm 

26. Riepenhausen, Johann 

27. Rigaud, Hyacinthe 

28. Riviere, Briton 

29. Robert, Louis Leopold 

30. Robert-Fleury, Tony 

31. Roberts, David 

32. Roed, Jorgen 

33. Roelas, Juan de las 

34. Roll, Alfred Philippe 

35. Romanelli, Giovanni Francesco . . . 

36. Rombouts, Theodoor 



PAGE 

3 
5 
6 
7 

12 
13 
13 
18 
19 
21 
22 
25 
28 
31 
33 
35 
37 
39 
40 
40 
41 
42 
43 
43 
44 
45 
46 
51 
53 
55 
55 
58 



37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 

52. 
53. 
54. 
55, 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 

59 i 68. 

60 { 69. 
62 I 70. 
64I7L 



PAOK 

Romney, George 65 

Roncalli, Cristofano 66 

Roos, Johann Heinrich 67 

Rosa, Salvator 69 

Rosenstand, Vilhelm Jakob 71 

Rosenthal, Toby Edward 72 

Rossetti, Gabriel Charles Dante . . 73 

Rosso, II 74 

Rottenhammer, Johann 75 

Rottmann, Karl 76 

Rousseau, Phihppe 78 

Rousseau, Pierre Etienne Theodore 78 

Rubens, Peter Paul 81 

Rugendas, Georg Philipp 87 

Rump, Christian Gottfred 90 

Sacchi, Andrea 99 

Saenredam, Pieter 100 

Saft-Leven, Herman 101 

Saint-Pierre, Gaston Casimir 103 

Salai, Andrea 104 

Salentin, Hubert 104 

Salimbeni, Ventura 104 

Salviati, Cecchino del 107 

Sandrart, Joachim von Ill 

Santerre, Jean Baptiste 113 

Sargent, John S 114 

Sarto, Andrea del 115 

Sassoferrato, II 117 

Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm von . 120 

Schalcken, Godfried 122 

Schefifer, Ary 124 

Schelfhout, Andreas 127 

Schendel, Petrus van 128 

Schiavone, Andrea 129 

Schidone, Bartolommeo 131 



vlil 



PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS 



PAGE 

72. SchipVei, Karl Friedrich 133 

73. Schx. -, Johann Wilhelm 133 

74. Schleica, Eduard 134 

75. Schlosser, Karl 136 

76. Schmid, Mathias 136 

77. Schmidt, Willem Hendrik 138 

78. Sclinorr von Karolsfeld, Julius . . 139 

79. Scholtz, JuUus 141 

80. Schongauer, Martin 142 

81. Schotel, Johannes Christianus . . . 146 

82. Schrader, Julius 146 

83. Schraudolpli, Claudius, younger . 147 

84. Schi-audolpb, Johann 147 

85. Schreyer, Adolf 148 

86. Schrodter, Adolf 149 

87. Schut, Cornelis 153 

88. Schwartz, Frans 155 

89. Schwind, Moritz von 157 

90. Scorel, Jan van 159 

91. Seel, Adolf 166 

92. Sell, Christian 169 

93. SeUeny, Josef 169 

94. Semini, Andrea 170 

95. Shee, Sir Martin Archer 173 

96. Shirlaw, Walter 177 

97. Sigalon, Xavier 181 

98. Signorelli, Luca 182 

99. Sirani, Giovanni Andrea 190 

100. Skovgaard, Peter Kristian ...... 190 

101. Shngelandt, Pieter Cornelisz van. 191 

102. Smillie, George Henry 192 

103. Smillie, James David" 193 

104. Smirke, Eobert 193 

105. Snayers, Peeter 196 

106. Snellinck, Jan 196 

107. Snyders, Frans 197 

108. Sodoma, D 198 

109. Sohn, Karl Ferdinand 200 

110. Sohn, Wilhelm 200 

111. Soliraena, Francesco 201 

112. Sonne, Jorgen Valentin 203 

113. Sorensen, Carl Frederik 204 

114. Sorgh, Hendrik Maertensz 205 

115. Spada, Lionello 207 

116. Spaendonck, Gerardus van 207 

117. Spagnoletto, Lo 207 

118. Spangenberg, Gustav Adolf .... 209 



PAGE 

119. Spitzweg, Karl 212 

120. Spranger, Bartholomeus 213 

121. Stanfield, William Clarkson 216 

122. Steen, Jan 219 

123. Steen wyck, Hendrik van, younger. 221 

124. Steffeck, Karl 222 

125. Steinle, Eduard 224 

126. Stella, Jacques 225 

127. Stevens, Alfred 227 

128. Stevens, Joseph 228 

129. Stewart, Julius L 228 

130. Stone, Marcus 231 

131. Storey, George Adolphus 232 

132. Stothard, Thomas 233 

133. Strozzi, Bernardo 237 

134. Stuart, Gilbert 238 

135. Subleyras, Pierre 240 

136. Sully, Thomas 242 

137. Sylvestre, Joseph Noel 249 

138. Tassaert, Nicolas Francois Octave 254 

139. Teuiers, David, elder 256 

140. Teniers, David, younger 257 

141. Terburg, Gerard 259 

142. Testa, Pietro 261 

143. Testelin, Henri 262 

144. Thumann, Paul 272 

145. Tiarini, Alessandro 273 

146. Tibaldi, Pellegrino 273 

147. Tidemand, Adolf 274 

148. Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista 275 

149. Tintoretta, La 278 

150. Tintoretto, Jacopo 278 

151. Titian 282 

152. Tournieres, Robert Levrac 291 

153. Trayer, Jean Baptiste Jules 293 

154. Tremolliere, Pierre Charles 294 

155. Troost, Cornelis 301 

156. Troy, Jean Francois de 302 

157. Troyon, Constant 303 

158. Trumbull, John 304 

159. Tura, Cosimo 306 

160. Turchi, Alessandro 306 

161. Turner, Joseph Mallord WiUiam . 307 

162. Uden, Lucas van 310 

163. Ulft, Jacob van der 312 

164. Utrecht, Adriaen van 317 



PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS 



PAGE 

165. Vaenius, Otho 319 

166. Vaga, Perino del 320 

167. Valdes Leal, Juan de 322 

168. Valentin, Le 322 

169. Vargas, Louis de 325 

170. Vasari, Giorgio 326 

171. Vayson, Paul 327 

172. Vedder, Eliliu 329 

173. Veit, PbHipp 330 

174. Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de 

Silva y 331 

175. Velde, Adriaan van de 334 

176. Velde, Willem van de 335 

177. Vennemau, Charles Ferdinand .. . 337 

178. Verboeckhoven, Eugene Joseph . . 347 

179. Verdier, Franyois 348 

180. Vereschagin, Basil 350 

181. Verhaghen, Pierre Joseph 351 

182. Verheyden, Franciscus 351 

183. Verkolje, Jan 352 

184. Verkolje, Nicolaas 352 

185. Vermehren, Johan Fredrik 354 

186. Veraet, Antoine Charles Horace . 355 

187. Vernet, Claude Josej)h 355 

188. Vernet, fimile Jean Horace 356 

189. Veronese, Paolo 358 

190. Verrocchio, Andrea del 360 

191. Verschuur, Wouterus 361 

192. Vibert, Jehan Georges 364 

193. Vien, Joseph Marie 366 

194. Vinci, Leonardo da ; . 371 

195. Vollon, Antoine 391 

196. Volterra, Daniele da 392 

197. Voltz, Friedrich 392 

198. Voltz, Ludwig 393 

199. Vos, Cornelis de 394 

200. Vos, Marten de 394 

201. Vos, Simon de 395 

202. Vouet, Simon 395 

203. Vuillefroy, Dominique Felix de.. 398 

204. Waldmtiller, Ferdinand Georg. . , 402 

205. Walker, Frederick 403 

206. Wappers, Gustaaf 405 

207. Ward, Edward Matthew 406 

208. Ward, James 407 

209. Waterhouse, John William 410 



FAOB 

210. Watteau, Antoine 412 

211. Watts, George Frederick 413 

212. Wauters, Emile 414 

213. Weenix, Jan 417 

214. Weerts, Jean Joseph 417 

215. Weir, John Ferguson 418 

216. Weir, Julian Alden 418 

217. Weir, Eobert Walter 419 

218. Wells, Henry Tanworth 420 

219. Wencker, Joseph 421 

220. Werff, Adriaan van der 421 

221. Werner, Anton Alexander von. . . 423 

222. Werner, Fritz 423 

223. Werner, Karl 424 

224. West, Benjamin 425 

225. Weyden, Rogier van der 426 

226. Whistler, James Abbott McNeiU. 427 

227. Whittredge, Worthington 428 

228. Wiertz, Antoine Joseph 429 

229. Wilkie, Sir David 432 

230. Willroider, Joseph 436 

231. Wilson, Richard 436 

232. Winterhalter, Franz Xaver 438 

233. Wislicenus, Hermann 439 

234. Wit, Jacob de 439 

235. Wolgemuth, Michael 444 

236. Woods, Henry 447 

237. Worms, Jules 448 

238. Wouwerman, Philips 449 

239. Yeames, William Frederick 455 

240. Yon, Edmond Charles 457 

241. Yvon, Adolphe 458 

242. Zegers, Geeraard 461 

243. Zeitblom, Bartholomaus 462 

244. Zelotti, Giambattista 462 

245. Zichy, Michael von 464 

246. Zick, Januarius 464 

247. Ziem, Felix 465 

248. Zimmermann, Ernst 467 

249. Zimmermann, Reinhard Sebastian 468 

250. Zucchero, Federigo 471 

251. Zucchero, Taddeo 471 

252. Ziigel, Heinrich 472 

253. Zvirbaran, Francisco 472 



MONOGRAMS AND SIGNATURES, 



1. Kabe, Edmund 1 

2. Raoux, Jean 6 

3. Raphael 9 

4. Ravesteyn, Jan van 15 

5. Recco, Giuseppe 17 

6. Regnault, Jean Baptiste 19 

7. Rembrandt van Rhyn 24 

8. Restout, Jean 28 

9. Rhomberg, Joseph Anton 36 

10. Ricci, Camillo 37 

11. Ricci, Sebastian© 38 

12. Richard, Fleury Franyois 38 

13. Richai'dson, Jonathan 40 

14. Ridinger, Johann Elias 43 

15. Riedel, August 44 

16. Riepenhausen, Franz and Johann . 45 

17. Rigaud, Hyacinthe 46 

18. Ring, Pieter de 49 

19. Rizi, Francisco 51 

20. Robert, Hubert 53 

21. Robert, Louis Leopold 54 

22. Robert-Fleury, Joseph Nicolas 54 

23. Roepel, Koenraad 59 

24. Rombouts, Theodoor 64 

25. Romeyn, Willem 64 

26. Rondani, Francesco Maria 66 

27. Roos, Johann Heinrich 67 

28. Roos, Johann Melchior 68 

29. Roqueplan, Joseph ^fitienne Camille 69 

30. Rosa, Salvator 70 

31. Rottenhammer, Johann 75 

32. Rottmann, Karl 76 

33. Rubens, Peter Paul 84 

34. Rugendas, Georg Philipp 88 

35. Ruisdael, Jacob van 89 

36. Ruisdael, Salomon van 89 

37. Russ, Karl 90 



PAOX 

38. Ruthart, Karl 92 

39. Ruysch, Rachel 93 

40. Ryckaert, David 93 

41. Ryckere, Bernaard de 94 

42. Rysbrack, Peeter 94 

43. Sacchi, Andrea 99 

44. Saft-Leven, Herman 101 

45. Sandrart, Joachim von Ill 

46. Santerre, Jean Baptiste 113 

47. Sarto, Andrea del 116 

48. Savery, Roelant 119 

49. Schadow, Felix 120 

50. Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm von . 121 

51. Schaffner, Martin 122 

52. Schalcken, Godfried 123 

53. Schiiufelin, Hans Leonhard 124 

54. Scheffer, Ary 126 

55. Scheits, Mathias 127 

56. Schelver, August Franz 127 

57. Schiavone, Andrea 130 

58. Schirmer, Johann Wilhelm 134 

59. Schloepke, Theodor 136 

60. Schnitzler, J. Michael 139 

61. SchnoiT von Karolsfeld, Julius 140 

62. Schoeff, J 141 

63. Schongauer, Martin 142 

64. Schorn, Karl 146 

65. Schrader, Julius 147 

C,Q. Schreyer, Adolf 148 

67. Schrodter, Adolf 149 

68. Schumacher, Karl Georg Christian 152 

69. Scorel, Jan van 160 

70. Seeger, Karl Ludwig 165 

71. Seehas, Christian Ludwig 166 

72. Seghers, Daniel 167 

73. Seibold, Christian 168 



MONOGRAMS AND SIGNATURES 



PAGE 

74. Siberechts, Jan 177 

75. Sigalon, Xavier 181 

76. Sirani, Giovanni Andrea 190 

77. Slingelandt, Pieter Cornelisz van. 191 

78. Snellinck, Jan 196 

79. Snyders, Frans 197 

80. Snyers, Peeter 197 

81. Soggi, Niccolo 199 

82. Spranger, Bartholomeus 213 

83. Stalbemt, Adriaen van 216 

84. Staveren, Jolian Adriaensz van. . . 219 

85. Steen, Jan 220 

86. Steen wyck, Hendrik van, eldex- . . 220 

87. Steenwyck, Hendrik van, younger 221 

88. Stella, Jacques 225 

89. Stilke, Hermann 229 

90. Stoop, Dirk 231 

91. Stork, Abraham 232 

92. Stothard, Thomas 233 

93. Streek, Juriaan van 235 

94. Streek, Hendrik van 235 

95. Stry, Abraham van 237 

96. Sturm, Fritz 240 

97. Sttirmer, Karl 240 

98. Subleyras, Pierre 241 

99. Suhrlandt, Johann Heinrich 241 

100. Suhrlandt, Rudolf Friedrich Karl 241 

101. Suvee, Joseph Benoit 247 

102. Swanevelt, Herman 248 

103. Swart, Jan 248 

104. Swebach, Jacques Franyois Joseph 248 

105. Taimay, Nicolas Antoine 255 

106. Tempesta, Antonio 256 

107. Teniers, David, elder 257 

108. Teniers, David, younger 259 

109. Terburg, Gerard 260 

110. Testa, Pietro 261 

111. Testehu, Henri 262 

112. Thiele, Johann Alexander 264 

113. Thielen, Jan Philip van 265 

114. Thulden, Theodorus van 272 

115. Thys, Peeter 273 

116. Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista 275 

117. Tilborch, Egidius 276 

118. Tilens, Jan 276 

119. Tischbein, August Anton 280 



PAGE 

120. Tischbein, Johann Heinrich 281 

121. Titian 284 

122. Tobar, Alonso Miguel de 286 

123. Tocque, Louis 287 

124. Tol, Dominicus van 287 

125. Toorenvliet, Jacob 289 

126. Tournieres, Robert Levi-ac 291 

127. Tremolliere, Pierre Charles 294 

128. Troy, Jean Franyois de 302 

129. Uden, Lucas van 310 

130. Ulft, Jacob van der 312 

131. Utrecht, Adriaen van 318 

132. Vaccaro, Andrea 319 

133. Vadder, Lodewyck de 319 

134. Vaillant, Wallerant 320 

135. Valckenborch, Marten van 321 

136. Valentin, Le 323 

137. Velasco, Luis de 331 

138. Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de 

Silva y 333 

139. Velde, Adriaan van de 334 

140. Velde, Esaias van de 335 

141. Velde, Willem van de 336 

142. Verboeckhoven, Eugene Joseph . . 347 

143. Verboeckhoven, Louis 348 

144. Verboom, Abraham 348 

145. Verdier, Franyois 349 

146. Verelst, Pieter 349 

147. Verendael, Nicolaas van 350 

148. Verhaegt, Tobias 351 

149. Verlat, Charles 353 

150. Vermeer, Johannes 353 

151. Vernet, Antoine Charles Horace . 355 

152. Vernet, Claude Joseph 356 

153. Veronese, Paolo 359 

154. Verschaeren, Joannes Antonius . . 360 

155. Verschuringh, Hendrik 361 

156. Verspronck, Jan 361 

157. Vertanghen, Daniel 362 

158. Victors, Jan 365 

159. Vien, Joseph Marie 366 

160. Vinci, Leonardo da 372 

161. Vinck-Boons, David 373 

162. Vinne, Vincent Laurensz van der. 374 

163. Vivien, Joseph 386 



xil 



MONOGRAMS AND SIGNATURES 



PAGE 

164. Vliet, Hendrik Cornelisz van 387 

165. Voelcker, Gottfried Wilhelm .... 388 

166. Vois, Arie de 389 

167. Vollmer, Adolf 390 

168. Vos, Cornells de 394 

169. Vos, Marten de 394 

170. Vos, Paulus de 395 

171. Vos, Simon de 395 

172. Vouet, Simon 396 

173. Vries, Adriaan de 397 

174. Vries, Koelof de 397 

175. Vroom, Hendrik Corneliszen .... 398 

176. Vuillefroy, Dominique Felix de. . 399 

177. Wael, Cornelis de 400 

178. Wagenbaur, Max Joseph 401 

179. Walscapele, Jacob 404 

180. Waterloo, Anthonie 411 

181. Watteau, Antoine 412 

182. Weenix, Jan Baptista 416 

183. Weenix, Jan 417 

184. Weerts, Jean Joseph 417 

185. Wegeliu, Adolf 417 



PAOB 

186. Weller, Theodor Leopold 420 

187. Werlf, Adriaan van der 422 

188. Werff, Pieter van der 422 

189. West, Benjamin 425 

190. Wicar, Jean Baptiste 428 

191. Wildens, Jan 431 

192. Wilkie, Sir David 432 

193. Willaerts, Abraham 432 

194. Willaei-ts, Adam 433 

195. Wilson, Kichard 437 

196. Winghe, Jodocus van 438 

197. Witte, Emanuel de 440 

198. Wouwerman, Philips 450 

199. Wyck, Thomas 453 

200. Wynants, Jan 454 

201. Wytman, Matheus 455 

202. Ykens, Peeter 457 

203. Zeeman, Reinier 461 

204. Ziegler, Jules 465 

205. Zurbaran, Francisco 472 



i 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



Acad., Academy. 

A.N.A., Associate of the National Academy. 

A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy. 

A.R.H.A, Associate of the Royal Hiber- 
nian Academy. 

A.R.S.A., Associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. 

C. & C, Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Cat., Catalogue. 

Ch., Church. 

Col., Collection. 

Gal., Gallery. 

H.. Height. 

ib., ibidem. 

id., idem. 

Inst., Institute. 



L. of Honour, Legion of Honour. 

Mus., Museum. 

N.A., National Academy or Academician, 

Nat. Gal., National Gallery. 

Pal., Palace, Palais. Palazzo. 

R., Royal. 

R.A, Royal Academy or Academician. 

R.H.A, Royal Hibernian Academy or 
Academician. 

R.S.A., Royal Scottish Academy or Acad- 
emician. 

S., San, Santa. 

SS., Santi, Sante. 

S. M., Santa Maria. 

St., Saint. 

W. & W., Woltmann and Woermann. 



Words in italics indicate the alphabetical place of articles on the subjects specified 



CYCLOPEDIA 



Painters and Paintings. 



RAAB, GEORG, born in Vienna in 1821, 
died there, Dec. 31, 1885. Portrait, 
figure, and miniature painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy ; worked in 1841-46 in 
Pesth ; visited Munich, and settled in Vi- 
enna, where he has had great success with 
ideal figures and heads, and for many years 
was the favourite portrait painter of the 
Imperial family and high aristocracy. A 
collection of his works was exhibited by the 
Austrian Art Union in April, 1886. Works : 
Deborah (1858) ; The Maiden (1862) ; Mi- 
gnon (1869), Empress of Austria ; Lady 
with White Veil, Vienna Museum ; Por- 
traits of Emperor and Empress (38) of Aus- 
tria, Crown Prince Rudolf, Archdukes and 
Ai'chduchesses, etc. — Allgem. K. C, x. 13, 
298, 317 ; Wurzbach, xxiv. 157. 

RABBIT ON THE WALL, Sir David 
Wilkie, Sir William G. Armstrong ; canvas. 
Called in Scotland the Hare among the 
Kale. Six figures : the father making with 
his fingers the shadow of a rabbit on the 
wall, which the mother holds her babe to 
see ; in foreground, a girl with a light- 
ed candle ; at left, two boys looking on. 
Painted in 1815 ; bought by Mr. Turner 
for 200 guineas ; sold in 1842 to Sir W. 
G. Armstrong for 700 guineas. Sketch 
in Baring Collection. Engraved by John 
Burnet ; W. Greatbach. — Heaton, Works of 



Sir D. W. ; Art Journal (London, 1877), 
100. 

RABE, EDMUND, born in Berlin, Sept, 
2, 1815. Genre and animal painter, pupil 
of Berlin Academy and of Franz Kriiger ; 
visited in 1835 Dresden, Prague, Nurem- 
berg, and the Baltic Coast, in 1841-42 the 
Netherlands, Paris, Switzerland, and North- 
ern Italy, and in 1856 Palestine. Member 
of Berlin Academy in 1843. Works : Trans- 
portation of French Prisoners of W^ar in 
1813 (1838), National Gallery, Berlin ; Re- 
port to Officers Carousing (1840), Schwe- 
rin Gallery ; Call to Arms before Town Hall 
of Prussian Town in 1813 ; Travellers be- 
fore Inn ; Cir- ,— -^ 

— Cotta's Kunstbl. (1843), 83 ; D. Kunstbl. 
(1850), 246; Jordan (1885), ii. 175; Rac- 
zynski, iii. 113 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 
287. 

RACHOU, HENRI, born at Toulouse; 
contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of Bon- 
nat. Medal, 3d class, 1884. Works : Knit- 
ters (1881) ; Fishmonger, Studio Interior 
(1882) ; St. Jerome, Breton Cobbler (1883) ; 
Portraits (1884, 1885, 1886). 

RADIN, SALEH, Prince, born in Java, 
died at Buitenzorg, near Batavia, April 23, 
1881. Animal, landscape, and marine paint- 



RADL 



er, pupil at The Hague of Schelfliout and 
J. A. Kruseman ; visited Germany, Italy, 
and France in 1841-46, and returned to 
The Hague. Copied most successfully The 
Young Bull by Potter, in The Hague Mu- 
seum. Works : Lion Hunt ; Bull Hunt in 
India, Leipsic Museum ; Storm at Sea. — 
Cotta's Kunstbl. (1840), 328 ; (1845), 72 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1850), 373 ; Immerzeel, iii. 1. 

KADL, ANTON, born in Vienna, April 
16, 1774, died in Frankfort, March 4, 1852. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, then in Brussels (1790) of Kormer ; 
settled in Frankfort in 1794. Works: 
Woods in Sunshine, Entrance to Forest 
(1807), Fom- Views in the Tauuvis (1815, 
1817, 1823, 1825), Darmstadt Gallery ; View 
in Lorsbach Valley, Wood Landscape, Stii- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Views in the Tau- 
nus. Black Forest, and on the Danube. — N. 
Necrol. der D. (1852), 141 ; Wurzbach, xxiv. 
202. 

RAEBUEN, Sir HENRY, born at Stock- 
bridge, near Edinburgh, March 4, 1756, 
died near there, July 8, 1823. Apprenticed 
to a goldsmith in Edinburgh ; tried minia- 
ture painting and then portrait painting, 
copying the works of David Martin. A fort- 
unate marriage enabled him to visit (1778) 
London and Italy, on his return from which, 
in 1780, he set up as a portrait painter in 
Edinburgh. He soon *won high rank in his 
art, was elected in 1812 president of the 
Society of Artists in Scotland, and in 1813 
an A.R.A., and in 1815 RA. On the visit 
of George IV. to Edinburgh in 1822 he 
was knighted, and the next year he was ap- 
pointed his majesty's limner for Scotland. 
Nine of his portraits are in the National 
Gallery, Edinburgh, and four in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, South Kensington, 
viz.: F. Homer, Rev. I. Home, Sir I. Sin- 
clair, H. Mackenzie ; Portrait of Sir Walter 
Scott (1808), Duke of Buccleuch ; do. of 
Helen Stirling, Earl of Duumore. —Cun- 
ningham ; Redgrave ; Ch. Blanc, l&cole an- 
glaise ; F. de Conches, 401 ; Sandby, i. 359 ; 
Portfolio (1879), 200. 



RAFFAELLINO. See Bottalla. 
RAFFAELLINO DELGARBO. See 

Garbo. 

RAFFAELLO or RAFFAELLINO DAL 
COLLE, born in Colle about 1500, died at 
Borgo San Sepolcro, Nov. 17, 1566. Roman 
school ; said to have been a pupil of Raph- 
ael's, but was rather the disciple of Giulio 
Romano, whom he assisted in his principal 
works in Rome and in the Palazzo del Te, 
Mantua. Among his own works are : Res- 
urrection, Almighty with Angels, Cathedral, 
Borgo San Sepolcro ; Assumption, Minori 
Asservanti, ib.; Assumption, S. Francesco, 
and Madonna and Saints, S. Michele Arch- 
angelo, Citta di Castello. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
ombrienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 163. 

RAFFALT, IGNAZ, born at Weisskirch- 
en, Styria, in 1800, died at Haimbach, near 
Vienna, July 7, 1857. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : 
Mill at Obersteier ; Foggy Landscape ; Mill 
in the Woods ; Convent Soup (1846); Fish- 
erman's Hut (1848) ; River Landscape with 
Castle (1852) ; Golden Wedding at Murau ; 
Postilions returning Home, Evening Land- 
scape (1849), Vienna Museum. His son 
Johann Gualbert (born at Murau, Styria, 
in 1836, died in Rome in 1865) was a tal- 
ented genre painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy and of Pettenkofen. Works : Land- 
scape with Horse-Pond, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Market in Hungary (1862) ; Gypsy 
Camp (1863) ; Wall on the Puszta ; Hunga- 
rian Vehicle (1864); Cattle Fair in Hungary. 
—Wurzbach, xxiv. 216, 220. 

RAFFORT, ETIENNE, born at Chalon- 
sur-Saone, May 11, 1802. Landscape and 
history painter, pupil of Castillet. Visited 
Italy (1829-32), and the East in 1842. 
Medals: 3d class, 1837; 2d class, 1840; 
1st class, 1843. Works : View of Palermo, 
Partanico, Genoa (1831) ; Seat of Govern- 
ment in Algiers (1833) ; St. Malo, Moun- 
tain Road in Burgundy, View of Auxerre 
(1834) ; View of Naples (1835), Chalon-sur- 
Saone Museum ; Nantes, Babazoun in Al- 
giers, Powder Magazine at St. Malo (1835) ; 



RAHL 




/ 






Palermo, Montereau, Dieppe, Havre (1836); 
Chulon-sur-Saone, Harbour of St. Malo 
(1837); Farm-Yard in Burgundy (1838); 
Grand Canal and S. M. della Salute in Ven- 
ice (1840); Thun (1841); Entry of Emperor 
Henry IV. into Venice (1843), Grenoble 
Museum ; Square and Fountain of Tophane 
in Constantinople (1846) ; Mosque at Scu- 
tari ; Wall paintings in Notre Dame at 
Chardonnay. — Bellier, ii. 336 ; Larousse. 

EAHL, KAKL, born in Vienna, Aug. 13, 
1812, died there, July 
9, 1865. History and 
portrait painter, son of 
the engraver Karl 
Heinrich Rahl, pupil 
of Vienna Academy; 
won the first prize in 
1832, visited German}', 
Hungary, and France, 
then studied in Rome 
(1836-43) after the antique ; returned to 
Vienna, and in 184.5 went to Holstein, and 
in 1847 to Copenhagen, where he painted 
several members of the Danish court. After 
living a few years in Munich, he was called 
in 1850 to Vienna as temporary pi^ofessor at 
the Academy, but resigned after one term 
and opened a school of painting, where he 
instructed eighty pupils, among whom were 
Bitterlich, Eisenmenger, Griepenkerl, Lotz, 
and Than. For years disregarded and slight- 
ed — his grand compositions for the decora- 
tion of the Vienna Ai'senal having also been 
refused — he at last obtained deserved prom- 
inence through the patronage of Baron Sina, 
executed a number of monumental exterior 
and interior decorations in palaces and 
public buildings of Vienna, and in 1863 
was nominated professor at the Academy. 
Works, Altarpieces : Madonna (1829); Bap- 
tism of Christ (1830) ; Marriage of the Vir- 
gin, St. Joseph of Calasanz (1841), Pia- 
ristenkirche, Vienna ; Assumption (1848) ; 
Trinity, St. Catharine, St. Simon, St. Georg, 
Madonna, Greek Church, Vienna. Mythol- 
ogy and Allegory : Prometheus rejecting 
Pandora (1834), Development of the Sci- 



ences in Greece (1860), Jason taking the 
Golden Fleece, Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1861), 
Rape of Helen (1863), Baron Sina, Vienna ; 
Arion singing to the Nereids (1848); Orestes 
pursued by the Furies (1852) ; Hercules 
serving Omphale (1860) ; Fom- Elements 
(1861) ; Four Cardinal Virtues of Austria's 
Regents, Vienna Academy ; Boreas eloping 
with Eireithyia, Munich Art Union ; Arts 
of Peace (12, 1861), Heinrichshof, Vienna. 
History : David hiding in Cave of Adullam 
(1832); Confederation on the Riitli in 1307 ; 
Hagen declared Siegfried's Murderer (1835), 
Charles of Anjou finding Manfred's Body 
(1838), Vienna Museum ; Hagen and Volker 
before Ckriemhilde's Door (1836); Persecu- 
tion of Christians in Rome (1844), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; replica (1847), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Bishop Kolonitsch bring- 
ing Christian Prisoners from Turkish Camp 
(1853) ; Samson and Delilah (1854) ; Man- 
fred's Entry into Luceria in 1254 ; Moses 
protecting Reuel's Daughters ; Leopold the 
Virtuous on the Walls of Ptolemais. Genre 
and Landscape : Woman saving her Child 
from Lion (1834) ; Rugantino, Old Catalo- 
nian, Old Roman (1838); Woman from Pro- 
cida (1839) ; View near Terracina (1840) ; 
Neapolitan Marinaro singing to his Sweet- 
heart (1841) ; Fortune-Teller (1841), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Rural Scene near 
Rome, Girl at the Well (1842); Lute-Player 
(1850) ; Italian Woman with Tambourine 
(1853) ; do. at the Well (1856). Portraits : 
The Painters Wachter (1834), Riepenhau- 
sen (1846), Cornelius, Genelli, Heini'ichi 
Hess, Kaulbach (1848), Aigner (1851), Ko- 
vacs, Ricard (1854), Willers (1857), the 
sculptors Brandenburger (1836), Martin 
Wagner (1838), Hiihuel (1850), and Pilz, 
the architects Ernst and Hansen (1854), 
the poets Robert Prutz (1848), Ludwig A. 
Frankl (1855), the philosopher Ludwig Feu- 
erbach (1848), all at the Deutches Hoch- 
stift, Frankfort ; Martin Wagner, New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; Ernst Willers, Old Man, 
Two Female Heads, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
the poets Kerner (1833), Schwab, Lenau, 



KAIBOLINI 



Hebbel (1855) ; Fraoz Liszt (1858) ; King 
Christian of Denmark ; King Otto and 
Queen Amalie of Greece. Frescos : History 
of War and Strategy, Fame and Honour, 
Courage and Wisdom, Unity and Power, 
Ai-senal, Vienna ; Myth of Paris (9, 1862), 
Baron Todesco, ib.; The Maiden from Afar 
(1864), Villa Wisgrill, Gmunden.— Hottner, 
Carl Kahl (Vienna, 1863); Dioskuren (1863), 
Nos. 14-18, 30-35 ; D. Kunst-Zeitg. (1863), 
viii. Nos. 14-17, 33-35; Forster, v. 508; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1855), ii. No. 631 ; (1865), 
ii. 355 ; (1872), i. 139 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
175 ; Kulnische Zeitg. (1865), No. 203 ; 




Rainbow, Rubens, Louvre. 

Kunst-Chronik, i. 43, 102; ii. 55; N. fi-. 
Presse (1865), Nos. 329, 338; Eeber, ii. 
207; Recensioneu (1863), 3; Riegel, D. 
Kunststud., 303 ; Schack, Meine Gemalde- 
sammlung (1884), 176 ; Land und Meer 
(1865), xiv. 692 ; Unsere Zeit (1866), ii. 401 ; 
Wurzbach, xxiv. 230 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., i. 
109 ; iii. 34 ; iv. 90, 244 ; ix. (Mittheilung- 
en, ii. 27) ; xii. 25, 90, 122, 217 ; xiii. 115, 
188, 221, 250, 316, 355. 

RAIBOLINL See Franda. 

RAH. WAY STATION, William P. Frith, 



Mr. Flatou for 8,000 guineas. — Art Journal 
(1862), 95, 122. 

RAINBOW, Ruben.% Louvre ; wood, H. 4 
ft. X 5 ft. 8 in. A valley with a river crossed 
by two bridges, with buildings on the banks 
and mountains in background, spanned by 
a rainbow ; in foreground, shepherds, sheep, 
and a dog, and a couple reclining. Collec- 
tion of Louis XIV. Engraved by Bolswert ; 
Garreau in Musee fran5ais. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole flamande ; Cat. Louvre ; Smith, ii. 
119 ; Reveil, ix. 586. 

RAID'S PROGRESS, Hogarth, Soane 
Museum, London ; eight pictures, canvas, 

H. 2 ft. 1 in. X 2 ft. 6 in. 

They represent the career 
of an extravagant and dis- 
sipated young man, begun 
in falsehood and profligacy, 
ending in poverty, despair, 
and madness. 1. The Rake 
comes to his Fortune ; 2. 
The Rake as a Fine Gen- 
tleman ; 3. The Rake in a 
Bagnio ; 4. The Rake Ar- 
rested ; 5. The Rake's Mar- 
riage ; 6. The Rake at the 
Gaming-Table; 7. The Rake 
in Prison ; 8. The Rake in 
Bedlam. Painted in 1735. 
Sold in 1745 for 176 guin- 
eas ; bought by Sir John 
Soane for £598. — Jameson, Hand-Book to 
Public Gal., ii. 565. 

RALLI, THEODORE JACQUES, born in 
Constantinople, of Greek parents ; contem- 
porary. Genre painter, pupil of Gurome, 
and of Lecomte du Nouy ; mention hon- 
ourable, 1885. Studio in Paris. Works : 
Watch by the Body of Ahmed-el-Kalib 
Pasha (1884) ; Christian Vestal (1885) ; 
Refectory of Greek Convent (1886). 

RAI^IBERG, ARTHUR GEORG VON, 
Baron, born in Vienna, Sept. 4, 1819, died 
in Munich, Feb. 5, 1875. History and genre 



HoUoway Institute, Egham, near London ; 
canvas. Station of Great Western Railway ! painter and illustrator, pupil of Prague and 
at Paddington, at time of departure of a i Dresden Academies and of Julius Hiibner ; 
train. Painted in 1862 ; commissioned by | went in 1850 to Munich, in 1860 became 



RAMELAAR 




professor at the "Weimar Art School, and in 
1866 at the Munich Academy. His illus- 
trations to Goethe's 
Hermann and Doro- 
thea made him espe- 
cially populai'. Mem- 
ber of Vienna and 
Berlin Academies; 
Order of Michael. 
Works: Henry the 
Fowler fighting the 
Huns ; Dachau er Wom- 
en on Sunday (1855) ; Walk with the Tutor, 
After the Masked Ball (1858) ; Hide and 
Seek ; Court of Frederick H. at Palermo 
(1867), Maximilianeum, Munich ; After Din- 
ner, Morning Devotion in the Mountains 
(1855), New Pinakothek, ib.; Meeting on 
the Lake ; At the Embroidery-Frame ; In- 
vitation to Boating ; Reading ; Illustrations 
to Schiller's Poems, Goethe's Hermann and 
Dorothea, Voss's Luise ; Frescos in Luther- 
Ropm at the Wartburg ; Fairy Tale of the 
Frog King, Weimar Museum ; Girl with 
Goat on the Alp, Wiesbaden Gallery. — 
Deutsche Warte, ix. 4-17 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1875), i. 153; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 315; 
X. 425 ; Reber, iii. 241 ; Land und Meer 
(1875), i. 474, 510 ; (1877), i. 242 ; (1887), 
i. 31 ; Unsere Zeit (1875), ii. ; Wurzbach, 
xxiv. 305 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 64 ; v. 24 ; 
X. (Mittheilungen, iii. 41). 

RAMELA.VR. See Coninck, David de. 

RAMENGHI. See Bagnacamllo. 

RAMSAY, ALLAN, born in Edinburgh 
in 1713, died at Dover, Aug. 10, 1784. Son 
of the author of "The Gentle Shepherd." 
Went to London about 1733, and after stud- 
ying in St. Martin's Lane Academy re- 
turned to Edinburgh, whence he set out for 
Italy in 1736. Studied poi'traiture in Rome, 
and on his return to London attained dis- 
tinction ; was vice-president of the Society 
of Artists in 1766, and in 1767 was appoint- 
ed principal painter to George HI., whose 
portrait he painted so many times that he 
was obliged to employ assistants. He died 
on his rettu'n from a fourth visit to Italy. 



Walpole praises his portraits of women, pre- 
ferring some of them to those of Reynolds. 
Works : George HI., Queen Charlotte, Lord 
Chesterfield, Dr. Mead, National Portrait 
Gallery; David Hume, Ai-tist's Wife, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh.— Dutton Cooke, 
123 ; Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 86 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole anglaise. 

RAMSAY, ]\IILNE, born in Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; contemporary. Genre painter, pupil of 
Bonnat in Paris, where he has long resided. 
Exhibits in Paris Salon and National Acad- 
emy, New York. Works : Still-Life, Monk, 
Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia ; Home 
of a Naturahst (1876) ; Moral Lesson ; 
Douce Bc'atitude ; Cromwell and his Daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, Bird Fanciers (1878) ; Nature 
Morte, Visit to the Cellar (1881). 

RANC, JEAN, born at Montpellier about 
1674, died at Madrid, July 1 (?), 1735. 
French school ; history and portrait painter, 
son of and first instructed by Antoine Ranc, 
a skilful portrait painter (still living in 
1715), then pupil of Hyacinthe Rigaud ; was 
invited to the court of Sj^ain in 1724, and 
became first painter to the king, who sent 
him to Portugal to paint the royal family. 
Works : Portrait of Louis XIV., Male Por- 
trait, Montpellier Museum ; Portraits of 
Philip V. (4), Queen Isabel Farnese (3), 
and five others, Madrid Museum ; others in 
Brunswick Museum. — Bellier, ii. 341 ; Jal, 
1041. 

RANFTL, JOHANN MATHIAS, born in 
Vienna, Feb. 21, 1805, died there, Nov. 1, 
1854. Genre and animal painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy and of Peter Krafft ; paint- 
ed portraits in Moscow and St. Petersburg 
in 1826-27, and visited London in 1838. 
Works : Scene from Inundation of Pesth 
(1839), Museum, Vienna ; Dog Family, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Mid-day Rest of 
Mowers; Return of Apprentice (1846); Con- 
gratulation ; Children gathering Wood 
(1850) ; Hunting Booty. — D. Kimstbl. 
(1854), 400 ; Wurzbach, xxiv. 328. 

RANIvLEY, ALFRED, born in England 
in 1819, died in London, Dec. 7, 1872. 



KANSONNET-YILLEZ 



Genre painter, pupil of the Royal Academy, 
where he first exhibited, in 1841, Scene 
from Macbeth. His pictures are generally 
domestic subjects, carefully painted. Works: 
The Lonely Hearth (1857) ; Eeturn of the 
Prodigal (1858) ; The Day is Done (18G0) ; 
The Doctor's Coming (1864); Follow My 
Leader (1867); Following the Trail, Hearth 
of his Home (1870) ; The Benediction 
(1871); Milton's First Meeting with Mary 
Powell ; George Stephenson at Darlington. 

RANSONNET-VILLEZ, EUGEN, Baron, 
born at Hietzing, near Vienna, June 7, 1838. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy ; visited Constantinople, Greece, and 
Asia Minor in 1860, Palestine, Egypt, Ara- 
bia in 1862, Ceylon and Hindostan in 1864 
-65, India, Siam, China, Japan, and a part 
of America in 1868. Lives at Vienna and 
at Nussdorf on the Atter Lake, Upper Aus- 
tria. Works : Morning on Banks of the 
Ganges ; Sail of Austrian Embassy to Bang- 
kok (1870) ; Hindu Women in Bombay ; 
First Knitting, Moutuin Forest in India 
(Jubilee Exhibition, Berhn, 1886).— Wurz- 
bach, xxiv. 349. 

RANVIER, VICTOR JOSEPH, born at 
Lyons ; contemporary. Genre and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Janmotand Richard. 
Medals : 1865 ; 2d class, 1873 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1878. Woi-ks : Racing for the Wreath 
(1864), Infancy of Bacchus (1865), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Echo, Exiled Virtues 
(1873) ; Release of Prometheus (1884), Ly- 
ons Museum ; Morning (1876) ; Little Tur- 
tle (1879) ; Bacchus and Ariadne (1880) ; 
Child with a Swan (1882).— Claretie, Pein- 
tres, vii. 332, 387. 

RANZONI, GUSTAV, born at Unternalb, 
Lower Austria, May 10, 1826. Landscape 
and animal painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy. Works : View on Karst Mountain (5, 
1858, 1866, 1867) ; View on Traun Lake 

(1864) ; Ruin of Neukosel on the Karst 

(1865) ; Sunset in Autumn (1867) ; Sheep 
on the Puszta, Sunset near Klosterneuburg 
(1869) ; Before the Storm (1870, 1871), Vi- 
enna Academy ; Cows Drinking (1870); Vil- 




lage Pond (1871); Oxen Ploughing ; Cattle 
Herd Resting. — Wurzbach, xxiv. 353. 
RAOUX, JEAN, born at Montpellier, Jime 
12, 1677, died in 
Paris, Feb. 10, 
1734. French 
school ; genre 
painter, pupil of 
Ranc at Mont- 
pellier and of 
Bon Boulogne" in 
Paris ; won the 
grand p r i x de 
Rome in 1704. 
Member Academy in 1717, in which year he 
refused the position of painter to the King 
of Spain, on account of iU health. Made a 
short visit to England in 1720. Works : 
Telemachus and Calypso, Louvre ; Dame 
Boucher as a Vestal (1728), Bordeaux Mu- 
seum ; do. (1734), Versailles Museum ; La- 
dy Musician, Douai Museum ; Young Girl 
surprised by her Grandmother, Marseilles 
Museum ; Vestal bearing the Sacred Fire, 
Montpellier Museum ; Rinaldo and Armida 
with Nymphs and Cupids, Nantes Museum ; 
Madame du Noyer, Orleans Museum ; Ceph- 
alus and Procris, Berlin Museum ; Judith 
with Head of Holofernes, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Flora, Historical Society, New York ; 
Pygmalion in Love with his Statue ; Con- 
tinence of Scipio ; 
Alexander Sick. — 
Bellier, ii. 342 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
fran^aise ; Wurz- 
bach, Fr. Mai. des 
xviii. Jahrh., 16 ; 
Villot, Cat. Louvre; Lejeune, Guide, i. 208. 
RAPHAEL or RAFFAELLO, born at 
Urbino, April 6, 1483, died in Rome, April 
6, 1520. Umbrian and Roman school ; fam- 
ily name Sante, Santi, Sanctius, or Sanzio ; 
son and pupil of Giovanni Santi, after whose 
death (1492) he was probably taught by Ti- 
moteo Vite or Luca Siguorelli, until his un- 
cle, Simon Ciarla, took him to Perugia, at 
some time between June, 1499, and May, 






RAPHAEL 




1500, and apprenticed him to Perugino, by 
whom he was employed with other assist- 
ants in painting the 
frescos of the Sala dfel 
Cambio, then in prog- 
ress. The master re- 
turned to Florence 
(1502), and Raphael 
followed him two years 
later, after having 
painted a Crucifixion 
(1500), Earl Dudley, 
London ; a Coi'onation 
of the Virgin (1503), Vatican Gallery, Rome ; 
and assisted Pinturicchio at Siena in deco- 
rating the so-called Library of the Cathedral 
with frescos. After remaining at Florence 
for perhaps a year, during which he painted 
the Marriage of the Virgin, Brera, Milan, 
for S. Francesco, Citta di Castello, Raphael 
returned to Perugia (1505) to commence a 
fresco of the Trinity, at S. Severo, which 
was finished by Perugino (1521). In 1505 
he was commissioned to paint a Coronation 
of the Virgin, for the Convent of Monteluce, 
at Perugia. He commenced it many years 
later at Rome, and it was finished five years 
after his death, by Giulio Romano and II 
Fattore. Returning to Florence in 1506, 
at the time when Leonardo da Vinci and 
Michelangelo were engaged upon their cel- 
ebrated cartoons for the great Hall of the 
Palazzo Vecchio, Raphael studied both, but 
especially those of Leonardo, who, together 
with Fra Bartolommeo, exercised great in- 
fluence over him during his two years' resi- 
dence in that city, which, with the exception 
of a short visit to Urbino and Bologna, 
lasted until the summer of 1508. In the 
pictures painted by Raphael at Florence, a 
growing individuality is distinctly visible. 
Umbrian in spirit, they show a tenderness 
of feeling, an element of ideality, a love of 
nature, unknown to the art of Perugino. 
Called to Rome in 1508 by Pope Julius H., 
whose favour he secured through the good 
offices of his compatriot and relative, the 
architect Bramante, Raphael began his great 



series of frescos in the Stanze of the Vatican 
by painting the Dispute of the Sacrament 
(1508-11), — the last work in his second or 
Florentine style. He had, however, already 
given token, in the Entombment (1507), 
Borghese Gallery, Rome, of the dramatic 
and constructive elements of his genius, 
which were to find opportunity for a full 
display in those master works of his third 
or Roman manner, — the Heliodorus (1512) 
and the School of Athens (1511). During 
the twelve years of his life at Rome, in the 
service of Julius H. and Leo X, Raphael ac- 
complished a prodigious amount of work as 
painter, architect, sculptor, and ai-chseologist. 
His wonderful genius, his personal chann, 
his engaging manner, and his obliging dis- 
position, won him troops of admirers, friends, 
and scholars, whose flattering praises served 
but to stimulate him to renewed effort. 
Eager only to perfect his work, and inca- 
pable of jealousy, he studied the grandiose 
style of Michelangelo and the rich colour of 
Sebastiano del Piombo that he might im- 
prove his own style and coloui-, and to the 
day of his death achieved ever-increasing 
excellence. Leo X made him inspector of 
all marbles dug up at Rome, commissioned 
him to make plans and elevations of her 
ancient edifices, and on the 1st of August, 
1514, appointed him to succeed Bramante 
as head architect at St. Peter's. Some idea 
of his work under both Popes can be formed 
from the following general sketch : Between 
his arrival in Rome in 1508 and the death 
of Julius H. in 1513, he painted in the Vat- 
ican the frescos of the Camei'a della Se- 
gnatura, the Heliodorus, and a part of the 
Miracle of Bolsena in the Stanza d'Eliodoro, 
the Isaiah (1512), S. Agostino, the Madonna 
di Foligno (1511), with other pictures and 
portraits, such as those of Julias H., Palazzo 
Pitti, the Fomarina (1509), Palazzo Barbe- 
rini, etc. Under Leo X. Raphael painted in 
the Vatican the Atlila, the Liberation of St. 
Peter, with the ceiling decorations in the 
same chamber ; and among easel pictures pro- 
duced the Madonna del Pesce (1514), Madrid 



RAPHAEL 



Gallery, the Madonna clella Seclia (1516-17), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence, with many other 
pictures mentioned in the accompanying 
list of his works ; designed the Cartoons 
(1515-16), S. Kensington Museum, London ; 
painted a great number of portraits, deco- 
rated the Loggie of the Vatican with 48 
frescos (1516-19), grotesques, and ara- 
besques, carried out by his pupils ; executed 
for Agostino Chigi the frescos of Galatea 
(1514), and History of Psyche, at the Farne- 
sina (1517), with the assistance of Giulio 
Romano and II Fattore ; designed the mo- 
saics and the statue of Jonah for the Chigi 
Chapel at S. M. del Popolo, the frescos of 
the History of Venus and Cupid (1519), and 
painted the Holy Family of Francis I. (1518), 
Louvre, Paris, the ]\Iadonna di San Sisto 
(1519), Dresden Gallery, and last of all the 
Transfiguration (1519-20), Vatican Gallery, 
upon which he was at work at the time of 
his death. If in the work of Raphael's Ro- 
man pei'iod, here enumerated but in part, 
that indescribable, spring-like freshness is 
wanting which marks those of his Florentine 
period, its absence is compensated by an 
unrivalled skill in composition, an added 
power of expression, an increased grandeur 
of style, an improvement in the use of 
colour, a mastery of portraiture, and a per- 
ception of ideal beauty which culminates in 
the Madonna di San Sisto. Nor must we, 
in speaking of tliis great painter's life-work, 
forget to mention the immense number of 
exquisite studies and designs in pen and ink, 
silverpoint, pencil, and chalk, which consti- 
tute by no means the least precious part of 
the world's inheritance from the Prince of 
Painters. Works in fresco : The Trinity 
(1505), S. Severo, Perugia ; Dispute of Sac- 
rament, School of Athens, Parnassus, Pru- 
dence, Fortitude and Temperance, Justinian,^ 
Gregory IX., Adam and Eve, AjioHo and 
Marsyas, Judgment of Solomon, Astronomy, 
Theology, Philosophy, Poetry, and Jurispru- 
dence (1508-11), Justice, Camera della Se- 
gnatura, Vatican ; God appearing to Noah, 
Jacob's Dream, Heliodorus, Mass of Bolsena, 



Attila, Deliverance of St. Peter, Noah, Abra- 
ham, Joseph, Moses and Burning Bush 
(1511-14), Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican ; In- 
cendio del Borgo (1514), Oath of Leo HI., 
Stanza dell' Incendio del Borgo, Vatican; 
History of Old and New Testament, com- 
monly called Raphael's Bible (1516-19), 
Loggie, Vatican ; Isaiah (1512), S. Agostino ; 
Pi'ophets and Sibyls (1513), S. M. della Pace ; 
Triumph of Galatea (1514), History of 
Psyche (1517), Palazzo Farnesina, Rome. 

Works in oil: Resurrection (1495-1500), 
Vatican, Rome ; Alfani Madonna (1500), 
Casa Fabrizi, Terni ; Solly Madonna (about 
1500), Berlin Museum ; Crucifixion (about 
1500), Earl Dudley, London; Madonna 
(1502?), Berhn Museum; Connestabile Ma- 
donna (1502-3), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Coronation of Virgin (1503), Vatican ; Mar- 
riage of the Virgin (1504), Brera, IVIilan ; 
Christ in the Garden (about 1504), Stan- 
stead House, Sussex; St. George and the 
Dragon (1504), St. 3Iichael (1504-5), St. 
John in Wilderness, Apollo and Marsyas 
(1504-5), Louvre ; Madonna del Gran' Duca 
(1504-5), Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Knight's 
Vision (1504-5), National Gallery, London ; 
Three Graces (1504-5), Due d'Aumale, Chan- 
tilly ; Madonna of St. Anthony of Padua 
(1504-5), ex-King Francis H. of Naples ; 
Cowper Madonna (1505), Panshanger House, 
England ; Madonna di Terranuova (1505), 
Diotalevi Madonna (?), Berlin Museum ; Holy 
Family of the Palm (1506), Bridgewater 
House, London ; Madonna di Casa Tempi 
(1506), Canigiani Holy Family (1506), Mu- 
nich Gallery ; Orleans 3Iadonna (1506 ?), 
Chateau de Chantilly, France ; Madonna in 
the Meadow (1506), Vienna Museum ; Ma- 
donna del Cardellino (1506), St. John in 
Wilderness, Uffizi, Florence ; Madonna di 
Ansidei (1507), National Gallery, London ; 
Portraits of Agnolo and Maddalena Doni 
(1506), Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; St. George 
and the Dragon (1506), Holy Family with 
Beardless Joseph (1506), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Portrait of Raphael (1506-7), 
Portrait of Young Woman, Uffizi, Florence ; 



RAPHAEL 



Holy Family del Cordero (1507), Madrid 
Museum; Entombment (1507), Palazzo Bor- 
gliese, Rome ; St. Catharine (1507), National 
Gallery, London ; Belle Jardiniere Madonna 
(1507-8), Louvre, Pan's ; Niccolini Madonna 
(1508), Panshanger House, England ; Co- 
lonna 3Iadonna (about 1508), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Eszterbazy Madonna (about 1508), 
Buda-Pestb Galleiy ; Madonna della Casa 
d'Alba (1508-9), Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Madonna del Baldacchino (1508), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Madonna witb Dia- 
dem (1508-13), Louvre; Fornarina (about 
1509), Palazzo Barberini, Rome ; Aldobran- 
dini Madonna (1510-11), National Gallery, 
London ; Rogers Madonna (1511), Mrs. R. 
J. Mackintosh, London ; Madonna di Foli- 
gno (1511), Vatican, Rome ; Bridgewater 
Madonna (1511-12), Bridgewater House, 
London ; Portrait of Julius H. (1511-12), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Portrait of Bindo 
AUoviti (1512-13), Riccio Portrait, Munich 
Gallery ; Portrait of Cardinal Bibbiena 
(1513), Madrid Museum ; Portrait of Tom- 
maso Inghirami (about 1513), Madonna dell' 
Impannata (about 1514), Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; Madonna del Pesce (1514) Madrid 
Museum ; Portrait of Young Man (1515-20), 
Louvre ; Raphael's Cartoons (1515-16), S. 
Kensington Museum, London ; Madonna 
della Tenda (151G), Munich Gallery; Por- 
trait of Baldassare Castiglione (about 1516), 
Louvre ; Madonna della Sedia (1516-17), 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Madonna del Can- 
delabri (1516-17), Butler-Johnstone Col- 
lection, London ; St. Cecilia (1516-17), 
Bologna Gallery ; Spasimo di Sicilia (1516- 
18), Madrid Museum ; Holy Family La Per- 
la (about 1517), Holy Family del Lagarto 
(about 1517), Madonna della Rosa (1517), 
Visitation (about 1517), Madrid Museum ; 
Vision of Ezekiel (about 1517), Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence; Holy Family, (1517-18), Holy 
Family of Francis I. (1518), St. Margaret 
(1518), St. Michael (1518), Louvre ; Portrait 
of Leo X. (1517-19), Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
Madonna di S. Sisto (1518), Dresden Gallery ; 
Portrait of Joanna of Aragon (about 1518), 



Luca, Rome. — ^^ 



'^ZYcJLCtmMo 



Raphael and his Fencing Master, Louvre; 
Violinist (1518), Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna, 
Rome ; Transfiguration (1519-20), Vatican. 

Other works attributed to Raphael : Ad- 
oration of the Magi (1503 ?), Berlin Muse- 
um ; Madonna with the Pink (about 1507 ?), 
Count Spada, Lucca ; Madonna (La Vierge 
au Sein, 1510), Professor Nicoln, Lausanne ; 
Holy Family of Loreto (1512-13), lost ; Ma- 
donna del Pozzo (?), Uffizi, Florence ; Donna 
Gravida, Donna Velata, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; 
Holy Family del Divino Amore (about 1513), 
Naples Museum ; St. Margaret, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Madonna di S. Luca, Accademia di 
S. Luca, Rome. — 
Ml 

(Pans, aooj.;, I 

Furster, Raphael ; U f Jf 

Springer, Raflfael rCCpnOMtO 

und Michelangelo J^r,^^^ fi LJci 
(Leipsic, 1878); / /^ J ^ 

Gruyer, Les Fres- 
ques de Raphael : 
Raphael et TAnti- / 

quite (Paris, 1864) ; ^ 

Vierges de Raphael (Paris, 1869) ; Raphael 
Peintre de Portraits (Paris, 1881) ; C. & C, 
Raphael (Loudon, 1882) ; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., ii. 211 ; do., Rafaels Leben (Dres- 
den, 1882) ; Grimm, Das Leben Raffaels 
(Berlin, 1886) ; Minghetti, Raffiielo (Bologna, 
1885); Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 311; Gutbier, 
Rafael-Werk ; J. Dennistoun, Memoirs of 
Dukes of Urbino (London, 1861) ; Burck- 
hardt, 648 ; Ch. Ck'ment, Michel Ange, L. 
da Vinci, Raphael (Paris, 1861), 240 ; Passa- 
vant, Raphael d'Urbin et son pere Gio. 
Santi (French tr., Paris, 1860); Planche, 
Portraits ^Artistes (Paris, 1853), i. 25; 
Quatremere de Quiney, Histoire de la vie de 
Raphael (Paris, 1835)'; C. C. Perkins, Raph- 
ael and Michelangelo (Boston, 1878) ; East- 
lake, Five Great Painters (London, 1883) ; 
Bigot, Raphael et La Farm'sine (Paris, 
1884) ; Lermolieff, 95, 309, 330, 339, 348, 
359, 471 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859-69) ; 
(1870), iii. 79; (1872), vi. 353; (1873), vii. 
336, 417 ; viii. 82 ; (1875), xii. 114 ; (1877), 



KAPHAEL 



XV. 238; (1878), xvii. 44; (1879), xx. 173; 
(1880), xxii. 307, 379, 453, 465, 531 ; (1881), 
xxiii. 140 ; (1882), xxv. 281, 385 ; xxvi. 465 ; 
(1883), xxvii. 158 ; xxviii. 474 ; Graph. K., v. 
53 ; Kmist-Chronik, xiii. 622 ; xv. 6 ; x. 337 ; 
XV. 6 ; xviii. 425, 457, 576, 579 ; xix. 429, 
712 ; XX. 39 ; xxi. 141 ; Mag. of Art (1886), 
ix. 371 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iii. 273, 298 ; iv. 
153, 187 ; viii. 65 ; ix. 381 ; xvi. 253 ; xix. 
W, 92 ; xxi. 43, 263. 

RAPHAEL, portrait, Raphael, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 18 in. x 12^ in. The pict- 
ure so often engraved — bust of a young man 
about twenty-three years old, in black doub- 
let and cap, from which luxuriant chestnut 
hair falls in curls upon his bare neck. 
Painted in Florence in 1506-07. In Urbino 
until 1588, when it was transferred by Fe- 
•derico Zucchero to the Academy of St. Luke, 
Eome ; afterward sold to Cardinal Leopoldo 
de' Medici. Suffered from abrasion and re- 
painting. Old copies in Palazzo Borghese, 
Home, and Palazzo Albani, Urbino. En- 
graved by F. Muller ; F. Forster.— C. & C, 
Raphael, i. 281 ; Passavant, ii. 49 ; Miintz, 
217. 

RAPHAEL'S BIBLE, a series of fifty- 
two frescos in the Loggie of the Vatican, 
Rome. The Loggia which leads to the 
apartments of the Pope consists of thirteen 
arcades arched in cupolas. Each of the 
arcades contains four pictures ; forty-eight 
subjects are from the Old Testament, and 
four from the life of Christ. The sketches 
were made by Raphael, the cartoons were 
prepared by Giulio Romano, and the paint- 
ing was done by Giulio Romano, II Fattore, 
Perino del Vaga, Pellegrino da Modena, 
Vinceuzio da San Gimignano, Polidoro da 
<3aravaggio, and others. Painted about 
1516-19. 

1st Arcade. Creation of the World. 
Four compositions : 1. God brings Light 
from Chaos ; 2. God creates the Earth ; 3. 
God creates the Firmament ; 4. God creates 
Animals. 

2d Arcade. Adam and Eve. Four com- 
positions : 1. God presents Eve to Adam ; 



2. Adam and Eve disobey God ; 3. Adam 
and Eve driven from Paradise ; 4. Adam 
and Eve out of Paradise. 

3d Ai'cade. History of Noah. Four com- 
positions : 1. Noah building Ark ; 2. Del- 
uge ; 3. Noah leaving Ark ; 4. Sacrifice of 
Noah. 

4tli Arcade. History of Abraham. Four 
compositions: 1. Abraham and Melchisedec ; 
2. God reveals himself to Abraham ; 3. Abra- 
ham visited by the Angels ; 4. Lot and his 
Family flee from Sodom. 

5th Arcade. History of Isaac. Four 
compositions : 1. God appears to Isaac ; % 
Isaac and Rebecca with Abimelech ; 3. Ja- 
cob receives the Blessing of Isaac ; 4. Esau 
demands his Father's Blessing. 

6th Arcade. History of Jacob. Four 
compositions : 1. Dream of Jacob ; 2. Ja- 
cob at the Fountain ; 3. Jacob reproaching 
Laban ; 4. Jacob returning to Canaan. 
Painted by Pellegrino da Modena after de- 
signs of Raphael. 

7th Arcade. History of Joseph. Four 
compositions : 1. Dreams of Joseph ; 2. Jo- 
seph sold by his Brethren ; 3. Joseph and 
Potiphar's Wife ; 4. Joseph explains Dreams 
of Pharaoh. 

8th and 9th Ai-cades. History of Moses. 
Eight compositions : 1. Moses saved from 
the Waters ; 2. Burning Bush ; 3. Passage 
of the Red Sea ; 4. Moses sti-ikes the Rock ; 
5. God gives Moses the First Tables of the 
Law ; 6. Worship of the Golden Calf ; 7. 
The Column of Cloud ; 8. Moses presents 
to Israelites the New Tables of the Law. 

10th Arcade. History of Joshua. Four 
compositions : 1. Passage of the Jordan ; 2. 
Taking of Jericho ; 3. Joshua causing the 
Sun to stand still ; 4. Division of Land of 
Canaan. 

11th Arcade. History of David. Four 
compositions : 1. Oath of David ; 2. David 
kills Goliath ; 3. Triumph of David ; 4. 
David and Bathsheba. 

12th Arcade. History of Solomon. Four 
compositions : 1. Oath of Solomon ; 2. 
Judgment of Solomon ; 3. Building of 



10 



KAPHAEL 



the Temple ; 4 Solomon and the Queen of 
Sheba. 

13th Arcade. History of Jesus Christ. 
Four compositions : 1. Nativity ; 2. Ado- 
ration of Magi ; 3. Baptism of Christ ; 4. 
Laal Supper. 

Engraved in whole or in part by S. Ba- 
dalocchio ; O. Borgiani ; F. Villamena ; 
Nic. Chaperon ; A. Aveline ; Montagnani ; 
Volpato ; Ottaviaui ; in chiaroscuro by Nic- 
cola Conzoni for Gruner. — Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 362 ; v, 524 ; Passavant, ii. 160 ; Miintz, 
429 ; Springer, 326 ; Perkins, 184 ; Gruyer, 
Loges de Raphael ; Vaticano descritto, viii. 
PI. 1-59 ; Liibke, 171 ; Gutbier, PI. 36-52. 

RAPHAEL'S CARTOONS, Raphael and 
his assistants, S. Kensington Museum, Lon- 
don. A series of designs, drawn with chalk 
on paper and coloured in distemper (1515- 
16), to be worked in tapestry for the deco- 
ration of the Sistine Chapel, Rome ; tapes- 
tries made at Arras, in Flanders, under 
direction of Bernhard van Orley and sent to 
Rome in 1518. The tapestries were carried 
off at the sack of Rome by the Constable de 
Bourbon in 1527 ; restored by Constable 
Anne de Montmorency to Julius HI. in 
1553 ; again carried off by the French in 
1798 and sold in Genoa to a Jew, who is 
said to have burned one to get the gold it 
contained, and sold the others in 1808 to 
Pius Vn. They are now in the Hall of the 
Arazzi in the Vatican ; much faded. The 
cartoons remained at Arras nearly a cen- 
tury, when Charles I. purchased them, by 
advice of Rubens, for use of his tapestiy 
weavers at Mortlake. Only seven of the 
original eleven remained, and these had 
been cut into strips about two feet wide. 
On the death of Charles L, Cromwell bought 
them for the nation for £300. They re- 
mained neglected in a lumber room at 
Whitehall until the reign of William IH., 
who had them repaired and hung in a gal- 
lery erected for them at Hampton Court by 
Sir Christopher Wren. They are now ex- 
hibited under glass at South Kensington Mu- 
seum. Cartoons : 1. Miraculous Draught of 



Fishes, H. 10 ft. 6 in. x 13 ft. 6 in.; 2. Paul 
preaching at Athens, H. 11 ft. 4 in. x 14 ft. 
7 in.; 3. Elymas the Sorcerer struck with 
Blindness, H. 11 ft. 4 in. x 14 ft. 7 in. ; 4. 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra, H. 11 ft. 4 in. 
X 18 ft. ; 5. HeaUng of the Lame Man, H. 
11 ft. 4 in. X 18 ft; 6. Death of Ananias, H. 
11 ft. 4 in. X 17 ft. 6 in,; 7. Christ's Charge 
to Peter, H. 11 ft. 4 in. x 17 ft. 6 in. The 
remaining three subjects in tapestry, of 
which the designs are lost, are : Stoning of 
St. Stephen, Conversion of St. Paul, and St. 
Paul in Prison at Philippi. The 11th, of 
which all trace is lost, was the Coronation 
of the Virgin, for the altarpiece. — Passavant, 
ii. 189, 225 ; Clement (Corkran), 278, 371 ; 
Blackburn, Pictures at S. Kensington, 7 ; 
Liibke, 188 ; Gutbier, PL 80-92. 

RAPHAEL AND HIS FENCING-IHAS- 
TER, attributed to Raphael, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft, 3 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. A powerful, 
bearded man, standing behind a parapet, 
with one hand on his sword-hilt, turns to 
a younger man behind him and points to 
some object without the picture. Younger 
man supposed to represent Raphael himself. 
Picture has been attributed both to Sebas- 
tian del Piombo and to Pontormo. From 
Collection of Francis I. Engraved by Ar- 
douin ; N. Larmessin. — Passavant, i. 354 ; 
Villot, Louvre ; Musee franyais, i. ; Cab. 
Crozat, i. PI. 9. 

RAPHAEL AND THE FORNARINA, 
Sir A. W. Galcott, Sir G. R. Philips, Bart. ; 
canvas. Figures life-size, full-length, seated. 
Exhibited in 1837. Engraved by Lumb 
Stocks. — Redgrave, Century, ii. 403 ; Art 
Journal (1856), ii. 

By J. A. D. Ingres, Baroness Nathaniel de 
Rothschild, Paris. Painted at Rome in 1813; 
replica (1840), M, Dauban, Paris. Engraved 
by Pradier ; hthographed by Christophe. 
Original sketch acquu'ed by Louvre in 1881. 
— Ch. Blanc, Life, 46. 

RAPHAEL OF MESSINA. See AlU 
brando, Girolamo. 

RAPHAEL D'UN MILLION. See Ma- 
donna of St. Anthony of Padua. 



u 



EAPHAEL 



KAPHAELS mSTKESS. See Forna- 
rina. 
PtAPHAEL DES POKCEAUX. See 

Jacque. 

RAPHAEL LEAVING TOBIAS, Bern- 
brand t, Louvre ; wood, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 
9 in. ; signed, dated 1637. Above, the an- 
gel Raphael in full flight heavenward, his 
back to the spectator ; below, at left, Sarah 
^^•ife of Tobias, and Anna her mother, stand- 
ing at the entrance to the house, with hands 
clasped in astonishment ; in front of them 
a dog, and at the foot of the steps, Tobias 
and his father Tobit, the latter prostrate. 











Engraved by Denon ; J. de Frey ; A. and E. 
Varin ; Malbete in Musee franyais. — Lan- 
don, MusL-e, vi. PI. 3. 

RAP HON (pronounced Rap-hon), JO- 
HAN, flourished at Elmbeck, lower Saxony, 
early part of 16th century, died in 1528. 
German school. The heads in his pictures 
are strong and individual, but wanting in 
feeling. Works : Two Altar Wings (1503), 
Collection Hausmann, Hanover ; Resurrec- 
tion, Brunswick Gallery ; Crucifixion (1508), 




Halberstadt Cathedral. — Kugler, Kl. Schr., 
i. 486 ; Nagler, xii. 294 ; W. & W., ii. 435. 
EAPIN, ALEXANDRE, born at Noroy- 
le-Bourg (Haute 
Saone) ; contempor- 
ary. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Gerome, 
Fran y ais, G 1 e y r e, 
and Lancrenon. 
Medals : 3d class, 
1875; 2d class, 1877; 
L. of Honour, 1884. 
Works : S a r r a z i n 
Brook at Nans-Lison (1867), Besanyon Mu- 
seum ; Shore of a Pond, Ravine of Puits- 
Noir (1874) ; The Val-Bois in November 
(1878) ; Morning in Val-Bois, The River 
Loue at Scey (1879) ; End of Autumn, Mill 
at Cressonieres (1880); W^inter in the Woods 
at Cernay, Morning at Froeschwiller (1881); 
The Black Pits, River in Franche-Comte 
(1882); A Shower, An Inlet (1883); Novem- 
ber (1884) ; Banks of the Doubs, Path 
(1885); Indian Summer, Evening (1886).— 
Bellier, ii. 343. 

RAPISARDI, MICHELE, born at Catan- 
ia, Sicily ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter of talent, whose works show care- 
ful study of the old masters. Professor. 
Works : Cola Rienzi among the Ruins of 
Rome (1867) ; Hamlet's Monologue ; The 
Troubadour ; Lady as Ophelia ; Gii'l of Ca- 
tania, Muaeo Civico, Turin. — Zeitsckr. f. b. 
K, iii. 124. 

RASCH, HEINRICH; contemporary. 
Genre and landscape painter. Works : Bal- 
tic Landscape with Figures, View on Eng- 
lish Coast, A Confession (1882), Boating 
Party, Gatherers on Coast of Lucca, Even- 
ing in Lagoons of Venice, Morning at Via- 
reggio (1883).— Allgem. K C, viii. 376 ; H- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 400 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvii. 294 ; xviii. 496 ; Land und Meer (1884), 
ii. 1044 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 135. 

RASMUSSEN, CARL, born at Aeroskjob- 
ing. Isle of Aero, August 31, 1841. Marine 
and figure painter, pupil of John Didrik 
Frisch (1835-67), then of the Copenhagen 



RATGEJtJ 




Academy, in 1862-6C, and of Aag^aard ; trav- 
elled in Denmark in 1865-67, visited Green- 
land in 1870, Italy in 
1872, England and Paris 
in 1878. "Works : View 
near Ska gen (1863) ; 
Coast Views (1864) ; 
Midnight on Coast of 
Greenland (1872), Co- 
penhagen Gallery; 
Dance of Greenlanders 
(1872); Father and Son, 
Winter in Greenland 

(1874) ; Grandfather with the Little Ones 

(1875) ; June Day in Godthaabs Fjord 
(1878) ; Vessels in Morning after Storm 
(1878), Winter Evening near Fjord in 
Greenland (1883), Copenhagen Gallery. — 
Sig. Mtiller, 285 ; Weilbach, 577. 

RATGEB, JERG, born at Schwabisch 
Gmund, Bavaria ; flourished early part of 
16th century. German school ; history- 
painter, one of the ablest masters of the 
Suabian school, whose works have generally 
been erroneously attributed to one Schwed. 
Works : Altarpiece (1519), Stiftskirche Her- 
renberg, Wiirtemberg ; Cycle in fresco from 
Creation of World to Last Judgment (1514), 
Carmelites, Frankfort ; Coloured Drawings 
of do., Stadel Gallery, ib. — Kunst-Chronik, 
xviii. 482 ; xix. 301. 

RATZER, HELLIMUTH, born at Neutar- 
now, Brandenburg, in 1838. Landscape 
painter, studied first in Berlin, then for 
twelve years in Diisseldorf under Oswald 
Achenbach, settled in Carlsruhe, whence he 
visited Germany, Switzerland, Tyrol, and 
Italy. Lives now in Diisseldorf. Works : 
Mountain Brook in the Ramsau ; View on 
the Dachstein ; The High Goll near Berch- 
tesgaden ; Pine Wood (1876); Views in the 
Hartz Mountains and on Isle of Riigen ; 
Evening on Isle of Riigen, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Coast View on Riigen (Jubilee Exhi- 
bition, Berlin, 1886).— Midler, 431. 

RAUBER, WILHELM (KARL), born at 
Marienwerder, West Prussia, July 11, 1849. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Konigs- 



berg Academy, then (1872) of Wilhelm Diez 
in Munich, where he settled. Medal, Mu- 
nich, 1883. Works : Hunting Privilege in 
Olden Times, Horse Bai'gain(1879); On By- 
Ways (1880) ; Travelhng in Good and Bad 
Weather (1880) ; Rest (1881) ; Excursion ; 
Scene before Tavern (1882) ; Sui-render of 
Warsaw in 1656 (1883); Festive Entry of 
the Bride, Falcon Chase in 18th Century 
(1884).— Allgem. K. C, viii. 586 ; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1880), i. 299 ; Kunst. Chronik, xix. 
645 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 745 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, xvii. 324 ; xix. 135. 

RAUPP, IvARL, born in Darmstadt, 
March 2, 1837. 
Genre and landscape 
paintei', j^upil in 
Frankfort of Stadel 
Institute under 
Jakob Becker, then 
of Munich Academy 
under Pdoty (1860- 
G6) ; became professor 
at the Industrial Art 
School at Nuremberg 
in 1868, but aftei-wards returned to Munich. 
Works : Two Mothers ; Return of Country 
Postwoman on Christmas Eve ; Mid-day Bell 
during Harvest (1866) ; Sunday Morning in 
Hesse ; Falling Leaves ; Rain in May ; Re- 
turn Home before Storm ; The Prussians are 
Coming ! General Military Duty ; At Home ; 
Secret Farewell ; Peasant Girl Resting un- 
der a Tree, Darmstadt Museum ; Thunder- 
storm ; On the Silent Waves ; Hour of Chat- 
ting; A Storm is Coming! (1882), Dresden 
Museum; Boating on Chiem Lake (1883); 
Merry Journey (1884) ; Ave Maria ; Safely 
Landed, (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 
—Illustr. Zeitg. (1883), i. 491 ; ii. 97 ; La 
Ilustracion (1883), ii. 275 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xviii. 308 ; N. illustr. Zeitg. (1885), i. 288 ; 
Land und Meer (1869), i. 11; (1880), i. 
169. 

RAVANA, DEATH OF, Fernand Gormon, 
bought by the State. The result of the 
struggle between the ten-headed and twenty- 
armed giant Ravana and Rama (Vishnu in- 




13 



RAYAUT 



camate), as related in the Rumayana. The 
pictiu'e represents the finding of the body 
on the field of battle by the favourite and 




B.>^^^>-<:-/fc- y^y^^/z/z^y/r^y/iif^i l ^ 



Reading the Will, Sir David Wilkie, New Munich Gallery, 

the other wives of the King of Lanka (Cey- 
lon). Salon, 1875 ; bought by IMinistry of 
Fine Arts. 

EAVAUT, EENE HENRI, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Laurens and Butin. Medal, 3d 
class, 1880. Works: Awaking 
(1879) ; Raising of a Child by St. 
Benedict (1880) ; Deluge (1881) ; 
The Imprudent,The Caldron (1882); 
St. Colomban (1883) ; St. Julia, 
(1884) ; Quai at Trouville (1885). 

RAVEN, JOHN S., born in Suf- 
folk, England, Aug. 21, 1829, died 
at Harlech, Wales, July 14, 1877. 
Landscape painter, son of Rev. J. 
Raven, an amateur water-colour 
painter ; self-taught, first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, in 1845, 
Salmsley Church. Works : Hamp- 
shire Homestead, Monk's Walk 
(1872) ; The Lesser Light to rule 
the Night (1873) ; The Heavens 
declare the Glory of God (1875). 
accidentally drowned while bathing, 
grave. 

RAVENSTEIN, PAUL VON, bom in 
Breslau, Oct. 23, 1854. Landscape painter. 



pupil in Carlsruhe, of Gude, studied nature 
in the Silesian mountains, the German Alps, 
and Italy. Works : Oak Landscape at Even- 
ing ; Road near Partenkir- 
cheu ; Antique Baths at Al- 
bano (1880).— Muller, 432. 
RAVENZWAAY, JAN 
VAN, born at Hilversum, 
Nov. 29, 1790, died there 
March 2, 1869. Landscape 
and animal painter, pupil at 
Amersfoort of Jordan us 
Hoorn (1753-1833), then of 
Pieter Gerardus van Os, 
who had settled near Hil- 
versum ; visited Belgium, 
Switzerland and Germany, 
and settled at Westerborg, 
Drenthe. Member of Am- 
sterdam Academy, 1822. 
Works ; Pasture with Cattle, Sheep Stable, 
Cow Stable, Amsterdam Museum. — Immer- 
zeel, iii. 2 ; Nagler, xii. 339. 

RAVESTEYN, JAN VAN, bom at The 
Hague in 1572 (?), died there, buried June 
21, 1657. Dutch school ; portrait painter. 



i 




He was 
Red- 



Rebekah and Eliezer, Murillo, Madrid Museum. 

master of the Hague guild in 1615 ; painted 
assemblies of magistrates and corporations 
with great skill, in the manner of Mierevelt. 
Works: Civic Guard, Officers of do. (1616), 
Banquet of Town Council (1618), Meeting 



14 



RAZZI 



of Couucil (1636), Town Hall, Hague ; Series 
of portraits (24) of Colonels (1611, 1612, 
1615, 1616, 1621, 1624), Museum, ib. ; five 
portraits, Amsterdam Museum ; two do. 
(one dated, 1616), Brussels Museum; Fe- 
male portraits (2, 1633, 1634), Louvre, 
Paris ; Family Group, Portrait of a Lawyer 
(1622), Brunswick Gallery ; Old Man in Ai-- 
mour (1605), Dresden Gallery; Scholar and 
Little Daughter, Male Portrait (1633), Ber- 
lin Museum; Male Portrait (1622), two 



READ, THOMAS BUCHANAN, born in 
Chester County, Pa., March 12, 1822, died 
in New York, May 11, 1872. Portrait and 
genre painter ; began the study of sculpture 
in Cincinnati in 1839, but soon turned his 
attention to painting. Li 1841 he opened a 
studio in New York, and afterwards painted 
in Philadelphia and Boston. Visited Europe 
in 1850, and after studying in Florence 
settled in Rome, whence he made occasional 
visits to America, during one of which he 




Rebekah and Eliezer, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre. 



others, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; others in 
Copenhagen, Gotha, Oldenburg (1620), and 
Turin (8) Galleries; Portrait of Lucretia 
van der Meulen, Historical Society, New 

York. — Archief V. ned. Kunstgesch., iii. 261, 
285; iv. 3; Burger, Musc'es, i. 57; ii. 195; 
Kramm, v. 1341 ; Kunstkronijk (1867), 83, 
86 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 355 ; Riegel, Beit- 
Tiige, i. 125 ; ii. 198. 
RAZZI. See Sodoma. 



died. "Works : Portrait of George Peabody 
(Peabody Institute, Baltimore) ; Star of 
Bethlehem ; Watei'-Sprite ; Sheridan's Ride ; 
Lost Pleiad ; Undine ; Excelsior (INIi's. Jo- 
seph Harrison, Pliiladelphia). Mr. Read was 
better known as a poet than as a painter. 
— Tuckerman, 460 ; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 
348. 

READING THE WILL, Sir David 117/- 
Icie, New Munich Gallery ; canvas. A party 
gathered in a room listening to the reading 
of a will by a lawyer, who is seated at a table 
in centre; group of 21 figures. Painted in 
1820 for King of Bavaria, who paid for it 



REBEKAH 



£425; sold after his death for £1,200 and 
placed in New Pinakothek. Engraved by J. 
Burnet. — Redgrave, Centuiy, ii. 269 ; Hea- 
ton, Works of Sir D. W. 

EEBEKAH AND ELIEZER, Murillo, 
Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 6 in. x 5 
ft. Eliezer drinks from a copper kettle held 
by Rebekah, who, with three other maidens 
bearing jars, stands near a well at right ; at 
left, in middle distance, men and camels; 




Rebekah and Eliezer, Paolo Veronese (?), Louvre. 

background, landscape with mountains. In 
second manner. Etched by E. Buxo ; litho- 
graphed by F. Decraein ; C. Mugica. — Cur- 
tis, 118 ; Madraza, 467. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 10 in. X 6 ft. 6 in. In centre, near a 
well, Eliezer offers necklaces and bracelets 
to Rebekah, who seems to hesitate to accept 
them ; at right, three young girls ; at left, a 
group of nine women ; in background, hills 
with buildings. Painted in Rome in 1648 
for M. Pointel, on whose death passed to 
Due de Richelieu, and finally to Louis XIV. 



Engraved by G. Rousselet (1677) ; G. Au- 
dran ; Picart le Romain ; Bouchers-Desnoy- 
ers. — Cat. Louvre; Filhol, i. PI. 49; Lan- 
don, Musce, i. PI. 49 ; Smith, viii. 5. 

By Paolo Veronese (?) Louvre, H. 8 ft. 1 
in. X 11 ft. 4 in. ; transferred to new canvas 
in 1834, and former size reduced. Eliezer, 
beside a well, at the foot of a ruin shaded 
by trees, presents to Rebekah jewels which 
two negroes have brought ; at left, several 
dromedaries. Formerly in Casa 
Bonaldi, Venice ; bought by Ja- 
bach, and sold by him to Louis 
XrV. Engraved by Moyreau. — 
Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 13 ; Villot, Cat. 
Louvre. 

REBELL, JOSEF, born in Vi- 
enna, Jan. 11, 1787, died in Dres- 
den, Dec. 18, 1828. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Wutky, went in 1809 to Mi- 
lan, painted there for Eugene 
Beauharnais, then in Naples (1811 
-15) for Murat ; went to Rome, and 
in 1824 was called to Vienna as di- 
rector of the Belvedere Gallery. 
Works : Storm near Grotto of Foc- 
cia near Naples, Portici with Vesu- 
vius, Italian Landscape at Sunset 
(1819), Vienna Museum ; do. at 
Sunrise, do. with Figures, Ferdi- 
nandeum, Innsbruck ; Mole of Por- 
tici (1818), View near Amalfi, Coast 
near Capri, Stormy Sea, New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; View of Capri, 
Casamicciola on Ischia, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
Castle Persenbeug on the Danube, Czernin 
Gallery, Vienna ; Arco di Focci near Cumae 
during Storm (1828), National Gallery, Ber- 
hn.— Hormayr, Archiv. (1823), 339 ; (1829), 
No. 30; Kunstbl. (1860), iii. 320; Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1820), 263 ; (1829), 87 ; N. Necrol. 
der D. (1828), 859 ; Schack, Meine Gemiil- 
desammlung (1884), 205; Wurzbach, xxv. 78, 
RECAMATORI, GIOVANNI DE'. See 
Giovanni da Udine. 

RECAMIER, MADAIVIE, SALON OF, 
William Quiller Orchardson, London ; can- 



RECCO 



vas, H. 4 ft. 10 in. x 8 ft. The hostess, 
seated at the right upon a sofa, is the cen- 
tre of a group including Canova, Cuvier, 
Fouche, Delille, and IVIetternich, Avhile at 
the other end of the salon a second group, 
including Lucien Bonaparte, Talleyrand, 
Brillat-Savarin, Talma, Bernadotte, and 
Sieyes, are gathered around Madame de 
Stael. Royal Academy, 1885. 

RECCO, GIUSEPPE, born at Naples 
in 1631, died there in 1695. Neapolitan 
school ; still-life painter, pupil of Porpera, 
but seems to have been influenced by other 
masters, especially Marseus van Schrick. 
The King of Spain made him a knight of 

Calatrava in 1667 and summoned him to his 
coui't. Works : Four pictures with Fish and 
other Marine Animals, Madrid Museum ; 
Dead Fish watched by Dog, Suermondt Mu- 
seum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Fruit-Piece, Haus- 
mann Collection, Hanover ; Animal Life 
around Pool (2), Schwerin Gallei-y ; Fishes, 
Wiesbaden Galleiy ; Flowers and Dead 
Game, Naples Museum ; A Thief, New York 
Museum. His daughter Elena excelled in 
the same branch of art. — Madrazo ; Schlie, 
513. 

RECHBERGER, FRANZ, born in Vienna, 
Oct. 4, 1771, died there in 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under F. 
A. Brandt ; afterwards custodian of the Al- 
bertina in Vienna. Works : Landscape with 
Temple of Vesta, Vienna Academy ; Views 
in Italy, Styria, Saxony. — Wurzbach, xxv. 
95 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 863. 

REDGRAVE, RICHARD, born in Lon- 
don, Ajaril 30, 1804. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of Royal Academy, where he 
exhibited his first picture, River Brent near 
Hanwell, in 1825 ; elected an A.R. A. in 1840, 



and R.A. in 1850 ; is an honorary retired 
Academician. Has held several official po- 
sitions in the government art institutions 
and is general inspector of art schools. 
Works : Cymbeline (1833) ; GulUver on the 
Farmer's Table (1837) ; Quinten Massys, 
Olivia's Return (1838) ; Reduced Gentle- 
man's Daughter, Cure of Paracelsus (1840); 
Vicar of Wakefield finding his Lost Daugh- 
ter (1841); Ophelia, Cinderella (1842); Fash- 
ion's Slaves (1847); Country Cousins (1848); 
Marquis and Griselda (1850) ; Flight into 
Egypt (1851); Well-Known Footstep, Moor- 
land Child (1857) ; Strayed Flock (1861) ; 
Way through the Woods (1863); Jane Shore 
(1864); Woodman's Dinner (1866); Eugene 
Ai-am(1868); Jack-o'-Lantern (1870); Char- 
coal Burners (1871) ; Expectation (1872) ; 
Sermons in Stones (1874); Mill Pool, Start- 
ing for a Holiday (1875); Calling the Sheep, 
Oak of the Millhead (1876); Deserted (1877); 
The Heir Come of Age, Friday Street (1878); 
Hidden Among the Hills (1881).— Ai-t Jour- 
nal (1850), 48 ; (1859), 205 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, V. 375. 

REFORJklATION, AGE OF, Wilhelm 
von Kaulbach, New Museum, Berlin ; mural 
painting, staircase hall. Church interior ; 
Luther, standing before the altar, in centre, 
raises the Bible in his hands ; at sides, peo- 
ple at communion ; the aisles are filled with 
modern representative men ; in background, 
a choir singing. Cartoon, Mrs. Durfee, Fall 
River, Mass. 

REGEMORTER, IGNATIUS JOSE- 
PHUS VAN, born at Antwerp, Dec. 4, 1785, 
died there, July 20, 1873. Landscape and 
genre painter, son and pvipil of Petrus Jo- 
hannes van Regemorter. He went in 1809 
to Paris, where he studied after the mas- 
terpieces in the Musee Napoleon, and then 
from nature on the banks of the Meuse, 
and in Luxembourg. Won prizes in Ant- 
werp, Ghent, and Brussels ; member of In- 
stitute of the Netherlands in 1829, and of 
Amsterdam Academy. Order of Leopold, 
1855. Works : Fishmarket of Antwerp 
(1827), Jan Steen's Household (1828), Am- 



ir 



REGEMORTER 



eterdam Museum ; Interior of Garret, Man 
and Wife at Table in Front of House (1839), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Rembrandt paint- 
ing an Ape in a Family-Group (1832); Wed- 
ding of Jan Steen (183G) ; Van Craesbecke 
testing his Wife's Love (1839); Wedding of 
Prince de Ligne (1841) ; King Leopold I. 
and Queen Victoria visiting Tomb of Ru- 
bens (1843) ; Peasant Brawl, Italian Fam- 
ily Travelling (1854) ; Kirmess near Ant- 
werp (1860). — Immerzeel, iii. 8 ; Kramm, 
V. 1344. 

REGEMORTER, PETRUS JOHANNES 
VAN, born in Antwerp, Sept. 8, 1755, died 
there, Nov, 17, 1830. Genre and landscape 
painter, pupil of Antwerp Academy, and 
perfected himself by study of old masters 
in a private gallery at Antwerp. Dean of 
the guild in 1785 ; j^rofessor at the Acad- 
emy in 1796-1804. He was one of the del- 
egates sent to Paris by the city of Antwerp 
in 1815 to reclaim the pictures carried off 
by the French in 1794, and on his return 
was awarded a medal struck in his honour. 
Excelled in painting moonlight scenes, and 
possessed an unusual talent for restoring old 
pictures, of which he saved more than three 
thousand for posterity ; formed many pu- 
pils. Works : Figures in Landscape by 
Lucas van Uden, Antwerp Museum ; Peas- 
ant Company in Vine Arbour (1796), Assem- 
bly of Ladies and Gentlemen (2), Gotha 
Museum. — Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers, 513 ; Im- 
merzeel, iii. 7. 

REGILLO. See Pordenone. 

REGIMENT, PASSING (Regiment qui 
passe), Edouard Detaille, Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington ; canvas, 4 ft. 2 in. square. 
A regiment of the line passing down the 
Boulevard St. Martin at the close of a wet, 
snowy day in December. On extreme right 
is a portrait of Meissonier ; in background, 
Poi-tes St. Martin and St. Denis. Salon, 
1875 ; exhibited in Brussels, where bought 
for Corcoran Gallery. — Art Treasures of 
America, i. 7 ; Corcoran Gal. Cat. 

REGNAULT, (ALEXANDRE GEOR- 
GES) HENRI, born in Paris, Oct. 30, 




1843, died there, Jan. 19, 1871. Genre 
painter, pupil of Montfort, Lamothe and 
Cabanel. Won the grand 
prix de Rome in 1866, 
and spent the next two 
years in Italy ; then went 
to Spain, where he made 
himself famous by an 
equestrian p o r t r a i t of 
General Prim. In 1869 
he revisited Italy, and 
in the next year went to 
Africa, whence he re- 
turned to fight in the German War, and 
was killed at Buzenval during a sortie of the 
69th Battalion of the National Guards, in 
which he had enrolled himself. His untime- 
ly death threw a halo about his name, and 
enhanced the already great reputation which 
he enjo^'ed as a painter of uncommon talent, 
surpassed by few in energy of expression 
and feeling for colour. Works : Automedon 
(1867), Boston Museum, 1884. on deposit ; 
Portrait of General Prim (1869), Louvre ; 
Judith (1869) ; Salojiie (1870); Execution in 
Granada (1870), Louvre ; Judith and Holo- 
fernes, Marseilles Museum ; Vetmia at the 
Feet of Coi'iolanus ; Thetis giving to Achil- 
les the Arms of Vulcan ; Going to the Fan- 
tasia in Tangiers, (Knoedler and Company, 
New York) ; The Pasha leaving Tangiers 
(left unfinished) ; Haoua ; Hassan and Na- 
mouna ; Inside a Harem ; Mountain Road 
in the Pyrenees, John G. Johnson, Philadel- 
phia. — Bellier, ii. 350 ; Ch. Blanc, Artistes 
de mon Temps, 347 ; Bailliere, Henri Re- 
gnault (Paris, 1872); Claretie, Peintres, etc. 
(1882), i. 1 ; Cazalis, Henri Regnault (Paris, 
1872); Gaz. desB. Arts (1872), v. m ; (1873), 
vii. 119 ; (1882), xxv. 430 ; Old and New, 
xi. 99 ; Hamerton, Mod. Frenchmen, 334 ; 
Marx, H. Regnault (Paris, 1886) ; Na- 
tion, xvi. 13 ; Temple Bar, Iviii. 344 ; D. 
Rundschau, xvi. 306 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xv. 
93. 

REGNAULT, JEAN BAPTISTE, Baron, 
born in Paris, Oct. 19, 1754, died there, Nov. 
12, 1829. Genre painter, pupil of Bardin 



18 



EEGNIER 




at Rome in 1769 ; returned to Paris, -won 
the 2d prix in 1775 and the grand prix de 
Rome in 1776, 
with his Alexander 
and Diogenes. 
Member French 
Academy, 1783; 
professor in 1795 ; 
received the title 
of baron in 1819. 
His school was for 
a time the rival of 
that of David. 
Among his pupils were Hersent, Gui'rin, 
Blondel, Boissellier, and Richomme. 
"Works : Baptism of Christ (1776) ; Educa- 
tion of Achilles (1783), Descent from the 
Cross (1789), Pygmalion and Venus (1785), 
Origin of Painting, Three Graces, Louvre ; 
Death of Priam (1785), Amiens ^Museum ; 
Cupid and Psyche, The Three Graces, An- 
gers Museum ; Education of Achilles (sketch 
for painting in Louvre), Avignon Museum ; 
Deluge, Compicgne Palace ; Pygmalion in 
Love with his Statue, Fontainebleau Palace ; 
Orestes and Iphigenia meeting in Tauris 
(1787), Marseilles Museum ; Male Heads (2), 
Montpellier Museum ; Young Girl, Orleans 
Museum ; The Senate receiving the Flags 
captured in the Campaign against Austria 
(1808), Mamage of Prince Jt'rome Bona- 
parte (1810), Death of General Deaaix at 
Marengo, Portrait of Comte Montalivet 
(1810), Versailles Museum ; A Genius show- 
ing to France Liberty or Death (1795), 

/ XeayujjJct- 

Kunsthalle, Hamburg. — Bellier, ii. 351; 
Ch. Blanc, TOcolo fran(;aise ; Journal des 
Artistes, 1829 ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 387 ; 
L'Universel (1829), No. 339 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
77 ; Quatremere de Quincy, Notice histo- 
rique sur la vie, etc. (Paris, 1834); Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 



REGNTER, JACQUES AUGUSTIN, bom 

in Paris, Aug. 28, 1787, died there, June 2, 
1860. Landscape painter, pupil of Victor 
Bertin, Medals : 2d class, 1819 ; 1st class, 
1828 ; L. of Honour, 1837. Works : Woods 
in Puy ; Coucy-le-Chateau ; Paris from the 
Champ de Mars ; King Arthur's Tomb ; 
Monks Praying ; Joan of Arc, Fontainebleau 
Gallery ; Cemetery of Royat ; Bridge of Ba- 
tigny, Drinking-Place at Pierrefonds (1834); 
Saiut-Jean-au-Bois ; Forest of Compiegne, 
Ruins of Pierrefonds (1835); View in Forest 
of Compiegne (1836); View near the Grande 
Chartreuse of Grenoble (1850), Chartres 
Museum ; Entrance to Forest, Arras Mu- 
seum ; Carthusian Monastei*y in Auvergne, 
Toulouse Museum. — Bellier, ii. 353. 

REGULUS LEAVING ROME, Joseph 
M. W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. x 4 ft. Marcus Atilius Reg- 
ulus was allowed by the Carthaginians to 
go back to Rome, after five years' captivity, 
in order to negotiate a peace, pi-omising to 
return if unsuccessful. He advised the Sen- 
ate not to make peace, and, fulfilling his prom- 
ise, was put to death, about b.c. 250. Paint- 
ed in Rome, 1829 ; British Institute, 1837 ; 
Turner Collection. Engraved by D. Wil- 
son ; S. Bradshaw in Turner Gallery. 

REHBERG, FRIEDRICH, born at Han- 
over, Oct. 22, 1758, died in Munich, Aug. 
20, 1835. History and portrait painter, 
pupil in Leipsic of Oeser and in Dresden 
of Casanova and Schenau ; went in 1777 to 
Rome, where he studied the old masters 
under Mengs and was closely allied with 
David ; returned to Hanover in 1783, and 
painted many portraits ; went as instructor 
in drawing to Dessau in 1784, became mem- 
ber of Berlin Academy in 1786, and profes- 
sor in 1787 ; went again to Rome and in 
1791 to Naples, visited London in 1813-14, 
and left Rome in 1820 to settle in ^Innich. 
Works : Bclisarius (1790, jirize, B(>rlin Acad- 
emy); (Edipus and Antigone (twice); Cain's 
Fratricide ; Julius Sabinus (twice); Bacchus, 
Cni)id, and Bathyllus (8 times) ; Orpheus 
aiul Eurydice (2) ; Jupiter and Venus (twice)- 



19 



REHN 



Narcissus ; Venus and Cupid ; Cupid and 
Psyche ; ^neas and Dido ; Metabus in- 
structing his Daughter in Archery ; Niobe 
with her Children ; Endymion ; Allegory 
on Dethronement of Napoleon (181-4); Pan- 
orama of Innsbruck (5, 1819). — Andresen, 
ii. 61 ; Goethe, Winckelmann, ii. 150 ; Nag- 
ler, xii. 373 ; do., Mon., ii. SG-i ; Naumann, 
iii. 140. 

EEHN, FRANK KNOX MORTON, born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., April 12, 1848. Ma- 
rine i^ainter, pupil of the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy. Exhibited first at National Academy, 
New York, in 1879. First prize for marine 
at St. Louis Exhibition, 1882 ; prize for 
water colour, New York, 1885 ; gold medal, 
2d Prize Fund Exhibition, New York, 1886. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Fish- 
ing Boats in a Calm, High Tide — Cape 
Elizabeth (1879); Portland Light-House, 
Surf — New Jersey Coast (1880); Sun-shower 
—Atlantic Coast (1881), T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Old Fish Houses — Gloucester Har- 
bour, Bracket's Cove — Maine (1882); Ocean 
Beach — New Jersey, Sundown (1883) ; Bay 
of Fundy, Little Good Harbour Beach — 
Massachusetts Coast (1884) ; Drifted on the 
Reef, Fishermen's Huts (1885) ; Incoming 
Fog, Three Fishers (1886). 

REID, JOHN R., born in England ; con- 
temporary. Genre and portrait painter, 
exhibits at Royal Academy and Grosvenor 
Gallery. Medal, Jubilee Exhibition, Ber- 
lin, 1886. Works: Forbidden Ground (1877); 
Village Belle, Toil and Pleasure (1879) ; 
Peace and War (1881) ; Leaving the Old 
Home, Homeless and Homewards, Dead for 
a Ducat — Dead (1882); Darby and Joan, A 
Spill, The Yarn (1883); An Ugly Customer, 
Rival Grandfathers (1884) ; The Fatherless, 
The Mermaid, Seed Time— Cornwall (1885); 
The Shipwreck, Calm Evening (1886). 

REIFFENSTEIN, KARL THEODOR, 
born in Frankfort, Jan. 12, 1820. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Stadel Institute un- 
der Veit and Jakob Becker, and studied 
nature in the mountains of Middle Ger- 
many, in Switzei'land, Belgium, England, 



France, and Italy. Medal, Vienna, 1873, 
CoiTesponding member of Cercle artistique 
in Belgium, 1768. Works: Forest Still- 
ness (1845), Magdeburg Gallery ; Black 
Pond in the Riesengebirge (1855) ; Lake 
Vierwaldstiidt, The Orteler (1856); Morn- 
ing in the Ramsau (1857); 17 Views of Cas- 
tle Waldleiningen and Amorbach in the 
Odenwald (1857), Queen Victoria ; Acqua 
Claudia near Rome ; Approach to Burg 
Landskron ; The Dachstein (1861) ; Castle 
Braunfels (1866) ; Picturesque and Roman- 
tic Frankfort (1,700 water-colours, 1875), 
Ai-chival. Museum, Frankfort. — Kaulen, 247; 
MiiUer, 433. 

REIGNIER, JEAN, born in Lyons, Aug. 
3, 1815, died there in January, 1886. Flower 
painter, pupil of the Lyons School of Art, 
where he became professor in 1854. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1848, 1861 ; L. of Honour, 
1863. Works : Garland around Cross by 
which is a Dog as Emblem of Fidelity 
(1842), Nimes Museum ; Memorial to the 
Flower-Painter Berjon Antoine (1845) ; do. 
to Queen of Belgium (1852) ; do. to Queen 
Hortense (1857), Lyons Museum ; Fruits, 
Grenoble Museum. — Bellier, ii. 354. 

REINAGLE, PHILIP, born in 1749, died 
at Chelsea, Nov. 27, 1833. Portrait, land- 
scape, and animal painter, pupil of Allan 
Ramsay in portraiture, and student at Royal 
Academy in 1769 ; elected an A.R. A. in 1787, 
and R.A. in 1812. Painted chiefly hunting 
and sporting subjects, many of which were 
engraved by J. Scott. Also made copies of 
the Dutch masters, some of which have 
passed as originals. His son, Richard Ram- 
say Reinagle (1775-1862, R.A. 1823), was a 
landscape and animal painter ; and his grand- 
son, George Philip Reinagle, son of Richard 
Ramsay (1802-35), was a marine painter. — 
Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 345. 

REINER, WENZEL LORENZ, born at 
Prague in 1686, died there, Oct. 9, 1743. 
German school ; history, genre, and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Peter Brandel, and 
of Schweiger in Prague. His early battle- 
pieces resemble those of Pieter van Bloe- 



20 



REINIIAKT 



men. Painted equally well in fresco and 
oil. Works : Martyrdom of Jesuit Mission- 
aries (4), Prague Gallery ; Orpheus charm- 
ing the Animals, Landscape with Horses, 
do. with Birds, Nostitz Gallery, Prague ; 
Altarpiece, St. Peter's, ib. ; do., All Saints 
and St. Jacob's, ib. ; Frescos in Crusaders' 
Church, ib.; do., St. Thomas, St. J^^gidius, 
Loretto, and Ursulines, ib.; Fall of the 
Giants, Czernin Palace, ib.; Battle-Piece, 
Count Krakowsky-Kolowrat, ib. ; Campo 
Vaccino in Rome, Golden House of Nero, 
ib., Dresden Gallery. — Dlabacz, ii. 551 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1850), 413 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
553 ; Wurzbach, xxv. 202. 

REINHART, BENJAIMIN FRANKLIN, 
born at Waynesburg, Penn., Aug. 29, 1829, 
died in Philadelpliia, May 3, 1885. Por- 
trait, genre, and history painter, studied in 
Diisseldorf, Paris, and Rome in 1850-53 ; 
went in 1861 to England, whence he re- 
turned to America in 18G8 and travelled in 
the South and West. Elected an A.N.A. in 
1872. Works : Cleopatra (1865); After the 
Crucifixion (1875) ; Katrina Van Tassel, 
Pocahontas (1878) ; Nymphs of the Wood 
(1879) ; Captain Kidd and the Governor, 
>$aby Mnie (1884). Portraits : Princess of 
Wales ; Countess of Portsmouth ; Lady 
Fane Tempest ; Lord Brougham ; Carlyle ; 
Tennyson ; Charles O'Conor ; Chief Jus- 
tice Daly ; Bishop Mcllvaine ; John Phil- 
lips, R.A. 

REINHART, CHARLES STANLEY, 
born at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1844. Genre 
painter, studied in Paris and at the Royal 
Academy, Munich, under Professors Strey- 
hiiber and Otto. Has drawn illustrations 
for several American periodicals, and exhib- 
ited works in oil, water-colour, and black 
and white, at the National Academy in New 
York, where his professional life has chiefly 
been passed. Member of art clubs in Mu- 
nich, Pittsburgh, and New York. Studio in 
Paris, 1882-86. Works in oil : Clearing 
Up, Caught Napping (1875) ; Reconnoitring 
(1876); Rebuke (1877) ; September Morn- 
ing (1879) ; Old Life-Boat (1880) ; Coast of 




Normandy (1882) ; In a Garden (1883) ; 
Mussel Fisherwoman, Flats at Villerville 
(1884) ; Sunday (1885) ; Enghsh Garden, 
Fisherman of Villerville (1886). Water- 
colours : Gathering Wood, Close of Day 
(1877) ; At the Ferry (1878). 

REINHART, (JOHANN) CHRISTIAN, 
born near Hof, 
Franconia, Jan. 
24, 1761, died in 
Rome, June 8, 
1847. Land- 
scape and animal 
painter, pupil in 
Leipsic of Oeser, 
and in Dresden 
of Ivlengel ; after 
painting for Duke 
of Meiningen, went in 1789 to Rome, where 
he was allied with Koch, Carsteus, Fernow, 
Voogd, and Wagner ; visited Naples in 
1804-5, made excavations at Ostia in 1810- 
11, and became member of Berlin Academy 
in 1810, of Accademia S. Luca in Rome in 
1813, and of Munich Academy in 1830. 
Works : Landscape with Cain and Abel, do. 
with Story of Queen Hypsipyle, Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort ; Storm Landscape (1824) ; 
Landscape with Psyche (1829), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Four Views near Rome (two dated 
1836, 1846), New Pinakothek, Munich; 
Ideal Landscape, Gotha Gallery ; Acqua 
Acetosa near Rome, Landscape with Castle, 
do. with Bathers, Kohlrausch Collection, 
Hanover ; Storm Landscape, Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; eight Historical Landscapes (1825), 
Villa Massimi, Rome. — Andresen, i. 177 ; 
Fin-stei", iv. 81 ; Goethe, Winckelmann, ii. 
172 ; Kugler, kl. Schr., iii. 46 ; Nagler, xii. 
399 ; Riegel, Gesch. des Wiederauflebens 
der d. K, 123, 334 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xviii. 
67. 

REINHOLD, FRIEDRICH PHILIPP, 
born at Gera in 1779, died in Vienna, April 
22, 1840. Landscape painter, first instruct- 
ed in Dresden, then pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, and the head of a numerous family of 
artists ; painted at first history and por- 



31 



REINHOLD 



traits, took up landscape painting in 1814, 
and soon acquired reputation and great fa- 
vour in Vienna, Works : Peasant Cottage 
with Two Women and a Child, Hohenstau- 
fen Mountain seen from Aigen, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Ideal Landscapes (1816, 1820, 1822, 
3 ; 1826, 3 ; 1835) ; Cemetery with Chapel, 
Cupid shedding Arrows among the Animals 
(1824) ; Views in Salzburg (3), do. in Sor- 
rento (1832) ; St. George's Fight with the 
Dragon (1834) ; Grass Mower Drinking 
(1837) ; The Outcast (1838). His sons, 
Franz and Friedrich, were also landscape 
painters, and exhibited in Vienna in 1816- 
60. Landscape by Franz in Vienna Muse- 
um.— Hormayr, Archiv (1821), Nos. 27, 28 ; 
(1822), Nos. 95, 152 ; (1824), Nos. 105, 106 ; 
Wurzbach, xxv. 217. 

EEINHOLD, HEINRICH, born at Gera 
in 1790, died at Albano, Jan. 15, 1825. 
Landscape painter, brother of preceding, 
studied first in Dresden, then at Vienna 
Academy, and in 1809-14 in Paris ; went 
to Rome in 1819. Works : Capo d'Orlando 
on Coast of Sicily (1821), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Capuchin Garden near Sorrento, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; View in Carin- 
thian Alps ; Grotto La Cucumella in Naples ; 
View of Capri ; View in Piano di Sorrento, 
Leipsic Museum ; View of Mina. from Ta- 
ormina. His younger brother, Gustav, land- 
scape painter, pupil of Friedrich Philipp, 
exhibited in Vienna in 1826-46, and lived 
also some time in Rome. — Hox-mayr, Archiv 
(1821), 108 ; N. NecroL der D. (1825), 1279 ; 
Riegel, Gesch. des Wiederauflebens der d. 
K, 337 ; Wurzbach, xxv. 220. 

REMBRANDT VAN RYN, born in Ley- 
den, July 15, 1607, died in Amsterdam, 
buried Oct. 8, 1669. Dutch school ; his 
father, Harmen Gerritsz, a miller, and his 
mother, Neeltgen Willems van Suyddtbroek, 
daughter of a baker, lived in a house situ- 
ated in the Weddersteeg (Street of the 
Tank), near the Witte Poort (White Gate) 
and there Rembrandt was born. Having 
little taste for books, and a strong natural 
love of art, he was early apprenticed for 




three years to lakob Isaacz van Swanen- 
bui'ch, a second-rate painter, who had set- 
tled at Leyden in 
1617 after his return 
from Italy. Then 
followed six months' 
study with Pieter 
Lastman, and a re- 
turn to Leyden 
about 1624. Rem- 
brandt's earliest 
signed works date 
from 1627. Three 
years later (1630) he removed from Lej'den 
to Amsterdam, where he spent the remain- 
der of his life. He never left HoUantl, and 
in it visited only Dordrecht, Fi'iesland, 
Gueldres, and perhaps Clcves. With his 
first wife, Saskia van Ulenburgh, whom he 
married in 1634, and who died in 1 642 , he 
lived very happily, and the portraits of her 
at Cassel (1633), Dresden (1633, 1641 ?), and 
Berlin (1643), are among his finest works. 
They lived in a house at Amsterdam, in the 
Breedstraat, where he collected many fine 
Italian and Dutch pictures, glass, armour, 
jDorcelain, etc. Here he painted, etched, 
and directed the studies of numerous pu- 
pils. For fourteen years after Saskia's death 
Rembrandt and his son, Titus, lived in this 
house, at the end of which time, as his af- 
fairs were hopelessly involved, it was sold 
by auction with its contents. For the re- 
mainder of his days the great artist lived 
in comparative poverty. As etcher and 
painter, he holds a unique place in the his- 
tory of art. No one has rivalled him in the 
management of light and shade ; few in col- 
our, in character, in the expression of home- 
ly but deep sentiment. Absolutely origi- 
nal, he taught many able scholars, whose 
best efforts only show how unapproachable 
he is. Works : Old Man with Gorget and 
Turban (1630 or 1631), Portrait of Coppe- 
nol (1631), Youth (1634), Portrait of a Turk 
(1636?), Sobrisky Portrait (1636?), Elderly 
Lady (1637 or 1638), Rembrandt's Mother 
(1640), Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel (1645), 



22 



EEMBRANDT 



Warrior (1650), Three Female Portraits 
(1654), Two Portraits of Old Men (1654), 
Young Lady at Toilet Table (1654), Young- 
Woman (1656), Girl with Broom, Portrait 
of a Youth (1660), Male do. (1606), Incre- 
dulity of St. Thomas (1634), Descent from 
the Cross (1634), Workers in the Vineyard 
(1637), Retui-n of Prodigal Son, Sacrifice of 
Abraham (1635), Denial of St. Peter, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Susanna (1633), 
Youssoupoff Collection, St. Petersburg ; St. 
Anastasius (1031), Saskia? (1632), Old Man 
(1633 ?), Rembrandt's Cook (1651), Old Man 
and his Wife (1655), Oath of Ziska (1662), 
Stockholm Museum ; Dutch Noble and his 
Wife (1656), Christ at Emmaus (1648), Co- 
penhagen Museum ; Old Woman, Moltke 
Collection, Copenhagen ; Presentation in 
Temple (1631), Lesson in Anatomy (1632), 
Susanna (1637), Portrait of a Youth, do. of 
Rembrandt, Hague Museum ; Sortie of the 
Banning Cock Company (1642), Jewish Bride 
(1657?), Syndics of the Cloth Hall (1661), 
Fragment of Lesson in Anatomy (1656), Fe- 
male Portrait, Amsterdam Museum ; Alle- 
gory on Westphalian Peace (1648), Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Burgomaster Six, Van Six 
Collection ; Young Angler, Old Jew, Wom- 
an, Antwerp Museum ; Male Portrait (1641), 
Old Lady's do. (1654), Brussels Museum ; 
Two Portraits of Sastia (1633 and 1641 ?), 
Rape of Ganymede (1645), Seven Male Por- 
traits, Samsons Wedding (1638), Sacrifice 
of Manoah (1641), Rembrandt and his First 
Wife, Rembrandt (1657), Landscape, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Old Man, Turk (bust). Por- 
traits of Flinck and his Wife, do. of a Young 
Lady and a Young Man, Nativity, Descent 
from the Cross (1653), Resurrection, Abra- 
ham and Hagar, Landscape, Christ in the 
Temple, Munich Gallery; Wife of Tobias 
with the Goat (1645), Joseph's Dream (1645), 
Moses breaking the Tablets (1659), Jacob 
wrestling with the Angel, Money Changer 
(1627), Rape of Proserpine, Joseph and Poti- 
phar's Wife (1655), Vision of Daniel, Por- 
trait of Sasbia (1643), do. of a Rabbi (1645), 
do. of himself (2), Samson threatening his 



Father-in-Law, Berlin Museum ; Six Por- 
traits of Old Men (1630), do. (1632), do. 
(1635, 1656), Portrait of Lieven van Coppe- 
nol (1632) ; do. of Saakia (1633), do. of Young 
Man (1633), do. of Jan Ea-ul (1634), Man 
with Helmet (1634), Samson and Delilah 
(1636), Winter Scene (1636), Male Portrait 
(1639), Young Lady (1642), Holy Family 
(1646), Landscape (1653), Man in Ai'mour 
(1655), Standard-Bearer (1655), Jacob's 
Blessing (1656), Two Male Portraits (1656), 
Portrait of Rembrandt (1656), do. of Bruy- 
uingh (1658), Cassel Gallery ; Portrait of 
Grotius (1631), Student Philosophers (1633), 
Lady (1633), Warrior (1638), NoH me Tan- 
gere (1653), Landscape (1656), Rembrandt 
and Family (1662-64), Brunswick Gallery ; 
St. Paul in Prison (1627), Stuttgart Gallerj^ ; 
Two Female Portraits, Stildel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; St. Paul (1636), Rembrandt's Mother 
(1639), Vienna Museum ; Raphael leaving 
Tobias (1637), Good Samaritan (1648), St. 
Matthew (1661), Supper at Emmaus (1648), 
Philosopher in Meditation (1633), Menage 
du Menuisier (1640), Venus and Cupid, 
Four Portraits of Rembrandt (1633, 1634, 
1637, 1660), Old Man (1638), Young do. 
(1658), Woman at the Bath (2, one dated 
1654), Male (1651), and Female Portrait, 
Louvre, Paris ; Artemisia, Madrid Museum ; 
Deposition from the Cross, Woman taken 
in Adultery (1644), Adoration of the Shep- 
herds (1646), Jew Merchant, Woman Bath- 
ing (1654), Landscape with Tobias and the 
Angel, Capuchin Friar, Rabbi (?), Portraits 
of Rembrandt (2, one dated 1640), do. of a 
Woman (1006), Male Portrait (1659), Old 
Lady (1634), Male Portrait (1635), National 
Gallery, London ; The Door of the Sepul- 
chre (1638), Portrait of Rembrandt (1642?), 
Shipbuilder (1633), The Burgomaster and 
his Wife, Woman with the Fan, Adoration 
of the 3Iagi (1657), Buckingham Palace ; 
Portraits of Burgomaster Pellicorne, his 
Wife, Son, and Daughter, Unjust Steward, 
Hertford House ; Woman taken in Adul- 
tery, Isaac blessing Jacob, Blenheim sale, 
London, 1886 ; Visitation, Man with Falcon 



EEMBEAXDT 



and Wife, Portraits of Berghem and "Wife, 
Landscape, Grosvenor House ; Bembi-andt's 
Mill, Marquis of Lansdowne ; Male Portrait, 
St. John Preaching, Lord Dudley ; Old Wom- 
an, Landscape, Lord Overstone ; Feast of 
Belshazzar, Lord Derby ; Tribute Money, 
Literior with Figures, Hope Collection ; 
Daniel before Nebuchadnezzar, Lord Scars- 
dale ; Standard-Bearer, Lord Warwick ; Bust 
of a Young Man (1632), Girl at Window 
(1G45), Dulwich Gallery; Jewish Kabbi, 
Tui'in Gallery ; Old Man, Portrait of Rem- 
brandt, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Cottage 
Interior, Landscape, Uflfizi, Florence ; Le 
Doreur (16-40), William Schaus, New York. 
>-— «-v # — Ch. Blanc, 

i^</eyrvUir>tUuL-t' L'Q^uatc complet 
/3 r /r de R. (Paris, 

(jXjz/yrionu^cCt isso); Dutuit, 

^J^lCCx^ 1880); Amand- 

Durand, CEuvre 
d e R . (Paris, 
1880); Scheltema, 
Rembrandt (Par- 
is, 1866); Mollett, 
Rembrandt (London, 1882); Vosmaer, Rem- 
brandt (2d ed., 1877) ; Bode, Studien, 24, 
29, 354, 359-611, 617 ; Burger, Trt-sors 
d'Art (3d ed., 1855), 244 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures ; Eug. Fromentin, les Maitres d'Autre- 
fois ; Immerzeel, iii. 9 ; Jal, 1046 ; Ki-amm, 
y. 1346 ; yii. 122 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 363 ; 
Middleton, Descriptive Catalogue ; Richter, 
Dulwich Cat.; Riegel, Beitrage, i. 67, 73, 88, 
133, 146, 154 ; ii. 232, 265, 273 ; Gaz. des 
B. Ai-ts (1885), xxxii. 328, 498 ; Graph. K, 
iii. 49 ; Kunst-Chronik, xii. 425, 457, 571, 
697, 785 ; xyii. 267 ; xviii. 473 ; xix. 10 ; xxi. 
705 ; Les Lettres et les Arts, i. 91 ; Zeitschi*. 
f. b. K, i. 192 ; iv. 101, 159 ; y. 169, 237, 
304 ; yiii. 16, 145, 190, 234, 267, 343 ; x. 319 
(IVIittheilungen, iii. 37) ; xi. 125, 222 (:Mit- 
theUungen, iy. 42) ; xii. 32, 322 ; xiii. 224 ; 
xyii. 58, 386 ; xix. 30. 

REMBRANDT, portraits, Bemhrandt 
There are more than forty portraits by him- 



0\e/rn()raMjdt 



self, representing himself at different ages 
and with yarious accessories. Among those 
in public galleries ai-e : Louvre (4, 1633, 
1634, 1637, 1660) ; National GaUeiy, Lon- 
don (2, 1640, and about 1664) ; Dresden, 
(1657) ; Cassel (4) ; Hague (2) ; Carlsruhe ; 
Brunswick ; Gotha ; Nuremberg ; Berlin (2, 
1634, and about 1634-35); Vienna (2, about 
1658, and 1666-68) ; Naples ; Uffizi, Flor- 
ence (2); Palazzo Pitti, ib. (2); Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge (1650) ; Dulwich Gal- 
lery (1632) ; Buckingham Palace (about 
1642) ; Lord Ashburton (old age) ; Bridge- 
water House (about 1657) ; Lansdowne 
House (old age) ; Grosvenor House (1630) ; 
Sir Richard Wallace (3, one dated 1643) ; 
Earl of Lecontield ; Earl of Portarlington ; 
Earl of Kinuaird ; Duke of Bedford ; Duke 
of Buccleugh ; Lord Caledon ; M. Secretan, 
Pai'is. — Bode, Studien; Vosmaer, Rem- 
brandt ; Smith, Cat. Raisonnt'e. 

RE:\IBRANDT and his FA:\IILY, Rem- 
brandt, Brunswick Galleiy ; H. 4 ft. 4 in. 
X 5 ft. 9 in. ; signed. A lady seated, with a 
cliild on her lap, whde two little girls of five 
and seven stand beside her ; at left, stand- 
ing, a man Avith brown hair and moustaches, 
giving a flower to one of the girls. The 
same persons as those rej^resented in the 
Jeicifih Bride. — Mollett, Rembrandt, 73 ; 
Vosmaer, 301, 491. 

REMBRANDT'S MILL, Bembrandt, Mar- 
quis of Lansdowne, Bowood ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. 8 in. X 3 ft. 2 in. A mill and a house in 
a landscape, with water below and figures ; 
background, a luminous evening sky, with 
dark rain-clouds. — Waagen, Treasures, iii. 
157. 

REMY, MARIE, bora in Berlin, Nov. 21, 
1829. Flower painter, daughter and jnipil 
of the history and portrait painter, August 
Remy, then studied with Hermine Stilke, 
and Theude Gruuland ; visited England, 
Paris, Switzerland, TjtoI, and Italy. Works : 
Italian Flowers and Fruits (26), National 
Gallery. Berlin. — Miiller, 435. 

RENARD, I3IILE, born at Sevres ; con- 
temporary. Landscape, genre, and portrait 



RENE 



painter, pupil of Cabfvnol and of Crsar do 
Cock. Medal, 3d class, 1870. Works: 
Path in Woods of Sevres, Pond in Woods of 
Chaville (1873); In the Woods, Autumn, Re- 
pose (1875); Grandmother's Portrait (187(1), 
Luxemboui'g Museum ; Bad News, Violet t a 
(1878); Flotsam (1879); Autouietta (1880) ; 
Palm Sunday, The Little Arm of the Orge 
at Athis (1882) ; Repose, Seamstress Day 
(1883); Sweet Slumber (1885). 

RENfi D'ANJOU, surnamed the Good, 
born in castle of Angers in 1408, died in 
Provence in I-ISO. French school ; illumi- 
nator, painter, poet, and patron of arts ; 
second sou of Louis II., Duke of Anjou, 
Comte de Provence and titular King of Na- 
ples. Summouzio, the Neapolitan writer, 
says that King Renu was a good painter in 
the Flemish style, but several pictures at- 
tributed to him are now shown to be by 
another hand ; as, for example, the famous 
Triptych with the Burning Bush, etc., in the 
Cathedral at Aix, a work of Nicolas Froment 
of Avignon (1475), who was in King Rene's 
employ ; and another Triptych by the same 
hand in the UflSzi. The illuminated MS. of 
" La tres douce mercy" (1497), at Vienna, 
is admitted to be the King's handiwork. 
Many pictures attributed to him in churches 
at Aix, Angers, Lyons, Avignon, and i\Iar- 
seilles, were destroyed during the revolution. 
Works attributed to King Rene : Diptych, 
Vision of S. Bernardino of Siena, Coronation 
of Virgin, Hospital at Villeneuve ; Praying 
Cardinal, Avignon INIuseum ; Portraits of 
Charles VII., and Philip the Good, Duke of 
Burgundy. — W. & W., ii. 78 ; Schnaase, viii. 
321 ; Miintz, La Renaissance, 481 ; Michiel.s, 
iii. 187 ; ffiuvres comphtes du Roi Reno 
avec une biographie (Angers, 1845). 

RENI, GUIDO. See Guido Reni. 

RENOIR; contemporary. Genre, por- 
trait, landscape, flower, and fruit i)ainter ; 
impressionist. Of his works were exhibited 
in New York, 1880 : Femnie au Corset, 
Head of Young Ciirl, The Bather (2), Flow- 
ers (2), Api)les, Melons and Figs, Young 
Lady in a Garden, Fishermen's Children, 




On the Terrace, Dc'jeuner at Bougival, Box 
at the Opera, Rain in Paris, Dance at liou- 
gival. Windy Day at Guernsey, In the Cir- 
cus, A Servant, The Bath, Sail-Boats on the 
Argenteuil, Bather on Seashore, Woman 
Reading, Venice, After the Bath, Peonies, 
Child's Toilet, Preparing for the Bath, Gera- 
niums and Cats, Summer, Winter, On Shore, 
Six Portraits.— La France, Dec. 8, 18S4. 

RENOUF, I^:^nLE, born in Paris, June 
23, 1845. Land- 
scape, marine, and 
genre painter, pupil 
of Boidangcr, Jules 
Lefcbvre, and Caro- 
lus-Duran. Medals : 
Paris, 2d class, 1880; 
Munich, 1st class, 
1883. Visited Amer- 
ica in October, 188G. 
Works : Views near Honfleur (1870, 1872, 
1873, 1875, 1877) ; After the Rain at Sun- 
set, Tourne done, mousse ! (187G) ; Valley 
in Finistere (1877) ! Maison du Haut-du- 
Veut at Mouth of the Seine (1878) ; End of 
Day, Last Repair, my poor friend ! (187',») ; 
The Widow, La Pierre-des-Pendus (1880) ; 
A coup de main, Corcoran Gallery, Wash- 
ington ; After a Gust of Wind (1881) ; The 
Pilot (Wm. Schaus, New York), Lizzie 
(1883); Sunset (1884); A Tar (188.5); Adrift 
(188G).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 758 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K., xix. 258. 

RENOUX, CHARLES CAlUS, born in 
Paris in 1795, died there, !March 15, iStO. 
Landscape and architecture painter. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 1831 ; L. of 
Honour, 1838. W'orks : Interior of Saint- 
I"^tienne-du-Mont (1824), formei'ly in Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Views at Mcmtt'limart, 
Corps, and near Gt'rarae, Subterranean do. 
in the Arena at Aries, Interior in lOth Cen- 
tury (1831); Taking of Chateau dn rKscal- 
cette, 1070, do. of Ghent, 1G78, do. of Phil- 
ipsbourg, 1G88, do. of Roses, lG9i}, do. of 
Palamos, 1G94, Treaty between the Crusa- 
ders and Venetians in St. Mark's, 1201 
(1839), Marriage of the Due de Berry, 1816 



EENT-DAT 



(1843), Opening at the LoiuTe of the Leg- 
islative Session in 1823 (1843), Versailles 
Museum ; Henri d'Albret received into the 
Chapter at Auch, Amiens Museum ; Land- 
scape with Factories, Interior of Monastery 
near Aries, Interior of a Vault, Landscape, 
do. with Figures, Bordeaux Museum ; In- 
terior of Basle Cathedral, Colmar Museum ; 
Vault Interior, Lisieux Museum ; Rocks, 
Nantes Museum ; Ehine View (1831), Or- 
leans Museum ; The Antiquary, Leipsic 
Museum. — Bellier, ii. 361. 

KENT-DAY, Sir DayidWilkie, John Chap- 
man (?); canvas. Tenants paying their rent 
to the landlord, who is seated behind a table 




Rent-Day, Sir David Wilkie, John Chapman (?), 

at left ; at right, a table with several persons 
eating ; 18 figures. Painted in 1808 ; sold 
for ,£150 to Earl of Mulgrave, after whose 
death it was offered for sale, but bought in 
for 750 guineas; afterward sold to J. Chapman 
for about £2,000. Engraved by A. Raimbach. 
— Heaton, Works of Sir D. W.; Mollett, 30. 
RENTZELL, AUGUST VON, born at Ma- 
rienwerder, West Prussia, in 1810. Genre 
painter, pupil in Berlin of Karl Begas ; 
went for some time to Dusseldorf and set- 
tled in Berlin ; represents comical situations 
and little fatalities of human life. Works : 
Cab in Rainstorm claimed by Several Per- 
sons ; Late Packing (1842); Picture Dealer 



in Tyrolese Village ; In the Stable ; First 
Ride ; Sunday Morning ; Alpine Hunter ; 
Travellers on Austrian Frontier ; Afternoon 
on Lake Vierwaldstadt ; Mid-day Rest in the 
Open, Sleeping Grandmother (1847), Ravene 
Gallery, Berlin. — Rosenberg, Berl. Maler- 
schule, 70. 

REPOSE IN EGYPT, Paul JDelaroche, Sir 
Richard Wallace, Bart., London. The Vir- 
gin seated with Infant Jesus asleep on her 
knees ; in background, St. Joseph. Called 
sometimes Vierge au lezard. Painted for 
Lord Hertford. Engraved by Martinet — 
Larousse, xiii. 995. 

By Anton van Dyck, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 
X 9 ft. 1 in. Same as the 
Palazzo Pitti picture, ex- 
cept that the angels are re- 
placed by some partridges, 
whence sometimes called 
Madonna with the Par- 
tridges. In Collection of 
Charles I., valued at £40 ; 
Collection of M. van Loo, 
Amsterdam (1713), 12,050 
florins ; Collection of M. 
Valkenburg, Rotterdam 
(1731), 12,150 florins; 
bought by Earl of Orford 
for £800 for Houghton 
Collection, and sold, with 
other pictures, to Empress 
Catherine in 1795 for £36,000. Engraved 
by S. G. and J. G. Facius ; lithogi'aphed by 
Huot.— Guiffrey, 245 ; Smith, iii. 81. 

By Anton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin seated under a tree, with Jesus sleeping 
on her breast ; at left, St. Joseph. En- 
graved by Bolswert ; Ragot ; C. Waumans ; 
Edelinck ; J. Burger. — Smith, iii. 17 ; Klas. 
der Malerei, PI. 13 ; Guiffrey, 244. 

By Anton van Dyck, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. The 
Virgin seated on a bank under trees, hold- 
ing Jesus erect in her lap, and St. Joseph 
sitting behind ; their attention is directed 



36 



REPUBLICAN 



towai'd eight boy angels dancing in a ring 
before them ; above, in clouds, a choir of 
four angels. Passed from Collection of 
Marquis Gerini to Palazzo Pitti in 1818. 
Engraved by Bolswert ; J. Coelemaus 
(1698) ; J. Troyen ; Susanna Verbruggen ; 
L. Martelli ; Pilizotti. Eeplica (3 ft. 8 in. 
X 4 ft. 9 in.). Collection of Lord Ashburton. 
—Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 110 ; Guiffrey, 
245 ; Smith, iii. 81 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 
102. 

By Luc Olivier Merson, S. A. Coale, Jr., 
St. Louis ; canvas, H. 2 f t. x 4 ft. Night 
scene, the Nile in the distance ; in fore- 
ground, left, the Sphinx, with the Virgin 
and Child reposing between its paws ; at its 
foot, St, Joseph, asleep, and the ass, teth- 
ered beside him, cropping the herbage. Sa- 
lon, 1879. — Art Treasures of America, iii. 
52. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersbui'g ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 11 in. The Vir- 
gin, seated by a tree, in centre, watches Je- 
sus sleeping on a rock beside her ; at right, 
St. Joseph, holding the bridle of the ass ; 
at left, beside the Virgin, two cherubs ; in 
foreground, a bottle, a pack, and a broad- 
brimmed hat ; background, landscape. Gai- 
gnat sale (1768), 17,535 livres. Mezzo-tint, 
J. Walker. Repetitions : Eail of Northbrook, 
London ; Leigh Court Collection, Somer- 
set ; Glasgow Museum. Copy (?) by Tobar 
in Munich Gallery. Engraved by Sanders. 
— Descr. de lErmitage, 25 ; Curtis, 169 ; 
Hermitage Cat., 129. 

By Murillo, Earl of Strafford, "Wrotham 
Park, Herts, Eng. ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 8 in. x 
6 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, seated in centre, 
adores Jesus in her lap ; at left, St. Joseph, 
holding the ass, also in adoration ; on 
ground, between the group, a gourd bottle, 
a straw hat, and a bundle ; at right, two 
cherubs in adoration ; above, three cherubs, 
one of them hanging a curtain between trees, 
as a screen ; background, mountains. — Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iv. 320 ; Curtis, 170. 

By Nicolas PuusHin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 
ft 3 m. x 1 ft. 7 in. The Virgin seated. 



holds on her knees Jesus, who caresses the 
young St. John, who is presented by St. 
Elizabeth, kneeling ; behind, St. Joseph 
standing. Painted in 1651 for Due de Cre- 
qui. Engraved by J. Pesne ; Massard ; Ni- 
quet. — Filhol, vii. 487 ; Cat. Louvre. 

By Paolo Veronese, Munich Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. X 5 ft. 2 in. ; signed. The 
Virgin gives the breast to Jesus while some 
angels gather fruits. 

REPUBLICAN COURT, Daniel Hunting- 
ton, A. T. Stewart Collection, New York ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. x 10 ft. A reception at Wash- 
ington in the second term of President 
Washington's administration. Mrs. Wash- 
ington at left, standing, with Nelly Custis and 
IVIi-s. Robert Morris on her left, Alexander 
Hamilton, John Adams, and John Jay at her 
right, and other celebrites of the time be- 
hind her ; in centre, background. General 
Washington in conversation with Harriet 
Chew and surrounded by Jonathan Tinim- 
bull, Ohver Ellsworth, Thomas Jefferson, 
the Duke of Kent, and others ; at right, 
Mrs. George Clinton, seated, in conversation 
with Mrs. Ralph Izard, with IVIx-s. John Jay 
and other ladies in foreground and many 
prominent men in background. Painted in 
1876. Engraved by Alexander H. Ritchie, 

RESPECT, Paolo Veronese, Cobham Hall, 
England ; canvas, 5 ft. 10 in. square. A 
woman, nude, lying asleep, toward whom 
Cupid is drawing a man, who is held back 
by an old man in the background. Waagen 
thinks it wrongly named, and says it ap- 
pears rather to exemplify the triumph of 
passion over reason. From collection of 
Queen Christina of Sweden to Orleans Gal- 
lery ; valued at sale in 1793 at £150, sold 
for 44 guineas. Engraved by L. Desplaces ; 
M. Pelletier. — Waagen, Treasures, ii. 499 ; 
iii. 20 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 25. 

RESTOUT, JEAN, the younger, born at 
Rouen, March 26, 1692, died in Paris, Jan. 1, 
1768. French school ; history painter, son 
of Jean Restout, the elder (1663-1702), pu- 
pil of his uncle, Jean Jouvenet. In 1717 he 
won the grand prix de Rome and was ac- 



27 



RESTOUT 




V 



^ •^\'^> 



^ 



^A 



ceptcd as an lionorary member of the Acad- 
emy. Full member of the Academy in 1720, 
professor in 1733, and 
director in 17G0. Was 
also associate of 
the Academies 
of Kouen and 
Caen. Works : 
^^ _ ' Venus asking 

^ '. V" _ Vulcan for Arms 
for Jj^ n e a s 
(1717); Ananias 
laying Hands on 
St. Paul (1718), Louvre ; Aretliusa 
escaj^ing f rom Alpheus (1720), Com- 
piegne Palace ; Christ healing a 
Paralytic (1725), Louvre ; Alexander 
the Great taking the Potion from 
Phihp, Last Supper, Amiens Muse- 
um ; Good Samaritan (1736), An- 
gers Museum ; Proj)het Ezekiel, 
Presentation in the Temple, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; St. John having 
baptized Christ, humbles himself 
before the Son of God, Dijon Mu- 
seum ; Martyrdom of St. Andrew, 
Grenoble Museum ; Christ at Em- 
maus (1735), Lille Museum; Christ's 
Charge to St. Peter, Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of himself, Metz 
Museum ; Portrait of an Architect, 
Nancy Museum ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Annunciation, Orleans 
Museum ; Presentation of the Vir- 
gin, Rouen Museum ; Telemachus 
relating his adventures to Calypso, Rennes 
Museum ; Old Man's Head, Valenciennes 
Museum ; Portrait of a Physician, Versailles 



sumption. Sens Cathedral. Villot, Cat. Lou- 
vre ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran(,'aise ; Jal, 1054. 
EESTOUT, JEAN BERNARD, born in 
Paris, Feb. 22, 1732, died there, July 18, 





Museum ; Herminia at the Shepherd's, Toi- 
let of Herminia, Fontainebleau Palace ; As- 



Resurrection, Annibale Carracci, Louvre. 

1797. French school ; history painter, son 
and pupil of preceding ; won the second 
prize in 1755, and the grand prize in 1758 ; 
then studied in Rome, returned in 1765, 
and was received into the Academy in 1769, 
but severed his connection in 1771, not wish- 
ing to submit to its regulations. Member 
also of Caen, Rouen, and Toulouse Acad- 
emies. Works : St. Bruno in Prayer in the 
Desert (1763), Louvre ; Diogenes, Phile- 
mon and Baucis (sketch), Toulouse Muse- 
um ; Anacreon singing his Poems to his 
Mistress (1765), Jupiter and Mercury at the 



KESURBECTIOK 



Table of PhUemon and Baucis (17G9), Tours 
Museum.— Bellier, ii. 364; Chennevieres, 
Peintres provinciaux de Tanciemie France, 

iii. 317. 

RESURKECTION, Aunibale Carracci, 
Louvre ; canvas, arched, H. 7 ft. 1 in. x 5 ft. 




with the marks of the Crucifixion on his 
body ; above, in a glory of cherubim, God 
the Father, with the Virgin and Gabriel 
kneeling on clouds at sides ; below, in land- 
scape, people in adoration. In the predella, 
Christ rising from the sepulchre, supported 
by angels and attended on right by SS. 
Dominic, Clara, and Catharine of Siena ; on 
left, by SS. Francis, Louis of Toulouse, and 
Bernardino of Siena. Belonged to the Bare- 
foot Monks of Palco, near Prato. The order 
was given to Domenico Ghirlandajo in 
1491, but it was executed by Filippino Lip- 
pi in 1495.— C. & C, Italy, ii. 444. 

By Francesco Mantegna (?), National Gal- 
lery, London ; wood, H. 1 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 
Christ, partly clad m a red mantle, stands 
on edge of the sepulchre, which is built 
into a pyramidal rock that rises in centre 
nearly to top of picture ; five soldiers at 
base, four asleep and one watching. The 
expressions are excellent, and the execution 
is marked by careful finish. Bought in 
1881 from A. W. Thibaudeau for £300. — 



Resurrection, Pietro Perugino, Vatican, Rome. 

3 in. ; signed, dated 1593. Christ, within a 
glory of angels, has risen from the tomb ; 
one of the soldiers is sleeping on the sepul- 
chre, the seals of which are unbroken ; an- 
other, at left, runs with a flag ; a third, at 
rio-ht, is about to draw his sword ; others 
stricken with fear. Painted for the Luchi- 
ni, rich merchants ; bought for Louis XTV. 
in 1685 for 4,000 livres. Copy, small with 
variations, on copper, in Louvre ; engraved 
by G. M. Mitelli.— Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Lan- 
don, Muse'e, xi. PI. 33. 

By Filippino Lippi, Munich Gallery ; 
wood, H. 5 ft. X 4 ft. 10 in.; predella, 1 ft.X 
4 ft. 10 in. Christ appears to the Virgin 




Resurrection, Raffaellino del Garbo, Florence Academy. 



Athenjeum (1881), No. 2807, 216 ; Kichter, 
68, 110. 

By 3Iurillo, Academia S. Fernando, INIa- 
drid ; canvas, H. 8 ft. X 5 ft. 4 in. Christ 
ascending, with a red banner in his left 



29 



RETHEL 



hand and pointing up with his right ; be- 
low, guards sleeping by the tomb. Former- 
ly in Convent of the Merced Calzada, Sev- 
ille ; carried oflf by Marshal Soult ; returned 
to Madrid in 1814. Eugraved by'Franch. 
Study was in Standish Collection. — C. Ber- 
mudez, ii. 59 ; Pouz, Viage, ix. 107 ; Curtis, 
206. 

By Pietro Perugino (and Raphael ?), Vati- 
can, Rome ; wood, arched. Clu'ist, in an 
almond-shaped glory, with an angel on each 
side, has risen from the tomb ; three sol- 
diers sleeping and one running away. The 
flying soldier is said to be the portrait of 
Perugino, and the sleeping youth on the 
right that of Raphael, who probably had a 
share in the painting of this picture. Paint- 
ed for S. Francesco de' Conventuali, Peru- 
gia, after 1504. Taken to Paris ; returned 
in 1815.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 219 ; Pistolesi, 
Vaticano, vi. PI. 69 ; Miintz, 53 ; Passavant, 
ii. 4. 

By Raffaellino del Garbo, Florence Acad- 
emy ; wood, figures half life-size. Christ 
rises from the sepulchre, the cover of which 
has fallen on one of the guards ; other sol- 
diers running away in terror ; landscape 
background of a town, ruins, rocks, and 
trees. Foi-merly in S. Bartolommeo at 
Monte Oliveto. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 235 ; 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 419. 

By Raphael, Vatican ; wood, H. 7 ft. 6 in. 
X 5 ft. 6 in. Christ, supported on a cloud, 
blesses the world as he rises from the tomb ; 
two guards, thought by some to resemble 
Raphael and Perugino, sleep near ; in dis- 
tance, two more run away. Attributed to 
Perugino, but probably by Raphael when 
under him (1495-1500). Painted for S. 
Francesco, Perugia ; carried to Paris in 
1797 ; sent to Vatican in 1815. Engraved 
by Graffonara ; Rehberg. Studies for the 
two groups of soldiers in Oxford Collection. 
— Passavant, ii. 2. 

By Rembrandt, Munich Gallery ; canvas, 
arched, H. 2 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. An an- 
gel is removing the stone from the entrance 
to the sepulchre, within which Christ is seen 



in his grave-clothes ; some of the guard have 
fallen to the ground, others are endeavoui-- 
ing to escape. Engraved by Hess. — Smith, 
vii. 43. 

By H Sodoma, Naples Museum ; wood, 
signed, dated 1535. Christ, with the ban- 
ner of victory, rising above the clouds ; at 
the tomb, two angels. Formerly in S. Tom- 
maso, Naples. — Meyer, Kiiust. Lex., iii, 214, 
226. 

By Tintoretto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 1 in, x 4 ft. Christ rising 
from the sepulchre, with white banner in 
his hand ; soldiers dazzled by the light, and 
flying, abandoning their arms ; background 
of military tents. Engraved by Viviani. — 
Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iv. PI, 78. 

By Tintoretto, S. Cassiano, Venice ; can- 
vas, signed, and dated 1565. Not a picture 
of the Resurrection, but of Saints thinking 
about the Resurrection ; a mass of Renais- 
sance absurdities. On one side of the tomb 
is S. Cassiano, a bishop in full robes, on the 
other a female saint, St. Cecilia ; beneath 
it an angel playing on the organ, which a 
cherub is blowing ; above, cherubs flying 
about with flowers. — Ruskin, Stones of Ven- 
ice; iii, 290 ; Zanotto, 383. 

By Tintoretto, S, Giorgio Maggiore, Ven- 
ice ; canvas, Christ rising, and some por- 
traits of the Mousini family. — Zanotto, 633. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas. " Characteristic of the worst points 
of Tintoret. Christ bursts out of the tomb 
like a thunderl)olt, and the angels them- 
selves seem likely to be crushed under the 
rent stones. The best part is the two dis- 
tant figures of the Marys." — Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 337. 

RETHEL, ALFRED, born at Diepen- 
bend House, near Aix-la-Chapelle, May 15, 
1816, died at Diisseldorf, Dec. 1, 1859. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy 
under Schadow, when a mere lad, and with 
his earliest compositions excited the admi- 
ration of his instructors ; visited Munich 
and the Bavarian Alps in 1835, went in 1837 
to Frankfort, where he became an enthu- 



30 



KETIIEL 




siastic follower of Philip Veit, and widely 
known throughout Germany by his Neme- 
sis ; visited Italy in 
1844-45, and execut- 
ed his famous frescos 
in the Coronation 
Hall at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle in 1847-51, liv- 
ing alternately in 
Dresden in 1848-51 ; 
visited Rome again 
in 1852, when the 
first signs of a men- 
tal disease appeared, resulting in softening 
of the brain. Works : St. Boniface (1832), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; do. Preaching 
(1835j ; several others from life of this 
Saint ; Charles Martel in Battle of Tours 
(1833) ; Prayer before Battle of Sempach 
(1834) ; Nemesis (1837), Herr von Renter, 
Frankfort; Daniel in Lions' Den (1838), 
Guardian Angel of Emperor Maximilian I., 
Stadel Gallery, ib.; Charles V., Maximilian 
I. and II., Philip of Suabia (1838), ROmer, 
ib.; Finding of Gustavus Adolphus after 
Battle of Liitzen, Stuttgart Museum ; Rec- 
onciliation of Emperor Otto I. with liis 
Brother Henry, St. Martin (1837-39); Scenes 
from Life of Rudolph von Hapsburg, Battle 
of the Huns, Prayer of Crusaders, Job, sev- 
eral pictures in History of David, Theodo- 
sius and Ambrosius, Death of Barbarossa, 
Battle of Merseburg (about 1839); Emperor 
Max on the Martinswand, Charles V. enter- 
ing St. Yuste, Coffin of Henry IV., St. Peter 
and St. John healing the Lame (1840-41), 
Leipsic Museum ; Joshua, Absalom, Ba- 
laam's Ass, David anointed King, Moses 
destroying Tables of the Law (1842-43); St. 
Sebastian's Body taken by Christians from 
Cloaca Maxima, Martyrdom of St. Stephen ; 
Resurrection, St. Nicholas, Frankfort ; Cycle 
(6) representing Hannibal crossing the Alps 
(1844-45). Frescos : Opening of Charle- 
magne's Tomb by Otto III., Destruction of 
the L-men Column, Battle of Cordova, Cliar- 
lemagne's Entry into Pavia, Baptism of Wit- 
tekind. Coronation of Charlemagne, Build- 



ing of Minster at Aix-la-Chapelle, Dehvery 
of the Crown to Louis the Pious (1847-51), 
City Hall, Aix-la-Chapellc ; cartoons of do., 
and of Resurrection, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin.— Allgem. Zeitg. (1859), 5985; Art Jour- 
nal (1865), 337 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande 
Jordan (1885), ii. 180 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Dus 
seldf. K, 64 ; do., Alf. Rethel (Leipsic, 1861) 
Nagler, Mon., i. 507 ; Pecht, ii. 129 ; Reber 
ii. 141 ; Riegel, D. Kunststud., 326 ; Vischer 
Altes u. Neues, iii. 1 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi 
132 ; x. (Mittheilungen, iii. 49) ; xx. 208, 287, 

RETHEL, OTTO, born at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, Dec. 26, 1822. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, brother of Alfred ; pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy under his brother, Karl 
Sohn, and Schadow. Works : Boaz and 
Ruth (1855), Leipsic Museum ; Return of 
Tobias ; Paul and Silas ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives ; Reunion after Sickness ; Little 
Congratulators ; At the Hearth ; In the 
House of Mourning ; Serious Infancy ; Hap- 
py Age ; Artist's Portrait (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886).— Miiller, 435. 

RETTICH, KARL LORENZ, born at Ro- 
senhagen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1841. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Munich of Lier, 
then in Diisseldorf (1862-67) of Albert 
Flamm and Theodor Hageu ; lived in Dres- 
den in 1867-70 and settled in Weimar in 
1871. Medals ; London, 1874 ; Munich, 
1876. Works : After Sunset ; Autumn 
Morning ; Landscaj^e in Holsteiu ; After the 
Storm ; Sheep on Baltic Coast ; Norwegian 
Coast ; Devastation of Baltic Coast by 
Storm Tide ; Cows on Baltic Coast. — Miil- 
ler, 435. 

RETURN FROM BEAR HUNT. See 
Stone Age. 

RETURN FROM DIOl^R STALMNG, 
Sir Edwin Landseer, Windsor Castle. A 
young chief and his old companion, a 
mountaineer, are going carefully down a 
hill, with two magnificently antlcred stags 
bound across the backs of a black and a 
white pony ; two dogs accompany them, 
one of which turns to a deer's skull lying 
in the grass. Royal Academy, 1827. 



81 



RETURN 



KETURN FROM EGYPT, Ruhens, Blen- 
heim Palace ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 11 
in. The Virgin, holding Jesus by her right 
hand, is advancing to left ; on farther side, 
Joseph leading the ass ; in middle of pict- 
ure, a palm tree. Painted about IGIO. En- 
graved by Vorsterman (1620); Lowrie ; Voet; 
MoAi'dell ; in reverse, anonymous. Blen- 
heim sale (1886), £1,500, to Murray.— Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iii. 124 ; Smith, ii. 243. 

By Paibens, Metropolitan Museum, Nev^r 
York ; Avood, H. 8 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. 
The Virgin and St. Joseph lead Infant Je- 
sus by the hand ; above, the Father looking 
down from heaven. Painted for Jesuits' 
Church, Antwerp, in 1620 ; bought at sale 
after suppression of Jesuits (1777), by M. 
Danoot ; at his sale (1828), bought by Mr. 
Buchanan, London. Transferred to can- 
vas, 1880. Engi-aved by Bolswert. — Smith, 
ii. 21 ; Van Hasselt, Hist, de Rubens, 248 ; 
Cat. New York Mus. 

RETURN FROM HAWKING, Sir Ed- 
win Landseer, Ellesmere Collection. The 
party have just halted under an arch at the 
entrance to the mansion ; Lord Francis 
Egerton (afterwards first Earl of Ellesmere), 
who has dismounted from a white horse, 
held by a page, stands leaning upon the 
neck of a black horse, on which is seated 
his wife with a child in her arms ; at left, 
the falconer with the victorious bird on his 
gloved hand and others on a perch sus- 
pended from his neck ; in front, a little girl 
teasing one of the falcons, game, hounds, and 
pet dogs. Royal Academy, 1837. Engraved 
by Samuel Cousins. — Landseer Gallery. 

RETURNING FROM MARIvET, Sir Au- 
gustus Wall CaUcott, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. Dutch 
peasants, two girls on foot and a woman 
and child on ponies, fording a brook on 
their way home from the market-town, 
which is seen between the trees in back- 
ground. Royal Academy, 1834 ; Vernon 
Collection, 1847. Engraved by Finden ; J. 
Cousen. — Cat. Nat. Gal.; Painters of Geor- 
gian Era, 76. 



REUTERN, GERHARDT WILHELM 
VON, born at Rosthof, Livland, July 18, 
1794, died in Frankfort, March 22, 1865. 
History and genre painter, pupil in 1834 of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Schadow and 
Hildebrandt, after having served in the 
Russian army and lost his right arm in the 
campaign of 1813 ; became court painter to 
Czar Nicolas I. in 1835 and settled in Frank- 
fort in 1844. Works : Page in Mediaeval 
Costvime, Girl opening Jewelry Box (1835); 
Girl Knitting ; Children's School ; Domes- 
tic Devotions of Schwalmer Peasants ; 
Mother and Child praying at a Grave ; St. 
George issuing from Church Door ; Sacri- 
fice of Isaac (1849), Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Mother with Sleeping Child (3 times); 
Madonna, Girl under a Tree, Three Singers 
in a Boat (1858-59), Summer Palace at Zars- 
koe Selo ; Trinity, Crucifixion, Last Supper, 
Fall of Man, Temptation of Christ. — Andre- 
sen, iii. 223. 

