(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Cyclopedia of Victoria (illustrated): An Historical and Commercial ..."

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



CYCLOPEDIA Or VICTORIA. 



VOL. II. 



-*J 



%^y\v 



\ 



\ 



TH£ 



CYCLOPEDIA Or VICTORIA 



(ILLUSTRATED). 




IN THREE VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 



An HISTORICAL and COMMERCIAL REVIEW. 



DESCRIPTIVE and BIOGRAPHICAL, FACTS, FIGURES and ILLUSTRATIONS. 



AN EPITOME OE PROGRESS. 



Edited by JAMES SMITH, 

Cavaliere dell ordine delta Corona d'ltalia, and Officier de VAcademie Francaise. 



VICTORIA : 

THE CYCLOPEDIA COMPANY, PUBLISHERS, MELBOURNE. 
F. W. NIVEN AND CO., PRINTERS, MELBOURNE AND BALLARAT, VICTORIA. 

' '' 1904. 

* : Ll> 

/ 



/ 



1 • 



t 



THE NEW YORK 1 
PUBLIC LIBRAEY I 

5839981 

ASTOR, LFNOX AND 

| TILDE N FOUNDATIONS 

R 1932 L 



\ 



\ 



NVMM 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Aerated Waters and Cordial Manufacturers, etc. 
Art, Science, and Literature - 

Royal Society of Victoria, The 

Royal Geographical Society, The - 

Royal Agricultural Society of Victoria, The 

Victorian Chamber of Agriculture and 
Producers' Association, The - 

Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, The 

Opera in Melbourne 

Music - - - - - 

Musical Society of Victoria, The - 

Art in Victoria ------ 

Scenic Art - - - - - 

Sculpture - 

Shakespeare Society, The - - - 

Alliance Francaise, The 

Dante Society, The - - - - 

Austral Salon, The - - - - 

Australian Literature Society, The 
Avoca .--... 

Ballarat and Vicinity - - - - 

History of Ballarat - 

Ballarat as Seen by Others 

General Impressions - - - - 

Educational Institutions - 

Public Buildings - 

Botanical Gardens, The 

Charitable Institutions 

Water Supply - 

Ballarat Goldfield, The - 

Manufactures .... 

Bendigo and Vicinity - 



\ 



X-6 



City of Bendigo, The 
Bendigo of Fiction, The 
General Aspect of the City 
Bendigo Water Supply - 
Ecclesiastical Edifices 
Public Buildings 
Educational Institutions - 
Art Gallery - 
School of Mines and Industries 
Mechanics' Institute and Library 
Public Parks and Recreation Grounds 
Hospital, The - 
* Benevolent Asylum, The - 
Gold Mining - 
Manufacturing Industries - 
Rural Industries 

Agricultural and Other Societies - 
Additional Notes m - 



PAGE 




PAGE 


- 174 


Beeac and Vicinity ----- 


487 


73 


Birregurra ------ 


- 470 


- 73 


Castlemaine and Vicinity - 


402 


74 


Castlemaine - - - 


- 402 


- 74 


Chewton - 


404 


oral 


Harcourt - 


- 405 


77 


Elphinstone ------ 


405 


- 78 


Taradale ------ 


- 405 


79 


Fryerstown ------ 


405 


- 81 


Campbell's Creek .... 


- 405 


83 


Guildford .... - 


405 


- 83 


Newstead- - 


- 405 


86 


Cape Otway District ----- 


485 


- 87 


Camperdown and Vicinity 


- 490 


88 


Casterton and Vicinity .... 


541 


- 89 


Chamber of Commerce, The 


- 9 


89 


Chamber of Manufactures, The Victorian - 


13 


- 90 


Charitable Institutions - 


- 57 


90 


Benevolent Asylum - - - - 


57 


- 313 


Melbourne Orphan Asylum, The 


- 59 


230 


Hospitals for the Insane - 


60 


- 230 


Deaf and Dumb Institution, The 


- 61 


241 


Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind - 


61 


- 244 


Victorian Homes for the Aged and Infirm - 


- 63 


245 


Sanatorium for Consumptives 


64 


- 247 


Chines and District .... 


- 295 


248 


Colac and Vicinity - - - - 


473 


- 249 


Coleraine and Vicinity - 


- 544 


250 


Creswick ...... 


293 


- 250 


Daylesford ------ 


- 418 


251 


Dental ------ 


70 


- 315 


Dunolly and Vicinity - 


- 311 


315 


Eaglehawk ..... 


380 


- 321 


Ecclesiastical - 


- 35 


323 


Church of England, The - 


35 


- 324 


Roman Catholic Church, The - 


- 42 


324 


Presbyterian Church, The - 


49 


- 327 


Wesley an Methodist Church, The 


- 51 


328 


Congregational Church, The 


53 


- 329 


Children of Israel, The - - - - 


- 55 


330 


Educational - - - - 


14 


- 331 


Melbourne University, The 


- 14 


331 


Trinity College .... 


17 


- 338 


Ormond College - - - - - 


- 18 


335 


Church of England Grammar School, The 


20 


- 336 


Working Men's College, The - 


- 22 


339 


Scotch College, The - 


24 


- 340 


Wesley College, The - - - - 


- 24 


341 


Presbyterian Ladies' College 


26 


- 341 


Association for the Promotion of Technical Education 28 



S 



CONTENTS. 



Engineers, Iron and Brass Founders, etc. 
Fraternal Societies - 

Freemasonry - 

Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester 

Caledonian Society, The - 

St. Patrick's Society - 

Orange Society - 
Geelong and Vicinity - 

General - - 

Hamilton and Vicinity - - - - 

Hepburn Mineral Springs 

Kingston and Allendale - 

Koroit ------ 

Kyneton ------ 

Manufacturers - 

Maryborough and Vicinity ... 

Maryborough - 

Carisbrook ----- 

Moolort ----- 

Joyce's Creek - - - - - 

Havelock ----- 
Maldon -..--, 

Medical - - - - - 



page 

• 181 Merchants and Importers - 

91 Mortlake and Vicinity - 

- CI Penshurst ------ 

Unity 102 Port Fairy 

104 Portland 

- 107 Raywood ----- 
108 Sporting ------ 

- 429 Turf in Melbourne, The 
190 Victoria Racing Club, The 

- 526 Victoria Amateur Turf Club, The 

424 Findon Harriers, The - - - - 

- 294 Melbourne Cricket Club, The 

525 South Melbourne Cricket Club, The - 

- 412 Richmond Cricket Club, The 
143 Suburbs of Melbourne, The 

- 299 Talbot 

299 Terang 

- 302 Watchmakers, Jewellers, Opticians, Engravers, 

302 cal Instrument Makers, etc. 

- 302 Warrnambool and Vicinity 

303 Western District, The ... - 

- 389 Winchelsea 

r 65 Woodend * . -. 



Surgi- 



PAGB 

130 
504 
535 
524 
537 
388 
109 
109 
115 
120 
122 
126 
129 
129 
1 
308 
502 

164 
511 
426 
467 
425 




The Cyclopedia of Victoria. 



THE SUBURBS OF MELBOURNE, 



PRAHRAN. 

THIS city forms part of the province of South 
Yarra, and of the three electoral districts of 
Toorak, Prahran, and South Yarra. It was 
constituted a municipality in 1856, -a borough in 
1863, a town in 1870, and a city in 1879. It 
contains an area of 2,320 acres, and a population of 
41,200. The civic revenue is £37,895, and the annual 
value of the property assessed for rating purposes is 
£368,605. Within the boundaries of the city are enclosed 
some of the most favourite residential districts in the 
neighbourhood of Melbourne, such as Toorak, South 
Yarra, Armadale, and Hawksburn, and, as most of these 
occupy elevated positions, they have been selected as 
mansion sites by the wealthier classes in the me- 
tropolis. It contains three parks or public reserves, and 
as many bowling greens ; numerous churches and chapels ; 
a fine Town Hall and municipal buildings, including a 
public library of 12,756 volumes ; Masonic and Odd- 
fellows' Halls, and five State Schools. There are six 
railway stations within its municipal limits, and it 
possesses a highly serviceable tramway system, with 
facilities for transfer. Mr. Wm. Densham is the Mayor 
for the current year (1903-4), and the offices of town clerk 
and city treasurer are filled by Mr. Albert Mainwaring 
Mortley. 

SOUTH MELBOURNE. 

Originally known as "the green hill over the Yarra," 
this spot was formerly a favourite rendezvous for the 
blacks, and was occupied as a sheep station during the 
early years of Melbourne, the low grounds between it and 
the Yarra being planted as a wheat field by J. P. 
Fawkner, but was presently afterwards utilised as a 
brick field. In 1849 Mr. Edmund Finn bestowed upon the 
verdant eminence the appropriate name of Emerald Hill, 
which it bore until quite recently. The first Government 
land sale was held in the same year. It was the first 
place to take advantage of the invaluable Municipal Insti- 
tutions Act, framed by Captain (afterwards Sir Andrew) 
Clarke, and was constituted a borough— the first of the 
kind in Victoria— on the 26th of May, 1855 ; proclaimed 
a town in March, 1872 ; and erected into a city on the 
2 1st of September, 1883. It forms part of the province 
of South Yarra, and of three electoral districts. Con- 



taining an area of 2,311 acres, and a population of 40,637, 
it derives a revenue of £43,874 from property of the 
annual value of £292,357. South Melbourne contains 
eighteen churches, a Chinese joss-house, six State 
Schools, a Homoeopathic Hospital, a handsome and 
commodious Town Hall, a park of 600 acres, in which 
there is a lake of 113 acres, wharves on the Yarra, and 
baths on the sea, two newspapers, and the usual public 
offices. It is in direct railway communication with 
Melbourne by two lines, and enjoys also a double tram 
service. Mr. J. Baragwanath is Mayor of the city 
(1903-4), and Mr. F. G. Miles is the town clerk. 

RICHMOND. 

In the early days of Melbourne, Richmond, covering 
an area of upwards of 1,400 acres, was a pleasant expanse 
of well-timbered bush-land, and it was then a favourite 
walk in the country with the townspeople, who were 
accustomed to go as far as the hill, from which a pretty 
view could be obtained. A minister of religion, the Rev. 
Joseph Docker, not entirely indifferent to worldly con- 
siderations, bought this hill, comprising fifty acres, at 
one of the earliest land sales in 1839 for something less 
than £20 per acre, and must have made a handsome 
profit by subdividing and re-selling it some years later. 
The whole of what was then laid out as a rural township 
of 300 acres was divided, Mr. Finn tells us, into twelve 
blocks, averaging twenty-five acres each, and these were 
sold by the Government at prices ranging from £13 to 
£25 per acre each, and a good many villa residences were 
erected, each of them surrounded by spacious grounds. 
But in the great majority of cases these grounds have 
been since thickly built upon. 

Constituted a municipality in 1855, a town in 1872, 
and a city in 1882, Richmond now numbers a population 
of 35,535, and administers a municipal revenue of 
£27,000, collected as rates from property assessed at the 
annual value of £205,944. It contains the Yarra Park, 
the Richmond Park of 156 acres, and the Horticultural 
Gardens at Burnley, fully described elsewhere, a city 
reserve, and the Barkly Garden. The commodious Town 
Hall has a frontage of 183 feet to the Bridge Road, and 
Richmond contains numerous churches, five State and 
twenty private schools, two free libraries, Corporation 
baths, substantial public offices, and two, newspapers^ 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



It is connected with Melbourne by four railways and a 
tramway. It is situated in the Melbourne province, and 
forms a separate electoral district. Mr. E. Crawcour 
is the present Mayor (1903-4), and Mr. C. C. Blazey is 
the town clerk. 

COLLINGWOOD. 

In the early days the small outlying suburb which has 
since grown into the two cities of Fitzroy and Colling- 
wood was known as New Town, and the easterly and 
north-easterly portions of the district, from which a good 
deal of the bluestone used for building purposes in Mel- 
bourne was derived, were generally spoken of as "the 
Quarries." Land so far from the township was regarded 
as of very little value, and was sold in large blocks at 
so much an acre, but there was little competition for it, 
even at the low upset price set upon it by the Govern- 
ment in Sydney. Twelve thousand pounds would 
certainly have been considered a liberal price for the 



wards on the 31st of May, 1887. It is one of the busiest 
manufacturing suburbs of Melbourne, as there are upwards 
of 110 factories of various kinds established within the 
city, affording employment to the operative classes of the 
population. Three newspapers are published in Colling- 
wood, which contains numerous churches, six large State 
Schools, a spacious public bath, three public parks, a free 
lending library and reading room, a substantial Town 
Hall and municipal offices, a Court House, post, tele- 
graph, and money order offices. Two lines of railway 
and three distinct lines of tramway bring Collingwood 
into close, continual, and rapid communication with all 
parts of Melbourne. Mr. J. Gahan, J. P., is the present 
Mayor of Collingwood (1903-4), and Mr. S. J. Bryant the 
town clerk and treasurer. 

FITZROY. 

As has been mentioned above, this city occupies a 
portion of the early suburb of New Town, but subse- 




Th« Fitzroy Gardens. 



whole of the 1,139 acres contained within the municipal 
limits of the present city, and few persons would have 
been willing to pay £1 per acre for much of the land 
lying upon what is now spoken of as Collingwood Flat. 
To-day the city contains a population of 34,335 persons. 
It possesses a revenue of £20,236, and the annual value 
of the ratable property from which this is derived is 
assessed at £184,585. 

Situate in the province of North Yarra, and consti- 
tuting a distinct electoral district in itself, Collingwood 
was proclaimed a municipality so far back as April, 
1855 ; a borough in 1863, a town in 1873, and a city on 
the 10th of January, 1876. It was subdivided into five 



quently became one of the wards of the city of Melbourne. 
At that time, as we learn from a journalist of the 
period, few of the streets were continuous ; many of them 
were blind alleys, while others formed elbows, and in one 
or two instances they were so arranged that whenever 
the blocks came to be built upon, a man would be half a 
mile from his next-door neighbour, because, in order to 
reach him, he would have to travel round three sides of 
a rectangular block. 

In 1851 some attempts were made to extract order 
out of chaos, and, among other things, a square, to be 
named after Governor Latrobe, was laid out, extending 
from Brunswick %o Napier Street, and the Legislature 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



3 



voted £50,000 for the purchase of the private property 
upon it. But the square mysteriously disappeared from 
the plans of the locality shortly after the gold dis- 
coveries, and the area must have been quietly appro- 
priated by builders who had no legal title to it. 

The Crown lands upon which the city of Fitzroy is 
built were, some of them, put up to auction, in blocks of 
twenty-five acres, and the price obtained for them by the 
Government averaged no more than £7 per acre. Indeed, 
it is recorded that a mercantile firm in Sydney bought a 
block of these dimensions, bounded on the west by 
Nicholson Street, and on the south by Victoria Parade, 
for the sum total of £125 ! After Brunswick Street had 
been laid out and made, it became a fashionable quarter, 
and many of the leading citizens of Melbourne built 
country residences there, surrounded by large gardens, 
nearly all of which have been submerged by an over- 
whelming flood of bricks and mortar, slates and timber. 

Fitzroy was amputated from the city of Melbourne in 
1858, proclaimed a borough in October, 1863, a town in 
December, 1870, and a city in 1878. It covers an 
area of 923 acres, contains a population of 32,146, 
and raises an income of £27,415 from property rated at 
the annual value of £244,529. It is in the province of 
North Yarra, and in the electoral districts of Fitzroy and 
Melbourne East. The Carlton and Fitzroy Gardens 
bound it on two sides, and the Edinburgh and Darling 
Gardens are within its northern limits, while, to the 
north-eastward, it abuts upon the extensive Yarra Bend 
Asylum reserve. Seven churches, as many banks, a 
convent, a large hospital and several private ones, a 
Town Hall of large dimensions, and four groups of 
cottages erected upon as many reserves for benevolent 
purposes by the Licensed Victuallers', Old Actors', 
Foresters', and Old Colonists' Associations respectively, 
are among the most notable buildings in Fitzroy. Three 
newspapers are published in it, and it is the seat of 
numerous" manufactures. Mr. A. Angus McNair is the 
present Mayor (1903-4), and Mr. A. Batson, C.E., is the 
town clerk and surveyor ; treasurer and assistant town 
clerk, Mr. M. R. McMillan. 

BRUNSVICK. 

In the early days Brunswick, so named after R. 
Brunswick, commandant of the mounted troopers, was a 
long straggling village, which had been brought into 
existence as the natural adjunct of the two or three 
wayside hostelries at which teams used to stop for their 
first bait on the highway to Sydney and the north-eastern 
districts of the colony. The large penal establishment 
at Pentridge a little further on, the stone quarries, and 
some large deposits of valuable brick earth in and around 
the place, all conduced to its progress and prosperity, 
and it had become of sufficient importance in 1857 to 
entitle it to be constituted a borough, and to 
be proclaimed a town on the 13th of April, 1888. It is 
comprehended in the Southern Province, and belongs 
to the electoral district known as the East Bourke 
Boroughs. It comprises an area of 2,722 acres, and a 
population of 24,182. A revenue of £20,963 is raised 
by the rates on property of the annual value of 
£125,675. It was originally intended tq fee cultjvatocl 



as a farming district, in order to supply the wants of 
Melbourne, and the land was at first sold in 90 and 100- 
acre blocks ; but the soil proved to be much more pro- 
ductive in other ways, and not only have the bricks and 
stoneware of Brunswick come into general demand, but it 
is also the seat of numerous other manufactures, which 
are the main support of its 24,000 inhabitants. It 
contains numerous churches, one college, four State and 
ten private schools, two newspapers, and a free library. 
Two lines of railway, and one of the longest and cheapest 
tramway lines connected with the Melbourne system, 
give it plenty of access to the metropolis, from which it 
is separated by the Royal Park, the Cemetery, and the 
University grounds. Mr. D. Methven is the Mayor of 
Brunswick (1903-4), and Mr. C. E. Ogden the town 
clerk. 

HAWTHORN. 

This picturesque and healthy suburb originally formed 
part of a sheep and cattle station, and that portion of it 
now known as St. James' Park was purchased from the 
Crown by Dr. (afterwards Sir James) Palmer for £5 per 
acre. Hawthorn was then a little village, and the 
few private residences it contained were surrounded by 
spacious paddocks. Three or four wayside inns, at 
wide intervals along the main road, depended for their 
support upon the wood-carters of Nunawading and other 
outlying districts, who were the chief purveyors of fuel 
to the inhabitants of Melbourne ; and the general appear- 
ance of the place resembled that of a large park. The 
city embraces an area of 2,400 acres, with a population 
of 22,347, and a revenue of £22,000 is derived from the 
rates on property, of the annual value of £190,303. It 
is in the province of South Yarra, and constitutes an 
electoral district in itself. It was proclaimed a munici- 
pality in 1860, a town in 1887, and a city in 1890. It 
contains no less than twenty-one churches, or one to 
every thousand of its inhabitants, two Catholic and three 
State Schools, a Town Hall, with the usual public offices 
attached, several other halls, and two public parks, with 
bowling greens attached. The Lily dale line of railway 
places it in frequent and rapid communication with 
Melbourne, and a horse tramway connects it with the 
terminus of the Richmond cable tramway. Mr. B. 
Goldsmith is the present Mayor (1903-4), and* Mr. H. T. 
Haynes, C.E., the town clerk, engineer, and building 
surveyor. 

ST. KILDA. 

According to that patient investigator, the late Mr. 
Edmund Finn, this locality formerly bore the native name 
of Euro-Yroke, such having been the designation of a kind 
of sandstone found here, which the aborigines used for the 
purpose of sharpening their tomahawks upon. From the 
same source we learn how it obtained its present appel- 
lation, under the following circumstances :— Mr. Latrobe, 
at that time Superintendent of the province of Port 
Phillip, invited several friends to a picnic at the then 
nameless camping-place amidst the ti-tree scrub which 
fringed the sea beach at this spot. "What shall be the 
name of this place ?" asked one of the guests. A yacht 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



was passing down or up the Bay at that moment, and, 
glancing at it, Mr. Latrobe replied, "We cannot do better 
than name it after yonder yacht, 'St. Kilda. ' " And 
so this sunny seaside resort obtained the appellation 
bestowed many centuries ago upon a lonely island lying 
far away to the north of Scotland. An hotel was 
presently built in this southern St. Kilda for the accom- 
modation of visitors in the summer time, villa residences 
sprang up, shops and smaller dwellings soon followed, and 
about the year 1850 it had grown into something like a 
township. It was constituted a municipality in 1857, 
proclaimed a borough in 1863, and a city on the 12th of 
September, 1890. It forms an electoral district in 
itself, and it lies in both the South-Eastern and the 
South Yarra Provinces. Embracing an area of 2,096 
acres, and containing a population of 20,280, it derives a 
revenue of £24.875 from property assessed at the annual 
value of £200,644. St. Kilda contains fourteen churches, 
two State Schools, a Town Hall, Botanical Gardens, a 
public park and several recreation reserves, four large 
bathing establishments, a jetty 800 yards long, with two 
considerable extensions, two fine promenades, a bowling 
green and tennis ground, a public library, and three news- 
papers. It is traversed by three lines of tramway, and 
is in direct railway communication with the metropolis. 
Mr. J. H. Pittard is Mayor of the city (1903-4), and Mr. 
J. M. Browne town clerk and treasurer. 

FOOTSCRAY. 

Situated in the county of Bourke, the province of 
North Yarra, and constituting an electoral district in 
itself, this city was proclaimed a municipality in 1859, 
a borough in 1863, a town in 1887, and a city in January, 
1891. It comprehends an area of 2,577 acres, and a 
population of 17,868, and it has a revenue of £14,451, 
derived from rates upon property of the annual value of 
£93,084. It contains probably a greater number of 
manufactories than any other suburb of Melbourne. 
There are fourteen places of worship and four State 
Schools within its boundaries, and two newspapers are 
published in Pootscray. Mr. W. J. Toohey is the 
Mayor (1903-4), and Mr. D. T. Barnet is the town clerk ; 
surveyor, Mr. R. H. Broadhurst. 

ESSENDON. 

Pleasantly situated on an undulating plateau nearly 
150 feet above the sea level, Essendon includes within its 
municipal limits the two townships of Ascot Vale and 
Moonee Ponds, and presents numerous agreeable and 
salubrious sites for private residences, many of which 
were taken advantage of at a comparatively early period. 
It forms part of the Southern Province, and of the elec- 
toral district of Essendon and Flemington. Its area 
is 4,000 acres, its population 17,800, and its revenue 
£21,715, the annual valuation of the assessed property 
being £128,380. The municipality contains fourteen 
churches, three State Schools, a suitable Town Hall and 
free public library, a recreation reserve and lake, and a 
rosery which can boast of 500 varieties of that beautiful 
flower. Mr. J. J. Rogers is Mayor of Essendon (1903-4), 
and Mr. W. Cattanach is town clerk and treasurer The 
town is on the North-Eastern line of railway. 



NORTH MELBOURNE. 

This town was originally known as Hotham, and 
formed part of the city of Melbourne. It was constituted 
a borough in September, 1859, was proclaimed a town on 
the 6th of December, 1874, and received its present name 
in the month of August, 1887. The Benevolent Asylum 
and its spacious grounds stand partly within its muni- 
cipal limits, as does likewise the great meat market, 
while the Royal Park is contiguous to its northern 
boundary, and some important manufacturing industries 
are carried on in North Melbourne, conducing largely to 
its material advancement. Its area does not exceed 565 
acres, but it is thickly peopled, as its inhabitants 
number 17,404. Upon property of the annual value of 
£114,643 it raises an assessment of £13,429, and its 
municipal rulers have expended £19,000 upon the erection 
of a Town Hall, rendered additionally imposing by the 
commanding position it occupies, and by its lofty tower, 
North Melbourne is comprehended within the province of 
North Yarra, and constitutes part of two electoral 
districts. It contains seven churches, four State 

Schools, and a good public library. Five lines of 
railway radiating from one terminus in Spencer Street 
run through North Melbourne, and two lines of tramway 
connect it additionally with the metropolis. Mr. John 
Barwise, J.P., is the Mayor (1903-4), and Mr. H. J. 
Randall the town clerk and treasurer. 

WILLIAMSTOWN. 

This town was named by Sir Richard Bourke, the then 
Governor of New South Wales, in honor of William the 
Fourth. This was in March, 1837, and, therefore, only 
three months before the demise of that monarch. At this 
time the place contained no more than ten houses, one of 
which was owned and occupied by Captain Hugh McLean, 
who kept two men and a boat employed in conveying 
passengers across the Bay. In 1846 its population was 
only 322, but it now numbers 14,052. Situated in the 
province of North Yarra, it constitutes a distinct elec- 
torate as regards the Assembly. It covers an area of 
2,540 acres, and raises a revenue of £12,723 from property 
of the annual value of £74,563. In bygone years it was 
represented by Mr. (afterwards Sir) G. F. Verdon, who 
became an influential member of the Government, and 
succeeded in obtaining the sanction of the Legislature for 
the construction of a railway upwards of nine miles long 
from Williamstown to Melbourne to compete for the 
shipping traffic with a private line, almost two miles 
long, and already in operation, between Sandridge and 
Melbourne. This, together with the large graving dock, 
commodious piers, and extensive railway workshops at 
Newport, gave a great impetus to Williamstown. The 
place now contains seven places of worship, three State 
Schools, several public buildings, patent slips and ship- 
building yards, a racecourse, some quarries of superior 
basalt, and three weekly newspapers. Williamstown is 
in constant communication with Port Melbourne, on the 
opposite shore, by means of two steamboats, irrespective 
of the facilities offered by the somewhat circuitous line 
of railway above spoken of. Mr. H. J. Carter is the 
present Mayor of the town (1903-4), and Mr. G. F. Smith 
its town clerk. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



PORT MELBOURNE. 

When a solitary public-house stood upon the shingles 
at what is now called Port Melbourne, That part of the 
shore of Hobson's Bay came to be known as Liardet's 
Beach, this having been the name of the landlord of that 
flourishing house of entertainment of his, in which 
passengers newly arrived from England, and landed on 
shore by the boatmen plying for hire at that spot, tasted 
the delight of the first meal on terra firma. There was 
no such thing as a pier in those days, and cargoes were 
lightered from the vessels after they had reached their 
anchorage, or they proceeded up the Yarra to discharge 
their burden at the only wharf which Melbourne then 
possessed. In spite of the ti-tree scrub, which grew like 
a thick screen almost down to the water's edge, the sand 
drifted inward, under favourable winds, until it lay up in 



chemical works, as well as rice and meal mills. A 
commodious Town Hall and free library, four places of 
worship, State and denominational schools, a Seamen's 
Institute, and a Temperance and Friendly Societies' 
Hall, are among the more notable of its public buildings. 
Besides the railway, Port Melbourne is brought into easy 
and expeditious communication with Melbourne by means 
of its tramway service. Mr. Arthur Hester is the Mayor 
of Port Melbourne for the current year (1903-4), and Mr. 
E. C. Crockford the town clerk and treasurer. 

MALVERN. 

Gardiner, in which Malvern is situated, was pro- 
claimed a district on the 7th of October, 1856, and a shire 
on the 15th of May, 1871. Two years later the name 




great banks and furrows, and hence, perhaps, the place 
received the name it bore in later years, and retained 
until the year 1884, namely, Sandridge. 

Forming part of the province of South Yarra, it 
constitutes an electoral district in itself, was proclaimed 
a borough in I860, and a town on the 20th of January, 
1893. With an area of 2,366 acres, and a population of 
12,157, it has a revenue of £9,292, and ratable property 
of the annual value of £75,488. Port Melbourne contains 
two piers of large dimensions, alongside of which steam- 
ships and sailing vessels of almost any tonnage can be 
berthed and discharge their cargoes, which are then trans- 
ferred by a short line of railway to Melbourne. It is 
also a place of great' importance in connection with 
manufactures, for in it are carried on the largest 
distillery in the State, extensive sugar, biscuit-making, 
treacle refining, gas, candle, soap, boat-building, and 



was changed to Malvern, by which it has ever since been 
known. It was constituted a borough in February, 1901, 
and a town in April, 1901. Its progress in population 
and wealth has been steady and continuous. In the year 
1870 the ratable value of the property in the district of 
Gardiner was no more than £11,245 ; in 1880 it had 
nearly doubled itself, as it was assessed at £22,260. In 
1902-3 the last-named valuation was nearly sextupled, for 
it showed a total of £132,795. Of course there had been 
a correlative increase in the population, which was esti- 
mated in the last-named year at 11,630. 

In 1857 the municipal income of the district was only 
£2,420, whereas in 1901-2 the revenue of the Malvern 
Council was £13,000. 

The elevated position of the place, and its conse- 
quently general healthfulness, together with the railway 
facilities it enjoys, have no doubt combined to render it 



6 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



a favourite place of residence, and will help to account 
for its progress and prosperity, as evidenced by the fore- 
going figures. 

Mr. James Lo rimer was the first chairman of the 
Shire Council of Malvern, and Mr. Alexander McKinley, 
who had occupied the same position for three years in 
succession, was the first Mayor of the town. The coun- 
cillors are nine in number. Mr. W. V. Bailey is the 
present Mayor (1903-4), Mr. Frederick Hughes filling the 
offices of town clerk, treasurer, and engineer ; and Dr. 
J. S. Ormond that of health officer. The Town Hall is 
the only prominent public building in Malvern, and the 
borough contains a large number of private buildings of 
greater or lesser architectural beauty and elegance. 

The borough is in the South-Eastern Province, and is 
situated in the two electoral districts of Toorak and the 
Eastern Suburbs. 

BRIGHTON. 

In the fifties, this suburb of Melbourne was considered 
to be quite away in the country, and those who had built 
seaside residences there considered they had left the town 
far behind them when they drove home in the evening, and 
felt the quiet of the place fall upon them with a sense of 
rest and refreshment. In fact, anyone who recalls the 
wonderful stillness of Brighton an hour after sunset, when 
nothing was audible but the moaning of the tide upon the 
beach and the ghostly whispers of the night wind amongst 
the trees, will also remember the weird feelings which 
these induced, especially if you happened to lose your 
way, as it was so easy to do in the dense scrub at that 
time. Gradually the bush disappeared as more houses 
were built ; a village and then a township sprang up at 
what is now called Middle Brighton, and when a railway 
—or rather a loop line— was constructed between Mel- 
bourne and the sea beach, the place forged rapidly ahead. 
It was constituted a borough in 1859, and was proclaimed 
a town on the 18th of March, 1887. Belonging to the 
South-Eastern Province, and forming an electoral district 
in itself, Brighton includes an area of 3,288 acres, with 
a population of 10,145. The annual value of the ratable 
property within its limits is £86,810, and the municipal 
income is £11,000. It originally formed part of Dendy's 
special survey of 5,120 acres, and contains a Town Hall, 
several places of public worship, State and private 
schools, two piers, two newspapers, and the customary 
post and telegraph offices, together with a free library. 
There is also a public reserve of about 100 acres in that 
part of the borough known as Elsternwick. A railway 
connects it with Melbourne on the one hand, and with 
Sandringham, another watering-place, on the other. The 
Hon. Thomas Bent, J. P., M.L.A., is Mayor of Brighton 
(1903-4), and Mr. J. H. Taylor is town clerk and trea- 
surer. 

NORTHCOTE. 

This town, forming part of the Southern Province, 
and of the electoral district of the East Bourke Boroughs, 
was constituted a borough in May, 1883, and proclaimed 
a town on the 12th of September, 1890. It occupies an 
elevated site, on the banks of the Merri Creek, and 
commands extensive views in all directions. It compre- 
hends an area of 2,850 acres, and a population of 10,018, 



and derives a revenue of £8,944 from the assessments of 
property valued at £64,945. Within its municipal limits 
are nine churchef, two State and four private schools, 
and a home of the Little Sisters of the Poor. It is 
connected by three lines of railway and by a tramway 
with Melbourne, and a free public library has been 
established in its Town Hall. Mr. G. H. Parsons, J. P., 
is the Mayor of Northcote (1903-4), and Mr. W. G. Swift, 
A. F.I. A., is the town clerk and treasurer. 

CAULFIELD. 

Situated in the county of Bourke and parish of 
Prahran, in the South-Eastern Province, and the Brighton, 
Toorak, and Eastern Suburbs electorates, Caulfield was 
proclaimed a district in October, 1857, and a town 
in 1901. Comprising an area of 6,080 acres, and a 
population of 9,803, it raises a revenue of £13,714 from 
property assessed at the annual value of £111,401. The 
townships of Caulfield (with its famous racecourse), 
Elsternwick, Glen Huntly, Murrumbeena, Ormond, and 
Ross town form part of the district, in which are many 
churches and State Schools and a commodious Town 
Hall. The general elevation, coupled with the salubrity 
of the air and the wide extent of the views commanded 
by all the eminences, have made the district popular as a 
place of residence, more especially as Melbourne is easy 
of access from it by railway at suburban rates of fare. 
Caulfield contains a fine public park of sixty-two acres, 
besides a second reserve, in which is the cricket ground 
of one of the local clubs, the other having its ground 
in the park above referred to. Mr. J. T. Lempriere 
is Mayor, and Mr. F. Jowett is secretary and 
treasurer. 

KEW. 

The borough of Kew, in the parish of Boroondara, and 
county of Bourke, is one of the most picturesque 
suburbs of Melbourne, owing to its elevated position and 
the fine views it commands, more especially in a northerly 
direction, where the scenery bears some resemblance to 
the valley of the Thames, as seen from Richmond Hill, in 
Surrey. It was constituted a borough in the year 1860, 
and contains an area of 3,553 acres, and a population, 
in round numbers, of 8,073, besides 1,350 inmates of the 
Lunatic Asylum. The valuation of the property within 
the municipal boundaries is £88,472 for the current year, 
and the number of properties assessed is 2,765, yielding a 
revenue of £8,585. Since 1892 the borough has been 
divided into five wards. It returns one member to the 
Legislative Assembly, its present representative being 
Mr. Frank Madden, who has been long resident in Kew. 
It forms part of the province of South Yarra, which has 
four seats assigned to it in the Legislative Council. The 
Mayor of Kew is Mr. S. S. Argyle, M.B., and the town 
clerk and treasurer is Mr. H. H. Harrison. 

The borough contains 1,670 residences and shops, the 
great majority of the former consisting of villas, owned 
or occupied by gentlemen connected with commerce and 
the professions in Melbourne, as the site is a favourite 
one, owing to its reputation for salubrity. Among its 
public buildings is the extensive pile, standing in a reserve 
of 400 acres, which constitutes the Lunatic Asylum ; two 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



colleges, seven churches, the Town Hall and Post Office, 
and the various public offices contiguous to the latter. 
The Boroondara General Cemetery and the bold promon- 
tory of Studley Park contribute largely to the general 
picturesqueness of the place, which is brought into com- 
munication with the metropolis both by railroad and 
tramway. 

OAKLEIGH, 

Oakleigh, which lies in the parishes of Mordialloc and 
Mulgrave, in the county of Bourke, belongs to the 
electorate of Berwick and Dandenong, and forms part of 
the South-Eastern Province, was separated from the 
Shire of Oakleigh in the year 1891. It comprises an area 
of 1,920 acres, and a population of 1,250. The latest 
valuation of the ratable property within the borough 
boundaries was £13,736, and its revenue is £1,634. 
Oakleigh contains five churches, a Court House, and a 
State School, and is connected by three lines of railway 
with Melbourne. Mr. W. J. Andrews is Mayor, and 
Mr. W. Haughton is the town clerk, collector, and 
valuer. 



SHIRES. 

The shires immediately contiguous to Melbourne are 
those of Camberwcll and Boroondara, Braybrook, Broad- 
meadows, Coburg, Doncaster, Heidelberg, Preston, and 
Templestowe. They form part of that comprehensive 
system of self-government which practically embraces the 
whole State, and has proved to be an invaluable means 
of promoting the economic, social, industrial, and political 
development of its people. It quickens the interest felt 
by the inhabitants of each district in the well-being and 
advancement of their own locality, organises the machi- 
nery for its guardianship and improvement, engenders 
a feeling of pride in its progress, and prepares those who 
take part in municipal administration for the performance 
of still more important duties if they should feel the 
ambition and desire, and be afforded the opportunity of 
entering, later on, either branch of the Legislature. 
There are now 148 of these shires in the State of 
Victoria. 

CAMBERWELL AND BOROONDARA. 

This shire, which comprehends the townships of 
Balwyn, Burwood, Camberwell, Canterbury, Glen Iris, 
and Surrey Hills, and the village of Hartweil, compre- 
hends an area of thirteen square miles, and owing to the 
undulating nature of the country and to the horizon being 
bounded in two directions by ranges of mountains/ is 
extremely picturesque. Hence it has always been in high 
favour as a place of residence among those who wish to 
get well away from the smoke and dust of the city, and 
to fix their abode upon the breezy uplands which are 
to be found at Canterbury and on the Surrey Hills. 
Hence the shire contains a population of 8,950. The 
value of the property within its limits is assessed at 
£99,497, and there are 2,439 ratepayers. It numbers 
thirteen churches, three public halls, and five State 
Schools. Mr. Robert Beckett is president of the Shire 
Council, and Mr. R. W. Smellie, C.E., is its secretary 



and engineer. This shire was constituted a district in 
July, 1854, proclaimed a shire in November, 1871, and 
subdivided into three ridings in April, 1889. 

COBURG. 

This shire, which was constituted a district in 1869, 
and proclaimed a shire in 1875, forms part of the 
Southern Province, and of the electoral district of East 
Bourke Boroughs. Its area is seven and a half square 
miles ; it contains a population of 7,301, exclusive of 664 
persons confined within the penal establishments, and 
derives a revenue of £6,975 from property of the assessed 
annual value of £42,120. Within the shire are the town- 
ships of Newlands, Bolingbroke, Moreland, and Pascoe- 
vale, comprising, with Coburg itself, eight churches, three 
State Schools, a shire and a public hall, and a recrea- 
tion reserve. It is brought into close and rapid 
communication with Melbourne by rail and tramway. 
Mr. A. Voice is president of the Shire Council, and Mr. 
P. O'Shanassy its secretary, valuer, and collector. 

HEIDELBERG* 

This is one of the most picturesque districts in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Melbourne, and the greater 
part of it had been bought in the early days by a Mr. 
Walker, who, having seen the romantic town which was 
once the capital of a Palatinate, bestowed its name upon 
his new acquisition. Having subdivided it into a number 
of blocks large enough to form moderate-sized parks, he 
found ready purchasers for these among the wealthy 
classes in Melbourne, and commodious residences, sur- 
rounded by pleasure grounds, added to the attractiveness 
of the locality. A pretty village sprang up, and its one 
English-looking inn became a popular place of resort with 
bridal parties and other excursionists. At present the 
township contains some 750 inhabitants, but the shire, 
which includes Alphington, Fairfield, Greensborough, 
Ivanhoe, and Nillumbik, or Diamond Creek, numbers a 
population of 4,600. It embraces an area of forty- two 
square miles, and its revenue is £5,339, derivable from 
property assessed at an annual value of £43,735. The 
shire contains fourteen churches, four State Schools, and 
a convalescent hospital. It was constituted a district 
in 1860, and a shire on the 27th of January, 1871, and 
forms part of the Southern Province and of three 
electoral districts. It is in railway communication 
with the metropolis. Mr. Richard Wadeson is president 
of the shire, and Mr. H. J. Price is its secretary. 

PRESTON. 

The shire of Preston, situated in the Southern 
Province, and in the electoral district of the East Bourke 
Boroughs, was constituted, under the name of Juke, in 
June, 1871, but assumed its present designation on the 
7th of September, 1885. Its area is thirteen and three- 
quarter square miles, contains a population of 4,000, and 
raises a revenue of £4,556 from property of the yearly 
value of £32,503. It comprises within its limits the 
important reservoir of Yan Yean, the immediate source 
of the metropolitan water supply, and the district is 
noted for its horticultural and dairy products, its ham 



8 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



and bacon curing establishments, tanneries, and brick- 
making and earthenware pipe works. It contains eight 
churches, a State School, Foresters' Hall, and free 
library. It is in railway communication with Mel- 
bourne. Mr. Chas. T. Crispe, J.P., is president of the 
shire, and Mr. A. C. Stewart, M.I.C.E., is its secretary, 
engineer, and treasurer. 

BROADMEADOWS. 

The shire of Broadmeadows covers six parishes, and 
a portion of a seventh. It is in the Southern Province, 
in the electoral district of Bourke East. It was pro- 
claimed a district in 1857, and a shire in 1871. Its area 
is seventy square miles, contains a population of 1,729, 
and property valued at £27,524, the revenue being £1,933. 
There are eight churches, five State Schools, and one 
public hall in the shire, which is traversed by the line of 
railway to Wodonga and Sydney. The president of 
the Shire Council is Mr. George Grundy, and Mr. 
E. P. Muntz, C.E., fills the offices of secretary, engineer, 
etc. 

BRAYBROOK. 

Five parishes are included within the Shire of 
Braybrook, which forms part of the Southern Province, 
and of the electoral districts of Bourke West, Grant, and 
Footscray. Ninety-two square miles are comprised 
within its area, and it has a population of 1,450, and a 
revenue of £2,102, derived from rates on property valued 
at £27,457. Eight townships are subject to its jurisdic- 
tion, in which are four places of worship, seven State 
Schools, two public halls, and the important manufactur- 
ing centre from which it takes its name. It is in 
railway communication with the metropolis. Mr. 
Thos. Warr is president of the Shire Council, and Mr. W. 
Pullar its secretary, treasurer, engineer, and valuer. 

TEMPLESTOWE. 

This shire, which was originally known as Bulleen, is 
in the South-Eastern Province, and in the electoral 
district of Evelyn. It was proclaimed a district in 
1856, and a shire on the 7th of May, 1875. Its area is 
a little over twenty square miles, its population 932, and 
its revenue £867, the annual value of the property upon 
which rates are levied being £10,900. One portion of the 
shire is agricultural and pastoral in its industries, and 
the other (Warrandyte) is mining, dairying, pastoral, and 
fruit growing. It contains four churches and two State 
Schools ; and the geological formation of the country is 
such as to justify the expectation that extensive gold 
deposits will eventually reward the enterprise of 
prospectors possessing the requisite scientific knowledge. 
Mr. John Speers is president of the shire, and Mr. T. 
O'Brien, C.E., its secretary, treasurer, and engineer. 



DONCASTER* 

Situated in the county of Evelyn, in the Southern 
Province, the Templestowe division of the electoral 
district of Evelyn, and the parish of Bulleen, the shire of 
Doncaster comprehends an area of thirteen and a half 
square miles, at present but thinly peopled, as the popu- 
lation does not exceed 1,047, while the revenue, which 
is less than £1,000, is drawn from ratable pro- 
perty of the annual value of £12,181. There are four 




Doneaster T«w«r. 

churches, two State Schools, a Shire Hall, and Athenaeum 
in Doncaster, which is three miles from the railway 
station at Box Hill. In the township, which occupies a 
very elevated position, is an iron tower, the summit of 
which commands a very fine panoramic view over a 
great extent of country, embracing four ranges of 
mountains. Mr. Henry Crouch is president of the Shire 
Council, and Mr. W. Thomas its secretary and col 
lector. 



The Chamber of Commerce. 



Melbourne was not less fortunate in the character and 
quality of the men who were the founders of its com- 
mercial greatness than it was in so many other respects. 
As we have elsewhere pointed out, the mere fact that men 
who were intent upon finding a wider sphere and freer 
scope for their ability and energies than were presented 
to them in Great Britain, and who, instead of emigrating 
to Canada, the United States, or the Cape, deliberately 
chose to expatriate themselves to the Antipodes in 
pursuit of fortune, at a time when the voyage occupied 
from four to six months, and the settlement on the banks 
of the Yarra was so recent and so unattractive, must 
have possessed exceptional force of character, courage, 
determination, and enterprise. And this was proved by 
subsequent events ; for, on examining the names of those 
who were identified with the institution of the Chamber 
of Commerce, which might be called the Mercantile Par- 
liament of Victoria, in the year 1851, and in looking over 
the list of its earlier members, for which we are indebted 
to that universally esteemed member of its Council, Mr. 
Benjamin Cowderoy, who was for so many years its 
valued secretary and afterwards its president, we scarcely 
find a name which did not subsequently become promi- 
nently associated with the leading commercial firms or 
banking houses in the city, while some became greatly 
eminent in politics. 

Mr. William Westgarth appears to have been the 
originator of the Chamber. He had landed in Melbourne 
when its population, including that of its suburbs, was 
only 3,000, and when the whole of the district of Port 
Phillip, Melbourne included, numbered about 9,000 inhabi- 
tants. He saw that a seaport with such a magnificent 
harbour before, and such a splendid country behind it, 
must of necessity have a great future, and he resolved to 
contribute to its development, and participate in its 
prosperity. Of more than average intelligence, saga- 
cious, patient, and persevering, honorable by instinct, 
earnest by nature, and endowed with those sympathetic 
feelings which are not generally considered to be charac- 
teristic of the Caledonian temperament, his influence, 
commercially, socially, and politically, was powerful for 
good, and he contributed, with his partners in business, 
and with many of the leading merchants of the period, to 
impart a high tone to the mercantile transactions of the 
township in the first instance, and to those of the city of 
Melbourne afterwards. 

Simultaneously with the remarkable impulse given to 
those transactions by the astounding discoveries of gold 
in 1851, he discerned the necessity for placing the com- 
merce of Melbourne under the control of a body of gentle- 
men chosen from among its merchants and bankers, and 
invested with a certain amount of authority, as in older 
cities. Therefore, in consultation and concert with other 
leading business men, he established the Chamber of 



Commerce in the year above named, its well-defined 
objects being to watch over and protect the real interests 
of commerce ; to collect information on all matters of 
interest to the mercantile community ; to use every 
means within its power for the removal of evils, the 
redress of grievances, and the promotion of the common 
good ; to communicate with authorities and individual 
parties thereupon ; to form a code of practice, whereby 
the transaction of business might be simplified and facili- 
tated ; to receive references, and to arbitrate between 
disputants. 

Among the original members— of whom there is no 
complete list extant— we find the following :— Messrs. 
Robert Turnbull, John Orr, J. B. Were, James Gill, J. 
Nankivell, James Graham, Robert Hammill, and Captain 
Caldwell, Mr. Westgarth being naturally elected its first 
president. The entrance fee was four guineas, and the 
annual subscription was of the same amount. To the 
original members were added, in the first year, the fol- 
lowing gentlemen :— Otto Neuhauss, Alfred Ross, Richard 
Goldsbrough, John Blakewell, Henry Box, Robert 
Jacomb, D. McArthur, F. G. Dalgety, W. H. Turnbull, 
Liston Young, H. Creswick, Thomas Dickson, J. M. 
Tarleton, Francis Burdett Franklyn, Edward L. Cohen, 
F. J. Bligh, J. O. Gilchrist, Thomas Rae, Edward 
Khull. All of these were men who achieved eminence, as 
did the original members, in mercantile or banking 
pursuits, and their names deserve to be held in re- 
membrance as those of the early builders of the commer- 
cial importance and prosperity of Melbourne, before its 
supremacy as the chief emporium of Australia was chal- 
lenged by Sydney, and seized upon, owing to the adoption 
of a fiscal policy which reversed the position of the two 
ports as regards their shipping, their banking transac- 
tions, their imports and exports, and the growth of their 
respective populations. For purposes of future reference 
it will be interesting to quote a few authentic statistics 
of a comparative nature having relation to the two 
capitals in the last year but one of the nineteenth 

century :— 

New South Wales. Victoria. 



Imports 
Exports 


£25,594,315 
28,445,466 


£17,952,894 
18,567,780 


Total 

Per Head . . 


£54,089,781 
40 3 6 


£36,520,674 
31 8 8 


Domestic Produce il9.221.864 
ShippiDg .. 8,468,.*91 tons 
Banking Advances £38,268,758 
Population . . 1,356,650 
Year's Increase .. 22,810 
Net Railway Earnings £1,454,831 


£14,088,600 

2,662,792 tons 

£30,212,812 

1,163,400 

3,210 

£1,157,288 




Sydney. 


Melbourne. 


Imports .. 
Exports .. 


£21,502,378 
21,731,481 


£15,348,747 
16,943,378 




£43,233,859 


£82,292,125 



10 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



Thirty years ago Victoria enjoyed the superiority 
over her neighbour in every one of these particulars, and 
it is due to the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce to state" 
that its efforts were uniformly and consistently directed 
to the maintenance of this superiority, and to prevent 
the younger colony from falling into the secondary posi- 
tion which it now occupies. That those efforts have been 
unsuccessful of later years is proved by the foregoing 
figures, but the blame in no way attaches to what we 
have called the Mercantile Parliament of Victoria. Nor 
shall we venture into the thorny paths of political con- 
troversy by attempting to explain the circumstances 
which have placed New South Wales at the head of all the 
States of the Australian Commonwealth. 

Subjoined is a list of the presidents of the Chamber 
of Commerce since its foundation, and the years in which 
they filled that office :— 

Pke8id«nt. Year. President. Year. 

William Westgarth . . 1851-2 Hon David Moore . . . . 1878-9 

Jno.BlnnsWere .. ..jJS"! John Benn 1879 -»° 

(1853-4 R. J. Jeffray 1880-1 

Andrew R. Cruikshank ..j 1854 " 5 Henry Henty 1881-2 

F. S. Grimwade .. .. 1882-3 

( 1883-4 



Jas. McCulloch, M.L.C. 
David Moore, M.L.A. 
H. W. Farrar . 
Wm. Nicholson, M.L.A. 

C. E. Bright .. 

Jas. McCulloch 
George Martin 

Phipps Turnbull . . 

John Benn 
George Martin 

James Lorimer 



1857-8 

1858-9 

1859-60 

(1860-1 

I 1861 2 

1862-3 

1863-4 

| 1864-5 

I 1865-6 

1866-7 

1867-8 

c 1868-9 

I 1869-70 

1870 1 

1871-2 

1872-3 

< 1873-4 

j 1874-5 

R. J. Jeffray 1875-6 

W. W. Couche 1876-7 

W. Siddeley 1877 8 



I 1884-5 

1885-6 

[ 1886-7 

11887-8 



J. H. Blackwood 
George Stevenson .. 
8. P. Lord 

Hon. David Moore . . 



John Blyth .. 
Hon. Jas. Balfour . . 
Hon. F. T. £argood .. 

RobertReid .. .. ( ^ ^ 

Henry Gyles Turner .. j J£J;J 
Robert Dickins .. 1892-3 

B. Cowderoy 1893-4 

Hugh R. Reid 1894-5 

( 1895-6 
Randal J. Alcock . . . . J 1896-7 

< 1897-8 
Robert C. Anderson .. 1898-9 

.1899-00 
Hon. Robert Reid, M.L.C. J 1900-1 

' 1901-2 
Sir Malcolm D. McEacharn 1902 3 
Mr. John Sawers .. .. 1903-4 



At present the Chamber comprises 250 members, 
representing a great variety of interests, and comprising 
bankers and financiers, merchants, importers, and ware- 
housemen ; solicitors and barristers, ship-owners and 
agents, manufacturers ; stock, share, and produce 
brokers ; accountants, managers of insurance companies, 
commission agents, etc., etc. And the sphere of the 
Chamber's activity is a commensurately wide and com- 
prehensive one, embracing such subjects as those of the 
ocean mail service and postal communications generally, 
the tariff, irrigation, courts of conciliation, tribunals of 
commerce, the development of agriculture, the land ques- 
tion, mining laws, the electric telegraph, pilotage, light- 
houses and harbour matters, commercial charges, bills of 
entry and rules of arbitration, submarine cables, immigra- 
tion, law reform, insolvency laws, guarantees, usury, and 
all the thousand and one questions which touch man in 
his material and economic relations with his fellows. 

The affairs of the Chamber are managed by a com- 
mittee of twenty-one members, including the president for 
the time being ; and there is a legislative committee, 
whose duty it is to watch over any measures affecting 
the interests of the commercial community which may be 



introduced into either House of Parliament. How vigi- 
lantly it has fulfilled this function is clearly shown by the 
summary of its proceedings published at the end of each 
year in the annual report of the Chamber, a document 
which likewise contains the retiring president's valedic- 
tory address, in which he takes a retrospective survey of 
the preceding twelve months in so far as they affect the 
commerce and the material well-being of the colony. 

A perusal of the addresses thus delivered during the 
last fifty years furnishes the reader of them with a 
synopsis of the mercantile and industrial history of 
Victoria during that period, as also with a good general 
idea of the trend of legislation in regard to questions 
bearing on commercial interests, and the economic pro- 
gress or otherwise of the community. They record the 
carefully weighed and deliberately uttered opinions of 
men of proved ability, ripe judgment, and mature reflec- 
tion upon all such questions, and they occasionally 
embody the previsions of men in whom 

" Old experience did attain 
To something like prophetic strain." 

This was remarkably the case in the presidential 
address delivered to the Chamber of Commerce on the 
18th of April, 1873, by Mr. Samuel P. Lord, an American 
merchant, and a most estimable man, who, after pointing 
out that the great prosperity of the United States was 
due to the fact that the people of that country enjoyed 
"absolute unrestricted free trade between forty-nine 
States and territories, extending almost from the torrid 
to the frigid zone, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
with every variety of climate and soil," went on to use 
these impressive words :— "I fear that we, who claim to 
be the most progressive colony of the Australian group, 
will soon be left in the rear, and that if the proposed 
policy of New South Wales is carried out, the boast of 
one of the leading statesmen 'that in ten years that 
colony will be the leading one 1 will be more than 
realised. I fully believe that should that colony adopt 
the policy proposed she will within that time take the 
lead in commerce, manufactures, agriculture, and mining, 
and we shall sink into second-rate importance unless we 
also change our policy." 

The New South Wales statesman carried his point a 
few years afterwards, and before another decade had 
passed away the other colony had taken the lead, and has 
kept it ever since, verifying Mr. Lord's prediction in every 
important particular, as is shown by the comparative 
statistics which have been given above. 

Many of the annual addresses previously referred to 
are worth quoting on account of the light they throw 
upon the current events of the period to which they 
relate, as well as of their sagacious forecast of those 
which actually occurred much later on. Thus, as early 
as the year 1855, we find the Chamber of Commerce 
earnestly pressing upon the Government of the day the 
paramount duty of "subdividing the squattages," and thus 
throwing open the broad lands of the colony, so as to 
allow successful miners to settle down upon them, and 
"lay, the foundations of a class of yeomanry, instead of 
fruitlessly dissipating their means, and finally quitting 
our shores, disappointed and disheartened men." At the 
same time the president (Mr. A. R. Cruikshank) plainly 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



11 



admonished the Executive that "if it had been less active 
in the exercise of its influence for evil, the rioting and 
bloodshed at Ballarat might have been avoided." 

Again in 1857 the committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce pointed out "the necessity for promoting an 
early assimilation of the tariff of the Australian colonies" 
by means of "a federation of the Australian colonies," 
forty-four years before this was rendered possible by the 
establishment of an Australian Commonwealth. 

In the year following, the president (Mr. H. W. 
Farrar) was enabled to congratulate the Chamber on the 
fact that "manufactures are being one by one successfully 
introduced in competition with imports," and in 1865 
Mr. Phipps Turnbull, in his presidential address, felt it to 
be his duty to tell the Chamber that "the tariff (framed 
by -Mr. J. G. Francis) embodied no principle whatever, 



Mr. James Lorimer, the president in the year follow- 
ing, was obliged to present a painful but accurate picture 
of the intense depression which prevailed among all classes 
of the community, excepting the recipients of Ministerial 
salaries, owing to the political deadlock which prevailed, 
and he mentioned that on the 13th of July, 1868, "the 
enormous sum of £1,618,000 was due by Government to 
the public creditors." 

In 1872 the president felt called upon to deplore a 
shrinkage of one-half in the intercolonial trade of Victoria 
in the course of seven years, and he strenuously advo- 
cated a reversal of the fiscal policy, which, he asserted, 
was responsible for this state of things, and the abolition 
of all Customs duties. "There is no place in the world," 
he said, "in a better geographical position to benefit by 
absolute free trade than Melbourne, and 1 the exceptional 




Bourke Street, Melbourne, looking East from Queon Street. 



unless it be that of obstruction or destruction, and that 
if passed into a law it will aim a blow at our com- 
mercial pre-eminence in the Southern Hemisphere which 
will not be easily recovered, and which it is most im- 
prudent for any Government or Legislature to risk by 
such a rash, vexatious, retrograde course of policy." 

In 1868 the president (Mr. George Martin) congratu- 
lated the Chamber on the fact that for the first time 
since the discovery of gold the supply of home - grown 
wheat was commensurate with the demand, adding— 
"That our agriculturists have at last met with such a 
measure of success as has enabled them to accomplish 
this must, I am sure, be a source of much satisfaction to 
every right-thinking member of the community, particu- 
larly as it has been done without the aid of a 
protective duty." 



business facilities possessed by Melbourne render it 
peculiarly adapted, under a reasonable fiscal policy, to 
be the great emporium of this part of the world. The 
enormous access of business with neighbouring colonies 
would enrich the population of Victoria, and, instead of 
manufacturing for a limited home trade, the consumers 
of our manufactures would increase to a marvellous 
extent," instead of dwindling down one-half, as the 
intercolonial commerce of Victoria had done. "What," 
he asked, "would the trade of the port have expanded to, 
with its good geographical position, its unbounded 
resources and business facilities, if trade had been left 
unfettered, and all classes had been allowed an equal 
chance ?" • 

Among the utterances of the outgoing president, Mr. 
R. J. Jeffray, in 1876 was one which seemed to meet 



12 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



with universal approval both then and since, and was in 
condemnation of ad valorem duties. He reprobated them 
as "not only directly calculated to encumber the opera- 
tions of commerce, to produce the minimum of revenue 
with the maximum of friction, to place the scrupulous 
trader at a disadvantage, but— which is the most serious 
consequence of all— to lower the standard of commercial 
ethics." 

There was a strain of prophecy in the words employed 
by Mr. John Blyth in 1885, when commenting on the 
sending of a contingent from New South Wales to the 
Soudan. "The moral effect on the older countries of the 
world," he remarked, "and on Great Britain in par- 
ticular, is calculated to be most beneficial, and I have no 
doubt that there are many in the old country who from 
this fact will have a very much more favourable impres- 
sion of the colonies than they ever had before, and that 
it will be the means of compelling the rulers of Great 
Britain to give greater heed to the representations of the 
colonies in all matters affecting their welfare, and may 
have an effect towards the end desired, namely, federa- 
tion." 

An able review of the causes, character, and conse- 
quences of the disastrous "boom" forms an important 
element in the presidential address of Mr. H. G. Turner 
(acting for the president, who was absent) in 1889, as it 
does again in that of the same gentleman in 1892. These 
may be taken together, as they contain particulars that 
possess an historical value. They supply information 
from an authentic source, and they will be found to sup- 
plement our own narrative of the inflation and collapse of 
that iridiscent bubble. 

With respect to its inflation, Mr. Turner writes :— 
"Regardless of the fact that far more allotments (of 
land) had been sold than could possibly be utilised for 
building purposes during the next decade, the bulk of the 
community became eager buyers at continuously advancing 
prices, with the sole intention of selling again at a profit. 
When at length prices had reached such a figure as to 
cause the individual investor to regard his liability with 
dismay, the process commenced of forming companies, to 
serve the double purpose of inviting buyers and of 
distributing the burden of the overwhelming cost over a 
large area of comparatively small investors. Finance 
companies, mortgage companies, land companies, and land 
banks followed one another in such rapid succession that 
it became difficult even for those in the business to keep 
the record of their conflicting names. And these opera- 
tions drew into the speculative maelstrom the savings of 
the poorer or more timid, who had looked on, and longed, 
but lacked either the means or the courage to plunge in 
on their own resources." 

In the later of the two addresses by Mr. Turner he 
mentioned that "when once the feeling of insecurity had 
taken possession of the public it grew with irresistible 
force, until by the middle of March we had in Victoria 
alone over twenty financial institutions in a state of 
suspense, with over four millions of capital locked up, 
and about eleven millions of public deposits rendered un- 
available. In a community so small as. ours this is an 
appalling record, and the effects of such a disaster must 
be felt for years to come." 



Mr. Robert Reid in 1890 deprecated the "repeated 
tinkerings with the tariff" which were taking place in the 
Legislature, and had been demanded by the woollen mill 
industry more particularly, quoting official figures for 
the purpose of showing that while £235,872 had been 
disbursed as wages to the operatives in this branch of 
manufactures during the preceding three years consumers 
had paid £290,642 as duties upon the imported woollen 
goods, so that the community would have saved £54,770 
by allowing a pension of £2 a week each to the 
399 men and 385 women employed in the woollen mills 
and permitting such commodities to come in free of 
duty. 

The great strike of 1890, which had paralysed the 
shipping and carrying industries of all the colonies, and 
had reduced 30,000 people to a condition bordering upon 
destitution, occupied a prominent place in the presidential 
address for the year 1891. Every section of the com- 
munity had greatly suffered by it, and none more so than 
those with whom it had originated, and who had been 
endeavouring, said Mr. Turner, "to secure for the 
incapable, the feeble, and the thriftless the benefits which 
inure (accrue?) to the capable, the vigorous, and the 
thrifty labourer in the vineyard." With a due apprecia- 
tion of the magnitude of the evils of the situation, the 
Chamber appointed a committee to devise some means of 
preventing the recurrence of such pernicious and exas- 
perating struggles between capital and labour. 

The year 1892 was one of unprecedented financial 
disaster, involving, as it did, the reconstruction of the 
whole of the Melbourne banks with three exceptions ; and 
Mr. Robert Dickins, in his presidential address for 1893, 
animadverted strongly on the fact that these temporarily 
prostrate institutions had been driven to the necessity of 
closing by "the gossip of the streets and hotels, and the 
mischievous whisperings of foolish alarmists." 

In his comprehensive retrospect of the events of the 
year 1894-95, Mr. Hugh Reid, while regretting the dark 
cloud of depression which was still overhanging the 
colony, dwelt with satisfaction on the bursting of the 
"boom," and remarked :— "I am forced to believe that 
the acuteness of the distress that exists among us is in 
no small measure due to our own mad folly, which per- 
meated all sections of the community— saint as well as 
sinner— folly which too often degenerated into fraud, and 
which had for its one object the accumulation of wealth 
without the necessary preliminaries of ceaseless work and 
anxious thought, as if sheaves of promises to pay could 
ever create money and abrogate Heaven's own law that a 
competency can only be honestly accumulated by days and 
nights of unremitting toil." 

In the same address Mr. Reid pointed out to his 
fellow-colonists that in the year previous the United 
Kingdom imported from abroad agricultural and horticul- 
tural produce of the enormous value of £484,243,564, 
while that which it drew from Victoria only totalled up 
to £1,805,973, a quite insignificant amount in comparison 
with the grand total. The only way to pay our debts, 
he added, was by increasing our exports, and, he went on 
to say, "the knowledge that England offers an unlimited 
market for the free importation of all our products fills 
me with the greatest confidence in the future of this 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



13 



continent, which, let it be remembered, possesses as large 
an area as the great republic of America, which now 
gives sustenance to 70,000,000 of souls." 

Mr. Randal J. Alcock, in his presidential address for 
the year 1897-8, dealt, among other topics, with the war 
cloud which seemed to be then darkly lowering over 
the mother country, owing to the envy and jealousy 
of Continental nations, who regard her territorial great- 
ness, her colonial expansion, her wealth, her political 
influence, and her prosperity with jaundiced eyes, and are, 
some of them, " willing to wound and yet afraid to 
strike." "The Australian colonies," observed Mr. 
Alcock, "regard this outlook with deep sorrow, but 
without apprehension, being confident that the people 
who have built our world-wide Empire by their endurance, 
steadfastness, and patriotism will be also able to success- 
fully defend it. For at no time were the resources of the 
Empire so abundant or so well organised as at present, 
and in no previous war could Great Britain rely on the 
loyal assistance of such wealthy and populous colonies as 
now. Whatever may befall, these colonies will, I am 



sure, gladly take their share of the common burdens, and 
assist the motherland in preserving that Empire to which 
their common prosperity is due." 

It is hardly necessary to indicate how prescient was 
the forecast, or how completely the anticipations of the 
writer were fulfilled, by the rally of Victorians, as of 
Australians generally, to the side of Great Britain in the 
South African War of the year 1900. 

The foregoing extracts will suffice to show how 
closely the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce has kept in 
touch with the feelings, opinions, interests, and aspira- 
tions of the community it represents, as also with how 
much intelligence, foresight, and statesmanlike apprecia- 
tion of the real needs of commerce and of industry in all 
its branches, it has performed the responsible duties de- 
volving upon it, and how strenuously and consistently it 
has laboured to maintain and defend those principles of 
freedom of interchange which it believes to be essential, 
in their piactical application and wide extension, to the 
permanent welfare and solidly based prosperity of the 
entire people. 



The Victorian Chamber of Manufactures. 



This Chamber was formed in 1877 for the purpose of 
promoting exhibitions, and generally to protect the inte- 
rests of manufacturers. 

All important exhibitions held since then have been 
supported by the Chamber, which has been suitably repre- 
sented on the various commissions appointed in connection 
therewith. The tariff has almost continuously engaged 
the attention of the Chamber. Several conferences have 
been held with the Chambers of the other States, and the 
recommendations arrived at have been brought promi- 
nently under the notice of the Government of the day. 

The trend of legislation of late years has compelled 
the Chamber to devote a large amount of time and atten- 
tion to the protection of its interests. Such matters as 
the following have been dealt with, in addition to those 
previously referred to :— Federation, labour legislation, 
kanaka labour, international tariffs, Customs Acts, postal 
and telegraph, technical education, public holidays, law 
reform, cables, University extension, coupon system, 
inspection of boilers, and many other subjects of interest 
to manufacturers. The rules have been lately altered so 
as to permit of an active part being taken in politics by 
the Chamber. There are now nearly 500 members, repre- 
senting all the leading factories in Victoria. 

The Chamber is governed by a council composed of a 
president, four vice-presidents, three trustees, a treasurer, 
and twenty - four ordinary members, all of whom are 
elected by the general body, but retire annually, and are 
eligible for re-election. The yearly subscription ranges 
from one to two guineas, the amount depending upon the 
number of hands employed by the member. Besides a 



revenue of about £500, which is applied to meet the 
current expenditure of the Chamber, it raises every year 
a sum in excess of that amount as a contribution to the 
Melbourne Hospital Fund. This reached, in the year 
ending the 31st of March, 1901, the handsome sum of 
£681 16s., eight firms giving £50 and five £25 each. It 
forms part of the duty of the president to deliver an 
annual address, which is almost invariably an interesting 
and valuable document, because it embraces a review of 
the economic legislation of the past year, of the condition 
and prospects of manufacturing industry both at home 
and abroad, with practical suggestions in reference to the 
competition to which it is exposed, and criticisms of 
those laws or Governmental regulations which may appear 
to be hostile to its healthy growth and development. 

The office - bearers of the Chamber for the year 
1902-1903 are as follow :— President : Mr. F. Scarlett. 
Vice-presidents : — Hogg, G. W. Bruce, Hon. L. L. 
Smith, A. T. Danks, J. P. Treasurer: Danl. White. 
Trustees : Hon. F. T. Derham ; Hon. N. Levi, M.L.C., 
J. P.; Joel Eade, J. P. Ex-presidents : F. W. Poolman, 
J.P.; J. B. Whitty, I. Jacobs, B. Sniders, S. Floyd, 
Hon. F. Stuart. Council : Chas. Atkins, J. Barnett ; 
J. Blyth, J.P.; Thos. Craine ; Jas. Cuming, J.P.; 
J. L. Dangerfield, J.P.; W. Davis, J. Edgerton ; J. 
Fisher, jun.; J. Gibson, F. Gold, A. Hoadley, T. G. 
Harkness, T. Hogg, C. D. Lennon, R. B. Lawrence, J. 
Meadows, J. Pender, R. A. Pryor, A. Spooner, T. E. 
Varley, G. H. G. Wharington. Secretary : H. W. C. 
Smith, F.I.A.V. Auditors : L- C, Wilkinson, Edwin 
Phillips. 



Educational. 



The Melbourne University. 



Nearly every member of the Ministry who held office 
in the year 1853 had been educated at one or other of the 
Universities in the mother country, or at one of its 
public schools, and when a golden stream began to pour 
into the old Treasury in William Street, and the revenue 
of the colony suddenly leaped up from £259,433 in the 
year 1850 to £3,328,303 in 1853, the political advisers of 
the Lieutenant-Governor, recognising the valtfe and im- 
portance of institutions like those in which they had 
graduated, resolved upon the foundation of a University, 
which should be "open to all classes and denominations 
of Her Majesty's subjects." Accordingly an Act for the 
incorporation and endowment of the University of Mel- 
bourne was passed by the old Legislative Council, and 
assented to in the Queen's name by Mr. Latrobe on the 
22nd of January. This measure vested the government 
of the institution in a council and senate, and empowered 
the former body to make statutes and regulations for its 
government ; endowed it with an income of £9,000 per 
annum from the general revenue, and prohibited the ad- 
ministration of any religious tests to persons intending 
to become students at the University. 

About £150,000 have been spent at different times by 
the Government in the erection of suitable buildings, 
including eight private residences for the professors and 
the registrar, irrespective of the £40,000 which Sir 
Samuel Wilson expended in the construction of the fine 
hall which bears his name and perpetuates his memory. 

In 1859 Royal letters patent were issued in the 
Queen's name, authorising the University to grant the 
degrees of B.A., M.A., MB., M.D., LL.B., B.M., and 
D.M., and declaring such degrees to be valid throughout 
the Empire. In 1858 the Crown conveyed forty acres of 
land to the University of Melbourne for the purposes of 
such institution, and a further grant of nearly four acres 
to provide a site for a school of medicine and surgery was 
made by a similar instrument in 1873, and an additional 
area of sixteen acres was conveyed to the University for 
a recreation ground in the year following. 

An Amending University Act, providing for the elec- 
tion of a chancellor, vice-chancellor, and warden, and 
dealing with various matters of detail, was passed on the 
7th of June, 1881. 

It has frequently been made a matter of adverse 
comment that the salaries of the professors and lecturers 
of the University should be so greatly in excess of those 
paid to men of the highest attainments occupying similar 
positions in the Universities of France, Germany, Spain, 
and Italy. But it has to be borne in mind that in 1853, 
and for some years subsequently, the rate of payment for 
such services in Melbourne was not excessive, as the 



purchasing power of a sovereign at that time was no 
greater than would be represented by from 7s. 6d. to 10s. 
to-day. 

At the present moment the University staff is thus 
composed and remunerated :— 

PROFESSORS. 
Subject. Name. Salary. 

Geology J. W. Gregory, D.Sc., F.R8. .. £1.000 

Physiology Vacant. 

Mathematics K. J. Nanson, M.A. .. 1,050 
History and Political 

Economy J. S. Elkington, M.A., LL.B. .. 10-50 

Anatomy and Pathology .. H. B. Allen. M.D., B.8. 1,050 

Engineering W. C. Kernot, M A., M.C.E. .. 1200 

English, French and German Vacant. 

Classical Philology T. G. Tucker, M.A. , LittD. .. 1,200 

Chemistry DO. Masson.M.A., D.8c.,F.R.S. 1,200 

Philosophy and Logic. .. H. Laurie, LL.D 1,050 

Biology \V. B. Spencer, M. A., F.R.S. .. 1,050 

Natural Philosophy T. R. Lyle, M.A. .. 1,050 

Law W. Harrison Moore, B. A., LL.B. 950 

Music .. F. Peterson, Mus. Bac. 1,000 

LECTURERS OR DEMON8TRATOR8. 

Subject. Name. Salary. 

Law of Contracts .. F. O. Duffy, M.A. , LL.B. £192 

Equity .. J. E. Mackey, M.A , LL.B. .. 192 

Wrongs and Procedure C. J. Z. Woinarski, M. A., LL.B. 192 

Law of Property .. W. C. Guest, M.A., LL.B. .. 192 

rIilriM i W. E. Cornwall, M.A. .. 192 

ria88l ° 8 I H. W. Allen, M.A 192 

Mixed Mathematics .. J. H. Mitchell, M.A 380 

Materia Medica D. Grant, M.A., M.D 200 

Surgery F. D. Bird, M.B., M.S., M.R.C.S. 200 

Theory and Practice of 

Medicine .. .. J. Jamicson, M.D. .. .. 200 

Obstetrics G. Rothwell Adam, M.D.,Ch.M. 200 

Forensic Medicine.. J. E. Nield, M.D., Ch.B. .. 100 
Therapeutics, Dietetics and 

Hygiene J. W. 8pringthorpe, M.A., M.D. 200 

Anatomy G. A. 8yme, M.B., Ch.M. .. 200 

Mining A. H. Merrin, M.C.E 144 

Metallurgy . G. B. Pritchard, .. 150 

Architecture .. A. M. Henderson, C.E. .. 100 

Hydraulic Engineering .. Bernhard A. 8mith, M.C.E. .. 100 

French F. I. Maurice-Carton, M.A. .. 150 

German Walter v. Dec h end . . .. 150 

Biology T. S. Hall, M.A. .. .. 380 

Natural Philosophy E. F. J. Love, M.A., F.R.A.8. .. 380 

Engineering T. W. Fowler, M.C.E. ... 380 

Metallurgy A. L. Mills « 380 

Chemistry W. H. Green, M.Sc 240 

Histology w. Fielder, F.R.M.8 240 

Pathology Constance Ellis, M.D., B.8. ... 192 

j B. Kelvington, M.D., M.S. ... 100 
t W. C. Mackenzie, M.D. ... 100 

Other officers are the Registrar (W\ E. Cornwall, M.A.), the 
Librarian (E. H. Bromby, M.A.; J. Lake. B.A., Acting Librarian), 
the Chief Clerk and office staff; total, about £1750. 

This makes a total of £20,376, from which must be 
deducted the salary of the professor of music, £900 per 
annum, this being derived from a private endowment. 
Each of the professors is, in addition, provided with a 



Anatomy 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



15 



house, or with an allowance of £100 per annum in lieu 
thereof. These gentlemen likewise receive a portion of 
the examiners' fees, in requital of the work they perform 
in connection therewith. They are permitted to undertake 
outside work— literary, legal, commercial, scientific, or 
otherwise— and to deliver lectures and receive remuneration 
therefor, and thus to augment their income in any way 
that is not incompatible with the due discharge of their 
duties in the University. And, as their appointments 
arc for life, or what is equivalent thereto, "quam diu se 
bene gesserit," the position of professor in the Melbourne 
University is a very enviable one. 

Although the institution is not yet fifty years old, 



of Bayswater, will fall into the hands of the chancellor 
and council on the death of the testator's niece, the 
annual income of which will be available for the founda- 
tion of a scholarship, or scholarships, tenable for three 
years. 

The real and personal estate of the late H. T. 
Dwight, bookseller, of Melbourne, likewise reverts to the 
University at the death of his widow, and the income 
which may accrue therefrom will be applied to the founda- 
tion of money purses of not less than £25 each, to he 
given for the advancement and encouragement of learning 
in ancient history, constitutional and legal history, and 
natural philosophy, etc. 




Cooper and Co. 



The Wilson Hall, Melbourne University. 



Melb. 



numerous scholarships have been founded in connection 
with it, including the following :— 

The Shakespeare, of the value of £50 per annum, tenable for 

three years. 
The "Argus," of the value of £75 per annum, tenable for one 

year. 
The Stawell, of the value of £75 per annum, tenable for one year. 
The Bowen, consisting of a medal or books, awarded annually. 
The Professor Wilson, consisting of a medal or books, awarded 

annually. 
The Howitt Natural History, being three of £50 each, tenable for 

three years. 
The two Professor Kernot Scholarships, value £80, tenable for 

one year. 
The two Mollison Scholarships, value £60, tenable for three years. 
The two Beaney Scholarships, for surgery and pathology, tenable for 

one year. 
The Dixon Scholarships— two at £60, tenable for one year; one at £100, 

tenable for one year; one at £80, tenable for one year; one at 

£50, tenable for one year. 
The MacBain Scholarship, one at £40, tenable for one year. 

A sum of £10,000, bequeathed by Mr. David Aitchison, 



Besides the council and senate of the University there 
is a Professorial Board for regulating the study and 
discipline of the institution ; a Faculty of Law and a 
Faculty of Medicine ; and affiliated with the University 
are Trinity College, founded for the education, residence, 
and benefit of members of the United Church of England 
and Ireland in Victoria ; Ormond College, established for 
like purposes as regards the Presbyterian Church in Vic- 
toria ; and Queen's College, founded by the Wesleyan 
body, but open to students of either sex, without regard 
to their religious belief. 

At the first matriculation examination of the Univer- 
sity in April, 1855, only sixteen candidates presented 
themselves, and in 1860 the number of students had only 
risen to thirty-six ; but seven years later there were a 
hundred graduates, and thus a senate could be legally 
constituted, of whjch Pr, Bromby was the first warden. 



16 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



Professor WILLIAM C. KERNOT, 
M.A., M.C.E., Professor of Engineer- 
ing at the Melbourne University, is a 
son of the late Mr. C. Kernot, 
M.P. for Geelong, who died in 1882. 
The family is of French extraction, 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Professor William C. Kernot. 

and the name is said to have been 
originally spelt Carnot. The late 
Mr. C. Kernot was a chemist and 
druggist in Rochford, Essex, Eng- 
land, who came to this colony early 
in 1851, settled in Geelong, where he 
for some years pursued his business 
as a chemist, etc., and on retiring 
from business devoted himself to 
public duties, municipal and Parlia- 
mentary. He had a great taste for 
mechanical engineering, had an 
amateur workshop fitted up with 
lathes and other appliances for work- 
ing in wood and metal, and was an 
active promoter and director of the 
Geelong and Melbourne railway 
(afterwards purchased by the Go- 
vernment), the Geelong Gas Com- 
pany, and the Victorian Woollen and 
Cloth Manufacturing Company. He 
was also at one time Mayor of Gee- 
long, and was in one way or another 
connected with most of the local in- 
stitutions. Professor Kernot was 
born at Rochford, Essex, in 1845, 
came to Geelong with his parents in 
1851, was educated first at home, 
then under the late Mr. G. Hanson, 
Mr. G. W. Brown, M.A., and the 
late Dr. G. Morrison, M.A., LL.D. 
(brother of Dr. Morrison, of the 
Scotch College), and matriculated at 



the Melbourne University in 1861. 
During his University career he was 
under Professor Irving in classics, 
the late Professor Wilson in mathe- 
matics and physics, the late Sir 
Frederick McCoy in natural science, 
the late Dr. Hearn in history, Mr. 
James Griffiths, B.A., in surveying, 
and the late Mr. J. G. Knight, 
F.R.I.B.A., in engineering, and was 
the first engineer trained at the Mel- 
bourne University. From 1865 to 

1867 he was examining draughtsman 
of surveys in the Mining Department, 
and from 1867 to 1875 was in the 
Victorian Water Supply Department, 
engaged on the Coliban, Geelong, and 
other waterworks, making surveys, 
drawings, specifications, etc. In 

1868 he became lecturer on surveying 
at the University. In 1869 he took 
up engineering lectures at the Uni- 
versity in addition to surveying, and 
in January, 1883, was appointed 
Professor of Engineering, which posi- 
tion he still holds. In 1874 he was 
chief of the photo-heliograph party at 
the Melbourne Observatory in con- 
nection with the transit of Venus. 
From 1875 to 1878 he acted as con- 
sulting engineer to Mr. Brennan in 
connection with his now famous 
torpedo, and in 1879 visited Europe, 
and formed the acquaintance of Pro- 
fessors Clerk Maxwell, Cawthorne 
Unwin, Osborne Reynolds, and other 
eminent scientific men. In 1880-81 
he was chairman of two juries at the 
Melbourne International Exhibition, 
these juries dealing with various 
branches of machinery. In 1884 he 
was appointed a member of the 
Royal Commission on Railway 
Bridges for New South Wales. In 
1886 he reported on the Derwent 
Valley railway bridges, Tasmania, 
for the Tasmanian Government, and 
on underground telephone wires for 
the Victorian Government. In 1887 
he presented to the University, as a 
Jubilee gift, the sum of £2,000, to 
endow scholarships in physics and 
chemistry. From 1875 onward he 
has contributed numerous original 
papers on scientific and professional 
subjects to the Royal Society, Vic- 
torian Institute of Surveyors, Vic- 
torian Institute of Engineers, and 
Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science. From 
1882 to 1901 he was chairman of the 
principal electric lighting company 
in Australia. This company was the 



first to introduce electric lighting to 
Melbourne. He is a past president 
of the Royal Society of Victoria, 
past president of the Victorian In- 
stitute of Engineers, past president 
of the Victorian Institute of Sur- 
veyors, and was for ten years pre- 
sident of the Working Men's College, 
succeeding Mr. Francis Ormond to 
that position. At present (1901) he 
is Dean of the Faculty of Engineer- 
ing, Melbourne University ; chairman 
of the Municipal Surveyors' Board, 
Professor of Engineering at the 
Melbourne University, member of 
the Board of Visitors of the Mel- 
bourne Observatory, chairman of the 
council of the Victorian Association 
for the Promotion of Technical Edu- 
cation. In 1891 Professor Kernot 
visited England and America, and in 
1901 made a tour through England, 
France, Germany, and South Africa, 
his experiences in the latter country 
having been accentuated by some ex- 
citing incidents, as the Boer War was 
in full progress at the time. Since 
his return, Professor Kernot, with 
characteristic liberality, has pre- 
sented £300 to the Working Men's 
College, to enable it to purchase some 
fittings indispensable for the engineer- 
ing workshops, which the Government 
had declined to provide. 




Johnstone, O'Shanntssy and Co. Melb. 

Professor Thomas George Tucker. 

Professor THOMAS GEORGE 
TUCKER, Doctor of Letters 
(Litt.D.) of the University of Cam- 
bridge, Ilonoraray Doctor of Laws 
of the University of Dublin, and 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



17 



M.A., Cambridge and Melbourne, 
was born 29th March, 1859, and 
was educated at the Royal Grammar 
School, Lancaster, and St. John's 
College, Cambridge. He took 

first place in the Cambridge senior 
local examinations in 1875, was 
foundation scholar of St. John's 
College in 1879, and obtained all the 
highest classical distinctions of the 
Cambridge University, viz., the 
Craven scholarship (1881), gold 
medals for Greek and Latin verse, 
the first place ("senior classic") in 



the classical tripos (1882), the Chan- 
cellor's classical medal (1882). In 
1882 he was elected Fellow of St. 
John's College, and in 1883 was ap- 
pointed to fill the chair of Classics 
and English at the University Col- 
lege, Auckland, New Zealand ; was 
a member of the Education Board of 
the Auckland province, and in 1885 
was appointed to the professorship 
of Classical and Comparative Philo- 
logy in the University of Melbourne. 
Has since published critical editions 
of the "Supplices" of Aeschylus 



(1889), the "Eighth Book of Tuney- 
dideo" (1892), the "Poetica" of 
Aristotle (1899), the "Proem to the 
Ideal Commonwealth of Plato* * 
(1900), and has in the Cambridge 
press a comprehensive, critical, and 
exegetical edition of the "Choephori" 
of Aeschylus. He is also engaged 
upon a work dealing with language in 
general and its natural history. 
Has issued various popular lectures, 
mostly upon literary subjects. Is a 
trustee of the Public Library and 
National Gallery of Victoria. 



Trinity College. 



This college, the first University college established 
in Victoria, was founded by Bishop Perry, aided by Dean 
Macartney, Sir W. F. Stawell, Professor Wilson, and 
other prominent Churchmen. The Bishop's object was 
to provide for undergraduates a residence under collegiate 
rules, subject to due supervision, and while supplementing 
the University teaching in secular subjects, to supply also 
that religious education and moral discipline which are 
necessarily excluded from a non-sectarian University. He 
also hoped to provide theological training and instruction 
for candidates for holy orders, although this was not the 
primary intention of the college. 

The first council of the college consisted of the Rev. 
H. H. P. Handfield, Rev. G. 0. Vance, F. R. Kendall, 
Dr. Bromby, Rev. T. C. Cole, and Mr. G. W. Rusden. 
In 1872, the year in which it was opened, the Rev. G. W. 
Torrance, M.A. (afterwards Mus. Doc. of Dublin Univer- 
sity), was appointed acting-head of the institution, and 
held office till 1876. In that year Mr. Alexander Leeper, 
M.A. (afterwards LLD. of Dublin University), was ap- 
pointed to take charge of the college, and has continued 
to hold this position up to the present time. In the 
same year Mr. J. W. Hackett, M.A. (now M.L.C., 
West Australia), was appointed vice-principal. Mean- 
while efforts had been made to secure the affiliation of 
the college. to the University of Melbourne, and, in spite 
of strong opposition, the statute of affiliation was passed 
by the senate on 11th April, 1876. In 1878 the increas- 
ing numbers of students made it necessary to erect 
additional accommodation, and the block known as the 
"Bishop's Buildings" was opened. In the same year the 
systematic teaching of theology to candidates for holy 
orders was begun in the college. Through the liberality 
of Bishop Moorhouse, Mr. T. B. Payne, Mr. W. E. 
Stanbridge, the Messrs. Henty, the parishioners of Kew, 
Sir William Clarke, Mr. John Grice, and Mr. S. P. 
Winter, eight theological scholarships were established, 
and a theological faculty was created by the appointment 
of five lecturers. 

In 1883 the college had again to be enlarged, and 
generous gifts of £5,000 from Mr. Joseph Clarke and of 
£3,000 from Sir W. Clarke (who had already given large 



donations) enabled the first block of the "Clarke Build- 
ings" to be erected, according to plans furnished by Mr. 
Blacket, the architect of Sydney University. 

These buildings were finished in 1887, through the 
kindness of Sir W. Clarke, who gave a further sum of 
£3,000 to the building fund, and also £1,000 to establish 
a chemical and biological laboratory. In 1883 an 
important step was taken by the admission of women 
students to attendance at the lectures of the college. 
Three years later Trinity College Hostel was established 
by the warden, and carried on until 1890 in houses rented 
by him, the Rev. T. J. Smith, M.A., being the first prin- 
cipal. This was the first attempt made in the Aus- 
tralian colonies to provide collegiate residence for 
women, and it proved most successful. In 1890, mainly 
through the generosity of Janet Lady Clarke, the 
hostel was supplied with a permanent building, erected 
within the college precincts. The hostel forms an 
integral part of Trinity College, and the women 
students consequently enjoy all its educational advan- 
tages on equal terms with those of the other sex. In 
1890 Miss Hensley was appointed principal of the hostel, 
and in 1892 Mr. J. T. Collins took that position, which 
was held by him until the end of 1901, when he was 
succeeded by Miss Ba tern an. 

The chaplains of the college have been the Revs. 
Canon Handfield, Canon Potter, Canon Carlisle, and R. 
Stephen. 

Among the distinguished alumni may be mentioned 
His Honor Mr. Justice Hodges ; Dr. Stretch, formerly 
Assistant-Bishop of Brisbane, now Dean of Newcastle ; 
Dr. Green, Bishop of Ballarat ; Professors Neil Smith 
and D. G. MacDougall, of Hobart ; Archdeacon Handcock, 
and many others. 

At present the college and hostel provide accommoda- 
tion for about sixty resident students. Both of these 
are open to persons of all religious denominations. 
Tuition is provided in the more important subjects of the 
University course, and the tutors' lectures are open to 
non-resident students. 

The college possesses two valuable libraries, one of 
Which was presented by Mr. G. W. Rusden, as also a 



18 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



museum, the gift of the same liberal donor, besides a 
chapel, students' common-room, tennis courts, billiard 
room, etc. 

Amongst the most flourishing college societies are the 
Social Club, which takes charge of the common room, 
sports, and other matters which immediately concern the 
students ; and the Dialectic Society, founded for the 
encouragement of essay writing and debating. 

Valuable scholarships and exhibitions are open 
annually to students preparing for the various pro- 
fessions. 

The report of the Trinity College Council for the year 
1901, presented to the Melbourne and Ballarat Church 
Assemblies, mentions that at that time there were nearly 
fifty ex-students of the college holding licenses in the 
diocese of Melbourne, besides twenty in other dioceses ; 
and that a review of what has been accomplished by the 
college during the five-and- twenty years in which Dr. 
Leeper has been its warden affords gratifying proofs that 
it has done much to provide a well-instructed clergy for 
the diffusion of religious instruction in, and the offer of a 
high-toned example of character and conduct to, a com- 
munity tinctured with the scepticism of the age, and very 
largely intent upon the prosecution of purely material 
aims. 

Addison long ago pointed out, in one of his charming 
essays, pregnant with sound sense and philosophical 
wisdom, the immense influence for good exercised in the 
mother country by the Church of England stationing in 
every parish an educated gentleman invested with minis- 
terial functions, qualified not only to be a spiritual 
teacher, but to be a social leader, and a local centre of 
"light and leading," of practical benevolence, an exemplar 
of good breeding, courtesy, and urbanity. And the value 
of such a civilising, refining, and elevating agency is still 
greater in a new country, which is necessarily deficient 
in some of the best elements of society to be found in "a 
land of just and old renown" like Great Britain. Hence 
an institution like Trinity College commends itself to the 
approval and support of all who wish to see the intel- 
lectual and moral tone of the people of the Common- 



wealth raised by means of a highly-educated body of 
clergymen, no matter to what religious denomination they 
may happen to belong. 

The following are the governing body and the educa- 
tional staff of Trinity College :— 

Council : The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Mel- 
bourne, D.D.; the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bal- 
larat, D.D.; the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bendigo, 
th Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Wangaratta, the Right 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Gippsland ; the Very Rev. 
the Dean of Melbourne, D.D.; the Ven. the Arch- 
deacon of Melbourne ; the Rev. Canon Tucker, Ven. 
Archdeacon Watson ; the Rev. E. S. Hughes, B.A.; Mr. 
G. W. Rusden ; the Warden of the College, ex officio ; 
His Honor Judge Hamilton ; Hon. C. Carty Salmon, 
M.H.R.; Mr. E. J. Stock, Rev. Canon Sutton, Dr. 
Crowther, Rev. C. H. Nash ; Mr. L. A. Adamson, M.A. 

Warden : Alex. Leeper, M.A., LL.D. Sub-Warden 
and Chaplain : Rev. R. Stephen, M.A. Principal 

of the Women's Hostel : Miss Bateman. Hon. Counsel 
to the College : Mr. H. W. Bryant, LL.M. Hon. 
Solicitor to the College : Mr. F. Arthur Moule. Hon. 
Physician to the College : R. R. Stawell, M.D., D.P.H. 
(Lond.). 

Theological Teaching Staff.— Apologetics : Rev. Canon 
Potter, M.A. Biblical Greek : The Sub-Warden. Dog- 
matics : The Sub-Warden. Ecclesiastical History : Rev. 
Canon Potter, M.A. Ecclesiastical Music : D. J. 
Coutts, Mus. Bac. Hebrew : Rev. Canon Carlisle. Her- 
meneutics and Homiletics : The Sub-Warden. 

College Teaching Staff.— Classics : (1) The Warden ; 
(2) W. F. Ingram, B.A., Exhibitioner of Oriel College, 
Oxford. Mathematics and Natural Philosophy : K. S. 
Cross, Scholar of Melbourne University. Biology : Rev. 
W.. Fielder, University Demonstrator in Physiology. 
Chemistry, practical and theoretical : Mr. J. L. Aickin, 
M.A., University Scholar. French : Miss S. R. Hooper. 
German : Fraulein Karstensen. Logic and Philosophy : 
J. T. Collins, M.A., LL.M., Scholar of Melbourne Uni- 
versity. Medicine and Surgery : Dr. Bull, University 
Demonstrator. 



Ormond College. 



In the year 1887 it was determined by the Presby- 
terian Church of Victoria to erect a college affiliated to 
the University in the reserve granted for the purpose by 
the Government in 1853. The project was enthusiastically 
espoused by the late Dr. Morrison, of the Scotch College, 
who up to the time of his death acted as chairman 
of the Ormond College Council. Subscriptions had 
already- been received to the amount of £6,000 when the 
generous benefactor to whom the college owes so much— 
the late Mr. Francis Ormond— came forward with his 
first offer of £10,000, conditionally upon £10,000 being 
raised from other sources. The condition was speedily 
fulfilled, and the foundation stone was laid by the 
Governor of the colony, the Marquis of Normanby, in the 
month of November, J879. Sufficient progress was made 



with the edifice to enable the college to be opened in 
March, 1881, with the present master, Dr. (then Mr.) J. 
H. MacFarland, of St. John's College, Cambridge, as its 
head. From that time forward, Mr. Ormond undertook 
the sole responsibility of completing the building in 
accordance with the original design. The necessity for 
such a step soon arose, for in 1883 the number of students 
applying for admission was so much in excess of the 
accommodation available as to render an enlargement of 
the structure indispensable. A new wing and dining hall 
were therefore erected forthwith, and were opened in 
1885 ; and still the college was full to overflowing. Ac- 
cordingly another wing was erected in 1888, and named 
the Victoria, in commemoration of the jubilee of the 
late Queen. And still the demand for accommodation 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



19 



outran the supply, so that while the requirements of 
students wishing to become residents in the college have 
been met as far as practicable, the unbroken prosperity of 
the institution has necessitated continual additions to it. 
Up to the time of Mr. Ormond's death in 1889 he had 
expended on the buildings no less a sum than £46,780, 
independently of a sum of £15,000 subscribed chiefly by 
members of the Presbyterian denomination. By his will 
he bequeathed a further sum of £46,000 to the college, 
which will ultimately receive, in addition, four-fifteenths 
of an amount of £75,000, at present reserved by the 
executors in order to enable them to pay a number of 
annuities devised under that document. Out of the 
£46,000 thus received, a sum of £20,000 went to increase 
the endowment . fund, and a portion of the balance was 
applied to the erection of a new college dining hall, 90 



mental in inducing his friend to make such munificent 
donations as he did to both the Working Men's College 
and to the Ormond College. 

Continuing our description of the structure, it must 
be mentioned that the large dining hall just described 
opens into a noble vestibule with a stone chimney-piece, 
French-Gothic in design, and recalling to mind those of 
the chateaux of Amboise and Blois. A brass tablet has 
been let into one of 4he walls in memory of Sir James 
MacBain, K.C.M.G., who died in 1892— "a good man, a wise 
legislator, and a generous patron of higher education." 

At one end of the college grounds stands the master's 
lodge, and at the other the picturesque structure known 
as the Wyselaskie Hall, with the houses of the two 
theological professors of the Presbyterian Church. These 
latter buildings were erected in 1886, by means of a 




Cooper and Co. 



Ormond 



feet in length, 36 feet in width, and 39 feet in height, 
which completed the original architectural scheme of the 
entire structure. It is Gothic in style, and the open 
timber, or hammer-beam roof, resembles those of so many 
old English halls dating from the fifteenth century. On 
the walls of this spacious refectory are portraits of the 
founder and of the late Dr. Morrison, of the Scotch Col- 
lege, the latter presented to the original as a tribute of 
respect for the many services he rendered to the institu- 
tion, in the early days of its existence more particularly. 
It is an open secret, we believe, that the late Mr. Francis 
Ormond, when debating in his own mind the most 
beneficial uses to which he could apply his wealth for 
the promotion of the general weal, took counsel of Dr. 
Morrison, and that that gentleman was largely instru- 



Collogo. Ntlb. 

liberal bequest devised for that purpose by the late Mr. 
J. D. Wyselaskie. These belong to the theological side 
of the college, and offer to those students who are 
desirous of entering the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church, and have completed the three years' Art course 
of the University, an opportunity of undergoing on addi- 
tional and special three years' training for the pulpit, 
under a staff of permanently appointed theological pro- 
fessors, who devote the whole of their time to this work, 
assisted by a lecturer on elocution, to instruct them how 
to acquire a good delivery, and by occasional lectures on 
subjects germane to the avocation for which they are pre- 
paring themselves. 

Lectures are likewise delivered in the Ormond College 
with the special object of assisting students in preparing 



20 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



for the University lectures and examinations. These 
lectures are open to non-resident as well as resident 
students, and are delivered at such hours as do not inter- 
fere with their auditors' attendance at the University 
lectures. The subjects of the college cover the whole of 
the Arts course, the first year of the medical course, the 
first two years of the engineering course, and the first 
year for the degree of Bachelor of Science. In the 
second and subsequent years of 4he medical course a 
medical tutor and a surgical tutor give systematic 
tuition in the various subjects of the course, and super- 
vise and test the work of each student. Classes are also 
formed for tutorial assistance in any of the purely profes- 
sional subjects in law or engineering, provided a sufficient 
number of students express the desire for such assistance. 
Lady students, it may be added, are admitted to all the 
college lectures. 

Although the college is the property of the Presby- 
terian Church of Victoria, it is not an exclusive institu- 
tion. Members of any religious denomination are ad- 
mitted to its membership, and it appears that on an 
average not more than half the students are Presby- 
terians, the other moiety belonging to a variety of other 
forms of faith. Numerous exhibitions and scholarships 
for the assistance of poorer students are awarded every 
year, on the results of an examination held at the 
beginning of December, and these are open to competition 
without any restrictions in regard to age, sex, or 
religion. 

For the encouragement of scientific research, a new 
chemical laboratory, as also a new biological laboratory, 
have been built and fitted up by the council, and every 
encouragement is given by the college to the pursuit of 
both these branches of science, while in the college library 
the student has the use of the more expensive University 
books and books of reference which he may require either 
in the Arts, science, medical, law, or engineering courses. 

It is only natural that the Ormond man should 
assimilate in ideals to his impressive surroundings. "Et 



Nova et Vetera" is the motto of the college, and every 
member feels he is influenced by what is the offspring of 
a great past, carrying with it the promise of a greater 
future. This is his Sparta, and he is determined to bring 
her greater honor. 

This excellent spirit is very largely attributable to 
the personal influence of the master, by whom it has been 
inspired, fostered, and developed, and he may well be 
proud to see it so vital and vigorous in this the twenty- 
first year of the beneficial existence of the college. 

In the social life of the students some of the best 
characteristics of an English University are faithfully 
reproduced. Such sports as boating, cricket, football, 
and tennis are indulged in with enthusiasm and success, 
so that the physical development of the alumni may 
proceed pari passu with their intellectual culture. Two 
billiard rooms, a large swimming bath and gymnasium, 
a music room, and two libraries afford relaxation from 
serious studies. Debates, too, are held, and concerts are 
given. 

In the year 1896 the students, under the judicious 
guidance of Mr. H. Darnley Naylor, M.A., senior classical 
tutor, produced "The Birds," of Aristophanes, with ap- 
propriate music composed by a resident student of the 
college. The occasion was memorable, inasmuch as it 
was the first performance of a Greek comedy in Australia. 
The masterpiece of the old Athenian "Scourge of the 
Demos," performed in the language of its writer 2,300 
years after it was produced, in a land which was then 
unknown and undreamed of by the geographers of Attica ! 
—certainly a noteworthy incident. This was followed, 
in 1901, by a thoroughly successful performance of "The 
Frogs." 

The college is at present full, and contains a large 
quota of residential students in addition to those who 
do not reside in the institution, but attend the college 
lectures, and are domiciled outside. The teaching staff 
is composed of ten lecturers, three of whom have 
quarters in the college buildings. 



The Church of England Grammar School. 



Soon after the discoveries of gold had begun to revo- 
lutionise the social and industrial conditions of Victoria, 
to pour money into the coffers of the State, and to 
spread some of the easily-acquired wealth among all 
classes of the rapidly enlarging community, the necessity 
for establishing a grammar school and a college in con- 
nection with the Church of England forced itself upon the 
attention of the more thoughtful and public-spirited of 
the members of that communion. The movement com- 
menced as early as 1853, and those who identified them- 
selves most prominently with it were the Protestant 
Bishop of Melbourne, Dean Macartney, Sir J. F. Palmer, 
Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Stawell, and Mr. G. W. 
Rusden, the only survivor of the little group. It was 
not, however, until the year 1856 that the project of 
founding a Church of England Grammar School took 
practical shape. An appeal was made to the public for 



the necessary funds, a site having been obtained from the 
Government upon which to erect the buildings required. 
This comprised fifteen acres in a most eligible position, 
within a mile of the city, and possessing at the present 
time an immense value. Designs were called for and 
tenders were invited for the erection of a school which 
should resemble, in its architectural features, some of the 
great public schools of the mother country, and the plans 
of Messrs. Webb and Taylor were accepted. The building 
was estimated to cost about £14,700, the successful 
tenderer being Mr. Cornwell, and the foundation stone was 
laid with becoming ceremonial on the 30th of July, 
1856. The erection of the edifice occupied a great part 
of the succeeding two years, and the Grammar School 
was opened on the 5th of April, 1858, under the head- 
mastership of the Rev. Dr. Bromby, who, after dis- 
tinguishing himself at Cambridge, had acquired consider- 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA: 



21 



able experience in teaching at Bristol and in Guernsey. 
Eighty students presented themselves at the opening of 
the Melbourne Grammar School, and this number had 
risen to 195 in 1861. By nature, as well as by training, 
the doctor was admirably qualified for the responsible 
task he had undertaken. As one of his pupils, who was 
afterwards second master in the school, Mr. J. H. 
Thompson, M.A., has said of him :— "The boys knew that 
the doctor understood them, and they were impressed by 
the confidence with which he appealed to their manly 
instincts. He trusted to their honor, and was rarely 
deceived ; for he relied more upon the maintenance of a 
high moral tone throughout the school than upon ordinary 
measures of discipline. . . . There was throughout the 
whole of Dr. Bromby's teaching a joy in work for its own 
sake that was infectious, and generally permanent. A 
hearty manliness, lightened with humour and touches of 
fancy, took possession of boys with an irresistible 
appeal." Speaking from his own personal recollections, 
the present writer would add that there was much in Dr. 
Bromby's feelings, aims, and methods that reminded one 
of those of Arnold of Rugby. Like him, he was also 
very broad-minded, an earnest truth seeker and original 
thinker, a commanding preacher, and continually in 
advance of his time. Many of his old pupils have since 
made their mark in the various professions, and have 
done honor to both his teaching and his personal 
influence. He resigned the head - mastership of the 
Grammar School in 1875, but subsequently attracted 
large congregations in the pro-cathedral church of St. 
Paul, which had been confided to his charge by Bishop 
Moorhouse. On the 23rd of May, 1884, his friends and 
the old boys celebrated his seventy-fifth birthday by 
presenting him with an address and a purse of one 
thousand sovereigns, and he went to his rest, in the 
eightieth year of his age, on the 4th of March, 1889. 

Mr. (afterwards Professor) E. E. Morris, M.A., 
succeeded to the head-mastership in 1875. An old 
Rugbean and an Oxford man, he had graduated in 
that ancient University with honors in classics, law, 
and modern history, and had studied for a short 
time at the University of Berlin. He, too, had 

had some valuable experience in connection with 
the public school system in England, and brought an 
adequate intellectual equipment to the performance of his 
new duties. He reorganised the institution conformably 
to his policy of regarding a public school as a "corporate 
body, in which masters and boys are not only swayed by 
feelings of loyalty and common interest, but also bound 
together by various mutual responsibilities.' ' He insti- 
tuted the school library, which now bears his name ; 
established a comfortable and well-furnished common 
room ; encouraged conceits, pastimes, debates, and ex- 
hibitions ; added a chemical laboratory to the school ; 
increased the number of class rooms ; caused a uniform 
dress to be adopted ; and found it necessary to complete 
the southern facade of the building, in order to accom- 
modate the increasing number of pupils anxious to avail 
themselves of the educational advantages offered by an 
institution which was steadily growing in public favour. 
In 1882 Mr. Morris resigned the head-mastership of the 
school, and was almost immediately appointed Professor 



pf English in the University at Adelaide, but was released 
from his engagement upon its becoming known that he 
had been offered the chair of English, French, and German 
languages and literature in the University of Melbourne ; 
and the interesting fact has been noted that on the day 
of his appointment the professorships in natural phi- 
losophy and anatomy were conferred upon Mr. H. M. 
Andrew and Mr. H. B. Allen, both of them "old boys" 
from the Church of England Grammar School. 

The next head master, Mr. Alexander Pyne, of 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, reigned for two years 
only, his life having been brought to an abrupt close, 
after a brief illness, on the 7th of February, 1885. 
Judging from the ideas he entertained with respect to the 
functions and purpose of a public school, his early death 
was a great loss to the cause of education of the highest 
kind in Victoria, for, said he, "it is here that habits are 
formed and character moulded ; obedience to discipline, 
punctuality, self-restraint, manly independence, self- 
sacrifice, the sentiment of honor— these are some of the 
qualities which every great school engenders and evokes." 
During Mr. Pyne's brief term of office the cadet corps and 
field club were initiated, and arrangements almost com- 
pleted for the opening of the preparatory school. 

His successor was the Rev. Ambrose J. Wilson, D.D., 
Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford. 4 <He was 
endowed," writes one who knew him well, "with tireless 
energy, to which we are indebted for the beautiful 
chapel, the large additions to the school buildings, the 
inauguration of the preparatory school, the enlargement 
of the Morris Library, the boat-house, and the scheme 
for introducing a school of practical engineering." He 
also took the liveliest interest in the choral and debating 
societies, as well as in the artillery battery, with its 
four Whitworth guns. He was head master from July, 
1885, until 1894, when he resigned, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. F. Sergeant, M.A., of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. At that time the colony was passing through 
a severe financial crisis, which ruined hundreds of pre- 
viously prosperous people, numbers of whom were com- 
pelled to withdraw their children from school, and this 
institution suffered very greatly in consequence. With a 
diminished income it found itself burdened with a debt of 
£10,000, and without any immediate prospect of reducing 
it. Mr. Sergeant faced the difficulties manfully, and 
remained at the helm for five years ; and when the 
council remodelled the constitution of the school he 
refrained from becoming a candidate for the head- 
mastership under the changed condition of affairs, and 
was succeeded by Mr. G. E. Blanch, M.A., of Christ- 
church, Oxford, who had previously been senior mathe- 
matical and science master in the Sydney Grammar 
School. Writing of this gentleman in connection with 
the institution under his control, Professor Allen 
observes :— "Under the headship of Mr. Blanch the friends 
of the school hope to see the classes overflowing and 
scholarship revived. They are confident that he will 
also foster the modern side, and promote the study of 
science throughout the school." 

Twenty-five years ago the students founded a paper 
entitled the "Melburnian,-" as the journal of the Grammar 
School, and it is still flourishing. In May, 1895, the 



22 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



society of the Old Melburnians was formally organised, 
and its successive presidents, in chronological order, 
were these :— Mr. Justice Hodges, Mr. G. H. Jenkins, 
Professor B. Allen ; Mr. Charles S. Ryan, better known 
as * 'Plevna* ' Ryan ; and Mr. F. A. Moule. Among the 
former students who have risen to eminence may be 
mentioned Mr. Alfred Deakin, Attorney-General in the 
first Commonwealth Government ; Mr. C. A. Topp, late 
Under-Secretary of Victoria ; Mr. T. P. Webb, Master in 
Equity and Commissioner of Taxes ; and Colonel F. G. 
Hughes. 

Apart from their high educational value, institutions 
like the Melbourne Grammar School, the Scotch College, 
and others of the same class have already done much to 
promote social fusion. For the first twenty years after 
the gold discoveries, the community in Victoria was no 
community at all in the true sense of the word. It was 
a mere heterogeneous collection of human atoms, with no 
points of attraction and numberless points of repulsion. 
They had suddenly been brought together from all parts 
of the United Kingdom, while a good many were refugees 
from those countries on the Continent which had so 
recently been agitated by political revolutions. Nobody 
knew anything of his neighbour's antecedents. He might 
be a patriot of the first water, or he might be an uncon- 



victed forger, swindler, or thief. And although people 
were free of speech, unreserved in manner, and not 
disposed to enquire too closely into the character and 
conduct of the men they were brought in contact with, 
there was always a certain amount of suspicion lurking 
in their minds with respect to them. 

But the public schools in Victoria, and our educa- 
tional institutions generally, introduced a new state of 
things. Boys who had sat upon the same form,, and 
youths who had been grouped together in the same class, 
grew up as comrades and friends. They knew all about 
each other's parents, their worldly circumstances, and 
social standing. There was no room for suspicion, and 
plenty of motives for mutual confidence and trust, and 
for mutual helpfulness in case of need. And when they 
left school or college the ties of friendship thus early 
formed continued to be a bond of union between them. 
Thus, as we have said, our public schools have done very 
much for the promotion of social union, and for the 
solidarity of the particular classes from which their 
pupils are drawn ; and in after life the old student days 
never altogether lose their charm, and the men who 
cherish identical recollections of them are still drawn 
together by the force of early associations and common 
experiences. 



The Working Men's College. 



This admirable institution owes its inception, and a 
great deal more than its inception, to the late Mr. 
Francis Ormond. His reflections had convinced him that 
the value of skilled labour, both to the possessor and the 
community, is capable of being indefinitely enhanced by a 
judicious and well-organised system of technical instruc- 
tion, and that this could be best imparted in a college 
exclusively devoted to this object, provided with a staff 
of well-qualified teachers, and demanding, for the various 
courses of tuition, such a scale of fees as would not press 
heavily upon the children of artisans and of such others 
as would be likely to take advantage of it, while at the 
same time yielding a- reasonable remuneration to those 
engaged in communicating practical lessons in every 
department of skilled industry and applied art. 

Manual labour, he reasoned, is an important element 
of production, but what is wanting in this epoch of com- 
petition is a proper education of the hands as well as 
of the brain, and to make those subordinate to this. 
Actuated by these views, animated by these sentiments, 
and influenced to some extent by the advice tendered to 
him by his friend, Dr. Alexander Morrison, the late prin- 
cipal of the Scotch College, Mr. Ormond in the year 1881 
mooted to others who were likely to lend a favourable ear 
to such a proposition the project of establishing a Work- 
ing Men's College in Melbourne. In the meantime, and 

By degrees to fulness wrought. 

The strength of his diffusive thought 

Had time and space to work and spread; 

so that, in the following year, the occasion was deemed 
to be ripe for holding a public meeting in order to give 



practical effect to Mr. Ormond's excellent idea. With 
characteristic liberality, and in order to show how 
thoroughly his heart was in the undertaking, Mr. Ormond 
subscribed the handsome sum of £5,000 towards the funds 
of the college, and a similar sum was contributed by the 
general public. An application was made to the Govern- 
ment of the day for a block of land upon which to erect 
the building, and a grant was issued of an area between 
the gaol and the north side of Latrobe Street, imme- 
diately opposite the Public Library. Probably the area 
was considered to be adequate to the purposes for which 
it was required, when originally transferred by the Crown 
to the trustees, but the institution has expanded so 
rapidly of late that the present site is altogether incom- *** 
mensurate with the growing requirements of the college, 
which, if it is to keep pace with the growth and develop- 
ment of the city and the State, will eventually neces- 
sitate extensions of such a character and magnitude as 
will suffice to cover the site of the neighbouring police 
courts and of the prison in the rear. 

In the year 1883 a commencement was made with the 
block of buildings on the east side of Bowen Street, the 
cost of erecting which amounted to £11,000. But it was 
not until the month of May, 1887, that the college was 
ready for the reception of students, and their appreciation 
of the advantages held out to them was so marked and 
so immediate that no less than 985 were enrolled during 
the year, this number being about doubled in the course 
of the year following. And the institution was exceed- 
ingly fortunate in securing the services of so highly 
qualified a secretary and director as Mr. Frederick E. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



23 



Campbell, C.E., F.R.G.S., who entered into and carried 
on the work of his office with a quiet energy and a 
sustained enthusiasm which are the essential elements of 
success in all such undertakings. 

The day departments of the college embrace classes 
in engineering, metallurgy, chemistry, mathematics, 




Tho Working Mon's Collogo. 

commerce, languages, elocution, music, household 
economy, manual training in general, wool-sorting, and 
philosophy. The evening departments include almost the 
whole of the above, and, in addition, architecture, art 
and applied art, agriculture, and fourteen trade classes, 
as well as telegraphy. 



The college issues four kinds of certificates— an ordi- 
nary, credit, technical, and expert— to those who pass the 
respective examinations, and there are special prizes for 
students who excel in mechanical drawing, in design and 
workmanship, and in original inventions. These were 
the gift of Mr. W. S. T. Magee, of Sir G. F. Verdon, and 
Mr. G. G. Turri. Weekly lectures 
have been, or are in course of being, 
organised on the following subjects : 
—Horticulture, market gardening, 
fruit grading, packing, preserving 
and canning, poultry keeping for 
profit, bee-keeping, silk and scent 
industries, and applied art, litera- 
ture, book-keeping, and accountancy. 

The college is governed by a 
council consisting of sixteen mem- 
bers, two of whom are appointed by 
the executors of the founder, two by 
the Governor-in-Council, two by the 
council of the Melbourne University, 
two by the trustees of the Public 
Library, two by the Trades Hall 
Council, four by subscribers of less 
than £1 sterling, and two by life 
governors and subscribers of £1 and 
upwards. Candidates for admission 
to any of the classes must be able 
to read and write, and possess an 
elementary knowledge of arithmetic. 
The terms of instruction are four in 
the year, commencing on the 29th of 
January, the 15th of April, the 1st 
of July, and the 16th of November 
respectively, with a vacation of nine 
weeks at midsummer. 

The most important recent de- 
velopment in connection with the 
college has been the initiation of 
the day courses. These were started 
in 1899. A scheme for putting into 
operation four complete day courses, 
during which the students should 
study from 9 till 4 each day for four 
years, required very considerable 
thought as well as financial risk. 
The scheme, however, has proved as 
successful as most of the work under- 
taken by the college. The numbers 
have steadily grown, and now this 
branch of work forms an important 
element in the training of the youth 
of our metropolis for the higher 
positions in industrial life. 

The following figures will show 

the position of the college for the 

last year :— Total number of students, 2,364 ; day course 

students, 135 ; fees received, £6,251 ; Government 

subsidy, £4,500 ; total revenue, £10,751. 

The work of the college is bound to increase in im- 
portance and in extent, this being only limited at present 
by want of funds. Compared with other institutions of the 



24 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



same size, it has never received adequate support at the 
hands of the Government. Last year the Sydney Tech- 
nical College received something like £14,000 towards 
maintenance from the State, while the Melbourne Working 
Men's College did not receive £5,000. This grant has 
since been increased to that amount, but even then it is 
altogether insufficient to carry on the present work. The 
Royal Commission state that the college has been, and 
is, starved. The people of Victoria have declared in 
favour of the extension of technical education ; the can- 
didates for Parliament with almost unanimous voice 
affirmed their belief in its advantages, and their intention 
of supporting its extension ; and it remains for the 
Legislature to give practical effect to the will of the 
community by making such a yearly grant of money as 
will enable the institution to fulfil the objects for which 
it was founded, and to prepare our artisans and art- 



craftsmen to compete on equal terms,. and, therefore, 
successfully, with their brethren in the other States of 
the Australian Commonwealth. 

The following are the office-bearers of the college for 
the year 1903 :— President : Mr. C. E. Oliver, M.C.E. 
Vice-presidents : Messrs. C. S. Paterson and James 
Robb. Trustees : Messrs. R. L. J. Ellery, C.M.G.; C. 
S. Paterson ; J. Nixon, J. P.; Prof. Kernot, M.A., 
M.C.E.; F. H. Bromley, M.L.A.; and James Smith. 
Council : Right Hon. Sir S. Gillott, M.Lr.A., Lord 
Mayor ; Professor Kernot ; Messrs. F. H. Bromley, 
M.L.A.; Thos. Smith, M.L.A.; Hon. W. H. Enabling, 
M.D., M.L.C.; H. G. Turner, W. Thwaites, J. Lemmon ; 
C. E. Oliver, M.C.E. ; James Robb, S. Barker, R. H. 
Solly, II. Rasdell, and Cavalier James Smith. Hon. 
treasurers : Hon. W. H. Embling and Cavalier James 
Smith. Director : Mr. Frederick A. Campbell, M.C.E. 



