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Ex Ubris 
; C. K. OGDEN 








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^Ying ,Wd ,Fan Wan' Ts'ut, Iu\ 




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PREFATE. l/'/'iL 

THj*-H&ictionary contains only a portion of all the characters in the 
Chinese language, but they are those in general use, and such as 
occur most frequently in books and ordinary writings. The total 
number of characters in Kanghl's Dictionary is set down at about 
44,400, of which nearly 15,000 are either duplicate or obsolete forms, 
while of the remaining 30,000, fully two-thirds are names of places 
or persons, or old, unusual words seldom met with in the course of 
one's reading. All these characters are included in the Dictiona- 
ries of both Drs. Morrison and Medhurst, but in those of De Guignes, 
Gon^alves, and Gallery, a selection of the common characters has 
been made, to the number of from 11,000 to 13,000 in each wock. 
That this last number includes all that are really necessary is partly 
proved by the usefulness of the work of Gon^alves, and especially 
that of De Guignes, which has been in the hands of students for 
more than two score years, and by Klaproth's Appendix to it, in 
which, after years of study, he added only a few hundred characters 
to the main work. It is evident, therefore, that when we have 
dictionaries like those of Morrison and Medhurst, containing the 
meanings and forms of all the characters, there is less need of 
repeating the same in other works; as the unusual ones are so rarely 
met with, and the student will always have Kanghi's Dictionary at 
hand if no other. There is, indeed, always a chance of meeting 
with an unusual character, as the name of a person or place, in 
any book one may take up ; and for these the fullest dictionary is 
the most satisfactory. 

This work contains 7850 characters, including a few common 
abbreviations and duplicate forms. Its plan is stated on page xxxiii 
of the Introduction, and it is hoped that it will be found to work 
well in practice. How the work itself has been performed, and 
whether it is any advance on what has been already done, will be 
decided by those who use it. With the books already published, 


it will form a tolerably complete apparatus for learning tJie Canton 
dialect, though not all that is wanted. These works are five, viz. — 

Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect, 3 Parts. By R. Morrison. 1897. 

The Beginner's First Book in Chinese. (Canton Vernacular). 1847. 

A Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect. By E. C. Bridginan. 

Easy Lessons in Chinese, specially adapted to the Canton Dialect. By S. 
W. Williams, 1842. 

A Vocabulary with Colloquial Phrases of the Canton Dialect. By S. W. 
Bonney, 1854. 

The first two are out of print ; the next two contain also some 
directions and exercises for learning the general language, the sounds 
alone being in this dialect. 

Chinese lexicographers have done much to elucidate their own 
language, and we may regard the common dictionary of Kanghi, 
called Kanghi Tsz' Tien J^ (5E -qp ^L, which has been in use 
throughout the empire for nearly 150 years, as one of the best 
dictionaries ever published by Asiatics. The list of works of this 
class given by Gallery proves the vast labor spent in this direction 
by Chinese scholars through a long series of generations. Yet, in 
respect to satisfying the requirements of a foreign student, no 
Chinese dictionary will be found sufficient. The uses of a cha- 
racter as a verb, a noun, a particle, or an adjective, are usually not 
given at all, chiefly because Chinese grammarians do not habitually 
make these distinctions ; and the definitions are made by quoting 
other words as synonyms, and not by explaining the usages of the 
one under examination. For instance, take the word ^lui nj^, an im- 
portant one in Chinese literature. Kanghi says it means, " To fol- 
low (or tread in); whatever men do in serving the gods to obtain 
happiness; to put in form, to obtain (or show) the form of an act. A 
surname." None of the metaphorical and derivative senses are 
given, which, as will be seen by reference to the character, hav.T 
now become important and common. These generally have yet to 
be carefully collected from good authors, and their application 

The difficulties in making a complete Anglo-Chinese lexicon result 
from three causes. Firat, the vast extent of the literature, running 


through many ages, naturally involve changes in the use of words 
by so many authors of different degrees of intellect, genius, and 
learning. The same word has been used by these authors to 
denote different shades of meaning, and it is a great labor to trace 
out these meanings. Second, it is not easy to find exact equivalents 
for Chinese words in European languages. Even in concrete things, 
as ^^, ^^, 1^, f|ft, the differences are numerous, and require 
explanation before calling them a book, a pencil, a shoe, or a ship; 
how much more unlike must they be when mental, religious, or 
poetical terms are to be explained by words from languages so dis- 
similar as English and Chinese. The Chinese, like other nations, 
necessarily describe their mental and abstract thoughts by words 
derived from sensible objects, and the scope and application of such 
words are familiar to them, but not so to the foreigner, whose mind 
has been trained differently. What adds to this difficulty is the 
vague and erroneous ideas the Chinese have respecting many things, 
which embarrasses one who tries to define them by the more precise 
words of his own language. Third, the years of study which are 
required in a wearisome climate before a foreigner is even partially 
fitted for making a dictionary, has also proved a serious hindrance 
to the preparation of a complete lexicon in the Chinese language. 
No one has yet sat down to the work unfettered by other engage- 
ments, and willing to spend his life in making a full dictionary of 
this language. 

This volume will assist in learning to speak the Canton dialect, 
and as the meanings of the characters are the same, any one can 
use it in translating. It is as suitable for learning the Court dialect 
as Morrison's is for learning the Canton or Ti^chiu dialects ; and 
those who are unable to procure the larger works, may find aid in 
it to enable them to read Chinese books. It has been prepared 
with care, by consulting previous works and a large collection of 
phrases written out by competent natives, and the meanings syn- 
thetically made up from the examples in which they occur. The 
space did not permit a large portion of these phrases to be explained 
as fully as would have been desirable to understand their application. 
Technical u^es of words in law, medicine, astrology, poetry, and 
su ch science as the Chinese possess, have not been very extensively 

till PREFACE. 

collected hitherto; this work probably contains a few more thart 
any other, and perhaps expressed a little more definitely. It is no 
assistance to a foreigner to know that li^ is the name of a fish, or 
tying the name of a bird, or ihang the name of a mountain, though 
these words may convey to a Chinese as definite an idea as the words 
carp, eagle, or Alps, do to an Englishman. Yet in most cases 
only an approximation can yet be made to defining hundreds of such 

With these remarks this Dictionary is offered to students in Chi- 
nese, and especially to those who are engaged in the excellent work 
of enlightening this people in true religion and science. It is a 
freewill offering to the cause of missions in China. The sheets were 
necessarily struck off as fast as they were written, and a printing- 
office was carried on at the same time to obtain the funds to print 
them with. The proof sheets were kindly looked over by Rev. John 
B. French, to whose careful examination of the tones and sound;* 
the work owes much of its accuracy. A few errors in the tones, 
aspirates, and sounds of the words have unavoidably crept in, some 
of which have already been noticed, but it has not been thought 
necessary to make out a full list of errata. 

s. w. w. 

Canton, August 1st, l8oU. 



I. — The Canton DrALECx. 

The dialect of the Chinese language spoken most accurately in 
the citv of Canton, and hence usually called the Canton Dialect, is 
understood throughout the districts in the western half of the pro- 
vince of Kwangtung, with only unimportant exceptions. Though the 
variations from the speech of the citizens of Canton itself and from 
each other, heard in these districts are numerous, still the general 
characteristics of the dialect in its idiom and pronunciation, are 
preserved, and the people find little difficulty in talking with each 
other. The people from the district of Sinhwui ^Xc '^ lying south- 
westerly from Canton, exhibit the most remarkable peculiarities 
in pronunciation, and it is a puzzle to the scholars in the city 
how they should have originated. The Canton dialect differs so 
much from that spoken at the extreme east of the province, in 
the~ department of Chauchau ^fl am and in most parts of the ad- 
joining prefectures of Kiaying chau and Hwuichau fu, that their 
inhabitants are not intelligible to citizens of the capital. This 
dialect, usually called the Tiechiu from the local sound of jgH wj , 
and the Canton, constitute the speech of probably six sevenths of 
the nineteen millions reckoned as the population of the whole pro- 
vince; still this estimate is based on no very reliable data, owing to 
the difficulty of actual examination. The patois known as the kdk- 
kd approaches very near to the Canton, and people from Kwangsf 
are easily understood in this city. Both the Canton and Tiechiu 
dialects differ so materially in idiom and pronunciation from the 
general language of China, called the honn kim ^ =■£" court or 
mandarin dialect, that those speaking only the latter do not under- 
stand them ; and when they come to Canton as officers, are always 
obliged to employ interpreters to explain to them the depositions 
made in their courts by the couimumi people. 



into at ; 


into ong ; 


into tin ; 


into ui ; 


into hi; 


into i/c, a< or Ip; 


into {< or iji ; 

ioh or 


into 0^ ; 


The variations between the court and Canton dialects, in the 
pronunciation of the great body of characters, are so regular as to 
enable one to guess with a tolerable degree of certainty, what their 
sounds are in the other, the more so because the variations are 
chiefly in the finals, and not so numerous in the initials, as is the 
case in some of the Fuhkien patois. The unusual changes nearly 
all occur in characters having the fourth tone. The most common 
changes in the finals are here given : — 

Court Canton Conrt Canton. 

au and iau into iu; as chiiu^ liAu into chiu, liu. 

iiing into 6ung ; as sidng^ nidng into s6ung, n6ung. 

in and un into an and un; as kin, chin, into kan, chun. 

as liueh, ckuek, into lilt, chlit. 

as kwang, pang into kwong, pong. 

as hiucn, kiuen, into Attn, fctlin. 

as kwui into f&i. 

as kidi, hidi into kdi, hai. 

as kik, pih, chih into kik, pat, chip. 

as sich, lick into sit. lip. 

as kioh,hiok, Ioh into kok, hok, tok. 

The frequency of the abrupt consonontal terminations k,p, and t, 
in the Canton dialect, immediately strike a northerner from KiSngsu, 
who has , been used to hear all terminations soft and flowing ; but 
the people from those provinces are said to learn this dialect sooner 
than those from Amoy and Fuhchau, whose nasal sounds and 
greater changes in the initials, are more difficult to accord with it. 
Unlike what exists in the province of Fuhkien, here there is not so 
great a difference between the language as spoken and read, as to 
require almost the acquisition of a double medium. 

The variations between the Tiechiu and Canton dialects consist 
in changes in both initials and finals, each having some sounds 
which are unknown, or very uncommon in the other. For instance, 
the initials sk or/ are not found in the Ti^chii'i, or the initiaLs 6, 
Iw, or mw in the Canton ; the oblique sound of u in turn is one of 
most common finals in the former, and one of the rarest in the latter ; 
there are no nasal sounds in the Canton, and no words ending with 
the finals iang, idle, both of which are common in the Ti^chiw. 
These differences are among the nvost noticeable between the two 
leading dialects of this province, but the variations as one goes from 
Chauchau fu westward to Canton city, are numberless, nearly every 
village exhibiting some peculiarities in the sounds of a few words. 


The standard of pronunciation for the Canton dialect is a small 
duodecimo handbook, sometimes issued! separately, but more fre- 
quently combined with a letter-writer and forms of invitation, cards , 
funeral eulogies, &-c., so that one may help to sell the other. It is 
called Kong-u ch'ik-tuk, Fan-wan ts'ut-iu hdp tsap VJl Vffl f^ )i^ 
^* p1 ^ -^ •« ^ Letters for Travelers and a Collection of 
Important Characters divided by their Tones. The preface of the 
work is a mere bookseller's recommendation, and gives no hints upon 
the motives or principles which guided the compilers in arranging 
the characters. It is as follows : — 

" Books giving the sounds of characters, and forms for letter- 
writers, are among the most common works in bookstores; but the 
largest of them are so cumbrous and bulky as to be troublesome to 
refer to, while the smaller kinds are too condensed to be satisfactory 
for reference. Consequently, neither of them are well suited for 
convenient use. Wu Hioh-pii of Yii-shSn, and Wan K'i-shih of 
Wu-k'i have, however, jointly arranged a collection of words by 
their tones, and an assortment of letters for the use of traders in 
their travels, which are both comprehensive and brief, giving the 
kernel of the matter. The two works assist each other; and as 
they are not too large to carry about with one, they are also full and 
easy of reference ; for as it would be ine.xpedient to require the pur- 
chaser to get two bulky books at a high price, they are now com- 
bined into a single neat ' sleeve gem,' and arranged on the top and 
bottom of the page; so that if one is in doubt respecting the mean- 
ing of a character, he can readily look it up among the classes of 
sounds; and if he does not know the exact sound, it will not be 
troublesome to gather it from the reading. Thus one part of the 
volume will help the other, like a carriage and a boat when one is 
traveling by land and water, both having their appropriate uses and 
position. Those who are learned will appreciate the propriety of 
these remarks. A prefatory note. 

" Summer of 178-2." 

This pocket dictionary is usually bound in four thin volumes, and 
sold for twenty-five cents; it contains 7327 characters, and only 175 
pages, or on the average 4'v to each page, which plainly shows how 


meagre are the definitions. In comparison with the local vocabularies 
used at Amoy and Fuhchau, it is very imperfect, and proves the 
ignorance of the compilers of what was wanted for a local diction- 
ary, or leads one to infer that they did not know how to prepare a 
good one. There is no table of initials and finals as in those voca- 
bularies, nor any list of syllables, by combining which one can get 
the proper sound of a character ; for he who uses it, strangely enough, 
is supposed to know already the sound of the character he is in 
search of. The unwritten sounds or colloquial words used by the 
people of Canton are nearly all omitted, which is one of the greatest 
defects in it, and renders it far less useful to the foreigner who is 
learning the dialect than those just spoken of. One reason, probably, 
why so little notice is taken of these colloquial words in the Fan 
Wan is the disregard the Cantonese pay to them in their writing, as 
no one would degrade his composition by inserting them. This 
rejection has had the result of keeping the greater part of them 
unwritten, and the compilers of the Fan Wan, knowing no authoriz- 
ed characters by which to express them, nor having any tabular 
system of initials and finals in which to insert them so that the 
student could find them, have omitted them. In fact, except in these 
two ways, a Chinese actually has no possible means to express 
a sound, and the latter mode is so clumsy and unsatisfactory that it 
would probably be understood by few natives who use the book. 

The adoption of proper characters to denote these unwritten 
sounds is a troublesome, matter for a native writer, and it is not sur- 
prising that he avoids their use. However, they are occasionally 
written, but not all on the same principles. Sometimes a well-known 
character of the same tone is selected to express the sound ; and its 
evidently utter inaptitude in the connection to express any sense is 
depended upon to intimate that it is used for a colloquial word. 
This expedient is frequently employed by partly educated persons 
in letters, when they do not know, or cannot remember the proper 
characters. Another device to indicate colloquial words is to prefix 
the character hau p mouth, or yan y^ a man, at the side of some 
>yell known character of the same sound, but jiot always of the same 
tone. The words tsoP -j^ a cargo; cM '/o ^ ji^, furniture; ^mai 
0^ do not ; tsoi '^^ pshaw \ and 7^ |^ remiss, &c., are examples 


of this sort. Sometimes, again, a character which comes nearest in 
tone is taken to represent the needed sound, and the knowledge of 
the reader is expected to inform him that it is employed in a vulgar 
sense. The words atiw ^^ milk ; Jan ^^ a bazaar ; and mdi -ffl^ 
a lady, are examples of this practice. Again, characters having 
nearly the same meaning as the colloquial word, but of an entirely 
different sound, are adopted, so that even if the reader does not know 
the vulgar sound he will make no mistake as to the sense. Thus, 
the words Jiung ijf-lt to roast, used for <.nung, to scorch, to scowl ; 
Jiung !J| a hole, used for Jung; are instances of this mode of adapta- 
tion. Lastly, entirely new characters are made for some of them ; as 
lat ffi to detach, pang j^ a knock, which of course have no cur- 
rency in other parts of China, as neither their sound or meaning 
will be known elsewhere. Besides these, there are a few colloquial 
words, a.s^iig, kwit,Jik, ap, &,c., for which no characters can be 
found, and which cannot therefore be written at all. 

The best course to adopt respecting the colloquial words found 
in this dialect, has been a matter of considerable perplexity in the 
preparation of this Dictionary. There being so many modes to 
express them, it was concluded to follow that plan for each cha- 
racter, which seemed to be the best understood among the people. 
The student must not however place much dependence on many of 
the characters employed to denote these unwritten sounds, for they 
are not uniformly represented, and other persons would perhaps 
choose different characters. The colloquial meanings of a word 
are usually distinguished from the more authorized definitions, so 
that no trouble will, it is hoped, be found on this score to those who 
use the dictionary in other parts of China, where the colloquial is 
entirely different. 

The characters are classed in the Fan Wan under thirty-three 
finals, whose sounds are represented by standard and vi^ell known 
characters, as given in the annexed Table, all of them in the four 
upper tones, except the two last finals. The characters in the second 
half have been selected from the body of the book to illustrate the 
lower tones, and to aid the scholar in discriminating the two series. 
There, are however actually fifty-three fi)ials in the dialect, if we 
include the terminations in the fotjrth tone. 





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^ ^ 5;p. i? cr v-^ ;t' „c j*> ^^ ^ vF IP d? v' "^ 

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bO £P bO ho 

1 1 ,.,„i iiiiiiiij i-s 




i: ^-{^^^S! m: m 















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.- bo bO ^ 3 bp x3 bfl 

= ■«.«;= S 3-5 S :S o -^ o c :5 c -^ 




M WM^m^ k3 :gs 





i^^sJ+H ^M ^mi*mm-¥^% m^-H 























































































ai -^ 5f<Q 














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CC 00 


























































^^CV*^^^ftM?S:m®-i^{Ei:g^ ^l-4n 

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— — « 5> -> ~> 

tr? O J~ 

5; O — -> 


The variations heard in the pronunciation of words under these 
thirty-three finals, though rather perplexing, bear only a small pro- 
portion to the whole number of words in the language. The most 
usual discrepancies heard under each order are here given, but it is 
impossible, and would be useless, to exhibit every alteration from 
what the Fan Wan represents as the proper sound. On the whole 
that manual may be regarded as a fair exhibition of the general pro- 
nunciation. Other modes of spelling the same sounds, adopted by 
Dr. Morrison, Mr. Devan and Mr. Bonney, in their vocabularies of 
this dialect, and by others who haVe tried to write them, are given 
in parenthesis under each number. 

1. Sin, sit, like seen, seat, peat, mean. Several of the words 
commencing with a vowel, as in g, in J^, it 5^, are heard with 
a nasal or aspirate, as ngin, hin, ngit. (Seen, leet.) 

2. Wai, like buy, nigh. Words under this final occasionally run 
into the longer sound of a2 in the 14th order, especially in those 
like ktoai and sTiai. (Lei, m,fy.) 

3. Ki, \\keme,jlee. A few words beginning with k, p and/", are 
frequently heard like the 20th final, as ki 1^ pi "JH. fi ^fe, ki 
p* , pronounced k6, pi,fi, or ke; but this is the exception. Others 
having no initial, as i ZZ.1*JPP are often heard ngi. (Tee, she, ki.) 

4. Chit, like sue, or the first part of the word choose. Words in 
this order beginning with h, I, n, and ts, are often heard sliding into 
hui, lui, nui, tsui, like the 22d order, as ^=^, "(2, -tT, ^^, fe ; 
those under the other initials are less frequently mispronounced. 
(Kuy, sue, nu, loy, u.) 

5. Sau, like now, cow, how. Words in this order like au »y^, p]^, 
having no initial, often seem to a beginner to lengthen the vowels 
into du, like the 18th order, as also do those like chau HJ' hau f^ 
andjp'aw, ^1j but a little practice will discriminate them. (T'soio, 
show, hdio.) 

6. Tung, tuk, like the Irishism wroong for icrung, and so nearly 
toong, took, that it is doubtful whether this final ought not to be 
written tung, tiik ; it must never be sounded like the English words 
sung, hung, tongue. There are no variants in this final worth 
noticing. (Soong, yak, tbk.) 


7. Ying, yih, like singi ling, giiicki icing. So many words under 
this order change the final into eng and ek, that a separate list has 
been made of them in the general Table of Sounds, but the propor- 
tion is small; all the common words are noticed in the body of the 
Dictionary. At Macao and thereabouts, a large proportion change 
the final into ting and ak of the loth order, as ^ a BR ifm , JSl, 
into hang, kang, mang, nang, pang, &c., by which the people from 
Iliiingshan district are recognized at Canton. (Leng, pacng, te-ang, 

8. Pan, pat, likey«M, son, shun, tun, won, never like man, fan, 
hat, cat. Variants in the yap shiiig, passing into the long sound at 
of the 25th order, are occasionally heard, but a more frequent change . 
is into pin, pit, or pen, pet, which is peculiar to the people of the 
districts of Sinhwui and Kauyiu southwest of Canton. (Pun, kdn, 
fut, yet, chat.) 

9. Cheung, chiuk, like the combined sounds in say 'em ; there 
is no English word with this diphthong. The variations in this^ 
final are rare. (Chaong, cheong, lay-ung, yok, naung, tsay-tik.) 

10. Kong, kok, like long, song, wrong, hawk, baulk; never like 
sock, lock. There is no difficulty in recognizing all words under 
this final, even when as is occasionally the case, they are heard like 
l()ng. (Pawng, kaiok, I6k, w6ng, hoak, tsoang.) 

11. Ku, Id, as coo, cuckoo, lo, hoe, fiow. The compilers of the 
Fan Wan seem to have been unable to distinguish the characters 
under this final into the two terminations of u and 6, and have 
combined them apparently because in the court dialect most of 
them ended in u. Those beginning with /, m, sh, and s slide from 
hi, mv, sv, shv, into Id, md, shd, so, but under other initials there is 
no trouble in distinguishing them. (Lo, low, ku,fod.) 

12. Ckiu, like new, few, both vowels being plainly sounded. 
This final is now and then heard like iu, as i® ^u for iti ; ySS n^u 
for niu ; and also sliding into the 4th as QS hii for hiii. (Kcw, chin, 
tfi-ur, tin.) 

13. (in, vt, like the u in ruin, June, jute, dilute. The variations 
under this final are unimportant, and those are where the vowel is 
changed in a few words to i, as 'H^ nen for nun. (Hcuet, shun, 
lit, une, sute.) 


14. Kdi, like aye, aisle, never shortened into nigh,Jli/,V\\ie the 
2(1 final, though that frequently is prolonged into this. The Chinese 
discriminate between the diphthongs ai and di with much accuracy, 
and the student should pay particular attention to them at first, or 
he will constantly confound them. (Pai, nie, ti, kdi, kye.) 

15. Tang, tak, like tongue, sung, hung, muck, luck, never like 
hang, bang, jack, sack. There are many words placed under this 
final, which from the constant tendency to lengthen the vowel are 
heard like the 32d final, as ^^ shdng for shang ^ hang for hang, d|/ 
pdk for pak, &c.; many of these, variations are noticed in the body 
of the work. (Pung, hang, tuk, mak, hek, shdng, ydk.) 

16. Sz' , tsz\ like no words in the English language, but much 
like a hiss. The people of Canton itself pronounce these two words 
very clearly, but in the villages around and south of it, they are 
changed into shi, si), szi), schi, tsii, tsi, ch'i, so that in many cases 
it is hard to recognize them. (Szc, sz, sse, ss', tse.) 

17. Kam, kap, like hum, some, conic, sup, tup, never like ham, 
rap, nor came, lame, nape, rape. A few words properly referred to 
this final lengthen the vowel into kdm, kdp, like the 24th, and others 
also are changed into short e, askem, nem. (Ynm, shup, lam shdp.) 

18. Kdu, like how very much prolonged ; the difference between 
this, and the 5th final is merely in the longer sound of the a. There 
are no variations in pronunciation worth noticing in this final. 
(Pow, kaou, chaow.) 

19. 7*04, like boy, noise, loiter. The oi in some of the words 
referred to this final, inclines to ui of the 22d, as ^ m\ ^ lui, 
nui, tui, for loi, noi, tdi, but a little care will easily discriminate 
them; most of the words are uniformly sounded. (Toy, suy.) 

20. Kim, kip, like cream, seem, team, sheep, reap. The word.s 
under this final are very uniform, and there is no particular cha- 
racter worth noticing as a variant. ( Kccm, leep.) 

21. Tsun, tsut, like the u in put, nuisance, the sound lying 
between the vowel sounds in fun and fool, in the 8th and 27th 
orders; the 8th, 21st and 27th finals pan, tsun, kini, are kept very 
distinct by the Chinese, and must not be confounded. It is not 
easy to distinguish the u in this order from the u in tung, tuk, as 
some have endeavored to do, for if the word isuw be slowly prolong- 


ed into fsung, it will be seen the difference is in the quantity rather 
than in the quality of the vowel. (Tsun, soot.) 

22. Sui, a combination of u in the preceding order with i ; there is 
no similar sound in English. Words under the 4th final commenc- 
ing with s, / or n, easily run into this, and some of those placed here, 
as tsui, yui, tui, run into the 28th order. The Chinese, who are 
not fettered or guided by any alphabetic sounds, often discriminate 
these nearly homophonous words better than we do. (Suy, mooy, 
soy, shoo-e.) -^ 

23. Fo, like law, saw, taic, not lo, no, two ; the o as in long, sawn, 
as in the 10th and 30th orders. This final undergoes no changes, 
that are worth noticing. (Waw, hd, late, ho.) 

24. Kdm, hip, like calm, psalm, not like ham, jamb, rap, map. 
The characters under this final are comparatively few, and the 
changes in their^ronunciation very slight. (Lakm, kam, tarm, chaap, 

25. Fan, fat, like Jahn, father, not like fan, fat, man, mat. 
In the district of Shunteh, some characters in this order take a 
singular change to tn, as r^ hen (like mane), *^ p^n, ga kin (like 
canc^, and so of others. (Wan, pann,fat.) 

26. Ka, like mflr, pa, a syliabk that can hardly be mispronounced; 
there are no variations in the characters found under it. (Ka,faJif 

27. Kun, kut, like loon, coot, moot, noon, presents no changes in 
the sounds of the few characters found under it worth noticing. 

28. Fui is a well defined diphthong, like buoy, broader than sui 
in the 22d order, and having only one initial in common with that ; 
the consonant has much influence on the quantity of the vowel. 
(Tsoy, luji, kooy, nui, oo-e.) 

29. Ch^, like may, lay, they, yea; it has few aberrations, and 
most of those are mispronunciations from the 3d order, under a few 
initials. (Yay,ya,se-ay.) 

30. Kon, hot, like lawn, brawn, fought, sought ; there are very 
few characters under this final, and in the mouths of many persons 
some of them, as on and ngon are heard like ong and ngong. (Iloan, 
kon, 6n, kot ) 


31. Kdm, kdp, Vike home, comb, hope, not like some, come, sup, or 
torn, hop ; there is a peculiar ora rotunda observable in the pro- 
nunciation of the few words referred to this order. (Kum, kup, kdm, 
h6m, hap, hop, h6p.) 

32. P'dng, pdk, sounded with a broad a, and not like ban/^, hang, 
crack. Many words under the 15th final are so uniformly sounded 
Mke this that they should properly have been placed under it ; there 
is a constant tendency of the short vowels to lengthen into the broader 
ones. (Hiik, lang, chak.) 

33. 'Ng, 'M, are sounds heard in all languages, in rapid conver- 
sation, but such as are seldom written ; hng and hm is perhaps a 
better form of writing them than that here adopted. (Im, 'm, ing, 


No list of initials is given in the Fan Wan ; there are twenty- 
three in all, which are here represented by the following characters. 
The first one is a miite, and used when the final only is pronounced, 
having no consonant before it. 

1 Au H^ 6Kfn ^ il Ma ,1| 16 Sam H 21 Ts'ai ^ 

2 Chi ;2 7 K'ing ^^ 12 Nam ^ 17 Shing H 22 W4 ^ 

3 Chut |1{ 8 Kwai % 13 Nga ^ 18 Ta tJ" 23 Ying ^ 

4 Fung M, 9 Kw'a ^ 14 Pd ^S 19 T'oi "^ 

5 Hoi 1^10 Lam # 15 P'o ^ 20 Tsing >^ 

The diversities in the initials are so much fewer than those in the 
finals, that they are soon described, though for their nuniber they 
give more trouble, perhaps, than the others. 

1. All words having no initial consonant, are very liable to have 
a nasal n^ or an A prefixed to them, or to have the vowel altered. 
The people in Hidngsh'm, Macao, and Sin-ngan, change many words 
in this way, so thlat if one does not see the character, he will look 
for it under h or ng. 

2, 20. The initials ch and ts are constantly confounded, and some 
persons are absbJutely unable to detect the diff(prence, more frequent- 
ly calling the words u^der ts as ch, than contrariwise. All cha- 

racters with the sounds tsz' and ts'z' are liable to be heard chi and 
ch^i, with a stronger breathing than those properly read chi and cA'f. 

4. The people along the coast and south of Canton often alter the 
initial f into h or w in some words, and retain it in others ; it 
changes sooner before a or o, than before i or u. 

10, 1 1 . The two initials / and m are frequently so interchanged in, 
the mouths of some people, that one is much puzzled to distinguish, 
them, and even n is altered too: as lam pa for nam; man jm for 
Idn ; Id -oj/ for mo ; &-c. The number of such words is not very, 
great, and while the few who speak thus cannot discriminate the 
inital consonant before some vowels, they never interchange thenij 
before others. 

16, 17. The initial sk is called s along the coast ; in the districts 
of Hiingshdn, Sinning and Siiing.'in, this obtains to a very great 
extent; skui ^jC, shu -gg^, shiik ^^, shdng shing -^ ^^>&c. &c., 
being heard sui, sii, suk, and sang sing, as in the Ti^chiu and Amoy. 
dialects. The initial sh is a complete shibboleth to the people of. 
those districts. West of Canton, many are found who change sz' 
into sii, and a large part of the words beginning with s are changed 
into sh, just the opposite of the usage at Macao. 

These five classes of changes are the most frequent, and with, 
those in the finals may perhaps discourage the beginner whether he 
be able to learn a speech which varies so much in its pronunciation.. 
The proportion the variants bear to the whole body of characters 
is not so great, however, as he might conclude, and when once as- 
certained it will not be difficult to follow them ; besides which, no 
individual will ever be found who has them all. 


The system of writing the sounds of the Chinese characters 
adopted in this Dictionary is nearly like that proposed by Sir W. 
Jones, and already used to some extent in China. It is exhibited 
in the following table : — 

1. a as in quota, variable ; fan, lam, tang, kat. 

2. a a% \n father ; ldn,kdm,chdng, pat, kdp,hd. 

3. € as in men, dead, said ;, heng. 

4. ^ as in they, neigh, say ; che, m^, sh^, ts^ung. 



I . ; f -. 

"5. 7^^inpin,fifu\<h; yiitff, hik. 

6. i ds ni machine, feel, ere ; hi, sin, kim. 

7. o as in long, lord, law ; ko, sung, Icon, kok, hot. 
o. '6 as in so, hoe, crow ; nd, kdm, hbp. 

9. u as in hull, pressing into rule; tsun, sut, tung, yuk. 

10. u as in school, fool, rule ; ku,fvn, put. 

11. ii as in French jewnc, I'unc. ; sut, iit. 

12. it as in turn ; hu, tit. 
1'3, ai as in while, high, fly, hushai ; kai, sai. 

14. di as in aisU, aye; fax, mai. 

15. au as iii now, round, plough ; mau, sau. 

16. du as in howl, pronounced longer : chdu, kdu. 

17. ^M as in Capernaum, say 'em ; heung, leuk. 

18. iu as '\n pew, chew; liu, siti. 

19. oi as in boy, toil; oi, tsoi. 

20. Iff nearly as in Lo7tis, peculiar; sui, lui. 

21. /'J as in cooing, chewing; mui,fui. 

22. sz' This is an imperfect vowel sound, unknown in European 

languages ; if in pronouncing the word dizzy, the two letters 
di be changed to s, this sound will be made. 
2!3. 'm or hm, is spoken with a closed month, like a voluntary half 

24. 'ng is a nasal sound, made by stopping the nose when it is 
The consonants need no illustration, as they are uniformly 
pronounced as in English : — 

ch, as in church ; ng, as in sing ; 

f, a.& in Jife; p, as in pa/> ; 

A, as in hai'c ; s, as in sea, yes ; 

k, as in kiiig ; sh, as in shut, chaise ; 

kw, as in quality ; t, as in title ; 

I, as iu lame ; ts, as in ratsbane, ivits ; 

m, as in maim ; w, as in wing ; 

n, as in nun ; y, as in yard ; 

The above comprise all the vowels, diphthongs and consonants, 
found in the Canton dialect. In addition the Court Dialect con- 
tains a few more, and as the pronunciation of each character in the 


Fan Wan is given in that dialect under it, they are here added. 
For the sounds given to the characters in this dialect, the diction- 
aries ofDeGuignes, Morrison, Goftcalves, and Medhurst, nearly 
agree throughout ; and though what is termed the kioan hwa differs 
as much as any of the local dialects, when it is heard in different 
parts of the country, still there is a general resemblance. This 
system is more strictly that whicfe is knowrj among the Chinese as 
the Nan hwa or Southern dialect, in contrad'istinction to the Peh 
hied or Northern dialect^ the cities of Nanking and Peking respec- 
tively being regarded as the standard's of autliority 6f the two. The 
additional finals and initials found in the Gourt Dialect alone are the 
following: — 

ei, nearly as in weigh, but vefy open, both vowels being heard. 

id, as in i/ard, piastre, both vowels plainly heard. 

idh, like the last, but ending abruptly. 

idi, a triphthong, each letter of Vvhich is heard. 

idtig, like idh, except the' final ng ; bbth are pronounced broad. 

idu, it, ieh, ien, ih, in, ioh, iuek, iucn, iuh, iun, and iung, are all 
to be sounded distinctly, the i to be plairtly eriunciated before the 
other letters. 

oh, is an abrupt ending, like knock, though not so decided. 

ueh, uen, and uh, are all to be sounded distinctly. All words end- 
ing in h, are in the jih shing, biit it is generally so soft as to lead 
many to say that this tone does not occur in the court dialect. 

By combining all the fifty-three finals with all the twenty-three 
initials, there would be 1229 sounds in the dialect which could be 
represented by Roman letters; there are however only 707 different 
syllables given in this Dictionary, many possible combinations, as 
kwbm, tnng, hH,put, kwiung, fdm, foi. Ion, shot, sun, wiii, &-c., 
not occuring in the dialect. The table of all the sounds here given 
will show the paucity of different vocables, though it does not 
probably include all the variations heard among the people, which 
however most frequtently run into other sounds occurring in the table, 
snd do not often exhibit new sounds. The list of finals in the first 
column is arranged according to the table from the Fan Wan on 
piige \iv, and not alphabetically. 




































































f ahg 




















ch m 



ch p 



















































Hoi I Kin I K'ing j Kwai 























ch' ui 
























fii ' 


hong I 













































kw i 






k wing 



























































' kw'i 

ku^nng kw'ing 
kwik I 



! 7> ' 










T'oi Tsing Ta'ai \V6 Ying 

















mengi neng 

iiiek i 

man | nan 
mat { nat 
j n^ung 



ngau : pau 



pungi p'cng, sung 


I pik 

I P^fig 

p'irig ; sing 
p'ik > sik 
p'eng seng 



mong nong i ngong' pong p'ong 
mok inok ngok pok 



mil : n;ii 
mang nang 
mak inak 











man d.Mi 




f "" 








s'n sh'n t'n 

sit sh't tit 

Sal stiai tai 

sM t( 

sQ flha .;..'.. 

sau j shaa tau 

shung tung 

shuk tuk 

shing ling 

shik tik 

sheng teng 


shan tan 

shat tat 
srungi sheungj tiung 

sink j shcuk ittlk 

shong 'torfg 

hok tok 


t'iit I tain 
fit { tsit 
t'ai tSai 






pang i p'ang sang 




























ng6t < pat 1 .... 


















' 'pbm 

\ P^P 

I ngiingl pang' p'Ang, 
ngak I pak ip'ak 




















































\ wau 










tsat ! 
tsok I 























ts'au . 
ts' ung 
ts'ing I 
ts'eng I 
ts'ek j 
tsan i 
ts'at j 

ts'Qn ^ 
ts'flt' -' 






ts*ap -, 






t'ui j tsCii ts'di 
...„. itse I ts'e 











A.. •• 



• •i««*»^ 




-5. — 






The final hit, kil, lit, Slc, in the last line but one in this Table, 
is not found in the Fan Wan at all ; the compilers appear to have 
thought it unnecessary to add a whole order and another final for 
the sake of one character, hii S^|^ a boot, the only one in the dialect 
not vulgar or colloquial. 

It will prove serviceable for the student to make out a table of 
characters to correspond to this table of sounds, and read them 
across and down with a native, so as to notice the effect made on 
a final by changing the initial, and the alterations produced on an 
initial under many finals. Reading over such a table a dozen times 
with as many educated natives, will give as distinct an idea of the 
changes which characters undergo in their sounds in the speech of 
different persons, as can be obtained. 

There have been attempts to follow up these changes in writing 
this dialect in Roman letters, but in all cases it is better to adhere 
to the classified arrangement given in the Fan Wan, and remember 
the exceptions as being such. In the vocabularies and phrase-books 
of Dr. Morrison, Mr. Devan and Mr. Bonney, no attention has been 
paid to the classes of finals as given in the Fan Wan, or to the tones 
or aspirates, and the errors in writing the words are numerous, eyen 
according to their own modes of spelling. 

The system of writing Chinese sounds here followed, has been 
adopted, with some slight variations, in writing other dialects of 
the language ; but it would be a great advantage to allstudents in it 
if all the modes of spelling the dialects could be harmonized. It is 
not supposed, by this remark, that this one is the best which could 
be proposed, for some features of it could be modified to advantage, 
but it certainly is more accurate for the student's use than to follow 
the common English alphabet, with all its strange anomalies. The 
various modes of writing each sound, as quoted after the remarks on 
pp. xvi. . . .xix, show how much difficulty has been felt by those who 
have tried to write them according to the English alphabet. 

Mr. Goddard, in his Ti^chiu Vocabulary, uses<i, a and u as in this 
table, but e, i, o, 6, and u, are substituted by him for the ^, i, d, o, and 
u, in this table. He did not perceive that he was confusing his 
own pronunciation by representing the i in machine an<i in pin by 
the same letter ; as he was by blending th€ c in thctj and men. At 


Amoy, unaccented vowels have been used, and the tones marked 
by accents over the letters, which is likely still more to confuse 
those who may try to read the sounds in that dialect, as a single 
quotation will show. 

86- kdng i, tiap-d-ku, chin-chia" si sid^-mih i-sii? God m chai i ^ 
s6' kdng. 

At Fuhchau, the dialect is written very nearly like the Amoy, 
without the tones superadded ; but at Ningpo there is more dissim- 
ilarity, as an example will show. 

Cd-go t'in-s yin-c'ih-l(B, lih-lec hyiang-en-go jing-siu-pin. 

The differences between all these modes of writing Chinese sounds 
are really not very great, for in none of them has the English al- 
phabet been followed, and it would not be very difficult to reconcile 
them to one standard, an object which appears still more desirable 
when the plan of Romanizing them for the use of unlearned natives 
is taken into the account. Perhaps it would, however, be best to 
discard them all, and adopt Lepsius' universal alphabet, with which 
he proposes to harmonize the mode of writing all languages. 

2.— The Tones. 

The shing ^L or tones form one of the most difficult and peculiar 
features of the Chinese spoken language, but they can neither be 
fully or easily described satisfactorily, for the reason that no European 
language has them. Strictly speaking, they are neither tones, 
modulations, accents, nor emphasis, as those words are usually 
applied in western languages; they probably more nearly resemble 
the sound of notes in music. The note 6^ on a violin, an organ, or 
a bagpipe, strikes the ear very differently, like the voices of a child 
or man ; the note is alike on the gamut, and it chords on all those 
instruments; but let G sharp be struck on one of them, and we feel 
the discord, it is not the note at all. So in respect to Chinese 
shing; if the right shing be not spoken, the right word is not spoken, 


it is some other word. For instance, if a person says kiV instead 
of iku ^J^ an orphan, he does not say the word for orphan at all ; 
he says that for ^^ old, or ^ firm, or j^ to hire, or some other 
word equally remote in meaning. It is as if on the violin the player 
strikes G sharp, instead of G natural ; though he makes a, note he 
makes no chord with the organ or bagpipe sounding G natural ; as 
it were, he speaks the wrong tone, and does not express his meaning. 
It may not be indeed the case in Chinese, that the hearer will always 
misunderstand the speaker even if the tones are pronounced wrong, 
for there are additional clues to the meaning, but the chances are 
against it. 

Many explanations and illustrations of the tones have been written, 
but as no one can get a clear idea of them until he has begun to 
learn them from speaking with the people, it does not seem to be 
worth while here to repeat what has been said in other works upon 
this subject; but simply to refer to those treatises,* and denote the 
way in which they are marked in this Dictionary. What adds to the 
difficulty of understanding the differences between the tones, is that 
the same name is applied by the natives to really different tones in 
different dialects; in which, to complicate the matter still further, 
the tone of the same character is sometimes changed ; consequently, 
a person can hardly be sure that what is applicable to one dialect, is 
descriptive of the same thing in another. The Chinese have written 
about the tones to some extent, but their definitions, from the nature 
of the subject, do not help foreigners much. The people learn the 
pronunciation of words by the ear, and refer to a dictionary when 
it* doubt about the tone, just as we do to Webster or Richardson 
to nret the right spelling, but not to learn what the tones are. 

'J'he compilers of the Fan Wan have formally arranged the cha- 
racters under each final by the four tones ; and have also further 
separated the upper and lower series, and the aspirated characters 

* Preface to Morrison's Dictionary, Vol. I. ; Medhurst's Dictionary of the 
Fuhkien dialect, pp 1-lvii. ; and Dyer's Vocabulary of the Fuhkien dialect; 
Easy Lessons in Chinese, pp 4'?— 55 ; the introduction to the Chinese Chrestom- 
athy ; Chinese Repository, Vol. Ill, pp. 26-28; Vol. IV, p. 172; Vol. VI, p. 
T)?'.) ; Vol. VII, p. 57. Gallery's Systema Phoneticum, pp. 6H-7"<i ; Williams' 
English and Chinese Vocabulary, pp. xxvii-x.xxi. From these works the 
itud«nit will derive all the hints aboqt t\}e tones that description can give him. 


into separate columns, though they have not so distinctly specified 
them. The eight tones as given in the Table on pages xiv, xv, are 
clearly distinguished by the Cantonese, and every word in this 
Dictionary has been marked according to its tone by semicircles, 
something like the mark used by the Chinese, as here exhibited. 

sheung shtung sh^ung sMung kd kd kd hd 

ping, sMungy hii, yap, p'ing, sheung, hii, yap, 

or upper or upper or upper or upper or lower or lower or loxoer or Unoer 
monotone riiirig ton. falling to. abrupt ton. monotone rising ton. falling ion. abrupt tone 

[.] [■] [■] [.] W V] ['] [J 

M 'm^ 'la' m, m 'p- m m. 

cwan Svan"^ wan^ wat) swan 'wan wan' watj 

There is more attention paid to the (f'ing ishing or monotone, 
in its upper and lower inflection, than any other, and while the 
three last are collectively called chak) tsking JX ^i or deflected 
tones, the first retains its name. If the beginner gets a good idea 
and practice of the ip'ing tshing, therefore, he will more easily get 
the others. The ^sheung -.shing is also called the ascending or rising 
tone ; the ku' (Shing the departing or falling tone ; and the yapt skiiig 
the entering or abrupt tone ; these appellations are simply the literal 
renderings of the native terms. 

As the tones in Chinese are totally distinct from accent, in their 
own or other languages, there are many objections to using the 
common and generally understood marks (as '^"') on the tops of 
the vowels to denote them, as has been done in romanizing some 
dialects, and in the dictionaries of De Guignes, Medhurst, and 
others. By taking another sign, there is no mixing of radically 
different symbols over the same syllable, as in kein, koyk, m'e"d, s6', 
where one of the marks affects the power of the vowels, and the 
other denotes the tone of the Chinese character. Since diacritical 
marks in all European languages modify the power of the vowels, 
it is desirable not to introduce any confusion in writing words, the 
more so as the tones in Chinese are so entirely different; it is better 
to adopt a new symbol. 


* The Biirmesp, Siamese, and Shyan languages all possess some- 
thing resembling the Chinese tones. The Burmese have two marks, 
a shay-pouk (°) and an anmyeet („) to denote the different tones or 
stress of voice, which changes the signification of words. The 
Chinese denote a different tone in a few common bilingual characters 
by marking them on that corner which is held to correspond to the 
required tone, as ^ ^. |^ 3^ ^, though this is not always 
done. No books are ever printed with the tones marked to each 
character, for the reason that every person who can read is deemed 
to be acquainted with them. 

The Chinese do not distinguish the upper or lower series when they 
mark the tones, nor do they mark the aspirated characters. They 
have not even a well known definite term to denote the aspirate, the 
phrase pan hi pg ^^ being rather of foreign than native origin, and 
one which every native scholar does not understand without some 
explanation. It is represented usually by a Greek spiritus asper 
f], or an inverted comma ['], when the former is not be obtained, 
to which some add an h also, as ch'hang, t'ho, p'han, t'hik, but not 
wisely, for there is danger of confounding it with such English 
words a.sfan, though, thick. 

In order to learn the tones and aspirates, it is desirable for the 
student to pay special attention for awhile to merely reading and 
pronouncing the characters, irrespective of their meaning or form. 
This should be done when commencing the study, for a vicious 
pronunciation of the tones is seldom corrected ; and one is less 
liable to be misunderstood if he pronounces a word a little wrong, 
as heng for hing, chiuk for tsiuk, than if he giVes it the wrong tone. 
For instance, a native will consider this sentence in the Canton 
dialect :^ -^ 5§ jj^ P>/S ^' less barbarously pronounced if he 
hears it ding yet^ <.chdng dsong m sh'u\ with all the tones correct, 
than if it should be spoken ning^ yati '^ch&ung ch'ong' ni' ichii, with 
all the tones wrong, which would perhaps be nonsense to him. 

The Table given on pages xiv, xv, should be thoroughly learned, 
by reading it backwards and forwards, until the distinction between 
the first three tones in both series is seen. A good practice also is 
to read over the tables of characters given in the Fan Wan under 


each final in the first part of it, where all the initials found under 
each one are arranged by the tones. T'hus, under the 27th final, 
these leading characters are thus arranged, the upper coming before 
the lower series. 

f ^ krin *^ kun ~^ kufi <|p ^ k'lit 

,Wi p'^^ ^'fi "" T^J p'"« -M^) ^^'t 

(Jw P "" ^^/"n ^^ P«" l^j /''*^< 

jl 1 mJin ^^ ^i/n ^^j miit 

The practice of repeatedly reading these collections of characters 
under each final, with a teacher, closely following his voice and 
accent, will give the beginner as clear an idea of the difference 
between the eight tones as he can get, and the practice he needs 
at the same time. Foreigners speak generally in a higher key thani 
natives, and pronounce most words in the qaing (shing, even when 
the termination shows that it is in the yapi (Shing. There are far 
more words, too, in the q)'ing ishing than in any other two tones. 

Another exercise which can be followed with advantage, is to 
read sentences artificially constructed of characters having the same 
final, like the following: — 

, , . , . . iiM- -i-S RSS rtft the eagle is screaming on the 

'Ling 'ting, i/ingming^^ 7J| ^ R^ hilltop. 

.Tan Mn ngan^ 'fan ^ M M M *' thf ra'idT ''"''^'"' " 

Fuk> uk> luL skuk, ii M ^ ^ *^^ ^^^"^ ^^^^P^ ^" *^^ ^^^^ 
'ESC /ai /Jli 1H shed. 

,Pd <pd 'pa 'pa '.pa sp^ 'i^ ^ ^ JQ }Q '^ ^ J)^ papa rakes 
the ground with a rake. 

^Yau tyccu tau^ 'tsau ik'ou 'sau shav} ^ 7^ ^ t|§ ^ J^ '^ 
ask the old man to buy my oil, pulse, or wine. 

'K'au 'tfau tau^ 'kau 'tau, ^k'ii d'au tsau^ Hsau Jl 7h ^^ -H -^ 
iH W't '?vf 7£ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^" pecks of uncle's beans and ran ofl'. 


Wing 'ting ,ping .ting it'ing H'ing t'ing' ^^J ^"X if ^^M 
a drunken soldier leaned on his staff to listen. 

Exercises like these, accompanied with frequent reading of the 
characters, at the same time committing selected sentences to me- 
mory, may seem a waste of time and labor to the beginner, but 
afterwards he will perceive the advantages. The matter of learning 
the tones accurately is one of simple imitation, as one learns a tune, 
or to mimic the voice of another, rather than to find out their nature 
a)id then train the voice according to certain rules. 

The importance paid them by natives appears to have been an 
effort to avoid the confusion which must ensue in speaking so many 
homophonous words, unless there Was something to distinguish them 
to the ear. The Chinese spoken language is so meagre in vocables 
that it is no surprise that those who speak it should endeavor to qua- 
lify the tones, and vary the modulation of the syllables in every way 
they can, if by so doing they can add to the accuracy of their speech 
and facilitate conversation. In this Dictionary, for instance, there 
are eighty-one characters included under the syllables ki and k'i ; 
and a native will so pronounce each one that in most cases he will 
be understood without much difficulty, though the context, and the 
dissyllabic phrases in which some of the characters are used, may 
perhaps assist as much as the right tone. But a foreigner would 
find difficulty at first in detecting any diffigrence in the pronuncia- 
tion of the whole number eighty-one, if a native should read them 
off to him. The chief hindrance in learning these tones lies in 
the want of practice in such delicate modulations — a practice quite 
unnecessary to those speaking any European language — rather 
than in any mystery as to their nature. Practice in speaking, with 
close attention at first to the right sound, will soon give a habit that 
will gradually become easy; if the student does not learn them in 
this way, no rules can help him. 


3. — Plan of this Dictionary. 
This Dictionary is called a Tonic Dictionary, because the charac- 
ters in it are arranged under each syllable, according to their 
tones, beginning with the ^sh£ung ip'ing ^shing J^ 3i ^ or upper 
monotone, then the ha} iping (shing ~K ^ ^ or lower monotone, 
followed by the '^shiung ^sheung _J]^ _£^, and ha} hh^ung ~K 
p , or upper and lower rising tone, the ^sMung hii^ "K ^, and 
lastly the ka} hu' "T» -^ or upper and lower retiring tone, always 
in this same order. The other two tones, the ^sh^ung yapt Q ^ 
and hd^ yapi "T^ ^ will of course be found under other syllables. 

In printing the volume, two main objects have been aimed at. 
The first was to compress the essential part of a dictionary of the 
Chinese language into a small space, and make as portable a volume 
as could be done consistently with its usefulness, one which could 
be carried with one when traveling, or handily used in learning 
common characters. The second object grew out of the first : that 
was to give all the examples in Roman letters only, the tone and as- 
pirate of each word being carefully marked. This plan had already 
been tried in De Guignes' Chinese Dictionary, but was not very useful 
in that work in consequence of the characters being arranged under 
their radicals and not by syllables, so that the student, who was not 
already well acquainted with the characters, knew not where to turn 
for them, even with the assistance of the tedious list of syllables 
at the end. It was the want of Chinese type which compelled the 
editor to publish that work as he did. The plan of Goncalves was 
an improvement on that of De Guignes, for he inserted the cha- 
racters to his examples with their translations, omitting the sounds. 
In the works of Morrison and Medhurst, both are given ; in the 
small work of Goddard, both are omitted, as no examples were con- 
templated by the plan of his work. 

In the Pan Wan, the attempt has been made, by writing the sound 
and tone of each word in every quotation, to enable the student, 
with the help of the translation following it, to refer to all the cha- 
racters in it, by turning to them under their proper syllables. If 
the characters had been introduced without their sounds, there 



would have been a saving of room, but not enough to make the book 
its present size. Portability was deemed of so much importance, 
that advantages incompatible with it Were sacrificed. A single in- 
stance will show how much the volume would have been increased 
without adding a single sentence, if the characters had been inserted 
in such type as is now available. When fonts of Chinese type 
are made as small as they have occasionally been cut, (as |# ^ ^^ 
or ^ ^ 3i Hlj S,) it will be more practicable to introduce them. 
_jL. Wood ; a tree ; wooden ; the 

'- 75th radical of characters per- 
^ taining to wood; one of the five 
elements and eight sounds ; 
stiff, unbending; honest, un- 
pretending; yat:> it'iu shu^ muh 
a single tree ; muki ts^ung^ or 
tau' muki ii/an, a carpenter ; 
muki liu^ timber, lumber; muh 
d'au, a block of wood, a billet, 
a stump ; muh hoh a wooden | 
dipper; m?<^}cA<?M?i^,putchuck 
Uuki muki to chop wood; muki 
ising, Jupiter ; muki ^k'^ung, 
cross-grained ; chough muki 
ichung, to "strike the wooden 
bell," is to get the bribe with- 
out paying it over to the ruler; 
muki ^ngau <.ynn, an image, a 
dunce; sz'^ <fong muki a square 
block, a poor stick of a fellow; 
muki imun, " wooden doors," 
i. e. a rich family. 

■J^ Wood ; a tree ; wooden ; the 
' - 75th radical of characters pcr- 

' "^ taining to wood; one of the five 
elements and eight sounds ; 
stiff, unbending; honest, un- 
pretending; yaf^c^'i?/ sAii^w?<A:) 
"~f^lij TK^^i^g^et^ee; 
muki ts^ung^ 7k ]^ ^^ '''"*' 
muki ij/mi, p3] -^ A ^ car- 
penter ; muki liii} "Th* jKi tim- 
ber, lumber ; rnuki it'an J?!;^ 
g5 a block of wood, a billet, 
a stump ; muki hoh -k^ ^ 
a wooden dipper ; muh ,hvung 
^ ^ putchuck ; t^uh muh 
^ ■;;^ to chop wood ; muh 
ising, yV © Jupiter ; muki 

^k'iung, "^ >l^ cross-grain- 
ed ; ckong^ muh <.chung, \^ 
Tk. ^^ to "strike the wooden 
bell," is to get the bribe with- 
out paying it over to the ruler; 
muki -ngau ^yau, 1^ ^.^\ f^ 
an image, a dunce ; sz" c/'"^ 
muki on /f 7|^ a square 
block, a poor stick of a fellow; 
muh imun, yf^ Pt " wooden 
doors," i. e. a rich family. 


Care has been taken to have all the characters quoted in the 
examples contained in the book, so that when at a loss it can be 
referred to. If there be any doubt as to which is the right one out of 
a number, the meaning of the sentence will soon lead to it ; and it 
may be added that the habit of supplying the characters as one reads 
over the quotations given in a definition, will tend to impress them 
upon the memory, and make them familiar. If unluckily, the tone 
has been placed wrong, or the syllable incorrectly printed, then the 
meaning will aid in selecting the right character ; but it is believed 
that the errors in the quotations are not numerous. If the sound of 
a character is not remembered, it can be found by referring to the 
Index at the end. There is room on the margin for writing a few 
characters when it is desired, and in many cases it will prove useful 
to do so. 

In order to find a character in the Index, it is necessary first to 
ascertain its radical, and then count the number of strokes made in 
writing the rest of it. The largest part of the radicals are characters 
in common use, and the student will do well to learn the whole 
number thoroughly, so that he can tell their order and meaning. It 
will not only be useful in looking up words in the Chinese lexicons^ 
but it will greatly assist him in remembering their composition and 
meaning. The best mode of impressing the forms of the {characters 
on the memory is an important question ; but in most cases, the 
union of the radical and primitive, as the two parts to be remember- 
ed, has the advantage of simplicity, and the sound and meaning can 
be attached to these by the laws of association better than to a col- 
lection of strokes made apparently without plan. After learning the 
radicals, a careful examination of the primitives as given by Callery 
will show the principles on which the great mass of characters in 
the language are formed, and practice in reading and writing will 
I hen make them familiar. 

Many of the most common characters are the most difficult to 
findjn the index; they are generally placed under the simpler radi_ 
cals, where they should be looked for first. For instance, |^, ^ 
^, JJ{ are all under \, ^, g, ^, are under ZL ; %^ ^, 
are under j\^-, all of which are referred to these radicals chiefly 
because it was a prominent part of the character, and likely to catch 


the eye. Such anomalous instances amount to about two hundred, 
all of them primitives, while the remainder will give less trouble in 
ascertaining the proper radical. About one half (108) of the radi- 
cals are placed on the right or left of the primitive, — constituting one 
half of the character, and easily recognized. Others, like .^, '^j 
I \ "^^, rj, i^, P^ and p^ embrace the primitive, and give no 
trouble. About 40 of them are placed on the top of the primitive, 
a few of which enter into combination with it, as in ^^, ^, ^p, 
in such a manner as to give some hesitation as to the radical ; while 
others, as*^, J^,^, JiV* ^' H*' '°',4f,;^, P» aremore 
apparent. For many of the remainder, where the radical is either 
in combination, or the character is formed of two or three radicals, 
as;^;^, ^' or ^' practice will soon give the necessary facility in 
finding them. Some characters as ^, ^j, ^, ^, |i^, ^, made 
up of two primitives, are usually placed with reference to their 
meaning, and not to the most prominent part where they would be 
looked for ; but their number is small. An examination of the radi- 
cals and the groups placed under them will be found in Williams' 
F'asy Lessons, pp. 4-29, and in Medhurst's Chinese and English 
Dictionary, pp. xvi-xxiv. 

In counting the number of strokes in a character, the radical is 
not reckoned. After becoming familiar with the radicals themselves, 
and having a general acquaintance with the primitives, the number 
of strokes can most quickly be ascertained by inspection. For in- 
stance, the character miiti^ rice porridge, found under the radi- 
cal lik ^, i^ made up of ^, ^, -^ and ^) which seve- 
rally number 3, 3, 6, and 15 strokes, or 27 in all ; the character im^ 
/^ bubbling water, placed under the radical shut t|J^, is composed 
'^f ft ? ^) -^5 M' numbering 6, 7, 5, and 5 strokes, or 23 in 
all. The number of characters formed of so many strokes as these 
is very (ew, and in most cases a glance at the word is sufficient to 
see how many make it. 







[Words in a or d. are often heard begin- 
ning with ng, as ngd, ngai, ngat. 

A colloquial word. An in- 
terrogative particle ; also one 
indicatingthat the affirmation 
is indisputable ; a mere final 
answering tone, having no 
meaning; 'Adcdwell, very well; 
td Mjfli' poor, necessitous ; 'Ar'ii 
'^kdm wa} (a, he said so ; maL 
^yi (d, what ? ''kdm tsi^ td, no, 
this is the way to do it. 
ffA A raven with a white streak 


"f on its breast ; Ho (d, a raven 
or crow ; u'd <d, written rough- 

ly ; cd piii' inai, opium. 
qrr A colloquial word. An in- 
* ^^ terjection used in answers, 
denoting surprise or alarm ; 
alas ! dreadful. 
Read ingd ; the wrangling of 
children ; to open the mouth 
wide ; urtgd -Mn ^mai, cochi- 
neal .' 

A fork, 3 crotch ; the part- 
ing of two branches, fingers, 
or tines ; cd ifau or td -.wan, 

TON, DRT. 1 




a slave girl; td kok, kaP a 
little boy ; cd tcA'd, a fork, a 
rest for clothes' sticks ; shield 
fork of a tree ; csdm cd tt' meet- 
ing of three ways, a trivium. 
The confused noise of chil- 
dren studying; ; dumb ; to keep 
silent, for which the next is 
used; 'd map an enigma; 
Using itidn 'd ^j/an, hard to 
bear it patiently. 

Also read ak,; aki ai-jthe sound 
of giggling. 
JS^ Dumb, unable to speak; 

. dull, faded ; a cracked sound, 

■^ as a bell ; wheezing ; nape of 
the neck ; 'd 'tsai, a dumb boy; 
'd 'AflM imd iin, will not speak, 
sulky ; 'd tuki dumb people 
are revengeful ; isheng tap 'd, 
the sound is indistinct. 
pJC.* A colloquial word. A final 

/ particle, adding intensity to 
the meaning ; i'm '^hd d' not at 
all good. 

Also spoken d' ; ten, used after^ 
higher number ; an answer, a 
word of reply like Aye ! d"Ad, 
yes, well ; sz" d' its in, forty 



■p^*^ Hiinchbacked ; lo esteem 
, > lightly, to reg;ird as inferior ; 
jiPj J second, nexi to, jnnior, in- 
^ ferior ; a syllable prefixed to 
proper names, for which the 
second is often used ; it also 
impersonates ei>ithets ; d' 
7nuP a younger sister, a lass ; 
d'wQ/)Mr. SoandSo;d';?i^ 
a silly fellow ; d' ^.ch'o, a raw 
hand ; d' cpd, papa; d' H'ai, 
boy, you lad ; palia? cti sy«n, j 
not inferior to others. 
•fJO Brothers-in-law ; iX/an a? re- 1 
\^ latives by marriage, especial-, 
jy brothers or parents; und!^ 
tih, <yan d' I am not related to ' 
him at all. 




^^ A particle of surprise or 

* *^ pain ; to beg, to ask ; cat cyd, 
whew ! halloo ! oh, dear ! <.ai, 
inati 'ni ^kdn isd^o\i\ why did 
you do so 1 <.ai (.k'au ^ni, I in- 
treat you. 

*^^ Low ; diminutive, short ; '«i 
'td Hsai, a pigmy, a little old 
man ; 'y>i xh6ung '^ai tang'' Hsai 
^ni tsd* get a low stool for 
you to sit on — to delude one ; 
'aj taki tsaP too low. 
' To hang, to strangle one's 
self; the warp of cloth ; aP 
'sz' '^ktoai, ghost of a suicide ; 
aP ''fceng, hung by the neck. 
Eft' A feather fan or screen, a 

^^ flabellum; to screen, to inter- 
* cept ; to seclude from obser- 
vation ; to keep close, to re- 
press ; to destroy : an-ything 

that intercepts ; an obscurity 
in the eyes ; trees dying ; a 
fabulous sort of pheasant. 
A colloquial word. Feverish; sul- 
try, hot; hurried breathing, 
a stricture in the breast ; at' 
hP difficulty of breathing ; uP' 
iti hot weather ; ishan 7s2' at' 
it} feverish ; aP faP to feel 
grieved ; a/'c/ta/Mndiorestible. 

H^' Lean, cadaverous, meager, 

'*f poor. 

B|' Strong, herculean, athletic. 

^f^ A colloquial word : grief, sor- 
row \paPnP\xovLh\e, resulting 
from affliction or poverty. 

d^' Cloudy and windy ; the sun 

■~" obscured and nearly hid by the 
^ clouds. 






To lean upon, to trust to; 
to push away, to carry on the 
back ; to place alongside ; to 
strike ; to force, to crowd, as 
with the elbows; to graft; 
next, near ; passable ; to lie 
down, to recline ; cdt itndi oii 
piiP lean it against here ; help 
here a little; ^yautaki^dipang^ 
has some dependance or re- 
source; ^yau tap ishdn idi, he 
has powerful friends : cdt Vjo 
tiki lie down a little ; cdi tak, 
hiP it will answer ; cdt ^nii'm 
cdt v} to gad and stare, as a 
virago ; to go from door to 
door to examine ; cdt H, to mu- 
tually rely upon ; cdt IdP to 
trust for help ; cdt ^mdn^ lo- 
NTards evening. 




B^' A pass, a defile ; narrow, 
'™; cotifineH, straitened ; distresp- 
'^' ed, urgent ; narrowminded, 
mean; impeded, stopped up; 
lyan kotii' dV way is all crowd- 
ed, a jam ; hdpi dP narrow as 
a pass; a contracted mind. 
ijS* A colloquial word ; to call 
after, to bawl ; to quarrel ; 
crowded, thronged ; dV Mdv, 
to wrangle, to dispute ; dV 
poi' Jian 'Mi'iff, h.illooed till 
he split his throat ; di' nd«' 
thronged; brawling ; dP mat. 
^y^, what are you scolding 
about ? s/*«/>} di' ''knn (clidnf^ 
install, ten to one it is a quar- 
rel about money. 




JB To grasp, to hold within the 
'^'hand ; a little, as much as the 
palm can hold ; ak^ teng^ to 
grasp firmly ; nh 'sAa?/, to 
shake hands ; aki :ch'i, to hold 
in the hand : ak^iu' necessary. 
^^ To moisten, to soak ; to en- 
I'rich with favors ; to fertilize ; 
to cover or daub thick : shin- 
ing, rich ; ak^ unuug, deeply 
grateful for; (yan ak) imperial 
favor ; ak^ Mn, to make very 

A curtain, a screen ; a large 
-'tent, a inarkee ; to protect, to 

Vn A Knots in a tree ; small door 
'^ >in a house ; impeded, cramp- 
^£)Jed; to be ill-used, to be 
Ngeh straitened ; ak:> ik'Wig, poor ; 
ifigai aki in danier. 


RKj An obstruction, a stop; a 
'/*^'defile, a pass; a dangerous 
* ^^ [)ath ; embarrassed, distressed, 

poor ; kio'a/P ak^ hampered, 

4ij T(> seize or hold with the 
^'"' hand ; to gripe, to clutch ; the 
^ ^^ 'grasp; to pull; ak/iiu'^kduxhi, 

held him by the wrist a long 




^Jp An unauthorized character. 

'' ' A bracelet; a bangle; ktuk, 

' ^ dk, a anklet ; ikam dk-, a gold 

wristlet ; rs^iuig dh a plated or 

gilded ring; ak^U'au, clasps 

of bracelets. 

^pf A yoke ; the yoke of a car- 

y ,'■'^§6 1 3 yoke, a restraint, a 

^^ 'principle of conscience. 

njrt A colloquial word ; also 

'"^ pronounced ah and ngak^ 

To deceive, to delude, to take 

in; '■kom y^ung^dk^iyan k^^ are 

you going to cheat him so I 



'P^ To feed with the hands ; to 
t-' h(»ld in the mouth ; a word ua- 

^^^''"ed by Budhists. 

*MF -^ colloquial word. To cover 

^^ with the hand; to conceal 
from ; 'a»j undi ^sh^utig ^ngdn, 
to cover both eyes ; '«/« chit' 
hide it; '«/« tik^ puP 'sliau, 
give him a little sop, cover 
his palm, 










An unopened flower; '■dtn 
tdm\ the lotus flower ; a poet- 
ical name. 


S' Evening, sunset; a serene, 
^ clear, sky; tardy, behindiiand; 
^^"peaceful, gentle; rich, full, said 
of furs ; a tifiin ; 'Ai cshan dn^ 
to rise late ; shiung^ dn' fore- 
noon ;fan^ an' kdu^ to take a 
siesta ; fong^ dii' hoh a recess 
in school ; shiki dn^ to eat 
lunch ; dn' chaii' noon ; tsd^ 
dn^ to get tiffin ; kdm' dn^ so 
late ! 
Bi^* A kind of small partridge, 
^^ which breeds on the ground, 
^" and is said to crow in the 





The nightingale, or a gay 
species of thrush that nestles 
on the willow and sings well ; 
variegated plumes; iwong aong, 
the mango bird ; Mng (ko, a 
parrot ; (.ang iko pv' a Roman 

colloquial word ; a knot in a 
stick of wood -jp'eki kaii^ ich'di 
(.ang, split this knot for me. 

An earthen jar, with a nar- 
row neck, to hold oil, &c.; 
nung ong^ ^tsai, a tadpole. 

The harmonious singing of 
birds ; lang lOng the caroling 
'"^ of birds ; met. the dissensions 
of friends. 
*jlp Stoppage in the throat ; he- 
^ silalion in speech from rajre 
^"^or impediment ; '^ang it:, .cub- 
bing ; '-ang sa^junable totalk. 
'4^ Disease, sickness. A colloqui- 
^^ al word ; to stick up, to press 
^"^into or on ; to inchase or em- 
boss ; ''ang tah k&uk^ t'uiig' 
they hurt my foot ; 'a?<o' cfa, 
to emboss ; cshang sheki 'ang, 
to have a stone bruise ; '^ang 
isam, to disturb one, as bad 
news ; painful. 

A colloquial word, a cor- 
ruption of kajig\ More, still 
more ; try again ; ang' 'yai* 
it'im, there are more ; ang' noi* 
ti^ rather longer time. 



t"] Used with the preceding. 
„„ }a vase, a jar, a gallipot, an 
<^ i earthen pitcher ; d'^ong '•kwo 
Ying idng, a jar of sweetmeats ; 
iyau (dng, an oil can ; yat> 
(ling ^yd, a thing; 'sAwi ^dng, 
a water pitcher. 



VW Read Ad/jj. To instil, ^x 

*^ 'saturate, to soak; to iiiibiic, 

^"^^ to pervade; to blend, to !i ir- 

monize, to agree ; Ad^j (Sam^ 

of one mind. ^ 




A colloquial word. To cover, 
over, to keep from the air ; to 
cover, as with a poultice ; 
poor, inferior ; slovenly, ne- 
glected ; fl/)) todi^ spoiled by 
mold ; api ap^ ts'ui^ crinkling, 
as light pastry ; ap:, chap> p'd' 
a miserable, dirty shop ; ap-. 
tch'ong, to poultice ; cui ishu 
ap^ u^ to roast a potato or taro 
in ashes ; met. to enjoy one's 
self secretly. 




Bl^ A duck, a mallard ; '■hin dp, 
''^' a wild duck; Idpi dp, dried 
ducks ; ^ch'du dp, p'in^ fried 
duck cutlet ; dp, imiu, duck- 
lings ; pui^ dp:, Hsai, to hatch 
ducks artificially. 
;^ To sign, to affix a seal, to 
J stamp ; to control, to guard ; 
to arrest, to seize, to detain; to 
compel, to force ; to escort ; 
to suppress ; a lockup or de- 
tention room in a yamun ; 
wdki (/a dp, to make one's 
mark, to write a device ; dp, 
foi' to escort goods ; dp, ^k'ii 
tsb^ make him do it ; dp- sung'' 
lyan, an escort ; i'vi ikdm dp, 
'«i, I'll not keep you ; not de- 
tain you ; dp, wan^ to rhyme ; 
dpiishiin, custom-houseboats, 
guard-boats ; apt chan^ to go 
into battle ; Js'lm dp, ifong, a 
lockup ; ds'im dp, to endorse 
an edict, in red ink ; dp, -.pong 
to look after, to escort ; dp. 
ititng, kept over winter ; left 
over the season, as teas. 



At, A colloquial word. To 
thrust in, to put into, as a 
purse or drawer ; at, loki put 
it in ; at,^k'uiu' he must want 
it, make him take it. 




To stop, to bring to a stand- 
„ i,still ; unforeseen obstacle ; to 
^ reach, to arrive ; to cut off, to 
put a stop to ; 'c/io dt, to stop 
one doing, to restrain ; dt, teki 
to hold on to rice ; at, yuki 
iTidn, hard to curb one's lusts. 
4:B| To pawn for a time ; to re- 
^' 'serve, to keep back ; dt,kwai* 
^ deposit money ; '^hiung at, re- 
cognized pawn-shops ; kaVdti 
a hair band-pin ; dt, p'iu^ to 
pledge or shave a pawn ticket ; 
'^kau ^'ng at, a five per cent, 
discount pawnbroker ; Sm dt, 
a little pawn-shop ; tong^ dti 
to piwn. 
^L A lance, a spear ; to spear ; 
-7^' uneven, rough, jolting*; usual, 
^^ as rules or ceremonies ; at, dti 
-ilif To pull up ; to eradicate ; 
^ at, imiu, to pull up a shoot in 
order to hasten its growth. 
t-ii Straw with the outer skin 
^.^' removed to weave into has- 
socks for worship. 
^7J To distniss care ; contented, 
f^^'lighthearted ; happy looking; 



dti iin, pleased. 




jlj;^ To overthrow, as a wall ; to 
^pj-' supply a want ; to press down, 
to steady, to settle ; to bend ; 
to subject, to suppress, to con- 
quer . to injure, to oppress ; 
to repress, as alarm ; to in- 
timidate ; «<) wdi^ to crush, to 
hurt by laying on ; dt^ pdk^ 
sirtg^ to vex the people ; U'dn 
dU to subdue, to put a stop to, 
as a row ; dU ikinsr^ to quiet 
one's fears ; at:, chii^ to steady ; 
chan^ dt:, to repress '(:» revolt); 
to remove evils; dty shaL to 
press solid. 
BH To shut, to stop up ; to ob- 
'^^ 'struct; to suffocate; to prevent 
superiors knowing ; dU sak, 
to stop up, as water. 

MThe root of the nose ; the 
'frontal sinus ; a saddle ; tsuk> 
^^ d<) to knit the brows; ^yau 
dti a lemur. 




A surname ; a measure of 

four pecks; puh ^au, to con- 

^ ceal. 

yWS A bowl, a deep cup ; ^ngd 

^^ call, a basin to hold water ; 

^^^^ich'd ccru, a tea-cup ; an ^au, 

a tobacco-cup; pw/t' ^mi, half 

a cup, as of wine ; muki^au, a 

wooden bowl. 

jfffe A gull ; ptiki tan or ihdn can, 

'ESiTRJ g j^juj Q^ gyii f^jmjj about 

^^*"Canton ; ^shdidn, a white gull. 

=fP^ To sing songs in recitative ; 

IT™ a chant ; a ballad, a ditty ; iili 
Ngau ^ ' ' •' ' 

(««, Canton songs ; utu ii/am, 

to sing songs. 

voU To sing; to crow merrily; 
^'^ in which it is like the last. 
^^^"(Jsed for the next, to vomit; 

cflM dd, a headsman's sword. 
Interchanged with the last. 

To vomit ; the noise of retch- 

Ngau. , ., ,, 

ing ; to spit out ; a chud s 

prattle; to sing, to make a glad 
noise ; '^au hiit^ to spit blood ; 
'am ifdn cfi7it:dni, to disgorge ; 
to pay back ; tsok:, '^au, a dis- 
position to vomit ; '^au Mu '■ki 
- tdni' threw up several times ; 
^auid, children humming; ^au 
<'«^'topuke; 'aw /o/i^' seasick. 

'iKlfti To fight, to hit with a stick ; 
"-^ to strike, to knock; lau^ '■au, 

^S^Ujo wrangle, to fisticuff; 'au 
ytiki to disgrace a man by 
knocking him ; '«m '^d, to 
beat, to take a stick to. 

jjB* To soak, to macerate, to 

''^ steep ; to soften by soaking; 

'^S'^^aw' Idn} soaked and spoiled ; 
to macerate to rags; aii' itntii, 
soaked till moldy; ;'»t tk'am 
au" it will spoil if soaked long; 
«m' td- cKati' soaked till it 
stinks ; At?/' mam^ glutted, loath- 
ing food ; U'ang shin^ aii' cchu 
yuki to fry eels in pork fat, 
met. to add insult to injury. 
Read cou; bubbles on the water ; 
frothy spume. 



jiM A furrow, a hollow ; an un- 
'J^ evenness in the ground ; un- 
"didations; rolling, as land. 
A colloquial word. Poor, des- 
titute ; i.du ai' in want. 






To snap a thing in two ; 
to twist, to break ; to drag 
along; 'a« chit', to break in 
two ; 'a« suP to snap in 
shivers; 'om '^nhau'^keug, to 
try the strength of the hands ; 
to fall out about a luntter ; 
'du 'c/jwrt '^^'oiig, to speak 
in irony, badinage ; 'dw tu, 
to catch fish in aliftiug net. 
A colloquial word. Warp- 
ed, bent ; curved ; 'd« 'd?^ 
tiky a little crooked ; 'du Jiin, 
to curve. 

Obstinate, self-willed,per- 
-' verse; to rush against madly; 
du' ''keng, stiffnecked ; dw' 
hV disputatious, opinionat- 
ed ; du^ /d' tim^ Mai ''chi, 1 
must have it so or not at all ; 
cliapi du' set in his way ; 
'■fdndu^ whimsical, contrari- 

A colloquial word ; a turn, 
a corner ; ^chun du' turn the 

Indented ; meandering ; the 
dip of the horizon, the un- 
dulations in hills ; a hole, a 
depression, a pit ; (sAdn du' a 
valley ; nu' tsz'^ characters cut 
iu bas relief. 



^*L Name of a river ; dregs, 
*'^ grounds, residuum; sediment, 
settlings, refuse after express- 
ing juice; '<i2' '■kang ichd, 
shell lac ; "^rnb idid, there's no 
refu-se left. Often used for 
the two next. 

h'^ A sour red berry as large as a 
*'*-- cherry, called c5Ad« icAd, used 
^^^ for its acid. 

Pimples on the nose, wine 

blotches ; pimples on the skin; 

Hsau :chd, wine blossoms. 
^ To tread upon : to put the 
'c^ foot on ; ic/jd tdpt to stamp. 

^ To put the hand upon, to 

*rM ^'^^'' ^^ press down, to take ; 

*"*'^ cc/td 'y^, to handle. 

i?k A unauthorized character. 
~; To grasp, to grab, to clutch ; 
^ to hold or take firmly; to work, 
as a bellows : to use; a hand- 
ful ; tc/td ifuiig (S{'UJig, to 
work a bellows ; ickd yal:, tdi^ 
tchd, grab a big handful ; (chd 
''kail, hold it fast ; cr/td it'dn, 
to keep a gambling-table ; -^chd 
taki ''wan, I hold it safely ; 
cc/id ''sliuit.chiiyuki water-sog- 
ged pork ; cc/id '■fo d'uHg, to 
be a scullion ; -yau cc/td "-shau 
I have security ; 'wtd ccM ;/id, 
nothing to hold on by ; a Bud- 
hist priest is so nicknamed ; 
ccAd ik'uti it'au, to double up 
the fist ; ichd c/iii' kai' Hsai, 
to grab him by the tail ; tc/id 
Idn^ to crush in the hand. 

p^ A colloquial particle imply- 

"*^ ing a short lime; ''tang ^hd 
ichd ! wait a moment ; '^yam 
ich'd ichd, only just to take a 
cup of tea. 

^W, To beat a drum or a bell 

'IXL \yiih a stick. 


'S'fe ^ rank condiment offish or 

'ifjr flesh and siilted hnshed fine, 

^"^ with red rice and oil ; 'r Ad tw, 

a sort of Medusa or sea-blul>- 

ber ; Id^ 'did, rank, dirty, foul. 




A running ulcer ; a severe 
"disease; ishang '■chd <.soi, a 
* swelling on the cheek. 

^fc* To deceive, to cheat, to 

^' impose upon ; erroneous, false; 
to feign, to make believe; art- 
ful, cunning ; fraudulent ; cAd' 
'^kwai chd' ^md, pretending to 
act like a fool ; ingo chd' to 
extort money falsely; ckdn chd' 
to delude ; chd' ^kd a, false ; 
chd' ngai^ to humbug, suppos- 
itious; c/td'ya«^t0 sham sleep; 
chd' ching' hi' to feign to be 

AJc A large locust, called ^md 

-"' chd' or chd' hnang ; chd' ishin, 
a small species of cicfida. 

jfi^' A wine press ; to press or 

"^ separate spirits ; used for the 

^^^ next. 

4^' An oil-press ; a sugar press ; 

" ' to press or extract juices ; loki 
chd'ich'ong, to violently extort 
money ; iyau chd' an oil press; 
did' dUi, a sugar-press shed. 