REVOIL, PIERRE, born at Lyons, June 
13, 1776, died in Paris, March 19, 1842. 
History and genre painter, pupil of David 
with Fleury Fran9ois Richard, whom he 
greatly surpassed ; founder of the roman- 
tic school, which turned from the hack- 
neyed gods and heroes of antiquity to more 
appealing episodes in history. Happy in 
the choice of his subjects from the middle 
ages and renaissance, he combined with an 
attractive conception gi'eat care in repre- 
senting costumes and accessories with his- 
torical truthfulness, and a brilliant colour- 
ing. Became professor at Lyons Academy 
in 1809, but resigned in 1830 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1814 ; corresponding member of the 
Institute, 1825. Works: The Ring of 
Charles V. (1810), formerly in Luxembourg 
Museum ; The Tourney (1812), Lyons Mu- 
seum ; Convalescence of Bayard (1817); 
Jeanne d'Arc imprisoned at Rouen (1819) ; 
Jeanne d'Albret (1819), Fontainebleau Pal- 
ace ; Mary Stuart's Farewell of her Servants 
(1822); Tanci-ed taking Possession of Beth- 
lehem in 1099 (1840), Philippe Auguste tak- 
ing the Orillamme at Saint-Denis in 1190 



32 



KEX 



(1841), Versailles Museum ; Giotto as a Child 
(1841), Grenoble Museum ; Ransom of Chris- 
tians by the Trinitarians, Aix Museum. — 
Bellier, ii. 367 ; Meyer, Gesch., 150 ; Nag- 
ler, xiii. 68. 

EEX TIBICEN (Iving Flutist), Jean Louis 
Gerome, private gallery, Paris. Frederick 
the Great, full-length, standing, playing the 
flute in his cabinet, before a table on which 
are a music book, writing implements, and 
papers. The floor is strewn with books 
and rolls and at the right a hound is lying 
asleep. Salon, 1876. 

EEYN, JAN DE, born at Dunkirk in 
1610, died there in 1678. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil at Ant- 
werj) of Van Dyck, whom he followed to 
England, and assisted in his works, vmtil 
that master's death, when he returned to 
his native town. Very probably many of 
his works, especially portraits, are attrib- 
uted to his master. Works : The Four 
Chief Martyrs, St. Eloy's, Dunkirk ; Death 
of Totila, English Convent, ib. ; Herodias 
with the Head of St. John, St. Martin's, 
Bergues, near Dunkirk ; Thetis and Peleus, 
Madrid Museum ; Female Portrait (1637), 
Brussels Museum. — Kramm, v. 1632. 

REYNOLDS, Sir JOSHUA, born at 
Plympton, Devonshire, 
July 16, 1723, died in 
London, Feb. 23, 1792. 
Son of Rev. Samuel 
Reynolds, master of the 
grammar school at 
Plympton St. Mary, 
Plymouth. Went to 
London in 1741 as a 
pupil of Thomas Hud- 
son, and after less than two years' study 
returned home and painted many portraits 
at a low price. In 1746 he began practice 
in London, and in 1749 accompanied Com- 
modore (afterward Lord) Keppel in the ship 
Centurion to the Mediterranean. At Rome, 
where he caught a cold while working in 
the Sistine Chapel, which made him deaf 
ior the rest of his life, he remained two 




years ; he then visited other parts of Italy 
before returning to England via Paris, in 
October, 1752, and spent three months in 
Devonshire before settling in London, at 
tirst in St. Martin's Lane, where in 1753 he 
painted the portrait of Commodore Keppel 
(Collection of Lord Albemarle), which laid 
the foundation of his fortune. In 1768, on 
the establishment of the Roj'al Academy, 
he was chosen its first president, and was 
knighted by Geoi-ge III.; and in 1769, Jan. 
2, he delivered his first discourse to the 
students of the Academy. On the death 
of Allan Ramsay (1784), he became princi- 
pal painter in ordinary to the king. He 
exhibited 245 works at the Royal Academy, 
his contributions averaging eleven annually. 
He died unmarried, and was buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, near Sir Christopher Wren. 
Reynolds painted many historical and fancy 
subjects, but it is as a portrait painter that 
he excelled all his contemporaries. Ruskin 
calls him the " prince of portrait painters " 
and "one of the seven colourists of the 
world," placing him with Titian, Giorgione, 
Correggio, Tintoretto, Veronese, and Tur- 
ner. But though his pictures still have a 
peculiar grace and elegance from the artis- 
tic jDose of the figures and the happy ar- 
rangement of accessories, many of them 
liave lost their freshness in consequence of 
his use of fading colours and his experi- 
ments with fugitive mediums. Among the 
best preserved of his works are those in the 
National Gallery. A collection of Reynolds's 
works was exhibited in the winter of 1883- 
84 at the Gi'osvenor Gallery, London, in- 
cluding the following : Portrait of Sir Joshua 
(1748), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Mrs. Field (1748), 
E. R. Pearce, Esq.; Caricatures (1751), Duke 
of Devonshire ; Admiral Keppel (1753), Earl 
of Albemarle ; Lord Cathcart (1754), Earl 
Cathcart ; Lord Brownlow ; Lord Anson 
(1755), Earl of Lichfield ; Lady Cathcart 
and her Daughter (1755), Earl Cathcart ; 
Alderman W. lieckford (1755), Duke of Ham- 
ilton ; Hon. W. Keppel (1758), Earl of Al- 
bemarle ; Duke of Hamilton (1758), Duke 



REYXOLDS 



of Hamilton ; Lady Caroline Fox (1758), 
Lady Holland ; Hon. John Byron (1759), 
W. Byron, Esq.; 1st Marquis of Hertford 
(1759), Marquis of Hertford ; Earl of Sus- 
sex (1759), Lord Douington ; Marchioness 
of Tavistock (1759), Earl of Albemarle ; 
Duchess of Gloucester (1759), Earl Walde- 
grave ; Lady Selina Hastings (1759), Lord 
Donington ; Veiius and Cupid (1759), Lord 
Castletown ; 2 Portraits of Admiral Keppel 
(1860-65), Lord Albemarle ; Miss Jacobs 
(1761), Marquis of Hertford ; Countess 
"Waldegi-ave, Earl Waldegrave (1761), Lord 
Carlingford; Lord Erroll (1763), Earl of 
Erroll ; Miss Abington as JVIiss Prue (1764), 
Sir Charles Mills ; Master T. Lisker (1764), 
Lord Ribblesdale ; Mrs. Collyer as Lesbia 
(1764), Sir W. Knighton ; Lady Ann Stan- 
hope (1765-66), Earl of Mesborough ; Earl 
of Pembroke and Son (1765), Earl of Pem- 
broke ; Lord Borringdon (1766?), Earl of 
Morley ; Warren Hastings (1766), Lord 
Northwick ; Marquis of Rockingham and 
his Secretary, Edmund Burke (1766), Sir 
Frederick Leighton, P.E.A.; Rev. Zachariah 
Mudge (1766), Mrs. Gwatkin ; 2 Portraits 
of Sir Joshua's Black Servant (1767?), Rt. 
Hon. George Cavendish Bentinck, and Sir 
George Beaumont ; Rt. Hon. Su* John Cart 
(1767), Lord Brownlow ; Crossing the Brook 
(1767), Mrs. Buchanan Riddell ; Lord Am- 
herst (1768 ?), Hon. Paive C. Glyn ; Garrick 
as Kitely (1768), L. Huth, Esq.; Duchess 
of Devonshire (1769), Earl Spencer ; Por- 
trait of Sir Joshua (1770), Dilettanti Soci- 
ety ; IVIi-s. Pelham (1770), Earl of Yarbor- 
ougb ; Lord George Seymour (1770), Hon. 
G. S. Conway ; Miss Palmer (1770), G. W. 
Currie, Esq. ; Bartolozzi (1771), Earl of 
Morley ; Venus chiding Cupid (1771), Earl 
Northbrook ; Duchess of Buccleuch and her 
Child (1772), Duke of Buccleuch ; Strawberry 
Girl (1773), Col. Copley Wray ; repetitions. 
Sir R. Wallace and Marquis of Lausdowne ; 
Nymph and Young Bacchus (1773), L Bent- 
ley ; Lady Borringdon and her Son (1773), 
Earl of Morley ; Joseph Baretti (1774), Lady 
HoUand ; Mrs. Morris (1775), W. B. Beau- 



mont, Esq.; Lifant St. John (1776), Sir 
Watkin W. Wynn ; 2d Earl of Spencer 
(1776), Earl Spencer ; Lord Porchester as 
Infant Bacchus (1776), Eai'l of Carnarvon ; 
Young Fortune-TeWer (1777 ?), Duke of Marl- 
borough ; Countess of Powis (1777), Earl of 
Powis ; Two Groups of Members of Dilet- 
tanti Society (1777-79), Dilettanti Society ; 
Ariadne (1778), Th. Evans, Esq.; Earl of 
Dalkeith (1778), Duke of Buccleuch ; Lady 
Beaumont (1779), Sir- G. Beaumont ; The 
Gleaners (1780), Robert Gosling, Esq. ; 
Lord Cavendish (1780), Duke of Devon- 
shii-e ; Portrait of Sir Joshua (1780), Royal 
Academy ; Prince William Frederick (1780), 
Trinity Collection ; Miss Nesbitt as Circe 
(1781), Lady Stanley of Alderley ; The 
Three Ladies Waldegrave (1781), Lord Car- 
lingford ; Mrs. Thrale and her Daughter 
(1781), Lady Ashburton ; Hon. Mrs. Beck- 
ford (1782 ?) ; W. Beckford, M. P. (1782), 
Duke of Hamilton ; Callingof Samuel (1782), 
Earl of Darnley ; Countess Spencer, Rich- 
ard Burke (1782), Earl Spencer ; Sir Abra- 
ham Hume (1783?), Earl Brownlow; INIiss 
Fanny Kemble (1783), Rt. Hon. George 
Cavendish Bentinck ; Countess of EitoU 
(1783), Earl of Erroll; Infant Academy 
(1783), Lord Mount Temple ; Girl with 
Dead Dove, Lord Houghton ; Marchioness 
of Thomond (1784), Mrs. Gwatkin; Lady 
Spencer and Child (1784), Earl Spencer ; 
3Iuscipula (1784), Lady Holland ; Lady Or- 
mond, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse 
(1784), Grosvenor House ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds (1785), Earl Fitzwilliam ; Duch- 
ess of Devonshire and her Child (1786), 
Duke of Devonshire ; Dr. Johnson (1786), 
Ch. Morrison, Esq.; Lady CorawaU (1786), 
Miss A. Duff Gordon ; Lady Anne Bingham 
(1786), Earl Spencer; Felina (1787), Earl 
of Feversham ; Sir George Beaumont (1787), 
Sir G. Beaumont ; Miss Gwatkin as «S7?n- 
plicity (1788), E. F. Watson, Esq.; Portrait 
of Sir Joshua (1788), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Guard- 
ian Angel, Portrait of Sir Joshua (1788). 
Duke of Leeds ; Babes in the Wood (1788), 
H. N. Pym, Esq.; Infant Hercules (1788), 



34 



KEZZONICO 



Lord Northwick ; do., Earl Fitzwilliam ; 
View from Richmond HiU (1788), Earl of 
Northbrook ; Death of Dido, Cimon and 
Iphigenia (1789), Buckingham Palace ; Lady 
Francis Cole (1789), Earl of Darnley ; Sheri- 
dan? (1789), H. N. Pym, Esq.; Man's Head 
in Profile (1773), Holy Family, The Graces 
(1774), Banished Lord, Lord Heathfield, 
Hon. William Wyndham, Infant Samuel, 
Lord Ligonier on Horseback, Sir A. Hume, 
Admiral Keppel (1780), Sir William Hamil- 
ton (1784), Age of Innocence, Captain Orme, 
Heads of Angels (1787), Portraits of Two 
Gentlemen (1788-89), Snake in the Grass, 
Dr. Johnson, Boswell, Portrait of Sir Joshua, 
George IV. as Prince of Wales, Portrait of 
a Lady, liohinetla, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Mother and Sick Child, 2 Portraits 
of Sir Joshua, Death of Cardinal Beaufort, 
A Sketch, Prophet Samuel, Mrs. Siddons as 
the Tragic Muse, Dulwich Gallery ; Snake 
in the Grass, Soane Museum and Baron 
Rothschild's Collection ; Lord Ashburton ; 
Earl of Bath ; Admiral Boscawen ; Earl 
Camden ; Sir W. Chambers ; Duke of Cum- 
berland ; Viscount Keppel ; Marquis of 
Lansdowne ; Portrait of Sir Joshua. Other 
noted works are : Kitty Fkher (1759), Hope 
nursing Love, Sleeping Gu'l, Lansdowne 
House ; Nellie O'Brien, Miss Bowler, Hert- 
ford House ; Death of Cardinal Beaufort, 
Macbeth and Witches, Lord Leconfield, Pet- 
worth House ; Mrs. Barrington as St. Ce- 
cilia, Bowood ; Garricic between Tragedy 
and Comedy (1761), Sir W. W. Wynn ; 
TJgolino (1773), Earl Amherst, Knole Park ; 
Pic/:-a-Back (about 1779), Lord Monson ; 
Venus and Cupid, Continence of Scipio, 
Hercules strangling the Serjaents (1788), 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Puck (1787), 
Earl Fitzwilliam ; Penelope lioothhy (1788), 
Earl of Dudley. Sir Joshua was distin- 
guished also for literary ability. His "Dis- 
courses on Painting," which formed his an- 
nual addresses as head of the Academy, are 
admirably composed and excellent in their 
precepts. His sister, Frances Reynolds 
(1729-1807) painted miniatures and copied 



his pictures. — Leslie and Tom Taylor, Life 
(London, 1865) ; Northcote, Memoirs (Lou- 
don, 1813) ; Farington, Memoirs (London, 
1819); Malone, Works of J. R. (1801); Cot- 
ton, Sir J. R. and his Works (1856) ; Cun- 
ningham ; Redgi'ave, Centui-y ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole auglaise ; Waagen, Art Treasures ; 
Quarterly Review, April, May, and July, 
1866 ; Pulling, Biog. Great Ai'tists ; Knight, 
Works of J. R. (1798) ; Beechey, Literary 
Works, etc., of J. R. (London, 1835) ; Ste- 
phens, English Children painted by J. R, 
with 15 photos.; Portfolio (1873), 66, 82. 

REZZONICO, MARC ANTONIO, por- 
trait, Titian, Spedale Maggiore, Milan ; can- 
vas, figui'e to thigh, life-size. Painted in 
1558 ; left to the hospital by Rezzouico, a 
benefactor, at his death in 1584, Injured 
by cleaning and repairing. — C. & C, Titian, 
ii. 266. 

RHODEN, JOHANN MARTIN VON, 
born at Cassel in 1778 or 1782, died Sept. 
19, 1868, Landscape painter, studied in 
Rome, whither he returned in 1833, having 
been called to Cassel as court painter iu 
1827, Works : View near Lake of Albauo, 
Gotha Museum ; Italian Landscape with Pil- 
grim and Hermit ; Villa of Hadrian ; Con- 
vent of S. Benedetto near Subiaco. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1842), 112 ; D. Kunstbl. (1858), 
285 ; Furster, iv., vii. ; v, 543 ; Riegel, 
Gesch. des Wiederauflebens der d. K., 124, 
334. 

RHOMBERG, HANNO, born in Munich 
in 1819, died at 
Walchsee, Tyrol, July 
17, 1869, Genre 
painter, son and pupil 
of Josef Anton Rhom- 
berg, then pupil of 
Munich Academy un- 
der Schnorr, and of 
Bernhard ; was much 
influenced by Euhu- 
ber and rapidly won 
fame with his humorous scenes from every- 
day life. Works : Watchmaker, National 
Gallery, Berhn ; Village Painter's Studio 




36 



REIOMBERG 



(1857) ; Votive Tablet (1858) ; Tight Boot, 
Best Scholar (1859) ; Punished for stealing 
Tid-Bits, Acrobats at Village Lm (1860) ; 
The Second Glass (1860) ; Sledge Carver 
(1861), Buying a Bird, First Trial in Smok- 
ing (1853), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Ink- 
Spot, Juggler (1861) ; Boy at Whetstone 
(1862) ; Badly Sewed Shoe, Mother's Er- 
rand (1863) ; Children begging Father to 
buy a Dog (1864); Little Patient, Breakfast 
in Tyrol (1865); Tavern Scene (1869); Buy- 
ing the Rabbits, R. L. Stuart, New York. — 
D. Kunstbl. (1854), 6 ; (1856), 72 ; (1857), 
403 ; (1858), 226 ; Propyliien (1869), 720 ; 
Regnet, ii. 93 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 285. 

RHOMBERG, JOSEF ANTON, born at 
Dornbirn, Vorarlberg, in 1786, died in Mu- 
nich, Dec. 3, 1853. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Peter von Langer, and won first prize in 
1814 ; lived alternately in Vienna and Mu- 
nich, where he finally settled and became 
professor at the Polytechnic School in 1827. 
Works : Noah's Sacrifice (1814) ; Rebekah 
at the Well, Holy Family (1820) ; Sybilla 
(1822), Innsbruck Museum ; Death of Abel, 
Deluge, Swiss on the Riitli (1822) ; Adora- 
tion of Shepherds, Frauen- 
kirche, Munich; Chamois 
Hunter and Girl Cow-Keeper 
(1832), Leipsic Museum. — 
Soltl, 251 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 4. 

RIBALTA, FRANCISCO DE, born at 
Castellon de la Plana, Valencia, between 
1550 and 1560, died in Valencia, Jan. 12, 
1628. Spanish school ; studied in Valencia 
and afterwards in Italy, where he was influ- 
enced by the works of Raphael, Sebastian 
del Piombo, and the Carracci. On his re- 
turn to Spain he was received with honour 
and patronage, and painted many pictures 
for the churches and convents of Valencia. 
His best works are remarkable for grandeur 
and freedom of drawing, good taste in com- 
position, and knowledge of anatomy. Among 
his best scholars were his son Juan, Grego- 
rio Castafieda, and Spagnoletto. Cean Ber- 
mudez gives a list of six pages of his works. 



-^^ — O"? 



Among the best are : Dead Christ and An- 
gels, St. Francis, Blessed Soul, Lost Soul, 
Madrid Museum ; St. Francis embracing 
Christ, Assumption, St. Peter the Apostle, 
Conception, St. John Baptist, and others, 
Valencia Museum ; The Virgin and St. John 
walking homeward from the Sepulchre, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; St. Joachim and St. 
Ann, Christ on the Cross (1582), The Magda- 
len at the Sepulchre, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. — Stirhng, i. 491 ; Viardot, Peintres 
de I'Espagne, 145 ; Ch. Blanc, ^ficole espa- 
gnole ; Madrazo, 520 ; C. Bermudez. 

RIBALTA, JUAN DE, born in Valencia 
in 1597, died there, Oct. 10, 1628. Spanish 
school ; son and pupil of Francisco de Ri- 
balta, and painted so nearly in his father's 
style that their works are often confounded. 
When only eighteen years old he painted 
the admirable Crucifixion, now in the Va- 
lencia Museum. Had he lived he would 
probably have taken rank among the most 
famous of Spanish painters. Works : SS. 
John and Matthew ; SS. Mark and Luke ; 
Singer, Madrid Museum ; Pope Gregory 
the Great celebrating Mass, Dresden Muse- 
um ; Jephtha's Sacrifice, Martyrdom of St. 
Catherine, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — 
Stirling, i. 496 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole; 
Madrazo, 524. 

RIBERA, Don CARLOS LUIS, born in 
Rome, of Spanish parents, in 1812. Span- 
ish school ; history painter, son and pupil 
of Juan Antonio Ribera, then pupil of De- 
laroche in Paris, where he lived for many 
years. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1839 ; 2d 
class, 1845. Works : Legislators of the 
Spanish Nation, Room of the Cortes, Ma- 
drid ; Tellez Giron rescuing Alfonso I. ; 
Apocalypse of St. John ; Virgin worshipping 
Infant Christ; Mary Magdalen at Christ's 
Tomb ; Don Roderigo de Calderon led to 
Execution (1839); Assumption (1840); Bat- 
tle against the Moors at Toledo (1845); View 
of Notre Dame in Paris (1848) ; Origin of 
Los Girones Family (1855). — Vapereau 
(1880), 1534. 

RIBERA, JUSEPE DE. See Spagnoletto, 



36 



RIBERA 



RIBERA, ROMAN; contemporary. Genre 
painter. Works : Popular Paris Tjpes, 
Vengan Penas ! Unforeseen Case, At the 
Theatre (1883); At Break of Day (1884).— 
La Ilustracion (1883), i. 26, 91, 210, 3G2 ; 
(1884), i. 26. 

RIBERA Y FERNANDEZ, Don JUAN 
ANTONIO, born in Madrid, May 17, 1779, 
died there, June 15, 1860. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Bayeu, and of San 
Fernando Acadeni}-, then in Paris of David ; 
afterwards went to Rome and in 1811 be- 
came court painter to Charles IV. and mem- 
ber of Aecademia di S. Luca ; in 1820 hon- 
orary member of Academia S. Fernando ; 
lived at Navalcarnero fi"om 1835, became 
professor in 1838, and afterwards second 
director of the Madrid Museum. Works : 
Cincinnatus, Wamba, Allegories of Summer, 
Autumn, Evening, Night, Madrid Museum ; 
St. Ferdinand surrounded by Famous Sjoan- 
iards, Royal Palace, Madrid ; Paradise of 
Great Spaniards ; Christ ci'owned with 
Thorns, Resurrection, Ai*anjuez ; Portrait 
of Cardinal Ingranzo, Toledo Cathedral ; 
do. of Sculptor Jose Alvarez. 

RIBOT, (AUGUSTIN) THKODULE, 
born at Breteuil 
(E u r e ), A u g. 8, 
1823. History, 
genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Glaize. Style vig- 
orous, realistic, and 
somewhat coarse. 
Medals: 1864,1865; 
3d class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1878. 
Works : Cooks at Dinner Time, Merry Cook, 
Chickens Roosting (1861) ; Rooster's Song, 
Tuismiths (1864) ; St. Schasfian (1865), 
Christ and the Doctors (1866), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Torture (1867), Rouen 
Museum ; Philosophers ; Lawyers and the 
Oyster (1868) ; Good Samaritan (1870), 
Luxembourg Museum; Old INIan (1882); 
Parchments, Artist's Daughter (1884); Pcre 
Bresteau, Marie (1886) ; Artist's Children, 




Col. Erwin Davis, New York. — L'Art 
(1880), xxi. 127 ; BeUier, ii. 370 ; Claretie 
(1874), 62, 110 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 
500. 

RICARD, GUSTAVE, born at Marseilles, 
Sept. 1, 1823, died in Paris, Jan. 23, 1872. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Cogniet ; took the 
great colourists of the Italian school and 
Van Dyck for his models. He excelled in 
rendering individual characteristics. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1851 ; 1st class, 1852. Works : 
Madame Sabatier (1850) ; Marshal Comte 
Harispe, Versailles Museum ; Diodore Ra- 
hoTilt, painter, Grenoble Museum ; Emile 
Loubon, painter, Marseilles Museum ; Male 
Portrait, Montpellier Museum ; do., and 
Artist's Portrait, Luxembourg ]^[useum. — 
Bellier, ii. 371 ; Meyer, Gesch., 385. 

RICCI, CAJVIILLO, bom at Ferrara in 
1580, died there in 1618. Lombard school ; 
pupil and assistant of Scarsellino, whose 
manner he followed so exactly that his 
works are sometimes confounded with his 
master's. Although he died young he left 
enough pictures of merit to insure him an 
honourable 
place among his 
countrymen. — 
Lanzi, iii. 209 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ferrar- 
aise. 

RICCI, MARCO, born at Belluno in 1679, 
died in Venice in 1729. Venetian school; 
nej)]iew, pupil, and associate of Sebastian© 
Ricci, whom he accom^muied in 1710 to 
France and England, Avhere he painted 
landscapes and architecture pieces, to be 
found in many collections. Though seldom 
without merit, these are little more than 
studies, executed, like the pictures of his 
uncle, in a slight and hasty way. In the 
Dresden Museum are ten of his landscapes. 
In Vienna : Landscape with Baptism of 
Christ, Museum ; Two Landscapes, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole vi'niti- 
enne ; Bartsch, xxi. 312. 

RICC^I. SEBASTIANO, born at Cividalo 
di Belliuio in 1659, died in Venice, May 15, 
1734. Venetian school ; pupil in Venice of 



C'RuXt '6.7 



RICCIARELLI 



F. CervelH, whom he accompanied to Milan ; 
resided several years in Florence, Rome, and 
other Italian cities, studying and executing 
many works. From Vienna, where he deco- 
rated the Palace of Schonbrunn, he went to 
England, in the reign of Queen Anne, and 
during a ten years' residence painted the 
chapel at Bulstrode for the Duke of Port- 
land, the hall of Burlington House, an altar- 
piece for the chapel of Chelsea College, and 
other works, some of which are at Hampton 
Court. In 1718 he returned to Venice, 
where he lived rich and honoured until his 
death. With a fertile invention and great 
facility of execution, Sebastiano excelled in 
imitating the great masters of the Venetian 
school, especially Paolo Veronese. There 
is much grandeur and force in his composi- 
tions, but they generally want finish ; per- 
haps because he had more orders than he 
had time to fill. Among his works in Ven- 
ice are : Christ appearing to the Holy Wom- 
en, Academy ; Resurrection, S. Geminiano ; 
Communion of the Apostles, and St. Domi- 
uick, Corpus Domini ; Massacre of the In- 
nocents, Scuola della Caritu ; Baptism of 
Christ, and Apostles' Supper, Capucines ; 
Madonna with Saints, S. Giorgio Maggiore ; 
Discovery of the Cross, and Miracle of St. 
Francis, S. Rocco. Other works : Moses 
striking the Rock, Magdalen washing the 
Feet of Christ, Turin Gallery ; Ascension, 
SS. Apostoli, Rome ; Apostles adoring the 
Sacrament, S. Giustina, Padua ; Continence 
of Scipio, Polyxenes before the Tomb of 
Achilles, Louvre ; Venus Sleeping, National 
Gallery, London ; A Sacrifice, Similar Sub- 
ject, Ascension, Dresden Museum ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Battle between Romans and Sabines, Rape 
^ of the Sabine 

\ ^/ f- rf / '7^/1 Women, Liech- 
U.rU^C^^ /y^ tensteinGal- 

lery, Vienna. — Ch. Blanc, ficole venitienne. 

RICCIARELLI. See Volterra. 

RICCIO. See Brusas^orci 

RICCIO, portrait, Raphael, Munich Gal- 
lery ; wood, H. 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. ; signed. 



Bust of a youth of the Riccio family, with 
straight hair falling from beneath a little 
black cap ; background, marble columns 
and a meadow with a wood. Long in pos- 
session of Riccio family, Florence ; bought 
from Trautmanu, banker, by King Louis of 
Bavaria. Many of Michelangelo's letters are 
addressed to Luigi del Riccio, his intimate 
friend ; but whether this portrait is of that 
individual in his youth is not certain. — Pas- 
savant, ii. 26. 

RICHARD, FLEURY FRANCOIS, born 
at Lyons, Feb. 25, 1777, died at Ecully 
(Rhune), March 14, 1852. History and genre 
painter, pupil of David, and leader of the 
older romantic school of art in Lyons. L. 
of Honour, 1815 ; painter to the King, 1825 ; 
director of the Lyons School of Art, 1825. 
Works : St. Blandine (1801); Valentine de 
Milan (1802); BHnd Man's Buff, Francis I, 
Charles VH. leaving Agnes Sorel (1804) ; 
Vert- Vert (1804), Lyons Museum; Bayard 
consecrating his Arms to the Virgin, St. 
Louis (1807); Henri IV. and Gabrielle d'Es- 
trees, Jacques Molay going to the Scaffold 
(1808) ; Funeral of Henri IV. in St. Denis, 
Louis XTV". and Mile, de la Valliere, Mile, de 
la Valliere as a Carmelite, Gil Bias and Can- 
on Sedillo (1814) ; Mary Queen of Scots ; 
Duchesse de Montmorency at the Monas- 
tery of Moulins (1817), Hermitage of Vau- 
couleurs (1819), formerly Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Montaigne visiting Tasso (1822), 
Lyons Museum ; Tanneguy-Duchatel saving 
the Dauphin ; Death 
of Talmont at Pavia 
(1823) ; Louis de la 
Tremouille (1824); Commiuge and Adelaide 
(1846).— Bellier, ii. 372 ; Larousse ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 150. 

RICHARD, THEODORE, bom at MiUau 
(Aveyron), Nov. 24, 1782, died at Toulouse, 
Dec. 10, 1859. Landscape and poi'celain 
painter, pupil of Bertin, Aubry, and Ingres. 
Medals : 2d class, 1831 ; L. of Honour, 
1854. Works : Don Quixote and Sancho, 
River Tarn, Wood-Choppers, Crossing the 
Brook, Pic du Midi near Pau, Forest of 






38 



RICHARD 



Beeches, Castle of Roque, Mill of Creissels, 
Forest in Winter, Game-Keeper and Poach- 
er, Pau ; Sheep in a Pasture, Morning, Last 
Tree of the Forest, Hollow Road, Sunset 
(1831 to 1848) ; Woods in Autumn (1853); 
Spring, Leafless Oaks (1857) ; Ton-ent 
(1859) ; Three Landscapes, Herd March- 
ing, Bordeaux Museum ; Farm near Pau 
(1841), City and Chateau of Pau, Laud- 
scape with Figures, Montpellier Museum ; 
Forest in the Mountains (1842), Orleans 
Museum. — Bellier, ii. 373 ; Negrin, Ar- 
tistes vivants du Midi (Toulouse, 1857). 

RICHARD H., portrait, Jerusalem Cham- 
ber, Westminster, formerly in the Choir of 
the Abbey. The King on his throne. This 
precious and carefully painted portrait, 
which had been covered with several coats 
of paint, and converted into a different per- 
sonage, was cleaned and repaired b}' George 
Richmond and H. Merritt. Engraved in Car- 
ter's Specimens (1780-94). — Geo. Scharf, 
Hist, of Old London, 285 ; Observations on 
the Westminster Abbey Portrait, reprinted 
from Fine Arts Quarterly (Jan. 1867). 

RICHARD IL, WITH MADONNA AND 
SAINTS, probably English, Wilton House, 
England ; dii^t^'ch, wood, tempera ; assumed 
date, 1381. The King in a scarlet mantle 
embroidered with his badge (white hart), 
accompanied by SS. John Baptist, Edward 
the Martyr, and Edward the Confessor, 
kneels, in one panel, facing the Madonna 
and angels on the other. The Virgin is clad 
in deej) blue, Christ in a mantle of cloth of 
gold, and the angels have blue wings and 
Avhite hart badges. Charles I. obtained this 
picture from Sir T. Jermyn, and James H. 
(1688) gave it to Lord Castlemaine, at whose 
death it passed to 8th Lord Pembroke 
(1705). Engraved by Hollar (1G39) ; H. 
Shaw in "Dresses of the Middle Ages" (i. PL 
43). Waagen thought it an Italian work. — 
Arundel Soc. Chromolithograph, Essay by 
Geo. Scharf (1883) ; Athenaeum (March 17, 
1883) ; W^aagen, Treasures, iii. 150. 

RICHARDS, THOMAS ADDISON, born 
in London, Dec. 3, 1820. Landscape paint- 



er ; went, when a boy, to Georgia with his 
parents, and removed thence, in 1845, to New 
York, where he has since lived, with the ex- 
ception of occasional trips to Europe. Pu- 
pil of National Academy in 1845-47 ; elect- 
ed an A.N.A. in 1848, N.A. in 1851 ; has 
been corresponding secretary since 1852. 
He was the first director of the Cooper Un- 
ion School of Design for Women in 1858-60 ; 
since 1867, professor of art in Universit}- of 
New York. Studio in New York. Works : 
Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude, I\Ii'. Wool- 
sey. New Haven ; Indian Paradise (1854) ; 
Edisto Eiver, French Broad River (1859) ; 
Rhine, Warwick Castle (1869) ; Lake Winni- 
piseogee ; Chatsworth — England ; Lake 
Thun — Switzerland ; Sunnyside ; Lake Bri- 
enz — Switzerland (1879); Squantum Road — 
Providence, Meadow Brook, At Hunt's Mill 
— Providence (1880); Dingman Creek — Pa., 
Lilacs (1881) ; Flower of the Period, Mar- 
shal Niel Roses (1882); Pennsylvania Home- 
stead, Van Etten's Peak — Delaware River 
(1883); Ferry Road at Dingman, In the Val- 
ley of the Delaware, Basket of Roses (1884); 
Mountain Brook, Delaware River (1885) ; 
Midsummer on the Delaware, River Road at 
Dingman's Ferry (1886). 

RICHARDS, WILLIAM TROST, born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 
14, 1833. Landscape 
and marine painter, 
pupil of Paul Weber, 
a German artist in 
Pliiladelphia. In 1855 
visited Florence, in 
1866-67 France and 
Germany, and in 1878 
-79-80 London and 
the coast of England. 
Exhibited at Royal Academy, London, in 
1869 and 1878-8l'; Paris Salon, 1873. Hon- 
orary member of National Academy. ^led- 
als : Philadelphia, 1876 ; Temple, 1885. 
Works in oil: Wood Scene (1861); Leafy 
June (1862) ; Juno Woods (1864) ; IMid- 
Ocean ; New England Coast ; At Atlantic 
City (1873); Yellow Carn at Cornwall (1879) ; 




80 



RICHARDSON 



On the Wissahickon, Indian Summer, C. P. 
Huntington, New York ; Portsmouth Light 
— New Hampshire, J. J. Astor, ib.; Forest, 
Wissahickon, Land's End — Cornwall, G. ' 
Whitne}^ Philadelphia ; Atlantic Coast, Fair- 
man Rogers, ib. ; Narragansett Pier, R. C. 
Taft, Providence ; Sea Shore, Charles Par- 
sons, St. Louis; do., Daniel Catlin, ib.; 
Trebar with Strand— Cornwall (1881) ; G. 
Schwabe, Henley on Thames ; Marine View 
(1882) ; On the Coast of New Jersey (1883), 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; Wild New 
England Shore (1884); Trevalga Head- 
Cornwall, England (1885); Summit of Mount 
Tacoma (1886). Water-colours: 47 Land- 
scapes and Marine Views (1871-76), Metro- 
politan Museum, New York ; Marine — At- 
lantic City, T. B. Clarke, New York ; South- 
west Point — Conanicut ; Gooseberry Island 
— Newport ; Gull Rock — ib., Limits of the 
Unresting Sea (1884). 

RICHARDSON, JONATHAN, born in 
1665, died in London, May 28, 1745. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of John Riley ; ranked, 
after the death of Kneller and Dahl, at the 
head of his profession. His heads are in- 
dividual and characteristic, but his full- 
lengths are weak. Among his best known 
portraits are those of Anne Oldfield, Pope, 
Prior, Steele, Vertue, and Lord Chancellor 
Talbot, National Portrait Gallery, London ; 
Pope and his Dog Bounce, Lord Lyttleton. 
He was also distinguished as the author of 
"An Essay on the whole 
Art of Criticism in rela- 
tion to Painting" (1719), 
" An Argument in be- 
half of the Science of a 
Connoisseur" (1719), 
and other works. His son, 
Jonathan (1694-1771), 
was an amateur portrait painter and often 
assisted him in his labours. — Redgrave ; 
F. de Conches, 84 ; Portfolio (1872), 66. 

RICHMOND, GEORGE, born in 1809. 
Portrait painter, pupil of Royal Academy ; 
elected an A.R.A. in 1857, and R.A. in 1867. 
Has painted a few ideal pictures, such as 





Christ's Agony in the Garden (1858), and 
Scene from Comus (1864), but he owes his 
reputation to his 
more than 3,000 por- 
traits, among which 
are those of the Earl 
of Elgin (1860), Bish- 
op of Oxford, Duke 
of Buccleugh (1865), 

Inglis, Sir Moses 
\ -/ ^ "^ ' Montefiore (1875) ; 
Earl Granville, Bishop of Carlisle, Marchion- 
ess of Salisbury (1877). 

RICHMOND, WILLIAM B.; contempo- 
rary. History and portrait painter, and 
sculptor, son of George Richmond, and pu- 
pil of Sir Frederick Leighton. Gold medal, 
Berlin, 1886. Works : Electra at Tomb of 
Agamemnon (1877) ; Phidyle, Sarpedon 
(1879); Calves, Song of Miriam (1880); Be- 
hold the Bridegroom Cometh (1881) ; Re- 
lease of Prometheus (1882) ; May (1884) ; 
Audience in Athens during the Representa- 
tion of the Agamemnon (1885), Birming- 
ham Gallery ; Cicely Wormald, Hermes 
(1886). Among his portraits are those of 
Princess Louise, Gladstone, Darwin, Brown- 
ing, William Morris, Holman Hunt, and 
Lord Lyttleton. 

RICHOMIVIE, JULES, born in Paris, 
Sept. 9, 1818. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, son of the 
engraver Joseph 
Tht'odore Richom- 
me, pupil of Droll- 
ing. Paints relig- 
ious subjects chief- 
ly, in a cold and 
correct style. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1840 ; 
2d class, 1842, 1862, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 
1867. Works : Abraham taking Hagar as 
his Wife (1842); St. Sebastian saved by 
Holy Women (1843) ; Incredulity of St. 
Thomas (1845) ; Christ appearing to St. 
Martin, St. Peter's Repentance, Leda (1848); 




40 



RICIITER 



Erigone, King of Garb's Betrothed (1849) ; 
View of St. Peter's in Home, Lamentauo 
Bridge, Tower of Cervaro, Mary Magdalen's 
Conversion (1850) ; Italian Beggar Woman 
(1852) ; Christ healing the Paralytic, Love 
fleeing from Drunkenness (1853, bought by 
State); Christ healing a Sick Woman (1855); 
St. Nicholas saving the Sick (1857) ; Christ 
and the Children, Young Mother (18G1) ; 
St. Peter of Alcantara healing a Child (1861), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Baptism of Christ 
(1865), Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; Be- 
heading of John Baptist (1866), Besanyon 
Museum ; Christ on the Cross (1868), Pa- 
lais de Justice ; Castle in Spain (1870); For- 
get-Me-Not (1872) ; Education of Achilles 
(1873); Don't awaken a Sleeping Cat, Toilet 
(1874) ; First Lesson on the Violin (1875) ; 
Dove (1876) ; Arab Woman, Chinese Doll 
(1877) ; The Feast in the Pharisee's House 
(1882) ; Around the Fountain (1884) ; Port 
de la Joliette (1886) ; Ignorance is Bliss, 
Mrs. D. D. Colton, San Francisco ; decora- 
tions in St. Vincent de Paul and St. Severiu, 
Paris, and in other churches. — Bellier, ii. 376. 

RICHTER, ADOLF, born at Thorn in 
1816, died at Diisseldorf, Nov. 20, 1852. 
Genre painter, pupil of Academy at Diissel- 
dorf, where he settled, and became very 
popular with well composed and effectively 
coloured scenes from home life, especially 
such as introduced children. Works : Christ- 
mas Eve (1837) ; Vintage on the Moselle 
(1839) ; do. on the Rhine (1840) ; Hessian 
Emigrants on Seashore (1841) ; Souvenir of 
Cologne Carnival (1841) ; Sunday Afternoon 
in the Country (1842) ; Morning on the Ahr 
(1846) ; Last Comfort (1847) ; The Fifth 
Child (1848) ; Children's Breakfast (1849) ; 
Rhenish Village Life (1850); Return of 
Landwehrmann (1851) ; Before the Village 
School (1852).— Wolf g. Miiller, Diisseldf. 
K., 268 ; AViegmann, 316. 

RICHTER, (.VDRIAN) LUDWIG, born 
in Dresden, Sept. 28, 1803, died at Losch- 
witz, near Dresden, June 19, 1884. Land- 
scape and genre painter and illustrator, son 
and pupil of the engraver Karl August 




Richter ; went in 1820 with Prince Narisch- 
kin through France to Nice, travelled and 
studied afterwards in 
the German Alps, and 
in 1823-26 in Italy. 
Appointed instructor 
in drawing at the por- 
celain factory in Meis- 
sen in 1828 ; called to 
the Dresden Academy 
in 1836, and professor 
there in 1841-76. 
Has illustrated many works. Ph. D. , Leipsic 
University ; honoraiy member of Berlin, Mu- 
nich, and Vienna Academies ; Commander, 
Saxon. Order of Albert ; Order of Francis Jo- 
seph ; Bavarian Order of Michael. Works : 
The Watzmann at Sunset (1824) ; Valley of 
Amalfi, View near Rocca di Mezzo (1823-26); 
Lauterbrunn Valley ; Views in the Campa- 
gna and in the Apennines ; Ariccia, Civitella 
(1827) ; Storm on Monte Serrone near Ole- 
vano (1830), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Ferry 
at the Schreckenstein near Aussig (1837), 
Spring Landscape with Bridal Procession 
(1847), Dresden Gallery ; View in Sabine 
:Mountains (1825), Valley near Amalfi (1826), 
The Schreckenstein near Aussig (1835), Even- 
ing Landscape with Worshippers (1842), 
Harvest Procession in Roman Campagna, 
Leipsic Museum ; View in the Riesenge- 
birge (1839), National Gallery, Berlin ; Rich- 
ter Album. — Hoff, A. L. Richter (Frankfort, 
1877) ; Jahn, Biogr. Aufsiitze ; Richter, Le- 
bcnserinnerungeu ; Wessely, Ad. L. R. (Vi- 
enna, 1883) ; Allgem. K. C., viii. 531, 573 ; 
Brockhaus, xiii. 693 ; Furster, v. 434 ; II- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 266 ; Jordan (1885), 
ii. 182 ; Reber, ii. 261 ; Grapli. K., vi. 1 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1850), 407 ; (1851), 208, 410 ; 
(1852), 12 ; (1853), 251 ; (1855), 131, 390 ; 
(1856), 451 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 605, 645 ; 
Kunst f. Allc, i. 47 ; IVIiiller, 437 ; Pecht, i. 
57 ; Land und Meer (1869), i. 171 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, X. 257 ; xviii. 377 ; xxi. 36 ; xii. 
(Mittheilungen, v. 1). 

RICHTER, AUGUST, born at Dresden, 
June 3, 1801, died at Pima, Nov. 19, 1873. 



41 



EICHTER 



Historj painter, pupil of Dresden Academy, 
then in Diisseldorf under Cornelius, for 
whom he painted in fresco one of his wall 
pictures at Helldorf. Spent several years 
in Italy, and became professor in Dresden 
Academy. His style suggests Raphael ; sud- 
denly he fell into mannerism, and soon af- 
ter became insane. Works : Hagar and Ish- 
mael in the Wilderness, Dresden Museum ; 
Rebekah and Eliezer, Weimar Museum. — 
Forster, v. 421 ; Nagier, xiii. 134. 

RICHTER, EDOUARD, bom in Paris ; 
contemporary. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Hebert and Bonnat. Works : 
News at the Studio (1868); Waiting (1870); 
At the Fortune-Teller's, Baby's PhotogTaph 
(1875) ; The Slave's Namative (1876) ; Veil 
Dance (1877) ; Jewess of Morocco (1880) ; 
Othello, Salome (1881); Harem in Old Gra- 
nada (1883) ; Sultana going to the Bath, 
Young Girl with Narghileh (1884) ; Nym- 
phea lotus (1885); Bazaar in Tunis, Jewess 
of Algiers (1886). In United States : Ju- 
dith, B. Wall, Providence ; Gallery of the 
Louvre, J. H. Stebbins, New York ; In the 
Cathedral, W. B. Bement, Philadelphia ; 
Love Song, T. M. Scott, San Francisco. 

RICHTER, GUSTAV, born in Dessau, 
May 12, 1847. Landscape painter, jDupil 
of Berlin Academy (1863-68) and of Max 
Schmidt, then studied from nature, travel- 
ling in Middle Germany ; paints chiefly 
mountain landscapes. Works : Group of 
Black Poplars on the Elbe, Ducal Palace, 
Dessau ; Forest Border ; Castle Giessmanns- 
dorf (1873); Landscape in Hartz Mountains 
(1874) ; Entrance into Bode Valley (1876). 

RICHTER, GUSTAV (KARL LUDWIG), 
born in Berlin, Aug. 31, 1823, died thei-e, 
April 3, 1884. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy under Eduard Hol- 
bein, and in Paris (1844-46) of Cogniet ; 
studied in Rome in 1847-49, visited after- 
wards France and Italy repeatedly, Egypt 
in 1861, and the Crimea in 1873. One of 
the most successful portrait painters of 
modern times. Member of and professor 
in Berlin Academy ; honorary member of 




Munich and Vienna Academies. Medals : 
Berlin, Paris (1855, 1857, 1859), Brussels, 
Vienna (1873), Phila- 
delphia (1876), Mu- 
nich (1883); Order 
pour le merite. 
Works : Portrait of his 
Sister (1852); Daugh- 
ter of Jairus (1856), 
National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Baldur, The 
Walkyries, Walhalla, 
New Museum, ib. ; Building of the Pyramids 
(1859-73), Maximilianeum, Munich ; Fe- 
male Portrait (1852) ; do. (1856) ; Portrait 
of Painter Hoguet (1862) ; do. of him- 
self (1862-64) ; do. of Eduard Hildebrandt 
(1865), Dantzic Museum ; Egyptian Girl, 
Odalisque, Neapolitan Fisher-Boy, Egyptian 
Dancers (1870) ; Pygmalion ; Gypsy Girls 
in the Crimea (1873) ; Sultan Abdul Aziz 
(1867) ; Count and Countess Roberinsky ; 
Princess Carolath (1872) ; Duchess of Ed- 
inburgh ; Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg 
(1874); Hon. George Bancroft ; Artist with 
Boy, Artist's Wife with Younger Child 
(1874); Banker's Wife (1876); Emperor Will- 
iam (1876, 1877); Empress Augusta, Count- 
ess Karolyi (1878) ; Prince Pless ; Queen 
Louise (1879), Cologne Museum ; Countess 
Donhoff ; General Count von Blumenthal 
(1883), National Gallery, Berlin.— AUgem. 
K. C, viii. 446, 902 ; Rlustr. Zeitg. (1884), 
i. 338 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 182 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, V. 83 ; ix. 712 ; x. 51 ; xiii. 2 ; xiv. 5 ; 
xix. 442, 541 ; Leixner, Mod. K., i. 87 ; ii. 
43 ; Miiller, 438 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Maler- 
sch., 191 ; D. Rundschau, ix. 471 ; xiii. 327 ; 
xvii. 303 ; XX. 461, 463 ; xxi. 148 ; Laud und 
Meer (1872), i. 23 ; (1880), i. 47 ; (1884), ii. 
710 ; Westermann's Monatshefte, liii. 40, 
168 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 92, 105. 

RICHTER, WILHELM, born in Vienna 
in 1820. Genre, battle, and animal painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : Girl 
before Shrine (1838) ; View from St. Mi- 
chael; Street Sweeper (1839); UhlansMarch- 
ing ; Storming of a Church (1844) ; Sally 



42 



RICO 



from a City (1845) ; Attack of French Cav- 
alry (184()); Death of Hensel at Malbor- 
ghetto (1847) ; Piedmontese Prisoners of 
War (1858); Dragoons in a Skirmish (18G5); 
Equestrian Portrait (1870) ; Horses at Past- 
ure (1870) ; Kennel (1871) ; E.n-al Hunt in 
Hungary (1882). — Kuust-Chronik, xviii. 87 ; 
xix. 518 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 65. 

RICO, MARTIN, born in Madrid; con- 
temporary. Ai'chitecture painter, pupil of 
Federico de Madrazo, then studied in Paris 
and Rome. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1878 ; 
L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Doge's Pal- 
ace in Venice, Samuel Hawk Collection, 
New York ; Grand Canal — Venice, Miss C. 
L. Wolfe, ib. ; Italian Garden, Metropolitan 
Museum, ib. ; Court Interior — Granada, 
Boating Party in Bois de Boulogne, Washer- 
women at Poissy, The Seine at Poissy, J. H. 
fcJtebbins, ib. ; On the Seine, Morris K. Jes- 
up, ib. ; Ferry of San Stefano — Venice, C. L. 
Smith, ib.; Ancient Convent Walls near Se- 
ville, On the Seine, R. L. Cutting, ib.; Ven- 
ice, Canal near Poissy, A. J. Drexel, Phila- 
delphia ; The Seine, Alex. Brown, ib. ; Canal 
in Venice, Borie Collection, ib.; Gathering 
Oranges at Toledo, Venice, W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore ; Entrance to Canale Grande — 
Venice, H. L. Dousman, St. Louis ; Village 
of Bougival, Daniel Catlin, ib. ; Bridge of 
Toledo (1883) ; S. M. del Giglio in Venice 
(1884).— La Ilustracion (1883), i. 2 ; ii. 307 ; 
(1884), i. 2G7. 

RIDINGER (Riedinger), JOHANN ELI- 
AS, born in Uhn, 
Feb. 16, 1698 (Feb. 
15, 1695?), died in 
Augsburg, April 10, 
1767. German 
school ; animal and 
landscape painter, 
pupil in U 1 m o t 
Christoph Resch 
and in Augsburg of 
Johann Falk, then 
lived for three years in Ratisbon ; returned 
to Augsburg, where he was much influenced 
by Rugendas, and in 1759 became director of 



10), Schwann Gal- 




\ N 




the Academy. Unsurpassed in the represen- 
tation of wild animals. Works : Three Stags, 
Grosvenor Gallery, London ; Stag pursued 
by Dogs, Cassel Gallery ; Stag Resting (2), 
Fiu-stenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; Two 
Bears in a Wilderness (1710), Schwann Gal- 
lery ; Pheasant Hunt at 
Night, Weimar Museum. 
— Ch. Blanc, Ecole alle- 
mande ; Kugler (Crowe) ; 
Nagler, xiii. 160; N. Bibli- 
othek der Wissenschaften, ii. 137 ; Thiene- 
mann, Leben (Leip., 1856); Weyermann, 437. 
RIEDEL, AUGUST, born at Baireuth, 
Dec. 27, 1802, died in 
Rome, Aug. 8, 1883. 
Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy under 
Peter von L a n g e r ; 
went in 1828 to Rome, 
where he adopted a 
manner differing wide- 
^ ly from the academic 

style, and excelling in brilliancy of colour- 
ing, which made his pictures very popular. 
Was member of and professor in Accademia 
di S. Luca in Rome, member of Berlin, Mu- 
nich, Vienna, and St. Petersburg Academies. 
Works : Sakuntala, Medea, Stuttgart Gal- 
lery ; Girls Bathing, Two Albanian Women 
(1838), National Gallery, Beriin ; Child and 
Nurse (1865), Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Wom- 
en of Albano, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Vit- 
toria d'Albano, Wittelsbach Palace, IMunich ; 
Neapolitan Fisher Family (1834), Judith 
(1840), Young Giri in Mother's Lap (1848), 
Portrait of Cari Rottmann (1827), five other 
portraits (1831, 1842, 1865), New Pinako- 
thek, ib. ; Roman Woman ; Bayadere (1862); 
Neapolitan ]\Iother by the Sea ; Bacchante, 
Sappho, Herodias, Sakuntala, King of Wiir- 
temberg's Collection ; Puck ; Cupid and 
P.syche feeding Nightingales ; Beautiful 
Stella ; Agrippina with Ashes of Germani- 
cus ; Rezia ; Sjn-ing ; Angel of Light ; The 
Peri ; Love among the Roses, J. J. Astor, 
New York ; Italian Woman, August liel- 



48 



KIEDER 



mont, ib. ; many portraits. — Allgem. K. 
C, viii. 491, 902 ; Brockbaus, xiii. 690 ; 

ACotta's Kunstbl. (1844), 105 ; D. 
Kunstbl. (1851), 139 ; (1853), 427 ; 
(1857), 39 ; Midler, 439 ; Land 
und Meer (1880), i. 499. 

RIEDEE, WILHELIM AUGUST, born at 
Dubling, near Vienna, Sept. 30, 179G, died 
in Vienna, Sept. 8, 1880. History, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, and afterwards professor ; in 1857 be- 
came custodian of tbe Belvedere Gallery ; 
visited Tyrol and North Italy in 1830, Flor- 
ence and Rome in 1833. Works : Chi'ist on 
Mount of Olives ; St. Rosalia (1820); Lily of 
St. Leonard (1841), Vienna Museum ; Mary 
Stuart taking Farewell of her Ladies (1843); 
Scene from Walter Scott's Prison of Edin- 
burgh (1844) ; Portrait of Franz Schubert ; 
Emperor Francis I, Gratz University. — D. 
Kunstbl. (1857), 325 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 107. 
RIEDMULLER, FRANZ XAVER VON, 
born at Constance, Jan. 22, 1829. Land- 
scape painter, pupil in Carlsruhe (1856-61) 
of J. W. Schirmer, then lived for some time 
in Strasburg and Frankfort, and settled in 
Stuttgart in 1864. Medals : Carlsruhe and 
London. Baden court painter since 1873. 
Works : Heidenlucher on Ueberling Lake ; 
Charcoal-Burner's Hut ; View on the Ko- 
nigssee ; do. on Lake Constance ; do. near 
Berchtesgaden ; do. near Strasburg (1875) ; 
Stuttgart Museum ; Italian Landscapes ; 
Views in Grand-ducal Garden at Carlsruhe. 
— Miiller, 440 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 821. 
RIEFSTAHL, WILHELM, born at Neu- 
strelitz, Mecklenburg, 
Aug. 15, 1827. Land- 
scape and figure paint- 
er, pupil of Berlin 
Academy underF. W. 
Schirmer ; studied 
nature on Isle of Rii- 
gen, afterwaixls visit- 
ed JVIiddle Germany, 
the banks of the 
Rhine, Tyrol, Switzerland, and Rome (1869); 
was professor at the Carlsruhe Art School 




in 1870-73, and director in 1875-77 ; settled 
in Munich in 1878. Excels in harmonious 
combinations of landscape scenery with fig- 
ures. Member of and professor in Berlin 
Academy ; honorai-y member Munich Acad- 
emy, 1881. Gold medal : Berlin, 1864 ; 
Vienna, 1873. Works : Northern Heath ; 
Coast of Riigen ; Westphalian Village 
Church ; Procession of Capuchins ; Mourn- 
ing Assembly in Appenzell, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Similar subject, Wiesbaden Gallery ; 
Bridal Procession in Passeyer Valley ; Re- 
turn from Baptism ; Pilgrimage in the Moun- 
tains ; In the Refectory ; Shepherds' Devo- 
tions in the Fields (1864), All Souls' Day 
(1869), National Gallery, Berlin ; Funeral 
Procession in Front of Pantheon (1871), 
Dresden Gallery ; Blessing of the Alps 
(1881) ; Missionaries in Rha^tia (1884) ; 
Child's Burial in Passeyer (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886) ; Wedding Procession in 
Tyrol, J. J. Astor, New York ; do., Israel 
Corse, ib. ; Chapel in Tyrol, D. H. McAlpin, 
ib. ; Return from Christening, Mrs. Wils- 
tach, Philadelphia. — Allgem. K. C, viii. 942 ; 
Brockhaus, xiii. 700 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1863), 
i. 96 ; Jordan, 250 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 8, 
380 ; xix. 644, 661 ; Miiller, 440 ; D. Rund- 
schau, ix. 477 ; xiii. 336 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 348 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 117 ; 
V. 123 ; vi. 175 ; xx. 76. 

RIEGER, ALBERT, born in Vienna ; con- 
temporary. Landscape painter ; has trav- 
elled in Europe and the East. Works : Ru- 
ins of Mosque in Greece, Storm on Coast 
of Dalmatia, Sunset, Coast View in Istria, 
Eddystone Lighthouse in Stormy Night, 
do. at Sunrise, Storm in the Tropics (1871- 
72); Waterfall in the Pryenees(1872); Rainy 
Weather on the Danube ; Summer Even- 
ing near Florence (1874) ; Ruins of Athens 
(1878) ; Polar Night in Spitzbergen (1880) ; 
Castle Hohenbaden, Queen Waldlieb (1881); 
Shipwreck on Norwegian Coast (1882). — 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), ii. 16 ; (1875), ii. 383 ; 
(1878), ii. 271 ; (1881), ii. 369, 378 ; (1882), 
ii. 465 ; (1883), i. 293 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii.; 
Wurzbach, xxvi. 133. 



44 



RIENZI 




KIENZI, Holraan Hunt, private gallery, 
England. Rienzi vowing to revenge Lis 
brother's death. Painted in 1849 ; Hunt's 
first Pre-Raphaelite picture. 

RIEPENHAUSEN, FRANZ and JO- 
HANN, born in 
Gottingen in 1786 
and 1788, died in 
Rome, Franz, Jan. 
3, 1831, Johann, 
Sept. 17, 18G0. His- 
tory painters, sons 
of and first instruct- 
ed by the engraver 
Ernst Riepenhau- 
sen, then studied 
under W. Tischbein in Guttingen and in 
Cassel (1804), and after Hartmann's draw- 
ings from Pre-Raphaelite masters in Dres- 
den (1805), where they embraced Catholi- 
cism ; returned to Gottingen, and went in 
1807 to Italy. In 1810 they published a 
history of painting in Italy. The portrait 
is of Johann Riepenhausen. Works : The 
Minstrel (after Goethe); Maiden from Afar 
(after Schiller) ; Magnificat ; Casting off of 
Hagar ; Christ blessing Children (1819), 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Madonna and 
St. John (1820), Schwerin GaUery ; View 
of Rome (1820) ; Legend of St. Elizabeth 
(2,1821) ; Raphael's Vision (1822), Raczyn- 
ski Gallery, Bei'lin ; Conradin hearing his 
Death Sentence ; Henry the Lion defending 
Barbarossa in Rome (1825), Royal Palace, 
Hanover. By Johann : Duke Erich saving 
Emperor Maximilian's Life in Battle of Re- 
gensburg (1834); First Communion of Girls 
in Rome ; Cupid as Musician ; Madonna 
and St. John, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Cu- 
pid and Psyche (1835), Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Raphael's Death, Apparition 
(1836) ; Charity, Cupid instructing Two 

Girls in Love, Duke Ernst of Brunswick 
interceding for Prisoners (1837) ; Beatrix 



before Emperor Otto IV. (1838); Extinction 
of Ceuci Family (1839); Poetry, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg. — Andresen, iii. 86 ; Brockhaus, 
xiii. 702 ; Furster, iv. 232 ; N. Necrol. d. D. 
(1831), 38 ; Reber, i. 325 ; Riegel, Gesch. 
des Wiederauflebens dcr d. K., 258. 

RIESENER, (LOUIS ANTOINE) LEON, 
born in Paris, Jan. 21, 1808, died in 1878. 
Figure and portrait joainter, jiupil of his 
father, Henri Franyois Riesener (portrait 
painter, 1767-1828), and of Gros. Medals : 
3d class, 1836 ; 2d class, 1855, 1864 ; L. of 
Honour, 1873. Works : Flora, Bacchante 
(1836) ; Egyptian Girl and Nurse (1855) ; 
Idyl in Normandy (1863) ; Erigone (1864), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Bacchus and Ari- 
adne, Awaking, The Toilette (1875) ; Brook 
in the Wood ; Country Pleasiires. — Bellier, 
ii. 379 ; Meyer, Gesch., 286. 

RIESER, ]\nCHAEL, born at Schlitters, 
Tyrol, Sept. 6, 1828. History painter, pu- 
pil of Munich (1848-50) and Vienna (1852- 
61) Academies, at the latter under Ruben, 
then studied for three years after the old 
masters in Florence, Rome, and Venice. 
Member of Vienna Academy in 1864 ; pro- 
fessor at Industrial Art School in Vienna 
since 1868. Works : Holy Family (1858) ; 
Baptism of Christ ; Death of St. Wences- 
laus (1859) ; Eve of Nativity, Prague Gal- 
lery ; many cartoons for church glass-paint- 
ings. — Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 511 ; Miiller, 
440 ; Wurzbach, xxvi. 148. 

RIETSCHOOF, JAN CLAASZ, born at 
Hoorn in 1652, died there in 1719. Dutch 
school ; marine painter, pupil of Backhuy- 
zen, whose style he imitated very skilfully. 
Works : Calm Sea, Stormy Sea, Amsterdam 
Museum. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 505. 

RIGAUD, HYACINTHE, born at Per- 
I^ignan, July 18, 1659, died in Paris, Dec. 29, 
1743. French school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Pezet, Verdier, and Ranc ; 
won grand prix in 1682, but, by Le Brvui's 
advice, instead of going to Rome, devoted 
himself to portrait painting, in which he be- 
came a master. Member of Academy, 1700 ; 
professor, 1710 ; rector, 1733 ; Order of St. 



4S 



KIGAUD 




Michael, 1727. Works: Cain building the 
City of Enoch (1682) ; Crucifixion (1684) ; 
Presentation in the 
Temple, St. Andrew, 
Portrait of Louis 

XIV. (1701), Philip 
V. of Spain, Bossuet 
(1705), Le Brun and 
Mignard, Cardinal 
Poliguac, and nine 
others, Louvre ; 
Louis XIV., Louis 

XV. (I, two dated 
1715, 1730), Mignard, Portrait of him- 
self, twelve others, Versailles Museum ; 
Pierre Puget, Amiens Museum ; Saint-Si- 
mon, Bishop of Metz, Marshal Noailles, 
Grenoble Museum ; Louis XIV., Metz Mu- 
seum ; Fontenelle, Moutpellier Museum ; 
Marshal Turenne, Nimes Museum ; Louis 
XV., Eoueu Museum ; Philip of Orleans, 
Racine, Toulouse Museum ; Louis XIV., 
Valenciennes INIuseum ; others in Museums 
at Chartres, Douai, Lyons (2), Nantes, Or- 
leans, Strasburg, Basle, Geneva, Ziirich (2); 
Sculptor Bogaert, Berlin Museum ; Portrait 
of himself, Cassel Gallery ; Cardinal Fleury, 
Knight of St. Michael, Darmstadt Museum ; 
Augustus III. of Poland, Dresden Museum ; 
Louis XrV., Madrid Museum ; Fontenelle, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Bossuet, Por- 
trait of himself, Ufi&zi, Florence ; Cardinal 
Flem-y, National Gallery, London ; others 
in Bamberg and Carlsruhe (2) Galleries ; 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Museum (2), 
Liechtenstein (1740) and Czernin Galleries, 
Vienna ; Naples Museum ; Historical Soci- 
ety, New York (2). His brother Gaspard 
(bom at Perpignan, baptized June 1, 1661, 

J iji-u a 

died in Paris, March 27, 1705), was also a 
portrait painter of merit, several of whose 



works are probably attributed to his more 
famous brother. — Bellier, ii. 381 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole franyaise ; Dohme, 3 ; Houssaye, 140 ; 
Jal, 1062 ; Memoirs inedits, ii. 114 ; Nagler, 
xiii. 179 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Mai. des XVIH. 
Jahrh., 6. 

RIGAUD, JOHN FRANCIS, born at Tu- 
rin, Italy, May 18, 1742, died at Packing- 
ton, England, Dec. 6, 1810. History and 
portrait painter, son of a French merchant ; 
early studied art and became painter to 
the King of Sweden ; afterwards studied in 
Rome, Bologna, and Parma, and in 1766 
was elected a member of the Bologna Acad- 
emy. Went in 1772 to Paris, and thence 
to London, where he became an exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, was elected an A.RA. 
in 1782, and R.A. in 1784. His diploma 
picture was entitled Samson. He painted 
also in fresco, and decorated ceilings, and 
translated into English Leonardo da Vinci's 
"Treatise on Painting" (1806). — Redgrave. 

RIGO, JULES (VINCENT ALFRED), 
born in Paris in 1810. Battle painter, pu- 
pil of L. Cogniet. Medals : 3d class, 1857 ; 
2d class, 1859, 1861, 1863. Works : Bona- 
parte at Siegeof Toulon— 1783 (1849), Min- 
istry of Interior, Paris ; Crossing of the 
Tagliamento in 1809, Taking of Zaatcha — 
1849 (1853), French Surgeons at Battle of 
Inkerman — 1854 (1857), Marshal Canrobert 
in Trenches of Sebastopol (1859), Portrait 
of Mayor of Vei-sailles (1856), Versailles 
Museum ; Baptism of Clovis (1859, bought 
by the State) ; Battle of Magenta (1861) ; 
do. of Solferino (1866) ; Totila King of the 
Goths visiting St. Benedict (1865), Com- 
munion of St. Benedict (1867), St. ^^tienne 
du Mont, Paris ; Crossing of the Beresina — 
1812 (1870); Charge of Cuirassiers at Reichs- 
hoffen (1879); Start for the Promenade 
(1880).— BelHer, ii. 382. 

RILEY, JOHN, born in London in 1646, 
died there in 1691. Portrait painter, pupil 
of Gerard Soest and of Isaac Fuller ; be- 
came noted after death of Lely, and had 
among his sitters Charles H., James H. and 
his Queen, and William and Mary, to whom 



46 



RINALDO 



be was appointed court painter. Works : heads of Ubaldo and his companion. En- 
Bishop Burnet, James 11., William Lord graved by P. de Jode (IG-i-l). Same sub- 



Russell, Waller, National Portrait Gallery ; 
others at Hampton Court. — Redgrave ; F. 
de Conches, 61. 

RINALDO AND ARmDA. Subject from 
Tasso's "Gerusalemme liberata " (Jerusalem 
Delivered). Rinaldo, who has fled from the 
camp of the Crusaders after slaying Gernan- 
do, gives himself up to amorous delights in 
the gardens of the enchantress Armida. 

By Agostino Garracci, Naples Museum ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 4 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. Ai-mida, 
seated upon a hillock under a tree, arranges 
her hair with the aid of a 
mirror which Rinaldo, re- 
clining, holds for her ; at 
left, Ubaldo and Charles 
the Danish knight con- 
cealed in foliage ; in back- 
ground, left, palace of Ar- 
mida. From the Farnese 
Collection. Engraved by 
Lasinio fils. — Museo Bor- 
bonico, viii. PI. 1. 

By Donienichino, Louvre; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 
5 in. Armida and Rinaldo 
in nearly same position as 
above ; a cupid, in the air, 
aims an an'ow at Ai'mida, 
while two others embrace, 
a fourth lies asleep, and a 
fifth sits on the bank near Armida ; at left, 
Ubaldo and Charles the Danish knight ; in 
background, middle, the palace of Armida. 
Collection of Louis XIV., who bought it in 
1085. Engraved by Croutelle.— Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Musee franyais, i.; Landon, Vies, 
PI. 142 ; Reveil, xi. 733. 

By Anton van Dijck, Louvi'e ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. 4 in. X 3 ft. 3 in. Rinaldo, disarmed, 
reclines on the sward with his head on Ar- 
mida's knees ; at left, cupids play with his 
sword ; at right, a cupid holds his hands 
to receive fruit from another one in a tree ; 
in foreground, two cupids near an open 
coffer of jewels ; at left, behind a bush, the 



ject, Bordeaux Museum. — Cat. Louvre ; 
Waagen, Treasures, iv. 511. 

By Anton van Dyck, Duke of Newcastle, 
England ; canvas, H. 4 ft. G in. x 5 f t. 8 in. 
Armida, in floating red drapery, leans over 
Rinaldo, who sleeps at the foot of a tree, 
and envelopes him in garlands of flowers 
which cupids bring to her ; above, other 
cupids flying ; at left, a siren, her head 
and bust out of the water, sings to prolong 
the enchantment to which the hero has suc- 
cumbed. A cojjy, formerly in collection of 







Rinaldo and Armida, Domenichino, Louvre. 

the Due de Tallard (1756), was sold at his 
sale for 7,000 florins to the King of Prussia. 
Engraved by F. Ragot ; P. de Baillu. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Berlin Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x4 ft. 9.V in. Armida, 
clothed in a yellow mantle, bearing away 
the sleeping Rinaldo. She supports his 
head, four cupids bear up his body and 
legs, and a fifth flies in advance towards a 
river. On the opposite side an aged man, 
personifying a rivei*, and two nymi)hs ; at a 
distance, two warriors near a cohunn. Car- 
ried to Paris; returned in 1815. Engraved 
by Chasteau ; anonymous. — Smith, viii. 147. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Dulwich Gallery ; can- 



47 



KINALDO 



vas, H. 2 ft. 7i in. x 3 ft. 7^ in. Armida, 
armed with a dagger, is bending cautiously 
over Rinaldo, who, clad in splendid armour, 
lies sleeping at the foot of a tree ; overcome 
by love, as she contemplates his beautiful 
face, she withholds the blow, her arm being 
restrained by a cupid who has alighted be- 
side her. Engraved by J. Audran ; P. Du- 
pin. — Smith, viii. 145. 

By Nicolas Poiissin, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. G in. Ar- 
mida bends affectionately over the sleeping 
Rinaldo and places her hand on his breast ; 
at his head are two cupids, a third plays 
with his shield, and a fourth is on the 
farther side of a bank ; on opposite side, 
emblems of fertility and abundance ; on a 
cloud, Armida's splendid car, with spirited 
coursers, held by two nymphs. Engraved 
by Sanders. — Smith, viii. 14G. 

Subject treated also by Alessandro Tia- 
rini, Munich Gallery ; Franyois Boucher 
(1734), Louvre ; Auguste Leloir (1879). 

RINALDO AND ARMIDA, HISTORY 
OF, David Teniers, younger, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; copper. Series of twelve pictures, 
each H. 9 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. : 

1. Ai-mida arrives at the Christian camp 
and presents herself to Godfrey de Bou- 
illon, 

2. Godfrey deliberates with his compan- 
ions concerning the means of giving Armida 
the aid she asks for ; in the background, the 
death of Gernando at the hands of Rinaldo. 

3. Charles and Ubaldo, seeking for Ri- 
naldo, who has fled the camp to escape the 
punishment of his deed, arrive on the banks 
of a river near Ascalon, where they hear of 
his ensnarement by Armida. 

4. Rinaldo in the Island of Orontes. 

5. Armida, in her chariot, conveys Ri- 
naldo asleep to the Fortunate Isles. 

6. Charles and Ubaldo land in the Fortu- 
nate Isles. 

7. The Gardens of Armida ; Rinaldo, dis- 
armed, with his head on the breast of the 
enchantress. 

8. Separation of Rinaldo and Armida. 



9. Rinaldo and his companions flee from 
the Fortunate Isles, and Armida disappears 
into the air in her chariot. 

10. Prowess of Rinaldo against the Sara- 
cens. 

11. Armida in her chariot incites the 
Saracens against Rinaldo. 

12. Armida is about to stab herself when 
Rinaldo arrests her hand and is reconciled 
to her. 

RINCON, ANTONIO, born in Guadala- 
jara about 1446, died in Seville about 1500. 
Spanish school ; doubtfully said to have 
studied in Italy, either with Andrea del 
Castagno or Domenico Ghii'landajo ; paint- 
ed chiefly at Toledo ; became painter to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, whose portraits he 
frequently painted. Best extant work, al- 
tarpiece in Church of Robleda de Chavila, 
containing seventeen panel pictures of the 
Life of the Virgin. His son Fernando waa 
also a painter. — Stirling, i. 89 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole. 

RING, HERMAN TOM, born at Mun- 
ster in 1521, died there in 1597. German 
school ; history and portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Ludger the elder, but influ- 
enced by the Italians. Works : Waking of 
Lazarus (1546), Crucifixion, Companion- 
piece to do., Miinster Cathedral ; Crucifix- 
ion and others, also portraits. Art Union, 
Miinster ; twelve Prophets and Sibyls, Augs- 
burg Gallery ; Portraits of John of Leyden 
and Wife (1535), Schwerin Gallery. His 
son Nicolaus, who flourished second half 
of 16th and beginning of 17th century, was 
a follower of the Italian schools. Work : 
Entombment (1598), Ludgeri Church, Miin- 
ster.— Kugler (Crowe), i. 268 ; Schlie, 524 ; 
W. & W., ii. 504 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xii. 
256, 319. 

RING, LUDGER TOM, the elder, born 
at Miinster in 1496, died there in 1547. 
German school ; a versatile master, of a 
family of painters that flourished in Miin- 
ster in the 16th century. Works : Portraits 
of Man and Wife, Bust Portrait of Young 
Man (1536), Museum, Miinster; God the 



48 



RING 



Father as Avenger (1538), Art Union, ib.; 
Male Poi'trait, Berlin Museum. — Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 268 ; Liibke, Mittelalterlicbe 
Kunst in Westfalen, 3G6 ; W. & W., ii. 
503 ; Zeitscbr. f. b. K, xii. 257. 

RING, LUDGER TOM, the younger, 
born at Miiuster after 1521, died at Bruns- 
wick in 1583 or 1584. German school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, son and pupil of 
Ludwig the elder ; settled in Brunswick, 
where he obtained the freedom of the city 
in 1561. Works : Portrait of Doctor Cliem- 
mitzer (1569), Art Union, Milnster ; others 
in private collections there ; Marriage at 
Cana (1562), Berlin Museum ; Porti-ait of a 
Lady (miniature), Suermondt Museum, Aix- 
la-Chapelle.— Kugler (Crowe), i. 268 ; W. & 
W., ii. 505 ; Zeitscbr. f. b. K, xii. 320. 

RING, PIETER DE, flourished about 
1650-60. Dutch school ; fruit, flower, and 
still-life i^ainter, and a successful follower of 
Jan D. de Heem ; master of 
Guild at Leyden in 1648. 
Works : Still-Life, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Yauitas (1650), 
Berlin Museum ; Table with 
Oysters, Lobster, and Fruits, 
Dresden Gallery ; Breakfast 
Table (2, one dated 1659), 
Schwerin Gallery. — K u g 1 e r 
(Crowe), ii. 520 ; Kramm, v. 1370 
527. 

RIOULT, LOUIS 1^:D0U.ARD, born at 
Montdidier (Somme), Oct. 26, 1780, died in 
Paris, March 10, 1855. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of David and Regnault. Won second 
grand prix in 1814. First exhibited in 1819 ; 
soon after, having lost the use of his right 
hand, he learned to paint with his left. 
Medals: 2d class, 1844; 1st class, 1838. 
Works : Endymion Asleep (1822); Angelica 
rescued by Roger (1824), Compiegne Palace ; 
School Boy giving bis lunch to a Poor Man 
(1824) ; Women Bathing (1827) ; Calabrian 
Brigand (1829); Going into the Bath (1831); 
Bath at the Fountain (1834) ; Torregiano, 
Two Girls in a Boat (1835); St. Jerome Pray- 
ing, Two Girls in a Bath (1836) ; Siege of 




Ostend (1837), Versailles Museum; Girl 
with a Goat, Magdalen (1838) ; Death of 
Chevalier d'Assas, Girl with Dogs (1841) ; 
Visitation, Diana Bathing, Leda Bathing, 
Woman Bathing with a Zephyr, Wounded 
Love (1850); Battle of Hastembeck, 1757, 
Portraits of the Grand Conde, and his Wife, 
of Philip V. of Spain, Princesse de Lam- 
balle, Count and Countess of Albany, Ma- 
dame de Genlis, and twenty-one others, 
Versailles Museum ; Little Savoyard Asleep, 
Douai Museum ; Dorine and Tartuflfe, Mon- 
targis Museum ; Aurora, Saint-Etienne Mu- 
seum.— Bellier, ii. 384 ; D. Kunstbl. (1851), 
188 ; Larousse. 

RIPOSO, IL. See liepose in Egypt. 

RISSE, ROLAND, born in Cologne in 
1835. History, genre, and portrait painter, 
pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under Karl 
Sohn, Schadow and Bendemann ; visited 
afterwards Munich, Dresden, the Nether- 
lauds, and Paris. Works : Christ before 
Pilate (1856) ; Christ with a Dove (1858) ; 
Christ presenting a Child as Example to his 
Disciples (1862) ; Johanna Sebus (1864) ; 
Snowdrop and the Dwarfs (1866); Sleeping 
Beauty (1867); Cinderella (1868); Last Days 
of Pompeii ; Ophelia ; God and Bayadere ; 
Portraits of 11 Members of Academy Senate 
in Tubingen (1878).— Miiller, 441. ^ 

RITCHIE, ALEXANDER HAY, born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Jan. 14, 1822. Por- 
ti'ait and genre paintei", and engraver ; stud- 
ied under Sir William Allen in the Roj-al In- 
stitution, Edinburgh. Removed in 1841 to 
New York, where he has since lived. Elect- 
ed N.A. in 1871. Works : Washington and 
his Generals ; Death of Lincoln ; Mercy at 
the Wicket Gate ; Fitting out Moses for the 
Fair ; Baby, who's that ? Portraits : Pi*esi- 
dent IMcCosh and Professors Charles Hodge 
and H. M. Alexander of Princeton College 
(1881). 

RITTER, EDUARD, born in Vienna in 
1808, died there in 1853. Genre painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy, Works : Scene 
in Peasant Family (1838), Country People 
around Well (1846), Sick Bugle-Player 



HITTER 



(1847), Vienna Museum ; End of Church- 
Day (1846) ; Bequest of Grand-parents 
(1847) ; Ballad Singer (1848) ; Farewell of 
the Bride (1850) ; Rural Meal, Singing Re- 
hearsal (1851) ; Bout at Inn, End of a Vil- 
lage Church-Day (1852). — Wurzbach, xxvi. 
179. 

RITTER, HENRY, born at Montreal, 
May 24, 1816, died at Diisseldorf, Dec. 21, 
1853. Genre and landscape painter, pupil 
of Groger in Hamburg, whither he went 
early in life, then of Diisseldorf Academy 
under Sohn, where he was much attracted 
by Jordan ; excelled in representing epi- 
sodes from sailor-life, with great vividness 
and brilliant colouring. Works : Smug- 
glers attacked by Dragoons (1839) ; The 
Boaster (1841) ; Betrothal in Normandy 
(1842), Leipsic Museum ; Fisherman's Son 
Drowned (1844), Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; 
Poacher (1847); Fire in the Prairies (1851), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; IVIiddy's Sermon 
(1852), Cologne Museum. — Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1846), No. 63 ; FOrster, v. 395 ; Hagen, i. 
353; Wolfg. MuUer, Diisseldf. K, 224; 
Wiegmann, 313. 

RITTER, PAUL, born in Nuremberg, 
March 4, 1829. Architecture painter, pupil 
of Heideloff ; became deaf and dumb when 
four years of age ; travelled in France, Aus- 
tria, Denmark, and Italy. Gold medal, Ber- 
lin, 1880. Works : Sacrament Shrine in St. 
Lawrence, Nuremberg ; Choir of St. Law- 
rence, ib. ; Court of Old Post Office, ib. ; 
Peller Hof, ib. ; Well in Time of Thirty 
Years' War, ib. ; Arrival of Crown Jewels in 
1424 (1883), City Hall, Nuremberg. His 
brother, Lorenz (born Nov. 27, 1832), paint- 
ed for the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg 
many views in Nurembex-g and Heidelberg; 
View of Pentagonal Tower in Nuremberg 
(1882), Entry of Gustavus Adolphus into 
Nuremberg (1884).— MuUer, 441; Kunst- 
Chronik, xvii. 353 ; xix. 94 ; Rlustr. Zeitg. 
(1884), i. 131 ; Land und Meer (1887), 
i. 15. 

RIVALZ, ANTOINE, bom at Toulouse, 
March 6, 1667, died there, Dec. 7, 1735. 



French school ; history and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Jean Pierre Rivalz (1625- 
1706), then studied in Paris and in Rome, 
where he received the first prize of the Ac- 
cademia di San Luca from the hands of Pope 
Clement XI. After his return to his native 
city he painted, during thirty years, many 
pictures relating to its history, and in 1726 
established an art school, which was raised 
to the rank of an academy in 1750. Works : 
Foundation of City of Ancyra, Sosthenes 
King of Macedon taken Prisoner, Litto- 
rius vanquished by Theodoric, Raymond de 
Saint-Gilles taking the Cross in 1096, Defeat 
of Henry H. of England before Toulouse in 
1159, The Huguenots expelled from Tou- 
louse in 1562, Pope Urban H. consecrating 
Church of St. Saturnin, Portrait of the Ar- 
tist, five others, Toulouse Museum ; Diana 
and Actgeon, Narbonne Museum. — Bellier, 
ii. 387 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole franyaise, ii, 

RIVER, GOING DOWN TO THE, Alma- 
Tadema, W. H. Vanderbilt Collection, New 
York ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. A Ro- 
man lady, attended by her little daughter 
and a slave-girl, descending stairs leading 
down to the Tiber, with two ferrymen clam- 
ouring for custom ; at right, the river, with 
a marble bridge in background, and a galley 
coming into view through one of its arches. 
— Art Treasures of America, iii. 95. 

RIVEY, ARSfiNE, born at Caen; con- 
temporary. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Picot, Couture, and Bonnat. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1880. Works : Intimacy (1870); 
Brenda (1873); St. Sebastian (1876); David 
appeasing the Anger of Saul (1878); Nea- 
politan Woman (1881); Flemish Gentleman 
(1882); Estudiante (1883); In the Armoury, 
A Missive (1884); Study (1886). 

RIVIERE, BRITON, born in London, 
Aug. 14, 1840. Subject and animal painter, 
son and pupil of William Riviere (1806- 
1876), teacher of drawing at Cheltenham 
College and afterwards at Oxford, where 
Briton took his degree of A.B. in 1867. Ex- 
hibited in 1858-59, at the Royal Academy, 
pictures entitled Rest ft-om Labour, Sheep 



50 



RIXENS 




on the Cotswolds, and Road to Gloucester. 
In 1876 he received a medal at Philadel- 
phia. Obtained much re- 
pute in 1866 by the Poach- 
er's Nurse. Elected an 
A.RA. in 1878, and RA. 
in 1881. Works : Strayed 
from the Flock, Long 
Sleep (1866) ; Charity 
(1870); C/rce and the Com- 
panions of Ulysses, Come 
Back (1871) ; Daniel in the Den of Lions 
(1872) ; Ai-gus (1873) ; Apollo (1874) ; War 
Time, Last of the Garrison (1875) ; A Stern 
Chase, Swineherd's Dogs, Pallas Athente 
(1876) ; Legend of St. Patrick, Lazarus 
(1877) ; Lions, Syvipathy, An Anxious Mo- 
ment, Victims (1878); Poacher's Widow, In 
manus tuas — Domine (1879); Night- Watch, 
Endymion, Last Spoonful (1880); Envy, Ha- 
tred and Malice, Hope Deferred, Roman 
Holiday, Let Sleeping Dogs Lie (1881) ; 
The King Drinks, Magician's Doorway 
(1882); Giants at Play, Herd of Swine, Old 
Playfellows, Last of the Crew (1883) ; Eve 
of St. Bartholomew, King and his Satellites, 
Actseon, Enchanted Castle (1884) ; Stolen 
Kisses, After Naseby, Sheepstealers, Vte 
Victis (1885) ; Rizpah, Union is Strength, 
The Exile (1886). — Ai-t Journal (1878), 
5, 145 ; MeyneU, 141 ; Portfolio (1880), 
141. 

RIXENS, JEAN ANDR^, born at Saint- 
Gaudens (Haute-Garonne) ; contemporary. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Gc- 
rome. Medals : 3d class, 1871 ; 2d class, 
1881. Works : Morning Farewell (1868) ; 
Death of Cleopatra ; Coesar's Body ; May 
Jane (1879) ; Harvesters in the Pj'renees 
(1880) ; Death of Agrippina (1881) ; Head 
of Old Man (1882); Glory (1883); Coquetry, 
Study (1884) ; Don Juan (1886). 

RIZI, FRANCISCO, born in Madrid in 
1608, died in the Escorial, Aug. 2, 1685. 
Spanish school ; son of Antonio Rizi, a 
painter of Bologna, who accompanied Fe- 
derigo Zucchero to Spain in 1585 ; })ui);l of 
Vincenzio Carducho. Appointed in 1653 



painter to Cathedral of Toledo, and in 1656 
painter to Philip IV., an honour which he 
enjoyed also under Charles H. A veiy 
rapid worker, who jjainted many superficial 
pictures in Madrid and Toledo, and did 
much to aid the decline of art in Spain. 
Works: Au- ^-^f^ , 
to da Fe in Lf §J / v f ^ ^ 
1G80, Por- f /CC>^ byO 
trait of a *"^ 

General, Madrid Museum. — Stirling, ii. 696 ; 
Viardot, 272 ; Madrazo, 554. 

RIZI, Fray JUAN, born in Madrid in 
1595, died at Monte Cassino, Italy, in 1675. 
Spanish school ; brother of Francisco Rizi, 
pupil of Juan Bautista Mayno ; in 1626 be- 
came a Benedictine monk at Montserrat, 
and, after filling several conventual offices, 
was made abbot of Medina del Campo. 
Painted many altarpieces and rehgious pict- 
ures, and won so much fame for his talents 
and his piety that all the houses of his 
order were anxious to have him as an in- 
mate. In his old age he went to Italy, and 
the Pope conferred on him an Italian bish- 
opric, but he did not live to take it. Work : 
St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, Madrid 
Museum. — Stu-ling, ii. 693 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
espagnole ; Viardot, 270 ; Madrazo, 561. 

RIZO. See Francesco da Santa Croce. 

RIZPAH, Georges Becker, canvas. The 
seven sons of Saul, whom David delivered 
to the Gibeonites to be hanged to avert the 
famine, are seen suspended from a lofty 
gibbet, beneath Avhich Rizpah is figliting 
away a large eagle, come to prey upon the 
dead (2 Sam., xxi. 10). Painted in 1873 ; 
Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876.— Ai-t Gal. 
Phil. Ex., 33. 

By Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 4 ft. Riz- 
pah watching the bodies of her sons. Tur- 
ner Collection. Engraved, witli alterations, 
in Liber Studiorum. — Cat. Nat. Gal. 

RIZZONI, ALESSANDRO, born at Riga, 
Jan. 23, 1836. Genre painter, puj)il of Sfc. 
Petersburg Academy, where he won the 
grand prize in 1860 ; visited Germany, Bel* 



61 



KOBBE 



gium, Spain, and Portugal ; lived several 
years in Paris, and settled in Rome in 1865. 
Member of St. Petersburg Academy in 1864 ; 
professor since 1869. Medals : London, Vi- 
enna. AVorks : Synagogue in Livonia ; In- 
terior of Roman Tavern ; Visit of Cardinal 
to S. Onofrio ; Vegetable Store at Frascati ; 
Refectory in Capuchin Monastery in Rome ; 
Cardinal Council. 

ROBBE, LOUIS, born at Courtray, Nov. 
17, 1806. Animal and landscape painter, 
self-taught, studying from nature since 1833 ; 
settled at Courtray in 1830, and at Brussels 
in 1840. Medals at Brussels (1839-42) ; 
Paris, 3d class, 1844 ; 2d class, 1855 ; L. of 
Honour, 1845 ; Order of Leopold, 1843 ; 
Officer, 1863 ; Spanish Order of Charles 
III., 1844. Member Amsterdam Academy, 
1855. Studio in Brussels. Works : Cam- 
pine in Brabant ; Sheep and Shepherd ; 
jRest in the Pasture ; Pond with Cows ; 
;Roosters after Fight ; Bull attacked by 
Dogs, Brussels Museum ; Landscape with 
Cattle, Ghent Museum ; Sheep in Moun- 
tainous Landscape, Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 
His brother, Henri, is a still-life painter. 
Medals : Bruges, 1850 ; Ypres, 1855.— Im- 
merzeel, iii. 18 ; Kramm, v. 1371 ; Vape- 
reau (1880), 1551 ; Sunaert, 123. 

ROBBmS, HORACE WOLCOTT, born 
in Mobile, Ala., Oct. 21, 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil of August Weidenbach, Ger- 
man landscape painter, and of James M. 
Hart, In 1865 visited England, Holland, 
and France, where he received some in- 
struction from Rousseau in Paris, and in 
the same year sketched in Jamaica, W. I.; 
in 1866 sketched in Switzerland. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1864, and N.A. in 1878. Stu- 
dio in New York. Works in oil : Blue 
Hills of Jamaica (1874) ; Roadside Elms ; 
Mt. Philip ; New England Homestead, Har- 
bour Islands — Lake George (1878) ; Moun- 
tain Stream (1879) ; Summer Afternoon — 
Keene Valley (1880) ; Cloudy Afternoon, 
Solitude (1881) ; Lake Katahdin — Maine 
(1882) ; Early Autumn— Adiroudacks, Twi- 
light Hour (1883) ; Summer Afternoon — 



Essex County, Keene Valley Runway, Sun- 
set — Island of Jamaica (1884); Showery Af- 
ternoon in the Mountains (1885) ; Darken' 
ing in the Evening Glory (1886). Water 
colours : New England Road Scene (1877) ;, 
New England Homestead (1878). 

ROBER, ERNST, born at Elberfeld, June 
23, 1849. History painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy and of Bendemann. Works : 
Hunting Expedition of the Nibelungs ; Gods 
of 01,ympus, National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Nymphs surprised by Fauns, Faun's Love 
Song (1878). His brother, Fritz (born Oct. 
15, 1851), also pupil of Bendemann, paint- 
ed Death of Sophonisba ; The Great Elec- 
tor consoling the Peasantry after Battle of 
Fehrbellin ; then (together with his brother 
and with Rudolf Bendemann), Allegorical 
Figures, Cupid and Psyche, Groups of Ge- 
nii, National Gallery, Berlin. — Miiller, 443 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 647 ; xxi. 243, 245 ; 
D. Rundschau, xvii. 300. 

ROBERT, ALEXANDRE, born at Traze- 
gnies, Henault, Feb. 17, 1817. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil of Brussels Academy 
under Navez, then studied in Italy, 1843- 
48. Medals at Brussels, 1845, 1848 ; Paris, 
1855 ; Officer, Order Leopold ; Order Fran- 
cis Joseph of Austria. Member Royal Acad- 
emy of Belgium. Studio in Brussels. Works: 
Ransacking of Carmelite Monastery in Ant- 
werp, Luca Signorelli painting his Dead Son, 
Brussels Museum ; Regret (1849), Ghent 
Museum ; Chorus of Capuchins ; Young 
Mendicant ; Dolce far niente ; Charles V. 
before his Death ; Souvenirs of Rome and 
Naples.— Miiller, 443; Vapereau (1880), 
1553. 

ROBERT, AURICLE, born at Les Epla- 
tures, near La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchatel, 
Dec. 18, 1805, died at Ried, near Bienne 
(Biel), Canton Berne, Dec. 21, 1871. Ar- 
chitecture and genre painter, brother and, 
from 1822, pupil in Rome of Leopold Ro- 
bert, whom he accompanied on study trips 
in 1828-29, and, after a short separation, 
joined again in Paris in 1831, then in Ven- 
ice in 1833, to return home after Leopold's 



52 



ROBERT 



suicide in 1835. Occupied in Paris mostly 
with copies after his brother's works in 
1836-37, he went to Venice again in 1838, 
and five years later returned to Switzerland, 
whence he visited the Breisgau in 1869. 
His execution was very careful, though 
somewhat heavy. Medal, Paris, 2d class, 
1831. Works : Interior of St. Mark's, Ven- 
ice, Basle Museum ; do. (ISS-l), Berne Mu- 
seum ; do. (18-44), Interior of Baptismal 
Chapel, ib. ; Young Girl of Procida. Interior 
of Leopold Robert's Studio in Rome (1829), 
Neuchatel Museum ; Chapel in St. Mark's, 
Venice, Sacristy at Lugano, Zurich Gallery ; 
Baptismal Ceremony in Chapel in St. Mark's, 
Venice (1842), National Gallery, Berlin. — 
Jordan (1885), ii. 186 ; Rahn, Kunst- und 
Wanderstudien in der Schweiz (Vienna, 
1883), 346. 

ROBERT, HUBERT, called Robert des 
Ruines, born in Paris, May 22, 1733, died 
there, April 15, 1808. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Paunini ; spent twelve years at 
Rome. Member of Academy, 1766 ; and 
appointed custodian of the Louvre by the 
Directory. Works : Harbour of Ripetta near 
Rome (1766), Triumphal Arch at Orange 
(1767), Portico of Octavius (1785), Temple 
of Jupiter in Rome (1787), Maison Carrc'e 
(1787), Round Temple (1788), and seven 
others. Louvre ; Two Views in Gardens of 
Versailles (1777), Pont Notre Dame, Paris, 
Pont -au- Change and Clock Tower, ib. 
(1788), National Confederation on the 
Champ de Mars (1790), Versailles Museum ; 
View of Ancient Aqueducts, Trianon Pal- 
ace ; Interior of Maison Carrc-e at Nimes, 
Pont du Gard, Fontainebleau Palace ; Foun- 
tain of IVIinerva, Rome (1772), Angers Mu- 
seum ; Ruins of Imperial Palace — Rome, do. 
of Temple, Interior of Thernuio of Diocletian, 
Besanyon Museum ; Antique Ruins (2), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Aqueducts of IMainte- 
nant. Ruins of Forum Palladium, Cliartrcs 
Museum ; Interior of Antique Temple witli 
Religious Ceremony, Stable under Ancient 
Building, Dijon Museum ; others in Muse- 
ums of Marseilles, Moutpellier, Orleans, 



^ 



(10 Ofi/r-t 



Rouen (6), Troyes ; View of the Pantheon, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Ruins of Temple at 

Stone" Bi^dge', H ROBE^^ 

Hermitage, St. 

Petersburg. — 

BeUier, ii. 391 ; 

Ch. Blanc^ 

Ecole franraise ; Villot, Cat. Lou\Te ; Le- 

jeune. Guide, i, 272 ; iii. 317. 

ROBERT, LlfiO PAUL, born at Bienne, 
Switzerland ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of his father and of 
Gerume. Medal, 3d class, 1877. Works : 
Evening Zephyrs (1877); The Nymph Echo 
(1878) ; Christ with Lazarus, Genii of the 
Forest (1879) ; First Spring (1882); Beechr 
Woods at Romont (1883). 

ROBERT, (LOUIS) LEOPOLD, born at 
La Chaux-de-Fonds, 
Neuchatel, Switzer- 
land, May 13, 1794, 
died in Venice, March 
25, 1835. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
David in Paris, 
whither he had gone 
with the engraver 
Charles Ghirardet, 
his first instnictor. After winning the 2d 
grand prix for engraving (1814), and fre- 
quenting for a short time the studio of Gros 
in 1815, he returned home, where he paint- 
ed many excellent portraits and found a 
patron in M. Roullet Mezerac, who ofiered 
him the means to go to Rome in 1818 ; 
there he devoted himself to painting scenes 
from the life of the people. This ho did 
with a poetry which raised his popular sub- 
jects to the dignity of history, and made 
him equal to the foremost artists of his 
time. In 1824 he won the first prize in 
Paris, visited that city, and his native coun- 
try in 1831, but soon returned to Italy, set- 
tling at Florence, whence he removed to 
Venice to complete his picture. The Fish- 
ers of the Adriatic. In a fit of melancholia 
he committed suicide. Medal, Paris, 1822 ; 



..^3 




S3 



KOBERT-FLEURY 



L. of Honour, 1831. Works : Neapolitan 
Improvisator (1824); Peasant ^Yoman of the 
Campagna (1824); Festival of the Madonna 
deir Arco (1827), Arrival of Harvesters in 
the Pontine Marshes (1830), Louvre ; Her- 
mit of Monte Epomeo — Isle of Iscliia, Re- 
ceiving Fruit from Young Girl, Nantes 
Museum ; Italian Bandit Wounded, Bandit 
Women in Flight, Basle !Museum ; Roman 
Girl with Tambourine, Berne Museum ; 
Children of Canton Berne, Italian Girls, 
Sacristy of S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, 
Musee Rath, Geneva ; Basilica of S. Paolo 
fuori le Mura in Rome after the Fire (1823), 
Interior of do., Central Fragment of L'lm- 
provisatore. Fishers of the Adi'iatic (1834), 
Views in Rome (2), Retreat of Brigands, 
Le Septembriseur, Portraits (4), and Stud- 
ies (5), Neuchatel Museum ; Itahan Brigand 
Asleep (1822), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
The Mowers (1835, last work), Raczynski 
Gallery, ib.; Woman of Procida with her 
Child " (1826), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
do. (1831), Kunigsberg Museum ; Robber 
Asleep guarded by his Wife (1823), Leipsic 
Museum ; Gipsy, August Belmont, New 
York ; Roman Ruins, B. Wall, Providence. 
— Feuillet de Conches, Leopold Robert 
^ (Paris, 1849); 

f0 j y t Clement, Leopold 

OC / \X)6^'^ Robert (Paris, 

o X 1874) ; Hamerton, 

' ^ J I French Painters, 

54 ; Meyer, Gesch., 514 ; Planche, Portraits 

d'Artistes, ii. 1. 

ROBERT-FLEURY, (JOSEPH) NICO- 
LAS, bom in Cologne, Aug. 8, 1797, of 
French parents. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Girodet, Gros, and Horace Vernet. 
Lived much in Rome up to 1826, when he 
settled in Paris. In 1833 he exhibited Scene 
in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, which 
at once gave him a high position. Medals : 
2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1834, 1855, 1867 ; 
L. of Honour, 1836 ; Officer, 1849 ; Com- 
mander, 1867 ; Member of Institute, 1850 ; 
director of French Academy at Rome, 1866. 
Works : Tasso in Convent of San Onofrio 



(1827); Reading at Mme. de Sevignes (1833); 
Eve of St. Bartholomew (1833), Compiegne 
Palace ; Procession of the Ligue, Religious 
Discussion (1834) ; Regent in Council, Con- 
stable Albert de Luynes (1835) ; Henri IV. 
brought back to the Louvre after his Assas- 
sination (1836); St. Francis de Sales (1837); 
Christ and Little Children (1837), Nantes 
Museum ; Coming out of Church (1837) ; 
Entry of Glovis into Tours (1838), Arrival 
of Baldwin of Flanders at Edessa, 1097 
(1839), Versailles Museum ; Conference at 
Poissy in 1561 (1840), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Release of St. Peter, Ambroise Pare, 
Children of Louis XVL in Temple (1840) ; 
Pierre de la Ramee awaiting the Murderers 
on St. Bartholomew's Day, Neuchatel Mu- 
seum ; Inquisition, Michelangelo tending 
his Sick Servant Urbino, Benvenuto Cellini 
at Work (1841) ; Marino Faliero ; Burning 
a Heretic ; Rembrandt's Studio (1845); Gali- 
leo, Christopher Columbus received at the 
Court of Spain (1847) ; Massacre of Jews in 
London on Coronation Day of Edward H. 
(1848), Report to the Cardinal (1849), Ra- 
vene Gallery, Berlin ; Jane Shore (1850), 
Luxemboiu'g INIuseum ; The Venetian Sen- 
ate (1850); Death of Montaigne (1853); Sack 
of a Jew's House (1855), Luxembourg ; 
Charles V. at San Yuste (1857) ; Philip VI. 
of Valois, Connetables Dues de Luynes and 
de Lesdiguieres, Marshals Biron and Vil- 
leroy (1835), Versailles Museum ; The Toi- 
let, Montpellier Museum ; Three Portraits, 
Nantes Museum ; The Body of Titian lying 
in State in the Palazzo Barbarigo — Venice, 
Portrait of the Artist, Antwerp Museum. 
Also executed important decorative works 
^^^- in the audience hall of the 
y\ At Tribunal de Commerce, Paris. 
\y V I — Bellier, ii. 397 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1869), i. 188 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 
279 ; Saint Valli^re, Notice sur la vie, etc. 
(Paris, 1847); Zeitschr. f. b. K., v. 121. 

ROBERT-FLEURY, TONY, born in 
Paris, Sept, 16, 1838. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, son of Joseph Nicolas, pu- 
pil of Paul Delaroche and Luon Cogniet, 



54 



EGBERT 




Salpe- 

giving 

Belfort 



Medals : 18GG, 18G7, 1870 ; medal of honour, 
1870 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hououi-, 1873. 
Works : Roman Girl, 
Child kissing a Kelic 
( 1 8 G 1 ) ; Warsaw on 
April 8, 18G1 (186G) ; 
Old Women of the Pi- 
azza Navona (18G7), 
Last Day of Corinth 
(1870), Luxembourg 
Museum; Danaids 
(1872) ; Charlotte 
CordayinCaen (1874); 
Pinel the Chief Physician of the 
triere in Paris (187G) ; Vauban 
his Plans for the Fortification of 
(1882) ; Mazarin and his Nieces (1883) ; 
Leda (1885) ; Musical Cardinal, Miss C. L, 
W^olfe, New York. — Larousse ; D. Rund- 
schau, xvi. 306 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 259. 
ROBERT THE PIOUS, EXCOMMUNI- 
CATION OF, Jean Paul Laurenn, Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 10 in. x 7 
ft. 2 in. Robert 11., King of France (99G- 
1031), married his cousin and was excom- 
municated, on his refusal to put her aside, 
by Gregory V., who declared that the union 
was in violation of canonical law. Aban- 
doned by all his court he was finally (1001) 
forced to yield. Salon, 1875. 

ROBERT DES RUINES. See Robert, 
Hubert. 

ROBERTS, DAVID, born in Stockbridge, 
near Edinburgli, 
Oct. 24, 179G, died 
in London, Nov. 25, 
1 8 G 4. Landscape 
painter; appren- 
ticed to a house- 
painter and decora- 
tor in Edinburgh, 
then devoted him- 
self to scene paint- 
ing there (181G), as 
afterwards in London whither he went in 
1822. First exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1826, a view of Rouen Cathedral, and 
then at the British Institute and the Socie 




ty of British Ai-tists, of which he was vice- 
president. He visited Spain in 1832-33, 
and in 1835 exhibited his Cathedral at Bur- 
gos, in the Royal Academj', Loudon. In 
1838-39 he went to the East, whence he 
drew many fine subjects, and where he made 
a series of sketches, exhibited in London in 
1840. Painted about 2G0 oil pictures. 
Elected A.R.A. in 1838 and R.A. in 1841. 
The sale of his sketches and drawings in 
June, 1865, resized £16,450. Works : De- 
parture of the Israelites (1828); Interior of 
Old Buildings on the Darro, Entrance to 
Crypt of Roslyn Chapel, Bab-el-Mutaweller 
Gate at Cairo (1835), S. Kensington Muse- 
um ; Ruins of Baalbec — Temple of the Sun 
(1840) ; Interior S. Miguel, Spain (1841) ; 
Burgos Cathedral (1835), Chancel of St. Paul 
at Antwerp (1848), National Gallery, London; 
Sunset in Rome, National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; Tyre ; Sidon ; Melrose Abbey (1844); 
Jerusalem ; Church of the Nativity at Beth- 
lehem ; Fete Day at St. Peter's. Mr. Rob- 
erts published several series of lithographed 
sketches : The best known are " Sketches in 
the Holy Land and Syria" (1842); "Italy, 
Historical, Classical, and Picturesque" 
(1859).— Ballantyne, Life (London, 1866); 
Ai-t Journal (1858), 201 ; (18G5), 43 ; Sandby, 
ii. 169 ; Redgrave. 

ROBERTSON, ANDREW, born in Aber- 
deen, Scotland, Oct. 14, 1777, died at Hamp- 
stead, England, Dec. 6, 1845. Miniature 
painter, pupil of Alexander Nasmyth ; grad- 
uated at Aberdeen University in 1794. In 
1801 he walked to London to see the exhi- 
bition and was noticed by Benjamin West, 
who sat to him for his portrait and advised 
him to study in the Academy schools. He 
painted the princesses at Windsor, the 
Prince Regent (1812), and was appointed 
miniature painter to the Duke of Sussex. 
He had j)upils who became distinguished, 
and on his retirement in 1841 the miniature 
painters presented him with a piece of plate 
as the father of their profession. His elder 
brother Archibald went to New York in 
1791, to practise porti-ait painting, and was 



65 



ROBIE 



afterwards followed by another brother, 
Alexander, pupil in miniature painting of 
Shelley. — Redgrave. 

EOBIE, JEAN BAPTISTE, born in Brus- 
sels in 1821. Still-life painter, pupil of 
Brussels Academy ; most of his works are 
in private collections in France, England, 
and America. Medals at Brussels (1848), 
Paris (1851, 1863), Hague (1861), Sydney 
(1879) ; Order of Leopold (1861) ; Officer 
(1866); Commander (1881). Studio in Brus- 
sels. Works : Garland, Grapes, The Win- 
dow, The Park (1846-51); Still-Life (1853), 
Ghent Museum ; Bread and Wine (1855) ; 
Flowers, Grapes (1863) ; Grapes and Still- 
Life (1864) ; Massacre of the Innocents^ 
Promised Land (1865) ; Autumn, Fruits 
(1867) ; Flowers, Fruits and Accessories 
(1878); Flowerpiece, T. Wigglesworth, Bos- 
ton ; do., A. Adams, Watertown ; H. B. 
Hurlbut, Cleveland ; J. J. O'Fallon, St. 
Louis ; W. H. Fosdick, Louisville ; Charles 
Crocker, San Francisco. — Vapereau (1880), 
1554. 

EOBINETTA, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 5 
in. X 2 ft. A girl, half-length, seated, with 
a robin on her right shoulder, resting her 
left arm on its cage. Said to be a portrait 
of IVIiss Anna Lewis, afterwards the Hon. 
Mrs. Tollemache. Purchased with Peel pic- 
tures in 1871. Replica at Knole Park, Earl 
Amherst. A somewhat similar picture, 
without the cage, belongs to Lord Lons- 
dale ; engraved by J. Jones (1787), and S. 
W. Reynolds. Etched by A. Lalanze in 
Portfolio.— Cat. Nat. Gal.; Portfolio (1876), 
145 ; Waagen, Art Treasures, iv. 340. 

ROBINSON, THOIklAS, born in Nova 
Scotia in 1835. Animal painter, pupil of 
Courbet, and for a short time of Auguste 
Bonheur. He has lived and painted in Prov- 
idence, Boston, and Paris. Works : Dog's 
Head, Sheep in Pasture, A New England 
Farmer, Bull's Head (1876) ; Sprague's String 
Team ; Beacon Street in Boston in January, 
In a Daisy Field (1884).— Benjamin, 103. 

ROBUSTI. See Tintoretto. 



ROCH (Rocco), ST., Tintoretto, Scuola di 
S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, in narrow inter- 
val between two windows. A fine figure, 
though rather coarse. — Ruskiu, Stones of 
Venice, iii. 342. 

ROCH, ST., GIVING ALMS, Anuibale 
Carracci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 11 
ft. 9 in. X 17 ft. 1 in. St. Roch, at right, on 
a platform under a portico, giving alms to 
the poor and the sick, who throng the coiirt 
in front ; background of architecture. Paint- 
ed for Chapel of S. Rocco, Reggio ; sold to 
Duke of Modena, whence passed to Dres- 
den. Copy in small, by Guido, in Zambec- 
cari GaUery, Bologna. Engraved by Guido 
Reni, who added two figures to it ; also by 
J. Camerata. — Gal. roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 
21 ; Reveil, ix. 590. 

ROCH, ST., FINDING OF BODY OF, 
Tintoretto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, H. 
about 10 ft. X 25 ft. A somewhat confused 
picture, with a flying angel in blue drapery ; 
altogether uninteresting. — Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 324. 

ROCH, ST., IN CAMPO D'AHIHATA, 
Tintoretto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, H. 
about 10 ft. X 25 ft. " A wild gi-oup of 
horses and warriors in the most magnificent 
confusion of fall and flight ever painted by 
man. They all seem dashed diflerent ways 
as if by a whirlwind ; and a whirlwind there 
must be, for a huge tree is torn up and 
hurled into the air, as if it were a shivered 
lance." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 324. 

ROCH, ST., IN THE DESERT, Tintoret- 
to, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. A single re- 
cumbent figure in a not very interesting 
landscape. — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 
322. 

ROCH, ST., IN GLORY, Tintoretto, Scu- 
ola di S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. The Saint 
ascends to heaven, looking down on a crowd 
of the sick and poor, who are blessing and 
adoring him. One of the worst of Tinto- 
rets. — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 338. 

ROCH, ST., IN HEAVEN, Tintoretto, 
Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; oval, central pict- 
ure of ceiling, Sala dell' Albergo. Painted 



56 



EOCH 



in 1560. The brethren of the Scuola had 
asked some of the chief painters of Venice 
to send in trial sketches for the centrepiece 
in the ceiling. Tintoretto produced a fin- 
ished painting instead of a sketch, and had 
it placed in the oval. Both the brethren 
and his fellow competitors were offended, 
but as he offered the picture as a present, 
they were obliged to accept it. — Ruskiu, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 351 ; Osier, Tintoret- 
to, 51 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 193. 



pupil of Jules Lefc'bvre and of Boulanger. 
Medals : 3d class, 1882 ; 2d class, and prix 
du Salon, 1883. Works : Vitellius dragged 
through the Streets of Rome (1882) ; An- 
dromache (1883); La Jacquerie (1885); Mad- 
ness of Nebuchadnezzar (1886). — Kunst- 
Chronik, xx. 701 ; xxi. 291, 378 ; Zeitschi'. 
f. b. K., xix. 258 ; xx. 234 ; xxi. 314 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS, Albert Bierstadt, 
James McHenry. A vast plain, with cotton- 
wood trees, oaks, and pines in the fore- 



i^©^_^ 




St. Roch Giving Alms, Annibale Carracci, Dresden Gallery. 



ROCH, ST., IN THE HOSPITAL, Tinto- 
retto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas, H. about 10 
ft. X25 ft. The Saint engaged in liis minis- 
trations in the hospital. A very noble pict- 
ure, carefully composed and highly wrought, 
but a disgusting subject. — Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 323 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 191. 

ROCH, ST., BEFORE THE POPE, Tin- 
toretto, S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. A delight- 
ful picture in his best manner, but hastily 
painted. — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 321. 

ROCHEGROSSE, GEORGES, born at 
Versailles ; contemporary. History painter, 



ground, groups of wigwams with Indians 
and ponies in middle distance, and beyond, 
a river ; in backgi'ound, lofty snow-crowned 
mountains — the highest peak Mount Lander. 
Painted in 1863, Engraved by James 
D. Smillie. 

RODMvOWSKI, HEINRICH, born at 
Lemberg, Galicia, in 1823. One of the best 
portrait painters of the day, pupil of Cogniet 
in Paris, where he settled ; painted also sev- 
eral good history and geni-e pictures. IMed- 
als : Paris, 1st class, 1852 ; 3d class, 1855 ; 
L. of Honour, 1861. Works : General Dem- 



RODDE 



binski (1852) ; Artist's Mother (1853) ; 
Prince Sapieha ; Count Kaczynski (1859) ; 
Sigismund sanctioning Privileges of Nobil- 
ity (1872) ; War without Fight ; Galician 
Peasants at Church (1857) ; Battle near 
Choczym in 1G73 ; King Sobieski receiving 
Envo}- from Vienna (18G1) ; A Preacher 
(1873).— Wurzbach, xxvi. 218. 

RODDE, KARL GUSTAV, born in Dant- 
zic, Aug. 29, 1830. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Johann Karl Schultz, then of Diissel- 
dorf Academy (1852-57) under Schirmer 
and Gude ; studied in 1857 at Munich and in 
1858-(jl in Rome. After his return he lived 
in Weimar and is now (1885) in Berlin. 
Works : Olivia ; After Sunset ; Valley Soli- 
tude, National Gallery, Berlin ; Landscape 
with Castle and Village, Wiesbaden Gallery. 
— MiiUer, 445. 

RODDELSTEDT, PETER, caUed Gott- 
land. German school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Cranach, the elder ; flour- 
ished in 1548-72 at Weimar, where he be- 
came court painter to the Elector John Fred- 
eric in 1553. — Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 486 ; 
Nagler, Mon., iv. 884 ; W. & W., ii. 433. 

RODE, CHRISTMN BERNHARD, born 
in Berlin in 1725, died there, June 24, 1797. 
German school ; history painter, jjupil of 
Antoine Pesne in Berlin and Carle van Loo 
in Paris ; studied afterwards in Rome and 
Venice, and became director of the Berlin 
Academy in 1783. He was the most not- 
able native historical painter at the court 
of Frederick the Great, for whom he exe- 
cuted a number of pictures in palaces and 
churches. Works : Ceilings in New Palace 
of Sans Souci, Potsdam ; Descent from the 
Cross, St. Mary's, Berlin. — Fiorillo, iii. 401 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 554 ; Naglei*, xiii. 270 ; 
Reber, i. 54. 

RODRIGUEZ, ST., Murillo, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. 
Stan ding before a balustrade, wearing a rich 
chasuble, a palm in his left hand, his right 
outstretched, looking up to a cherub about 
to crown him with a wreath of flowers. 
Louis Philippe sale (1853), £210. Engraved 




by Buchel ; Th. Langer ; etched by H. Biirk- 
ner ; lithographed by Julien. — Curtis, 266 ; 
Athenteum (1853), 657. 

ROED, JORGEN, born at Ringsted, on 
Zealand, Jan. 13, 1808. 
Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy un- 
der Hansen ; went in 
1837 to Italy, where he 
painted altarpieces and 
copied after Raphael ; 
returned in 1842, be- 
came member of Co- 
penhagen Academy in 1844 and professor 
in 1862 ; Copied the Sistine Madonna in 
Di-esden in 1851, and visited Italy again in 
186L Danebrog Order, 1878. Works: 
Departure from Custom House (1835); View 
in Royal Garden at Frederiksborg (1836) ; 
Interior of Cathedral at Ribe (1837) ; Win- 
ter View of Cathedral in Roeskilde ; Girl 
with Fruits (1835), Zealand Mowers after 
Work (1850), Girls at a Font (1851), Family 
Life of Fishermen (1855), Portrait of Ar- 
tist's Mother (1849), do. of Marstraud 
(1873), Copenhagen Gallery ; Crucifixion 
(1866), Royal Chapel, Frederiksborg. His 
son, Holger Peter (born Nov. 2, 1846, died 
Feb. 20, 1874), was a talented history paint- 
er, pujDil of his father and of Copenhagen 
Academy ; won great gold medals in 1867- 
70 ; visited Paris, Rome, and Naples in 1870 
-72.— Sig. Midler, 281 ; Weilbach, 585. 

ROEDER, JULHJS (SIGISMUND), born 
in Berlin, Sept. 5, 1824, died there, July 31, 
1860. Genre painter, pupil of Herbig, and 
of Berlin Academy ; studied nature in the 
Hartz Mountains and Thuringia ; grief over 
his young wife's death made him insane. 
Gold medal, Berlin, 1850. Works: Last 
Blessing (1850); Grape Seller, National Gal- 
lery, BerHn.— Jordan (1885), ii. 188. 

ROPXAS, JUAN DE LAS, born in Sev- 
ille about 1558-60, died at Olivarez, April 
23, 1625. Spanish school ; supposed son of 
Admiral Pedro de las Roelas ; received 
a university education ; studied painting 



58 



ROELOFS 




probably in Venice, where he was influenced 
by the works of Titian and Tintoretto, his 
style being somewhat 
like the latter's. In 
1603 he was appointed 
prebendary of the chap- 
el at Oliviirez, wlience 
commonly called El 
C 1 e r i g o Roi'las, but 
lived at Madrid and 
Seville until 1G24, when 
he removed to Olivarez. 
Cean Bermudez gives a list of his pictures. 
Among his best works are the Death of St. 
Isidore, S. Isidoro, Seville ; Martyrdom of 
St. Andrew, Seville Museum ; Santiago at 
Battle of Clavigo, Cathedral of Seville ; Mo- 
ses striking the Rock, Madrid Museum ; 
Conception, Dresden Gallery ; Communion 
of St. Theresa, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
— Viardot, 180 ; Stirling, i. 449 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole ; Madrazo, 563. 

ROELOFS, WILLEM, born in Amster- 
dam, March 10, 1822. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Utrecht of A. H. Winter, and at 
The Hague of H. van de Saude-Bakhuysen ; 
settled in Brussels in 1848. Orders of Leo- 
pold and of Francis Joseph, 1858 ; Officer 
Order of Oaken Crown, 1860. Works : 
View near Abcoude, do. near The Hague, 
Museum, Amsterdam ; Two Landscapes, 
Museum Fodor, ib. ; Landscape with Cattle, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Landscape with Sheep, 
H. P. Kidder, Boston ; Dutch Meadow ; Af- 
ter the Rain ; Banks of the Gain ; Landscaj^e 
near Vreeland ; Forest in Autumn, Liege 
Museum ; Dutch Village (1883). — Immer- 
zeel, iii.22 ; Kramm, v. 137G; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xviii. 823 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xix. 261. 

EOEPEL, KOENRAAD, born at The 
^V Hague, Nov. G, 

CocnrcuT M}C/o(jt i^'^^' '^'^'^ ^^'®^^' 

^K/ Nov. 4, 1748. 

C(Xa4^CuU Ao^^^^'^^"^} school; 
/-/(_' portrait, fruit, and 

^'^ l^to flower ])ainter, 

pupil of Constantin Netsclicr ; followed af- 
terwards the manner of Jan van Huysuni, 



and in his best efforts approached him close- 
ly. Works : Flower-Piece, Fruit-Piece, Am- 
sterdam IMuseum ; Fruit and Flower-Piece, 
Cassel Gallery ; Flower-Piece, Dresden Gal- 
lery. — Immerzeel, iii. 22 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 549. 

ROETH, PHILIPP, born in Darmstadt, 
March 10, 1841. Landscape paintei', pupil 
in Darmstadt (1857-59) of A. Lucas and 
Karl Seeger, in Carlsruhe (1859-60) of J. 
W. Schirmer, and in Darmstadt (1861) of 
Paul Weber ; went to Diisseldorf, and in 
1870 settled in Munich. Works : Banks of 
the Amper ; View in the Odenwald ; do. on 
the Main ; Rainy Weather ; Landscape with 
Cattle (1882).— Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvii. 260. 

ROGER, ADOLPHE, born at P:ilaiseau 
(Seine-et-Oise) in 1800, died in Paris, Feb., 
1880. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Gros. Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 
1831 ; L. of Honour, 1841. Works : Vil- 
lage Funeral (1822); Takiug the Veil (1831); 
Revolution of 1793 in Rome (1833) ; Due 
d'Orleans working in Trenches of Antwerp 
(1834) ; Charles V. returning to the Louvre 
(1835), Trianon Palace ; Battle of Civitella 
(1842), Versailles Museum ; Christmas (1843); 
St. Claire receiving her Sister into her Or- 
der (1845) ; Virgin with Violets (1847); Two 
Nuns, Providence turning aside War (1855); 
Human Justice, Divine Pity (1857). — Bel- 
lier, ii. 405 ; Larousse. 

ROGER, EUGENE, born at Sens(Yonne) 
in 1807, died in Paris, July 29, 1840. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Hersent and of Ingres ; 
won the second prize in 1829, and the grand 
prix de Rome in 1833 ; great gold medal, 
Paris, 1837. Works : Jacob refusing to de- 
liver Benjamin (1829); Moses and the Brazen 
Serpent (1833) ; Finding of the Body of 
Charles the Bold (1837), Nancy Museum ; 
Charlemagne crossing the Alps (1837), Rjiis- 
iug of Siege of Salerno— 1016 (1839), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Preaching of St. John in 
the Desert (1840).— Bellier, ii. 406; Nag- 
ler, xiii. 311. 

ROGGI; WILHELM, born at Osterkap- 
peln, Hanover, in 1829. History and genre 



69 



ROGHMAN 



painter, studied first at Osnabriick, then in 
Munich under Rhomberg and at the Acad- 
emy under PhiHpp Foltz ; visited North Italy, 
lived for several yeai-s in Diisseldorf, and 
settled in Munich. Works : Reconciliation 
of Otto I. with his Brother Henry, Provin- 
zial Museum, Hanover ; Last of the Hohen- 
staufen before Charles of Anjou ; Lying-in- 
Room of a Princess ; Quartering in 16th 
Century ; Return from Fair ; Violinist ; 
Sunday Morning ; Eaves-Droi^per ; Treach- 
erous Hostess ; Before the Festival ; Leav- 
ing Home, L M. Scott, San Francisco ; Con- 
valescent, Mrs. D. D. Colton,ib. ; three frescos 
in National Museum, Munich. — Miiller, 44G. 
ROGHMAN, ROELAND, born in Am- 
sterdam in 1597, died there after 1686. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter; travelled 
extensively in Germany and Tyrol. His rare 
landscapes in the warm tone of Rembrandt 
are particularly noticeable for their fine per- 
sjDective ; they may be seen in the Museums 
of Amsterdam and Berlin, Galleries of Cas- 
sel (3, two attributed to Rembrandt), Copen- 
hagen, and Oldenburg. — Immerzeel, iii. 23 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 359 ; Kramm, v, 1380. 

ROHDE, KARL, born in Coblentz in 1840. 
Animal painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School 
under Neher and Rustige, settled in Munich 
in 1864 ; paints chiefly domestic poultry. 
Works : The Duellists ; Prize Race ; Hungry 
Folk ; Sparrow's Wooing ; Clucking Hen. 
— MiiUer, 446 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 247. 

ROKES, HENDRHi MARTENSZ. See 
Sorgh. 

ROLL, ALFRED PHILIPPE, born in 
Paris; con tem jDorary. 
Military and genre 
painter, pupil of G6- 
rume and Bonnat. 
Medals : 3d class, 1875 ; 
1st class, 1877; L. of 
Honour, 1883. Works : 
Environs of Baccarat, 
Evening(1870); Wound- 
ed Fugitive (1872); Bac- 
chante (1873); Don Juan and Haidee (1875); 
Haltelii! (1875); Huntress (1876) ; Inunda- 




tion of Toulouse in 1875 (1877) ; Festival of 
Silenus (1879) ; Miners on a Strike (1880) ; 
July 14th 1880 (1882) ; Normandy (1883)— 
Luxembourg Museum ; Fight between a 
French Cuirassier and a Prussian Sharp- 
shooter ; Marianne Offrey— Crieuse de vert 
(1884) ; At Work, Study of a Bull and Nude 
Woman (1885) ; Portrait of Damoye (1886). 
— Gaz. des B. Arts (1882), xxv. 546 ; (1884), 
xxix. 468 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxi. 315. 

ROLL-CALL, ]\Ii-s. Elizabeth Thompson 
Butler, Windsor Castle ; canvas. Calling 
the roll of the Grenadier Guards on a misty 
winter morning after an engagement in the 
Crimea. A line of soldiers worn out with con- 
flict, some wounded, some dying and fallen 
with their faces in the snow, inspected by 
the colonel as he rides slowly past. Royal 
Academy, 1874 ; purchased by the Queen. 
Engraved by F. Stacpoole. — Ai-t Journal 
(1874), 163. 

ROLL-CALL OF LAST VICTIMS, 
Charles Louis Midler, Versailles Museum ; 
canvas, H. 14 ft. 4 in. x 26 ft. 11 in. Scene 
— the prison of the Conciergerie, on the 8th 
Thei-midor, 1794. An officer of the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal is reading the names of the 
victims for whom the cart waits outside the 
door ; the Princesse de Chimay is already 
in the cart, and the Princesse de Monaco, 
who has just been called, rises in terror at 
right, while an informer points her out 
with his finger. The central figure, seated 
in a chair, is Andre Chenier, the author. 
Salon, 1850 ; replica (H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft. 10 
in.), bought in 1862 by John Taylor John- 
ston for $1,800 ; his sale (1876), $8,200, to 
J. J. Astor, New York. Original sketch, H. 
L. Dousman, St. Louis. Photogravure in 
Art Treasures of America, ii. 11, 14 ; iii. 58, 

ROLLMANN, JULIUS, born Dec. 13, 
1827, died at Soest, Westphalia, April 30, 
1865. Landscape painter, pupil of Diisself 
dorf and Berlin Academies ; settled in Mu- 
nich, and in 1853 in Dusseldorf ; visited 
Italy in 1858. Work : View in Bavarian 
Alps (1864), National Gallery, Berlin. — Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 189. 



60 



KOMAKO 



RO^klAKO, ANTON, born at Atzgers- 
dorf, near Vienna, in 1835. Genre painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy and of Rahl ; 
lived afterwards mostly in Rome ; is par- 
ticularly successful with Viennese children 
types and Italian figures. Works : Woman 
of Seville (1851), New Piuakothek, Munich ; 
Battle of Arminius (1852) ; Wine, Woman, 
and Song, Marietta, Serenade of Italian 
Peasants, Scene from Decameron (18G0) ; 
Vanity (18G1) ; Poetry (18G2), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Shepherd Boy from the Cani- 
pagna ; Roman Country Girl ; Girl from 
Sabine Mountains ; Lady blowing Bubbles ; 
Assault of Turks on Vienna ; Ristori as 
Phaedra ; Madonna ; Portrait of Pius IX. 
(1872) ; Wine, Woman, and Song (Jubilee 
Exhibition, Berlin, 1886) ; Last Hours of 
Beatrice Cenci, A. Adams, Watertown, Mass. ; 
Sentinel of Louis XV., D. W. Powers, 
Rochester. — Wurzbach, xxvi. 315. 

ROMAN CHARITY (Caritas Romana), 
the title generally given to illustrations of 
an act of filial piety narrated by sevei'al 
ancient writers, in which a daughter nour- 
ishes with her own milk a parent con- 
demned to death by hunger. According 
to Valerius Maximus (v. 8) and Pliny (Nat. 
Hist., vii. 3G) the imprisoned parent is a 
mother ; but Festus and SoHnus make the 
characters of the drama a father named Ci- 
mon and his daughter Pera. The latter is 
the version adopted by the painters. There 
is an antique painting of the subject in the 
Studj Museum, Naples. In the Church of 
S. Niccohj in Carcere, Rome, sujij^osed to 
stand on the site of the Temple of Piety, 
said by Pliny to have been erected over the 
dungeon, is shown a series of cells, one of 
which is reputed to be the scene of the 
Caritas Romana. This place inspired the 
beautiful lines in " Childe Harold" (iv. 
148-151). 

By Gerard Honthorst, Old Pinakotliek, 
Munich ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9 in. x 4 ft. 8 in. 
Figures seen to the knees. The daughter, 
holding a lighted candle in one hand and 
looking anxiously towards the right, pre- 



sents her breast to her aged father, who, 
half-nude, has chains on his wrists. One 
of Honthorst's best pictui-es. Lithographed 
by Ferdinand Piloty, the elder. Etched by 
Joseph Hauber. Engraved by Johanu Karl 
Schleich. 

By Jules Joseph Lefebvre, Melun Muse- 
um. The daughter, holding her infant in 
her arms and looking around anxiously lest 
somebody may observe her, presents her 
breast to her father through the barred 
window of his cell, outside of which she is 
standing. Painted in Rome, whence sent 
to the Ecole des Beaux Ai'ts in 18(53 ; Sa- 
lon, 18G4 ; purchased by the State. 

By Eubcns, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 
G ft. 4 in. X 6 ft. The old man kneeling on 
some straw, with his hands bound behind 
him ; his daughter, bending by his side, 
looks with anxious eyes towards the grated 
prison-window ; in foreground, her infant 
asleep on the straw. Engraved by J. Smith. 
Blenheim sale (188G), £1,200, to Murray.— 
Smith, ii. 113, 248 ; Waageu, Treasures, iii. 
124. 

Subject treated also by Guido Reni, Mar- 
seilles Museum, Cologne Museum ; Jean 
Jacques Bachelier, Louvre, Paris ; Parmigi- 
anino, Naples Museum ; Benedetto Crespi, 
Madrid Museum ; Francesco Migliori, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Wenzel Marus (1857) ; Ru- 
bens, Hague Museum, Hermitage in St. 
Petersburg ; Nicolas Poussin (engraved by 
J. Pesne). — Hobhouse, Historical Illustra- 
tions ; Larousse, iii. 995. 

ROMAN EMPEROR, .4//na-Tadema, W. 
T. Walters, Baltimore ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 9 
in. X 5 ft. 8 in. ; dated 1871. Claudius 
hailed ironically as emperor by soldiers and 
others, who discover him hiding behind the 
terminal bust of Caligula, whoso dead body 
lies at its foot. Engraved by Rajou. — Art 
Journal, Feb., 1883 ; Portfolio (1877), 125. 

R0:MAN empire, birth of, Claude 
Lorrain, Earl Radnor, Longford Castle ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. x 4 ft, G in. A seaport at 
sunrise, with landing of ^neas in Latium. 
Liber Veritatis, No. 122. Engraved by 



61 



EOMAN 



Mason (1772). Replica in small, Grosve- 
nor House, London. — Pattison, Claude Lor- 
rain, 67, 217, 233 ; Waageu, Treasures, iii. 
140. 

ROMAN EMPIRE, DECLINE OF, 
Claude Lorrain, Earl Radnor, Longford 
Castle ; canvas, H. 4 f t. x 4 ft. 6 in. A sun- 
set, with antique ruins and an aqueduct. 
Liber Veritatis, No. 82. Engraved by J. 
Fittler (1772). Replica in small (1661), Gros- 
venor House, London. — Pattison, Claude 
Lorrain, 67, 214, 219, 234 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 140. 

ROIiLAN SENATOR'S DREAM, 3Iurillo, 
Academia S. Fernando, Madrid ; canvas, 
semicircular, H. 7 ft. 6 in. x 17 ft. 2 in. 
The Senator, seated in a chair asleep, his 
■wife sleeping on the floor beside him ; they 
behold the vision of the Virgin, who ap- 
pears holding the Child and pointing thi'ough 
the open door to the site on which she di- 
rects the founding of the Church of S. M. 
Maggiore. Painted, with following picture, 
about 1656, for S. M. la Blanca, Seville; 
taken to Paris by Soult, who gave them, at 
the Restoration, to the King, who placed 
them in the Louvre ; returned to Spain in 
1814. Engraved by D. Martinez ; etched 
by Galvan. Copy by Souchon in Lille Mu- 
seum. — Curtis, 206 ; Huard, Vie des Pein- 
tres espagnoles (Pai-is, 1839-41). 

ROMAN SENATOR RELATING HIS 
DREAM, Murillo, Academia S. Fernando, 
Madrid ; canvas, semicircular, H. 7 ft. 6 in. 
X 17 ft. 2 in. The Senator and his wife, 
kneeling, relate their dream to Pope Libe- 
rius, who sits enthroned at left, attended 
by two cardinals ; at right, in distance, a 
throng of people, and the Pope under a 
canopy, assist at the founding of the church. 
Same history as above. Engraved by D. 
Martinez ; etched by Galvan. Copy by 
Souchon in Lille Museum. — Curtis, 206. 

ROMANELLI, GIOVANNI FRANCES- 
CO, born at Viterbo in 1610 or 1612, died 
there, July, 1662. Roman school ; pupil at 
Rome of Domenichino and of Pietro da Cor- 
tona ; won the favour of the Barberini family 




rin Palace. 



and executed frescos in the Vatican to the 
satisfaction of Urban VIH. Painted also 
Presentation of the 
Virgin, for a mosaic 
in St. Peter's, a very 
successful work. Be- 
came Prince of Acad- 
emy of St. Luke. 
Followed Cardinal 
Barberini to Paris in 
1648 and painted 
frescos in the Maza- 
Romanelli returned to Italy in 
1651, but was recalled to Paris by Mazarin 
in 1659 and received wdth great favour by 
Louis XIV., who intrusted to him the dec- 
oration of several apartments in the Louvre. 
This work was finished in 1661, when ill- 
health compelled his return to Italy. He 
had just built a house near Viterbo, where 
he intended to retire and enjoy his wealth 
and honours, when he died. He was a 
weak, though pleasing, painter. His son 
XJrbano, also a painter, died young in 1682. 
Most of Romanelli's easel pictures are in 
churches in Rome, and in Viterbo ; among 
those in public galleries are : Venus and 
^neas, Venus and Adonis (2), Gathering of 
Manna, Louvre, Paris ; Allegory on Riches, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Mai-tyrdom of St. 
Lawrence, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Herodias 
with the Head of St. John, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Victory Dance of Jewesses before 
David, The Kings of India doing Homage 
to Alexander, Vienna Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrienne ; Burckhardt, 768. 

ROMANINO, GIROLAMO, born at Bres- 
cia about 1485, died there in 1566. Vene- 
tian school ; supposed pupil of Stefano Rizzi, 
or of Floriano Fen-amola at Brescia, but 
probably studied also under one of the Fri- 
ulian masters. Free of guild at Brescia be- 
fore 1510, when he was a skilled artist in 
the manner of the Palmas and of Pellegrino. 
At this time he painted the Pietd, now in 
the collection of Sir Ivor Guest, England, 
which was quickly followed by the Madonna 
with Saints, and the Judith, in the Berlin 



63 



ROMANO 



Museum, and the Madonna with Saints 
(1502-12), S. Francesco, Brescia. After 
the sack of Brescia, Romanino found a 
home among the Benedictines of S. Gius- 
tina, Padua, for whose church he painted 
(1513) a splendid altarpiece. Madonna with 
Saints, now in the Padua Gallery. His 
Last Supper, painted for the refectory and 
now in the same gallery, shows less care 
and skill. He returned to Brescia in 1510- 
17, and in 1521 contracted with Moretto 
to paint the chapel of Corpus Christi in S. 
Giovanni Evangelista, where his frescos and 
canvases are still extant, though much in- 
jured ; worked in Cremona about and after 
1517, and in Trent about 1540. Among his 
best works is the Nativitij (1525), National 
Galleiy, London. Other noteworthy works 
are : Pieta, Madonna Enthroned and Saints, 
Berlin Museum ; Christ carrying his Cross, 
Tosi Collection, Bi-escia ; Assumjjtion, S. 
Alessandro, Bergamo ; Christ's Sermon on 
the Mount, S. Pietro, Modena ; four large 
frescos (1519-20), Choir, Duomo, Cremona ; 
two do., Bi'escia Gallery ; Marriage of Vir- 
gin, S. Giovanni Evangelista, ib. ; Descent 
from the Cross, Gallery, ib.; Decorative 
Frescos, Episcopal Palace, Trent ; Organ 
Doors, Duomo, Brescia. — C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 367 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xi. 107, 262 ; 
Burckhardt, 734 ; Lermolieff, 445 ; Liibke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 607. 

ROMANO. See Giulio Romano. 

ROMANS LEAVING BRITAIN, Sir John 
Everett Millais, Bart., Sir I. Lowthian Bell, 
Washington Hall, Durham, England ; can- 
vas. The parting between a Roman legion- 
ary and his British mistress, on a clift' path 
overlooking the sea, where a large galley is 
waiting for the soldier. He kneels at her 
feet with his arms clasped about her and his 
face hidden in her breast ; she has her hands 
upon his shoulders and gazes with a passion- 
ate, savage stare on the sea. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1865. 

ROMANS OF THE DECADENCE, 
Thomas Couture, Luxembourg Museum, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 15 ft. 3 in. x 25 ft. 4 in. 



Illustration of Juvenal (Sat. VI.). A Roman 
debauch in the decline of the Empire. A 
feast in the atrium of a magnificent house, 
where the statues of the fathers look down 
upon the degenerate sons, represented in 
every stage of intoxication. Salon, 1847. 
Study, Christian Herter, New York. — La- 
rousse, v. 417. 

ROMBOUTS, J., flourished in Haariem 
about 1660. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter in the style of Ruysdael and Hob- 
bema, but not an imitator of either ; per- 
hajis identical with Gilles Rombouts, who 
was received into Haarlem guild in 1652, 
and by whom is a Weaver Shop Interior 
(1656) in the Haarlem Museum. Works : 
Wood Landscaj^es in Museums of Amster- 
dam, Basle, Berlin, Brunswick, Gotha (2), 
Leipsic ; Winter Landscape with Skaters, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Dutch Village (1658), 
Dresden Gallery ; Sea Shore with many peo- 
ple Avatching Sea Fight in the Distance, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Entrance to the For- 
est (figures and animals by A. van de Velde), 
Six Gallery, Amsterdam ; Windmill on a 
Canal (?), Historical Society, New York. — 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 479 ; Burger, ii. 132, 
293 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 399. 

BOMBOUTS, S.ALOMON, flourished in 
Haarlem about 1650. Dutch school ; land- 
scape painter ; circumstances of his life un- 
known. Works : Dutch Park with Figures 
(by Lingelbach), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Coast near Scheveningen with many Fig- 
ures, Leipsic Museum ; Farm-House and 
Yard near Pond with Fishei-men, Old Pina- 
kothek, Municih. 

ROMBOUTS, THEODOOR, born in Ant- 
werp, baptized July 2, 1597, died there, Sept. 
14, 1637. Flemish school ; history and 
genre painter, pupil of Abraham Janssens ; 
went to Rome in 161(i, whence he was invited 
to Florence by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
and then visited Pisa ; master of guild in 
Antwerp in 1625, and dean in 1628-30. 
In 1635 painted two lai'ge pictures of the 
Entrance of the Archduke Ferdinand into 
Ghent. Portrait painted by Van Dyck. 



«8 



KOME 




"Works : Allegoi-y of Justice, The Five 
Senses, St. Joseph in a Dream advised by the 

Angel to Flee, 
Male Bust Por- 
trait, Museum, 
Ghent ; Descent 
from the Cross, 
Cathedral, ib.; 
Christ as Pilgrim 
received by St. 
Augustin (1636), 
Card Players 
(ascribed to Va- 
lentin), Museum, Antwerp ; Mystical Mar- 
riage of St. Catharine (1634), St. James', ib.; 
do. (1636), St. Martin's, Yperen ; Martyrdom 
of St. Rumbold, Finding of St. Eumbold's 
Body, Beguin Convent, Mechlin ; Peter's 
Denial, Lille Museum ; Ecce Homo, Mater 
Dolorosa, Hospital of St. John, Bruges ; 
Card Players, The Charlatan, Madrid Muse- 
um ; Irene drawing the Arrows from St. Se- 
bastian's Wounds, Carlsrtthe Gallery ; Male 
Portrait, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Com- 
pany of Singers, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Card Players, Kitchen Interior, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; St. ^ yo - 



John Preaching, 
Historical Society, 
New York. — Cat. 
du Mus. d'Anvers, 
288; Ch. Blanc, 



/6)f 
THiODOoh 
J\OnBOVTS 

;ficole flamande ; Immerzeel, iii. 24 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 294 ; Kramm, v. 1384 ; Michiels, 
ix. 351 ; Eooses (Reber), 340 ; Van den 
Branden, 885. 

EOME : AECH OF TITUS, Joseph M. 
W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. X 7 ft. 5 in. View, from 
near the Coliseum, of the Roman Forum, 
with the Ai-ch of Titus at left and ruins of 
Basilica of Constantine at right. Painted 
about 1820. Engraved by E. Challis in 
Turner Gallery. 

ROIME FROM THE VATICAN, Joseph 
M. W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 10 ft. 11 in. A gen- 
eral view of Rome, seen from the Loggia of 



the Vatican, which was decorated by Raph- 
ael and his assistants ; but, instead of them, 
Turner has represented Raphael and the 
Fornarina in the foreground, with which he 
has taken many liberties. Royal Academy, 
1820. Engraved by A. Willmore in Turner 
Gallery. 

ROMEO AND JULIET, Eugene Dela- 
croix, Mme. Gabriel Delessert, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 2 ft. X 1 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 
1845. Parting of Romeo and Juliet on the 
balcony, in moonlight. The two, seen full 
length, are embracing. Salon, 1846 ; Ex- 
position universelle, 1855. Study, sepia 
drawing, Riesener sale. — Chesneau, (Euvre 
de Delacroix, 243 ; Larousse, xiii. 1358. 

By Eugene Delacroix, Montpellier Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 10 in. X 8 in. Scene in 
the tomb ; figures full length, Romeo with 
Juliet in his arms. Painted in 1851 ; Ex- 
position universelle, 1855. Lithogi'aph by 
Eugene Le Roux. — Chesneau, CEuvre de 
Delacroix, 316. 

Subject treated also by Charles Fran5oi3 
Jalabert (Salon, 1857) ; Hermann Gold- 
schmidt (Salon, 1857) ; James Bertrand 
(Salon, 1874) ; Germann von Bohn, Nan- 
cy Museum ; Friedrich August Bouterwek 
(1836) ; Ferdinand Alexander Bruckmann ; 
Hans Makart ; Frank Dicksee (1884). 

ROMEYN, WILLEM, born in Haarlem 
about 1624, died after 1693. Dutch school ; 
landscape and animal painter, pupil of Ber- 
chem in 1642. Master of Haarlem guild in 
1646. He j)ossessed pure feeling for nature, 
taste for picturesque arrangement, and drew 
well. His landscapes, with animals and 
herdsmen, show the strong influence of Du 
Jardin. Works : Landscapes with Sheep 
or Cattle, and Figures in the Louvre, in 
Museums of Amsterdam (5), Berlin, Dres- 
den, New York ; Galleries of Copenhagen 
and Frankfort ; Old Pinakothek, Munich 
(3, one dated 1665); 
iechtenstein (2) 
and Czernin (2) 
Galleries, Vienna ; Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg (3). — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 451 ; Ch. 



' an 



64 



ROMNEY 




Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Vau der Willi- 
gen, 252. 

RO:\INEY, GEORGE, born at Dalton-le- 
Furness, Lane a- 
shire, England, 
Dec. 15, 1734, died 
at Kendal, Nov. 
15, 1802. After ac- 
quiring a little 
knowledge of 
painting from 
Steele, a painter 
at Kendal, he sup- 
ported himself by 
painting portraits in the north of England, 
at two guineas a head, until 1762, when he 
went to London. In that year, and in 17G5, 
he gained premiums from the Society' of 
Arts for his pictures of the Death of Wolfe 
and the Death of King Edward. In 1773 
he visited Italy with Ozias Hum^^hrey, and, 
after a two years' absence, established him- 
self in London, where, until 1797, when he 
removed to Hampstead, he divided public 
patronage Avith Reynolds and Gainsborough. 
His favourite model was the notorious and 
beautiful Lady Hamilton, whose face he re- 
produced under many disguises. He painted 
with few colours, with great breadth of treat- 
ment, and in some instances with exceeding 
grace and sentiment. Much of his work is 
sketchy, often careless in the accessories, 
but it is never without charm. His fle.sh 
tints are fresh, and his treatment of hair, 
though sUght, is truthful and facile. Works : 
Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante, Parson's 
Daughter, National Gallery, London ; Por- 
traits of Richard Cumberland, Lad}' Hamil- 
ton, and Flaxmau, National Portrait Gallery, 
ib. ; Lord Stanley and Sister, Lady Horton, 
Earl of Derby ; Lady Hamilton at Spimiing 
Wheel, Earl of Normanton ; do, as Ariad- 
ne, Baron L. de Rothschild ; do. as Euphros- 
yne, Jeffrey Whitehead, Esq. Full list of 
works in Lord Ronald Gower's "Ronniey 
and Lawrence." — Hayley, Life (1809) ; Rev. 
John Romney, Life (1830) ; Cunninghnm ; 
European Magazine, vol. 43 ; Cat. Nat. Port. 



Gal. ; Cat. S. Kensington ]\Ius., Nat. Port. 
Exhib. (18G7) ; Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 
271 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Portfolio 
(1873), 18, 34. 

ROMUALD. ST., VISION OF, Andrea 
Sacchi, Vatican ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x 5 ft. G 
in. St. Romuald, founder of the order of the 
Camaldolensians, seated under a tree telling 
his companions of his dream, in which he 




'^•'^A^^ZM'M.^'^^ 



vision of St. Romuald, Andrea Sacchi, Vatican. 

saw a ladder, like Jacob's at Bethel, and the 
brethren of the order ascending to heaven. 
Painted for Church of the Camaldoli, Rome ; 
carried to Paris in 1799 ; restored in 1815, 
and placed in the Vatican. Called in its 
time one of the four best pictures in Rome 
— a verdict scarcely concurred in by modern 
critics. — Landon, Musce, viii. PI. 21 ; IMusi'e 



66 



RONCALLI 




franyais, i. ; Lavice, 314 ; Burckhardt, 776, 
793. 
KONCALLI, CRISTOFANO, Cavaliere, 

born iu Pomarance, 
near Volterra, in 
1552, died in Rome, 
May, 1626. Roman 
school ; sometimes 
called, from bis 
birt liplace, C a v a - 
liere delle Poma- 
, -^ ranee. Pupil of Nic- 
-^^ \ colo Circignani, 
called also Delle Pomarance, under whom he 
became a good historical painter. Employed 
in the decoration of the Vatican. Painted 
Death of Ananias and Sapphira, which was 
copied in mosaic for St. Peter's. Painted 
also the Baptism of Constantine, in S. Gio- 
vanni di Laterano ; but his most noted works 
are the frescos with which he decorated the 
cupola of La Santa Casa di Loreto. The 
walls of S. Stefano, Rome, are covered with 
frescos by him, representing the martyrdoms 
of saints from the Crucifixion to the reign 
of Julian. In the Old Piuakothek, Munich, 
is a Martyrdom of Simon of Cana, and iu 
the Schleissheim Gallery a Joseph interpret- 
ing the Dreams. — Lanzi, i. 467 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole ombrienne. 

RONDANI, FRANCESCO MARIA, born 
in Parma about end of 15th century, died 
about 1548. Lombard school ; pupil of 
Correggio, and his assistant in S. Giovanni ; 
imitated his master's style very closely. 
Works : Frescos in fifth chapel of Duomo, 
Cremona ; Madonna in Glory, Parma Gal- 
lery ; Madonna and Saints (2), Galleria Es- 
tense, Modena ; Holy Family, Hermitage, 

St. Petersburg.— Lanzi, ii. 399 ; Ch. Blanc, 
]Ecole lombarde ; Burckhardt, 701. 

RONDEL, FREDERIC, born in Paris in 
1826. Landscape painter, pupil of Auguste 
Jugelet and of Theodore Gudiu. First ex- 



hibited in the National Academy in 1855. 
Elected an A.N. A. in 1860. Works : Water- 
Fall near Amherst, Mass. (1882); Old 
Orchard at Newport, R. I. (1883) ; The 
Recluse (1884); View atRhinebeck, Busch-a- 
Bouck Falls at Rhinebeck (1885). 

RONDINELLO, NICCOLO, of Forli and 
Ravenna, beginning of 16th century. Ve- 
netian school ; pupil of Giovanni Bellini, 
Venice, and one of his most industrious as- 
sistants, aiding in the production of pictures 
which Bellini sold as his own, and painting 
Madonnas which might well pass as the 
work of his master. All his early works 
show that he was impressed by one class of 
Bellinesque models ; in his later ones he is 
as much an imitator of Palmezzano as of 
the Venetians. His Madonna, in the Palaz- 
zo Doria, Rome, and another, in the Forli 
Museum, are examples of his earlier style ; 
and his Madonna and Saints, in the Ravenna 
Gallery, of his later style.— C. & C, N. Italy, 
i. 591 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., v. 17 ; ix. 148 ; 
xi. 93, 147. 

RONNER, HENRIETTE (nee Knip), 
born in Amsterdam, May 31, 1821. Animal 
painter, daughter and pupil of Josephus Au- 
gustus Knip ; paints domestic animals with 
fine observation and humour. Works : Af- 
ter the Meal ; Boy and Dog ; Waiting for 
Dinner ; Dog Begging ; Exodus of Dogs ; 
Hare-Hunt (1876) ; Cart drawn by Dogs, 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; The Exact 
Hour (1884) ; Fine Arts School (1885) ; 
Flowers and Accessories (1886) ; Unlocked 
Door, Dog and Pigeon, Stettin Museum ; 
Coming from Market, Mrs. D. D. Colton, 
San Francisco ; School of Painting (Jubilee 
Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). — Immerzeel, ii. 
119; Illustr. Zeitg. (1884), i. 224; Kramm, 
V. 1385. 

RONOT, CHARLES, born at Belan-sur- 
Ource (Cote d'Or), May 28, 1820. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Glaize. Paints 
popular life in the style of Courbet. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1876 ; I'st class, 1878. Works : 
Christ healing the Sick at Pool of Bethes- 
da (1855) ; Women and the Secret (1868) ; 



66 



liOOllE 



Women stripping Hemp (1874) ; Labourers 
of the Last Hour (1876) ; Anger of the 
Pharisees (1877); Charities of St. Elizabeth 
of Hungary (1878) ; Girl tending Cows, 
George Chastelain writing his Chronicles 
(1879) ; Last Members of the Mountain 
(1882) ; In the Other World (1885) ; A la 
Hotte !, The Daisies (188G). 

IIOOKE, JACOB DE, born in Antwerp, 
July 20, 1G8G, died at The Hague, July 17, 
17-47. Flemish school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Kaspar Jacob van Opstal ; 
became master of the guild in 1707, exe- 
cuted important decorative works on a large 
scale, in Antwerp (1709-19), Amsterdam, 
and Rotterdam, and settled at The Hague, 
where he eutered the guild. In 1728-20 he 
painted again in Autweri) for several prom- 
inent citizens. By his art, and a trade in 
pictures which he carried on together with 
Geeraard Hoet, he amassed a considera- 
ble fortune. Works : Hansom of Chris- 
tian Slaves by the Trinitarians (1709), St. 
James's, Antwerp ; Ceilings with Allegories 
(1715, 171G, 1717), City Hall, ib. ; Chris- 
tians compelled to worship Idols, Meet- 
ing of Moses and Aaron, Tournay Muse- 
um ; Portraits of Ai-tist and Wife (1707), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg.— Immerzeel, iii. 2G ; 
Kramm, v. 138(5 ; Booses (Keber), 440; Van 
den Branden, 1172. 