The Scotch College. 



This important educational institution was founded in 
the year 1854, and was at first known as the Melbourne 
Academy. Three years later the Government gave it a 
grant of land in a very fine position on the Eastern Hill 
—a compact block, with a frontage to three streets— and 
this liberal donation was supplemented by a gift of £6,500 
from the public Treasury, which enabled the trustees to 
erect such buildings as would justify them in assuming a 
collegiate title ; and this was done. Soon afterwards 
they engaged in Scotland, as head master, a gentleman 
who maintained that position up to the time of his death, 
so that for upwards of fifty years Dr. Alexander Morrison 
was honorably identified with an institution which has 
borne a distinguished part in the higher education of 
the youth of Victoria. To the scholastic attainments 
which qualified him for the post, Dr. Morrison added the 
possession of that business capacity, tact, and administra- 
tive ability which conduced in no unimportant degree to 
the success of the college, and he could point with 
justifiable pride to the fact that between the years 1892 
and 1899 it had made the following record at the Mel- 
bourne University :— 

Passes at Matriculation 240 



Passes at Ordinary Examinations 

First Class Honors 

Second Class Honors 

Third Class Honors 

Scholarships and Exhibitions 

Degrees 

Scholarships at Ormond College 



450 
106 
109 
96 
78 
167 
79 



During the entire term of its existence, former pupils 
of the Scotch College have secured the following results 
at University and professional examinations :— 



Passes for Matriculation 
Degrees in Arts 
Degrees in Laws 
Degrees in Engineering 



940 
152 
48 
46 



It is likewise stated that upwards of 130 former 
students have qualified themselves for the practice of 
medicine at one or other of the medical schools, and that 
a still greater number have become barristers and 
solicitors. Several old collegians have likewise proved 
their mettle as soldiers on active service. These include 
Major "Karri" Davies, Dr. Buntine, Captain Bruchc, 
Captain Kendall, and Dr. Hopkins, a former master, who 
was unfortunately killed. In the year 1900 two old col- 
legians were selected to fill the highest positions in the 
contingents sent to assist the Imperial forces, Colonel 
Price commanding the Second Contingent in Africa, and 
Commander Tickell the Naval Contingent in China. 

In the year 1895 an Old Scotch Collegians* Club was 
instituted, to which all students over eighteen years of 
age, and who have attended at least four terms, as also 
all former masters who have taught for the same number 
of terms, are eligible for admission. Its president is 
Mr. Thomas Skene, and its vice-presidents are Messrs. 
E. La T. Armstrong, Dr. R. Morrison, and Commander 
Tickell. 



The Wesley College. 



All the great religious denominations in Victoria have 
recognised to the fullest extent the duty of making 
liberal and adequate provision for the secondary educa- 
tion of young persons belonging to their own com- 
munion. There has been a healthy competition among 
them as to which should secure for the rising generation 



the best moral and intellectual equipment to fit them for 
entering upon the battle of life, in which we must all 
engage sooner or later. As far back as the early 
sixties the Wesleyan body resolved upon the institution 
of a public school which should offer to its students 
opportunities for the acquisition of a liberal education, 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA: 



2& 



from its preliminary stages in the preparatory school 
up to the highest class in which they are prepared for the 
learned and liberal professions and for the University. 

When State aid to religion was abolished, the Wes- 
leyan Church, like the Church of England, the Presby- 
terian, and the Roman Catholic Churches, was endowed 
for educational purposes with grants of land and sums of 
money proportioned to the number of adherents. 

Upon a large block of land sixteen acres in extent, 
which had been thus acquired, abutting on the St. Kilda 
Road, and easily accessible from Melbourne, either by the 
tramway in front or by a railway having a station at no 
great distance in the rear, the foundation stone of the 
present Wesley College was laid on the 4th of January, 
1865, by the then Governor of Victoria, Sir Charles 
Darling, and it was opened for the reception of students 
on the 11th of January in the year following. It has 
been noticed as a melancholy coincidence that upon that 
very day the Rev. D. J. Draper, who had been one of the 
most active of the promoters of the institution, perished 
by the foundering of the s.s. "London' ' during a heavy 
gale in the Bay of Biscay, owing to that vessel having 
been too heavily laden with railway iron by her owners. 
The portrait of the reverend gentleman adorns the dining 
hall of the college, as does that of the late Mr. Walter 
Powell, a wealthy ironmonger in this city, who proved 
himself to be a generous benefactor to the cause of 
Wesleyan education in Victoria. At the same time, as 
we learn from an authentic source, the college is under 
very heavy obligations for the success it has achieved to 
the Rev. Dr. J. S. Waugh. "It was due to his labours," 
writes our authority, ,4 that large sums of money were 
raised, which made Mr. Powell's noble offers available, 
and it is very greatly to his able management as presi- 
dent during the first eighteen years of its history that 
the college is indebted for its present position." That 
gentleman was succeeded by the Rev. Dr. E. I. Watkin, 
who filled the presidential chair from 1884 until his re- 
signation in 1890. From that time forward it was not 
considered necessary that there should be a resident 
clerical president, instead of which it was deemed advis- 
able to appoint a layman as head master. The first to 
occupy that post was Dr. Corrigan, who held it from the 
year 1866 until death terminated the term of his services 
in 1870. He was followed by Professor M. H. Irving, 
who had previously filled the chair of classics in the 
Melbourne University. On his resignation in 1870 he was 
succeeded by Professor Andrew, who had previously been 
second master of the college. He held the head- 
mastership until 1882, when he accepted the newly- 
established professorship of natural philosophy in the 
Melbourne University. In February of that year the 
Wesley College welcomed as its head master Mr. Arthur 
S. Way, an accomplished classical scholar, as evidenced 
by his translation of the "Iliad," the "Odyssey," and the 
"Odes to Horace" into English verse, while he was also 
an earnest Shakespearian student, and a writer of grace- 
ful and even of vigorous verse. He was succeeded in 
1892 by Mr. Frank Goldstraw, M.A., who had for many 
years held the position of second master in the college. 
In 1898 the head-mastership devolved upon Mr. Thomas 
Palmer, M.A., LL.B., who was succeeded in 1902 by Mr. 
Lawrence Arthur Adamson, M.A., F.R.G.S. 



The college itself is not only admirably situated from 
a hygienic point of view, partly on account of the open 
spaces around it, and partly because it is sufficiently near 
the sea to receive all the benefits of the westerly and 
south-westerly breezes, laden with ozone, but it has also 
been erected with a due regard to health, convenience, 
and commodiousness. The style of architecture adopted 
is the modern Italian. At each end of a lengthy facade 
is a square tower, and in the centre a projecting porch, 
with a loggia connecting it with the two extremities. 
The front portion of the building and the northern wing 
are occupied on the ground floor by the central vestibule, 
reception rooms, head master's office, prefect's room, 
sitting rooms, museum, large school, and form rooms. 
On the first floor are the masters' sitting rooms and bed 
chambers, the boys' bedrooms and dormitories, bath- 
rooms, and lavatories. In the southern wing are the 
head master's quarters and the servants' rooms. The 
fourth side of the quadrangle is enclosed by the dining 
hall, matron's office, kitchen, etc. Behind these are the 
chemical laboratory, the play shed, and the gymnasium. 
Bearing in mind the requirements of the climate, all the 
rooms are lofty, well lighted, and properly ventilated. 

The work of the college is pursued through three 
stages. To the first belongs a preparatory school for 
boys just beginning to learn to read and write. In the 
middle school, boys intended for a commercial career take 
up the study of book-keeping, mensuration, and allied 
subjects. This course of training is made as thorough 
as possible, and certificates of competency are awarded 
to those who succeed in passing a tolerably stringent 
examination. Nor is the study of science overlooked, 
but is dealt with as its increasing importance demands. 
Practical chemistry is taught in the laboratory. In- 
struction in physiology is likewise imparted throughout 
the school, while those preparing for a medical or engi- 
neering course read chemistry and natural philosophy. 
The extra subjects, consisting of drawing and painting, 
the piano and violin, class singing, elocution, gym- 
nastics, and practical chemistry, are taught by the best 
qualified special teachers available. Shorthand and the 
various languages taught, namely, Greek, Latin, French, 
and German, are included in the ordinary course of in- 
struction. Scriptural teaching of a perfectly unsectarian 
character is likewise imparted unless objected to by the 
parents of the pupils. In the higher class, or sixth 
form, are the students who have passed matriculation, 
are reading for honors at matriculation, for scholarships 
at the University colleges, and for first year examinations 
in Arts, laws, engineering, or medicine. The school year 
is divided into four terms, with a vacation of twenty-five 
days at midwinter, and a longer one at Christmas, i.e., 
during the hot season. 

There are eight scholarships in connection with the 
college— the Powell, Draper, Waugh, Watkin, Rigg, Dare, 
Corrigan, and Eggleston ; the first of which entitles 
the winner of it to £20 per annum for two years at the 
University, and was founded by the" late Walter Powell, 
a native of Tottenham, in Middlesex, and the grandson of 
a once wealthy merchant in London. Having formed the 
fixed purpose of retrieving the fortunes of the family, 
he established himself in Melbourne in 1845, embarked in 
the iron trade, was lifted into opulence by the gold dis- 



is 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



coveries of 1851, aided by his own industry and energy ; 
promptly identified himself with, and was a generous 
benefactor to, numerous movements of a religious and 
benevolent character ; regularly dedicated a handsome 
percentage of his income to works of charity, and was a 
large donor to the Wesley College. He died in 1868. 
The other scholarships perpetuate the names of zealous 
friends of the institution. 

A cadet corps, composed of students of the college, 
was formed in March, 1900. It is now fully equipped 
with the necessary arms and accoutrements, and great 
interest is reported as being taken in the drill and in 
rifle practice. Old Wesley boys were to be found among 
the brave fellows who swelled the Victorian contingents, 
and they did not fail to vie with their compatriots in 
upholding the honor of the flag. 

Athletic sports are cultivated with as much enthu- 
siasm in the grounds of the Wesley College as in those of 
similar institutions elsewhere. There is a games com- 
mittee, an annual sports meeting, annual swimming 
matches, frequent football and cricket matches in com- 
petition with the pupils of other schools and colleges, and 
a Wesley College crew upon the Yarra. A "College 
Chronicle" is published at the end of every term, and the 
Old Wesley Collegians' Association meets monthly at its 
club rooms, and holds an annual dinner. 

The college is governed by an honorary president, nine 
trustees, and a committee composed of fifteen clergymen 
and eighteen laymen of the Wesleyan denomination. The 
teaching staff at the present time (1903) comprise the 
following gentlemen :— 

Head Master : L. A. Adamson, M.A., Melb.; B.A. 
(final honors), Oxon, and of the Inner Temple ; Barrister- 



at-law ; late lecturer Trinity College, Melbourne ; Fellow 
of Queen's College, Melbourne. 

Resident Chaplain : Rev. J. R. Harcourt, B.A., late 
lecturer Queen's College, Melbourne. 

Senior Assistant and Science Master : Martin P. 
Hansen, M.A., LL.B.; Bowen Essay Prizeman ; Proxime 
Accessit Shakespeare Scholarship ; First Class Honor- 
man and Trained Teacher, Education Department ; 
Gladman Prizeman. 

Second Assistant : C. Stanton Crouch, B.A., LL.B.; 
final honors in Laws. 

Senior Resident Master : Harold J. Stewart, M.A.; 
second class honors, final, School of History and Political 
Economy ; Warden's Exhibitioner in Classics, Trinity 
College ; Powell Scholar, Wesley College. 

Resident Masters : J. O. Thomas, M.A., University 
of Tasmania ; F. S. Williamson ; V. Upton Brown ; E. 
D. O'Donnell, second year Arts, honors in English 
Language and Literature and Deductive Logic. 

Special Masters.— Mathematics : W. L. Bowditch, 
M.A., late Scholar of Clare College, Cambridge; late 
lecturer on Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, Trinity 
College, Melbourne. Modern Languages : Dr. Ocki, 
Ph.D., Leipsic. Commercial Subjects : B. Lemmon. 
Drawing : Norman McGeorge, Certificated Art Teacher, 
South Kensington. Sports Master : H. J. Stewart, 
M.A. Officer Commanding Cadet Corps : Lieut. F. S. 
Williamson. 

Teachers of Extra Subjects.— Elocution : G. Lupton. 
Drawing and Painting (special class): • H. B. Blanche. 
Music : Hermann Morris. Gymnastics : A. Frank. 

Preparatory School Staff : Miss E. M. Cooper, 
mistress ; V. Upton Brown, assistant ; Miss J. M. 
Tait, assistant. 



Presbyterian Ladies' College. 



This is one of the four high-class educational institu- 
tions which have been founded by the Presbyterian Church 
in Victoria, the other three being the Scotch College, the 
Ormond College, and the Qrmond Theological College. 
Founded in 1875, the Ladies 1 College has ever since that 
date maintained an important position, both as regards 
the special work for which it was founded and in raising 
and maintaining the standard of education, not only in 
this State but throughout Australia. Its first principal 
was the Rev. George Tait, M.A., and its first head 
master was Professor Pearson, equally well known as an 
accomplished scholar, an able journalist, and a recognised 
man of letters. He was subsequently Minister of Educa- 
tion, and in 1879 Professor Andrew Harper, M.A., B.D., 
combined the functions of principal with those of head 
master. This arrangement continued until his retire- 
ment in 1889, when the Rev. S. G. Maclaren, M.A., was 
appointed principal, and Mr. J. P. Wilson, M.A. and 
LL.D., head master. 

The first of these gentlemen was born in the village 
of Comrie, Perthshire, Scotland, and is the son of an 
elder in the Secession Church, who named him after 
Samuel Gilfillan, the minister of the church in Comrie. 



At sixteen years of age the young man was articled to 
a lawyer in Perth, and during the next four years, besides 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of his profession, dili- 
gently studied the classics, mathematics, and modern 
languages. He subsequently distinguished himself in the 
practice of his profession as general manager of the 
business of one of the legal firms in Edinburgh, and more 
particularly in the conduct of a cause celebre involving 
the succession to the Earldom of Aberdeen, which pro- 
cured for Mr. Maclaren the impressive eulogies of the 
Law Lords in the British House of Peers. After this, 
yielding to one of those mysterious impulses by which so 
many men are actuated at what proves to be the turning 
point of their lives, he resolved upon fulfilling a parental 
wish by entering the ministry. Accordingly, four years 
were spent in the University and three in the Theological 
Hall, where he was prizeman in most of his classes. On 
taking his M.A. degree in 1875, he studied for a winter 
in Leipsic, and for another winter in Heidelberg. 
Ordained and married in the same year, he next pro- 
ceeded to Japan, where he was appointed professor of 
sacred history and Biblical literature in the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, founded by Scottish and American 



The cyclopedia OP viCtoftiA. 



il 



Presbyterians at Tokio. His health breaking down, 
after several years spent, in an uncongenial climate, he 
resolved on visiting Australia. Coming to Melbourne, 
ministerial charges were immediately offered to him, and 
it was while fulfilling one of these in 1888 that he was 
elected by the unanimous vote of the General Assembly 
of the church to the position he now occupies with so 
much advantage to the institution and so much credit to 
himself. 

Dr. J. P. Wilson, the head master of the Presby- 
terian Ladies' College, was born in 1852, and was edu- 
cated in the Flinders National School and the Melbourne 
University, where he won first class honors and a scholar- 
ship in law. In the year 1878 the Rev. George Tait was 
fortunate enough to secure his services for the college, in 



The college occupies an exceptionally fine site. The 
position is an elevated one, overlooking the Fitzroy 
Gardens to the south, and commanding a view of the 
Botanical Gardens and Government House in the same 
direction, while to the south-west there are no obstacles 
to intercept the free access to the building and its 
grounds of the sea breezes from the Bay. Although 
within a quarter of an hour's walk or a five minutes' 
tram ride of the centre of the city, the spaciousness of 
the pleasure grounds surrounding the college, and its 
close proximity to the extensive Fitzroy Gardens and the 
Richmond Park beyond, secure for it all the advantages 
it would enjoy in a remote suburb, and that thorough 
oxygenation of the atmosphere which the neighbourhood 
of vegetation alone can give. 




Prosbj torlan Ladles' Collogo, Albort Stroot, East Molbourno. 



which he successively became second master and vice- 
principal under Professor Harper. On that gentleman's 
resignation, as has been already mentioned, Dr. Wilson 
was offered the head-mastership of the college by the 
council of the institution, which he accepted, and still 
holds. Under his management the reputation of the 
college as a great educational centre has been fully 
maintained, and his sphere of usefulness steadily ex- 
tended. Twenty girls upon the average have annually 
passed the matriculation examination, and have had their 
names placed upon the honor list. Numerous exhibitions 
and first and second classes have been likewise won by 
the pupils, and the Presbyterian Ladies' College has, 
moreover, sent up a large percentage of women students 
to the University. 



The college embraces two departments, the senior and 
the junior ; and the curriculum is as comprehensive as 
the most exigent of parents could desire, as is shown by 
the fact that matriculation pass and honor classes are 
conducted in six branches of instruction, namely, English 
and history, Greek and Latin, mathematics, French and 
German, music, drawing and painting. With respect to 
the two last-named items, it may be mentioned that the 
studio of the college is reputed to be the best in Mel- 
bourne, and that a recent teacher was Senhor A. Lorreiro, 
who filled that position for ten years, and was pre- 
viously a student in the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, 
winner of the Prix de Rome in the Royal Academy at 
Lisbon, and a member of the International Artistic Asso- 
ciation in Rome. 



28 



The cyclopedia of victoria 



Association for the Promotion of Technical Education. 



The great industrial revolution brought about during 
the last century, owing to the almost universal super- 
session of manual by mechanical labour which followed 
the inventions of Arkwright, Compton, and Cartwright 
in the preceding century, and of Watt, Stephenson, 
Nasmyth, Neilson, Whitworth, Bessemer, Konig, Walter, 
Hoe, Burleigh, Morse, Hancock, and hundreds of other 
inventors, British and foreign, since then, may be said to 
have transferred the control of the forces of Nature from 
human hands to the human head. Mere strength of 
muscle is now relegated to the lowest place in the 
economics of production. It performs only the roughest 
of work, and commands only the poorest rate of remu- 
neration. The wage-earner is everywhere becoming the 
intelligent supervisor of mechanical powers and agencies 
which are the most effective instruments for the creation 
of desirable commodities. Hence the necessity, impera- 
tive and immediate, which has arisen for the technical 
education of the toilers, the value of whose labour, both 
to themselves and to the community, will henceforth be 
dependent, not upon their physical strength, but upon 
their trained intelligence ; and nothing is more certain 
than this— that the manufacturing, commercial, and mari- 
time supremacy of the world will belong to that nation 
which maintains the highest standard of instruction in its 
technical schools, and can produce the maximum of pro- 
ducts with the minimum of outlay as regards time, 
material, capital, and effort. 

Impressed with this conviction, the Architectural and 
Engineering Association of Victoria convened a public 
meeting in the committee-room of the Town Hall, Mel- 
bourne, on the 15th of November, 1898, the president 
(Mr. H. W. Webb) in the chair, at which the fol- 
lowing resolutions were unanimously adopted :— "That 
the time has now arrived for a more extended encourage- 
ment to be given by the State and the municipalities to 
technical education, having in view the national benefits 
and advantages to be derived, as evidenced by 
the results in Great Britain, Germany, America, and 
other countries. That, as an aid to this, it is desirable 
to form an association having for its aim and object the 
promotion of technical education. That an association 
be, and is hereby duly, established, its membership to be 



unlimited, and open to all who feel an interest in the 
movement ; and that its constitution, objects, and prcK 
cedure be defined by a committee appointed by this meet- 
ing." 

At a second meeting a constitution was adopted, and 
at a third the officers of the association were appointed 
and members were enrolled. 

The first annual demonstration was held in the Town 
Hall, Melbourne, on the 26th of March, 1900, and the 
report submitted to the annual meeting held in the month 
previous served to show that the movement inaugurated 
by the association had been already productive of good 
results. The Melbourne University, for example, had 
been enabled, by the liberality of the Legislature, to 
expend about £15,000 upon the following works : — 
Doubling the size of the Pathological Museum, erecting a 
special building for bacteriological research, erecting two 
lecture rooms, enlarging the physiological laboratory, as 
also a building for the study of engineering, surveying, 
and astronomy. The Natural History Museum has been 
removed to a more central position at the Public Library 
Buildings, the removal serving the double purpose of 
releasing the buildings vacated for more legitimate 
University work, and also of making the Museum itself 
a more extended educational influence in the largely- 
attended Library Buildings. 

The Working Men's College authorities have also 
extended their premises according to the provisions of a 
Government grant of £6,000, which additional buildings 
have been erected for the practical teaching of iron mould- 
ing and casting, blacksmith work, turning and fitting, and 
wool-sorting. It is gratifying to add that the entire 
cost of fitting up the shops for the blacksmith and allied 
works, amounting to £300, was generously and spon- 
taneously undertaken by Professor Kernot, of the Mel- 
bourne University, one of the vice-presidents of the asso- 
ciation, and for many years president of the council of 
the Working Men's College, of which he is still an active 
member. His Excellency Sir John Madden is the 
president of the association, Mr. Heber D. Evans its 
honorary secretary, and Mr. Henry Parsons its honorary 
assistant secretary. 



LAWRENCE ARTHUR 

ADAMSON, M.A., F.R.G.S., Head 
Master of Wesley College, St. Kilda 
Road, is the second son of Lawrence 
William Adamson, LL.D., D.L., of 
Eslington Lodge, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
High Sheriff of Northumberland 
in 1900. Mr. Adamson was 
educated at Rugby and Oxford, and 
in 1885 was called to the Bar as 
a member of the Inner Temple. 
Within a month or so of having been 
called he sailed for Melbourne, in- 



tending to practise his profession in 
Victoria. He was duly admitted a 
member of the Victorian Bar, but 
while awaiting admission accepted 
the post of senior resident master 
at Wesley College, Melbourne, and 
became so attracted by the work of 
teaching that he has continued in it 
ever since. From 1892 to 1897 he 
was second master at Wesley Col- 
lege, and in 1898 became joint head 
master with Mr. Krome of the Uni- 
versity High School, which was then 



in occupation of the Government 
Training College buildings, in the 
University grounds, but which has 
since been removed to Victoria 
Street. From 1892 to 1897 Mr. 
Adamson was resident tutor and 
lecturer at Trinity College, Univer- 
sity of Melbourne, and he has also 
delivered courses of lectures at 
various centres for the University 
Extension Board. In February, 
1902, he was appointed head master 
of Wesley College, returning to his 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



29 



old school after four years' absence. 
He was secretary, and practically 
the founder, of the Victorian Insti- 
tute of Schoolmasters, which drafted 
the first Bill for the registration of 
teachers in this State ; and, as 
secretary and organiser of the edu- 
cational centre of the University 
extension, he helped to provide the 
only means of pedagogic training then 
available for secondary teachers. He 
is a member of the University Ex- 




Johntloru, O'Shanncsgy and Co. Mclb. 

Mb. Lawrence Arthur A damson. 

tension Board, and of the Trinity 
College Council, and is likewise sec- 
retary of the Schools' Association of 
Victoria. He is president of the 
Victorian Amateur Athletic Associa- 
tion, having been a working member 
of the council of that body since its 
foundation. lie has also been pre- 
sident for some years, and was one 
of the founders, of the Metropolitan 
Football Association, and has been 
for many years connected with the 
University Cricket Club, and repre- 
sents it on the Victorian Cricket 
Association. Mr. Adamson was 
bom in 1860. 

OTTO KROME, B.A., Joint Head 
Master of the University High 
School, eldest son of the late Rev. 
Ferdinand Krome, of Achim, in the 
province of Hanover, Germany, was 
born in 1863, and received his earlier 
education at the gymnasia of Verden 
and Hameln. In 1880 he went to 
East London, in Cape Colony, where 
his uncle, -the late Rev. H. Mueller, 
was head master of the public 



school. Mr. Krome overcame the 
difficulties incidental to continuing 
his studies under English masters so 
rapidly that in 1882 he passed the 
matriculation examination of the 
University of the Cape of Good Hope 
with high honors, obtaining a fifth 
place among 187 candidates. In 1885 
he gained his B.A. degree at the 
same University. Mr. Krome also 
became Jamison Scholar of his Uni- 
versity, and was shortly after ap- 
pointed assistant master of the Dale 
College, King Williamstown, and 
eventually rose to the position of 
vice - principal of this school, the 
leading educational institution under 
Government grant in the eastern 
part of Cape Colony. In 1890 Mr. 
Krome decided to transfer himself to 
Victoria, and, after being senior 
assistant at St. Andrew's College, 
Bcndigo, for some years, came to 
Melbourne to fill the appointment of 




Johnstone, O'Shannetty and Co, Mclb. 

Mr. Otto Krome. 

lecturer in German at Ormond and 
Trinity Colleges, University of Mel- 
bourne. In 1894 he assisted Mr. T. 
Palmer in founding the University 
High School in the Government 
Training College building, situated in 
the University grounds. Mr. Krome 
was vice-principal here until the end 
of 1897, when Mr. Palmer accepted 
an appointment as head master of 
Wesley College, and Mr. L. A. 
Adamson joined Mr. Krome in the 
direction of the school. On the re- 
sumption of training work by the 
Education Department, the Univer- 
sity High School removed to its 



present home in Victoria Street. 
Mr. Krome is a most successful 
teacher of modern languages. The 
class lists in French and German at 
the December matriculation examina- 
tions in Melbourne year after year 
contain the names of the pupils of 
the University High School, and in 
1899 the school established a record, 
when, in addition to gaining the ex- 
hibition, four places in the first class 
were secured. It is well known that 
the strong impetus which has been 
given to the study of the German 
language in Melbourne is largely due 
to the efforts and methods of Mr. 
Otto Krome. 



The CAULFIELD GRAMMAR 
SCHOOL, Glen Eira Road, East 
St. Kilda. Principal, W. Murray 
Buntine, B.A. This high-class edu- 
cational establishment, situated on 
the Glen Eira Road, a few minutes' 
walk from the Elsternwick railway 
station, was originally founded by 
the late Rev. J. Henry Davies, M.A., 
in 1881, and was taken over by 
the present principal in 1896. The 
original founder, after carrying on 
the school for some years with 
marked success, volunteered in 1888 
to go out as the first missionary to 
Corea supported by the Presbyterian 
Fellowship Union of Victoria, where, 
in the interest of mission work, his 
life was sacrificed. His place as 
head master of the school was taken 
by the Rev. E. J. Barnett, M.A., an 
honorman of the Melbourne Univer- 
sity, by whom it was successfully 
managed until the year 1896, when 
Mr. Barnett relinquished his school 
duties to become Victorian secretary 
of the Church Missionary Society. 
The school buildings, which provide 
accommodation for 200 day scholars 
and fifty boarders, were specially 
erected for the purpose, and stand 
isolated from public roads and dwell- 
ings. Surrounded by open pad- 
docks, in which the old gum trees 
are still standing, its position for a 
school is unrivalled. In addition to 
a large kitchen garden and orchard, 
which provide an abundant supply of 
vegetables and fruit, and a private 
dairy herd, there is an excellent 
playground of fifteen acres attached 
to the school, and the boys really 
enjoy the benejts of country life 
while being within five miles of Mel- 
bourne, The house arrangements 



30 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



which are carried out under the im- 
mediate direction of Mrs. Buntine, 
assisted by a capable and experienced 
matron, are excellent, and boarders 
enjoy the comfort of home life under 
a kindly but firm discipline. Special 
attention is paid to the welfare and 
happiness of junior boys, and the 
head master's practice of sitting 
down in hall with the boys has a 




Jokn$Ume, CfShannisiy and Co. Metb. 

Mr. Walter Murray Buntine. 

salutary and wholesome influence on 
their conduct and conversation. The 
dormitories are lofty and well- 
ventilated, and the lavatory arrange- 
ments convenient and ample, while 
boarders have a large room assigned 
to them for recreation. The morn- 
ing and evening study is superin- 
tended by the head master, with the 
aid of three resident masters, and 
special attention is paid to the moral 
and Christian training of the boys. 
The course of study includes all the 
branches of a liberal education. The 
school is divided into the lower and 
upper school, and the latter again 
subdivided into the classical and 
commercial sections. There is also 
a post-matriculation class for boys 
reading for University honors. The 
curriculum embraces the following 
subjects :— Bible, English, Writing, 
Arithmetic, Geography, Algebra, 
Geometry, History, Greek, Latin, 
German, French, Physics, Physiology, 
Botany, Chemistry, Shorthand, Book- 
keeping, Music (piano and violin), 
Drawing, Gymnastics, Elocution ; 
*he instruction in each subject being 



allotted to masters selected from 
the ranks of University men, and of 
teachers of special training and 
ability. Home work is carefully set 
and examined each day, special diffi- 
culties being explained previously in 
class, so that boys are enabled to 
prepare their lessons without addi- 
tional assistance at home. Prizes 
are awarded for the various subjects 
in each class at Christmas, special 
prizes being also given by friends of 
the school. The staff includes four 
Bachelors of Arts, together with the 
resident and visiting masters, most 
of whom are University men. During 
the last five years more than fifty 
boys from the school have been suc- 
cessful in passing the matriculation 
examination, many of them taking 
honors. In addition to this, seven 
Government exhibitions of the value 
of £40 a year, tenable for five years, 



velopment of the body as a science, 
adapts the exercises to the age and 
physique of the pupil. The splendid 
playground of fifteen acres attached 
to the school offers every facility for 
the practice of cricket and football, 
and a tennis court is in constant use 
by members of the tennis club. The 
annual athletic sports are held in 
October of each year, all arrange- 
ments being made and carried out by 
a committee of senior boys, with a 
master as honorary secretary. Dur- 
ing the summer months the boys 
bathe in the sea, about a mile dis- 
tant, and are taught to swim. 
Every boy, unless physically inca- 
pacitated, must drill for half an 
hour twice a week. There is a 
cadet corps in connection with the 
school, under the charge of a mili- 
tary drill sergeant, and boys above 
thirteen years of age may be en- 




Caulfllold Grammar Sohool, East St. Hilda. 



and several others of less value, have 
been gained. At the matriculation 
examination held in December, 1901, 
six boys from the school were suc- 
cessful in passing ; whilst in the list 
of successful candidates at the Uni- 
versity annual examination, held 
during the same term, fifteen Old 
Boys passed their various years at 
the University. Six of the number 
appeared high up in the honor list. 
One passed for Science, two for 
Law, seven for Medicine, three for 
Engineering, and two for Arts. The 
gymnasium is fitted up with all 
necessary modern appliances and ap- 
paratus, and is under the chance 
of an experienced and efficient in- 
structor, who, by treating the de- 



rolled as cadets as soon as they are 
provided with the uniform of the 
Second Battalion. A number of the 
Old Boys of the school volun- 
teered and went out to South Africa 
to fight for the honor of the Flag 
and Australia, a somewhat dispro- 
portionate quota of whom gave 
up their lives for the Empire. Lieu- 
tenant Stanley Reid, Lance-corporal 
Wilkinson, and Private Tom Stock, 
all of whom were killed in action, 
and Private Holloway, who was 
severely wounded, had been boarders 
at the school a few years previously. 
Private T. B. Foster, who died of 
enteric fever, and Lieutenant George 
Macartney, who was severely 
wounded in the relief of Ladysmith, 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



31 



were amongst the list of day 
scholars. The head master, Mr. 
WALTER MURRAY BUNTINE, 
B.A., is a native of Victoria, and 
was born in Gippsland in the year 
1866. Educated at the Scotch Col- 
lege, Melbourne, he went thence to 
the Melbourne University, where he 
obtained the Bachelor of Arts degree 
in Mathematics and Natural Phi- 
losophy. His natural gifts as a 
teacher, and his special talent for 
organisation, have been largely in- 
strumental in securing the recent 
success of the school, and may be 
held to account for the position it 
now holds as one of the leading insti- 
tutions of the kind in Victoria. 

The TOORAK GRAMMAR 

SCHOOL, High Street, Armadale. 
This institution, which was founded 




Johnstone. O'Shannesty cmd Ob. 

Mb. Frank Goldstraw. 



Melb. 



successful scholastic training and 
practice are guarantees of his ca- 
pacity as an educationalist, and great 
care is taken in the selection of as- 
sistant masters, both as to their 
ability and character. The head 
master, who attaches no less import- 
ance to the formation of character 
than to mental development, person- 
ally takes part in the instruction of 
every boy in the. school, and tests 
his work by regular examinations. 
Pupils have been received from 
Western Australia, Tasmania, 
Queensland, Thursday Island, and 
the Philippines. The boarders enjoy 
the comforts and sociability of home 
life, young and delicate boys receiv- 
ing special care ; and the domestic 
arrangements are under the control 
of Mrs. Goldstraw, who has had 
great experience in boarding school 




in 1896, and has progressed rapidly 
since then, has for its head master 
Mr. PRANK GOLDSTRAW, M.A., 
who is an exhibitioner, scholar, first 
class honorman, and prizeman of the 
Melbourne University. Before com- 
mencing this school he had a lengthy 
connection with Wesley College, 



Toorak Grammar School, High Stroot, Armadalo. 

where for ten years he was second 
master, and finally took the position 
of head master. The college has for 
its objects the education, on sound 
and liberal principles, of boys, in 
order to fit them for a business life, 
or to prepare them for a University 
career. Mr. Goldstraw's long and 



management. Help is given in 
school in the preparation of home 
lessons, and unsectarian religious in- 
struction is regularly imparted, 
boarders attending their own 
churches. Languages and shorthand 
are included in the ordinary cur- 
riculum. The school library, which 



32 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



is continually being added to, is 
freely accessible to all the boys. 
The accommodation for recreation is 
ample, consisting of a large drill and 
play ground, open to the sea, and a 
first-class cricket and football ground 
in Toorak Park. The school itself 
is a handsome and commodious 
building, standing in the midst of 
well laid out grounds, and is sewered 
throughout. Mr. Goldstraw is an 
examiner in drawing to the Educa- 
tion Department, and in former 
years was a frequent contributor to 
the exhibitions of the Victorian 
Academy and the Victorian Artists' 
Society. 

Mr. J. B. O'HARA, M.A., 
Principal of the South Melbourne 
College (private address : Beacons- 
field Parade, Albert Park), was 
born in Bendigo in 1866, and 
is therefore probably the youngest 
head master of a large public school 
in Victoria. After completing his 
University course as a graduate in 
the school of mathematics and 
natural philosophy he was appointed 
lecturer in those subjects at Ormond 
College, Melbourne University. This 
work he resigned to take charge of 
the South Melbourne College, which, 




John* tone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. J. B. O'Hara. 

under his directorship, has developed 
into the leading public school in Vic- 
toria. For the past nine years this 
institution has held the premier place 
in the matriculation lists, and has 
gained numerous scholarships and 



exhibitions. As an example of the 
splendid work being done by this col- 
lege it may be mentioned that during 
the past eight years only twenty-eight 
first-class honors in physics and 
chemistry have been gained *by all the 
colleges in Victoria, and of these 
fourteen, or exactly half, have been 
secured by South Melbourne College. 
It has also won the mathematical 
exhibition five times in the last eight 
years, and the French and German 
exhibition four times. The following 
results are eloquent testimony to the 
success of this college : — January, 
1895, twenty-one passes, first in the 
colony ; January, 1896, twenty-four 
passes, first in the colony ; January, 
1897, twenty-seven passes, first in the 
colony ; January, 1898, twenty-one 
passes, first in the colony ; January, 
1899, twenty-nine passes, first in the 
colony ; January, 1900, twenty-six 
passes, first in the colony ; January, 
1901, twenty-eight passes, first in the 
colony ; January, 1902, twenty-nine 
passes, first in the colony. Many of 
its pupils hold distinguished posi- 
tions in the colony, and several of 
its graduates are already leaving an 
influence on the higher educational 
life of Victoria. Mr. Kerr Grant, 
whose mathematical course at the 
University has been absolutely unap- 
proached, had charge of the mathe 
matics at the Ballarat School of 
Mines for a year, and at present 
is resident mathematical tutor at 
Ormond College, Melbourne Univer- 
sity. Another brilliant mathematical 
graduate is Mr. Archibald D. 
Gilchrist, who is a valued and dis- 
tinguished lecturer at the Working 
Men's College. To enumerate the 
successes of the many distinguished 
pupils of the South Melbourne College 
would occupy more space than we 
could conveniently spare. Suffice it 
to say that many of the most con- 
spicuous ornaments of the engineer 
ing, medical, and law professions are 
old pupils of this college. The prin- 
cipal has also found time to woo the 
muses, but his contributions to the 
poetic literature of Australia are too 
well known to require any comment 
here. 

TINTERN LADIES' COLLEGE, 
Glenferrie Road South, Glenferrie. 
Principals, Mrs. and the Misses Cook. 
This educational establishment was 



founded in 1877 by the present prin- 
cipal, Mrs. Cook. It ranks among 
the oldest and most successful of the 
high class secondary schools of the 
metropolis, and is equally well known 
and esteemed for the excellence of 




Johnstone, O'Shann&gy and Co.' 

Mrs. E. B. Cook. 



Melb. 



its kindergarten and primary work. 
Large and lofty dormitories, well- 
ventilated and comfortable class- 
rooms, good grounds and attractive 
surroundings, offer superior induce- 
ment to country parents desirous of 
placing their girls in a good boarding 
school. Among the referees of the 
college, as parents or guardians of 
children who have been, or are being, 
educated at Tin tern, we note the 
names of the Bishops of Riverina and 
Wangaratta, Judge Hamilton, Dr. 
Pettigrew ; Hon. A. R. Richardson, 
Serpentine, W.A. ; Mr. James 
Robertson, Mimora, Temora, N.S.W. 
The teaching staff includes some 
of the best specialists in the 
State, and ample provision is 
made for imparting a full and 
liberal education along desirable 
lines in practical, aesthetic, or 
social themes. The school is essen- 
tially a Christian establishment, 
under the religious supervision of the 
Church of England. Bible study, 
studies in missionary work, and the 
development of charitable and benevo- 
lent habits, are carefully encouraged 
and provided for. An excellent 
school paper, entitled "The Brook," 
edited entirely by the girls, and bear- 
ing the significant motto (adapted 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



33 



from Tennyson's poem), "Girls may 
come and girls may go, but I go on 
for ever," bears evidence to the 
quality and thoroughness of the 
English work done in the college. 
The matriculation results have 
always been very satisfactory to all 
concerned, and generally the college 
may be recommended confidently as 
an excellently conducted and tho- 
roughly good school. The senior 
principal, Mrs. E. B. Cook, nee 
Mansfield, is one of the very few 
matrons actively engaged in the 
conduct of such an establishment, 
which ranks among the highest of its 
kind in the State. The Misses Cook 
are associated with their mother in 
the management of the school. Two 
of these talented young ladies devote 
their energies solely to the musical 
tuition of the pupils, and the high- 
class music chosen for the annual 
school concert evidences their ability 
to produce eminently satisfactory 
results. In securing honors, exhibi- 
tions, and scholarships, "Tintern" 
has more than held its own, and is 
fully entitled to the wide reputation 
which it has earned as one of the 
very best of our educational estab- 
lishments. 



BRADSHAW'S BUSINESS COL- 
LEGE, 40 Elizabeth Street, Mel- 
bourne (E. H. Bradshaw, A.I.A.V.). 
This college, which has recently been 
opened at considerable cost, will ere 
long rank as one of the finest busi- 
ness training institutions in the 
State. The principal (Mr. E. H. 
Bradshaw), who is a member of 
the Incorporated Institute of Ac- 
countants, Victoria, and a Govern- 
ment municipal auditor, personally 
conducts all classes for examination 
in the various Accountants' Insti- 
tutes and Government departments. 
All students receive individual atten- 
tion. In the typewriting department 
the pupils are not restricted to the 
use of one machine, which is an 
obvious advantage. Bradshaw 's 
system (copyright registered) of 
book-keeping, especially arranged for 
the commercial department, is used 
exclusively. Foreign languages are 
taught. Evening classes are a 
special feature of the college. The 
interior arrangements of the college 
are superb, the furniture having been 
specially designed and manufactured 



to the order of the principal. The 
following outline will show the class 
of work done at Bradshaw's Business 
College : — The morning the pupil 
enters the college his business 
career has commenced. He is ex- 
pected to conform to the same rules 
and conditions as though he were a 
salaried clerk. He must be regular 
and punctual in attendance, and is 
not permitted to neglect his duties 
for any reasons that he would not 
submit to an employer. In the 
business practice department the 
student opens a set of books ; buys 
and sells goods, both for cash and 
on credit ; receives and issues all 
manner of cheques, drafts, promis- 
sory notes, invoices, statements, 




Johnstone, O'Shanncsay and Q>. Afclb. 

Mr. E. H. Bradshaw. 

bills of lading, account sales, etc.; 
makes out balance - sheets, state- 
ments of loss and gain, prepares his 
income tax returns, and generally 
handles all classes of business docu- 
ments. As it is obvious that an 
intelligent understanding of all work 
is essential before it can be satisfac- 
torily performed, the pupil is taught 
the legal aspect of each transaction, 
and the liabilities of the respective 
parties thereto. Every business 
transaction represents a contract. 
It is, therefore, necessary that a 
business man should know classes of 
contracts, how they originate, what 
are their elements, what contracts 
need to be written, the effect of 
fraud thereon, how contract agree- 
ments are interpreted and how dis- 



charged, what contracts are legal 
and what illegal, who are competent 
to contract and who suffer from 
disability. A man of business needs 
to know the law relating to ne- 
gotiable documents, the responsi- 
bilities of the parties thereto, the 
means and effect of transfer. The 
law of principal and agent is fully 
explained ; who may be principals ; 
who may act as agents, how ap- 
pointed, their powers, liabilities, 
duties, and rights ; how agency may 
be terminated. In these days of 
large trading concerns, it is essential 
to be conversant with the law relat- 
ing to partnership, how created, the 
class of partners ; who may be 
partners ; their duties and liabilities 
to each, and their rights inter se ; 
their responsibilities to third 
parties ; how the partnership may 
be dissolved ; the powers that cease 
and those that remain after the dis- 
solution. The student is also made 
acquainted, in an outline form, with 
company law. 

MEIRION COACHING 
COLLEGE, 443 Bourke Street, Mel- 
bourne.— The above high-class educa- 
tional institution was established in 
1898. It has for its objects the 
coaching of pupils of both sexes, 
either in classes or privately, or by 
lessons given through the post, for a 
successful business career, and for 
matriculation, public service, and 
other examinations, including those 
of the Pharmacy, Dental Board, 
police, licensed shorthand writers, 
mechanical engineers, State School 
teachers and monitors. The day 
classes begin at 10 a.m. The even- 
ing classes, which are held every 
evening, and are intended to give 
those engaged in business during the 
day the best possible preparation 
for examinations, begin at 7 o'clock 
and last till 10 p.m. Private tuition 
in any subject or subjects is given 
at any hour by a specially qualified 
teacher. Postal tuition is carried 
on with pupils in every State of 
Australia, thereby affording splendid 
facilities to pupils who cannot afford 
the loss of time and the expense 
involved in coming to and living in 
Melbourne. Adult ladies and gentle- 
men whose early educational oppor- 
tunities have been neglected also find 
in the private tuition and evening 



34 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



classes of Meirion College exception- 
ally valuable means of mental im- 
provement, special attention being 
given to the teaching of English 
to foreigners from all parts of the 
globe ; while particular pains are 
taken with the backward and dull 
pupils equally with the bright, intel- 
ligent, and more advanced ones. 
The subjects taught are:— Shorthand, 
type - writing, book - keeping, arith- 
metic, algebra, mensuration, geo- 
metry, trigonometry, writing, letter 
writing, geography, history, chem- 




Johnotont, U'tihamuttty and Co. Melb. 

Mr. E. A. J. Conway. 

istry, physics, zoology, botany, phy- 
siology, elementary anatomy, English 
literature, parsing and analysis, 
essay writing, spelling, derivations, 
transcriptions, dictation, reading, 
elocution ; French, German, Latin, 
Greek, Hindustanee, Urdu, Sanscrit, 
and the Persian languages, litera- 
ture, and composition ; conversa- 
tional French ; the practical and 
theoretical mechanism and driving of 
engines ; music, theoretical, instru- 
mental, and vocal ; drawing, free- 
hand, model, and perspective ; paint- 
ing in oils and water colors, etc. 



Each term dates from entry, and 
consists of ten weeks of actual 
tuition, an allowance being made for 
holidays, and absence through illness. 
The principal and head teacher of 
the college is Mr. E. A. J. 
CONWAY, member of the Melbourne 
University, member of the Royal 
University, member of the London 
University, University honorman, in- 
termediate exhibitioner, etc., who 
has for several years been matricula- 
tion master at leading boys' and 
girls' grammar schools and colleges, 
and has been most successful in his 
results at every examination held in 
Melbourne. Mr. Conway's assistants 
are ladies and gentlemen who have 
passed their own examinations with 
the highest credit, and whose ability 
to teach has been practically de- 
monstrated. 

Mr. FREDERICK WALTER 
MUNT, M.I.P.S., Principal* of the 
Melbourne School of Shorthand, 
349 Collins Street, is a native 
of Victoria. His education was 
acquired at Wesley College, Mel- 
bourne, and at the Melbourne 
University, of which he is an 
undergraduate. He is a capable and 
successful teacher of all the special 
subjects undertaken in the school, in- 
cluding phonography, typewriting, 
book-keeping, and general commercial 
work. The institution was estab- 
lished in 1888 by Mr. Edgar Robinson, 
M.P.I., at a time when the art of 
shorthand was but little practised in 
the colonies, and its vast importance 
in commercial life hardly appreciated, 
and passed into the hands of the 
present principal in* 1900. At first 
no attempt was made to teach type- 
writing, but, as the demand for 
operators steadily increased, that 
subject was added to the school's 
curriculum. Instruction is now 
given on all the leading machines, 
and students are taught solely from 
original exercises, badly - written 



MSS., etc., without the assistance 
of books. This work includes every- 
thing that is. likely to be met with 
by the student in actual business. 
Besides shorthand and typewriting, 
instruction is given at the school in 
book - keeping and general business 
training. Students are prepared for 
all English and colonial examina- 
tions. Individual instruction, in 
preference to the less satisfactory 
class method, reasonable tuition fees, 
hours of tuition arranged day or 
night to suit the convenience of 




Juknstone. O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Frederick Walter Mdnt. 

pupils, rapid tuition, up - to - date 
methods and equipment, are the 
special features of the school. A 
satisfactory circumstance in connec- 
tion with the school is the fact that 
the connection increases almost 
entirely from the recommendations 
of present and past pupils, many of 
whom occupy lucrative and respon- 
sible positions in the city, on the 
Press, on the Federal "Hansard, " in 
the Government departments, etc., 
and are unanimous in testifying to 
the thorough work done under the 
past and present principals. 



Ecclesiastical. 



The Church of England. 



The first religious service celebrated in what was then 
Port Phillip was conducted, as we have mentioned else- 
where, by the Rev. Joseph Orton, a Wesleyan minister, 
who had come over from Van Diemen's Land to engage in 
missionary work amongst the blacks. It was held on 
Sunday, the 24th of April, 1836, Mr. James Simpson, a 
member of the Church of England, reading the responses, 
and Dr. Alexander Thomson leading the singers in the 
small congregation. Thereafter Captain Lonsdale, the 
police magistrate of the infant settlement, read the 
liturgy of the Church of England in the Court House on 
Sundays. 

In the year 1837 a duly ordained minister, the Rev. 
T. B. Naylor, arrived on a visit from Van Diemen's Land, 
and at his first service baptised the first white child born 
in Melbourne, John Melbourne Gilbert. A grant of land 
was issued from the Crown to the Church of England in 
the same year, and a weatherboard chapel was erected 
upon it, occupying the site of the present St. James' 
Cathedral. Here the prayers of the church and a sermon 
were read every Sunday by a layman, Mr. James Smith, 
and the first communion was held on Easter Sunday, 
1838, by Bishop Broughton, from Sydney, who likewise 
consecrated a portion of the old Melbourne Cemetery. In 
the same year the Rev. J. C. Grylls was sent out from 
England as chaplain, and acted in that capacity for 
twelve months only. In the year following a commence- 
ment was made with the present structure in William 
Street, the foundation stone of which was laid by Mr. 
Latrobe in November, 1839. It occupied three years and 
a half in building, cost upwards of £.5,000, and, when 
completed, was a miracle of ugliness. 

In 1841 steps were taken to raise funds for the erec- 
tion of a church in Geelong, but two years elapsed before 
it could be proceeded with ; and* about the same time a 
plain brick building of moderate capacity was erected in 
Portland as a place of worship for members of the Church 
of England, who had previously assembled in a thatched 
barn, where Mr. Stephen Henty conducted the services. 

In 1847 Port Phillip was separated from New South 
Wales for ecclesiastical purposes, and was constituted an 
independent episcopate, Dr. Charles Perry being conse- 
crated first Bishop of Melbourne, at the suggestion of the 
Bishop of London, and with the approval of Earl Grey. 
Among those who accompanied Dr. Perry to his diocese 
were two— Dr. (afterwards Dean) Macartney and Mr. 
(afterwards Canon) Handfield, both of whom subse- 
quently became distinguished men in connection with the 
affairs of the church. The Bishop and his staff arrived 
in Hobson's Bay on Sunday, the 23rd of January, 1848, 



and he was formally installed five days later. There 
were at this time "only three good houses in the colony." 
The Superintendent's modest cottage at Jolimont was too 
small to receive guests, and Bishop Perry and his com- 
panions were inmates of the Southern Cross Hotel, in 
Bourke Street, until temporary accommodation could be 
provided for them at Jolimont, not far from the site set 
apart for the episcopal residence. Dr. Macartney pro- 
ceeded to Heidelberg, and a church which had been erected 
on the Eastern Hill, Melbourne, and dedicated to St. 
Peter, was placed under the charge of the Rev. D. 
Newham, one of the clergymen whom the Bishop had 
brought out with him. Another, the Rev. P. Hales, was 
sent into Gippsland, which Dr. Perry had visited on 
horseback, accompanied by his wife, so that he -had 
become personally conversant with its spiritual destitu- 
tion, and had been powerfully impressed with the neces- 
sity of relieving it. 

In 1848 the Government of New South Wales 
reserved two acres of land in Clarendon Street as a site 
for the Bishop's residence, and made a grant of £2,000 
for its erection, but the building was not ready for occu- 
pation until 1853. Dr. Perry lost no time in visiting 
every part of his extensive diocese in which settlement 
had taken place, and to which access could be had by land 
or sea, and his work was largely of a missionary charac- 
ter. At Ballan he had the satisfaction of establishing 
a resident clergyman, the Rev. W. Hall ; and wherever 
he went he perceived the magnitude of the local needs in 
regard to religious instruction, and was made to feel how 
arduous was the task he had undertaken. 

The appointment of Dr. Macartney as Archdeacon of 
Geelong in 1848 stimulated the extension of church 
ministrations in the surrounding districts, and the 
Bishop's indefatigable journeys to the interior of the 
country served to convince him that even civilised com- 
munities are liable to degenerate into a condition border- 
ing upon savagery and barbarism in a state of society 
where the restraints of religion, morality, and civil 
authority are wanting for any length of time. Speaking 
of Kilmorc, for example, he says in one of his letters :— 
"Until very lately there was no minister of religion of 
any denomination (in a population of 700), no magistrate 
within a distance of several miles, and drunkenness and 
outrage prevailed to a fearful extent." 

A notable incident is mentioned at this date, namely, 
the joint occupancy of the Presbyterian Church at Heidel- 
berg by the members of that denomination and by the 
Episcopalians, the one holding their services in the 
morning, and the other in the afternoon. 



36 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



The separation of Port Phillip from New South Wales 
in 1851, and the almost contemporaneous discoveries of 
gold, led naturally to important results as regarded the 
Church of England, and it was felt that that body ought 
to become self-supporting, in respect to its expenditure for 
ecclesiastical purposes, in the time to come. Hitherto 
£14,000 had been expended in meeting the wants of the 
diocese, and of this amount no less than £10,000 had been 
received from societies and from Christian friends in 
England. The acceptance of such eleemosynary aid by a 
prosperous community was felt to be humiliating to the 
recipients and unjust to the donors. 

At the epoch we have now reached the position of the 
Church of England in Victoria was this :— 

In Melbourne there were two churches in full activity, 
and a third (St. Paul's), where St. Paul's Cathedral now 
stands, in course of erection ; in Collingwood there was a 
school used on Sundays for public worship ; at Richmond, 
one church, in which a school was being held- during the 
week ; at Brighton, a small and incommodious brick 
church ; at Williamstown, a structure not belonging to 
the church, used for a school and public worship ; at St. 
Kilda, a substantial schoolroom, in which service was 
performed ; at Heidelberg, an unfinished church opened 
for worship ; at Fentridge, a small portion of a 
church erected, which was also used as a schoolroom ; 
at Kilmore, a schoolroom used for church purposes ; 
at Ballan, a parsonage without a church ; at Geelong, 
one church in use and a second as yet unfinished ; at 
Belfast, a weatherboard church of limited dimensions ; 
at Portland, a schoolroom fitted up for religious worship ; 
at Tarraville, in Gippsland, a cottage for the clergyman, 
but no building for him to officiate in. 

Such and so many were the edifices belonging to the 
Church of England in Victoria in the year 1851, when the 
number of clergymen, all told, was just twenty-four. 
Then came the startling discoveries of gold, the inrush of 
population from far and near, and the social transforma- 
tion of the colony and of its capital. In the course of 
eighteen months Bishop Perry had to deplore the loss by 
death of nine of his clergy, and he found himself unable 
to make provision for the spiritual needs of the 70,000 
people who had poured into the country, and among whom 
was a large contingent of the felonry from Van Diemen's 
Land. Church-building was out of the question ; and in 
the universal thirst for gold, men's thoughts were so 
absorbed by the precious metal, which lay beneath the 
earth in such incalculable quantities, that they had neither 
the leisure nor the inclination to turn their eyes or their 
aspirations heavenward. At one time it seemed as if the 
very framework of society, disjointed by the sudden and 
violent shock of these discoveries, which levelled all dis- 
tinctions of rank, and reversed its old gradations, was 
about to fall to pieces, but subsequent events proved that 
any such gloomy vaticinations were unjustifiable, and that 
it was a fermentation and not a decomposition that the 
social order was passing through. The good Bishop was 
not discouraged by the course of affairs, but, believing 
that there "is some soul of goodness in things evil," pro- 
ceeded to "observingly distil it out." To quote his own 
words, if God had brought the gold out of the earth in 
such abundance, He must have done so for some wise 



purpose, which He would work out in His own way, and 
in His own time. "In the meanwhile," said he, "let us, 
in our several stations, employ all our influence for 
retrieving disorder and iniquity, and for promoting the 
maintenance of good government, the preservation of a 
sound social system, and, above all, the advancement of 
pure spiritual religion and piety throughout the land." 
This Dr. Perry certainly did— according to his light ; and 
it must have been a great relief to his mind, harassed 
as he was continually by the want of means to carry on 
what was really a missionary work in Victoria, when the 
Legislature appropriated an annual sum of £30,000 at 
first, and afterwards of £50,000, for "the erection of 
buildings for public worship, and to provide for the 
maintenance of ministers of religion in the colony." The 
proportion of this grant to which the Church of England 
was entitled was £14,000 in the first instance, and 
£23,500 in the second. It is true he was opposed, on 
principle, to State aid, but he afterwards perceived its 
extreme utility at that particular juncture. Nor was 
there any religious denomination which needed that aid 
more urgently, for this simple but very obvious reason : 
In England the church is richly endowed, so that its lay 
members have never been accustomed to put their hands 
in their pockets for the maintenance of their clergy and 
the erection of places of worship as other denominations 
have done. Hence, when emigrating to a new country 
without a State Church, Episcopalians were unable for 
some time to adjust themselves to a voluntary system, 
which was contrary to use and wont, so that State aid 
to the Church of England in Victoria was extremely op- 
portune and serviceable as a temporary expedient for 
supplying the funds, which might not have been readily 
forthcoming from individual donors unused to such claims 
upon their purses. 

About ten years afterwards, State aid to religion was 
abolished, and by this time the members of the Church 
of England had become accustomed to the practice, and 
more alive to the duty, of supporting their own ministers 
and institutions. 

In 1852 Bishop Perry appointed the first archdeacon, 
and in 1854 the first chancellor of the diocese. Some 
iron churches were built in England and sent out to Vic- 
toria, where they proved to be everything that was 
undesirable, both as regards their external appearance and 
their internal comfort and convenience. Efforts were 
successfully made for the erection of churches on some of 
the principal goldfields, and in the Western District ; and 
in 1856 the Royal assent was given to a measure for 
enabling members of the Church of England in Victoria 
to manage their own affairs by an assembly composed of 
both clergy and laity. The institution of this body was 
largely owing to the sagacity and pertinacity of Bishop 
Perry, who thus voluntarily divested himself of the 
almost autocratic power he had previously exercised. By 
this time the number of the clergy was nearly fifty, 
while the lay representatives rather exceeded that 
number, and the procedure of the assembly was, and con- 
tinued to be, based on that of the House of Commons. 
One of its earliest acts was to vest the management of 
every consecrated church in a body of churchwardens, 
acting with the advice and consent of the vestry. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



37 



Among the objects upon which Bishop Perry had set 
his heart, ever since the colony of Victoria had reached 
such a stage of growth as to render the project prac- 
ticable, was the foundation of a Church of England 
College in connection with the University, in which young 
men might be trained for the ministry. A committee 
was formed in order to carry out this object, and on the 
10th of July, 1870, the foundation stone of the college 
was laid by Professor Wilson, but it was not until two 
years later that the building was completed, and opened 
under the charge of the Rev. G. W. Torrance. In 1876 
Dr. A. Leeper was appointed warden, and he instituted a 
regular college discipline, and provided adequate tuition, 
with the most satisfactory results. 



value of which has by no means grown less with the lapse 

of time. For over a quarter of a century— we will not 

say this Bishop, but simply this gentleman, has worn 

" The white flower of a blameless life, 
Before a thousand peering littlenesses." 

In 1878 Her late Majesty the Queen appointed Dr. 
Perry Prelate of the Order of St. Michael and St. 
George, which he held until his death on the 2nd of 
November, 1891. 

On the 5th of August, 1875, the Bishop of Ballarat 
(Dr. Thornton), who had been consecrated in Westminster 
Abbey by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishops 
of London, Melbourne, and Goulburn on the 1st of May 
in the same year, arrived in Melbourne, and proceeded to 




St. Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne. 



In June, 1872, Bishop Perry completed the twenty- 
fifth year of his episcopate, and in the year following a 
second bishopric— that of Ballarat— was created, with a 
salary of £1,000 per annum. Feeling the need of rest 
after so many years of arduous labour, Dr. Perry 
resigned his episcopate in 1874, and proceeded to England, 
there to enjoy the repose to which he was so justly 
entitled. As was said of him at the time of his de- 
parture by a Melbourne journalist :— "During the twenty- 
seven years he has gone in and out amongst us his life 
has been a daily moral lesson to the community— a 
lesson of purity, unselfishness, and devotion to duty, the 



take charge of his new diocese, which he held until the 
year 1900. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction embraced that 
portion of Victoria which lies to the westward of the 
144th degree of east longitude, and during his episcopacy 
the church continued to extend in the spacious district 
confided to his supervision. On his resignation, he was 
succeeded by Dr. A. V. Green, the present diocesan. 

After the departure of Dr. Perry the affairs of the 
diocese of Melbourne were administered by the Dean, the 
Venerable Dr. Macartney, until the beginning of January, 
1877, when his successor, Dr. James Moorhouse, arrived 
in the colony, and very soon proved himself to be a man 



38 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



of exceptional ability, and one eminently fitted for the 
fulfilment of the high functions devolving upon him. The 
breadth and liberality of his views, the catholicity of his 
sentiments, his strong sympathy with the progressive 
spirit of the age, his robust intellect, his comprehensive 
outlook upon contemporary events, his vigour as a writer, 
and his fine qualities both as a preacher and as a public 
speaker, were warmly appreciated by the more enlightened 
members of his own church, and by numbers of thoughtful 
people outside of it, so that when at the expiration of 
little more than nine years he resigned his bishopric and 
proceeded to England, where he was translated to the See 
of Manchester, his departure was greatly regretted, and 
he left behind him a host of admirers and a multitude of 
warm friends. During his episcopate the new cathedral 
of St. Paul was built and opened for divine service on 
the 22nd of January, 1891. Erected upon a very circum- 
scribed site, the edifice, instead of exhibiting the ordinary 
orientation, runs from north to south, the east transept 
is truncated, and the choir is wanting in amplitude. 
Instead of standing in the midst of a green and quiet 
close, it is surrounded by the deafening roar of railway, 
tramway, and general traffic ; and the colour of the 
stone is already darkened and defaced by the dust of four 
converging thoroughfares, and by the smoke and soot in- 
cessantly vomited by dozens of locomotives and as many 
factory chimneys, which are swept towards it as often as 
the wind is in the south, south-east, or south-west. 

Hereafter, perhaps, another cathedral will be erected 
upon the site originally reserved for the purpose in 
Clarendon Street, East Melbourne, with lofty towers 
which will dominate the city, and St. Paul's will then 
revert to merely parochial uses ; and thus the one 
mistake of Dr. Moorhouse's episcopal career in Melbourne 
will be remedied. 

On his resignation in 1886 there was an interval of 
thirteen months, and then the Right Rev. Field Flowers 
Goe, D.D., was appointed to the vacant See, which he 
relinquished owing to ill-health in 1902, and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Lowther Clarke. 

The Church of England in Victoria had reached the 
sixtieth, and the diocese of Melbourne the fiftieth, year 
of its existence in 1897, and, from an appeal on behalf 
of a Church Jubilee Fund, issued that year by the 
Archdeacons of Sandhurst, Melbourne, and Gippsland, we 
make the following extract as a compendious presentation 
of the progress made by that church during the first half 
century of its existence as an organic body :— "Our 
Church began her corporate life here few in numbers, poor, 
and ill-furnished. Bishop Perry found on his arrival only 
three clergy and three . churches. There was no 
cathedral ; there was no capitular body ; there was no 
organised machinery for supplying the spiritual wants of 
the inland settlers. Like the primitive Church, we were 
a feeble folk. To-day a splendid fane is erected on the 
site of one of our earliest buildings, equipped with a full 
staff of deans, canons (regular and lay), and a choir ad- 
mittedly the finest in the Southern Hemisphere. A 
devoted body of clergy, 180 in number, spread over two- 
thirds of Victoria, minister to nearly 60,000 people, who 
regularly attend her services. Three times that number 
receive their visits. More than 2,000 communicants par- 



ticipate at the Holy Board. She has a Sunday School 
attendance of almost 30,000. In 700 buildings her 
solemn services of prayer and praise are offered up. 
Further, the important diocese of Ballarat has been 
established, and vigorous work has been carried on by 
the Bishop and an efficient staff of priests and deacons, 
embracing a total of fifty-four clergy, whilst its comple- 
ment of churches, schools, and vicarages is fully propor- 
tionate to our supply." 

The foundation stone of St. Paul's Cathedral was laid 
on the 13th of April, 1880, by the then Governor of Vic- 
toria, the Marquis of Normanby, and the progress of the 
building was very slow, owing to the want of funds, until 
a generous Presbyterian anonymously offered a donation 
of £5,000 contingent upon a further sum of £25,000 being 
raised from other sources. This stimulated the liberality 
of wealthy men like the late Sir William Clarke and his 
brother Joseph, Mr. Henry Miller, and others, and thence- 
forward the erection of the structure continued apace. 
The munificent donor of the £5,000 subsequently proved 
to be Mr. Francis Ormond, who has left behind him two 
such enduring monuments of his beneficence as the Ormond 
and the Working Men's Colleges. The general plan of the 
Cathedral is cruciform, with a portion of one arm of the 
cross abbreviated, so that the eastern transept is 14 -feet 
shorter than its western counterpart, and, while the nave 
is 164 feet long, the choir has a total length of 91 feet 
only. The style is that variety of Gothic architecture 
which is known as early English. The two southern 
towers will, when completed, attain an altitude of 130 
feet from the ground, while the central tower is to be 
surmounted by a spire rising to the height of 290 feet. 
The roof is 93 feet from the pavement. Freestone, 
chequered by bands of bluestone, is the material em- 
ployed throughout, and all the woodwork, including the 
massive pulpit and the handsomely - carved Bishop's 
throne, is of Tasmanian black wood. The reredos, repre- 
senting the Last Supper and the Crucifixion, is of 
Venetian glass mosaic. All the windows excepting those 
in the clerestory are- of stained glass, the incidents 
depicted being selected from the New Testament. The 
pavement and a dado round the walls are filled in with 
encaustic tiles. A fine organ is fitted with four manuals 
and pedals. A handsome brass eagle constitutes the 
lectern, and the illumination at night is supplied by 
twelve brass standards, each averaging fifty jets. There 
are permanent seats for 1,550 worshippers, and 2,000 
could be accommodated upon special occasions. Only 
18 feet separate the southern or principal front Of the 
Cathedral from Flinders Street. Some extensive gas 
offices approach it closely on the eastern side, and a 
large hotel overlooks its north-western angle. About 
£126,000 have been expended on the edifice up to the 
present time, and a large sum will be necessary for its 
completion. 

The government of the Cathedral is vested in the 
Bishop, Dr. W. L. Clarke, as head of the chapter, Dean 
Vance, two archdeacons, eight clerical and the same 
number of lay canons. In the year 1901 a third diocese 
was established, that of Gippsland, and Dr. A. W. Pain 
was appointed its first Bishop. In the year following 
two other bishoprics were created, namely, those of 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



39 



Bendigo and Wangaratta, the Rev. H. A. Langley receiv- 
ing the episcopal charge of the first and the Rev. T. H. 
Armstrong that of the second, so that there are now five 
Protestant sees in Victoria, and the erection of Melbourne 
into an archbishopric will probably soon follow. 

Connected with the Church of England in Victoria are 
the following educational institutions :— -Trinity College ; 
the Perry Divinity Hall, Bendigo ; the Church of England 
Grammar School, Melbourne ; the Church of England 
Grammar School, Geelong ; All Saints' Grammar School, 
East St. Kilda ; and St. James 1 Grammar School, Mel- 
bourne. 

From returns tabulated in 1899 there were in the 
diocese of Melbourne 387 churches, 239 school buildings, 
49,594 religious services in the year, 98,831 persons for 
whom accommodation is provided, 439 schools, 40,841 
scholars on the rolls, 29,391 children attending Sunday 
Schools, £88,434 income from all sources, £87,136 aggre- 
gate expenditure. 

In 1896 the Bishop of Melbourne was able to state 
that the parishes in his diocese had raised for all purposes 
the noble sum of £820,066, exclusive of the large sums 
raised and expended on the Cathedral ; that in the previous 
decade ninety - five churches, thirty - eight parsonages, 
and a proportionate number of schools had been erected ; 
and that "no other denomination and no other diocese 
in the Southern Hemisphere has been more liberal to its 
outlying districts than the diocese of Melbourne.' ' 

In connection with Trinity College are two Perry 
scholarships, a Clarke scholarship, a Mary Armytage 



scholarship, a Bromby and a Wigram Allen prize, a Henry 
Berthon scholarship, an Annie Grice and a Florence 
Colles Stanbridge scholarship, the two latter open to 
women students only. There are also nine theological 
studentships, of the annual value of £50 each, namely, 
the Payne, the Bishop's, the Florence Stanbridge, the 
Rupertswood, the Cusack-Russell, the Henty, the Kew, 
the Richard Grice, and the Merley. 

The Church Assembly, presided over by the Bishop, 
comprises 175 laymen and all the licensed clergymen of 
the diocese, of whom there are 190, besides forty-three 
on the retired list, Mr. F. R. Godfrey being chairman of 
committees, and Mr. W. E. Morris its honorary secre- 
tary. The council of the diocese, which assists the 
Bishop in administering the temporal affairs of the 
church, is composed of the Diocesan, th2 Dean, Arch- 
deacons, Chancellor, Advocate, twelve members nominated 
by the Bishop, and nine clerical and nine lay members 
elected by the Assembly. There are, besides, Church 
Extension Commissions, a standing committee of council, 
an inter - diocesan committee, and three corporation 
trustees. 

The Bishop, the Dean, the two senior Archdeacons, 
two lay Canons nominated by the Bishop, and six Canons 
and six lay Canons elected by the Assembly, constitute 
the Cathedral chapter. 

Finally, it may be mentioned that at the end of 1899 
the number of adherents to the Church of England in 
Victoria was computed to be 413,000, or about four- 
elevenths of the total population. 



The Right Reverend HENRY 
LOWTHER CLARKE, D.D., Bishop 
of Melbourne, is a son of the late 
Rev. W. Clarke, M.A., of Firbank, 
Westmorland, England, and was edu- 
cated at Sedbergh School. Like 
many of its ablest pupils, he passed 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, of 
which he was scholar, and he gradu- 
ated as Seventh Wrangler in 1874. 
He was ordained deacon and priest 
by the Archbishop of York (Dr. 
Thomson), and was licensed to the 
curacy of St. John's, Hull. In 1886 
the archbishop nominated him to the 
vicarage of Hedon, and in 1883 he 
became for a short time assistant 
master at St. Peter's School, York. 
In 1884 the dean and chapter ap- 
pointed him to the vicarage of St. 
Martin's, Coney Street, York. He 
made a considerable mark as vicar 
and rural dean of Dewsbury, a post 
which Bishop Walsham How conferred 
on him in 1890, and which he held 
until 1901, when he became vicar and 
rural dean of Huddersfield. In 1902 
Canon Lowther Clarke accepted the 
Bishopric of Melbourne, succeeding 
the Right Rev. Dr. Goe, who resigned 



in April ot that year. He was con- 
secrated in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London, on All Saints' Day (1st 
November), 1902, the ceremony 
having been performed by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Dr. Temple), 
who was assisted by the Bishop of 
Rochester (Dr. Talbot), the Bishop of 
Manchester (Dr. Moorhouse, formerly 
Bishop of Melbourne), the Bishop of 
Brisbane (Dr. Webber), the Bishop of 
Bath and Wells (Dr. Kennion, for- 
merly Bishop of Adelaide), the 
Bishop of Wakefield (Dr. Eden), Dr. 
Montgomery (late Bishop of Tas- 
mania), and Dr. Goe (late Bishop of 
Melbourne). The Bishops of Man- 
chester and Wakefield were the pre- 
senting Bishops at the ceremony. 
During his church career in England 
Bishop Clarke held many important 
offices. He was a proctor in convo- 
cation for the archdeaconry of 
Huddersfield, an official of the arch- 
deacon, and a member of the examin- 
ing board of the Church of England 
Training Schools ; a governor of the 
Pocklington Grammar School, Arch- 
bishop Holgate's Grammar School, 
York, and, by virtue of his being 



Vicar of Huddersfield, a governor 
of Longwood and Fartown Grammar 
Schools ; and a member of the 
committee of the Huddersfield Free 
Library and Art Gallery. Dr. 
Henry Lowther Clarke is the fourth 
Bishop of Melbourne, his predecessors 
having been Dr. Perry, who went out 
to Australia in 1847, the late Bishop 
of Manchester (Dr. Moorhouse), and 
the Rev. Dr. Goe. Bishop Clarke 
left England in January, and at the 
beginning of the following year was' 
enthroned as Bishop of Melbourne in 
St. Pauls Cathedral. He is a 
Churchman of broad views. For 
many years he has been an active 
worker in the cause of temperance, 
and has likewise devoted much time 
and attention to educational matters. 
The diocese of Melbourne has lately 
been greatly reduced in size, but it 
still contains about half the popula- 
tion in Victoria, and the formation 
of a province for the whole State is 
in contemplation, which will add 
considerably to the duties of the 
Bishop. The Church of England 
possesses by far the greatest number 
of members of any religious body, 



40 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



and is called upon to play an im- 
portant part in this formative period 
of the history of the State. It 
should, therefore, be a great advan- 
tage to it to have the leadership of 
one who has for many years been in 
close touch with the problems of 
English life, and has shared largely 
in many democratic movements in 
the home land. Dr. Lowther Clarke 
left the University of Cambridge im- 
mediately after taking his degree, 
and thus abandoned the studies of the 
tranquil courts of the. ancient colleges 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Mtlb. 

The Right Reverend Henry Lowther 
Clarke, D.D., Bishop op Melbourne. 

for the life of a man of action. He 
is called upon continuously for utter- 
ances upon many subjects, and every 
power of mind and body will be 
exercised in the daily routine of his 
busy and exacting life in Victoria. 



The Rev. WILLIAM POTTER, 
editor of the " Australasian School- 
master," comes of a thoroughly 
Protestant clergy stock. His father, 
William Potter, of Stockton-on- 
Tees, England, married Caroline 
Phillips Mitchell, youngest daughter 
of John Mitchell, yeoman farmer, 
Somersetshire, granddaughter of the 
Rev. Mr. Phillips, Church of England 
clergyman, Yeovil, and niece of the 
Rev. Samuel Gatehouse, of Cheriton. 
The subject of this notice was born 
on the 18th April, 1836, in Darling- 



ton, county Durham, and was bap- 
tised by his uncle, the Rev. M. 
Ledger, one of the county clergy. 
Three years afterwards, his father 
emigrated to South Australia, but 
after a short stay went to Hobart, 
Tasmania, having secured a Crown 
appointment. William Potter, jun., 
was educated at Hobart, and bound 
apprentice as a compositor. In the 
year 1852-3 he spent a few months 
successfully at the Bendigo goldfields. 
On returning home he completed the 
term of his indentures on the "Tas- 
manian Colonist" newspaper, and 
then obtained an appointment on the 
permanent staff of the Government 
Printing Department. In 1856 he 
commenced to study for the Bar, 
but, influenced by a resolution of the 
Church urging him to give himself up 
to the ministry, he placed himself 
under the Rev. John Martin 
Strongman, head master of the 
High School. When, in 1857, Mr. 
Strongman accepted the pastorate of 
the Independent Church at Ballarat, 
Victoria, Mr. Potter at once resigned 
his position in the • Government 
service, and joined his preceptor. 
He subsequently continued his 
studies in classics and mathematics 
in the Carlton College, Melbourne, 
under its learned principal, *Mr. G. 
H. Neighbour, M.A., LL.B., K.C. 
From the college he entered at the 
University, attending the classes of 
Professor Hearn and Dr. Dobson, 
and one year succeeded in passing in 
seven subjects, including Political 
Economy, Law Part I., and the 
Civil Service examination. The Rev. 
W. Potter's first pastoral charge 
was the Mount Clear Union Church, 
Ballarat, to which he was ordained 
in the year 1859. In February, 1863, 
he succeeded the Rev. J. Crosby in 
the pastorate of the Baptist Church, 
South Melbourne (Emerald Hill), and 
ever since taking up his residence 
in the metropolis has continued to 
take an active part in its busy 
church life ; in the discussion of its 
educational, political, and social- 
economic problems ; and in the 
operations of its learned and scientific 
institutions. Outside the imme- 
diate sphere of the pastoral office 
Mr. Potter's activities as a journal- 
istic litterateur were early engaged 
in the elucidation of some of the 
educational and social problems of 



the day. The opening of the Parlia- 
mentary session of 1867 found Mr. 
Potter one of the leader and review 
writers on "The Herald" (Mel- 
bourne), then a morning daily. 
Among his educational articles pub- 
lished that year may be mentioned 
those on the Hon. George Higin- 
botham's Bill of 1867 relating to 
public instruction ; on the national 
educational systems of Germany, 
France, and Holland. Nor has the 
subject of educational development 
ever ceased to occupy his earnest at- 
tention. Probably no writer has done 
so much to formulate public opinion 
upon this question. When, during the 
existence of the Francis Government, 
the public mind appeared to be pre- 
pared for a fresh attempt to be made 
to repeal the Common Schools Act, 
and establish a truly national school 
system, Mr. Potter formed one of a 
sub-committee which drafted and sent 
to the officers of all Protestant Alli- 
ance lodges in the centres of popula- 
tion the following resolution :— "That 
as the subject of education must 
speedily be brought under the con- 
sideration of Parliament, this lodge 
would earnestly press upon the 
various branches of the Protestant 
Alliance Friendly Society of Victoria 
the urgent necessity for immediate 
concerted action in order to ensure 
the adoption of the following prin- 
ciples as the basis of any educational 
system to be provided by the people 
of this country :— Public education 
should be— (I.) Departmental. The 
present irresponsible Board of Educa- 
tion should be abolished, and the 
whole scheme of public instruction 
brought under the control of a 
Minister of Education, with a seat 
in the House of Assembly. (II.) 
Graduated. From the most rudi- 
mentary school up to the teaching of 
the University, all the youth of the 
colony should be encouraged to par- 
ticipate in the instruction provided 
by the State. (a) Every district 
should be well supplied with efficient 
elementary schools. (b) In addition 
to elementary schools, the towns and 
thickly-populated districts should be 
provided with upper, or grammar, 
schools, to which the children should 
be drafted from the elementary 
schools on passing the fourth class 
examination. (c) Annual competi- 
tive examinations should be held,. the 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



41 



successful candidates at which should 
be presented with scholarships at 
the University. These examinations 
should be open to the youth of both 
sexes, and to the pupils of both 
public and private schools. (III.) 
Compulsory. All childien from six 
to twelve years of age should receive 
an educational training, provision 
being made by the State for those 
children whose parents cannot pay 
for their education. (IV.) Unsec- 
tarian. All sectarian and dogmatic 
teaching should be excluded from the 
public schools. (V.) The name of 
the schools should be 'Victorian 
Public Schools.' " In the year 1872 
the Rev. Mr. Potter took a leading 
part in the formation of "The 
Victorian Education League," of 
which the Hon. Sir Henry Wrixon, 
K.C.M.G., became president, and 
Mr. Potter the hon. secretary. 
The committee appointed to draw 
up the League's platform, after 
thrashing out the various points 
embodied in the Protestant Alliance 
resolution, brought a report which 
recommended that the aim of the 
League should be:— I. To secure 
secular, compulsory, and free educa- 
tion for the youth of the colony. 

II. To urge the passing of a Bill 
embodying the following among other 
piinciples :— (a) Public instruction to 
be under a Cabinet Minister ; (b) 
the abolition of all school fees ; (c) 
provision in the public schools for 
instruction in higher branches than 
those rendered compulsory ; (d) 
placing public school teachers on the 
Civil Service List; (e) the dis- 
endowment of all non-vested schools. 

III. To secure the return of re- 
presentatives to Parliament pledged 
to support the views of the 
League. It will be seen that the 
ideal of the committee was the 
founding of a national system of 
education, under which (1) scholastic 
instruction would be legally imposed 
upon rich and poor alike, (2) would 
be sufficiently broad-based to provide 
a good equipment for the battle of 
life, (3) would be free from school 
fees, (4) would know no denomina- 
tional creed, and (5) the cost of 
its administration would be sus- 
tained by the colony as a whole. 
Subsequently the president and 
the secretary of the League 
waited with a deputation upon the 



Premier to urge his acquiescence 
with the League's views and wishes. 
In reply, the Premier said his 
Government had decided to introduce 
a Bill to Parliament that would 
embody the chief principles of the 
League's platform. This promise 
was kept. In 1872 the Hon. 

W. Stephen introduced and passed 
the Bill into law, which came 
into force in January, 1873. 
In the year 1875 Mr. Potter 
got authority from the secre- 
tary of the department (Mr. H. 
Venables) to visit the State Schools 
throughout Victoria in order to 
acquire a knowledge of the practical 
working of the system. In June, 




Johnstone, U'Shannessy and Co. Mtlb. 

Rev. William Potter. 

1879, he founded the " Australasian 
Schoolmaster" for Mr. Alexander 
McKinley under the auspices of the 
executive of the Victorian State 
School Teachers' Union. This pub- 
lication—an admitted educational au- 
thority in the Commonwealth— circu- 
lates in all the States, is the oldest 
educational newspaper in Austral- 
asia, and is the only independent 
scholastic journal published in Vic- 
toria. Its editor has not only kept 
himself in close touch with the 
progress of national education in 
Europe and the United States, but 
has, by means of personal visitation, 
made himself acquainted with the 
school systems of New South Wales, 
South Australia, and Tasmania. 
When the Government of this 



colony, not content with allowing 
our education system to remain 
altogether unprogressive, made re- 
trenchments in the department de- 
structive of school efficiency, Mr. 
Potter vigorously criticised its mis- 
directed economy. The articles 
written by him for that powerful 
moulder of public Liberal thought, 
4 'The Age," in the years 1898-9 on 
4 'Technical Education : Work Done 
in South Australia," on "Educa- 
tional Reform," and on "A National 
System of Technical Education"— to 
Mr. Potter's republication of which 
Mr. Syme has given consent— largely 
anticipated the researches and fore- 
shadowed the recommendations of 
the Royal Commission on Tech- 
nical Education, 1900. In 1872 Mr. 
Potter was elected a member of 
the Royal Society of Victoria. In 
the year 1878 he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society, England, and afterwards a 
Follow of the Royal Historical So- 
ciety, England. In 1884 the Aus- 
tralasian Royal Geographical Society 
was founded, which he joined the 
year following, and of which he is a 
life member. He was elected to 
a seat on the council, and, as 
assistant secretary, participated in 
the work of organising the Everill 
and the Forbes New Guinea explor- 
ing expeditions, as also the Elder 
Central Australian expedition, under 
the command of Mr. David Lindsay. 
In 1891 he was unanimously elected 
hon. secretary of the Australasian 
Antarctic Exploration Committee— a 
joint sub - committee of the Royal 
Society and the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. Mr. Potter 
for several years held seats on 
the councils of the Geological So- 
ciety of Australasia and of the 
Historical Society of Australasia, 
as well as being a member of the 
Australasian Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. Mr. Potter 
has the distinction of having 
his name associated with the 
physical geography of more than 
one portion of the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, his name having been placed 
upon the following officially published 
maps of exploration : — In Western 
Australia, by the Right Hon. Sir 
John Forrest ; in New . Guinea, by 
Messrs. H. O. Forbes, F.R.G.S., 
and W. R. Cuthbertson ; in Central 



42 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



Australia, by Mr. David Lindsay, 
F.R.G.S.; and on the Antarctic 
Continent, at South Victoria Land, 
by Captain L. Kristensen. A dif- 
ference of opinion on ecclesiastical 
polity between Mr. Potter and his 
deacons caused a division of the 
church, and ultimately led to his 
withdrawing from the Baptist de- 
nomination, and becoming a mem- 
ber of the Church of England, of 
which he is an honorary preacher, 
in connection with the Rev. Canon 
Tucker's parish church, South 
Yarra. Towards the close of 

1882 Mr. Potter, with a view 
to establishing his sons in the 
printing business, purchased "The 
Record" plant and copyright, 
and erected a commodious office 
and residence at the corner . 
of Dorcas and Marshall Streets. 
While Mr. Potter all through his 
editorial career on "The Record' ' 
unflinchingly condemned what he 
believed to be detrimental to the 
interest of the great mass of the 
citizens, he invariably threw the 
weight of his paper on the side 
of every movement that had as 
its aim the religious, social, or 



political good x of the community. 
In the year 1889, Mr. William 
A. Potter, who was educated at 
the Melbourne Church of England 
Grammar School, purchased "The 
Record" from his father, in part- 
nership with Mr. James E. Deas. 
The death of Baron Sir Ferdinand 
Von Mueller, K.C.M.G., the world- 
famed Government Botanist of Vic- 
toria, has devolved upon the Rev. 
W. Potter, F.R.G.S., his literary 
executor, the work of editing 
and preparing for publication the 
Baron's posthumous work, the sup- 
plemental volume of the "Flora 
Australiensis ; n also two volumes 
on the Baron's administration 
of the Botanical Gardens, which 
will include biography and biblio- 
graphy of the whole of his writings. 
Mr. Potter and his co-executors, Dr. 
Alexander Buttner, F.R.C.S., Edin., 
and Mr. Hermann Buttner, are to be, 
congratulated on the success that 
crowned their unflagging labour in 
carrying out the Baron's last wish 
in relation to the erection of a 
worthy monument upon his grave. 
The monument was unveiled in the 
St. Kilda (Melbourne) Cemetery on 



Tuesday, 26th November, 1901, by 
His Excellency Lord Hopetoun, 
Governor-General of Australia ; a 
ceremony at which the whole of the 
States of this Commonwealth were 
represented by Cabinet Ministers. It 
is the highest and most graceful grey 
granite column in the cemetery, and 
was erected by the executors from 
donations obtained from the council 
of the Royal Geographical Society, 
England, and from one-time co- 
workers with the Baron in the field 
of science, and the admirers of his 
genius in- every quarter of the 
globe — not a penny having been 
contributed by any one of the 
Governments of Australasia. In a 
letter to the executors enclosing 
his donation (26th December, 1901), 
His Excellency Chief Justice Way, 
Lieutenant-Governor of South Aus- 
tralia, writes :— "You have saved 
Australia from a grave reproach, and 
to do so have taken infinite pains. 
This is one of the many cases of 
public service which carry with them 
no guerdon and little thanks, and for 
which the only reward is the satis- 
faction of having done a good and 
praiseworthy thing." 



The Roman Catholic Church. 



A French Catholic named Bodecin was the first to 
gather together a few members of his own denomination 
in a small weatherboard cottage on the south side of 
Collins Street, somewhere near William Street, on a 
Sunday morning to listen to some of the rosaries 
and litanies of their church. This was early in the 
year 1839, and on Easter Sunday they agreed to petition 
the Bishop of their denomination in Sydney to send them 
a priest. That prelate, Dr. Polding, was not slow to 
respond to their request, and he selected a man after his 
own heart to undertake the missionary work in Mel- 
bourne. Now the heart of Dr. Polding was a very large 
one, and his character was full of benignity, so he chose 
for the office of parish priest in the recently founded 
township, Father Geoghehan, a broad-minded, kindly, and 
sympathetic ecclesiastic, who conciliated the respect alike 
of his own co-religionists and of those who differed from 
him in toto upon all questions of theology. He was a 
Christian first and a Roman Catholic afterwards, and in 
addressing the members of his own denomination soon 
after his arrival in the settlement he reminded them that 
"to recognise the right of everyone to worship God ac- 
cording to his own conscience is a noble and enlightened 
principle ; it alone can give a permanent basis to society, 
because upon it alone can be combined the various forms 



of Christian worship into a structure for the common 
good." And throughout his long and useful career in 
this part of the world, Father Geoghehan faithfully 
adhered to this tolerant principle. 

For a time worship was conducted on Sundays in a 
store standing on the spot now occupied by the Colonial 
Bank in Elizabeth Street, and then, having obtained a 
site for a chapel out in what was then the bush, namely, 
the site of the present cathedral of St. Francis, a small 
wooden building was erected at the moderate outlay of 
£100, while the priest received the modest stipend of 
£150. It is worthy of remark that members of 
various Protestant denominations contributed to the 
erection of the first Roman Catholic Church in Mel- 
bourne. Father Geoghehan preached the first charity 
sermon ever delivered there, and when, in the year 1859, 
he was consecrated Bishop of Adelaide, he carried with 
him to the scene of his new duties the respect and 
esteem of all who knew him. 

In May, 1841, there were upwards of 2,000 Roman 
Catholics in Melbourne and the county of Bourke, and it 
was considered that the time had arrived for the con- 
struction of a more durable edifice ; and on the 4th of 
October in that year the foundation stone was laid of 
St. Francis' Church. Small as the community was at 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



43 



that time, it nevertheless contained some expert 
criminals, for, during the night following the ceremonial 
just referred to, some thieves stole the gold and silver 
coins deposited according to custom in a bottle covered 
by the foundation stone. On the 23rd of October, 1845, the 
new church was consecrated for its future uses. Little 
can be said in praise of its architecture externally, which 
is almost as unprepossessing as that of the Protestant 
Cathedral of St. James. The artistic resources of Mel- 
bourne were at that period extremely limited. 

In the year 1848 a Roman Catholic diocese was 
erected in Port Phillip, and Dr. Goold was consecrated 
Bishop of Melbourne. Largely owing to the political 
influence of a zealous member of that church, Mr. (after- 
wards Sir) John O'Shanassy, one of the grandest sites 
in the future city, conspicuously situated on the crown 
of the Eastern Hill, was granted as the block upon which 
a new cathedral, an archiepiscopal residence, and a 
college were to be erected, and on the 9th of April, 



that of the towers which will flank the great western 
window will be 203 feet. Hence from its commanding 
position the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Patrick 
will be the first object to strike the eye of persons 
reaching Melbourne from oversea, while the Protestant 
Cathedral of St. Paul, erected in very nearly the lowest 
part of the city, will be almost invisible. 

According to a monograph on St. Patrick's, pre- 
pared by Archbishop Carr, only four of the twenty-three 
historical cathedrals of England have spires higher than 
that which will spring from the centre of his own, while 
the total area of square feet— 35,000— contained in the 
latter exceeds that of the cathedrals of Lichfield, Here- 
ford, Rochester, Gloucester, Southwell, Bristol, Carlisle, 
Elgin, Glasgow ; St. Giles 7 , Edinburgh ; and Christ 
Church, Dublin. 

There are three other Roman Catholic dioceses in 
Victoria, namely, Ballarat, Sandhurst, and Sale, each of 
which has its cathedral ; the first dedicated to St. 




St. Patrlok's Cathedral, Malbaurna. 



1850, the foundation stone of the first of these edifices 
was laid by Bishop Goold. A portion of the structure 
was built and pulled down again, and the original 
design was eventually abandoned in favour of a greatly 
superior plan prepared by the late Mr. W. W. Wardell, 
one of Pugin's pupils, and this has since been completed 
with the exception of the lofty spires which are intended 
to surmount the central and the two western towers. 
The style adopted by the architect is a late form of the 
early English Gothic, and this has been consistently 
maintained throughout. It comprises a nave, side aisles, 
transepts, a raised sanctuary, an ambulatory, a semi- 
circular cluster of six chapels, and three sacristies. By 
the time the spires will have been added to the building, 
its total cost will probably not fall short of £200,000. 
Externally it is 340 feet in length, the width of the 
transepts is 185 feet, and that of the nave and aisles 82 
feet. Internally the height of nave and transepts is 95 
feet, and that of the central tower will be 260 feet, and 



Patrick, the second to the Sacred Heart, and the third 
to Our Lady of Perpetual Succour. Connected with the 
Roman Catholic Church in this State there are twenty- 
seven city and suburban missions and nineteen country 
ones within the diocese of Melbourne ; two colleges, St. 
Patrick's and St. Francis Xavier's ; three superior 
schools for boys ; thirty convents, and twenty superior 
schools for girls ; one hospital, St. Vincent's ; two boys' 
and two girls' orphanages ; one orphanage and industrial 
school, conducted by nuns ; one preservation and indus- 
trial school for girls, similarly conducted ; a home for 
destitute children, at Surrey Hills ; a St. Vincent de 
Paul's Home for men, in Fitzroy ; a home for aged and 
infirm poor, at Northcote ; a reformatory for girls, at 
Oakleigh ; and two Magdalen Asylums for penitent 
women, conducted by nuns, at Abbotsford and South 
Melbourne respectively. In addition to these institutions 
a foundling hospital is being established at Broad- 
meadows. 



44 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



In the diocese of Ballarat there are twenty-six 
missions, a college, a monastery of the Redemptorist 
Fathers, six convents, a Loretto Abbey, and an orphanage 
for destitute children, combined with a home for aged 
and infirm poor, conducted by the Sisters of Nazareth. 

In the diocese of Sandhurst there are eighteen 
missions, a college for females, two priories of the 
Hermits of St. Augustine, a monastery of the Maris t 
Brothers, and twelve convents. 

There are seven missions in the diocese of Sale ; a 
superior school for girls, conducted by the Sisters of 
Notre Dame de Sion ; and a religious order composed of 
the same sisterhood. 

The liberality with which the members of this 
denomination have contributed to the erection of the 
various churches, convents, schools, presbyteries, and 
other edifices connected with their religion is shown by 
the fact that in the archdiocese of Melbourne alone it is 
officially stated that, altogether apart from the cost of 
the Cathedral and its appurtenances, no less a sum than 
£962,500 has been expended in the purchase of land, and 
the erection of buildings of the nature above indicated, 
and, as the returns do not appear to be quite complete, 
it will not be an exaggerated estimate to put down one 
million sterling as the aggregate outlay of the Roman 
Catholic laity upon objects of this kind, exclusive of what 
has been expended for similar purposes in the three 
dioceses of Ballarat, Bendigo, and Sale. 

St. Patrick's College, adjacent to the archiepiscopal 
residence, is now a day school, but was originally insti- 
tuted in 1865 under the supervision of Fathers Joseph 
Lentaigne and William Kelly, the pioneer Irish Jesuit 
missionaries in Victoria, who were sent out, at the 
instance of Bishop Goold, by Father Beckz, the then 
General of the Order. A sodality was established in 
the college by a diploma bearing date the 1st of Sep- 
tember, 1872. 

The college of St. Francis Xavier was commenced in 
1872, and finished in 1879. It was greatly extended ten 
years afterwards, and the whole structure, when com- 
pleted and crowned with a dome, as contemplated accord- 
ing to the original design, will have an impressive effect, 
standing as it does on the crest of a hill in Kew, sur- 
rounded by seventy acres of recreation and pleasure 
grounds. It contains a spacious hall, 183 feet in length, 
48 feet in width, and 39 feet in height, capable of holding 
an audience of 1,000 persons. Its position is extremely 
pleasant and salubrious, and it commands a very exten- 
sive view. It cost the Jesuit Fathers the large sum of 
£70,000, and it is intended to erect a Collegiate Church 
in connection with it at some future time. The Rev. 
John Ryan is the principal of the college, and it is 
claimed for it by Archbishop Carr that "in the average 
of passes and honors won by the students it has not been 
beaten— in proportion to the number of its pupils— by any 
other college or school in Australia"— an impressive testi- 
mony to the efficiency of the system of education pursued 
within its walls. 

When Archbishop Goold visited Europe in 1868 he 
succeeded in obtaining four members of the community of 
Christian Brothers to take up the work of education in 
Victoria. On arriving in Melbourne they applied them- 



selves vigorously to the task they had undertaken, and 
by the liberality of the Roman Catholics a large sum of 
money was subscribed for the purchase of two valuable 
allotments on the south side of the Victoria Parade, at 
a cost of £2,000, upon which a monastery and schools 
were erected at an outlay of £10,000, and since then the 
average number of pupils receiving instruction in them has 
not fallen below 360. The moral and religious training 
of these is the primary object of the school, while at the 
same time the course of secular study pursued follows the 
same lines as those of the State Schools in regard to 
primary education ; but "in its higher grades it is so 
modified as to lead up to the secondary course, which is 
intended to fit boys for commercial pursuits, or for 
University and other public examinations," in which 
respect it has been uniformly successful. The Christian 
Brothers have opened educational establishments not only 
in many parts of the State, but in New South Wales, 
South Australia, Queensland, and W T est Australia. 

Of the thirty convents which have been founded in the 
archdiocese of Melbourne, eleven are under the direction 
of the Sisters of Mercy, of which the parent institution 
was established at Perth, in Western Australia, in the 
year 1846. Eleven years later, the principal of the little 
band, Mother Mary Ursula Frayne, originally of Dublin, 
accompanied by two members of the sisterhood, jour- 
neyed to Melbourne, on the invitation of Bishop Goold, 
and occupied a small house which had been purchased by 
that prelate in Nicholson Street, Fitzroy, and soon after- 
wards the first school was opened, with nine female 
pupils. In 1860 a House of Mercy for the reception and 
protection of respectable young women preparing for 
domestic service was established in connection with the 
convent. Gradually an infant school and a school for the 
children of the working classes were added. Then a 
handsome memorial church was erected, at a cost of 
£7,000, to perpetuate the memory of the late Superior 
and Foundress of the Order in Australia ; and the pile of 
buildings which now form the convent and its appendages 
offer a striking contrast, by their extent and massive- 
ness, to the humble edifice which first sheltered the three 
Sisters on landing in Melbourne. 

The Presentation Nuns, who occupy a convent in 
Windsor, were originally five in number, and came out 
from the parent establishment in Limerick. They are 
now twenty-four in number, and the premises they occupy 
have been erected at a cost of £7,000. Three hundred 
children are receiving instruction in the primary schools, 
and the more select schools contain 100 day pupils and 
twenty-five boarders. In this, as in most of the other 
schools conducted by religious sisterhoods belonging to 
the Roman Catholic body, the children of Protestant 
parents are received as freely as those of the older faith, 
it being understood that, while their moral and religious 
instruction is duly attended to, no attempt is made to 
influence their theological views. 

An order known as the Faithful Companions of Jesus 
established themselves in 1882 on the brow of a hill in 
Richmond, most inaptly designated Vaucluse, and acquired 
conventual buildings there at a cost of £4,800, the work 
carried on therein being mainly educational. Some 
years afterwards they purchased a fine property in an 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



45 



elevated position at East Kew, at an outlay of £13,000. 
As an educational institution this convent is in high 
repute. 

The Sisters of Charity divide with the Little Sisters 
of the Poor the honor of being the most popular organisa- 
tions of the kind wherever their beneficent labours have 
made them known, whether to believers or unbelievers. 
Impelled by that spirit of self-sacrifice which is the very 
essence of all true religion, some members of the Sister- 
hood ventured to come out to Port Jackson for the sake 
of ministering to the poor, and to the female convicts of 
the then penal settlement, as far back as 1839. They 
founded a branch of the sisterhood at Hobart in 1847, 
but they did not turn their attention to Melbourne until 
1889, when they purchased a block of houses in the Vic- 
toria Parade for £10,400, and founded a convent and 
hospital there, which bear the name of St. Vincent. In 
1897 the Sisters of Charity purchased, for the sum of 
£4,150, a house and grounds in Buckley Street, Essendon, 
which they converted into a convent and high school, 
much to the advantage of the inhabitants of the dis- 
trict. 

The Little Sisters of the Poor are of French origin, 
the first detachment of them having arrived in Melbourne 
from La Tour St. Joseph about a dozen years ago. Not 
long afterwards they purchased, for the sum of £10,000, 
eighteen acres of land in Northcote, upon which they 
subsequently expended the further sum of £20,000 in 
erecting a home for the aged poor, capable of accom- 
modating upwards of 200 old people of various denomina- 
tions ; for the institution is catholic in the truest sense 
of the word, and as such its support is contributed to 
by subscribers of all creeds. The Sisters make daily 
rounds in quest of assistance for the aged and destitute 
objects of their noble solicitude, and much of the food 
and raiment required by these is thus gathered in by the 
gentle pleadings of the self-denying sisterhood. 

The nuns known as the religious of the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus emanated from a society founded in France in 
the year 1800, the object of its institution being to 
undertake the education of young girls in boarding and 
day schools, and promote the gratuitous instruction of 
children belonging to the poorer classes. On the invita- 
tion of the Archbishop of Melbourne some of them came 
hither in 1888, and expended £25,000 in the erection of a 
spacious convent in Malvern. A second convent and high 
school has been established in the same place by the 
same Sisterhood. 

The nuns of the Good Shepherd, originally three in 
number, came from the ancient city of Angers, in France, 
and now number upwards of a hundred. The first 
institution they founded was at Abbotsford, which 
comprises (1) a Magdalen Asylum, into which upwards of 
3,000 penitents have been received, without regard to 
creed or nationality, the inmates being mostly employed 
in laundry work ; (2) industrial and preservative schools, 
in which a home, education, maintenance, and moral and 
domestic training are furnished to poor children, and 
girls are provided with situations in domestic service or 
otherwise ; and (3) St. Euphrasia's day school, which 
offers all the advantages of a high school to the children 
of the surrounding district, and where pupils are pre- 



pared for the Civil Service, for scholarship, music, and 
other public examinations. A handsome church likewise 
adorns the convent grounds, and a sum not far short of 
£80,000 has been disbursed upon the property and build- 
ings. Four branch convents have been founded by this 
sisterhood, including a Magdalen Asylum at South 
Melbourne. 

The Sisters of Nazareth, introduced by the Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Ballarat from Europe in 1888, have 
established a home for orphans and for the aged poor in 
that city, at an outlay of £18,000. It is known as 
Nazareth House. 

In the year 1886 the Bishop of. Sandhurst (Bendigo) 
prevailed upon four Sisters of the Order of St. Brigid, 
in the diocese of Kildare and Leighlin, Ireland, to ac- 
company him to Victoria. They established themselves 
at Echuca, where they founded a convent and schools at 
a cost of £7,050, and afterwards established houses of 
their Order in Rochester, Wangaratta, and Beech worth, 
at an aggregate outlay of £12,000. The Sisters of St. 
Joseph, who came to the diocese of Sandhurst in 1889, 
have founded a convent in Numurkah, where they devote 
themselves energetically to the work of education. 
Another sisterhood, consisting of nuns belonging to the 
Congregation of Notre Dame de Sion, which has its 
headquarters in Paris, has founded a convent in Sale, and 
a second institution of the same kind in Bairnsdale. 

. Among the Roman Catholic organisations which have 
exercised a powerful influence in shaping the minds of the 
young during the last two or three generations in 
France, that of the Marist Brothers, instituted by the 
Abbe Champagnat at Bordeaux in 1818, and authorised 
by the French Government in 1825, is one of the most 
potential, on account of the complete intellectual equip- 
ment of the brethren. Besides the parent establishment, 
the College Stanislas is under their direction in Paris. 
It has numerous schools and colleges in the French pro- 
vinces, in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States. 
Some of the Brothers came out to Victoria, by invitation 
of the Bishop of Sandhurst, in 1893, and founded a 
monastery and school in that city ; and another school 
has been established by them at Kilmore, the results 
being in both instances of such a nature as to attest the 
comprehensiveness and efficiency of their system of in- 
struction. 

The Redemptorist Fathers belong to an order founded 
in 1732 by St. Alphonsus Liguori, better known as "the 
apostle of the poor," which rapidly extended from Naples 
to all parts of Italy, Germany, Spain, and France. 
Some members of the order were brought to Australia 
by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Maitland in 1882, but 
it was not until 1888 that the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of Ballarat induced four of the Fathers and two lay 
brothers to establish themselves in that city, where they 
were subsequently joined by four other Fathers and five 
more lay brothers. There they founded a monastery in 
a beautiful situation near Lake Wendouree and the 
Botanical Gardens, and expended about £10,000 on the 
purchase of the site and the erection of the necessary 
buildings. The fraternity is principally employed, it is 
stated, "in giving missions and retreats in Ballarat and 
the other dioceses of Victoria." 



46 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



In connection with the various male and female orders 
introduced into Victoria by the Roman Catholic Church 
for the prosecution of religious, educational, and reforma- 
tory work, it only remains to mention the Augustinian 
Fathers, or Hermits, who have founded priories at 
Echuca and Rochester. The order itself claims to have 
been instituted by the famous Bishop of Hippo, but there 
is no authentic information of its existence until about 
the end of the eleventh century. When Dr. Crane, Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Sandhurst, visited Europe in 1882 he 
took advantage of his stay in Rome to invite some of the 
Augustinian Fathers to undertake mission work in Vic- 
toria. They accepted his invitation, and the result has 
been the foundation of the two priories above referred to. 

THE DIOCESE OF BALLARAT. 

A tent, with a flag flying over it, erected very near 
the site of the Eureka Stockade, was the first place in 
which Divine service, according to the ritual of the 
Church of Rome, was celebrated on the goldfield of 
Ballarat, the first resident priest having been the Rev. 
Father Downing. The community was sufficiently 
numerous and sufficiently wealthy during the early 
sixties to enable it to expend £10,000 in the erection of 
a portion of a large church, which was completed at a 
further outlay of £30,400, and solemnly dedicated by the 
Bishop of Melbourne on the 6th of August, 1869. It had 
been planned on a scale of magnitude enabling it to be 
transformed into a cathedral, which was done on the 
appointment of Dr. O'Connor as the first Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Ballarat in 1874. He held the See for ten 
years, and was succeeded by the Vicar-General of the 
Diocese, Dr. Moore, under whose supervision a sum of 
£7,000 was expended in beautifying the cathedral, both 
internally and externally. Previously to his exercising 
episcopal functions a palace had been built in the midst 
of ten acres of ground on the margin of Lake Wendouree 
as a residence for the Bishop of Ballarat. The list of 
churches, convents, schools, presbyteries, and other 
buildings erected by the Roman Catholics of the diocese, 
which embraces the western half of Victoria within its 
jurisdiction, is a very large one, and, with a very few 
exceptions, the edifices are constructed of solid and 
durable materials, generally of stone. In the city itself 
and in its immediate vicinity are enumerated five 
churches, an abbey, a monastery, a convent, a college, 
and three private schools ; and outside of the district 
are upwards of fifty churches, with presbyteries attached, 
five convents, and numerous schools. 

THE DIOCESE OF SANDHURST. 

The first priest in this district, the Very Rev. Dr. 
Backhouse, was for a greater number of years one of the 
foremost local notabilities. He became possessed of 
great wealth, which he dedicated to the service of the 
church, and thus enabled it to make great progress in the 
city with which he was so long identified. 

In the year 1874 it was considered advisable to 
detach from the diocese of Melbourne a large tract of 



country, bounded on the north and east by the river 
Murray, on the west by the Loddon, and on the south by 
a line drawn from the 37th degree of south latitude on 
that river to Mount Hotham, which was thenceforth to 
form the Bishopric of Sandhurst, of which Dr. Crane was 
at the same time appointed to take charge ; but it was 
not until 1897 that a commencement was made with the 
cathedral, which, when completed, will bear a general 
resemblance to that of Salisbury, in Wiltshire. The 
style of architecture, like that of its English prototype, 
is early English, but it will occupy a more commanding 
position than that does. It is to be called after the 
Sacred Heart, and will be composed of a nave, transepts, 
two side aisles, chancel, six chapels, sacristies, a great 
central tower, surmounted by a lofty spire, two minor 
towers, and eight turrets, including those on the central 
tower, which will be 38 feet square and 300 feet high. 
The cathedral will be 267 feet 6 inches in length from 
end to end ; the nave and aisles will be 74 feet 6 inches, 
and the transepts 156 feet wide. The height of the nave 
and chancel will be 80 feet, and that of the aisles 32 feet. 
Flanking the western gable will be two towers, rising to 
a height of 146 feet each. This gable will be pierced by 
a five-light window, 30 feet high, rich in tracery, and 
beneath it will be the main entrance voussure and a 
crocketed gable, all the entrances being approached by 
wide flights of steps, with flanking walls of massive 
granite. The -four octagonal chapels connected with the 
transepts, and the handsome porches by which access is 
obtained to these, enhance the general picturesqueness of 
the structure, which, when completed, will endow Bendigo 
with what will certainly be one of the handsomest 
cathedrals in Australia ; and as the material which is 
being employed is a bright sandstone, resembling in colour 
and texture that which was used in building so many of 
the minsters of the mother country, its general appear- 
ance will be lighter than that of St. Patrick's Cathedral 
in Melbourne. 

THE DIOCESE OE SALE* 

Gippsland was not overlooked by the missionaries of 
the Roman Catholic Church, for as early as the month of 
September, 1851, a priest named William Martin found 
his way to Tarraville, in the southern portion of that 
newly-discovered province, and commenced the exercise of 
his sacerdotal functions among the sparse and scattered 
settlers who had begun to establish homes for themselves 
in that remote region, which was at that time only 
accessible by sea. Another priest was appointed to 
supply the spiritual wants of his co-religionists in the 
northern district of Gippsland in 1866, and he took up 
his abode at Sale. The whole of that extensive country 
continued to belong to the diocese of Melbourne until the 
year 1887, when it was severed from what had then 
become the archdiocese, and a new bishopric was formed ; 
and the Rev. Dr. Corbett, for some years rector of St. 
Kilda, was elevated to the episcopacy with the title of 
Bishop of Sale, entering upon his duties on the 1st of 
September, 1877. The cathedral, dedicated to "Our 
Lady of Perpetual Succour, 11 is a relatively small struc- 
ture, and will possibly constitute the nave only of a 



THE CYCLOP EDI A OF VICTORIA. 



47 



future edifice worthy of the name of minster. There are 
churches in connection with this community at Bairns- 
dale, Omeo, Cowwarr, Morwell, Warragul, Yarram, etc. 
A sisterhood of Nuns of the Congregation of NotTe Dame 



de Sion, elsewhere referred to, has established itself both 
at Sale and Bairnsdale, and upwards of a dozen priests 
are labouring under the direction of the Bishop of the 
diocese. 



His Grace the Most Rev. 
THOMAS J. CARR, D.D., Arch- 
bishop of Melbourne, was born in 
the county of Galway in the year 
1840, and studied at St. Jarlath's 
College, subsequently going to the 
Royal College of Maynooth. Dr. 
Carr was ordained to the priesthood 
on the Feast of Pentecost, 1866, and 
spent the first years of his clerical 




Johnstone, 0'Shanne*$y and Co. 



Mtlb. 



His Grace the Most Rev. Thomas J. 
Carr, D.D., Archbishop op Mel- 
bourne. 

life in missionary labours in his 
native diocese. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed Professor of Rhetoric in St. 
Jarlath's College, and in 1872 dean 
in Maynooth College. Two years 
afterwards he became Professor of 
Theology by public consensus, and 
was appointed vice-president of the 
Maynooth College. Dr. Carr held 
this office till August, 1883, when 
he was consecrated as Bishop of 
Galway, in Kilmacduagh and Kil- 
fenora. From 1880 to 1883 he was 
also editor of the "Irish Ecclesias- 
tical Record,' ' the official organ of 
the Irish Catholic Church, to the 
pages of which he was a constant 
contributor. His principal literary 
work is "A Commentary on Church 
Censures. " As Bishop of Galway, 



His Grace was one of the most 
noteworthy of the prelates of 
the "Isle of Saints," being 
known as a man of fine presence, 
ripe scholarship and considerable 
oratorical powers. In August, 
1886, Dr. Carr was appointed to 
succeed the late Dr. Goold as 
Archbishop of Melbourne, where he 
arrived on 11th June of the next 
year, the anniversary of his prede- 
cessor's death. 



The Rev. Father KEATING, S.J., 
the genial and capable principal of 
St. Xavier's College, Kew, by many 
years' residence on the Continent and 
in America has gained a decidedly 
cosmopolitan character, and secured 
for himself a rare ease in modern 




Johnstone, CTShannasy and Co. Metb. 

Rev. Father Keating. 

linguistics. He confesses to a homely 
familiarity with the chief European 
languages. This valuable fact is true 
also of most of the teaching staff, so 
that pupils at St. Xavier's should 
have special facilities on that score. 
Father Keating was for some years 
connected with the River view Col- 
lege, New South Wales, as rector, 
and also held office there as 
Superior of the Jesuit Colleges in 
Australia. 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, 
Carlton.— As far back as 1854 the 
growing needs of the increasing popu- 
lation of Carlton claimed the atten- 
tion of the Bishop, and he resolved 
without loss of time to provide for 
the education of the Catholic 
children, and also to afford the 
people greater facilities for attending 
their religious duties. Accordingly, 
the following year (1855) he laid the 
foundation of what is known as St. 
George's School. It is a substantial 
stone building, which, together with 
additions made to it in 1866, cost 
about £5,000. In 1881 the Arch- 
bishop cut it off from St. Francis', 
and formed it into a separate 
mission, appointing the Rev. J. II. 
O'Connell its first pastor. As there 
was no parochial residence, Father 
O'Connell immediately set about 
erecting the present beautiful presby- 
tery, which was completed in 1883, 
at an expenditure of £3,000. Feel- 
ing how inconvenient it was to carry 
on school in a building that must for 
many years serve as a church, it was 
resolved to build a new school, and 
also to renovate the old one, so as 
to render it in some degree worthy . 
of its future uses. In October, 1883, 
therefore, the Archbishop laid the 
foundation stone of the present 
school, or, as it is called, "St. 
George's Hall," and in 1884 the new 
building was occupied. Its erection 
cost about £2,000. The renovation 
of the old church was then under- 
taken, the amount expended, includ- 
ing the purchase of an organ, etc., 
being £1,500. St. George's Schools 
hold a high position among the 
primary schools of the archdiocese. 
At the competition between the 
schools of Victoria on the occasion 
of the International Exhibition, 1889, 
they secured one of the few gold 
medals awarded. At the commence- 
ment of 1897 it was arranged that 
the Sisters of Charity should take 
charge of the girls' school, and as 
this change was rapidly followed by 
a large increase of pupils it was seen 
that increased school accommodation 
should be provided. After much 
thought, and with the concurrence of 



48 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



the Archbishop, it was resolved to 
build a new church, and to allow the 
present one to revert to its original 
use. On 20th June, 1897, in the 
presence of the Most Rev. Dr. 
Reville, O.S.A., Coadjutor-Bishop of 
Sandhurst, who was the preacher on 
the occasion ; the Very Rev. T. 
O'Farrell, C.SS.R.; tiie Rev. P. 
O'Doherty, M.R.I. A.; the Rev. G. A. 
Robinson, B.A.; the Rev. J. Walsh ; 
the Rev. J. H. O'Connell, pastor ; 
the Rev. T. Quinn, and a large con- 
gregation, the Archbishop laid the 
foundation stone of the new church, 



The leading features are the central 
dome and the two front towers. The 
interior is modern in its arrangement 
of side aisles, which are divided from 
the nave by heavy arcading, and 
afford ample space for processions 
and access to the seats, which are 
placed in the loftier portion of the 
building, where an uninterrupted 
view of the sanctuary can be 
obtained by the congregation. A 
narthex, or entrance lobby, extending 
over the whole front of the building, 
forms a splendid entrance, and gives 
free access to the various parts of 



towers, 97 feet. The width o! the 
entrance facade to Rathdown Street 
is 96 feet. The interior of the 
building is designed with a view to 
fresco painting and colour decora- 
tion, which form a very important 
feature in the internal effect of the 
church. The building is constructed 
of brick, and the floors of encaustic 
tiles, the cost of erection being 
about £20,000. The Rev. JAMES 
HENNESSY O'CONNELL was born 
in 1845 in the county of Kerry, 
Ireland, of the same family as the 
great Daniel O'Connell, the "Libe- 




Johnstone, O'Stiannesny and Co. 

which is dedicated to the Sacred 
Heart. This church is an imposing 
structure, designed by Messrs. Reed, 
Smart, and Tappin, and is in style 
a departure from the usual ecclesias- 
tical architecture of the colonies, 
being Renaissance, and of a character 
resembling some of the Roman 
churches. The plan is cruciform, 
and consists of nave, with side 
aisles, transepts, sanctuary, side 
chapels, sacristies, etc. The choir 
gallery and organ chambers are at 
the eastern end, approached by a 
stone staircase in one of the towers. 