/fc' At first, suddenly, hastily ; 
' for a moment ; inadvertently, 
unexpectedly ; chd' ^yau chd' 
imd, all at once there is some 
and then we have none ; chd' 
iin, abruptly, at once ; chd' 
kin' happened to see. 

4^* An unauthorized character. 

^^ To press down, to squeeze 

^ between the hand ; Hd ihong, 
ltd chit' ch'ut, iynu, he even 
squeezes oil from rice chaff. 

fjfc' A loud sound, a rude noise. 
•* A colloquial particle implying 
doubt, perhaps ; also a final 
sound, implying it is so ; I un- 
derstand If, 'Aroffi y^ung^ chd' 
so will do, eh ! 



^ Mistaken ; to err, to differ ; 
' to miss the mark, to exceed ; 
error, fault, discrepancy, ex- 
cess , differing, unlike, unas- 
sorted ; tdi^ ich'd tah (ch'd, 
very wrong ; tch'd tah ^un, 
very different ; (cA'd ts'o' k^uk, 
a blunder, a faux pas ; ccA'a tit) 
i'm d'ung, differ very slightly ; 
ccA'd pat^ do, nearly the same; 
tch'd ts'o' a mistake ; ch'ing' 
cck'd sdi' all weighed wrong. 
^1 Streams or roads diverg- 
'^^,ing; isdm cch'd Id^ '■hau, a 
cji^ J trivium;csdwcc/i'd :Ao, a river 
Ch'(i in Liautung. 
'^ A fork in a road ; a prong, a 
*^^ crotch ; to cross or interlace 
the fingers ; iwo (ch'd, a pitch- 
fork; iTigan (.ch'd, a silver fork ; 
iii tcA'd, a fish grains; ich'A 
(Shiu, to roast on a fork ; 's/td 
ccA'd, to fence with tridents. 
4sf To fork out, to nip; to drive 
^^^ out, to pitch out, to strike ; 
cc/t'd ch'ut:, hii' turn him out; 
tcA'd chii^ ^k'ii, harpoon it. 
■^^ Tea ; the infusion of tea, a 
^,'^tea: cpd jcA'd to make tea; 
hin' cc/t'd, to hand tea ; ich'd 
(fd, the Camellia ; hah ich'd, 
black tea; lukt ich'd, green tea; 
kuki ich'd, to draw tea ; ich'd 
(piii, a tea-cup; jc/i'd ai, a tea- 
pot ; ich'd ishi, a tea-spoon ; 
ich'd ishiln, a long tea saucer ; 
'cA'dw £c/t'd, to fire tea ; tso^ 
ich'd, to cure tea; to set out 
tea ; jcA'd dam, a tea store ; 
ich'd iku, a tea-saloon ; ^to xh'a 




dai, bring tea to the visitor ; !' 
ic/i'a iS^uWg, a tea-caddy ; i/ati [ 
is^ung ich'd ipt a box of tea ; !| 
ich'd iki, a teapoy ; ich'd :sz' a ji 
tea-taster; ich'dvuititea dust." 
A euphonic final sound used ^ 
in chanting, to prolong the;' 
line. \ 

■})t An unauthorized character. Ii 
'^ To smear, to rub in ; to an-i' 
^ oint ; to rub in ; uh'd pdkt pi^ ■ 
iko, to whiten his nose, i.e. toj 
palm off, to dupe; xA'd tfn 'hau ji 
min^ to disguise one's face;! 
ic/id yinki to spread a plaster ; ii 
ich'a'fan, to rub on cosmetics. | 
life Drift-wood ; a smallrafl ; tojl 
-'^ fell trees, to hew wood ; ishing ;i 
*"^^ icA'u, to raft timber. ji 

;^ A raft, a float ; to examine, u 
"-^ to inquire into; it appears l! 
that, having learned, I haveji 
ascertained: -xlid clidU to'i 
examine, to scrutinize ; 'ybrto- 1. 
<.cKd, to ask about ; jcA'ti Jcdi, ji 
to patrol the streets ; -xlCd kico" \\ 
sdi^ inspected them all; jcA'aj; 
tskau, I find it been receiv-|; 
ed ; ichd xlid 7ci 7d, idle pry- > 
ing into matters, tedious ques-l 
^^* To talk extravagantly, toi 
pT- vaunt ; to deceive; ch'a' i^\ 
^" ** strange, foolish, 
jj^' ] Used for the last. To foam ; 
^, >and sputter in anger; to talk 
P^ J angrily ; to grumble ; cliik^ 
Ch'/t cA'ti^ to rail at. 
•lill' A handsome girl, a beauti- 
Q^^ ful unmarried young lady. 
|i,ib» To bind up, sealed up, as 
** ' in winter ; pd<> cA'd' a sacrifice 
*-'' * of thanksgiving to the earth 
in winter for ripening crops. i| 


(19) Chai. 

^^ A colloquial word. To place, 

'^ to put down, to put by; ccAai 

imdi, put it aside ; ccAat (pin 

c/iii^ where shall I put it 1 

ichai pin ck'ii^ Jd 'Ad, put in 

it down anywhere. 

DJC' Brightness of stars ; cming 

tIu- cSJ/J" c/taP c/iaP the twinkiiuff 

lustre of the stars. 
-^P To adjust, to cut, to forrri) 
' ^. to govern, to regulate, to rule ; 
' to limit, to hinder, to prevent ; 
to invent, to make; a law, a 
rule, a regulation ; tsoP chap 
or 'sAa« chaP to wear mourn- 
ing for parents; 'i/au tsit, chap 
I can do so much ; chaP d'oi, 
a governor-general; .kdm chap 
to restrain, to set limits ; chaP 
'kan kdm' Jo, to limit one ; 
chap ^to, to tame, to subdue; 
tsz'^ chap self-restraint; chap 
(Shii, an imperial dispatch ; 
chap to' a pattern, laws ; kaup 
chap a prohibition ; c/iap ti^ 
the court: A/«'VAa/^ a sexagen- 
ary ; chap/uki a close surveil- 
^'P Interchanged with the last.' 
^, To invent, to make; to cut 
'out clothes; a fashion, a mode; 
to compound, as medicines; 
a pattern ; a fur cloak ; tni 
chap well made ; ii^ chap done 
by his Majesty ; 'hd chaP fat, 
well compounded ; fat, chap 
^y€, useless things ; chaP iid' 
to invent ; chaP a ishSung, to 
cut out clothes; 'Ada chap 
skillfully made. 









To obstruct, to hinder from 
entering ; to take, to choose 
out, to raise up ; to select ; 
to pull, to draw ; ckai' .ts'im, 
to draw lots ; ihin cliaV to 
compel, to force; ckci' chaV 
ch(V tsuiijir^ a twitching, as 
of children in convulsions; 
chai' tin^ like lighming, as an 
electrical nrichine acts ; hipi 
cfiaP to restrain ; chap '■chau, 
to impede, to embarrass. 

Water impeded ; condens- 
ed, congealed ; to obstruct, to 
stop ; indigestible, disagree- 
ing, piled up ; shih ckai- in- 
digestible ; chni^ chii} to re- 
strain ; impeded ; an obstruc- 
tion, stoppage; ai' ckni^ full- 
ness in the stomach; hinder- 
ing; slow progress ; fuV chni^ 
stupid looking ; '^pdn chai^ 
an old fogy; adhering to the 
old way; 'cAo chai^ hindered, 
let, detained ; chaV hV a stop- 
page of secretions. 



"j To respect, to reverence ; 
/to abstain from; pure, reve- 
J rential, serious ; a retiring 
li room, a closet ; '<d (chdi, to 
get a soul out of tartarus ; '■td 
(chdi hok, storks for the soul 
to ride to heaven ; met. a pan- 
der; td}} sz'^ cchdi, offerings 
placed before the purveyor of 
hungry spirits; ifidn ^cfidi, a 
closet; csAii ichdi, a library ; 
(ts'ing ichdi, an entire fast ; 
7o ichdi, to beg vegetables; 

(chdi kdi' to fast from animal 
food ; ichdi tsiii^io fast at W\- 
souls ; i/ji'^i tc/tai, to fast on 
vegetables; do hon' ichdi, all 
sorts of vegetables ; ichdi (kii, 
to live at ease; cchdi ichong, 
respectful, reverential. 
A colloquial word. A final par- 
ticle denoting that it was said, 
that it is so ; mat, ii/an wd^ 
(chdi, somebody has said ; 'Ad 
^ts'z' 'k'ii lod^ cchdi, just as he 
Interchansed with the last. 

To respect; decorous; the 
^' heart pure, to chasten the de- 
!#' To bear a burden ; to owe ; 
'f7. a debt ; Aim' chdV to owe a 
'"debt; chap 'chii, a creditor; 
ckdp ^tsai, a debtor ; iwdn chdi' 
to repay ; 7o chdP to collect 
debts ; fong^ chap to let capi- 
tal ; tsifi H pirP chap Han, cut 
off his ears and make him a 
stool of debt, 
^fe- 1 A stockade, a palisade; an 
<J?^ Vencampment ; a stockaded 
■:q-"J village ; a sheep-pen ; ts'dki 
Chai chdp a robber's hold ; chap 
'^chil, wife of a bandit chief 
who guards the hold ; '<<i chdP 
to frequent brothels ; Inhkoki 
chdP a stockade defended by 
chevaux-de-frise; iying chdP 
barracks, a camp, a military 
^ - A fabulous feline be^tst, call- 
^' ed 'hdi chdP embroid(?red on 
censor's robes, indicative of 
Read 'cAi ; the l.j:W radical of 
characters of feline beasts; a 
worm, a hairless grub. 







•^ To commission, to send on 
*^^.a message ; to manage, to act ; 
**a messenger, an envt)y ; a le- 
gale, a commissioner ; ich'di 
sz" a bailiff; tcA'dt yiki a po- 
liceman, a lictor; ccA'ui 52'^ an 
errand; kaV ^rh'di, a criminal's 
guard; ^fufcfidi, an unpleas- 
ant duty ; ck'iit. ch'di, sent as 
legate ; ^p'dti ;king (ch'di, a 
courier with dispatches. 

-4^ A broad hair-pin ; met. fe- 

.mnles; pitk^ icli'di, to divine by 

'"a hair-pin when a husband will 

return ; ikw'nn <.clCdi, a bevy 

of women; Ming ^cli'di, a thorn 

hair-pin, met. poverty : fung* 

(ch'di, an ornamental hair-pin 

with a phoenix. 

^^ To guess; to doubt, to conjec- 

*/'7, ture ; to dislike ; 10 abhor ; to 

' '''fear, to apprehend, lest ; ch'di 
ynt. kith ichung, lo bet a glass 
of wine; c/i'di ktvnt, :p'di, to 
guess on domi'joes ; (ck'di toki 
an opinion or idea, to guess ; 
ccA'di jwii, or ■xh'di '/« , nnor- 
ra, to guess at the fingers — a 
game; ch'di tJ, to suspect, to 
doubt of ; tc/»'d/ -Am, to sus- 
pect and dislike ; cc/j'dt ^ngdm 
guessed right ; ccA'd j ynt. ^c/i'di 
make a guess ; 'ni .thi''di, 
hd' just gue^s. 

Firewood, faggots ; brush- 
wood ; fuel ; to stop up: yat, 
pd icfidi, a faggot of fire- 
wood; ich'diit'nu, hdf burned 
sticks ; ,kon ic/i'di ftnng' 'fo, if 
dry \vo«k1 is near the fire, [will 

Cli .. 


it not catch] ? ccA'di r/d, kind- 
lings ;'di ^fo, firewood ;/>'»' 
ich'di, to cleave wood ; ic/Cdi 
imi'in, a cottage door ; ip'du 
ich'di, shavings: ich'di (San, 
faggots of wood. 

A class, a company ; persons 

of the same sort ; it makes the 

plural of the first person ; i'ng 

ich'di, we. 

^4- A ravenous beast ; a lynx 

"//.or wolf; ich'di dong dong tdi' 

"the wolf is in the way — said of 

oppressive rulers ; ;cA'd» dong, 

a wolf; ich'di -Jong sing^ 

il.-i'ing, a wolfish dispositi<m. 

1^ Also read (tiin. To stamp, to 

i^. trample, to tread on with the 

"* heel ; to rase, to destroy ; the 

heel ; '^ch'iii 'tin suki a treader 

on rope ladders — a thief; '■pi 

cSrttt (kiod ip'i ''ni ^ch'di, let you 

step on a melon skin — trip 

you up ; '^ch'di p'o' u/ino ip'i/n, 

to remain victorious ; 'cA'dt 

chiJ^ 'k'u, step on it ; 'ki iski 

uignu "ch'di keuk. when la 

your birthdiiy ? 'ch'di shaft to 

tread on firmly ; "^ch'di dang 

tfd, to tread on lampwicks 

(a thief) ; '^ ch'di -.shiiig yuh 

ts&ung^ trampled to death. 

|S* The sting of a bee, or other 

^^ .insect ; a sort of scorpion with 

a long tail. 
_^* Weary, sick ; dd ch'dV con- 
^^.sumption, a wasting diseise ; 
'"^^•^" ch'dV to bring trouble on 
one's self. 
n^' To gnaw, to bite; to eat 
TV "P'dly ; to swallow, to bolt ; 
^" "cA%fi' hilt, to suck blood ; 
ch'dV ngiti to eat with a noise. 
Also read shdi^. 








Mr* Inclined, slanting, leaning, 

il^^'obliqne; the name of the three 
^^ deflected tones ; ik'in^ chak. 

f*i|j flipped over, upset; f,/irt^-tsAe/i^ 
the oblique tones ; chaki lau' 
vile, erring. 

-^> The sun declining to the 
west ; the afternoon ; to wane, 
as the moon ; yatt chak, day 

, VfvAis declining. 

■^p Boards of a bed ; a bed mat ; 

,jf^ 'to collect ; luxuriant. Read 

. " chaV; a strainer for spirits. 

1^ Obscure, hard of under- 

_ 'standing ; the secret springs, 
the hidden cause ; occult, pro- 

^ll Side, the side; on the side; 

;''*|'to incline, to bow down, to 
bend; lateral; perverted; mean, 
low; rebellioa.s, seditious; chak-. 
skat) a Concubine ; ond chajn 
chak, don't turn it over ; chak:, 
■.pin, the side; chak, chak, ti^ 
a little one sided ; [fan chak, 
. ,, the rear, the back side; a rehel- 
, v' lious cabal; chak, n, apply 
the ear ; yab. chak, afternoon ; 
shi^ ''ago chak, stand at my 



.'Fjij To soqqd, to fathom ; to es- 
* ^^'timate, to measure ; clear, as 


vartiish ; ch'ak, toki to com 
preheijd, to conjecture ; ch'ak, 
tsz'^ to disseot cbafacters, as 

when divining ; pnt, cKal'xxn- 
expected ; d' ni ch'ak, to ex- 
plain, to reason ; pat, '^ho ch'ak, 
/IB|| Secret grief, distress ; to 
. > 1 P''y> ''^ conimisserate, to syni- 
* pithize ; ch'ak, ij/an ichi isain, 
kind-hearled, humane. 



-^ To reprove, to reprimand, 

'^'lo blame ; to punish, to fine; 
to sustain, to be responsible 
for, to have charge of; to lay a 
weight on ; to squeeze smooth, 
to press ; to ask, to demand ; 
chak, f ah to fine ; chak, chu* 
^k'ii, keep it down ; chnki 
'■sz' crushed to death ; chdky 
icK^ung, to compel repay- 
ment ; chak, fati to punish ; 
chak, man} to subject to the 
question ; chak, ishing, to 
charge with ; chnk, yam^ shan^ 
chnng^ onerous duties devolve 
on him ; chak, txoV to ballast 
a ship; chak, Idn^ crushed in 

^ Narrow, strait; compress- 
' 'ed ; groveling, mean, narrow- 
^'^ minded ; pik, chak, contract- 
ed, illiberal ; '^ts'in chak, con- 
fined, cramped -.isamich't'iing 
chak: little-minded; ch'ik, ktori' 
it'au, too narrow ; ko'' t.-iz'^ 
chak, its meanings are few ; 
chak. lo' a lane. 

^^ Like the last ; a quiver : a 
'"'bamboo ceiling of a roof: to 
hasten out ; to press ; to tattoo 
or brand, as a punishment. 






A boat ; chdk: mang^ a small 
bo!?t. a punt, a pinnace, a 

junk's gig. 
^^ A marsh, a fen, a pool ; to 
'^'fertilize, to soften, to enrich ; 
to anoint, to n):ike to shine ; to 
benefit, to favor ; humid, slip- 
pery, smooth; to show kind- 
ne:«s to ; to wash, to moisten ; 
to make to grow ; fertile ; re- 
dolent of, as fragrance : favor, 
kindness; 's/u/McAdA? to bright- 
en by handling ; ytni^ cknh. 
fresh, moist; wdh chdk} glos- 
sy ; 'it chdk) wet with rain ; 
,yan chdki to confer favors. 
To select, to pick ont, to 
■"choose, to prefer ; chdki ynti 
*^*^ to choose a [lucky] day ; ^ni 
koni' "-kdn chdki you are so 
hard to suit ; ynin} ^ni 'kin 
c/tdArj just as you like; chdh 
'.kdu, to take associates. 
J^ To throw down, to throw 
^ 'at ; to throw awnv, to reject; 
to waste, as one s tmie ; chnki 
iui, to refuse, to give back ; 
chdk} cAwH^' to hit ; chdki Jan 
or chdk} shik. to throw dice ; 
chdk} ^kau '^tsai, to throw 
nines, i e. to gamble ; AP chdkt 
to discard. 
4jte To pluck, to cull ; to pull, 

„' , to pick; to lav hold of; to move 
Tseh r > . ' 

on, to start; to pomt out; 

chdh yan' to take away [an 

officer's] seal ; chdki ''tii toki 

dai, pull a flower down ; yat, 

chdi} one picking ; chdh'kwo, 

to pick fruit ; chdki iteng, to 

take away an officer's button. 

5?0 A surname. This and the 

Mast are also read tiki with 
the same meanings. 


Chih . 


4^ To pull up; to take out, to 
'^-select, to raise, to promote ; 
to employ in office : to reject, 
to extinguish, as good reso- 
lutions ; chdkj ftiti iiidn ^shd, 
the hairs can not be count- 
ed by pulling them out — his 
crimes are nnmberless. 
*rl A dwelling, a mansion, a 
^'residence ; a grave ; to dwell, 
to fix, to settle ; to conform 
to; an office, a station ; ^y^ung 
chdh. houses, residences ; idi^ 
chdki i^ chdk} eldest son and 
second son's dwellings ; cyont 
chdki a grave ; ancestral halls 
or shrines ; chdki chiu} to di- 
vine for a grave. 

A large green caterpillar, 
'called c/a/Z;; c/t?/A-j which feeds 
^^'"^ on bean leaves. 
D^ Going back and forth ; em- 
^^'barrassed, undecided ; chdki 
^^'^ chuki irresolute. 
§jfc ~} To blame, to reprehend; 
Pl^- >to disgrace officers, to nun- 
g^j : ish by disgracing ; to scold, 
Tseh to be angry at, to find fault 
with ; flaw, error ; a change 
of appearance ; chdki 'Man, to 
disc-race an officer. 

(25) Ch'ak. 

A bamboo slip, such as 
books were once engraved on; 


a book, writings ; a stratagem, 
a plan, a means, an expedient, 
a scheme; a switch, a whip: 
a divining slip: to switch; 
'A-dn ch'dk, books, chapters, 
&c.; into ch'dk, without plan, 




schemeless ; ich'au cKah to 
contrive ; rh'dk-, hnd, to whip 
a horse. Used for the next. 
A thorn, a spike, a prickle ; 
''to prick, to pierce with a 
T-Nhorn. ^- 

JIJl A slip ; an inventory, a re- 
'y Agister, a list ; n patent or com- 
^^ ^mission of nobility ; a census 
book ; to cljoose ; to plan, to 
make a plan or scheme ; J,'in 
ch'dk, to enrol, to write a list ; 
«' '■/lau cliak^ a register, a 
census of people ; s/Zf/t nmtn 
didki the register of families ; 
Qoong c/idki imperial census. 
4flll Posts of a stockade ; a rail- 
^^'ing ; a palisade ; ^hon clidk^ a 
■'•^^ guard at gales; clidk^ ildn, 
gateway of streets; uniin ch'dki 
door posts. 
i'Jtr ^^'^ break up or open ; to 
"•^^'split, to unrip ; to destroy, to 
^ pull down, to take away ; to 
dissect, to take to pieces ; 
ch'dki sh^' to pull a house 
down; ch'dk^ .sfi/i' to scatter, by 
breaking or taking to pieces ; 
clidk> if ling, to open a letter ; 
clidk:, d ish^iing, to unrip 
clothes ; clidk> sdP pulled to 
pieces ; '■yau mat) clidk-, fdt^ 
what way shall we arrange the 
matter? cKdk-, "-hau yiU un- 
lucky days for consulting; 
ch'dki ^hnu Jco y^uki plasters 
for chapped feet. 
it^ To rive, to crack ; to open, 
^v. 'to burst opefi, as buds ; split, 
^ riven, cracked; kdjh ch'dki 
bursting of buds; '^hoin ch'dk, 
cracked, as a bowl ; rh'dk. 
c/idki t\} (.shrng, a wheezing, 
cracked voice. 




^!.U"} A needle; a cauterizing 

'jfl ^ probe ; to prick ; to use nee- 

c^jl^jdlesin acupuncture; leaves 

Chinof tlie pine; icliiin (cfuini, to 

thread a needle ; ikii icliui 

ichnin, a pin ; fcham pi' stiiki 

t'id mean, stingy ; ickam 'chi, 

to embroider ; Jion ''shuic/tam 

a thermometer ; higdn (cham, 

a needle ; (man (.chain, a mus- 

quilo's sting. 

Used for the last. A probe, 
a surgeon's needle ; to probe ; 
a caution, a check ; pointed, 
urgent; to e.xhort, to rebuke, 
to urge to reform ; (Cham (kw'ai 
admonition, rebukes ; tcham 
imitig, cautionary maxims. 
ink] A stone to beat clothes on; 
* "|. > an anvil ; a block for lifting by 
if^l athletes ; mnki (chain, a horse 
Chin block ; (Chii ^pi (cham, a fillet 
of pork ; (ckam '^pdn, a cutting 
board, tised by butchers. 
ihi To pour from or into; to 
'Y"/ lade out, to lighten; to deli- 
"" berate, to adjust ; a ladle, a 
spoon ; (cham H'o loh all well 
settled ; d'ung ^niccham xham, 
let us talk it over ; (cham ^ch'd, 
to pour out tea ; sai^ (cluim, to 
whisper ; (.cham chcuk) to con- 
sult about. j^ 
ij^ Used for isham -^, the mnl- 
' ','? berry seed. An ax or bill ; a 
^'"" staff: 

'-LjjU A pillow; a stake ; a crossbar 
^^ in a carriage ; to pillow on, to 
lie near to ; contiguous, adja- 
cent, lyingon ; 'sz' ^c he (Skiing 





^cham tsih the dead lay pil- ! 
lowed on each other ; ''chain } 
<pin, in bed, in private ; ''chnm 
prin^ a bedfellow-, '^cham tsili 
indn lon, carei disturb his pil- 
low, harassed ; 'i ''cham, a sup- 
port for the ear ; huk:, dcicang 
d ''cham, pillowed on his arm ; 
''cham it' an, a pillow ; ''chain 
Icwnti the occiput ; tOrt ''cham 
iino it/au, to sleep quietly. 
As a verb, also read chani\ 
*/^ An interrogative word ; what, 
'""^^ how ? 'cham yiung^ in what 
^*"«inanner ; 'chain tik, what ? 
'cham fshaiig 't<i pan} how 
would he look? 'chain 'koin 
pnli-taiu'ait, how could I de- 
cline assent ? 
j^' A colloquial word. A coat, 
•^ as of paint ; a thickness, an 
envelop, a skin ; ts'at^ -.sam 
chani' varnished it three times: 
moki yaty cham" ip'x, pull off 
one covering. 
B^- Anciently used for 1 ; now 
j^r- the royal We, Ourself ; chain^ 
chiiir subtile, recondite. 
A colloquial word. A puff, as 
of stnuke ; yat:i chain* ci'i, a 
puff of smoke ; t/at, cham* 'fo 
fan, an e.xplosion of incense. 

C-r> Ch^am. 

"\it P"*^ under water, to be lost; 
sl/L i to quash, to suppress; muddy. 
Chin deep, dull, as colors ; a lake ; 
shati 'shau ich'am chiti* gar- 
rulous; '.chain -Jun, lost, ru- 
ined ;'ain mutt to lose lu | 

the water ; ich'ain din, lost in 

the depths ; ick'ain on' to quash 

a case ; .ch'am niki drowned, 

in doting on ; irh'ain chung* 

very sick ; shapi ich'ani '^kau 

tp'd, the odds are against him ; 

irh'ain th^ung, aloes. 

^^ Dark, cloudy for a long time ; 

'\'^ yam yam ich'a/mch'am, dull. 
Chin'' • ' 


The roe or e 

name of a fish. 

')M| The roe or eggs of fish ; tlie 


act* To slander, to vilify ; to dis- 

L^ credit: c/i'aw"' £?m, slanderous 
aspersions ; ch'ain" 'J/on, to 
asperse one. 

U^' To verify, to prove ; a prog- 
nostic; to fulfill ; ch'am" ■«, a 
prophecy, a hidden meaning; 
ck'ain" hi" tiresome, talkative; 
ch'am" 'wai, to agree with the 





'flHf ^^ sunder, to cut in two ; 

J^\ to cut off; to execute, to de-" 
''"capitate ; capital ; to root up ; 
to break off, as intercousre; 
faded, forgotten, vanished ; 
^ckdmiShiti, mourning for par- 
ents; 'chdm't'un, to cut in two, 
to bre.ik off, as a business; 
'^chdm U'ati, to decollate ; du 
''chain, to divide a criminal in 
the middle; 'cAdw Ucng tsitt 
till tocut an iron nail — decid- 
ed, sincere ; kirn c/id/w, to su- 
perintend an execution ; chain 
Jiiii, to cut open ; 'cham fdh 
to subjugate ; to prune. 




•^' A northern affluent of the 

1^ Yellow R. neiir Sh^nsl ; to 
^"sink ill ; to soak, to immerse, 
to imbibe, as a sponqre ; to 
plunge in ; deep, limpid, still, 
as water ; clear, calm, as a 
quiet moonlight. 

^tt' To dip, as a pencil in ink, 
^■',"» or sop a morsel in gravy ; used 

^""^ by some for baptize. Vulgarly 
pronounced '•yam; as^ydwi shi^ 
iyau, dip it in the soy. 
- To impede, to hinder ; to 
sell, to profit; to gain unfairly, 
to palm off poor goods; '^clw 
chdm^ to deceive; to hinder. 

At- A stage, a journey: yik. 

^•^ chnm^ a stage ; rlinm^ U'au, end 

^^*'"of a journey ; yn(, chdm^ Id^ a 
stage, usually reckoned to be 
a league. 



•t^ To stab ; to sustain, to sup- 

i,''?^ port, to lead ; to supply a want, 
"to make up; to divide with 
another ; to pull out ; srA'dw 
fan^ dai (t'im, make another 
share for him ; ic/tdm ifu, to 

4^' Fir, pine ; ch\hn^ muh den] ; 

■^ yat^ Itiki ch'dni' a block of 
"pine, a blockhead; clidm^ nitih^ 
ding ip'di, a pine tablet — is 

jj6W»' To repent; to confess one's 

•^ errors ; cA'dnt' fui' to repent. 

t' Irregular, disorderly, as un- 
drilled troops ; unequal, un- 
^^^" even ; i/d/u ch'dm' u^ly ; con- 
fused, disorderly, sulky. 

(3'0 Chan. 

■j^ ] True, sincere, unfeigned, 
*4^ >genuiiie, pure ; in fact, truly, 
t^ ' indeed, no mistake ; a like- 
Chin ness; actual, not secondary ; 
spiritual, subtle, pure,unmi.\- 
ed ; (.chait iyttn, a sprite, a 
phantom of a man , (chan ko' 
Hs'z' in fact, it was like ; 's<* 
ichari, to draw portraits ; :ckan 
kai^ it is so; xkan ,tsoiig citing^ 
fon^ this thing proves him a 
thief; "'/« cr/ti xhan '^d, 1 don't 
know whether it is so or not ; 
ichaii '.sain, true-hearted; itkan, 
fuV hi' low-spirited ; ichan 
eking' truly, indeed; ic/iait 
'^koiig, it is really so. 
r^ Valuable, precious, excellent; 
^^ important, rare, noble ; to 
^ "prize; a delicacy; a rarity, !i 
treasure ; ccAa/i ichii, pearls ; 
ickan '/»d, precious ; ,ci>an 
chung^ to take care of, as the 
health ; to esteem ; cc/mn mi^ 
deliciouff; cc/ta/t ichii [fan, 
pearl sago; ''chiung s/i^ung* 
ickan, a pearl in the hand — a 
ffiC" Often read .yan in Canton. 
'^^ A potter, a maker of earthen 

^." ware ; to mold, to model, to 
Kien _ ' . , ' . , ' 

figure in clay ; to mold an- 
other's mind ; to be molded, 
guided, transformed, or influ- 
enced ; to examine, to dis- 
tinguish ; plain, intelligible; 
(chan U'd mdn^ lui' to fashion 
and direct all things, as God 
does ; ^chan pit. -.yan '.ts'oi, to 
discern nten's abiliiiec. 






4e' To shake, to move ; to stir 
y up, to agkate ; to excite, to 
""stimulate: to repair, to re- 
store, to put in order ; to res- 
cue, to save ; to joggle ; to 
flap, as wings ; to terrify : to 
uphold, to stop ; to receive, to 
contain ; chan' tting^ to shake, 
to set about, up and doing; 
chart' tsok:, diligent ; to encou-j 
rage ; tdi^ chart' ^kd ishing, j 
made his family famous; chart' \ 
imdi yati it'iin, cuddled up in' 
a heap, as a shivering child ; 
chart' d, to shake the dress, 
^^' Interchanged with the last. 
To quiver ; toshiver ; the 51sf 
diagram, belongs to thunder ; 
to shake, as by thunder; to 
quicken, as a foetus ; to awe, 
to impress; thundering, ter- 
rible, as a sound ; dire, aw- 
ful ; to intimidate ; to raise; 
to alarm ; ti' chart' an earth- 
quake ; chan' nd^ incensed ; 
iwai chart' to exhibit the ma- 
jesty [of China]; chan' ,kens, 
terrified ; chan' iurtg^ di.siurb- 
BK* A largess, a bounty; to give, 
^ to relieve, to supply ; chart' 
^ t^ai' to give to the poor ; chan' 
(ki, to feed the hungry. 
Read '^chan; rich, affluent, 

To press down ; to repress, 
to keep in subjection ; to pa- 
cify, to protect ; to overrule 
evil influences, as hills or pa- 
godas do; to guard, to keep 
quiet: a mart, a trading-place ; 
chart' fuki to sway, to be lord 
paramount; chan' 'king, to 
quell one's fears ; chan' d'oi, 

TON. Dior. 3 



a protector; a brigadier ; chan' 
'shau cpin nktoiin, to guard the 
frontier; chart' of: to repress 
disturbance ; tai^ chart' d'au, 
an entrep6t or great trading- 
j^' A boy often or twelve years ; 
fr chan' it'nrtg, boys who play 
^^"'^ at funerals. 

ff]]^* A bag to tie on a horse's 
head, in which his fodder is 
- { A rank, a file of soldiers, 
. , S^a battalion; an army; to 
|Ij|i i arrange, to place in ranks ; 
Chin a little while, passing, tran- 
sitory ; a battle ; to drill ; a 
mode of marshaling ; chart^ 
sh^ung^ in the fight; ijctti chilis' 
chnn^ 'Jang, growing colder ; 
'^shai hiii ii/an chaii^ to send a 
Woman to get it; wtai iwan 
chart' besotted in ; silly; '■pdi 
chan' to post troops ; ki U'id 
mnki chctn' several wooden 
sleepers (or supports) ; chart* 
shai' the ranks ; courageous ; 
t/ati chan' ^n, a shower ; yati 
chart' '.fung '^u, a squall ; yat-^ 
chan' iming, yatt chart' im 
vning, now you know, and 
then you do not know ; pdi' 
chart' defeated the troops. 



r|^ To get angry; p-issionate, 

^"T,* angry ; to rail ; ^shang ^ch'an,- 
Ch in. ' . • . * . . 

to get into a rage ; <cA an 

kitkii' to scold. 

Also read d'in ; to bully, to 

puft'and bluster. 





To Stare at angrily, to glare 
** at; (ch'an nd^ itiio td^ angry 
'"beyond measure. 

To arrange, to set in order, 
to spread out ; to say, to reply; 
to state, to express ; to memo- 
rialize ; a long time, an old 
thing; many, all; a feudal 
state near the present capital 
of Hon4n ; tsoi^ icKan ts'uti 
iUung, to lack food in Ch'in 
— to be in straits ; ip'd iclian, 
to seat or rank in order ; icKan 
cKiU to arrange in order ; 
^sh^itng '■piu ich'an Us'ing, to 
state one's thoughts to H. I. 
M.; ich^an ip'i kom' kau} old 
as a dried orange skin, faded. 

ri^ A medicinal herb, good for 

~;^ rheumatism ; cyon ich'an, a 
'"plant like origanum. 
^ Dust, small particles ; ef- 

''^ fluvia, atoms, molecules ; the 
'" world ; worldly vice and plea- 
sures; confused times; icKan 
iCau tai^ a cloud of dust ; ^sai 
ccA' an, to wash down the dust, 
to give a feast to friends come 
back ; pd^ liati^ ich'an, to follow 
another's example ; ich'an m, 
dust; jcA'an'Arou, covered with 
dust; (fuHffich'an, dusty from 
travel ; tmd yat, '<int ich'an, 
clean; ich'an tsuki, ich'an shai\ 
or ihnng ich'an, the dusty 
world ;fcUy ich'an, to dust. 

«A9| To stretch; still more, how 

oC- much more; to grin wide; 
eiiin , , , ... i. 1 

'crt an tUi to say further. 

*^C] Pustulesof any kind ; erup- 

^^ >tions, pimples; a cutaneous 

^Wi^J disease ; sore lips ; t<iu^ ^ch'an 

Qhin small pox pustules; <pdn 

'■ch'an, erupitious. 

'jjTO To smile, with slight con- 
Shin ^®™P^ ' ^° ^^^^ •pleased ; "^ch'an 

stii^ to smile; '■ch'an ndpi to 

smile on receiving, 
'm^ To divide fields ; to come 

before the gods ; to announce 

the emperor's coming ; to die; 

a motive ; Jcwai '^ch'an, dikes 

between fields, 
•jfe^ To bind with cords ; to turn 
^^ to twist ; to revolve ; a revolu- 

'"tion ; perverse, crabbed. 
'/j^ Single thin garments, black 
•^ silk worn in summer; embroi- 



dered garments ; 'cA'a» 
kwiki single grasscloth. 


•fA To examine, to look at ; to 

^. try, to verify ; '■ch^an mung* 

'"to interpret a dream ; 'cA'an 

maki to feel the pulse. 

*t^ The boards of a carriage; 

"^ the cross board ; to move ; a 

'" carriage; cramped, disturbed, 

distressed ; the last of the 28 

constellations, /3, 6, r), y, in 

Corvus ; pegs of a lute ; <Au 

^ch'an, crooked, winding. 

'fca Filaments from a coccoon; 

Jl'^ a thread ; to tie ; black ; ishui 

Shin ''^^^^'^ P^^^ P^"^ whose black 
hair will not change ? 

<^ Bushy, black hair ; a fine 
head of black hair. 

Inner garments ; to help, to 
assist; to patronize; to be- 
friend ; to give ; to give effect 
to, to show off; to match ; 
cKtin' ikan, a sash ; ch'an^ 
(Shdm, inner skirts ; (pong 
ch'an' to give custom to ; 
eh'an^ cAti' -^'w, to fellowship ; 
ck'an' '■chi, a flyleaf in books ; 
cA'rt/i' t'ipi plaits on a pet- 






^ ' A coffi n ; to col I ect firewood ; 
^P^ (kun ch'an' a coffin ; ihin 
'^ ch'an' uki a sort of dead house 
or shed at a grave. 
^y To shed the milk teeth, as 
^,. children do; shedding or re- 
newing the teeth. 

To follow, lo come up be- 
'> >hind, to waWc after ; to avail, 
^^ J to take ; to embrace an op- 
Ch'in portunity ; at the time of; 
ch'an' ihii '<d 'sAi, to go to 
market ; ch'an' ishi hau^ to 
improve the time ; ch'an' iki 
wi* take advantage of the op- 
portunity ; ch'an' cfung ''shai 
^li, hoist sail when there's a 
wind ; ch'an' iin^ as I wished 
it ; ch'an' shai' avail of a fa- 
Torable lime. 



*:^ A shallow cup for oil ; a wine 
-™- saucer; the classifier of lauips; 
^itang '■chdn, a saucer for a 
night lamp ; t/at} ''chdn dang, 
a lamp, 
'i^ A wine-cup, made deeper 
-^ than the preceding, of jade, 
"or other valuable stone. 
Muddy, unsettled spirits; 
liquor beginning to clear ; a 
cup, a goblet. 
^- To eat, to drink ; to feed 
ChanP^''^*'"^ ; to provide for ; dres- 
sed food : ch'it:, chdn* to set 
out a dinner ; shing^ chdn^ a 
banquet ; ts'oi' chdn^ food ; 
^yau mat-, -Mgdu cAan' what 
delicacy did you have for a 




^ To regulate, to correct, to 
dispose in order ; to grasp ; to 

g. compose, to record ; a rule, a 
statute ; a received maxim ; 
a business, an act ; to edit, to 
revise books, to publish; isau 
cAdnUhe first HAnlin academ- 
ician ; cAdw* shnti to narrate. 
Read '.stin ; to select ; to send. 
Read sun'; to reckon, to 

f|g- Same as the above. To ex- 
hort by precepts ; cAdn' iman, 
to write essays ; pdi' chdn^ to 
prepare a eulogistic paper. 

JUUi To stand ; to stand erect; 

Z^ to stop ; a stoppage ; cAdn' 'At 
^"sfoi, stand up ! chdn^ cpdn, to 
file off in rank, and salute aa 

^^- A covered loft ; palisades ; 

„Y^ a scaffold ; a covered, plank- 
ed road cut out of the side of 
hills ; a hearse, a workshop ; 
a warehouse ; a storehouse, a 
stable, a pen, a sheepcote ; a 
wooden bridge or pathway ; 
cAdn^ ifong, a warehouse, a 
packhouse ; chdn^dso, siora^je 
charges ; imiu chdn' a kennej 
for cats. 

^i" A tumbril for carrying the 
wounded ; a hearse ; cAdn' Id* 
a military carriage for sleeping 

j|;§- A tiger cat ; cAdn' imdi, a 

GhAn^'S®'' shedding its hair. 

A rent seam ; to rip, to tear, 
^ to rend ; a hint, inkling ; p'o' 

^^'^^chdn' the affair is known, to 
hint a matter ; 7d tak, ip'i (hoi 
yuki cAd/i' beaten till the flesh 
was laid bare ; chdn^ liU rip 
the seams. 






ndi^ An luiauthrtrized word. To 

/ii^ profit, to make gain in trade ; 
Chan 1 ' J . «' . 1 . 

cnan'ds in, to make money; <^to 

chdri' profitable; ^md tak^ chdn^ 

no profit; chdn^ tak^ Jo, got 

my outlay back ; ckdn^ wan' 

nothing but a trouble. 

Read SffdM ; to sell goods at 

a profit. 




To produce, to grow ; to 
bear, to increase ; an estate, 
a patrimony ; an occupation ; 
the productions of a country; 
natives; a sort of flageolet; a 
birth, act of parturition ; '/>o 
'cA'dw, a strengthening pill; 'siu 
'cA'drt, an abortion ; if an '•ck'dn 
to divide the patrimony;(s/ta«^ 
'^cU'dn, an increase, to have a 
child; '^ch'dn ipi one's property, 
real estate ; ^kd ^ch'dn, family 
possessions ; Vo 'cA'dn, pro- 
ductions; (k'ing ckapdP'^ch'dn 
the family lost everything. 
«J^ Tortuous paths among the 
^^ mountains ; '^m '^clidn, wind- 

"ing, crooked, as paths. 
*#)j"j Interchanged with the 
«^1 f "*'^*- '^^ \q^q\ off, to spade 
J^lfjup; to reap; to trim iron; 
Ch'an '^clidn t'ai' id, to plane a raz- 
or; Aom' (.kd ''ch'dn, may your 
race all be cut off*; 'cAV/h 
ih^ting, sandalwood shavings 
burned for the dead. 
*^B A thin iron pjate ; a shovel, 
T!,, a plane; a spoke-shave, an 
^ ''"iron shave ; to cut and pare ; 
to level ; looki 'ch'dn, a rice 


shovel ; yat^fu^ ^cKdn ik'm, & 
set of shovel and tongs ; 'cA'd» 
Hs'd ich'ii ikan, to root out, to 
extirpate ; '■ch'dn cshdn, to 
scarp hills, to dig in a level. 
A colloquial word. A door sill; 
a threshold ; 'Ar'i imun ^ch'dn, 
standing in the door-way. 



^ A kind of harpsichord with 

*^*^ 12 copper strings ; ifung 

''^^^ichang, glasses hung to jingle 
in the wind ; 7d ichang, to 
thrum the guitar •^fong'tfung 
ichangy to fly a singing kite. 

''SL Cold, shivering. Incorrectly 
* ^ but commonly used for J^ 
^"^"^/siV clean. «^ 

^^ A bundle of sticks, a number 
''^ of sticks tied up into a fag- 

T^ The tinkling sound of gems 
'•'^ when they are struck or rung 

^^ A small cymbal, a small sized 
'^T* gong ; the ringing sound of 
fg* To remonstrate with ; to 

^* stop a wrong; kdii' change to 
^^*"=reprove one's sovereign 




g^. To wrangle, to strive for 
* * precedence : to contest, to 
Tsangijjjgjjjg . jQ reprove, to re- 
monstrate, in which senses it 




is used for the last. A col- 
loquial word ; just, only, near- 
ly, a little; ichdng not' but 
still, howbeit, nevertheless; 
(Chdng tdni' hV unforgiving, 
choleric; ccAd/j^j/i jAd, toquar- 
rel upon trifles ; ichang mat, 
'y^, what are you quarreling 
about ? (.chdng tik^ ^sh^ung 
tong^ I came near being gulled; 
ichdng tau' to fight, to fall to 
blows ; (.chdng tsung^ to go 
to law; ichdng (kiing, to em- 
ulate; ichdng tiiti to take by 
force; ichdng chap-, obstinate ; 
ichdng^yau hdn^ differs a little; 
tchdng tiki chuki ^to ^k'u, all 
but caught him ; xhdng du^ to 
dispute ; ichdng tak: do, very 
different ; not enough; cchdng 
kau" I'm tired of striving, I'll 
contend no more. 
Hg. The tendon Achilles ; the 
* '^ heel ; the elbow ; yaU tchdng 
'^^''"Std kwo' he elbowed him off; 
'^cham (chdng, to lean on the 
elbow ; t'dt:, tchdng ihdi, slip- 
shod ; ihdi ichdjig, heel of the 
shoe; 'shau cchdng, the elbow. 
JjS To rise above ; conspicuous, 
" eminent, like a lofty moun- 
^*"°tain ; U'au koki ichdng-^ying a 
noble appearance, dignified. 
«_'- A colloquial word. To caulk; 
to wedge in, to squeeze in, to 
force in; Ha chdng^ to caulk 
seams ; chdng^ ^f^gd, to get be- 
tween the teeth ; chdng^ (Shd 
ikai, tostuff a cock with sand ; 
ngdng^ chdng^ determined, en- 
ergetic, as in bearing pain. 
Read ich'dng ; to pierce, to 
Read chang^ ; to file ; 



4^ ] To prop, to shore up ; to 
''X > fasten open, as with a slretch- 
<|^Jer; to pole; to push off; 
Ts'angto make a show ; an inclined 
post, a fulcrum, a prop, a stay; 
to border on, to adjoin, to 
stretch or run up into ; ich'dng 
ishiin, to pole a boat ; ich'dng 
td^ to pole across the ferry ; to 
intrigue for a friend with the 
officer ; tch'dng I'm dai, he 
could not show off long ; 
(ch'iing ich'dng, to curry favor 
among friends; (ch'dng ^sh^ung 
Aii'5/i<ii' stretch themuptodry. 
4^ A branch stretching out ; 
*^^ a fulcrum ; a prop, 
'^^'''"gRead ch'dng'; a colloquial 
word Tostretch out, toopen.: 
kick at ; ch'dng^ du 'k'i chii* 
to stand akimbo ; ch'dng^ thoi 
(ch'eung -.mun, fasten open the 
window ; ch'dng' chu} to open 
by a stretcher ; ch'dng^ ^k'ii 
ch'uf} hu' kick him out ; ex- 
pel him ; cKdng^ iftgd kdu' to 
praise one's self. 
1)K^ The coolie orange ; ich'dng 
'^^ Hsau, spirits in which or- 
Cn ^"Saiige peel has been soaked ; 
it'ong ich'dtig, orange sweet- 
meats; '.ch'dng kimi' cman sharp 
as an orange ; it'im ich'dng, 
sweet oranges ; csAdn ich'dng, 
a melodinus. 
Y]g, Groping, going blindly ; mad- 
-'^ ly, carelessly ; to fall down ; 
^^'^"^ich'dng 'heai, a lares eaten 
by a tiger, inet. one who en- 
tices to evil courses. 





Chap J 

Wf To take in the hand, to 
^ 'pick up, to lay hold of, to 
grasp ; to apprehend, to catch; 
to maintain, to retain ; to stop 
up; a handfull ; chap, ^yan, 
a father's old friend ; ishau 
chap:, to receive and keep [as 
evidence] ; chap^ tsz'^ to set 
types; chap, ich'au, to draw 
lots ; chap> ichung, to keep a 
due medium ; chap, au^ a per- 
tinacious dispute ; ku' chap-. 
obstinate, set iti his way ; kok, 
chap, yaU ngaP each follows 
his trade ; po^ chap, to arrest ; 
chap, sz'^ to manage business ; 
an officer's retinue ; chap, 
'^shfiu, take by the hand. 
i^L To fetter a horse or cow; 
>^'fetters, shackles; to bind, to 

secure; a cord. 
i-l- Gravy, juice; thickened 
« ' 'liquor ; slosh; the juices or 
^essence of a thing got by ex- 
pressing; sleety rain, wet snow; 
tpan dong chap, betel juice ; 
ts'oP chap, liquor left after 
cooking vegetables; chap,i'm 
tak, tam^ hap, not had a mouth- 
ful of gravy to suck — I've had 
no benefit from it. 
Also read hipi; harmonious. 




To prick, to puncture; to 
■ '^';^* embroider ; a document, a pa- 
^ per; a particular sort of paper ; 

a diploma ; a contract ; to 
write out, as a list of prices ; 
a reply from a higher officer ; 
a remonstrance to the emper- 
or; 'c/« chap, stationery ; chap, 
^tsz' a remonstrance ; kdnt' 
chap, a diploma bought by a 
kiensang ; chap, kd^ its'in, 
write the prices ; chap, loki 
p3^ put it to account; chdpt 
dan, a contract for a purchase. 
The word chop, used in Can- 
ton is derived from this. 
A guarded gate, a barrier, a 
„," barricade; dam; a barrier like 
a turnstile or a stockade; a 
lock, a flood-gate ; to shut a 
gate; cAd^i^say;} a guard-house 
at a gate ; ikwdn chdpi to shut 
the gate; the Barrier at Macao; 
'sA7/i chdpi a waste-weir, a 
mill-race or sluice with gates ; 
chdpi ,fu a gatekeeper ; ikon 
chdpi to guard the gate ; chdpi 
itnun, a street gate ; ^sh^ung 
chdpi put in the bars. 
IrPt Read sdp,; a spear ; a jave- 
^^'lin ; to engrave, to inlay, to in- 
chase on metal ; to schtter, to 

A colloquial word. One blad- 
ed shears working on a pivot ; 
to slice or pare with shears ; 
chdpi ihoi, cut it open ; (pan 
dong chdpi betel-nut shears; 
chdpi ySukids'oi, to slice me- 
dicine ; chdpi suP slice it fine. 
4;Tt Read k'ap, ; paimiers or 
"^-f^^packsaddles made of wood, 
used by muleteers, 
A colloquial word, A camp 
chair ; 'md chdpi a camp-stool ; 
chdpt chak, /a/t' to sleep on 
the side, 








4i^ To insert, to pierce, to set 
^j^' in, to stick into ; to tuck in, 
to thrust into or through ; to 
transplant; to set in a socket; 
to meddle, to interfere in ; an 
iron pointed pole used to carry 
sheaves, or pry up clods, for 
which ^^ is also used; cKd'p^ 

lyiung, to set out rice shoots ; 
cKapi 'isui, to interrupt (in 
talking) ; c/iop-, yi/ci man afi 
he can not fly away ; ch'dp:, 
itsong, to implicate one by 
leaving something in his house; 
ch'dp^ cpii't^ to stiok on labels ; 
ck'api (shiu, a stuffing put into 
roast pigs; a concubine's child; 
ishi clCap, a narrow purse ; 
cKdp^ '^shnu lohhvi? to meddle 
in officiously ; pat^ d'oi pdt-> 
ck'dp> eight bearers and eight 
outriders; ck'dp) Hiynmying, 
to stick flags in the ears when 
whipping a thief. 

^^> ^""o^gly used for the last. 

^fv*. To take, to receive; to raise; 
to curtsey with the hands bow- 
ed to the ground ; to tuck up 
the skirts. 




Xjt To ascend, to go up, as a 

^fv hill ; flourishing, as an age ; 

* very, exceedingly ; name of a 

city ; chati dung, very grand ; 

ynki chaty an ancient name of 

Ngauhwa hien in Kinsuh. 


Substance, essence, nature, 
the material of; plain, una- 
dorned ; sincere, honest ; to' 
cross-examine, to confront ; 
to establish, to substantiate; 
opposite to, to appear in pre- 
sence of; firm, as a texture ; 
a disposition, a habit ; a target; 
Ai' chaL the complexion ; the 
elements of; chat,sun^ to con- 
front the accused and wit- 
nesses ; chaLp'oki plain,; chaU 
/i' temperament, constitution, 
talents ; ''pan chat} the disposi- 
1^ An ax, a hatchet ; an anvil 
^^ or iron block, used by smiths 
^^'^ and others. 

j^ I A stallion; to mount; to 

|1^' > ascend; to raise, to promote; 

1 R^' J to fix, to determine ; cyam 

Chih cAa^ to think upon kindly, 

a secret benevolence; tsiky 

(yam chati to perform many 

good deeds. 

CJ Only, merely; but, however, 

way alone ; ckat^ tah no other- 
wise, only could. 
Also read 'cAi, in the same 
senses ; and only 'cAi, when 
it is used as a final particle. 
;tO A colloquial word. A cork, 
'-^^'a plug, a stopple ; to cork, to 
fasten a stopper ; '^tsatt chat) 
a bottle cork ; chat> shati -k'u, 
cork it tightly. 
^ To close, to stop up the 
_^-mouth of; to hamper, the 
' moon in opposition; chaW^shau 
chati k^ufc, impeded, things 
not to one's liking ; chati chi^ 
^k'ii, stop it up tight; chati 
ngoi^ difficulties. 






A brother's children ; ckati 

■^75z' a nephew ; chatt hiii, a 

neice ; ngoi* chati a wife's 

nephews ; jnm chatt sons of 

alumni of the same year ; kuri' 

chati young relatives. 

Retired into silence ; to bur- 

'row ; insects burrowing^ or 

becoming torpid in holes ; 

iking chati " excited insects," 

is the name of the fifth of the 

24 terms; March 5th to 20th. 

W^ To bite, to snap at. Read 

^-^'Jii, sound of laughter, to laugh 

^^'^ outright. 

4.|R Fetters, gyves, stocks of 

^ wood or iron; to manacle; to 

pierce; a thing to clog wheels ; 

chati kuk, fetters ; chati hati 

a linchpin ; met. a censor of 

manners, a guide of affairs ; 

wati wati chali chati cramped, 

cribbed, the room is scanty; — 

a colloquial phrase. 

4fE To cut down grain ; to beat, 

^rt'to knock with the fist. 

1^ A leech ; ^shui chati a blood- 

-'^"sucker, of which there are 

^^'^ several kinds. 



4?r To pluck up ; to bind, to 
'* /bind around, to bundle up ; a 
bundle ; to make or cut out 
paper images; chat-,yatichdt^ 
bind it into a bundle ; chat^ 
kiuki to bind the feet of girls ; 
chdty ''kan, bind it tight; 'c/« 
citati paper houses, &c., to 
burn to the dead ; also paper 
striuga ; ckiit> inidi/cii^ tie it 

up in a roll ; yat, chati (fa, a 
nosegay ; chati tak, (shang, 
cut out to the life. 
-LI A tablet for writing; a letter, 
'^7*' a document, writings; untime- 
ly death; a thin slip of wood; 
fold of armor; a paddle ; vgdti' 
chati an epistle ; ''kdn chati or 
tshii chati a letter. 
^1 Creaking roll of a wheel ; 
I *a creaking, grating, sound ; 
^^" punishment of the rack or 
wheel ; is^ung uno chati to 
harass or impede each other ; 
chati chati creaking, jingling. 
■jMr Grass or plants starting out 
^'of the ground; fat, hearty, 
^"*" vigorous, said of cattle ; 'ts'd 
chati ik'i ifigd, the grass is 



^ To examine, to judge, to 
^^7* search out the truth ; to ob- 
'' serve closely, to inquire into 
all particulars; ich'd ch' at i to 
scrutinize ; kdm^ ch'dti beg 
you to look at, said by sup- 
pliants ; (king ch'dti in the 
censorate ; ch'dti fji/j examine 
and decide [respecting the 
pfil A Budhist monastery; a 
Zj^ ^'pillar ; a dagoba, a tope cover- 
'' ing the ashes of priests ; 'po 
ch'dti your convent. 
i^ An otter; -.shdn ch'dti a 
^^' beaver, or fresh-water otter ;' 
^ '"-hoi ch'dti a seal ; ch'dti -ling, 
seal skin collars or tippets ; 
ch'dti Hsai, a tauka woman. 






p? Universal, complete, entire ; 


to supply, to provide, to as- 
'sist ; plenty, enough ; to make 
a circuit, to environ ; a fam- 
ous dynasty, b. c. 1122-255 ; 
secret, fine, subtle ; close to- 
gether, fine ; a curve, a bend ; 
to extend everywhere; honesty 
trustworthy ; to tlie end, en- 
tirely ; 'hd (chau td^ all things 
prepared ; cchau ^cki, let all 
know; hu^ kin^ (Cknu <ku>is, 
he's gone to see Duke Chai — - 
asleep ; :chnu mah numerous, 
close together ; ic/iait pi' every- 
thing ready; <.chnu :wai, every- 
where, all around ; .chau siwn 
to circulate, to treat friends 
well ; ichau its'un, to bring a 
thing about, to remove ill feel- 
ing, to explain : 'Ad ichau icM, 
it is excellent. 

Often used for the last. To 
revolve, to circulate; to inform 
people ; a year ; (chau min 
tpong^ s^ung' may the whole 
year be lucky ; tiiV .chau, a 
return of the year ; yaL ,chau, 
a circuit, a year ; <.chau ishi Jo 
hai'^kdm, he is ever the same. 
BIS To bestow charity ; (ch'au 

l^ ^ tsai' to relieve the indigent. 

Chau ■ . ' 

as a society or government ; 

ichaii sut) beneficent. 

ira A heavily laden cart, which 

*^' is low in front ; a heavy load ; 


tTo conceal, to shade, to 
hide ; something stretched for 
Ctiat^a shade. 


rfr A boat, a vessel, a crnfl of 

' •' any sort ; to go in a boat ; to 

transport, to carry in a vessel ; 

the I37th radical ofcharacters 

relating to ships; p'in ichau, 

a punt ; ^chau ti'z" on board 


A frame in front of a car- 

^, riage near which the driver 
Chau •. . r J I 1 . 

sjts; a sort of dashboard. 

j^\ A district, less than a pre- 
,;'' fecture ; a continent, a great 
division ; an island ; icht (.chau, 
the magistrate over a chau 
district ; :chau U'ung, his de- 
puty ; '■kau ,cfiau, the empire ; 
the whole world ; tu/{» kiuki 
(Cfiau, a district without sub- 
^iJjJ A pp )t encircled by streams, 
*;"' or ill the water, as an islet: 
a place where men collect, a 
village; ingdiiJtchait,WbHm- 
poa I.-^ich'eu/ig (Chau, Bamboo 
town; '^kau ,chaii, the Nme 
I?, near Macao ; ,ts'ing cchau, 
Gfaen I. off Ma^ao ; ishd 
ichnn, sands, a sand-b ink. 
f^ Hurried, bustling, to impose 
'.ipj upon,todeceive:ccAr«/<cA('f/«^ 
^^4oai wan' to delude with false 
'O-l. 'I'he fore-arm; the elbow, the 
'^ •' wrist ; (o take by the wrist ; a 
"^"quarter of an animal ; 'shau 
'chau, the elbow ; ^chau yah 
arms and sides, mf^. near rela- 
tives; Us'in ichii '^chau, a shoul- 
der of pork, 
'ffi*] ^ besom; a broom; to 
ijSr >sweep up dirt, for which the 
^ J first is most proper ; chap^ 
Chau :^* '^chnu, term for a wife or 





■^* A day, daytime, daylighl; 
•^- chau' ye} pat:, hit, going inces- 
^'^^"sautly, never resting; paki 
chaii' broad daylight, openly ; 
sh^ttng^ chau' forenoon ; Ad' 
chati' al'ternoon. 
^.o' ] To imprecate, to rail at, 
in' l"^" curse; to pray or recite 
yL J spells; an incantation, an im- 
Chau precation, a charm, a spell ; 
a prayer ; nim^ chati^ to re- 
cite prayers: '/d chaii' to 
curse ; t/u cliau^ to prepare 
and bless charms ; chau' cho' 
or chaii' nia} to curSe. 
htfc' The bill of birds ; to peck 
^^ with the bill , the twittering 
of birds. 

Also read cchu. Loquacious, 
chittering, as birds ; ichii cm, 
*^- To contain, as the earth 

'^ does; including all ages, from 
Chau . Ml 

ancient times till now, 

^ - Descendants, posterity ; 
chau" Hsz the eldest son; hau* 
i/ui* posterity ; shaV chau^ 

^- Often confounded with the 

^ last. A helmet, a morion ; 
^^^^kdp, chau} helmets and cui- 

^_L- A crupper ; a silk trace ; 

"^* Ckav} iwong, the infamous 

^^*"king who ended the Shang 

^- The framer of the seal cha- 

^™ racter, Chnu^ t'liP 'sz'; chau^ 
^^vnan, the seal character. 

^4-'- New, ripe spirits ; pure 
*^ strong spirits, thrice distilled ; 

^^*"«o* chau^ ikam, wine money 
paid the heir apparent — an 
old usage. 




4vl« To take from, to takeout; to 
*''',' take a dividend; to expand, 
^"as spring does ; to lift; to levy, 
to assess, as duty ; to select, 
to draw out ; to utter aloud ; 
to whip ; to receive one's por- 
tion ; to raise water ; a tenth, 
a tithe; (ch'au '■shut, to take 
the fee at gaming ; ich'au tkan, 
spasms of the tendons ; ich'au 
■^Ar, lift it out; cc/t'ou ck'ing^ 
^k'udai, bring him along ; H& 
ich'au (fling, to beg aid ; 'pi 
tpin ich'au 'k'i't, drive him otf 
with a whip ; ich'au ^k'ii ^l^ung 
^ha, whipped him twice; tcA'rtJi 
ishati, to levy duty on ; ich'au 
ishnnpat, ha} no leisure at all ; 
ccA'rtM shnti lift it up firmly ; 
tch^aii mokilo extort, to exact 
a high fee ; 'ch'au ich'au, or 
icKau it'au, to divide win- 
nings; ich'oii ihan, to take a 
leisure hour ; ^ch'au ifan, to 
take a commission, to reserve 
a part ; ika i/atj ich'au, take a 
^f A strainer made of wicker 

i^^y or bamboo for straining spirits. 

'0^ Convalescent ; curable ; to 
* ^ cure ; k' tit) tsnti pat} tch'au, 
"^"his disease was incurable, 
f^l To oppose; to abhor, to 
- ^ 'I'hate ; to revenge ; to recrim- 
c^JLij inate, to rail at ; to verify, to 
Chau collate with ; to pay : to re- 
compense ; to requite ; an 
enemy, an opponent, a rival : 
1 a sort, a class, a species, a 




pair ; — ftir which the second 
is the proper character ; dis- 
like, enmity ; used for the 
next : u-h'an i'lii^ resentment ; 
s'jo/rt ich'au, to repress hate ; 
kan- ich'au, to dislike; po' 
ich'ati, to revenge a wron^ ; 
ich'au tiki an enemy ; ich'nn 
'Aa«, to talk against; ich'au 
tiiV to collate ; to altercate ; 
shni' ich'au, a perpetual fend. 
IRlljl To pledge a guest ; to re- 
~SI fcompense^to make a return ; 
<0^J to invite a guest to drink; 
Ch'au :cAVi/i tsoki pledging as host 
and guest ; ic/iaii ts6^ to re- 
turn thanks, to present in re- 
turu ; ich'an tap^ to recom- 
pense, to respond; ich'au islinn 
to thank the gods ; ic/i'mi iin^ 
to make a thank offering ; 
ic/iaii dd, present for careful- 
ness, as to workmen ; ich'au 
iwdn, to pay, as a vow ; :ch'ati 
tap, (f'?n cya/i, to requite hea- 
ven's favor — in being saved 
from fire. 
iJj^ A single curtain on a car- 
"',''* riage; a leather screen or par- 
tition ; to cover, as the sky 
does ; to canopy ; an ever- 
green tree. 
J^ A hard kind of wood resem- 
'^l^ bling rose wood; a pole for 
poling boats. 

A single coverlet ; a bed 

curtain ; an under-shirt ; to 

■"■"cover, as with bed cloihes. 

Read -toi a sleeve of a coat. 

c^ A cultivated field ; to till, to 

'^^ cultivate ; a field of hemp ; 

^ ^"formerly, lime past ; to class ; 

a class, sort ; who ? ich au sik:, 

formerly, in time past. 

^ Used for the preceding. A 
l,''*^ company of four; a party; 
*"a comrade; a mate, fellows, 
friends ; a class ; ich'gu lui^ a 
concourse ; to assist, to sym- 
pathize ; ic/i'nu Hung, to join 
one's clique or party. 
{{At Silk ; pongee, senshaw, le- 
-W vantine, lustring ; to draw 
^"oul threads for weaving ; to 
arrange the details of a sub- 
ject, to search for first causes; 
(Shang ich'aii, stiff pongee; 
shuki ich'au, soft silk ; ming 
ich'aiiy finest pongee ; ishii 
iUung ich'au, rust colored sen- 
shaw ; ich'mi tun' silks and 
satins ; '^fong ich'an, reeled 
pongee ; if/tin ich'an, fabric of 
silk and cotton ; '^kun ich'au, 
coarse rough serge ; ich'un 
ich'an, Sz'chuen pongee, 
^tfl Used for the last, when de- 
-7/ noting silk ; to bind, to wrap 
^"around, to twine about; close, 
thick, crowded ; ich'au wiau, 
to tie up; to be intimate with, 
to consult upon. 
Also read d'n; to wrap silk 
around a flag-staff 
il-ffl Disappointed ; deceived ; 
'}! } frustrated ; ich'au ch^ung' sad, 
^^'^"sick at heart. 
Jffl Grain growing close ; thick 
-^''^ set, close together ; crowded, 
*-"" ^*^dense ; ii/an an ich'ou matt 
people closely crowded ; '^hung 
ich'au ii/un (C/iung unai shat) 
lest they should lose each 
other in the crowd ; ich'au 
mali close, crowded, intimate. 
P^ Embarrassed ; ich'aii'u, 
'^Y} undecided, undetermined, uu- 


able to progress. 




'^ A white ox ; the lowing or 

"7^^ snorting of a cow ; to issue 
"■"from, to proceed from. 

^^ To compute, to cfilculate ; 

-"^ to devise, to plan, to arrange; 

^^^"a lot ; a reed ; a time, a tally, 
a tillot ; chapy ick'au or Us'im 
i^h'au, to draw lots ; zfcang \ 
ich'au, a watchman beating 
the hour ; tuki 'Ai ich'au ishii, 
how many times have you 
studied it? p'aV ich'au, to give 
tickets; icKau ch'dky a strata- 
gem; to scheme; ic/i'au xndki 
to settle a plan of action ; 
ich'au'^ch'i, wands thrown into 
a jar, a sort of game. 

*D:t The second of the 12 horary 

, signs ; the 4th watch, from I 

'■"to 3 A. M.; it is denoted by an 

ox, and persons born in this 

hour are likely to be dull. 

*ffilfe Ugly, deformed, vile, ill look- 

^~ ing ; disagreeable; disgrace- 
"ful, shameful, ashamed; to I 
hate, to dislike ; shamefaced;' 
ashamed of; to compare; aii 
group, a sort ; kin^ ''cKau pat^\ 
jii Usons; chi'iL to shame one i 
is worse than keeping one's in-| 
capacity private ; ming^ '^ch'au \ 
an unhappy lot; 'ch'au ;'/» j 
^cKau, are you not asham-| 
ed ? cK au vinu^ ill-looking, j 
cross, unbeseeming ; pat^ cchi 
^c/iau, brazenfaced; l:in"-ck'au 
ashamed for ; '^ch'au ok:, ip'i 
hV vile disposition, an ingrate; 
^clCau lui^ a vile set ; '■c/iau 
/fltt^unworthy of him, disgrace- 
ful, wicked ; />'d' 'r.h'nu, bash' 
ful : '^ch'nu y^ung^ bad look- 
ing ; ^ch'au sz'^ a disgraceful 


Read ch'au^; to walk, to go 
as if weary. 

A colloquial word. To 
sprain the ankle ; ^ch'au Us'an 
kduk^ sprained the foot. 
J^* To track by the scent ; 
^^ effluvia, savor, smell, putrid- 
"ity, odor, stench; to stink; 
scent ; to rot ; to smell ; dis- 
reputable ; a bad name; cKatt' 
hV a bad breath ; a stink ; nk^ 
itnan ch'au' hi' vile language ; 
ch'au^ (hang ihang, a vile 
stench ; ch'au' iming, a bad 
reputation ; ch'au' ich'ung, 
bedbugs; vagabonds, foulniou- 
thed fellows; U'uns! ch'au' 
purseproud ; ch'au' h^uk) foul 
footed, said of a woman ; iseng 
ch'au' rank, noisome, as bad 
fish : ch'au' mi^ a bad taste. 
rtji' To smell, to perceive odors 
^ as a dog does ; the plaintive 
^'''"'"cry of birds. 
iklii' Roasted or parched wheat 
y^ or rice; coarsely pounded rice 
^^ *"like grits; cA'««' d^ung, dried 



or cured grain. 


To deride, to jeer at ; to 
ridicule ; raillery ; pdki cchdu, 
"a pasquinade; t.chdu siu' to 
laugh at ; ichdu md^o jeer and 
rail at. 
1^ Interchanged with the last. 
Chirping, bickering of birds ; 
\chdu (chdu (Sheng, chirping 
of birds. 

Read ,td; verbose; .Id itd, 
to gabble. 

Ch u 




*n\ Claws, talons, nails; to 

^' scratch, to claw ; to lake up 
'"with the fingers ; an agent, a 
minion ; the 87th radical ; 
'■cMu iTigd, claws and teeth ; 
emissaries, assistants ; '■chdu 
Idn^ to tear with the claws ; 
'cAtf« shah to gripe firmly with 
the claws ; 'cAdw '-wn, to 
scratch ; ^mai pdn^ '■chdu, a 
comprador's market-man. 

*lift Interchanged with the last. 

^'* To scratch, to titillate ; to 
"tear with the claws ; to cajole. 

*-k^ To seek ; to make up the 

y^ deficiency, to supply what is 
wanted ; to barter, to swop, to 
exchange ; 'cAdw '^ni fuV hi' 
he's looking for you to scold 
you ; '■chdu U'au Id- to look for 
work ; '■chdu shd' ^mi, let us 
settle up that account ; ^chdu 
its' am, to look for ; '^chdu un^ 
to change money or for mon- 
ey ; '^chdu dsHn p'd' a money- 
changer's shop, J, . 
Also read ucd ; same as jl^'J > 
to pole a boat; a pole. 
S^' A net, or basket to catch 

"^ mud fish by covering them ; to 
catch or cover over ; to shade ; 
a shade, a cover, a protection 
from wind or dust; dan^ chdu' 
a lamp-globe; (kihi chdu' a 
network pall; chdu'iii, to catch 
fish ; (kai chdu' a hen basket; 
^kiu chdu' a rain cover on a 

Aft' A skimmer made of bamboo 


iron wire ; nests in oaves ; 

^^^^chdu' di, a wire ladle. 
ri^* Blazing fire ; to fry ; to boil 
^^ in fat; iyaa chdu' boiled in 

^^^"fat; chdu' 'td tsui' fried crisp. 

DA* To tread on*; to stretch a- 

Z7^ head in running; to jump over. 

"""Read ch'iuk^; to leap far and 

high ; to walk lamely. 

^@'] To row; to shoot an ar- 

T^, I row ; to throw away ; a long 

^■^ l^oar ; chdu' keuk-, to limp, as 

XA*|ihe lame do; chdu' chung' 

•'»' Mo hit the bull's-eye; c/jflM* 

*-'"^" '■tsiung, to pull an oar ; chdu'' 

widi it' an, to pull ashore; chdu^ 

kwo' '■hoi, to pull across the 

river ; ch'utt liki chdu' row 

harder ; chdu' ch'ut> ikdi, 

throw it out in the street. 

The two last of these charac- 

ters are improperly used in 

Canton for the first. 



■h\f To take, to seize ; to search; 

*'*^ to engross, to transcribe ; to 

*-'** *"lade out, to spoon out; to 
confiscate, to escheat, to se- 
questrate, to resume ; 'sAok 
ich'du, a MS. copy ; {cA'dtt 
(ts'iiig ikd, all his property is 
taken ; chiu' 'pun ic/i'du U'ang, 
copied exactly ; cch'du '■si, to 
copy ; (ch'du pah it is copied 
clearly ; ich'du sdj' it is all 
^ A nest on a tree ; a den, a 

•J^ retreat; a lurking place; to 
"'^nestle, to make a nest ; ic/idu 
uti to skulk in, as a brigand; 
ich'du (WO, or tsiukt ich'du, a 
nest; ts'dki icKdu, a den or re- 
sort of robbers; pdk^ ^niii ikioai 
ich'du, the birds have gone to 




Name of a large lake in 
the south of the province of 
^^ ^^"Ngdnhwui. 

Also read dsiu. The last 
is usually used for this. 
^g A nest in a cave. Erroneously 
1^^ reiid (Wu in the Fan Wan. 
' ""a colloquial word. Crumpled, 
wrinkled, corrugated, rough ; 
shriveled, as dried fruit ; 'Ad 
'^ts'z' a' ip'o ip'i, kom^ iclidu, 
wrinkled as a granny's face ; 
ich'au iTnang onang, creased, 
4^ A turret on a chariot, from 
l^f^ijlhe top of which to observe 
the troops. 

«A^h To roast in a boiler ; to fry 
^^ in fat or batter; ikon 'c/tdii, 
*^"to fry brown ; to roast to dry- 
ness ; 'cA'du ich'a, to fire tea ; 
'cA'du ckd if I, to roast coffee ; 
^c/idii mdi- to cook and sell ; 
''ch'da cfung lufi to roast ches- 
tnuts; Jsirt '^clian, to fry; '■sin 
'^ch'dit yuki fried hash and 
vegetables; '^ch'du shuki to fry 
*lVb '^^ clamor, to wrangle ; 
cu' '^^'"" '*^^"^ ^^ scold ; its'd 
'^^^'ck\in, t.) raise a row; tdi^ 
'^ck'du i/at> ''cli&ung^ a great 
hubbub; '^clCdu iyau H, a din 
in the ears. . , 

/2;Jj* Interchano^ed with ^|y to 
^^ copy ; a document, a govern- 
"nient paper, a receipt; paper 
money ; ssAm« ch'du' tonnage 
dues, charges on ships; fo/ig' 
ch'du' to burn paper money to 
the gods; it^'in cICdu' bills and 
money ; clidu\kioda, a custom 
4 house ; skui' ch'du' duties on 
goods, transit dues. 



Iffi: To cover, to screen, to vail, 
pr^ to conceal ; to shade ; to m- 
tercept ; a parasol, a shade; 
(cA^ 'i/rt, to secrete, to screen ; 
ich^ k'oP to cloak, to cover ; 
ich^ (Saii, to conceal the face 
(as females) ; '« ccM, an um- 
brella ; i'm icM taki chu' it 
wont cover us, it can not be 
concealed ; (Chi shik^ to dis- 
guise, to dupe, throw dust in 
his eyes ; (cM dan, to fend off', 
to ward off; ccA^ yah d'au, 
keep the sua off; ic/t^nnun, to 
hide from. 
'-^ A relative or demonstrative 
'^^ pronoun ; it, this, that, he, 
•^ who, what ; following verbs, 
it forms a noun, asihang^ch^, 
a walker, he who is walking; 
after nouns, indicates a class, 
as iii'ch^, the foolish ; sz" '■ch6, 
the dead ; imd its'ing 'ch6, peo- 
ple who are without affection ; 
or as put in the abstract, as 
siug^'ch^, nature ; ishing'-ch^, 
truth; placed between two 
nouns or clauses, it puts them 
in apposition, as taky '^ch^, 
'^pun 'yd, virtue, that is the 
root ; iynn '^chS ngdu} ishdn 
the humane man delights in 
hills ; it is often a mere pause 
to arrest the attention ; <.ho 
iwui '■chi, what are you doino? 
ichuiig ^yd '■chi. din ^hd ^chi 
tdi- ^pin ^yd, the medium is« 
everywhere the chief point; 
ilk. "-chi, formerly ; wdki 'cA^, 




\^ Ochre color ; a carnation or 
^ reddish brown ; 'c/t^ shekt 
oclire ; 'cfi8 a, reddish gar- 
ments worn by felons. 
ni' A colloquial particle. Just 
•^ now; a short time, for the 
nonce, shortly ; a form of the 
subjunctive; YflH^'AacAe' stop 
a little; <ftin dai chi' when I 
come back ; '^^/;* y&ung^ chi" 
will this do? '^a kwo' chi^ let 
me whip you ; Hanff 'ii^o hii^ 
tso' inali ^ye chi^ let me do that 
^' "I The sugar cane ; iti chi^ 
'^"i > boiled sugar-cane; Vil^ ch6^ 
'^^ J dark cane; potki che^ white 
Ciu'; cane ; chuk^ chi' or 'long ch6^ 
small cane; clit^ ikai, suc:kers 
of the cane; ch^^ diii, sugar- 
ing sheds; cha/ clii^ to express 
cane juice ; Hd tarn} che^ he 
eats his cane backwards, he 
has the best still con)ing. 
Sometimes used for the 
above; a tree whose leaves 
*"' are fed to silkworms. 
^^' The partridge ; it also in- 
rhi ^^''^'^^^ francolins and grouse ; 
cli6\ki'i, the common partridge. 
^•^*' A demonstrative pronoun, 
this, that ; cA^' '/i, here ; cM' 
y6ung^ thus, so ; ch6^ ''a''^") 
such, this sort ; ckt^ iski, now. 





z^ Wasteful, extravagant ; to 

'^^ spread out ; alfluent ; (CAV 

h'e moiig^ extravagant ho|)es ; ;cAV 

'cA'i, prodigal ; ich'C uoa, gay, 


•^ Not often read ckii. A chari- 
ly ot, a carriage, a cart, any ve- 
® hide ; a framed wheel ; to turn 
a wheel, to roll over ; 'shut'4, a fire-engine; ick't liikj a 
Cfister; ich'e (fti, a charioteer; 
(cAV im^, a teetotum ; ich'i 
ime kdrn^ ''chun^ fidgetty as a 
teetotum; tcAV dun,^ wheel; 
<fung icK^, a windmill ; tcA'^ 
ich'ong, a lathe; 'md tch'^, a 
horse and carriage ; fo tch'^, 
a locomotive. 
'Q A conjunctive particle ; and, 
, , further, moreover, still ; also, 
'''^and also; thus, so; still, yet; 
a word of doubt, if, should; 
diang ''die, on the point of 
being ; 'cA'e s^iV ^c/i^ tr, half 
believing, half doubting; fu^ 
'^cfi^ kicai' rich and so honor- 
ed ; 'ArrtM 'f A'^ '/iJi sz'^ slovenly 
way of doing things ; fong^ 
'cAV, still further ; 'cAV md/t* 
by and by, presently ; tku "-cKt 
or tsdm^ ''clik, for a time. 
'-^^ To tear open, to pull apart; 
,l2 U^ l6ar away ; to pull up or 
(fH^l^on ; to haul, to drag; 'cA'e 
* fcij- 1 'sA^MK^, haul up; ^Idi '■ciCi, 
^ ,''to pull and haul, to borrow 
^^ ^ and lend ; ddi ddi 'cAV 'cA'^, 
borrowing here and there ; on 
the average, lumping the 
whole; ''ch'idxni, to pull apart ; 
'cAV vndi, to pull up, to close, 
as a skylight; 'cA'i cAii* to 
stop from going. 
A colloquial word. To clear 
out, to go off, to abscond ; to 
send off"; to go away, to take 
one's self off; VAV do, gn\ 
let us go; 'iigo 'cAV lok, I'm 






^ Right, correct; according 

>to ; to cover over, to put on, 
r> J as clothes; to cause, to order, 

Choh to send ; a particle placed 
after verbs, showing a transi- 
tive and present action, and is 
like chiJ^ in colloquial; before 
verbs, let, make, permit ; s'/rt 
chiuki unsuitable ; cli^uk> kwa' 
iCaii, just right; 7td cMuk, sets 
well, as a garment ; s/iHfng^ 
ch^uk, best for use ; faa^ \'m 
ch^uk, I cannot sleep ; c/i6itk, 
shati'ta, gave him a flogging ; 
i^ iki chinks unong, he was 
still more vexed ; chiuk, skd' 
cheap, good for the price ; 
ch^uk, yung^ useful ; ch^uk> 
tshing i'ln ch^uL "-tau, it will 
do for a gill if not for a peck, 
serve for this if not for that ; 
ch&uki i' to suit one ; ckiuki 
liki to exert one's self; ^ynu 
cMuk, loki all right, settled 
satisfactorily ; ckduki d fuki 
to dress ; ishiu ch^uki it is on 
fire ; ch^uk, skati entirely 
right ; $</«/« ch^uk> or 'm»</i 
ch&uk, found it; cheuk, i'lti 
cheuk, is it right or not '? Hini 
tf tah ch^uk, how shall 1 get 
to him ? itno ch&uh loki 1 dont 
know what to do ; piiv ch^uk, 
lyan tso^ hidden, sub rosa, 

This character is often distin- 
guished into chiuh. &/ chiuki. 