BOOS, JOH.VNN HEINRICH, born at 
Ottendorf, Palati- 



nate, Oct. 27, 1631, 
died in Frankfort, 
Oct. 3, 1G85. Ger- 
man school ; land- 
scape and animal 
painter, i)upil in 
Amsterdam of Ju- 
liaan du Jar din 
(lG47),and of Bar- ^v 
end Graat. Having \' 
visited Italy, France, and England in 1650- 
54, he settled in Frankfort about 1G57 ; 
lived also in Cassol and INlcntz, and bccanin 
court painter to the Elector Pahitino 
Charles Louis in 1G73. Works : Landscape 




with Cattle (2), Historical Society, New 
York ; Italian Landscape (1670), Hague 
Museum ; do., Berlin Museum ; Herd 
by Statue of Hercules, Male (1669), and 
Female Portrait, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; 
Pastoral Scenes (7, two dated IGGO, 1G68), 
Osteria in a Roman Ruin, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Bull with Goats and Sheep (1GG2), 
Camp Scene (16G5), Cow among Sheep 
(1676), Copenhagen Gallery ; Italian Land- 
scapes (3, 1668, 1G80, 1685), Portrait of a 
Scholar (1676), do. of himself, Darmstadt 
Museum ; St. John with the Lamb (1684), 
Old Lady's Portrait, Amalienstift, Dessau ; 
Landscape with Cattle and Sheep (3, one 
dated 1681), Dresden Museum ; Cattle driv- 
en through Water (1670), Herd resting by 
Ruins (1674), Sliepherd Family and Flock 
(1680), Ai-tist and Wife surrounded by Al- 
legories, Artist's Portrait (?, 2, one dated. 
1680), two others, Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Family on Garden Terrace, Leipsic 
Museum ; Landscapes with Cattle and Fig- 
ures (8, four dated 1661, 1665, 1668, 1G75), 
Breaking up of Army Encampment (1677), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Roman Land- 
scape with Ruins (1669), Germanic Muse- 
um, Nuremberg ; Foui* Divisions of Day (4, 
1667), Oldenburg Galler}' ; Ittilian Land- 
scape (1G74), Halt of Gypsies among Ruins 
(1675), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Artist's 
Portrait, Pastoral Scene (1676), View near 
Tivoli (1683), eight others, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Cattle Pieces (2, 1662,. 1682), Vi- 
enna Museum ; others in Galleries of Bolo- 
gna (2), Brunswick, Cassel (2), Schwerin (3, 
1684, 1685), Stuttgart (4), Turin (1682), 
W<)rlitz ; Liechtenstein (1658), Czernin, and 
Schijnborn (2) Galleries, Vienna ; Historical 
Society, New York (2). His brother Thc- 
odor (born at Wesel . .^ 

in 1638, died in KIOS), ^-fJ7 ^Tj^ 
pupil of Adriaen do /±\j ' C/ 
Bie, lived in ^lann- /P. Q #^<-. 

heim about 16 5 7, (fjt Jy^'Y 
Strasburg in KWl, ^ id^^ 

and finally as court painter at Stuttgart, 
where he painted eight large historical pict- 



07 



ROOS 



ures for the duke. His drawing is less 
commendable than his colouring. In the 
Sclileissheini Gallery is by him a Nativity. 
— Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande ; Immerzeel, 
iii. 27 ; Kramm, v. 1387 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 529 ; Nagler, xiii. 353 ; do., Mon., iii. 552 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xiv. 391. 

KOOS, JOHANN jMELCHIOE, born at 
Frankfort in 1659, died there in 1731. Ger- 
man school ; animal and jDortrait painter, 
son and pupil of jirecediug, studied in Italy 
in 168G-90 ; after his return married in Nu- 
remberg, and settled in Frankfort; lived 
also temporarily in Switzerland, where he 
painted porti-aits at Schaffhausen, Winter- 
thur, etc.; employed several years by the 
landgrave of Hesse Cassel, for whom he 
painted some of his best works. Works : 
Landscape with Cattle (2), Bamberg Gal- 
lery ; Annunciation to the Shepherds, Cassel 
Gallery ; Boar Hunt, Deer Hunt, two others, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Cattle-Piece (1687), 
Christ on Mount of Olives (1710), Amalien- 
stift, Dessau ; Stags under an Oak (1714), 
Dresden Museum ; Landscape with Lion 
Family (1716), Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Four Animal Pieces (two dated 1716, 1717); 
Meiningen Gallery ; White Stag and Hind, 
•f/5*^ ■ ^^^*® ^^^^'^ (172 9), 

^'^ V^ Schwerin Gallery ; 

'S^iJ "t )7'XQ ^OQX Hunt, Stag Hvmt, 

/ Stuttgart Museum ; 

Sheep and Goats, Wiesbaden Gallery. — Na- 
gler, xiii. 360. 

BOOS, PHILffP PETER, surnamed 
Rosa di Tivoli, born in Frankfort in 1655, 
died in Rome in 1705. German school ; 
landscape and animal painter, son and pupil 
of Johann Heinrich, in whose style he paint- 
ed in his earlier time ; in 1677 he went to 
Rome, where he studied under Brandi, whose 
daughter he married, and later settled at 
Tivoli, whence his surname. He painted 
life-size figures and animals in a broad yet 
superficial manner, and in a heavy brown 
tone. Works : Wolf tearing Lamb, Lou- 
vre ; Noah and Animals, seven others, Dres- 



den Gallery ; Falls of Tivoli, Flock of Sheep, 
Two Cavalry Skirmishes, Vienna Museum ; 
seventeen pictures, Cassel Gallery ; others 
in Galleries and Museums of Augsburg, 
Bamberg, Bologna (2), Brunswick, Brussels, 
Carlsruhe (2), Darmstadt (2), Gotha (3, one 
dated 1694), Leipsic (2), Madrid (8), Nu- 
remberg (2), Oldenburg, Schleissheim (5), 
Schwerin ; Raczynski Gallery, Berlin (2) ; 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg (4) ; Uffizi, Florence. His 
son Jacob, called Rosa da Napoli (born at 
Tivoli in 1680), painted at Naples quite in 
the same manner. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 581. 

ROOS (Rosa), JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
Oct. 9, 1726, died there, Aug. 25 (or 30), 
1805. Landscape and animal painter, son 
of and first instructed by Cajetan Roos (died 
in Vienna about 1735, son of Rosa da Tiv- 
oli), then studied after the works of his 
grandfather, and became pupil of the Vi- 
enna Academy ; setting out to travel, he 
worked at Dresden, with the interruption 
of a year's (1757) sojourn in Berlin, and on 
his return to Vienna became inspector of 
the Belvedere Gallery, of which he pub- 
lished in 1796 a valuable comprehensive 
description. He was court painter to Au- 
gustus in. of Saxony, and member of the 
Dresden Academy. Works: Mountain Land- 
scape with Sheep (1770), Museum, Vienna ; 
do. and Shepherd Family (2, 1763), Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib.; Four Great Land- 
scapes, Summer Palace of Schonbrun ; 
Landscape with Flock (1765), Dresden 
Museum. — Wurzbach, xxvi. 335. 

ROOSE or ROZE, NICHOLAS. See 
Liemaeker. 

ROOT, JOHANNES BAPTISTA VAN, 
born in Antwerp, March 11, 1808. His- 
tory, genre, and portrait painter, pupil of 
M. van Bree ; visited Italy, France, and 
England. Medal, 1836. Works : Last Mo- 
ments of Egmont (1836) ; Philip of Marnix 
fleeing from the Spaniards (1839) ; Return 
of Nuns to their Convent ; Farewell of Al- 
brecht Beyling (1844). — Immerzeel, iii. 29 ; 
Kramm, v. 1389. 



68 



ROQUEPLAN 



KOQUEPLAN, (JOSEPH £TIENNE) 
CAJMILLE, called Rocoplan, born at Malle- 
mart (Bouches-au-Rh«'>ue), Feb. 18, 1800, 
died in Paris, Sept. 29, 1855. Genre, ma- 
rine, and landscajie painter, pupil of Abel 
de Pujol and of Gros. One of the leaders of 
the new scLool of French art (1830). Med- 
als : 2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1828 ; L. of 
Honour, 1831 ; Officer, 1852. Works : E(iui- 
noctial Tide, Death of the Spy Morris (1827), 
Lille Museinn ; Sea View (1831), Havre Mu- 
seum ; Draught of Fishes (1828), Sick Moth- 
er (1830), Corn Field (1830), Meadow (1835), 
View with Bridge and Windmills, KiJnigs- 
berg Museum ; Incident in Life of Rous- 
seau, Water Mill, Walk in the Park (1833); 
Antiquary (sold for 30,000 francs at the Due 
d'OrK'ans' sale), St. Bartholomew's Da^^Pac}'- 
sur-Eure (1834); Rousseau picking Clierries, 
Amorous Lion (183G) ; Battle of Elchiugen 
(1837), do. of Rocoux, Versailles Museum ; 
Dutch Subscription, Gaston de Medicis 
(1837) ; Van Dyck in London, Magdalen in 
Desert (1838) ; Peasants of the Valley of 
Ossau, Spaniards of Penticosa, Passports 
on Spanisli Frontier (1847) ; Leda, Girl 
with Flowers (1850) ; Fountain of Grand 
Figuier (1852), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Daughters of Eve (1855, last work) ; Valen- 
tine and Raoul, Boi-deaux Museum ; Chil- 
dren playing with Cat, Chartres Museum ; 
Coast View, Grenoble Museum ; Castello 
Gandolfo, Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Har- 
bour of Boulogne in Approaching Storm, 
Leipsic Mu- ^^-» 
seum. — Bel- JM u 

lier, ii. 415 ; / \ O a ^^ A^'^C/^'^ 
Ch. Blanc, J / / 

Ecole fran- 

<;aise ; Lejeune, Guide, iii. 22r>, 317 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 2G9 ; Nagler, xiii. 305. 

rOrbye, martinus christian 

W^ESSELTOFT, born at Drammen, Nor- 
way, May 17, 1803, died in Copenhagen, 
Aug. 29, 1848. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Copenhagen Academy, and 
of Eckersberg ; visited, in 1834-37, Italy, 
Greece, and Turkey, and brought home 



numerous studies. On his return he won 
the Thorvaldsen medal, in 1838 became 
member of, and in 1844 professor at, the 
Academy, having gone to Italy meanwhile 
in 1839. His pictures are brilliant in col- 
our and carefully executed. Works : Turk- 
ish Notary making Marriage Contract 
(1837) ; Life in the East (1838) ; Mai-ket at 
Amalfi (1842) ; Arcade of City Hall at Co- 
penhagen (1832), Chapel of St. Benedict's 
Convent at Subiaco (1843), Orientals be- 
fore Turkish Coffee-House (1845), Inhabi- 
tants of Cape Skagen amusing themselves 
(1848), Copenhagen Gallery. — Weilbach, 
599. 

RORKE'S DRIFT, DEFENCE OF, Al- 
phonse de Nenville, Sydney Gallery, New 
South Wales ; canvas, H. 7 f t. x 9 ft. As- 
sault by the Zulus on the improvised de- 
fences at Rorke's Drift, on the evening of 
the defeat at Isandhlwana. Painted in 1880 
for Fine Art Society. — Athen., March, 1880, 
384. 

Subject treated also by Elizabeth Thomp- 
son Butler (1881). 

ROSA DA NAPOLI. 

ROSA, SALVATOR, 
near Naples, June 20, 
1G15, died in Rome, 
March 15, 1073. Ne- 
apolitan school ; pujiil 
of his uncle, Paolo 
Greco, and his broth- 
er-in-law, Francesco 
Fracanzano. W hen 
about eighteen years 
old he made a sketch- 
ing tour through the Abruzzi, and is said 
to have learned from banditti of that wild 
region many incidents which he afterwards 
painted. On his return home he was 
obliged, by the death of liis father, to la- 
bour for the support of tlu; family ; but ho 
was f(n'tun:xtc enough to gain tlic friendship 
of Lanfnuico and Aniello Falcone, through 
whose aid his pictures found a sale. Under 
Falcone's instruction he learned to paint 
battle acenes with such success as to rival 



See Boos, Philipp, 
bom at Renella, 




69 



KOSA 



his master. About 1635 he went to Rome, 
•was patronized by Cardinal Brancaccia, and 
painted for him several works at Viterbo. 
After a visit to Naples he went to Rome 
again, in 1639, and soon became famous as a 
painter, a musician, and a satii'ical poet. In 
1647, on hearing of the insurrection of Mas- 
aniello, he hastened to Naples and joined the 
Compagnia della Morte, of which Falcone 
was the leader. On the downfall of Masa- 
niello he returned to Rome, where he got 
into trouble by a satirical picture, and there- 
fore accepted the invitation of the Grand 
Duke to visit Florence. In 1652 he returned 
to Rome, and spent the rest of his days there. 
Salvator Rosa was ambitious to excel as an 
historical painter, and his masterpiece is 
considered to be the Conspiracy of Catiline, 
in the Pitti, Florence ; but he was more 
successful in landscapes and marine views. 
He is at his best when he depicts a den of 
robbers amid the vnldest surroundings — 
naked crags, gloomy pools, foaming tor- 
rents, trees scathed by lightning or the 
tempest. He excelled also in battle scenes, 
his figures being full of movement and ex- 
pression. Among his works are : His por- 
trait (2), and Landscapes with Figures (2), 
Uflfizi, Florence ; Two Marine Pieces, Selva 
de' Filosofi, Conspiracy of Catiline, Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, Portrait of himself, 
nine others, Palazzo Pitti, ib. ; Souls in Pur- 
gatory, St. Paul in the Desert, Brera, Milan ; 
Scene from "Jerusalem Delivered," Grotto 
with Satyrs, Two Landscapes, Galleria Es- 
tense, Modena ; Parable of St. Matthew, 
Battle Piece, Christ and the Doctors, Naples 
Museum ; Court Scene, Landscape, Palazzo 
Colonna, Rome ; Prometheus, Four Battle 
Pieces, The Giant Titius, Palazzo Corsiui, 
Rome ; St. Roch, Landscape, Belisarius, Pa- 
lazzo Doria, ib.; The Painter and Satyrs, 
Palazzo Chigi, ib. ; Battle Piece, Tobias and 
the Angel, Samuel appearing to Saul, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Bay and City of Salerno, Madrid 
Museum ; Stormy Sea, Berlin Museum ; Jo- 
nah threatening the Inhabitants of Nineveh, 
Cadmus and Minerva, Italian Seaport, Co- 



penhagen Gallery ; Storm at Sea, Landscape 
with Temptation of St. Anthony, do. with 
St. Jerome and the Lion, Portrait of the 
Ai-tist, Dresden Museum ; Three Monks by 
Stormy Sea, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Soldiers 
Resting, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sol- 
diers of Gideon quenching their Thirst, Two 
Coast Views, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Pro- 
metheus on the Rock, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg ; Belisarius relating his Fate, 
Treasure Diggers in Subterranean Room 
chastised by Devils, Rocky Landscape with 
Jacob and his Herd, Oldenburg Gallery ; 
Prodigal Son, Nausicaa and Ulysses, De- 
mocritus and Protagoras, Soldiers at Dice, 
Male Portraits (3), Seaports (2), Landscapes 
(2), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Combat of 
Roman Horsemen (1645), four others, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Landscapes with Figures, 
etc., in Galleries and Museums of Bergamo, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Cassel (2), Carlsruhe, Darm- 

stadt, Geneva (2), Stettin, Stuttgart (8), Tu- 
rin (2), Wiesbaden, London (3), and Edin- 

g-^ burgh (2); Historical Society, New 

IT) York (3).— Baldinucci, v. 437 (ed. 
-JTV. 1846); Ch. Blanc, Ecole napoli- 
taine ; Burckhardt, 768, 774, 782 ; Kugier 
(Ea^tlake), ii. 596 ; Nagler, xiii. 370. 

ROSA DI TIVOLI. See Boos, Philipp. 

ROSALBA. See Carriera, Rosalba. 

ROSALES, EDUARDO, born in Madrid 
in 1837, died in Rome, Sept. 13, 1878. 
History painter, pupil of Madrid Academy 
under L. Ferrant and Madrazo ; went in 
1857 to Rome and Siena, where he studied 
after the old masters. Afterwards lived for 
some time at Murcia, and then became di- 
rector of the Spanish Academy at Rome. 
Medals : Madrid, 1866, 1871 ; Paris, and 
L. of Honour, 1867. Order of Isabella, 



70 



ROSAIIIO 



Works : Queen Isabel the Catholic dictat- 
ing her AVill (18G7), Madrid Museum ; St. 
Joseph ; Presentation of Don Juan of Aus- 
tria at S. Yuste ; Entry of Amadeo into 
Madrid ; Death of Lucretia ; Portrait of 
Rio Kosas ; do. of Garcia Aznar, Madrid 
Museum ; Evangelists SS. John and Mat- 
thew, S. Tomas, ib. — La Ilustracion, 1873. 

ROSARIO, IL. See Madonna del Rosa- 
rio, Domenichino. 

ROSE OF LIMA, ST., Murillo, Fred- 
erick E. Church, Hudson, N. Y. ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 4 in. X 3 ft. 8 in. In Dominican habit, 
standing nearly front, holding in right hand 
a bunch of roses on which is seated the In- 
fant Jesus, who extends his hands towai'ds 
her ; her left hand on her breast holds a 
rosarj' ; in air above, six heads. Fr(jm Gal- 
lery of Don Aniceto Bravo ; thence to Don 
Jorge Diez Martinez and Don Luis Portilla, 
Madrid ; bought in 1873 by W. J. Shaw, 
at whose sale in New York (1880) sold to 
Mr. Church for $380. Repetitious : Sala- 
manca sale (1875), 20,000 francs ; Pereire 
sale (1872), 25,500 francs.— Curtis, 267 ; 
Tubino, Murillo, 185. 

ROSEL (Roselius) VON ROSENHOF 
(Rooshoff), FRANCISCUS, flourished in 
Nuremberg about 1GG6. German school, 
animal painter ; won the victory over Pan- 
diss with his pictuz'e in the Munich Gallery. 
Works : Wolf tearing Lamb (1666), Old Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; do., Bamberg Gallery ; 
Rooster (1665), Fox devoux'ing Chicken 
(1666), Augsburg Gallery. 

ROSEN, GEORG VON, Count, born in 
Paris, Feb. 13, 1843. History painter, pu- 
pil of Stockholm Academy, then of Weimar 
Art School (1861), and in Antwerp (1863) 
of Hendrik Lej's, whose pictures had great- 
ly attracted him in London the year be- 
fore ; visited Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Tur- 
key, Greece, and Germany in 1864-65, then 
Italy and Antwerp, and lived for a time in 
Munich. Member of Stockholm and Co- 
penhagen Academies uiul of Socirt*'? beige 
des Aquarcllistes. Medal, 1863 ; Order of 
Wasa ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Sten 



Sture's Eutry into Stockholm in 1471 (1863); 
Wedding in Smedsgille Chapel in 1500 
(1865) ; Eric XIV. signing his Abdication 
(1871), Stockholm Museum ; Lvither's Study 
at the Wartburg ; Portraits of King Charles 
XV. and of Artist's Father.— MuUer, 448 ; 
Land und Meer (1874), i. 306. 

ROSENFELDER, LUDWIG, born at 
Breslau, July 18, 1813, died at Kunigsberg, 
April 18, 1881. History painter, pujDil of 
Berlin Academy under Hensel (1832-36) ; 
was director of Kunigsberg Academy in 
1845-74, visited Italy in 1851-52, and 
painted frescos in the Aula of Ki'migsberg 
University in 1865. Gold medal, 1850. 
Works : Narcissus ; Gideon ; Cola di Ri- 
enzi at Avignon ; Blinding of Prince Arthur 
(1838, from Shakesi^eare's " King John "); 
Landgrave Philip of Hesse taken Prisoner 
by Alva ; Scene in Dantzic during Reforma- 
tion ; Occupation of Marienburg by Teuton 
Order in 1457 (1857), Kunigsberg Museum ; 
Worshipi^ers beside Coffin of Henry IV., 
Cologne Museum ; Electress Elizabeth of 
Brandenburg taking Communion after Prot- 
estant Rite ; Charles I. taking Farewell of 
his Children ; Christ Crucified ; Male Por- 
trait (1849), Dresden Museum. In fresco : 
Theology and Medicine (1865), Kunigsberg 
University.— D. Kunstbl. (1850), 78, 161, 
336 ; (1853), 436 ; (1855), 462 ; (1858), 
342 ; (1857), 122 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1880), ii. 
345 ; Miiller, 448 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Maler- 
sch., 88. 

ROSENHOF. See Rmel. 

ROSENSTAND, VILHELM JAKOB, 
born in Copenhagen, 
July 31, 1838. Genre 
painter, pupil of Mar- 
strand ; lives in Italy 
and paints characteristic 
scenes from Italian life. 
Medals, 1859, 1861. 
W o r k s : Saxarmen at 
the Danne Earthworks 
(1865) ; Farewell of An- 
dreas Heiberg (1868) ; Village Hairdresser; 
The Congratulators ; Before a Cafe in Paris 




ROSENTHAL 




(Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). — Sig. 
Mailer, 297 ; Weilbach, 592. 
ROSENTHAL, TOBY EDWAED, born 
in New Haven, 
Conn,, March 15, 
1848. Figure 
painter; studied 
in San Francisco 
under a Spanish 
painter (1861), 
then in Munich 
(1865)attheKoyal 
Academy, then 
under Raupp, and 
again at the Royal Academy seven years 
(from 1868) under Piloty. Studio in 
Munich. Exhibits rarely in America. Re- 
visited San Francisco in 1871-72, and 
painted several portraits. Medal in Phila- 
delphia, 1876; Munich, 2d class, 1883. 
Works: Love's Last Offering (1868); Spring's 
Joy and Sorrow (1868); Morning Prayers in 
Bach Family (1870), Leipsic Museum ; Em- 
barrassed, Head of Mrs. Greatorex — Study 
(1871) ; Elaine (1874) ; Young Monk in Re- 
fectory (1875) ; Forbidden Longing ; Who 
laughs last laughs best (2) ; Girls' Boarding- 
School Alarmed (1877); Empty Place (1882); 
Trial of Constance de Beverley (1883), Irving 
M. Scott, San Francisco ; Departure of the 
Family (1885) ; Dancing Lesson during the 
Empire (1886).— Illustr. Zeitg. (1886), i. 
359 ; Leixner, Mod. K, i. 112 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xxi. 765 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 
210 ; Miiller, 449 ; D. Rundschau, xiii. 336 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 263. 

ROSIER, AMEDEE, born at Meaux 
(Seine-et-Marne), Aug. 27, 1831. Land- 
scape and marine painter, pupil of Cogniet 
and of Durand Brager. Medal, 3d class, 
1876. Works : Naval Fight before Sebas- 
topol (1857) ; Turkish Fleet at Bombard- 
ment of Sebastopol (1859) ; Notre Dame de 
Paris, Constantinople at Sunset (1863); Old 
Port of Marseilles (1866) ; Beach between 
Honfleur and Villerville (1867), Saint-Eti- 
enne Museum ; Views in and around Ven- 
ice (1869-86).— Belher, ii. 416. 



ROSS, KARL, born at Altekoppel, Hol-- 
stein, Nov. 18, 1816, died in Munich, Feb. 
5, 1858. Landscape painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy ; went in 1837 to 
Greece, then to Munich, visited Rome in 
1842-43 and in 1850, Paris in 1846, and 
took part in the Schleswig-Holstein cam- 
paign in 1848 ; settled in Munich. Works : 
Battlefield of Marathon (1841); Naxos(1854), 
Italian Landscape, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Temple of Phigaha ; Wood Landscape in 
Holstein ; Grove of Egeria near Rome, 
Schack Gallery, Munich. — D. Kunstbl. 
(1853), 161 ; (1856), 186 ; (1857), 61 ; 
(1858), 64, 154 ; Weilbach, 593. 

ROSS, Sir WILLIAM CHARLES, born 
in London, June 3, 1794, died there, Jan. 
20, 1860. Miniature painter, son and pupil 
of Mrs. Maria Ross (1760-1836), portrait 
painter, and student of Royal Academy in 
1808. In 1809 he exhibited several classi- 
cal works at the Academy, and up to 1826 
his canvases were mostly large. In 1814 
became assistant to Andrew Robertson, min- 
iature painter, but soon found a fashionable 
following of his own. Among his distin- 
guished sitters were the Queen and Prince 
Consort of England, the King and Queen 
of Belgium, Louis Philippe, Louis Napo- 
leon, and King and Queen of Portugal. 
Elected an A.R.A. in 1838, R.A. in 1843, 
and knighted the same year. His portraits 
are rich in colour, and strongly individual- 
ized ; the influence of Reynolds is apparent 
in his style. He painted more than 2,200 
miniatures on ivorj'. — Art Journal (1849), 
48 ; Sandby, ii. 171 ; Redgrave ; Wilmot- 
Buxton, 99. 

ROSSELLI, COSIMO, born in Florence 
in 1439, died there, Jan. 7, 1507. Floren- 
tine school ; pupil of and assistant in 1453- 
56 to Neri di Bicci, but probably formed a 
connection with Benozzo Gozzoli on that 
painter's arrival in Florence in the latter 
year. Cosimo's style in the Last Judg- 
ment, Berlin, assigned to him and to An- 
gelico, is that of a weak follower of the lat- 
ter. He executed frescos in S. Ambrogio, 



ROSSET-GRANGER 



Florence, in S. Martino, Lucca, and in the 
Sistine Chapel, Rome. His best work in 
the Chapel is the Sermon on the Mount, to 
which the three others — Moses delivering 
the Tables of the Law, Passage of the Red 
Sea, and The Last Sui^per — are inferior. 
Among his other works are a Coronation of 
the Virgin, in S. M, de' Pazzi, Florence ; 
do., and Madonna with Saints, Uffizi, ib.; 
The Miracle of the Chalice, a wall painting, 
S. Ambrogio, ib.; Apotheosis of St. Bar- 
bai'a, Academy, ib. ; Mai'riage of the Virgin, 
Naples Museum ; Virgin in Glory, Christ 
in the Tomb, Berlin Museum ; Nativity, 
KOuigsberg Museum ; Madonna, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; do., Louvre ; St. Je- 
rome in the Desert, National Gallery, Lon- 
don.— C. & C, Italy, ii. 520 ; Vasari," ed. Le 
Mon., V. 27 ; Burckhardt, 546, 551, 636 ; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentine ; Lermolieff, 
380 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 330 ; Ru- 
mohr, Ital. Forschungen, ii. 265. 

ROSSET-GRANGER, £D0UARD, born 
at Vincennes (Seine); contemporary. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Cabanel, Du- 
bufe, and Mazerolles. Medal, 3d class, 
1884. Works : Eros (1881); Artist's Moth- 
er (1882) ; Chai'mer, Souvenir de Caprile 
(1883); Orpheus (1884); Study (1885); The 
Hierodules (1886). 

ROSSETTI, GABRIEL CHARLES 
D.iNTE, born in 
London, jNIav 12, 
1828, died at Birch- 
ington, near Mar- 
gate, April 9, 1882. 
Figure painter, son 
of Gabriele Ros- 
setti (Italian pa- 
triot, commentator 
on Dante, and pro- 
fessor of Italian in ' 
King's College, London). Dante Gabriel, 
as he wrote his name, was a student at 
Gary's drawing school, at the Royal Acad- 
emy, which he left about 1848, and of INIa- 
dox Brown, who had a perceptible influence 
on his work. Finished his first oil picture, 




,/::: 



,^ ^ 



Portrait of his Father, in 1847, and two 
years later exhibited his Girlhood of Mary 
Virgin, from which, with Millais's Isabella 
and Holman Hunt's Rienzi, is dated the rise 
of the Pre-Raphaelite school of painting 
in England. Rossetti contributed both by 
pen and pencil to " The Germ," the organ 
of the Brotherhood, in which first appeared 
his "Blessed Damozel" and other poems; 
indeed, he is better known as a poet than a 
painter, for he lived a retired life and ex- 
hibited but few of his works, most of which 
are now in private collections in England. 
His early pictures show a gradual transition 
from austere meditevalism to a more floi-id 
and fanciful romanticism. Many of his sub- 
jects were drawn from the " Divina Comme- 
dia " and " Vita Nuova" of Dante. His col- 
lected works were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and Burlington Club, London, in 
the winter of 1882-83. Works : Girlhood of 
Mary Virgin (1849), Lady Louisa Fielding ; 
Ecce Ancilla Domini (1850) ; Dante's ^Meet- 
ing with Beatrice at a Marriage Feast (1851), 
Mr. Leathart, near Newcastle ; Dante's 
Dream of Death of Beatrice (1855), Miss 
Heaton of Leeds ; Wedding of St. George 
(1857) ; Mary in House of John (1858) ; Altar- 
piece for Llandaff Cathedral (1860); Venus 
Verticordia (1863) ; Joan of Arc, Rose Gar- 
den, Lady Lilith (1864), Alexander Steven- 
son, Tyuemouth ; Sibi/lla Palmifera (1866), 
Mr. George Rae, Birkenhead ; Sir Tristram 
and Yseult (1867); Vision of Dante (1810), 
Liverjiool Gallery ; replica (1878), Mr. Wil- 
liam Graham ; Veronica Veronese (1872) ; 
La Ghirlandata (1873), :\Ii-. Ruston, M.P. ; 
Proserpina (1874 ; replica, 1877, Mr. Turn- 
er), La Pia, Salutation of Beatrice (1881), 
]\Ir. F. R Lcyland ; La Bella Mano (1875); 
Sea-Spell (1877) ; Bruna Brunelleschi, Vis- 
ion of Fiammetta (1878) ; Mnemosyne, Day 
Dream (1880).— Art Journal (1884), 148, 
165, 204 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 537 ; Caine, 
Recollections of D. G. R. (London, 1882) ; 
Gaz. des B. Ai-ts (1881), xxiii. 555 ; (1883), 
xxviii. 49. 

ROSSI, FRANCESCO DE'. See Salviati. 



73 



ROSSITER 



ROSSITER, THOMAS P., born in New 
Haven, Conn., Sept. 29, 1818, died at Cold 
Spring, N. Y., May 17, 1871. History 
painter, pupil of Nathaniel Jocelyn ; went 
to Europe in 1840 and studied in Lon- 
don and Paris. In 1841-46 lie painted in 
Rome, and sketched in Switzerland, Italy, 
and Germany ; visited Euroi:)e again in 
1853, and painted three years in Paris. 
Professional life in the United States 
spent in New York and at Cold Spring. 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1840, and N.A. in 
1849. Gold medal, Paris, 1855. Works: 
Last Hours of Tasso ; Italy in the Olden 
Time ; Miriam ; Return of the Dove to the 
Ark ; Jews in Captivity ; Joan of Arc in 
Prison, Puritan's Daughter, R. L. Stuart, 
New Y^ork ; Wise and Foolish Virgins ; 
Venice ; Noah ; Representative Merchants ; 
Coming from the Fields ; Palmy Days at 
Mt. Vernon ; Washington's First Cabinet ; 
Life of Christ (series of pictures) ; Rebekah 
at the Well, Corcoran Gallery, Washington. 
— Tuckerman, 435. 

ROSSO, IL, or ROSSO DE' ROSSI, 
born in Florence, 
March 8, 1494, 
died at Fontaine- 
bleau, France, 
1541. Florentine 
school ; real name 
Giovanni Battista 
di Jacopo di Gu- 
asparre, but com- 
monly called by 
the Italians II 
Hosso, and by the French, Maitre Roux de 
Roux, which would seem to show that Roux 
was his family name, and not a surname 
given to hira because his hair was red. 
Imitator of Andrea del Sarto and of Michel- 
angelo. After painting frescos in Florence 
he went to Rome and worked there several 
years, until obliged to leave on the capture 
of the city by the Constable de Bourbon 
(1527). About 1531 he went to Paris, at 
the invitation of Francis I., who made him 
<30urt painter, and emj^loyed him to direct 




the decoration of the great gallery in the 
Palace of Fontainebleau. His large salary 
enabled him to live in luxury, and his good 
address and polished manners made him a 
favoui'ite at court Having unjustly accused 
his friend and assistant, Francesco di Pel- 
legrino, of stealing money from him, and 
caused him to be put to the torture, II 
Rosso poisoned himself to escape dishon- 
our. All his works at Fontainebleau have 
disappeared. Among his pictures are : En- 
tombment, Contest between JMuses and Pier- 
ides, Louvre ; 3Iadonna with Saints, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; Assumption, SS. Annunzi- 
ata, Florence ; Marriage of the Virgin, S. 
Lorenzo, ib.; Venus, Ceres, Pluto, Diana, 
Zeus, Oldenburg Gallery ; Madonna with 
Angels, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Va- 
sari, ed. Le Mon., ix. 67 ; ed. Mil., t. 155 ; 
Burckhardt, 636, 640; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
floreutine ; Miindler, Essai, 187. 

ROTARI, PIETRO, Conte, born in Ve- 
rona in 1707, died in St. Petersburg in 
1770 (?). Pupil in Verona of Balestra, in 
Rome of Trevisani (1728-31), and in Naples 
of Solimena, whose manner he followed. 
Venetian school ; painted with much suc- 
cess at courts of Dresden and Vienna, and 
in 1750 became court painter to the Em- 
press Elizabeth of Russia. At Peterhoff is 
a collection of 663 female portraits made 
by him for Catharine II. during a journey 
through the Russian provinces. Other works : 
Annunciation, Guastella ; Repose in Egypt, 
St. James, St. Francis, Magdalen, and two 
portraits, Dresden Gallery ; Young Girl 
Weeping, do. Asleep, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Two Portraits, Schleissheim Gallery. 
— Lanzi, ii. 310 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole veniti- 
enne. 

ROTHERIVIEL, PETER F., born in Lu- 
zerne County, Pa., July 8, 1817. History 
painter ; began painting portraits without 
tuition in 1840, in 1856 visited Europe, and 
has since lived and painted in Philadelphia ; 
is an associate of the Pennsylvania Academy. 
Works : St. Agues (1858); Foscari ; Colum- 
bus before Isabella ; Cromwell breaking up 



74 



ROTIA'G 



the Service in an Anglican Church ; De Soto 
discovering the Mississippi ; St. Paul on 
Mars Hill ; Battle of Gettysburg ; Macbeth 
meditating the Murder of Duncan, King 
Lear with Gloucester and Edward, Cupid 
Iteposing, Bacchus, Mrs. Josei)h Harrison, 
Philadelphia ; Lady Macbeth, T. Dolan, ib.; 
Sicilian Vespers, A. J. Drexel, ib. ; Embark- 
ation of Columbus, Pennsylvania Academy, 
ib. ; Triid of Sir Henry Vane, Christian Mar- 
tyrs, Hypatia, Amy Kobsart interceding for 
Leicester, The Liuidsknecht (187G) ; Touch- 
stone and Audrey, in "As You Like It" 
(1880); Bacchantes (1884).— Tuckermau 
437. 

ROTING, JULIUS, born in Dresden, 
Sept. 7, 1821 (Sept. 13, 1822?). History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Dresden Acad- 
emy under Bendemann, then studied in Diis- 
seldorf, where he became professor at the 
Academy. Member of Berlin and Vienna 
Academies. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 1855. 
Gold medal, Berlin. Works : Columbus 
before the Council at Salamanca (1851), 
Dresden Gallery ; Entombment (18GG); Por- 
traits of the painters Leutze (1847); Leasing 
(1851), Schadow (1852), Diisseldorf Gallery ; 
of the poet Arndt (several times, one in 
Stettin Museum).— Wolfg. Muller, DUsseldf. 
K, 161. 

liOTTA, ANTONIO, born at Goritz, Feb. 
28, 1828. Genre painter, pupil of Academy 
in Venice, where he settled. Medal, Paris, 
3d class, 1878. Works : Cobbler ; Match- 
Seller ; Bacchanal on the Lido in 1700 ; 
Tlie Sick Friend (1855) ; Bad Company ; 
The Only Friend (1869) ; Venetian Women 
at Work ; Agreeable Surprise (1878); Young 
Brood (1881).— Illustr. Zcitg. (1879), ii. 369 ; 
(1882), ii. 289 ; :\Iiiller, 451. 

KOTTENHAMMEU, JOHANN, born in 
Munich in 1564, died in Aug.sburg in 1623. 
(rcrniaM scOiool ; history painter, son and 
j)upil of Thomas Bottfiiihammcr, and in 
1582 pupil of Johaun Donnauer ; studied 
in Venice after Tintoretto and visited Rome. 
Jan Brueghel and Paul Bril employed 
him to paint mythological or allegori- 




[ cal figures in their landscapes. Works ; 
Pan and Syrinx, National Gallery, London ; 
Death of Adonis, 
Diana and Cal- 
listo, Louvre, 
Paris ; Madonna 
(1604), Mars and 
Venus (1604), 
Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Fall of 
Phaeton (1604), 
Christ delivering 
Souls from Pur- 
gator}', three others, Hague Museum ; Ma- 
donna and St. John, Rotterdam Museum ; 
The Four Elements Personified, Musc'e 
Rath, Geneva ; Apotheosis of St. Catharine, 
Inn of the Three Moors, Augsburg ; Poetry, 
Music, Painting and Architecture, Berlin 
Museum ; Landscape with Nymphs, The 
Golden Age (with Peeter Brueghel, the 
younger), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Judg- 
ment of Paris (1605), Marriage at Cana, 
four others. Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Di- 
ana surprised by Actieon (1602), Venus and 
Mars (1605), Adoration of the Shepherds 
(1605), three others, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Repose in Egypt (1597), JNIagdalen Peni- 
tent, Schweriu Gallery ; Last Judgment 
with the Seven Works of Mercy, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Nativity (1608), Battle between 
Centaurs and Lapitlue, four others, Muse- 
um, Vienna ; Erection of Brazen Serpent, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Adam and Eve 
in Paradise (with Brueghel), Sch<"inboru 
Gallery, ib.; others in Galleries of Aschaf- 
fenburg, Bamberg (3), Carlsruhe, Cassel (6), 
Copenhagen, Dresden, Gotha, Weimar, and 
Wiesbaden (2) ; Hermitage, St. Peterburg 
(3) ; Historical Society, New York ; The 
Seasons, Holy Family (2), Mars and Venus 

ensnared by Vulcan, Ban(]uet of the Gods 
(2), Blenheim sale, London, 1S86. — Ch. 



75 



liOTTMANN 




Blanc, £cole allemande ; Kugler (Crowe), 
i. 272 ; Nagler, xiii. 468. 

EOTTJMANN, KAKL, born at Hand- 
schuclisheim, 
near Heidelberg, 
Jan. 11, 1797, 
died in Munich, 
July 6, 1850. 
Landscape paint- 
er, son of Fried- 
r i c li Rottmann 
(died 1817), a 
quite skilful 
draughtsman 
and painter in water-colours ; first instructs 
ed in Heidelberg by his father and the por- 
trait painter Xeller, much influenced by 
Karl Fohr, with whom he was intimately 
associated, but formed himself chiefly by 
studying from nature and after the works 
of Poussin and Josef Koch ; settled in Mu- 
nich in 1822, visited Italy in 1826-28 and 
Greece in 1834-35 ; became court painter 
in 1841. His artistic work may be divided 
into three periods : during the first he at- 
tached less impoi-tance to colouring than to 
drawing ; the second is illustrated by the 
28 Italian landscapes in fresco. in the ar- 
cades of the royal garden at Munich ; the 
third by the 23 Greek landscapes placed in 
a special room in the Munich Gallery. He 
was one of the most individual masters in 
Germany, and his influence on landscape 
painting was paramount. Works : Castle 
Heidelberg in Evening Light, Burg Eltz 
(before 1822) ; Eamsau Valley (1823) ; View 
in Roman Campagna, Coliseum in Rome 
(1826-28) ; View of Palermo, do. of Taor- 
mina (1829) ; Bay of Baise ; Burning For- 
est ; Ammer Lake, Marathon, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; German Cemetery near Naup- 
lia, Temple of ^gina, Raczynski Gallery, 
ib. ; Views in Greece (3), Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
View of Cefalii (1839), Cologne Museum ; 
View on the Obersee, Darmstadt Museum ; 
View near Corinth, Bay and Harbour of 
Corfu, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; View of 
Corfu, Lake Copais in Boeotia (2), Leipsic 



Museum ; 23 Views in Greece (Rottmann 
Saal, 1845-50), Acropolis of Sicyou, Isle of 
Ischia, View of Corfu, Monreale near Pa- 
lermo, The High Goll near Berchtesgaden, 
View of ^tna from Taormina, Brannenburg 
in Bavarian Alps, Grave City near Syracuse, 
Eib Lake in Bavarian Alps, New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; View of Kochel Lake, The 
High Gull in the Afterglow, Three Views in 
Greece, do. near Rome, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
Sunset near Epidauros, The Hintersee near 
Berchtesgaden, Stuttgart Museum ; Land- 
scape, Czernin Gallery, Vienna. In fresco : 
28 Landscapes in Italy (1830-33), Arcades,. 
Munich ; cartoons for them, Darmstadt Mu- 
_^ X^ seum. — Bayersdorfer, C. 

(n (£■% 30 Kottmann; Ch. Blanc, 
•^ v/ y^ t- Ecole allemande ; Dios- 

kuren (1873), 227 ; FOrster, v. 205 ; Graph. 
K, V. 1 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 198 ; Kugler, 
Kl. Schriften, iii. 130 ; Kunst-Chronik, viii. 
176, 217 ; X. 392 ; Nagler, xiii. 473 ; Pecht, 
ii. 3 ; Reber, ii. 268 ; Regnet, ii. 100 ; 
Schack, Meine Gemiildesammlung (1884), 
206 ; Springer, Gesch., 83 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., iv. 7, 72, 207. 

ROTT^^IANN, LEOPOLD, born at Hei- 
delberg, Oct. 2, 1812, died at Munich, 
March 26, 1881. Landscape painter, broth- 
er of preceding, pupil of Roux at Heidel- 
berg, then of his brother and the Academy 
in Munich, where he also became court 
painter. Works : Altenau Lake in Styria 
(1837), Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donauesching- 
en ; Mountain Landscape, Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Barm Lake near Parten- 
kirchen, Bavaria, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Hunting Album for King Maximilian H. 
(50 water-colours, 1854-57) ; Album of Ba- 
varian Alps (70 water-coloui-s, 1860-65) ; 
Swiss Album ; Album of Wagner's Music 
Dramas. — Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 489 ; Nag- 
ler, xiii. 478. 

ROTTMAYR (Rothmeyer) VON RO- 
SENBRUNN, JOHANN INHCHAEL, born 
at Laufen, near Salzburg, about 1660, died 
in Vienna, Oct. 25, 1730. German school ; 
history painter, studied in Salzburg and 



76 



EOUFFIO 



Vienna (1685), then under Carlotto in Ven- 
ice ; settled in Vienna, where he was court 
painter to Leopold L, Joseph L, and Charles 
YL. Works : Iphigenia in Aulis, Museum, 
Vienna ; St. Charles Borromeo (1728), Holy 
Family, St. [Michael, St. Francis, St. Ste- 
phen's, ib. ; Ceiling in fresco (1708), Liech- 
tenstein Palace, ib.; do.. Magistracy, ib.; 
several pictures, Joanneum, Gratz. Fres- 
cos : Cupola and Chapel ceihngs, St. Pe- 
ter's, Vienna ; do., St. Charles Borromeo's, 
ib.; do. (169G), Jesuit Church, Breslau ; 
other works in Cathedi'al at Passau, Car- 
melites at Eatisbon, and other places in Ba- 
varia. — Lipowski, ii. 50 ; Wurzbach, xxvii. 
171 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 754. 

ROUFFIO, PAUL, born at Marseilles; 
contemporary. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Cabanel and of Chazzal. Medal, 
3d class, 1879. Works : Courtesan (1873) ; 
Samson and Delilah (1874), Marseilles Mu- 
seum ; Herodias (1875) ; Circe, Fanchon 
(1876); Truth, Mademoiselle la neige (1877); 
Trio of Masks in Don Juan (1878); Comedy, 
Olympus (1879) ; Carmen, VioHn of Sera- 
phine (1880); Avarice, Coffee coming to the 
Eescue of the Muse (1881) ; Hour of the 
Bath, Soap Bubbles (1882) ; Letter to the 
Betrothed, Bottom of the Cup (1883) ; Dis- 
agreement about the Route, Pandora (1884); 
On Pilgrimage, No Vocation (1885); Return 
from the Ball, [Misu Castagne (1886). 

ROUGET, GEORGES, born in Paris, 
May 2, 1784, died there, April 9, 1869. 
History and portrait painter, pupil and imi- 
tator of David. Won 2d prize for painting 
in 1802. He often assisted David in the 
execution of his works, and painted a copy 
of the Coronation of Napoleon, signed by 
David, which was exhibited in America. 
Medals : 2d class, 1814 ; 1st class, 1855 ; 
L. of Honour, 1822. Works : French 
Princes paying Homage at the Cradle of 
the King "^of Rome (1812), Death of St. 
Louis (1817), Versailles Museum ; Ecce 
Homo (1819), Church of St. Gervais, Paris ; 
CEdipus and Antigone on Mount Cytheron 
(1819), Rouen Museum ; Francis I. pardon- 



ing Rebels of La Rochelle (1822) ; Christ 
on the Mount (1824), St. Nicolas des Champs, 
Paris ; St. Louis receiving at Ptolemais the 
Envoys of the Old Man of the Mountain 
(1819), St. Louis as Mediator between Henry 
in. of England and his Barons (1820), As- 
sembly of the Notables at Rouen in 1596 
(1822), Henri IV. at Siege of Pai-is (1824), 
St. Louis rendering Justice under the Oak 
at Vincennes (1826), Versailles Museum ; 
Henri IV. abjuring Protestantism (1833) ; 
Marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise, 
1810 (1837), Napoleon receiving the De- 
cree of the Senate proclaiming him Empe- 
ror (1838), St. Louis landing at Damietta 
(1839), Versailles Museum ; Death of Na- 
poleon (1846) ; Titus in Judea, ViteUius 
giving Christians to Wild Beasts (1847) ; 
Last Moments of Napoleon, Henri IV. and 
his Children (1850) ; Marshal Soult and 
Souvenirs of the Empire (1853) ; Soult in 
his Office, Incident of War in Italy, Com- 
mittee of Ai-tists at the Death-Bed of an 
Artist (1861); Christ and the Virgin (1866); 
Assumption, St. Germain I'Auxerrois, Paris ; 
St. Louis pardoning Pierre de Bretagne, St. 
Louis prisoner in Egj-pt, Fontainebleau Pal- 
ace ; Death of Marshal Lannes, Douai Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of General Meunier, Besan- 
<;on Museum ; do. of Louis XV 111. (1817), 
Rheims Museum ; Portraits of Clovis HI., 
Charles IH, of nine Marshals of France, 
and of sixteen Generals and others, Ver- 
sailles Museum. — Bellier, ii. 424 ; Larousse ; 
Mever, Gesch., 169. 

ROFGET DE L'ISLE, Isidore Pils, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 
3 ft. Rouget de I'lsle singing the Marseil- 
laise for the first time, in the house of Die- 
trich, Mayor of Strasbourg. Salon, 1849. 

ROLTLL-ARD, JK\N SEBASTIEN, bom 
in Paris in 1789, died there in 1852. His- 
tory* and portrait painter, pupil of David. 
Medals : 2d class, 1822 ; 1st class, 1827 ; 
L. of Honour. Works : Alexander support- 
ing Lysimachus (1819); Portrait of General 
Bonaparte (1836), Portraits of Marshals 
Schomberg, Bellefonds, Macdonald (1837), 



77 



ROUSSEAU 




Grouchy (1833), of Generals Dumouriez (2), 
Marbot, and Vaiulainme, of Camilla Des- 
moulins, Vex'sailles Museum ; Charles X., 
Aix Museum ; Marsljal Grouchy, Amicus 
Museum ; Marshal Due de Reggio, Naucy 
Museum. — Bellier, ii. 425. 

ROUSSEAU, PHILIPPE, born in Paris, 
Feb. 22, 1816. Ani- 
mal and landscape 
painter, pupil of Gros 
and of Bertin. Espe- 
cially distinguished 
for his pictures of 
still-life in humorous 
relation to animals. 
Medals: 3d class, 
1845 ; 1st class, 1848 ; 
2d class, 1855 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1852 ; Officer, 1870. Works : Views 
in Normandy, etc. (1833-39) ; Post-Chaise 
(1841); City Rat and Field Rat (1845) ; Cat 
and Old Rat (1846); Mole and Rabbit, 
Flowers and Butterflies (1847) ; Farm-Yard 
(1848), Chartres Museum ; Interior of Farm- 
House, Cat and Mouse (1849) ; Divided in 
Two (1850) ; Importunate (1850), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Mother of a Family (1853); 
Kid browsing Flowers, Storks taking a Si- 
esta, Two Punch and Judy Artists (1855) ; 
Rabbit hunted by Fox-Terriers, Resigna- 
tion, Recreation, Farm-House in Savoy 
(1857); Gala Day (1859); Luncheon (1859), 
Valenciennes Museum ; Household Music, 
Kitchen (1861) ; Rabbit and Frogs, Search 
for the Absolute (1863), Nantes Museum ; 
Market in Olden Time (1864), Caen Mu- 
seum ; Every Man for Himself (1865) ; He 
makes his own Music, Autumn Flowers 
(1866); Chardin and his Models (1867); 
Rat retired from the World, Residence of 
Sir Walter Scott (1868) ; Summer, Autumn 
(1869) ; Fountain adorned with Flowers, 
First Plums and Last Cherries (1870) ; 
Springtime (1872); Mass (1873); Corpus 
Christi Day, Salad (1874) ; Cheeses, Wolf 
and Lamb (1875); Oysters, Poppies (1876) ; 
The Breakfast, Oh my Bagpipe ! (1877) ; 
Tuliiis (1879) ; The Courtyard (1880) ; Fu- 




ture Stewed Rabbit (1881) ; Two Friends, 
Cheeses (1882); Victuals, Asparagus (1883); 
Chrysanthemums (1884); Rat retired from 
the World (1885), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Esmeralda's Window, C. H. Wolflf, Phila- 
delphia ; Peaches, Mrs. Wilstach, ib. — Bel- 
lier, ii. 430 ; Larousse ; Claretie, Peintres 
(1874), 196 ; Meyer, Gesch., 714. 

ROUSSEAU, (PIERRE £tIENNE) 
THEODORE, born in 
Paris, April 15, 1812, 
died at Barbizon, near 
Fontainebleau, Dec. 
22, 1867. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Re- 
mond (1826) and of 
Lethiere. Showed 
himself a true "natu- 
ralist" in his first 
picture (1826) and up 
to 1848 — when his works, after being for 
thirteen yeax'S excluded from the Salon by 
the academical jury then abolished, were re- 
admitted — fought the battle of naturalism 
with varying success. With Corot, Daubi- 
gny, Dupre, and Diaz, he founded the mod- 
ern French school of landscape painting, of 
which he is one of the chief glories. Few 
if any have surpassed him in the rendering 
of atmospheric effects, in the ability to dif- 
fuse light and air throughout a landscape, 
and in the power of communicating to oth- 
ers the deep feelings excited by nature in 
a highly sensitive organization like his own. 
The Forest of Fontainebleau, where he spent 
many years of his life, supplied him with an 
inexhaustible mine of subjects, which he 
rendered with rare felicity. Always in more 
or less needy circumstances, he was at the 
last annoyed by an intrigue about the Offi- 
cer's Cross of the Legion of Honour, and 
finally died of a broken heart. Medals : 3d 
class, 1834 ; 1st class, 1849, 1855 ; medal 
of honour, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 1852. 
Works : Signal Station on Montmartre 
(1826) ; Mountain View in Auvergne, Edge 
of the Woods in Compi^gne, Herd of Cat- 
tle in the Jura Movmtains (1835) ; An 



EOUX 



Avenue, Edge of the Woods at Sunset, Au- 
tumn Weather (1849) ; Edge of the Woods 
at Sunset, Morning, Plateau of Belle-Croix, 
Woods of Bas-Breau, Village of Barbizon, 
Entrance to Bas-Breau (1850); Sunny Land- 
scape, Landscape after Rain (1852) ; Marsh 
in the Landes of Guienne (1853) ; Coast at 
Granville, Edge of the Woods in Beriy, 
Moors, An Avenue, Way out of the Woods 
at Sunset, Way out of the Woods in Twi- 
light, JIarsh in the Landes, Edge of the 
Gerard Mountains, Oaks in Gorges of Apre- 
mont, Plain of Barbizon, Woods of Fon- 
tainebleau (1855), Louvre ; Loire Valley in 
Springtime, Stormy Morning during Har- 
vest, Village in Cantal, Birches in the Gorge 
of Apremont, Meadow with Trees, Cross- 
Koad at Bas Breau (1857) ; Farm on the 
Moors, River Sevre, Boundaries of Barbi- 
zon, Gorges of Apremont, Edge of Woods 
near Barbizon (1859); Oak of Roche (1861); 
Clearing in the Woods, Pond in Oak Grove 
(1861); Cottage among Trees, Village (1864); 
Sunset at Fontainebleau, Boundaries of Foi-- 
est of Fontainebleau (1866) ; Ray of Sun- 
light in Stormy Weather, Small Farm on 
the Oise (1867) ; River Bank, Storm Land- 
scape, Luxembourg Museum. Works in 
United States : River Scene, do, in Autumn, 
Village of Barbizon, Gorges of Apremont, 
Forest, Morning, Farm on the Oise, W. H. 
Vanderbilt, New York ; Landscape, Miss 
C. L. Wolfe, ib. ; do., August Belmont, ib. ; 
do., H. G. Marquand, ib. ; do., J. C. Runkle, 
ib.; do., D. O. Mills, ib.; Paris Oven, Land- 
scape and Forest, do, and Pond, W. Rocke- 
feller, ib.; Forest Scene, C. P. Huntington, 
ib.; Plain of Barbizon, Mrs. J. G. Fell, Phila- 
delphia ; do., R. C. Taft, Providence ; Sun- 
set, J. A. Brown, ib.; Autumn, B. Wall, ib.; 
Le Givre ^Winter Solitude, two others (one 
dated 1845), W. T. Walters, Baltimore; 
Landscape, H. P. Kidder, Boston ; do., T. 
Wigglesworth, ib.; Oak Tree of Barbizon, 
Landscape, Birch Trees at Fontainebleau, 
H. Probasco, Cinninuiiti. Sales : Farm in 
Berry (Dagnan sale, 1882, 29,500 francs, to 
M, Viterbo) ; Public Oven on the Moors 



(Hartmann sale, 47,000 francs, bought by 
Mr. Brame) ; Sunset (20,100 francs, same 
sale) ; A Village (38,000 francs, same sale) ; 
Farm in the Landes (73,000 francs, same 
sale) ; Village in Normandy (Wilson sale, 
1881, 20,000 francs); Plain among the Pyr- 
enees (17,000 francs, Hartmann sale); Woods 
in Winter (48,600 francs, same sale) ; Old 
Dormitory in Bas-Breau (49,000 francs, 
bought for Louvre, same sale) ; Autumn at 
St. Jean de Paris (46,000 francs, same sale); 
A Pond (20,000 francs, Narischkine sale, 
1883) ; Road in Woods near Fontainebleau 
(20,500 francs). — Sensier, Souvenirs surTh. 
Rousseau (1872) ; Bellier, ii. 431 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 744 ; Gaz. des B. Ai-ts (1873), vii. 
191 ; (1881), xxiii. 462 ; L'Art (1882), xxviii. 
161, 186 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iii. 281 ; xii. 
(Mittheilungen, v. 40). 

ROUX, KARL, born in Heidelberg, Aug. 
15, 182(5. Animal and genre painter, son 
of J. W. Christian Roux (1771-1831, por- 
trait and landscape j)ainter), pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy and (1847) of Karl Hiib- 
ner, continued his studies in Munich, Ant- 
werp, and Paris ; Avas for several years 
professor at the Art School in Carlsruhe, 
and settled in Munich in 1868. Director 
of Carlsruhe Ai't School and Mannheim Gal- 
lery since 1881. Works : Rest of Lansque- 
nets (1853), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Hans 
and Verena (1861) ; Plundering of Village 
in Thirty Years' War, Hermann and Doi'O- 
thea (1863), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Ploughing 
Early in the Morning ; Uneducated Son of 
the Alps (a bull) ; Cows returning before 
Storm ; Yoke of Oxen ; Hay Harvest (1877); 
Cattle Fair of Munich ; October Festival ; 
Cattle Herd on Achen Lake. —Midler, 452. 

ROUX, MAiTRE. See Ros^o. 

ROUX, (PROSPER) LOUIS, born in 
Paris, Feb. 13, 1817. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Delaroche. Medals : 3d 
class, 1846 ; 2d class, 1857, 1859. Works : 
St. Roch praying for the Plague-Stricken 
(1846), Luxembourg ; Itahan Peasant play- 
ing with Child (1847) ; ,Tean Boltius — an 
Anatomist of Liege ; Linuteus returning 



79 



ROUX 



from an Excursion, Scholar in his Study 
(1847), Eavene Gallery, Berlin ; Mozart's 
First Opera, Marietta Tintoretto (1850) ; 
Bernard Palissy, Poussin, Absence, Tinto- 
retto (1855); ilembrandt's Studio (1857), 
St, Petersburg Academy ; Palissy studying 
Geology, Claude Lorrain in the Forum 
(1857) ; Incident of Civil War of the 
Fronde, Montaigne, Delaroche's Studio in 
1856 (1859) ; Hosanna (1859), Eavenu Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Portrait of a Girl (1861) ; 
Christ washing Apostles' Feet (1863) ; St. 
John Baptist (1864); Van der Neer painting 
Moonhght (1866); St. Francis of Assisi and 
the Birds (1867); Music, Epic Poetry, Light 
Literature, History (1870) ; St, Vincent de 
Paul receiving Extreme Unction (1874), 
Chapel in Dourdan ; Christ in the Tomb, 
Descent fi-om the Cross, Studio of a Flower 
Painter (1875); St. Thomas Aquinas (1877); 
Hill of Vachon at Argenteuil, Hill of Orge- 
mont (1879) ; Promontory of Porspoder, 
The Minou near Brest (1880); Saint Michel- 
Sousgland (1881); The Stairs at Brest (1882); 
Gravel-Pits of Sannois (1883) ; St. Veronica 
(1884); twenty-four frescos in St. Magdalen, 
Eouen. — Bellier, ii. 435 ; Larousse. 

EOUX DE EOUX, MAITEE. See 
JRosso. 

EOVEEE, ELEONOEA GONZAGA 
DELLA, Duchess of Urbino, portrait, Ti- 
tian, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, figure half- 
length, life-size. Same history as the fol- 
lowing. — C. & C, Titian, i. 413 ; Dennis- 
toun, Dukes of Urbino, iii. 48, 372, 437, 442. 

EOVEEE, FEANCESCO DELLA, Duke 
of Urbino, portrait, Titian, Uffizi, Florence ; 
canvas, figure half-length, life-size ; signed. 
Li armour, with a plumed helmet and em- 
blems of his rank in a niche behind. Paint- 
ed in 1537, when the Duke had gone to 
Venice to assume command as generalissimo 
against the Turks, Passed from Urbino to 
Florence on extinction of house of Urbino 
in 1631.— C, & C, Titian, i, 411 ; Dennis- 
toun, Dukes of Urbino, iii, 58, 371, 437, 
442 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vii, 443 ; Gall, di Fi- 
renze, i. No. 25. 



EOVEEEDO, BATTLE OF, Clarkson 
Stanfield, London ; canvas. Fought in Sep- 
tember, 1796, by Massena and Augereau, 
against Davidovich, who was guarding the 
Tyrol with 40,000 men. In foreground, the 
French infantry are fording the Adige, and 
in distance are again seen passing the bridge, 
under fii'e from battei'ies ; on the right, the 
fortress ; on left, inhabitants fij'ing from 
their houses ; background, the snow-clad 
Alps, Eoyal Academy, 1851. At E, J, Cole- 
man sale (1881), £3,465. — Art Journal 
(1851), 156. 

EOVIALE. See RuUales. 

EOWSE, SAMUEL WOECESTEE, born 
at Bath, Me., Jan. 29, 1822. Figure and 
portrait painter, self taught ; best known 
by his jDortraits in crayons and his ideal 
heads, many of which have been reproduced 
by photography and other processes. Works 
in oil by him, chiefly ideal heads and fig- 
ures, are owned by Frederic E, Chui'ch, 
Daniel Huntington, William H. Osborn, and 
M. K. Jesup, New York ; Dr, Estes Howe, 
and Peter C, Brooks, Boston ; and Knight 
Cheney, Manchester, Conn, 

EOY, JEAN BAPTISTE DE, born in 
Brussels, March 29, 1759, died there, Jan. 
7, 1839. Landscape and animal painter ; 
studied after the old Dutch masters. Works : 
Cattle Herd in Stormy Landscape, Brussels 
Museum ; Cows crossing Pool at Sunrise 
(1804), Ghent Museum ; Landscape with 
Figures and Animals (1790), Gotha Muse- 
um ; Dead Game and Fruits, do., and Boy 
with Dog, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — 
Michiels, x. 564, 

EOY, MAEIUS, born at Lyons ; contem- 
porary. Genre and portrait painter, pupil 
of Boulanger and of Jules Lefebvre, Medal, 
3d class, 1883, Works : In Ambush (1881); 
Do not Stir ! (1882) ; In Quarters (1883) ; 
Corvee de Eetamage (1884) ; Before the 
Duel (1885); Poverty's Share (1886), 

EOYBET, FEEDINAND (VICTOE 
LfiON), born at Uzes (Gard), April 20, 
1840, Figure painter, pupil in Lyons of 
£cole des Beaux Arts ; settled in Paris, 



80 



EOYER 



where his Jester of Henri m. took a medal 
in Salon, 1866 ; now professor of engraving 
at Lyons. Works : Death of Koxana, J. C. 
Runkle, New Y'ork ; Page with Dogs, Mu- 
sical Party (1867), W. H. Vanclerbilt, ib.; 
Meet, Cologne Museum ; Playing Backgam- 
mon (1868) ; A Musketeer ; Negress with 
a Drake ; Gypsy Woman ; Beer Drinker ; 
Standard Bearer, Time to Go, J. J. Astor, 
New York; Halberdier, T. R. Butler, ib.; 
Cock Fight, D. O. Mills, ib. ; Velasquez 
painting the Infanta, D. W. Powers, Roch- 
ester ; Missal Painter, J. H. Warren, Hoo- 
sic Falls ; Ludovic Lesly, Judge H. Hoadly, 
Cincinnati ; The Message (Wilson sale, 1883, 
12,000 francs). 

ROYER, LIONEL, born at Chateau-du- 
Loir (Sarthe) ; contemporary. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Cabanel. Medal, 
3d class, 1884. Works : Christ on the Cross 
(1879); Daphne changed into a Laurel (1880); 
Venus protecting the Body of Hector (1881); 
Madame Roland (1883); The Family (1884); 
Love and Folly (1885) ; For Native Land ! 
Charette a Patay (1886). 

ROYMERSWALE. See Marinus. 

ROZIER, DOMINIQUE, born in Paris ; 
contemporary. Still-life painter, pupil of An- 
toine Vollon.*^ Medals : 3d class, 1876 ; 2d 
class, 1880. Works : End of Supper (1880, 
bought by the State); Armour (1881); Vin- 
tage, End of Carnival (1882) ; Cabbage Soup, 
Isabel's Basket, Flower Girl (1883) ; Poul- 
try, Un Jambonneau (1884) ; Fish Market 
in the Halles Centrales (1885); Game (1886); 
Sunset, R. G. Dun, New York. 

RUBEN, CHRISTIAN, born at Treves, 
Nov. 30, 1805, died at Inzersdorf, near Vi- 
enna, July 8, 1875. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Dusseldorf Academy (1823 
-25) under Cornelius, whom he followed to 
Munich, and there rapidly established his 
reputation ; in 1841 he became director of 
I'rague Academy, which he reorganized, and 
in 1852-72 was director of the Vienna Acad- 
emy. Gold medal, 1864 ; Orders of Iron 
Crown and of Francis Joseph ; Belgian Or- 
der of Leopold, 1865 ; Commander of Pa- 



pal Order of Gregory. Works : Carthusian 
Monk, Ave Maria (1835) ; Power of Faith, 
Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Petersburg ; Duke 
Erich of Calenborg at Hardegsen in 1533 
(1838) ; Shepherdess in the Alps, New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; Battle of Lipau in 1434, 
Vienna Museum ; Columbus discovering 
Land (1843), Nostitz Gallery, Prague ; Cy- 
cle of 14 cartoons on History of Bohemia, 
Belvedere, Prague. — Brockhaus, xiii. 875 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1852), xix. 359 ; Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1841), No. 64 ; Land und Meer 
(1872), No. 50; Reber, ii. 194; Stahr, 
Chr. Ruben's Columbus (Oldenburg, 1844); 
Wurzbach, xxvii. 200 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xi. 372. 

RUBEN, FRANZ, born in Prague in 
1843. History and portrait painter, son of 
Christian Ruben, and his pupil at Vienna 
Academy ; won prize in 1869, then studied 
in Italy after the Venetian masters, and set- 
tled in Venice. Medal, Munich, 2d class, 
1883. Works : Miracle of Roses, The Two 
Leonoras and Torquato Tasso (1867); Court 
Life of Pope Leo X. (1869) ; The Widow s 
Mite ; Capri, A Page (1870); Tilly's Retreat 
(1871) ; Tournament at Court of Burgundy 
(1872) ; Washerwoman in Venice (1873) ; 
Indulgentia plenaria. — Wurzbach, xxvii. 
205 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 122. 

RUBENS, PETER PAUL, born at Sie- 
ge n , Westphalia, 
June 29, 1577, died 
at Antwerp, May 
30,1640. Flemish 
school ; studied at 
Antwerp with To- 
bias Verhaegt and 
Adam van Noort, 
and then with Otto 
van Veen from 
1596 until 1600, 
when he went to Venice, where bis copies 
after Titian and Giorgione attracted the 
notice of the Duke of Mantua, Vincenzo 
Gonzaga I., who made him his court paint- 
er. In July, 1601, the Duke sent Rubens 
to Rome to copy pictures for his gallery, 




81 



RUBENS 



with a letter of recommendation to the 
Cardinal Montalto. Having executed the 
Duke's commission, and painted a tript^'ch 
for the Chapel of St. Helena in the Church 
of Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, by order of 
the Ai-chduke Albert, Kubens returned to 
Mantua early in 1603. In March he was 
sent to Spain as the Duke's messenger, 
with presents for the King and certain high 
dignitaries. The pictures which formed 
part of them, chiefly by an inferior artist, 
Pietro Fachotti, having been much dam- 
aged en route, were restored at Valladolid 
by Rubens, and as two were irreparably' in- 
jured he painted his Democritus, and Hera- 
clitus, now in the Madrid Museum, to re- 
place them. He also painted an equestrian 
portrait of the Duque de Lerma and several 
portraits of beautiful Spanish women for 
the Duke of Mantua ; after which he re- 
turned to Mantua at the end of April, 1604, 
and painted an altarpiece for the Church of 
the Trinity. The wings were destroyed in 
1797 during the French occupation, but the 
central piece, representing the Trinity, is 
preserved in the public library at Mantua. 
At the end of 1605 Rubens went to Rome 
to continue his studies. In July, 1607, he 
met the Duke at Genoa, and in the course 
of six or seven weeks made 139 sketches of 
palaces, afterwards published at Antwerp 
(1613). At this time, perhaps, he modelled 
the bust of Spinola, still preserved in the 
family palace, and received a commission 
from the Marchese Pallavicini for his pict- 
ure of Ignatius Loyola, which he sent from 
Antwerp in 1620. Returning to Rome in 
1607, Rubens finished his picture of Pope 
Gregory the Great with Saints (sent to Gre- 
noble by Napoleon in 1811), and in the 
autumn of 1608, having received news of 
the dangerous illness of his mother, he re- 
turned to Antwerp, where he arrived in 
November, after her death. Depressed, 
and homesick for Italy, he would soon have 
gone back to Rome had not the Ai-chduke 
Albert, moved by the commendations of 
Otto van Veen, Rubens's old master, treat- 



ed him with much consideration at Brus- 
sels, and commissioned him to paint his 
own portrait, that of the Infanta Isabella, a 
Holy Family for the oratory of his palace, 
and a large altarpiece for the church at 
Candenburg, the triptych of S. Ildefonso, 
now in the Museum at Vienna. In 1609 
the Ai'chduke made Rubens his court paint- 
er, gave him a gold chain and medal, and 
granted him numerous privileges. Re- 
nouncing his intention to return to Italy, 
Rubens obtained permission to fix his resi- 
dence at Antwerp, where, on October 13, 
1609, he married Isabella Brandt. Com- 
missions now crowded upon him to such 
an extent that at the beginning of 1611 
he had refused more than one hundred. 
Among the works of this time are the De- 
livery of the Keys, Church of St. Gudule, 
Brussels ; The Erection of the Cross, Notre 
Dame, Antwerp ; and an Adoration of the 
Magi, Antwerp Museum ; the St. Therese, 
the St. Anne, and the Dead Christ in the 
same collection. Enriched by inheritance, 
by his wife's dowry, and by his own labours, 
Rubens in 1611 built himself a beautiful 
house at Antwerp with a round gallery 
lighted from above, which he decorated 
with his copies, original works, and ac- 
quired objects of art. In September of the 
same year he agreed to paint for the guild 
of the Harquebusiers the great altarpiece 
with wings, which was finished in 1612, 
and since 1614 has decorated their altar 
in the Antwerp Cathedral. The different 
paintings upon it are the famous Descent 
from the Cross, the Visitation, the Presen- 
tation, and the St. Christopher and a Her- 
mit. Having numerous pupils, and con- 
stant demands for original works, Rubens 
spent eleven years at Antwerp, and then 
went to Paris in February, 1622, at the call 
of Maria de' Medici, to decorate the Lux- 
embourg Palace with twenty-one great pict- 
ures, now in the Louvre, representing the 
history of her life up to the period of her 
reconciliation with her son, Louis XTTT. In 
1622-23 he returned to Paris to consult 



82 



RUBENS 



with the Queen, and again in 1625. Bring- 
ing with him nineteen finished pictures, he 
remained there to finish the rest. Every 
effort was made to induce him to remain in 
France, but in vain. At Paris he had made 
the acquaintance of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, who visited him at Antwerp and event- 
ually purchased his collection for about 
100,000 florins. In 162G (July) Isabella 
Brandt died, to the great grief of her hus- 
band, who honoured her with splendid fu- 
neral ceremonies. In 1624 Philip IV. of 
Spain ennobled Rubens, and the Archduch- 
ess Isabella made him her gentleman in 
waiting. In 1627 she sent him to England 
with the title of ambassador to act as me- 
diator in negotiating peace between that 
country and Spain. This obliged him to 
visit Spain in August, 1628, where he was 
treated with great honour by the King and 
became intimate with Velasquez, upon whom 
he had great influence. In nine months 
Rubens painted forty pictures and made 
copies of all the pictures by Titian in the 
Royal Gallery. In 1629, after a short visit 
to Antwerp, he was sent as ambassador to 
King Charles I., whose jDortrait he painted, 
and who on his departure created him 
Knight of the Golden Spur, Feb. 21, 1630. 
Once more he was sent to Spain to con- 
clude the peace negotiations with Philip 
IV. He then returned home and on Dec. 
6, 1630, married Helena Fourment, his 
niece by marriage. For Charles I. Rubens 
then painted nine pictures, and designed 
for the Banquet Hall at Whitehall a ceiling 
representing the allegorical history of James 
I. He also began a series of pictures for 
the gallery of Henri IV. in the Luxem- 
bourg, six of which were far advanced when 
the exile of Maria de' Medici, in 1631, in- 
terrupted the work. In 1631 he resumed 
his diplomatic career, in order to bring 
about a peace between the North and South 
of the Low Countries. This entailed much 
trouble and annoyance upon him, and the 
death of his protecti-ess, the Archduchess 
Isabella, in 1633, greatly afflicted him. He 



also suffered much with the gout, but never- 
theless continued to paint with the same 
wonderful facility and power. In 1635 he 
designed eleven allegorical compositions to 
decorate the triumphal arches raised in 
honour of the entrance of Ferdinand, Gov- 
ernor of the Low Countries, into Antwei'p. 
His last picture, the Cnacifixion of St. Feler, 
(1638), painted for the banker Jabach, was 
delivered to its owner after the painter's 
death, and placed in the Church of St. 
Peter at Cologne, where it still exists. The 
works of this great artist, many of which 
were wholly for partially painted by his 
scholars after his designs, are between two 
and three thousand. Of these 286 repre- 
sent antique subjects, historical or mytho- 
logical. The following is a list of some of 
the most remarkable : Fall of the Damned, 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; 3Ia- 
donna with Saints, Flight into Egypt, Di- 
ana and Nymphs surprised by Satyrs, Mars 
crowned by Victory, Portrait of an Orien- 
tal, Cassel Gallery ; Last Judgment, Lion 
Hunt, Fall of the Damned, Woman of the 
Apocalypse, Nativity, Battle of the Ama- 
zons (1619), Trinity, Entombment, Martyr- 
dom of St. Laicrence, Meleager and Atalanta, 
Massacre of Innocents, Samson and Dehlah, 
Castor and Pollux, Silenus and Satyrs, Su- 
samm. Portrait of liubens and Isabella Brandt, 
Helena Fourment under a Colonnade, do. 
with her Boy, A Scholar (1635), Dr. van 
Thulden, Lord and Lady Arundel, Philip 
IV. of Spain, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Bu- 
bens' Sons, eleven Portraits, Diana and her 
Nymphs, Wild Boar Hunt, Garden of Love, 
Judgment of Paris, Dresden Museum ; St- 
Ignatius Loyola exorcising Demons, Assump- 
tion, Magdalen, St. Francis Xavier Preach- 
ing, Portrait of Rubens, Four Quarters of 
the Globe, Portrait of the Archduchess Anna 
Maria, Altarpiece of St. Ildefonso, Festival 
of Venus, Cimon and I})higenia, Mclcnger 
and Atalanta, Portraits of Emperor ^laxi- 
milian and of Philip le Bon, Vienna ]\Iu- 
seum ; Itnbcns' Sons, History of Death of 
Decius Mus, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; 



88 



RUBEXS 



Rainbow, Flight of Lot, Elijah in the Desert, 
Tomiji'is, Kirmess, History of Maria de' 3Ied- 
ici, Portrait of the same, do. of Helena Four- 
meut and two of her Children, Louvre, Paris ; 
Eape of the Sabines, Chapeau de Paille, Tri- 
umph of Silenus, Judgment of Paris, Land- 
scape, Conversion of St. Bavoyi, Peace and 
War, National Gallery, London ; Pieid, Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, Adoration of the 3Iagi, 
Procession to Calvary, Brussels Museum ; 
live sketches (en grisaille) for the Maria de' 
Medici Series, two for the James I. White- 
hall Series, Portraits of Rubens's two Wives, 
Venus and Adonis, ten Portraits, Portrait 
of the Comte de Bucquoy, Silenus and Sa- 
tyrs, Perseus and Andromeda, Madonna, 
Madonna with Saints, Adoration of Magi, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Ulysses and 
Nausicaa, Landscape, The Philosophers, Two 
Holy Families, Horrors of War, Nymphs 
and Satyrs, Portrait of Duke of Bucking- 
ham, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Henri JN. at 
Ivi-y, Entry of Henri IV. into Paris, Por- 
traits of Rubens's two Wives, Bacchanal, 
Venus and Adonis, Hercules between Vice 
and Virtue, Uffizi, Florence ; Adoration of 
the Magi, Three Holy Families, Eleven Apos- 
tles, Lapiths and Centaurs, Supper at Em- 
maus, Fifteen Mythological Subjects, Eques- 
trian Portrait of Philip H., of Don Fernando 
of Austria, of Sir Thomas More, Garden of 
Love, Doctors of the Church, Mercury and 
Argus, Milky Way, Nymphs and Satyrs (2), 
Orpheus and Eurydice, Perseus and Androm- 
eda, Rudolph of Hapsburg, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Rape of Sabines, Reconciliation of 
Sabines and Romans, Escorial ; Crucifixion, 
St. Theresa, Dead Christ, Education of the 
Virgin, Adoration of the 3fagi, Incredulity 
of St. Thomas, Portraits of Nicholas Rockox 
and Adrienne Perez, Antwerp Museum ; Ad- 
oration of Magi, St. Jean, Mechlin ; Perseus 
and Andromeda, Helena Fourment, Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, Daughter of Rubens, 
Landscape, St. Sebastian, Madonna with 
Saints, Raising of Lazarus, Neptune and 
Amphitrite, Berlin Museum ; Pan and Syr- 
inx, Prairie de Laecken, Pythagoras, two 



Portraits, Buckingham Palace, London ; 
Marriage of St. Catharine, Madonna with 
Saints, Stafford House ; Wolf Hunt, Diana 
and Nymphs, Lord Ashburton ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Rainbow, Peter receiving the Keys, 
Hertford House ; Perseus and Andromeda, 
Rape of Proserpine, Rubens and Helena 
Fourment, Helena Formann (Fourment), 
Blenheim Palace ; Madonna (£1,360), Holy 
Family (£460), Adoration of Magi (£1,500), 
Meleager and Atalanta (Cavendish Ben- 
tinck, £520), Return from Egypt (£1,500), 
Holy Family (£1,000), Suffer Little Chil- 
dren (£800), Flight of Lot (£1,850), Holy 
Family (£1,400), Infant Saviour and St. 
John (£50), Distribution of the Rosary, 
Paracelsus, Artist's Portrait, Portrait of 
Anne of Austria (£3,700), Roman Charity 
(£1,200), Triumph of Silenus (£60), Venus 
and Adonis (£7,200), Blenheim Palace sale, 
London, 1886 ; Pausias and Glycera, Ixion, 
Landscape, Grosvenor House ; Tomyris, 
Cobham Hall ; Woinaii taken in Adultery, 
Conversion of St. Paid, Holy Family, Leigh 
Court ; Helena Fourment, Venus, Mars, 
and Cupid, Two Landscapes, Dulwich Gal- 
lery ; Madonna with Saints, Duke of Rut- 
land ; St. Martin, Portrait of Philip IV., 
Portrait of Rubens, Landscape, Sir B. Ger- 
bier and his Family, Holy Family, Wind- 
sor Castle ; Prelates Kneeling, Petworth ; 
Daughter of Herodias, Castle Howard ; Re- 
turn from Egypt, Lions chasing Deer, Met- 

ropolitan M u s e - 
//oi Ax .. um. New York, 

(/^ttOe^ -Bukbuizen van 

den Brink, Lea 

Rubens a Siegen 

(Hague, 1861); 

Cat. du Mus. 

d'Anvers, 291; 

Dohme, li. ; Du 

PEPA r{y]MNj Mortier, Recher- 

PA { 6l/' ches and Nou- 

' velles Recherches 

(Brussels, 1861, 1862) ; Ennen, Ueber den 

Geburtsort des P. P. R. (Cologne, 1861) ; 

Gachard, Histoire politique, etc. (Brussels 






f^ut 



RUBENS 



1877) ; Gachet, Lettres inedites (Brussels, 
184:6) ; Gaedertz, R. uud die Rubensf eier in 
Antwerpen (Leipsic, 1878); Genard, Aaute- 
keningen over P. P. R. (Antwerp, 1877) ; 
Gerrits, P. P, R., ziju tijd, etc. (Amsterdam, 
1842); V. van Grimbergen, Hist. Levensbe- 
schryving (Antwerp, 1840) ; A. van Hasselt, 
Hist. (Brussels, 1840) ; Kett, Rubens (Lon- 
don, 1882); Kramm, v. 1395 ; Merlo, Nach- 
richten, 352 ; Michel, Hist. (Brussels, 1771); 
Michiels, Rubens et I'ecole d'Anvers (Paris, 
1877) ; do., Hist, de la peinture flamande, 
vi. 374-444 ; vii. 1-253 ; L'CEuvre de P. P. 
R. (Antwerp and Brussels, 1877, 1878) ; R. 
de Piles, Recueil, etc. (Paris, 1755) ; Reif- 
fenberg, Nouvelles Recberclies (Brussels, 
1835); Riegel, Beitriige, i. 165, 344 ; ii. 58- 
6(i, 92-94 ; Rooses (Reber), 162-254 ; Ro- 
senberg, Rubensbriefe (Leipsic, 1881); Sains- 
bury. Original Papers (London, 1859) ; 
Scbneevogt, Cat. des Estamj^es (Haarlem, 
1873) ; Smith, Cat. raisonnu (London, 1829 
-42); Van den Branden, 357, 409, 482, 1271, 
1372, 1386 ; Veracliter, Genealogie de P. P. 
R.; do., Le Tombeau de R. (Antwerj), 1840, 
1843) ; Villaamil, Rubens, Diplomatico Es- 
panol (Madrid, 1874); Waagen (Noel), P. P. 
R. (London, 1840); do., Kl. Schriften (Stutt- 
gart, 1875); Woltmann, Aus vier JahrL., 49 ; 
Annalen des hist. Vereins f. d. Niederrbein 
(1861, 1869) ; Gaz. des B. Ai-ts (1859-68), 
i.-xxxv.; (1869), i. 223, 334; (1881), xxiii. 
5, 305 ; (1882), xxv. 5 ; xxvi. 273 ; (1883), 
xxvii. 5, 203, 309 ; xxviii. 361 ; (1884), xxix. 
29, 193 ; (1884), xxx. 34 ; (1885), xxxi. 121 ; 
xxxii. 97, 449 ; Graph. K., ii. 25 ; Journal 
des B. Arts (1875-79) ; Kunst-Chronik, xii. 
425, 457, 571, 697, 724, 777, 809, 825 ; xiii. 
81 ; xvi. 484, 504 ; xvii. 694 ; xviii. 217, 532 ; 
xxi. 141, 221, 337 ; Vlaamsche school (1866, 
1875, 1877, 1878) ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 225 ; 
ii. 132 ; iii. 128 ; iv. 47 ; v. 202, 304 ; viii. 
190 ; ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 1) ; x. 96 (Mit., 
iii. 40) ; xi. 352, 383 ; xii. 261, 306 (Mit, v. 
57) ; XV. 225, 261 ; xvi. 235 ; xvii. 165. 

RUBENS, portrait, Rubens, Windsor Cas- 
tle ; wood, H. 2 ft. 9^ in. x 2 ft. 1 in. Half- 
length, face three-quarters, looking to left, 



wearing a black Spanish mantle with a gold 
chain around his neck, and a large hat dec- 
orated with a tassel. Presented to Charles 
I. by Lord Danby. Engraved by P. Pon- 
tius ; Worlidge ; Chambers ; Facius ; Pel- 
ham ; J. H. Robinson. Duplicate, engTaved 
by Moulmeester and Gregori, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence. Other portraits of Rubens in Vienna, 
Louvre, Uffizi, and Genoa Galleries. — Smith, 
ii. 145, 159 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 435 ; 
Lasinio, iii. PI. 96. 

RUBENS AND ISABELLA BRANDT, 
Ruhens, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 6 




Rubens and Isabella Brandt, Rubens, Munich Gallery. 

in. X 4 ft. 2 in. Rubens and his first w'ife, 
daughter of Jan Brandt, of Antwerp ; fig- 
ures full-length, in full dress, seated, under 
an arbour, he on the edge of a table, she 
on a stool beside it. Probably painted 
about 1610. Engraved by Hess. — Kett, 
64 ; Smith, ii. 63. 

RUBENS AND HELENA FOURMENT, 
Rubens, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 
8 in. X 6 ft. 8 in. Rubens and his second 
wife, full-length, life-size, in Spanish cos- 



es 



KUBENS'S SONS 



tume, walking in a flower garden ; she has 
a little child in leading strings. Waagen 
says, " Few other pictiu-es by Rubens equal, 




Rubens and Helena Fourment, Rubens, Blenheim Palace. 

and none probably surpass it." Presented 
to Duke of Marlborough by City of Brus- 
sels. Engraved by McArdell. Studies in 
Louvre. Similar subject, with changes, 
Munich Gallerj'. — Waagen, Art Treasures, 
iii. 129 ; Smith, ii. 243 ; Klas. der Malerei, 
PI. 7. 

EUBENS'S SONS, Eubens, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; wood, H. 5 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 
Rubens's sons by Isabella Brandt. Full- 
length, in Spanish costume. The younger, 
Nicolas, holds a flying bird attached to a 
string ; the elder, Albert, has one arm over 
his brother's shoulder and holds a book un- 
der the other. Eugi'aved by Pichler. One 
of Rubens's best pictures. Replica, Dres- 
den Gallery ; engraved by Daullu ; Danzel ; 
Tanje.— Smith, ii. 83, 100 ; Klas. der Ma- 
lerei, PI. 8. 

RUBIALES, PEDRO, born in Estrema- 
dura, died in Rome (?), latter half of IGth 



century. Spanish school ; pupil of Fran- 
cisco Salviati, whom he assisted in many 
works. Painted in S. Sj^irito, Rome, the 
Conversion of St. Paul. Also, with Becerra, 
aided Vasari, who calls him Roviale, in the 
frescos of the Cancellaria in the palace of 
Cardinal Farnese. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 229 ; 
vii. 43, 681 ; Stirling, i. 153. 

RUDDER, LOUIS HENRI DE, born in 
Paris, Oct. 17, 1807. History painter, pu- 
pil of Gros and Charlet. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 • 2d class, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 1863. 
Works : Children taking Game from sleep- 
ing Game-Keeper (1834); Death of John of 
Armagnac (1835) ; Claude Larcher (1836) ; 
Claude Frollo, Charles H. and Alice Lee, 




Rubens's Sons, Rubens, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 

Boy and Schoolmaster, Gringoire before 
Louis XL (1837) ; Marmion Wounded 
(1838) ; Hamlet killing Polonius, Lanz- 



86 



RUDE 



knechts (1839) ; St. Augustine, Children 
(1840) ; Christ, Mutual Lesson (1841) ; St, 
George giving Thanks for his Victory 
(1842) ; Divine Mission (1844) ; Head of 
Christ, Shepherd and Child (1845); Outlaws 
of the Cevennes, Naitid, Blaise de Montluc 
(1849) ; Women Bathing (1850) ; Christ 
Crowned with Thorns (1855) ; Echo of the 
Ravine, Pifferaro (1859) ; Mater Dolorosa, 
Nicolas Flamel, Luxembourg Museum ; 
Christ in the Garden, St. John (1863) ; 
Shepherd of the Abruzzi, Christ falling 
under the Cross, Christ stripped of his 
Clothing (1864); Ecce Homo (1865), Saint- 
Etienne Museum ; Mater Dolorosa, The 
Muse (1867) ; Autumn Evening, Mercena- 
ries, Mater Dolorosa (1868) ; Poetry and 
Materialism, Woods of Couvron, Lamartine 
on his Death-Bed (1869) ; Head of Christ, 
Judas (1870) ; Mandolinata, A Student 
(1875); Ecce Homo, The Douet at Beuzeval 
(1878) ; Portrait of the historian Pasquier, 
Versailles Museum. Executed twenty ceil- 
ings of large dimensions, and decorative 
panels in oil, for the United States. — Bel- 
lier, ii. 440 ; Larousse. 

RUDE, Mme. SOPHIE FRfiMEET, born 
in Dijon, June 20, 1797, died in Paris, 
Dec. 4, 1867. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Devosge and of David, 
and wife of the sculj^tor Rude. Medal, 2d 
class, 1833. Works : Virgin Sleeping (1831), 
Dijon Museum ; Charles I. bidding Fare- 
well to his Children (1833); Arrest of Duch- 
ess of Burgundy in Bruges (1841), Dijon 
Museum ; Faith, Hope, and Charity (1857). 
— Larousse. 

RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG, Rubens, 
Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 9 
ft. 3 in. The founder of the Austrian em- 
pire, hunting in the woods, followed by a 
single esquire, gives his horse to a priest 
carrying the Host to a dying person, and 
bids his esquire give his to the priest's aco- 
lyte. The landscape is by Wildeus. Col- 
lection of Philip rV. — Madrazo. 

RUELAND, F., flourished in Vienna, end 
of 15th and beginning of 16th centuries. 



German school. Works : Four Scenes from 
Christ's Passion, Vienna Museum ; series 
with Scenes from life of St. John, Christ's 
Passion, Legend of St. Leopold, Stift Klos- 
terneuburg, near Vienna. — W. & W., ii. 127. 

RUFINA, ST., Murillo, Stafford House, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. x 2 ft. 2 in. The 
Saint, half-length, in a green robe and pur- 
ple mantle, standing three-quarters left, 
looking front, holding a jar in her left hand 
by one of its handles ; another jar, resting 
on left wrist, is held against her body ; in 
her i-ight hand, a palm. Companion to St. 
Justa (Stafford House), which see. — Curtis, 
268 ; Gower, Hist. Gal. of England. 

RUFUS, painter, known only for his 
wager with an attorney named Phgedrus as 
to which could work the faster. The latter 
won, by writing a contract while Rufus was 
preparing his colours. — Annall., ii. 339, No. 
105. 

RUGENDAS, GEORG PHHJPP, born 
in Augsburg, 
Nov. 27, 16 66, 
died there, May 
19, 1742. Ger- 
man school ; bat- 
tle and militaiy 
genre painter, pu- 
pil of Isaac (or Ja- 
cob) Fischer, took / 
B o u r g u i g n o n , ' / 

Lembke, and Tempesta, for his models, 
and studied the various events of a soldier's 
profession, as at the siege of Augsburg, 
where he often exposed himself to the great- 
est danger ; ranks among the most famous 
battle painters ; was an able draughtsman, 
but a defective colourist. In 1692 he visit- 
ed Venice and Rome, and after his return 
to Augsburg became director of the Draw- 
ing Academy. Works : Nine Battle-Pieces, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Siege of Augsburg, 
Battle, Charge of Cavalry, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Cattle-Pieces (2), Cassel Gallery; Cavalry 
Skirmish (2), Moltke Collection, Copen- 
hagen ; do. (1), Christiania Gallery ; do., 
Fiirstenberg Gallery, Douaueschingen ; do., 




87 



RUGENDAS 



Konigsberg Museum ; Preparations for Mar- 
ket, Horse Fair, Scbleissheim Gallery ; Bat- 
tle Field, Scbwerin Gallery ; Battle Scenes 
(3), Soldiers in Camp, Stuttgart Museum ; 
Invasion of a City, Liecbtenstein Gallery, 
Vienna ; Cavaby Battle, Scbonborn Gallery, 
ib. ; otbers in Vienna (2), Basle (2), Berne 

(2), Dresden, Stockbolm, and Augsburg 
Galleries. — Cb. Blanc, Ecole allemande ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 561 ; Nagier, Mon., iii. 
86. 

RUGENDAS, MORITZ, born in Augs- 
burg, Marcb 29, 1802, died at Weilbeim, 
V^iirtemberg, May 29, 1858. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Municb Acad- 
emy under Quaglio and Albrecbt Adam ; 
visited Brazil in 1821-25, Italy in 1826-27, 
■went in 1831 to Mexico, Avbere, implicated 
in political troubles, be was imprisoned ; 
tben wandered tbrougb Peru, Bolivia, Mon- 
tevideo, and Patagonia, and returned to Eu- 
rope in 1847. Works : Picturesque Jour- 
ney in Brazil (1827-35) ; Columbus taking 
Possession of tbe New World (1855), New 
Pinakotbek, Municb. — Regnet, ii. 138. 

RUIPEREZ, LOUIS, born at Murcia, 
Spain ; contemporary. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Meissonier. Honorable mention, 
1882. Works : Cabaret in Time of Louis 
Xm., W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; Refer- 
ence to tbe Law Book, M. Grabam, ib. ; 
Sword Practice, Jobn Hoey, ib. 

RUISDAEL (Ruysdael), I. (Izack ?) VAN, 
born at Naarden, died in Haarlem, buried 
Oct. 4, 1677. Dutcb scbool ; landscape 
painter, brotber of Salomon, to wbose pict- 
ures, as well as tbose of Van Goyen, bis own 
bear some resemblance. Mentioned as one 
of tbe directors of tbe Haarlem guild in 
1642. Works : Wooded Landscape witb 
Cattle and Fisbermen (1665), Rotterdam 
Museum ; do. with Two Peasants, Suer- 
mondt Museum, Aix-la-Cbapelle ; Land- 
scape, Bordeaux Museum ; do. (attributed 



to Roelof Vries), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Wooded do., Brunswick Gallery ; Spyk Ma- 
nor (1652), Copenbagen Gallery ; Dutcb 
Farm Houses (2 ?), Georgium, Dessau ; 
Dutcb Canal (1644), Leipsic Museum ; Hut 
between Trees by tbe Downs, Old Pinako- 
tbek, Municb ; Landscape witb tbe Planks, 
Vienna Academy. — Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), 
i. 179 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 468 ; Van der 
Willigen, 253 ; Zeitscbr. f. b. K, iv. 242 ; 
vii. 170; X. 32 ; xii. 381 ; xiv. 318. 

RUISDAEL, JACOB VAN, born in Haar- 
lem about 1625 (?), died tbere, buried, Marcb 
14, 1682. Dutcb scbool ; landscape paint- 
er, son and pupil of Izack van Ruisdael, 
probably also pupil of bis uncle Salomon van 
Ruisdael ; became tbe greatest landscape 
painter of tbe Dutcb scbool. In 1648 be 
joined tbe guild of St. Luke at Haarlem, and 
in 1659 obtained tbe rights of citizenship at 
Amsterdam. Little appreciated by bis con- 
temporaries, be gained a scant maintenance 
by his art, and in 1681 became so impover- 
ished that some of his fellow members of the 
Mennonite sect petitioned the Burgomaster 
of Haarlem to admit him to the public hos- 
pital. Many of his landscapes represent 
views in the environs of Haarlem and about 
Bentheim. His early works are remarkable 
for minute finish of accessories. The fig- 
ures introduced in Ruisdael's landscapes are 
by Berchem, Adriaan van de Velde, Wou- 
wermau, Lingelbach, Vermeer, and Egion 
van der Neer. Ruisdael was an admirable 
etcher. Works : Landscape witb Ruins 
(1673), do. with Waterfall (4), Forest Scene, 
Six others. National Gallery, London ; Riv- 
er Landscapes (2), National Gallery, Edin- 
burgh ; Forest, Storm on the Dikes of Hol- 
land, four others. Louvre, Paris ; Landscape 
(1649), Waterfall in Norway, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Lake of Haarlem, two others, Brus- 
sels Museum; Waterfall, Castle of Bentheim, 
View of Haarlem, six others, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Old Fishmarket at Amsterdam, 
two others, Rotterdam Museum ; View of 
Haarlem, two others, Hague Museum ; Hil- 
ly landscape with Castle, Park of Country 



RUISDAEL 



^ 



House with Dancers, Suermondt Museum, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; Agitated Sea (2), View of 
Haarlem, View of Dam Square at Amster- 
dam, On the Downs near Overveen, Land- 
scape with Peasant Cottage (1653), five 
others, Berlin Museum ; Waterfall, Oak- 
wood with Falconer, Cassel Gallery ; The 
Chase, Jewish Cemetery, The Convent, Cas- 
tle Bentheim, ten others, Dresden Museum ; 
Steep Koad over Sandy Hill, etc. (1GG7), 
seven others. Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Cas- 
tle Bentheim, Schonborn Gallery, Vienna ; 
View of Haarlem, Marine View, Historical 
Society, New York ; others in Galleries of 
Bergamo, Brunswick (5), Copenhagen (Roy- 
al, 4, Moltke Collection, 4), Darmstadt (2), 
Frankfort (4), Gotha, Hamburg (7), Madrid 
(2), Nuremburg, Oldenburg (3), Schleiss- 
heim (?), Schwerin (2), Stuttgart, Turin (2), 
Vienna (Museum, 3, 
Liechtenstein, 2, l7^ /-» 
Harrach (1679), Czer- ""Vx 
nml), Weimar, Her- \j\^^ 
mitage, St. Peters- y ^ ^J ^ 
burg (14, two dated 
1646, 1647); Uffizi, ~ j/ 
and Palazzo Pitti, y 
Florence. Dr. Waa- 
gen in his Treasures 
mentions 130 in Eng- \/V <A rJ 
lish collections. — Ch, , X\.A^-^CxX\y 
Blanc, Ecole holland 
aise 

i. 149, 270 ; ii. 132, 
299; Dohme, lii. ; Immerzeel, iii. 41; Jal, 
1095; Kramm, v. 1410; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
470 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 506 ; Riegel, Bei- 
triige, ii. 387 ; Van der Willigen, 256 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, iv. 241 ; v. 228, 305 ; vii. 276 ; 
X. 74, 192 ; xii. 21, 260 ; xiv. 818. 

RUISDAEL, SALOMON VAN, born in 
Haarlem about 1600, buried Nov. 1, 1670. 
Dutch school ; landscape painter, formed 
himself after Esaias van de Velde, and Jan 
van Goyen, whom he resembles much in 
merits and defects. Entered the Haarlem 
guild in 1623, and was its president in 1648. 
While his earlier works are scarcely distin- 




liasd 




nc, Ecole holland- ^/\ jcL 

i; Burger, Musees, J/\^AAyL^Oo<je^ 



guishable from those of his model, his later 
pictui'es are more mannered in the treat- 
ment of foliage and more powerful in colour. 
Works : Coast View with Vessels, Antwerp 
Museum ; Ferry Boat (1647), River Bank 
with Fishermen, Brussels Museum ; Village 
Inn (1655), Halt (1660), Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; The Meuse at Dordrecht, Rotterdam 
Museum ; Herdsmen driving Cows (1614), 
River Landscape, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; 
Dutch Canal (1642), four others (two dated 
1631, 1656), Berlin Museum ; Ferry (1652). 
Oaks on River Bank, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Village in Flat Country (1633), Fisherman's 
Cottage near Canal (1643), Water with Fish- 
ermen, Dresden Museum ; Canal with Boats 
(1642), two others, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Woodland on River with Ferry 
(1634), Oldenburg Gallery; Landscape 
(1654), Worlitz Gallery; Banks of the 
Meuse, View of Alkmaar, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, New York ; Crossing the River, Land- 
scape, Historical Society, ib. ; others in Gal- 
leries of Bamberg, £^ 
Basle, Cassel, //[ Sj\ 
Frankfort (2), p^ '^ 
Stockholm, W e i - u^ VI, /6j^ -^-/ y\^ 
mar ; Czernin Gal- j \jCh }C\{ 
lery, Vienna (2); fj^^ ^ 
Brera, Milan.— \J X^u/i/jJajJ- 
Dohme, lii.; Gaz. JcoA 'C<ft 
des B. Arts (1869), f^ Q • 
i. 179; Kramm, v. JtA^omo's. J\/^J.^t)ujLl 
1412; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 468; Van der 
WiUigen, 254 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., v. 229 ; 
vii. 169 ; xiv. 319 ; xi. (Mittheilungen, iv. 
41). 

RUIZ DE LA IGLESIA, FRANCISCO 
IGNACIO, born in Madrid in 1648, died 
there in 1704. Spanish school ; pupil of 
Camilo and of Carrefio ; painted a fresco in 
the queen's antechamber in the Alcazar so 
acceptably that he was made in 1689 painter 
to the king, an honour confirmed by Philip 
V. He painted portraits of Philip V. and of 
his first queen, Maria Louisa of Savoy, and 
sacred subjects for churches. — Stirling, iii. 
1037. 



RUMP 




professor in 1874. 



EUIilP, CHRISTIAN GOTTFEED, born 
at Hillerod, Dec. 8, 181G, died at Freder- 
iksborg, May 25, 1880. 
Landscape painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy under Lund ; 
painted at first history 
and portraits, visited 
Norway in 1855-56, 
and Germany in 185G- 
1857 ; became mem- 
ber of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1866, and 
Works : Presentation 
in the Temple (1842) ; Heath in Jutland 
(1849) ; View in Siibygaards Forest (1854) ; 
Noro Valley (1856) ; Four Seasons (1864) ; 
Turf Pit near Frederiksborg (1848), Morn- 
ing in a Forest, ib. (1851), Forest Stream in 
Jutland (1854), View of Skaergard Eeefs, 
Sweden (1855), Woodland near Frederiks- 
borg (1860), Landscape, ib. (1879), Winter 
Scene (1880), Copenhagen Gallery. — Sig. 
Muller, 301 ; Weilbach, 595. 

RUMPF, PHILIPP, born in Frankfort, 
Dec. 19, 1831. Genre painter, pupil of Stii- 
del Institute in Frankfort under Eustige ; 
visited Munich, Dresden, Paris, and North 
Italy, and settled at Kronberg, near Frank- 
fort. Works : Poor Flower Girl ; Ladies in 
a Park ; Young Lady Artist ; Mother and 
Child.— Kaulen, 306 ; Muller, 453. 

EUMPLEE, FEANZ, born at Tachau, 
Bohemia, in 1848. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Engerth ; is compared, by prominent Vien- 
na art critics, to Knaus. His portraits are 
in the manner of the old Dutch masters. 
Professor in Vienna. Works : Goose Herd ; 
Morning Prayers, Evening Prayers (1871); 
Little Patient ; At Grandmother's (1873) ; 
Secret Treasure ; Good Friendship, T. A. 
Havemeyer, New York ; In the Park ; Flow- 
ers and Pearls (1876); Leisure Hours (1879); 
Neapolitan Woman's Head, Woman from 
Dachau, Only Scholar in the Family (1883). 
— Kunst Chronik, xviii. 509 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiii. 353 ; xv. 332. 



EUNCBIAN, ALEXANDEE, born in Ed- 
inburgh, in 1736, died there, Oct. 21, 1785. 
History painter, pupil of Foulis's Academy, 
Glasgow ; went about 1766 to Eome and 
studied five years, painting there his large 
picture — Nausicail at Play with her Maid- 
ens. Eeturning in 1772, he settled the next 
year in Edinburgh, w here he was appointed 
manager to the Trustees' Academy. He 
decorated the great hall of Pennicuik with 
scenes from Ossian, and painted The Prodi- 
gal Son, Cymon and Iphigenia, Sigismunda 
weeping over the Heart of Guiscardo, and 
other works. His brothex", John (1744-66), 
an artist of much promise, accompanied 
him to Italy and died at Naples ; in the 
National Gallery, Edinburgh, are by him : 
Flight into Egypt, King Lear in the 
Storm, and Portrait of a Youth. — Eed- 
grave ; F. de Conches, 305 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
anglaise. 

EUNK, FEEDINAND, born at Freiburg, 
in the Bi-eisgau, in 1746, died in Vienna in 
1834. Landscape painter ; made himself 
known through a fine cycle of eight paint- 
ings, in which, by light efiects, colour, and 
reproduction of forms on the surface of 
earth and water, and of the vegetation, he 
represented the progress of nature from 
the highest ice-peak down to the sea-coast. 
Other works : View of the Glurnser Valley 
in Tyrol, Museum, Vienna ; do. in a Park, 
Harrach Gallery, ib. 

EUSS, KAEL, born in Vienna, May 10, 
1779, died there, Sept. 19, 1843. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Maurer ; was afterwards much influenced by 
Eberhard Wiichter, and in 1818 became 
custodian of the Belvedere. Works : Tire- 
sias predicting Future of Hercules ; Philip 
of Macedonia rescued by his Son (1805) ; 
Caritu romana (1806) ; Hecuba bewailing 
her Children, Vienna Museum ; Christoph 
von Liechtenstein recognized by his Shield, 
1/ yj yVrtO Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; 
'^ / thirty-seven pictures from 

Austrian History.— N. Necrol. d. D. (1843), 
832 ; Wurzbach, xxvii. 277. 



90 



RUSS 



KUSS, LEANDEK, born in Vienna, Sept. 
23, 1809, died at Kustendorf, near Vienna, 
March 8, 1864. History and genre painter, 
son of and first instructed by Karl Euss, 
then pupil of Vienna Academy ; visited It- 
aly, and in 1833 the East. Works : Defence 
of a Bastion by Vienna Citizens in 1683 
(1837), Vienna Museum ; The End of the 
Flood (1828) ; Ivauhoe liberating Eebecca 
(1830); Two Scenes in Don Quixote (1832); 
Maria von Sickingen interceding for Gotz 
von Berlichingen (1835) ; Leopold VIE. of 
Babenberg opening his Treasury to City of 
Vienna (1837) ; Episode in Austrian War 
of Succession, 1741 (1848). — Wm-zbach, 
xxvii. 288. 

KUSS, ROBERT, born in Vienna, June 
7, 1847. Landscape painter, pupil of Vien- 
na Academy under Albert Zimmermann, 
whom he accompanied on several study 
trips, and in whose place he became profes- 
sor at Vienna Academy in 1871. Gold 
medal, 1869. Works : Pine Forest (1869) ; 
Views near Eisenerz (4, 1870); Fiirstenburg 
near Burgeis (1871), Castle Heidelberg, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Wind Mill in Rotterdam, 
Canal in Venice (1873) ; Wood Landscape 
(1874); Pilgrims' Procession ; Scene in the 
Wurstel Prater, Vienna ; St. Paul's Cem- 
etery at Botzen (1882); View near Meran, 
Italian Landscape (Jubilee Exhibition, Ber- 
Uu, 1886).— Midler, 453 ; Wurzbach, xxvii. 
291 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 372 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, vii. 163. 

RUSTIC CHILDREN, Thomas Gainsbor- 
ough, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 
1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. Evening ; a girl 
standing, with a child in her arms, and a 
boy with a bundle of faggots, seated ; in 
background, right, a cottage. Engraved by 
G. B. Shaw in Art Journal. — Brock-Arnold, 
64 ; Cat. Nat. Gal; Art Journal (1850), 102. 

RUSTIC CIVILITY, William Collins, 
Cliatsworth ; wood, H. 1 ft. 6 in. x 2 f t. A 
ragged boy holding open a gate for the 
squire ; a smaller child hides shyly behind 
his brother, and a third, with a dog, peeps 
through the bars. The approach of the 



rider is indicated only by the shadow of his 
horse and himself in the foreground. Royal 
Academy, 1832 ; to Duke of Devonshire, 250 
guineas ; repetition (1834), S. Kensington 
Museum. Engraved by Outrim ; C. Cousen. 
— Wilkie Collins, Memoirs, ii. 10, 347 ; 
Painters of Georgian Era, 72 ; Art Journal 
(1865), 234. 

RUSTIC TOILET, Thomas Faed, Mrs. M. 
O. Robei'ts, New York ; canvas. A young 
girl seated before a table, on which is 
propped up a broken looking-glass, with 
both hands raised arranging her hair ; at 
left, a child, standing. 

RUSTIGE, HEINRICH VON, born at 
Werl, Westphalia, April 12, 1810. History, 
genre, and landscape painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Schadow ; went in 
1836 to Frankfort, whence he made pro- 
longed study trijDS to Vienna, Hungary, 
Dresden, Berlin, Belgium, France, and Eng- 
land, and in 1845 became professor at the 
art school in Stuttgart, and inspector of 
the royal galleries. Medal, London, 1874 ; 
Wurtemberg Crown Order ; Bavarian Order 
of Michael. Works : French Invalid (1832); 
Prayer in Storm (1836), Inundation Scene, 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Intex-rupted Meal, 
Rustic genre Scene, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Rhenish Kirmess (1838) ; Quartering in 
Hungary ; Village Physician ; Rubens in 
his Puj)ils' Studio ; Duke of Alva at Rudol- 
stadt (1861), Emperor Otto I. after Con- 
quest of the Danes, Capuchin Monk trying 
to convert Gypsies, Stuttgart Museum ; Till 
Eulenspiegel ; Transportation of Remains 
of Otto HI. over the Alps, Stettin Museum ; 
Emperor Frederic H. at Palermo ; Crusa- 
ders in the Desert ; Rubens taking his Wife 
to Studio of his Pupils ; The Recovered 
Child ; Queen Elizabeth attending Perform- 
ance of Merry Wives (1882) ; Roman Ban- 
quet (1883).— Illustr. Zeitg. (1863), ii. 31 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 546 ; Miiller, 454 ; 
Wolfg. Miiller, Diisscldf. K., 288 ; Riegel, 
D. Kunststud., 421. 

RUTH AND BOAZ, Alexandre Cabanel, 
Samuel Hawk Collection, New York ; can- 



91 



RUTH 



vas. Boaz sleeping upon his threshing- 
floor, under a tent formed of a blanket 
stretched over young trees ; at his feet re- 
clines Ruth, her head supported by her left 
arm, which rests upon a sheaf of barley ; in 
the background, the glimmer of day is just 
spreading upward from the horizon. — Ai't 
Treasures of America, ii. 26, 30. 

By Jean Fran9ois Millet, Martin Brim- 
mer, Boston. A harvest scene, with real 
peasants for characters. The master finds 
a young gleaner and leads her blushing to 
the feast of the country people. Salon, 1853. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. X 5 ft. 3 in. In a vast 
plain covered with grain, with hills and 
buildings on the horizon, women are en- 
gaged in harvesting ; in foregi'ound, Ruth 
kneels befoi'e Boaz, who orders a follower 
leaning upon a lance not to hinder her from 
gleaning. Sometimes called L'ete (Sum- 
mer). One of a series of four, painted in 
1660-64:, for Due de Richelieu, whence 
passed to Louis XIV. Engraved by J. 
Pesne.— Filhol, iv. PI. 256 ; Landon. 

RUTH AND NAOlVn, Mu7-iUo, Earl of 
Radnor, Longford Castle, Wiltshire, Eng- 
land ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 8 in. 
The two leaving Moab ; in background, 
Orpah returning to city. — Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iv. 358 ; Stirling, iii. 1416 ; Curtis, 
124. 

RUTHART, KARL, flourished about 
1660-80. German school ; painter of ani- 
mals and hunts, was a resident of Ratisbon 
in 1664 ; seems to have travelled in Italy 
about 1672 and lived for some time in Ven- 
ice. Works : Bear Hunt, Louvre ; Stag at- 
tacked by two Lions, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Fierce Combat between Stags and Dogs, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Stags upon Preci- 
pice ; Stag Hunt, Bear Hunt, Ulysses com- 
pelling Circe to disenchant his Companions 
(1666), Dresden Gallery ; Stag Hunt, Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; Shepherd leaning upon Don- 
key, Lion fighting Panthers, Stag attacked 
by LynxeS; Leopardess nursing a Child, 
Lion by dead Stag attacked by Panthers, 



Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Elks, Deer, and 
Waterfowl on a Rocky Shore (2), Harrach 
Gallery, ib. ; Deer in a Landscape, do. in 
Mountains, Bear Hunt, Stag Hunt, Czeruin 
Gallery, ib. ; Bear Hunt, SchOnborn Gal- 
lery, ib, ; Stag Hunt, Leopards by dead 
Stags, and Eagles, Ferdinandeum, Inns- 
bruck ; Deer Grazing and Fowl, Stag at- 
tacked by Leopards, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 

ence. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 532 ; Nagler, 
Mon., ii. 236. 

RUTHS, VALENTIN, born in Hamburg, 
March 6, 1825. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; 
went to Italy in 1855, spent two years in 
Rome and settled in Hamburg, whence he 
repeatedly visited Germany, Switzerland, 
and North Italy. Member of Berlin Acad- 
emy in 1869 ; gold medal, Berlin, 1872. 
Works : View in Roman Campagna, Even- 
ing in Sabine Mountains (1856), Forest 
Brook, Landscape with Harvest Wagon, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Northern Heath 
(1864), Prague Gallery ; Giant's Grave ; 
Well in the Woods (1866), Konigsberg 
Gallery ; Village in Rhon Mountains ; Even- 
ing Walk near Small Town (1875), Dresden 
Gallery ; Morteratsch Glacier ; Woodland 
near Lugano ; View on Baltic Coast, Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Hermit in the Woods, 
Summer Night in Holstein (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886).— Kunst fiir Alle, i. 258 ; 
Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 116 ; Miiller, 454. 

RUYSCH, RACHEL, born in Amsterdam 
in 1664, died there in 1750. Dutch school ; 
flower and fruit painter, pupil of Willem 
van Aelst ; married (1695) the portrait paint- 
er Juriaan Pool, joined The Hague guild, 
1701, and became court painter to the Elec- 
tor Palatine in 1708. Works : Flower and 
Fruit-Pieces with Insects, etc., in Museums 
of Brussels (1704), Amsterdam (4, one dated 
1659), The Hague (2, 1700, 1715), Rotter- 
dam (1685), Aix-la-Chapelle, Berlin (1705), 



ItUYSDAEL 




Brunswick (2), Darmstadt, Dresden (3, one 
dated 1718), Gotha, Innsbruck (2), Vienna 
(1706), New York (2) ; Galleries of Carls- 
ruhe (3, two dated 1715, 1717), Cassel, 
Frankfort (1698), Wiesbaden ; Six Collec- 
tion, Amsterdam (2, 1730); Old Pinakotbek, 
Muuicb (5, tbree dated 1708, 1709, 1715) ; 
Liechtenstein (2) and Czernin (2) Galleries, 
Vienna ; Ufiizi, Florence (2, 1711) ; Palazzo 

„ Pitti, ib. (2).— Cb. 

k -^ f f) IP Blanc, Ecole liol- 

f\(Unj^J\\Mf(Ji landaise ; Gool, i. 

^ 7AC Cy ^^^ ' lo^merzeel, 

/'^^ P iii. 40; Kramm, 

UaJS(A ^ 1417- Kugler 

^ / (Crowe), ii. 546 ; 

Burger, Musees, 
i. 165; ii. 154, 319; Pdegel, Beitrage, ii. 
447. 

EUYSDAEL. See Ruisdael. 

EUYTEN, JOANNES I^HCHAEL, born 
in Antwerp, AjDril 9, 1813. Landscape and 
marine painter, pupil in Antwerp of Rege- 
morter, and at The Hague of Nuyen. 
Works : Exodus (1838); River Bank (1840); 
A Sail (1842) ; View of Antwerp ; Enter- 
tainment before Inn ; Fisherman's Boat 
Stranded ; Harbour View ; Winter Harbour 
of Dordrecht ; Entertainment on the Ice ; 
City on a River, Canal in Antwerp, Stettin 
Museum ; Cartmen loading Freight Wagon, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Winter Landscape with 
Figures, Harrach Gallery, Vienna ; Scene in 
Antwerp, John D. Lankenau, Philadelphia. 
— Immerzeel, iii. 44 ; Kramm, v. 1418 ; Kug- 
ler, Kl. Schr., iii. 

RY, PIETER DE. See Danckerts. 

RYCKAERT, DAVID, the younger (IH.), 
born in Antweip, baptized Dec. 2, 1612, 
died there, Nov. 11, 1661, Flemish school ; 
genre painter, son and pupil of David Ryck- 
aert, the elder (II, 1586-1642), developed 
under the influence of Brouwer and David 
Teniers the younger ; friend of Gonzales 
Coques, who married his sister. Received 
into guild of St, Luke, 1636. Studied 
Teniers the younger, Brouwer, and Van 
Ostade, Excelled in effects of licfht ; sub- 



jects generally interiors with peasants and 
village fairs. Works : Interior of Flemish 
Tavern, Stowage, Farm House, New York 
Museum ; Dutch Interior, Historical Soci- 
ety, New York ; Artist in his Studio, Lou- 
yre ; Village Fair, Jolly Company at Table, 
Antwerp Museum ; Alchemist (1648), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Shell Dealer, Lille Museum ; 
Shoemaker's Shop, Amstei'dam Museum ; 
Toper, Rotteixlam Museum ; Flemish Inn, 
Musee Rath, Geneva ; do., and Holiday 
Meal in Peasant Cottage (1657), Family 
Concert (1650), Gallery, Copenhagen ; Vil- 
lage Cobbler, Moltke Collection, ib.; Vil- 
lage Fool, Berlin Museum ; Lute Player and 
Old Woman (1644), Cassel Gallery ; Interior 
with Peasants Drinking (1638), Peasant Fam- 
ily (1639), Similar Subject (1644), Still-Life 
(2), Dresden Museum ; Butcher offering to 
Woman a Glass of Beer (1639), Stadel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort ; Alchemist and Wife in the 
Laboratory (1648), Shoemaker's Shop, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Street Urchins at Play (1640), 
Twelfth Night Festival (1648), Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Old Woman with Cat, Peas- 
ant with Dog, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Merry Topers, Schleissheim Gallery ; Inte- 
rior of Peasant Cottage (1617), Domestic 
Music, Schweriu Gallery ; Soldiers plunder- 
ing Village (1649), Kirmess Festival (1648), 
The Witch, A Scholar, Kitchen Interioi-, 
Museum, Vienna ; Nativity, Musical Enter- 
tainment (1650), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; 
Sackage of a House, Musical Trio, Harrach 
Gallery, ib.; Peasants in a Tavern, Musical 
Assembly, Czernin Gallery, ib. ; Temptation 
of St. Anthony (2), Uffizi, Florence ; Alche- 

mist, Madrid Museum. — Cat, du Mus, 
d'Anvers, 320 ; Immerzeel, iii. 46 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 329 ; Kramm, v. 1421 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Michiels, ix. 60 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 402 ; Van den Brandeu, 
606. 



9.3 



RYCKAERT 



RYCKAEET, IVIAETEN, born in Ant- 
werp, Dec. 8, 1587, died there, Oct. 28, 
1631. Flemish school ; landscape painter, 
son and pupil of David Ryckaert, the eldest 
(L, 15G0-1607); seems to have continued his 
studies under Tobias Verhaegt, and then 
went to Italy, whence he returned in IGll, 
and was received into the guild. He had 
only one arm. A masterly portrait of him, 
by Van Dyck, is in the Dresden Museum. 
Works : Rocky Landscape (1616), Madrid 
Museum ; Falls of Tivoli, UflSzi, Florence. 
— Rooses (Reber), 401 ; Van den Branden, 
604. 

RYCKERE, BERNAARD DE, born at 
Courtray about 1535, died in Antwerp, Jan. 
1, 1590. Flemish school ; history and por- 
trait painter, received into guild of Ant- 
werp in 1561. Works : Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, Creation of Adam, Apparition of the 
Holy Ghost at Baptism of Christ, St. Salva- 
tor and St. Martin (1587), St. Martin's, 
Courtray. His son and pupil, Abraham 
(baptized July 5, 1566, died in 1599), was 
an artist of great promise, whose portraits 
of Donors (1591) in St. James's, Antwerp, 
and in the Museum, ib., may be ranked 
•with the best productions of the 16th cen- 



&V 



A-yc/cS. 



tury. — Kramm, v. 1422 ; Rooses (Reber), 
107 ; Van den Branden, 831. 

RYDBERG, GUSTAF FREDRIK, born at 
Malmo, Sweden, Sept. 13, 1835. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen (1852-57) and 
Stockholm (1857-59) Academies, then in 
Diisseldorf of Gude ; returned to Stock- 
holm, visited Norway in 1868 in the suite 
of King Charles XV., and Diisseldorf in 
1873. Works : Spring Landscape, View 
near Morrum, and others, Stockholm Mu- 
seum. 

RYDER, ALBERT, born in New Bedford, 
Mass., March 19, 1847. Landscape and fig- 
ure painter, pupil of William E. Marshall, 



engraver and artist, and of the National 
Academy. Visited London, Paris, and Hol- 
land in 1877, and Spain, Italy, and Germany 
in 1882. Member of Society of American 
Artists. Studio in New York. Works : 
Wandering Cow ; Landscape — Spring ; Cui'- 
few Hour ; Pegasus ; Two Lovers ; Farm- 
Yard ; Lovers' Boat ; Chase ; Lowing Cow 
Nourmahal ; Landscape with Figures (1881) 
Landscape (1882), Erwin Davis; do. (1883) 
The Waste of Waters is their Field (1884), 
D. Cottier, New York ; Little Maid of Ar- 
cady (1886). 

RYDER, PLATT POWELL, born in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., June 11, 1821, Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Leon Bonnat in Paris, in 1869-70 ; 
studied in Belgium and Holland. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1869. Studio in New York. 
Works : Life's Evening, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Spinning, An Interior (1879) ; Fare- 
well (1880); Spinning- Wheel (1881); Read- 
ing the Cup (1882); Welcome Step (1883); 
Warming Up, Washing Day, Clean Shave, 
Bill of Fare (1884) ; The Fireside (1885) ; 
Watching and Waiting (1886). 

RYSBRACK, PEETER, born in Antwerp, 
A]n-il 25, 1655, died at Brussels in 1729. 
Flemish school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
Philijjs Augustyn Lnmenraet (1627-79), be- 
came master of the guild in 1673, went to 
London in 1675, then to Paris, where he 
studied under Francisque Millet, and whence 
he had returned to Antwerp in 1687 ; shortly 
after 1719 he settled at Brussels. Many of 
his pictures have been sold as by Poussin. 
Landscapes of a grandiose and melancholy 
character ; execution firm and bold. Speci- 
mens in Museums and Galleries of Ant- 
werp, Bamberg, Aschaflfenburg, Hamburg, 
Schleissheim, and Stuttgart. In the Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, 
s a 
d- 
scape witn Di- 
ana and Hunting Train (1716), by Lu- 
dovicus Rysbraeck. — Kugier (Crowe), ii- 
345 ; Sii-et (1883), 237 ; Van den Branden, 
1079. 



— ^ tenstein Gallei 
^D ^ r /» _ /^ /r Vienna, is 
/-'/CyS6m^\ Wood Lan, 

'^ ' • * scape with I 



94 



SAAL 



SAAL, GEOKG, born at Coblentz in 
1818, died at Baden-Baden, Oct. 3, 
1870. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Schirmer ; visit- 
ed Norway and Lapland, went in 1848 to 
Heidelberg, thence to Baden-Baden, but 
lived mostly in Paris until 1870. Profes- 
sor ; several medals and orders ; Baden 
court painter. Works : Dolomite Rocks in 
the Eifel (1845) ; Lienbach Valley with 
Gypsies (1846) ; Midnight in Hardanger 
Fjord — Norway (1849), Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Midnight Sun in Norway (2, 
1853, 1856), Polar Sea, Leipsic Museum ; 
Peasant Room in Tyrol (1860), Fiirstenberg 
Gallery, Donaueschingen ; Midnight Sun in 
Lapland ; View in Black Forest (1867), Lou- 
vre ; Scandinavian Funeral by Moonlight, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Li Fontainebleau For- 
est. — Blanckarts, 46 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Diissel- 
df. K, 346 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iii. 279. 

SAAR, ALOIS VON, born at Traiskir- 
cheu. Nether Austria, in 1799, died after 
1840. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy. W^orks : Ruins of Fortress Led- 
nitz (1816) ; Four Panoramic Views of Vi- 
enna (1828) ; View of Prague and Moldau 
Bridge (1831), Vienna Museum ; Belgrade 
by Moonlight (1832) ; Views of Dominican 
and Caroline Bastions in Vienna (1834) ; 
Mill near Grinzing, Dubling near Vienna 
(1840).— Wurzbach, xxviii. 2. 

SABATELLI, FRANCESCO, born in 
Florence, Feb. 22, 1803, died in Milan, 
Aug. 18, 1829. History painter, son and 
pupil of Luigi Sabatelli, then studied in 
Rome and Venice, was called to Florence 
by Leopold II. in 1823, and made professor 
in the Academy. Member of Venice Acad- 
emy. Works : In the Midst of the Storm 
(1828), Gallery of Modern Painters, Flor- 
ence. In fresco : Hector attacking Greek 
Vessels (in the Olympus by his father), Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, ib. 

SABATELLI, GIUSEPPE, born in Mil- 
an, June 24, 1813, died in Florence, Feb. 
27, 1843. History painter, son and pupil 
of Luigi Sabatelli, called to Florence by 



Leopold n. in 1834, and made professor at 
the Academy. Works : Two Miracles of 
St. Anthony (1834-35), S. Croce, Florence ; 
Philomene Consolatrix (1837), S. Francesco, 
Pisa ; Mother of the Gracchi, Tasso reading 
his Poem, Samuel in Cave of Endor (1837- 
39), Meredith Calhoun, New York ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, S. Tommaso, ]VIilan ; 
Farinato degli Uberti in Battle on the Ser- 
chio (1841), Florence Gallery. 

SABATELLI, LUIGI, the elder, born in 
Florence, Feb. 19, 1772, died in Milan, 
Jan. 29, 1850. History painter, pupil of 
Florence Academy under Pedroni ; studied 
in Rome in 1788-93, worked in Venice in 
1795-97, and became professor at IVIilan 
Academy in 1808. Member of all the Ital- 
ian and of Vienna and Munich Academies. 
Austrian Gold Medal. Works : Abigail be- 
fore David (1806), St. Mary's Chapel, Arezzo ; 
Blessing the Children (1819), Palazzo Pa- 
roni, Genoa ; Capponi tearing French Con- 
ditions of Peace (1829), Marquis Capponi, 
Florence ; Heliodorus driven from the Tem- 
ple (1838). In fresco : Four Great Proph- 
ets (1810), S. Gaudenzio, Novara ; Life of 
Americus Vespuccius, Eight Scenes fi*om 
the Hiad, Olympus (1820-25), Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; Marriage of Cupid and Psyche 
(1831), Palazzo Busca-Serbelloni, Milan ; 
Three Scenes in Life of Galileo (1841); Ti-i- 
umph of Cupid (1843), Villa Giontini, Flor- 
ence ; Coronation of the Virgin, S. Firenze, 
ib. — Nagler, xiv. 122. 

SABATELLI, LUIGI, the younger, born 
in Milan, Feb. 12, 1818. History painter, 
son and pupil of Luigi, the elder, whom he 
assisted in his fresco paintings, wliich branch 
of art he cultivates principally. Works : The 
Holy Virgin (1869), Nazareth Church, Mil- 
an ; Presentation in the Temple (1876), 
Hospital Church, ib. ; Evangelists, Theo- 
logical Virtues, The Virgin (1871), Cunardo 
Cathedral. 

SABBATINI, ANDREA. See Andrea da 
Salerno. 

SABBATINI, LORENZO, born in Bo- 
logna about 1530, died in Rome in 1577. 



96 



SABINES 



Bolognese school ; called also Lorenzino da 
Bologna ; pupil probably of Prospero Fon- 
taua, but imitated Michelangelo, Raphael, 
and Parmigiauo. Went to Rome, after 
winning reputation in Bologna, and suc- 
ceeded so well that he was appointed (1572) 
by Gregory XIII. superintendent of the 
paintings then in progress at the Vatican. 
Works : Assumption, Dead Christ, Pilgrims 
of Emmaus, Bologna Gallery ; Madonna 
(dated 1572), Louvre ; Madonna with Saints, 
Berlin Museum ; Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Dresden Gallery. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 415 ; 




Rape of the Sabines, Luca Giordano, Dresden Gallery. 

Malvasia, i. 181 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Burckhardt, 7G1. 

SABINES, RAPE OF THE. Romulus, 
his people having been refused the right of 
connubium or legal marriage by the Sa- 
bines and the Latins, instituted games in 
honour of the god Consus and invited his 
neighbours with their wives and children 
to the festival. When they w^ere assembled, 
the Roman youths seized and carried off the 
virgins and made them their wives. This 
led to war, and both parties were nearly 
exhausted with the struggle when the Sa- 



bine women rushed in among the combat- 
ants and brought about a reconciliation 
between their husbands and their fathers 
(Plut., Rom. 14 ; Livy, i. 13). 

By Luca Giordano, Di-esden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 2 in. x 8 ft. The Sabine 
women seized and borne away by the Ro- 
mans. In the background, near a Corinth- 
ian temple, Romulus, mounted upon a horse, 
is directing the movement. Painted for 
Marie Louise d'Orleans, Queen of Spain ; 
taken from Naples to Dresden. Engraved 
by R. Gaillard ; R. Sourique ; J. F. Beau- 
varlet ; Reveil. — Gal. roy. 
de Dresde, ii. PI. 40 ; Do- 
menici, iii. 415. 

By Pietro da Cortona, 
Blenheim Palace. One of 
the master's best works. — 
Waagen, Treasures, iii. 126. 
By Pietro da Cortona, 
Capitol Museum, Rome. At 
right, a woman in a sol- 
dier's embrace, raises her 
hands in supplication ; at 
left, another, borne away 
by a Roman, looks pitying- 
ly at her infant, which cries 
and seeks to follow her ; in 
middle, a third energetical- 
ly resists her aggressor. 
Copy by J. C. Naigeon, Di- 
jon Museum. Engraved 
by P. Aquila. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 f t. x 6 ft. 6 in. At 
left, on the peristyle of a palace, before 
which stand the lictors, Romulus, with two 
senators behind him, gives the signal for the 
seizure of the Sabine Avomen by raising his 
mantle ; in foreground, at right, the Romans 
are capturing their j^rey ; in background, a 
temple and other buildings. Valued in 
181G at 150,000 francs. Engraved by Abr. 
Girardet ; Etienne Baudet ; P. L. H. Lau- 
rent ; Pool ; Bovinet. Same subject, differ- 
ently treated, formerly in collection of Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare, engraved by Jean Au- 



% 



SABINES 



dran.^Landon, Musee, x. PI, 25 ; Filhol, x. 
PI. 697. 

By Rubens, National Gallery, London ; 
wood, H. 5 ft. 7 in. X 7 ft. 9 in. Scene in 
Forum, with a triumphal arch and the Pan- 
theon in background, where the military 
games are going on ; at left, seated on a 
dais, Romulus gives the signal to his sol- 
diers, who are seizing and bearing away 
the struggling women. Formerly in Mme. 
Boschaert's Collection, Antwerp ; purchased 



Palazzo Brignole Sale, Genoa, and Uflfizi ; 
Francesco Bassano, Turin Gallery ; Antonio 
Bellucci, Cassel Gallery ; II Fattore, National 
Gallery, London ; Adriaen Backei-, Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; Sebastiano Ricci, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, Vienna. 

SABINES AND ROMANS, RECONCIL- 
IATION OF, Eubens, Escorial, near Madrid ; 
canvas. Companion to Rape of Sabines in 
Escorial. The two armies, in presence of 
each other, are restrained from hostihties 




Rape of the Sabines, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris. 



by J. J. Angerstein, whence passed to Na- 
tional Gallery. Engraved by Martinasi 
(1770) ; J. Young. Similar subject, paint- 
ed about 1628, Escorial ; study in Ashbur- 
ton Collection, London, formerly in Danoot 
Collection, Brussels. Similar subject, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. — Waagen, Treas- 
ures, i. 350 ; ii. 102 ; Angerstein Gal., PI. 
6 ; Beechey, Reynolds, ii. 149, 188. 

Subject treated also by Giulio Romano, 
National Gallery, London ; Luca Cambiaso, 
Palazzo Imperials, Genoa ; Valerio Castello, 



by the Sabine women, who, with their in- 
fants in their arms, rush between them. 
Painted about 1628. Study in Ashburton 
Collection, London, formerly in Danoot Col- 
lection, Brussels. Same subject, Munich 
Gallery.— Waagen, ii. 102 ; Smith, ii. 175 ; 
Beechey. Reynolds, I-IO. 

SABINE WOMEN, Louis David, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 8 in. x 17 ft. ; signed, 
dated 1799. The battle between the Romans 
under Romulus and the Sabines under Ta- 
tius interrupted by the Sabine women, who 



«7 



SABLET 



rush in between the combatants and pray 
their husbands and fathers to be reconciled 
(Livy, i. 13). At the right, Roniuhis, about 
to hurl his spear at Tatius, is stopped by 
his wife, Hersilia ; in background, the ram- 
parts of the Capitol occupied by the Sa- 
bines, who had obtained possession through 
the treachery of Tarpeia. Exhibited pri- 
vatel}', by which David made 65,G27 francs. 
Salon of 1808 ; acquired in 1819, with Le- 
onidas at Thermopylae, for 100,000 francs. 



Male Portrait, Nantes Museum. — Bellier, ii. 
445. 

SABLET, FRAN(,'OIS, born at Morges, 
Switzerland, in 1745, died at Nantes in 
1819. Landscape, genre, and portrait paint- 
er, pupil in Paris of Vien ; visited Italy, and 
after his return assisted Mme. Lebrun in 
her works for Louis XVL, then settled at 
Nantes ; in 1812 he was commissioned by 
the city to paint six pictui-es in imitation of 
bas-reliefs, representing scenes of Napole- 




Sabine Women, Louis David, Louvre, Paris. 



Engraved by R. U. Massard. — Laudon ; Yil- 
lot. Cat. Louvre ; Ruveil, ii. 136. 

SABLET, JACQUES HENRI, born at 
Morges, Switzerland, in 1749 (1751?), died 
in Paris in 1803. Genre, landscape, and 
portrait painter, pupil at Lyons of Dubois 
and Cocher, decorative painters, and in 
Paris of Vien ; spent twenty years in Italy, 
and travelled in Spain. Works : Old Man 
Reading, Italian Washerwomen, Vintage in 
Italy, Meeting of the Five Hundred at Saint 
Cloud on the 18th Brumaire, Year VIII., 



on's sojourn at Nantes ; these were sold in 
1815 and carried to the United States. 
Works : View of Tivoh, Entrance into Sa- 
voy, View in Ital}', View in Nantes, Male 
Portraits (2), Nantes Mviseum. — Bellier, ii. 
446 ; Nagler, xiv. 127. 

SACCHI, ANDREA, born near Rome, 
November, 1600, died there, June 21, 1661. 
Roman school ; natural son of Benedetto 
Sacchi, a mediocre painter, who taught him 
the rudiments of art ; apprenticed to Albani 
in Rome, and became one of his most noted 



SACCHI 




i6yo 



scholars. Obtained the favour of Urban 
Vin., who commissioned him to paint the 
miracle of St. Gregory 
for St. Peter's, now in 
the Vatican. His work 
entitled Divine Wis- 
dom, Palazzo Barberi- 
ni, gained him great 
reputation, which was 
enhanced by his Vision 
of St. Romuald, Vatican. 
Sacchi was considei'ed 
the most able painter 
in Rome of his daj'. He was one of the best 
colourists of the Roman school, and a cor- 
rect designer ; and if his works sometimes 
lack in power, it is because he did not pos- 
sess enough 
of the artistic 
temperament 
to express his 
noble concep- 
tions. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; Burck- 
hardt, 793. 

SACCHI DI PAVIA, PIER-FRANCES- 
CO, painted in Genoa in 1512-20. Geno- 
ese school Lomazzo, who calls him Pier- 
Francesco Pavese, says that he painted in 
Mantua about 1460 ; but Lanzi thinks there 
must have been two of the name. His style 
is of the Lombard school, and especially 
like that of Carlo Mantegna. Works : Christ 
on the Cross (1514), Berlin Museum ; Doc- 
tors of the Church with Symbols of the 
Evangelists (1516), Louvre ; St. John Bap- 
tist taking Leave of his Parents (dated 
1512), Oratory of S. Maria, Genoa ; Three 
Saints in a Landscape, S. M. di Castello, 
Genoa. — Lanzi, iii. 237 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
genoise ; Burckhardt, 010 ; Liibke, Gesch. 
ital. Mai., i. 500. 

SACCHIENSIS. See Vordenone. 
SACHS, MICHAEL EMIL, born at Ha- 
damar, Hesse-Nassau, in 1836. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Carlsruho of Schirmer 
(1855-58), and in Diisseldorf of Oswald 
Achenbach (1858-60) ; Hved at Wiesbaden 
in 1860-65, then settled at Parteukircheu, 



Bavaria, where he is director of a central 
school for wood carving. Paints with fine 
conception and great truth. Works : Views 
on the Rhine and Lahn ; In the Eifel ; The 
Taunus and the Bavarian Alps. — MuUer, 
455. 

SACHTLEVEN. See Saft-Leven. 

SACK OF A JEWS HOUSE, Joseph 
Nicolas i?o6er/-Fleury, Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 8 ft. x 6 f t. 8 in. Pillage of 
a house in the Judecca, Venice, in the mid- 
dle ages. " Under the slightest j^retext, 
the people ran to the Jews' quarter, broke 
open their houses, and pillaged their treas- 
ures." Salon, 1855. 

SACRA FAMILIA. See HoUj Family. 

SACRAMENTS, SEVEN, Nicolas Foux- 
sin, Bridgewater House, London ; series of 
seven pictures, canvas, each H. 3 ft. 10 
in. X 5 ft. 9 in. 1. Baptism ; 2. Confirma- 
tion ; 3. Marriage ; 4. Penitence ; 5. Ordina- 
tion ; 6. Last Supper ; 7. Extreme Unction. 
Painted at Rome in 1644-48 for M. Chante- 
lou, from whom bought by the Regent Phil- 
ippe, Due d'Orleans, for 120,000 livres ; pur- 
chased from Orleans Gallery by Duke of 
Bridgewater for £4,900. Engraved by B. 
Audran ; Pesne ; Dughet ; Gantrel ; and in 
Orleans Gallery. — Waagen, Treasures, ii. 
39 ; Smith, viii." 63. 

SACRED WOOD (Le Bois sacre, cher 
aux Arts et aux Muses), Pierre Pavifi de 
Chavannes, Paris ; canvas. A large allegor- 
ical picture containing a lake with wooded' 
banks and a temple in a flowery meadow 
with figures in semi-classic draperies, some 
standing, some reclining, and two, at left,, 
flying, representing the Arts and the Muses.. 
Salon, 1884.— Gaz. des B. Ai'ts (1884), xxix. 
470, 488. 

SAD1':E, PHILIP, born at The Hagu(>, 
Feb. 7, 1837. Genre painter, pupil of the 
Hague Academy under J. E. J. van den 
Berg ; visited France and Germany, painted 
at first historical subjects, then excellent 
scenes from peasant and fishei'men's life. 
Medals in Amsterdam, The Hague, and 
Vienna. Works : Potato Harvest in the 



SAETs^KEDAM 



Downs, Distribution of Bread among the of Old City Hall, City Hall, ib. ; View in St. 
Poor (1872) ; Harvest (IST-i), lleturn from Ann's, Haarlem (1052), Haarlem Museum ; 



Fish Market, Amsterdam Museum ; Dej^art- 
ure of Fishermen (1875) ; Expectation 
(1879). 



View of St. Mary's, Utrecht, Rotterdam 
Museum ; several Views of Churches and 
PubUc Buildings, Utrecht Museum ; Inte« 




Seven Sacraments (Extreme Unction), Nicolas Poussin, Bridgewater House, London. 



SAENREDAM (Zaenredam), PIETEE, 
born at Assendelft, 
N. Holland, June 
9, 1597, died in 
Haarlem, buried 
May 31, 1665. 
Dutch school; 
landscape and 
architecture 
painter, son of the 
engraver, Joannes 
Saenredam, pupil 
in Haarlem of F. P. de Grebber in 1608-22 ; 
entered Haarlem guild in 1623, and was its 
secretary in 1635. Filled his pictures with 
well-drawn figures. Works : Two Views in 
Haarlem Cathedral (1636), do. in St. Mary's 
at Utrecht (1637), Interior of Assendelft 
Church (1619), Museum, Amsterdam ; View 




rior of St. Mary's in Utrecht (1630), Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; do., Cassel Gallery ; Church 
Interior (1635), Berlin Museum ; Interior 
of Protestant Church, Turin Gallery.— Im- 
merzeel, iii. 50 ; Kramm, v. 1434 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 511 ; Riegel, Beitrilge, ii. 430 ; 
Van der Willigen, 261. 

SAFT-LEVEN, CORNELIS, born in Rot- 
terdam, 1612 (?), died after 1682 (?). Dutch 
school ; genre, landscape, and animal paint- 
er, brother of Hei-man, and although infe- 
rior to him, has much merit for truth of 
conception and careful execution ; colouring 
heavy and generally cold ; rendered poultry 
with marvellous fidelity, and occasionally 
painted still-life ; lived in Utrecht in 1634. 
Works : Portrait of a Painter (1629), Lou- 
vre ; Peasant Company (1642), Herdsmen 
and Herd in Landscape (1652), Herdsmen 



100 



SAFT-LEYEN 



in Prayer in approaching Storm, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Landscape with Herd, Su- 
ermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Sur- 
gical Operation (1G3G), Job tormented by 
the Evil Spirits, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Concert 
of Cats (1682), Cologne Museum ; Flight 
into Egypt (1652), Brunswick Gallery ; Ex- 
terior of Peasant's House (1678), Interior 
with Woman feeding Chickens (1678), two 
other Interiors, Dresden Gallery ; Dutch 
Peasant Room, Germanic Museum, Nurem- 
berg ; Kitchen Interior, Rustic Unconcern, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Annunciation to the Shepherds, To- 
bias and the Angel, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Cattle Market, Pasture, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Cattle Market, Liechenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; Huntsman feeding Dogs, 
Historical Society, New York. — Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 424 ; Kramm, v. 1435 ; Riegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 370. 

SAFT-LEVEN, HERIVIAN, born in Rot- 
terdam, 1609, 
died in Utrecht, 
Jan. 5, 16 85. 
Dutch school ; 
landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Jan 
van Goyen, but 
formed himself 
chiefly by study- 
ing nature. His 
views of the 
Rhine, Meuse, and Moselle, are well drawn, 
carefully executed, and enlivened with fig- 
ures and animals. The pictures of his best 
period are distinguished by their clear per- 
spectives and a soft bluish colouring. Re- 
moved to Utrecht probably about 1633. 
Works : Rhine View (1655), Louvre ; Farm 
(1654), Brussels Museum ; River Landscapes 
(3), Rhine View (1678), Amsterdam Museum ; 
Oldenbarnevelt and his Judges (in the shape 
of animals), Haarlem Museum ; Rhine View, 
Rotterdam Museum ; River Landscape and 
Scene from Guarini's " Pastor Fido " (1635), 
Berlin Museum ; River in Mountainous 
Country (1680), Suermoudt Museum, Aix- 




la-Chapelle ; Landscape with Rebekah and 
Eliezer (1641), Two Rhine Views, Aschaff- 
enburg Gallery ; River Landscapes (3), 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Mountain View 
with Castles, etc., on River (1675), Gotha 
Museum ; three Rhine Views, (1651, 1652, 
1653), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Landscape 
with Nymphs and Satyrs (figures by Poel- 
enburg, 1643), Rhine View (1660), Bruns- 
wick Gallery; do. (1668), Rocky Valley 
with City, Oldenburg Gallery ; do. (9,1660, 
1662, 1663, 1667, 1675, 1678), Schwerin 
Gallery ; do. (4), 1642, 1647, 1667, Hermi- 
tage, St. Petersburg ; Shipping Place on the 
Rhine (1650), Rhine View (1659), Tavern 
among Rocks (1661), two others (1665, 
1669), Copenhagen Gallery ; Lighthouse on 
Sea Coast, Vintage (1649), Rocky Landscape 
Avith Buildings (1650), Valley with Lake 
(1654), City at Foot of Mountain (1656), 
Ehrenbi'eitstein (1656), twelve others, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Sunset (1641), three Rhine 

f,K . UArQ/^t - Anna i6C^ 

Views (1665, 1666), Museum, Vienna ; others 
in Liechtenstein, Czernin (2), and Schon- 
born Galleries, ib. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole hol- 
landaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 52 ; Kramm, v. 
1435 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 482 ; Riegel, 
Beitriige, ii. 358. 

SAGSTATTER, HERMANN, born in Mu- 
nich in 1808, died there, Dec. 25, 1883. 
Genre and histoi'v j^ainter, pupil of Munich 
Academy. Works : Tavern Scene ; Klaus 
and Steffen at the Inn ; Altarpieces at 
Schwabing, Berg am Lain, Haching, Ket- 
tershausen, Monheim, etc., Bavaria ; Fres- 
cos ; Town Hall, Landsberg on the Lech. — • 
Nagler, Mon., iii. 588 ; Recensionen, 1865. 

SAIN, EDOUARD ALEXANDRE, born 
at Cluny (Saone-et-Loin;), May 13, 1830. 
Genre painter, pupil of Valenciennes Acad- 
emy, of Picot, and of the l^x'ole des Beaux 
Arts. Medals : 1866 ; 3d class, 1875 ; L. 



101 



SAINT-AUBIN 



of Honour, 1877. Works : Venus and Cu- 
pid (1853); Tavern of Ramponneau in Time 
of Louis XV. (1857) ; Chimney Sweeps go- 
ing to Work, Going to School, Woman 
tending Cattle, Road to School, Old Age 
and Decay (1859); Basque Women at Foun- 
tain, Breakfast (18G1); Going to Mass (1863), 
Macon Museum ; The Levee (1863) ; Going 
to the Festival, Catechism Lesson (1864) ; 
Souvenir of the Piazza Montanara in Rome 
(1865), Autun Museum; Excavations at 
Pompeii (1866), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Kiarella (1866), Mrs. Shaw, Boston; Or- 
ange Harvest in Capri (1869) ; Convales- 
cent Woman on a Pilgrimage (1873) ; The 
Marina in Capri, Daughter of Eve (1874) ; 
Wedding Feast of Peasant of Capri (1875), 
Valenciennes Museum ; Christ and the Sa- 
maritan Woman (1876); Andromeda (1877); 
Father's Blessing before Marriage (1882) ; 
Rosina- Capri (1886).— Bellier, ii. 447 ; La- 
rousse. 

SAINT-AUBIN, GABRIEL JACQUES, 
born in Paris, April 14, 1724, died there, 
Feb. 14, 1780. French school ; genre paint- 
er, pupil of Jeaurat, Colin de Vermont, and 
Boucher. Competed for the grand prix de 
Rome in 1751, and having obtained the sec- 
ond prize only, broke with the Academy, 
and became a member of and professor in 
the Academy of St. Luke, where he exhib- 
ited the following works : Cupid's Triumph 
over the Gods, The School of Zeuxis, Effect 
of Earthquake at Lisbon, Subject from La- 
fontaine's Fables, Village Fete, Maternal 
and Filial Love, Boy reciting Lesson to 
Mother (1774) ; Artist's Portrait, Mother 
nursing Child, Triumph of Pompey, Dry- 
Nurse and Children, Return from Par- 
liament, The King laying Corner-Stone of 
Schools of Surgery, Interior of Rotonda of 
Coliseum, Carnival of Parnassus (1776). — 
Bellier, ii. 449 ; Dohme, 3 ; Goncourt, i. 
366, 405, 417. 

SAmT-i:VRE, GILLOT, bom at Bault- 
sur-Suippe (Marne), died in Paris in 1858. 
History, genre, and portrait painter. Med- 
als : 2d class, 1824 ; 1st class, 1827 ; L. of 



Honour, 1833. Works : Two Scenes in 
Shakespeare's "Tempest" (1822) ; Job and 
his Friends, Mai-y Stuart, Shipwrecked Sail- 
ors (1824) ; Charles IX. and Marie Touchet 
(1827) ; Soldier Asleep surprised by Brig- 
ands (1827), Angers Museum ; Jeanne d'Arc, 
The Florentines of Boccaccio (1833); Char- 
lemagne presiding at Meeting of Scholars 
(1835), Education of Mary Stuart at Court 
of Henri II. (1839), Palais de Trianon ; 
Foundation of Royal Library in Paris in 
1379, Mari'iage of Charles VHI. and Anne 
de Bretagne in 1491, Signing of Treaty of 
Peace at Vervins in 1598 (1837), Alexis Com- 
nenus receiving at Constantinople Peter the 
Hermit, Interview between Philippe Auguste 
and Henri II. at Gisors— 1188 (1839), An- 
drew of Hungary entering the Order of St. 
John in 1218, Philip I, Philip HI., Charles 
v., Charies VI., and Charies VIH. of 
France, three other portraits, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Jeanne d'Arc presented to Charles 
Vn., Palais de Compiegne. — Bellier, ii. 
451. 

SMNT-JEAN, SIMON, born in Lyons. 
Oct. 13, 1808, died at Ecully, July 3, 1860, 
Flower painter, pupil of the school at Lyons 
and of Augustin Thierriat. Justly called 
the modern Van Huysum, whom he ap- 
proaches in detail and colour, though hard- 
ly his equal in selection of matei'ial and 
play of light. Medals : 3d class, 1834 ; 2d 
class, 1841, 1855; L. of Honour, 1843. 
Works : Young Girl carrying Flowers (1839), 
Vase Medicis (1841), Eucharistic Emblems 
around Head of Christ (1842), Vase with 
Flowers (1852), Lyons Museum ; Fruits and 
Flowers (1845), Dijon Museum ; Flowers in 
a Hat, Rouen Museum ; Still-Life (2, 1852), 
W. T. Walters, Baltimore; Fruit (1853), 
Flowers among Ruins (1854), Louvre ; 
Fruit (1855), Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton ; Flower-Piece (1857), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum. — Bellier, ii. 452. 

SAINTIN, HENRI, born in Paris, Oct. 
13, 1846. Landscape painter, pupil of Pils, 
Saint-Marcel, Sege, and Cointepoin. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1882. Works: Forest Path 



102 



SAINTIN 



(1873), Montpellier Museum ; Fisherman 
mending Nets, Kising Tide on Coast of 
Brittany (1875) ; Lobster Fishers (1876) ; 
Creek of Erquy (1877) ; Farm of Courtry 
(1880) ; October Frost (1881) ; Autumn 
Dew (1882) ; Valley of Koche-Gouet in 
Brittany, Brook after Rain, ib. (1883). 