St. George's Church, Carlton. 

the church. The baptistry is situ- 
ated under one of the towers, and 
opens off the narthex. The main 
ceilings are elliptical in form, with 
moulded ribs springing from wall 
pilasters. The clerestory is lit by 
large circular windows. The total 
length of the church is 176 feet ; 
width across nave and aisles, 62 
feet ; width of nave, 37 feet 9 
inches ; of transepts, 33 feet 9 
inches ; diameter of dome, 40 feet. 
The height of nave and transepts is 
51 feet ; of dome to top of cross, 
140 feet ; and of each of the flanking 



Melb. 

rator," while on his mother's side he 
was a near relative of the late Sir 
John Pope Hennessy, who for many 
years was a member of the House of 
Commons, and some time Governor 
of the Mauritius and other British 
colonies. He first studied under 
private tuition, and for his ecclesias- 
tical studies entered the great mis- 
sionary college of All Hallows, 
Dublin, where at the age of twenty- 
three he was ordained priest in 1868. 
Having elected Victoria as the scene 
of his missionary labours, he arrived 
in Melbourne in November of the 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



49 



same year. His first appointment 
was to Kyneton, under the late Very 
Rev. Geoghegan. He next went to 
South Melbourne, and thence to 
Geelong. Soon after he was ap- 
pointed to administer the extensive 
mission of Mansfield, where his good 
horsemanship stood him in good 
stead, for his cure extended from Yea 
to Wood's Point and Aberfeldie, also 
embracing Alexandra and Marysville. 
In those times, over a quarter of a 
century ago, it was no uncommon 
occurrence for him to have to ride a 
journey of fifty, sixty, and sometimes 
ninety miles a day. His administra- 
tion here was marked by thorough- 
ness and zeal in the cause of religion 
and the interest of his parishioners. 
In April, 1891, the late Archbishop of 
Melbourne, Dr. Goold, appointed him 
rector of St. George's, Carlton. 
Father O'Connell is well known in 
connection with the public charities 
of the city, and few men are more 



honored for sacred charity far and 
wide. The priests of Victoria 
marked their regard for him in this 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Rev. Jambs Hbnnbsby O'Connell. 



aspect by the presentation of a 
golden chalice to emphasise their 
admiration for acts of kindness to 
fellow-priests. He was elected to 
represent the Victorian priests at 
the National Council in Sydney in 
1895. He is one of the diocesan 
examiners elected by the clergy. In 
1889 Father O'Connell visited his 
native land, accompanied by the Most 
Rev. Dr. Reville, the Bishop of Sand- 
hurst, and had audience with the late 
Pope Leo XIII. In this connection 
it may be stated that a brother of 
Father O'Connor (Michael) received 
his commission under Piux IX., and, 
having fought at Ancona, afterwards 
was made Knight of the Order of 
Pius IX. Father O'Connell's cha- 
racter is marked by a straight- 
forward simplicity, a high ideal of 
his priestly state, with all its duties, 
both public and private, and he well 
knows "how far high failure o'erleaps 
the bounds of low success." 



The Presbyterian Church. 



Scotland and Ireland have contributed a very large 
quota to the number of immigrants who have arrived in 
Victoria from the British Islands, and hence the numerical 
strength of the Presbyterian and the Roman Catholic 
denominations respectively, the two combined about 
equalling that of the Church of England, the estimate at 
the end of 1899 having been as follows :— 



Church of England 
Roman Catholic 
Presbyterian .. 



413,000 
253,620 
167,530 



The first place of worship erected in Melbourne, a 
building scarcely capable of containing eighty persons, 
was used for some time by members of the Anglican and 
Presbyterian communions at different hours on the 
Sunday. This was in 1836, and in the year following 
the Rev. James Clow, whose grandchildren are still 
among us, came out from England in a vessel bound for 
Hobart. He had been minister of St. Andrew's Church, 
in Bombay, for eighteen years, but had been obliged to 
return home to recuperate. When he reached Van 
Diemen's Land he found people speaking in the highest 
terms of the new settlement in Port Phillip, and he 
resolved to proceed thither. Chartering three small 
schooners, he put on board a year's supply of provisions, 
the materials for the construction of a weatherboard 
house, and the furniture he had brought with him from 
England, and transferred his family and his belongings 
to the little village on the banks of the Yarra. After 
a fortnight's voyage, and the encounter of a violent 
storm, he landed on the morning of Christmas Day, 
1837, and occupied a tent for six months while his 



habitation was being prepared. He forthwith com- 
menced his ministerial labours in the small church above 
described, and did so gratuitously, as he possessed some 
private means. The Rev. James Forbes, who had been 
brought out from England to Sydney by the Rev. Dr. 
Lang, was sent over to Melbourne in February, 1838, and 
was agreeably surprised to find a small Presbyterian 
congregation had been already organised there by Mr. 
Clow, whom he wished to continue in charge of it, but 
he gracefully retired in favour of the newcomer, and 
soon afterwards a temporary church was erected, at a 
cost of £88, on a small allotment in Collins Street. 
West, nearly facing the present premises of James 
Service and Co. A year afterwards it was determined 
to erect a worthier edifice to worship God in, and, the 
sum of £363 having been subscribed, the Government in 
Sydney was asked to grant a block of land in Collins 
Street East. The request having been complied with, a 
schoolhouse was erected at an outlay of £524, half of 
which was a contribution from the Government. In this 
building divine service was celebrated by Mr. Forbes, who 
had received a unanimous call from the congregation, and 
preached for eighteen months without any stipend ; a 
modest two-roomed cottage, opposite Kirk's Bazaar, in 
Bourke Street, serving as his manse. On week days a 
school was opened for children, and within six months 
eighty pupils were enrolled. 

In two years the Presbyterian congregation had quite 
outgrown the accommodation provided for it, and the 
provision of a large and commodious church was impera- 
tively called for. A sum of £1,000 was promptly sub- 



50 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



scribed, the Rev. J. Clow taking an active part in the 
movement, and a building costing £2,485 was completed 
before the end of the year 1841. One of the pleasantest 
incidents connected with the erection of this church was 
the donation of £3 to the building fund from the Rev. 
Father Geoghehan, and of a like sum from the Rev. 
R. Walshe, both of them Roman Catholic priests, warm- 
hearted and broad-minded. 

With a friend like Mr. Clow always at hand to fill the 
pulpit when called upon, Mr. Forbes paid missionary 
visits to Geelong and other places, and was instrumental 
in forming a Presbyterian congregation in the former 
town, whereupon the Rev. A. Love was sent out by the 
Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland to 
minister to its spiritual wants. He preached at first 
in a woolshed, but in 1841 a church capable of seating 
400 persons was erected, at a cost of £2,000. 

From this time forth the Presbyterian Church in 
Victoria grew apace. At Campbellfield, Portland, and 
Port Fairy congregations were organised, and the arrival 
in Melbourne of the Rev. Peter Gunn, who could speak 
Gaelic, and was a good horseman, brought the High- 
landers who were scattered over the face of the colony 
into touch with the ministrations of the church they 
loved, for he made periodical visits to the interior, and 
could repeat to his hearers the Psalms of David in the 
language of Ossian. 

In 1842 the Synod of Australia, meeting in Sydney, 
authorised the three ministers, with an elder from each 
session, to form themselves into a presbytery, which held 
its first court in the Scots Church on the 7th of June 
in that year, the chief question then discussed being that 
of public instruction, while the necessity of bringing the 
country districts within the scope of Government assist- 
ance in religious matters was pressed so successfully 
upon the attention of the authorities that provision was 
made for supplying them with the aid they required. 

Meanwhile the Rev. Mr. Gunn did much valuable mis- 
sionary work at Kilmore, Seymour, Longwood, Benalla, 
Wangaratta, Albury, and the various squatting stations 
on the Murray ; and Messrs. Love and Laurie (who had 
come out from Lanark in 1842) found an extensive field 
of missionary labour in the western districts of Victoria. 

The extensive tract of Gippsland was practically dis- 
covered in the year 1810 by Angus McMillan, and partially 
explored by Count Strzelecki and his adventurous com- 
panions. Pastoral settlement speedily followed, and, as 
Scotsmen were almost always to be found among the 
most resolute and successful pioneers of this form of 
industry, the duty of supplying these hardy invaders of 
pathless woods and virgin pastures with the ministra- 
tions of religion forced itself upon the minds of their 
Presbyterian brethren in Melbourne, but it was not until 
1851 that the duty was fulfilled, and the Rev. Walter 
Robb was sent from Sydney as an itinerant minister, to 
visit the various stations and perform the several offices 
of a minister of the Gospel in what was then a wild and 
not very accessible region. 

About this time Mr. Forbes began to feel the want of 
an experienced missionary or catechist to assist him in 
his labours, and a Mr. Mackay was sent out by the Home 
Church for that purpose. He sailed for Melbourne in a 



ship which took fire upon the voyage, and the tragic cir- 
cumstances of his death are thus narrated by the Rev. 
C. S. Ross, in his extremely valuable " Colonisation of 
Church Work in Victoria," to which we desire to express 
our special acknowledgments :— "Mr. Mackay exhorted his 
fellow - passengers to be courageous and patient, and 
calmly to await the issue of events ; but when an oppor- 
tunity of safety by means of one of the boats presented 
itself he was among the first to make a dash to secure a 
seat, and was the only one of them all who perished, 
dragged down into ocean's depths, it was alleged, by the 
weight of 300 sovereigns which he had secured to his 
person in a bag or belt. The children on board were cast 
from the burning decks into the sea, whence they were 
rescued by the sailors, who watched for them in the boats 
below. Those who escaped from the ill-fated vessel were 
taken on to Pernambuco, where they embarked, when op- 
portunity served, for the Australian ports, to which they 
were originally bound." 

Mr. Forbes, who shares with Mr. Clow— whose 
daughter he married— the distinction of having teen the 
father of the Presbyterian Church in Victoria, seems to 
have been indefatigable in his labours to promote all kinds 
of beneficent undertakings. He may be regarded as one 
of the founders of. the Melbourne Hospital, of the Mel- 
bourne Athenaeum, and of the Melbourne Ladies' Benevo- 
lent Society, while he also lent his., active support to the 
temperance movement. When, in the year 1844, the 
memorable disruption took place in Scotland, he threw 
all the weight of his influence and ability into the scale 
on behalf of the Free Church ; but differences of opinion 
upon the subject arose in the Synod, as some were in 
favour of adopting an attitude of absolute neutrality, 
while Mr. Forbes and those who thought with him were 
desirous that the colonial Church should be an Australian 
institution in spirit as well as in name and aspect, and it 
was ultimately resolved, by a large majority, that the 
Synod should continue to maintain its statutory connec- 
tion with the Established Church of Scotland ; but four 
ministers out of two-and-twenty protested, and withdrew 
from the jurisdiction of the Synod, Mr. Forbes signifying 
his disapproval of the decision arrived at by a vigorous 
protest, and by assisting to organise a Presbyterian 
Church in Australia Felix, "exercising extreme and final 
powers of self-government, and adhering to the principles 
and testimony of the Free Church of Scotland." Finding 
himself opposed by the trustees of his church, he resigned 
his ministerial position, and, being followed by a reason- 
able number of his congregation, he and they formed an 
independent church, and many influential men gathered 
around him, and helped to sustain him in his valiant 
assertion of a great principle. 

The year 1854 witnessed the formation of "The Pres- 
byterian Church Society of Australia Felix," with a view 
to the prosecution of missionary efforts in the pastoral 
districts of the province, and many able and zealous men, 
who afterwards became prominent as preachers, devoted 
themselves to this kind of arduous work. Among them 
may be mentioned the Rev. Thomas Hastie and the Rev. 
William Hamilton. The name of the second of these 
ministers is perpetuated in Mount Hamilton, at Nerrin 
Nerrin. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



51 



In June, 1847, the Synod of the Free Presbyterian 
Church of Australia Felix was formally constituted, and 
Mr. Forbes was elected the first moderator ; and on the 
9th of May in the year following it adopted a funda- 
mental Act, declaratory of its independence of external 
jurisdiction, its adhesion to the distinctive principles of 
the Free Church of Scotland, and its repudiation of all 
communion with the Establishment. 

Thenceforth the history of the Presbyterian Church in 
what presently became the colony of Victoria was one of 
almost uninterrupted success. Ministers continued to 
arrive from North Britain, new churches were built in 
town and country ; there was a progressive elevation of 
the standard of pulpit eloquence, a gradual broadening of 
the theological views of some of the more thoughtful of 
the occupants of the pulpits, and a greater receptivity of 
liberal ideas on the part of the more highly educated of 
the Presbyterian laity, who were, moreover, generous in 
their contributions for church purposes. And the reason 
of this is not far to seek. A not inconsiderable portion 
of the pastoralists of the colony, and many of the leading 
merchants of Melbourne from 1840 to 1870 were Scotsmen, 
and in the majority of cases they had become prosperous, 
and in a few instances exceedingly wealthy, by the 
exercise of those qualities of industry, perseverance, 
sagacity, frugality, shrewdness, and tenacity of purpose 
which are generally regarded as characteristic of the 
North Briton. They were generally warmly attached to 
the Church of their fathers, and were— as they continue 
to be— liberal in their donations for its support. Hence 
some of the best of the ecclesiastical structures in the 
metropolis and the chief centres of population belong to 
the Presbyterian denomination, and the stipends of its 
leading ministers probably exceed those of the higher 
clergy of any other Protestant persuasion. 

About twenty years ago an incident occurred in con- 
nection with this body which cannot be passed over, 
because it marked a point of departure in the history of 
the churches generally, and seems to indicate the proba- 
bility of a purely Australian Church drawing to itself— as 



it has already begun to do— still greater numbers of 
persons whose minds revolt against creeds and doctrines. 
At the time spoken of the Rev. Charles Strong was the 
minister of the Scots Church in Collins Street East, 
where the eloquence of his sermons, the catholicity of his 
sentiments in relation to religion ; his sympathy with 
the intellectual, social, and scientific movements of the 
age ; the integrity of his character, his philanthropy, and 
his earnest efforts to ameliorate the condition of the 
poor,, both in body and spirit, had combined to attract 
a large congregation, and to secure for him their admira- 
tion and esteem. In a magazine article, however, he had 
put forth certain opinions on the subject of the Atone- 
ment which were regarded as heterodox if not heretical 
by the Presbytery. Proceedings were instituted against 
him, and, finding himself pursued with much rancour and 
bitterness by some of those who impugned the soundness 
of his doctrines, he resigned his pastoral charge. A 
great demonstration of public sympathy with him took 
place in the Town Hall, Melbourne, and a general desire 
was expressed that he should found a church more com- 
prehensive in principle than that from which he had been 
forced to separate himself ; but, feeling in need of peace 
and rest, he paid a visit to Scotland, where the degree 
of D.D. was bestowed upon him, and he was received with 
open arms by the advanced guard, so to speak, of the 
Presbyterian Church in North Britain. 

On his return to the colony many members of his old 
congregation rallied around him, organised a church, and 
after a time erected a commodious place of worship at 
the east end of Flinders Street, in which he has minis- 
tered ever since, that is to say, for the last eighteen years, 
three other churches in New South Wales having become 
affiliated with it. Connected with the Australian Church 
are a Guild, a Religious Science Club, an Elocution Class, 
a Ladies' Reading Club, a Collingwood Working Men's 
Club, a Social Improvement Society, a Literary Society, 
Gymnasium, and Choral Society, so that it has become 
one of the most active religious organisations in Mel- 
bourne. 



The Wesleyan Methodist Church. 



This religious denomination may claim to have been 
the pioneer of all others in Victoria, inasmuch as the 
first service of a religious kind which was performed in 
the infant settlement, less than a year after its founda- 
tion, was conducted by a Wesleyan minister, the Rev. 
Joseph Orton, who had accompanied Batman when 
quitting Launceston for Port Phillip. The whole popu- 
lation of the little township— fifty souls all told— could 
have been packed into a chapel of the smallest dimen- 
sions, but they preferred assembling on a hill side, under 
such protection from the rays of the autumnal sun as was 
afforded them by a cluster of sheoaks, and there, upon a 
spot which overlooked a thoroughly sylvan landscape, 
with the waters of the Bay glittering in the distance, the 
unaccustomed voice of prayer and praise arose into the 
pure bright air ; and no doubt the preacher reminded the 



first congregation that ever assembled on the banks of the 
Yarra for public worship how, 1,800 years before, the 
greatest of all Preachers delivered the sublimest of all 
sermons upon a hillside in the far-off land of Palestine. 
Mr. Orton's discourse was the event of the week ending 
the 24th of April, 1836, and when the incident shall have 
receded into a still more distant past, and the artists of 
the future shall be called upon to execute a series of 
frescoes in some great public building illustrating the 
early history of Victoria, we may venture to predict that 
the first religious service held upon Batman's Hill will 
furnish as fitting a theme for picturesque treatment as 
any of the subjects selected for embellishment. Nor 
will the painter omit to introduce the little throng of 
aborigines, and the ten Sydney blacks, in their red shirts 
and white trousers, who constituted about half the con- 



52 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



gregation. The beautiful liturgy of the Church of Eng- 
land was read upon this occasion, Mr. James Simpson 
leading the responses, and Dr. Alexander Thompson 
fulfilling the functions of precentor. 

Under the guidance of Buckley, Mr. Orton afterwards 
proceeded as far westward as the river Bar won, and 
established the site of a mission station somewhere near 
its banks. This received the name of "Buntingdale," 
and the Wesleyan Missionary Society in England sent 
out, at his instigation, the Rev. Francis Tuckfield to take 
charge of it. He was subsequently joined by the Rev. 
Benjamin Hurst, who had been his companion on the 
voyage. 

About the latter end of 1836 and the beginning of 
1837, as we learn from a narrative penned by Mr. Orton 
himself, a Wesleyan Missionary Society was instituted by 
seven members of that denomination, who used to hold 
prayer meetings and other religious services at regular 
intervals in a wattle and daub hut. Meanwhile he 
himself had returned to Launceston, but revisiting Mel- 
bourne in April, 1837, found it had expanded very con- 
siderably, and that his co-religionists had erected a 
commodious place of worship for the thirty members of 
the church. After instituting a Sunday School, and 
benefiting the society by his counsels and co-operation, 
Mr. Orton again crossed the Straits, and when, in the 
year 1810, he resolved to visit England, he took Mel- 
bourne on his way, in order that he might labour there 
for a few months. He was gratified to find that the 
Wesleyan congregation had outgrown its .small chapel at 
the corner of Swanston Street and Flinders Lane, and 
was erecting a larger one in Collins Street West, near 
its intersection by Queen Street, on half an acre of land 
which had been granted to the denomination by the 
Crown. This, with the minister's residence and the 
schoolhouse adjacent, was afterwards sold by public 
auction for the sum of £40,000, which amount was in 
part appropriated to the erection of the present Wesley 
Church in Lonsdale Street, and in part to building five 
other ecclesiastical structures and three houses for their 
ministers. 

In the first quarter of 1841 there were 109 members 
of the church, and in April of the same year the Rev. 
Samuel Wilkinson arrived from Sydney, as the first resi- 
dent minister in Melbourne. He was succeeded in 1842 
by the Rev. W. Schoficld, who remained at his post until 
1845, when the Rev. E. Sweetman replaced him. At 
this time there were nearly 400 members on the church 
rolls. Soon afterwards it was considered advisable to 
relinquish the mission to the aborigines, and the estab- 
lishment at Buntingdale was broken up. In the year 
1851 the Rev. S. Waterhouse undertook the duties of a 
bush missionary, but in a very few months society in 
Victoria was revolutionised by the wonderful gold dis- 
coveries of that year. When they occurred, the Revs. 
W. Butters and J. Harcourt were fulfilling their minis- 
terial duties in Melbourne, the Rev. F. Lewis at Geelong, 
the Rev. W. Lightbody at Portland, and the Rev. S. 
Waterhouse was engaged in his bush mission. Thousands 
of Wesleyans, as of other denominations, were pouring 
into Victoria, and, by a curious coincidence, just as the 
first religious service in Melbourne was performed by a 



Wesleyan minister, so the first place of worship erected 
on a goldfield was built by Wesleyans on Wesley Hill, at 
Forest Creek, and was occupied by a resident minister, 
the Rev. John Symons. 

As the population of the colony increased "by leaps 
and bounds," Wesleyan churches sprang into existence in 
Fitzroy, Richmond, Prahran, Brighton, North Melbourne, 
St. Kilda, Brunswick, and other places contiguous to the 
metropolis ; several iron churches having been imported 
from England at a time when skilled artisans in Victoria 
were earning from one to two pounds per day, and were 




Wesley Church, Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. 

not easily procurable at those rates of pay, while all 
kinds of building materials underwent a corresponding 
enhancement of value, and those who were fortunate 
enough to hold large stocks became wealthy at a single 
bound. Largely owing to the initial movement of Mr. 
Walter Powell, who had put down £50 as a first sub- 
scription, the Wesleyan Immigrants' Home was instituted 
in 1853, at a cost of £3,500, and commenced its work of 
usefulness and beneficence entirely free from debt. For 
many years it was a powerful agency for good, and con- 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



S3 



tinued to be so, indeed, so long as the great influx of 
population necessitated the existence of .such a shelter for 
friendless strangers. 

Meantime the progress of events in Victoria was being 
watched with greatest interest in the mother country, 
and by none more so than by the Wesleyan Methodist 
Church of Great Britain, which resolved, at its conference 
in 1853, to send out a deputation, composed of the Rev. 
Robert Young, to visit Australasia and Polynesia, in 
order to ascertain the practicability of affiliating the 
churches of these lands with their mother at home. The 
proposition was warmly received, and the next step was 
the holding of an Australasian Wesleyan Methodist con- 
ference in Sydney, which began on the 18th of January, 
1855. By this conference the Rev. D. J. Draper was 
appointed chairman of the Victoria district, and the Revs. 
W. Hill and J. W. Crisp were requested to take charge of 
the East Melbourne circuit. 

The second conference was held in Melbourne in the 
year following, when a commencement was made with the 
Worn-out Ministers' and Ministers' Widows' Fund, and, as 
the growth of the denomination and the growing demands 
on the time of the chairman rendered it desirable that 
he should be relieved from circuit work, Mr. Draper was 
entrusted with the general oversight of the affairs of the 
district, and virtually discharged the duties of a Bishop, 
although that office is not recognised by this religious 
body in Australia, as it is in the United States. 

The foundation stone of the Wesley Church in 
Lonsdale Street was laid on the 2nd of December, 1857, 
by Governor Sir Henry Barkly ; and the edifice, for which 
the designs were prepared by Mr. Joseph Reed, having 



been erected at a cost of £26,000, was calculated to hold 
2.000 worshippers. The style of architecture is decorated 
Gothic of the 14th century, the material bluestone, with 
freestone dressings. Its extreme length is 165 feet, with 
a breadth of 77 feet, and a height, in the central aisle, 
of 42 feet. It is cruciform, and, at the north-east corner 
a tower arises to the height of 100 feet, surmounted by 
an octagonal spire of freestone 75 feet high. In its 
dimensions and general aspect the Wesley Church 
resembles a small cathedral, and at the time of its 
erection it was considered to be the finest ecclesiastical 
structure belonging to the body of Methodists in any part 
of the world. 

From this time onward the history of this denomina- 
tion is one of steady progress and continued expansion. 
New churches continued to be built, fresh congregations 
were formed, the Wesley College was founded, as is else- 
where described, and when the Rev. Dr. Draper visited 
England in 1865 he was enabled to report a church 
membership in Victoria of 8,088. On his voyage out 
in the year following, he and his wife, with upwards of 
240 others, passengers and crew, went down in the 
* 'London,' ' which foundered during a violent storm in the 
Bay of Biscay. The memory of a minister to whom 
Wesleyan Methodism in Victoria is under the greatest 
obligations has been perpetuated in the mother country 
by the establishment of a lifeboat at Penzance, on the 
coast of Cornwall, bearing his name ; by^ the foundation 
of a Draper Memorial Church at Adelaide, in South 
Australia ; and by the institution, as is elsewhere 
mentioned, of a Draper scholarship in the Wesley 
College. 



The Congregational Church. 



Although the Congregationalists in Victoria are not 
numerically a strong body, numbering rather less than 
20,000, they have always been conspicuous for their intel- 
ligence, zeal, denominational activity, preaching power, 
and their loyalty to those principles of civil and religious 
liberty which constitute the foundation stones of their 
Church, viewed as a spiritual organisation and a social 
power. 

That Church in Victoria may be regarded as an 
offshoot of one which had previously been planted • in 
Tasmania, mainly through the instrumentality of Mr. 
Hopkins, of Hobart, who had petitioned the London 
Missionary Society to send out a minister. This was 
done, and the Rev. F. Miller, of Highbury College, near 
London, was the first Independent pastor to set foot upon 
the shores of Australia. In 1837 Mr. Hopkins, who was 
an enterprising merchant, crossed the Straits to the 
infant settlement on the banks of the Yarra, then num- 
bering 500 souls only. Looking around him he saw that 
the place must advance, and again memorialised the 
London Missionary Society for a suitable minister. Not 
only so, but he generously remitted a sum of money 
to cover his outfit and passage, and at the same time 
assumed the responsibility of his maintenance. So 



liberal a proposition met with a prompt response, and 
the minister selected, the Rev. W. Waterfield, of 
Wrexham, arrived in Port Phillip on the 22nd of May, 
1838, Mr. J. P. Fawkner being one of those who met and 
welcomed him. The first services were held in the house 
of Mr. John Gardiner, near the Bull and Mouth Hotel, in 
Bourke Street, and, therefore, close to the first theatre 
in Melbourne. Later on, a large room in Mr. Fawkner's 
newly-erected hotel, at the corner of Market Street and 
Collins Street, was fitted up as a temporary place of 
worship, where the congregation usually averaged 100. 
A fortnight after Mr. Waterfield's landing, steps were 
taken for the erection of *a church on a fine block of land 
granted for the purpose by the Government, and, with 
about £500 in hand, Mr. Hopkins laid the foundation 
stone of the very plain and incommodious brick building 
which many of us remember at the north-east angle of 
Russell and Collins Streets. This was on the 3rd of 
September, 1839, but it was not completed and opened 
for Divine service until the 1st of January, 1841. The 
building was capable of seating 300 persons, and £70 were 
collected on the day of opening. Mr. Waterfield resigned 
the pastorate in 1843, and was succeeded by the Rev. A. 
Morison, a man of considerable learning, general know- 



54 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



ledge, and literary ability, who began with a church 
membership of twenty - one, but succeeded, during a 
ministry of one-and-twenty years, in inducing the adhe- 
sion of 586 persons. For six years he was the only 
Congregational minister in Port Phillip ; not for want of 
members of that denomination adequate to be organised 
into churches, but because ministers were unattainable. 

When these were attracted hither, congregations were 
established in Gcelong, West Melbourne, Prahran, Rich- 
mond, Kyneton, Brighton, Kew, and other places. In 
the year 1864 Mr. Morison resigned his pastoral office to 
become, three years later, professor in the Congregational 
College. He was succeeded by the Rev. A. Fraser, who 
occupied the pulpit for less than eighteen months, which 
was then filled by the Rev. A. M. Henderson, president 
of the Congregational College ; the Church at the same 
time pledging itself to erect a building worthier of so 
noble a site, and of the growing importance of the Con- 
gregational body. Accordingly the old church was pulled 
down, and the memorial stone of the present church was 
laid, appropriately enough, by Mr. Henry Hopkins on the 
22nd of November, 1866, twenty-seven years after per- 
forming the same ceremony on the same spot. It was 
opened for Divine service on the 25th of August, 1867, 
and the entire cost, £14,700, was promptly defrayed by 
the congregation. When Mr. Henderson passed away the 
pulpit of what may be regarded as the cathedral of Inde- 
pendency in yictoria was successively filled by the Revs. 
T. Jones, S. Hebditch, D. S. Hamer, and Dr. Bevan, its 
present occupant. 

The Rev. B. Cuzens, who came out as ship's chaplain, 
organised the second Congregational Church in Port 
Phillip at Geelong, where thirteen members met to 
worship in a wool warehouse. Presently a church and 
parsonage were built, and a second and a third were 
erected, but two of these afterwards amalgamated. 

In 1850 a second and much-needed Congregational 
Church was founded at the west end of Melbourne, on a 
site purchased for the sum of £300, as its promoters 
disdained to receive State aid. The building was opened 
for Divine service on the 14th of July, 1851, and cost, 
with its appurtenances, £7,600. It was afterwards sold, 
in order to remove to a more central position, as regards 
its congregation, in William Street, near the North Mel- 
bourne boundary. 

At Prahran in September, 1850, a small brick chapel 
was built in a thoroughfare which took from it the name 
of Chapel Street, and when, in the month of October, 
1852, the Rev. Mr. Moss was ordained as its pastor, it 
was considered to be a notable circumstance that the 
service was conducted by two Presbyterian and two 
Independent ministers, and by a Baptist clergyman. In 
1859 a larger and more commodious structure was opened 
for Divine worship in connection with the Congregational 
body at a cost of £3,110, and it has been since found 
necessary to enlarge this structure. The churches thus 
enumerated may be regarded as the pioneer edifices of the 
kind belonging to the Independent denomination in Vic- 
toria. 

The discovery of gold in 1851, and its amazing 
influence upon the social life and economic progress of 
what had only just become a self-governing colony, natu- 



rally affected every kind of religious organisation in Vic- 
toria. There was something to the minds of steady- 
going and religiously-disposed people almost terrifying 
in the sudden dislocation of society, the universal 
craving for the precious metal, the tumultuous excite- 
ment and wild expectations of the period. Places of 
worship were nearly emptied, because the population had 
migrated to the diggings en masse. What chance had the 
most eloquent appeals to the soul of man not to lay up 
treasures on earth, when men's thoughts were engrossed 
by one theme ; when all conversation turned upon one 
topic ; when gold, gold, gold, was the object of universal 
desire, and when its acquisition appeared to be so 
astonishingly easy ? Could religion hope to resume its 




Congregational Church, Collins Street, Melbourne. 

former influence over men's lives when so many thousands 
were intent only upon amassing as much as possible of 
the precious metal ? These were the questions which the 
few sober-minded people, who were fortunate enough to 
retain their mental balance, were asking themselves and 
each other as they heard, day by day, more and more 
astounding accounts of solid masses of gold being dug out 
of the soil very near the surface. Dismal forebodings 
with respect to the future of religion were not unnatural 
under the circumstances, but they were happily dissipated 
by the course of events. The religious instinct is too 
deeply implanted in human nature to be ever entirely 
eradicated, and a great and trying emergency called forth 



the cyclopedia of victoria. 



55 



efforts of more than ordinary magnitude for the purpose 
of coping with it ; and the Congregationalists of Vic- 
toria stood in the front rank of those who were striving 
to keep alive the flame of faith in the hearts of men and 
women of their own communion. 

That they succeeded—as all disinterested effort for the 
good of others invariably does succeed sooner or later— 
was proved by the fact that in the two years following 
the discovery of gold "congregations were gathered and 
churches organised in some of the most important 
centres, both in town and country. Hawthorn, Rich- 
mond, Kyneton, Kew, Brighton, St. Kilda, and Colling- 
wood are some of the localities in which churches, were 
planted at that early period." Simultaneously with this 
expansion of activity, the members of the denomination 
felt that the time had arrived for the development of 
their organic life as a religious community, and practical 
effect was given to this desire by the formation, in June, 
1852, of the first Congregational Union in Victoria, with 
the special and primary aim of originating and strength- 
ening new churches of the same faith and order, of sus- 
taining evangelical labours, and of introducing and draw- 
ing ministers of the Gospel into the colony. The Rev. 
A. Morison was the first chairman of the Union. 

True to the principles of Independency, the Congrega- 
tionalists vigorously combated that clause of the new 
Constitution Act which appropriated an annual sum of 
£50,000 dedicated to State aid to religion. As a matter 
of course it declined to accept any portion of the grant, 
which, as has been already stated, was abolished some 
years later. 

Out of the Union grew the Congregational Home 
Mission, with an income of £5,000 per annum guaranteed 
by the wealthier members of the body, but this was cur- 
tailed a year afterwards by a financial crisis, brought on 
by an excess of imports, induced by altogether extrava- 
gant expectations of the yield of gold, and by an equally 
preposterous estimate of the consuming powers of the 
population of the colony. 

On the 20th of February, 1855, the first intercolonial 
conference of leading ministers and laymen of the Inde- 
pendent denomination was held in Melbourne, under the 
chairmanship of the Rev. T. Q. Stow, of Adelaide, and 
among other important resolutions arrived at was the 
condemnation of State support to religion as being in 
the highest degree inexpedient and impolitic. 

Under the auspices of the Congregational Home 
Mission, about a dozen able and zealous ministers were 
brought out from the mother country, and, besides the 
churches already enumerated, . others were built at 
Castlemaine, Chewton, Ballarat, Beech worth, Sandhurst, 
Maryborough, Carlton, the Victoria Parade, Williams- 
town, South Melbourne, and elsewhere. 



To commemorate in 1862 the 200th anniversary of the 
passing of the Act of Uniformity in England, and of the 
expulsion of 2,000 mini-.ters from the National Church, 
the Congregationalists of Victoria determined to found a 
training institution for young men intending to enter the 
ministry, and a building was purchased for the purpose 
in Carlton, opposite to the University. It was opened 
on the 14th of May in that year, and the Rev. A. M. 
Henderson was its first president. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. A. Gosman, a gentleman eminently qualified to 
fulfil the arduous and responsible duties of principal. 
Under his zealous direction the institution has been 
enabled not only to supply the pastoral needs of the 
Congregational Churches in Australia and New Zealand, 
but also of some outside these colonies and in the 
mother country. The whole of the teaching work of the 
college, with the exception of the classical tutor, is 
voluntarily performed ; that is to say, "it is done by 
men in the intervals of their work in city and suburban 
churches.' * 

From the fortieth annual report of the executive 
committee, presented to the council of the associated 
churches at the end of the last year of the century, we 
learn that the roll of members of that council Shows that 
they have increased from 82 in 1860 to 365 in 1900, and 
that the condition of the denomination in Victoria is 
generally flourishing. Connected with it are a Ministers' 
Provident Society, a Building Association, an auxiliary 
branch of the London Missionary Society, a Lay Preachers' 
Association, a Christian Endeavour Society, a Loan 
Library for Ministers, and a Twentieth Century Fund, in- 
stituted as "an act of thanksgiving for the mercies of the 
past, and an appeal for consecration, self - sacrifice, and 
service for the opening years of the new century." 

There are eighty Congregational churches in Vic- 
toria, containing nearly 26,000 sittings, with 3,300 
regularly enrolled church members, almost 40 ordained 
ministers, and 44 lay preachers. The total indebtedness 
of the church properties of the denomination is about 
£26,000, wMch it is hoped will be gradually extinguished 
by means of the Twentieth Century Fund. Speaking of 
the future of this body in Australia, the Rev. E. H. 
Jones, in his inaugural address on the Congregational 
Union and Mission of Victoria, delivered in the Collins 
Street Independent Church on 16th of October, 1900, 
remarked that inasmuch as Independency had "rendered 
no slight service in moulding intellectually, politically, 
and religiously the life alike of England and ofjthe great 
republic of America," so he considered that its prin- 
ciples, consonant as they are with those of our demo- 
cratic institutions, "are sufficiently elastic to adapt 
themselves to the new conditions of society" in this 
Commonwealth. 



The Children of Israel. 



The earliest of the ancient people to arrive at the 
infant settlement on the banks of the Yarra was Mr. 
Solomon, of Launceston, who came soon after the first 
pioneers. He took up his abode, as we learn from Mr. 
Finn, upon the Saltwater River, where his name was 



commemorated by a crossing-place known as "Solomon's 
Ford." He was followed by Messrs. D. and S. 
Benjamin, Harris, Marks, M. Lazarus, and J. L. Lincoln. 
A son of Mr. S. Benjamin and a daughter of Mr. Michael 
Cashmore were the first children of Jewish parents born 



56 



THK CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



in Port Phillip ; and the first death among the members 
of the same faith was that of Miss Davis, who was 
buried in a small cemetery set apart for the use of this 
denomination on the Merri Creek, but her body was the 
only occupant of a spot which was presently utilised as 
a stone quarry. Mr. Michael Cashmore, whose! business 
premises, No. 1 Elizabeth Street, at the north-east 
corner of Collins Street, were for many years one of the 
commercial landmarks of the city, and have only just 
been pulled down, was the first of his nationality to be 
elected to a seat in the Town Council of Melbourne ; and 
the first child to undergo the rite of circumcision was the 
son of Mr. A. H. Hart. 

The following interesting sketch of the early history 
of Jewish worship in what has since become the State 
of Victoria is from the pen of a gentleman thoroughly 
conversant with the subject :— 

"Far away from the centres of Judaism in the old 
world, and removed by leagues of land and sea, by change 
of climate, thought, and habit from the 'Home,' the flame 
of Judaism yet burns brightly in Australia. As in the 
ancient days the Jewish exiles carried fire from their 
altars to the strange land whither they went forth to 
dwell, so do the Jews of the present day, whithersoever 
they wander, carry with them the fire of Judaism to burn 
on the new altars which they raise in their wanderings. 
Yes, even in this 'Ultima Thule,' where the Jew must 
turn westward rather than eastward if he would look 
towards Jerusalem ; where Passover occurs in autumn, 
and the Feast of Tabernacles in the spring of the year ; 
sttoll longing eyes are lifted towards the 'Holy Home,' and 
pious hearts beat for the Restoration." 

FIRST JEWISH WORSHIP. 

The commencement of the celebration of the rites and 
ordinances of the Jewish faith in Melbourne was a 
singularly modest one, and dates far back in the annals of 
the colony. Even as the Israelites of old in the wilder- 
ness had to content themselves with a tabernacle as their 
place of worship, so their descendants in this far southern 
land erected their tent in the then almost wilderness for 
the worship of the Most High, in accordance with their 
ancient usages and traditions. Divine service was held 
for the first time in Melbourne on the Festival of the 
year 5600 (A.D. 1839), but the Jewish residents then in 
Melbourne were not sufficient in number to form a 
"Minyon." On the New Y'ear Festivals of 1840 Divine 
service with a full "Minyon" was held for the first time 
in Port Phillip. Messrs. Edward and Isaac Hart having 
arrived a few days before the New Year, they completed 
the number (ten) of male adults required for that purpose. 
Mr. Edward Hart rendered valuable aid in the perform- 
ance of the services. During the year 1841 the late Mr. 
A. H. Hart arrived. This gentleman must be regarded 
as the pioneer who cleared the way, and acclimatised, so 
to speak, the practices and ordinances of the Jewish 
religion in this State. lie not only gave time and 
means in aid of the congregation, but also acted for many 
years in the capacity of honorary lay reader, and per- 
formed the functions of a minister until the services of 
a duly authorised and. properly qualified Rabbi could be 
secured. The New Year and "Yom-Kipur" services in 



1841 were held at the newly-built but unoccupied Port 
Phillip Hotel, in Flinders Street. The number of 
attendants was from twenty to twenty-five. At a 
general meeting, held on Sunday, the 29th day of Tivesh, 
5604 A.M. (21st January, A.D. 1844), it was unanimously 
resolved that the congregation should be designated "The 
Holy Congregation of a Remnant of Israel.* ' At a 
general meeting held a week later the laws prepared by a 
committee were read and confirmed, and thus the first 
regularly constituted congregation of Jews for public 
worship in Melbourne was founded in the year 1844, with 
Mr. A. H. Hart as its first- president. In 1844 a valu- 
able block of land, situated in Bourke Street West, was 
procured from the Government, mainly through the 
exertions of Mr. A. II. Hart, and in 1847 an unpre- 
tentious but suitable brick building was erected thereon. 
Thus was the first structure erected for public Jewish 
worship in Port Phillip. Soon- after the discovery of 
gold the influx to the Jewish population became so great 
that it led to the necessity of raising funds to build a 
synagogue commensurate with the requirements of the 
times. This was speedily accomplished, though the cost 
of so doing was about £.12,000, Mr. David Benjamin 
heading the list of contributors with £1,000, his brother 
(the late Mr. M. Benjamin) following with £500. In 

1842 Mr. A. H. Hart obtained from the Government a 
grant of land in the Old Cemetery for Jewish interments, 
and, sad to relate, the first participant in the melancholy 
privilege of being buried in that consecrated ground was 
Mr. Lewis Hart, a brother of the gentleman whose career 
of usefulness has been faintly indicated. The Melbourne 
Jewish Philanthropic Society, which has been of vast 
benefit to the needy of the Jewlish faith, was founded by 
Mr. A. H. Hart in 1849. 

The Jews possess six synagogues, which are governed 
independently of each other, two being in Melbourne— one 
in the west and the other in the east of the city ; and 
there is also one at St. Kilda, one at Ballarat, one at 
Bendigo, and one at Geelong. The foundation stone of 
the first Synagogue in the capital was laid on the 25th 
of August, 1847, by Mr. Solomon Benjamin, the pre- 
sident, in the presence of many members of the congrega- 
tion, who afterwards dined together at the Shakespeare 
Hotel, in Collins Street. It was opened for service on 
the 17th of March in the year following. 

The first Rabbi who came out from the mother 
country to minister to the spiritual wants of his Hebrew 
brethren in Port Phillip was the Rev. Moses Rintel, the 
son of an eminent "master in Israel" and Talmudic 
scholar in Edinburgh. Having received a diploma from 
Dr. S. Herschel, the then Chief Rabbi in Great Britain, 
the younger Rintel proceeded to Sydney in the first 
instance, where he founded and was principal of the 
Sydney Hebrew Academy, remaining in that city for five 
years, namely, from 1844 to 1819. In the latter year he 
accepted an invitation from his brethren to become Rabbi 
of the congregation which assembled for Divine worship 
at the Synagogue in Bourke Street West. Some years 
later circumstances arose into which it is unnecessary to 
enter, resulting in the institution of a second Jewish 
place of worship, the Mickva Israel Synagogue, in East 
Melbourne, of which Rabbi Rintel undertook the pastorate, 
and retained it until the close of his life. 



Charitable Institutions. 



Benevolent Asylum. 



For a period of nearly fourteen years after the 
foundation of the colony private benevolence, as organised 
in three societies, charitable in their aim and unobtrusive 
in their operations, sufficrd to cope with such poverty and 
distress as were to be met with in a young and growing 
community, whether owing to misfortune, to physical 
disability, illness, intemperance, or improvidence. There 
wc re originally three of these associations — the St. 
James' Society, the Friendly Brothers, and the 
Strangers' Fund—and all were active, so far as their 
means and opportunities would allow, in relieving indi- 
vidual cases of indigence and suffering. But a time 
arrived when such cases became too numerous to be 
dealt with by these agencies, and when it grew neces- 
sary to provide a permanent shelter for such of the 
destitute as had grown too old or infirm to work, or as 
were otherwise incapacitated from earning their own live- 
lihood. There were no poor laws, as in the mother 
country, and no other legal provision for meeting the 
moral claims of the necessitous. And these were becom- 
ing numerous and urgent. 

In this emergency an active member of the City 
Council, and a man of strong benevolent- instincts, Mr. 
John Thomas Smith, in the month of June, 1848, moved 
that body to present an address to His Excellency the 
Governor of New South Wales, praying him to recommend 
to the Legislative Council of the colony that an appro- 
priation should be made for the necessary funds wherewith 
to erect a Benevolent Asylum, and also to grant a site 
for the purpose. In this matter Mr. Smith received the 
prompt co - operation of the Superintendent of the 
province, and of the principal ministers of religion in 
Melbourne, most of whom were painfully aware of the 
need of such an institution. 

The authorities in Sydney were slow to move in 
those days', and kept a tight hold on the strings of 
the public purse, although this was being con- 
stantly replenished by the proceeds of the 
Customs duties, land sales, and pastoral rents 
collected in Port Phillip. Nor was it until the month 
of September following that the tardy promise of a 
site was made, provided an "unobjectionable locality" 
should be selected. And now the City Council appeared 
to be laggards, for no choice was made by that body 
until August, 1849, when the present site was pitched 
upon. By this time the three societies enumerated above 
had found themselves in sore straits, The old and infirm 
poor were growing more feeble and helpless, and there 
was no place available for their reception and shelter. 
A dilapidated and disused police office standing in the 
Western Reserve, under the control of the corporation, 



was applied for, but as it was Government property the 
Council was powerless to grant what did not belong to 
it. At least such was the plea put forth, but no such 
legal scruples prevented that body from subsequently 
letting it to a local sail-maker, to be employed by him 
as a workshop and warehouse. The practice of straining 
at gnats and swallowing camels was not altogether 
unknown even in those early days. 

At length the Government in Sydney voted £1,000 
for the erection of a Benevolent Asylum in Melbourne 
conditionally upon the inhabitants raising a similar 
amount among themselves, and a public meeting was 
convened in the month of October, 1849, to discuss the 
question of ways and means, over which the Mayor 
presided, and, although there were only a dozen persons 
present, the sum of £200 was promised, of which amount 
the Mayor and the mercantile firm (W. and H. Bell) of 
which he was a member contributed £85 10s. By the 
end of the following March the necessary £1,000 had been 
subscribed, and in June the subscription had reached 
£1,750. 

Ten acres had been reserved for the site of the 
proposed asylum by the Government in Sydney, and plans 
and estimates were called for from the architects, that 
of Mr. Charles Laing being accepted, while the tender 
of Messrs. Ramsden and Brown for the erection of the 
building at a cost of £2,850 was approved of. Various 
donations and grants enabled the expenditure to be 
eventually augmented to a total of £3,272 19s. 6d. 

The foundation stone was laid on the 24th of June, 
1850, when a procession of all the societies in Melbourne 
with the exception of those formed by the Roman 
Catholics, and stated to have been more than a mile 
long, marched up to the pleasant eminence, then quite in 
the country, upon which the asylum was to be erected. 
The absence of tJhe representatives of one religious 
denomination was thus accounted for :— It had been 
arranged that the prayer to be offered up to God invoking 
His blessing on the undertaking should be spoken by the 
Rev. Dr. Strong, the chaplain of the Masonic body, but 
at a meeting of the Roman Catholics, presided over by 
the Bishop, afterwards Archbishop Goold, this proceeding 
was denounced by that prelate as "an insult to the 
religious feelings of the Catholic community of Mel- 
bourne," inasmuch as merely to listen to "prayers pro- 
nounced, by a clergyman of any other persuasion was quite 
incompatible with the doctrines of the Roman Catholic 
Church." Accordingly a solemn protest was made 
against the whole proceeding, and among the resolutions 
passed at this meeting was one affirming the expediency 
of "convening another meeting for the purpose of con- 



58 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



sidering the propriety of establishing a Catholic Benevo- 
lent Asylum, and to seek the aid of the Government for 
that purpose." Happily such a project was never carried 
into effect, and it is only just to add that the Roman 
Catholics of Melbourne have always been liberal and con- 
sistent supporters of the Benevolent Asylum. 

One of the first uses to which the building was 
applied, after its completion in June, 1851, was to hold 
a ball in it on the 15th of July to celebrate the separa- 
tion of what was henceforth to be the colony of Victoria 
from New South Wales, which had taken place on the 1st 
of the same month. It was attended by upwards of 250 
persons, including Lieutenant-Governor Latrobe, and 
yielded a profit of £25 to the institution. It is curious 
to read of the bush track leading to this rurally situated 
asylum being lined "on each side with rude torches, 



of the sufferers by "Black Thursday," and that £250 of 
this surplus was allocated to the Benevolent Asylum, 
although not without a protest against the action of the 
committee of the fund from the subscribers to it, 
for they held a meeting at which resolutions were passed 
calling upon the various institutions which had benefited 
by it to refund their respective quotas, but this demand 
they were disinclined to comply with. 

The number of inmates received up to the end of 1851 
was thirty-two, and, of course, this went on increasing 
in the same ratio as the population of the colony until, 
on the 30th of June, 1900, there were 433 male and 244 
female inmates, most of them pioneers of the colony, 
while twenty-eight of them had been upwards of twenty- 
one years in the asylum. At the same time there were 
210 patients in the hospital of the institution, and no 




Benevolent Asylum, North Melbourne. 



fastened to poles secured in the ground, while soldiers 
and every policeman that could be spared patrolled the 
bush track from the junction of Queen and Latrobe 
Streets, between Flagstaff Hill and the Cemetery, to act 
as pilots." Remote were then the days of gas lighting, 
and still more distant those of electiic illumination. 
Another trait of the times was the large quantity of 
alcoholic liquors consumed on the occasion, comprising, 
as it did, ninety-six bottles of champagne, thirty-six 
bottles of sherry, twenty-four bottles of brandy, eighteen 
bottles of port wine, twelve bottles of rum, and sixty 
bottles of ale and porter, making a total of 246 bottles 
for 250 persons, or nearly one bottle per head. 

It may be mentioned, as a gratifying proof of the 
liberality of the public in those days, that a much larger 
sum was raised than was actually required for the relief 



less than 100 persons suffeiing from blindness, one man 
having been an inmate for forty-four, and one woman for 
forty-three years. Thus the asylum must be regarded 
as fulfilling three important functions in the community. 
It is a refuge and a home for the aged and infirm desti- 
tute, it is an infirmary, and it is also an asylum for the 
blind. 

The close of the half century during which this 
valuable institution has been in existence was signalised 
by holding a jubilee celebration on the 24th of June, 1900, 
at which about 500 Freemasons, including many influential 
persons, were present, and held a commemoration service. 
This was followed four days later by an "At Home," at 
which the Lieutenant-Governor and Lady Madden and 
something like 000 invited guests were present. A 
concert took place, and one of the incidents of the 



the cyclopedia of victoria. 



59 



evening was the presentation of a basket of flowers 

to Lady Madden by Mrs. Margaret Brady, one of 

the inmates, who had reached the venerable age of 
ninety-five. 

Of the 115 deaths which occurred in the asylum during 

the year under notice, no less than ninety-six were of 

persons between sixty-five and ninety-five years of age, 



eight of whom were upwards of eighty-five at the time of 
death. 

The institution possesses a cumulative endowment 
fund of £38,670, yielding an annual interest of £1,323 ; 
the other principal items in a total revenue of £8,889 
being a Government grant of £5,200, and private sub- 
scriptions amounting to about £1,000. 



The Melbourne Orphan Asylum. 



The Melbourne Orphan Asylum entered upon its 
jubilee year in 1901. It was founded in 1851 by the 
committee of the St. James' Dorcas Society. His 
Excellency Mr. C. J. Latrobe was one of the members 
of the committee. Two years previously, in 1849, the 
society had been giving shelter to orphan children and 
destitute old people. In 1851 the latter were removed 
to the Benevolent Asylum, and the children placed in a 
separate establishment in a building erected on Govern- 
ment land in Bourke Street West. The institution was 
then named "The St. James' Orphan Asylum." In 
1854, the site of the asylum having been proved 
unhealthy, the Government of Victoria granted ten acres 
of land on Emerald Hill (now South Melbourne) as a site 
for a new Orphan Asylum. The children, in very bad 
health, were removed temporarily from Bourke Street to 
tents upon Government land near the residence of Mr. 
and Mrs. James Simpson, at Kew. Mrs. Simpson with 
great kindness took special charge of the children until 
they could be removed into the new asylum, the founda- 
tion stone of which was laid by the Governor of the 
colony (His Excellency Sir Chas. Ilotham) on the 6th 
of September, 1855. The building was finished and the 
children removed into it in March, 1856. In 1875 (5th 
March) the institution was incorporated under Act 27 
Victoria No. 220, under the name of "The Melbourne 
Orphan Asylum." It had by that time grown- from its 
day of small things to be a home for over 300 children. 
Though still called "The Melbourne Orphan Asylum," it 
is in reality (so far as Victoria is concerned) a national 
institution, because it receives orphans from every part 
of the State excepting Geelong and Ballarat, in which 
places district orphanages have been established. In 
1878 another removal was found to be desirable. The 
occupation of so large an area in the rapidly-increasing 
municipality of Emerald Hill became a serious incon- 
venience to the city, and as the surrounding land had 
become thickly populated the site was less eligible than 
it had been for the congregation in one building of a 
large number of children. The orphanage, therefore, by 
an arrangement between the Government, the municipal 
council, and the Asylum Committee, was removed to its 
present very eligible and beautiful site at Brighton, 
where, in separate cottage homes, upon a larger block 
of land, the children enjoy the combined advantages of 
sea air and training in dairy farming and other industrial 
pursuits, embracing baking, boot and shoe making, tailor- 
ing, dressmaking, ploughing, and milking. At the time 
of the change, advantage was taken of the opportunity 



to introduce more of the family and natural hdme life 
among the children than can be obtained when they are 
congregated in great numbers in one large building. 

The new orphanage was built on the cottage or 
separate house principle, and the practice of boarding out 
some of the children with carefully selected private 
families in country homes among farmers and others was 
also adopted. In the cottage homes at Brighton each 
house contains a family of about twenty-five. The 
children are under the caie of a house-mother, and the 
elder ones are trained to perform all the household duties 
and to assist in the care of the younger children. 

The benefits of the Melbourne Orphan Asylum, as has 
been previously remarked, are not confined to Melbourne 
alone, destitute orphan children being admitted into it 
from the most distant parts of the State. It has 
carried on its noble work for the past forty-nine years, 
and no orphan child, if destitute and deprived by death 
of both parents, has ever been refused admission. 
Fatherless children of destitute widows who have more 
than two young children may also be admitted, but in 
such cases the widow must provide, by her own labour 
and friendly local help, for at least two other children. 
Any over that number may be considered orphans eligible 
for admission, but work in that direction is limited by 
the state of the funds. 

The institution, since the date of its establishment, 
has received and provided for neaily 4,000 children. The 
cottage homes contain at present about 100 boys and 
girls, varying in age from three to fourteen years. The 
boarding-out districts are thirty-six in number, extending 
over various country, farming, and suburban places in 
Victoria. Local committees have charge of these dis- 
tricts, and under their supervision upwards of 200 
children, at and under school age, are supported. 
Between the ages of fouiteen and seventeen the boys and 
girls are apprenticed (under indentures from the institu- 
tion) to various trades, farm work, or domestic service. 

The orphanage is supported by private benevolence, 
supplemented to a limited extent by Government aid. 

"A record of the children's conduct, kept after they 
leave the institution, 1 ' observes the superintendent, 
"shows that of all who have been trained within its 
walls from 90 to 95 per cent, grow up good citizens. 
There is every reason to believe," he adds, "that were it 
not for the work of this noble institution the criminal 
classes of the colony would be augmented by this vast 
number, and that circumstance alone should suffice to 
commend it to the charitably-disposed of all classes."* 



60 



the cyclopedia op victoria. 



Not a little of the gratifying success of this institution 
is attributable to its superintendent, Mr. Edwin Exon, 
who has filled that post from 1859 to 1903 with con- 
spicuous ability, zeal, and devotion. Possessing the true 
"enthusiasm for humanity," with a sympathetic nature, 
a high sense of duty, a genuine love for his orphan 
charges, and a thorough aptitude for administrative 



work, Mr. Exon has been for over forty years the 
animating spirit of the asylum, while to many outside its 
walls he is well known by his literary attainments, the 
possession of which he has proved to be perfectly com- 
patible with the exercise of those practical qualities 
which have proved to be of so much value to the asylum 
which he superintends. 



Hospitals for the Insane. 



•'I know few things," observes Mr. Lecky in his 
"History of European Morals," "more fitted to qualify 
the optimism we so often hear than the fact that 
statistics show insanity to be rapidly increasing, and to 
be peculiarly characteristic of those nations which rank 
most high in intellectual development and in general 
civilisation." In fact a medical writer on the subject, 
whose opinions may be regarded as those of an expert, 
docs not hesitate to assert that a high degree of 
civilisation connotes an extensive prevalence of insanity 
on the part of those who have reached that elevation, for 
he writes -.—"There seems good reason to believe that 
with the progress of mental development through the ages 
there is, as in the case with other forms of organic 
development, a correlative degeneration going on, and 
that an increase of insanity is a penalty which an 
increase of our present civilisation necessarily pays." It 
must be confessed that the penalty is an exceedingly 
heavy one, and that if, as some writers profess to 
believe, our civilisation is at present only in a rudi- 
mentary stage, the time may come when our lunatics will 
outnumber our sane population, and may insist upon 
locking up the latter and claiming freedom from restraint 
for themselves, under the delusion, common enough among 
those who are deranged, that they are perfectly sound of 
mind, and that it is their medical attendants, their 
warders and keepers, who are suffering from mental 
aberration. 

Most people will remember the venerable story of 
the voyager who, after having suffered shipwreck and 
clambering ashore, began to journey inland, and presently 
came to a gallows with a criminal hanging from it. 
"Thank God," was his fervent exclamation, "I have 
reached a civilised country." In like manner a stranger 
visiting Melbourne for the first time, and passing through 
one of the eastern suburbs, would find his attention 
arrested by a very large structure, as extensive in its 
appearance as the Louvre in Paris, occupying one of the 
most commanding positions in Kew. He would probably 
conclude it was a palace, or a college, or perhaps a 
national museum ; but on enquiring what were the uses 
to which so imposing a pile of buildings is applied he 
would be told— "That, sir, is our principal lunatic asylum 
—the largest of six." And he might be tempted to 
ejaculate, if inclined to the employment of irony, "This 
assures me that yours is a civilised country." 

Further enquiries would elicit the fact that something 
like one in every 1,750 of the population is under 
restraint as a lunatic, exclusive of a very great number 



of persons who, if examined, would be found to be not 
thoroughly sane on all points, but subject to delusions 
of a moral, religious, or intellectual character— harmless, 
perhaps, in themselves, but disentitling them to a clean 
bill of mental health. 

In the earlier years of our local history, when our 
population was relatively small, a single asylum— that 
of Yarra Bend — sufficed for the reception of all the 
pronounced lunatics in Victoria, but in later years it was 
found necessary to build a much larger one at Kew, and 
others at Ararat, Beechworth, Sunbury, and Ballarat, 
besides having lunacy wards in the gaols at Bendigo, 
Geelong, and Castlemaine, the maintenance of all these 
entailing a very heavy charge upon the public revenue. 

It must be acknowledged that the economic and 
social condition of a very large section of the Victorian 
community has been extremely favourable to the develop- 
ment of insanity, but much less so of late years than was 
the case some years ago. The mental excitement of 
gold mining, at a time when the mere chance stroke of 
a pick might lift a man out of comparative poverty into 
what was opulence for him ; the continual occurrence of 
the discovery of new goldfields ; the restlessness and 
migratory habits of the diggers ; their rapid alternations 
of feeling, from the elation of hope to the despondency 
occasioned by disappointment ; the large consumption of 
spirits, and sometimes of very bad or of adulterated 
intoxicants in a climate which renders an immoderate 
consumption of alcohol highly prejudicial to the human 
system ; the solitary lives led by shepherds and others 
on a sheep station-^men at that time destitute of any 
mental resource, and surrounded by silence and solitude 
from week's end to week's end ; were all conducive to 
derangement of the intellect, and tended to swell the 
number of those whom it was found necessary to place in 
confinement as unfit to be entrusted with their liberty. 

But the causes of insanity are so complex— for some 
are physical while others are moral, and others again 
are intellectual— that even the most carefully-prepared 
statistics are liable to be misleading, and some authori- 
ties go so far as to assert that lunacy is not extending, 
"the increase in numbers being largely due," as Dr. J. V. 
McCreery, the inspector of lunatic asylums in Victoria, 
has pointed out, "to the extension of the meaning of the 
term 'lunacy' so as to include many conditions of 
abnormal mental state— including certain forms of crime 
—and to the disinclination that is generally felt to allow- 
even harmless lunatics to wander at large. The result 
is a large accumulation of incurable cases in the asylums, 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



61 



which must not, however, be looked upon as proof of 
increase in the disease. Another factor in this accumu- 
lation is the low death-rate of the insane now as com- 
pared with the rate during the first half of the century." 
That gentleman's report for the year 1899 shows 
that, taking the returns for eighteen years (1882 to 1899 
inclusive), the average number of patients resident was 
3,554, and the average percentage of recoveries to 
admissions was 40.35. It was rather higher (44.44 per 
cent.) in the last year embraced in this return. It was 
highest at Ballarat, and the lowest but one at Yarra 
Bend, which suggests the question whether the superior 
elevation, and the general salubrity of the structure of 
the asylum in the former city, as compared with the low 



position of the institution at the Yarra Bend, may not 
have had something to do with the difference noticed. 

From thirty to forty appear to be the ages at which 
most of the patients are most liable to succumb to an 
attack of insanity, while after fifty the admissions begin 
to taper down. There are, in round numbers, from 2,600 
to 3,000 male and female patients employed in workshops, 
on the farm, in the garden, kitchen, store, laundry, and 
various domestic occupations, and they raise considerable 
quantities of dairy produce, poultry, vegetables, fruit, and 
farm produce, which diminish to that extent the expenses 
of maintaining the inmates of each asylum, while all such 
employments must have a beneficial effect upon the 
mental and physical health of the patients. 



The Deaf and Dumb Institution. 



The approach to Melbourne from the southern suburbs 
is calculated to impress the stranger very favourably 
with the charitable feelings of its citizens, for two 
hospitals and the same number of asylums will arrest his 
attention, partly by the size of these structures, and 
partly by the airy situations they occupy, and by the 
area of the grounds which surround the two asylums 
more particularly. In each all that science and 
sympathy can do to alleviate the severity of the priva- 
tions from which their inmates suffer has been done. In 
that of the deaf and dumb, the language of signs and 
gestures, or system of oral and manual teaching, which 
seems to be rapidly and easily mastered by those who are 
living, unhappily, in a world of silence, has been produc- 
tive of quite remarkable results, and has proved to be a 
boon of the first magnitude. 

The Deaf and Dumb Institution was founded in the year 
1862, and entered upon its present home in 1866, but the 
buildings as they now stand were not completed until the 
year 1870. A cottage hospital was added in 1887, and 
upon these the sum of £23,650 has been expended ; the 
land, containing about six acres, having been a grant 
from the Government. Mr. F. J. Rose was the founder 
of the institution, and its affairs are managed by an 
influential committee, of which Mr. Thomas Alston is the 
president, with a large staff of honorary officers ; the 
Rev. E. I. Watkin being the hon. secretary, and Mr. and 



Mrs. John Adcock the able and zealous superintendent 
and matron. Since its first establishment 422 deaf-mute 
children have enjoyed its benefits, and its present pupils 
are about seventy in number. Some cf the senior boys 
are taught boot-making, and most of the others work in 
the garden out of school hours ; and the girls are 
instructed in plain and fancy sewing, darning, knitting, 
and household economy. Private pupils are also 
received as daily, weekly, or quarterly boarders on 
moderate terms. The Institution has an endowment fund 
of £12,029, and a building fund of £885. It receives a 
Government grant of £820, and its expenditure, which 
does not much exceed £3,200 per annum, is covered by 
subscriptions, municipal grants, donations, interest, and 
the not unimportant item of £546 from paying pupils, 
showing that the educational advantages offered by the 
institution are beginning to be appreciated by the parents 
of deaf mutes who are in prosperous or easy circum- 
stances. The manual, in combination with the oral, 
system of education has been an unqualified success, 
fitting boys and girls for the active business of after life, 
mitigating to a very large extent the privation of speech, 
and providing them with a means of conversation com- 
paratively easy to acquire and equally easy to exercise. 
In a word, few institutions of the kind are better 
deserving of public support than that for the deaf and 
dumb. 



Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind. 



The Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind has been 
built in sections from time to time as required at a cost 
of about £23,000. 

The institution is strictly undenominational in its 
character, and its objects are to give a suitable scholastic 
and religious education to the young blind of the State, 
and to teach them trades or professions by means of 
which, on completion of their term of training, they may 
earn an independent livelihood. It is further intended, 



as far as the exigencies of trade will permit, to give 
employment in its industrial department to blind work- 
people who may be unable to get work elsewhere. This, 
however, is restricted to the demand for the goods made. 
The institute is not in any sense a benevolent asylum for 
the indigent blind, who can not only be maintained more 
cheaply, but can be better cared for in the ordinary insti- 
tutions for the care of the destitute. The scholastic 
education is similar to that in the State Schools, varied 



62 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



only in apparatus and means employed, and examinations 
are held annually by the Education Department, the 
percentage gained at the last being 100. Music is an 
important part of the education of the blind, and those 
who display exceptional talent are trained for that pro- 
fession, and help to raise revenue for the institution by 
means of concerts and band performances in various parts 
of the State. In the industrial branch, pupils are 
trained in the trades of brush, basket, mat, and matting 
making, the period of training varying from two to five 
years, and employment is also given to non-resident 
ex-pupils. 

The statistics for the year ended 30th June, 1903, 
are :— Resident pupils : Males, 30 ; females, 24. Daily 
pupils : Males, 1 ; females, 2. Non-resident workers : 
Males, 25 ; females, 13. Total, 95. 



sold, was purchased for £350. In 1867 a commencement 
was made with a new building, the part first finished 
costing £5,955. This was occupied in July, and the 
number of pupils was increased to fifty, twenty-seven of 
whom were received from industrial schools. Mr. and 
Mrs. George Robinson were appointed as the first super- 
intendent and matron respectively, and Mr. Alex. Wier 
secretary and collector. 

Up till this time only ordinary scholastic education 
had been attempted. , To this was then added music, 
and the industrial branch, which has since assumed such 
an important position in the institution's work, was 
initiated, basket - making being the direction of the 
earliest effort. Mr. Greenwood and Miss Cox were the 
first teachers of music, and the former was for many 
years connected with the institution, and was instru- 




■--1 —irl 



53 Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind/ St. Hilda Road.«o<» k >■ p { r- ; ~ JBft 



The institution owes its origin to the late Rev. James 
Mirams, who convened a private meeting on 27th Feb- 
ruary, 1866. This was followed by a public meeting, at 
which it was decided to establish an asylum and school 
for the blind, but not to associate with it a hospital, 
as at first suggested. A provisional committee was 
formed, by whom such progress was made that they were 
enabled to launch the new Victorian Asylum and 
School for the Blind, and operations were commenced in 
November of that year in a house in Commercial Road 
which had already done duty as the temporary premises 
of the new Deaf and Dumb Institution. 

A grant of land in Moubray Street, St. Kilda Road, 
was obtained from the Government, and the adjoining 
frontage to St. Kilda Road, which had been previously 



mental in equipping several notable blind musicians, two 
of whom became well known, viz., Mr. Henry Forder, for 
many years organist and choirmaster at the St. Kilda 
Presbyterian Church, and Mr. H. V. E. Pascoe, who is 
still organist of St. John's, Warrnambool. 

In 1870 further buildings, consisting of dining hall 
and workshops, were added, at a cost of £2,262, and the 
number of inmates was increased to sixty-two. 

Until this year the office of superintendent and head 
teacher had been combined. They were now separated, 
and new appointments made in the persons of Mr. and 
Mrs. Drummond superintendent and matron, and Mr. 
McPhee head teacher. 

Tn 1870 an addition was made to the buildings of 
what was named the "McPherson wing," in recognition 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



63 



of the efforts of the late T. McPherson, then Mayor of 
Melbourne, by means of which the necessary funds were 
chiefly raised. 

The year 1873 was marked by the introduction of the 
"Braille' ' system of reading and writing (or what in the 
blind world takes the place of the latter). This system 
marked a new era in the history of the blind, and has 
proved the most important factor in their education ever 
since. In 1874 further workshop, etc., accommodation 
was added, at a cost of some £1,775, and the new trades 
of mat and brush making commenced. The then super- 
intendent and matron severed their connection with the 
institution, and in their places Major Julius Lovell and 
Mrs. Lovell were appointed. 

In this year also the growth of workshop accommoda- 
tion enabled the Board to cater for adult pupils for 
the purpose of being taught trades, as well as to give 
employment to journeymen. 

In 1878 Major and Mrs. Lovell resigned their positions 
as superintendent and matron. The Rev. William Moss, 
who had acted as honorary secretary since 1874, was 
appointed superintendent, and Mrs. Moss matron. 

Under Mr. Moss's charge, the institution progressed 
steadily for several years, and in 1890-1 the original plan 
of the institution was completed by the addition Of new 
school-room, class-room, and a dormitory for girls. A 
concert hall was also added, known as the "Ormond 
Music Hall for the Blind," so named in memory of the 
late Hon. Francis Ormond, who left £1,500 to the 
institution. 

On the death of Mr. Moss in 1891, Mr. J. T. Hogarth 
was appointed, with Mrs. Hogarth as matron, and both 
continue to hold these offices with credit to themselves 
and advantage to the institution. At the same time 
the title of the institution was changed to that of the 
Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind, the old name, 



"Asylum," having been the cause of misapprehension of 
its objects. 

In this year the industrial department, which had 
grown slowly, reached its highest development up to that 
time, its sales realising £1,300. The period since has 
been marked by great advances in the industrial branch. 
The progress in manufacturing methods in every direction 
made it imperative to recast those in vogue at the insti- 
tution. It has in recent years been equipped with all 
kinds of labour-saving machinery and appliances where 
suitable to the conditions of the institution and its 
workers. The sales by leaps and bounds grew, until 
in 1892. they reached £4,836, or nearly four times the 
amount of ten years ago, while the goods produced were 
in a still greater proportion. 

In 1894 the manufacturing branch of the institution 
was completely separated from the school, and distinct 
accounts kept. 

In 1895 the principle of requiring all adult workers 
to reside outside of the institution, previously relaxed, 
was resumed, as being far less costly to the institution, 
and raising the status of those concerned by placing them 
in a position of honorable independence. 

For many years the finances of the institution had 
been in an unfavourable condition. The buildings 

erected at the time, of the land boom in 1890 had not 
been paid for, and in the subsequent period of depression 
this, with the accruing interest, caused the deficit to 
reach some £5,000. At this stage Lady Brassey was 
induced to come to the assistance of the institution. 
She made an appeal to the public for aid, and handed to 
the institution the handsome sum of £5,745. 

Since then the management has succeeded in making 
ends meet, and by means of bequests has created an 
endowment account, which now stands to credit 
£6,252. 



Victorian Homes for the Aged and Infirm 

(Late Immigrants' Aid Society's Home). 



Among the many benevolent institutions which abound 
in Melbourne and its suburbs there are few which have 
done a greater amount of good, in a quiet and unosten- 
tatious way, than the above - named homes, which 
have now been in existence for fifty years, having been 
founded in 1853. The state of things out of which they 
arose was extraordinary and unprecedented. When the 
startling statements that gold could be dug up in 
Victoria "like potatoes" reached Europe, it stimulated 
an outflow of people from thence numbering 336,967 in 
the years 1852-3-1-5. Some thousands of these had 
sacrificed everything they possessed in order to raise the 
means of paying a passage in the steerage to Hobson's 
Bay, labouring under the delusion that the moment they 
landed they would be able to commence picking up gold, 
or that, as an alternative, they would receive immediate 
offers of employment at as many shillings a day as they 
had received per week in their mother country. That 
in numberless instances both of these expectations were 
unfulfilled is very well known to all who knew Melbourne 



when Canvas Town sprang up like a mushroom on the 
south side of the Yarra, and a great deal of destitution 
and misery was the necessary result. As a newspaper 
of the period wrote in April, 1853 •:— " Something must be 
done at last. The present state of things has lasted 
long enough. The winter is fast coming upon us. Are 
these unfortunates still to coil and shiver on the river 
banks ? Are they still to be turned over on the muddy 
wharves on dark and dreary nights, children and luggage 
heaped together, without a hand held out to them, 
without a friend to advise, without a roof to shelter, or 
a fire to warm ? Is this to go on in a city teeming 
with wealth as scarcely ever city did before ?" 

The appeal was not made in vain. Something was 
done. A public meeting was held in the Town Hall on 
the 9th of May, Alderman Hodgson in the chair. A 
committee was appointed to prepare a scheme for 
housing the unfortunate newcomers, and eight days 
afterwards it presented its report to a second public 
meeting held in the same place. This led to the 



64 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



formation of "The Immigrants' Aid Society," which 
charged itself with the provision of temporary buildings 
capable of accommodating 4,000 persons, and including a 
hospital or sick ward under medical supervision. It first 
of all erected a temporary fever hospital not far from 
the site of the present homes, and then a capacious store 
on the wharf for the reception and safe custody of 
immigrants' luggage. It raised £8,000 by public 
subscriptions, expended £459 upon medicines and medical 
attendance in the hospital, £888 in gratuities to the 
necessitous, and £595 in loans. A grant of £1,000 was 
obtained from the Government in 1854, the society 
continuing to struggle on, in the face of great difficulties 
and with an altogether inadequate income, until the year 
1861, when it was granted the use of a portion of the 
barracks previously occupied by the 40th Regiment ; and 
these, by an outlay of £1,365 upon them, were made 
available for the reception of 200 adults and 200 children, 
the old home continuing to be used for sheltering adult 
applicants until the month of December, 1876, when the 
greater part of it was pulled down and removed. Sub- 
sequently a hospital, with separate wards for men and 
women, capable of accommodating sixty patients ; a 
messroom, dormitory, bathroom, and schoolroom, sub- 



stantially constructed, were added to the late barracks, 
other additions and improvements continuing to be made 
from time to time as far as the funds available 
permitted, and a report drawn up in 1889 showed that 
the daily average of inmates since 1861 amounted to 500. 

The buildings originally occupied by the home on the 
west side of the St. Kilda Road have been mostly 
demolished, and its operations are now carried on in the 
premises on the east side of that thoroughfare, and in 
the Royal Park, where there are workshops, in which 
beds, pillows, wearing apparel, etc., are made for the use 
of the inmates of both branches of the institution. 

Since the Old Age Pensions Act came into force 
many inmates have taken advantage of it, and have left 
the institution, but some have relinquished their pensions, 
and have returned to it. Among the inmates a short 
time ago were fifty-two upwards of eighty years of age, 
three upwards of ninety, and one who was over 100. 

Religious services are conducted at the various 
di\isions of the home by the ministers of five different 
denominations, and by members of six organisations of 
a religious character ; and numerous entertainments, 
chiefly musical, are given for the amusement of the 
inmates in the course of the year. 



Sanatorium for Consumptives. 



In a fold of the mountains, facing a slope upon which 
the nursery gardens of Messrs. Taylor and Sangster inlay 
the dark • forest with a bright mosaic of flowers and 
foliage, representing the flora of many lands, both far and 
near, stands the Sanatorium for Consumptives, which has 
been largely indebted for its foundation, like the sister 
institution at Echuca, to the energetic efforts of Dr. 
Duncan Turner, M.R.C.P., who has made a special study 
of this malady, has visited some of the most famous of 
the sanatoriums on the continent of Europe, and has been 
tolerably successful in dissipating by his pen some of the 
erroneous ideas current among timid and imperfectly 
informed people respecting the alleged contagiousness of 
consumption. 

Modern science has demonstrated that, in certain 
stages, consumption is perfectly curable ; and that, 
inasmuch as it is a lung trouble, one of the most 
efficacious methods of treating the disorder is to place 
the patient in such conditions as that he shall inhale 
absolutely pure air. This can be best obtained at a 
considerable elevation above the sea, in places free from 
smoke and dust, and the abominations more or less 
incidental to all large towns and cities, and where 
an abundance of vegetation is incessantly engaged in 
purifying the air by pouring into it inexhaustible supplies 
of oxygen. These conditions are found, combined with 
quietude and a suitable temperature, in the sequestered 
spot which has been selected as the site of the sanatorium 
on Mount Macedon. It occupies spacious grounds, in 
which are grown the vegetables consumed in the institu- 
tion, and the contour of the land enables it to be 
irrigated by a perennial water supply obtained from a 
higher level, as also to be drained by natural gravitation. 



The average number of patients in the institution is 
about forty, and the applications for admission are 
almost always in excess of the accommodation at present 
available. The sanatorium receives both paying and 
non - paying inmates, and, as a matter of course, there 
is a separation of the sexes. Whenever the weather is 
favourable, they spend the greater part of the day in the 
open air, sun-shelters being provided for those who are 
more delicate. These are movable, so as- to cause them 
to face the sun as he changes his position from hour to 
hour. It is intended at the earliest opportunity to supple- 
ment the accommodation for patients by the erection of a 
number of tents in the grounds, as experience has shown 
that recovery is more rapid under canvas than indoors. 

All the patients are weighed at the end of every week, 
as the acquisition of flesh is one of the earliest evidences 
of improved health, as well as of an arrest of any process 
of wasting that may have been previously experienced. 
This amendment sometimes manifests itself soon after a 
patient's arrival at the institution, and generally con- 
tinues until he or she is convalescent, and can be dis- 
charged as cured, or sufficiently so to justify the expecta- 
tion that by avoiding the causes which provoke phthisis 
the patient may calculate upon enjoying a reasonable im- 
munity from pulmonary complaints. 

A sanatorium of this kind has done an immense 
amount of good in a community where a certain per- 
centage of the population originally came out for the 
sake of what was believed to be a climate propitious to 
the healing of consumptive diseases, and where, for the 
same reason, there is likewise a small percentage of 
young persons who have inherited from parents thus 
affected a predisposition to pulmonary maladies. 



Medical. 



WILLIAM BEATTIE SMITH, 
F.R.C.S.E., L.R.C.P.E., of 56 
Collins Street, Melbourne, was born 
in Northumberland, England, in 
1854, and is a son of the late 
Dr. W. Beattie Smith, of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. Educated at the Campie 
House School, Musselburgh, and at 
the University of Edinburgh and 
London Special Hospitals, he took 
his degrees in 1876. Dr. Beattie 
Smith was for some time in practice 
at Stockton-on-Tees, in the county 
of Durham, and was on the honorary 
staff of the Hospital there till 1881, 
at the end of which year he visited 
Australia for health reasons, and 
almost immediately on arrival was 
appointed resident medical officer of 
the Ararat District Lunatic Asylum, 
which position he held till promoted 
in a few months to the position of 
deputy medical superintendent of the 
Yarra Bend Asylum, remaining there 
till March, 1887, when he was given 




Johnstone. O'Snanncssy and Co. Mtlb. 

Dr. William Beattie Smith. 

the position of medical superintendent 
at Ararat, which asylum grew up 
round about him during his twelve 
years' residence there. In January, 
1899, Dr.. Beattie Smith was pro- 
moted to the medical super intendency 



at the Metropolitan Asylum, Mel- 
bourne, and worked there until, retir- 
ing from the service of the State in 
September, 1902, he entered upon con- 
sulting practice in mental diseases. 
Whilst at the Metropolitan Asylum 
he became lecturer on clinical mental 
diseases in connection with the Mel- 
bourne University, which post he for 
the present still retains, the Govern- 
ment having granted facilities for th2 
continuance of his teaching. In 1900 
Dr. Beattie Smith was honored with 
the confidence of the Ministry in 
being appointed Government medical 
adviser, but he preferred to remain 
in the Lunacy Department and 
wait for the position of Inspector- 
General of the Insane ; but friction 
with the Minister, however, in im- 
portant administrative details in the 
interests of good government led to 
his retirement from the service, with 
which he had been connected for 
twenty-one years. 



HERMAN FERMOR 

LAWRENCE, M.R.C.P., Edin., prac- 
tising at 82 Collins Street, Mel- 
bourne, is a son of Dr. O. V. 
Lawrence, the first to receive the 
degree of M.D. at the Melbourne 
University. Educated at the Scotch 
College, Melbourne (where he was 
remarkable for his prowess in the 
athletic field, having been stroke of 
the rowing crew and one of the col- 
legians selected to play with the Mel- 
bourne Football Club), in 1886 he 
went to Edinburgh, and there gained 
the qualifications L.R.C.S. and 
L.R.C.P. in 1888, and M.R.C.P. in 
1889. He remained in Scotland for 
twelve months, during which he filled 
the position of assistant to Dr. 
Jamieson, specialist in skin diseases 
at the Edinburgh Infirmary, and was 
under Professor McCall Anderson, of 
Glasgow. Dr. Lawrence returned to 
Melbourne in 1890, and commenced 
practice, in conjunction with his 
father, in Fitzroy. In 1893 Dr. 
Lawrence was appointed hon. 



physician for skin diseases to St. 
Vincent's Hospital, an office he still 
holds. He was hon. physician to the 
Melbourne Hospital from 1895 till 
1902, when he retired in order to 
become hon. dermatologist to the 




Johnttont. <>'.b7UiM/tt««# aitd Co. Mtlb. 

Db. Herman Febmor Lawkknce. 

Melbourne Hospital. Dr. Lawrence 
married, in 1891, Thirza, daughter of 
the late Mr. Thos. Aitken, of Mel- 
bourne, and has a family of one son 
and one daughter. He is a member 
of the Combermere Lodge of Free- 
masons, of which he is at present 
Worshipful Master. 



ARTHUR AUGUSTUS 
FLETCHER, M.D. et Ch.B., Melb.; 
M.R.C.S., Eng.; practising at "Hol- 
combe," Lygon Street, Carlton, was 
born in the district in 1861, and 
is the eldest son of the late Dr. 
Edward Fletcher, M.R.C.S., Eng., 
who arrived in Victoria during the 
forties, and was for many years in 
practice in Carlton, and identified 
with the early history of the me- 
tropolis. He died in 1893. Dr. A. 
A. Fletcher was educated at the 
Carlton College, under Mr. G. H. 
Neighbour (now Judge Neighbour), 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



and went thence to Melbourne Uni- 
versity, where he obtained his M.B. 
and Ch.B. degrees in 1883. He was 
afterwards resident medical officer at 
the Melbourne Hospital, a position 
he filled until 1885, when he left for 




Johnstone, O'Shamicssy and Uo. Metb. 

Dr. Arthur Augustus Fletcher. 

England, in order to enter upon the 
further study of his profession, and 
took the degree of M.R.C.S. in the 
following year. On his return to 
Victoria he took up private practice 
in Carlton, where he has resided ever 
since. Dr. Fletcher married, in 
1900, a daughter of Mr. Leon 
MacSwiney, and has a family of one 
daughter. He is a member of the 
Medical Society of Victoria, also of 
the Medical Defence Association. 



JOHN WILLIAM YORKE 

FISHBOURNE, A.B., M.B., Ch.M., 
T.C.D., practising at 80 Collins 
Street, Melbourne, and at St. Aidans, 
Moonee Ponds, is the fourth son 
of the late Rev. Robert Fishbournc, 
A.M., rector of Ferns, county of 
Wexford, Ireland. He was born in 
December, 1842, at Coolkenno Rec- 
tory, county of Wicklow, and was 
educated at Cullaghmore, in the 
county Carlow, but on the sudden 
death of the head master he con- 
tinued his studies with Dr. Lindwart 
(who had been teacher of modern 
languages at Cullaghmore) in Kil- 
kenny. At the age of sixteen he 
entered Trinity College, Dublin Uni- 
versity, graduating A.B. in 1863, 



M.B. in 1864, M.Ch. in the follow- 
ing year. He continued his studies 
for a time on the Continent, spending 
six months at Brussels. In order 
to regain his health after a severe 
attack of typhus fever, he obtained a 
position as surgeon in the P. and O. 
service, which he retained for two 
years. Leaving his ship, the 

"Avoca," in Sydney in 1869, he 
decided to settle in Victoria, where 
he commenced practice at Lake Lear- 
month, in the Ballarat district, re- 
maining there for several years. 
Owing to the exodus of population 
from the district in consequence of 
the opening up of the Wimmera to 
selectors, he went as resident 
surgeon to the .Ararat District Hos- 




Johnstonc, O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Dr. John William Yorke Fishbourne. 

pital, and subsequently, on the death 
of Dr. John Bayldon, accepted the 
position of medical officer in the 
Government service, and was ap- 
pointed to the Ararat Hospital for 
the Insane. He was subsequently 
moved to Kew Asylum as senior 
medical officer, where he remained 
till 1881, when he resigned his posi- 
tion, and settled at Moonee Ponds. 
For ten years he held the position of 
health officer to the town of Essen- 
don and to the Shire of Keilor, and 
has been president of the Melbourne 
branch of the British Medical Asso- 
ciation. For fourteen years he was 
examiner in mental pathology at the 
Melbourne University, and for many 
years has taken a deep and active 



interest in the care, treatment, and 
education of the insane, the epileptic, 
and the mentally feeble. In 1897, in 
conjunction with his daughter, Miss 
Laeta Fishbourne, he founded a 
school for backward and mentally 
defective children, for whom ordinary 
schools are unsuited, the first school 
of its kind in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. In 1870 he married a 
daughter of the Rev. Richard 
Radcliff, A.M., rector of Skryne, 
county Meath, Ireland, and sister of 
the Rev. Canon Radcliff, A.B., of 
Ballarat, by whom he has a family 
of one son and five daughters. 



JOHN GORDON, MB., M.S., 
Melb.; F.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Eng.; 
practising at 169 Lygon Street, 
Carlton, is a son of the late Mr. 
John Gordon, who arrived in Mel- 
bourne in 1854, and was well known 
as a builder and contractor. Born 
in Carlton in 1870, Dr. Gordon was 
educated at King's College, whence 
he proceeded to the Melbourne Uni- 
versity, taking the degrees M.B. et 
Ch.B. in 1891. He was afterwards 
for some time the resident medical 
officer at the Melbourne Hospital, 
and then went to England, where he 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. 

Dr. John Gordon. 



Melb. 



qualified F.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P., 
Lond., in 1895. He remained in 
London for several years, during 
which he studied in the principal 
hospitals in that city, and on his 
return to Victoria commenced the 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



67 



practice of his profession in Carlton, 
where he has remained ever since. 
Dr. Gordon is on the honorary staffs 
of the Hospital for Sick Children and 
the Melbourne Hospital. 

PETER LYNCH, L.R.C.P., 
L.R.C.S., L.M., Edin.; L.F.P. and 
S., Glasg.; practising at "Narin- 
gook," Lygon Street, Carlton, was 
born in Victoria in 1858, and is a 
son of Mr. John Lynch, civil engineer 
and surveyor, of Smythesdale. He 
was educated at the University, Mel- 
bourne, and afterwards went to 




Johnstone, (TShannessy ami Co. 

Dr. Pkter Lynch. 



M'M. 



Edinburgh, where he qualified 
L.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., and L.M. in 
1885. Dr. Lynch then entered upon 
the practice of his profession in Fife- 
shire, Scotland, where he remained 
for some time, and on his return to 
Victoria filled the position of resi- 
dent medical officer at the Women's 
Hospital in Carlton for a period of 
six months. In 1886 he commenced 
private practice in Lygon Street, 
Carlton, where he has resided ever 
since! Dr. Lynch is Government 
vaccinator and medical examiner for 
Government under the Factories and 
Shops Act, and acts as medical 
officer to the principal friendly lodges 
in the district. 

JAMES AMESS, M.B. et Ch.B., 
Melb. Univ., superintendent of the 
Melbourne Hospital, was born in 
Gisborne, Victoria, in I860, and is a 



son of the late Mr. John Amess, a 
well-known builder, of Melbourne, and 
nephew of the late Mr. Samuel 
Amess, one of the early Mayors of 
the city. Educated at the West 
Melbourne State School, under Mr. 
Walker, and afterwards privately, he 
was engaged in the Education De- 
partment as a teacher for some few 
years. On resigning his position he 
entered upon the study of medicine 
at the Melbourne University, and 
obtained his degrees in 1885. Dr. 
Amess commenced private practice 
at Tungamah, remaining there for 
three years, and then removed to 
Richmond, where he was in practice 
for eight years, and during that 
period was a member of the Rich- 
mond City Council and of the Mel- 
bourne and Metropolitan Board of 
Works. In 1896 he removed to 
Collins Street, Melbourne, and in 
1899 was appointed to the superin- 
tendency of the Melbourne Hospital, 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Mtib. 

Dr. James Amess. 

which office he still holds. He is a 
prominent member of the Masonic 
order, his mother lodge being the 
Ionic Lodge, of Tungamah, and is at 
present a member of the University 
Lodge, Melbourne. 



GEORGE CAMPBELL RENNIE, 
M.B. et Ch.M., Melb.; F.R.C.S., 
Eng.; practising at 120 Collins 
Street, was born at Woodend, Vic- 
toria, in 1865, and is a son of the 



late Mr. Edward Campbell Rennie, 
one of the pioneers of that district. 
Educated at St. Xavier's College, 
Kew, he afterwards entered Mel- 
bourne University, taking his 
degrees in 1886. He subsequently 
filled the position of house surgeon to 
the Melbourne Hospital, and in 1888 
went to England, where he graduated 
F.R.C.S. and M.R.C.S. in the year 
following. On his return Dr. Rennie 
was appointed out-door surgeon to 
the Melbourne Hospital in 1893, and 
for some years acted as demonstrator 
in anatomy to the Melbourne Univer- 




Johnttone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Dr. George Campbell Rennie. 

sity. He is examiner in junior 
surgery and surgical anatomy to the 
University, and in addition to a large 
private practice still retains his ap- 
pointment at the Hospital. Dr. 
Rennie married, in 1902, a daughter 
of Mr. A. J. Hart, of Melbourne. 
He is a member of the British 
Medical Association, the Medical 
Society of Victoria, and likewise of 
the Medical Defence Association, Mel- 
bourne. 



GEORGE THOMAS HOWARD, 
B.A., B.S., M.D., Melbourne, practis- 
ing at 4 Collins Street, was born in 
Bendigo, Victoria, in 1856, and is a 
son of the late Mr. J as. Joseph 
Howard, one of the pioneers of that 
district. He was educated at the 
Bendigo High School, from whence 
he entered Melbourne University in 
1875, taking the degree of B.A. in 



68 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



1883, and those of M.B. and B.S. in 
1886. He was afterwards appointed 
resident surgeon at the Melbourne 
Hospital, and on resigning that posi- 
tion commenced practice in North 
Fitzroy, and has been identified with 




Johnstone, O'Shannesty and Co. Xtlb. 

Db. Gbobge Thomas Howabd. 

the northern suburbs, including 
Fitzroy, Carlton, and Clifton Hill, 
ever since. For three years Dr. 
Howard filled the office of demon- 
strator of anatomy to the Melbourne 
University, and in 1889 was ap- 
pointed physician to out-patients at 
the Melbourne Hospital, having been 
promoted in 1898 to a position on 
the in - door staff, which, he still 
retains. He at present acts as 
examiner in medicine to the Mel- 
bourne University, and is vice- 
president of the Medical Society of 
Victoria. Dr. Howard married, in 
1888, a daughter of Mr. Edward 
Bailey, one of the pioneers of Bal- 
larat, and has a family of one 
daughter and three sons. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, 
his lodge being the University Lodge, 
Melbourne, in which he holds the 
office of Past Master. 



Dr. W. KENT HUGHES, M.B., 
Lond.; M.R.C.S., Eng.; practising 
at 22 Collins Street, Melbourne, was 
born in Brighton, Victoria, in 1865, 
and educated at the Melbourne 
Grammar School, of which he was 
dux in the year 1881. From there 
he entered Melbourne University, and 



in 1884 proceeded to London, where 
he entered St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, devoting himself especially to 
the study of eye, ear, and throat 
diseases, and to deformities. While 
in London he filled the following ap- 
pointments :— House surgeon, Central 
London Ophthalmic Hospital ; house 
physician, Royal Chest Hospital ; 
clinical assistant, Royal Ophthalmic 
Hospital (for five years, under Mr. 
Nettleship); clinical assistant in the 
throat department, St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital ; acting (for six 
months) surgeon in charge of the 
orthopedic department at St. Bar- 
tholomew's. Since his return to 
Melbourne Dr. Kent Hughes has held 
the appointments of surgical tutor, 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Mtlb. 

Db. VV. Kent Hughes. 

Trinity College ; orthopedic surgeon, 
St. Vincent's Hospital ; assistant 
demonstrator of anatomy, Melbourne 
University ; lecturer on anatomy, 
Dental College. He is at present 
surgeon to the Children's Hospital, 
aural surgeon to the Melbourne Hos- 
pital, and consulting oculist and 
aurist to the Queen Victoria Hos- 
pital. He is the author of "De- 
formities of the Foot," in conjunc- 
tion with W. J. Walshan, F.R.C.S.; 
14 Anatomy and Treatment of Con- 
genital Talipes Equinovarus ;" 
"Treatment of Convergent Stra- 
bismus, a New Kind of Talipes (Spas- 
ticus dorsalis)" ; "A New Opera- 
tion for Absence of the Fibula,' ' 
"Adenoids in Adults," "Treatment 



of High Myopia," "Treatment of 
Deformities Arising from Infantile 
Paralysis," "Treatment of Gonor- 
rheal Ophthalmia," "Feet of Chinese 
Ladies." 



SAMPSON J. R. GREVILLE, 
F.R.C.S., Edin.; L.R.C.P. and 
D.P.H., Edin.; M.R.C.S., Lond.; of 
"The Elms," corner of St. Vincent 
Place and Montague Street, South 
Melbourne, was born in Geelong, 
1862, and is the eldest son of the 
late Mr. J. R. Greville, a well-known 
resident of Melbourne. He was edu- 
cated at the Scotch College, where he 
matriculated, and went thence to the 
Melbourne University. On finishing 
his medical course there he went to 
Edinburgh, where he gained his 
diplomas L.R.C.P. and D.P.H., at 
the same time qualifying M.R.C.S., 
London. Dr. Greville then proceeded 
to Vienna, where he further pursued 
his studies, and in 1888 returned to 
Australia. He was for some time 
in practice in Albury, New South 
Wales, and then removed to Talbot, 
Victoria, where he had charge of the 
Amherst Hospital for a period of 
two years. Dr. Greville subse- 
quently took a second trip to Eng- 




Jonnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. MtXb. 

Db. Sampson J. R. Gbeville. 

land and the Continent, and took up 
the study of special subjects. Re- 
turning to Australia again in 1893, 
he was for seven years in practice in 
Western Australia, where he ha^ a 
most successful career, and after sell- 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



69 



ing his practice took an extended 
trip round the world, spending two 
years in the various European hos- 
pitals. After getting the F.R.C.S., 
Edin., he returned to Melbourne in 
1903, and settled down in active 
practice at his present address. Dr. 
Greville is a specialist in diseases of 
the eye, ear, and throat, and acts as 
medical officer to several societies. 



EDWARD ALAN MACKAY, 
M.B., B.S., Melb. Univ., was 
born at Tarrawingee, Victoria, in 
1863, and is a son of the late Dr. 
George E. Mackay. Educated at 
the Church of England Grammar 
School and the University of Mel- 
bourne, he took his degrees in 1888. 
He was resident surgeon at the 
Adelaide General Hospital for twelve 
months, and was then appointed to 
the same office in the Melbourne 
Hospital for Sick Children, which he 
filled for three years. Dr. Mackay 
then commenced the private practice 
of his profession in South Yarra. 
He is honorary surgeon to the 
Children's Hospital, and is on the 
staff of the Austin Hospital in con- 
nection with the children's depart- 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Dr. Edward Alan Mackay. 

mcnt there. For four years he filled 
the position of senior surgeon to the 
obstetric branch of the Women's Hos- 
pital, Carlton. He is a governor 
of the Church of England Grammar 
School, and a member of the council 



of tfoe Old Melburnians' Society. Dr. 
Mackay married, in 1898, a daughter 
of Mr. John Reid, of Tabratong, New 
South Wales. 



THOMAS HODGSON, M.B. et 
Ch.B., Melb. Univ., practising at the 
corner of Gertrude and Brunswick 
Streets, Fitzroy, was born in Mel- 
bourne in 1864, and is a son of the 
late Mr. Richard Hodgson, importer, 
of Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, one 
of the early pioneers of Victoria. 
Educated at the Wesley College, St. 
Kilda Road, he went thence to Mel- 
bourne University, where he gradu- 
ated in 1887. Dr. Hodgson was then 
appointed relieving surgeon at the 




Johnstone, O'Siianne&sy ami Co. Melb. 

Dr. Thomas Hodgson. 

Sunbury Asylum for the Insane, a 
position he filled for four years, and 
afterwards took a trip to Europe 
and America. On his return to 
Victoria he was for four years in 
private practice in Dandenong. In 
1895 he removed to his present 
address in Fitzroy. Dr. Hodgson 
acts as medical officer to the prin- 
cipal local friendly lodges, and is a 
member of the St. Clair Lodge of 
Freemasons. He married, in 1902, 
Mrs. Harry Taylor, niece of the late 
Hon. Winter-Irving. 



WILLIAM WESTON HEARNE, 
M.B. et Ch.B., Melb., practising in 
South Melbourne, is a son of Mr. W. 
G. Hearne, a well-known resident of 



Geelong. Educated at the Geelong 
College, he proceeded thence to the 
Melbourne University, gaining his 
diploma in 1894. After having been 
engaged in private practice for two 
years, Dr. Hearne left on a twelve 




Johnstone, (yshanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Dr. William Weston Hearne. 

months' visit to England for the 
purpose of extending his studies, and 
while there worked chiefly at the 
Middlesex Hospital, London, and the 
Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. Re- 
turning to Melbourne in 1898, he was 
appointed resident medical officer at 
the Alfred Hospital, a position which 
he occupied for three years. On the 
outbreak of hostilities in South 
Africa Dr. Hearne went to the seat 
of war as a surgeon with the troops, 
and saw active service in several 
engagements, being wounded at Paar- 
deberg during the attack upon 
Cronje's trenches, and taken prisoner 
by De Wet at Reddersburg. Enter- 
ing Pretoria with the main column 
under Lord Roberts, Dr. Hearne was 
attached as surgeon to one of the 
busiest hospitals in that town, and 
subsequently, with the advance of the 
army, filled a similar position in the 
Middleburg Hospital. On his return 
to Victoria he established himself in 
practice in South Melbourne, where 
he has since resided. Dr. Hearne 
holds a commission as lieutenant on 
the medical staff of the Vietorian 
Militia, and is one of the honorary 
anaesthetists on the staff of the 
Alfred Hospital. 



/O 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



HERBERT LILLIES, M.R.C.S., 
Eng.; L.R.C.P., Edin.; practising at 
"Longcroft," High Street, Arma- 
dale, was born in Chudleigh, Devon- 
shire, England, in 1857, and is a 
son of the late Dr. George William 
Lillies, of Devonshire. Educated at 
the Honiton Grammar School in his 
native county, he afterwards entered 
upon a medical course at St. Bar- 



tholomew's Hospital, London, where 
he remained for four years, and 
gained his diploma as M.R.C.S. in 
1879. He was then appointed resi- 
dent medical officer at the Tiverton 
Infirmary, a position he filled for 
twelve months, and from there went 
to the Devon and Exeter Hospital in 
the same capacity for twelve months, 
qualifying L.R.C.P., Edin. Univ., in 



1882. After assisting his father for 
about a year, Dr. Lillies came out 
to Victoria in 1884, and in February 
of the following year settled down in 
his present practice at Armadale. 
The doctor married, in 1884, 
Charlotte, daughter of the late H. 
N. Abbot, Esq., of Torquay, Eng- 
land, and has a family of two sons 
and two daughters. 



Dental. 



Mr. EDMUND EDWARD 
HAWORTH, Dentist, 56 Collins 
Street, Melbourne ; late clinical in- 
structor to the Melbourne Dental 
College and Hospital ; late crown 




Johnstone, O'Shanncsty and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. Edmund Edward Ha worth. 

and bridge work demonstrator to the 
Dental College and Oral Hospital of 
Victoria. Mr. Haworth was born in 
Geelong, Victoria, in 1866, and is 
a son of Mr. Fra*k Haworth, of 
"Ludley Park," Mannerim, near 
Geelong, and grandson of the late 
Mr. E. Haworth, one of the early 
settlers in that district. Educated 
at Lennon's High School, he was 
afterwards articled to Messrs. Heath 
and Kernot, with whom he studied 
for . his profession, and afterwards 
qualified as a dentist in 1890. Mr. 
Haworth then entered into practice 
in Collins Street, Melbourne, where 



he has remained ever since, and up 
to the present ten articled students 
have passed through his hands, of 
whom nine have qualified and are 
practising dentistry, some in Collins 
Street, Melbourne, .and others in . 
different States. He also takes a 
great interest in ornithology, and is 
a member of the Odontological So- 
ciety. Mr. Haworth is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity. He married, 
in 1891, Jessie, daughter of Mr. 
William Crawford, of Moonce Ponds, 
and has a family of two sons and 
two daughters. 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Mtlb. 

Dr. George Graham. 

WILLIAM EYRE GRAHAM, 
Dental Surgeon, practising at 80 
Collins Street, was born in Church 
Street, Richmond, Victoria, in 1872, 
and is a son of the late George 



Graham, M.D., one of the first 
medical officers at the Adelaide Hos- 
pital, who arrived in Victoria in 
1863, and practised for many years 
at Richmond, his death occurring on 




Barroni and Co. Melb. 

Mr. William Eyre Graham. 

board the s.s. "Thermopylae" on the 
voyage to Rome, whither he was 
going as a representative of the Vic- 
torian Medical Society of Victoria at 
the International Medical Congress, 
held in Rome in 1893. The late Dr. 
Graham was also a member of the 
University Council of Victoria. Mr. 
W. E. Graham was educated at the 
Church of England Grammar School, 
and under the Rev. Dr. Green, of 
Maldon, now Bishop of Ballarat, and 
in 1888 commenced the study of den- 
tistry with Mr. A. Pincott, dentist, 
passing his examination before the 
Dental Board in 1893, and then com- 



the cyclopedia of victoria. 



71 



menced the practice of his profession 
at his father's residence in Richmond, 
and in 1895 removed to 80 Collins 
Street, Melbourne, where he has re- 
mained ever since. Mr. Graham is 
a member of the Odontological 
Society, having been elected in 1892, 
and filled the position of secretary to 
that body for two years. He was 
the_ first hon. dentist appointed to 
the Hospital for Sick Children, 
Carlton, in 1898, a position he still 
holds. Mr. Graham married, in 
1897, a daughter of the late Mr. 
John Adam, of the firm of Lawrence 
and Adam, of Melbourne, and has a 
family of two sons. His brother, 
Dr. G. R. Moore Graham, is at 
present practising his profession in 
China. 



studies for about two and a half 
years, and took his degree at the 
Chicago College of Dentistry in 1902. 
Returning to Melbourne, Dr. Morton 
was successful in passing the neces- 
sary examination before the Vic- 
torian Dental Board, and then com- 
menced the practice of his profession 
at his present address. He is a 
member of. the Delta Sigma Delta 
Society, a Greek fraternity of 
Chicago. 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Mb. Alexaxder Lindsay Elvinb. 

ALEXANDER LINDSAY 

ELVINS, Dentist, 65 Collins Street, 
Melbourne. 



Dr. WALTER JAMES 
CHARLES MORTON, D.D.S., 156 
Collins Street, Melbourne, was born 
in Hawthorn, near Melbourne, in 
1878, and is a son of Mr. Wm. N. 
Morton, a well-known city merchant. 
Educated at the Camberwell 
Grammar School and the Hawthorn 
College, he was afterwards articled 
with Mr. E. L. Oldfield, dental 
surgeon, of Fitzroy, with whom he 
spent four years. He then went to 
America, where he continued his 



Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Dr. Walter James Charles Morton. 



Mr. ALFRED GULL JOHNSON, 
L.D.S., M.A.C.D., 102 Collins Street, 
Melbourne, was born in Northcote, 
Victoria, in 1877, and is a son of Mr. 
J. G. Johnson, an old identity of 
Melbourne, who arrived in the colony 
in 1850. Educated at the Scotch 
College, where he took up the study 
and passed examination in pharmacy, 
he was afterwards articled for four 
years with Dr. Merrill, and spent 
four years at the Australian College 
of Dentistry and two years at the 
Melbourne Dental Hospital. In 

1902 he obtained the degrees L.D.S. 
and M.A.C.D., being one of the first 
to carry off the first-named, and in 

1903 commenced the practice of his 
profession in Collins Street, Mel- 
bourne, where he has remained ever 
since, and was in the same year ap- 
pointed a member of the clinical staff 
at the Melbourne Dental Hospital. 
Mr. Johnson is a member of the 
Odontological Society of Victoria, 



and a member of the Old Scotch 
Collegians' Club, and held the cham- 
pionship of the college. He is also 
a member of the Melbourne Cricket 
Club. He is the youngest of five 
professional brothers. 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Alfred Gull Johnson. 

Mr. FREDERICK WILLIAM 
KIEL, M.A.C.D., "Allanbank," 
Blyth Street, Brunswick, was born 
in S taw ell, Victoria. He finished 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Meib. 

Mr. Frederick William Kirl. 

his education at St. James' 
Grammar School, Melbourne, after- 
wards passing the preliminary 
examination of the Pharmacy College 



72 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



of Victoria. He was then appren- 
ticed to Mr. A. F. Davy, dental 
surgeon, and after fulfilling the terms 
of his indentures he finally graduated 
at the Australian College of Den- 
tistry and Melbourne Dental Hospital 
in 1898, thus obtaining his degree 
M.A.C.D. In the same year he 
passed the examination of the Dental 
Board of Victoria, thus becoming a 
legally qualified dental practitioner. 
He then commenced practice at his 
present address in Brunswick, where 
he has remained ever since, and has 
now the leading practice in that 
district. Mr. Kiel is devoted to his 
profession. In his studies he has 
made a specialty of gold work in all 
its branches, including crown and 
bridge work. He is a member of 
the Odontological Society of Vic- 
toria, and is also a member of the 
Dental Defence Association of Vic- 
m toria. 

ADA ISABEL TOVELL, 

M.A.C.D., practising at 161 Collins 



Street, Melbourne, was the first 
woman to take the degree of 
M.A.C.D. at the Australian College 
of Dentistry and Melbourne Dental 




Johnttone. O'Uhanncaty and Co. Mtlb. 

Mrs. Ada Isabel Tovell. 



Hospital in this city. Born in Vic- 
toria, Mrs. Tovell is the youngest 
daughter of the late Mr. James 
Fenton, a solicitor who for many 
years carried on a large practice in 
Dublin, and who came out to Vic- 
toria in the sixties, and practised at 
Maryborough until his death. Edu- 
cated at Ormiston College, East 
Melbourne, under Miss Singleton, she 
afterwards entered upon the study of 
dentistry, and in 1891 was articled 
to her husband, Dr. Ernest W. 
Tovell, of Melbourne, with whom she 
worked for a period of nine years, 
and went through a course of study 
at the Dental College, taking the 
degree M.A.C.D. in 1900. Mrs. 
Tovell then commenced practice on 
her own account in Collins Street, 
and has now one of the largest con- 
nections in the city. Her surgery is 
fitted up with all the latest electrical 
appliances, and her clients include a 
number of the leading residents in 
the North-Eastern District and Bal- 
larat. 




Cooper and Co. 



Vl«w In th« B«Unlcal Gardens, HUIbourn*. 



Melb. 



Art, Science, and Literature. 



Scientific Societies. 



THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA- 



In the year 1854, when the feverish condition of 
society supervening on the discoveries of gold was 
beginning to subside, and sober-minded thinking men 
began to turn their attention to other than material 
subjects, a few earnest lovers of science combined to form 
two associations for the advancement of knowledge. One 
of these was entitled the Philosophical Society of Vic- 
toria, and the other the Victorian Institute for the 
Advancement of Science. Each of these societies pub- 
lished a yearly volume of transactions, .and each found 
it hard to maintain its individual existence, until, 
being convinced by experience that for two such 
bodies, having similar aims and objects, to struggle 
on in so small a community, independently of and in 
actual competition with each other, was a palpable 
absurdity, and a dissipation of time and money, they 
wisely resolved • to amalgamate, and so they merged 
their separate entities into "The Philosophical Society of 
Victoria." 

In the month of November, 1859, Her late Majesty 
Queen Victoria graciously allowed this body to assume 
the title of "The Royal Society of Victoria," which it 
has ever since retained. Its status having been thus 
officially recognised, the Government uot only made it a 
grant of land in a favourable position, close to the Vic- 
toria Parade, but obtained from the Legislature a vote 
of £2,000 towards the erection of the present hall, which 
forms part of a more ambitious scheme, to be completed, 
perhaps, at the end of the present century. For many 
years past the Government has likewise shown its appre- 
ciation of the utility and value of scientific research by 
assisting the society in the publication of its investiga- 
tions in pure science, which are now its chief work, 
although the subsidy for this purpose is much smaller 
than it was formerly. 

During the earlier years of its existence the society 
interested itself chiefly in mathematical and physical 
problems, and with such of the latter, more particularly, 
as had some practical bearing upon the material advance- 
ment of the State. Thus when, by the liberality of the 
late Mr. Ambrose Kyte, a movement was set on foot for 
the exploration of the interior of the continent of Aus- 
tralia, the society undertook the organisation of the 
expedition which was formed and equipped for the 
purpose. The leaders were selected by a majority of the 
committee, which was appointed to arrange all the 
details, to determine on the route, and to administer the 
finances of the undertaking ; and if the leader of the 



expedition had faithfully followed out the instructions of 
the committee it may be confidently asserted that no 
loss of life would have occurred. 

In the year 1859 a committee of the Royal Society 
was nominated to draw up a report on the resources of 
Victoria, and the Government of the day voted the sum 
of £1,000 to be awarded as prizes to the writers of the 
best and most practical essays on the subject. The 
awards were made by the council of the society, and the 
report which that body drew up on the subject will be 
found in the Transactions of the Society. 

In course of time various bodies more especially 
interested in the technical applications of science sepa- 
rated themselves from the parent institution, leaving the 
latter free to confine its attention to matters of what 
is sometimes called pure science. But this has had the 
natural effect of crippling the resources of the Society, 
without diminishing its zeal or energy, and for many 
years past it has vindicated its raison d'etre, as also its 
usefulness, by the publicaion of an annual volume of about 
300 pages. Thus it is that thirty-eight octavo volumes 
have duly made their appearance, and a few years ago 
the society was enabled to publish four fine quarto 
volumes of Transactions. 

Besides supplying the various public libraries of Aus- 
tralasia, which now number about seventy, with its 
publications, the Royal Society exchanges these with 
kindred institutions, to the number of something like 200, 
in all parts of the civilised world, thus bringing itself 
into touch with the scientific thought of every other 
country, besides showing them that in this region of the 
globe intellectual activity does not fail to keep pace with 
economic progress. 

One of the results of this exchange is that it has 
enabled the Council of the Society to accumulate a 
library of upwards of 5,000 volumes, mainly composed, 
as a matter of course, of the publications of the various 
learned bodies in the other hemisphere. In this respect, 
the library of the society is the richest in the State, 
and enables those who have the leisure and the inclination 
to study its contents to take a comprehensive survey of 
the advancement of science year by year in every portion 
of the world. 

Of late years the work of the society has been 
of an eminently practical character, as it has occupied 
itself chiefly with the subjects of zoology and geology, 
with occasional papers on physics, chemistry, and 
statistics. 



74 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



This society was founded in the year 1883 for the 
purpose of collecting, preserving, and diffusing informa- 
tion, and promoting enquiry and discussion in reference to 
the geography of Australasia. With this object in view 
it holds periodical meetings, issues a journal of its 
proceedings, has instituted a library of books and maps, 
exchanges publications with kindred societies in other 
parts of the world, renders whatever assistance it is in 
its power to afford to scientific explorations by land and 
sea in this part of the globe, and endeavours to interest 
the general public in the cause and progress of geo- 



graphical science. It is indebted for much of its success 
to the zeal and assiduity of Mr. A. C. Macdonald, 
F.R.G.S., its honorary secretary and treasurer, editor, 
and librarian ; and, although its roll of members is not 
a lengthy one, they make up by their earnestness and 
ability for what they want in point of numbers, while 
their present labours are likely to be still more warmly 
appreciated hereafter, when it will be seen that they have 
gathered together and placed upon permanent record 
much valuable information which, but for the existence 
of such an association, might have passed into oblivion. 



THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 



Out of an earlier institution called the Port Phillip 
Farmers' Society, which came into being at a time when 
agriculture itself was struggling for existence under all 
the adverse circumstances incidental to a newly-settled 
country, where labour was dear and for the most part 
inexperienced in farm work, and the transport of produce 
to market was costly and difficult, arose the Royal 
Agricultural Society of Victoria, which has since 
assumed a magnitude and importance commensurate with 
the growth and greatness of the industry it so worthily 
represents. 

The former society held its annual show in the month 
of November, 1867, which was visited by the late Duke 
of Edinburgh. It may be said to have been its dying 
flutter, for not long afterwards it ceased to exist, 
bequeathing its funds to whomsoever should prove himself 
to be its lawful heir, or, in other words, to any associa- 
tion which might thereafter be established on the same 
basis as the great agricultural societies of the United 
Kingdom, with the approval of the trustees of such 
funds. 

In the month of November, 1870, a public meeting 
was held in Melbourne, under the presidency of Mr. 
Robert McDougall, for the purpose of forming an asso- 
ciation of this kind, and in the following month a set of 
rules which had been drawn up for its government was 
agreed to, and the title of the National Agricultural 
Society of Victoria was bestowed upon the body, its 
first council being elected by ballot in February, 1871. It 
consisted of the following gentlemen :— 

President : The Hon. William Degraves, M.L.C., mill- 
owner and station-holder. 

Vice-presidents : Messrs. John Benn, Neil Black, 
George Carmichael, John Cumming, Philip Russell, and 
John Simson. 

Trustees : Mr. (afterwards Sir) James McCulloch, 
and Messrs. Robert McDougall and T. J. Sumner. 

Members of Council : Messrs. J. C. Addis, John 
Bell, James Buchanan, John Buncle, James Donaldson, 
P. H. Fanning, Archibald Fisken, R. K. Hammond, 
Thomas Henty, John Hood, Joel Horwood, R. C. 
Morton, Josiah Mitchell, Andrew Murray, Matthew 
McCaw, William McCulloch, D. R. McGregor, Alexander 
Peterson, Andrew Plummer, Frederick Search, Thos. 
Shaw, jun., William Sumner, and John Whiteman. 



The duties of the secretary were zealously performed, 
while the society was in process of formation, by Mr. 
Savage, the then agricultural editor of a weekly news- 
paper in Melbourne ; but in March following Mr. Donald 
Munro was appointed permanently to the position, at a 
salary of £300 per annum. 

As the society was now duly organised and in good 
working order, the funds of the defunct Port Phillip 
Farmers' Society were presently transferred to the 
trustees of the new association, and the necessary steps 
were taken to obtain possession of the grounds on the 
. Sydney Road which had been previously held by the old 
society. This transfer was readily acquiesced in by the 
Minister of Lands, but it was presently seen, that these 
grounds were too limited in their area to meet the in- 
creasing requirements of the society, which already pro- 
mised to assume very great dimensions, and negotiations 
weie entered into by the society with the Government of 
the day for the acquisition of a new and larger site. 
Ultimately the Board of Land and Works accepted the 
surrender of the old grounds in exchange for a block of 
land seventeen acres in extent, and situated near the 
barracks in the St. Kilda Road. 

At the end of 1871 the society was composed of 135 
life governors and 274 ordinary members, of whom thirty- 
nine were honorary, a compliment justly paid them as 
having been life governors of the former society. The 
first exhibition was held in the new grounds on the 29th 
and 30th of November and the 1st and 2nd of December 
in the same year, but, in spite of their proximity to the 
city, it was not a 'financial success. As much as £1,200 
was offered in money prizes and medals, for which there 
were 696 entries, but the total receipts amounted to no 
more than £642, entailing upon the society a loss of 
upwards of £500. 

In the first instance it had been resolved to conduct 
the operations of the society in entire independence of 
Government support, excepting in so far as the acceptance 
of a grant of land was concerned, but it was found neces- 
sary to waive this rule, and to ask for a grant of public 
money to the extent of £2,000 towards the erection of 
permanent buildings and fencing. This sum was voted, 
and half of it was paid over in 1871. Still the society 
found itself with a debit balance of £250 at the close of 
that year. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



75 



The Hon. Robert Simson, M.L.C., was elected pre- 
sident in 1872, and the secretary of the society having 
resigned in the same year, he was succeeded by Mr. 
Walter Mac far lane, who was elected out of twenty-eight 
applicants. A commencement was at the same time 
made with the library, and Mr. Graham Mitchell was 
elected the first honorary veterinary surgeon of the 
society. It was considered expedient to hold the annual 
show earlier in the year, so as to meet the convenience 
of country visitors engaged in agricultural pursuits ; but, 
in spite of the fact that it was fairly attractive in 
nearly every department, it again resulted in a loss, the 
deficit amounting to £369. 

In 1873 Mr. (afterwards Sir) Samuel Wilson was 
elected president of the society, and it was determined 
to hold an autumn show—the first of the kind— in the old 
Exhibition Building, but misfortune again seemed to dog 
the steps of the society, for the receipts fell short of the 



the funds of the society were augmented by a grant of 
£500. Thanks to the generosity of Mr. Charles B. 
Fisher, a sheep-shearing competition, in which forty 
shearers took part, was added to the other attractions of 
the exhibition in 1874, the prizes, together with the 
necessary sheds, yards, and other appurtenances being 
provided at the cost of this gentleman exclusively. For 
the first time, also, a field trial took place of reaping 
and mowing machines in connection with the show, in a 
paddock belonging to Mr. Hurtle Fisher, at Moonee 
Ponds ; auction sales of the stock exhibited were insti- 
tuted, and the publication of a monthly paper was com- 
menced by the secretary, and was supplied free to the 
members of the society. 