•hh A go-between ; to consult 

^ J' about a marriage; iinui chiuk-, 

*^^°^a match-maker. 

VW A ladle or spoon ; a spoonful ; 
■''to bale or pour out ; to adopt, 
^'^ to follow ; tau^ chink, a cullen- 
der ; yaii chiuk, ^shui (chi do, 
much as a spoonful of water. 
l/l To burn ; to singe, to cau- 
'**-''terize with moxa ; alarmed; 
^*^"^clear, distinct ; luxuriant, as 
flowers; chitik, (kioai, to singe 
a terrapin's shell ; chiuk-, lan^ 
to raise a blister ; ch6uki ngai* 
to burn the moxa ; ch^ukt 
cMuk, splendid, as flowers. 
3fi^ To pour out liquor, to fill a 
"J'cup; a cup, a glass ; met. wine, 
^^"'Miquor ; a dinner, a feast ; to 
avail of, to choose the good 
and act upon it ; to deliberate; 
to imitate or adopt ; (Shntn 
chiuki or chiuk, *i, to delibe- 
rate ; poh ch^uk, a slight re- 
past ; chiuk, diung ^t'o tong^ 
it is all settled right ; (kiung 
chc'uk) a feast on a birth ; 
sh6ung^ chiuk, a sumptuous 
feast ; ichung ch^uk, the ser- 
vants' course ; tsui^ chiuk, a 
wedding entertainment to a 
son ; irniu ch&itk) a return feast 
given by a bridegroom. 
-LA A ladle ; a beim for a 
"^'J'bridge. Read'/uit; handleof 
^^°^the Dipper ; handle of a ladle; 

to lead, to draw. 
•^ Thepeoiiy; also the dahlia; 
^'\hiuk-, yiuki peony roots, a 

yJT^ A city in the feudal state of 
/U»»>'Pjji ,,„^y 3 place in Shantung 

XXU To cut with a sword or knife; 
''' 'to amputate ; to chop, to hew; 
^^ chiuL ihoi, to cut open. Of- 
ten read tt^ukj. 






A Firm, stable ; lofty and pro- 
7^' found ; distant ; to establish; 
^'^*°"to expect ; to surpass ; emi- 
nent in, raised above others; 
at, reached, as a time ; <.ch'iu 
clihik^ preeminent, superior 
to common; cKtuki uh <yan 
iho'an, excelling other men ; 
ch'iuk: lapi to erect, upright ; 
cKiuk:, i' meritorious, said of 
oTicers at the quinqennial 
i^ Extensive, distant; large; 
^'to show, to manifest; <.ming 
^^'°^^c'iiuk, ^u tsuP to make your 

crime known. 
X^ A table ; a stand ; a kind 
^*' of tree ; ch'^uky 'tsz' a table ; 
^'^'°'''i ch'euL tables and chairs. 
^ Large, ample ; slow, leisure- 
W' ly ; cli^uk, yeuk, delicate, as 
Ch'oh^ girl; (/j'm clC6uk, broad, 
liberal ; cKeuk, ch'eiik, ^yau 
ill, an overplus, more than 
^ To stab or spear ; a seal 
'^* used by constables ; IcoV 
^^°^ch"iuh to stamp a document. 




To draw a bow ; to extend, 
to stretch, to open'; to draw 
up, as a list ; to increase ; to 
boast ; to state, to proclaim, to 
publish ; a classifier of things 
spread out, as a table, chair, 
bed, paper, &c.; ,cheung kwa' 

TUN. uit^T 

to hang out, as festoons ; Jioi 
(ch^mtg, to open quick or 
strongly ; csan Jioi ich^ung, to 
open a new shop ; ^chiung IdV 
to make much of, boasting ; 
ipd ichiung iwd laP to make 
a great show ; (kicdi <.ch^ung, 
crossgrained ; ^chtung \yiung 
to make known ; icheung Jioi 
'^hau, open your mouth ; ^rhu 
icheung, to direct, tolord over; 
yaty (Ch^ung unun dim, a door- 
-^ A piece of music ; a chap- 
t:^ ter, a section ; a composition ; 
a statement; rules, laws, re- 
gulations; clear, beautiful, ma- 
nifest ; a display ; a grove ; a 
metonic cycle; '</oi ichtiing, 
variegated ; hin' (cheung, ma- 
gistrate's orders ; (Cheiing ki'i' 
sections and paragraphs ; slid' 
icheung, many papers or state- 
ments ; ichning ich'ing, regu- 
lations, rule of conduct; iWorig 
tchenng, laws of the land ; ad 
ccheurig or yan' ichhing, a 
jj^ A husband's father ; tku 
*^^ icheung, a husband's parents; 
^^^^^Jiing iCh^ung, a husband's 

§^ Luminous ; beautiful ; ele- 
*^ gant; to manifest; variegated 
ChAngpi^jijig^g or pelage; ■ch^ung 

iining, clearly exhibited. 
S^ Alarm; apprehensive; t^A^j/H^ 

tjr^ acong, terrified, fearful ; a 
Chang '^c 1 1 I 
horrined look. 

J*- The camphor ( Laurns cam- 

!xt" p/iora); .ch^iing 7?iuh cam- 

phor wood ; ^rMung^no, gum 

camphor ; Jieting <.chiung, a 

camphor odor. 




,V^ Name of a river; the pre- 
^^ feciure of Chiugchau in 
^'^ji^eFuhkien near Amoy. 
Is A kind of plaything made 
Jv^ of jade ; lung^ ichtung, to 
^'''^"Sbear a son. 
gjT A feudal state, now part of 
'^'. Tai-ng4n fi'i in Shantung ; 
^"^an ancient city in Kii, also 
in the modern Shantung. 
^^ A kind of chevroiain or 
'r^ gazelle, hornless, and of ele- 
^"'^^gant shape ; uigan ich^ung, 
the white gazelle — appears 
in good reigns. 
*^ The palm of the hand; the 
C^nffP^^ or sole of animals ; a 
"webbed foot; to grasp; to 
rule, to control ; a control, a 
jurisdiction ; '^shau 'r.heung, 
the palm ; Hd yaU ipa '■ch^ung, 
a slap of the hand; '^ch^ung 
^kun ikung iyan, to oversee 
■workmen ; hhpi '■chtnng, to 
clasp the hands, as in prayer ; 
'ch^ung nk) 'pi'^g ik'iin, to 
command the forces ; '^ckdung 
kdu' to teach [graduates] ; 
hoii' '-shau '■cheting, to exam- 
ine the hand, palmistry ; p'dk:, 
'^ch^ung, to clap the hands ; 
'^ch&ung kwai^ a bookkeeper, a 
salesman ; i* {« \fdn ^ch^uiig, 
as easy as to turn the hand 
' M. Old, senior, superior, greater; 
*^ to excel, to increase; to 
^'^^"^grow, to extend, to advance ; 
to prosper ; to elevate, to think 
highly of; an elder, a superior; 
'^pd 'ch^ung, a constable ; ^kd 
'^chdung, a paterfamilias ; ^iigo 
'^kau '■ch^ung ^ni, I'nj some- 
what older than you ; kwai^ 

tkang Uo'ch^ung, how old are 
you ? [fo '■chtnng, mates in a 
ship ; ''chiung tdi^ to grow 
older ; '■ch^ung '■tsz' or "ch^ung 
ifong, the eldest son ; '■chiung 
^Id, a Budhist priest ; (tsiin 
^cMung or 'ck^ung'^ch^, an old 
man ; uiia '^ch6ung, old, older ; 
pati ^ch^ung tsurC untrust- 

iJS* Disappointment : vexed ; 

'■*^ cMung^ ch^ung^ longed for ; 
^'^^^ch^ung^ motig^ sick at heart 
from delayed hopes. 

AE' A curtain, a screen ; h tent; 

'^^ a house; to calculate; to 
'^"^spread ; a reason, a plan; an 
account, for which the next 
is used ; pd^ ch^ung^ an awn- 
ing ; chiuiig^ dim, a hanging 
door-screen ; ch'it^ ch^ung^ to 
pitch one's tent, to become a 
teacher ; trnare cJU'ung^ a bed- 
curtain ; watt' cheuiig^ un- 
reasonable, incoherent; ip'ing 
cheitng^ a movable screen of 
silk ; shau^ cheuiig^ a scroll 
given to old people. 
An unauthorized character. 
Chanff^ debt, a claini, an account, 
a charge ; to reckon, to sum 
up ; to calculate. 
A colloquial word. A time, an 
occasion; dai kioo'yatich^ung^ 
I have been here once ; c'm 
suii' chhing^ do not put it to 
my account, it's none of my 
business ; ngan^ ch(^uug^ a 
tough account, a refused bill ; 
cheung^ muh accounts; ishatt 
ckcung' to receive money on 
account; ch(^ung\tdn, a bill.; 
cchui ck(^ung^ to dun ; ch^ung'' 
ifoag, a eountjiig-room ; hau^ 





chhing^ waiting for a settle- 
ment ; siin^ chtufig^ to reckon 
accounts; c/ieung^ ^pd, an ac- 
count book ; ttiV rJi^vng^ to 
balance accounts by offsetting 
ds'iiig ck^ung^ or 'Aodn chning' 
to pay off an account ; him^ 
chiuiig^ to owe. 
yjE' An inundation ; to overflow; 
'*^ a sheet of water ; the south- 
•^"^ern sea ; ''shui ch^ung^ water 
is rising, overflowing. 
HE.' A swelled belly ; a swell- 
ing ; dropsical •,'^shui ch^ung' 
^'^^"Sdropsy of the belly, ascites ; 
ch^ung' hnun, belly hiird or 
puffy ; '■pdu ch^ung^ a belly- 
ful, a feeling of fullness; 
ch^ung^ ^nv'in ikung it'ong, 
swelling with rage, incensed. 
aM' Malaria ; pestilential vapors ; 
'^ pestiferous air ; an chhing^ 
■^"ounwholesome climate ; dam 
chiung' noxious vapor ; hV 
tli^nng^ deleterious malaria. 
R^-' To separate ; to divide ; to 
' "^ shut up, to include; lo raise 
Sail embankment ; something 
which prevents pTogress ; an 
intervening distance ; a bar- 
ricade, a trench, a fence; a 
protection, as a carpet; a dike, 
a terminus ; ^pcin chfung^ a 
board partition ; cheung^ sak:, 
a hindrance or stoppage ; '^pd 
cheung^ a defense or embank- 
ment ; to defend a barrier ; 
cheung^ paV to close against 
■^ Ten c/tVcor 141 English 
•f'*' inches; to measure; an el- 
^^"°dcr ; ch^ung^d^ungy to meas- 
ure land; ch^^ung- (fu, my 
kusband ; Vd ch^mg^ or 



ch^ung^ iyan ikung, a wife's 
father ; tni^ ch&img^ <fu, a ta- 
lented man ; fong chhmg^ the 
abbot of a monastery. 

A cane, a staff; a cudgel, a 
club; to lean on ; to hold ; to 
' ''"^beat ; aged, an old man; to 
mourn ; '^kwdi ch^ung^ a staff 
for old folks ; tcA'i ch^ung^ to 
bamboo ; ^mun ch^ung^ to 
beat 80 strokes; ch^.ung^ lil 
ih^ung, a village sexagena- 
rian; sik, ch^ung- a crosier; 
cMwig^ (ki (fit, mourners of 
one year : diang ch^ung^ bam- 
booing, beating; chap>ch^ung* 
to carry a staff at a funeral. . 
A sharp weapon ; to fight ; 
to rely on, to lean on, to look 
^^^"^up lo; Hd shing' ch^iuig' to 
get the victory ; ts'ip^ cMting* 
in battle; '^ri cMiing* to fight, 
at war ; tak^ chevng^ to have 
a friend ; ^y<!uT)g cli^ung^ to 
look to for aid ; ch^ung^ wai* 
imperial gunrd ; rping ch^itng^ 
arms ; 'i ch^ting' to trust to. 

(52) Ch*eung. 

B . Light of the sun ; fine words ; 
!,. . elegant, flourishing, prosper- 
' ^ous; increasing in wealth or 
peace ; powerful ; effulgent ; 
good; rich, affluent; to in- 
crease; to illuminate a thing; 
(Ch'^iing shing^ prosperous, 
well-off; kati icK^ung, happy, 
successful ; shiin^ (tin '^ch^ 
(ch'^ung, he will prosper who 
obeys heaven; kwongich'^ng, 
splendid, gay. 






'(B A herd of animals fleeing ; 
_7^ (Cli^ung ikw'ong, ungovern- 

""^able, unrestrained. 
/& To lead, to go before, to 
*'*^^ seduce or induce; a leader ; 
■^"^an example, a guide; used 
for the last and next; ic/i^iing 
td^ to show the way ; iclCiung 
si«, to speak first ; ich'iung 
sutAo lead on ; <.ch'iung U'mi, 
a leader ; <.clC^ung iun' to head 
a riot. 
A singing woman ; a cour- 
tesan; (.clieung imun, public 
^"'^"^vvomen ; aoo ^c/ieung, house 
of assignation ; ^cJt^wig yd, 
a strumpet ; ich'^ung kv' a 
whore ; cc/tVwn^ diu, a brothel; 
ich'^uug ikd, a bagnio; ^yau 
ich'^ung, public singers ; Uong 
ich'^ung, to be a whore. 
The flag (Acorus) ; ^ch'iung 
ip'd, sweet flag, hung on door 
'lintels to drive away male- 
ficent influences. 
^ The door of heaven ; a gate 
*J^ of Suchau ; idi^ung hopi 
Ch'aiigj^jyr of paradise, kept by 
Kwanti or Mars. 
^1 A window, an aperture to 
*b^ I admit light ; a sash ; a venet- 
t^Han blind, a shutter; a school ; 
p^ I a student ; icK^ung imun, a 
«/Ji&j window; it'in ich'^ung, a 

^ch'dn, a wint}ow-sill ; ishil 
icKiung, or ^kai icICiung, a 
schoolroom; t'ong\ch'^ung, to 
pull the sash to ; Jion .cfieung, 
a poor student ; icK^ung at, a 
window-bur ; d'ung ick'iung, 
or (.cKiung ^yau, chums, fel- 
low-students ; (ch'^ung ha- at 
gcjiuol, whiiti at his studies. 



without a 

Loose flowing 

thrown on one 


^J^ Long in time or distance, 

" Iv far off; constantly, reaularly ; 

Ch anff , . V o . •' ' 

^'always, continual; superiors; 

skilled, used to, practiced ; 
direct, straight; the 168lh 
radical; ich'^ung ^un, durable ; 
koki^i/au'shoicli^ng, in what 
each excels; ich'^ung kwu^ 
j^'oM, too long; ich'^ung ishaiig 
long life; a cofiin ; icii&ung 
ishi yung^ in constant use ; 
ich'^ung "-kau, old, a long time; 
ich'eung hi' longvvinded, as a 
talker; icli iung ihung , a hand- 
billj yati and '^sho ich'^uvg, 
changeful, not persevering; 
ich'eung '■kau '^w kV an old 
comrade ; ich'^ung ishang paU 
Hd, a green old age ; ^cKiung 
^im shaP kdi^ long continued, 
as a family ; ich'^'ung 'iti/t, the 
length of, the traits of cha- 
racter ; ich'^ung ik'u, go di- 
rectly there. 
_^ A sort of fruit, the carambola 
y^_ (Averrhoa), also called the 
"^^^iy&iing it'd, or sheep's peach. 
OHj The bowels; the intestines ; 
^)W tripe ; met. the feelings, the 
^ ''"^affections; iwdngid ich'^ung, 
cunning ; 7id 'xK^ung H'd, 
clever, learned ; siu' Jvn 
ich'eung, laughed till his side 
ached ; chikach'^ung, honest, 
trustworthy; mgau <ich'6ung, 
tripe; tci^ icK^ung, the colon ; 
^siu iditung, lesser intestines ; 
ich'^ung tsong^ the intestines, 
the inwards ; isatn uh'&ung^ 
the disposition, feelings ; and 
ich'^ung ikung Hsz' a crab. 





4v^ An arena, an area, a lot, a 
field ; an altar, a sacrificial 
ground; a playhouse; the 
society of, a company ; a clas- 
sified of aifairs ; a fit, a spell; '<d 
tai^ icii&ung ^k'ii, give him a 
sound drubbing; chin' ich'^ung 
field of battle; uk) icK&ung, a 
building lot ; thun ich'^ung, 
the fashion of officials ; kdu' 
ich'eung, a paradeground;ya/3 
ich'iung, execution-ground ; 
it'dn ich'^ung, an altar ; t'iu' 
ch'utiishiffi ich'iujig, I'll have 
nothing more to do with it; Jioi 
d'oLn ich'iung, to open a gam- 
bling-house; yopa ffo ich'^ung 
to enter the lists for a degree 
of kujin; ikun 'hd ich'dung, 
made a trial ; in the examin- 
ation ; iman '.c/i^ung, resorts 
of students ; trials for degrees; 
it'au icK^ung, the first trial ; 
luki ich'^ung, to go to the 
gambling-table ; ynt^ ich'eung 
''ho c5am, a good action ; tdi^ 
viung^ yat-> '.ch'6ung, a great 
dream, life. 
Correctly read .sheung. To 
forfeit; to recompense, to 
Ch ang^j^j^g . -3 t^j^y c^^j- ,'eung, 

he wishes me to make it up. 

iE' A bow case ; to put a bow 

i-T^ Jnto its case. 
Ch ang 

n0 ' To sing in recitative ; to 
^ cry out, to give the word ; to 

Ch iing|ead, to conduct, as singing ; 
to crow ; Js'ing ch'^ung' sing- 
ing with a lute •,ch'^ung'',hdm, 
to call out the titles, as at a 
levee ; ch'^ung' cko, to sing 
songs ; ch'iung' indm iU'z' to 
sing southern ditties, cKeung' 
ipoiig '^tsz' '.hong, theatrical 

singing ; ch'iung' hV to recite 
plays ; cKtuvg' inuki tti, to 
sing in the Canton dialect, 
A]^' The inner qualities develop- 
, • '"g 5 penetrating, thorough, 
''"^spreading ; to fill : joyous, 
contented, in good spirits ; re- 
mote, long; exhilirating; joy; 
ch'iung' iili the eleventh 
month; fdi' ch'tuug' happy; 
ch'iung' tdii to permeate ; 
ch'iung' mau} flourishing, 
1^' Sacrificial spirits, made by 
•"^ infusing millet and fragrant 

ch'iung' odoriferous spirits ; 
'■chii ch'iung' a man who pre- 
pares the libations. 



fcri To know, to perceive, to 
*^^ apprehend ; to be acquainted 
^ with ; to tell, to inform ; a 
fellow, a friend ; knowledge, 
wisdom ; to remember ; icAi 
kico' piti "koi, reform when 
you know your wrong ; iman 
(chi, I heard so ; ishui -chi, 
unexpected, who would have 
thought it 1 ku' (.chi, an old 
friend ; ^chi di, I know a little ; 
ccAi '^j ^pang '"yau, an intim- 
ate friend ; csint.chi, a prophet; 
tchi td^ I know it ; the thing is 
known ; ^chi ^hiu, to under- 
stand ; cchi koki to notice ; ^chi 
to^ hni} '^kum, I know it is so ; 
dm (chi sz'* a salt commis- 
sioner ; cchi [fu, a prefect ; (Chi 
tfung, aware of; (chi tsnk, con- 
tented ; pati (.chi ^tai sat' I do 
not know its history. 




|M[i] A spider ; icJii xhu, a spider, 

'^. ^ general name for all kinds 
Chi r 

oi aranea. 

-^ A sign of the genitive; when 
*';'' placed between two nouns or 
verbs, answers lo who, which, 
that ; a pronoun, he, she, it, 
them ; often used in the ab- 
stract, after a noun, or as a 
relative particle, in apposition; 
to progress ; to go to ; t'eng'' 
cchi ichi ii/an, the person who 
hears him ; d'tn (chi mmig 
niitig^ heaven's plain decree ; 
ii'i (Chi nop iho if so, how then ? 
iiiV ic/ii ^yau ^y«, there is no 
such thing ; its^ung .ho ^chi, 
where are you going? 'A:«(c/ti, 
the ancients ; u'in ming^ cchi, 
heaven orders it ; imdachi, im- 
possible ; ihang a pat^ chV '^chi 
^yau ichi, to go and not arrive 
is common ; 'cAw cchi '■ch6 (.chi 
waP tav that which rules is 
called supreme. 
"i^ A sort of boletus or branch- 
'^^ ed mushroom, regarded as fe- 
' ' licitous from its durability; 
ccAi iwd, sesamum ; ■ chi dan, 
asort of fragrant ppidendrum ; 
cc/ii uigan, your fine fnce ; cchi 
dan chi shnt-. an elegant house, 
as of the genii ; met. intimate 
with good men, I 

-i: To branch, to diverge ; to 

vh ^^^^ ' ^^ s'*"^' *° P''y ! '° prop, 

to succor ; a branch; posterity, 
descerjdants ; a sept or tribe ; 
to attend to ; to bear up, to 
stand firm ; diverging, parting; 
the twelve horary characters; 
to measure ; the 65th radical ; 
ipciu ,chi, responsible for ; 
ichi ikang, a watchman ; yati. 


cchung ichi yung^ daily out- 
lays and expenses ; (chi k'ap> 
to give out ; (c/ti ikting ingan, 
to pay wages ; xhi di, irrele- 
vant, not to the point, a liar; 
cchi ishi, to expend, use for 
expenses ; ichi pdV descend- 
ants, a tribe ; iwdng ichi, a 
side branch, a concubine's 
child. . 

ni- A colloquial final, like p0 
^^ loki expressing certainty ; or 
that an act was immaterial ; 
'^hdm t>atp 'Ad xhi, then he 
would be well off; ichi <.chi 
haP certainly so. 
Ijfc A branch, a twig ; a slender 
V'u- P"^'^ ' ^^ scatter, to branch off; 
' ' a tributary of a river ; a clas- 
sifier of slender things, as 
pencils, flowers, pens, 66c.; 
iChi kon^ trunk and branches; 
yaU <.chi <fdy a flower, a pretty 
girl ; ynti cchi ikivan, a de- 
tachment of troops ; pok^ cchi, 
to graft ; ccAi 7/>j branches and 
leaves ; csw« ichi, Chinese 
ebony ; cshdn ^rhi, wild sun- 
chi wood, a hard timber. 
H:^ The limbs ; sz" ccA», the four 
'"-fj limbs; ichi H'ai, the whole 

' body ; <.chi 'Adj, to quarter. 
«Brt Grease, suet, lard, fat ; hard 
f^- gums of trees ; met. honors, 
' glory ; to grease ; fat animals ; 
(in tcAi, rouge ; ^man ichi, the 
fat of the people, i. e. their 
money ; ichi ^ko, greasy, unc- 
tuous; iy«'ung ^chi, mutton 
tallow ; (chi ^fan, cosmetics. 
10 A goblet ; a cup holding four 
*'{-^ gills; a syphon ; a vessel for 
*' serving rations ; 'tsau ichi, a 
wine syphon. 




4|^ A tree used to dye yellow, a 

'•^['^species of Gardenia ; uoong 

" (f/tJ, the becho nut, used in 

dyeing, and as a medicine in 


• iL. To stop; to lodge, to dwell. rest ; that which the mind 

rests in, an object ; to detain ; 

interrupted, stopped ; to cease 

from, to desist, to be still ; to 

remain, to wait; only, but, 

however ; the 77th radical of 

characters mostly relating to 

rest ; '^chi s/iV only is ; <.chi 'chi 

to know when to stop ; i'm '^chi 

kdni' do, not so few ; '^chi tak) 

kom^ '.to, only so many ; '^chi 

pal) chu^ will not stop, cannot 

be stopped; 'chi no- to appease; 

'c/ti silk, to lodge at ; into Hai 

^chi, nothing to slop at. 

'IjL A foundation, fundamental; 

^ one's own country or origin ; 

iki '^chl, a foundation, a base, 

a dcpei, .-n'hce. 

»^>L An islet ; to take up one's 

, l'>dg'"5 ^" ^" island ; 'c/iiw 

'cAi, an islet in a pond. 

«^iL Happiness ; fuki '^chi, bless- 

" , ed, happy, enduring felicity; 

ikd^chi, good fortune. 
«ji|L The toes ; a ft>undation of a 
'^^ wall ; the feet ; 'ku'c/iiikd, to 
^ step high, to trip along ; ihang 

'■cJd, to walk. 
< Kit Used for the last ; <.Kdu '^chi, 
•^ Cochinchina, said to be ap- 
^ plied to it because men and 

women bathed togeUier. 

« l£i Meaning, intention; excel- 

F^ lent ; pleasant tasted, delicate ; 

^^' a decretal, orders ; fniig^ '^chi, 

to receive orders ; 'chi Isan, 

Houd liquor; 'chi v the import 

the imperial will ; shing^ 'chi, 
II. I. M.'s orders ; Hs'ing '^chi, 
to request commands ; j/att 
ccheung ichi tdi^ '■chi, an im- 
portant remark, a synopsis. 
*l;li A finger, a toe ; to point, to 
*^, refer to ; to teach, to com- 
" mand ; a particular, a mode ; 
to point out ; used for the last ; 
'■chiijidm cc/t'^, the compass ; 
shapi '-chi U'dn cpang, to snap 
the fing^-rs in vexation ; ond 
'■chi, a double finger ; ''cki ''shau 
icdki ^(^i^> gesticulation ; 'cAi 
vioiig^ to expect ; unn '^chi H, 
no chance of, cannot obtain ; 
'^chi Uung ^chi csai, pointing 
this way and that, befooling; 
'■chi shi? to point out ; 'shau 
'chi (kung, the thumb ; shiki 
'■chi, forefinger ; oab iming 'chi 
ring-finger -j'chi'tijn, to show 
how ; '■chi kdp, a finger nail ; 
'cAi kdp, (/a, the henna (Law- 
soiiia inermisj; 'chi shah cer- 
tain, sure. 
^^ To embroider ; embroidered, 
j!|^, braided ; to put on braid or 
^^' lace ; the 204th radical, relat- 
ing to embroidery ; <.cham 'chi, 
to sew, to do needle work. 
'.E^l. Paper; a document; yatt 
iML '■ <:^''^"'*3 '''^*) ^ sheet of paper; 
I^JcsAd 'chi, wrapping paper; 
Chf ''so '■chi, coarse paper ; 'chi 
itrivi, a paper match ; 'chi 
it'ung (fa, artificial flowers ; 
'cAt ip'di, cards ; 'chi pah. pa- 
per houses and clothes burn- 
ed in sacrifices ; t^king iin^'chi, 
cotton paper ; ^kai ',p'i 'chi, 
brown wrapping paper ; '■chi 
sAs'Jrt, scolloped pieces of pa- 
per used dt funerals to buy the 




road ; ifdn ^ckl, sizfed paper ; 
^lo-ng jcam dsin 'cAi, gold dust- 
ed paper ; king^ sik-. tsz'^ ''chi, 
respect written paper ; yai^ 
'^chi ishu, one letter \f»ng^ '^cki 
iiti, to fly a kite ; ^td (Shiii ^cki, 
to torture in prison; ch'dii' ^chi, 
a fly leaf. 
'gfP To respect, to invocate ; on- 
^r! ly, but merely, however, yet ; 
' respect, awe, reverence ; 'c/r; 
'/5'z' only this ; 'chi ^t/au yat. 
yiung^ only one sort ; 'cAi 
king'' to venerate. 
•D|J An ancient short cubit of 8 
'^ <s'tin,sarneas an English foot • 
small degree of; 'cAi ch'ek^ <chi 
ti* a little way, a small interval. 
'-tn A hedge thorn, a spinous 
•^ tree ; a fruit like a pumelo, 
^^' with a thick skin ; hurtful, like 
thorns; 'cAi kik^ hedged up; 
thorny ; 'cAi ki^ the Hovenia 
dulcis; 'chi hok, its seeds, 
used for medicine, 
n The hole in the hub of a 
'^ wheel, were the nave projects; 
^**' the end of the nave project- 
ing from the hub; diverging, 
like the forks of a road. 

A colloquial particle, im- 
plying doubt ; doi mi' chV 1 
doubt if he is here yet. 
^* The will, the inclination ; a 
♦*^ good resolution, a resolve; a 
^^' sense of right, firm purpose ; 
to record ; history, annals ; 
statistical or topographical 
works ; tdi} chi' high thoughts; 
cKuti tak: chV not abashed by 
ridicule, conscious of power ; 
chi' h^uns^ desire, inclination; 
chi ishing, ingenuous, guile- 


ti:' 1 To remember ; to record ; 
f?j'], >to write, to inscribe; used 
1^ J for the last ; md* rhi an epi- 
Ch( taph, a eulogy; (sdm ktook, chi* 
annals of the Three States: 
chl\shu, history, records ; chi* 
c« '^ts'z' mind is fixed on this, 
j^* A mole, a hair-mole ; black 
/<i:i» or red spots on the body ; mi/i* 
^^' chV spots on the face. 
^' To come, to go to, to reach; 
-*-* to arrive, the summit or end ; 
^^' a preposition, to, at, even, till, 
up to ; as to, respecting, in 
order to; an adverb, much, 
greatly ; most, very, the super- 
lative degree; the solstice; 
the 133d radical; chV kih ^t 
the very extreme : tsz'^ '^ku 
chi (kam, from of old till now; 
into "sho pati chV he goes every 
where, he is very wild; chi' 
(kwdn ^kan iH of the highest 
moment ; dungchV the winter 
solstice ; cAi' di, with respect 
to; chi'shitfy the least of; haky 
chi he will come soon ; r At' 
to* to arrive ; chV 'Ad, the best ; 
chV chiuk: everything proper ; 
chVishing, wholly sincere; chV 
'■kan, urgent ; katt chi^ a little 
while, presently. 
•£k* Interchanged with the last 
-*^ To go, to cause to go ; to con- 
^'^' vey to; leading to, tending; 
to accompany ; to visit : to 
communicate, to intimate to; 
to resign, to give over to ; to 
induce, bring on ; to jeopard, 
to hazard; to regulate, to 
control, to order; an aim, 
object, or end ; a tendency ; to 
investigate fully ; used before 
a verb, implies what is caused 







to be done ; that, in order to ; 
to put forth ; the extreme ; ch't 
^shai^'k'uiloi, make him come ; 
chV V to intimate to, to inform 
in any way ; chi[ sz" to throw- 
up an office; chV ming^ de- 
livered his orders. 
* To mend clothes ; close, 
■ fine, as cloth; soft, delicate; 
' tattered ; handsome, elegant ; 
itsing chi' beautiful, fine, de- 
licate ; sai' chV careful, par- 
^5' A carriage with a front 
^^ lower than the back, or turn- 

ing down, from the lading. 
^g' A goblet or cup holding 
three ishing or gills; a cup ; 
to fine one so many cups. 

To seize with the hand, to 
grasp ; to arrive at, to reach 
to ; to extend ; to present to ; 
to advance, to enter, to go to 
the edge ; to break down, as 
trees from weight of snow ; 
used for the next ; Us'ing chi' 
a great liking for ; chV '■to, to 
stumble down ; ehi"'hi, to pick 
one up. 
^i' A present to make way for 
^ one, given at an audience or 
first interview, or when enter- 
ing school ; to present gifts ; 
chV si, presents ; chi' k'uC to 
visit with a present. 

t' Birds of prey, accipitrine 
, birds, violent, ruthless, hawk- 
" like ; to seize by violence. 
ffi' A pledge, a hostage; to 
\ pledge, to guaranty ; to pawn ; 
on' chV to give a pledge or 
guaranty ; chv fu' a pawnbro- 
ker's ; -.kau chi' to exchange 

TUN, DICT. '/J* 


1^' To stumble ; to trip and 
1;^ fall down ; iin chi' fell head- 

Chf 1 


^* Wisdom, understanding, ta- 
*7, lent ; knowledge; prudence; 
' wise, considerate, discreel ; 
able to manage ; clever, sharp, 
shrewd ; chV shik> good judg- 
ment ; chV ^yiing, wise and 
brave ; s»id chi' indiscreet. 
•^■' 1 To make firm, to establish, 
^, Vto place ; to appoint ; to ar- 
-la. J range ; to purchase for one's 
Chi self; to employ; to reject, 
to dismiss; to put aside ; to 
determine, to judge, to de- 
cide ; 'cA'u chV to punish, treat 
as a criminal ; chi' pdn^ to 
buy ; chV ika, to take a wife ; 
lon chi' to arrange a place for, 
as to spend the night ; fai' chV 
to refuse, to remove ; chV 
ishan sz'^ ngoP it is none of my 
business; nint^ nim^ pat> chi' 
unceasingly thinking of it ; 
chi' (shan und <i' ashamed, no 
place to hide myself. 
^^* Hindered, embarrassed, pre- 
^ft vented from acting or advan- 
' cing ; to slink away, as a dog 
iA- Name of a stream in the 
*P east of Shantung ; to govern, 
' to rule well, to manage ; to 
heal ; to oversee, to care for ; 
to form ; to try causes ; expe- 
rienced, talented ; prosperity, 
good government ; chi' tsong, 
to oversee a funeral ; chi' ha} 
'^che, subjects, the governed; 
ti chi^ to cure ; ^t'ln ha} tdi^ 
cAi' the empire well governed, 
firm peace ; ;/»6 fdty ''ho chi 
there':) no way of managing 






(85; Ch'ut. 

Ill To go out, to issue, to pro- 
Ch*uh ^^®^ forth, to manifest, ac- 
cording to the tenor of the 
followingor preceding word; 
to eject, to put out ; an 
auxiliary verb, implying 
completion or action ; cKuty 
yapy to go in and out, back 
and forth ; *se ch'ufy Joi, 
will write out ; jcA'd ch'uh 
Joi, about to examine; ch'uty 
chung* preeminent, to sur- 
pass; '/ji tpin ch'v? cKuty 
shai^ where were you born ? 
cliuty Jcungy to retire, to 
ease nature ; cKuty kd' to 
marry a husband; ch'tit ishan, 
to hold office ; ch'ufy ipau 
pd^ sdty to carry idols in pro- 
cession ; cKuty t&i, surpris- 
ing ; ch'uty p'tu* to issue a 
warrant, to advertise ; ch'uly 
hi* to fume or steam, to 
avenge another's quarrel ; 
ch'uty it'auf to take the lead ; 
ch'uty ^cKau^ to be despised ; 
chi^uty lis'aU to divorce ; 
ch'uty kai* to be adopted by 
an uncle ; its'ui ^ni ch'tity 
tsam, as you like to do it ; 
hon'i'm ch'ufy s^ung* to belie 
his looks ; ^seung j'm ch'uty 
can'not recall to mind; ch'uty 
ifigan, to pay ; paty ch'ufy 
*shp Ziii' to guess aright. 

(86) ' Chiit. 
Jkl| Stupid, unskillful, unhandy, 
j?jW'. unapt ; 'ch'un chiity stupid, 
inexpert; chiity iking, a 'dull 
thorn,' i. e. my wife ; chuiy 
pat I an unskillful penman ; 
chuli Hsx^ my son. 


A joist to support a plate 
S'eh °'" S''"<^er ; a sort of king. 


pS ] To sob, to talk incessant- 

^'i ly; to taste, to drink; to 

^>J kiss; Jau chiity to swill 

Chueh down with a noise; chiity 

7<a, to sip ; chiity min^ ichii, 

to kiss the cheeks. 

5?^I To clip, to pare, to cut off, 

Chueh ^° ^^^^' ^° reject; to en- 
grave; chiity ting^ to cut 
blocks and publish. 
Jhtjt To gather, to take with the 
Chueh ^^"^» *° pluck, to seize. 
j|S To connect, to join ; to stop; 
Q^^x a band of posture-makers. 

^g^ To stop ; a carriage repair- 
ed; cimty fkungi to stop 
work, to rest. 







A final particle, denoting 
are you willing, if you please, 
is it not so? ^Ngo kau* 
^ni tuki t^, shall I teach you 
to read ? shV yaty shV <^, try, 
will you ? 


A blossom, a flower ; plea- 
sure, vice ; variegated, orna- 
mental, carved ; to exagger- 
ate ; yaty do -fa, a flower ; yott 
chaty if a, a bouquet ; itnivg 
tfdy ornamental flowers ; <fd 
xshang, the ground-nut ; [jd 
Zd' 'shui, lavendar water ; 'a/f^' 
cfd, to enchase on metals ; 
tfd kdpy Hsz^ the sexagenary 
cycle ; tfd ^Isz' a beggar ; if a 
ilam, a brothel ; </a fai' to 
squander in dissipation ; (fd 



*rtii, a girl ; </d *tdn, an actor 
who personates women ; t/a 
7?ii>i*- lo paint the face for 
acting; ifd </a shai' kdi' a 
thoughtless age; tfd (fa tkung 
Hsz' a profligate rake ; ifd 
iWone, the god who protecls 
children, worshiped under 
the bed ; tfd po' chintz ; </a 
ikai, an illuminated street ; 
t/attJd' exaggerated talk; tfd 
iTneng, a nickname ; iFd iV'i 
htcoki the United States ; </a 
ti^ the Flower Gardens near 
XJ/^ To change, to influence so 
j/~ as to alter, to transform ; to 
melt, to digest ; to convert ; 
to pass into metempsychosis ; 
to create ; to transmute ; to 
barter ; to exchange ; to re- 
form ; kdu* fa* to improve by 
instruction ; fa* iihan, to 
burn a priest's corpse ; ts'd* 

fd* fate, nature ; hb* ts'd* fa' 
good luck ; iwong fd' the 
influence of law ; fa' « shang, 
produced by metamorphosis, 
as insects; fa' yati peaceful 
times; %cKdufd' to subscribe 
for a Budhist mass ; j'm fd' 
did not subscribe ; also, in- 
digestible ; shW its'oi j?»d/i 

fd' avaricious, niggardly. 



To move, to shake ; to be 
agitated ; to animate ; to 
sprinkle ; to scatter, to throw 
away ; <fai <.cKun, to write 
new-year's inscriptions ; </ai 
cfcd, to write ; fai <kam iii 
H'd, to spend money like dirt ; 
,fai foki extravagant; 'cM 




l/at, a major in a Manchu 
corps, to point with the hand; 
fai **Ad, to sprinkle, to spend 
fast ; tfai tsau^ written. Also 
read twan, in the phrase jtcan 
iltin, entire, unbroken. 

Brilliant, refulgent, glorious, 
like the sun ; to glisten ; tfai 
iin, spruced up, pleased ; fui 
ifi^ exceedingly glorious. 

Luminous, splendid, like 
fire ; fai tkwong, lustrous, 
gorgeous, like many lamps ; 
fai ircong, illuminated. 

Same as the two preceding; 
' "^ . effulgent, glorious, as the sun. 

1^ A signal or marking flag ; to 

'^^ . make a signal, to motion to ; 

^^"' quick, hasty ; fai hd^ your 

honor! (used by soldiers.) 

aa To fly with noise ; a kind of 

colored pheasant ; colored, 

adorned ; fai fai, to fly up 

and show the plumage. 

To rend open, to tear off*; 

u^ . to point out; humble, unassu- 
Hwm .^ 1 f. .1 J- 

mmg; used for the precedmg. 

^ A failure, deficiency, defect, 

'.r 7 or diminution ; short breath: 

to pant ; to mjure ; to want, a 

few ; lo trouble one ; owing to, 

in consequence of; faifii} to 

be deficient ; fai *rti, thank 

you ; fai hung' a deficiency ; 

fai ji/an, to annoy, trouble 

one ; fai isam ichi tyan, an 

ingrate ; fai 'ngo jin 'k, 

owing to my words; shik^ fai 

to lose money ; «/> *mi/n tsakt 

fai, the moon waxes & wanes. 

1^ To destroy, to overt how, to 

u"^. break ; to injure ; fai pdi^ to 

destroy and scatter. Also read 

to*, and often used for ^tcai. 





i^J^ A cord of three strands ; a 
H wui ^^.'■'"S )■ queenly garments ; a 
kind of sash ; good, heauti- 
ful ; a banner ; the stops on a 
guitar; tFai maki ink from 
Hwuichaii ; tfai tyam, fine 
sounds ; c/ai hb^ a tlag. 

f' To spend, to use; to exert; 
to dissipate ; expense, cost, 
trouble, outlay ; waste, lavish- 
ing ; squandering ; ^shai faV 
to spend, to expend ; fa'C sz*^ 
troublesome, to interrupt ; 
fai^ iSam, to remember one ; 
long^ fai' wasteful ; faV jt/ii, 
waste one's time ; kwd' faV 
" great outlay," politely said 
when sitting at a feast ; p'o' 
fai^ ' lost your outlay,' need- 
less expense, politely said by 
one who gets a present ; 
chai? fa'C heedless, witless. 

A house in ruins ; to aban- 
don, to throw aside, to de- 
gtroy, to lose; to repudiate, 
to disinherit ; to stop, to fail ; 
obsolete, null ; spoiled, cor- 
rupt ; to depose ; useless, de- 
graded; ^ai* /t«' thrown aside, 
rejected yfai^ mati a useless 
fellow, good fur nothing ; 
jmiC sfib it faV to reject when 
lialf done ; fai' tsati disabled, 

To shun ; to respect ; to 

muffle, to hide ; name of a 

person in the ancestral hull ; 

kV fai' to avoid using sacred 

names ; pah fai' dead ; (tsiin 

fai' your venerable name. 

i' To bubble, as boiling water 

' or a spring ; s/tMt' fai* crJiung 

ic/i'd, the wilier boils, pour it 

on the tea. Also ri^.ii(\ ftf). 




Hi' Tlie lungs ; they are oon- 
Ql" nected with metal ; fai* ikm 

the lungs. 
dJt' Luxuriant; small; read/a^ 
•P as fati fad foliage abundant. 

pj^* The bark of a dog; Itin^ 
^j fai^ 'kau, a dog which barks 
at everybody. 

(90) Fai. 

Ml' Contented, glad ; pleasure, 
J^... cheerfulness ; quick, hasty; 
alacrity ; prompt ; fai* loki 
happy ; paly ^shong fai* in- 
disposed, out of sorts; fai* 
tifj delighted, good^spuits; 
fdi* 7s ? ' c h opst icks ; yd i' ya i* 
quickl/di' V*t' '«/»««, a heads- 
man ; fdi* ^I'eng, a fast-boat ; 
fdi* hnd ilai, bring it quickly; 
fai* cpdH,alictor in a magis- 
trate's otlice; fdi* tiky fdn 
iloi, come back quick ; fdi* 
^md, a courier ; fdi* ts'ui* 
-U^' A clod, a lump ; a piece of, 
Tz,. ■ a fraction ; a classifier of 
small things which are flat- 
tish and usually shapeless, as 
boards, panes, slices, &c.; 
doltish ; yah fdi* ynki a slice 
of meat ; yaty fdi* ti^ a piece 
of land ; hdw} fdi* the whole 
space ; tdi^ fdi* the globe, 
nature; yd? iin itnd ichi, stu- 
pid. Used for the pronoun I. 
Ify* Great, strange, monstrous, 
J'", as an eruption, a meteor; 
fdi* lui^ puppets, vulgarly 
called 'kwai Hmi In*. 
p^' To swallow, to drink willi 
j^^ j avidity; voracious; thetliroiit 
stopped ; clamor of voices. 
Name of a king. 




(91) Fan. 

-p^ Vapur, exhalations, steam ; 
smoke rising ; to sinuke, to 
tumigate, to lieat, to parch ; 
to otliend ; to becloud ; even, 
ing; ^fan ifuiig, warm wind; 
ffjiu tsiki twilight ; </u« yb 
U'ui, to smoke hams ; ijun 
tfan, uneasy, fidget ty ; if an 
ikon, to dry at the tire ; if an 
cheki t3 cauterize. 

Loyal merit, meritorious ; to 
spend strength lor one's king ; 
ifdn tlo, merit obtained in 
serving the state ; ifan ishan, 
a patriotic statesman. 

Twilight ; the light reflect, 
ed after sunset ; exhilarated ; 
islidn ihdm ifan '^ytung, the 
hills are tinged with the set- 
ting sun. 
jf^ A tribe of aborigines, called 
/'">' ifan vukii they dwelt near 

^^ Fragrant plants, fragrance; 
used in houses to expel de. 
mons ; a savory smell. 

Intoxicated, drunk ; smell, 
ing of liquor ; tsui' tfan fun, 
gloriously drunk. 

I'he sun setting ; twilight ; 
dusk ; obscure, confused, 






dull; in disorder; to oblige 
to do ; iWong fan, dusk ; fan 
oni' dark, dull; fan liin* con- 
fused ; fan mui^ unintelligi- 
ble ; fan y6^ night ; fan fa, 
motes in the eye. 

JjCt Marriage ; to take a wife ; 

lllv- n ''f^'^ ^y^'h nuptials ; itnai fun, 
to complete a marriage ; <bn 
fan, to marry relatives ; fan 
pui' to contract a marriage. 

ilg; Stupid, forgetful ; confused 
Hwan rt=collection. 

t Unsettled, unstable, like 
^ water ; ^Fan itcong, king of 
the Tai state, b. v. 300. 
g9 To shut the door at even- 

Hwan '"g 5 ^ P^'""^'' 5 «/"» ^V^", a 
doorkeeper, an eunuch who 

keeps the hareem; k'au' fan^ 

to visit the palace, 
-fij^ Rice steamed thoroughly ; 
' p/T to steam nee. 

i^ Leeks, onions, and strong 
flavored vegetables; animal 
food ; fan «u' meats or vege- 
tables ; pati fii fan, not to 
eat meat ; fan Kseng, savory 
odors of food, 
j Vapor or steam ; fumes 
> from cooked vegetables ; 
c|^j savory odors; fan iho, steam 
Hiun from viands; odorous exhala- 

'1 o separate, to divide ; to 
halve ; to distribute, to divide 
amongst ; to give, to partake 
with ; a candareen, a tenth in 
decimal notation. Readyan' 
a portion, a duty, a part ; isdm 
faiC tchi yaf, one third. tP'ing 
fan, to divide «venly ; fan 
choi, to separate ; fan piu to 
divide, to leave ; fan pun* 
to dissolve partnership ; fan 
ich'ing shd' to pay in propor- 
tion ; fan ikd, to divide the 
estate ; fan pdi' to give 
amongst ; yati fan thong fo\ 
yaf, fan iis'in, each kind of 
goods has Its own price ; fan 
ikom it'ung mi^ same taste 
as the car|M;ls of an orange; 
<fan iiin, a deputy diBtrict 














To direct ; </an (fuf'to bid 
to do, to order. 

A tree resembling the elm 
with white wood ; a beam in 
a house ; ifan iu ^sh^, an 
agricultural feast. 

A beam or ridge-pole of a 
roof: confused, disordered, 
complicated ; hedipeo cover- 

A fragrant wood burned for 
its perfume. 

A river in Sh^nsl, a branch 
of the Yellow R. <Fan ii/^ung 
iWong, a personage in the 
Tang dynast}-, whose name 
is a synonym for happiness ; 
as cFan itf^img Uim 'fidtii, 
Fany6ung's king nodding 
hie chin (becaiuse he did not 
know all his descendants). 

Fume, vapor ; shadowy 
signs, a will-o'.the-wisp, airy 
omens ; ifan iiran, aerial in. 
fluences; 'iii tfan^ noxious 
influences; 'Aoi t/a/i, pirates ; 
lacoki ifan^ demagogues, dis. 
turljers of the peace. 

A variegated ribbon ; con- 
fused, perplexed ; raveled ; to 
mix up; many things at 
once; hurry, bustle, clamor ; 
ifan liiit} hubbub ; ifan ifan 
ttosz^^ distracted by; 
,fan tfd ^lau lun^ all in dis- 
order ; fan ^wan^ confused. 

Budding and blossoming ; 
fragrance from o|)ening 
plants ; fan fong, spreading 
fragrance ; cfan fan, odorife- 
rous. Numerous, harmonioas. 

A frosty mist ; ho'irfrost ; 
*i* fan (fan, a snowy, sleety, 




To burn, to light, to set on 
fire ; fan Jiiung, to light 
incense sticks ; fan fa* to 
burn up; fan «»a«, to burn 
a bonze ; fan ithu, burning 
of the books by Tsin. 

A grave, a tumb, a tumulus; 
river banks, an embankment ; 
great, vast ; rich soil ; read 
fan*. iFan mo^ a tomb; gb* 
fan, to Worship the graves ; 
fong ifan, a deserted grave ; 
tsdm fan, the distinction of 
heaven, earth, man. 

An ornament on the bit of 
a bridle. 

A river overflowing and 
m-^king streamlets ; a river 
bank ; a river in Honin. 

Fruitful, flourishing planis, 
fragrant flowers growing 
together ; imd fan, hemp 
seed ; fan shall bearing much 

A portion, a dividend, a 
share ; fan fan, to divide the 
profits; iTndi fan, to put in 
shares ; fan */*?' a share. A 
vulgar character. 

Rice broken to pieces ; a 
flour of any grain; pigment, 
to adorn ; to whitewash or 
color ; ^mai fan rice flour ; 
suki ^mai fan, indian-meal ; 
fan t«z' or fan Usai, vermi- 
celli ; mi/i' fan, a cosmetic; 
fan itstung, starch ; fan toi^ 
a tailor's chalk-bag ; J^ung 
fan, a .sort of jelly ; fan sui^ 
smashed to shivers ; fan 
shikt tai' ip'ing, a specious 
peace ; fan ijtdi a writing- 
boardl; fan pikt to whitewash 
a wall cu/i fan, white lead. 










Anger, resentment ; ^fan 
nd^ Rngry, vexed ; ^fan 'Jan 
pati kiki perturbed, cross ; 
'■fan han^ hatred, m:\lice. 

A mole or field rat ; called 
Jai Viii, a plough rat. 

Prostrate ; to overthrow, to 
ruin ; to fall on one's back ; 
yaty iin 'fan sr'^ a word will 
ruin an affair ; '/an Hd li^ to 
tumble to the ground. 

Impatient desire, zeal, ar- 
dor ; anger, violent feeling; 
fad 'fan, excited, zealous af- 
ter ; 'fan liki to put forth 
one's energies ; 'fan kify 
wrought up by passion. 
To endeavor after, to excite, 
to rouse ; to spread abroad or 
reach to ; to brush away ; to 
lifi; prompt, impetuous, rapid ; 
'fan chi' to animate one's 
self; 'fan liki to put forth 
energy ; 'fan ci, to lift up the 

To sleep, to rest ; 'n% fan^ 
twan, you are half asleep ; 
'ngdnfan^ sleepy. A collo- 
quial word, for which this 
character is often made. 

To instruct, to teach, to ex- 
hort ; to explain ; a doctrine, 
precept ; definition ; fan* kdu' 
to instruct ;yb?t' lin^ to teach 
the manual ; fan'' td^ the sn- 
perintendent of education in 
each department ; 'fei fan* 

Ordure, filth, muck", excre- 
ment ; to manure ; fan' ihdng; 
a privy ; fan' jTnun, the anus ; 
loki fan' to manure ; fan' 
liu^ muck prepared Cor sale ; 
fan* ti' a public necessary. 





A beast's footstep ; a time, 
a turn, a repetition of; to reck- 
on, to change ; a tribe on 
the south, now applied to all 
foreigners; ^ki t/'di, several 
times ; ifan lod'^ foreign talk; 
tfnn iyan, foreigners ; 'Id fan 
a foreigner. 

A banner, or streamer with 
sentences, hung in temples or 
carried in processions ; a dus- 
ter or napkin ; to move ; 
ich*€ung tfdn yati tiii' a pair 
of streamers; fan ^in, forth- 

A streamer ; its'ing fan, or 
iWan fdn, a banner carried 
at funerals. Used for the 

To spreAd out ; to agitate, 
or wave', as the wind does a 
flag ; to translate ; to ex- 
plain ; fdn yiki to translate. 
To fly to and fro ; to return, 
to change ; to revise a case ; 
tfdnfuki changeable; vacillat- 
ing ; fan \shdng, resuscitat- 
ed ; \fdn on' to rejudge a 
base ; tiii^ fdn ^shdng, to 
to carry a case to the capital ; 
\fdn hii' ckwai, to go home ; 
fdi' fdn ikwai come home soon. 
fcj 1 All; eVerylxxly ; common, 
'' *^ ;.vuigar, lisual ; generally, for 
i Mi } ^^^ vnosi part : fdn lyan, men ; 
Fin ijdn ikdii, thie world ; ccAu 
^dn, every one ; fx sfdn, ex- 
tradrdinah', clever ; tdi^ fdn 
^sho 'yau, people generally 
have it ; 'hd fdn, to enter the 
world ; isz^ ifdn, to think of 
marrying (-a; '. of a bonze). 



















A sail of canvas; kwd' J'dn, 
to hoist sail; sfdn pd' canvas. 

A grave ; if an tkdn, at the 
graves, a sepulchre. 

To roast meat for sacrifices ; 
ifdn cheki to roast meat. 

A dust basket or large sieve; 
to liide, to cover, to shade. 

Meat roasted for sacTTIice; 
the remnants of a sacrifice, 
sent to princes. 

Plants growing luxuriantly ; 
flourishing; plenty; many; 
to settle ; jfdn mau^, abun- 
dant, prosperous ; ^fdn *i/i, 
numerous progeny. 

A fence; hedge; boundary ; a 
frontier ; to ward off, to pro- 
tect; a cover for a chariot; 
a covered car ; ^dn tli, a 
wattle Or hurdle ; j/a/i wiki 
the frontiers ; ^fdn j^'oi, the 
treasurer of a province ; ^fdn 
tun, a \Vall iritloSing ; ifdn 
iping't a screen; a statesman. 

Troubled; annciyed; perplex- 
ed, heated ; to trouble; to in- 
trude on ; troublesome, im- 
pertinent ; grieVed, sorry ; do 
ifdn. */ii, I trduble yo\i ; ,fdn 
tdi' I trouble you to take this; 
ifdn ilo, to trouble one lo do a 
thing ; ifdn mun^ perfJlexed, 
grieved; ifdn *iii; irilerrupted, 

Much, numerous; rttany, 
confused, miiltitudinous • a 
variety of affair^ ; a saddle- 
girth ; ifdn iUdn, wearisome ; 
ifdn iWdf pomp, show ; j'wi 
voir ifinii unwilling to Be trou- 
bled, can not endure ; ^fd'ti 
faC ex^:"n8ive. 






A kind of southernwood or 
Artemisia, whose decoction 
is sprinkled on silkworm eggs 
to hasten their hatching; j/ci« 
cAd, a plant grown like celery, 
and pickled in winter. 

Mineral salts proper for 
painting or dyeing; pdA, 
tfdn^ alum ; dsing ifdn, cop- 
peras ; ifdn s/ieki alum shale ; 
Hdm ifdn, blue vitriol; tfii 
ifdn, alum ash. 

A kind of cricket or grass- 
hopper, which goes by night. 

To turn back, to return ; to 
be contrary, to rebel ; to com- 
bine against; opposed to, but, 
contrary ; again ; fdn fuk^ 
repetition, to and fro, to re- 
tract ; tsiung fdn, discor- 
dant ; tsoki fdn, to rebel ; 
fdn chilli to reflect light ; 
fdn min^ to turn a cold 
siioulder ; fdn kwal, to back- 
bite ; fdn ^chun, to turn over ; 
fdn tau' clamor and play of 
children; ^fdn liau to unsay, 
to recant ; fdn tsit, to spell, 
to combine sounds; fdn wai^ 
Ui shiki the stomach rejects 

Regret ; fdn fiii' to regret 
an act ; fdn ^chun min^ ip'i, 
to change the countenance ; 
fan csam, sorry for. 

'J'o return, to come back : 
to go back ; fdn j/itu Ji^ung 
*/id, gone to his village ; ^fdn 
hii^ ikwai, gone home ; '^wong 
fan '■ki yati how many days 
will you be gone ? 

To float ; driven by th«i 
wind ; name of a river. Used 
for the next character. 











ITo float, to flow down ; to 
transport ; extensive ; to spill 
over ; ifau fan' to float, su- 
perficial ; fdn^ ji'/, vague 
words ifdn' ichau, to sail in 
a boat ;yan' sin, lightminded. 
To overflow, to fluctuate ; 
in motion, agitated ; to float ; 
fdn^ lam} wide, as a deluge. 
Name of a river in Hondn. 

Ill-luck, evil influences ; ill- 
starred ; things to be avoided 
when commencing anything ; 
fan' cMuhi to bring ill luck; 
fdn' ishan, to exorcise, to ex- 
pel or induce evil spirits to 
depart ; 'hi fan' to adore the 
spirits of the threshold. 

A hillock, a tumulus; a 
bank, a levee ; (p6 fan, a 
dike or bank to stop water ; 
a mole. 

To traffic, to deal in ; fan' 
riidi^ ij/an 'hau, to deal in 
men ; 'kwdifdn' to get away 
children to sell; /a/i' 'Isai or 
fan' (fu, a chapman, a ped- 
dler ;yM-y«M' to peddle about. 
To rush against ; to offend ; 
to transgress ; to invade ; to 
violate, to resist, to o|)pose ; 
a criminal ;/««- Isui'- to trans- 
gress ; /in- yit/, to break the 
laws ; fin^ ij/an, a prisoner ; 
ifs'avfdn^ to cage a criminal ; 
Us'amfdn^ to encroach on, to 
usurp ; ^yanfdn^ 4sun ingdn 
I have ofl^ended you. 

Hcrb-3, grass ; a bee or wasp ; 
a surname. Used for the 

A rule, a guide ; a custom, 
a usage; a mold, a pattern; 
to imitate ; jw« fdn' a pat. 
To>-. uicx. 7 



tern, an exemplar; ifongfdn'- 

rule for guarding ; ifungfdn^ 

a popular custom, 

■^' Name of a bonze ; the 

country of Magadha, whence 

Budha came ; the language 

of the Budhists, Pali or 

Sanscrit ; /f/n* tyam, to chant 

prayers ; fan- j i/i, Pali ; /a/i* 

cKdti a monastery. 

^^ Cooked rice ; a meal ; ithiki 

rin /^"' to eat ; tsd'- fdn^ to cook ; 

Hsdfdn' breakfast; j)in^ fdn^ 

a common meal ; shiki fdn^ 

j'm d$'ang, have you eaten, 

(i. e. how do you do? the ans. 

is, -yau <p'i/j, (hank you.) 

tchongfdn^ dish up the rice. 

(93) Fat. 

^^ A negative ; not, it should 
Fuh "^^ ^^' not permissible ; con- 
trary, distorted ; faU Joi, he 
will not come ; fat, tsai' «'* 
it will not be done. 
^ffi Like, as if; used in the 
F?h P^*"*^*^^ f'^^gfiif^ resembling. 


To brush, to'"\vipe, to dust ; 
to push away, to oppose ; to 
expel, to contradict ; per- 
verse, disobedient ; a sort of 
flail ; fa(y idian, to brush 
away dust ; /«/> shil-, to brush 
away ; ^ying faU a fly whip ; 
fat, iynn sing' to thwart an. 
other's wishes. 
^ Brambles, or luxuriant her- 
^' bagc, concealing the path ; 
happiness, luck ; to screen ; 
to clear away, to open- 
fat, V.vd, to clear away grass. 
i*^ Raveled silk ; a screen ; a 
Fuh ^^'^^^ to drag a bier ; c/uip, 
fat, to accompany a funeral. 








w > 

A ribbon to hold a seal ; 
used for the two preceding. 

Clean, pure ; to disperse ; 
to drive off; to wash away ; 
a sacrifice or baptism to 
obtain good ; faU ich'u, to 
ward off. 

A covering for the knees ; 
a short tunic worn in southern 

A knee. pad of leather ; a 
cover or defense for the bo- 
som ; a string on a seal. 

Disheveled hair ; head 
ornaments; like, nearly, ap- 
plied to things. 

Variegated, black and 
azure mixed ; to embroider in 
colors ; elegant, flowery (as 
writing) ; a variegated gar- 
ment ; fati 'mill, an embroi- 
dered coronet. 
A single floss of silk ; the 
smallest fraction in notation, 
a millionth ; to forget, to dis- 
regard ; to make light of, to 
extinguish ; negectful ; sud- 
denly, abrupt, unexpectedly, 
all at once ; faU iin, sud- 
denly ; fat, ^yau tyaa iloi, 
just then a man came ; iheng 
jafi to make light of; faU 
Uuki to forget ; /a/> ishi, not 
punctual ; fat, onhig faU 
mill it appeared and disap- 
peared suddenly. 
Minute, abstruse; inexplica- 
ble ; that which dazzles or 
flutters the mind. 
■My To take up refuse, to clean 
^"*'* away ; to bale out, to dip 
up ; fat, Hau, a dust-board ; 
fat, 'shui, to bale water ; faU 
lapi sdfi to take up rubbish. 





^ A tablet of ivory, bamboo, 
jj^ 'jj gem, or wood, used at au- 
diences in former times ; 
meant for making memo- 
randa, and then used as orna- 
ments ; they were held be- 
fore the breast; chap, f at, H 
ich'iu, to take the tablet in 
court ; ching^ fat, to hold 
the tablet. 
*^ A hole in the ground ; a 
stable or sty dug out of the 
earth ; fail Hung, a hole, a 
grotto ; *s/ju fati a rat-hole ; 
^kdu t'd* isdm fat^ a cunning 
rabbit has three holes ; ^shi 
fat, buttocks. 
/^ Contrary, unreasonable ; to 
Fi^' ^""^^ aside, Budha; Fati kdu' 
Budiiists ; Fati Hsd, Budha , 
Fatifdfz Budhism ;fati ^shaut 
citron ; Fat^ ifong, Budhist 
temples ; fati ''hau ^sht <.samt 
a villainous hypocrite. 

(94) Fat. 

X^ To issue, to appear, to send 
rlh * ^^^^^' ^^ germinate ; to cause 
to go, to dispatch, throw out ; 
to ferment ; to show forth, to 
manifest ; the spring ; fdt, 
its'oi, to make money ; fdt , 
^shi, to have customers ; fdt» 
hak, or fati vidi- for sale ; 
fdt, isajn, to give in charity ; 
fdt, shai^ to take an oath ; 
fdt, Uin, crazed, beside him- 
self; */ii fdt, iwan ^mi ? are 
you crazy ? fdt, 'At iZoj, to 
rise (as dough), to succeed, to 
get on ; fdt, fan ««» tsik, to 
dismiss home ; fdt, ttdn, to 
issue advertisements ; fdt, 
iCliiti, to get damp ; Hd fdtt 




to send ^\vny ; fdli h? an- 
gry ; fdt> ifo, to become a kit- 
yan ; fd(> kdpy to become a 
isiinsz'; fdU hd^ to make a 
signal; fat, p'ui^ banished ; 
fdti (fung, leprous ;fdf, ding, 
to have descendants ;yd^> 'chl, 
to wet paper. 
j±. A rule, a law, usage ; regula- 
rly tions, precepts ; a punishment 
or legal infliction ; an art ; 
skill, industry ; sect ; fdt, td^ 
rule, regulation; iyir^g fdti 
penal laws ; ifii fat, to lay a 
spell ;/d/) tsaki a guide ;/d/) 
iTtiun, the Budhists ; ch'dkt 
fdti mode of concluding or 
repairing ; db fdti rules for 
^^ Hair of the head: met. 
^^' herbs, trees, moss ; ch'ukifdt> 
to bind up the hair; ipH it'au 
'sdn fdti disheveled hair ; 
s^uk, fdti to shave the whole 
liead ; kUt fdti marriage of 
virgins ; sheki fdti mosses ; 
fdti ts^oi^ an algae used for 
food ; fdti ^mong, female's 
falsf hair ; fi fdti to clip the 
hair with a razor ; ilau it*au 
pat, ilaufd!> married. 
^jfi" To destroy, to strike, to 
f'^h ^S''^ ! ^^ punish, to subdue, 
to desolate; to cut down ; to 
brag ; meritorious deeds; a go- 
between ; shati fdti IV hoi' 
famous for prowess, invinci> 
ble ; fdti tsui- to punish 
crime ; tsoki fdti to act as go- 
■y^ A bamboo raft ; a large ship 
p^ like a raft for size; an ark. 

Jl3^ A door on the left ; meri- 
r^i' torious services, to set forth 










one's merit ; fdti ult the side 
doors of a gateway ; worthy 
services, accumulated merit. 

A peccadillo, a crime; to 
punish, to castigate, to flog ; 
to fine ; a forfeit ; fdti chak, 
to bamboo ifdfi Hsan, a for- 
feit of wine ; fdti fung, to 
mulct an officer's salary ifdl, 
iVgan, to fine, a forfeit. 

Want, failure, defective ; 

without ; to fail ; to spoil, to 

injure; empty, poor, fatigued ; 

fdti shiki in want of food ; 

ip' an fdti beggared. 


Earthenware in general ; a 
vessel used to contain wine ; 
one on which time was noted ; 
ajar; ^ngd fau, earthenware. 

A rabbit net ; a wooden 
screen before an official re- 

A hillock of earth. 

To take up in both hands, 
as water or grain; a handful; 
yati fau Wd. a handful of 

New silken garments ; ele- 
gant, lustrous. 

To float, to drift ; to over- 
flow, to exceed, to inundate ; 
past time ; light, unsteady, 
fleeting ; excessive ; faufdn' 
floating ; vulg. ^pd ipd pdn' ; 
ifau iin, unmeaning words; 
if an its'oi, floating property ; 
ifau iyau tsoi' shai'- engaged 
in worldly affairs i ifau sheki 
pumice ; 'kdm ifau, heedless, 
flagitious ; ifau it'd, a pa- 
goda ; sfau (.shang, the living ; 
ifau ifau, vain, much. 






Alfirge ant, called tp'f ifau ; 
ifau iyutt, an epheniera, pro- 
duced from muck. 

Not so, ought not ; used at 

the end of sentences as a 

negative interrogation ; else, 

whether, otherwise ; li/, 'fau, 

it is not ; 7io fau, wdl or can 

it do, or not ; shi- fau, is it 

so ? fau tsaki iWai ichi, if it 

be bad, then frown it away. 

The plantago or plantain 

leaf, called fau H; ich'^ 

i's'in Hs'd is the common 

name ; it is eaten as greens. 

^M A mound or hill of earth ; 

"^ Iradical of elevations, hills, 

' K J &c.; great, large, high, abun- 

lau dant, numerous ; mati fuu- 

plenty of things ; cfungfau- 

abundant, as a harvest. 

^fl* A landing where trade is 

■-' carried on, a mnrt on the 

seaside, an unwalled settle. 

ment ;/au' H'au, a port; kuk> 

fau^ a grain market ; Hsz' 

fau^ a sub salt d6p8t where no 

duties arc levied; pan- fau^ 

manager of a salt d6p8t; 

km)' fau^ lo go from port to 


To cover, to overshadow ; 
to brood, as a hen ; to over- 
spread ; kCvi fau^ li- tsoi' the 
heaven covers and earth con- 
tains; Jcai 'ndfau^ Hsai, the 
hen covers her chickens. 






Not right, not good ; not 
so, opposite ; false, bad, 
wrong; shameless, low; to 
slandtT, lo reproach : I'ty* ichi 









ski^ ft, I don't know whether 
it is so or not ; ^kong shi^ <fi, 
to asperse, tittle-tattle ; ifi 
iheng lyung i^ this is not so 
easy ; fi Hai, improper, im- 
modest ; 7a ifi, is it not so ! 
i. e. it is true ; </i tih^ng, 
uncommon, superior ; ifi ^yd, 
not so. 

A wooden door with two 
leaves ; met. a rustic house. 

Red or crimson silk; fi 
ip'd, carnation robes. 

To lift up the skirt ; long, 
trailing dresses ; ft a, to hold 
up the dress. 

A stinking bug which eats 
clothes and grain ; a fabulous 
animal ominous of pestilence. 
'J'he Fan Wan defines it, 

Rain, sleet, or .snow driven 
by the wind, and filling the 

The two outside of a team 
of four horses ; fi fi, the 
regular march of liorses. 

To fly ; to flit; flying; to 
go swiftly ; lofty ; quick ; fi 
hii" to fly away ; ft 'nitl, or 
fi ik'am, birds ; fi ikam, to 
put on gold leaf; fi iim Hsau 
piki an expert thief; fi ^shii, 
a bat; fi pd' to haste to tell ; 
fi fang, to rise rapidly in 
otlice ; fi tf'iu 'pun «z'^ in. 
comparably clever ; tFi-j/tw, 
Boreas, the god of wind. 

Royal concubines ; twong 
fl, wife of the heir apparent ; 
ching' fi, the empress ; <<'i/i 
fl, the Antpliitrite of the 
Chinese ; t/i V.vs' siii' th<' 
best sort of luiclii. 










Fat, oily, fleshy, rich,fer-| 
tile ; ifi chong' robust ; j/i tdi' < 
corpulent ; ifi 7d or a' sfU a 
fat man ; ifi yun^ fertile ; ifi 
tun* tun* obese, fat as a pig; 
ifi -mi, plump, good looking. 

Calf of the leg ; sick, dis- 
eased ; to a void, to flee from : to 
conceal or cover, as animals 
do each other when herding. 

A square bamboo box ; re- 
gular march of horses, beau- 
tiful ; not right, illegal ; ban- 
ditti, vagabonds, heretics ; fi 
lui* or fi itd, vagabonds ; fl 
Hong, a band of villains ; fi 
shiky variegated. Read </an, 
to distribute. 

Embarrassed, unable to 
speak out one's ideas. 

I A kind of cabinet wood with 
lines, suitable to make furni- 
ture ; a piece of wood tied to 
a bow at the grasp to streng- 
then it ; to assist ; to lean on ; 
tuky fi, to help ; fi Hsz' a 
long nut resembling the ha- 
zel-nut, found in Shantung. 
Elegant, adorned, graceful, 
polished, applied to actions 
or writings; fi -mi, pleasing; 
fi iin ishing ichiung, flnish- 
ed composition. 
A round bamboo basket. 

A red marshy plant ; pot- 
herbs, greens; sparing, fru- 
gal ; uneasy ; fragrant, beau- 
tiful ; straw sandals; fi 
poki poor, valueless ; fi ji, 
trifling, little of; fi mali of 
nn moment — sa id of presents ; 
Vi nil, grieved ; ifimg fi 

To backbite, to ppeak 
against ; fi p'ong' to slander. 

An animal of the monkey 
tribe, large and monstrous ; 
fP fi^ the orang-outang or 

A kingfisher, with beautiful 
plumage ; the cock is called 
/iS the hen tiuf ; /t* tiuH^ 
yuki chrysoprase. 

(-97) Fik. 

To brush off' (as a fly) \fiki thoi, 
brush it otf ! 










To swing ; to shake in the 
wind ; ct'iii it'iufing* to hang 
and swing; fing* tik, *shui 
tlai, sprinkle a little water ; 
Jing' laU shake it off". 


A root, the hollow culm of 
grain ; a vacuum, empty ; a 
rule; practice (in medicine); 
a class, series, order, rank, 
gradation ; classifier of herbs ; 
a literary examination ; luk^ 
tfo, six departments in offi- 
cial establishments ; </b kdpt 
a high literary degree ; ihoi 
fo, to open the kiiyan ex- 
rumination ; ifo ishau, to re- 
ceive taxes ; tfo pdi' com. 
pulsory service ; <fo muki an 
index, series, rank ; </b ildm, 
basket carried by candidates 
into the hall ; ching^ <fo, the 
alternate third years when 
examinations occur ; noi* fo, 
medical practice; </!> it'av, 
bareheaded, head unarmed. 







The tadpole : </b '/au, the tad- 
pole ; also called Jui ^kung iii. 

Fire, flame ; to burn, to 
consume ; *fo ckuk, a con- 
flagration ; fo tfd, a spark; 
'fo iim, a flame ; kau' [foy to 
put out conflagration ; shoU 
'fo, to catch fire ; Vat [fo 
shikt watch how the fire is, 
see the blaze ! fo tts'^ung, 
fire-arms ; Jsttn fo, to move 
to a new house; ts^* fo, trou- 
ble you for a light ; ^md fo 
'chung, ' no fire-seed,' poor ; 
fo sheki fan^ chalk ; fo 
iShiin, a steamer; fo siki the 
fire is out ; fo piii' an urgent 
warrant ; *md iming fo, 
causeless anger ; fo ^ketig, 
testy ; fo 'pd, a torch ; fo 
dd, soot ; fo ^yan, a match ; 
fo hV fiery, feverish ; Hd fo, 
to strike a fire ; fo fa, burn- 
ed up; ^mai ^shai fo hi' do n't 
be so hasty ; fo <fr« td^ sz'' 
a sect among the Tauists. 

A company of ten in the 
army ; <td fo, household 
furniture ; fo it'au, a cook ; 
fo ^Isai, a scullion ; fo 
'cJUung, chief mate ; i* fo 
second mate ; *Ad ikd fo, 
well, pleasing, handsome ; al- 
so used in iron)', as detesta. 
ble, badly done. 

A colleague, comrade, ac- 
complice, associate ; many, 
numerous ; a company, party, 
band, society ; fo pun} a pari, 
ner; hoTpi fo, joint partner; 
'ki fo, how many ? as men ; 
fo kV (or kaV ) a fellow ; the 
word Fokee applied to the 
Chinese by foreigners. 



A little head or clod ; das- 
sifier of beads, shot, pearls, 
and round things ; 'ki ^to foy 
how many of them ? 

Goods, merchandise, com- 
modities ; to trade ; to bribe ; 
/o' mati goods ; fo' its'oi, pro- 
fxirty, capital ; dp* fo' to go 
with cargo to a ship; fo\t*aUy 
prime goods •,fo' Id- to bribe ; 
fo* shiki quality of goods. 

A plan, an example, a ta'<k, 
an exercise; literary pursuits; 
to essay, to try ; to counsel, 
to deliberate ; to exhort ; to 
examine ; a poll tax ; iko fo' 
iVgan, allowance given stu. 
dents ; fo' itnan, to criticise 
compositions ; iii^ fo' to hold 
a concourse for writing ; lUi 
fo' monthly trial forcomposi- 
lion ; i.kung fo' a stint of 
work ; yatt fo' a daily task, or 


To stretch or expand n thing 
j''^! till it becomes larije : to en- 

large the mind. 
^ Wide, spacious, extended ; 
jT*; , to enlarge, to open, to widen ; 

to pare. 
0^ A short, quick, stately step, 
i^^l as if going up stairs, deemed 
respectful to superiors ; fokt 
f6^ a quick, regular walk. 
■Hi To grasp with the talons or 
claws ; foki 'Is'ii, to seize by 
force, to get anyhow. 

The fluttering of a bird 
when caught ; looking right 
and left ; to glance the eyes 
about quickly; fok^ y^uky nc- 
tive ; said of an old man. 










To bind, to lie up ; to tip ! 
fast ; to secure baggage ; fok* 
'kait, tie it tiglit ; ^kw'an fokt 
to tie round with a cord. 

A large hoe or niattock, made 
of wood, edged with iron. 

Speed, celerity, agility ; a 
surname ; a range of moun- 
tains in Hupeh, the Atlas of 
China ; fok, liin^ ching' the 
cholera or biHous colic ; fok, 
iiti, quick, like flying clouds. 

Leaves of pulse, used as 
food ; greens in general ifoky 
thiung, the Betonica officinalis \ 
used in colic. 

To recall one with the 
hand ; to motion back with 
the hand ; to fan ; hi' fok, to 
make a fool of; fok> ^shau, 
to shake the hand. 


Square ; cornered, angular; 
a place, a region, a side ; man- 
ner, art, rule, means ; cor- 
rect, regular ; then, there- 
upon, in that case, in con- 
sequence of; towards, to ; 
like ; to compare, to lay to- 
gether ; to possess; a prescrip- 
tion; a thin board ; a written 
list of vassals or retainers ; 
«'• tfongj square, the four 
points, everywhere, all a- 
round ; ifong ching' upright, 
correct ; liong *ho, proper, 
suitable ; '^yatt </ong, there 
are rules ; ifong jnn} con- 
venient, all ready, to do good 
to, to oblige, to bestow chari- 
ty ; iUung ifong, a good pre. 
si:ription ; ifong leai' a seat, 
residence, location ; ^fong 





fdty means or way of doing ; 
tai- ifong, liberal, generous 
in feeling ; fong its'oi, then, 
just now ; fong '^ch'^, about 
to do, just then : fong ikam, 
now; ifong ts'itn' the heart , 
fong Uukt a stratagem ; thoi 
ifong, to commence a new 

An impediment, an obstacle, 
a hindrance ; to injure ; 
'.jiti isam fong hoi^ be care- 
ful about receiving damage, 
look out for yourself; fong 
ngoi^ an obstacle, something 
which is in the way, or is 
dangerous ; iUid ifong, there is 
nothing to fear, all clear. 

A neighborhood , a street, 
a lane, an alley ; a burgh, a 
country-house, a shop ; to 
guard', to impede ; tkdi ifong 
a street ; fong ^she, a neigh- 
borhood ; ip'o-i ifong, an 
honorary portal ; ishu ifong, 
bookstore ; <.cKun ifong, the 
palace of the heir-apparent, 
an honorary grade in the 
Hanlln acaderny. 
A wood used by cartwrights, 
and shipwrights; the white 
board used by fishermen to 
entice fish ; <.su fong muk, a 
kind of logwood or sa pan- 
wood ; ;mu;i fong, door-posts. 

A sacrifice to the manes 
within the gate of the ances- 
tral hall; the area within the 

Fragrant, odorous ; beauti- 
ful, like flowers ; met. agree, 
able, pleasant ; virtuou.s, ex- 
cellent ; ifong 'chi, flagrant 
plants ; fong itsung, frngrant 



memory or exnmplcs of an- 
cient worthies; ifong iTtiing, a 
reputation for virtue ; sni?i 
tfong 'ki do, how old are you ? 
'/"^"ff '^'^' gi'^ssy, fresh. 
Tjt Waste, wild, barren, desert- 
j/'~ ed, unproductive ; distant ; 
^ jungle, heath ; empty, un- 
cultivated, void, unripe, blast- 
ed ; a famine, a dearth ; to 
overshadow ; to magnify ; 
ifong iind, bushy, overgrown ; 
ifong fai* to disregard, to 
cease, old, desuetude ; fong 
it'ong, incoherent, incredible, 
unworthy of belief; <fong 
jTitn, a year of scarcity ; cfong 
isho, disused, neglected, obso- 
lete ; ifong ikdu, wilderness, 
wilds ; ifong syam, lustful. 
'VS* Fluttered, perturbed, ap- 
' '/IV prehensive, nervous ; ob- 
^^"•"2 scure ; to scare, to alarm ; 
ifong ih^ung, dreading, ter- 
rified ; hn ifong fait disturb- 
ed, harassed ; ifong taki ^ngo, 
you alarm me ; ifong itnong, 
^^ hurried, uneasy. 
< ra. Blood above the heart. 