SAINTIN, JULES EMILE, born in Leme 
(Aisne), Aug. 14, 1829. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Drolling, Picot, and Le- 
boucher. His portraits in oil, crayon, and 
pastel are full of life. He lived several 
years in the United States. Medals : 1866, 
1870 ; 2d class, Munich, 1883 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1877. Works : Pony Express (1863) ; 
Woman carried off by Indians (1864); Petty 
Warfare, Vittoria (1865) ; Carmella, Martha 
(1866); The Levee, Michellina(1867); Heart- 
felt Mourning, Annucia (1868) ; Mourning 
Flowers, Festival Flowers (1869) ; Indeci- 
sion, Deception (1870) ; Two Augurs (1872) ; 
Grave without Flowers (1873) ; Washer- 
woman of Fine Linen, Toilet of the Rose 
(1874) ; Lady Apple, Distraction, Flower 
Girl (1875) ; Indiscreet, Last Ornament 
(1866); First Engagement, Self-Satisfied 
(1877) ; Jeanne, Will he Return ? (1878) ; 
Emilienne (1879) ; Flowers from Nice, 
Abandonment (1880) ; Roussotte (1881) ; 
In the Tuileries, By the Sea (1882) ; Wom- 
an selling Apples (1883) ; Portraits of Priu- 
cesse Matilde and others. — Bellier, ii. 455 ; 
Claretie (1874), Peintres, 333, 382. 

SAINT-OURS, JEAN PIERRE, born at 
Geneva in 1752, died there in 1809. Genre 
painter, pupil of Vien in Paris, whither he 
went in 1768 ; won prizes in 1772, 1774, and 
1778, and the grand prix de Rome in 1780 ; 
after finishing his course at Rome, stud- 
ied also in Venice. Works : The Olympic 
Games, Scene in Earthquake in Calabria, 
Colossal Head Studies, Life-size Academy, 
Allegory on tlie Republic of Geneva, Por- 
trait of Dr. Tronchin, Portrait of the Ar- 
tist, Musc'e Rath, Geneva ; Spartan Judg- 
ment over the New-born (1795), Schleissheim 
Gallery. — BelHer, ii. 453 ; Cat. du Mus. 
Rath (1882), 53. 




SAINT-PIERRE, GASTON CASIMIR, 

born at Nimes, May 12, 1833. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Jalabert 
and of Cogniet. 
Medals : 1868 ; 2d 
class, 1879 ; L. of 
Honour, 1881. 
Works : Release of 
St. Peter (1863); 
Daphnis and Chloe 
(1864); Leda (1865), 
Nimes Museum ; 
Sleeping Nymph (1866), Marseilles Muse- 
um ; Jupiter and Pthia (1867) ; Cupid 
Laughing, Chateauroux Museum ; Hide and 
Seek (1868); Youth (1869), City Hall, Nimes ; 
Farewell (1870), Carcassonne Museum ; Jew- 
ish Wedding (1870); Bacchante (1872); In- 
difference and Tenderness, Cherries (1873) ; 
First Steps, Odalisque (1874) ; Young Hunt- 
ress, Happy Baby (1875) ; Arabian Ro- 
mance (1876); Women at an Arab Wedding 
(1877) ; Siesta (1879) ; Unexpected Caress 
(1880); Aziza (1882); Aurora (1883); Source 
Charmeuse (1884) ; Chanson d'Aziza, The 
Sultana (1885) ; Soudja-Sari (1886) ; Deco- 
rations in Cathedral of Oran. — Bellier, ii. 
454 ; Larousse. 

SALA, VITALE, born at Cernusco in 
1803, died in Milan in 1835. History 
painter, pupil of Milan Academy, where 
he won five prizes ; made a study trip to 
Venice. Works : Death of Cato ; Death of 
Romeo and Juliet (1826) ; Departure of 
Regulus ; Capture of Bernabo (1827) ; Apo- 
theosis of St. Ambrosius (1828) ; Corona- 
tion of the Virgin (1831-34), Novara Cathe- 
dral ; Frescos in S. Stefano and S. Lazzaro, 
Milan. 

SALA Y FRANCES, I^MILIO, born at 
Alcoy, Spain ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter. Medal, Madrid, 2d class, 
1871. Works : Don Carlos of Navarra crav- 
ing Mercy of his Fatlier ; Prince of Viana 
taken Prisoner ; Guillen de Vinatea before 
Alfonso V. of Aragon ; Nevus Ortus ; Vale 
of Tears ; Modern Sileuus ; Julia. — La Rus- 
traciou (1882), ii. 19. 



103 



SALAI 




SALAI (Salaino), ANDREA, born in MH- 
an about 1483, died after 1520, Lombard 
school ; often confound- 
ed with Andrea Solari 
or Solario. Pupil of 
Leonardo da Vinci, of 
whom he was at once 
servant, assistant, and 
friend, accompanying 
him wherever he went. 
On Leonardo's death in 
France Salai returned 
to Italy. He left but 
few pictures, in the manner of Da Vinci : 
Madonna with Saints, Brera, Milan ; Christ 
bearing the Cross, Berlin Museum ; St. 
Anna, Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Petersburg. 
— Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vii. 28, 43 ; Lanzi, ii. 
489 ; Burckhardt, 629, 708 ; Ch. Blanc, lEcole 
milanaise ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 444. 
SALAI^nS, BATTLE OF, Wilhelm von 
Kaulbach, Maximiliaueum, Munich. Great 
naval victory, won by the Greeks under 
Themistocles over the fleet of Xerxes, b.c. 
480, in the narrow channel between the 
island of Salamis and the coast of Attica. 
Xerxes, seated on a throne upon a head- 
land at left, sui-rounded by his women and 
courtiers, witnesses the overthrow and de- 
struction of his magnificent fleet, seen in 
the background ; in foreground, the shore, 
with a temple at right, and a confused mass 
of wreckage and of struggling figures ; above, 
the avenging gods of Greece in the sky. 

S.ALENTIN, HUBERT, born at Zillpich, 
Rhenish Prussia, Jan. 
15, 1822. Genre and 
landscape . painter, pu- 
pil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Schadow, 
Karl Sohn, and Tide- 
mand ; paints attractive 
and characteristic 
scenes from peasant 
life in Western Ger- 
many. Works: Her- 
mit's Sermon ; Smith's Apprentice, Grand- 
mother's Birthday (1860); Bridal Procession 




of Playing Children ; Blind Boy, Besan9on 
Museum ; Village Church (1862), Diisseldorf 
Gallery ; Pilgrims at Mineral Spring (1866), 
Cologne Museum ; Sunday Afternoon Visit 
at the Shepherd's ; Messengers of Spring 
(1869), Prague Gallery ; Pilgrims at a Chap- 
el (1870), National Gallery, Berlin ; Children 
scouring a Kettle, Stettin Museum ; Come 
over ! (1872) ; Crown Prince in the Country 
(1873); Little Congratulators (1879); Found- 
ling, Shepherd Children (1880). — Diosku- 
ren, 1860 ; Miiller, 457 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
vi. 150. 

SALERNO, ANDREA DA. See Andrea. 
SALIMBENI, VENTURA, Cavaliere, born 
in Siena in 1557, 
died there in 
1613. Sienese 
school ; son and 
pupil of Arcangi- 
olo Salimbeni, 
but studied care- 
fully the works 
of Correggio. 
Lived in Rome in 
1585-9 0, and 
much employed there. On his return to 
Siena painted many pictures for churches ; 
worked also in Pisa, Lucca, and Perugia. 
Knighted in Perugia through influence of 
Cardinal Bevilacqua, who permitted Lim to 
bear his name. In 1605 painted with Poc- 
cetti frescos in SS. Annunziata, Florence, 
and afterward worked in Genoa with Agos- 
tino Tassi. Among his pictures are : Holy 
Family, Pitti ; Apparition of the Virgin, 
Uflfizi ; Miracle of the Manna, Angels, Du- 
omo, Pisa ; Trinity, SS. Concezzione, Sie- 
na ; Christ bearing the Cross, S. Agostino, 
ib. ; Crucifixion, S. Domeuico, ib. — Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., xi. 168 ; Lanzi, i. 313 ; Ch. 
Blanc, l^cole florentine ; Burckhardt, 759. 

SALISBURY CATHEDRAL, John Con- 
stable, S. Kensington Museum ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. 10 in. X 3 ft. 6 in. The Cathedral seen 
from the meadows, with a brook and four 
cows in foreground. Royal Academy, 1823. 
Painted for Bishop of Salisbury. A similar 




104 



SALLAERT 



picture, with a cart and three horses tandem 
fording the brook (Royal Academy, 1831), 
belonged in 1857 to Samuel Ashton, near 
Manchester. Sketch, called The Eainbow, 
in Louvre. Engi-aved by D. Lucas. — Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 301 ; do., iv. 416 ; Brock- 
Arnold, 105. 

SALLAERT, ANTHONIE, born in Brus- 
sels about 1590, died after 1648. Flemish 
school ; history painter, pupil of M. de Bor- 
deau, master of Brussels Guild in 1613 ; 
dean in 1633-35, 1646-48 ; often employed 
by Rubens in Antwerp. Works : Archery 
in 1613 (1620) ; Procession of Brussels 
Guild ; Allegory on Passion of Christ, Pro- 
cession des Pucelles du Sablon, Infanta Isa- 
bella Victrix at the Shooting of the Grand- 
Serment, Brussels Museum ; Holy Family, 
Ghent Museum ; Judgment of Paris, Ma- 
drid Museum. — Immerzeel, iii. 52 ; Kramm, 
V. 1439 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 530. 

SALLES, ADELHEID (nee Wagner), 
born in Dresden in 1825. History and por- 
trait jDainter, sister of Elise Puyroche, stud- 
ied in Dresden and under Jacquand in Paris, 
married the painter Jules Salles at Nimes. 
Works : The Parca? ; Psyche in Olympus ; 
Daughter of Eve ; Elijah in the Desert ; 
Pensierosa ; Truth ensnared by Falsehood ; 
Exit from Bath ; The Echo ; Queen Bertha. 

SALMACIS AND HERMAPHRODITUS, 
Francesco Albani, Louvre ; copj^er, H. 6 in. 
X 1 ft. Hermaphroditus, about to bathe in 
the fountain Salmacis, is watched by the 
nymph from behind trees (Ovid, Met., iv. 
285). From Collection of Louis XIV. 
Cojjy, with variations, in Turin Gallery ; en- 
graved by Bridi. — Villot, Cat. Louvre, 8 ; 
Filhol, i. PI. 16 ; Landon, Musee, vi. PI. 23 ; 
Gal. di Torino, i. PI. 21. 

SALMSON, HUGO FREDRIK, born in 
Stockholm in 1843. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy under Boklund, then in Paris of 
Charles Comte ; painted at first genre 
scenes from Swedish history, settled in 
Paris in 1869, and lias since taken up sub- 
jects from modern life in the elegant manner 



of Comte. Medal, 3d class, 1879 ; L. of 
Honour, 1879. Member of Stockholm Acad- 
emy in 1871. Works : Cathai-ina Jagelloni- 
ca and JOran Persson ; Gustav Vasa fiudiusr 
his Wife Asleej) ; Sten Sture offering Peace 
to Ai'chbishop Trolle (all before 1869) ; 
Spring ; Visit at the Bailiff's ; Peasant Wom- 
an with Dove ; Fortune Teller ; Orsa Wom- 
an with her Child ; Carrot Planters in Pic- 
ardy ; An Arrest in a Village of Picardy 
(1879), At the Gates of Dalby in Skane— 
Sweden (1884), Luxembourg Museum ; The 
Orphans (1884); Little Gleaner, Dear Grand- 
ma (1885) ; Visit to the Farmer — Sweden 
(1886).— Mailer, 457. 

SAL0:\1AN, GESKEL, born at Tondern, 
Schleswig, April 1, 1821. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy 
and of Lund and Eckei'sberg ; went in 1850 
to Gotenburg, where he painted many por- 
traits, and in 1854 to Paiis to study under 
Couture; visited Algiers in 1860-61. Member 
of Stockholm Academ}' in 1871, court paint- 
er in 1876. Order of' Vasa, 1869. Works : 
Game of L'Hombre ; First Lesson on Violin ; 
Painter and Model ; News from Crimea, 
Gotenburg Museum ; Swedish Weaver and 
Child (1858) ; Emigrants of Gotenburg 
(1869); Spahi before his Sweetheart's Door ; 
Victim of the Chickens ; Girl with Letter, 
Stockholm Museum. — Weilbach, 605. 

SALOME, daughter of Herodias and of 
Philip, brother of Herod the tetrarch. She 
danced before her uncle on his birthday 
and so pleased him that he promised with 
an oath to give her whatever she should 
ask. She, instructed by her mother, whose 
guilty relations with Herod had been de- 
nounced by John the Baptist, demanded 
the head of John, and it was brought to her 
in a charger (Matt., xiv.). A favourite sub- 
ject Avith the painters. 

By Carlo Dolci, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. The daughter of 
Herodias, three-fourths length, with head 
of John the Baptist in a charger. Painted 
for the Marchese Rinuccini. Engraved by 
P. A. Kilian.— Gal. roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 42. 



1U5 



SALTER 



By Guercino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 
in. X 5 ft. 6 in. Salome, accompanied by a 
servant, receives in a basin the bead of John 
the Baptist, which an executioner holds by 
the hair. Painted about 1650. Formerly in 
Modena Gallery. Villot, Louvre ; Landon, 
Musee, xiv. PI. 31. 

By Bernardino Luini, Louvre ; wood, H. 
2 ft. X 1 ft. 9 in. The daughter of Herodias, 
half-length, receives into a charger the head 
of John the Baptist, which is held by a per- 
son whose arm only is seen at right. Col- 
lection of Louis XIV. Attributed to Sola- 




Salome, Guercino, Louvre. 



rio and to Leonardo da Vinci. Excellent in 
colour. — Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon. 

By Bernardino Luini, Uffizi, Floi*ence ; 
wood. The daughter of Herodias, accom- 
panied by a servant, receives from the hand 
of an executioner the head of John the Bap- 
tist in a charger. Formerly attributed to 
Leonardo da Vinci. — Soc. Ed. & Paris, Gal. 
de Firenze, PI. 39. 

By Giovanni Antonio Pordenone, Palazzo 
Doria, Kome ; canvas, half-length, life-size. 
The daughter of Herodias, with her maid, 
and head of John on a charger. A lofty 
Venetian beauty ; head of Baptist also of 
Venetian type. Commonly attributed to 
Giorgione. Keplica in Baring Collection, 
London ; and a modern copy in Palazzo 



Berri (Vendramin), Venice. — C. & C, N. 
Italy, ii. 287 ; Burckhardt, 732. 

By Henri liegnault, Madame de Cassin, 
Paris. Full-length, seated on a decorated 
coflfer, her limbs only half concealed by a 
gauze robe ornamented with gold, her 
naked feet escaping from her slippers, her 
superb head of raven-black hair relieved 
against a lemon-coloured satin curtain. In 
her lap is a golden charger and a sheathed 
knife. An elaborate study of a gypsy of the 
Campagna. Painted in Rome (1869) and 
Tangiers. Salon, 1870 ; sold to a dealer 
for 15,000 francs ; to Mad- 
ame de Cassin for 40,000 
francs. Etched by Rajon. 
— Stothert, 225 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, viii. 489 ; La- 
rousse, xiv. 131 ; Appleton's 
Journal, viii. 512. 

By Titian (?), Madrid 
Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
10 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. Same 
figure as the Lavinia Ve- 
celli of Berlin, but carrying 
on her head in a silver sal- 
ver the head of John the 
Baptist ; dress, red da- 
mask. Painted about 1555 
(?). If this is not the Sa- 
lome of Collection of 
Charles I., that picture is missing. Copy 
by Padovanino in Padua Gallery. — C. & C, 
Titian, ii. 141 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 480. 
By Alessandro TurcJd, Madrid Museum ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 5 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. King 
Herod, seated at table with Herodias and 
other persons, grants to Salome the head of 
the Baptist, for which she asks. — Cat. Ma- 
drid Mus. 

SALTER, WILLIAM, born at Honiton, 
Devonshire, in 1804, died in London, Dec. 
22, 1875. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil in London of Northcote in 1822-27. In 
the latter year he went to Florence, where 
the exhibition of his Socrates before the 
Areopagus won him an election to the Acad- 
emy and a professorship in the first class of 



106 



SALTZMANN 



See Wounded, 



history. In 1832 he went to Eome and 
tlieuce to Parma, where also he was elected 
a member of the Academy. He returned 
to London in 1833 and was long a promi- 
nent member and for some time vice-presi- 
dent of the Society of British Ai-tists. 
Works : Banquet by the Duke of Welling- 
ton to the Veterans of Waterloo (1833), G. 
Mackenzie ; Jephthah's Vow ; Interview of 
Charles I. with his Children (1863) ; Queen 
Elizabeth rej)roving Dean Noel (1805); Des- 
demona and Othello before the Senate 
<1869); Last Sacrament (1874). 

SALTZMANN, KARL; contemporary. 
Marine painter, pupil in Berlin of Eschke, 
made the trip around the world in the suite 
of Prince Henr}'^ of Prussia. Works : Dawn 
by the Sea (1874) ; Entrance into Harbour 
of Colberg ; Harbour of Valparaiso (1882) ; 
Saved (1884). 

SALUT AUX BLESSES, 
Saluting. 

SALVARESIO, FABRICIO, portrait, Ti- 
tian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft, 8 in. 
x2 ft. 8 in. ; signed. A man embrowned 
by travel ; to the right, a negro boy looking 
up holding a bunch of flowers. Painted in 
1558 ; belonged to Archduke Leopold Wil- 
helm. Print in Teniers' Gallery omits ne- 
gro boy. Much impaired by retouching. — 
C. & C, Titian, ii. 267. 

SALVI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA. See 
Sassofer7-ato. 

SALVIATI, CECCHINO DEL, born in 
Florence in 1510, 
died in Rome, Nov. 
11, 1563. Floren- 
tine school ; real 
name Francesco 
de' Rossi, son of 
Michelangelo d e ' 
Rossi, a velvet 
weaver. Pupil of 
Giuliano Bugiar- 
d i n i, afterwards of 
Bandinelli and of 
Andrea del Sarto (1529), with whom Vasari 
was at the same time workinc:. Went to 




Rome under patronage of Cardinal Salviati, 
from whom he took the name by which he 
is commonly known. He painted in Venice, 
Florence, Verona, and other cities, and in 
1544 went to France, where he was employed 
by Cardinal de Lorraine in decorating the 
Chateau de Dampierre ; but having made 
enemies through his quarrelsome disposi- 
tion, he returned to Italy, after an absence 
of twenty months. Salviati was a better 
designer than colourist. ExamjDles of his 
work are : Charity, Christ bearing his Cross, 
Uffizi ; Patience, Palazzo Pitti ; Archangel 
Michael, Vatican ; Incredulity of St. Thomas, 
Louvre ; St. John Baptist in the Desert, 
Love and Psyche, Berlin Museum ; Charity, 
National Gallery, London. — Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole florentine ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xii. 
47 ; ed. Mil., vii. 5 ; Burckhardt, 188, 756. 

SALVIATI, GIUSEPPE. See Porta, Giu- 
sepi^e. 

SALZER, FRIEDRICH, born at Heil- 
bronn, June 1, 1827, died there. May 4, 
1876. Landscape painter, first instructed 
by Karl Baumann, then studied in Munich ; 
much influenced by Richard Zimmermann ; 
painted landscape backgrounds in several of 
Alexander von Kotzebue's great battle- 
pieces. Winter Landscape, Stuttgart Gal- 
lerj'. — Kunst-Chronik, xi. 738. 

SAMACCHINI, ORAZIO, born in Bolo- 
gna, Dec. 20, 1532, died there, June 12, 
1577. Bolognese school ; Vasari calls him 
Fumaccini, Orazio da Bologna, and Som- 
macchini. Began by imitating Pellegrino, 
Tibaldi, and the Lonibards ; went to Rome 
in time of Pius IV., and painted for Zuc- 
chero a compartment in one of the halls of 
the Vatican, which was highly commended. 
On his return to Bologna became a success- 
ful painter. Works : Coronation of the Vir- 
gin, Bologna Gallery ; Presentation in the 
Temple, S. Giacomo Maggiore ; Madonna 
with Saints, S. M. INIaggiore ; Holy Trinity, 
S. Stefano ; Flagellation, S. Salvatore ; Cru- 
cifixion, Servi. — Malvasia, i, 168 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vii. 420 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Lanzi, iii. 44 ; Gualaudi, 72, 157. 



107 



SAMARITAN 



SAMARITAN, GOOD (Luke. x. 30), Eu- i Dreber (1848), Dresden Gallery ; Theodule 
gc-ne Delacroix, M. Auguste Vacquerie ; ^ Ribot (1870), Luxembourg Museum ; Jeau 



canvas, H. 1 ft. 2 in. x 11 in. The good 
Samaritan striving, with much care and 
solicitude, to put the wounded traveller 
upon his horse. — Chesneau, Q^uvre Dela- 
croix, 311. 

By RemhramU, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9 



Jacques Henner (Salon, 1874). 

SAMSON AND DELILAH (Judges, xvi.), 
Anton van Dyvk, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 7^ in, X 8 ft. 2 in. Samson, just 
awakened from his slumber, stooj^iug and 
with one knee on the ground, is struggling 



in. X 4 ft. G in. ; signed, dated 1048. Two with the Philistines ; Delilah, in a white 
men assisting: into an inn a wounded travel- 1 vest and red mantle, is lying on the couch. 



ler, whose horse a stable-man holds ; on 
right, the Good Samaritan on the steps, 
purse in hand, commending the sufferer to 
the care of the landlady ; above, three fig- 



at the head of which is an elderly woman. 
From Van Amory Collection, Amsterdam 
(1722), 4,300 florins. Engraved by H. Sny- 



ers ; Prenner : J. 




- -i—^^ XUstv-. ^^^v<g^>=» 



Samson and Delilah, Anton van Dyck, Vienna Museum. 



ures looking out of a window. Collection 
of Louis XVI. ; bought at sale of Linden van 
Slingeland, Dordrecht (1785). Engraved by 
Baron Denon ; J. de Frey (1798) ; Longhi 
in Musue franyais ; Oortman. — Cat. Louvre ; 
Eastlake, Louvre, 182 ; Smith, vii. 51 ; Vos- 
maer, 213, 476. 

Subject treated also by Jacopo Bassano, 
National Gallery, London, and Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Adam Elsheimer, Louvre ; Domenico 
Feti, Dresden Museum ; Paolo Veronese, 
ib. ; Herri de Bles, Vienna Museum ; Will- 
iam Hogarth, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London ; Pierre Lacour, Bordeaux Muse- 
um ; Michelangelo da Caravaggio, Brera, 



Macunl ; L. Bonnet ; Ax- 
mann ; etched by Ch. Walt- 
ner (1873). Same subject, 
Hampton Court. — Smith, 
iii. 32; Guiffrey, 243; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1873). 

By Rembrandt, Cassel 
Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 
8 in. x9 ft. 1 in.; signed, 
dated 163G. Seven figures. 
Samson, betrayed by De- 
lilah, who is escaping from 
the room with his locks in 
her hand, is insulted by 
the Philistines, who hold 
him prostrate. Taken to 
Paris ; returned in 1815. 
Engraved by F. Landerer 
(17G0); Jacobi (1785).— 
Smith, vii. 12 ; Re veil, iv. 



Vosmaer, 44G 
242. 

By Rubens, Munich Gallery ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 8 in. X 4 ft. 1 in. Nine figures. Six 
Philistines are binding Samson, who is 
stx'uggling, with one knee on the couch on 
which Delilah is lying, holding the scissors 
in her hand ; at the head of the couch, an 
old woman, looking on. Engraved by Henry 
Snyers ; lithographed by Piloty. Similar 
composition, Vienna Gallery, by Van Dyck. 
—Smith, ii. G5 ; ix. 2G5 ; R6veil, xiv. 952. 

By Alessandro Turchi, Louvi-e ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 3 in. X 8 ft. 5 in. Delilah, seated 
upon a couch holding the sleeping Sam- 



Milan ; Louis Cabat (Salon, 1840) ; Franz son's head in her lap, gives a signal to two 



108 



SAMSON'S WEDDma 



Philistine soldiers to seize bim ; a barber is er collections. Cop}' by J. R. Powell at 



cutting off bis bail-, and at left two cbil- 
dren bave bis sword and tbe ass's jaw- 
bone. — Villot, Cat. Louvi-e ; Landon. 

Subject treated also by Lucas Cranacb, 
Dresden and Augsburg Museums ; Adrien 
Tan der Werff, Sans Souci, Potsdam ; Ge- 
rard Houtborst, City Hall, Dordrecbt ; Got- 
fried Scbalken, Bordeaux Museum ; Jacopo 
Sementi, ib. ; Eugene Delacroix, M. Dau- 
bigny, Paris ; Louis Marie Baader (Salon, 
1857) ; Ferdinand Hum- 
bert (Salon, 1873). 

SAMSON'S WED- 
DING, Rembrandt, Dres- 
den Gallery ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. X 5 ft. 10 in. ; signed, 
dated 1638. Samson's 
wife (portrait of Saakia) 
seated at table with other 
guests, before a dais, in a 
ball richly hung with ta- 
pestry ; at left, Samson 
proposing his enigma to 
the Philistines, among 
whom are musicians with 
instruments. Engraved 
by Massaloff. — Vosmaer, 
80, 450 ; Bode, Studien, 
443, 5G8. 

SAMSON VICTORI- 
OUS, Gnido Reni, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 1 in. X G ft. 9 in. Samson, nearly 
nude, after battle quenches his thirst with 
water from the jaw-bone of an ass with 
which he has slain a thousand Philistines. 
Dui^licate of picture in Turin Gallery. En- 
graved by Bolognini ; Tomba. — Pinac. di 
Bologna, PI. 6 ; Lavice, 12, 410. 

SA^IUEL, INFANT, Sir Joshua Rei/nolds, 
National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
10 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. Infant Samuel, full- 
length, kneeling at prayer, with a ray of 
light falling upon him. Exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1776 ; bequeathed by Lord 
Farnborough in 1838. Engraved by J. 
Dean ; J. Lucas ; and others. Duplicates 
in Dulwicb Gallery, Cobham Hall, and oth- 



Somerby, seat of Earl of Normanton, mis- 
taken for an original by Waagen, who calls 
it the finest example he knows of the pict- 
ure. — Pulling, 59 ; Waagen, Ai-t Treasures, 
iii. 26. 

SAlVrUEL APPEARING TO SAUL, Sal- 
vator liom, Louvre ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 11 in. 
X 6 ft. 3 in. The shade of Samuel evoked 
by the Witch of Endor, who stirs tbe fire 
on a tripod ; at left, Saul, prostrate, raises 




Samson and Delilah, Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery. 

bis eyes to Samuel ; in background, behind 
Samuel, the two soldiers of Saul, stricken 
with fear ; behind the witch, skeletons, owls, 
and fantastic forms. Collection of Louis 
XIV. Engraved by Guttemberg. — Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Musee royal ; Landon, Mu- 
see, ix. PI. 18 ; Filhol, xi. PI. 67. 

SANCHEZ DE CASTRO, JUAN, flour- 
ished at Seville, middle of 15th century, 
died after 1516. Spanish school ; painted 
in 1454, under influence of the Van Eyck 
school, pictures for tbe Cathedral of Seville, 
and in 1484 a St. Christopher in fresco, in 
S. Juliano, repainted in 1775. He was the 
first painter of note in the school of Anda- 
lusia. — Stirling, i. 81 ; Cean Bermudez. 

SANCHEZ COELLO, ALONSO, born at 



109 



SANCHEZ 



Benyfayru, Valencia, about 1513-15, died 
in Madrid in 1590. Spanish school ; doubt- 
fully said to have studied in Italy ; accom- 
panied Antonio Moro in 1552 to Lisbon, 
where he remained some years in the ser- 
vice of John m., and acquired the title of 
the Portuiruese Titian. On the death of 




Samuel appearing to Saul, Salvator Rosa, Louvre. 

the King, his widow, Dona Juana, recom- 
mended him to her brother, Philip 11. of 
Spain, and Coello became his court painter 
and intimate courtier, and won honours and 
wealth. He painted many religious com- 
positions, but was especially noted for his 
portraits. Works : Portraits of Don Car- 
los, the Infanta Isabel, Anna of Austria, and 
others. Marriage of St. Catherine, Assump- 
tion, Madrid Museum ; Portraits of Joanna of 
Austria, Margaret of Parma, and Mary of 
Austria, Brussels Museum ; Portrait of Phil- 
ip IT., and twelve religious compositions, 
Escorial. Coello's daughter, Isabel, was a 
good miniature painter. — Viardot, Peintres 
<le I'Espagne, 113 ; Stothei-t, 14 ; Ch. Blanc, 
l^cole espagnole ; Madrazo, 566. 



SANCHEZ COTAN, Fray JUAN, born 
at Alcazar de San Juan in 1561, died in 
Granada, Sept. 8, 1627. Spanish school ; 
pupil of Bias del Prado at Toledo, and be- 
came noted for skill in painting flowers and 
other still-life subjects. In 1604 became a 
monk at the Chartreuse of Paular ; after- 
ward transferred to the Chartreuse of Gra- 
nada, where he executed many religious 
compositions, especially scenes from the 
life of St. Bruno and from the persecution 
of the Carthusians in England. — Stirling, i. 
486 ; Viardot, 160 ; Cean Bermudez. 

SANCHO PANZA AND THE DUCHESS, 
Charles Robert Leslie, National Galleiy, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 5 ft. The Duch- 
ess, seated on a couch near the middle of 
the picture, attended by young women on 
right, and by the Duefia Rodriguez on left, 
listens to Sancho, Avho is seated on a low 
stool. Exhibited at Royal Academy in 1844 ; 
from Vernon Collection, 1847 ; a repetition, 
with some alterations, of the small original 
painted in 1823 for Loi'd Egremont. Lord 
Egremont paid for this original £100 ; sold 
to Samuel Rogers for £70 ; Rogers sale 
(1856), 1,120 guineas. Engraved by Hum- 
phreys ; R. Staines. — Cat. Nat. Gal. 

SANCTIS, GUGLIELMO DE, born in 
Rome in 1830. History' and portrait paint- 
er. Works : Galileo inventing the Telescope ; 
Michelangelo and Ferrucio studying the 
Plan for Fortification of Florence (1875), 
Turin Gallery ; Emanuel Philibert showing 
his Son to the Savoyards ; Portraits of Vic- 
tor Emanuel and of Prince Humbert (1876). 

SANDBY, PAUL, born at Nottingham in 
1725, died in London, Nov. 9, 1809. Land- 
scape painter ; went to London in 1746 and 
studied at the drawing school at the Tower ; 
in 1768 he became drawing master to Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich, and under 
George IH. he was teacher of drawing to 
the royal princes. He was one of the foun- 
dation members of the Royal Academy. 
Painted in oils with success, but is chiefly 
noted as the founder of the English school 
of water-colom-s. Sandby, i. 102. 



SANDIIAM 




SANDHAM, HENRY, bom in Montreal, 
Canada, May 24, 1842. Landscape and 
genre painter ; visited England and France 
for study in 1880 and in 1884. Member 
(1880) of Royal Canadian Academy. Studio 
in Boston, Mass. Works : Fog in St. John 
Harbor (1879), National Gallery, Ottawa ; 
Cow Bay— Nova Scotia (1880), George 
Hague, Montreal ; Return from the Hunt 
(1882), Judge O'Hara, Toronto; Dawn of 
Liberty — Battle of Lexington (1885). His- 
torical Society, Lexington, Mass. 

SANDRART, JOACHIM VON, born in 
.Frankfort, May 
12, 1606, died in 
Nuremberg, Oct. 
14,1688. German 
school, history 
and portrait paint- 
er. He went to 
Prague, in 1621, 
to study engrav- 
ing under Sadeler, 
but advised by the 
latter to devote himself to painting, he re- 
l^aired to Utrecht and became pupil of Ge- 
rard Honthorst, who took him to England. 
There he saw great works by Titian, and 
after having painted several portraits, went 
to Venice in 1627 to study Titian and Vero- 
nese. In Rome he j^ainted Pope Urban 
Vin., and was one of the twelve masters 
selected to paint a picture for the King of 
Spain. He returned to Germany in 1635, 
went to Amsterdam in 1637, and to Nurem- 
berg in 1649 to paint the envoys to the Con- 
gress of Peace. At Augsburg he worked 
for the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria, and 
the Emperor Ferdinand in 1672, and in 
1674, after a second marriage, settled in 
Nuremberg, where he became the main pil- 
lar of tlie Academy founded in 16(52. His 
reputation rests chiefly upon his well-known 
"German Academy," written in 1675-79, 
Works: Archers' Company (1638), Portrait 
of the Poet Hooft, four others (1639, 1641), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Young Man with 
Dead Horse, Old Woman in Prayer, Bam- 






burg Gallery ; Isaac blessing Jacob, Aschaflf- 
enberg Gallery ; Banquet of Peace (1650), 
Town Hall, Nuremberg ; The Twelve Mont lis 
(12), two Portraits, Munich Gallery ; Miner- 
va and Saturn (1644), Archimedes (1651), 
Vienna Museum ; Apollo rejoicing over De- 
feat of Python, Uffizi, Florence. 
— Ch. Blanc, Ecole allemande ; 
Kramm, v. 1440. 

SANDYS, FREDERICK, born in Norfolk 
in 1832. Figure and portrait painter ; 
paints portraits chiefly, but some ideal 
works of exquisite finish. Exhibited first 
at Royal Academy in 1854. Works : Oriana 
(1861); King Pelles' Daughter, La Belle 
Ysonde (1863); Morgan-le-Fay (1864); Gen- 
tle Spring, Cassandra (1865) ; Mary Mag- 
dalen, Flower (1866) ; Medea (1869, Paris 
Exhibition, 1878) ; Perdita (1879). 

SAN GIORGIO, EUSEBIO DI, born 
about 1478, died in 1550 (?). Umbrian 
school ; pupil in school of Perugino at same 
time with Manni ; made free of his guild 
in Perugia immediately after Pintui'icchio, 
whose style he imitates in its least interest- 
ing features, while his colouring is like 
Manni's. He aided Pinturicchio at Siena. 
His Adoration of the Magi (1505), Perugia 
Gallery, has a tinge of the Raphaelesque, 
and has even been attributed to Raphael. 
Two frescos, the Annunciation, and St. Fran- 
cis receiving the Stigmata (1507), are in S. 
Damiano, near Assisi ; and there is a Holy 
Family (1512) in S. Francesco, Matellica. — 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 339 ; Burckhardt, 574 ;, 
Siret, 829 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne. 

SANO DI PIETRO. See Anmiio. 

SANS Y CABOT, FRANCISCO, born in 
Barcelona in 1834, died in IMadrid, May 5, 
1881. History paintei', j^upil of Barcelona 
Art School, and in Paris of Couture ; mem- 
ber of S. Fernando Acadeni}', director of the 
Museum ; painted frescos "in many palaces 
and public buildings. Medals : 2d class, 
1860, 1862 ; 1st class, 1871. Works : Pro- 
metlieus, Sliipwreck, End of Carnival (1857); 
Battle at Wad Ras ; Liberty and Indepen- 
dence (1860) ; Episode in Battle of Trafalgar 



111 



SANT 



(1862), Madrid Museum ; Market Square in 
Geroua, Fortune, Chance and Folly distrib- 
uting their Gifts, Friend's Visit (1871) ; 
Mercury leading the Histrionic Arts ; Apol- 
lo chasing Night ; General Prim and the 
Catalonian Volunteers at Tetuan ; Death 
of Churruca at Trafalgar ; Portraits of 
Isabella II., Charles V., Alfonso V., Alfonso 
Xn., Barcelona University. In fresco : En- 
try of Charles V. into Rome, Conquest of 
Fort of Goletta, Battle of Miihlberg, Visit 
of Francis L to Charles V., Alcazar, To- 
ledo.— La Hustracion (1881), i. 298 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xx. 852. 

SANT, JAMES, born in London in 1820. 
Figure and portrait painter, pupil of John 
Varley, and student in 1840 of Eoyal Acad- 
emy, Very successful as a painter of por- 
traits, especially of children ; elected an A. 
RA. in 1861, and RA. in 1871. In 1872 
he was appointed principal painter in ordi- 
nary to the Queen. Among his sitters have 
been the Queen, Prince Albert, children of 
the Prince of Wales, and other members of 
the royal family, and many of the nobility. 
Other works : Children in the Wood (1854) ; 
Fortune Teller (1855); Infancy (1857); Lit- 
tle Eed Riding Hood (1860) ; First Source 
of Sorrow (1862); Taking Notes (1863); Turn 
again Whittington (1864) ; Light in Dark 
Places (1866) ; Mentonese Children (1869) ; 
Alone (1870) ; Schoolmaster's Daughter 
(1871); Peaches (1874); Early Post (1875); 
Gleanings (1877) ; Little Zara (1878) ; Ad- 
versity (1879) ; Maidenhood (1882) ; Love- 
Birds (1883) ; Sylvia (1884) ; Forget-me- 
not (1885) ; Portrait of Adelina Patti 
(1886). 

SANTA CONVERSAZIONE, Palma Vec- 
chio, Naples Museum ; wood, H. 2 ft. 10 in. 
X 6 ft. 6 in. The Virgin seated on a knoll, 
with farm in distance ; Jesus gives his bless- 
ing to a couple whose heads and arms are 
seen at edge of picture as they approach the 
knoll and are introduced by St. Jerome ; to 
the left, St. John Baptist on one knee ; St. 
Catherine near the trunk of a tree. One of 
Palma's best ; shows Titianesque vigour and 



richness. Formerly in Casa Barberigo, San 
Polo.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 470. 

By Pa/»!aVecchio, Vienna Museum ; wood, 
H. 4 ft. 2 in. X 6 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, rest- 
ing at foot of a tree, presents Jesus to SS. 
Catherine, Celestin, John Baptist, and a 
female Saint. Probably picture formerly be- 
longing to Galia di Fano, Venice. — C. & C, 
N. Italy, ii. 471. 

SANTA CROCE. See Francesco and Gi- 
rolamo da Santa Croce. 

SANTA FAZ. See Ecce Homo, MuriUo. 

SANTAFEDE, FABRIZIO, born in Na- 
ples about 1560, died there in 1635. Nea- 
politan school ; son and pupil of Francesco 
Santafede ; afterwards pupil of Francesco 
Curia, and then visited Rome, Bologna, 
Venice, and Florence to study the great 
masters. Employed in considerable works 
on return to Naples. It is said that when 
Naples was sacked by the insurgents under 
Masauiello (1647), two halls which Santa- 
fede had painted were spared, out of respect 
for the artist. Works : Madonna with Saints 
(1595), Naples Museum ; Holy Family, Hague 
Museum, and pictures in churches. Fabrizio 
was the master of Massimo Stanzioni. — Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole napolitaine ; Siret, 829. 

SANTAFEDE, FRANCESCO, flourished 
about 1555. Neapolitan school ; pupil of 
Andrea da Salerno. Works in churches in 
Naples, among the best being the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, in S. M. la Nuova (though 
some ascribe this to Fabrizio, his son) ; and 
Resurrection, Chapel of the Monte di Pietu. 
— Ch. Blanc, Ecole napolitaine. 

SANTERRE, JEAN BAPTISTE, born at 
Magny (Seine-et-Oise), Jan. 1, 1658, died 
in Paris, Nov. 21, 1717. French school ; 
genre and jjorti'ait painter, pupil of Franjois 
Lemaire and of Boullogne the elder. Paint- 
ed his St, Theresa for Louis XTV. and 
obtained a pension, and for his Susanna 
was made Member of the Academy, 1704. 
Works : Susanna Bathing (1704), Louvre ; 
Marie Adelaide of Savoy, Louise Adelaide 
d' Orleans (2), The Regent and Madame de 
Parabere, Versailles Museum ; St. Theresa 



SAXTI 








J<' 



in Ecstasy, Chapel, ib. ; Female Cook, Bor- 
deaux Museum ; do., and Young Girl Asleej), 
Nantes Museum; 
Allegoiy on Paint- 
ing, Curiosity', Gar- 
dener, Orleans Mu- 
seum ; Songstress, 
Kouen Museum; 
others in museums 
at Niort, Re ims, 
Saumur, Tours; 
Female Portrait 
(1699) ; Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Widow of Ephesus mourn- 
ing for her Husband, Geometry, Darmstadt 

■T^ ^ ^ g^ t» Museum ; Por- 

JjU^f^^ CRn t trait of Coypel ; 

St. Theresa Med- 
itating ; Adam 
Eve in 
•adise. — 
Ch. Blanc, 
^^*'*^ £cole fran- 

9aise; Houssaye, 152 ; Wurzbach, Fr. Mai. 
des xviii. Jahrh., 13 ; Bellier, ii.; Jal, 1101. 

SANTI (Sanzio), GIOVANNI, born in 
Colbordolo about 1435, died in Urbino, 
Aug. 1, 1494. XJmbrian school ; sou of 
Sante Santi, a huckster, and the father of 
Raphael ; was a painter before 1468 ; mas- 
ter unknown, but probably brought up 
under influence of Piero della Francesca 
and of Melozzo da Forli. Was a man of 
culture ; wrote a long poem, still extant 
(Vatican Library), in honour of his patron, 
Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino. 
Painted a large fresco in the Tiranni Chap- 
el, S. Domenico, Cagli, in two parts — the 
Resurrection of Christ above, and the Ma- 
donna enthroned with Saints below — a pleas- 
ing and well-arranged composition, showing 
a knowledge of linear perspective and some 
skill in foi'eshortening. Santi was a pains- 
taking, conscientious artist, who availed him- 
self of those opportunities for improvement 
which came in his way, and thus acquired 
a technical skill superior to that of Palme- 
rucci or Nelli. Among the best of his pict- 



ures are : Adoration of the Virgin, Convent 
of Monte Fiorentino, near Urbania ; Ma- 
donna with Saints, S. Croce, and Visitation, 
S. M. Nuova, Fano ; Madonna with Saints, 
Church of Grodara ; Madonna with Saints, 
Berlin Museum ; Madonna, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Annunciation, Brera, IMilan ; 
Boy in Profile, Palazzo Colonna, Rome. — C. 
& C, Italy, ii. 579 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
viii. 2, 67 ; Passavant, Rafael von Urbino 
und sein Vater (Leipsic, 1839) ; Pungileoni, 
Elogio Storico di Giov. Santi (Urbino, 1822); 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; C. & C, Raph- 
ael, i. cap. 1. 

SANTI, RAFFAELLO. See Baiohael 

SANTI DI TITO, born at Borgo San Se- 
polcro, Oct. 6, 1536, died in Florence, July 
23, 1603. Florentine school ; pupil of Ai- 
gelo Bronzino and of Bandinelli ; went to 
Rome in 1560 and studied the woi'ks of the 
great masters. Became an excellent de- 
signer, but was not successful as a colour- 
ist. He returned to Florence after four 
years' absence and spent most of his life 
there. Among his works are : Entomb- 
ment, Berlin Museum ; Entry of Christ into 
Jerusalem, Dead Christ on the Knees of the 
Virgin, Florence Academy ; Crucifixion, S. 
Croce, Florence. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole floren- 
tine ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xii. 304 ; xiii. 
182 ; ed. Mil, vii. 619. 

SANTVOORT, DIRCK DIRCKSZ (VAN), 
born at Amsterdam in 1610, died there, 
buried, March 9, 1680. Portrait painter of 
distinction, probably pupil of Rembrandt, 
whose manner he adopted. W^orks : Bur- 
gomaster Dirck Bas and Wife, Regents of 
Workhouse at Amsterdam (1638), Four do. 
of another Institution (1643), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Young Shepherd playing on a 
Reed (1632), Rotterdam Museum ; Life-size 
Portrait of Little Girl (1644), Darmstadt 
Museum. — Kramm, v. 1413. 

SANZIO. See Santi. 

SAPPHIRA, DEATH OF, Nicolas Pons- 
sin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in. 
At right, St. Peter, who is accompanied by 
two apostles, stretches his hand toward Sap- 



113 



SAPPHO 



pbira, who lias fallen ; a woman hastens to ! the strife between the classic and the ro- 
her aid, and a man, who sustains her arm, mantic schools was at its height, this picture 
appears to intercede for her ; in background, met with such severe criticism that the ar- 
buildings. Painted for M. de Vennes. Col- tist called it his Waterloo. Offered to the 
lection of Louis XIV. Engraved by J. government for 2,000 francs, but declined ; 
Pesue ; Bovinet ; K. U. Massard in Musee j Wilson sale (Paris, 1873), to M. Durand 
royal. — Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, x. PI. 685 ; Ruel, 96,000 francs. The origiual study be- 



Landon, Musce, xi. PI. 49 ; Smith, viii. 80. 
SAPPHO, yl//«a-Tadema, W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore; canvas, H. 2 ft. 2 in. X 3 ft. 11 
in. Scene : The orchestra of a Avhite marble 
theatre on a height overlooking the sea, the 
blue expanse of which is seen throvigh a 
grove of olive trees. Sappho, seated on one 



longs to Mine, la baronne Rivet. Replica, 
in small, M. Bellino. Engraved by F. R6- 
gamey; Greux, Lithographed by Achille 
Sirony. — Chesneau, (Euvre de Delacroix, 
58 ; Larousse, xiv. 224. 

SARGENT, HENRY, born in Gloucester, 
Mass., Nov. 25, 1770, died in Boston, Feb. 
21, 1845. Portrait and 
subject painter, puj)il in 
London of Copley and 
Benjamin West. The 
Massachusetts Historical 
Society owns three por- 
traits by him ; Fanueil 
Hall, one of Peter Fanu- 
eil ; and the Roman 
Catholic Society in Bos- 
ton, a Crucifixion. His 
landing of the Pilgrims 
was destroyed by being 
rolled on fresh pine, 
which caused the can- 
vas to decay. Other 

Death of Sapphira, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre. ^Orks : Starved Apothc- 

cary ; TAilor's News ; 
of the lower seats, with her attendants I Dinner Party ; Christ's Entry into Jerusa- 




grouped around her, leans forward and 
gazes intently at Alcseus, who is seated on 
a chair in front of her, striking the chords 
of his l}Te. Royal Academy, 1881. Photo- 
gravure by Goupil. — Art Journal (1883), 
67 ; Academy, May 7, 1881 ; Athenaeum, 
April 30, 1881 ; Saturday Rev., 1881. 

SARDANAPALUS, DEATH OF, Eugene 
Delacroix ; canvas, H. 13 ft. x 16 ft. 3 in. 
The monarch, surrounded by his weeping 
women, slaves, horses, and treasures, is 
seated high upon the funeral pyre as upon 
a throne, around the base of which the 
flames and smoke are beginning to rise. 



lem. 

SARGENT, JOHN S., born in Florence, 
of American parents, 
in 1856. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil of 
Carolus - Duran. Has 
lived and painted many 
years in Europe. Hon- 
ourable mention. Sa- 
lon, 1879 ; medal, 2d 
class, 1881. Studio in 
Paris. Works: Fish- 
ing for Oysters at Can- 

cale. En route pour la peche (1878); Portrait 




Exhibited first at the Salon of 1827, when of Carolus-Duran, Neapohtan Children Bath- 



114 



SAKPEDON 



ing (1879); El Jaleo (1882); Portrait of Two 
Children (1883); Portraits (1884-85-86). 

SARPEDON, Henri Leopold Levy, Lux- 
embourg Museum ; canvas, H. 10 ft. x 7 ft. 
9 in. Death and Sleep bearing to Jupiter 
the body of his son Sarpedon, slain at the 
siege of Troy (Iliad, Cap. xvi.). Salon, 1874. 

SARTAIN, E:vnLY, born iu Philadelphia 
in 1841. Portrait and genre painter, pupil 
of the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadel- 
phia, and four years of Luminals in Paris. 
Taught engraving by her father, John Sar- 
tain. Studio in Philadelphia. Works : Re- 
proof (1876) ; Marie (1882); Morning 
(1881). 

SARTAIN, WILLIAM, born in Philadel- 
phia, Nov. 21, 1843. Landscape and, genre 
painter, son of John Sartain, engraver ; 
studied under Yvou and Bonnat, and in the 
£cole des Beaux Arts, Paris. In 1870 
sketched in Spain, England, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Germany, and Italy, and in 1874 in 
Algiers. First exhibited at Royal Academy, 
London, in 1875 ; at National Academy in 
1876. Professor of life class of Art Stu- 
dents' League ; Member of Society of Amer- 
ican Artists. Elected an A.N.A. in 1880. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil : Italian 
Head (1876, S. Colman, N.A.); Street in Al- 
giers, Narcissus, Courtyard — Paris, 1878 ; 
View in Algiers (1879); Arab Sheik, Head 
of Nubian Girl, A Quiet Moment (1880) ; 
Aicha (1881) ; Arab Cemetery, Paquita 
(1883); Sand}' Land near the Sea — Nonquitt, 
Mass. (1881) ; Lucia— near Algiers (1885). 
Water colours : Canal in Venice (1878); Ai-ab 
Caf6 (1880) ; View of the Ghetto— Venice 
(1881) ; Chapter from the Koran (1882). 

SARTO, ANDREA DEL, born in Flor- 
ence, July 16, 1486, died there, Jan. 22, 1531. 
Florentine school ; real name Andrea d'An- 
gelo di Francesco, but called Del Sarto be- 
cause his father Angelo or Agnolo was a 
tailor (sarto). According to some, his fam- 
ily name was Vannucchi ; but this " never 
had any foundation in fact" (C. & C). An- 
drea first studied with a goldsmith, then 
with Gian Barile, a poor painter, and lastly 




(1498), with Piero di Cosimo, under whom 
he found time to copy the cai'toous of Mi- 
chelangelo and of 
Leonardo da Vinci 
in the great hall of 
the Palazzo Vec- 
chio. He was as- 
sociated for a while 
with Francia Big- 
io. In 1509-10 he 
painted in the 
court of SS. An- 
nunziata de Servi, 
Florence, five frescos illustrating the life of 
St. Philip, which won him the reputation 
of being one of the best fresco painters 
of his time. In 1514 he finished a Pro- 
cession of the Magi, in the Court of the 
Servi, and the Nativity of the Virgin, the 
latter of which is "on the highest level ever 
reached in fresco" (C. & C). Equally great 
is the Holy Family called the Madonna del 
Sacco (1525), in the cloister of the SS. An- 
nunziata, and scarcely inferior are the Bii'th 
of St. John (1526), at the Scalzo, and the 
Lad Supper (1526-27), in S. Salvi, Florence. 
Among Andrea's monochromes at the Scal- 
zo (1516-1526), the Sermon of St. John is 
especially remarkable. While engaged in 
painting frescos, Andrea produced many 
easel pictures no less worthy of praise. In 
1518 he went at the invitation of Francis I. 
to France, and painted there, among other 
pictures, the Michelangelesque Ghariti/, now 
in the Louvi*e. The next year Andi-ea re- 
turned to Florence to buy works of art for 
the King, but having vised the money in- 
trusted to him in building a house for him- 
self, he dared not go back to France empty- 
handed, and remained in Florence secui-e 
from pursuit until the plague which followed 
the siege of that city in 1530. Charles 
Blanc calls Del Sarto the Raphael of Flor- 
ence, and says that if Raphael had never 
lived, Andrea del Sarto would have occupied 
the first place in art after Leonardo da Vin- 
ci and Michelangelo. Even in his own time 
he was called Andrea " senza errori " (An- 



ns 



SARTO 



drea the Faultless). His drawing is excel- 
lent, his modelling is always good, and his 
colouring has a freshness and a luminous 
transparency not found in any other painter 
of the Florentine school. His Madonnas 
are exquisite, some of them rivalling in love- 
liness even those of Raphael ; but their 
beauty is only a superficial beauty — they 
want depth of soul ; and this is why Andrea 
occupies a lower place in the history of art 
than that to which his great powers would 
seem at first to entitle him. Among his best 
easel pictures are : Four Saints and Two 
charming Angels holding a Scroll, Florence 
Academy; Annunciation (2), Dispute about 
the Trinity (1517), i1/ac7o?j?ia with Saints, Holy 
Family (2), History of Joseph, Madonna in 
Glory and Saints (1525), Assumption (2), 
Deposition, John Baptist, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; 3Iadonna delle Arpie (1517), St. 
James and Children, Portrait probably of 
himself, Uffizi, Florence ; Ghai'ity, Holy 
Family (2), Louvre ; Holy Family and 
Saints, St. Barbara, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Madonna and Saints, Berlin Muse- 
seum ; Marriage of St. Catherine, Madonna 
with Cherubs, Sacrifice of Abraham, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Tobias and Angel, Pietd, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Sacrifice of Abraham, Holy 
Family, Madonna (3), Assumption, Female 
Portrait, Madrid Museum ; Holy Family, 
Portrait of del Sarto, National Gallery, Lon- 

op aly, ni. 542 ; Va- 

viii. 250 ; Dohme, 
lliii. ; Ch. Blanc, 
— - . — lilcole florentine ; 
AND. SARJ10-?AC Seguier, 213; 

yU5u^ cJ^/<^ ^"-1^1^--^^' 82, 

^^^ ^ G29, 633, 659; 

Ltibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 183 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1876), xiv. 465, et seq. 

SABTO, ANDREA DEL, portrait, An- 
drea del Sai'to, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. ; signed. 
Life-size, seated, with book in his hand. 




Another in Uffizi, Florence. — Cat. Nat. 
Gal. 

SARZANA, IL, born in Sarzana in 1589, 
died in Genoa in 1669. Genoese school ; 
real name Domenico Fiasella ; was taught 
design by his father, a goldsmith of Sar- 
zana ; spent ten years in Rome studying 
Raphael and other great masters, and be- 
came so eminent that he won the praises of 
Guido, and was chosen to assist the Cava- 
liere d'Arpino and Passignano in their works. 
On his retiu-n to Genoa he painted many 
pictures for churches, and conducted a 
flourishing school. — Lanzi, iii. 257 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole genoise ; Burckhardt, 768. 

SASIOA VAN ULENBURGH, portrait, 
Rembrandt, Berlin Museum ; wood, H. 2 ft. 
4 in. X 1 ft. 11 in.; signed, dated 1643. 




Saskia van Ulenburgh, Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery. 

Rembrandt's first wife, to whom he was 
married, June 10, 1634. Bust, looking 
forward ; wearing a fur hat with a string 
of pearls around it, and a silk dress. — 
Bode, Studien, 456, 563 ; Meyer, Museen, 
364. 



116 



SASOXOFF 



By Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery ; wood, H. 
3 ft. 10 in. X 3 ft. 2 in. Protile view, half 
length, wearing a crimson velvet hat with 
feathers, and a silk robe, lace neckerchief, 
necklace, and ear-rings. Painted about 1G33 
-34. Formerly in Six Collection ; passed 
from Collection of Madame de Reuver to 
Cassel. Carried to Paris ; returned in 1815. 
Engraved by Oortman (1808) ; H, Dthier. 
Copy in Antwerp Museum. — Vosmaer, 48, 
435 ; Smith, vii. 158 ; Musee franyais ; Bode, 
Studien, 417, 456, 566. 

By Eembrandf, Dresden Gallery ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 
1633. Standing, seen to knees ; in red hat 
and blue dress. In Royal Collection in 
1722 ; placed in Dresden Gallery in 1826. 
Engraved by S. L. Raab. — Vosmaer, 433 ; 
Bode, Studien, 569. 

By Rembrandt, Dresden Gallery ; wood, 
H. 3 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 9 in. ; signed, dated 
1641. Seen to knees ; holds a red pink in 
her right hand. Formerly in Collection 
Araignon, Paris ; to Augustus III. in 1743, 
for 1,500 livres. Engraved by D. J. Pound ; 
lithograj^hed by Hanfstangl. — Vosmaer, 459 ; 
Bode, Studien, 569. 

SASONOFF, WASSELY KONDRATIE- 
VICH ; contemporary. History jjainter, pu- 
pil of St. Petersburg Academy. Works : 
Hermit Theodorich blessing Son of Prin- 
cess Marfa ; Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy 
after Victory of Kulikowo, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg. 

SASSETTA See Stefano di Giovanni. 

SASSOFERRATO, IL, born in Sassofer- 
rato, July 11, 1605, 
died in Rome, 
April 8, 1685. 
Roman school; 
real name Giovan- 
ni Battista Salvi ; 
son and pupil of 
Tarquinio Salvi, 
a mediocre paint- 
er of Sassof errato ; 
went about 1629 to Naples, where he is sup- 
posed to have studied with Domcnichino. 




He afterwards studied and copied the works 
of the great masters in Rome, and became 
in some sort the rival of Carlo Dolci, devot- 
ing himself principally to painting Madon- 
nas and devotional pictures, in which sweet- 
ness of expression is carried to the extreme 
of insipidity. Their style is dissimilar, Dol- 
ci excelling him in strength of colour, and 
in fineness of pencil. Sassoferrato's master- 
piece, the Madonna del Rosario, is in S. Sa- 
bina, Rome. Other works : Sorrowing Vir- 
gin, Uffizi ; Madonna, Brera ; do., Accade- 
mia di S. Luca, Rome ; do., Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, ib.; Madonna with Angels, Vatican ; 
Bladonna della Rosa, Turin Gallery ; Holy 
Family, Berlin Museum ; Madonna, Brus- 
sels Museum ; do. (2), Cassel Gallery ; Vir- 
gin Praying, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Madonna, Vienna Museum ; 3Iadonna, As- 
sumption, Louvre ; Madonna (2), National 
Gallery, London ; Madonna (2), Hermitage. 
— Lanzi, i. 465 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombri- 
enne ; Burckhardt, 660, 765, 770, 784, 795. 

SATAN CALLING HIS LEGIONS, Sir 
Thomas Laivrence, Royal Academy, London. 
Subject from Milton's "Paradise Lost" 
(Book I.). Satan, though fallen, exhibits 
all the ferocious energy and violent dignity 
of his character, in strong contrast to his 
attendant, Beelzebub, whose figure is marked 
by dejection and despondence. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1797. — Gower, 41 ; Williams, Life of 
Sir T. L. (London, 1831), i. 170. 

SATTERLEE, WALTER, born in New 
York, Jan. 18, 1844. Genre painter, gradu- 
ate of Columbia College, pupil of the Na- 
tional Academy and of Edwin White, and in 
Paris in 1878-79 of Leon Bonuat ; sketched 
in Italy, France, and Brittany, and painted 
several months in Rome. Is well known as 
an illustrator. First exhibited at the Na- 
tional Academy in 1868. Elected an A.N. A. 
in 1878 ; Clarke prize. National Academy, 
1886. Studio in New York. Works : Morn- 
ing among the Flowers (1870) ; Coquette of 
the Olden Time (1873); Out for a Ride 
(1874) ; His Eminence the Cardinal (1877) ; 
Contemplation (1878) ; Extremes Meet 



117 



SATYR 



(1881) ; Convent Composer (1882) ; Turkey 
Girl, Votive Offering (1883) ; Far from the 
World Vain Thoughts Begone, Arab Sheik, 
Oh for the Wings of a Dove (188-4). Water- 
colours : Solitaire, Old Ballads (1878) ; Two 
Sides of a Convent Wall, One of the Fates, 
Waiting for Fishing Fleet (1884) ; The Old 
Garden (1885) ; Festival of Flora, Winter 
Watering Place, The Cronies (188G). 

SATYR AND PEASANT, Jacob Jordaens, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; canvas, trans- 
ferred from wood, H. 6 f t. x C ft. 3 in. Il- 
lustration of an old fable. A traveller, be- 
numbed with cold, having entered the house 




Satyr and Peasant, Jacob Jordaens, Old Pinakothek, Munich. 

of a satyr as the latter was about to sit down 
with his family to his meal, was invited to 
partake ; but when the satyr saw him blow 
his fingers to warm them and his porridge 
to cool it, he turned his guest out of doors, 
saying he would not entertain one who 
could blow both hot and cold. Formerly 
in Diisseldorf Gallery ; replicas in Amster- 
dam and Brussels Museums. Engraved by 
James Neef ; Lucas Vorsterman. — Reveil, 
xi. 766. 

SATYRS, picture. See Ariston, Nico- 
7nachiis, Protogenes, Timanthes. 

SAURIAS, Greek painter, of Samos, early 
period. According to Athenagoras (Legat. 
pro. Christ., 14) he invented the first step 
in the art of drawing, by tracing the out- 
line of the shadow of a horse in the sun. 



SAUTAI, PAUL EMILE, born at Amiens, 
Jan. 29, 1842. Genre painter, pupil of Ro- 
bert-Fleury, Jules Lefebre, and of Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. Medals : 1870 ; 2d class, 1875 ; 
3d class, 1878. Works : The Sacred Stair- 
case in 1868, Prison of Subiaco, Pilgrims 
before a Chapel (1870), Fra Angelico Paint- 
ing (1872) ; Sacred Door of St. John Late- 
rau. Chapel of Acheropita in Rome (1873) ; 
Day before an Execution in Rome (1875), 
Luxembourg Museum ; St. Bonaventura 
(1878), Nantes Museum ; Dante in Exile, 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary (1880) ; Fra An- 
gelico, Interior of Church of Lavardin (1882), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Door of Chui'ch 
(1883) ; Prayer (1884). 

SAUZAY, ADRIEN, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Jules Andre and of Pasini. Medal, 3d 
class, 1881. W^orks : Views in Normandy, 
on Banks of the Seine, and around Paris 
(1863-78) ; Road of Pont de I'Arche at Cri- 
queboeuf (1874), Havre Museum ; End of 
Autumn (1879); Pond of Vilhers, Honfleur 
and Villerville (1880) ; Saint-Jean Lande at 
Douarnenez, Hamlet of Plomarc'h (1881) ; 
Pond of Vaugoing (1882); Coursimont Farm 
— Sologne, Breton Woman in Port of Bafleur 
— Manche (1883).— Bellier, ii. 471. 

SAVERY, ROELANT, born at Courtrai 
in 1576, died at Utrecht in 1639. Flemish 
school ; landscape and animal painter, broth- 
er and j)upil of Jacques Savery, the young- 
er ; went early to Germany under the pat- 
ronage of Emperor Rudolf H., who sent 
him to study for two years in the Tj^rolese 
Alps, and for whom he painted many land- 
scapes in the Prague Gallery. After Ru- 
dolf's death in 1612 he settled in Utrecht, 
where he entered the guild in 1627. Works : 
Orpheus charming the Animals, National 
Gallery, London ; do. (1623), Amsterdam 
Museum ; do., Hague Museum ; do., Ber- 
lin Museum ; do., Darmstadt Museum ; do., 
Utrecht Museum ; do.. Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tei'sburg ; do., and Rocky Landscape (1610), 
Paradise (1628), Woodland, do. (1609), Land- 
scape with Birds (1621), Orpheus trying to 



118 



SAVIOUR 



move Pluto by his Music, Vienna IMuseum ; 
Lake in the Woods, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Hunter and Boar (1610), Landscapes with 
Euins (1614, 1G18), Noah's Ark (1G20), four 
other Landscapes (1G20, 1625), Dresden 

A.JAVERy. 

Oallery ; Boar Hunt, Munich Gallery. — 
Fetis, Les artistes beiges, ii. 88 ; Kramm, 
V. 1474 ; Michiels, vi. 165. 

SAVIOUR, THE (II Salvatore), Titian, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 6^ 
in. X 2 ft. Half-length, with arms folded ; 
background, a landscape. Painted early. 




The Saviour, Titian, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 



for Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of 
Urbino ; passed to the Medici as part of 
dowry of the Grand Duchess Vittoria della 
Rovere. Taken to Paris in 1799 ; returned 
in 1816. Copy in Christ Church Gallery, 
Oxford. Engraved by Martelli.— Gal. du 
Pal. Pitti, i. PI. 107 ; C. k C, Titian, ii. 
417 ; Landou, Musi-e, xiv. PI. 22. 

SAVIOUR IN THE TEMPLE, William 
Holman Hani, Manchester Art Gallerv. 



Our Saviour found disputing with the doc- 
tors in the Temple, Jesus, a brown-haired, 
blue-eyed boy, in a pink and jmrple striped 
frock, stands before the doctors, who are 
grouped in a semicircle at left, the blind 
High Priest holding the rolls of the Law ; 
Mary, with her bi'ow pressed against the 
Child's with an expression of anxiety, has 
her hand on his shoulder as if to draw him 
away ; Joseph, in a crimson turban, stands 
behind. Exhibited in 1860, after five years' 
labour, eighteen months of which were spent 
in Jerusalem ; sold to Mr. Gambart for 
£5,500. Engraved by Aug. Blanchard from 
drawing by Moselli (Gambart sale, 1871, 120 
guineas).— Art Journal (1860), 182 ; (1868), 
100 ; Athenteum, April, 1860, 549. 

SAVOLDO, GIAN' GIROLAMO, caUed 
Girolamo Bresciano, born at Brescia about 
1480, died in Venice (?) after 1548. Veneto- 
Brescian school ; his style had something 
in common with that of Moretto, but usual- 
ly less dignified. A long residence in Ven- 
ice enabled him to enter into the spirit of 
the great Venetian masters, but he preferred 
to treat night or sunset scenes and sacred 
genre. It is difiicult to find his works un- 
der their true name, most of them being 
ascribed to Bellini, Titian, Pordenone, Del 
Piombo, Giorgione, and others. Works : 
Nativity, S. Barnaba, Brescia ; Portrait of 
Gaston de Foix (?), Louvre ; Madonna with 
Saints, Brera, Milan ; Transfiguration, Uf- 
fizi, Florence ; Adoration of Shepherds, Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence ; do., HoUj Family, 
Turin Gallery ; Venetian Girl, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Entombment, Vienna Museum ; 
Mary Magdalen at Sepulchre, National Gal- 
lery, London.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 418 ; 
Burckhardt, 733 ; Lubke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 621. 

SAVONANZI, ETNHLIO, born in Bologna, 
June 19, 1580, died at Camerino in 1660. 
Bolognese school ; of a noble, wealthy fam- 
ily, and a soldier imtil his twenty-sixth year, 
when he devoted himself to art. Studied 
with Cremonini, Calvart, the Carracci, Guer- 
cino, and Guido ; painted chiefly at Ancona 



SAVONAROLA 



and Camerino, wliere he left many works. 
Charles Blanc says he had three styles, a 
good, a mediocre, and a detestable. Among 
his best works are : Marriage of St. Cath- 
erine, S. Filippo, Camerino, and Madonna 
at foot of Cross, La Santa, Bologna. — Mal- 
vasia, i. 228 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise ; 
Gualandi, 64. 

SAVONAKOLA, portrait, Fra Bartolom- 
meo, Florence Academy ; wood, H. 1 ft. 10 
in. X 1 ft. 4 in. Savonarola allegorically rep- 
resented in the guise of Peter Martyr, witli 
blood streaming from a wound in his head. 
Painted at Pian' di Mugnone before 1498 ; 
passed from the Ospizio della Maddaleua 
to Convent of S. Marco, Florence, and to 
Academj-. Engraved by Chiossone. — Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., iv. 179 ; Gall, dell' Accad. di 
Firenze, PL 55 ; C. & C, Italy, iii. 433. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, heirs of E. Rubieri, 
Florence. Painted in Florence in 1495, and 
sent to Ferrara ; taken back to Florence by 
Filippo Salviati, who gave it to Dominican 
nuns of S. Vincenzo, Prato ; their convent 
suppressed in 1810, and pictui-e finally 
bought by Sig. Rubieri. The earliest ex- 
tant work of Fra Bartolommeo. — C. & C, 
Italy, iii. 432 ; Rubieri, Ritratto di Fra Gi- 
rolamo (Florence, 1855) ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 179 ; Rio, de I'Ai-t Chretien, ii. 501. 

SAXE, MARSHAL, AND STAFF, Jean 
Louis Ernest Meissonier, D. O. Mills, New 
York. The marshal and his officers riding 
along a road in a sunny landscape ; at right, 
a shepherd in contadino costume pasturing 
his flock. — Art Treasures of America, ii. 109. 

SAXONY, ELECTOR OF, portrait. See 
John Frederick. 

SCARPAZA or SCARPACCIA. See Gar- 
paccio. 

SCARSELLA, IPPOLITO, and SIGIS- 
MONDO. See Scarsellino. 

SCARSELLINO, LO, born at Ferrara in 
1551, died there, Oct. 23, 1621. Lombard 
school ; real name Ippolito Scarsella ; son 
and pupil of Sigismondo Scarsella (1530- 
1614), called Mondino, who was a scholar 
of Paolo Veronese. Ippolito afterwards 



painted two years in Bologna, and studied 
the works of Paolo Veronese in Venice, 
On his return to Ferrara he won fame and 
riches by his works, which were in demand 
in Mantua, Modena, Bologna, and other 
cities ; but most of his pictures are in Fer- 
rara. Among his best examples are : Judg- 
ment of Paris, Uffizi, Florence ; Assump- 
tion, Marriage at Cana, Beheading of St. 
John, Madonna della Misericordia, Noli me 
Tangere, Ferrara Gallery ; Flight into 
Egypt, Madonna and St. Joseph, Madonna 
and Saints, do., Dresden Gallery ; Child 
Jesus and St. John, Munich Gallery ; Vir- 
gin and Child, Brussels Museum. — Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole ferraraise ; Lanzi, iii. 207. 

SCHADOW, FELIX, born in BerHn, 
June 21, 1819, died there, June 25, 1861. 
Genre painter, step-brother of the follow- 
ing, pupil in 1838-39 of Julius Hiibner, 
then in Dresden of Eduard Bendemann ; 
returned to Berlin, where he assisted in 
painting Schinkel's frescos in the old Mu- 
seum, and after his father's death painted 
in his house a cycle in fresco, illustrating 



I 



uv^Ojow. Vh^ 



Gottfi'ied Schadow's life. Works : Adorn- 
ing the Bride (1858), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Diana (I860).— SchHe, 63. 

SCHADOW (Schadow-Godenhaus), 
FRIEDRICH 
W I L H E L M 
VON, Dr., born 
in Berlin, Sept. 6, 
1789,diedinDus- 
^'^^ seldorf, March 
19, 1862. His- 
^ tory and portrait 
painter, son and 
pupil of the 
sculptor, Gott- 
fried Schadow, and pupil of Weitsch, then 
copied for one year in the Potsdam Gallery ; 
served in the army in 1806-7, studied in 
Rome in 1810-19, was closely allied with 




SCHAEFELS 



Cornelius, Overbeck, and Veit, and became 
an enthusiastic follower of religious art 
and (1814) a convert to Roman Catholicism. 
Made professor at the Berlin Academy in 
1819, he won gx'eat renown as a teacher, and 
in 182G became director of the Diisseldorf 
Academy, which he thoroughly reorganized, 
its brilliant success being identified with 
his name. Resigned in 1859. He founded 
the Art Union for Westphalia in 1829, visit- 
ed Rome and Naples in 1810, and was en- 
nobled in 1843, with the permission to add 
to his name that of his estate, Godenhaus. 
Ph.D., University of Bonn, 1842 ; Member of 
Berlin Academy and of Institut de France ; 
Order of Red Eagle. Works : Regiua Coe- 
lis, (1810-19), Suermondt Museum, Aix-la- 
Chajjelle ; Holy Family, Munich Galler}' ; 
Roman W^oman ; Camaldolensian Monk ; 
Bacchanal (1819), Proscenium, New The- 
atre, Berlin ; Adoration of the Magi (1824), 
Garnisonskirche, ib. ; The Four Evangelists, 
Werder Church, ib.; Female Portrait (1832), 
Walk to Emmaus (1836), Union of Painting 
and Sculpture (Thorwaldsen, Schadow, and 
his brother Rudolf), National Gallery, ib.; 
A Templar (1832) ; Daughter of Herodias 
(1838), Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Free-Born 
Poetry (1825) ; Mignon (1828) ; Caritas 
(1830), Antwerp Museum ; W^ise and Fool- 
ish Virgins (1838), Stiidel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Heavenly and Earthly Love (1840) ; 
Pietas et Vanitas (1841) ; Holy Family, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Heaven, Purga- 
tory, and Hell (after Dante); many masterly 
portraits, among them those of his Children, 
of the poet Immermann, and of Mendels- 
sohn. Frescos : Jacob with Joseph's Bloody 
Coat, Joseph in Prison (1818), Casa Bar- 
tholdi, Rome. — Art Journal (18(55), 
69 ; F;)rster, iv. 220 ; v. 273, 343 ; 
Hagen, D. Kunst., etc.; Hiibner, 
Schadow und seine Schule (Bonn, 1869) ; 
Jordan (1885), ii. 193 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex. 
(1878), xiv. 196 ; Miiller, Diisseldf. K., 12, 
19 ; Nagler, xv. 90 ; Riegel, Gesch. dcs 
Wiederauflebeus der d. K., 276, 331 ; Spring- 
er, Gesch., 91 ; Wiegmann, 64. 



W 



SCHAEFELS, HENRI, born in Ant- 
werp ; contemporary. Genre and marine 
painter. Order of Leopold. Works : Louis 
XIV. at Versailles (1853), Leipsic Museum ; 
Encoui-aged and Discouraged (1853) ; Bat- 
tle of the Sluice (1860); Battle of Trafalgar, 
Antwerp Museum ; Capture of Fleet before 
Lisbon in 1572.— Miiller, 460. 

SCHAEPKENS, ALEXANDER, bom at 
Maastricht in 1815. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Antwerp and (1835-37) Brussels 
Academies, then studied in Paris after the 
old Dutch masters in the Louvre. Member 
of Amsterdam Academy. Order of Oaken 
Crown, 1857. Works : St. Arnulf in Pray- 
er ; best pictures in Collections of Baroness 
van Dopf, Maastricht, Countess van Ge- 
loes, Elsloo, and H. Geefs, Brussels. — 
Ki'amm, v. 1451. 

SCHAEPKENS, THEODOOR, born at 
Maastricht in 1810. History painter, broth- 
er of preceding, pupil of Antwerp Academy 
under M. van Bree ; visited France, Italy, 
and Germany. Works : St. Servatius, Ca- 
thedral, Maastricht ; St. Lambert in Prayer, 
Notre Dame, ib. ; Industry and City of Maas- 
tricht, City Hall, ib.; St. Philomena, Ant- 
werp Cathedral ; Miu'der of Spaniards at 
Maastricht in 1579, National Museum, Brus- 
sels ; Death of Evrard t' Serclaes. — Immer- 
zeel, iii. 56 ; Kramm, v. 1453. 

SCHAFFER, ADALBERT, born at Nagy 
Karoly, Hungary, in 1815, died in Diissel- 
dorf, March 1, 1871. Still-life painter ; 
studied in Pesth and Vienna. Works : 
Pitcher, Glass, Oysters, etc., on Marble 
Table (1849), Vienna Museum ; Antique 
Vessels with Flowers and Fruits (1852) ; 
do. from Ambras Collection (1856) ; Gar- 
land with Madonna (1866). — Wurzbach, 
xxix. 44. 

SCHAFFER, AUGUST, born in Vienna, 
April 30, 1833. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Vienna Acadeni}' under Steinfeld ; stud- 
ied nature in Austrian and Bavarian Alps, 
in Hungai-y, North Italy, and on the North 
Sea. Member of Vienna Academy. Med- 
als : Strasburg, 1859 ; Nassau. Works : 



SCHAFFNER 



"Woodland in Carpathian Mountains (1857), 
Art Union, Vienna ; Lonely Lake (1863) ; 
Sea Coast, Autumn in Hungarian Forest 
(18. i4), Return from World's Fair (1873), 
Museum, ib. ; Autumn (18G8), Academy, ib. 
— Wurzbacb, xxix. 46 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
ix. (Mittbeilungen, ii. 28) ; Graph. K, i. 6, 
32. 

SCHAFFNER, ]\L1RTIN, flourished in 
Ulm about 1500-35. German school ; his- 
tory and portrait painter, perhaps a pupil 
of Zeitblom, and after him the most emi- 
nent artist of the school of Ulm. He was a 
realist, and especially successful in portrait- 
ure. Works : Portrait of Count Gettingen 
(1508), do. of mathematician Peter Appian, 
Annunciation (1523), Presentation in the 
Temple, Descent of the Holy Ghost, Death 
of the Virgin (all 1524), Pietii, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Christ's Passion (4, 1515), 
Augsburg Gallery ; Christ's Entry into 
Jerusalem, three other scenes in Life of 
Christ, Schleissheim Gallery ; six do., Ho- 
henzollern Museum, Sigmaringen ; SS. Peter 
and Paul (1518), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Altar 
Wings (1521), Two Portraits (1516 and 
1530), Ulm Cathedi-al ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Gex'mauic Museum, Nuremberg ; Por- 
traits of Six Kneeling Figures (1514), En- 
tombment (1510), Descent to Hell, Resur- 
rection (1516), Descent of the Holy Ghost 
(1519), Archjieological Union, Stuttgart ; Six 
Saints, Berlin Museum ; two do., Stuttgart 
Museum ; Madonna, Liechtenstein Gallery, 

Vienna. — Ch. 
^/^ C A/\ ^ V/ Blanc, i:cole 
^ *-' ^ '^ allemande; 

Heidelofi", Ivunst des Mittelalters in Schwa- 
ben, 119 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 220 ; Nagler, 
Mon., iv. 670 ; Schnaase, viii. 432 ; W. & 
W., ii. 453. 

SCHALCKEN, GODFRIED, born in 
Dordrecht in 1643, died at The Hague, Nov. 
16, 1706. Dutch school ; geni-e painter, pu- 
pil of Samuel van Hoogstraten, and Gerard 
Dou ; visited England, and there executed 
small portraits, among them that of William 
HL, with much success. Occasionally paint- 




Candle, Buckingham 



ed historical pictures, but his best works 
are genre subjects, lighted by artificial light. 
Works: Lesbia weigh- 
ing Jewels against 
her Sparrow, Old 
Woman scouring Ket- 
tle, Duet, Officer pre- 
senting Jewellery to 
Lady, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Le Roi 
detrousse, Painter 
and his Family, 
Young Girl with 
Palace, ib.; Smoker 
by Candle Light, Mr. Hope, ib. ; Male Por- 
trait, Mr. Baring, ib.; Ceres with Torch 
seeking Proserpine, Two Women by Can- 
dle-Light, Old Man Writing, Louvre ; Young 
Man melting Wax, Brussels Museum ; Lady 
at Toilet, Useless Remonstrance, Consulta- 
tion, Venus with Doves, Portrait of William 
in. (1699), Hague Museum ; Girl putting 
Candle into Lantern, Man Smoking, Boy 
eating an Egg, Every One after his own 
Fancy, Portrait of William HI., two other 
Poi'traits, Amsterdam Museum ; Old Lady's 
Portrait (1677), Suermondt Museum, Aix- 
la-Chapelle ; Male Portrait, Girl with Coal 
Basin, Young Man with Plaster Mask, Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; Bathers, Warrior undressed 
for Bath, Rommelpot Player, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; The Magdalen (2), Venus and Cupid 
(2), Artist's Wife, Old Man, Cassel Gallery ; 
Magdalen Penitent, Cologne Museum ; do., 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Holy Fam- 
ily at Evening Prayer, Sealing a Letter, 
Fishermen, Juno vexed at her Image, Gal- 
lery, CoiDenhagen ; Salome with Head of 
St. John, Moltke Collection, ib.; Lighting 
his Pipe, Portrait of W^illiam HI., Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Fortune Teller, Gotlia Mu- 
seum ; Girl trying to blow out Taper, Wise 
and Foolish Virgins (1700), Magdalen, Holy 
Family, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Holy 
Family, Portrait of an Electress (1703), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Boy and Girl (1682), 
three others, Schwerin Gallery : A Hermit, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Girl reading Letter, 



122 



SCHAMPHELEER 



Girl holding Candle, Ai'tist lighting up Bust 
of Venus, Girl holding Egg against Light, 
Old Woman with Book on her Lap, Dresden 
Gallery ; Young Fisherman, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Girl placing Candle in Lantern, Old 
Man Reading, Vienna Museum; Barber 
shaving himself, r r- ^ r^ 

Hermitage, St. 3^'J\J^ ■ 
Petersbui-g ; Ai't- /^^ /Oy 'p a 
ist's Portrait, His- V ' "^J^ *^^^ 
torical Society, Atvix^ 

New York. — Ch. Q^Jo4iCLCcJ(aytx L^l^^- 
Blanc, ]^cole hoi- ^ J 

landaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 58 ; Kramm, v. 
1454; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 410; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 336. 

SCHA^IPHELEER, EDMOND DE, born 
in Brussels in 1824. Landscape painter, 
pupil of E. de Block. Gold medals : Dun- 
kirk, 1864 ; Brussels, 1866 ; Berlin, 1872, 
1876 ; Paris, 1877. Works : The Old Rhine 
near Gouda, Brussels Museum ; Evening 
Landscape (1853), Hamburg Gallery ; Har- 
vest, Stettin Museum ; Summer Evening on 
Banks of D3'le ; Landscape after Storm ; 
Sunday Morning in Village in Brabant ; 
Abcoude Lake near Amsterdam (1883). — 
Leixner, Mod. K, i. 85 ; ii. 113. 

SCHAMS, FRANZ, born in Vienna in 
1823. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy. Works : Duke Henry IV. as Minne- 
singer recognized by the Tyrolese (1851), 
Vienna Museum ; Summons to Crusade 
(1858) ; Scene in Life of Joseph II. (1860) ; 
Important News (1862) ; Baptism (1869) ; 
Schiller reading " The Robbers " ; We want 
to marry each other ! — Wurzbacb, xxix. 
113. 

SCHANCHE, HERMAN, born at Bergen, 
Norway, in 1829. Landscape paintei', pupil 
of Diissoldorf Academy under Gude ; trav- 
elled in Germany, Scandinavia, and Portu- 
gal. Best pictures in Christiania Gallery, 
and Stockholm Museum. 

SCHAUBROEK (Schoebroek), PIETER, 
born in Antwerp in 1542 (?), died after 
1605. Flemish school ; history and land- 
scape painter, pupil and imitator of Jan 



Brueghel ; lived in Nuremberg in 1597. 
Works: St. John Preaching, Brunswick 
Gallery ; Burning of Troy, Cassel Gallery ; 
Village View, Copenhagen Galleiy ; Land- 
scape (1604), Schleissheim Gallery; Burn- 
ing of Troy (1605), Vienna Museum.— Rie- 
gel, Beitrage, ii. 87. 

SCHAUFELIN (SchiiuiTelein, Scheufelin, 
Scheyflfelin), HANS LEONHARD, born in 
Nuremberg before 1490, died at Nurd- 
lingen in 1539 or 1540. German school ; 
history painter, pupil of Diirer, whom he 
assisted in an altarj^iece executed in 1502, 
and whose manner he imitated so well that 
many of his numerous pictures have been 
accredited to his master. He lived alter- 
nately in Augsburg (1512), Nuremberg, and 
Nordlingen, where he was finally induced to 
settle. Works : Pieta (1510), Passion of 
Christ (1522), Basle Museum ; Four Scenes 
in Life of a Martyr, St. Jerome in a Grotto, 
Bamberg Gallery ; Last Supj^er (1511), 
Christ parting with his Mother, Berlin Mu- 
seum; Crucifixion (1515), Presentation in the 
Temple, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Christ appear- 
ing to Magdalen, Adoration of the Lamb, 
Cassel Gallery ; Death of the Virgin, Apos- 
tles Thomas and James, Cologne Museum ; 
Scenes from Lives of Christ and Marj', 
Chi'ist on Mount of Olives (1516), Head of 
Christ, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Christ on 
the Cross (1508), Judith and Holofernes 
(1515), St. Bridget, Two Scenes in Life of 
St. Onofrius, St. Jerome, Liberation of 
Peter, Burial of the Virgin, Germanic Mu- 
seum, Nuremberg ; several in the churches, 
ib. ; Scourging of Christ, Leipsic Museum ; 
Christ on the Cross, Ecce Homo, Christ on 
Mount of Olives, Portrait of an Abbot 
(1531), Schleissheim Gallery ; Christ Cruci- 
fied, and the Joys of the World (?) Schworin 
Gallery ; Juditli and Holofernes (1515), 
Siege of Bethulia, St. Barbara, St. Eliza- 
beth, Christ parting from his Mother 
(1515), Pieta (1516), Assumption (1521), 
and others, Town Hall, Nr)rdlingen ; Pict 'i, 
St. George's, ib. ; Altarpiece in 16 panels 
(1513), Convent Church, Anhauseu ; Last 



123 



SCHAUFELIlSr 



Supper, Adoration of the Lamb (1538), 
Ulm Cathedral ; Male Portrait, Vienna Mu- 

H^ jr^ seum. — C h. Blanc, 
^^^ Ecole allemande; 
<y^^ Keane, Early Masters, 
1^ * 158; Heideloff, K. 

des Mittelalt. in Schwaben, 120 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 177 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. b61 ; 
Thausing (Eaton), DUrer, i. 173 ; W. & W., 
ii. 401 ; Zeitscbi-. f. B. K, ii. 244 

SCHAUFELIN, HANS, the younger, born 
at Nth'dlingeu, whence he removed to Frei- 
bm-g, in 1543, died (?). German school ; son 
of Hans Leonhardin Schaufelin, to whom 
some of his paintings are wrongly attributed. 
Works: Female portrait (1568), Germanic 
Museum, Nurembei-g. — Nagler, Mon., iii. 
582 ; W. & W., ii. 403. 

SCHAUMANN, HEINKICH, born at Tu- 
bingen, "VVurtemberg, Feb. 2, 1841. Genre 
painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School under 
Rustige, Neher, and Funk ; removed in 
1864 to Munich, w^hence he repeatedly vis- 
ited England, France, the Netherlands, and 
Italy. Many of his works are in England 
and America. Medal for Art and Science. 
Works: Monkey playing with Dog, New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Invitation to Wed- 
ding in Suabia, St. Gall Museum ; Festi- 
val at Cannstadt (1877), Stuttgart Museum ; 
Election Agitation (1882).— Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xix. 833 ; Miiller, 462. 

SCHAUSS, FERDINAND, born in Ber- 
lin in 1832. Genre, figure, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Steffeck, and in Paris of 
Cogniet ; visited England, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Italy, and Spain, studying especially 
the portraits by the old masters. Became 
professor at the Weimar Art School, in 1873, 
but returned to Berlin in 1876. His female 
and children's portraits are distinguished 
for delicate colouring and refined treat- 
ment. Works ; Callisto and Diana (1870, 
bought by Austrian Government), Dryad ; 
Genevieve ; Leander ; Still-life, Ravene Gal- 
lery, Berlin. — Miiller, 463 ; Rosenberg. 
BerL Malersch., 229 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 
107, 214. 




SCHEBUJEFF, WASSILY KOSmCH, 

born at Cronstadtin 1776, died in 1855. His- 
tory painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy, and studied in Rome in 1803-7. Pro- 
fessor and rector of the Academy. Works : 
Death of Hippolytus; Assumption (1807) 
St. John in the Desert (1810), Patriot 
Igolkine (1839), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
SCHEFFER, ARY, born at Dordrecht, 
Feb. 10, 1797, died at 
Ai'genteuil, June 15, 
1858. History and 
portrait paintei-, son 
of Johann Baptist 
Scheffer ; p u p i 1 o f 
Guerin. Sympathiz- 
ing neither with the 
classic school repre- 
sented by his master, 
nor with the roman- 
tic led by Gericault 
and Delacroix, Scheffer took up a class of 
subjects which showed his sympathy with 
the cause of freedom, such as the Suliote 
Women, an episode of the Greek war, and 
the Battle of Morat. Influenced by Ingres, 
he sought and obtained greater pm-ity of 
form, and painted subjects from Goethe and 
Byron. In 1836 he was appointed art in- 
structor to the Orleans family, and directed 
the studies of the Princess Marie in sculpt- 
ure. In 1836 he accompanied the Due 
d' Orleans and General Bandrand, whose 
widow he afterwards married, to the siege 
of Antwerp, and after his return painted 
several military episodes for Versailles. Be- 
tween 1835 and 1848 he produced his great- 
est works, the Christus Consolator and Ju- 
dex, the Francesca and the Mignons. When 
the Revolution broke out Scheffer assisted 
the King and his family in their escape 
from Paris, and then went to Holland and 
England for rest. The coup d'etat of 1852, 
which gave Louis Napoleon the throne, was 
a blow to his hopes which finally disgusted 
him with politics, from which he withdrew 
altogether. Five years later, after a last 
visit to England, he lost his friends Manin 



SCHEFFER 



and the Duchesse d'Orleans, to whom he 
was much attached. After attending the 
funeral of the latter he returned much 
broken to France, and shortly after died. 
In his earlier pictures Scheffer showed his 
sympathy with human suffering ; in those 
of his second period his love for the elevat- 
ing influences of the great poets ; in his 
third his faitli in the Christian religion, and 
his aspirations to a higher life. The works 
of his middle period, the Christ in the Gar- 
den (1839), the Macbeth, and the Francesca, 
are vigorous and deep in colour, Avhile those 
of a later period, the Beatrice, the Tempta- 
tion, etc., are pale and somewhat monot- 
onous in tone. In both, however, there is 
a depth of feeling and a purity of senti- 
ment which characterized the man no less 
than the paintex-. Officer of the Legion of 
Honour, 1825. Works : Abel and Thirza 
(1812) ; Death of St. Louis (1817) ; Con- 
valescent Mother (1818). Pereire Collection, 
Paris ; Patriotism of Six Citizens of Calais, 
Socrates defending Alcibiades at Potidea 
(1819) ; The Tempest (1820) ; Soldier's 
Widow (1821) ; Young Orj)hans ; Christen- 
ing ; Burning of a Farm House ; The 
Shades of Francesca da Rimini and her 
Lover aj^pearing to Dante and Virgil (1821) ; 
St. Louis visiting the Plague- Stricken 
(1822) ; Seaman's Family (1823) ; Baptism 
(1823), King of the Belgians ; Little Wood- 
cutter ; Return Home ; Mother with Two 
Children mourning (1821), Konigsberg Mu- 
seum ; War Scene in Alsace in 1814, Burial 
of young Fisherman (1824) ; Death of Gc'ri- 
cault (1824), Louvre ; St. Thomas A(]uinas 
encouraging People in a Storm at Sea 
(1824), Church of St. Thomas, Paris ; Gas- 
ton de Foix found among the Dead at Ra- 
venna (1824), Versailles Museum ; Greek 
Girls Praying to the Madonna, Last of the 
:Missolonghi Garrison (1826) ; Suliote Wom- 
en (1827), Eberhard the Weeper (1831), 
Louvre ; Charlemagne submitting his first 
Capitularies to the Assembly of the Franks 
(1827), Charlemagne and Wittikind, Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Battle of Morat, Sister of 



Charity (1829) ; Leonora (1829) ; Faui^t in 
his Study, Marguerite ai the Spinning Wheel 
(1881), Baroness Rothschild, Paris ; Christ 
and the Children (1830, 1840) ; Martha and 
Marguerite (1830), King of the Belgians ; 
The Due d'Orleans (Louis Philippe) receiv- 
ing the First Hussars (2, 1831), Versailles 
Museum ; 3Iarguerite at Church (1832), 
Samuel Ashton, London ; The Giaour (1832); 
Medora (1833) ; Ahasuerus (1834) ; Fran- 
cesca da Rimini (1834), Sir Richard Wal- 
lace, London ; replica (1855), Mnie. Mar- 
jolin Schefier ; JlL'gnon regretting her 
Country (183G), Duchesse d'Ayen ; Chridus 
Consolator (1837), Museum Fodor, Amster- 
dam ; Victory of Clovis at Tolbiac in 496 
(1837) ; Marguerite leaving Church (1838), 
Samuel Ashton, London ; The King of 
Thule (1838) ; Christ on Mount of Olives, 
Mignon aspiring to Heaven (1839), Du- 
chesse d'Ayen; Charitable Child (1840), 
Nantes Museum ; Annunciation to the Shep- 
herds (1841) ; The Three Magi (1844), 
Princess Caroline Wittgenstein, Weimar ; 
Mignon and the Harper (1844), Queen of 
England ; Entombment, Mater Dolorosa 
(1845) ; Christ and the Holy Women, 
Christ bearing the Cross (1846) ; St. Au- 
gustine and St. Monica (1846), National 
Gallery, London ; Faust and Marguerite 
in the Garden, Faust's Vision (1846), Sam- 
uel Ashton, London ; The Holy Women 
returning from the Tomb (1847), Comte de 
Paris ; C/i?'/6'/?<.s' Remunerator (1847) ; Heav- 
enly and Earthly Love, St. John writing the 
Apocalypse (1850) ; Magdalen in Ecstasy 
(1851) \ Ruth and Naomi (1855) ; St. Au- 
gustine and St. Monica (1855), Tempta- 
tion of Christ (1856), Louvi*e ; Jacob and 
Rachel, Ecce Homo, Christ and St, John, 
Kiss of Judas (1857) ; Faust witli the Cup 
(1858), Count Kucheleif ; Marguerite at the 
Fountain (1858), Sir Richard Wallace, Lon- 
don ; Figure of Calvin (1858) ; The Earthly 
Sorrows rising to Heaven (1858, last work), 
Mme. Marjolin Scheffer ; The Magdalen at 
the Foot of the Cross, Marseilles Museum ; 
A Philosopher, Montpellier Museum ; Death 



126 



SCIIEFFER 



of Em-yclice, Galerie Chambert, Blois ; 
Greek Exiles on a Rock looking toward 
their lost Country, Museum Fodor, Am- 
sterdam ; Count Eberhard of Wiirtemberg 
cutting the Table-Cloth, Eberhard the 
Weeper, Rotterdam Museum ; Giving Alms, 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Dante and Be- 
atrice, Mr. Hemming ; Christ weeping over 
Jeinisalem, Mr. Robert Barnes ; Return of 
the Prodigal Son ; Christ Teaching Humil- 
ity, Mr. John Aikin. Portraits : Beranger 
(1828) ; Odilou Barrot (1832) ; Duchess of 
Elchiugen (1832) ; Artist's Mother (1835- 
39) ; Marshal Ney, Duke of Elchingen 
(1836) ; Artist (1838) ; Franz Lizst (1839) ; 
Madame Heine (1841) ; Rossini (1843) ; 
Lammenais (1845); Madame Guizot (1847) ; 
Henri Martin (1850) ; LordDufferin (1853) ; 
Pi'incess Wittgenstein (1855) ; Manini 
(1857).— Art Jom-nal (1858), 223, 252, 870 ; 

BeDier, ii. 474 ; Ch. Blanc, ]5cole franyaise ; 
Ch. Lenormant, Ai-y Scheffer (Paris, 1859) ; 
do.. Beaux Arts et Voyages, i. 278 ; A. Etex, 
Ary Scheffer (Paris, 1859) ; J. Canonge, 
Pradier et Aiy Scheffer (1858) ; Hofstede 
de Groot, Ary Scheffer (Bielefeld, 1870) ; 
IVIrs. Grote, Memoir ; Hamerton, French 
Painters, 42 ; Immerzeel, iii. 62 ; Kranim, v. 
1458 ; Larousse, xiv. 341 ; Perrier, Etudes, 
80 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1859), i. 129 ; ii. 126 ; 
iii. 40 ; C. C. Perkins, American Church Re- 
view, April, 1872. 

SCHEFFER, JOHANN BAPTIST, born 
at Mannheim in 1773, died at Amsterdam 
in 1809. Histoiy and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Tischbein ; went early to Holland and 
settled at Dordrecht. In 1809 he won the 
competitive prize for historical painting, 
with his Admiral Jacob Simonsz de Ryk in 
Prison. Works : Interior, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Emperor Joseph II., Three other 
Male Portraits, Darmstadt Museum. 

SCHEFFER, HENRI, born at The Hague, 
Sept. 27, 1798, died in Paris, March 15, 1861. 



French school ; history and genre painter, 
brother of Ary Scheffer and pupil of Gue- 
rin. L. of Honoui', 1837. Works : Don 
Juan Asleep in Haidee's Lap (1825) ; Char- 
lotte Corday protected from the Mob (1830); 
Unfortunate Family (1830), KiJnigsberg Mu- 
seum ; A Protestant Preacher (1831); Mme. 
Scheffer and her Children (1847) ; Dream 
of Charles IX. (1855); Battle of Cassel, Joan 
of Arc entering Orleans, Versailles Museum ; 
Portraits of Carrel (1830), Arago (1837), and 
Thierry (1840) ; The First Born, Rotterdam 
Museum ; etc. — Bellier, ii. 475 ; Revue des 
Deux Mondes (1843), ii. 271. 

SCHEFFER VON LEONHARDSHOFF, 
JOHANN, Ritter, born in Vienna, Oct. 
30, 1795, died there, June 12, 1822. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Kreithner, an inferior 
painter ; was sent to Italy by Prince Salm- 
Reifferscheid in 1815 and 1817, when he 
painted Pojoe Pius VH. ; and visited Rome 
again in 1820, where he was befriended by 
Overbeck, whom he had taken for his mod- 
el. Works : St. Cecilia playing the Organ, 
St. Ludovico (1820) ; St. Cecilia bewailed 
by Angels (1821), Vienna Museum. — Andre- 
sen, iii. 80 ; Wurzbach, xxix. 49. 

SCHEIB, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH, 
born at Worms in 1737, died at Hamburg 
in 1810. Genre j)ainter, pupil of Johann 
Konrad Seekatz, whom he imitated success- 
fully ; travelled through France, and settled 
in Hamburg, where he died in the poor- 
house. Works : Conflagration at Night in a 
Village (2), Schwerin Gallery.— Schlie, 570. 

SCHEINS, KARL LUD^VIG, born at 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1808, died at Diissel- 
dorf, Oct. 23, 1879. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under Jo- 
hann Wilhelm Schirmer ; painted mostly 
woodland and mountain scenes of a mel- 
ancholy character, somewhat monotonous in 
composition, but original and lively in treat- 
ment. Works : Winter Landscape with Fig- 
ures, Diisseldorf Gallery ; do., Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Fir Wood in siack Forest (1852) ; 
Winter Scene in Evening Light (1855) ; 
Moonlight (1857). 



126 



SCHEITS 



SCHEITS (Scheutz), MATHIAS, born at 
Hamburg about 1G40, died there in 1700. 
Dutch school ; history and genre painter, 
pupil at Haarlem of Philip Wouwermaus, 
later formed himself after Ostade, Teniers, 
and Pieter van Laar. Works : Peasant Fam- 
ily at Dinner, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Re- 
bekah and Eliezer at the Well, Musical En- 
tertainment, Battle Scene, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Battle Scene, Gottiugen University ; 

Male Portrait, Cassel Gallery. — Hamburger 
K Lex., 217 ; Nagler, xv. 171. 

SCHELFHOUT, ANDREAS, born at The 
Hague, Feb. 16, 1787, 
died there, April 19, 
1870. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Breckenheimer, and 
one of the most cele- 
brated and prolific 
modern masters. 
Member of Amster- 
dam, Brussels, Ghent, 
and Hague Acad- 
emies. Order of Lion, 1839 ; do. of Leo- 
pold, 1845 ; medals at Antwerp, Brussels, 
Ghent, and The Hague. Works : Winter 
Landscape (1815) ; Frozen River with Skat- 
ers (1823), Ghent Museum ; Landscapes (3), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Landscapes and Ma- 
rines (14), Fodor Museum, Amsterdam ; 
Coast View, Winter Landscape, Scheven- 
ingen at Sunset, Rottex'dam Museum ; W^in- 
ter Landscape, Ghent Museum ; do., Rac- 
zynski Gallery, Berlin ; do. (3, one dated 
1858), Sheep driven through Village, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Ice Scene with Skaters 
(1829), Konigsberg Museum ; Winter Scene 
(1835), Sea Coast with Huts and People, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Winter Land- 
scape, Weimar Museum ; others in Stutt- 
gart Gallery and Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 
— Immerzeel, iii. G4 ; Kraram, v. 1470 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, v. 180. 




SCHELLINKS, '\;\TLLE:\T, bom in Am- 
sterdam in 1032, died there in 1G78. Dutch 
school ; history and landscape painter, trav- 
elled for several years in England, France, 
Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. Woi-ks : 
Departure of Charles II. from Coast of Hol- 
land ; Burning of English Fleet at Chat- 
ham, Six Collection, Amsterdam ; Sacking 
of Convent, Landing Place on a River, Co- 
penhagen Galler}' ; Mountainous Landscape 
with Robbers and Soldiers, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; others in Augsburg and St. Pe- 
tersburg (2) Galleries. — Descamps, ii. 181 ; 
Immerzeel, iii. GO) ; Kramm, v. 1472. 

SCHELVER, AUGUST FRANZ, born at 
Osnabriick in 1805, died in Munich in 1844. 
Genre and battle painter, pupil at Osna- 
briick of H. Neelmeyer, then studied in 
Munich, 1826-33, and — -» r* 
returned there in 1834. /V O • T S Z ^ • 2 Q 
Works: Battle of '^ ^ ^ 

Hanau (1835), Konigslierg Museum ; Tyro- 
lese Cart on Mountain Road (1843), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; others in Hanover 
and St. Petersburg Galleries. 

SCHENAU (Schonau), JOHANN ELEA- 
ZAR, boi-n at Gross-Schenau, Saxony, Nov. 
7, 1740, died at Dresden in 1806. Real 
name Zeisig. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Bessler, and at Dresden Academy 
under Silvestre, who took him to Paris ; pat- 
ronized by the Dauphine, a Princess of Sax- 
ony, he formed himself in the manner of 
Chardin, Boucher, and Greuze ; was called 
to Dresden in 1770, made member of the 
Academy, then professor in 1774, and as- 
sistant director in 1777. His works, while 
full of imagination and skilful in compo- 
sition, are deficient in drawing. Works : 
Crucifixion (1790), Kreuzkirche, Dresden ; 
Pandora ; Icarus and Danlalus ; Priam 
begging Achilles for the Body of his Son ; 
Allegory on Recovery of the Electress ; 
Old Man reading the Bible, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Young Lady dancing before Mirror, 
Weimar Museum. — Nagler, xv. 181. 

SCHENCK, AUGUST FREDERIC AL- 
BRECHT, born at Gliickstadt, Holstein, 



127 



SCIIENDEL 



April 23, 1828. Animal painter, pupil in 
Paris of Cogniet ; lives at Ecouen, near Paris. 
Medals : Paris, 1865 ; Philadelphia, 1876 ; 
Orders of Christ of Portugal, and of Isabel- 
la the Catholic. Works : Rest on Seashore 
(1864), Awakening of Herd (1865), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; On the Mountain (1866) ; 
Last Hour of Sheai'ing (1868) ; Donke3'S 
around the Trough, Goatherd in Snowstorm 
(1870) ; My Umbrella (1875) ; Mountain 
Road (1877) ; Auguish, Neighbouring Mill 
(1878) ; Dindons trouvant un supplement 
(1883) ; Perdus — Souvenir of Auvergne, 
Miss C. L. Wolfe, New York ; Rappel— Sou- 
venir of Auvergne, Study (1884) ; The Or- 
phan (1885) ; The Struggle (1886).— Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 784 ; Miiller, 463. 

SCHEXDEL, PETRUS VAN, born at Ter 
Hey den. North Bra- 
bant, April 21, 1806, 
died in Brussels, De- 
cember 28, 1870. 
History and genre 
painter, j^upil in 
1822-28 of Antwerp 
Academy under Van 
Bree ; settled first in 
Amsterdam, then in 
Rotterdam, where he 
made a reputation with his portraits ; went 
to The Hague, and in 1845 to Brussels ; 
became known especially through his mar- 
ket scenes with light effects. Medals in 
Amsterdam ; Brussels, 1845 ; and Paris, 
1844, 1847. Works : Market in Friesland 
by Moonlight, Amsterdam Museum ; St. 
Jerome, Hague Museum ; Kitchen Scene 
(1834), Hamburg Gallery ; Evening Market 
in Antwerp ; Fish Seller (1843), Vegetable 
Market (1852), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Return from Hunt (1839), Scene in Fish 
Market, Leipsic Museum ; Market in Ant- 
werp by Moonlight (1843), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Vegetable Vender, Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; Almsgiving, Villa Rosenstein, near 
Stuttgart ; Christmas at Bethlehem. — Art 
Journal (1867), 70 ; Immerzeel, iii. 67 ; 
Kramm, v. 1474 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 157. 




SCHERRES, KARL, born in Konigsberg, 
March 31, 1833. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Kunigsberg Academy under Behrendsen, 
with whom he visited in 1853 the Rhine 
country, Switzerland, and North Italy ; set- 
tled in Dantzic in 1858, returned to Konigs- 
berg in 1866, and, induced by Eduard Hilde- 
brandt, went in 1867 to Berlin, whence he 
visited Diisseldorf, Dresden, and Munich. 
Professor at School of Design for Female 
Ai-tists in Berlin since 1868. Works : Ap- 
proaching Storm (1855) ; After Sunset in a 
Swamp, Border of Oak Wood, Snowstorm 
in a Village (1858-66) ; Views in East Prus- 
sia (2, 1867, 1878), Kunigsberg Museum ; 
Great Landscape with Figures (by Stryowski 
and Sy), Artushof, Dantzic ; Inundation in 
East Prussia (1876), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Two Marines from Zoj^pot near Dant- 
zic (1883).— Jordan (1885), ii. 195 ; Leixner, 
Mod. K., i. 57 ; ii. 118 ; Miiller, 464 ; Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malersch., 346 ; Zeitschi'. f. b. 
K, xviii. 377, 405. 

SCHERTL, JOSEF, born in Augsburg, 
Jan. 10, 1810, died in Munich, March 8, 
1869. Landscape j)ainter, pupil in Munich 
of Fohr and Morgenstern. Works : View 
on Chiem Lake ; View at Partenkirchen ; 
do. near Grainau, Art Union, Munich ; Hin- 
tersee. Art Union, Frankfort. — Dioskuren, 
1869 ; Kunst-Chronik, iv. 161 ; Regnet, ii. 
172. 

SCHETKY, JOHN CHRISTIAN, born in 
Edinburgh, Aug. 11, 1778, died in London, 
Jan. 28, 1874. Marine painter, pupil of 
Alexander Nasmyth ; in 1801 he walked from 
Paris through Switzerland to Rome ; on his 
return settled at Oxford as an art teacher ; 
was appointed professor of drawing at the 
Royal Military College at Great Marlow in 
1808, and at the Royal Naval College at 
Portsmouth, with which he was connected 
until its dissolution in 1836 ; appointed to 
the East India College at Addiscombe, he 
retired from it in 1855 ; visited Lisbon in 
1861. Was marine painter to George IV., 
William IV., and Queen Victoria. Works: 
The Royal George sinking at Spithead in 



128 



SCPIEUCHZEE 



1782 (about 1840), National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Battle of La Hogue (1847) ; Kescue of 
a Spanish ]VIan-of-War, United Service Club. 

SCHEUCHZER, WILHELM, born in 
Zurich in 1803, died in Munich, March 29, 
1866. Landscape and architecture painter, 
pupil of Heinrich Maurer ; visited Switzer- 
land, and in 1826-29 the Black Forest ; went 
in 1829 to Munich, and executed in 1836 six 
fresco paintings for Castle Hohenschwangau. 
Made admirable copies in water-colours of 
Rottmann's frescos. Works : Melting Fur- 
nace in Ferrara Valley, Entrance into Vils- 
alp Valley— Tyrol, St. Gall Museum ; View 
in Fulscher Valley — Tyrol, Zurich Gallery ; 
Chapel of Ariola (1832), Hamburg Gallery ; 
Old Chapel near Taufers (1858) ; Upper Inn 
Valley (1859) ; Smithy in the AUgiiu (1860), 
Ufenau Island in Lake of Zurich (1861), New 
Pinakothek, Munich. — Kunst-Chronik, i. 52. 

SCHEUREN, KASPAR, born at Aix-la- 
Cliapelle, Aug. 2, 1810. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Diisseldoi-f Academy in 1829-35 
under Lessing and Schirmer ; visited Hol- 
land, Munich, Tyrol, and North Italy; adopt- 
ed a peculiarly romantic style and excels in 
effects of colouring ; acquired great rejauta- 
tion through his arabesque drawings for 
title-jjages, dedications, etc. Became j:)ro- 
fessor at Diisseldorf Academy in 1855. Swed- 
ish medal for Art and Science ; Order of 
Red Eagle, do. of Falcon. Works : Castle 
by the Water (1829), Hamburg Gallery; 
Castle in Evening Light (1830), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Dutch Landscape (1832) ; Gypsies 
under Oak Trees (1831) ; View of Aix-la- 
Chapelle (1834), Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; 
Storm Landscape, Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Land- 
scape with Monks (1834) ; Monk Praying in 
Convent Yard, Provinzial Museum, Han- 
over ; Castle on the Lake (1837), Bui-g in 
Aar Valley (1838), Leipsic Museum ; Winter 
Landscape at Sunset (1839), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Old Castle on a Lake, Stettin 
Museum ; Pictures (24 water-colours) from 
Legends and History of the Rhine, Cologne 
Museum.— Kugler, Kl. Schr., iii.; Miiller, 
464 ; W. Miiller, DUsseldf. K, 363^ 



SCHEURENBERG, JOSEF, bom inDiis- 
seldoi-f, Sept. 7, 1846. Genre painter, pupil 
of Diisseldorf Academy under Carl Sohn, 
then of Wilhelm Sohn ; visited Belgium 
(1868), Holland (1870 and 1878), Berlin 
(1871-74), Dresden, Weimar, North Italy 
(1875 and 1877), and Paris. Professor at 
Cassel Academy in 1879-81, then settled in 
Berlin. Woi'ks : Song of Olden Times 
(1868); Farewell (1869); Travelling Min- 
strel (1872); Interesting Reading (1873); 
The Lord's Day (1879), National GaUery, 
BerUn ; Two Playing Children (1883) ; Rus- 
tic Love Couple (1884).— Jordan (1885), ii. 
196 ; Miiller, 465 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 
647 ; xix. 383 ; xx. 701 ; xxi. 289 ; Kunst f. 
Alle, i. 99 ; D. Rundschau, xvdi. 302 ; Zeitsehr. 
f. b. K., XX. 40. 

SCHIAVA, LA (The Slave), Palma Vec- 
chio, but attributed to Titian, Palazzo Bar- 
berini, Rome ; canvas, life-size. A girl in 
the bloom of youth, her throat covered with 
a light white stuff striped in red, her skirt 
and sleeves red, with slashes showing a white 
lining, her undersleeves yellow. — C. & C, 
N. Italy, ii. 477 ; Burckhardt, 714, 722. 

SCHIAVONE, ANDREA, born at Sebeni- 
co, Dalmatia, in 
1522 (?), died in 
Venice in 1582. 
Venetian 
school ; proper 
name Medula 
or Medola, but 
commonly 
called Lo Schi- 
avone (the 
Slav). Went 
when young to Venice and studied the works 
of Giorgione and Titian, but had little spe- 
cial instniction. Obliged through i^overty 
to work as a house decorator ; attracted at- 
tention of Titian, who pi'ocured him more 
suitable employment ; but, although he led 
a laborious life, died in povert}'. Though a 
poor designer, he was remarkable as a col- 
ourist. He was more successful in cabinet 
pictures, some of which are charming, than 




129 



SCIIIAYONE 



in large compositions. Among his best 
works are : Adoration of the Shepherds, 
Holy Family, Vienna Museum ; Jupiter and 
lo, jMadonua Enthroned (Vierge au Dona- 
teur), and a grouj) of portraits, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Death of /16f/, and four por- 
traits, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Madonna, 
Buda-Pesth Gallery. The identity of Schia- 
vone and the engraver Andi*ea Meldolla, de- 
nied by Zani and Bartsch, has been satisfac- 
torily proved by Ernest Hagen, of Hamburg 
(Kunstblatt, No. 37, 1853). His engravings 
(dry-point and burin on tin), generally after 

Parmigiano, are carelessly executed. — Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole venitienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 
596 ; Bartsch, xvi. 31 ; C. & C, Titian, i. 
438. 

SCHIAVONE, GREGORIO, born in Dal- 
matia, 1st half of 15th century. Veneto- 
Paduan school ; called Giorgio by Sanso- 
vino, and Girolamo by Ridolfi. Pupil of 
Squarcione ; attained a certain rude free- 
dom and boldness, but faces and forms ex- 
aggerated and unnatural. Among his best 
works are : Madonna with Saints, do. with 
Angels, National Gallery, London ; Ma- 
donna, Berlin Museum. — C. & C, N. Italy, 
i. 342. 

SCHIAVONI, FELICE, born at Trieste 
in 1803, died in 1868. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Natale 
Schiavoni, then studied in the galleries at 
Milan, where he won a prize at the" Academy, 
and at Venice and Vienna, worthily repre- 
senting his famous ancestor, Andrea Scia- 
voni, and upholding the traditions of the 
old Venetian school, especially as a colour- 
ist. Member of Venice and Vienna Acade- 
mies. Prize and great gold medal for art 
from the Emperor Nicholas of Russia. 
Works: Death of Raphael (for Emperor 
Alexander H.); Miracle of St. Antliony of 
Padua ; St. Simon, S. Antonio, Trieste ; 
Raphael and the Fornarina, Tosi Gallery, 
Venice ; Cupid (for theBrera, Milan); Christ 



bearing the Cross ; Christ Asleep ; Torquato 
Tasso reading to Eleonora ; Repose in 
Egypt (1824) ; Venus and Cupid (1832) ; 
Madonna (1854) ; Raphael painting the 
Fornarina (1861), formerly in Arthaber Col- 
lection, Vienna ; Holy Family (1864). His 
daughters Carolina and Julia were also 
talented painters, the former of landscapes, 
the latter of history and portraits. — Illustr 
Zeitg. (1868), i. 461 ; Wurzbach, xxix. 254. 

SCHIAVONI, NATALE, born at Chiog- 
gia, April 25, 1777, died in Venice, April 
15, 1858. History and portrait paintei', 
pupil in Venice of Miggiotto ; went in 1800 
to Trieste, and in 1810 to Milan, where he 
painted Eugene Beauharnais and the whole 
royal family ; in 1816 invited by the Em- 
peror to Vienna, whence he returned to 
Venice in 1821 ; there studied exclusively 
the works of Titian and Paolo Veronese, 
and became professor at the Academy. 
Gold medal, Brussels. Works : Magdalen 
Penitent (1852), National Gallery, Berhn ; 
do., Vienna Museum ; Bacchante, Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Adoration of Shep- 
herds, British Museum, London. His sons 
Felice (1803-68) and Giovanni (1804-48) 
were also able history painters, and often 
painted conjointly with their father. Pict- 
ures by them in the Brera Gallery, Milan, 
Vienna Museum, and Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg.— Hormayr, Archiv. (1821), No. 129 ; 
(1824), Nos. 105, 106 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
196 ; D. Kunstbl. (1851) ; Wurzbach, xxix. 
254, 257, 258. 

SCHICK, GOTTLIEB, born in Stutt- 
gart, Aug. 15, 1779, died there, April 11, 
1812. History painter, pupil of Hetsch, 
and greatly influenced by Danuecker ; went 
in 1799 to Paris to study under David, re- 
turned in 1802, then studied in Ronie until 
1811 ; befriended especially by Humboldt 
and Josef Koch ; with the latter, Carstens, 
and Wiichter, one of the regenerators of 
German art. Works : Eve at a Spring, Co- 
logne Museum ; David before Saul (1803), 
Apollo among the Shepherds (1809), David 
before Saul, Bacchus and Ariadne, Portrait 



130 



SCHICK 




of Dannecker, Museum, Stuttgart ; Noah's 
Thank-Offering (1805), Royal Palace, ib.— 
Forster, iv. 69 ; Haakh, Beitnige, 13, 23, 
59 ; Kugler, Kl. Schr., 8. 

SCHICK, KARL FRIEDRICH, born at 
Hilpertsau, Baden, April 17, 1826, died at 
Tretenbof, June 26, 1875. Genre and his- 
tory painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy. 
Works : Dead Child viewed by his Play- 
mates, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Susanna and the 
Elders, Dresden Museum. 

SCHIDONE (Schedoue), BARTOLOM- 
MEO, born in 
Modena about 
1570 (?), died 
there, Dec. 27, 
1615. Lom- 
bard school; 
said to have 
been a pupil of 
the Carracci, 
but his style 
shows careful 
study of CoiTeggio, whose works he imi- 
tated, but without servility. Patronized by 
Duke Ranuccio of Modena, for whom he 
painted some admirable pictures. His fres- 
cos of the History of Coriolanus, in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, have been called worthy of 
Correggio. He was an excellent portrait 
painter, but his favourite subjects were Ma- 
donnas and Holy Families. He left but few 
pictures, as he wasted his time in gambling, 
and his death is said to have been caused 
by grief at a heavy loss of money. His best 
works are : Repose of Love, Portrait, Christ 
crowned with Thorns, SS. Jerome, Paul, and 
Sebastian, Naples Museum ; Painter's Poi'- 
trait, Holy Family, Uffizi, Florence ; Ma- 
donna, Pallavicini Gallery, Genoa ; Last 
Supper, Parma Gallery ; Madonna del Cam- 
panello, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Children, 
Heads, Turin Gallery ; Flight into Egypt, 
Dresden Gallery ; Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, St. John Baptist, Madonna, Two Holy 
Families, Madonna and Saints, Diana, Cu- 
pid, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Lanzi, ii. 
360 ; Siret, 8-15 ; Seguier, 188 ; Burckhardt, 



626, 764, 784, 795 ; Ch. Blanc, :^cole lom- 
barde. 

SCHIERTZ, AUGUST FERDINAND, 

born at Leipsic in 1804, died at Nieder- 
filhre, near Meissen, Sept. 10, 1878. Genre 
and history painter ; was at first a merchant, 
then an actor, before devoting himself to 
art in 1830. In his genre scenes he adhered 
to the old Dutch school. Was also an ex- 
cellent restorer of old pictures. Works : 
Vauitas, Museum, Leipsic; The Contented 
Ones, President Giinther, ib.; Toper, Mrs. 
Dr. Mothes, ib.; Adoration of the Magi, 
Church at Busenstlidt ; Christ and the Trib- 
ute Money, Descending of the Holy Ghost, 
Church at Podelwitz. 

SCHIESS, TRAUGOTT, born at Herisau, 
Switzerland, in 1834. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Munich of Steffan, and in Zurich 
of Koller, also influenced by Bocklin in Ba- 
sle ; visited afterwards Cologne and Ant- 
werp. Medal, Berne, 1857. Works : View 
on Wallen Lake, Waterfall in Averse Valley, 
View in Glarner Mountains, St. Gall Mu- 
seum ; View near Iseltwald on Lake of Bri- 
enz, do. near Murg on Wallen Lake, Zurich 
Gallery ; Plateau in Swiss Alps ; Summer 
Evening ; Cows at the Water. 

SCHIFFER, ANTON, born at Gratz in 
1811, died in Vienna, June 13, 1876. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. 
Works : View of the Schueeberg (1838), 
Museum, Vienna ; Grundel Lake in Upper 
Austria, Harrach Gallery, ib. ; View on Hin- 
tersee near Berchtesgaden (1845) ; Outlook 
from Schafberg near Ischl (1858) ; View of 
the Grossglockner (1870) ; Gosau Lake with 
the Dachstein (1871). — Cotta's Kunstbl., 
1845 ; D. Kunstbl., 1858 ; Wurzbach, xxix. 
291. 

SCHIFFER, MATHIAS, born at Puch, 
Styria, in 1742 or 1746, died after 1808. 
Landscape and architecture painter ; no 
particulars known. Works : Interior of 
Catholic Church (2, 1786, 1787), Schweriu 
Gallery ; others at R;^tisbon and Gratz. 

SCHIFFMANN, JOST, born at Luzerne, 
Switzerland, March 30, 1822, died in Mu- 



SCIIILBACH 



nich, May 11, 1888. Landscape and still- 
life painter, puj^il of Jacob Schwegler, a 
drawing-master ; being without means he 
joined in 1843 the papal Swiss guard in 
Rome, cultivating art in his leisure hours ; 
having seen active service in 1848-49, he 
returned to Luzerne, and soon after settled 
in Munich. On a visit to Salzburg he met 
Hans Makart, just dismissed from the Vien- 
na Academy, and took him to Munich. Ap- 
pointed Conservator of the Salzburg Muse- 
lun, he resigned in 1881, after more than 
ten years of eilficient labours, and returned 
to Munich. Works : View in Tyrol, St. Gall 
Museum ; Shore of Wallenstadt Lake (1853); 
Morning on Lake Luzei-ne ; Evening Land- 
scape (1854); Cemetery (1857); Souvenir of 
Wallenstadt Lake (1858) ; Old little Town 
on the Rhine (1861). — Tscharner, Die bild. 
K in der Schweiz im J. 1883 (1884), 56. 

SCHILBACH, J. HEINRICH, born at 
Barchfeld in 1798, died at Darmstadt in 
1851. Landscape painter, pupil of Prima- 
vesi in Darmstadt, then studied from nature 
in Italy, 1823; was much influenced by Ernst 
Fries, and became court painter at Darm- 
stadt in 1828. He was very happy in depict- 
ing momentary effects of light. Works : 
Castello Gandolfo on Lake Albano (1839), 
Darmstadt Museum ; View of the Capitol 
in Rome, do. of Forum Romanum, Thor- 
waldsen Museum, Copenhagen ; View of 
Imperial Palaces in Rome ; View of Rome ; 
do. of Mentz.— Cotta's Kunstbl., 1829-33. 

SCHILCHER, FRIEDRICH, born in Vi- 
enna in 1811, died there in 1881. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy, and studied from nature in Hungary, 
Transylvania, and Wallachia. Works : Bac- 
chante, Vienna Musevim ; Roumanian (1855); 
Lady of Time of Louis XIV. (1856) ; Hun- 
garian Tinker (1861) ; Tambourine Player 
{1864) ; Triumph of Neptune (1871).— 
W^urzbach, xxix. 312. 

SCHILGEN, PHILIPP ANTON, born at 
Osnabriick in 1793, died there in 1857. 
History painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Cornelius, with whom he went 



to Munich in 1825. Works : Rape of Helen, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Scenes from 
Tragedies of J^schylus, Royal Palace, ib. ; 
Establishment of Succession in Bavaria, Ar- 
cades, Royal Garden, ib. — Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1829) ; Forster, v. 

SCHINDLER, ALBERT, born at Engels- 
berg, Silesia, Aug. 19, 1805, died in Vienna, 
May 3, 1861. Genre painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy under Fendi. Works : Cap- 
uchin giving Communion to Officer dying 
in his Cell (1834), Vienna Museum ; Recruit- 
ing (1839); Last Pilgrimage (1840); Officer's 
Farewell (1841), Count Victor Wimpffen, 
Vienna. — Wurzbach, xxx. 1 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xii. 128. 

SCHINDLER, EMIL JAKOB, born in 
Vienna in 1842. Landscape painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Vienna Academy and of 
Albert Zimmermann, and studied after 
Dutch masters, such as Hobbema and Ruis- 
dael ; later adhered to the style of French 
masters, especially Theodore Rousseau. 
Medals: Munich, 1883; Berlin, 1886. 
Works : Forest Smithy (1864) ; Priener 
Miihlen VaUey (1866) ; Kiss in the Woods 
(1869) ; Views in the Prater (1870, 1871, 
1872, 1873); Wood Choppers (1873); Moon- 
I'ise on March River ; Autumn Landscape on 
the Fischa ; two Views on Isle of Lacroma 
(1879) ; View near Ziitj^hen, View at Haslau 
on the Danube (1883); 24 Cartoons for Zed- 
litz's Waldfriiulein. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xxi. 804 ; Wurzbach, xxx. 8 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xviii. 512 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 128. 

SCHINDLER, JOHANN JOSEF, born at 
St. Polten, Lower Austria, July 28, 1777, 
died in Vienna, July 22, 1836. Landscape 
and genre painter, pupil and afterwards 
member of Vienna Academy, Court painter. 
Works : Landscape with Ruins, Battle be- 
tween Frederic the Warlike and King Bela 
of Hungary (1820); View of Salzburg (1828); 
Travellers attacked by Wolves (1830) ; The 
Fire in the Prater in 1833 (1834), Vienna 
Museum. — Wurzbach, xxx. 10. 

SCHINKEL, KARL FRIEDRICH, Dr., 
born at Neu-Ruppin, March 13, 1781, died 



SCIimiN'^AGL 




in Berlin, Oct. 9, 1841. Landscape painter, 
self-taught and an able master, although 
better known as an 
architect. Works : 
Ideal Landscapes 
(1815, 1820), Eocky 
Gate, Italian Land- 
scape (1817), six dec- 
orative Land- 
scapes, Mountain 
Lake (1823), Castle 
by a Lake (1823), 
Ideal Landscapes 
(3),Gothic Cathedral, Harvest Festival (1826), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; others, and Col- 
lection of Drawings and Sketches, Schinkel 
Museum, ib. — Botticher, Fr. Schinkel uud 
seine Werke ; Grimm, Rede auf Schinkel 
(Berlin, 1867); Jordan (1885), ii. 198 ; Kug- 
ler, K. Fr. Schinkel (Berlin, 1842); Quast, 
do. (Neu-Ruppin, 1866) ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 99 ; Springer, Gesch., 37 ; Wol- 
zogen, Aus Schinkel's Nachlass ; do., Schink- 
el als Architect, etc. (Berlin, 1864); Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, iii. 89. 

SCHINNAGL, JklAX JOSEF, born at 
Burghausen, Bavaria, in 1694, died in Vi- 
enna, March 22, 1762. Landscape painter, 
pupil of his step-father, Joseph Kammer- 
lohr. Travelled, and settled in Vienna. His 
figures were painted by Janneck and K. 
Aigen. Works : Six Landscapes, Vienna 
Museum ; St. Anna, Frauenkirche, Alten- 
Oetting ; Hunting Party riding to Falcon 
Chase, Huntsmen by Dead Game, Aschaffen- 
burg Gallery ; Landscapes with Figures (2), 
Schleissheim Gallery. — Wurzbach, xxx. 30 ; 
Nagler, xv. 261. 

SCHIOTT, HEINRICH, born at Elsinore, 
Dec. 17, 1823. Portrait and genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academ3% where he 
won two medals in 1846 ; visited Paris, Lon- 
don, and Italy in 1850, and after his return 
painted several members of the royal family ; 
afterwards visited Norway and Iceland, and 
in 1872-73 Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and 
Italy. Member of Copenhagen Academy in 
1854 ; professor in 1866. Works : Portrait 



of Lund (1854) ; Genre Scenes from Noi-so 
Countiy Life ; Landscapes and Ai'chitectural 
Views in Egypt and Syria. — Weilbach, 613. 

SCHIRMER, (AUGUST) WILHELM 
(FERDINAND), born in Berlin, May 6, 
1802, died at Nyon, on Lake Geneva, June 
8, 1866. Landscape painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy, and greatly influenced by 
Schinkel; studied in Italy in 1827-30, allied 
with Koch, Reiuhardt, and Turner ; in 1831 
opened a studio in Berlin, which attracted 
many pupils ; in 1835 became member, in 
1839 professoi', and in 1852 senator of the 
Academy ; visited Italy again in 1845 and 
1865, when he fell seriously ill at Rome and 
died on his way home. Works : Tasso's 
House in Sorrento (1837), Park Landscape 
(1856), Coast near Naples (1864), National 
Gallery, Berlin. In fresco : Pyramids of 
Memphis, Corridor in Pyramid of Cheops, 
View of ^gina with Temple, View of Phi- 
galia with Temple (1850), New Museum, ib. 
— Dioskuren, 1866 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 200 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, i. 101 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 326. 

SCHIRMER, JOHANN WILHELM, born 
at Jiilich, Rhenish 
Prussia, Sept. 5, 
1807, died in Carls- 
ruhe, Sej^t. 11, 
1863. Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Acade- 
my under Schadow, 
when he studied his- 
tory painting, un- \ z \ r / 
til Lessing's land- ^ "^ 
scapes induced him to take up that branch 
of art, in which he became famous as a rep- 
resentative of historical landscape in the 
style of Poussin ; visited Belgium (1830), 
the Black Forest and Switzerland (1835), 
Holland (1837), Normandy (1838), Italy 
(1839); became in 1830 assistant professor, 
in 1839 professor at Diisseldorf Academy, 
and in 1853 dii-ector of the Carlsruhe Art 
School, which he reorganized. Member of 
Berlin and Dresden Academies. Works : 




133 



SCIIISCIIKIK 



Lonely Pond in Oak Wood (1832); Convent 
of St. Scliolastica, six Biblical Landscapes 
with Life of Abraham, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Autumn Landscape (1834), Arem- 
hcrg Gallery, Brussels ; Mountain Road 
(1839), Darmstadt Gallery ; Grotto of Ege- 
ria (1841), Park in Evening Light (1847), 
Nether German Landscape (1864), Leipsic 
Museum ; Italian Landscape (1842), Inun- 
dation, Series of 2G Biblical Landscapes, 
Diisseldorf Gallery; Swiss Landscape (1844). 
Christiania Museum ; Storm (1848), Prague 
Gallery ; Moonlight with Rape of Hylas, Ital- 
ian Landscape, Provinzial Museum, Han- 
over ; Calm Evening after Stormy Day 
(1849), Konigsberg Museum ; Path on For- 
est Border (1850), Hamburg Gallery ; In- 
undation in the Woods (1853), Brunswick 
Gallery ; Via Mala (1853), four Landscapes 
with Story of Good Samaritan (1856-57), 
Storm in the Campagna (1858), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; replica of Samaritan Cycle, Cassel 
Art Union ; Biblical Landscape, Stuttgart 
i, Museum ; North German 

>$ ^ Landscape, St. Gall Mu- 

^^/^/ • "V^ seum. — Andresen, ii. 303 ; 
^j ^ p Forster, v. 406 ; Jordan 

J, VV. J. (1885), ii. 199; Wolfg. 

Muller, Dusseldf. K, 323 ; 

Riegel, D. Kunststud., 365 ; 

D. Rundschau, xi. 381 ; 
xii. 34, 233 ; Springer, Gesch., 171 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K., i. 158. 

SCHISCHKIN, JOHANN, born at Jela- 
buga. Government of Viatka, Jan. 13, 1827. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Moscow Art 
School and St. Petersburg Academy, where 
lie won the first prize in 1863, and of which 
he became a member in 1866. Professor in 
1873 ; Order of Stanislaus. Works : Dilajji- 
dated Bridge (1868) ; Pine Forest (1871) ; 
Interior of Pximeval Forest (1873), St. 
Petersburg Academy ; First Snow, Dawn in 
Spring (1874). 

SCHLEICH, EDUARD, born atHarbach, 
Bavaria, Oct. 12, 1812, died in Munich, Jan. 
8, 1874. Landscape painter, self-taught by 
study of nature in Bavarian Alps, Tyrol, and 





North Italy, and after the old masters in the 
Munich and Schleissheim Galleries. Hav- 
ing been dismissed 
from the Munich 
Academy as "without 
talent," he took for 
his models Etzdorf, 
Morgen stern, and 
Rottmann, and be- 
came, after the latter, 
the most distin- 
guished landscape 
painter of the Munich school, upon which 
he exerted signal influence ; visited France, 
Belgium, Hungary, and Italy. Professor in 
1868 ; honorary member of Munich and sev- 
eral other Academies. Gold medal, Berlin ; 
Order of Michael. Works : Evening Land- 
scape, National Gallery, Berlin ; Alp in 
Tyrol, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Starnberg Lake, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Cattle Herd crossing 
Water, Dresden Gallery ; Alp in the Algau, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Isar Meadows near 
Munich (1861), Konigsberg Museum ; View 
in Isar Valley (1858), Village with Church 
and Castle, Storm near Coast, Village near 
Basing, Sketches (8, 1874), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Starnberg Lake, Alp in Zlller Val- 
ley, Venice by Moonlight, Schack Gallery, 
ib. ; Moonlight near Rotterdam (1873), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Village 
Landscape, View on the Wiirm, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Storm Landscape (1851) ; View 
near Dachau (1856) ; Moonlight Night in 
Normandy (1858) ; Isar Meadows near Mu- 
nich (1860) ; Foggy Morning on Starnberg 
Lake (1860) ; Herrenchiem Lake (1871).— 
Dioskuren (1875), No. 14 ; Cotta's Kunstbl., 
1830-40 ; D. Kunstbl., 1850-58 ; Graph. K, 
V. 6 ; Rlustr. Zeitg. (1874), i. 231 ; Jordan, 
(1885), ii. 201; Regnet, ii. 181; Schack, 
Meine Gemaldesammlung (1884), 225 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, ix. 161. 

SCHLEISNER, CHRISTIAN AN- 
DREAS, born at Lyngby, near Copenhagen, 
Nov. 2, 1810. Genre painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy, where he won med- 
als in 1831, 1833 ; studied while travelling 



134 



SCIILESINGER 



and in the Munich Gallery ; returned to 
Copenhagen in 1842 ; became member of 
the Academy in 1852, and professor in 1858. 
Works : Coppersmith reading Letter to his 
Wife (18il) ; Poulterer (1842), New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Grandmother teaching her 
Grandson to Pray (1842), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Zealand Fisherman Family (1857), Sailors 
in a Tavern (1861), Kuusthalle, Hamburg ; 
Scene from Danish Sailor-Life (1848), Cop- 
persmith in his Workshop (1859), Copen- 
hagen Gallery. — Weilbach, 614, 

SCHLESINGER, ADAM, born at Eberts- 
^eim, Bavaria, in 1759, died in 1829. 
Still-life painter. Works : Currant Bush 
with Bird's Nest, Strawberry Plant with 
Snail, etc. (1820), National Gallery, Berlin. 

SCHLESINGER, FELIX, born in Ham- 
burg, Oct. 9, 1833. Genre painter, pupil of 
Diisseldorf Academy and of Jordan ; lived 
for several years in Paris, and settled in Mu- 
nich. Works : Peasants in Holstein prepar- 
ing to go to Church (1854), Hamburg Gal- 
lery ; Saved from Shipwreck ; Post Office ; 
Children at the Well (1864); Young Couple's 
Visit to Parents (1866); At the Jeweller's ; In 
Danger, Out of Danger (1883).— Miiller, 468. 

SCHLESINGER, HENRI GUILLAUME, 
born in Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1814. 
Genre painter, pupil of the Vienna Academy, 
but went early to Paris, where he was natu- 
ralized and has since lived. Popular paint- 
er of light subjects. Medals : 3d class, 
1840 ; 2d class, 1847 ; L. of Honour, 1866. 
Works : Seductions of Life, Walk to Church 
(1840) ; Spanish Guerillas, Margaret and the 
Tempter (1842) ; If Youth oidy Knew (1843); 
Harem Favourites, The Meal (1844) ; One 
of Rousseau's Days, Blind Man's Buff (1845); 
Bridge of Love (1846) ; Little Marguerite, 
A Harem, A Romance (1847) ; Voltaire's 
First Love (1848) ; Love's Confidences 
(1850) ; Improvising (1851) ; A Likeness 
Guaranteed (1853); Happiness in the Moun- 
tains, Hunting Butterflies, The Betrothed 
(1855) ; When the Masters are away (1857); 
Last Sitting of Charlotte Corday to the 
Artist Houer (1859); Foot-Bath, Tempta- 



tion, The Reception (1860) ; Festival of the 
Madonna (1864) ; Five Senses (1865) ; Car- 
mela, Reading (1866) ; Christmas Eve, Dead 
Bird (1867) ; Maria del Marco, Alone in the 
Studio (1868) ; Good Friends (1869) ; Tak- 
ing Pains for Nothing (1872) ; ^Miss Mi.s- 
chievous (1873) ; Brother and Sister (1874); 
The Dove-cot, Jane (1875) ; Like Grand- 
mother (1877) ; Broken Pot, IMistress's Bon- 
net (1879) ; Double Ai-rest (1880) ; Love in 
Old Times and Nowadays (1882) ; Modern 
Venus, Bohemienne (1884) ; Young Girl of 
Morocco (1885) ; The Favourite (1886).— 
Claretie, Peintres, 110 ; Larousse ; Muller, 
468. 

SCHLESINGER, KARL, bom at Lau- 
sanne in 1826. Genre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Hamburg of Hermann Kauff- 
mann, in 1844 of Prague Academy under 
Ruben, and in 1850 of Antwerp Academy 
under Dyckmans ; settled in Diisseldorf in 
1852. Works : Emigrants going Aboard 
(1851), Wandering Musicians (1859), Even- 
ing on the Moselle (1863), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Moonlight with Priest carrying 
Viaticum, Pi-ovinzial Museum, Hanover ; 
Memento Mori (1880).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 786 ; Muller, 468. 

SCHLICHTEN, JAN PHILIPS VAN 
DER, flourished about 1720, died in Mann- 
heim in 1745. Dutch school ; history and 
genre painter, pupil of Adriaan van der 
Wei-ff ; painted for the Elector Charles 
Philip of the Palatinate. Works : St. An- 
drew with the Cross (1732) ; Village Mu- 
sician (1731), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Tyrolese Peasant (1730), do. Woman, Lute- 
Player, Schleissheim Gallery. 

SCHLOEPKE, THEODOR, born at 
Schwerin, March 6, 1812, died there, Jan. 
13, 1878. Portrait, genre, battle, and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Berlin Academy, 
whence he returned to Schwerin in 1840 ; 
studied in Paris under Horace Vernet in 
1847-48, and again in 1855-57 ; accompa- 
nied the Mecklenburg troops during the 
campaign in Schleswig-Holstein, and was 
made court painter in 1853. During his 



135 



SCHLOSSER 



^i 



second stay in Paxis lie won the favour of 
Najjoleon III. and painted the Empress 
Eugenie for the palace at St. Cloud ; spent 
the winter of 1874:-75 in Italy and painted 
in Rome and Pompeii landscapes and archi- 
tecture pieces. Works : Stable Boy's Joy 
(1836), Horse Stable (1845), Ride of Witches 
to the Blocksberg (1853), Russian Team, 
I i Death of Niclot (1857), Skirmish 

^— ^^» near Walsmiihlen iu 1719, Por- 
traits of Fritz Renter (18G6), Gus- 
tav zu Putlitz (18C6), Gaston Len- 
the (18G8), Friedrich Kucken 
(1869), Count Friedrich von Schack (1875), 
Grand Duke Paul Friedrich, and of himself, 
(1876), Schwerin Gallery.— Schhe, 67. 

SCHLOSSER, HER^IANN (JULIUS), 
born in Elberfeld, Dec. 21, 1832. History 
jmioter, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy under 
Karl Sohu ; took prize of Berlin Academy 
in 1860 ; lived several years in Paris, and 
settled in Rome. Gold medal, Berlin, 1870. 
Works : Maid of Orleans ; Venus rising 
from the Sea (1871) ; Thetis surprised by 
Peleus (1872), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; The- 
seus and Ariadne ; Pandora before Prome- 
theus and Epimetheus (1878), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin.— Miiller, 469 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, vi. 107 ; Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 14. 

SCHLOSSER, KARL, born in Darmstadt 
in 183 6. Genre 
painter, jDupil in 
Frankfort of Jakob 
Becker, and in Paris 
of Couture ; settled 
about 1875 in Lon- 
don, where he ex- 
hibits at the Royal 
Academy and the 
Grosvenor Gallery. 
Medal, Vienna ; 
Knight of Oi-der of Merit. Works : Last 
Rehearsal ; Political Adversaries (1871) ; 
First Bottle of Champagne ; Obligatory In- 
struction (1875) ; Village Lawyer (1876) ; 
Forbidden Fruit (bought by Napoleon IH.); 
Reprimand ; Advice in Need (1878), Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; The Refectory (1877) ; 




Carriage Accident, Grocer's Shop in Tyrol 
(1878) ; Political Discussion, Sunset at San 
Remo, Compulsory Education (1879) ; Sou- 
venir de Palermo (1880) ; Singiug Lesson, 
Finishing Touch, A Duet (1881) ; Out of 
Tune, Pianissimo, An Intermezzo (1882); Old 
Friends, A Book Worm, Palermo (1884) ; 
From Bordigherra (1885); An Old Bachelor 
(1886).— Gaz. des B. Arts (1865), xviii. 319, 
522 ; (1867), xxii. 537. 

SCHLOTTHAUER, JOSEF, born in Mu- 
nich, March 14, 1789, died there, June 15, 
1869. History painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy. Painted some of the frescos in 
the Glyptothek after Cornelius's cartoons. 
Visited Rome in 1830 ; became professor at 
Munich Academy in 1831 ; went to Pompeii 
in 1844 to study ancient painting. With 
Fuchs he invented in 1846 stereochromy, a 
method of preserving the colours of frescos, 
used by Kaulbach in the Berlin Museum. 
W^orks : Christ crowned with Thorns ; Al- 
tarpieces (1838), Bamberg Cathedral. — 
Kunst-Chronik, iv. 181. 

SCHMALZ, HERBERT, born in Eng- 
land ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter ; exhibits at the Royal Academy 
and the Grosvenor Gallery. Works : Mu- 
riel, Sir Galahad (1881) ; Voices, Alas ! 
(1882) ; Beyond, Temple of Eros, How 
Long !, Iclaline (1883) ; Too Late !, Queen 
of the May, Felice, All is Vanity (1884) ; 
Elaine, Denise, Souvenir de Blankenberghs 
(1885) ; Topsv (1886). 

SCHMID, MATHIAS, born at See, Tyrol, 
Nov. 14, 1835. His- 
tory and genre paint- 
er, pupil of Munich 
Academy (1856) un- 
der Schraudolph, and 
of Piloty in 1869, 
when persecution by 
the clergy in Tyrol 
on account of his 
liberal ideas caused 
him to return to Mu- 
nich. Medal, Vienna, 1873. Works : Ruth 
going to Bethlehem (1858) ; Entombment ; 




136 



SCHMIDT 



Flight into Egypt ; Alpine Carters ; Dealer 
in Sacred Images ; Mendicant Monks ; Col 
lection of Confessions ; Judge of Morals 
(1873) ; Eemoval of the Protestants of the 
Zillerthal ; Smugglers ; Flutist and Peasant 
Woman ; Festival of the Parson's Cook 
(1874) ; Betrothal (1879) ; Legendary Pict- 
ures, Villa Tschavoll near Feldkirch ; His 
Lathered Reverence, Repairing the Damage 
(1882) ; Salvation (1883) ; Blind-Man's-Buff 
(1884); Forsaken (1885); In the Picture 
Gallery (1886). In fresco : Three Marys at 
Christ's Tomb (1859), Cemetery, Innsbruck. 
— Allgem. Kunst-Chrouik, viii. 279, 377 ; 
ix. 244 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1874), ii. 343 ; (1877), 
i. 10 ; (1883), i. 315 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 
88G ; xviii. 649 ; xix. 352 ; xx. 279 ; xxii. 
37 ; Kunst Alle, i. 103, 224 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., xii. (Mittheilungen, v. 8) ; xix. 131. 

SCHMIDT, HEINRICH, born at Saar- 
briick, Rhenish Prussia, about 1740, died 
in 1821. History painter, studied in Italy, 
where he spent most of his life, chiefly at 
Naples. His works show the influence of 
Raphael Mengs and of the French school. 
He was much employed by the Grand ducal 
court of Darmstadt. Works : Artemisia by 
the Ashes of her Husband (1785), View near 
Ronciglione in the Campagna (1792), Adam 
and Eve listening to the First Thunder, Di- 
ana and Callisto, Daughter of Jairus, Darm- 
stadt Museum. 

SCHMIDT, JOHANN HEINRICH, born 
at Hildburghauseu, Feb. 11, 1749, died in 
Dresden, Oct. 28, 1829. Portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Johann Thomas Schmidt, 
Saxon court painter ; travelled in Italy and 
France ; became court painter in Dresden 
in 1775 ; visited Russia and different Ger- 
man cities. Member of Dresden Academy 
in 1795. Works : Assembly of Princes in 
Pillnitz (1791); Princess Augusta of Saxony 
(1783), Dresden Gallery ; Pastel Portraits 
of Napoleon, Suwaroff, Nelson, Archduke 
Charles, and others. — Naglei', xv. 343. 

SCHMIDT, KARL CHRISTIAN, born in 
Stuttgart in 1808. History painter, pupil 
in Stuttgart of J. G. von Miiller, in Munich 



of Cornelius, and in Paris of Ingres. Pro- 
fessor at Stuttgart Art School. Works : 
Annunciation to the Shepherds (1839) ; 
Mary and St. John at Christ's Tomb (1844); 
Judgment of Christ (1861), Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; Resurrection (1864). — Miillei-, 471. 

SCHMIDT, MARTIN JOHANN, born at 
Grafenworth, Nether Austria, Sept. 25, 1718, 
died at Krems, June 28, 1801. Histoi-y 
painter, first instructed by his father, a 
sculptoi", then studied after the great mas- 
ters. Several of his works may be seen at 
the Vienna Academy, and in the Gallery at 
Gratz.— Mayer, Der Maler M. J. Schmidt 
(Vienna, 1879). 

SCHIVnDT, MAX, born in BerHn, Aug. 
23, 1818. Landscape i:)ainter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy and of Karl Begas, Karl Ivrii- 
ger, and Wilhelm Schirmer. Travelled in 
Turkey, Palestine, and Egypt in 1843-44 ; 
visited the Ionian Islands in 1847, Rome in 
1853, Italy and England in 1861 and 1870. 
Became professor at Weimar Art School in 
1868, and at Konigsberg Academy in 1872. 
Member of Berlin Academy. Gold medals, 
Berlin, 1858, 1868 ; Medal, Vienna, 1873 ; 
Orders of Crown, Red Eagle, and White 
Falcon. Works : Schwarza Valley, Berlin 
Art Union ; Evening in Provence (1850) ; 
Four Periods of the Day (1852) ; Seraglio 
Gardens (1853); Moonlight on the Sea, and 
Forest Scene (1860) ; View of Nice (1861) ; 
Terracina (1863) ; Wood and Mountain 
(1868), Spree in Sultry Weather (1877), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Woodland Soli- 
tude (1871), Approaching Storm on Amber 
Coast — East Prussia (1878), Konigsberg 
Museum ; Coast near Smyrna, Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich ; Swamp, Cologne Museum ; 
Tempest on the Sea, Rostock Museum ; 
Pastoral Scene, Dantzic Museum. In fres- 
co : Scenes in Egypt and Greece, New Mu- 
seum, Berlin. — Jordan (1885), ii. 203 ; Mid- 
ler, 472 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 328. 

SCHIVODT, WILLEM HENDRIK, born 
at Rotterdam, April 12, 1819 (V), died at Delft, 
June 1, 1849. Genre, history, and portrait 
paintei*, pupil of G. de Meyer. Travelled iu 



rw 



SCHMITSO]^ 




Germany in 1840 ; became professor at 
Delft Academy in 1842. Works : Portrait 
Group of Young 
Ladies, Wealth 
and Poverty, Mar- 
riage Contract 
(1838); Monk 
comforting Sick 
Woman (1839); 
Children's School, 
Confession (1840); 
Last Moments of 
a Monk (1842); 
Monks in Meditation, Emilie of Nassau, 
daughter of William the Silent, Rotterdam 
Museum ; Charles V. receiving the Extreme 
Unction, Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; De Pro- 
fundis (1845), Cologne Museum ; Dutch 
School Room, New Pinakothek, Munich. — 
Immerzeel, iii. 70 ; Kramm, v. 1480. 

SCH^OTSON, TEUTWART, born in 
Frankfort, April 18, 1830, died in Vienna, 
Sept. 2, 1863. Animal painter, self-taught ; 
went about 1850 to Diisseldorf, in 1856 to 
Carlsruhe, in 1857 to Berlin, visited Italy 
in 1860-61, and settled in Vienna. Painted 
especially horses. Gold medal, Brussels, 
1861. W^orks : Tartar Horses in Snow 
Storm (1863), Gsell Gallery, Vienna ; Thirsty 
Cattle, ib.; Transportation of Hungarian 
Mares, Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; Shying Ox- 
en (1864) ; Roman Cattle-Drivers (1868 ?) ; 
Hungarian Horses shying before Upset Ve- 
hicle, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Tartar Horses 
shying before Dead Horse. — W^urzbach, 
XXX. 327 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., ix. (Mitthei- 
lungen, ii. 23). 

SCHMITZ, ADOLF, born in Cologne; 
contemporary. History painter, pupil of 
Stiidel Institute, Frankfort ; formed himself 
after French atid Belgian masters. Works : 
Christ and Judas, The Widow's Mite (1854) ; 
Emperor Henry IH. challenging Henry I. of 
Lorraine ; Bishop John of Speier protecting 
the Jews ; Emperor Max on the Martin 
Wall. In fresco : Entry of Princess Isabella 
into Cologne in 1235, Legend of Marsilius, 
St. John's Festival in Cologne (after Pe- 



trarch), Giirzenich Saal, Cologne ; Dance of 
Elves in Titania's Dream, Pringsheim ISIan- 
sion, Berlin.— Midler, 472. 