In 1875 Mr. Edward Henty, one of the earliest settlers 
of what was then Port Phillip, was elected president of 
the society, and a ram fair was held in connection with 
the horse show in August. When the grounds in the 




Harvie and Sutcliffe 



Royal Agricultural Society's Show Grounds, Flemington. 



Milb. 



expenditure by £440. Two new features were intro- 
duced into the proceedings of the society this year, the 
one being a field trial of implements in a paddock at 
Newmarket, and the other a horse parade, which natu- 
rally proved to be an attractive spectacle. 

A succession of losses compelled the society to revise 
its expenditure, and, with a view to retrenchment, it 
judiciously resolved upon the abolition of money prizes, 
and the distribution of medals exclusively. The 

wisdom of this policy was fully vindicated by the 
fact that the next annual show yielded a profit of about 
£200. 

The Hon. Robert Simson was re-elected president in 
1874, and in the meantime the Government had evinced 
its sense of the growing importance of this staple 
industry by creating a Department of Agriculture, of 
which Mr. J. J. Casey was the first Minister. Accord- 
ingly the show this year was held under its auspices, and 



Sydney Road were relinquished, the Government pro- 
mised a grant of £7,000 to the society, but up to this 
time only £2,000 of this amount had been received. 
Strong efforts were made in the succeeding year— when 
Mr. Matthew McCaw was president, and died during his 
term of office— to obtain the balance, but they were 
unsuccessful. Mr. Archibald Fisken was appointed pre- 
sident in 1877, by which time the increase of the 
society's overdraft at its bankers was occasioning a good 
deal of uneasiness, and a special appeal for the means of 
its reduction was made to members with such successful 
results that, taken in conjunction with the large receipts 
from the show on the Prince of Wales' Birthday, it 
enabled the council to extinguish the debt. A grant of 
twenty acres of land for the purposes of the society. in 
the Royal Park was obtained from the Government, but 
was rescinded owing to the strenuous opposition offered 
to it by the residents in the neighbourhood. 



H 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



Mr. Hugh Lennon was the president in 1878, succeeded 
by Mr. Job Smith in 1879, followed by Mr. Robert 
Simson in 1880, being his third election to this honorable 
office. In August of the latter year the secretary 
resigned, and was replaced by Mr. Thomas Patterson, to 
whose succinct and comprehensive "History of the R.A. 
Society of Victoria," contributed to the "Farmer and 
Grazier,'' we desire to express our acknowledgments for 
the materials of the present chapter. The annual show 
in November formed a most interesting feature of the 
Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880. In the year 
following Mr. W. I. Lobb was elected president, and the 
society participated for the first time in the Government 
grant to agricultural societies in general. In the month 
of March, 1881, the well-known firm of Goldsbrough and 
Co. generously offered four gold cups of the value of forty 
guineas each to be competed for by growers of grain, 
and, in addition, placed their spacious stores at the 
disposal of the exhibitors, the result being the largest 
collection of grain ever exhibited in Victoria. In the 
course of the same year the Government offered the site 
of the present show grounds in exchange for that upon 
the St. Kilda Road, but it was declined, on the ground 
that it was too far distant from the city !. But next 
year, Dr. Plummer being president, the council of the 
society reconsidered its decision, and judiciously accepted 
the site adjoining the Fiemington racecourse, thirty acres 
in extent, and with a railway up to its gates ; and the 
site upon the St. Kilda Road reverted to the Govern- 
ment, and was promptly sold for building purposes. In 
compensation for the buildings and fencing on the old 
site, the council received the sum of £3,000 to enable it 
to fence and improve the new grounds, while at the same 
time the Government agreed to convey passengers by the 
railway to and from the society's shows for threepence 
per head each way. The year 1882 was rendered memor- 
able by the holding of a great intercolonial ploughing 
match on the estate of Mr. Andrew Chirnside, at 
Werribee. "This," writes Mr. Patterson, "was the 
greatest match ever held in Australia, and probably in 
the world. It extended over two days, and attracted 
competition from all parts of Australia." There were 
fifteen prizes for single, double, and treble-furrow 
ploughs ; the first, the gift of Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
William John Clarke, being of the value of 100 guineas. 
The horse parade in August was rendered notable by 
the entry of no less than 254 entire horses for 
display. The last spring show in the old grounds 
was held in November, and, both as regards the exhibits 
and the attendance, proved the steady growth of the 
society. 

Mr. James Gibb was elected president in 1883, and 
the society offered premiums for the best plans and 
designs for the fencing and buildings required for the new 
grounds, Messrs. Billing and Son winning the first prize 
of £50. They were appointed architects, and tenders were 
accepted for the contract amounting to £8,744. At the 
opening show in the new grounds, a sum of £500 was 
granted for grand champion prizes open to all Australia, 
and with the best results. 

Dr. Plummer was re-elected president in 1884, but 
was compelled to resign his duties owing to ill-health. 



He was succeeded by Mr. Francis Henty, the youngest 
brother of the well-known family of pioneers. In June 
of that year a proposition for the federation of the agri- 
cultural societies in Victoria was formulated, and in the 
first instance with every prospect of success ; but, like 
so many other beneficial movements in this colony, the 
warmth with which it was espoused by those whom it 
was intended to advantage, cooled down before the project 
had had time to crystallise. For the first time the 
annual show of the society was held at the end of 
August instead of in Cup week, and the alteration proved 
to be a judicious one. 

In 1885 Dr. Plummer, whose health had improved, 
was re-elected to the presidency, and in the month of 
August in that year a monthly publication, entitled the 
"Journal of the National Agricultural Society of Vic- 
toria," was established, under the editorship of Mr. 
Patterson, the secretary. Among the meritorious inno- 
vations of 1885 were a trial of excavators for earthwork ; 
some Cattle Derby Sweepstakes, similar to those held in 
Scotland ; and hunters' contests in costume. Next year 
the presidency was again conferred upon Dr. Plummer, 
and a grand-stand was erected at a cost of £5,269. A 
special prize of £20 was offered by the proprietors of the 
"Leader" in connection with the dairy contest ; the first 
rough-riding contest took place upon the grounds, and 
proved to be immensely popular ; a sum of £6,000 was 
expended on buildings and works.; and the confidence of 
the council in the future expansion and prosperity was 
evinced by its incurring an overdraft of £9,548 at its 
bankers. 

Dr. Plummer was again elected president in 1887, and 
the trustees surrendered their Crown grant to the 
Government in exchange for one which would enable the 
council to borrow up to £15,000— about half the value of 
the bare land — on the security of the deed for permanent 
improvements. And there can be no doubt that the 
rapid growth of the society and its steadily advancing 
prosperity justified the council in what might appear to 
some to be an extravagant expenditure. There are cir- 
cumstances under which Dan ton's maxim, "L'audace, 
l'audace, tou jours l'audace," is a much safer one to 
follow than the counsels of the timid and the misgiving. 
At any rate, the council could point in the year under 
notice to the following remarkable figures, as encouraging 
a hopeful forecast of the future :— 







Amount 


Profit 


fBAR. 


Income. 


Awarded 


on 






in Prizes. 


8how. 


1880 


.. £1,831 4 


£439 13 


£72 15 3 


1881 


.. 2,413 6 4 


463 14 6 


102 1 5 


1882 


3,650 3 11 


650 6 


170 17 8 


1883 


.. 5,581 12 8 


. 1,327 2 


421 5 7 


1884 


.. 3,615 1 7 


. 1,754 5 


891 5 9 


1885 


.. 5,782 9 1 


2,008 6 


1,974 9 8 


1886 


.. 7,266 10 10 


1,991 3 


. 3,682 18 7 


1887 


8,442 14 4 


2,267 7 


. 3,813 12 8 




£38,583 2 9 


£10,901 16 6 


£11.129 1 7 



Since the year 1887 the progress of the society has 
been one of almost unvarying prosperity, and when, in 
1890, it obtained, through Lord Hopetoun, the then 
Governor of Victoria, the permission of Her late Majesty 
the Queen to change the title of "National" for that of 
"Royal" Agricultural Society it had acquired a position 



the Cyclopedia op victoria. 



77 



of importance and , usefulness of which its promoters and 
supporters might well be proud. Its annual show has 
become one of the events of the year, and it has been 
instrumental in the establishment of a Victorian Chamber 
of Agriculture, with a representative council and a strong 
executive committee, charged with the duty of watching 
over the interests of this industry, with the welfare of 
which that of the whole community is indissolubly bound 
up. It is an important, and must become the 
greatest, factor of our national wealth, the exporter 
of produce of the first magnitude, and the most solid 
and durable of the elements of general prosperity. 
Since its occupation of the present grounds the 



society has expended upon permanent improvements no 
less a sum than £37,156, and at the annual exhibition of 
1900, which was opened for five days, there were 5,053 
exhibits catalogued, which was the largest entry on 
record. The receipts for admission to the grounds were 
£3,685 18s. 9d., being nearly £500 in excess of those of 
1899, and upwards of £1,370 above those of 1898, while 
the number of members now reaches 1,200. The total 
revenue of the society for the last year of the century 
was £7,318 8s. 9d., and the expenditure, including the 
prize money, which amounted to £1,780 14s. 6d., was 
£6,901 15s. 8d. This, it is stated, "is the best financial 
result yet attained by the society in any one year.'* 



THE VICTORIAN CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL 
PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATION. 



The Victorian Chamber of Agriculture, instituted in 
September, 1899, was the natural outgrowth of two sets 
of circumstances— the one consisting of the present mag- 
nitude and importance of the great agricultural industries 
of the State, and the grandeur of the dimensions which 
they must ultimately assume, and the other the absolute 
necessity for combination with a view to unity of action, 
which is perhaps more essential to the well-being of those 
who are engaged in the pursuits of husbandry than 
to that of any other class in the community. For 
the corn - growers, cattle - breeders, graziers, dairymen, 
vignerons, and orchardists are, in the very necessity of 
things, widely scattered over a large area of country, 
with few opportunities of meeting each other, unorganised, 
and therefore deprived of those opportunities of making 
their influence felt, and of acting in concert for the pro- 
tection and promotion of their interests— interests which 
lie at the foundation of all national prosperity— which are 
enjoyed by the financial, manufacturing, and mercantile 
classes, and by labour, both skilled and unskilled, more 
particularly. 

This relative disadvantage has been felt and acknow- 
ledged for some years past, and when in 1893 Mr. Thomas 
Skene was elected to the council of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society, he took steps to inaugurate what was 
intended to be a Central Agricultural Institution, on a 
representative basis, and thoroughly comprehensive in its 
character. It was entitled "The Association of the 
Agricultural, Pastoral, Horticultural, and Viticultural 
Societies of Victoria,' ' Mr. Frederick Peppin being its 
first president, and Mr. T. Patterson its honorary secre- 
tary. Six years later it was resolved, on the proposition 
of Mr. Thomas Skene, to establish a Chamber of Agri- 
culture. A constitution was drawn up, in the construc- 
tion of which recourse was had to the best examples and 
precedents procurable, and to documents embodying the 
experience of the founders of kindred associations in other 
countries, and Mr. William Thomson was appointed its 
president, and Mr. T. Patterson— to whose courtesy we 
are indebted for our information— its secretary. 

With a strong executive committee, the Chamber 
became an efficient and flourishing body ; and a still 
wider sphere of influence and usefulness opened out before 
it in 1902, when a movement commenced In the Goulbum 



Valley for the institution of a Rural Producers* Associa- 
tion, led to the convening of a conference at Shepparton, 
at which the Chamber of Agriculture was suitably repre- 
sented, and the preliminaries were arranged for a union 
of the two bodies. This was effected and ratified upon 
the 4th of September in the same year, when a constitu- 
tion was adopted, and thenceforward the organisation 
assumed its present title of the Victorian Chamber of 
Agriculture and Rural Producers' Association. 

Its objects, as set forth in the rules, are as follow :— 
"The care and protection of the general interests of pro- 
ducers, and the promotion of agriculture in the State, 
together with the encouragement of minor industries and 
mixed farming ; also to advocate improved methods of 
cultivation, treatment, and marketing of products ; to 
collect and disseminate information on all matters of 
interest to the agricultural community ; to prevent as 
far as possible the introduction and spread of pests ; to 
foster the desire of our cultivators for technical and 
scientific knowledge appertaining to their industry ; to 
use every means in its power for the redress of 
grievances ; to form a code of practice whereby the 
transaction of business may be simplified and facilitated ; 
and to arbitrate on all matters submitted by disputants, 
and record decisions for future guidance ; to hold annual 
conventions of societies' representatives in country and 
city centres ; to take action in matters of legislation 
affecting rural producers ; to foster the interests of all 
classes of agricultural producers and pastoralists ; to 
render assistance and information to the Department of 
Agriculture." 

The association is governed by a thoroughly represen- 
tative council, limited to fifty members, twenty-five of 
whom are elected by the contributing agricultural 
societies (forty-six in number), five by the contributing 
dairy companies, five by contributing viticultural and 
horticultural societies, and five by kindred societies. The 
annual subscription for societies is one pound for every 
100 members (or part of 100) up to 500, one pound for 
each dairying company, and ten shillings for every indi- 
vidual member. 

Its office-bearers for the year 1903-4 are as follow :— 
Mr. William Thomson, of the Kyneton Society, president ; 
and Mr. R. G. Fincham, of Colac, and Mr. George Pagan, 



78 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



of Ardmona, vice-presidents ; the executive committee 
comprising these three gentlemen and Messrs. B. B. 
Mogg, John Baird, M. McLennan, J. B. Brewer, and C. 
Craike. Mr. E. P. Hastings, F.I.A.V., is the honorary 
auditor, and Mr. Thomas Patterson the secretary and 
treasurer of the association, the headquarters of which are 
at the Equitable Building, in Collins Street, Melbourne. 
It is scarcely too much to assert that the year 1903 
promises to be the commencement of a new era for every 
branch of husbandry in Victoria, not merely because of 
the splendid character and financial results of the great 



Agricultural Show, but because this association, by 
welding all those connected with the tillage of the soil 
into one compact body, will have the effect of giving them 
their proper status in the organic life' of thexommunity ; 
of enabling them to exert their legitimate and rightful 
influence upon the legislation of the country ; and of 
facilitating that free interchange of ideas, opinions, and 
individual experiences which contribute so largely to the 
progress and development of all industries, and more 
particularly of that upon which a nation must depend for 
its food supplies. 



THE FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 



This club was founded in May, 1880, by a few lovers 
of natural history, who felt the want of a means of ex- 
changing ideas, etc., the object of the club, as defined by 
its second rule, being "the study of natural history in all 



mem hers,' * were elected, several of whom have retained 
an unbroken connection with the club, which during its 
history has numbered among its members nearly all the 
workers in natural science in Victoria, besides having 



its branches, to be promoted by monthly meetings, field on its list of honorary members the leading men of 
excursions, and an annual conversazione and the publish- the other Australian States. Its ranks are open to 




Cooptr and Co. Tha Laka, Botanical 

ing of its transactions when deemed desirable. n At the 
first meeting the following office-bearers were elected :— 
President, Professor McCoy, F.G.S.; vice-presidents, Rev. 
J.J. Halley and Dr. T. P. Lucas ; hon. treasurer, W. E. 
Howitt ; hon. secretary, Mr. D. Best ; and committee, 
Messrs. C. French, J. R. Y. Goldstein, W. B. Kendall, T. 
A. Forbes-Lei th, J. G. Linhemann, and J. Wing. During 
the first two months fifty-six persons, termed "original 



Oardans, Malbourna. Melb. 

ladies as well as gentlemen, and junior members 
are also admitted to certain privileges, while for 
many years the late Prof. McCoy and the late Baron 
F. von Mueller were its patrons, the latter taking no 
little interest in its doings. The monthly meetings 
of the members have been well maintained from the com- 
mencement, and some 580 papers, dealing with natural 
history in its many branches, have been read. It was 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



79 



early seen that the papers presented were of more than 
passing interest, consequently the committee determined 
to issue a monthly journal containing the transactions of 
the club. The first number of this magazine, known as 
the "Victorian Naturalist," appeared in January, 1884, 
and it has been issued with unfailing regularity up to 
the present time — for the first nine years under the 
editorship of Mr. A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., and for the rest 
of the period under Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, one of the 
former "secretaries of the club. One of its features 
has been the long excursions, or "camping out" expe- 
ditions held at varying intervals, perhaps the most 
important being that in November, 1887, when King 
Island, in Bass Straits, was visited by a large party, 
and a thorough zoological and botanical exploration was 
made. Excursions of a similar character, but in most 
cases for a shorter time, have been made to Olinda 
Creek, Lilydale, in 1884 ; Pacific Island, 1886 ; Croa- 
jingolong, East Gippsland, 1888 ; the sources of the 
Yarra, 1890 ; Kent Group (Bass Straits), 1890 ; the 
Grampians, 1891 ; Furneaux Group (Bass Straits), 1893 ; 
the Lerderderg Ranges, 1899 ; Plenty Ranges, 1900 ; 
Healesville, 1900 ; and Gembrook Ranges, 1901. By 
means of these excursions and the published reports 
thereof the members of the club have gained a good know- 
ledge of the geographical distribution of the indigenous 
flora and fauna. Besides these longer excursions, shorter 
outings to places within easy reach of the metropolis 
take place monthly or bi-monthly, according to the 



season, throughout the year. Thanks to the exertions of 
the members of the club, many new species of birds, 
insects, plants, etc., have been added to the Victorian 
lists. The protection and preservation of the native 
fauna and flora have not been lost sight of by the club, 
and through its efforts the Government has taken steps 
to check unnecessary destruction. A feature of the club 
proceedings has been the exhibition of the members' col- 
lections at intervals, as also one of wild flowers nearly 
every spring. A special meeting, taking the form of a 
social reunion, was held in June, 1901, to commemorate 
the twenty-first anniversary of the foundation of the 
club, when out of fourteen "original members" still re- 
maining members of the club, nine were present. 

The club has also accumulated by purchase, exchange, 
and donations, a fine library of fully 500 volumes of pub- 
lications dealing with natural history. 

The practical study of natural history is not only one 
of the most fascinating and humanising of scientific 
pursuits, as its literature in all languages, from the days 
of Pliny downwards shows, but practical researches like 
those conducted by the Field Naturalists' Club possess a 
not inconsiderable economic value, and, as they are being 
prosecuted in this State in what is virtually a terra 
incognita, they must result in the collection of an ulti- 
mately vast body of facts bearing on the geology, botany, 
and zoology of Victoria, as well as in determining the 
relation which these bear to those of other regions of 
the globe. 



Artistic Societies. 



OPERA IN MELBOURNE. 



We must go back to the year 1856 for the establish- 
ment in Melbourne of what was ambitiously called. grand 
opera. The Theatre Royal had fallen into the hands of 
Mr. Coppin, and he, yielding in all probability to the 
persuasions of Anna Bishop, who had charmed everybody 
by her exquisite ballad singing at the Olympic Theatre, 
resolved upon giving a season of the lyrical drama at the 
larger house in Bourke Street. Madame Anna Bishop 
was at that time in splendid voice, although she had been 
singing for seventeen years, and she came from an 
extended professional tour in North and South America 
in robust health, exuberant spirits, and overflowing with 
energy. Educated at the Royal Academy of Music in 
London, and the possessor of a soprano sfogato voice of 
singular purity, expressiveness, flexibility, and power, 
she made her first appearance in a concert at Her 
Majesty's Theatre in London, with no less brilliant a 
group of singers than Grisi, Persiani, Garcia, Rubini, 
and Lablache ; and she afterwards held her own in com- 
petition with Jenny Lind, at Stockholm. 

At the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, she succeeded in 
organising a good working company, consisting of Madame 
Carandini, Miss Julia Harland, Mrs. Fiddes (well known 
in England as Harriet Cawse), Mrs. Guerin, Mrs. 
Hancock, and Miss Sara Flower, with her sweet and 



powerful contralto voice. M. Laglaise as first, and Mr. 
Sherwin as second tenor, Mr. Frank Howson and M. 
Coulon as baritone, combined to fill the male parts 
effectively. Subsequently Mr. Farquharson was engaged, 
and proved a great acquisition to the company. M. 
Lavenu conducted the orchestra, and the stringed instru- 
ments were led by Herr Strebinger, an excellent violinist, 
whose wife was a graceful and pleasing dancer, and 
mistress of the ballet. 

During the year 1856 "Norma," "La Sonnambula," 
"Martha," "Der Freischutz," "L'Elisirc d'Amore," 
"Masaniello," and the "Mountain Sylph" were produced, 
and, although the audiences were delighted and the per- 
formances reached a really high standard of merit, yet 
it is understood the manager lost £3,000 by his attempt 
to acclimatise grand opera in Melbourne. 

In the year following, a second operatic season was 
ventured upon at the Princess's Theatre, in Spring 
Street. This was a spacious wooden, structure, 
originally erected for equestrian entertainments, and 
opened in the first instance, under the title of Astley's 
Amphitheatre, on the 11th of September, 1854, under the 
management of Mr. G. B. W. Lewis, who is at the 
present time one of the very few survivors of those who 
catered for the amusement of Melbourne playgoers half 



80 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



a century ago. Two years later it was transformed 
from a circus into a place of dramatic entertainment, and 
in 1857 "Norma" was once more presented by a company 
of which Madame Bishop was the bright particular star. 
It was succeeded by the "Lucrezia Borgia" and the 
"Linda di Chamouni" of Donizetti, and by the 
"Tancredi" of Rossini. 

One of the amusing incidents of the operatic perform- 
ances given in this theatre under the direction of Madame 
Anna Bishop was a polyglot representation of Meyerbeer's 
"Roberto II Diavolo." It was the first time this 
composer's work had been given upon the Melbourne 
stage, and the circumstances were probably unique. 
Although such as they were, they were not noticed as 
anything singular by a considerable section of the 
audience. The soprano's share of the libretto was 
delivered in Italian, that of the basso in German, and 
those of the tenor and baritone in French. Not only so, 
but Madame Anna Bishop (the soprano) and Laglaise (the 
tenor) had each a double to replace them in certain of 
the scenes. 

In 1858 there was a short season of English opera, in 
which Madame Carandini, Miss Octavia Hamilton, Miss 
Julia Harland (the wife of Mr. William Hoskins, a well- 
known comedian), Mr. Sherwin, and Mr. Greg appeared, 
while Messrs. Lavenu and Linley Norman were the 
musical directors. 

But Italian opera in Melbourne owed its establishment 
on a firm, solid, and durable foundation to the enterprise 
of Mr. William Saurin Lyster, an Irish gentleman, who 
had been for some time resident in the United States, 
and who arrived in Australia from the Pacific Coast in 
1861, bringing with him a complete and well-organised 
company, comprising Madame Lucy Escott, Mdlle. Rosalie 
Durand, Miss Georgia Hodson, Miss Ada King, and 
Messrs. Henry Squires, Fred. Lyster, and Trevor, with 
Mr. A. Reiff as musical conductor, while Herr Strebinger, 
an established favourite in Melbourne, was leader of the 
orchestra, and his wife was premiere danseuse. All the 
principal* had studied in Italy ; Madame Lucy Escott 
was no less excellent as an actress than as a singer, and 
was equally at home in tragic and in comic opera ; Mr. 
Henry Squires possessed a tenor voice of sweet and 
sympathetic quality ; and the company was subsequently 
reinforced by the engagement of Mr. Armes Beaumont as 
the alternative primo tenore, of Mr. Farquharson as the 
leading basso, and of Mr. Wharton as baritone. Other 
vocalists were engaged from time to time, including 
Signor and Signora Bianchi, Signor Grossi, Madame 
Simonsen, Miss Emma Neville, and Mr. Albert 
Richardson, for, as an impresario, Mr. Lyster was very 
much accustomed to subordinate his judgment to his 
enthusiasm, and to consider not so much his own 
personal interests as the enjoyment of the public, setting 
up a high standard of art as regards the presentation of 
the lyric drama, and maintaining an expensive salary-list 
rather than impair the completeness and efficiency of the 
cast of every opera he produced. And the repertory of 
his company was a most comprehensive one, embracing 
the works of the best Italian, German, French, and 
English composers ; and rarely, outside of the capital 



cities of Europe and the United States, have such operas 
as "Les Huguenots/ 1 "Le Prophete," and "L'Airicaine," 
as "Faust" and "William Tell," been interpreted more 
admirably than they were on the boards of the old 
Theatre Royal, under the generous management of Mr. 
Lyster. 

At the end of 1868 Madame Lucy Escott and Mr. 
Henry Squires left for Europe, retiring from the stage, 
and spending the remaining years of their lives within 
an easy distance of Paris. In the same year Signora 
Vitali and Signori Devoti, Bertolini, and de Antoni 
arrived from South America, and were engaged by Mr. 
Lyster. This company is chiefly remembered in connec- 
tion with the magnificent voice of the basso, Signor de 
Antoni. Meanwhile Mr. Lyster paid a visit to Europe, 
where he engaged an excellent company, consisting of 
Signora Lucia Baratti, soprano ; Miss Lucy Chambers, 
a young lady who was a native of Tasmania, whose 
superb contralto voice had been developed in the Conser- 
vatorio at Milan ; Signor Neri, tenor ; Signor Contini, 
baritone ; and Signor Dondi, basso. Among the operas 
produced by them for the first time in Melbourne were 
"lone" and the "Vespri Siciliani" of Verdi, the perform- 
ance of which, under its original name, had been forbidden 
in Italy for political reasons. 

In 1871 a remarkably strong combination, organised 
by Signori Cagli and Pompei, arrived in Melbourne, 
and appeared at the Princess's Theatre. It contained no 
less than a dozen principals. These were Signore 
Zenoni, Coy, Rosavalle, Polli, and Cortesi, and Signori 
Rosnati, Coy, Zennari, Coliva and wife, and Grandi, 
with whom Signor Dondi allied himself ; Signor 
Marzorati being the conductor. Besides producing the 
standard works of Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, Verdi, 
Gounod, and Flotow, this company delighted the lovers 
of music by representing "II Matrimonio Segreto" of 
Cimarosa, and the "Saffo" of Pacini, which had never 
been heard before in Melbourne. For the first time also 
a choice example of opera buffa, the charming "Crispino 
e la Comere" of Luigi and Federigo Ricci, was performed 
in Australia, with Signor Grandi, who was overflowing 
with humour, as Crispino, and Signora Coliva revelling 
in the character of Annetta. 

Meanwhile Mr. Lyster was still in the field, and in 
1872 his company was strengthened by the accession of 
Madame Agatha States, who distinguished herself more 
particularly as Rosina in "II Barbiere," and as Margue- 
rite in "Faust, 1 ' Mr. Beaumont being the leading tenor. 
Signori Orlandini, Susini, and Cecchi likewise enlisted 
under the banner of Mr. Lyster. In later years Signor 
Cecchi devoted himself to the training of vocalists, and 
he it was' who discovered the fine quality of Madame 
Melba's voice, and developed its powers before she 
proceeded to Paris and placed herself under Madame 
Marchesi. 

About the same time Signore Bosisio and Riboldi 
joined the Cagli-Pompei company, which gave Verdi's 
"Macbeth" for the first time in Australia, as also "I 
Puritani" of Bellini, the swan song of that gifted com- 
poser. In 1874 Signor Cagli returned from a visit to 
Italy, bringing with him a new prima donna, Signora 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



81 



Palmieri, of whom great expectations had been formed, 
which she failed to fulfil, however. But by way of 
set-off the public were greatly pleased with the singing of 
Signorina Persiani. 

The year 1878 was marked by an important event— 
the performance for the first time in Australia of two of 
Wagner's works, namely, "Lohengrin" and "Tannhauser," 
for which the public were indebted to the enterprise of 
Mr. Lyster. He had engaged what was known as the 
Lazar Company, which included Signore Guadagnini and 
Fabris, and Signori Paladini, Cesar e, and Orlandini, 
together with that bright particular star, Signora 
Antoinetta Link, a German vocalist, whose operatic 
career in Europe had been a very brilliant one. She 
possessed a magnificent soprano voice of singular richness, 
fulness, and compass, combined with much dramatic 
power of express-ion. As Elsa in "Lohengrin' ' she has 
had few equals, and perhaps no superiors. She was also 
the creator of Aida in Australia. At the conclusion of 
her engagement here she returned to Europe, where she 
was one of the ornaments of the lyric stage, both in 
Germany and Italy, for the next ten years ; and then 
she settled down as a teacher of singing and music 
until 1893, when she removed to New York, intending to 
resume the practice of her profession as an operatic 
singer, but it is to be feared with very indifferent success, 
as she was ultimately reduced to poverty, which drove 
her to the commission of suicide in the middle of 1901. 
Mr. Lyster's efforts to popularise Wagner's music in 
Melbourne proved to be premature, and he is understood 
to have lost considerably by the undertaking. He there- 
fore repaired to Europe in order to secure fresh talent 
in 1879, and returned with Madame Rose Hersee, Miss 
Palmer, Signor Verdi, and Mr. Gaynor, the latter 
presently replaced as a tenor by Mr. Armes Beaumont, 



and a season of opera in English, which included 
"Carmen" and the "Rose of Castille," proved to be far 
more attractive than the works of Wagner. 

Meanwhile the operas of Gilbert and Sullivan were 
being introduced to the Melbourne public by Mr. and Mrs. 
Lingard at what was then known as the Academy of 
Music, and afterwards as the Bijou. The first repre- 
sentation of "Pinafore" took place on the 7th of June, 
1879, and it immediately became popular. It was 
succeeded at intervals by "The Sorcerer," "The Pirates 
of Penzance," "Patience," "Iolanthe," "Princess Ida," 
"The Mikado," "Ruddigore," "The Yeomen of the 
Guard," and "The Gondoliers ;" and this new form of 
entertainment proved to be productive of unqualified 
enjoyment and delight to all classes of the community, 
and it must have put large sums of money into the 
pockets of managers, and into those of the poet and 
composer. 

Mr. George Musgrove placed "Madame Angot" on the 
stage, and its success proved immediate and unprece- 
dented, and it paved the way for a succession of light 
comic operas— sometimes of the flimsiest character— which 
have since become exceedingly popular in this city, and 
have supplanted works of real worth and solid qualities 
in public estimation. Managerial enterprise has manfully 
striven to turn the tide in favour of operas by the best 
modern composers, have imported complete and efficient 
companies of vocalists, have engaged powerful orchestras, 
and have spared no efforts to render their performance a 
legitimate success, but it is understood that the financial 
results were generally unsatisfactory. 

Having traced the history of opera in Melbourne down 
to a period within the memory of nearly all our readers, 
we do not think it needful to pursue it to any greater 
length. 



MUSIC. 



The people of Melbourne— and this meant, during the 
earlier years of the settlement, the people of Victoria- 
developed a taste and fondness for music when society 
was in its most rudimentary condition. This was only 
natural, altogether apart from individual predilection, for 
climate is everywhere a powerful factor of the love of an 
art which the old Pythagoreans regarded as an indispens- 
able element in the education of humanity, because, as 
they contended, it excites the heart of man to the per- 
formance of meritorious actions, by inspiring a love of 
virtue, and establishing harmonious relations between the 
various faculties of the mind. 

It is true that the ancient Egyptians, who lived in 
a brilliantly clear atmosphere, only appear to have 
employed music in religious ceremonials and at their 
funerals, but the Hebrews in Asia Minor, who claim to 
have been the inventors of musical instruments, employed 
both players and singers in their religious functions and 
triumphal processions, on the battle field and at their 
banquets, at the gathering in of the vintage, and when 
they were toiling at their mills. The Phoenicians and 
Assyrians were equally musical, and the Greeks so 
reverenced the beautiful art that they assigned to -it a 
divine origin, attributing the invention of the syrinx to 



Pan, of the lyre to Apollo, and of the flute to Minerva. 
The Romans recognised the charm and potency of both 
instrumental and vocal music, and to Italy belongs the 
honor of having discovered or re-discovered a method of 
musical notation ; Guido d'Arezzo, a monk in Tuscany, 
who flourished in the early part of the eleventh century, 
being credited with the authorship of the gamut, the 
names adopted by him for the notes having been taken 
from an old hymn to St. John :— 

" Ut queant lax is Resonare fibris, 
Mira gestorum Famuli tu.orum, 
Solve poliuti Labii re'atum, 

Sancte Joannes." 

It would be superfluous to point out how Italy 
became in later centuries the home of music and the land 
of song, and what a splendid succession of composers and 
vocalists she has produced during the last four hundred 
years. And now there is every indication that our own 
country, with almost identical climatic conditions with 
those of the Italian peninsula, will become celebrated in 
the near future for the musical celebrities it will produce. 

In the meanwhile it will be interesting to trace the 
beginnings and the growth of this branch of art among 
ourselves. The materials for the purpose have been 



82 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



already collected and systematically arranged with 
patient assiduity by the late Alexander Sutherland, 
and to him we are indebted for a narrative of facts 
which could otherwise have been arrived at in the present 
instance only after a great deal of laborious research. 
He mentions that in 1840 the formation - of a Phil- 
harmonic Society was suggested at a ball given by the 
bachelors of Melbourne, and that the arrival of two 
musicians from Sydney, M. and Mme. Gautrot, gave a 
marked impulse to the movement. They remained here 
for nearly a year, and in 1841 Mr. Isaac Nathan arrived 
from England and gave a series of concerts, which were 
much appreciated. He was followed by Mr. Megson, a 



the social life of the infant city, and nobody cared for 
any sound but the chink of the precious metal. At the 
same time the fame of our goldfields drew musical celebri- 
ties to these shores from Europe, and gave us suc- 
cessively Herr Strebinger, a most capable conductor ; 
Herr Elsasser, an accomplished musician ; and Miska 
Hauser, a Hungarian violinist, whose performances 
astonished and enchanted his hearers. From Tasmania 
came a youthful vocalist, who had been born in Hobart, 
had married an Italian marquis and political refugee, 
Carandini by name ; and this lady speedily established 
herself in popular favour, and retained that favour for a 
long succession of years. But all previous vocalists 




Cooper and Co. 



Spring Street, Melbourne, frem the Treasury, 



Mclb. 



clever conductor, whose face and baton were familiar to 
frequenters of the once popular Salle de Valentino, as 
also of the theatre, in the later forties and in tfae fifties. 
Open-air performances were likewise given on the Flag- 
staff Hill by the "Melbourne Band." An excellent Dianist 
and musician, in the person of Herr Buddee, came hither 
from Berlin in 1849, and organised a German quartette, 
whose public entertainments were a source of considerable 
pleasure to the Melbourne public. Mrs. Testar, who is still 
living in a green old age, was then the principal soprano, 
and held her ground as such for a great number of years. 
Mr. Wilkie, the leading music-seller in Victoria at that 
time, arranged a highly attractive series of concerts in 
1851, when a}} of a sudden the gojd discpveries deranged 



underwent a temporary eclipse when, in the year 1855, 
Miss Catherine Hayes presented herself to a Melbourne 
audience. She had been a leading favourite at La Scala, 
in Milan, and aspired to occupy the same position at the 
Royal Italian Opera House in London in the year 1849, 
where she had made her debut as Bertha in "Le 
Prophete ;" but, according to Mr. Chorley, her fastidious 
auditors "had not yet descended to the level at which 
one so irregularly cultivated as she proved herself to be 
could appear a finished artist." But she had a splendid 
voice, and if her training had been defective, its faults 
were not likely to be detected in Melbourne A.D. 1855. 
Besides giving concerts, Miss Hayes appeared as the 
prima donna in English and Italian opera, and standard 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



83 



works like "Norma," "La Sonnambula," "Lucia di 
Lammermoor," "Lucrezia Borgia/ ' and the "Bohemian 
Girl" were presented for the first time to an Australian 
audience ; and, considering the resources at her command, 
the enterprising lady, who had entered so courageously 
upon an undertaking surrounded with difficulties, achieved 
a remarkable success, both from an artistic and financial 
point of view. The establishment of opera as an institu- 
tion, however, followed somewhat later, as will presently 
be seen. 

Meanwhile some of the German citizens of Melbourne, 
true to the music-loving instincts of their race, had pro- 
ceeded to form an association tinder the title of the 
Melbourne Deutsche Liedertafel, for the promotion of both 
the vocal and instrumental branches of the art, as well 
as for the cultivation of that part-singing in which 
Germans have always excelled. It was fortunate in 
having for its leader Herr Siede, an admirable musician, 
who accompanied Madame Anna Bishop on her visit to 
Australia, and at the close of his engagement remained 
in Melbourne. Its numerous concerts have done much 
to popularise music in the capital of Victoria, and found 
an active rival in the Metropolitan Liedertafel, which 
grew out of a suburban glee club, and placed itself under 
the baton of Herr Julius Herz. Founded in the year 
1870, its concerts have been continued ever since with 



undiminished approbation. Besides these two associa- 
tions, the Musical Society of Melbourne and the Lyric 
Society must be mentioned among the forces which are 
making for the culture of the most divine of all the arts 
in this city. 

The Melbourne Philharmonic Society, instituted in 
1853, has likewise played an important part in the 
musical world of Melbourne, and has been the means of 
introducing about eighty great vocal works, besides mis- 
cellaneous compositions, to the public. It numbers 230 
subscribing and about 250 singing members, and cele- 
brated its jubilee in the present year. 

From an educational point of view more particularly 
the two Conservator iums, presided over by Professor 
Peterson and by Professor Marshall Hall respectively, the 
former connected with the University and the latter an 
independent organisation, are both playing an important 
part in fostering a taste for music, in supplying the best 
means of instruction, and in interpreting the greatest 
works of the most recent masters by means of orchestral 
and pupils' concerts. Thus it will be seen that neither 
the means of musical culture nor the opportunities for 
gratifying musical taste in Melbourne are wanting, while 
the number of ladies and gentlemen engaged in tuition is 
probably larger than in most English cities of the same 
size and population. 



THE MUSICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 



This society, founded in May, 1902, by members of 
the musical profession, may be said to have grown out 
of and to have absorbed two kindred associations of an 
earlier date, namely, "The Musical Association" and the 
"Musical Artists' Society," with more extended objects, 
and, as far as possible, a more energetic prosecution of 
those objects. Its aims have been to promote the 
general advancement of musical art, to cultivate a 
friendly intercourse among members of the profession and 
lovers of music, to grant diplomas and certificates of 
competency to persons of proved skill and knowledge, 
and to relieve cases of unavoidable distress among its 
members. Its secondary object has been to form a 
representative library of music of all classes and schools, 
and of any publications bearing upon the art, science, and 
literature of music, and the lives and works of its 
masters. This it now possesses, and likewise a benevo- 



lent fund for the purpose above stated. The society 
is governed by a president and three vice-presidents, 
with the assistance of a treasurer, secretary, and 
librarian, these offices being held by musicians exclu- 
sively, amateurs and lovers of music being eligible for 
membership. Eleven concerts are given in each year, 
chamber-music and the best vocal compositions constitut- 
ing the programme. Papers upon musical subjects are 
read from time to time, and the examinations are 
arranged in six grades, namely, preparatory, elementary, 
intermediate, and first, second, and special diplomas, the 
latter covering the entire study of music and of all instru- 
ments. In the fulfilment of the purpose for which it was 
instituted the society has already rendered good service 
to the cause of musical instruction and practice in Mel- 
bourne, and may be expected to do so with steadily 
increasing efficiency for the time to come. 



ART IN VICTORIA. 



Whether this colony will give rise to a distinctive 
school of art, possessing such special characteristics and 
excellences as shall qualify it to be spoken of with the 
same respect as we now speak of the various 
Italian, French, German, Spanish, Dutch, Flemish, and 
British schools; is a matter for hope and conjecture 
rather than confident prediction, but as climate is cer- 
tainly an important factor in the production of artists, 
we may reasonably anticipate that such a school will 
eventually spring up. For inasmuch as the greatest 
sculptors and painters the world has ever seen, or, we 
might almost venture to add, that the world* ever will see, 



flourished in countries like Greece and Italy, surrounded 
by an atmosphere as clear and luminous, and canopied 
by a sky as brilliant as our own, and as our composite 
population includes a reasonable proportion of men and 
women endowed with artistic tastes and faculties, a Vic- 
torian—or probably an Australian— school of art is one 
of those possibilities to which we may look forward not 
unhopefully. Such a forecast or expectation derives a 
certain justification from three considerations— (1) The 
commercial and industrial prosperity of the community ; 
(2) the home-loving instincts of our race ; and (3) the 
political tendencies of the epoch in which we live. 



84 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



We have only to glance at the history of art in other 
countries and in other ages in order to perceive that it 
has flourished whenever and wherever commerce and 
industry have flourished. It reached its culminating 
splendour in Athens during the fifth century B.C., when 
those glorious structures rose upon the summit of the 
Acropolis, which, both in their peerless architecture and 
their perfect sculpture, became the wonder, the delight, and 
the despair of after ages, just as their spoils are now the 
choicest treasures of a hundred museums. At that very 
time the commerce of Athens was the most extensive and 
important in the Mediterranean, and, therefore, in the 
world. It was also beyond all dispute the greatest 
manufacturing city in Europe. 

Then let us turn to Venice in the most resplendent 
period of her architectural, plastic, and graphic art, 
namely, that which is covered by the last twenty years 
of the fifteenth and the first two or three decades of the 
sixteenth century. This was the epoch of Titian, 
Giorgione, Paolo Veronese, the Bellinis, Palma Vecchio, 
Del Piombo, Tintoretto, and Bordone in painting ; of 
the Lcmbardi , Sanmiohele, Bergamasco, Da Ponte, and 
Palladio in architecture; of Sansovino, . Leopardi, 
Verocchio, Alberghetti, and Lombardi in sculpture. And 
this ever memorable efflorescence of art was coincident 
with the culmination of the commercial prosperity of the 
island city. Her 200,000 inhabitants controlled the trade 
of three continents, and the wealth which poured into 
their coffers was so enormous that every Venetian mer- 
chant occupied a sumptuous palace, furnished and adorned 
with such lavish splendour that even the commonest 
kitchen utensil was artistic in design and elegant in 
workmanship. And this, as has been said, was also the 
palmy period of Venetian art, when the great masters 
previously enumerated revealed to us all the glorious 
possibilities of colour, and made their canvases glow with 
a Iuminousness which reached its highest vividness and 
greatest intensity in the divine Assumption of Tiziano 
Vecellio. 

So, too, in mercantile and money-lending Florence— 
the Florence of the Medici— where we find great commer- 
cial prosperity marching hand in hand with a flourishing 
condition of art in all its branches. 

Then turn to the Netherlands in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, a period illustrated by the genius of Rembrandt, 
Rubens, Vandyke, Cuyp, Ruysdael, Frank Hals, Paul 
Potter, Dow, Terberg, Jan Steen, Wouvermans, and 
a score of other famous artists, whose landscapes, por- 
traitures, and genre pictures are among the most trea- 
sured contents of European galleries. And here again 
we ' find commercial prosperity and industrial activity 
connoting a remarkable development of the fine arts. 
The external commerce of the country was very great 
and very profitable, and the "great Pensioner" could 
truly boast that "no country under Heaven of such 
limited dimensions sustained so many workmen and arti- 
ficers of different callings" as the Netherlands then did. 

Coming down to our own times, we find that, both 
in the United States and in the mother country, the 
founders of some of the finest collections of pictures by 
contemporary artists are, or have been, merchants or 
manufacturers or ship-owners who have amassed large 



fortunes. Mr. Angerstein, whose pictures formed the 
nucleus of the National Gallery in Westminster, was a 
merchant in the Russian trade ; Mr. Sheepshanks, who 
bequeathed such a valuable collection of modern pictures 
to the British nation, was a wool-stapler at Leeds ; and 
Sir Henry Tate, the munificent founder of the National 
Gallery of British Art, was likewise enriched by com- 
merce. Many of the choicest works of living painters, 
or of painters recently deceased, are the property of, or 
were originally acquired by, manufacturers, merchants, 
or ship-owners in the chief cities of Great Britain and 
the United States. 

We have spoken of the home-loving instincts of our 
race as a circumstance which tells in favour of works of 
art coming into demand by the people of Victoria, and it 
is a healthy sign, we think, that domestic architecture is 
assuming considerable importance in this colony, and that 
the decorative arts are being called into requisition very 
largely at the present time for application to the 
interior of our dwelling-houses. And when people have 
illuminated their ceilings and enriched their walls with 
harmonies of colour, and covered their floors with 
carpets as soft as moss,' and adorned their overmantels 
with the choicest of porcelain and the finest of bronzes, 
they will naturally feel that their drawingrooms are 
incomplete without the brightness and interest which are 
conferred upon their walls by a collection of the best 
water colour drawings they can afford to procure, and 
that their diningrooms stand in need also of a well- 
chosen array of oil paintings, so as to light them up 
with the glow, the grace, the glory, and the grandeur of 
the external world ; or with canvases which reflect the 
great events of history, or portray the tragedy and 
comedy of human life, or carry us into the realms of 
imagination, or represent the innumerable incidents, 
humorous or pathetic, which are being daily enacted in 
the domestic dramas of multitudinous human households. 

As to the political tendencies of the epoch that make 
in favour of art, there is no shutting our eyes to the fact 
that the drift of legislation in all countries where power 
has passed into the hands of the wage-earners, as it has 
done in Victoria, is in the direction of elevating the 
material and intellectual condition of the masses, so 
that those aesthetic enjoyments which were once confined 
to a privileged few will hereafter be common to the whole 
people. And the more widely diffused the love of art or 
of its productions shall become, the better will it be for 
the artist and the closer his alliance with the artificer, 
whose social status will be raised, and the value of whose 
work will be enhanced by that alliance. 

So far as present indications go, Victorian artists 
promise to excel in landscape painting, and probably also, 
in portraiture. During the first four or five decades of 
our history the artists who made their mark in this 
colony were natives of Europe, as, for example, Eugene 
Von Guerard, Nicholas Chevalier, and Louis Buvelot in 
painting, and Charles Summers in sculpture. M. Von 
Guerard, whose father was Court painter to the Emperor 
of Austria, was the first to reveal the characteristics of 
our mountain scenery to the people of Victoria, as also 
the peculiar beauty of our fern-tree gullies. At the very 
time when people were almost frenzied with the excite- 



the cyclopedia op victoria. 



$5 



ment occasioned by the constant discoveries of apparently 
inexhaustible deposits of gold, he was placidly exploring 
the most picturesque regions of the colony, and trans- 
ferring them to bis sketch-book or mill-board. If his 
treatment was somewhat hard and literal, he was one of 
the most conscientious and truthful of draughtsmen, and 
his pictures will always be prized on account of their 
topographical accuracy. 

Mr. Chevalier, who afterwards became a favourite 
of the late Duke of Edinburgh and his Royal mother, was 
more successful with his New Zealand than with his 
Victorian landscapes, because, perhaps, the former re- 
sembled those of his native Switzerland. It was when 
he accompanied the Duke to the 4i Great Britain of the 



and was the first artist to paint, the forms and foliage 
of the eucalypti in all their manifold variety. To call 
his bits of woodland scenery photographs would be 
unjust, for, while they are as true as sun-pictures, they 
are landscapes which you look at through the lens of the 
artist's mind and temperament ; that is to say, they are 
pictures plus the poetry which he sees in them and trans- 
lates for the benefit of the spectator. What, for example, 
is the "Waterhole at Coleraine, v in the National Gallery 
in Melbourne— of which Claude might have painted the 
amber sky, and Calame the superb trees which are 
reflected in the water below them— but a poem on 
canvas ? And the same may be said of most of his 
water colour drawings, with their transparency of colour, 




Cooper and Co. 



Vi»w In tho Fitzroy Gardens, Molbourna. 



ytcib. 



South," as Sir Robert Peel called it, that Mr. Chevalier 
gained a facility of execution and a distinctive keynote of 
colour which afterwards stood him in good stead. He 
saw the poetic aspects of the landscapes he depicted, and 
he translated them into form and colour with discerning 
insight and sympathetic feeling. It was another native 
of Switzerland, who had spent many years in Brazil, 
where his admirable work was greatly appreciated by the 
Emperor, Pedro the Second, who first taught us the 
previously unobserved picturesqueness of Australian trees. 
M. Louis Buvelot did not arrive here till late in life. 
He had been accustomed for years to study and depict 
tropical vegetation, and yet he immediately seized upon, 



lucidity of atmosphere, decision of touch and delicacy of 
feeling, their fine aerial perspective, and their additional 
charm of graduated light and warmth. They are sur- 
prisingly varied in subject, and free from repetitions, and 
they reflect, with the utmost fidelity, not only the aspects 
of Nature in certain hours of the day and seasons of the 
year, but the fluctuating moods of the painter's mind, 
influenced, no doubt, by the vicissitudes of the atmo- 
sphere, for an artist is of all men "servile to skiey 
influences.' ' Then, again, you are impressed by the 
simplicity of the elements of so many of his landscapes. 
These consist in numerous instances of a pool of water, 
the bend in a creek, with a clump of trees, a bit of 



86 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



pasture, a hillside, with a background of ranges. But, 
however simple, they suffice to compose a picture which 
charms the eye and satisfies the judgment, which is free 
from convention and artifice, and presents the interpreta- 
tion of natural objects by one who looked upon them 
with feelings of affection, and possessed an intuitive 
insight into the secret of their beauty, and was therefore 
enabled to "pluck out the heart of their mystery." It 
may be said of him, as Johnson said of Goldsmith, that 
"he adorned everything he touched.' ' A three-railed 
fence, a muddy waterhole, a bush hut, even a brick-kiln, 
and any other prosaic object, seemed to undergo a kind 
of transfiguration under the touch of his magic pencil ; 
and an obnoxious "snag," ruffling the current and 
obstructing the navigation of an Australian river, or a 
blue gum sapling, or the withered branch of a white 
eucalypt lying on a dusty bush track, was transformed 
by him into "a thing of beauty." 

The late Signor Rolando made special studies of the 
lake scenery of Gippsland, but the great quantity of his 
work diminished its quality, so that in a limited number 
of his pictures only did he do justice to his capabilities 
as a landscape painter. 



The talent of the late George Folingsby, for some 
years director of the National Gallery, is attested by 
two of his pictures on the walls of that institution, and 
by the numerous portraits he painted. In the last- 
named branch of art Messrs. Longstaff, J. C. Waite, and 
E. P. Fox have likewise distinguished themselves, while 
Senhor Loureiro has made his mark both as a figure 
painter and a paysagiste ; and the same remark applies 
to Mr. Douglas Richardson, who is, moreover, a sculptor 
whose works are full of imagination and poetry. Mr. 
Bertram MacKennal, although a native of Melbourne, is 
claimed by the mother country as one of the rising 
sculptors of the day. 

It is impossible to do more than enumerate the more 
prominent of the living Victorian artists, and to speak of 
their productions would be to undertake a task of equal 
delicacy and difficulty. And the following list does not 
profess to be complete :— Messrs. John Mather, J. F. 
Paterson, the late J. W. Curtis, McCubbin, W. Withers, 
Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Gordon Coutts, Tom 
Humphreys, St. G. Tucker, A. Colquhoun, and Altson, 
Mr. and Mrs. Boyd, Miss Sutherland, Miss Norris, Miss 
Southern, Signor Nerli, etc., etc. 



SCENIC ART. 



As a general rule, the important part which really 
good scenic art upon the stage plays in the artistic 
education of every community among whom the theatre 
fulfils its legitimate functions, as a kind of popular 
University, is too much overlooked by those whose duty 
it is to sit in critical judgment upon the dramas and the 
acting presented to them on the boards. And yet the 
illustrations of any play, if worthily executed, are 
deserving of serious consideration, and of commendation, 
censure, or correction, according to the degree of merit 
they possess, their general accuracy, and the skill and 
knowledge, or the want of either, exhibited by the 
scene-painters. The stage is the picture gallery of the 
multitude. It offers them examples of landscape art, as 
well as of architecture, ancient, modern, and mediaeval ; 
military, ecclesiastical, and domestic ; external and 
internal, such as they cannot meet with elsewhere. 
Babylon, Thebes, Memphis, the Athens of Pericles and 
the Rome of the Caesars, the Venice of the Doges, and 
the London of Elizabeth are re-built by means of paint, 
canvas, and battens, and, when thus resuscitated by 
competent artists, these "set scenes" convey to the 
minds of several hundreds of spectators vivid impressions 
and enduring ideas of famous places which were previously 
only unmeaning names to the bulk of the audience 
assembled to witness the evening's performance. Thus 
in this respect alone the theatre is an educational agency 
of the highest value in every civilised community, and 
nowhere more so than in a city like Melbourne, Where 
entertainments of this kind are provided at such a cheap 
rate that the poorest classes of the population are not 
precluded from participating in them. How has the 
stage fulfilled this function in Victoria ? To its credit 
be it said the answer to such a question is highly satis- 
factory. Scenic art in the metropolis of this State dates 



from about the year 1856, when the Olympic Theatre in 
Lonsdale Street was erected as a place of public enter- 
tainment by Mr. George Coppin. The earlier play-houses 
in Bourke Street and in Queen Street respectively were 
furnished with a drop scene, flats and wings, "cloths" 
and sky borders, but they never rose above the level of 
the house-painter's work. Mr. William Pitt, Mr. Wilson 
(who is still living in Sydney), and afterwards Mr. John 
Hennings, were the pioneers of scenic art in Melbourne, 
reinforced by an Italian artist, who painted interiors 
with a good knowledge of perspective and a fine sense of 
colour for decorative purposes. Then came the late Mr. G. 
Gordon, Mr. Spong, Mr. Goatcher, and Mr. Brunton, and 
from the advent of the first, who came out from England 
with the London Comedy Company, under the management 
of Mr. Arthur Garner, dates an immense stride forward 
in the way of scenic illustration by those who were 
engaged in the work. With the resources for illuminat- 
ing purposes which modern science has placed at their 
disposal, they have set before us a lovely succession 
of landscapes, bathed in a glow richer than that of 
Claude or Cuyp, or silvered over by the soft rays of the 
harvest moon, which seemed to immerse every object in 
a sea of tender radiance. The mysterious poetry of the 
woods, the charm of still waters, the grandeur of far- 
stretching mountains, upon which the cloud shadows 
deepen the solemn purple of their sombre forests, the 
dim recesses of high vaulted cathedrals, the picturesque 
beauty of old Italian cities, and the architectural pomp 
and splendour of palaces built for gorgeous pageantry- 
all these have been depicted by the gentlemen we have 
named with what we may term a caressing art, so that the 
Melbourne stage has really fulfilled an important function 
in the art education of the community. Unfortunately 
the works of the scenic artist are distressingly ephemeral. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



87 



They are usually painted out a few weeks after they have 
fulfilled the purpose for which they were executed, so 
that the fame of their creator is as transitory as that 
of the actor and actress. If the late Mr. George Gordon 
had devoted one-tenth of the time and talent he expended 



upon perishable scenery to the production of landscapes 
in oil or water colours he would have left an enduring 
name behind him, whereas his genius will presently 
become a tradition, and will eventually die out of human 
memory. " 'Tis true. 'Tis pity 'tis, 'tis true." 



SCULPTURE. 



The first to practise the art of sculpture, as some- 
thing apart from mere modelling for the purpose of deco- 
rating architecture, was the late Mr. Charles Summers, 
a native of Charlton, in Somersetshire, who began life, 
as so many famous artists have done, under the most 




Cooper and Co. Melb. 

The Burke and Wills Man time nt, Spring Straet. 

unfavourable circumstances, labouring as a stonemason 
for the support of his mother and family while he was 
still a youth, and betraying at that early period of his 
life, by the carvings he executed, the innate genius which 
was struggling for expression. At the age of nineteen, 



and by the exercise of severe frugality, he had saved a 
few pounds, with which he betook himself to London, and 
procured employment as a polisher in the studio of Mr. 
Henry Weekes, R.A., and he exercised the knowledge thus 
obtained in copying the beautiful children executed by 
Duquesney, better known as the Fleming. And it is a 
remarkable proof of the surety of hand which he gained 
by this practice that in later life he would often put his 
ideas into marble without having previously modelled 
them in clay. Subsequently Mr. Summers was engaged 
by Mr. M. L. Watson, the sculptor, at whose death he 
was commissioned to complete the Eldon group now at 
Oxford, and the statue of Flaxman for the London Uni- 
versity. At the age of twenty-seven he became a 
student in the Royal Academy, where he received on the 
same evening from the hands of the president the first 
silver medal for the best model from life, and the gold 
medal— awarded every other year— for the best group of 
historical sculpture. In the same year (1851) his "Boy 
with a Shell" obtained a bronze medal in the Great 
Exhibition. Thenceforth he became a regular exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, opened a studio in Westminster, 
and received so many commissions for portrait-busts 
that his health, although naturally robust, gave way 
under the stress of incessant labour, and he was told that 
a long sea voyage was indispensable to his recovery. So 
he came out to Melbourne in 1852, and, finding the wages 
of artisans were from 20s. to 30s. per diem, he bought a 
piece of land in Docker Street, Richmond, and built and 
roofed a brick house of six rooms entirely with his own 
hands. For the Houses of Parliament then in process of 
erection, Mr. Summers designed the figures on the ceiling 
of the Council Chamber, executed numerous busts of 
prominent citizens, was first president of the Victorian 
Academy of Fine. Arts, modelled and cast in plaster and 
bronze the colossal group of Burke and Wills now stand- 
ing in Spring Street, and, after fulfilling many other 
commissions, he quitted Melbourne for Rome in 1867, 
where work flowed in upon him, and his study in the 
Via Margutti was well known to most English and 
American visitors. While there, Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
W. J. Clarke commissioned him to execute the statues 
of the late Queen and Prince Consort, and of the present 
King and Queen Alexandra, which adorn the vestibule of 
the Public Library. In 1879 he died almost suddenly in 
Paris. "Personally," as the present writer took occa- 
sion to say in one of the morning papers at the time of 
his death, "Mr. Summers was a man whom to know 
was to esteem. Simple in manners, frank and gentle 
in speech, modest and unassuming by nature, and entirely 
free from that self-consciousness and self-assertion which 
make some artists so intoierable in private life, he was 
the first to discern and admire ability in others, and the 



88 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



last to obtrude his own upon your notice. Hence it was 
a pleasure to converse with him upon art topics, and to 
listen to the expression of his own views and opinions, 
which were always the fruit of independent thought and 
reflection, and were conveyed rather by way of suggestion 
than by that of positive statement or dogmatic declara- 
tion.' ' 

Such was the father of sculpture in Victoria, and such 
the story of the beginnings of its art. Another sculptor, 
who was born in Melbourne, studied here under his 
father, and obtained the first recognition of his talent in 
this city as the winner of a prize offered by the trustees 
of the National Gallery for the best original design in 
modelling, is Mr. Bertram MacKennal, who executed the 
statue of the late Queen which now graces the square in 
front of the Town Hall in the city of Ballarat West, and 
whose bust of Madame Melba, presented by that lady to 
the people of Victoria, occupies a prominent place in the 
National Gallery. But Mr. MacKennal's fame belongs 
rather to the mother country, in which his genius has 
matured, and where he has executed his best work, such 
as his "Circe," his "Oceana," and his "Rahab," rather 
than to this State. 

Mr. C. Douglas Richardson, medallist of the Royal 
Academy in London, has been, however, so long identified 
with the plastic as well as with the graphic art in Vic- 
toria as to belong to its history. Perhaps he is more 
largely endowed with the rich gift of imagination, and 
is more ardent in his worship of high ideals than the 
sculptor who has just been named. His compositions— 
as in the case of "The Cloud"— are frequently instinct 
with poetic feeling. His mind is haunted by a sense of 
the beautiful, which generally expresses itself after the 
old Greek methods by purity of line and grace of pose. 
He writes poems with his modelling tools, but, as his 
genius has not received the imprimatur of European 
authorities, it is undervalued and neglected on the spot. 
Mr. MacKennal is wiser in his generation, and is. turning 
that imprimatur to excellent account from a commercial 
point of view. 

The late Mr. Percival Ball is best known by his 
marble statue of William Wallace at Ballarat, and by his 
bronze figures of Sir Redmond Barry in front of the Public 



Library, and of Mr. Francis Ormond, the founder of the 
Working Men's College. That he possessed the capacity 
of producing better works than these we have every 
reason to believe, but the best that was in him remained 
undeveloped, owing to circumstances which it is unneces- 
sary to enter into. 

The Yarra Sculptors' Society, by its annual exhibi- 
tions, proves that there is plenty of talent in various 
stages of development of which we may look for the 
ripened fruits hereafter, although we cannot speak of so 
accomplished ah artist as Mr. J. R. Trentham Fryer, or 
of so experienced a modeller as Mr. W. C. Scurry, as 
immature. 

We append a list of the exhibitors in the Sculpture 
Gallery :— Miss Margaret Baskerville, Miss D. Clarke, 
Miss Trahair, and Miss Gowdie ; Messrs. C. Webb Gilbert, 
A. Mason, Dr. Lethbridge, C. Y. Wardrop, and John 
Wren Sutton. In the work of the last-named artist, and 
more particularly in his "Ecce Homo," in whose face 
may be read the poignant anguish of the "Man of 
Sorrows," we discern the promise of future excellence 
when he shall have acquired the technical skill and 
dexterity necessary for the adequate embodiment of the 
ideas with which his mind appears to be teeming. The 
art of carving in wood and that of executing repousse 
work in metal find able expositors in Messrs. L. J. 
Godfrey, H. P. Dunne, R. Prenzel, and J. R. Trentham 
Fryer, who is referred to above. 

Mr. J. S. Davie, instructor in modelling at the Work- 
ing Men's College, is also entitled to an honorable place 
among those who are engaged in this branch of art. 

Mr. Charles F. Summers, son of the sculptor referred 
to above, although a native of Melbourne, has spent the 
greater part of his life in Rome, where his artistic 
education, which began at a very early age under his 
father's competent tuition, was continued under the 
most auspicious circumstances. The high quality of his 
work is well known in Victoria, to which he has recently 
returned, with the purpose of settling it may be hoped, 
as his influence and example, together with his long 
experience in Italy, could scarcely fail to exercise a 
beneficial influence upon that art to the practice of which 
the greater part of his life has been devoted. 



Literary Societies. 



THE SHAKESPEARE SOCIETY. 



This society was founded in the year 1884 by Pro- 
fessor Morris, of the Melbourne University, and was, to 
some extent, the outgrowth of a similar association 
which had been established in connection with that insti- 
tution. Twenty years previously, the tercentenary of the 
poet had been celebrated in the city with much enthu- 
siasm, and a sum of money was subscribed for the 
purpose of securing some permanent memorial of the 
incident. The subscribers were divided in opinion as to 
the form this memorial should take. One section was in 
favour of a statue, and Mr. Charles Summers, a sculptor 



of conspicuous ability, who afterwards became well 
known, designed and modelled in clay a figure of the 
dramatist, which was generally approved of, but an in- 
fluential majority decided upon creating a Shakespearian 
scholarship in the University, and this was accordingly 
done ; but the plaster cast of Mr. Summers' model is 
still in existence, and there seems some probability of its 
being executed in marble for the public-spirited citizens 
of Ballarat, as a companion work to the statues of 
Robert Burns and Thomas Moore already erected in 
that city. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



S9 



Up to the time the society was started, there had been 
private associations in some of the suburbs of Melbourne 
for reading and discussing the plays of the poet, so that 
the period was opportune for carrying out the project of 
Professor Morris, and it met with a large measure of 
public support at the outset. Before the end of the third 
year there were as many as 270 members. Meetings 
were held monthly ; three or four original papers were 
read and commented upon at each meeting, and about 
twenty pounds were annually distributed in prizes for 
proficiency in Shakespearian studies among pupils in the 
various schools in and around Melbourne. The interest 
which Sir Henry and Lady Loch manifested in the pro- 
ceedings of the society, and the enthusiasm excited among 
the educated classes by the admirable public recitals 
of the plays of Shakespeare by the late Mr. Locke 
Richardson about this time, contributed to occasion a 
kind of revival of the Shakespeare sentiment in the public 
mind, and, as a natural consequence, the society flourished 
vigorously during its nonage. Many of the papers read 
were scholarly productions, exhibiting much thought in 
their substance, combined with good literary form ; and 
Shakespeare's birthday was yearly celebrated by an ap- 



propriate musical and dramatic entertainment, which 
generally afforded much gratification to both the members 
and the invited guests. A Shakespearian library was 
formed, and, with Dr. Wilson as its zealous honorary 
secretary, the society maintained for some years its 
popularity and prosperity. 

If these fluctuated in subsequent years, an explanation 
of the circumstance may be found in the fact that such 
vicissitudes are common to all societies in Melbourne 
after the gloss of novelty has worn off them ; that, in 
addition, athletic sports have become much more popular 
than purely intellectual recreations among the young men 
of the period ; and that the financial cloud which over- 
shadowed the city during its "seven lean years" told dis- 
advantageous^ upon the subscription lists of societies of 
every description. 

Within the last three or four years, however, the 
Shakespeare Society has shown signs of renewed vitality, 
and it only requires to be better known in order to 
become stronger in numbers, and to find before it a still 
wider sphere of usefulness. Mr. Phillips is its president, 
Mr. Hansen is its honorary secretary, and Mr. R. levers 
its honorary treasurer. 



THE ALLIANCE FRANCAISE. 



This society was founded in the year 1890, mainly 
through the instrumentality of Madame Mouchette, a 
lady equally esteemed for the fine qualities of her heart as 
for her intellectual accomplishments. It is a branch of 
the Alliance Francaise in Paris, which was instituted in 
1833, and its objects are identical with those of the 
parent society, namely, to disseminate a knowledge of the 
French language and of French literature in Victoria by 
properly qualified French teachers. Its list of members 
fluctuates from 100 to 200, and its annual subscription is 
little more than nominal, considering that it covers the 
admission to eight soirees in the course of the year, and 
free access daily to a good library of French literature, 
which is being continually replenished with new books. 
Examinations are periodically held of young persons 



studying the French language, sometimes for students 
who are under eighteen years of age, and sometimes for 
such as are more advanced. Certificates are given to 
those who come within the former category, and succeed 
in passing the examination with credit, and diplomas are 
issued to the more successful of the older students. 

Mrs. Holroyd, of Fer nacres, is the president of the 
society ; Janet Lady Clarke is its honorary president ; 
Mrs. Gurner and Mrs. James Smith are its vice- 
presidents ; Miss F. Godfrey, of Graylings, St. Kilda, ,is 
its honorary secretary ; and Mrs. Henry Cave, of L an fine, 
St. Kilda, is its hqnorary treasurer. 

A similar association exists in Sydney, and there are 
ramifications of the parent society in each of the four 
quarters of the globe. 



THE DANTE SOCIETY. 



The Societa Dante in Victoria is the offshoot of an 
institution founded about a dozen years ago in Italy to 
countervail the efforts which were being made by foreign 
associations to propagate their own languages in the 
Trentino, in the Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland, 
and in those countries of South America which have 
received large accessions of population from the provinces 
of Italy. 

The Victorian branch owes its establishment entirely 
to the efforts of Commandante Corte, Consul-General for 
Italy, who, acting on the recommendation of that illus- 
trious patriot and writer, Rugger o Bonghi, who was 
eminent alike as a philosopher, an archaeologist, a critic, 
an historian, a scholar, and a statesman, instituted the 
Societa Dante in Victoria in the month of July, 1866, 
under the immediate patronage of S.A.R. the Duke of 
Abruzzi, who had visited Australia shortly before in the 



Royal man-of-war "Christopher CoIumbus. n Lady 
Brassey became its local patroness ; Mr. James Smith 
was requested to accept its presidency. An influential 
committee was formed to manage the affairs of the 
society, which held its inaugural meeting on the evening 
of the 11th of August, 1896, when its founder delivered 
an excellent address explanatory of the objects of the 
institution, and commending it to the sympathy and 
support of both English and Italian residents in Victoria. 
This was followed by a choice programme of Italian 
music, vocal and instrumental, brilliantly interpreted by 
Italian musicians exclusively, and by an address in 
Italian, French, and English from the president. 

From that time forth the society has continued to 
hold monthly conversazioni, in which music has been the 
leading feature of the entertainment, while papers have 
been also read on Dante, Beatrice, the Divine Commedia, 



90 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



Leopardi, Goldoni, Italian music, Tasso, Palestrina, 
Giotto, some Italian cities, and the late King Umber to, 
by the president and Comm. W. H. Archer. On one 
occasion the entire opera of "11 Barbdere di SevigliaT 
was performed by the professional members of the society 
with signal success ; and on another, Comm. Corte gave a 
garden fete at his residence in St. Kilda to celebrate the 
marriage of the present King of Italy, the then heir 
apparent to the throne* to S.A.R. the Princess Elene 
Petrovitch of Montenegro. Besides the 250 members of 
the society, invitations had been issued to and accepted 
by about 500 other guests, including some of the most 
notable people in Melbourne society, for whose enjoyment 
a concert of choice Italian music and a comedietta in 
Martellian verse had been provided. 



Should the society succeed in fulfilling the objects for 
which it has been founded, it will discharge a beneficial 
and not unimportant function in connection with the 
various agencies which are in operation for promoting the 
intellectual culture of a community which includes a con- 
siderable number of persons of taste, literary tendencies, 
musical accomplishments, and general refinement. Those 
objects embrace the study of the Italian language and 
literature ; its music, which must always be dear to the 
lovers of pure melody and the lyric drama ; and its art, 
which, whether as regards painting, sculpture, or archi- 
tecture, is undoubtedly the richest in Europe, and that 
is equivalent to saying the richest in the modern 
world. Cavalier James Smith is the president, and Mr. 
C. J. Summers is the hon. secretary of the society. 



THE AUSTRAL SALON. 



This institution was founded in the year 1890 by Miss 
Hirst Browne, of Melbourne (now Mrs. Hirst Alexander, 
of London), in conjunction with a few other ladies of this 
city, and its membership was limited to "women actively 
engaged in literature, science, and the fine arts." But 
associates, both male and female, are eligible for 
admission, provided they are "in sympathy with, and 
willing by personal effort and influence to promote, the 
objects of the Salon ; such associates, being females, 
and assisting personally in the artistic and intel- 
lectual development of the society, are qualified to be 
elected full members of it. Its object is the intel- 
lectual advancement of women by social intercourse, by 
the formation of a library, by lectures, concerts, dramatic 
entertainments, a debating circle, a sewing bee, readings, 
and the delivery of original papers and essays on the 
special subjects enumerated above. 

The number of members and associates on the 31st 
December, 1900, was 189, exclusive of five life members 
and four honorary associates. • The receipts for 
the year 1902 were £333, and the expenditure £314. 
The society also possesses a reserve fund of £255, and 
furniture of the value of £350. The rooms of the 
society are open daily to members and associates, and 



Monday afternoons and Thursday evenings are devoted to 
social reunions. Mrs. Donald * Macdonald was the 
honorary secretary of the Salon from its foundation 
until the year 1896, and from March in that year until 
the present time the post has found a zealous occupant 
in the person of Mrs. Margaret Saddler. There have 
been three honorary treasurers during the last eleven 
years, namely, Mrs. Frederick Hughes, Mrs. E. J. 
Oldfield, and Mrs. Darling. The last-named lady fills 
that position at the present time. The other office- 
bearers are as follow :— President : Lady Clarke. Vice- 
presidents : Janet Lady Clarke, Lady Madden. Com- 
mittee : Members' representatives— Mrs. T. Baker, Mrs. 
G. T. Langridge, Mrs. Sam. Leon, Mrs. H. F. Rix, Miss 
C. H. -Thomson. Associates' representatives — Miss 
Graham Berry, Mrs. Harding. 

The rooms of the Salon are for the present at 317 
and 319 Flinders Lane, but it is much to be desired that 
this and other kindred societies having somewhat similar 
objects in view should meet in some central .building of 
such a character as would provide accommodation for the 
whole of them, and containing a hall specially adapted for 
concerts, lectures, etc., together with a spacious reception 
room, supper room, and all the appurtenances required. 



THE AUSTRALIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY, 



This society, which was founded between three and 
four years ago, has for its purpose the promotion of the 
study, and the stimulation of a knowledge, and the 
d illusion, of purely Australian literature, as well as the 
encouragement of those who are engaged in its produc- 
tion. That literature is already considerable in bulk, 
while the quality of some of the poetry, and of a 
certain number cf the works of fiction of indigenous 



origin, has met with suitable recognition in the 
mother country. The society meets once a month, 
when papers are read and discussions take place 
upon subjects germane to the objects for which it 
was instituted. Mr. Henry Gyles Turner is the pre- 
sident of the Australian Literature Society, and Mr. 
Brazier, the sub-librarian of the Public Library, its 
honorary secretary. 



Fraternal Societies. 



Freemasonry. 



Freemasonry dates back, there are good grounds for 
believing, to the days of Pythagoras, that is to say, to 
rather more than 500 years before the Christian era. He 
visited Egypt, where he was initiated into the secrets of 
all the sacerdotal sciences. Then he journeyed to the 
banks of the Euphrates, and studied whatever Babylon 
could teach him of the science of numbers ; and when he 
returned, in the fifty-sixth year of his age, he brought 



ignorant masses. The arts, the sciences, and notably 
architecture, were taught in these secret societies, 
including a knowledge of magnetism and of its cura- 
tive effects upon the maladies incidental to the human 
system. 

Among the Greeks and Romans colleges of con- 
structors were instituted, presided over by magistri, or 
masters, and these enjoyed the exclusive privilege of 




Cooper and Co. 



Melbourne, from tho Equitable Building, looking North-East. 



Melb. 



with him a knowledge of those secret societies of a 
priestly or a Magian character in which, for centuries 
previously, a belief in the existence and attributes of the 
one true God was kept alive orally, and handed down 
from generation to generation, but was scrupulously 
withheld from the common herd, whose intelligences were 
not yet sufficiently developed to comprehend the God of 
the Egyptian illuminati and of the Babylonish Magians. 
So there was an esoteric cult for the cultivated few, and 
an exoteric system of religion and philosophy for the 



building the temples and other public edifices. The 
brethren used to meet after the labours of the day were 
over in their respective lodges, which were usually held 
in a wooden structure near the temple in course of erec- 
tion. There were three degrees of membership, namely, 
apprentices, companions, and masters ; and, inasmuch as 
they comprised men of different countries and creeds, who 
recognised the Supreme Being by different names, they 
agreed always to speak of Him in their meetings as the 
Great Architect of the Universe. 



9* 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



Being the depositories of the arts and sciences, and 
of a great deal of occult lore derived from 'Egypt and the 
East, these secret associations jealously guarded their 
treasured knowledge from the profane public, admitted 
new members only after passing an examination, and 
exacted from them a solemn oath not to divulge the 
information they had acquired in their lodges, or the 
rites and ceremonies practised therein. It was re- 
garded as a great privilege to belong to such societies ; 
and those who entered them, having been admitted to 
the first and second degrees of initiation, were called 
upon to undertake certain duties and obligations, were 
taught certain signs and symbols for the purposes of 
mutual recognition, as the Dionysians had done before 
them, and were thus prepared for admission to the third 
degree, which was attended with a more solemn cere- 
monial, in which the great truths of religion were sym- 
bolically taught in a very impressive manner. 

In Rome these colleges of constructors undertook not 
only the great works of religious and civil architecture, 
but those of a naval or hydraulic character, and eventu- 
ally military fortifications, bridges, aqueducts, triumphal 
arches, etc. They laboured in all parts of the Roman 
Empire, and spread to Transalpine Gaul and Britain in 
one direction, and to Spain and Arabia in others. In 
the mother country they made their mark wherever the 
Roman legions established themselves, and more par- 
ticularly in the city of York, or Eboracum, as it was 
then called. And, again, the first great wall built by 
Agricola, to restrain the incursions of the Picts and 
Scots ; the second, constructed by the Emperor Adrian ; 
and the third, by Septimus Severus, were all the work 
of Masonic corporations, originally Roman, but greatly 
expanded by the admission of British members. Primi- 
tive Christianity, as preached in Britain, found thousands 
of ready adherents among these Freemasons, as we now 
call them, because they had always recognised the 
Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man ; and in 
later times the magnificent castles and cathedrals erected 
all over England testified to the close alliance subsisting 
between architecture and primitive Christianity, as also 
to the soundness of the principles upon which the former 
science was founded. 

When Carausius, the Roman commander, became 
"tyrant" of Britain in 287, he made a point of conciliat- 
ing the most powerful society in the land, that is to 
say, that of the Masonic corporations, composed of 
Greeks, Romans, and Britons ; and he confirmed their 
ancient privileges. By making them amenable to a 
tribunal of their own, he enabled them to claim the title 
of "Free" Masons, as distinguished from those who were 
outside their lodges. He likewise employed them to 
construct many great public edifices. Eboracum (or York) 
was at this time the seat of the Grand Lodge of English 
Freemasons, and it continued to be so during the reigns 
of Constantius and Constantine. As Christianity spread, 
and more and more churches were required to be erected, 
the Freemasons found their skill and science everywhere 
in demand, and so highly were both appreciated by 
Constantine that he not only cultivated the society of the 
more distinguished of the members of the order, but took 
a number of them with him to Byzantium. 



During the more stormy period of Anglo-Saxon 
history in England, many of the Masonic lodges took 
refuge in Scotland and Wales ; but after the coming of 
Augustine, who was himself an architect, he encouraged 
the order to emerge from its ptoees of retreat. The 
lodges were reconstituted in convents, and where an abbot 
or a monk occupied the chair he was entitled Venerable 
Master or Venerable Brother. In the eighth century the 
British lodges enlarged their boundaries. Influential and 
cultured men, conspicuous for their love of the arts, were 
admitted as "accepted" Masons, and only men who were 
"free" were eligible for initiation in any lodge. And at 
this time, more particularly, was the city of York the 
head centre of English Masonry. Nor was any person 
considered to be qualified to become a master of a lodge 
until after he had paid three visits to a foreign country, 
and had proved himself to be possessed of a thorough 
knowledge of architecture. 

After the Danish invasion, and the destruction by fire 
of so many churches and convents, King Athelstan 
convoked an assemblage of all the Masonic lodges of the 
realm at York, and, besides confirming their ancient 
privileges, granted them a constitution or charter which 
guaranteed their independence. They chose John the 
Baptist for their patron saint, because his festival fell at 
the summer solstice, which coincided with that which had 
been observed by the Masons from time immemorial. 

Besides the abovenamed congress, held in York A.D. 
926, a second was held in London in 1717, when the 
Grand Lodge of England was instituted, and a decision 
was arrived at to ratify a resolution passed in 1703 for 
throwing open Masonic lodges to members other than 
those possessing a technical knowledge of architecture 
and building, so that from the beginning of the eighteenth 
century dates the laicising, so to speak, of this ancient 
order. A third congress held its sittings in Dublin A.D. 
1729, when a Grand Lodge of Ireland was constituted ; 
and a fourth in Edinburgh, A.D. 1736, when thirty-two 
lodges formed a Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

It remains to enumerate the great architectural 
monuments erected during the middle ages in the mother 
country by the Freemasons, and the list will serve to 
show the obligations which England owes to the brethren 
of the Craft when it really was what its name signified :— 



Rochester Cathedral .. 

St. Bartholomew's Church, Smithfleld 

Barfreston Church, Kent 

Castor Church, Northamptonshire 

Rochester Castle, Kent 

Clifford's Tower, York Castle . . 

Norwich Castle, Norfolk 

St. Alban's Abbey, Herts. 

Durham Cathedral 

Lincoln Cathedral 

Malmsbury Abbey, Wilts. 

Church of the Holy Cross, Winchester 

Canterbury Cathedral, Kent .. 

Abbey Church at Shoreham 

Salisbury Cathedral, Wilts. 

Lichfield Cathedral, Staffordshire 

Westminster Abbey 

Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire 

King's College, Cambridge 

York Cathedral 



Period. 
1100 to 1200 
1175 to 1225 



1220 to 1260 

1225 

1270 
1280 to 1370 

1345 
1361 to 1405 



Among the famous Freemasons during the first 
thousand years of the Christian era were the following :— 
Vitruvius, Pollio, and Apollodorus, the great Roman 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



93 



architects ; Anthemesus and Isidore of Miletus, the archi- 
tects of St. Sophia, at Constantinople ; St. Augustine ; 
Alfred the Great ; John Scotus Erigena, the distinguished 
philosopher ; and St. Dunstan, Archhishop of Canter- 
bury, who held the Grand Mastership. Between 1041 
and the year 1716 many sovereigns joined the order, 
including Edward the Confessor ; Henry the First, 
Second, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh ; Richard Coeur dc 
Lion, Edward the First and Third, James the First and 
Second, Charles the First and Second, William the 
Third, and George the First, of England ; ten Kings of 
Scotland, including Robert Bruce, who founded the 
Grand Lodge of Kilwinning in 1314 ; Arnolfo di Lapo, 
architect of the Cathedral in Florence ; Calendar ius, 
architect of the Ducal Palace in Venice ; Michael Angelo, 
Bramante, Raffaelle, Sansovino, Brunelleschi, Giulio 
Romano, and Palladio, of Italy ; Cardan, Hobbes, 
Bacon, and Locke, the illustrious English philosophers ; 
and Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of St. Paul's. 
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Frederick the_ 
Great was Grand Master of the Prussian Lodges ; George 
the Third, and most, if not all, of his sons were Free- 
masons ; Gustavus the Third was Grand Master in 
Sweden, as the Emperor Don Pedro the First was in 
Brazil ; and among the eminent men who were initiated 
into the mysteries of Masonry were Voltaire, Joseph 
Priestly, Muratori, Helvetius, Swedenborg, David Hume, 
Lessing, D'Alembert, Franklin, Thomas Reid, Alexander 
the First of Russia, Lalande ; Bernadotte, King of 
Sweden ; Jerome, King of Westphalia ; Wieland, the 
German poet ; Fichte, the philosopher ; Tschokke, 
Hegel, and many hundreds of princes and nobles, both of 
Great Britain and of the principal countries in Europe. 

It is interesting to observe at how early a period 
those who had expatriated themselves from Great 
Britain, and had settled themselves down on the shores 
of Port Phillip, resolved to introduce Freemasonry into 
the land of their adoption, for it was in the year 1839 
that the preliminary steps were taken to institute a 
Masonic Lodge in Melbourne. Probably the insufferable 
dulness of life in the little village of Beargrass, as it was 
called by some of its inhabitants, impelled such of them 
as were socially inclined to hit upon this pretext for 
meeting once a month, going through the routine of the 
Lodge room, and then "adjourning from labour to refresh- 
ment, and from refreshment to repose.' ' Be this as it 
may, the project mooted in 1839 took practical shape in 
1840, when, the necessary "dispensation" or authority 
having been procured from the Provincial Grand Master 
of Australia in Sydney, about a hundred members 
enrolled themselves as members of a lodge to be called 
that of "Australia Felix," No. 474, which arranged to 
hold its meetings at the Adelphi Hotel, in Little 
Flinders Street, and there the first assemblage of the 
brethren, with a banquet to follow, took place on St. 
John's Eve, 1840. The first officers of the lodge were 
Messrs. W. Meek, R. Forrest, J. T. Smith, H. L. 
Worsley, and T. Strode. On the 2nd of April in the 
year following the warrant was signed by the* Duke of 
Sussex. 

It seems to have been an almost exclusively English 
lodge ; and the Scottish element in the small commu- 



nity, where provincial sentiment was very apt to run 
high, determined to have a lodge of their own, and 
accordingly, upon St. Andrew's Day, 1841, "The Austral- 
asian Kilwinning Lodge, No. 337," taking its name from 
the mother lodge of Scotland, was provisionally 
organised, under the government of the following officers : 
—The Hon. J. E. Murray and Messrs. W. Kerr, A. Sun, 
J. H. Ross, H. Cordell, J. Pater, J. M. McLaurin, J. 
Anderson, T. Burns, P. Inglis, and J. A. Clark. The 
Provincial Grand Lodge of New Zealand issued the 
required dispensation, and the warrant was signed by 
Lord Fitz Clarence as Grand Master under the Scottish 
Constitution. The opening ceremonial was performed by 
Messrs. William Kerr and John Thomas Smith, and 
cynical people did not omit to animadvert on the fact 
that these two representatives of the principle of 
brotherly love soon afterwards became and continued 
mortal enemies. 

As a matter of course, the Irish colonists were 
indisposed to be left out in the cold, and in November, 
1841, "The Australia Felix Lodge of Hiram, No. 349," 
was formed, but not duly constituted until St. John's 
Eve, 1843, when Mr. John Thomas Smith was elected 
Master ; and the warrant, signed by the Duke of 
Leinster, as Grand Master of the Freemasons in Ireland, 
was issued on the 30th of April, 1847. 

The fourth Masonic Lodge founded in Victoria was 
the "Lodge of Unity and Prudence, No. 801," under the 
English Constitution, the warrant for which bears date 
13th October, 1847. 

With the rapid increase of population which followed 
the discovery of gold in Victoria, there was a correspond- 
ing augmentation in the number of Masonic lodges, of 
which there are now nearly 200 in Victoria, with a total 
membership on the 31st of December, 1900, of 8,094 con- 
tributing members. During the year then ending £539 
9s. 8d. was paid to the general, and £714 19s. Id. to the 
benevolent fund, which is administered by the Board of 
Benevolence, and this distributed the sum of £1,068 10s. 
3d. in the relief of necessitous brethren and in the fulfil- 
ment of kindred objects during the twelve months 
covered by the annual report issued on the 6th of March, 
1901. 

THE UNITED GRAND LODGE OF VICTORIA* 

Prior to the year 1889 the Masonic lodges in Victoria 
were under district, or provincial, administration ; that 
is to say, they were under the control of three distinct 
central bodies, namely, the Grand Lodges of England, 
Ireland, and Scotland respectively. It was an arrange- 
ment fraught with inconvenience, and not at all conducive 
to that harmony of feeling and cordial co-operation 
which it is one of the fundamental objects of Free- 
masonry to promote. Many attempts had been- made to 
remedy this unsatisfactory state of things, and in 1883 
a Grand Lodge of Victoria was opened in Melbourne, but 
its authority was not recognised by the lodges under the 
English, Scottish, and Irish Constitutions. A similar 
Grand Lodge had also been formed some years previously 
in New South Wales, and with no better success. 

In the year 1887 the Earl of Carnarvon, Pro-Grand 
Master of England, paid a visit to Australia, and while 



94 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



in Melbourne was the guest of Sir W. J. Clarke, who 
combined in his own person the District and Provincial 
Grand Mastership of the various lodges under the three 
British Constitutions. The noble lord brought with him 
a commission from H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, now His 
Majesty King Edward the Seventh, by which he was 
empowered to consolidate the Craft, if possible, in New 
South Wales and Victoria. This had been already 
effected in South Australia, where a Grand Lodge had 
been formed under the Mastership of the Chief Justice, 
now Sir Samuel Way, Bart. In the mother colony Lord 
Carnarvon succeeded in bringing about a fusion of the 
various lodges, and in establishing a Grand Lodge, with 
the hearty assistance of the Governor, Lord Carrington, 
who was elected its first Grand Master. In 1888 
upwards of 120 lodges of Victoria, under the authority 
of the English, Irish, and Scottish Constitutions, 
instructed their Masters and Past Masters to consider a 
scheme of union under one Grand Lodge, and an execu- 
tive committee was appointed to carry out its 
details. It was so successful that 141 Victorian 
lodges agreed to transfer their allegiance to a Grand 
Lodge, and four others gave in their adhesion soon 
afterwards, leaving only one dissident, the Combermere 
Lodge. 

Thus arose the United Grand Lodge of Victoria, 
which was formally inaugurated in the Freemasons' Hall, 
Melbourne, on Wednesday evening, the 20th of March, 
1889. Sir W. J. Clarke was elected its first Grand 
Master by acclamation, with Brother Angell Ellis as its 
treasurer. The installation of the former took place in 
the Town Hall, Melbourne, on the following evening, the 
ceremony being performed by Lord Carrington, assisted 
by Chief Justice Way, in the presence of 3,000 Masons, 
a lodge, with all its furniture and paraphernalia, having 
been arranged on a large Brussels carpet in the centre 
of the hall. The proceedings were of an impressive 
character. The Grand officers who had been elected by 
the executive committee were confirmed in their appoint- 
ments, and a portrait of Sir W. J. Clarke, painted and 
presented to the Grand Master by the artist, Brother 
James C. Waite, was formally unveiled. A banquet fol- 
lowed, at which 500 brethren assembled, and the speeches 
delivered were worthy of the orators of the occasion. In 
the course of the remarks made by Brother G. S. 
Coppin, he mentioned that the Grand Lodge of Victoria 
had been in fraternal communication with thirty-eight 
other Grand Lodges, ruling over 7,624 private lodges, 
with a membership of 403,397 members. 

The quarterly communications from this time forward 
contain an epitomised history of the proceedings of the 
United Grand Lodge of Victoria, exemplifying its growth, 
and recording its development. The creation of a Board 
of General Purposes and a Board of Benevolence was one 
of the earlier of its acts ; paid officers were appointed 
for the transaction of its financial business, and a scale 
of fees to the fund of benevolence and that of general 
purposes was adopted, the contributions to both for the 
first quarter amounting to £1,194 5s. A Book of Con- 
stitutions was drawn up and printed, and, after the 
various Articles had been thoroughly considered, it was 
officially approved and issued. 



In May, 1891, on the motion of Brother Angell Ellis, 
Grand Treasurer, the question of acquiring the Free- 
masons' Hall buildings by purchase was brought under 
the attention of the Grand Lodge, and was referred to 
the Board of General Purposes, on the proposition of 
Brother McLeod, J.G.W., and some years later these 
became the property of the Masonic body, and include a 
spacious hall and organ, lodge rooms, and a commodious 
club house for the use of members. 




Ifarvic and Sutcliffe 



Melb. 



The Clark* Memorial. 



The late Sir W. J. Clarke, Bart., continued to be 
Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge up to the time 
of his death, excepting during an interregnum in which 
Lord Brassey acted, and at present Sir A. J. Peacock 
occupies that position, Brother John Braim being Grand 
Secretary. 

The financial statement for the year ending the 31st 
December, 1900, showed the receipts to have been 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



95 



£1,752 18s. 2d., and the expenditure £1,474 4s. 5d., leav- 
ing a balance in hand of £278 13s. 9d., as against £3 2s. 
4d., the balance brought forward from 1899. 

At the same time, there had been received on account 
of the Benevolent Fund during the twelve months which 



balance in hand at the close of the previous year, £6,036 
8s. 8d., a total of £8,264 15s. Id. The disbursements 
for benevolent purposes in the course of 1900 had been 
£992 8s. 6d., so that a satisfactory balance of £7,272 
6s. 7d. had been brought forward for the service of the 



had then just expired £2,228 6s. 5d., making, with the ensuing year. 



The late Sir WILLIAM JOHN 
CLARKE, Baronet. — The late Sir 
William J. Clarke's ancestors were, 
according to Burke's " Peerage," 
from a very early period resident in 
Wells, Somersetshire, England ; first 
settling in the manor of Greinston, 
and subsequently at Middlezoy and 
Western Zoyland, in the same 
vicinity. The descent of Sir William 
is traced step by step from the time 
of Queen Elizabeth, when one of the 
name was resident at Greinton, and 
his widow, Joanne, was a benefac- 
tress to her own church at Greinton, 
as well as of the neighbouring 
Cathedral at Wells, as shown by her 
will, dated 1628. Sir William's 
father, the late W. J. T. Clarke, 
came to these colonies in the very 
early days, and entered upon pastoral 
and farming pursuits in Tasmania, 
where William John, his eldest son, 
was born in 1831. He proceeded to 
Victoria about the year 1840, leaving 
his son behind him in Tasmania, 
where he remained until he was 
nineteen years of age. Arriving in 
this colony in 1850, the late Sir 
William spent some time farming 
upon his father's estate at Dowling 
Forest, in the Ballarat district, and 
afterwards managed the Woodlands 
Station, in the Wimmera. Then he 
returned to Tasmania, and joined his 
brother, the late Joseph Clarke, in 
the management of the Norton- 
Mandeville Estate. In 1862 he took 
up his residence permanently in Vic- 
toria, and undertook the entire 
management of his father's affairs. 
His residence was at Sunbury, and 
the cottage in which that part of his 
life was spent is still to be seen 
within a stone's throw of the com- 
modious mansion he afterwards built 
there. Sir William was chairman of 
the Braybrook Road Board at the 
inception of local government, and 
was afterwards member of the Melton 
Shire Council, and a justice of the 
peace. His father died, in 1874, one 
of the richest men in Australia, and 
the whole of his interests in Victoria 
were left to Sir William. These in- 



terests were sufficient in themselves 
to return a princely income, and it 
soon became evident that they had 
been placed in worthy hands. In 
1878 Sir William Clarke was elected 
as a representative of the Southern 
Province in the Legislative Council. 
He did not take a very prominent 
part in the debates in that Chamber, 
and when his term expired it was 
only at the earnest desire of his 
constituents that he sought re- 
election. In 1878 he was appointed 
president of the Melbourne Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1880-81, and 
in that position extended lavish hos- 
pitality to visitors from all parts of 
the world. In the following year he 
had the distinction of being created 
the first Victorian baronet. Sir 
William was a member of the Vic- 
torian Commission of the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition in 1886, and 
while in England on that occasion 
the honorary degree of LL.D. was 
conferred on him by the University of 
Cambridge. There are few 'public or 
philanthropic movements inypr about 
Melbourne with which the -late Sir 
William was not identified. He was 
president of the Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital for fifteen years, as also pre- 
sident of the Blind Asylum, whilst 
the Old Colonists' Association re- 
ceived his generous support. The 
Clarke gold medal of the Royal 
Humane Society of Victoria was Sir 
William's gift, and was awarded 
annually for the bravest act in the 
saving of life performed during the 
year. Among the many semi-public 
institutions with which Sir William 
Clarke was connected it may be 
mentioned that he was a member of 
the committee of the Melbourne 
Club, and vice-president of the Aus- 
tralian Club. The cause of educa- 
tion was always uppermost in Sir 
William's mind, and he was deeply 
interested in technical education, as 
well as in the work, of the schools. 
In 1882 he gave 3,000 guineas to 
establish a scholarship in the Royal 
College of Music, England, and pre- 
sented to the Public Library four 



life-size marble statues of the Queen, 
Prince Consort, and the Prince and 
Princess of Wales respectively, from 
the chisel of Mr. Charles Summers, 
the well-known sculptor, as well as 
many other valuable contributions. 
In 1876, when Trinity College was 
affiliated to the Melbourne Univer- 
sity, Sir William sent £100 in 
response to the council's appeal, and 
two years later donated £1,000 
towards the completion of the 
"Bishop's Buildings" at the college. 
This was followed by another gift of 
£2,000 for the foundation of two 
scholarships — the " Clarke " and 
" Ruperts wood " respectively. He 
also contributed £3,000 towards the 
completion of the wing called the 
14 Clarke Buildings." Later, in 
answer to a letter from the warden 
of Trinity, pointing out the need of 
a chemical laboratory, Sir William 
presented £1,000 for that purpose, in 
addition to fittings and apparatus. 
In 1887 he completed, entirely at his 
own expense (the cost eould not have 
been less than from £3,000 to £4,000) 
the Clarke Buildings, which now form 
the north side of the great quad- 
rangle of Trinity College. He also 
cleared of debt the Women's Hostel 
buildings, which had been erected 
mainly by a gift of £6,000 from 
Lady Clarke, and appropriately bears 
her name. Scientific farming was 
another object which always engaged 
the practical sympathy of the late 
baronet. He was president of the 
West Bourke Agricultural Society 
from 1874 to 1891, and was a liberal 
donor to that body, as likewise to 
numerous other agricultural societies 
in different parts .of the colony. In 
1888 he gave £100 to the Bacchus 
Marsh Society for prizes to encou- 
rage improvements in the breed of 
horses, and his name always figured 
on the prize-lists of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society. Many years ago, 
before the institution of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Sir William 
Clarke commissioned Mr. W. E. 
Mclvor to lecture on agricultural 
chemistry .in the farming centres, 



96 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



and subsequently sent him to New 
Zealand on a similar mission, be- 
sides causing a series of these 
lectures to be published and dissemi- 
nated for the benefit of Australian 
farmers. For a great many years 
Sir William was at the head of the 
Masonic fraternity of Victoria. On 
the death of Mr. John Thomas 
Smith he became Provincial Grand 
Master of the Irish Constitution, and 
he succeeded the late Mr. A. K. 
Smith as District Grand Master of 
the Scottish Constitution. On the 
death of Captain Standish, the late 
Commissioner of Police, Sir William 
J. Clarke became District Grand 
Master of the English Constitution, 
thus combining in himself the chief 
offices of the three constitutions. In 
1885 he laid the foundation stone of 
the Freemasons' Hall, Collins Street, 
and presided at the consecration 
ceremony in 1887. In the latter 
year, also, he laid the foundation 
stone of the Australian Church, Mel- 
bourne, with Masonic ceremonies, 
and in July following, as head of the 
Masonic fraternity, he gave a 
musical entertainment at the Ex- 
hibition in celebration of the Queen's 
Jubilee, at which 8,0G0 people were 
present, and the arrangements were 
carried out with princely liberality. 
At the installation of the United 
Grand Lodge of Victoria, in 1889, 
he was appointed the first Grand 
Master, and the ceremonies connected 
with his induction to the chair by 
Lord Carrington, Grand Master of 
New South Wales, and Chief Justice 
Way, Grand Master of South Aus- 
tralia, were exceptionally brilliant. 
He continued to hold that high office 
until the accession of Lord Brassey, 
to whom Sir William voluntarily 
resigned his seat, and was then ap- 
pointed Pro Grand Master. The 
only financial institution of import- 
ance with which the late Sir William 
Clarke was identified in his later 
years was the Colonial Bank of Aus- 
tralia, of which his father had been 
one of the founders, as also chairman 
of directors, a position in which he 
was succeeded by Sir William in 
1874. The banking crisis of 1893 
caused him great anxiety, not only 
because he held a tenth of the 
shares, and was, therefore, likely to 
be the largest sufferer in case of a 
disaster, but also because he felt in 



a sense personally responsible for the 
stability of the institution. At a 
meeting of the shareholders, held 
after the scheme of reconstruction 
had been carried through, and a 
further call of £2 had been made, 
Sir William's own contribution 
amounted to upwards of £20,000. 
He was also a depositor in the 
Colonial Bank to the extent of over 
£150,000, and entered into heavy 
guarantees in connection with the 
reconstruction scheme. Sir William 
Clarke took the warmest interest in 
the defence forces of the colony, and 
was always most liberal in promot- 
ing the welfare of both branches of 
the service. It would be impossible 
to enumerate the prizes which he 




Talma Melb. 

Sib William John Clarke. 

offered from time to time, but it 
may be mentioned that when the 
militia forces were organised in 
1884 he gave £500 to be distributed 
in prizes. The deceased gentleman 
acted most liberally in forming and 
maintaining the Rupertswood Battery 
of Horse Artillery at Sunbury. When 
his offer to do this was made, the 
Government undertook to supply the 
battery with proper field pieces, but 
this promise was never fulfilled. 
First, delay occurred in deciding 
what type of . guns should be em- 
ployed by the battery, and when that 
question was settled the financial 
depression had occurred, and the 
Government pleaded want of funds 



as the reason for not fulfilling its 
engagement. This was naturally a 
source of disappointment to Sir 
William, and almost his last appear- 
ance at the public offices was when 
he waited on the Premier (Sir 
George Turner) just before the latter 
left for the Federal Convention in 
Adelaide, and pointed out how the 
efficiency of the battery was being 
impaired by the want of proper 
equipment. While admitting that 
the members of the battery had 
reason to complain, Sir George 
Turner stated that the condition of 
the exchequer would not permit of a 
vote being placed on the estimates 
for the purpose. The Rupertswood 
Battery was under the command of 
Sir William's eldest son, Lieutenant 
(now Sir Rupert) Clarke, and its 
founder took great pride in its 
welfare, and gave many proofs of his 
goodwill towards it. In 1883 he 
sent the battery to England at his 
own expense, and there, under the 
command of Major Hughes— Sir 
William Clarke's brother-in-law— it 
engaged in a number of military 
competitions with fair success, and 
formed the escort on behalf of this 
colony at the wedding of the Duke of 
York, and subsequently at the open- 
ing of the Imperial Institute. The 
maintenance of the battery, from the 
time of its formation, cost Sir 
William not less than £1,500 a year, 
and in addition he was a generous 
supporter of the Victorian Rifle 
Association. Sir William, although 
taking an interest in several branches 
of sport, notably racing, coursing, 
and yachting, was never a very en- 
thusiastic sportsman. On the turf 
he was only fairly successful. The 
most important event ever won by 
him was the V.R.C. Oaks, in which 
Petrea, a sister to First King, by 
King of the Ring from Mischief, 
carried his colours to victory in 
1879. Sir William undertook the 
breeding of thoroughbreds, but on a 
small scale, and with little success. 
He was a prominent figure in yacht- 
ing circles for many years, and on 
several occasions was commodore of 
the Royal Victorian Yacht Club. 
With his yacht, the "Janet," he won 
the first intercolonial yacht race 
between Victoria, South Australia, 
and New Zealand, which took place 
in Hobson's Bay in January, 1381. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



97 



Again in 1887 the "Janet" com- 
peted for the intercolonial challenge 
cup at Sydney, and was likewise a 
competitor in the famous Centennial 
Regatta held in Hobson's Bay in 
1888, when Sir William Clarke pre- 
sented a gold anchor, valued at £100, 
as an addition to the prize. Some 
years ago he also took a lively in- 
terest in rowing, and the eight-oared 
races on the Saltwater River for the 
Clarke Challenge Cup were looked 
forward to with interest by all oars- 
men. The late Sir William Clarke 
was possessed of very extensive 
landed interests in the colony of 
Victoria. In the Bourke district 
alone he held freehold estate to the 
extent of 137,000 acres, including the 
magnificent estate of Sunbury, on 
which is built the well - known 
mansion of "Rupertswood." In the 
Romsey and LancefleJd districts he 
owned the Bolindavale Estate, com- 
prising 40,000 acres of fine grazing 
land. Another property was the 
Green Hill Estate, also in the 
Romsey district, consisting of nearly 
10,000 acres. In the Keilor and 
Bacchus Marsh districts there was 
the Rockbank Estate, and he held 
freehold properties in Bairnsdale and 
Orbost, in Gippsland. In the 
Western district were several fine 
properties belonging to Sir William. 
But perhaps the finest country estate 
he possessed was that at Dowling 
Forest, near Ballarat, consisting of 
16,000 acres of rich volcanic soil, 
stretching away from Lake Lear- 
month and the Ercildoune boundary 
to the mining country of Creswick. 
Some years ago this property was 
subdivided into tenant farms upon a 
very liberal system as to tenure and 
improvements. There are now about 
sixty-five of these farms on the 
estate, and they represent the finest 
examples of scientific farming in the 
colony. Besides the well-known town, 
residence of "Cliveden," in East 
Melbourne, Sir William Clarke owned 
many properties in the city of Mel- 
bourne and suburbs, together with 
mortgage interests, not only in this 
colony, but also in New South Wales 
and Queensland. He also owned one 
of the finest station properties in 
Southern Riverina, known as the 
Cobran Estate, comprising 315,000 
acres, of which 150,000 acres are 
freehold. The late Sir William was 



a liberal friend of his church— the 
Church of England— his donations to 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, ex- 
ceeding £10,000, and the church at 
Sunbury was to a great extent sup- 
ported by his liberality. He was 
for many years a member of the 
Church Assembly and of the Diocesan 
Council. Sir William was first 
married on the 23rd of November, 
1860, to Mary, second daughter of 
the late John Walker, M.L.C., of 
Tasmania, and the family by this 
marriage consists of two sons and 
two daughters. His first wife died 
in 1871, and on the 21st January, 
1873, Sir William married Janet 
Marian, the eldest daughter of the 
late Peter Snodgrass, M.L.C., and 
as the issue of this marriage there 
were four sons and four daughters. 
Sir William is succeeded in the 
baronetcy by his eldest son, Rupert, 
who married, in 1887, the daughter 
of Thomas Cumming, M.L.C., and 
they have a family of two children, 
both daughters. The death of Sir 
William Clarke, which occurred sud- 
denly on 15th May, 1897, was the 
cause of universal regret, and the 
sympathy of the whole community 
was extended to Lady Clarke and her 
family in their great sorrow. His 
remains were interred in the Mel- 
bourne General Cemetery on 18 th 
May, and the funeral, which was a 
semi-military one, on account of Sir 
William's early connection with the 
Rupertswood Horse Artillery and 
Old Yeomanry Volunteers, was the 
largest representative gathering of 
officers and civilians ever witnessed 
in Melbourne. No fewer than 1,500 
Freemasons took part in the proces- 
sion, and every lodge in Victoria— 
178 in all— was represented. The 
streets all along the line of route 
were thronged with spectators, and 
on all sides were heard expressions 
of the deepest sorrow for the loss 
of one of Victoria's most generous 
citizens. The coffin was borne to 
the grave by a detachment of 
Rupertswood gunners, and among the 
pall-bearers were His Excellency the 
Governor (Lord Brassey) and the 
Chief Justice (Sir John Madden). 
The Bishop of Melbourne officiated at 
the burial service, upon the conclu- 
sion of which it was conducted ac- 
cording to Masonic rites by Brother 
Baker and the Chaplains of the 



Craft. Expressions of regret and 
sympathy from all parts of the 
colony poured in on Lady Clarke, 
and scores of wreaths and floral 
tributes were deposited at "Clive- 
den" by sympathetic friends, His 
Excellency the Governor calling in 
person, and leaving a magnificent 
cross, nearly 6 feet high, bearing an 
inscription in his own handwriting. 
Wreaths were also sent by Lady 
Brassey, the Earl of Shaftesbury, 
and Lord Richard Nevill, while the 
Field Artillery contributed a beau- 
tiful floral representation of a gun- 
carriage wheel, with the cross and 
crown in the centre, bearing the 
motto, u Pro Deo et Patria," and an 
equally handsome tribute was re- 
ceived from the Rupertswood Bat- 
tery. The flowers completely 
covered the two floral cars taking 
part in the procession, but only 
those of the household and immediate 
friends were sent. The remainder, 
to the extent of six van-loads, were 
despatched later in the evening, and 
deposited on the grave. Modest, un- 
assuming, kindly, and courteous, and 
at times almost oppressed by a pain- 
ful sense of the heavy responsibilities 
attaching to the possession of great 
wealth, the late Sir William Clarke 
made a generous use of that wealth ; 
not merely in the dispensation of a 
generous hospitality to his friends 
and fellow-citizens, but in the dis- 
tribution of large sums of money to 
public objects of all kinds, and in the 
performance of acts of private and 
secret benevolence, which proved the 
tenderness of his heart and the 
delicacy of his feelings. He was 
bountiful by nature, and the extent 
of his benefactions was far greater 
than the general public has any con- 
ception of. Opulent as were his 
means, his benefactions were on a 
commensurate scale of magnitude. 



ALEXANDER BALD 

TEMPLEMAN, P.G.M. (Deputy 
Grand Master of Victoria). Mr. A. 
B. Templeman was born in Cairney- 
hill, near Dumferline, Fifeshire, Scot- 
land, and, after having been engaged 
in business in Dumferline, Edinburgh, 
and Glasgow, he sailed for Aus- 
tralia, arriving in Sydney in the 
year 1876. Four years later he 
came over to Melbourne, and in 



98 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



1882 he was engaged by the well- 
known firm of Paterson, Laing, and 
Bruce, wholesale merchants, with 
whom he occupied the position of 
manager of several departments. In 
1896 he was sent "home" on a 
buying tour for his firm, the result 




Talma Melb. 

Mb. Alexander Bald Templeman. 

of which was so eminently satisfac- 
tory that he again went "home" in 
1899, this time taking in China, 
Japan, and America. The business 
meantime having been largely ex- 
tended in its operations, was floated 
into a limited liability company, and 
Mr. Templeman was in 1900 made a 
director of the company. Outside 
of business, Mr. Templeman has 
shown himself to be an active and 
energetic citizen, devoting much of 
his leisure time to a number of 
public and political associations with 
which he has been actively asso- 
ciated. He was also closely iden- 
tified with the sport of rowing, 
having been captain of the Albert 
Park Rowing Club, and hon. sec. of 
the Victorian Rowing Association, 
while he is still president of the 
Hawthorn Rowing Club. However, 
it is probably as an ardent and en- 
thusiastic Freemason that he is best 
known throughout the length and 
breadth of Victoria. His Masonic 
career has indeed been a most re- 
markable and an equally successful 
one. Initiated into Freemasonry in 
the Camberwell Lodge towards the 
end of 1891, he rose in four years 
to be the Worshipful Master of bis 



lodge. Two years later he was 
unanimously elected to the office of 
Grand Treasurer, and had only re- 
linquished that office one year when, 
on his return from Europe, the 
Grand Master (the Hon. A. J. 
Peacock) offered him the position of 
Deputy Grand Master. The ap- 
pointment was a very popular one 
amongst the members of the craft, 
and so ably and well has the Deputy 
Grand Master discharged the high 
and responsible duties devolving on 
him in connection with that office 
that he has not only won the uni- 
versal respect and regard of all the 
brethren throughout the territory, 
but the Grand Master has conferred 
upon him the rank of Past Grand 
Master in recognition and apprecia- 
tion of his valuable services. To 
have passed from Master Mason to 
the rank of Grand Master in less 
than ten years of Masonic life is a 
unique experience, and one of which 
Mr. Templeman may be justly proud. 
His career in Royal Arch Free- 
masonry has been equally rapid. 
Exalted in the Australasian Chapter 
in the year 1893, he became First 
Principal of his chapter in 1897, 
Grand Standard Bearer in the same 
year, Grand Treasurer in 1898, Past 
Third Grand Principal in 1899, Past 
Second Grand Principal in 1900, and 
Past First Grand Principal in 1902. 
At the end of the year 1901, Mr. 
Templeman having been called away 
to Sydney, felt himself under the 
necessity of relinquishing the Deputy 
Grand Mastership, and the announce- 
ment of his so doing was received 
with every demonstration of regret 
by his brethren, and it was resolved 
to signify the esteem in which he is 
held by the craft by entertaining him 
at a complimentary banquet, which 
was held on the 17th of January, at 
the Port Phillip Club Hotel, the 
Premier and the heads of some of 
the most important mercantile 
establishments in Melbourne being 
. present to do honor to the guest of 
the evening. Mr. B. Sniders pre- 
sided. The health of Mr. Templeman 
was proposed by the chairman, who 
eulogised the energy, ability, and 
integrity which had enabled him to 
work his way up to a seat in the 
directorate. Mr. Peacock likewise 
spoke in the warmest terms of Mr. 
Templeman, who responded in grate- 



ful language to the high compliments 
which had been paid him, and ex- 
pressed the regret he felt in leaving 
a city in which he had formed so 
many valued friendships. Two hand- 
some illuminated addresses were 
presented to him in the course of the 
evening, and on the day previous Mr. 
Templeman was entertained at a 
farewell banquet by his brother 
Masons. 



FREDERICK LOUIS MAILLARD, 
Labour and Estate Agent, of 141 
Russell Street, Melbourne, was born 
in Cheltenham, England, in 1840, 
and came to Victoria in 1852. 
He commenced business on his 
own account as estate and labour 
agent, purchasing the business 
established by his father in 1853. 
Mr. Maillard is a prominent Free- 
mason, having been initiated in the 
South Yarra Lodge in 1873, and 
elected W.M. in 1877. He was 
Grand Pursuivant under the English 
Constitution, and Past Senior Grand 
Warden under the Victorian Constitu- 
tion. He was one of the first to 
promote a resuscitation of the Grand 
Mark Lodge, English Constitution, 




Johnstone, O'Shanneny and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Frederick Louis Maillard. 

and installed Mr. C. R. Martin as 
R.W. Dist. G.M.M., himself having 
been appointed R.W.S.G.W. He is a 
Past Principal and present treasurer 
of the South Yarra Royal Arch 
Chapter, No. 38, and is Right 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



99 



Eminent Past Grand Third Principal 
of the Supreme Grand Chapter of 
Victoria. He is one of the founders 
and Past Commander Noah and 
present treasurer of the Royal Ark 
Mariners Lodge, 47, E.C., and is a 
Sir Knight of the Red Cross of 
Rome and Constantine, as also one 
of the founders of the Lowry 
Conclave ; Past Master of the Doric 
Lodge ; Past Master and treasurer 
of the Victoria Lodge of Mark 
Masons, No. 47 under the English 
Constitution ; one of the founders of 
the Mackersy Royal Arch Chapter at 
Colac, under Scottish Constitution, 
and has taken the degree of Excellent 
Master. Mr. Maillard was actively 
associated with the volunteer force, 
of which he had been a member for 
twenty-five years, retiring with the 
rank of sergeant. He won the gold 
badge for shooting twenty years con- 
secutively, and also received the long 
service and Imperial medals. He 
has always taken a great interest in 
all athletic sports, and is now a 
prominent member of the Melbourne 
Bowling Club. 

The Rev. JOHN CATON, the Par- 
sonage, Coburg, is chaplain to the 
Grand Lodge of Victorian Free- 
masons. He was born in Preston, 
Lancashire, England, on 19th De- 
cember, 1840, and educated at St. 
Mary's, Preston, and privately. In 
1863 he went to Christchurch, New 
Zealand, but left there for Melbourne 
in the following year. He entered 
Moore College, Liverpool, New South 
Wales, as a student for holy orders 
in 1870, and was ordained deacon by 
the first Bishop of Melbourne (Dr. 
Perry) in 1871, and priest in 1872. 
His first appointment was as curate 
of Sebastopol, and chaplain of the 
Ballarat Hospital from 1871 to 1873. 
He was at Koroit from 1873 to 
1874, and was then appointed to the 
incumbency of St. Philip's, Col ling- 
wood. He was also chaplain of 
H.M. Gaol, Melbourne, from 1874 to 
1884. From 1884 'to 1886 he was 
officiating minister of the parochial 
district of Essendon, and was the 
first incumbent of St. Thomas', Es- 
sendon, from 1886 to 1888. He has 
held his present living from 1888. 
He was initiated in the Sebastopol 
Lodge of Freemasons, Ballarat, in 
1872. and was affiliated to the 



Ancient York Lodge, Melbourne, of 
which he became Worshipful Master 
in 1897. He was appointed Grand 
Chaplain in 1900. He has two sons 




Alan Spicer 



Bendigo 



Rev. John Caton. 
and three daughters, all grown up. 
His eldest son served with the 
second Victorian contingent in South 
Africa, under Colonel Tom Price. 




Johnstone* (rshannesty and Co. Melb. 

Mr. William R. Lethbridgk. 

WILLIAM R. LETHBRIDGE, 129 
Mcllwraith Street, North Carlton, is 
a prominent Freemason. He was 
t>orn in New South Wales in 1864, 



and educated at {he Grammar 
School, West Maitland, afterwards 
passing through a course at the 
Sydney University. He came to 
Melbourne in 1885, and commenced 
business as an importer, in which he 
continued for some time. In 1900 
he was appointed inspector for the 
City of Melbourne Council. He was 
initiated in the Victorian Lodge, No. 
1, Victorian Constitution, this being 
an offshoot of the Lodge of Judah. 
He was Master of the Judah Lodge 
for two consecutive years (1894- 
1895-1896), the first incident of the 
kind in the annals of the lodge. He 
was appointed a Grand Lodge officer 
in 1892, and has been elected on the 
Board of Benevolence for four or five 
years, being now president of the 
same. 