^ A part of the thorax above 
Hwing ^^^ '•^^'■^ 5 the vitals. 
S. A room, a chaml>er, a dwel- 
Fanff ^'"8 ? ^" office ; a departme<jit 
of an office ; one living HIi 
the same room ; sexual act ; 
a calyx ; a quiver ; a bee's 
nest ; the constellation Scor- 
pio ; yali Jidn ifong, a room ; 
^fong vk> a dwelling ; 'sh^ung 
ifong, female apartments in 
an office ; j/nwrt ifong, ante- 
room ; luk, ifong, h\\ depart- 
ments of an office ; ifong, ifdn 


permit office at the hoppo's ; 
iVgan sfong, a treasury ; 'ni 
itsiin ifong, which brother 
are you ? tsln^ ifi^gt '"/ 
wife ; tp'in ifong, my con. 
cubine ; iying ifong, a camp ; 
tung^ ifong, the nuptial act. 

A bank, a levee, a dyke ; a 
defense ; a screen ; to guard 
against, to keep off, to defend, 
to repress, to prohibit; to 
provide against; ifong pi^ to 
prepare for, to be ready, to be 
on one's guard ; ^fong tki, to 
provide against dearth ; ifong 
kani' to stop ; ifong 'shau, to 

A kind of bream, a foot 
long, common at Canton ; 
the tail is red, or is said to 
turn so from fear. 

To imitate ; like ; a model, 

Fiii a copy ; fong y^ung' or fong 

^ shikt follow the pattern; 

senng fong, much alike. 

Like, resembling, seen in- 
distinctly ; seeming, dreamy ; 




^^1 y^"S y^'> somewhat like ; 
Fang fong iimng, timid, undecid- 
ed ; fong ip^ung, roving, 
difficult to settle. 

To spin, to twist into thread, 
to twine; lines, threads; 
fong tsiki to spin ; fong iShd, 
to spin cotton yarn. 

The first light of the morn- 
ing ; clear, bright ; to begin, 
the commencement ; fong 
U'ung- bright ; fong Idung^ 
pan* the morning gun. 

To inquire, to search out, 
to inform one's self; to ask 
advice of; to consult, to dc. 
liberate ; fong man^ to lu- 











r|uire about ; [fong jrtt;, to 
tiiid out and seize ; [fang 
eft alt to examine into a mat- 
ter otficially ; f'^fg ik'au, to 
inquire for carelully, to search, 

Two boats alongside of each 
y'y^ other ; a pilot or steersman ; 
a galley of fifty men ; wd^ 
[fong, a flower or other hand- 
some river boat ; [fong ichttng 
if dm '^yarriy conversing and 
drinking in a boat. 

'FftJ' To give, to bestow (said by 
■'/ti the recipient): ^fong ts'z'* 
° coiilerred ; Jong ci, a pre- 
sent given. 
*j^ To talk in sleep, incoherent ; 

^ iin, lies; Ifong maii^ untrue. ' 
To reject, to let off; to let 
go, to extend, to liberate, 
to loose ; to lay down ; to in- 
dulge, to relax, to dissipate; 
to scatter ; to open out ; ac* 
eord •,fong^ isimg, to loasen ; 
fong' tsnng' let him go, to 
spoil by indilgence \ fong^ 
sz" presumptunu'', imjui- 
dent;yb/i^'' <v<Tr»i, easy about 
it, unsolicitous ; fong* chdP 
to invest money ; fo/ig' 
isliang, to let loose to live 
(as the tJudhists do);^^';^' 
'shnu, let g(^>\foi}g' long- 
willtul ; fo'tg' ilidn, gone : 
fong* tsoi^ ko* cliW |»ut it 

/5?'l '^'^^"''^' moreover, further; 

^^ \ now ; cold water ; to come 

iJL ! ^^ y *" moisten; Jin fong* 

Hwiing how much more; fong' 'kim, 

still more, as well : Jon"* 

hai- it is just that. 

TON nicT. 8 

1^.' The vault or pit under a 

w^'*"" tomb; a cave or jjrave ; 

desert ; a solitude ; Jong 

long- an uninhabited place. 

n^' Vacant, empty, waste ; 

J,'* spacious, distant, extended, 

^ released ; ancient, long du- 

ration ; fong* -y^, desert, a 

wild ;yb/»g' ifu,9. bachelor; 

fong* ^iin, remote ; fong* 

ya/i otium, a leisurely life- 

^rfg* Raw cotton, cotton in a 

KvSng ^^^^y ^^^^^ 5 fong* ^i«, un. 
sorted cotton. 



4-; To help, one who can nn. 
'/> sist ; a man, a scholar, a dis- 
tinguished man ; a husband ; 
a porter, a worknnn ; a chair, 
bearer an exalted lady; <fu 
\fi/, or ifii tfs'ai^ husband and 
wife : ifii Usz' a teacher, a 
compellation of high scholars; 
c/« jT/an, an officer's wife, your 
wife ; dam </m, a porter; </« 
<kwa.n, my husband ; tfu 'chit, 
my [dead] husband ; p'«^ if a, 
a useless lout, an unprofes- 
sional man ; /d/'- ckiung- ifi'/, 
a great and good man. 

rt A stone resembling a gem ; 

' r- a false gem. 
Fu *= ' 

Wi*. To sit in audience or slat-, 

*jp.^ with the legs bent under one, a 

la Turque ; tf'i ^fu ^in, n 

woman bending to the ground 

in obeisance. 

^jb A kind of hatchet or small 



ijWi T'ra?) or husk of wheat ; Ihf^ 
„ ^ rcfi;sc of hemp-seed or groiini 
nut, after the od is expressed. 



To brood over, to hatch ; 
accordant, mutual agreement ; 
belief, trust, confidence ; the 
calyx of a bud ; </« a?m' to 
rely on, veritable ; uhung ifu, 
true and honest. 

To captivate, 

to capture, 
in wiir : a 



'r* to take prisoner 

prisoner ; spoil taken in battle ; 

tfu its'au,a. captive ; c/ti ^/d, to 

take captive. 
'i^ A raft ; a ridge pole in a 
IT Toof; a drumstick; a barrow 

to carry dirt ; tfu (or ifau) tdri' 

light charcoal. 

The pellicle lining the 
culms of reeds ; met. near to, 
friendly, sincere. 

A drumstick ; also read 
<pdM, bushy, thick growth of 

To breathe, an expiration 5 
to call, to invoke ; ifu fun* to 
bavi^l, to cry out ; ich'^ung ifu 
Him t'dn* groans and sighs; 
<fu Uaj)-, breathing ; fu ham' 
to cry after ; tfu hoU to scold, 
to order about. 

Same as the preceding ; al- 
so to hoot, to menace ; 'hau 
tfu, to bellow. 
£L To spread out, to diffuse, 
'^?^ to give ; to issue an order, to 
promulgate, to announce, to 
show forth ; to state to a su- 
perior ; tfu tshi, to spread good 
instructions ; tfu y^ki to apply 
a plaster ; yai> k*ap, paU </«, 
not enough fur daily use ; tfu 
yung^ sufficient. 
j*C Diseased, a wasting of 

7" Btrr 




jngth, atrophy. 

The skin, the epidermis ; 
the soft flesh ; minced meat ; 
pork ; skin-dcep, superficial ; 
beautiful, large ; to skin, to 
flay ; to receive ; f(it-> \fuy the 
scalp ; tki tfu, muscle, flesh ; 
tfu itnan, superficial writing ; 
tfu U'ai, the body, 

A stem or petiole ; a calyx ; 
a raft ; lower bar of a railing ; 
to wash in lye. 

Rotten wood ; decayed, rot- 
ten, putrid ; dry bogs ; cfti ^kd, 
decayed, emaciated, cadave- 
rous ; tfu ku>aU soft bones. 

A hoop, a circle ; to hoop ; 7d 
tfu, to hoop ; ^ni ''ui tfu wokt 
you can hoop a boiler (i. c. 
are very clever) ; tkam tfil, a 
gold headband, worn by Ra- 
tionalists ; tfu chii^ tnhan hai^ 
. htiin, tighten your clothes to 
keep yourself warm. 

A tally made of two slips ; 
a seal on two pieces ; to cor- 
respond to, to testify, to verify, 
to agree with, to evidence ; a 
spell or charm written for pre- 
venting evil, for a cure^ &c.; 
tfu hopi agreeing ; /d j/«, a 
peach-leaf charm ; ifu luki a 
written charm ; ifii tsitt a 
warrant or commission given 
to an officer ; j/m sui^ favora- 
ble, genial influences. 
Tj^Jrl A plant, called devil's eye, 
'^^ from the red and round seeds 

it bears; a species of Hoya ? 
JU An initial particle ; now 
^^y therefore, however ; tts^ fu, 

alas ! 'cA'^ s/m, moreover. 
Vi\ To lead a hand, te aid, to 
'^S assist ; to uphf>l<l, to protect ; 
ifu cho'- to assist ; <fu ch'dpi 






to support one umler his 

arms ; j/u ch^ung^ leaning on 
a staff; i/ii 'shau *pdn, a hKKird 
in a sedan to lean on ; $/"« 
ch'an' to return with a coffin. 
Apt A species of cicada or dy. 

'^ lisca«, called (fs'uig j/Vi, sup- 
posed to be able to recover its 
stolen young, and cause cash 
rubbed with its eggs to return 
to their owner. 
^ A sheldrake or mallard ; a 

' -f^ wild duck with a crest ; a { 
small species near the Ydn^- ' 
tsz' R. is called ctiin j/ii, the | 
crowned duck. 1 

'^ Large ; beautiful, good ; i 
numerous ; great, eminent ; to \ 
begin; I, myself; a term ofi 
respect when addressing one ; '- 
tfoi yii iho iTneng, what is 
your name, Sir ? 

A sort of ba.sket, square 
outside and round within, used \ 
to contain grain when worship- 
ing ancestors, called 'fu ^heai. 
Preserved or dried meat ; 
flesh ; 'sau 'Ju, slices of dried 
meat formerly sent to a tea- 
cher, teacher's wages. 

Black'and white, diversified; 1 
embroidered, elegant dress;! 
'fit fat, dresses anciently used I 
in sacrifices, with black and ! 
white lines or embroidery! 
resembling a.xts ; fine com- i 
position. ij 

'^Z An ax, a hatchet; to cut, to ij 

/• hark, to fell ; '/m ifau, an " 
ax ; Vd 'fu j/'tw, to deceive in 
buying for one ; fu s^uki to 
pare "If, to correct a theme; ;| 
fii tt'i halchs^ts and hnlberils, jl 
carried in prcfcessions. |! 












A boiler or caldr<Mi without 
feet ; 'fti Isang' a boiler and 
vat ; an old measure about 
equal to a kilderkin. 

A store-house, a record of- 
fice, a library, a treasury; the 
officer over them ; a house ; a 
thesaurus ; a department or 
prefecture; yu/u' a treasury: 
y u ^traw, the mayor of Peking; 
kttai' yii, or yu sh^ng' or 
lisun [ffi, your house ; 'fu dsun 
his honor, the prefect ; yii 
tai' a high officer's court ; 
luki fu, the six elements. 

To sloop, to bow ; to con- 
sider, to look down on, to con- 
descend ; unequal ; fii fuk^ to 
fall prostrate ; fu 'chuu i$ki 
ihangi condescend to grant 
this to be done ; fu 'yeungt 
to look down and up, all ranks. 

To keep down with the hand, 
to fold the hands ; to stroke, to 
pat ; to soothe, to tranquillize; 
to manage ; to cherish, to bear; 
to cheer up ; to play a lute ; 
yii lim* to seixe a sword ; fu 
ii'oi, or fu un' the governor 
of a province; fO, ^y^ung, to 
rear a child, to supply want*). 

To pat, to put the hand on, 
to strike; to permit ; to quiet ; 
fu lying, to lav the hand on 
the breast. Used for the 

The inferior viscera ; lal, 
fu, the stom;.ch, gal', bladder, 
laiger and smaller intrstirwt, 
and secreting passages: fm* 
fu, the hings. A retired plac^. 

A marshy pl.nnt, whicli be- 
comes sweet when fr^.zen ; bit- 
tcr, unpleasant ; tioublc>ouir, 







jminful, painstiihing ; urgent, 
pressing, afflicted, distressing ; 
to dislike, distasteful, to mor- 
tify ; 'Ad '/w, very bitter ; Jio 
'/u, how troublesome ! fu Idtt 
bitter and acrid ; [fu meng^ 
a hard lot ; [fa chi' decided, 
in oaruest ; *y"« ishiin, to dis- 
like sailing; yU Vta« iUiing 
y^ulii bitter to the taste but 
wholesome physic, ungracious 
advice ; fu Jiwd, egg-plant ; 
[fu '■ch'o, extreme grief ; ^fu 
Idli ts'oi* a species of Eruca. 

A tiger, the king of beasts ; 
brave, fierce; awful, violent ; 
Vd y«, a tiger ; \fu ts^utig* a 
valiant soldier ; '/m c/iing' a 
cruel sway ; putt fu <s6, ♦ to 
seize the tiger's whiskers,' 
courageous ; 'Fu itnun, the 
Bogue ; yji iying, ferocious ; 
y« kdm^ a graduate who loids 
it over people ; 'fu shi^ to glare 
at, fierce. 

A signet, made of veined 
stone like a tiger's skin ; 'fu 
^?/, warrant or seal, sent when 
soldiers were levied ; 'fu pdki 

A wife, a married woman, 
a female under sultjection ; a 
lady ; female ; beautiful ; -ft'i 
iyau, a woman ; /v'w' i.xan fit, 
to take a wife ; fii -'»«, wo- 
men ; 'ch'au fi'u a hag ; '/m td^ 
icM J(d, a woman's place, 
female propriety ; mcng- fii, 
an odicer's lady. 

Rich, affluent, abundant ; 
to provide, to enrich ; the 
rich ; wealth ; /m' kwai' rich, 
nttble ; /«* V/«m^ rich; />,' 
(.yiing, a rich old iVllow ; ,/u// 

fit' young, lusty ; hoki fiV uhe 
universally learned ; fu' lsuk> 
rich enough. 
i5jl' To assist, to aid, to second ; 
^'* to investigate ; an assistant, a 
•" substitute, a lieutenant, a vice, 
a deputy ; a classifier of suits 
of clothes, or sets of things, as 
beads, tools, plates, &c.; an 
ancient head-dress ; fii' tsz' 
second commissioner; fu* 
ts^ung' a colonel ; fd' jj/^, a 
compellation of low military 
officers; ydtyju' t.sam iki, dis- 
position, temperament ; yul, 
fd\t"in its' ung nsLhwnWy clever; 
sJs unfit* chapi sz'^ a complete 
procesision ; fit* ^pong, an un- 
der (kiijiiij graduate. 
9*' To exact, to levy, to collect, 
pY' to require ; taxes of money or 
military arms; tril)ute from 
fiefs ; to express clearly ; to 
give ; to receive ; to place in 
order; a metre of 4 and 6 
feet in the lines ifH* shut' im- 
posts ;/u* 'lim, to levy taxes; 
fu' yiki to levy troops ; fu' 
ndpi to send up taxes. 
1^* A carriage-house; an ar- 
h^ mory, an arsenal ; a store- 
house ; a treasury, a ma- 
gazine ; a lexicon ; ciiganfu' 
a treasury ; ^t'ofd* a go-down ; 
fit' hong- treasury stores. 
4^* } A covering for the leffp, 
_|T, >trowsers ; cHija// it'au fa' 
^^ J breeches ; t'd' fii' overalls, 
K'li h'Sgings; ri'ji^ fif' drawers; 
icKAiing fit' par)taloons; yal^ 
if'iufii' a pair of Irowsers. 
E5 » 'I'o bale out^witer ; a baling 
!,\ vessel ; fii' \sJiiii, to bale wa. 
ter ; fit' 'tan, a water Judlo • 



/*/' Ji, to take fish by baling 
tl»e water. 

0>* A father ; a senior, an an. 

■r!> cestor, an old man ; a title 
applied to peasants and aged 
j)eople ; to rule, to act as a 
lather ]fu^ tts'an, a father ;ya* 
Uo, a village or neighborhood 
elder ; ts/tangfu^ own father; 
/a* ^md ikiiii, the local or dis- 
trict magistrate ; fii^ Jiing 
tchi ptti* superiors generally ; 
ikd fit} my father ; /«* ^mb, 
parents ; tsi« fv} my late fa- 
ther ; fv} (Wong, my imperial 

fF/y Near ; quick ; to help ; fu^ 

*l'^ ^md, a son-in-law of the em- 

r u 

&/^^ A freshwater fish resem- 
|J'* bling the perch, said to go in 
pairs or shoals, and be faithful 
to each other ; /u' ihang, to 
go in* shoals. 
tJl/J- To sacrifice to ancestors in 
Jl.j^ the hall ; to inter in the same 
tomb ; fu- shiki to sacrilire to 
ancestors ; fu- tsong' to bury 
\t(t^ Near, about, approaching ; 
'y* to loan on, to follow ; annexed, 
attached Jo, tributary, depen- 
dent-; to join ; a supplement, 
appendix, inclosure ; fi'i^ kV 
to send with -jfu^ wo^ to follow 
one in explaining; fu- ui- to 
echo or assent to another's 
words -^fu'- kan^ near, adjacent ; 
fi^ (Inn, to inclose an account ; 
fa^ t'okt to charge one with, 
to request ; fu^ Joi, to come 
or bring with one ifn^ yikt to 
add to, to benefit ; ///' V.vz' a 
stiuuiluting medicine (a Kliam- 

nus ?) ; fii^ tsW to send one's 
tablets to a td-lsiu. 
V^^ Corrupted, carious, rotten ; 
'Jj^ crushed to powder ; castrated ; 
fv} /ttH* putrid, rotten ; tau*fv} 
bean curd ^fii^ -ji soured curd ; 
fi^ iying, punishment of cast- 
ration ;/«' iii a foolish pedant. 
j|j^* The rack or cheeks of a 
f,'^' cart ; end of the jaw bones ; 
to flank, to help, to second ; 
fu^ /so' to succor ;yi2* paf> mi- 
nisters; sz'* fiV four stars near 
the North-pole ; a counsellor. 
/W To fall down ; to fall to the 
L' earth ; overthrown ; Hd fu*- 
fallen down. 

4\*^ '^° 8^ ^"' *° repair to, to 

'*r' hasten ; to arrive at, to come ; 

fii^ Isiki to go to a feast ; ,pan 

fu* to go speedily ;/«* ming*^ 

to obey a call ',fv} ip'nng Joi, 

gone to elysium ; fu^ kd'-lo 

present a petition ; fii' yiukt 

to engHge to meet. 

~^|, * To announce the death of 

P| a parent or relative by the 

nearest mourner on the 7tU 

day ; to go to ; fu- ^yam, a 

letter announcing the death 

of a parent. 

M'- To carrv on tlie back, to 
„ . bear ; to take a duty ; to rely 
on, to depend on ; to turn the 
back on, to disreorard, to re- 
fuse ; defeated, to fail ; to owe ; 
to slight, to be ungrateful ; a 
burden ; Jcvfu- unmindful of 
kindness, disappointpd ; fu*- 
(Sam, ungrateful ; ///* ////' to 
involve an indorser ; fit'- t'of>, 
to slight a request ; fi'i- v^tl, 
injured, grieved ; fu* ho', a 









K w«'i 

To contribute to Imry one ; 
to assist iin interment by giv- 
ing articles. 

To annex, to arrange ; to 
receive ; to lay on (as paint) ; 
to superintend ; a tutor ; a 
workman ; a function ; i'di* 
J'u^ a tutor of princes ; isz'fit' 
a master, a common appel- 
lation for workmen ; ^ni ^kong 
tali, kdm* isz' fii^ you speak 
very well ; tvz' fu^ kwad a 
very particular person ; fu^ 
s,yuuy to oil. 

To give, to deliver, to hand 
over ; fu^ ki* to send by one ; 
fu} iloi, to send back to ; ftV- 
t'oki to charge one with ; fu * 
ikdu, to deliver to. 


A star ; the head, chief ; 
the highest or first of a class; 
monstrous; jfrn ifiii, the chief; 
if id 'shaUf the first kujin gra- 
duate ; d' ifui, the second ; 
(fiii <sing, the north star, the 
attendant of the god of Litera- 
ture; jwan </"«/, the sign over 
the door of a kiijin graduate. 

Ashes, ashy ; lime ; dust ; 
to plaster; fo fui, wood-asli- 
es; /*d/i' t/i//, coal-ash ; s/jpAj 
fiii, stone lime ; ipan dong 
t/ii/, betel lime ; fui Hsun, em- 
bers ; I'lga fiii, tooth-powder ; 
fui ifs'^ung, to plaster a wal'. 

(Jreat ; liberal; extensive ; 
to enlarge ; fui fuki to re- 
gain possession of. 

To play with, to laugh at ; 
fui '.till, to ridicule ; fui k'eki 
to gambol with ; fi'ti thai, (o 
dally and yer witii. 














To pity ; afflicted, sad ; in- 
firm, invalided. 

Noise, grunting ; fiii it'i'ii, 
a jaded, sick horse. 

Riches, wealth, substance ; 
a bribe; hush-money, to bribe, 
to make presents ; fui simg* 
to bribe ; fiii Id^ a bribe; shau' 
fiiiy to take bribes ; fid chuh > 
to dictate to one's creature. 

A kind of eel or water 
snake found in the Yanglsz' 

A small branch of the river 
Han in Hondn province, in 
K'^ifung fu, at which there 
was a ford. See Mencius. 

To embroider or adorn in 
colors ; to paint, to draw, to 
sketch ; ftu wnki to draw 
pictures ; fidtstung^ to take 
portraits ; fui it'd, to draw 
plans or maps. 

Strings which fasten »ho 
collar, a neck-string ; a sash. 

A branch of the R- Fan in 

Shiinsi ; a rill in a field, or 
pool fur irrigating it; two 
streams joining. 

Troubled, moved, an.xions, 
dif^turbed ; stupid, lethargic ; 
'fin fiii, vexed, harassed ; 
</*</// fid, stupid. 

To run in drops ; to sepa- 
rate, to disperse ; vvater flow- 
ing in a raceway ; driving, 
roaring surges; enraged, vehe- 
ment ; 7w/' lim^ enraged (as 
a mob) ; fid sun* to scatter. 

Lacklustre eyes, a dull vi- 
sioi ; eye3 weak from the 





Deal, born deal'. 

U wui 
1 1-> 










Outer gale of a market, 
gate of a street leading to a; 
market. j 

To repent, to change ; to 
regret, vexed with one's self ; 
to explain the diagrams ;/J/i' 
fian^ remorse, contrition ;/«/* ' 
tgtii^ to repent of sin ; fuV 
'koly to reform ; ittidfui' stub- 
born ; fui' tsam, compunc- 

Obscure, dark , night, the 

close of light ; the last day of 

the month ; misty, dim i fuP ; 

hV lugubrious ; fuV hi* Uau, 

how unlucky ! j 

To teach, to reiterate in- 1 

struction ; to admonish, to | 

give line upon line ; to in- ! 

duce, to lead to; inviting; 

kdu" fill' to teach diligently, i 


The spokes of a wheel ; 
fuki ts'au' to collect (as at a 
metropolis), running together. 

A wide strip of cloth ; a 
' roll of paper or cloth; a sel- 
vedge or hem ; a border, a 
frontier ; a classifier of maps, 
pictures, rolls, flags, walls, and 
cloth ; leg-wrappers ; ipmftik> ' 
a frontier ; a hem ; sz" fuk* 
il'au, a set of fourscrolls hung 
in halls. 

Happiness, good fortime, 
lucky, felicity ; to ble&s ; a 
blessing, divine prosperity ; 
good, provided with all things; 
";a<:rific!Hl meats; to. store up ; 
with i nap, Juki arc you well ? ; 







F uii 

■'ng fiiky the five blessings 
(longevity, riches, wealth, vir- 
tuous, and a natural death) ; 
Juki shW blessed, to bless the 
good ; fukt 'fin, ancestors' 
fortune ; fuki /t' a lucky 
grave-spot ; fvkt ishan, lares 
rustici, street gods ; mdn^ fuk> 
your Honor (used by women) ; 
fuki liV fleshy ; j'aU fuk% to 
get fat ; idinfuki U'im shau* 
may you be blessed and long- 
lived ; yat, Id^ fuky tsing, let 
a lucky star [light] your jour- 

A piece of wood on the 
horns of cattle to prevent 
them goring. 

An edible vegetable with 
white roots, size of the finger, 
found in Shintung. 

A bat ; fuk> ss/»^, a veno- 
mous serpent ; Tnel. a malig- 
nant heart. 

An adder, cobra, or vene- 
mous serpent, called in Can- 
ton fan* ishi it'a«, or ' rice- 
spoon head ;' a locust before 
it flies ]fuk> '^wai, a huge ser- 

That which embraces ; tlic 
belly, abdomen, bowels ; the 
seat of the mind ; the affec- 
tions ; rich, thick ; intimate, 
dear ; the earth ; fukt tsam, 
beloved, dear ■,fuki fi, refus- 
ing to tell : fuky t-di- ambitions 
talented ; ^kufuky pot-bellied ; 
twaifuky a posthumous child ; 
'tan fuky a son-in-law. 

To and fro, to repeat, back 
and forth; unstable, unseat tied , 
to subvert, to overthrow ; 
to defeat ; to throw down, to 









upset, to prostrate ; (o jmlge ; I 
ik'itifrfuky defeateil, tmnbled | 
down, ruined; din Juki reduc- 
ed to poverty, reprobate ; ^md 
it'sinfuki ^shui, impossible ; 
yMA->pdA-i to understand clearly. 

Fragrance, odors diflused 
around; </«« fukt a pleasant 
fragrance ; a man's name. 

To use (as a boat) ; to wait 
on, to serve ; to submit, yield 
to, accord with ; to cause to 
submit, to convince ; accus- 
tomed to, acclimated, habi- 
tuated ; to think ; to d<*ess ; to 
fold ; garments, mourning ap- 
parel ; a carriage cloth ; a qui- 
ver ; an affair ; dfiiki clothes ; 
ch^uky fuki to go in mourn- 
ing; *V»^ fuk, five grades 
of mourning ; ^yam fnki 
complete submission; Viil'i 
fuki to lay off" mourning \fuki 
y^uki to take medicine ; ikuug 
Juki ceremonial dress ; Juki 
sz'* to attend, to serve ; s'm 
Juki kn7i' intractable ; fuki 
'skui */'d, acclimated ; iitn 
Juki an official cap. 

Again, reiterated, to do the 
' second time ; to return, to 
reply ; to revenge, to restore, 
to repay ; to report to, to an. 
swer ; to recall the spirit of 
one who died from home ; 
Juki lynm, an answer ; Juk, 
sau^ reply a to a letter ; Juki 
rtiing^ to report on a commis- 
sion ; /m/cj ju», restored to 
health ; Juki iC/iau, to re- 
venge a wrong. 

To lie or fiill prostrate ; to 

' humble, to subject, to oppress ; 

to hide, -to conceal, to ab- 



scond ; to brood ; to acknow- 
ledge, to confess ; used as an 
adverb, meaning humbly, in 
my opinion ; itnai Juk, an 
ambush ; ishii Juki in good 
spirits; isdmjuki hot weather, 
midsummer ; Juki mong^ I 
hope ; ip'd Juki to go on th« 
hands and knees, humbly ; 
isam Juki to respect 'or ac 
knowledge another's talents. 
A square cloth^ wrapper, 

- called ipdujuki ; ^shau Juki 
a handkerchief. 

China.root (Smilax China) 

- called Juki iU'fg ; ^i'd Juhi 
ilin^y Canton China-root ; 
pdkij'uki the Sz'chuen root ; 
Juki iling ikd, a jelly made 

from this root. 




Large, spacious, wide, am- 
ple, broad; forgiving, easy, 
benignant, clement, kind, ir- 
dulgent ; slow; to wider, to 
enlarge, to relax ; to forbear ; 
to unrobe ; Jun Jut, wide, 
ample : ijun tdi^ liberal, in- 
dulgent; ijunjiyung, pleasant, 
a jully countenance ; iJun jM, 
an abundance, overplus; «/u/i 
hdn} to allow a longer time ; 
ifun shit' to forgive ; tjiin ill, 
in easy circumstances ; sz'* 
</*««, not urgent ; J'tin tsvng* 
over-indulgent, heedless of. 

Joyous, jocund, glad, fro. 
licsome, gleeful, merry ; to 
rejoice ; ifiin 7«, pleased, to 
likf, agreeable ; J'i'tn isam, to 
gladden one ; <Juh loki hiyhly 




^1 A wild boar ; 'katt tfun, a 
ty^ species of jackal ; ^houfun, a 
sort of mask rat in Liautung; 
ifun Hsz^p'i, a beaver skin. 
*MI« Something desired ; sin- 
v^- cere, single-hearted ; true, to 
iove, to venerate, to respect ; 
to treat well ; to knock at ; to 
reach ; to repay ; a memo- 
randum of; to enumerate ; a 
classifier of articles of differ- 
ent sorts, classes, affairs ; fun 
foj* to treat politely ; fun 
it'au tdi^ haughty, difficult of 
access ; ndu^ fun, pompous ; 
ifai ^Jun, to write an auto- 
graph ; fun shik-> a sort ; koki 
fkn, every kind ; ikwai fun 
to repay a loan ; ya<) fun w'' 
an affair ; fun ilau, to detain 
as a guest. 
'^& An empty place ; hollow, 
.^^ like an empty vessel ; unin- 
" formed, ignorant; fun k'iu' 
an empty hole. 
'^ To wash th3 hands, to 

,™^ wash before sacrificing ; fun 
Kwan ... ■ ° ' -^ 

^sai, to wash. 

bA' To call to, to call out, to 

TT -^ call for, to bid ; to name ; fun* 

ffw/) iineng, what name ? ^shat 

fun* jyan, a servant ; fciti 

fun* to call out to. 

(106) Fung. 

laf Breath, spirit, passion ; nir- 
P gusts, gale, wind; haste, fleet- 
ness ; manners, deportment, 
etiquette ; administration, po- 
licy ; fame, example, fashion ; 
instruction, reformation ; in- 
stitutes, influence ; disposi- 
tion, temper ; to affect by ex- 
ample ; heat in animals ; /dt' 



tfung, a gale, a tyfoon ; ifung 
^mdng, the wind is violent ; 
shun* tfung, a fair wind ; 
*thim islidn ifung, a gust ; 
ngdki tfung, a head wind; 
iwdng tfung, a side wind ; 
tfung tsheng, or tlau tfung, a 
rumor ; tfung tsuki usage ; 
ifungfd* influence of exam- 
ple ; jwan tfung, character of 
a people ; tfung iiti di!>sipa- 
tion ; tfung ilau, gaiety, plea- 
sure ; sTnan fung, a literary 
spirit ; tfung '^shui, geomancy; 
tfung (Siung, a bellows ; 'Atcat 
tt*au tfung, an adverse wind ; 
gman tfung chukt ^ying, a 
newsmonger, an idle talebear- 
er; ikdm pdi* hd* tfung, I 
willingly acknowledge your 
superiority; tfung its'ing 
lascivious Ico'vS. 

The maple ; also applied to 
the sycamore; tfung islian, 
the I ala-^e, the emperor. 

The leprosy, scrofula, and 
kindred diseases ; insane, in- 
sensate ; fdti tfung, leprous ; 
tfung fin' a lazaretto ; tfung 
Uin, mad, crazed ; fung ^kau, 
a mad dog ; it'au fung, head- 

The domain granted to 
princes ; to heap up earth ; 
great, affluent ; to enrich ; 
to invest nobles with rule, to 
appoint to office, to confer irK^ 
vestiture ; to give a title of 
nobility ; to seal up, to close 
a letter ; an envelop of a letter, 
classifier of letters ; 20 taels ; 
if wig kd* to ennoble an of. 
floor's parents ; tfung $"«"» 
tseuki to confer the title of 



viscount ; tfung ^so, to seal 
up ; •fung pd\ to shut up a 
shop ; (fung iShiin, to taboo a 
\)OHt for government use ; yati 
\fung svu* a letter; yafi ifung 
iTigan, 20 taels of silver; 
ifi'ng jp'i, an envelop for dis- 
patches; tteng t fungi a rescript 
inclosed in boards containing 
a death. warrant; <fung JUung 
tai^ i«Aan, the high provincial 
officers ; (fung ^shan, ic confer 
a title on an idol. 
Vegetables resembling mus- 
Fnng tard, chives ; <fung '^fi, cheap 
greens; met. poor, trifling, 
•^ A full goblet ; abundant, 
pj^ affluent, copious, exul)erant ; 
rich, fertile, prolific ; talented; 
ifung jwin, a plenteous year ; 
ifung shing^ flourishing, pros- 
perous ; (fung thuki ripe, fully 
grown ; ifung }iau} Jgeneroiis 
(as a feast) ; (fung Uang, large 
supplies (of corn). 
^[7 The capital of Wan wang, 
^' now Hu hien in Si-ngAn fu 
m Shensi ; ifung Ud, a district 
in Chung chau in Sz'chuen, 
where the fire-wells occur, 
hence u«!ed as a name for hell, 
or Tophet, from the popular 
^^ The peak of a mountain ; a 
^^^ camel's hump ; tfung Jiin, 
ridgps and peaks. 

Bees, wasps, hornets; mati 
(fufig, a honey bee ; <fung 
^^ lau^ a Liee's.nest ; iWong <fung 
Fung lau^ a hornet's nest, a villain ; 
if ting iciiau, a bee-hive ; ^md 
cfung, a horse-fly, a breeze ; 
xfung tcham, a sting. 



The point of a weapon, a 

^^ sharp point ; the vanguard ; 

^bristling ; turbulent ; to rise up 

(as spears appear) ; ^kau tfuvg, 

to attack ; tsin \fung, the van. 

1|^ A fire-place erected on hill", 

^1^ in which fires are lighted; 

fung <in, a beacon-fire. 

rfc Luxuriant ; plump, good- 

JJT~^looking ; easy, melodious; a 

round face ; ^s^ung moiig^ f'^^S 

ti, I wish to see your pleasant 

face ; fung Hs'oi, a graceful 


To meet undesignedly ; to 
meet with ; to run against, 
to occur ; great, wide ; jwdn 
ifung, difficulty in seeing (as 
a friend) ; fung st/^ng, to go 
out to meet; istung fung^ 
two persons meeting ; ifung 
iyan ■pin^ shuty tsdm fan wa^ 
speak only a little to strangers ; 
fung ch^uh to meet one. 
4^ To sew, to stitch ; a seam, 
FW ^ ^^^'^ 5 ifung :i, to sew 
** clothes ; fung isan, to make 
new clothes ; ifung 'hau, a 
seam ; fung jwidi, to sew 

A horse running ; a sur- 
Fung name. 

Salary, emoluments ; wages, 
p-riy, rations, aU 
lowance ; fung luk^ an of- 
ficer's salary ; fung isau, go. 
vernrnent allowances; td/^ 
fung Jcwai if'in, to retire f' in 
an cffi e on its salary ; fucg 
^mai, soldiers' rations. 
To offer with both han(i> ; 
w ■ to hold in both hands : to 
^ receive or take in the hands; 
fung (or ^puiig) 'shut, to hold 


J^ stipend. 






water in the hands; ^fang 
tuki to hold and read. 
*Hra 'I'o recite or rehearse in a 

Tans '^"'''*^^' *°°^ ; recitative ; to 
ridicule, to satirize, to reprove 
by irony ; metaphor, allusion; 
[fu'ig kdn' satire, to censure; 
Ifung is'z" pointed irony ; 
[fung *s'* satirical ballads; 
Ifung tsungi to chant (as 
priests do). 
^.' To respectfully receive in 
S' both hands, to receive from 
"^ a superior, or offer to him ; to 
praise, to reverence; fung^ 
ming^ to receive orders ; shi^ 
jfung* to cherish one's parents; 
fung^ ishi'ig. to flatter ;yMn^» 
ho^ to make a congratulatory 
present ; /ii«^^ «'* to wait 
upon ; fung^ hau^ to offer 
^ ' A fabulous bird, the male 
J^ is called fung^, (he female 
^^ i>cong; the Chinese phoenix; 
it seems to be derived from 
the argus pheamnt ; the e(n- 
})res9 is poetically called 
'^ To overthrow, to throw a 
jP^ rider, to "spill "him; ^fung 
id* ichi *md, a vicious horse, 
met. a stubborn buy. 



Broad, wide, large ; ample; 
k'^H^'?**"'; liberal; diligent; to 
wid3n, to enlarge ; /jz/, tdi^ 
amjjle, capacious; iWdng ful^ 
broad across ; tim} futy acroi-s 
the length ; ts'iio ful^ long 
separated (as friends); kan' 
fnti widely sundered; futy\ 
lok^ agreeable, spacious. 

(108) Ha. 

Mzl ^ scrimp, prawn, crawfish ; 
'*w ^ *^^ ccA'un, crab's eggs ; thd 
«1^J f^(^fiun chdfi a skinflmr ; ilung 
ihd, the sea crawfish (Palinu- 
rus) ; iUgan ihd, sea shrimps; 
iming ihd, large yellow pra- 
wns; thd kdm' 'ted n, (o throw 
the arms about passionatel}' ; 
ishang thd kdm? t'iu' lively, 
playful. '1 he first character 
is also read ihd, as ihd imd, a 
striped frog. 

A difficulty in breathing; 
ihd sail* a hacking, a cough ; 
a scar ; an obstruction in the 

Remote, distant, far from ; 
why ; ihd H Jidi tchi, it is 
known by everybody. 

A blemish in a gem ; a 
crack, a flaw ; a fault, a bad 
habit ; distant, separated ; 'mi 
yuki itnd jAd, a gem without 
a flaw, perfect ; Jid Is'z" a 
mistake, carelessness. 

Clouds tinged red ; vapor, 
smokineas ; moki ihd md^ don't 
move about so, be still ; ihd 
p'ui' a noblewoman's robe. 
~K To descend, to come down; 
j/i^ 'Ad ishun to go aboard ; 'Aa 
ilau, go down stairs ; *Ad hi* 
to restrain the temper ; 'hd 
^kiu to get out of a sedan ; <Ad 
idn} to lay an egg ; *Ad Cdp% 
to lodge ; *Ad paty to write ; 
ikwan itiang 'Ad Ad' a sage 
knows how to condescend •, 
'hd 'shau, to begin to act. 

Once, a time ; a while ; 
Uang yah 'Ad, stop a little ; ^td 
paly 'hdf strike it once ; 'ki 
^/idy several tinws; ya/> 'Aa 










itung hu' I will go with you 
soon ; man} hau^ ^lid ^k'u *ch6 
only came to visit him. 

The throat ; to swallow ; 
ihd pd* to insult, to reproach. 
_-i Below, down, bottom, in- 
I* ferior ; mean, vulgar ; next ; 
Hi4 isoi^ Hai ha} it is below ; Ad* 
*^lai, the bottom, underneatli ; 
ha} t'sz*' next time ; Ad' iiti 
next moon ; Ad* itnan, com- 
mon people ; Ad' Jau, the 
lowest classes, lowlive, vi- 
cious ; itnd ha} loki no fixed 
business or residence ; Ad' 
*OTd iwai, a humbug; Ad' tsoky 
to covet, to long for, unscru- 
pulous; Ad' ipd, the chin ; Ad' 
isheng, a low sound, or voice ; 
Ad' pi«' the right side, the 
lower ; Ad' iyan, official un- 
T^' Summer ; a mansion ; clear; 
variegated ; name of a dynas- 
ty from B.C. 2205 to 1766 ; 
Ad' itHn, summer weather; 
Ad' kwai' summer months ; 
Ad' po^ grasscloth ; Hd^ ich'iUf 
the Hid dynasty. 

A mansion, a side room ; 
Ad' ifnun, Amoy ; Mong^ ha} 
the village of Wdnghi^ near 

Leisure, relaxation ; self- 
indulgence, unoccupied ; Jidn 
ha} at leisure ; mi^ hd} busy. 
H^ Laughter; cAd cAd, the 
*^ sound of immoderate laughter. 


Why, how ? a page to an 
officer, a waiting-maid. 

To wait for, to hopo ; a 
narrow pathway ; Jvai king* 
a footpath. 












A poetical word used as an 
exclamation of admiration or 
interrogation, according as it 
is in the middle or end of a 
sentence ; a h ! 

A small meadow mouse, 
whose bite is considered poi- 

To be at, to be in ; is ; well 
so, no more ; a final particle 
denoting that there is no more 
to be said or done ; *ni chung^ 
'hai ko* cKv^ do you still stay 
there ? Vwi cAii' s'm 'hai, is it 
there ? is he inl Vmi tpi/i cA't? 
jZoi, where do you come from? 
'kbm y6ung^ 'hai U^ that will 
do, no more ; Vtdi loki that's 
the fact, there ! — an expres- 
sion of surprise. 

The substantive verb; to 
be, am, is ; to connect, to 
succeed to; ipin hai^ not at all 
so ; Aai' i'm hai^ is it so ? cAdn 
Aai' was it not so ? Aai' lok^ 
yes; j'm Aai' no; 'tim hai* 
how will it be ? 'tsung hai* 
'kdm, it is all just so; tsau* 
hai^ ^k'ii, it is just him ; Aai* 
iMo, is it not so? Aai' ttd ^yaut 
everything is here, you have 
all sorts ; 'kioo iin hai^ it is 
the case, you have all sorts ; 
cAi' Aai' at the time, that is 

' To connect, to tie ; to con- 
tinue ; a succession ; shai' hai* 
a genealogy, a family record ; 
(S^ung Aai' continuous. 

' To tie, to bind; to continue ; 
attached to, to think of; to 
retain, to hold ; Aai' <rAau, to 
fasten a boat ; Aai' Hui, to 













To rub, to wipe ; ihdi tJton 
tseng^ wipe [shoes] clean ; ihdi 
tjno, to scour off (as rust); cArtt 
iTnai its' iung rnh'\i oui\\e wall; 
*;ii moki Jidi its^an ^ngo, don't 
rub against me ; Jidi tsaU 
to rub (as with sandpaper). 

To harmonize, to agree ; to 
pair ; consenting, in concord ; 
of one mind ; to laugh ; Jidi 
^Id, an old couple ; ixco ihdi, 
agreeing (as married people), 
cordial; ihdi (yarn, a chord. 

A shoe ; j/a/> tui' thai, a 
pair of shoes ; ihdi /m«'a last; 
^kung ihdi, a woman's shoe ; 
t/'o ihdi, slippers; ihdi ikam, 
fees paid house agents ; ihdi 
pnti a shoe. horn ; tshing Hsai 
ihdi, cord sandals ; 'po ihdi 
^Ib a cobbler ; ch&uk> thai, to 
put on shoes. 

An exclamation of disap- 
pointment, Alas! Oh ! rough, 
hispid, harsh ; laki kdm* ihdi, 
sharp as a bramble, morose, 
surly ; tts'd ihdi, coarse and 
rough ; 'k'tt sham} ihdi, he's 
very stingy. 

A cral) ; ^hdi ikavg, crab 
soup ; 'hdi ik'im, crab's pin- 
cer's ;/di* ^hdi \Weng, a'boat 
with many oars ; cch'i tkam 
V/di, ' a gilded crab,' a rich 

A fabulous animal, called 
'hdi chdi^, or lion-unicorn ; 
embroidered on the robes of 
censors and judges ; haughty, 

Accidentally, a pleasant 
hap ; ^hdi hau^ an unexpected 







Military weapons, as spear, 
bow, &c.; shackles, fetters ; 
iki hdi^ a curious contrivance, 
the nicer parts of a machine, 
a craft or art ; ils'kung dd hi* 
hdi* guns, swords, and other 

Remiss, slow, negligent, 
inattentive ; Adi* tot* lazy, 
slow ; hdi^ to} lazy. 

Chives or onions, not per- 
mitted to be eaten by people 
who fnst. 

To gnash' the teeth, angry; 
plates in mail arranged like 


(Tbete chuictcn are ofwo pronounced long like Ibe not 



Black, sooty; dark, obscure; 
cloudy, dull ; wicked ; hakt 
shiky black color ; haky dm* 
dark, not well lighted ; haky 
tsam, villainous ; haky fo* 
opium ; haky pdki iiidn ifan, 
good and bad are not easily 
distinguished ; ikam ^mdn 
haky to-night. 

A* To sustain, adequate to ; 

K'eh superior to ; to subdue, to 
conquer ; overbearing ; haky 
chai' to order, to make one 
obey ; haky ^fu, hurried, op- 
pressed \faty haky ishing yam} 
inadequate for the place; haky 
itong, to sustain, fit for ; haky 
*ki, to do what you ask others, 

^fct Bright, splendid, luminous, 
* like a fire or the sun ; angry ; 
to scorch, to glisten ; clever, 
elegant ; haky haky hot, glo- 
rious, effulgent ; *hin haky a 
good scholar, talented. 









A guest, a visitor, a frien-il : 
a dealer, customer, a stranger; 
foreign; squatters, marauders; 
to lodge; iyan hdky a visitor ; 
tsai hdki traders tVom Shensi 
and Sli^nsi ; MA;, ti^ a trad- ; hdkt ifong, guest- 
chamber ; hdky Jo' inferior 
goods ; jc/t'd hdki teamen ; 
hdkiSui' last year; hdki (ping, 
foreign troops ; ifdn hdkt a 
foreigner; /mA> ds'ai^ a wliore; 
hdki ikd tyan, people from 
Kidyingc'iau; hdkyt'd" toflat- 
ter a guest ; ^hd hdkt its'ing, 
a cordial reception ; tt'ong 
hdki a lady visitor. 

An angry tone ; to threaten, 
to intimidate; to anger; 
scared, frightened ; hdki ^ngo 
yati Ciu* it scared me much ; 
hi'iki tkengt terrified; hdki 
tts'an, sick from fright ; hdki 
chd* to alarm by threats ; hdki 
shaV a humbug ; *hung hdki 
to idly arouse one's fears. 
To carve, to chisel, to 

g^'j^ sculpture; a cut; griping, 
close ; fifteen minutes, a little 
while ; hdki tsz^^ to cut chara- 
cters; hdki '/Jd«, tocut blocks; 
/tdn* hdki a limit, a set time ; 
hdki kwati ^ming ^mm.., graven 
on the hones and inscribed in 
the heart ; hdki hd- presently ; 
hdki yafi a set d;iy ; ixhi hdk> 
constant, usual; ^shid hdky a 
little time. 

■Jkl- To subdue, to overcome ; 

^f*^ to repress, loexorcise ; urgent; 
hdki shdli tktnig ishan, to 
drive oft' unlucky demons ; 










i^hang hdki to produce and 
destroy (said of the five ele- 
ments) ; hdki chai^ to lord it 
over one; AdA> '/cdm, to reduce 
a debt or wages by force ; hdky 
poki hardfisted, oppressive, 

All, jointly, altogether ; 
completely, totally ; always, 
all round, reaching every- 
where ; concord> associated ; 
hasty ; a diagram ; pa/> jAtm, 
disagreeing; iHdm *fung, the 
style of the present emperor ; 
mdn} kwoki j/tdm tning, all 
countries at peace. 

Saltish, like sea-water ; 
salted, preserved in brine ; 
ihdm shapi salacious; ^hdm 
is'oi' sour-krout; Jidm it'd, 
salted peaches. 

Union, harmony ; to be 
accordant, united ; sincere, 
cordial, hearty. 

To contain, to infold, to 
comprehend in, to envelop ; a 
letter, or what is contained in 
an envelop ; liberal, capacious; 
ipdu ihdm, to keep close, not 
to utter ; ts/tii ihdm, a letter ; 
(tsiln ihdm, your favor ; iham 
cMung^ a teacher or sage's 
desk ; ihdm ipung, patiently. 

Submerged ; to leak; mar- 
shy ; to soak; to contain, ca- 
pacious ; ihdm lUn, to soak 
soft; ihdm ^y^ung, kindly, to 
keep one's temper; 'sAut Jidm 
a sewer. 

The Fan Wan saysr to 
plant, to set out ; but K^nghi 
defines it a wooden bowl. 



Bit of a bridle; to hold in 
the mouth ; to contain ; to 
control one's self, to guide, to 
order; affected by; moved, 
indignant ; rank ; 'Aa« ihdrn 
mult I 'lam, to keep silence ; 
ihdm iinui, to hold a bit, to 
be still ; cAuM ihdm or chikt 
ihavi, an official title ; i.'idm 
han^ to restrain one's indigna- 

n*r>"j To hold in the mouth ; used 
* ArL > ^or the preceding ; to receive 
jD^J (as an order) ; j/idm iwdn, to 

Hiin hold H gem in the bill, met. to 
requite a kindness ; Jidm Cift 
iCdn, to hold an iron shot in 
the mouth (punishment ofliars 
in hell) ; Jidm jjo" to requite ; 
ihdm meng^ received your 
orders (said of a friend's re- 
quest) ; ihdm chit} ifong Hum 
sucking a sugared olive, met. 
pleased and silent. 

p^' To call, to halloo after, to 

1^1 ^^" ^'°'^' ^° vociferate ; a call ; 
to cry, to bawl ; angry cries ; 
hdm' ^A;'«call him; tdi^ isheng 
ham} to cull aloud, to cry out ; 
hdm^ hidi to cry ; 'td ham* W 
to gape ; ham* d'uvg fan* to 
cry it out ; hdm' shah iHn 
ft'in, the noise reaches to 
heaven ; hdm' ishevg tdi^ he' 
useless regrets ; hdm' kau' to 
call upon to save. 

To fall down or into* to 
sink ; to put into ; to descend 
into; overwhelmed, ruined; 
to involve another • hdm^ hoi' 
to inveigle one ; hdm^ tsing* 
or hdm^ Jiang, to fall into a 
trap ; hdm^ niki to drown, to 
irritate ; dai hdm^ unstable 





ground, sandy beach ; hdm* 
iyan Jidng, a brothel. 
^fV Small flour cakes, like 
^^yj^ dumplings, with meat or fruit 
inside ; 'pdu hdm^ pastry 
cakes ; jwa« d'an hdm^ pork 
dumplings cooked in sugar. 








A scar, a cicatrix ; a mark, 
trace, or line left ; an itching; 
lui^ ihan, marks of tears ; 
'shui ihan, a stain from water; 
V/d ihan, very itchy ; ihan 
tsik, a trace, a flaw in glass. 

To request, to beg, to ask 
as a favor; importunate, truly, 
earnestly ; V/an ik'av, to in- 
treaf ; 'han k'af) ask to give ; 
V/a/i tyan, to ask a kindness. 

To open new land, to 
plough, to cultivate; to injure; 
energetic ; Jioi 'han, to clear 
land ; 'han ti- new land ; 'han 
chung' to plough and sow. 

Snarling of dogs ; disobe- 
dient, perverse; quarrelsome,' 
intractable ; revengeful ; si<m 
ofthe superlative; very, much; 
malt ^fii 'kdm Hian ^sam, how 
harsh you are !/<//> Hian, very 
angry ; do laky han, very 
many ; 'han wdi^ very bad. 

Indignation, resentment, 
dislike; hatred, spite ; to regret, 
to feel sorry ; vexed, sorry ; 
hail- no' to hate; 'ho han\ 
detestable, odious ; sut> han* 
gratified revenge; han^ paf, 
taki would that ! O for ! ^md 
iijan han' unregrcttod ; takt 
iyan han' to get men's til wtll. 







J©t Saving, niggardly, stingy ; 
Utt^ to be sparing of; than kirn} 
parsimonious, close; <.hdnlun^ 
(or nun^) stingy; than liki 
saving of strength ; 7td cAdn, 
closefisted ; Jidn tfan, saved 
the expense, spared the trouble 

Repose, leisure ; indolent ; 
unoccupied, empty; takahdn, 
at leisure ; trnd ihdn, busy ; 
ihdn if/au, sauntering about ; 
ihdn '^shau, an idler ; ihdn 
wd^ small talk ; ihdn sz'' 
private, trifling affairs; jJ/om 
^shau /id' ihdn, a vagrant loves 
leisure ; ihdn vky an untenant- 
edjhouse; ihdn W a void [)lace, 
room ; ich'ati ihdn, to take 
time for ; ifong ihdn, to look 
out for idlers. 

A bar or barrier, a fence ; 
an inclosure ; a fold or stable 
for horses ; to close, to obs- 
truct; to protect ; to regulate 
by law, to forbid ; to move 
al)out ; large ; accustomed, 
practiced ; ihdn 'cho, to em- 
barrass ; ihdn tsdpi broken 
in, used to. Often used for 
the preceding. 

Liberal, pleased ; compos, 
ed, tranquil, contented ; 
aroused, anxious for others. 

Accustomed ; loving lei- 
sure; elegant ; ihdn shuki ac- 
complished, skilled, in ; ihdn 
h}gd, apt, polished. 

Convulsions in children ; 
spasms from fright; epilepsy ; 
vulgarly Q\\\c{ifdly\ye.ung tit? 
Pfjij A kind of phcnsaiit ; pdk^ 
Hleii '^"^"' *''^ ^''^^'" pheasant. 















Courageous ; depending 
on one's-self ; martial; form- 
idable, brave ; liberal. 

To observe narrowly, to 
watch furtively ; spots in the 
eyes ; the whites of the eyes 
showing in convulsions. 

To limit, to fix or set a 
time, to assign, to adjust ; to 
impede, to moderate ; a limit, 
impediment, boundar}', re- 
striction ; a few, a short 
time ; a threshold ; ^md /idn* 
illimitable; iho hdn^ what 
limit, endless, numberless ; 
^yau hdn^ a few, limited ; 
hdn^ '■ki yaf, how many days 
do you set ? kvx)^ hdn^ over- 
past the time ; tfun hdn^ to 
extend the time ; hdn^ teng^ 
exactly so many ; Ad/i* Id* a 
fixed measure. 

The threshold of a door. 


To penetrate or pervade ; 
successful ; Jiang Jcu, a 
quiet street, an eligible street. 

Frightened, an antipathy 
to ; a local word applied to 
smells, lothsome. 

To strike against as sound- 
ing glasses or metals, a 
ringing or metallic sound ; 
ihang its'iung, jingling of 
bangles or tamborines. 

The jingling of stones, 
striking hard stones together. 

The shank bone of an ox. 
A man, Sung' .Hang, in the 
time of Muncius. 



(This character h uficn proDounoed Ukc the next «yllable.) 

;fc. Togo, to walk, to proceed; 

Hang *^ ^^^' ^° '^^' '^ t^irect ; im- 
ports the action of the foU 
lowing verb ; to appeal, or 
transfer a case ; a step ; a road, 
a way, a path ; one of the 
elements ; a manner ; motion • 
ihang Ib^ to walk in the wav ; 
pd^ihang, to travel afoot ; 
ihang i-yun, a traveler ; ihang 
Hui, to visit, to attend to 
prescribed rites ; ahang ^ii, to 
tell to; ihang ^li, baggage; 
^'ng ihang, the 5 elements ; 
ihang kdu^ to promulgate ; 
tdi^ ihang, the recently de- 
ceased emperor or empress ; 
ihang it'au, head-gear, masks, 
&c., used by actors ; ihang 
Ji^nng, to go in procession ; 
ihang its'ing, to worship at 
the tombs in spring ; ihang 
sying, to punish ; ihang ds'in 
pd^ to ' walk a mile ;' ihang 
ishiin, to weigh anchor, to fol- 
low tlie sea, to act as a sailor ; 
ihang iVidi tih> step aside a 
little ! ihang %itn, to follow 
dangerous pursuits ; ihang 
iping, to direct troops ; ihang 
iWai, conduct, manner of 
acting; ihang ling^ to send 
an order ; ihang ^hd '■che, 
wait, or do ; a little presently ; 
ihang ishii, to write a run- 
ning hand, ihang ilui, to 
Ij-jp An ornamented clasp, a 
i.Lio- S*^^" which has a play of 

" colors, worn on the person. 
;j{fc. A yoke or strap on the head 
lldiiT ""'^ cattle ; the space undor 
° the eyebrows; a balance, 

Han I 






or thing to weigh with ; a 
balustrade ; to weigh ; trans- 
verse ; adjusted, compared ; 
ihang iUung, to measure ; 
ihang ip'ing, a pair ofscales; 
yu/fi ihang, an armillary 

A fragrant plant like mal- 
lows; /d' ihang, sweet vet- 
nal.grass. (?) 

The culm or stalk of herbs 
and shrubs ; a twig ; hilt of a 

Constant, regular, perpetu- 
al, according to rule ; to con. 
tinue of the same mind, per. 
severing ; ihang ish^ung, ac- 
customed to; ihang (Sam, 
constant; jAa/jg "yan, patient ; 
ihang '■clidn, enduring pos. 
sessions; ^Hang iho ishd shd* 
like the sands of the Ganges ; 
iHang ishdn, a mountain in 
tlie west of (^hihli. 

The attachment of the 
muscles ; to assent, willing, 
acquiescing ; topermit; ^hang 
i'/n ^hang, will you or nut? 
i'm 'hang, I will not ! ^wan 
'han^, to permit. 

'Hang 'hang, anger, hat- 
red ; great displeasure, vexed ; 
quarrelsome, pertinacious. 

Fortunate, lucky ; blessed ; 
happily ; an emperor reach, 
ing or tarrying in a place ; 
to hope, to wait or long for ; 
lucky in getting, to r< joice ; 
to love, pleased ; hang^ tain 
to succeed pleasantly ; sht^ 
hang^ is well, will be pleased 
— a phrase used in a bill ; Jed 
imuii -pat, hang^ domestic 
aillic'tTon, family trouble ; 





pal, hang^ ichtmg <.chi hang^ 
fortunate in the midst of dis- 
t^^ To obtain or avoid without 
'r' merit or right ; hang^ ^tnin, 
fortunately escaped ; thiu 
hang^ very fortunate. 
ji|^» A kind of pkim ; hang^ ipan, 
•-J almonds ; iVgan hang^ nuts 
^ of theSalisburia adiantifolia; 
hang^ iinui, a sort of apricot, 
ripe in June. 
^J^' An aquatic vegetable with 
^* a reddish leaf; not found in 
^"^ Canton. 
'SrL^ Actions, conduct; 'pan 
J!. • hang^ disposition, character ; 
laki hang^ virtue, good works ; 
to^ hang^ tsham, able, expe- 
rienced, learned ; sun' hang^ 
honest ; Hiin hang^ curt, 







A ditch, trench, hollow, 
hole, cave, or pit, natural or 
artificial ; the furrows in a 
roof; a pit to entrap wild 
beasts ; to throw into a pit ; 
to excavate; Jiang ilcii,, a 
sewer or drain; Jiang 'hdm, 
a natural gully, a ravine ; 
*2>d Jidng, a quarry in Sh^u- 
king fu which furnishes good 
inkstones ; 'shui Jiang jmwn, 
a sluice ; jWiwi Jiang, a coal 

The purlines of a roof; a 
plank to cross a rivulet ; 
stocks for feet ; a clothes- 
horse ; Jiang kokj purlincs 
and rafters; ukt. Jiang, pur- 

j|y^ To apply the mind to ; 
„0?' seasonably, fortunately, in 
good time, to the purpose, 
fitly ; exactly ; hapy il^ luckily 
met; hapy Vj6, suitable, jtist 
the thing; hapy Hs'z^ very 
much alike ; hapy hap, chirp- 
ing of birds ; hap, ^gdm, fits 
well ; hapy 'hau ^yau, had it 
just in season. 
rt/v A colloquial word, for which 
^ ' this character is sometimes 
used, meaning to nod, sleepy ; 
Jiapy ^ngdnfan' to nod. 





To gulp, to swallow, to 
drink; chuky Vmz ^md tdm- 
hdp, not even congee water 
to drink (poor); hdp, tdm^ 
iCh'd, take a mouthful of tea ; 
clamor or buzz of a crowd. 

Accustomed, familiar with ; 
irreverent, disrespectful to ; 
to caress ; to desecrate, to 
contemn ; to change ; to ap- 
proach, acquainted with ; 
hdpi oV mutual attachment ; 
hdpi tsdpi intimate with ; 
Mpi M/i* to play with. 

A cage for wild beasts or 
prisoners; to encage ; a scab- 
bard ; a press. 

A chest or trunk ; a pross 
for clothes; a coffer, a cisK- 
et ; a box for a set of books ; 
'■shau shiky hdpi a dressing. 
case ; pdV hdpi a case for 
sending cards, presents, &c.; 
sz" *pd hdpi a writing-case ; 
<.chu ^po hdpi a casket. 





/Mr Generous, noble-minded, 
KiJi* public spirited ; zealous for 
right, bold, intrepid ; to as. 
sist or redress another's 
wrongs; hdpi hdky or kim' 
hdpi a friend in need, a su- 
pernatural advocate ; fidfi hV 
noble-minded, intrepid. 
^jr Narrow, strait; a contract. 
lliiAx ^^ Pfissage ; narrow-minded, 
mean ; chdk, hdpi narrow ; 
hdpi isam ti^, doltish, stupid 

Uh A strait passage, contract. 

null ^^' "^'"''"^ i ''^P2 "^' ^ narrow 
pass. Used for the preceding, 
J^Jr Hills approaching, forming 
HiJ^i' * go''f?^' through which a 
stream forces its way ; hdpi 
Viau, a pass in a river; Shiu'- 
hing' hdpi a gorge near 
Shauking fu in Kw^ngtung. 
•j^ A basket for sundries ; a 
K^/ dresser, a pannier. 
jfc|, To press or dig the nails 
Ki^h '"*'^' ^° lacerate ; hdpi c/iuiy 
huli to squeeze the blood out ; 
iVgd 'ch'i fidpi yapi yuki to 
bite till the blood comes, I 
indignant at, irritated with. I 
To drink each other's blood 
in spirits ; to bloody the lips — 
a form of an oath ; hdpi hii/y 
to let blood when swearing, 
an oath of blood. 




/r ^ To beg, to ask alms ; to I 
K-nt' '"tr'^at, to request ; fiafy ji, a j 
'^gS^'" ; /"'^i f^(> humbly 
beg ; hat, s/iiki to beg food ; 
ha!y '^tsai, to pray for chil- 
dren ; hafy 7mM, to beg for 
skill (of Arachne) ; Ud hat> 
ich'i, to sneeze, 

n5* To eaf, to swallow. Usually 
K'ih' pronoanced ydky. 

A piece of board on which 

1 orders used to be written ; a 

governmental proclamation ; 

to give orders ; haste ; a 

branchless tree ; haii imarif 

an official summons or repri- 

mand ; *m hati a feather (i. 

e. urgent) dispatch; tc/i'^ung 

hati a passport. 

^ A sorcerer, a wizard, a 

^^* necromancer. Usually called 

a ^sheng Jcung. 

i^ A linch-pin ; the creaking 

nSh °^ carriages ; to regulate, to 

control ; to guide the morals 

of society ; to turn ; ^kun haft, 

to control. 

0^ Blind of one eye ; ignoranf, 

nSh uneducated ; hati 'tsz' a blind 

^ft To judge, to examine into, 
^j^^ to search out ; to keep in or- 
der ; to punish ; to prosecute 
or to accuse one ; to sen- 
tence ; hafi shaft f" ascerta in 
the facts ; Aa/j pdn^ to revise 
a case ; Aa/, tsju^ to accuse 
by memorial. 
W To investigate, to ascertain 
^^4he facts; to pare or carve; 
'Adw hafi to search out fully ; 
hafi %m} to verify. 
■Jl^ The kernel or seed of 
Heh^^ri'its; the nucleus; the facts, 
the real circumstances; truly ; 
tsung" hafi to search out a 
matter ; Aa/, /d, walnuts. 

(121) Hau. 

[ffl The cries of animals, es- 
Hau P<-'cially of cattle and feline 

animals ; jAo dung <S2' «Aai/, a 

scolding wife. 











Groaning, ns when angry ; 
a tone of displeasure. 

A prince, or feudal baron 
in ancient China ; a marquis 
in modern days; pretty; but, 
unless; a surname; (chii Jiau, 
a petty prince ; Jiau i,yt, my 
lord marquis. 

Tiie throat ; the trachea ; 
ihmi ilunf!, vulgarly means 
either the windpi|)e or gullet ; 
^icn ihau, the oesophagus ; 
vgdng^ Jmii, the vvind[)ipe ; 
iUau Ham, x\d-xm's apple ; jwu 
kapi hasty, in a hurry ; tfnng 
Jiaii, the throat stopped up ; 
tshang inso ihau. quinsey. 

A uionkey ; vulgarly called 
^ind ilau ; ihau, Hsz' hV sports 
with monkeys. 

A musical instrument, call- 
ed Jiong Jxau ; a Hat lute, 
having 23 strings. 

Dry provisions, food dress- 
ed for a journey or an expe- 
dition ; iAoM dating, dry provi- 

Pimples, pustules, resulting 
from bad humors; ihau Usz' 
a pustule. 

The mouth, ' that by which 
we eat ;' an entrance, a door, 
a narrow passage, an opening; 
a pass or gate in the Great 
Wall; speech, utterance; a 
numeral of sword-", men, 
hatches, fill of pipes, draught 
of drinks, boxes ; to mouth, 
to reiterate; Vtd Vtau /co/o 
good utterance, glib; koky 
'hmu to wrangle ; ^m'd '■linti 
*ch'i untrustworthy ; V/aw 
iVim, good enunciation ; ydld 
ilcung ^kau, fake two pipes ; 

(cliotig 'hav, n large rstahlish- 
nient, applied totlu' Factories; 
^rnd '^hav vd^ ^k'ii, will not 
speak to him, intractable ; 
hau ngoi^ beyond the fron- 
tiers ; ijd ^/lau, or 'hau 'Isui, 

^ loquacious; jy«M 7/(7W, persons, 
a family ; yatt '^hau ich'd, a 
swallow of tea ; Vjoi 'hav, an 
estuary ; ds'ong '^hau, a hatch- 

^^* After in lime, lafe; hchind; 
jt'^ then, next ; posterity, descen- 
dants ; hau^ Jni, afterwards, 
then ; huu^ it'au, behind ; han^ 
<shong, young man ; hau^ shaV 
future existence ; hau^ huki 
your pupil (used when speak- 
ing of one's self) ; hati^ lii^, 
another time ; /jok* tstm^ the 
next entrance in a hong; put' 
hau^ behind one. 

r^' A queen or empress; a 

J.*^ prince or ruler, a tributary 

liau ' 111 , > 

sovereign ; beiiind ; iWong hau^ 

or kwoki hau^ the empress; 

t'di^ hau^ empress 'dowager ; 

^mo hau^ our mother (the 

queen); hau^ H'd, god of the 

land, — it is worsh ped behind 

graves ; J' in hau^ the Chinese 


ijg'* To meet unexpectedly; 

3~' ^hni hau^ to meet one by ac- 

Hau J 

■ cident. 

^.' 'J''lie horse-hoof or king 

cr;ib; the XiphosurjE or Lim- 


ulus longispina 
IS^ Thick, lar;;^e, substantial; 
Jr^' liberal, generous, kind ; wi;ii, 
very ; faithful ; intimate ; well 
flavored ; rich (loam) ; to es. 
teem ; hau^ poki thick and 
thin, the suitable relations of 





thinfrs ; liau^ top to treat well ; 
Artu* luki a tine salary ; fuiu' 
ils'ing, kind feelings; han^ 
chung^ very generous ; win} 
ij)'i Uau} shameless, brazen, 

^ To wait ; to inquire for, to 
wait on, to visit ; to take care 
of; man^ hau^ to inquire after 
civilly, to send respects ; hau^ 
hii' 1 wait for you ; hau^ 'pd 
waiting for confirmation in 
office ; haur sun'- wait for ap- 
pointment ; Hang hau^ wait 
for ; ching' hau^ a disease, a 
bad habit. 



■5":t A baton or club; to beat or 

^^ tap horizontally with a club ; 

to rap ; Jidu puki s,u, to rap 

the block when chanting ; 

ihau iViun, to knock at a 

door : Jidu iking nim} Fati to 

recite praN'crs and meditate 

on Bwdha ; <Ad« Idn^ to beat 

to pieces, or to a j'^Hv. 

4;k. To beat or torture to extort 

*yy a confession; ihdn khiky ^ngdn, 

to beat the ancles ; Jja/z Ha, 

to torture. 

<^7c Stony, arid land ; poor soil. 

p'^ To howl, to bellow, to roar, 
' r** as beasts when afraid or 

angry ; to grunt (as swine) ; a 

loud call ; to pant or gasp ; 

Jidv c/m, shortness of breath ; 

Jidu k'ati a hacking cough ; 

chdu 'ch'un, the asthma. 
iJig 'I'he scream or roar of a 
ij-^ tiger; beside cue's self with 


^ Tlieend'of the spine, the Os 
\/y coxendicis ; the rump or seat 

'4^- Aged ; a deceased father ; 

-^ finished, complete; toexamine, 
toquestion; to strike; 7jd7fjm* 
a triennial examination of of- 
cers; 'AdM 'siu shi' to examine 
for the lowest degree ; tsin 
^hciu, my departed father; iiri^ 
'hdn, a district examination ; 
*hdu on' 'sAflM, the first of the 
siulsdi ; *Adu kdu* to examine 

^-cfr To search into ; used for 

■J. the preceding ; '^hdu clCdU to 
Kau • . cL- I • J 

exammc; Aa«s«/«n^, decision 

of official merits. 
'i^ A tree producing a kind of 
g^y varnish; the wood is hard. 

Qii. a kind of Dryandra. 
'j^ Skillful, ingenious, dex- 
j^j.;^ (erous, handy ; clever, as an 
artisan ; talented, adroit ; in- 
genuity ; genius; wily, craf- 
ty, specious, deceitful ; witty, 
subtle, shrewd, ready ; pleas- 
ing; '■hdn miu- well done, fine 
work ; '■hau y^ung^ a new or 
ingenious pattern ; Is^av? ^hdu 
nnexppcted and well-timed ; 
^hdii 'sAaw, a skillful work- 
man ; Hidu siu' pleasant, good- 
natured ; iktrdi '^hdv, smart ; 
7id« pin' good at excuses. 
J^' Filial duty, obedience, re- 
jj^ spect to parents ; mourning 
for parents ; /«'/«' sJtun^ dutiful 
and obedient ; ihang hdu^ to 
obey ; chfuky hou^ to put on 
mournine; for parents; hdn' 
inam itjan, a filial son ; hdiC 
fiiki white mourning; hdu^ 
rh'^ung^ the mtturning staff 
(used by the chief mourner). 





;^^"| To imitate, to learn, to 
'mj,i [*^^Py 5 *^ verify ; like, similar 
^)( J to ; eftectual, efficacious; an 
Ilidu example ; exertion; efTects, 
results; to offer; hoki hdu^ to 
imitate; hau} fdU to practice, 
to follow ; kdri^ im} jtin, an 
efficacious pill ; Adu' iyau, to 
do like the pattern. 
"^^ To toil, to follow a rule ; 
,<vf' to imitate ; exertion, effects; 
hau^ iiki to exert one s self ; 
hdu^ Jd, to moil for another ; 
tkimg hdv} meritorious exer- 
tion. Used for the preceding. 
ik'-^^ Hilarity, joy ; cheerful, 
H^ pleased with the company of 

jc:h} A school, a college, an- 
Hiuji '^•^"t'y s<^ cdlled ; an inclosure 
or horsepen. 

(123) He. 

A colloquial exclamation, ex- 
pressing disapproval ; cA<?.' s'm Vid 
t^au^ do n't touch it ! 

Heng. — See Hing. 

Fragrant, odoriferous, aro- 
matic, sweet ; incense ; ef- 
fluvia or aroma ; reputable, 
renowned, a ' fragrant' name; 
JU'ung hi' fragrance; ih^ung 
lin} spicery ; k^uht ih^ung, 
incense sticks; tshii Ji^ung 
literary reputation of a fami- 
ly ; ihC'ung ichu, fragrant 
beads; Ji^ung Hd, a burner of 
incense in a temple ; Jiaug 
th^'ung, to worship ; mun^ 
fh^'ung, drugs burned by 
thieves to stupefy people; 
Jieung sun* mushrooms ; 
ilicung 'kongt Hongkong. 


A village, a country ; direct- 
ed towards ; five icfiavy or 
12,500 houses, make a 
ihiung ; rude, country-like, 
rustic ; Jiiung Uong, an as- 
sociation or society ; ihCung 
^hd, the country ; Ji^ung Hd, 
a village elder; ji^ung ishatij 
village gentry ; it'ung Ji^ungj 
fellow villagers ; JUting 
tsuki rustic, rude manners ; 
ih^ufig Hi, village neighbors ; 
Jt^wigit'dm, a local brogue ; 
ih&ung dsun, a village. 
'1^ To offer up, to present or 

^^ sacrifice to a god or superior ; 

Hiang . & . ' fl- ' 

to enjoy ; to receive an offer- 
ing ; a repast ; ^h^ungfvki to 
be happy ; Vi^ung yung^, to 
enjoy the use of, a free use ; 
icliiung '■lUtmg, to enjoy 
long ; h6ung sliau* happy iu 
his age ; Vi^uvg ^wivg ^iin 
ichi fuly to enjoy eternal 
To offer in sacrifice ; to 
feast a guest ; to spread out 
a feast ; a banquet or sacri- 
fice ; ishan ^fUiing, offering.s 
to the gods ; ''liiuvg. isz''' 
offerings to ancestors. 

Noise, clamor, fracas ; a 
sound, echo, a ringing din ; 
h^ung }6ung^ a din? yad 
ishitig "-hcung, a single word, 
once speaking, a sudden 
sound ; kom* '•h^ung^so loud ! 
moki ^heung, silence ! 7o ViOM 
^Mung, he can talk enough, 
Used for the preceding ; 
also to be at, in, at a place ; 
^ni ^h^ung ^rnd it'aii chii* 
do you live at the landing ? 
^heung c/i'ti' it is there. 






'^IP A worm which notices 
Lj^ sounds, a silkworm ? yah 
'''"^ 'heung, the buzz of flies in 
swarms ; sound of musketoes. 
'■Pinl Provisions for workmen, 
.p" and troops; taxes paid to 
'^'^^ government in kind ; duties 
generally ; to give or send 
food ; ^Iiiumg, soldier'^j 
rations ; 'hiurtg tngan, 
duties ; '■h^ung tfdn, a duty 
*' chop ;" iy^ung 'heiwg, ma- 
ritime custom-house duties ; 
^h<;nng shiki give him to eat. 
'AIdI Noon, meridian ; li(ung 
W\ <'„g^ noon, midday ; yal, 
^''^"^ 'h^uvg, half a day ; pun' 

Ui^ung, three hours. 
*rA An ornament worn on the 
,</ ' girdle by women. 
•4^K Opposite; to incline to, 
^rj pressing forward to ; ^hCung 
lieungjt'yTjyff, sugar figures carried 
at weddings ; ^ying ^hC^ung, 
the circumstancesof a thing. 
Used for the next. 
A|' Towards, facing, opposite 
|I.. to; thinking upon; an in- 
tention, an object of^ study ; 
time past, former, hereto- 
fore ; a window or opening ; 
points of compass ; heung' 
yati on a former day ; yat^ 
hating' formerly, for a time ; 
h^'ung' paky, northerly ; 
Ji^ung' Joi, heretofore ; isam 
itn Mnng' mind not on your 
work; ^ni iSam i^-sfiapi-sz'" 
Mung' your mind is quite 
unfixed ; isam h£ung* iinb 
thig^ discomposed, unsteady; 
heung' ^ni ^kong, to speak to 
you ; V h^vng' intention ; 
hcung' its an, to come on 
one, to iMjint towards. 

&' A little while; suddenly; 
i?^' formerly. 



tTo cheat, to impose upon, 
to deceive ; to fail in ; to self- 
deceive; to insult, to abuse 
when in power; to ridicule ; 
tlnpiii' to cheat ; thipd' '"^o, 
to covet ; <Ai jj/an, a cheat, a 
rascal ; thi fu^ to reproach ; 
cAi iSam. to delude one's self; 
t/*i ah to oppress wantonly ; 
Jii liwg^ to make sport of; 
</ii jTnii//, to lie to, to deceive. 
2^ Few, rare, seldom, infre- 
' jy? quent ; loose, not close or near; 
to hope, to wish, desirous ; to 
scatter, to stop ; to moult 
(feathers) or shed (hair) ; thi 
'shiu, few ; Jii ^hon, strange, 
odd ; thi ik'i, unusual. 

To look with longing, to 

„; hope earnestly, to remember 

kindly. Used for the preceding. 

JA. Open, wide apart, not close, 

'|1P 'loose ; thin ; lew ; careless, 

remiss ; ihi «s/jo, widely, open ; 

thi 'hi ii^, thin, watery (as 

glue, paste). 

iB$ To dry ; dried ; daybreak, 

'^ bright. 

^^ Simulated, pretending, like 
lY^ to; obscure; to counterfeit ; d 
Hi ,Ai, api>earing as if. 
;g^ The fibres of hemp, used in 
'^P* making linen; fine hempen 


^, To heat, to roast or toast ; 

*'A'* hot, burning, light and heat 

together; abundant, pervading. 

frci H''Pr'y» l"t^liy» blessed by 

'll?" the gods; to pray or implorrf 

the g(jds ; ikung Ito^ isan Jii, 














respectfully to congratulate 
on the new [year's] Imppiness. 

Pretty, liandsoiue; pleasant 
sports, rambles ; an excur- 
sion ; to ramble, to play, to 
enjoy one's self; Jii ^shd, 
sporting, plays; chihV, games 
of children ; iyau Jii, a plea- 
sure excursion. 

The sound of merriment, 
voices of people laughing ; an 
interjection of grief or anger, 
Alas ! ihi ihd, the noise of 

The cry of one in pain or 
sorrow ; grumbling ; the reply 
of spirits. 

To sob, to catch the breath 
in weeping ; to snore ; timid ; 
ihi, to sob and cry. 

A name for pigs in Hundn ; 
a call to hoijs ; the grunting 
of pigs ; ifung ihi, a divine 
animal which protects against 

Sour, acid taste, like vine- 
gar ; iki ikai, animalculae in 
vinegar ; ihi Iseung' pickled 

Tipsy, about to fall, to reel 
like a sqt ; <Ai tAz, reeling, 

Light, splendor, brightness; 
flourishing, glorious, prosper- 
ing, extending; lasting, ample; 
dry, drying, Jd ich'un ich'd, 
Hyson tea ; «/ji jjoo, prosper- 
ous ; Jn iCiCiu, a flourishing 

A name ; Fuk^ ihK the 
founder of the Chinese 
monarchy; also called iHi 
iiDonsr, the Emperor Hi. 

A sacrificial animal of a 
unifonn color ; sheep, gouts, 





or oxen were used ; spotless, 
pure ; <.hi (shang, sacrificial 
animals, victims generally. 

The voice, sound of the 
breath emitted forcibly ; a 

To feel joy, to delight in ; 
fearful of, cautious. Same as 
the next. 