SCHNEIDER, HERMANN, born in Mu- 
nich, June 16, 1846. History painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy, and in 1864-67 of Pi- 
loty ; lived for several years in Italy, greatly 
influenced by his sojourn in Rome. Works : 
Last Moments of Mother of Louis XIV. 
(1867) ; Nymph and Satyr, diaries V. at 
Valladolid (1869) ; Venetian Banquet (1870) ; 
Audience in the Munich Grottenhof (1871) ; 
Van Dyck painting Children of Charles I. 
(1876) ; Duel on the Sea (1877) ; Venus and 
Cuj^ids (1878), Leipsic Museum ; Journey 
of Charles V. to San Yuste ; Unlike Spouses 
(1881) ; Sick Actress (1882) ; Cycle of Bac- 
chus (1883), Banquet Hall in the Drachen- 
burg near Kunigswinter on the Rhine. — 
Mailer, 473 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 59, 307 ; 
xix. 183 ; XX. 704 ; Leixner, Mod. K., i. 105. 

SCHNEIDER, JOHANN KASPAR, born 
at Mentz in 1754, died there in 1839. Land- 
scape and portrait painter, pupil of Franz 
Josef Heideloflf (1676-1772), but mostly 
self-taught by careful study of nature ; 
woi'ked in Mannheim, Erfurt, and Mentz ; 
also painted altarpieces. Works : Wood 
Landscape by Moonlight, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Old Castle on a Rock on the Rhine, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Night Scene in 
the Woods (1786), Oldenburg Gallery. His 
brother Georg was also a good landscape 
painter.— N. Necrol. der D. (1839), 

SCHNETZ, JEAN VICTOR, born in Ver- 
sailles, May 15, 1788, died in Paris, March 
15, 1870. History and genre painter, pupil 
of David, later of Regnault, Gros, and Ge- 
rard. Early abandoned the classical school, 
and going to Italy after 1824 painted scenes 
from the life of the people with much suc- 
cess. Member of Institute, 1837 ; appoint- 
ed director of the French Academy in Rome 
in 1840 ; lived in Paris in 1847-52 ; again 
director in Rome in 1852-66 ; L. of Honour, 
1825 ; Officer, 1843 ; Commander, 1866 ; 
Knight of the Papal Order of St. Gregory 
in 1847. Works : Good Samaritan, Jere- 



138 



SCimiTZLER 



miah weeping over Ruins of Jerusalem 
(1819) ; Gypsy Woman telling the Fortune 
of Sixtus V. (1820) ; replica (1829), Raczyn- 
ski Gallery, Berlin ; Inundation ; Pasture in 
Roman Campagna ; Brigand's "Wife fleeing 
with her Child ; Brigand's Wife Asleep • 
Girl confessing to a Hermit ; Wounded 
Guelph, Costumes of Nettuno (1825) ; 
Italian Women before a Madonna ; Battle 
of the Trebia ; Sleeping Pilgrims ; Women 
Bathing in Lake Nemi ; Family of Peas- 
ants ; Neapolitan Peasants ; Women Har- 
vesters listening to a Song by a Shepherd ; 
Battle at the Hotel de Ville, July 28, 1830 ; 
Sack of Rome in 1527 ; Eudes raising the 
Siege of Paris in 88G, Battle of Cerisoles, 
Esther and Mordecai, Monks reading 
Prayers to Pisan Shepherds (1837) ; Pro- 
cession of Crusaders, Modern Good Samar- 
itan, Young Greek (1838) ; Mass in the 
Country ; Peasants listening to a Pifieraro ; 
Incident of the Sack of Aquilea by Attila, 
Young Woman weeping over her Dead Hus- 
band ; Girls dressing after a Bath ; Funeral 
of a Young Martyr ; Woman Bathing ; Rest 
in Egypt ; Death and the Woodsman ; Con- 
tadina Praying ; Saint recalling a Child to 
Life ; Capuchin Physician ; Pifferaro's Les- 
son ; Jeremiah ; Goatherd's Betrothed ; 
Woman Asleep in a Vineyard ; Battle of 
Senef, Versailles Museum ; St. Genevieve 
(Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvelle). — Revue 
des Deux Mondes (1855), x. 749 ; Larousse. 

SCHNITZLER, J. MICHAEL, born at 
Neustadt, Bavaria, Sept. 24, 1782, died in 
Munich, Oct. 1, 18G1. Animal painter, pu- 
pil of Augsburg Academy. Works : Par- 
tridges, National Gallery, Berlin ; Dead Fowl 
(3), Vulture killing Dove rn/^^ 
(1860), New Pinakothek, (7/7i/[ ^ U^ 
Munich; Foreign Birds, \i^'\J'o^f 
Schleissheim Gallery. — Jordan (1885), ii. 
204. 

SCHNORR VON KAROLSFELD, JO- 
HANN VEIT (Veit Hans), born at Schnee- 
berg in 1764, died in Leipsic, April 30, 
1841, History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Leipsic Academy under Oeser, went in 



1788 to Kunigsberg, where through Oeser's 
recommendation he was soon known as a 
drawing master and portrait painter, but re- 
turned to Leipsic in 1790, painted minia- 
tures, afterwards historical pictures, and il- 
lustrated the works of prominent authors. 
Visited Vienna and Paris in 1802, was made 
instructor at the Leipsic Academy in 1803, 
and professor and director in 1816. Works : 
Healing of the Sick by the Disciples, MalePor- 
trait, Leipsic Museum. — Brockhaus, xiv. 450 ; 
Nagler, xv. 399; N. Necrol. der D. (1841). 

SCHNORR VON KAROLSFELD, JU- 
LIUS, Ritter, 
born in Leipsic, 
March 26, 1794, 
died in Dresden, 
May 24, 1872. 
History and land- 
scape painter, son 
and pupil of Jo- 
hann Veit Schnorr 
von Karolsfeld, 
whom he assisted 
when a mere boy ; 
then jDupil of Vienna Academy, but studied 
especially after the early German and Italian 
masters. Went in 1817 to Florence and in 
1818 to Rome, where he became one of the 
German brotherhood of the Pre-Raphaelites 
under the leadership of Cornelius and Over- 
beck, and painted some of the frescos in the 
Villa Massimi in 1822-27 ; visited Sicily, and 
in 1827 went to Munich as professor at the 
Academy ; executed several monumental dec- 
orations in the Konigsbau (1842), and in 
1846 went to Dresden as professor at the 
Academy and director of the Gallery. Vis- 
ited London in 1851, and was induced by 
Bunsen to resume his formerly planned 
work of illustrating the Bible, which has 
made his name popular in England. Mem- 
ber of many Academies. Grand Ci'oss of 
Order of Albrecht ; Knight of Order pour 
le nn'rite ; Order of Michael, etc. Works : 
St. Roch giving Alms (1817), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; The Erl-King, Schack Gallery, 
Munich ; Visit of Zacharias to Holy Fani- 




]39 



SCIINORR 



ily (1817), Visit of Ananias (1865), Con- 
version of Saul (1867), Dresden Gallery ; 
Ruth and Boaz, Hamburg Art Union ; 
Christ and the Children, Nauraburg Cathe- 
dral ; Marriage at Cana (1819), formerly 
Lord Cathcart, Scotland ; Madonna (1820), 
Cologne Museum ; Vigne near Olevano 
(1821); Poet of the Nibelungen Lied, 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Domine quo 
vadis ? Basle Museum ; Marriage of Sieg- 
fried and Chrimhilde, Siegfried's Farewell, 
Eight Scenes from Ai'iosto's Roland, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Scene from Nibelungen Lied 
(1830), New Pinakothek, Munich; Luther 
in Worms, Maximilianeum, ib. ; Death of 
Barbarossa (1832) ; Good Samaritan (1833), 
Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort. In fresco : Cycle 
from Ariosto's Roland (1822-27), Villa Mas- 
simi, Rome ; Cartoons for do., Carlsruhe 
Museum ; Sketches for do., Leipsic Muse- 
um. Encaustic: Cycle from Nibelungen 
Lied (1830-50), do. fi-om Lives of Charle- 
magne, Fi'ederic Barbarossa, and Rudolf von 
Hapsburg (1835-42), 
Ivuuigsbau, Munich ; 
two Cartoons for Ni- 
,^r belungenCycle(1863), 

- (P National Gallery, Ber- 

/. V ■*> J^ . Q /r\ liii- — Ai't Journal 
/S*J)l7.T'»'>? (1865), 72; (1872), 
201 ; Furster, iv. 223 ; v. 91, 428 ; Graph. 
K, i. 59 ; Illustr. Zeit. (1872), i. 469 ; Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 204; Kugler, Kl. Schr., iii.; 
Kunst-Chronik, vii. 332 ; ix. 745 ; xiii. 249 ; 
Land und Meer (1872), No. 40 ; Nagier, xv. 
404 ; Riegel, D. Kunststud., 210 ; Springer, 
Gesch., 80 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ii. 1, 285. 

SCHNORR VON KAROLSFELD, LUD- 
WIG FERDINAND, born in Leipsic, Nov. 
11 (Oct. 11 ?), 1789, died in Vienna, April 
30 (13 ?), 1853. History painter, brother of 
preceding, pupil of his father and of Vienna 
Academy, but studied chiefly Raphael and 
Michelangelo ; visited in 1834 Munich, Tyr- 
ol, Switzerland, and Paris, and in 1837 
Dresden, Weimar, and North Germany ; be- 
came member of Vienna Academy in 1835 
and custodian of the Belvedere Gallery in 



1841. Works : Knight watching through a 
Window a Lady writing (1808), Gotha Mu- 
seum ; Mephistopheles appearing to Faust 
(1818), Madonna (1828), Gretchenin Prison 
(1834), Vienna Museum ; Golo and Gene- 
vieve (1820) ; Huntsman-Lover Listening 
(1820), Gotha Gallery ; The Erl-King, Lore- 
ley (1821) ; Coalition of Austrians and Tyr- 
olese under Chasteler (1822) ; The Tyrolese 
under Andreas Hofer (1830), Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; Christ before Caiaphas (1831) ; 
Maid of Orleans (1834) ; Liberation of Peter 
(1836) ; Finding of the Cross ; Christ Feed- 
ing the Four Thousand (1839) ; Tristan and 
Isolde ; Old Man in Mediaeval Costume, 
Dresden Museum. — Andresen, v. 311 ; Nag- 
ier, XV. 415 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 55. 

SCHOBELT, PAUL, born at Magdeburg, 
March 9, 1838. German school ; history 
and genre painter, pupil of Diisseldorf, Ber- 
lin, and Brussels Academies, then in Paris 
of Gleyre and in Berlin of Schrader ; went 
in 1863 to Rome, where he has since resided. 
Works : Grave-Digger Scene in Hamlet 
(1860); Creation of Eve ; Neapolitan Marri- 
age Suit ; Flora with Genii of Spring ; Venus 
andBellona (1879), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Rape of Proserpine (1882).— Jordan (1885), 
ii. 207 ; Miiller, 474 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 88. 

SCHODL, MAX, born in Vienna in 1834. 
Genre and still-life i:)ainter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Friedlander ; visited Paris, 
London, and Italy. Medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works : At the Hotel, Tea (1869) ; Antiqui- 
ties, Dessert (1870) ; do., and Before Masked 
Ball ; Fish, Lobster (1871).— Wurzbach, xxi. 
75. 

SCHODLBERGER, JOHANN NEPO- 
IVIUK, born in Vienna in 1779, died there, 
Jan. 26, 1853. Landscape painter, self- 
taught, with Claude Lorraiu and Poussin for 
his models ; member of Vienna Academy in 
1813 ; visited Italy in 1817. Works : Ca- 
puchins burying Friar, Interior of Italian 
Church (1830), View in Moravia (1829), 
View of Traun Falls (1830), Vienna Museum ; 
Landscape, Griitz Gallery. — Nagier, xv. 420; 
Wurzbach, xxxi. 70. 



140 



SCHOEFF 



SCHOEFF, J., flourislied at The Hague 
about 1640-60. Dutch school; landscape 
painter, whose style suggests the manner of 
Jan van Goyen, but even more of Pieter 
Molyn and Joris van der Hageu ; bought the 
freedom of the city at The Hague in 1641. 
Works: Wood Landscape with Wanderers 
(1651), Schwerin Gallery ; one (1641), A. 
Bredius, Amsterdam ; River Landscape 
(1649), Van Gel- /rx^ 
der, The Hague ; (^( £* A jtfY' 
two (dated), Pro- T DthOCyT- 

fessor Lemcke, %^ I /L ^ I 
Aix-la-Chapelle. \ O I 

— Schlie, 576; Zeitschr. f. 'b. K, vii. 175, 
354 ; xvi. 60 ; xvii. 128. 

SCHOEVAERDTS, ]\MTHYS (Mathieu), 
born in Brussels about 1665, died there (?). 
Flemish school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
A. F. Boudewyns in 1682 ; master of Brussels 
guild in 1690, its dean in 1692-94. Works : 
Landscapes with figures (2), Louvre ; Prom- 
enade of the Fattened Ox, Fish Market, 
Brussels Museum ; Village Kirmess, Berlin 
Museum ; View of St. Cloud, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Fruit Market, Fish Market, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Landscape with Figures, 
Uffizi, Florence. — Fetis, Cat. Brussels Mus., 
447 ; Kramm, v. 1482 ; Michiels, ix. 345. 

SCHOLTEN, HENDRIK JACOBUS, born 
at Amsterdam, July 11, 1824. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Petrus Jacobus 
Greive. Works : The Widow of Oldenbar- 
neveldt imploring Mercy of Prince Maurice 
for her Son (1855) ; Cornells de Witt com- 
pelled to Annihilate the Eternal Edict (1857) ; 
Lady Jane Grey seeing her Husband led to 
the Scaffold ; Plancius the Inventor of Sea 
Charts (1861) ; Preparations for the Jour- 
ney ; Morning Walk, Sunday Morning, Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam ; Stable with old Hunts- 
man by his Dead Horse, Museum Fodor, ib. 

SCHOLTZ, JULIUS, born at Breslau, 
Feb. 12, 1825. History painter, pupil of 
Konig in Breslau and of Dresden Academy 
under Julius Hubner. Visited Belgium and 
France ; painted portraits in St. Petersburg 
for several months ; settled iu Dresden, where 




-^y1\?^ 



he is professor at the Academy. Member of 
Berlin Academy. Gold medal, Berlin. Works: 
Old Woman Praying 
(1850) ; Choir Boy 
(1854); Officer's Wid- 
ow with her Children 
at Church (1859), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Uhland's "Three Men 
crossed over the 
Rhine ; " Episode of 
the Italian War (1859); 
Last Banquet of Wal- 
lenstein's Generals (1861), Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Volunteers of 1813 before Fredex'ick 
William IV., Breslau Ai't Union ; replica 
(1872), National Gallery, Berlin. In fresco : 
Life of Duke Albert, Albrechtsburg, Meis- 
sen.— Jordan (1885), ii. 208 ; Kaulen, 87. 

SCHON, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, born 
at Worms in 1810, died at Munich in 1868. 
Genre painter, pupil of Munich Academy in 
1832, took up painting in 1838, having at 
first (since 1826) practised lithography at 
Darmstadt and Carlsruhe ; painted especial- 
ly night scenes by lamp- and fire-light, after- 
wards also social political problems, in which 
he displayed a subtle knowledge of human 
character. Works : Girl Reading ; Going to 
Church in the Berner Overland ; Domino 
Players (1845) ; Sunday Morning in Black 
Forest (1846), Darmstadt Museum ; Con- 
versation in Peasant Room (1849), New Pi- 
nakothek, Munich ; Return of the Soldier 
(1857) ; Scene from Hebel's Karfunkel ; 
Southern Emigrants in North German Port ; 
Artists' Union (with 50 portraits). — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1840-45) ; D. Kunstbl. (1850-57) ; 
Dioskuren (1860). 

SCHON, I^LVRTIN. See Schongauer. 

SCHONBERGER, LORENZ, born at Vus- 
lau, near Vienna, about 1770, died at Mentz 
in 1847. Landscajje painter, pupil of Vien- 
na Academy under Wutky. Visited Bohe- 
mia and Switzerland ; resided some time in 
Italy, and went to Paris in 1804. Lived in 
Vienna, but travelled often in Germany, Hol- 
land, Belgium, and England. Member of 



SCHONBKUNXER 



Amsterdam Academy. Works: Sunset ou 
Bay of Baitc (1804), Museum, Vienna ; Snow 
Mountains over an Alpine Lake, Waterfall, 
Czernin Gallery, ib. ; Waterfall of Terni, Jo- 
anneum, Gratz ; Four Periods of the Day, 
Vienna; Sunset (1810), do. by the Sea 
(1817), Lonely Lake, Waterfall at Noon, 
Moonlight Night by the Sea (1812), View of 
Florence at Sunset, do. by Moonlight, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Falls of the Rhine near 
Schafifhausen, Schleissheim Gallery. — Wurz- 
bach, xxsi. 128. 

SCHONBRLT^NEE, KARL, born in Vi- 
enna, Oct. 4, 1832, died at Hirschstetten, 
near Vienna, Feb. 21, 1877. History paint- 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy, of Rahl, and 
of Fiihrich ; copied afterwards in Italy the 
old masters, especially Giorgione and Titian ; 
lived in Rome in 1862-72 and returned to 
Vienna. Works : Godfrey of Bouillon lay- 
ing down his Ai-ms at Holy SejDulchre (1852) ; 
Bishop Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius 
(1859) ; St. Augustine and the Boy (18G4) ; 
Tasso's Leonora (1807) ; Life and Art (1870). 
— Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 546 ; Meyei-, Gonv. 
Lex., xvii. 789 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 142. 

SCHONFELD, HEINRICH, born in 
Dresden in 1809, died in Munich in 1845. 
Ai'chitecture painter, pupil of Dresden 
Academy. First painted theatre decora- 
tions ; went to Munich in 1830, devoted 
himself to architecture painting, and trav- 
elled for sketches in Germany, Italy, Swit- 
zerland, Austria, and Holland. Mediseval 
German buildings were his favourite sub- 
jects. Works : Old Butcher's Quay in 
Strasburg (1840), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Market-Place of Basle (1839) ; Cathedrals 
of Bacharach, Limburg, and Erfui't. — 
Nagler, xv. 471. 

SCHONFELDT, JOHANN HEINRICH, 
born at Biberach, March 23, 1609, died in 
Augsburg about 1680 (1695?). German 
school. History and landscape j^ainter, pupil 
of Johann Sichelbein, afterwards studied 
in Rome, and after his return worked at 
Lynns, Munich, Bamberg, Salzburg, Vienna. 
Works : Assumption, Augsburg Cathedral ; 



Crucifixion, Wui'zburg Cathedi'al ; Recon- 
ciliation of Jacob and Esau, replica, and 
Gideon watering his Flocks, Sacrifice of 
Minerva, Vienna Museum ; Shepherd's Fes- 
tival, Battle of the Giants, Two Musical 
Parties, Dresden Gallery ; Last Judgment, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Seleucus and Antiochus, 
Oldenburg Gallery ; Sacrifice to Diana, 
Schleissheim Gallery. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
528 ; Nagler, xv. 469. 

SCHONGAUER, MARTIN, commonly 

called Hipsch 
Martin or 
Martin Schon, 
born at Col- 
mar about 
1446, died 
there, Feb. 2, 
1488. Ger- 
man school, 
r History and 
portrait paint- 
er, probably 
pupil of Rogier van der Weyden in Flandei's. 
Was the greatest German painter and en- 
graver of the 15th centur}'. Works : Ma- 
donna of the Rose Hedge (1473), St. Mar- 
tin's, Colmar ; two Altar- Wings with Annun- 
ciation, Museum, ib. (the 16 panels in the 
Museum attributed to him are probably by 
his scholars) ; Nativity, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; do., Vienna Museum. None of the 
works in the Louvre, Madrid, and Brussels 
Museums, and in the National Gallery and 
South Kensington Museum, London, are 
authenticated. — Academy j^jt --. ^ 
(1880), ii. 335 ; Allgem. / \ Q *) 
Zeitg. (1880), Nos. 129, "* - 




N^t^f 



156; L'Art (1881), 
272; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
allemande ; Dohme lii. ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1859), iii. 257, 321 ; (1881), xxiii. 95 ; 
Heidelofi", K. des Mittelalt. in Schwaben, 
117 ; Jahrb. der kongl. preuss. Kunst- 
sammlg., iv. 131 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 134 ; 
D. Lit. Zeitg. (1881), 20 ; Menard, L'Art 
en Alsace-Lorraine, 72 ; Repert. f. K., vii. 
31, 167 ; Schnaase, viii. 391 ; Woltmann,, 



SCIIONIIERR 



Kunst im Elsass, 226 ; W. & W., ii. 104 ; 
Wurzbach, Martiu Schongauer (Vieuua, 
1880) ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., i. 258; xvi. 74 ; 
xxii. 34 

SCHONHERR, KARL GOTTLOB, born 
at Leugefekl, Saxouy, Aug, 15, 1824. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Dresden Academy un- 
der Julius Hiibner, then studied in Rome. 
Professor at Dresden Academy. Works : 
Raising of Tabitba by Peter (1855), Dresden 
Gallery ; Christ's Return, Church in Losing, 
Saxouy ; Christ on the Mount of Olives, 
Altarpiece, Cherson, Russia. — Miiller, 475. 

SCHONLEBER, GUSTAV, born at Bie- 
tigheim, WiU'temberg, in 1852. Landscape 
and architecture painter, pupil of Kurtz in 
Stuttgart and of Adolf Lier in Munich ; 
travelled in Italy and Holland. Pi-ofessor 
in Carlsruhe in 1880. Medal, Munich, 
1879. Works : Italian Coast Study ; Fish- 
ers' Return ; Dantzic Fish Market ; Har- 
bour of Genoa ; Rotterdam ; Ostend Canal ; 
Suabian Imjjerial City ; Venetian Fishing 
Boats (1871), Hamburg Gallery ; Harbour 
of Ostend (1879) ; View of Flushing at Low 
Tide (1881), Dresden Museum ; Evening 
near Dordrecht, Stuttgart Museum ; Spring 
in Suabia, High Water in the Neckar (1884). 
— Miiller, 475 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 
808 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 380 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, xix. 158 ; xx. 72. 

SCHONMANN, JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
April 19, 1799, died there. May 26, 1879. 
History painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, 
which sent him to Rome in 1832. Honorary 
member of Accademia dei Virtuosi, Rome, 
in 1838 ; member of Vienna Academy in 
1848. Works : Death of Dido (1822) ; Hec- 
tor calling Paris to Battle (1828); Holy 
Family (1833), Vienna Museum ; St. Jo- 
seph (1835), S. Antonio, Trieste ; Portrait 
of Count Franz Saurau, Joanneum, Ghltz. 
In fresco : The Great Prophets, Altlerchen- 
feld Church, Vienna. — Wurzbach, xxxi. 167. 

SCHONN, ALOIS, born in Vienna, March 
11, 1826. Genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Fiihrich and Leander Russ. 
Went through the Italian campaign of 1848 



and the Hungarian War ; studied in Paris 
in 1850-51 ; then travelled in Syria, Egypt, 
Nubia, and Arabia, returning home by way 
of Italy, and visited Hungary in 1856. Gold 
medal in Berlin ; medal in Munich ; Order 
of Franz Joseph. Works : Return from 
Skirmish at Ponte Tedesco (1848) ; Hun- 
garian Family returning Home after War 
(1849) ; Evening on the Nile (1852) ; De- 
parture of Tj'rolese Students from Vienna 
in 1848 (1864), Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Gypsy Camp (2, 1857), Coburg Galleiy, 
Vienna ; Storming of Lodrone (1850), On 
the Coast of Genoa (1872), Museum, ib. ; 
Goose Market in Cracow (1869), Academy, 
ib. ; Scene in Persecution of Jews (1870) ; 
Festival in Capri, Fish Market at Chioggia, 
do. in the Ghetto at Rome (1871) ; Scene 
before Wine Depot in Monte Testaccio 
(1882); Market in Bosnia, do. in Tunis 
(1883).— Wurzbach, xxxi. 98 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xvii. 261 ; xviii. 510 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
iv. 259 ; vi. 213 ; viii. (Mittheiluugen, i. 40). 
SCHOOL OF ATHENS, Raphael, Cam- 
era della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome ; fresco, 
arched top, H. 16 ft. x 26 ft. 8 in. The 
Triumph of Science ; companion to the 
Dispute of the Sacrament, Avhich represents 
the Triumph of Religion. A vast portico, 
the arcades of which are pierced with niches 
filled with statues ; those in front, Apollo 
and Minerva ; in the centre, Plato, with Aris- 
totle beside him, is expounding to disciples 
standing around, while Diogenes lies on the 
steps, with Aristippus passing him talking 
to Epicurus ; at left, on steps, Alcibiades, 
Xenophon, and others, listening to Socra- 
tes ; below them, Pythagoras, with his wifo 
Theano, his son Telauges, and his pupil 
Ai'chytas, Anaxagoras standing, Heraclitus 
sitting alone, and Democritus or Ei^icnrus 
by base of pillar ; at right, on steps, Pyrrlio, 
Arcesilaus, and others, and below them Ar- 
chimedes (portrait of Bmmante) teaching 
geometry, and Ptolemy and Zoroaster stand- 
ing beside Raphael and Perugino. Painted 
in 1511. Called also Philosophy. Studies 
in Albertine College, Vienna, and Louvre ; 



SCHOOL 



cartoon in Ambrosian Library, Milan. Va- 
sari says the fresco represents the union of 
Theology and Philosophy through Astron- 
omy, and points out St. Matthew in the 
so-called Pythagoras. Giorgio Mantovano 
(1560) engraved it under the title of St. 
Paul disputing with Stoics and Epicui-eaus. 
It has also been said to represent St. Paul 
preaching at Athens. Engraved by Volpato ; 
G. Gbisi.— Vasai-i, ed. Mil., iv. 331 ; Miintz, 



SCHOOL OF LEGISLATION, George 
Frederick Watt!<, Dining Hall of Lincoln's 
Inn, London ; fresco, H. 40 ft. x 45 ft. The 
great legislators of the world, Confucius, 
Moses, Justinian, and others, thirty-three 
figui'es in all, grouped in a manner obvious- 
ly inspired by Eaphael's School of Athens. 
A grand work, allied in conception and 
drawing to the Roman and in colour to the 
Venetian school. It is surpassed in size 




School of Athens, Raphael, Camera della Segnatura, Vatican, Ronne. 



327 ; Passavant, ii. 79 ; Springer, 172 ; Kug- 
ler (Eastlake), ii. 428 ; Perkins, 123. 

SCHOOL, EVENING (De avondschool), 
Gerard Don, Amsterdam Museum ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. The teacher, seat- 
ed behind a table at left, is talking, with 
his left forefinger raised ; in his front, a 
boy, his figure lighted by the flame of a can- 
dle on the table and a lantern on the floor, 
is leaning over a book ; other pupils in fore- 
ground at left, and in background; above, 
a curtain, draped to right. G. van der 
Pot sale, Rotterdam (1808), 17,500 francs. 



among modern works only by Cornelius's 
Last Judgment, at Munich. — Portfolio 
(1870), m. 

SCHOOL OF LOVE. See Cupid, Edu- 
cation of. 

SCHOOL, TURKISH (ficole turque), 
Alexandre Decamps, Fodor Museum, Am- 
sterdam ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. In- 
terior, with the turbaned pedagogue seated 
on a divan and the children disposed in va- 
rious groups. Painted in 1846 ; formerly 
in collection of Marquis Maison ; acquired 
in Paris, 1857. Decamps painted a similar 



144 



SCIIOOXJANS 



subject in water-colour, Salon of 1842. His 
Turkish School Dismissed (Sortie de I'ecole 
turque) was sold at Comtesse Lehon sale 
(1861) for 34,000 francs. 

SCHOONJANS, ANTHONIE, born in 
Antwerp in 1650, died in Vienna, 1726. 
Flemish school ; portrait and history paint- 
er, pupil of Erasmus Quellinus ; went early 
to Rome and thence to Vienna, where he 
became court painter to Leopold I., and, on 
account of his skill as a portrait painter, 
was invited to England. He also lived at 
The Hague, Amsterdam, and as court paint- 
er at Diisseldorf, whence he returned to 
Vienna on the death of the Elector John 
William. He was one of the boldest man- 
nerists of his time, and not without merit in 
painting the nude. Works : Narcissus, Girl 
with Bird, Old Woman with Basket, do. 
with Book, Ai'tist's Portrait, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Job and his Wife (1710), Augs- 
burg Gallery ; St. Jerome, St. Sebastian, 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. — Michiels, 
V. 93 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 502. 

SCHOOTEN, JORIS VAN, born in Ley- 
den about 1587, died after 1650. Dutch 
school; history and portrait painter, pupil 
of Coenrad van der Maes at Leydeu ; paint- 
ed large archery pieces full of character and 
expression, good colouring, and chiaroscu- 
ro ; also a few biblical subjects in an Ital- 
ianized style. Works : Adoration of the 
Magi, Amsterdam Museum ; Allegory on 
Plague in Leyden, 1574 (1643), Tabula Ce- 
betis (1624), Group Portraits of Ofificers of 
Archers' Company (7, 1626-28), Captains of 
Civic Guard (1650), Leyden Museum. — 
Kramm, v. 1491 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 357 ; 
Riegel, Beitrlige, i. 127. 

SCHOPF, JOSEF, born at Telfs, Tyrol, 
Feb. 2, 1745, died at Innsbruck, Sept. 15, 
1822. History painter, pupil of Martin 
Kuoller in 1768 ; was in 1776-83 in Rome, 
where he was influenced by Raphael Mengs ; 
then settled in Innsbruck, but visited many 
places to paint frescos. Occasionally men- 
tioned in Goethe's essays. Monument 
erected to him at Telfs in 1875. Works : 



Madonna, Coronation of the Virgin, Christ 
on the Cross, John the Baj)tist, Venus with 
the Dove, Figure Study, Ai'tist's Portrait, 
three other Male Portraits, Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; St. Benedict, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Evening in the Campagna ; Horace 
Reading (1790), Lord Bristol ; Christ on 
the Cross, Cathedral of Brixen. In fres- 
co : Transfiguration, and others, Benedic- 
tine Church, Aschbach; Assumption, Church 
in Brunecken ; do., St. John Nepomuk's 
Church, Innsbruck ; do., Serviten Church, 
ib.; and many other Tyrolese churches. — 
Kunst-Chronik, xi. 125 ; Wurzbach, xxxi. 
188. 

SCHOPFER, HANS, the younger, bom 
in Munich, died in 1610. German school ; 
histoiy painter, son of a painter of same 
name. He became Bavarian court painter. 
His works are sometimes atti-ibuted to Hans 
Schiiufelin and Albrecht Diirer. Works by 
Hans the elder : Margrave Philibert of 
Baden (1549), Old Pinakothek, Munich; 
do., Germanic Museum, Nurembei-g; Duke 
Frederick of Bavaria (1546), Duchess Hel- 
ena (1547), Schleissheim Gallery ; Female 
Portrait (1540), HohenzoUern Museum, Sig- 
maringen. By Hans the younger : Hans 
Kaspar von Pienzenau (1558), Germanic 
Museum, Nuremberg ; Countess Euphro- 
syne von Oettingen (1569), Regina von 
Lamberg (1569), Anna Schellenberg (1571), 
Anna von Frauenberg (1580), Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Altarpieces for Church of the Pil- 
grimage, Ramersdorf, near Munich. — Nag- 
ler, Mon., iii. 587. 

SCHOREEL. See Scorel 

SCHORN, KARL, born in Diisseldorf, 
Oct. 17, 1800, died in Munich, Oct. 7, 1850. 
History painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy, of Cornelius in Munich, of Gros and 
Ingres in Paris in 1824-27, and from 1832 
of Wach in Berlin. Settled in Munich, 
where he was made professor at the Acad- 
emy in 1847, and visited Italy. Orders of 
Red Eagle and St. Michael. Was the father- 
in-law and master of Karl Piloty. Works : 
Mary Stuart and Rizzio ; Salvator Rosa 



146 



SCHOTEL 




among Kobbers (1835) ; Charles V. in Con- 
vent of San Yuste ; Card Players (1837), 
and Pope Paul III. before Luther's Picture 
(1839), National Gallery, Berlin ; Initiation 
of Young Monk, Puritans in Camp, Kaezyn- 
ski Galley, ib. ; Italian Brigands Praying ; 
Cromwell before Battle of Dunbar, Kon- 
igsberg Museum ; Anabaptist Prisoners be- 
fore Bishop of Miinster (1843—15) ; 
The Flood (18-45, unfinished), 
New Piuakothek, Munich. In fres- 
co : Arcades of Eoyal Garden, Mu- 
nich. — Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 37; Leix- 
ner, jNIod. K., i. 101. 

SCHOTEL, JOHANNES CHRISTIANUS, 
born at Dordrecht, 
Nov. 11, 1787, died 
there, Dec. 22, 1838. 
Marine painter, pupil 
of A. Meulemans and 
Martinus Schouman ; 
created great enthusi- 
asm with his first pict- 
ures in 1818, and be- 
came one of the best 
marine painters of his 
time. Member of Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, 
Amsterdam, and Berlin Academies. Works : 
Marines (3), Coast View, Museum, Amstei'- 
dam ; do. (2), Fishermen's Huts in the 
Downs, Museum Fodor, ib. ; Stormy Sea, 
Hague Museum ; View of Moerdyk, Agitat- 
ed Sea, Rotterdam Museum ; Dutch Coast, 
Berlin Museum ; Agitated Sea, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; do., Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Rising 
Storm near Sea Coast, New Pinakothek, IMu- 
nich ; Departure of French from Dordrecht 
in 1814, Bombardment of Algiers in 181G 
(with Schouman). — Immerzeel, iii. 75; 
Kramm, v. 1493 ; Kugler, Kl. Schr., iii. 

SCHOTEL, PETRUS JOHANNES, born 
at Dordrecht, Aug, 19, 1808, died at Dres- 
den, July 23, 1865. Marine painter, son 
and pupil of preceding, in whose footsteps 
he followed siiccessf ully ; studied also much 
from nature, in France, Germany, and Bel- 
gium ; became professor at the school of 
navigation at Medemblyk in 1830, and re- 




moved to Diisseldorf in 1856. Member 
of Amsterdam and Rotterdam Academies. 
Many prizes, medals, and orders. Works : 
Calm Sea with many Vessels, Ghent Muse- 
um ; Leaving Roadstead of Texel in Stormy 
Weather ; The Willem Sluice near Amster- 
dam, Agitated Sea, Museum, Amsterdam ; 
Harbour of Bath in Stonny Weather, Muse- 
um Fodor, ib. ; Shipwreck near Kykduin — 
North Holland (1847), Konigsberg Muse- 
um ; Agitated Sea with Boats, Schwerin Gal- 
lery. — D. Kunstbl., 1853 ; Immerzeel, iii. ; 
I^amm, v. 1493. 

SCHOULTZ, EI^OIA VON, born in Rus- 
sia ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Friedrich Kraus in Berlin. 
Works : Interesting Reading (1866) ; The 
Artist and her Mother (1868) ; Composer's 
Children ; Visit of Condolence (1871); Story 
of the Field ; Quartering of Soldiers on the 
Retreat.— Miiller, 476 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
vi. 173. 

SCHOUMAN, MARTINUS, born at Dor- 
drecht, baptized Jan. 31, 1770, died at Breda, 
Oct. 30, 1848. Marine painter, pupil of Mi- 
chiel Versteeg, and afterwards of his uncle, 
Aart Schouman (1710-92). Works : Explo- 
sion of Gunboat near Antwerp, Expedition 
to Palembang — Sumatra, Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Tempestuous Sea (2), Haarlem Mu- 
seum ; Marine, Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; 
Departure of French from Dordrecht, Bom- 
bardment of Algiei's (with Schotel). — Im- 
merzeel, iii. 78 ; Kramm, v. 1495 ; Cotta's 
Kunstbl., 1827, 1838. 

SCHRADER, JULIUS, born in Berhn, 
June 16, 1815. His- 
tory painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy and 
under W. Schadow of 
Diisseldorf Academy ; 
visited Italy in 1845 
-47, also England, 
Holland, and Belgi- 
um. Became profes- 
sor at Bei'lin Acad- 
emy in 1848. Medals in Berlin (2), Paris 
(2d class, 1855), Weimar, and Vienna (1873). 




SCHRATJDOLPH 



Several orders. Member of Berlin, Vienna, 
and Dresden Academies. A great master 
of colour ; his pictures are brilliant out- 
wardly, but sometimes wanting in deeper 
feeling. Was the first Berlin artist to be 
influenced by the Belgian colourists, Gallait 
and De Biefve, Works : Cenci before Greg- 
ory Vn. (184J:), Dantzic Museum ; Attempt 
to poison the Emperor Frederick 11. ; Sui-- 
render of Calais to Edward HI. (1847), 
Parting of Charles I. (1855), Edher before 
Ahasuerus (1856), Portrait of Consul Wa- 
gener (1856), Homage of Berlin and Co- 
logne (1874), National Gallery, Berlin ; Bac- 
chus Asleep (1846), Bacchante playing with 
Panthers, Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Frederick 
the Great after Battle of Kolin (1849), Leip- 
sic Museum ; Wallenstein and Seni (1850) ; 
Jephthah's Daughter (1850), Konigsberg 
Museum; Leonardoda Vinci's Death (1851) ; 
Children in Prayer (1852), Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Milton and his Daughters (1855) ; 
Cromwell at the Death-Bed of his Daugh- 
ter (1859), Cologne Museum ; Lady Mac- 
beth walking in her Sleep (1860) ; Queen 
Elizabeth signing Mary Stuart's Death- War- 
rant ; Mary Stuart's Last Moments ; Shake- 
speare as a Poacher before the Judge, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Adoration of the Magi 
(1884) ; Portrait of Cornelius (1864), do. of 
himself (1865), do. of Dagobert von Oppen- 
heim, Cologne Museum ; do. of the Art His- 
torian Friedrich Eggers (1873), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Portraits of Humboldt, Ranke, 
and Moltke. In fresco : First 12 Christian 
Monarchs, Royal Chapel, Berlin ; Consecra- 
tion of St. Sophia, New Museum, ib. — Jor- 

dan (1885), ii. 209 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Diisseldf. 
K, 155: Mailer, 476; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 147 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 19 ; v. 
121 ; vi. 106 ; xx. 95. 

SCHRAUDOLPH, CLAUDIUS, the elder, 
born at Obersdorf, Algiiu, in 1813. History 
and genre painter, brother and pupil of Jo- 




(1870-71). Became 
Art School in 1883. 



hann Schraudolph, then at Munich Acad- 
emy under Heinrich Hess ; went with Fors- 
ter to Italy, to make designs after antique 
frescos, then painted in Munich frescos in 
the Basilica and All Saints' Chapel, at Ath- 
ens in the royal palace, and at Speyer in 
the cathedral, for which he had meanwhile 
made studies in Italy, whither he accompa- 
nied his brother in 1844. Afterwards joined 
the Benedictine Order. — Nagler, xvi. 11. 

SCHRAUDOLPH, CLAUDIUS, the 
younger, born in 
Munich in 1843. 
History and genre 
painter, son and pu- 
pil of Johann Schrau- 
dolph, and of Munich 
Academy under Hein- 
rich Hess. Lived in 
Dresden in 1865; 
fought in the cam- 
paign of 1866, and in 
Franco-German War 
director of Stuttgart 
Medal, Munich, 2d class, 1883. Works: 
St. Elizabeth distributing Bread ; Munich 
Brewery ; Pensive Maiden at Piano ; Easter 
Procession from Faust ; Quartet on Vene- 
tian Terrace ; Dolce far niente ; Decorative 
Paintings in Munich houses. — Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xxi. 809 ; Reber-Pecht, iii. 290. 

SCHRAUDOLPH, JOHANN, born at 
Oberstdorf in Al- 
giiu in 1808, died 
May 31, 1879. His- 
tory painter, pupil 
of Munich Acad- 
emy under Schlott- 
hauer and Corne- 
hus. Helped paint 
the frescos of many 
V Munich buildings ; 
went to Rome in 
1844 ; after his return decorated the ca- 
thedral at Speyer. Orders of St. Micdiael, 
Maximilian, and Bavarian Crown. Works : 
Two Pictures with Hovering Angels, Basle 
jMuseum ; Peter's Catch of Fish (1865), 




SCHREYER 




Christ healing the Sick (1862), Ascension, 
Madonna and St. John, Mary and Mary 
Magdalen at Golgotha (1863) ; St. Agnes 
and Lamb (1842), Madonna and Child 
(1840), Two Pictures of Hovering Angels, 
New Pinakothek, Munich. In fresco : Por- 
tions of Glyptothek, Munich ; All Saints' 
Church, ib. ; Basilica, ib. ; Decoration of the 
Cathedral (1846-53), Speyer.— Kunst-Chro- 
iiik, xiv. 616. 

SCHEEYEE, ADOLF, born in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, May 
9, 1828. Animal 
painter, pupil of Stli- 
del Institute, Frank- 
fort ; studied the horse 
in the riding-school 
and anatomically, then 
in Stuttgart, Munich, 
and Diisseldorf ; trav- 
elled in 1848 with 
Prince Thurn and 
Taxis through Hungary, Wallachia, and 
Southern Russia ; accompanied the Austri- 
ans on the march through the Danubian prin- 
cipalities in 1854 ; visited Syria and Egypt 
in 1856, Algiers in 1861 ; lived in Paris un- 
til 1870, when he settled at Kronberg, near 
Frankfort ; lives alternately there and in 
Paris. Member of Antwerp and Rotterdam 
Academies. Medals : Brussels, 1863 ; Paris, 
1864, 1865, 1867 ; Munich, 1876 ; Order of 
Leopold, 1866 ; court painter to Grand 
Duke of Mecklenburg, 1862. Works : Ai-- 
tillery attacked by Prussian Hussars (1854), 
Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; Wallachian Trans- 
portation Train in Rainy Weather, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Battle near Waghiiusel, 
Baden, in 1849 (1858), Cannon drawn up 
Steep Hill (1861), Schwerin Gallery ; Cos- 
sack Horses (1864), Charge of Artillery of 
Imperial Guard (1865), formerly in Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Battle of Komorn ; Prince 
Thurn and Taxis wounded at Temesvar ; 
Cuirassiers' Attack in Battle on the Moskwa, 
1812 ; Horses on the Puszta ; Wet Day in 
Moldavia ; Travelling in Russia ; Wallachian 
Peasants crossing Ford ; Wallachian Stable 



on Fire ; Tunisian Cavalry (1883). Works 
in United States : Arabs Resting, Arabs Re- 
treating, W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; 
Horses at Fountain, Abd-el-Kader leaving 
Constantinople, J. J. Astor, ib. ; Wallachian 
Teamsters, Watering-Place, William Astor, 
ib.; Arabs on March, Desolation, ]\Iiss C. 
L. Wolfe, ib. ; Wallachian Team, Halting- 
Place, August Belmont, ib.; Winter in 
Wallachia, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Noon Rest, 
R. Hoe, ib. ; Cossacks in Snow, M. Graham, 
ib. ; Wallachian Team in Snow, W. Rocke- 
feller, ib.; Russian Inn, T. R. Butler, ib.; 
Alarm, J. W. Drexel, ib. ; Danger, M. K. 
Jesup, ib.; Burning Stable, D. O. Mills, 
ib.; Horses at Fountain, C. P. Huntington, 
ib. ; Travelling in Russia, Attack, C. S. 
Smith, ib.; Wallachian Teamsters, H. V. 
Newcomb, ib. ; Arabs in Desert, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, ib. ; Gypsy Boy with 
Horse, L. Tuckerman, ib. ; The Halt, H. C. 
Gibson, Philadelphia ; Cold Day, Retreat, 
L'Embourbe — Plains of Hungary, W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Watering-Place, Cor- 
coran Gallei-y, Washington. In the Morgan 
sale. New York, 1886, were sold : Wallachian 
Pack-Horses (|;4,300), Arab Scout (!|3,500), 
Wallachian Post Station (11,150), Arab at 

Fountain ($3,100).— Ulustr. Zeitg. (1865), 
i.; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xvii. 369 ; (1865), 
xviii. 511 ; (1867), xxii. 540 ; Kaulen, 91 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 37 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 59). 

SCHRICK, MARSEUS VAN. See Mar- 
sens. 

SCHRODL, ANTON, born at Schwechat, 
near Vienna, in 1825. Animal and land- 
scape painter, probably studied in Vienna ; 
visited Styria and Upper Austria. His works, 
marked by careful execution, are to be found 
in many private collections. Works : Storm 



148 



SCHRODL 



on the Lake, View near Hallstadt (1851) ; 
Animals Easting (1855) ; Hungarian Puszta 
(1862), Count Edmund Zicby ; In the Sta- 
ble (1870) ; Sheep and Rooster, Dead Stag, 
Dog Resting, Pheasants and Partridges, Sta- 
ble Interior at Leopoldsdorf (1872).— Mai- 
ler, 478 ; Wui-zbach, xxxi. 344. 

SCHRODL, NORBERT, born in Vienna 
in 1842. Genre and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Jacob Becker ; paints with ingenious 
treatment ideal figures and portraits ; has 
also attempted historical subjects, landscapes 
and animal pieces. Works: Symbolical 
Figures of Night and Day ; Rape of the Sa- 
bine Women ; Four Illustrations of " Who 
does not love Wine, Woman, and Song?" 
(1879).— Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 320. 

SCHRODTER, ADOLF, born at Schwedt, 
in the Uckermark, 
June 28, 1805, died 
in Carlsruhe, Dec. 9, 
1875. Geni*e painter, 
pupil of his father and 
of Berlin Academy, 
and in 1829 of W. 
Schadow in Diissel- 
dorf. Went to Frank- 
fort - on - the - Main in 
1848, returned to 
Diisseldorf in 1854 ; called to Carlsruhe as 
professor in 1859, retired in 1872. One of 
the happiest representatives of humour in 
German art. Works: Wine Testing, (1822), 
Rhenish Tavern (1833), Don Quixote (1834), 
Scene from Shakespeare's Henry V. (1839), 
Forest Smithy (1841), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Till Eulenspiegel as Baker, Ravenc 
Gallery., ib.; The Seasons, Primeval Forest 
in Brazil, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Baron Mun- 
chausen relating his Hunting Adventures 
(1842), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Scene from 
Till Eulenspiegel (1844), Konigsberg Mu- 

r I \ seum ; Don Quixote and his Dul- 
y^\ cinea (1858), Diisseldorf Gallery ; 

^ Falstaff in Tavern (1859), besides 
^ other pictures of the same charac- 
ter ; subjects from Munchausen and Till 
Eulenspiegel ; Two Monks in Convent Cel- 




lar (1863) ; Hans Sachs (1866) ; and numer- 
ous illustrations for books. — Kunst-Chronik, 
xi. 289 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 210 ; Blanckarts, 
93 ; Nagler, xvi. 24 ; Reber, ii. 239 ; Land 
und Meer (1875), ii. 935. 

SCHROTER, KONSTANTIN, born at 
Schkeuditz, Prussian Saxony, March 21, 
1795, died in Berlin, Oct. 18, 1835. Genre 
painter, pupil of Leipsic and Dresden Acad- 
emies, and of Pochmann. Returned to Leip- 
sic in 1819 ; lived by jDortrait painting until 
he took to genre, on advice of the elder 
Schnorr, and settled in Berlin in 1826. 
Works : Violin Lesson (1828), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Mother and Daughter Spin- 
ning ; Auction of a Painter's Effects (1832) ; 
Jewish Family Resting (1834) ; Village School. 
(1835).— Jordan (1885), ii. 211 : Nagler, xvi. 
30. 

SCHROTZBERG, FRANZ, born in Vien- 
na in 1811. Portrait painter, jjupil of Vi- 
enna Academy ; influenced by Karl Marko. 
Visited Italy in 1837, Germany and Belgium 
in 1842, and later Italy again, Paris, and 
London. Very fashionable painter for many 
years ; has been called the Austrian Winter- 
halter. Member of Vienna Academy ; Franz 
Joseph Order. Works: Leda and Swan 
(1839), Vienna Museum ; Empress Elizabeth 
of Austria, Duchess Therese von Wiirtem- 
bei'g, Archduchess Mathilde of Austria 
(1867), New Pinakothek, Munich ; and nu- 
merous other portraits. — Wurzbach, xxxii. 
18 ; Midler, 478. 

SCHTSCHEDRIN, SILVESTER FEDO- 
ROVICH, born in St. Petersburg in 1791, 
died at Sorrento in 1830. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of St. Petersburg Academy under 
Ivanoff and Worobieflf. Visited also Ger- 
many and Italy. Works : Colosseum, Lake 
Nemi, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. 

SCHUBACK, GOTTLIEB EMIL, born in 
Hamburg, June 28, 1820. Geure painter, 
pupil in Munich of Cornelius and Heinrich 
Hess in 1836-42. Studied in Rome in 1847- 
48 ; settled in 1855 in Diisseldorf, where 
he was influenced by Jordan. Works : Por- 
trait of the painter Giinther Gensler (1854), 



149 



SCHUBERT 



Hamburg Gallery ; Repentant Son ; Twelve 
o'clock ; Meeting of old Friends ; New 
Schoolmaster ; Grandfather telling a Story ; 
and similar subjects ; an Altarpiece — Christ 
on the Mount of Olives (1857). — Miiller, 479. 

SCHUBERT, FERDINAND, born in Vi- 
enna in 1824, died there in 1853. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, Wox-ks : 
Romeo and Juliet (1850) ; Death of the 
Prince of Orange ; Fisher ; Radt von Haps- 
burg showing his Soldiers to his Brother 
(1852), Vienna Museum. — Wurzbach, xxxii. 
29. 

SCHUBERT, FRANZ AUGUST, born in 
Dessau, Nov. 10, 1806. History and land- 
scape painter, pupil in Dessau of Beck, then 
of Dresden Academy and of Munich Acade- 
my under Cornelius and Schnorr ; went in 
1833 to Florence, 1834 to Rome, visited Or- 
vieto in 1836, Naples in 1838, went back to 
Dessau in 1839, to Munich in 1840, visited 
Venice in 1845, and, invited by Cornelius, 
settled in Berlin in 1850. Made professor 
by Duke of Anhalt-Dessau in 1863. Works : 
Jacob and Rachel, Parable of the Great Sup- 
per, Parable of Rich Man, Allegory of Faith, 
Love, and Hope (1834-39); Paul in the 
House of Peter in Jerusalem ; Fall of Man 
(1846); Feeding of the Five Thousand 
(1848) ; Solomon's Judgment (1853), Court 
House, Dessau ; Invention and Power of 
Music, Cycle Concert Hall, ib.; Entomb- 
ment, and Resurrection (1866), Schloss- 
kirche, ib. ; Christ on Mount of Olives ; 
David and Jonathan (1865); Sacrifice of 
Manoah (1872) ; Paul at the House of Lydia ; 
Peter and Tabitha; Hagar and Ishmael. — 
Audi-esen, ii. 262 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
790. 

SCHUBERT-SOLDERN, VICTOR VON, 
born in Prague, Aug. 15, 1834. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Leutze in Diissel- 
dorf in 1857, of Antwerp Academy in 1860- 
61, and of Cogniet in 1861-62. Lived in 
Italy in 1863-66, in Paris until 1870 ; then 
went to Brussels, where he became a friend 
of Czermak, and next settled in Dresden. 
Works: Tristan and Isolde (1870); Lucre- 



zia Borgia and a Venetian Ladj' ; A Por- 
trait Painter (Jubilee Exhib., Berlin, 1886). 
— MiiUer, 479. 

SCHUCH, WERNER, born at Hildes- 
heim, Hanover, Oct. 2, 1843. Landscape 
and genre painter, self-taught. Was at first 
an architect, and in 1870 professor of archi- 
tecture in Hanover. Began painting in 1872, 
cop3'ing in Dresden Gallery, and sketching 
in Tyrol and Italy. Studied also in Diissel- 
dorfinl877. Gold medal, Berlin, lh86. Pro- 
fessor. Works : On the Look-Out ; Heath ; 
In Time of Dire Distress (1876), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Robber Knights in Am- 
bush (1877), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Quack, 
Hanover Gallery ; Gustavus Adolphus' Body 
taken to Wolgast ; Ride for Life or Death ; 
Silent Cloisters ; Song is Over ; Flight of 
Croats ; Peacebreaker, Wiesbaden Gallery ; 
Footpads (1880) ; Landscape with brown 
Heather (1881), Dresden Museum ; Swed- 
ish Recruiters (1882), Konigsberg Museum; 
Going into Winter Quarters, Close to the 
Enemy (1884) ; On Evil Ways (1885).— Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 212 ; Miiller, 480 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xvii. 380, 735 ; xviii. 213 ; Kunst 
f. Alle, i. ; Leixner, Mud. K., ii. 101 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xx. 42. 

SCHUCH ARDT, FERDINAND, Jr., born 
in New York, May 14, 1855. Genre painter, 
pupil of William Morgan and J. G. Brown 
in 1875-78. Exhibited at the National 
Academy since 1877. Studio in New York. 
Works : Song without Words (T. B. Clarke, 
New Yoi'k) ; Nydia — Last Days of Pompeii 
(1879); Accident at the Circus (1880) ; Fair 
Client (1881) ; Fisherman's Children (1882) ; 
Signing the Marriage Contract, Christmas 
Eve (1883) ; Turned Away, Evening (1884) ; 
Gather ye Rosebuds, Out in the Snow 
(1885) ; Dreaming of the Sea, Before the 
Curtain (1886). 

SCHUFRIED, DOMINIK, born in Vienna 
in 1810. Landscape painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy. Works : Ruins of Guten- 
stein (1838) ; Mountain Landscape (1848) ; 
Peasant Family near Gutenstein (1856), Vi- 
enna Museum. — Wurzbach, xxxii. 136. 



150 



SCIltinLEIN 



SCHUHLEIN (Schiichlin), HANS, flour- 
ished in Ulm about 14G8-1502. German 
fichool ; history painter, probably a scholar 
of R van der Weyden, and a master of high 
repute in Ulm, where he appears as senior 
master of a guild of painters, sculptors, etc., 
in 1473 ; he executed an altarpiece, with his 
pupil Zeitblom, nowin a private collection in 
Hungary. Works : Altarpiece with Nativ- 
ity, Adoration, etc. (14G9), Church at Tiefen- 
bronn, Wiirtemberg; Ysidor and Susanna, St. 
Servatius (2), David with Head of Goliath, 
Zacharias and Elizabeth, Munich Gallei-y ; 
Anna and Cleopas, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
six Altar-Wings, Maurice Chapel, Nurem- 
berg ; others in Augsburg Gallery and 
Stuttgart Museum. — Ch. Blanc, £cole alle- 
mande ; Dohme, li. ; Heideloff, K. des Mit- 
telalt. in Schwaben, 117 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 
145 ; Schnaase, viii. 421 ; W. & W., ii. 110. 

SCHULTEN, AKNOLD, born at Diissel- 
dorf in 1809, died there, July 30, 1874. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy in 1822-49, and with Scheuren, 
Lusinsky, Pose, Funk, and others, formed 
the school of landscape painters, which, un- 
der the guidance of Johann Wilhelm Schir- 
mer, contributed essentially to the renown 
of the Rhenish Academy. Works : Land- 
scape with Hunting Lodge (1831), Ab- 
bey of Altenburg (1831), Kloster Arnstein 
(1833), Entrance into Plain, Woodland 
(1834), do. with Cattle (1837), Return from 
the Chase (1840), Stag Hunt (1841), Kochel 
Lake (1842), Tegernsee (1843), Laacher 
Lake (1844), Brook among Rocks (1847), 
Pyrmout on the Elz (1848), View near Wal- 
lenstadt Lake (1852), Rhenish- Westphalian 
Art Union ; Isola Bella in the Lago Mag- 
giore. Villa Rosenstein near Stuttgart. — 
Blanckarts, 72 ; Wiegraann, 352. 

SCHULTZ, FRIEDRICH, born in Ger- 
many ; contemporary. Battle and genre 
painter, lives in Berlin ; skilful in composi- 
tion, but weak in colouring. Works : Zie- 
then Hussars foraging (1854); Frederick 
the Great in Battle of Torgau ; do. in Bat- 
tle of Hohenfriedberg ; Peter the Great 



after the Battle of Poltava (1859); Bivouac 
in 17th Century ; Pi'ince Henry and the 
Bridal Pair (1862); Cupid and Psyche 
(1863); Crossing to Alsen ; The first Bomb- 
shell at Kuniggriitz ; King William decorat- 
ing the Crown Prince with the Order pour 
le merite on the Battlefield of Kuniggriitz. 
— Dioskuren (1860), 33, 255, 332, 341; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 294. 

SCHULTZ, HERJVLINNTHEODOR, born 
at Wittstock, Prussia, in 1816. History and 
genre painter, pupil in Berlin of Wach and 
of Blechen ; painted frescos in the Old Mu- 
seum at Berlin after the sketches of Schin- 
kel, and four scenes from the Myths of Her- 
cules and Theseus of his own composition ; 
also in the Royal Chapel two Prophets, and 
twelve ELings and Priests of the Old Testa- 
ment. Among his genre pictures an Italian 
Woman with a Blind Boy before the Ma- 
donna is noteworthy. — Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 40. 

SCHULTZ, JOHANN KARL, born in 
Dantzic, May 5, 1801, died there, June 12, 
1873. Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Dantzic Art School under Breysig, 
and of Berlin Academy under Hummel ; 
went in 1823 to Munich, attracted there by 
Domenico Quaglio, and in 1824 to Italy, 
whence he returned to Berlin in 1828 ; was 
made director of Dantzic Art School in 
1831, member of Berlin Academy in 1836 ; 
visited Rome again in 1839 ; founded in 
1855 the Ai-t Union and in 1856 the Ar- 
chseological Union in Dantzic, Great gold 
medal for art. Honorary member of St. 
Petersburg Academy. Works : View in 
Milan Cathedral (1827), Steeple of do. 
(1829), National Gallery, Berlin ; Choir in 
Konigsberg Cathedral (1835), Royal Palace, 
ib.; replica (1837), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Castle Hohenzollern (6); Interior of Ulm 
Cathedral ; do. of Strasbui'g Cathedral ; 
View of Siena ; Piazza del Gran Duca ; Or- 
vieto Cathedral ; Triumphal Ai*ch of Trajan 
at Ancona ; Street of Tombs in Pompeii ; 
Konigsberg Cathedral ; Ai'tus Hof in Dant- 
zic. — Andreseu, ii. 141; Jordan (1885), ii. 



151 



SCHULZ 



213 ; Kunst-Chronik, v. 153 ; vii. 307, 423 ; 
viii. 619 ; Land und Meer (1878), ii. 383. 

SCHULZ, JULIUS, born in Germany; 
contemi3orary. Hunt, landscape, and mili- 
tary genre painter ; lives in Berlin ; attrac- 
tive through his humorous touch. "Works : 
Stag Hunt ; Winter Landscape with Hunts- 
men ; Cuirassiers on the March, Uhlans by 
Peasant Cottage, Royal Palace, Berlin ; 
Dx'unken Cossack ; Prince Bliicher and 
Count Nostitz at Ligny. 

SCHULZ, KARL FRIEDRICH, born at 
Selchow, Brandenburg, Nov. 2, 179G, died 
in Neu-Ruppin, March 3, 1866. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Berlin Academy. 
Fought in the wars of 1814-15 ; travelled 
in Holland, France, and England in 1821. 
Became professor in Berlin in 1840 ; visited 
Munich in 1841, and studied glass painting. 
In 1847 went to St. Petersburg. Some- 
times called Jagd-Schulz, owing to his fond- 
ness for hunting scenes. Works : Cossacks ; 
Quartering of Troops (1828) ; EngHsh Brig 
on the North Sea at Cuxhaven (1831), Tem- 
pest on Sea off Calais (1831), Poachers 
(1831), National Gallery, Berlin ; Mouse- 
Trap Vender and Peasant Woman (1836), 
Weimar Museum ; Return from the Chase ; 
Deer in Forest ; Dead Birds (1834), Game 
Vender (1840), Konigsberg Museum. — Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 213; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 288. 

SCHULZ, LEOPOLD, born in Vienna in 
1804, died at Heiligenstadt, near Vienna, Oct. 
6, 1873. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy, then (1829) in Munich of Cor- 
nelius and Schnorr ; visited Italy in 1830- 
31, and after his return to Munich painted 
in the Konigsbau scenes from Hymns of 
Homer and Idyls of Theocritus ; returned 
to Vienna, where he became custodian of 
Count Lamberg's Gallery, and in 1844 cor- 
rector at the Academy. Works : The Chris- 
tian Heroes of the First Crusade (1835) ; 
Martyrdom of St. Florian (1837) ; Duke 
Ernest the Iron wooing Cimburgis of Mas- 
sovia (1850); Patron Saints of Austrian 
Monarchy (1853); Louis the Bavarian an- 



nouncing Liberation to Frederick the Fair 
(1851), Vienna Museum.— Fbrster, v. 506 ; 
Wurzbach, xxxii. 183. 

SCHULZ-BRIESEN, EDUARD, born at 
Haus Amstel bei Neun, Diisseldorf, May 11, 
1831. Genre painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy and of Vautier ; studied for one year 
(1851) at Antwerp, then painted portraits in 
different cities, and settled at Diisseldorf in 
1871. Works : Copyist ; Children's Car- 
nival ; Lost Honour ; In the Gentlemen's 
Room ; Differences ; For Examination ; 
Dainties ; Court Room Scene, Diisseldorf 
Gallery ; Captured G;ypsies, Divine Service 
in the Country (Jubilee Exhib., Berlin, 
1886).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 794 ; Land 
und Meer (1884), i. 499. 

SCHUMACHER, KARL (GEORG 
CHRISTIAN), born at Doberan, Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin, May 14, 1797, died at Dres- 
den, June 22, 1869. History painter, pupil 
of Rudolf Suhrlandt, but really self-taught, 
then studied at Dresden Academy in 1819- 
1821, and in Rome in 1821-25 ; visited Na- 
ples, Orvieto, Perugia, Florence ; after his 
return settled in Dresden, but was called to 
Schwerin by the Grand Duke in 1830 to 
paint frescos, became court painter, lived 
^^ again in Dresden in 1852-55, 

U^^ returned to Schwerin, Avhere 
/ ^^ he became blind, in 1863. 
r^(r> Works : Holy Family (1821), 

i0^y^7 Adoration of the Magi (1826), 
Return of Henry the Pilgrim (1836), Battle 
at Gransee (1839), Departui-e of Henry the 
Pilgrim (1857), Gallery, Schwerin ; Henry 
the Lion (1842), The Three Faculties, 
Grand-ducal Palace, ib. In fresco : The 
Seasons, Loggia, ib. — Andresen, ii. 121 ; 
Fiirster, v. 534. 

SCHUMANN, KARL FRANZ JACOB 
HEINRICH, born in Berlin, Aug. 8, 1767, 
died there, Sept. 27, 1827. History painter, 
pupil at Berlin Academy of Johann Chris- 
toph Frisch, went in 1795 to Italy ; became 
senator, and professor of anatomy at the 
Berlin Academy in 1801 ; professor of paint- 
ing in the royal gallery in 1815, and secre- 



152 



SCHURAVLEFF 



tary of the Academy in 1816. Works : 
Burggrave Friedrich of Zollern surrender- 
ing the Emperor ; do. recognizing his Wife 
as Cavah-y Leader (1800), Crossing of the 
Rhine at Caub by the Prussian Ai'my (1826), 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Julius Sabinus taken 
Prisoner ; Meeting of Alexander and Napo- 
leon.— N. Necrol. der D. (1827), ii. 852 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 43. 

SCHURAVLEFF, THYRSUS SERGE- 
VICH, born in Saratov in 1836. Genre 
painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Academy. 
Works : Unfaithful Peasant Woman ; Re- 
turn from the Ball ; Chimney Sweep ; Cook 
(1872) ; Blessing of the Bride (1874). 

SCHURIG, KARL WILHELM, born in 
Leipsic, Dec. 17, 1818, died in Dresden, 
March 10, 1874. History painter, pupil in 
Leipsic and in Dresden of Bendemann. 
Visited Italy ; settled in Dresden, where he 
became professor of the Academy in 1857. 
Works : Resurrection of Christ, altarpiece, 
Eppendorf ; Bishop of Speyer protecting 
Persecuted Jews (1851), Dresden Gallery ; 
Emperor Albrecht and Swiss Ambassadors 
(1842), Leipsic Museum ; crayon drawings 
of the masterpieces of Dresden Gallery. — 
Kunst-Chronik, ix. 388. 

SCHUSSELE, CHRISTL\.N, born in Al- 
sace about 1824, died at Merchantville, N. 
Y., Aug. 21, 1879. History painter, pupil 
of Yvon in Paris. Settled in the United 
States in 1847 ; for eleven years director of 
the schools connected with the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy. Works : How we won the 
Battle ; Leisberger preaching to the Indians; 
Men of Progress ; King Solomon and the 
Iron Worker.— Am. Art Rev. (1880), 46. 

SCHUSTER, LUDWIG ALBRECHT, 
born at Berthelsdorf, Saxony, May 9, 1824. 
History painter, pupil of Dresden Academy 
under Julius Hiibnerin, 1842-48 ; then 
lived in Munich, and since 1852 in Dresden. 
Works : Bravery of a Saxon Dragoon ; 
Storming of Great Redoubt at Battle of 
Borodino, Saxon Grenadiers repulsing 
French Cavalry after Battle of Jena (1862), 
Dresden Gallery.— Muller, 482. 




SCHUT, CORNELIS, the elder, born in 
Antwerp, baptized May 13, 1597, died there, 
April 29, 165 5. 
Flemish school ; 
history painter, 
among the pupils 
of Rubens the one 
in whose works the 
master's style is 
most distinctly re- 
flected ; master of 
the guild about 
1619 ; with G. de 
Crayer, Liemaeckere, Stadius, and Theodor 
Rombouts decorated in 1635 the triumphal 
arches in Ghent for the entry of Prince 
Ferdinand. Frequently painted centre fig- 
ures for flower-wreaths by his friend Dan- 
iel Seghers. Works : St. Nicholas appear- 
ing to Emperor Constantine (masterpiece). 
Church at Willebroek, Brabant ; Martyrdom 
of St. George, Madonna in Glory, Purifica- 
tion, Museum, Antwerp ; Pieta, St. James's, 
ib. ; Coronation of the Virgin, Circumcision, 
Assumption, St. Francis Xavier among the 
Indians, do. in Japan, St. Charles's, ib. ; God 
the Father and Holy Ghost, Dead Christ, 
Resurrection of the Dead, St. Willebroed's, 
ib. ; Martyrdom of St. James, Brussels 
Museum ; Allegorical Representation of Cir- 
cumcision, Ghent Museum ; Alexander cut- 
ting the Gordian Knot, Lille Museum ; Chil- 
dren Playing in a Landscape, Rotterdam 
Museum ; Annunciation, Aschafi'enburg Gal- 
lery ; Beheading of St. James, Bamberg 
Gallery ; Feast of Venus, Brunswick Gal- 
lery ; do., and Neptune and Venus, Dresden 
Gallery ; Vulcan in a Grotto, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Hero and Leander, Madonna 
in a Garland, Vienna Museum ; Coronation 
of the Virgin, Copenhagen Gallery ; Tribute 
to Caisar, Stockholm Museum ; Adoration 
of the Shephei'ds, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. His nephew% Cornells Schut, the 
younger, went to Spain with his father, an 
engineer in the service of Philip IV. ; set- 
tled in Seville, where he was one of the 
principal founders of the Academy in 1660 



153 



SCHUTZ 



and its director ; died there in 1675 or 
1G76 ; imitated Murillo. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
flumaude ; Ki-amm, v. 1500 ; Micbiels, viii. 
339 ; Rooses (Reber), 272 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 757. 

SCHUTZ, CHRISTIAN GEORG, the 
elder, born at Flursheim, near Mentz, Sept. 
27, 1718, died in Frankfort, Dec. 6, 1791. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Hugo Schlegel 
in Frankfort (1731), then of Appiani. Long 
painted in fresco before devoting himself to 
landscape painting, in which he followed 
Saft-Leven. His best pictures were painted 
between 1760 and 1775. Works : Rhine 
Views (10, one dated 1787), Architectural 
Pieces (3), Pilgi'ims by Ruins, View near 
Waterloo (1780), Views of and near Mentz 
(6), two others, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; 
Landscape with Figures, Interior of St. 
Bartholomew's in Frankfort, Bamberg Gal- 
lery ; Rhine Views (7), four others, Cassel 
Gallery ; Interior of Gothic Chui'ch (1769), 
View on the Neckar (1777), five others, 
Darmstadt Museum ; River Landscapes (3, 
1750, 1765), Market Day on the Romerberg 
in Frankfort (1754), Morning Landscape 
(1760), The Devil's Bridge on St. Gothard 
Road (1781), View of Aschaffenburg (1787), 
four others, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
others in Amalienstift, Dessau, in Christi- 
ania, Gotha (4), Oldenbui-g (2), and Prague 
Galleries. His nephew and pupil. Christian 
Georg Schiitz, the younger (1758-1823), 
painted especially attractive Rhine Views, 
and was one of the founders of the Frank- 
fort Museum. In the Darmstadt Museum 
are, by him, five Landscapes (one dated 
1786) ; in the Schleissheim Gallery, four 
Rhine Views. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 565 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 725 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K.> 
XV. 260. 

SCHtJTZE, WILHELM, bora in Berlin 
in 1814. Genre painter, pupil of Klober ; 
very successful in homely scenes of lively 
composition and good colouring. Works : 
Cellar with Students and Girls (1834) ; 
Game of Chess, Blind Man's Buff, Princess 
of Liegnitz ; Flower Girl (1838) ; Mother 



washing her Child (1854) ; Child's portrait 
(1880), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Hostile 
Inmates, Emil Caiman, New York. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl., 1834-38 ; D. Kunstbl., 1854. 

SCHUTZENBERGER, LOUIS FRE- 
DERIC, born at Strasburg, Sept. 8, 1825. 
Genre, landscape, and marine painter, pupil 
of Gleyre. Medals: 3d class, 1851; 2d 
class, 1861, 1863; L. of Honour, 1870. 
Works : Terpsichore (1861), Centaurs hunt- 
ing a Wild Boar (1864), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Judgment of Paris (1863) ; Head of 
St. John (1863), Count Nieuwerkerke ; 
Pygmalion embracing his Statue (1864) ; 
Rape of Europa (1865), Arras Museum ; 
Charlemagne learning to write (1867) ; The 
First Astronomer (1867) ; Roman Slaves, 
St. Simon Stylites (1868); Hero, Pope's 
Walk in the Campagna (1869) ; Bather, 
Souvenir of Italy (1870) ; Alsatian Family 
emigrating to France (1872) ; Boatwoman 
of the Rhine, Amazon (1874) ; Seven Capital 
Sins, Flight of Nero (1875) ; Joan of Arc 
hearing Celestial Voices (1876) ; Souvenir 
of Italy, Diana Bathing (1877) ; Ariadne 
Abandoned, Bather (1878) ; Potiphar s Wife 
(1879) ; The Gorgon (1880) ; Panel for the 
Mayor's Office in Rheims, Interview between 
Caesar and Ai-iovistus (1881) ; Souvenir of 
Alsace (1882) ; Callisto, Alsatian Gleaner 
(1883) ; Return of Ulysses, Rhine Fisher- 
men (1884) ; Huntsmen Drinking at Well, 
Bather (1885) ; Ulysses (1886).— Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1881), xxiii. 510 ; Bellier, ii. 485. 

SCHUZ, THEODOR, born at Thumling- 
en, Wurtemberg, March 26, 1830. Genre 
painter, pupil of Stuttgart Art School under 
Rustige, Neher, and Steinkopf ; went in 1854 
to Munich, and studied at the Academy un- 
der Piloty in 1857-63 ; visited Italy in 1858 
and Middle Germany in 1859, and settled 
in Diisseldorf in 1866. Works : Evening 
Bell (1857); Walk on Easter Morning (1858); 
Midday Rest during Harvest (1862); Amuse- 
ment in Vineyard (1869) ; Sunday Afternoon 
in the Village (1873) ; Evening Landscape 
in Harvest Time (1879); Village View (1883). 
— Muller, 482 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 419. 



154 



SCHWAIGER 



SCHWAIGER, HANS, born at Neuhaus, 
Bohemia, iii 1854. Genre painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy and of Trenkwald ; paints 
in water-colours fairy and fantastic scenes 
with a burlesque humour. Works: Cycle 
of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales ; do. of Pied 
Piper of Hameln ; The Water Sprite (1880). 
— Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvi. 236. 

SCHWALBE, CREST. See Kiprenski. 

SCHWARTZ, ALBERT GUSTAV, born 
in Berlin, July 6, 1833. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy under Max Schmidt 
in landscape painting ; after a year and a half 
in Rome, went over to genre under Anton 
Ton Werner. Gold medal. Works : Broken 
Flowers (1874) ; Gypsy Woman (1875) ; 
Sweet Fruits, Slumber Song (1876).— Mul- 
ler, 483. 

SCHWARTZ, FRANS, bom in Copenha- 
gen, July 19, 1850. His- 
tory and genre painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy ; won the gold 
medal with his first pict- 
ure ; having travelled be- 
fore in foreign parts, vis- 
ited in 1878 Germany, 
Holland, Paris, North 
Italy, and Spain. Works : 
Job and his Friends ; In a Sick Room (1875); 
Christ healing the Sick (1876) ; Death of 
Jacob (1878).— Sigurd Miiller, 309. 

SCHWARTZ, MARTIN, latter part of 
15th century. German school. He was a 
Dominican monk in Rothenburg, and paint- 
ed in the manner of Zeitblom. Some of 
his pictures have been attributed to Schon- 
gauer. Works : Small altarpiece with Christ 
Crucified, etc., St. Sebastian pierced with 
Arrows, Vienna Museum (both ascribed to 
Schongauer) ; four Altar- Wings with Annun- 
ciation, Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, 
Death of Mary, St. Maurice's Cliapel, Nurera- 
1)erg ; Christ Crucified and Saints, Parish 
Church, Schwabach, near ib. — Nagler, Mon., 
iv. 675 ; Schnaase, viii. 432. 

SCHWARTZ, WENCESLAUS, born in 
Kursk, Russia, in 1838. Genre painter, 




pupil of St. Petersburg Academy and of 
A. Lefevre in Paris. Member of St. Pe- 
tersburg Academy in 1865. Works: Con- 
ference of Foreign Ambassadors with Rus- 
sian Boyars ; Muscovite Ambassador to a 
Foreign Court ; A Strelitz ; Czar's Pilgrim- 
age.— Miiller, 483. 

SCHWARTZE, JOHAN GEORG, born 
at Amsterdam, Oct. 20, 1814, died there, 
Aug. 27, 1874. Historical, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pujjil of Leutze in Philadel- 
phia, whither he went with his parents early 
in life, then studied at the Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy in 1838-44 under Schadow, Sohn, and 
Lessing ; took Rembrandt for his ideal. 
Member of Amsterdam Academy in 1844. 
Great gold medal, Amsterdam, 1860. 
Works : Woman in Prayer, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Columbus before the Junta at 
Salamanca ; Michelangelo by the Bod}' of 
Vittoria Colonna (1854) ; Waiting, First 
Divine Service of the Puritans in Amer- 
ica (1858).— Cotta's Kunstbl. (1848) ; D. 
Kunstbl., 1851, 1858 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 795. 

SCHWARTZE, THERESE, born at Am- 
sterdam, Dec. 20, 1852. Genre painter, 
daughter and pupil of preceding, and pu- 
pil of Gabriel Max. Works : Girl's Head 
(1873), He is coming ! (1882), Three Or- 
phans of Amsterdam (1885), Amsterdam 
Museum. 

SCHWARZ, CHRISTOPH, born near 
Ingoldstadt in 1550 (?), died in Munich 
about 1597. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil in Munich of Mel- 
chior Bocksberger ; formed himself chiefly 
in Venice after Titian and Tintoi'etto, and 
after his return became court painter to 
Duke William I. of Bavaria. He painted 
many .altarpieces for churches in Munich, 
Augsburg, Landshut, Ingoldstadt, and other 
places, which are marked by good composi- 
tion and vigoi'ous colouring, but the heads 
are mostly without expression. He also 
sliowed considerable skill in decorating in 
fresco many houses in Munich. Works : 
Descent from the Cross, Aschaflfenburg Gal- 



165 



SCIIWARZ 



lery ; Christ on the Cross, Male Portrait, 
Bamberg- Gallery ; Pieta, Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Christ on the Cross, Dresden Museum ; 
The Virgin with Infant in Cradle adored by 
Angels, Gotha Museum ; Christus Salvator, 
Mater Dolorosa, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Madonna Enthroned, St. Jerome, St. Cath- 
arine, Artist's Family, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; St. Michael overcoming Satan, St. 
Michael's, ib. ; Passion of Christ, and of the 
Prophets, Church at Ingoldstadt ; Christ 
before Pilate, Christ bearing the Cross (2), 
Christ on Mount Tabor, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. — Gerstner, Gesch. von Ingoldstadt, 
195 ; Sighart, 707. 

SCHWARZ VON EOTHENBUEG, 
MARTIN, flourished about 1480-1510. 
German school ; history painter. Works : 
Departure of the Apostles, Madonna and 
Saints, Bamberg Gallery ; Annunciation, 
Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, Death of 
the Virgin, Germanic Museum, Nurem- 
berg. 

SCHWEINFURTH, ERNST, born at 
Carlsruhe in 1818, died in Rome in 1877. 
Landscape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Feodor, the Calmuck (court painter at Carls- 
ruhe in 1806, died there in 1821), then of 
Trommel, and in 1821 of Munich Academy. 
Works : View around Bay of Cattaro, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Wooded Shore with Hunts- 
men in Boats (1844), Furstenberg Gallery, 
Donaueschingen ; View at Cei*vara near 
Rome, Schack Gallery, Munich. 

SCHWEISSINGER, (JOHANN FRIED- 
RICH) THEODOR, born at Konigsberg, 
April 7, 1819. History painter, pupil of 
Konigsberg Art School, then (1847) of Leip- 
sic Academy under Jiiger ; travelled in Ba- 
varia, Tyrol, and Salzburg. Works: St. 
Boniface (1854) ; Charlemagne and Witti- 
kind (1855) ; Ulrich von Hutten croAvned 
Poet (1861). His brother Georg Karl (born 
Nov. 14, 1822) is also a history painter. 

SCHWEMMINGER, HEINRICH, born 
in Vienna in 1803. History painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy. Visited Munich and 
in 1837 Rome. Became second custodian 



of Vienna Academy Gallery in 1844, and 
tirst custodian in 1861. Works : Finding of 
the Veil at Klosternenburg (1841) ; Ibycus 
calling the Cranes to avenge his Death, Vi- 
enna Museum ; do. (1869) ; David thanking 
God for his Victory over Goliath (1843) ; 
Parting of Siegfried and Chriemhild (1844) ; 
Chriemhild's Dream, Prophecy of the Mer- 
maids to Hagen ; Madonna (1858) ; Judith 
1859) ; Conversion of Wittikind ; St. Fer- 
dinand ; Five frescoes for the Chapel of the 
Vienna Insane Asylum. — Wurzbach, xxxii. 
365. 

SCHWEMI^nNGER, JOSEF, born in 
Vienna in 1804. Landscape painter, brother 
of preceding, with whom simultaneously pu- 
pil of Vienna Academy ; travelled in the Aus- 
trian provinces and Bavaria, whence most 
of his subjects are taken, and visited Italy. 
Works : Views on the Danube, in Styria, 
Tyrol, Bavaria, etc. (1832-71); Lago di 
Garda (1844) ; Sunrise over the Marchfeld, 
Vintage near Vienna, View of Briinn, do. of 
Witkowitz-Moravia, do. of Troppau, do. in 
Silesia, do. of Cracow, Hunt in Galicia 
(1868), Court Saloon of Northern Railway 
Station, Vienna. — Wurzbach, xxxii. 367. 

SCHWERDGEBURTH, OTTO, born in 
Weimar, March 5, 1835, died there, Dec. 
16, 1866. History painter, son of and first 
instructed by the engraver Karl August 
Schwerdgeburth, then pupil of Friedrich 
Preller and (1856) of Antwerp Academy ; 
assisted Guffens and Swerts on the frescos 
in the Bourse and St. Nicholas's Church 
there, and in 1860 returned to Weimar. 
Works : Thomas Miinzer a Prisoner before 
the Princes in Fraukenhausen ; Hathburg 
— First Wife of Henry the Fowler ; Young 
Goldsmith's Masterpiece ; Salzburg Protes- 
tants' Last Look upon Home, Bremen Gal- 
lery ; Easter Promenaders from Goethe's 
Faust, Cologne Museum. — Kunst-Chronik, 
ii. 45. 

SCHWIND, MORITZ VON, Ritter, born 
in Vienna, Jan. 21, 1804, died in Munich, 
Feb. 8, 1871. History painter, pupil in Vi- 
enna of Ludwig Schnorr and of the Acad- 



156 



SCHWINGEN 




emy, then of Munich Academy (1828) under 
Cornelius ; decorated in 1832-34 a room in 
the Konigsbau 
with encaustic 
pictures, in 1834 
-35 painted sixty 
compositions in 
"water-colours for 
Castle Hohen- 
schwangau, visit- 
ed Rome in 1835, 
lived in Carls- 
ruhe in 1840-44, 
in Frankfort 
in 1844-47, and became professor at the 
Munich Academy in 1847 ; painted the fres- 
cos in the Wartburg in 1854-55, and those 
in the Vienna Opera House in 1864-67. 
One of the most eminent painters of mod- 
ern times, and the most gifted representa- 
tive of German romanticism. Member of 
Berlin, Vienna, Paris, and other Academies. 
Bavarian, Prussian, Saxon, and Greek Or- 
ders ; knighted in Austria in 1855. Works 
in oil : The Arts in the Service of the Ma- 
donna ; Triptych, Frauenkirche, Munich ; 
Riibezahl, Morning Hour, Wedding Jour- 
ney, Crusader's Return, Knight and Hermit, 
Danube and Tributaries, Prisoner's Dream, 
Wiland the Smith, Hero and Leander, Erl- 
King, and tw^enty-five others, Schack Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Cycle of Pictures of Travel (19) ; 
Rhine and Tributaries, Raczynski Gallery, 
Berlin ; The Rose (1847), National Gallery, 
ib. ; The Elbe ; Knight Kurt's Wooing 
(1839), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Knight Falken- 
stein's Ride, Leij^sic Museum ; Artist's Pil- 
grimage ; Rudolf von Happburg's Ride to 
Speyer,Kiel Gallery; Dance of Elves(1845), 
Minstrels' Contest at the Wartburg (1846), 
Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; A Symphony 
(1852), New Pinakothek, Munich; St. Eliz- 
abeth's Glove (1856), Weimar Museum; Cin- 
derella ('.]). Water-colours : Sketches for 
Cycle at Hohenschwangau (60) ; Legend of 
the Seven Ravens (14, 1857), Weimar Muse- 
um ; Legend of Mclusine (11), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Story of Cinderella (6, 1851-54); A 



Queer Saint ; St. Wolfgang and the Devil, 
Emperor Max on the Martin Wall, Vienna 
Academy. In fresco : Subjects from Tieck's 
Works (1833-34, partly encaustic), Scenes 
in Life of Rudolf von Hapsburg, Royal 
Palace, Munich ; Myth of Cupid and Psyche 
(1837), Castle Riidigsdorf, near Leipsic ; 
Mythological Cycle (1839), Kunsthalle, 
Carlsruhe ; Allegorical Figures (1839), As- 
sembly Room of the Estates, ib. ; Life of St. 
Elizabeth (6), Cycle (6) from History of Thu- 
ringia(1854-56),Wartbui-g,Eisenach(sketch- 
es to these in Weimar Museum) ; Paintings 
in church at Reichenhall (1863) ; Two Cycles 
from German Operas (1866), Opera House, 
Vienna. — Brockhaus, xiv. 614 ; Forster, v. 
132 ; Fuhrich, M. v. Sch. (Leipsic, 1871) ; 
Holland, do. (Stuttgart, 1873); Miiller, do. 
(Eisenach, 1873) ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1873), i. 
83 ; ii. 451 ; (1874), ii. 447 ; Jordan (1885), 
ii. 215 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 78 ; Graph. K, 
i. 9, 49, 77 ; Nord und Siid, iii. 353 ; xiv. 23 ; 
XV. 357 ; Pecht, i. 195 ; Reber, ii. 83 ; Re- 
gnet, ii. 215 ; Schack, Meine Gemaldesamm- 
lung (1884), 42 ; Springer, Gesch., 144 ; 
Wurzbach, xxxiii. 127 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
iv. 90 ; V. 129 ; vi. 253 ; vii. 29, 75, 97, 103 ; 
viii. 257 ; xi. 11. 

SCHWINGEN, PETER, born at Mufifen- 
dorf in 1815. Genre painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy in 1832-45. Paints scenes 
of common life with much truth and a touch 
of satire. Wox'ks : St. Martin's Day among 
the Children of DUsseldorf (1837) ; Feast 
after drawing the Prize (1845) ; Shooting at 
Birds for a Pig (1844) ; Rich Uncle's Visit 
(1845); Subhastation (1846); Expectation, 
Duty on Bread (1847) ; The Distress is over 
(1848); Dentist (1849); Warrior's Return 
(1851) ; New Wine (1852).— Wolfg. MiiUer, 
Diisseldf. K., 301 ; Wiegmann, 333. 

SCHWOISER, EDUAKD, born at Bru- 
sau, Moravia, in 1827. Genre and history 
painter, self-taught. In 1857 changed from 
genre to history, and later took up monu- 
mental painting. Works: Mother Conva- 
lescent (1856) ; Albrecht von Hapsburg 
blessing his Son before Departure for Pales^ 



1.57 



SCIO 



tine (1855) ; Henry IV. at Canossa, Maxi- 
milianeum, Munich. Fresco : Tournament 
in Munich Market Place, and other histori- 
cal subjects, National Museum, ib.; Decora- 
tions in Castles of Ludwij^ 11. in Bavarian 
Highlands and on the Chiemsee. — Miiller, 
484 ; Wurzbach, xxxiii. 194 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., iii. 196 

SCIO, I^LISSACKE OF, Eugene Delacroix, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 10 in. x 11 




iC a 



Massacre of Scio, Eugene Delacroix, Louvre, Paris. 

ft. 6 in. ; signed. Scene after the massacre. 
In the foreground, Greek families, seated on 
the shore, await their fate ; among them are 
the dead and the dying, old men in despair, 
and young w^omen doomed to slavery ; be- 
hind them, a Turk on a prancing steed is 
dragging at his horse's tail a nude young 
girl, who throws up her arms in a vain effort 
to hide her shame ; in the background, the 
city, with flames and smoke and scenes of 
violence. Salon, 1824 ; bought by State 
(G,000 francs) ; Exposition universelle, 1855. 



Engraved by Masson. Lithographed by 
Blanchard. Delacroix had never been in 
Greece when he painted this picture, which 
was one of bis ablest protests against the 
classic school. — Chesneau, (Euvre de Dela- 
croix, 30 ; Larousse, xiv. 404 ; Annales du 
Musee, Salon de 1824, i. PI. 33. 

SCIPIO, CONTINENCE OF, illustration 
of the story told by Livy (xxvi. 50), Polyb- 
ius (x. 19), and others, that Scipio, after the 
captux'e of Carthagena in Spain, 
B.C. 210, won the gratitude of the 
Celtiberi by restoring to Allucius, 
a prince of their nation, his be- 
trothed, a beautiful young girl 
who had been adjudged to him- 
self as spoil of war. 

By Jan Brueghel, the elder, 
Munich Museum ; copper, H. 2 
ft. 3 in. X 3 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1609. Scipio seated upon a throne 
in front of an open tent pitched 
at the foot of a mountain crowned 
with trees, with Allucius, the 
maiden, and her parents, who 
kneel, and are offering presents, 
in a semicircle before him ; near 
the tent are horses ; Roman sol- 
diers conduct prisoners, and on 
the left is seen the sea with the 
city of Carthagena. From Diissel- 
dorf Gallei-y. 

By Giulio Romano, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, trans- 
ferred from wood, H. 1 ft. 2 in. x 
5 ft. Scipio, seated at the en- 
trance of his tent, surrounded bj' officers, ad- 
dresses the maiden standing before him as 
if to acquaint her with his intentions ; in 
background, the city of Carthagena. From 
the Orleans Gallery ; sold to Lord Berwick 
for £480 ; afterwards in Beaucousin Collec- 
tion, whence passed to National Gallery. 
Engraved by P. S. Bartoli. 

By Nicolas Poussin, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. The Roman general, seated in the 
open air, indicates to Allucius, who inclines 
before him, that he may lead away his be- 



158 



SCIPIO 



trotbed, who places her hand on her heart 
to indicate her gratitude ; behind Scipio, a 
young woman is about to put a crown upon 
liis head, while lictors and soldiers standing 
near express astonishment at his noble act. 
Painted in Eome about 1643 (?) ; belonged 
to M. Merville, then passed to Sir Robert 
Walpole, Houghton House, whence acquired 
by the Empress of Russia for 30,000 francs. 
Engraved by Francis Legat (1784) ; Claude 
Dubose. — Larousse, iv. 1086 ; Reveil. 

By PHmaticcio (?), Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 
ft 2 in. X 3 ft. 11 in. Scipio, at left, on an 




Continence of Scipio, Primaticcio, Louvre. 

elevated seat, surrounded by his soldiers, 
shows the young Allucius his betrothed, at 
right, accompanied by an aged woman ; two 
prisoners, one bearing a golden vase, are 
kneeling. Perhaps by Dubreuil. — Villot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Musee, xii. PI. 14 ; 
see Reveil, xii. 864. 

Subject treated also by Sebastian© Ricci, 
Louvre ; G. Horst, Berlin Museum ; Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg; Franyois Lemoyne (1727), Nancy 
Museum. 

SCIPIO, TRIUMPH OF, Mantegna, Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; canvas, tempera, 
H. 2 ft. 4.} X 8 ft. 10 in. Represents the in- 
troduction into Rome of the worship of Cyb- 



.ele, 204 b.c. At left, the image of the god- 
dess is borne on a litter by Phrygian priests ; 
in front, Claudia Quinta is kneeling, and 
behind her, P. Cornelius Scipio, Nasica, and 
other Romans and Asiatics are standing. — 
Portfolio (1874), 1 ; Livy, L. xxix. 10 ; Ovid, 
Fasti, iv. 305. 

SCIUTI, GIUSEPPE, born at Catania, 
Sicily, contempoi'ai'y. History painter, dis- 
tinguished for his characteristic and truth- 
ful representations from history and hfe of 
antiquity. Works : Musical Entertainment 
in Ancient Rome ; Burial of Timoleon 
(1874) ; Pindar with the Olympian Gods ; 
Sappho deserted by Phaon ; Preparations 
for Greek Festival (1876). 

SCOREL (Schoreel, Schoorle), JAN VAN, 
born at Schoorl, 
near Alkmaar, 
Aug. 1, 1495, 
died at Haar- 
1 e m , or at 
Utrecht, Dec. 6, 
1562. Dutch 
school. Histo- 
ry, portrait, and 
landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Wil- 
lem Cornelisz in Haarlem (about 1509-12), 
of Jacob Cornelisz in Amsterdam, and of 
Mabuse in Utrecht ; afterwards studied per- 
spective and architecture at Cologne, and at 
Spe^'er with a priest, as also painting at 
Strasburg, Basle, and at Nuremberg with Al- 
brecht Diirer, whom he left on account of the 
latter's strong aelherence to Luther's teach- 
ings. He then worked in Styria and Carinthia 
(1520), and from Venice went to Jerusalem, 
returning whence he stopped in Rome and 
was appointed overseer of the Vatican Gal- 
lery by his countryman. Pope Adrian VI., 
after whose death he went back to Utrecht ; 
moved to Haarlem and taught there about 
1527, but soon returned to Utrecht. From 
his school issued Martin Heeniskerk and 
Antonis Mor. Greatly influenced by his so- 
journ in Rome, he was the first Dutch paint- 
er in the Italian style ; his finest pictures 




159 



SCORZA 



were destroj'ed by the Iconoclasts. Those 
still existing are distinguishecl for vigorous 
conception, pleasing expression, a warm 
tone of brownish colour, and careful execu- 
tion. Of late attempts have been made to 
identify him with th6 Master of the Death 
of Mary. Works : Eepose in Egji^t, Por- 
trait of a Lady, National Gallery, London ; 
Magdalen, the Queen of Sheba, Bathsheba 
at the Bath, Adonis, Archery-Piece with 17 
portraits (1531), Amsterdam Museum ; Ma- 
donna, Portrait of a Gentleman, do. of a Boy 
(1531), Rotterdam Museum ; Fall of Man, 
Baptism of Christ, St. Cecilia, Portrait 
Gi'oup of 12 Knights Templars, City Mu- 
seum, Haarlem ; Crucifixion, Episcopal Mu- 
seum, ib.; Madonna, four Group Portraits 
of Knights Tem pilars, Museum Kunstliefde, 
Utrecht ; two Altar- Wings with Christ Bear- 
ing the Cross and Resurrection, Altar with 
Scenes from Life of Moses, Portrait of Old 
Lady, Episcopal Museum, ib. ; Good Samar- 
itan, St. John's Hospital, Bruges ; Crucifix- 
ion (1530), Bonn Museum ; two Altar- Wings, 
Cologne Museum ; Female Bust Portrait, 
Diisseldorf Academy ; Portrait of Cornells 
Aerntsz van der Dussen (1550), do. of Agathe 
von Schoenhoven, Berlin Museum ; David s 
Victory over Goliath (attributed to Bron- 
zino), Dresden Gallery ; two Altar- Wings 
(attributed to Pourbus), Worlitz Gallery ; 
Male Portrait, Ambras Collection, Vienna ; 
Altar of Holy Kith and Kin (1520), Church 
at Ober-Vellach, Carinthia ; Portrait of a 
Boy, Bergamo Gallery ; Male Portrait (at- 
tributed to Bruyn), Turin Gallery ; Portrait 
of Agnes van Schoenhoven (1529), Doria 
Gallery, Rome ; St. Magdalen, Palermo Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of Young Man (about 1525), 
Warwick Castle, England ; do. (about 1545), 
Longford Castle, ib. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole hol- 
landaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 73 ; Kramm, v. 
1485 ; Graph. K., vi. 91 ; Jahr- 
^ buch preuss. Kunstsammlg, 
' ^' ii. 193; Michiels, v. 150; 
Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 168 ; xix. 112 ; xxi. 
365; W. &. W., ii. 536; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
xviii. 46 ; xxi. 83, 145. 



SCORZA, SINIBALDO, born at Voltaj?. 
gio, July 16, 1589, died in Genoa in 1631. 
Genoese school ; pupil of Carosio, an ob- 
scure painter in Voltaggio, afterwards of 
Giovanni Battista Paggi. Excelled in paint- 
ing landscapes, enlivened by human figures 
and animals. Painted in Turin from 1619 
to 1625, when he i-eturned to Genoa. Annun- 
ciation, Voltaggio. — Soprani, 127 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole genoise. 

SCOTT, DAVID, born in Edinburgh, 
Oct. 10 (12?), 1806, died there, March 5, 
1849. History painter, educated as a de- 
signer and engraver, but finally devoted 
himself to painting. His first exhibited 
picture was The Hopes of Early Genius 
(1828). In 1829 he was elected an asso- 
ciate of the Scottish Academy ; in 1832 he 
visited Italy, and remained fifteen months 
in Rome studying anatomy and painting 
and making many sketches, returning to 
settle in Edinburgh in 1834. Elected R. S. A. 
in 1835 ; received prizes for pictures in 1838 
and 1841, but, though he finished many 
ambitious works, he failed to win public 
favour and died a disappointed man. He 
published a series of outlines called "Mono- 
grams of Man " (1831), and made illustra- 
tions for Coleridge's " Ancient Mariner " 
(1837) and "Pilgrim's Progress" (1850). 
Works : Death of Sappho (1829), Mrs. Con- 
stable, Edinburgh ; Nimrod (1831), W. Dick- 
son, ib.; Artist's Portrait (1832), Discord 
(1833), James Leathart, Newcastle ; Vin- 
tager (1833), National Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
Oberon and Puck (1834), R. Carfrae, ib.; 
Descent from Cross (1835), J. M. Gow, ib.; 
Orestes and the Furies (1837), W. B. Scott, 
ib. ; A Vintager, Ariel and Caliban (1837), 
National Gallery, ib. ; Paracelsus Lecturing 
(1838), J. T. Gibson Craig, ib.; Philoctetes 
in Lemnos (1839), George Cousin, ib. ; Queen 
Elizabeth in the Globe Theatre (1840), 
Lord Young, ib.; Traitor's Gate (1841), R. 
Carfrae, ib. ; Vasco de Gama passing the 
Cape of Good Hope (1842), Trinity House, 
Leith ; Wallace (1843), R. Carfrae, Edin- 
burgh ; Crucifixion — the Dead Rising (1844), 



160 



SCOTT 



J. Leatliart, Newcastle ; Peter the Hermit 
(1845), Charles Jenner, Portobello ; Tri- 
umph of Love (184:6), K. Carfrae, Edin- 
burgh ; Queen Mary on the Scaffold (1847), 
Mrs. White, Netherurd (?); Portrait of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson (1848), Public Library, Con- 
cord, Mass.; Hope passing over the Sky of 
Adversity (1848), D, Nicolson, Edinburgh. 
— W. B. Scott, Memoir (Edinburgh, 1850) ; 
Cunningham ; Redgi-ave ; Art Journal, ii. 
120 ; Blackwood's Mag., cxxx. 589 ; John 
M. Gray, D. S. and his Works (Edinburgh 
and London, 1884). 

SCOTT, JULLVN, born at Johnson, La- 
moille County, Yt., Feb. 14, 1846. Historical 
genre painter ; served as a volunteer in Army 
of the Potomac in 1861-63 ; studied in 
schools of National Academy in 1863-64, and 
under the direction of Emanuel Leutze until 
1868. Visited Paris in 1866. First ex- 
hibited in the National Academy in 1870 ; 
elected an A.N. A. in 1871. Studio in Plain- 
field, N. J. W^orks : Rear Guard at White 
Oak Swamp (Union League Club, New 
York), Gen. O. B. Wilcox in Libby Pi-ison 
(1870) ; Near the Outposts (Judge J. R. 
Brady), On Board the Hartford (1874), Loy- 
all Farragut ; Old Records (1875), William 
E. Dodge, New York ; Capture of Andre 
(1876), J. A. Harper, ib. ; Reserves awaiting 
Orders (1877) ; Poke o' Moonshine, Medita- 
tion (1878) ; In the Cornfield at Aiitietam 
(1879) ; Hancock at the Battle of Williams- 
burg (Capt. J. S. Wharton), Bessie Scott 
(1880, Artist) ; Fishing Boats at Antium 
near Rome (1882) ; Outpost Duty, Rescue 
of the Colour-Bearer at the Battle of Proc- 
tor's Creek— May 16, 1864 (1883); Art Stu- 
dent, Sortie at Petersburg in 1864 (1884) ; 
Game of Freeze-Out (1886). 

SCOTT, SAMUEL, born in London about 
1710 (?), died there, Oct. 12, 1772. Best 
marine painter of his time in England, and, 
says Dallaway, the father of the modern 
school of painting in water-colours. A boon 
companion of Hogarth, and one of the jovial 
water party to Gravesend in 1 732. His Old 
London Bridge (1745), and Old Westminster 



Bridge, are in the National Gallery, London. 
— Walpole, Anecdotes (ed. Wornum), 709. 

SCOTT AND HIS DOGS, Sir Edwin 
Landseer, M'Grath, London. Sir Walter, 
seated with the favourite companions of his 
walks, the deerhound Maida and his Dandy 
Dinmonts. Sometimes called from the local- 
ity the Rhymer's Glen picture. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1833 ; painted for Mr. Wells, of Red- 
leaf ; passed to Jacob Burnett, at whose sale 
(1876), for £3,202 10s. to Vincent Calma- 
dy (?); sold at Christie's (1886) for £2,047 10s. 

SCOTT AND HIS FRIENDS, Thomas 
i^aec/, private gallery, England. Sir Walter 
Scott, surrounded by his friends, in his 
library at Abbotsford. Among them are 
Henry Mackenzie, John Wilson, George 
Crabbe, Lockhart, William Wordsworth, 
Francis Jeffrey, Robert Ferguson, Thomas 
Moore, Dr. John Allen, Thomas Cami^bell, 
Sir David Wilkie, and Archibald Constable. 
Engraved by John Faed. 

SCRETA, KARL (Ritter Scotnowsky von 
Zaworzic), born in Prague about 1604, died 
thei'e, 1674. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, imitated Guido Reni and 
Caravaggio, but kept free from mannerism, 
and was a correct draughtsman. During 
the Thirty Years' War he went to Italy, 
lived in Venice, Bologna, and Florence, and 
visited Rome with Wilhelm Bauer in 1634. 
The Academy of Bologna ofl'ered him a pro- 
fessorship, but he returned to Prague, where 
he was employed by Ferdinand HI. Works : 
Altarpieces in all the princij^al churches of 
Prague ; Portraits and other pictures, Prague 
Gallery ; Male Portrait, Darmstadt INIuse- 
um ; do., Gotha Museum ; Figures of Saints 
(8), Moses, Portrait of Bernard do Witte, 
prior of Malta (1651), Dresden Museum ; 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria, Old Man 
with Writing Tablet, Schleissheim Gallery. 
— Kugler (Crowe), ii. 526 ; Nagler, xvi. 183. 

SCURI, ENRICO, born in Bergamo in 
1806. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy. Works : Hercules and Alcestis 
(1828); King Starus killing his Daughter 
(1830), Vienna Museum. 



191 



SCYLLA 



SCYLLA, picture. See Nicomachus. 

SEA-SERPENT, LAIE OF THE, Elibu 
Vedder, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
Mass. A formidable creature, half serpeut, 
half dragon, dull in colour and inert, but 
with a maUgnant, ever-watchful eye, lies 
coiled upon a spit of sand beside a sultry 
sea. 

SEBASTIANO DE MORRA, or The 
Bearded Dwarf, Velasquez, Madrid Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. A 
man with coarse features and heavy black 
hair and beard, wearing a cloak and linen 
collar, sitting on the ground, with his fists 
on his thighs. Engraved by F. Ribera ; 
etched by F. Goya ; Laguillermie ; B. Mau- 
ra ; H. Guerard. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole espa- 
gnole ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1880), xxii. 176 ; 
Curtis, 30 ; Madrazo, 630. 

SEBASTIANO DEL PIOMBO. See Pi- 
ombo. 

SEBASTIAN, ST., according to the le- 
gend, was commander of a company of the 
Praetorian Guards and a special favourite of 
Diocletian ; his fervent Christianity having 
made him obnoxious to the Emperor, the 
latter ordered him to be bound to a stake 
and shot to death with arrows. Irene, wid- 
ow of a martyr, going Avith others to take 
his body for burial, found that none of the 
arrows had penetrated a vital part, and carry- 
ing him to her home nursed him to health 
again. Diocletian, infuriated, had him beat- 
en to death with clubs and his body thrown 
into the Cloaca Maxima. The martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian is a favourite subject with 
painters, and many of the great artists have 
left representations of it. 

By Annibale Carracci, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 3 in. X 3 ft. 3 in. Bound to the 
trunk of a tree, pierced with arrows, his 
armour and clothing at his feet ; in dis- 
tance, right, mounted Roman soldiers de- 
parting. Collection of Louis XVI. ; be- 
longed previously to Due de Montmorency 
and to Cardinal Richelieu. One of the best 
of Annibale's works in the Louvre. En- 
graved by G. Audran. — Villot, Cat. Louvre. 



By Camille Corot, W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; canvas, H. 8 ft. x 4 ft. In fore- 
ground, the wounded Saint lies upon dra- 
pery, while two women bind up his wounds ; 
trees rise on each side, meeting at top to 
form an arch, through which are seen the 
departing soldiers ; above, two cherubs, 
looking down. Salon, 1853 ; Exposition uni- 
verselle, 1867, after a modification of trees 
and background. In 1871 Corot gave it as 
a prize in a lottery in aid of the wounded 
in the Franco-German War. The winner 
sold it for 9,000 fi-ancs to Durand Ruel, who 
resold it for 15,000 francs to ]Mr. Barlow, an 
Englishman, from whom it passed to Mr. 
Wallis, who sold it to Mr. Walters for 
$10,000.— Larousse, xiv. 445. 

By Eugene Delacroix, Church of Nantua, 
France ; canvas, H. 7 ft. x 8 ft. The saint, 
nude, pierced with arrows, is lying swoon- 
ing on the ground under a tree ; beside him 
are Irene and a companion, one drawing out 
an arrow while the other is gazing anxiously 
at the executioners, seen in background. 
Salon, 1836 ; bought by State for 3,000 
francs and given to the factory at Nantua ; 
sold in 1869 to M. Brame for 23,000 francs ; 
this led to a lawsuit, and the Court of Ap- 
peals at Lyons finally decided that objects 
of art thus given cannot be alienated. En- 
graved by Salmon ; Boilvin. Lithographed 
by Menut Alophe. — Chesneau, Q^uvre de 
Delacroix, 167 ; Larousse, xiv. 445. 

By Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 9 in. The saint 
bound to a tree ; beside him two angels, one 
of whom unbinds one limb while the other 
draws out one of the arrows. Engraved by 
P. van Schuppen. Replica in Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. Engraved by Ruveil ; Vor- 
sterman ; Voet. — ^Larousse, xiv. 445 ; Guif- 
frey, 252 ; Smith, iii. 42, 97. 

By Anton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. The 
saint, nude, bound to a tree in centre ; to 
left, a man in blue and a negro in crimson ; 
to right, two mounted soldiers, one with 
a scarlet banner. Formerly in Diisseldorf 



lfi2 



SEBASTIAN 



Gallei-3'. Engraved by Ch. de Mechel ; J. 
H. Lips ; W. Peare. Sketch at Christ 
Church, Oxford.— Guiffrey, 252 ; Smith, iii. 
16 ; Eastlake, Notes, 67. 







St. Sebastian, Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Paris. 

By Guercino, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
canvas, H, 5 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 6 in. St. Sebas- 
tian, nearly nude, kneeling on one knee, 
with eyes upraised, one hand on breast, in 
the other holds two arrows. Painted in 
1652 for Cardinal Macchiavelli. Engraved 
by Giovanni Folo ; Pasqualini(1628); Bona- 
fede.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 20 ; La- 
vice, 60. 

By Guido Keni, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 7 ft. 2 in. X 4 ft. 2 in. The saint, nude, 
his hands tied behind to a tree, gazing up- 
wards. Sketch, far advanced. Formerly in 
sacristy of SS. Salvatore, Bologna. En- 
graved by G. Asioli. Similar picture in 
Madrid Museum ; engraved by Bartsch ; F. 
Gregori. — Pinac. di Bologna, PL 31 ; La- 
vice, 12. 

By Guido Reni, Dulwich Gallery, Eng- 
land ; H. 5 ft. G in. x 4 ft. 3 in. Life-size, 
nearly whole-length figure, with narrow 



white scarf round hips, hands behind back, 
tied to a tree, head raised ; to right, in dis- 
tance, four soldiers ; barren landscape ; 
dark sky. Said to have been formerly in 
Palazzo Barberini, Rome. 

By Guido Reni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 
10 in. X 4 ft. 3 in. St. Sebastian, his arms 
tied behind to a tree and his body pierced 
with an arrow, turns his eyes towaixls heaven ; 
in the background, Roman soldiers leaving. 
Belonged to Cardinal Mazarin ; bought for 
Louis XIV. in 1670. Many copies and rep- 
etitions in manner of Guercino. — Filhol, 
vi. PI. 467 ; Landon, Musee, xii. PI. 35 ; Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Andrea llantegna, Vienna Museum ; 
wood, 2 ft. 1 in. X 11 in.; signed. The 
saint, pierced with arrows, in front of a 
round arch, with fragments of sculpture and 
two marble figures of boys on parti-coloured 
floor.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 387 ; Miindler, 
137. 




St. Sebastian, Guido Reni, Louvre, Paris. 

By Antonio PoUajuolo, National Gallei-y, 
London ; wood, H. 9 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. 6 in. 
The saint, bound on high to a tree, is shot 
at by archers ; background, a landscape 
with horsemen. Painted in 1475 for An- 
tonio Pucci, for family chapel in SS. Annun- 



]().3 



SEBASTIAN 



ziata, Florence ; sold to National Gallery in 
1857 by Marchese Pucci. The saint is a 
portrait of Gino di Lodovico Cappoui. A 
fine work, but praised to exaggeration by 
Vasari.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 292 ; C. & C, 
Italy, ii. 392 ; Ricba, Cliiese, viii. 54 ; Cat. 
Nat. Gal.; Eichter, 32. 

By Theodule Ribot, Luxembourg Museum, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. 
The saint extended, in front ; beside him, 
Irene and another woman are trying to 




St. Sebastian, Antonio Pollajuolo, National Gallery, London. 

stanch the blood which flows from his 
wounds. In manner of Caravaggio. Salon, 
1865 ; bought by State for G,000 francs. — 
Larousse, xiv. 445. 

By Rubens, Berlin Museum ; canvas, life- 
size. Painted in Italy about 1 GOG. Formerly 
in Muuro Collection, England ; acquired in 
1884 for £101.— Waagen, Treasures, ii. 136. 

By II Sodoma, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
figure life-size. The saint, pierced with ar- 
rows, bound to a tree, in a landscape with 
ruins ; above, an angel about to crown him. 



On the reverse of the same canvas is a Ma. 
donna in Clouds, with SS. Gismondo and 
Roch and three Flagellants beneath. Paint- 
ed in 1525 for the brotherhood of St. Sebas- 
tian in Camollia, Siena, who bore it as a 
banner in processions. Placed in Uffizi in 
1786.— Vasari, ed. Mil, vi., 390 ; Molini, 
Gal. di Firenze, ii. 89 ; Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., 
iii. 225 ; Lasinio, i. PL 72. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas, in narrow interval between two win- 
dows. The saint fastened to a tree, with 
the arrows in his body. " The most majes- 
tic St. Sebastian in existence ; there is not 
a more remarkable j)icture in Venice." — 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 342. 

By Titian. See Altarpiece of Brescia. 

By Titian, Harrach Collection, Vienna ; can- 
vas stretched on panel, life-size. The saint, 
with hands bound behind his back, one ar- 
row in breast and one in left leg, looks up 
to heaven. Said to have come from the 
sacristy of S. M. della Salute, Venice ; but 
may be the one once in the Escorial. — C. & 
C, Titian, ii. 427 ; Hume, Titian, 82. 

By Titian, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, full-length, life-size. The saint, 
bound to a tree, with an arrow in his breast. 
From Barberigo Collection, now so injured 
that it cannot be shown. Possibly the orig- 
inal of the St. Sebastian painted for Charles 
v., once in the Escorial, but now lost. — C 
& C, Titian, ii. 423. 

By Titian, Vatican. See Madonna di San 
Niccolo. 

By Paolo Veronese, S. Sebastiano, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. The saint, in armour, and 
standing with a banner in his hand at the 
top of a flight of stairs, exhorts his com- 
panions, Marcus and Marcellinus, who are 
surrounded by weeping friends, to confess 
their faith. — Zanotto, 428 ; Larousse, xiv. 
445. 

Subject treated also by Garofalo, Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Bartolommeo Schidone, 
Naples Museum ; Denis Calvaert, Caen Mu- 
seum ; Luca Giordano, Dresden Museum ; 
Antonello da Messina, Dresden Gallery, 



SEBASTIANI 



Berlin Museum ; Sandro Botticelli, ib.; Lo- 
renzo Lotto, ib. ; Michelangelo da Caravag- 
gio, Dresden, Munich, and Tours Museums ; 
Bartolommeo Carducci, Madrid Museum ; 
Giovanni Dossi, Brera, Milan ; Giacomo 
Cavedone, Vienna Museum ; Domenichino, 
S. M. degli Angeli, Rome ; Giorgioue, Brera, 
Milan ; Giacomo Palma, younger, Dresden, 
Schleissheim, and Munich Galleries ; Cesare 
Procaccini, Brussels Museum ; Spagnoletto, 
Madrid, Valencia, Augsburg, and Naples Mu- 
seums, and Hermitage (2), St. Petersburg ; 
Girolamo da Santa Croce, Berlin Museum ; 
Lionello Spada, Modena Museum ; Mas- 
simo Stanzioni, Louvre ; Paolo Veronese, 
Vienna Museum ; Eustache Lesueur, Tours 
Museum ; Antonio Pollajuolo, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence, and Modena Gallery ; Hans Hol- 
bein, Munich Gallery ; Correggio, Dresden 
and Vienna Museums ; Bernardino Luini, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Vincenzo Fo2> 
pa, Brera, Milan ; Lodovico Carracci, Capi- 
tol Gallery, Rome ; Perugino, Palazzi Bor- 
ghese and Sciarra, ib.; Rubens, Palazzo 
Corsini, ib. ; Guido Reni, Capitol Gallery, 
ib. ; Jules Richomme (Salon, 1844:) ; Charles 
Lefebvre (Salon, 186G) ; Louis Courtat (Sa- 
lon, 1874) ; Eugene Thirion (1875). 

SEBASTIAN! See Bastiani. 

SEBRON, HIPPOLYTE (VICTOR VAL- 
ENTIN), born at Caudebec (Seine-Infe- 
rieure), Aug. 21, 1801, died in 1879. Land- 
scape, decorative, and panoramic painter, 
pupil and assistant of Daguerre for 16 
years, and of Leon Cogniet. Medals : 3d 
class, 1838 ; 2d class, 1840 ; 1st class, 1844 ; 
2d class, 1848 ; L. of Honour, 18G7. Works : 
Views in France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, 
Spain (1831-48); Distribution of Colours at 
the Barriere de I'^toile (1849); View of New 
Orleans, Niagara Falls (1853) ; Broadway — 
New York (1855) ; Niagara Falls in Winter 
(1857) ; Grand Mosque at Cordova (1857), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Lake of Alligators 
— Louisiana (1863) ; Cartuja de Miraflores 
near Burgos — Spain (1869), Rodez Muse- 
um ; View of Biarritz (1865) ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1866) ; Interior of St. Pe- 



ter's—Rome (1867) ; do. of St. Stephen's— 
Vienna (1868); Views in Egypt, Syria, Con- 
stantinople, Rome, and Venice (1867-77) ; 
Niagara Falls, New York (1878).— BeUier, 
ii. 487. 

SEDDON, THOMAS, born in London, 
Aug. 28, 1821, died in Cairo, Nov. 23, 1856. 
Landscape painter ; brought up as a cabi- 
net-maker and d esigner of furniture. Gained 
silver medal of Societ}^ of Arts, 1848 ; in 
1851 adopted painting as a profession, and 
in 1852 exhibited Penelope at her Web. 
Afterwards devoted himself to landscape. 
Accompanied Holman Hunt to the East in 
1853, and in 1854 exhibited The Pyramids 
and Jerusalem. Returned to the East in 
October, 1856, and died the next month. 
Work : Jerusalem and the Valley of Je- 
hoshaphat (1854), National Gallery, Lon- 
don. — Soc. of Arts Journal, June, 1857 ; 
Cat. Nat. Gal., 126. 

SEEFISCH, HERMANN LUDWIG, born 
in Potsdam in 1810. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Wach, and in 1836 of Watelet in 
Paris. Visited Switzerland and Italy. Works : 
Orphan px-ayiug at her Parents' Grave (1836); 
Mont Blanc from Sallenches (1842); Water- 
]\Iill in Rocky Valley ; Paris from Pantin, 
Castle, Berlin ; View of Janina. — Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malersch., 36. 

SEEGER, KARL LUDWIG, born at 
Alzey, Hesse, in 1808 or 1809. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Catoir in Mentz and of 
Munich Academy in 1825. Left Munich in 
1830, became inspector in 1837, and direc- 
tor in 1839, of Darmstadt Gallery ; profes- 
sor in 1859. Works : View on Upper Rhine 
(1834); Rhine View at 
Sunrise (1837), New Pina- J(T jCpJ? 
kothek, Munich ; Saw-Mill "^^ ^/«^V* 
(1837) ; Evening Devotion of Peasants at 
Shrine (1843), Thunderstorm in the Moun- 
tains (1854), View on Kochel Lake, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Village on the Wvirm (1858). 

SEEHAS, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG, born 
in 1754, died at Schwerin, July 26, 1802. 
German school ; architecture, landscape, 
and porti'ait painter, studied in Dresden 



SEEKATZ 



and Vienna and went in 1789 to Rome ; 
■was called to Schwerin as court painter in 
1794 Works : Portrait of a Musician 
(1784), do. of Joseph Haydn (1785), Grotto 
of Egeria near Rome by Moonlight (1789), 




Antique Roman Vault (1789), The Colos- 
seum (1789), Schwerin Gallery. — Schlie, 
579. 

SEEKATZ, JOHANN KONRAD, born 
at Griinstadt, Palatinate, in 1719, died at 
Darmstadt iu 17G8. German school ; genre 
painter, pujoil of an elder brother and of 
Brinkmaun. Became court painter in Darm- 
stadt iu 1753. "Works : Tinker's Family, 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; The 
Rat-Catcher, Basle Museum ; Landscape 
with Peasants at Meal, Christiania Gallery ; 
Flight into Egypt, Four Scenes in Life of 
Christ, Calling of St. Peter, Allegory in 
Glorification of Landgrave Ludwig VIII. of 
Hesse, Peasant Boys as the Three Magi, 
Beggar Children at a Well, Musicians rest- 
ing before Tavern, Children in Chicken 
Yard, Bachaual, Dead Fowl and Imple- 
ments of the Chase, Market Scene, Land- 
grave Ludwig VlLL Hunting, Ai'tist's Por- 
trait, Darmstadt Museum ; Peter's Denial 
(1765), Fortuue-Teller, Weimar Museum ; 
others in Amalienstift, Dessau ; Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort (3), Leipsic Museum (2), 
etc. ; Boy teasing Dog ; IMaiden with Lighted 
Taper ; Boy with Chopping-Board ; Flight 
into Egypt by Torch-Light. — Nagler, xvi. 
200. 

SEEL, ADOLF, born at Wiesbaden, Mar. 
1, 1829. Architecture painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Karl Sohn in 1844- 
50. Studied a year in Paris ; visited Italy in 
1864-65, Spain, Portugal, and Northern Afri- 
ca in 1870-71 ; and travelled in the Orient in 
1873-74. Works : Interior of Byzantine 




Church (1862) ; St. Mark's in Venice ; Font 
in St. Mark's ; Cathedral of Halberstadt in 
Winter ; Lions' Court of 
Alhambra; Arab Court 
in Cairo (1876), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Interi- 
or of St. Mark's (1869), 
Egyptian Harem (1878), 
Diisseldorf Gallery ; 
The Monks at Convent 
Gate, Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Church 
Interior, Wiesbaden 
Gallery. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 858. 

SEELE, JOHANN BAPTIST, born at 
W^olfach, Fiirstenberg, in 1772, died at 
Stuttgart in 1814. Military, genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of the Karlsschule at 
Stuttgart ; represented his subjects with 
sj)irit and great truthfulness. Court paint- 
er and director of Stuttgart Gallery in 1804. 
Resumed study in Munich and in Vienna 
in 1808. Works : French Hussars Resting, 
French Infantry at Camp Fire (1796), Aus- 
trian Soldiers joking with Peasant Girls 
(1800), Austrian Cavaky Resting (1801), 
French Grenadiers foraging surprised by 
Austrian Hussars (1808), Cavalry Skirmish 
(1810), Battle Scene, ten other similar sub- 
jects. Portrait of the Artist (3), do. of his 
Father, do. of his Mother, Fiirstenberg Gal- 
ler}', Donaueschingen ; Series representing 
the Deeds of Wiirtemberg Troops in 1806 
and 1809, Royal Palace, Stuttgart ; Portraits 
of Archduke Charles (1800), King Frederick 
of W^iirtemberg, Grand Duke of Baden, etc. 
—Nagler, xvi. 202. 

SEELOS, GOTTFRIED, born at Bozen, 
Tyrol, in 1832. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy and of Selleny. Trav- 
elled in Tyrol and Italy. Works : Mountain 
Lake, and many other Views in Tyrol 
(1852-66) ; Zenoburg near Meran (1867) ; 
Kolman in the Tyrol (1869), Vienna Acad- 
emy ; Still Water ; Chestnut Trees ; Pine 
Grove ; Sigismundskron at Bozen ; Riviera 
near Mentone ; Palms near Monaco ; Sum- 
mer Afternoon, Vienna Museum ; Vogel- 



166 



SfiGE 



weidhof (with figures by Defregger) ; Val- 
ley of Viijolet, Covered Post (1871). — Mej^er, 
Couv. Lex., xvii. 803 ; Wurzbach, xxxiii. 311. 

SEGE, ALEXANDRE, born in Paris in 
1817, died there, November, 1885. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Flers and Leon Cog- 
niet. Painted large pictures, well-coloured, 
and in a simple, attractive style. Medals : 
1869 ; 2d class, 1873 ; 3d class, 1878 ; L. of 
Honour, 1874. Works : Bridge of Renan, 
Rocks of Piegut (1868) ; Brook at Pehouet, 
River Beauce (1869) ; Oaks of Kertregonnec 
(1870) ; Farm at Keroual, Morning in the 
Alps (1874), Mme. E. Perrin ; Evening on 
the Beauce (1875) ; Thorn Broom in Blos- 
som (1876), Luxembourg Museum ; Green 
Road (1878), M. Hcdo ; Valley of Courtray 
(1879) ; Fields at Coubron (1880) ; Pine 
Tree of Antoigny (1881); Chestnut Trees of 
Beauvoir (1882) ; Valley of Ploukermeur 
(1883) ; En Pays chartrin (1884) ; Meadows 
of Saint-Pair, VaUey of La See (1885) ; En- 
virons of Granville (1886). — Claretie, Pein- 
tres, 387. 

SEGERS (Seghers), HERCULES, died 
in Amsterdam about 1650. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, settled in The Hague 
about 1633, afterwards in Amsterdam, hav- 
ing for some time travelled in the Alps and 
in Norway ; friend of Rembrandt. Works : 
Dutch Landscapes (2), Berlin Museum. — 
Journal des B. Arts (1871), 178 ; Kramm, v. 
1510 ; Meyer, Gemiilde kongl. Mus., 428. 

SEGHERS (Segers, Zeghers), DANIEL, 
born in Antwerp, Dec. 5, 1590, died there, 
Nov. 2, 1661. Flemish school ; flower paint- 
er, pupil of Jan Brueghel in 1611 and mas- 
ter of the guild in same j^ear ; entered the 
Order of Jesuits in 1614, visited Rome, 
painted much for the church of his Order in 
Antwerp, and could hardly fulfil the numer- 
ous commissions by princes who vied with 
one another in securing works by his hand ; 
frequently painted flowers to enframe sub- 
jects by such masters as Rubens, Schut, Die- 
penbeek, and Erasmus Quellin. Works : 
Garland about Porti-ait of Ignatius Loyola 
(by Schut), do. about Madonna (by do.), 



Flower-Piece, Antwerp Museum ; Bouquet, 
Brussels Museum ; Garland about Statuette 
of Madonna (1645), do. about Portrait of 
William IH., Hague Museum ; do. around 
Bust of Ceres (1644), Rotterdam Museum ; 
two Flower pieces (1643) and four Garlands 
about Reliefs, Dresden Gallery ; Garland 
about ReHef, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Gar- 
land about Holy Family, do. about do. (by 
Van Dyck), do. about Madonna, do. about 
Holy Sacrament, Vienna Museum ; do. about 
Madonna, Bologna Museum ; do. about Male 
Bust, Uffizi, Florence ; Garlands (4) about 
pictures by Schut, Festoons (2), Madrid 
Museum ; Garland of Roses, do. about Ma- 
donna (1651), Hampton Court Gallery; 
Flowers and Land- "n 
scape (with Schut), IJ^ 
South Kensington yjv y fn 

Museum; other speci- \J\jMh^^^ r- 
mens in galleries of •*.* r'^i <- C r^ 
Aschaffenburg Bam- j):J0Cjh^^^ ~ 
berg (2), Brunswick 7c/u/^7 
(2), Carlsruhe (1644), J 
Cassel, Copenhagen, Donaueschingen, Olden- 
burg (3), Schleissheim (3) ; in Museums of 
Berlin (2), and Weimar. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
flamande ; Immerzeel, iii. 84 ; Kramm, v, 
1508 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 346 ; Messager 
des sciences, etc. (1868), 341 ; Michiels, ix. 
194 ; Rooses (Reber), 427 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 1126. 

SEGHERS, GEERAARD. See Zegers. 

SEGNA, Sienese school, beginning of 
14th century. Disciple of Duccio. Like 
Ugolino, he remained faithful to the old 
school, and the surfaces of his pictures 
equal those of that master in softness and 
lustre. A picture by him, Four Saints, 
said to have been finished in 1305-6, is in 
the Academy of Siena. Better examples 
are : A Majesty in the Church of Casti- 
glione Fiorentino, near Arezzo ; and Christ 
on the Cross, National Gallery, London. — 
C. & C, Italy, ii. 56 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., i. 
320 ; ii. 165 ; W. k W., i. 433. 

SEIBOLD, CHRISTIAN, born at Mentz 
in 1697 or 1703, died iu Vienna, May 19, 



167 



SEIFFERT 






1768. German school ; portrait painter, in 
the style of Denner ; became court painter 
to the Empress Maria Theresa in 1749. 
Works : Portrait of himself, Louvre ; do., 
Bamberg Gallery ; do., Gotha Museum ; do. 
(1759), Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
do., Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Por- 
traits of Two Girls, Museum, ib. ; Portraits 

of a Youth 
and a Girl, 
Old Man, 
OldWoman, 
of himself, Dresden Gallery ; Bust of Old 
Man, Christiania Gallery ; do. of Old Lady, 
Male portrait, Stuttgart Museum. — Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 564. 

SEIFFERT, KARL (FRIEDRICH), born 
at Griineberg, Silesia, Sept. 6, 1809. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Berlin Academy and 
of Biermann. Made sketching tours in 
Switzerland and Tyrol, and in Italy and Sic- 
ily in 1846-47. Settled in Berlin. Assisted 
Pape in Decoration of the Berlin New Mu- 
seum. Works : Cefalu in Sicily (1850) ; 
Lake Nemi (1851) ; Gravedona on Lake 
Como (1859) ; Blue Grotto in Capri (1860), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Strait of Messina 
(1863).— Jordan (1885), ii. 217. 

SEISENEGGER, JACOB, born in Aus- 
tria in 1505, died at Linz in 1567. History 
and portrait painter, who may in some re- 
spects be considered as the founder of mod- 
ern painting in Austria. In 1530 he painted 
Charles V. at Augsburg, in 1532 at Bologna, 
and in 1531 became court painter to Ferdi- 
nand I., whom, in 1532, he followed to Vi- 
enna, and in 1550 to Augsburg. Between 
1535 and 1545 he visited Spain and Bel- 
gium, and twice the court of Charles V. ; 
settled in Linz about 1558. Works : Two 
portraits of Charles V. (1532, 1550), Vienna 
Museum ; portraits of Ferdinand I., Queen 
Anna, Philip of Spain, Ferdinand of Tyrol, 
Philippine, Welser, two bust portraits of 
Charles V., Ambras Collection, Vienna ; 
Male portrait (1568), Weimar Museum. — 
W. & W., ii. 507; Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 
153. 



SEITZ, ALEXANDER IklAXIMILIAN, 

born in Munich in 1811. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Cornelius in Munich. 
Went to Rome in 1835. Works : Joseph 
sold by his Brethren (1829) ; Madonna En- 
throned ; St. Catharine of Alexandria ; Ma- 
ter Amabilis ; Christ blessing Little Chil- 
dren ; St. Joseph and the Infant Christ ; 
Christ with the Wise and Foolish Virgins, 
and Return of the Prodigal, Santa Trinita 
de' Monti, Rome ; genre pictures of Roman 
life. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 804. 

SEITZ, ANTON, born at Roth, near Nu- 
remberg, in 1830. Genre painter, pupil of 
Friedrich Wagner and Reindel in Nurem- 
berg, and in 1853-63 of Fliiggen in Munich, 
where he settled. Gold Medal in 1869. 
Works : Policeman and Country Girl (1856) ; 
Miser (1860) ; Garret Studies (1862) ; Peas- 
ants and Quack; Alchemist; Music Rehears- 
al ; King of the Shooters (1874, D. W. Pow- 
ers, Rochester, N. Y.) ; Market Scenes ; Pho- 
tographer in the Countr-y ; Wayfarers (1881), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Rustic Letter- 
Writer, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; A 
Good Friend (1883).— Regnet, ii. 262. 

SEITZ, LUDWIG, born in Rome in 
1843. History painter, son and pupil of 
Alexander Max Seitz, having first studied 
under Cornelius and Overbeck ; imitates the 
old Italian masters, for the reproduction of 
whose style he shows considerable talent. 
Work : Deluge.— Seubert, iii. 296 ; MiiUer, 
487. 

SEITZ, OTTO, born in Munich, Sept. 3. 
1846. History painter, pupil of Piloty. 
Medals in Vienna, and in Philadelphia 
(1876). Works : Murder of Rizzio (1869) ; 
Loose Leaves— Dead Love (1871) ; Happy 
Hours (1873) ; Faun and Nymph (1875) ; 
Neptune (1876); Edward IV. 's Sons ; Pro- 
metheus Bound. — Seubert, iii. 296 ; Miiller, 
487. 

SELL, CHRISTIAN, born in Altona, 
Aug. 14, 1831. History and genre painter, 
pupil of his father and in 1851-56 of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Hildebrand and 
Schadow ; accompanied German army in the 



168 



SELLENY 




campaigns of 18G4, 1866, and 1870. Works : 
Defence of Castle in Thirty Years' War ; 
Soldiers bearing their 
Wounded Command- 
er, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Rest after 
Repulsed Storm (1856); 
Siege of Breisach 
(1862) ; Soldiers in 
Thirty Years' War dis- 
tributing Booty, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Combat 
in the Woods at Sadowa ; Beginning of 
Pursuit at Sadowa (1872), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Transportation of Prisoners of War 
(1882), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Prisoners at 
Sedan.— Jordan (1885), ii. 217 ; MiiUer, 488. 
SELLENY, JOSEF, born at Meidling, 
near Vienna, 
Feb. 2, 1824, 
died in Vienna, 
May 22, 1875. 
Landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Vienna Acad- 
emy imder En- 
der and Perger. 
Visited Italy in 
1854 ; made a 
voyage round the world on the Novara in 
1857-59 ; and accompanied Archduke Max- 
imilian to Brazil in 1859, bringing back 
over a thousand sketches from these two 
expeditions. President of Vienna Artists' 
League in 1868. Became insane two years 
before death. Member of Vienna Academy. 
Orders : Iron Crown, Mexican Guadeloupe, 
and Brazilian Rose. Works : Desolate 
Church- Yard, Near Waidbruck in the Ty- 
rol, Vienna Museum ; Snow Storm (1852) ; 
Cape Circello (1855); Ruins of Amphithea- 
tre at Terracina (1855); Funchalin Madeira 
(1863); Cape of Good Hope (1864) ; Island 
of St. Paul (1869); Tahiti (1870); Rock Tem- 
ple of Mahamalaipur ; Water-colours after 
Rottmann's Munich Court Garden frescos ; 
and numerous other landscapes in oil and 
water-colour. — Wurzbach, xxxiv. 58 ; Kunst- 




Chronik, xi. 135, 156, 190, 206, 217 ; xix. 
170 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, iv. 114 ; xi. 252. 

SELLIER, CHARLES AUGUSTE, born 
at Nancy (Meurthe), Dec. 25, 1830, died 
there, Nov, 26, 1882. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pui^il of Louis Leborgne 
and of Leon Cogniet. Won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1857. Medals : 1865 ; 2d class, 
1872. Conservator of the Nancy Museum. 
Works : A Kitchen (1857), Nancy Museum ; 
Levite of Ephraim (1864), ib. ; Magdalen 
(1864), ib. ; Death of Leander, Gallic Pris- 
oner condemned to die of Hunger (1865) ; 
Last Years of Tiberius in Isle of Caprea, The 
Ammazatoio at Rome (1867) ; Lost Soul 
(1868); Italian Souvenir (1869), Nancy Mu- 
seum ; GrazieUa (1870) ; Nereid (1872) ; 
Christ at the Tomb (1875) ; Interior of a 
Roman Ammazatoio, Led a (1880) ; Black- 
smith's Shop in Andelys (1881) ; Head of a 
Negro (1882).— Bellier, ii. 491. 

SELLSTEDT, LARS GUSTAF, born in 
Sweden in 1819. Portrait painter, self- 
taught. In 1842 settled in Buffalo, N. Y. 
First exhibited at the National Academy in 
1858 ; elected an A.N. A. in 1871 and N.A. 
in 1875. One of the founders of the Buffa- 
lo Academy, of which he was secretary and 
superintendent in 1862-76, president in 
1876, and again superintendent in 1878. 
Works: Head of Jewish Rabbi (1859); 
Abandoned ; Quahaug Rock — Nan-agausett, 
Preparing her Paper for the Club (1879). 
Portraits : Of the Artist (1871, Academy, 
Buffalo) ; W. G. Fargo (1874) ; George W. 
Clinton, National Science Rooms, Buffalo ; 
Mrs. Sellstedt (1882) ; Benjamin Fitch 
(1883) ; Brother and Sister — Portraits 
(1884), Franklin Locke ; Charles Day 
(1885). 

SEMENTI (Semenza), GIOVANNI GLi- 
COMO, born in Bologna, July 18, 1580, 
died (?). Bolognese school ; pupil of Cal- 
vart, afterwards of Guido, and one of his fa- 
vourite assistants ; went to Rome in service 
of Cardinal Maurice of Savoy and painted 
many pictures in manner of Guido. Among 
his works are : Christ the Redeemer, St. 



SEMINI 




Catherine, St, Eugenius, Bologna Gallery ; 
Marriage of St, Catherine, Vienna Museum. 
— Malvasia, ii. 249 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bo- 
lonaise ; Lanzi, iii. 97. 

SEIVONI, ANDKEA, born in Genoa about 
1525, died after 
1591. Genoese 
school ; son and 
pupil of Antonio 
Semini ; also stud- 
ied Perino del Va- 
ga and spent eight 
years in Rome, 
where he learned 
to imitate Raphael. 
Much employed in 
Genoa and Milan. Works : Nativity, Turin 
Gallery ; Conception, S. Pietro, Genoa. An- 
drea's sons, Cesare and Alessandro, were 
mediocre painters. — Soprani, 57 ; Lanzi, iii. 
243 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole gcnoise. 

SEanNI, ANTONIO, born in Genoa about 
1485, died after 1547. Genoese school ; 
j)upil of Lodovico Brea, whose style he mod- 
ernized. Painted sometimes in collabora- 
tion with Teramo Piaggia or Teramo di Zo- 
agli, his fellow-pupil under Brea. Semini's 
Nativity, in S. Domeuico, Savona, is in the 
manner of Perugino, which Perino del Vaga 
Lad introduced at Genoa. — Soprani, 22 ; 
Lanzi, iii. 237 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole genoise. 

SEMINI, OTTAVIO, born in Genoa 
about 1580, died in Milan in 1G04. Geno- 
ese school ; son and pupil of Antonio Semi- 
ni ; also studied Perino del Vaga and works 
of Raphael in Rome. Aided his brother An- 
drea in many works, but was obliged to leave 
Genoa on account of a homicide, and after- 
wards led a dissipated life in Milan. Dec- 
orated chapel of S. Girolamo in S. Angelo, 
Milan. — Soprani, 57 ; Lanzi, iii. 243 ; Ch. 
Blanc, I^cole genoise. 

SEMITECOLO, NICCOLO, Venetian 
school (1351-1400). The ablest Venetian 
artist of the 14th century (C. & C). Earli- 
est picture. Coronation of the Virgin (1351), 
is in the Vienna Academy. His best effort 
is an Altarpiece (1367), in the library of the 



Duomo, Padua. Other works: Madonna 
with Saints, dated 1400, Correr Museum, 
Venice ; Coronation of the Virgin, Venice 
Academy. Possibly identical with Nicholas 
Paradisi, of Venice, whose works are but 
little inferior to those of Semitecolo. — C. & 
C, Italy, ii. 2GG ; Burckhardt, 522. 

SEMOLEI. See Franco Battista. 

SENAVE, JACOBUS ALBERTUS, born 
at Loo, near Furnes, Sept. 12, 1758, died in 
Paris in 1829. Genre painter, pupil of Dun- 
kirk Academy, and continued his studies at 
St. Omer and Ypres. Went to Paris, where 
he came under Suvee's influence. Painted 
Flemish popular festivals in the style of 
Teniers. Honorary director of Ypres Acad- 
emy and honorary member of Ghent Acad- 
emy in 1822. Works: Rembrandt's Studio, 
Academy, Ypres ; Young Girl feeding Cow, 
Horse led forth by Bo}', Basle Museum ; 
Fantastic pictures with Architecture in and 
around Paris (2), Gotha Museum ; Village 
Inn with Travellers and Peasants, Sarah 
leading Hagar to Abraham, Leipsic Mu- 
seum. — Imraerzeel, iii. 86 ; Nagler, xvi. 238. 

SENI BESIDE WALLENSTEIN'S 
BODY, Karl von Piloty, New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 1 in. X 12 ft. 2 in. 
The astrologer Seui, entering Wallenstein's 
room in the morning, finds his dead body 
extended on the floor. Painted in 1855. 

SEQUEIRA, DOI^nNGOS ANTONIO 
DE, born in Lisbon in 1768, died in Rome 
in 1837. History painter, pupil of Lisbon 
Academy, and in 1788 of Antonio Cavalluc- 
ci in Rome. On his return to Portugal in 
1796 worked for churches and palaces ; in 
1823 visited Paris ; then went to Italy, and 
became devotional. At his death was presi- 
dent of Portuguese Academy. Works : 
Last Moments of Camoens; Descent from 
the Cross; Flight into Egypt; St. Bruno, 
Lisbon Academy. — Nagler, xvi. 276 ; Bryan, 
729. 

SERAPION, painter, probably 1st century 
B. c. Pliny says (xxxv. 37 [113]) that he 
was successful in scene-painting, but was 
unable to depict the human form. 



170 



SERF 



SERF E^IANCIPATION, Edward Armi- 
tage, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 10 in. X 10 ft. 
An Anglo-Saxon noble on his death-bed, 
suiTounded by his family and friends, at 
right, giving freedom to his slaves, who are 
grouped at left. In foreground a scribe 
writes down the names of the liberated. 
Royal Academy, 1877. 

SERMON ON THE MOUNT, Claude Lor- 
rain. See Tabor, Mount. 

SERRE (Serra), MICHEL GASPARD 
JACQUES, born at Tarragona, Spain, Jan. 
10, 1G58, died at Marseilles, Oct. 9, 1733. 
He fled from home when only eight years 
old, went to Marseilles, was received into 
the Chartreuse Convent and taught to paint ; 
in time he made his way to Rome, and after 
hard study returned to Marseilles in 1G7G ; 
became a citizen in 1690, and a member of 
the Academy in 1704. During the plague 
at Marseilles in 1720 Serre performed in- 
valuable services and won the gratitude of 
everybody. The Museum of Marseilles pos- 
sesses two large pictures by him illustrative 
of the city during the plague, and many re- 
ligious paintings. — Chennevieres, Artistes 
provinciaux, ii. 201. 

SERRES, DOIVIINIC, bom at Auch, Gas- 
con}', in 1722, died in London, Nov. 6, 1793. 
Designed for the church, but ran away to 
sea, and became master of a vessel which 
was captured in 1752 by a British frigate. 
Released on parole in England, he turned 
his attention to art and became a successful 
marine painter. He was one of the founda- 
tion members of the Royal Academy (1768), 
of which he was appointed librarian in 1792, 
and was marine painter to George HI. 
Works : George HI. reviewing the Fleet at 
Portsmouth (4 pieces), and Sea-Piece (1789), 
Hampton Court. His son, John Thomas 
Serres (1759-1825), was also a marine 
painter. — Redgrave ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hamp- 
ton Court ; Sandby, i. 104. 

SERVm, AM^DEE ELIE, born in 
Pai'is ; contemporary. Landscape and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Drolling. Lives in 
Villiers-sur-Morin. Medals : 1867, 1869 ; 



2d class, 1872. Works : Picking Stones in 
a Field (1867); Locksmith (1868); Fright- 
ened Donkeys (1869); The Mill (1872), 
Marseilles Museum ; Chestnut Seller, Under 
the Willows (1874); Making Sausages ; My 
Neighboui- ; Wine Taster ; Crossing the 
Brook, Cutting in the Woods of Penthii'vre 
(1879) ; Crotoy in the Evening, Little Baths 
of St. Valery (1880); Picardy (1881); A 
Mill, Saltmakers and Salters (1882) ; Stable 
in Villiers, High Tide at Crotoy (1883); Ma 
cour, Chemin du bac (1884). 

SESTO, CESARE DA. See Cesare da 
Sesto. 

SETTEGAST, JOSEF, born at Coblentz, 
Feb. 8, 1813. History painter, pupil of 
DUsseldorf Academy, and of Veit in Frank- 
fort. Visited Italy in 1838-43. Works: 
Madonna and Child (1833); Finding of the 
Cross, Church of the Cross, Ebrenbreit- 
stein ; Crucifixion, St. Francis Church, DUs- 
seldorf. In fx'esco ; subjects, Kastor Church, 
Coblentz ; Crucifixion, Max Church, DUssel- 
dorf ; cupola of Mentz Cathedral after de- 
signs by Veit (1861).— Art Journal (1865), 
133 ; Nagler, xvi. 304 ; Muller, Dusseldorf. 
K, 54. 

SEUTER (Salter, Syder), DANIEL, born 
in Vienna in 1642, 1647, or 1649, died in 
Rome or Turin in 1705, 1721, or 1725. Ital- 
ian school ; history' painter, pupil of Carlo 
Loth in Venice and of Carlo Maratti in Rome. 
Sometimes called Avouster or Cavaliere 
Danielle. Works : Venus on Clouds, Augs- 
burg Gallery ; Apollo and Daphne ; Dseda- 
lus and Icarus ; Death of Abel ; St. Jerome, 
Brunswick Gallery. — Nagler, xviii. 64. 

SEVEN SACRAIMENTS. See Scwra- 
ments. 

SEVEN WORKS OF MERCY. See 
Mercy. 

SEVERDONCK, JOSEPH VAN ; contem- 
porary. History and genre painter, pupil 
of WajDpers. Excellences and defects in his 
work, so that ojiinions differ concerning it. 
Several medals. Leopold and Ernestine 
House Orders. Works : 14 Stations, Church 
of Notre Dame, Namur ; Battle of Grave- 



171 



SEVILLA 



lingen (1855); Defence of Tournay in 1581 ; 
Visitation of Mary (1862) ; Ballot among 
the Gypsies ; Battle of Vucht, Palace of 
Justice, Ghent ; Cavalry Attack. — Miiller, 
488. 

SEVILLA ROMERO Y ESCALANTE, 
JUAN DE, born in Granada in 1027, died 
there, Aug. 23, 1G95. Spanish school ; pu- 
pil of Pedro de Moya, from whom he 
learned the style of Van Dyck. Painted 
chiefly religious compositions, and had con- 
siderable local reputation. Work : Dead 
Christ and Saints, Dresden Gallery. — Cean 
Bermudez ; Stirling, iii. 1134 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole. 

SEYBOLD, GEORG VON, born at Schro- 
benhausen, Bavaria, March 20, 1832. Genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Kaulbach, and of Couture in Paris. Works : 
Vedette in the Russian Campaign (1859) ; 
Prisoners escorted by Cossacks (1860) ; Sol- 
dier of 17th Century ; Hunter of 16th Cen- 
tury. In fresco : a picture in National Muse- 
um, Munich.— Miiller, 489. 

SHADOW OF DEATH, William Holman 
Hunt, Manchester Ai't Gallery ; canvas. 
Christ, as the carpenter, engaged in Joseph's 
workshop, is standing upright, at the close 
of the day's labour, wearily stretching out 
his arms, which form the shadow of the 
cross on the wall behind him — a prevision 
of the Crucifixion ; on the ground, at his 
feet, Mary, kneeling before a coffer in which 
are the gifts of the kings, is gazing intently 
on the ominous shadow. Finished in 1873, 
after three years' labour. Engraved by F. 
Stacpoole. Art Journal (1874), 15 ; Athe- 
naeum, Jan., 1873, 23 ; Nov. 1873, 702. 

SHAKESPEARE AND HIS CONTEM- 
PORARIES, John Faed, Corcoran Gallery, 
AVashington ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 5 in. x 5 ft. 7 
in. Group of statesmen and authors of the 
time gathered around Shakespeare, the cen- 
tral figm*e, in the Mermaid Tavern, Friday 
Street, London. Engraved by James Faed. 
Photogravure in Art Treasures of America. 
— Art Treasures of America, i. 7 ; Corcoran 
Gal. Cat. 



SHAPLEIGH, FRANK HENRY, born in 
Boston, Mass., March 7, 1842. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Paris of Lambinet. Studio 
in Boston ; summer studio in Crawford 
Notch, White Mountains. Works : Venice, 
A. F. Hervey, Boston ; Yosemite Valley, H. 
C. Bacon, San Francisco ; Mirror Lake, Da- 
vid Dudley Field, New York ; The Northern 
Peaks, T. A. Chapman, Milwaukee ; The 
White Mountains, G. B. Prescott, New York ; 
Fort Marion — St. Augustine, W. G. War- 
den, Philadelphia ; Fort at Matanzas — Flor- 
ida, H. G. Lapham, New York ; Old Mill in 
Seabrook— N. H, G. H. Wright, Boston. 

SHARPLES (Sharpless), JAMES, born in 
England in 1751, died in New York, Feb. 
26, 1811. Of a Roman Catholic family, he 
was educated in France for the priesthood ; 
studied art in London under George Rom- 
ney (?), married, and sailed for America in 
1794 with his wife and three children, but 
was taken by the French, carried into Brest, 
and imprisoned several months. On his 
liberation he again embarked, and reached 
New York in safety. Travelling in a four- 
wheeled carriage with one horse he visited 
the principal cities and towns of the United 
States to paint the portraits of notable per- 
sons, of which he made a large collection. 
Though he worked some in oils most of 
these were executed in pastels. A hundred 
and thirty-four of the latter are preserved in 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, but few 
of his oil pictures are extant. Two portraits 
of Washington and one of Mrs. Washington, 
painted from life about 1796 and taken soon 
after to England, have lately been brought 
to this country for sale. Sharpies re- 
turned to New York in 1809. His wife 
and daughter Rolinda were both painters of 
portraits. Mrs. Shai'ples exhibited pastels 
of Gen. Washington and Dr. Priestley (now 
in the National Portrait Gallery-) at the Roy- 
al Academy in 1807. She worked at Bath 
and Bristol, England, and left all her prop- 
erty to found an art institution in the latter 
city, where she died in March, 1849. Ro- 
linda, who exhibited at the Academy in 



172 



SHATTUCK 



1820-23 and in 1832, lived at Bristol, where 
she died, Feb. 10, 1838. Her brother James, 
who also painted portraits, died in Bristol in 
183*J. Another brother, Felix, painted and 
died in North Cai'olina. — Dunlap ; Walter, 
Memorials of Washington (New York, 1887). 

SHATTUCK, AARON DRAPER, born in 
Fraucestown, N. H., March 9, 1832. Ani- 
mal painter, pupil in Boston of Alexander 
Ransom, portrait painter, and of the Nation- 
al Academy in 1852. First bi-ought into 
prominent notice in 1855 by a study of 
Grasses and Flowers. Elected A.N.A. in 
1856, N.A. in 1861. Studio in New York. 
Works : AMiite Mountains in October (1868) ; 
Sunday Morning in New England (1873) ; 
Sheep and Cattle in Landscape (1874), J. H. 
Sherwood, New York ; Autumn near Stock- 
bridge (1876) ; Granbury Pastures (1877) ; 
Cows by the Meadow Brook (1881) ; Cattle 
(1882); Landscaj)e with Cattle — Avon, Conn. 
(1883);PeacefulDays,Farm by the Sea (1884). 

SHAW, ANNIE CORNELIA, born at 
West Troy, N. Y., Sept. 16, 1852. Land- 
scape and animal painter, pupil of H. C. 
Ford, Chicago. Associate of Chicago Acad- 
emy of Design, 1873 ; member, 1876 ; hon- 
orary member of Art Institute, Chicago, 
1886. Works : On the Calumet (1874), J. 
H. Dole, Chicago ; Willow Island (1876), C. 
L. Hutchinson, ib. ; Keene Valley — N. Y. 
(1875), A. A. Munger, ib.; Ebb Tide on 
Coast of Maine (1876), William Butterfield, 
ib.; Head of Jersey Bull (1877), Mrs. Jenny 
F. Kempton, ib.; In the Rye Field (1880), 
Mrs. Earned, Providence, R. I. ; Road to the 
Creek (1880), B. P. Hutchinson, Chicago; 
Close of a Summer Day (1882), Edwin B. 
Haskell, Boston; July Day (1883), J. H. 
Dole, Chicago ; In the"^ Clearing (1883), Wal- 
ter C. Earned, ib.; Fall Ploughing (1884), 
George A. Brackett, Minneapolis, Minn.; 
Ashen Days (1884), Mrs. C. Brown, Chicago ; 
The Corn-Field (1884), do. ready to Harvest 
(1885), Charles E. Gifford, Jr., ib.; The Rus- 
set Year (1885). 