ARTHUR BUXTON 

STURTEVANT was born on 4th 
August, 1863, at Islington, London, 
England, and came to Victoria with 
his parents in 1868. He was edu- 
cated at the public school, Carlton, 
and at the Model School, Melbourne. 
At the age of fourteen he went into 
business with his father, who was an 
electroplater, to learn the trade, and 
remained with him for six years. 
At the age of twenty, with a little 
assistance from friends, Mr. Sturte- 
vant entered into business on his 
own account, attending, during his 
leisure time, drawing classes at the 
old Trades' Hall, Melbourne, and at 
the Working Men's College. He also 
took up the study of photography 
with great success, winning many 
prizes in photo - microscopic work*. 
He also attended a private chemical 
class, and the assaying class at the 
Working Men's College, where he was 
lanternist for many years, which 
position he resigned a few years ago. 
After carrying on business success- 
fully for three years, a partner was 
admitted in 1879, and the success 
continued until the land boom, which 
crippled business generally. The firm 
managed to struggle through, and in 
1889 Mr. Sturtevant's partner sold 
out. A new partner was then 
admitted, and the business was 
removed to the present premises, 
Block? Place, Little Collins Street. 
This partnership was dissolved in 
March, 1900, Mr. Henry Franklin 



583008 A 



100 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA 



taking over that portion of the busi- 
ness, which has since steadily in- 
creased. During the last three 
years the firm have put in additional 
new plant, and erected several elec- 
troplating plants in Melbourne, the 
working of which Mr. Sturtevant 




Johnstone, U' Shanneasy and Co. Melb. 

Mb. Arthur Buxton Sturtevant. 

still superintends. He also gives 
practical instruction to students in 
electro-metallurgy, and is at present 
studying several new electro-metal- 
lurgical processes in mining. Mr. 
Sturtevant has never taken an active 
part in public affairs, although he 
has been requisitioned to do so on 
several occasions by the citizens of 
Melbourne, of which city he has been 
a resident ever since his arrival in 
the colony. He takes a great in- 
terest in Masonic affairs, of which 
fraternity he is a prominent member, 
having been initiated in the Kil- 
winning Lodge on 8th December, 
1891, and has held the following ap- 
pointments in the lodge, viz.:— 1893, 
Steward ; 1894, I.G.; 1895, Deacon ; 
1896, J.W.; 1896-97, S.W. In all 
of these offices the various P.M.'s 
have spoken in the highest praise of 
the manner in which Wor. Bro. Stur- 
tevant performed his duties, he hav- 
ing been regular in attendance, and 
always competent to undertake both 
his own duties and those attaching 
to a higher position when required 
so to do. He was unanimously 
elected W.M. o! this lodge in 
October, 1897, and now holds the 



proud position of W.M. in his mother 
lodge. He is also a prominent 
Mark Mason, being a Past District 
Grand Lodge officer. He was ad- 
vanced to the Kilwinning Mark, No. 
310, E.C., in August, 1893, and ap- 
pointed the same year as J.D.; in 
1894, J.O.; 1895, M.O.; 1896, J.W. 
He would have been W.M. of that 
lodge in 1899, but decided to stand 
back so that he could devote the 
year to Craft Masonry. He was, 
however, prevailed upon to accept 
the office of S.W. for another twelve 
months. Mr. Sturtevant is a mem- 
ber of Royal Ark Mariners, No. 47, 
E.C., and a Companion of the Royal 
Arch of Jerusalem, having been 
exalted into that sublime degree on 
23rd April, 1896. In 1897 he was 
appointed one of the committee to 
form a Grand Lodge, which was 
carried through successfully, Mr. 
Sturtevant being one of the first 
Grand Lodge officers. In 1899 he 
was R.W.M. of the Kilwinning Mark 
Mason Lodge, and was elected Pre- 
sident of the Board of Benevolence, 
U.G.L.M.M. Masons of Victoria, 
which position he still holds. Mr. 
Sturtevant married in 1885, and has 
a family of two children. 



THOMAS McMAHEN was born in 
Melbourne in 1859, and is the fifth 
son of the late William McMahen, 
merchant, late of Swanston Street, 
Melbourne, who, at the time of his 
death in 1892, was one of the oldest 
colonists, having arrived in Mel- 
bourne in 1838, where his first posi- 
tion was under Captain Thomas, 
Protector of Aboriginals. Thomas 
McMahen, when but a child, moved 
with his parents to the country to a 
place called Keysborough, situated 
near Dandenong, and named after the 
Keys family, of whom he is a rela- 
tive. There, with his father, he 
carried on grazing, farming, and 
dairying. In 1890 he settled down 
for himself at "Amysville," Brighton 
Road, Keysborough, and married 
Miss Raven, only daughter of the 
late W. G. Raven, J. P., of 227 
Smith Street, Pitzroy, and Ophelia 
House, Rathdown Street, Carlton ; 
he being one of the oldest, most re- 
spected, and most successful under- 
takers in the colony. On the death 
of Mr. Raven in 1892, he (Thomas 



McMahen) took up the business of 
his father-in-law, and carries it on in 
the same able manner as did Mr. 
Raven, having conducted some of the 
most important funerals in Mel- 
bourne. His head office and carriage 
repository is at 227 Smith Street, 
Fitzroy, with branches at 177 
Queen's Parade, Clifton Hill, and 383 
Burwood Road, Hawthorn. His 
private residence is Ophelia House, 
Rathdown Street, Carlton. He is 
connected by telephone with his pri- 
vate residence, shop, and branches, 
and has added the art of embalming 
to his other professional occupa- 
tions. Having been one of the 
earliest to adopt it, he can claim to 
be the first advertised and legally 
qualified embalmer in the Australian 
colonies, as he received his diploma 
from the Australian School of Em- 
balming, under the tuition of Pro- 
fessor G. H. Rivers, lecturer and 
demonstrator, of the United States, 
America. This is one of the best 
methods introduced into the colony, 
as by it a body can be temporarily 
embalmed for twelve or fourteen 
days without decomposition. Mr. 
Thomas McMahen is a prominent and 
enthusiastic Freemason, having been 




Johnstone, 0'Shannes$if and Co, Melb. 

Mr. Thomas McMahen. 

initiated into the craft in the Aus- 
tralasian Kilwinning Lodge, No. 2, 
V.C., in July, 1895, at the Masonic 
Hall, Melbourne, and in October, 
1900, was unanimously elected Wor- 
shipful Master by the brethren of his 



y 



The cyclopedia op victoHiA. 



161 



lodge. In the following November 
he was duly installed into the chair 
of King Solomon, in the presence of 
the Most Worshipful Grand Master 
(the Hon. A. J. Peacock) and his 
Grand Lodge officers, and 200 mem- 
bers and visitors. The music ren- 
dered by the choir and string band 
of twenty performers at his instal- 
lation was considered one of the 
best performances ever heard in the 
Masonic Hall, and he has fulfilled a 
most successful year of office. He 
is also Senior Warden, Australasian 
Kilwinning Lodge of Mark Master 
Masons of Victoria, and has thus 
enjoyed the distinction of being 
Master of both the Craft and Mark 
Lodge at the same time. He holds 
office in the Kilwinning Ark 
Mariners, and is Past Grand Di- 
rector of Ceremonies in the District 
Grand Mark Lodge of Mark Master 
Masons of England and Wales, and 
Past Master of other institutions. 
Mr. McMahen is also a member of 
the A.N. A., Protestant Alliance 
Friendly Society, and holds the office 
of Court Deputy in the Fitzroy City 
Court in the Independent Order of 
Foresters Insurance Society, which 
is the highest position the court can 
bestow. In political and municipal 
matters he takes a great interest, 
and on several occasions has been 
asked to contest the seat for the 
Smith Ward in the City of Fitzroy. 



WILLIAM HENRY BREWER, 
Asbestos Manufacturer, of the Silex 
Works, Queen's Bridge, South Mel- 
bourne, is a marine engineer of the 
Clyde, Scotland, who came to the 
colonies in 1880, and was employed 
by several large steamship firms for 
about twelve years, gaining experi- 
ence chiefly in the Australian and 
Fijian waters. Owing to ill-health, 
he abandoned the sea in 1893, and 
commenced business at the Viaduct 
Buildings, Melbourne, manufacturing 
the now well-known "Silex" boiler 
covering composition, of which he is 
the original inventor. This com- 
position soon proved its advantages 
as well as its superiority over 
others ; and the ever - increasing 
demand caused Mr. Brewer to seek 
for larger accommodation, so he 
moved to his present premises. He 
has also placed on the market an 



improved covering for refrigerating 
pipes, which is proving highly satis- 
factory in preventing the slightest 
loss of temperature. Amongst the 
numerous users of "Silex* ' composi- 
tion may be mentioned the Foster 
Brewing Company Limited, the 
Austral Otis Engineering Company 
Limited, the Victorian Postal De- 
partment, the City Council Freezing 
Works, the City Electric Lighting 




Johnstone, O'Shannesay and Co. Mtlb 

Mr. William Henry Brewer. 

Station, and the Metropolitan Board 
of Works. Other specialties of Mr. 
Brewer are a liquid boiler cleansing 
composition, for preventing the 
formation of corrosive substances in 
boilers, asbestos liquid paints, and a 
special asbestos paint for funnels. 
Mr. Brewer recently invented a liquid 
composition for the eradication of 
noxious weeds, which, while proving 
very effective, does not in any way 
injure the quality of the soil. 
He has also lately added enamel, 
sanitary, anti-corrosive, and anti- 
fouling paints. The special quality 
of these articles is ensuring their 
success, and they are ousting im- 
ported brands that have been favour- 
ably known for half a century. Mr. 
Brewer is a member of the Chamber 
of Manufactures and also of the Cham- 
ber of Mines. He is also a pro- 
minent member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, having been initiated in the 
United Service Lodge, New Zealand, 
No. 421, under the Irish Constitu- 
tion, in 1883, and was affiliated to 
the Victoria Felix Lodge in 1887. 



He took office in 1896, and was 
elected to the Master's chair in 
1900. He also belongs to the Royal 
Arch Metropolitan Chapter. 



SAMUEL WALTON, Brassfounder, 
175 Queen Street, Melbourne, was 
born in Richmond in 1853. He was 
educated at St. Stephen's Church 
of England School, and afterwards 
by private tuition. He was ap- 
prenticed to Mr. G. Davison, a 
brassfounder and manufacturer, with 
whom he remained twenty years, 
during the last ten of which he was 
factory manager. In 1888 he joined 
the firm of Lee, Walton, and Scott, 
manufacturers and general brass- 
founders, who have during the last 
twelve years completed many im- 
portant works, both for the Govern- 
ment and private individuals. Mr. 
Walton was initiated in the South 
Yarra Lodge of Freemasons in 1888, 




Johnstone, O'Sfiannessy and Co. Alelb 

Mr. Samuel Walton. 

under the English Constitution. He 
accepted office in 1890, and, after 
filling the preliminary degrees, was 
elected Master in 1895. He was 
elected secretary in 1899, a position 
which he still holds. He was ad- 
vanced in the Victorian Mark degree 
in 1895, and subsequently installed 
in the chair. He is also a Past 
Grand Senior Overseer. In 1893 he 
was exalted in the South Yarra R.A. 
Chapter. 



102 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity. 



The origin of Oddfellowship, according to those who 
have made a special study of the subject, is shrouded in 
the mists of antiquity. In one of the two Gemaras, or 
commentaries upon the Mischna, which forms part of the 
voluminous mass of writings known as the Talmud, some 
reference is made, it is said, to an order which had been 
established by the Israelites who were sent into captivity 
to Babylon, for the purpose of keeping alive their 
cherished belief in the one true God, of worshipping Him 
in secret, of strengthening the sentiment of brotherhood 
among them, and of labouring for their restoration to 
their beloved Jerusalem. Only men of proved probity, 
prudence, fidelity, and zeal were admitted to this order ; 
its members recognised each other, by signs and pass- 
words known only to the initiated, and they had various 
degrees among them. 

Later on, when Jerusalem fell under the yoke of all- 
conquering Rome, the Jewish prisoners retained their old 
organisations, and when, in the year 79, they were formed 
into a military legion, the loyal services they rendered to 
the Emperor Titus were so much appreciated by him that 
he is reported to have granted them a special dispensa- 
tion as Roman citizens and Oddfellows. 

According to Dr. Price, the Roman general Agricola 
introduced Oddfellowship into Britain towards the close 
of the first century of the Christian era, and a lodge was 
established at Mona, in the island of Anglesea, in the 
year 100. During the successive invasions of the mother 
country by Saxons, Danes, and Normans, Oddfellowship 
seems to have passed under a permanent cloud, and it is 
conjectured that the various guilds which played so 
important a part as social and commercial combinations 
during the middle ages were revivals both of the spirit 
and of the forms of Oddfellowship, but modified to suit 
the changed conditions of the times and the new phases 
of development, both political and economic, which the 
community was undergoing. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century, Daniel 
Defoe, who allowed nothing to escape his observant eye, 
alludes to the Society of Oddfellows as then existent ; 
and in the "Gentleman's Magazine" for 1745 mention is 
made of an Oddfellows' Lodge as "a place where very 
comfortable and recreative evenings might be spent." 
We learn from the same source that the brethren were 
banded together "to uphold the dignity of the Sovereign 
of the realm, and to assist one another in times of mis- 
fortune, and to entertain and instruct one another." 
Essays were read at their meetings, and the form of 
initiation which each new member underwent is described 
in full detail. The officers and brethren wore masks, and 
some of the ceremonies observed seem to have been 
borrowed from the Eleusinian mysteries, and are said to 
resemble those still in use among the Druses of Lebanon. 
During the last decade of the eighteenth century the 
British Government, alarmed by the progress of events 
in France, discountenanced secret societies of all kinds, 
fearing lest they should become hot-beds of sedition and 
revolutionary principles. Such apprehensions were 



entirely groundless as regarded the Oddfellows, but the 
system of espionage and distrust to which they were 
exposed had the effect of disorganising the order, and in 
this condition it remained for several years. To Man- 
chester, which has rendered such noble services to the 
cause of political reform in Great Britain, and which did 
so much in the way of striking the fetters off commerce, 
belongs the distinction of reviving Oddfellowship, and 
of founding the present powerful Unity. Mr. Robert 
Naylor, who became Grand Master of the order in 1832, 
was probably the parent of the Manchester Unity. This 
was about the year 1810, and from that time onwards 
the order spread apace. Eight years after this date an 
Oddfellow named Thomas Wildey emigrated to America, 
settled in Baltimore, and succeeded, by advertisement, in 
discovering five other English Oddfellows. They met 
together, and, having obtained a dispensation for the 
purpose from the officers of the order in England, they 
established a lodge in the United States. Others fol- 
lowed, and, at the present moment, Oddfellowship is a 
potent force in the American Union. A fraternal feeling 
binds together the brethren upon both sides of the 
Atlantic, and each uses the same signs and passwords as 
the other. In half a century or so Oddfellowship had 
grown so mightily in the United States that it contained 
no less than 42 Grand State Lodges, 3,220 subordinate 
Lodges, 40 Grand and 557 subordinate Encampments, 
with a membership aggregating 137,236 brethren ; an 
income of nearly £170,000, and a surplus of receipts over 
expenditure of £100,000, after disbursing £48,000 in 
relieving the sick and necessitous, £11,000 in funeral 
expenses, upwards of £10,000 in alleviating distress of 
widows, and £1,700 in the education of friendless orphans ; 
while the Oddfellows' Halls in all the large cities are 
usually considered to be some of their finest architectural 
adornments. 

Returning to the progress of the order in England, 
it is to be observed that in 1821 Manchester was fixed 
upon as its centre or seat of government, and that in the 
year following the first Grand Movable Committee held 
its meeting there ; and in 1823 the same body, assembling 
at Henley, drew up a code of laws, and settled the general 
constitution of the order. Thenceforward these meetings 
were of annual occurrence, and by the year 1837 the Unity 
could point to the gratifying fact that it consisted of 
1,100 lodges, embracing 70,000 members, divided into 131 
districts. In the same year an elaborate emblem was 
adopted for the Unity, which may be thus described :— 
The central shield is divided by a cross, implying the 
Christian character of the institution. At the centre of 
it are combined the rose of England, the shamrock of 
Ireland, and the thistle of Scotland. In the quarterings 
are an hour glass, keys, a beehive, and a lamb, symbolis- 
ing time, security, industry, and innocence. The crest is 
a hand and heart ; above it is a globe encircled by a 
wreath of laurel, as an emblem of world-wide friendship. 
Below the shield are a dove with an olive branch and a 
cornucopia, signifying peace and plenty. Figures of 



The cyclopedia op victoria. 



103 



Britannia presenting a dispensation to a Red Indian ; of 
Faith, Hope, and Charity ; and the arms of England and 
Manchester, are important features of the design ; while 
the All-seeing Eye of Omnipotence looks down upon the 
whole. The appropriately-chosen motto is "Amicitia, 
Amor et Veritas," which form the cardinal principles of 
the society. 

In the year 1840 the first dispensation was granted 
to open a lodge in Australia, under the title of the 
Strangers' Refuge, in Sydney ; and on the 1st of October 
in the same year the Australia Felix Lodge was organised 
in Melbourne, at the Adelphi Hotel, in Little Flinders 
Street. Its founders and first officers were Messrs. A. 



Another lodge was constituted in 1845, when Port 
Phillip was likewise erected into a district by dispensa- 
tion from Manchester ; and a Court of Appeal was estab- 
lished, which was presided over by Mr. Greeves. In 1846 
the Oddfellows belonging to the Manchester Unity 
marched in procession to attend Divine service at the 
cathedral church of St. James, and thenceforth this was 
intended to become an annual practice, but was hindered 
by an Act passed by the New South Wales Legislature 
for the prevention of party processions, although this 
measure was really intended to apply to such demonstra- 
tions as were calculated to arouse religious prejudices 
and national animosities. But, on the occasion of any 




Cooper and Co. 



Melbourne, frem the Equitable Building, looking East. 



Melb. 



F. A. Greeves, afterwards a member of the Assembly and 
Minister of the Crown ; W. Hayes, W. J. Sugden, T. 
Strode, Cooper, Sheppard, J. Massagore, and P. G. 
Hill. A dispensation from the Grand Lodge in Sydney 
having been received, the Australia Felix Lodge was 
formally opened on the 7th of December, 1840, at the 
Steam Packet Hotel, in Flinders Street. This house 
seems to have been kept at the time by Mr. Greeves, who 
was a duly qualified medical practitioner, but probably 
found hotel-keeping more lucrative in those early days 
than prescribing for the few invalids who required treat- 
ment in a generally healthy town, where the conditions 
were all favourable to salubrity and longevity. 



important public ceremonial, the Oddfellows in full regalia 
were in the habit of marching as a body, and of lending, 
by their presence, an additional element of picturesque- 
ness to the general display. 

It may be mentioned, in illustration of the healthiness 
of early Melbourne, and as a proof of the low rate of 
mortality among the Oddfellows resident in it, that at the 
end of the year 1847, when there were upwards of 600 
members on the books of the order, not a single death 
had occurred among them during the septennial period 
preceding that date ; the first Oddfellow's funejal having 
taken place on the 20th of February, 1848, when a hundred 
of his brethren followed his remains to the grave. 



104 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



As might naturally be expected, the rapid increase in 
the population of Victoria which followed the gold dis- 
coveries of 1851 was accompanied and followed by a great 
expansion of Oddfellowship, with the result that there are 
now eighteen districts in the State, and that the various 
lodges, numbering twenty-one, have no less than 22,232 
members who are "good" on the books, with the sum of 
£406,357 0s. 2d. standing to their credit at the end of 
1900, as against £395,474 18s. 5d., which was the balance 
in hand at the commencement of that year. During the 
same period 2,071 persons were admitted to the order by 
initiation. 

The invested capital of the Manchester Unity in Vic- 
toria yields an income of £16,369 8s. 7d., to which must 
be added £38,871 19s. 5d. received as the contributions 
of members to the sick and funeral fund, and a further 
sum of £9,413 8s. 7d. in the shape of funeral benefits and 
sick pay returned by districts and lodges, thus making a 
total income from these sources for the year 1900 of 
£64,654 16s. 7d., while the management fund, derivable 
from proposition, initiation, and clearance fees, 
contributions, and other sources, amounts to £44,914 5s. 
7d., bringing up the gross total receipts to £109,569 
2s. 2d. 

Of the magnitude of the practical good accomplished 
by the Unity, some idea may be formed from the follow- 



ing summary of its expenditure for twenty-one years, that 
is to say, from 1880 to 1900, both inclusive :— 



Sick pay ... 

Funeral benefits ... 

District losses and amount advanced for 

sick pay and funeral benefits... 
Medical Expenses ... 
General Expenses ... 
Other Expenses 



£538,664 6 6 

131,159 5 9 

149,940 8 5 

416,736 11 8 

256,101 9 10 

68,525 4 10 

£1,561.147 6 7 



This, it must be acknowledged, is a magnificent total, 
and the moral and material effect of the expenditure of 
upwards of a million and a half sterling, in the channels 
indicated above, can scarcely be estimated, for it is a 
work of benevolence performed by unobtrusive methods, 
and entirely relieved from the stigma which too often 
attaches to the receipt of what is known as * 'charity.' 1 
There is no loss of self-respect on the part of the 
recipients. When they are drawing sick pay or funeral 
expenses they enjoy the satisfaction of reflecting that 
the funds have been provided by their own thrift and 
are administered by their own officers. Therefore no 
obligation is incurred on either side, and the principles 
upon which the order is founded are identical with those 
which constitute the permanent bases of society, and lie 
at the root of all true religion, namely, the brotherhood of 
mankind, and the duty of mutual succour and support. 



The Caledonian Society. 



That Sir Walter Scott discovered Scotland, in so far 
as the great bulk of the English people were concerned, 
will be readily conceded by most Southrons. But the 
"Ariosto of the North' 7 did more than this. Coming so 
soon after Burns— to whom, it will be remembered, he 
was introduced when a young lad— he deepened and in- 
tensified that national feeling which has always been so 
powerful north of the Tweed. For while tihere is no 
race more prone to expatriate itself, there is, at the 
same time, none of which each of its members can 
exclaim with greater truth, in the words of De Bellory, 
"Plus je vois l'etranger, plus j'aime ma patrie." The 
Scotsman settles down readily enough in any foreign 
country, but everywhere he can declare with Goldsmith, 
as the image of "the land of brown heath and shaggy 
wood" rises up in his* mind, 

" Where'er I roam, whatever realms I see, 
My heart, untravell'd, fondly turns to thee." 

This has certainly been the case with the compatriots 
of Burns and Scott in Victoria, and therefore there was 
nothing surprising in the fact that the men of that 
nationality should have been the first to bind themselves 
together in Melbourne as an association under the tute- 
lary care of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. 
They did so five years after the settlement of Port 
Phillip, and they held their first festival on the 30th of 
November, 1840, that being the day appropriated in the 
Roman calendar to the famous martyr. The osten- 
sible object of the gathering was to offer a convivial 
welcome to the Glengarry, the head of the clan of the 



Macdonalds in Scotland, who had just come out to Port 
Phillip with the intention of settling in the wilds of 
Gippsland ; a daring adventure in those days, when that 
part of the settlement had been only very partially 
explored. A banquet was given to that gentleman at the 
Caledonian Hotel, in Lonsdale Street, presided over by 
Mr. A. M. McCrae ; and before the proceedings had 
been brought to a close the place was invaded, 
we are told, by a small party of boisterous Scots, 
who had been carousing together at the Adelphi 
Hotel, in Little Flinders Street. Their intrusion 

was resented by the others, and as both groups, like 
Tarn o' Shanter, had "drunk divinely," a battle royal 
ensued, terminating in the forcible ejection of the bibulous 
invaders. 

On the day following the next anniversary festival at 
the same house, the St. Andrew's Society of Australia 
Felix was formally instituted, with the Hon. J. E. 
Murray as its president, Mr. Claude Farie, who was sub- 
sequently High Sheriff, as its vice-president, and Mr. A. 
M. McCrae as its secretary and convener. It held its 
first meeting on the anniversary of the Battle of Ban- 
nuckburn, on the 24th of June, 1842, and the memories 
of Robert Bruce, William Wallace, and Sir Walter Scott 
were suitably honored, according to the convivial custom 
of the period. The festival of St. Andrew in the fol- 
lowing November was similarly celebrated, but either the 
whisky was so strong, or the sixteen guests who were 
present were so drouthy, that when the party sallied 
forth into the night air, at the close of the entertain- 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



105 



ment, they behaved so riotously that the local Dogberries 
found it necessary to place them in the lock-up for the 
better protection of the public peace and security. In 
the year following, the thirty-eight "brither Scots" who 
dined together on St. Andrew's Day at the Royal Mail 
Hotel, in Collins Street, " taught themselves that honor- 
able step not to outsport discretion," and this was like- 
wise the case in 1844, when the anniversary dinner took 
place in the Mechanics' Institute, and the Mayor and three 
ministers of religion— Episcopalian, Roman Catholic, and 
Presbyterian— were present. The room was decorated 
with flags and flowers, and for the first time the pro- 
ceedings were enlivened by a band of music, with Mr. 
William Clarke, who was noted in later years as one of 
the leading gold buyers in Melbourne, presiding at the 
pianoforte. 

On the 2nd of December, 1845, the St. Andrew's 
Society dined together at the Prince of Wales Hotel, 
which stood at the back of what is now St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and received many distinguished guests 
beneath its roof. The company included several 

prominent visitors who afterwards achieved eminent 
positions, as, for example, an embryo Bishop, Chief 
Justice, and President of the Legislative Council ; and 
the speech of Mr. A. Cunninghame, the president of the 
society, in proposing the toast of the evening, "The 
Land o' Cakes," is described as having been "one of the 
best convivial orations ever delivered in Port Phillip." 
Of those who were present at that large gathering one 
only survives— Mr. G. S. Coppin. 

About seventy Scots assembled at the same place on 
St. Andrew's Day, 1847, but there appears to have been 
no annual dinner in the succeeding year. It was 
revived, however, in 1849, on which occasion the chief 
guest of the evening was Mr. William Westgarth, who had 
just returned from Europe, whither his public spirit had 
impelled him to proceed for the purpose of inducing a 
stream of German emigration in the direction of Port 
Phillip. And a slight digression may be excused at this 
point for the purpose of relating what he did to promote 
so praiseworthy an object. He had been much struck 
by the excellent qualities of the many Germans who had 
settled in South Australia ; by their patient industry, 
thrift, frugality, sobriety, and pertinacity of purpose ; 
and he perceived how valuable such an element would be 
in the population of Port Phillip. Accordingly, having 
obtained the promise in London of a grant of £18 per 
head from the Colonial Land Fund, he proceeded to 
Germany, where he had little difficulty in prevailing upon 
a number of vine-dressers and others to accept a free 
passage to Australia. At the same time he arranged for 
their transit with a leading firm of ship-owners in 
Hamburg. On their arrival in Melbourne, Mr. 

Westgarth, who had preceded them, took up 640 acres of 
land about twelve miles from Melbourne at a pound an 
acre, and divided it among them in lots, and "there they 
are to this day, a thriving community," he observes, 
when writing his "Personal Recollections of Early Mel- 
bourne and Victoria," in the year 1888. And there they 
were visited in 1850 by the young Prince of Schleswig- 
Holstein, who came out to this part of the world under 
the assumed name of Lieutenant Groenwold. 



Naturally the Scotsmen settled in Victoria combined 
to celebrate the anniversary of the day upon which 
Robert Burns, whom they regard as pre-eminently the 
poet of their native land, first saw the light in the clay- 
built cottage on the banks of the Doon. The first of 
these festivals was held in the Caledonian Hotel, in 
Lonsdale Street, on the 24th of January, 1845, when 150 
persons assembled to do honor to the memory of the 
national bard, to eat cock-a-leekie and haggis, to listen 
to the sounds of the bagpipes, and to applaud the after- 
dinner oratory of Mr. W. Kerr and Mr. J. S. Johnston, 
the chairman and vice-chairman on that occasion. In 
the year following the dinner was held in the Queen's 
Theatre, and drew together 350 persons, including a large 
contingent of Englishmen and Irishmen attracted thither 
by a desire to hear the Rev. Dr. Lang, of Sydney, 
expatiate on the much-desired separation of Port Phillip 
from New South Wales. In 1847 the festival was cele- 
brated in the same place, and in the course of the evening 
some Scottish absentees, who had been carousing else- 
where, endeavoured to force their way into the theatre, 
and, meeting with opposition, began to use still more 
violent methods of procuring admission, but were 
repulsed, and their ringleader was handed over to the 
police, and fined by the resident magistrate next day. 
The proceedings in 1848 were conducted in a spacious 
pavilion erected on a vacant allotment in Collins Street 
East ; were presided over by the Mayor (Mr. A. Russell), 
and were participated in by 250 persons representative 
of the three Kingdoms. Next year the zealous admirers 
of Burns met in the Protestant Hall, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. Thomas McCombie, who became in later 
years the first historian of Victoria, but whose oratory 
seems to have exercised a depressing effect upon his 
festive-minded convives. 

After this date other societies were formed from time 
to time, either for the purposes of social enjoyment and 
friendly intercourse, or for the encouragement of High- 
land sports and pastimes in this new country. Finally, 
in the year 1884, the Caledonian Society of Melbourne 
was reorganised under the direction of the late Sir 
James MacBain.and Mr. James Munro, by whose instru- 
mentality a fusion of interests and a closer unity of 
sentiment was brought about among those who hail from 
Scotland, for wheresoever the enterprising spirit of the 
adventurous Scot carries him he still exclaims, like the 
aged minstrel in the noble poem of Sir Walter— 

" Land of my sires ! What mortal hand 
Can e'er untie the filial band 
That knits me to thy rugged strand ? " 

The objects contemplated by the founders of the 
Caledonian Society were these :— 

"To foster a taste for the literature, music, and 
sports of Scotland ; to promote brotherhood and good 
fellowship among its members ; to afford advice to 
Scottish immigrants ; and to devote a portion of its 
funds to such patriotic charities or benevolent objects as 
may be agreed upon. ,, 

Lectures, concerts, meetings for the holding of com- 
petitive sports, and social gatherings of various kinds, 
constitute the methods by which the foregoing objects are 
mainly attained, while the charity department of the 



11)6 



tHE CYCLOt^EblA OF VICTORIA. 



society is administered in the interests of deserving 
Scots who may have fallen, from no fault of their own, 
under the frowns of fickle Fortune. 

The entertainments for the year usually embrace the 
following items, in the chronological order in which they 
are enumerated. They commence in August with the 
president's reception, succeeded after a short interval by 
the annual meeting. A "social" is held in the month 
of September, and a Scottish concert in October. 
Hallowe'en is duly celebrated as near as may be to the 
31st of October, but the "spirits" that walk abroad on 
that memorable anniversary in Victoria are only those 
which bear the best brands, are easily invoked, and are 



At the present time (June, 1901) the society numbers 
647 ordinary and twenty-three life members, making a 
total of 670. Nor is the interest felt in its proceedings, 
its well-being, and its progress confined to those— an 
annually diminishing number, it is to be regretfully 
remarked—who first drew breath north of the Tweed ; for 
it is shared in by their sons and grandsons, and may be 
expected to be so by their descendants for many genera- 
tions yet to come ; for the hallowing associations which 
gather around the land of Bruce and Wallace, of Scott 
and Burns, of Mary Stuart and Rhoderick Dhu, of John 
Knox and George Buchanan, can never altogether lose 
their force in the minds of men and women bearing 




Cooper and Co. 



View in the Botanical Gardens, Melbourne, showing Government House. 



Melb. 



not of the awesome kind which chased Tam o' Shanter 
across the brig of Ayr. The first quarterly meeting of 
the society takes place early in November, and on the 
30th of that month the memory of St. Andrew, the 
patron saint of Scotland, whose remains, it is said, were 
removed from the city of Patras, in which he was 
martyred, to Byzantium, and thence to the University 
and cathedral city on the coast of Fife which now 
bears his name, is honored by a dinner which always 
calls forth a warm outburst of patriotic feeling on the 
part of every man whose heart warms to the tartan. 
The second quarterly meeting is held in February, 
and the third in May. An annual picnic takes place in 
March. 



Scottish names. It is difficult to imagine the arrival of 
a time in which the works of "the Ariosto of the North," 
the poems of the inspired ploughman, and the ballads and 
ballad music of North Britain will cease to charm. But 
even if such a calamity were to arrive, the majesty and 
beauty of the landscape scenery of Scotland are imperish- 
able ; and there is no mountain, tarn, or moor, no 
smiling lake or gloomy gorge, no winding valley, misty 
headland, or foaming spate that has escaped the camera 
of the photographer, whose reproductions bring with them 
into the mansion of the Australian squatter, and into the 
hut of the shepherd, the breath of the heather, the roar 
of the cataract, and the gleam of the snow on the summit 
of Ben Lomond. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



10? 



St. Patrick's Society. 



The Irish element in the population of Victoria has 
always been an important one, numerically, intellectually, 
and influentially. Historical events in the "green island/' 
to which we need not more specifically allude, were the 
impelling causes of a great outflow of the population, at 
a time when such an accession from without was most 
acceptable to the United States and to the Australian 
colonies. The former received the more voluminous, and 
the latter the more contracted stream of emigrants. 
This disparity was, of course, attributable to the greater 
distance of Australia from the mother country, to the 
consequently enhanced cost of the voyage to the unassisted 
emigrant, and to the preference which the assisted emi- 
grant would naturally exhibit for the shorter over the 
longer transit. But these circumstances, adverse as they 
were to a considerable influx of immigrants to this part 
of the world, exercised a decidedly beneficial effect upon 
the quality of the newcomers. It was the more ener- 
getic, self-reliant, and mentally well-equipped of the 
uneasy classes in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, 
as a general rule, who faced the difficulties and expense 
of a long voyage to colonies of which so little was then 
known in the United Kingdom ; and the rapid progress 
made by Australia during the lifetime of the first genera- 
tion of its settlers is largely due, we believe, to the fact 
that the pioneers of its industries and the founders of 
its political institutions and of its social policy were 
men above the average as regards all those qualities 
which go to the making of a nation. 

And they brought with them their racial feelings, and 
something perhaps of the provincialism which used to be 
so rife in Great Britain and Ireland before it was broken 
down by the enlarged ideas which railways, cheap postage, 
and foreign travel were instrumental in disseminating. 
Consequently the earlier settlers upon the shores of Port 
Phillip formed themselves into national societies, called 
after St. George, St. Patrick, St. Andrew, and St. 
David, and they assembled on the day consecrated to 
their patron saint, and celebrated it with more or less 
conviviality, and generally by a public procession. St. 
Patrick's Society was one of the earliest of these institu- 
tions, as it dated back to the year 1842. Inaugurated 
on the 28th of June, it received any person of Irish birth 
or Irish descent, without regard to political creed or 
religious denomination ; and its governing body, com- 
posed of nineteen members, originally included nine 
Episcopalians, five Roman Catholics, and the same 
number of Presbyterians. Its first president was Dr. 
John Patterson, R.N., and its first vice-president Mr. 
William Locke, the former a physician and the latter 
a merchant ; while its honorary secretary and treasurer, 
Mr. T. H. Osborne, was a retired Presbyterian minister. 
The committee included Mr. J. C. King, the first town 
clerk of Melbourne, and in later years general manager 
of the "Argus ;" and, oddly enough, this gentleman in 
the year following became one of the founders of the 
Orange Society, between which and that of St. Patrick a 
highly antagonistic feeling afterwards sprang up. 



On St. Patrick's Day in 1843 the first Irish procession 
marched through the streets of Melbourne, and high mass 
was celebrated for the first time in Port Phillip at the 
cathedral church of St. Francis. This gave considerable 
umbrage to the Protestant members of the society, form- 
ing, as the religious service did, a portion of the cere- 
monials of the day. Nor was this dissatisfaction lessened 
in the year following, when the celebrant, the Rev. P. B. 
Geoghehan, was elected president, and repeated what a 
good Catholic called "the mistake of the previous year." 
Several members seceded, and the society hovered for a 
time between life and death ; but in 1845 Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) John O'Shanassy accepted the presidency, with Mr. 
Edmund Finn as honorary secretary, and the association 
entered upon a new term of existence, thanks in a very 
great measure to the ability and zeal of these two 
officers. Both were ardently attached to their native 
land and to the religion of their forefathers, but both 
were sufficiently sagacious and broad-minded to agree 
most cordially in. procuring the adoption of a new rule by 
the society which had the effect of placing it outside of 
political or religious differences, and of subjecting any 
member of it who should raise a discussion upon either 
of these subjects to expulsion. 

Reinvigorated, the society next turned its attention 
to the erection of a hall, but the refusal of the Superin- 
tendent to grant a site postponed the execution of this 
project for a time. However, the present site in Bourke 
Street West was purchased at the rate of three guineas 
per foot, and contributions were forthcoming from 
English, Scotch, and French, as well as Irish subscribers. 

But it was not until St. Patrick's Day, 1847, that 
sufficient funds had been obtained to justify the laying of 
the foundation stone, which was done by the president, 
Mr. O'Shanassy, on that anniversary, in the presence of 
a large assemblage, and was followed by a banquet in the 
evening. By the 5th of June, 1849, the building was 
completed, and was opened by a ball, at which 350 
persons attended. 

After filling the office of president for six years, Mr. 
O'Shanassy retired from that position, and was succeeded 
by Mr. Edmund Finn, one of the earliest of the Mel- 
bourne pressmen, who occupied the post worthily for seven 
consecutive years, as well as at a still later period. 

On the separation of Port Phillip from New South 
Wales, and its erection into an independent colony, with 
a Legislative Council of its own, there was no building 
in Melbourne excepting St. Patrick's Hall large enough 
for the conduct of legislative business in, and accord- 
ingly, on the 9th of May, 1851, the Government leased 
the structure for three years at a rental of £300 per 
annum, the value of all city property having more than 
quintupled during the interim. Nor was it until the new 
Parliament Houses on the Eastern Hill were sufficiently 
advanced to admit of the reception of the two Chambers 
which had been called into existence by the Constitution 
Act of 1856, that St. Patrick's Hall reverted to its 
original uses. 



108 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA 



Orange Society. 



In the early years of Melbourne history, racial, 
religious, and political differences occasioned great bitter- 
ness of feeling in the community, leading to the employ- 
ment of rancorous and vituperative language, arousing 
much popular excitement, and occasionally provoking a 
resort to physical violence. Intolerance was rife on all 
sides. Men took a malicious delight in taunting those 
who dissented from them in opinions and beliefs. This 
awakened . resentment and a spirit of retaliation, and 
those who should have worked together in harmonious 
co-operation for the common good were split up into 
cliques and factions which treated their opponents more 
like aliens and foreigners than common countrymen. 

The origin of the Orange Society appears to have been 
this. At the election in 1843 of a person to represent 
Melbourne in the Legislative Council of New South Wales 
there were two candidates— Mr. Henry Condell, who was 
the first Mayor of Melbourne, and Mr. Edwin Curr, who 
had been a settler at Circular Head. He was a Roman 
Catholic, while the former was a Protestant. It was 
made a trial of strength between the two denominations, 
and the Protestants won the day. Exasperated by their 
defeat, some of the Roman Catholics, possessing but 
little self-control, expressed their anger and disappoint- 
ment by assailing the other party with sticks and stones. 
Two Protestants, both of them auctioneers, were attacked 
with especial violence. Sheltering himself in his office, 
one of them, Mr. J. Green, took "the extreme step of 
'firing on his assailants, some of whom, having been 
wounded, recoiled from the attack. This brought 

Captain Dana and a troop of mounted black troopers 
on the scene of action, and he promptly dispersed 
the rioters and restored order. Next day Mr. 
Green was accused in the police court of firing upon 
unarmed citizens, but, as he was considered to 
have done so in self-defence, the case was dismissed. 
In consequence of these events, a number of Pro- 



testants resolved to organise themselves into a society 
for the purpose of mutual protection, and at a meeting 
convened at the Pickwick Hotel, in Swans ton Street, at 
which Alderman Kerr took the chair, it was unanimously 
agreed that a "Loyal Orange Lodge" should be formed 
on the same basis as corresponding institutions in Great 
Britain and, Ireland. It was joined by about forty mem- 
bers, Mr. Adolphus Quinn being the first Master of the 
lodge, Alderman Kerr its treasurer, and Mr. J. C. King, 
the town clerk, its secretary. Not long afterwards, 
however, it seemed to occur to several of the members 
that it was undesirable to introduce to a young commu- 
nity the divisions by which Ireland is or was distracted, 
and that the very name "Orange" might be regarded as 
significant of discord and disorder ; therefore about half 
the lodge . seceded, and the secessionists formed them- 
selves, on the 12th of May, 1843, into the "Grand Pro- 
testant Confederation of Australia," which was enrolled 
as a benefit society, with a constitution almost, if not 
altogether, identical with that of an Orange Lodge. But 
eventually the confederation was reunited to the Loyal 
Orange Lodge, and soon afterwards the Royal Arch 
Purple Order was instituted. 

The next step taken by the Orangemen was to 
provide themselves with a local habitation, and the 
necessary funds were raised for the erection of the 
Protestant Hall in Stephen (now Exhibition) Street, the 
first stone of which was laid on Easter Monday, 1847, by 
Mr. William Kerr in his capacity of Provincial Grand 
Master of the Orangemen of Port Phillip. The edifice 
was completed in due time, and formally opened, and has 
since been the headquarters of the body to which it 
belongs ; the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne 
being yearly celebrated therein with every demonstration 
of loyalty to the principles which placed William of 
Orange upon the throne of Great Britain, and of devotion 
to the Protestant succession to the throne. 




Sporting. 



The Turf in Melbourne. 



The armorial bearings of the State of Victoria might 
be appropriately surmounted by a mounted jockey as 
their crest, so warm is the devotion of the great bulk of 
its population to horse-racing, so completely at home are 
its country people, both male and female, in the saddle, 
or, for the matter of that, upon 'the bare back of any 
kind of horse, and so large is the sum of money which 
annually changes hands in connection with what is popu- 
larly known as "the turf." Hence the establishment of 
a racecourse is regarded as marking a definite stage in 
the development of every colonial community, and it 
becomes a sort of social point of attraction for bringing 
together the people of the surrounding district once a 
year or oftener, much as the wakes and fairs of the 
mother country used to do in the middle ages, and down 
to quite recent times. And just as the little coterie of 
racing men who advertised that in the month of May, 
1703, three pieces of plate would be run for on Epsom 
Downs, of the value of £30, £10, and £5 respectively, 
could never have anticipated that out of this small meet- 
ing would grow the great national festival of "Derby 
Day," so the limited gathering of "the rude forefathers 
of the hamlet" of Melbourne who assembled in Fawkner's 
Hotel one night in January, 1838, to found a Melbourne 
Race Club, and to resolve upon holding an annual meet- 
ing, could not possibly have foreseen that a day would 
come when people would be drawn to Flemington, not 
only from the remotest regions of the Australian 
continent and likewise from New Zealand, but also 
from Europe and America, to witness the com- 
petition for the Melbourne Cup, and when the result 
of the race would be made known to all English-speaking 
peoples on the face of the globe within a few hours after- 
wards. 

Mr. Henry Allen occupied the chair at the meeting 
above referred to, when Messrs. Henry Arthur and 
William Wood were appointed . stewards. Mr. Francis 
Nodin consented to act as treasurer and secretary, and 
Mr. David Morley was named clerk of the course. The 
first races were fixed to take place on the 6th and 7th 
of March, with only two "events" on each day— the Town 
Plate, of the value of twenty-five sovereigns, the distance 
two miles, and the Ladies' Purse, of twenty sovereigns, 
gentlemen riders, one mile and a distance, being the prizes 
offered for competition on the first ; and the Hunter 
Stakes, of fifteen sovereigns, gentlemen riders, one 
mile and a distance, with fwe leaps of 4 feet in 
height, and a race for beaten horses constituting the 
sport offered on the second. The racecourse was a suf- 
ficiently spacious flat occupying the site of the present 
Spencer Street railway station, bordered on one side by 



a swamp, which then teemed with wild fowl ; on the 
other by Batman's Hill, then lightly timbered by sheoak, 
and forming a natural grand-stand ; and elsewhere bor- 
dered by the Yarra. In shape the course resembled a 
bow, of which the river formed the arc. The winning 
post— a sapling surmounted by a small flag— stood at the 
north-western base of the hill. Two large bullock drays 
lashed together served as a platform for the stewards 
and their friends, and in lieu of refreshment booths 
Messrs. J. P. Fawkner and Michael Carr, the pioneers 
of the liquor traffic, had each brought a truck load of 
beer and spirits on the ground, protected from the sun 
by a rude awning of sackcloth. People were hot and 
thirsty, and were not particular, under these circum- 
stances, as to the beverages they drank, or the price they 
paid for them, the lowest charge being one shilling. 
There were three entries for each race on the first day, 
Postboy winning the first, and a mare belonging to Mr. 
Wedge the second. Several hundred spectators are 
described as having been present, and as the programme 
was of such a meagre character it was supplemented by 
a grinning match, improvised for the occasion, similar to 
that which incurred the reprobation of Addison, and led 
to its abandonment in England. Probably most of the 
frequenters of the first racecourse in Melbourne had never 
heard of the "Spectator," and would have been indis- 
posed to defer to its authority if they had. About forty 
shillings having been collected by way of prize money, a 
ticket-of-leave man, commonly known as "Big Mick," was 
appointed to supervise the competition. Provided with 
a horse collar, according to English precedent, he 
mounted the stage vacated by the stewards, and invited 
the- ugliest man in the crowd to come forward and grin 
through this leather frame. The solicitation was 
promptly replied to by Thomas Curwen, a carpenter, 
about fifty years of age. He was phenomenally ugly. 
Neither Leonardo da Vinci, nor Callot, nor Dore, ever 
imagined a face more grotesquely ill-favoured than his 
own, and it was singularly mobile, so that his power of 
contorting his features, which were crowned by a fell of 
fiery red hair, was considerable. His mouth was vast 
and cavernous ; his teeth resembled tusks in shape and 
form ; and when he grinned the effect of its distension, 
and of the alteration which took place in his whole 
visage, was appallingly humorous. With such a human 
mask competition was hopeless. "Eclipse was first, and 
the rest were nowhere." His pre-eminence in ugliness 
was so indisputable that the ugliest men in the crowd 
shrank back abashed. Curwen received the prize, and 
became so convivial in consequence that it is to be feared 
he looked more like Silenus than ever next morning. 



110 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



The second day's racing was a dreary failure. Two 
events had been arranged for, the Hunter and the Beaten 
Horse Stakes. Five leaps were to be hazarded in the 
first, but instead of hurdles formidable log barriers were 
erected, which most of the horses resolutely refused to face, 
and the winner, belonging to a Mr. Wood, and ridden by a 
Mr. De Villiers, had a narrow escape of breaking his leg, 
besides throwing his rider. For the second race there 
were no entries. This, the first meeting of the kind in 
Melbourne, terminated in a dinner at Fawkner's Hotel, 
which degenerated into an orgy. According to the 
account furnished to Mr. E. Finn by one who appears to 
have been present, the. guests first of all consumed the 
whole of the champagne on the premises, then fell back 
upon hot toddy, and wound up with neat brandy. There 



On the 9th of February, 1839, the patrons of the turf 
met at the Lamb Inn, which occupied the site of the 
present Scott's Hotel, and arranged for two days' racing, 
to be held on the 15th and 16th of the month succeeding, 
as also for the erection of a small platform to serve as 
a grand-stand, and for such an alteration of the track 
as would make it circular. It was likewise determined 
that there should be a parade of the horses entered to 
run on Batman's Hill the day before. 

On the first day the Town Plate, of thirty sovereigns, 
with the entries added, was won by Mr. Brown's Moun- 
tain Maid ; a pony race by Mr. Pitman's Tuppy ; and the 
Lady's Plate, similar in value to the Town, by the Moun- 
tain Maid. Mr. Brown, with £70 in his pocket, must 
have felt himself a rich man, according to the circum- 




Tha Old Grand Stand, Flomlngton Racecourse. 



in rum, then the 
the Yarra, just 



was no "settling day," as there was very little betting 
on either of the races, and the festival— if festival it could 
be called— wound up with a tragedy, for next morning 

" One more unfortunate, 
Weary of breath, 
Rashly importunate," 

and frenzied by an excessive indulgence 
popular intoxicant, flung herself into 
below the Falls, 

41 Mad from life's history, 
Glad to death's mystery, 
Swift to be hurled— 
Anywhere, anywhere 
Out of the world! " 

When the body was recovered life was completely 
extinct in it. Although the settlement was only three 
years old, it was already tainted with drunkenness and 
with the "sin of great cities." 



stances of the time and place. On the second day a 
familiar name appears as the winner of the Hurdle Race 
—that of Mr. Batman, ttfe owner of Postboy. The next 
race, for the Tavern Plate, was won by Mr. Cottrell's 
Fancy ; and a sweepstake of fifteen sovereigns by Mr. 
Scott's Shamrock. Melbourne is described as having 
doubled its population on the occasion, and everything 
seems to have passed off satisfactorily, even to the rough 
handling of a detected pickpocket, who literally obtained 
"more kicks than halfpence." 

The first race meeting at Flemington took place in 
the year 1840, when the grand-stand, a makeshift scaffold- 
ing, was erected near the side of the river. Four pub- 
licans' booths were constructed close by ; two of them 
were tents, one a weatherboard edifice, and the other a 
spacious arbour, walled and roofed with ti-tree. The 
races lasted for three consecutive days, comprising 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



Ill 



twelve "events/' and among the names of the owners 
of the horses we find those of Lieutenant Vignolle 
and Messrs. Powlett, Highett, and Russell, all of them 
still more prominent in later years. It was the first 
time on which silk jackets were worn by some of the 
jockeys, and these are represented as being very proud of 
their novel attire. There was very little betting, some 
drunkenness, and no misconduct worth speaking of, 
although the races had attracted numbers of spectators 
from far and near ; but these were kept in order by 
special constables, whose services were paid for out of 
the special license fees extracted from the publicans, three 
of whom took £150 on the first day. Melbourne was 
reasonably quiet and orderly on the race nights, as that 
odious excrescence upon modern society, the larrikin, had 
not yet been spawned. 

The success of the first race meeting at Flemington, 
and the growing popularity of the sport in country 
places, led to the conviction that some governing body of 
a permanent character- should be organised, with a view 
to control horse-racing, to formulate a code of rules for 
its conduct, and to constitute a tribunal for the settle- 
ments of disputes arising out of it. Accordingly a 
meeting was held in Melbourne on the 12th of December, 
1840, at which it was resolved to form a committee to 
be called "The Committee of the Port Phillip Turf 
Club," composed of the following gentlemen :— Messrs. 
J. D. L. Campbell, C. H. Ebden, J. Hawdon, Hugh 
Jamieson, 6. B. Smyth, and William Verner, the two 
last, with Mr. Hawdon, being nominated as stewards. 
The entrance fee for membership was five, and the annual 
subscription two guineas. It was further resolved that 
race meetings should be held on the 13th, 14th, and 15th 
of April, 1840 ; that these should take place annually, 
and that the rules of the Newmarket Jockey Club should 
be adopted for the guidance and direction of the Port 
Phillip Turf Club, in so far as they might be applicable 
to the circumstances of the colony. 

It was felt that the new racecourse met all the 
requirements of the club, as it presented "an excellent 
piece of turf, selected with considerable judgment. The 
flat had no specific name, and it derived its present 
epithet from an enterprising butcher, one of the pioneers 
of the colony, who opened a shop upon what soon became 
the principal thoroughfare out of Melbourne, namely, the 
Mount Alexander Road. A few huts gradually gathered 
around this shop to supply the wants of wayfarers 
travelling along the road, and, as the butcher's name 
was Fleming, so this rudiment of a village acquired the 
name of Flemington. 

On the 13th of April, the weather being favourable, 
the attendance at the first race meeting was considerable, 
and the services of the town band— it consisted of three 
instruments only !— were secured for the entire meeting, 
at a cost of £20, by Mr. Thomas Halfpenny, the prin- 
cipal publican on the ground. The entrance money for 
the Town Plate was now raised to ten sovereigns, to 
which fifty were added, and the stakes were won by Mr. 
McNall's Plenipo. There was a good deal of betting, and 
some disorder caused by the violent conduct of drunken 
horsemen, one of whom rode down an unfortunate man, 
and narrowly escaped being lynched in consequence. 



Then some of the mounted police, ex-convicts, were 
boisterously intoxicated, and one of them, more furious 
than the rest, "drew his sword and threatened to kill 
everybody." Though he did not keep his word, he acted 
in such a manner as to create a general panic, for he is 
reported to have cloven one man through his hat to his 
skull, causing him to bleed freely ; to have divided the 
cartilage of another's nose, and to have lamed a third 
by slashing at his shins. When this Malay in police 
uniform was secured, he was flogged on the day following 
within an inch of his life, "pour encourager les autres" 
it may be presumed. 

In the year following public interest in horse-racing 
was obviously on the increase, and Mr. Fletcher's Romeo 
is mentioned as having been the winner of the Town 
Plate. Even the period of depression which the commu- 
nity was then passing through had no visible effect upon 
its fondness for sport. On the contrary, for people 
seemed to turn to it to obtain a temporary respite from 
business troubles, occasioned by diminished trade and 
dishonored acceptances, while some hoped to retrieve 
losses in business by a lucky coup upon the turf. And 
we learn that the attendance on the course in March, 
1844, reached the very large number of 5,000, and that 
the influx of country visitors was unprecedented, although 
a hot wind blew on the first day, the 19th, which was 
followed by a severe thunderstorm and a drenching 
downpour of rain. Mr. Mercer's Rob Roy was the 
winner of the Town Plate, Mr. Peter Snodgrass's Billy- 
go-by-'em securing the Trial Stakes. 

The races in 1845 were rendered notable by the first 
appearance of a stock-horse named Petrel, who became 
as famous in his day as Carbine in our own. He not 
only carried off the Town Plate, distancing his four 
competitors, but he won a match for £100 a side against 
Smolensko, a Tasmanian horse, over three miles and a 
distance, and achieved his task easily. Not less than 
£1,000 were staked upon this contest. The increasing 
attendance on the course was augmented by the fact that 
there were twenty publicans' booths upon it, each con- 
tributing £5 to the revenue of the club. On the 28th of 
March, in the evening following the third day's racing, 
there was a race ball, at which there were so many more 
male than female partners that, to quote from a Mel- 
bourne newspaper of the day, "the ladies worked double 
tides to keep the • gentlemen in partners." Times and 
habits have greatly changed since then. 

The meeting in 1846 was looked forward to with 
considerable interest, because, at the races previously 
held in Geelong, Petrel had beaten the field very badly 
for the Town Plate, and the Tasmanians, who rather 
prided themselves on the quality of the horses they had, 
were resolved to challenge the most popular horse in 
Victoria by sending over their best, Paul Jones by 
name, who had been well trained, and was in perfect 
condition. Both were heavily backed for the Town Plate, 
and, as each horse was regarded as the representative of 
the colony in which he was born, a great deal of strong 
local feeling was aroused by the contest. The buccaneer 
won the first heat by a head, mainly owing to the 
incapacity of Petrel's jockey, a rider from the bush, 
whose name, Muff, admirably described his nature. He 



112 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



was forthwith displaced by a man named "Sandy the 
butcher," who knew how to handle the animal, and he 
won the second heat by four lengths, and the third by 
several, being at the same time hard held. The results 
were both depressing and disastrous to the Tasmanian 
backers of Paul Jones, who had crossed the Straits in 
the expectation of fleecing the supporters of Petrel, and 
went home shorn themselves. During the Hurdle Race 
a scandalous outrage was perpetrated upon Mr. Dewing, 
the rider of Wild Harry. While leading the field his 
horse stumbled and fell at a hurdle, but his rider was 
lifted into the saddle, and eventually won the race in a 
canter. As he was proceeding to the weiging room 
after the finish of the race a ruffian, who had presumably 
backed one of the losing horses, struck Mr. Dewing to the 
ground so violently with a bludgeon that at first the 
blow was believed to be fatal. The bystanders lifted 
him up in a state of total collapse, and conveyed him to 
Melbourne in a steamer. For several days he remained 
in a critical condition, but eventually recovered. In the 
meantime the offer of a reward of £100 procured the 
detection of his would-be murderer, who was tried, con- 
victed, and sentenced to twelve months' imprisonment. 
In later years he made himself so useful politically to the 
Government of the day that it rewarded him by appoint- 
ing him a justice of the peace ! 

Nor was this the only outrage which sullied the 
race meeting of 1846, for as a young man named Argyle 
was riding home from the course he was attacked by 
three miscreants, mounted like himself, who waylaid and 
gave him chase. One of them succeeded in dislodging 
him from his saddle by felling him to the ground by 
means of a loaded whip handle, and then his opponents 
proceeded to kick him to death as they thought. But 
this intention was frustrated by a friendly horseman 
riding up and rescuing him from his cowardly assailants, 
who immediately decamped. Only one of them, John 
Maher, was afterwards brought to justice, and sentenced 
to transportation for life. 

All this while Petrel was becoming a name to conjure 
with. Here was a bush hack, of whom nobody had ever 
heard before, with a dubious parentage, and no training 
worth speaking of, suddenly becoming as renowned upon 
the turf in Port Phillip as Eclipse had been at New- 
market. What was the history of this equine 
phenomenon ? Sportsmen will probably be grateful to 
the patient research of the late Mr. Edmund Finn, 
which has enabled the following answer to be given to 
this question :— "A Sydney racer known as Steeltrap was 
supposed to be his sire, and there was a strong family 
resemblance between father and son. All that was 
known of Petrel's dam was that in 1841 a man, journey- 
ing overland from Sydney to Adelaide, stayed for a 
short time at the Grampians. He had in his possession 
two fine mares, supposed to have been stolen, and both 
in foal. The stranger found employment on the station 
of a Mr. Riley, where the mares foaled, and one of the 
youngsters was Petrel. They remained there for a 
couple of years, and in 1843, when horseflesh was 
beginning to command something like a price, John 
Giveng, an overseer of Dr. Martin, bought both colts for 
£36. Petrel was then turned into a stock-horse, and, as 



there was much speed in him, he was exhibited as a sort 
of show horse before strangers. One day, as several 
stockmen were out riding, an emu was sighted, a hunt 
extemporised, and Petrel not only distanced all the 
others, but ran the emu down. Petrel was rising four 
years old, a dark chestnut, sixteen hands one inch high, 
the head beautifully formed, but the build of the animal, 
though symmetrical, seemed as if too powerful (too 
heavy ?) in the hindquarters. This gave him a clumsy 
appearance, but the same indications have distinguished 
some of the fleetest English horses. Distance, whether 
long or short, or weight, light or heavy, were matters 
of small moment to him. Mr. Colin Campbell soon 
heard of this rough diamond, and, wishing to have him, 
he swopped for him a mare worth £20. Petrel was then 
carefully looked after, put in condition, and his first race 
was on the 20th of February, 1845, at the Pyrenees, 
where he won the Three Year Old Stakes. The same 
year, for the Geelong Town Plate, one and a half miles, 
he was beaten by Sweetmeat. . One writer declares 
Petrel to have been foaled between the 10th and 15th of 
October, 1841, by a Steeltrap mare from either Operator 
or Theorem. Petrel was raffled on the evening of 30th 
March, 1846, for £200 at £5 a ticket, and the prize was 
won by Mr. J. C. Riddell (in later years a well-known 
member of the Legislative Assembly), who a few days 
afterwards had (he horse put up to auction at Kirk's 
Bazaar, when he was knocked down to Mr. Borrodaile 
for 150 guineas. Subsequently he was despatched to 
Sydney to sweep the turf before him, but he was beaten 
by a New South Wales horse, Jorrocks, and also by Blue 
Bonnet." By way of completing the biography of 
Petrel, Mr. Finn mentions that "after figuring in the 
race field until he was fourteen years old, his then owner 
(Mr. Josiah Austin) turned him loose to live on grass for 
the rest of his life, and he so existed until he passed a 
quarter of a century." 

A curious incident is related in connection with the 
race ball held on the 31st of March, 1846, when the room 
was decorated with the saddle, bridle, spurs, whip, and 
colours used in Petrel's turf performances, and this is 
that the polka was danced, or "half stepped," as it was 
called, for the first time in Melbourne. As it had 
only been brought into France from Bohemia, where it 
was the favourite dance of the peasants, about eighteen 
months previously, our predecessors on the stage of life 
cannot be reproached with tardiness in embracing recent 
inventions. 

The race meeting of 1847, which commenced on the 
6th of April, witnessed an innovation. Numbers of the 
spectators stationed themselves on what was then known 
as Picnic Hill, and is now the favourite post of observa- 
tion at Flemington ; and the year was rendered further 
memorable by the deposition of both Petrel and Paul 
Jones from their pride of place by a new flyer named 
Bunyip, the offspring of an Arab mare. He was the 
property of Mr. Josiah Austin, and won the Town Plate, 
now increased to 100 sovereigns, against the two 
favourites on the first day, and the Ladies' Purse against 
Petrel and three others on the second. 

In 1848 Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Stawell, Mr. 
J. F. L. Foster, subsequently Chief Secretary, and Mr. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



113 



J. C. Rid dell prevailed upon the Government to grant 
them a ten years' lease of the racecourse, as trustees for 
the club, which thereupon erected a substantial grand- 
stand, and commenced other improvements. One 
Timothy Lane erected a drinking booth on the Hill, but 
on the second day of the races a tremendous gale of wind 
swept the tent away, and scattered its contents far and 
wide. Petrel retrieved his tarnished reputation by 
winning the Town Plate against Bunyip, as likewise the 
Publicans' Purse. As for Bunyip, his meteoric career 
seems to have come to an end there and then, and 
nothing more was heard of him as a successful racehorse, 
Petrel presently resuming his former position in public 
favour. He was prevented from winning the Town Plate 
in 1849 by a quibble on the part of the starter, but in 



horsemen. As the fugitive approached the Western 
Swamp he was overtaken by his pursuer, who thrashed 
his would-be assassin with power and passion, and then 
gripping him by the neck, held him as in a vyce until a 
constable appeared upon the scene and took the man into 
custody. When the case was brought before the police 
magistrates, they resolved upon sending it before a higher 
tribunal. In the Supreme Court the prisoner pleaded 
guilty to the charge, and urged his drunkenness in 
extenuation of his crime. Mr. Justice a' Beckett took a 
serious view of so malignant and unprovoked an assault, 
and sentenced its perpetrator to six months* imprison- 
ment, binding him over at the same time to keep the 
peace for a further period of twelve months. There was 
no assignable motive for such a savage and cowardly 



-"•^frVjA™ 


, i i^ 






vV 


•;^S| 




£?«S- 


*4BP 






^* du§^f~W^ '<*& 




s3fe_*' 








. 


. 








l 

i 


tool 

[■Mi aj 


t 



J, A. Sears 



the All-aged Stakes he ran away from his competitors, 
and he was the winner on the second day of both the 
Ladies' and the Publicans' Purses. 

A race took place on the second day which was 
watched with as much interest by the spectators as the 
contests arranged for on the regular programme. While 
Mr. (afterwards Sir) John O'Shanassy was riding about 
the course, a drunken ruffian named Oliver Johnstone 
rode up to him from behind, and struck him a murderous 
blow on the side of his head with the butt end of his 
whip ; then, finding he had not killed his victim, beat a 
precipitate retreat. Mr. O'Shanassy, although partly 
stunned and bleeding from the wound, gave chase to his 
assailant, followed by a considerable cavalcade pf 



1902. 



Mclb. 



attack, but it seemed to be generally admitted that it 
must have originated in that political and religious 
ill-feeling which at that time divided the people of Mel- 
bourne into two factions— the Orange and the Green. 

In the year 1850, when the racing commenced on the 
19th of March, there seems to have been a kind of lull in 
the affairs of the turf. Petrel and Bunyip were no 
longer in the running. Their date was past, and the 
new candidates for public favour possessed none of the 
conspicuous qualities which excite enthusiasm in the 
minds of their breeders, trainers, backers, and supporters, 
and incite people to risk large sums of money by laying 
bets upon them. The Town Plate was won by a black 
gelding bred for Mr. James Henty, and name4 Merino, 



114 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



in honor, it may be presumed, of his birthplace in the 
West ; and it is related of one of the jockeys, who rode 
a horse named Silver Robin in the Steeplechase, that he 
was so very far from sober himself that only the Provi- 
dence which is said to watch over drunken people and 
children protected him from riding full gallop into the 
Saltwater River. Three actual tragedies did occur, 
however, in connection with this race meeting. One man 
was run over by a gig, and a second ridden down by a 
horseman, on the first day, and in each incident the 
accident terminated fatally ; while on the evening of the 
last day a man who was stupidly intoxicated tumbled 
overboard from the small steamer which was conveying 
him from the racecourse to Melbourne, and when his body 
was recovered life was discovered to be extinct. Those 
were hard drinking days. The highest idea of enjoyment 
on any public holiday consisted in an unlimited indulgence 
in liquor— the fierier in flavour and the more exciting 
in its effect upon the brain the better— and a man 
seemed to regard it as a satisfaction to be boasted of 
that on such and such an occasion he had had a "good 
drunk." It was an ignoble vaunt, and it was not 
confined to any one class of society. "Autres temps, 
autres moeurs. ,, 

The meeting of 1851 was the last belonging to "the 
years before the Flood. 1 ' The old pre-auriferous days 
composed an epoch which was abruptly brought to a close 
by the marvellous event which made its ineffaceable 
mark upon that ever memorable year. For sixteen years 
Melbourne had been a kind of Sleepy Hollow, not alto- 
gether unprogressive, it is true, but decidedly provincial. 
Its tastes, habits, standards of judgment, opinions, and 
modes of thought were entirely so. But in the year follow- 
ing all this was changed, and it is worth while to linger 
over the last race meeting under the "ancien regime'* 
for the sake of accentuating the remarkable changes 
which have since occurred. Fortunately the materials 
for instituting a contrast between the old era of horse- 
racing and the new have been supplied by the veteran 
journalist who came out to the infant settlement in the 
year 1840, and applied himself in the latter days of a 
long life to the collection of a mass of valuable informa- 
tion — much of it derived from his own recollections— in 
relation to "early Melbourne. " Speaking of the race- 
course, he says :— "For about twenty years the winning 
post was up by the river, and extending down from it 
towards the Hill, between the course and the river, was 
a row of publicans 1 booths, where the refreshments, 
though not of the daintiest, had a plentifulness about them 
which amply satisfied stomachic longings. A railway 
was then undreamt of, and the two modes of egress and 
ingress from and to Melbourne were the road and the 
river, both of which were largely patronised. Steamers 
used to be laid on from the wharf to the course, leaving 
about 11 o'clock, and returning at sunset. They were 
invariably packed with passengers like herrings in a 
barrel, and at half-a-crown per head each way reaped a 
profitable harvest. The moment the steamers were 
warped to gum trees rearward of the grand-stand they 
engaged in an active competition with the publicans on 
shore, a proceeding little relished by the landsmen. As 
the police and special constables on duty were not indis- 



posed, for a consideration, to connive at small breaches 
of the law in this way, the regular boniface was obliged 
resignedly to "grin and bear it." If there was amusement 
going down, it was nothing to the noisy and intoxicated 
babelment of the up trip, and the wonder is that half the 
passengers did not tumble overboard. . . The road 
journey out was always worth looking at. Carriages were 
then rarities, and even a four-in-hand drag was seldom to 
be met with ; but the Flemington Road, from Melbourne 
to the Saltwater River, was an irregularly linked chain 
of vehicles of every description, from the squatter's or 
town swell's tandem rotating downward to the buggy, 
dog-cart, butcher's or baker's trap, and ending with the 
drays, where, in a promiscuous fashion, the mother of a 
family and a numerous brood of youngsters might be 
observed in the open-air enjoyment of a feather or chaff 
bed. The only engine of locomotion then available that 
f never saw on road duty of a race day, at least with a 
living passenger freight, was the bullock team. The 
vehicular branch of transport was, however, outdone by 
the equestrianism of the age, for every quill-driver, 
counter-jumper, tinker, or tailor who could raise a 'few 
bob' chartered some kind of a screw (old or young, good 
or bad, made no difference, provided it had only four 
movable legs) at the livery stables, or 'bazaars' as they 
were then called, where there was any number of them 
collected from every point of the compass for hire. . . 
The 'croppers* along the road were innumerable. Still 
there were very few broken limbs, either because the nags 
were not in the humour for bucking, or because the road 
was soft and yielding. This was also the period of 
pleasant and enjoyable picnics, and around the bottom of 
the Hill, embedded in thick brushwood, were scattered 
groups of people, of every age and condition, partaking 
of the contents of crammed hampers and baskets, and 
ready to hail every passer-by to 'come and share 
pot-luck.' As a rule there used to be not only more 
eating in proportion to the attendance, but a great deal 
more drinking than now, and a drunken row was the 
inevitable wind-up after the race was over. There were 
special constables to keep order on the course in the 
vicinity of the stand and run-in, and a party of mounted 
police and as many of the town and country constabulary 
as could be spared for the general supervision of the 
place. There was no such thing as a temporary lock-up 
for tipplers, but a readier, though less comfortable, mode 
of detention was devised, consisting of two or three 
bullock chains, welded together and stapled to a tree, and 
to this the bacchanalians would be manacled by one 
wrist. Here the restrained toper might fret and fume 
as he liked, and the punishment almost amounted to 
torture from the broiling heat of the sun or the pelting 
rain ; but wet or dry it was all the same, for the chain 
remained a fixture until the evening, when the prisoners 
were marched into town by the police, headed by the 
chief constable." 

For some years the professional bookmaker was 
unknown upon the Melbourne course, and the "welcher" 
was equally a stranger to it, but there was even then a 
considerable number of ravenous birds of prey, in the 
shape of pickpockets, card-sharpers, thimble-riggers, 
spielers, and confidence men, who seemed to spring up as 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



115 



suddenly as a growth of toadstools or other poisonous 
fungi, and found plenty of victims to fasten upon. It 
is stated that as early as the year 1847 not less than 
seventy notorious gamblers were recognised as being 
present on the Melbourne racecourse. 

It is due to the indefatigable compiler of the 
chronicles of "Early Melbourne" to state that it was at 
his suggestion, through the columns of the "Herald," 
then the leading morning paper, that the grand-stand and 
winning post were removed from the vicinity of the Salt- 
water River to their present position. The proposition 
was received, as all new ideas invariably are, with a good 
deal of ridicule at the time ; but the derision, general as 
it was, could not have been comparable in the slightest 
degree with the tempest of scornful laughter which would 
be provoked by any proposal to move them back again to 
their original locality. 

At the race meeting of 1851, which commenced on the 
4th of March, there was an unusually large attendance, 
and one steamer which plied upon the river is mentioned 
as having carried a thousand passengers to the course. 
The Town Plate was won by Mr. McLaughlin's Dauntless, 



described as being "as wiry as a rat-trap, and with the 
wind of a blacksmith's bellows." At this meeting a 
cup of twenty sovereigns was presented to be run for by 
the then Mayor of Melbourne, Mr. William Nicholson, an 
estimable citizen, who subsequently took a prominent part 
in politics, was Chief Secretary in two Ministries, and 
was "the father of the ballot in Australia," while he was 
also a member of the committee which drafted what 
afterwards became the Constitution Act of Victoria. In 
addition to these honorable incidents in his public career, 
it may be mentioned that he was one of the founders of 
the Bank of Victoria. 

The history of racing during the succeeding decade 
was comparatively uneventful, excepting for the institu- 
tion of the Champion Race in 1859. Two associations 
had come into existence, named the Turf and Jockey 
Clubs respectively, but owing to a variety of causes, 
which it is unnecessary to specify, they both fell into a 
moribund condition, and were dissolved. Then arose the 
more powerful and successful organisation which has 
since acquired such a wide celebrity under the designation 
of the Victoria Racing Club. 



The Victoria Racing Club. 



This club dates from the 9th o! March in the 
year 1864, and took over all the liabilities of the two 
clubs above referred to, amounting to £1,364. The fol- 
lowing are the names of the members of the original 
committee, who may, therefore, be considered as the 
actual founders of the club :— James Blackwood, Edward 
Cohen, Henry Creswick, J. Dougharty, H. Fisher, R. 
Goldsbrough, R. W. Grieve, H. C. Jeffray, J. F. Maguire, 
H. Power, Captain Standish, Geo. Watson. 

Of these we believe only three survive at this present 
writing. In order to provide the necessary funds for 
commencing operations with, twenty - five gentlemen 
agreed to advance an aggregate sum of £1,800, for which 
they received debentures secured on the property and 
credit of the club ; and on the 18th of March, 1864, Mr. 
R. C. Bagot was appointed secretary at the modest 
salary of £150, which was subsequently raised to £250, 
and ultimately to £800, with a bonus of £200. The 
choice was a very fortunate one. He was not only 
universally liked and esteemed for the geniality and 
kindness of his disposition and the warmth of his 
heart, but he threw into the performance of his new 
duties a zeal and enthusiasm which were perfectly 
infectious. In addition to which he was scarcely less 
ingenious, inventive, and resourceful than his successor, 
who inherited and has pretty well perfected the work 
commenced by Mr. R. C. Bagot, both of them pursuing 
one object with a rare tenacity of purpose and singleness 
of aim, namely, that of rendering the Flemington race- 
course what it has undoubtedly become— the finest in the 
world, as regards, more particularly, the accommodation 
it provides for the public. 

At the first autumn meeting the club felt itself 
justified In paying away £1,445 in stakes and incidental 



expenses, and at the spring meeting, which was held on 
the 3rd, 4th, and 5th of November, the Derby, for fifteen 
sovereigns each, and one hundred added, was run on the 
first day, and the Cup race, for a sweepstakes of fifty 
sovereigns, with two hundred added, was run on the 
second, a practice which has been adhered to ever since, 
only it was afterwards considered advisable to discontinue 
the custom of holding this and other meetings on three 
consecutive days, and to substitute for it that of having 
the races on three alternate days. 

In 1865 a curious innovation was introduced— that of 
a pony race run on Cup Day. It does not seem to have 
been regarded as an incident deserving of being regarded 
as a precedent, for it was never followed up. In the 
year succeeding, Mr. George Watson was appointed 
starter, a position which he occupied to the entire satis- 
faction of all concerned ; and to the duty thus entailed 
upon him was added that of judge in 18*7. In the same 
year Mr. E. T. Barnard relieved him of the former office, 
and it is worthy of mention that the spring meeting for 
the first time covered four days in 1867. 

In 1872 steps were taken for the erection of a grand- 
stand, at a cost of £13,000, and in the year following it 
was resolved by the club to raise £10,000 in debentures 
of £100 each in order to meet the additional expenditure 
thus incurred. The death of Mr. R. C. Bagot in 1881 
deprived the club of the services of a highly valued 
officer, whose name is perpetuated in the Bagot Handicap, 
which is annually run for at the New Year's Day meet- 
ing. The succession to the secretaryship devolved upon 
Mr. Byron Moore, who soon won the confidence of his 
committee, and has since been allowed a pretty free hand 
to carry out the improvements suggested by him from 
time to time, and which will be described in detail later 



_ J 



116 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



on. They certainly evince an amount of forethought, a 
breadth of view, an inventiveness, and a singularly minute 
and almost intuitive appreciation of the most exigent 
requirements of the public, combined with a practical 
knowledge of how to meet them most effectually which 
is not very far removed from genius. Since he took office 
on the 2nd of August, 1880, Mr. Byron Moore has been 
unremitting in his efforts to follow up and expand the 
policy of his predecessor, and to make the Flemington 
racecourse and all its adjuncts something for the club to 
be proud of, while at the same time irresistibly attrac- 
tive to that very large section of the public which con- 
tributes the bulk of the funds of which the Victoria 
Racing Club is the recipient, the guardian, and the dis- 
tributor. And liberal and apparently lavish as its 
expenditure has been, its financial position proves the 
soundness of the policy it has adopted and carried 
out during the thirty - six years of its existence, for 
it has been able to lay out so large a sum as 
£177,000 upon the buildings and other improvements on 
the lands of the club, without reckoning stock and 
implements. It has a contingency fund of £10,264, of 
which £10,089 is invested in Melbourne and Metropolitan 
Board of Works and Government debentures to meet any 
possible losses which may accrue from a wet spring 
meeting or from other causes ; and it has a further sum 
of £7,500 invested in various debentures, and upwards of 
£7,000 invested for the benefit of the Distressed and 
Disabled Jockeys' Fund, this being augmented by fines 
and registration fees to the extent of £463 during the 
year ending the 30th of June, 1900. 

The following synopsis of the financial transactions of 
the club during the last year of the last century will 
exhibit their magnitude, and the important dimensions of 
its operations :— 



THE MELBOURNE CUP (Continued). 



Meetings. 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


Profit. 


Lobs. 




Grand National 












8teeplechase ... 


£7,789 16 6 


£6,123 14 8 


£1,666 1 10 


— 




August 


1.147 2 


967 17 1 


179 4 11 


— 




October 


1,306 4 5 


1.108 16 10 


197 7 7 


_ 




Spring 


27,303 8 6 


17,451 4 


9.852 8 2 


— 




New Year's Day 


2,199 10 6 


2,193 5 4 


6 5 2 


-L. 




Autumn 


12,449 10 11 


15,542 15 9 


— 


£3,093 4 


10 


April 


936 6 11 


1,043 15 2 


— 


107 9 


3 


Queen's Birthday 


1,796 19 3 


2,051 8 6 


£11,901 7 8 


254 9 


3 




£3,455 3 


4 




Deduct Loss ... 


3,455 3 4 







• Balance Profit £8,446 4 4 

The revenue is now. nearly £100,000 per annum. 

To complete our historical sketch of the Victoria 
Racing Club, we subjoin a list of the winners of the 
Melbourne Cup and Victoria Derby, together with the 
names of their owners and riders, and the time occupied 
by each covering the ground :— 





THE MEL1 


80URXE CUP. 


(Two Miles.) 




FEAR. 


OWNER. 


WINNER. 


RIDER. 


TIME 


1861 


E. de Mestrc 


Archer 


Cutts 


3.52 


1862 


E. de Mestre 


Archer 


Cutts 


3.47 


1863 


J. Harper 


Banker 


Chifney 


344 


1864 


H. Fisher 


Lantern 


Dens 


8.52 


1865 


— Marshall 


Tory Boy 


K avan agh 


3.44 


1866 


J. Tait 


The Barh 


W. Davis 


3 43 


1867 


E. de Mestre 


Tim Whiffler 


Driscoll 


8.39 


1868 


J. Tait 


Olencoe 


Stanley 


3.42 


1869 


A. Sagui 


Warrior 


Morrison 


8.40 


1870 


W. Craig 


Nimblefoot 


Day 


3.37 



fEAR. 


OWNER. 


WINNER. 


RIDER. 


TIME. 


1871 


J. Tait 


The Pearl 


Kavanagh 


3.39 


1872 


J. Tait 


The Quack 


Henderson 


3.39 


1873 


W. Johnson 


Don Juan 


Wilson 


3.36 


1874 


A. Chirnslde 


Haricot 


Pigott 


8.37}£ 


1875 


H. Sharp 


Wollomai 


Batty 


3.38 


1876 


J. Wilson 


Briseis 


8t. Albans 


8.36V£ 


1877 


J. White 


Chester 


Pigott 


3.33^ 


1878 


E. de Mestre 


Ca lamia 


Brown 


3.359i 


1879 


— Rawlinson 


Darriwell 


Cracknel I 


3.3W* 


1880 


W. A.Long 


Grand Flaneur 


Hales 


3.34^ 


1881 


C. McDonald 


Zulu 


Gough 


3.32»* 


1882 


J. E. Seville 


The Assyrian 


Hutchins 


3.40 


1883 


J. White 


Martini- Henry 


Williamson 


3.30 


1884 


J. O. Inglis 


Malua 


Robertson 


3.31% 


1885 


— McLoughlin 


Sheet Anchor 


O'Brien 


3 29»*' 


1886 


W. Gannon 


Arsenal 


English 


3.31 


1887 


R. Donovan 


Dunlop 


Sanders 


8.281 £ 


1888 


D. S. Wallace 


Mentor 


O'Brien 


3.30% 


1889 


W. T. Jones 


Bravo 


Anwin 


3.32^ 


1890 


D. 8. Wallace 


Carbine 


Ramage 


3.2h}i 


1891 


J. Redfern 


Malvolio 


Redfern 


3.29» 4 


1892 


M. Carmody 


Glenloth 


Robson 


3.36?^ 


1893 


J. D. Lewis 


Tarcoola 


Cripps 


3.30»i 


1894 


F. W. Purchas 


Patron 


Dawes 


3.31 


1895 


D. James 


Auraria 


Stevenson 


3.29 


1896 


Jones and Cooper 


New haven 


Gardiner 


3.2S 1 * 


1897 


W. Forrester 


Gaulus 


Callinan 


3.31 


1898 


W. Forrester 


The Grafter 


Gough 


3.29% 


1899 


H. Power 


Merriwee 


Turner 


3.361 ^ 


1900 


F. T. Forrest 


Clean Sweep 


A. Richardson 


329 


1901 


C. L. Macdonald 


Revenue 


F. Dunn 


3.30i£ 


1902 


Messrs. Clark and 










Robinson 


The Victory 


R. Lewis 


3.29 



From the foregoing it will appear that this, the blue 
riband of the Australian turf, has been won four times by 
Mr. De Mestre, and twice with the same horse ; and four 
times also by the late John Tait ; the shortest time on 
record for the Melbourne Cup being 3 min. 28 J sec, which 
was made by Mr. Donald Wallace's Carbine, ridden by 
R. Ramage, in 1890, and carrying the heavy impost of 
lOst. 51bs. Second in importance to this great race is the 

VICTORIA DERBY. (One Mile and a Halp.) 



TEAR. 


OWNER. 


WINNER. 


RIDER. 


TIME. 


1856 


H. N. Simeon 


Flying Doe 


Carter 


3.1 


1857 


W. Green 


Tricolor 


Snell 


3.3 


1858 


T. Austin 


Brownlock 


Hutton 


2.45 


1859 


J. Orr 


Buzzard 


Henderson 


2.52»* 


1860 


G. Watson 


Flying Colors 


Treaoey 


3.2 


1861 


P. Dowling 


Camden 


Morrison 


2.53 


1862 


J. Harper 


Barwon 


Waldock 


2.59 


1863 


W.Lang 


Oriflamme 


Lang 


33 


1864 


H. Fisher 


Lantern 


Simpson 


2.58 


1865 


H. Fisher 


Angler 


Redman 


2.51 


1866 


H. Fisher 


Seagull 


Morrison 


3.4 


1867 


J. Tait 


Fireworks 


Stanley 


2.56 


1868 


J. Tait 


Fireworks 


Stanley 


2.53 


1869 


J Moffatt 


My Dream 


Duffy 


2.48 


1869 


H. Fisher 


Charon 


Morrison 


2.55 


1870 


J. Tait 


Florence 


Stanley 


8.0 


1871 


J. Wilson 


Miss Jessie 


Wilson 


2.49 


1872 


W. Wench 


Loup Garou 


Brown 


2.46 


1873 


W Filgate 


Lapidist 


Grubb 


2.51 


1874 


J. Tait 


Melbourne 


Ashworth 


2.46>£ 


1875 


E. de Mestre 


Robin Hood 


Donnelly 


2.48 


1876 


J. Wilson 


Briseis 


Hales 


243^' 


1877 


J. White 


Chester 


Pigott 


2.43 


1878 


J. Boe 


Wellington 


Griffin 


2.47 


1879 


R. Howie 


Suwarrow 


Walker 


2.43 


1880 


W. A. Long 


Grand Flaneur 


Hales 


2.44 


1881 


F. F. Dakin 


Darebin 


Power 


2 41K 


1882 


E. de Mestre 


Navigator 


Hales 


2.41^ 


1883 


. J. White 


Martini-Henry 


Williamson 


2.39 


1884 


M. Jacobs 


Rufus 


Gorry 


2.40 


1885 


J. White 


Nordenfeldt 


Hales 


2.45^ 


1886 


J. White 


Trident 


Cusdin 


2.41K 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



UT; 



VICTORIA DERBY (Continued;. 



YEAR. 


OWNRR. 


WINNER. 


RIDER. 


TIME. 


1887 


W. Gannon 


Australian Peer 


Gorry 


2.40 


1888 


J. White 


Ensign 


Hales 


2.45% 


1889 


J. White 


Dreadnought 


Hales 


2.41 


1890 


S. G. Cook 


The Admiral 


Hales 


2.46« 


1891 


W. R. Wilson 


Strathmore 


Cusdin 


2.41V, 


1892 


J. B. Clark 


Camoola 


Huxley 


2.42 


1893 


W. R. Wilson 


Carnage • 


Gough 


2.39 


1894 


8. G. Cook 


The Harvester 


Moore 


2.40% 


1895 


W. R. Wilson 


Wallace 


Gough 


2.46 


1896 


Jones and Cooper 


New haven 


Gardiner 


2.39% 


1897 


W. Duggan 


A robe rite 


Harris 


2.39% 


1898 


W. Bailey 


Cocos 


Delaney 


2.41% 


1899 


H. Power 


Merriwee 


Turner 


2.41% 


1900 


R. Orr 


Malster 


R. Lewis 


2.48 


1901 


W. Bailey 


Hautvillers 


R. Lewis 


2.37 


1902 


R. Phillips 


Abundance 


J. Barden 


2.36% 



In 1868 and 1869 the Derby was run on New Year's 
Day, and it is a noticeable fact that it was won six times 
by the Hon. J. White, four times by Mr. John Tait, and 
four times also, and thrice consecutively, by Mr. Hurtle 
Fisher. The winning horse was ridden on seven different 
occasions by T. Hales, and the shortest time in which the 
race was run was 2 min. 36J sec., a minimum reached by 
Abundance. 



It will be interesting to trace step by step the 
course of the improvements devised and effected by 
Mr. Byron Moore, inasmuch as these have con- 
tributed to give the racecourse at Plemington 
its acknowledged pre-eminence over every other race- 
course in the world. This alone is a proud 
distinction, but it has never been disputed, and is the 
result of twenty years of systematic effort, directed with 
a steadfast singleness of aim and tenacity of purpose 
towards the accomplishment of a definite object, namely, 
perfection of arrangement for the accommodation and 
comfort of the public, involving, as this necessarily does, 
the prosperity and success of the Victoria Racing Club, 
which has sagaciously approved of the plans and 
co-operated with the endeavours of its energetic and 
untiring secretary. 

Mr. Moore initiated the "Racing Calendar," which is 
now recognised as an authentic record throughout the 
whole of Australasia, while the by-laws and rules of 
the V.R.C. promulgated in that volume are generally 
accepted as standards by other racing associations else- 
where. 

Among other improvements effected, the following 
may be conveniently grouped together :— A 3-inch main 
round one mile and a half of the sand training track, so 
that training can be pursued in the summer as well as 
during the months in which the ground is naturally 
moist ; a leaning rail around the course, which 
materially adds to its safety ; a luncheon table under 
the vinery in the saddling paddock, at which seating 
accommodation is provided for 2,000 persons ; the 
excavation of 40,000 cubic feet of rock in front of the 
Hill, and the erection of the upper grand-stand, contain- 
ing a suite of rooms 600 feet long for the vice-regal 
visitors and their suite, ladies' retiring rooms, refresh- 
ment and Press rooms, etc., etc. 

Mr. Moore purchased at his own risk 100 acres of land 
in Bagotville for the sum of £10,000, in order that 



adequate accommodation might be afforded to visitors ,4p : 
the Hill. Seven acres were required for this purpose, 
but as the owners would not subdivide the block he 
bought the whole of it, paying for it out of Jris own; 
pocket, and selling to the club seven acres in the most 
eligible position for £700. He also parted wi$& two 
acres and a half to the Railway Commissioner, to enable 
him to carry out a much-desired improvement suggested 
by Mr. Moore, whereby a dangerous double curve upon 
the line was avoided, and the erection of a northern 
platform was rendered practicable. Previously to this 
the boundary of the club's domain on this side, from the 
northern scraping sheds to the Hill gates, was along the 
main road to the course, and it was one liable to 
occasion much inconvenience and trouble ; but the club, 
by the purchase for £1,400 of fourteen acres intervening 
between the old boundary and the railway, the embank- 
ment of which forms in itself a perfect boundary, was 
enabled to obviate the inconvenience and trouble referred 
to, and at the same time to form the present members' 
drive. This addition comprised a valuable quarry, from 
which- thousands of loads of stone have been procured for 
use upon the premises. Not only so, but it became 
practicable to remove the stables and workshops, pre- 
viously occupying a position near the entrance to the 
grand-stand, to the railway, to a better site, where they 
were no longer obtrusive eyesores. Nurseries were thus 
enabled to be established for the growth of trees and. 
shrubs for beautifying the grounds, and by adding seven 
acres to the Hill as a lawn or picnicking ground the 
attendance was increased on Cup days to that "coign of 
vantage" by no less than 5,000 spectators. It was then 
seen that the erection of a grand-stand upon the Hill 
would be a boon to the public and a gain to the club ; 
and to prove the strength and sincerity of his convictions 
on the subject Mr. Moore offered, should the committee 
approve of the proposition, to build it at his own cost, 
recouping himself by the admission receipts. The work 
was, however, carried out by direction of the committee, 
and it added another 5,000 to the attendance upon the 
Hill on Cup Day, which aggregated as many as 35,000 
upon one occasion. Simultaneously with the completion 
of this improvement the price of admission to the Hill 
was raised from 2s. to 2s. 6d., and this had the effect of 
augmenting the revenue of the club to the extent of 
several thousands of pounds. The next improvements 
effected were the perfecting of the starting gate now in 
use ; the building of Tattersall's stand and members' 
luncheon rooms ; the formation of the present saddling 
paddocks, with the names of the horses inscribed over 
their respective stalls ; the establishment of a directory 
board, indicating where they are stalled ; and the erec- 
tion of luncheon and tea rooms for members at the 
Maribyrnong stand. 

A mathematically computed curve was next laid out 
at "the turn," which has increased the safety of the 
course, the calculation and the after work having . been 
performed by Mr. Tuxen. A 4-inch drain was laid round 
the course, and a one mile training track inside ; the 
terrace was earthed up between the saddling paddock and 
the lawn ; 500 loose boxes were built for members' 
carriage horses ; the upper stand was renewed for 500 



118 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



feet in steel ; and a large number board stationed in 
front of the grand-stand. One of the improvements 
effected is the laying of the terrace, which 
is 500 feet long, with a tesselated pavement upon 
an 18 - inch bed of concrete ; the doubling of the 
width of the promenade ; and the construction of a new 
afternoon tea room, 150 feet long by 40 feet wide, for 
non-members. 

A long-standing grievance has at the same time been 
amicably adjusted in relation to those who, while con- 
tributing nothing whatever to the income of the club, 
consider they have the best possible right to question its 
arrangements. This has been done by the laying out of 
a park, to which. the public have free access all the year 



member, and his sons who may be under twenty-five, to 
join the club at a considerable reduction upon the ordi- 
nary entrance fee. This new rule' has operated most 
advantageously to the club, and the concession is fully 
appreciated by those who have benefited by it. 

In all the foregoing improvements the secretary has 
been ably and zealously supported by Mr. E. Miles, chief 
clerk, who has proved himself to be a most devoted 
officer of the club, as also by Mr. Ernest Smith, the 
overseer on the course, to whose vigorous and sustained 
energy is due the beautiful order in which the premises 
are kept. With two such lieutenants as these, Mr. Moore 
may be said literally to have achieved wonders at 
Flemington. 




J. A, Sear 8 



Thn Lawn, Grand-stand, and Hill, Flemington. 



Mclb. 



round, and by the formation of a walk along the bank 
of the Saltwater River, which has been likewise thrown 
open to His Majesty the People. The entire expense of 
these improvements has been borne by the club. His 
Majesty and suite are admitted to the Flat on race days, 
exempt from any charge whatever, and every arrangement 
has been made for their comfort and convenience as 
regards lavatories, retiring rooms for women, an 
abundant supply of drinking water, etc. 

For the encouragement of horse-breeders, the com- 
mittee of the Victoria Racing Club have been induced to 
distribute £1,100 in four extra races for two-year-olds 
during the Cup meeting ; and new by-laws have been 
framed entitling the near relatives of a deceased 



For the beautification of the lawn a rosery has been 
established, in which have been brought together as many 
as 400 varieties of the "queen of flowers," and a number 
of these have been planted inside the picket fence which 
separates the lawn from the course, and trained so that 
they resemble a succession of garlands or festoons, these 
having been so selected and arranged as regards their 
colours as that their blooms shall charm the eye both by 
their juxtaposition and contrast of hue and form. 

This is a not less happy idea than that of the vinery, 
under the shadow of which so many hundreds of visitors 
take luncheon or tea. At the autumn meeting this 
prolonged pergola becomes a beautiful roof of green 
leaves, and of purple and golden fruitage, between two 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



119 



and three tons of grapes depending from the trellised 
roof. And these are allowed to remain inviolate, as it is 
known that they are reserved for distribution to hospitals 
and kindred charitable institutions. 

Finally it remains to notice the elegant suite of apart- 
ments hitherto occupied by the Governor of the State, 
his visitors, and their friends during the various race 
meetings. These are situated underneath the centre of 
the grand-stand, are handsomely furnished and decorated. 
Owing to their position, they are cool on the hottest 
days of summer. Between the innermost wall of the 
rocky face of the hill, which is here vertical, there inter- 
venes a chasm through which a shaft of light falls for the 
illumination of the rooms on that side. Mr. Moore has 
taken advantage of this chasm, where it is immediately 
contiguous to these, to fill up the space with rockwork, 
ferns, and basins of water, and amidst these the gorgeous 
scarlet flowers of the magnificent Poinsettia, of Mexico, 
introduces a blaze of colour which is all the more vivid 
by contrast with the sober greys of the rockwork and the 
quiet greens of the fern fronds. There is not only a 
feast of colour for the eye, but a sense of pleasure for 
the ear, in the liquid plash of jets of water and in the 
softened sound of what appears to be distant music, 
although how produced and how tempered so as to 
resemble the airs in Prospero's enchanted island, which 
was "full of sounds and sweet airs, which give delight 
and hurt not," is a question which the present writer 
refrains from prying into. Why dissect the sources of 
our enjoyment ? Besides, has not Mr. Moore published a 
volume of fairy stories, and who knows what private 
understanding may subsist between himself and those 
"lithe and rainbow elves" who are subject to Oberon and 
Titania, and own kinship with Puck and Robin Good- 
fellow ? It is not alone that this "cool grot" is pene- 
trated by these softly musical vibrations, but there 
suddenly breaks into song a sweet-voiced bird, resembling 
a canary in many of its notes, but softly subdued, as if 
it were quietly rehearsing to itself a tender symphony it 
had just composed, and was pausing every now and then, 
reflectively and critically, to consider the probable effect 
on human ears of its delicious warble. There is certainly 
no bird visible to the listener, and so it may be presumed 
there is no listener visible to the bird, and therefore he 
indulges in little trills and quavers just for his own 
gratification in a kind of self-communion such as even 
human vocalists may give way to in solitude. But, as 
has been said above, this poetically-named and binomial 
secretary has travelled into fairyland, and learned fairy 
lore, so that there is really no knowing what sort of coad- 
jutors he may possess in the shape of elves and gnomes. 

In the very good times — in the full tide of its 
prosperity— the Victoria Racing Club enjoyed a revenue 
exceeding £100,000 per annum. It is now a little below 
that figure, but is rapidly regaining its normal level. 



When Mr. Moore undertook the secretaryship the money 
added to the stakes did not exceed £12,100 per annum. 
It afterwards arose to £44,800, and is at present upwards 
of £36,000, the stakes themselves amounting to over 
£45,000 per annum. 

During his term of office Mr. Moore has purchased the 
two houses now occupied by the club in Bourke Street ; 
and when, eleven years ago, it was thought desirable tb 
float £10,000 worth of debentures, and the times were so 
bad that there was no demand for them in the Melbourne 
market, he took the whole of them up himself, at a small 
premium, in order to maintain the financial credit of the 
club, and, placing them on the London market, re-sold 
them at some little personal loss. 

He has succeeded, by tact, judgment, and good temper, 
in avoiding litigation, especially at the hands of 'those 
undesirable and unscrupulous persons whom he has found 
it necessary to exclude from the course, and he has 
worked up the Distressed Jockeys' Fund until it shows 
a respectable capital of £7,200 invested in debentures. 
Under its benevolent provisions any married jockey 
incapacitated by injuries received in any part of Victoria 
obtains an allowance of £2 per week, and any single 
jockey of £1 10s. a week, until he is able to resume his 
employment. A Convalescent Jockeys' Home has like- 
wise been built upon the course, in which those who are 
thus circumstanced can receive the care and attention 
they require. 

It may be interesting to mention that no less a sum 
than £1,046,070 has been disbursed by the club in stakes, 
nearly £300,000 in improvements, and close upon £100,000 
in maintenance, besides the very large amounts which are 
accounted for by other items of expenditure. 

Something remains to be said with respect to the 
good order which prevails upon the course at the great 
race meetings, and the absence of crime attending the 
immense assemblages on Cup Day. As regards the first, 
it is perfectly apparent to every person present, and has 
been made the subject of comment, admiration, and 
astonishment by visitors from all parts of the world. 
As regards the second, the following simple statement, 
gathered from the police reports, in relation to the 
offences committed in connection with the November or 
Cup meetings in 1900, when there was an aggregate 
attendance of 300,000 persons, may be 'left to speak for 
itself :— 3rd November : No offences committed. 6th 
November : Offensive behaviour, one case, fined 20s. or 
three days' imprisonment ; larceny from tbe person, one 
case, fourteen days' imprisonment ; insulting behaviour, 
one case, 10s. or three days' imprisonment. 8th No- 
vember : Drunkenness (a cabman), one case, 10s. or seven 
days' imprisonment. 10th November : Attempted 

larceny, one case, three months' imprisonment. In 
addition to the foregoing cases, six persons were turned 
off the course for playing illegal games. 



HENRY BYRON MOORE, Secre- 
tary for the Victoria Racing Club, 
son of the late Frederick Byron 
Moore, formerly head of the Vic- 
torian Government Stores Depart- 
ment, was born on the 11th of Feb- 



ruary, 1839. He arrived in Victoria 
in 1852, and in the following year, 
on a letter of recommendation from 
Sir Andrew Clarke to Governor 
Latrobe (then in charge of Port 
Phillip), was appointed field clerk 



and draughtsman in the District 
Survey Office, Geelong. In 1861, on 
the removal of Mr. Skene, the Dis- 
trict Surveyor, to Melbourne, Mr. 
Byron Moore was appointed to the 
vacant position, and worked so as- 



120 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA 



siduously that his health was en- 
dangered. He accordingly obtained 
leave of absence, and visited England, 
where he spent a year, and while 
there was elected a member of the 
Royal Geographical Society of Eng- 
land. On his return to Melbourne in 
1863, he devoted his attention to 
photo-lithography in the Lands De- 
partment, and during the next three 
years rendered great service to the 
colony in the execution of maps and 
plans. In 1865 he was deputed to 
the special work of initiating Mr. 
Grant's Amending Land Act, and in 
1870, in recognition of the services 
he had rendered, was appointed As- 
sistant Surveyor-General. Such was 
the reputation he had established 
that in 1874 he was deputed to re- 
organise the Lands and Survey De- 
partment. In this task he worked 
unceasingly, and at the end of the 
year had the gratification of perfect- 
ing his programme. Early in 1878 
(on the memorable "Black Wednes- 
day") he left the service of the 
Victorian Government, and started 
in business on his own account as a 
surveyor and financial agent. After 
a short career in this line he sug- 
gested the idea of a Mercantile Ex- 
change, and, with the help of a con- 
genial spirit, erected the building in 
Collins Street, Melbourne, known as 
the "Exchange." This building owed 
its construction to the enterprise of 



Mr. R. J. Jeffray, of the firm of 
Wm. Sloane and Co., at a cost of 
more than £20,000, and upon its 
completion Mr. Byron Moore became 
the lessee. The Exchange is all that 
can be desired, being situated within 
easy access of all the principal busi- 
ness places, and Mr. Byron Moore 




Johnstone, O'Shannaty and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. Henry Byron Moore. 

has spared neither time nor expense 
in his efforts to induce business men 
and merchants to make it their 
rendezvous. A telephone exchange, 
founded by Mr. Byron Moore, in con- 



junction with Messrs. Masters and 
Draper, was worked on the roof of 
the building, and was ultimately sold 
to the Government. Mr. Byron 
Moore introduced the telephone 
system to Melbourne long before it 
had come into use in London, and he 
also initiated the "Melbourne Wool 
Circular," which is distributed 
throughout the world. He has been 
closely identified with the Victoria 
Racing Club for the last twenty 
years, having been appointed secre- 
tary in 1880 ; and to his untiring 
exertions in its interests we owe the 
fact that the Flemington racecourse, 
where the meetings of the club are 
held, is admittedly one of the most 
attractive in the world. Mr. Byron 
Moore is also identified with all 
social and charitable functions. He 
is an ardent musical enthusiast, and 
is the composer of "Twelve Double 
Chants," published in booklet form, 
several of which have been sung in 
St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1900 Mr. 
Moore very generously gave 2,000 
copies of the chants for sale in aid 
of the Children's Hospital ; and 
2,000 copies of a charming fairy 
tale, entitled "How the Cruel Imp 
Became a Good Fairy," were also 
given by him for the same pur- 
pose, realising over £200 for that 
charity. During Bishop Moorhouse's 
term of office he held a seat on his 
council. 



The Victoria Amateur Turf Club. 



This flourishing institution owed its origin to the 
public spirit and love of sport exhibited by half a dozen 
gentlemen warmly interested in racing, who met at 
Craig's Hotel, Ballarat, in the month of October, 1875. 
Their names were these :— Messrs. F. D. McLeod, Herbert 
Power, E. C. Moore, Hector Wilson, and Acheson E. 
French. After some preliminary discussion the formation 
of the Victoria Amateur Turf Club was unanimously agreed 
upon, and practical effect was given to this resolution in 
the month following. It will be interesting to place upon 
record the names of the original members, thirty in 
number. In alphabetical order they were these :— Messrs. 
Charles Ayrey, John Adams, Andrew Chirnside, A. S. 
Chirnside, R. Chirnside, L. M. Calvert, J. R. Cowell, J. 
Coldham, jun., Acheson E. French, E. V. French, James 
Grice, J. O. Inglis, W. Leonard, F. D. McLeod, G. G. 
Morton, John Mack, E. C. Moore, M. O'Shanassy, J. E. 
O'Brien, Robert Power, Herbert Power, M. Pender, W. 
Pender, John S. Pearson, John Simson, D. D. Simson, 
Alex. Wilson, Hector Wilson, Norman Wilson, and Arthur 
Wilson. 



The subscription was fixed at £25 per annum, and the 
club, steadily growing in strength, influence, and useful- 
ness, now numbers 500 members. As the association 
was instituted at Ballarat, it was resolved that the 
inaugural race meeting should be held there, and it took 
place accordingly on the course at Dowling Forest on the 
24th of March, 1876, so that the club has finished 
the first quarter of a century of its existence. A few 
months later, after various seemingly eligible sites had 
been inspected, the present course at Caulfield was 
selected on account of its proximity to the city, the 
nature of the soil, and its pleasant position. It is about 
six miles from Melbourne, with a railway station close to 
the enclosure, and the course is one mile and a quarter 
and sixty-four yards in length. 

From the very commencement of the club success 
shone upon it, so much so that it has been enabled to pay 
away something like £300,000 in stakes, and to expend 
£40,000 in improvements, thus establishing the title of 
the Victoria Amateur Turf Club to take rank as one of 
the leading racing associations of Victoria, the contest 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



121 



for the Caulfield Cup, of £2,500, annually given by the 
club, being one of the chief sporting events of the year, 
and exciting a large share of public attention in the 
neighbouring States as well as in Victoria. 




Johnstone, O'Shanncsfy and Co. 

Mr. Thomas W. Moule. 



Afclb. 



The present chairman of the club, who has occupied 
that honorable position for many years past, is Mr. 
James Grice, who, it will be seen from the foregoing 



list, was one of its original founders, and the committee 
at the present date of writing is composed of the follow- 
ing gentlemen .—The chairman, Mr. Henry Brush, Mr. 
Frank Cumming, Mr. Albert Miller, Mr. Charles D. 
O'Halloran, Mr. Herbert Power, Mr. R. G. Row, and Mr. 
George Woodforde. 

The third secretary of the club, Mr. N. Rundell D. 
Bond, who held office for a period of ten years, belonged 
to a sporting family in Hertfordshire who had been 
greatly enriched by the wealth bequeathed to them by 
their relative, Mr. Rundell, of the famous firm of 
Rundell and Bridge, of Ludgate Hill, goldsmiths to George 
the Fourth, and he entered upon his duties with consider- 
able zeal and enthusiasm. Backed up by an equally 
zealous committee, and supported by the liberality of the 
public, Mr. Bond contributed in no unimportant degree to 
accelerate the progress of the club, which advanced by 
rapid strides until it acquired its present position, and 
became one of the foremost institutions of the kind in 
this group of States. 

Since the origination of the institution the duties of 
secretary to the Victoria Amateur Turf Club have been 
performed by the undermentioned gentlemen : — E. C. 
Moore, 1875-1876 ; T. S. Fenner, 1876-1881 ; N. R. D. 
Bond, 1881-1891 ; Harrie Smith, 1891-1895. On the 
death of the last-named gentleman, in the month of July, 
1895, Mr. Thomas W. Moule received the appointment of 
secretary, and has continued to hold that office up to the 
present time. 




J. A. Sears 



The Grand-stand and Lawn, Caulfield Racecourse. 



Mtib. 



122 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



The Findon Harriers. 



As far back as the year 1871 Mr. Edward Woods 
received several couples of harriers from a wealthy 
member of the London Stock Exchange who was his 
personal friend. In the following year Mr. Edward 
Miller joined with Mr. Woods, and the pack was kept at 
Findon, Kew, whence it received its name. Numerically 
the Findon Harriers were not strong in those days, and 
so they were hunted on foot, in conjunction with a pack 
of beagles belonging to Sir Anthony Brownless. Many a 
good run was had about Flemington and Coburg after 
hares, which were not nearly so plentiful as they after- 
wards became. 

As the vicinity of Melbourne became more closely 
settled, hunting on horseback became more agreeable than 
on foot, so the hounds were taken further afield, and 
Hawthorn, Caulfield, and even Templestowe and Mor- 
dialloc were the scenes of many exciting chases. Later 
on the hounds were removed to Alphington, as the in- 
habitants of Kew found them somewhat of an annoyance. 
Mr. H. Bellamy, afterwards well known as trainer of the 
Redleap horses, was huntsman during the stay of the 
hounds at Alphington. The hounds were next taken to Mill 
Park, where they are now kennelled. Splendid sport was 
always obtainable in the wooded country at the back of 
the homestead, or in the open fields of Craigieburn. 
Nothing but live game was ever hunted, and it is largely 
due to this fact that the pack has been maintained in 
such excellent condition. 

Mr. Edward Miller, about 1890, after hunting the 
hounds for twenty years, was reluctantly compelled to 
give up the mastership. His successor was Mr. Sept. 
Miller, the present chairman of the V.R.C., who hunted 
the hounds for two years. During this period the fol- 
lowers were always treated to excellent sport, and in a 
measure Mr. Miller's success in the field has contributed 
to his present success as a sportsman. Mr. Hubert 
Miller took over the pack in 1893, and he well remembers 
the first occasion on which he hunted the Melton country 
with the hounds. A fox— a rarity then— took tbe field 
away in great style, and it was universally agreed by all 
the followers that it was one of the finest fox hunts 
experienced up to that time in the colony. In the fol- 
lowing year a fox was started at South Yan Yean, and 
took the field right across to Beveridge, on the North- 
Eastern line, fully fifteen miles distant as the crow flies. 
No man ever got to the end of that hunt. One after 
another of the straightest riders came down. Dolphin 
was the last to fall. He turned completely over, and 
the master escaped by a hair's breadth. The hounds 
were afterwards found in the mountains near Beveridge. 

Of late years a great change has occurred in the 
hunting field, owing to the large increase of foxes in the 
country, with the result that such sport has rewarded 
the followers of the hounds as was never before ex- 
perienced, and there seems to be little doubt that 
hunting in the colonies is fast approaching the English 
standard. The master was greatly assisted at this time 



by the encouragement which the Earl and Countess of 
Hopetoun gave to the chase. Whenever any difficulty 
arose with the land-owners, His Excellency was always 
ready to do his utmost to allay any hostile feeling shown 
towards the followers of the pack, and the master 
should feel especially indebted to Lord Hopetoun for the 
very flattering terms in which he alluded to the Findon 
Harriers in his article in the "Badmington Magazine, " 
where he says :— "A private pack of harriers is kept near 
Epping, fourteen miles from town, by the Messrs. Miller. 
As they are kept entirely to legitimate' game— the hare— 
and never allowed to run a drag, they hunt more closely 
and with much greater patience than does any other pack 
out there. Mr. Hubert Miller, son of Mr. Albert Miller, 
of Grand National fame, has recently undertaken the 
mastership. He has the making in him of a very first- 
class huntsman. A perfect temper, great patience, and 




Johnstone, O'Shannctty and Co. Melb. 

Mr. R. M. Cuthbertson, 

Secretary Findon Harriers. 

an entire devotion to sport is a combination which many 
older and experienced men might covet with good reason. 
The hounds are a very nice level lot, and his smart 
turn-out, with its well-appointed servants, makes it diffi- 
cult to realise that the best traditions of sport are being 
carried out, not in England— the cradle of hunting— but in 
a distant part of our Empire." 

A desire had often been expressed by many of the 
followers that the Findon Harriers should be converted 
into a subscription pack, so that those who participated 
in the sport might have an opportunity of contributing 
something towards their maintenance. With this end in 
view a meeting of a number of sporting and- hunting men 
was held on the 9th of August, 1898. Mr. Albert Miller, 
the owner of the pack, being agreeable, it was unani- 
mously resolved to form what is known as the Findon 



The cyclopedia of viCfoftiA. 



123 



Harriers Hunt Club. The Hon. E. Miller, Messrs. 
George Russell, Albert Miller, Everard Browne, and 
Hubert Miller were the members of the first committee 
appointed by the meeting, the last-named gentleman being 
appointed master. Since then the club has made won- 
derful progress, and has also become prominent in social 
circles. 

The club is fortunate in possessing such a liberal and 
sportsmanlike president as Sir Rupert Clarke. Not only 
has he entertained members and invited guests to the 
number of about 300 at Ruperts wood, Sunbury, at a hunt 
breakfast during the last two years, but has also thrown 



his whole country estate at Digger's Rest and Rockbank 
open to the Harriers. The race meetings of the club 
have also been a distinguished success. Mr. Albert 
Miller, the chairman of committee, gives much of his 
time and experience to this branch of the club's entertain- 
ment, and the Saturday's meeting in September of each 
year, with its four-in-hand coaches, its distinguished 
ladies' committees presiding at afternoon tea, and its 
good racing programmes, are always very enjoyable. The 
sport that has been shown since the pack has been consti- 
tuted a club has been very fine, and quite up to the high 
standard of excellence shown in former years. 



Mr. WILLIAM HENRY CROKER, 
Barrister and Solicitor, one of the 
leading commercial lawyers and Ad- 
miralty advocates in the State, 
arrived in Victoria at an early age, 
having been born in Canada. He 
matriculated at the Melbourne Uni- 
versity in 1868, and there completed 
his education for the legal profession, 
and won the gold medal for law in 
1872. He showed an early taste for 
law, and was admitted to the Bar in 
1874, and, after having served his 
articles with the late Hon. Robert 
Sterling Anderson, -a well-known 
politician and Minister of the Crown, 
he entered into partnership with that 
gentleman, establishing the firm of 
Anderson and Croker. Mr. Croker 
has acquired the reputation of being 
one of our soundest legal advisers, 
and is regarded as a leader among 
our commercial lawyers. In 1886 he 
formed a "coalition with the well- 
known firm of Gillott and Snowden, 
which, under the style of Gillott, 
Croker, Snowden, and Co., for several 
years occupied a most prominent 
position in the legal world. Two of 
the members of the firm — Mr. 
Snowden and Mr. Gillott— became 
members of the City Council, and 
afterwards Mayors of the city of 
Melbourne, and, as Sir Arthur 
Snowden and Sir Samuel Gillott, 
received the honor of knighthood. 
Mr. Croker has not entered public 
life, but devoted himself to his pro- 
fession, and, as a keen sportsman, 
became a member of the V.R.C. 
committee in 1889, and is a promi- 
nent representative of all the leading 
institutions which govern the sport 
of racing in Victoria. The firm 
having been dissolved for several 
years, Mr. Croker has carried on his 
practice, which is regarded as one of 
the largest In Melbourne, as "W. H. 



Croker," whilst the late partners 
have formed two other firms. Mr. 
Croker is and has been for many 
years the president and principal sup- 
porter of the Oaklands Hunt Club. 



Mr. RICHARD GOLDSBROUGH 
ROW, Wool Broker, Collins Street, 
Melbourne, member of the firm of R. 
Goldsbrough Row and Co., is a son of 
Mr. Frederick Row, a prominent Mel- 
bourne merchant, for many years 
closely identified with the wool in- 
dustry in Australasia. He was born 
in Melbourne on the 21st of April, 
I860, and commenced his education 
at the Church of England Grammar 
School, Prahran. At the age of 
fourteen he was sent to England, 
and finished his school days at a 
college in Chester. He then re- 
turned to Victoria, and started to 
learn the wool business in the estab- 
lishment of Messrs. R. Goldsbrough 
and Co. (now Goldsbrough, Mort, 
and Co.). In 1880 he returned to 
England, and, proceeding to Bradford, 
spent some time in the study of wool 
sorting, afterwards attending the 
London wool sales to gain experience 
in wool valuing, etc. The year 
1890 found Mr. Row again in Mel- 
bourne, and once more in the estab- 
lishment of Messrs. Goldsbrough and 
Co., where he was engaged in the 
wool valuing department. His con- 
nection with this business firm ex- 
tended over a period of nearly twenty 
years, and during this term, a branch 
having been opened in Sydney, Mr. 
Row spent several seasons there. In 
1899 he severed his connection with 
this firm, and established himself in 
business on his own account at his 
present address, Collins Street West, 
under the style of R. Goldsbrough 
Row and Co. Mr. Row takes fre- 



quent trips to Europe, in order to 
keep in touch with latest develop- 
ments in the wool trade. An ardent 
votary of amateur sport, he takes a 
special interest in cricket, and during 
his frequent visits to England has 
never lost an opportunity of being 
present at the test matches, England 
v. Australia. He is a member of 
the Victoria Racing Club and a mem- 
ber of the committee of the Victoria 
Amateur Turf Club, while as an 
owner of racers he has had his share 
of success, his most prominent win 
having been the Grand National 
Hurdle Race, Caulfield, August, 1901, 
with his splendid horse, Repeater. 




Johnstone, O'ShanncMy and Co. ifelb. 

Mr. Robert Crawford. 

ROBERT CRAWFORD, Merchant, 
William Street, Melbourne, and 
member of the Victoria Racing Club 
committee, was born in the year 
1843, in County Antrim, Ireland, 
where he served his indentures in the 
grocery business. He arrived whe r 



124 



The cyclopedia of victoria 



only nineteen years o! age in Vic- 
toria, and proceeded to the North- 
Eastern town of Beechwortb, which 
became his residence until the year 
1877. His colonial career began as 
traveller and bookkeeper for a Beech- 
worth firm, but from 1867 he repre- 
sented as traveller the firms of John 
McGee and Co., McCallum, Niel, and 
Co., and Bell, Bruce, and Co. In 
1877 he entered into business on his 
own account in Queen Street, Mel- 
bourne, subsequently building the 
premises in William Street, in 1888, 
which he has since occupied. Mr. 
Crawford was steward of the Beech- 
worth Club from 1865 to 1872, and 
at that period the north - eastern 
town had one of the principal pro- 
vincial racing institutions in Vic- 
toria. For about eight years Mr. 
Crawford acted as honorary trea- 
surer of the Victorian Club, as well 
as forming a member of the com- 
mittee, and in 1897 he was elected a 
member of the V.R.C. committee, 
which position he still holds. Al- 
though not known personally as the 
proprietor of racehorses, Mr. Craw- 
ford has held half shares in those 
well-known jumpers, Goldfinder and 
Arcadia. He was part owner of the 
Wayra Station, situated on the Mitta 
Mitta River, and here stood a 
splendid thoroughbred stallion in 
Zomy Barbarian, by Barbarian 
from Lady Kingston. Mr. Crawford 
is well known on all the metro- 
politan racecourses, and is highly 
respected by all who enjoy the privi- 
lege of his acquaintance as well as by 
those who know him only by repute. 