Pleased, joyful ; that which 
^ gives joy ; to feel glad, to give 
j<iy to, to rt^oice ; to like ; 'Ai 
shiki a cheerful face ; 'At u/j 
gratified ; Vti loki joy and 
delight ; ^hi ifun, glad ; 7ii 
king* or 7« 52'' a joyful event. 
*/u ifu iyan 'yau ''hi, your 
lady has joy (i. e. is pregnant). 
'^ How! what! i. e. it is not, 
^frla particle intimating a strong 
negative; to return victorious; 
to desire, to advance ; 7ti '^djn, 
how dare I ! Vti f/i, it is so ; 
it is not otherwise ; 7u (fi i?/, 
were there not, is it not .' 7ii 
'yau ^Is'z' Hi, there is no such 
rule ; 7iJ s/n' it can not be ; 
^hi ^yau Joi, how can he come ! 
'ip To rise, to stand up ; aris. 
^^ ing ; before other verbs, it 
expresses the beginning of an 
action, after them it denotes 
the completion; to begin, to o- 
riginate ; to build; the com- 
mencement ; to take, to make; 
'hi (shan, to get up, to stand, to 
start on a journey ; 7« '^nhau, 
to commence a work, to put 
hands to ; 7u ^md, to start, as 
a procession ; Uci ^shl 'hi ^kii'i, 
when does the groom start ? 
'hi Joi expresses an action 
going on, as ^hd 'hi Joi, he is 
getting or rtoing better; 'hi 
d'aUf the beginning, to com- 



mcncc, first ; i/.'</./ 'Ais/o/,jnst 
remenibe^red it ; 7ii i' the idea 
of; V/i hni chh' to swindle, to 
'keep tlie dice,' sc. to retain 
money advanced to one ; 7/i 
yi), to take lire; '/« {i7io, to 
' raise dust,' to upbraid loudly, 
to scold ; *hi <?«;«, to long for, 
to covet; icliau ^hi, to lift up, 
to take out (a volume to look 
at) ; Isd- "In, finished, done; 
r/wpj V(i lohy picked up. 
^'1 Vapor, exhalation, fume, 
^^, j-smell, steam ; ether, matter ; 
■^ J the original, primordial suh- 
K'i stance from which all things 
come ; breath, air, halo ; the 
vital fluid, life, nervous mat. 
ter, that which imparls s; b- 
stance ; the spirit, temper, j 
air, anima, feelings, of men 
and things; the animal spirits; 
influence, attraction ; aspect ; 
vehemence, courage ; to irri- 
tate ; an apparition ; a semi- 
monthly term ; liV ds'an 'It'ii, 
to irritate, to anger ; mohi 
<shang hi' don't get angry ; 
Vt() hi' shihi good looking, 
fair ; hi* fs^iing- form, car- 
riage ; ^hd hi' huti portly, ro- 
bust; din hi* the weather; chi* 
hV energy, nerve ; cchi/ii hi' 
""chi', a diviner ; moui>^ ht' '^che, 
a geomancer ; hi' hau^ times, 
weather ; skau^ hi" to be 
scolded ; H'd hi' climate, air; 
hi' 'sz' ij/an, to vex greatly ; hii 
'ho wan- hi' you are in good 
luck ; shapt hi' damp ; -yftii hi" 
Id- veracious ; hi' Is'iit, dead ; 
kwo' hi' his luck is gone. 
J^' 'I'o breathe strong, to sigh ; 


ld)k' hi' a groan or sii>h. 

^^' A present of living cattle ; 

wr- provisions, fruits, meats oft'er- 

ed in sacrifice ; a formal feast ; 

shiki Ham hi' a small allow. 

ance paid to siiitsai ; to feed 

house animals; hi' if hit, feed 

the pigs ; hi' tstu'd i'/ft dsang 

have you fed the birds? 

ibb' To fence, to play with 

H ^^^'"^P""^" ; to divert one's self, 

to sport ; a play, a theatrical 

exhibition, a comedy; 7?^//"- 

hi' fdfi to play legerdemain 

tricks; yatt ch'iify hi' one act 

of a play ; hi' iff dug '^tsai, a 

quick growth, grown large 

soon (like a cliild born and 

matured in a play) ; hu' H'ni 

hi' gone to the theatre ; ynf\ 

tpnn hi' Hsz' a conjpany of 

actors; it'iu hi' to dally with 

or fondle ; Isd^ hi' to play; Vrt 

hi' to instruct in acting; hi' 

ifoiig, the green-room ; hi' 

ip'diig, a shed for acting; 

'ch'di hi' a rehearsal ; hi' d'oi, 

the stage; hi' */>««, play books, 

S!i'] A vessel, vase, or dish ; an 

oa> i- implement, utensil, instru- 

l^'^Jment: ability; meritorious, 

K'i useful ; body or substance, as 

opposed to form or qualities; 

hi' hninff, an utensil of any 

kind ; tdi.^ hi' a man of talent; 

*«M hi' an impatient, little. 

minded man; j'm ishing hi' 

dung iftai, a inefficient man. 

:^' To reject, to cast off", to 

^^ relinquish ; to throw ofi', to 

refuse, to abandon ; hi' .ihai' 

dead ; tin' hi' to disdain ; hi' 

chi' to cast aside ; hi' ip, to 

sell real estate; pYii' hi' tn 

didcaid, lo refuse consort wilh. 

'Vuy. Urt, 11 




^ > To rest, to repose ; to take \ 
I^* breath, to stop ; to lay a thing 

n^* A loud laugh ; hi' hi' iiti, 
gr^ laughing, the sound of hearty 




f# Respectful, yielding, retir. 
V?^ ing, lowly, humble, unassum- 
ing ; to think little of one's 
oelf; to revere, to manifest 
respect ; chim y^ung'- to give 
way to ; Jiim sun' humble, 
yielding ; I'di' Jam '/iw, you 
are too modest ; Jiim iWOy 
placable, mild. 
[^ The crop of a bird, the first 
\^^ stomach of ruminantia ; a 
'*" pouch in the mouth of monkeys 
and other animals ; to hold in 
the mouth. Used for the pre- 
ceding. Also read hip^ a de- 
ficiency, little; to dislike. 
*JWV A precipice, an abyss dif- 
^. * ficult, hazardous, dangerous ; 
insecure ; in danger ; <,ngai 
^him, dangerous, prejudicial, 
both morally and physically ; 
*him taki tsai* imminently 
'jf^ A dog with a long snout, a 
pointer used in hunting. ^Him 
*ioa/J,nameofa horde of Iluns 
notorious in the days of ('on- 
fucius, so called from their 

To stretch and gape when 
wenry ; deficient in, insuffi. 
cient ; to owe ; to be wanting 
in ; him' chdi' or him' fu} a 
debt ; hbiC ^kim Him, im- 
methodical ; him' '/o cshitig, 
lacking in honesty, untrust- 
>vorth_v; him' <s/ia/j, toslrclch 










Hie II 

the limbs; tiim' tchong '■ching, 
slovenly, untidy ; 'ni ^yau tiki 
him' i.on, you are rather 
indisposed. . 


To drag, to pull, as an ox 
does ; to lead or pull aloiii; 
with a cord; to bring about ; 
to induce, tn guide ; to con- 
nect with, to deduce ; drag- 
ged into, held ; ihin Jm, to 
connect, to implicate or com- 
promise ; ihin Idvi' to track .a 
boat ; Jiin it'au jp'o, a bawd ; 
thin kiod' in suspense ; <.hin 
hi' gasping, dying. 

Fault,erro'", mistake, crime, 
peccadillo ; an excess ; to ex- 
ceed ; a noxious disease ; 
tsui^ Jiin, a transgression. 

A horse which exceeds in 
racing ; a horse diseased in 
the belly ; to suffer loss ; a 

To extirpate, to pluck out; 
to snatch ; to capture a stan- 
dard in fight. 

Trowsers; to hold up the 
skirts, when wading. 

The hood of a car ; a high 
front chariot ; a balcony or 
bow window ; eaves : a study 
or library room ; laughing, 
playing; satisfied; Jnn 
iTtgongt a bold deportment, to 
carry the head high. 

To lift up ; to pull out ; fo 
lay hold of; (hin md* to \>St 
off the cap; thin ^p'i, to puil 
the quilt over one. 

A kind of fox skin fur, Ciill- 
cd ckam ingan Jiin, used for 
throat collars, or jackets. 









Lifiht, manifesf, apparent ; 
conspicuoiis,'clear, illustrious, 
patent ; glorious, effulgent ; 
to make plain, to exhibit, to 
display ; to render illustrious ; 
^/littiyeung general!}' known, 
notorious ; '/»irt tdti distin- 
guished, famous ; 'Ain ji/i, or 
'■Jiin hai^ ^kdm, it is even so, 
plain ; 7«n 7<dw, illustrious 
completer of probation, i. e. 
a deceased father ; iling ^hin, 
spiritual energy exerted. 

To commission, to depute, 
to send, to let go ; to send 
away, to exile ; to present; 
to reject, to expel, to chase ; 
ich'di ^hin, to send on a busi- 
ness ; 'Ai/i chuki to drive or 
send away ; 'hin tsui^ to exile 
for crime. 

To reprimand, to blame, to 
find fault with ; to rail at, to 
speak angrily ; '■hin chdky to 
scold, to criminate ; ^hin nd^ 
to talk angrily to one. 

Attached; ^hin kun' inti- 
mate, attached, as friends, 
or brothers. 

General name of bivalve 
shells, but especially thin 
shelled and lacustrine ones ; 
sometimes applied to some 
hanging chrysalides ; iWong 
ts/tii Vtirt, a kind of Mytilu:^ 
eaten at Canton ; Vn/i yuki 
shelled clams; ^hin hok^ tsz'' 
♦ clam-shell ' words, dissylla. 
bles ; V«/i kdi' raw clams 

A rule, precept, regulation, 
example ; governmental ; a 
ruler, an officer above the 4;h 
rank : to impose or piiblish 
law>. to govern ; to follow |; 




closely ; nbtmdant ; well in- 
formed ; tdi^ hin' the high 
officers ; hin' it'oi, an official 
bench, i. e. Your Excellency 
(used in writing) ; hin' ham' 
an official prohibition ; hin' 
ikiin, high officer's; s«/ii hin' 
iShii, an imperial calendar. 

'I'o offer or present to a god 
or superior ; to give or pre- 
sent to another (in polite 
language); to hand up to; an 
offering ; intelligent ; hin' 
sh^ung^ to offer up ; hin' lai*- 
to send a present to; hin' 
ip'un, red trays in which pre. 
sents are sent to a bride's 

To consult on criminal 
causes; to judge or decide a 
case ; to adj-idge ; hin' yuk, 
to sentence ; hin' 7fo, a legal 
decision ; its'an hin' the au- 
tumnal assize ; ^yau sun' hin* 
a good decision, a true judg. 


^ To rise, to elevate, to get 
Vf^ up; to flourish; flourishing, 
prosperous; promoted ; to be 
in demand, fashionable ; to 
move, to put in motion ; ,.hing 
^hi, to arise; ihing dit nap, 
ftiki hope you are in all 
respects well ; thing <.kuugt 
to commence a work ; {ni 
ch'ii' j'm ihing '/c'ii, no de- 
mand for it here ; jsAi ihing, 
fashionable ; ihing toong- 
successful, prosperous ; Isokt 
thing, pleased with, complu* 
cent ; thing j'/n thin^, would 
vou like it 1 




t3 An elder brother; a senior, 

Hiun " superior ; a term of respect ; 

^Hd thing, ortdi^ <fting, a term 

of address, sir ; thing lai' 

brothers ; Jiing \-h^mig, my 

elder brother; ngoi} thing, a 

sister's htishund ; it'ung qmii 

thing tai^ uterine brothers ; 

tts'an thing, my full I)rother; 

tsho thing, second cousins ; 

it'ong thing tai^ cousins ger- 


J^6f| A noble, a lord, a high of- 

K iiiff ^^'^^ ' ^ ^'""^"^ ^^ respect used 
towards grandees and others ; 
intelligent; what men look 
towards; the presidents of 
the six Boards are called luhi 
thing ; tknng thing, a grandee 
above the 3ii rank; thing <Ad, 
our ministers; oi* thing, my 
wife ; isin things my deceas- 
ed wife, 
^yt Odors perceived a longdis- 
!CS^ tance ; thing thiuns, fumes 

lling r • 11 

of incense, savory smells ; 
a wide reputation. 

(Thp f >ur next charnct**™ are usaally pronounc-'Mi heng, ) 

Aw A light car; light; to esteem 
'jX**^ lightly, to disregard, to think 
*• little of; to disesteem ; levity, 
dissipated. Read Ae/i^^' quick, 
fast ; theng chnrig^ light and 
heavy ; smd V<o theng chnng^ 
niediocre, usual, common ; 
theng '^hdit, uncoujmon or 
fine work; theng ikw'ong 
harum-scarum, foolish ; theng 
V/o, light, portable; theng 
hwalt it'au, light. headed, 
weak-'ninded ; theng ti'iii 
if.tu (s'o^ volatile, untrust. 
worthy, unstable; 'Ad theng 
j- (inf", d<i vou think it's so 

easy ! theng pok; disrespect, 
ful ; ^shau theng kdukt fdi* 
nimble, diligent; '^hati theng 
ready to promise, heedless. 

An empty jar; exhausted, 
empty; entirely, all ; to ex- 
haust ; sta!)le, strict ; /te/<^' 
t.siin^ entirely gone. 
Ringing stones of prelinite 

K^n "'^ glass hung on frames ; a 
sort of dulcimer ; to suspend, 
as these stones are; kiU 
heng* to strike the heng. 'Vo 
relax the reins. Used for 
the last. - 
^;' To cough slightly, to hack ; 

^^ to speak smilingly ; the sound 

^ of a swinging bell. 
^* Good, excellent ; tocongra. 

c-^„ tulate ; to rejoice in ; to con- 
sole ; to present to, to bless ; 
happy ; path of rectitude; an 
initial particle, happily ; hing' 
ho^ to congratulate ; kaf, 
hing' lucky and blessed ; ^yau 
'hi hing* sz'- a happy event ; 
hing' niu- joyful, lively. 

Joyful, elated ; pleased ; 
hing* it'au, joyful bustle ; 
tkd hing* good spirits ; kikt 
hing* 'ngo, to provoke me. 

'I''o toast or dry at the fire, 
to roast ; hot, feverish ; 'pi 
fo hing' chd' ^k'ii, dry it at 
the fire; it'au hoky hing* head 
burning hot. 


The sides of the body ; Hi-t 
ribs, place under the arm ; \<i 
receive; to intimidate, to rf^- 
primand, to take advantage o'; 
hipt kwaty the ribs; vulgo,/(/A> 
dhdlft kwalt piki hip to in- 
tiiniduto, to overawe, to deter. 








■W» 1 Agroement, concord, union, 
*Y' Uiarniony ; mutual help ; unit. 
"j >jed, assistant, joint; to aid; 
Hifh submissive ; hrpi liki united 
strength ; hijh chan^ staff* of- 
ficers ; hip> it'oi, colonel of 
a regiment; /(ip> ^litig, a bri- 
gadier-general (of Banner, 
men) ; hip, jtco, to unite har- 
moniously ; /tip, wari^ to 
rhyme, harmonious cadence 
or tone ; hip, lyam, melody. 
1^ The mmd pleased; cheer- 
Kiel/ ^^' gratified ; prompt, ready. 
X^ Pleased, contented, cheer- 
Kieh* ^^'' » satisfied ; hip, fdi' a- 
lacrity. Also read c'lim, to 
hate, discontented, indignant. 
J^ Cowardly, fearful, timid, 
Kidi* ^^'^ak-hearted; hip, chi* bash- 
ful, to blush ; liam hip, flut- 
tering, timid ; hipi chan^ 
afraid of entering into battle. 
^S^ Deficient, unfilled with food, 
Kieii ^'^^"^y s'Jpplies; bashful ; to 
covet; hip, sni' a year of 
dearth; hip, cihau, a bad 
ifB Harmony of sentiment, 
Jlieh' '^'"'<^" of thought ; a man's 

tTo carry under the arm, to 
I hide in the bosom ; to help, 
to support ; to conceal ; to 
cherish, to protect ; to pre- 
.sume upon ; to assume, to 
undertake; to * squeeze,' to 
extort ; hip, tso' to assist, to 
depend on ; hip, 'chat' to 
prevent, to hinder; hip, ^ch'i, 
to take under the arm, to 
manage ; hip, han^ to cherish 
revenfjeful feolinirs. 



0^ To stop, to rest, to desist ; 

Ilieh* '** keep silence ; to terminate, 
to discontinue ; to a|)pease ; 
h{t, chii^ 'shmt, tf> rest fronn 
work, to hold up ; hit, chu^ 
^Aav, or hit, ^Isui, to be still, 
to stop eating; hit, tim* a 
tavern, a lodging-place ; hitt 
^hd h^uh, stop walking a- 
while ; hit, lam' put the load 
down ; hit, yat, hit, rest a 
while; pat,tnt, uninterrupted, 
incessant; hit, hdk, a guest; 
to detain or lodge a friend. ' 

I^ A scorpion ; a grub found 
' in rotten wood. 












To vociferate, to make a 
noise ; clamor, hum, as of a 
market ; to vilify, to mur- 
mur ; Jiiu poki diminishing, 
worse, impoverished ; Jiiu 
(hiti, or ihiu ngd^ self-compla- 
cent, pluming one's self. 

A hollow root ; hollow, 
empty, unfilled ; famished, 
hungry ; ^hiu fuki an empty 
stomach, ignorant ; iUn (hiu, 
a star in Aquarius. 

A horned or barn owl, call- 
ed ich'i ihiu ; its voice is a 
bad omen ; a fabulois animal. 

A kind of owl, which eats 
its mother; strong, wicked, 
brave; to hangupa criuiiual's 
head in terrorem; ihiu -yung^ 
unscrupulous, strong; ihiii 
*sl<av, to expose a head ; ivs' 
ihjii, to smuggle salt. 

'I'o go round, to take a turn, 
to ward off"; to seek : to as 
sunu- : end, iVonliers, limits: 









a palisade ; a narrow rond ; 
ihiii hang^ a fortunate coin- 
cidence, a lucky hit ; to 

To dread, to apprehend ; a 
tone of complaint, querulous ; 
a word denoting past timo, 
as 'a'^ </»■«, written ; tsdi 
ihiUf done. 

A gentle horse ; to be skill- 
ful at a game of throwing 
darts ; strong, courageous, 
disinterested ; tAiw j&t kdu' 
a sort of aid-de-canip among 
the Bannermen. 

Light, clear, in the morn- 
ing ; day-time ; luminous, 
perspicuous, ^jlainly stated ; 
intelligent, apparent ; to un- 
derstand, to perceive, to 
comprehend ; Viiu lakt to 
see into, I perceive ; tfin 
*^hin, early dawn ; ifniug '■liiii, 
I clearly understand ; V«m 
ii' to notify plainly, a plain 
proclamation ; d'ung Viiu, 
fully acquainted with. 
This word is frequently 

pronounced hiu\ but more 

correctly kiu\ 

A colloquial word, to perk 

or cock up, as a dog's tail, a 

bow lying on its back, or the 

stern of a junk. 



dki Small plants ; petty, trou- 
*mI blesome, vexatious; minute, 
small, trifling, little; unimpor- 
tant, as an ailing; circinn- 
stantial, tedious ; to vex, to 
annoy; to molest subjects by 





examining; to blame; tho 
ik'au, to importune ; <Ao hiiln 
to be needlessly strict ; ^ho 
tsati a fatal disease. 

'I'o blame, to scold ; to in- 
terrogate ; sound of laughter ; 
to yawn, or expel the breath ; 
iho him' to yawn ; tho iho, to 
laugh loud. 

Used for the preceding ; to 
speak loud or sharply to; to 
traduce, to revile, to rail at ; 
(ho chdki to reprimand an- 
grily ; tho Hsz\ an astringent 
nut used for tooth-aches. 

The Yellow River by em- 
inence ; a river, usually ap- 
plied to small sheams ; a 
wine-vessel ; iUgan iho, or U'in 
j/jo, the Milky Way; iho poki 
WiO, an officer who regulates 
the boats at Canton (the word 
hoppo is derived from this ti- 
tle); iho t'd' the Bend in the 
Yellow river; Jto tkuiig Hsuiig 
tuki the superintendent of the 
Yellow river ; iho ipiti, a river 

Which, who, what ; how; 
wherefore ; according to the 
sense of the context ; to 
bear, to carry ; iho sz"' what 
business have you ? iho jj/rt/i, 
who ? iho '^kdi, why is it so, 
what does it mean ? 'md ^ki 
jAo, suddenly, in a little time ; 
iho kiV why ? what's the rea- 
soJi .' iho pad Hsd Joi, why 
did n't you come earlier ? iho 
pitt iU Hs'z^ what need for 
this, why so? iho fii ^kdm 
^y^ung, why do you act sn ? 
(implying error); iho jw, how ? 
iho Jxoi, wliy, pray ? 






The lotus or Neliimhiiini ; 
also applied to some Malva- 
cetE ; Jio ipdu, a purse ; tho 
ifung, a south wind. 

To be willing, to permit, 
free to do, able to do ; proper, 
fit, convenient ; can, may, 
could ; worthy, competent ; 
used as an interrogative, and 
by way of invitation, or to 
soften an order ; forms verl)al 
adjectives, or gerunds ending 
in able, as 'ho cshii, forgiva- 
ble; 'ho 'f, possible, it can do; 
'ho xi' impudent, disagreea- 
Me ; 'ho ilin, to compassion, 
ate; 'ho 's/iai, serviceable ; 'ho 
■i tsd^ taky it can be allowed, 
permissable; ^ni 'ho Hang, are 
you cold ? 'ho 'hau, delicate- 
tasted ; 'ho 'ho, just as, exact- 
ly ; 'ho, yau^ Joi, ah ! you've 
come again ! 'siu 'ho, a little 
matter ; ifi it'ung 'siu 'ho, of 
great importance, not a little 
thing; 'ho ihang, should or 
can be done ; ^yav iho paly 'ho 
what forbids, why not ? 

Uneven, rough country ; 
'hdm 'ho rugged paths, unsuc- 
cessful, one who is unlucky. 
■ A large galley or transport 
used in battle, called 'ho Inm} 
in the S4n Kwoh Ch'i. 
' To congratulate, to felici- 
tate, at festivals or on happy 
events ; to make presents, to 
reward ; also, met. presents ; 
to bear ; zkung ho^ respect- 
ful congratultions ; ho"^ 'hi, 
joy be with you ; ho- Hat, 
congratulatory presents; ho- 
-inuii i/i, prcstuits sent when 
a child is u month old. 

"Jli'- To i)ear, to sustain, to car- 
Jji ry on the head or back; ho- 
lapy to wear a rain-hat ; fu^ 
ho- to bear on the back. 







Herbs higher than others ; 
steam from plants ; forms part 
of the names of different 
plants ; it'ong ihd, celery ; 
ifs'ivg M, wormwood ; Jid 
tnuki dust in the eyes. 

To weed ; to pull out hair : 
M it'au iinb, to pull out the 
hair; c^^ 'U'd to weed fields. 

To roar and howl like bears 
or tigers ; to cry loud, or long ; 
ihd Jid isheng, a bawling. 

A porcupine, with quills 
pointed black; imperial (appli- 
ed to H. M. herds and flocks) ; 
superior to others, eminent, 
excellent ; martial, brave, 
high-spirited; a leader; ex- 
celling in mental qualities; 
ihd hdpi a hero (in moral 
courage); 'I'd ihd, a village 
brave; Jid Hti chieftain ; thd 
itcditng a bandit. Used for 
the next. 

Long-soft hair ; down ; 
atoms, motes ; anything very 
minute, nothings; in deci- 
mals, a hundredth ; in Can- 
ton, a dime, or tenth of a 
dollar ; c/fli Jtd, to write ; j/id 
mull 5z'^ petty, trifling, affiurs; 
ihd iind kwo' fdn^, not over- 
passed my duties, not trans- 
gressed ; ihd ill, a very little ; 
t?t' ihd paty tso* no error, 
imuiaculate ; ihd itnd 'yon 
t7nw/>, concealed nothing ; ''«^ 
Jib, half a dollar. 




A city moal or ditch, n 
fosse ; ix/ieng ^hd, tlie city 

Same as the preceding ; 
sc. the water in a fosse ; Jid 
t^M«,Second Bar below Whatu- 
poa ; j/td 'hiJtt, the passage 
under the walls of Canton, 
where the ditch enters tlio Old 
city ; dung jAd, to clear out a 





ihd hol(y an 
ihd it'o7tg, ail 
ihd shi^ dried 
shdn, a cluster 

An oyster 
oyster shell ; 
oyster bed ; 
oysters ; Jid 
of oysters. 

To cry out, to implore, to 
groan ; to call. Used for the 

To roar as a tiger ; a cock's 
crow ; to call aloud, to bawl, 
to cry ; ihd huki to cry ami 
wail : ihd ifu, to call after. 

Good, right, excellent ; well, 
very ; an intensitive adjec- 
tive implying good or bad, ac- 
cording to the thing or act; 
exceeding, superlatively ; V/o 
ts^ung *M, good disposition ; 7td 
taky tsai^ exceedingly good ; 
also (ironically), well done ! 
lookout ! 'hd lOn ip'ai, well ar- 
ranged ; 'Ad ^ch'au^ very ugly; 
*hd, '■idi ^ni shi^ ■pity j/o/, you 
must come at any ratf ; 'Ar) lihy 
a little better ; 7id kiki excel, 
lent ; 7/d j'm ^hd, is it good ? 
Vid inheng, be careful, look- 
out ; good music ; '■hd laky fiky 
a very little better ; 'hd Hs'z' 
^nl, like you; 'hd td^ imd 'pi 
nothing so good as this ; hd 
poly [fit. exlrenudy distress- 
ed ; Vto 'Is'ol shd' well, sue- 


ccedwl ; 'hd 'kd, deceptive, 
baseless ; 'hd wd' well, thank 
you; a reply intimating as. 
sent ; 'hd siu' laughable ; i?n 
taky 'hd, he can not recover. 
Xig» To love, to take pleasure 

Ha '" ' ^^^^^ *^^' ^^ ''^^ ' '** f^Psire ; 
to wish for ; koky iyan 'sho 
hd' each one has his likes ; 
hd' 'kong siu' fond of joking ; 
hd' 'LsaUf a wine-bibber ; pdky 
sing' (Sam hd' i^ the people 
at heart like justice ; ip'in hd' 
to love with partiality. 
' To diminish, consume, or 

„ destroy, through time or u.«e ; 
to spoil, to dissipate, to squan. 
dor, to injure ; to render void ; 
vicious, bad ; hd' 'siin, spoiled, 
destroyed ; hd' fai' wasted, 
extravagant; (kd hd' to supply 
the deficiency or waste. 

/fei|r* To confer refreshments on 

j^,[^ troops ; to reward workmen 
with their drink-money ; hd* 
'shenng to confer bounties ; 
hd' ikitng, entertain workmen 
at a house-building; hd' ititing, 
official largesses to farmers irt 

.M.- A luminous 

sky ; grand ; 
^^ heaven ; //d' t/'iH, summer 
heaven ; //d* d'in tkam hiity 
the glorious heavens and gol- 
den palace (of Shtingti). 
^.» Great, swelling waters, a 
,(P watery expanse, immense, 
vast; aflluent, an overplus, 
superabundant ; enlarged, no. 
ble ; hd- hd^ £?/, how grand ! 
hd^ hi' magnanimous. 

Extensive., as waters reach- 
ing to a distance; vast, bound- 











1 Tlifc light of heaven, luini- 
, (-nous, like the clear sky ; re- 
j. splendent, splendid, bright, 
glistering, white, lustrous; 
Pure, clear; hd- ^skau^ a hoary 
head ; «"* ho-, four graybeards 
in the Han dynasty : hd- hd^ 
bright, glistening, like the 
rising moon. 

'■] Mark, designation, deno- 
, '(-mination ; a " chop," label, 
j name ; epithet or style; sign 
of a shop ; an order, or verbal 
command, a summons: signal, 
countersign ; to mark a box, 
to label, or direct it ; hd^- Ung^ 
a mandate, word of command ; 
-ni '^pd hd'- what is your shop 
name ? tss'^ hd- a mark ; hd- 
iseung, mark a b«»x ; fong' hd' 
p'du.' to fire a salute ; kicokt 
hd'- nume of the dynasty : jum 
hd^ name of the reign ; hd- 
sfons, a porter's lodge in a 
public office ; 'Ai hd- to blow 
the horn at examinations and 
parades ; Ad- she' cells in 
the examination halls, labeled 
with the characters of the 
Millenary Classic; dsun hd' 
tni, what is your name ? pil, 
hd- the virile style taken at 


To open, to unfold, to spread 
out ; to institute, to begin ; to 
commence, to start : to lay 
out, to explain, to separate ; to 
reveal, to disclose ; 'am (hoi, 
to break open, to split the dif- 
ference ; ihoi d'ol, to set the j 
table ; to o|)en the play ; 
Jioi Ad', to state the price ;li 

Tun. Uicr. 12 






Ha I 

iin Jioi taki ikdu, it must be 
so, impracticable ; a strong 
superlative ; thoi tch^ung, to 
open a shop ; i.hoi ishan, to 
weigh anchor ; thai ch'dky kau- 
cheung' to liquidate old debts ; 
ihoi iShun, to go aboard : ihoi 
ikicong, to vivify an idol ; choi 
tJiin, newyear's day; ihang 
ihoi tiky step aside a little ! ihoi 
(.sam, to amuse one, to dis- 
sipate sorrow ; choi Id' to clear 
the road for the ghost ; ^hoi 
cfotig, to clear new land ; choi 
koki to borrow money ; Jioi 
*koug, to explain the meaning 
of the classics ; (hoi itning 
state the items ; ihoi Joi, come 
nearer to me. 

An infant beginning to 
laugh ; children, a child, a 
youth — but applied generally 
to boys; '^siu ihoi '^Lsz\ a bo\', 
a servant boy ; a child ; Jioi 
it'ung, a boy. 

Tlie bones of the chin, the 
chin ; ihoi hd' ^yau t<d, there 
is a beard under the chin. 

Alarmed, startled, terrified; 
agitated, afraid of; to disperse : 
ihoi p'd' to fear ; ihoi ngok, 
amazed. Also, to beat drums 
to rouse the army. 

Shin of the leg (tibia) ; the 
bones of the body ; members 
of the body ; pdky ihoi, the 
skeleton ; luk, ihoi, the trunk, 
bead, and four limbs : ishi ihoi, 
a corpse. 

'I'he sea, the receptacle of 
rivers ; a large river ; marine ; 
sz'' ^hoi, within the four seas, 
everywhere, the world ; kwo' 
'hoi, to cross Hie river (aJ ('an- 
ion) ; c/i'it/. 'hoi, to vu\nge; 




^hoi ikwdn, port of entrance ; 
also the collector of customs 
at a port ; ^hoi ichu tsz'^ Dutch 
Folly ; 'hoi ifin, seaside ; 'hoi 
mi^ marine delicacies : 'Aoi 
isham, biche-de-msr ; 'hoi ^shi, 
a sort of sea mirage ; /«/.'> jM 
(Tung 'hoi, happiness like the 
East sea ; 'Hoi it'oiig tsz^- the 
Honam joss-house ; 'hoi ilting 
iWongt Neptune, god of rain. 
'liSt Joyful, peaceful ; content- 
J^ ed, gentle, pleased ; 'hoi taV 
ikwan 'Isz' liberal minded of- 
ticer ; 'hoi chdki kind and 
benevolent ; delighted. Same 
as the next. 
*^B Victorious, triumphant ; to 
jrT^V celebrate a victory ; 'hoi tfco. 
paeans of victory; <sau' 'Aoi, to 
celebrate a victory; 'hoi iSiiii, to 
return in triumph from battle. 
'aA a clear and elevated em- 
■^r~ inence, fit for a residence ; 
'shong 7joi, a cheerful location. 
A cuirass, or coat of mail ; 
jr,. armor generally; a priest's 
robe, because it protects his 
order ; 'hoi kdpi armor ; 'shau 
'hoi, a helmet. 
'MA A sickle or bill-hook ; to 
jp~4 cut; to move; diligently, care- 
fully ; 'hoi ts'iti 'hiu iil fully 
make you know — a phrase 
common in edicts. 
*R3 To open, to stretch out, to 
A^yf loosen ; 7w)i chdky to have a 
timel}' rain, great benefits ; an 
archer's thumb-ring; to desire. 
'^ Seasoned, minced meat 
-7''^ pickled in brine ; also the 
pickle itself; to simmer; -1,'dtii 
'hoi -i lsin\ to sacrifice with 
minced pickles. 


To injure, to hurt, to pre- 
judice ; to offend, to damage ; 
noxious, calamitous ; fearful 
of; a sense or fear of, a feel- 
ing; li- hoV- severe, stingy, 
formidable; also advantageous 
and hurtful; ils'du hoi^ ruinous 
to the healtii ; also, to injiir*^ 
another ; hoV- mofi to spoil 
things ; tmd hoi- of no con- 
sequence ; hoi- iSmi to blush. 

The twelfth of the Branches, 
answering to boar ; hoi- j/ji/J, 
years of the cycle containing 
this character ; hoi- ii'j the 
10th month ; fioi^ iShi, 9-11 
o'clock p. M. 



*jt. "I The skin, shells, or cover. 
AX-'[ingof fruits or eggs; shell 
n;r»>J or scale of mollusks, reptiles ; 
Koh exuvia; of eggs, snakes, or 
chrysalides; a hollow old tree ; 
bark, cru«t, or what covers ; a 
ladle; tkwai hok-, a divining 
turtle shell ; J ong hok» soup- 
ladle ; 'shtii hoki a dipper ; 
J^au hoki the skull ; ?7td- hokt ii 
summer hat, without a fringe ; 
siu' mill' hoky a mask. 
^. ] To learn, to receive in- 
]^^ >struction ; to practice, to 
^ J imitate; learning, science, 
Hioh study, instruction; doctrines, 
tenets, school of; a collci^c : 
hok>^rnan^ to learn and inquire ; 
yap, hok I to become a siuts.u ; 
hoki iCoi, literary chanc<dl<ir : 
sheung^ hoki to enter sciioo! ; 
hok, -md, to learn tactics ; 
hok, tshaug, a pupil, a sint-^ai ; 
s/td* hoki arithmetic ; hok, sz'^ 






K an 

doctors, statesmen, academi- 
cians ; iin- hok, thttns, the 
district college ; /joAj tsapi to 
learn and practice. 

A crane; an emblem of age ; 
'the name is applied to many 
of the waders ; md- ^shui hok, 
a gray stork, common at Can- 
ton ; fdki hoki a while egret, 
comtrionlv eaten ; ichii Ueng 
hoki red crowned crane ; hoki 
sitn' an aged man : hoki ftil, 
hoar-hairs ; -ni choiig- hoki 
cshan iw^, have you seen the 
god of Cranes, [that you are 
so unlucky] ? 

White, glistening plumes 
'of birds ; pure and white. 


To sustain or bear ; able 
for, adequate to, capable of; 
worthy of, tit, worthy for — in 
a moral or physical sense ; 
covering over a hollow ; paf> 
Jiom, incompetent, unworthy ; 
Jidm yung^ useful, capable, 
serviceable ; didm shing^ able 
to succeed ; Jiom yam'- able to 
sustain ; thdm iii «?irt '.shang, 
a geomancer ; Jidm a, very 
proper, satisfactory, suitable. 

A rocky bankside ; preci- 
pitous ledges ; irregular; ishdu 
ihdm, a ledge, a cliff. 

To receive, to contain ; to 
overcome ; sound ; a niche or 
shrine, for receiving tablets 
or images, either in the wall 
or moval)le ; ishan ^hdmy a I 
shrine; c7niin ikiin (horn, the! 
niche in doorways; th^ung \ 
ilioin, an incouso box. | 

^^ Simple, silly, appearing a» 
Hd** if idiotic ; ich'i Jidm, stupid. 
y^ 1 To hold something in the 
' 1^ > mouth, the mouth fall; to 
sPg^J contain ; to cherish ; to suffer, 
Han put up with, or tolerate ; to 
restrain ; thick utterance ; a 
turgid, obscure style ; to place 
gems in a corpse's mouth ; 
ihdm tyung, to bear with, to 
be patient towards ; ^hdm siii* 
to smile ; ipdu Jidm, to contain 
in ; Jidm nd'- to restrain anger ; 
Jidm ^kaii, to stomach an^iu- 
suit ; ihdm tsaii, to blush, be 
ashamed : chdm ki' to bear 
in mind. 
^ Exhilirated, cheerful ; merry 
'l^n ^"^^"^ wine, lively, half-drunk ; 
jocund, riant, as nature ; Jtdm 
tko, drinking and singing ; 
piin^ ihdm, tipsy, half-drunk. 
*-M^ A pit, a hole ; a dangerous 
j^^ place ; to dig a pit : to cut up ; 
to fall into a snare or danger; 
hazardous ; noise made in 
straining or striking, a smack, 
a rap ; one of the diagrams (it 
belongs to water) ; yalt ^hdm 
shu- a stunted tree ; ynU '^hbm 
«* iVau, a head of taro ; 'Aom 
m, to dig a pit ; 'Adm ham' to 
set a pit, to collude ; kicaL 
'kdm, to dig a hole. 
'^ To run against ; to throw 
'^* down ; to strike, to knock ; 
'hdm its an -k'ii, run against 
it ; ils'z' pati 'hdm ^ngn, por- 
celain does not batter earth- 
enware — i. e. I will not con- 
tend with him ; 'Adwi iCau 
imai Js'eung,.{ have? run inv 
head against the wall ; I made 
a bitinder ; 'Adm Idn* tosraush ; 




'hum \1ii71, to injure or wound 
by running against ; 'fid/n 
i-parifr, (o make a notch in. 
'rt. Used for tlie preceding; to 
j^'^ cut, to chop, to fell ; a mortar ; 
ichuvf! ^idtn, pestle and mor- 
tar ; ^hdm fall to fell a tree : 
tui' ''lidm, a irip-hammer mor- 
tar for hulling rice ; ijui 'hdm, 
a lime mortar. 
-J^^ To contain in the mouth : 
Han *'^'''^^^ ; ''l'^ jaws, the chops ; 
to shake the head ; hd- -hdm, 
the chin ; ^hdm hd'- cc/ni, the 
pearl under the dragon's chin. 
jlJ«* To compare, to investigate ; 
T^Tl( diligent ; to judge or ascertain 
by going to the place: able; 
hotn* im^ to go and investigate ; 
tdpi hdiri' an officer going and 
examining; hdm' 7/d, to re- 
place a tenon ; /(d/«' ich'^onij, to 
put up a bedstead ; Itdrri' cfiing' 
to straighten, to sit up aright. 
' A clift' projecting into the 
water, forming a sort of break- 
water, is called /<owi' iCau. 
tWi' a crag, a cliff; the covert 
j^^Yn under a projecting cliff. 
^kU' To pierce, to conquer, to 
^^■^k\\\, to subdue. 

'J'o spy, to glance at ; to 
• view ; to hope for, to expect ; 
to come down to view. 
i/i$" '^^ move, to shake. 

^^jii Hdm-'pdng'-ldng- the re- 
p|p^ port of a gun ; (contracted to 

lioinpaldiig) all, entirely, the 

h^' '^'^ hate, to abhor ; to mur- 
J"^ mur nl ; to feel indignant at ; 
'""resentful, rogrctting ; vexed. 


2 A cover, a lid which fits 

on ; to cover ; exactly ; hdm^ 

iChung, a gallipot, a jar ; hbm} 

it'au, a vegetable dish, a 

covered dish; 'ngdu sin' ?idm^ 

suits to a hair ; "^kam hdm} 

^Ui't, cover it. 

h^'- Not satisiied with eating; 

,V not eaten enough. 
Him ° 

tM^ A hollow or ravine, a cave 

."A among hills; 'to enchase, to 

innx ; to inlay; hom- csemig, 

to inlay, to set (jewelry) ; hdm^ 

iVgan ts^ung^ a jeweler. 



^1 To watch, to look after, to 
' -^ )^^^' ^^ ' ^^ examine, to view ; 
,^ J istung Jion, to look at each 
K'an other; dion iiigati, \o watch 
cattle ; Jion iJiiun (,yan, a door- 
keeper ; '//j Jion chii^ -k'u, do 
you watch it ; Jion ikdng ^Id, 
a night watchman. 
^tfe A curb or fence round a 

*,TT well ; one of the feudal states 
ilan ^ ,, ^, , 

of the Chau dynasty. 

^. Cold, wintry; shivering; 
poor, unsupplied, necessitous; 
my, mine ; plain, simple ; ihon 
Jdng, shivering cold; ihonisuli\ 
my diin ; ihon su' plain, un- 
pretending, not showy ; Jion 
shiki a day in Tsing-ming 
term, when cold provision.sare 
eaten ; ikon iSM/?, a beggarly 

-rtR (Hon ddn, a district in 

Y^V KwAngping fii in Chihii ; 

^x To snore ; pi^ <hon, to 

\Y* snore. 









Rare, few, scarce ; seldom ; 
a kind of flag ; a rabbit net ; 
'hoji hin\ rarely seen; V/on 
^yau tiki 'kico 'Isz' few of that 
fruit ; *hon iinan ^kdm k6^ sz'* 
I have rarely heard such a 

Plain, unceremonious, and 
grave, in conversation, as 
Confucius was. 

To cut, to carve, to pare ; 
<o engrave blocks for print- 
ing ; to hew or fell ; to erase 
or cut out from blocks ; 'Ao/i 
^pdn to cut out blocks for 
books ; 7to/i ting- *pda hai^ 
^kdtn, is it certainly so ? are 
you sure ? 7on huki to prepare 
and carve blocks ; pat, ^hon 
icin iShii, an unmutilated book. 

Pleaded, contented ; to be 
happy, joyous ; credible. 

Dry weather, drought, sun- 
ny sky ; land traveling ; ifui 
-hon, dry weather ; -iii -hon Ib^ 
Joi, did you come by land? 
-hon Jui, thunder without rain; 
-ni H'ai 'hon ildi Ha, you will 
.see him killed by a thunder- 
bolt in a clear sky ; 7/i -hon, 
to take to the road. 

Dry, heated air ; to dry ; 
drying, parching. 

A large branch of the Ydng- 
tsz' R. in Hupeh ; a famous 
dynasty in Ciiina ; Chinese ; 
the Milky Way, called j//o hon^; 
hon' 7s2' Jid, a gentleman, 
a personable man ; Hoji' iyan, 
the ('hinese ; Hon^ tkwan, the 
naturalized Bannermen ; V<d 
hon' a brave man, a clever 
strategist: */d hon' I, an old 
man ; hon' choii"' robust, fat. 


' To see, to look at ; to regard , 
to examine ; to practice; hon' 
kin' look at, see ; Aom' siting' 
to practice physiognomy ; hon' 
,ki ui^ watch the chance, im. 
prove the opportunity ; hon' 
ishit, to read silently, to pe- 
ruse ; 'A6 ho7i' good-looking ; 
hon' tak, ch'vtt look closely 
whether or no ; hon' 'king 
(Shang its^ingf incited to by 
viewing, to do or arrange pro- 
perly or fairly ; hon' p'o' to 
see through a scheme ; hon' 
Can' shai' kdi' worldly-wise, 
knowledge of the world. 

.p- Ardent, energetic disposi- 
„v^ tion ; fearless ; violent, hasty, 
cruel : Jccung hon- overbear, 
ing ; hon- kap, fierce, rash ; 
Jiung hon^ irascible. 

#- To grasp, to lift up; to ward 
„ off, to shield, to defend. To 
stop ; hon- ii- to watch against. 

4;^:.- Often used for the last ; to 
,, ' fend off; an obstacle, hind- 
ranee ; to guard or escort ; to 
environ ; hon' kdk, to stop 
or defend ; an obstacle, im- 
peded ; 'shau hou- to defend 
with the hand ; hon- <kudn, to 
keep a pass. 

j'rr.2 Sweat, perspiration; used 
ij ' for the word khan ; ch'iit, hon^ 
to perspire ; fat, hon- ytuki a 
sudorific; -mo hon- ke' obtain- 
ed without cost or trouble ; 
hon' ifdn, the washerman's 
rash ; hon'^ ^md dung Jo, 
military toil, toilsome; hon- 
(Shdm, an under-shirt, a shirt. 

nx,* Sunset, evening ; hd^ ho* 
JPJ hon'- hon- abundant, light. 




^Ti» A kind or jackal found in 

I^T the Desert, but described ra. 

ther as a fabulous beast. Read 

ngon"; a village prison ; ^p't 

nfton^ a figure like a unicorn 

painted on prison doors ; tigon^ 

yiiki a jail. 

jfcni Greaves on the arms ; to 

j}^' solder up ; hurry ; hon^ yhiky 

soldering; hoii^ '^liau, to solder. 

pS* Agate; gate of a village, or 

jJT'' a path; a small wall; to shut; 

<l'ung hon^- of the same village. 

^' A fabulous pheasant ; to 

jT/^ fly high ; white ; protracted, 

well-sustained; a plume, or 

quill to write with ; writ- 

ings ; a prop ; the stump of a 

tree ; Hon- ilam iiii^ the 

Imperial Academy ; (Shii hon- 

written with a pen ; hon^ mak,_ 

ih^ung, a literary reputation. 

^gA.2 A waste, expanse, spacious ; 

hT^ ''""■ '''*^'' ^^^^ P*^'*' "' ^°^' 
"^" N. VV. of Kansuh ; hd'- hon'- 

vast, spreading. 

(138) Hong. 

1^ Ropose, peace, concord ; 
deliglitful, excellent ; blessed ; 
joy, felicity ; to quiet ; an 
avenue, a road ; Jiong tchong, 
level, fine road ; Jiong ioiiig, 
health and contentment; <.hnng 
td'C general peace ; Jiong 
JcYuing, strong, robust. 

Chaff of grain, bran; poor, 

des[ucable, chafiy ; troiible- 

"^ some, remiss ; ip'i Jiongt 

troublesome ; '/d thong, rice 

chaff; maici ,hong, whnat bran; 

ffink, <hong, sawdust. 

■w—r A square box, correct ; re- 

t«S gular, square ; to rectify, to 

Kwiinj Jijec.t : to right, to assist, to 


deliver ; deflected ; ^hong ifii, 

to sustain ; Jiong ching* to 


Eh Urgent, prompt, zealous ; 

Kw^ng'^""^ sy^wn^, in haste, an 


The eye-socket ; the can- 
thus ; ;/id thong sunken eyes ; 
-ngdn thong Idi- proud ; lui} 
^mihi thong, tears filled his 

Lying talk; to deceive, to 
cheat, to swindle ; thong pin* 





to impose on, to defraud. 
'^^ A basket with square sides ; 

Kwang*^ basket without a cover; 
thong yi, baskets for sending 
presents in. Often pro- 
nounced kw'dng. 
^ A flat lute with 25 strings, 
K'uno- called thong ^hau. 
n^" Hollow, vacant, putTod, em- 
'rP^ pty ; a hollow bone ; a horse'^ 
'^"^ flank; a tune, or style of 
singing ; vain, pedantic ; a 
classifier of sheep ; tchong 
thong, assuming, pedantic ; 
thong lui} tone or tune in 
singing ; t])ong Hsz' thong, a 
northerner's tunes; tkd thong, 
tunes sung by Chduchau fu 
men ; Jjo/j^ Vsz' IdV- pretend- 
ing, ostentatious ; i' iinong 
thon^, tunes accompanied by 
the fiddle ; min^ thong, spe- 
cious ; ^ni ^koi kwd' thong 
iloi,yoii must alter your tune 
(or coiiduct). 

Hongchau fii, the capital 
of Chehkiiing, famous for its 

A scow or square boat for 
ferries ; to sail, to navigate ; 
rf'.tz' thong, to compassionate 
sailors (a ij Kwanym). 





W^ To submit, to return to 
ti- ' one's alleffiance : to descend : 

it au ihong, to lay down ret)el. 

lious arms; ihong iping, troops 


>/=: A row, a line ; a series or 

i?J order ; a ci;iss, a iiuil<3, a sort ; 

Jiang ' '-, * , ' 

° n company ot 25 men, and oi 

100 men; a house or ware- 
liouse of several tdpi or divi. 
sions, a factory ; to support 
on, to rest on ; tsoi- ihong, 
skilled in a business, pru- 
dent ; ihong its'ing ikicong 
expert in ; ^hong cfro tik, raise 
it a little higher ; Jiang a 
/iiki to baste clothes ; yati 
tkdn ihong, a factory, a shop : 
ihong ^ki, which number of 
the brothers are you ? Jiong 
u- a guild ; ihong 'ch^wig, 
head of the guild ; it'ung 
ihong, or ihong Jca, of the 
same craft ; ihong yung^ the 
subscription to tlie guild; 
Shjp-, csdm ihong, the Foreign 
Factorie> ; yap, ihong ^'ng, 
to enlist as a soldier ; iliong 
fo^ cargo goods, those of in- 
ferior quality. 
jV«-' To roast, or broil ; (o dry, 
to toast ; dry, drought ; hong* 


(cKong, a heA built of brick so 

as to be heated underneath ; 

hong* ito ishi, to toast bread ; 

hong* fo, a fire of embers ; 

to dry before the fire ; hong* 

Us'in, to ground on a bar or 

^b' A lane, a crooked alley ; a 
/jGr street of dwelli.igs; -wing 
° hong^ a lockup for women of 

(he palace; Inn* hong- a 

wretched neighborhood ; -lau 

hong- a ♦ willow street,' i. e. 

a bordel ; ^Idrtg hong- a 

thorough or passage way. 

tH' The nape, that which rests 

u^ on the pillow ; crreal ; a sur- 
Hiang r . b ' 

name ; a sort, item, class, 
thing, species, article ; ^keng 
hong- the nai)e ; dung hong*- 
public purposes ; liim* hong^ 
debts, losses ; /roA> liong- each 
parcel, sort, &c. 





To unite, to join ; to shtit, 
to close ; to collect, to con- 
vene ; accordant to, agreea- 
ble, harmonious, suitable ; 
a pair ; the whole, united ; 
together, with ; /idp, iVio, is 
it best, ought I ? fidp, piii* 
to pair, to betroth ; hop, <mdi, 
to close up ; hop, -ngo ytnig^ 
just what 1 wanted, 1 can use 
it ; iS^nng hopi accordant, 
to agree ; hop, shiki like 
the pattern, suitable ; s';rt 
hop, to* -7/, unreasonable, un- 
just ; 7d hdp, it'ung, to make 
an agreemeiii with : hop, .wm 
<shang, to compare the na- 
tivities of two children prior 
to belrolhing ; hdj), isam ^shui, 
agreeable, what one likes ; 
hdpi pun- partnership busi- 
ness ; hdp, -ngan fan* asleep. 

A leaf of a iloor, a two leav- 
ed door ; all within doors, a 
family ; to shut, to close ; the 
whole, altogether ; why not ? 
hopi (kd, the household ; hopi 
iheung, the whole village ; 
hop I it' dm ikwnn kaf, hope 
your excellent family is all 











well. The last is often used 
for this character. 

'1 o cover; to unite for one 
purpose ; why not ; hdp, ikivai 
ill $Zo/', shall we go home ? 
hdpi hii' let us go. 

Loquacious; shai' Jiop, one 
of the 64 diagrams. In the 
Court dialect, to sip, to drink. 

A box or vessel with a cover, 
as gallipots, caskets, pill-box- 
es ; a covered platter ; yat^ 
ho' lidpi a box ; pdV Cip-, hopi 
a card-case ; pi- an hopi snutl- 
box ; sts'wn hop, a partition 
box for sweetmeats. 

The clatter of stones ; in 
the Court dialect, A'oAj iCdu 
is the kotau ceremony. 


Why, why not ; how, where- 
fore ? to slop by an order, to 
intimidate, to hoot at. 

Dry, thirsty ; to thirst ; de- 
sirous of, anxious, longing 
(in a good sense) : sJiau hoU 
thirsty ; holt '^senne, desirous 
of; ttd^- iViiii, hoti ^chi, he 
mentioned plums and their 
thirst stopped ; V/ei hoty (o 
quench thirst. 

To call out loud, to hoot, to 
shout at ; to reprimand ; a 
guttural, gurgling, choking, 
sound ; an angry hoot ; holy 
chu- '■k'it. order them to stop; 
hoti Id^- to clear the road as 
lictors do ; Ao/. yat, isheng, 
to hoot ; hot, Jipi, to make 
people separate ; hoft ling- 
to egg on, to set on ; hoi, «/o, 
to slroj) a razor. 







Siiort garments, poor, hem- 
pen clothes ; woolen stutls ; 
stockings ; a beggarly fellow. 

The Tartar pheasant ; pug- 
nacious and gregarious; a 
symbol of courage ; hot, Jcun, 
tlie plumes worn on helmets 
by lictors, called chi- Jmi ^mi. 

A twilled kind of felt or hair 
cloth brought from Shintung 
called hot, p'in\ and used for 


Empty, vacant ; unsub- 
stantial, unsatisfactory, void ; 
vain, inane; humble, pure; 
abstract contemplation, as 
understood by the Budhists ; 
space, the void of the firma- 
ment ; the constellation A- 
qiiarius ; Jiting Jiii, empty ; 
Jiii ifati, frothy, nonsensical ; 
Jiii tsz"- particles, adverbs; 
ihilwd- unfounded, idle prate ; 
ihii isam hd-, hV to put up 
with, unprejudiced, indifferent 
to ; t'di* ihii, the heavens ; 
ihutd- vainly spent [his days] ; 
thuid'un, a false rumor; Jiii 
y^uji, weak. 

A mount ; old mausolea, or 
a burial waste; a deserted re- 
gion, a wild ; a place for fairs 
or markets ; a fair ; Tn--it'ong 
Jiii, a noted fair near Napier's 
Fort ; (hii ich'dung, the place 
where fairs are held ; thii. 
kom' cts'd, such a bustle ; a 
hubbub like a fair; thii Jiii, 
diaiC always going to fairs, 
sc. you are always welcome ; 
7d j.vAt ,Am. %k'it when is the 
fair held ? 









To blow with the breath ; 
a respiration ; to praise, to 

To sob ; timid, fearful ; 
breathing or sobbing, making 
a noise through the nose. 

Remote ; wide, spacious ; 
vague, wide of the mark, en- 
during; distorted, loose; to 
deprave ; »Au fut* vague, 

An interjection, expressive 
of grief, distrust, or admira. 
tion ; «/<u, S'ld clCuU ik'i ! Ah, 
very strange ! 

To stare, to open one's eyes 
at ; to gloat on. 

To vaunt, to talk big; false, 
boasting ; great, big. 

To grant, to allow, to let ; 
to permit or acquiesce in, to 
accede to, to accord ; to listen 
to and promise ; to betrotli or 
promise in marriage ; to enter 
or advance ; to flourish ; nn ex- 
cess, more than ; very ; '■hu'^hau, 
a long time ; 'Aw </o, a gr«nt 
many ; dsau tpui "-hu '■Juiii-, to 
arrange a marriage over one's 
cups ; '■hu iin^ to vow ; 's/»i/ 
Vtu, a very little ; paf, Viji ^k'u 
Jai, don't let him come. A 

High flying, boasting talk ; 
to display ; to talk large ; 
energetic, bold ; moderate ; 
tp'in "hii, in every part. 

A tree bearing a black nut 
like an acorn ; soft, flexible ; 
7»M V*u, pleased. 

The crown worn in the 
Sbang dynasty ; it somewhat 
rpscmblrd a Cantah'.s cap in 
being flat on the tf)p. 

'lo.N. i)i(.T. ly 

'^^ To leave, to depart from, to 
g^ quit ; to conceal, to hoard ; to 

dismiss, to expel. 
4-^' To depart, to separate, to 
■ir^ part from, lo become distinct; 
to go, either in, out, from, or 
through ; to proceed, to pass 
on in a regular course; the 
third of the four tones ; pait, 
gonp, former ; to discard, to 
reject ; to repudiate ; implies 
an action, ability, or comple- 
tion, in the preceding verb; 
as mdi' paU hii' I can not sell 
it ; yapi hii' go in ; hit' Joi (go- 
come), together express uni- 
versally, revolving, past time, 
finished action; '■hong JoiMfOng 
hii^ tautology ; ^iii hit' ip'in 
ch'ii' iloi, where have you 
been ? hu' ^yam Joi, I've been 
/4o drink ; hii" iyiirt, last year ; 
hu\hiv, gone ; hu' shai' dead ; 
yapi iftheng hu' to go into the 
ciiy ; hu' iyau Jto, to take an 
airing on the river; cKvtt hu', 
ch'uti hu\ Cin'^hd Hai, go away, 
go, do n'l be here gazing ! ^yau 
mad hu' cKti' what places are 
there to go to ? /ti/.' chiuU itnun, 
gone abroad to visit ; kwo' hit' 
ichi sz'- patst things. 




Boots; yaf) U'll'' ihii, a pair 
of boots ; <hil mb^ boots and 
cap«, sent as presents ; ifong 
fau ihH, square-toed boots; 
^nga ihil kbm' ngdng^ as stiff 
as earthen bootsf, unchange- 
abln, obstinate. 

.Hil di), a small trumpet, a 
kind of bugl»\ used at the 
literal V exaiiiinatiuns. 













Crooked, bent cun'ed, dis- 
torted ; scheming, tortuous, 
false ; to oppress, to wrong ; 
to force, or oblige one to do, 
necessitated ; songs, sonnets, 
ditties ; a carpenter's square ; 
twdn huk) devious, meander. 
ing; huki chiky crooked and 
straight, the right and wrong ; 
««' hnki tricky, underhand ; 
chiung' huki to sing ditties 
with a fife ; waty hukt to bend, 

To cry aloud, the noise of 
grief or pain : to groan, to 
wail ; huk) yapt crying and 
sobbing ; it'ai hukt groaning 
loudly ; tk'am tak> huki un- 
ceasing crying ; huk) isong, 
wailing for the dead ; Cung' 
hvk) heartfelt grief; huk) txotig 
chiung^ the staff carried by a 
son at a funeral. 
To stimulate, to excite to exer- 
tion, toencourage,toanimate. 

The rising sun, the dawn ; 
huk) yati sunrising; huk) huk) 
joy at having succeeded. 

To carry one's-self careful, 
ly ; attentive; tChiin-huk) 
the emperor who succeeded 
Hwingti, B.C. 2513. 

Superior wine ; ripe (as 
grain) ; hard.hearted, severe; 
inhuman, tyrannical (applied 
to officers) ; extremely, in a 
high degree; U'dm huki ava- 
ricious and cruel ; huki I'/ing, 
an illegal punishment ; huki 
iti very warm. 

An imaginary measure, in 
Canton equal to ten tau, or 
pocks, or one shek, or a pecui 
of 100 catties. 

A large goblet ; a quiver ; 

, thin, poor; a hoof; the top 

of the fool ; hvki ts'vk) trem. 

bling from fear, deadly fear, 

as animals when pursued. 



jji^l Clamor, hum, noise of 
'".S. : people talking ; ihiin oca, to 
clamor, to vociferate ; (.hiin 

the heat 
Same as 

Hiaenndu' boisterous merriment ; 

to deceive ; — in which 

the second character is the 

same as the next. 
^g To impose on; fallacious, 
*j^^ jj deceptive ; to forget; did' 

ihiin, to deceive, to lie to. 
ni±> Genial warmth, heat of the 
«HM. gun in spring, a pleasant 
Hiuen iL ' 


n^ Bright, hot sun ; 

' , r^ of the sun : to dry. 
Hiuen . ^ ' -^ 

the next. 

AS To dry at a fire ; clear, 

„— * brilliant, splendid ; hot ; to 
Hmen . \ ..^ .. ' ' 

burn ; (hun ^u, to roast or 

smoke fish ; i.hun yuk, to 

smoke meat. 

T& The iris or fleur-de.lis, call. 

t-^ ed iTHong lyau Hs'd, because 

it causes one to forget his 

sorrow ; and Inki Us'ung ifd, 

♦deer's onions;' a mother, be- 

cause if a woman carries it 

she will bear a son; thiin 

it'ong, your mother. 

A wooden bowl or cup ; a 

shield made of reeds ; cpti/' 

hun, cups and bowls. 

j^ A coop or pen for animals; 

,j^ crooked wood for cuixs; a 
K'luen . , . , ' ' 

circle, a ring, an inclo.sure ; 

a prison ; a stop or period in 

grammar ; to encircle, to sur- 





round ; to mark or punctimtp ; 

Va ,hun, to draw a circle ; 

</tua iShing, to mark the 

tunes of characters ; 'Ao ihiin 

*/io ^tim, should be italicized ; 

(ngan Jiun, a silver ring; 

thiin fd' a snare, a fraud ; 

tfiiin ch'uli Jai, to cut out 

rotten or bad parts, as from 

fruit, cloth ; ch'titt ihun, to 

publish the cyphers of sue 

cessfui siutsdi. 

An ancient wind instrument 

TT - of porcelain with six holes, 

shaped like an egg ; it was 

blown at the apex. 

IS Ingenious, expert, cunning; 

' '^ nimble ; name of a country 
Hmen . •, ' - . , -^ 

or trii)e in primitive times. 

'Ji. A dog; radical of ferine 
|/!^ animals; Vjtia 7*i' my son; 
Vm/i 'ma ichi pd' humble ser- 
vice to requite favors. 
'mb A ditch or water-course be- 

„/^ tween fields : a rili or runlet : 

K'men a . ' 

lo tlow, as a water-course, 

diffused like good instruc- 
tion ; Vmrt ^mau, rills between 
plats of ground. 

ij"j To exhort, to advise, to 
,> admonish; to stimulate, to 
J j encourage, to praise ; to ac- 
K'iuenqaiesce ; hiiu^ kiiiv' to remon- 
strate with [a superior] ; 
huii'^imn, to incite, to urge to 
e.'cerli(»r);<s^«;»^/tu/t'to advise 
e ich other, to admunish ; 
hiiii^ siki to urge to peace. 
^fcj' A tassel ; an ornam<inted 

muen ^^"■^'^P^'' ^"^ gems or sen Is ; 

adorned, variegated ; quick. 
^^j A bond, deed, contract, or 
-^^ agreement ; the parties each 

iorm-^rly retamfd one h;\li ; 

a section : proof, evidence of 


in siJc/j papers; a last; Au/j' 
y^uki a bond ; ti* hun^ a wr-it 
ten tile placed in graves as 
proof of possession ; tAii huii^ 
a boot.last. 

(145) Hung. 

^ Empty, vacant, void ; at 


leisure ; an opening or cre- 

vice; great, wide; the firma- 
ment, sky ; poor, broken ; 
unprejudiced, able to per- 
ceive clearly ; abstraction as 
understood by the Budhists. 
Read '■hung, a hole, a tunnel 
or opening in the ground. 
tHung uky an empty house ; 
Cdi^ Jiung, or Jiung ichung, 
heaven, sky ; '/« kdin' '■Jiau 
Jivngf so impudent ; do n't 
you put in your tongue ; 
ihung H'd, an empty stomach; 
thung '^shau, empty-handed ; 
tHong <hung no coin by one, 
moneyless ; ihung j/id/J, un- 
occupied ; ihung Hung, hoi- 
low ; ihungti^ a vacant spot ; 
ihung Jo iTnd yikt lost all my 
trouble; thung (hung hii^ went 
away empty ; yaU i^li^ung 
ihung, all gone, everything 
is lost. 
JJ# Ignorant, rustic ; dissatisfi- 
' •/" ed from inability or ill luck ; 

sincere ; simple. 
1^ Unfortunate, unlucky, un- 
tjH happy, unpropitious, adverse; 
lugubrious, mournuil ; judg. 
ments of heaven, calamity ; 
malignant, cruel, bad, in 
which sense it is used for the 
next ; kat, ihung mi^ tchi, I 
don't know whether it is 
lucky or not ; Jmng stin^ b^fj 
news ; ihung inin, a bad yeap. 









M \Ievolent, cruel, inhii- 
man; vicious, malignant; 
fearful, cry of fear ; thung 
'■shall, a m.irdcrer; (hung 
i'cang, vicious, intractable ; 
< Uung 1)0^ fierce ; ihung oki 
Wicked, truculent ; ihaiig 
tkuiig, to plunder like a ban- 
dit ; I hung /d Idn^ Usai, a 
rt'probate, a brig;ind. 

The first character repre. 
sents the breast, inclosing 
the heart ; the breast, the 
heart, the bosom ; the mind, 
the feelings ; '^lain thung, to 
pound the breast — a beg- 
gar's device ; Jiuvg <k'am 
ftllt liberal, considerate ; 
(hung kdk> aV chai^ indi- 
gestible; (hung its'ong '^kam 
sau' lit<'rary, accomplished ; 
thung^t'ong the breast; (hung 
tWiii the feelings; dlung j»/6, 
the Huns. 

The bubbling <>f a spring, 
the noise of rapid waters ; 
ihe sound of tumult ; ihung 
'yung, the gurgling of a 

A hill in Pingliing f(i, in 
K^nsuh, called tHung t'ung^ 
the source of Ihe River 

Rod color, reddish ; fiery ; 
gentle, ladylike ; ihuna shUd 
red ; ihuvg ifd^ the Hibiscus 
ri>sa-sinensis, or shoe-flower; 
ihung iHgdn, rosy, ruddy ; 
(long i'lung, prosperous, ris- 
ing ; iCh'^ung Jiung, a general 
notice from the people ; 
fhung ipdit a ship's clear, 
nnce ; ihung cVid i!/an, the 
E'lgh^'h ; (Jihiti hung, hoalod 









to redness ; Jmng yati dong 
it'io, the emperor's* birthday* 
or that of others. 

Water rising ; an inunda. 
tion, a deluge ; a torrent over- 
flowing ; great, vast, im- 
mense ; ihung '^shui, the de- 
luge of Yii ; Jiung fuk, 
great happiness ; (fun ihung 
tdi* Uung^ liberal minded and 
kind; a surname. Inter- 
changed with the next. 

A swan, or wild goose (sc. 
a river or marsh bird); largo, 
vast ; profound, learned ; a 
letter-carrier, a postman ; 
Jiung ngdn^ wild geese ; Jiung 
(hi, great felicity — a phrase 
placed opposite doors ; ihung 
pin^ to send a letter by one. 

A flash or flame of fire ; to 
dry at the fire ; dried. 

Colored vapor, the rainbow, 
halo — all thought to be an 
impure ofiluence of the sky ; 
(t'in ihung, ihung ingai, or (Cin 
hong' the rainbow ; called 
p'o' ip'ung at Macao, be. 
cause it splits Ihe aky : con- 
nected together. 

To quarrel, to litigate ; to 
denounce to officers; (o in- 
volve another by speaking; 
domestic discards. 

A college or gymnasium, in 
A.D. 200, capable of a::cnm- 
modating 30,000 studf-nts ; 
tsun^ ihwig (kung, to entor u 
candidatcfor degree of sin. 
tsAi ; the ihung (kung are 
rooms for study adjoin ^ni; 
the temple of Confucius ; 
ihnng cmiin sau^ si'^ a 




^i^ A cock bird ;• masculine, 
iJ*^* male of smwll animals ami 
insects, as well as birds ; 
courageous!, martial, brave, 
heroic ; ihung chon^^ burly 
and strong ; Hau '■hi Jiung 
A^am, screw your courage up. 
.^ A bear, the » hybernaling 

Hiung'^"""^' ;' '^""<? s!/""' a bear ; 
" ihung '^ch^ung a bear's palm — 
a delicacy ; Jiung Udm. gall 
of bears — a medicine ; .Hung 
H ishdn, a range of moun- 
tains in Hon^n. 
'^\ A hole, an orifice, a cave, 
j{.,j„^an opening; a pore; hollow; 
° thorough ; excellent, great, 
deep; a surname; ""hung 
ts^uki the peacock ; '■Hung 
^fd ^Isz* Confucius ; dung 
ishan '■leau '^hung, the nine 
passages of the body ; '^hung 
kHu^ a hole. 
'5^ Apprehensive, anxious, ag- 
^Vjl^i itated, alarmed, suspicious; 
to suppose, to doubt, to ima- 
gine, to reckon upon ; por- 
ha(>s, supposing, if it should 
be ; yiung ;/«' fearful of, 
supposing, suspicious lest ; I 
'hung A-ii^ to dread, frighten, 
ed; ,';« '^hung, quiet. 

The cry of persons fight, 
ing ; to quarrel, to wrangle ; 
hunu^ tau' to fight, battling. 
The hum of a crowd ; 
singing or voices mingling ; 
to intimidate by a loud voice ; 
to cozen, to cheat ; to bo- 
guile, to tempt ; hung^ p'iu^ 
to deceive; hung^ hoU to 
4^ To pull (as a bow), to check 
,V. or rein in ; to impeach, to 
jccu^e ; to intonu riders ; to 


hold up, to maintain ; hung^ 
kd^ to petition against ; nipi 
hung^ to faUely accuse ; 
sheung^ hung^ to send in on 
accusation ; ulijiung^ to peti- 
tion the highest provincial 
officers directly. 
^c* A bridle, or the reins by 

'"^ which u horse is reined in. 

f^' Rude ; hung' ifung, igno. 

J, rant ; wearv, hurried by press 

01 business. 

tfc' To empty or exhaust ; a 

rP^ deficiency ; to make room 
ii.'unor , "• , ■, ^ 

for ; ^ku■el hung' to return a 

deficiency ; hung' thoi tikt 

mike a little room for me; 

hung' Jioi 'si, leave a space 

in the writing ; hung' fat, a 

3^' Quicksilver; tshiu iian lin* 
Hunz ^""S^ ^^ smelt quicksilver 

from cinnabar. 
Hung^ A halo ; uf^ ^yau hung^ there 

is a halo round the moon. 



At Blood ; radical of blood or 
I, '. bloody things ; hiu, hi' the 
bodily slamma, the constitu. 
tion ; hiili '■pun, capital in 
trade ; ch'ut, hijh bleeding; 'pd 
hiili to strengthen the .system; 
it' hm, blood settled in a 
bruise ; /imAj hiit, coagulated 
bio )d ; hiiti isfiii, a letter writ- 
ten in blood (at the last ex. 
treinitvj ; hiif, sing' careful 
memory of, attention; shaft 
huty pale, white-liveied ; hvl, 
ill, hair of rhehead; ch'ut, 
pd!:, hm, to pay another's 




Looking out a door, a look- 

.^ i\ out above a gate ; imperial; 
Kmeh if.- 1 ^ \ ^ . 
detective, lo->t ; not enough ; 

faults, deficiencies ; to miss, 
to err ; disrespectful, want, 
ing in ; to dig ; hi'tf, imftn, his 
Majesty's palace ; (ham liiiU 
the golden gate of Olyni- 
pus; ti/j /iu/> the waning 
moon ; hutt s/iatt lost, miss- 
ing ; ihd iTTid '■skill hilly not 
the least thing missinsr. 

For these two characters, see 
K'lit, their usual pronunciation in 


(147) Hwe. 

An exclamntion ; halloo, 
stop ! thw^, ^ni hil^, hal- 
loo! where are you going? 

(148) f. 

•4^ Clothes, specially those for 
*";: the body ; radical of garments ; 
a cover, case, or wrapper ; 
the husk of cocoanuts ; o ful\ 
or c7 i^li^iinff, clothes ; pnki d, 
plel)''iHns; Js'itig ci, siijisai 
graduates; jnn* ti, undress, 
common dress ; ^md <i shihi ini- 
proj)er, lewdly ; chiuht dfuk:. 
to dress : ifhing d tim^ a slop- 
shoo; shui^ ci, a sleeping dress. 

j^j To rely on, to trust to ; to 
agref, to coiiforiii to; as, ac- 
cording to; «i iin, as you say ; 
<i thi, likp, similar ; ci 'rti, as 
yf)H please ; >i '/i xtU Ih'O de- 
pendanf on parents, fili-il ; <? 
shnfi shiil, unJojbted, can be 






He, she, it ; ,t ^tong, they, 
them ; a iUin, that year ; an 
initial particle, meaning only, 
because that ; a surname. 

To smile in bitterness, to 
moan, a forced laugh ; d iHg^ 
hum of boys reading. 

Name of a river in HonAn 
province, a branch of the 
River Loh ; it runs through 
Sung hien in Hondn fu. 

A fierce dog ; extended, 
continuous; flourishing; to ex- 
claim in praise, good! fine! an 
interjection ; to add to, depend 

Ripples on water, the curl- 
ing lines made by water in 
gentle motion. 

The tone of indignation, 
surprise, dissatisfaction ; for 
shame, alas ! groans, dolor ; to 
belck ;<i Jd do jj/a/i, a low, idle 

To heal, to cure ; medical, 
medicine ; a physician ; ci «?2' 
or ci ,shang a doctor; ihavg 
it, to practice medicinr- ; jsAicf, 
a fashionable doctor; ipdu ih 
to assure a cure ; ishan d, a 
skillfid doctor ; iVung d shaft 
iyun, charla(ar)s kill people. 

A blue and white duck 
which frequents the seashore 
in flocks, and foretokens 
storms by flyins inland. 

A boy, a infant, a male 
cliild ; infantile, feeble; a suf. 
fi.\ to nouns much used in the 
court dialect, and to denote 
that words are nouns ; '■sin ji, 
ji, my son : tnP^sin jT, mv oldest 
son ; Jio j/', a toy ; ji *«6, child- 
ren ; ii i/'/t'd, cutch. 









Forced laughter, imwillintj 
compliance; loq-iacious. Read 
twd, the prattle of chddren. 

The whiskers ; one of llie 
radicals ; as a copulative con- 
junction, means and, also, to- 
gether ; and yet, even ; as a 
disjunctive conjunction, but ; 
yet, contrariwise, still ; as ; 
used for the person spoken to, 
thou ; an initial particle; {i tAd 
now; ji VAV, moreover, fur- 
thermore ; it ikam (l hau^ now 
and henceforth ; li 'x a final 
phrasf, denoting that is all, 
nothing more, no other, the 

Warm or hot water ; flow, 
ing tears ; Jin (i, incessant 

A funeral car or hearse. 

A king-post or girder on the 
top of a pillar, to support the 
roof; a kind of chestnut; a 
fungus or Pezi/a, called muki 
li, or 'ears of wood.' 

The spawn or young of 
fish ; cj)d ti, a delicious fish 
found in Tungting Lake. 

That which is naturally 
reasonable, fit, right ; proper, 
befitting, harmonizing, j ist ; 
ought or should be ; often is 
to be taken as a form of the 
iniperative or future tenses ; 
harmonious, accordant ; title 
of .5th rank ladies; ti takt 
ought, it is proper ; patj in^ung 
ti, unsuitable, not his place ; 
hbp} si, done right, well done ; 
if am '■siuipin ^i, to covet little 
douceurs ; yin^ jf, convenient, 
serviceable ; ji lakt to desire, 
to wish. 




To doubt, to suspect ; to 
guess, to fear; perverse; doubt, 
ful of, to dislike, unsettled ; ja 
ji, a fox's doublings, feartui ; 
iw' ti, suspicious, fearful ; pi* 
iffij {i, avoid suspicious acts ; 
•/It kbnv' ito fi, you are so very 
suspicious ; jwid ft, plain, cer- 
tain, undoubted. 

Name of a range, called 
'Kau tf, or Nine Mts., where 
the Emperor Shun was bu- 
ried — said to be in Slian<i ; 
eminent, promising; to know. 

To transplant rice ; to move, 
to transpose, to shift, to re- 
move, to change the place or 
the direction of; to transmit ; 
to convey (an infection); to 
migrate ; ti Jioi, to move 
away ; ^t (mdi, to move near ; 
tWO ti, to borrow ; ti 'fun isnu* 
'■kan, to accommo('atcone with 
a timely loan ; ji (nan, to for- 
ward a public dispatch. 

The bar of a door, called 
Hm 1%^; Hm li jzcai «c/»'Hi, (Peh- 
li-pi) burned the bar of his 
door, [from poverty]. 

A kind of buliace ; ji (y^vng, 
a kind of white willow, found 
in Shantung. 

A tripod or vase used in 
temples for libations ; a con- 
stant rule or law which all 
men acknowledge, an invari- 
able principle ; constant, com- 
mon ; it ilun, the five social 
relations; ^Md ji tshdn, the Bo- 
hea hills. 

Self-sufficient, great assur- 
ance, arrogant ; shallow-mind- 
ed ; to despise, to look down 
on ; verbose ; to insult, to brag. 







A gradtttion, rising one nlwve 
another, as a series of weights, 
stairs, stories, hills, 6ic.; to 
advance, to reward the wor- 
thy; to superimpose ; advan- 
tage ; if an ji kokt mah put 
each in its proper rank; ji 
tsang^ to confer honors on 
one's parents and self 

A pitcher or goblet, with a 
handle and spout ; water-pot 
or waali-basin ; shallow ; cc/ti 
jt, wine and water pitchers. 

The chin, tlie sides of the 
mouth; one of the diagrams; 
to nourish, to feed ; ik'iii, an 
old man, who must be fed. 

Name of a river in Shan- 
tunff, flowing south into Lake 
Loh-ma in Kiangsu, and 
thence into the sea. 

Usages of mankind ; a rule, 
rite, a ceremony ; decorum, 
etiquette ; the external ap. 
pearance, or deportment ; 
fiirure, form ; regidar, proper, 
correct, wluit ought to he, just ; 
to imitate to study how to 
effect; the principles or pow- 
ers of nature ; H6ung jt, the 
dual principles ; a present of 
money ; ji chii' rules of eti- 
quette; tin' ji or Ji^nng ^i, 
money sent to mourners to as- 
sist in the rites ; ^clCitig tf, a 
present to one traveling; 
^u'^g 5t, deportment ; iwai ji, 
a dignified carriage. 

Even, arranged ; to equal- 
ize, to level ; to wound, to kill, 
to cut grass ; great, ample ; to 
class, to sort; contented, pleas, 
©d ; distant, remote, foreign ; 
a tribe of people in the west, 






now applied to all foreigners 
who do not speak Chinese; a 
barbarian, in the sense the 
Greeks used ^a^Qagot ; ji jya/i, 
a foreigner ; li miti to exter- 

Mucus or running from the 
nose ; twan ji, name of a marsh 
in Sli^nsi. 

A wife's sisters; the older 
are called tdi^ ji, tho younger 
^siii ii; maternal aunts ; the 
elder are called ji 'wd, 4 ona, 
and ii ^ni^ung ; the younger, 
d' si ; A (f^, my elder maternal 
aunt's husband. 

A wound; an ulcer or sore; 
to hurt, to injure ; distressing 
to the mind. 

Harmonious concord, pleas-' 
ed with each other, as brothers 
and friends ; joyful, satisfied ; 
ifi'ing tai* ii ji, fraternal joy ; 
si (too, Didighted-harmony, the 
name of Howqua's hong in 
C inton. 

To hand down, to bequeath, 
to leave to, to comm inicate to 
posterity ; to present to ; mu- 
tual deception ; to ridicule ; to 
act fio as to be despised. Read 
't'oi, to defraud, or insult; 
wearv ; jf jr^'uM, to hand down; 
ds'iriHi ii its'inir, to send re- 
membrances from afar (lo 

Same as the preceding ; to 
induce, or bring on one's self, 
to cause ; ji tsung^ to leave a 
legacy, to make a parting 
present ; 4 ^ng- hau^ tyaii, lo 
mislead after ages, to pro- 
pagate error ; <,i lui^ '^z' <fim 
to involve one's posterity. 







Sweet cakes ; su^red, plea- 
sant, sweet ; to feed ; ikdm a 
a tidbit, sugan- ; "^kan /o -Ju ji, 
to regard afflictions as sweeL 

A bridge ; the bank near a 

To rely or lean on, to lean, trusting in ; to depend 
on, to engage one to do; in- 
clined, leaning ; a fulcrnm, a 
support ; 'i Idi^ cw 'i It ait to 
depend on ; titn' jmo <p'tn % 
impartial, not the least un- 
fairness; T pang^ a trust, a 
dependanee ; 'i 'ind 'ho toP 
immediately (lit. waiting on 
horseback) ; 'i fok^ to beg a fa. 
vor of one, to engage one to do; 
't ik'am si tko, to sing in uni- 
son with a lute ; 'i cch'i maty -ye, 
what do you depend on for it 1 

An open, variegated kind 
of silk, called 't Jo; it is a 
kind of law or open silk, used 
for summer dresses. 