SHEBA, EMBARKATION OF QUEEN 
OF, Claude Lorrain, National Gallery, Lon- 



don ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x6 ft. 7 in. 
signed, dated Rome, 1648. The Queen em- 
barking on the occasion of her visit to Sol- 
omon. One of Claude's best pictures. Paint- 
ed in Rome for the Due de Bouillon, whence 
called the Bouillon Claude. Liber Verita- 
tis. No. 114. From Angerstein Collection. 
Companion to Marriage of Isaac and Rebek- 
ah. Engraved in Gallery Angerstein, by 
VarraU in National Gallery, and in L'Art. 
Replica, painted in 1677, Lord Cathcart. — 
Waagen, Treasures, i. 340 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. ; 
Pattison, Claude Lorrain, 228 ; Athen., 1876. 

SHEBA, QUEEN OF, AND SOLOMON, 
Paolo Veronese, Turin Gallery ; canvas, H. 
11 ft. 3 in. X 17 ft. 10 in. Solomon, seated 
high on his throne, with two elders on each 
side beneath him, stoops forward as if to sup- 
port the Queen of Sheba, who, kneeling and 
nearly fainting, looks up to him with tears 
in her eyes ; beside her kneels a maid of 
honour, who looks back to encourage a ne- 
gro girl carrying presents ; a little dog in 
front barks furiously at an attendant who 
has set down a golden vase near him. A 
picture of "inestimable value." Painted for 
Charles, Duke of Savoy. Engraved by Hol- 
lar. — Ruskin, Mod. Painters, v. 229 ; Ridolfi, 
Mara v., ii. 57. 

SHEE, Sir MARTIN ARCHER, born in 
DubHn, Dec. 20, 1769. 
died at Brighton, Aug. 
19, 1850. Pupil of 
Dublin School of De- 
sign, and won some 
repute in that city as 
a portrait painter ; 
went to London in 
1788 and, through ad- 
vice of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, became a pupil 
of the Royal Academy in 1790. He gi'adu- 
ally won his way and became a successful 
portrait painter of men, his earliest works 
being theatrical portraits. He also painted 
some subject works, but they did not add 
to his reputation. In 1798 he was elected 
A.R.A., iu 1800 R.A., and in 1830 president 




173 



SHEEP 



of the Royal Academy, receiving at the same 
time the honour of knighthood. He was 
also the author of several literai'V produc- 
tions, among them "Alasco," a tragedy 
(1823), and " Old Court," a novel (1829). 
Works : Infant Bacchus, Thomas Morton 
(dramatist), Thomas Lewis (comedian), 
National Gallery ; William IV., Queen Ade- 
laide, Windsor Castle ; Queen Victoria, Roy- 



a woman is shearing. Painted in 1860 ; 

exhibited in Brussels, 1860 ; Salon, 1861 ; 

Bordeaux, 1865 ; Lille, 1866 ; Exposition 

universelle, Paris, 1867. First sketch in 

Collection of IVIlle. Sensier. — Gazette des B. 

Arts (1860), viii. 96; (1861), xi. 63; Sen- 

sier, vie, 216. 

SHEEP SHEARING (Tonte des mou- 

tons), Jean rran(;ois Millet, William Schaus, 
New York. A farm-yard, with a 
house, farm buildings, and trees 
in background, and a man and 
woman shearing sheep ; in fore- 
ground, many sheep, some shorn 
and some unshorn (the latter sus- 
piciously smeUing the former), and 
a man leading out a sheep to be 
sheared. Painted in 1861. From 
Collection of M. Fanien. — Sensier, 
vie, 206. 

SHEPHERDS, ADORATION 
OF, Correggio. See Notte, La. 

Bj' Domenico Ghirlandajo, Flor- 
ence Academy ; wood, H. 4 ft. 6 in. 
X 4 ft. 8 in. ; dated 1485. The 
Child lies on the ground in front 
of a sarcophagus which serves as a 
feeding-trough for a cow and a 
mule ; at left, the Virgin kneeling, 
and Joseph gazing at the proces- 
sion of the Magi winding round a 
hill and passing through a triumph- 
al arch ; at right, three shepherds, 
one bearing a lamb. Vasari errs 
in saying that one of the figures is 
a portrait of Ghirlandajo. Paint- 
ed for the Sassetti Chapel in S. 

Adoration of Shepherds, Anton Raphael Mengs, Madrid Museunn. m • -iv t-ii -n t i 

Trinita, J^lorence. Engraved by 
al Academy, London ; Portrait of Picton, Perfetti. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 257 ; C. & C, 




National Portrait Galler}'. — Ai-t Journal 
(1849), 12 ; Redgrave ; Cunningham ; F. de 
Conches, 407 ; Ch. Blanc, I^]cole anglaise ; 
Sandby, ii. 136. 

SHEEP SHEARER (La tondeuse de 
moutons), Jean Franyois Millet, Quincy 
A. Shaw, Boston. Figures three-quarters 
length, life-size. A peasant man, seated on 



Italy, ii. 476 ; Gall. Accad. di Firenze, PI. 
48. 

By Anton Raphael Mengs, Madrid Muse- 
um ; wood, H. 8 ft. 6 in. X 6 ft. 8 in. The 
Virgin, with the Child in her lap, seated in 
the stable, with an ass and an ox in back- 
ground ; at left, St. Joseph sitting, and be- 
hind him the painter himself as a spectator ; 



an overturned basket, holds a sheep which at right, the shepherds in adoration, one of 



174 



&HEPIIERDS 



them followed by a dog ; above, a choir of ! into the scene ; in centre, behind the crib, 



angels. One of Mengs's best works. Col- 
lection of Charles III. Engraved by Raph- 
ael Morgheu. — Ruveil, xiii. 928. 

By Marillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. G ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 10 in. On left, 
Jesus lying naked on a crib, the Virgin, at 
his feet, holding up the linen that covers him ; 
behind her, St. Joseph standing ; in front, 
a kneeling shepherd near a lamb ; beyond 
him, an old woman, and behind her, on 
right, two shepherds, one with a staflf ; above 
the Child, the heads of an ox and an ass. 
First manner. From Houghton Gallery ; 
appraised at £600. En- 
graved by V. Green. Sketch 
in Hermitage. — Curtis, 
165 ; Houghton Gallery, i. 
PI. 24 ; Hermitage, Cat., 
128. 

By Murillo, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 1 
in. X 7 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin, kneeling on left behind 
the crib, holds the head of 
Jesus on her right arm, 
and raises with left the lin- 
en that covers him ; be- 
hind, St. Joseph leaning on 
his staff; in front, a shep- 
herd kneeling in adora- 
tion ; two fowls on ground 
before him ; at right, a 
woman with a basket of eggs, and a 
leading a lamb by a rope ; in background, 
ruins of a temple. Second manner. Taken 
to Paris by French, returned in 1816 and 
placed in Academy of S. Fernando, whence 
transferred in 1829 to Museum. Engraved 
by Huvert ; lithographed by P. F. Feillet. 
—Curtis, 165 ; Madrazo, 469. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
9 ft. X 6 ft. The Virgin, seated on right, 
holds the head of the Child, who lies on a 
box filled with straw ; she raises the linen 
and shows him to the kneeling shepherds ; 
behind them, on left, a young woman with 
a basket of eg^s thrusts a child forward 



St. Joseph standing, leaning on his staft"; 
above, two cherubs. Painted about 1676 
for Capuchin Church, Seville. Repetition, 
reversed, Vatican, Rome. — Curtis, 164. 

By Nicolas Foiissin, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. The Vir- 
gin seated in a stable, in which animals are 
feeding, holding in her lap the Infant, be- 
fore whom four shepherds are prostrating 
themselves ; behind the group, St. Joseph, 
standing. Painted in 1653 for M. de Mau- 
croy, intendant of finances ; passed thence 
to M. Boisfranc and to the Manheim Gal- 




Adoration of Shepherds, Nicolas Poussin, Munich Gallery. 



man lery, from which it was jjrocured by the 
King of Bavaria. Engraved by John Pesne ; 
lithographed (1818) by N. Miixel.— Rcveil, 
xiii. 888. 

By Rembrandl, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 10 in. ; signed, 
dated 1646. Interior of a stable ; at right, 
the Virgin sitting near Jesus, who is lying 
in a cradle ; on her right, St. Joseph, stand- 
ing ; two shepherds, kneeling, and near 
them two women and a child, a man with a 
lantern, a boy with a dog ; in background, 
other figures and cattle. Collection of 
Mme. Bandeville (1786), 3,000 francs ; Col- 
lection of M. Tolozan (1801), 10,000 francs; 



SHEPHERDS 



J. J. Angerstein (1824). Engraved by S. 
Bernard ; H. C. Sheuton ; Sevier. — Vosmaer, 
201, 472 ; Smith, vii. 23. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; 
canvas, H. about 14 ft. x 10 ft. The Virgin 
with Christ, whom two women are adoring, 
seated on a kind of hammock floor of rope 
netting, covered with straw, which divides 
the picture into two stories ; in the lower 
division, the stable, are a cock, a cow, and 
a peacock, some shepherds with gifts, and a 
woman with a basket of eggs. A "tricky 
picture, hastily painted." — Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice, iii. 334. 

'By Velasquez, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 7 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 6 in. The Vir- 
gin, kneeling at left, supports Jesus, who 
lies on a crib, while Joseph stands beyond, 
holding a staff; three shepherds kneel be- 
fore the Child, and an old woman behind 
them bends forward ; on right, a girl, with 
a basket on her head, enters a door ; in fore- 
ground lie two sheep. Probably authentic, 
though genuineness has been doubted. 
Purchased about 1832 for Louis Philippe 
from Conde del Aguila, Seville, in whose 
house it had been since it was painted ; sold 
in 1853 to National Gallery for £2,050. 
Engraved by E. Lingee (outline). — Curtis, 
4 ; Waagen, iii. 347. 

Subject treated also by Palma Vecchio, 
Louvre ; Francisco Bassano, Dresden Muse- 
um ; Jacopo Bassano, Louvre, Paris ; Lean- 
dro Bassano, Venice Academy ; Ghirlandajo, 
Florence Academy ; Adriaan van der Werff, 
TJffizi, Florence; Titian, Ambrosiana, Milan ; 
Moretto, Berlin Museum ; Andrea Schia- 
vone, Vienna Museum ; Guido Reni, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Spagnoletto, 
Louvre, Paris ; Garofalo, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Domenico Feti, ib. ; Palma 
Vecchio, ib. Josef Anton Rhomberg, Frau- 
enkirche, Munich ; Bastien-Lepage (Salon, 
1876). 

SHEPHERD'S CHIEF MOURNER, Sir 
Edwin Landseer, South Kensington Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 6 in. x 2 f t. A shep- 
herd's coffin, partly covered by a plaid and 



a blanket, rests in a rude cottage ; on a 
three-legged stool lie a Bible and a pair of 
spectacles, and on the floor beside it a bon- 
net and crook, while by the coffin, with his 
head resting upon it, sits the old man's 
faithful dog — his chief mourner. Royal 
Academy, 1837. 

SHEPHERD, LITTLE (Pastor Nino), 
Murillo, Comte Henri de Greffulhe, Paris ; 
H. 1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. The young 
Saviour, walking front, with a crook in his 
left hand, rests the other on one of two 
sheep on his right ; on his left, another 
sheep running. Presented by Queen Isa- 
bella to M. Guizot in recognition of his 
services in bringing about the marriage of 
her sister to the Due de Montpensier. Sold 
in Paris, 1874, for 120,000 francs.— Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1877), xv. 155 ; Curtis, 186. 

SHIPBUILDER, Rembrandt, Buckingham 
Palace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 8 ft. 6 in.; 
signed, dated 1633. A shipbuilder, seen to 
knees, making a drawing of a ship, is inter- 
rupted by his wife, w^ho has entered the 
room with a letter. One of Rembrandt's 
most noted pictures. Gildemeester sale 
(1800), 8,050 florins ; Smeth Van Alpen sale 
(1810), 16,500 florins. Engraved by Hodges 
(1802); J. P. Quilley. Etched by De Frey. 
— Waagen, Treasures, ii. 4 ; Vosmaer, 35, 
432 ; Smith, vii. 68. 

SHIPWRECK, Joseph M. W. Turner, Na- 
tional Gallei'y, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 8 
in. X 7 ft. 11 in. The hulk of a large ship, 
still crowded with human beings, is labour- 
ing in a stormy sea ; three fishing-boats are 
endeavouring to approach her bows, where 
some of the j)assengers are dropping from 
the bowsprit into a boat. Painted in 1805 
for Sir John Fleming Leicester ; exchanged 
by him for Sun in the Mist. Engraved by 
W. IMiller in Turner Gallery. 

SHIRLAW, WALTER, born in Paisley, 
Scotland, Aug. 6, 1838. Genre painter ,- 
taken to America in 1840. Pupil in Munich, 
in 1870-77, of Raab, Wagner, Ramberg, and 
Lindenschmidt. Exhibited first at National 
Academy in 1861 ; elected an AN. A. ip 



SHORE 




1878 ; member of Society of American Ar- 
tists, of which he was the first president ; pro- 
fessor in Art Stu- 
dents' League, New 
York ; member of 
Chicago Academy. 
Studio in New York. 
Works : Eager for 
the Fray (1861) ; 
Toning the Bell 
(1874) ; Sheep Shear- 
ing—Bavarian High- 
lands (187()); Good 
Morning (1878); Gretchen, Burgomaster, 
Task (1879); Capellmeister, Marble Quarry, 
Indian Girl, Very Old, Autumn (1880); Tom- 
Boy (1881); Gossip, Tuning Up (1844); Sor- 
ry for the Gorse, Under the Cornstack (1885); 
Jealousy (1886).— Am. Art Kev. (1881), 97, 
145 ; Sheldon, 96. 

SHORE, JANE, Joseph Nicolas Rohert- 
Fleury, Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 8 in. X 5 ft. Condemned as a sorceress 
and adulteress, she is pursued through the 
streets of London and insulted by the popu- 
lace. Salon, 1850. 

SHRIMP GIRL, Hocjarth, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 1 in. x 1 ft. 
8 in. Half-length, face nearly full, with 
mouth half-open. She wears a white cap 
with a dark cloth over her head, on which 
she bears a tray containing shrimps and a 
small metal measure. Leigh Court sale 
(1884), 256 guineas.— Art Joui-nal (1885), 8. 

SHULAMITE, Alexandre Cahanel, Miss C. 
L. Wolfe, New York ; canvas, signed, dated 
1875. Life-size, sitting on the floor of a 
highly decorated apartment, with a column 
and rich stuffs in background. One hand 
is raised to her head ; the other is partly 
veiling her bosom, from which the gauze has 
fallen. Photogravure in Art Treasures of 
America, i. 120. 

SHU:\IWAY, HENRY COLTON, born in 
Middletown, Conn., July 4, 1807, died in 
New York, May 6, 1884. Portrait and min- 
iature painter, pupil of the National Acad- 
emy, and one of its earliest members, hav- 



ing been elected in 1832. For many years 
a successful miniatm-e portrait painter in 
New York and in other American cities, and 
a regular exhibitor at the Academy. He 
went to Washington, D. C, in 1838 to paint 
Henry Clay, and had many other distin- 
guished sitters. 

SHURTLEFF, ROSWELL MORSE, born 
at Rindge, N. H., June 14, 1841. Land- 
scape and animal painter, pupil of the Lowell 
Institute, Boston, and of the National Acad- 
emy, New York, where he first exhibited in 
1872. Studio in New York. Elected an 
A.N. A. in 1881. Woi-ks : American Panther 
(1876); Race for Life (1877); The Still- 
Hunter; On the Alert (1879); Autumn Gold, 
Pedro (1880); Blue Heron (1881); October 
Hunting, Under the Beeches (1882); Foot 
of the Mountain, Ray of Light, In the Wild- 
Wood (1883); Mt. Porter— Adirondacks, By 
Still Water (1884); October, Road to the 
Mill (1885); Song of Summer Woods, Morn- 
ing in the Forest (1886).— Sheldon, 211. 

SIBERECHTS, JAN, born in Antwerp, 
baptized Jan. 29, 1627, died in London in 
1703. Flemish school ; landscape painter, 
admitted to the guild in 1648. Painted 
many English landscapes for the Duke of 
Buckingham, who took him to England, 
where he was employed four years in the 
decoration of Cliefden House, and after- 
wards at Newstead and Chatsworth. Was 
distinguished for his water-colours. En- 
deavoured successfully to imitate Berchem 
and Karel du Jardin. Works : Miracle of 
St. Francis of Assisi (1666), Antweii^ Mu- 
seum ; Farm Yard (1(!60), Brussels Museum ; 
Leasehold Farm, Valenciennes Museum ; 
Landscapes with Figures and Cattle (2, 1663, 
1670), Lille Museum ; do. (1), Bordeaux Mu- 

seum ; do., Liechtenstein Gallery'. Vienna; 
Mother sewing by the Cradle (1671), Copen- 



177 



SIBYL 



hagen Gallery ; Cattle Pasture, Old Pinako- 
tliek, Munich. — Cb. Blanc, ^cole flamande ; 
Gaz. des B. Ai-ts (1872), vi. 497 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 412 ; Van den Branden, 1064. 

SIBYL, the name applied to reputed 
prophetesses of the mythical period, some 
of whom are said to have foretold the com- 
ing of Christ to the Gentiles. There are 
ten or more of them, and they are generally 
named from their habitations; as, Cimmerian, 
from the Black Sea ; Cumsean, from Cumse 
in Campania ; Delphian, from Delphi ; Ery- 
thraean, from Erythrsea in Asia Minor ; Hel- 
lespontian (sometimes called Trojan), from 
the Hellespont ; Libyan, from Libya ; Per- 
sian, from Persia ; Phrygian, from Phrygia ; 
Samian, from Samos ; Tiburtine, from Tibur 
(Tivoli). They do not appear in art earlier 
than the fourteenth century. 

SIBYL, CUMiEAN, Domenichino, Palazzo 
Borghese, Rome. Weai-s an immense tur- 
ban, eyes raised and mouth open. Head 
and draperies well drawn and coloured. In 
respect to accessories superior to the repeti- 
tions at the Capitol and in the Modena Mu- 
seum. Engraved by P. Fontana. — Lavice, 
335, 354 ; Viardot, 239. 

By Guido Reni, Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, 
half-figure. Eyes raised, and resting her 
chin on one hand ; she holds in the other a 
paper, on which is written her prediction of 
Christ's advent — "Nascetur de Vii'gine." 
Other Cumaean Sibyls by Guido are in the 
Brussels and Vienna Museums, the Palazzo 
Strozzi, Florence, and the Palazzo Brignole 
Sale, Genoa.— Soc. Ed. et Paris, PI. 177 ; 
Lavice, 47. 

By Elihu Vedder, Wellesley College, Wel- 
lesley, Mass. She is hurrying along, her 
garments blown by the wind swinging be- 
fore her, in the centre of a landscape with a 
range of mountains resembling the Abruzzi 
in the distance. 

SIBYL, PERSIAN, Guercino, Capitol Gal- 
lery, Rome ; half-figure. She leans her head 
on the back of one hand and holds a pen in 
the other. An open book lies before her. 
Colour, drapery, and effect of light excellent ; 



one of the master's best pictures. Engraved 
by Ant. Perfetti ; A. Cunego ; J. V. Kauperz ; 
P. Fontana; Gio. Berselli. — Lavice, 331. 

SIBYL, SAMIAN, Guercino, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. 11 in. 
Standing, half-length, with her hands on an 
open book. She wears a picturesque turban 
and bands of pearls in her hair. Painted in 
1651 for Mattia de' Medici ; bought in 1777 
for Gallery. Engraved by Ant. Perfetti; 
Levillain ; J. Rivera. — Molini, Gal. di Firenze, 
ii. 125 ; Soc. Ed., Gal. di Firenze, PI. 133 ; 



Wicar, i.. Part 3 ; Lavice, 33. 

SIBYL, TIBURTINE, Garofalo, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 2 f t. x 1 ft. 3 in. 
The Sibyl revealing to the Emperor Augus- 
tus the Mystery of the Incarnation, She is 
standing pointing with one hand to the Vir- 
gin and Child, who, with two angels, are 
seen above ; Augustus is kneeling, with his 
crown on the earth beside him. 

Subject treated also by Paris Bordone, 
Venice Academy. 

SIBYL, ZAMBETHA (Sambetha), Hans 
Memling, Hospital of St. John, Bruges; 
wood, H. 1 ft. 3 in. x 10 in. A bust portrait 
of a Flemish damsel, in the high peaked cap 
of the close of the 15th century. Supposed 
to be the portrait of one of the daughters 
of William Moreel, a patrician of Bruges, 
whose portrait and that of his wife, now 
in the Brussels Museum, were painted by 
Memling in the same year, 1480. — C. & C, 
Flemish Painters, 276 ; Beffroi, ii. 182. 

SIBYLLA PALMIFERA (Sibyl with the 
Palm), Dante Gabriel Rossetli, George 
Rae, Birkenhead, England ; canvas, life-size, 
three-quarter length. Illustrative of Ros- 
setti's sonnet of same title. Seated figure 
of a virgin, in crimson dress, with green 
scarf over her hair, holding a palm before 
the shrine of worship ; beside her burns a 
lamp, its flame rising toward a rose garland 
hanging near the sculptured head of a cher- 
ub ; on the other side smoke ascends from 
a thurible in circles towards a death's head, 
over which is a wreath of poppies ; above, 
a festoon of olive boughs and a sphinx in 



178 



SIBYLS 



a niche. Painted in 1866 ; chalk drawing, 
Alexander Stevenson, Tynemouth. — Athe- 
ngeum, Sept., 1873, 407 ; Oct., 1875, 444. 

SIBYLS, Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, 
Vatican, Rome ; frescos on ceiling. Painted 
on five of the twelve pendentives, the other 
seven being filled with as many prophets, 
viz. : Zachariah, Joel, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, 
Jonah, Daniel, and Isaiah. 

1. Erythraean Sibyl, full-length, seated, 
looking into an open book at right. Behind, 
two children, one lighting a lamp. 

2. Persian Sibyl, full-length, seated, writ- 
ing in an open book at left. In front of 
her, two children. 



holding up a scroll, half-opened by a flying 
angel, inscribed "The Resurrection of the 
Dead ; " next the Persian Sibyl, writing on 
a tablet held b}' an angel, "He will have the 
Lot of Death " ; on the key-stone, a little 
angel holding a torch, and another, seated 
near, points to a tablet in his hand inscribed, 
"The Heavens surround the Sphere of the 
Earth " ; next, the Phrygian Sibyl, and be- 
low her, the Tiburtine Sibyl ; between them, 
a little angel with a tablet inscribed, "I will 
open and arise," and above them another 
floating, with an open scroll inscribed, "An- 
other Generation already." Painted by or- 
der of Agostino Chigi in 1514 ; entirely by 




Sibyls, Raphael, S. M. della Pace, Rome. 



3. Libyan Sibyl, full-length, seated, hold- 
ing an open volume on a pedestal at her 
right and looking left at two children seated 
in front of her. 

4. Cumsean Sibyl, fuU-length, seated fi-ont, 
looking to her right into an open book, be- 
hind which are two children. 

5. Delphian Sibyl, full-length, seated, 
looking nearly front. Behind, two children, 
one looking into an open book. 

Engraved by Cherubino Alberti. — Vasari, 
ed. Mil., vii. 182 ; Pistolesi, Vaticano desc, 
viii. PI. 98, 105, 112, 123, 129 ; Landon, O^u- 
vre de Michel- Ange, PI. vi., viii., x., xii., xiv. 

SIBYLS, Raphael, S. M. della Pace, Rome ; 
fresco. At left, the Cumicau Sibyl, seated. 



Raphael. Shows wonderful execution. Va- 
sari calls it Raphael's masterpiece. This 
fresco is beneath that of the Prophets, and is 
the picture which Michelangelo was called 
in to value, estimating each head to be w-orth 
a hundred ducats. Restored in 155G-15G1 
by Fontana and in the present century by 
Palmaroli. Engraved by a jiupil of IMarc 
Antonio; J. Volpato (1772); Ferd. Rusch- 
weyh ; M. F. Dien (1838). Original design3 
in Abertina Collection, Vienna, and at Ox- 
ford. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 340 ; Passavant, 
ii. 138 ; Miintz, 491, 493 ; Springer, 256 ; 
Reveil, xiv. 967. 

SICHEL, NATHANAEL, born in Mentz, 
Jan. 8, 1844. History and portrait painter. 



SICIOLANTE 



pupil of Berlin Academy under Julius Schra- 
der ; won a prize in 18G4, and studied in 
Rome two years, and in Paris one year. 
Studio in Berlin. Works : Philij) the Gen- 
erous at Ins Wife's Tomb (186-4), Darmstadt 
Gallery ; Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's 
Dreams (1864) ; Ai'rest of Don Carlos by 
PhiliiJ II. ; Scene from Life of Mary Stuart ; 
Francesca da Rimini (1876) ; Cai'dinal de 
Guise in Rome. — Miiller, 489. 

SICIOLANTE. See Girolamo da Ser- 
moneta. 

SIDDONS, MRS., portrait, Thomas Gains- 
borough, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
H. 4' ft. 1 in. x3 ft. 3 in. Half-length, 
seated ; in a striped blue and white dress 
and buff shawl, with black hat and feathers, 
and holding in her left hand a brown muff. 
Painted in 1784 ; purchased in 1862 from 
Major Mair, husband of the actress's grand- 
daughter. — Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Eng. Painters of 
Georgian Era, 14. 

By Sir Thomas Lawrence, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 1h in. x by 4 
ft. 8^ in. Full-length, turning over with 
her left hand a leaf of an open volume of 
"Paradise Lost," on a table beside her. 
Presented by Mrs. Fitz-Hugh in 1843. En- 
graved by W. Say (1810). 

SIDDONS AS THE TRAGIC MUSE, Sir 
Joshua lieynohh, Grosvenor House, Lon- 
don ; canvas, life-size. The Queen of Trag- 
edy, full-length, sitting upon a throne rest- 
ing on clouds, apparently brooding over 
deeds of horror ; behind her stand two fig- 
ures, one with a bowl, the other with a dag- 
ger — types of secret and open violence. 
Painted in 1784 ; bought by M. de Calonne 
for 800 guineas ; at his sale (1795) passed to 
AV. Smith, M.P., for £700 ; sold to Watson 
Taylor for £900, and bought at his sale 
(1822) by first Marquis of Westminster for 
1,760 guineas. Replica at Langley Park, 
Stowe ; another in Dulwich Gallery, painted, 
according to Northcote, by Score, one of Sir 
Joshua's journeymen ; others in Lord Nor- 
manton's gallery and in possession of Mrs. 
Combe, Edinburgh . Engraved by Hay ward 



(1787).— Leslie and Taylor, Life, ii. 420 ; 
Art Journal (1800), 358 ; Waagen, Ai't Treas- 
ures, ii. 172. 

SIEBERT, ADOLF, born at Halberstadt 
in 1806, died in Rome in 1832. History 
painter, pupil of Wach in Berlin, where he 
won the Academy prize in 1830, and went to 
Rome. He was a deaf mute. Works : Ju- 
piter and Mercury with Philemon and Bau- 
cis (1830) ; St. Luke painting the Madonna 




Siddons as the Tragic Muse, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Grosvenor 
House, London. 

(1831), Schloss Bellevue, Berlin ; D;T?dalu3 
and Icarus; Farewell of Tobias. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. 1829-34 ; Raczynski, i. 59 ; iii. 68. 
SIEGERT, AUGUST, born at Neuwied, 
March 5, 1820, died in Diisseldorf, Oct. 13, 
1883. Genre painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy under Hildebrandt and Schadow 
in 1835-46. Visited Antwerp, Paris, Hol- 
land, and Munich ; settled in Diisseldorf in 
1851, where he became teacher at the Acad- 
emy, and in 1872 professor. Medal in Vi- 
enna. Member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works : Luther at Assembly of Woi-ms 



180 



SIEGUMFELDT 



(1844) ; David and Abishai in Saul's Tent 
(1845); Emperor Maximilian and Albreclit 
Diii-er (1848); The Welcome (1851); Trum- 
peter's Children (1851); Holiday (1852); 
Reading the Bible, David finding Saul 
asleep, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sun- 
day Morning, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; 
Poor Family fed in Rich House ; Soldiers 
playing Dice ; Children in Studio, Stettin 
Museum ; Convent Gate ; Patrician In- 
terior ; Meal-Time ; Welcome Pause (1866) ; 
Service of Love (1870), Hamburg Gallery ; 
Fruit Painter (1876), Diisseldorf Gallery ; 
Birth Day ; Forest House ; Good Treatment 
—Bad Payment (1883).— Kunst-Chronik, 
xix. 24; W. Muller, Diisseldorf K., 160; 
Wiegmann, 225 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, vi. 149. 

SIEGUMFELDT, HERMAN CARL, 
born near Esrom in North Zealand, Sept. 
18, 1833. Portrait and genre painter, pupil 
of Copenhagen Academy in 1844, and after- 
wards of Simonsen ; won the small silver 
medal in 1850, a money prize in 1856, and 
the travelling prize in 1859 ; broke his arm 
in Sweden in 1860, which seriously crippled 
him ; visited in 1863 Brussels, Paris, and 
Rome. Works : Apple Woman, School Girl 
with Books (1856) ; Fishermen from North 
Zealand, Fishermen on the Strand at Even- 
ing (1857) ; Husbandmen from the Heaths, 
From the Country (1860) ; Sad Tale from 
the Sea (1862); Woman and Children (1865); 
Roman Peasants in Church (1866) ; many 
portraits (1878-84). He is a portrait paint- 
er of high rank. — Sigord Muller, 317 ; Weil- 
bach, 633. 

SIEMIRADZKI, HENDRIK, born in 
government of Grodno, Nov. 15, 1843. His- 
tory painter, pupil of St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy and of Piloty in Munich. Visited France 
and Germany in 1870, and settled in Rome 
in 1872. Medals : Vienna, 1873 ; Philadel- 
phia, 1876 ; of honour, Paris, 1878 ; Berlin, 
1879 ; Melbourne, 1882 ; L. of Honour, 1878. 
Member of St. Petersburg, Berlin, Stock- 
holm, and Rome Academies. Works : Alex- 
ander's Confidence in Philip (1870); Figure 
Painting after Poem by Tolstoi (1871) ; Ro- 



man Orgies (1872) ; Christ and the Sinner 
(1873); Nero's Torches (1870); Sword Dance ; 
Woman or Cup (1879) ; Shipwrecked Man 
Begging ; Pirate's Cave (1881); Nubian For- 
tune-Teller (1882) ; Cremation of Russian 
Captain in 10th Century (1883), Moscow 
Museum ; Summer Night in Pompeii (1884); 
Nero by the Body of a Christian Martyr, 
Christ with Martha and Mary (1885) ; fres- 
cos in Church of Our Saviour, Moscow. — 
— Muller, 490 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 401 ; 
xix. 352, 382 ; Kunst f. Alle, i. 150. 

SIENA, GUIDO DA. See Guido. 

SIENA, MATTEO DA. See Matteo di 
Giovanni. 

SIGALON, XAVIER, born at Uzis (Gard), 
in 1788 (1790?), 
died in Rome, Aug. 
18, 1837. French 
school; genre 
painter, pupil of 
Monrose at Nimes, 
later of Souchon 
and G u 6 r i n in 
Paris. Sent to 
Rome, when M. 
Thiei's was minis- 
ter, to copy Michelangelo's Last Judgment, 
now in the Ecole des Beaux Ai-ts, which 
cost three and a half years' labour, for 
which he received 58,000 francs, an indem- 
nity of 20,000 francs, and a travelling pen- 
sion of 3,000 francs. Returned to copy 
other works in Sistine Chapel, and died of 
cholera. Medal, 1824 ; L. of Honour, 1831. 
Works : Death of St. Louis (1815), Baptism 
of Christ, Cathedral of Nimes ; Holy Ghost 
descending upon the Apostles (1817), Church 
of Aigues-Mortes ; Young Courtesan (1821), 
Louvre ; Locusta experimenting with Poi- 
sons (1824), Portrait of Louis Phihppe, 




XJl 



ICfoioA 



i2l\ 



Nimes Museum ; Athalie having all the 
Children of the Blood Royal killed (1827), 



181 



SIGISMONDA 



Nantes Museum ; Vision of St. Jerome (1829), 
Louvre ; Christ on the Cross (1829), Church 
at Issingeaux ; Anacreon (1833). — Ch. Blanc, 
ifecole frau(;aise ; Eloge historique de X. S. 
(1848) ; Bellier, ii. 502. 

SIGISMONDA, William Hogarth, Na- 
tional Galler}', London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 3 
in. X 4 ft. 1^ iu. Mourning over the heart 
of Guiscardo. Sigismonda or Ghismonda, 
daughter of Tancred, Prince of Salerno, 
loved and secretly married Guiscardo, a 
poor but noble page. Tancred, having dis- 
covered the union, caused Guiscardo to be 
strangled and sent his heart in a golden 
cup to Sigismonda, who escaped from life 
by a poisoned draft which she had pre- 
pared in expectation of her husband's doom. 
Painted in 1759 for Sir Richard Grosvenor, 
who declined it ; sold at Mrs. Hogarth's 
sale for 56 guineas ; sold in 1807 for 400 
guineas ; bequeathed in 1879 by J. H. An- 
derdon. Engraved (1792) by B. Smith. 

SIGMUND in., King of Poland, born in 
Stockholm, June 20, 1566, died in Warsaw, 
April 30, 1632. History painter. One of his 
pictures was taken for a Tintoretto. Works : 
Allegory of Foundation of Jesuit Convent, 
Schleissheim Gallery; Mater Dolorosa, Augs- 
burg Gallery. 

SIGNOL, EMILE, born in Paris, March 
11 (May 8, Belher), 1804. History, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Blondel and 
Gros ; won the 2d grand prix de Rome in 
1829, and the grand prix in 1830. Medals : 
2d class, 1834 ; 1st class, 1835 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1841 ; Officer, 1865 ; Member of Listi- 
tute, 1860. Works : Joseph telling his 
Dream to his Brothers (1824) ; Meleager 
taking up Arms (1830) ; Death of Virginia, 
Roman Peasants (1833) ; Noah cursing his 
Son (1834), Aix Museum ; Christ at the 
Tomb (1835), Comtesse Potowska ; Chris- 
tian Religion coming to the Aid of the Af- 
flicted (1837) ; Louis XV. consecrated in 
Rheims (1838), Versailles Museum ; Preach- 
ing the Second Crusade (1839), ib.; Woman 
taken in Adultery (1840), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Magdalen, Mystic Virgin (1842) ; 



Portrait of Louis VH. (1842), Versailles 
Museum ; do. of Godfrey de Bouillon (1844), 
ib. ; do. of Saint Louis (1844), ib. ; Capture 
of Jerusalem in 1099 (1848), ib.; Bride of 
Lammermoor, Fairy and Peri (1850) ; Legis- 
lators under Evangelical Inspiration (1853), 
Palais du Senat ; Descent from the Cross 
(1853) ; Pieta, Magdalen (1855) ; Crusad- 
ers passing the Bosphorus (1855), Capt- 
ure of Jerusalem (1855), Versailles Muse- 
um ; Holy Family (1859); Wise and Foolish 
Virgins (1863) ; Punishment of a Vestal 
(1863), Arras Museum ; Rhadamistus and 
Zenobia (1863) ; Soldier of Marathon, Ex- 
posure of Moses, Joseph sold by his Breth- 
ren (1878) ; Crusaders coming in Sight of 
Jerusalem in First Crusade (1880), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Tancred on the Mount of 
Olives (1880), ib.; Portraits of Dagobert I, 
Clovis H., Childeric H., Thierry L, Dago- 
bert II., Thierry H., Childeric HI, ib. He 
has also executed works for churches : 
Death of the Magdalen (1838), Madeleine ; 
Decorations in St. Joseph's Chapel, Saint- 
Severin (1845) ; do. in Chapelle des Catc- 
chismes, Saint-Eustache (1851); do. iu Saint- 
Eustache (1856) ; do. in Saint-Augustin 
(1862) ; Betrayal of Jesus and Crucifixion, 
Resurrection and Ascension (1876), Saint- 
Sulpice. — Bellier, ii. 502 ; Vapereau ; La- 
rousse. 

SIGNORELLI, LUCA D' EGIDIO DI 
VENTURA DE', 
born in Cortona in 
1441, died there in 
152 3. Tuscan 
school ; pupil in 
Ai'ezzo of his uncle, 
Lazzaro Vasari, and 
of Pietro della Fran- 
cesca, with whom he 
remained until 
1460. The evident 
influence of Antonio Pollajuolo and Andrea 
Verrocchio upon Signorelli makes it prob- 
able that he spent a portion of his time at 
Florence before 1472, and from 1474 to 1476 
— years of which no record is preserved — in 




182 



SIGNORELLI 



association with these masters. According 
to Vasari, his first work (1472) was the dec- 
oration of the chapel of S. Barbara, in S. 
Lorenzo at Arezzo, no longer extant. The 
first certain notice of hiui is at Citta di Cas- 
tello, in November, 1474, as occupied in 
painting the now destroyed colossal figures 
of SS. Jerome and Paul on the exterior of 
the tower of the City Hall. Of the next 
four years we know nothing. Vasari tells us 
that he painted at Siena, and after finishing 
a work at S. Agostino went to Florence to 
study dead and living masters, and was em- 
ployed by Lorenzo de' Medici ; but the al- 
tarpiece at S. Agostino was not painted un- 
til 1498, six years after Lorenzo's death. 
During an earlier visit to Florence, he per- 
haps painted the School of Pan for Lorenzo, 
now in the possession of the Marchese Corsi. 
His first great works still extant are sup- 
posed to be the frescos in the S. Casa at 
Lore to, which betray Florentine influence 
and the assistance of Don Bartolommeo 
della Gatta, whom Signorelli probably knew 
at Arezzo in 1472, and by whom he was 
called to Loreto between 1476 and 1479. 
Here Signorelli reveals his identity in the 
Apostles, Church Fathers, and Evangelists, 
the Conversion of St. Paul, and the Unbeliev- 
ing Thomas. About the beginning of Sep- 
tember, 1479, he returned to Cortona, where 
he was elected one of the priors in the fol- 
lowing February. The date of Signorelli's 
fresco of the History of Mose^, in the Sis- 
tine Chapel, is unknown ; but as he was 
commissioned to paint it by Sixtus IV., who 
died in 1484, it must have been executed 
before that year. To this time also belongs 
an altarpiece of the Virgin and Saints, paint- 
ed for the Vannucci Chapel, in the Cathe- 
dral at Perugia. In the year 1491 he paint- 
ed an Annunciation for the Chapel of S. 
Carlo, in the Cathedral at Volterra, and a 
picture of the Madonna and Saints, now in 
the Public Gallery of that city. Being high- 
ly esteemed as an artist at Florence, Signo- 
relli was made a member of the committee 
of artists appointed iu 1491 to sit in judg- 



ment on designs sent in for the construe 
tion of the fayade of the Cathedral. In 
1493 and 1494 he painted an Adoration of 
the Magi and a Nativity for the Church of 
S. Agostino at Citta di Castello, where his 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, of the year 
149G, is to be seen in the Church of S. Do- 
menico. To the latter year also belong the 
Descent of the Holy Ghost and the Cruci- 
fixion, painted for a standard, but now di- 
vided in the Church of S. Spirito at Urbino. 
In 1497 Signorelli began to jDaint eight fres- 
cos from the life of St. Benedict, in the clois- 
ter of the Convent of Monte Riveto Maggi- 
ore, near Siena, still extant, though much 
injured. In 1498 he completed an altar- 
piece for the Bicchi Chapel, in S. Agostino 
at Siena, the wings of which, decorated with 
figures of saints, are in the Museum at Ber- 
lin. He was at Siena later, in 1506 and 
1509, but whether his frescos in the Palazzo 
Petrucci were painted then, or at an earlier 
period, is uncertain. They represent the 
Calumny of Apelles, a Bacchanal, the Chain- 
ing and Triumph of Love, Coriolanus, the 
Flight of ^neas and Penelope. Called to 
Orvieto to complete the frescos of the Cap- 
pella di San Biizio begun by Fra Angelico, 
Signorelli employed the greater part of the 
years 1500 and 1501 in painting his cele- 
brated Last Judgment cycle, upon which 
he was more or less occupied up to the year 
1504. To 1502 belongs the great altarpiece 
of the Virgin and Apostles with the Dead 
Christ, in the choir of the Cathedral at Cor- 
tona. The altarpiece iu S. Medordo at An- 
cevia, near Fabriano, was painted iu 1507. 
In 1513 Signorelli was sent to Rome with a 
deputation from Cortona to congratulate Leo 
X. on his elevation to the papacy, and it was 
at this time that he visited and borrowed 
money from Michelangelo, as recorded in 
the great artist's well-known letter to the 
Capitano di Cortona. This was Signorelli's 
last visit to Rome. The remainder of his 
life was spent at Cortona, or in its neigh- 
bourhood. In 1514 he painted the Madon- 
na which still adorns the altar of S. Vin- 



183 



SILE^^CE 
cenzo in the Church of S. Domenico at [ the Cathedral, Cortona ; Communion of the 



Cortona, and in 1517 the Crucifixion, in the 
Church of the Fraternity of the Holy Cross 
at La Tratta. Two years later he was com- 
missioned to paint a picture for the high 
altar of the confraternity of S. Girolamo 
Arezzo, now in the Church of the Nuns of 
S. Spmto, which, when finished, was brought 
there from Cortona (says Vasari) on men's 
shoulders. Signorelli visited Arezzo in 1520, 
to place the picture ; and Vasari, then eight 
years old, saw him and spoke with him, as 
he relates. After his return to Cortona, 







Triumph of Silenus, Rubens, National Gallery, London 

where he w^as repeatedly elected to the 
magistracy, Signorelli painted a Virgin and 
Saints for the Collegiata at Fojano (1523), 
and in the next year commenced his last 
work, never finished, in the so-called Palaz- 
zone — a building erected by the Cardinal 
of Cortona about a half mile from the city. 
The fresco which represents the Baptism of 
Christ is still extant, though much over- 
painted. Works : Flagellation, Brera, Mil- 
an ; Madonna and Two Prophets, Holy Fam- 
ily, TJffizi, Florence ; Virgin, Palazzo Pitti, 
ib. ; Holy Family, Dresden Gallery; do., 
Palazzo Corsini, Florence ; Circumcision, 
National Gallery, London ; Dead Christ be- 
wailed by the Marys and Apostles, choir of lery. — Smith, ii. 63 ; ix. 264. 



Apostles (1512), ib.; Altarpiece, Citta di 
Castello ; High Altar, Compagnia di S. Nic- 
colo, Cortona ; Conception of the Virgin, 
Church of the Gesii, ib. ; Virgin and Saints, 
Church of S. Cecilia, Citta di Castello ; do., 
Academy, Florence ; A Predella, ib. ; Male 
Portrait, Torrigiani Gallery, Florence ; Ad- 
oration of the Magi, Predella, Virgin Read- 
ing, Louvre, Paris ; Pieta, Keir, Scotland ; 
Nativity, Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Peters- 
burg. — R. Vischer, Luca Signorelli (Leip- 
sic, 1879) ; C. & C, Italy, iii. 1 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 683 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1875), xi. 105. 

SILENCE DU CAR- 
RACHE. See Jesus, Sleep 
of. 

SILENCE DE LA 
SAINTE VIERGE. See 
Madonna with Diadem. 

SILENUS AND SA- 
TYRS, Rubens, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; wood, H. 
2 ft. 11 in. x3 ft. 6 in. 
Silenus, drunk, with a jug 
in his hand, is supported 
on one side by a female 
satyr, and on the other by 
a negress ; in front, two fe- 
male satyrs lying on the 
ground, one of whom is 
suckling two young satyrs. Formerly in 
Houghton Collection. Engraved by Sout- 
man ; Earlom ; Panneels. — Smith, ii. 158 ; 
ix. 303. 

By Ruhens, Munich Gallery ; wood, 6 ft. 
6 in. square. Twelve figures, besides two 
goats and a tiger. Silenus, supported on 
left by a negro and on right by a satyr, near 
whom is an old woman carrying a jug ; a 
faun, playing a pipe, precedes, and a young 
bacchante, an old woman, and two fauns 
follow him ; in foreground, right, a female 
satyr, seated, suckles her twins. Engraved 
by Bolswert ; Panneels ; Van Orley. Sim- 
ilar subject, Berlin Museum and Cassel Gal- 



184 



SILENUS 



SILENUS, TRimiPH OF, Rubens, Blen- 
heim Palace ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 6 
in. Silenus, staggering between a negro 
and a satyr, with three boys with fruit and 
a tiger at his feet, is preceded by a faun 
plaj^iug a pipe, and followed by two 
nymphs, a young satyr, and a nude boy ; 
background, a woody landscape. Engi*aved 
by Hodges. Sketch in Louvre. — Waageu, 
Treasures, iii. 131 ; Smith, ii. 211:. 

By Rubens, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 5^ in. The 
drunken demi-god is led along, supported 
and accompanied by satyrs, fauns, nj'mphs, 
and children bearing grapes. Nine life-size 
figures, three-quarters length. In Rubens's 
possession till his death ; in 1610-12 to 
Cardinal Richelieu ; then to Regent Due 
d'Ox'leans ; afterwards in Collection of M. 
De Tartre, Collection of Lucien BonajDarte 
(1816); Collection of Chevalier Bonnemaison 
(1827); purchased by Sir R. Peel, £1,100; 
to National Gallery in 1871. Engraved by 
N. Delaunay. — Cat. Nat. Gal; Art Journal 
(1871), 121 ; Smith, ii. 161 ; ix. 305 ; Klas. 
der Malerei, PI. 3 ; Reveil, i. 8. 

SILLAX, painter, of Rhegium, about 500 
B.C. He decorated the Stoa at Phlius with 
paintings. — Sillig, 419. 

SILO, ADAM, born at Amsterdam in 
1670, died there in or after 1760. Dutch 
school ; marine painter, pupil of Theodoras 
van Pee, having first been a ship builder 
and sea captain. His naval battles and 
storms were especially prized by Peter the 
Great. Works ; Calm Sea with Vessels, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Agitated Sea 
with do., Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — 
Immerzeel, iii. 88 ; Kramm, v. 1520. 

SILVA, FRANCIS A., born in New York 
in 1835, died there, March 31, 1886. Marine 
painter, self-taught. After serving through 
the Civil War he settled in 1866 in New 
York, where he exhibited first at the Nation- 
al Academy in 1867. W(M-ks : Sunrise in 
Boston Harbour ; Gray Day at Cape Ann ; 
Bass Rocks ; Sunset on the Coast ; Moon- 
rise — Hudson River ; Twilight Hour ; Hud- 



son River ; Yacht Magic ; Moonlight on the 
Chesapeake ; On the Hudson, Dr. Judson, 
St. Petersburg ; Moonrise, E. Van Renssel- 
laer. New York ; New London Light, Court- 
land Palmer, ib.; Along the Jersey Coast, 
T. B. Clarke, ib. ; September Day on the 
Coast (1879); Old Town by the Sea (1880); 
Midsummer Twihght (1881); Old Connecti- 
cut Port (1882) ; By the Sea-Side (1883); 
Monmouth Beach — New Jersey (1884); Pas- 
sing Showers, Midsummer Twilight (1885); 
Sunrise, Near Atlantic City (1886). 

SILVEIRA, BENTO COELHO DA, flour- 
ished in the second half of the 17th century, 
died in 1708. Portuguese school ; history 
painter of great renown in Portugal. His 
principal work, a Judith and Holofernes, 
was compared to the works of Van Dj'ck ; 
others are to be seen in the Sacristy da 
Penha, in S. Jorge, S. Bento, Madre de 
Deo, the Franciscans, etc., Lisbon. His 
last work was the Finding of the Cross 
(1702), Sacristy of S. Pedro.— Nagler, xvi. 
407. 

SILVESTRE, LOUIS DE, born in Paris, 
June 23, 1675, died there, April 12, 1760. 
History and portrait painter, brother of 
Louis Silvestre, the elder (1669-1740), 
painter, son of Israel Silvestre (1621-1691), 
engraver to the king, and grandson of 
Gilles Silvestre (born 1590), painter, who 
was of a Scottish family named Silvester, 
settled in Lorraine since the beginning of 
the 16th century. Louis was the pupil of 
his father, of Charles Le Brun, and of Bon 
Boullonge. He became a member of the 
Academy in 1702, adjunct professor in 1704, 
and professor in 1706. In 1716 he was 
called to the court of Saxony by Augustus 
II., who made him his first painter ; in 1726 
he became director of the Dresden Academy, 
and in 1742 he was ennobled by Augustus 
in. of Poland. Having returned to France, 
he was chosen rector of the French Acad- 
emy in 1748 and director in 1752. Works : 
Formation of Man by Prometheus, IMinerva 
giving life to Man, Montpellier Museum ; 
Intei'view of Empress Amclie with Augustus 



1S5 



SIMBRECIIT 



TTT. of Poland and his Family, Hercules pur- 
suing Nessus (1732), Augustus the Strong 
and Frederick William I., Portraits of Au- 
gustus n. and Augustus III. of Poland, of 
the latter's Consort, and of Louis XV. of 
France, Dresden Gallery ; Augustus III. as 
Electoral Prince, Leipsic Museum ; Louis 
XIV. receiving at Fontainebleau the Elector 
of Saxony, Last Supper, Portraits of Fred- 
erick Augustus n. of Poland, Marie Joseph 
of Austria — Queen of Poland, and the Du- 
chesse de Berry, Versailles Museum ; Fall of 
Phaeton, Schwerin Gallery ; St. Peter heal- 
ing the Sick, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — 
Mariette, Abecedario, v. 217 ; Bellier, ii. 
504; Jal, 1133. 

SIMBRECHT (Zirabrecht), MATTHIAS, 
born in Munich, early part of 17 th cen- 
tury, died in Prague in 1680. German 
school ; imitated the style of Raphael, whom 
he studied in Italy. His colouring is warm 
and powerful. Works : Altarpiece, and S. 
Rosalia, St. Stephen's Church ; Joachim and 
Anna, and Visitation, Gallery of the Estates, 
Prague. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 527. 

SIMEON-FORT. See Fort. 

SIMEON IN THE TEMPLE. See Pres- 
entation. 

SIMMLER, FRIEDRICH, bornatHanau, 
May 4, 1801, died at Aschaifenburg, Nov. 
2, 1872. Animal, landscape, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Langer and W. Kobell, much influenced by 
Wagenbaur, then pupil of Vienna Acad- 
emy (1824) ; retui-ned home and went again 
to Vienna in 182G ; painted portraits and 
went to Italy in 1827, and after his return 
painted portraits in Hanover ; then took up 
almost exclusively animal painting (1829- 
30) at Munich, and from 1832 at Dusseldorf, 
whence he returned to Geisenheim in 1835 ; 
moved to Aschaffenburg in 1862 ; often 
painted animals in the landscapes of Buck- 
ing, Grichen, and Schulten, while Achen- 
bach and Scheuren supplied the landscape 
for his cattle-pieces. Works : Midday Rest 
in Pasture (1830), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Noonday Rest on Lake Starnberg (1833) ; 



Wild Bull (1835), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Bull and Sheep (1834), Raczynski Gallery, 
ib. ; Great Dutch Landscape ; Bull with 
Two Cows (1835), Potsdam Art Union; 
Sheep and Goats, Proviuzial Museum, Han- 
over ; Bull with Cows Drinking (1835), Stet- 
tin Art Union ; Animal-Piece, Wiesbaden 
Gallery ; Cows at Pastui-e in Approaching 
Storm (1835). His son, Wilhelm (born at 
Geisenheim, Sept. 6, 1840), genre painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy, has made a 
good reputation with attractive scenes from 
huntsmen's life. Works : Sunday Hunters 
(1862) ; On the Way Home (1868) ; Going 
to Hunt (1869); Dead Poacher and his Chil- 
dren ; Game's Crossing-Place (1880). — An- 
dresen, i. 131; Jordan (1885), ii. 218; 
Kunst-Chronik, viii. 90 ; Land und Meer 
(1873), ii. 752. 

SIMMLER, JOSEF, born at Warsaw, 
March 14, 1823, died there, March 1, 1868. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Dres- 
den Academy, and of Bendemanu, then in 
Munich of Genelli, and in Paris of Paul De- 
laroche ; on his return to his native land in 
1848 he at once came into prominence, but 
soon left for Italy, where he studied espe- 
cially Raphael in Rome, and Fra Angelico 
in Florence. After his return he painted 
many stirring scenes from the history of Po- 
land, which increased his reputation. Hon- 
orary member of St. Petersburg Academy, 
1866. Works : Maria Immaculata ; The 
Three Marys; Stoning of St. Matthew; 
Martyrdom of St. Josaphat ; David Singing 
Psalms ; Entombment ; Christ on the Cross ; 
Wedding of Cupid and Psyche (ceiling in 
a palace at Warsaw) ; Painting, Sculpture, 
and Architecture ; Death of Queen Barbara ; 
Education of King Sigismund ; Captivity 
of John of Finland and his Wife ; Oath of 
Queen Hedwig.— L'Art (1883), i. 101. 

SIMMONS, EDWARD EMERSON, born 
at Concord, Mass.; contemporary. Genre 
paintei-, pujiil in Paris of Jules Lefebvre 
and of Boulanger. Honourable mention, 
Paris Salon, 1883 ; prize of $2,000, 2d Prize 
Fund Exhibition, New York, 1886. Works : 



186 



SIMON 



Study at Concarneau (1882) ; The Winnow- 
ers, Corner of the Market (1883) ; Bout de 
la cour, Summer (1884); Mother and Child, 
Number Two, Low Tide (1885) ; Number 
Two, Mother and Child, Number Tln-ee, Un 
dejeuner — Spain (1886). 

SIMON, FRIEDRICH, born at Heidel- 
berg in 1809. Genre painter, pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy, and also studied after the mas- 
terpieces in the Pinakothek ; cultivated very 
successfully comical genre, and was particu- 
larly effective in his popular scenes by lamp 
or candle light. Many of them ai-e in pri- 
vate collections in Munich. Works : Shoe- 
maker's Apprentice in financial Embarrass- 
ment (1837) ; Vegetable Vender with Mul- 
tiplication Table (1838) ; Two Poachers 
(1839) ; Giii at the Window, Miser by Can- 
dle-light, Old Man with Dog performing 
(1840) ; Return from Christmas Market ; 
Girl feeding Cat ; Poet in the Garret ; 
Peasant Girl expecting her Lover (1841) ; 
Host examining Glass ; Night Watchman 
and Drunken Man (1842) ; Journeyman 
Travelling ; Poacher in Alpine Hut (1843) ; 
Music Lesson (1844); Priest on his Way to 
a Dying Man (by torchlight) ; Poet trying 
to chase Cats from the Hoof (1845); Appren- 
tice with Joiu'neyman's Bundle before Mir- 
ror (1851). 

SIMONE DI I^IARTINO (Martini) born 
in 1285 (?), died at Avignon, July, 1344. 
Sienese school ; son of one Martin o and 
brother-in-law to Lippo Memmi, whence 
Vasari's error in calling him Simone Mem- 
mi. Sometimes called also Simone da Siena. 
Vasari probably eiTS in making him the pu- 
pil of Giotto, be being obviously a follower 
of the purely Sienese manner improved by 
Duccio. This is clear from the earliest of 
his frescos in the Sala del Consiglio of the 
Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, dated 1315. In 
1320 he painted for S. Caterina of Pisa an 
altarpiece in seven compartments, now dis- 
membered, six of the panels being in the 
Seminario Vescovile of old S. Caterina, and 
the seventh in the Academy. This picture 
is in Simoue's best manner, the tones being 



both powerful and clear, yet it shows how 
imperfectly he could express the idea of re- 
lief. Another altarpiece, dated 1320, painted 
for S. Domenico of Orvieto, is now in the 
Fabbricieria of the Duomo, where is also 
another equally fine Madonna of the same 
period. In Assisi Simone decorated the 
whole Chapel of St. Martin with frescos 
from the legend of that saint. In 1328 he 
painted in the Sala del Consiglio in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, Siena, a fresco representing 
Guidoriccio Fogliani de' Ricci on horseback, 
and in 1333, with the aid of Lippo Memmi, 
completed the Annunciation now in the 
Uffizi, Florence. There is nothing to con- 
firm the assertion of Vasari that Simone 
painted in Rome and in Florence, and the 
frescos in the Campo Santo ascribed to him 
are obviously by another hand. In 1338- 
39 Simone went to Avignon, where he met 
Petrarch, who immortalized him in two of 
his sonnets (xlix. and 1. or Ivi. and Ivii.), 
and Laura, whose portrait he j^ainted. This 
2:)icture is now lost. Simone adorned the 
portico of the Cathedral at Avignon with 
frescos, and the Hall of the Consistory and 
two chapels in the Papal Palace, but most 
of his work is nearly obliterated. A Christ 
among the Doctors, painted at Avignon and 
dated 1342, is in the Royal Institution, Liv- 
ei-pool. An altarpiece, once dismembered 
and placed in diffei'ent churches, is now in 
the Pisa Gallery. The works of his son Do- 
nate, who accompanied him to France, have 
perished. — Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 86, 91 ; 
ed. Mil., i. 545 ; C. & C, Italy, ii. 60 ; Burck- 
hardt, 95, 97, 498, 514; W. & W., i. 463 ; 
Dohme, 2i. ; Sienesische Malerschule ; Ltib- 
ke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 169 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xix. 219 ; Zeitsch. f. b. K, x. 65. 

SIMONE DA PESARO. See Cantarini, 
Simone 

SIMONE DA SIENA See Simone di 
Martino. 

SIMONETTA, LA BELLA, Sandro Botti- 
celli, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 2 
ft. X 1 ft. 4 in. Profile, in a cap and simple 
attire. Portrait of Simonetta de' Vespucci, 



187 



SIMONETTI 



called by Vasari the mistress of Giuliano de' 
Medici ; but it is uncertain whether this be 
the portrait of La Simonetta or of another 
mistress of humbler origin who became the 
mother of Clement VIL It has been en- 
graved by Calamatta. Another portrait, for- 
merly in the Keiset Collection, Paris, but 
now said to be in possession of the Due 
d'Aumale, Chantill}*, inscribed " Simonetta 
Januensis Vespuccia," is more probably the 
true Simonetta. A striped scarf is loosely 
draped around her nude shoulders, her hair 
is braided with pearls, and a seiiDent-shajDed 
jewel glitters on her neck. This picture is 
ascribed by some to Antonio Pollajuolo. A 
thu'd, b}' BotticelU, belonging to Colonel 
Sterling, London, was in the Royal Acad- 
emy's winter exhibition, 1886. She wears 
a brown robe thickly sown with pearls, a 
many-coloured scarf, and a head-dress dec- 
orated with pearls and a plume. A fourth, 
ascribed to Piero della Francesca, was sold 
in London, 1886, in the collection of William 
Graham. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 332 ; C. & 
C, Italy, ii. 424, 428 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. 
PI. 11 ; Mag. of Ai-t (1886), ix. 466. 

SIMONETTI, ATTILIO, Cavaliere, born 
in Home ; contemporary. Genre painter, 
pupil of Fortuny. Professor in Naples. 
Works : First Fable (1875) ; After the Ball 
(1876); Via Giuseppe Mancinelli in Palaz- 
zolo (1878); Proclamation before the Pan- 
theon, E. B. Warren, Philadelphia (John- 
ston sale, 1876, S2,725).— Miiller, 492. 

SBIONIDES, Greek painter, date un- 
known. Pliny says (xxxv. 40 [141]), that he 
painted an Agatharcus and a Mnemosyne, 

SIMONSEN, NIELS, born in Copenha- 
gen, Dec. 10, 1807, died there, Dec. 12, 
1885. History painter, pupil of Copenha- 
gen Academy, where he first took up paint- 
ing, then sculpture, and, on failing to ob- 
tain the large gold medal, returned to 
painting. Studied in Munich in 1833 ; vis- 
ited Tyrol and Italy, and in 1839 Algiers ; 
settled in Copenhagen in 1845 ; took part 
in the Schleswig wars of 1848 and 1864 ; 
travelled in Sweden in 1857, and visited 



Rome in 1870. Professor at Copenhagen 
Academy in 1854. Member of Munich, Co- 
penhagen, and Stockliolm Academies. Dane- 
brog Order, 1852. Works : Miser ; Corsairs 
resting after Combat ; Captured Pirates ; 
Death of an African Chief ; Tordeuskjold 
fighting a Swedish Frigate ; Bivouac after 
Battle of Schleswig (1849), Copenhagen Gal- 
lery; Battle of Fredericia ; Storming of Fred- 
erikstad ; Battle of Idsted ; Swedish Be- 
trothal (1862), Copenhagen Gallery ; Scenes 
in the Trenches of Dybbol ; Battle of Sand- 




Simplicity, Sir Joshua Reynolds, E. F. Watson, England. 

elmark ; Naval Fight batween Turks and 
Greeks, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Caravan over- 
taken by Storm (1855), Christiania Gallery ; 
Sailor Smoking seated on a Cannon, New 
Pinakothek, Munich. — Weilbach, 634. 

SIMPLICITY, Sir Joshua Reynolds, E. F. 
Watson, England. Portrait, half-length, of 
Sir Joshua's grand-niece, Ofiy Gwatkin. 
Seated under a tree, with her hands in her 
lap full of wild flowers. One of the most 
charming of Reynolds's child pictures. — 
Pulling, Reynolds, 88 ; Stephens, English 
Children, by Sir J. R. 



188 



SIMPSON 



SIMPSON, JOHN, born in London in 
1782, died there in 1847. Portrait painter, 
pu]:)!! of Eoyal Academy, where he exhibited 
in 1807. Was assistant, for many years, to 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. In 1834 he went to 
Lisbon, where he was appointed painter to 
the Queen of Portugal. He painted por- 
traits of William IV. and of other distin- 
guished persons. His son Philip was a por- 
trait and subject painter. — Redgrave. 

SIMUS, second-rate painter, date and 
place unknown. Among his works were a 
Youth Reposing, a Fuller's Shop, and a 
Nemesis.— Pliny, xxxv. 40 [143] ; SiUig, 421. 

SINCERITY, Carlo Dolci, Vienna Muse- 
um ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 
Three-fourths length, crowned with a lily, 
emblem of purity, and bearing in right 
hand a golden heart, from which rays of 
light proceed. — Gal. de Vienne, i. PI. 59. 

SINDING, OTTO, born at Kongsberg, 
Norway, in 1842. Landscape and marine 
painter, pupil in Christiania of Eckersberg, 
then in Carlsruhe of Gude and of Riefstahl, 
and in 1872-76 at Munich of Piloty ; re- 
turned to Norway, visited Italy in 1880, and 
settled in Munich ; now at Bodo, Norway. 
Honorary member of Munich Academy. 
Medals : Philadelphia, 187G ; Munich, 1883 ; 
Berlin, 1886. Works : Autumnal Storm on 
Norwegian Coast ; Funeral in the Lofoden ; 
Bathing Place in Capri ; Spring in the Lo- 
foden (1882), Copenhagen Gallery ; Winter 
Evening, Fishermen's Harbour, Summer 
Evening in the Lofoden (1882); Tarantella 
of Italian Fishermen (1883), National Muse- 
um, Buda-Pesth ; From Svolvaerin the Lofo- 
den (1883), Christiania Gallery ; Burial in 
the Lofoden, Sunrise in Lapland, Scene 
from Ynglinga Saga (1884). — Meyex-, Conv. 
Lex., xxi. 822 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 306 ; 
xv-iii. 109, 497 ; xix. 645, 661 ; xx. 352 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 263. 

SINGLETON, HENRY, born in London, 
Oct. 19, 1766, died there, Sept. 15, 1839. 
Pupil of his uncle, William Singleton, min- 
iature painter and student at Royal Acad- 
emy. Painted portraits and history, and 



largely employed as a book illustrator. His 
portrait group of the Royal Academicians 
(1793) is in the Academy, and his Ariel on a 
Bat's Back, and Manto and Tiresias, in the 
National Galleiy. — Redgrave. 

SmiBALDO DA PERUGIA ; Roman 
school (1507-1528). Real name Sinibaldo 
Ibi. One of the feeblest of Perugino's fol- 
lowers. Painted Madonna with Saints, dated 
1507, in Cathedral of Gubbio ; Madonna en- 
throned and Saints, dated 1524, in S. Fran- 
cesco Romana, Rome ; and Annunciation, 
dated 1528, in Perugia Gallery, where other 
pictures are attributed to him. — C. & C, 
Italy, iii. 344 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ombrienne ; 
Lauzi, i. 349. 

SINKEL, HENRICUS JOHANNES, born 
at Almelo, Netherlands, in 1835. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy under Karl Miillei-, in whose sj^irit 
he paints religious pictures in the style of 
the Nazarites, with deep feeling and careful 
execution. He has travelled in Germany, 
the Netherlands, and in 1867 visited Italy. 
Medal in Diisseldorf. Among his portraits 
those of the Count and Countess of Spee 
(1880), and of the Baroness von Ketteler 
(1886) are especially truthful.— IMuller, 492. 

SIRANI, ELISABETTA, born in Bologna, 
Jan. 8, 1638, died there Aug. 28, 1665. Bo- 
lognese school ; daughter and pupil of An- 
drea Sirani, but became an imitator of Gui- 
do's best style. When only seventeen years 
old she had acquired such a reputation that 
she received orders from many Italian 
princes and from foreign sovereigns. Her 
brilliant career was cut short, it was sus- 
pected by poison, in her twenty -sixth 
year. She left more than a hundred and 
fifty works, many of them large, and all 
carefully executed. Most of them are in 
Bologna, in the Gallery and in churches. 
Among the best are : Death of Abel, Tu- 
rin Gallery ; St. Anthonij of Padua, Bo- 
logna Gallery ; Charity, Palazzo Sciarra, 
Rome. Malvasia gives a full list of them. — 
Malvasia, ii. 385 ; Lanzi, iii. 99 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Kcole bolouaise ; Burckhardt, 790, 796. 



189 



SIEAXI 




•N. 



SIEANI, GIOVANNI ANDKEA, born in 
Bologna, Sept. 4, 1610, died there, May 21, 
1670. Bolognese 
school ; pupil of Ca- 
vedone, then of Gui- 
do, with whom he 
remained until his 
master's death 
(16-42). Sirani's suc- 
cess in finishing 
some of Guido's 
works brought him 
numerous commis- 
sions. His early pictures are in Guido's sec- 
ond manner, but he afterwards adopted a 
stronger style, somewhat like that of Cara- 
vaggio. Works chiefly in Bologna, in the 
Gallery and in churches. Among them are : 
Crucifixion, S. Benedetto, Bologna; Concep- 
tion of Virgin, Bologna Gallery ; Magdalen, 
Supper at the House of the Pharisee (1652), 
Church of the Cemetery, Bologna. His 
three daughters, Anna, Barbara, and Elisa- 
betta, were all painters, but only Elisabetta 

acquired reputation. — Malvasia, ii. 386, 408; 
Lanzi, iii. 99 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bolonaise. 

SKARBINA, FRANZ ; contemporary. 
Genre painter. Settled in Berlin, where he 
is instructor at the Academy. Adherent of 
naturalism, which is too often marked by a 
lack of artistic feeling. Works : Ceremonial 
Visit ; Citizen Card-Players ; Before the 
Hotel ; Studies in Strategy ; Frederick the 
Great taking a Walk (1878) ; Awakening in 
a Dissecting-Room (1878) ; Exchange of 
Soul ; Sunset— Mailer, 493 ; Leixner, Mod. 
K, ii. 2 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 282 ; 
D. Rundschau, ix. 476 ; xiii. 337 ; xvii. 312. 

SKOVGAARD, PETER KRISTIAN, born 
at Hammerhus, near Ringsted, Zealand, 
April 4, 1817, died in Copenhagen, April 13, 
1875. Landscape painter, pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academj' in 1831 ; was at first a house 
painter, devoting his leisure to landscape. 
Visited Rome and Naples in 1854 and in 




1869. Member of Copenhagen Academy in 
1864, and professor. Medals : Copenha- 
gen, 1845 and 1846. 
Works : Moonlight 
(183 6) ; Summer 
Afternoon on Inland 
Lake ; Twilight in 
a Wood ; Forest 
Lake ; Viewof Fred- 
eriksvaerk (1839), 
Oak Tree near Jae- 
gerspriis (18 4 3), 
Creek near Dron- 
ningemollen (1844), View of Skarrit Lake, 
Sunny Day in Deer Park (1848), Highway 
by Castle Vognserup (1849), Summer Day 
in Deer Park (1875), Pond of Molledammen, 
Northern Coast of Zealand (1860), Female 
Portrait (1860), Copenhagen Gallery. His 
sons, Joachim (born Nov. 18, 1856) and 
Niels (born Nov. 2, 1858), are promising 
landscape and animal painters. — Weilbach, 
637 ; Kunst-Chronik, x. 457 ; Sigurd Mai- 
ler, 321. 

SLAVE SHIP, Joseph M. W. Tamer, 
Thornton K. Lothrop, Boston, Mass.; can- 
vas. A slave ship driven ashore in a storm ; 
the slaves have been thrown overboard, and 
some of them are struggling, with their 
manacles on, in the surf. Long owned by 
John Ruskin, from whom bought by J. Tay- 
lor Johnston, New York, at whose sale 
(1876) sold for $10,000 to Miss Alice 
Hooper, who left it to the son of Thornton 
Lothrop, Boston. — Ruskin, Mod. Painters. 

SLEEP OF JESUS. See Madonna with 
Diadem. 

SLINGELANDT, PIETER CORNELISZ 
VAN, born at Leyden, Oct. 20, 1640, died 
there, Nov. 7, 1691. Dutch school; genre 
painter, pupil of Gerard Dou, of whom he 
was the most conscientious and patient im- 
itator. Works : Family Group, National 
Gallery, London ; Domestic Scene, Woman 
Sewing and Child in Cradle, Bucking- 
ham Palace, ib.; Kitchen with Man offer- 
ing Partridges to the Cook, Bridgewater 
Gallery, ib. ; Mother reproving Girl, Mr. 



SLINGEXEYER 




Baring's Collection, ib.; Meerman Family, 
Male Portrait (1656), I^tchen Utensils, 
Louvre; Musical Pai'- 
ty in a Kitchen, Male 
Portrait, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Male Por- 
trait (1671), Rotter- 
dam Museum ; The 
Cook, Portrait of a 
Young Man, Berlin 
Museum ; Dutch In- 
teriors (2, one dated 
1683), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Interior of El- 
egant Dutch House (1668), Young Woman 
teasing Parrot, Copenhagen Gallery ; Inter- 
rupted Music Lesson (1672), Poultry Vend- 
er (1673), Songstress, Dresden Museum ; 
Interior of Slaughter-House, Portrait of a 
Lady, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Sailor 
Drinking, Leipsic Museum ; Tailor's Shop, 
Woman sewing at Window, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Shoemaker's Shop (1670), Violin 
Player, Old Beggar, Schwerin Gallery ; Man 
with Glass of Beer, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
T\ burg ; Family Group, Czernin Gal- 
rj^ lery, Vienna ; Money-Changer and 
ri 1 • /v* n / Wife, Liechtenstein 

L.V>^[JL^eJ(B/})(L Gallery, ib.; others 

T-ii r r/'\/ / / ^^ Cassel, Bruns- 
^'y''jU)f\^n^'^.,^^,,^^ Stock- 

holm Galleries. — 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 410 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
hollandaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 92 ; Kramm, v. 
1527. 

SLINGENEYER, ERNEST, born at Loo- 
christy, near Ghent, May 29, 1823. Histo- 
ry painter, pupil of Wappers. Member of 
Brussels Academy. Commander of Leopold 
Order. Works : Sinking of the Vengcur 
(1845), Cologne Museum ; Triumph of 
Chlodio ; Death of Captain Jacobsen (1845) ; 
Death of Nelson (1850); Philip the Good in 
the Battle of Brouwershaven (1852) ; Chris- 
tian Martyr (1860) ; Sea Fight ; Battle of 
Lepanto, Vesalius the Physician in Army 
of Charles V., Brussels Museum ; Camoens ; 
Italian geni'e pictures. In fresco : 12 sub- 
jects from Belgian history, Palais des Aca- 



demies, Brussels. — Immerzeel, iii. 93 ; Miil- 
ler, 493. 

SLUIS, JACOBUS VAN DER, born at 
Ley den in 1660, died there in 1736. Dutch 
school ; genre and portrait painter, pupil of 
Arie de Vols, and of Slingelandt, in whose 
style he painted assemblies and festivals, 
full of merry figures of excellent execution 
and brilliant colouring. Works : Young 
People hanging Nets between Trees, Alle- 
gories (2, one dated 1684), Lady and Gen- 
tleman in Garden Pavilion (1699), Leyden 
Museum. 

SMALA, CAPTURE OF THE. See A bd- 
el-Kader. 

SMEDLEY, W. T., born in Chester 
County, Pa., in 1858. Genre paintei', self- 
taught. First exhibited at National Acad- 
emy in 1881. Member of Society of Amer- 
ican Artists, Studio in New York. Works : 
Weekly Mail, Embarrassment (T. B. Clarke, 
New York), Tired Out (1881); Dorothy, 
Golden Rod (1883). 

SMEYERS, GILLES, born at Mechlin in 
1635, died there in 1710. Flemish school ; 
history painter, pupil of Jan Verhoeven •,. 
master of the guild in 1657, its treasurer 
in 1682. Works : St. Norbert consecrating 
Deacons, Death of St. Norbert, Brussels 
Museum ; Group Portrait of Corporation 
(1695), Museum, Mechhn ; Benefits of Holy 
Trinity, The Three Modes of Slavery, St 
John's, ib. ; Raising of Lazarus, Disciples at 
Emmaus, Seminary, ib. His son and pupil 
Jacques (1657-1732), master in 1688, paint- 
ed history, portrait, and genre. — Michiels, 
X. 473 ; Siret (1883), ii. 278. 

S^HBERT, JOHN, born in Edinburgh in 
1684, died in Boston in 1751. Portrait 
painter ; obtained some elementary instruc- 
tion at Edinburgh, where he brought him- 
self into notice by the portrait of a young 
negro from Martinique. Then followed a 
short residence in Loudon, where he studied 
in Sir James Thornhill's Academy, and three 
years' work in Italy, where the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany employed him to paint the por- 
traits of some Siberian Tartars to be sent 



191 



SMIBERT 



as a present to the Czar. On his return to 
London he was patronized by the Earl of 
Bristol, and, having renewed his acquaint- 
ance with Bishop Berkeley, whom he had 
met in Italy, was engaged by him as pro- 
fessor of fine arts in the projected college at 
Bermuda. He accordingly accompanied the 
Bishop and his party to America, and landed 
at Newport in January, 1729. Smibert then 
went to Boston, established himself as a 
portrait painter, and on July 30, 1730, mar- 
ried Mary Williams, by whom he had sev- 
eral children. After the collapse of the 
Bermuda project, when Bishop Berkeley 
went to Boston to sail for England in the 
autumn of 1731, Smibert painted him and 
his famih'. The picture was presented to 
Yale College in 1808. Copley is said to 
have been Smibert's pujDil, but this is un- 
certain. Portraits : Mrs. M. S. Alford (E. 
Winslow, Boston); R. Ball (H. H. Edes, 
Charlestown); Cardinal Bentivoglio, copy 
from Van Dyck, Harvard College ; Mrs. F. 
Brinley and child (1729-30), E. L. Brinley, 
Philadelphia ; Th. Bulfinch (Mrs. T. Swett, 
Boston); Mr. and Mrs. Chandler (Mrs. F. 
Dexter, Boston); Benj. Codman (1734), Har- 
vard College ; Governor Endicott, Peter 
Faneuil, Rev. J. and Mrs. Gee, Massachu- 
setts Historical Society ; Judge I. Gerrish 
(Miss S. D. Barrett, Boston) ; S. and Mrs. 
Greenleaf (R. E. Ap thorp, Boston) ; Two 
Children of Loring family, F. C. Loring, 
Boston ; Hon. B. Lynde and Avife (1738), 
Dr. F. E. Oliver, Boston ; J. McSparran 
and wife, Mrs. Dr. Elton, Dorchester ; Hon. 
D. and Mrs. Oliver, portraits of their three 
sons, David, Andrew, and Peter, and of 
Mrs. Andrews (Dr. F. E. Oliver, Boston); 
A. Pepperell (E. Winslow, Boston); Judge 
Ed. Quincy, two portraits (one in Art Mu- 
seum, Boston, and the other in Quincy 
family); J. Sewell (Salisbury family, Bos- 
ton); Chief-Justice Sewell (Messrs. Ridg- 
way, Boston) ; Mrs. J. Smibert, artist's wife, 
Massachusetts Historical Society ; W. Ty- 
ler, New England Historical and Genealog- 
ical Society ; Captain Th. and Mrs. Ship- 



pard (1750); Patrick (1760) and IVIrs. Tracy 
(1754), Colonel H. Lee, Boston. — Bishop 
Berkeley's Works, iv. 189 ; W. H. Whit- 
more, Notes concerning Peter Pelham (Cam- 
bridge, 1867), 17 ; A. T. Perkins, Sketches 
of Blackburn and Smibert, Proceedings of 
Mass. Hist. Soc, viii. 385. 

SMIBERT, NATHANIEL, born in Bos- 
ton, Jan. 20, 1734, died there, Nov. 8, 1756. 
Portrait painter, son and pupil of John Smi- 
bert. Mentioned by Judge Cranch in a 
letter to Dr. John Eliot as " one of the most 
amiable youths I was ever acquainted with," 
to which he adds : " Had his life been 
spared he would probably have been in his 
day what Copley and West have since been, 
the honour of America in imitative art." 
Portraits : John Lovell, Harvard College ; 
Dorothy Wendell (Dr. J. L. Hale, Boston). 
— W. H. Whitmoi'e, Notes concerning Pe- 
ter Pelham, 17 ; Dunlap, i. 31 ; A. T. 
Perkins, Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. 
(1878). 

S^kllLLIE, GEORGE HENRY, born in 

New York, Dec. 
29, 1840. Land- 
scape painter, 
son of James 
Smillie the en- 
graver, and pu- 
pil of James M. 
Hart. In 1871 
sketched in the 
Rocky Moun- 
tains and Yo- 
semite Valley; 
visited Florida in 1874. First exhibited in 
the National Academy in 1863 ; elected an 
A. N. A. in 1864, and N. A. in 1882. Mem- 
ber of Society of American Artists. Studio 
in New York. Works in oil : Lake in the 
Woods (1872) ; Goat Pasture (1879) ; Flor- 
ida Lagoon (1875) ; Merrimac River (1882) ; 
At Marblehead Neck — Mass, (Henry Ir- 
ving), On the Massachusetts Coast (1883); 
Summer Morning on Long Island, Over the 
Hill to the Poor-House — Salisbury, Mass. 
(1884). Water-colours : Sentinel Rock — 




192 



SMILLIE 




Yosemite Valley (1872); Near Portland- 
Maine (1881) ; Pigeon Cove (1882) ; Willows 
at Newburyport (1883) ; Morning along 
Shore (188J:) ; Normandy Farm, Showery 
Day on Massachusetts Coast, Song of Sum- 
mer (1885) ; Near Kennebunk, Long Island 
Farm (1886). 

S^^HLLIE, JA^IES DAVID, bom in New 
York, Jan. 16, 1833. 
Landscape painter, 
son of James Smil- 
lie, by whom he 
was educated as an 
engraver ; but in 
186-1 he turned his 
attention to paint- 
ing, which he 
studied without a 
master. Sketched 
at diflferent times 
among the great mountain ranges of the 
United States ; in 1862 made a short trip 
abroad. A fellow of the Painter-Etchers 
Society of Loudon, member of the Society 
of American Artists and of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours, of which he was 
president in 1873-78. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1866, and N.A. in 1876. Studio in 
New York. Works in oil: Up the Hill- 
side ; Evening among the Sierras of Cali- 
fornia ; Lifting of the Clouds — White Moun- 
tains ; Adirondacks (1879) ; Cedar Meadow 
— Poughkeepsie (1880) ; Evening Shadows 
(1881); Old Orchard, Cathedral Rocks— 
Yosemite (1883) ; Near Marblehead— Mass., 
Pond's Outlet (1884:). Water-colours; Scrub- 
Race on the Western Prairies ; Study from 
Nature— Au Sable River (1876); Track of the 
Torrent — Adirondacks ; Stray Lambs near 
Montrose— Pa. (1884) ; Fallow Field, Cliffs 
of Normandy (1885); Harbour Island— Lake 
George, Summer Sea on Coast of France 
(1886).— Am. Art Rev. (1880), 524 

SMIRKE, ROBERT, born at Wigton, 
near Carlisle, in 1752, died in London, Jan. 
5, 1845. Apprenticed to a heraldiy painter 
in 1766 ; entered Royal Academy schools in 
1772, and exhibited first in 1786; A.R.A. 




in 1791, and R.A. in 1793. Was the princi- 
pal of the early EnglisI genre painters, tak- 
ing his subjects mostly 
from the English poets 
and from Cervantes, 
but was chiefly em- 
ployed as a book illus- 
trator. Works : Maw- 
worm, Dr. Cantwell 
and Old Lady Lambert 
(Bickerstaft'e's " Hyp- 
ocrite ") ; Scenes from 
" Don Quixote " (15), 
National Gallery, London. — Redgrave 
Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 299. 

SMIT, A. (Audries, Arnout?), flom-ished 
second half of 17th century. Dutch school. 
Marine painter in the style of Bakhuyzen ; 
perhaps identical with Andries Smit, who 
became a citizen of Amsterdam in 1699. 
Works : Agitated Sea with Vesesls (1678), 
Copenhagen Gallery ; do. (2), Kunsthalle, 
Hambiu'g ; Storm at Sea, Mannheim Gallery; 
do., on Rocky Coast, four others, Schwerin 
Gallery. — Schlie, 585. 

SMITH, ARCHIBALD GARY, born in 
New York, Sept. 4, 1837. Marine painter ; 
pupil of M. F. H. De Haas. Exhibits at the 
National Academy. Studio in New York. 
Works : Yacht Eva (1869), L. L. Lorillard, 
New York; Windy Day (1876); Yacht 
Dauntless (1877), Philip Schuyler, New 
York ; Perils of the Sea (1878) ; Marine 
(1879); Stifi" Breeze (1880); Off Cuttyhunk 
(1881) ; Yacht Columbia, Lester Wallack, 
New York; Yacht Sappho, William P. 
Douglass, ib. ; Yacht Wanderer, James 
Stillman, ib. ; and others. ]Mi\ Smith is 
well known also as a yacht designer. 

SMITH, CALVIN RAE, born in New 
York in 1850. Genre painter, pupil of the 
National Academy, New York, and in Paris 
of the l^cole des Beaux Arts, Cai*olus-Dm'an, 
Diogone Maillart, and Adol})!! Yvon. Was in 
France and Italy in 1874-79. First exhib- 
ited in the Paris Salon in 1878. Is assistant 
professor in the antique school of the National 
Academy. Works : Little Italian (1878) ; A 



193 



SMITH 



Good Joke (1880) ; Little Marauders (1881) ; 
Little Bookworm, Peggy (1882); Clear the 
Way ! (1883) ; Workers and Idlers (1884). 

SmTH, FRANCIS HOPKINSON, born 
in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 23, 1838. Land- 
scape painter ; self-educated. Paints in oil, 
but works chiefly in water-colour and char- 
coal. Member of the Water Colour Society, 
New York. Studio in New York. Works 
in oil : Old Cedars — Franconia Mountains, 
Darkling Wood (187G) ; Galilee by the Sea 
(1880). Water-colours : Summer in the 
Woods (1871) ; Old Man of the Mountains 
(1874) ; Overlook Falls (1875) ; Under the 
Leaves (1877) ; Deserted, Charles F. Have- 
meyer. New York ; Cool Spot, J. J. Astor, 
ib. ; Looking Seaward, Old Smithy (1878) ; 
Grand Canal — Venice, Market Place — Sev- 
ille (1884). Published (1887) a volume of 
sketches entitled "Well- Worn Koads." 

SMITH, FRANK HILL, born in Boston 
in 1841. Portrait, figure, and landscape 
painter and decorator ; pupil in architecture 
of Hammatt Billings, Boston ; studied in 
the Ateher Suisse and under Bonnat in 
Paris, where he spent six years ; and painted 
in Belgium, Holland, and Italy. Studio in 
Boston. Works : Venice, Hon. William 
Claflin, Mass. ; Venice, Somerset Club, Bos- 
ton ; Portrait of Two Children (1873). Has 
devoted himself largely to architecture 
painting, and has decorated buildings in 
Holyoke, Boston, and Cambridge. 

S:\nTH, GEORGE, born in Chichester, 
England, in 1714, died there, Sej^t. 17, 1776. 
Painted landscapes and rural subjects after 
the manner of Claude and Poussin, which 
were lauded beyond their merits ; fashion 
placed him in the first rank, jDoets apostro- 
phized him, and Woollet, Elliot, Peak, and 
Vivares engraved his works. He and his 
brothers, William (1707-1764), who painted 
portraits, landscapes, and fruits and flowers ; 
and John (1717-1764), who painted land- 
scapes, were known as the Smiths of Chi- 
chester. — Redgrave. 

SJ^HTH, HENRY PEMBER, born in 
Waterford, Conn., Feb. 20, 1854. Marine 



painter; self-taught. Professional life passed 
in New York. Exhibits at the National 
Academy and at the American Water Colour 
Society. Studio in New York. Works : 
Approaching Storm on French Coast (1879) ; 
Off the Bishops— Coast of Wales (1880) ; 
Moor in Cornwall — England, Wrecked on a 
Rocky Shore (1881) ; Summer Afternoon in 
Normandy, Hurricane at Sea (1882) ; Early 
Moonrise on English Coast (1883) ; In the 
Gulf Stream off Newfountlland, Summer in 
France (1884). Water-colours : Mid Ocean 
(T. B. Clarke, New York), Sunset at Sea 
(1884) ; Old Oaks (1885) ; Last Gleam, 
Morning in Northern Italy (1886). 

S]VnTH, THOMAS LOCHLAN, born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Dec. 2, 1835, died in 
New York, Dec. 5, 1884. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of George H. Boughton in Albany 
in 1850. Painted chiefly winter scenes ; re- 
moved in 1862 to New York, where he was 
elected an A.N.A. in 1870. Works : Home- 
stead in Winter (1871) ; Grove in Winter 
(1872) ; Deserted House, Eve of St. Agnes 
(Saville Collection, Boston), Woods in Au- 
tumn, do. in Winter (1873), J. H. White, 
ib. ; Gloaming (1879); Evening Service — 
Winter Time (1880); Woodland Farm 
(1881) ; Winter Night in Markham Hollow 
(1883) ; Over the Snowy Fields, Old Saw- 
Mill in Winter (1884). 

SMITH, WILLIAM RUSSELL, born in 
Scotland ; contemporary. He was taken in 
youth to America, where his family settled 
in Pittsburg, Pa. ; studied landscape paint- 
ing under Lambdin in Philadelphia. He 
painted stage scenery in Pittsburg and 
Philadelphia before taking a studio in the 
latter city, where his professional life has 
been spent. Works : Cave at Chelton Hills 
(1876) ; Civita Castellana, IVIrs. J. Harrison, 
Philadelphia ; Near Carrara, F. Rogers, ib. 

SMITH-HALD, FRITHJOF, born at 
Christiansand, Norway ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Gude ; Medals 
in Nice, Antwerp, and New Orleans ; Ber- 
lin, 1886. Studio in Paris. Works : Return 
of Fishermen — Norwa_y, Morning Walk 



194 



SMITH-LEWIS 



(1879) ; Steamboat Wharf in Norway, Win- 
ter Evening in Norwa}' (1880) ; Winter 
Morning on Coast of Norway (1881); Moon- 
Eise, Return from Mass (1882) ; Morning 
in CornwaU, Unrest (1883); The Old Net 
(1884), Luxembourg Museum ; Morning at 
the Christiania Fjord (1884) ; Suuset near 
Trondbjem, Calm in a Fjord (1885); Ban- 
daksvaudet Lake, Norway (1886). 

SMITH-LEWIS, JOHN, born at Burling- 
ton, Vt. ; contemporary. Genre painter, 
pupil in Paris of Ernest Hubert. Mention 
honourable, Paris Salon, 1880, Work : Gath- 
ering Varech in a Storm (188G). 

SMITHS OF CHICHESTER. See Smith, 
George. 

SmTS, EUGENE, born in Antwerp in 
1826. History and landscape painter, pupil 
of Brussels Academy and of Triqueti in 
Paris. Visited Italy in 1861-64, also Ger- 
many and Holland. Medals, Brussels, 1866 ; 
Order of Leopold, 1870 ; Officer, 1881 ; 
Order of Francis Joseph of Austria. Studio 
in Brussels. Works : Roma, King of Bel- 
gium ; Seasons, Brussels Museum ; Santa 
Trinita de' Monti ; Neptune Festival ; Mir- 
ror ; Roman Garden ; Diana ; Convales- 
cence ; Souvenir of Naples. — Miiller, 325. 

• SMOUT, LUCAS, the younger, born at 
Antwerp, baptized Feb. 27, 1671, died there 
April 6, 1713. Flemish school ; marine 
painter, son of Lucas Smout, the elder (liis- 
tory jjainter, 1620-74), and pupil of Hendrik 
van Minderhout. Works : Coast View with 
Country House and Figures, do. with Ro- 
man Monuments, Cattle and Figures, Schwe- 
rin Gallery ; Naval Battle in Kjuge Bay, 1710, 
Hofrath C. Rost, Dessau. — Schlie, 587; Van 
den Branden, 1056 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., vi. 
347 ; xvii. 62. 

SNAKE CHARMER (Le charmeur de 
serpents), Mariano Forfian/, A. T. Stewart 
Collection, New York ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 6 in. 
X 4 ft. An Arab, with shoulders and legs 
bare, is lying flat on a rug spread on the 
gi'ound, holding in his left hand a rod and 
intently watching a serpent crawling towards 
him ; behind him, another Ai'ab, seated, 



holding a musical instrument in his lap ; 
at left, a stork standing over the sei-pent. 
Painted in 1870. Same subject, fidouard 
Andiv, Paris. Etched by Boilvin. — Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1875), xi. 278. 

SNAI05 IN THE GRASS, Sir Joshua Bey- 
nolds, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 
4 ft, 1 in, X 3 ft. 3 in, A girl seated on a 




Snake in the Grass, Sir Joshua Reynolds, National Gallery, London. 

bank is sporting with Cupid, who has seized 
both ends of her girdle and is untying it ; 
in the grass by her side, the head of a snake ; 
in background, a red curtain. Exhibited 
at Royal Academy, 1785, under title of 
Venus. Painted for Lord Carysfort, who 
paid 200 guineas for it. Subsequently called 
Love unloosing the Zone of Beauty, and 
later, Snake in the Grass, the snake possibly 
being intended as an emblem of Cupid. 
Purchased Avith the Peel pictures in 1871. 
Duplicate in Soane Museum, London ; an- 
other in Baron Rothschild's Collec^tion ; a 
third in Hermitage, St. Petersburg, called 
Venus and Cupid. Engraved by J. 11. 
Smith (1787) ; S W. Reynolds ; H. Robin- 
son.— Cat. Nat. Gal.; Leslie & Taylor, iL 



SNAPIIAAN 




■N mir^y 



'/A 



538 ; Art Journal (1872), 300 ; Walpole, An- 
ecdotes. 

SNAPHAAN (Schnaphan), ABRAHAM, 
born in Leyclen, Nov. 2, 1651, died Sept. 1, 
1691. Dutch school ; portrait and genre 
painter in the manner of the elder Frans 
van Mieris. His best pictures are often con- 
founded with those of Willem van Mieris. 
He was court painter to the prince of An- 
halt-Dessau. Work : Lady at Toilet receiv- 
ing Letter, Berlin Museum. — Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 544. 

SNAYEES, PEETEE, born in Antwerp, 
baptized Nov. 24, 
1592, died in 
Brussels in 1667. 
Flemish school ; 
painter of battles, 
camp scenes, por- 
traits, and land- 
'r: scapes, pupil of 
Hendrik van Ba- 
len and of Sebas- 
tian Vrancx ; en- 
tered the guild in 1613 ; court painter at 
Brussels in 1624 to Ai'chduke Albert and to 
Cardinal Infant Ferdinand. Works : Battle 
of the Forty, Hampton Court ; Siege of 
Courtrai (1650), Battles of Prague, of Wimpf- 
fen, and of Hoechst, Brussels Museum ; 
Cavalry Charge, Combat of Horsemen, Ghent 
Museum ; Forest Path with Wanderers, De- 
fence of a Village, Berlin Museum ; Battle 
Field of Pavia, Male Portrait, Cassel Gallery ; 
Travelling Coach attacked by Horsemen ( ? ), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Traveller in Moun- 
tainous Country (1669), Eobbers attacked 
by Armed Men, three others, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Pantry Avith Game, Fruit, etc., Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Battle on White Moun- 
tain near Pi-ague, Battle between Spaniards 
and Hollanders, Schleissheim Gallery ; Eais- 
ing of Siege of Louvain (1639), Defeat at 
Grancourt (1641), Battle of Thionville (1642), 
Battle of Liitzen (1642), Siege of Einbeck 
(1644), Relief of St. Omer (1645), Taking 
of Neuburg (1645), Encounter at Presnitz 
(1648), Eelief of Freiburg (1648), Crossing 



of the Somme (1662), Attack of Grancourt, 
Engagement near Munich in 1648, three 
others, Museum, Vienna ; Skirmish by For- 
est Border (1657), Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; 
Cavalry Skirmish, Czeruin Gallery, ib. ; Capt- 
ure of Ypres, Lille and Dunkirk, Nocturnal 
Attack on Lille, Siege of Gravelines, and 
thirteen others, Madrid Museum. — Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 339 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Kramm, v. 1534 ; Michiels, vii. 272 ;• Eooses 
(Eeber), 409 ; Van den Branden, ^^Q^Q. 
SNELLINCK (SneUinx), JAN, the elder, 

born in Mech- 
lin in 1549, died 
in Antwerp, 
Oct. 1, 1638. 
Flemishschool; 
history painter; 
settled at Ant- 
w e r p before 
1574. Velvet 
Brueghel and 
his son, and 
most of the painters of the epoch, were his 
friends. Archduke Albert, to whom he was 
court painter, and the churches of Flanders 
employed his bx-ush extensively. Van Dyck 
painted his portrait. Designed carpet pat- 
terns for factory at Oudenarde. His most 
interesting work is : Crucifixion (1597), Mu- 
seum, Antwerp. Other works : Madonna 
with singing Angels and St. Cecilia, St. 
James's, ib. ; Altarpiece with Resurrection 
(1601), St. Romuald's, Mechlin ; Descending 
of the Holy Ghost (1606), St. Catharine's, 
ib.; Creation of Adam (1608), Church of 
Our Lady, Oudenarde ; Transfiguration of 
Christ (1616), Annunciation, St. Walpurgis, 

JV2\N SNELLINCK- 




■;-5-9-7 



ib. Five of his sons were painters. — Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Cat. du Mus. d'Au- 
vers(1874), 342 ; Kramm, v. 1535 ; Michiels, 
vi. 221 ; Rooses (Reber), 109 ; Siret (1883), 
ii. 281 ; Van den Branden, 431. 



196 



SXYDERS 




SNYDERS, FRANS, born in Antwerp, 
baptized Nov. 11, 1579, died there, Aug. Id, 
1657. Flemish 
school ; animal and 
still-life painter, 
pupil of Pieter 
Brueghel, the 
younger, and of 
Hendrik van Balen; 
master of the guild 
in 1602; visited Ita- 
ly in 1608-9; paint- 
ed especially for 
Philip IV. of Spain and Archduke Leopold 
William, and was held in great afltection by 
Rubens, who in his will appointed him, with 
Jan Wildens and Jacob Moermans, to preside 
over the sale of his objects of art ; often 
worked conjointly with Rubens and Jordaens, 
and Van Dyck repeatedly painted his por- 
trait. Works : Bear Hunt, Lion Hunt, 
Grosvenor Gallery, London ; Still - Life, 
South Kensington Museum, ib. ; Fox Hunt, 
Fable of the Hare and the Tortoise, do. of 
the Lion and the Mouse, Fox and Cat, Wild 
Beasts fighting for Prey, seventeen others, 
Madrid Museum ; Earthly Paradise, Entry 
of Animals into Noah's Ark, Stag Hunt, five 
others, Louvre ; Dead Game and Fruits, 
Brussels Museum ; Swans and Dog, Still- 
Life, Antwerp Museum ; Stag Hunt (land- 
scape by Rubens), Kitchen (figures by Ru- 
bens), Hague Museum ; Still-Life (2), Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Boar attacked by Dogs, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Dog seizing Heron, 
Musee Rath, Geneva; Bird Catching, Still- 
Life, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
Boar Hunt, Greyhounds, Brunswick Gallery ; 
Great Kitchen-Piece, two others, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Combat of Animals, Stag Hunt, Stii- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Swans and Ducks 
attacked by Dogs, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Game and Fruit, Various Fruits, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Hunts and Still- Life (5), 
Stockholm Museum ; fourteen pictures, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; four Dogs' Heads, 
Still -Life, Cock Fight (1615), Bear Hunt 
(attributed), Berlin Museum ; Boar Hunt, 



Raczynski Gallery, ib.; Kitchen (figures by 
Rubens), nine others, Dresden Gallery ; 
Two Lions pursuing Deer (mastex'piece), 
Boar Hunt, Greengrocer's Stall, four others. 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Boar Hunt, Dead 
Game watched by Dogs, Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg ; Fish Market (2), Kitchen with 
Dead Birds (1614), Oldenburg GaUery ; 
Fruit Festoon around Christ and St. John 
(figures by Rubens), Falcon Chase, Schleiss- 
heim Gallery ; Boar Hunt, Fox Hunt, Stag 
Hunt, Daniel in Lions' Den (after Rubens), 
Earthly Paradise, Deer Hunt, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Hen defending herself against Fal- 
con, Pesth Museum ; Boai* Hunt, Uflizi, 
Florence ; Fruit, _-, /> , — ^ 

mande ; Immer- ^^ — ^ 

zeel, iii. 97 ; Kramm, v. 1537 ; Michiels, vii. 
408 ; Rooses (Reber), 255 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 672; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xi. (Mitthei- 
lungen, iv. 45). 

SNYERS, PEETER, born in Antwerp, 
March 30, 1681, died there. May 4, 1752. 
Flemish school ; landscape, flower, portrait, 
and genre painter, j)upil of Alexander van 
Bi-edael ; master of Antwerp guild in 1707 ; 
visited London, where he painted many por- 
traits ; returned in 1726, and was director 
of the Antwerp Academy. Works : IMoun- 
tainous Landscape, Antwerp Museum ; 
y*^^ y Woman Mer- 

// I I chant, Amster- 

i^n^^^^ dam Museum; 
/ Poultry Yard, 

^>^ Germanic Mu- 

seum, Nuremberg. — Kramm, v. 1539 ; Mi- 
chiels, x. 478 ; Van den Branden, 1207. 

SOCRATES, Greek painter, probably pu- 
pil of Fausins, from the way he is men- 
tioned by Pliny (xxxv. 40 [137]), who says 
his pictures were universally esteemed. — 
Sillig, 424. 

SOCRATES, DEATH OF, Louis Dnvkf, 
Mme. la Marquise de Verac ; canvas, H. 3 



197 



sOdeemakk 



ft. 3 in. X 4 ft. 5 in. Socrates, seated in a 
vaulted apartment, surrounded by liis grief- 
stricken disciples, is about to take the cup 
of hemlock from the executioner, who averts 
liis face as he presents it. Painted for M. 
Trudaine ; belonged afterwards to M. Mi- 
cault de Courbeton. Engraved (1802) by 
Jean Massard, pore. — Ri'veil, i. 59. 

SODERMARK, JOHAN PER, born at 
Stockholm, June 3, 1822. Portrait painter, 
son of the Swedish lieutenant-colonel and 
portrait painter Olaf Johan Sodermark 
(1799-1848), pupil of Stockholm Academy, 
while at the same time in the army ; went 
Avith his father to Italy in 1845, returned 
via France in 1848, then studied at the Diis- 
seldorf Academy in 1852-54, and in Paris 
under Couture in 1855-56. Has painted 
many distinguished persons of his native 
country ; member of Stockholm Academy. 





Socrates, Death of, Louis David, Mme. la Marquise de Verac 

SODOMA, IL, Cavaliere, born at Vercelli, 
in Savoy, in 1477 (?), died in Siena, Feb. 15, 
1549. Lombard and Sienese schools. Va- 
saii says he had many nicknames, among 
others Mattaccio (crazy fellow), because he 
was noted as a lover of fun and of practical 
jests. Real name Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, 
wrongly called Razzi by Lanzi and others. 
Pupil of Martino Spanzotti, a mediocre paint- 
er of Casale ; studied next in Milan, perhaps 
under Leonardo, 1498-1501, in which latter 



year he fixed his residence at Siena, where 
he founded a new school which had a brill- 
iant though short 
existence. The 
extant works of 
Bazzi's first Sien- 
ese period, 1501- 
1507, distin- 
guished by purity 
of style and very 
careful execution, 
are the Birth of 
Christ, and the 
Deposition from the Cross, in the Siena 
Academy ; the frescos of the Miracle of the 
Loaves and Fishes, a Pieta, Majesty of St. 
Anna, a Bishop and Dominican Monks, in 
the Cloister of St. Anna in Creta, near Pi- 
enza ; and those of the History of St. Bene- 
dict, at Monte Olivetto, near Buonconvento. 
In 1507 or 1508 Bazzi ac- 
companied Agostino Chigi 
to Rome, where he was em- 
ployed by Julius n. with 
Perugino on the decoration 
of the ceiling of the Camera 
della Segnatura in the Vat- 
ican, until both were dis- 
placed by Raphael. Noth- 
ing remains of his work but 
the flying genii bearing the 
papal shield in the central 
compartment of the ceiling. 
Disappointed in his hopes 
of further employment, 
Bazzi I'eturned to Siena in 
1510, leaving as a record 
of his two or three years' residence in Rome 
two pictures in the Palazzo Borghese, a 
Leda and the Swan, of a Leonardesque 
character, and a Pieta. Examples of the 
next four years' work (1510-1514) at Siena 
are : Flagellation, Christ bound to the 
Column, Academy, one of his finest crea- 
tions for expression, bodily form, individual 
character, and colouring ; and Madonna 
with Saints, Turin Gallery, which shows 
that the master had then attained the full 



198 



SOGGI 



measure of his powers. In 1514 he went 
for the second time to Rome, and in the 
course of a year's residence painted the 
renowned frescos in the upper story of the 
Farnesiua, the Marriage of Alexander the 
Great and Roxana, and the SuiTender of 
Darius and his Family to Alexander, the 
first of which is one of the most admirable 
works of Renaissance art. Though al^ound- 
ing in beauty' of form, countenance, and 
colour, it fails, like all Bazzi's historical 
works, in that instinctive aiTangement of 
many details into one great whole which 
constitutes fine composition. It is in his 
single figures, the St. Sebastian, of the Uffizi, 
and the Christ bound to the Column, of the 
Siena Academy, that this master attains the 
highest excellence. The frescos of the Life 
of St. Catherine (1526) in her chapel in S. 
Domenico, Siena, show this ; for while those 
which contain many figures are wanting in 
clearness, sucli groups as that of the Saint 
in ecstas}', supported by two women, are 
among the most expressive and beautiful 
works of their kind in Italy. His superior- 
ity in single figures is again illustrated in 
the frescos of the Oi*atory of S. Bernardino, 
Siena, by a comparison of the four Saints 
with the compositions representing the 
Presentation, Visitation, Assumption, and 
Coronation of the Vii'gin (1518-32). See, 
too, the Saints Ansano, Vittorio, and Ber- 
nardo in the Hall of the Council, Palazzo 
Pubblico, Siena, where there is also a fine 
altarpiece by Bazzi of the Madonna with St. 
Leonardo. Other works: ]\[adonna de' Ciii- 
zolari (1530), Siena ; SS. James, Anthony, 
and Sebastian (1530), the Madonna invest- 
ing a Bishop, with SS. Rosalia and Lucia, 
S. Spirito, Florence ; Ecce Homo, Christ on 
the Mount of Olives, Christ in Limbo, fres- 
cos, Siena Academy ; Altarj^iece of IMadonna 
witli Saints, at Asinalunga ; Madonna En- 
throned, National Gallery, London ; Adora- 
tion of the 3Ta(ji, S. Agostino, Siena ; Jlesin-- 
rection, Naples Museum ; Sacrifice of Abra- 
ham, Duomo, Pisa ; Madonna with Saints, 
Pisa Academy ; Madonna with Saints, Flor- 



ence Academy ; St. SebaMian, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Marriage of St. Catherine, Palazzo 
Chigi, Rome ; Madonna with Saints, Lucre- 
tia, Turin Museum ; Ecce Homo, Pitti, Flor- 
ence. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 379, 401 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst. Lex., iii. 178 ; Jansen, Leben und 
Werke des Malers Gio. Bazzi (Stuttgart, 
1879); Burckhardt, 173, 686 ; Lanzi, i. 293; 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole milanaise ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1878), xvii. 18, 97, et seq.; Liibke, 
Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 397 ; Zeitschr. f. B. K., 
ix. 33 ; X. 230. 

SOGGI, NICCOLO, born in Arezzo in 
1480, died there in 1551. Florentine school. 
"Was taken at an early age to Florence, where 
he studied under Perugino. In 1512 he 
went to Rome under the patronage of Car- 
dinal di Monte ; accomjDanied him to Arezzo 
and painted much there for churches and 
companies of the town. Work but little 
superior to that of Domenico Pecori, whom 
he sometimes 
aided. Pictures 
in S. Domenico, S. 
Michele, S. Agos- 
tino, and the Duomo, Arezzo. — C. & C, Italy, 
iii. 44 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., x. 209. 

SOGLIANI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO, bom 
in Florence in 1492, died there, July 17, 
1544. Florentine school ; pupil of Lorenzo 
di Credi, with whom he worked twenty-four 
years ; registered in guild of Florence in 
1522. His later works show the influence 
of Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, and 
Mariotto Albertinelli. Few of his pictures 
have dates, except the Martyrdom of St. 
Arcadius (1521), in S. Lorenzo, and a 
Miracle of St. Dominic (fresco, 1536), in 
S. Marco, Florence. The Nativity, Ber- 
lin Museum, is a copy of Credi's in the 
Florence Academy. — C. & C, Italy, iii. 512 ; 
Vasari, od. Le Mon., ix. 42 ; ed. Mil., v. 
123; Burckhardt, 638, 682; Siret, 875; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., ii. 178. 

SOHN, KARL (FERDINAND), born in 
Berlin, Dec. 10, 1805, died in Cologne, Nov. 
25, 1867. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Berlin Academy under Schadow, with 



N-Jo^^i 



199 



SOHN 




whom he went to Diisseldorf in 182G and to 
Italy in 1830 ; visited the Netherlands and 
France, became in- 
structor in 1832 and 
professor in 1838 at the 
Diisseldorf Academy, 
He was the celebrated 
ladies' portrait painter 
of his time, famous for 
his colouring in the 
style of Titian. Works: 
Rinaldo and Armida 
(1827), Rape of Hylas (1829), Lute Player 
(1832), Female Portrait, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Regina cop^! ^^329) ; Diana at the 
Bath (1833) ; Two Leonoras (1834) ; replica 
(1836), Raczynsld Gallery, Berlin ; Italian 
Lute Player (1835) ; Judgment of Paris, 
Romeo and Juliet (1836) ; Tasso and the 
Two Leonoras (1839), Diisseldorf Gallery; 
Donna Diana (1840), Leipsic Museum ; Sis- 
ters (1840) ; Vanitas (1844) ; Lady before 
Mirror (1845), Konigsberg Museum ; Lute 
Player (1849), Christiania Gallery ; Four 
Seasons (1851) ; Lorely (1853) ; Portrait of 
Countess Monts, Cologne Museum ; Female 
Portrait, Carlsruhe Gallery. His son Rich- 
ard (born in Diisseldorf in 1834), genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of the Academy un- 
der Schadow and Jordan, studied in 1867 
in Paris. Works : Quartering in the Coun- 
try, Old Blind Fiddler (1862) ; Antiquary 
(1866). Karl, another son (born in Diissel- 
dorf, July 21, 1845), was pupil of his father, 
and of Wilhelm Sohn, with whom he trav- 
elled, then studied in Paris, London, and 
Italy. Has won success with finely coloured 
genre figures: Costume Study (1880); Span- 
ish Girl (1881) ; Carmen (1884).— Blanck- 
arts, 1 ; Forster, v. 364 ; lUustr. Zeitg, 
(1867); (1881), ii. 369 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 218 ; 
Kuust-Chronik, iii. 40 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Diis- 
seldf. K., 16, 170 ; Springer, Gesch., 95 ; 
Wiegmann, 78 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 127 ; 
xvi. 32 ; XX. 43. 

SOHN, WILHELM, born in Berlin in 
1830. History and genre painter, nephew 
and pupil in Diisseldorf of Karl Ferdinand 




Sohn, whose daughter he afterwards mar- 
ried ; became professor at Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy' in 1874. Member 
of A m s t e r d a m and 
Stockholm Academies, 
Medals : Amsterdam, 
1865 ; Berlin, 1866 ; 
Paris, 1867. Works : 
Christ on the Stormy 
Sea (1853), Diisseldorf 
Gallery ; Christ on 
Mount of Olives (1855); 
Genevieve (1856) ; 
Gypsy Woman (1858), KiJnigsberg Museum ; 
Different Walks in Life (1860) ; Fiddler 
and Child ; Question of Conscience (1864), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Consultation at the Law- 
yer's (1866), Gypsy Girl with Dog, Leipsic 
Museum ; Communion in Protestant Pa- 
trician Family, National Gallery, Berlin, 
SOJARO, IL. See Gaf.ti. 
SOLARIO (Solari), ANDREA DA, born 
about 1458 at Solario, near Milan, died in 
Pavia about 1530. Lombard school ; called 
sometimes Andrea del Gobbo and Gobbo da 
Milano, from his brother Cristof oro (Solario) 
del Gobbo, sculptor and architect, and some- 
times Andrea Milanese. Went about 1490 
with his brother to Venice, and in 1495 
painted there the Madonna, Brera, Milan, 
which shows the influence of Milanese teach- 
ing and of the examples of Da Vinci and of 
Verrocchio. He probably returned soon 
after to Milan, where he painted in 1499 
the St. Catherine, now in the Casa Poldi. 
In 1507-09 he Avas in France decorating, 
for Cardinal George of Amboise, the Chapel 
at Gaillon, destroyed in 1793. After this, 
many of his pictures found a market in 
France. He is said to have accompanied 
Andrea del Sarto to South Italy in 1513, and 
to have been employed in the Chapel of S. 
Gaudenzio, Naples. About 1515 he began 
the large altarpiece of the Assumption, in the 
Certosa of Pavia, which was finished after his 
death by Bernardino Campi. Among his 
works are : Christ carrying his Cross (1505), 
Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; Crucifixion, Ma- 



mi 



SOLARIO 




donna of the Green Cushion, Louvre ; Por- 
traits (2), National Gallery, London ; Chrid 
crowned with Thorns, at Liitschena, near 
Leipsic ; noly Family, dated 1515, Casa 
Poldi, Milan ; and Madonna with St. John, 
Leuchtenberg Gallery, St. Petersburg. So- 
lario's portraits are of exceptional excel- 
lence. C & C. attribute to him the Cohan- 
bine, Hermitage, St. Petersburg, generally 
ascribed to B. Luini. — C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 
51; Moschini (Florence, 1832); Burckhardt, 
702 ; Calvi, Notizie, ii. 277 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole milanaise ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., 
ii. 448 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1883), xxviii. 43. 

SOLAEIO, ANTONIO. See Zimjaro. 

SOLIEKO. See Morelli. 

SOLIMENA (SoHmene), FKANCESCO, 
Cavaliere, born at 
Nocera de' Pa- 
gani, Oct. 4, 1657, 
died in Naples, 
AjDril 5, 1747. Ne- 
apolitan school ; 
called sometimes 
lAbate C i c c i o 
and sometimes il 
Calabrese rin- 
gentilito (C a 1 a- 
brese ennobled). 
Pupil of his father, Angelo Solimene, a re- 
spectable painter ; afterwards of Francesco di 
Maria and of Giacomo del Po. Later formed 
a st^'le of his own by imitating Pietro da 
Cortona, Lanfranco, Calabrese, Guido, and 
Carlo Maratti. He enjoyed a great reputa- 
tion in his time, and was emjjloyed by sev- 
eral popes and by most of the princes of 
Europe ; but he must be ranked Avith those 
who hastened the deterioration of Italian 
art. Among his works are : The Brazen 
Serpent, Prometheus Chained, St. John the 
Baptist, Artist's Portrait, Madrid IMuseum ; 
Religion, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; frescos 
in sacristies of S. Paolo and S. Domenico 
Maggiore, Naples ; Heliodorus, Gesti Nuovo, 
ib.; Diana and Callisto, TJfKzi, Florence. — 
Lanzi, ii. GO ; Burckhardt, 768, 775 ; Seguier, 
196 ; Ch. Blanc, J^cole uapolitaine. 






h 






/, 



Ih 



r'/ 



/. 



/ 



SOLIS, FRANCISCO DE, born in Ma- 
drid in 1629, died there, Sept. 25, 1684. 
Spanish school ; his father, who had stud- 
ied under Alonso de Herrera, gave him les- 
sons in painting, but educated him for the 
church. Francisco preferred to paint, and 
with Velasquez for a friend and counsellor, 
bade fair to become pre-eminent in his pro- 
fession ; but his indolence and wealth made 
him a picture collector rather than a paint- 
er. Executed works for the conventual 
churches of Madrid, Alcah'i, and Valladolid, 
of which the best was a Virgin of the Con- 
ception, belonging to the Capuchins of the 
Prado. — Stirling, iii. 1022. 

SOLOMON, ABRAHAM, born in Lou- 
don in 1824, died at Biarritz, France, Dec. 
19, 1862. Genre painter, pupil of the Royal 
Academy, where he exhibited his first pict- 
ure. The Courtship of Ditchen (subject from 
Crabbe), in 1843. His best pictures are well 
known through engravings. Works : Third 
Class— Parting, First Class— Return (1854); 
Waiting for the Verdict (1857) ; Not Guilty 
(1859) ; Malade Imaginaire, Consolation 
(1861) ; The Lost Found (1862). 

SOLOMON, HISTORY OF, nayhael. 
See IlajjJiaers Bible. 

SOLOMON, JUDGMENT OF, Nicolas 
Poiissin, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 
in. X 4 ft. 11 in. Solomon, seated upon an 
elevated throne, in centre, extending his 
hands, pronounces sentence ; in foreground, 
the mothers kneeling, one making a gesture 
of terror at seeing her child, which a soldier 
armed with a sword holds by one foot ; the 
other, holding the dead child, cries out 
against the execution of the judgment ; 
other Avomen and soldiers standing. Paint- 
ed in 1649 ; at Versailles in 1709-10. Sketch 
in Loiivre. Engraved by Chasteau ; E. Bau- 
det ; Dughet ; Drevet ; A. Testa ; Anne ; 
Andre Morel ; C. Normand. — Landon, Mu- 
see, vi. PI. 65 ; Filhol, viii. PI. 541. 

By Raphael, Camera della Segnatura, Vat- 
ican ; fresco on ceiling. Solomon enthroned, 
at right ; a man at left about to cut in two 
the child, whom he holds by one leg, 



SOLOMON 



head downwards, while the true mother, in 
the background, hastens to save it, and the 
false one kneels, in the foreground, with 
arms outstretched and head turned as if 
appealing to Solomon. Painted in 1511. 
Engraved by E. Wibert ; Anderloni. — Pas- 
savant, ii. 90 ; Miintz, 348. 

By Paolo Veronese, Bridgewater House, 
London ; canvas, H. G f t. x 8 ft. 9 in. Com- 
position of 21 figures. Solomon on his 
throne in the court of his palace ; execu- 



or 1624. Flemish school ; portrait painter, 
of truthful and lively conception, warm and 
clear colouring, and careful execution ; went 
to England about 1606. Works : Portrait 
of James I., Windsor Castle ; do , and Queen 
Ann of Denmark, Hampton Court Gallery ; 
Portrait of Lord Bacon, Earl Cowper's Col- 
lection, Paushanger House ; Charles L as 
a Young Prince, Copenhagen Gallery. — 
Kramm, v. 1541 ; Nagler, xvii. 57. 

SOMEKS, LOUIS JEAN, born in Ant- 




Judgment of Solomon, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris. 



tioner, holding the child by one leg, is 
about to divide it, when the true mother 
interferes. Bought from Orleans Gallery 
for 60 guineas. — Waagen, Treasures, ii. 498 ; 
Stafford Gal., ii. PI. 28. 

SOLOMON, SOLOMON J., born in Eng- 
land, contemporary. Figure and portrait 
painter. Exhibits at Royal Academy. 
Works : Portrait (1881) ; Ruth (1884); Love's 
Fh-st Lesson (1885) ; Cassandra (1886). 

SOMER, PAULUS VAN, born in Ant- 
werp about 1570, died in London in 1621 



werp in 1813. Genre painter, pupil of Fer- 
dinand de Braekeleer, then studied in Paris 
and Italy. Works : Interior with Merry 
People, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; Two 
Ladies in a Room busy with Flowers, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Boy with Sleigh in a Winter 
Landscape, Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donau- 
eschingen ; Cromwell discovering Conspir- 
acy against his Life (1837), Leipsic Muse- 
um ; Misery and Wealth (1860); Meditation 
(1861) ; Monks in a Sacristy ; The Orphan ; 
Family Concert. — Immerzeel, iii. 99. 



203 



SOMMEIL 



SOIVDIEIL DE JESUS. See Madonna 
with Diadem. 

S0:M0GYI, DANIEL, born at Nyiregy- 
liaza, Huugary, Sept. 13, 1837. Landscape 
painter, went early in life to Malta, where 
he began to practise painting in water-col- 
ours ; settled at Munich in 1870, studied 
mostly from nature, and has since exhibited 
many views from the Alps in Bavaria, Aus- 
tria, and Switzerland. 

SON, JAN (FRANS) VAN, born at Ant- 
werp, baptized Aug. IG, 1658, died in Lon- 
don about 1718. Flemish school ; flower 
and fruit painter, son of Joris van Son, pu- 
pil of Jan Pauwel Gillemans, the elder ; 
went early in life to England. Works : 
Fruit and Flower-Pieces in Museums of 
Brussels, Lille (1705), Lyons, Nantes (2) ; 
and in the Gallery of Augsburg. — Michiels, 
X. 425 ; Van den Branden, 1121. 

SON, JORIS V.^, born at Antwei-p, 
baptized Sept. 24, 1623, died there, buried 
June 25, 1667. Flemish school ; flower 
and fruit painter, if not a pupil of Jan de 
Heem, he certainly took that master for his 
model. Master of the guild in 1644. Sj^eci- 
mens of his work are in the Museums of 
Tournay, Madrid (3), Dresden (3), and 
Gotha (1658) ; in the Galleries at Bamberg, 
Carlsruhe, Copenhagen (2, 1664, 1665), 
Schleissheim (2, one dated 1656), and in 
the Van Lerius Collection at Antwerp. — 
Van den Branden, 1119. 

SONDERLAND, JOHANN BAPTIST, 
born at Diisseldorf, Feb. 2, 1805, died 
there, July 21, 1878. Genre painter and 
illusti-ator, pupil of Diisseldorf Academy 
under Schadow, and studied in Paris, Hol- 
land, and Frankfort. Works : Hans and 
Grete (after Uhland, 1839), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Scene from Guy Mannering, 
Wild Hunter (1830) ; Bear Dancing (1831), 
K()nigsberg Museum ; Warrior's Farewell 
(1831); Return (1833), Count Hatzfeld, Diis- 
seldorf ; Disturbed Rendezvous (1833, 1847), 
Fish Market, Surprise (1835); Belated Trav- 
ellers (1837) ; Rhenish Ferry (1838) ; After 
the Lesson ; Cossacks quartering themselves 



with a Scholar (1841) ; Mowers returning 
Home (1845). His son, Fritz (born in Diis- 
seldorf, Sept. 20, 1836), pupil of the Academy 
under Hiddemann, paints humorous genre 
scenes. Works : Grandmother's Birthday, 
Despatch of Victory (1871) ; High Taxes 
(1872) ; Flower Greeting (1881).— Kunst- 
Chronik, xiv. 55 ; Miiller, Diisseldf. K., 211 ; 
Meyer, Con v. Lex., xix. 878 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1882), ii. 443 ; Wiegmann, 271. 

SONDER^IANN, HERMANN, born in 
Berlin in 1832. Genre and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Otto in 1851-53, then studied 
in Antwerp, Paris, and under Jordan in 
Diisseldorf. Works : Bee-Keeper (1860) ; 
Return from the Chase ; Auction ; Sleigh- 
ing ; Marriage Contract (1866); Coffee Club 
(1868); Lawyer's Anteroom ; Festival Roast 
(1870) ; Unwelcome Suitor ; First Snow ; 
Church Festival ; Thirsty Soul ; Our He- 
roes, Wiesbaden Gallery. 

SONJE, JAN, flourished in Rotterdam, 
died in 1691. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter, master of the guild at Delft in 
1646, but left that city about 1654 ; paint- 
ed chiefly mountain views in the Italian 
style. Works : A Valley, Hague Museum ; 
View near Rotterdam (1692), Rotterdam 
Museum ; Landscape (1660 ?), Augsburg 
Gallery. — Kramm, v. 1540. 

SONNE, JORGEN VALENTIN, born at 
Birkerod, Zealand, 
June 24, 1801. 
Genre and battle 
painter, pupil in 
Copenhagen of Ge- 
bauer and of the 
Academy (1815-26), 
then in Munich 
(1828-31) of Peter 
Hess ; went to Rome 
in 1831, returned in 
1841, and became member of the Academy 
in 1846 ; Order of Danebrog, 1852. Works : 
Cavalry Attack at Sehestedt (1822) ; Skii-- 
mish in Tyrol (1829), Roman Peasants going 
to Market (1837), Old Fisherman (1844), 
Cattle in the Water (1846), Scene in St. 




SONNTAG 



John's Night (1847), Attack ou Diippel 
(1849), Battle of Fredericia (1850), do. of 
Idsted (1851), St. John's Festival (1858), 
Return from Market (1870), On the Day 
after Battle of Idsted (187G), Copenhagen 
Gallery; Battle of Fredericia (1865), City 
Hall, Fredericia. In fresco : Arrival of 
Thorwaldsen at Copenhagen, Unloading of 
his Sculptures at the Museum, Thorwaldsen 
Museum, Copenhagen. — Weilbach, G4:G ; Si- 
gurd Mailer, 333. 

SONNTAG, WILLIA:\I LOUIS, born at 
East Liberty, near Pittsburg, Pa., March 
2, 1822. Landscape painter, self-taught. 
After painting for several years in Cincin- 
nati, he removed to New York, where he 
still resides. Visited Europe in 1853, 1856, 
1860, and 1862. Elected N.A. in 1861. 
Works : Progress of Civilization (series of 4); 
Alastor or the Spirit of Solitude ; Eagle's 
Home ; Dream of Italy ; Spirit of the Alle- 
ghanies (Duke of Buckingham) ; View of 
the Shenandoah ; Recollections of Italy ; 
Sunset near Bethlehem — New Hampshire 
(1871) ; Sunset in the Swamp — Coast of 
Maine (1873) ; View in Vermont (1875) ; 
Sunset in the Wilderness, Gulf (1876) ; De- 
serted (1877) ; Passing Shower (1878) ; Edge 
of the Woods, T. B. Clarke, New York ; 
Tangled Woods of New Hampshire (1880) ; 
Morning in the White Mountains (1881) ; 
Fog Rising ofif Mount Adams (1882) ; Near 
Old Orchard Beach— Maine (1883) ; Mount 
Winthrop, Burbank's Lake near Shelburne 
— New Hampshire, Edge of a Pond — Maine, 
Entrance to a Grove near Portland — Maine 
Study of Trees (1884) ; Mascott Lake— New 
Hampshire, Hill-Side — New Hampshire 
(1885) ; On Glen Road to Mount Washing- 
ton, Ingalls Brook — New Hampshire (1886). 

SOOLMAKER, JAN FRANS, flourished 
second half of 17th century. Flemish school. 
Landscape painter, pupil in Antwerp of Jan 
de Bruin in 1654, but rather imitated the 
style of Berchem. Works : Reconcihation 
of Jacob and Esau, Peasant Women at a 
Fountain in Italy, Brussels Museum ; Peas- 
ants driving Cattle to Market, Hague Mu- 



seum ; Cattle Market, Bamberg Gallery ; 
Italian Herdsmen with Cattle by a Well, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Landscape with Fig- 
ures, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — Van 
den Branden, 1072. 

SOPOLIS, Roman painter, about middle 
of 1st century b.c. Pliny says (xxxv. 40 
[148]), that his works and those of Dionysius 
filled the picture galleries. He was at the 
head of a school of painters in Rome (Cic, 
Ad. Att., iv. 16). Raoul-Rochette calls him 
a portrait painter. — R.-R., Schorn, 315, 404. 

SORDICCHIO, LO. See Pinluricchio. 

SORDO DI SESTRO. See Travi, An- 
tonio. 

SORENSEN, CARL FREDERIK, born 
at Besserby on 



Samso, Feb. 8, 
1818, died in 
Copenhagen, 
Jan. 24, 1879. 
Marine painter, 
pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy, 
won a prize in 
1847; cruised in 
'^ the Mediterra- 
nean on a Danish frigate in 1846, and for 
some time went to sea every year in a 
Danish man-of-war ; visited Germany, the 
Netherlands, England, and Fi-ance in 1853- 
54, and Italy in 1864. Member of Copen- 
hagen (1856) and Stockholm Academies. 
Professor in 1869. Orders of Danebrog 
and Vasa. Works : Coast of Jutland after 
Storm (1848), Summer Morning at Elsinore 
(1861), The Shears at Bohuslen (1862), On 
the Coast of Iceland (1878), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; View from the Sound by Kronborg 
(1871), Christiania Gallery; Men-of-War, 
Stockholm Museum ; Sunrise near Skagen ; 
View of the Kattegat. — Sigurd Midler, 339 ; 
Weilbach, 668. 

SORGH (Zorg), HENDRIK MAER- 
TENSZ, born in Rotterdam in 1621 (?), died 
there between Oct, 16, 1669, and Aug. 6, 
1670. Real name Hendrik Martensz Rokes. 
Genre painter, pupil of Willem Buiteweg ; 




204 



SORTIE 




formed himself after the works of Brouwer, 
though more dull aud heavy in colour. He 
represented peasant 
scenes, conversations, 
and kitchen interiors, 
with genuine feeling 
for nature, good draw- 
ing, and careful exe- 
cution. Works: Boors 
at Cards, Man and 
Woman at Table, Na- 
tional Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Old Woman by the Fireside, Madrid 
Museum ; Alchemist, Mr. Henderson, ib.; 
Kitchen Interior, Louatc ; Fish Market, 
Lute Player (16G1), Storm (1668), Amster- 
dam Museum ; Eustic In- 
terior (1650), Great Market 
at Kotterdam (1654), Kot- 
terdam Muse u m ; Card 
Players, Dubus Collection, 
Brussels ; Peasants Smok- 
ing, Augsburg Gallery; 
Party of Peasants, Labour- 
ers in the Vineyard (1665), 
Brunswick Gallery ; Peas- 
ants' Brawl, Berlin Muse- 
um ; Quarrel in a Cellar, 
Fisherman with Salmon, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Dutch 
Vegetable Market, do. Fish 
Market, C a s s e 1 Galleiy ; 
Peasant Family (1646), 
Tavern Interior, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich; Card 
Players (1643), Fishmong- 
ers and Cook (1664), Labourers receiving Pay 
(1667), Dresden Galler}^ ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds (1642), Copenhagen Gallery; do. 
(1646), Marine with Vessels (1650), Peasant's 
Brawl (1665), Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — 
Ch. Blanc, ficole hollandaise ; ]5urger, 
MusL-es, ii. 271 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 322 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1902 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 424. 
SORTIE OF THE BANNING COCK 
COMPANY, Rembrandt, Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 9 in. x 14 ft. 3 in. ; 
signed, dated 1642. Erroneously called 



Ronde de nuit and Patrouille de nuit by 
French writers, and Night Watch by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. It represents the gather- 
ing in broad daylight, of the Civic Guard of 
Amsterdam outside of their quarters, from 
which they are emerging at the sound of 
the drum calling them to practise. CajDtain 
Banning Cock and his lieutenant, Willem 
van Ruytenberg, in centre, are followed by 
the ensign, with the orange, white, and 
blue standai'd of Amsterdam, and the sei'- 
geants with their halberds ; the drummer, 
with a dog at his heels, is beating his drum, 
in right hand front corner, and the guards, 
armed with arquebuses and pikes, are 
crowding through the open door behind. 




Sortie of the Banning Cock Company, Rembrandt, Amsterdam Museum. 

On a shield on the building arc the names 
of sixteen of the principal figures, all of 
which are portraits. One of the most im- 
portant works of the master, who received 
for it 1,600 florins. It remained in the 
possession of the ai'quebusiers imtil about 
1700, when it was removed to the Hotel de 
Ville, where, in order to fit it into a space 
between two doors, it is supposed to have 
been reduced in size. A copy (H. 2 ft. 2 in. 
X 2 ft. 9 in.), now in the National Gallery, 
London, ascribed formerly both to Rem- 



205 



SOUCHON 



branclt and to Gerard Dou, but probably 
l^aiiited about 16G0 by Gerrit Lundens, 
proves that the origiual was cut off as shown 
in the accompanying outHne sketch. Judg- 
ing from the proportions of this copy, the 
original, which was placed in the Treppen- 
huis Museum in 1808, was formerly 12 ft. 8 
in. high x 16 ft. 6 in. long. It Avas restored 
in 1758 by Van Dijk, and again superficially 
in 1852 by N. Hopman. Engraved by L. 
A. Claessens (1797) ; J. W. Kaiser (1867). 
Etched by linger ; Flameng ; Massaloft' ; 
Charles Waltner (1886). Lithographed by 
A. Mouilleron. — Cat. Amsterdam Gal. ; Vos- 
maer, 147, 462 ; Smith, vii. 59 ; Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1860), vi. 368 ; (1885), xxxii. 406 ; 
Mollett, Kembrandt, 42 ; Fromentin, 325. 

SOUCHON, FEANgOIS, born at Allais 
(Gard), Nov. 19, 1787, died at Lille, April 
5, 1857. History painter, pupil of David ; 
director of school of paiiating at Lille in 
1836-1857. "Works : Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian (1824), Cathedral of Bordeaux ; 
Sick Man (1827), Lille Museum ; Raising 
of Lazarus (1827), Church of St. Nicolas-des- 
Champs, Paris. — Bellier, ii. 52 ; Devemy, 
Notices biographiques sur Fr. Souchon 
(Douai, 1875). 

SOUCHON, WHiHELM FERDINAND, 
born at Halberstadt in 1825. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil of Berhu 
Academy under Remy, then in Munich 
(1848) of Kaulbach and Anschutz, and fin- 
ished his studies in Rome and Naples, 
1851-54. He settled at Leipsic in 1855. 
Works : Thirty Biblical Scenes, Greek 
Church, Leipsic ; Christ Blessing, Church 
at Thronitz, Saxony ; Last Su2:)per, Church 
at Grunau, ib. ; Pifferari and Beggar, Em- 
peror of Germany. — Midler, 498. 

SOURCE, LA, Dominique Ingres, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 2 ft. 
3 in. ; signed, dated 1856. A 3'oung girl, 
nude, with blonde hair, standing in a rocky 
niche, her right arm raised above her head, 
with her fingers grasping the bottom of a 
vase, which, inclined upon her shoulder, is 
held by her left hand ; three little streams 



of water flow from its mouth into a pool 
in which her feet are reflected. London 
Exchange, 1862. Bequeathed by Comtesse 
Duchatel, 1878. Engraved by Calamatta ; 
L. Flameng.— Ch. Blanc, Life, 192. 

SOUTMAN, PIETER, born in Haarlem 
about 1580, died there, Aug. 16, 1657. 
Dutch school ; history and portrait painter, 
supposed pupil of Rubens ; was for several 
yeai's court painter to the King of Poland, 
became a citizen of Antwerp in 1620, and 
returned to Haarlem in 1628. Works : 
Two Archeiy-Pieces (1642, 1644), Haarlem 
Museum ; Laocoon and his Sons, Cassel 
Gallery. — Bode, Studien, 110 ; Kramm, v. 
1545 ; Van der Willigeu, 266. 

SOWER (Le semeur), Jean Fi-anyois Mil- 
let, William H. Vanderbilt Collection, New 
York. A sturdy peasant, bony and swart, 
with a bag of grain about his waist, is strid- 
ing along sowing grain on a hill-side ; on 
the other side of the slope a last ray of sun 
shows a pair of oxen and a man at the end 
of their furrow. The gesture of the sower, 
says Theophile Gautier, is "so beautiful 
that Triptolemus, guided by Ceres, on some 
Greek bas-relief, could not have more maj- 
esty." Painted in 1850 ; Salon, 1850. The 
first Sower (1849), Q. A. Shaw, Boston, was 
laid aside by Millet because the canvas was 
too short, and the present one painted for 
the Salon. Etched by Maris. — Art Treas. 
of Amer., iii. 86. 

SOYER, PAUL, born in Paris ; contem- 
porary. Genre painter, pupil of L. Cogniet. 
Medals: 1870; 2d class, 1882. Works: 
Card Party (1883) ; Head of Old Peasant 
(1884) ; Foundry at Antoigne, My Gardener 
(1885) ; Interior of Forge (1886). 

SPADA, LIONELLO, born in Bologna 
in 1576, died in Parma, May 17, 1622. Bo- 
lognese school ; first colour-grinder, and 
then pupil of the Carracci ; after executing 
a few works in Bologna, went to Rome and 
became the pupil of Caravaggio, whom he 
followed in all his travels. After his master's 
death (1609), Spada returned ta Bologna, 
where his vanity and arrogance won him the 



206 



SPAENDOXCK 




hatred of other artists ; but his real talent 
is proved by his St. Dominick burning the 
Heretical Books, in 
S. Donienico. Ra- 
nuccio, Duke of Par- 
ma, invited him to 
his court, and he 
spent the rest of his 
days there. Other 
works: Prodigal Son, 
w^neasandAnchises, 
Concert, Martyrdom 
of St. Christopher, 
Louvre; Melchisedec blessing Abraham, 
Bologna Gallery : Painter's Portrait, Uffizi, 
Florence ; Chastity of Joseph, Lille Muse- 
um ; Christ crowned with Thorns, Naples 
Museum ; Christ before Pilate, Parma Gal- 
lerj'.— Malvasia, ii. 73 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole bo- 
lonaise ; Burckhardt, 764, 788, 790, 803. 
SPAENDONCK, GERARDUS VAN, born 
atTilburg,March23, 
1746, died in Paris, 
May 11, 1822. 
Dutch school ; flow- 
er painter, pupil of 
Herreyus ; went to 
Paris about 1770, 
and became minia- 
ture painter to the 
king in 1774. His 
flower and fruit-pieces are almost equal to 
the best by Huysum. Professor of iconog- 
raphy at the Jardin des Plantes and mem- 
ber of the Institute (1781). Works : Flow- 
ers and Fruits (1789), Louvre. His brother, 
Cornells (1756-1840), distinguished in the 
same branch, painted especially for the por- 
celain factory at Sevi-es. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
hollandaise ; Immerzeel, iii. 101. 

SPAGNA, LO, born in 14—, died about 
1530. Unibrian school ; i-eal name Giovan- 
ni di Pietro, but commonly called, from 
his nationality, Lo Spagna (the Spaniard). 
Called by Vasari, Giovanni Spagnuolo. Art 
education wholly Italian, under Perugino 
and Pinturicchio. Was the companion of 
Raphael in the school of Perugino, and his 




manner is a mixture of the Peruginesque 
and Raphaelesque without the high quali- 
ties of either. Appears tirst as an inde- 
pendent master at Todi, but usually lived 
at Spoleto. Among his early works are the 
feeble Nativity, at the Vatican, called the 
Madonna della S[)ineta, and the Adoration 
of the Magi, Berlin Museum (attributed to 
Raphael). They are Peruginesque in dis- 
tribution and drawing, and Raphaelesque in 
accompaniments of type and drapery, and 
are of great interest as showing how Lo 
Spagna combined tlie methods of his master 
and comrad(>. This is further illustrated in 
the Madonna with Saints in the Perugia 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the Rovigo 
Gallery, assigned to Perugino. Fine fres- 
cos by him still exist at Todi, Trevi, Spoleto, 
Narni, Perugia, and Assisi. In 1516 Lo 
Spagna received the freedom of the city 
of Spoleto, and the following year he was 
elected captain of tlie guild of St. Luke. 
With none of Pinturicchio's hardness, pure 
and simple in style, Lo Spagna is, after 
Raphael, the most sympathetic of Peru- 
gino's scholars. Other works : Nativity, 
Lou\Te ; Nativity, Vatican ; l-Jcce Homo, 
National Gallery, London ; Madonna En- 
throned, in lower church, S. Francesco, As- 
sisi ; Coronation of the Virgin, IMunicipio, 
Narni ; Madonna, Palazzo Pubblico, Spoleto. 
— C. & C, Italy, iii. 303; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., xi. 53 ; ed. Mil., iii. 593 ; Ch. Blanc, 
!Ecole ombrienue ; Burckhardt, 574, 649 ; 
Liibke, Gesch. ital. Mai., i. 444. 

SPAGNOLETTO, LO, born at Jativa, 
Spain, Jan. 12, 



■1. 






■,\ 



^;^^ 



1588, died in Na- 
ples in 1656. Va- 
lencian and Nea- 
politan schools. 
Real name Josef 
de Ribcra ; pupil 
in Valencia of 
Francisco Ribal- 
ta ; went wlion 
quite young to Rome, and lived, while study- 
ing, on the charity of his comrades, who nick- 



pi 




207 



SPAGNUOLO 



named Lim Spagnoletto (little Spaniard). 
A cardinal took pity upon him, clothed him, 
and attached him to his household, but 
Spagnoletto soon ran away, declaring that 
he needed the spur of poverty to make him 
a good artist. After studying under Cara- 
vaggio he went to Parma, where the grace 
of Correggio temporarily influenced him ; 
but he soon returned to the st^'le of Cara- 
vaggio, which he even exaggerated. Hav- 
ing settled in Naples, where he married the 
daughter of a rich picture-dealer, he was 
appointed court painter by the Spanish 
viceroy, his fellow-countryman, and soon 




Spalatro, Washington Allston, H. R. Bishop 



found himself possessed of wealth and hon- 
ours, which enabled him to live like a 
grandee and entertain nobles and princes in 
his palace. Notwithstanding his supreme 
position he was jealous of the advancement 
of others, and became chief of the infamous 
cabal of Naples to make war, even to the 
knife, on painters of rival schools employed 
in Naples. By the aid of his tools (Corren- 
zio and Caracciolo), Annibale Carracci, Ca- 
valiere d' Ai'pino, Guido, Gessi, and Domeni- 
chino were successively driven away, while 
Domenichino's death was probably hastened 
by poison. Ribera was made a member of 
the Academy of St. Luke in 1630, and was 



knighted by Innocent X. in 1644. Bermu- 
dez rejDudiates the story that he disappeared 
from Naples on account of the seduction of 
his daughter, Maria Blanca, who was also a 
good painter, by Don John of Austria. 
Among his numerous works are : Madonna, 
Beggar, Louvre, Paris ; Dead Christ, Shep- 
herd with a Lamb, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Diogenes with the Lantern (1637), St. 
Mary of Egypt (1641), Deliverance of Peter 
(1642), Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, do. 
of St. Lawrence, Jacob tending Laban'a 
Sheep, seven others, Dresden Museum; 
Susanna and the Elders, Stlidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; his Portrait, St. 
Jerome, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Mathematician, Philosoph- 
er, Palazzo Brignole, Gen- 
oa ; Martyrdom of St. Bar- 
tholomew, Palazzo Spinola, 
ib. ; Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian, St. Jerome, Silenus 
and Satyrs, Naples Muse- 
um ; Communion of the 
Apostles, and Descent from 
the Cross, S. Martine, Na- 
ples ; Twelve Apostles, Par- 
ma Museum ; St. Jerome, 
Quirinal, Rome; St. Jerome, 
Academy of St. Luke, ib. ; 
St. Stanislas with Infant 
Jesus, Palazzo Borghese, 
ib. ; St. Jerome, St. Bartho- 
lomew, Palazzo Colonna, ib. ; Death of Ado- 
nis, St. Jerome, Palazzo Corsini, ib. ; Hercu- 
les and Antreus, Turin Gallery ; Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian, two St. Jeromes, and St. 
Procopius, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; St. 
Bartholomew, Jacob\'i Dream, Martyrdom 
of St. Bartholomew, St. Francis, Hermit at 
Prayer, Conception, and fifty others, Madrid 
Museum ; Josej)h in Prison, Escorial. — Cean 
Bermudez, iv. 184 ; Lanzi, ii. 32 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole espagnole ; Burckhardt, 767, 774 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1882), xxv. 40. 
SPAGNUOLO. See SiMc/na. 
SPALATRO, or Vision of the Bloody 
Hand, Washington Allston, H. R. Bishop, 



20S 



SPA^^GENBERG 



New York ; burned in 18 — . Scene from 
Mrs. Eadcliffe's novel, "The Italian," Scbe- 
doni, a monk, who has engaged the fisher- 
man Spalatro to murder Ellena, the heroine 
of the story, is conducting him with a lamp 
through the vaults, when Simlatro is seized 
with teiTor at the vision of a bloody hand. 
Considered by AUston his best picture. 
Painted in 1832 for H. S. Ball, of Charles- 
ton, S. C. ; passed to John Taylor Johnston, 
of New York, at whose sale (187G) sold for 
$3,900 to H. R. Bishop; burned at his 
country-seat on the Hudson. 

SPANGENBEEG, FRIEDRICH, born at 
Gottingen, Dec. 3, 1843, died on Mount 
Vesuvius, June 25, 1874. History painter, 
pupil in Munich of Ramberg, then (1861) 
in Venice of Pauwels ; returned to Munich, 
where he received marks of distinction from 
the Union for Historical Art, and, provided 
with the great stipend, was about to com- 
plete his studies in Italy, when he was struck 
down by paralysis of the heart while ascend- 
ing Mount Vesuvius. Works : Triumph of 
the American Union, Capitol, Washington ; 
Vandals Plundering ; Geiserich's Departm-e 
from Rome. — Kunst-Chronik, ix. 627. 

SPANGENBERG, GUSTAV (ADOLF), 
born in Hamburg, 
Feb. 1, 1828. Histo- 
ry and genre painter, 
])upil in Hamburg of 
Hermann Kauflfmann, 
in Hanau of Pellis- 
siei', then of Antwerp 
Academy (1848-50), 
and in Paris (1851- 
57) of Couture and 
thesculiDtorTriqueti ; 
copied in the Louvre, visited England and 
Holland, and in 1857-58 Italy, and settled 
iu Berlin. Professor ; member of Berlin, 
Vienna, and Hanau Academies. Medals : 
Cologne, 1861 ; Berlin, 1868, 1876 ; Vienna, 
1873. Works : Amsterdam Orphan Girls 
(1851), Donkey Driver's Siesta (1855), Wal- 
purgis Night (1862), Hamburg Gallery ; Rat 
Charmer of Hamelu ; St. John's Eve iu Co- 




logne ; Luther as Squire George ; Luther 
making Music at Home (1866), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Luther and Melanchthou (1867), Mr. 
Probasco, Cincinnati ; Luther translating the 
Bible (1870), Procession of Death (1876), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Luther's Entry 
into Worms (1875), Konigsberg Museum ; 
Allegory of Labour and Vice (1878) ; W^ill o' 
the Wisp (1879) ; Three Marys at Christ's 
Tomb (1880). In fresco: The Four Facul- 
ties (1885), University, Halle. — Jordan 
(1885), ii. 219 ; Leixner, Mod. K., ii. 82 ; 
!Muller, 499 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 
225 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 345 ; D. Rund- 
schau, ix. 324 ; xvii. 301 ; xxi. 147 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, vi. 144 ; xii. 292. 

SPANGENBERG, LOUIS, born in Ham- 
burg iu 1824. Landscape and architecture 
painter, pupil in Munich of Emil Kirchner, 
then studied iu Brussels ; travelled in 
France, England, Italy, and Greece, and 
settled in Berlin in 1857. Member of Ber- 
lin Academy. Works : Citadel of Corinth ; 
Acropolis of Athens (several times) ; Uglei 
Lake in Holstein ; Village in Burgundy ; 
Farmyard in Oldenburg (1862) ; The Regen- 
stein in the Hartz Mountains ; Fishermen's 
Hut on the Baltic (1866) ; Theatre of Her- 
odes Atticus at Athens (Jubilee Exhibition, 
Berlin, 1886). 

SPANISH IMARRIAGE. See Marriacie. 

SPASDIO DI SICILIA, liaphael, Madrid 
Museum ; wood transferred to canvas, H. 9 
ft. 10 in. X 7 ft. 6 in. Christ, on the way to 
Calvary, has sunk under the weight of the 
cross, which Simon of Cyrene offers to carry ; 
an executioner, at left, endeavours to drag 
him along by a rope, while another raises 
his spear to strike him ; but, regardless of 
his own sutterings, he turns consolingly to 
the Virgin, who, kneeling with outstretched 
arms, is supported by St. John and Mary 
Magdalen ; behind them follow other wom- 
en and a procession of Roman soldiers and 
citizens from the city gates ; in the back- 
ground, a mounted standard-bearer is turn- 
ing towards Calvary, seen in distance. The 
word Spasimo (spasm) is in allusion to the 



ao!t 



SPARMANN 



spasm or fainting fit of the Virgin. Painted 
in Kome between 1516-18 for monks of 
Monte Oliveto, S. M. tlello Spasimo, Paler- 
mo ; vessel \vrecked on way to Palermo, and 
picture, packed in a tight case, floated into 
Gulf of Genoa, and was picked up and taken 
to Genoa, where the people were delighted 
with their acquisition, but the Pope com- j 




Spasimo di Sicilia, Raphael, Madrid Museum. 

pelled them to give it vip to its rightful 
owners ; sold by monks in 1661 to Philip 
IV. and taken to Madrid ; carried to Paris 
in 1813 ; returned in 1819. Numerous 
copies by AntoneUo da Palermo and others. 
Engraved by Agos. Veneziano (1517) ; Dom 
Cunego (1781) ; Ferdinand Selma (1808) ; 
Charles Normand (1813) ; P. Toschi ; and 
many others. — Vasari, ed. jVlil., iv. 357; 



Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 462 ; Passavant, ii. 
244 ; Miintz, 523 ; Madrazo, 187 ; Reveil, vi. 
373. 

SPARIHANN, liARL CHRISTIAN, born 
at Meissen, Saxony, in 1805, died at Dresden 
in 1865, Landscape painter, pupil of Johann 
Samuel Ai-uold (1766-1827) at Meissen, and 
of Dahl in Dresden; became in 1824 drawing- 
master at Arenenberg, near 
Constance, of Prince Louis 
Napoleon, who, when emperor, 
gave him a pension ; spent his 
winters in Rome, returned 
home in 1826, and visited 
Switzerland and Tyrol in 1828. 
Works : The Sustenpass ; 
Heath near Dresden (1843), 
View near Dessau (1844), 
Dresden Art Union ; View of 
Dresden (1841), Harrach Gal- 
lery, Vienna. — Nagler, xvii. 
116. 

SPECKTER, ERWIN, born 
at Hamburg, July 18, 1806, 
died there, Nov. 23, 1835. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Corne- 
lius in Munich, where he was 
also much influenced by Over- 
beck and Genelli ; returned 
to Hamburg, and in 1830 went 
to Italy, where he adopted the 
style and colouring of the old 
Venetian masters. Works : 
Christ and the Woman of Sa- 
maria (1829) ; Three Marys 
at the Sepulchre (1829), Alba- 
nian Woman with Jug (1831), 
Roman Woman (1832), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Samson and 
Delilah (1834), Leipsic Museum. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1820-34) ; Nagler, xvii. 123 ; N. 
Necrol. der D. (1835), ii. 1049. 

SPERANZA, GIOVANNI, Venetian 
school, first half of 16th century. Said by 
Vasari to have been pupil of Mantegna, with 
whose style his own has an affinity, like that 
of his countryman, Bartolommeo Montagna, 
whose work his own closely resembles, as, 



SPERLING 



e.g., a Madonna in Casa Agosti at Belluno. 
Two altai-pieces by him exist : one, a Vii'gin 
Enthroned, in S. Giorgio, Velo ; the other, 
an Assumption, in the gallery of Vicenza. 
Other specimens of his work are in 8. Coro- 
na and S. Chiara, Vicenza, and in the Casa 
Piovene, Padua.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 420 ; 
Burckhardt, 604. 