CHARLES FORBES FRASER, 
St. Kilda, Stipendiary Steward and 
Judge of the Victoria Racing Club, 
was born in Melbourne, Victoria, in 
the year 1841, but when four years 
old removed with his family to Tas- 
mania, and completed his education 
at the Hobart High School. He 
returned to Melbourne, and, at the 
age of eighteen, joined his brother-in- 
law, the Hon. William De Graves, 
merchant and squatter, with whom 
he remained for the next fifteen 
years, residing principally on a 
station in the Kyneton district. In 
1873 Mr. Fraser started sheep and 
agricultural farming on the Pimberly 
Estate, Malmsbury, near that town, 



where he bred and raced several fine 
horses, including such well-known 
performers as Dollar, Sir William 
Pimberly, Blantyre, Wantage, and 
Impudence. In 1891 Mr. Fraser was 
appointed stipendiary steward to the 
Victoria Racing Club, a post he con- 
tinues to hold, visiting in this 
capacity all the clubs racing under 
the V.R.C. rules within fifty miles 
of Melbourne. He is a member of 
the Athenaeum Club, and one of the 
oldest members of the Pigeon Shoot- 
ing Club, having been the winner up 
to the last three years of several 
trophies. Mr. Fraser married a 
daughter of Dr. Benson, chief Go- 
vernment medical officer of Hobart. 
His father, Major James Fraser, 




Johnstone, O'Shanneaay and Co. ifelb. 

Mr. Charles Forbes Fraser. 

entered the army in 1803, through 
the kind recommendation of His 
Grace Henry, Duke of Buccleuch, at 
a very early age. He served with 
the 78th Regiment in the East 
Indies, took part in the capture of 
the Island of Java, and went through 
the campaign in Flanders until 1816, 
when, by the reduction of the 2nd 
Battalion, he was placed on half-pay. 
In 1838 he came out to Melbourne, 
and purchased the Mordialloc 
station. Through bad seasons and 
misfortunes he lost a considerable 
amount of money there, and in 1843 
went over to Tasmania with his 
son-in-law, Dr. J. W. Agnew, where 
he accepted the position of superin- 
tendent of one of the penal establish- 
ments — the late Dr. (afterwards 



Sir) J. W. Agnew having been ap- 
pointed surgeon to the same estab- 
lishment— -subsequently raising him- 
self to an eminent position as one of 
the wealthiest of Tasmanian colo- 
nists, and at one time Premier of 
the State. Major Fraser's father, 
the late Lieutenant-Colonel James 
Fraser, of the 78th Foot, entered the 
army in 1780, and for thirty-two 
years was on constant active service 
in the East Indies. He was confined 
in irons for twelve months in the 
prison of Chittlcdroog by the Nabob, 
Tippo Sultan, and was afterwards 
present at the siege of Seringapatam 
in 1799, and at the capture of the 
Island of Ceylon in 1795. He also 
served under the Duke of Wellington 
(then Sir A. Wellesley) during the 
whole of the Mahratta campaign in 
1803. He was subsequently ap- 
pointed to the command of one of the 
flank battalions in the expedition 
against Java, where he specially dis- 
tinguished himself, and was after- 
wards killed there, while lieutenant- 
colonel commanding the 78th Foot. 
Mr. Chas. Forbes Fraser's great- 
grandfather served in the reigns of 
their Majesties George II., III., and 
IV. for fifty-four years, and was one 
of the few officers who survived the 
memorable siege of Mangalore, on the 
coast of Malabar, in 1784, when the 
sufferings of the garrison were so 
gteat. He afterwards served with 
the 78th Regiment as captain in the 
campaign in Holland, under His 
Royal Highness the Duke of York, in 
1794-5, and latterly as captain and 
adjutant of the Edinburgh Militia, 
under His Grace Henry, Duke of 
Buccleuch. The great-uncle of Mr. 
C. F. Fraser died a captain in the 
78th Regiment in India, after fifteen 
years' service there, thus making the 
long period of 134 years' honorable 
service in one family under four 
reigns. 



JOHN BUCKLEY, Secretary of 
the Victorian Club, 243 Bourke 
Street, Melbourne, is a very old and 
well-known identity in the sporting 
world. He has ever been a keen 
admirer of horse-racing, and since 
Flying Buck won the Champion Race 
in 1859 has never missed a race 
meeting at Flemington. Mr. Buckley 
is held in high esteem by a large 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



125 



circle of friends and acquaintances 
for his genial and courteous manner, 
which, combined with rare business 
ability, enables him to carry out his 
secretarial duties with conspicuous 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. 

Mr. John Bitcklby. 



Melb. 



success. He has been a member of 
the Victorian Club since its incep- 
tion, and previous to being appointed 
secretary in 1896 had been actively 
connected with its management since 
1887. 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb, 

Mr. M. P. Considine. 

Mr. M. P. CONSIDINE, of 491 
Bourke Street, Melbourne, was born 
in the county of Gal way, Ireland, in 
the year 1862, and came out to Aus- 



tralia when five years old, arriving 
during the visit of H.R.H. the late 
Duke of Edinburgh. He was edu- 
cated at Castlemaine. In 1882 he 
removed to Melbourne, and, in con- 
junction with Mr. Thomas Hay don, 
took over the management of the 
Elsternwick Park Racing Club, which 
proved to be the best proprietary 
racecourse, until the lease expired in 
1891. He then took over the man- 
agement of the Sandown Park Racing 
Club and several other clubs, of which 
he has still the control. Mr. 
Considine was the originator of the 
starting machine on registered race- 
courses, which in 1894 was used for 
the first time at Sandown Park, Lord 
Hopetoun being present at its initia- 
tion. Mr. Considine is agent for the 
following racing clubs : — Sandown 
Racing Club, Aspendale Park, Ade- 
laide, South Australian Jockey, Port 
Adelaide, Tattersall's (Adelaide), 
Onkaparinga, Bacchus Marsh, Colac, 
Albury, and several others, and con- 
ducts commission on all business con- 
nected with racing. He is a member 
of the Victorian Club, and likewise of 
the Victoria Racing Club. 



H. P. SUTTON, Secretary to the 
Williamstown Racing Club, was born 
in the year 1837 at Poplar, near 
London, and arrived here two years 
afterwards with his father, who, 
settling at Williamstown, was the 
first pilot appointed in Victoria. 
Apprenticed to Walter Powell and 
Co., the well-known ironmongers, the 
young man quitted that business 
when the earliest rush to the gold- 
fields took place, and was one of the 
first gold - seekers on the Bendigo 
field. He entered the Government 
service, and was presently pro- 
moted to the position of paymaster 
in the naval forces of Victoria. 
This office he held for twelve years, 
and then became one of the staff of 
the newly-created Harbour Trust. 
He quitted this post in 1892, in 
order to undertake the secretaryship 
of the Williamstown Racing Club, in 
the prosperity of which he had taken 
a warm interest for five and twenty 
years. When he assumed the reins 
of management, the racing was 
chiefly confined to horses owned by 
persons residing in the district, but 
in the year following he issued a 



programme of events open to all 
horses, and this met with such 
general approval that from that time 
forward the club began to progress 
and prosper steadily, so that whereas 
under the former state of things not 
more than £120 were distributed as 
prizes at one annual meeting, eight 
or nine are now held in the year, 
and the stakes amount to between 
£4,000 and £5,000. So popular, 
indeed, has this club become that at 
the last Cup meeting the stakes run 
for reached the respectable sum of 
£2,000. Upwards of £25,000 have 
been expended upon improvements by 
the club, and these include a com- 
modious grand - stand, capable of 
seating 3,500 spectators. Thanks 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. H. P. Sutton. 

also to the prudent management of 
the committee and Mr. Sutton, the 
club is entirely free from debt. It 
numbers 250 members, among whom 
are to be found some of the most 
prominent patrons of the turf. The 
racecourse is admittedly one of the 
prettiest of the kind in the suburbs 
of Melbourne ; and ready access to 
it is obtained by railway from 
Spencer Street to Williamstown 
North, and thence by a special line 
to the course direct. The approach 
to the grand-stand is through a 
picturesque avenue of shrubs and 
flowers, and in front of that struc- 
ture there is a spacious green lawn, 
extending as far as the weighing 
yanj. All the arrangements, appli- 



126 



THE CYCLOPEDIA. OF VICTORIA. 



ances, and appurtenances of the 
course are thoroughly up to date. 
There is a substantially - built 
weighing-room, together with com- 
mittee, jockey, and dressing rooms, 
all under one roof ; and from the 
centre rises a lofty tower, upon the 
four sides of which the numbers of 
the starting horses are exhibited so 
prominently as to be visible and 
legible in every part of the course ; 
the numbers of the winning horses 
being likewise displayed directly the 
decisions of the judges have been 
made known. Underneath the grand- 
stand is a very large area of 
luncheon room and two bars, con- 
veniently situated for visitors. An 
extensive saddling paddock provides 
ample accommodation for the largest 



field of horses assembling on the Wil- 
liamstown racecourse, the situation 
of which, so near the Bay, and in 
sight of the shipping passing in and 
out of the harbour, is a specially 
attractive one ; and, as two of the 
meetings are held upon such popular 
holidays as Easter Monday and the 
9 th of November, they naturally 
attract crowds of visitors, the scene 
upon these occasions resembling a 
gigantic picnic. The course is about 
one mile and a quarter round, with 
a good straight run home, and there 
is likewise a fine steeplechase course ; 
while visitors to the flat have the 
gratification of obtaining an uninter- 
rupted view of each event from start 
to finish. The land covered by the 
course and reserve is held by the 



club under a Crown grant, as 
trustees. During the period it has 
been in existence the club has bene- 
fited by the liberality of many of its 
members, and among those especial 
mention must be made of Mr. C. F. 
Orr, who might almost be regarded as 
its permanent chairman. Mr. Sutton 
is assisted in his duties by his son, 
Mr. H. T. Sutton, the assistant sec- 
retary of the club. He has taken 
an active interest in the Manchester 
Unity Order of Oddfellows, in which 
he has filled the chair as Provincial 
Grand Master of the Port Phillip 
district, and was one of the chief 
promoters of the Friendly Societies' 
Dispensary at Williamstown, in which 
place he has been a resident for forty 
years. 



The Melbourne Cricket Club. 



The inveterate attachment of Englishmen to the 
sports and pastimes of their forefathers accompanies them 
to whatever part of the globe their adventurous spirit 
may prompt them to migrate to and settle in, and the 
little community which sprang up on the banks of the 
Yarra was only three years old when the first cricket 
club was established in Melbourne. Probably the most 
sanguine of its members, in the wildest flights of his 
imagination, would have been incapable of conceiving 
that a time would arrive when matches would be played 
between English and Anglo-Australian cricketers in the 
Richmond Paddock, and on the most famous grounds in 
the old country ; still less that by any possibility the 
results- of these contests would be publicly known in the 
opposite quarter of the globe on the day following their 
occurrence. 

Robert Russell, who died in the last year of the last 
century, and was the sole survivor of the original club, 
communicated to the late Edmund Finn the particulars 
of its foundation and its early history, which are here 
subjoined :— Its formation was first suggested by Mr. F. 
A. Powlett, afterwards well known and highly respected 
as a police magistrate, and Mr. D. S. McArthur 
purchased the first cricketing implements for its use. 
Both these gentlemen, as also Mr. Russell himself, were 
among the first to enrol themselves as members, and the 
list included the names of such well-known men as D. C. 
McArthur, Captain Bacchus, Peter Snodgrass, William 
Highett, Brock, Jamieson, and others. The subscription 
was one guinea, and the opening match was played three 
days after the institution of the club. This took place 
in the middle of November, 1838, near Batman's Hill, in 
what the "Port Phillip Gazette" speaks of as "the 
beautiful pleasure grounds around this fast-rising town." 
And it was played, according to the same authority, 
"with an esprit de corps, a judgment, and an activity 



that a first-rate club in England might not be ashamed 
to boast of." The military and the civilians appear to 
have challenged conclusions. The reporter of the period, 
disregarding the wise injunction of Scrooge to Marly, 
"Don't be flowery, Jacob," speaks of the scene as "a 
heart-enlivening sight," and assures us that "the camps 
pitched, banners tastefully arranged, and the all-enlivening 
smiles of beauty that would have graced many a far- 
famed tournament of the olden time, formed a scene that 
we trust often again to witness." The civilians, it must 
be added, won the match. As the club was rather 
exclusive in character— for even then there was an "upper 
ten" in Melbourne— the retail shopkeepers and others 
organised a second association in the year following, and 
called it the "Melbourne Union Cricket Club," and on the 
12th of January, 1839, its first match was played 
between the gentlemen of the district and the tradesmen 
of the town, the latter coming off victorious ; but at the 
second match, a week afterwards, the gentlemen defeated 
their opponents, mainly owing to the fact that one of 
their number (Mr. Powlett) scored 120 runs. 

On the 30th of March the bachelors and the married 
men were pitted against each other, on the ground of the 
original club, the latter beating the former ; but the 
position was reversed by the return match, and a third 
awarded the laurels to the single, who won in a single 
innings. Among the players on both sides we find the 
names of many who afterwards became prominent in the 
social history of the period, as, for example, T. F. 
Hamilton, Captain Vignolles, R. Barry, Campbell, 
Cavanagh, etc., while upon the roll of members were 
Messrs. Gurner, Henty, Marsden, Orr, and Stubbs. 

A cricket club was formed at Brighton in 1842, and 
three matches were played between it and the Melbourne 
Cricket Club in 1845, the first of them on Easter Monday, 
the seaside folk proving victorious. One of the players, 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



127 



Mr. John Highett, was indiscreet enough to carry notes 
of the value of £500 in one of his coat pockets, and 
divesting himself of the garment on taking the field, he 
found that it and its contents had vanished on his 
return. 

On Easter Monday, 1847, the cricketers of Melbourne 
and Geelong met upon the ground of the former, and the 
men of the capital came off triumphant. In the year 
following the permissive occupancy of a more advan- 
tageous site for a cricket ground was granted by the 
Superintendent of the province. This consisted of ten 
acres, forming part of J. P. Fawkner's ' 'cultivation 
paddock," on the south side of the Yarra. Next year an 
interesting match was played between ten Europeans and 
ten natives of New South Wales. It took place on the 
18th of November at Geelong, and was gained by the 
latter by one run only. 



From the time of landing to the time of embarking the 
same spirit continued— dinners, balls, musical parties, 
picnics, and every description of entertainment was got 
up to give a hearty welcome to the strangers from Port 
Phillip. Not only so, but there was a remarkable 
repression of any feeling of satisfaction or exultation 
over the good play of the Tasmanians. Not the slightest 
breath of applause escaped from the multitude, numbering 
over fifteen hundred, assembled on the ground during the 
two days over which the match extended, but a marked 
silence ensued, as though they thought they had com- 
mitted a breach of hospitality in thus defeating their 
guests. It is not often it can be said of such a gather- 
ing, belonging to all classes of the community, 'It is an 
assemblage entirely composed of ladies and gentlemen.' " 
When the influx into Melbourne of diggers "bearded 
like the pard" encouraged the inhabitants to cultivate 




England v. Australia, Melbourne Cricket Club Grounds. 



On the 11th of February, 1851, the first contest took 
place between the cricketers of Victoria and those of 
Tasmania, in which the islanders were the winners. 
When some future Lecky writes the history of "Tas- 
manian Morals and Manners" he will probably quote, in 
proof of the suavity and courtesy of the then dwellers in 
Launceston, where the match took place, the account 
given by a Melbourne newspaper of the period of the 
reception and treatment of the Victorians on the first 
occasion of an intercolonial contest :— "No sooner had the 
'Shamrock' discharged her passengers in Launceston than 
the whole town was in a buzz, each and every person 
trying to outstrip his neighbours in every kind attention 
which the most genuine hospitality could suggest. 
Everybody invited everybody, and the difficulty was how 
to contrive so as to partake of all that was offered. 



something of the kind upon their own faces, it became 
practicable to get up a cricket match between the 
whiskered and the whiskerless cricketers, and it took 
place on the 26th of April, 1851, when the smooth-faced 
players were defeated, but by three runs only. It is 
interesting to find among the competitors many civilians 
who afterwards rose, and were perhaps already rising, to 
eminence in Melbourne. Among these must be mentioned 
the names of Messrs. E. P. Sturt, a'Beckett (two), W. 
H. Hull, Hervey, Stephen, D. S. and W. H. Campbell, A. 
Bell, H. Creswick, " and others only a little less well 
known in later years. 

In the year 1854 the club received the permission of 
the Government to occupy and to fence in nine acres of 
land forming a portion of Richmond Park, and to use it 
as a cricket ground, four acres and a half of the area 



128 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



constituting the playing arena. It would have been 
difficult to select a more eligible spot for the purpose 
intended. Within an easy walk of the city, and con- 
tiguous to a tramway and to two railway stations, 
surrounded by trees, and facing the Botanical Gardens, 
the ground has every recommendation in its favour ; and 
when in 1867 a Crown grant of this extremely valuable, 
block of land was issued to the club, it felt itself justified 
in incurring from year to year so large an expenditure 
upon permanent improvements as have rendered it equal 
to the finest cricket grounds in Great Britain, and, 
therefore, in the world. This object has been accom- 
plished by an outlay of nearly £110,000, while something 
like £3,000 is annually disbursed in maintaining the 
ground and buildings in perfect order and repair, and in 
paying the necessary salaries and wages. The annual 
subscription is two guineas for town, and one guinea for 
country and junior members, with an entrance fee of 
three guineas for the first, and a guinea and a half for 
the second, and one guinea for the third class of sub- 
scribers. 

The grand-stand, which describes a curve of 480 feet 
around the northern boundary of the ground, is a sub- 
stantial structure of brick and iron, erected at a cost of 
£30,000, and provides seating accommodation for 6,000 
spectators. Underneath is an area so spacious as to 
admit of its division into a gymnasium 80 feet by 40, 
capacious refreshment rooms, dressing-rooms for com- 
petitors, luncheon rooms, skittle alley, and training 
room. An embankment encircling more than half of the 
oval arena affords standing room for about 30,000 people, 
and important matches, both of cricket and football, will 
often attract a concourse of this magnitude. 

The first stone of the members' pavilion was laid 
upon the occasion of the visit paid to Melbourne by the 
Royal Princes in 1882. The steady increase which has 
taken place in the membership of the club during the last 
twenty years has twice compelled an enlargement of the 
original edifice, which has cost, from first to last, the 
sum of £10,000. 

Besides these structures there is a pavilion attached 
to the two bowling greens. The latter contain ten full- 
sized rinks. Connected with the cricket ground are like- 
wise three asphalted tennis courts, a smoking reserve, 
refreshment booths, a lodge, stables, workshops, a 
scorer's box, and accommodation for newspaper reporters 
and telegraph operators. In fact, nothing has been over- 
looked, to all appearance, which the most exigent visitor 
could require ; and when the zone of trees planted around 
the reserve reach their full maturity they will greatly 
enhance the beauty of the grounds and the comfort of the 
great mass of spectators. 

A paid secretary (Mr. Curtis Reid) was first 
appointed in 1877-78, at which time there were about 
250 members. Major B. Wardill now efficiently fills that 
office. 



In the main pavilion are. preserved what may be 
called the archives of the club, in the shape of record 
tablets of the performances of the players in their 
international and intercolonial contests from the year 
1856 downwards, as. also of those who have distinguished 
themselves in lawn tennis, together with an interesting 
collection of photographs in connection with the nume- 
rous exploits of Victorian cricketers and their com- 
petitors at home and abroad. 

The year 1856 marked the commencement of those 
intercolonial contests which since then have been of 
annual occurrence ; and on New Year's Day in 1862 the 
first All-England Eleven presented themselves upon the 
Melbourne Cricket Ground to try their skill and strength 
against twenty-two of their Australian brethren. Their 
visit was the result of the courageous enterprise of the 
two lessees of the Cafe de Paris, in Bourke Street, at 
that time the leading restaurant in Melbourne, and the 
financial success of their undertaking was the foundation 
of their fortune, and, therefore, of the colossal business 
which they afterwards built up in London, where they 
revolutionised the methods of catering to the public 
palate previously in vogue. Messrs. Spiers and Pond, 
the enterprising firm referred to, one of whom seemed to 
have been born with a genius for organisation and the 
other with a special faculty for finance, netted £12,000 
by this speculation, and soon afterwards proceeded to 
England, and embarked their capital in the larger 
ventures which in due time made them famous. 

The great match of 1862 excited immense interest, 
and attracted a great concourse of spectators. It was 
the precursor of a series of similar visits, and of teams 
of Australian cricketers proceeding to the mother country 
and playing upon all the principal grounds in England. 

In the winter season numerously-attended football 
matches are held on the oval of the Melbourne Cricket 
Club, and cycling, lawn tennis, baseball, lacrosse, 
billiards, and skittles are likewise engaged in by the 
members. Concerts by moonlight in the summer months, 
and pyrotechnic exhibitions on darker nights, are also 
among the popular entertainments which take place in 
favourable weather. The famous " Austral Wheel Race" 
takes place annually at the cycling carnival held under 
the auspices of the Melbourne Bicycle Club on the cricket 
oval. 

It may be claimed for the club that it has been very 
largely instrumental in fostering a love for athletic 
sports in the population of Victoria, and in promoting 
the interests of what Mary Russell Mitford and William 
Howitt, the historians of the rural life of the mother 
country, have justly denominated the noble and truly 
English game of cricket, which, as the second of these 
writers has observed, "has a direct tendency to 
strengthen the body and quicken the mind, and to 
counteract both the physical and moral poisons of 
crowded factories and thickly-peopled towns." 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



129 



The South Melbourne Cricket Club. 



Founded in the year 1862, this club is one of the most 
flourishing of the many similar associations which have 
been established in the immediate vicinity of Melbourne. 
An excellent ground, in a picturesque situation, offers 
many attractions to visitors, and its membership, which 
in the season of 1868-69— the first year in which a record 
appears to have been kept— was only eighty- two, and the 
amount of subscriptions £86 2s., attained its maximum 
of 788, yielding an income of £1,255. This was in what 
has come to be known as "the boom year." With the 
collapse of the bubble there was a rapid decline until the 
season of 1896-97, when the club touched its lowest 
point, with a membership of 455 and a revenue of £207. 
Since then it has shared in the reviving prosperity of the 
State. The number of members and the income of the 
club have steadily increased, and, under the able manage- 
ment of its honorary office-bearers and of its energetic 



secretary, who has filled that post during twenty years, 
there is a reasonable prospect of a career of increasing 
strength, vitality, and usefulness. The balance-sheet for 
the year ending the 31st of August, 1901, shows the 
receipts from all sources to have been £854 14s. 6d., and 
the expenditure, which included the redemption of twelve 
debentures of £5 each, to have been £816 8s. 6d., leaving 
a credit balance of £38 6s. Seven pennant matches were 
played by the first eleven during that season, of which 
one was won and six were lost ; and the same number 
played by the second eleven resulted in four victories and 
three defeats. Associated with the South Melbourne 
Cricket Club is the Albert Park Bowling Club, which was 
established in 1885. It is extremely popular, as com- 
bining a mild form of exercise with recreation, conducive 
alike to good health, good spirits, and good fellowship 
among residents in the same locality. 



_ Jhe Richmond Cricket Club. 



The formation of this club, of which Mr. Philip 
Johnson may be called the founder, as he obtained from 
the Government a grant of the valuable land it occupies, 
dates from 1854, and one of its earliest secretaries was 
Mr. J. Shoesmith, an energetic and capable man, who 
held' that' position- for many years. A fine team of 
players was soon formed, and successive matches between 
the Melbourne and Richmond clubs were of yearly occur- 
rence, with varying results, and they excited great 
interest. Shoesmith leaving for England in 1868, was 
succeeded by Mortimer, who engaged Sam Cosstick as a 
professional bowler, with the result that the club rapidly 
declined in numbers, and fell into debt. A successful 
effort was made to retrieve its position in 1871, and it 
was strengthened by the accession of three good players 
in the persons of Messrs. T. Kendall, V. Hyde, and W. 
Lampard, from the Surrey Club, another local organisa- 
tion. The second of these was soon afterwards killed by 
a fatal accident in a gymnasium. In 1876 the secretary- 
ship was undertaken by Mr. W. H. Perryman, as successor 
to Mr. A. M. Madden, who had filled the office most 
efficiently for a period of six years. Extensive improve- 
ments were now made in the grounds and premises of the 
club, and the year was rendered memorable by a victory 
over the strongest team of the Melbourne club, and by 
the adhesion of some new players. On Mr. Perryman's 
retirement from the secretaryship it was taken up for a 
time by Mr. T. Stillman, after whom came Mr. Henry 
Brock, who devoted much energy, time, and money to the 
promotion of the best interests of the club. Other 
changes followed until, in 1889 or 1890, Mr. A. P. 
Heddrick was appointed honorary secretary, an office 
which he held until September, 1893. He is still a 
staunch and liberal supporter of the club, of which he is 
a life member and one of its vice-presidents. He was 



succeeded by Mr. Dave Chessell, who, with the assistance 
of a hard-working committee, managed the affairs of the 
club successfully during a trying period of six years— the 
epoch of general disaster— gradually liquidating debts 
incurred during a period of inflation, and improving the 
ground by the formation of an embankment, and planting 
trees for shade and ornamental purposes. In the month 
of February, 1893, the sudden death by sunstroke, while 
playing in a match, of Mr. E. Turner deprived the club 
of one of its most highly valued and deeply esteemed 
members. In connection with tree-planting the club owes 
a debt of gratitude to Mr. J. T. Hood for his sustained 
enthusiasm in this respect. The season of 1894-95 was an 
exceptionally brilliant one for the Richmond Cricket Club, 
which may be said to have covered itself with laurels by 
its victorious exploits, the first eleven winning every 
match, together with the pennant and shield, while the 
second won the premiership badge. In September, 1899, 
Mr. Chessell resigned the secretaryship, which then 
devolved upon Mr. Harry Lampard, for many years 
honorably identified with cricket in Richmond and South 
Melbourne as far back as 1865, and that gentleman still 
discharges the duties of that office with characteristic 
ability and zeal. The ground itself is noted for the 
good wickets which are always prepared there, so that 
in fine weather there is great anxiety to win the 
toss and obtain possession of the pitch. It is due 
to the memory of the late Mr. Joseph Bosisto, C.M.G., 
who was M.P. for many years for Richmond, and 
subsequently for Jolimont, to mention the deep interest 
he always took in the welfare of this club, of which 
he was president for many years previous to his 
decease. Since that time the same office has been 
worthily filled by Mr, G. II. Bennett, the senior member 
for the borough. 



Merchants and Importers. 



Continued from Vol. I. 



Mr. JAMES HOG AN, senior 
partner in the old-established firm 
of Hogan, Mooney, and Co., mer- 
chants, of Queen Street, Melbourne, 
is one of our oldest and most re- 
spected citizens. He was born in 
the county Limerick, Ireland, 1831, 
and arrived in Victoria by the 
steamship "Great Britain" in 1853. 
After a brief stay in Melbourne he 
started for the goldfields, and was 
for some years engaged in storekeep- 
ing on the various diggings through- 
out the colony. On his return to 




Johnstone, O'Shannasy and Uo. 

Mr. Jambs Hogan. 



Melb. 



Melbourne in 1865, Mr. Hogan estab- 
lished the now extensive business of 
Messrs. Hogan, Mooney, and Co. 
During his Victorian career Mr. 
Hogan has taken a deep interest in 
all public movements, and has been 
a generous though unobtrusive bene- 
factor to the various benevolent and 
charitable institutions. He has been 
repeatedly asked to allow himself to 
be nominated for various public posi- 
tions, but he has invariably declined, 
thinking that as a private citizen he 
could give more real help to the 
various charitable and other interests 



he has at heart. He took an active 
part in the work of raising the funds 
for the completion of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, being honorary secretary 
of the committee for several years, 
until that great work was ac- 
complished. He also rendered valu- 
able help to the Fathers of the Car- 
melite Order on their establishment 
in this State, and his services in this 
regard were recognised by the Father- 
General of the order in Rome, who 
presented him with a handsome 
diploma giving certain spiritual 
privileges. Mr. Hogan has been a 
generous benefactor and helper of 
the Little Sisters of the Poor, whose 
splendid work has been considerably 
helped by his active benevolence. In 
a similar manner he assisted the 
Sisters of St. Joseph in their efforts 
to establish a home for destitute 
children at Surrey Hills. In 1887, in 
conjunction with a few leading Irish- 
men, he assisted in establishing the 
Celtic Club, being chosen as its first 
president, and on his retirement from 
that position was presented with a 
handsome memento of his term of 
office. Two of his sons are members 
of the firm of Hogan, Mooney, and 
Co., and three other sons are in the 
legal profession, having graduated 
with distinguished honors at the 
Melbourne University, the youngest 
of whom won the scholarship in law 
and two exhibitions, and it is also 
worthy of mention that he matricu- 
lated when within three months of 
his twelfth birthday. In 1902 Mr. 
Hogan took a holiday trip to the old 
country, and on his return in Feb- 
ruary of the following year was ten- 
dered a complimentary dinner of 
welcome at Scott's Hotel, Melbourne, 
at which there was a large and re- 
presentative gathering of commercial 
gentlemen present, the chair being 
taken by the Right Hon. Lord 
Mayor, Sir Samuel Gillott, with the 
Hon. N. Fitzgerald, M.L.C., as vice- 
chairman. 



SCARLETT and CO., Eastern 
Merchants, Importers, and Indentors, 
Market Street, Melbourne, and at 19 
Hunter Street, Sydney, New South 
Wales. This extensive business was 
founded in 1897 by Mr. Frederick 
Scarlett. Its largest transactions 
are concerned with Eastern goods of 
all kinds, jute lines, silks, rice, 
tapioca, sago, spices, teas, coffees, 
etc., etc. English, German, and 
American goods are also handled, the 
firm indenting considerably and im- 
porting, besides carrying a varied 




Johnstone, O'Shanncsiy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Frederick H. Scarlett. 

stock in their warehouses for Aus- 
tralian distribution. They handle 
Lewis Berger and Son's (Ltd., of 
London) paints, among other whole- 
sale agencies, and also import figs, 
raisins, and other produce from 
Smyrna. Mr. FREDERICK H. 

SCARLETT, the active partner of 
the firm, is a native of Melbourne, 
and was educated at St. James' 
Grammar School. On leaving that 
institution he was for some time in 
the employ of Messrs. M. Donaghy 
and Sons. In 1897 he entered into 
business as F. Scarlett and Co., and 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



131 



three years later made a tour o! the 
Orient, visiting India, Ceylon, China, 
and Japan, where he opened up the 
connection that resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the present business dn 
its existing basis. The firm is a 
recognised factor in Victorian com- 
merce, and is also well known in the 
neighbouring States. For the han- 
dling of agencies and consignments, 
insurance and charter business, they 
are strongly recommended in view 
of their enterprise and undoubted 
standing. 



Messrs. W. B. LOCHORE and 
CO., Tea and Coffee Merchants, 172 
William Street, Melbourne ; Im- 
porters of India and Ceylon Produce, 
and Proprietors of the "Oopack" 
Brand of Teas. Telephone 3,741. 
Bankers : The Commercial Bank of 
Australia Limited, Melbourne. This 
extensive and prosperous business 
was established in 1882 by Mr. W. B. 
Lochore, the present proprietor, by 
whom operations have been carried 
on ever since. The firm enjoys a 
large connection throughout Victoria 
and other States in Australia. Mr. 
WILLIAM BRODIE LOCHORE is 
a native of the Orkney Isles, and 




JohntUme* (TShannesiy and Co. Metb, 

Mr. William Brodik Lochore. 

youngest son of the late Rev. Gavin 
Lochore, minister of the Established 
Church of Scotland, St. Andrew's, 
Orkney. He was educated at the 
High School, Glasgow, and after- 
wards acquired a practical experience 



in commerce in that city. In 1874 
he went out to an importing house in 
Ceylon, where he remained for eight 
years, during which period he also 
gained a knowledge of tea-planting, 
curing, etc., and in 1882 decided to 
settle in Australia. On arrival in 
Melbourne he established the present 
business. In 1884 it was merged 
into that of the Foochow and Cal- 
cutta Tea Company, but in 1901 
reverted to the original style of W. 
B. Lochore and Co. Mr. Lochore 
married, in 1883, Mary, the eldest 
daughter of the late Judge Cope, and 
has a family of one son and two 
daughters. 



W. C. THOMAS, Flour Miller and 
Grain Merchant, 31 Queen Street, 
Melbourne ; also at Beaufort, Bal- 
larat, Murtoa, Minyip, and Warrack- 
nabeal. This old and well-known 
firm was established in the early 
sixties by Mr. W. C. Thomas, sen., 
at Talbot, where he started his first 
mill in conjunction with the late 
Messrs. Cadwallader and Toe. Since 
then he has established businesses 
at the abovementioned places, and 
has just erected and started another 
complete roller mill at Newport. 
Lately the firm has purchased the 
large brick mill in Armstrong Street, 
Ballarat, built by the late Mr. 
Nicholson, and, on the Farmers' Loan 
and Agency Company going into 
liquidation, acquired all their machi- 
nery, thus securing the whole of the 
flour manufacturing trade in the 
Ballarat district. The firm has a 
splendid reputation all over Austral- 
asia, and unquestionably does the 
largest trade in Victoria. For the 
last three years the output of flour 
for purely local trade has averaged 
3,000 bags per week. The firm also, 
in exporting seasons, does a large 
export trade, and large contracts of 
over 1,000 tons of flour were secured 
for South Africa during the recent 
war. Mr. W. C. THOMAS, sen., the 
founder of the business, is a colonist 
of over fifty-eight years standing, and 
for over forty years has been in the 
milling trade. He arrived in Ade- 
laide with his parents in 1845. After 
passing through an adventurous career 
on the goldflelds he settled down in 
his present business, which has ever 
been an increasing one, and has 



taken an active part in the manage- 
ment thereof ever since. He has 
always taken a keen interest in the 
development and progress of the 
country of his adoption, and for 
many years was a prominent member 




Johnstone, O'ShanncsMy ami Co. Metb. 

Mr. W. C. Thomas, Sen. 

of the Ripon Shire Council, and also 
filled the presidential chair. He has 
been a justice of the peace for about 
twenty years. Mr. Thomas has 
associated with him in his business 
four of his sons, the Melbourne 
branch being managed by Mr. W. C. 
Thomas, jun., Ballarat by Mr. George 
E. Thomas, Newport by Mr. Ernest 
J. Thomas, and Mr. Arthur A. 
Thomas is associated with his father 
in the general management. 



Messrs. STEPHEN KING and 
SON, Hop and General Merchants, 
Melbourne. Mr. STEPHEN KING, 
the head of this extensive and im- 
portant firm, is entitled to rank 
amongst the commercial pioneers of 
Victoria. Landing in Victoria in 
1849, while quite a boy in years, 
after a varied experience in colonial 
commerce he joined the firm of Lange 
and Thonemann in 1863 as accountant, 
and on the death of Mr. Emil 
Thonemann in 1875 was taken into 
partnership. In 1893 the firm 
merged into that of King, Engel, 
and McCullagh Limited, and made a 
high reputation for itself, Mr. King 
acting as managing director. In 
1897 the company went into volun- 



132 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



tary liquidation, and the assets were 
purchased by Mr. King, who with his 
son, Mr. Clive King, has carried on 
the business since, with the result 
that the present proprietors are 
known all over the continent as 
men of first-class standing, and are 
amongst brewers regarded as about 
the most reliable hop merchants in 
the trade. Mr. Stephen King, who 
is regarded as the "hop king" of 
Australia, has cultivated his natural 
talents by travel and observation. 
His business has led him to all 
corners of the Australian continent, 
and his popularity has followed him 
everywhere. In 1901 he was com- 
missioned a justice of the peace for 
Queensland, an honor which should 
commend itself especially to a non- 
resident in that State. He is and 
always has been an ardent federalist, 
and saw long ago, before it was 
so generally acknowledged, that the 
various colonies were simply fritter- 
ing away their resources through 
little petty jealousies, vexatious 
restrictions on trade, and annoying 
impositions on the public. lie was 
thus one of the earliest advocates 
for overthrowing the artificial 
barriers which vanity for the most- 
part had raised between peoples of 




Mr. Stephen King. 

the same blood and speech. Mr. 
King is connected by marriage with 
one of the best-known families in 
Northern Tasmania. He himself 
belongs to a family that made a 
name for itself in the annals of Church 
fiistory, and has a strong affection 



for Tasmania, where he frequently 
spends his holidays. He is an 
ardent disciple of Isaak Walton. 
He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and takes an interest in 
all public and social movements for 
the advance and welfare of the city 
with which he has had such a 
lengthy and honorable association. 
Mr. CLIVE KING, the remaining 
partner, has already gained an envi- 
able reputation for commercial 
ability. He was born in 1875 at 
Windsor, Victoria, and, after passing 
the matriculation examination at the 
Melbourne University, entered the 
counting- house of King, Engel, and 
McCullagh Limited, and subsequently 
was acting for them in Victoria as 
commercial representative. He at 




Johnston^ O'Shannesfy and Co. 

Mb. Clive King. 



Jdtlb 



present devotes most of his time 
to furthering the interests of the 
present firm in Tasmania and New 
Zealand, and has also visited Queens- 
land and South Australia, making 
himself thoroughly conversant with 
the requirements of the numerous 
clients of the firm, and thus, as with 
Mr. S. King, cementing the business 
relations by personal knowledge and 
attention. 



JOHN SLATER and CO., 466 
Collins Street. — This house was 
established in 1852, and in 1872 Mr. 
John Slater having bought up the 
interest of the remaining partner, 
the firm has been carried on ever 



since under the above title. They 
have from the first been large im- 
porters of cast-iron water pipes, 
metals generally, fencing and tele- 
graph wires, india rubber goods, etc. 
One of their early important con- 




Jonnstone, O'Shannesty and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. J. Lascellku Drew. 

tracts was that of supplying the 
water pipes which convey the water 
from the Van Yean reservoir to Mel- 
bourne. This firm was the first in 
the States to provide for the Govern- 
ment's requirements in electrical 
goods, and it has been to this branch 
of their business that they have given 
more and more attention year by 
year. They now keep a large and 
representative stock of electrical 
goods for various purposes— perhaps 
the largest in the city— and at the 
present time are executing contracts 
for every one of the. federated States. 
They have also the contract with the 
Melbourne City Council for the supply 
of electrical cables and wires, 
switches, and other accessories, also 
for electric motors, of which they 
keep large stocks. 



MANUFACTURERS' AGENCY 
LIMITED, 236 Flinders Lane, Mel- 
bourne.— The Manufacturers' Agency 
Limited is a commercial organisa- 
tion which is thoroughly representa- 
tive of the modern manufacturers of 
Great Britain, more especially in 
relation to the softgoods trade. The 
concern was started on 20th April, 
1900, for the purpose of carrying on 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



133 



representation throughout Austral- 
asia, New Zealand, South Africa, 
and the other British colonies, of the 
largest and most important manufac- 
turers in the old country. The 
English headquarters are situated in 
Upton Street, Manchester, whilst the 
Australasian warehouses are located 
in Melbourne and Sydney. Some 
idea of the magnitude of their opera- 
tions may he gained from the fact 
that the Melbourne house has a floor 
area of 25,000 square feet, while 
Sydney has a floor space of over 
20,000. Mr. A. Longland and 

Mr. C. F. Brown are directors of 
the company, whilst Mr. F. W. Lake 
is also one cf the Australian man- 
agers. Both Mr. Longland and Mr. 
Brown arc natives of England's 
most celebrated manufacturing 
county — Lancashire — and have had 
considerable experience in the various 




Jonruttone, O'Xhanntsty and Co. . Mtib 

Mk. C. F. Brown. 

large cities at home in the firm of 
Messrs. Barlow and Jones Limited, 
Manchester. Mr. Lake is an East 
Anglian by birth, and has acquired 
a thorough and comprehensive know- 
ledge of the softgoods trade in 
London. The company have agents 
and travellers in every State of Aus- 
tralasia, and, in addition to Mel- 
bourne and Sydney, in the following 
towns :— Brisbane, Hobart, Adelaide, 
Perth ; also in New Zealand (Christ- 
church and Wellington), and they 
have recently commenced operations 
in South Africa, being represented 
in Capetown, Johannesburg, and 



Durban. They carry stock, and 
indent for the following well-known 
manufacturing firms : — Messrs. 

Barlow and Jones Limited, Man- 
chester ; Messrs. Baldwin and 
Walker Limited, Halifax ; Messrs. 
W. Bartleet and Sons, Redditch ; 
Messrs. Brough, Nicholson, and Hall, 
Leek ; Messrs. Farcy and Oppenheim, 
Paris ; Messrs. H. T. Greenlaw and 
Co., London ; Hoyle's Prints Lim- 
ited, Manchester ; Messrs. Johnston, 




iV. S. Kay Manchesttr 

Mr. A. Longland. 

Shields, and Co., Ncwmilns ; Messrs. 
Jarrett and Rainsford Limited, Bir- 
mingham ; Messrs. R. Maude and 
Co., Halifax ; Messrs. Radcliffe and 
Co., Rochdale ; Messrs. J. Shaw and 
Sons Limited, Halifax ; Messrs. 
Stansfield and Co., Waterfoot ; and 
the Turton Manufacturing Company 
Limited, Manchester. The method 
of business of the Manufacturers' 
Agency Limited is unique, biinging 
as they do the actual retailer in 
touch with the manufacturer of the 
goods ; in fact, a retailer in Australia 
can purchase from stock from the 
manufacturer, through the agency, 
just the same as the London houses 
can buy from the manufacturer. The 
company has made very rapid strides 
since its inauguration, and it is not 
surprising when the method of busi- 
ness as already explained is realised, 
and also the standard of the firms 
represented in this one organisation. 
They now employ over twenty 
travellers and agents, who represent 
them throughout the various States, 



while a staff of nearly 100 is em- 
ployed in the different warehouses. 
The success of the firm's operations 
in Australasia is due not only to the 
enterprise of the managers, but also 
to the loyal support of the well- 
organised staff throughout these 
colonies. 



Mr. WILLIAM HENRY HALSEY, 
Manufacturers' Agent and Importer, 
Cromwell Buildings, corner of Bourke 
and Elizabeth Streets, Melbourne. 
Mr. W. H. Halsey, proprietor of this 
rapidly-expanding business, was born 
at Deptford, near London, in 1859, 
and on the completion of his educa- 
tion at the Bermondsey Grammar 
School he entered the employment of 
Mr. Arthur Pash, shoe manufacturer, 
of London, afterwards accepting an 
appointment with Mr. John Branch, 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Jfeft. 

Mr. William Hbnry Halsby. 

of the well-known Queen Boot Fac- 
tory, London. With these two firms 
he acquired a thorough knowledge of 
the trade. Owing to the ill-health 
of his wife it was found necessary, 
greatly to the regret of his employer 
and fellow-employees, to leave Eng- 
land for Australia, where he estab- 
lished in 1886 the present business in 
Queen Street, Melbourne, removing 
as required by increased business to 
St. James Street and Flinders 
Lane, finally taking his present 
premises in 1894. Among the manu- 
facturers represented by Mr. Halsey 
are :— John Branch Limited, Queen 



134 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



Boot Factory, London ; Pollard and 
Son, men's boots, Northampton ; 
Star Leather Company, Chicago ; 
Hathaway, Soule, and Harrington, 
Boston, U.S.A.; Dalton Shoe Manu- 
facturing Company, Dalton, Mass., 
U.S.A.; Florsheim and Co., Chicago, 
U.S.A.; Mengers and Sons, vel- 
veteens, Berlin, Germany ; Schlieper 
and Baum, Elberfeld, Germany ; 
Bavarian Woolfelt Company, Bavaria; 
Bruder Buxbaum, tray cloths, 
d'oyleys, etc., Eipel, Bohemia ; 
Simpson, Sons, and Co., Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A. 



AYERS, HENRY, and CO., 
Agents for American Manufacturers, 
27 Swanston Street, Melbourne. 
This extensive and important busi- 
ness was established in 1886, the 
present partners being Messrs. A. 
Harold Ayers, George H. Henry, and 
John E. Baker. For several years 
New Zealand, Western Australia, and 
Queensland were visited by the staff 
from the Melbourne and Sydney 
offices, but as the business grew so 
rapidly it was found necessary to 
establish permanent offices in Auck- 
land, Perth, and Brisbane. The 
business in America is looked after 



^^^, ^F 



Johnstone. O'Shannessy and Co. 

Mb. A. Harold Ayers. 



Mtlb. 



by the well-known export merchants, 
Messrs. Wm. E. Peck and Co., 116 
Broad Street, New York, U.S.A. 
The firm act as sole representatives 
for a number of the largest manufac- 



turers of American products, the most 
important being :— A. J. Tower Com- 
pany, Boston, oil clothing ; Keystone 
Elgin Watch Co., Philadelphia, solid 
gold, gold-filled, and silver watches ; 
McLoughlin Bros., New York, picture 
books ; Geendron Wheel Company, 
baby carriages, velocipedes, and iron 
waggons ; Andrew Jergens, fine toilet 
soaps ; Clauss Shears Company, 
scissors, razors, and bread knives ; 
Pantasote Company, fine leather 
cloths ; Derlick Oilstone Company, 
oilstones of all kinds ; Samson Cord- 
age Works, sash cords, etc.; Cumber- 
land Shafting Company, steel shaft- 
ing ; Eberhard Faber, lead pencils, 
pen - holders, rubber bands, and 
erasers ; W. B. Volger Company, 




Johnttone, O'Shanneaty and Co. 

Mb. Geobgb H. Henry. 



ifelb 



Excelsior stamp pads ; ' New York 
Gas Tubing Company, patent gas 
tubing ; Hall Shone Company, 
patent bicycle mud - guards ; F. 
Webster Company, Star brand type- 
writer ribbons and carbon paper ; 
Knickerbocker electro-plated ware ; 
Barbour silver-plated ware ; Chicago 
Sewing Machine Company ; A. J. 
Holman's Bibles ; Sessions (late E. 
N. Welch Company) Clock Company, 
wood and enamelled clocks ; W. and 
T. Fitch, sash fasteners and builders' 
supplies ; Oakville Company, Miles 
safety pins, and other well-known 
brands ; and many other important 
lines. In addition, the firm are 
prepared to take indents for the fol- 
lowing :— All classes of hardware 



(builders' and furnishing); furniture, 
including chairs, roll-top desks, ice 
chests, shade rollers ; softgoods 
generally ; haberdashery, stationery, 
druggists 1 supplies, fancy goods, 




Tesla Studios Prahran 

Mr. John E. Baker. 

optical and watchmakers' sundries, 
etc.', etc., and miscellaneous goods of 
every description. 



JAMES PERROTT, Indentor 
and Importer, Melbourne, is a 
native of Bristol, England, and 
first visited the colonies in 1899 
to appoint agents for the Type- 
writer Company Limited, of New 
York and London, and, in conjunc- 
tion with Prof. Douglas Archibald, 
introduced the first Edison's phono- 
graph to the Australian public. 
Even during the troublesome times 
which immediately followed the col- 
lapse of the land boom he was a 
strong believer in the advantages 
offered by colonial life and the future 
possibilities of our sunny clime, and 
advocates that the most desirable 
thing for the prosperity of the Com- 
monwealth is the encouragement of 
suitable immigration. He, in con- 
junction with two other gentlemen, 
started the existing society for the 
promotion of the small rural indus- 
tries, such as poultry, bees, silk, 
and perfume plants, etc., etc. Mr. 
Perrott is well known through the 
colonies by his numerous agencies 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



135 



for labour-saving devices, such as 
typewriters, sign-writing machines, 
cash registers, and a thousand and 
one other American up-to-date ideas. 
He is just now introducing a fire- 
fighting appliance known as 
" Kilfyre," which he states is 
universally used in America, and 
which has been adopted by the 
various colonial Governments and 
public and private companies. He 
has charge of the advertising for 
several American companies, and was 
the first to introduce the "tableau 
windows" for the Pantasote Com- 
pany of New York. His extensive 
connection amongst the retail firms 




Johnstone, O'Shannitsy and Co. 

Mr. Jamkh Pkrrott. 



h/tib. 



as an indentor is due to his 
speciality of landing the goods in 
the retailer's store at quoted landed 
prices, thus saving the buyer the 
necessary complications and trouble 
of indenting, and by combining the 
various orders is able to obtain the 
same advantageous terms as the 
wholesale dealer, and thus saves the 
retailer the warehouseman's profit. 
By his genial social qualities he has 
won the friendship and esteem of a 
large circle of the community. He 
is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity, and fills in his spare moments 
with the fascinating hobby of pho- 
tography. 

JOHN EDMONDSON and CO., 
34 Queen Street, Melbourne, and 12 
York Street, Sydney. This firm 
was originally established in 1894 by 



Mr. John Edmondson, with head- 
quarters in Melbourne. Later, on, 
when a branch establishment had 
been opened in Sydney, it was 
decided to transfer the head office to 




Johnstone, ts&ianntsfy and Co, 

Mr. F. G. Edmondson. 



Jfctft. 



that city. The Melbourne business 
was then placed in the hands of 
Messrs. F. G. and Charles 
Edmondson, by whom it is still 
successfully conducted. The firm's 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Charlbs Edmondson. 

special line of goods is supplied 
mostly by Messrs. MacThompson and 
Co. Limited, canvas goods manufac- 
turers and general merchants, of 
Glasgow, whom they represent, and 



of whose goods they carry an 
immense stock, both in the wholesale 
and retail lines. Messrs. Edmondson 
are also agents for the following 
English goods : — Woollens and 
worsteds, flannels, Cri means, and 
flannel suitings ; laces manufactured 
by Gebruider Spate, Plauen, Saxony, 
viz., guipure, allovers, mantle trim- 
mings, scarves, etc.; in addition to 
many other lines, including French 
silks, Italians, linings, skirtings, etc.; 
waterproof cloths, Japanese silks, 
and all classes of Eastern goods. 
For all these lines Messrs. 
Edmondson and Co. are absolutely 
and exclusively wholesale agents. 



D. M. MACKINTOSH (late J. F. 
Holle and Co. Limited), High-Class 
Tailor, 259 Collins Street, Mel- 
bourne. This business was estab- 




Joknstonc, O'Shannessy and Co, Melb. 

Mr. D. M. Mackintosh. 

lished by Messrs. Holle and Co. in 
Melbourne in 1898, and carried on by 
them until October, 1903, when it 
was purchased by the present pro- 
prietor, Mr. D. M. Mackintosh. This 
firm is recognised as the leading 
fashionable tailors throughout the 
State, and numbers among its 
patrons the Governors of the various 
States, and most of the prominent 
residents of Victoria. The premises 
are well suited to the requirements of 
the business, and are fitted up in 
the latest approved West End style. 
Attention is entirely devoted to 
tailoring, the cutting being done by 



136 



TFIF< CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



an experienced man, who has been 
connected with several of the leading 
West End (London) houses. Mr. D 
M. Mackintosh is a native of Inver- 
ness, Scotland, and came to Aus- 
tralia in 1884, landing at Adelaide, 
S.A. Here he joined the firm of Mr. 
J. P. Doolette, the leading Adelaide 
tailor, as cutter, remaining three 
years, when he transferred his ser- 
vices to Mr. T. G. Brown, with whom 
he remained two years. In 1889 Mr. 
Mackintosh purchased the last-named 
business, and carried on until 1901. 
In that year he came to Melbourne, 
opening up an establishment in 
Swanston Street, but in October, 
1903, relinquished this to become 
proprietor of the present firm, as 
before mentioned. 



The HALL OF COMMERCE, 
corner of Clarendon and Dorcas 
Streets, South Melbourne ; T. 
Crawford, Importer and General 
Draper, Silk Mercer, and Outfitter. 
This extensive business was estab- 
lished about a quarter of a century 
ago by the late Mr. Thomas 




A. U. Williamt South Mtlb. 

Mr. Thomas Chawford. 

Crawford, by whom it was carried 
on with great success up to the time 
of his lamented death in 1901. Since 
then operations have been conducted 
under the supervision of Mrs. 
Crawford and Mr. Henry James 
Stevens, the co-trustees, who are 
assisted by Mr. Thomas B. Crawford, 
the eldest son. Over sixty hands 
find constant employment at the 




Jolinalont, O'Shamussy and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. Thomas B. Crawford. 



"Hall," which is the principal estab- 
lishment of its kind in the city of 
South Melbourne. The late Mr. 
THOMAS CRAWFORD was born in 
Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, Scotland, 
in 1849, and in 1859 left his native 
land for Victoria in order to join his 
brother, Mr. A. Crawford, who was 
carrying on business as a draper in 
Castlemaine and Ballarat. In 1876 
he relinquished his position in his 
brother's establishment, and settled 
in South Melbourne, where he founded 
the present business. Mr. Crawford 
married, in 1874, Susan, daughter 
of the late Mr. George Edward 
Stevens, of Weisbcach, near London, 
England. He took an active interest 
in church matters, and was an elder 
and a member of the board of 
management of the South Melbourne 
Presbyterian Church. Though not 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. 

The Nail of Commerce, Clarendon Street, Saiith Melbourne. 



Mclb. 



THE CYCLOPFDIA OF VICTORIA. 



13? 



taking a prominent place in public 
affairs, he was keenly alive to the 
necessities and improvements of the 
city, and his advice was frequently 
sought after. As a proof of the 
solidity of the business he has built 
up, we notice that the management 
have leased Mr. Green's premises 
next door, to be converted into a 
choice up-to-date clothing emporium. 



"KINO'S," Court, Naval, and 
Military Tailors, and Habit Makers. 
Show-rooms and fitting departments : 
328 Collins Street, next Equitable 
Buildings, and at 223 Bourke Street, 
adjoining Bijou Theatre ; and at 323 
George Street, Sydney. Factory, 



work-rooms, and bulk stores : Little 
Collins Street. This business is the 
largest and most extensive tailoring 
establishment in Melbourne, having 
been originally founded in London at 
164 Finchurch Street, London, in 
1859. In 1890 the business operations 
were extended to Australia, and a 
branch opened at Melbourne under the 
personal supervision of M. Kino, the 
principal of the firm, with such re- 
markable success that at the present 
time some 150 hands are employed in 
the carrying out of the firm's busi- 
ness. Stocks are held which for 
style and quality are unsurpassed in 
Melbourne. All the leading English 
and Continental makers are repre- 
sented, and have been specially 




selected by the London buyer of the 
firm. Thoroughly efficient cutters 
with long experience are engaged, and 
a perfect fit — a sine qua non — is 
guaranteed. The London business is 




Talma 



Melb. 



Mr. M. Kino. 



carried on now at Westbourne Grove, 
High Holborn, and Bond Street ; 
with branches at Manchester, Bir- 
mingham, Liverpool, and Leeds. 




Juhnntone, O'Shanntsny, and Co. 

Kino's Promises, Collins Stroot, Melbourne. 



Melb. 



Johnstone. O'Shannctsy nnrt Co. Melb. 

Mb. Hknry McDonough. 

Mr. HENRY McDONOUGH, Grain 
and Produce Merchant, 516 and 518 
Flinders Street, arrived in Victoria 
in February, 1863, by the ship 
4 'Morning Light," and has been 
almost continuously connected with 



138 



fUE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICfORlA. 



the grain and produce trade ever 
since, and can be looked upon as one 
of the oldest and most prosperous 
men in that line of business in Mel- 
bourne. 

HARVEY, SHAW, and CO. 
(Robert Joseph Harvey, Alfred H. 
Shaw), Hardware Merchants, Im- 
porters, Manufacturing Tinsmiths, 
Japanncrs, Ironworkers, Galvanisers, 
Stampers, etc. Factory : 560-566 
Lonsdale Street. Warehouse : 358- 
360 Little Collins Street. Show- 
rooms : 378 Lonsdale Street, Mel- 
bourne. This well-known and old- 
established firm was founded in 1853 
by Mr. Robert Joseph Harvey, one 
of the old identities of Melbourne. 



an acre, and is a brick building of 
three stories, containing an expensive 
manufacturing plant. The wholesale 
warehouse in Little Collins Street, 
under the capable management of Mr. 
Shaw, and the show-rooms in Lons- 
dale Street are also model estab- 
lishments. Mr. Harvey, upon whom 
the years sit lightly, still takes an 
active part in the conduct of affairs. 
He takes a deep interest in the 
welfare of the Collins Street Baptist 
Church, of which he is a very old 
member, having joined in 1862, and 
has been a deacon since 1872. Mr. 
Harvey married, in 1850, at Simcoe, 
Canada, Miss Emma Perkes, and in 
1900 celebrated his golden wedding. 



farmer, of that village, which is 
situate in Warwickshire. His grand- 
father, Mr. Thomas Canning, was 
also a native of that county, and 
resided for many years at Shottery, 
near Stratford-on-Avon, and he is 
related on the paternal side to the 
late George Canning, who was Pre- 
mier of England in 1826. Educated 
at Stratford-on-Avon, he then went 
to Liverpool, and thence to London, 
where he acquired a sound com- 
mercial experience and training. Mr. 
Canning came out to Australia in 
1886, and during the following four 
years was engaged in the sugar in- 
dustry throughout Queensland in con- 
junction with the general imports of 
that State. In 1890 he returned to 




Johnstone, WShanneuy and Cfe. Melb. 

Mb. Robert Joseph Habvby. 

Born in Loughborough, Leicester- 
shire, England, in 1827, he served his 
apprenticeship to the tinsmithing 
tratfe. In 1849 he went to New 
York, and from there to Simcoe, 
Ontario, Canada, where he followed 
his trade for a few years with re- 
markable success. Attracted hither 
by the wonderful discoveries of gold, 
*he arrived in Victoria in 1853, bring- 
ing with him an extensive machinery 
plant for the carrying on of his 
trade, and immediately established 
himself in business in Melbourne. 
From a small beginning this has 
grown to be one of the largest and 
most complete of its kind in the 
Southern Hemisphere. The factory, 
which is centrally situated in Lons- 
dale Street, covers three-quarters of 



W. E. CANNING PROPRIETARY 
LIMITED, 233 Elizabeth Street, 
Melbourne, and at Sydney ; Im- 
porters of Electro-plating and Polish- 
ing Plants, and all Requisites ; 
Bicycles, Bicycle Parts, and General 
Accessories, both English and Ameii 
can. This extensive business was 
established in 1891, and is the prin- 
cipal one of its kind in the Common- 
wealth. The firm act as sole agents 
for W. Canning and Co., of Birming- 
ham, England, the most renowned 
manufacturers of electro-plating and 
pclishing plants in the world, who 
export their goods to all quarters of 
the globe. They are large importers 
and exporters of plating and lighting 
dynamos, cables, electrical sundries, 
complete electro - platers* and 

polishers' plants, and of all sundries 
connected with the trade. In con- 
nection with their bicycle depart- 
ment, the firm is sole agent for the 
renowned English "Triumph" bicycle, 
and they build bicycles to suit the 
local markets under their own regis- 
tered transfer, "Conqueror." Both 
these brands meet with considerable 
success, and hold a high position in 
the Commonwealth. They also 

import large lines in bicycle sets, 
parts for repairs, and general sun- 
dries. Most of these latter are run 
under their well-known registered 
brand, "Reteer," which is well known 
as a standard of quality, and gives 
general satisfaction. Mr. W. E. 
CANNING, the head of this business, 
was born at Binton, near Stratford- 
on-Avon, England, in 1863, and is 
the son ot Mr. John Canning, 




Johrulont, O'Shannessy and Co. Melt, 

Mr. W. E. Canning. 

England, remaining there for twelve 
months, and then came to Victoria, 
when he established the present busi- 
ness, as above stated. Mr. Canning 
married, in 1891, the eldest daughter 
of Mr. Samuel Spencer, Ingon Manor, 
near Stratford-on-Avon, and has a 
family of one son and one daughter. 
He is a member of the Commercial 
Travellers' Association of Victoria. 



A. P. ALLAN, 202-204 Brunswick 
Street, Fitzroy, Galvanised Iron 
Merchant, Ilardwareman, Manufac- 
turer of all kinds of Spouting, Ridg- 
ing, and Galvanised Ironwork. This 
extensive and prosperous business, 
which is now in the fiftieth year of 
its existence, was established in 



THE CYCLOPEfilA OF VICTORIA. 



l$i 



1853 by the late Mr. A. P. Allan. 
Since the death of that gentleman in 
1901 the business has been carried on 
successfully by his sons, Messrs. 
Archibald P. and David L. Allan, the 
present proprietors. From twenty 
to thirty hands find employment in 
the firm's works in Brunswick Street, 




Johnntonc. O'ShanncMy and Co. Xftlb 

Mr. Archibald P. Allan. 

Fitzroy, and a very large turnover is 
done in the following lines : — Gal- 
vanised corrugated roofing iron, curv- 
ing, plain galvanised iron, nails for 
fixing iron, ,sheet zinc, galvanised iron 
water pipes, O.G. spouting, ridging, 
down pipes, heads, shoes and elbows, 
O.G. angles, spikes and tubes for 
fixing O.G. spouting, fencing wire, 



wire netting, wire nails, etc., etc. 
They also carry a large assorted 
stock of plunge baths, of which any 
size may be obtained to order ; foot 
baths, oval-shaped, japanned, oak and 
white ; sitz and hip baths, galvanised 
house buckets, stable and milking 
buckets, washing coppers and frames, 
cast-iron doors and gratings, gal- 
vanised flour bins, chimney cowls of 
various descriptions, milk cans, milk 
hand* cans, cream cans, cast-iron 
sinks, galvanised iron sinks ; while 
their cooking stoves include the 
Federal one-fire cooking stove, for 
wood or coal, which is constructed 
on an entirely new and improved 
principle, the oven top, cheeks, and 
back being corrugated, which ensures 
perfect distribution of heat. This 
stove, which is manufactured in three 
sizes, is fitted with an ash-pan which 
entirely prevents ashes falling out on 
floor, while the bottom plate under 
the oven is of cast-iron, and the 
outer sheet casing is also protected 
with strong cast plates, to prevent 
it burning out. The whole of the 
top forms a perfect hot-plate, and 
utensils can be kept at boiling point 
all over the surface. A strong 
copper boiler is supplied at an extra 
cost, which for domestic or dairy 
purposes is invaluable. The casting, 
finishing, and designs of these stoves 
are superior to anything yet placed 
before the public. The firm have 
also a large assortment of pots and 
pans in stock. Mr. Allan is also a 
manufacturer of cyanide vats, for the 



GS5 
1 






cyanide process, which are used on 
the principal goldfields throughout 
Australia. These are coated inside 
with chemical-resisting paint, and are 
one-fifth the cost of wooden vats. 
A. P. Allan's "Nodor" patent meat 
safe is another article in large 
demand throughout the Common- 




Johmtone, O'Shamussy and Co. 

Mr. Davjd L. Allan. 



Jilt Lb. 



A. P, Allan's Premises, Brunswick Street, Fltiroy. 



wealth. This ingenious invention is 
constructed on simple and practical 
lines, and enables housekeepers to 
keep their meat supplies fresh and 
wholesome with a minimum of 
labour, and, as the safe is to be had 
in various sizes at reasonable prices, 
it comes within the reach of all. 
Another specialty is the iron fire- 
place and chimney, for the use of 
farmers, prospectors, settlers, and 
others. This wears for years, and 
is in use everywhere. Dust-bins, 
closet-pans, colonial ovens, pumps, 
rabbit traps, washing troughs, sheep 
and cattle troughs, corrugated gal- 
vanised tanks, water carting and irri- 
gating tanks, garden hose, travelling 
trunks and bonnet boxes of all de- 
scriptions, ventilators, etc., etc., are 
also among the manufactures of the 
firm, while mention must be made of 
A. P. Allan's patent house tank and 
cool chamber, which is perfectly ven- 
tilated, and is considered the next 
best thing to an ice-chest. These 
tanks may be had in any size to 
order, and need only be inspected to 
prove their efficiency. Mr. Allan is 
also agent for Dawson's patent rabbit 
exterminator, which enjoys a large 



140 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



sale, and repairs of all kinds are 
carried out at his factory in Kent 
Street. The iron store is in Young 
Street, and the offices and sales 
depot are situated in Brunswick 
Street, Fitzroy. 



Mr. SIMON PATERNOSTER, of 
Berwick and Pakenham, is the pro- 
prietor of one of the oldest-estab- 
lished Victorian firms. The stores 
at Berwick are handsomely built and 
commodious structures, and carry 




Johnttonc, O'S/ianaisnj and Co. Alt Lb. 

Mr. Simon Paternoster. 

large stocks of general merchandise 
of the best quality, and are under the 
able management of Mr. Matthew 
Paternoster, son of the principal. An 
elder, son, Mr. George Paternoster, is 
in charge of the Pakenham branch, 
which includes a bakery in addition 
to the general store, and has also 
the control of H.M. mails between 
Pakenham and Gembrook. Mr. 

Simon Paternoster, although over 
seventy years of age, still continues 
to take a share in the management 
of the business, and takes a live in- 
terest in public affairs. Born in 
London on the 13th of May (the old 
May Day), 1832, he arrived in Vic- 
toria in the stirring year 1852, and, 
making his way to the goldfields, 
formed one of a party of prospectors 
who exploited the Mclvor diggings. 
After taking an active part in 
the Ballarat riots of 1854, Mr. 
Paternoster returned to Melbourne, 



and in the early sixties laid the 
foundation of his present prosperous 
business at Berwick, the Pakenham 
branch having been opened at a 
later date. Before the period of the 
great bank crisis, Mr. Paternoster, 
recognising the weakness of Aus- 
tralian banking methods, and taking 
especial exception to the balance- 
sheet issued by the Provincial and 
Suburban Bank, decided to test the 
legal responsibility of bank directors 
in the law courts. A strong Bar 
was retained on both sides, Mr. 
Higinbotham (afterwards Chief 
Justice) being leading counsel for 
the plaintiff, who won the case, but 
lost on the appeal. The costs in 
this action were very heavy, even 
although sympathetic public men 
came to his assistance. Mr. 

Paternoster married in 1864, and has 
a family of eight children. 



his father decided upon sending him 
on a trip round the world as th? 
most practical means of acquiring a 
commercial education, and after ac- 
complishing this he again visited 
Victoria, and at the age of twenty- 
three joined his father in the present 
business. In the following year Mr. 
Young, sen., died, and since then the 
business has been carried on by 
the present proprietor on his own 
account. The firm does an extensive 
trade throughout Victoria, and deals 
largely in galvanised iron, builders' 
materials, barbed wire, etc., and 
carries big stocks, in addition to 
numerous other lines. In 1902, 
finding the accommodation inadequate 
to cope with an ever -increasing 
trade, Mr. Young erected the present 
commodious premises, which cover a 
large area of space, and are con- 
veniently situated near the Queen's 




Young's Universal Store, Queen's Bridge Road, South Melbourne. 



YOUNG'S UNIVERSAL STORE, 
Queen's Bridge Road, South Mel- 
bourne, Hardware Merchants and 
Importers. Mr. SAMUEL D. 

YOUNG, the proprietor of the above 
prosperous business, is a son of the 
late Mr. A. S. D. Young, merchant, 
of Melbourne, and was born in Rot- 
terdam, Holland, in 1840. At an 
early age he left Holland for 
Torquay, in the county of Devon- 
shire, England, from whence he sailed 
for Victoria. After a brief sojourn 
in this State he returned to 
Torquay, where his education was 
finished. At the age of fourteen 



Bridge. Mr. Young purchases all 
his goods on the "spot cash" prin- 
ciple, which enables him to supply 
the very best materials at a cost 
considerably lower than city houses. 



Mr. ARTHUR HESTER, of the 
firm of Hester and Son, general 
merchants, Nott Street, Port Mel- 
bourne, was born in that suburb in 
1860, and on the completion of a 
liberal education joined his father, 
the late Mr. T. Hester, in the 
present business, which had been 
established by that gentleman in 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



141 



1857. On the lamented death of Mr. 
Hester, sen., in 1892, Mr. Arthur 
Hester took over the control of the 
business, which he still carries on 
under the style of Hester and Son. 
The firm transact all business on 




Johnttont, O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Arthur Hester. 

strictly upright and honorable lines, 
and this fact, combined with Mr. 
Hester's well-known business capacity 
and integrity, has been the means of 
bringing about the present prosperous 
state of the concern. Outside busi- 
ness Mr. Hester is held in high 
regard throughout the district in 
which he was born, and with which 
he has had a lifelong and honorable 
association, and the extent of his 
popularity was amply demonstrated 
when, in 1899, he was waited upon 
by a deputation of the leading 
citizens of * Port Melbourne, and 
pressed to become a candidate for a 
seat in the local Council. On offer- 
ing himself for election he was re- 
turned by a substantial majority, 
defeating the retiring Mayor, Mr. G. 
W. Robbins. In 1902 he was re- 
elected, heading the poll with the 
largest majority outside Melbourne 
for the year 1902. Mr. Hester is a 
member of the G.U.O.O.F. Lodge, of 
which he has been a trustee for the 
past nine years, district delegate on 
two occasions, dispensing delegate, 
and has passed through the chairs. 
He is likewise a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, his mother lodge 
being the Marine, No. 21, V.C. Mr. 



Hester takes an active part in all 
movements for the welfare and 
advance of the district, both of a 
public and social nature. He has 
been asked on several occasions to 
stand for a seat in the State Parlia- 
ment, but has declined on the grounds 
that his multifarious duties are 
carried out in a disinterested spirit, 
and not for personal gain. In 1903 
Mr. Hester was elected to the office 
of Mayor for the ensuing year. 



EDWARD LYONS, Importer and 
Dealer in Musical Instruments, 297 
Bourke Street, Melbourne. Mr. 
Edward Lyons, the proprietor of the 
above extensive wholesale importing 
and manufacturing business, has had a 
long and diversified career in musical 
circles. Born in Limerick, Ireland, 
he joined the 2nd Battalion 24th 
Regiment as a member of the band, 
and in that capacity served through 
the Zulu and Kaffir wars of 1877- 
78-79. He was for some years in 
Natal, where he left the army, 
coming thence to Victoria in 1882. 
On his arrival he was engaged by 
Messrs. Williamson and Musgrovc for 
their opera season, and later on was 
connected with the late Victorian 
Orchestra, under Mr. Hamilton 
Clarke. He also played under Mr. 
Marshall Hall at the concerts given 
by that gentleman, and held the 
position of professor of the clarionet 
at the Melbourne Conservatorium of 
Music during the Professor's occu- 
pancy of the Ormond Chair of Music. 
He still retains his position as a 
member of the Grand Opera Com- 
pany, and is acknowledged to be the 
leading clarionetist in the Aus- 
tralian States. In 1886 Mr. Lyons 
established himself in his present 
business as a wholesale importer and 
dealer in musical instruments, and 
very soon attained the leading posi- 
tion in this particular line. . His 
establishment is famed for the 
variety and quality of the instru- 
ments imported by him. Mr. Lyons 
is agent for the celebrated "Colin- 
Mezin" violins and violoncellos, 
which are of world-wide fame, and 
considered to be the finest modern 
musical instruments made, being un- 
equalled for power, sweetness, and 
flexibility of tone. He is sole im- 
porter of the " Treviso " and 



" Gloria " violin strings, in connec- 
tion with which his name is so well 
known. He is a large importer of 
every kind of musical instrument 
strings and fittings, all of which are 
noted for their excellence of work- 
manship and delicacy of finish, being 
constructed from the very best of 
materials, by the best workmen 
obtainable, to his especial order. 
The firm has a fully-equipped repair 
shop, in which skilled workmen are 
employed, under the personal super- 
vision of Mr. Lyons. All repairs 
are executed at the shortest notice, 
and at liberal rates, as this depart- 
ment is for the accommodation of 
customers, and only the actual time 
and outlay for material is con- 
sidered. During an extended visit 
to England and the Continent, made 
in 1898, Mr. Lyons visited all the 
largest and most important manu- 
facturers of band instruments, and 
brought back with him the latest 
up-to-date tools, machinery, and 
fittings necessary for the repairing 
of brass band instruments, clarionets, 
flutes, etc. In order to meet the 
demand for brass band instruments of 
the highest class, he has accepted the 
sole agency for the renowned and 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Melb. 

Mjr. Edward Lyons. 

justly celebrated goods manufactured 
by Joseph Hijham, sole inventor and 
patentee of the "clear bore" system, 
who has introduced and added so 
many improvements to his method of 
manufacture that he can now claim 



142 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



for his instruments that they are 
"the best in the world." Mr. Lyons 
is also sole agent for the Common- 
wealth for the "Association" band 
instruments, a leading Continental 
firm, which manufactures to his 
special order a high-class instrument 
at a moderate price. He likewise 
holds the agency for the "Bohland" 
band instruments, which took the 
first prize at the Chicago Exhibition, 
and, although the price of these is 
less than that of any others, they 
cannot be beaten for quality of tone 
and workmanship, and carry a 
guarantee for seven years. Mr. 
Lyons' shop and warehouses are well 
worth the inspection of visitors, who 
always meet with a cordial reception 
from the proprietor. 



WILLIAM SOUTHWICK, Hay and 
Corn Merchant, 36 Toorak Road, 
South Yarra, was born in Geelong, 
Victoria, in the year 1856. At the 
age of fifteen he entered the employ 
of Messrs. Hunter and Groves, 
drapers, Geelong, as cashier, remain- 
ing there for three years, and then 
removed to Melbourne, where he was 
engaged by Mr. Dudley, West Mel- 
bourne Meat Market, as clerk. His 
next engagement was with the well- 
known firm of T. K. Bennet and 



Woolcock, with whom he remained 
twelve and a half years. He then 
joined his father in the produce busi- 
ness, and, on the retirement of that 
gentleman in 1896, took over opera- 
tions on his own account. Mr. 
Southwick has received the Royal 
warrant from their Excellencies Lord 
Brassey and Lord Hopetoun for the 
supply of forage and general produce 
for Government House. He is a 
prominent member of the Masonic 
fraternity, as also of the Ancient 
Order of Druids. 



WILSON, CORBEN, and CO. 
(W. Wilson, D. M. Corben), Castle- 
maine Paving Company, Importers 
and Manufacturers of Mantelpieces, 
Sanitary Ware, etc.; General Masons, 
Marble, Slate, and Stone Merchants. 
Office and works : Kavanagh Street, 
Melbourne. This important manu- 
facturing business was established by 
the late Mr. Thomas Wilson, father 
of the present proprietor. The firm 
has been very fortunate in all its 
exhibits, having gained first award at 
the Sydney Exhibition, 1879 ; first 
award, Melbourne International Exhi- 
bition, 1880 ; and special award of 
merit, with special mention, in 1889. 
At the company's works in Kavanagh 
Street may be seen immense slabs of 



bluestone, marble, slate, etc., rang- 
ing in blocks up to ten tons in 
weight, all awaiting their. turn to be 
fashioned into articles of beauty by 
the numerous workmen and extensive 
machinery. The motive power is 
supplied by an 80-horse power steam 
engine, transmitted through the build- 
ing by shafting to the numerous 
grinding, cutting, and polishing ma- 
chines. There is also a number of 
huge frame-cutting saws continually 
rocking to and fro, with a grim de- 
termination to win their way through 
the unyielding blocks of stone. Some 
of these are cut into kerbing, and 
others into slabs for various pur- 
poses. The firm carries a large stock 
of wooden and marble mantelpieces of 
beautiful design and quality, and they 
also make a specialty of marbling, in 
the manufacture of which they very 
closely imitate the real article. 
Branches of this extensive business 
have been established in Sydney, 
Perth, and Fremantle, and they do a 
very large trade in all parts of the 
Australian States. Mr. W. Wilson, 
the enterprising and popular manager, 
is a native of Victoria, having been 
born in Collingwood in the year 
1857. At the age of twenty-one he 
joined his late father in the present 
business, of which he is now the prin- 
cipal. 




Manufacturers. 



Continued from Vol. I. 



THOS. MITCHELL and CO., 
Hardware Merchants and Importers, 
Manufacturers of Brushware, Basket- 
ware, etc., 360-362 Lonsdale Street, 
Melbourne. Mr. THOMAS 

MITCHELL, the proprietor of this 
extensive and important business, was 
born in Beechworth, Victoria, in 
1856, and received his education at 
the Model and Wesleyan Schools, 
Melbourne. At the age of fifteen he 
entered the employ of Mr. Zevenboom, 
of a'Beckett Street, Melbourne, a 
well-known brush manufacturer, with 




Kricheldorff Me lb. 

Mr. Thomas Mitchell. 

whom he remained for seven years, 
the last two of which he occupied the 
position of foreman. Here he 

acquired a thorough knowledge of 
the trade, and in 1878 commenced 
business on his own account, opening 
up in small premises in Elizabeth 
Street, near Franklin Street. Ap- 
plying himself diligently to work, he 
was rewarded by a gradual and sure 
increase in business, and two years 
later was compelled to seek larger 
premises in order to cope with the 
ever-increasing demand. These were 
secured in a rightK>f-way off Little 



Bourke Street, and operations were 
gradually extended. The manufac- 
ture of woodware was commenced, 
and three years later a general hard- 
ware branch was added to the busi- 
ness. In 1891 it again became neces- 
sary to seek more commodious pre- 
mises, and these were secured at 355 
and 357 Lonsdale Street. Here the 
firm's operations were further de- 
veloped, and hardware of every de- 



scription, woodware, basketware, 
etc., were added to their already 
extensive stock. In 1901 Mr. Thos. 
Mitchell decided to erect premises for 
himself, and to this end purchased 
land in Lonsdale Street, where he 
built the present handsome edifice. 
This was specially designed to meet 
the firm's requirements, and was 
further suitably arranged according 
to ideas gained by Mr. Mitchell on a 




Thos. Mitchell and Co's. Premises, Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. 



144 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OK VICTORIA. 



recent trip to the old country. The 
establishment is four -storied, th? 
available floor space measuring some 
15,000 feet. An enormous stock is 
carried, and the firm is recognised as 
holding the premier position in the 
trade. Messrs. Mitchell and Co. 
enjoy a large connection both in the 
city and throughout the country dis- 
tricts, eight travellers being engaged 
in visiting the various centres, whilst 
eighty hands are employed on the 
premises in the despatch of the nume- 
rous orders arriving daily. A con- 
siderable amount of the firm's success 
is due to the special lines kept in 
stock, such as enamelware, lamps, 
basketware, axes, etc., etc., and in 
these alone the output is enormous. 
Mr. Thomas Mitchell is in every 
sense of the word a self - made 
man, and the position which he 
enjoys to - day is due to his un- 
tiring efforts and keen business 
instinct. The premises and land now 
occupied by the firm are the property 
of Mr. Mitchell, and are freehold. In 
1900 Mr. Mitchell visited England, 
and was accompanied by his eldest 
son, whom he placed in the Ham- 
burg offices of the American Trad- 
ing Company for twelve months, in 
order to gain a thorough commercial 
and shipping education. Whilst in 
the old country Mr. Mitchell visited 
the leading hardware firms, and 
gained all the latest information con- 
cerning the trade. lie is a Free- 
mason, his lodge being the Australia 
Felix, No. 1, in which he holds office 
as Past Master, having occupied that 
position during Jubilee year. He is 
likewise Past Grand Director of Cere- 
monies, and has been a member of 
the Masonic fraternity for the past 
twenty years, having been initiated 
in the old Masonic Hall, then situate 
in Lonsdale Street. He is also a 
member of the A.O.F., City of 
Lincoln Lodge, having filled every 
office in that society. Mr. Mitchell 
married in 1881, and has a family of 
two sons and one daughter. 



The CYCLONE WOVEN WIRE 
FENCE COMPANY and BEE- 
KEEPERS' SUPPLY COMPANY 
(Messrs. L. T. Chambers and W. A. 
Thompson, proprietors), 128 - 130 
Franklin Street, Melbourne, with 
branches in Sydney, Brisbane, and 



Adelaide. This business was origi- 
nally established in 1877 by Mr. L. 
T. Chambers, under the style of the 
Bee-keepers' Supply Company, and 
carried on by him for seven years. 
Commencing in a small way as manu- 
facturers of bee-keepers' supplies, the 
business increased so rapidly that 
it soon became necessary for Mr. 
Chambers to secure assistance, and 
he accordingly took into partnership 
Mr. W. A. Thompson. Further ad- 
ditions were then made to the busi- 
ness, and the manufacture of fruit 
and packing baskets was commenced, 
the demand for this line of manufac- 
ture becoming so great that special 
machinery was imported from 
America in order to facilitate the 
execution of the daily increasing 
orders. This includes a rotary 
veneer cutting machine, which on 
arrival was erected in the firm's 
workshop. A section of a log placed 
in this machine is held in position by 
two chucks, and the machinery is set 
in motion, cutting a veneer of any 
desired width or thickness. About 
one million of fruit baskets are sent 
out annually, and the firm also manu- 
factures beehives and all other acces- 
sories used in bee-farming, the work 
turned out rivalling in many details 
the imported article. A few years ago 
Mr. Chambers invented a machine for 
manufacturing dove-tailed beehives, 
which style was subsequently adopted 
by American manufacturers, who ac- 
knowledged it to be a decided im- 
provement on the old style of mitre 
joints. A machine for making loop- 
twitches for fastening droppers to 
the wire of ordinary wire fences is 
another invention of Mr. Chambers. 
In 1898 the firm purchased the Aus- 
tralian rights of the Cyclone woven 
wire fence, which they introduced into 
Victoria. These fences rapidly 

found favour throughout the States, 
and in order to meet the steadily 
increasing demand it has been 
necessary to add continually to the 
firm's already extensive business. 
Among the numerous lines taken up 
is the Wellman automatic elevating 
gate, which may be opened by persons 
on horseback or driving without the 
slightest difficulty. Crimped pickets 
used in conjunction with the Cyclone 
wire fence are made on the premises 
by a powerful machine, through which 
the wire is passed to obtain the 



necessary crimp. The Cyclone fence 
is a combination of two-wire cables, 
into which the crimp pickets are 
woven at regular intervals. This 
process is carried out by a light, 
handy machine used on the line of 
fence, which is easily operated by one 
man, and when properly erected 
forms a suitable web fence for all 
classes of stock. Over 100 of these 
machines are in use at the present 
time throughout Australia. A branch 
business has lately been established 
in Pietermaritzburg on the same 
lines and dimensions as the Mel- 
bourne house, and the firm intend 
shortly to open in Johannesburg and 
at Port Elizabeth. Some thirty 
hands are constantly employed in the 
Melbourne establishment, and the firm 
is represented throughout the country 
districts by some hundred agents, 
who assist in the erection of the 
fences, etc. In addition to those 
already mentioned, the firm have the 
most complete and modern sawing 
and planing machinery for the making 
of beehives, etc., and a clipping ma- 
chine for cutting into shape, etc., all 
of which are driven by a ll-h.p. gas 
engine. An enormous business is 
transacted yearly by the firm, and 
the turn-out in all lines manufac- 
tured is gradually increasing. A 
large stock of goods is kept on hand, 
including fruit and packing baskets, 
beehives, fencing wire, etc., etc., and 
the firm enjoys an extensive connec- 
tion throughout the Commonwealth 
and abroad. 



C. B. KELLOW, Importer, Manu- 
facturer and Repairer ; Maker of 
"Kellow" and "Empire" Cycles and 
Motors. Show-rooms : 151 Swans- 
ton Street. Factory : Lonsdale 
Street, near Elizabeth Street, Mel- 
bourne. This extensive manufactur- 
ing and importing business was 
established in 1889 by Mr. W. II. 
Lewis, in premises situated at the 
top end of Elizabeth Street. In 
1893 he was joined by Mr. Charles 
Brown Kellow, and operations were 
transferred during the following year 
to the present address in Swanston 
Street. In 1897 Mr. Lewis retired, 
and the business has since been 
carried on by Mr. Kellow as sole 
proprietor. The firm are large 
manufacturers and importers, and 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



145 



act as Victorian agents for the 
Beeston and Humber bicycles and 
motor cars ; the " Werner," the lead- 
ing French bicycle, which is un- 
equalled throughout the world ; and 
the "De Dion Bouton" motor cars. 
The principal goods manufactured are 
the Kellow and Empire cycles and 
motors, and some £10,000 worth 
of stock is carried. Mr. Charles 
Brown Kellow was born in Castle- 
maine, Victoria, in 1872, and is a son 
of Mr. Joseph Kellow, the well- 
known grazier, of "Sutton Grange,'" 
near that place, and a nephew of the 
late Hon. J. B. Patterson, a well- 
known figure in the political history 
of Victoria. Educated at King's 
College, Clifton Hill, he afterwards 
entered the office of a leading firm of 
auctioneers in Collins Street, Mel- 
bourne, and on relinquishing his 
position transferred his services to 




Johnstone, O'Shannctsy and Co. 

Mr. C. B. Kellow. 



Melb. 



the warehouse of Messrs. Sargood, 
Butler, and Ewen, where he re- 
mained for some six years. In 1891 
Mr. Kellow went to Western Aus- 
tralia, and on his return during the 
following year entered the above 
business as before mentioned. As a 
racing cyclist Mr. Kellow is well 
known, and has won some of the 
principal handicaps of Australia. He 
was winner of the Austral Wheel 
Race in 1900, and third in 1894. He 
has also taken part in motor events 
with marked success. During the 
railway strike of 1903 Mr. Kellow 



conveyed a consignment of the 
"Argus" newspaper to Bendigo in a 
"De Dion Bouton" motor car in the 
short space of six hours, leaving 
Melbourne at 3.30 a.m., and deliver- 
ing the papers in Bendigo at 9.30 the 
same morning, returning to. Mel- 
bourne in five hours. He married, 
in 1898, Florence, daughter of Mrs. 
Coles, of Richmond, and lias a family 
of two daughters. He is one of the 
oldest members of the Melbourne 
Bicycle Club, and also of all other 
leading sporting institutions. 



stantly being added to, driven by 
electric motors of various power. 
The firm, by their high-class work- 
manship and generous consideration 
of the various churches, enjoy prac- 
tically a monopoly in Victoria, and 
have successfully extended their 
operations to all the other States 
and New Zealand. Electric and 
hydraulic engineering in connection 
with organ blowing also engages 
their attention, this work being con- 
structed by their own engineers, 
under the supervision of Mr. Geo. 




Ooo. Ffncham and Son's Promises, Richmond. 



GEO. FINCHAM and SON, Organ 
Builders, Bridge Road, Stawell 
Street, and Type Street, Richmond, 
established business in 1864 on the 
site at present covered by their 
Bridge Road factory. Rapidly in- 
creasing business necessitated exten- 
sions to the building, until at the 
present day the factories cover an 
acre of ground, having frontages to 
the three streets above mentioned. 
The success that has always attended 
the firm lies in the fact that they 
import only the necessary raw 
material, the instruments being 
entirely manufactured by themselves, 
in the climate they are to remain 
in, and by local labour. Extensive 
timber stores are provided for 
seasoning purposes, all timber being 
of the finest quality, and seasoned for 
fifteen years before being used in the 
construction. Machinery plays an 
important part in the industry. This 
is of the most modem type, and con- 



Fincham, who is also an engineer of 
no mean order. The business of the 
firm is the most extensive of its kind 
in the Southern Hemisphere. 



Messrs. BATES and CO., Manu- 
facturers of Chocolate and Cocoa, 
whose attractive premises at the 
corner of Swanston Street and 
Flinders Lane impart a bright and 
picturesque aspect to that part of 
the city, are the spirited pioneers of 
this business in Australia. It owed 
its establishment, in 1860, to the 
late Mr. Charles Fisher Bates, who 
arrived in Victoria during the early 
fifties, when so many men of superior 
energy and force of character were 
drawn hither by the great induce- 
ments offered to the spirit of 
enterprise. Animated by this, Mr. 
Bates laid the foundations of a pros- 
perous and progressive business, and 
watched over its steady expansion 



146 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



until his death in 1894. It then 
devolved upon his two sons, Messrs. 
Charles and Ernest Bates, who in- 
herited with it the qualities of its 
founder. The factory in Abbotsford 
affords constant employment to about 
thirty hands, and with its operations 
are combined the importation of all 
"kinds of first - class confectionery as 
well as their manufacture, and the 
high quality of both is recognised far 
and wide, as shown by the increase 
of the firm's transactions. Their 
retail establishment in the city is 
considered to be one of the finest of 
its kind in the world, and usually 
engages the attention of all who 
enter Melbourne from its southern 
approaches by road or rail. An ex- 
tensive business is conducted with all 
parts of the Commonwealth, so that 




creased and still increasing success in 
conjunction with his brother. Mr. 
ERNEST BATES was born in 1877, 
and was educated at the Church of 
England Grammar School. He sub- 
sequently entered the business as 
manager of the manufacturing de- 
partment, to which he continues to 
give his undivided attention. 



jQkntone, WBKanneuy and Ox Melb. 

Mb. Charles Bates. 

the name and fame of Bates' choco- 
late, cocoa, and confectionery may be 
said to be commensurate with the 
spread of settlement on the Aus- 
tralian continent. Mr. CHARLES 
BATES, the principal of the firm, 
was born in West Melbourne in 1870, 
and educated in the Scotch College, 
under the late Dr. Alexander 
Morrison. On leaving that institu- 
tion he joined his father in the busi- 
ness, acting for four years as man- 
ager of the Sydney branch, and re- 
animating it by his ability and 
youthful vigour. On the death of 
Mr. Bates, sen., he took over the 
management of the Melbourne busi- 
ness, which he carries on with in- 




Johnstonc, O'Shanncuy and Co. 

Mr. Ernest Bates. 



Jfett. 



EDWARD BEAUCHAMP, Cycle 
and Motor Manufacturer, Chapel 
Street, Prahran, was born in 
South Melbourne, Victoria, and re- 
ceived his education at the Scotch 
College, Ballarat. He afterwards 
entered upon the study of chemistry 
with Mr. Treloar, of that city, 
for two years, and then took up 
engineering, to which he served 
his apprenticeship with Messrs. 
Wallis and Sampson. After serving 
some time in the employ of 
Messrs. Hudson Bros., in 1889 Mr. 
Beauchamp established himself in 
his present business, starting with 
the modest sum of £5 as capital, in 
addition to a few necessary tools, 
a bench, and a vyce. It speaks 
volumes for his enterprise and pluck 
that at the present time (1902) he 
is considered one of the most up-to- 
date manufacturers of cycles and 
motor cars in the metropolis. His 
name is well and favourably known, 
especially in racing circles, and he 
may fairly claim to be the pioneer of 
the cycle-motor building industry in 
the State. Mr. Beauchamp has not 



only established his business, but has 
gained for himself a reputation in the 
manufacturing world and in engineer- 
ing circles that American and French 
importing firms find hard to beat, 
especially as far as workmanship and 
price are concerned, the machines 
built in his factory comparing favour- 
ably in both these particulars with 
the imported article. The only parts 
not manufactured in Australia are 
the coils, which are imported from 
the best known firms in the old 
country, but the remaining portions, 
from the aluminium casing to the 
combustion chambers, are the pro- 
duct of local manufacture. All the 
machines are built and finished on 
the firm's premises, and Mr. 
Beauchamp is to be complimented 
upon his enterprise, which forms ah 
important adjunct to the industries 
of the State. 



JAMES OATEN, Manufacturing 
Importer, Government Contractor, 
etc., 403 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. 
Mr. Oaten, the proprietor of the 
above extensive importing and manu- 
facturing business, was born in 
Taunton, England, in the year 1848, 
and came with his parents to Vic- 
toria in 1852. On the termination 
of his scholastic career he served 
what may be termed a double ap- 
prenticeship to the trade of saddle 
and harness making, having spent five 
years at harness-making, and two 
years in saddle-making. At the con- 
clusion of that period he entered the 
business of Mr. Gately, to whom he 
paid a premium of £30, in order to 
further perfect himself in his trade. 
Prior to this Mr. Oaten was offered 
an appointment of £4 10s. per week, 
tenable for three years, at Wagga, 
but this he refused, preferring to 
make himself efficient in every branch 
of the business. In 1866 he started 
for himself as a manufacturer of 
saddles and importer of general iron- 
mongery, etc. Mr. Oaten has carried 
out some very large orders for the 
Government in connection with the 
army remounts, and manufactured all 
the saddlery, etc., for the Federal 
contingents for South Africa. About 
sixty hands, all of whom are finished 
workmen, are employed in the fac- 
tory. Fourteen of these are engaged 
in the collar - making department 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA 



147 



alone, Mr Oaten being the largest 
manufacturer in this particular line 
in the States. 



Messrs. LACY and OSBORNE, 
Wholesale Travelling Bag, Trunk, and 
Portmanteau Manufacturers, 354-6-8 
Lonsdale Street. There are few 
Australasian establishments in the 
bag, trunk, and portmanteau sections 
in which the energy and enterprise 
so characteristic of the business men 
of the Commonwealth capitals have 
been more conspicuously displayed 
'than in the growth and development 
of the above-mentioned firm. The 
business, which may claim to be one 
of the oldest-established of its kind 
in Melbourne, was initiated in 1881 
by Mr. John Osborne,, the present 
proprietor. A few years later he 
was joined by Mr. D. Lacy, and the 
business merged into that of Lacy 
and Osborne. On the retirement of 
Mr. Lacy in 1896, operations were 
resumed by Mr. Osborne, who has 
since carried on under the old style. 
Some twenty hands are constantly 
employed by this firm, and during 
the intervening years • since its 
foundation the business has made 
consistent progress, and a trade has 
been established, both amongst Vic- 
torian and interstate buyers, of which 
any house may well be proud. Un- 
doubtedly this is due to the reliable 
nature of their productions, combined 
with an evident determination to 
keep well up with the times in all 
that appertains to latter-day bag 
and leather goods manufacture. 
They produce a range of goods 
which, being smart and up to date, 
are also of guaranteed wear, and 
these two points are so admirably 
blended that the firm's productions 
may be relied upon to give the 
utmost satisfaction in wear, and also 
in good appearance. Messrs. Lacy 
and Osborne are at present amongst 
the largest manufacturers of leather 
bags, portmanteaux, etc., in Aus- 
tralia, and their productions com- 
prise dress baskets, travelling 
trunks, etc., as well as every conceiv- 
able description of leather bags and 
cases. The majority of these goods 
are made in the extensive factory in 
Lonsdale Street, and everything is 
bought and produced at first cost. 
The firm are direct importers from 



the leading houses in Germany and 
elsewhere of all the bag fittings, etc., 
which are required in the business. 
Being in touch with the foreign 
markets, they are enabled to buy 
most advantageously, thus allowing 
them to place their manufactures 
upon the market at very lowest 
prices in comparison with the quality 
of the articles. The specialties 
include overland and cabin trunks, 
travellers' sample cases for the boot 
trade in leather and wood, hat and 
bonnet cases, Gladstone, kit, brief, 
and leather bags of all sorts and 
sizes. The recently introduced com- 
pressed cane is now being largely 
utilised in the manufacture of trunks, 
and for lightness and utility this 




Johnstone, O'Shanneuy and Co, 

Mr. John Osbobnb. 



Jfelft. 



material possesses many advantages. 
The firm are at present importing 
big quantities of these trunks from 
England and Germany. Messrs. 
Lacy and Osborne have been the 
means of introducing many trade . 
novelties in the shape of elaborately 
and handsomely furnished travelling 
bags. Some of these contain com- 
plete sets of toilet requirements, and 
all are arranged in such an economical 
manner as regards space that they 
take up comparatively little room. 
During the late African War an ex- 
traordinary demand took place for 
these specially-fitted bags, and at 
one time the supply could not keep 
up with the demand. The firm are 
also considerable importers of hog- 
skin purses, wallets, Japanese 



baskets, and American dog collars, 
most elaborately ornamented. They 
also import direct many of the 
leathers used in the factory, although 
the great bulk of the material used 
is of colonial tannage. Mr. JOHN 
OSBORNE was born in London in 
1858, and on the completion of his 
school career was apprenticed to the 
leather trade for five years in the 
well-known house of John Tod, of 
Upper Street, Islington. He arrived 
in Victoria in 1878, and a few years 
later founded his present prosperous 
business. He is assisted in the 
factory by his two sons, Messrs. 
John and Bernard Osborne, and has 
a family of fiwe daughters and three 
sons. Mr. Osborne is well known as 
a breeder of Skye and Australian 
terriers, with which he has taken 
many prizes at the various shows in 
Melbourne and district, including 
first, second, and third prizes, and 
champion prize at the Exhibition in 
July, 1903. 



JOHN WALZ, Portmanteau and 
Trunk Maker, 39, 41, and 43 Bridge 
Road, Richmond. Mr. Walz was 
born in a small village near Frei- 
burg, in Germany, and served his 
apprenticeship to the business in 
which he is now engaged in that city 
from 1875 to 1878, receiving at the 
same time that education in literary 
science which forms an essential 
portion of a youth's industrial train- 
ing. Then bis "wanderjahr" com- 
menced, and he visited successively 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine, Hanover, 

Berlin, and Hamburg, where he ob- 
tained employment for a time in dif- 
ferent workshops, so as to gain 
practice and experience. His three 
years of military service, from 1882 
to 1885, was in the 15th Regiment 
of Lancers. This having been com- 
pleted, his attention was drawn to 
Australia by the large shipments of 
leather goods to these parts by the 
Hamburg firm in whose business he 
was employed for nearly two years. 
Resolving to emigrate, he quitted 
the Fatherland in the latter part of 
1886, and, on reaching Melbourne, 
commenced working as a journey- 
man ; but early in the year following 
he rented a small cottage, scarcely a 
stone's throw from his present com- 
modious premises, and commenced 



148 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



business on his own account, limit- 
ing himself in the first instance to 
the manufacture of school satchels. 
Little more than a twelvemonth 
after his landing he borrowed a sum 
of money—the land boom was then 
at its height, and loans were easily 
obtainable— and bought a block of 
land, upon which he built a work- 
room. The years 1887-8-9 were 
apparently prosperous ones, and Mr. 
Walz found a ready outlet for port- 
manteaux, leather trunks, and his 
special article, "Saratogas," at re- 
munerative prices ; but a reaction 
occurred, lasting from 1892 to 1895. 
People could no longer afford to 



under the agreeable necessity of ex- 
tending his premises, so that they 
might be commensurate with the 
gratifying expansion of his business. 
He therefore bought another block 
of land adjoining his earlier pur- 
chase, and proceeded to erect his 
present extensive buildings, which he 
fitted up with machinery of the 
latest and most efficient character 
procurable, driven by an electric 
motor of the most approved kind, 
and realising the ideal he had 
always set before him as regards 
the essential requirements of his 
business. He was thus enabled to 
"introduce his newly-designed "Jubilee 




Jehn Walz* Premises, Bridge Road, Rlohmond. 



travel, and Saratoga trunks, as well 
as other articles of the same kind, 
hung heavily on hand. At the ap- 
proach, however, of our late beloved 
Queen's Jubilee, there was a re- 
markable revival in this branch of 
industry. Orders flowed in from all 
quarters, and Mr. Walz found himself 



Saratoga," for which a remarkable 
demand arose, not only in Melbourne, 
but in the neighbouring colonies, the 
result being that it found its way 
into every outfitting establishment 
of any importance in Australia, and 
its approach to technical perfection 
was very generally recognised. This 



perfection he believes he has reached 
in his latest design, the "Corona- 
tion" Saratoga, devised for the 
special comfort and convenience of 
Australians visiting England to wit- 
ness the imposing ceremonial of the 
crowning of King Edward the 




Johnttone, O'Shannesfy and Co. 

Mb. John Walz. 



JfeO. 



Seventh and his Royal consort. Mr. 
Walz takes no part in politics of any 
kind, preferring to concentrate his 
attention upon his business, holding, 
with a famous English statesman, 
that whatever may be its fluctua- 
tions, "Trade always comes back, 
and finance never ruined a country, 
or an individual either, if he had 
pluck." 



Messrs. J AS. A. MUNRO and 
CO., Importers, Manufacturers' 
Agents and Indentors ; also Manu- 
facturers of Bedding and Wire Mat- 
tresses, 374 to 384 Latrobe Street, 
Melbourne. Mr. JAS. A. MUNRO, 
the proprietor of this flourishing and 
extensive business, was born in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, in the year 1866, 
and was educated in his native city. 
He served for a short period with a 
large auctioneering firm as clerk, and 
afterwards in an accountant's office, 
but being of a mechanical turn of 
mind this did not prove altogether 
congenial to him. It was, therefore, 
of small wonder to his acquaintances 
that he seized the first opportunity 
of being indentured to a trade. Upon 
the termination of his indentures he 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



149 



left his native city for London, and 
after about three years' experience in 
the great city he sailed for Mel- 
bourne, where he arrived in 1891, and 
shortly afterwards established his 
present business in a small way. 
This gradually and steadily develop- 




Johnstonc. O'Shanncsty and Co. Melb, 

Mr. Jas. A. Munro. 

ing, Mr. Munro soon found his con- 
nection too extensive for his limited 
accommodation, and, in fact, on no 
less than three occasions had to seek 
larger premises, finally purchasing 
and settling at the above-mentioned 
site, the premises of which cover 
over half an acre of floorage, and 
where, after extensive alterations to 



suit his requirements, he installed at 
great expense a most elaborate ma- 
chinery plant, etc., for the more eco- 
nomical and expeditious handling of 
his lines of manufacture. Besides 
the manufacturing part of the busi- 
ness of this firm, they carry on, as 
above indicated, a manufacturers' 
agency and indent business, which 
is not by any means the minor 
portion of the concern, for they do 
a very extensive business in this 
branch, holding many good agencies, 
including among their representations 
that of British, American, and Con- 
tinental firms, but chiefly those 
engaged in metal, hardware, furni- 
ture, and allied lines. 

DOTT BROS., Glass Manufac- 
turers and Blowers, Langford Street, 
North Melbourne. The premises of 
this extensive and important manu- 
facturing firm are truly well worth 
a visit from those who take an inte- 
rest in the manufacture of goods that 
are used in every-day life. The 
business was established for the 
manufacture of glassware of all 
kinds. There are twenty-four hands 
employed in the building, which 
covers an acre of ground, and one 
might spend a whole day pleasantly 
in watching the blowers in the per- 
formance of their duties. The ap- 
parent ease with which they blow 
articles of all kinds, from the 
smallest lamp glass to the largest 
globe for street illumination pur- 




Johnttonc, O'Shannessy and Co. 

Jas. A. Munro and Co.'s Pramlaaa, Latrob* Straet, Malbaurna. 



Melb. 



poses, is apt to lead the onlooker to 
believe that he could do it for him- 
self ; but, like most other things 
which appear simple, it is dif- 
ficult in the extreme to accomplish, 
for it takes years of patience to 
acquire the proficiency necessary for 
this trade, and then not even all 
those who study are capable of turn- 
ing out the best work. The art of 
glass-blowing is a gift, and not mere 
work to be learned mechanically. 
Messrs. Dott Bros, have had to fight 
against immense prejudice on the part 
of the wholesale buyers, as well as 
on that of the retail public, who 
were under the erroneous impression 
that good lamp glasses could not be 
made in this part of the world, and 
they also had to contend with the 
products of cheap German labour ; 
but they have, however, brought their 
goods up to such a standard of per- 
fection that, as they say, they can 
defy anybody to differentiate their 
goods from the imported article by 
their quality ; in fact, they claim 
that their goods are superior. 
Messrs. Dott Bros, have executed 
large contracts for the tramways and 
Government railways, both in Vic- 
toria and in the other States, and 
have successfully established a con- 
nection with interstate business 
houses, which, under the present 
Federated Australian Commonwealth, 
is bound to grow with the growth of 
the States, and promises to supersede 
the imported articles in public 
favour. 

MELBOURNE GLASS BOTTLE 
WORKS COMPANY, Bayview Ave- 
nue, Spottiswoode ; Wm. McNeilage, 
manager. Mr. McNEILAGE, the 
enterprising and popular manager of 
the above extensive manufacturing 
business, was born in Glasgow, 
Scotland, in the year 1855, and at 
the age of nine came to Victoria 
with his parents. He was educated 
in Melbourne, and afterwards entered 
the business of his father, who was 
the pioneer of the glass bottle in- 
dustry in Australia, and who was 
subsequently manager to the Tress 
Bottle Works and Messrs. J. Brown 
and Co., Sydney. In 1870 he came 
to Melbourne, where he established a 
bottle works. Later on he returned 
to Sydney, returning to this State in 
order to fill an appointment as man- 



150 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



ager of tbe Melbourne Bottle Works. 
In 1898 he was admitted a partner. 
Mr. McNeilage is president of the 
Williamstown Football Club, and 
takes a keen interest in politics and 
all matters relating to tbe advance- 
ment and welfare of the State. The 
company's premises at Spottiswoode 
form one of the sights of the district, 
and find employment for 400 hands in 
the operation of seven furnaces (four 
gas furnaces and three ordinary), and 
the weekly output averages 70,000 
bottles of all descriptions. 



Mr. ERNEST A. PEARSON, 
Manager for Pearson and Co. 
Limited, is a native of Geelong. 
His father came out from the old 
land in the year 1851, in the "City 
of Manchester ," made Geelong his 
home, and afterwards married the 
daughter of the late Ebenezer 
Davies, Esq., of that town, and 
sister of Sir Matthew and the Hon. 
J. M. Davies. Mr. E. A. Pearson 
was educated at the Geelong 
Grammar School, and served his 
apprenticeship at Messrs. Bright 
and Hitchcocks', the well - known 
drapers of that town, and at the 



of the Doveton Woollen Mill Company 
Limited, Ballarat, approached him 
with the idea of establishing a 
clothing factory in Melbourne, having 
for its object the manufacture of the 




SwUs Studio 

Mr. Ernest A. Pearson. 



Uelb. 



whole of their woollens. Finding a 
wider scope for his business ability, 
the offer thus presented was accepted, 
and the firm of Pearson and Co. 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co . 

Tho Workroom at Poarson and Co.'s Factory. 

age of nineteen started business for 
himself, and has been his own master 
ever since, carrying on business in 
most of the leading towns of the 
North-Eastern District, making Wan- 
garatta his headquarters, where he 
resided for ten years. The directors 



ifelb. 



Limited was duly established in the 
year 1896, the other active partner 
in the business being Mr. H. B. 
Denniston, son of J. F. Denniston, 
Esq., the manager of the Woollen 
Mills. The firm has rapidly grown 
under their capable management, 



and, under the present conditions of 
interstate free trade, is doing an 
extensive business with the other 
States. Mr. Pearson is the pre- 
sident of the Victorian Clothing 
Manufacturers' Association, but is 
more closely identified with organisa- 
tions of a religious nature, being on 
the Y.M.C.A. board, a member of the 
executive council of the Baptist 
Union of Victoria, hon. secretary of 
the West Melbourne Baptist Church, 
hon. treasurer of the South Africa 
Compound Mission, a lay preacher, 
S.S. teacher, one of the committee 
and local correspondent of the simul- 
taneous mission, which is regarded as 
one of the biggest and most success- 
ful undertakings of its kind ever 
witnessed in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. 




Talma Melb. 

Mr. John Charles Benfold. 

The NATIONAL MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, 162 Lygon Street, 
Carlton, Manufacturers of Costumes, 
Mantles, Skirts, Blouses, etc. Tele- 
phone No. 3,220. This extensive 
manufacturing establishment finds 
employment for some 100 hands. 
The machinery is all of the very 
latest and most approved type, and 
is driven by electric power. The 
premises in Lygon Street, Carlton, 
are three-storied, and built of brick, 
the offices and cutting-room being on 
the ground floor, the machining de- 
partment on the first floor, while the 
upper story is devoted to packing 
purposes and the accommodation of 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



161 



the large stock of cloths, linens, 
silks, etc. The whole management 
of the factory is in the capable 
hands of Mr. JOHN CHARLES 
BEN FOLD. Born near Manchester, 
England, in 1860, Mr. Benfold was 
brought up to the softgoods trade in 
his native city, and came out to 
Victoria in 1879. His first engage- 
ment was in the Denton Hat Mills, 
near Melbourne, and from there he 
went into a clothing establishment. 
The business of the National Manu- 
facturing Company was established 
in 1898, and a large export trade is 
done with the other States. Mr. 
Benfold has taken a great interest in 
the Victorian Softgoods Association 
since the inception of that body, and 
has been a member of the executive 
for a number of years. In August, 
1903, he was elected president for the 
ensuing year, and it is his ambition 
to see this club the strongest south 
of the equator. He was married in 
1879, and has a family of one daugh- 
ter and two sons, the eldest of whom 
is associated with him in the busi- 
ness. 



H. L. BURRELL, WATKINSON. 
and CO., Wholesale Costume and 
Mantle Manufacturers, Monahan's 
Buildings, Flinders Lane, Melbourne. 




Johnstone* O'Shanncssy and Co. 
Mrs. Bcrrbll. 



ifelb 



Watkinson, Mr. Heinrich Lohn, the 
third partner, having joined in 
1888. An inspection of the 

show - room in Flinders Lane in- 
dicates the fact that artistes are 
employed to produce the beauti- 
fully designed and finished garments 
therein displayed. This fact, no 
doubt, accounts for the reputation 
the establishment holds among the 
ladies of Australasia. The firm's 
factory is exceedingly well provided 
for and equipped, and entirely self- 
contained. All the raw material and 
fabrics used are imported direct from 
the European looms, and an extensive 
plant, consisting of sewing machines 
and special machinery of the latest 
and most perfect types for the manu- 



carry their lines. Both Mrs. Burrell 
and Mrs. Watkinson are active part- 
ners. Mr. Heinrich Lohn, their 
brother, is a native of Germany, 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. 

Mrs. Watkinson. 



ifelb. 



This firm, the largest and most im- 
portant of its kind in the Common- 
wealth, was founded in 1886 by the 
enterprise of Mesdames Burrell and 



facture of embroideries and all other 
trimmings in use, run by electric 
motors, is kept constantly and fully 
engaged. For the working of these 
embroideries and trimming-making 
machines, Mesdames Burrell and 
Watkinson found it necessary to 
import special operatives, by whom 
local workers are now being trained. 
A large staff of upwards of 
200 assistants, including machinists, 
seamstresses, tailors, etc., occupy 
two large flats in the building. The 
character of the work turned out by 
this firm has secured for their goods 
a general and constant demand, 
enabling the proprietors to select as 
customers only the best mercantile 
houses, who count it a privilege to 




Jonnstone, (TShanntsty and Co. Altlb. 

Mr. Heinrich Lohn. 

where he was educated, and received 
a sound commercial training before 
coming out to Victoria to join the 
firm. 



J. L. WYETH, Wholesale Mantle 
Manufacturer, Cromwell Buildings, 
Bourke Street, Melbourne. Mrs. 
Jane Louisa Wyeth, the pro- 
prietress of this business, was born 
and received her education and 
commercial training in the city of 
London. At an early age she was 
apprenticed to Messrs. Spreckley, 
White, and Lewis, with whom she 
remained for a number of years, and 
was later in the employ of Osborn, 
Hardy, and Co., of Cannon Street, 
and also with John Perry and Co., 
London. Her long connection with 
these world-renowned English houses 
enabled her to obtain a thorough 
mastery of the manipulation of the 
fine machinery used in the trade, and 
all the details of the business, so 
that she possesses a practical ac- 
quaintance with it that is probably 
unique in the Commonwealth. On 
landing in Sydney in 1886 she was 
engaged by Messrs. David Jones and 
Co., of that city, as mantle cutter. 
In 1890, at the close of the Mel- 
bourne Exhibition, she removed to 
this State, shortly afterwards enter- 



153 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



ing the employment of Messrs. L. 
Stevenson and Co. Eleven years 
ago her present business was 
opened, and has since been suc- 
cessfully conducted and extended 
until its goods have now secured a 
footing in all the States of the Com- 
monwealth. Her factory is well 
equipped with modern appliances and 
machinery for the manufacture of 
trimmings, embroideries, applique, 
etc. Mrs. Wyeth has two daughters 
and a son, who are connected with 
her in the business. 




Johnstone, 0'$hanne$ay and Co. 

Mrs. J. L. Wyeth. 



Jfefft. 



Misses J. and F. WILSON, Shirt 
and Pyjama Manufacturers, 148 
Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. This 
extensive manufacturing business was 
established in 1894 by the present 
proprietors, and carried on by them 
ever since. A large connection is 
enjoyed by them, their customers in- 
cluding many of the leading ware- 
houses throughout the city. Their 
trade is confined mostly to the manu- 
facture of white shirts, and about 
twenty hands are constantly em- 
ployed in the well-lighted and lofty 
workroom, which measures some 60 
by 20 feet, and is situate on the 
ground floor of the factory in Lons- 
dale Street. Their machinery plant 
consists of fourteen sewing machines, 
worked by a 2-horse power electric 
motor, which greatly facilitates the 
manufacture of the articles turned 
out by the firm. Some fifty dozen 
white shirts are turned out weekly, 



in addition to a large number of 
coloured articles. The senior partner 
in the firm is Miss J. WILSON, who 
is a native of Melbourne, and was 




- Johnstone, O'Shannetsy and Co. 
Miss J. Wilson. 



Uelb 



educated locally. She was after- 
wards for several years in the well- 
known house of Messrs. Buckley and 
Nunn, and also with Messrs. 
Robertson and Moffat. In 1894 
she established the business which 
has since been successfully worked 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. 

Miss F. Wilson. 



Mtlb. 



up to its present position. The 
shirts manufactured by Miss Wilson 
compare favourably with any im- 
ported. Miss F. WILSON, the 



junior partner, is also a native of 
Melbourne, and acquired her business 
experience in the firms of Buckley 
and Nunn and Hicks, Atkinson, and 
Co. 



The GLASGOW SHIRT 
FACTORY, 10 Sydney Street, Col- 
ling wood. The above business, 
which is carried on under the 
capable management of Mrs. AGNES 
CRAWFORD, was established by her 
husband, the late Mr. Wm. Crawford, 
in 1881. On the death of that 
gentleman, in 1899, the business was 
taken over by his widow, who is not 
only carrying it on successfully, but 
is increasing the output daily. Mrs. 
Crawford is contemplating the erec- 
tion of additional machinery where- 
with to cope with a rapidly expand- 




Taima 



Afclb. 



Mr. William Crawford. 



ing connection. The business is 
confined to the manufacture of what 
is known as "soft" shirts, and finds 
constant employment for over sixty 
hands, the articles turned out being 
unequalled for variety and excellent 
finish. This being the case, and 
their high quality being consistently 
maintained, the demand for them 
naturally increases commensurately 
with the growing wants of an ex- 
panding population. 

Mrs. ROSA A. GRIFFITHS, Art 
Needleworker and Teacher, Scourfield 
Chambers, Collins Street. One of 
the most interesting and beautiful of 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



l&J 



the old - time handicrafts— the only 
one, perhaps, that has successfully 
defied the rivalry of machinery and 
the art-destroying devices of a mer- 
cenary age — is that of real lace- 
making. The machine-made article 
is lace ; the hand - made fabric, 
fleecy, quaint, delightful, because of 
its very irregularities, is "real" lace 
still. In Mrs. Griffiths' establish- 
ment all the old laces — Limerick, 
Torchon, Honiton, real old Irish 
crochet, etc., etc.— are made, and 
the pillows and shuttles of the 
age of our great - grandmothers 
may be seen at work every 
day. Church authorities requir- 
ing lace for altar cloths, stoles, 
vestments, etc., and connoisseurs in 




Johnstone. i/Shanntssy and Co. Mttb. 