A three-legged iron frying- 
pan or griddle ; a stand for 
bows ; a den or cave. 

A kind of hard wood, fit for 
cabinet work : a chair, a 
co«ich ; ya/j tcheung % a cbair ; 
jToi % tables and chairs : fap 
<«' % a large state chair ; 
thim 'shau % an arm-chair; 
thuP'U a couch ; kied' itavg % 
a chair without arms. 

^ides of a chariot ; the 
place in a car where spears 
are placed. 

A silken screen ufsed by the 
ancient emperors in the au- 
dience-chamber : it was or- 
namented with ax-heads. 

'■gr An ear, the organ of bear. 

Z^ ing ; radical of what relates to 
the ear and hearing : to per- 
ceive ; a handle, an ear ; a 
final particle, usually denoting 
merely the end of the sense, 
but sometimes as an intensi- 
tive ; H Jang, or H fat, the 
ear ; H Ho ian* others will soon 
hear it ; H tnvng, black ears, 
thought to come from bad lack; 
thong % dry ears ; H watt an 
ear-pick ; H jicdn, ear-rings ; 
'i % obsequious ; H c»urt, a gr^^ 
grandson's grandson ; shttw^ 
ifung % quick of hearing; H 
ytii, hard of hearing ; Hjung, 
deaf; mitt H Hstii, to pull' 
off your ears ; 'im H td' jting', 
to cover the ears and steal a 
bell, to delude ; *i Ho^un kuo' 
matt * very - soft ears,' ex- 
cessively credulous. 

^Wr^. You, thou ; yonr ; flourish- 

j^Mng; a final particle, inter- 
4^ ] changeable with the preced- 
'Bh ing, denoting that the subject 
is not of much consequence ; 
also forms adverbs, as tsttt* % 
suddenly : H ^ngo j^fng tfom^ 
we are of the same mind ; H 
*<«»;?» y^» yo<^ ; H H 'rtgo *.igo, 
uncertain, confused talk ; 
*ndi *f, it is thus, so. 

*3ff Near, next to, at hand ; ap- 
proaching, both in time and 
place : to reach, to come to- 
wards, to approach : mati % 
friendly, sociable; H {i(»,[tiaie] 
nearly completed. 
jJ^ Figure, form ; like ; to com- 
*'*' pare : to consider, to guess or 
conjecture ; to decide after 
deliberation ; to estimate ; 


To.>. DicT. 14 







to intend, (o purpose ; *i toki 
to think upon, to calculate; H 
xkwan, to transport to the 
army ; H Isui^ to judge crimes. 

'J'o deliberate, to consult, 
to discuss ; doubt, hesitation ; 
murmuring ; used for the pre- 
ceding, to decide ; 'i sz'^ /ing. 
a senate-chamber, a council, 
hall; the Senate-house at Ma- 
cao is so called ; min^ H to 
confer with one ; ikung ^i, a 
public discussion. 

A final particle, denoting a 
plain statement, that the sense 
is fully expressed ; ji H % fully, 
enough ; [fau % certainly not. 
, At the beginning of a sen- 
tence, stopped, finished, just 
done, already, past; sign of the 
perfect ; to terminate ; to de- 
cline, to put away, to reject; 
ns a final, excessive, no more ; 
H iking '■kong, done speaking; 
H hit' gone off; pati tak) H 
obliged to do, inevitable; H 
iking '■kdm, I have made it so ; 
H fiau^ from this, hereafter. 

By, with ; in order to, that 
which ; for, that, to the end 
that ; the cause by which, us- 
ing, taking ; and ; next, at, 
according to; a reason or 
cause; preceded byWto, means 
therefore, wherein, that by 
which, thereby ; succeeded by 
iWai, means deeming, to con- 
aider, by it make ; preceded 
by Jio, means how could ; H is 
often merely a sign of the ac- 
cusative, from, to, in, as H 
iyan <fs'un isain, he cherishes 
humanity in his heart ; H chik^ 
iioai huk> to bend the straight; 
occasionally used like the 

last ; j?7id % not cease, no morci 
nothing ; ^yau ^chi % proba- 
ble ; shi^ '/, hence ; H 'A;u« 
tirw'ai U'in, to look at the sky 
through a tube ; /s?'* H iWai 
shi^ I must have it so, I'll do it. 

Luxuriant, growing rank, 
^^ flourishing veg tation. 

?>» .The purslane (Plantago); H 
J 'mai, or H H iyan, pearl-barley. 

t^ The seeds of the nelum- 
bium ; H i' sV«"» pearl-barley ; 
same as the last. 

^' The intention, will, purpose; 

'^* thoughts, ideas ; motive ; in- 
clination, sentiment, opinion ; 
meaning of a word ; i' mi* 
icKiung, an agreeable taste, 
delighted with ; i" sz'^ the feel, 
ings, the intention ; ftrid '■chit 
V undetermined ; I'm 7<d i' *z" 
indecent, disreputable; un- 
willing to refuse ; ^yau matt V 
52" what does he say about it ? 
twdi\c/mff^, unintentional; ^m 
kvxi' taki i' greatly obliged for 
it; tofr>i^ gratified, got his wish, 
an exclamation of delight often 
used in sport ; 5/jin^' i' exceed, 
ed your wishes ; i^ pafi a rough 
sketch or picture ; V i^ sz'' sz'* 
imdesirable, I prefer not. 

J^' A retired, obscure place ; to 

v^ bury, to inter ; to sacrifice to 
those who have been buried, to 
streams, or to the moon; to hide. 

^^^ Mild, virtuous, excellent ; 

*P admirable, admired — applied 
to women; the virtuous one, 
sc. tiiB Empress ; i' 'c/u, her 
Majesty's orders. 

J^^ Cooked rice spoiled by 

'f- mold ; a sour, harsh taste ; 
used for it>, to choke. 




j^' T.) kill, to put to death, lo 
'"?■ exterminate ; to throw down, 

to prostrate ; to overhang. 
— 5'] Twi> ; to divide in twain, 
■"7", j to bisect ; to help, to second ; 
^r no reiterate ; to suspect ; tat' 
^*^ i' the second ; i' shapi twenty ; 
^^ ^ iTndi- isam, not doubleiriinded, 
faithful, sincere ;i'/s'z" twice. 
The two last forms are chiefly 
us3d in bills and accounts. 
^' Right, proper, suitable ; 
J righlGousnoss, eqjity, upright- 
ness, high moral feeling, con- 
formable to what the heart 
feels to be proper; common, 
free, public, by contribution 
or government appropriation, 
as i' '-Iseng, a public well ; i' 
/lO.Vj a free schoo' ; patriotic, 
in defense of principle or 
rights, public spirited, as i^ 
%ping, patriot volunteers ; su- 
perior, surpassins, excellent, 
virtuois, as i' sz'^ an eminent 
scholar; i^'-liun, a faithful dog; 
adopleH, putative, supplied in 
place of, as i^ fu} an adopted 
f>»lher; i* '^kai, a false head- 
dress ; made up, compounded ; 
as i' maki a composition ink ; 
meaning, signification ; i^ piil,i 
a faithful servant ; i^ hV right 
principled, honorable ; i't?/tdn, 
a public burying.ground ; i^ 
t';hong, a public depository for 
'zKV Right, proper, used for the 
last ; friendly, acquainted ; 
adopted ; ichi Jan <c/u p 
friends adopted as brothers ; 
{Tii« i* of the same age or 
graduation ; UHki i^ relatives 
of different surnames. 



|dt«- A species of wild jujube or 
1fl|' date-plum ; the seeds used for 
an anodyne, under the name 
of i^un Hsd iyan, are not from 
a Zizyphus. 
to' Separated, foreign, of an- 
■^-"* other country, different, di- 
verse; admirable, unusual; 
strange, rare, extraordinary, 
bizarre ; perverse, helerrxlox ; 
to marvel at, to regard as dif- 
ferent or foreign; to oppose; i' 
»«««* strange news; i' yatt an- 
other day ; shai^ patt i^ will 
not be forced to change ; tdi^ 
ifnng '•siu i^ very much alike. 
■^Jj- Labor, distress, toil; afflic- 
''y tions, sufferings; to be weary, 

to endure, to labor in. 
^i' To accustom one's self, to 
J practice, to be skilled in ; to 
serve assiduously ; sprouts of 
a stump; i^ ipi a resident gra- 
du:ite, one who lives in the 
01 - E isy, simple, plain, not hard 
^J to do; negligent, remiss, dis- 
respectful ; to extirpate weeds, 
to dress a field ; iyang i' ea^y 
to do ; i* Cufy '^shnu, easy to rid 
out of hand (as gjods) ; i^ jwiat 
Vjom can be done quickly ; i' 
ccai liki not hard lo do, he 
will do it with help ; V «u pia' 
changeable in sentiment. 

(140) fm. 

T^c To detain awhile ; to cover, 
Yg'jJ to conceal ; a surplus, an ox- 
cess; to remiin over ; sudden- 
ly, hastily; to en^er into pos- 
session ; dm ^uiu .9z" ifong, he 
suddenh' obtained the retrion ; 
a place in Shantung. 




J&; To soak, to saturate ; to 

J^ overflow ; to detain, to stay 

away ; dm Jav, to tarry long ; 

dm kun^ to permeate ; dm chai^ 

dilatory ; dm muti to spoil or 

drown in water ; lim tnun^ ns- 

phyxiated, half crazy, worried. 

^Ak. Clouds rising and spread- 

*j^ ing ; to soak, to make to 

vegetate, as the ram does. 
OB^ To castrate, to geld ; dm 
'^1 }^"'^'*' ''*" eunuch of the palace ; 
jffiilj dm ichu to cut a boar. The 
Yen second is a local character. 
jj& The name of a mountain 
Yen '" ^^^ West, called dm Usz', 
fabled to contain the cave 
where the sun went at night. 
A mind exercised upon ; 
dm <ts'imi unsteady, loqua- 
cious; dm dm tts'im dsim, rest- 
less, nervous, anxious, 
afcfc To lay in salt ; dm pdki 
Y™ '■lam, salted olives ; dm its'ong, 
to lay down [flesh] in salt ; dm 
H'ui, smoked hams. 
M"l Salt ; to salt ; pdk, dm, 
*^^ i w hi'e salt ; jiwi /i/i, salt-yards ; 
^^ jtim wau^ c*z', the salt commis- 
Yen sioner ; «/tdt' jim, to evaporate 
salt water dm idng ch'ut, 
tts'ii, the salt-jar has produced 
worms! suid of bad sons. 
t^ To dislike, to hold in con- 
'^^ tempt, to think meanly of; to 
^'^" lothe, to de-spise : prejudiced, 
suspicious, fastidious, jealous 
of; iim \ihiu, to disdain as 
little ; '«i j';n jim, don't weary 
of; 'sm {im, petty dislikes, 
.^^"1 The eaves, or projectinc 
j/h" Ipart of a roof, vulgarly call- 
jUSj ed ukt it/am, and lyam 'Aim ; 
YeTi the plate which supports the 








roof; tft iim, the turned-up 
cornices of a hipped roof; jim 
hd* under the eaves, in low 
life ; mok, ^k'i iim "-hau, don't 
stand under the eaves. 

Severe, stern, strict, rigid ; 
reserved, cold, austere ; ma- 
jestic, solemn, dignified, re- 
verential ; inducing respect or 
awe ; a night-watch or guard ; 
epithet of a father ; iim iHd, 
strictly to seize ; jfm 9vkt 
sternly dignified; dm fxi} or 
ikd iim, my father ; Hd tsz' iim, 
the teacher is strict ; jtm mnti 
extremely close or secret ; 
ifsjirtji/n, your respected father. 

A breastwork for archers or 
ppearmen to protect them- 
selves ; to fend off. 

Sour, sharp, as vinegar or 
spirits highly rectified ; loki 
iim ts'd' put in some sharp 
vinegar — be very strict with 

A large serpent in Yunnan, 
described as edible and scale- 
less, and with large teeth ; a 
tribe of southern savages. 

The whiskers ; the hair on 
the cheeks near the ears ; 'rni 
dm ikting, the lord of the hand- 
some whiskers, i. e. Kwanti ; 
Jian iim, curly whiskers. 

Fire blazing, flame ; burn- 
ing, hot ; glorious, luminous ; 
to bum ; jfm J^ung shai^ knV 
the inconstant world, fickle 
friends ; ^im i/j very hot [sun] ; 
^fo iim ^sh^ung, the fire blazes 
up ; iim taV the emperor Shin- 

To .screen or shade, to con- 
ceal from view ; to shut, to 
close ; to soothe, to stroke witji 










the hand ; to console ; to sur- 
prise an enemy ; 'im (Wun, to 
shut the door; '■im thai imun, 
to open the door ; Hm shik> to 
hide away quickly ; Hm min^ 
to cover the face ; 'im '/id cAii/i 
you must improve, don't be so 
stupid ; Hm Hm '^yiuvg '■yeung, 
afraid to be seen, hiding away 
as a truant; Hm ^lid '■cfiau, hide 
it for shame. 

To cover over, to shade, 
to hide (as an occultation 
does) ; iWan Hm yaU the clouds 
screen the sun ; to castrate ; 
vases with small mouths and 
large bellies ; a pass in moun- 

To cover anything with 
dirt ; Hm iTiidi, to bury in the 

' To dislike, to disapprove, to 
reject ; to lot he ; to sicken at, 
distasteful ; satiated, filled ; 
pdki ini' to be hated or avoid- 
ed by all; j'm im' not lothesome 
fas foofl) ; iak^ iyan im' to get 
people's hate ; wi' Isuk, had 
enough of, tired of; dsang 
im' to hate, to distaste ; im' 
Sin-i to dislike to be troubled. 
Read 'im, to conceal ; to get 
away from bustle into quiet. 

Troubled in sleep, disturbed 
by dreams, starting in sleep 
from the nightmare. 

Black pimple.'? in the face 
or on the body, hair moles. 

A scab, the sloughing of 
a wound ; spots or pimples 
on the face ; tau'^ Hm, the vac- 
cine scab. Read ip> hand- 
some ; the cheeks. 










To dye, to tinge ; to steep 
in a dye ; to taint, to catch, 
to be infected ; to pollute, to 
vitiate, to copy the bad prac- 
tices of others ; soft, flexible ; 
Hm shiki to dye ; Him Hm, to 
revise, to add to and finish up 
(as a picture or composition) ; 
tfdn Hm, to re-dye ; tsapt 
Hm, to learn vicious habits ; 
/an Hm, to dye by brushing ; 
Hm tin^ p'd' a dyer's shop ; 'jm 
c?i imeng, to get a bad name. 

To advance ; ^ gradually ; 
weak, feeble ; '/m ^Yau, a 
disciple of Confucius. 

Luxuriant, tender herbage ; 
by turns, gradually, alternate- 
ly ; ^yam Hm, going and com- 
ing, like day and night. 

A gem of great lustre, fre- 
quently set on the apex of the 
tablets held by ministers at 
audiences ; splendent ; part of 
the name of H. M. Kiaking. 

Sharp, pointed ; to sharpen ; 
to cut in two or off; to rise 
up ; light, brilliant. 

The crossbar which shuts a 
gate inside, called Hm ji, and 
commonly imun <shdn. 

Carrying the head high, 
of commanmng presence ; 
vain-glorious ; same, as for- 
merly ; ifii hon^ 'fung <kam ^im 
tin, he came back to see, and 
the package of money was 
untouched ; Hm sin yat, shikt 
just the same color. 
:' Eaten to repletion ; satiated ; 
lothing, distasteful ; im' 'pdu, 
eaten to satiety ; cwd im' un- 
satisfied, covetous. 




ff^'] To verify, to examine of- 
^?j ificially for purposes of vpri- 
B;Z,» J fication : to witness before 
Yen officers, to testify ; proven or 
tried by one's experience ; 
proof, evidence, testimony ; 
im' <shi, a coroner's inquest ; 
trn^ Jo' to examine goods [fr>r 
the duty] ; xrr^ mung\ to ful- 
fill a dream; '/jom im} (ming 
fdki to examine into fully ; 
tying im} ^liv, the thing was 
true, the proofs are complete ; 
irn^ hon'' to be examined at tlie 
fuyuen's office ; irn} iining dan 
H^ung, 'look sharp after the 
catties and taeU' — a shop 
notice ; tm' itsong^ to identify 
stolen goods. 
i^hi Beautiful, tall, liandsome, 
^^ captivating; plump face ; bril- 
^ iiant ; bedizened ; voluptuous, 
wanton, dissipated — applied io 
xcomen ; ikiii im^ gay, beauti- 
ful, brilliant, as flowers, colors, 
a face ; sV""^ im- abundant 
nnd gay ; i,7i' shlki tung^ iyan, 
beauty excites m«^n. 

@\\} Flame, blaze; brilliant, draw- 
'a ing the eyes of men ; chid; t'o 
i/»' the candle flames. Same 


as ^^itm. 


In Macao, many of the words under this 
syllable are pronounced ngin and hin. 

A Smnke, misty vapor; to- 
• Ibacco or opium, because they 
,^Krfjare smoked; <m tin, lamp- 
Yen black ; iining dn, excellent to- 
bacco; cin its'^ung, an opium- 
pipe ; cwid du tin, cigars ; 
'shui tin. tobacco prepared for 
the ho'^ka ; t^hang An, smok. 






ing tobacco ; tin ipi tobacco- 
leaf; tshiu tin [fo, to let off 
fireworks ; tin tfa long^ ^Isz* & 
brothel-goer ; tin ichan, light 
dust or motes in the air; a 
term applied to banditti ; f'dn^ 
tin, to smoke opium ; tin *t/an 
'■hi, the longing of victimized 
opium-smokers ; tin 'mo chan^ 
'smoke has no rules,' said of 
great brags ; thoi ttang tin 'kUn, 
an opium-smoking shop ; j?/a» 
tin fcKau maU a place thickly 

The throat; a cosmetic; tin 
fhaii, the throat, a gorge, an 
important pass; tin tclii, rouge ; 
(771 <c/it tfd, the Mirahilis JU' 

Handsome, beautiful; a 
gracious smile ; the smile of 

Corrupt, putrid, rotten, as 
vegetables or food; tfn ch'aii^ 
stench of decaying flesh ; tin 
{«, rotten fish. 

A speckled bird ; as an ini- 
tial particle, an interrogative, 
meaning how, who, is, why, 
according to the scope ; tin 
tfhi, how should I know ? tin 
yung^ shdit why kill him? -An 
tahy fiv' kwaP how can I get 
rich ? also denotes the sub- 
junctive, as tin ik'i Js*ung tc/ii, 
should he follow him. 

As a final particle, an 
adverb of affirmation, denoting 
that the sense is complete ; as 
td^ pah icICun lin, the truth is 
not taught; used in corres. 
pondence with s«, as $« tfin 
(in, as it is in heaven ; form* 
jidv^rbs, as ching^ jtn, truly ; 
'thiti iin, presently ; an eu. 




i in 





phonic particle, adding force 
and emphasis to the previous 

Word?, speech, talk ; a sen- 
tence ; an expression; the ra- 
dical of characters relating to 
speech ; to discourse, to speak, 
to say, to address ; to express 
an opinion ; to speak with ; a 
high appearance ; a word or 
order ; jj/i 'ti, conversation ; 
tfd sin, exaggeration ; jjwn jiw, 
arsenic; sliatj $*"» an error in 
speaking, slip of the tongue ; 
ySuki sheki iin, exl;or(alion ; s?/i 
cAt/n, censors ; sldhi {iw, to re- 
tract, to break a pronoise. 

To simmer, to burn ; to as- 
sent, to reply to; a final par- 
ticle, yes, certainly, so, truly ; 
used as the sign of an adverb, 
tsuly jtn, suddenly ; also adds 
force to ; as mi^ pity jin, uncer- 
tain, probably not; a di.'junciive 
particle, but, then, if so, not 
so ; tsz'^ lin ji jin, spontaneous- 
ly and yet truly ; lin hnu^ af- 
terwards; '^ktcOiin, truly, a kind 
of chimpanze ; yihi ^m, thus, 
in like manner ; ;?« 'ya/yisi so. 

To burn, to fire, to light; 
to boil, to simmer ; ji/i ^mi tcki 
kap> inmiinent danger, at ex- 
tremity; jin cs/t/ii, to catch fire. 

To grind fine, to triturate, 
to dissolve, or rub or powder; 
jin mvti or rub to a powder ; 
iia iShiin, a narrow iron mor- 
tar in which drugs are ground ; 
iin kau' to investigate, to 
search out thoroughly — usual. 
ly implies by torturing. 

lieautiful, elegant, pretty ; 
witty, accomplished, skilled ; 

the opposite of ichi ^ 






' Yen 


Virtuous, wise, moral, 
worthy ; excellent, superior, 
in morals or in intellect ; 
a term of laudation, as iin 
Js'ai, my faithful wife; to sur- 
pass ; to praise or call a wor- 
thy ; tin tai^ my good brother ; 
ihi^uvg iin, village worthy ; ji« 
^s'oif good and talented, su- 
perior abilities ; jin iyan, a 
virtuous, bighminded man, a 
philosopher, a claiiis of mea 
next (o sages. 

To go fur; to protract, to 
lengthen out, to prolong; to 
involve ; to invite, to call to- 
gether ; to enter or advance ; 
spread out, arranged; slow, 
dilatory, long; distant, to 
spread far, or from one loan, 
other ; iin iCh'i, slow ; tin un^ 
dilatory, liii ipan, to invite 
guests ; tin k'api u'd yan, to 
compromise another, j 

A bamboo mat spread out, a 
table spread smooth or arrang. 
ed ; met. a feast, an entertain- 
ment ; jiH Isiki a banquet, a 
meal ; tkin^ iin, the hall where 
the emperor meets academi. 
cians; the shrined oratory 
where priests recite prayers. 

The throat, the esophagus ; 
a straight or narrow passage • 
lin Juiu li^ <fong, an entrance 
to a river. Read in\ to swal- 
low ; to tolerate, to suffer. 

Limit or border of a patch of 
land ; a path to a grave ; to 
ascend ; pat, iin, the eight 
points of compass, all around. 

The string of a bow ; chord 
of an arc ; the moon wfien she 
quarters, on the 8tli and 23d 
days ; shiung^ iiti, the 8th or 










9th day of the moon ; Ad' sin» 
the 23d of the month ; a cord- 
ed pulse. 

Silken strings of musical 
instruments ; ^ngdn i^ ^in, to 
play the rebeck or 2.stringed 
fiddle ; iSdm jin, a 3-stringed 
guitar ; tiin^ ^in, ' cord broken,' 
i. e. decease of a wife ; tsuki 
tin, a second marriage. 

The side of a ship or boat, 
the gangway or bulwarks of 
a vessel. 

The Juliis or gally-worm, a 
sort of millipede found in dry 

To inundate, to overflow ; 
to spread out, to enlarge, to 
amplify ; abundant, much, far ; 
elegant, beautiful ; prolix, dif- 
fuse, turgid ; plains at the base 
of hills ; iyaa '■in, to ramble ; 
jsAd 'i«. a sand-spit ; '^tn shing^ 
(kung, Confucius' sepulchre. 

A s«tream flowing far ; long, 
extended, ample, widely ; to 
moisten, to lead ; to practice, 
to exercise, to perform, to 
drill ; "-in hi' to perform theatri- 
cal plays ; 'in 'md, to train in 
military exercises; '■in tsdpi to 
practice ; Hn 'Ad 'shau shai^ 
try your hand at it for once. 

The department of Inchau 
fij in Shantung. 

To cease, to desist ; to sleep, 
to lie down, to recline ; to 
throw prostrate ; to fall along ; 
'^in '^hi kd' ihung, throw for- 
ward your chest ; 'in siki ''hd, 
to lie down, take a nap ; Hh 
'■kin, undecided, lost his wits. 

A kind of silure or mudfish, 
with a white head, which lies 
near the bottom. 







A species of cicada, called 
it'ong '■in, and many other 
names; 'in jCing, a kind of 
bouse lizard, livid and harm- 

A mole, called J,ai- 'shu, or 
' plough rat ;' also a fabulous, 
ox-like animal, said to lie in 
the water. 

To see, to regard ; project- 
ing eyes ; 'in 'iin, pretty ; 'he 
melody and beauty of birds 

A dike or dam, to dike off" 
water ; to arrest or stop. 

The summit or peak of a 
mountain, likened to a boilet 
or jar. 

To visit or condole with the 

^f bereaved, or those disgraced 
Yen - , .", 

trom rank ; to mourn with one 

-over the loss of country. 
5i^1 ^ swallow or m-rirtin ; a 
shuttlecock; 'in 'tsz' a swal- 
low; 'in ^mi ip'di, swallow- 
> tailed bucklers; '^in iwo, edible 
birdsnests ; feki 'in, to kick a 

A feast ; to repose, to rest ; 
^ peaceful, still, leisurely ; to 
disgrace ; 'yam in^ to feast (by 
officers); fn' (kii to live at ease. 
Read dti, ancient name of a 
state, now the province of 
Chihlf, and still often applied 
to it and the metropolis. 
^M Rest ; a feast; merriment ; 
^, I used for the preceding; ikHng 
^jw J Ham in' a feast given by the 
Yeu emperor to the tsinsz' gradu- 
ates ; (j/ing ipt^nng in' a feast 
given to military kiijin grad- 
nates ; Ink} fming in' the one 
to literary kiijin graduates. 





/tH ' Like, to compare ; to explore, 

TT^ to spv out : a weathercock : 

ihan in\ a spy ; m jM iWan, 

like the clouds. 

DH' Clear light, cloudless sun- 

Hie^ light ; the clear sun in winter 

melting the snow. 
iR' Lustre of gems; to mani- 
^jj^ Test, to appear, to display ; to 
divulge, to show ; apparent, to 
be seen now, conspicuous, de 
fa do, present; in^ingan, ready 
money ; in-tkam, now ; in^ txoi^ 
in a place, existing, now here ; 
irt' ishing, is already to be had, 
is on hand ; fn' Jinng, to lay 
down security or stakes ; imhig 
in} bright, not dull, (as colors) ; 
speedy reward or retribution ; 
iu^ in} '^pd, I must have the 
money in hand ; in^ cshan shiit^ 
fall influential, able to move 
others ; in' cKxtt^ to appear, to 
come out. 
•rQ' An ink-stone, used by the 
Y"^ Chinese ; '■Lb ihdng nwki in' 
the best kind of ink-stone ; 
in^ tkang, or in' itHn, to get a 
living by the pencil. 

E' Edible species of spinach, 
„. Artemisia, and Chenopodium, 
are termed in' ts'op, distin- 
guished by various adjectives ; 
in' ts'op usuallv denotes spin- 
ach ; 'M in' ts'oP pigweed. 

BB^ a small chissel ; a sort of 
,j'-_5i javelin ; a hand staff. 

^^' V^irtuous and learned, as 
■/^ a magistrate or scholar ; ac- 
■r*' A proverb, a common say- 
^'--J* inc. tradition ; a blunt speech ; 
in' 'ii, a vulgar saying. 

Ton. Dict. 15 



/^ Provision for journeys ; to 

Y^*carry food to workmen in ihe 
fields; to offer animals in 

R^^ To salt flesh ; ^pi ^im ip, kwd' 

*^'V£'u, lay it down in salt; ip, 
iSiln, pickled in brine. 

^ Leaves of plants ; leaf of a 
y^^book; a thin plate or leaf of 
gold or metal ; posterity, ages; 
an age ; to collect, to assem- 
ble ; yati ipi ip'in ichau, a flat 
punt ; iMing tc/iung ip^ dur. 
ing the Ming dynasty ; ingau 
pdki ipi tripe, the manypius 
of oxen ; Jioi ^chi sdn^ ipi to 
have posterity. 

■^ A beam to support a bell; 
j^^^that which one ought to do, 
an office, an occupation, pur- 
suit, calling, profession, art, 
or trade; patrimony or estate; 
a claim for, or an amount of 
merit, from what one has 
done: meritorious, deserving; 
donp, finished, a sign of past 
time ; ipi ngaP a craft, a busi- 
ness ; ikd ipi family estate; 
sz^' ipi occupation ; tkiing ip^ 
eligible for reward ; ip^ iking 
hiP ^Viu, gone ; Jdng iking ipi 
ipi fearful, strong ; ip^ ^i ishing 
kuki the nialter is already set- 

^? Name of a region in the 
j^jj'stateof Wei, now included in 
Linch^ng hien in Cb^ngteh 
fu in the north of Hontin pro- 
vince; ip, /ca' a compliment, 
ary epithet, applied to a man's 
library, referring to lA Pi, the 
learned prince of Nieh. 







A stoppage in the throat : 
■'^ ' MO choke, unal)le to swallow ; 


a hiccup or sobbing ; i/, ^hau, 

Yeh throat stopped up; if, saki un- 

able to swallow ; tpi ^tsHng 

'^dng Hi choked from grief. 

^M To visit a superior or a 

Yeh ' gentleman ; admitted to an 

audience ; to signify to, to in- 

timate ; to state or declare, 

to inform by petition ; a card ; 

itt hW to see a superior ; ity 

sh^\ a guest-chamber ; pd^ i<, 

to announce a visitor. 

Hot; feverish; ardent, 
warm-hearted; to heat, to 
warm ; jim it^ hot ; fat^ iU 
feverish ; aV it^ boiling with 
rage ; very hot (as weather), 
close ; ill ridu^ the bustle of a 
crowd ; iti jii Iso^ tsang* hot as 
sitting in a still ; d'in it, hot 
weather ; ^'ng csam ^dn iti 
feverish, nervous. 
^ The son of a concubine; 
Nieh '^'^ illegitimate child, the ' son 
of guilty' as the comj>osition 
of the character shows ; met. 
the consequences or reward of 
crime ; sorrow ; clear ; tstii^ iti 
retribution of sin ; tsz*- tsoh ifj 
evil of one's sins ; ifp cheung^ 
a retribution for undutiful acts 
by having wicked sons one's 
self; it, iti adorned, neat, 
■gfc The stock of a tree ; shoots 
p^^T^^from a stump ; ^mang iti suck- 

J^ A target ; a law, rule ; the 
jl^^j'judge or ruler of a city ; ifi (Sz' 
the provincial judge ; he is 
addressed as if} /oi. 

^ The little side door in an 
j|^j''«"trance ; a post in a gate- 
way ; a threshold. 
6ft- Dangerous ; unquiet ; i/j 
Nieh "^"'' uneasy, disturbed, mov- 
ing about. 










Pleasing, winning ; delicate, 
flourishing vegetation ; docile, 

Beautiful, strange, bewitch, 
ing ; ominous, unaccounta. 
ble, supernatural, monstrous, 
lusus natures; heretical, magi- 
cal, silly, not conformable to 
the classical usage or doctrine, 
a word much used by officers 
to stigmatize things and peo- 
ple ; a phantom, sprite or trans- 
formed being ; to blandish, to 
flatter, to enchant ; ^iii kwdV 
unnatural, ominous; ^iu iti 
monsters, prodigy, ominous of 
wo ; du ctsing, a metamorpho- 
sis ; (iM iskii, heretical books ; ^iii 
jtfi, seducing talk, cozening. 

Small, tender ; the last pig 
in a litter ; the ace face of a 
dice ; name of a tune on the 
guitar ; the radical of little 
things ; Jiau tin, to turn up 
a doublet and one ace with 
three dice. 

To adjust, to agree to ; to 
seek, to importune ; to assem. 
ble together, to call one ; to 
scrutinize, to examine into ; 
tiu Jcau, to seek for carefully. 

The loins, the waist, the 
lumbar region, the body be- 
tween the ribs and pelvis ; the 
middle of a thing or act ; ^md 
Ml kwati a poor stick, a witless 









^ dU 



fellow ; H'ai du kwaf, lookout 
for your backs ! — a porter's 
cry ; <iu kwat, it'au than, your 
back itches (for me to whip 
you) ; (hi ^pdu, a fob ; du Udm, 
to nurse or bring up ; dv tdV 
a girdle ; pun^ ichung <tM, in 
the middlf, half done ; du 
kwali the haunch-bone, ishii 
dUf the back of a book. 

Grass, herbage, vigorous 
growing vegetation. 

The murmur of insects, 
chirping of grasshoppers, (Sic, 
in the grass. 

A word used mostly by wo. 
men to quiet one ; du ! du 
lokJhe still ! 

To stop, to interrupt ; to 
conceal ; to invite, to send for ; 
to look for, to seek, to salute ; 
to want ; jiung du, mutual 
invitation ; du '^Is'eng, to in- 
vite ; du iijau to invite to a 
ramble ; (Au du, a polite phrase 
of a host, meaning my enter- 
tainment is a poor one. 

Service of a villain, feudal 
vassalage or labor of a serf; 
du Jeung, scutage money or 
escuage ; All yiki labor given 
by fiefs. 

A kind of wild beast ; Ju 
„yan, a tribe of Miautsz' moun- 
taineers in Lien cliau and its 
vicinity, supposed by the Can- 
tonese to have 

A precious gem ; dii ^ktcong, 
the star Benetnasch in Ursa 
Mnjor ; du Jsin, your ' pearly 
epistle,' a complimen'^ary term ; 
du iClii, a lake in fairy land. 

A rustic ditty or baflacl ; 
called;?;/ ,kn ; an invproinrptu 
.sou;^ ; to mjiiie by nuiJor> : 







\ au 

J'ting dti, childish ditties ; pd' 
*d«' du itm, to spread idle tales, 
to defame. 

Remote in place, far off, 
distant ; du -iin, a long way ofl'; 
t«u du tsz'^ tak, to take one's 
leisure, or ease without care. 

A furnace or kiln for bricks 
or pottery ; ^ngd du, a pottery- 
kiln ; du ""kau, a shop where 
opium is sold ; Hd du, to fre- 
quent a brothel ; cfiu^ pd* du 
to live in old kilns, vagrant, 

The wind shaking things, 
as a flag ; fluttering, waving 
from the breeze. 

A solitary hawk with a va- 
riegated plumage ; also a va- 
riety of pheasant, akin to the 
medallion pheasant, is called 
du chiK 

Sad, troubled, and without 
any one to disburthen to; de- 
praved ; tempted. 

Moved, agitated, disturbed; 
to shake, to wag ; to make ; 
dri ^Id, to work a scull ; du 
tung^ to move, to disturb, either 
mentally or physically ; $/« 
du, a violent wind, to rise 
rapidly in olfice or rank ; du 
yuki unsteady, not tirm on its 
base ; du ichung, to ring a 
Ixill ; du it'au to shake the 
head, to refuse ; du du, dis- 
turbed, troubled ; du du ynk-, 
not firm, unstable ; du du ''pdi 
'^pdi, swagiieiipg, proud. 

Earth heaped up ; eminent 
in worth ; a famous soverfign 
who reigned b.c. 2357. 

A small carriage, a one* 
iKirsp cart. 






A tribe of pygmies in tho 
south of Cliina, three cubits 
high. Read Jijii, false, hy- 
poeritical ; c/im han^^ lucky. 

Pleasant, winning, witty, 
fascinating, graceful — applied 
to fennales ; to perturb ; Mii 
iiu, agreeable; '^kwai iiu, ghost 
of a murdered man. 

A short oar ; to row ; jiu 
iShiin, to row a boat. 



Thorns, rushes, stubble, or 
twigs, used for fuel ; iclio iiu, 
light fuel for kindling ; <.san iiu, 
faggots for fuel. 

Plenty to eat; abundant, 

satisfied, atfluent ; an overplus, 

the leavings ; exceeding, a 

superfluity ; liberal, indulgent; 

to acquit, to excuse, to forgive, 

to give in, to forbear; <,iii ming^ 

to spare life ; j/m sinti ' liberal 

of tongue,' wrangling ; (fung 

iiu, abounding in, ample. 

':a^"j To die before puberty ; 

y^ Ishortlived, an 'mtimely death ; 

^^1 to kill children ; calamity ; 

Yau tneng' Hu, shortlived ; Hu chit, 

a premature death. 

Obscure, still, profound ; 
good, retired, reserved ; 'n< tiii^ 
gentle, quiet — applied to fe- 

The cackling of hen-phea- 
sants, calling for their mates. 

Deep, sunken, cavernous, 
eyes; deep, profound, extensive, 
reinote ; '/« ji/j, inconsolable. 

To give or bring trouble (o, 
J^ to inco.nmodc, to embarrass ; 
to chiigrin, to confuse ; to dis- 
order, to infest, to stir up, as 
banditti do a region ; to breed, 
to rear; to traii(piilliz<' ; hd; 






Hu, the six domestic animals ; 
'i« lixn} to raise a broil, to un- 
settle people's minds. 

'■^ To bale or lade out water ; 

^^ yaU hoki Hu '^hi ^k'H, all at 
once, a clean sweep; Hu '^shui, 
to dip out water. 

'1*^1 'I'o wind around, to twire 

i^fiwoimi] to be entangled in; 

^gj to environ, to go around, to 

make the lour of, to compu.-s; 

idiin HU, to cord about ; ^iii lo* 

to make a circuit. 

as ^ To want, to wish, to desire ; 

y, requisite, important; urgent; 
the important or essential 
parts of; an abstract; 'ni fri' 
t'm iv?, do you want it ? teng^ 
iu' very necessary ; ijt'in hV 
can't do without it, wont be 
refused ; ts'itU iii' an abridge, 
ment ; *u' a-mm^ an important 
letter ; sh^ung^ '■hd iu' '«z' 
near death, al>out to die ; iti* 
'■kom lsau^'^kdm.,]Vis{ as you like. 

|to* To illumine, to shine on; 

Y^ lustrous, glorious, splendid ; 
celebrated ; Jtwong iu^ magni- 
ficent ; iwbig iii^ great distinc- 

[gg' The effulgence or light of 
the sun ; is'at-, iiV the ' seven 
lights,' are tho sun, moon and 
five planets. 

(154) Ka. 

'^ What is within doors; a 
Ki-** ^'0"=^eliold, a family ; liom-.', a 
dwelling; douieslic, doni<>!'. 
cated ; title of a husband or 
master of a family ; term ;ip. 
plied to some dignitaries ; the 
country, the government; to 
dwell, to live at ; a sect, pro- 






fessioi>, or class ; a region of 
the hody^ as faP ikd, the lungs; 
a suffix of nouns to denote per- 
sons, as tdi^ Jed, all of us, the 
whole, all at once, together; 
Heung ltd, both of us ; tsz^^ Jed, 
I, myself; fv? ^kd, the rich ; 
tkd it/in, domestics, official at- 
tendants; tdi\kd iseung tsi^ 
all met together ; ikd shot) a 
husband and wife, household ; 
hdpi tkd, the whole family ; 
'/rurt {fed, yoiir servants, your 
assistants ; Jcdfv} my father ; 
Js'an ikd, term by which the 
parents of a married couple 
call each other ; 'pii/i J{d, a 
namesake, one of the same 
clan name ; ch'uU Jtd, to be- 
come a bonze or nun ; ^kd 
'ch^ung, our clan elder ; <fcd '/;d. 
this instant, just now ; ikd^lai, 
family rites, usages pertain- 
ing to marriage and burial ; ^kd 
yung^ for ' family use,* superior 
quality of goods ; ,kd ishan, 
courtiers; ta'v^ y at^ Jd, cxce]. 
lent, " first chop," skillful ; Jd 
(kd HsaU you little scamp ; 
^yau (kd Hi, I am married ; ^hd 
kicoki sz'^ national affairs. 

To add to, to superadd or 
place upon ; to confer on ; 
advanced as officers are ; to 
charge (as interest); Jd Jsang, 
to increase ; Jed tik^ d'im, put 
a little more in ; (kd JUn, to 
» put on a cap,' at marriage, 
answers to putting on the toga 
virilis ; Jid <fung, to double 
envelop a letter ; ^kd Jeiin, to 
rise in office ; Jtd x' beyond 

(Kd ,fi, tlio name given in 
Canton to coffee. 








A flail ; a cangue or wooden 
pillory in which criminals are 
exposed, called in irony tnuki 
(fling Heng;'d stand ; (tdmikd or 
(kong (kd, to wear the cangue ; 
(kd ho^ the superscription on 
it ; (kd ich'ong, a sort of chair 
hired of the turnkeys to ease 
up the cangue ; (kd chu^ ^k'n^ 
put him in the cangue ; muki 
tseung^ (tdm Jed, a "carpenter 
wearing the cangue," a phrase 
like » Phalaris' bull.^' 

Gems on the hairpin of a 
headdress ; a sort of browband 
or fillet. 

A kind of flageolet, made 
of a reed ; also called pih lui) 
or pat:, luti. 

A kind of sleazy camlet; 
(kd (Shd, a sort of stole or 
surplice ; (kd (Shd po* muslins. 

Good, excellent ; to praise, 
to commenti ; to eulogize ; to 
make happy, to rejoice in ; 
VjOcfed, praiseworthy; .kd iii, a 
kind of barbel ; (kd Hai, fine 
presents ; (Kd king^ the reign 
Kicking, a.u. 1796-1821. 

A boar ; " hogs are called 
(kd in Corea and Chihli." 

A bulrush or reed, sedgy 
plants like Arundo, of which a 
pipe can be made : (kd (fit, the 
white medullary lining of 
some sedges, met. related, 
distant connexions ; lightly 

A buck, the male of deers. 

(Kd tsdt:, the common name 
of the cockroach. 

Price of a thing ; a sur- 







'' A shrub, supposed to be the ' 
same as tea : its infusion used 
to be drank. 

A three-legged goblet with 
an ear, made of stone, holding 
six pints ; it was used in the 
Shdng dynasty. 

Great felicity or prosperity ; 
great ; distant ; firm, stable ; 
blessed, propitious ; chuh 'Ad, 
to bless, to implore blessings. 

False, fictitious, illusive, 
JT^ feigned, hypocritical, unreal, 
simulated ; a pretext, to pre- 
tend ; supposing, if, because ; 
to borrow, to get an accom- 
modation, to avail of; to sup- 
pose, to instance ; great ; pah 
ichi ichan '■kd^ 1 don't know 
whether it is so or not ; ichong 
"■kd '^kau, a skin dog, a man 
w ith great pretensions ; '/cd 
'■shau lU cyan, to get the help 
of another ; ^kd <xi, for instance, 
if; '^kd 'shau supposing that, 
granting that ; '■kd pdn^ dis- 
guised like another ; cfd '■kd, 
unreal, lying, not genuine ; 
'/cd i>neng, an alias; '■kd ts^^ to 
borrow, to ask of; to use for, 
or as a substitute ; 'M ngai^ 
hypocritical, spurious ; ''kd 
'■Isz' ikdn, take an instance ; 
'kd kuky all humbug ; 'M d 
(Chi, blustering, threatening. 
/no' Leave of absence, a fur- 
IP* lough ; ko' ka" to apply for a 
''' furlough ; (fan kd^ to extend a 
furlough ; fong' kd' to give a 
To marry a husband, to send 
bride to her husband's house; 
to cast imputations on another, 
to imi»licalc; Ad ^fu, to marry ; 



ka' '/!«, to give a daughter in 
marriage ; kd' Jtim, a dowry ; 
A:d' wo^ to bring evil on one ; 
ifdn it'au kd' a second mar- 
riage ; sung' kd' last visit to a 
girl before her wedding. 

t' To sow or plant grain ; met. 
farming ; the spike of grain ; 
wild cerealia ; hok) kd' to learn 

m' A horse in the harness, to 
g- , harness a carriage ; a chariot 
for the sovereign's use; to 
drive or manage a horse ; to 
sit in a carriage ; to mount, to 
ascend ; to embark, to go 
aboard ; to embrace or avail 
of; a title of respect (as if 
addressing one in a chariot), 
Sir, Your Honor ; kd' sh^ung\ 
ctsun kd', or /oi kd' are all 
terms of address ; pi/2 kd' title 
of an assistant prefect ; shing' 
kd' his godship, his Majesty ; 
dn' kd' death of a sovereign ; 
kd' isz' tdl^ pompous. 
iin' A stand, a press, a rack, a 
^ case, a dumb-waiter, an open 
frame on which things are 
placed, a scaflblding or frame- 
work ; classifier of screens, pic- 
tures, pier-glasses, and what- 
ever is framed ; to lay on a 
frame ; to lay up or heap ; to 
uphold, to support ; to fend ofi', 
to ward ; Vd. kd' to fight, to 
come to blows; kd'kdk:, to ward 
off with the arm ; ^kam cchitng 
kd\ or uh kd' a truss on four 
posts supporting a roof; pat:, 
kd' a pencil-stand ; ^ni tsd^ kd' 
iUiing ,7nd, are you going to be 
a ridge-pole ? said to one who 
intoritMes in or huck« »p a 





quarrel ; Wiui kd^H washstand ; 
shap, tsz'^ ka' a cross ; /td' Jtiu 
Jc'u ku-o^ to help one over, to 
assist one in a dilemma. 
/®^ The price or value of a 
l^. thing ; ia' s<«'in, the price ; 
ishi ka' the current price ; Aafn 
ka" or ka' Js'in '■chung, dear, 
high-priced ; ^shing kd' fame, 
reputation ; ^md kd^ priceless, 
inestimable ; no sale ; shati kd' 
the lowest price ; toi' kd' price 
to be settled afterwards. 
^K^ A peiss or station, where 
Tsdh S"^*"^* ^'"6 posted ; ka' lo^ a 
guardhouse ; sun' kd' a post- 
house ; ^kdi kd' a street guard, 
a police-station ; kd' Id' mid- 
dling, obsequious, undecided. 

(155) Kai. 



1 The cock ; the gallinae ; ^kai 
ukung, a cock ; ^kai 'nd, a hen ; 
}(kai hong^ a pullet ; ishdn (kai, 
a pheasant ; (kam ^kai, the 
golden pheasant ; ckai '■Isai, 
a chicken ; ^kai iming, or Jcai 
ifai, cockcrowing ; ingan (kai, 
a boatswain's whistle ; ^kai 
^ngdn, corns ; iCin Jcai, a frog ; 
'■fo Jcai, a turkey ; 'shui Jcai, 
« water hens,' a term for pro- 
stitutes in boats ; ^kai Jean, 
sodomy ; tau' Jcai, cocktight- 
ing ; ikai k'al) kdm' ^Is'd, early 
as the cockcrow. 

A hair-pin, broad and bent, 
laid on the back of the head, 
put on when married ; the 
coiffure : met. puberty ; tkai 
at} a hair-pin ; ckai ^lai, braid- 
ing up the hair when about to 
be married ; />iin k'api '.kai, 


A tie-beam connecting two 
pillars, or supporting the roof; 
kati ikai, the projecting end of 
a tie-beam holding up the plate. 
The coiffure of Chinese wo- 
men ; iSho "kai, to arrange the 
hair ; trt koki "kai, the hair 
dressed in two horns as child- 
ren's is. Also read kai'. 
^J.^ A complete number, a de- 
5i liberation in full assembly ; to 
plan, to consider, to devise ; 
to calculate, to estimate, to 
reckon, to count, to compute ; 
stratagem, scheme, plot ; kaV 
i'm (Chan, reckoned or counted 
wrong, not guessed right ; j'm 
kai' kdu' was not included in 
it, I said nothing about that; 
^yau maty kai' kdu' what plan 
or contrivance have you ? kai* 
imau, to plan or contrive ; siiri' 
kai' an injurious plot ; kai' sho' 
to count ; cto kai' fertile in ex- 
pedients ; tdi^ kai' the trien- 
nial official examination ; ^kd 
kai' means of livelihood ; c*am 
kai' to reckon mentally kai^ 
to' ^iin, to forecast, to calculate 
ahead ; kai' pdn^ s'm ch^ut, no 
chance to get a loan, you can't 
effect it ; kai' j'm lim' can not 
reckon them all, a very mis. 
cellaneous lot of things. 

M^' Connected threads j a line 
of succession in kindred ; to 
continue, to enter on the duties 
or pursuits of others ; to adopt ; 
succeetling to, successively, tu 
follow after ; kai' ^md, a step, 
mother ; ashing kai' "tsai, an 
adopted son ; kai' (s'dpi he- 
reditary nobility ; kai' wai} li. 
mial succcb^jor. 





^bA^ Usunlly read ha.i\ to tic ; to 
^ pertain to, to follow in con- 
sequence of. 
f|f ' A thistle, species of Cnicus ; 
7 KaV ichau, a district of Shun- 
t'ien fu in Cliihli. 
/nS^ An enigma or apothegm 
1^ in Budhist books ; to rest, to 
cease ; '■kong Fat:, kai^ to ex- 
plain the apothegms of Bud- 
hism ; cc/ti kai^ to know these 
enigmas, to understand one's 
wishes, to take a cue ; '/ii 
*mat '^kong kai^ don't puff 







I A clear mountain stream, 
let, a pellucid pool among the 
hills ; a valley with a rivulet 
in it ; the headwaters of a 
river ; a creek, a ditch, or wa- 
ter-course ; met. what is hand- 
ed down, as doctrine ; tin' ik'ai, 
to fish in streams. 

A foot or bridle-path, a nar- 
row pathway ; to penetrate 
through byways, to go where 
no road is. Often read Jiai, 

To examine into, to deli- 
berate, to compare ; to inquire 
into ; to detain, to stop, to 
embarrass ; to reach to ; to 
prostrate, to bow to the ground ; 
(k'ai ,shati, to knock head ; 
fan iShun ^scuno ,k'ai, mutual 
bickerings ; ik'ai icfid, to ex- 
amine into or search out. 

Name of a mountain in 
Poh chau in the department 
of Yingchau in Ng^nhwui ; a 


To open, to explain, to make 
clear; to signify to, to tell a 
superior; to reveal, to make 
known (by revelation) ; to in- 
form, to state ; to instruct ; to 
kneel ; to divide, to separate, to 
distinguish; to publish a book; 
the van or left wing of an 
army ; clear sky after a rain ; 
the morning star is called '■k'ai 
tming, harbinger of brightness ; 
"■k^ai fuki a horse having a 
white right forefoot ; to begin, 
as spring or summer ; king* 
^k'ai '^chi, he who respectfull}' 
stales — opening phrase in a 
letter ; 'A'ai imunff, to teach the 
ignorant ; ^k'ai '^hau, to speak, 
to teach; ^k'ai ^chau, to set 
sail ; '^k'ai tiki to undeceive, 
to propagate truth, to point 
out the right way ; fv? '^k'ai, a 
postscript or inclosure in a 
letter ; ^n '^Icai^ open [the 
envelope] calmly — a super- 
scription on letters. 

A passport or sign made of 
carved wood ; an embroidered 
streamer on a lance sent by 
way of credence with messen- 
gers, or borne in state. 

A lasting kind of silk; cover 
of a lance-head ; a scolloped 
bannerol borne by aides-de- 
camp or escort. Read hing^^ 
the sides or ribs. 

^' A covenant, bond, deed, 
"^^ lease, agreement, whatever is 
drawn up between contracting 
parties ; qnipos were anciently 
used ; to compare or produce 
the parts of a check, to join ; 
mournful, distressed ; adopted, 
devoted to a god or (>crsou ; 






a spit usod in scorching tor- 
toise-sliolls for divination ; 
frightened ; k'av' yenh a writ- 
ten agreement ; ^sliii k'ai' docu- 
ments ; k'aP fii^one honored or 
served somewhat as a godfa- 
ther ; k'aV Hsai, a child so 
adopted ; k'ai' iai* a sodomite, 
— a term of abuse ; k'at'^hv} 
to ask the protection of [the 
iyung shW or banian] tree ; 
Icai' inhan, to devote one's self 
to a god ; Ho k'aP two persons 
whose children have inter- 
changed homage to them ; old 
fellow ! — a compellation used 
by near friends. K'oP Mrt, the 
nation which ruled Northern 
China from a. d. 1118 to 1235, 
under the name of the Golden 





All alike, thing'^ of the same 
sort, uniformly; all, altogether; 
used after a recital of items 
or nouns of multitude, as the 
sign of the plural ; c/ci cc/«, 
everybody knows it ; ckdi pal-, 
Icapi none eq laled him, un- 
eqiialed ; Hb shii? Jc'ii fnoi^ old 
and young, all are here ; ^iho 
tsok, ikdi lin, whatever he does 
is as it should be ; ^kd <.kdi yah 
y^ung^ all are alike. 

Used for the preceding ; to 
accompany, to take along 
with one, as a parent takes his 
child; all at once, together, 
coalescing; persons unitini^ 
in one efibrt ; ckoi <.kdi, vi- 
gorous ; ^kdi jwam, ' witii my 
son,' — a phrase used on cards 
and votive tablets. 







The melody of birds ; har- 
mony heard at a distance ; 
the soughing of the wind ; ^kdi 
Jmi, birds singing. 

(Kui ikdi, murmuring of 
streams flowing together; 
cold; incessant rain. 

Steps, especially the stone 
ones at the door ; the ascent 
to a hall, a flight of stairs ; a 
grade, a degree, a rank ; grada- 
tion ; a source or cause of some 
evil; to rise, to emulate ; (kdi 
k'api a step, a grade in office; 
iCin ikdi, the large stone steps 
at doorways ; fyait ckam ckdi, 
to ♦ enter the golden steps ' i.e. 
the palace, is the privilege of 
the three highest Hanlin gra- 
duates ; /oi ^kdi, your house ; 
(Kdi (Chau, a prefecture in 

Beautiful, fine, nice, good 
of its kind ; excellence, good- 
ness ; sham^ (kdi, exceeding 
good ; (kdi ^yan, a pretty wo- 
man ; '■lid (kdi paf-> good pen- 
manship ; j'»i kin' (kdi, I see 
nothing remarkable in it, caro 
nothing for it ; (kdi (yam, good 
news, usually means by letter. 

A street in a town, a thor- 
oughfare ; market where people 
pass; Ksh^ung (kdi, to go ashore ; 
(fd (kdi Hau hong^ street of 
courtesans ; cKut^ (kdi, gone 
abroad, gone out ; ynU /iu (kdi 
hong' a single street; (kdi 
(fong, a neighborhood, the 
household's of three or four 
streets, a ward ; (kdi chdpi a 
street gate ; (kdi sh^ung^ in the 
street or market; ,ki\i Jai '■koug, 
street nmvs ; (Cli'd (kit, to pa- 
trol the streets. 









To split a horn in two ; to 
open, to take off or apart ; to ! 
cut up, to sever at the joints ; 
to dissipate, to disperse, scat- 
tered ; to explain, to narrate, 
to make clear, to understand ; 
to comment ; a commentary, 
a meaning, an explanation ; 
to stop, to cease ; to do away 
with the effects of; a trace, a 
footstep ; '■kdi (hui, to unloose 
(as a knot), to illustrate ; chvi' 
^kdi, an explanation or com- 
mentary ; ^ni ho' tsz'^ Him 'kdi, 
what is the meaning of this 
character? s'm'/jiu 'i-di, I don't 
understand it ; '■kdi ts'o' the 
explanation is wrong ; 'Mi lat, 
untie it ; ^md ''kdi kau' no way 
of rescue, no salvation ; '■kdi 
muu^ to dispel or alleviate sor- 
row; "-kdi 'shau, to urinate; 
'■kdi iWai, to raise a seige, to 
extricate from difficulties; '■kdi 
iCh'ti ihung shat, to exorcise or 
expel evil spirits ; '^di tsui^ 
I beg pardon ; '■kdi its'in, pay 
your fare ! '■kdi hoU to quench 
thirst; '■kdi t'iif, to let go, to 
free (as a grasp), to remove (as 
sin from the soul) ; 'kdi yam^ 
to retire from office ; ^kdi han^ 
to remove ill-will ; '^di ,.sain, a 
cheerful ballad. 

A colloquial word — to pass 
(at table), to take, to carry in 
the hand, to bring for use ; 
'ytdi 'pd ^td Hsai iUii ^ngo, bring 
me a penknife ; '/»i 's/iOM ^kdi 
maU ^i/^» what are you carry, 
ing ? ^kdi ich'd Mit bring tea. 

To transmit, to forward to, 
to hand over to ; to exclude ; to 
transfer an officer to another 
post ; kdi' iiiii, firal uf th« ku- 

jin graduates ; kdi'fdn^ to de- 
liver up a criminal ; kaV^hbing 
ngttki to piiy in the fixed duty 
to tiie emperor. Read hdi', to 
mean, to intend ; hdi- t' to 
make motions, as to the dumb ; 
to talk by signs; to guess. 
This last is a local phrase. 

1^' A hall or suite of rooms in 

■^pj a prefect's office, called Jcung 
A-diS where subordinate officers 
stay ; a sort of hospice. 

/Vk^ To assist, to attend upon ; 

j^j^- an attendant, a domestic, a 
valet, one who announces vi- 
sitors ; numeral of persons, as 
yaU kdi' mo'- ifii, I, a poor sol- 
dier; because ; great, good, up- 
right ; firm ; a single animal, 
one alone ; small, trifling ; a 
border of a country, frontiers; 
conterminous, separated, to 
border on ; armor for the body, 
mail, a cuirass ; carapace of 
tortoises, crabs, <Sic.; icicles on 
trees ; to act, or represent ; 
tsiU kdi' well principled ; Jun 
kdi' lui^ the scaly and shelly 
tribes ; yati kdi' tchi sz'^ a small 

//ftv' One who serves, a waiting. 

jrvl. boy ; great, good ; kwai' kdi' 
your servant-boy ;/a7m kdi' my 
valet. In these senses, used 
for the preceding. 

Ijifek' Walking awry ; ^kdm kdi' 

3^. walking in an irregular man. 
ner, not progressing. 

■rA' A kind of gem tablet, 12 ts'iin' 

JC'.y. long, held in both hands, when 
Kiai . fu n 

in the Presence. 

ffil* A division between fields, 
j?.V* to mark separate ownership ; 
a limit, boundary, border, fron- 
tier, terminus ; to draw a line 




of sopnration, to limit ; to sun- 
der friends ; shaV kaV the 
world ; j'ct V/d shni' kdi^ a vi- 
cious age ; kdV sheki a boun- 
dary -stone ; cArdu kdi^ the bor- 
der, a boundiiry ; kdi' hdn^ a 
limit in time or place, to re- 
strict ; kdi^ (fong, a paper 
weight ; kdv" /o, an iron wheel 
ustid in lathes by glass- 
grinders; c?Adrt kdV the con- 
fines of a grave; Adt' c/ti' limit, 
edge of a lot. 
4^' A scratch, a little sore, a 
J?', scabbiness ; kdV Idi' ^chi tsati 
a trifling sore, an unimportant 
matter ; kdi' icKonff, an itch 
pustule, a pimple. 
"U^' The mustard plant ; kdV 
Jy. Jdn Is'oP coarse kind of mus- 
tard, cultivated for greens ; 
its'im kaV unimportant, small ; 
kdP initti ground mustard ; kdV 
taV trifling, not worth reniem. 
bering, ' like fish-bones in one's 
throat ;' Hs'd kdV a sliver or 
splinter, a piece of grass, 
a contemptible person. 
fJs? A red spotted, scaly lizard, 
^} fo ind in damp places, called 
kdp^ kdV ; used as an aphrodi- 
siac medicine. 
^' The sole fish, plaice, or 
V- • flounder, commonly called 
- i ah iSha jw, Jsang ^pi $«, and 

'pj iniiki sU. 
nr^' A Iwundary or limit ; a rc- 
^^,- gion ; to warn, to caution ; to 
guard against ; to inform or 
announce to ; to beware o(", to 
refrain from, to observe a re- 
gimen ; lo cure of the u?e of; 
injimctions, precepts^ inhibi- 
tions : Jbii' '^hatt, to al>stain 

from flesh, fo be careful of one's 
diet ; tsU:, kdi' most carefully 
guard against ; kdV '^chi, a 
finger-ring ; kdi' dn (fong, a 
prescription for curing opium- 
smokers ; kdi' H'iin ^yan. en- 
tirely cured of the habit ; fiili 
kdi' rules for a regimen, warn- 
ings, injunctions; kdV it'iu, a 
rule ; hUri' kdi' a friendly ad- 
monition ; kdi' '•tsau, to ab- 
stain from wine ; sha-pi kdi' the 
Ten Commandments. 
To enjoin, to urge upon one's 
.'^. attention ; fearful, chary of. 

aJs' Rule of conduct, precepts, 
^.^ warnings, orders, injunctions ; 
to deter by citing the penal- 
ty, to exhort to desist, to pro. 
hi bit ; '■king kdi' to warn or 
persuade against ; name of a 
Sword ; kd' kdi' to give good 
counsel ; kam' kdi' to forbid. 
^M To reach to, to arrive at or 
'^,>tend towards, in time or 
/jij J place ; a limit, terminus, set 
Kiai time ; the summit, the extreme 
point; unfortunately, unlucki- 
ly : kdi' Jci, come at the time, 
punctual ; tsV. kdi' hd' chi' it 
is now the midsummer term ; 
i€in kdi' the horizon, limits of 
4^' A gelded ox ; strong, vigor- 
^P- ous animals, such as are cas- 
trated being so. 



J^ A straight, durable, and 

tA^- graceful tree, which grows on 

Confucius' grave ; a pattern, 

example,, model, rule ; a square 

form. of characters, called 7.'d» 




{S/*w, or pattern writing; Jiin 
^k'di, elegant writing ; Jc^ung 
'k'di, fixed in one's principles, 

(159) Kak. 

■^ Tiie hides of animals, after 
' the hair is taken olf ; radical of 



hides and things made of them 
the human skin ; to change 
to put off, to renew, to molt 
to degrade one from office 
musical instruments of skin 
defensive armor ; leathern ; a 
wing during molting; kdk) 
yiki to dismiss a man from a 
yamun ; kilk, chiki or kdk^ 
Hena, to turn out of office ; 
kdh ^fung, to mulct an of- 
ficer of his salary. 

To weave, or put the threads 
'of the woof in ; to seam. 


To strike, to attack, to box ; 

^^' to fight witt) beasts; to fend 

'^ ' otTor stop a thing; Hori^ knk, 

to break a blow ; kdk^ tau' 

fighting ; kdk^ ik'dn /aw, to 

fence, to box. 

4^ The spreading of branches ; 

^'to come to, to reach, arrive at 
' the end ; to examine to the 
bottom, to sift or understand 
thorougiily ; excellent, ex- 
traordinary ; to influence, to 
affect, to cause ; to attack ; to 
change, to correct ; to grow 
old ; a line, a rule ; a mark by 
which one writes ; obstinate ; 
a limit, a pattern ; a statute ; 
a frame or stand ; to raise up ; 
all years which have the 
" branch " iyan in their cyclic 
name; Aa/r^ .'i^oi^ extraordinary, 
beyond the usage or stipulu- il 

tion ; kdn^ kdki to draw lines; 
yati' tsz'^ kdk, a copyslip ; kdk) 
mall to inquire into the nature 
of things, to philosophize ; 
'■■pan kdki temperament ; kdk^ 
kuki carriage, presence, bear- 
ing ; kdk:t shik:> a muster or 
copy ; iskan ichi kdh <.sz^ divino 
influences or inspiration. 
J^ff The skeleton of a man or 
^'M"' beast ; the bones sticking out, 
lean ; H'ai ^k'ii kwat, kdk) look 
even to his bones, narrowly 
examine his character. 
P^ The diaphragm ; any thin 
^'V' membrane in bodies; the 
breast, the mind ; kdk.mokithe 
midrifT, separating the thorax 
and stomach ; a bell frame; 
kdk) shiki food disagreeing 
with one, and vomiting it ; 
kdh Idk) '^tai, the arm-pit. 
jJH^, A partition, a bulkhead, 
\m [ something which stops the 
irgj passage ; a shelf; to obstruct, 
Keli to intercept, to separate off, to 
interpose, to hinder; to strain ; 
separated, sundered ; next to, 
neighboring ; kdh Ji chu^ he 
lives next door ; kdk-. (.hoi, to 
separate, to put apart ; kdh 
yaU it'id. '^sliui, a stream inter- 
venes ; kah <.chd, strain off the 
grounds ; <.sdm kdh kd^ a 
stand with three shelves ; kdh 
ye} (food) left over night ; kdh 
pUi separated (as friends); 
kdh if in Itik) an old friend ; 
kdk) yati J.oi., come every ot''er 
day ; j'/n ils'ang kdh tseng^ it 
is not strained clear ; kdh cchd 
ip'un, a filterer ; kdk) its'enii<r 
lUgdu \i/^ung, to ' scratch 
[one's self] through a wall,' in- 
eficctuu!, useless indignation. 






^^ Metal, one of the five ele- 

\?^ ments : radical of metals and 
^ifi 11,1 II 

metallic things; gold, par ex- 

cellence, the metal ; musical in- 
struments of percussion ; firm, 
strong, solid, hard ; yellow, gol- 
den ; a coin, a piece of money ; 
during thfe Hin dynasty, a cat- 
ty of gold ; precious, true ; im- 
perial ; iwong J(am, gold ; pdA-j 
ikam, silver ; Jcam shik:, yellow ; 
(kam ikwo arms ; <.ch'i Jtam, to 
gild ; (kam ipi gold plates, used 
as bullion ; (kam poki gold leaf ; 
Jcam kwati a species of small 
orange ; tsuk:, jcam, pure gold ; 
<fi ikam, bits of gold leaf stuck 
on cakes; ckam <ising, Venus; 
iKam (fdy name of a goddess, 
corresponds to Juno Liicina ; 
tinsel ornaments like flowers, 
used as oflferings ; Jcam noki 
a sure promise ; c/tap, Jcam, to 
take up and re-inter the ashes 
of the dead. 

/S^ Now, at this time, presently ; 

'J* jM ikam, now ; Jcam yah to-day ; 
chV ikam, till now ; ^kam ^mdn, 
this evening ; Jcam (Chiv, this 
morning ; ^kam shaP this age, 
this world or life ikam hau^ 

'>fe^ A kind of variegated silk 

Kin ^^^^ '" ornamental work ; em- 
broidered, worked, or knit in 
colors; elegant, figurative fine 
writing; flowery, pictured; (i 
^kam, the gentry, official per- 
sons ; ^kam fpKav, figured pon- 
gee ; shapi ''kam '■■un tipi colored 
chinaware ; '■kam saW iinan, 
ail elegant style. 

:*^' To prohibit, to guard against, 
7T^ to warn or forbid, to hinder or 
stop the completion of; to re- 
gulate, to restrain ; forbidden, 
imperial ; to keep off'; a kind of 
tray ; kam\she'ng, his majesty's 
palace ; kam^ kaP prohibitory 
rules; kam' fo' contraband 
goods ; kam' tsuti a turnkey. 
Read ^k'am ; to endure, to 
bear ; to take by force,to over- 
^tv' Unable to speak from lock- 
Km J^^ ^^ other disease ; to shut 
the mouth, silent ; to refrain 
from speaking ; kam' ^hau W 
dysentery and loss of appetite. 
4^^ To press down, to hold fast, 
j^ to lay the hand on ; karn^ '*Aui 
jf/i'e, to work a fire-engine ; 
kam} li^ iyau '^shui, to swim 
and keep hold of the ground, 
i. e. having something to de- 
pend on ; ^ts'o iWi kam^ '-pin, roll 
it round or press it flat, met. 
an easy disposition. 



/^ A coverlet or large quilt ; a 

^i<*^ shroud : d ik^am, clothes and 
K'ln , , ,. 1 ,1 

shroud tor the dead. 

-M^"} Strings or tapes to fasten a 

''1 ^lapel; the lapel or fold of a 

7^1 coat ; to fasten by strings; a 

K'iu collar ; tai^ (k'am, a large lapel ; 

tui' min^ ^k'am, a coat opening 

down in front ; its'ing ^k'am, 

siwi/dz graduates: ik'am Jiing 

tai^ term for husbands of two 

sisters ; Jiung Jcam fut-, easy, 

forgiving ; (^'a/n /aw chu\} 

things hanging on the lapel, 

as charms and fobs; Jc am jcdii, 

the bosom of a dress. 











Firm, durable, lasting ; able 
to endure ; enduring, well 
placed or settled ; 'j'o/?^ chii^ 
</t'aw tdktHd, tied up helpless, 
in a " fix," unable to resent a 
wrong ; ,h'o,ni 'shaU lasting, 
very durable ; Jcam lak-> nau} 
patient, good-tempered ; ik'am 
itn chii^ testy, irritable ; (k'am 
'^'m, in good taste ; rk'am 
Jcing, unalloyed, pure in heart. 

A Chinese lute, having seven 
strings; to restrain one's self; 
foreign instruments are called 
sfe'am, nscfimg ik'am, an or^an, 
seraphine, or a piano ; '*iu 
miimg iicam, a music-box; 
/at Jcam, a theorbo or round 
guitar ; '■ku tjcam, or /an Jc'am, 
to play the lute ; ik'am lyam 
Idn^ disconcerted, an unex- 
pected obstacle ; iVam /ong, 
5'our excellency's hall, — a 
phrase applied to officers ; 'dm 
ffung ik'am, to play an organ. 

A salt marsh plant, perhaps 
a kind of Salsola ; cattle are 
fond of the seeHs ; {teons! ik'am, 
a yellow root nkin to liquorice^ 

Flying and feathered crea- 
tures, the class Aves ; pregnant 
animals ; ^k'am shan^ birds and 
beasts ; cfed ik'am, the cock. 

To seize as a hawk does, to 
grasp, to clutch for prey ; to 
take alive, to capture (as a 
prisoner) ; Jcam c.hth to seize : 
(Xhang Jcam„ to take alive ; 
tchono ^k'arn tchong shuh to 
phy at boo-peep. 

A kind of Prunus ; ^lamj:'am 
a large species of btdiace ; the 
fruit is red and much eaten 
bv birds. 






A kind of .spider; Ji'am Jd, 
the shepherd spider or father- 
ionglegs; a species of Pha- 

To cover over with an\'- 
thing ; to pull over one ; '^k'am 
^p'i, to draw the quilt over 
one ; '^k'am chv} ^k'ii, cover it 
over (as a dish) ; 'A'am 'shait, 
one who lives by his wife's 

Sister-in-law on a wife's 
side, is called ^k'ant inhing ; 
'k'am 'md, a maternal uncle's 
wife ; tdi' ^k'am, bride-women 
who wait on the bride for three 


Cords for binding hampers ; 
to close or bind up, to seal, 
to fill up crevices closely ; 
ikdm ifungf to seal (a letter), 
to fasten up (a box) ; ikdm 
yiati, to be silent, to stop the 
month of or entrance. Read 
kdm\ the bindings of a coffin. 

To look down upon or into, 
as a god or emperor does ; to 
visit subjects ; to look at, to 
require, to control by inspect- 
ing, to superintend, to take 
charge of; an inspector, over- 
•seer ; a jail, a prison ; to im- 
prison ; a halo ; Mnn jZd, a pri- 
.son ; Iso^ ckdm, in prison ; (kdm 
kitrn^ or ishau tkdm, to take to 
prison ; ckdm ^iigo IdP {nan, 
forced to do, can't help \t;,kdm 
^ni M^ to compel you to do it ; 
tHm Jam, to superintend an 
examination ; (kdm cKdU to 
behold, to survey, as gods do ; 
,kdm Ink, an overseer— the 




hoppo is so called ; Jidm Han, I 
an old prisoner, a gaIlow!?.|»ird i 
— a term of abuse ; ^tsau ikam 
fdn^ an esca|>ed prisoner; (Aawi 
chil* ill' obliged to take it. 
Read kam\ to examine into 
carefully, to revise another's 
proceedings; kdni' ishang, or 
tsoi^ kdm' a purchased degree 
between siuts'di and kiijin ; 
fni' kdni' an eunuch ; lyam 
(t'in kdni' an astronomer royal, 
ir^ Embarrassed ; ^kdm kdV at 
kien '"^ '^'^ what to do ; walking 

\i\) A casket, box, or case, for 
Klel^ holding things ; tkdm ^choiig, 
A dressing-case ; kal, Jidm^ a 
letter with good news, 
'^fJJt] To diminish, to subtractyto 
J^^\i?ikG away part ; to keep back, 
^J(iJ to contract, to abbreviate ; to 
Kien lighten, to retrench ; '■kdm kd^ 
to cheapen, to lower the price j 
^yan lak^ '■kdm, the price can 
be lessened ; '^kdm paU '*^, to 
write an abbreviated form, t© 
write short-hand ; ^tsHng 'kdm, 
poorly, tired ou», overworked ; 
'■kdm '■shdng, laconic, plain, 
divested of useless additions ; 
iinung '■kdm, thank you for the 
abatement [in price] ; loki liki 
'■kdm, come down in your 
terms ; 'Ardm ^shdng tak-, kwo' 
less will do, there is no need 
of so much. 
J^'"] k tub in which the moon 
^^y > shines; a mirror, a speculum; 
^m J ^^ example, that by which 
Kieii one may take warning, term 
given to historical works ; a 
precept, ot admonition ; to ex- 
amine for purposes of approval, 
to audit or revise i to survev ■ ' 

to reflect light ; shing^ kdni' 
his Majesty's revision, ttio 
' sacred glance ;' iming kdm^ 
perspicacious, to examine I'ul- 
ly; it'ai kdm' for you. Sir, to 
see — a phrase used in letters ; 
kdm\shang tsovg' to implicate 
a man out of revenge ; kdm^ 
its'in ikii, to heed previous ex- 




4fl Roots of plants ; the origin, 
y*^ beginning, rootj bottom, found- 
ation ; fundamental 5 classifier 
of trees ; ^md ikan 'pufl, singu- 
lar, peculiar ; baseless, with* 
out foundation ; ^kan 'lai, cause 
of, the bottom • ^kwai Jean, ta 
revert to a fofuier state, to re- 
turn to a first condition ; icUu 
Jean to eradicate, to destroy 
utterly ; ^kan muti first and last, 
the whole ; ikan iyau, mede of 
originating, circu distances of 
its beginning, the rise of; t,kan 
(ki '^chiaiig iyiuvgi n)ay he 
have a vigorous, healthy 
growth, — -a petition used by 
OH The heel ; k^uk-, Jtan, the 
'^^ heel ; more commonly call- 
ed k^tiki ichdng ; to follow at 
one's heels • to follow up, to 
pursue an inquiry ; according 
to ; Jean ^pdui a lacquey, per- 
sonal attendants ; i^kan kau' to 
search into; Jtan ^yan tsd- do 
it as he does ; ^kan wdi^ '■pan^ 
to injure by bad examples; 
Jean its'am, hunt it um look for 
it ; ikan its'ui ^ngn, follow me ; 
^yau ^yan Jean ^mi Joi, there 
i:i bouicbody coining behind. 










A kerchief or cloth bonnet, 
anciently worn ; a napkin, 
a neckcloth, a handkerchief; 
radical of things made of 
cloth ; '■shall ckaiu a towel or 
napkin ; ch'ati' Jean, a girdle, 
napkin ; hon^ ^kan, a handker- 
chief; j« ikan, the literati ; 
(knng Hsz' than, a cap worn by 
young noblemen ; ich' ^ung Jean 
a scarf; tdpi -pok-, ^kan, a cloth 
to protect the shoulders ; pok:, 
Jiin Jean, a shawl ; ifau ikan, a 
turban, a kerchief. 

To chop, cut down ; an ax, 
a hatchet ; a test or machine 
for weighing ; a catty of 16 
taels, or l^lb. av.; '■ki <,to Jtan 
^Uting, what is the weight 1 Jtan 
Jcanio examine clearly;'/dcfro« 
Hail, to turn a somerset ; J.tvng 
Jean '■tau, to measure out by 
pecks. The second form is 
in common use,, though unau- 

A sinew^ a tendon ; also a 
nervOr for the Chinese do not 
distinguish r sinewy, muscular, 
strong ; '■ho Jean Tiki vigorous; 
in full health ; liih ckan, stag's 
sinews ; ^nganjean j^A-'fri, right 
before your eyes ; sp'i Jidi Jean 
cobbler's ends ; min} ckan, roll- 
ed dough ; h/au ^kan ktrat:, can 
be depended on,^ sagacious, 
prudent ; hiit:, akan, veins. 

Diligent, careful, vigilant ; 
serious, attentive, solemn, re- 
spectful ; to venerate, to sedu- 
lously watch against, or con- 
sider, to heed; 'kan shan^ heed- 
ful of, circumspect, watchful ; 
'Jica« kii} to send presents to 
one • ^kan ki" carefully remtni. 






her it ; '^kan Js^ung sz'^ pdn^ the 
business is nearly arranged. 

Exactly, nothing wanting, 
nothing over ; hardly, just 
missed (an injury), scarcely, 
almost, a little short ; '^kan kau* 
'shai, just enough ; "-kan Vtd, 
it will do; 'Aan '^kan tsd' taki 
can make it do, a little scrimp, 
ed ; 'kan to' just arrived ; '/can 
tsuh yati k'ap, just able to 
meet expenses ; 'kan 'ho, noth- 
ing to spare. 

Tenacious clay, mud ; yel- 
low loam; adhesive; to smear, 
to lute ; time ; in these senses, 
the next is generally employ- 
ed. A plant, also called t'i 
/av, or crow's head ; 'A:an 
ts'oi^ the violet, pansy. 

To plaster or stop up with 
clay, to lute ; to cover a corpse 
with earth ; to inter ; clay, 
argillaceous earth, mud ; a 
way over a drain. 

A tree whose flowers blossom 
and decay in a day ; perhaps a 
species of Malvaceae : used 
figuratively for himian glory, 
transient happiness ; a handle. 

To die of starvation by the 
roadside, to cover a wayside 

A dearth or Wasting of ve- 
getables ; cki 'kan, a want of 
grain and vegetables. 

A nuptial vase ; the bride 
and groom pledge each other, 
after exchanging them ; they 
are often made of half of a co- 
coa-nut, anciently were made 
of half a gourd, or of metal; 
hdpi 'kan, to exchange and 
pledge the nuptial cup. 




To bind fcst, to compress ; 

^ a cord ; urgent, strict ; diiigent, 
' prompt, on the point of, in 
liaste, pressing ; strait, con- 
fined ; rapid flow of water ; '^shui 
'^kan, rapid, swift water ; met. a 
careful guard of, very watch- 
ful ; 'kan jii' indispensible, 
urgent ; ^fang ^kan, waiting 
for, in instant need of; ^kan 
kap) be quick _; '^han '■chi kdm* 
do, only want just so much ; 
shiiing^ '■kan tsi^ do it im- 
mediately ; ^kan ^kan 'ho, will 
just do; '^shau '^kan, in need, 
hard up ; (Sheng '■kan, a husky* 
lioarse, voice ; 'kan ch'iV 
almost here ; yak, '■kan c/i'ii' 
they are now eating ; '■kon '■kan 
ydky eat as soon as you can ; 
'^pong '■kan, tie it tight. 
'^ A small dwelling, a lodge, 
^jjj a hut, a cottage ; few, in a 
slight degree ; (md ^an 'kan 
nxTV^ you need have no anxiety 
about mc ; 'kan chdki narrow, 
1^' To see or have an audience 
^^ with a superior or the em- 
peror ; to look to the north, 
i. e. towards His Majesty : 
the autumnal audience ; ich'iu 
kan' to be introduced at Court. 

ihp' 'I'hecollar-ptrap of a harness; 

^^ firm, vigorous, strong ; to hold 
back, to restrain ; to ridicule, to 
makt; odious ; avaricious, par- 
simonious, sparing of, to take. 