SPERLmG, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, 
born at Halle, Saxony, in 1691, died at Aus- 
pach in 1746. Portrait painter, son and 
pupil in Hamburg of the portrait painter 
Johann Heinrich Sperling, then pupil of 
Leipsic Academy. Court painter in Ans- 
pach in 1710. Later went to Rotterdam ; 
became one of the best pupils of Adriaan 
van der Werff, many of whose pictures he 
copied. Works : Pomona and Vertumnus in 
the Form of an Old Woman (1719), Dres- ' 
den Gallery ; Head of a Persian (1743), 
Gotlia Museum. — Nagler, xvii. 138. 

SPERL, JOHANN, born at Buch near 
Nuremberg, Nov. 3, 1840. Genre painter, 
pupil at the Industrial Art School in Nu- 
remberg under Kreling, then of the Mu- 
nich Academy under Anschiitz and Ramberg. 
Works : The New Suit ; Looking for a 
Bride ; Going to Baptism ; Suabian Peas- 
ant Wedding ; On Furlough.— Miiller, 499. 

SPHINX, QUESTIONER OF THE, Eli- 
hu Vedde.r, Martin Brimmer, Boston. The 
Sphinx, covered to the chin with the desert 
sand, as it was before the excavations of 
Captain Caviglia ; an old Arab, bending for- 
ward and partly kneeling, has placed his 
ear to the imperturbable lips, as if he ex- 
pected the mystery of the ages to answer 
his questions. 

SPIELBERG (Spilberg), JOHANNES, 
born at Diisseldorf, April 30, 1()19, died 
there, Aug. 10, 1690. Dutch school. Por- 
trait and history painter, pupil of Govert 
Flinck in Amsterdam. Court painter in 
Cologne, where he portrayed many princes 
and princesses. Works : Archer's Banquet 
(1650), Amstexxlam Museum ; Lady's Por- 
trait (1648), Darmstadt Museum ; Juno giv- 
ing lo to Ai-gus, Liechtenstein Gallery, 



Vienna ; Portrait of Prince Johann Wilhelm 
of the Palatinate, and Portrait of a Lady 
(both attributed), Munich Gallery. — Immer- 
zeel, iii. 104. 

SPIERINCKX, PEETER, born at Ant^ 
werp, Aug. 30, 1635, died there, buried 
Aug. 30, 1711. Flemish school ; land- 
scape painter, mostly self-taught ; went in 
1660 to Italy, and returned to Antwerp in 
1666, having meanwhile painted also in 
France, for Louis XIV. Works : Two Land- 
scapes, St. Augustine's, Antwerp ; do., Mad- 
rid Museum ; View in Paris, Germanic Mu- 
seum, Nuremberg ; Landscapes with Fig- 
ures, etc. (2), Oriental Seaport, Schleissheim 
Galler}'. — Van den Branden, 1073. 

SPIES, RETURN OF THE (L'automne, 
Autumn), Nicolas Poussin, Louvre, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. In a 
valley, with a height and fortifications of a 
city on right, a woman mounted upon a 
ladder gathers fruit from a tree ; in fore- 
ground, the two spies sent by Moses into 
Canaan bear suspended from a pole im- 
mense bunches of grapes as evidence of the 
fertility of the soil. One of a series of four 
painted in 1660-64 for the Due de Riche- 
lieu, whence passed to Louis XIV. En- 
graved by J. Pesne.— Filhol, iv. PI. 238. 

SPIESS, HEINRICH, born in Municli, 
May 10, 1832 (1831), died there, Aug. 6 (S), 
1875. History painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy under Voltz and Kaulbach. As- 
sisted Schwind in the Wartburg frescos ; 
with his brother August painted the Villa 
Feodora in Liebenstein after L. Richter's 
designs. Works : Two Scenes from Life of 
Heniy the Lion, National Museum, Munich ; 
allegorical representations of the Sciences 
(with his brother August), in Arcades of 
Maximilianeum, ib. — Dioskuren (1875),' 
262 ; Kunst-Clu-onik, x. 810. 

SPILNBERGER (Spielberger), HANS, 
born at Kaschau, Hungary, in 1628, died in 
1679. History painter, supposed to liave 
studied in Italy. Court painter in Augs- 
burg, then iu Vienna. Works : St. Peter's 
Pentecostal Sermon, Church of Holy Cross, 



211 



SPINELLI 



Augsburg ; Death of St. Benedict, St. Em- 
merani's, Eatisbon ; Assumption, St. Ste- 
phen's, Vienna. 

SPINELLI, PARRI, born in Arezzo in 
1387, died there in 1452. Florentine school; 
:son of Spinello Spinelli, and probably his 
pupil, but an imitator of Lorenzo Monaco. 
He was a third-rate artist, below the Gerini 
-in talent, though Vasari, his townsman, saw 
-fit to praise him. Some of his frescos, much 
overi^ainted, exist in S. Domeuico, in S. 
Maria della Misericoi-dia, and in S. Fran- 
cesco, Arezzo.— C. & C, Italy, ii. 25 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., ii. 198; iii. 144; ed. Mil., ii. 
.275 ; Siret, 880 ; Burekhardt, 493. 

SPINELLI, SPINELLO, born at Arezzo 
about 1333, died there, March 14, 1410. 
Florentine school. Son of Luca Spinelli, 
of a Ghibelline family that took refuge at 
Arezzo about 1308 ; commonly called Spi- 
nello Aretino or d' Arezzo. Pupil of Jacopo 
di Casentino, and at twenty a better painter 
than his master. He was of great merit, 
following the style developed by Jacopo and 
])y Bernardo Daddi, but rose above them 
and represented the spirit of Giotto's school 
at the close of the 14th century better than 
any other artist of his time. He had, in- 
deed, many of the qualities of Giotto, 
though compared with him he is a bold 
decorator, careless of form and of detail. 
The Florence Academy has a Madonna with 
Saints and Angels, signed and dated 1391 ; 
and a church in Arezzo his Madonna della 
Rosa ; but he is seen at his best in his 
.frescos, especially Life of St. Benedict 
(1385), Sacristy of S. Miniato, near Flor- 
ence ; History of SS. Ephesus and Potitus 
(1391), Campo Santo, Pisa ; Barbarossa and 
Pope Alexander HI., Palazzo Pubblico, 
Siena; and Lucifer and the Rebel Angels 
(fragment belonging to Sir A. H. Layard, 
England), in S. Francesco, Arezzo. — C. & C, 
Italy, ii. 7 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ii. 185 ; ed. 
Mil., i. G77 ; W. & W., i. 477 ; Burekhardt, 
493, 495, 498, 504. 

' SPITZER, EMANUEL, born at Papa, 
Hungary, Oct. 30, 1845. Genre painter. 




mostly self-taught; worked in Paris in 
18G4-G7, for "L'Art pour tous," settled in 
Munich in 1871, and is one of the contribu- 
tors to " Fliegende Blatter." Works : Fisher 
Boy (1873) ; Girl at the Well, Girl playing 
among Flower^ (1875) ; Little Darling, Sur- 
prise for Papa (1877) ; Sweet Gossip (1878); 
Permission for Dancing (1884) ; They are 
coming! (1885). — Wurzbach, xxxvi. 186; 
Allgem. K. Chr., viii. 587. 

SPITZWEG, KARL, born in Munich, 
Feb. 5, 1808, died 
there, Sept. 13, 1885. 
Geni'e and landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Hanson ; for several 
years illustrator for 
the comic paper 
' ' Fliegende Blatter. " 
His pictures are 
/ ' '^^ marked by genuine 
humour, and he has been called the Jean 
Paul of painters. Order of St. Michael in 
18G5. Works : Sunday Hunter (1844) ; 
Widower (1845) ; Policeman catching Flies 
(1852) ; Bookworm (1853) ; Writer cutting 
Pen (1854) ; Schoolmaster serenading his 
Sweetheart, Old Gentleman in Favourite 
Spot, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; School 
Children (1859), Itinerant Dramatic Com- 
pany resting ; Librarian, Biblical Interpreta- 
tion (18G0) ; Portrait Painter (18G2), Prague 
Art Union ; Women of Dachau at Forest 
Chapel, Letter-Carrier (1862) ; Mail Coach, 
Meeting of Old Friends (1863) ; Geologist, 
Astrologer (1864) ; Turkish Coffee-House 
(1862), Hermit playing the Violin, Group of 
Alpine Herdswomeu, Hypochondriac exam- 
ining the Weather, Lovers Parting, Serenade 
from Barber of Seville (1865), Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich ; Ascent of Alp, Descent from 
do.' (1870); In the Garret (1882), Two Her- 
mits, New Pinakothek, Munich. — Allgem. 
K. Chr., ix. 777, 1001; Graph. K, v. 44 ; 
Kunst f. Alle, i. 24 ; MiiUer, 500 ; Regnet, 
ii. 268 ; Schack, Meine Gemaldesammlung 
(1884), 194 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iv. 115 ; xxi. 77. 
SPOSALIZIO. See Virgin, Marriage of. 



SPRAXGER 




SPRANGER, BARTHOLOMEUS, born 
in Antwerp, March 21, IdiG, died in Prague 
about 1627. Flemish 
school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil 
of Jan Mandyn and of 
Cornelis van Dalen. 
In 1565 he went to 
Paris, and thence to 
Milan, Parma, and 
Rome, where he re- 
mained until 1575. 
Recommended to 
Maximilian U. in 1575, he executed for him 
and his son, Rudolph II., important decora- 
tive works, and resided as court painter in 
Prague, wbitlier he returned after a \'isit to 
his native country in 1C02. Ennobled by 
Rudolph n., he called himself Spranger van 
den Schilden. Despite many good qualities, 
his works show the want of early training. 
Works : Magdalen, Antwerp Museum ; Su- 
sanna justified by Daniel, Brussels Museum ; 
Holy Family, Brunswick Gallery ; Banquet 
of the Gods, Aschafifenburg Gallery ; Diana 
and ActiBon, Christiania Gallery ; Diana 
and Nymphs, Stockholm Museum ; Venus 
served by the Graces, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; Resurrection (attributed), Berlin 
Museum ; Circumcision, Descent from the 
Cross, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Cupid and 
Psyche, Oldenburg Gallery ; Apollo, Mydas, 
and Marsias, Lot and Daughters fleeing 
from Sodom, Susanna and the Elders, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Cupid and Psyche, 
Stuttgart Museum ; Ulysses with Circe, 
Mercury surprising Venus and Mars, Venus 
and Mercury with Genii, Apollo and Muses, 
Vulcan and Maia, Triumph of Wisdom, Al- 
legoi'y on Virtues of Rudolph H., Hercules 
y andOnq)hale, 

/ , (^ pid, portraits 

*^ y y his Wife, Vi- 

enna Museum. — Ch. Blanc, "ficole flamande ; 
Fc'tis, Artistes beiges a I'cti'anger, i. 389 ; 



Immerzeel, iii. 104 ; Kramm, v. 1551 ; Mi- 
ehiels, vi. 3 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 31. 

SPRING, Nicolas Poussin. See Paradise. 

SPRING-TIME, Pierre Auguste Cot, D. 
T. Lyle, Brooklyn, N. Y.; canvas, H. 8 ft. 
X 4 ft. A young man and a girl, life-size, 
sitting in a swing among the trees of a 
garden. Painted in 1873 ; bought by John 
Wolfe, New York ; at his sale (1878) to :\Ir. 
Lyle. Replica, smaller. Dr. Marcy, New 
York ; two more in Europe. — Photogi'avure 
in Art Treasures of America, i. 54. 

SPRINGER, COENELIS, born in Am- 
sterdam, May 25, 1817. Architecture paint- 
er, pupil of Kasper Karsen, whom he greatly 
surpasses in conception of his subjects and 
in powerful colouring. Member of Rotter- 
dam Academy in 185G ; gold medal, Hague,- 
1857 ; Orders of Oaken Crown (1861) and, 
of Leopold. Works : City Hall at Middle- 
burg (1859) ; do. and Market at Veere 
(1861), City Hall at Cologne (1874), Muse- 
um, Amsterdam ; City in Winter, Market in 
Haarlem, View in the Briel, Museum Fodor,, 
ib. ; Town Hall and IMarket at Naarden, Rot^. 
terdam Museum ; Leydeu Cathedral ; City 
Halls at The Hague, Brussels, Bremen, 
Brunswick, Miinster, Cologne, and Liibeck ; 
Market Place in Ulm. — Immerzeel, iii. 106 ; 
Kramm, v. 1553. 

SPROSSE, KARL, born in Leipsic, June 
11, 1819, died there, Jan. 1, 1874. Land- 
scape and architecture painter, pupil of 
Leipsic Academy under Brauer and Schnorr. 
Visited Saxony and the Rhine country in 
1836-37 ; went in 1844 to Rome ; spent 
many years there and in Venice, but made 
occasional visits home ; visited also Greece. 
Gold medal in 1854. Works : Roman Fo- 
rum ; St. Mary's Chui'ch in Nuremberg ; 
Cathedral of Ratisbon ; St. Mark's in Ven- 
ice ; Castle of Merseburg ; Cathedrals of 
Erfurt and Worms ; Series of Views in Rome 
and Venice ; many churches and castles in 
Germany ; Rear View of Ratisbon Cathedral 
(1857), The former Moat at Leipsic (1858), 
Tombstones of the Scaligers, Leipsic Muse- 
um.— Andresen, i. 76; Kunst-Chronik, ix. 252. 



213 



SPRUYT 



SPRUYT, CHARLES, bom at Brussels, 
July 2G, 1769, died there in 1827(?). History 
and genre painter, sou of and first insti'uct- 
ed by Philip Spruyt (1727-1801), then pupil 
of Ghent Academy, where he won the first 
prize in 1790 ; went to Rome in 1815, and 
returned to Brussels in 1821. Member of 
Ghent Academy. Works : St. Thei'esa pray- 
ing to the Virgin ; Disciples at Emmaus (in 
America) ; Intex-ior of Grotto in Franciscan 
Monastery ; Shop Interior (1824) ; Jan I, 
Duke of Brabant in the Prison of his Sister 
Maria Queen of France (1826), formerly in 
Haarlem Pavilion ; Francesco Francia dying 
while looking at one of Raphael's Pictures 
(1829) : Interior of Subterranean Church in 
Rome ; One of the Sette Salle, ib. (1833) ; 
Refectory in St. Gertrude's Convent ; Land- 
scape in Sunset (1836). — Immerzeel, iii. 107. 

SQUARCIONE, FRANCESCO, born in 
Padua in 1394, died there in 1474. Paduan 
school ; in 1422 he inherited enough from 
his father, Giovanni, a notary, to enable him 
to set up a tailor and embroiderer's shop. 
Embroidery being akin to the art of design- 
ing, he was attracted to the study of paint- 
ing. In time he opened the earliest Italian 
art academy in his native city, where, as he 
says, 137 pupils were taught ; and thus ac- 
quired the name of " father of painters." 
He travelled much and made a large collec- 
tion of casts from the antique, pictures, and 
other objects of art for the benefit of his 
pupils. Though the founder of a school, 
he was himself comparatively unskilled as a 
painter, and the work from his studio was 
chiefly done by his disciples. His name 
first appears in the lists of the Paduan guild 
in 1441. He contracted to decorate the 
chapel of S. Cristoforo at the Eremitani, and 
intrusted the execution to Pizzolo, Mante- 
gna, and others. He took part in decorating 
the Santo and the cloisters of S. Francesco, 
Padua, and painted an altarpiece and a Ma- 
donna for the Lazzara family, still extant. 
Besides Pizzolo and Mantegna, he numbered 
among his pupils Marco Zoppo, Dario of 
Treviso, and Ansuino. — C. & C, N. Italy, i. 



294 ; Burckhardt, 128, 403, 575 ; Siret, 882 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 384 ; Liibke, Gesch. ital. 
Mai., i. 456. 

STAAFF, IvARL THEODOR, born in the 
Province of Herjedalen, Sweden, June 28, 
1816. Portrait painter, pupil of Stockholm 
Academy in 1831. Began with historical 
painting, then changed to portraits. Also 
illustrated some of Jegner's writings. Mem- 
ber of Stockholm Academy in 1856. Works : 
King Oscar I., Drottningholm Castle near 
Stockholm ; Charles XV. ; President Asker ; 
Gen. Akrell; and others.— M.iller, 501. 

STACHOWICZ, MICHAEL, born at Cra- 
cow, Aug. 14, 1768, died there, March 26, 
1835, History painter, pupil of Molitor 
(probably Franz Ignaz, who died at Cracow 
in 1794) and of Kasimir Molodzinski (died 
at Cracow, Jan. 28, 1795) ; painted at first 
biblical scenes for churches, but after 1794 
episodes of national history, and scenes from 
popular life, in oil and fresco. He was the 
first among the Polish painters to pursue 
a national tendency in art. Professor at 
the St. Barbara Lyceum, Cracow, in 1817. 
Member of Cracow Academy of Sciences. 
Works : Fettering of St. Peter (1789) ; Kos- 
ciuszko on the Ring Square in Cracow in 
1794, Episcopal Palace, Cracow ; Battle of 
Raclawiee ; Martyrs of Sandomir, St. Cath- 
arine, Bishop Erasmus, St. Sophia, Descent 
from the Cross, Dominican Church, Cracow; 
St. Helen, Franciscans, ib.; Divine Provi- 
dence, Entombment, St. Barbara's, ib.; Ma- 
donna of Loreto, Capuchins, ib.; Entry of 
Prince Pouiatowski into Cracow in 1809 ; 
Taking of Cracow by Warsaw Troops un- 
der Poniatowski ; Vision of Sainted Poles 
in the Clouds, Episcopal Palace, Cracow. 
In fi'esco : Views of Cities and Representa- 
tions of Popular Customs in Poland (1816- 
17), ib. ; The Sciences and Ai'ts, Polish Schol- 
ars (33 medallions in 11 groups), Eleven 
Episodes in History of Cracow University 
(1820-21), Jagellonic HaU, University, ib. 
Many others in oil and fresco in churches, 
monasteries, and on the estates of Polish 
nobles. — Wurzbach, xxxvi. 314. 



214 



STACK 



STACK, JOSEF MAGNUS, born at Suiid 
ill 1812. Landscape painter, pupil of Stock- 
holm Academy, and studied later in Munich. 
Visited the Tyrol and Italy. Works: Elf 
Valley in Dalecai'lia, Stockholm Gallery ; 
View of Genzano ; Munich and Bavarian 
Highlands, Royal Palace, Stockholm. 

STADEMANN, ADOLF, born at Mu- 
nich in 1824. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy ; paints chielly winter 
scenes, often by moonlight or rainy weather. 
Works : Winter Landscape (1837), New Fi- 
nakothek, Munich ; do., Schack Gallery, ib.; 
View on Ammer Lake (1857) ; Winter Scene 
(1860) ; Rain and Sunshine (18G0) ; Village 
in Winter. — Cotta's Kunstbl., 1840; D. 
Kunstbl., 1856-58 ; Dioskuren, 1860-62. 

STADING, EVELINE, born at Stockholm 
in 1803, died in 1829. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Fahlcrantz, then copied from 1824 
in Dresden after Ruisdael and studied from 
nature, and went in 1827 through Salzburg 
and Tyrol to Rome. Works : View from 
Villa Chigis Park near Ariccia, Park and 
Castle of Rosersberg, Christiania Gallery ; 
View of the Hockstein near Dresden ; Castle, 
Lohinen ; Loch Mill ; View of Dresden. 

STADIGEUS, Greek painter, pupil of Ni- 
costhenes, mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 40 
[146]) as a worthy artist. Possibly identi- 
cal with the sculptor of the same name, 
master of Polycles. 

STAELBENT. See Stalbemt. 

STAG AT BAY, Sir Edwin Landaeer, 
Lord Godolphin. Stands in the shallow of 
a lake, near the shore, with head erect ; one 
of the two dogs that have followed him lies 
on his back howling, while the other gives 
tongue to announce the whereabouts of the 
game. Royal Academy, 1846. Engraved 
by C. Mottram— Art Journal (1870), 144. 

STAG FIGHT (Combat de Ccrfs), Gus- 
tave Courhrt, Louvre, Paris. Two noble 
stags, with locked horns, are contending for 
supremacy in a wood. Salon, 1861. Pur- 
chased at Lepel-Coiiitet sale for 40,100 fr. 

STAG HUNT, Vdasquez, Lord Asli bur- 
ton, London ; canvas, H. 6 f t. x 8 ft. Philip 



IV. and his courtiers hunting stags in an 
arena enclosed by canvas walls, in the Pra- 
do, a royal hunting-seat two leagues from 
iMadrid ; among the personages are the 
King, Queen Isabel, Olivarez, Velasquez 
standing uncovered in foreground, and 
Alonso de Espinar, aide to Don Baltasar 
Carlos. Painted befoi-e 1629 ; purchased 
1>y iVIr. Baring from ex-King Joseph Bona- 
pax'te, who took it from the Royal Palace, 
Madrid,— Curtis, 24 ; Waagen, iii. 347. 

By Philips Wouwerman, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. An open 
country divided by a river, with huntsmen 
in distance driving a stag into the water, on 
which are people in boats ; on left bank of 
river, a terrace and gardens ; opposite, a 
clump of trees with a picnic party, horses, 
and musicians. — Smith, ix. 182. 

STAIGG, RICHARD M., born in Leeds, 
England, about 1820 ; died at Newjjort, 
R. I., Oct. 11, 1881. Portrait and genre 
painter ; came to America in youth, after 
studying drawing in an architect's office in 
Leeds, and settled in Newport, R. I., where 
he began to paint miuiatiu'es on ivory, un- 
der the advice and assistance of Washington 
Allston. In 1861 he was elected a member 
of the National Academy, New York ; was 
in Paris in 1867-69, and again in Europe in 
1872-74. After his return he painted jior- 
traits, and occasionally landscapes and genre 
pictures, some of the last of which were 
much admired. His miniatures, when ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy, London, and 
the Salon, Paris, received favourable notice. 
Works : First Steps, The Lesson. St. Jerome, 
(1870) ; Italian Chestnut Gatherer (1875) ; 
Empty Nest, Cornice Road — Italy, Italian 
Peasant Knitting (1876) ; Italian Girl's 
Head (1877) ; Margaret, Boy's Head (1878) ; 
Pet Squirrel ( 1880). 

STALBEMT (St.ielbent), ADIilAEN 
VAN, born in Antwerp, June 12, 15S0, died 
there, Sept. 21, 1662. Flemish school; 
landscape ])ainl('r, if not pupil of, cei'tainly 
iiitliit'uc(i(l l)y Jau Brueghel. Master of the 
jguihl in 1609, its dean in 1618, called to 



215 



STALLAERT 



London by Charles I. about 1622, and 
worked there vmtil 1G4:2. His landscapes 
are enriched with buildings, biblical and 
mythological figures, and animals. Works : 
Wood Landscai:)e, Antwerp Museum ; do., 
Amsterdam Museum ; Landscape, Kirmess, 
Cassel Gallery ; Kirmess, Stlidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; do., Vienna Museum ; Banquet 
of the Gods (1622), Judgment of Midas, 
Dresden Gallery ; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds (1622), Stag Hunt by a Lake, Berlin 
Museum ; Wood Landscape, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Triumph of David 
^'^S'TA|LBE MT over Goliath (with P. 
F A* I 622* Brueghel, 1619), Madrid 
Museum. — Kramm, v. 
1556 ; Michiels, ix. 118 ; Kooses (Keber), 
411 ; Van den Brandon, 625. 

STALLAERT, JOSEPH, born at Merch- 
tem, Bi'abant, in 1825. History painter, 
pujDil of Brussels Academy under Navez ; 
took the prize for Rome in 1848 ; then sj^ent 
four years in Italy, France, and Germany. 
His pictures are in tasteful antique style. 
Medals at Brussels (1860), Vienna (1873), 
Philadelphia (1876) ; Order of LeojDold 
(1863) ; Officer (1881) ; Order of Francis 
Joseph of Austria. Principal professor of 
design and of painting in Royal Academy, 
Brussels. Works : Penelope (1859) ; Hero 
and Leander (1861) ; Death of Dido, Brus- 
sels Museum ; Cellar of Diomedes in Pom- 
peii (1862) ; Ulysses (1863) ; Medea ; Polyx- 
ena sacrificed to the Manes of Achilles, Ghent 
Museum ; Cellar of Diomedes (1879). In 
fresco : Ceilings, Palace of Count of Flan- 
ders ; Four Celestial Regions, Elements and 
Gods, in Brussels National Bank. — Miiller, 
501 ; D. Rundschau, xx. 471. 

STAMMEL, EBERHARD, born at Diiren 
in 1832. Genre painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy under Sohn, then studied in 
Antwerp, Paris, and Munich, and settled at 
Diisseldorf in 1859. Works : Morning af- 
ter Bout ; Bookworm, Royal Collection, Ber- 
lin ; Cavalier and Usurer, Villa Borsig, ib. ; 
Gentlemen's Room, Barmen Art Union ; 
Village Artist ; Everything Lost ; Peasants 



at the Museum ; Art Amateur ; Afternoon 
Pipe.— Dioskuren, 1865-66. 

STAND AART. See Bloemen, Pieter van. 
STANFIELD, GEORGE CLARKSON, 
born in London, May 1, 1828, died at Hamp- 
stead, March 22, 1878. Landscape and 
marine painter, son and j^upil of William 
Clarkson Staufield, and student of the Royal 
Academy, to the exhibitions of which he 
was a contributor from 1844 to 1876. He 
painted principally Continental landscapes 
and views of towns. Works : Church of 
St. Michael— Ghent (1860); Saarburg Castle 
(1861); On the Lahn (1863) ; Amphitheatre 
at Verona (1864) ; Angers (1868) ; Dunbar 
Castle (1872) ; Entrance to Harbour of La 
Rochelle (1875) ; On the Nile (1876). 

STANFIELD, ^VILLIAM CLARKSON, 
born at Sunderland, 
Durham, in 1793, 
died at Hampstead, 
May 18, 1867. Be- 
gan life as a sailor in 
the royal navy ; be- 
came a scene painter 
when still young, and 
soon turned his at- 
tention to landscape 
and marine painting, in which he won suc- 
cess ; exhibited first at Royal Academy in 
1829 ; became an A.R.A. in 1832 and R.A. 
in 1835. After his first visit to Italy in 
1813, painted many Italian views. He ex- 
celled in mountain and river scenery, and 
in naval battle scenes and seaport views. 
Works : Market Boats on the Scheldt (1826); 
Wreckers off Fort Rouge (1827); Mount St. 
Michael (1830) ; Fishermen of Honfleur, 
View of Venice (1831) ; Opening of New 
London Bridge, Portsmouth Harbour (1832); 
Battle of Trafalgar- (1836) ; View near St. Malo, 
Amalfi, Avignon, Ancona (1840) ; Castle of 
Ischia, Pozzuoli (1841); Isola Bella, Kitchen 
of Inn — Amalfi (1842); Mazerbo and Lu- 
cello. Ducal Palace — Venice, Ischia (1843) ; 
Oude Scheldt, Day after the Wreck (1844) ; 
Trajan's Arch — Ancona, Capture of Sj)anish 
Frigate El Gamo (1845); Ponte Rotto— 




216 



sta:xge 



Kome (18-46) ; Dordrecht, French Troops 
fording the Magra (1847) ; Amalfi, Mola de 
Gaeta (1848); Tilbury Fort, Lago Maggiore 
(1849) ; Battle of Eoveredo (1851) ; Bay of 
Baiffi, Port of Rochelle (1852) ; The Victory 
towed into Gibraltar (1853) ; Last of the 
Crew, Hulks iu the Medway (1854) ; Siege 
of Sebastian (1855); The Abandoned, Guarda 
Costa off Bidassoa (1850) ; St. Jean de Luz, 
Calais Fishermen (1857) ; Fortress of Sa- 
vona. Castle of Ischia (1858) ; On Coast of 
Brittany, Maltese Xebec on Bocks, Brodick 
Castle (1859) ; Angers, Vesuvius, Outward 
Bound (1860); Capture of Smuggled Goods, 
Homeward Bound (1861); Stack Rock, Race 
of Ramsay, Nieuwe Diep, Coast of Norman- 
dy, Coast of Brittany (1862); Coast of Cala- 
bria, The Defence and her Prize on Morning 
after Trafalgai', Oude Scheldt, Shakespeare's 
Cliff — Dover, Worms Head — Bristol Chan- 
nel (1863) ; Mew Stone — Plymouth Sound, 
Wai-, Peace, On the Hollands Diep (1864) ; 
Bass Rock, Vale of Narni (1865) ; Tintagel 
Castle, Pic du Midi d'Ossaiu — Pyrenees 
(1866) ; Skirmish off Heligoland (1867, his 
last work).— Art Journal (1857), 137 ; (1867), 
171; Portfolio (1879), 124, 135; Gentle- 
man's Mag., July, 1867 ; Sandby, ii. 149. 

STANGE, BERNHARD, born in Dres- 
den, July 24, 1807, died at Sindelsdorf, Oct. 
10, 1880. Landscape painter, pupil of Rott- 
mann in Munich in 1830 ; also influenced 
by Rahl. Visited Venice in 1849 ; in his 
latter years lived as a farmer in the coun- 
try. Deep feeling for the poetry of nature 
and history pervades his pictures. Order 
of St. Michael in 1858. Works : Morning 
Bell (20 replicas) ; Evening in the Alps 
(1835); Alpine VaUey (1837); Mountain 
Valley at Twilight (1838); Autumn Evening 
on Lake (1841) ; Celebration of German 
Union (1849) ; Moonlight (1851), Hamburg 
Gallery ; Foundation of Venice— Morning ; 
Arrival of Admirals after Battle of Lepan- 
to — Noon ; Singers on the Canal — Night 
(1854-57), Queen Victoria ; Ships in Gulf 
of Venice (1853), Evening from Tower Win- 
dow, Burial of Doge (1852), MoonUght Laud- 



scape (1861), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Evening Bell, Night iu Venice, Schack Cal- 
ler}-, ib. — Regnet, ii. 277 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvi. 166. 

STANHOPE, R. SPENCER, born in Eng- 
land ; contemporary. Belongs to Pre-Raph- 
aelite school ; paints highly elaborated dec- 
orative pictui'es akin in style to early Flor- 
entine art. Lives in Florence (1884). 
Works : Flight into Egypt (1862) ; Rizpah 
(1863) ; The Mill, Beauty and the Beast 
(1865); Footsteps of the Flock (1868); Rape 
of Proserpine (1869) ; Eve Tempted, Love 
and the Maiden, Banks of the St^-x (1877) ; 
The Shulamite, Cupid and Psyche (1878) ; 
Waters of Lethe (1880) ; Autumn (1881) ; 
The Shulamite (1882); Charon and Psyche 
(1883) ; Patience on a Monument (1884) ; 
Birth of Venus (1885) ; Why seek ye the 
Living among the Dead ? (1880). 

STANZIONI, MASSBIO, Cavahere, born 
in Naples in 1585, died there in 1656. Ne- 
apolitan school ; pupil in Naples of Fabrizio 
Santafede, of Caracciolo, and Corenzio ; af- 
terwards studied in Rome works of Anni- 
bale Can'acci and of Guido, and succeeded 
in imitating the colouring of the latter so 
well that he was called Guido Reni di Na- 
poli. His reputation won him the enmity 
of Spaguoletto, who persecuted him bitterly. 
Works : Lucretia, Naples Museum ; Cleo- 
patra, Palazzo Cassaro, Naples ; Deposition 
of Christ, over entrance inside Church of 
S. Martino, Naples ; St. Sebastian, Louvre ; 
Madonna, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — 
Lanzi, ii. 38 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole napolitaine ; 
Lavice, 223. 

STAPLEAUX, MICHEL GHISLAIN, 
born in Brussels, June 20, 1799, died iu 
1881. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of David ; won grand prizes in Antwerp 
(1822), Brussels (1823), and The Hague 
(1829), and became professor in the Brus- 
sels Academy. Works : Return of Prodi- 
gal Son, Prague Gallery ; Death of Cleo- 
patra ; Napoleon at St. Helena ; many por- 
traits of princely personages. — Immerzeel, 
iii. 108. 



STARKENBORGIl 



STAEKENBORGH, JACOBUS NICO- 
LAAS, Barou TJAEDA VAN, born atWehe, 
Oroniugen, in 1822. Landscape painter, 
self-taught ; studied old Dutch masters un- 
til 1849, when he visited America, Settled 
in Diisseldorf in 1852, whence he made 
sketching tours to Thuringia, Switzerland, 
and England. Member of Amsterdam Acad- 
emy. Medals: The Hague, 1857, Lyons, 
1865. Works : Invitation to Kirmess ; Har- 
vest ; Water Mill.— Miiller, 502. 

STAR OF EMPIRE, Emanuel Leutze, 
Capitol at Washington ; mural painting on 
staircase landing. House of Representatives. 
"Westward the star of empire takes its 
way." Represents an emigrant train cross- 
the Rocky Mountains. Painted in 18 — , 
for $20,000. 

STARK, JOSEF (AUGUST), born at 
Gratz, Styria, March 6, 1782, died there, 
July 23, 1838. History and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Vienna Academy under Maurer, 
then under Caucig and Lampi ; became di- 
rector of the Gratz Academy in 1817, and 
of the newly erected gallery in 1819. Vis- 
ited Italy in 1817 and 182G. Works : Su- 
sanna at the Bath (1816) ; Maximilian I. 
on the Martin Wall, Magdalen in the Des- 
ert (1826) ; Cimon taking his Father's Place 
in Prison (1828) ; Hylas and the Nymphs 
(1832) ; Baumkirchner defending the Neu- 
stadt Gate at Gratz in 1452, Venus, Count 
Atteras, Gratz ; St. John the Baptist, Chapel 
of the Joanueum, ib. ; Christ bearing the 
Cross, City Parish Church, ib. ; Christ in 
the Temple, Chapel of the former Ferdinan- 
deum, ib. — Hormayr's Archiv (1822), 696 ; 
(1823), 724 ; (1827), 179 ; Wurzbach, xxxvi. 
217. 

STARNINA, GHERARDO, born in Flor- 
ence in 1354 (?), died there in 1408 (?). 
Florentine school ; pupil of Antonio Vene- 
ziano, with whom he spent some years ; set- 
tled in Floi'ence, where, in spite of rude 
manners and a hot temper, he found pat- 
rons. In 1378 he became involved in the 
disturbances of the Ciompi, and fled for his 
life to Spain, where he acquired wealth in 



the exercise of his art. In 1387 he was 
again in Florence and took the freedom of 
the painters' company, appearing as Gherar- 
do d' Jacopo Starna. He was painting tliere 
in 1406, after which there is no trace of him. 
None of the pictures attributed to him by 
Vasari remain, though some of the frescos 
in the Chapel of the Duomo at Prato, a se- 
ries completed by Antonio Vite, the pupil of 
Stamina, may be his work. — C. & C, Italy, 
i. 493 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mou., ii, 177 ; ed. 
Mil., ii. 5 ; Burckhardt, 491, 497. 

STARVATION COVE (Bai des Todes, 
Bay of Death), Julius von Payer; canvas, 
H. 12 ft. X 14 ft. The final scene in Sii- 
John Franklin's Polar expedition ; one of a 
series of four pictures projected by the 
painter. Seven of the last survivors lie dead 
in their boat, which is seen in its whole 
length in the moonlight ; Captain Crozier, 
the only living one, bareheaded and musket 
in hand, is leaning forward fixedly watching 
a bear, whose head is seen at right watch- 
ing the corpses ; in the distance, two other 
bears ; at left, an expanse of ice. Painted 
in 1883.— London Times, Jan. 29, 1884; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 110, 123, 157 ; xx. 335 ; 
Allgem. K. C, viii. 601. 

STATTLER, ALBERT CORNEL, bom 
in Cracow in 1800, died in Rome after 
1870. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Lampi in Vienna, and in 1817 of St. 
Luke's Academy in Rome, where he was in- 
fluenced by Canova and Thorwaldsen, later 
by Overbeck, Joseph Hyzler, and Joseph 
Crafibnara. Painted portraits of Czartory- 
ski family in Vienna ; became professor in 
Cracow in 1831 ; soon after 1850 settled in 
Rome. Gold medal, Paris, 1844. Works : 
Moses on Mt. Sinai, Abel, Holy Family, St. 
Joachim with SS. Anna and Mary, Cracow ; 
Maccabees ; Madonna and Angels ; Madon- 
na di Neve ; Crucifixion ; Baptism of Christ ; 
Madonna surrounded by Angels ; Holy 
Family (1870); and many portraits. — Wurz- 
bach, xxxvii. 242. 

STAVEREN, JOHAN ADRIAENSZ 
VAN, born at Leyden, died there after 1668. 



218 



STEARNS 



Dutch school ; <^enre painter, painted her- 
mits, old men and women, in a highly fin- 
ished style like that of Gerard Don, whom 
he closely imitated. Works : Scholar in his 
Study, Louvre, Paris ; Hermit, Old Man in 
Prayer, Schoolmaster, Amsterdam Museum ; 
St. Jerome Praying (1(590), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; St. Francis in his Hermitage, 01- 

denburg Gallery; Hei-ring Seller, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 412. 

STEARNS, JUNIUS BRUTUS, born in 
Burlington, Vt., in 1810, died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Sept. 16, 1885. Portrait and figure 
painter. Elected N. A. in 1849. Works: 
Washington as a Soldier, a Statesman, a 
Farmer, and In Death (4 pictures), formerly 
in Abbott Collection in Spingler Institute, 
New York. 

STEELL, GOUKLAY, born in Edinburgh; 
contemporary. Animal painter, younger 
brother of Sir John Steell the sculptor. 
Exhibits at the Royal Academy, London, 
and at the Royal Scottish Academy, Edin- 
burgh, of which he is a membei'. He was 
appointed, after the death of Landseer in 
1873, animal painter in Scotland to the 
Queen. Several of his pictures have been 
engraved. 

STEEN, JAN, born in Leyden in 1G26, 
died there, bur- 
ied Feb. 3, 1679. 
Dutch school; 
genre painter, pu- 
pil at Utrecht of 
Nicolas Knupfer, 
and at the Hague ^ ^ 
of JanvanGoyen, /^^^^ .^ 
whose daughter "--r:^^ 

he married in 
1649 ; developed 
under the influence of Frans Hals and Adri- 
uan van Ostade. Lived for some time in 
Haarlem before 1648, when received into 
the guild of Leyden ; went to The Hague 




in 1649, lived there until 1653, then again 
at Leyden until 1658 or 1659. Said to have 
kept a brewery at Delft, where he lived for 
a short time, probably between 1650 and 
1652. At various times from 1661 to 1669 
he resided at Haarlem, in constant difficul- 
ties with creditors. Probably after his fa- 
ther's death, in 1669, he returned to Leyden, 
where, in 1672, he applied for a license to 
keep a tavern. His first wife having died 
in Haarlem in 1669, he mamed a widow, 
Maritje Herculens, in 1673. He standsfore- 
most among the greatest Dutch painters of 
familiar life, which he illustrated with rare 
mastery, lashing the follies and vices of his 
day with keen satire. Works : Music Mas- 
ter, National Gallery, London ; Girl with 
Spaniel (1663), Party of Eleven at Cards and 
Music, Country People in Tavern, Twelfth 
Night, Riotous Mirth before an Inn, Four 
Men and a Woman at Cards, Buckingham 
Palace, ib. ; Fishmonger, School Room, 
Bi'idgewater Gallery, ib. ; Jovial Party in 
Ale-House, Playing at Skittles, Lord Ash- 
burton, ib. ; The Glutton (1661), A Christen- 
ing, Merry Party by Village Inn, Mr. Hope, 
ib.; Family Scene, Interior, Love in the 
Country, three others, Mr. Munro, ib. ; 
Wedding, Painter singing to his Lute, Phy- 
sician writing Prescription, School Boys 
playing Tricks (1672), four others, Mr. Ba- 
ring, ib. ; Physician feeling Pulse of a Girl, 
Family taking Advantage of Mother's Nap, 
two companion pictures with Riotous Par- 
ties, Ajisley House, ib. ; Bad Company, Feast 
in a Tavern (1674), Louvre, Paris ; Benedic- 
ite, Comte Henri de Greflfulhe, Paris ; Art- 
ist's Portrait, Return from Festival, Woman 
Scouring, A Balcer, A Quack (2), St. Nicho- 
las's Day, Game of Tric-Trac, Peasant Wed- 
ding (1672), Banquet, The Dupe, Dancing 
Lesson, Jolly Inmates (1668), Sick Lidy, 
Drinking C'onplo, Family Scene, Orgie, Van 
der Hoop Museum, Amsterdam ; Eating 
Oysters, Wedding (1653), Six Collection, ib. ; 
Artist courting Maritje Herculens, Physician 
feeling Lady's Pulse, Prodigal Son, Van 
Loon Collection, ib. ; St. Nicholas's Day, 



219 



STEENWYCK 



Surgical Operation, Tobias healing his Fa- 
ther, Old Man Cutting Pen, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Dentist, Menagerie (IGGO), Sick-Room, 
similar subject, Steen's Family, The Inn, 
Hague Museum ; St. Nicholas's Day, Sur- 
gical Operation, Rotterdam Museum ; do., 
Twelfth Night, Gallant Proposal, Rhetori- 
cians, Museum, Brussels ; Marriage of Cana, 
Arenberg Gallery, ib. ; Samson insulted by 
Philistines, Country "Wedding, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Artist's Portrait, Suermondt Muse- 
um, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Philosopher Reading, 
Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Jan Steen in a Tav- 
ern Garden, Quarrel at Play, Frivolous Par- 
ty, Berlin Museum ; Wedding Contract, 
Merry Party, Brunswick Museum ; Tavern 
Garden, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Feast of the 
Bean, Tavern Scene, Cassel Gallery ; Miser 
surprised by Death, Triumphal Entry of 
Saul into Jerusalem .(1G71), Coj^enhagen 
Gallery ; Morning after Wedding, Gallery, 
Dessau ; Boy and Dog, Old Woman and 
Dog, Amalienstift, ib. ; Marriage at Cana, 
Woman feeding Child, Expulsion of Hagar, 
Dresden Museum ; Moses striking the Rock, 
Man joking with Servant Girl, Alchemist, 
Fish Market at Leyden, StLidel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Jolly Company, Gotha Museum ; 
Peasants in a Landscape, Interior wdth mer- 
ry Peasants, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Coveted 
Tid-Bits, Ivonigsberg Museum ; Quarrel be- 
tween Card Players (16G4), Doctor's Visit, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Music Assembly 
in Open Air, Oldenburg Gallery ; Lovesick 
Maiden, Tavern Scene, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Peasant Wedding, Dutch Interior (1G63), 
Museum, Vienna ; Devotee, Baron Roths- 
child, ib.; Peasant Party, SchOnborn Gal- 
lery, ib.; Esther and Ahasuerus, Doctor's 
Visit, Musical Entertainment in a Garden, 
Game of Tric-Trac {1GG7), Tavern Scene, 
Wedding, Gouty Old Man, The Drinkers, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Young Violin- 
ist, Peasants at Table, Uffizi, Florence ; The 
Old Rat comes to the Trajo at last, Dutch 
Kirmess, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 
— Ch. Blanc, Ecole hollandaise ; Bode, Stu- 
dien, 193 ; Burger, Musues, i. 104, 252 ; ii. 



107, 2G2 ; Dohme, lii. ; Gower, Figure Paint- 
ers, 49 ; Graph. K., iii. 28 ; Immerzeel, iii. 
T 110; Kramm,v. 1562; 

' 'W Kugler (Crowe), ii. 

, ^ 401 ; Kunst-Chronik, 

^ A xvii. 2G7, 283, 574; 

Szea^.oOla^vv Nederlandsche 
-^ ' f^D Kunstbode (1881), 

J>Vl£^f^ JJtk^ 225; Riegel, Bei- 
^ y^"^^ triige, ii. 32G ; Wed- 

more, Masters of Genre Painting, 106 ; 
Westrheene, Jan Steen (Hague, 1856); Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, iii. 190 ; v. 228 ; viii. 353 ; xiv. 
253, 315, 343. 

STEENWYCK, HENDRIK VAN, the 
elder, born at Steenwyck about 1550, died 
at Frankfort in 1604. Flemish school ; ar- 
chitecture painter, pupil of Jan Fredeman de 
Vries ; master at Antwerp in 1577. Went 
to Germany in 1579. Painted chiefly church 
interiors, generally with figures by some of 
the Francken family. The first to repre- 
sent the effect of the light of torches and 
tapers on architectural forms. Works : Vesti- 
bule Interior, National Gallery, London ; Il- 
luminated Cathedral, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Buildings, Hague Museum ; Interior of St. 
Peter's at Louvain, Brussels Museum ; A 
Market (1598), Brunswick Gallery ; Court- 
Yard of a Palace (1588), Amalienstift, Des- 
sau ; Interior of Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral 
(1573), Schleissheim Gallery ; Liberation of 
St. Peter (1604), Gothic Church Interior, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Prison of St. John the Bap- 
tist, Uffizi, Florence ; others in Aschafifen- 
burg (2), Cassel (5), Christiania, St. Peters- 

Henr. V, J tun ^cK 

burg (3), and Stuttgart Galleries. — Kramm, 
V. 1568 ; Michiels, vi. 203 ; Riegel, Bei- 
triige, ii. 34 ; Siret (1883), ii. 294. 

STEENWYCK, HENDRHi VAN, the 
younger, born in Amsterdam (?) or in Frank- 
fort about 1580, died in London, after 1649. 
Flemish school ; architecture painter, son 



230 



STEFANO 




and pupil of Hendrik van Steenwyok the el- 
der ; fellow scholar with Pieter Neefs. Paint- 
ed architectural 
backgrounds for 
many of Van 
Dyck's pictures. 
Worked first at 
Antwerp ; after 
1629 in England, 
when Charles I. 
ordered several 
pictiires from him. 
"Works : Christ be- 
fore the High Priest, Peter's Denial, Ma- 
drid Museum ; Jesus with Martha and i\Iary 
(1620), four Church Interiors, Louvre, Paris ; 
View of a Public Scjuaro (1614), Hague Mu- 
seum ; Interior b}' Caudle-Light, Suermondt 
Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Liberation of 
Peter (2), Gothic Church Intenor, Bruns- 
wick Gallery ; A Prison (1619), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Liberation of Peter (2, one dated 
1631), Darmstadt Museum ; Terrace before 
Vestibule of Renaissance Building (1618), 
Leipsic Museum ; Italian Palace (1623), In- 
terior of Sacristy (1631), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Interior of Renaissance Palace 
(1611), three others, Schwerin Gallery ; 
three Church Interiors (1609, 1611, 1611), 
Hall of Castle (1637), Dresden Gallery ; 
Liberation of Peter (1621, 1633), Church 
Interior, do. (1605), Vienna Museum ; 
Gothic Church Interior, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; do., Gotha Museum ; St. Peter in 
Prison, Church Interior, and others, Hamp- 

ton Court. — Ch. Blanc, I^^cole flamande ; 
Kramm, v. 1568 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 35, 
73 ; Siret (1883), ii. 291. 

STEFANO DA FERRARA, born in Fer- 
rara in 14 — , died there, Jan. 17, 1500. 
Lombard school ; real name probably Ste- 
fano Falzagalloni ; pupil of Squarcione. 
His decorations of a chapel in S. Antonio, 



Padua, mentioned in 1445 by Michele Sa- 
vonarola as a marvel of art, were destroyed 
in 1500, He also painted the Madonna del 
Pilastro on one of the pillars of the same 
church. Two pictures attributed to him in 
Brera, Milan : one, Madonna with Saints, is 
in the manner of Tui-a ; the other. Madonna 
Enthroned between Saints, is rather attrib- 
utable to Rondinello.-C. k C, N. Italy, i. 528; 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., v. 179 ; ed. Mil., iii. 407 ; 
Lanzi, iii. 189 ; Ch. Blanc, I^cole ferraraise. 

STEFANO DI GIOVANNI, first half of 
15th century. Sienese school ; commonly 
known as Sassetta. He imitated the formal 
arrangement, painful minuteness of out- 
lines, and the softer curves of draperies 
which distinguish Ugolino and Segna. The 
Birth of the Virgin, in the sacristy of the 
Duomo at Asciano, the Madonna with Saints 
(1436), in the Osservanza outside Siena, and 
a similar one, in S. Domenico, Cortona, are 
by him.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 74. 

STEFANO DA VERONA. See Stefano 
da Zevio. 

STEFANO DA ZEVIO, the elder, flour- 
ished in latter part of 14th century. Veron- 
ese school ; painted frescos in the choir of 
the Basilica of S. Zevio, Verona ; Crucifixion, 
near the door of the sacristy there ; Madonna 
Enthroned (fresco), over an altar in the 
church at Illasi. — Bernasconi, 220. 

STEFANO DA ZEVIO, the younger, 
born at Zevio, near Verona, in 1393, died 
in 1450. Veronese school ; called also Ste- 
fano da Verona. He was the contemporary 
and perhaps pupil of Vittor Pisano, but he 
was far froni equalling him in grace, draw- 
ing, and expression. He is praised by Va- 
sari, but the examples he has left show that 
he followed in the beaten track of the min- 
iaturists, and cared more for niiniite finish 
than for drawing and modelling. "Works : 
Fresco, Madonna and Saints, Casa Sona, 
Verona ; Prophets, etc., over small door, S. 
Eufemia, Verona ; Adoration of the Magi 
(1435), Brera, Milan.— C. <S: C, N. Italy, i. 
458 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vi. 8(J ; Lanzi, iL 
88 ; Bernasconi, 226. 



321 



STEFFAN 



STEFFAN, JOHANN GOTTFEIED, 
born at Wiidenswyl, Switzerland, Dec. 13, 
1815. Landscape painter, pupil of the Mu- 
nich Academy under Cornelius, after study- 
ing lithography. Devoted himself to land- 
scape in 1841, taking Rottmann for model. 
Made excursions to Bavarian and Swiss Alps, 
Upper Italy, and with Friedrich Voltz to Par- 
is. Medals in Berne and Vienna. Works : 
Woodland near Bei'chtesgadeu, two others, 
Basle Museum ; View near Meiringen (1852), 
Approaching Storm in Canton Glarus, Berne 
Museum ; Autumn Morning, View on Brienz 
Lake, St. Gall Museum ; Mountain Brook, Zu- 
rich Gallery ; Reichenbach Fall (1853) ; Among 
Higher Alps, NewPinakothek, Munich ; Four 
Seasons in four Swiss Landscapes (1857) ; 
View on Vierwaldstatter Lake (1860) ; Moun- 
tain Brook ; Chillon on Lake of Geneva 
(1862); Waterfall in Norway, Provinzial Mu- 
seum, Hanover ; Autumn in South Germany 
(1864), Konigsberg Museum ; Valley of the 
Elm in Canton Glarus (1865) ; View in Ba- 
varian Highlands (1866) Leipsic Museum ; 
Rocky Gorge of Aare (1870) ; Gmunden 
Lake (1873) ; Heights of Brienz Lake 
(1877) ; Autumn Day in St. Gallen Alps 
(1878), Dresden Gallery ; View of Ramsau 
(1879) ; Ravine and Torrent on Glarner Alp, 
Waterfall after Storm (1882) ; Gorge at Ro- 
senlaui Glacier (1885). — Miiller, 503 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 853. 

STEFFECK, KARL, born in Berlin, 
April 4, 1818. Ani- 
mal painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy under 
Kriiger and Begas, of 
Delaroche in Paris in 
1839, and studied in 
Italy in 1840-42. Be- 
gan with animal pict- 
ures, but soon com- 
bined history and 
genre with them; 
paints also good portraits, especially eques- 
trian. Director of Konigsberg Academy 
since 1880. Member of Berlin and Vienna 
Academies. Medals : Berlin, Pai-is, 3d class. 




1855, and Philadelphia ; L. of Honour, 1878 ; 
Prussian Crown Order, 2d class, 1885. Works: 
Godfrey of Bouillon rescuing Hermit from 
Bear (1838) ; Span of Buffaloes (1849), Kon- 
igsberg Museum ; Capture of a Standard 
by Margrave Albrecht Achilles (1848), Span- 
iels fighting for Sun-Shade (1850), Mare 
with Colts (1877), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Horse Pond ; Dead Colt ; Hare, Fox on the 
Watch (1859) ; Work Horses (1860) ; Catch- 
ing Wild Horses ; King Wilhelm at Sadowa 
(1867), Royal Palace, Berlin ; Scene in An- 
teroom, Ravene Gallery, ib.; String of Horses 
(1872) ; Racing (1874) ; Gypsy Boy riding 
through a Wood (1876); Stag Hunt in Grii- 
newald, Meet, Stettin Museum ; Portraits 
of Emperor Wilhelm, Crown Prince, and 
Field Marshal Manteuffel. In fresco : Epi- 
sode after Battle of Sedan (1884), Arsenal, 
Berlin. — Andresen, v. 104 ; Jordan (1885), 
ii. 220; Miiller, 504; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xviii. 886 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 289 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 197 ; Leixner, Mod. 
K, ii. 115 ; Land und Meer (1883), ii. 260. 
STEINBRUCK, EDUARD, born at Mag- 
deburg, May 3, 1803, died at Landeck, Si- 
lesia, Feb. 3, 1882. History and genre 
painter, pvipil of Wach in Berlin in 1822- 
29 ; went to Diisseldorf in 1829, then to 
Rome, and returned to Berlin in 1833. Af- 
ter a long residence in Diisseldorf, settled 
in Berlin in 1846, but retired to Landeck, 
Silesia, in 1876. Member of Berlin Acad- 
emy in 1841 ; professor in 1854. AVorks : 
Expulsion from Paradise, Angel at the Gate 
of Heaven (1825); Hagar in the Desert (1829); 
Roman Woman hunting as a Nymph ; Ma- 
donna and Child ; Children Bathing (1834), 
Mary among the Elves (1840), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; replica of latter, Raczynski 
Gallery, ib.; St. Genevieve (1835), Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Thisbe listening at the 
Wall (1836) ; Red Riding Hood and Wolf ; 
Adoration of Shepherds and Kings ; Undine 
(1839) ; Elfin Dance (1842) ; Parable of the 
Sower (1842); Lord's Supper (1844); Christ 
on the Cross, Entombment, St. Jacob's, 
Magdeburg ; Adoration of Shepherds, Hed- 



STEINER 



wig Church, Berlin ; Episode in Magde- 
burg's Destruction ; Hylas caiTied off by 
Nymphs ; Guardian Angel and Water- 
Sprites (1870) ; Lorelei, Riibezahl (1872) ; 
Erl-King's Daughters (1874). In fresco : 
Ceiling Medallions, New Museum, Berlin ; 
Resurrection, Angels, Chapel of Palace, ib. ; 
Christ on Mount of Olives, Church of Peace, 
Potsdam.— Miiller, 504 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
222 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malerscli., 51 ; Wo%. 
Muller, Diisseldf. K., 18G ; Wiegmann, 144. 

STEINER, JOHANN NEPOMUK, born 
at Iglau, Moravia, May 16, 1725, died in Vi- 
enna in 1792. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, self-taught ; went to Rome, 
where he took Raphael Mengs for his model. 
In 1751 visited Venice ; then lived in Iglau, 
until the Empress Maria Theresa called him 
to Vienna as court painter about 1755. 
Member of Academy in 1767. Works : 
Death of St. James ; St. Aloysius, Ignatius 
Loyola, Martyrdom of Stephen ; St. Jose^Dh, 
A Chemist, Vienna Academy. Portraits of 
Maria Theresa, Joseph II., Prince Kau- 
uitz, Field-Marshal Loudon, the Poet Me- 
tastasio. Fresco paintings in different 
churches. — Wurzbach, xxxviii. 69 ; Nagler, 
xvii. 286. 

STEINFELD, FRANZ, born in Vienna, 
May 26, 1787, died at Pisek, Bohemia, Nov. 
8, 1868. Landscape jjfiinter, pupil of his 
father and of Prokop in sculpture, then of 
Vienna Academy in painting. Appointed 
chamber painter by Archduke Anton in 
1815 ; became corrector at Vienna Academy 
in 1837, professor in 1838, Travelled much 
in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, 
Holland, Belgium, and France. Gold medal 
in 1848. His style sometimes recalls Ruis- 
dael. He probably painted about 800 pict- 
ures. Works : Rocky Landscape near Ba- 
den (1820); Hallstadt Lake (1834); Swampy 
Wood and Deserted Mill (1846), Vienna 
Museum ; Day-Break (1847) ; Gastein 44 
Years ago (1857). — Wurzbach, xxxviii. 81 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, iv. 84 ; Naglei-, xvii. 288. 

STEINFURTH, HERMANN, born in 
Hamburg in 1824, died there, Feb. 7, 1880. 



History and portrait painter, pupil in Diis- 
seldorf of Karl Sohn, and of the Academy 
under Schadow in 1845-52 ; returned to 
Diisseldorf after having A'isited Italy, and 
settled in Hamburg. Works : Entombment 
(1844) ; Education of Jupiter (1846), Co- 
logne Museum ; Abduction of Hylas (1847) ; 
Resurrection of Christ, Peter, Paul, St. Pe- 
ter's, Hamburg ; Diana sur prised by Actse- 
on (1847), Tithonus abducted by Eos, Tar- 
tarus, Bacchantes, Portraits of Hermann 
Kauffmann, Ludwig Knaus, of himself, and 
three others, Kunsthalle, ib. — Kunst-Chi'o- 
nik, XV. 386 ; Graph. K., ii. 60. 

STEINHAUSEN, ^VILHEL:M, born at 
Sorau, Feb. 2, 1846. History painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Berlin Academy in 1863 
-66, and of Carlsruhe Art School until 1869. 
Resided in Berlin ; spent a year in Rome, 
and settled in Frankfort in 1876 ; illustrates 
especially religious subjects. Works: Pe- 
ter's Deliverance from Prison ; History of 
the Birth of Our Lord (1872) ; Labourer in 
the Vineyard (1881). In fresco : Decora- 
tions of Ravenstein House, Frankfort. — Miil- 
ler, 505. 

STEINHAUSER, PAULINE, nee Frank, 
died in 1816. History painter, Avife of the 
sculptor Karl Steinhiiuser. Works : Queen 
Esther, Schloss Bellevue, Berlin ; Iphigenia, 
Friiulein von Waldenburg, ib. ; Christ and 
the Woman of Samaria, Infant St. John 
(1846), Archangel Michael, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Genius of the Vine (1848) ; Madonna 
(1862).— Cotta's Kunstbl., 1848 ; D. Kunst- 
bl., 1857 ; Dioskuren, 1862. 

STEINHEIL, LOUIS CHARLES AU- 
GUSTE, born at Strasburg, June 2(;, 1814, 
died in Paris in May, 1885. Genre, portrait, 
and flower painter, pupil of Decaisne. Haa 
latterly devoted himself to glass painting 
and church decoration. Medals : 3d class, 
1847 ; 2d class, 1848 ; 3d class, 1851 ; L. of 
Honour, 1860. Works : Consolations, Le- 
onora (1836) ; Young Virgin presented to 
Clirist (1840) ; St. Philomena (1841) : Ma- 
terfamilias, INIy Finger told nic so (1845) ; 
Fruit and Wine, Interior (1846) ; Mother 



22:} 



STEINICKE 



(1847), Nantes Museum ; Soap - Bubbles 
(1847); Young Mother, Morning (1848) ; 
Woman and her Child, Gillyflowers (1849). 
— Larousse ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 589. 

STEINICKE, HEINRICH, born at Leer, 
East Friesland, May 5, 1825. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Hanover Polytechnic School; 
then studied at The Hague, and since 1852 
in Diisseldorf ; has made frequent sketch- 
ing tours to Holland, Norway, Bavaria, Aus- 
tria, Switzerland, and Italy. "Works: Fjord 
in Norway (1855) ; Chiem Lake, Bavarian 
Mountain Landscape (1858), Stettin Muse- 
um ; Ober Lake (1859), Courtray Museum ; 
Approaching Storm (1860) ; Evening in 
Mountains (1862), Emperor Wilhelm ; Even- 
ing on the Heath (1864), Provinzial Muse- 
um, Hanover ; Noon Rest on Mountain Lake ; 
German Landscape. — Miiller, 505. 

STEINKOPF, GOTTLOB FRIEDRICH 
YON, born in Stuttgart in 1779, died there 
in 1861. Landscape and history painter, son 
and pupil of Johann Friedrich Steinkopf 
(1737-1825, court painter in Stuttgart in 
1801). Went to Vienna in 1799, and to Rome 
in 1807, where he was intimate with Koch, 
Schick, and Overbeck, and took Claude Lor- 
rain and Poussin for his models ; lived in 
Vienna in 1814-21, then in Stuttgart, where 
he became instructor at the Art School in 
1829, professor in 1833, director in 1845, 
and retired in 1855. Honorary member of 
Berlin Academy in 1825, of Vienna Acad- 
emy in 1836. Wurtemberg Crown Order. 
Works : Morning of Sacrifice (1810) ; Re- 
turn of Hercules from Lion Hunt (1812); 
Italian Vintage, Ulysses and Nausicaa (1818 
-20) ; Evening in Italy (1828) ; Cleobis and 
Biton (1833) ; Suabian Spring (1839) ; Ely- 
sian Fields (1843), Stuttgart Museum ; 
Views near Stuttgart (1827), Villa Rosen- 
stein near Stuttgart. — Wurzbach, xxxviii. 
106. 

STEINLE, EDUARD, born in Vienna, 
July 2, 1810, died at Frankfort, Sept. 19, 
1886. History painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy and of Kiipelwieser ; went in 1828 
to Rome, where Overbeck and Veit befriend- 




ed him ; returned in 1834, visited Frankfort 
in 1837, studied fresco j^ainting in Munich 
under Cornelius in 1838, 
settled in Frankfort in 
1842, and became pro- 
fessor at the Stiidel In- 
stitute there in 1850. 
Next to Overbeck, with 
whose style he has iden- 
tified himself, and to 
Fiihrich, he is the most 
distinguished represent- 
ative of religious art in 
Germany. Member of Berlin, Vienna, Mu- 
nich, and Hanau Academies. Gold medal 
for art and science ; gold medal, Paris, and 
L. of Honour, 1855 ; Order of Leopold, 
1860 ; do. of Francis Joseph, etc. Oil paint- 
ings : St. Luke painting the Virgin (1840), 
Basle Museum ; Solomon's Judgment (1840), 
Empei'ors Albrecht I. and Ferdinand HI. 
(1841), ROmer, Frankfort ; Sibylla Tibur- 
tina (1848), Stiidel Gallery, ib.; Madonna 
(1854), St. Leonard's, ib. ; Visitation (1841), 
Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; do. (1848), Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Madonna Fontana (1854), Vi- 
enna Museum ; Castle Ward (1854), Weimar 
Museum ; Madonna (1856), Speyer Cathe- 
dral ; St. Joseph (1859), St. Mary's, Aix-la- 
Chapelle ; Warder of Tower (1858), Fiddler 
in Tower (1862), Lorelei (1864), Adam and 
Eve (1867), Schack Gallery, Munich ; Ado- 
ration of the Cross (1885): Water-colours : 
Madonnas, Saints, and many biblical and 
religious subjects ; illustrations to German 
Fairy Tales (1861-74) ; do. to Dante (1835), 
Shakespeare (1868-72) ; do. to Wolfram von 
Eschenbach (1875) ; five scenes from Par- 
cival (1884) ; allegories, landscapes, etc. 
In fresco : The Eight Beatifications (1838- 
40), Chapel of Castle Rheineck, Rhenish 
Prussia (cartoons for do., Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort) ; Choir of Angels (1843-46), Co- 
logne Cathedral (cartoons in Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery) ; ceiling and wall paintings (1857-58), 
St. Egidius, Miinster ; scenes in History of 
Art and Civilization in Cologne (1860-63), 
Staircase, Cologne Museum ; seven pictures 



224 



STELLA 



on Dogma of Immaculate Conception (1805), 
St. Mary's, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Coronation of 
the Virgin, Choir of Angels, Saints, etc. 
(1876), Miinster Cathedral ; about fifty col- 
oured and other cartoons (1833-79) ; two 
(1846, 1868), National Gallery, Berlin.— Art 
Journal (1865), 204; Jordan (1885), ii. 223; 
Graph. K., iv. 77 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 557 ; 
xxii. 137 ; Wurzbach, xxxviii. 108 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, Y. 24, 54 ; Allgem. K. Chr., viii. 501 ; 
Schack, Meine Gemilldesammlung (1884), 
86. 

STELLA, FRANgOIS, born at Lyons in 
1603, died in Paris, July 26, 1647. French 
school ; history painter, younger brother 
and pupil of Jacques Stella, whom he fol- 
lowed to Italy, returning with him to Paris 
in 1634. He was not the equal of Jacques, 
but was painter in ordinai'y to the king and 
executed works for the oratory of the queen 
at Saint-Germain. The Orleans Museum 
possesses a H0I3' Family, and St. John pre- 
senting a Cross to Infant Jesus, by him. — 
Mariette, Abecedario, v. 257 ; Bellier, ii. 
524 ; Jal, 1149. 

STELLA, JACQUES, born at Lyons in 
1595, died in Paris, 
April 29, 1657. 
French school ; his- 
tory painter, son of 
Franyois Stella 
(1563-1605), a 
Flemish artist, who 
left a number of 
able works in the 
churches and con- 
vents of Lyons; 
went to Florence in 1616, was employed by 
Cosmo II. de' Medici, and in 1623 to Rome, 
where he studied Raphael and the old mas- 
ters, and was especially attracted by Pous- 
sin, whom he imitated. Returned to Paris 
in 1634, obtained a pension through Riche- 
lieu, became first painter to the king, and 
chevalier of St. Michael (1644), and trained 
a number of able artists. Works : Christ 
receiving tlie Virgin in Heaven, IVEinerva vis- 
iting the Muses, Louvre ; Holy Family, An- 




gers Museum ; Jesus and the Samaritan 
Woman, Rachel and the Messenger of Jacob, 
Grenoble Museum ; Madonna (2), Cavalry 
Charge, Havre Museum ; Adoration of Magi, 
Pastoral, Portrait of Artist, Lyons Museum ; 
Samaritan Woman, Montpellier Museum ; 
Assumption, Peasants' Dance, Nantes Mu- 
seum ; Bacchanal (2), Marriage of Virgin, 
Christ giving the Communion to St. Peter, 
Holy Family, Rouen Museum ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Nimes Museum ; Sunset, Montauban 
Museum ; Diana and Nymphs, Infant Christ 
adored by Angels, Oldenburg Gallery ; An- 
nunciation, Holy Family, C/t\, 
Venus and Adonis, Hermit- C/X 
age, St. Petersburg ; Judg- C^. jj 
ment of Solomon, Vienna /Jt^tXLu 
Museum. — Mariette, Abe- / 6 7 <) 
cedario, v. 256 ; ]^] m e r i c j-/i 
David, Notices historiques ^ ^^HOM^^ 
. . . peinture moderne (Paris, 1854) ; 
Bellier, ii. 524 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole franjaise ; 
Jal, 1149. 

STEPHAN, MEISTER. See Meister Ste- 
phan. 

STEPHEN, ST., ]\IARTYRDO:\I OF, 
Charles Lebrun, Louvre ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 
1 in. X 10 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 1051. St. 
Stephen, stoned to death by the Jews (Acts 
vii.). He is lying on his back in the fore- 
ground, with hands outstretched and eyes 
upraised, while the rabble are stoning him ; 
in background, left, the walls and gate of 
the city ; at right, spectators ; above, God 
the Father, Christ, and angels with the 
crown and palm of martyrdom. Painted 
for the guild of jewellers and placed in 
Notre-Dame. Engraved by G. Edelinck ; 
E. Picart ; Gerard Audran ; Brissart ; Du- 
flos; Bazin ; Gantrel ; Tardieu. — Rc'veil, ii. 
76. 

By Tintoretto, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice; 
canvas. The saint, in a prelate's dress, kneel- 
ing in foreground, the stones flying thickly 
about him and covering the ground ; in the 
middle of the jiieture, several men throwing 
stones, and boliind tliom a confused crowd ; 
Paul seated on ground in front of them ; 



S36 



STERN 



above, Christ, the Father, and St. Michael. 
Beside Stephen is a book crushed by stones, 
which have torn out one of its leaves ; tyj)i- 
cal of the blind rage of the Jews, who vio- 
lated their own law in murdering Stephen. — 
Kuskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 303 ; Zanotto, 
633. 

Subject treated also by Pietro da Cox-tona, 




Martyrdom of St. Stephen, Charles Lebrun, Louvre. 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Annibale Car- 
racci, Louvre, Paris ; Rubens, Valenciennes 
Museum ; Bernardo Gaddi, S. Croce, Flor- 
ence ; Giulio Romano, S. Stefano, Genoa ; 
Doraenichino, National Gallery, London ; 
Domenico Passignani, S. Spirito, Florence ; 
Albrecht Altdorfer, Maurice Chapel, Nu- 
remberg ; Guercino, Dresden Museum ; Al- 
essandro Turchi, ib. ; Ludovico Cigoli, Uf- 
fizi, Florence ; Bartholomeus Brunbergh, 
Louvre ; Eustache Lesueur, Hermitage, St. 



Petersburg ; Eugene Delacroix (1853), Ar- 
ras Museum ; Alphonse Legros (1866), Av- 
ranches Museum ; Jean Baptiste PieiTe, 
Marseilles Museum. 

STERN, IGNAZ, called Stella, born at 
Ingolstadt in 1698, died in Rome in 1746. 
Italian school; history painter, pupil of Ci- 
gnani in Bologna. Resided later in Rome. 
Works : Madonna and Cherubim, 
do. and St. John, Germanic Muse- 
um, Nuremberg; Madonna and 
Child, Vienna Museum ; Annuncia- 
tion, Church of Annunciation, Pia- 
cenza ; several altarpieces, St. Ehz- 
abeth's, Rome. 

STETTEN, KARL VON, born at 
Augsburg ; contemporary. History 
and portrait painter, jiupil of Jules 
Lefebvre, Boulanger, Courtois, and 
Daguan. Studio in Paris. Works : 
Death of Cleobis and Biton (1884) ; 
The Evening (1885) ; Portraits 
(1886). 

STEUBEN, ALEXANDRE JO- 
SEPH, Baron de, born in Paris, 
June 22, 1814, died there, June 7, 
1862. Figure and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Charles de Steu- 
ben, and pupil of Ligres. He spent 
ten years in Russia, where he paint- 
ed for the Cathedral of St. Isaac, 
by order of the emperor, Jacob 
blessing his Children. He lived also 
three years in Rome. Medal, 3d 
class, 1840. Works: Rubens (1840); 
Episode of the Youth of Milton 
(1842); Bath at the Fountain, Wom- 
en of the Environs of Rome (1845). — Bel- 
lier, ii. 526. 

STEUBEN, CHARLES, Baron de, born 
at Bauerbach, Baden, April 19, 1788, died 
in Paris, Nov. 21, 1856. French school ; 
history and portrait painter, son of an offi- 
cer in the Russian service, pupil of St. 
Petersburg Academy, and in Paris of Ge- 
rard, Robert Lefebvre, and Prudhon. Mem- 
ber St. Petersburg Academy, 1833. Di- 
rector of drawing in Paris Polytechnic 



STEVAERTS 



School in 1837. Kesidecl in Russia in 18-44- 
54, then returned to Paris. Medal in 1819 ; 
L. of Honour in 1828 ; Order of Red Eagle, 
1841. Works : Peter the Great in Storm 
on Lake Ladoga (1812), Amiens Museum ; 
St. Germain giving his Property to the Poor 
(1819), Church of St. Germain-dcs-Pres ; 
Mercury putting Ai-gus to Sleep, Palace of 
Compic'gne, Tell springing from Gessler's 
Boat (1822), Oath on the Griitli (1824), de- 
stroyed in Palais Royal in 1848 ; Episode of 
Youth of Peter the Great (1827), Valenci- 
ennes Museum ; Innocence taking Refuge 
with Justice, Ninon de L'Enclos giving her 
Library to Voltaire (1827) ; Rousseau's First 
Interview with Mme. de Warens ; Return 
from Elba ; Battle of Waterloo (183.^) ; 
Jeanne la Folle awaiting her Husband's 
Resurrection (183G), Lille Museum ; Defeat 
of Abderahman by Charles Martel (1838), 
Versailles Museum ; Esmeralda and Quasi- 
modo (1839), Nantes Museum ; Christ 
stripped of his Vestments on Calvary, Ju- 
dith, Napoleon with the King of Rome 
(1841) ; Joseph and Potijihar's Wife, Sain- 
son and Delilah (1843) ; Battle of Ivry, and 
Portraits, ceiling in Louvre ; Porti'aits of 
Charles U., Louis HI. and Carloman, Louis 
rV., Hugues Capet, Anne of Austria, Louis 
de Luxembourg, General Desaix, General 
Pichegru, Louis de France — Due d'Anjou, 
Louis de France — Due d'Orleans, Marquise 
de Pompadour, Versailles Museum ; As- 
sumption, Strasburg Cathedral ; Resurrec- 
tion, Joachim and Anna, Assumption, Birth 
of St. John Baptist, Entry of Christ into 
Jerusalem, Crucifixion, Virgin at the Tomb, 
Cathedral of St. Isaac, St. Petersburg. His 
wife, Mme. la baronne de Steuben (nee 
Eleonoi'e Anne Trolle), born in Paris, Dec. 
25, 1788, died there, Dec. 29, 18G9, was a 
good portrait painter, pui)il of her hus- 
band and of Robert Lefebvre. — Revue uni- 
ver. des Arts, iv. 280 ; L'Artiste (1843), iv. 
21 ; Revue franyaise (1856), vii. 440 ; Bel- 
lier, ii. 525 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 
432. 

STEVAERTS. See Palamedesz. 




STEVENS, ALFRED, born in Brussels, 
May 11, 1828. Genre painter, pupil of the 
Paris £cole des B. 
Arts, then in Brus- 
sels of Navez, and 
in Paris of Roque- 
plan ; has acquired 
great fame with 
his graceful repre- 
sentations of ele- 
gant modem inte- 
riors, enlivened 
with women's and 
children's figures. Medals : Brussels, 1851 ; 
Paris, 3d class, 1853 ; 2d class, 1855 ; 1st 
class, 1867, 1878 ; Order of Leopold, 1855 ; 
Officer, 1803, afterwards Commander ; L. of 
Honour, 1803 ; Officer, 1867 ; Command- 
er, 1878 ; Commander of Austrian Order 
of Francis Josej^h, and of Bavarian Order 
of St. Michael. Works : Discouragement of 
Artist, Love of Gold (1853); Masquei-ade on 
Ash Wednesday (1853), Marseilles Museum ; 
What is called a Vagabond, First Day of 
Devotion, Meditation (1855) ; Consolation 
(1857), Ravenc Gallery, Berlin ; At Hojue, 
Summer (1857) ; A Mother, The Bouquet, A 
Widow, News (1861); The Visit, Return from 
the Assembly, Innocence, Miss Fauvette, etc. 
(1867) ; Lady in Pink (1867), Brussels Mu- 
seum ; Lady in Studio (1878) ; Conversti- 
tion (1881), Morgan sale. New York, 1886, 
$3,500 ; By the Shore (1882), Seney sale, 
ib., 1885. In fresco : Allegories on Four 
Seasons, Royal Palace, Brussels. — Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1874), i. 203 ; (1876), ii. 269 ; (1877), 
i. 16 ; (1882), ii. 601 ; Larousse, xiv. 1100 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., x. 310 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1878), xvii. 160, 335. 

STEVENS, JOSEPH, born in Brussels in 
1822. Genre and animal painter, brother of 
preceding; self-taught, studying in Paris; first 
exhibited in Brussels in 1844 ; in Paris, 1847. 
Medals : Paris, 2d class, 1852, 1855, 1857 ; 
Order of Leopold, 1851 ; Officer, 1865 ; 
L. of Honour, 1801. Works : Bitch and 
her Companion, The Mendicants, Faithful 
rather than Happy, etc. (1844-46) ; Torture 



227 



STEVER 




of Tantalus (1849) ; Prisoner's Dog (1850) ; 
Surprise, Bull pursued by Dog (1853) ; Street 
in Brussels in the Morn- 
ing (1851), Eouen Mu- 
seum ; Episode in Dog- 
Sbow at Paris (1855), 
Brussels Museum ; Hap- 
py Moment, Monkey 
stealing Dainties (1859); 
Prestidigitator, Melan- 
cholia of First Pipe 
(1857); Dog and Fly 
(1878), etc. — Larousse, 
xiv. 1100 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1880), xxii. 360. 
STEVER, GUSTAV CURT, born in Riga, 
May 16, 1823, died in Diisseldorf, March 17, 
1877. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Berlin Academy in 1847 ; went to Stock- 
holm in 1850 to paint portraits for court and 
University of Upsala ; in 1845 studied in 
Paris under Couture ; settled in Hamburg 
in 1859, in Diisseldorf in 1865. Professor ; 
Mecklenburg House Order. Works : Death 
of the Wend King Gottschalk ; Abishag and 
David (1860), Schwerin Gallery ; Transfig- 
uration ; Adoration of the Angels ; Last Sup- 
per ; Page and Waiting Woman (1868) ; 
Resurrection (1870) ; Dutch Family Life 
(1871) ; Christ and Peter on the Sea (1873) ; 
Adam and Eve beside Abel's Body (1874) ; 
Jean Mabuse painting his Sleeping Child ; 
Adam van Noort surprising Rubens at his 
Private Studies ; Van Dyck at the Easel ; 
Noble Lady of Old Germany ; Cavalier sing- 
ing with Lute (1875).— Blanckarts, 131 ; Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
858 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xii. 434 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K.,vi.l50. 
STEWART, 
JULnJSL.,bornin 
Philadelphia ; con- 
temporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of Za- 
macois, of Gcrome, 
and of Raimundo de 
Madrazo. Mention honorable, Paris Salon, 
1885. Works : Reading, La Maja (1878) ; 




Portrait (1879) ; Summer (1882) ; Court in 
Cairo (1883) ; Five o'clock Tea (1884) ; 
Hunt Ball (1885) ; Full Speed (1886), James 
Gordon Bennett. 

STIELER, JOSEF KARL, born in 
Mentz, Nov. 1, 1781, died in Munich, April 
9, 1858. Portrait and history painter, pupil 
of Fiisel in Wiirzburg, and of Fiiger in Vi- 
enna. Visited Poland in 1805, and painted 
portraits in Warsaw and Cracow ; then stud- 
ied under Gerard in Paris ; went to Frankfort" 
in 1808, to Milan in 1810, and proceeded as 
far as Rome. Called to Munich in 1812 to 
paint the royal family ; to Vienna for like 
pui*pose in 1816, Court painter in 1820. 
Works : Liberation of St. Leonard from 
Dungeon, St. Leonard's, Frankfort ; Por- 
traits of Goethe, Beethoven, Tieck, Hum- 
boldt, Schelling, Kings Max and Ludwig, of 
himself, his Daughter, and many others ; 
Gallery of Beautiful Women ; Portrait of 
Goethe (1828), Emperor Francis I. of Aus- 
tria (1817), Empress Caroline Auguste, Por- 
traits of Bavarian Princes and Princesses (9), 
Female Portrait, New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Gen. Tettenborn (1815), Hamburg Gallery. 
— Nagler, xvii. 348. 

STILHEID. See Lin. 

STILKE, HERMANN, born in Berlin, 
Jan. 29, 1803, died there, Sept. 22, 1860. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Kolbe. In 1821 went to Munich, 
then to Diisseldorf with Cornelius to learn 
fresco. After working in Coblentz and Mu- 
nich, visited Italy in 1827, and returned in 
1833 to Diisseldorf to join Schadow. Was 
employed in the Castle of Stolzenfels in 
1842-46, and from 1850 resided in Berlin. 
Professor in 1854. Works : Cinisaders' 
Watch (1834) ; St. George and Angel ; Sons 
of Edward IV,, National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Pilgrims in the Desert (1834), Raczynski 
Gallery, ib, ; Maid of Orleans (1837) ; Last 
Christians in Syria (1841), K(»nigsberg Mu- 
seum ; Tristan and Isolde ; Judith and Hol~ 
ofernes ; Amazons ; Last Judgment (with 
Stunner), Hall of Assizes, Coblentz, In 
fresco : Six Vii'tues of Chivalry (1842-46), 



STILLMAN 



•mine (nee 



Castle of Stolzenfels ; Royal Palace, Berlin ; 
Theatre, Dessau. His wife, Hermine (nee 
Peipers, 1808-69), was a land- 
scape and flower painter. — Jor- 
dan (1885), ii. 224 ; Wolfg. 
Miiller, Dtisseldf. K, 78; Wiegmann, 
155. 

STELL^IAN, MARIE SPARTALI; con- 
temporary. Daughter of a Greek merchant 
of London, and wife of W. J. Stillman. Sub- 
ject painter, pupil of Ford Madox Brown. 
Exhibits at Grosvenor Gallery. Works : 
Lady Pray's Desire (18G7); Christina (18G8); 
Brewing the Love Philter (1869) ; St. Bar- 
bara, Mystic Tryst (1870) ; Sir Launcelot 
disguised as a Fool (1873) ; Mona Lisa 
(1875) ; Last Sight of Fiammetta (1876) ; 
Roses and Lilies (1877) ; Gathering Orange 
Blossoms, Fiammetta Singing, Pensierosa 
(1879) ; Beatrice (1880) ; Among the Wil- 
lows of Tuscany, Meeting of Dante and 
Beatrice (1881) ; Crown of Wind Flowers, 
Legend of Fair Women (1882) ; Childhood 
of St. Cecilia (1883) ; Madonna, By a Deer 
Well (1881); Garland Makers (1885).— Port- 
folio (1870), 117. 

STIMINIER, TOBIAS, born at Schaffhau- 
sen in 1534: or 1539, died in Strasburg in 
1582. German school ; painted house dec- 
orations at Schaft'hausen, Strasburg, and 
Frankfort (1554), and portraits for the Mar- 
grave of Baden. Principal work an illus- 
trated Bible, which Rubens valued very 
highly. Portraits of Man and Wife (1564), 
Basle Museum ; Massaci'e of the Innocents, 
Solomon's Judgment (?), Hohenzollern Mu- 
seum, Sigmaringen ; Portrait of Herr von 
Schuyz and his Wife, Waagen Collection, 
Munich.— Kugler (Crowe), i. 270; Wolt- 
mann, D. Kunst im Elsass, 316. 

STIRRUP CUP (La Coupe de I'V'trier), 
Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, Sir Richard 
Wallace, Bart., Hertford House, London. 
Two cavaliers have stopped in front of an 
inn, at right ; one, mounted on a white 
horse, is drinking, while the other receives 
a glass from a man-servant. Painted in 
1865 ; pui'chased by Marquis of Hertford 



at Prince Paul Demidoff sale, Paris (1868). 
Never engraved. 

By Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, Sir 
Richard Wallace, London. Called La halte 
(The Halt). Three cavaliers, mounted re- 
spectively on a white, a bay, and a black 
horse, have stopped in front of an inn, in 
the door of which stand a man, smoking a 
pipe, and a child ; the cavalier at left is 
drinking, while a maid-servant ofiers the 
second one a glass from a tray ; at right, a 
cart, fowls, and village street with figures. 
Painted in 1862 for the Due de Morny, and 
afterwards enlarged at his request ; at his 
sale (1865), purchased b}^ Marquis of Hert- 
ford ; passed by inheritance to Sir R. Wal- 
lace. Etched by Flameng before the en- 
largement. 

By Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, J. W. 
Mackay, New York. Called Sans debrider 
(Without Dismounting). Two cavaliers have 
stopped to drink in front of the inn, and 
are attended by a man-servant and waiting- 
maid ; in background, a gallant takes his 
ease under shelter of the inn balcony. 
Painted in 1876 ; John Wilson sale, Paris 
(1881). Etched by Lalauze. 

Meissonier has treated this or a similar 
subject, with one, two, or three horsemen, 
several times. One, called A tournebride 
(At the Inn), painted in 1860, represents 
three cavaliers served by a man-servant. 
Another, painted in 1862, belongs to C. F. 
H. Bolckow, Marton Hall, near Middles- 
borough, England. A third, caUed Halte 
a I'auberge (Halt at the Inn), painted in 
1864, represents a single horseman drink- 
ing in fi'ont of an inn, a man holding a tray, 
and a woman and child at the inn door to 
left. Pictures bearing this title are owned 
by William J. Stewart, Paris, ami in the 
United States by J. H. Stebbius and D. O. 
Mills, New York. 

STITES, JOHN RANDOLPH, born in 
Bult'alo, N. Y., in 1836. Landscape painter ; 
self-taught. Has painted in Chicago, New 
Orleans, and New York. Works : The 
Grave Robbers (1870) ; The Young Natural- 



22!) 



STOBBAERTS 



ist (1875) ; Arctic Pastime (1878) ; West 
Farms — Autumn Stud}^ Tliomas B. Clarke, 
New York ; Autumn (1880), Erwin Davis, 
ib.; More Snow, E. J. Chaffee, ib.; Little 
Runaway, Dr. John Carr, ib. ; The Veteran, 
Four-year-old Soldier (1884), W. H. Fal- 
coner, ib. ; Convalescent (1882); Valencia 
Oranges (188-1) ; An Upland Ranch, Boston 
Art Club. 

STOBBAERTS, JEAN B/VPTISTE ; con- 
temporary. Animal painter, settled in Ant- 
werp. Medal at Vienna in 1873. Works : 
Cattle Market ; Work and Rest ; Right of 
the Strongest ; Meal-Time ; Dog Shearer ; 
Antwerp Slaughter House ; At the Stand ; 
Kitchen of a Lover of Animals. — Mtiller, 
507. 

STOBER, FRANZ, born in Vienna in 
1760, died in Speyer, Oct. 4, 1834. Land- 
scape jjainter, pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Brand. Visited the Netherlands, and 
settled in Speyer, where Baron von Hut- 
ten zu Stolzenburg made him insjDector of 
his gallery. Works : Falls of the Rhine at 
Schaffhausen ; Ruins of St. Jacob's Church 
in Speyer (1787), Vienna Museum. — Wurz- 
bach, xxxix. 74 ; Nagler, xvii. 382. 

STOCKLER, EMANUEL, born at Nik- 
olsburg, Moravia, Dec. 24, 1819. Land- 
scape and genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Joseph Mussmer and 
Thomas Ender. Travelled in Italy and 
the Orient ; appointed court painter in 
Russia ; visited Veuice in 1878. Francis 
Joseph Order in 1879. Works : Hall of 
the Assunta ; Baptistery of St. Mark's ; 
Ruins of Palace of Belisarius in Constan- 
tinople (1849), Vienna Museum ; Rococo 
Lady ; Page ; Girl sewing Wedding Dress, 
Madonna della SaUate — Venice, EmjDeror of 
Austria ; Duino near Trieste (1852) ; To- 
phana in Constantinople (1855) ; In Mon- 
tenegro (1869) ; and many water-colours, — 
Allgem. Kunst-Chrouik, ix. 166 ; Wurzbach, 
xxxix. 100. 

STOHL, HEINRICH, born in Vienna in 
1826. Landscape, architecture, and genre 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, then 



studied in Munich. Visited Bohemia, Up- 
per Austria, Munich, and Upper Italy. Suc- 
cessful in oil, but most of his pictures 
are water-colours in the possession of the 
Austrian imperial family and aristocracy. 
Works: Antechamber in Doge's Palace 
(1854); Interior of San Marco (1855) ; Portal 
of St. Zeno's in Verona (1856) ; Room from 
Golden Age of Venice (1858) ; Market in 
North Italy (1862); etc. — Wurzbach, xxxix. 
130. 

STOLTENBERG-LERCHE, VINCENT, 
born at Tunsberg, Norway, Sept. 5, 1837. 
Genre and interior painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy, then studied for some 
time in Venice. Visited the Rhine countries, 
Holland, France, and Scandinavia. Works : 
Interior of St. Lambertus in Diisseldorf 
(1862) ; Studio of Monk Painter ; Sacristy 
of St. Gereon in Cologne ; Cloister near 
Bornhofen ; Interior of Carmelite Church 
at Boppard ; Cloister of Kanep ; Repast in 
Monastery ; Beggars in Monastery ; Infal- 
lible Bowl (1870); Convent Library (1872) ; 
Collection Day at Monastery (1873), Chris- 
tiania Gallery ; Visit of a Cardinal at Mon- 
astery ; Tavern in Cologne at Time of Oc- 
cupation by the French (1880) ; Dinner at 
Munchausen's (1882). — Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
XX. 627 ; Miiller, 333 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1882), 
i. 407. 

STONE, FRANK, born in Manchester, 
Aug. 22, 1800, died in London, Nov. 18, 
1859. Genre painter, self-taught ; went to 
London in 1831 ; joined the old Water Col- 
our Society in 1832 ; exhibited at Royal 
Academy in 1837, and afterwards painted 
mostly in oil-colours. Elected an A.R.A 
in 1851. In 1856 he visited the French 
coast, and afterwards painted many French 
subjects. Works : Legend of Montrose 
(1840) ; Philip van Artevelde, Prince Charles 
and the Infanta (1841) ; The Last Appeal 
(1843) ; Course of True Love (1844) ; Im- 
pending Mate, Mated (1847) ; Christ and 
the Sisters of Bethany (1848) ; A Girl of 
Brittany, Alice (1849) ; Sympathy, Garden- 
er's Daughter (1850) ; Merchant of Venice 



230 



STONE 




(1851); Old, Old Story (1854); Bonjour 
— Messieurs (1857) ; Missing Boat (1858). 
Many of his works are engraved. — Ai't Jour- 
nal (185G), 333 ; (ISGO), 9. 

STONE, MARCUS, born in London, July 
4, 1840. History and 
genre painter, son and 
pupil of Frank Stone ; 
exhibited first picture, 
Kest, at Royal Acad- 
emy in 1858 ; elected 
an A.RA. in 1877. 
Has drawn many book 
illustrations. Works : 
Claudio accuses Hero 
(18G1) ; From Waterloo to Paris (18G3) ; 
Royalists seeking Refuge in the House of a 
Puritan (18G4) ; SteaHng the Keys (18GG) ; 
Nell Gwynne (18G7) ; Interrupted Duel 
(1868) ; Princess Elizabeth forced to attend 
Mass (18G9) ; Henry VHI. and Anne Boleyn 
(1870) ; Royal Nursery (1871) ; E.lward II. 
and Piers Gaveston (1872) ; Le Roi est 
mort— Vive le Roi ! (1873) ; My Lady is a 
Widow and Childless (1874) ; Sain et sauf 
(1875) ; Appeal for Mercy (187G) ; Sacrifice 
(1877) ; Post Bag, Time of Roses (1878) ; 
In the Shade, Summer Time (1879) ; Mar- 
ried for Love (1881) ; Bad News (1882) ; 
Oflfer of Marriage, Asleep (1883) ; Fallen 
Out, Reconciled (1884) ; Gambler's Wife 
(1885) ; A Peace Maker (188G).— Meynell, 
211 ; Art Journal (18G9), 33. 

STONE, WILLIA:\I OLIVER, born at 
Derby, Conn., Sept. 26, 1830, died in New- 
port, R. I., Sept. 15, 1875. Portrait painter, 
pupil of N. Jocelyn in New Haven ; re- 
moved to New York in 1851 ; elected an 
A.N.A. in 1856, and N.A. in 1859. Works : 
Portraits of Bishops Williams of Connecti- 
cut (1858),Littlcjolui of Long Island (18,58), 
and Kip of Calit'oniia (1859) ; j\Ir. Corcoran 
(1865) ; James Gordon Bennett (1871) ; 
Moses Grinnell (1871). 

STONE AGE, Fernaud Cor man, St. Ger- 
main INIuseuni ; canvas. Return from a 
bear-hunt in the Stone Age. In centre, at 
entrance to a rude domicile built of huge 



tree-trunks, sits an aged chieftain, knife and 
flint axe in hand ; before him lies the car- 
cass of a bear, which a group of skin-clad 
hunter.s, with half-tamed wolves for dogs, 
have brought in ; at right, the women and 
children of the tribe. — Salon, 1884. 

STONE-BREAKERS (Casseurs de pier- 
res), Gustave Courbet, Louvre, Paris. Two 
peasants at work beside a dusty road ; one 
is breaking stones with a hammer, while the 
other is carrying away the fragments in a 
wicker basket. Salon, 1851. — Gaz. des B. 
Arts (1878), xvii. 518 ; Century Mag. (1884), 
xxvii. 487. 

STOOP, DIRK, born probably at Utrecht 
in 1610, died there in 1686. Dutch school ; 
painted cavalry skirmishes, hunts, seaports, 
and genre pieces ; son and pupil of the 
glass painter Willem Jansz van der Stoop ; 
entered guild of Utrecht in 1638 ; formed 
himself after Esaias van de Velde and Jan 
Maris the younger ; for some time court 
painter at Lisbon, whence called Roderigo 
Stoop ; about 1662 he accompanied the In- 
fanta Catharine of Portugal to London ; re- 
turned to Utrecht in 1678. Works : Hunt- 
ing Party (1645), Amsterdam Museum ; 
Halting-Place before Inn, Haarlem !^[use- 
um ; View of Convent near Lisbon, Hague 
Museum ; Halt by Hostelry, Rest by Foun- 
tain, Brussels Museum ; Cavalry Skirmish 
(1650), Berlin IMuscum ; Huntsmen with 
Dogs and Horse, Dresden Gallery ; Reunion 
after Hunt (1639), Copenhagen Gallery ; 



ID.^o^ 



/ 



j(^S-o 



Officers by tlieir Horse-s, Schwerin Gallery. 
— Kramm, v. 1577 ; F«'tis, Cat. Brussels I\Iu- 
seuin, 4(57 ; Meyer, GemiUdt^ kongl. Mus., 
444. 

STORCH, FRED]<:RIK LUDVIG. born 
at Kjerte in Fiinen, July 21, 1805, died in 
Copenhagen, Sept. 2, 1883. Genre ]iainter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy. Went in 
1832 to Munich, where he remained twenty 



S81 



STORELLI 



years, excepting 1845-46, passed in Italy, 
and returned home in 1852. Professor at 
Copenhagen Academy. Works : Oscar's 
Death (1828) ; Cupid and Psyche in Boat ; 
Yenus after Bath (1844) ; Psyche's Abduc- 
tion ; Elfin Dance ; Sakuntala ; King Hej- 
mer and Aslang ; Scenes from Scandina\ian 
and Italian Life ; portraits ; altarpieces. 
— MiiUer, 508 ; Weilbach, 663 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xviii. 728. 

STOKELLI, FELIX IHARIE FERDI- 
NAND, born in Turin, Italy, in 1778, died 
in Paris, June 19, 1854. Landscape and 
history painter, chiefly in water-colours ; 
pupil of Palmerius. He lived in France 
after 1800 ; was painter and professor of 
design to the Duchesse de Berry. Medal, 
1st class, 1824 ; L. of Honour, 1825. Paint- 
ed chiefly views in France and Italy, but 
occasionally a figure-j^iece. Works : Battle 
of Abendsberg in 1809, Combat of Znaim 
in 1809, Portrait of Marshal Schomberg, 
Versailles Museum ; Waterfall in Landscape, 
Palais de Trianon. — Bellier, ii. 527. 

STORELLI, FERDINAND (IVHCHEL), 
born in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape 
and genre painter, chiefly in water-colours ; 
son and pupil of Felix Marie Ferdinand 
Storelli. Medal, 3d class, 1839 ; 2d class, 
1840. Works : View of Chateau de Pierre- 
fonds (1870), Comte de Pont ; Environs of 
Romilly-sui'-Seine (1875) ; La fontaine La- 
gaurre (1877) ; The Two Brothers (1878). 
His son and pupil, Andre (born in Paris), 
who paints similar subjects, studied also 
under Questel and Justin Ouvrie. — Bellier, 
ii. 527. 

STOREY, GEORGE ADOLPHUS, born 
in London, Jan. 7, 1834. Genre painter ; 
studied in Paris and in London, where he 
was a pupil of J. M. Leigh, and of the Roy- 
al Academy schools in 1853 ; exhibited in 
Royal Academy, Family Group (1852), Ma- 
donna (1853), and Holy Family (1854) ; vis- 
ited Spain in 1863 ; elected an A.R.A. in 
1876. Works: Meeting of William Sey- 
mour and Ai-abella Stuart (1864) ; Royal 
Challenge (1865) ; Breakfast (1866) ; After 




Whiphand (1875) ; 
ing Lesson (1876) 



You! (1867); Saying Grace, Shy Pupil 
(1868) ; Going to School, Sister, Old Soldier, 
Children Fishing 
(1869); Duet, Only 
a Rabbit (1870); Rosy 
Cheeks (1871); Little 
Buttercups, Course 
of True Love (1872); 
Misti'ess Dorothy, 
Love in a Maze 
(18 73); Grandma's 
Christmas Visitors 
(1874) ; Caught, The 
My Lady Belle, Dane- 
Old Pump Room at 
Bath, Judgment of Paris, Christmas Eve 
(1877) ; Sweet Margery (1878) ; Orphans, 
Lilies, Oleanders and Pinks (1879); Late for 
Church, Follow my Leader, Daphne (1880); 
Coral Necklace (1881) ; Coracles on the Defe, 
Out for a Walk (1882); Sunflower, Connois- 
seur (1883) ; Sliy Lover, Peace Maker, Art 
and Nature (1884) ; Zeuxis and the Maid- 
ens of Crotona (1885) ; On Guard, Violin 
Player (1886).— Ai't Journal (1875), 173 ; 
Portfolio (1871), 19. 

STORK (Storck), ABRAHAM, the elder, 
born in Amsterdam before 1650, died about 
1710. Dutch school ; marine painter, pu- 
pil of Backhuysen ; pictures truthful and 
spirited, but inferior to his master's in com- 
position and elegance of touch. Works : 
View of the Dam at Amsterdam (1675), 
Italian Harbour, Marines (2), Amsterdam 
Museum; Calm Sea, Ghent Museum; do., 
and The Beach (1683), Hague Museum ; 
Italian Port, Dutch Seaport in Winter, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; A Lock (1667), Gisignies 
Collection, Brussels ; Sea-Battle, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Amsterdam Harbour (1689), Dres- 
den Gallery ; Stormy Sea (1686), Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; others in Aschaffenburg, 
Darmstadt, Gotha (3), KOnigsberg (2), 
Oldenburg, Schleiss- - , ^, i. p 

heim (2, one dated ^^ ^ 
1688), Schwerin.— O-* / 6 Jj 
Immerzeel, iii. 116 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 505 ; 
Burger, Musees, ii. 309 ; De Stuers, 149. 



233 



STORY 



STOEY, GEORGE HENRY, born in 
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 23, 1835. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil in New Haven of 
Professor Bail, and of Charles Hine, por- 
trait painter ; studied in Europe one year 
and sketched in Cuba. Elected an A.N. A. 
in 1875. Studio in New York. Ideal works : 
Echoes from the Sea (1876); Student of Nat- 
ure (1878) ; Young Mother (1879) ; Indian 
Encampment — Orchard Beach (1881); Elec- 
tion Returns (Smith's College), Winning 
Hand (1883) ; Broken Vase, Still Trusting 
(1881) ; Our Father Avho art in Heaven 
(1885) ; The Fishermen (1880). Portraits : 
Whitelaw Reid, Lotas Club, New York ; 
Governor of Villa-Clara, Villa-Clara Gal- 
lery, Madrid, Spain ; Mrs. Ann S. Stephens 
(1879). 

STOTHARD, THOMAS, born in Lon- 
don, Aug. 17, 1755, 
died there, April 27, 
1831. Apprenticed 
in 1770 to a designer 
for brocaded silks, 
then tried book il- 
lustration, and in 
1777 entered schools 
of Royal Academy ; 
elected A.R.A. in 
1791, and R.A. in 
1791, and in 1810 w-as appointed librarian. 
Although best known by his book illustra- 
tions, of which he made upwards of 5,000, 
he painted some good subject pieces, the 
most ambitious of which is Intemperance, on 
the staircase of Burghley House, Northamp- 
tonshii'e. Other works : Gi'eek Vintage, 
Woodland Dance, Cupid and Calyjjso, Di- 
ana and Nymphs, Cupids preparing for the 
^^f -f i '^^"^ Chase, Myth of Nar- 
• O^o'M a/»^ cissus, Canterhur;/ Pil- 
■''^ grims. National Gal- 

lery. — Bray ; Life (London, 1851) ; Ch. 
Blanc, Iilcole auglaise ; Redgrave ; Sandby, 
ii. 303. 

STOTT, WILLIAM, born at Oldham, 
Englimd ; contemporary. Poi-trait and genre 
painter, pupil in Paris of Gerume. Medal, 




3d class, 1882. Works: Midday Dream, 
Knitter (1881); Ferryman, Bathing (1882); 
Children's Round, Grandpa's Study (1883) ; 
The Two Sisters (1881); My Father and 
My Mother, Moonrise (1885) ; Spring Day 
(1880). 

STOTZ, OTTO, born at Ludwigsburg, 
Wiirtemberg, in 1805. Animal painter, 
studied in Munich. Settled in Stuttgart, 
later in Vienna. Works : Review in Stutt- 
gart ; Racing atCannstadt ; Catching Horse.s 
in Wallachia (1811), Vienna jNIuseum ; Ara- 
bian full-blooded Horses (1852) ; Horses in 
Stable, Return from Hare Hunt (1853) ; 
Arab Horses in Stud at Babolna (1851) ; 
English Stallions, Horses from Imperial 
Stud at Kisbc'r (1858) ; Horses in Stable 
(1870) ; etc.— Wurzbach, xxxix. 202. 

STRACK, LUD^\TG PHILIPP, born at 
Hayna, Aug. 10, 17G1, died in Oldenburg, 
Jan. 27, 183G. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Cassel of Tischbein, copying chiefly Ruis- 
dael and Wouverman. Entered service of 
Duke of Oldenburg in 1783 ; returned to 
Cassel in 178G ; visited Italy in 1788 ; be- 
came court painter in Cassel in 1791 ; Avent 
to Eutin in 1797, and to Oldenburg in 1803. 
Works : Sicilian Landscape (1796), Olden- 
burg Gallery ; Ruins of Ancient Theatre in 
Taormina, Ruins of Paistum (1803) ; Land- 
scape with Shephei'ds, do. with Ruins (2), 
Cassel Gallery. — Nagler, xvii. 439 ; N. Necr. 
der D. (1836), i. 86. 

STRAD.VNUS, JAN, born at Bruges in 
1523 (1530?), died at Florence in 1605. 
Flemish school. Real name Johannes or 
Hans van der Straet. History painter, first 
instructed by liis fatlier, then pupil of M. 
Franck and Pieter Aertszen ; then went to 
Italj', and in Rome studied especially Raph- 
ael and Michelangelo, vying witli Danicle 
da Volterra and Salviati in the execution o( 
some pictures for the Belvedere. Called to 
Naples by Don Juan d'Austria, ho decorated 
his palace witli paintings, and accompanied 
liini to Flanders, but soon returned, and 
settled at Florence, where lie was called 
Giovanni della Strada, and worked con- 



233 



STRAEHUBER 



jointly with Vasari in the ducal palace. 
After his pictures 388 engravings were 
made. Works : Scourging of Christ, Ban- 
quet of the Gods, Vienna Museum ; Christ 
on the Cross, and several other scenes from 
the Passion, S. Annunziata, Florence ; Mar- 
tj'rdom of the Tliousand Saints, San Fi- 
renze, ib. ; Christ and the Money Changers, 
S. Spirito, ib.; Scenes in Life of Christ 
(frescos). Oratorio S. Clemente, ib.; others 
in churches and palaces in Rome and Na- 
ples. — Immerzeel, iii. 118 ; Kramm, v, 1581 ; 
Nagler, x^di. 444. 

STRAEHUBER, ALEXANDER, born at 
Mondsee, Salzkammergut, Feb. 28, 1814, 
died in Munich, Dec. 31, 1883. History 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy and of 
Schnorr. Executed most of Kaulbach's 
cartoons in colours. Professor and honor- 
ary member of Munich Academy. Works : 
Two Scenes from Charlemagne's Life — af- 
ter Schnorr 's designs, Munich ; cartoons for 
glass windows, Glasgow and Ratisbon Ca- 
thedrals ; illustrations, which have done 
most to make him known. — Miiller, 509 ; 
Kuust-Chronik, xviii. 284. 

STRAET. See Slradanus. 

STRAFFORD, EARL OF, portrait, An- 
ton van Dijck, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 4 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. Lord Strafford, hold- 
ing a letter in his hand and dictating an 
answer to his secretary. Sir Thomas Main- 
waring ; seen to knees. — Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 130. 

STRAFFORD GOING TO EXECU- 
TION, Paul Delaroche, Duke of Sutherland ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. 8 in. x 10 ft. 3 in. Thomas 
Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, Minister of 
Charles I., Avhile being taken from the 
Tower of London to the place of execution 
(1641) stops beneath the dungeon of Arch- 
bishop Laud to ask his blessing. He is 
represented kneeling before the prison wall, 
with halberdiers and pikemeu on each side 
of him, looking up to the window above, 
through the iron grating of which the prel- 
ate is putting out his hands in the act of 
benediction. Painted in 1835 ; Salon, 1837. 



San Donate sale, in Paris (1870), 30,000 
francs. 

STRASSGSCHWANDTNER, ANTON, 
born in Vienna in 1827, died there, March 
5, 1881. Genre and animal painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy under Steinfeld and 
Kupelwieser. First painted landscapes, 
then riding and hunting pictures, and mil- 
itary genre. Works : Plundering Cossacks 
(1847), Vienna Museum ; Uhlan Outpost 
(1847), Kuusthalle, Hamburg ; Cavalry Skir- 
mish (1861) ; Stone Cart (1870) ; Wallen- 
stein's Cavalry in Ambush (1874). — Wurz- 
bach, xxxix, 279. 

STRASZYNSKI, LEONHARD DE, 
born at Tokarowka, near Kiev ; contempo- 
rary. History painter, pupil of Markow. 
Works : King Stanislaus in BaccianeUi's 
Studio (1859) ; Wallenstein in Bohemia 
(1862) ; Murder of Bishop of Liege (1863). 

STRATONICE, Dominique Ingres, Due 
d'Aumale, Chantilly ; canvas. Antiochus 
Soter, son of Seleucus Nicator, King of 
Syria, having fallen seriously ill, Erasistra- 
tus, the King's physician, suspecting the 
cause, orders the ladies of the palace to 
come in one by one, and discovers by the 
beating of his patient's heart that he is in 
love with his beautiful step-mother. Queen 
Stratouice. The King, rather than lose his 
son, broke the bonds which bound him to 
Stratonice and permitted Antiochus to mar- 
ry her. In the picture, Erasistratus is stand- 
ing beside the bed of Antiochus, with his 
left hand upon his patient's heart, the other 
slightly raised in astonishment as he gazes 
at Stratonice, standing at left with her face 
averted. King Seleucus, kneeling beside 
his son's couch, with his head bui'ied in the 
drapery, sees nothing of the drama before 
him. Ordered in 1834 by Due d'Orleans ; 
finished in Rome in 1840 ; acquired in 1853 
by Prince Demidoff for 63,000 francs ; sold 
to Due d'Aumale. Replica (1860), with 
changes, Comtesse Duchatel ; another (1866), 
with changes, Montpellier Museum, bought 
from Mme. Ingres for 20,000 francs. Orig- 
inal sketch, Louvre, Paris. Engraved by 



234 



STRAUCll 



Lc'opokl Flameng (1869).— Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1881), xxiv. 322, 329; Cb. Blanc, Ingres, 
114 ; Larousse, xiv. 1136. 

Subject treated also by Gt-rard de Lairesse, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Adrien van der Wei*ff, 
Louvre, Pai-is. — Filbol ; Landon, 2d Col., iii. 
13. 




Strawberry Girl, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Richard Wallace, 
London. 

STRAUCH, GEORG, born at Nuremberg, 
Sept. 17, 1613, died July 13, 1675. German 
school ; portrait and history painter, pupil 
of Johann Hauer. Works : Immaculate 
Conception, Vienna Museum ; two Portraits, 
Prague Gallery ; Female Portrait (1664), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. — Nagler, 
xvii, 465. 

STRAUCH, LORENZ, born at Nurem- 
berg in 1554, died there in 1630. Portrait 
painter of distinction, and also known 
tlu'ough a number of fine prospects of Nu- 
remberg. Works: Male Portraits (10, 1581, 
1591, 1593, 1594, 1596, 1597, 1602, 1604, 
1615, 1620), Female do. (1593, 1597, 1605), 
Child's Portrait (1603), Germanic Museum, 



Nuremberg ; Female Portrait, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; do. (1591), Male Portrait 
(1605), Schleissheim Gallery. — Nagler, xvii. 
467. 

STRAWBERRY GIRL, Sir Joshua Rcy- 
noldx, Hertford House, Sir Richard Wallace, 
London ; canvas. A little girl, three-quar- 
ters length, standing with folded hands, 
with an odd turban-like head-dress, and a 
strawben-y pottle on her right arm. Sir 
Joshua declared this to be one of the " half- 
dozen original things " which no man ever 
exceeds in his life-work. Painted in 1773 ; 
sold for 50 guineas to Earl of Carisford ; 
bought at Rogers's sale (1856) by Marquis 
of Hertford for 2,100 guineas. Repetitions : 
Lansdowne House ; Lord Normanton. En- 
graved by T. Watson (1774) ; S. Cousins 
(1873).— Leslie & Taylor, Life, ii. 3, 20; 
Pulling, 46 ; Redgrave, Century, i. 141 ; 
Stephens, Eng. Children by J. R. 

STREATER, ROBERT, born in London 
in 1624, died there in 1680. Pupil of Du- 
moulin ; painted history, portraits, land- 
scapes, and still-life. Was sergeant painter 
to Charles H. ; painted ceilings at White- 
hall, destroyed by fire, and the ceiling of 
the theatre at Oxford, still extant. — F. de 
Conches, 58 ; RedgTave. 

STREEK, JURLIAN VAN, born at Am- 
sterdam in 1632 (?), died there, June 12, 
1678. Dutch school ; portrait and still-Kfe 
painter, about whose life 
no particulars are known. 
Works : Fishmonger 
Woman, Schleissheim 
Gallery; Breakfast Table 
(2, one dated 1649), 
Schwcrin Gallery ; Still- 
Life, Hermitage, St. Petersburg : 
(1642), Bi'eakfast, Liechtenstein 




Vanitas 
Gallery, 




Vienna. His son and pupil, Hcndrik ( 1659- 
1713), who painted architecture and still-life, 



STREITT 



was also a pupil of Emanuel de Witte. By 
liim is a Breakfast Table, in the Schwerin 
Gallery, and a Gothic Church Interior (?), 
in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Schlie, 
005. 

STREITT, FEANZ, born at Brody, Galicia, 
in 1839. Genre painter, pupil of Cracow 
Art School and Vienna Academy under En- 
gerth ; settled in Munich in 1871. Medal, 
Loudon, 1884. Works : Abduction of Prin- 
cess Halszka ; Katharina Jagiellonika in 
Prison ; Counted Moments ; Favourite of 
the Family ; Forbidden Fruit ; Incredulous 
Listener ; Signal of Distress, Gypsy Boy 
playing Violin (1884).— Allgem. Kunst-Chro- 
nik, viii. 530, 876, 1035 ; ix. 130. 

STRETES (Streetes), GUILLIM, British 
painter of 16th century, probably born in 
Holland. Painter in 1551 to Edward VI., 
Avho, Strype records, paid him 50 marks 
for two portraits of himself, one now at 
Windsor, the other at Petworth, and a 
third of Henry HoAvard, Earl of Surrey, be- 
headed in 1546-47. The last named, now 
at Knole, a full-length, life-size picture, is 
more Italian than Dutch in style, and much 
resembles the work of Girolamo da Treviso. 
— Wilmot-Buxton, 16. 

STRIGEL, BERNHARD, born at Mem- 
mingen in 1460 or 1461, died there before 
June 23, 1528. German school ; history and 
portrait painter, mentioned in documents 
as livinfT in Memminc^en between 1516 and 
1528, in Augsburg about 1517, in Vienna 
about 1520, 1522, and 1525 ; identical with 
Master of the Collection Hirscher. In his 
altarpieces he appears influenced by Zeit- 
blom, although his figures are less ele- 
vated in form and bearing ; he was an ex- 
cellent colourist. Works : Four Pictures 
with Saints, Ehzabeth of Thuringia and Em- 
peror Henry H., Four Altar Wings (1515) 
with Nativity, Visitation, etc., Christ parting 
with Mary, Christ before the Crucifixion, Jo- 
hannes Cuspinian and Family (1520), Berlin 
Museum ; Pieta, Mocking of Christ, Annun- 
ciation, Washing of Feet, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Portrait of Imperial Family, Museum, Vien- 



na (attributed to Griinewald) ; Married Cou- 
ple, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib, ; Altar Panels, 
National Museum, Munich ; do. (4), David 
with the Head of Goliath, Portraits of a Pa- 
trician and his Children (1517), Emperor 
Maximilian I., Male Portrait, Old Pinako- 
thek, ib. ; Altar Panels (6), Madonna, Two 
Portraits, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg; 
Portrait of Margaret of Austria, Schwerin 
Gallei-y ; Four Altar Wings, Archaeological 
Union, Stuttgart.— Allgem. Zeitg. (1881), 
1771, 1775; Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 329; 
Schnaase, viii. 457 ; W. & W., ii. 454 ; Jahr- 
buch der preuss. Ivunstsammlungen, ii. 54, 
59 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xxii. 38. 

STROBERLE, JO AG GLAMMA, born at 
Lisbon in 1708, died at Oporto in 1792. 
Portuguese school ; history painter, pupil 
St. Luke's Academy in Rome under Maria 
Benefial. After an absence of almost twenty 
years, retiu-ned to Lisbon, where he deco- 
rated Royal Theatre. Settled in Oporto, but 
visited London and Lisbon. Works : Last 
Supper, St. Nicolfio Church, Lisbon ; Altar- 
pieces, S. Jouo Nova and Senhara da Victo- 
ria, ib. ; Earthquake of Lisbon. 

STROMEYER, HELENE (MARIE), born 
at Hanover, Aug. 26, 1834. Flower painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf Academy, and in Carls- 
ruhe of Glide ; was much influenced by 
Lessing and Vasberg. Lives at Carlsruhe. 
Works : Morning Greeting ; Forgotten ; 
Gretchen's Roses ; Flower Baskets in a Boat 
(1884) ; Garland and Willow Tree (1884).— 
Mailer, 510 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 125, 349. 

STROOBANT, FRANZ, born in Brussels 
in 1819. Architecture painter. • Illustrated 
works on Belgian art and architecture. 
Gold medal in Brussels, 1854 ; Leopold Or- 
der in 1863. Works : San Giorgio in Ven- 
ice ; Brussels Houses of the Guilds, Brussels 
Museum ; Entrance to Old City in Prague ; 
Palace Interior in Cracow ; Entrance to 
Heidelberg Castle. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
860. 

STROZZI, BERNARDO, born in Genoa 
in 1581, died in Venice, Aug. 3, 1644. Gen- 
oese school ; called also H Cappuccino and 



236 



STROZZI 




II Prete Genovese. Pupil of Pietro Sorri, 
and one of the most remarkable followers of 
Caravaggio ; be- 
came early a 
monk of Order 
of St. Francis. 
Left it to sup- 
port aged moth- 
er and sister, and 
refusing to re- 
turn on the death 
of the one and 
the marriage of 
the other, was sentenced to three years' im- 
prisonment ; but escaped to Venice and lived 
there as a secular priest the rest of his life, 
executing many works for churches and 
palaces. He was an excellent colourist, 
though not alwaj's correct in design, and 
enjoyed a good reputation in his day. 
Among his best works are : Copy of Cambia- 
so's Caritas, Incredulity of St. Thomas, Palaz- 
zo Brignole, Genoa ; Virgin and St. Felix, Ca- 
puccini, Genoa ; Three Philosophers, Palaz- 
zo Adoruo, Genoa ; SS. Joseph and John, 
Palazzo Walli, ib. ; A Bishop, Palazzo Du- 
razzo, ib. ; The Samaritan Woman, Palazzo 
Faragina, ib. ; Saint, Palazzo Pallavicini, ib. ; 
A Monk, Susanna, Palazzo Spinola, ib. ; A 
Monk, Turin Gallery ; Sculpture, Ceiling in 
Eoyal Palace, Venice ; St. Jerome, Venice 
Academy ; Bathsheba, Dresden Galleiy ; 
Christ and the Pharisees, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich. — Lanzi, iii. 266 ; Ch. Blanc, ^ficole 
genoise ; Burckhardt, 760, 768, 788, 800, 
803 ; Lavice, 51, 84, 89, 90. 

STROZZI, FILIPPO, portrait, Tilian, Vi- 
enna Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 
7 in. Much overpainted, but looks as if it 
had once been a fine picture by the master. 
Painted about 1540.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 
426. 

STRUDEL VON STRUDELSDORF, 
PETER, Baron, born at Cles, Tyrol, in 1648, 
died in Vienna in 1714. German school ; his- 
tory painter, son and pupil -of Jacob Strudel, 
and in Venice pupil of Carlo Lotti. Settled 
in 1680 in Vienna, where he was made court 



painter in 1689. Was also a sculptor. En- 
nobled in 1693 ; first director of the newly 
founded Vienna Academy in 1704. Works : 
Jupiter and Antiope, Susanna at the Bath, 
Dresden Gallery ; Hagar, Cassel Gallery ; 
Bacchanal, Diisseldorf Gallery ; MartjTfdom 
of St. Lawrence, Satyr bound by Zephyr 
and a Boy, Children Playing, Bath of Diana, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Genii with Festoons 
(4), Pieta, Vienna Museum. — Nagler, xvi. 
496. 

STRUDWICK, JOHN MELHUISH, bom 
in England ; contemporary. Genre painter ; 
exhibits chiefly at the Grosvenor Gallery. 
Works : Love's Music (1877) ; Peona, Pass- 
ing Days (1878) ; My Beloved, Isabella 
(1879) ; Marsyas and Apollo (1880) ; St. 
Ceciha (1882) ; The Ten Virgins, A Story- 
Book (1884) ; A Golden Thread, Thy Tune- 
ful Strings wake Memories (1885) ; Isabella, 
Circe and Scylla (1886). 

STRUTS, ALEXANDRE (THEODORUS 
HONORI:), born at Berchem, Jan. 24. 1852. 
Genre and history painter, pupil of Ant- 
werp Academy. Visited London and Paris. 
Professor at Weimar Art School in 1878; 
resigned and removed to The Hague in 
1882. White Falcon Order. Works : Two 
Sacrifices, Dordrecht Museum ; Birds of 
Prey ; Disillusion ; Alone at the Rendez- 
vous ; Seduced (1885) ; six historical pict- 
ures for the Luther Hall of the Wartburg 
(with Willem Linnig, Jr.). — Miiller, 510 ; 
AUgera. K. Chr. ix. 838. 

STRY, ABRAHAM VAN, born at Dor- 
drecht, Dec. 31, 1753, died there, March 7, 
1826. Genre painter, brother of the follow- 
ing, pupil of Joris Ponse (1723-83) ; found- 
ed at Dordrecht in 1774 the society Pictura, 
which formed several excellent artists, and 
of which he was the first president. Mem- 
ber of Institute of the Netherlands, and in 

A.lQn Jiry.F 

1818 of Antwerp Academy. Works : Draw- 
ing Lesson, The Housewife, Kettle Scourer, 



2:37 



STRY 



Amsterdam Museum ; Well-Supplied Table, 
Village Imi, Rotterdam Museum. — Lnmer- 
zeel, iii. 120 ; Ki'amm, v. 1582. 

STRY, JACOBUS VAN, boru at Dor- 
drecht, Oct. 2, 1756, died there, Feb. 4, 
1815. Landscape and animal jDaiuter, jdu- 
pil of Andreas Cornelis Lens at Antwerp 
Academy, then formed himself chiefly 
through the study of Paulus Potter and 
Aelbert Cuyp. Works : Landscape, Milk- 
ing Time, Evening in the Country, Going 
to Market, Museum Amsterdam ; Cattle 
resting on River Bank, Museum Fodor, ib. ; 
Cows and Sheep by Farm Buildings, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Cows in Pasture, Czernin 
Gallery, Vienna. — Immerzeel, iii. 119 ; 
Kramm, v. 1583. 

STRYOWSia, WILHELM, born in Dant- 
zic in 1834. Genre painter, pupil of Schadow 
in Diisseldorf. After visiting Galicia, Hol- 
land, and Paris, settled in Dantzic. Medal 
in 1864. Works : Washerwomen surprised 
by Rain (1854) ; Sunday Afternoon in the 
Country (1856) ; Polish Sailors before the 
Evening Fire ; Boatmen Resting (1860) ; 
Little Wire- Worker ; Dancing Cossack 
(1861) ; Skaters ; Polish Jews in Syna- 
gogue (1862) ; Jews Praying ; Rendezvous 
on Roofs of Dantzic ; Wedding Procession 
of Galician Jews (1874) ; Landscape on Vis- 
tula (1882).— Miiller, 511. 

STUART, GILBERT, born in Narragan- 
sett, Rhode Island, 
Dec. 3, 1755, died 
in Boston, July 27, 
1828. After some 
unaided efforts, he 
received instruction 
from Cosmo Alexan- 
der, a Scotch portrait 
painter, whom he ac- 
companied to Scot- 
land in 1772. The 
death of his master 
left Stuart to shift for himself, and after 
struggling a while at the University of Glas- 
gow, he returned home. In 1775 he went 
again to England and found a friend and 




master in Benjamin West, who employed 
him as an assistant. In 1785 he set up a 
studio of his own with great success, getting 
high prices. In 1788 he visited Dublin and 
painted several jDortraits. In 1792 he re- 
turned to America. Soon after his arrival 
in New York, the Duke of Kent offered to 
send a ship of war for him if he would go 
to Nova Scotia and paint his portrait ; but 
unwisely, as he afterwards thought, he de- 
clined the offer. After working for two 
years in New York, Philadelphia, and Wash- 
ington, Stvjart settled in Boston, where he 
resided the remainder of his life. His por- 
traits show great insight into character, and 
are remarkable for their simplicity of 
means. They have great individuality, ex- 
cellent balance of light and shade, and gen- 
erally pui'e colour. Among the best are 
those of Washington, of whom Stuart was 
the i^ainter par excellence. Works : Por- 
trait of Washington (1796), Martha Wash- 
ington (1796), Washington at Dorchester 
Heights, General Henry Knox, Josiah 
Quincy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; 
Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, Madi- 
son, and Monroe, T. Jefferson Coolidge, ib.; 
Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, ]Mr. and Mrs. 
David Sears, Mrs. W^illiam Amory, ib. ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Revere, John Revere, 
ib. ; Jared Sparks (1827), Mrs. Parks, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.; Judge Joseph Story, Har- 
vard University, ib. ; IMr. and ]\Irs. Josiah 
Quincy (1806), Edmund Quincy, Dedham, 
Mass.; Rev. William Ellery Channing, 
George G. Channing, Milton, Mass.; Mr. 
and Mrs. George Gibbs, Colonel George 
Gibbs, Wolcott Gibbs, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Dr. Samuel William Johnson (1792), Mrs. 
William Bellamy, Dorchester, Mass.; Com- 
modore O. H. Perry, Oliver H. Perry, 
Lowell, Mass. ; Sir John Temple, ^hs. Eliza 
B. Temple Winthrop, Robert C. Winthrop, 
Brookline, Mass.; Presidents Washington, 
John Adams, and Jefferson, and Egbert 
Benson (1807), Historical Society, New 
York ; General Horatio Gates, John R. 
Stevens, ib. ; Commodore Macdonough, A. 



STUBBS 



R. Macdonougli, ib. ; Josiah Ogden Hoff- 
man, Mrs. Ogden Hoffman, ib.; Mrs. Robei't 
Morris, Lenox Gallery, ib. ; John Jacob As- 
tor, J. J. Astor, ib. ; Governor and !Mrs. 
Wintbrop Sargent (1805), Mrs. W. Butler 
Duncan, ib. ; John Jay, Augustus Jay, ib. ; 
John Jay, Steven Van Rensellaer, Hon. John 
Jay. Bedford, X. Y.; Robert Morris, IVIrs. 
Morris, Bay Ridge, N. Y.; John R. Morris 
(IHOO), John R. Morris, Mount Morris, 
N. Y. ; Commodore Stephen Decatur, Ly- 
ceum of Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Madi- 
son, Monroe, A. A. Low, ib.; Washington 
(full-length), do. (bust), Mrs. Blodgett, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Willing Jackson, Pennsyl- 
vania Academy, Philadoljjhia, Pa.; Com- 
modore John Barry, ]\Irs. Dr. Leiper, ib. ; 
Horace Binney (1800), Miss Susan Binney, 
ib.; Bishop William White (1798), Mrs. 
George H. White, ib.; General Thomas 
Mifiiin, F. E. Dixon, Bridgewater, Pa.; 
Madame Patterson Bonaparte, Charles Jo- 
seph Bonaparte, Baltimore, Md. ; Jefferson, 
Madison, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. ; 
Thomas Callendex-, John Callender, Miss 
Calleuder, Newport, R. I.; Chief Justice 
Shijipen of Pennsylvania, Corcoran Gal- 
lery, AVashington ; John Singleton Cop- 
ley, Lady Lj-ndhurst, London ; W. Grant 
of Congalton — skating in St. James's Park 
(asci-ibed to Gainsborough), Lord Charles 
Pelham Clinton, Moor Court, Stroud ; Sir 
Joshua Rej'nolds (1784), Lord Inchiquin ; 
Sir Edward Thornton (2), Sir Edward 
Thornton, England ; Benjamin West, Na- 
tional Gallery, London. — Mason, Life and 
Works of G. S. (New York, 1879) ; Tucker- 
man, Book of the Artists ; Scribner's Mag., 
March, 1879 ; Atlantic Monthly, Dec, 18G8, 
Reminiscences by John Neale. 

STUBBS, GEORGE, born in Liverpool 
in 1724, died in London, July 10, 180G. 
Son of a surgeon, from whom he inherited 
a love of anatomj', the study of which, in 
connection with art, was the occupation of 
his life. He was the first of the English 
painters to give life and motion to the pict- 
ures of animals. About 1754 he visited 



Italy ; on his return settled in London, 
where he became noted as an animal 
painter, especially of horses, and an anato- 
mist. In 1773 he was president of the So- 
ciety of Ai'tists ; elected an A. R. A. in 
1780, and R. A. in 1781, but declined the 
latter honour. Works : Fall of Phaeton : 
Lion killing Horse ; Tiger in his Den. — 
Redgi-ave ; F. de Conches, 342 ; Sandby, i. 
244. 

STUCKELBERG, ERNST, born at Basle 
in 1831. Landscape and genre painter, pupil 
in his native city of Dietler, and in Antwerp of 
Dyckmans and Wappers. Studied the old 
masters in the Louvre in Paris ; travelled 
over Switzerland and L^pper Italy in 1853 ; 
remained some time in Munich ; from 185(5 
lived ten years in Rome, and settled in 
Basle. Gold medal in ]\runieh in 18G9. 
Works : Forest Spring in Sabine Moun- 
tains ; Lady-Day in Sabine ^Mountains, Elijah 
and the Widow, Marionettes, Artist's Chil- 
ren, Basle Museum ; Legend of Foundation 
of Convent of Ober-Schunthal ; Return of 
St. Gall Citizens after Battle of Grandson, 
St. Gall Museum ; Charcoal Bui-ners in Jura 
Mountains, Ziirich Gallery ; Service of Chil- 
dren of God (18G7) ; City and Country 
Children ; Youthful Love ; Fortune Teller ; 
Hermit of Maranno ; Gypsy ; Fortune 
Teller, Children from Abroad, Last Rha?- 
tian (1883). In fresco: Tell's Chapel.— 
Midler, 511 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 739 ; 
xix. 231. 

STUHLMANN, HEINRICH, born in 
Hamburg, Dec. 28, 1803, died there, Oct. 
23, 188G. Landscape and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Gerdt Hardorllf, then of Copenhagen 
Academy under Gebauer, and in Dresden 
of Dahl. Works : Storm Landscape (1830) ; 
Village in Winter (1837) ; Blankencse Fish- 
ermen (1838) ; Village Landscape on the 
Trave ; Village Life in Holstein, Hamburg- 
Gallery. — Andresen, iii. GO. 

STUHR, JOHANN GEORG, 1)orn in 
Hamburg in 1G40, died there, May 8, 1721. 
German school. Landscaj^e and marine 
painter, and also painted some liistorical 



239 



STUNTZ 



pictures. "Works : Sacrifice of Iphigenia, 
Eoyal Palace, Berlin ; Harbour View, Cassel 
Gallery ; do., Gotba Museum ; Naval Bat- 
tles (2), Schwerin Gallery. — Nagler, xvii. 
519 ; Schlie, 610. 

STUNTZ. See Freyberg, Elektrine von. 
STURLER, FRANZ ADOLF VON, born 
in Paris, Feb. 28, 1802, died at VersaiUes, 
Sept. 16, 1881. History painter, pupil of 
Ingres, went in 1831 to Florence, where be 
remained over twenty years, zealously 
studying tbe old masters ; in 1853 be re- 
turned to Paris, and tben settled at Ver- 
sailles. Medal, tbird class, 1842. Works : 
Death of Brunbilde, Death of Suetonius 
(1835) ; Lady of Florence (1835), Madrid 
Museum ; Cimabue and Giotto (] 838) ; 
Moses on tbe Mountain, Wrestlers (1842) ; 
IncreduHty of Thomas (1844), Ministry of 
Interior, Paris ; Cimabue's Madonna carried 
in Procession in Florence, 1270 (1859); 
Twelve Allegories on the Events of 1870- 
71 ; One hundred and eight illustrations to 
Dante's Divine Comedy. — Ischamer, Die 
bUd. K. in der Schweiz (1884), 59. 

STURM, FRITZ, born at Rostock, May 
17, 1834. Marine and landscape painter ; 
pupil of Berlin Academy in 1859-61, of 
Eschke, and at Carlsruhe of Gude in 1865- 
70. Made sketching tours in Sweden, Nor- 
way, Switzerland, Holland, and Italy. Lived 
in Diisseldorf in 1870-75, then moved to 
Berlin. Medal, London, 1872. Works : 
Norwegian Coast (1863), Wismar from tbe 
Sea (1864), Tempest on tbe Sea (1866), Ship- 
wi-eck (1868), Schwerin Gallery ; Hamburg 
Harbour (1866) ; Life Boats going to a 
Wreck (1867) ; Pilot Boat returning Home ; 
Crew deserting Sinking Ship ; Brig on the 

Norwe gian 
Coast ; Baltic, 
M editerranean 
Sea, National 
Gallery, Berlin. — Jordan (1885), ii. 225 ; 
MuUer, 511. 

STUR!kIER, KARL, born in Berlin in 
1803, died in March, 1881. History painter, 
son and pupil of Johann Heinrich Stilrmer 



Drew deserting amKmg duii 



(1774-1855), and in Diisseldorf of Cornelius, 
whom he accompanied to Munich and in 
1842 to Berlin. Works: Friedrich I. of 
Brandenburg takes Pope John XXIH. Pris- 
oner (1856) ; Auto da Fe of Spanish Inquisi- 
tion (1872). In fresco : Barbarossa's Rec- 
onciliation with Pope Alexander, Helldorf 
Castle, near Dusseldorf ; Defeat of 
/JT^ Ottokar at Muhldorf, Taking of Bel- 
\u^ grade. Arcades of Court Garden, 
Munich ; Deeds of Hercules and 
Theseus, Old Museum, Berlin. — Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 249 ; Miiller, 511. 

STUVEN, ERNST, born at Hamburg in 
1657, died at Rotterdam in 1712. Dutch 
school. Flower and fruit painter, pupil in 
Amsterdam, whither be went in 1675, of 
Jan Voorhout, Willem van Aelst, and Abra- 
ham Mignon. Was twice imprisoned in 
Amsterdam, then banished from the city, 
and settled at Rotterdam. Works : Two 
Fruit-Pieces with Insects, Schwerin Gallery. 
— Immerzeel, iii. 120 ; Schlie, 612. 

SUARDI, BARTOLOMIHEO. See Bra- 
mantino. 

SUBLEYRAS, PIERRE, bom at Uzes 
(Gard), in 1699, died 
in Rome, May 28, 
1749. French school. 
History painter, 
pupil of bis father 
Mathieu and, at 
Toulouse, of Rivalz. 
Won tbe grand prix 
de Rome in 1727 ; 

went to Rome, where \^^ ' v ^^ 

he married and set- 
tled for life. Member of Academy of St. 
Luke, 1740. Works : Brazen Serpent (1727), 
Christ in the House of the Pharisee (1739, 
also original sketch). Martyrdom of St. 
Hippolytus, Martyrdom of St. Peler, Mass 
of St. Basil, Emperor Theodosius receiving 
tbe Blessing of St. Ambrose, St. Benedict 
reviving a Child, Brother Philip's Geese, 
The Falcon, The Hermit, Louvre, Paris ; St. 
Stephen and St. Francis appearing to the 
Penitent, Montpellier Museum ; Theodosius 




240 



SUESS 



Kneeling, Hermit, Nantes Museum ; Camal- 
dolensian Monk (2), Orleans Museum ; St. 
Joseph carrying Infant Christ, Coronation 
of Louis XV., Joseph interpreting the 
Dreams, Annunciation, Joseph's Dream, 
Circumcision, St. Peter Healing the Lame, 
Still-Life, Male Portrait, Toulouse Museum ; 
Portrait of Benedict XTV., Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Cardinal Bentivoglio, Rouen Mu- 
seum ; Ecce Homo, Must-e Rath, Geneva ; 
Temi:)tation of St. Anthony, Ziirich Gallery ; 
Homage to St. Januarius, Berlin Museum ; 
Death of Magdalen, Cassel Gallery ; Christ 
in the House of Simon, Dresden Museum ; 
A Bishop blessing a King, St. Norbert re- 
storing a dead Child to Life, Portrait of a 
Bishop, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Priest in 
Vestments, A Monk, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
The Three Magi, Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Czernin Gallery, Vienna ; Emjjeror 
Valens fainting at the Mass of St. Basil 
(1745), Carthusian Church at Termini, 
Sicily ; replica in the Louvre ; do.. Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; do. (in mosaic). 

Crucifixion, p^Jt ,>7^ 

Brera Gallery, ^ / S/^ 

Milan. —Villot, "p JuX,^SLY^cU> fJ^O 

Cat. Louvre ; ^-^ 

Bellier, ii. 530 ; Ch. Blanc, lilcole fran5aise ; 

Biog. universelle. 

SUESS, HANS. See Kulmbach, Hans 
von. 

SUEUR. See Le Sueur. 

SUHRLANDT, (JOHANN) HEINRICH, 
born at Schwerin in 1742, died at Liidwigs- 
lust, Jan. 1, 1827. History, portrait, land- 
scape, animal, and still-life painter, pupil of 
the court jDainter Lehmann, then took up 
sculpture under Busch, but was induced by 

J/f.SaAHcitidl 

an/ang n8i /erh'g fj?? 

Findorff (1722-72, court painter) to return 
to painting. Works : Portrait of Findorff 



(1773), Dogs (2, one dated 1773), View of 
Altona (1789), Still-Life (1799), Schwerin 
Gallery. — Schlie, 93. 

SUHRLANDT, KARL, born at Schwer- 
in ; contemporaiy. Animal painter, son of 
Rudolf Suhrlandt, pupil in Paris of Ary 
Scheffer ; travelled for many years in Russia, 
where he was employed by the court, and 
became member of St. Petersburg Academy. 
Professor in Schwerin in 1874. Works : 
Russian Horse Dealers ; Smugglers on Rus- 
sian Frontier ; Regiment of Uhlans march- 
ing (1870) ; Cattle Herd (1874) ; Drunken 
Peasant driving ; Galileo in Prison (1853), 
Schwerin Gallery.— Midler, 512; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1877), ii. 515. 

SUHRLANDT, RUDOLF (FRIEDRICH 
KARL), born at Ludwigslust, Mecklenburg, 
Dec. 19, 1781, died at Schwerin, Feb. 2, 
18G2. History and portrait painter, son and 
pupil of Heinrich Suhrlandt, then studied 
in Dresden under Schenau and Grassi, and 
in Vienna under Fiiger and Maurer ; went 
to Rome in 1808, was in Naples in 1812-15, 
and while there was made Mecklenburg 
court painter, and after his return in 1817, 
professor. Works : Maiden in the Grotto, 
Sleeping Youth (1808), Cupid and Psyche 
(1809), Venus teaching Cupid to bend the 
Bow, Venus, Vulcan, and Mars (1810), Por- 
trait of a Physician (1817), do. of Artist's 
Father (1825), Copies after Old Masters (7), 
Schwerin Gallery. His daughter Mme. 

Pauline Sol- m r* I I I . •— 

tau, at first JlSllhrLcLncii f>^ 

his pupil, J\ omtX iSlO 

then of Dubufe in Paris, was a genre and 

portrait painter. 

SULLY, THO^LVS, born at Horncastle, 
Lincolnshire, England, June 8, 1783, died in 
Philadelphia, Nov. 5, 1872. Portrait paint- 
er ; taken to Charleston, S. C, by his par- 
ents, who were comedians, in 1792 ; was first 
instructed by 1\[. Belzons, a French minia- 
ture painter who had married his sister. Li 
1799 he joined his brother Laurence, a 
miniature painter, in Richmond, Va., and 
painted there and at Norfolk until Lau- 



SUMMER 




rence's death in 1804. In 1806, having 
married his brother's widow, he removed to 
New York and lived 
there, excepting a 
short visit to Boston 
for instruction from 
Gilbert Stuart, until 
1808, when he re- 
tm-ned to Philadel- 
phia. In 1809 he went 
to London, studied 
several months under 
Benjamin West, and 
coming back in 1810, settled permanently 
in Philadelphia. He again visited England 
in 1837-38, and in the latter year painted 
from life a full-length portrait of Queen Vic- 
toria. Between 1820 and 1840 he exhibited 
ten portraits at the Royal 
Academy. Works: Com- 
modore Decatur, City Hall, 
New York ; Thomas Jef- 
ferson (1821), Military 
Academy, West Point; 
George Frederick Cooke 
as Richard IH., Pennsyl- 
vania Academy; Queen 
Victoria (1838), St. George 
Society, Philadelphia; 
Charles Kemble, Frances 
Ann Kemble, Rembrandt 
Peale, Mrs. Joseph Harri- 
son, ib. ; Lafayette, Inde- 
pendence Hall ; Reverdy 
Johnson ; Charles Car- 
roll ; Dr. Benjamin Rush ; 
Washington crossing the Delaware, Boston 
Museum ; Girl offering Flowers at a Shrine, 
Woman at the Well, Mrs. M. O. Roberts, 
New York ; Isabella, Child and Dog, Mrs. 
Joseph Harrison, Philadelphia. — Dunlap, ii. 
101 ; Tuckerman, 158 ; Appleton's Journal 
(1872), viii. G93 ; Hours at Home, x. 69. 

SUMMER, Nicolas Poussin. See Ruth 
and Boaz. 

SUMMER STORM, Titian, Buckingham 
Palace ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9^ in. x 3 ft. 1^ in. 
An August squall on the borders of the 



Alpine country near Cadore. Painted in 
1534. Probably the best of Titian's land- 
scapes extant. — C. & C, Titian, i. 396 ; Gil- 
bert, Cadore, 37. 

SUN AND MOON, CREATION OF, 
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fi'esco 
on ceiling. 

SUONATORE. See Violinist. 

SUPPER AT EMMAUS, (Luke xxiv. 30, 
31), Michelangelo da Garavaggio, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 
6 ft. 5^ in. Painted for Cardinal Scipio 
Borghese ; from Palazzo Borghese came 
into possession of Lord Vernon, who pre- 
sented it in 1839 to National Gallery. En- 
graved by A. Testa ; B. Vaillant ; G. Gio- 
vane. — Meyer, Kiinst. Lex., i. 615, 621. 

By Garpaccio, S. Salvatore, Venice ; can- 




Supper at Emmaus, Titian, Louvre, Paris. 

vas, figures life-size. Christ seated at table, 
with a disciple wearing a turban at his left, 
another at his right ; at each end of table a 
pilgrim. Painted about 1510. Commonly 
attributed to Giovanni Bellini, but one of 
the finest and most characteristic of Carpac- 
cio's works.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 208. 

By Moretto, Tosi Collection, Brescia ; can- 
vas, life-size. Christ behind the table, in a 
gray hat which overshadows his brow, is 
breaking the bi'ead, while an apostle at 
right gazes intently at him ; a second apos- 



SUPPER 



tie sitting by ; at the left, the host descends 
a flight of steps, and at the right, a girl in 
fanciful cap and bodice carries a dish ; a 
dog under the table. Painted about 1540. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 40G. 

By Rembrandt, Louvre; wood, H. 2 ft. 3 in. 
X 2 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 1G48. Christ seat- 
ed behind a table in front of a niche between 
two pilasters ; at left is seated one of tlie 
disciples, seen from behind, and at right 
another, side view ; behind the latter a 
servant bearing a plate. Sale of Collection 



hand, and a youth, with a i^late of meat, 
are waiting upon them. Formerly in Esco- 
rial. Engraved by Van Somplin (1043) ; in 
reverse by Swanenburg and C. Van Tienen ; 
with changes, A. Lonimeliu. — Smith, ii. 131 ; 
ix. 294. 

By Titian, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
6 in. X 8 ft. ; signed. Christ seated with 
Luke behind a table in a marble court, with 
Cleopas at the right ; at the left a page with 
a tureen, and behind, a servant with sleeves 
rolled up ; under the table a dog growling 




Supper at- Emmaus, Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Pans. 



of Burgomaster W. Six (1734), 170 florins ; 
M. Randon de Boisset sale (1777) to Louis 
XVI., for lO.-^OO livres. Engraved by Baron 
Denon ; De Frey in Musoe franc/ais. Sim- 
ilar subject (1648), Christiansborg Museum. 
—Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, viii. PI. 507 ; East- 
lake, Louvre, 183 ; Smith, vii. 44 ; Vosmaer, 
214, 476. I 

By Euhens, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. ' 
4 ft. 8 in. X 5 ft. 1 in. The Saviour seated 
at further side of a table, with one disciple 
seen in profile, the other with back to spec- 
tator ; an old woman, with a glass in her 



at a cat. According to tradition Luke is 
Charles V., Cleopas Cardinal Ximenes, and 
the page Philip IT. Painted in 1547 ; went 
from Gonzaga Collection, Mantua, into Col- 
lection of Charles I. ; tlience to Jabach, who 
sold it to Louis XIV. The original picture, 
of which this is a replica, was presented in 
1547 by Alessandro Contarini to the Signo- 
ria of Venice, and was in existence at end 
of last century. Copies of Louvi-e canvas 
in Turin and Dresden Galleries. Engraved 
by F. Chauveau (1656) ; Massou.— C. & C, 
Titian, ii. 152; Zanetti, Pitt. Ven., 165; 



243 



SUPPER 



Landon, Musee, iii. PI. v.; Milndler, 208; 
Cli. Blane, Ecole venitienne. 

By Velasquez, Earl of Breadalbane, Perth- 
shire, Scotland ; canvas, H. 4 f t. x 5 ft. 2 
in. Christ seated with two disciples at a ta- 
ble. From King Louis Philippe sale ; pur- 
chased fi'om a canon at Seville for £235. — 
Curtis, 7. 

. By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 11 in. From 
Modena Gallery. Restored by Palmaroli. 

By Paolo Pero/iese, Louvi-e, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 6 in. X 14 ft. 8 in.; signed. Christ, 
seated between the two disciples behind a ta- 
ble spread in a vestibule adorned with col- 
umns, raises his eyes to heaven and blesses 
the bread ; behind are three domestics bear- 
ing dishes. The painter is said to have rep- 
resented himself and part of his family in 
this picture ; but it is undecided whether he 
is the figure at the extreme left or extreme 
right ; his wife stands at the left, with an 
infant in her arms, and two other of his 
children are near her ; in front, two children 
play with a large dog. From collection of 
Louis XIV. Engraved by Thomassin. — 
Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 15 ; Landon, Musc'e, xiii. 
PI. 17 ; Felibien, i. 730 ; Sauval, Antiquites 
de Paris, ii. 169. 

By Paolo Veronese, Stafford House, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 7 in. Christ, 
seated at table between the two disciples, 
blesses the bread ; a woman and two men 
behind ; in front, a cat and a child play 
with a dog. From Orleans Gallery ; £200. 
—Stafford Gal., ii. PI. 21 ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, ii. 60, 498. 

SUPPER, LAST. See Last Supper. 

SUPPER OF ST. GREGORY, Georgio 
Vasari. See Gregory. 

By Paolo Veronese, Convent of Monte Be- 
rico, Vicenza ; canvas, H. about 18 ft. x 28 
ft. ; dated 1572. Wantonly mutilated by 
Austrian soldiers, who hacked it to pieces 
with their swords while occupying the con- 
vent after the bombardment of Vicenza in 
1848. The fragments were afterwards put 
together and the picture restored by Profes- 



sor Tagliapietra, of Venice. — Guida di Vi« 
cenza, 112 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 35. 

SUS, GUSTAV, born at Rumbeck near 
Rinteln on the Weser, June 10, 1823, died 
in Diisseldorf, Dec. 24, 1881. Genre and 
animal painter, pupil of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Karl Sohn in 1850-51. Was 
also an illustrator and writer. Works : 
First Thought ; Two Mothers ; Duck Per- 
secution ; Cock Fight ; Domestic Joy and 
Sorrow ; Evening Song (Chickens and Pig- 
eons), Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Three 
Philosophers ; Great Event ; Stable Tragedy 
(1882).— Kunst-Chronik. xvii. 224 ; Miiller, 
512 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Diisseldf. K, 370 ; H- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1883), i. 448 ; ii. 168. 

SUSANNA, Lodovico Carracci, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H, 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 




Susanna, Lodovico Carracci. National Gallery, London. 

ft. 7 in. Scene from apocryphal Book of 
Susanna. Susanna, surprised by the two 
elders while preparing to bathe in the gar- 
den of Joachim at Babylon, crouches to hide 
her person, while they attempt to remove her 
drapery. Formerly in Orleans Gallery ; then 
in Angerstein Collection, whence purchased 
in 1824.— Rosini, vi. 20 ; Reveil, vi. 368. 



244 



SUSANNA 



By Domenichino, Munich Gallery ; Susan- 
na, seated on a step of the bath, which is 
surrounded by a marble balustrade, is sur- 
prised by the two old men. Fountain in 
middle of bath, and behind it a splendid 
palace in a grove. One of the painter's best 
pictures for composition, drawing, and ex- 
pression. Figures life-size. Copy, with va- 
I'iations, Devon House, England. — Waagen, 
ii. 91. 

By Anton van Dyck, Munich Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. Susanna, 
nude, seated near a fountain surmounted 
by a statue of Cupid, en- 
deavours to shroud herself 
with crimson drapery ; be- 
hind, the two elders, one 
pulling her drapery, the 
other touching her shoulder 
with his hand. Engraved 
by Ch. de Mechel ; litho- 
graphed by S. Braun. — 
Smith, iii. 22 ; Guiffrey, 
243 ; Eastlake, Notes, 65. 

By Luca Giordano, Dres- 
den Gallery ; canvas ; 5 ft. 
11 in. X 8 ft. 5 in. ; signed. 
Susanna, nude, sitting on a 
bench near a fountain, en- 
deavours to cover herself 
upon the approach of the 
old men. Engraved by J. F. Beauvarlet. — 
Gal. roy. de Dresde, ii. PI. 38. 

By Guido Reni, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 4 f t. 11^ in. Bought 
in 1845 from Penrice Collection ; formerly 
in Palazzo Lancellotti, Rome. Engraved by 
Corn. Visscher and by P. Beljambe for the 
Galerie du Palais Royal. — Waagen, Treas- 
ures, i. 338. 

By Rembrandt, Hague Museum ; wood, 
H. 1 ft. 6^ in. X 1 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1637. Susanna, nude, about to enter a 
stream, is alarmed at the sound of some one 
approaching, and endeavours to cover her 
loins with some drapery ; behind, in bushes, 
the face of one of the elders. Collection of 
Prince of Orange-Nassau in 1770. A similar 



subject, engraved by Earlom, formerly be- 
longed to Sir Joshua Reynolds. — Smith, vii. 
16 ; Vosmaer, 421. 

By Rembrandt, Youssoupoff Collection, St. 
Petersburg ; signed, dated 1633. Susanna 
surprised at the bath by the old men. — 
Waagen, Russia, 414 ; Vosmaer, 34, 430. 