Mrs. Rosa A. Griffiths. 

lace, should inspect Mrs. Griffiths' 
work before sending out of the State 
for supplies. School badges and 
emblems, bullion work, Masonic 
regalia, and* all kinds of fine needle- 
work are undertaken and beautifully 
made. Mrs. Griffiths is a native of 
Somerset, England. She came to 
this State as a child with her father, 
the late Mr. P. J. Petherick, in the 
ship "Kyle," in March, 1853. On 
obtaining the State School certificate 
she became a teacher under the 
Education Department, making a 
specialty of needlework. Six years 
later she opened the well-known Vic- 
toria School, in Collingwood. This 
institution was successfully conducted 
by Mrs. Griffiths for a number of 
years. In 1890 she was appointed 



teacher of needlework in the Camber- 
well and Hawthorn State Schools, 
and soon afterwards was engaged to 
conduct classes in this subject at the 
Working Men's College. Three years 
ago she opened her present business, 
as an art needleworker and instruc- 
tress. Her lace designs 9 and other 
art needlework appear every month, 
as a much appreciated feature, in the 
"New Idea," and there can be no 
doubt that as the public become ac- 
quainted with the quality and merits 
of her work her business will extend 
very considerably, as indeed it 
deserves. Mrs. Griffiths is also a 
teacher of millinery and dress- 
making, including renovating, thus 
enabling her pupils to make and alter 
their own dresses and hats in their 
own homes. She offers a splendid 
opening to young ladies who are 
willing to devote a few hours daily 
to lace-making, as they can thereby 
earn a good sum weekly, and the 
work is not at all injurious to the 
eyesight. 



The HOBSON'S BAY SOAP AND 
CANDLE COMPANY (trading as H. 
Walker), 313 Flinders Lane, Mel- 
bourne, and at Abbotsford. 
FREDERICK HENRY LONGMAN, 
the principal of the above important 
and extensive manufacturing business, 
was born in England in the year 
1858. He was educated at York 
College, and was afterwards brought 
up to the engineering trade, which he 
learned at the Britannia Sewing 
Machine Company's works, now 
known as the Britannia Tool Com- 
pany. He came to Victoria in 1870, 
and joined Mr. Walker, the founder 
of the business, with whom he has 
been connected ever since. The firm 
make a specialty of soap, candles, 
and refined glycerine. The business, 
which is one of the oldest of its kind 
in the State, is in a sound and 
flourishing condition, and the firm 
employ over fifty hands. Mr. 

Longman is a member of the Cham- 
ber of Manufactures. It is highly 
interesting and instructive to be 
privileged to walk through Mr. 
Longman's extensive establishment, 
and to observe on every hand the 
evidences of his skill as a mechanic, 
and to watch the operation of the 
machinery and appliances which he 



has constructed for carrying out the 
manufacture of the goods he produces. 
It would probably be a surprise even 
to some of our most eminent engi- 
neers. There is no running about or 
confusion in starting the numerous 
engines or pumps, for they are con- 
trolled from all parts of the building. 
Indeed, if it were not so a hundred 
and fifty men could not carry out the 
work which the fifty at present occu- 
pied in it are enabled to effect with- 
out any undue exertion. The great 
point which Mr. Longman has aimed 
at in the manufacture of glycerine is 
to produce an article which will 
always be of the same uniform 
quality, that is to say, unvarying in 
strength and purity, and, after a 




W Mason and Co. Richmond 

. Mr. Frederick Henry Longman. 

hard battle with the imported article, 
he has come out victorious, and the 
monopoly which was once held by the 
outside world in the supply of this 
commodity has been completely 
broken up, and glycerine from ex- 
ternal sources is now practically 
driven out of the market. The same 
thing applied to the candle and soap 
trade, for Mr. Longman has brought 
the production of these articles to 
perfection by his ample technical 
knowledge as a chemist, as also by 
his skill as an engineer, so that now 
that the . fateful tariff question is 
settled, he intends to enlarge his 
establishment immediately, which 
will necessarily result in an increased 
demand for and a larger employment 
of labour. In conclusion, it may 



154 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



be remarked that men of Mr. 
Longman's stamp, cool-headed and 
determined, are just what are re- 
quired to found, direct, and control 
our manufacturing industries through- 
out Victoria. 



The VICTORIA CARRIAGE 
COMPANY, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 
60, 62, 64 Punt Road, Windsor.— This 
extensive firm, which forms an im- 
portant adjunct to the manufacturing 
industry of the Commonwealth, was 
established in 1888 by the present 
proprietors, Messrs. J. W. Clapham, 
A. W. Clapham, and H. W. Smith, 
business having been commenced in 
High Street, St. Kilda. Their con- 
nection rapidly expanded, owing, no 
doubt, to the fact that all three of 
the -partners were thorough masters 
of the trade, and they were soon 
compelled to seek larger premises. 
These were obtained in Punt Road, 



the class of vehicle has been decided 
upon, a full-size drawing is made on 
a large blackboard. From this all 
the mechanics work to scale. The 
drawing is submitted to the cus- 
tomer's inspection, and altered or 
added to as desired by the skilful 
fingers of *the draughtsman. The 
springs and necessary ironwork are 
then carried out in the smiths' shop. 
The body makers are engaged in fitting 
piece to piece with even greater pre- 
cision than a cabinet-maker. All 
wood selected is well seasoned before- 
hand, and when the body is finished 
and ready for the painter and 
trimmer it is mounted on a trolly 
and wheeled into the painters' shop. 
This idea of mounting the bodies of 
vehicles on trollies is an excellent 
one. It saves handling, and as all 
the Victoria Carriage Factory's 
works are on the ground floor the 
body can be wheeled anywhere. As 
much care is bestowed upon the 




Tha Victoria Carriage Company's Premises, Punt Road, Windsor. 



Windsor, and cover an area of 17,000 
feet, most of which is covered with 
substantial buildings. The specialty 
of the firm has always been, and 
continues to be, the higher class of 
carriage, and they have in conse- 
quence been compelled to engage 
none but first-class mechanics, of 
whom there are thirty-three em- 
ployed. The Victoria Carriage Com- 
pany manufactures all classes of 
vehicles in addition to carriages, these 
including landaus, gigs, dog-carts, 
phaetons, drags, etc., etc. The same 
process holds good with all. When 



painting of the vehicle as in painting 
a picture. The paint and varnishing 
rooms are dust-proof and thoroughly 
ventilated. After the trimming has 
been finished the body is affixed to 
the framework of springs and irons, 
and the vehicle is complete. The 
company's list of patrons include 
such well-known names as those of 
Sir George S. Clarke, K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S., Sir John Madden, C.M.G., 
and a considerable proportion of the 
proprietors of carriages residing in 
South Yarra, Toorak, St. Kilda, and 
surrounding districts. 



Mr. T. W. SHERftIN, of 32 and 
34 Wellington Street, ColUngwood, 
commenced business as a manufac- 
turer of athletic requisites, such as 
leather cricket balls, footballs, boxing 
and contest gloves, etc., in a small 
way in the year 1883, and by con- 
stant study and superior workman- 
ship is now doing the largest business 
in the Commonwealth in high-class 
goods in the above lines. The manu- 
facture and quality of these are of 
the highest standard attainable, and 
they have been awarded first and 




Joknttont, O'Shanncssy and Co, Melb. 

Mr. T. W. Sherrin. 

other prizes at the international and 
other Exhibitions in Melbourne and 
Adelaide. Mr. Sherrin's improved 
Match cricket balls, of which he is 
the inventor, are used in pennant 
matches throughout the States, the 
Melbourne Cricket Club having 
ordered twenty dozen during a 
single season ; and orders from the 
principal clubs throughout Australia 
are daily on the increase. His 
Match II. footballs are manufactured 
from specially prepared leather, and 
are guaranteed to keep their shape in 
all weathers. They are used by all 
the clubs in premiership and inter- 
state matches throughout the Com- 
monwealth. Sherrin's boxing and 
contest gloves have attained a world- 
wide reputation, having been used in 
the National Sporting Club, London, 
in South Africa, and in all the great 
battles in Australia, a number of 
which have been for the world's 
championship. The great John L. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



155 



Sullivan, when in Australia, wrote 
congratulating Mr. Sherrin on the 
superior quality of his gloves, stating 
that they were the best he had ever 
used or handled. Mr. Sherrin is 
also patentee of the celebrated punch- 
ing ball used by all athletes, and 
strongly recommended by the medical 
faculty to all whose occupation is of 
a sedentary description. This inven- 
tion is such a valuable one that it is 
now being copied by other manufac- 
turers throughout the world. 

Mr. CHARLES EDGLEY, Court 
Shoe Manufacturer, 66 Curtain 
Street, North Carlton. Mr. Charles 
Edgley, the proprietor of the above 
business, was born in the city of 
London in the year 1859, and at the 
age of twelve started work with his 
father, Mr. C. Edgley. Four years 
later he started work as a journey- 
man, having been employed in some 
of the leading establishments in Eng- 
land, and ultimately rose to the 
position of foreman in the well-known 
firm of Robert Bateman and Son, 
London. In 1875 he left England 
for Victoria, and soon after arrival 
was engaged by Messrs. Bedggood 
and Co. as foreman, a position he 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. Mdb. 

Mb. Charles Edgley. 

filled for eighteen months, and then 
started in business on his own 
account. In private life Mr. Edgley 
is highly esteemed. He takes an 
active interest in Masonic affairs, and 
is a prominent member of the Aus- 
tralasian Kilwinning Lodge, V.C. 



Mr. JOHN JEFFERY, of 89 
Spring Street, Melbourne, Filter 
Manufacturer, was born in Brighton, 
England, on the 21st of May, 1848, 
and arrived in Melbourne in 1856. 
As a boy he worked for Mr. Enoch 
Chambers, who at that time carried 
on a large business as an engineer 
and boilermaker in Little Collins 
Street, with an extensive iron 
foundry in Greville Street, Prahran, 
and during his term of service with 
the firm had the distinction of heat- 
ing the rivets used in the construc- 
tion of the boiler of the first loco- 
motive made in Victoria, and also 
rode on the footplate of the engine 
on the trial trip to Malmsbury. 
During this time he was employed on 
various public buildings, including the 
old Treasury and Parliament Houses, 
and screened all the iron pins which 
were used in connection with holding 
the gallery plates on to the brackets 
in the female portion of the Mel- 
bourne Gaol. Later on his father 
was engaged in the construction of 
the ironwork for the Maryborough 
Gaol, a contract which occupied 
about eight months, and his son, who 
accompanied him thither, assisted 
him. Mr. Jeffery, sen., also under- 
took to construct a large brass dome 
for a locomotive, possibly the Cornish 
and Bruce locomotive (a task which 
was refused by all other engineers in 
Melbourne at that time), and carried 
out the contract with great success. 
In this also he was assisted by his 
son, whose reward consisted, as he 
naively remarks, "in plenty of hard 
knocks and jars during its manufac- 
ture if I did not hold it quite right." 
After having been engaged for four 
years with Mr. Chambers, Mr. 
Jeffery joined the well-known firm of 
John and Samuel Danks, brass- 
founders, etc., of Bourke Street, 
with whom he remained until he 
reached manhood. He was after- 
wards employed by various brass- 
working and plumbing firms in Mel- 
bourne, and also worked on the Yan 
Yean water supply works in the con- 
struction of the mains from Morang 
to Preston. He then went to New 
Zealand under engagement to a con- 
tractor to lay mains for the purpose 
of sluicing the Wiamea and Stafford 
towns for mining, and on the com- 
pletion of this travelled on foot and 
by steamer to Wellington, where his 



old employer, Mr. Samuel Danks, had 
commenced a business similar to, 
although on a smaller scale than, the 
Melbourne one, and was engaged 
therein as foreman, a position he 
retained for nine years. During his 
stay in Wellington Mr. Jeffery joined 




Johnstone, (J'Shanncssy and Co. 

Mr. John Jeffery. 



Velb. 



a theatrical company, and took a part 
in the performance of "H.M.S. Pina- 
fore," in aid of charities, which was 
played on board one of the ships at 
anchor in the harbour. Returning 
to Victoria, he commenced business 
on his own account in Toorak Road, 
South Yarra, and constructed most 
of the brasswork for the Melbourne 
Law Courts. Being dissatisfied with 
the quality of the Yan Yean water as 
supplied from the main pipes to the 
public, Mr. Jeffery set to work to 
construct a filter for purifying pur- 
poses, and after many failures suc- 
ceeded in inventing the article known 
in every household as the "Jeffery 
Filter," which has been favourably 
commented upon by Dr. Gresswell 
(who has had one in use ever since 
he first arrived in Victoria) and the 
medical faculty throughout the State. 
The Marquis of Linlithgow also took 
two of these filters on his return to 
England. This invention Mr. Jeffery 
has patented and improved, and it 
now comes within the reach of all 
classes of the community. The 
"Jeffery Filter" has been subjected 
to the severest tests by the Sanitary 
Commission appointed in 1890 for the 
purpose, among others, of testing the 



156 



The cyclopedia of victoria. 



purity of our water supply. Typhoid 
germs were introduced into the 
"Filter," and even with a force pump 
at a pressure of 300 lbs. to the 
square inch failed to force their way 
through the medium of filtration. 
Another of Mr. Jeffery's clever in- 
ventions was a life-saving guard for 
use on tram cars, by means of which 
persons colliding with a car were 
pushed to one side and so prevented 
from being run over, as is so often 
the case ; but although it met with 
the approval of the directors of the 
Tramway Company, and stood re- 
peated trials successfully, the com- 
pany was forced to abandon it on 
account of the lack of necessary funds 
for its adoption. 

HIRAM JAMES PHILLIPS, Whip 
and Thong Manufacturer, 295 Lons- 
dale Street, Melbourne, was born at 
Heathcote, Victoria, in the year 
1866. He went to his trade at the 
age of fifteen, being apprenticed for 
five years to Mr. John Keaston, and 
on the completion of his indentures 
remained with that firm for some 
years. He then established himself 
in business on his own account at 
his present address, where he has 
now been located for the past ten 
years. It is a matter of general 
belief that all the best and most 
perfectly finished whips are imported 
from England and America, but this 
is not so, and a visit to Mr. Phillips' 
factory in Lonsdale Street is alone 
sufficient to prove the contrary. At 
his establishment may be seen the 
latest and most up-to-date machinery 
for the manufacture of whips, of 
which Mr. Phillips has in stock no 
less than 700 varieties, ranging in 
character and quality from the 
bullock-driver's whip, which is neces- 
sarily of a formidable make and ap- 
pearance, to the lightest and 
daintiest whips for the use of fair 
equestriennes, and, intermediately, 
whips of every possible description. 
It is only just to Mr. Phillips to 
state that the vast experience neces- 
sary for the building up of the 700 
whips, each with its own particular 
shape, finish, and "feel," has been 
acquired by downright hard work, 
much thought, and strict attention 
to detail ; and it is owing to these 
efforts and qualifications that at the 
present day he is a thorough master 



of the whip-making industry, which, 
through his instrumentality, has been 
firmly established in Victoria. When 
he started business in 1892 it was 
in a very small way, and he was 
thankful to receive an order for a 
quarter, or at most a dozen whips at 
a time. To-day the orders arrive 
daily by the gross, some of which 
are for 100 dozen each, and the busi- 
ness is still increasing. 



Mr. JOHN CROTTO, Managing 
Director of the Federal Building 
Material Company Proprietary 
Limited, Middle Park, Victoria, was 
born in Germany in 1852, and re- 
ceived his education in his native 




Johntlone, O'Shanntsty and Co. 

Mr. John Crotto. 



Mtlb. 



country. He entered upon the study 
of engineering, and was engaged as 
contractor's engineer and railway 
contractor. He also occupied for a 
number of years the position of man- 
aging director of iron mines. In 
1890 Mr. Crotto decided to seek fresh 
fields for the pursuit of his profes- 
sion, and emigrated to Australia, 
where he settled down in Melbourne. 
Failing to find employment at rail- 
way construction, which was his 
main object, he accepted an appoint- 
ment on the staff of the Melbourne 
and Metropolitan Board of Works. 
At the time when the advisability of 
introducing narrow gauge railways in 
Victoria was under discussion, Mr. 
Crotto published a little pamphlet 
on the merits of "Narrow Gauge 



Railways in Victoria," and proved 
himself thoroughly conversant with 
matters concerning railway construc- 
tion in general, and narrow gauge 
railways in particular. In 1902 Mr. 
Crotto relinquished his employment 
with the Melbourne and Metropolitan 
Board of Works, and established a 
new industry in Australia, viz., the 
manufacture of roofing tiles, at 
the premises of the Federal Build- 
ing Material Company, Middle Park. 
The tiles produced at the company's 
works compare most favourably with 
slates and clay tiles, especially with 
regard to cheapness, durability, 
artistic appearance, and non-conduct- 
ing qualities. Owing to the use of 
the very best of materials obtain- 
able, careful treatment, and the 
special manufacturing process, the 
tiles are made completely case- 
hardened. Their surface is next 
finished off with cement, to which is 
added a small quantity of colour, 
which makes the tiles impervious. 
Their architectural value is enhanced 
by their being manufactured in 
various colours, which allow of the 
roof being made to show a variety 
of patterns without increasing the 
cost. The tiles are made by special 
machines invented for the purpose, 
and patented in all the States of the 
Commonwealth. After leaving the 
machines the tiles are subjected to 
careful treatment of about three 
months' duration, when they are 
ready to be placed on a building. 
The cement tiles have the reputation 
of improving with age, which no 
other material, of whatever sub- 
stance, can claim to possess. The 
perfection to which these tiles have 
been carried is the result of theo- 
retical and practical experience, and 
they are deservedly placed first on 
the list for roofing purposes. 



Messrs. BATEMAN and CO., Fur- 
niture Manufacturers, 229-231 Moray 
Street, South Melbourne. Mr. A. 
BATEMAN, the leading partner in 
the above extensive and important 
manufacturing firm, was born in Mel- 
bourne, Victoria, in 1861, and was 
educated under private tuition. He 
was afterwards apprenticed to the 
printing trade for a period of five 
years, but not finding enough scope 
for his energetic and enterprising 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



157 



spirit in that department of industry 
he went to New Zealand, and there 
entered into the manufacture of fur- 
niture in the well-known house of 
Findley and Co., Dunedin. On his 
return to Victoria, Mr. Bateman was 
employed for consecutive periods in 
the establishments of Messrs. Rocke 
and Co., Wallach Bros., Buckley and 
Nunn, Eckeman and Co., and Tye 
and Co., having filled the position of 
foreman to the two last-mentioned 
firms. He then decided to com- 
mence business on his own account, 
and in conjunction with a partner 
opened up in the present premises in 
Moray Street, South Melbourne. 







Bateman and Co'a Pr»mli«s, Moray Slraat, 
South Malbourna. 

The partnership was dissolved in 
1900, and, finding himself unable to 
cope with the multifarious duties in 
connection with an ever - increasing 
trade, Mr. Bateman took into part- 
nership Mr. P. J. Kent. The firm's 
manufacturing plant is of the most 
up-to-date kind, and comprises shap- 
ing, planing, grinding, turning ma- 
chines, etc., driven by an 8-horse 
power Coulson gas engine. The 
factory is most complete in every 
detail, and a staff of skilled workmen 
are always busily engaged in carrying 
out the numerous orders entrusted to 
the firm. As a sample of the pluck 
and enterprise displayed by Bateman 
and Co. as manufacturers, it may be 



stated that they lately shipped to 
New Zealand, Tasmania, and South 
Australia a large quantity of furni- 
ture, which, after paying all duties, 
etc., was sold at a price comparing 



tending this commercial departure in 
connection with the furniture trade. 
Outside of business Mr. Bateman is 
held in high esteem by a large circle 
of friends and acquaintances, no less 




Johnstone, O'Shannasy and Co. 

Mb. A. Bateman. 



M'M>. 



Juhnsiovt, O'Shanncsty and Co. 

Mr. P. J. Kent. 



Mtlb. 



favourably with the local article 
manufactured in each separate 
colony. This risky experiment, 
which paved the way for . an inter- 
colonial trade, turned out success- 
fully, and Bateman and Co. are to 
be complimented upon the perfect 
manner in which they have overcome 
the numerous initial difficulties at- 



for his genial social qualities than 
for his sterling business integrity and 
ability. He is a member of the 
Furniture Board of Victoria, and 
takes a deep interest in all political 
and social movements. His partner, 
Mr. P. J. KENT, is likewise a man 
of some prominence in public affairs. 
He fills the offices of secretary to a 




Portion off Bateman and Co/a Faotory. 



158 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



number of societies and institutions, 
is a licensed auditor for companies, 
and a member of tbe Federal Insti- 
tute of Accountants. 



W. WARD, Furniture Manufac- 
turer, 287-299 and 314 City Road, 
South Melbourne. Mr. Ward estab- 
lished this firm in 1899, and now 
carries on a large trade , v in the 
manufacture of furniture, making a 
speciality of suites, and using only 
the best of woods, including walnut, 
rosewood, blackwood, cedatv oak, 
ash, and other high-class timbers in 
their manufacture. The whole of the 
above woods are purchased in bulk, 
and Mr. Ward personally attends to 
the seasoning, in order that only 
matured timber may be used in the 
manufacture of his furniture, which 
has gained a reputation for its high 
quality and soundness. Only the 
best of materials are used in the 
stuffing of these suites, including 
horsehair, fibre, flax, and flock. Mr. 
Ward is a direct importer of all 
materials essential to the trade, and 
carries a large stock of saddlebags, 
plushes, tapestry, etc., of every de- 
scription, design, shade, and quality, 
to the value of about some £500. 
About thirty skilled hands are con- 
stantly employed throughout the 
year, but this number is frequently 
added to during the busier seasons, 
and the whole of these are actively 
engaged in preparing goods to meet 



the demands from the various States, 
including New South Wales, Tas- 
mania, Western Australia, and New 
Zealand, with which a large export 
trade is done. Mr. Ward enjoys an 
extensive connection throughout Vic- 
toria, and goods made by him are 



saws, lathe, moulding, planing, 
dowelling, and boring machines, etc., 
all of which are driven by a 20-h.p. 
steam engine, which supplies power 
throughout the factory. Mr. Ward 
was born in Ballarat in 1868, and 
received his education locally, finish- 




Portion off W. Ward's Faotory. 



supplied to many of the leading 
firms in Melbourne. His factory is 
situate at Nos. 287-299 City Road, 
South Melbourne, and contains a 
most up-to-date plant for carrying 
on his trade, machinery being well 
represented by fret saws, circular 




W. Ward's Premises, City Road, South Melbourne. 



ing in the Bendigo schools. He 
then went with his parents to the 
Terricks district, where his father 
was engaged in farming pursuits on a 
large scale. He shortly afterwards 
came to Melbourne to learn the fur- 
niture trade, and entered the employ 
of Mr. O'Leary, in Richmond, with 
whom he remained for some twelve 
months. He was next for some 
time with Messrs. Rocke and Co., 
leaving there to enter the firm of 
Tye and Co., with whom he remained 
for twelve months, and then went to 
Mr. McFadden, of North Melbourne, 
in whose employ he was for seven 
years, the last two as foreman in 
charge of the works. Mr. Ward then 
decided to establish a business for 
himself, and in partnership with 
another opened in South Melbourne 
as furniture manufacturers. This 
partnership lasted till 1899, when it 
was dissolved, and Mr. Ward estab- 
lished himself in his present pros- 
perous business. He is a prominent 
Forester, a member of the Federal 
Manufacturers' Association and of 
the Victorian Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, but outside of these interests 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



159 



takes no part in public affairs, pre- 
ferring to devote the whole of his 
time and energies to the advance- 
ment of his business. 

The AUSTRALASIAN MARBUT 
CARVING COMPANY LIMITED, 
holders of the Marbut patents for 
Australasia, 346 Queen Street, Mel- 
bourne. One of the greatest novel- 
ties of the age is in the form of 
carved mouldings turned out by the 
Marbut carving machine. These 

mouldings are carved— not stamped, 
pressed, nor burnt, nor is the orna- 
ment inserted, but carved in the solid 
wood by this new type of machinery, 
which has been fully protected by 




Burt Sharp Brighton 

Mr. A. Holloway. 

patents in all the principal countries 
of the world. The name * 'Marbut" 
is derived from the combination of 
those of the inventors, Messrs. 
Maries and Butt, and the machine is 
made by the celebrated firm of 
Ransome's, England. The Aus- 
tralian rights have been secured by 
a proprietary company in Melbourne 
carrying on business as the Austral- 
asian Marbut Carving Company Pro- 
prietary Limited, 346 Queen Street, 
of which Mr. A. Holloway is the 
managing director. Mr. Holloway 
secured the rights for the company 
on his recent visit to England. A 
visit to the factory will well repay 
those interested in the building, 
cabinet-making, and picture-framing 
trades. Over half a million feet of 
various pattern mouldings are kept in 



stock, and doors are fitted with these 
mouldings, the effect proving the 
superior appearance which can be 
attained at an extra cost of a few 
shillings. The range of samples 
includes dado mouldings, picture-rod 
mouldings, panel mouldings, archi- 
trave skirtings, cornices, chair rails, 
picture frames, and cabinet-makers' 
mouldings. These are run in kauri, 
walnut, oak, mahogany, teak, cedar, 
jar rah, silky oak, and other colonial 
timbers, and the price is well within 
the reach of everyone. Only sea- 
soned wood is used in the production 
of these mouldings. The work 
turned out by the company is beauti- 
fully sharp, and superior to the finest 
hand - carved work. Orders can 

hardly be overtaken quickly enough, 
and these are consigned to all parts 
of Australia. From a descriptive 
article on "Marbut Carved Mould- 
ings," from the pen of Mr. B. 
Holloway, we make the following 
extracts :— "For ages past carving in 
both wood and stone has been recog- 
nised as being one of the best means 
of adorning plain moulded surfaces, 
and such experts as the ancient 
Greeks used it extensively for reliev- 
ing the monotony of the long moulded 
lines in the cornices and architraves 
of their world-famed temples. In 
the Corinthian and Roman Composite 
styles carved moulding was much 
resorted to to give additional beauty 
to buildings, for the Greek architects 
were aware that something more 
than perfect proportion was needed 
to give the finishing touch to their 
creations. The popularity and ap- 
propriateness of some of these ancient 
designs are demonstrated by their 
perpetuation through the centuries 
following their first appearance. 
Hitherto genuine curved work was 
only to be found in fhe homes of the 
rich, for only the rich could afford 
it ; but now, thanks to the enter- 
prise of the Marbut Carving Com- 
pany, steam has been utilised to 
drive the chisel erstwhile grasped by 
the old-time artist. All the work 
done by the above-mentioned company 
is genuine carving, equal to any that 
can be done by hand. Of course the 
process is infinitely speedier, but the 
result is absolutely the same, namely, 
that the designs are cut in the solid 
wood. The difference is one of 
process only." 



Messrs. WARDROP and SCURRY, 
Sculptors, Modellers, and Fibrous 
Plaster Manufacturers, 48 and 69 
Arden Street, North Melbourne. 
This business was established in 




Richards and Co. Ballarat 

Mb. Wardrop. 

1892, and since that date has made 
rapid strides in advancement. 
Messrs. Wardrop and Scurry have 
been large contractors for the prin- 
cipal decorative work in the city and 
suburbs, the principal buildings en- 




Richard$ and Co. Ballarat 

Mb. W. C. Scubry. 

trusted to their care being the 
Princess Theatre, the Theatre Royal, 
Opera House, Federal Coffee Palace, 
the Queen's Walk, and numerous 
other places of interest in Melbourne. 



160 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



The firm also executed the group of 
* 'Justice" and the other ornament 
for the Bendigo Law Courts, also the 
group of figures for the Bendigo Art 
Gallery. They were the first to 
introduce fibrous plaster for deco- 
rative purposes in Victoria, and in 
this class of work they certainly 
excel, as may be seen from the 
interior decoration of the Princess 
Theatre and Opera House. Mr. 
WARDROP, whose name is well and 
widely known in art circles, was born 
in Richmond, Victoria, in 1859, and 
has had a long and practical ex- 
perience in all branches of the deco- 
rative art. Mr. W. C. SCURRY is 
also a native of Victoria, having been 
born in Rushworth in 1862. On the 
completion of his education he 
joined his uncle, Mr. James Scurry, 
a well-known modeller, with whom he 
remained for thirteen years, and then 
joined in partnership Mr. Innes, of 
North Carlton. In 1891 this part- 
nership was dissolved, and in the 
year following he joined Mr. Wardrop 
in the present business. 



ALEXANDER FOSTER, Model- 
ler, etc., 35-37 Burwood Road, Haw- 
thorn. This firm, established in 1901, 
has since that recent date risen from 



equal to any imported, both as 
regards quality and price. This firm 
has acquired an enviable reputation 
for excellence and punctuality, and 
is to be complimented upon the 




Johnstone, u'shanntwy and Co. Alelb. 

Mr. Alexander Foster. 

well - deserved success which has 
attended the venture. Owing to 
the rapid increase in business, it 
was found necessary in 1902 to 
remove to larger and more com- 
modious premises at the present 




Lloyd 



Alox. Foster's Promlsos, Burwood Rood, Hawthorn. 



Aubvrn 



quite a small concern to one of the 
most important of its kind in the 
State. Their specialty is fibrous 
plaster work and centre flowers, the 
work turned out in these lines being 



address. Mr. Alexander Foster 

was born in North Melbourne in 
the year 1875, and received a 
sound education, afterwards being 
apprenticed to the modelling trade at 



the age of twelve years. In 1901, in 
conjunction with Mr. A. J. Hobbs, 
he founded the present business, 
which was carried on under the style 
of Foster and Co. until July, 1903, 
when Mr. Hobbs retired from the firm. 
Mr. Foster takes an active interest 
in all athletic and out-door sports, 
in literary and debating societies, 
and in all educational projects tend- 
ing towards self-improvement. 



A. PERUGIA and SON, Architec- 
tural and Figure Modellers and 
Decorative Artists, 308-310 Exhibi- 
tion Street, Melbourne. The pro- 
prietor of the above business, Mr. T. 
PERUGIA, was born in Melbourne 
in 1876, and educated in his native 




Johiutonc, O'ShawuMy and Co. 

Mr. T. Perugia. 



JM6. 



city. At the age of thirteen he 
entered the studio of his father, the 
late Mr. A. Perugia, who was the 
founder of the present business in 
1859, and, on the death of that 
gentleman in 1894, took over the 
business in conjunction with his 
brothers, with whom he carried it 
on until 1898, since which year he 
has conducted it on his own account. 
The firm manufacture all kinds of 
high-class religious art statuary, 
models for drawing schools, studios, 
etc., and carry out large orders for 
decorative work, in which particular 
line they are renowned for the 
artistic finish of their productions 
and their delicacy of detail. Their 
religious art statuary is to be found 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



161 



in all the churches, convents, chapels, 
etc., in Australia, and they also 
carry a large stock of classic repro- 
ductions, vases, and statuary for gas 
and electric burners and gardens. 



THOMAS YORK, Band Instrument 
Manufacturer, 361 Swans ton Street, 
Melbourne. Mr. York arrived in 
Victoria in the year 1891 a finished 




Johnstone, <rShanne$$y and Cfc. Melb. 

Mb. Thomas York. 

workman, having been employed in 
some of the largest musical instru- 
ment factories in the old country, 
notably of Manchester and London. 
He established his present prosperous 
business in 1894, and has carried it 
on successfully ever since. In 1895 
he was appointed Government con- 
tractor to both the naval and mili- 
tary forces of Victoria and the other 
States of Australia. Mr. York's 
specialty is the repairing line, old 
battered instruments of every de- 
scription submitted to his care being 
turned out in a brightly-burnished 
condition, altered beyond all recogni- 
tion, and the tone as perfect as ever. 
He is now engaged in the manufac- 
ture of a class of musical instru- 
ments named "The Perfection," for 
which there is a large and increasing 
demand by all soloists throughout 
the States. These have been found 
equal, if not superior, to the very 
best imported instruments of the 
same class, and Mr. York received 
the highest award for his exhibit in 



the Ballarat Industrial Exhibition, 
1900-1901. He had a most magnifi- 
cent exhibit in the Bendigo Gold 
Jubilee Exhibition for the year 
1902, which visitors declared to be 
the best display ever seen in Aus- 
tralia. Mr. York is a finished 
performer on all brass instruments, 
from the E flat soprano down to the 
monster bass. Commencing at the 
early age of eight, he has played 
with some of the most famous bands 
in Lancashire and Yorkshire. He 
has a thorough knowledge of the 
manufacture of brass instruments 
right from the sheet, and this fact, 
in conjunction with a natural apti- 
tude for music and splendid business 
capabilities, is the secret of his 
present success. 




Johnstone, O'Shanncay and Co. 

Mr. John Db Lacy. 



Melb. 



JOHN DE LACY, Coach Trimmer 
and General Importer and Dealer in 
Carriage Goods, 312 Russell Street, 
Melbourne, was born in Dublin, Ire- 
land, in 1863, and came out to Vic- 
toria with his parents in 1866. On 
the completion of his school career 
he was apprenticed to the coach- 
building trade, and on the termina- 
tion of his indentures turned his at- 
tention to the coach-trimming in- 
dustry. Mr. John De Lacy estab- 
lished himself in business in his 
present premises in 1887, and has 
since then deservedly earned for him- 
self the reputation of master trades- 
man in the coach - trimming trade 



throughout the State. He has been 
a most successful prize-taker at the 
numerous shows held in the principal 
Victorian and interstate centres, and 
keeping well abreast of the times, his 
numerous customers have always a 
chance of obtaining the latest im- 
provements connected with the trade 
almost simultaneously with their ap- 
pearance in the London and American 
markets. The great specialty of the 
firm during late years has been the 
construction and balancing of buggy 
hoods, which has been brought to 
such a state of perfection as to 
render the manipulation thereof a 
very simple undertaking. Mr. De 
Lacy himself personally supervises all 
work carried out on the premises, 
and his approval is a guarantee that 
customers will be satisfied in every 
detail. He is always willing to 
extend his assistance to the trade, 
and his almost life-long experience 
and exceptional business qualities are 
at the disposal of any fellow-trades- 
man requiring assistance. 



CRISTOBAL FRANCIS ROJO, 
of 453 to 457 Swanston Street, Mel- 
bourne, Furniture Manufacturer and 
General Wood Worker, commenced 




Johnstone, (TShanneaay and Go. Melb. 

Mr. Cristobal Francis Rojo. 

business on his own account in 
Fitzroy in the year 1877. Early in 
1883 he removed to Melbourne, since 
when his business has steadily ex- 
panded, and by constant attention 
and careful supervision of every 



162 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



branch of work entrusted to him he 
has established a reputation second 
to none in the city. Every variety 
of work is undertaken and executed 
with the strictest attention to 
detail, great care always being taken 
to select the best quality and class 
of timber suitable for each particular 
article required by his numerous 
patrons. He is thus enabled to keep 
a staff of first-class workmen fully 
employed in his factory the whole 
year round. 



J. THORNTON, Wood Turner, 413 
Swanston Street, Melbourne. Mr. 
James Thornton, the proprietor of 
the above flourishing business, is a 
native of Victoria, and served his ap- 
prenticeship to the wood-turning trade 
with Mr. C. F. Rojo, cabinet-maker, 
Melbourne. He afterwards estab- 
lished himself in his present business 
in Swanston Street, and by dint of 
perseverance and enterprise has suc- 
ceeded in working up one of the most 
important businesses of the kind in 
the city. Mr. Thornton enjoys a 
large connection among the leading 
furniture manufacturers of the State, 
for whom all descriptions of wood- 
turning are contracted at his factory 
in Swanston Street. This establish- 
ment is replete with the latest and 
most up-to-date plant, and finds con- 
stant employment for about eighteen 
hands. 



JOHN MILLER, Ostrich Feather 
Manufacturer, 213 and 214 Chapel 
Street, Prahran, and 270 Bourke 
Street, Melbourne. Telephone No. 
3,094 (Melbourne Exchange). The 
history of this business, which has 
been in existence but half a decade, 
is a wonderful narrative of progress 
and prosperity, as the legitimate 
reward of enterprise and merit. Mr. 
John Miller, the proprietor, was born 
in Manchester, England, in 1866, and 
received -his education at one of the 
local colleges. Seized as a youth 
with a desire for adventure, and an 
ambition to seek "fresh fields and 
pastures new," he proceeded to 
South Africa to prosecute his for- 
tunes there in 1884. The ostrich 
farms of Cape Colony soon proved a 
fertile soil for the fruition and de- 
velopment of his natural tastes and 



tendencies, and before long Mr. 
Miller was assiduously devoting him- 
self to a study of the art and 
process of feather manufacture. 
Eleven years thus spent in the home 
of this branch of industry served to 
equip Mr. Miller with a complete 
knowledge of the business, and, feel- 
ing impressed by the fact that the 
Australian colonies offered a wide 
field for extended operations, profit- 
able alike to himself and to his 
future Australian clientele, he left 
South Africa for Melbourne in 1895, 
where he immediately founded the 
first Australian feather shop and 
factory, selecting for that purpose 
a site in Chapel Street, Prahran. 
Here he started the industry on a 




Johnstone (/Shanneisy and Co. 

Mb. John Miller. 



uob. 



modest scale, and, in the face of 
many difficulties, strove to build up 
a satisfactory and remunerative 
trade. Two years passed, however, 
before he met with any satisfactory 
response to his strenuous efforts, 
the chief obstacle to success being 
the absolute impossibility of obtain- 
ing the skilled labour indispensable. 
This had to be trained and in- 
structed for the purpose ; but so 
soon as this preliminary difficulty 
had been surmounted his business 
advanced with rapid strides, in 
obedience to an ever - increasing 
momentum, and the industry has 
now become a very extensive and 
flourishing one. In October, 1900, 
Mr. Miller opened a branch in the 
elegant shop at the intersection of 



Bourke and Swanston Streets, the 
daintily-arranged windows of which, 
with their wondrously pretty 
feathers, boas, etc., impart a deco- 
rative aspect to that locality. 
Shortly after, Mr. Miller opened an 
additional shop at 214 Chapel 
Street, directly opposite the original 
establishment, which latter is now 
used as a factory only. "From the 
wing to the hat" is truly a "multum 
in parvo," for in the passage of the 
ostrich feather from the raw material 
to the finished article the succession 
of process after process involves the 
employment of an interesting series 
of arts. The feathers are received 
in bundles of variable size, each con- 
sisting of from fifty to five hundred. 
On opening up the bundles, the 
feathers are separated, and tied by 
the stems on strings, two in a knot, 
each string containing fifty. When 
they are thus arranged the feathers 
are ready for the preliminary treat- 
ments, namely, cleaning, bleaching, 
and dyeing. The operation of clean- 
ing consists simply in the feathers 
being submitted to soap and hot 
water, and washed in much the same 
manner as the washerwoman handles 
clothes. The feathers are then 
either dyed, usually black, or are 
bleached white. The dyeing is 
effected by subjecting the feathers to 
a boiling decoction of logwood for 
half an hour, with frequent agitation, 
after which they are beaten briskly 
against a board for the purpose of 
bringing them out full and fluffy, as 
well as of expelling the superfluous 
moisture. They are then suspended 
in the drying chamber, the heat of 
which is maintained at about 120 
degrees. The agent for bleaching 
is peroxide of hydrogen, which is 
diluted with water to the desired 
strength. The feathers are im- 
mersed in this liquid for two or 
three days, by which time the dusky 
grey has become transformed into a 
bright and beautiful snowy white- 
ness. The feathers are then beaten 
and subjected to the influence of the 
drying chamber. The plumes, as 
they leave the drying chamber, pass 
out of the hands of male labour, for 
all the succeeding operations are per- 
formed by women, whose deftness of 
hand, delicacy of touch, and superior 
artistic tendencies especially fit them 
for work of this nature. The 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



163 



feathers are first released from the 
strings, trimmed, and classed, ac- 
cording to size and quality. Two, 
three, or even four feathers are then 
fastened together, in order to meet 
the exigencies of the reigning fashion. 
These are laid one on another, and 
neatly sewn together with silken 
thread, the quills being pared off 
towards the bases, so as to present 
the thickness of a single stem. They 
are then bound together with some 
substance in such a way as to com- 
plete the delusion. So neatly 
indeed is this operation performed 
that it is scarcely possible for the 
ordinary observer to discover the 
junction even by the closest examina- 
tion. The plumes are then steamed 
for the purpose of rendering the 
' 'flues" flexible, preparatory to the 
curling process, which is effected by 
means of an apparatus that may be 
best described as a bronchitis kettle, 
fitted with two spouts. The curl- 
ing of the plumes is the final process 
undergone by the feathers in the 
operation of what is technically 
known as "dressing, " and, although 
the last, is certainly not the least, 
for the curling of the feathers 
demands the exercise of even greater 
skill than is called for in the entire 
process of ostrich feather manufac- 
ture. Yet by comparison it appears 
to be so simple— a few "flues 1 ' being 
gathered up at a time, and drawn 
dexterously over the blunt edge of a 
curling knife, the blade of which re- 
sembles the pruning knife of the gar- 
dener. The plumes are then packed 
carefully in cardboard boxes, and 
thus made ready for transit. The 
softer and smaller feathers, which 
represent the down of the ostrich 
bird, are utilised for the production 
of those handsome boas, the beauty 



of which can hardly fail to arrest 
the attention and admiration of the 
passer-by. Mr. Miller's business is 
generally regarded as a retail one, 
but it may be mentioned that the 
retail trade done is comparatively 
trivial, and that nearly the whole of 
the feathers go to the Melbourne 
warehouses. And so active is the 
demand for them at the present time 
that Mr. Miller is quite unable to 
meet the requirements of these 
houses, so that he is about to build 
an extensive factory in Prahran, with 
accommodation for 150 employees, 
his employees at the present time 
numbering forty. Mr. Miller has 
caused a complete revolution in the 
prices of ostrich feathers here, pre- 
vious to his arrival the prices for 
these much-envied adornments being 
prohibitive to the slender income of 
the average woman. Plumes that 
were then sold at about 15s. each 
are now supplied by Mr. Miller at 
the modest figure of 5s. or 6s. Mr. 
Miller has, therefore, bestowed a 
very acceptable benefit upon Aus- 
tralians, who will not begrudge him 
the gratifying success and the still 
more encouraging prospects that lie 
before him, and constitute the just 
and honorable reward of energy, en- 
terprise, patience, and pertinacity of 
purpose. 



J. G. PORTA, Manager for 
A. Porta, bellows manufacturer, 153 
George Street, Fitzroy, is the eldest 
son of the late Mr. J. Porta, the 
founder of the bellows-making in- 
dustry in Victoria. This business 
is under the capable management of 
Mr. J. G. Porta, who received a 
thorough training in his father's 
workshop, and who for upwards of 



thirty-four years has been engaged in 
the bellows-making industry. The firm 
manufacture smiths' bellows, portable 
forges, double and single action 
circular bellows, and others, for 
which they receive large orders from 
every part of the State, and visitors 
to the Agricultural Show held in 
Melbourne in 1901 will remember 
the splendid exhibition of the 
bellows - making industry displayed 
at Mr. Porta's stand. The premises 




Johtutone, (yghanneny and Ox 

Mr. J. G. Porta. 



Mclb. 



in George Street, Fitzroy, which 
were especially designed and erected 
by J. G. Porta, occupy ground 
having a frontage of 33 feet to 
George Street, by a depth of 120 
feet, and from nine to ten hands are 
kept in constant employment. The 
machinery and appliances are of the 
latest and most approved character, 
and the work turned out is equal to, 
if it does not excel, that of any 
other manufactory in the State. 




Watchmakers, Jewellers, Opticians, Engravers, Surgical 

Instrument Makers, &c. 



JAMES McBEAN and SON 
(William McBean), Watchmakers and 
Jewellers, Opticians, etc., " The 
Block,' ' Elizabeth Street, Melbourne. 
This well-known firm was established 
in 1858 by Mr. James McBean, the 
father of the present proprietor. 
Mr. McBean, who is still living, is 
one of the old identities of Mel- 
bourne, and was actively engaged in 
business until 1890, a period of 
nearly forty years. During that 
time, although he took no active 
part in public matters, the name of 
McBean became well and favourably 
known over almost the whole of Aus- 



his old business in premises directly 
opposite the present establishment in 
Elizabeth Street, on the site now 
occupied by Messrs. McLean Bros, 
and Rigg. Commencing on a very 
modest scale, Mr. McBean gradually 
worked up a splendid connection. 
Business rapidly increased, and it 
became necessary to remove to 
larger premises. Since 1894 opera- 
tions have been carried on in the 
splendidly situated establishment in 
"The Block," Elizabeth Street. 
The large and elegantly fitted shop, 
with its two spacious window front- 
ages — one facing Elizabeth Street, 




Jamas McBean and Son's Premises, Elisabeth Street, Melbeurne r 



tralasia, and the firm has a splendid 
reputation, not only in Victoria, but 
in the other States. Mr. JAMES 
McBEAN was born in Inverness, 
Scotland, in the year 1833. He 
served his apprenticeship as a watch- 
maker and jeweller in his native 
town, and then determined to seek 
his fortune in Australia. On arriv- 
ing in Melbourne he saw the immense 
possibilities which awaited the jewel- 
lery trade, and established himself in 



and the other " The Block "— is one 
of the sights of Melbourne. A most 
noticeable feature is the splendid 
assortment of high-class articles, re- 
presenting the most artistic efforts 
of the gold and silver smiths' art, 
which are displayed with lavish pro- 
fusion. A large quantity of the 
jewellery is manufactured by the 
firm, and compares very favourably 
with anything which can be turned 
out in England. In 1890 Mr. James 



McBean retired, and handed over the 
business to his son, Mr. William 
McBean, who had been associated 
with him for twenty years. The 
thorough and practical training 
which he received during that time 
has proved of great benefit, both to 
himself and his clients. An inspec- 




Falk 



Mclb. 



Mr. William McBean. 



tion of the superior class of stock 
and its great variety will convince 
anyone that the present proprietor 
is bent on maintaining the old tradi- 
tions of the house, and also in keep- 
ing well abreast of the times. Mr. 
WILLIAM McBEAN was born in 
Melbourne in 1858, and, although 
only forty-three years of age, has 
been in the trade for thirty-two 
years, having acquired a thorough 
knowledge of every branch of the 
business. Although a very busy 
man, Mr. McBean finds time to 
devote a good deal of time and 
energy to the interests of the Mel- 
bourne Cricket Club. He has been 
a valued member of the committee 
for five years, and was also one of 
the committee of management who 
had the English team of 1901 in 
hand. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA 



165 



DENIS BROS., Watchmakers and 
Manufacturing Jewellers, Opticians, 
and Importers, 257-259-261 Bourke 
Street, Melbourne. This well-known 
and old-established firm was founded 
by the late Mr. Sylla Denis, who 
arrived from France early in the year 
1853. After spending a short period 
at the gold diggings at Ballarat he 
returned to Melbourne, and started 
business as a watch and clock re- 
pairer in a small room on the west 
side of Swanston Street, between 
Collins Street and Flinders Lane. 
Business increased rapidly, necessi- 
tating his removal to larger pre- 
mises at the corner of Bourke Street 
and Royal Lane, and whilst there 
the great fire took place at the old 
Varieties Theatre (where Ric karri's' 
Opera House now stands). On that 
memorable occasion many of the old 
residents have a distinct recollection 




Joknttone, O'Skanneuy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Sylla Dknis. 

of Mr. Denis standing at his shop 
door, revolver in hand, keeping back 
the crowd who wished to assist in 
the salvage operations. Later on 
he removed to the extensive premises 
now occupied by the firm, where the 
business has been conducted ever 
since. The splendid shop frontage 
to Bourke Street is one of the sights 
of the city. In the centre window 
stands the famous large clock with 
its many dials, showing the time in 
various parts of the world. This 
timepiece is known throughout the 
whole of Australasia and New Zea- 
land, and is a source of admiration 



to the many thousands of people who 
pass by daily. The "Big Clock" is 
one of the landmarks of the city, 
and is inseparably connected with 
the name of Denis Bros. Mr. Victor 
Denis joined his brother in the busi- 
ness in the year 1866, and subse- 
quently Mr. Gustave Lachal, a 
nephew of Messrs. Denis Brothers, 
was admitted as a partner. The 
members of the firm have always 




J ohm tone, UShai>iU44y ami Co. Mtlb. 

Mf. Victor Denis. 

had a splendid reputation amongst 
an immense clientele all over Aus- 
tralasia, and are well known to 
almost everybody. Although not 
taking any active part in public life, 
the members of the firm have shown 
a very keen interest in the affairs of 
their adopted country. Mr. Lachal 
retired from the business in 1888, 
and the Messrs. S. and V. Denis died 
within a few months of each other 
in 1889. Their loss was severely 
felt by a large circle of friends, both 
French and English. Mr. FERNAND 
DENIS, only son of the late Mr. S. 
Denis, has succeeded to the business, 
and is now carrying it on at the 
same address, and on the same lines 
upon which it has been so success- 
fully conducted by his late father 
and uncle. Mr. Fernand Denis has 
been practically born and bred to 
the business, and may be relied upon 
to worthily uphold the old traditions 
of the establishment. A speciality 
of the business is the splendid stock 
of ecclesiastical goods which are used 
in connection with the celebration of 
Divine service by the Roman Catholic 
Church ; and the various articles of 



adornment, together with the beau- 
tiful vestments, etc., make a very 
rich and artistic display. 



KILPATRICK and CO. (J. 
Thomson and A. B. Thomson), 
Manufacturers of Jewellery, Watch- 
makers, Goldsmiths, and Importers, 
Collins Street, Melbourne. No firm 
enjoys a higher reputation or a 
more honored position than the firm 
of Kilpatrick and Co., whose well- 
known business was established in 
1853, on those commercial principles 
of integrity and honorable dealing 
which inspire confidence and com- 
mand respect. Mr. JOHN 
THOMSON, who is now the pro- 
prietor, is by birth a Scotchman, 
having been born in Glasgow, where 
he was also educated. His business 
experience was acquired in London, 




Johnitone, WSkannetry and Oo. 

Mr. John Thomson. 



Melb. 



and this, combined with great mer- 
cantile ability, probity, and straight- 
forwardness, has largely contributed 
to raise the firm up to its present 
eminent position. Messrs. Kilpatrick 
and Co. import largely from England, 
America, France, and Germany all 
kinds of jewellery, fancy goods, and 
plated ware of every description ; 
also scientific, optical, and mathe- 
matical instruments, the stock of 
which rivals in magnitude and 
value that of many large gold 
and silver smiths in London. 
Amongst the most honored orders 
entrusted to the firm was that 



166 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



given to it by the ladies of Vic- 
toria, namely, the preparation of 
a wedding gift for presentation to 
Their Royal Highnesses the Prince 
and Princess of Wales (now King 
and Queen of England) upon the 
auspicious occasion of their happy 
union on the 10th of March, 1863. 
This took the form of a solid silver 
epergne, designed by Chevalier, the 
well-known artist, beautifully chased 
with a spray of Australian wild 
flowers. The bowl portion of this 
massive piece of table decoration is 
constituted of five emeu eggs, sup- 
ported by silver ferns, and by figures 
of the kangaroo and emeu. In 1888 
the same firm was commissioned to 
execute an order for the silver wed- 
ding gift to the same illustrious 
personages. This handsome present, 
which likewise emanated from the 
ladies of Victoria, was designed by 
Mr. C. S. Irwin. It consisted of 
two solid silver vases and bowl, the 
decorations being typical of Aus- 
tralia, and representing a lizard, 
snake, etc. No finer specimen of 
artistic work could be desired than 
this appropriate gift. The first 
mace, made of silver, used in the 
Legislative Assembly of Victoria was 
also manufactured by this firm, 
as well as the one used by the 
present State Parliament, both being 
modelled after that venerable emblem 
of the Speaker's authority which lies 
upon the table of the House of 
Commons. The gold spade, the gift 
of the worthy chairman of the Mel- 
bourne Board of Works (Mr. E. G. 
Fitz Gibbon), and presented to 
the Governor on the occasion of 
his turning the first sod at the 
Werribee Farm on the 19th of May, 
1892, was another example of the 
beautiful designs and choice work- 
manship which distinguish the pro- 
ductions of Messrs. Kilpatrick and 
Co., as likewise was the gold trowel 
used by the late Prince Alfred when 
laying the foundation stone of the 
Williamstown Graving Dock in 1868. 
In addition to these important 
orders, which may be referred to as 
impressive illustrations of the dis- 
tinction acquired by the firm, it has 
also been a large prize -taker at 
various exhibitions, and was awarded 
the highest honors for watches at 
the Melbourne International Exhibi- 
tion, 1888-89. 



T. GAUNT and CO., Watchmakers, 
Opticians, and Thermometer Manu- 
facturers, etc., 337 - 339 Bourke 
Street, Melbourne. (F. W. Heath.) 
This well-known establishment is one 
of the features of Melbourne, and 
undoubtedly contains the largest 
assortment of jewellers' goods to be 
found anywhere in the Southern 
Hemisphere. The business was 

founded in 1852 by the late Mr. 
Thomas Gaunt, who made his name 
a household word, not only in Aus- 
tralia, but also in England. Start- 
ing in a very small way, Mr. Gaunt 
soon found his business rapidly in- 
creasing, and in 1867 he removed 
into the large central and commo- 




Lindt 



Melb. 



Mb. Thomas Gacnt. 



dious premises where the business 
has been so successfully carried on 
ever since. During the lifetime of 
the founder of this business, his 
name became widely and permanently 
known in Victoria by the fact of his 
supplying almost every town and city 
in the State with the large public 
clocks which adorn their public build- 
ings. But it is in connection with 
the large chronograph erected at 
Flemington racecourse that Mr. 
Gaunt will be chiefly remembered. 
This timekeeper is a marvel of deli- 
cate workmanship, and was for a 
time the only one of its kind in 
existence, until a similar one was 
built in 1899 by the firm to the 
order of the Victoria Amateur Turf 
Club. It cost Mr. Gaunt many years 
of labour and study, besides a great 



deal of expenditure, in order to bring 
his idea to perfection. Success 
eventually crowned his efforts, and 
the present clock was the gratifying 
result. It serves as an object lesson 
to all the world, and was gene- 
rously presented to the V.R.C. by 
the maker. Naturally it has at- 
tracted a great deal of attention on 
the part of visitors from the old 
country, and the firm have recently 
received an order for a similar chro- 
nograph to be constructed for the use 
of one of the principal racing clubs 
in England. The well-known clock 
figures, Gog and Magog, in the Royal 
Arcade, Melbourne, were also made 
at Gaunt 's, and recall their famous 
prototypes in the Guildhall, London. 
In addition to the many other 
notable works executed by the firm, 
they have achieved an enviably high 
reputation for the artistic beauty 
and elegance of their manufactured 
jewellery, which is wrought by work- 
men as skilled as any to be found in 
England or on the Continent, and it 
is pleasant to record that all the 
more skilful of the employees have 
been in the service of the firm for 
periods ranging from fifteen to 
thirty-five years, which speaks well 
for all parties concerned. Mr. 

FREDERICK W. HEATH, the 
present proprietor, took over the 
business in 1892. He has had thirty 
years' experience in the trade, 
twenty - one years of that time 
having been spent in the wholesale 
line as a partner in the firm of 
Messrs. Willis and Co. During that 
time he founded the Wholesale and 
Manufacturing Jewellers' Association 
of Victoria, which has been of im- 
mense benefit in regulating the 
quality of gold manufactured. The 
wide, varied, and intimate knowledge 
thus acquired has proved invaluable 
to him in the present business, and 
an inspection of the establishment 
now conducted by him will convince 
anyone that his whole energy and 
experience are concentrated in the 
effort to vindicate and maintain the 
right of the firm to be ranked as one 
of the leading jewellery establish- 
ments in Australasia. In the 
windows and showrooms are innu- 
merable specimens of the gold and 
silver smiths' art of the latest and 
most admirable designs, and Mr. 
Heath makes it one of the cardinal 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



167 



principles of his business always to 
keep a very large stock constantly on 
hand, as he has learned by experience 
that the public appreciate the ad- 
vantage of the widest possible range 
of selection. A showroom on the 
first floor, covering the whole extent 
of the establishment, is devoted to 
the display of every description of 
article used in connection with church 
adornment. Some very beautiful 
specimens of this class of manufac- 
ture have been turned out by the 
firm, notably all the altar furnish- 
ings, both gold and silver, for St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, the pastoral 
staff of the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of Melbourne, and also of the same 
dignitary of Ballarat. A specialty 
of the firm is its optical branch, 
where everything is up to date, and 
carried out in a thoroughly scientific 
manner, no pains being spared in 
testing the eyesight of those who 
need artificial assistance for the 
vision. Mr. Heath was born in 
Plymouth, England, in the year. 
1854, and is the eldest son of the 
late Captain Nicholas Heath, one of 
the well-known identities of the early 
days of Melbourne in connection with 
the China trade. Captain Heath 
performed a noteworthy achievement 
in 1866 by sailing a vessel from 
England to Melbourne only 70 feet in 
length, being one of the smallest 
boats that has ever made the trip. 
She was a tug boat, destined for 
service in Victorian waters. Captain 
Heath was accompanied on his 
voyage by his young son, then a boy 
of twelve years, now the proprietor 
of the business whose history is re- 
lated above. During the recent visit 
of Their Royal Highnesses the Duke 
and Duchess of Cornwall and York, 
Mr. Heath was sent for, and ac- 
corded the honor of a personal inter- 
view with T.R.H. in connection with 
an exquisitely beautiful trophy manu- 
factured by him, and presented to 
the Duke and Duchess by the State 
Government, who were greatly 
pleased with the elegance and taste 
displayed. 



G. W. CATANACH, Wholesale and 
Retail Diamond Setter and Manu- 
facturing Jeweller, Little Collins 
Street, and Royal Arcade, Mel- 
bourne. Mr. G. W. Catanach, who 



is a native of London, arrived in 
Victoria in the month of March, 
1870, and found the jewellery trade 
quite in its infancy. The firm of 
Young and Sons was at that time 
the only firm who were bringing out 
a good class of work, such as he had 
been accustomed to. Diamond 
setting and the finer class of work 
being his special branches, Mr. 
Catanach was at once engaged by 
Messrs. Young and Sons, and found 
that, with the exception of Mr. 
Armbrecht, who was working on his 
own account in a very small way, he 
was the only one in the line in Aus- 
tralia. Mr. Armbrecht died about 
1887, and Messrs. Young and Sons 




John$to%t % (yShanneay and Gfc Mdb. 

Mr. G. W. Catanach. 

gave up business about the same 
time, so that Mr. Catanach is the 
oldest diamond setter, not only in 
this State, but in Australia. He 
commenced business on his own ac- 
count in 1873 with one assistant, 
making up diamond goods for the 
principal shops, and so well was his 
workmanship appreciated that in two 
years he had twelve skilled men 
working for him, most of whom he 
had imported or had taught himself, 
there being no skilled labour avail- 
able. From that time until 1891 
he employed from thirty to forty 
hands. At that period there 
existed a great prejudice against 
colonial work of any kind in the 
jewellery trade, and shop-keepers 
were slow to admit that the goods 
they sold were of colonial make. 



This prejudice has since then 
been gradually removed, and it is 
now allowed that colonially - made 
jewellery is just as good as, and 
much stronger than, the imported 
article, besides being much cheaper. 
The protection policy has greatly 
aided the jewellery trade. The 
precious stones being admitted free 
of duty made it impossible to 
import jewellery with set stones, 
consequently Mr. Catanach's goods 
found a large market in South 
Australia, Queensland, and New 
South Wales. In 1879 he opened a 
branch establishment in Adelaide, 
under the management of Mr. 
Vandome, who was also a partner, 
and who afterwards acquired that 
portion of the business by purchase. 
Mr. Catanach's first venture in busi- 
ness was made in premises at the 
corner of Collins and Elizabeth 
Streets, over what is now the site 
of Kilpatrick and Co. After a few 
months he moved to Little Collins 
Street, opposite the old Fire Brigade 
station. Later on another move 
was made to the bluestone building 
where Cole's Book Arcade now 
stands, and when that was sold 
during the "Boom" of 1887 he built 
a workshop facing the two rights-of- 
way running, through . to^ Bourke 
Street to Little Coilins Street. 
The collapse of the land "boom" and 
the failure of a great number of the 
banks entailed very heavy losses 
upon all tradespeople, and the jewel- 
lery business being largely a credit 
one, Mr. Catanach suffered very 
severely. This, combined with the 
threatened failure of his health, com- 
pelled him to take things more 
easily, and he therefore decided to 
give up the wholesale and credit 
business, and establish his present 
establishment for the supply of his 
well-known goods direct to the 
public. These premises, by the way, 
had always been looked upon as 
unlucky. Mr. Catanach's venture, 
moreover, was made in the midst of 
the worst time Melbourne had 
known for very many years. Never- 
theless, owing to the great business 
ability of the proprietor, and to the 
highrclass quality of his goods, the 
business proved a success from the 
start, and since then he has not once 
looked back. Mr. Catanach's busi- 
ness, which is carried on under 



168 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



purely cash principles, is now one of 
the best in Melbourne. He believes 
in giving a good article at a reason- 
able price, a fact which the Mel- 
bourne public has not been slow to 
recognise and appreciate in a prac- 
tical manner. There are many in- 
teresting facts in connection with 
the operations of his business which 
want of space alone prevents us from 
mentioning in detail. The number 
of diamonds made up by Mr. 
Catanach during the past thirty-two 
years is an enormous one, and the 
gold used in the setting thereof 
would go far towards erecting a 
fair-sized pyramid of the precious 
metal. Mr. Catanach was one of 
the founders of the Victorian 
Jewellers' Association, the rules of 
which make it incumbent on the 
part of members to manufacture 
their goods right up to the standard 
mark, offenders in this respect 
being mulcted in a fine of not less 
than a sum of £100. 



PERCY J. KING, General En- 
graver, 273 Little Collins Street, 
Melbourne. Mr. King established 
his business, in conjunction with a 
partner, in 1893, during the financial 




Johntttme. O'Shanncsty and Co. Mdb. 

Mb. Percy J. King. 

depression following on the "boom," 
and, under the style of Bridgland and 
King, the firm carried on a progres- 
sive business. The partnership was 
dissolved in 1899, and since then Mr. 
King has conducted affairs solely on 



his own account, having, by his 
energy and ability, worked up an 
extensive connection. His specialty 
is the engraving of brass memorial 
tablets and commercial plates, and 
among other important contracts 
carried out by him may be men- 
tioned the tablets erected to the 
memory of the late Canon Perks, in 
St. Paul's Cathedral ; to that of 
the late Canon Gregory, in All 
Saints', St. Kilda ; and to the late 
War Correspondent Lambie, in the 
vestibule of the "Age" office, Collins 
Street. Among the commercial 
plates, Mr. King considers his best 
work to be those carried out for 
Messrs. Robert Harper and Co., 
Flinders Lane ; Mr. Iliffe, dentist, 
Collins Street ; the bent plates at 
the Royal Mail Hotel, Bourke 
Street ; and the window plates for 
Mr. T. Mackenzie Kirkwood, Royal 
Arcade. He also does a large busi- 
ness in the manufacture of rubber 
stamps for all purposes, and brands 
of every description, mostly for 
butter boxes, of which he has de- 
signed over a hundred. Brass labels 
(stamped) are also extensively manu- 
factured by him. In the wood en- 
graving, steel dies, and copperplate 
engraving department a large busi- 
ness is also transacted. A rubber 
stamp worth particular mention is 
one made for the Western Meat Pre- 
serving Company, which is stamped 
directly on the tin, thus dispensing 
with a label. The firm's trade is 
mostly Victorian, and from eleven to 
fourteen hands are kept constantly 
employed in the carrying out of the 
numerous orders continuously being 
received. The factory consists of 
one large room, 90 feet by 14J feet, 
on the ground floor of the premises 
in Little Collins Street, which is 
fitted up with the latest and most 
approved machinery and appliances, 
and three rooms on the fiTst floor. 
His show window in Little Collins 
Street is one of the best of its kind 
in Melbourne, and is well worth in- 
spection by anyone interested in his 
manufactures. 



HERMANN DURRE, General 
Engraver, Manufacturer of Brass and 
Rubber Stamps, etc.; First Order 
of Merit, CLE., Melbourne; 389 
Little Collins Street. Mr. Durre 



was born in Germany, came out to 
Victoria in 1882, and shortly after- 
wards established himself in his 
present business. Eight years later 
he transferred his operations to his 
present premises in Flinders Lane. 




• Johmtonc O' Shannon y and Co. Meld. 

Mr. Hermann Durre. 

The principal business carried on in 
this establishment consists of medal 
stamping, crests, die sinking, em- 
bossing, general engraving, and the 
manufacture of brass plates. On 
arrival in Melbourne,. Mr. Durre 
found the art of engraving still in 
its infancy, and a finished workman 
like himself found no difficulty in 
working up a business. The Go- 
vernments of the different colonies 
soon recognised the excellence of his 
work in a practical manner by 
giving him large orders for the 
stamps of their different depart- 
ments. Mr. Durre also supplies 
stamps to the principal banks, in- 
surance, shipping, and manufacturing 
companies, as also to the large busi- 
ness firms in Melbourne. Another 
line carried on by him consists in the 
making of soap discs and steel dies 
for leather pressing. 



Mr. H. J. DAVIS, Engraver and 
Etcher, of 95 Webb Street, Fitzroy, 
is a native of Victoria, and was born 
in the year 1862. On the completion 
of his school career he was appren- 
ticed to Mr. Matthew Ladd, the well- 
known engraver, of Melbourne, for a 
term of five years, and remained with 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



169 



that gentleman for a further period 
of three years after the termination 
of his indentures. In 1886 Mr. Davis 
established his present business in 
Webb Street, Fitzroy, where he has 
carried on successfully ever since. 
He makes a specialty of the engrav- 
ing of door-plates and name-plates 
for coffins, and executes orders in 
every branch of the business, all of 
which are carried out with that at- 
tention to detail and artistic finish 
for which he is justly celebrated. In 
private life Mr. Davis is highly 




Mr. H. J. Davis. 

esteemed by a large circle of the 
community. He takes a keen inte- 
rest in church matters, and is a 
staunch adherent and enthusiastic 
worker in the interests of the Collins 
Street Congregational Church, of 
which he has been a member of the 
choir for a number of years. 



The firm of W. WATSON and 
SONS was founded in London in 
the year 1837, the year in which 
Queen Victoria ascended the throne. 
The Melbourne establishment is, how- 
ever, of more recent origin, its be- 
ginning dating from the time of the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1888, at 
which time two nephews of the late 
Mr. W. Watson came from England 
to represent the firm in Melbourne, 
and at the close of the Exhibition 
opened a branch agency in this city. 
The Melbourne business has de- 
veloped during the past fifteen years 
into a well-established concern, and 



has recently been taken over by the 
Messrs. H. H. and F. L. Baker, who 
have been identified with it from the 
commencement, and who still keep a 
good representative stock of the 
manufactures of the London firm. 
The various instruments of an optical 
and scientific character manufactured 
by this firm are exceedingly varied, 
and are familiarly known to the 
students of science and the devotees 
to photography throughout Australia. 
The introduction in recent years of 
the cinematograph, the X rays, high 
frequency electrical currents for 
therapeutic purposes, and wireless 
telegraphy, have at once caused the 
addition of the finest productions for 
work in these departments to the 
already comprehensive stock manufac- 
tured by the firm. We may perhaps 
mention some of the principal items 
which are comprised in the latter. 
In the first place, photographic 
cameras and material of all the 




Johntlone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. H. H. Baker. 

latest and most popular designs 
form a very considerable part of the 
stock. Watson's cameras are cele- 
brated for their high quality and 
finish, the "Acme" and « 'Premier 1 ' 
being regarded by many as standards 
in those respects. Messrs. Watson 
have recently introduced a new lens 
of the anastigmatic class, working at 
a very large aperture and giving 
most brilliant definition. This has 
been christened the "Holostigmat." 
This firm is also in the forefront 



among English makers of micro- 
scopes, their instruments being in 
very large demand among medical 
students at many Universities. They 
possess also what is probably the 
largest collection of mounted micro- 
scopic specimens in the world. Their 
manufactures cover also optical 
lanterns and cinematographs, survey- 
ing and mathematical instruments, 
opera and field glasses, and many 
other indispensable scientific goods. 
The Melbourne partners make a 
special study of defects in the refrac- 




Johnstonc, O'Shannesay and Co. Melb. 

Mr. F. L. Baker. 

tion of the eye, and have special 
rooms fitted with the most approved 
instruments for testing the eyesight 
and correcting all optical disorders. 
They have workshops where expert 
mechanics adjust and repair the in- 
struments which from various causes 
need to go into hospital, and also 
make instruments of special design as 
required. The firm are opticians by 
appointment -to , the British Govern- 
ment, and have recently executed 
many large contracts for telescopes, 
field glasses, heliographs, etc., for 
the War Office. They are also con- 
tractors to the Australian Govern- 
ments for surveyors' instruments and 
other goods. 



Mr. WILLIAM DONAHAY, Oph- 
thalmic and General Optician, 181 
Collins Street, Melbourne, was born 
on 23rd September, 1849, at Castle 
Caul field, county of Tyrone, Ireland, 



170 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



and is the youngest son of Mr. John 
Donahay, farmer, whose family con- 
sisted of three boys and two girls. 
His father died while he was yet too 
young to allow him to recall a 
memory of him, and his mother then 
entered upon school teaching, but did 
not survive her husband long, dying 
when the child was four and a half 
years old. The heads of the family 
having been thus removed, caused the 
dispersion of the children, and so 
thoroughly was this accomplished 
that up to the present time Mr. 
Donahay has neither seen nor gained 
any information concerning the rest 
of his family. From reminiscences 
of his early years he is inclined to 
believe that the members one and all 
were good and affectionate, and that 
the severe circumstances attending 
their fate tended towards this 
estrangement. Through the instru- 
mentality of the Rev. Thomas Twigg 
the subject of this memoir was 
placed in the care of the Protestant 
Orphanage Society, whose office is 
situate at 17 Upper Sackville Street, 
Dublin, and received his education in 
county Wicklow and in Dublin under 
the direction of that institution. He 
was eventually apprenticed to a 
trade, and while serving his time 




Johnstone, (yShanneuy and Oo. Melb. 

Mr. William Donahay. 

entered upon the study of chemistry, 
astronomy, mathematics, and general 
science ; made himself master of 
watchmaking and general mechanics, 
and on the completion of his inden- 
tures entered upon an engagement as 



improver to Mr. G. Cor rail, watch- 
maker and optician, of Mansfield, in 
Nottinghamshire. After filling this 
position for three years he trans- 
ferred his services to Mr. Pratt, of 
Nottingham, with whom he remained 
for some considerable time. While in 
Nottingham he studied the Hebrew 
language under Rabbi Goldreich, and 
also took lessons in Greek in order 
to acquire a deeper knowledge of 
theology. Mr. Donahay then com- 
menced business on his own account, 
and carried on successfully for four 
years. While living at Winchester in 
1880 he married Clara, daughter of 
Mr. Frederick Musham, of Notting- 
ham, and has a family of three girls 
and three boys. Owing to ill-health 
he was advised to take a sea trip, 
and accordingly sailed for New Zea- 
land, where he was engaged in busi- 
ness as a watchmaker for some time. 
In 1887 he came to Melbourne, and 
entered the service of Messrs. Wood, 
wholesale opticians, with whom he 
remained for six years, and, after 
filling another engagement for nine 
years with Messrs. Watson and Sons, 
of Swanston Street, established his 
present business in April, 1903. 
While with Messrs. Watson and Sons, 
Mr. Donahay won the respect and 
appreciation of the firm, which were 
expressed in a eulogistic testimonial 
presented to him on the occasion 
of his severing connection with 
them, and in which they wished him 
all success in his future career. Mr. 
Donahay makes a specialty of eye 
refraction testing, the manufacture of 
high-class spectacles and eye-glasses, 
refraction and silver on glass reflect- 
ing astronomical telescopes, etc., and 
scientific instruments of all kinds. 
He enjoys a large connection in 
and around the metropolis. Mr. 
Donahay is a member of the British 
Astronomical Association, and one of 
the council of the Melbourne branch. 



Mr. ALFRED NOTT, Ophthalmic 
Optician, Burke and Wills Chambers, 
145-7 Collins Street, Melbourne, was 
born in Strathalbyn, South Aus- 
tralia, in 1867. Educated at the 
South Melbourne State School, he 
was afterwards articled with the late 
Mr. James Jennings, the well-known 
Melbourne optician, with whom he 
remained for a period of nineteen 



years, and on relinquishing his posi- 
tion in that business commenced 
operations on his own account in 
1899. Mr. Nott's premises are fitted 
up with the latest and most approved 
machinery, driven by electric motor 




Johnstone, O'Sntrnneuy and tto. 

Mr. Alfred Nott. 



Melb. 



power, for the manufacture to order of 
spectacles, eye-glasses, etc. He keeps 
an up-to-date stock of spectacles and 
eye-glasses, and enjoys a large con- 
nection in and around the city. 



T. R. PROCTER, Oculist, Opti- 
cian, and Ophthalmologist, 476 Albert 
Street, East Melbourne, was born at 
Calstock, Cornwall, England, in 1826, 
and educated at Lang's College, 
Beeralston, on the Devonshire side of 
the river Tamar. In his youth he 
displayed a remarkable aptitude for 
mechanical engineering and chemistry. 
In September, 1848, he left England 
for South Australia, arriving in Ade- 
laide on 3rd January, 1849. There 
was at this time a strike among 
the miners at the Burra Butra 
copper mines, but the arrival of 
about 300 Cornish miners speedily 
put an end to it. When the dis- 
covery of gold was announced in Vic- 
toria, Mr. Procter journeyed thither 
overland. Shortly after his arrival 
at Forest Creek gold was discovered 
at Bendigo, when he joined the rush, 
and sank a hole at the head of a 
gully which he named the Adelaide 
Gully. Subsequently he started in 
business as a working jeweller at 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



171 



White Hills, this being the first 
establishment of the kind on the 
goldfields. He then opened a busi- 
ness in Geelong, and while there he 
heard of the discovery of the great 
Canadian nugget at Ballarat, where- 
upon he removed to that town, 
taking with him his workmen and 
plant, and commenced business as a 
watchmaker, manufacturing jeweller, 
and optician on Bakery Hill, opposite 
the "Ballarat Times 1 ' office. Among 
other items turned out at this estab- 
lishment was a magnificent gold cup, 
valued at 120 guineas, presented by 
the diggers to Mr. Commissioner 
Amos. This was afterwards ex- 
hibited at the Paris Exhibition as a 
specimen of Australian skill in the 
goldsmith's art. Another piece of 
Mr. Procter's workmanship was a 
gold-mounted whip, valued at thirty- 
five guineas, which he presented to 
the Ballarat Racing Club as a trophy 
at its first meeting, and was won by 
that popular jockey, Sam. Waldock. 
While here the claim-holders on the 
Gum Tree Flat found themselves 
unable to compete with the water, 
so Mr. Procter undertook to supply 
the necessary steam power for drain- 
ing the mines for the sum of £1,500. 
This contract having been successfully 
completed, he removed his plant to 
the Durham Company's lease at Red 
Hill, the first mining lease granted 
in the Ballarat district, and from it 
nearly £30,000 worth of gold was 
obtained. In 1857 Mr. Procter re- 
turned to England, where he re- 
mained until 1862. While there he 
opened an establishment at Clerk en- 
well for the manufacture of jewel- 
lery and scientific instruments. A 
speciality to which he devoted his 
almost undivided attention was the 
manufacture of optical appliances, 
and during this period he engaged in 
a course of medical studies to extend 
his knowledge of the diseases of the 
eye. In 1862 he again left England, 
this time for New Zealand, where he 
entered into business as an optician 
at Queenstown, Hokitika, and Christ- 
church. In November, 1874, when 
the transit of Venus occurred, Major 
Palmer, R.E., and Captain Darwin, 
son of the famous evolutionist, came 
out to Christchurch to take observa- 
tions, when Mr. Procter was asked 
by Major Palmer to undertake the 
adjustments and repairs of the in- 



struments. In the course of his ex- 
tensive practice he claims to have de- 
monstrated the fact that in a large 
number of cases deafness is directly 
attributable to astigmatism, an 
optical defect. This he discovered 
in Christchurch in 1880, and wrote 
Dr. E. W. Alexander, M.R.C.S., etc., 
acquainting him of his discovery, the 
accuracy of which was acknowledged 
by that gentleman. Mr. Procter also 
came to the conclusion that astigma- 
tism, myopia, hypermetropia, and 
mixed astigmatism are hereditary. 
He says nearly all diseases of the 
eye are primarily caused by optical 
defects. Amongst these are included, 
in the vast majority of cases, blind- 
ness, squinting, inflammation, ingrow- 




John$ione, 0'Shannes$y ami Co. 

Mr. T. R. Procter. 



Htlb. 



ing eyelashes, ulceration, granulation, 
nystagmus, etc. Headaches, neu- 
ralgia of the face and temples, and 
deafness are frequently due to the 
same cause. He has cured a great 
many cases of this "natural blind- 
ness," i.e., cases where the eyes have 
not in any way been mutilated by 
accident or the surgeon's knife. In 
1888 Mr. Procter came to Melbourne, 
and -commenced practice as an oculist, 
optician, and ophthalmologist in 
Albert Street, bringing with him his 
experienced staff and most complete 
plant. His clientele are numbered by 
thousands in all parts of the Com- 
monwealth and in New Zealand. He 
also claims that he was the first to 
introduce in New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia his present scientific system of 



measuring optical defects. A com- 
plete register for the past thirty 
years has been kept of all measure- 
ments taken, and the nature of the 
defects of every patient treated, and 
thus clients at a distance can be 
supplied with renewals of glasses 
required without further personal 
consultation. So perfect is his 
system that, having once measured a 
person's sight, he can calculate with 
exactitude the alteration produced by 
increasing age, and so alter the 
forms of glasses when necessary, 
without re-measuring. It is evident 
that Mr. Procter is fully abreast of 
the times in the practice of his pro- 
fession. Some marvellous local 
cases of restoration to sight have 
passed through Mr. Procter's hands ; 
patients who had sought in vain, even 
among specialists in London, to pre- 
serve this most valued of all the 
senses. 

JAMES JENNINGS, Optician, 
211 Queen Street, Melbourne. This 
old-established and successful business 
was founded about the year 1869 
by the late Mr. James Jennings, 
a native of Birmingham, England, 
where he was born in 1820. At an 
early age he was apprenticed to his 
uncle, Mr. Godfrey, optician, of Bir- 
mingham, with whom he remained 
for some years, during which he 
gained a thorough insight into all 
the branches of his profession. In 
1844 he commenced business on his 
own account as a manufacturer of 
spectacles, and opened successfully 
three establishments, which he con- 
ducted on profitable lines. In 1869 
Mr. Jennings arrived in Melbourne, 
where he opened in business as a 
manufacturing ophthalmic optician. 
For over twenty years he was the 
only one in Australia, and was 
awarded all the prize medals given 
in Sydney and Melbourne for 
colonial-made spectacles. He also 
obtained many other awards, includ- 
ing first order of merit and gold 
medal, Colonial and International 
Exhibition, Melbourne, 1872 - 3 ; 
bronze medal, Sydney International 
Exhibition, 1873 ; gold medal, Lon- 
don, 1873 ; bronze medal, Metro- 
politan International Exhibition, 
Sydney, 1873 ; first order of merit 
and bronze medal, Colonial Inter- 
national Exhibition, Melbourne, 



172 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



1888-89. Since the death of Mr. 
Jennings in August, 1901, the busi- 
ness has been carried on under the 
old name by his grandson, Mr. O. J. 
GILLESPIE, whose portrait we 
publish. This gentleman received a 
thorough practical training under the 
late Mr. Jennings, and afterwards 
went through a course of optical 
study in Sydney. Gold, silver, and 
steel - rimmed spectacles and eye- 
glasses of every description are 
entirely manufactured by this old- 




Julutgtorte, O'SUanncxsy and Co. 

Mr. O. J. Gillespie. 



liclb. 



established firm, the business cf 
which is efficiently conducted by Mr. 
Gillespie on behalf of Mrs. Jennings, 
the widow of the late proprietor. 

Messrs. WARNER and WEBSTER, 
British Medical Supply, Surgical 
and Electrical Instrument and 
Truss Manufacturers, 240 Swans ton 
Street, Melbourne. This up-to- 

date and important manufactur- 
ing business has made rapid strides 
since its inception last year. 
The firm's latest acquisition is the 
manufacture of the Rontgen X rays 
apparatus, which is now being turned 
out equal to anything ever imported, 
any sized coil being undertaken. 
Skiagraphs are also taken on the 
premises, special apartments having 
been fitted up for the purpose, and 
the charges (hitherto quite prohibi- 
tive to many) being exceedingly 
moderate, the firm's services in this 
respect are largely availed of, many 
excellent specimens of work done by 



them being on view in their window. 
Another department in which they 
are reaping the benefit of untiring 
enterprise is that devoted to the 
manufacture of medical and electric 
batteries of every description, in- 
cluding electric light and cautery, 
electrolysis, dry cell, and ordi- 
nary bichromate batteries. Ac- 
cumulators are also made, and re- 
charged on the premises. Messrs. 
Warner and Webster are also in the 
front rank as importers of surgical 
instruments and appliances of the 
most modern and aseptic kind, in- 
cluding the "Sir Joseph Lister" 
dressings, Joseph Gray and Sons' in- 
struments, etc., etc. They are 
manufacturers of artificial limbs and 
every description of deformity appli- 
ances, and the ladies' department is 
under the control of an experienced 
forewoman. Large and varied 
stocks of veterinary instruments are 
always on hand, the firm having 




Johnstone, (TShanneuy and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. A. Warner. 

supplied the first Commonwealth 
contingent with their instruments in 
this particular line. In addition to 
a large manufacturing and importing 
business, Messrs. Warner and Webster 
act as agents for the well-known 
English house of Arnold and Sons, 
London. 

DIETRICH and DIETRICH (late 
G. T. Dietrich), Surgical Instru- 
ment and Truss Manufacturers and 
Ophthalmic Opticians, 197 Lons- 
dale Street, Melbourne. G. T. 



DIETRICH, the principal ol the 
above important firm of surgical 
instrument manufacturers, was 
born in London. He was edu- 
cated in that city, and, on the 
completion of his school days, was 
apprenticed to his father, Mr. G. L. 
Dietrich, who carried on business as 
a manufacturer of surgical and oph- 
thalmic instruments in the British 
metropolis. Under his father's able 
tuition Mr. Dietrich gained a com- 
plete knowledge and acquired an ex- 




Johruttoiu, O'ShanncMy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. G. T. Dietrich. 

tensive experience of his profession, 
and is now recognised by the leading 
surgeons and medical practitioners 
as one of the most efficient manufac- 
turers. Later on he established his 
present business in Melbourne, and it 
is now the leading one of its kind 
in the city, numbering among its 
patrons the most eminent medical 
men in this State. Dietrich and 
Dietrich are manufacturers to the 
Melbourne Women's and Children's 
Hospitals, and to the principal pri- 
vate and public hospitals. 

DENYER BROTHERS, Surgical 
Instrument, Truss, and Artificial 
Limb Manufacturers, Importers of 
Antiseptic Dressings and Hospital 
Supplies, corner of Swanston and 
Lonsdale Streets, Melbourne, and at 
281 George Street, Sydney, New 
South Wales. ROBERT WILLIAM 
DENYER, senior partner of the 
above important business, was born 
in Bendigo, Victoria, in the year 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



173 



1861, and was educated locally at 
Kennedy's school. At the age of 
fifteen he entered H or wood's 
Foundry, Bendigo, where he was 
engaged for several years, going 
thence to Melbourne in 1888 to fill 
the position of bookkeeper and 
general accountant to Messrs. Geo. 
Robertson, Little Collins Street. In 
1889, in conjunction with his brother 
Walter, who had been for several 
years in the employ of Mr. Illing- 
worth, surgical instrument maker, 
Lonsdale Street, Mr. Denyer estab- 
lished his present business, which 
has been successfully carried on ever 
since. The firm manufactures all 
kinds of dental, surgical, veterinary* 
and electrical instruments, trusses, 
artificial limbs, antiseptic dressings, 
and general hospital supplies. Their 
workshops are fitted up with all the 
latest machinery, including an up-to- 
date grinding and polishing plant, 
driven by electric motor power, and 
they have also a number of skilled 
mechanics employed. They are well 
represented in the country districts 



throughout the States by their 
agents, who carry up-to-date stocks 
of instruments, dressings, etc. In 
1897 Mr. R. W. Denyer took a trip 
round the world, visiting all the 




Johnstone, O'Shanncny and Co. Melo 

Mr. Robert William Denyer. 



principal cities of England, France, 
Germany, and America, and making 
himself acquainted with the latest 
developments of science and mech- 
anism as applied to his line of busi- 
ness. He also entered into negotia- 
tions for the sole agencies of the 
following important manufacturing 
companies :— J. Ellwood, Lee Com- 
pany, Pa., U.S.A., antiseptic dress- 
ings, plasters, etc.; J. Milne, Lady- 
well, London, Lister's antiseptic 
dressings ; Hy. Scheerer and Com- 
pany, New York, U.S.A., surgical in- 
struments, hospital furniture, etc.; 
Haussmann and Dunn Company, 
Chicago, U.S.A., veterinary instru- 
ments ; A. A. Marks, Broadway, 
New York, artificial limbs, patent 
rubber feet and hands ; E. C. 
Penfield Company, Pa., U.S.A., cel- 
luloid and hard rubber trusses, etc.; 
W. A. Hirschmann, Berlin, medical 
electrical instruments and batteries. 
Mr. Denyer is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and fills the posi- 
tion of Past Master in the Gordon 
Lodge, Essendon. 




Vlow in tho Fitzroy Gardens. 



Aerated Waters and Cordial Manufacturers, &c. 



G. H. BENNETT, Aerated Water 
Manufacturer, Bridge Road, Rich- 
mond. This business, which ranks 
among the largest of its kind in the 
Southern Hemisphere, was estab- 
lished in 1877 by the present pro- 
prietor, Mr. G. H. Bennett, in part- 
nership with Mr. Lane, at Colling- 
wood, where they carried on business 
as brewers of porter at the Excelsior 
Brewery. On the expiration of the 
lease the firm removed to Church 
Street, Richmond, where they carried 
on in the same line until all the 
leading brewing firms had added 
porter brewing and bottling to their 
general trade. The firm of Bennett 
and Lane commenced the manufacture 
of aerated waters and cordials on an 
extensive scale, and since the retire- 
ment of Mr. Lane the business has 
been carried on solely by Mr. 
Bennett under the above style. A 
visit to the factory in Bridge Road 
will soon convince one that the pro- 
prietor of this extensive business is a 
thorough master of all the branches 
of aerated water manufacture. His 
main object is to supply the public 
with a clean, wholesome, and non- 
intoxicating beverage, and that this 
has been achieved is evidenced by the 
very large connection which he 
enjoys. The factory is fitted 
throughout with all the latest ma- 
chinery and appliances for the manu- 
facture of aerated waters and cor- 
dials, every single pint of which is 
filtered through a Pasteur high- 
pressure filter before being bottled. 
Mr. Bennett is a strong supporter of 
all colonial industries, therefore all 
the bottles used in his establishment 
are of local manufacture, his order to 
the Melbourne Bottle Works for the 
year 1902 alone amounting to £3,300. 
On delivery at the factory the bottles 
are sent to the washing troughs, 
where each bottle is thoroughly 
cleansed by hand. They are then 
placed upside down in racks, and by 
means of a strong jet of water from 
beneath every particle of sediment is 



washed out. The whole of the ma- 
chinery and plant in the bottling de- 
partment was manufactured especially 
for Mr. Bennett by the celebrated 
firm of Hayward, Tyler, and Co., of 
London, and G. Kochendorffer, Mel- 
bourne, and the waters are delivered 
direct into the bottles by the steam 
fillers, which fill the bottles as fast 
as they are supplied into the ma- 
chine. Considerable additions have 
been made to the factory during the 
last three years, and about an acre 




Johwtone, (TSkannu$y and Cfo. Melb. 

Mb. G. H. Bennett. 

of land is completely built upon, 
this space being fully required. 
The stables ' in connection with Mr. 
Bennett's establishment are quite in 
keeping with the general style of the 
main buildings, and comfortable ac- 
commodation is provided for fifty-six 
horses. This manufacturing business 
is one of the largest among the many 
which add to the prosperity of the 
city of Richmond. A social feature 
is the annual picnic, in which all the 
horses and vehicles used convey the 
employees and families, the whole 
making an imposing street display. 



BOLLINGTON HOP BEER CO., 
Manufacturers of the famous Al Hop 
Beer, Lager Hop Beer, Dandelion 
Ale, Hot Tom, Kola, Cordials, 
Syrups, etc., 171 to 179 Stawell 
Street, Richmond. GEORGE 

BOLLINGTON, the proprietor of 
the above well-known and important 
temperance brewery, is a nephew of 
one of the largest cordial manufac- 
turers in Sheffield, England, where 
he was born in 1866, and educated 
at Hull College. He was brought 
up to the business in his native 
town, and, after conducting one of 
the leading establishments there for 
some time, as its principal, he came 
out to Queensland in 1866, starting 
business in Townsville and Brisbane, 
where he remained for two years. 
Then he came on to Victoria, and in 
1894 he started business on his own 
account as a manufacturer of non- 
intoxicating beer at Richmond. Mr. 
Bollington is by profession a herb- 
alist, and, therefore, thoroughly 
understands the blending of herbs, so 
as to obtain the precise flavour and 
quality required for the various 
beverages. Commencing originally 
in Lord Street, it was not long 
before the enterprising proprietor 
found it necessary to remove to 
more commodious premises in 
Somerset Street, where he remained 
until 1896, when he decided to build 
a suitable factory on a block of land 
two and a half acres in extent in 
Stawell Street, off Bridge Road and 
Swan Street, Richmond. Here he 
erected, under his own personal 
supervision, a factory to which ex- 
tensive additions were made in 
1898, giving a total frontage of 100 
feet by a depth of 110 feet. The 
increased accommodation had been 
rendered necessary owing to Mr. 
Bollington having commenced the 
manufacture of aerated waters and 
cordials, in addition to the brewing 
of his temperance beers. The whole 
of the building is under one roof, and 
the premises are laid out with due 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



175 



regard to utility and convenience. 
The various appliances at the factory 
are such as to render it capable of 
turning out from 80,000 to 100,000 
bottles per day. All the bottles, as 
well as everything else used in the 
establishment that can be produced 
in the State, are of colonial manu- 
facture, Mr. Bollington being a 
thorough protectionist, and believing 
in the practice of the doctrine he 
preaches. The machinery employed 
is of the most modern character, and 
the motive power is a 3£ h.p. steam 
engine, which is kept constantly 
going. One of Ferguson's patent 
steam bottlers turns out "soft" 
drinks at the rate of 160 dozen per 
hour, and the sodawater syphons are 
filled by a patent appliance from the 
same maker. The beer is bottled by 
one of Hayes, McDonald, and Co.'s 
patent filling and corking machines, 
at the rate of 140 dozen per 
hour. In the manufacture of soda- 
water, the gasometer, generator, and 
cylinder are thoroughly modern, and 
all the appliances are of the most 
efficient kind, while the water used 
is the purest filtered. The offices 
are situated on the ground floor, and 
are connected with Mr. Bollington's 
private residence by telephone. The 
brewing department, together with 
the syrup and cordial room, is up- 
stairs, and the brewing is under the 
personal supervision of the pro- 



prietor himself. In the testing 
laboratory, Mr. Bollington brings to 
bear his scientific knowledge in test- 
ing every kind of beer before it is 
sent below for bottling. The fol- 
lowing report of the Government 




Johtutone, O'Shanneuy and Co. Mtlb. 

Mb. George Bollington. 

analyst (Mr. C. R. Blackett) speaks 
for itself :-" May 20th, 1898. I 
hereby certify that I have made an 
analysis of three samples of Boiling- 
ton's hop beer, all from different 
brews, and found them to be of ex- 
cellent quality, and the best I have 
yet analysed, and most suitable to 




Tho Bollington Nop Boor Co/a Promises, Stawoll Stroot, Richmond. 



those who object to alcoholic 
drinks." The establishment is 
fitted throughout with electric bells, 
and when work is in full swing from 
sixty to seventy hands are kept con- 
stantly employed ; and no fewer 
than fifteen delivery waggons are 
kept going during the busy season. 
The stabling accommodation is excel- 
lent, the building, which is a com- 
modious one of brick, having stall 
accommodation for forty horses. Mr. 
Bollington is an ardent temperance 
advocate, and both in business and 
social circles is widely esteemed. 



The MOONEE VALLEY 
AERATED WATER and CORDIAL 
COMPANY, of Miller and Clausen 
Streets, North Fitzroy, the sole pro- 
prietor of which is Mr. JOHN 
DUNNE, who is one of the best- 
known men in Melbourne, having re- 
presented the Carlton Brewery for 
the past sixteen years. He is 
brimful of energy and vitality ; 
there is not a lazy bone in his body. 
He is essentially what the world 
calls a "busy man," and it was 
not long after joining the Carlton 
Brewery that he saw a good field for 
his enterprise, and in 1889 he started 
the huge concern, of which he is 
now the proprietor, in a modest 
way in Birkenhead Street, Fitzroy. 
It was not long, however, before the 
business increased so rapidly that he 
was compelled to go further afield to 
seek a site affording greater facili- 
ties, and accordingly he purchased 
the land having a frontage of 66 feet 
to Miller and Clausen Streets, by a 
depth of 307 feet, upon which the 
factory and appurtenances are now 
erected, and which is pitched 
throughout with blues tone. The 
buildings have over 20,000 square 
feet of floor space. To afford the 
necessary conveniences that his still- 
expanding business requires, he has 
been recently forced to purchase 
another allotment adjoining, having 
a frontage to the same street of 50 
feet, by the same depth. This is 
all substantially fenced. The fac- 
tory is replete with all the modern 
labour-saving machinery and appli- 
ances used in the manufacture of 
aerated waters, and necessary for 
turning out a first-class article. 
The motive power is supplied by a 



176 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



gas engine. The water used is all 
passed through Halliday's animal 
charcoal filter, so that patrons may 
be assured of the purity of the 
waters from a hygienic point of 
view. The delivery plant consists 
of over forty vehicles of all descrip- 
tions, from the large "Horonda" 
waggons, drawn by four horses, 
which are now so well known, to 
the light one-horse express, and have 
been especially designed to permit a 
large output to be handled expedi- 
tiously and economically. The 




John none, O'Shannessy and Co. 

Mr. John Dunne. 



Mclb. 



stock of syphons and bottles of every 
description employed in the business 
is very large, and enables the com- 
pany to take advantage of the 
summer demands. Recognising that 
time is money, Mr. Dunne employs 
competent tradesmen in the follow- 
ing departments on the premises :— 
Blacksmiths, painters, coachbuilders, 
and harness makers, so that in the 
event of any repairs of this nature 
being required they can be dealt 
with promptly, and those vexatious 
delays avoided which would most 
likely otherwise occur. It is ap- 
parent to all that to stable some 
fifty or sixty horses implies a large 
consumption of horse feed, for the 
supply of which Mr. Dunne leases 27 
acres of land in the vicinity of the 
factory, from which he has just har- 
vested an excellent crop of hay. He 
also gets a large supply from his 
farm at Yan Yean, consisting of 328 
acres, where in the winter time the 



bulk of the horses rest their weary 
limbs after the toils of the summer 
campaign, and recuperate on the suc- 
culent grasses of the locality and the 
pure water of the Plenty River that 
runs through the property. The hay 
is converted into chaff on the pre- 
mises. The Moonee Valley Company 
are the sole manufacturers of a drink 
that has now become a household 
word throughout Australia, viz., 
"Horonda." This is registered in 
all the States of the Common- 
wealth. The groundwork of this 
favourite beverage is the horehound 
herb, from which, in conjunction 
with other herbs, it is brewed. 
Horehound, as we are all aware, is 
one of the most useful herbs known 
to the world. For a long time the 
great want felt by those advocating 
teetotal principles has been to find 
a drink that would be palatable, 
and at the same time beneficial to 
the drinker. "Horonda" supplies 
this want, and its properties are 
tonic, appetising, stimulating, blood- 




Jokntlotu, (TSkawusgy and Co. 1Mb. 

Mb. Arthur Louis Gardner. 

purifying, and thirst - quenching. 
Being brewed, it generates its own 
gas, and, therefore, does not injure 
the coating of the stomach, making 
it a receptacle for cancer fungus, as 
many other effervescing drinks are 
said to do, upon the authority of 
the leading medical practitioners of 
the world. It is a boon to all, 
whether teetotallers or otherwise, as 
it is a universal mixer, making a 



splendid shandygaff, and assimilating 
equally well with whisky, brandy, 
gin, etc., and neutralising any bad 
effects from same. It may be 
predicted that there will be no 
drunkards when "Horonda" is uni- 
versally used (as it will be before 
long), as it destroys the craving for 
intoxicating drinks — and what a 
blessing this will be ! We have all 
seen the poor wretch whom the drink 
disease has seized upon. He tries 
his hardest to shake it off, being well 
aware of its dire consequences. He 




Johnstone, O'Shanneuy and Co, 

Mr. P. S. Barrett. 



Mclb. 



is conscious that it is ruining him, 
morally and physically, and blighting 
all that is worth having in life, but 
the craving is there, and he cannot 
resist it ; but let him start drinking 
"Horonda, 1 ' and the want is sup- 
plied. His hand grows steady, his 
eye bright. He is a man again, and 
can dispense with any expensive chlo- 
ride of gold system of treatment, and 
need not become the inmate of any 
inebriate institution. Some years 
back, in order to break down a huge 
monopoly, Mr. Dunne started a glass 
works known as the Moonee Valley 
Glass Bottle Works, which achieved 
the purpose, and are now in full 
swing, turning out all sorts of 
bottles. Mr. Dunne is also the pro- 
prietor of the St. John Wine Cellars, 
Capel Court, City, where he disposes 
of his celebrated St. John claret, a 
South Australian wine especially 
bottled for him by the vineyard 
proprietors, who have secured many 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



J77 



first class prizes for their products. 
By connoisseurs this wine is held to 
equal any imported claret, and is 
made from the pure grape. He also 
carries on a very extensive hotel- 
broking business in these offices. 
Owing to the many calls upon Mr. 
Dunne's time and attention, he has 
recently acquired the services of Mr. 
Arthur Louis Gardner (a son of Mr. 
Thomas Gardner, formerly town clerk 
of Richmond for twenty-six years) to 
manage his aerated water business. 
Mr. Gardner is an old Scotch Col- 
legian of the seventies. After leav- 
ing school he had four years' training 
with the late firm of Webster Bros., 
of 4 Queen Street, City, and then 
joined the staff of the London Bank 
of Australia in 1876, in whose ser- 
vice he remained for twenty - five 
years, being located at Talbot, Wan- 
garatta (during the reign of the 
Kelly gang), Gordon, Echuca, Mills- 
ton, Wilcannia, and Bendigo, leaving 
the latter place to open a branch of 
the bank at Charters Towers, North 
Queensland, in 1886, which he suc- 
cessfully managed for over ten years. 
Upon leaving Charters Towers to 
take up the Carlton branch, a posi- 
tion he held for four years, he 
was presented with an address and 
a purse of 100 sovereigns. Mr. 
Gardner is a justice of the peace for 
Queensland. During the time he 
was in Carlton he took an active 
interest in cricket, being vice- 
president of the Carlton Club for 
several years. Latterly he has 
given more attention to the game of 
bowls, winning the championship of 
the Carlton green for the season 
1900-1901. Mr. Gardner has had a 
diversified experience under a variety 
of circumstances, and the business 
he has now undertaken the control of 
should flourish under his manage- 
ment. Mr. P. S. Barrett, who 
until recently held the position of 
accountant, but who has now been 
promoted to the position of 
traveller, for which office he is 
peculiarly adapted, owing to his 
genial nature, has been with the 
company for the past thirteen years, 
having entered the service as office 
boy, and by assiduity and strict at- 
tention to his duties has steadily 
worked his way up the ladder to the 
position he now holds. " Pat 
Barrett," as he is familiarly known 



to the customers, is part and parcel 
of the business, and is very zealous 
and loyal in the discharge of his 
duties. 



R. HARRISON, Aerated Waters 
and Cordial Manufacturer, 8-20 
Spring Street, Fitzroy. This busi- 
ness was established as far back as 
1866 by the late Mr. Robert Harrison, 
and has been steadily increasing ever 
since. The present proprietors, 




Johtutone, 0'Shannc$$y and Co. 

Mb. Vance Gregg. 



MeXb. 



Messrs. Vance Gregg and Charles 
Chapman, have been connected with 
the firm for over seventeen years, 
and during that time, as general 
manager and cordial maker respec- 
tively, have had much to do with the 
progress of the business. On the 
death of the late Mr. Robt. 
Harrison in 1898, the business was 
purchased by the present owners, 
who have since devoted their whole 
energies to its development, and con- 
tinue to personally supervise their 
respective departments. The fac- 
tory, a two - story brick building, 
situated at the corner of Spring and 
Argyle Streets, Fitzroy, is fitted up 
with a thoroughly up-to-date plant 
and equipment, and is one of the 
most compact and conveniently 
arranged factories in the State, 
capable of turning out an enormous 
quantity of aerated waters, etc., 
daily during the summer months. 
Cleanliness is strictly insisted on in 
every department, recognising that 



purity of the water used is of para- 
mount importance, both as regards 
the quality and hygienic character of 
the beverages produced. The filters 
employed for the purpose are made 
by J. Jeffery, of Spring Street, Mel- 
bourne, as being scientifically the 
most perfect obtainable. Messrs. 
Gregg and Chapman have erected at 
great expense no less than 240 of 
these filters, which are fitted up in a 
special dust-proof room, and in the 
busy season are kept constantly 
going, night and day. For the 
storage of the filtered water five 
400-gallon tanks are provided, con- 
structed wholly of slate, with glass 
tops to keep out all dust, and form 
ideal water tanks, combining coolness 
with immunity from metallic con- 
tamination. This department of the 
business has attracted considerable 
attention from the leading medical 
men of Melbourne, a number of whom 
have shown their interest in the 




Jonnstonc, O'Shannesty and Co. Melb. 

Mb. Charles Chapman. 

matter by visiting the factory, 
amongst whom we may mention 
Dr. Gresswell, of the Board of 
Health, and Dr. Cherry, of Mel- 
bourne University, who both ex- 
pressed themselves as highly pleased 
with the perfection of the firm's 
arrangements for the cleanliness of 
the factory, and especially the filter- 
ing and storage of the water. It 
was shortly after visiting this fac- 
tory that Dr. Gresswell, in giving 
advice to the public through the 
medium of the "Herald," wrote :— 



178 

"The public should also be cautioned 
with respect to aerated waters, of 
which great quantities are consumed 
just at this season. Plenty of these 
aerated waters of a safe description 
can be had, but others are not so 
safe." The bottles are cleansed by 
steam, and afterwards rinsed by jets 
of fresh water. The stables, where 
in the summer fifty horses are ac- 
commodated, are situated on the 
opposite side of Spring Street to the 
factory, and the law of cleanliness is 
as strictly enforced therein as in the 
factory, and tells its tale in the 
splendid condition of the horses. A 
word may also be said of the 
waggons which convey the drinks to 
the shopkeepers. Of these the firm 
have twenty-five in use during the 
summer season. These are models 
of strength and stability, combined 
with suitability of design and artistic 
finish, and in this connection it may 
be mentioned that at the recent Mel- 
bourne Agricultural Show one of this 
firm's waggons secured first prize in 
its class. In fact, throughout this 
establishment everything is tho- 
roughly up to date. In the manu- 
facturing department only the very 
finest materials are used, and that 
quality is appreciated is shown by 
ttfe large demand experienced for the 
excellent beverages produced by this 
firm for its 2,000 customers. 



The PRAHRAN ICE and 
AERATED WATER COMPANY, 83 
Alfred Street, Prahran. Manager, 
Mr. John Dixon. This large, pros- 
perous, and continually growing busi- 
ness was established in 1898 by its 
present manager, Mr. JOHN DIXON, 
and the factory, situated in Alfred 
Street, Prahran, is fitted up with 
the very latest and most improved 
machinery for carrying on its exten- 
sive and ever-extending operations, 
the whole of which are conducted 
under the personal supervision of Mr. 
Dixon. These comprehend the manu- 
facture of ordinary and pure crystal 
ice, the water employed for this pur- 
pose being first of all purified by the 
celebrated Pasteur filters, then con- 
verted into steam and condensed, so 
that its absolute purity is thus 
assured beyond the possibility of 
contention, and it is then packed 
by a special system, so that it is 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA 



capable of transmission by boat or 
rail to any part of the State without 
waste in transition ; and the pre- 
paration of sodawater, lemonade, 
ginger ale, kola beer, sarsaparilla, 
tonic water, ginger beer, and cor- 
dials of every description, which are 
all iced previous to delivery. These 
are made by a novel process, which 
completely excludes the use of sul- 
phuric acid, vitriol, or chemicals of 
any kind, while, as a substantial 
guarantee of their purity, the water 
employed in their preparation is 
passed through Pasteur's celebrated 
germ-proof filters, and by the aid of 
refrigerating machinery it is reduced 
to a winter temperature in the 
hottest of the summer months. Not 
only so, but in order to make assur- 
ance doubly sure all the fittings and 
pipes used in the manufactory are of 
nickel, thus obviating the serious 
risk which always attends the use of 
copper or lead pipes, owing to their 
liability to corrosion, and the con- 
sequent engendering of metallic 
poisons. Then again the gases em- 
ployed in aerating all the sparkling 
waters produced in this establish- 
ment are obtained from natural and 
not from artificial sources, such as 
vitriol, whiting, and marble dust, so 
generally employed to secure the 
effervescence of Carrara and similar 
waters. These, on the contrary, 
are aerated by means of carbonic 
acid gas obtained from the mineral 
water springs which bubble up from 
the volcanic mountain of the Eifel, in 
Germany, and more particularly 
from the Brudcldrcis, which causes 
such numbers of persons to visit 
Buresborn every year to benefit by 
its mineral waters. With these 
powerful recommendations in their 
favour, the aerated waters of the 
company have secured a well-earned 
popularity and the strong support of 
some of the leading members of the 
medical faculty in Victoria, so that 
they are to be found on the tables 
at Government House, the Alfred 
and Eye and Ear Hospitals, City 
Club rooms, and in numbers of hotels 
and private houses in Melbourne, its 
numerous suburbs, and throughout 
the country districts generally. It 
is the only manufactory of the kind 
in the State which combines the 
making of ice with the production of 
aerated waters, and Mr. Dixon is 



the inventor of a cheap and simple 
machine for cooling rooms during the 
hottest period of the year. It is 
capable. of pouring 38,240 cubic feet 
of cool, fresh, pure air per hour into 
any room, sick ward, or otherwise ; 
is inexpensive to work, and is 
" strongly recommended " by Dr. 
G res well, the chairman of the Board 
of Health ; and ice chests are like- 
wise manufactured by the company 
on the most improved scientific 
principles. Some idea may be 
formed of the rapid growth of the 
company's operations when it is 
mentioned that it commenced its de- 
liveries with one waggon only four 
years ago, and that it has now nine 
vehicles similarly occupied, and that 
the area of the premises was only 
50 square feet at the outset, and 
that they now cover 50,000. The 
machinery, which is driven by a 
Coulson's gas engine of 8 - horse 
power, is by Heywood, Tyler, and 
Co., who enjoy the reputation of 
being the most skilful and successful 
makers of this kind of plant in the 
world. 




Johtutone, O'Shannetsy and Co. Helb. 

Mb. G. H. Billson. 

G. H. BILLSON, Aerated Water 
Manufacturer, Brighton Road, 

Elsternwick, was born at Blackburn, 
England. Leaving England, he came 
to Australia in 1848, and established 
his present business in Brighton Road 
in 1890, which he has carried on 
successfully ever since. The factory 
is situated in St. Kilda, on the 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



179 



Brighton Road, close to the well- 
known nursery of Brunning and Sons, 
and may be described as one of the 
most compact and cleanly establish- 
ments in Melbourne. Mr. Billson 
supports local industry in every pos- 
sible branch. All the bottles used 
are manufactured in the Melbourne 
Bottle Works, and the boiler and 
bottling machines, and the . engine 
which drives his expensive plant, are 
of local manufacture. 



ROBERT MOSLEY, Aerated Water 
and Cordial Manufacturer, 183 Boun- 
dary Road, Flemington Bridge, North 
Melbourne. Mr. Mosley is a native 
of England, having been born in 




Johnstone, CrShanne—y and 0* Melb. 

Mr. Robert Mosley. 

Derbyshire in the year 1864. He 
was educated locally at the village 
school, and may fairly claim to be 
one of that estimable class desig- 
nated as self-made men. His father 
having been killed when the lad was 
only six and a half years old, he 
8 tar ted work at the age of seven in 
the mills, attending school for the 
compulsory half day at a time. 
During the succeeding eleven years, 
which he spent at the mills, he cul- 
tivated a natural taste and capacity 
for mechanical work, spending all his 
spare time among the machinery, and 
so marked was his improvement in 
that direction that he was subse- 
quently appointed second engineer at 
the Guidebridge Spinning Mills, a 
position he filled for two years. He 



then left to visit the colonies, land- 
ing in New Zealand in 1884, being 
then twenty years of age. He at 
once obtained employment in the 
Railway locomotive department, 
under Mr. Blackmore, and in less 
than six months had charge of the 
engines, and was placed in control of 
the Balclutha sheds. He remained 
in the service of the Railway Com- 
pany for three years, and then came 
on to Melbourne, where he erected 
the pumping plant for the Macauley 
Road Gasworks. Twelve months 
later Mr. Mosley carried out a long- 
cherished idea of establishing himself 
in business on his own account as an 
aerated water and cordial manufac- 
turer. He accordingly rented the 
site of his present premises, and 
commenced business on a very small 
scale, making a limited quantity of 
beverages, which he took out and 
sold himself ; but so rapidly did his 
business expand that he was com- 
pelled to gradually increase his pre- 
mises and staff. Mr. Mosley 's stock 
and plant at the present time is 
valued at several thousands of 
pounds, and he finds constant em- 
ployment for from twelve to twenty 
hands, with numerous vans and 
horses for the delivery of the ever- 
increasing orders for his celebrated 
waters and cordials. The premises 
in Flemington Road are fitted up 
with all the latest and most ap- 
proved appliances and machinery for 
the manufacture of these, and, to 
ensure perfect cleanliness, the ma- 
chinery in use is all silver-lined, with 
glass pumps, the whole of the water 
being filtered by the latest scientific 
process, for which purpose Abbott's 
celebrated filters are used. Taken 
altogether, Mr. Mosley 's establish- 
ment forms one of the most complete 
of its kind in the State. 



M. McDONALD, Aerated Water 
and Cordial Manufacturer, Madeline 
Street, Carlton. The enterprising 
proprietor of the above flourish- 
ing business arrived in the colony in 
the beginning of 1858, and for many 
years had his ups and downs— mostly 
downs— like other men. In 1861 he 
went to New Zealand, where he was 
moderately successful, but the glow- 
ing accounts from the Lachlan, in 
New South Wales, induced him to try 



his luck in that colony. It was bad 
luck, however, and after about twelve 
months 1 stay in that part of Aus- 
tralia he found himself penniless, and 
nearly 600 miles from Melbourne and 
his friends. It was a long tramp, 
but a few weeks' rest and a friendly 
advance from a relation enabled him 
to turn his face towards New 
Zealand again, this time to the 
Dunstan ; and without much rest he 
proceeded to Fox's and the Shot- 
over, where several parties were 
getting plenty of gold, but was not 
lucky enough to get any himself. In 
a week or two he left with a mate 
for Invercargill, and, after a while 
storekeeping at Winton, started busi- 
ness as a sodawater manufacturer in 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Metb. 

Mr. M. McDonald. 

Dee Street, Invercargill, in 1864. 
This business he has carried on with 
success since then and up to the 
present time at Ballarat and Mel- 
bourne, being a most successful ex- 
hibitor at both those places. Mr. 
McDonald has also gained first prizes 
for his liquors and cordials at the 
Industrial and Colonial Exhibitions 
in Melbourne and New Zealand. He 
attributes much of his success to his 
thorough knowledge of every depart- 
ment of his business, and to the use 
of the best filters to be had in the 
world. He was one of the first in 
the colony to use the celebrated 
Pasteur filter, and is always on the 
look-out for whatever may be con- 
ducive to the improvement of his 
products. 



180 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



PLUMMER, MURPHY, and CO., 
Aerated Water Manufacturers, Nelson 
Road, South Melbourne. This firm 
was established in South Melbourne 
in the year 1874 by the late Mr. 
Joseph Langdon Plummer, who 
carried on business in his own name, 
first as a gingerbeer manufacturer, a 
little later on adding to his trade 
the manufacture of aerated waters 
and cordials. At first the business 
was carried on in a small way, but, 
under the combined efforts of the 
proprietor and his sons, It has in- 
creased, and the firm has so extended 
its operations that it now enjoys 




JohnUone, CTShanncuy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Alexander Plummer. 

a large and extensive connection 
throughout the city and suburbs. 
After the death of Mr. J. L. 
Plummer in 1891, the business was 
carried on by four of his sons, the 
Messrs. Alex., Chas., Joseph, and 



Samuel Plummer, under the style of 
Plummer Bros., but a dissolution of 
partnership having taken place in 
1893, the business has since been 
carried on by Messrs. A. and C. 
Plummer and Mr. James Murphy. 




Jokn&Ume. (yShannetty and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Charles Plummer. 

Messrs. Alexander and Charles 
Plummer are both Australian natives. 
Mr. Murphy was born in Cork, 
Ireland, in 1860, and educated in his 
native city. He afterwards entered 
the wholesale wine and spirit busi- 
ness, and in 1888 came to Victoria, 
where he entered the firm of Mr. J. 
L. Plummer as bookkeeper and ac- 
countant, holding that position until 
he entered into partnership with 
Messrs. A. and C. Plummer. The 
business has since been carried on in 
the name of Plummer, Murphy, and 
Co. The firm's establishment is 



fitted up with the most up-to-date 
machinery and plant, the water 
used in the manufacture of the 
aerated waters and cordials being 
filtered through the latest Berkfield 
filter, while Furguson's filters and 
Heywood Tyler's latest machinery 
are used in the bottling department. 
The brewing and cordial making de- 
partment is under the able manage- 
ment of Mr. Alex. Plummer. Mr. 
Chas. Plummer has charge of the 
out-door department, while Mr. 
Murphy has control of the office and 
in-door department generally. There 
is also a branch of the establishment 




Johntlonc, O'Shanncsiy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. James Murphy. 

carried on at Williamstown, and the 
firm are the proprietors of the City 
Road Marine Stores, where they 
carry on an extensive business in 
machinery, tools, cases, bottles, old 
metals, etc. 



# 



Engineers, Iron and Brass Pounders, &c. 



Continued from Vol. I. 



CLEMENT DAVIDSON, Parkside 
Ironworks, 19, 21, 35 Wreckyn 
Street, North Melbourne. Mr. 
Davidson is a native of Victoria, 
having been born at North Melbourne 
in the year 1865. He was educated 
at the Model Schools, Spring 




Johnttone, O'Shanneity and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Clement Davidson. 