H - Hard, firm ; perverse, ob- 
jj'^ stinate ; a limit, to lK»und ; the 
third of the eight kwd'; nidical 
of characters denoting force. 
This character is much u.sed as 
a contraction for tngan, silver, 

To.N. DiCT. 17 

Jtp* Near, proximate, both in 
^^ place and time ; to touch, to 
approach, to bring near, to 
close upon, to urge ; according 
to, like ; familiar; {<*'an kan^ 
intimate, near one ; kan^ shi^ 
nearly so ; kan* thi* ^ngan, 
near-sighted ;fu^ kan^ not far 
off; kan' yat^ or kan^ ithi, 
these few days ; Jsiung kan* 
about to be ; kan* 'hoi, near 
the sea ; kan* Joi, recently ; 
kan* '/i, consonant to reason ; 
Id' kan* the way is short ; kan* 
chii* 'A'u, get near to him. 




Celery or parsley ; cress ; 
'shui Jean ts'oi' waler-cresses ; 
^hnn ik'an ts'oV celery ; '(s'oi 
ik'an, to ' pluck the cress.* x, e. 
to become a aiuts'di ; ik'an in* 
a festal cup given to siuls'di 

Diiigent in one's {>ost, labo- 
riou.<!, industrious; sedulous, 
attentive to, kind ; to stir up, to 
assist one in diligence : ^Van 
liki diligent, be industrious; 
ik'an hoki to study hard ; ik'an 
iWong, loyal, diligent in one's 
office ; ik'an <kd lapi ip^ to 
try to exalt one's family ; Ji'an 
kim* diligent and frugal. 

Diligent ; cyan Jean, bowed 
down, anxious regardinij one's 
work or duties ; overlabored, 
no rest. 

(iC5> Kan. 

^ A crevico, an interval, a 

j^lg^ space between: between, in 

the mid<t of, during, whilst ; 

ii' amongst, to aliou , to make 





room for, to set apart ; a clas- 
sifter of buildings, gardens, 
rooms, &c.; yaf-, j/un ^kdn, 
within a year ; ^Cin ti^ichi ^kdn, 
in tiie world, on earth ; hd' 
ikdn, the kitchen ; ifong <kdn, 
in the room ; sdp^ ^shi Min, 
just now, only a moment ; 
tai^ ^ki (.kdn, which house is it ? 
j)t'i cfcdn 'fiOT ytung- how does 
the affair get on ? iyenvg ikdn, 
this life, in this world. 
^a Hard, intractable soil; dif- 
*^^ ficult, distressing ; the origin 
of; Jtdn iiidn, troubled, in un- 
happy circumstances, hard to 
to do ; iku ikdn, an officer in 
mourning for a mother ; akdn 
isan, miserable, bitter, wretch- 
ifL Inordinate, unregulated de- 
*^' sire; to violate decorum, to 
confuse propriety ; to disobey ; 
cunning cabals, plots ; vicious 
corrupt, selfish, malicioue ; 
clandestine ; villainous, un- 
principled, intriguing, crafty, 
traitorous ; adulterous ; ^kdn 
chd" false, fraudulent, swind- 
ling ; ikdn ^shan., a traitorous 
officer ; hori' Jcdn, a traitor, a 
disaffected Chinese; (,kdn ts'dki 
a villain ; you traitor ! ikdn'kdu, 
subtle, wily, slippery ; ^kdnHai 
iyan, a scamp, a rascal ; (kdn 
Hsai, a slippery fellow. Used 
interchangeably with the next. 
dSr Illicit intercourse, criminal 
IT^ connection ; adultery, rape, 
'^" incest (for the word itself 
does not distinguish) ; to de. 
flower, to debauch ; ikdn <yam, 
illicit connection of any kind ; 
ik'^ang ikdn, a rape, to force a 

woman ; ^kdn ^fu, an adulter- 
ess ; ^kdn itsing, adultery. 
^ A sort of rush, whose fibres, 
Kien ^^'^'^ retting, are fit for mak- 
ing cords, thatch, or mats ; 
perhaps a kind of Phragmites. 
'AA"1 A kind of barilla obtained 
c^^^from marine plants in Shan- 
Wij '""g 5 '^'^'^ '«/tMi, lye, lixivium ; 
Kien^ydn 'Ard/i, soap ; fitting '^kdn, 
scented soap ; 'tin 'Aran, coarse 
barilla soap ; '^kdn ^ahd, a sedi- 
ment of lye ; lap^ 'kdn, Castile 
'^|S ^ coccoon ; the silky pupje 
J?^ of other moths : ifs'dm 'ytdn, 
the silkworm's coccoon ; ^kdn 
icJiau, a sort of crape pongee ; 
ich'ing Ji6ung '■kdn, a kind 
brought from Kidying chau. 
Sometimes read 'A;i/i. 
'fiS A slip of bamboo used for- 
K^n '"'^'"'y ^^'" flaking notes on ; an 
official writing ; documents ; 
to abridge, to condense, to 
retrench ; laconic, terse in 
style ; to select, to distinguish, 
to choose from ; to treat light- 
ly, negligent or rude to ; clas- 
sifier of slips or sheets of pa- 
per, as ^tdn "^kdn, a single or 
unfolded slip of paper ; also, a 
single-fold visiting-card ; sin- 
cere ; great, large ; 'Aran ch'dki 
a letter, a dispatch ; 'Ard/i l^uk^ 
to abridge, to make a digest 
of; a resume, a synopsis ; kdn 
mdn} to treat disrespectfully ; 
also used as a polite phrase, " 1 
think you will deem me rude ;" 
itigd 'Adn, an ivory tablet for 
writing ; "^kdn kiiU a term 
applied to offices, to show that 
they are not very important. 





'"^ Often used for the preced- 
j?^ ing ; to select, to sort ; to re. 
duee or abridji;e ; a visiting, 
card ; a classifier of slips of 
paper ; Hai '^ktin, a marriage 
card ; ihting '■kdn, a comraon 
red visiting-card ; jts^iin 'Mn, 
a 5-fold visiting-card ; '^kdn 
(.shii, a letter ; ^kdn t'ipi a card. 
'Jdrt To elect, to choose, to dis- 
criminate ; '■kdnsiin^ to select 
(persons for a duty or office) ; 
'id/i chdki to choose from, to 
specially select one of; "-kdn 
iCh'd, to sort tea ; '■kdn fo' to 
garble goods ; '^kdn siting'' that 
which is rejected ; 'Ad/i s«/j, 
finished picking; '■kdn tseng^ 
picked clean, 
s^' To point out the right of a 
jP^ thing ; to reprove, to remon- 
strate with, to testify against, 
to plead with a superior ; to 
advise, to urge to reformation ; 
remonstrance ; hwi" kdn* to 
urge one to reform ; kdn^ ikun, 
a censor to His Maj'-sty, a 
historiographer ; '■fu kdn' un- 
palatable advice. 
t^' To make a space between, 
J. ^ to divide, to interrupt, to al- 
ternate ; to sunder ; to part 
friends, to interfere, toslander; 
a spy ; far removed ; vacant, 
unoccupied (as a road) ; to 
bear with : kdn^ sink-, colors 
alternating ; kdn' kdk, to dis- 
join, to set apart ; Atd/j' ifong, 
to divide off a room ; kdn^ pifi \ 
'^hd noi^ separated a lf)ng I 
time; ^sho kdn^ ^yan, h tale- i 
benrer ; kdn^ -.sho liky separate j 
them a little more ; kdn^ wdki 
iUi Joi sTit, what if I do not j 
come ? fan kdn^ a spy. i 

,W' A stream in a valley, «. 
ji' * mountain torrent ; ^shdn kda' 
a streamlet. 



(The first two characters under this •¥!- 
lable are usually pronounced kditg, tne 
second chiefly in its meaning of a watch.) 

iij:] To plough, to cultivate 
'^tM '. fields ; the period for plough- 
,0t^J ing ; a ploughing ; to labor, to 
Kang be diligent in any occupa- 
tion ; ikang (fu, or (,kang J^in 
iyan, a ploughman, a farmer, 
an agriculturist ; muk) Jcang, to 
labor with the eyes for a liv. 
ing, as a physiognomist ; shit-, 
(kang, to teach for a living ; 
hki ikang, to work hard at a 
business ; tkang '■Isai, hired 
laborers on a farm ; Jioi ikang^ 
to begin ploughing. 
rg' To change, to alter, to re- 

l/^ new ; substitution, emenda- 
Kan^ . ' . ' 

tion, reparation; a watch, of 

which there are five, com- 

mencing at 7 o'clock p.m., and 

reaching to 5 o'clock a.m.; to 

watch ; (kang ^koi, to alter, to 

correct, to make proper; (kang 

un^ to change for another ; 

(kang (fu, a watchman ; (kang 

Jav, a watchman's lookout. 

box ; (kang '■kit, the bamboo 

and drum of the watchman ; 

loki (kang, to set the watch ; 

i^hau (kang, to call in tho 

watch ; (kang lau^ t\ e striking 

of tlie quarters by the watch ; 

■Id (kang, or (kang lin^ a head 

watchman ; Jion (kang, or '/'a» 

(kang, to keep watch ; Hd 

(kang, to strike the hour; «/»' 

kang, to relieve the watch 




A kind of rice, a IKtle frn. 

wrant when cooked, called 

' Jitiing ikang ^mai ; it has very 

litile viscidity. 

Tiie R6vent!l of the • ten 

'^^ steins ;' to change, to alter ; a 
"* wny, a path ; age, years; to 
restore 5 to bestow as a re- 
ward; it'utig Jiang i of the same 
age ; ckaitg '/mrt, a card con- 
tainiiig the record of the births 
of two persona proposing to 
many ; ^nl ikam jflin kwai' 
(kang, what is your age this 
year 1 iCh'^ung ikang, the 
evening star ; also, old, aged ; 
(fu Jtang kwai' to ask charity. 

l^S To repeat a song, to encore 
.a song Or music ; to join to, 
to continue ; ckdng ^ko, to re- 
peat ti son{*. 

A kind of pie, with yellow 
plumage and black tail, call, 
'ed ds'ong (kang ; perhaps a 
species of thrush. 

A thick soup or broth, a 
savory porridge, make of flesh 
^"^anlmeat; a sp' on or small 
ladle ; ,k'ing .Cottg, joups ; iCh'd 
ikang, a tea-.-poon ; js/ii ikaitg,\ 
or /f« (kuTig, a spoon; tdi' 
ikang,a. table-spoon ; jM ^kang^ 
fish chowder; iWO Jiang, a 
well seasoned soup ; met. har- 
mony between states. 

'■iteS ^^ spinous tree, like an elm, 

^^ good only to burn; thorny, 
*"^to prick, as a thorn ; sickness ; 
to ward ofT sickness ; a re- 
sutn6; to obstruct, to close; 
straight ; strong ; a stem or pe- 
tiole ; "-kang t'oi'on the whole ; 
^kang rhiki upright, highmind- 
ed. A colloquial word, mean- 


ing fixed, finished, unchange- 
able ; the whole of anythng ; 
*kang 'pu?i, it is already too 
late, it can not be changed ; 
'^kang hai^ '/:dm, the thing must 
be so ; /«« '^kang '^kang, a ftifT 
neck ; ishang ashing '■kang k6' 
it was so born or made, unim- 
proveable, irremediable ; iWati 
''kang, selfwilled, obstinate. 

'Cjll A well-rope ; 'kang Hun paft 

3^ '■ho k'ap^ (Sham, deep water 
can not be drawn up with a 
short rope. 

'■&r] Fish-bones ; bones or an\'- 

j2'^~lthing sticking in the throat; 

§^|]J stiff as a bone, decided, un. 

Kangyielding, blunt (applied to 
officers) ; 'kang j'm kwo^ ''keng, 
the bone won't go down, you 
can't impose on me that way, 

'"y^ A limit ; the highest point ; 

Ratiff^" fill everywhere; relics of 

O'he two next characMri art often pronounced tiMitf ) 

'WiV Large ears reaching to f.he 

g*/,!^ jaw-joint, thought to be indi- 

" cative of nobility or long life ; 

constant, firm, ingenuous, 

sincere ; something sad im. 

printed on the mind ; restless, 

unquiet, melancholy ; ^ynu 

finm 'kang 'kang, disquieted, 

full of regrets ; 'kang kdV 

noble-minded, sincere, 'kang 

ikwong, bright, to illumine. 

'J^g Used for the last; brightnea.^ 

jJl^^^offire:a little bright. 

■Bff^ A word of comparison, 

K^g'"'^"'^' ''f't'^''; again, further; 

^kavg"hd, better; kang' sfn* 

still more proper; kang' ,nau, 

more angrv. 








-k^' To oppress, to extort from, 
K'ane*^ vex ; to hinder, to obstruct ; 
to detain or take by force ; 
^k'ii ^hd k'ang^ he is very op- 
pressive or arbitrary ; k'ang* 
laki to levy black mail, to 
extort money ; k'ang' '^shau, to 
catch the hand when rubbing 
something, or as a knot does 
when planing a board ; ^mang 
k'ang^ imperious, willful; 
k'ang^ '■hau shut-, wa} abusive 






[' A by.path ; a shady path, 

Mending across fields; wan^ 

" kdng'' hii^ find a short cut to 

go; tsiti kcing^ to rol) in a 

retired path ; kdng^ la* a short 

path, a side road. 

A colloquial word ; to wind 
off thread, to reel ; to stir 
about in water, and seek for ; 
to stir up; to wade; k(h)g\ 
^kdn, to reel coccoons ; kdng^ 
^sfiui kico' iho, wade across the 
stream ; (nim chiiki kdng' kwo' 
bring a bamboo to feel for it. 

(J 69; 


.^ Hasty, irapaiient, urgent, 
dM'*' pressing ; iinxiou?', noliciloiis, 
afflicted, unquiet ; to urgp, to 
expedite ; deprived of every 
resource, at extremity, poor, 
wretched ; ^ni mnki isam kap, 
don't be in such a hurry ; /»i' 
Icapi out of breath, breathing 
fast ; 'kon knp^ tid^ be prompt, 
kap. the matter in urgent ; tsai' 

kap, to relieve one's necessi- 
ties ; kapi kai' of ready inven. 
do it quick ; cUiuk-, kap^ an- 
xious about, straitened ; tx'* 
tion ; Ard' kap-, an officer report- 
ing the necessities of his posi- 
tion ; s'm '■shai CdV k(ip-> don't 
be in too much haste; kap-t 
kap, quick, " chop-chop .'" — this 
word in the Canton jargon, is 
corrupted from this phrase ; 
kap, ching^ a virulent disease; 
kap, shdf} nonplussed, at his 
wit's end. 

(170) K'ap. 

Ijh ^Hung K'ap, the name of 
^^'the grandson of Confucius, 

the author of the Chung Yung. 

False, empty. 
r\Tt To draw in the breath ; to 
^^'mike an inspiration, to inhale ; 

to imi)ibe, to suck in, to drink ; 

k'ap, yat, '■hau hi' take a long 

breath ; jAai A'op> k'apt very 

^y A lofty hill, a blender peak 
^^' projecting out of the range of 

other hills ; dangerous. 
l-jt. To draw water from a well ; 
i^ to lead, to draw out ; to drag ; 

k'api'-shui, to draw up water ; 

k'ap-, k'ap, unremitting, hand 

over hand ; unceasing effort. 
^ A box or satchel to contain 
^>' one's books; JV k'ap, ils'ung 

(Sz\ to take up one's books, 

and follow a teacher. 
jKfA Threads arranged in a regular 

^^' njanner ; an order, a series, a 
Kill , . ' . '. 

gradation ; a step in a stair- 
way or ladder ; a degree or 
grade of office, a grade of ho- 
norary mt rit ; classed, sorted ; 




classifier ofdecapitated hofids ; 
'pan k'api a step in astairway ; 
'pa« k'ap) a grade or rank ; 
Hang k'ap, a sort or class of 
persons ; cifting yaU k'ap, to 
be advanced in rank; yat^ 
Vap:, k'apj^sh^nns^, to gradual- 
ly rise in office ; cA;« shap, k'ap, 
' promoted ten step?,' refers to 
honorary grades of merit as 
recorded in (he books of the 
Board of Rites. 
Zj\ To give to, to supply with, 
S;?!'to provide what is necessary ; 
ahoundmg, to suthce ; to re- 
ceive or suffer from one, to be 
the recipient of; a sign of the 
p:\ssive ; cknng k'ap^ to offer 
to, to supply ; 'shiung k'ap^ to 
confer on ; 'Aa« k'ap:> a ready 
wit, prompt, a retort; yali k'ap^ 
daily necessaries ; ^ngo k'ap^ 
(t'd m(9 I was scolded by him. 
B9 Leaf of a door ; a kind of 
^^MancG with tassels placed in 
chariots; a chariot so guard- 
ed ; standing erect ; settled. 
t^ As a verb : to effect, to reach 
/^4o ; to stretch or extend to- 
wards, to arrive at, to go to, 
to influence at a distance ; to 
commmunicate ; to connect, 
to implicate ; effected, com- 
pleted — in which senses it is 
often a s'gn of the past tense. 
As a conjunction : and, with, 
also ; at ; to ; about, concern- 
ing ; much used with a nego- 
tive, to denote what is iraprac- 
ticable, or unavailing; /*c>^ 
k'npi just done, effected ; ^yd 
cts'ang '■kong k'api we have al- 
ready SjKjken [of that] : k'ap^ 
ishif seasonable, in good lime ; 


(tseung k'api W almost here ; 
k'api ikam iii Jio, how is it get- 
ting on now ? hnd lapi k'api 
inapt, no tact ; '//id paU k'api 
exceedingly quick ; jui' pal<- 
k'api no place for repentance. 

(171) Kap. 

m The pUimula or scaly cover- 
..-TTMng of a growing seed, the 
budding forth of a plant ; a 
sprout or bud; the first of the 
» ten stems ;' met. the first, 
number one, the head, excel- 
lent, the best — from the com- 
mon use of tlie ' stems ' as 
ordinal numbers ; to begin, to 
get the start of; to excel, to 
surpass ; armor for the body, a 
cuirass, a corselet ; military ; 
applied to the hard defensive 
covering of animals, as the 
carapace of turtles, the elytra 
of beetles, the large scaly plates 
on some fishes, the finger nail, 
&c.; graduates of the degree 
of tsinsz'; the first on a tripos 
paper is called Hing kdp:,; kdp-, 
iiU the first and second of the 
« ten stems,' are used hypo, 
thetically fi)r persons, like " J. 
Doe and R. Roe ;" ^hiung kdp-> 
jingling scales hung to the 
girdle of actors ; kdp:, '^ch^ung, 
headman of a tithing ; kdp^ 
ch'dk> a bud, a sprout ; luki 
kdp, the gravid uterus ; kdp^ 
^ping, cavalry. 
\b^ A garment lined, without 
^P,' wadding; doubled or lined; a 
neck-covering ; kdp^ iShdin, a 
linnd dress ; kdp^ nap, a skirt 
with a lining. 




f\ A knee-pad of leather ; a 
^.'','sort of leathern sash or apron 

lor soldiers. 
j^ To take or press under the 

T/Varm ; to carry secretiv ; to 
succor; assistants; to take up 
with pincers, to nip up; to 
squeeze ; to press between two ; 
doubled, lined ; to take to one's 
bosom ; kdp^ kwan' an instru- 
ment to torture the ancles ; 
Idp^imdi, or Idp^ chv} to press 
between ; kdp:, '-pan, two boards 
for pressing or supporting 
the sides of tilings ; ^shu kdp^ 
boards used to press books; 
leap:, ^chi, to press paper ; lap, 
'ka», press it tight : kdp, tui' 
{«z' fo' to smuggle with one's 
baggage, or with other goods; 
kdpi ch'uti Jai, nip it up ; kdp, 
tsdpi mixed with, as poor fruit 
with better; hai? ddn ha? kdp, 
twi, is it single or double ? 

^ To take up, with as chop. 

|, . ? sticks. Read Aip, chopsticks. 
Read didh divining sticks 
of bamboo. 

^[^ Pods of leguminous plants ; 

,/>' lesumes, including the seeds ; 
an Acacia ; a petiole sheath 
in grasses ; kdp, its'in, a kind 
of coin in the -Han dynasty, 
resembling the seeds of the 
elm ; name of a lucky plant 
which grew in the emperor 
Yu's courtyard. 

■iiS The jaws, the sides of the 

j/^'face; the cheeks ; utterance, 
articulation ; ^soi kdp-, the 
cheeks ; kdp, icKA^ the jaw- 
bone ; wa' kdp, slow of speech ; 
'/li s'm ngap, kdp, you never 
opened your mouth, you said 
nothnig about it. '' 



db Felicitous, lucky, fortunate; 

j^j'gainful, advantageous, pros- 
perous; happy, good, as in- 
dicating success or good luck; 
the first day of the month ; 
kaf, yah a lucky day ; kaU 
its'^ung, blessed with prosperi- 
ty : kaii^ Joi ndpt kat, I liope 
you have been well lately ; 
ptik, kat, to cast for a lucky 
day ; kat, iyan, a good man; 
kat, iSiug '■/ciing ckiu' may a 
lucky star shine on you (or, 
it does shine) ; wan^ kat, to 
play a trick on. 

/fc Strong, roliust, firm ; un- 

j^^^ wearied ; exact, upright. 

rfa| To flay the face ; to tattoo; 

Krh *^ colloquial word : to stick a 

knife or sharp instrument into 

one, to stab ; kat, tak, iyan 

t'ung^ to prick so that it 

pains; kal,'^iz' to stab todeath. 

4d! Occupied, laboring with the 

|r^^ hands and mouth ; to grasp a 

plant with the bands and nails 

to pull it up ; to per[)lex, to 

press upon ; kat, <^ku, em bar. 

rassed in business for want 

of funds. 

-f^ A well.sweep, called kati 

^' hkd ; a kind of water-wheel 

/>j^Jor bucket, worked by a pul- 

^ih ley ; kat, '•kang, a common 

medicine, used in coughs; 

ichii islid kat, the mandarin 

orange (Citrus vobilis) ; the 

second character is the proper 

one, but the first is mostly 

used to denote this fruit ; kat} 

"tsai, a small loose skinned 

orange ; 4s'^ kwai' kat, the 




nutmeg orange; Jcam j's'in 
katj gold nutineg orange ; kah 
'^pcng, a kind of comfit made 
of oranges orlemons ; tiu\mun 
kaU an orange hung on the 
lintel for gook kick ; tiu^ imun 
ikat '"yam (kon, a miserably 
inane, shriveled up fellow. 
hA* 'J'o stutter, slow of speech ; 
xM^ kat, '■hav, to stammer; kaU 

shit:, slow of speech, 
"^fe- 'I'o close, to stop, to desist, 
R V to finish a speech ; to clear 
off an account; to exhaust ; 
to prohibit ; ended, terminal- 
ed, carried to the end ; dstug 
kali [accounts] are settled ; 
kat) ikam, till now. 
PR A colloquial word ; to turn 
•vJ^up the end, to perk up ; to 
make one end higher than the 
other ; kali ikd, to curl up (as 
a dog's tail) ; kati ,/rd iCau, to 
look at on tiptoe ; kali '■hi it'av, 
to set tip in bed ; kati kuti ti^ 
k^uk-) to Wiilk on one foot or 
irregularly, to limp; kali Jd, 
begone, avaunt ! kati ikai, the 
end of a tie«beaui ; (kui kat} 
toki the cackling of a hen. 



tt* To cough ; k^ah sau^ to 

^^'couijh ; (kon k'aU a dry, irritat- 
Ken • ^ 1 »• i "i« • . 

ing cough ; k aU ft om, to 

throw up phlegm ; Jid k'nt, an 
asthmatic, hacking cough. 
Rend s^o/', the laugh or smile 
of an infant; to belch. 
w^ To cough, in which sense 
^^'it is synonymous with the 
preceding. Read k'oi\ to hic- 
cup ; to belch, to call out in 
alarm, the voice of terror. 






A water-course in a field, a 
ditch, a canal ; (kau ik'ii^ n 
sewer, a gutter or drain ; /in 
ikav, a drain in fields. 

To reject ; to blot or strike 
out; to maik off for punishment; 
to inveigh, to entice ; crook- 
ed, hooked ; ^kau kiit} to mark 
off for execution ; ikau jcA'ti, 
to mark out from a list item* 
wanted ; ikau long' business, 
affairs; underhand, illegal do. 
ings ; (kau (Chi 'fan, to fondle 
women, lustful dalliance; ^kau 
^t/aut to seduce to evil, to 
entice ; ^kau ishang i^ to fish 
for custom. Often interchang- 
ed with the next. 

A crooked iron, a hook, a 
barb, a fluke ; a sickle, a crook, 
ed sword, like a bill-hook ; a 
clisp, a hasp ; crooked, hook- 
ed ; to hook, to drag along; 
to make hooked ; to detain, to 
stop; to influence, to induce, 
to tempt to do evil ; ^kau H'iin 
the mark in writing to indicate 
a paragraph ; $6 ^kau^ a fish- 
hook ; (kau ch'uti Jai, \inok it 
up ; chiung^ (kau, a curtain- 
hook ; Jim (kau, a reaping- 
hook ; (kau (Cuue, to draw to 
one's party ; id' (knu (SU, 
'caught on the hook's barb,* 
gulled in the price ; ch'ing^ 
(kau '<d (teng, '^cK^ chiki tiie 
steelyards' hook is straight as 
nail ; we are now square. 

Embroidery on shoes, the 
fanciful devices on the front 
of shoes; thread used for such 






A piijcon, a tiirtk', the genus 
Culuniba ; to call together, to 
assemble ; to rest, to sojourn, 
to live in quiet ; ^pdn ikau, the 
pigeon; (kan chenng^ an old 
man's sluff'j tshi (kau, the 
brown pigeon, or turtle ; ,kan 
ikii, to live with or u])on one ; 
ikau ikau (Sheng, the noise of 
wrangling, coarse angry hoot- 
ings ; the word '• coic-coic" used 
in the Canton jargon for quar- 
reling, is derived from tiiis; 
'mat (.kau hii^ don't go, then ! 

^ cptiH (Av/w, the virile member. 

IW Pendulous branches ; to 
'J'^* twist, to twine : to lav across ; 
ikau ilau, to go wandering 

^j I A lot, a ballot ; to draw 

'^1 f '*'^''' ^^ *^^^ ^*^* ^ ticket i (nim 
«I%J J ikau, to draw a ticket in bid- 
Kia ding for things. Tliis clia- 

racter is often read ^kwui. 
'J| ] Nine ; to collect together; 

<■ H ' "**^'' '^'i^y' ^^^ highest, from 

j^ I" nine being a square number ; 

'A 7ca« "-kau or 'Aaw ^kwai, ar- 

^^ ^ ithmetic ; "^kau '■kan /idp^ shd' 

a multiplication-table, reach- 

ing to 81 ; '^kau ^ari, tiie nine 

grades, or the ninth grade; 

knu iChUtng, the emi)eror's 

palace ; 'kau ^'ng ^chi ,h,un, the 

emperor ; '^kau ^c/iau, the nine 

regions, i. e. Ciiina ; '^kaii dau, 

nine sorts of professions ; '■kau 

j'iii, the highest heaven ; '^kau 

%ch'iiig 'knu, most likely, nine- 

tv-nine to a hundred. 

A black gem, not of much 
,^ value, perhaps black jasper. !| 
Used as the complex form of ij 
the preceding. || 

To.N. Did. 16 








A long time, enduring, last- 
ing ; to make or continue long , 
ic/i^utig '^kau ichi sz'^ a long 
affair ; 'kau 'kau^fdn ihti, come 
back here often, don't stay 
away long ; 'A:«m ^iin, antique, 
of old ; 'i <ir,ai 'ktiu '■kau, for a 
long use, intended to be per. 
nianent ; 7td '■kau, a good 
while ; 5«i/i 'kau, some years ; 
^md'ki'kau, not long since, not 
very long, erelong ; ^clCiung 
icfi'euiiu, '■kau "-kau, for ever ; 
korn^ 'kau, so long ! 

A high tree, stiaped like a 
willow, with long sweetish 
seeds; probably a leguminosae ; 
curved braJtches ; 'kau "ki 'tsz" 
a fruit, allied t6 the medlar, 
used in ophthalmin. 

A dog; little, contemptible, 
as 'kau (Can, a mean theft ; 
^kau 'tsai, a puppy, you pup- 
py ! 'kau 'kii, a male dog ; a 
name often given to babies, 
as d^ 'kau ; a second boy is 
called i^ 'kau, ' the second dog,* 
and the former tdi^ 'kau ; tdi' 
'■kau is also applied to waiters, 
like "John ;" Jwn inun 'kau, a 
nickname for porters ; ^shdn 
'kau, watchers of graves, rustic 
grass-cutters ; ^liiAcau, a mad 
dog; 'kau^id, an adulteress. 

A bamboo trap or weel for 
catching fish or shrimps ; they 
are cylindrical and open at the 
end ; Jid 'kau -Ceng, a boat, 
smaller than a fast- boat, used 
by fishers, and for passengers. 

A face grimed with dirt and 
furrowed with age ; very old, 
senile ; ahau- kau, very aged ; 
itDoug 'kau, extreme age. 










Grass, herbs ; to the right or 
left, illicitly, devious ; incon- 
siderate, irregular, heedless, in 
any manner ; carelessly ; if, 
nevertheless, only ; but, if so ; 
'^kau '^clid, improperly, rude, 
remiss, anyhow ; '^kau '■ch'i Hiv 
sz'^ to do a thing heedless- 
ly ; '■kau hbpi illicitly united, 
fornication, lewdness; '■kau 
tfi hai^ '■kdm, if it be not done 
so ; tsoki «2'^ pah '■kau, to do 
business properly ; '■kau '■clCt 
sz^ a lewd act, vile. 

Dust grinjed in, dirt, filth, 
scurf; impure, sordid, disgrace- 
ful ; ipfian '^kuu, dirty, sordid ; 
ktvdti Vcaa, to scrape off the 

To shame one, to rail at, to 
reproach, to taunt ; unprinci- 
pled ; '/caM ]>eng^ ashamed, 
blushing : '^kau md^ to abuse, to 
rail at. Also pronounced '//a«. 
] Scallions or chives, a salad 
> onion; a plant which grows 
a long time from one root ; 
"■kau ts'oV scallions ; ^clC^ung 
ich'eung '■kau '■kau, entrails and 
scallionti, sent to a mother by 
her parents on the birth of a 
child, synibolic of their wish 
for its long life. 

A threefold cord ; to twist, 
to wind up ; to collect, to bring 
together, to combine ; to exa- 
mine into, to bring to light ; 
to inform ; to head a sedition ; 
perverse; to raise, to elevate; 
'^kau '^kau, loose, easy, cheer- 
ful ; '■kau dial:, to examine ; 
^kau hbfh '/i s'd, to join hands 
with thieves ; 'kau.cliung^ to 
join the multitude. 

'-+i|. To carry the head high ; 

jT^r one who acts energetically 
and wisely ; '^kih'^kau, martial, 
brave, gallant. 
L^^ To marry a kinswoman or 

Jv*^ a wife's sister ; fondness, affec- 
tion, love ; to unite ; sexual 
union; (fan kau^ a second mar- 
riage ; kau^ hdpi carnal union. 
1.^' A winding path among hills; 

W^ a defile between mountains, 


4^' 'i'o drag, to pull ; to scheme, 
^* to plot, to stir up, to implicate ; 
kiU kaW paU '■kdi, to form an 
indissoluble connection with 
one ; kau' uiC to contract a 
dislike for one ; kau' wo^ to 
bring misfortune on one. 

JA' 'I'he truss of a roof; to roof 
jry* over with beams; to construct ; 
to unite, to join together ; to 
copulate ; finished, completed ; 
to burst forth or take (as fire) ; 
'■kdi kau' to sow enmity, to set 
at variance ; kau' dsing, pro. 
creative action or operation. 

To buy, to procure for sale ; 
to barter ; hire one ; kau' *:in' 
to start a man on the track of 
one ; kau' V«di, to purchase. 

To see one suddenly ; to oc- 

3"- cur, to happen ; accidentally ; 

to complete ; kau' kin' hap- 

pened to see. 
;^' Used with the preceding ; 
*S; to bolt upon, an unexpected 

meeting with ; happened to ; 

kau' «' to happen, a chanct^, 


*ft' A sort of vanibrace or vant- 
*" brace made of leather, used by 
archers, called pr kau\ 





!^^ To rxamine into, to inform 

/h one's self of, to seiirch out, to 
push to the utmost ; to devise, 
to scheme ; finally, at last ; an 
examination ; 'Mu kan^ or 
fsham kau' to investigate ! 
thoroughly ; kan^ '■king '-tin \ 
yeung^ hew was it finally ? [ 
kau^ kau' to dislike, mutual | 
ill-will ; ik'utig hoki kau' a poor 
but unsuccessful scholar. 

M*' Poor and diseased and draw. 

/\ ing to one's end ; to dwell long 
in one place. 

jt ' A chronic disease, long ailing; 

^•^ dolorous, disheartened ; tsol^ 
kaii' still sick ; not' '^^i^'g P^i 
kau" conscious of innocence. 

>gV' To cauterize with raoxa, or 

J^ the dried powdered leaves of 
the Artemisia ; kau^ ich'ong, 
to cauterize a sore ; yung^ '^fo 
kail' the actual cautery. 

hV A fault, defect, error; crime, 

jF^ wickedness ; judgments, pro- 
vidential calamities ; to blame, 
to reprehend ; kaW ^yau iyiu 
Jiwai, the blame charged to 
the proper one ; '■koi kau' to 
reform : maa^ ^yau kau' to ask 
about one's luck ; kV Upong 
pat:, kill' not to criminate 
for what is past. 

Iffifc' A stable ; a stall where 

^J« horses are housetl ; usually 
called '/Tid kun\ 

,^» A bamlwx) frame for drying 

j^ clothes upon over a fire ; a 
chanffe-lit : kau' Jung, a dry- 
ing frame. 

Afe' Enough, sufficient for use ; 

j,^* in excess, adequate, filled up; 
completely, thoroughly ; tVn 
kau yuiig' insutfictent ; kau' itn \\ 

knit' is there enough ? kav'kfT\' 
fully enouyh, an abundance; 
kan^.'-pvn, got first outlay ; s'm 
kau' "^pun, not prime cost ; kau' 
siin' enough, that will do, we'll 
stop now ; k-iu' oky thoroughly 
bad ; kau' ^k'U odd, unusual, 
singular ; tpd paly inang kau' 
it is my sincere wish ; kau' 
'^kong -Jid, superlatively good. 
^it-' To stop, to cause to cease ; 
^jV to assist, to rescue, to liberate, 
to succor, to save from evil; 
to protect, to defend ; to pro. 
hibit, to prevent from going 
wrong ; salvation, rescue ; a 
tasse! ;^Uau' sik:, 'fo, to put out 
a fire ; kau' nan- to save from 
distress ; kau' kd' to save the 
emperor ; kau' meng^ to save 
life ; kau' shai' to deliver the 
world (from misery) ; kau' 
shai"^clni, the Savior; kau' ti^ 
to deliver and protect from im- 
pending evil ; Va kau' to run 
to the rescue ; kau' ipan, to 
relieve the |>oor ; kau' tsai' to 
succor and assist. 
^&-] Old, worn out, not new or 
^>'>^ recent; formerly, anciently, 
IP J before ; venerable, venerated; 
Ki(j passed away, defunct ; kau^ 
5«/(i, anciently, in otden time ; 
kau^ -kau, an old customer ; 
km' ^yau, an old friend ; hi' 
kau' bygone, ancient ; nim' 
kau' to remember former 
things ; kau' jwin, last year ; 
kau' iit-i last month ; kau' iya?!, 
an old servant ; ^yitig kau- tsd' 
do the same work as befor^ 
kau' ika. (fung, relics of ftiM 
mer prosperity ; kau' h'l' %chi^ 
an old and dear friend. 




/J^- A colloquial word; n lofif, 
•^ a lump, piRce, clod ; yat^ kau" 
sheki a stone ; ynl, Icau' mitki 
it'au, a bit of wood, a dolt ; 
c/m/i <mai yat: kaii^ all doubled 
or bent over, as from cold or 
pain ; Ud (fang kuu' a hiffh 
•ij^' A corpse laid in a coffin ; 

^'^ a coffin with the bodv in 




it ; ch'tily knu' to carry out a 
corpse ; siing^ k(tn^ to accom- 
pany a funeral ; kau' (Cb'^, a 
hearse; kau' ka' a bier; /ing 
kau^ to keep a body unburied ; 
vmu^ kau^ to remove a corpse 
home. — 


To lift up the dress, when 
g^oing up. stairs; to feel for 
with the hand ; to dilute, to 
mix with, to weaken or adul- 
terate ; ik'au imai, to mix, with ; 
fk'au iwan, mix thoroughly ; 
tui' ck'a.1/, mlxGd equally ; (k'aii 
(Shd, mixed with sand ; (k'aii 
luii^ mingled confusedly. 

A iiotcli or catch at thp end 
of a bow, to fasten, the bpw- 
string to ; a ring. 

To search for ; to seek, to 
aim at ; to beg, to ask, to sap- 
plicate, to wish for; ardent, 
ly desirous of, to invite, to call 
out ; to class with or make 
like ; ^fd ^fi (Oi ik'aitt to intreat 
urgently ; to implore with 
tears; Jio ik'au, to demand, 
to force from, to importune ; 
Jcaii tsah tak, cchU he asked 
nnd obtained; ik'i Jtan, to 
pray fo/ ; JCau ^tsoi, to seek 








gain ; Jcau <,mau, to contrive 
for; to suggest a pl:in ; ^k'au 
ts^' to request the loan of. 

A en p. a fancy cap, an or- 
namented cap ; ik'au ji-'aw, a 
grave and complaisant man. 

Long, curved like a horn ; 
to free ; to help, to defend. 
Read ik'ij, to till a hamper or 
basket, to put earth into a 

Tiie cupule or cup of an 
acorn; a raft; the haft of u 

A ball, large enough to pl;iy 
with, made of wool or leather ; 
a bhidder-ball ; a globe, a 
sphere ; '/d ik'ati, to play ball ; 
t'ek^ ik'au, to kick a ball ; p'au 
sau^ ik'aii, to throw (he em- 
hroidered ball (and choose a 
husband); «?./i' ik'au, a cap- 
knob nmde of cord. 

A sonorous jade" stone, a 
precious stone, usually made 
round ; a sphere, a globe, a 
ball ; ct'in Jcau^ a celestial 
globe ; IV ik'aii, a terrestrial 
globe, interciinnged with the 

F'ur garments ; furs after 
they are made up ; Mng ^k'au, 
fine fur dresses ; ^ching ik'au, 
taxes piid in peltry; j?/ ik'aa, 
a fox- skin dress. 

Crooked, like a rhinocfros 
horn, a long horn; a bow made 
of horn, usually of the buffalo. 
Urgent, pressing; testy; pa') 
king' patyik'aii, neither con- 
tentious nor hasty ; rera''^. 
easy with, fe^tina lente. la- 
tt-rcharif^ed with.tlie next. 




*^ To collecJ, to gather togcth- 
I'rT er ; to iiair. to mate ; to seek an 
alliance; a union, a marriage; 
pressing, urgent ; ho' Jcau, to 
seek an alliance ; Ho' ^K'au 
c/tun' the Fortunate Union, — 
name of a popular story. 

lit Same as the preceding, in 
*jl' meaning to pair, to couple, 
to match, to unite in mar- 
riage ; to join two together : 
a surname. Also, to hate ; 
resentment, enmity ; an ene- 
my ; proud ; — in which sen- 
ses it is usually pronounced 
ccWan. Ji'au 'ngou, to pair ; 
suti Ji'au, revenged. 

To corrupt, to suborn, to 
bribe ; to seek in an under- 
hand manner ; to pervert or 
swerve from the right ; a con- 
sideration, a request ; Jtav tse^ 
to seek for by means of bribes ; 
stiau' Ji'au, to receive bribes. 

A single headed ax or pick ; 
a sort of stone-chisel. 






A spear with a three-sided 
head ; vapor ascending high. 

■jit- A remote and sterile wild, 
i,.r; fiir from habitations; the lair 
or form of a wild beast ; ^Vau 
^yi, a howling wilderness; 
ik'au cshau, burrows of a sort 
of hog f'or hyrax?) whicii are 
found arranged in a regular 

The protuberance of Ih^ 
cheek bones ; thick. ' 


The nose stopped up and 
running from the effects of a 
culd : u c-old in the hertd. 

jjjl A dragon with horns ; to 
^^ . wriggle in going ; an agitated, 

quick, movement ; Jc'ati lim, 

a long, curly beard. 

1^ A sounding gem ; a beauti« 

-,^, ful precious stone. 
K'lu ' 

'-^ Maternal uncles, called 'k'au 
^. ft? and '/nd ^k'au ; a wife's 
brother.", called (ti'ai ^k'av ; 
tdi^ -k'au, wife's elder brother; 
saV ^'c'aii, wife's younger bro- 
ther ; a father-in law ; d' 'k'aUf 
a b.'-other-in-law. 
Vi A mortar, either a hole or 
L^. , made of stone ; to pound in a 
mortar ; radical of mortars ; 
slieki ^k'au, a stone mortar. 
'Jvi The tallow tree (Slillingia 
^^ sebifera), called iU ^k'ati muki ; 
in Macao, this tree is known 
as t he ikting shij.- ; cii ^k'au <yait, 
vegetable tallow. 
'i'o ask ; to prostrate, to 
j^.j^y knock head on the ground, 
when saluting a superior or in 
worship ; met. humbly, res- 
pectfully ; to agitate or discuss 
a subject ; to strike, to knock 
upon, to tap ; to raise the hand 
to the head ; k'au' ^'au, the 
kotow ; iSdm kwai^ '^kau k'au' 
three kncelmgs and nine 
knockings — the highest act of 
worship ; k^au' man} to humbly 
inquire : k'ati' "^pan, to humbly 
K'au^ A colloquial word, heard in 
Macao ; to cry, to wail or 
scream, as children do. 
4«' To strike, to knock upon, 
j^^" to rap ; to lead a horse ; to 
deduct, to discount, to cut off; 
to hook ill, to link on ; a clasp, 
a buckle ; to buckle, k'au' shd' 





"" / to reduce an account ; K'au^ 
■ j^i, to deduct advance money 
or a loan ; k'nu^ it'au discount ; 
pat) chit-, pat:, k'ati^ no deduc- 
tion allowed, the fixed price ; 
k'au^ Jcung ifigan, to cut 
wages ; '/cow ''/»^ k'au^ 5 per 
cent, discount, i. e. the availa- 
ble sum is 95 ; /c'om' 'noj<, to 
button ; k'au^ ^r./tii^ to deduct 
from ; k'aii' ^mun, to knock at 
a door ; k'au' tdi' a girdle and 
clasp, to buckle. 

^t' To stretch a bow to the full ; 

3^ archers or bowmen ; enough, 
Kau , . ° 

full, in which senses a% is now 

generally used. 

fSt' To rob, to plunder and mnr- 
j^ji^der; to do mischief; banditti, 
*" thieves, robbers, highwaymen, 
ladrones ; an enemy ; an ab- 
undance, plenty ; tyrannical, 
cruel; k'au^ ts'aki robbers, band 
of outlaws; tsz' k'au^ a cri- 
minal judge ; 7ioiA:'aM' pirates, 
dacoits ; Hs'd k'au' marauders, 

^?f ' The reed or slaie of a loom, 

-7^5 made of bamboo. 

^^' The nutmeg, called tau^ 
^ k'aii' ; tau^ k'au' (fa, mace; 
the yiiki k'au^ is the l)est sort ; 
tail' k'au' ihbm ^pd, Mhe nutmeg 
fills the mouth,* said of mar- 
riageable girls. 



^ To blend, to unite, to join ; 

' ?^ together, jointly ; to deliver or 
hand over to, to communicate 
with; to pay to, to exchange; 
joined to olher verbs to denote 
their action, as iki'tu kV to 




transmit ; trade, barter, deal- 
ing ; contiguous countermi- 
nous ; intercourse in socie- 
ty, a friend, friendship ; ^kdu 
yiki trade ; ikdu khtk) to cross 
the legs ; (kait (kwdn, unmer- 
ciful, cruel ;' Id^ ^kdu, to fight, 
a row ; dp ikdii, to wrangle ; 
ikdu 'i, an arm-chair ; ^m ^kdu 
tak:, 'fti 'c/mn, I can't come 
up to your standard ; Miu 
ip'un, to deliver [an otfice 
or shop] over to one ; ckdu 
'^shau, to deliver to one's hand ; 
a trading constituent ; ^san 
(kdu, new acquaintance ; ikdu 
tsip^ to give to and receive 
from ; ikdu 'pi '//«, give it 
to him; ^kdu its'ing, sexual 
intercourse: cifdu'cAi, Cochin- 
china ; J(du chnng^ give it for 
the public use; i^am ckdit, a cor- 
dial friendship; ckdu '■cKi, to 
dovetail; Jcdu c^gd 'Adm, biting 
each other (like two crickets), 
maddened ; iping '■shui iS^ung 
(kdu, a slight acquaintance. 

Hay, fodder ; pasturage ; a 
kind of cress ; ^kdu ''sun, an 
esculent water vegetable ; 
(Kdu-iCong ck' the township 
in Pwanyii hien, in which 
Whampoa is situated. 

The dragon of thickets and 
morasses ; the Chinese des- 
cription corresponds nearly to 
the iguanadon; Jidu Jung, a 
dragon, like a boa. 

Waste or forest land near 
or beyond the frontiers ; waste 
common, fifty /i beyond a cit)' ; 
the imperial worship of heaven 
and earth at the solstices ; to 
worship heaven and earth ; 




the place where this sacrifice 

was held ; ikau ngoi^ remote 

wilds, where civilization has 

not reached. 

&,*; A sort of shark, whose skin 

kldu ^'J'""i*'li6S shagreen ; ^kdu iyan, 

a mermaid, which weeps 

pearls; ^md Jtdu Jong, man- 

go-fish ( Polynemus ) , common 

at Macao ; Jcdu kdk-, shagreen. 

{]^ A cock's crow. Read Jiiu, 

K^ verbose, to talk big, extrava. 

\\\k\x gant ; (td« Jcdu ,iheng, brag- 

ging, boastful talk. 
nVJ Glue, glutinous or adhesive 
K T j'^l'iss, viscid gums ; to glue ; 
glued, or sticking together ; 
obstinate, stupid, pertinacious, 
bigoted ; to deceive ; adhesive ; 
compacted, intimate, bound 
by friendship or pledge ; sound 
of fishes ; iUgau ip'i Jtdu, 
cow's glue ; s« ■^kdii, isinglass; 
mirv' ikdu, wheaten glue mixed 
with lime for joinery ; ikdti lin' 
anything boiled till it is thick 
and viscid ; Jting ^kdu, an an- 
cient college ; ikdu yapi tsal-, 
very intimate. 

*3g Something indistinct and 
''vf'^ distant ; ^kdu koti a row of 

spears, the glancing of arms ; 

to transfer (as a debt), lo hand 

over in charge to. 

tTo cause, to induce, to 
J-. make, to enable ; ,kdu 'ni 'Ad, 
make you well ; <,shuiikdu ^ni 
iWai, who enabled (or made) 
you to do it ? 
;^ (Kdu "^kdu, a lullaby, used by 
^-^ nurses when hushing a child 
to sleep. This character is 
merely used for these aouuds. 





Beautiful, pretty, winsome, 
flattering. Sumetimes inter- 
changed with tiie next. 

A little black poodle, found 
rn the north ; doublings (of a 
fox); artful, crafty, specious, 
mendacious, deceitful ; mad- 
dened, wild; cruel; '/com wd^i 
cunning, knavish; '/edw J'd, a 
wily fellow ; ^kdu kwan' a 
fraudulent villain ; 'Ardw (Sing, 
one who leads others into 
wickedness, a blackleg ; '/tdu 
kai' a tricky plan. 

The brightness of the moon ; 
splendor of the sun ; effulgent, 
bright ; an immaculate, pure 
white ; '/:d« kili white and 

To bind about, to wrap 
around ; to twist ; to strangle j 
unceremonious ; a sash ; '^kdu 
Idm^ to twist ropes ; man^ '^kdu, 
to execute by stranghng ; Veda 
itndi, to twist together; ^kdu 
icli eung ishd, cholera morbus : 
'Adw '^kan tik, bind it a little 
tighter ; 'Mm aP to hang one ; 
'Mm ii'au po' a turban, such 
as the Fuhkien men wear ; 
'kdn ifd, to spin cotton ; ^sdm 
'Mm ishing, a three-stranded 

To stir up or about, to mix 
up ; to beguile to evil, to dis- 
order, to confuse, to trouble ; 
to annoy, to incotimiode ; to 
excite commotion ; 'Mm liin' 
lo make a disturbance; '/d 
'M« ^ni, I have incommoded 
you — said by a visitf>r ; hdu 
Hu, to embroil a commimitv, 
to stir up sedition ; \',du <,wan^ 
mix it well ; 'Ma sfii^ kdu 




ffi, to dispute warnilv ; yaf, 
^kau ye^ ''kdu, constnntly doing 
evil ; "-kdu '■chiin ck'u' to inter- 
rupt, to hinder. 
4.;?^' Stocks for the feet, in which 
,^.^ prisoners are nijjhtly secured ; 
a lockup ; a pen for wild 
beasts; to examine, to com- 
pare things ; to collate or 
revise books ; to judge crimi- 
nals ; to join battle, to fight ; 
kciH^ citing^ or kdu^ ting^ to 
correct a book for publication ; 
'pi kdu' to compare. 

A pair of stones of a plano^. 


„. convex shape, called kdri' (piii, 
used in worship, to divine the 
answer ; now made of bamboo 
roots split ; Area shells are 
also used; in throwing, if both 
plane surfaces come up, it is 
called <ya/n Arau'; if lioth are 
convex, .ydung kdu'; if one of 
each (the most favorable), 
shiug^ kau'. 
*^^ To compare ; to measure 

|7?> strength ; to try the accuracv 
of; generally speaking ; kaii' 
Uiing^ to discuss, to arg le 
upon ; kdti^chung^ to compare 
weights ; the heavier ; kdu' she^ 
a trial of archery ; kdu' citing' 
to test weights ; ^m 'shai kdu' 
no need to test, trustworthy ; 
A;«m' 'c/mn, like the measure 
or guage. 
Af^' Pivots on which a door 

^^ turns ; a hinge; a joint; a 
clamp, a hasp; to inlay me- 
tals ; yal:, '/>d kdu' '^Isin, a pair 
_^bf shears or scissors; kdu' 
itengythe pinofahinge;r/i'a/j^^ 
s,Hgd kdu' lo boast of one's 
ability ; 'w/t kau' immaterial, 
either wav is the same. 

1^^ A receptacle or bin in (he 

Kv ground for storing grain; a 

cellar ; a souterrain ; /i^ kdu' 

an underground store-room ; 

kdu' its'oiig, stored up. 

!j^' An unauthorized character. 

••^ A side passage, in which boats 
can enter at high water; the 
mouth of creeks ; ishiiti kwo' 
kau' the boat has entered the 
creek ; forms part of the name 
of many places in Shunteh 
hien ; Tdi.'- iiwng kdu', Macao 
Passage fort, near Canton, 

■^L' To instruct, to teach, to 
^P^ show how ; to coinmand, to 
order ; precept, principle, rule; 
doctrines, tenets ; a religious 
sect, a school, or those who hold 
to the same opinions; '^laag 
^ngo kdu' ^iti, let me show you ; 
'/id kdu' iinun, an able teacher; 
Ud kdu' to be severe in teach- 
ing; mi^Hs'ing kdu' what is 
your surname ? /ctiu' '^k'in, to 
teach school ; kdu' '■td '^pd shati 
to teach boxing ; kdu' skau' 
a superintendent of education 
in a fit ; kdu' u^ the same in 
a hien ; ^'ng kdu' the fivev ir- 
tues; (Sdm kdu' Confucianists, 
B idhisls, and Ta'iists ; ts'iUi 
kdu' the seven social relations ; 
cT"i/i '^chu kdu' Romanism;* 
kdu' ^rnun, usually refers only 
to Mohammedanism ; s<*/t'M/i 
kdu' to propagate a creed. 

jffi^-^ Loaven, yeast ; it is the 
}!))' residuum. left after distillin<if 
samshoo ; jat:> kau to raise 
doiigli ; '/srt« kdu' barm eakes ; 
idt k kdu' tsU^ feast of unleav- 
ened bread. Read '/tdw in the 
Fun VVaii. 




KKLK. K'EUK. 145 

(177) K*UU. 

-^^ To lean against; (o rely on, 
j^r to depend on another for aid ; 
contrary, opposed to; k au inaU 
iShiti, whom do you deprnd on, 
who supports you? Jd k'du' 
tshang i^ trust wholly to trade ; 
k'aii^ '^fo, to warm one's hands 
before the fire ; k'<'iu^ ^cham, to 
lean on a pillow; k'du^ (Slidn, to 
r;jly on a stable friend; ajjEiinst 
a hillside— said of a grave ; k'au^ 
tak) chix^ he can be relied on. 

(178) Ke. 

Uj5j' The sign of the possessive ; 
'^ a possessive pronoun, mine, 
yours, his; that; for, to use 
for ; ^ngo k^^ ishii, my book ; 
mat:, ishui k^^ whose is this? 
'fti ki^ your's ; it often ends a 
sentence, or follows an adject- 
ive, the noun being implied, 
as s'/w tak^ iclian ke^ not a true 
[saying] ; iu" <,fi he\ iu' slian' 
A:<?' do you like tat or lean ? 
^kdm k6' is it so ! why 1 indeed ! 
«ii^ k^^ cp'eng, the plain is the 
cheaper ; fah jnan ki^ for kill- 
ing musquitoes. 






The culm of the lotus ; the 
lotus itself ; brinjal or squash ; 
fan jtV, tomatoes ; f^tin Jii, 
mad ap(>le, dvvale, or bella- 
donna ; 5^0 cpdu j^'^, the bottle 

A B'odhist word ; Jce s?dm, 
name of a Budha; Loknk'^ 
<,shdn, a mountain where the 
goddess Kvv;iiiyiii dwells. 

To.\. !)i. 1 I'J 

Hin The foot ; but applied to the 
j^l^jj' whole leg; stable, based ; ^un 
keuk} placable, spiritless ; 'Ad ii* 
k^uki well established, trust wor- 
thy, possessed of means ;- Vid»/ 
k^uki to lead one into had hab. 
its ; kink:, chdpi stocks for-the 
feet ; kiiiki s/iiki profession, 
character, rank ; kiuk^ ^ngdn, 
the ankles; kink^ '^pdn, sole 
of the foot ; Jam kcnh 'Id, a 
coolie, porter ; kevki inong H'd, 
calf of the leg: kink, du^ the 
knee-pit; "fd cliih jtew/c) bare- 
font; kiuk} liki tdi^ influential, 
of high character ; J.c'u kiuk, 
to detain one; keuk^ isiki 
traces, footsteps; /o'At^mA-, poor 
goods, Ifft after garbling ; tmki 
'■kwai kiukj 'write devil's feel,' 
is to guess by lines ; -p'd Fati 
kitiki to clasp Budha's feet — 
when in distress; ^chong kizif:, 
actors disguised as women ; 
(Ch'i keuk, a hanger on, one 
who sponges for a dinner. 

^; Shoes or sandals made of 

/IimI' twisted hempen cord. The 

Kiun . . .' , ^ , . 

next IS sometimes used for this. 

K^ Proud, valorous; kiiik, kitik, 
j^y^j'caperingfi of a child ; the im- 
moderate antics of a successful 
fool ; hempen sandals or shoes. 



dbn ] '^o stop ; to curb desire.«, (o 

^_H refuse, to deny, to decline 

171 , J doing or accepting ; to retire, 

Kioh to go backwards ; to look up ; 

a particle used to strengthen 

an assertion, certainly, really, 

triilv — and often needs uo 




translation; k'^uk^hai^ evident- 
\y ; k'^iik, yau^ Joi, come a ^a in, 
eh! behold, again! jmoH^/ A' ^mAtj 
I forgot it ; k'^iuk, ^yd, preced- 
ed by iSui, is a disjunctive 
phrase, but that, si ill, nor, yet 
therefore, although — yet ; an 
interrogative worr), as k'^uki 
shi^ icai^ Jio, but why so, pray I 
then, therefore ; U&uh shiil-, 
turn now to speak of, it is said ; 
jwdw k'euh not easy to decline 
it ; Hiu k'euk-, to disdain, to 
complete and put away ; k^iuk^ 
Jiang, to walk backwards, to 
go away ; J'ui k'iuk:, fo decline, 
to put off with excuses. 

(182) Keung. 

ygl Lying as if dead, senseless; 
'•^ I prostrate, stretched out; to 
(^^ J push over, to throw down; 
Kiang rigid, stiff, yet uncorrupted ; 

ik&ung cshi, a body in a trance; 

a corpse ; chiki (k^ung Jt^ung, 

stretched out stiff. 
^M A boundary, limits, borders ; 
KUnff *° ^^^^"^ ^ limit, to bound ; 
Mung tdP a limit; J(4ung loiki 

the frontiers; md Mung, 

boundless, illimitable ; (k^ung 

its dm, exuviae of silkworms ; 

ch'ut, (k^ung, to emigrate. 
J.]g[ The helve of a hoe, a hoe- 
'^P^ handle; a lasting kind of wood 

^ tailed mdn^iHin mnh used for 

bars and parts of carriages ; 

(k^ung Jieung, vigorous, abun- 

^ Ginger ; ifong Mung, pre- 
'^^^ served ginger ; ,shang Mung, 

" fresh ginger ; Hs'eng 'yam 

Mung '^Isau, to invito to drink 

ginger wine, after a birth ; Jioi 
ck^ung mi^ its'ang, have you 
any children ? iWong Mung 
'■fan, curry powder ; Hsz" Mung 
tender ginger ; J,6ung Mung, 
galangal root ; '■pun ti^ Mung 
s'm Zd<2 home ginger is insipid, 
t. e. foreign things are best. 

The white exuviae of the 
.,., larvae of silkworms, called 

Mung Jsam; it is used as 

a medicine. 

A bridle ; the reins of the 

n® bridle ; fong^ Mung, to give 

loose rein ; cs/mu Mung, pull 

in the reins ; ^y^ ^md ^rnd 

Mung, an unbridled, wild 

horse, a runagate, a demirep. 

The surname of the emperor 

Shinnung; iK^ung t'di\kungy 

a famous general, b.c. 1122. 

A tribe of aborigines in an- 

'j/.^ cient Tangut, shepherd no. 

mads, belonging to the Scy. 

thian race ; an initial particle, 

ah! strong, forcible ; contrary, 

cross purposes ; elegant ; some- 

times erroneously used for 

the last. 

dflf Coleopterous bugs found in 

^j^- ordure; k'U:, Mung, or Mung 

Jong, the tumble-dung or 





PS "I A black bug or weevil in 

is r^^^ '■> ^ strong bow ; violent, 
s7M J headstrong, surly, firm ; over- 
K'iang bearing, boisterous, by fore ■ 
regardless of right, obstinate!) , 
able-bodied, sturdy, brawny, 
strong, full grown ; a remain- 
der (in arithmetic) ; all years 




with the ' stem' ting in their 
cyclic name ; ^eung chong' 
40 years old. vigorous, hale ; 
(Chdng Ji^nng yeuki to wran- 
gle, to quarrel ; Jf'^ung 'shni, 
acids ; ^ni molii idling ilceung, 
don't brag of your abilities; 
ik'iung ^mdi, a forcible pur- 
chase, to compel one to sell; 
ik'^ung'^kang resolute, fearles?; 
shUi Ji&ung, double-tongued, 
specious ; Isz^ Jc'^ung, self- 
willed, fixed in purpose Jc'iung 
hat, to beg with violence. 
'^A To compel, to force ; to invi- 
K^ o- gorale, to strengthen; to try, 
" to attempt ; -k'^ung Jtau pat-, 
takt can not obtain with strong 
intreaties; ^k'^ung Jiang, to 
force to do. Read k'iung^ 
reaction ; wat^k'^ung' reniten- 
cy, resilience, springing back ; 
'/ji Jidm' k'^nug^ swi>^ why are 
you so set in your way ? 
* jfe Small roots, the branches of 

J^, roots ; a lily ; chuki^k'eun^r, 
K'lang , ' •' ,' , o 

whangoes, bamboo canes ; 

shii- ^k'^ung, roots of trees. 

«V;ft A swathing-^loth to carry 

^^ inlants pickapack ; to carry 

^ pickback; -k'^nng yd, a cloth 

to strap infants in. 
'■feS '^''^ ^'^^^ which runs through 
i^ a string of cash ; a string of 

a thousand casli ; to string 

cash ; money, coin, cash ; 

pdki ^k'eung, silver. 



:^ The springs of miction, subtle. 
'^ hidden, mysterious ; what is 

Ivt ' 

witliin, interior, recondite ; 
moderately, a little, few ; Jan- 




I Ki 

gerous ; having stated periods, 
the proper time ; an omen, 
prognostic ; to expect ; to ex- 
amine ; almost, several ; a 
qualifying word, nearly, about, 
rather, somewhat; ^ki jU, or 
(ki (ki <u, at the point of, almost, 
not far from ; shii^ (ki, expect, 
ing, probably, yet for all that ; 
(ki kdn^ to gently remonstrate 
with a superior. 

Used for the last ; changes, 
permutations ; the origin, or 
s|)ring of: subtle or moving 
influences in nature; the mo- 
tive power in an operation or 
a machine; machinery, a trap, 
a catch, hidden contrivance ; 
stratagems, secrets, schemes ; 
a luom ; (fin (ki, the natural 
and fixed bent of a mind, fate, 
destiny; (ki ui^ opportunity, 
occasion; ctf (kirdn, intentions, 
designs; the springs in'^ma- 
chinery; (ki <fong, a weaver's 
shop; yati ka' (ki, a loom ; shot, 
(ki, lost a battle; (ki inali sacret, 
undivulged, not frank ;'Aia' 
(hi ii tsoki do it at the right 
moment, mind your chance; 
(ki lam- a trap, a pitfall ; (jihan 
cAi, ski lied m the fates; (kiitnau, 
an artifice, a dodge; (Kwan ,ki 
fliu' the Imperial council 

The park belonging to H. I. 
M. in ancient times ; it mea. 
sured 1 000 li on each side, 
the court being in the centre ; 
a border ; inside of a door ; a 
threshold; the Court ; the lands 
of princes ; ^tpong iki, the iin. 
perial demesnes; ''kau(ki, nine 
principalities under the court. 








Poarls not perfectly round ; 
a sort of armillary sphere, 
calleci iSiin dci, provided with a 
tube,which m caWed yukuhaug, 
by means of which observa- 
tions on the stars were taken. 
Stones or rocks in a stream, 
producing a ripple; eddies 
caused by stones, a stiunbling- 
biock ; to impede ; to rub. 

Qi?)^ The cheeks, the flesh which 

'fl^^ covers the jaws. 

A^ 1-f^ louse ; a nit ; M shat.^ a 
j^j louse. Read j/c'i, same as ^^ 
a bloodsucker- 
Flesh or fum muscle under the 
skin, and near the bones; Jci 
,J'a chough solid flesh, robust. 
To slander, to speak against; 
to ridicule, to mock, to satirizr, 
lo blame, to reprove, to remon- 
strate with ; officious and con- 
tumelious speeches ; to exam- 
ine intii, to test ; macliina- 
tions ; iki siu' to laugh at ; M 
tsiu' to reprehfnd ; ichan JcHo 
scold over another's shoulders. 
\ Failure of the harvest ; iam- 

Arr ''"^' ^^''*'i» scarcity ; hunger; 
(WLj to be hungry, famished, ne- 

Ki cessitous ; M rigo' starving ; 
'/« cki(fong, to pretend hunger. 
to act the beggar ; M skik-, a 
c.idaveroiis, starved look; M 
hoti hungry and thirsty ; (ki 
'«z' starved to de.ith. 

fy^ A sprite, a deu)on of the 
Wi ^^"''^' '^^ Kw^ngtung ; a' iki, 
ai» elf, which bewilders nu-n ; 
rliong' a' c/ij, to meet a devil, 
to see a foreigner ; the last are 
HO called in Canton from their 
shrill voices. 




The foundation of a wall, a 
dike on the river banks, or be- 
tween fields; foundation, a rest, 
a basis; a beginning, a com- 
mencement, a starting-point, 
that on which a family or na- 
tion depends ; fundamental ; n 
patrimony, possession ; farm- 
ing utensils ; place inside of 
the second door of a hou~:<\ 
where visitors wait ; ^ki ii' 
basis, material, character, lii ; 
quality of a thing, that froju 
which it is made ; Jci ip. 
honors or pos-sessions inherit- 
ed or transmitted ; Uang Jix, to 
mount the throne, toenler into 
possession; (Saricki, land gained 
from the river ; cch'ung tfaiig 
(kU the dike is broken in ; 
'.pang cki iWai, to burst in the 
dike ; Jioi M, to begin, to lay 
the foundation of [a state]. 
An anniversary, the full revo- 
lution of a year, ;^.54 days ; Jci 
(c/ii (Song, a year of mourning ; 
puUchiuug^ Jit, distant rela- 
tives who wear mourning a 
year ; Jci iiti a return of the 
same month. 

A corn-fan ; a winnowing- 
fan ; a sieve ; a refuse-basket ; 
to t^pread out like a fan ; the 
long striae on the finger's ends;; 
part of Srigittariiis, the 7th of 
the 28 constellations ; met. 
rain, because this star fore- 
bodes rain ; a kind of wooJ, 
used for quivers; p'o- Jn or 
pi'rp Jn, a tine corn-faii ; ^slml 
r/ii, a coarse sieve; im' iinitn^ 
(lit '-lau, look shut pat l-lie riiius 
and lines on his fingers (to fnid 
his future luck); sfiiiV Jii k'au 












' to connect sieves and furs' to \ 
carry on the profession of one's 

Blueund gray color, variegat- 
ed; shoe-strings; the highest de- 
gree, very, the utmost; Jii -J>:an, 
a 2rayi''h coiffure used hv girlf. 

Ths stalks of pulse ; tendrils 
of vines, pulse, &c,; (At 'Is'd, a 
sort, of aquatic grass woven into 
garments; an edible plant 
resembling fern. 

The surname of Hwangti ; 
also of the emperors of the 
Chan djnasty ; a queen ; term 
for the imperial concubines ; 
beautiful, noble women (like 
Houri, Hebe), because of the 
fame of the family of Ki. 

A halter ; a bridle ; a girl's 
tuftof hair, a woman's coiti'ure; 
bridled ; to bridle, to restrain, 
to hold in, to pull the bit on 
one ; to economize ; to detain 
in continernetit, to arrest ; to 
detain, to hinder ; M Wjo, or 
TjooP M, a lockup, attached to 
a yamiin ; M Jan, to stop, to 
seize ; Isin^ mb^ cki tslian, I was 
detained by business ; iJnd "sho 
(ki , unoccupied. 

An inn, a hospice ; cAri-Zu, a 
wayfarer, a lodger ; M hdk-, a 
visitor, a sojourner. 

A bench or stool folean on ; 
a stand, a side table ; the 16th 
radical ; -c/t'd (ki, a teapoy, a 
light stand ; -Mnn <.ki, a study- 
table : (^i (ki, tranquil, unaf- 

Odd, asln<;le one; odd num. 
bers ; a surplus ; v shop, 'yaii 
,ki, twenty nnd odd ; ^yau M 
.something over ; (tst' hi, not 
uprigiit, deflected. 











One's self, I, myself; .self, 
added to pronouns; selfish, 
private, special ; the 49th rad- 
ical ; to record ; tlie si.xth of 
the 'stems,' answering with 
ma to earth ; ^iigo tsz'^ 'ki, I 
myself; ^k'U isz'' '■ki, he him- 
self; -/ii ^/igo (Chi '^ki, you and 
1 know each other ; j/i 'Ai, it 
benefited me, specially ad- 
vantageous ; '■shau'ki, self res- 
pect, to mind one's own affairs; 
(Sz' 7<:i, selfish ; privily apply- 
ing to one's own use. 

A bleak bare mountain, stJch 
as a hermit chooses ; a high 

A willow-shaped tree, called 
'kau ^ki; the fruit is used in 
medicine ; name of a state. 

'J'o sort silk threads ; to ar- 
range, to separate ; to record, 
to narrate, to book, to ascer- 
tain and write ; to rule, to 
govern ; a history, annals, 
chronicles, narrative; a score 
of 12 years ; a year; a decimal 
or the completion of numbers ; 
a dike : a skein of 40 threads ; 
'At luki to record [an officer's 
merit]; s»tn 'ki, a person's age ; 
''//^ 7»t, the five divisions of 
time (i.e. hours, days, month.s, 
years, ages) ; 'A-f (kong yuki a 
servant who manages. 

A kind of succory or sow 
thistle, often cooked and 
eaten, called 'An Is'oi' ; a sort 
of white millet. 

MmcIi or many of, rather, part 
of; nearly, few ; an interroga- 
tion of quantity, how, many, 
how much; 'A:f <to, how many ? 
tn? ^ki, wh'ch of them ? 'ki 
,sln, when ? ^uo 'ki, not much. 








eilheroftime or things ; '/ti 
ko^ a few, several ; 'sho ickdn^ 
itnd ^ki, very little different, 
almost the same. 

To drag one side, to pull out 
by one foot whatever has fal- 
len in ; pull out, to bring forth. 

To remember, to recollect ; 
to record, to register, to make 
a note of; a written record, a 
history, memorial, account 
of; a style or name ; a mark, 
a sign, a signal, something to 
be remembered ; used after 
the abbreviated names of 
hongs or shops ; 'ni ki' tnh 
mo ? don't you remember ? ^m 
^hd kV sing^ a bad memory ; 
*ni ki^ ts'o' you remember 
wrongly ; kV hd^ a mark ; Jayif! 
A;i' po* a memorandum book; 
'<d yan^ kV to stamp ; ^ni kV 
chil^ you must remember it ; 
Art' nim^ to call to mind. 

A colloquial sound, used in 
the phrase '/i) kV a comrade. 

A slight repast ; to exhaust ; 
to lose ; ended, finished ; al- 
ready, when ; since; a sign of 
past time, and is placed before 
the verb ; ki' kin' seen it ; ki' 
fin, since ; ki' liai^ '■kbm, it be- 
ing so. 

To lodge, to remain a while 
in a house ; to confide in, to 
commit to, to hand over, to de- 
liver in charge ; to send by, 
to transmit ; to interpret ; the 
east ; ki' iku, to visit ; a 
hanger on ; the hermit crab ; 
ki' c»nrt, to send a letter; ki' 
Joi, to receive from ; kVc^Wong 
to give away an ulcer [to a 
tree — a branch of it dies] : kv 

isJiang, an epiphyte, a parasite; 
ki' mdi^ to send for sale ; kV 
c^sfieng, to send a message; 
kV loki W send it down to Ma- 
cao ; Hs'cng kV to give a thing 
in charge to forward. 

^A' Tiie broth or soup of boiled 

'jr! meats or sacrifices ; fertile, 
rich ; to reach to. 

l^n' To hope for, to desire good ; 

^^ fortunate ; ki' u^ ambitious, 
desirous, coveting, longing. 

^' A seine for taking fish ; a 

^J kind of rug or carpet made of 
dog's or horse. hair. 

■h^^ A courtesan, a singing girl ; 

j^ one who is sent out to earn a 
living by singing and vice. 

>fc-* Ability, cleverness, talent ; 

1^ ki^ Haling, artful, capable of 
devising; ki' ''kau, ingenious at 
contriving, inventive, fraud- 
ful ; read sfc'f, six toed. Inter- 
changed with the next. 

-fdf^ Skillful, ingenious at making 

'yS or contriving; A: i^ w^ai^ handy 
at making, the mechanic arts ; 
ki^-ynng, practiced in military 
drill; Viau ki' to imitate sounds. 

B,^ To fear, to shun, to avoid ; 

'S*) to hold in awe or be cautious 
of; distasteful, to dislike trou- 
ble ; to suspect, to hate what is 
bad, to have a superstitious 
dread or horror of ; (Chi \tV ki^ 
to know and avoid the dislikes 
of others ; ki' yali or ki' i^han, 
the dreaded day or hour of the 
death of a friend, in which 
one feels sad ; pa? ki' to keep 
the anniversary of a death. 
Poisonous, injurious, vene- 

'^T mous ; to instruct, to institute 
or establish. 














A steep rough path among 
the mountains ; dangerous de- 
files and precipices ; ^k'i ik'ii, 
a hazardous road across moun- 

A sfone bridge ; craggy. 
Rfad ik'i, a craggy shore ; 
winding and stony banks. 

Inclined, not straight or up- 
right ; to take up with nip- 
pers ; c4'i Ai^ vessels easily up- 
set, owing to their shape. 

One horn elevated, and the 
other turned down ; single ; to 
obtain ; ik'l ^ngau, single and 
double, unequal and equal. 

Land left after marking out 
a square, odd parcels of land ; 
ck'i iling, odds and ends, over- 
plus, surplus ; c/Ti Jing ik'iu, 
a bridge in the New City at 

A relative or personal pro- 
noun, referring to the person, 
place, or thing spoken of; he, 
his, she, it, its, they ; there ; 
an indefinite pronoun, wher- 
ever, whoever, the, that, the ! 
subject spoken of; ^k'i jti, the i 
rest ; ck'i follows a noun before j 
a verb, to draw attention, as j 
it'in (k'i wan^ jM, the heavens, I 
do they revolve ? Jci jU, as if, I 
supposing ; Jci sz'^ that affair. 

A set time, a fixed period, a 
day agreed on ; times, seasous ; 
to meet ; to expect, to wait 
for, to aim at ; to engage to 
do ; ^mun Jci, the time is up ; 
yaU Jci, the set day ; shtiing^ 
J'l, in advance of the date ; 















«/i ik'i mong^ full moon ; jWid 
taiig^ Jci, uncertain, no fixed 
time ; Jl Jci, at the time. 

) Chess of 33 men, called 
ts^ung^ ik'i, invented by Wu 
wing, B. c. 1120; cwai ik'i, 
a gan)e of 360 men, half black 
and half white, invented by 
Yiu, B.C. 2300; a foundation; 
ik'i ip'un, a cliesf---board ; ^k'i 
'^s*', chessmen ; chuk) ck't, to 
play chess ; ihdu Jci, to take a 
man ; yaU kuki ik'i, a game 
of chess; ik'i kuki a board set 
out with a game for gambling. 

A tributary of the Yellow 
river in Honan ; iICid\ an is- 
land near Kumsing moon. 

Fortunate, lucky, felicitous ; 
composed, tranquil ; ashing ik'i 
may you be promoted to a 
higher post. 

A leach, called itigau ck'i or 
ik'i hid ; a species of small 
land crab, called ip'dng Jci. 

A dappled horse, marked like 
a chessboard ; a fine looking 

A fabulous animal, the Chi- 
nese unicorn ; the male is cal- 
led ik'i, the female Jun. 

A kind of small goose, per- 
haps a ijheldrake. 

A crooked graver or burin ; 
ik'i kilt:, a gouge used in carv- 

Extraordinary, rare, surpris- 
ing, out of the common way ; 
monstrous, miraculous, unna- 
tural ; unexpected, strange, 
new, wonderful ; ck'i kicdV 
strange ; chut; ik'i, surprising ; 




<k'i its'oi, remarkably clever ; 
ik'i taki unique, best of a sort ; 
<A:'i iwdng, perverse, stupid. 

^& A valuable stone ; precious ; 
' K' ^ curiosity, a plaything, such 
as are got for presents or rari. 

^t To ride horseback ; to sit 

K'' crosswise or astride ; to mount 
a horse ; cnvalry, horse ; ^k'i 
^ma, (usually pronounced ^k'e 
^md) to ride horseback ; ,fi 
<k'i, liglit horse, used in the 
T'iing dynasty. 

-tog A flag, a standard, a banner ; 

'^ with devices or markings on 
it; 5^'/ hd^ Bmnermen : either 
Manchus or naturalized Chi- 
nese ; ik'i iTnan, persons con- 
nected with the Bannermen, 
not getting pay ; pdU ik'i, the 
eight Banners, under which 
they are marshaled ; iWong 
ik'i, Danish flag; ^k'i Jcon, a 
flag staff"; Jc i ho- a signal flag. 

■y^ A kind of pennon or mark- 

^'^[f. ing flag, with bells or jingles 
attached to it ; interchanged 
with the preceding. 

To pray, to invoke, to sup- 
plicate the gods for happiness 
to beg, to intreat, to request 
in the langtiage of courtesy 
<fc'i "to, to pray, to bes(!ech the 
gods ; ik'i 'u, to i)ray for rain 
(ts'in (k'i, earnestly request. 

XX^ A border, limit, confines 
K'i '"iP^'ia^ domains ; ,1710 ik'i, 
boundless ; ^k'i \fu, a colonel 
of the household troops. In- 
terchanged with <^-t ^^. 

^it Repose ; to console, to quiet ; 

- j^^ to reverence, to venerate, to 

hold in respect ; (0 invoke ; 












much ; the god who ani- 
mates the earth ; li^ Jc'i, the 
divinity of the earth, he who 
produces things on it, like 
Hecate or Cybele ; met. Earth 
or Terra ; interchanged with 
the last. Often confounded 

with and used for '■chl jng^ 

To ask for, to seek ; bit of a 
bridle ; a labiate plant, used 
in ulcers, &.C., called ^k'i 
Dgdi^; a district in Hupeh. 

Full, abundant, much ; ex- 
ceeding, very ; large, great ; 
Jc'i Jc'i, numerous ; gently, re- 

A nave or hub of an axle, 
which projects beyond the 

Long, tall ; an erect head j 
Jc'i Jc'i, elegant, graceful in 
stature. Read Vtan, to beg. 

A sexagenarian, an old man 
who should advise others; old, 
aged, a superior or elder ; 
strong, violent ; to adjust ; a 
scar on a horse's back ; ik'am 
Jci, the gentry and elders ; ik'i 
Ho, old people. 

A horse's foretop and mane ; 
the dorsal spines on a fish. 

A bill with two peaks ; a fork 
in a road ; bicuspidate ; a 
headland or cape ; to branch 
ofl^ or diverge ; Veuw^ s^'i wd- 
double entendre ; H^ung Jc'i^ 
two courses of conduct ; Jc'i 
Zd' two ways, two roads, de- 
vious, right and wrong. 

Constipation, disease made 
by sluggishness of bowels; 
also read 'li. 






"itfr A medicinal plant, called 
■=^- iieong ik'i, used in aijthinu ; a 
kind of lungwort. 

A colloquial word ; the cha. 
racter is doubtful. In the 
linuse, at home, within doors ; 
vk, 'k'i, liome, in the house ; 
j';« /lai^ '■k'i, he is not in. 