By Rubens, Munich Gallery ; wood, H. 2 
ft. 5 in. X 3 ft. 4:^ in. Susanna, with her 
back to the elders, is covering her bosom 
with her hands ; one of the old men is re- 
moving her covering and the other is extend- 
ing his hand to touch her back. Eusfraved 




Susanna, Tintoretto, Louvre, Pans. 

by Pontius ; Vosterman ; Michel Lasne ; 
Jegher ; Spruyt ; Simon. Sketch in Louvre. 
Repetition, by a scholar, in Berlin Museum. 
—Smith, ii. 73, 105. 

By Jean Baptiste Santerre, Louvre, Paris ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. Susanna, 
nude, near the bath, with one foot in the 
water ; in background, the old men behind 
a wall. Painted in 1704. Engraved by 
Gandolfi ; Porforati. — Villot, Cat. Louvre ; 
Filhol, viii. PI. 555 ; Musee royal. 

By Tintoretto, Louvre, Soxi? ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 6 in. X 7 ft. 10 in. TSugaima, seated near 
a basin under trees, with one xttendant cut- 
ting the nails of her feet, another combing 
her hair ; in background, the two elders sit- 
ting at a table ; frogs, ducks, and other ani- 



SUSTERMAK 



mals in grass and on the water. From col- 
lection of Louis XIV. — Landon, Musee, xiii. 
PI. 56 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Tintoretto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 6 in. X 6 ft. 1 in. Susanna coming 
out of the bath is watched by the two elders 
hidden in the garden. Similar picture in 
Madrid Museum, Engraved by J. Miinsel, 

By Paolo Veronese, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, 4 ft. 2 in. X 3 ft, 3 in. Acquired in 
1742 from Carignan Collection, Paris, for 
4,500 livres. 

By Paolo Veronese, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 
6 ft. 6 in. square. Susanna, seated near the 
bath, envelops herself in her garments upon 
the approach of the old men ; at her feet a 
little dog. Copy, without the dog, in col- 
lection of Duke of Devonshire, Formerly 
in Casa Bonaldi, Venice ; bought of Jabach 
by Louis XIV, Engraved by E. Smith. — 
Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 5 ft. X 5 ft. 10 in. Susanna at the 




Susanna, Paolo Veronese, Madrid Museum. 

bath, in a garden with a marble palace in 
background, hastens to cover herself with a 
brocaded cloth at the approach of the old 
men. Collection of Philip IV. — Cat, Madrid 
Museum ; Reveil, xiv. 979, 

Subject treated also by Guercino, Madrid 
Museum and Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; An- 
nibale Can-acci, Munich Gallery ; Giovanni 
Biliverti, Florence Academy ; Spagnoletto, 



Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Guido Cagnacci, 
Count de Briihl ; Domenico Kobusti, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Bernardo Strozzi, Palazzo Spi- 
nola, Genoa ; Sir Peter Lely, Burleigh 
House, England ; Murillo, Madrazo Collec- 
tion, Madrid; Albrecht Altdorfer (1526), 
Maurice Chapel, Nuremberg ; Willem van 
Mieris, Brussels Museum ; Pieter de Stru- 
del, Dresden Museum ; Noel Coypel, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Antoine Coypel, Louvre, 
Paris ; Theodore Chasseriau (Salon, 1839) ; 
Alexandre Longuet (Salon, 1841) ; Philippe 
Auguste Jeanron (Salon, 1852) ; Jean 
Jacques Henner (Salon, 1865) ; Frederick 
Goodall (Royal Academy, 1886). 

SUSTERMAN, LAMBERT. See Lorn- 
hard. 

SUTTER, JOSEF, born at Linz, Upper 
Austria, in 1782, died after 1843. Historj 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Fiiger, but became a strong adherent of 
Overbeck, whom he followed to Rome, and 
thence went to Munich about 1818 ; assisted 
Cornelius in the Glyptothek and Pinakothek, 
and Heinrich Hess in the Basilica. Visited 
Rome again before 1825 and was back in 
Munich before 1835, Works : Death of Mat- 
tathias (1809) ; The Three Divine Virtues 
(1816) ; Emperor Albrecht's Dog ; St. Luke 
(1818) ; Herodias with the Head of St. John 
(1825), Hagar in the Desert (1836), Stift 
Kremsmiinster, Upper Austria. His son 
and pupil Daniel, born in Vienna in 1810, 
became also a history painter, went with 
him to Munich, where he continued his 
studies at the Academy under Heinrich Hess, 
and assisted his father in the Basilica. — • 
Wurzbach, xli. 5. 

SUTTERMANS (Sustermans), JUSTUS 
(Joost), born in Antwerp, baptized Sept. 28, 
1597, died in Florence, April 23, 1681. 
Flemish school ; portrait painter, pupil of 
Willem de Vos, then in Paris of Frans Pour- 
bus, the younger, where he spent three 
3'ears before going to Italy. At Florence 
he was patronized by the Grand Dukes Co- 
simo II. and HI. and Ferdinand II. At Vi- 
enna (1623-24) he was warmly received by 



240 



SUVfiE 



the emperoi', whose portrait he painted, as 
also portraits of members of his family. 
Called to Rome in 1627, he painted Pope 
Urban VII. ; was in the emperor's service 
at Innsbruck in 1652-53, and returned to 
Florence in 1653. Friend of Rubens and 
Van Dyck. Works : Porti-aits of Vittoria 
della Rovere, Ferdinand 11. de' Medici, Ele- 
onora Gonzaga (1620), Christian V. of Den- 
mark as Crown Prince, Emperor Ferdinand 
11., Prince Mattias de' Medici, Margherita 
de' Medici, Grand Duke Cosimo HE. as a 
Child, Pandolfo Ricasoli, Artist's own Por- 
trait, Grand Ducal Family as Holy Family, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Penitent Magdalen, 
St. Margaret, War and Peace (1638), The 
Florentine Senate swearing Allegiance, Male 
Portrait in Swiss Costume, Portraits of Gali- 
leo (1636), of Puliciani, of Claudia de' Med- 
ici, UfSzi, ib. ; Portrait of Vittoria della 
Rovere, Turin Gallery ; Archduchess Clau- 
dia, Vienna Museum ; Portrait of Young- 
Lady, Berlin Museum ; Portrait of Galileo, 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; do.. Lord 
Methuen, Corsham Court, England ; Portrait 
of Alessandro Farnese, Royal Institute, Edin- 
burgh. His brother Jan was his pupil, and 
accompanied him to Vienna, where he set- 
tled and was patronized by the emperor. 
Work : Portrait of a Matron, Vienna Mvi- 
seum. Another brother, Cornelis, was al- 
so in the emperor's service. — Baldinucci, 
Opere, xii. 13 ; Fetis, Les Artistes beiges, 
i. 257 ; Kramm, v. 1588 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 300 ; Michiels, ix- 25 ; Rooses (Reber), 
375 ; Van den Branden, 960. 

SUV£e, JOSEPH BENOIT, born in 
Bruges, Jan. 3, 1743, died in Rome, Feb. 9, 
1807. Flemish school ; history and portrait 
painter, pupil of Matthias de Visch, then in 
Pai'is at the old St. Luke's corjDoration and 
at the Academy under Bachelier ; won the 
2d grand prix de Rome in 1768, and the 1st 
in 1771 in competition with David, and stud- 
ied in Rome (1772-78) under Vien ; after 
his return to Paris he was made member of 
the Academy in 1780, adjunct professor in 
1781, professor and director of the French 






Academy in Rome in 1792, but being im- 
prisoned during the revolutionary disturb- 
ances did not enter upon this position until 
1801. Works : Death of Admiral Coligny 
(1787), Louvre ; St. Francis de Sales, Ver- 
sailles Gallery ; Tancred wounded recog- 
nizes Clorinda, Amiens Museum ; Portrait 
of M. Trouard, Besanyon Museum ; Tancred 
rescued by Clorinda, Nantes Museum ; In- 
vention of Drawing (1798), Artist's Portrait, 
two other portraits, Bruges Academy ; Mi- 
nerva among Rus- 
tics (1776), Ghent JjD P * 
Museum; Vestal "^ '^iS ^«/^^ 
making Fire de- C^ / 
scend from Heav- 
en ; Birth of the 
Virgin ; Mother of 

the Gracchi. His ya<lK //85 
wife (nee Charlotte 

Louise Rameau) painted figures and min- 
iatures. — Immerzeel, iii. 122 ; Michiels, x. 
538 ; Weale, Cat. Bruges Acad., 89 ; Bellier, 
ii. 534 ; Jal, 1159. 

SUYDAM, JAMES A., bom in New York 
in 1817, died at North Conway, N. H., Sept. 
15, 1865. Landscape painter, studied under 
Minor C. Kellogg, with whom he travelled 
through Greece and Turkey ; on returning 
to America worked in the studios of Durand 
and Kensett. Elected N.A. in 1856. He 
was instrumental in building the present 
Academy in New York, and was its treas- 
urer until his death. He bequeathed to it 
the pictures known as the Suydam Collec- 
tion. Works : View on Long Island, Will- 
iam A. Reese ; Hook Mountain on the Hud- 
son, S. Clift ; New London Lighthouse — 
Twilight, Olyi^hant Collection. — Tucker- 
man, 540. 

SVOBODA, EDUARD, born in Vienna, 
Nov. 14, 1814. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy and of Friedrich 
Schilcher ; in great demand as a portrait 
painter in Vienna ; has decorated in fresco 
several churches in Bohemia and Hungaiy. 
Works : Va banque, Vienna Museum ; Dis- 
tribution of Wood (1845) ; Protest (1847) ; 



847 



SVOBODA 



Family Festival (1862) ; Disagreeable Visit 
(1867); Distribution of Prizes (1872).— 
Wvirzbach, xli. 61. 

SVOBODA, KARL, born at Planic, Bo- 
hemia, in 1823, died in Vienna, Sept. 12, 
1870. History painter, pupil of Prague 
Academy under Ruben ; visited Croatia and 
Slavonia to study the life of the southern 
Slavs, and settled in Vienna in 1851. Works : 
Henry IV. at Canossa (1845) ; Wenceslaus 
H, Coronation of Albrecht H., Joseph H. 
in Prague, Death of King "Wenceslaus the 
Saint, Belvedere, Prague ; Foundation of 
Prague University (1855); Retreat of Charles 
V. (1859), Vienna Museum ; Conquered Mil- 
anese before Barbarossa (1863) ; Cycle (10) 
from Iphigenia in Tauris (1869), Loggia, 
Opera House, Vienna. — Wurzbach, xli. 67. 

SWANENBURGH, JACOB ISAAKSZ, 
born in Ley den, died in Utrecht in 1639. 
Dutch school ; history painter, studied in 
Rome and lived in Naples ; notable as the 
first teacher of Rembrandt. Work : Pro- 
cession in St. Peter's Square (1628), Copen- 
hagen Gallery. — Kramm, v. 1592 ; Vosmaer, 
Rembrandt, ses precurseurs, 50 ; do., Rem- 
brandt, sa vie, etc., 379. 

SWANEVELT, HERMAN, born at Woer- 
den, near Utrecht, about 1600, died in Paris 
(?) in 1655. Dutch school ; landscape paint- 
er, went early to Paris and thence to Rome, 
where he studied under Claude Lorrain. 
In 1653 made member of the Royal Acad- 
emy ; in 1654, with Patel, decorated a room 
in the Hotel Lambert at Paris. Works : 
Three Landscapes, Hampton Court ; do., 
Madrid Museum ; Wooded Landscape, Sun- 
set, three others. Louvre ; Italian Landscape 
(1650), Hague Museum ; do., and Wooded 

H J\c^/WeV£LT . 

Landscape with St. Anthony (1653), Stadel 
GaDery, Frankfort ; three do., Brunswick 




Gallery ; Joseph relating his Dream, Basle 
Museum ; others in Munich, Dresden, Ham- 
burg, and Copenhagen Galleries. — Ki'amm, 
V. 1593 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 490 ; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole hollandaise ; Riegel, BeitrJige, ii. 360. 
SWART, JAN, born at Groningen in 
1469, died at Gouda in 1535. 
Dutch school; history and 
landscape painter ; formed 
himself after Scorel, and in 
Italy, where he lived, espe- 
cially at Venice. Works : 
Adoration of the Magi (at- 
tributed), Munich Gallery ; 
do., Cologne Museum ; do., 
Brussels Museum. — Kramm, v. 1594 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, ii. 43. 

SWEBACH, BERNARD £dOUARD, 
born in Paris, Aug. 21, 1800, died at Ver- 
sailles, March 2, 1870. History and genre 
painter, son and pupil of Jacques Francois 
Joseph Swebach, and student of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts. Accompanied his father 
to Russia. Works : Hunting Scene, Cher- 
bourg Museum ; Capture of a Spy by Hus- 
sars, Besanyon Museum ; Horse Market at 
Moscow, Winter Travel in Russia (1822) ; 
Summer Travel in Russia (1823) ; Retreat 
from Russia (1838).— Bellier, ii. 537. 

SWEBACH, JACQUES FRANgOIS 
JOSEPH, called Fontaine, born at Metz, 
March 19, 1769, died in Paris, Dec. 10, 
1823. History and genre painter, pupil of 
J. Silfrede-Duplessis. Usually painted bat- 
tle scenes and landscapes with figures. In 
1810 he was appointed chief painter at 
Sevres ; in 1815-20 held same position in 
porcelain manufactory in St. Petersburg. 
Crowned at the Exhibition of the Place 
Dauphine in 1784 ; 2d prize in 1791 ; grand 

medal, 1801, 1810. Works : Battle of Ma- 
rengo, Battle of Zurich (1802) ; Napoleon 



248 



SWERTS 



crossing the Danube (1810), Horse Races, 
Cherbourg Museum ; Shipwreck, Travellers 
Besting, Pozzo di Borgo Gallery ; Stag 
Hunt (1822), Marseilles Museum; Caval- 
cade, Montpellier Museum. — Biog. univer- 
selle ; Bellier, ii. 536. 

SWERTS, JAN, born in Antwerp, Dec. 
25, 1825, died at Marienbad, Bohemia, Aug. 
11, 1879. History painter, pupil of Ant- 
werp Academy under N. de Keyser, and 
intimately allied with Guffens in raising 
Belgian art to its high standard ; became 
director of the Prague Academy in 1871. 
Honorary member of Munich and Dres- 
den Academies, and of German Art Union 
in 1859 ; of Amsterdam Academy, 1861 ; 
corresponding member of the Institut de 
France, 1873. Gold medal, Brussels, 1854 ; 
Order of Leopold, 1855; Officer, 1869; 
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle and Ba- 
den Order of Ziihringer Lion, 1860 ; Dutch 
Order of Oaken Crown, 1861 ; Weimar 
Order of White Falcon, 1865 ; Papal Order 
of Gregory, 1871. Works : Baptism of 
Clovis ; Delivery of Keys to St. Peter ; Van 
Schoonbeck and his Contemporaries ; The 
Labourers (from Lamartine's "Jocelyn"); 
Festival Day ; Italian Woman with her 
Children ; Arrival of Venetian Embassy at 
Antwerp. In fresco : Seven Sorrows of the 
Virgin (1855-70), Notre Dame at St. Niko- 
laes, near Antwerp; Scenes from Life of 
Christ (1859-71), St. George's, Antweqi ; 
Episodes in History of Flanders (1861-69), 
Town Hall, Ypres ; Scenes from Local His- 
tory (1873-75), Town Hall, Courtray ; Dec- 
oration of St. Ann's Chapel in St. Vitus' 
Cathedral, Prague (1878). — Chronique des 
Arts (1879), 240 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1868), 
XXV. 74 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1872), i. 227 ; Jour- 
nal des B. Arts (1878), 188 ; Riegel, Wand- 
malerei in Belgien, 3, 10-14, 42, 46-62, 105, 
247 ; Vlaamsche school (1879), 149 ; Wurz- 
bach, xli. 25. 

SWERTSCHKOFF, NICOLAI, born in 
St. Petersburg in 1818. Genre and animal 
painter of distinction, self-taught in Paris, 
and travelling in Germany and the Nether- 



lands ; paints especially horses in a masterly 
manner. Gold medal, Weimar ; Bavarian 
Order of St. Michael, Hessian Order of 
Philip the Magnanimous ; L. of Honour, 
1863. Professor at St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy. Works : Czar Alexis Michailovich 
reviewing his Troops ; Kibitka (Russian 
vehicle) in the Snow ; Village Wedding ; 
Horse Market in Russia, Station for Post- 
Horses, Return from Bear Hunt (1863) ; 
Sleigh pursued by Wolves, Russian Travel- 
lers meeting in the Woods (1864). — Miiller, 
513. 

SW^ORD, JAMES BRADE, born in Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Oct. 11, 1839. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Christian Schussele, after- 
wards of William T. Richards and of Asher 

B. Durand. Studio in Philadelphia. First 
exhibited in National Academy, New York, 
in 1863. Works : Trenton Falls (Centennial 
Exhibition, 1876), James Huglehurst, Brook- 
lyn, N. y.; Peep into Lake George, James 

C. Beach, New York ; Silver Thread Falls, 
Mr. Morris, Bloomfield, N. J.; The Fort 
Cove, James S. Whelen, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Shores of Rhode Island, Edward Loner- 
streth, ib.; Something in the Wind, Duck 
Shooting, C. E. Longley, Providence, R. 1; 
Newport Harbour (New Orleans Exhibition, 
1885) ; In Full Cry, A Cool Spot (ISSG); 
Shores of Conanicut (1887). 

SYBRECHTS. See Siherechts. 

SYLVESTRE, JOSEPH NOEL, born in 
Beziers (Herault). 
June 24, 1847. 
Histoi'y, genre, 
and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Cabanel. Took 3d 
prix de Rome, 
1869. Medals: 
2d class, 1875 ; 
1st class, 1876 ; 
Prize of the Salon, 1876. Works : Shepherds 
Playing (1873) ; Death of Seneca (1875) ; 
Locusta and Nero (1876), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Last Moments of Vitellius Caesar 
(1878) ; Long, Long Ago (1879) ; Ducar the 




219 



SYMPATHY 



Gaul beheads Flaminius at Thrasymene 
(1882) ; Trencavel (1884) ; Christ (1886).— 
BelHer, ii. 537 ; Larousse, Supplement. 

SYMPATHY, Britou Eiviere, Hollo way 
Institute, Egham, near London ; canvas, H 
3 ft. 11 in. X 3 ft. 2 in. A little girl with a 
sad face, seated on the stairs, with a dog 
beside her, rubbing his face against hers in 
sj^mpathy. Royal Academy, 1878 ; bought 
by Thomas Taylor, Wigan, for 800 guineas ; 
Taylor sale (1883), £2,725. 

SYjVHHORIEN, ST., MARTYEDOM OF, 
Dominique Ingrt^s, Cathedral of Autun. The 
martyrdom at Augustodunum of a young 




Syndics of the Arquebusiers, Bartholomeus van der Heist, Amsterdam Museum, 

Gaul who had refused to adore the old 
gods and whom the edict of Diocletian con- 
demned to death. Salon, 1834. Studies : 
Isaac Pereire, and Messrs. Haro, Sttirler, 
and Gatteaux. — Ch. Blanc, Life, 101. 

SYNDICS OF THE ARQUEBUSIERS, 
Bartholomeus van der Heist, x\msterdam 
Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 8 ft. 8 in. ; 
signed, dated 1657. The four syndics of 
the archery guild of St. Sebastian of Am- 
sterdam, dressed in black, are seated round 
a table covered with a rich cloth. Three of 
them hold prizes ; the fourth addresses his 
colleagues. In middle distance, a woman 
bearing a silver-mounted drinking-horn ; in 



background, young men armed with bows ; 
at left, foreground, a hunting-dog. Study 
(1 ft. 8 in. X 2 ft. 2 in., dated 1653), Louvre, 
Paris. Engraved by Hulmer. — Reveil, xii. 
808 ; Filhol. 

SYNDICS OF THE CLOTH HALL, 
Rembrandt, Amsterdam Museum ; canvas, 
H 6 ft. X 9 ft.; signed, dated 166L Five 
syndics of the Staalhof (Cloth Hall) of Am- 
sterdam, dressed in black, gathered around 
a table, with their servant waiting upon 
them ; four are seated and one is standing 
with a little book in his hand. Taken to 
Paris ; returned in 1815. Engraved V>y 
Houston ; J. W. Kaiser. 
Etched by De Frey ; Un- 
ger (1876). Lithographed 
by Zimmerman. — Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 369 ; Cat. Am- 
sterdam Mus.; Mollett, 
Rembrandt, 72 ; Vosmaer, 
309, 495 ; Smith, vii. 61 ; 
Mag. of Art (1886), ix. 257. 
SZEKELY DE ADAM- 
AS, BERTALAN, born at 
Klausenburg, Transylva- 
nia, in 1835. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Fiihrich, 
Rahl, and Waldmiiller, lat- 
er in Munich of Piloty, 
and studied in Brussels, 
Antwerp, and Paris. Or- 
der of Francis Joseph, 1867. Works : Flight 
of Charles \TI., National Museum, IMunich ; 
Doboczy killing his Wife, Ladislaus V. and 
his Tutor, Pesth Museum ; Finding of Body 
of Louis II. of Hungary (1860) ; Battle of 
Mohacs (1866) ; Portrait of Francis Deak; 
Women of Erlau defending City against the 
Turks (1867) ; The Orphan, Leda, The Nun 
(1871) ; Storm, The Widow (1872) ; FHght 
of Emmerich Tukoly, Rendezvous, Sisters 
of Charity at Sick-Bed (1873) ; The Dancer, 
Zriny at Szigetvar (National Exhibition, 
Buda-Pesth, 1885). — Wurzbach, xlii. 16 ; 
Allgem. K. Chr., ix. 623. 



250 



TABAR 



TABAR, FRANCOIS (GERMAIN L:fiO- 
POLD),.born in Paris iu 1818, died 
at Argenteuil, March 29, 1869. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Delaroche. Medal, 
18G7. Works: Niobe and her Children 
(1842) ; Good Samaritan (1847) ; Bacchus 
and Ariadne (1848), M. Goury, Belleville ; 
St. Sebastian (1851) ; Phryne before the 
Areopagus (1852) ; Punishment of Queen 
Brunhilde (1853), Rouen Museum ; Epi- 
sode of Campaign in Egypt (1855), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Campaign in the Crimea, 
Horde of Barbarians (1857) ; "War in the 
Crimea (1859), Ministry of State ; Attila 
massacring his Prisoners (1861), belonged 
to Napoleon IH. ; Fete of Heliogabalus 
(1863) ; Joshua commanding the Sun (1863), 
Ministry of State ; Convoy of Wounded 
(1864), Saumur Museum ; Hyperides de- 
fending Phryne (1865); Solferino (1866); 
March from Saragossa (1867) ; Burning of 
Scutari (1868).— Bellier, ii. 537. 

TABOR, MOUNT, Claude Lorrain, Gros- 
venor House, London ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 6 
in. x8 ft. 5 in.; signed, dated 1656. Called 
by Waagen, Sermon on the Mount. Liber 
Yeritatis, No. 138. Sketch, Duke of Devon- 
shire. Engraving in Grosvenor Gallery. 
Companion to Golden Calf. Painted for 
Signer Monpiore ; bought of W. E. Agar in 
1806.— Pattison, Claude Lorrain, 218, 235 ; 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 171 ; Smith, viii. 266. 

TACCONI, FRANCESCO, of Cremona 
(1464-90). Lombard school. He and his 
brother Filippo described in a decree of 
1464 as famous painters of Cremona, wor- 
thy of praise for their success in painting 
the loggia of the public palace. A Ma- 
donna by Francesco, dated 1489, National 
Gallery, London, shows a tendency to imi- 
tation of the Vivarini ; but in his pictures 
on the shutters of the organ of S. Marco, 
Venice (1490), now in the lumber room, the 
style is feeble Squarcionesquo. — C. it C, 
N. Italy, ii. 439 ; Siret, 901 ; Burckhardt, 
611. 

TACKE, LUDWIG, born at Brunswick, 
Dec. 6, 1823. Architecture painter, pupil 



of Diisseldorf Academy (1849-51), and in 
Munich of Piloty. Works : Gothic Arcades 
of City Hall in Brunswick, Halberstadt 
Cathedral (1850) ; Interior of Cologne Ca- 
thedral (1851), Bamberg Gallery; The 
Entrance Hall of a Westphalian Peasant 
House (1851), Darmstadt Museum ; Mediae- 
val Council Chamber, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Mediteval Council Room (1854) ; 
Council Meeting in Thirty Years' War 
(1856) ; Faust in his Study (1863) ; Choir 
of Roman Church near Brunswick (1867) ; 
The Imperial Councillors thrown from the 
Window in Prague in 1618 (1869), Kunigs- 
berg Museum ; Nuremberg in Diirer's Time. 
— Meyer, Con v. Lex., xvii. 865. 

TADEMA, ALMA. See vl/nia-Tadema. 

TAFI, ANDREA, of Florence, born in 
1213 (?), died in 1294 (?). According to 
Vasari's doubtful account, he went to Venice 
and induced one Apollonius, a Greek, to re- 
turn with him to Florence to teach him the 
art of mosaic. The Baptistery there was 
adorned by them in common, one figure 
alone, the colossal Saviour in the cupola, 
being the unaided work of Tafi. It shows 
that he was a feeble artist, who combined 
the defects of the Italo-Byzantine school of 
the period. — C. & C, Italy, i. 195 ; Meyer, 
Kiinst-Lex., i. 690 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., i. 
281 ; Burckhardt, 488. 

TAGPRET, PETER, flourished at Ra- 
vensburg, Wiirtemberg, about 1489. Ger- 
man school ; history painter in the manner 
of Zeitblom ; several of his works are in all 
probability attributed to other masters. 
Works: St. John the Evangelist, Nicode- 
mus and a Bishop, Pope Gregory the Great, 
Joseph of Arimathea and Mary Magda- 
len, Stuttgart Museum. — Nagler, xviii. 88 ; 
Schnaase, viii. 460. 

TAILLASSON, JEAN JOSEPH, born 
.it Blaye (Gironde) in 1746, died in Paris, 
Nov. 11. 1809. History painter, pupil of 
Vien ; won third grand prize for painting 
in 1769 ; went to Rome in 1773 and re- 
mained there four years. Member of Acad- 
emy, 1784. Works : Birth of Louis XIU. 



251 



TAIT 



(1782) ; Ulysses and Neoptolemus (1784), 
Louvre, Paris ; Virgil reading the ^neid to 
Augustus, M. Dufresnoy ; Sabinus and Epo- 
nina discovered by Soldiers of Vespasian 
(1787); Cleopatra (1791); SappLo, Nero 
saves the Wife of Seneca (1793), Nantes 
Museum ; Leander and Hero (1798) ; Olym- 
pias (1799) ; Andromache (1800) ; Ehada- 
mistus and Zenobia (1806). He was the 
author of several works on art. — Bellier, ii, 
538. 

TACT, ARTHUR FITZ^VELLIAM, born 
at Livesey Hall, near Liverpool, Aug. 5, 
1819. Landscape and animal painter, puj^il 
of Royal Institution, Manchester, but chiefly 
self-taught. Went to New York in 1850, 
and was elected N.A. in 1858 ; visited Eu- 
rope in 1874. Studio in New York City. 
Works : Duck and her Young (1868) ; Gor- 
don Setter, Charles Stewart Smith, New 
York ; Snowed In, Judge Hilton, ib. ; Halt 
on the Carry (1871) ; Racquette Lake (1873); 
There's a Good Time Coming (1878); 
Thoroughbreds (1879) ; October Sport, A. 
E. Orr ; Intruder — Motherly Protection 
(1880), G. D. Cochran ; Still-Hunting in the 
Adirondacks, Anxious Time — Study from 
Nature (1881), C. R. Flint ; Good Hunt- 
ing Ground — Adirondacks (1882) ; Tres- 
passers (1883) ; Ruffed Grouse at Home, 
Summer, Little Pets, Happy Family at 
Home — Adirondacks, Maternal Affection 
— Summer in the Adirondacks (1884) ; 
Our Pets, Pleasant Memories of the 
Adirondacks (1885) ; Woodcock Shooting 
(1886). 

TAIT, JOHN ROBINSON, born in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1834. Landscape 
painter ; graduated at Bethany College, 
Virginia, in 1852, and spent the following 
three years in Europe, chiefly in Florence ; 
visited Europe a second time in 1859, and 
studied at Dusseldorf under August Weber 
and Andreas Achenbach until 1871 ; made 
a third visit in 1873, and worked several 
years in the Bavarian Tyrol and in Munich 
under Adolf Lier and Hermann Baisch, 
under whom be studied cattle painting. 



He spent altogether fourteen years in Ger- 
many, during which his pictures were dis- 
posed of at the cyclical exhibitions. Medals : 
1871, 1872, Cincinnati Exhibition. Studio 
in Baltimore. Works : Waterfall in Pyre- 
nees, James Caird, Gourock House, Green- 
ock on the Clyde ; Meyringen, James Staats 
Forbes, Wickham Hall, Kent ; Waterfall, 
Prince Heinrich XVHI. of Reuss ; Lake of 
Wallenstadt, William Groesbeck, Cincin- 
nati ; W^estphalian Landscape (figures by 
Ludwig Knaus), C. S. Wolff, Philadelphia ; 
A Mill (figures by Muukacsy), William H. 
Davis, Cincinnati ; Evening in Norway, 
George R. Vickers, Baltimore ; Evening on 
the Lake, Tyrolese Idyl, Summer (1876) ; 
Willowy Brook (1879); Cattle Resting, 
Watering Place (1880) ; After the Shower, 
Fisher Huts — Sconsett (1882) ; Summer 
Afternoon — Upper Potomac (1883). 

TAMAGNO. See Vincenzo da San Gimi- 
gnano. 

TAMAR, Alexander Cabanel, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. X 8 ft. 1 in. Il- 
lustration of episode described in '2 Sam- 
uel xiii. Tamar, daughter of David, having 
been outraged by her brother Amnon, goes 
to her other brother Absalom and complains 
of the crime. Tamar, her hair dishevelled 
and her garments in disorder, is seated on 
a divan beside Absalom, across whose knees 
she has thrown herself in despair ; Absalom, 
who is di-essed in a white tunic embroidered 
with gold, and a green and red tui'ban, is 
raising his right hand in anger. A negress, 
standing with her head against the wall, ap- 
pears to partake of her mistress's shame and 
grief. Salon, 1875. — Larousse, xv. 43. 

TAMING THE SHREW, Charles Rob- 
ert Leslie, South Kensington Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 1 ft. 8^ in. X 2 ft. 4 in. Petruchio 
thrusts back the gown to the frightened 
tailor ; Katherine sits at left ; Hortensio in 
background. One of Leslie's best pictures. 
Royal Academy, 1832. Replica, Petworth. 

TAT^IM, FRANZ WERNER, surnamed 
Dapper, born in Hamburg in 1658, died in 
Vienna in 1724. German school ; fz'uit and 



252 



TANCREDI 



flower painter, pupil of Theodor van Soesten 
and Joliann Pfeiffer. Studied in Rome un- 
der Mario Nuzzi, and when called to Vienna 
painted for the imperial court, in the style 
of Jan Weenix and Melchior Hondecoetei*. 
Works : Flowei'-Piece, Flowers and Fruits 
(3), Dead Game and Dog (1706), Poultry 
and Rabbit, Huntsmen with Booty, Muse- 
um, Vienna ; Flower- and Fruit-Pieces (1715 
[3]), Dead Fowl (1706 [2]), Dead Game 
(1707, 1716 [2], 1717), nine others, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib. ; Doves, Hen with 
Chickens, Dead "Woodcock and other Birds, 
Pheasants and Dove, Dresden Gallery ; 
Turkish Duck attacked by Fox (1718), Dead 
Fowls (2), Turtle Doves Feeding, Fruit- 
Pieces (2, one dated 1712), Gotha Muse- 
um ; Fruit- Piece, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg ; Dead Birds (2, 1705), two others, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Doves Billing (1724), 
Schwerin Gallery. — Kugler (Crowe), ii. 533 ; 
Wurzbach, xliii. 37. 

TANCREDI, RAFFAELE, bom at Re- 
sina, near Naples, in 1838. History painter, 
pupil of Maucinelli in Naples ; went in 1869 
to Florence, where he competed for the first 
historical prize. Order of Italian Crown. 
Works : Camoens with his Negro in Prison ; 
Buoso da Duero insulted by his Fellow- 
Citizens (1868), bought by the State ; Ad- 
miral Caracciolo hanged by Order of Nelson, 
King of Italy ; Ferdinand IV. of Naples re- 
turning from the Chase. — Miiller, 515. 

TANNHAUSER AND VENUS, Otto 
Knille, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 10 in. X 9 ft. 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1873. Tannhiiuser, the minnesinger, hav- 
ing become sated with pleasure during his 
visit to the Venusberg, determines, notwith- 
standing the entreaties of Venus, to return 
to Lisaura, whose love he had won at Man- 
tua. He is represented as starting up from 
the flower-strewn couch in the crystal 
grotto, with one hand on his lyre and the 
other pressing his forehead, while Venus, 
rising nude from her draperies, endeavours 
to detain him by seizing his shoulder ; 
above, two cupids hold him by his mantle ; 



at left, one shoots an arrow at Tannhiiuser, 
while another gazes reproachfully, and in 
front a fifth has rolled off the couch ; in the 
background, all manner of enchanting splen- 
dours. 

TARAVAL, HUGUES, born in Paris in 
1728, died there, Oct. 19, 1785. History 
painter, son and pupil of Thomas Raphael 
Taraval (portrait painter to King of Sweden, 
died at Stockholm in 1750). He won the 
1st prix de Rome in 1756 ; member of 
Academy, 1769 ; professor, 1785 ; sub-in- 
spector of the Gobelins. Works : Job re- 
proached by his Wife (1756), Marseilles 
Museum ; Venus and Adonis (1765), Comte 
de Kreutz ; Repast of Tantalus (1767), Cha- 
teau de Belle- Vue ; Triumph of Bacchus 
(1769), Gallery of Apollo, Louvre, Paris ; 
Marriage of St. Louis (1773), Chapel of 
Ecole Militaire ; Triumph of Amphitrite 
(1777), Louvre ; Cumcean Sibyl (1781), 
Chapel of Fontainebleau ; Artist's Portrait, 
Stockholm Museum. — Bellier, ii. 541, 

TARDIEU, JEAN CHARLES, called 
Cochin, born in Paris, Sept. 3, 1765, died 
there, April 3, 1830. History painter, son 
of Jacques Nicolas Tardieu (engraver, 1716- 
91), and pupil of J. B. Regnault. Won 
2d grand prix de Rome in 1790. Works : 
Tarquin and Lucretia (1793) ; Death of 
Correggio (1806) ; Napoleon receiving the 
Queen of Prussia at Tilsit (1808), Henry IV. 
before Paris, Halt of French Army at Syene 
in Egypt, Versailles Museum ; Allegory on 
Birth of Due de Bordeaux (1822), Rouen 
Museum ; Trophenius and Agameda, Be- 
san9on Museum ; Ulysses recognized by 
Euryclea, Marseilles Museum ; Susanna at 
the Bath, Havre Museum. — Bellier, ii. 543. 

TARQUIN AND LUCRETIA. See Lu- 
cretia. 

TASSAERT, JAN PETER, born at Ant- 
werp, March 7, 1651, died there, Sept. 29, 
1725. Flemish school ; history and genre 
painter, Master of the guild in 1690, dean 
in 1701. For the guild room of the dia- 
mond polishers he painted eight scenes 
from the lives of SS. Peter and Paul. In 



253 



TASSAERT 




the Antwerp Museum is a capital genre 
scene: The Philosophers.— Cat. du Mus. 
d'Anvers, 379 ; "Van den Branden, 1037. 
TASSAERT, (NICOLAS FRANCOIS) 
OCTAVE, born in 
Paris, July 26, 1800, 
died there, by sui- 
cide, April 22, 1874. 
History and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Pierre Girard, Guil- 
lon Lethiere, and of 
the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts. Medals : 2d 
class, 1838; 1st 
class, 1849 ; 3d class, Exposition universelle, 
1855. Works : Death of Correggio (1834) ; 
Vicar of Wakefield (1835) ; Death of Heloise 
(1838) ; Diana at the Bath (1842) ; Christ 
in the Garden of Olives (1844) ; Erigone, 
Slave Merchant (1846) ; Temptation of St. 
Anthony (1849) ; Unhappy Family (1849), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Gardens of Armida 
(1850) ; Communion of Early Christians 
in Catacombs (1 852), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Sleep of Jesus, Son of Louis XVI. in the 
Temple (1855) ; Magdalen, Pygmalion and 
Galatea (1857) ; Funeral of Dagobert in St. 
Denis (1838), Louis X., Portrait of Gaspard 
de Saulx, do. of Charles le Blanchefort, do. 
of Philippe de Comines, Versailles Muse- 
um ; Heaven and Hell (1850), Artist's Por- 
trait, Ai-iadne, Convalescent Mother, Young 
Woman with Glass of Wine, Painter's Studio, 
Suicide, Return of Prodigal Son, and otliers, 
Montpellier Museum. Alexandre Dumas 
has forty-five of Tassaert's pictures and 
sketches, and many others are owned in 
Paris.— Claretie, Peintres, etc. (1882), i. 25 ; 
Bellier, ii. 544; Gaz. des B. Arts (1886), 
xxxiii. 28. 

TASSI, AGOSTINO, born in Perugia in 
1566, died in Rome in May, 1644. Roman 
school. Real name Buonamici, but adopted 
that of the Marquis Tassi, whose page he 
had been ; pupil of Paul Brill, under whose 
care he became an excellent landscape 
painter. He was a man of infamous char- 



acter, who paid the penalty of his crimes 
in the galleys at Leghorn ; when the part 
of his sentence condemning him to hard 
labour had been remitted, he soon made 
himself known throughout Italy as a paint- 
er of marine views. After his Hberation he 
was employed in painting frescos in the 
Quirinal and in the Palazzo de' Lancel- 
lotti. Tassi was the master of Claude Lor- 
rain. — Lanzi, i. 484 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole om- 
brienne. 

TATKELEFF, VOGISNY, born in Rus- 
sia, about 1813. Battle painter, son of a 
serf in the Borissov Government ; attracted 
by his sketches the attention of his mas- 
ter, who educated him, but was forced by 
the successor in the estate into the army, 
where he served fifteen years ; in 1854 took 
part in the Crimean War ; drudged for his 
livelihood until 1870, when a tourist, who 
saw his sketch-book, induced him to paint 
some pictures for the Exposition in Moscow 
in 1873. These, which represented scenes 
in the Crimean War, brought him into prom- 
inence, and they were bought for 60,000 
rubles for the Winter Palace of St. Peters- 
burg. 

TATTEGRAIN, FRANCIS, born at Pe- 
ronne (Somme) ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, and engraver ; pupil of C. 
Crauck, Lepic, Jules Lefebvre, and Bou- 
langer. Medals : 2d class, Paris and Mu- 
nich, in 1883. Works : Herring Fishing, 
Coup d'c'paule (1879) ; Return from Fish- 
ing (1880) ; Femme aux epaves, Artist's 
Portrait (1881) ; We are Lost, Landing the 
Herrings (1882) ; The Mourners at Staples 
(1883) ; Convalescent (1884). 

TAUNAY, NICOLAS ANTOINE, born in 
Paris, Feb. 10, 1755, died there, March 20, 
1830. History and landscape painter, pupil 
of Brenet, Casanova, and Lepicie. Won 
grand prix de Rome in 1784, and spent 
three years there with the help of his 
patron, M. Angiviller. Won grand medal, 
and became member of Academy in 1796. 
Medal, 1803; L. of Honour; Order of 
Christ in Portugal. In 1816 he went with 



254 



TAURISCLTS 



Lebreton and Montigny to found an Acad- 
emy of Art in Rio de Janeiro, and returned 
in 1824. Works : St. John Preaching, Mili- 
tary Hospital in Italy (1789), Peter the Her- 
mit preaching First Crusade, Taking a City 
(1800), Louvre, Paris ; Battle of Nazareth, 
Crossing the St. Bernard, Napoleon I. enter- 
ing Munich, Battle of Ebersburg, Halt on 
the Slope of the Alps, Bonaparte visiting 
the Battle Field of Lodi, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Woman taken in Adultery, Grenoble 
Museum ; Ball Play, Village Fete, Shepherds 
Reposing, Montpellier Museum ; Shepherds 
competing for the Prize of Pan, Clorinda 
with the Herdsmen, The Lion of Androcles, 
Brother Philip's Geese, Proclamation of 
Henry of Burgundy as first King of Portu- 
gal (Lisbon and Rio ^_ 
de Janeiro) ; Mihtary l^'^^tvOEV* 
Camp, Hermitage, St. 'Y 
Petersburg. Many of xJOLAJU/JCC^ 
his works have been / 
engraved. — Bellier, ii. 
546 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
fran9aise ; Biog. uni- 
verselle ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Jal, 1176 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 138. 

TAURISCUS, painter, date unknown. 
Pliny names (xxxv. 40 [144]) among his 
works a Discobolus, a Clytsemnestra, a Pan, 
a Polynices claiming the Sovereignty, and a 
Capaneus. Possibly identical with Tauris- 
CU8 of Tralles, the sculptor. — Pliny, xxxvi. 
4 [33] ; Sillig, 434 ; Brunn, ii. 287. 

TAVARONE, LAZZARO, born in Genoa 
in 1556, died there in 1641. Genoese 
school ; favourite pupil and assistant of 
Luca Cambiaso ; went with his master to 
Spain, and continued in the Escorial the 
works left unfinished by him at his death 
(1585). Returned to Genoa in 1594, and 
painted many frescos in the cathedral and 
other churches, and in various palaces, esjje- 
cially the Palazzo Adorno, where he exe- 
cuted a fresco on the ceiling, The Doge 
Adorno receiving the Pope. He left but 
few oil pictures. — Lanzi, iii. 248 ; Ch. Blanc, 
licole genoise ; Lavice, 89. 



~0\UiNAV 



TAVERNIER, PAUL, born in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Animal, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Cabanel and Guillaumet. 
Medal, 3d class, 1883. Works: Cafe in 
Algiers (1878) ; Arabs Bathing Horses in 
the Sea (1879) ; Hallali (1880) ; The Model 
(1881) ; An Inquiry (1882) ; Stag Hunt, The 
Chase (1883) ; Bat I'eau, Wild Boar Hunt 
(1884); The Stag at Bay, A False Start 
(1885) ; Amazone aux ecoutes, Rentree des 
poulinieres (1886). 

TEERLINK, ABRAHAM, born at Dor- 
drecht in 1777, died in Rome in June, 1857. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Michiel Ver- 
steeg, of Jan Kelderman (1741-1820), and 
of Arie Lamme ; then studied in Paris under 
David in 1808-9, and thence went to Rome. 
He ranks among the more esteemed of 
modern landscape painters. Order of Lion, 
1839. Member of Amsterdam Acadeni}'. 
Works : Italian Landscape (1823), Falls of 
Tivoli (1824), Amsterdam Museum ; View 
of Aricia near Rome (1855), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich. — Immerzeel, iii. 129 ; Kramm, 
vi. 1606. 

TEICHS, FRIEDRICH ADOLF, born at 
Brunswick in 1812. Historical genre paint- 
ei", pupil of Diisseldorf Academy in 1834-36, 
after having studied while travelling in Hun- 
gary, North Italy, and Tyrol. His pictures 
show great feeling for noble forms and fine 
grouping, but are rather weak in drawing 
and colouring. Works : Albi'echt Diirer 
painting (1834) ; Singer on the Battlement 
of a Castle (1835) ; Auerbach's Cellar, Wood 
Gatherer by Forest Cliajjel (1836) ; Portrait 
of Emperor Otto H. (1836), Romer, Frank- 
fort ; Greek Prisoners guarded by Mame- 
lukes (1837), ]Mr. Geisberg, Minister ; Libera- 
tion of Christians through Crusaders (1837); 
Henry the Lion taking Leave of his Wife ; 
Scene in Hamlet (1840) ; Richard Ca3ur de 
Lion taking Corsair's Ship (1840) ; Charles 
V. denying Exhumation of Luther (1845) ; 
Last Banquet of the Girondists (1849), 
Stettin Museum. — Cotta's Kuustbl., 1835- 
45 ; niustr. Zeitg., 1849 ; Nagler, xviii. 
160. 



TELEPHANES 



TELEPHANES, painter, of Sicyon, early 
period. Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 5 [16]) 
in connection with Ardices of Corinth as 
first to use shading lines within outline 
drawings.— Sillig, 436 ; Brunn, ii. 4. 

TEMEEAIKE, fighting, Joseph M. 
W. Turnery National Gallery, London ; can- 
vas, H. 2 ft. 11 in. X 3 ft. 11 in. The Teme- 
raire,a three-decker, mounting 98 guns, capt- 
ured from the French in 1759, had acquired 
the title of " Fighting " before she took so 
conspicuous a part at Trafalgar. She was 
put out of commission soon after the peace 
of 1815, and, being condemned as unservice- 
able, was sold in 1838 and towed to Kother- 
hithe to be broken up. The picture repre- 
sents her in tow of a tug, the sun setting in 
a blaze of glory behind. One of the finest of 
Turner's later works. Koyal Academy, 1839. 
Engraved by J. T. Willmore. — Art Journal 
(1864), 108 ; Hamerton, Life ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 
TEMPEL, ABRAHAM VAN DEN, born 
at Leeuwarden in 1622 or 1623, died in 
Amsterdam, May 13, 1672. Dutch school. 
Real name Abraham Lambert Jacobse. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of his father, Lamberts 
Jacobse, and in Leyden of Joris van Schoo- 
ten, but followed more the later manner of 
Van der Heist. A light and pleasing colour- 
ing and broad treatment characterize his 
pictures. Works : Three Portraits, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Portraits of Man and Wife 
(1660), Hague Museum; Regents of the 
Orphan Asylum (1669), Three Allegories, 
Leyden Museum ; Portraits of an Admiral 
and his Wife (1671), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Portrait of Hendrik van Westerhout, Man 
and Wife in their Park, Berlin Museum ; 
Female Portrait, Cassel Gallery ; Dutch 
Patrician Family (1672), Hamburg Gallery. 
— Immerzeel, iii. 130 ; Kramm, vi. 1607 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 362 ; Havard, A. & A. 
holL, ii. 85, 180 ; Burger, Musees, ii. 124 ; 
Jahrb. d. preuss. Kunstsammlg., iv. 

TEIVIPERELLO, IL. See Caselli, Cristo- 
foro. 

TEMPESTA (Tempesti), ANTONIO, 
born in Florence in 1555, died in Rome, 



Aug. 5, 1630. Roman school ; pupil of 
John Stradanus, and of Santo de Titi ; af- 
terwards worked in company with Cigoli. 
About 1575 went to Rome and painted in 
the Vatican, the Palazzo Giustiniani, and 
other public buildings. Painted chiefly 
battles, cavalcades, hunting scenes, and 
other figure pieces ; and left more than 



,6lJ 



(UtcL 



1,500 etchings. — Ch. Blanc, ificole ombri-r 
eune ; Burckhardt, 185, 757 ; Siret, 905. 

TEMPESTA, CAVALIERE. See Molyn, 
Pieter. 

TEMPLE OF JUPITER PANHELLE- 
NIUS, Joseph M. W. Turner, Mr. Goupil (?) ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. x 7 ft. 9 in. The Tem- 
ple of Jupiter at ^gina restored on the 
general plan of the Athenian Acropolis, 
which is seen in the distance, at left ; in 
foreground, peasants dancing the Romaika. 
Royal Academy, 1816. Bought by Moon, 
Boys & Graves, who sold it to Wynn Ellis ; 
at his sale (1876), £2,100. Engraved (1828) 
by John Pye ; J. B. Allen, in Turner Gal- 
lery. 

TEMPTATION AND FALL, Michelan- 
gelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceil- 
ing. 

TENIERS, DAVn), the elder, born in 

Antwerp in 
1582, died 
there, July 
29, 1649. 
Flemish 
school ; 
hi story, 
genre, and 
land scape 
painter, 
pupil of his 
elder brother Juliaen (1572-1615), of Ru- 
bens, and in Rome of Adam Elsheimer ; 
master of Antwei-p guild in 1606 ; painted 
chiefly peasant scenes, combined with land- 




236 



TEXIERS 



scape, but occasionally biblical and mytho- 
logical subjects ; bis earlier works ai'e heavy 
iu tone and crude in colour, while in his 
later pictures he approached, in freedom of 
treatment and harmony of colour, the man- 
ner of his famous son. Works : llocky 
Landscape, Conversation, Playing at Bowls, 
National Gallery, London ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Seven Works of Mercy, St. Paul's, 
Antwerp ; Transfiguration (1615), Church 
at Dendermoude ; Landscape, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; do. with Castle, Brunswick Gallery ; 
Bleachery, Interior of Peasant Room, Bam- 
berg Gallery ; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Berlin Museum ; Peasant's Frolic by a Tav- 
ern, Cassel Gallery ; do., Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Dutch Kirmess (2), Landscapes (4), 
Dutch Bleachery, Dresden Gallery ; Smoker 
and Tippler, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Rocky Ravine with Figures, Peasant carry- 
ing a Pole, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Tav- 
ern Interior, Oldenburg Gallery ; Tempta- 
tion of St. Anthony, Gypsy Women in a 
Ravine, Schwerin Gallery ; Smoking Room 
(2), Stockholm Museum ; A Painter at his 
Easel (1641), Two Landscapes, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; Pan with Nymphs and Sa- 
tyrs, Vertumnus outwitting Pomona, Juno 
demanding lo of Jupiter, Mercury putting 
Ai'gus to Sleep (1638), Landscapes (4), Vi- 
enna INIuseum ; Physician with a Bottle, 
Uffizi, Florence ; Temptation of St. An- 
thony, Dutch Kitchen, New York n^y . 
Museum. — F. J. van den Branden, IfT 
752; Ch. Blanc, ficole flamande ; -**^ 
Immerzeel, iii. 130 ; Kramm, vi. 1608 ; vii. 
145 ; Michiels, vii. 428 ; Rooses (Reber), 
385 ; Van den Branden, 750. 

TENIERS, DAVID, the younger, born 
in Antwerp, baptized Dee. 15, 1610, died at 
Perck, near Brussels, April 25, 1690. Flem- 
ish school ; genre, landscape, and portrait 
painter, son and pupil of David the elder ; 
developed under the influence of Rubens, 
and especially of Brouwer. Master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1632, its dean in 1644-45, was 
made court painter to Ai'chduke Leopold 
Wilhelm, governor of the Netherlands, and ; 




settled, between 1648 and 1652, in Brus- 
sels, where he was received into the guild 
in 1675. He 
was the prime 
mover in the 
foundation of 
the Antwerp 
Academy in 
1663. Equally 
favoured by 
Leopold Wil- 
li e 1 m ' s suc- 
cessor, Don 
Juan of Austria, who is said to have studied 
under him ; he received important commis- 
sions from PhiHp IV. of Spain, and marks 
of esteem from Queen Christina of Sweden 
and the great in England and other coun- 
tries. The Count of Fuensaldana sent him 
to England to buy works by the Italian 
masters. He holds the first position among 
the genre painters of Flanders. Picturesque 
arrangement, exquisite harmony of colour- 
ing in all details, and a light and sparkling 
touch characterize his pictures, in which 
two periods may be distinguished — the ear- 
lier, up to 1640, in which a somewhat heavy 
brown tone prevails, gradually attaining, up 
to 1644, a luminous golden tone, and the 
later, up to 1660, in which he changed into 
a cool silvery hue ; after that he again 
adopted a decided golden tone. In 1660 
he published in Brussels a work containing 
about 200 engravings of pictures of the 
Italian and Flemish schools in the Arch- 
duke's gallery, executed from small copies 
made by himself from the originals. Of 
these copies 120 were sold in the Blenheim 
Palace sale (1886) for £2,002 10s. Works : 
Music Party, Boors Regaling, The Money- 
changers, Players at Tric-Trac, eleven otli- 
ers. National Gallery, London ; Boors Danc- 
ing (1645), Frolic in Village Courtyard 
(1649), Detachment of Civic Guard (1657), 
seven others, Buckingham Palace, ib.; Al- 
chemist, Village Festival, five others, Bridge- 
wiiter Gallery, ib. ; Landscape (1649), Farm- 
er's Family, two others, Grosvenor Gallery, 



257 



TENIERS 



ib. ; Witch before Cauldron, Group of Ducks, 
Stafford House, ib.; Village Fete, Apsley 
House, ib. ; Seven Works of Mercy, Artist's 
Portrait, three others, Lord Ashburton, ib.; 
five, Mr. Baring, ib.; do., Mr. Holford, ib.; 
three, Mi-. Phipps, ib.; do.. Lord Colborne, 
ib.; two, Lord Ward, ib.; Marriage of Ten- 
iers, Alfred de Kothschild, ib. ; Prodigal Son 
(1644), Denial of St. Peter (1646), Seven 
Works of Mercy, Temptation of St. An- 
thony (2), twenty-nine others, Louvre ; Fish 
Market, Mendicant, Comte Henri de Gref- 
fulhe, Paris; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Lille Museum ; do., Kirmess (masterpiece, 
1652), The Five Senses, Interior of Arch- 
duke Leopold William's Gallery, four oth- 
ers, and (with Lucas van Uden) Preparing 
for the Market, Brussels Museum ; Pano- 
rama of Valenciennes, four others, Antwerp 
Museum; Guard Room (1641), Kirmess, 
Rustic Pursuits, four others, Amsterdam 
Museum ; The Good Table (1644), Alche- 
mist, Hague Museum ; Musicians in a Tav- 
ern, three others, Basle Museum ; Smoker, 
Musce Rath, Geneva ; Mountainous Land- 
scape, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
Daniel in Lions' Den (1640), Soldiers at 
Dice, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Repast (1630), 
Temptation of St. Anthony (masterpiece, 
1647), Flemish Kirmess, Artist with his 
Family, four others, Berlin Museum ; Al- 
chemist, four others, Brunswick Museum ; 
Supper in the Barn (1634), Doctor's Visit 
(1640), Country Physician, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Barber Shop, Entry of Archduchess 
Isabella into Vilvoorden, do. into Brussels, 
five others, Cassel Gallery ; Temptation of 
St. Anthony, Gallery, Copenhagen ; do., 
and Rustic Flemish Interior (1640), Do- 
mestic Occupation (1660), Unpleasant Dis- 
covery (1667), Kitchen Interior (1674), 
Moltke Collection, ib. ; Old Scholar (1637), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Village Fair (1641), 
Peasants playing Dice (1646), Peasants at 
Dinner (1648), twenty-one others, Dresden 
Museum ; Landscapes with Figures (3), St. 
Jerome in the Desert, three others, Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Peasant's Frolic, five 



others, Gotha Museum ; Interior with Peas- 
ants, Landscape by Moonlight, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Kitchen Interior, Ferdinande- 
um, Innsbruck ; Landscape, Kunigsberg 
Museum ; Gypsy Family (attributed, but 
probably by David, the elder), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Tavern Scenes (6, three dated 1643, 
1645, 1650), Peasant's Wedding (1651), Al- 
chymist (1680), Great Fair near Florence, 
Views in the Gallery of Archduke Albrecht 
at Brussels (4), fifteen others. Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Village Festival (1649), Ol- 
denburg Gallery ; Guard Room (1642), 
Archers of Antwerp (1643, masterpiece). 
Kitchen Interior (1646), Village Festival (2, 
one dated 1648), Wedding Dinner (1650), 
Flemish Amusements (1654), thirty-three 
others. Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Fifteen 
Scenes in Life of the Virgin, Holy Family, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Company in Artist's 
House, Daniel in Lions' Den (1649), six 
others, Schwerin Gallery ; Peasants at the 
Inn-, Stuttgart Museum ; Peasant Wedding 
(1648), Robbers plundering Village (1648), 
Shooting at the Shawfowl in Brussels (1652, 
masterpiece), Village Festival (masterpiece), 
Abraham's Sacrifice (1653), Room in Gallery 
of Archduke Leopold William at Brussels, 
thirteen others. Museum, Vienna ; Tavern 
Scene (1670), thirteen others, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib. ; six pictures, Harrach Gallery, ib. ; 
three, Czeruin Gallery, ib.; two, Schonborn 
Gallery, ib. ; four, Stockholm Museum ; St. 
Peter Weeping, Uffizi, Florence ; Peasant 
Wedding (1637), History of Binaldo and 
Armida, and forty-one others, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Marriage Festival, Judith with Head 
of Holoferues, Museum, New York ; Incan- 
tation Scene, Village Fete (2), Boors Regal- 
ing, Charles V. leaving Dort, Parable of the 
Labourer, Landscape, Historical Society, ib. 
His brother Abraham (1629-71) and his son 
David HI (1638-85) were his pupils and 
imitators. By Abraham are, in the Madrid 
Museum : A Guard Room, and a Depository 
of Arms ; in the Hermitage at St. Peters- 
burg : A Prelate's Library ; in the HaiTach 
Gallery at Vienna : Monkeys as Shoemakers 



258 



TENIERS 



in the Shop, and do. as Tailors ; in tlie Tu- 
rin Gallery : A Guitar Player. — Ch. Blanc, 
ficole flamande ; Cat. ,_— y,^^ 

du Mus. d'Anvers, Je.rUJl/)S.j'/Ty 
382 ; Dohme, li. ; Im- r-x 

merzeel, iii. 130; jtj^ju^>JJ-l^ . ^, 
Journal des B. Arts r\ t- • V^ 

(1864), 171 ; Kramm, ^- ^ ^^"^/^ ^ 
vi. 1609; vu. 145; D.TENlER^^ 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. j>." ^<T„y,:^^j 
321; Messagerdes V - J^ ■ ^^^^^ 
sciences hist. (1854), *^ 

381; (1868), 263; (1878), 331; Michiels, 
vii. 441 ; viii. 3 ; Rooses (Reber), 385 ; Van 
den Branden, 981 ; Vermoelen, Teniers le 
jeune, etc. (Antwerp, 1865) ; Vlaamsche 
school (1864), 173 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 
258. 

TENIERS, MARRIAGE OF, David Ten- 
iers, Alfred de Rothschild Collection, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. ; 
dated 1651. A pleasure garden, adorned 
with trees, bowers, and a fountain, through 
which Teniers and his bride are being con- 
ducted to their chateau by a procession of 
about twenty persons, attended by youths 
bearing refreshments ; at left, a man playing 
a guitar. Collection of Paignon Dijonval, 
1821 ; sold to T. Emmerson ; then in collec- 
tion of John Lucy, Esq., Charlcote. — Art 
Journal (1885), 242 ; Smith, iii. 382. 

TEN KATE, HERIVIANN. See Kate.. 

TEOCALLI, STORMING OF THE, 
Emanuel Leutze, Amos Binney, Boston, Mass. 
The attack by Cortes on the great teocalli 
or temple of Huitzilopotchli, in the city of 
Mexico, as narrated by Prescott in his " Con- 
quest of Mexico " (v. cap. 2). It represents 
the Spaniards forcing their way up the great 
stone steps of the pyramid in sjiite of the 
heroic valour of the Aztecs. Loaned to 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1883. 

TEPIDARIUM, IN THE, Laurenz Alma- 
Tadema. A girl, nude, reclining on a mar- 
ble bench covered with a wild beast's skin 
and with cushions, in the tepidarium (warm- 
ing room) of a Roman bath, resting before 
proceeding to the calidarium, or hot bath ; 



in one hand she holds a feather fan, in the 
other a strigillus for scraping the skin ; at 
her feet is a pot of flowers. Painted in 1881. 

TERBRUGGHEN (Terbriiggen), HEN- 
DRIK, born at Deventer in 1588, died at 
Utrecht, Nov. 1, 1629. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Abraham Bloemaert, thea 
studied in Italy, where Rubens knew him ; 
in 1614 he was in Milan and returned in the 
same year to Utrecht, where he became 
master of the guild in 1616. Works : Fovu' 
Evangelists (1621), Town Hall, Deventer ; 
Two Flute Players (1621), Cassel Gallery ; 
Man at Breakfast (1627), Avigsburg Gallery ; 
Esther and Vashti (1628), Cologne Museum ; 
Christ Crowned with Thorns, Gallery, Co- 
penhagen ; Angel appearing to St. Peter in 
Prison, Moltke Collection, ib. ; do. (1629), 
Schwerin Gallery. — Immerzeel, iii. 132 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1613 ; Schlie, 624. 

TERBURG (Ter Borch), GERARD, born 
at Zwolle, 
probably 
b et w e e n 
1613 and 
1617, died 
at Deven- 
ter, Dec. 
8, 1681. 
Dutch 
school; 
geni'e paint- 
er ; i-eceived his first instruction from his 
father, Geert Terburg (1584-1662, who 
had studied in Rome), then formed himself 
in Amsterdam and especially in Haarlem, 
where he entered the guild in 1635, under 
the influence of Fi-ans Hals, and through 
independent study of the masterworks by 
Titian, Rembi'andt, and Velasquez ; trav- 
elled through Germany, Italy, Spain, Eng- 
land, and France, and painted everywhere 
I^ortraits and genre pieces. In 1646-48, at 
Miinster, he became, through the favour of 
the Spanish envoy, the pamter of the diplo- 
matic circle and executed the famous por- 
trait group of the Peace Congress ; followed 
the Spanish envoy to Madrid, where he 




36'J 



TERXITE 



painted the king and many courtiers and 
ladies ; returned via England and France to 
his native country, and settled at Deventer, 
where he obtained the citizenship in 1655, 
and afterwards became burgomaster. He 
was the inventor of the interiors, and of the 
satin gown, so much used by Mieris and 
Metsu ; a first-rate and thoroughly original 
master. Works : Peace of lliinster (1648), 
Guitar Lesson, National Gallery, London ; 
Girl reading Letter to her Mother, Girl at 
Table inviting Gentlemen to drink, Buck- 
ingham Palace, London ; Paternal Counsel, 
Bridgewater Gallery, ib. ; Girl with Guitar 
and Two Gentlemen, Lord Ashburton, ib. ; 
Military Man by Fireside, Officer Writing, 
Music Lesson, Mr. Hope, ib. ; Grouj) of 
Three, Girl Drinking, Mr. Munro, ib. ; Girl 
Writing, Girl Drinking, Mr. Baring, ib. ; 
Officer and Girl, Music Lesson (1660), Con- 
cert, Assembly of Priests, Reading Lesson, 
Louvre, Paris ; Mandolin Player, Antwerp 
Museum ; Paternal Advice, Boy with Dog, 
Portrait of Artist and his Wife, Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Card Players, Van Loon Col- 
lection, ib. ; Musical Couple, Six Collec- 
tion, ib. ; Two Portraits, Haarlem Muse- 
um ; The Dispatch (1655), Artist's Portrait, 
Hague Museum ; Large Group Portrait, 
To^vn Hall, Deventer ; Lady at Toilet, Goth- 
ic Church Interior, Suermondt Museum, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; Players at Tric-Trac, Bre- 
men Gallery ; Portraits of Man and Wife, 
Old Widow Lady, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Young Lady with Lute, Music Lesson, Cas- 
sel Gallery ; Paternal Exhortation, Knife 
Grinder's Family, Smoker, Consultation 
(1635), Four Portraits, Berlin Museum ; 
Officer Writing, Young Woman washing 
her Hands, Music Lesson, Lady Standing 
l)y Table, Dresden Gallery ; Young Woman 
with Glass of Wine, Stildel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Messenger waiting for Answer, Gotha 
Museum ; Portrait of a Burgomaster of Am- 
sterdam, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; Boy 
with Dog, Trumpeter bringing letter to a 
Lady, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Glass of 
Lemonade, Musical Jew, Rustic Messenger, 



Lady reading Letter, Duet, Barmaid, Por- 
trait of a General, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Two Cpuples (1658), Young Man read- 
ing. Violin Player, Schwerin Gallery; Young 
Woman peeling Apple, Museum, Vienna ; 
Portraits in Liechtenstein and Czernin (2) 
Galleries, ib. ; do. in Stettin, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence, and Turin Galleries (2) ; Artist's Por- 
trait, Museum, New York ; Portrait of Will- 
iam of Orange, two others. Historical So- 
^->^ cieiy,ih.; Degustat ion 

( TT T nr (Narischkine sale, 

k3' id iC\y. Paris, 1883). — Ch. 
/^ CC ^ Blanc, £cole hollan- 



y ^b= 



b tA4^0 daise ; Bode, Studien, 
V y 176, 614 ; Burger, 



Musees, i. 118, 244; 
ii. 102, 256 ; Dohme, lii. ; Immerzeel, iii. 
132; Jahrb. der Kongl. pr.-Kunstsammlg., 
ii. 144 ; Kramm, v. 1612 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 394 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 141 ; v. Ill ; 
vii. 196 ; X. 36 ; xii. 84 ; xviii. 350, 370, 406 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1886), xxxiv. 388 et seq. 

TERNITE, WILHELM, born at Neustre- 
litz, Mecklenburg, in 1786, died in 1871. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Gros 
in Paris after having been an officer during 
the wars of independence, 1813-15 ; went 
in 1823 to Rome and Naples, where he made 
excellent copies of the frescos at Pompeii. 
He was aulic councillor and, from 1826, in- 
spector of the Royal Gallery at Potsdam. 
Works : St. John the Baptist, Schloss Belle- 
vue, Berlin ; Portrait of Emperor Francis 
I. of Austria (1837), Royal Palace, ib. ; do. 
Queen Louise in Riding Habit (1827) ; do. on 
her Death-Bed ; do. of the Composer Spon- 
tini ; do. of Prof. Ottfried Miiller. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl., 1829-38 ; Nagler, xviii. 248. 

TERWESTEN, AUGUSTINUS, called 
Snip, born at The Hague in 1649, died in 
Berlin, Jan. 21, 1717. History painter, pu- 
pil of Nicolaas Wieling (died in Berlin in 
1689), and of Willem Doudyns (1630-97), 
then studied for six years in Rome and Ven- 
ice after Raphael, Titian, and Tintoretto, 
and after his return, via Germany, painted 
many ceilings and other decorative works 



200 



TESCIIEXDORFF 



with subjects from Ovid, and from history, 
sacred and profane. In 1682-83 he did 
much towards the revival of the Academy 
of Design at The Hague, and in 1690 was 
called as court painter to Berlin, where he 
decorated the electoral palaces, helped to 
found the Academy, and became professor. 
In the Koyal Palace at Berlin is his Death 
of Adonis. His brothers and pupils, Ell- 
as (1651-1729) and Matheus (1670-1757), 
painted — the former, flowers and animals at 
The Hague and in Rome, where he died ; the 
latter, history and portraits, studied also un- 
der Doudyns and Daniel Mytens, then as- 
sisted his brother in Berlin, and comj^leted 
his studies in Rome and Venice. — Immer- 
zeel, iii. 134 ; Kramm, vi, 1615 ; Nagler, xviii. 
251. 

TESCHENDORFF, TIMTL, born in Stet- 
tin in 1823. History, genre and portrait 
painter, pupil in Munich of Piloty ; at first 
painted realistic scenes from life of Luther, 
then in Berlin portraits ; executes especial- 
ly single figures in picturesque attitudes. 
Assistant secretary at Berlin Academy since 
1877. Works : Conradin's Farewell of his 
Mother (1868) ; Husband's Bequest ; Juliet 
with the Potion ; Cleoi^atra ; Ariadne ; 
QEdipus and Antigone (1879) ; Pastime 
(1880).— Midler, 516 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), 
ii. 257 ; Land und Meer (1883), ii. 700. 

TESCHNER, ALEXANDER, born in 
Berlin in 1816, died there, Aug. 9, 1878. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Herbig, with Wach, after whose death 
he devoted himself to religiovis art in the 
style and under the influence of Cornelius ; 
visited Rome in 1857. Great gold medal of 
Hohenzollern, 1865. Works : Ecce Homo 
(1853), church at Perleberg ; Pieta (1878), 
Emperor William, Berlin ; cartoons for 
stained-glass windows in Cathedrals of Mag- 
deburg, Stralsund, Aix-la-Chapclle, etc. — 
Rosenberg, Bev\. Malersch., 247. 

TESTA, PIETRO, born in Lucca in 1611, 
died in Rome in 1650. Florentine school ; 
supposed pupil at Lucca of Pietro Paolini. 
Went to Rome when young, and studied un- 




der Domenichino and afterwards under Pie- 
tro da Cortoua. He was of a morose and 
melancholy dispo- 
sition, and made 
many enemies by 
his adverse criti- 
cism of the works 
of other painters. 
His body was 
found floating in 
the Tiber, but 
whether he was 

murdered or committed suicide 

1 _J is unknown. Among his Avorks 

I are : JosejDh sold by his Breth- 

ren, Caj^itol Museum, Rome ; 

Death of Dido, Uffizi.— Lanzi, i. 236 ; Ch. 

Blanc, Ecole florentine. 

TESTAMENT, OLD AND NEW, or Tri- 
umph of Religion, Garofalo, Ferrara Gal- 
lery ; fresco transferred to canvas, H. 21 ft. 
4 in. X 26 ft. 11 in. A quaint allegorical 
composition, illustrating the victory of Chris- 
tianity over the Mosaic disjiensation. In 
the middle is Christ on the cross ; at his 
right hand is the New Testament, at his left 
the Old, the latter placed on an ass ; from 
the cross proceed arms, which place a crown 
on the New Testament, hold the keys of 
Paradise, deliver the patriarchs from hell, 
and slay the Old Testament. Through the 
hands of a figure representing religion flow 
streams of blood, which fall on the sacra- 
ments, and opposite to these are seen the 
sacrifices of the Old Testament. Solomon's 
temple has also a place in the comppsition, 
and opposite to it is the preaching of St. 
Paul. Over the whole is the Almighty seated 
on a rock. Painted in 1524 on the wall of 
the refectory of S. Andrea, Ferrara ; trans- 
fen'ed to canvas in 1841 by the painter Pel- 
legrino Succi, by order of Gregory XVI. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 466 ; Baruftaldi, i. 332. 

TESTl^.LIN (Tettelin), HENRI, born in 
Paris in 1616, died at The Hague, April 17, 
1695. French school ; history and por- 
trait painter, brother of Louis Testelin, and 
l)upil of Vouet. He became one of the 



TESTELIN 



founders of the French Academy in 1648, 
secretary in 1650, professor in 1658 ; bore 
the title of first painter to the king, with 
lodgings in the Gobelin factory, of which 
he was superintendent until the revocation 
of tlie Edict of Nantes (1681), when, being 
a Protestant, he fled to Holland. Works : 
Portrait of Louis XTV. (2), do. of Pierre 
Seguier, Versailles Museum ; Time clipping 

the "Wings of Love. — Bellier, ii.; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole fran9aise ; Biog. universelle ; Jal, 
1179. 

TESTELIN (TetteUn), LOUIS, born in 
Paris in 1615, 
died there, Aug. 
19, 1655. French 
school ; genre 
painter, pupil of 
his father Gilles 
Testelin (court 
painter to Louis 
Xni.), of Vouet, 
and imitator of 
Le Brun. Did 
much decorative work in the Palais Royal, 
the Luxembourg, Fontainebleau, and other 
public and private buildings. Member of 
Academy, 1648 ; professor, 1650. Works : 
Resurrection of Tabitha (1652), Rouen Mu- 
seum ; Flagellation of St. Paul and St. Silas, 
Notre Dame, Paris ; Passage of the Rhine 
in 1672, Keys of Marsal delivered to the 
King, Marriage of Louis XIV., Capture of 
Dole in 1668, Versailles Museum ; Magda- 
len, Grenoble Museum ; Syrinx and Pan, 
Rennes Museum. — Bellier, ii.; Ch. Blanc, 
Ecole franyaise ; Jal, 1179. 

TfiTAR VAN ELVEN, PIERRE, born in 
Amsterdam in 1831. Architectm-e and land- 
scape painter, son of the engraver Johan 
Baptist Tetar van Elven ; pupil of Jacobus 
E. J. van den Berg, then studied in Paris, 
where he settled, after having lived for 




several years in Turin. Italian Order of 
Maurice and Lazarus. Works : View of 
Westminster ; Interior of the Lateran in 
Rome ; View of Genoa ; Interior of St. 
James's, Liege ; Place de I'Opera in Paris 
(1880), Amsterdam Museum. By his father 
(born in 1805) : Old Skipper with Bottle, 
Ruins of Church at Lisbon (1870), Ham- 
burg Gallery. — Kramm, vi. 1618 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xviii. 578. 

TEXTOR, FRANZ JOSEF, born in Sua- 
bia, died at Innsbruck, Nov. 9, 1741. Ger- 
man school. Real name Weber, translated 
into Latin. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, then set- 
tled at Innsbruck ; he was an unusually 
gifted artist of great versatility, and painted 
in the manner of the best old masters, so 
that many of his works were taken for pro- 
ductions of Callot, Brueghel, Teniers, etc. 
Works : Seven Works of Mercy, Fair in 
Holland (2), Genre Scenes (2), Card Players, 
Dice Players, Conversation (3), Peasants' 
Frolic, Monkeys at Cards, Monkeys at 
School, Still-lives and Landscapes (10), 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck. — Nagler, xviii. 
289; Wurzbach, xhv. 104. 

THALES, painter, of Sicyon, mentioned 
by Diogenes Laertius (i. 38) as a man of no- 
ble birth.— R. R., Schorn, 414 ; Sillig, 438. 

THANN, MORITZ VON, born at O'-Becse, 
Hungary, in 1828. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Fiihrich and Rahl, visited Belgium and 
Paris in 1855, then studied in Rome (1856- 
59) ; greatly influenced by Cornelius, Over- 
beck, Riepenhausen, and Wagner ; returned 
to Hungary, and with Karl Lotz painted 
frescos in the Museum, besides others in 
public buildings, at Pesth. Order of Fran- 
cis Joseph in 1867 ; medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works : Episode in Conquest of Szolnok in 
1552 (before 1855) ; Ulysses and Nausicaa, 
Ulysses and Penthesilea (1857-59), Baron 
Sina, Vienna ; Angelica and Medor, Tragedy 
of Man, Fata Morgana (1867), Recruiting, 
Meeting of King Ladislaus TV. and Rudolph 
von Hapsburg after Battle at Marchegg, 



THAYER 



King Einerich taking Ins Brother Prisoner, 
St. Cecilia, and others, Pesth Museum ; 
Scenes from Hungarian Legends, The Foui- 
Great Rivers of Hungary, Attila's Banquet, 
Redouten Saal, Pesth. In fresco : Episodes 
in Hungarian History, National Museum, 
ib.; Portraits of Emperor Francis Joseph 
and Empress Elizabeth (1868), Council 
Room, ib.; Portrait of Francis Deak (1877), 
Academy of Sciences, ib.; many altarpieces 
for churches in Hungary. — Wurzbach, xliv. 
168 ; Graph. K, v. 16 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xii. (Mittheilungen, v. 12). 

THAYER, ABBOTT HENDERSON, born 
in Boston, Mass., Aug. 12, 1849. Animal 
and landscape painter, pupil in Boston of 
Henry D. Morse, in Brooklyn of J. B. 
Whittaker (1867-68), and in "^ Paris in the 
Ecole des Beaux Ai-ts under Lehmann and 
Gei'ome (1875-79). Studio at Corn wall-on- 
Hudson. Works : Young Lions of Central 
Park ; Cows coming from Pasture ; Feeding 
the Cows ; Boy and Dog ; Shamming Sick 
(1876) ; Autumn Cornfield ; View on the 
Seine ; Alderney Herd in Guernsey ; Moun- 
tain Pasture ; Sleep, Childhood (1878) ; 
Autumn Morning on the Housatonic, Por- 
trait of O. H. Palmer (1880). 

THEODORICH OF PRAGUE, or Meis- 
ter Dietrich, flourished in Prague during 
the reign of the Emperor Charles IV. (1348 
-78), as one of his court painters. German 
school Probably of Czech rather than Ger- 
man origin, judging from the pictures attrib- 
uted to him, which are of a Bohemian type. 
His name is mentioned as master of the guild 
as early as 1348, and again in a document of 
1367. He evidently had a long and influ- 
ential career, and may be considered as one 
of the founders of the school of Prague. 
Works : St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, Vi- 
enna Museum ; series of one hundred and 
twenty-five half-length figures of Saints, 
Apostles, etc.. Chapel of Karlstein, near 
Prague; two half-length Saints, University 
Library, Prague. — Kugler (Crowe), i. 38 ; 
Schnaase, vi. 438 ; W. & W., i. 396 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1873), vii. 148. 



THEODORUS, painter, of Samos or 
Ephesus (?). Mentioned by Theophanes in 
his essay on painting, according to Diogenes 
Laertius (ii. Arist., xix.). Two other paint- 
ers of this name are spoken of by Diogenes, 
one as mentioned by Polemo and the other 
by Menodotus as of Athens. — Sillig, 439. 

THEODORUS, painter, of Samos, pupil 
of Nicosthenes, mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 
40 [146]) as of some reputation. — Sillig, 
443. 

THEODOTUS, Greek painter of common 
subjects, lived at Rome first half of third 
century b.c. Mentioned in a comedy by 
Nsevius as the painter of a rude picture of 
the Lares at play on an altar. — Nsevius, in 
Festus (p. 250, ed. Miiller) ; Brunn, ii. 503. 

THEOLOGY, Raphael, Camera della Se- 
gnatura, Vatican ; fresco, medallion on ceil- 
ing. Allegorical figure seated on clouds, 
with book in left hand. Two little genii, 
on either side, holding tablets, inscribed 
"Knowledge of Divine Things." Painted 
in 1512 ; shows hand of a pupil. Engraved 
by B. Audran ; R. Morghen. — Passavant, ii. 
88 ; Muntz, 311, 316, 350 ; Perkins, Essay, 
120. 

See, also. Dispute of the Sacrament. 

THEOMNESTUS, Greek painter, 4th 
century b.c. Pliny says (xxxv. 36 [107]) 
that Mnason, tyrant of Elatea, paid twenty 
minse apiece for his pictures of the heroes. 
— Brunn, ii. 256. 

THEON (Theorus, Theodoras), painter, 
about 360 b.c. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40 
[138]) among his works : A Man anointing 
himself ; Murder of J^^gisthus and Clytem- 
nestra by Orestes ; Cassandra, in the Tem- 
ple of Concord, Rome ; Leontium, Mistress 
of Epicurus, in Meditation ; King Deme- 
trius ; and a series of pictures of the Trojan 
War, in the Portico of Philippus at Rome. 
Brunn (ii. 255) thinks him probably identi- 
cal with TJieon of Samos. 

THEON, a famous Greek painter, of Sa- 
mos, contemporaiy of Apelles, 4th century 
B.C. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40) among his 
works, The Frenzy of Orestes — which Plu- 



803 



THEORUS 



tarch says (De And. Poet., 3) represented 
Orestes slaying bis mother — and a Thamy- 
ris playing the Lyre. Quintilian (xii. 10, G) 
gives him credit for a prolific fancy, and 
.ZElian, speaking (V. H., ii. 44) of his picture 
of a Soldier rushing to Battle, says that 
Theon sought theatrical effect by having 
trumpets blown before drawing the curtain 
from before it. 

THEORUS, painter. See Tlieon. 

THEOTOCOPULI See Greco. 

THERBUSCH. See Liscewska, Anna 
Dorothea. 

THERBIACHUS, painter and sculptor, 
about 350 b.c. No works known. — Pliny, 
XXXV. 36 [78] ; Sillig, 198. 

THESEUS, pictures. See Aristolaus, Eu- 
phranor, Micon, Pancenus, Parrhasius. 

THEVENIN, CHARLES, born in Paris, 
July 12, 1764, died there, Feb. 21, 1838. 
History painter, pupil of Vincent. In 1793 
won the 1st grand prix de Rome ; was direc- 
tor of the French School of Art in Rome for 
a number of years, and later keeper of Prints 
in Royal Library, Paris. Member of Acad- 
emy, 1825 ; L. of Honour, 1825. Works : 
Capture of the Bastile (1793) ; Auguereau 
on the Bridge of Areola (1798), Versailles 
Museum ; CEdipus and Antigone (1799) ; 
General Rey taking Gaeta (1800) ; Passage 
of St. Bernard (1806) ; Preparations for 
crossing St. Bernard (1808) ; Battle of Jena, 
Attack on Ratisbon, Taking of Ratisbon 
(1810), Surrender of Ulm (1815), Versailles 
Musevim ; Henri IV. giving Audience to the 
Professors of the Royal College (1827); 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen (1827), S. Eti- 
enne du Mont ; Joseph recognized by his 
Brethren, Angers Museum ; Justification of 
Susanna, Douai Museum. — Larousse ; Bel- 
lier, ii. 557 ; Cotta's Kunstblatt (1838). 

THEVENIN, MARIE ANNE ROSALIE, 
born at Lyons ; contemporary. Portrait and 
figure painter, pupil of Luon Cogniet and 
of Joseph Paris. Medals : 3d class, 1849, 
1859, 1861. Works : Flora Mac Ivor and 
Rose Bradwardine (1848) ; Portrait of Abbe 
Jacquet (1859) ; Portrait of a Lady (1881). 



THEVENOT, ARTHUR FRANgOIS, 

born in Paris ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Emile Bin, Caba- 
nel, and of Lequien fils. Medal : 3d class, 
1885. Works : Death of Antigone and 
Hsemon (1878) ; After the Bath (1882); Mis- 
ery (1883) ; Portraits (1884) ; Le dejeuner, 
A Philosopher (1885) ; Portrait (1886). 

THIELE, ARTHUR, born in Dresden, 
June 11, 1841. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of Dresden Academy, then of 
Julius Hiibner and of Ludwig Richter ; 
studied also in Munich, and in 1868-72 at 
Diisseldorf. Works : Deer on Autumn 
Morning ; Deer in Winter ; Stag before 
Hunter's Statue ; Dead Hare ( 1864), Winter 
Hunt, Wood Clearing with Deer (1881), 
Dresden Gallery. — Kaulen, 251. 

THIELE (Thielen), JOHANN ALEX- 
ANDER, born at Erfurt, March 26, 1685, 
died in Di'esden, May 22, 1752. Landscape 
painter ; at first a soldier ; studied from nat- 
ure, and painted in water-colours. After- 
wards instructed in oil painting by C. L. 
Agricola and Manyocki, and settled in 
Dresden, where, in 1747, he was appointed 
court painter to King Augustus of Poland. 
Works : Landscape with Cattle and Herds- 
men, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Castle on Fire, 
Bamberg Gallery ; View in Saxony (1740), 
Gotha Museum ; Evening Landscape, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Landscapes (15, three 
dated 1745, 1746, 1749), Views of Dresden 
(3, one dated 1747), View of Meissen (1747), 
Two Views in Mecklenburg (1750), Herd 
driven through River, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Landscapes (2), Rocky Cavern with Monu- 

J/Unieif lee 

Mix .^rSeW.wl YS^' 

ments, Animal-Pieces (3), Weimar Museum. 
— Kugler (Crowe), ii. 566 ; Schlie, 625. 

THIELEN, JAN PHILIP VAN, called 
Rigouldts, born at Mechlin, baptized April 



264 



THIERRIAT 



1, 1618, died at Boisschot in 1607. Flem- 
ish school ; flower painter, pupil of Theodor 
Rombouts, and of Daniel Seghers in Ant- 
werp, where he was master of the guild in 
1641. Like Seghers, he painted garlands and 
flowers to enframe subjects by other artists. 
Works much esteemed by the King of Spain. 
Works : Bouquet, Lille Museum ; Garland, 
do. with Madonna (1667), Antwerp Museum ; 
Flowers around Statuette of St. Jacob, Ma- 
drid Museum ; Madonna with Garland (1648), 
Flowers (2), Vienna Museum ; Flower-Pieces 
in Amsterdam and Hermannstadt (1661) 
Museums, and ^ ), i rr, ,, 
Liechtenstein J/^X LrU^Jsi^ l^d^i 
Gallery, Vienna "N . I^L ',r.f^irt i 

(2, 1659). -Ch. y^ I nudmj 
Blanc, Ecole fla- JjO^ f^'^^ ^^^j 
mande ; Kugler 

(Crowe), ii. 347 ; Immerzeel, iii. 137 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1623 ; Van den Branden, 1132. 

THIERRIAT, AUGUSTIN ALEXAN- 
DRE, born at Lyons, March 11, 1789, died 
there, April 17, 1870. Genre, landscape, and 
flower painter, pupil of Revoil. Medals : 2d 
class, 1817, 1822. In 1827 became professor 
in Lyons, and gave up painting. Works : 
Interior of Old Cloister of St. Andr6-le-Bas 
(1817) ; Bunch of Flowers (1820) ; Recrea- 
tion ; Soldier Retreating ; Religious Festi- 
val ; Funeral of a Monk (1827). — Larousse. 

THIERRY, JOSEPH (FRANCOIS DE- 
SIRE), born in Paris, March 13, 1812, died 
there, Oct. 11, 1806. Landscape painter 
and decorator, pupil of Gros, later of Phi- 
lastre. He is best known as a scene paint- 
er in partnership with Cambon, at the Gi'and 
Opera and the Opc'ra Comique. Medals : 
3d class, 1844 ; L. of Honour, 1863. Works : 
Party of Workmen picking up a Drunkard, 
Police Patrol (1853) ; Edge of a Forest, Car- 
avan Road (1855) ; Wandering Jew (1857) ; 
The Story (1859) ; Arrival of the Wedding 
Party, Fairies' Kingdom (1863) ; Ruins of a 
Temple (1865) ; Faust (1866).— Larousse ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 275, 417, 510. 

THIERSCH, LUDAVIG, born in Munich, 
April 12, 1825. History and genre paint- 



er, pupil of Munich Academy, at first in 
sculpture vmder Schwanthaler, then in paint- 
ing under Heinrich Hess, Schnorr, and es- 
pecially under Karl Schorn ; went to Rome, 
and in 1852 to Athens, where he painted 
frescos in St. Nicodemus ; returned in 1855 ; 
the year following was called to Vienna to 
decorate the Greek church there, and in 
1860 to St. Petersburg to paint pictures in 
the chapels of Grand Dukes Nicholas and 
Michael and in St. Catharine's Church. 
Member of St. Petersburg Academy ; Ba- 
varian Order of St. Michael ; Greek Order 
of the Redeemer ; Russian Order of Stanis- 
laus. Works : Sakuntala (1848) ; Camisard 
Scene ; Charon, Entry of Bacchus into Grove 
of Colonos, Lament of Thetis, Baron Sina, 
Vienna ; Daughter of Jairus, Christ at Getli- 
semane (1865) ; St, Paul Preaching (1866), 
City Hall, Athens ; Christ at Pool of Be- 
thesda ; Ceres seeking her Daughter ; Christ 
in the Desert (1874) ; Alaric as Victor in 
Athens (1879); Temptation of Christ. — Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xvii. 894 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvii. 435. 

THIRION, EUGENE ROJklAIN, born in 
Paris, May 19, 1839. History and portrait 
painter, j)upil of Picot, Fromentin, and 
Cabanel. Paints chiefly religious pictures. 
His work is admired for good modelling 
and fine colour. Medals: 1866, 1808, 1869 ; 
2d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1872. Works : 
Death of St. Mary the Egyptian (1863), Li- 
sieux Museum ; St. Sylvuin (1864), Tours 
Museum ; The Levite of Ephraim cursing 
the City of Gaba (1865), Perpignan Muse- 
um ; St. Vincent (1866), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Perseus (1867) ; St. Paul the Hermit and 
St. Anthony (1868) ; St. Severin distribut- 
ing Alms (1869) ; Eruption of Vesuvius 
(1872) ; Judith's Return to Bethulia (1873), 
Tours Museum ; Rebckah at the Well (1874); 
St. Sebastian (1875), IMinistry of Fine Arts ; 
Joan of Arc (1876) ; Euterpe (1880) ; Orien- 
tale (1881); Poet at the Source (1882); 
L'Kpavo du vengeur (1883) ; Napolitaine 
(1884) ; Exposure of INIoses (1885), Luxem- 
bourg Museum. He has painted also mural 



265 



Tiiisjip: 



pictures in the Church of the Trinity and 
deconitiv*^ punelH in the MiniBtry of War. — 
L'Art (1878), xiii. H4 ; Jir-Jjier, ji. 505. 




Incredulity of St. Thomas, Cima da Conegliano, Venice 
Acadc-rny. 

TlfJSiilO, Kdvvin Lou'i, (;ilj}>H Collection, 
England. 1'he tragir; amour of J-*yran)UH 
and Thisbe, in JJablyon, lias been immortal- 
ized by Ovid in liiH " MetamorjjhoseH " (IV.), 
and liurloHrjued }>y SliakeKjieare in " Mid- 
Hummer Nij.dit'H i>reurij." Jtoyal Aca<Jemy, 
1884 ; at William Oraham sale, London, 
1880, to OiljbH for 840 j^uineas. Engraved 
by (i. Jiertinot (1880). 

I'lIOM, .iAMi:S VAikWVOMl), bom in 
United Stair;n ; contemporary. Jjandscape 
and genre painter, pupil in Paris of I^^dou- 
ard Fr<";re ; first exhibited at the Koyal 
Academy, London, in 18f>4. Works : ite- 
turning from the Wood (1804) ; Love in 
the Kitchen ; lieturn of the C<)nscrii)t ; Go- 
ing to (Jhurch, (JhristrnaH Eve (1870); Le 
jour de la TouHsaint (1878) ; Wateiing his 
Horse, Morning Kide (1880); Kustic Sport, 



Hummer Afternoon (1882); Old Farm House, 
South River, Kiver iJank (1884) ; The Pets 
(I88r>). 

'J'HOilAS, ADOLF, bom at Zittau, Sept. 
28, 18;>4. Lajidscape painter, pupil of Dres- 
dejj Academy and of Ludwig Kichter ; then 
studied in Munich, where he was greatly 
influenced by Lier and Friedrich Voltz. 
Works : View near Brannenburg (1806), 
Dresden Gallery ; Landscape (1807) ; Even- 
ing in Capri (1872); Landscape with Mytho- 
logical Figures. — MuUer, 519. 

THOMAS, ALEXANDRFJ, bom at Mal- 
medy, Jielgium, in 1820. History painter, 
pufjjl of Diisseldorf Academy. Officer of 
Oitler of Leopold. Works : Judith ; ChU- 
! I'-n of Edward ; Solomon's Judgment ; 
iJ'-scent from the Cross; Judas on Night 
^'•fore the Crucifixion (1854), BaraVjbas at 

'; Foot of Calvary (1857), Brussels Mu- 
,,<um.— Mailer, 510. 

I'HCBIAS, CHARLES ARMAND, bom 
•) J-'aris; contemporary. Still-life painter, 
j.ijjjil of Leclaire. Medal, 3d class, 1886. 
Works: June Flowers (1880); Comer of 
tlie Conservatory (1881) ; The Cellar of P6re 
Jacquemin (1882); Gay Moming (1883); 
Still-life (1884) ; At the Studio (1885); Eve 
of Festival (1880). 

THOMAS, GEORGE HOUSMAN, bom 
in London, Dec. 17, 1824, died at Boulogne, 
France, July 21, 1808. History and por- 
trait painter, began as a wood engraver in 
London and afterwards in Paris, whence he 
went to New York to aid in illustrating a 
pictorial journal. In 1848 he returned to 
Europe and went to Italy to study ; was in 
Koine during its siege by the French, of 
which he furnished sketches to the Illus- 
trated London News ; and represented that 
paper in the Crimea in 1854. On his re- 
turn to London he obtained the patronage 
of the (^ue<;i], for whom he painted Mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales at Windsor, 
Marriage of the Princess Alice at Osborne, 
The Princess Royal at the Coronation of 
the King of J-'russia, Distribution of the 
Victoria Medals, and others. He illustrat- 



Wi 



THOMAS 



ed, amonj^ other books, Wilkie ColliriH'H 
'■'■ Armadaki " and JSIrs, Btowe'w " Uncle Toin'H 
(ynhin. " — Itwlgra ve. 




. ♦/ <>f St. Thoffia*, Gutfcifto, Vatican, Rc/iri*. 

Tif '^^.M/iH, JAN, bom at Ypre«, baptize<l 
i'r,b. 5, 101 7, died in Vienna in 1C73. Flem- 
Job hi'}i(>()\; }ji>«tory and genre painter, pu- 
j^il of liul^enH ; Tna,Htbr of Antwerj) guild in 
Jf>il ; visited Italy, and in 1GC2 became 
"/jurt itaintdr i/) E«ijK;ror Leo|x>ld I. Works : 
Ht. Francis a/hmttif Ma/ionna, Camiclite 
(^'hurch, Antwer[> ; Ma/lonna and Penitent 
Sinners, Ypres Museum ; Painter's Stmlio, 
i'hvsician in bis Study, Gotha Museum ; 
'Iriumph of JWx;bus (VtiiC,), Mus<;uni, Vi- 
enna ; Alchemist, JjlcAliUiUHUiin Gallery, ib.; 
IViar;hing for the Purs^; (^2, KJ^il), Harra/;h 
(jrnWary, ib. ; others in Vj<',r]\n and Kiel Gal- 
Jerjes. — Immerji'^^;!, iii. I'i8 ; Kramm, iv. 
1025 ; Michiels, vjil 2JW. 

'iifOMAB, ST., INCKEJJULJTY OF, 
(John, xr- 25). 

Jiy C'ltwt/z 'L* C>)negliano, Venic<i AxmAxituy ; 
v/<kA, H. C ft. 10 in. X 4 ft 7 in. Chri»t, 
standing iiutlar an archcl jx>rti/x;, with Ht. 
Thornas U.»uchifjg Ijis woiind ; on other suie, 
Ht, Magfius; l.;a/;kground, larjds^jajKj with a 
liorwiman. Formerly i/i tli/j S^juobi de' Mu- 
fatr;ri at Venixx^.— O. & C, N. Italy, i. 242 ; 
Zanoti/>, Pin«/;. dell' A/y«id,, PI. 10; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii. 005. 

liy (/i/Arcrn/j, Vati/airj, lifynic ; canva«, life- 
«i»i, lialf-Jength. Tlj/.;ma« pbi/jing his fiTi{f(^r 
on Christ's wound ; in background, tijree 



'lisciples. Carried t/) Paris; returned in 
1815. — Landon, Muw'je, xiL PL 4 ; Pistf^lesi 
Vatican o, vL PL 07. 

By Joliaun PViediich Overheck, B^^resford 
Hope, London ; canvas, H. 10 ft. / 5 ft. ; 
signed, dated 1851. Christ and St. lliomas, 
figures life-size, standing in a landscape, 
with a mountain in ba^^kground ; the for- 
mer, with arm uplifted, is speaking to St. 
Iliomas, who approaches reverently but 
doubtingly. Painted for Church of St. 
TliO/nas, Leeds, but not givirjg satisfsiction 
vk-as s'jl.d for X300 to prewint owner. Ex- 
liibited at Iloyal Acarlemy in 1853, and at 
the M>xnchest<;r Exhibition in 1857. — Atkin- 
»<.>n, 7Ii. 

By JUiral/rav/U, Hermitage, St. Pet<jrs- 
burg ; wood, H. 1 ft. x 1 1 in. Painted in 
1634. — Waagen, Hermitage, 170 ; Vosmaer, 
430. 

liy Cewhino del Htjhxi/di, Ijouvre, Paris ; 
wood transferrer! t^) canvas, H. 8 ft. 10 in. x 
7 ft. 6 im Christ, at right, standing amongst 




|ncr«4wltty «f St, ThomM, C««chino 4«l S«M«tl, towyr*. 

the ai>r/«tles, s}j/,>ws his wounds U^ St, Tlaom- 
a«, who kneels U;fore hir/j. (^/arried U> Fran*/? 
by Tommajyj Gou/flagni, and ithuA-A in (Jhap- 



'4)7 



THOMAS 



el of the Florentines at Lyons, — Villot, Cat. 
Louvre ; Landon, xiv. PI. 41. 

Subject treated also by Girolamo Muzi- 
auo, Louvre, Paris ; Simone Cantarini, Mu- 
nich Gallery ; Gerard Honthorst, Madrid 
Museum ; Bernnrdo Strozzi, Palazzo Bri- 
gnoli sale, Genoa ; Padovannino, Eremitaui, 
Padua ; Salvator Eosa, Church della Morte, 
Viterbo ; Santi di Tito, Cathedral of Borgo 
Sau Sepolcro ; Cavaliere Calabrese, Dresden 
Gallery ; Anton van Dyck, Hei-mitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Kubens, Antwerp Museum ; 
Cima da Conegliano, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Alplionse Masson (Salon, 1839) ; Louis 
Lamothe (1855). 

THOMAS AQUINAS, ST., TRIUMPH 
OF, Benozzo Gozzoli, Louvre ; wood, H. 7 
ft. G in. X 3 ft. 4 in. Above, Christ in glory, 
surrounded by cherubim, with St. Paul at 
his right holding a book and a sword, Moses 
at his left with the tables of the law, and 
the Evangelists in fi'ont ; in the middle, St. 
Thomas seated between Aristotle and Plato, 
with Guillaume de St. Amour, doctor of the 
University of Paris, below them, overcome 
by St. Thomas's eloquence ; in lower part, 
Pope Alexander IV., assisted by two cham- 
berlains, presiding over the assembly held 
in 1256, concerning the mendicant orders, 
which were attacked by St. Amour and de- 
fended by Thomas Aquinas. — Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii. 50 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

THOMAS OF VILLANUEVA, ST., Ma- 
rillo, Lord Ashburton, London ; canvas, H. 
6 ft. 3 in. X 4 ft. 9 in. The saint, represented 
as a boy six or seven years old, is taking 
off his garments to supply the wants of 
four ragged boys ; background, a street with 
buildings and figures. Painted about 1678 
for Convent of St. Augustine, Seville ; sold 
by Monks to the Prince of the Peace, who 
presented it to General Sebastiani ; pur- 
chased in 1814 by Mr. Baring, an ancestor 
of present owner. One of the finest Muril- 
los in England. Sketch, Lord Ashburton, 
The Grange, Hants. Copies : Cadiz Cathe- 
dral ; Due de Montpensier ; Condesa de la 
Mejorada ; Don Rodi'igo de Quirios, Seville. 



— C. Bermudez, ii. 60 ; Buchanan, Memoirs, 
ii. 264 ; Ponz, Viage, ix. 136 ; Jameson, 
Monastic Orders, 202 ; Curtis, 269 ; Waa- 
gen, ii. 101. 

By Murillo, Earl of Northbrook, London ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 2 f t. 5 in. The saint, 
wearing a mitre and accompanied by an at- 
tendant with a crozier, stands in an archway 
giving alms to a kneeling beggar, who is 
surrounded by other beggars ; above, the 
Virgin, seated on clouds, with Jesus in her 
arms and two children clinging to her lap ; 
on left, a church, seen through an opening. 
Painted about 1678 for Chapel of St. Thom- 
as in Convent of St. Augustine, Seville. 
Louis Philippe sale (1853), £710, to Thom- 
as Baring, uncle of Earl of Northbrook. 
Foi'd calls it " one of the finest sketches of 
Murillo in existence." Lithographed by A. 
Pin9on. — Curtis, 270 ; Athenseum (1853), 
655 ; Gaz. des B. Arts, April, 1875 ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ecole espagnole. 

By 3Iurillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
9 ft. 6 in. X 6 ft. 4 in. The Ai-chbishop of 
Valencia, with mitre and pastoral staff, 
standing front under a Grecian portico, 
dropping a coin into the hand of a kneeling 
beggar ; in foreground, on left, an old wom- 
an seated, with a boy standing at her knee ; 
at right, two other beggars and a nun ; at 
left, an open book on a table ; background, 
ai'chitecture, with columns wreathed above 
with a curtain. Painted about 1676 for 
Capuchin Convent, Seville. Murillo called 
this his own picture, and it is one of his 
finest works. — Curtis, 268 ; Jameson, Mo- 
nastic Orders. 

By Murillo, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. The 
saint, wearing a skull-cap, is giving money 
to a half-naked beggar sitting on a stone ; 
he is attended by an ecclesiastic holding a 
mitre, and another holding a crook ; before 
him, a boy examining a coin ; at right, a 
group of beggars ; and at left, architecture. 
Second manner. Bought by Mr. Irvine 
from Capuchin Convent, Genoa, and sold 
to Mr. Wells, of Redleaf, for £1,000 ; sold 



268 



THOMPSON 



at William Wells sale (1848) to Marquis of 
Hertford for £2,992 10s.— Curtis, 270. 

THOMPSON, ALBERT, born at Woburn, 
Mass., iu 1853. Landscape and animal 
painter ; pupil of W. E. Norton. Li 1872 
and in 1874 be visited Europe, travelling 
tbrougb Great Britain, France, and Italy, 
and studying in tbe art galleries of the Con- 
tinent. Exhibits at the Boston Ai't Club. 
Works : Landscape and Cattle ; Summer 
Afternoon ; Apple Orchard — Summer ; Cat- 
tle on a Hillside ; Lake Wiunipiseogee from 
Wolfborough ; Wood Literior ; Study of 
Italian Boy. 

THOMPSON, CEPHAS GIOVANNI, 
born in ]\Iiddleborough, Mass., Aug. 3, 1809. 
Portrait and figure painter, son and pupil of 
Cephas Thompson, but mostly self-taught. 
He has painted in Boston, Providence, Phil- 
adelphia, New York, and in other cities in 
the United States. La 1852 visited Lon- 
don, Paris, Florence, and Rome, where he 
spent seven years. In 1860 he returned 
to America, and has since lived in New 
York. An associate of the National Acad- 
emy. Works: Guardian Angel, C. H. Rog- 
ers, New York ; Prosper© and Miranda, Mr. 
Wales, Boston ; St. Peter delivered from 
Prison, Ex - Governor Padelford, Provi- 
dence ; Spring and Autumn, C. Sprague. 
Portraits : Sebastian Cabot (after Hans Hol- 
bein), Charles Fenno Hoffman, Historical 
Society, New York ; Dr. Francis ; Haw- 
thorne ; Dr. Matthews, New York Univer- 
sity ; Henry T. Tuckerman ; William C, 
Bryant ; Mrs. Bryant. 

THOMPSON, ELIZABETH. See Butler. 

THOMPSON, HARRY, born in London ; 
contemporary. Genre and landscaj^e paint- 
er, puj)il in Paris of Charles Franyois Mar- 
chal and Charles Busson. Medal, 3d class, 
Paris, 1884. Works : Tea a la russe (1876) ; 
Sheep (1878) ; Sheepfold, View at AUery 
(1879) ; Flock in Valley of the Somme, 
Landscape (1880) ; Corner of the Orchard, 
Cross Road (1882) ; Among the Dunes 
(1883) ; Old Road iu Picardy, A Calvary- 
Sheep (1884) ; Corner of the Fortifications 



of Paris (1885) ; Old Cemetery at Hocquin- 
court (1886). 

THOaiPSON, JEROME, born in Middle- 
borough, Mass., Jan. 30, 1814, died at Glen 
Gardner, N. J., May 2, 1886. Landscape 
and figure painter ; studied for a short time 
under his father, Cephas Thompson, and 
with Morse and Jarvis. Elected an A.N. A. 
in 1850. Painted in England and France in 
1851-52. Works : Land of Beulah ; Voice 
of the Great Spirit ; Woodman, spare that 
Tree (1871) ; Valley of Baca (1875) ; Dakota 
Canon (1880) ; Gates Ajar (1881) ; Spring 
Trap (1882) ; Fallen Oak (1883) ; Indian 
Prayer (1884) ; Study from Nature (1886). 

THOMPSON, W^ORDSWORTH, born in 
Baltimore, Md., May 26, 1840. Genre and 
history painter, pupil of Charles Gleyre, 
Lambinet, and Passini, in Paris, 1861-64. 
Has sketched in Morocco, Algiers, and 
Spain. Elected an A.N. A. in 1873 and 
N.A. in 1874. Studio in New York. Works : 
Moorlands of Au-Fargi (1865); Annapolis in 
1776, Academy of Fine Ai-ts, Buffalo ; View 
of Mt. Etna (1869); Desolation (1873); Mid- 
summer's Day on Long Island (1876) ; By 
the Sea— Mentone (1877); Review at Phila- 
delphia in Aug., 1777 (1878) ; The Depart- 
ure — Episode of Colonial Life in Virginia 
(1879) ; May-Day in Fifth Avenue — New 
York (1880); Halt of a Diligence (1881); Pass- 
ing the Outposts, Union League Club, New 
York ; Old Stone Church— Sleepy HoUow 
(1882), T. B. Clarke, ib. ; Market Place- 
Biskra, Moorish Hunters returning to Tan- 
gier (1884) ; Winter Morning's Ride, Ad- 
vance of the Enemy (1885) ; In the Port of 
Algiers (1886). 

THOMSEN, AUGUST, born at Gliicka- 
burg, Sept. 3, 1813, died at Copenhagen, 
Sept. 6, 1886. History painter, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, where he won metlals 
in 1837 and 1838. Works : Presentation in 
the Temple (1841) ; Christ among the Doc- 
tors (1843) ; Hans Tausen preaching the 
Gospel, Church of the Holy Ghost, Copen- 
hagen. — Weilbach, 67G ; Kuust-Chi-onik, 
xxi. 750. 



269 



THOMSON 



THOMSON, HENRY, born at Portsea, 
July 31, 1773, died there, April 6, 1843. 
Son of a purser in the navy ; pupil of Opie 
and student in 1790 at Royal Academy ; 
travelled and studied in Italy, and in Vi- 
enna and Dresden in 1793-99 ; became 
A.R.A. in 1801, and R.A. in 1804. In 1825 
succeeded Fuseli as keeper of Academy, 
but resigned in 1827. Painted historical 
and fancy subjects and portraits. Works : 
The Dead Robin (1809), National Gallery ; 
Christ raising Jairus's Daughter (1820) ; Mi- 
randa's First Sight of Ferdinand (1822); 
JuUet (1825).— Art Union (1843), 147 ; Cat. 
Royal Academy ; Ch. Blanc, £cole anglaise ; 
Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 326. 

THOMSON, Rev. JOHN, born at Dailly, 
Ayrshire, Sept. 1, 1778, died at Dudding- 
ston, Oct. 20, 1840. Called Thomson of 
Duddiugston. Amateur landscape painter, 
pupil of Alexander Nasmyth ; first exhibited 
in 1808, with the Society of Associated Ai-- 
tists, Edinburgh, to which he contributed 
one hundred and nine pictures, from 1808 
to 1840, inclusive. He was made an hono- 
rary member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
having refused actual membership on ac- 
count of his profession. Work : Loch-an- 
Eilan at Rothiemurchus — Inverness-shire 
(1835), National Gallery, London. — Ai't 
Journal (1883), 78. 

THON, SIXT ARNIM, born at Eisenach, 
Nov. 10, 1817. Genre paintei-, pupil of 
Leipsic Academy, then in Weimar of Prel- 
ler, with whom he visited the Isle of Riigen 
(1837), the Thuringian Forest (1840), Nor- 
way, and the Netherlands ; afterwards 
studied for one year in Antwerp, and after 
his return to Weimar became instructor at 
the Grand-ducal School of Design and at 
the Sophienstift. Works : Adventure of 
Travel in Norway ; Gleaner Woman ; Girl 
with Pitcher ; Two Citizens of Antwerp ; 
Musicians in Winter ; Sleeping Boy, Chris- 
tiania Gallery. — Andresen, iv. 62. 

THORBURN, ROBERT, born in Dum- 
fries, March, 1818, died at Tunbridge 
Wells, Nov. 2, 1885. Portrait and figure 



painter, pupil of Royal Institute, Edin- 
burgh, and of Royal Academy, London, 
where he fu'st exhibited in 1837 ; elected an 
AR.A. in 1848. Was a successful minia- 
ture painter, having among his sitters the 
Queen (1846) and other members of the 
royal family, but on introduction of photog- 
raphy painted life-size portraits and ideal 
figures. Works : The Orphans (1866) ; Un- 
dine, Country Life (1869) ; John Baptist, 
Catherine of Aragon (1870) ; Concealment 
of Moses (1871) ; Rebekah at WeU (1873) ; 
In the Meadow on the Hillside (1874); 
Christian descending the Hill DiflSculty 
(1876); Slough of Despond (1878); The 
Two Marys at the Tomb (1879) ; Redi- 
viva (1880) ; Bonbons, The Fates, Eastern 
Water Carrier, Angel's Whisper (1882) ; 
Queen Catherine on the Eve of her Di- 
vorce, Babes in the Wood, Game of Chess 
(1883).— Athen., Nov. 7, 1885, 610 ; Sand- 
by, ii. 221. 

THOREN, OTTO VON, born in Vienna 
in 1828. Animal and landscape painter, 
studied in Brussels and Paris, taking up 
painting in 1857, after having served in the 
Austrian army in the campaigns of 1848-49 ; 
returned to Vienna in 1865 and afterwards 
settled in Paris. One of the best of living 
animal painters. Member of Vienna and 
St. Petersburg Academies. Medals: Paris, 
1865 ; Munich, 1869 ; Vienna, 1882. Order 
of Francis Joseph ; Russian Order of Vladi- 
mir. Works : Death of Gustavus Adolphus 
at Liltzen (1856) ; Horse in Stable, Cleaning 
the Horse (1857) ; Mare with Foal (1858), 
Konigsberg Museum ; After Battle (1859) ; 
Cows at Pasture, Horses Ploughing (1861) ; 
Cattle Thieves, Horse Thieves (1865) ; Au- 
tumn Morning in Flanders, Ploughing Oxen 
in Slovenia (1866) ; Near the Wolf (1870), 
Vienna Academy ; The Forsaken Ones, Ap- 
proaching Storm, Too Late (1867) ; Pasture 
in Normandy (1873); Cows attacked by 
Wolves, Museum, Vienna; Wood Land- 
scape with Hungarian Oxen, Two Hun- 
garian Peasants on Horseback, Czernin Gal- 
lery, ib.; Equestrian Portrait of Emperor 



2T0 



THORXDYKE 



Francis Joseph (1806), — Wurzbacli, xliv. 
261 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 114 ; vi. 213 ; 
ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 11). 

THORNDYKE, GEORGE QUINCY, born 
in Boston in 1825. Landscape and marine 
painter ; studied in Paris in 1847. Pro- 
fessional life spent in Newport. An associ- 
ate of the National Academy, but rarely 
exhibits. Works : Lily Pond ; Swans in 
Central Park ; The Dumplings — Newport ; 
Wayside Lin ; View near Stockbridge — 
Mass. ; Longwood Marshes (1885). 

THORNHILL, Sir JAMES, born at Mel- 
combe Regis in 1676, died at Thornhill, 
near Weymouth, May 13, 1734. Pupil in 
London of Thomas Highmore ; was patron- 
ized by Queen Anne, who made him her 
sergeant painter. When foreign painters, 
such as the Riccis, Laguerre, and La Fosse, 
were patronized, and native talent decried, 
he decorated walls and ceilings of public 
and private buildings with mythological 
and historical compositions, for which he 
was but poorly remunerated at so much per 
square yard. Of these the most important 
are eight compartments of the cujDola at St. 
Paul's, the great hall at Blenheim, the ceil- 
ing and walls of the hall at Greenwich 
Hospital, and a saloon and hall at Moor 
Park, Herts. His Finding of the Law, an 
easel picture, is at All Souls' College, Ox- 
ford. His portrait of Sir Isaac Newton in 
his Old Age belongs to Lord Portsmouth. 
In 1720 he was knighted by George I., the 
first native painter, it is said, to receive that 
distinction. In 1724 he endeavoured to 
found a Royal Academy of Art, and failing, 
opened a drawing academy in his own 
house. — Taylor, Fine Arts in Gi'eat Britain 
(London, 1841) ; Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 13 ; 
Portfolio (1872), 66. 

THREE AGES, Lorenzo Lotto, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 2 f t. x 2 ft. 6 in. 
Three figures, half-length, the middle one 
a youth in a black cap, with a sheet of music 
in his hand ; to right, a middle-aged bearded 
man ; to left, a bald-headed, gray-bearded 
man. Look like portraits ; handled with 



Giorgionesque skill. — C. k C, N. Italy, ii. 
502 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. PL 47. 

By Titian, Bridgewater House, London ; 
canvas, figures less than life-size. A shepherd 
lover beneath a tree is taught by a maiden 
crowned with flowers to jjlace his fingers on 
the stops of the reed-pipe ; in the middle 
ground Cupid stepping over the forms of 
two sleeping children ; in the distance an 
old man dreaming over a pair of skuDs on 
the ground. Painted about 1518 for Gio- 
vanni di Castelli, a gentleman of Faenza ; 
passed through the hands of the Cardinal 
of Augsburg into the collection of Queen 
Christina of Sweden ; thence into the Or- 
leans Collection, from which purchased by 
the Duke of Bridgewater. Copies in Pa- 
lazzo Doria and Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; 
another belonging to Earl Dudley. En- 
graved by Ravenet. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 
435 ; C. & C, Titian, i. 204 ; Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 31 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 145. 

THREE VIRTUES, Raphael. See Pru- 
dence, Fortitude, and Temperance. 

THUILLIER, PIERRE, born at Amiens, 
June 17, 1799, died there, Nov. 19, 1858. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Watelet and 
of Gudin, and a close student of nature. 
Medals : 3d class, 1835 ; 2d class, 1837 ; 1st 
class, 1839 ; L. of Honour, 1843. Works : 
Valley of the Drac, Ruins of Castle of 
Champ (1835), Amiens Museum ; Entrance 
to a Forest in the Ardennes (1836), Lyons 
Museum ; Rocks of Freilly (1836), Amiens 
Museum ; Timber near Chateau Rc'nard, 
Boulogne-sur-Mer Museum ; Ancient Abbey 
of Doue (1837), Due d'Aumale ; Castle and 
Bridge of Voute-sur-Loire (1838), Puy Mu- 
seum ; Ancient Tiburtino Road near Tivoli 
(1843); The Puyen-Velay (1844); River 
Duralle near Thiers (1845), Lyons Museum; 
Elbiar near Algiers, Spring in the Moun- 
tains of the Var (1848) ; Pasture in the 
Mountains of Dauphiny (1853), bought by 
Napoleon HI. ; Lake of Annecy (1854), 
Geneva Museum ; Valley of Thuily in Dau- 
phiny, His daughter Louise (IMme. Mor- 
nard), born at Amiens in 1829, is also a 



2T1 



THULDEN 



landscape painter. Medal, 3d class, 1847. 
Works : Entrance to Desert ; Views in 
North Africa ; Fog on Coast of Normandy 
(1857) ; Portraits of Arab Sheiks. — Meyer, 
Gesch., 7G7. 

THULDEN (Tulden), THEODOEUS 
VAN, born at Bois-le-Duc, baptized Aug. 9, 
160G, died there about 1G76. Flemish 
school; history and genre painter, pupil 
of Abraham Blyenberch and of Rubens ; 
master of Antwerp guild in 1G25, its dean 
in 1G39-40 ; spent some time in Paris 
(about 1G32-34 and 1G47), worked at Lux- 
embourg and Fontainebleau ; returned to 
Antwerp) in 1G35, and married the daughter 
of Henry van Balen ; called to The Hague in 
1G48, to decorate the Palace in the Wood. 
Works : Christ apjDearing to the Virgin, 
Louvre ; do. (1G60), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Time and the Fates, Mystical Subject (1G47), 
Grenoble Museiim ; Martyrdom of St. 
Adrian, St. Michael's, Ghent ; Mother's 
Jewels (1G47), Museum, Tournay ; Christ on 
his Way to Calvary, Cathedral, ib. ; Two 
Sketches for Triumjjhal Arch, Antwerp) Mu- 
seum ; Christ at the Pillar, Flemish Wed- 
ding, Brussels Museum ; Triumph of Gala- 
tea, Berlin Museum ; Game Vender, Peasant 
Woman with Fruit Basket (both with Jan 
Fyt), Darmstadt Museum ; Marriage of St. 
Catherine, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
Thetis wreathing Peleus (1664), Amalien- 
stift, Dessau ; Finding of Moses, David 
bringing the Head of Goliath to Jerusalem, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Reconciliation of Jacob 
and Esau, Visitation, Allegory (1654), Muse- 
^ um, Vienna; A Tri- 

J\^^/l _ [\/L umphal Progress, 

— p '-T^ca t77 Herodias with Head 

TvT. |Vl.'ff^7. ^f gt j^^^^ Liech- 

T V O/n TUuDe^a. tenstein Gallery, ib. ; 

y^^^y . iCy2. Christ in the House 

,-<-> . -n— . J of Simon, Wiesba- 

i.^an i hixUe^ den Gallery ; Or- 

/^'•^f>S^ pheus charming the 

Animals, Discovery 

of Purple, Madrid Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 

Ecole flamande ; Kramm, vi. 1620 ; Kugier 



/ 




(Crowe), ii. 311; Michiels, viii. 116; Van 
den Branden, 771 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xiv. 
342. 

THUMANN, PAUL, born at Tschacks- 
dorf, Lusatia, Oct. 5, 
1834. Genre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Berlin 
and (under Julius Hiib- 
ner) Dresden Academies ; 
worked in Leipsic as an 
illustrator in 1860-6 3, 
then studied in Weimar 
under Pauwels ; visited 
Italy (1865), England 
(18GG), and France (1867), 
and became professor at the Weimar Art 
School in 1866, at Dresden Academy in 
1872, and at Berlin Academy in 1875. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1879. Works : Departure of 
the Bride (1868) ; Luther's Wedding, Bam- 
berg Art Union ; Squire George with the 
Swiss Students at Jena ; Four Scenes in 
Life of Luther, Wartburg near Eisenach ; 
Return of the Germans after Battle in Teu- 
toburg Forest (1883), Baptism of Wittekind 
(1884), Gymnasium, Minden ; Inattentive 
Scholar, Stettin Museum ; Illustrations to 
Goethe's "Wahrheit und Dichtung," Cha- 
misso's and Heine's Poems, Voss's " Luise," 
Shakespeare's " Midsummer Night's Dream," 
Tennyson's "Enoch Arden." — Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 314 ; Graph. K, ii. 49, 94 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xxi. 4 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xix. 19 ; xxi. 38. 

THUSNELDA. See Gervianicus. 
THYS (Tyssens), PEETER, the elder, 
born in Antwerp in 1624, died there between 
June 2, 1677, and Feb. 14, 1679. Flemish 
school ; history and portrait painter, in man- 
ner of Van Dyck, pupil of A. Deurwaerder. 
Master of the guild in 1644-45, and dean 
in 1660. His historical pictures also show 
the influence of Gasjiard de Craeyer. Was 
painter to the Emperor Leopold. Works : 
Apparition of Christ, Apparition of the Vir- 
gin, St. Francis receiving Indulgence, Icarus 
and Daedalus, Two Portraits, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Adoration of the Host, St. James's 



O'JO 



TIARIXI 



Church, Antwerp ; Martyrdom of St. Bene- 
dict, and Portrait, Brussels Museum ; Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, Conversion of St. 
Hubert, Consolation of St. Sebastian, Ghent 
Museum ; Pietii, Basle Museum ; Marriage 
of St. Catherine, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Achilles with Lycomedes, Stockholm Muse- 
um ; Portrait of David Teniers the young- 
er. Old Piuakothek, Munich ; Venus bewail- 
ing Adonis, Vienna Museum ; Vulcan and 
Venus surrounded by various Weapons, Va- 
rus with do., Hermannstadt Museum ; Mer- 
cury and Herse (1664), Wurlitz Gallery. 
His son, Pieter Paul (born, 1652), was also a 
painter. — Kramm, vi. 1629; Kugler (Crowe), 



7' 



ii. 309 ; Michiels, ix. 13 ; Booses (Reber), 
829 ; Van den Branden, 934 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiv. 319. 

TIARINI, ALESSANDRO, born in Bo- 
logna, March 20, 
1577, died there, 
Feb. 8, 1668. Bo- 
lognese school ; pu- 
pil in Bologna of 
Prospero Fontana, 
and of Bartolom- 
meo Cesi ; fled, on 
account of a quar- 
r e 1 , to Florence, 
where he studied 
with Passignano and assisted Poccetti. Af- 
ter painting in Pisa, Pescia, and other places, 
returned to Bologna, and improved his style 
by studying the works of the Carracci. His 
Miracle of St. Dominic, in S. Domenico, and 
his Presentation in the Temple, in S. M. de' 
Servi, established his reputation, and he soon 
had many commissions in Reggio, Modena, 
Ci'emona, Ferrara, and other cities, which 
brought him fame and fortune. His early 
pictures are in the style of Passignano ; 
his later ones show the influence of Lodo- 





vico Carracci. He was of a melancholy dis- 
l^osition, and his subjects are generally pa- 
thetic and treated in sombre colours, but 
admirably harmonized. Among his best 
easel pictui-es are : Marriage of St. Cather- 
ine, St. Catherine in Ecstasy, Madonna in 
Glory and Saints, Deposition, Bologna Gal- 
lery ; Deposition, Brera, Milan. — Malvasia, 
ii. 119 ; Lanzi, iii. 117 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 764, 785, 788, 791 ; 
Lavice, 16, 154. 

TffiALDI, PELLEGRINO, Marquis of 
Valdelsa, born at Val- 
delsa, near Milan, in 
1532, died in Milan in 
1592. Bolognese 
school ; real name 
Pellegrino di Tibaldo 
de' Pellegrini ; some- 
times called Pellegri- 
no da Bologna ; son 
of a poor mason, who 
removed to Bologna when his son was young. 
After studying in Bologna, Pellegrino went 
to Rome in 1547 and assisted Perino del 
Vaga in the Castle of St. Angelo, and Da- 
niele da Volterra in Trinita de' Monti. He 
studied carefully the works of Michelangelo, 
and imitated his style so successfully that 
he was called by the Carracci, Michelagnolo 
Riformato (the reformed Michelangelo). In 
1550 he returned to Bologna, where he ex- 
ecuted some admirable works in the Palazzo 
Pozzi (now Palazzo dell' Instituto) and in 
various churches, and won reputation both 
as a painter and an architect. In 1586 he 
went, on the invitation of Philip II., to 
Spain, where, during the following nine 
years, he executed a great number of mural 
paintings in the Escorial, the pictures of 
Federigo Zucchero having been expunged 
to make room for them. Ho returned to 
Milan wealthy and ennobled by the King, 
Domenico Tibaldi (1541-83), painter, en- 
graver, and architect, was his brother, and 
not his son, as Malvasia says. Works : St 
Cecilia, Museum, Vienna ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Mar- 



273 



TIBEIUO 



riage of St. Catherine, Bologna Gallery. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 416 ; Malvasia, i. 133 ; 
Burckhardt, G8, 761 ; Ch. Blanc, jficole bolo- 
naise. 

TLBERIO D' ASSIST, beginning of 16th 
century. Umbrian school ; probably pupil 
of Perugino, but not mentioned by Vasari. 
A painter of less power than Eusebio di 
San Giorgio. His best fresco, a Madonna, is 
in S. Martino, near Trevi. He painted also 
a Madonna and Saints (1510), in S. Fran- 
cesco, Montefalco, and a Madonna with An- 
gels and Saints, in S. Domenico, near Assisi. 
The latest date connected with him is 1524. 
— C. & C, Italy, iii. 342 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
ombrienne. 

TIDEMAND, ADOLF, born at Mandal, 
Norway, Aug. 14, 1814, 
died in Christiania, Aug. 
25, 1876. Genre paint- 
er, pupil in 1832-37 of 
Copenhagen Academy, 
then of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Hildebrandt 
and Schadow ; went in 
1842 to Munich, thence 
to Rome, and i-eturned 
during the same year to Norway, where 
he executed several orders from the King, 
and painted portraits for the University of 
Christiania ; in 1846—48 he lived again in 
Diisseldorf, where he settled permanently 
in 1849, spending the summer months usu- 
ally in Norway. Contributed essentially by 
his excellent works to the fame of the Diis- 
seldorf school, and was made professor. 
Member of Christiania, Stockholm, Copen- 
hagen, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, Amsterdam, 
and Rotterdam Academies. Medals in Ber- 
lin, 1848 ; Paris, 1855 ; Besanyon ; Vienna, 
1873, etc. Swedish Order of Vasa ; Nor- 
wegian Order of Olaf ; Prussian Order of 
Red Eagle ; L. of Honour. Works : Gus- 
tavus Vasa addressing the Dalecarlians, 
(1841); Norwegian Christmas Custom, Fam- 
ily Scene, Peasants' Church (1846) ; Catechis- 
ing in Country Church, Sad News, Domestic 
Scene (1847) \ The Haugians (1848), Diis- 




seldorf Gallery ; replica (1852), Lonely Old 
Couple (1849), Christiania Gallery ; Bridal 
Sail on Hardanger Fjord (1848), Christiania 
Art Union ; replicas, Lord Ellesmere, Lon- 
don, and Dr. Lessing, Berlin ; Norwegian 
Peasant Life (cycle of ten, 1850), Castle 
Oscarshall near Chi-istiania ; Evening on 
Norwegian Lake (1851), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Farewell of Norwegian Emigrants 
(1851), Leipsic Museum ; Night Fishing 
(1851), Vienna Art Union ; Funeral on Sogne 
Fjord (1852), Marquis of Lansdowne (last 
three, together with Hans Gude) ; Neigh- 
bour's Advice, Letter from America (1852) ; 
Norwegian Sunday (1851), Wolf Hunter re- 
lating his Adventures (1853), Funeral in 
Norway (1854), Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; 
Wolf Hunter (1855), Hamburg Gallery; 
Grandmother's Tale, Wounded Bear Hunter 
(1856), Vienna Museum ; Visitation of the 
Sick (1860), Christiania Gallery ; Adorning 
the Bride (1860) ; Grandmother's Spectacles 
(1861) ; Last Communion of Old Norwegian 
Peasant (1863), Konigsberg Museum ; Duel 
at Wedding Feast (1864) ; Grandmother's 
Bridal Crown (1865), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Fa- 
natics (1866) ; Baptism of Christ (1869), 
Ti'inity Church, Christiania ; Four Scenes 
fi-om Popular Life (1870) ; Resurrection 
(1871) ; Farewell of a Dying Man (1872) ; 
Wedding Procession crossing Brook (1873), 
Mr. Forbes, London ; Laplanders hunting 
Reindeer (1873); Christ (1875); Landing 
of Colonel Sinclair at Romsdaelen in 1612 
(1876, the landscape by Morten Mtiller).— 
Blanckarts, 117 ; Cat. Christiania Gallery 
(1885), 98 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 337 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xii. 5 ; Graph. K., i. 60; 
Land und Meer (1874), ii. 766 ; Wolfg. Mul- 
ler, Diisseldf. K, 305 ; Springer, Gesch., 
165 ; Wiegmann, Zeitschr. f. b. K., xiv. 393. 
TIDE Y^ HENRY F., born at Worthing, 
Jan. 7, 1815, died in London, July 21, 
1872. Portrait and subject painter in wa- 
ter-colours ; son and pupil of John Tidey, 
who kept an academy at Worthing. Began 
as a portrait painter in oils, having among 
his sitters members of the royal family and 



274 



TIEPOLO 



other noted persons ; afterwards devoted 
himself to water-colours, and in 1858 be- 
came an associate and in 1859 a full mem- 
ber of the Institute of Painters in Water 
Colom-s. Works: Feast of Roses (1859, 
bought by Queen) ; Queen i\Iab (18G0) ; 
Dar Thule (1861) ; Christ blessing Little 
Children, Saxon Captives at Rome (18G3) ; 
Night of the Betrayal (18G-4) ; Sardanapalus 
(1870) ; Seaweeds, Flowers of the Forest 
(1871); Castles in the Air (1872). His 
brother, Arthur Tidey (born, 1808), is a 
miniature painter. 

TIEPOLO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, born 
in Venice, April 16, 
1696, died in Ma- 
drid, Mar. 27, 1770. 
Venetian school; 
pupil of Gregorio 
Lazzarini; after- 
wards influenced by 
Giovanni Battista 
Piazzetta, and still 
more by Paolo Vero- 
nese, whose equal he 
was reputed to be, in the decadence of Vene- 
tian art, though he was very far from being 
so as a colourist. But he has been rightly 
called the last great decorative painter of 
the Venetian school. After painting frescos 
in Milan and other Italian cities, he went to 
Wurzburg in 1750, and on his return to 
Venice (1753) was appointed first director 
of the Academy of Painting. In 1761 he 
was caUed to Spain by Charles III., became 
a favourite at the court of Madrid, and exe- 
cuted, with the assistance of liis son, Gio- 
vanni Domenico (born, 1726, died after 
1777), frescos in the royal palace with such 
success as to excite the jealousy of Raphael 
Mengs, then court painter. Tiepolo pro- 
duced some showy pictures, of which one of 
the best is the Ban(|uet of Cleopatra, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. Other works : Last 
Supper, Louvre ; Martyrdom of St. Agatha, 
three others, Berlin Museum ; Christ institut- 
ing the Eucharist (1758), Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Baptism of Clovis, Darmstadt Muse- 




um ; Presentation in the Temple, Dresden 
INIuseum ; Wedding of Noble Lady, Stiidel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Adoration of the Magi 
(1753), Two Scenes in the Story of Iphige- 
nia. Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Conception, 




Last Supper, Car of Venus, Madrid Muse- 
um ; Glory of Spain, Royal Palace, Madrid ; 
Triumph of Aurelian, Turin Gallery ; Crown- 
ing with Thorns, Triumph of Ferdinand 
HI., New York Museum ; Finding of Moses, 
National Galleiy, Edinburgh ; Saints in 
Adoration, Verona Gallery ; Ferdinand over- 
throwing the Moors, Buda-Pesth Gallery ; 
Diana and Apollo on Clouds, Diana on 
Clouds, Angels floating on Clouds, Dul- 
wich Gallery. — Ch. Blanc, Ecole vcnitienne ; 
Dohme, 2iii.; Burckhardt, 270, 751, 776, 
799; Cat. Dulwich Gal. (London, 1880), 
164 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xi. (Mittheilungen, 
iv. 43) ; xiv. 161, 198 ; xviii. 232. 

TIESENHAUSEN, PAUL VON, Baron, 
born at Idser, Esthonia, Jan. 10, 1837, died 
in Munich, Nov. 24, 1876. Marine painter, 
pupil in Munich of Millner, then of the 
Academy and of Lier. Works: Sea Har- 
bour at Nightfall, Stuttgart Museum ; Ebb- 
Tide ; Norse Night ; View in Heligoland ; 
Coast of Esthonia ; Agitated Sea ; Bomar- 
sund ; Ebb in North Sea. — Ulustr. Zeitg. 
(1876), ii. 488 ; Kunst-Chronik, xii. 364. 

TIFFANY, LOUIS COMFORT, born in 
New York, Feb. 18, 1848. Figure, land- 
scape, and decorative painter pupil of, In- 
ness, Colman, and in Paris of Leon Belly ; 
he has sketched and painted in Spain, Italy, 
Switzerland, Africa, France, and England. 
Member of Society of American Artists. 
Elected an A.N.A in 1871 ; N.A., 1880. 
Studio in New York, where he devotes 
himself largely to decoi'ative painting. 
Works in oil : Dock Scene — Yonkers (1869); 



275 



TILBORCH 



Fruit Vender — under the Sea- Wall at Nas- 
sau (1870) ; Street Scene in Tangier (1872); 
Market Day outside the Walls — Tangier 
(1873) ; Study at Quimper — Brittany (1877); 
Duane Street — New York (1878) ; Algerian 
Caravan, F. Harper, New York ; Harvesting 
(1879) ; Bo w-Zarea— Algiers ; Gray Day— 
Mentone (1880); Reaper (1881) ; Old Fort 
— St. Augustine, Study at St. Augustine 
(1883). Water-colours: Meditation (1872) ; 
Merchant of the East (1874); Shop in 
Switzerland, Old and New Mosques at 
Cairo, Lazy Life in the East (1876) ; Pal- 
ace of the Pasha Ali Ben Hassein— Algiers 
(1877) ; Cobblers at Boufarik, Market Day 
— Morlaix (1878).— Sheldon, 177. 

TILBORCH (Tilborgh, Tilburg), EGIDI- 
US or GILLES VAN, born in Brussels in 
1625, died about 1678 (?). Flemish school ; 
genre painter, suj^posed pupil of David 
Teniers the younger ; master of the Brus- 
sels guild in 1654, its president in 1663 
-64. He was a close imitator of Brouwer. 
Works : Cavalcade of Princes, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; Village Fete, Lille Museum ; Repast 
of Painters, Hague Museum ; Flemish In- 
terior, Rotterdam Museum ; Cobbler's Re- 
past, Copenhagen Gallery ; Boy stealing 
Purse from Man's Pocket, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Dutch Wedding, Dresden Gallery ; 
Bagpiper, Hautboy Player, Gotha Muse- 
um ; Peasants at the Inn (1657), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Tavern Scenes (2), Old Pinako- 

thek, Munich; 

Repast in Open 

Air, Oldenburg 

ri Gallery ; Guard - 

I ^ f) I Room ; Company 

/ \ M A\ ^-^ ^ /of Peasants, 

l[AA)Or<l /smoke.. Eusfc 

^^— ^^ s^ Meal, Hermitage, 

St. Petersburg ; 
Old Woman with Basket, Czernin Gallery, 
Vienna. — Charles Blanc, Ecole flamande ; 
Kramm, vi. 1633 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 329 ; 
Michiels, ix. 183. 

THjENS (Tilen), JAN, born in Antwerp, 
baptized April 6, 1589, died there, July 25, 



15 



1630. Flemish school ; landscape painter, 
in the manner of Lucas van Uden, probably 
identical with Hans Tielens, master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1612. Works : Valley with 
Diana and Nymphs, Berlin Museum ; Moun- 

H rTTK# tain o us Landscape, 

I ■•^^*^* Vienna Museum. — 
Meyer, Gemlilde kongl. Mus., 463 ; Van den 
Branden, 657. 

TILIUS, JAN VAN, born at Bois-le-Duc, 
beginning of 17th centui-y, died after 1681. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, pupil of P. 
van Slingelandt and of Caspar Netscher. 
Works : Woman offering a Rose to a Man, 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck; Bagpiper (1680), 
Vienna Museum ; Young Woman Sewing 
(1681), Dresden Gallery. — Kramm, vi. 1633. 

TILTON, JOHN ROLLIN, born in Lou- 
don, N. H, in 1833. Landscape painter, 
self-taught. Professional life spent in Italy, 
where he has studied chiefly the Venetian 
masters. Has exhibited in London (1871), 
New York, and Boston. Studio in Rome. 
Works : Venetian Fishing Boats ; Palace of 
Thebes (1873) ; Lagoons of Venice (1876) ; 
Como, Venice, Martin Brimmer, Boston ; 
Rome from the Aventine (1878), Corcoran 
Gallery, Washington ; Island of Philae, Sam- 
uel Hawk Collection, New York. — Tucker- 
man, 558 ; Graves, 234. 

TBLENETUS, painter, date unknown. 
His pictures of a Wrestler, and a Water- 
Carrier, in a building near the Propylsea, 
Athens, are mentioned by Pausanias (i. 22, 

7)- 

TBIAGORAS, Greek painter, of Chalcis, 
latter half of 5th century b.c. He defeated 
Pancenus in a pictorial competition at the 
Pythian Games, and celebrated his victory 
in a poem. — Pliny, xxxv. 35 [58]. 

TIMANTHES, a celebrated Greek paint- 
er, contemporary and rival of Zeuxis and 
Parrhasius, native of Cythnus, about 400 
B.C. Pliny says (xxxv. 36 [74j) that his pict- 
ures suggested more than they actually ex- 
pressed, and showed a genius even greater 
than the art with which they were paint- 
ed. Five only of his works are known : The 



276 



TIMANTHES 



Contest of Ajax and Ulysses for Ai-ms of 
Achilles, with which he won the prize in 
competition with Parrhasius ; The Death of 
Palamedes ; a Hero preserved in the Tem- 
ple of Peace at Rome ; Sleeping Cyclops, a 
small picture in which the subject was made 
to appear gigantic by the introduction of 
some satyrs measuring his thumb with a 
thyrsus ; and the Sacrifice of Iphigenia, one 
of the most famous of ancient paintings. In 
this picture, which was painted in competi- 
tion with Colotes of Teos, the artist repre- 
sented Agamemnon veiled, because, most 
critics say, he felt a father's grief to be be- 
yond the power of his art ; but it seems 
more reasonable to believe that he did so 
in obedience to that truly Greek sentiment 
which demanded a certain dignity and re- 
serve in treating the most ti*agic subjects. 
The features of the King, distorted with 
grief, would have violated this feeling, and 
an impassive countenance would have ex- 
posed the painter to the charge of coldness. 
"Wisely, then, he hid it from sight and left 
its workings to the imagination. This pict- 
ure is spoken of by Cicero (Orat., 22), by 
Quintilian (ii. 13), and by Valerius Maximus 
(viii. 11, ext. 6). Timanthes probably took 
the hint of veiling Agamemnon from Euripi- 
des (Iphjg. AuL, 1550). A supposed imita- 
tion of this picture was found on a house 
wall at Pompeii (Mus. Borb., iv. 3). 

TIMANTHES, painter, of Sicyon, 3d cen- 
tury B.C. Plutarch praises (Ai'ai, 32) his 
picture of the Battle of Pelleni, in which 
Ai'atus won a victory over the JEtolians 
(240 B.C.). 

TBIARETE, painter, daughter of Micon 
the younger. She painted a Diana, pre- 
served at Ephesus, said by Pliny (xxxv. 40 
[147]) to have been in a very ancient style 
of art. 

TBIBAL, LOUIS CHARLES, born in 
Paris in 1822, died there, Nov. 20, 1880. 
Sacred history painter, pupil of DroUing. 
Medals : 2d class, 1848, 1857, 1859 ; 1st 
class, 1861 ; L. of Honour, 18G4. Works : 
Christ carried to Tomb, Virgin and Magda- 



len at Foot of the Cross (1848) ; Christ's 
Agony on Mount of Olives (1849); St. John 
the AjDOstle at Ephesus (1851); Captive Jews 
in Babylon, Resurrection of Jairus's Daugh- 
ter (1852); Madonna (1853); Christ bearing 
his Cross, and Portrait of Cardinal Donnet 
(1855); The Church Triumphant, Pierrefitte 
(1857) ; Obsequies of a Christian Martyr 
(1857) ; Madame d'Oseville, and Virgin at 
Foot of Cross (1858) ; Mass at St. Peter's 
(1859); St. John at Ephesus, Lyons (1860) ; 
The Studio (Princess Mathilde), St. Rose of 
Viterbo (1861); Chapel of St. Gene\deve at 
St. Sulpice (1862-64) ; Chapel of the Cate- 
chism at St. Etienne du Mont (1865) ; A 
Venetian (1865) ; The Muse and the Poet 
(1866), Louvre ; The Agony of our Lord 
(1867), Luxembourg Museum ; mural paint- 
ings (1873-76), Church of the Sorbonne ; 
four pictures (1877), Chapel of the Novi- 
tiate, Rennes ; Burial of our Lord (1878) ; 
Presentation of the Virgin, Church of Incar- 
ville, Eure ; Portraits of Vicomte Delaborde, 
Church Leveque, Emile Saisset, Duke and 
Duchess de la Rochefoucauld, Duchess de 
Mirepoix, and M. G. des Seguins. — Meyer, 
Gesch., 364 ; Larousse ; L'Ai't (1880), xxiii. 
216 ; Ch. Timbal, Notes et causeries sur I'Art, 
with a notice of his life and works by the 
Vicomte H. Delaborde (Paris, 1881). 

TIMOCLEA BEFORE ALEXANDER, 
Domeaichino, Louvre ; canvas, oval, H. 3 ft. 
9 in. X 4 ft. 11 in. Alexander, on a throne 
before a tent, surrounded by guards, gives 
her freedom to Timoclea, who is led be- 
fore him by a Thracian soldier, and re- 
stores her children to her ; in background, 
at right, Alexander's troops entering Thebes 
(BcEotia). Collection of Louis XIV., who 
bought it in 1685. Engraved by Delignon. 
— Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Musce franyais, i. 
Part 1 ; Filhol, ix. PL 643 ; Landon, Vies, 
PI. 111. 

TIMOMACHUS, a famous Greek painter, 
of Byzantium, probably 1st century b.c, 
though some place him earlier. Pliny says 
(xxxv. 40 [136]) that Julius Cicsar bought 
his two pictures, Ajax, and Medea, for 



277 



TIMOTEO 



eighty talents, and placed tbem in the Tem- 
ple of Venus Genetrix. Tlie Ajax depicted 
the hero in his madness, in a sitting posture, 
contemplating suicide (Philos., Vit. Apol., 
iL 10 ; Ovid., Trist., ii. 525). In the other, 
which is highly praised by the ancient writ- 
ers, Medea was represented meditating the 
murder of her children, but hesitating be- 
tween the impulses of revenge for her ■v\Tongs 
and of pity for her offspring. Other works 
of Timomachus mentioned by Pliny (1. c.) 
are an Orestes (Anthol. Gr., iv. 183, 306), 
an Iphigenia in Tauris, a Lecythion, and 
the Gorgon (Medusa slain by Perseus). 

TIMOTEO DA URBINO. See Vite, Ti- 
moteo. 

TINOSO, EL. See Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary, St. 

TINTI, GIAMBATTISTA, bom in Parma 
about 1560, died before 1620. Lombard 
school ; pupil of Orazio Sammacchini, but 
studied Pellegrino Tibaldi, and when he 
returned to Parma took as his models the 
works of Correggio and of Parmigianino. 
He was the last of the painters of the old 
school at Parma. Works : Magdalen, Parma 
Gallery ; Mj'stery of the Passion, Louvre. — 
Lanzi, ii. 412 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole lombarde ; 
Lavice, 256. 

TINTORETTA, LA, born in 1560, died 
in 1590. Venetian 
school. Marietta Ro- 
busti, daughter and 
pupil of Jacopo Ro- 
busti, called Tinto- 
retto. Acquired a 
considei'able reputa- 
tion as a portrait 
p a i n t e r . — R i d o 1 fi, 
Mara v., ii. 259 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole veniti- 
enne. 

TINTORETTO, DOMENICO, born in 
Venice in 1562, died there in 1637. Vene- 
tian school ; son and pupil of Jacopo Robusti, 
called Tintoretto. Followed in his fathei-'s 
footsteps, but was inferior to him in inven- 
tion and in colouring. More successful in 
portraits than in historical painting, but 





>6^ 



executed some large commissions in the 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; among them. Naval 
Battle at Salvore, Conquest of Constantino- 
ple by Crusaders (1204), and Surrender of 
Zara. — Ch. Blanc, ficole venitienne. 

TINTORETTO, JACOPO, born in Venice, 

Sept. 29, 
1518, died 
there. May 
31,1594. Ve- 
netian school. 
Real name 
Jacopo Ro- 
busti ; son of 
silk dyer 
(tin tore), 
whence 
called II Tintoretto. Pupil of Titian, who 
is said to have discharged him because he 
feared in him a future rival ; but this is not 
probable, as Titian was nearly sixty years 
old at the time. Adopting as his motto 
Titian's colouring and Michelangelo's draw- 
ing, Tintoretto won a reputation second 
to none in his time ; but whether he actu- 
ally attained the high standard of excellence 
which he had set for himself is a question 
on which critics are divided. All, however, 
unite in regarding him as one of the great- 
est of masters in composition, drawing, and 
colour, and Ruskin places him above Titian 
and beside Michelangelo. Recognizing the 
unequal merit of his works, the Venetians 
said that there were three Tintorettos — one 
of bronze, one of silver, and one of gold ; 
and Annibale Carracci said that, if some- 
times equal to Titian, he was often inferior 
to Tintoretto. With a rapidity of execution 
which procured him the nickname of II Furi- 
oso, he covered walls and ceilings with vast 
compositions, some of which are so slight 
in treatment and wanting in finish that they 
are little more than decorations, though 
often grand in design and marvellous in ef- 
fects of light and shade. His Paradise, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale, is the largest picture on canvas 
in existence. One of his most famous pict- 
ures is the Miracle of St. 3IarJc, in the Venice 



278 



TINTORETTO 



Acadera}'. Tintoi-etto often treated sacred 
themes with a coarse realism unwortliy of 
religious art, as in The Pool of Bethesda, 
and The Last Supper, in the Scuola di S. 
Rocco, Venice ; but his mythological pict- 
ures are conceived more in harmony with 
their subjects. He was fond of painting the 
nude, and his female figures are charming. 
His portraits are masterly, rich in colour, 
and (those of old men especially) life-like. 
Many of the pictures assigned to him in 
European galleries are not genuine. Venice 
contains many undoubted originals, among 
■which are : Bacchus and Ariadne, Mercunj 
and Graces, Minerva repelling Mars, Forge 
of Vulcan, SS. Andreio and Jerome, St. 
George and Dragon, Siege of Zar'a, TriumjDh 
of Venice, Battle of Lepanto, Paradise, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale ; Death of Abel, Expulsion from 
Eden, Academy ; Annunciation (2), Ascen- 
sion, Assumption, Pool of Bethesda, Christ in 
the Garden, Baptism of Christ, Circumcision 
of Christ, GJirist before Pilate, Temptation 
of Christ, Procession to Calijary, Crucifixion, 
Ecce Homo, Elijah at Brook Cherith, Ezeki- 
el's Vision, Fall of Man, Flight into Egypt, 
Sacrifice of Isaac, Jacob's Dream, Jonah, 
Joshua, Last Supper, Raising of Lazarus, 
Magdalen, Adoration of Magi, Fall of Manna, 
St. Mary of Egypt, Massacre of Innocents, 
Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, Moses strik- 
ing the Rock, Plague of Serpents, Resurrec- 
tion, St. Roch, St. Roch in Glory, St. Roch 
in Heaven, St. Sebastian, Adoration of Shep- 
herds, Visitation, Scuola di S. Rocco ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Agnes, Last Judgment, 3foses 
CD the Mount, Presentation of Virgin, do. 
of Jesus, S. M. deir Orto ; Temptation of 
St. Anthony, Last Supper, S. Trovaso ; As- 
cension, Christ with Saints, S. M. Zobenigo ; 
Baptism of Christ, S. Silvestro ; Christ wash- 
ing Disciples' Feet, S. Moise ; Presentation, 
Circumcision, S. M. del Carmine ; Discovery 
of Gross, S. M. Mater Domini ; Cracifi,icion, 
Resurrection, Descent into Hades, S. Cassi- 
ano ; Crucifixion, Madonna with the Camer- 
lenghi, SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; Martyrdom 
of SS. Damian and Cosmo, Fall of Manna, 



Last Supper, Coronation of Virgin, Resur- 
rection, Martyrdom of St. Stephen, S. Giorgio 
Maggiore ; St. Demetrius, S. Felice ; En- 
tombment, S. Francesco della Vigna ; Land- 
scape, St. Roch in the Desert, St. Roch in 
Campo d' Ai'mata, Finding Body of St. Roch, 
St. Roch in the Hospital, St. Roch before the 
Pope, Church of S. Rocco ; St. Mark res- 
cuing a Saracen, Removal of Body of St. 
Mark, Libreria Vecchia ; Marriage at Cana, 
S. M. della Salute. Among the works of 
Tintoretto in other cities are : Baptism of 
Christ, Procession to Calvary, St. Jerome, 
Muses on Parnassus, Susanna at the Bath, 
Vienna Museum ; Christ on the Cross, Tu- 
rin Gallery ; Concert of "Women, Fallen An- 
gels, Knight and Two Women, Madonna 
with Saints, Madonna with Saints, Muses 
and Graces on Parnassus, Woman taken in 
Adultery, Dresden Gallery ; Deposition from 
Cross, Madonna, Resurrection, Venus with 
Cupid and Vulcan, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
Entombment, Parma Gallery ; Ecce Homo, 
Munich Gallery ; Esther and Ahasuerus, 
Muses in Olympus, Hampton Court, Eng- 
land ; St. George and Dragon, National 
Gallery, London ; St. George and Dragon, 
Birth of John Baptist, Perseus and Androm- 
eda, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Joseph 
and Potiphar's Wife, Finding of Moses, 
Judith, Baptism of Christ, Tarquin and Lu- 
cretia, and portraits, Madrid Museum ; Leda 
and Swan, Norton Collection, England ; 
Luna and the Hours, Madonna, St. Mark, 
Berlin Museum ; Milky Way, Cobham Hall, 
England ; Paradise, Susanna at the Bath, 
Tintoretto (portrait), Louvi'e, Paris. Tinto- 
retto painted many fine portraits, one of 
the best of which is that of a young Vene- 
tian in the galleiy at Cassel. — Vasari, ed. 
Le Mon., xi. 331 ; xiii. 109 ; ed. Mil., vi. 
587 ; Dohme, 2iii. ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole ve- 
nitienne ; Burckhardt, 743, 751 ; Ruskin, 
Stones of Venice ; C. & C, Titian, i. 437 ; 
Seguier, 170 ; Ridolfi, Mnraviglic, ii. 171 ; 
Galanti, Tintoretto, Venice (1870); Osier, 
Tintoretto, London (1879); Nord u. SQd, 
xi. 141 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vii. 366 ; xiv. 228. 



279 



TINTORETTO 



TINTORETTO, JACOPO, portrait, Tin- 
toretto, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 f t. x 1 ft. 8 in. ; 
signed. Full face, short hair, and long white 
beard ; in a black dress bordered with fur. 
Painted in his old age. — Villot, Cat, Louvre 
(1875), 214 ; Filhol, v. PI. 299. 

TINTORETTO PAINTING HIS DEAD 
DA