Street, Melbourne, and afterwards 
entered the State School, North 
Melbourne, with the intention of 
becoming a school teacher, but the 
salary was too small, and during the 
Christmas holidays of 1881 a vacancy 
occurred at the office of Langlands 
Foundry Company Limited for a 
junior clerk. He made a successful 
application for the position, and 
remained with the firm for seven- 
teen years, during which period he 
rose rapidly, and was promoted to 
fill the position of secretary. In 
1898 he purchased the old-established 
business of John Buncle and Son, 
Parkside Ironworks, North Mel- 
bourne, which he still carries on 
under the old name. Mr. Davidson 
is sole proprietor of this large 
and extensive business, employing 
hundreds of workmen during the 
year, it being the largest engi- 



neering works north of the Yarra. 
The works have been lately reor- 
ganised, and made more up to date 
with more modern tools. He manu- 
factures all classes of engines, 
boilers, mining and agricultural ma- 
chinery, including the labour-saving 
patent Stern interchangeable knife 
wheel travelling and stationary 
chaffcutters, for which the firm are 
world-renowned builders. So exten- 
sive have the operations become that 
the machines are found working with 
entire satisfaction in all parts of the 
world. In private life Mr. Clement 
Davidson is well known and 
esteemed by a large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. He takes great 
interest in philanthropic matters ; is 
president and patron of numerous 
charitable institutions, including the 
Melbourne Dr. Barnardo's Home and 
the Latrobe Street Ragged Boys' 
Home and Mission, of which he was 
the founder, and is still the presi- 
dent. The home was opened by Lady 
Brassey in 1895. The institution 
does an immense amount of good in 
the city of Melbourne, and numbers 
of homeless waifs are rescued and 
sent away to country homes every 
year. He is chairman of the North 
Melbourne School Board of Advice, a 
position he has filled for some years 
with great satisfaction. He is also 
an active worker in the Y.M.C.A. 
movement, being one of the founders 
of the North Melbourne branch, 
which is doing great good, especially 
with the young men of the district. 
He is a councillor for North Mel- 
bourne, having been elected by the 
largest number of votes ever re- 
corded, thus showing the popularity 
in which he is held. He takes a per- 
sonal interest in all matters relative 
to the welfare of the public. 



The RAILWAY IRON FOUNDRY, 
642 Bourke Street West, 593a Little 
Bourke Street West, and 179 King 
Street, Melbourne. (Messrs. Drysdale 



and Eraser.) Engineers, Iron- 
founders, and Blacksmiths ; Manu- 
facturers of Punching and Shearing 
Machines, Crab Winches, Silent Blast 
Fans, Clay Mill Machinery. Engine, 
mining, and agricultural castings of 
every description. Mr. JOHN 

FRASER, the principal of this im- 
portant and extensive business, was 
born in Fifeshire, Scotland, in the 
year 1831. On the completion of his 
education he was apprenticed to the 
ironfounding trade, and came out to 
Victoria in 1854, being then twenty- 
three years of age. On his arrival 
he worked at his trade for a period 
of nine months at Fulton's Iron 
Foundry, Melbourne, and was then 
attracted to the goldfields at Port 
Curtis, where he remained for nearly 
three years. Returning to Victoria, 
he was employed in the iron trade 
in Castlemaine and Melbourne until 




Johnstone, O'Shannctty and Go. Mtlb 

Mr. John Fbaseb. 

1864, in which year he established the 
present business, and carried on suc- 
cessfully until his death on the 9th 
October, 1901. Since then the busi- 
ness has been carried on under the old 
name by his widow, under the man- 
agement of Mr. James W. Cleghorn. 



182 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



JOHN FISHER, Jun., Galvanizer, 
etc., Manufacturer of Steel Trunks, 
Australian Galvanizing Works, 118 
and 120 a'Beckett Street, Melbourne. 
This extensive and prosperous busi- 
ness was established in 1884, a period 
during which Victoria passed through 
the most severe depression of her 
existence. Commencing on a small 
scale, and with a very limited staff 
of assistants, Mr. Fisher, jun., has 
since that time gradually improved 
his position as a manufacturer until 
his business has become one of the 
leading industries of the State. This 



orders so promptly and satisfactorily 
in all respects as that of John 
Fisher, jun. In a previous issue it 
was remarked that "to enumerate 
the articles manufactured at the Aus- 
tralian Galvanizing Works would take 
more space than could be afforded," 
so an illustration of a portion of the 
sales -room is herewith shown, as 
proving likely to convey an idea of 
the variety of goods stocked in the 
interest of wholesale customers, who 
are thus saved the necessity of keep- 
ing them in stock themselves, and 
who can rely upon the execution of 



Hunter's patent sanitary pans and 
covers, which are universally used 
wherever the double-pan system has 
been adopted, i.e., in nearly all Vic- 
torian boroughs and shires, as also 
in other States. In fact, Mr. Fisher 
may claim to have been the pro- 
moter of the sealed pan system, 
which is without doubt a great im- 
provement upon the old style of re- 
moving offensive refuse. The gal- 
vanizing plant at the works is always 
in full working operation, as he not 
only carries out his own extensive 
orders in this line, but those for the 




Storeroom at tha Australia* Galvanizing Warka, a'Baokatt Straat, Malbouraa. 



has been accomplished no less by his 
zeal and enterprise than by his strict 
commercial integrity and practical 
knowledge of the requirements of the 
trade in general, as he is himself a 
thoroughly practical workman, with 
a wide experience. The chief manu- 
factures carried on at the Australian 
Galvanizing Works are in black and 
galvanised ironwork, tinsmithing, 
japanning, etc., and the largest 
orders for galvanized and japanned 
ware ever issued in Australia 
have been executed by Mr. Fisher, 
while there is not another firm in 
Victoria which can carry out large 



their orders in a very short space of 
time. In addition, they have the 
advantage of getting the goods fresh 
and clean from the factory, whereas 
if kept in stock among others they 
are apt to become soiled and unsale- 
able. Mr. Fisher claims for his 
manufactures that they are not only 
well finished, but so constructed as 
to please the eye of intending pur- 
chasers, an important factor in the 
satisfactory sale of articles for every- 
day use. His japanned and gal- 
vanised goods are the best in the 
market, and defy competition ; and 
he is the only authorised maker of 



trade generally. A visit to the 
works, which Mr. Fisher cordially 
invites at any time, will prove more 
effectually than words the extensive 
lines upon which this industry is run. 
Mr. John Fisher, sen., who has had 
over forty years' experience as man- 
ager in the galvanizing trade, has 
been connected with the firm from 
the commencement thereof, a fact 
which needs no further comment. 
The Australian Galvanizing Works 
have in hand the largest stock of 
steel sheets in the Commonwealth, of 
which inspection is invited from the 
trade generally. 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



183 



GALLIERS and KLAERR, Iron 
and Brass Founders, Manufacturers 
of Brass and Electrical Fittings, 
Mechanical Engineers, Bellhangers, 
Silver and Nickel Platers, Sanitary 
Plumbers, etc., etc., 133 to 151 



bedstead, which is in great demand 
throughout Victoria and the adjoin- 
ing States. Nickel and brass bed- 
steads are made in great variety, 
from the modest hospital institution 
beds to the most elaborate and costly 




Gaidars and Klaarr's Original Pramisas. 



Inkerman Street, St. Kilda. Mr. 
II. A. GALLIERS, the founder of 
this important firm, started business 
as a plumber and gasfitter on the 
present site in 1870, and carried on 
business until 1883, when " he was 
joined in partnership by Mr. F. 
Klaerr. The manufacture of gas 
cooking and heating stoves was then 
commenced, and from that time the 
business steadily increased, the works 
being extended from time to time, 
until they now cover a large area. 
Mr. Galliers afterwards retired, and 
Mr. Klaerr carried on until 1884, 
when he took into partnership Mr. 
Alexander Law, late of Jenkins and 
Law, and Law and McWalters. The 
business as it now stands is second 
to none in the whole of Victoria, and 
possibly in Australasia. Attention 
is chiefly devoted by the firm to the 
manufacture of heavy and light 
ranges and one-fire stoves ; register 
grates ; highly finished interior 
grates, in electro copper and brass ; 
dog grates, fenders, and kerbs ; gas 
cooking and heating stoves, and iron 
castings of every description ; and of 
these lines they have an enormous 
output. Bedsteads are manufactured 
by the firm on a large scale, and 
they are the sole makers of the 
Stevenson patent corner joint iron 



French and half -tester and Parisian 
bedsteads. Cots of every description 
are also manufactured, and the firm 
have recently introduced a new 
patent roller wire mattress, which 
does away with all bolts, nuts, 



description of highly-finished brass- 
work, gas and electroliers, hasp 
lights, brackets in latest styles for 
the incandescent light ; bath heaters, 
in bright copper or japan, for gas or 
fuel ; gas heating stoves for offices, 
and fittings of all designs are made. 
Milling, wheel-cutting, planing, all 
classes of turning and fitting, nickel 
and silver plating, electro brassing 
and coppering, grinding, and polishing 
are extensively carried on, and in 
these branches the firm transact a 
large outside trade. The firm also 
do a large variety of copper and tin- 
smithing work, and carry on an ex- 
tensive outside business as sanitary 
plumbers and hot water fitters. All 
materials and fittings used by the 
firm in the various industries carried 
on in their establishment are made 
entirely on the premises. The only 
purchases made are in raw material, 
of which they are large importers 
from England and America. Messrs. 
Galliers and Klaerr have lately added 
the most up-to-date machinery essen- 
tial to their trade, and rightly con- 
sider that they are unequalled in this 
particular branch. "Appearances 
are deceitful" is a saying oft quoted 
by many, and in this instance it may 
well be applied to Messrs. Galliers 
and Klaerr's premises. The outside 




Gallia 



sagging, etc. These mattresses can 
be evenly tightened by turning a 
roller at the foot, and can be fixed 
to any style of bedstead at present 
manufactured. Another important 
branch is the engineering and brass- 
finishing departments, where every 



ilsaa, Inkarman Straat, St. Kllda. 

view gives but a small idea of the 
magnitude of their operations, and 
of the enormous variety of work 
executed by them. In each depart- 
ment are to be seen innumerable 
machines, all of which are driven by 
a 20-h.p. Tangye steam engine. A 



184 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



large room, some 200 by 30 feet, is 
set apart for casting purposes, and 
separate departments are allotted to 
each of the different classes of work. 
Employment is constantly found for 
about 150 skilled workmen, and a 
large export trade is done in connec- 
tion with the other States, including 
Western Australia. Their premises 
and stock are most complete, and all 
orders placed with the firm are 
executed promptly and with the best 
workmanship. 



WATER - TUBE BOILERS.- 

BABCOCK and WILCOX, 9 William 
Street, Melbourne. According to 
the spontaneous and unanimous testi- 
mony of engineers of the highest 



drum ; then down again through the 
tubes, and once more ascending, the 
products of combustion make their 
escape through the chimney, while 
the water inside the tubes, as it 
rises towards the higher end of them 
during its conversion into steam, 
ascends into the drum above, where 
the steam separates from the water, 
the latter flowing back to the rear, 
while the deposits or incrustations 
which might otherwise form upon the 
heated surfaces are swept back into 
the mud drum, and are thence ex- 
pelled. The advantages secured by 
this admirable system are obvious 
and manifold, comprising the great 
magnitude of surface exposed to the 
heat of the furnace and its diminished 
liability to explosion ; the removal 




Bibcock and Wilcex's Patent Water-tube Safety Steam Seller, fitted 
with Patent Steam Super heater. 



eminence and the widest experience 
in all parts of the world, mechanical 
invention achieved one of the greatest 
triumphs when it designed and per- 
fected the water-tube boilers of which 
Messrs. Babcock and Wilcox are the 
patentees. Their superiority over 
all others arises from the fact that 
the seamless steel tubes of which 
they are composed are placed in an 
inclined position, and that the fire 
being made under their front and 
higher end, the heat generated passes 
up between them into a combustion 
chamber under the steam and water 



of riveted joints from the action of 
the fire ; the amplitude of the 
draught area ; the complete combus- 
tion of the fuel by the proper ad- 
mixture of the gases evolved with the 
atmospheric air ; the thorough ab- 
sorption of the heat by its triple 
contact with the tubes ; the efficient 
circulation of water ; the rapid 
generation of steam ; the main- 
tenance of a steady water level ; 
freedom and uniformity of expan- 
sion ; economy of fuel ; submission 
to immediate control ; immunity 
from explosions ; accessibility for 



cleaning ; durability ; ease of trans- 
portation ; facility for effecting 
repairs ; and its applicability to 
every kind of -engine — stationary, 
locomotive, and marine ; its superior 
efficiency under all circumstances 
having been proved and attested by 
experts of the highest authority. 



J. PENDER and CO., Horseshoe 
Nail Works, Tinning Street, Bruns- 
wick. Mr. JOHN PENDER, the 
proprietor of the above flourishing 
business, was born in Canada in the 
year 1854, and educated in his native 
province. At the age of nineteen 
he went to California, and, after a 
three years' experience in that part 
of the world, returned to Canada 
in order to join his brother in the 
nail - manufacturing business. The 
brothers carried on business to- 
gether for four years, when, at- 
tracted by the glowing accounts 
of the Australian colonies, Mr. John 
Pender decided to establish himself 
in business in Victoria. He ac- 
cordingly set sail, and landed in 
Sydney in August, 1882. After 
a week's stay in that city he came 
to Melbourne, and started business 
at once, the result being his 
present prosperous and extensive 
trade, which extends all over the 
States, Pender's horseshoe nails and 
rasps being as well known in the back 
blocks of Queensland as they are in 
the principal cities of Victoria. At 
the works in Tinning Street may be 
seen nails in all stages of manufac- 
ture. The Swedish charcoal iron 
rods are served white hot from 
the # heating furnaces to the machines, 
which most ingeniously hammer and 
forge the nails to the exact gauge 
required, and then cut them off, the 
time occupied in the manufacture of 
each nail being exactly one second. 
As the nails are formed, they pour 
in a red hot shower into the box 
beneath in a manner truly marvel- 
lous to behold. A humorous writer 
thus graphically describes the scene : 
— "I watched the nails as they fell 
from the wonderful machines fast 
as rain drops. Strange feelings and 
fancies surged through my brain like 
a torrent. I stooped and picked up 
a brand new, ruddy-looking nail as ,a 
memento of my visit. Then I laid 
it down again, sadly, but not slowly. 



the cyclopedia of victoria. 



185 



I am of the opinion," he added, 
"that a new-laid nail, like, a new-laid 
% e 86» is warm, only the fact is more 
perceptible in the case of a nail. It 
may not be so in every instance ; 
I presume that there may be some 
nails laid cold, but the Pender nail 
was not cold, and I did not investi- 
gate any further*' The next process 
is the removal of the scale by re- 
volving iron rollers, after which they 
are fed rapidly by hand to a point- 




JohTiatone, O'Shannesiy and Co. 

Mr. John Pender. 



Mtlb. 



ing machine, which also automatically 
rejects any nails that vary from the 
standard size, as it is most essential 
that horseshoe nails should have 
perfect points. They are then 

passed to a revolving cylinder, which 
removes the oil from them by means 
of sawdust, after which they are 
sorted and boxed ready for the 
market, the whole process requiring 
the highest skill and the strictest 
attention to details by the^ opera- 
tives. Mr. Pender is to be highly 
complimented upon the efficient way 
in which this, the only industry of 
its class in Victoria, is handled. 
He takes a great interest, and is 
well up in modern machinery ; holds 
numerous patents, and claims to be 
the first to navigate the Yarra Yarra 
with a boat driven by electric power. 
His earliest voyage was made on 
18th April, 1897, from Prince's 
Bridge up river on J. Edwards' 
skiff, "Admiral," to which he at- 
tached a portable electric motor and 
propeller, with batteries for operat- 



ing the same. On 13 th November 
of the same year he introduced 
the first motor car to the streets 
of Melbourne, which was a great 
curiosity at the time, and a source 
of considerable interest to pedes- 
trians, as well as to the occupants 
of the various vehicles it met with 
in its transit. He often looks back 
with amusement upon his experiences 
with the first motor car, which he 
was the means of introducing into 
the Queen City of the South. Mr. 
Pender is a living illustration of the 
indirect gains of Victoria by its gold 
discoveries, which not merely drew 
to its shores the seekers for that 
precious metal, but attracted hither 
men of sterling enterprise and energy, 
who became the founders of new, valu- 
able, and enduring industries. 

F. LONG and CO., Engineers and 
Ironworkers, Footscray. Telephone 
No. 29, Footscray Exchange. Mr. 
FREDERICK LONG, the proprietor 
of the above extensive and important 




JokmUme, <r8hmme$ ty amd Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. Frederick Long. 

business, was born in Wiltshire, 
England, in the year 1860. On the 
completion of his school days he was 
apprenticed with Messrs. Parrett, 
Exile, and Andrews, proprietors of 
the Reading Iron Works, Berkshire, 
England, where he gained a large and 
practical experience in all branches of 
the trade. In 1884 he came to Vic- 
toria, and on arrival in Melbourne 
worked as a journeyman engineer for 



twelve months. He then started on 
his own account in Hopkins Street, 
Footscray, at first on a small scale, 
employing only one fire and one 
hand, and gradually working his 
business up to its present important 
position. Mr. Long now finds con- 
stant employment for over 100 
hands. All classes of smithing and 
engineering work is turned out, and 
a large trade is done in the manufac- 
ture of rock drills and mining machi- 
nery, all the leading machinery mer- 
chants in Melbourne being supplied 
by this firm, which manufactures 
solely for the trade. Some of Mr. 
Long's earlier work may be seen in 
the iron railings around the Parlia- 
ment Houses in Spring Street. He 
has made several important improve- 
ments in mechanical appliances, for 
the protection of which he has already 
taken out eight or nine patents. 



ROBERT BODINGTON, Manufac- 
turers of Roller Flour Milling Machi- 
nery. All millers* requisites kept in 
stock. Corner of Queensberry and 
Leicester Streets, Carlton. (Estab- 
lished 1856.) This well-known and 
important firm was established in the 
year 1856 by the late Mr. Robert 
Bodington, father of the present pro- 
prietor, and is the oldest business of 
its kind in the Australasian States. 
In the early days of Melbourne the 
flour mills were constructed on the 
millstone principle, and almost all of 
these were fitted up by the late Mr. 
Bodington. In later years the roller 
system superseded the millstones, 
and, to keep abreast with the times, 
expensive machinery was imported, 
including three large machines for 
the grinding and grooving of rolls for 
the operating upon wheat, and, with 
extensions to the works, completed a 
plant equal to all requirements of the 
trade. The firm have fitted many 
mills on the roller system, including 
the mills of the Wimmera North 
Flour Milling Company Limited, War- 
racknabeal ; the Water and Kerang 
United Limited, Bridgewater and 
Kerang, Mr. Richardson's mills at 
Nathalia and Birchip, and many 
others. These can compare with the 
best mills in the States for work- 
manship and quality of flour turned 
out. Large stocks of specially well- 
seasoned Scotch beech for the gearing 



186 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



of wheels, Dufour's celebrated Anchor 
brand silks for the dressing of flour 
in all its stages, perforated steel, 
elevator webbing, wire cloth belt 
fasteners, etc., and all sundries in 
connection with a flour mill. This 
firm has the finest assortment of 
light pulley patterns for casting pur- 
poses, ranging from eight inches to 
eight feet in diameter. They are also 
manufacturers of Sharp's rabbit ex- 
terminator, patented, of which there 
are upwards of 1,000 in use in the 
different States, and the highest tes- 
timonials have been received certify- 
ing to their efficiency for removing the 
rabbit pest. Since the death of Mr. 
Robert Bodington in 1895, the busi- 
ness, has been carried on by his sons, 
Messrs. Robert and Henry Bodington, 
with Mr. Kilborn, who has been con- 
nected with the firm almost since its 
commencement as manager. The 
late ROBERT BODINGTON, J.P., 
may fairly be called the pioneer 
millwright of Australasia, and for 
over thirty years he held a foremost 
position in the trade. Apprenticed 
in his early youth to a firm of mill- 
wrights and engineers near Birming- 
ham, England, he had an excellent 
opportunity of studying the business 
with which he was afterwards so suc- 
cessfully and honorably connected. 
On the completion of his apprentice- 
ship he worked at the Great Western 
Steamship Building Yard, Bristol, 
and at the age of twenty-two, being 
anxious to see the world, he arranged 
with Messrs. Miles, Kington, and 
Co., of Bristol, to go out to their 
extensive sugar plantations in Trini- 
dad, West Indies. He returned to 
England in order to visit the great 
Exhibition of 1851, and news of the 
great gold discoveries having reached 
England by that time, Mr. Bodington 
determined to start for Australia. 
On arrival in Melbourne he was em- 
ployed at Langland's Foundry, his 
first job being the manufacture of a 
winnowing machine, probably the 
first made in Victoria. Eventually 
he left Melbourne for the diggings, 
but, after an unsuccessful mining 
career of twelve months, returned to 
the metropolis. Mr. Bodington's 
next move was to Tasmania, where 
he filled the contract of fitting up a 
sawmill, and after being engaged in 
various other occupations determined 
to settle in Melbourne. Returning 



to that city with his wife, whom he 
married in Tasmania, the late gentle- 
man in 1856 laid the foundation of 
the present prosperous business. 



Messrs. MERRIMAN BROS., 
Engineers and Brassfounders, 611 
Little Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. 
The firm undertakes all kinds of engi- 




Johnstone. O'Shannessy and Co. Altlb. 

Mr. S. D. Mbrriman. 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. 

Mr. H. Mbrriman. 



Melh. 



neering work, and the supply of iron 
or brass castings to the trade, and 
makes a speciality of fire appliances, 
which they have supplied to the Met- 
ropolitan and Country Fire Boards 
for a number of years. They are 



also makers of oil and gas engines 
for irrigation plants and the use of 
orchardists. Their duplex spray 
pump is without doubt the simplest, 
most effective, and most easily 
worked of any in the market, and is 
also the cheapest to maintain in 
working order, being manufactured 
from gun metal and steel castings. 
Many well-known fruit-growers at 
Doncaster have these in use, and are 
spraying 800 gallons of water per 
day, which is in itself a guarantee of 
the capabilities of the duplex spray 
pump. Messrs. Merriman Bros, also 
manufacture smaller pumps, which 
are constructed on similar lines, and 
which are equally effective. 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and CO. Milb. 

Mr. Chas. H. Smith. 

CHAS. II. SMITH and CO., 
Pioneer Crucible Steel Works, Michael 
Street, Brunswick. This extensive 
and important manufacturing busi- 
ness was originally established by 
Mr. Chas. H. Smith in 1884, the 
premises being situated in Easy 
Street, Collingwood, and was the 
first crucible steel foundry established 
in Australia. Subsequently the 
business was merged into the Vic- 
toria Steel Foundry Company Pro- 
prietary Limited, Victoria Street, 
Carlton, where operations were 
carried on until 1889, when Messrs. 
Smith, Phillips, and Dawson acquired 
the business, and moved to the 
present premises in Michael Street, 
Brunswick. The present members of 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



187 



the firm are Messrs. Chas. H. Smith 
and J. T. Phillips, Mr. Dawson 
having been bought out some years 
ago. This well-known foundry 
covers an area of over one acre in 
extent, and has a furnace capacity of 
over two tons from the crucible, 
which is much the largest in Aus- 
tralia. The firm are large con- 
tractors for the Government and 
Railways, as also for the largest 
engineering firms and mining and 
dredging companies in this and the 
other States, and also in New 
Zealand. Mr. CHAS. SMITH, the 
senior partner, is a native of Barnes- 
ley, in Yorkshire, England, where he 
served his apprenticeship with the 
well-known firm of Messrs. Oliver 
and Co. Limited. He left England 
in 1878 for Victoria, and shortly 
after his arrival established the above 
business. 



JOHN GEORGE WAGNER, Elec- 
trical Engineer, 304-306 Lonsdale 
Street, Melbourne, is a native of 
Germany. He was born in the year 
1853, and received his education and 
training as an electrical engineer in 
his native country. He left Ger- 
many in 1871 for Brussels, eventually, 
in 1878, taking up his residence in 
Paris, where he was married. He 
arrived in Victoria in 1884, and, after 
spending two years gaining colonial 
experience, he commenced business as 
an electrical engineer at 68 Lonsdale 
Street East. In 1896, owing to ill- 
health, Mr. Wagner was compelled to 
dispose of his business, and took a 
tour round the world, visiting Paris, 
Germany, Brussels, Austria, England, 
and America. During his travels he 
kept a sharp look-out for all the 
latest improvements in electrical and 
other machinery, and returned to 
Australia with one of the most com- 
plete and up-to-date plants in the 
way of milling and turning machi- 
nery. Mr. Wagner is also equipped 
with the latest and most up-to-date 
knowledge of all that is new in the 
way of harnessing that great and 
mysterious power known to us as 
electricity. 



J. BARNES and SONS, Biscuit 
Machine Manufacturers and Engi- 
neers, Makers of Reel and Travelling 
Ovens, 35 Barkly Street, Carlton. 



The pioneer of the above important 
industry, Mr. JAMES BARNES, 
was born in Wiltshire, England, on 
the 28th of April, 1832. His father, 
who was a carpenter and joiner, 
trained his sons up in the same 
trade, but James took to engineering 
pursuits at an early age, and com- 
menced work on the Great Western 
railways, Wiltshire, and later spent 
some years in London. He left his 
native land for Victoria in 1856. 
Shortly after his arrival he worked 
on the railways for Randall and 
Holmes, English contractors. In 
1861 he was employed by F. H. 
Miers, of the Aerated Bread Com- 
pany, and was so successful in his 



compeers. Not only can she use the 
file and chisel, but on rare occasions 
does not hesitate the manipulation of 
the sledge hammer. Although en- 
gaged in this unusual occupation, she 
has lost none of the graces charac- 
teristic of the fair sex, being neat in 
her attire and winsome in manner. 
Some idea of the work turned out by 
this enterprising and flourishing firm 
may be gathered from the fact that 
among a large and ever-growing con- 
nection they number among their 
clients such well-known, firms as 
Messrs. Swallow and Ariell, Mel- 
bourne ; W. Arnott, Newcastle ; 
Hatchell and Co., Forsyth, Sydney ; 
Murray and Sons, and Calder and 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy, and Co. 

Mr. Jambs Barnes and Family. 



Mtlb. 



work and in improvements to machi- 
nery that he received a substantial 
increase in his pay and also a bonus. 
In 1863 he established his present 
business as a manufacturer of biscuit 
machines and reel and travelling 
ovens, which he has carried on up 
to the present day. This was the 
first industry of the kind founded in 
the Southern Hemisphere, and Mr. 
Barnes* enterprise has been rewarded 
with marked success. He is ably 
assisted in the business by his sons, 
the Messrs. J. H., P. J., and 
A. F. Barnes, the books being under 
the able supervision of his eldest 
daughter, Miss Annie, who not only 
acts as bookkeeper, but whose skill 
in the workshop is pronounced to be 
on a par with that of her male 



Balfour, Adelaide ; Minnie and Day, 
Auckland ; Griffiths, Wellington ; 
Murray Bros., Duncdin ; Wilson, 
Queensland ; Haywood, Hobart ; and 
also the Victorian Railways and the 
Commonwealth Government. The 
knowledge of woodwork which Mr. 
James Barnes gained in his early 
days has proved invaluable to him in 
the opening up of this new industry, 
much of the success that has at- 
tended the firm's business having 
been achieved through the fact that 
all the patterns of the machinery and 
subsequent improvements have been 
made by himself, a proceeding which 
has enabled him to work out each 
detail according to his own design, 
and consequently to the satisfaction 
of his numerous customers. 



188 



The cyclopedia op victoria. 



The AVON TOOL AND ENGI- 
NEERING WORKS (established 
1857), 207 Hawke Street, West Mel- 
bourne (G. James), Engineers and 
Tool Makers, Manufacturers of Steam 
Hammers, Punching, Drilling, Slot- 
ting, Screwing, and Trapping Ma- 
chines, Improved Plate Bending Rolls, 
Machine Gear, etc., etc. GIDEON 
JAMES, the proprietor of the above 
important and extensive business, was 
born at Besley, Gloucestershire, Eng- 
land. After serving an apprentice- 
ship of seven years with Messrs. 
Stottard and Slaughter, the well- 




Mr. Gideon James. 

known marine and locomotive engi- 
neers of Bristol, he went to the 
Crimea with the Royal Marine Trans- 
ports, occupying the position of 
engineer on board the troopship 
"Moeanda," which was built and 
engined by the abovementioned 
firm. On his return to England he 
spent five years in the employ of Sir 
Joseph Whitworth, Manchester, well 
known in Australia as the contractor 
to the Victorian Government Rail- 
way Department. Mr. James came 
to Victoria in 1857, where he 
was for some time in the employ 
of the late Mr. Enoch Chambers. 
In 1858 he established himself 
in business on his own account 
with only two fires, but as business 
increased two more were added, and, 
finding his premises too small to 
meet the requirements of his rapidly- 
expanding business, he moved to 
Flinders Lane, where four more fires 
were added, making a total of eight, 



and employing thirty hands. In 
1863 he was compelled to move to 
still larger premises in a' Beckett 
Street, principally owing to the 
large number of Government 
contracts in hand. Steam hammers 
of all sizes have been supplied by 
this firm to the Victorian Govern- 
ment Loco. Works, the West Aus- 
tralian Government Loco. Works, and 
to the leading engineers and imple- 
ment makers of this city. In 1867 
Mr. James sold his business and 
plant, but started again in the year 
following at his present premises, 
which he purchased in 1876. He may 
be considered the pioneer of the tool 
manufacturing trade in Australia. 
Many of his machines are to be seen 
in Melbourne, and some of his 
earliest work is still to be seen in 
the shape of railings on the top of 
the Pentridge Stockade. 




Johnstone, (yShannetty and Co. 
Mr. O. Oakley. 



UUb. 



Mr. O. OAKLEY, Ironfounder, St. 
Phillip Street, East Brunswick, was 
born in Staffordshire, England, in the 
year 1854, and educated at the prin- 
cipal school in his native county. 
He was afterwards apprenticed to the 
ironfounding trade with his father, 
Mr. Joseph Oakley, who carried on 
business in a large way in Stafford, 
and in 1875 accompanied him to Vic- 
toria, landing in Melbourne on his 
twenty-first birthday. Shortly after 
his arrival he found employment at 
the Victoria Foundry, and in 1878, 
in conjunction with Mr. Oakley, sen., 



established the present business, 
which has been carried on successfully 
ever since. The firm's specialty is 
the manufacture of tomb railings, 
friezes, and balcony works, and they 
also do a large trade in stoves, 
kitchen ranges, reg. grates, and every 
variety of iron work. The foundry 
in East Brunswick is one of the most 
complete of its kind in the State, and 
is furnished with a complete plant, 
capable of carrying out the largest 
contracts in the shortest possible 
time. Mr. Oakley is assisted in the 
business by his sons, who are also 




Johnstone, O'Shanncuy and Cb. 

Miss Emily Oaklet. 



UtU>. 



master moulders. The premises 
cover a large area, and comprise 
three large buildings and two sepa- 
rate foundries, in addition to a large 
showroom, in which may be seen 
every variety of iron castings. The 
firm finds employment for a large 
number of hands, and the establish- 
ment forms an important adjunct to 
the manufacturing industries of the 
State. 



WILLIAM BROWN, Brassfounder, 
13 to 21 Burwood Road, Hawthorn, 
was born in Oxford, England, in the 
year 1841. He was educated at the 
Greycoat School, and at the age of 
fourteen was sent to London, and 
apprenticed to Messrs. Piercer and 
Co., brass founders. He remained 
with them for a period of two years, 
afterwards entering another firm as 
journeyman, at a salary o! 5s. per 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



189 



day. On being offered a rise of Is. 
per day, he returned to Messrs 
Piercer, remaining until he was nine- 
teen years of age, when he married, 
and struck out on his own account, 
taking in piecework, by which he 
was able to earn upwards of £3 per 
week, and was kept so constantly 
supplied that it became necessary for 
him to employ two other workmen 
to cope with the steady increase. In 
18G4, with his wife and three child- 
ren, Mr. Brown emigrated to New 
Zealand, and on arrival was engaged 
as journeyman by Mr. Bert for three 
years at a salary of 10s. per day, 
often earning twice that amount. In 
1885 he came to Melbourne, and 
established his present business. He 
has carried out numerous orders for 
the various gas companies, and is the 
inventor of a spray pump for horti- 
cultural purposes. He has also been 
largely employed by the Melbourne 
and Metropolitan Board of Works. 
Some extent of the output from Mr. 
Brown's establishment may be gained 
from the fact that 2 cwt. of castings 
pass through his hands in a day, all 
of which are turned and fitted ready 
for use in the brass-finishing depart- 
ment, which contains the most com- 
plete and most up-to-date turning and 
finishing plant in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. 



JAMES A. ST. JOHN, Copper- 
smith, etc., Manufacturer of Confec- 
tioners', Brewers', and Distillers' 
Apparatus, Hot Water and Sanitary 
Engineer, 58 City Road, South Mel- 
bourne. The enterprising proprietor 
of the above flourishing business, 
Mr. J. A. St. John, came to Vic- 
toria as a lad in the year 1864, and 



was apprenticed to his trade in Mel- 
bourne. At the expiration of his 
indentures be established himself in 
business at his present address, City 
Road, and has carried on his opera- 
tions there successfully ever since. 




Johnstone. O'Shanneuy and Oo. Mtlb. 

Mr. James A. St. John. 

He has executed several large Go- 
vernment contracts, and is the 
clever producer of quite a number 
of inventions. Among these, perhaps 
the most important is the patent 
automatic fire extinguisher, a most 
ingenious contrivance, by which fire 
may be got under control in a few 
minutes. By means of a fuse the 
full force of the Yan Yean is re- 
leased, each extinguisher playing on 
upwards of 50 feet of surface. This 
appliance is in use in all the large 
timber yards in and around the city, 
and worthily deserves the high eulo- 



gies bestowed upon it. Mr. St. 
John is also the inventor and manu- 
facturer of the Stanley bath heater, 
which, being made entirely of copper, 
will practically last for ever, and 
will give a continuous stream of 
boiling water, with the use of a 
small quantity of wood, coal, or 
gas, at a reasonable price ; and the 
same remark may be applied to his 
copper baths and zinc baths, which 
are still more convenient, avoiding, 
as they do, the possibility of leakage 
at unexpected and inconvenient times. 




The Stanley Bath Heater, manufactured 
by James A. St. John. 

The factory is fitted up with all the 
latest appliances, and the proprietor 
and his capable staff of assistants 
are always prepared to carry out 
orders at the shortest possible 
notice. 



¥%£- 



General. 



The ROYAL BANK OF AUS- 
TRALIA LhMITED.— The premises 
now occupied by the Royal Bank of 
Australia Limited were erected in 
the year 1885 by the City of Mel- 
bourne Bank, now in liquidation, on 
the site previously covered for many 



Bank, viz., £50,000, must be con- 
sidered a low one. The alterations 
made in the fittings, etc., although 
not involving much expense, have had 
the effect of greatiy improving the 
appearance of the banking chamber, 
the light in particular, which was 




The Royal Bank ef Australia, Collins Street, Melbourne. 



years by the Clarence Hotel. The 
Clarence Hotel was bought by the 
City of Melbourne Bank for £32,500 
in 1881, and the present building was 
put up at a cost of nearly £40,000, 
so that the price paid by the Royal 



formerly very defective, being now 
excellent, and the general arrange 
ments are highly appreciated by the 
customers of the bank, and also by 
the staff. The Royal Bank, it will 
be remembered, started in the yeai 



1888, when the land boom was at its 
height, and premises suitable for a 
bank could not be obtained in the 
city except at an exorbitant figure. 
The Royal had accordingly to be 
content with somewhat meagre ac- 
commodation in Queen Street, which 
was gladly exchanged in 1893 for the 
premises in Collins Street vacated .by 
the Mercantile Bank on its suspension 
in the great financial crisis. In this 
location the Royal Bank remained 
over nine years, quietly but steadily, 
forging ahead, and improving its 
status year by year, until the ex- 
pansion of business again forced on 
the directors the necessity of acquir- 
ing the additional accommodation 
that was absolutely essential in the 
interests of the customers and staff, 
as will be readily understood from 
the statement of the vice-chairman 
at the last meeting of shareholders 
that during occupancy of the old 
Mercantile Bank building the number 
of accounts had increased about 250 
per cent., the profits 375 per cent., 
and the deposits more than 200 per 
cent., while the staff had been nearly 
doubled. The chairman of the board 
is the Hon. F. S. Grimwade, M.L.C., 
who has held the position since 1889. 
Mr. Charles Campbell, of Cuming, 
Smith, and Co. Proprietary Limited, 
is vice-chairman, and the other 
directors are the Right Hon. Sir 
Samuel Gillott, M.L.A., Lord Mayor 
of Melbourne, and Mr. Randal J. 
Alcock, of Messrs. James Service 
and Co. The manager (Mr. H. T. 
Wilson) and the accountant (Mr. A. 
A. Laing) have both been in the 
service of the bank since its founda- 
tion, the sub-accountant (Mr. J. Page 
Sharp) having joined more recently. 



The Rev. JAMES BLACK 
RONALD, M.H.R. for South Mel- 
bourne, was born on Lord Hopetoun's 
Estate, Linlithgowshire, Scotland, on 
the 2lst of August, 1861. His pre- 
liminary education was acquired at 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



191 



the Free Church School, Linlithgow. 
At the age of thirteen he went to 
the Board School in Edinburgh, 
and thence to a Lancashire Board 
School, spending twelve months at 
each. After passing two years in 
the west of Scotland, he went to 
London, where he taught in a Board 
School for two years ; thence to 
Rochdale, Lancashire, where he 
spent two years under the Rev. 
A. H. Drysdale, the well-known 
writer, and from thence to the 
Edinburgh University, where* he re- 
mained for live years, matriculating 
in 1881-82. He had the advantage 
of the tuition of Professors Blackie 
(junior Greek), Butcher, and Sellar 
(senior Greek and Latin). In 1886 
he gained a colonial scholarship in 
the Free Church Theological Hall, 
Edinburgh. In 1888 he came to Vic- 
toria to finish his theological course, 
and after three years in the Mel- 
bourne Theological College he was 
licensed to preach. He held a mis- 
sion station at Tyldcn for about six 
months, when he was called to the 
Oakleigh Presbyterian Church, and 
was so successful in re-establishing 
the strength of this church that in 




Johnstone, WShanntuy and Vo. Mdb. 

Rev. Jambs Black Ronald. 

1893 he was ordained. In Sep- 
tember, 1898, the home mission ap- 
pointed him to the Clarendon Street 
Presbyterian Church, South Mel- 
bourne, which church had degenerated 
greatly. Through hard, conscien- 
tious work, and by preaching sound 
principles of Christian democracy, he 



gathered a congregation around him 
strong enough to induct him in 
April, 1899. He received his bapho- 
metic fire baptism— or came to po- 
litical consciousness — during the 
Gladstone-Beaconsfield campaign in 
1880. In politics he became a Glad- 
stonian, although he differed from his 
leader in preferring American or 
Federal Home Rule to the Colonial 
Home Rule. Although originally a 
free trade advocate, Mr. Ronald ob- 
served the parity of principles be- 
tween America and Australia, and, 
recognising the benefits obtained 
through protection by the former 
country, became a protectionist. On 
account of this he naturally gravi- 
tated towards the labour and protec- 
tionist party in Victoria, and iden- 
tified himself with labour movements. 
He was vice-president of the Federal 
Democratic League when the first 
referendum was taken in 1897, and, 
being a Federalist, was opposed to 
this Bill, as it did not make provi- 
sion for deadlocks by the insertion of 
the referendum and the three-fifths 
majority clause. When, in 1900, the 
constituents were casting about for 
candidates, Mr. Ronald suggested 
that the labour party should request 
his colleague in the anti-Billite agita- 
tion, Mr. H. B. Iliggins, to stand 
for South Melbourne. This gentle- 
man thought at that time of stand- 
ing for the Senate, but suggested to 
the deputation that Mr. Ronald 
should present himself instead. This 
proposition was readily taken up by 
the labour party, and a campaign 
was inaugurated in South Melbourne 
which terminated in a substantial 
victory for Mr. Ronald over a very 
bitter and hostile opposition. 



Mr. JOHN McKELL, Furni- 
ture and Carpet Warehouseman, 368- 
370 Post Office Place, has been a 
resident in Victoria for over fifty 
years. Born in Paisley, Scotland, 
in 1842, he arrived in the colony in 
1852, being then ten years of age, 
and from 1855 to 1891 was engaged 
in business on the goldfields at 
Daylesford. In 1886, in conjunction 
with Mr. Speedie, he founded the 
firm of McKell, Speedie, and Co., 
but in 1903 Mr. Speedie retired, and 
the business has since been carried on 
by Mr. J. McKell. Although taking 



no active part in political affairs, 
Mr. McKell has always been deeply 
interested in the development of the 
country, and has had considerable 
experience in farming pursuits in the 
Hastings and Mornington districts, 
as also in the Goulburn Valley, 




A. H. Williams South Melb. 

Mr. John McKell. 

where he has 642 acres, a large part 
of which is an orchard and vine- 
yard, the products of which have 
taken second Government prizes. 
Mr. McKell is a member of a number 
of friendly societies, as also of the 
Masonic fraternity. In the early 
days of the diggings he took part in 
establishing the Presbyterian Church 
—first at Creswick, 1858, then at 
Daylesford, 1862. He married, in 
1874, Katherine, daughter of the late 
Robert Campbell, Esq., J. P., of 
Lyon Banks, Glcnlyon, a well-known 
and esteemed resident of that 
district. Mr. McKell, who has never 
been out of Australia since he landed 
in Victoria in 1852, was one of the 
owners of the first crushing machine 
(by stampers) erected in this State. 



Mr. BENJAMIN BARNES, 
27 Queen's Road, South Melbourne, 
was born at Great Bridge, in South 
Staffordshire, and when he was quite 
young his father, who was an engi- 
neer, sustained some severe reverses, 
which made it necessary for young 
Barn s to leave school and commence 
work before he was eleven years of 



192 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



age, and for some three years he was 
employed as an assistant in a factory 
warehouse at West Bromwich. He 
had an elder brother who was in 
charge of the engineering branch at a 
large ironworks at Spring Hill, near 
Birmingham, and when fourteen years 
of age he was taken by his brother 
to learn mechanical engineering. 
Subsequently he entered the service 
of Fox, Henderson, and Co., of 
Smithwick, the builders of the 
famous Crystal Palace Exhibition of 
1851, where he gained a wide know- 
ledge of his business. He spent 
between two and three years at the 
London works, and then became an 
employee at Bolton and Watts' well- 
known Soho Foundry, near Birming- 
ham. While thus engaged he heard 
of and became much interested in the 
gold discoveries of Australia, and 
quietly made up his mind to try his 
fortune there, but it was March, 
1853, before he was in a position to 
leave England, when he sailed for 
Melbourne in that unfortunate ship, 
44 Earl of Charlemont," which went 
ashore at Barwon Heads on the 
morning of the 18th of June, and 
became a total wreck, and, strange 
to relate, her captain and his wife 
were lost in the "Madagascar" on 
her voyage to England. On his 
recovery from want and exposure, the 
result of the wreck, and having lost 
everything, he gladly accepted a posi- 
tion to keep in order the engine and 
machinery at Smith and Kirk's tan- 
nery, on the Yarra, at a wage of £5 
per week. He remained there about 
twelve months, and then, in company 
with another, walked to Beech worth 
to try his fortunes at the Ovens 
diggings ; but digging was not his 
forte, so he returned to Melbourne. 
Soon after he got back to town the 
late Mr. Enoch Chambers, whom he 
had known in England, asked him to 
take in hand some work he was 
doing at his shop in Little Collins 
Street. This he did, and it ended 
in a large engineering business being 
developed there, of which Mr. Barnes 
became for many years the well- 
known manager. While thus engaged 
they jointly put in a tender for the 
patent slip at Williams-town, which 
was accepted, and it was while they 
were lessees that the "Shenandoah" 
was taken up for repairs, and he 
mentions their having received £450 



in English sovereigns paid by the 
purser on board for slip dues. Mr. 
Chambers was accidentally killed on 
the 1st of May, 1870, by being 
thrown from his buggy, when his 
business was wound up. Some time 
after the death of Mr. Chambers, Mr 
Barnes received a note from the 
Engineer-in-Chief asking him to call 
and sec him. On his doing so Mr. 
Higinbotham offered him the position 
of inspector of ironwork, which was 
accepted, and the whole of the iron 
bridges and water supplies on the 
North-Eastern line, which was just 
then commenced, were carried out 
under Mr. Barnes' supervision. He 
got on well with the officers of the 
department, and of the chief he 




Johmtont, (TShannesiv and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr Benjamin Barnes. 

remarks— "He was one of the finest 
men I ever met." With the ap- 
proval of the Engineer-in-Chief, he 
left the department in 1876, and 
became Walker and Halladay's engi- 
neer for the construction of the large 
iron bridge over the river Murray at 
Echuca, for which they were the suc- 
cessful tenderers. He went to Eng- 
land to superintend its construction 
there, and on his return took up his 
abode at Echuca until the bridge was 
completed. In his native country, 
after an absence of twenty -three 
years, he felt himself a stranger, his 
own brother and sister failing to 
recognise him. When in England, 
and while residing at Birmingham, he 
was requested by James McEwing 
and Co. to look after a marine boiler 



they were getting made at Bolton 
and Watts' Soho Works, and there he 
went among and conversed with his 
old shop-mates, a perfect stranger 
until he made himself known. He 
was glad when it was time for him 
to return to the "land of sunshine." 
Before the bridge was completed the 
shameful Berry blight occurred, and 
Mr. Barnes declined to re-enter the 
department when the offer to do so 
was made to him, and retired to his 
villa at Queen's Road, Albert Park. 
But soon after, in conjunction with 
Mr. William Cain, he tendered for and 
erected the iron aqueduct over the 
river Plenty at Morang, as designed 
by Mr. William Davidson. In 1881 
he visited Sydney, and secured p 
contract for the construction of. a 
short line of railway which included 
the large iron bridge over the 
Macquarie River at Dubbo, which 
necessitated his becoming a resident 
there for two and a half years. The 
work was carried out to the entire 
satisfaction of the department, and 
on its completion the Engineer-in- 
Chief (Mr. Witten) invited him to 
remain in New South Wales and 
tender for similar work for which 
he was about calling for tenders, but 
Mr. Barnes had made up his mind to 
return to Victoria and retire from 
active life. Then came the disastrous 
land boom, by which, in company 
with hundreds of other prudent and 
successful .men who had taken no 
part in that wild outbreak of rash 
speculation, he lost some of the 
money which, as he observes, "he had 
worked so hard for and had carefully 
saved." Happily he survived that 
period of trial and trouble, and 
enjoys the rest he has so meri- 
toriously earned, as well as the good 
health which is the reward of men of 
mental and physical activity, but 
keeps in touch with what is going on 
around him by acting as a member 
of the Board of Examiners for Engine- 
drivers, and as the director of one or 
two companies in which he is a share- 
holder. 



Mr. STEWART McARTHUR, 
Barrister-at-Law, Selborne Cham- 
bers, Melbourne, was born at Menin- 
goort Station, Camperdown, in 1861, 
and is the second son of the late Mr. 
Peter McArthur, one of the pioneers 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



193 



of the Western District, who arrived 
in Victoria in 1830. Educated at 
the Geelong College, he afterwards 
took up the study of law at Ormond 
College, Melbourne University, obtain- 
ing the LL.B. degree in 1882. He 
afterwards read with Mr. J. B. Box, 
the well-known Melbourne barrister, 
and was called to the Bar in July, 
1884. Mr. Mc Arthur then entered 
upon the practice of his profession, 
which he has carried on successfully 
ever since. He takes an active 
interest in all out-of-door sport, and 
is well known as a crack four-in-hand 
driver. He married, in 1890, Mar- 
garet Rutherford, daughter of the 
late Mr. Ewen Macpherson, of Ben- 
dock Station, Western District, and 
has a family of two daughters and 
one son. 



Mr. CHARLES GOFF SAVAGE, 
of the firm of Danby, Savage, and 
Co., 66 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, 
was born at Woodend, Victoria, in 
July, 1862, and is a son of the late 
Mr. John Savage, one of the pioneers 
of that district, who was there 




Johnstone* (/Shanneuy and Co, Melb. 

Mr. Charles Goff Savage. 

engaged in agricultural pursuits for 
many years. Educated at All 
Saints' Grammar School, St. Kilda, 
he was afterwards interested in the 
management of his father's property 
at Woodend. In June, 1882, he 
entered the service of the well-known 
firm of Danby and Gilmour, ac- 



countants, of Melbourne, with which 
he has been ever since identified. 
Mr. Savage was one of the founders 
of the Legal Managers' Association 
of Victoria, of which body he is a 
member, and is likewise a member of 
the Society of Accountants and 
Auditors, England. 



Mr. JAMES HALL, of 17 Queen 
Street, Melbourne, was admitted to 
practice as a solicitor of the Supreme 
Court of Victoria in 1888, and has 
been engaged in the practice of his 




Johmtone, 0'8hanne$$y and Co. 

Mr. James Hall. 



Milb. 



profession ever since. In 1889 he 
was appointed honorary secretary to 
the Law Institute of Victoria, 
an institution which represents the 
legal profession throughout the 
State, and has the confidence of 
the judges of the Supreme Court, 
practitioners, and public. This 
body does very useful work in re- 
lation to cases of misconduct by 
its members. Mr. Hall resigned 
in 1897 the position of secre- 
tary, and was elected a member of 
the council of the Institute, which 
office he still holds. He practises 
his profession in Melbourne, and has 
a branch office in Williamstown, in 
which suburb he resides. Mr. Hall's 
practice is of a general character, 
but living in a shipping port he natu- 
rally takes a deep interest in all 
laws relating to shipping. He re- 
cently received the appointment of 



consulting solicitor in Melbourne to 
the Merchant Service Guild of 
Liverpool, one of the largest and 
most influential guilds formed for the 
purpose of protecting the rights of 
ship masters, and helping to get 
legislation passed for the protection 
of shipping and those who earn their 
livelihood upon the sea. Mr. Hall 
is also consulting solicitor to the 
Danish Club, of Melbourne, and many 
other kindred societies. He takes a 
lively interest in political affairs, and 
holds the position of vice-president 
of the National Citizens' Reform 
League, one of the most important 
political bodies that has ever been 
brought into existence in Victoria, 
its main plank being to secure the 
economical and efficient administra- 
tion of the business of the State. 
This organisation in the first 
instance confined its labours to State 
matters, but latterly it has taken a 
very active interest in relation to 
Federal politics. Mr. Hall has 
recently occupied the position of 
Mayor of Williamstown, and now 
retains a seat in the local Council. 
He married, in 1890, Nellie, second 
daughter of the late Mr. John Fox, 
of Footscray, fellmonger, and has a 
family of three children. 



Mr. ARTHUR SYDNEY 
BAILLIEU, member of the firm of 
W. L. Baillieu and Co., Melbourne, 
was born at Queenscliff, Victoria, in 
1872, and is the seventh son of the 
late Mr. James Baillieu, ex-Mayor 
and councillor of Queenscliff for a 
great number of years, and a resident 
there for forty-five years. The sub- 
ject of this memoir had a thorough 
business training. He is an Asso- 
ciate of the Society of Accountants 
and Auditors Incorporated (Eng.); 
auditor licensed by the Companies* 
Auditors' Board under the Companies 
Act 1896 ; Fellow of the Federal 
Institute of Accountants and 
Auditors, Victoria ; sworn valuator 
under the Transfer of Lands Act 
1890 ; trustee registered by the 
Court under the Insolvency Act ; 
assignee of insolvent estates for the 
central insolvency district of Mel- 
bourne ; and a commissioner for 
taking affidavits in Victoria, New 
South Wales, Western Australia, and 
South Australia. 



194 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



Mr. ROBERT ALLAN MOON, 
B.E., Royal University of Ireland, 
Mining Engineer and Geologist, 31 
Queen Street, Melbourne, was born in 
Galway, Ireland, in 1865, and re- 
ceived his education at the Galway 
Grammar School and Queen's College 
in his native 'county, afterwards pro- 
ceeding to England, where he was 
for some time at the Naval Engi- 
neering College, Devonport. Shortly 
afterwards he sailed for Victoria, 
having waited for three months for a 
suitable appointment, which, in the 
form of an important one on the 
staff of the Hull City Engineers, un- 
fortunately reached him on his 
arrival in Victoria in November, 
1890, too late to be of practical 
utility. In January of the year fol- 
lowing Mr. Moon was successful in a 
competitive examination, and was in 
consequence appointed field geologist 
to the Mines Department of Victoria, 
which position he filled for some 
time satisfactorily to all concerned, 
until at the end of the year 1896, on 
the retirement of his chief, Mr. 
Reginald Murray, F.G.S., he also 
decided to give up Government 
service. Later on he established 
himself in business as a mining engi- 




Johnttfme, O'Shanncsiy ana Vo. Melb. 

Mr. Robert Allan Moon. 

neer and geologist at his present 
address. Mr. Moon is a Fellow of 
the Royal Geographical Society of 
London, and has had a wide experi- 
ence in mining on the Victorian gold- 
fields, having been employed by the 
Government in the preparation of 



the Geological Map. This work he 
carried out most successfully. Mr. 
Moon, who is recognised as an 
authority on all matters pertaining 
to mining affairs, has held several 
important appointments, and in each 
has had the satisfaction of placing 
the respective mines, which had pre- 
viously been at practically the lowest 
ebb, on favourable lines, his judgment 
in locating the precious metal being 
most successful. At the present 
time he holds the position of consult- 
ing geologist to the Oswald's Estate 
Mines and the Golden Bell Limited, 
of Maldon ; also the Tasmanian 
Consols Limited, of Mathinna, Tas- 
mania. 



Councillor THOMAS PASSFIELD, 
J. P., Mayor of Brunswick for the 
years 1902-3, was born in Essex, 
England, in the year 1859. He was 
apprenticed to the bakery trade in 
his native town, and came to Vic- 
toria in 1888, establishing himself in 
business at Brunswick, being the 
first manufacturer of pastry and 
small goods in that district. In 
1889 he took into partnership Mr. E. 
Benton, and added the .manufacture 
of bread to his already established 
pastrycook's business. In adding 
this branch to the business the firm 
decided to supply the public with 
pure bread. In 1890 a raid was 
made on all the bakers of Brunswick 
and surrounding districts, when their 
bread was proved in the Brunswick 
Police Court, in September of that 
year, to be perfectly pure. The pro- 
secuting solicitor stated Pass field's 
bread was taken and analysed with 
the rest, and found to be perfectly 
pure, with no trace of adulteration 
whatever. The business now 

assumed such large dimensions that 
to cope with the ever-increasing trade 
the proprietors were compelled to 
erect the well-known Hygienic Bread 
Factory at Moreland, shortly after- 
wards opening a branch business in 
Puckle Street, Moonee Ponds. In 
1894 the partnership was dissolved. 
Mr. Passfield also has a very large 
and important catering connection, 
and is the possessor of numerous 
testimonials in praise of the very 
capable manner in which he has dis- 
charged his duties in this line. In 
1899 he paid a visit to England and 



the Continent, in order to keep in 
touch with the latest and best im- 
provements in connection with his 
business, and during his trip pur- 
chased a complete machinery plant, 
which is unequalled in the State, and 
enables the manufacture of all goods 




W. A. Power Brunswick 

Mr. Thomas Passfield. 

to be carried out with the minimum 
of handling, and accordingly with 
perfect cleanliness. In fact, there is 
no bakery establishment in Melbourne 
where the sanitary arrangements are 
more perfect, or the bakehouses kept 
in such spotless cleanliness. Mr. 
Passfield is a member of the Wages 
Board appointed to determine the 
wages of employees. He is a pro- 
minent member of the Masoni? frater- 
nity, at present holding the high posi- 
tion of President of the Board of 
Benevolence, and has been one of the 
trustees of the Druids' Lodge for the 
last fourteen years. In amateur 
sporting and athletic institutions he 
takes a keen interest, and is pre- 
sident of a number of clubs connected 
therewith. 



Mr. JOHN BARAGWANATH, 
Member of the South Melbourne City 
Council, was born in Bendigo on the 
24th of July, 1856, and is a son of 
one of the early pioneers of the Vic- 
torian goldfields. He was educated 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



195 



principally at Mr. McGregor's school 
at Emerald Hill, and afterwards 
served his apprenticeship to the 
brush-making trade with Mr. John 
Zevenboom, and was for some time 
engaged as manager of Mr. Thos. 
Mitchell's business in Lonsdale 
Street. In 1888 he established him- 
self in business as an estate agent in 




Jokm ttone , (TShanncssy and Co. 

Mr. John Baragwanath. 



Itelb. 



South Melbourne, with which district 
he has ever since been identified. 
He has always taken a deep interest 
in local matters, and in 1891 was 
elected to a seat in the South Mel- 
bourne Council, which he still holds. 
In 1893 he was elected a representa- 
tive of the Melbourne Board of 
Works, and in 1894 filled the mayoral 
chair. Mr. Baragwanath takes an 
active interest in sporting matters, 
and was one of the first to organise 
a challenge cup for the local junior 
cricket clubs in 1875. He is a 
member of the M.C.C. and S.M.C.C; 
a Freemason, his mother lodge being 
the Loch, V.C.; is a member and 
trustee of the local Rechabite Lodge, 
and is associated with all functions 
of a public and social character. Mr. 
Baragwanath married, in 1881, Miss 
Boyd, of South Melbourne, who died 
in 1898, and he subsequently married, 
in 1901, a daughter of the late Mr. 
Maxwell Reynolds, the founder of the 
first carrying business in Melbourne. 
In 1903 Mr. Baragwanath was elected 
Mayor of South Melbourne for the 
ensuing year. 



Councillor SAMUEL BANGS, 
member of the Prahran City Coun- 
cil, was born in London, England, in 
the year 1850, and arrived in Victoria 
with his parents in 1859. He was 
educated in North Fitzroy, and after- 
wards articled to the pharmacy pro- 
fession at the age of fifteen, and, on 
the completion of his time, was for 
some years with. Mr. Atkins, a well- 
known chemist, then carrying on 
business in Hoth'am (now North Mel- 
bourne). Mr. Bangs then purchased 
the old-established pharmacy business 
of Mr. Harrison in Toorak Road, 
South Yarra, subsequently purchasing 
the Golden Key Pharmacy, Bourke 
Street, which he conducted success- 
fully for nine years. He then re- 




Sarony 



Melb. 



Mr. Samuel Bangs. 



turned to Prahran, and purchased the 
business which he is at present 
carrying on. Mr. Bangs also 

carries on an extensive practice as 
a dentist, having qualified for that 
profession in 1885. His business is 
for the most part a country one, his 
customers including residents in all 
the principal towns throughout the 
State. Mr. Bangs has for the past 
few years interested himself largely 
in local public affairs, especially as 
regards sanitation, in which subject 
he keeps well posted with reference 
to the latest municipal work as 
carried on in England. He was 
elected to a seat in the Prahran City 
Council in 1902, and is a strong ad- 
vocate for technical education, ad- 
vanced municipal trading, electric 



lighting, etc. Mr. Bangs has been 
twice married, and has a family of 
one son and two daughters. 



Councillor JOHN JAMES 
LISTON, Williamstown, was born at 
Clare, Ireland, in 1874, and came to 
Australia at the age of eight years. 
He first came before the public in 
1896, when he took part in the 
champion debates among mutual im- 
provement societies, and was one of 
the most prominent members of the 
Williamstown team that won the local 
championship. The following year 
he was candidate for the local muni- 
cipal council, when he was defeated 
by the retiring member, Mr. James 
Challis, by only two votes. In 
1898 he was elected unopposed to 
the seat rendered vacant by the re- 
tirement of Councillor McRoberts. 
Shortly after taking his seat he 
manifested great energy, which 
proved somewhat alarming to his 
more staid colleagues, and it was 
through his instrumentality that the 
day labour system was adopted. He 
also advocated the municipalisation 




Johnstone. u'Skanncssy and Co. Mttb. 

Mr. John James Liston. 

of the steam ferry and Mechanics' 
Institute, opening the municipal 
quarry, and other local work of a 
similar nature, all of which move- 
ments plainly benefited the town, and 
proved financially successful. In 

local politics, Councillor Liston is a 
staunch believer in the Council doing 
its own work. During the year 



106 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



1901-2 he filled the position of chair- 
man of public works committee to 
the satisfaction of all, and in 1902 
was elevated to the position of 
Mayor of Williamstown for the 
ensuing year. As a speaker, Mr. 
Liston is clear, concise, and accurate, 
and is thoroughly conversant with 
the rules of debate. He is well 
known in sporting circles, being 
chairman of the permit and umpire 
committee of the Victorian Football 
Association, and has ever taken an 
active and kindly interest in all local 
institutions. 

Councillor WILLIAM SMITH, 
Member of the Northcote Shire 
Council, of the firm of William Smith 
and Son, bacon curers, Westgarth 
Street, Fitzroy, was born on the 3rd 
of March, 1845, in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, and is the fifth son of the late 
Mr. William Smith, warehouseman, 
of that city. He was educated at 
the Normal School, Glasgow, and, on 
the completion of his studies, was 
for two and a half years with Mr. 
Joseph Butters, head of the well- 
known butchering firm at Charing 
Cross, Glasgow. He arrived in 
Melbourne in July, 1868, and was 
engaged as salesman for a leading 
firm in Fitzroy, and subsequently in 
the well-known business of Webster 
and Co., of Geelong, the pioneer 
butchering firm of that place. He 
next entered the firm of Watson and 
Paters on, bacon curers, of Preston, 
where he remained for some time, and 
then joined in business the well-known 
firm of King, Smith, and Kenihan, 
Northcote, in the year 1879, which 
was carried on successfully for twenty 
year 8. He then embarked in business 
as a bacon curer, in conjunction with 
his son, in Fitzroy, under the style of 
William Smith and Son. Mr. Smith 
has been a member of the Northcote 
Shire Council for several years, and 
is the oldest Forester in Northcote. 
He has been for many years a mem- 
ber of the Caledonian and Agricul- 
tural Societies, and takes a promi- 
nent part in the affairs of the Master 
Butchers' and Bacon Curers' Associa- 
tion, of which he is likewise a mem- 
ber. He married, in 1872, Annie 
Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. John 
Watson, one of our oldest and most 
esteemed pioneers, and has a family 
of seven sons and two daughters., 



SAMUEL PEACOCK, M.B., 
Glasgow ; L.R.C.S., Edin.; and 
L.M., Edin.; practising at the corner 
of Wellington Parade and Simpson 
Street, East Melbourne, was born in 
the county of Antrim, Ireland, in 
1839, and is a son of Mr. Samuel 
Peacock, late of Colac, and formerly 
a farmer of that county. Educated 
primarily at a National School, and 
latterly under private tuition, he 
afterwards proceeded to Glasgow, 
Scotland, where he entered at the 
Glasgow University in 1866, taking 
the degree M.B. in May, 1870. 
During the same year he also 
obtained the L.R.C.S. and L.M. of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, Edin- 




Johnstont, 0'Sha*ne*9y and Cb. Mclb. 

Dr. Samuel Peacock. 

burgh. He was then for two years 
in practice as assistant in England, 
and came out from London as surgeon 
of a sailing vessel to Adelaide, S.A., 
arriving there in August, 1872, and 
came to Victoria by the " boat 
"Aldinga," landing in Melbourne on 
the 29th of the same month. Dr. 
Peacock commenced practice at Bun- 
doora, on the Plenty Road, where he 
remained for two years, and then 
removed to Fitzroy, where he resided 
until 1900. In that year he removed 
to East Melbourne, where he is at 
present practising. 

The VICTORIAN Al GOLD 
MINES LIMITED. Office : Prell's 
Buildings, Queen and Collins Streets, 
Melbourne. Edwin R. Field, M 



Inst. M.M., Lond., General Manager. 
The property is situated at Gaflney's 
Creek, Victoria, in the Beechworth 
mining district. The area of the 
lease is over 41 acres. The ground 
was discovered about 1863, and about 
1864 a company was formed to work 
a portion of the basin, with the 
result that the shareholders received 
£75,000 in dividends of from 6d. to 
27s. each per share. In 1889 a new 
company, with a working capital of 
£5,000, was organised, and took in 
additional ground ; but tributors 
afterwards got hold of the property, 
which eventually reverted to the 
company, and, on its resuming opera- 
tions, its first four weeks' crushing 
with a 12 - stamp battery yielded 
2,000 ozs. of gold. Omitting all 
returns before 1864, the old com- 
pany's books show gold valued at 
£240,000, and dividends paid amount- 
ing to £80,000. For five and a half 
years ending 1888, 8,915 tons of 
stone were crushed, for 25,589 ozs., 
equal to 2 ozs. 17J dwts. per ton. 
The total value was £101,000, out of 
which £50,850 was distributed in 
dividends. Mr. EDWIN R. FIELD, 
M. Inst. MM., London, who has been 
largely associated with the property 
as mining manager since 1897, and 
who is now general manager of the 
company, after some time spent in 
prospecting, strongly advised the ex- 
penditure of sufficient capital to 
properly develop the mine and equip 
it with modern machinery. The 
prospects of obtaining capital in 
Victoria were small, so he went to 
London, and there obtained the 
necessary funds. An English com- 
pany, named the Victorian Al Gold 
Mines Ltd., was formed, with a 
nominal capital of £60,000 in £1 
shares, all now fully paid up. The 
London board of directors are 
Messrs. Mansel Lewis (chairman). 
A. E. Wallis, and Alex. Ross, while 
the local or Victorian board of advice 
are the Hon. Edward Miller, M.L.C., 
and Mr. A. A. Laing. The amount 
of working capital provided is 
£12,000, and the property has been 
equipped with an excellent modern 
plant, in which electricity holds a 
prominent position, and including the 
first direct current electric mining 
hoist in this State. In the first 
fifteen months the new company 
crushed 4,367 tons, for a yield of 



The cyclopedia of victoria 



i« 



4,663 ozs. of gold, valued at 
£18,652, and paid £7,500 in divi- 
dends. The formation worked at the 
Al is typical of the district, and 
somewhat unusual and interesting. 
Great Plutonic dykes of greenstone, 
nearly vertical, traverse the slate 
and sandstone country for miles, 
varying from 3 feet to 300 fee); in 
width. The wider portions are in- 
tersected with quartz reefs lying ap- 
proximately horizontal across the 
dyke. At the Al some of these flat 
reefs have been excavated to a width 
of 150 feet from wall to wall, a 
height of about 7 feet being taken 
for a length of several hundred feet. 
Near the main quartz seam small 




Johnstone, O'Shannctsy and Co. 

Mb. Edwin R. Field. 



IfeO. 



leaders occur, often very rich in 
gold, so that several feet of the dyke 
stone containing the leaders is often 
crushed together with the principal 
"floor." About 200 feet in vertical 
height of the dyke from the crest of 
the hill has been worked by means of 
tunnels, but from No. 4 tunnel, which 
is now the main adit, a shaft has 
been sunk 170 feet, and golden floors 
cut at 60 feet, 90 feet, and 130 feet. 
The 60 feet floor has been worked for 
the past three years, and has yielded 
gold valued at over £20,000. The 
other floors are now being developed. 
Mr. Field's father, Edwin Field, 
sen., came out to Victoria in 1854, 
and was well known for many years 
in this State as discoverer and 
manager of the Costerfreld Gold and 
Antimony Mining Company, Regis- 



tered, and it was at Costerfield that 
as a boy the subject of this sketch 
learnt the elements of mining. He 
was born in Ballarat, and educated 
at the Hawthorn Grammar School, 
under Professor Irving, the then 
principal, and while very young 
became associated in mining with his 
father, with whom he had consider- 
able experience in gold and antimony 
mining in Victoria and the New 
England district of New South Wales. 
In 1883 he went to Queensland, where 
he erected two plants for antimony 
smelting, taking charge of the mine 
and works at Northcote, on the 
Hodgkinson goMfield, for a consider- 
able period. He was for some six 
years in the service of the Queensland 
National Bank, acting as consulting 
engineer on the Hodgkinson and 
Palmer goldfield. Mr. Field has also 
had a large experience on other gold- 
fields of Queensland and in Victoria 
and North-West Australia, having 
been connected with mining pursuits 
for some twenty- three years. He is 
a member of the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy, and of the 
North of England Institute of Mining 
Engineers, and of the Chamber of 
Mines of Victoria, and has published 
a work entitled the "Mining Engi- 
neers* Report Book and Directors* 
and Shareholders* Guide to Mining 
Reports," which, in addition to being 
of use to mining engineers, aims at 
helping non-technical men to estimate 
the value of reports on mining pro- 
perties. 

Mr. JOHN M. NOLAN, J.P., 

Mining Manager of the New Dempsey 
mine, was born in Prince Edward 
Island, Canada, in 1833, and at the 
age of twenty-one sailed for Victoria. 
On arrival he made his way to the 
principal gold diggings at Beech- 
worth, Big River, Wood's Point, and 
Gaffney's Creek, and, settling down 
in the last-named district, he has 
been identified with its mining in- 
dustry ever since. Mr. Nolan was 
the original discoverer of the New 
Dempsey mine in 1859, from which 
phenomenal returns were obtained— 
up to 50 ozs. to the ton— and on the 
flotation of the concern into a com- 
pany he was appointed mining man- 
ager to the same, a position he still 
retains. He was appointed a justice 
of the peace in 1900. Mr. Nolan 



married, in 1862, Miss Catherine 
Gaffney, sister of Mr. Gaffney, from 
whom Gaffney's Creek derives its 
name, and has a family of four sons 
and six daughters. Mr. Nolan is 




Yeoman and Co. Mclb. 

Mr. John M. Nolan. 

much respected in the mining world 
as a man of strict integrity, whose 
word can always be relied upon. Mr. 
AUSTIN J. NOLAN, son of the 
above, is the managing director of 
the New Dempsey Company, and was 




Johnstone, O'Shannesty and Co. Mela. 

Mr. Austin J. Nolan. 

born in Melbourne in 1871. Edu- 
cated at the Gaffney's Creek State 
School and under private tuition, he 
afterwards entered the office of the 
New Zealand Loan and Mercantile 



198 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



Agency Company as a lad, where he 
remained for fourteen years, during 
which time he worked his way up to 
an important position in the com- 
pany's service. In 1900 he re- 
linquished this position in order to 
take over the management of the 
Australian branch of Francis Hunter 
and Co., of London and Manchester, 
an old and representative English 
produce firm. Mr. Nolan has been 
identified with mining in the Gipps- 
land district of Victoria, and in addi- 
tion to holding office as chairman of 
directors of the New Dempsey mine, 
to which he was appointed in 1897, 
he is likewise chairman of directors 
of Hunt's Extended G.M. Company, 
and a director of the North Dempsey 
and South Dempsey, all these being 
situated at Gaffney's Creek. He is 
a member of the A.N. A., and was 
president of the Richmond branch in 
connection with this body for a term 
of twelve months. 



The LONG TUNNEL GOLD 
MINING COMPANY REGISTERED, 
Walhalla, Gippsland.— This company 
had a capital of 2,400 shares of £5 
each, fully paid up. The first crush- 
ing took place in December, 1868, 
yielding 446 ounces to 61£ tons, 
averaging 7 ozs. 6 dwts. 5 grs. per 
ton. In November, 1869, the first 
dividend of £1 per share was paid. 
The total of the first year's dividends 
amounted to £28 10s. per share, the 
next year £43 per share, and from 
that time up to 7th April, 1888, the 
mine paid dividends, the total paid 
per share amounting in all to £434, 
making a grand total in dividends to 
date of £1,041,600. From this 
period to the 7th October, 1892, no 
dividends were paid, owing to the 
necessity of entering upon extensive 
development works to reach the com- 
pany's north-west ground. To carry 
out this work the capital of the com- 
pany was increased by £5 a share, 
and upon its completion dividends 
were resumed and continued until 
7th April, 1899. The sum total 
of dividends during this period 
amounted to £1,229,400, equalling 
£525 per share ; the quantity of 
quartz crushed being 549,140J tons, 
yielding 694,269 ozs. 5 dwts. of gold. 
The value of gold obtained up to 
the year 1903 from the mine has 
amounted to £2,434,437. It was 



found necessary to reorganise the 
company in 1901 for the purpose of 
sinking a new shaft, and this work is 
now in progress. The new company 
is called the Long Tunnel Mining 
Company, No Liability, and has a 
capital of 24,000 shares of £5 each, 
of which 18s. per share has been 
called up. The present board of 
directors comprise :— The Hon. Agar 
Wynne, M.L.C. (chairman), Hon. 
Wm. Pearson, M.L.C, Messrs. Alfred 
Harvey, H. E. Rowe, and Wm. 
Tivey. The mining manager is Mr. 
C. Anderson, while Mr. R. E. 
Dawson is legal manager. The 
offices of the company are situated 
at Royal Insurance Buildings, 414 
Collins Street, Melbourne. Mr. 

ROBERT ERSKINE DAWSON was 
born in New South Wales in 1864, 
and received his education in that 
colony. He was afterwards for 




Johnttone, O'Shanncssy and Co, If elft. 

Mb. Robert Ebskine Dawson. 

some time in the well-known firm 
of Virgoe, Sons, and Chapman, of 
Sydney. In 1889 he joined the Long 
Tunnel Company as secretary, and 
ten years later was appointed general 
manager. Upon the reconstruction 
of the company in 1901 Mr. Dawson 
was promoted to his present posi- 
tion. He is a member of the 
Federal Institute of Accountants. 



ARNOLD S. BURBIDGE, 

Legal Manager, Accountant, and 
Auditor, 31 Queen Street, Melbourne, 
is a native of the city of Ballarat, 
where he was born in February, 



1861. He is a son of William 
Campbell Burbidge, who was located 
on the diggings at Ballarat in the 
early fifties ; was educated at 
Lowther's School, Ballarat, and at 
an early age became engaged in 
various pursuits— mining, stock and 
share broking, etc. In 1890 he came 
to Melbourne, where he was engaged 
first as sharebroker, and afterwards 




Chuck Ballarat 

Mr. Arnold S. Burbidge. 

with Mr. R. T. Moore, legal manager, 
and others. In 1897 he joined Mr. W. 
Hay Dickson in partnership, and for 
some years carried on business as 
legal managers, etc., under the style 
of Dickson and Burbidge. He then 
started on his own account at his 
present address, 31 Queen Street. 
Mr. Burbidge has taken an active 
interest in mining for many years, 
and is one of the founders and a 
member of the Legal Managers 1 Asso- 
ciation of Victoria. 



JOHN AFFLECK ROBERTSON, 
Licensed Valuator, Public Ac- 
countant, Manager for Companies, 
Trustee, etc., Prell's Buildings, 
Queen Street, Melbourne, is the 
eldest son of the late Robert 
Robertson, Esq., and great-grandson 
of the last Laird of Struan Castle, 
Inverness-shire, Scotland. He was 
born at Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A., in 
the year 1844, and educated at Kil- 
marnock, Scotland. On the comple- 
tion of his school days he went to 
Ceylon to join his uncle, a coffee- 
planter, and in the year following, 



the cyclopp:dia of victoria. 



190 



being then fourteen years of age, was 
given the management of an estate. 
He remained in the East for a 
period of eighteen years, and in 1875 
returned to Europe ; visited Great 
Britain and Ireland, called at his 
old school place, Kilmarnock, and 
then crossed to America. In 1877 
Mr. Robertson returned to England, 
and in February of that year married 
Harriet, daughter of Mr. J. T. 
Marriott, Mayor of Batley, York- 
shire. After visiting France, 
Switzerland, and all the principal 
cities of Italy, Mr. and Mrs. 
Robertson returned to England, and 
in 1877 left for Ceylon, where they 
resided until 1887. From 1887 to 

1890 Mr. Robertson was engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in London, and 
in the latter year, at the instance of 
Mr. David Beath, of the firm of 
Beath, Schiess, and Co., of Mel- 
bourne, came to Victoria. Until 

1891 he was engaged in investigat- 
ing into the position of a business, 
with a view of returning to London 
and floating it into a company with 
a capital of from £150,000 to 
£200,000 ; but the investigation prov- 
ing unsatisfactory, Mr. Robertson 
went into accountancy business on 
his own account, which he still con- 
tinues. He has patented and regis- 
tered the copyright of a system of 
book-keeping by double entry which is 
highly spoken of by such experts as 
Messrs. A. Lyell, A. Burns, W. H. 
Thodey, E. J. Stock, C. H. Davis, 
and others, who testify to his abili- 
ties as an accountant and auditor. 
In September, 1892, at the request of 
the Rev. Charles Strong, D.D., Mr. 
Robertson became a member of the 
board of advice of the Tucker village 
settlements, and for six months he 
rendered valuable gratuitous services 
to that benevolent enterprise. In 
April, 1893, under the auspices of the 
Patterson Government and of the 
public, the Kairdella settlement at 
Korumburra, and in September, 1893, 
the Struan-RobertSQn Homestead As- 
sociation at North Blackwood were 
established. Mr. Robertson was 
manager and managing director of 
the former, and secretary and man- 
ager of the latter, continuing until 
1894, since when he has confined him- 
self entirely to his private business 
as accountant and auditor. In 
politics he is an advanced progressive 



Liberal. Upon two occasions he has 
been asked to stand for a seat in the 
Federal Parliament, but declined 
owing to pressure of business affairs. 
Mr. Robertson is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, his mother lodge 
being the St. John, No. 454, Ceylon, 
and at present is a member of the 
Manchester Lodge, V.C. 



DONALD ALEXANDER 
SWANSON, President of the Master 
Builders' Association of Victoria, is 
one of the best known amongst the 
builders and contractors of Mel- 
bourne. Born in Bendigo, the sub- 
ject of this notice is a son of the late 
William Swanson, a man well known 




Johnstone, O'Skanntssy and Co. . Mtlb. 

Mb. Donald Alexander Swanson. 

as one of Melbourne's leading builders 
and contractors, and who carried out 
some of the most important works in 
the metropolis. It is worthy of note 
that his last contract before retiring 
into private life was the erection of 
the first portion of the Newport 
workshops. He died in 1892. Donald 
received his education at St. Paul's 
Grammar School, Melbourne, and 
from there went into the office of his 
father, serving his indentures to the 
trade. From a junior position in his 
father's employ he worked his way, 
by dint of perseverance and without 
favour, to be his father's right hand 
man, and on the retirement of that 
gentleman in 1888 he took up the 
management of the business, and ever 
since has been carrying on the 



concern with considerable success 
under the style of Swanson Brothers, 
in conjunction with his brothers, 
John M. Swanson and Alexander B. 
Swanson (the latter having since 
retired from the firm). Many of 
Melbourne's most important public 
buildings and warehouses have been 
erected by the firm. Amongst a few 
most important may be mentioned' 
the Law Offices, Melbourne ; power ' 
house for electric light at Spencer: 
Street, also similar erection at Rich-: 
mond ; extensive buildings at the/ 
University ; Corporation Baths, Mel-, 
bourne ; septic . wards, Melbourne 
Hospital ; numerous railway" sta-«i 
tions, the principal of these being the . 
handsomely-appointed railway station: 
at Maryborough ; and other im-* 
portant structures too numerous to, 
mention. The firm had the distinc- 
tion of carrying out the first 
sewerage contract in the city of 
Melbourne proper. The business 
done by Swanson Brothers is not 
confined to Victoria, as large engi- 
neering and bridge contracts have 
been carried out in Queensland, the 
bridge over the Burdekin in Banana- 
land (one of the firm's works in that 
State) being the longest and highest 
in Australia. The offices are situate 
at Leadenhall Chambers, Market 
Street, Melbourne. It may be men- 
tioned that the well-known freestone 
quarries at Stawell (out of which the 
stone for the Law Offices and Parlia- 
ment House, Melbourne, was pro- 
cured) is held by Messrs. Swanson 
Brothers under lease. Mr. Swanson 
has devoted his life to the furthering 
of the firm's business, but has always 
taken a deep and leading interest in 
the Master Builders' Association of 
Victoria, of which society he has been 
a member for many years, and as a 
token of the esteem in which he is 
held by the members he was elected 
president in 1903. In the same year 
he married a daughter of Councillor 
Charles O. Luff, of Richmond, and 
resides at "Wuurnong," Pasley 
Street, South Yarra. 



Mr. RICE THOMAS HOPKINS, 
Woollen Warehouseman, of 308 
Flinders Lane, Melbourne, was born 
in Plymouth, Devonshire, England, 
and is a son of Mr. Evan Hopkins, 
conveyancer, of that town, and 



200 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



grandson of Mr. William Stuart, who 
occupied the position of resident 
Government engineer for the Ply- 
mouth breakwater for over forty-two 
years. Educated at the Plymouth 




Johnstone, O'Shanncsty and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Rice Thomas Hopkins. 

Grammar School, of which R. F. 
Weymouth, D.Lit., London, was 
principal prior to his accepting a 
similar position at the well-known 
Grammar School at Mill Hill, the 
subject of this sketch was afterwards 




Bar r audi Liverpool 

Mb. John Walker Hopkins. 

brdlight up to mercantile pursuits. 
In 1881 the senior partner in the firm 
of Messrs. J. and R. Archibald, 
woollen manufacturers, of Devonvale, 
Tillicoultry, Scotland, paid a visit to 



Australia, and the result was that 
they decided to open up business in 
that country. They gave the first 
offer to represent them as manager 
and agent to Mr. Hopkins, who ac- 
cepted the position, and left for Mel- 
bourne in July, 1882. In 1896 
Messrs. Archibald sold the business 
to Mr. Hopkins, who is now the sole 
proprietor. He married, in 1870, a 
daughter of John Walker, Esq., of 
"The G range,* ' Storeton, near 
Birkenhead, and was accompanied to 
Australia by his wife and six child- 
ren. Two of his sons, Mr. John 
Walker Hopkins and Mr. Albert 
Boswell Hopkins, are associated with 
him in the business, the former 




Rlo« T. Hopkins' Promises, Fllndsrs Ltnt, 
Mslbsurns. 

gentleman having entered the ware- 
house on leaving school in 1887, and 
has for several years taken a leading 
part in the management, and has 
control of the buying department. 



THOMAS JAMES MOUNTJOY, 
Relieving Postmaster, General Post 
Office, Melbourne, was born at Gee- 
long, Victoria, in the year 1859, and 
is a son of Mr. Thomas Mount joy, 
one of the early pioneers of Victoria, 
whose name is largely associated 
with Lome, one of the beauty spots 
of the south coast of Victoria. > 
Educated at Mr. Ingamell's school, 
Chilwell, in his native town, at the 
age of seventeen he joined the Go- 



vernment service, in the Telegraph 
Department at Lome, where he re- 
mained for seven years, and was then 
appointed to the head office, Mel- 
bourne. In 1885 he was promoted 
to fill his present position as reliev- 
ing postmaster. 




Johnstone, U'Shanncssy and Co, Melb. 

Mr. Thomas James Mountjoy. 



THEOPHILUS HENRY 
PARKER, the proprietor of the well- 
known stock and station firm of T. 
II. Parker and Company, Bourke 
Street, Melbourne, is one of the 
oldest-established men in the business 
in Victoria. Born in London in 
1835, he is the fourth son of the late 
Edward Stone Parker, who came to 
Victoria in 1838, having been ap- 
pointed Protector of Aborigines by 
Lord Glenelg, then Secretary of 
State for the Colonies. After visit- 
ing various parts of Victoria— where 
Mr. Parker, sen., fulfilled everywhere 
his protective duties * with such a 
uniform adherence to the law of kind- 
ness as secured him the gratitude and 
affection of the aborigines, and was 
the best safeguard of the lives of his 
family and himself— the family finally 
settled down at Mount Franklin, near 
Daylesford, where the subject of this 
notice was brought up to station and 
farming life. He followed some of 
the most important gold rushes 
during the fifties, and started in 
business as an auctioneer and stock 
and station agent when a young man. 
After some time at Franklinford, he 
established himself most successfully 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



201 



throughout the Ballarat, Castle- 
maine, and Daylesford districts. He 
was thoroughly conversant with the 
native language, and held the position 
of aboriginal interpreter for many 




Johnston^ CShanncay and Cto. ilclb. 

Mr. Edward Stone Parker. 

years. He came to Melbourne and 
entered the office of the late John 
George Dougherty, and became a 
partner in the concern. Shortly 
after he started on his own account, 
under the style of T. H. Parker and 




Johnstone, VSkanneuy and Co. Mtlb. 

Mb. Theophilus Henry Parker. 

Co., in the premises in Bourke 
Street, and has been actively and 
successfully engaged in his business 
ever since. Mr. Parker does not 
confine his operations to Newmarket 



and the country districts of Victoria, 
as he does a very large turnover in 
New South Wales and Riverina. He 
is a member of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society and numerous country 
societies, where his services are con- 
stantly in demand at judging, and 
also throughout the various States of 
the Commonwealth. He was the 
founder of the now famous country 
sales conducted at Wodonga, and is 
one of the early members of the Com- 
mercial Travellers* Association. Mr. 
Parker married, in 1873, Miss 
Wildman, daughter of a well-known 
officer in the Customs Department of 
Victoria, and has a family of four 
daughters. 




Talma 



Mtlb. 



Mr. William Hudson. 



Mr. WILLIAM HUDSON, Stock 
and Station Agent, 421 Bourke 
Street, Melbourne, was born in 
Berwickshire, Scotland, in 1830, and 
comes from an old yeomanry family 
in that county. Educated locally, 
he afterwards came out to Victoria, 
landing in Melbourne in 1852. He 
was for some time engaged in an 
office in Melbourne, and then went to 
the Western District, and was after- 
wards engaged on the station of the 
late Mr. Lyell at Western Port. Mr. 
Hudson next transferred his services 
to the firm of Dalmahoy, Campbell, 
and Co., the well-known stock and 
station agents of Melbourne, in 1858, 
with whom he remained for three 
years in the capacity of sheep sales- 
man. The business was then taken 



over by Messrs. R. Gibson and Co., 
and with this firm Mr. Hudson 
remained eight years, occupying the 
same position. He then joined 
Messrs. Peck and Ray nor in business, 
under the style of Peck, Hudson, and 
Raynor, the firm, which had an in- 
terest in a large squatting and cattle 
station in Queensland, carrying on 
business for eighteen years, when 
it was dissolved. In 1890 Mr. 
Hudson established his present busi- 
ness, under the style of Wm. Hudson 
and Co., and conducts weekly sales 
at Newmarket, and many throughout 
Victoria. Lately he took into part- 
nership Mr. John Powell Ballantine, 
who had been associated with the 
business for some years. Mr. 
Hudson is one of the oldest stock 
and station agents in Victoria, and 
is still actively identified in the car- 
rying on of the business. He is a 
member of the Royal Agricultural 
Society, and was associated with the 
V.R.C. as a member for upwards of 
thirty years. 




Johnttone, O'Shannessy and Co. Mtlb. 

Mr. John Powell Ballantine. 

Mr. JOHN POWELL 

BALLANTINE, of the firm of 
Hudson and Ballantine, Bourke 
Street, was born in Ballarat, 
Victoria, and is a son of the 
late Mr. John Brown Ballantine, a 
well-known figure in Ballarat mining 
circles. Educated at Bain's High 
School, Ballarat, he afterwards 
entered the well-known firm of 
Hepburn and Rowe, stock and 



202 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



station agents, where he remained 
for a period of seven years, and then 
left Ballarat to accept a position 
with Messrs. Ettershank, Eaglestone, 
and Mann, of Melbourne, with whom 
he remained for twelve years as sales 
clerk. Mr. Ballantine's next ap- 
pointment was in the house of W. 
Hudson and Co., stock and station 
agents, of which he became a partner 
in 1899, the firm having since carried 
on under the style of Hudson and 
Ballantine. He acts as auctioneer 
to the firm, and also as traveller and 
general manager of stock sales. 



Mr. HERBERT LEA KETTLE, 
Stock and Station Agent, 416 Collins 
Street, Melbourne. Telephone No. 
2,517. Banker : Colonial Bank. 

Mr. Kettle was born in Essendon, 
near Melbourne, in 1872, and is the 
son of the late Mr. Edwin George 
Kettle, who .arrived in Victoria 




Stewart and Co. Mdb. 

Mr. Edwin George Kettle. 

during the fifties with the Messrs. 
Chirnside, and was for many years 
identified with the pastoral industry, 
afterwards acting as auctioneer for 
the firm of Richard Gibson and Co., 
and with that of Raleigh, Aitken, 
and Co. The subject of this memoir 
was educated locally, and afterwards 
entered The Agency Land and Finance 
Company of Australia, which took 
over the business of Raleigh, Aitken, 
and Co., Mr. Kettle having charge of 
the wool department at the com- 



pany's inception, and afterwards the 
stock department. He then joined 
one of the leading stock and station 
agents at Hay, N.S.W., and on 
returning to Victoria in 1901 he 
commenced operations on his own 
account. Mr. Kettle enjoys a large 
connection, and makes a speciality 
of property sales. During the 
drought season Mr. Kettle conducted 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb 

Mr. Herbert Lea Kettle. 

transactions on a considerable scale 
in the letting of country throughout 
Victoria for starving stock for lead- 
ing Riverina station owners. 



P. J. O'CONNOR, FENNELL, 
and CO., Auctioneers and Property 
Agents, Accountants and Auditors, 
Citizens' Buildings, 285 Collins 
Street, Melbourne. This business 
was established in 1901, and the 
firm have since then conducted nume- 
rous sales of land and property 
throughout the Melbourne district. 
They also carry on business as 
valuators, insurance agents, and act 
as trustees and arbitrators in con- 
nection with leasehold and freehold 
properties. Mr. PATRICK 

JOSEPH O'CONNOR was born in 
Hawthorn, Victoria, in 1862, and was 
educated at the Christian Brothers' 
School. He was a member of the 
Richmond City Council from 1892 
till 1901, retiring on his election to 
Parliament as a representative of 
Fitzroy. Was Mayor of Richmond 
during the years 1896 and 1897, and 



a member of the Melbourne and 
Metropolitan Board of Works from 
1893 until 1901. Mr. O'Connor lost 
his seat for Parliament in 1902 on 
the reform question, having given his 




Johnslone, O'Shaymt&ty and Co. Mtib. 

Mr. Patrick Joseph O'Connor. 

support to the Irvine Government in 
its efforts to grapple with the de- 
plorable financial condition of the 
State. He is at present a trustee 
of the Melbourne General Cemetery, 




Johnstone, O'Shannesty and Co. Melb. 

Mr. William Garde Fknnell. 

representing the Roman Catholic de- 
nomination. Mr. WILLIAM GARDE 
FENNELL, of the firm of P. J. 
O'Connor, Fennell, and Co., 285 
Collins Street, was born in Yackan- 



The cycLopfdia of victoria. 



203 



dandah, Victoria, in 1863, and is a 
son of one of the earliest pioneers 
of the colony. His education was 
acquired in Ireland, and on his return 
to Victoria in 1881 he filled the 
position of accountant and secretary 
to a leading building society in this 
city for upwards of twenty years. 
In 1901 he entered into partnership 
with Mr. O'Connor, under the style 
of P. J. O'Connor, Fennell, and Co., 
auctioneers and property agents, 
accountants and auditors, Collins 
Street, Melbourne. Mr. Fennell is 
an incorporated accountant, and a 
licensed auditor under the Companies 
Act. 



Messrs. McFARLANE and NICOL, 
Land, Estate, and Insurance Agents, 
318 Clarendon Street, South Mel- 
bourne. This prosperous business 
was established in the early seventies 
by the late Mr. James McFarlane, 
and carried on by him until 1882. 
It was then continued by his brother, 
Mr. Snodgrass McFarlane, Mr. George 
Hy. Paulin, and Mr. Andrew Nicol, 
under the style of Snodgrass 
McFarlane and Co., and was carried 




Johnstone, O'Shannessy and Co. 

Mr. Andrew Nicol. 



Jfeft. 



on until 1894. In that year Mr. S. 
McFarlane died, and since then 
operations have been carried on 
under the present style of McFarlane 
and Nicol by Mrs. E. McFarlane and 
Mr. Andrew Nicol. Mr. ANDREW 
NICOL, managing partner, is a 
native of Heidelberg, Victoria, and 



was born in 1853. He is a son of 
the late Mr. Peter Nicol, who came 
out to Victoria in 1852, and was for 
many years in the service of the 
Railway Department. Educated in 
Heidelberg, Mr. Nicol afterwards was 
engaged in the ironmongery trade, 
and in 1882 joined the present firm, 
being admitted into partnership 
during the following year. On the 
death of Mr. S. McFarlane in 1894 
he took over the sole management of 
the business, which he has since 
carried on. Mr. Nicol is an active 
member of the A.N. A. and Odd- 
fellows' Lodges, and enjoys the 
respect and esteem of his fellow- 
citizens. 



BEDLINGTON BODYCOMB, 

Patent and Trade Marks Agent and 
Consulting Engineer,' St. James* 
Buildings, William and Bourke 
Streets, Melbourne, was born in the 
city in which he now practises his 
profession. After completing his 
education at St. Mary's Grammar 
School, North Melbourne, he entered 
the engineering works at the Lang- 
lands Foundry Company in order 
to be trained as an engineer and 
draughtsman. During the currency 
of his apprenticeship he took advan- 
tage of the opportunity offered by 
the Technological and Industrial In- 
struction Commission which existed 
in those days to attend the evening 
classes and courses of lectures in 
mathematics and other technical 
subjects conducted at the Melbourne 
Public Library, under the auspices 
of that commission, by the late Pro- 
fessor Pirani. He likewise attended 
the drawing and design classes, in 
which, during his term of study, he 
succeeded in carrying off the prizes 
for mechanical and architectural 
drawing. Having attained to, and 
held for some years, the important 
position of chief draughtsman at the 
Langlands Foundry, which was then 
the largest engineering works in the 
Australian colonies, and there ac- 
quired a large experience in mining, 
marine, railway, and general engi- 
neering, Mr. Bodycomb, through 
failing health, attributable to over- 
work, resigned his position under 
medical advice, and determined to 
spend a year or two in the country, 
in order, whilst regaining health and 



strength, to study and gain ex- 
perience in pastoral and agricultural 
machinery and pursuits, and the 
knowledge and insight thus obtained 
have since proved very valuable to 
him in his patents business. Upon 
returning to Melbourne he accepted 
a position as expert engineer and 




Johnstone, O'Shannetsy and Co. Melb. 

Mr. Bedlixgton Bodycomb. 

draughtsman in a patents agency 
office, and received his appointment 
as a patents agent from the Attorney- 
General in the year 1888. He then 
established himself in business as a 
patents and trade marks agent and 
consulting engineer, and from that 
time to the present he has had a 
most successful career in his busi- 
ness, having established reputable 
associate agents in all the chief 
centres in Australia and New Zea- 
land, and in London, New York, 
Ontario, Paris, Berlin, Stockholm, 
and in other Continental cities, as 
well as in the capitals of various 
British and foreign countries. In the 
year 1893 Mr. Bodycomb was instru- 
mental in obtaining the establish- 
ment of a patent law in British New 
Guinea, and had the pleasure of 
obtaining patent No. 1 for the 
Buchanan-Gordon diving dress, a 
photograph of which patent he 
exhibits in his office. Mr. Bodycomb 
naturally leads a very busy life, his 
business being of an extremely varied 
character. Its area of operations 
embraces inventions of all kinds, and 
their scope extends to every State 
within the Australian Common- 



204 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



wealth, as well as to far distant 
countries, he being the patents agent 
for most of the leading engineering, 
agricultural, electrical, and mining 
firms in this State. He has also 
been associated as a patents agent 
with many of the most successful 
inventions which have originated 
here. As illustrating the extent of 
Mr. Bodycomb's business, at the time 
of writing he has in hand numerous 
patent applications in all of the 
Australian States, New Zealand, 
Great Britain, the United States, 
Canada, France, and Germany, as 
well as patent applications for 
various inventions in India, the 
Transvaal, the Argentine Republic, 
Belgium, Austria, Sweden, Ecuador, 
and New Guinea. Mr. Bodycomb 
also does considerable business in 
connection with the registration of 
trade marks for clients resident in 
these. States, as well as for those 
residing abroad. In fact, he acts as 
local agent for some of the largest 
companies and firms and trusts in 
England and the United States. 
The advent of a Commonwealth 
Patents and Trade Marks Act is 
hailed with pleasure by Mr. 
Bodycomb, inasmuch as he has been 
a strong advocate for many years 
past of such a measure. He has 
naturally been much impressed by 
the palpable absurdity of seven 
patents having to be obtained at a 
considerable cost to cover the Aus- 
tralian colonies, and he trusts that 
the Act, when passed by the Legis- 
lature, will provide for the payment 
of moderate fees, coupled with such 
an examination as will prevent, as 
far as possible, the granting of 
patents for inventions which are 
practically identical with others pre- 
viously granted. He likewise desires 
the extension of the term of patent 
from fourteen years, as at present, 
to eighteen years, as in Canada, 
with a proviso for the payment by 
patentees of nominal taxes at say 
the end of the sixth and twelfth 
years. He likewise recognises the 
duty of the Commonwealth to 
appoint a capable commission, whose 
duty it will be to administer the Act 
in such a spirit as will encourage and 
not thwart inventors, for by so doing 
it would certainly tend to increase 
industrial and other enterprises in 
Australia, and would encourage and 



not discourage the exercise of that 
ingenuity and inventiveness .which 
have contributed so largely to build 
up the material greatness and 
prosperity of the United States. 
Further, Mr. Bodycomb is a commis- 
sioner for taking declarations and 
affidavits within Victoria, and one of 
the founders and a member of the 
council of the Australasian Institute 
of Patent Agents. 



Mr. J. A. SINANIAN, the 
managing director of the J. A. 
Sinanian Proprietary Limited, pro- 
prietors of the Moreland Smelting 
Works, was born in 1866 in the city 
of Manchester, where his father 




Talma Mtlb. 

Mr J. A. Sinanian. 

carried on a large business as the 
proprietor of the Ararat Packing 
Warehouse, in Queen Street, with a 
branch house in Constantinople. He 
received a good public school educa- 
tion at St. Bede's College, Man- 
chester, and being of an adventurous 
disposition spent five years after 
leaving college in a roving tour 
round the world. Many countries 
were visited, and two years were 
spent in Chili and Peru. On attain- 
ing his majority, however, he found 
himself, owing to unforeseen reverses, 
compelled to face the world. His 
education, though good of a sort, had 
only fitted him for a life of leisured 
ease. He had neither trade nor pro- 
fession, and he found by stern ex- 
perience that a limited knowledge of 



Latin, French, and Spanish made a 
poor equipment for the fray. He 
was, however, blessed with some- 
thing better — a nature undismayed 
and undaunted by reverses, and a 
keen if untrained intelligence. For 
some time his fortitude was severely 
tried, and he fell upon evil days 
Many means of earning a livelihood 
were essayed, amongst others as a 
general agent and commission broker, 
and the breaking up of old derelict 
vessels', etc. He also dealt in stocks 
and land, and, after a severe and 
unequal struggle, it at last became 
apparent to Mr. Sinanian that the 
only road to success for a man with 
limited means and no trade or pro- 
fession was to break entirely new 
ground. Having some knowledge of 
metals, acquired during his stay in 
South America, he decided, after full 
consideration, to establish a smelting 
business. The Moreland Smelting 
Works, for the treatment of old 
metals — now probably the largest 
concern of the sort in Victoria, if not 
Australia — began operations in a 
humble way in 1889, and from small 
beginnings, by careful and intelligent 
management, the output was gradu- 
ally increased, and Mr. G. Leishman, 
of Mirboo North, Gippsland, was 
taken into partnership. By the time 
the collapse of the boom came the 
business was firmly established, and 
by judicious nursing weathered the 
storm easily, although Mr. Leishman 
retired, and again went in for farming 
pursuits. Mr. Sinanian, having a 
keen eye for investment, was singu- 
larly fortunate in several outside 
ventures. These, however, were 
never allowed to interfere with the 
smelting business, which throve so 
that he soon found himself with 
many competitors, and the natural 
outcome of the severe competition 
engendered has been to compel busi- 
ness to be worked on an extremely 
low percentage basis, to the manifest 
advantage of both buying and selling 
customers. The business grew to 
such proportions that Mr. Sinanian 
had to build for himself a new 
factory at Dudley Street, West Mel- 
bourne, which, together with a dwell- 
ing alongside, covers nearly half an 
acre of ground, the architectural 
work in connection with the factory 
being carried out by Mr. Sinanian. 
Here metals of every description and 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



205 



their by-products are bought, and 
some idea of the magnitude of the 
transactions in old metals may be 
gathered from the fact that in prac- 
tically one deal old brass tubes, 
brass borings, etc., to the value of 
some £2,400 were purchased from 
the New South Wales Government, 
besides large quantities from the Vic- 
torian railways and others. In this 
department the mixed lots are sorted 
and cleansed by expert workmen for 
treatment by the various smelting 



company limited, Mr. Sinanian re- 
taining the bulk of the shares. An 
inspection of the premises of the 
company, with the furnaces in full 
blast, will prove a revelation to 
many, who have little idea of the 
magnitude of the business done. 
Built up by one without previous 
experience, and during a time of 
severe commercial depression, this 
flourishing and steadily increasing 
business speaks volumes for the 
innate shrewdness and business 







ipujjLjT* 


^1R 





Pramlaaa of tha J. A. Sinanian Prnpy. Ltd., Dudley St., Wast Melbourne. 



plants. It may be mentioned that 
Mr. Sinanian makes a specialty of 
treating scrap zinc and zinc by- 
products from the galvanising pots, 
and has a separate plant for treating 
these latter staples alone, erected at 
a cost of some £900, in addition to 
the cost of his ordinary plant. At 
the rear of the premises are situated 
the many furnaces and other appli- 
ances for treating the various 
metals, which emerge thence in the 
form of pig lead, ingot zinc, ingot 
gun metal, etc. All of these, bear- 
ing the brand of the works, have been 
well and favourably received by the 
English and Continental as well as 
by the local markets. In fact, Mr. 
Sinanian 's business is chiefly an 
export one, and, as prices are 
governed by the home quotations, 
dealers and others can always rely 
on getting maximum values for their 
parcels. This business two years 
ago was converted into a proprietary 



instinct, combined with courtesy, 
patience, and determination of the 
proprietor. These qualities are 
patent to all who are brought into 
contact with him in a business or 
social way, and he well deserves the 
prosperity that has resulted from the 
possession and use of them. The 
sales of zinc material exceed £12,000 
per annum alone. The firm's pig 
lead is shipped to China, Ceylon, the 
various States, etc. Tons of solder 
are produced yearly, and the printers' 
metal department, devoted to type 
metal, stereo., linotype, monoline 
metal, etc., is now of such magnitude 
that the Government Printing Office 
recently purchased twenty tons in 
one order. The company now make 
a specialty of treating all linotype 
metal skimmings, which, together 
with solder, lead, and other metal 
residues, and the rejuvenating of 
old linotype metal so that it 
can be used again, forms a 



very important feature of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Sinanian married the 
daughter of the late Mr. T. Butler, 
of North Brighton, and is at the 
time of writing thirty-seven years of 
age, and divides his time between his 
country place at Perntree Gully and 
his town residence. Being possessed 
of independent means, the business is 
now more a hobby than anything else 
with him. Accompanied by his wffe 
and two children, he has recently re- 
turned from a trip to the old 
country, breaking the voyage at 
Ceylon, Cairo, and Paris, where they 
stayed for some time. Since his 
return Mr. Sinanian has made a 
trip to Fiji, accompanied by Mr. 
Leishman, who is now once more in 
the firm. Mr. Crawford is the ener- 
getic manager, and Mr. D. Banner man 
the secretary. 



Mr. THOMAS WILLIAMS LLOYD, 
the well-known Next-of-Kin Agent 
and Genealogical Expert, of Swans- 
ton Street, Melbourne, was born in 
Liverpool, England, in 1847, and 
came to Victoria as a child with his 
parents, who settled in Melbourne, 




Johnstone. 0*Shannc$$y ami Co. Mttb. 

Mr. Thomas Williams Lloyd. 

his father, the late Mr. T. W. Lloyd, 
having been for many years connected 
with the Government service. The 
subject of this memoir was educated 
at St. Mark's Grammar School, 
Fitzroy, and St. Paul's Grammar 
School, Melbourne, and afterwards 
entered the Government service as a 



206 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



junior in the City Police Court. He 
gained his experience in legal matters 
with Mr. Frank Stephens, a well- 
known solicitor in the early days of 
Melbourne, with whom he was 
engaged for some years. In 1870 he 
established his present business in 
premises in Little Collins Street, 
near the Police Court, and his 
energy, strict integrity, and prompt- 
ness soon won for him the confidence 
of the leading solicitors, bankers, and 
newspaper proprietors of Victoria. 
Mr. Lloyd also enjoys an extensive 
connection throughout England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, the amount of 
moneys received through Reuter's and 
the Bank of Australasia on behalf of 
his. clients for the year 1902 alone 
amounting to over £40,000. Mr. 
Lloyd is a member of the Masoric 
fraternity. He married in 1874. 
Of late years Mr. J. T. S. Lloyd, a 
son of Mr. T. W. Lloyd, has been 
connected as a partner in the busi- 
ness. 



CHARLES F. SUMMERS, Sculp- 
tor, 9 Collins Street, Melbourne, and 
55a Via Margutta, Rome, was born 
in Richmond, Victoria, in the year 
1857, and is the only son of the late 




Johnstone, O'Shanntuy and Co. Mdb. 

Mb. Charles F. Summers. 

Mr. Charles Summers, a well-known 
sculptor and exhibitioner at the 
Royal Academy, London, where, as 
has been elsewhere stated, he ob- 
tained the gold and silver medals 
and other honors. Mr. Charles F. 



Summers received his early education 
in Melbourne, and he began to model 
at a correspondingly early period of 
his life. At the age of eleven he 
joined his father in Rome, in which 
city they took up their abode, and 
pursued the art to which both had 
dedicated their lives, in the midst of 
congenial surroundings, and deriving 
continual inspiration from daily 
familiarity with the great master- 
pieces of the plastic art which there 
abound. Here Mr. C. F. Summers 
resided for upwards of thirty years, 
first studying under his father and 
Professors Seitz and Chelli for 
drawing and modelling. The subject 
of our sketch has executed many 
beautiful examples of statuary for 
patrons in Russia, Finland, and 
almost every country in Europe, as 
well as in the United States of 
America ; and the fine works in 
marble in the pavilion at Ballarat 
are from his chisel. He was also 
honored with some flattering com- 
missions from the King of Siam, and 
among the latest works executed for 
that potentate were portrait busts 
of their Majesties the King and 
Queen. Mr. Summers has recently 
designed a plan for the Queen Vic- 
toria Memorial, and for a "monu- 
mental zone," between the Treasury, 
the Parliament Houses, and the 
Exhibition Building, which has at- 
tracted general admiration on 
account of its boldness, beauty, and 
practical character. He is a warm 
advocate for the establishment of a 
technical school for the popularisa- 
tion of the study of the fine arts 
by our artisans, so that each may be 
enabled to become an art craftsman. 
He was represented by three fine 
studies at the Bendigo Exhibition, 
and, in addition to the ordinary pro- 
ductions of a sculptor, he devotes 
special attention to portrait busts, 
and to the execution of works in 
which the imagination has full play. 
A special interest attaches to the 
artistic career of Mr. Summers, inas- 
much as he is the first sculptor of 
note born in Australia. 



Herr FELIX V. STEINMETZ, 271 
Collins Street, was born at Sagan, 
in the Prussian province of Silesia, 
on the 29th of August, 1849. With 
his two elder brothers, he was 



destined for a military career, and 
entered the army during the progress 
of the Austrian War, in 1866. Be- 
ginning in the ranks, as is the 
custom in the Prussian Army, Herr 
Steinmetz gained his commission as 




Johnstone, 0'Shannc*8y and Co. Jfelb. 

Herb Felix V. Steinmetz. 

second lieutenant in 1868. In that 
capacity he went through the Franco- 
Prussian War of 1870-71, his corps, 
the 6th, taking part in the memor- 
able siege of Paris, and in the battles 
following the surrender of that city, 
in the guerilla warfare carried on by 
the natives in the south of France, 
Lieutenant Steinmetz receiving a 
bayonet . wound in the leg in an 
encounter before Avallon. The war 
being over, and the return to tedious 
garrison duties proving unattractive, 
he quitted the service, with the in- 
tention of proceeding to the newly- 
discovered diamond fields in South 
Africa. There he was at first very 
successful, but subsequently lost 
everything in disastrous claim specu- 
lations. Leaving the diamond fields 
in 1876, he proceeded to the Lyden- 
burg goldfields, in the Transvaal, 
which had been newly discovered, 
and where the conditions for working 
were favourable, thanks to a good 
water supply, a glorious climate, and 
cheap Kaffir labour. Success, how- 
ever, did not last long, owing to an 
outbreak on the part of the neigh- 
bouring Kaffir chief, Secocoeni, 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OP VICTORIA. 



207 



against the Boers, whose inability 
to suppress the outbreak led to the 
annexation of the Transvaal by 
England. Captain Carrington, with 
a few mounted men, arrived at Pil- 
grims' Rest, and hoisted the British 
flag, being accommodated during his 
stay at the residence of Herr Stein- 
metz. The task of subduing the 
Kaffirs now fell to the British, and 
for this purpose volunteers were 
called for from the goldfields to 
form an irregular corps (the Trans- 
vaal Rangers), in which Herr Stein- 
metz obtained a commission, and 
went through a very trying ex- 
perience in Kaffir warfare. At the 
expiration of his term of service, and 
on the arrival of regular troops, 
Herr Steinmetz, whose health had 
broken down, decided to leave South 
Africa, and commenced his journey 
through the Free State and Natal, 
travelling in a post-cart, a most un- 
comfortable vehicle in which to 
travel over rough country. This 
was at the time of the Isandlwhana 
disaster, and the death of Prince 
Napoleon, when, as the residents 
were hourly expecting an inrush on 
the part of the Zulus, all the vil- 
lages and towns were barricaded. 
Herr Steinmetz arrived in Durban 
just in time to board the sailing 
vessel "Glasslyn," bound for the 
Mauritius, from whence he took the 
French boat to Naples ; then 
through Italy, over the St. Gothard 
Pass in sleighs (the tunnel being at 
that time unfinished), to his native 
town and family. Having, during 
his adventurous South African career, 
strained the muscles of his heart, 
thereby rendering him unfit for 
further physical exertion, Herr 
Steinmetz set to work to cultivate 
the musical gifts which he had in- 
herited from his mother, these 
having been carefully trained and 
developed in his youth. In 1880 he 
left his native country for Melbourne, 
where, upon arrival, he adopted music 
as his profession, and since then, 
with the exception of two visits to 
Europe, he has been actively engaged 
in teaching. Appointed in 1896 to 
the conductorship of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral choir, he found a con- 
genial field for his hobby (church 
music), and, imbued with the idea 
that the character of the music 
should express what the words 



imply, he has discontinued the use 
of the former favourite masses of 
Mozart, Haydn, Weber, etc., and sub- 
stituted those of Palestrina, Allegri, 
etc., as well as those of the modern 
devotional school, in which Gounod 
is facile princeps. In oratorio, Herr 
Steinmetz has also had the opportu- 
nity of performing, for the first time 
in Australia, an oratorio by Perosi, 
with full orchestral accompaniment, 
and also Verdi's Stabat Mater. Of 
Herr Steinmetz 1 brothers who re- 
mained in the army, one died in 
1900, and the other is now lieutenant- 
general and chief of a department on 
the great general staff at Berlin. 



The ROYAL HOTEL, 334 Collins 
Street. (Proprietor, Edgar J. 
Moore.) Telephone No. 2,473. 

This hotel occupies a prominent 
place in the history of Melbourne. 
It was the original Gunsler's Cafe, 
and was afterwards known as 
Wolstenholme's Cafe up till 1903, 
when the lease was purchased by Mr. 
Moore, who has had the whole of the 
interior pulled down and refitted. 
The bars, lounge, etc., are fitted up 
most luxuriously in the most up-to- 
date and approved style, and the 
Royal now forms one of the most 
popular and fashionable places of 
rendezvous in the city. Mr. EDGAR 



J. MOORE is a native of Ballarat, 
Victoria, and a son of the Hon. 
George . Moore, Commissioner of 
Lands for Fiji, where the subject of 
this memoir spent some seventeen 
years, having been resident there 




Johrutone, O'SKanntuy and Co. 

Mb. Edgar J. Moore. 



Melb. 



before the British flag had been 
hoisted, and cannibalism was rife in 
the islands. Mr. Moore's reminis- 
cences of those days are unique. He 
has seen Fijians— thirty and forty at 
a time— killed and afterwards roasted 




Johnstone, O'Shanncssy and Co. Melb. 

Loungt and Portion of tho Bar, Royal Hotol, Collins St Molbourno. 



208 



THE CYCLOPEDIA OF VICTORIA. 



underground on hot stones. These 
were then served up as a meal for 
the chiefs and notables; and on one 
occasion he and his father were com- 
pelled to partake of a native who 
had been specially killed for that 
purpose by the chief of the tribe, to 
whom Mr. Moore, sen., had made a 
present of a clay pipe and a plug of 
tobacco. This particular dainty was 
eaten under penalty of being them- 
selves served likewise, as white flesh 
is considered much superior to black. 
Mr. Moore paid a return visit to 
Fiji in 1903, and was impressed with 
the civilised attitude of the natives, 
especially in the interior. He has 
seen, in the early years of his resi- 
dence in the islands, plots of land 
some fifty and sixty thousand acres 
in extent sold to the whites for a 
clay pipe, a plug of tobacco, a few 
beads, or a few balls of washing 
blue, money being an unknown quan- 
tity among the natives at that time. 
In one instance quoted by Mr. Moore, 
the late King of Fiji (Cakabau), 
having been given four cigar boxes 
full of sovereigns in payment for 
20,000 acres of land, threw tbem 
from the deck of the cutter on which 
he was at the time standing into the 
water, remarking that he wanted 
"bluestone" (i.e., washing blue), not 
money. In addition to his exciting 
adventures among the Fijians, Mr. 
Moore has been an extensive 
traveller, having been round the 
world no less than three times. He 
received his early education in Bal- 
larat, and afterwards entered the 
service of the Victorian Water 
Supply Department, from whence he 
was transferred to the Melbourne 
Water Supply, this being a consider- 
able promotion, and on the inaugura- 
tion of the Metropolitan Board of 
Works was transferred with the re- 
mainder of the staff to that body, 
his position being again improved. 
Being largely interested in landed 
property, etc., throughout the State, 
Mr. Moore found that the duties in 
connection with these absorbed so 
much of his time that he decided to 
resign his position in the Metro- 
politan Board of Works. This he 
accordingly did, and has lately em- 
barked in hotel-keeping, not from a 
business point of view, but as a 
hobby. Mr. Moore is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, his mother 



lodge being the Balaclava, V.C., and 
is likewise a member of the Licensed 
Victuallers' Association and of the 
leading sporting clubs 



GEORGE McKENZIE, late Man- 
ager of the Terang Butter and 
Cheese Factory, which was estab- 
lished in 1896, and of which he 
was manager and secretary until 
1901. The factory has steadily in- 
creased, the average output of butter 




Johnstone, 0'Shanne»$y and Co. Melb 

Mr. George McKenzie. 

being from four to eight tons per 
week. There .are seventy suppliers 
of milk to the factory, and as much 
as 7,000 gallons are received daily. 
Mr. McKenzie prefers the Danish 
system of pasteurisation for the 
cream to any other, and there are 
six separators kept constantly in 
use, capable of treating 400 gallons 
of milk per hour. Mr. McKenzie was 
born in Ballarat, and after complet- 
ing his scholastic career was appren- 
ticed to a mechanical engineer. He 
was subsequently manager of the 
Traralgon factory, Gippsland, for a 
period of three years. He occupies 
the position of president of the Fac- 
tory Managers' Association, and in 
1901 left Terang to visit Europe for 
the purpose of further prosecuting 
his study in the butter and cheese 
making industry in Denmark and 
other countries conspicuous for the 
magnitude and excellence of their 
dairy produce. 



The ST. KILDA GENERAL 
CEMETERY. — This cemetery,