A fi>ot with six toes ; the 
crawling of insects, or progress 
of animals; sA^'fj^Jt/wo-, to crawl. 
Read *A:*i, and used for the 
next; to sit with the legs hang- 
ing down ; to stand on tiptoe 
jind look at. 
Ay 'Jo stand, to stand erect ; 
Tjj- ^k'i motig^ to lT)ok at eagerly, 
to expect ; 'A;'i c^id, stand up 
higher ; ^k'i nap, ti- to refuse 
to stir ; ^k'i cshang H'ayn, to be 
very slow, lit. to mnke a hole 
under the feet ; -k'i lapi to 
stand still ; ^k'i j'm 'ira//, not 
stable, joggling; ihang ^k'i pat^ 
tti/n, uncertain in his actions ; 
^k'i 'hi cslian, get up ; ^k'l 
f^cli'^ung shau^ cdm, to seek 
employment, or service; ^k'f 
kui^ tired from standing; ^k'i 
Hb k€ iicotig tap a de facto 
emperor, one who rules reiilly. 
:^^ To desire, to expect, to hope 
^f, for, desirous, eager; ICi\chati, 
one of the divisions of Ciiina 
in Yii'stime, now cirresnond- 
ingtoShansiand partof Cliih- 
li ; also a department in Chih- 
li ; AV mong^ to hope for ; k'l^ 
haug^ to wish one good luck. 

Violent, crafty, overbearing. 

A horse of noble breed, great 

r^. speed, and good point.'?; a per. 

feet horse ; a white carp ib 

To.\ DuT. 20 


called paki k'i' in Shantung ; 
fu' k'i* -mU to tag on a steed's 
tail, i. e. to look to one for 
promotion, to follow a man of 
0^ The sun peeping out ; and, 
W^- also, further, moreover ; to- 
gether with ; to give ; the end, 
the extremity ;*, just ; 
k'i^ lAa/n, just now ; H cki/ig i'i' 
k'api have just got to it, or 
seen it ; k'V tiV strenuously, 
daring ; A.^'i' hmt^ to send res- 
pects ; cii pal:i tsun' k'i' the rest 
need not be detailed ; — phra- 
ses used at the end of letters. 

^^' To plaster and color a wall, 
^. to stop up holes or cracks in a 

wall ; to lake, to collect ; to be 

quiet, to rest ; a breathing- 

spel', a little. 
I&r.' To plough deep for sowing ; 
{pj? plants set out close, thick-set; 

rice growing close. 



:j$fy To impede and set back 
^Y ^^''i'*^r, as rocks or a dike do 
in a current ; a rapid |>lace in 
a stream, made by an obstruc- 
tion; to excite to gratitude 
or anger, to rouse the feelings ; 
to stir up, lo vex, to irritate ; 
excitement, anger ; kikj iTtazi 
^k'u, to ve.v, to annoy and 
anger him ; 'kdm kik-) deeply 
siffected by kindness ; kik^ 'sz' 
^nso, worry me lo death ; kiky 
peng^ made sick by anxietj' ; 
A/7o fan iUung jWon, to exas. 
perate loyal subjects ; kiki tb' 
king' teased to anger. 





j^ To strike, (o beat, to tnp or ii 
■^^Miiiock on; to rush upon or 
against, to cliarge, to attack or | 
kill, as in battle ; to interfere 
with to injury — as in eating 
things disagreeing with each 
other; to see, to examine one's 
self; kUc'-ku, to drum; Jidu 
kih to beat, to pound a thing ; 
kih Hd, to fight. 
•jjEK. To put to death, to punish 
g^^^ capitally, to leave to perish. 

A lance with three points, a 
kind of halberd with a crescent 
knife on the side ; it is carried 
in processions for good luck ; 
kitii^ kih swords and spears ; 
(ch'i kih to grasp the spear, 
to take arms ; chap:, kih Jong, 
imperial halberdiers in former 
Ark Species of Rhamnus or Zizy- 
I^Yl^' phus, used for hedges ; thorny 
bushes generally, thickets, 
thorns, brambles ; met. trouble- 
some affairs ; fts'ang kih a 
lockup ; also, tliorny. 
j^ A collar of a coat, the part 

7?^,*' which envelops the neck, 
kill ' 

Kih A colloquial word ; to bind, 
jj>^, to take a loop, or tie up with a 
chain or cord ; keh chii- ^hu 
tie it fast, as a boat ; kek:,'^keng, 
to fasten by the neck, 
r^ Haste, speed, in a hurry ; 
-^'prompt, ready ; irascible, j 
' hasty ; to hasten ; kih ts'nh 
Ijr Tlic rulge-pole of a roof; 
^^' hence the utmost point, apex, 
' place, verge, degree ; very, ex- 
ceedingly ; sign of the su- 
perlative ; the end, limit; to 
exhaust, to carry to the ulniost, 

to reach to the end ; to take ; 
to let go a full drawn bow; 
weary, exhausted ; kiki '■ho, 
the best ; kih 'wn, the furthest; 
kih W the verge ; we/., done 
his best, can do no more, the 
last resort; kih miu} admirable, 
excellent, first-rate ; ss" kik> 
the four quarters; luki kih ze- 
nith, nadir, and the four quar- 
ters ; also, six calamities which 
happen to man ; pati kih the 
four cardinal points and their 
halves; pak^ kiki the north pole, 
north star ; t'di' kih_ (he pri- 
mum mobile,orcause of things, 
the ultimate immaterial prin- 
ciple of Chinese philosophers ; 
iWong A:fA^i indisputably correct, 
a fixed principle, such as are 
laid down by sages; kih (to, 
very plenty, in abundance ; 
kih. pat, tsoh unserviceable ; 
'ni 'c/io ^ngo cc/« kih you hin- 
der me very much. 



These two characters are usually pro- 
nounced k'ek. 

j^ll Unhappy, sad, miserable; 

F^|- troublesome ; to increase, to 
add to ; very ; a comedy or 
farce ; to trifle, to play, to 
gambol, or sport in any way; 
tsah k'eh to skip and play, to 
enjoy or divert one's felf ; hi" 
k'eh plays on the stage. 

^. Wooden-soled clogs or pat- 

D^iens; thung ^p'i k'eh red-top 
clogs ; muhk'eh wooden over- 
shoes ; fd^ k'eh an open heeled 






A conjunction, moreover, 
jj^-- together with, and, and also, 
with, in addition to ; equally, 
same ; to attend to several 
things; to join, to connect 
several together • connected ; 
to push one's self through a 
crowd, to squeeze through a 
crevice ; kang^ Mm, or Mm 
^i/(Ju, still also, there are more ; 
Mm iindi, put in together with; 
(fej/n Jtoi, take one with an- 
other ; Mm (hoi shiky '^shni, to 
contrast colors — as in a dress ; 
Mm pins^ to coalesce, to con- 
nect ; 7101" ago? Mm, to oversee 
everywhere ; fo' (S&ung Mm, 
to lump the goods ; Mm (.cfii 
'■kdm tching tso- tak:, it will do 
when it is made complete; Mm 
ship, in addition to, assistance ; 
ck:m yapi hu' force your way 
through ; Mm chii^ Jlai t-sb^ he 
can do all, or make him do 
them all; ^km iyan^chileung' 
a trencher-man, one who eats 
double of others. 

A thick kind of lustring, 
woven close so as to shed ra in ; 
it is now called kiiii'. 

A marshy plant, a kind of 
sedge, called Mm .kd, which 
cattle fatten on. 

A fabulous bird, with one 
wing and eye, which needs the 
help of another like it, to be 
able to fly; birds flying in pairs. 
&# The sole tish, (called 'pi mtik, 
j^^ iii, or paired-eye's fish,) sup- 
posed to have one eve, and 
swim in pairs, clas|)ed to each 



\im ^" envelope : a label or title 
■^^ put on a hook ; a model, a pat- 
tern, a rule; to sort, to arrange, 
to collate ; to compose a book ; 
to examine ; its'un Mm, the 
magistrate of a iSz' or town- 
ship ; '^sau Mm ikun, an officer 
who searches literary candi- 
dates on entering the exami- 
-IK To coerce, to repress ; to 
1^^ gather and bind together; to 
collect, to collate ; to choose ; 
'kimHim, to arrange in order ; 
'^kim ch'vk-, to keep in order, 
to restrain; Mm ip'in, to collate 
a book for binding. Used in- 
terchangeably with the last. 
Also read Him. 

SSB Read (hdm, same as slf? a 
Han species of Area, or bivalves 
with furrowed shells. Read 
^kim, the name of a kind of 
silure (Siluruf sinensis?) com- 
mon in the markets and tanks 
of Canton, 
yfejj' A two-edged sword, a rapier ; 
^r' yaJi 'j?d kim^ a sword ; ishukim' 
a student's sword ; c/z imb kim' 
a sharp sword ; 'mo kim' to 
fence ; kvn' hok, a scabbard ; 
kvri' shuU art of fencing ; shiti 
kim' (Shun J.s'tung, tongue and 
lips like swords, sarcastic. 
^' Moderate, temperate, frugal, 
jl^ economical, sparing; close fist- 
ed, stingy ; (al' kim* o\er- 
frugal, mt;an ; kvn} yung' eco- 
nomical ; kim^ lun' nig<;anllv, 
miserly ; kim' pok^ to acl 
meanly toone; parsifuoiiious; 
kim- iu^ taki Mi "^shj, we want 
just enough for his needs. 

156 K:i.M. 

('«») K'im. 



Used for the next, as a verb, 

pinch, to nip, to grasp: 

hau., silent, afraid to 

siieiik, gagged ; to Carrv under 

the arm ; ik'im c/iij^ to seize 


Pincers, nippers, tweezfrs, 

K.. ^forceps, tongs ; a ring on cliil- 
dren s necks; a kind of collar 
put on prisoners ; to pinch or 
grasp with [)incers, to gripe ; 
in Hunan, used to meiin to 
rail at or upbraid ; t'if) Ji'im, 
iron forcfps; '■fo Jiim, fire 
tongs ; (jk^im '^hau, to gag one ; 
ik'im hdp) to take up with pin- 
cers or chopsticks : '^shau Js'im 
manncles; '■keng Jiim, a torque 
for the neck, worn by chil- 
dren ; '■hd '■hau Jiim, a good 
Often interchanged with the 
„^. Inst in its meaning of pincers; 
a kind of door-lock; ckauik^rm 
two stars in Scorpio, used in 
astrology ; Jc'im kV a wooden 
seal, used by officers below a 
district magistrate. 

Tweezers ; to lock : used with 
the last two ; jt'im ^u, to inter- 
dict free speech, to forbid or 
gag public opinion ; ^mdik'im, 
the bit of a bridle. 
ppZv Black hair ; jt'm ^shav, 
^^;7_" black heads," a name given 
tofhe Chinese by Chi Hwang- 
ti from their black kerchiefs; 
a name applied to Kweichau 

To remove a criminal'^ hair, 
as a punishment ; a purplish 






KIX. , 

(130) Kin. 

t5X Hard, solid, firm, durable ; 
^jj^jj sound ; stout, hale, robust; 
determined, persevering, con. 
stant, resolute, unwavering ; 
to establish, to confirm, to 
strengthen ; to harden, to con- 
geal ; (kin Au' solid, durable; 
(kin s/iati firm, well made ; cor- 
rect conduct ; (kin vndug^ 
unbending, hard; (Sam Jcin, 
resolute ; kdin^ ckin, eo fine ! 
elegant, indeed ! (kin iyJnf, 
hardened, concrete, stiffened ; 
(kvhsamngai^fi firm resolution; 
ikin chap-> fixed in one's way. 

^ The shoulder ; tl)e scapula ; 
to take upon, to bear, to sus- 
tain, competent to ; firm ; an 
animal three years old ; (kin 
sf'au or (kin jiok^ the shoulder : 
(kin '■pong, the fleshy part of 
anarm; sf/ ///^'tAirt, equals, of 
the sariie grade, co-equals; "^haii 
'^shni tH/»,abib; (kin (I'iii pui' 
fv} hard labor, moiling and 
toiling for support ; sik:,(kin, to 
withdraw the shoulder, to de- 
sist ; iWan (kin, a kind of man- 
tilla worn by ladies ; yaty (kin 
(1dm. idV to engage to do a 
thing, to carry it through. 

tnl Equal, level ; hands lifted up 

t/' even : a surname ; name of a 
Kien ,. , . . 

*TX ^ tributary of the river Wai 

\^J in Shensf, and a district in 

,/^"that province is called Kien- 

y;ing hien ; water forming in 

pools, stagnant water, 

jm: A pig three years old, a fall 

'^. ' grown hog ; a hornless animal 

like a deer. 






A castrated ox, a strong ox ; 
a fabulous monster, half leo- 
pard half man. 

Lame, halt, weak in the legs; 
feehle, unable to work ; diffi- 
cult ; disastrous, unhappy, un- 
fortunate, afflicted ; the 61st 
diacram, which denotes ill- 
luck ; to pull up; crboived ; 
lofiy, proud ; ming^ '^kin j-?//i 
chrdi, fates against one, un- 
lucky ; ^Ari/J indn, difficult ; 
(Chjin 'H'J, inff^licMtous ; cpai 
'■kin, unfitted for work. 

To see, to look at, to notice ; 
to perceive by the senses ; to 
visit; the 147lh radical; an I^ 
opinion, a mental view ; see- j 
in^, observing, feelinsr, im- ] 
pressed by ; forms reflective ; 
verbs ; and denotes the passive i, 
voice and past time; d'eng\; 
kill' to hear ; kin^ kird' seen ; 
kin^ iSau ^ch'u to feel ashamed, 
to be mortified ; cAd kW your 
opinion ;'<*'/nff/i;i/t^ kdu' please 
tell me, or let me know ; moki 
kin' siu' don't smile, don't 
laugh at it ; kin' hV rejected ; 
j/iO 'i kin' ttik^ by what will it 
be seen ? ^yd ]>at, kin' iak-, per- 
haps it will be, it is uncertain ; 
kin''k'u^yau pe/i^;^ seeing that 
he was ill ; kin' l^ profital)le, 
advantageous ; '/lo kin' '■lid 
'ch'au, can thus know its 
qualify ; kin' Js'nn j'/n Js'ang. 
have you seen it yourself? 
kin' H'd 'pa", eaten enough ; 
^nd mat, '^chu kin' I do not 
know what to do, I have no 
plan ; kin' shik,ckd, extensive 
knowledge ; kin' Hai, to be 
polite ; s-iung kin' an inter- 

view, to see one ; chink:: kin' 
see it clearly ; kin' J, suspi- 
cious; ^yan kin' to introduce 
to ; kin' iki 4 Hsd, sagacious, to 
see a chance. Read in^ in the 
same sense as JH in'. 
t^' To establish, to confirm as 
^^ laws or institutions ; to erect, 
to place, to set up, to con- 
stitute ; to build ; kin'lapi to 
establisli ; kin' Ud^ to build, 
to erect; kin' Jcung, to act 
meritoriously; kin' ^16, to build 
or found a capital ; fcin' :sing, 
If in Sagittarius. 
f^' The bolt, or key of a lock, 
j^j~' commonly called 'so 'sd; a 
nave or hub ; kin^ pai' the two 
parts of a Chinese lock. 
^^'] Strong, fnduring, vigorous, 
^jj-hale, healthy, robust; inde- 
i^ j fafisiable. unwearied: ^k'inng 
Kien kin' able-bodied, in the prime 
of life; '/id kin' healthy; ^tsing 
kin'^ feeling well ; kin^ tsiing^ 
a legal process, to go to law ; 
pah lik-i kin^ a rapid penman. 
The second and common 
form is unauthorized. 
M^^ To divide, to partake, to se- 
J.' parate; a classifier used to 
denote a particular article, 
subject, or afliair, and there- 
fore applied very widely to 
dress, food, incidents, goods, 
things, &c.; often means 
merely a or an, one ; kin' kin* 
(to 'yaii, we have everything 
[we nepd] ; yati kin^ mnt} kin} 
a single thing ; yat, kin' sz'- an 
aflfair ; dil tdi' sz" kin' things 
hanging from the girdle; cfati 
,hoi yat-> kin^ kin- arrange each 
by itself. 








Heaven, the power or agency 
of heaven ; a sovereign, a 
father ; the first diagram ; 
enduring, stable, superior, 
strong ; diUgent ; (k'in (kw'an, 
heaven and earth, father and 
mother, prince and minister. 
The firm step of a tiger ; 
determined, pertinacious, sin- 
cere, ingenuous, inflexible ; 
attentive, correct, pious, de- 
vout : to venerate, to respect ; 
to take by force, to kill ; a 
tiger killing his prey; a cleav- 
ing-block ; trifling, unimport- 
an\;ik'tn kit-, clean, spotless, 
pure in person ; Jcin cshing 
(Wan, exceedingly correct, 
fastidious; ik'in csam, hon- 
est, guileless; ck'^in ko^ respect- 
fully to inform. 
A dun horse with a yellow- 

To raise up or carry on the 
shoulder, to lift ; to fix a fron- 
tier, to establish ; to stop up, 
to close. 

A colloquial word ; to lift 
off a cover, to take off; to 
turn over a leaf; "^k'tn s'm 'Ai, 
I can not take off the cover ; 
^k'in '/>'i 'Ar'awj, to pull the 
coverlet over one. 



-^- Great, lofty ; top of a moun. 

' ^ tain or hill ; extensive ; a 

^"^ capital or the metropolis of 

a kingdom ; ten millions ; 

^shMufi (kins, lo go to the 

capital ; Pak: (king, Peking : 


(king rh'du, or (king po' the 
Peking gazettes ; (king 'kti^, 
dried fruit ; (king dd, a metro- 
polis ; (king Jsing pd' blue 
To fear ; to forbear from; 

T^ (king (king, wary, cautious, 
respectful, guarded, uneasy, 
watchful, anxious, die, ac- 
cording to the context ; chin' 
(king, trembling. 

On^ Tiie threads of a web, the 

\yp^ warp; meridians of longitude ; 
King . ' .1 r 

veins ; the menses ; to 

through, before, by, or across : 
a sign of past time ; to weave 
or interlace ; to manage, to 
regulate, to superintend ; the 
p*^rson through whose hands 
business passes ; what is regu- 
lar, right, or orderly ; laws, 
canons ; canonical books, 
standard book?, classics ; tsz*^ 
(king, to hang one's self ; (king 
'^wai, warp and woof; (king 
iying, to ponder upon, to spe- 
culate, to trade ; (king '^ki, a 
broker, a niidsman ; (king 
ixhing, head clerk in a custom 
house; (king lih or (king d'ing, 
chief secretary in the yamun 
of a commissioner or prefect ; 
(king "^shau tsoh did it with 
my own hand : j'wi (king '^shmi, 
it did not pass through my 
hands ; (king kwa' to pass by ; 
its'ang (kiog kia^ kwo' I have 
seen it ; iSiin (king, after this, 
thereupon ; pat.-, ,]cing sz"^ (Chi 
iyan, a new hand, inexperien- 
ced ; (king 'shui, the menses ; 
nim' (king, to read prayers, 
incantations ; (king kwai? ex- 
cellent, superior ; (king ^kiin. 




under or within the jurisdic- 
tion of; shing^ (king, the Bible ; 
(king shipi kito^ 1 have for- 
merly done or carried it on. 

5gt A large tributary of the YeJ. 

'J. low River in Shensi, whose 
^ waters are muddy ; to flow 
through or straight across, to 
join by water ; a fountain. 

3i/^ To pity, to compassionate, 

* /. ' to feel for ; concerned for, re- 

Kmg ... • etc 

°gretting ; sparing, careful of, 

regardful; conceited, boastful, 
bragging ; to control one's 
self, self-respect ; dangerous, 
hazardous; to esteem, to value; 
iking ihn, to commiserate ; 
Vjo (king, pitiable ; (king ikmd, 
bragging ; jii (king }un, fish 
scales growing apart or large ; 
pah (king sai/ Jiang, to disre- 
gard small affairs. Read (kan, 
the haft of a pike, a staff or 
^ti| A bush found in Hunan, 
'j^V ' slender and lithe, formerly 
^used for punishing criminals ; 
there are several species ; spi- 
nous, prickly; furze, brambles ; 
(king kik) thorny, difficult of 
accomplishment ; cJti«^ cts'ai, 
my wife ; su^ mi- shik:, (king, 
I have not before seen your 
face; (King(Chau '■fu, a depart- 
ment in Hupeh ; (king (Shan, 
a hill where gems are found ; 
(king (t'iu, a rod. 

(This and the next character are usually 
pronounced keng.) 

:^ A shy horse ; to terrify, to 

l^ affright, to scare, to alarm ; 

^perturbed, alarmed, scared; 

astonished ; (keng tung^ much 

e.xcited ; .keng Jioi, afraid ; 

:j)o long^ (keng, fear of drown- 
ing ; tnoki (keng ^k' u, don't 
alnrm her ; ch^ut, (keng, to 
remove timidity in children 
by some incantations ; (keng 
p'd^ to fear ; (keng p'o^ Ham, 
dead from fright. 
'^S '1 he neck, specially the front 
^^ of the neck, the throat : also 

King >• 1 i ^1 ' n 

applied to the narrow part ot 
things ; the temper, the dis- 
position; Hing ''keng, ill match- 
ed, disliking each other ; '//d 
'-keng, patient, mild ; "-keng 
kap, quick, not tardy ; moki 
'■shai '^keng, don't be obstinate ; 
'■fo "-keng, irascible, restive ; 
'■keng tdi^ a neck-ribbon or 
cloth ; (Chd 'keng, to hold one's 
peace ; no^ 'mni 'keng, weak, 
mild ; s'm 'Ad 'keng kwaU a bad 
disposition ; ^man '■keng (kitii, 
intimate friends ; (Skavg 'keng 
lik'. lumps growing on the 
neck ; 'pdn 'keng, intractable, 
'jffij^"! To warn, to caution, fo 
'*^^ enjoin, to threaten with a pe- 
^^] nalty ; to forbid, to arouse, to 
King urge to reform ; to disturb, to 
alarm the secure ; 'kins shai' 
to arouse the age ; 'king kdi* 
hd- te's'^ to strictly forbid a 
repetition of; (Cham 'king, 
rules for guidance. 
^■^ Bright clear, sunlight ; bril- 
^h liant, illumined by the sun ; a 
good site, a fine view, a pros- 
pect ; the appearance, figure, 
aspect, or circumstances of a 
place or thing ; a lion, a rari- 
ty, a curiosity : great, e.vten- 
sive ; a resemblance, form, 
imagining, fancy ; to look tip 
to or regard with afiection, 




longing for ; the style or mnke 
of dress ; ''king haiifi^ i^'dfig 
'cAi, striving locidliere to high 
principles, to hcl up to prin- 
ciple ; '^king chV a prospect, 
a vistu ; ikirong ^kitig, circum- 
stances, situation, prospects; 
a liindscipe, iippnarance of 
nature or of a country; '■pal 
'^k'og, to display rare things ; 
iyiu'ig isJieng fati ""king, the 
eight lions of Cunton ; ^mb 
''king, lias a bad face, disre- 
putable ; '-in moki tong' 'king, 
don't think too much of it ; 
ds^inn'king, neat aiid tasteful ; 
(kdi'king, fine scenery, easy, 
pleasant circumstances ; (^ts^ai 
iUung 'king, looking snd, got 
the blues ; 'hd ^mdn 'king, a 
good sky at evening, fair pros- 
pects, promising circumstan- 
ces ; kill' 'king ^shayig Js'ing, 
suspicious, to act according 
to circumstances ; ishi 'king, 
signs of the times, 
'-^ To -exhaust, to finish ; to 

_/ti examine fully ; the end, the 
King , a . ■ ,• 

^ close, a confine, termination, 

the iitmost ; then, at last, fin- 
ally ; 'king ^md ynt:, <,in, never 
said a word: ^md 'king, unli- 
mited ; prt/j 'king, to the last, 
after all ; doubtless; 'king ^in 
j'm jZrtJ (tn^t wont he couie at 
all ? 'king i'm 'liia, did not at 
all understand ; 'king tsz^^ hu' 
HiH, still you. went. 
'iSi A limit, boundary, frontier, 
/^ border ; marchen, confines ; 
^ abode, place where one lives ; 
a neighborhood ; a district : 
state, condition of life, status ; 
kwai' 'kingy vour residence or 

street ; 'king kdi' a boundary ; 
shun- 'king, good circum- 
stances, pleasantly situated ; 
ip'ung ihiisin 'king, fairy land, 
supposed to be in the west. 
(As a noun, usually pronounced kmg.) 
ir,^' A mirror, a glass, a lock ng- 
K 0- g'^'SS ; to reflect, to illusrace ; 
"clear, br g'lt ; ^ngdn keng* 
spectacles; ^U'in Hi kenj^ a 
spy-glass; pdh <fd keng^ a 
glass cut into segments ; miu^ 
keng^ a looking glass ; c/tiw' 
hd^ keng' o\ look in the glass !^ (.chong, a dressing-case ; 
keng' kotii' <rning, clear as a 
mirror, perspicacious; ^riling 
keng^ Jed iiin, it is clearly 
retiected in your mind — said 
in praise of astute officers. 
'hin (mi keng^ a microscope ; 
chiu' (Shan keng' a pier-glass. 
■ii.L^ Attentive, sedate, cautious, 
^}^ serious; respectfully ;^tosl»o\v 
'"^respect to, to esteem, to hon- 
or ; to venerate, to worship, to 
adore ; to watch one's self, to 
apply the mind to ; king\.':han, 
reverence the gods ; 'hbfung' 
king' a present to a parent or 
friend ; A;/"^' (S/""N self train- 
ing ; king' sik^ tsz'^ 'clii, have 
respect to written paper; king' 
'tsau, to present one a glass of 
wine ; king' chung' to hold iri 
hiorh esteem ; king' tdk 'chi, I 
respectfully inform you. 
ISL'^ A sideway, a path, a bye- 
'-*-• I way, a short cut, a briiile- 
^5^ I path, a goat. path among 
King hills; straight throug'i, di- 
rect ; the diameter ; quick, 
prompt ; to go, to pass by ; 
tsiti kin^' an easv way, a 




short modo ; king' lo^ a near 
path ; J^e king' smart, under- 
hand, tricky conduct ;— the 
opposite of king' ^'ing, 
5B5' Interchanged with the pre- 
2: — cedinor • to api>roach, to near,' 
to pass by, to go up to ; king > 
(.ting, widely unHke, far apart, j 

0?{J' The leg-hone ; the legs of j 
J.'^ birds and animals ; k'au' king' ^ 
■= hit his shins — to teach him ; 
king' kwali the shank. 
^jJ Hard, firm, stiff; strong, 
^/' robust, vigorous ; unyielding, 
overbearing, indefatigable ; 
(fitng iiw^^ a stiff breeze; king^ 
tiki well-matched enemies. 
Ai.' Violent, strong ; great, abun- 
j?:'"^dant ; emulous, pragmatic, 
° bickering, testy, boisterous; to 
contend, to force, to struggle 
for, to drive off; (hoi king^ to 
begin a fray ; (Chdvg king^ 
wrangling ; cKtd:, ^yan J.'au 
king^ excelling others, distin- 
guished ; jWio king^ unambi- ; 



/g The head leaning ; one sid 
'Jt^^ cd, aslant, inclined, falling ; ' 
° entirely, wholly ; to overturn, ' 
to subvert, to prostrate ; to 
waste, to squander ; to smelt, 
ii» .issay, to purify metals, to 
t^'st ; to talk, to debate, to 
wrangle; Jcing'^tOy to pour out, 
subverted, fallen, prostrated : 
,k' iiig Ho 'L'ii, silenced him, 1 
convinced him; (k'ing 'l>uii\ 

Toy. Dier. 21 

«'^ to maintain one's own 
merits ; (k'ing iVgan, to assay 
silver ; (k'ing (Sam iitifuki cor- 
dial, hearty submission ; (king 
iTiong (S^ung tsang^ gave him 
all his purse ; (k'ing lun' broken 
down, ruinous ; (k'ing H, to 
incline the ear ; (k'ing (kd 
^ch'dn, to ruin an estate ; rndu' 
tiuk) (k'ing isheng, the city 
was last from her great beau- 
ty ; (k'ing pdi^ defeated, de- 
stroyed ; (k'ing che' a game of 
striking sugar-cane ; ik'ing ha} 
Uung^ to discuss one's ability 
to drink ; (k'ing '■hbm, to break 
by hitting against each other ; 
(k'ing ^hi (Slian (kd, si>ent his 
money ; (k'ing yat, ^mdn, to 
talk the livelong night ; (k'ing 
noi^ tik, stay a little longer. 
A carnation or red gem ; 
precious coral ; small, pretty 
gems ; <,K'ing ichau '■fit., the 
island of Hainan ; Jcing iiu, 
fairy land. 
-^-"1 Alone, desolate, no relative 
^^^ I ^^ protector ; downcast, sor- 
5*^ 5^ rowing; Jcing ^ngdn tnong^ 
Lpjto stare at fixedly; (k'ing 
't^-* <k'ins md kd' without any 
one to open the heart to ; no 
resource. The third cha- 
racter also means childless. 
•ilj Strong, violent ; ik'ing tiki a 
l^|>' powerful enemy. 

b^ A whale, the largest of sea 
l^'{'^» monsters, fabled to be a thou- 
^ sand li long ; ik'ing (t'an, to 
swindle, to take or swallow 
all ; jfrV ik'ing ^sh{'ung (I'm, 
to ride a whale to heaven — 
as Li Taipch did. 

K'iung I 





m-^ To mark the face with black 
K^*r "pots ; ik'ing min' to brand 
the faces of criminals ; called 
also ts'iki tst'* ; maki Jcingy 
to ink the face, to tattoo. 
j^fe To elevate, to raise up high 
^^ with the hands ; Jcing Jcun, 
to bow with the hands above 
the head ; Jciiig it'in ^c/i'ii, a 
pillar of state, an ofiiccr who 
can raise the state to heaven. 
A colloquial word, to settle, 
as turbid fluids ; to freeze, to 
coagulate, to curdle ; Hang 
ik'ittg tts'ing, let it settle 
clear ; Jiing ikon, to stand 
till dry. 
^^ A stand for a lamp, or a wall, 
light ; a frame to set a bow 
in when stringing it ; Mng 
ik'ing, a lamp-stand, a wall- 
'li§ ^ hundred ^mau, equivalent 
j/y- to 1 5 j'^^^ sq. acres, the largest 
of land measures ; an instant, 
a moment, a glance; a basket; 
in epitaphs, has the meaning 
*of trembling, respectful; the 
head inclined ; '^Ic'ing hah a 
very short time ; '■k'ing iUi a 
brief glance at, a cursory 
reading ; mdn^ '^Icing, a wide 
range, a vast expanse ; '■k'ing 
^on, I've just heard ; '■ki do 
'■k'ing ^mau, how many acres 
are there ? 

eo-J) Kip. 

> To plunder, to rob openly, 
ito take violently ; a kulpa or 

^J< Budhist period of five hun. 

Kieh dred years; ages; Hd ktp^ 
robbery with fighting; kiy^ 

Uuki ynt) ihung, to plunder 
everything ; to make a clean 
sweep; shau^ kip, to be robbed; 
kip) shik] to seize women for 
ravishing; ikdi ^yau kip^ thd^ 
all came to an end through 
means of the robbery. A collo- 
quial word, meaning astrin- 
gent, bitter, puckering the 
mouth; sleepy; iCh'd ^yung ti^ 
kip) the tea is very strong ; 
kipi kipi naki nah sour and 
astringent ; ^ngdn kip^ eyelids 
heavy, dozmg. 
y^ To pinch ; to clasp under 
tA'- the arm ; a clasp ; a wrapper, 
a portfolio ; ihdi kipi k^uL the 
shoe pinches the foot ; kipi 
(Shii kipi take the portfolio 
under your arm ; kipi ds'an 
'^shau '^chif to pinch the finger. 



*^ Limpid, pure, clear; un- 
/^."tainted, above bribes, clean- 
handed, pure-minded ; neat, 
clean, trim, tidy ; to purify, to 
cleanse, to correct ; kit-, ds'ing, 
or Ming 4i/j clean (as water), 
pure, white ; kit, tsing- clean, 
unde filed ; kity '■kifung- .kung, 
to refuse bribes in the public 
service ; kU^ ^shan ikwai, to 
retire from office with unsulli- 
ed fame. 

^ The end of a thread ; a 
^i^ marking-line; a rule of ac- 
tion; to measure, to reduce 
to order, to bring within 
bounds, as a river : kit, lok> to 
adjust ; kit, tsing^ pure. Used 
for the preceding. 





jH: A knot, a knob made of cord ; 

v^l a skein, a hank ; to work or 
weave in knots, to knit ; to 
tie, to fasten, to bind ; to con- 
tract, to bind parties ; stiff, as 
dry paste or dough ; to set, as 
fruit; to induce, as ill-will; 
an agreement, bond, compact, 
engagement ; united, banded 
together, engaged, tied, fixed ; 
kit} hdpi contracted, complet- 
ed, as a bargain; kit, ch^ung'' 
or k'Ut iTigan, to pay money on 
account; kit, c's'an, to con- 
tract a marriage ; yat, kit, csz' 
sW a skein of silk : kit, iiti the 
12th month ; kii^pdi'lo pledge 
friendship ; kit, on' to decide 
a case ; kit, tsung^ to open a 
case in court ; '■kwo kit, Hiu, 
the fruit has set ; kit, hnong, to 
knit nets ; kit, '^nau, to braid 
a button ; kit, Hs'oi, to hang 
festoons , wat, kit, sullen ; kit, 
jin, the last words ; yati hav} 
ikwai kit, to settle it up after- 
wards, to see how an affair 
turns out finally; kit,'^ kwo sing' 
ming^ to take one's life ; '^shui 
^shitL hai- kit, it will be stiff if 
there is too little wafer ; kit, 
{TTidi tik, hat, coagulated blood. 
To carry off something in 
'Pjthe skirt of a dress, to lift up 
an apron or skirt. 
Suffering, laborious ; sepiirat- 

„. j'ed from friends; wide, parted ; 
to carve, to cut off ; kU, fut, 
open, as a place ; disparted, 
as friends. 

Ad: A hen-roost ; courageous, 

^^S' excelling, gifted with great 
qualities, magnanimous ; one 
of a thousand, a hero — for 

this the next is used ; harsh, 

cruel, villainous, murderous, 

truculent ; to lift a atone ; 

Kiti Kwai' the last monarch of 

the Hid dynasty, b. c. 1818. 

/^ Eminent in talents an 1 vir- 

jpT^I^ tue, a hero ; proud, self-willed, 

opinionated ; shoots of grain ; 

lying kiti a heroine, a person 

of great parts. 

^1^ Name of a famous sfafes- 

A»»Y man called (Ngai^ Kiti) Wei 

Kieh, A. D. 956, in the days 

of the After Chau dynasty. 



m To lift up, to lift or take off, 
K*^!! ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ cover ; to raise the 
dress ; to borrow ; to take 
upon, to bear, to undertake ; 
responsible for ; to publish or 
make known ; k'it, hong' bor- 
rowed capital ; k'it, Mn, a 
note of hand ; k'it, t'ip^ a pla- 
card, a pasquinade, an anony- 
mous statement ; k'it, ts6' to 
borrow ; k'it, ^hiii, to issue a 
list of graduates ; k'it, {fung 
ip'i, to take off the seals from 
a door, remove the fastenings ; 
k'it, shd' an account due ; k'it, 
Hiin, to post one, to censure. 
•^ To exhaust, to carry to the 

^7^/ utmost ; to sink awav, want- 
K.ieh . , 1 'i , , 

ing; to carry on the shoulder ; 

exhausted power, like that of 
the five elements, which are 
then succeeded by others ; de- 
feated ; k'it, lik, weakened, to 
exhaust one's strength ; its'oi 
k'it, impoverished ; k'it, kitt, H 
fu^ to exert one's utmost 
strength to reach. 




AK Martial, urgent ; eyertinjr 
j^jj one's strength ; k'it, k'iU iWai 
i^ sedulous or diligent in ob- 
serving or doing right. Inter- 
changed with tlie last. 
J^ A round stone pillar with 
j^l^^ an inscription ; an iguille or 
sharp projecting rock like the 
Skillig rock near Ireland; there 
is one on the coast of Chihli, 
near the Great Wall ; the 
fluttering of birds. 
4R To go and come, to depart ; 
j^^' a brave, valiant look. 

h4: To judge, to demand of, to 
iTieh iiterif^gJite with authority, to 
inform one's self; to prohibit, 
to correct and lay restrictions; 
to reduce the rebellious to 
order ; k'U:, waU intractable, 
cacophonous, as sounds ; k'iU 
^hau ikung, to take evidence 
of prisoners ; ip'un k'Ui to ex- 
amine ; k'U: iChiiif to-morrow 
ig A stiflfor straight neck ; to 
Ki^h ^y upwards ; k'U, wdio difficult 
to do ; artful speech to de- 
ceive ; to rob, to plunder. 
^T. To discover secrets, to pub- 
Kieh ''^*^' ^o reveal, to bring to light ; 
to charge with a fault, to ques- 
tion in regard to an accusation, 
to reprove ; k'it, lyan Hun ch'ii' 
to remark on people's faults ; 
»nin'A;'i<5to personally reprove. 
i^S To lift up and put the skirt 
j^l'^^'in the girdle to hold some- 
thing in it; to carry some- 
thing in the dress. 
^ A man without his right 
^.^jj arm ; alone, solitary, abandon- 
ed, orphan-like ; a remnant, 
short, left, or behind ; a kind 

of halberd ; strong, hale ; k'Ui 
k'it] the larvas of musketoes ; 
preeminent, alone ; k'Ui "^ying 
Jiu dang, solitary before a 
lonely lamp ; k'it^ shiU tongue- 
tied ; k'iti sin yah (Shan, quite 
^h To raise from the enrtli, to 
^^^i hold up, to dangle or susponn ; 
to protect ; to put in or«Ur, to 
adjust; itdi k'iti to lii't •.^\u\ 
carry ; k'it:, cli'ut:, ifan iCh'uu, 
raised him above (or beyond) 
the world. Read k'ai\ and 
used for ^. 



Jj^ Beautiful, comely, graceful, 
'^^ delicate, tender ; dear, lovely ; 
an affected, elegant, polished, 
manner ; a stylish figure or 
form ; to cry or whine for, pet- 
ted, spoiled ; ckhi kwat' dainty, 
delicate ; ikiu ^yeung, to bring 
up tenderly, to spoil by over 
fondness, to wink at vice ; 
(kiu lidki a son-in-law; applied 
also to distinguished guests ; 
M ikiii, like a syren, seduc- 
tive, a fairy ; chd^ (.kin, teasing, 
crying for, as spoiled children; 
ikiu csheng, a kind, winning 
voice ; a querulous, higii key- 
ed tone ; A\Kiu, a bcjiiiliful 
woman in the days of NVnti, 
B. c. 100; applied as nn on- 
dearing name ; ,ioMv, voin- 
daughter; (kiu (fs'ai, mv dcnr 
wife ; iWong (kiu, th^ '•' xolluw 
beauty," i. e. wine ; (kii'i f'lii' 
lady-like, genteel ; Jdu ^mi, 
fresh, beautiful. 










A stately horse, a wild, rep- 
tive horse; proud, haughty, 
ungovernable, self-confident, 
conceited ; to glory in, to 
disdain ; ckiu nsd^ proud, over- 
bearing ; ^kiii ckw'd, presump- 
tuous : Mu ^ch'^ iwan, pride 
and waste, showy ; c/ci« tsung^ 
kwdn' indulged till he is con- 

A small species of pheasant, 
with a long tail, and perhaps 
akin to the barred-tailed or 
Reeves' pheasant (Syrmati- 
cus)\ it constantly clucks (A:i« 
iJciut whence its name. 

To sprinkle, to irrigate, to 
water; to dip; false, perfidi- 
ous, ungrateful ; Mu Idpi chuk, 
to dip candles ; ikiu ifd, to 
water flowers ; ckiii poki false, 
hardhearted. Read Jtiu, an 

A high peak, where no water 
remains ; ^un '■kiu, one of five 
lofty hills in Shantung, where 
genii dwell. 

The wrilhings and squirm- 
ingg of a snake ; to stretch or 
wriggle one's self; a kind of 

Straight ; to straighten ; to 
bend to ; to rectify, to correct 
what is wrong; martial, strong, 
to simulate, to deceive ; frau- 
dulent ; to usurp, to exercise 
undue authority ; '■kiu ^k'eung, 
to force the unwilling; '■kiu 
ming^ to feign orders ; '/tiii 
fjiin, oppressive, seizing by 
force ; 'fci(i '^yau Uv^ tsok:, to act 
for one's interest, time serv- 
ing. Often interchanged with 
the next. 


'4^ To lift up the hand, to grasp ; 
j!/ firm, unyielding; to straight- 
en ; false, feigning ; used col- 
loquially to wipe, to rub ; '^kiu 
^ngdn lui^ to wipe away tears ; 
'>tm '■tsui, to wipe the mouth ; 
'Arm ikon tseng^ wipe it clean. 
Read kiu' to take a little ; to 
pry open, to pry up with a 
lever ; to stick in, to obstruct ; 
kill' icharri' to pin ; kiii^ /in 
kong' a spendthrift, lit. one 
who carries ofi' land ; kiu' chii^ 
-md kevh to «« prevent the 
horse's legs," to argue with 
one against a plan, to hinder 
a thing, to interfere with ; kiu* 
chij} ^ngdn iyan, he is an eye- 
sore to me. 

To bind, to wind around ; 
to reel ; to pay to ; to deliver 
up, to hand to an officer ; leg 
wrappers; '^kiu sin' to wind 
thread ; '^iw iwdn, to pay back; 
jM/j ^kiu, paid up, settled ; 'kiu 
'kiin, to hand in an essay ; 
^kiti (.kiirii to surrender up ; '^kiu 
ichong, to deliver up stolen 
goods. Read cheuk, to tie a 
string to an arrow when it is 

White, lustrous, refulgent, 
like a bright gem, such as an 
opal ; ^yau jti 'kiu yaJi bright 
as the sun. 
'^g To raise the feet ; caracol- 
^y} ing of horses ; to march ; 'kiu 

ktuk^ to cross the legs. 
'±^ A sedan ; formerly denoted 
^.•fJ a covered chaise ; yat:, 'ting 
^kiii, a sedan ; chuk:, ^kiu, bam- 
boo sedan ; (cJiong 'Arm, tilt the 
.sedan ; 'Ariu kong' sedan thills ; 
c/u ^kiu, a bride's chair ; (ming 





^kia, an open chair, used by 
officers ; ^t'oi ^kiu 'Zd, sedan- 
bearers ; Iso^ ^kiu, to ride in a 
sedan ; jpdU ^kiu, a sedan for 
eight bearers. 

|g| '1 To call, to send for, to call 
^ [upon ; to cry out ; to name ; 

0^ I to cause ; to commiind, to tell 
.Kiau to do, to persuade ; named, 
eJut>,ju, C'^^lled, termed ; (fa Hsz^ kiu^ 
ikdi, the beggars cry in the 
street; ^'m^siuug kiu^ not on 
speaking terms ; kiu' Jioi kW 
iinaif one who can run er. 
rands; kiu^ p'o' ihau Jung, to 
call till one is hoarse ; kiu^ 
mati iineng, what is your (or 
its) name ? yat:, kiu' tsati' td^ 
came as soon as called ; mat:, 
ishui kii? ^iii tsd^ who told 
you to do that 1 ^ni maU ^y^ 
kiu' taki ^ngo kdm' j'm (O/i, 
why do you thus disturb me? 
kiu^ ts'dki to cry thieves ! kiu^ 
kav? meng^ to cry out for help ; 
kiu' '^seng, wake him up ; kiu' 
a' you are called. 



: A bridge ; planks laid across 
' streams ; a thwart, or cross 
beams supporting frames or 
other parts, as in a well-sweep ; 
a viaduct; the arch of the foot ; 
a vacant part, where the ends 
are supported ; a stately tree, 
whose branches grow upward 
like a cypress or poplar ; met. 
a father, in the phrase Jciu 
'tsz'; ling^ Jc'in Hsz' you father 
and son ; yaUtd' Jciu, a bridge; 
ktm' Jciii shut, wa' news, 
street talk ; kwo^ Jtiu ^cfiau 

'pan, to pass the bridge and 
raise the board, i. e. to make a 
catspaw of one ; ^'ng higdn 
Jciu, a five arched bridge ; 
{rnun Jciu, a door-lintel ; Jciu 
Han, the buttress of a bridge ; 
ts'6uk)ik'iu, the crow's bridge ; 
made for Chih.nii — a fairy 
story ; Jiang Jciu, a suspen- 
sion bridge ; fau Jciu, a float, 
ing bridge, a temporary bridge 
^ High, stately, lofty ; look- 
Su '"S upward, aspiring, like 
the branches of a tree ; curv- 
ed, crooked ; proud, discon- 
tented ; Jciu Hsz' two trees 
growing different ways, met. 
father and son ; Jciu ^nin, 
aged ; Jciu muk^ lui* stately 
forest trees, an order of plants 
in Chinese botany. 
^ An inn, a lodging-place ; a 
ip«l. temporary lodgment ; hieh : 
ik lu iku, to visit, to sojourn. 
A colloquial word, avaricious; 
Jciu '■naut'dP tdi^ very greedy, 
hard to suit. 
^ Long tail feathers ; a kind 
I^du "^^'^'■'ifi fl'iS? high, elevated; 
to raise the head, to look ; to 
elevate, to excite ; to lift up 
the tail ; dangerous, immi- 
nent ; suspended; distant; 
Jciu 'shau, to raise the head ; 
ik'iii Jciu, high, as trees ; in 
danger, as a house of fulling ; 
ts'ui^ Jciu, a kind of feather 
Tjfc ^ A kind of grain, called Jciu 
'^ \maki perhaps a sort of bijck- 
s^tt I ^'^^***'> ^he culm is reddish, 
K'lau 2 or 3 feet high, flowers 
white, and leaves hastate • 
it is reaped in October. 




^' A )>ole, pore, orifice, apcr- 
^ri, ture : a cavitv, a hollow, an 
interstice ; ^kau kiu the nine 
passages of the body ; kbm^ 
tfung k'iiP » such open pas- 
sages !' i. e. clever, astute ; 
(t'ung k'iu'' ytuki sudorifics 
and sternutatory remedies ; 
iShii mi^ chung^ k'iu' you are 
wide of the mark ; hbfi k'iu' 
in good time ; yat, k'iu' pal^ 
(fling, he understands no- 
thing, thoroughly stupid. 



pT'^'] To sing in a recitative, to 
'^l*, chant with music accom- 
t5q] I pany>"g ; ^ song, a ballad; ^ko 
Ko .s/ietig, the sound of singing; 
^ko 'pnii, a song-book ; (ko 
(Sheng iliii. Uung^ sweet 
sounds of music ; ^ch'^uvg 
Jiau^ (tio, the lonely wife's dit- 
ty — name of a song; (Chili Jco, 
former name for Weihwui fu 
in Honan. 
^T An elder brother; a designa- 
' ^* tion of the emperor's sons is d' 
(ko ; (koiko, a polite term for a 
stranger, or an elder ; tdi^ (ko, 
my elder brother ; ^Id (ko, ve- 
nerable sir ; a' (Ch'o (ko, a no- 
vice, a raw hand ; i- a' (ko, 
(Sam a' (ko, the emperor's 
second and third sons ; ■pi' (ko, 
the nose, 
■fe^'l The first of these is a 
j^, I bamboo stalk ; a classifier 
^{^ j'applied to human beings, to 
yPi^' I inanimate things, particular- 
' ly of a roundish or compact 
lorm, periods of time, coins, 

schemes, plats of land, &c., 
more widely than any other ^ 
denotes objects when spoken 
of individually ; an individu- 
al or thing, as in the phrases 
chi' ko' or (Tii ko' this one ; 
'■nd ko' or ko' ko' (often pro- 
nounced '■ko ko', to distinguish 
it from ko' ko' every) that one; 
a pronoun, thi.s, this one, but 
need not always be trans- 
lated ; stands for the posses- 
sive case, as 'ngo ko' j-'aut 
my head ; when following the 
negative moki or ^mai, spe- 
cifies the following noun ; 
as mok, ko' fiu' don't go, i.e. 
don't [do] that going; */na£ 
ko' '■kai ch'u' don't stand 
there ; ko' ko' (to 'yau, every 
body has it, we have all 
things ; sai' ko' the little 
thing, the darling, the pet ; 
ko' tiki is used with less 
speciality than ko' ko', as ko^ 
tiki hai^ mati iyan, whose is 
til at ? mati ^y6 wa? ko' j'm hai^ 
who says it is not so ? ^md 
ko' j'7n (iiav, who is not anr 
gry ? tai' i^ ko' another ; 'At 
ko' (Scting, several boxes ; 
I'ffi (fan tak} ko' shd' the 
kinds can not be sorted ; ^ni 
ko' pin^ ^yau' ts'dk^ ^mb, are 
there thieves in your place ? 
lun' ko' iCau mdi^ sold by the 
piece ; ko' pok, ko' one pitted 
against one ; ko' yat^ ^shdng, 
in that province ; yat> ko' Jd 
hii^ sui' erery single one has 
gone ; ko' iik-, (ngdrit, that's 
right, that will suit ; '■mui /fo* 
each ; tsaki ko' a kind of catch 
note at the end of a song. 













High, lofty, elevated ; loud ; 
eminent, exalted ; excellent, 
sublime, noble ; a high degree 
of; a periphrasis for your in 
direct address, as ^ko sing^ d' 
what is your surname ? the 
189th radical ; old, advanced ; 
tkd tdi^ tall, well-proportioned ; 
lofty ; ^kd Jau '■kun, an eating- 
house ; ikb ikd, very high ; ^m 
if an laki ^kd dai, can not nicely 
distinguish, not much differ- 
ence ; Jib hing^ pleased, grati- 
fied ; ''Cai Jid hing^ to see the 
show ,* J(d iicdi tak, a beggar ; 
alluding to a man of that 
name in the Sang dynasty, 
A. 1). 960; chi" /ti\/cd, aspiring, 
ambitious; cid/cd' high-priced; 
Jioki man^ J(d, learned, well- 
read ; higdn (kd, supercilious ; 
Jed iVfiingy intelligent. 

A pole used to push boats ; 
ich'dng (kd, to pole ; yafr, chnk:, 
ikd ickdng Jioi, push it off 
with a pole. 

Fat, grease, ointment ; suet ; 
rich food ; glossy, greasy, 
unctuous; genial, fattening, 
rich, fertilizing; (Chii ^ko, lard ; 
tko yeuki a plaster ; ikd <yau, 
clarified fat ; Jib iUting, sump- 
tuous fare, rich food ; Ocb 
tfong, the vitals, the part be- 
yond the reach of medicine. 

A lamb ; a kid ; J'oi ^kb <pi, 
unycancd lambskin ; hdk-i ^kb 
ip'i^ black lambskin ; <,chan ichii 
ikb, curly-haired lambskin. 

Cakes, pasty, or dumplings 
of flour or arrowroot, steamed, 
with or without leaven, and 


usually with fruit mixed in ; 
pdk> '^kvjo ikb, fruit cakes ; 
iSung ikb, leavened dumplings; 
jMmc^Oj dumplings of oldman's 
rice ; tdn^ cAo, sponge cake. 

Interchanged with the last ; 
pastry ; steamed cakes ; a bit, 
a tidbit ; (kbfan, rice tlour. 
To inform, to call to or 

^^^ >. announce ; to harangue ; to 
c;^ ! drawl out, to whine ; high, 
Kdu eminent; a bank ; a marsh ; 

xkb iTniin, a palace-gate ; "^kau 

ikb, a marshy bank. 
1^ A kind of tree ; a well-sweep 


is called kati ^kb. 



A case or sack for a bow, 
or armor, attached to a car ; 
ikb kiii^ a quiver for bow and 

A drum, said to be 12 ch'ekt 
long, anciently used to incite 
workmen in their work. 

Dry, rotten, as wood ; a 
kind of tree, its wood is like 
chestnut ; others describe it as 
like the tallow-tree ; '^kd mvki 
'«' fai' all desire gone, 
wearied out ; iying iyung (fii 
'^kbj attenuated, cadaverous ; 
ikon 'id, dried fish. 

The culm of grain ; straw ; 
an original, the first draft of a 
paper; asketcii, a proof; ^iro 
'Afo, paddy straw ; '/s'd Vfd, a 
first copy ; 7d 'Aro, to make a 
copy ; to take a proof of (a 
printer's term); '/cd <.kung, a 
head clerk, who revises |)a. 
pers ; (Ch'eutig '^kb, a theme. 

White ; gray and lustrous; 

irr' 'k<) kt), very while. Also read 
Kau , ,, •' 

ko . 











Interchanged witli'j^ ^^i*!^ 
rotten wood ; straw or thatch 
for huts ; a draft or copy ; '/to 
kun^ the rough draft, the or- 
iginals of pa{>ers. 

Clear, pure, distinct ; white, 
applied to hair ; 'kd I'^han 
cJiik:, Isuk-i bright apparel and 

Plain, white and fine silk ; 
itnornamented, simple, plain ; 
^ko ci, plain garments ; '^kd si'i' 
unadorned, of one color. 

'I'he sun shining over trees ; 
clear, bright ; high, lofty ; 'Aro 
'/td ch^titi yati glorious as the 
sun breaking from the clouds. 

To gore ; to accuse, to in- 
form against, to impeach, to 
tell of; to announce to a supe- 
rior, to inform any one, as in 
courteous language ; to ask, 
to request ; to order ; ko' shi^ 
a proclamation, an edicl ; jun 
Ad', pi^ ko' the plaintiff and 
defendant; ko' su' the accusa- 
tion and reply; to inform of; 
ko' ifs'z^ to intimate one's de- 
parture, to take leave — said 
by a visitor ; kb^ cheung' to 
sue for a debt ; ko' isfiing, to 
finish [a work] ; sh^ung^ ko' to 
appeal ; ko* ka' to ask leave of 

Sift' To enjoin upon, to order, to 
^" direct, to give commands to, 
'o signify ones wishes; a pa- 
tent; a decoration ; ko' ishan, 
l.llers-patent, credentials ; kb' 
rfiitie, to confe/ a title or rank 
on ; Ao' ,shii, a scroll from the 
emperor, honors. 

Ton. Did. 22 




j SJ? An agreement, an enlisting 
'P.^ contract ; to connect, to pre- 






pare, to arrange ; fit, proper, 
just, what ought to be, or is 
right, necessary, permissable, 
or convenient ; deserving ; to 
owe; the said, the, that, the 
aforesaid, what has been 
mentioned ; {'m ikoi, I beg 
pardon, I should not have done 
it ; cfroi (lii, useless, improper, 
foolish ; ikoi ishvu unlucky, 
disappointed ; (koi Jong Him 
ytiing^ cTji, how ought it to 
be? (koi tso? ch' u' it (or he) 
ought to be there ; Att' hcaV 
ikoi ting^ ill it should be (or is 
usually) hot in summer ; ^koi 
iUgan ytuki ikon, how much 
money does he owe ? ^koi ^m^, 
all wrong, done badly ; Jioi 
'Afin, belongs to his rule, he 
has the oversight of; 'pi/n ikoi, 
it is incumbent on, belongs to 
you to do, or to see to ; ikoi 
kbm^ ito, there should be so 

A bank ; a boundary, circuit, 
limit ; to guard or reinforce a 
frontier; a hundred millions; 
iA:im (A;oi, every where, the wide 
world. Interchanged with the 
Step, bank, terrace ; a gra- 
'. dation, a succession, an order ; 

certain music ; '^kan (koi, the 
•'nine ascents," heaven, the 

Roots ; Hs'b (kni,ihc roots of 
plant«; Is t, koi, bad roots, met. 
evil principles. 




'pA' To change, (b alter; to ex- 
j/^ change ; to reform, to do better; 
to correct, to amend, a* a ctxm- 
position ; 'jtoi yat^ -ling hdu' 
another day I will call ; "^koi 
kico' exchanged ; to reform ; 
'■koi ^ngd ^mun, to carry a case 
to another court; 7foi kd^ to 
leave a husband or betrothed, 
and marry another ; '^koi un- 
to exchange, to put another 
in place of; '■koi ^^hiung, un- 
usual ; to grow worse ; 'mo 
7coJ, flagitious, irreclaimable; 
i'ung^ '■koi i^'in t/t, you must 
reform your misdeeds ; "-koi 
pin'' to alter, to do better ; ''koi 
ifung '■shvi, to improve one's 
luck by incantations. 







] A kind of coarse grass used 
>for thatch ; a cover, a cover- 
J ing, a roof; a canopy, a vault ; 
to cover, to hide, to roof; to 
Screen, to conceal, literally and 
figuratively ; to overshadow, 
to overtop ; is ; a conjunction, 
since, for, for that, now then ; 
shiung^ Ic'oi^ the roof; also, 
heaven ; Hm k'oP to shut up 
or close ; 'pi '^pdn k'oP chv} 
cover it with a board ; Uov 
icAwn^, a covered tea-cup; Uoi' 
iiti now it is said ; ich^ k'oi^ 
7)nn^ shade the face ; k'oi^ tak-, 
kwo' to hide out of sight ; k'oP 
Vid min^ to veil the face ; to 
hide one's real feelings ; k'oi' 
kwo^ <J'au, pull it over the 
head ; k'oP kwo^ ko' /au hit' 
cover or shade it more that 









way ; k'oi' Joi, having come, 
since you are here ; k'oi'\yan, 
because that ; k'oi' '■hiu^ seeing 
that he understands ; set) k'oi^ 
pat^ fu' a set of tin dish-covers ; 
fdn^ k'oi' a wooden cover used 
in cooking rice ; k'oi' <shi, 
now at that time, then it was; 
k'oi' ^ngd, to lay tiles. Often 
confounded with and used 

wrongly for hop, ^. 

To sigh, to lament for ; k'oi' 
t'dn' paU i^ang iak-, to regret 
with unavailing sighs and la- 
ments, to sorrow that one'a 
desires are disappointed. 

A striker to level grain ; to 
even, to adjust ; a summing, a 
resume ; yah k'oi' altogether, 
without exception ; yal, k'oi^ 
(id hii' all gone ofl"; tdi' k'oi^ 
generally speaking, on the 
whole, the most of; hi' k'oi' 
resolute, magnanimous, gen- 
erous-hearted ; k'oi' hai^ "^kdm, 
they are all about the same. 

Generous, noble minded, lov- 
ing integrity ; ^k'ong k'oi' dis- 
interested, above meanness ; 
'/rdm k'oi' moved by, commise- 
rating. Interchanged with 
the last. 

To wash or scour cooking 
utensils; to wet, to moisten; 
to roll on like a torrent ; inun- 
dating, swashing; name of a 
river in Lidutung. 

To ask alms ; to demand, to 
beg ; to give ; hat, k'oi' lo beg ; 
k'o'i' its'in^ to ask for tnonej' ; 
k'oi' shiki to beg for footl. 

Anger ; gasping From rage ; 
haw k'oi' furiouslv anijrv. 




^203) Kok. I 

ff Calling to and being disre-j 
^j| garded ; separate, apart ; a dis- 
tributive adjective pronoun, 
each, every; various; AroA-, 
(yan, each man ; koky ^yan kok-, 
fci/i^each one has his own opi- 
nion ; Aio^j '■yau '^sho (Ch'^ung, 
each man has his own gift ; 
koki -yau yaU shuh each lias 
a different tale ; kok, sJiik, fo' 
various kinds of goods. 
^ Pi door screen ; a loft, an 
^}] upper story or balcony, a look- 
out room ; a porch, a vestibule; 
a corridor or gallery, St' room; 
female apartments : a council 
chamber, a court-room ; met. 
the officers assembled there, 
the court; a cupboard or 
safe for eatables ; koh ^Id, a 
courtier, a cabinet-minister ; 
the word Colao is corrupted 
from this term ; kok, ha' your 
excellency, your honor. Sir: 
noi^ kok, the Inner Council ; 
yap> kok, to be a cabinet-mi- 
nister ; '■shui kok, a summer- 
house over the water ; (kwai 
kok, the female apartments; 
txoi^ kok, shinng^ he is upstairs; 
kok, td^ the stars u, ^ and ir in 
^ To obstruct, to hinder ; Mm 
kok, or kok, chv} to defer, to 
adjourn, to impede, to put 
difficulties in the way. 

A horn; 14Sth radical of 
words relating to uses, appear- 
ance, die, of horns ; to dis- 
pute, to try or test one's pow- 
ers or strength with another; 
to butt, to gore ■ horny, hard,;. 






a corner, a point, an angle ; a 
protuberance or jutting out ; 
a tuft of hair ; a headland, a 
cape ; a quarter or one fourth 
(as of an hour or an orange) ; 
a wine-jar ; wing of an army ; 
one of the 28 constellations, 
a and X, in Virgo ; kok, shing' 
to drive (as cattle do), to beat ; 
yaf, kok, <,man (Shii, an official 
dispatch, perhaps because it 
used to be carried in a horn; 
Jit i kok, to borrow money ; 
ktpo^ tak, kok, flush of money ; 
(phrases taken from gam- 
bling); ^pi kok: ch'ong^ fo gore ; 
chiin' (Wdn pat, kok, to idle 
about, to loaf; kok,Iok>it'au, a 
corner in a room ; chai iTtini 
yat, kok, put it aside (as worth- 
less) ; kok, 'hau or kok, ^Isui, 
to wrangle ; pdh kok, star- 
aniseed ; (d kok, kaP tufts of 
hair on children: dhi ^ngd.n 
kok, to ogle, to glance ; chiki, 
t.un\ and yui- koki are terms 
for right, obtuse, and acute, 
angles ; 'tsnng kok, jv/'i, child- 
hood ; tiii ;sdm kok, to pitch 
cash into a triangle. 

To seize an animal and drag 
it along by the horns ; to stab 
an animal. 

A rafter, the strips on which 
the tiles rest ; a mallet ; a 
handle ; a tree in Kwangtung, 
called Jd kok, Vsz', whose fruit 
is the size of an egg. 

Rough land, hilly and rocky; 
bad, poor land, like barrens; 
a rugged country. 

Grand, e.xnlted ; correct, 
upright ; to understand, toper- 
eeive ; intelligent ; to nt^tice, 




to advert to ; awake, aroused 

to ; conscious ; to feel ; to 

briny to light, to manifest ; 

^ngo iin koki p'ung' its' an '/»i, 1 

ran against you inadvertently; 

koki 'ng^ aroused to a sense of; 

fat^ kok, divulged, discovered, 

transpired, brought to light; 

kok) itvongf. Bud ha ; kok, tak-. 

t'ung^ it hurts, I feel the pain ; 

sliaU kok, inattentive; Hs'z^ 

kok} hai* 'Arom, 1 think it was 

like that ; Kok^ Jo, the JLJ hioro, 

the surname of the reigning 

family in Manchu ; <fan ^mai 

jjaU kok:, stupid from grief; 

^ngo kok:, tah ^kdm, I under- 

■ stood it in this way. Read 

kdu' to awake. 

^j Brazen horns used to sup- 

^^l port the flagstaffs and spears 

.-in a chariot ; a boot in a car ; 

to wrangle. 





rife A rock very prominent ; 

^^' hard, firm, solid ; really, cer- 
tainly, in fact, indeed; sin- 
cere, truthful ; resolute ; j'm 
k'oki doubtful; k'oki sfiati hai^ 
verily so ; tiki k'ok-, in fact, 
even so; k'ok, fsoki substantial ; 
h'ok:, iin, surely. 

f^ Sincere, guileleas, good 

i^f^ hearted, ingertuous, upright. 
Much the same as the precede 

Igj A kind ofdrawbridge, where 

J^\ toll is iiathered ; k'ok:, sliuP 
K'loh ,, ^ . . „ 

toll ; a species ot Hovenia. 

■^5 A liftingrnet for fish, ms^de 

j^j'of fine Ijaiiihoo nptsyofk. 





Dry, dried up, exhausted, run 
out ; (kou k'ok, thirsty, parch- 
ed by the sun, out of funds, 
needy ; (su k'ok, ch'it, to supply 
one in need, to give life [to a 
fish] in a dry rut. 

A valley, bed of a torrent, a 
deep gully ; a fosse, a city- 
ditch ; ingai ingdtn tsiit> k'ok) 
an abrupt precipice, a road 
impassible from gulches and 
ravines ; tdi^ k'ok, the ocean ; 
ik'ai k'oki mountain streams. 

A place in Tayuen fi'i in 
Shansi, called Hohj ciii^ng ; 
a surname. 

A kind of animal, allied to 
the fox ; it burrows, and 
sleeps much ; has a sharp nosa 
and long piebald fur ; a bad- 
ger? Vd k'ok) shui' sleepy, 

Diligent, attentive to, careful 
of, as one who serves in a 
temple ; to respect, to regard, 
to revere. 



-fl- Sweet, grateful, relishing, 

i^. affreeable to the taste; pleas- 
Kan ^ , , , ' .;,. 

ed, happy; voluntary, wilhng ; 

pleasing, delightsome ; spe- 
cious, winning ; the 99th ra- 
dical of characters of taste ; 
(kdm csam, pleased, contented, 
resigned ; -kom mi^ luscious ; 
(kdm Jcdm tik, rather svv<!ot ; 
(kdm '^chi, pleasant food, such 
as is given to aged parents; 
(kdm Jam, a timely rain; Jmm 
^fu, prosperity and adversity; 
(kdm iin, a soft answer, kind 
vyords ; kdm latj >i, very sweet; 









(kdm it/am ii/nm, delicious ; 
c^om ^k'ii k^^ it was stolen. 

The coolie-mandarin orange 
(Citrus margaritajj called 
fjch'd iChi ikdm ; ckdrn ip'U or- 
ange peel ; Jioi ckom cptti, to 
gamble wilh guessing orange 
seeds ; cfan ikdm /ung mi^ to 
have the same taste after 
dividing the orange, to divide 
a delicacy with others ; (kdm 
kdiri' Idi' pi* a nose as big as 
an orange, supercilious. 

Liquorice, much used in Chi- 
nese pharmacy, called tkdm 

Water in which rice has 
been washed, called ^mai^kdm 
'^shui : it is used for washing 

A disease of children arising 
from imperfect digestion or 
bad treatment ; ^kdm tsik-, pot 
bellied ; J(om ^ch'ong, venereal 

The Chinese olive, called 
(kdin 'lam, the Canarium. It 
belongs to the Terebinthaceae, 
and resembles the real olive 
chiefly in shape. 

To walk up to and take : to 
dare, to have the hardihood, 
to venture ; presuming, bold, 
rash, intrepid ; saucy ; to of- 
fend good manners ; at the 
beginning of a sentence, it an- 
swers to how, can ; j'm '^kdm 
Lsd^ dare not do it ; j'm '^kdm 
(long, presume not to take it, 
can not venture ; 'Ai'Ardm, how 
can I presume ? — are all polite 
expressions ; Ham '^kdm, fear- 
less, valorous; 'kdm tsokj '^kom 
,wai, not afraid of doing. 




A mudtish ; ^kdm iti or ^fd 
'kdm, a dusky green silure, the 
Pimelodus guUatus, common 
in Canton in the spring 

To move the feelings, to ex- 
cite ; affected by, influenced, 
physically or mentally ; ^kdm 
iyan, grateful, thankful ; '■kdm 
t'dn' moved to tears, sorry ; 
^kdm kdk, to act upon benefi- 
cially; ^kdm tsi^ '/n, obliged for, 
thank you much — the word 
cumshaw is corrupted from this 
phrase ; (to 'kdm, many thanks ; 
'^kdm fd^ iyan ^sam, to trans- 
form the heart, converted ; 
cfedu '■kdm, influence of the 
dual powers, conception ; Vrdm 
md' ifung Jion, aflTected by the 
weather ; '■kdm fak:, csham, or 
^kdm kiki deeply thankful ; 
'^kdm '^kdm, thanks. 

An adverb ofquality, so, thus, 
this manner ; an interjection 
of surprise ; '/cdm ^yiung tsd* 
tak, this will do, very well ; 
tsau^ '■kdm, stop, well ; 'kdm 
^y^ung 'tsz^ such a style ! used 
in depreciation ; 'kdm wd^ if 
you say so, if it be so ; il'ung 
dd hai' 'kdm ki' they are all 
just so, all alike ; 'kdm k^\' s'w 
'hd 'kdm, so! don't do so, that'll 
not do ; 'kdm 'tdm tsd^ so dar- 
ing, brave. 

An adverb of quantity ; so, 
such ; kdm^ '«n, so far ! Itdm' 
'tsd, so early ! kdm^ mat} ^y^, 
why so ? what is the reason ? 
stung^ mau^ kdm^ '■cKau, such 
an ugly face ; kdni' (Shd 'tdm, 
great courage; kdm^ 40, so 




6iX' A violet color, a rnsp rod, 
J'P which the good inau, it is said, 

does not wear, 
g^' The prefecture of Kfinchau 
J^ in the southern part of Ki^ns- 

81 ; Kan hien is a district in 

this department. 
*M' The large river of Kiangsi 
K^ which flows north into tlie lake. 



T A shield, a buckler; arms, 
„ defensive armor ; what pro- 
tects, or fends off; a bank of 
a stream ; to seek, to try and 
obtain from, to procure ; to 
provoke, to draw down on one; 
to oppose, to offend, to break 
laws; offense, crime, guilt; 
incumbent, appertaining to, 
concerning, bringing results to 
one ; trunk of some plants, a 
stem ; a frontier ; Jcon Ji\m^ 
arms, war, tumult ; ^kan fan' 
to commit a fault ; (kon ching' 
lyan, a witness ; j'm ,s^utig (kon, 
no matter, does not concern 
me ; ^md mal-, (kon hai' no great 
consequences ; ^ii higo^md (kon, 
rone of my business ; (kon Jin, 
bad results, involved in ; (t'in 
(kon, "celestial stems," or 
shap^ Jcon, ♦' ten stems," are 
ten characters used in the 
cycle ; ^ngo ^md (kon ship:, I had 
no hand in that, I'm not impli- 
cated there; ikon '^-i tdP a great 
affair ; (kon du' (Chiing mat-, 
yung' no use to contradict so. 
Xr^ A valuable tree, good for 
'^i spear handles; a club, a staff; 
'^" poot in a railing ; <wai (kon, a 




mast, a flag-staff; ^k'i ,kon 
kap, the clamps or fid.s which 
uphold a mast ; <pz/i (kon, a 
walking stick. 

Culm of the bamboo; slender 
wooden things as a rod, pole, 
cane, sh^, staff, &c., often 
made of bamboo ; cK lng\kon, 
beam of the dotchin ; tixi' (kon, 
a fishing-rod ; yaU (kon chuk, 
a bamboo ; tsvv' ikon^ shaft of 
an arrow,; ch^ung' (hm chuk, 
stick for a curtain valance. 

An inferior gem, a kind of 
coral ; Jong (kon, name given 
to ornaments made of branch- 
ing coral of the genus Lsis. 

The liver; it belongs to wood, 
and rules the system; in- 
timate ; the feelings ; a brown, 
nmber color; '/)i long' (Sam 
(kon, he is as my heart and 
liver, as myself; (Chii (konshik-, 
dark brown, color of pig's liver; 
(kon icKiung ts'iin' tiin^ liver 
and hovvels cut. into inches, 
greatly afflicted. 
i^l Dry, exhausted ; to dry ; 
^^~^clean, entirely; ,kon tseng- 
tTtij lifTip^d, pure ; mni^ (kon tseng* 
Kan all sold ; (kon muli to defraud; 
a defalcation, use of another's 
goods ; (kon fu^ an adopted 
father of different surname ; 
(kon '^fo 'shau, a shoplifcer ; 
shdV (kon, to dry ; ckon ts'd^ 
feverish, heated ; (koa '^shong, 
dry, airy ; hong^ (kon, to dry 
at a fire ; (kon hong^ ^hi Jai, 
deluded by vain promises; (kon 
(knng,^' dry work," a sinecure; 
(kon ^ndi, a dry nurse ; (kon n'd 
po" to gull one, to report false- 
ly, or without inquiry. 




^Ai-l To pursue, to run after ; (o 
,jf-r n)urry, to do quick ; to expel ; 
g£j to strive with, to emulate; 
Kin busy, urged by, hastened, in 
a hurry ; ^kon fdV in a hurry, 
haste ; '■kon ^kan tsd^ do it 
^ quick ; 'A-o/i cl^ki to drive out, 

to eject ; ^ngo ^kon ^sh^vng -/li, 
I'll catch up with you ; ^kon 
^yausz'- hurried by business; 
'A»n lo' to hasten one's pace ; 
'^kon cKavi' to hurry home ; 
■Aon tb^ -mo lo^ driven into 
a corner, no means of pelief ; 
'kon shvn' 'shui, to avail of the 
tide ; 'kon kwo' ii'au, needless- 
ly fast. 
'■Spr Stubble, straw of rice ; 'kon 
^ ' .to' a straw broom ; ^kon ,yan, 
an effigy ; cwx) 'kon, paddy 
straw; it is called 'Kwongdung 
ichin, i. e. a Canton blanket ; 
'Aron it'au, roots of grain, stub- 
^A' The trunk of a plant ; the 
T** material of, the basis or ori- 
ginal ; to bribe, to give money; 
capable, skillful ; business, 
aflTairs ; to do business, to 
attend to ; a well curb ; 'la 
kon' to bribe ; -mo maU kotiHo' 
indifferent to bribes; kon^ sz^' 
to do business ; kon' ko' k'ut:, 
^ngcin, to buy an appointment ; 
kon' iying cshang, to pay for a 
situation with a trader ; ^yau 
mat:, kwa'C kon' what is your 
business ? ckung kon' public 
affairs; kon' fu' ^cli'i 'i-«, to 
follow a father's occupation ; 
kon'iSiin tdi- sz'^ to bring about 
a settlement of, to make peace: 
kon' J'au lyan, to buy the post 
uf u headman. 

MiJ The tibia : the ribs ; applied 

A' to the bones of the bodv iie- 
Kan - t> 




1^ The ridge, the watershed of 
'X ^ hills; a summit : theculminaf- 
ing point ; (kong put jung, a 
side wind ; tsha ikong, a sand 
hillock ; ^kong Hsai kdm' tai* 
large as a hoinmock (speaking 
of waves,, piles of dirt); ^koug 
Heng sfs'ung, [like a] hill-top 
fir, unapproachable. 
Mil Hard, solid, unyielding, firm, 
'^•^ rigorous, inflexible; intrepid, 
enduring, valorous; an adverb 
of time, just now, recently ; 
ikong ^yung, valiant, coura- 
geous; (kong and ^yau are 
opposites, odd even, hard soft, 
positive negative, «&c. ; ikong 
sing^ obstinate, overbearing ; 
ikong ikong hii' Hiu just gone ; 
ikong clung' firm, upright, in- 
tegrity ; ,fong (kong, athletic; 
sz"tav ikam (kong, four giants 
which guard Budliist temple- 
doors ; (kam^kong shehcorun. 
dum, diamonds ; (kam (kong 
(Shd, emery ; ikong (ts'oi, 
recently ; (kong (kong kau^ just 
enough. \ 

^B| The large rope to which a 
^ '. net is strung ; a bond or insti- 
^ fution of society, great prin- 
ciples; (kongHing a controling 
or guiding power ; argument 
of a book ; (Sam (kong, "three 
bonds," are the relative duties 
of a kin;^. father and bus. 




band ; Jconff mnki a synopsis 
of; ikong kdm' a survey of 
(dynasties, or) princes, a his- 
jfrjg' Iron assayed by fire, steel ; 
^^ hard ; /au hok-, ^ynn kong^ 
' ^ hardheaded ; kong'' ^pin a steel 
whip, a sort of mace. 
ffi A star ; il'in (kong, the seven 
177^ stars in the constellation of 
the Great Bear, the Dipper ; 
much used in charms. 
ij- To carry between two ; to 
KA ^^^ burdens on a pole ; sr- 
veral lifting a thing ; pat^ lik^ 
tkong, to draw and paint ; 
ikong '^kiii, to carry a sedan ; 
tkong if'oi, to carry ; ikong 
ip'di k6uk-, shiko boasting of 
one's honors, a braufgart. 
Si» A river ; par excellence, the 
'J:*^ Yangtsz' kiang, also called 
^^^^^tdi^ tkong, the great river; 
Jcong iho, or ikong inhdn, the 
empire, the government, the 
country ; koh <.kong fo" rmU 
goods from every quarter ; 
tkong iU hah itinerant pro- 
fessional men ; kong ichii^ a 
cetacea found in the Ying- 
tsz'; iCau tkong, to drown 
one's self; kwo^ tkong thing 
tap brothers in affliction ; 
vgoi' tkong lyan, people from 
another province, northerners. 
M^ An earthenware jar, usually 
K?^ glazed: tkong higa, pottery 
generally ; tkong nng' glazed 
jars, used to contain water, 
oil, &c.; lin^ tkong, dyeing 
jars ; 'pi ung^ tkong */ii too' 
Ham, give you a jar for your 
gall-bladder — you want moie 


At An iron-tire on a hub ; a 

•TT „ sconce, a globular shade in 
Kiang I • , 1 1 , 

which to hang lamps; a lamp; 

(kam j« tkong, globular jars 
for fish ; ornaments or fasten- 
ings on the ends of beams. 
The colofn ; the large intes- 
K^Inff tine ; the anus ; tkong imiin, 
the rectum ; t'an^ tkong, the 
'^tt Toconverse, to talk, to speak 
^^j^ ^ about, to narrate, to relate ; 
" to explain, to unfold, to dis- 
course, propound, or preach ; 
to investigate ; to plan ; to 
confer ; to reason upon ; dis- 
course, talk, explanation ; j'i» 
Vid '^kong, don't speak about it, 
better be still ; '^kong keuk> to 
boast ; '^kong jJ«o,^to propose 
peace ; '■kong'^kn, to tell stories, 
to talk on former things ; to 
preach the Gospel is so term- 
ed ; '■kong kau" to investigate, 
to search into the truth of; 
kbm' ^kong kau' so fine ! su- 
perior, beautiful, first rate ; 
'■kongtsdpi to hold disputations, 
a colloquy ; 'kong 'kdi imati 
ngai^ to lecture on literature ; 
'kong shiiii wd^ conversation, 
speech ; ^ngo j'm 'lii 'kong, I 
know not how to speak it ; 
j'm tsoP 'kong, no need of tell- 
ing of it, I know all about 
it; 'kong tsam, honest, plain 
talk ; itnd tah 'kong, nothing 
more to be said ; 'kong mvi' 
^Isz* of good credit, worthy of 
trust ; 'kon tvdng 'kong tim^ 
to carp at ; 'kong t.d' ^k'ii fuk, 
to convince one by reasoning; 
'ku ^ni kong siu' I think you 
are joking. 




'•^ Streams diverging, a" one 
jj^ ascends a river ; a passage for 
ships, a reacli ; a frith, an 
estuary ; a rivulet running into 
the sea, a cove ; '^kong '■hau, 
n port, a mart, a spot where 
traders meet ; '•kon^ k^uk, 
ithiin, ships from India are so 
called at Canton ; 'p«/i '^kong 
i^Aiifl, native junks ; kok^ '^kong 
fo' the products of every port. 

1^' To descend, to come or fail 
'..' down (as rain), to go down : 
to send down, to confer ; to 
subject, to reduce to submis- 
sioti ; to degrade ; kong' fuk, 
to bless ; kong' k'ap, to de- 
grade, really or nominally ; 
kong' loki to descend (as a 
bird) ; kong^ sItaP to come 
into the world ; kong^ (kdt, to 
go down the steps; itning ^shing 
dm' hong'' apparent gain or 
rise, but real loss ; kong^ fan' 
to be born ; 'wi 'ki jvAi ^kwoiig 
liong' when will you deign to 
visit me ? ha^ kong^ to come 
down, to Visit ; '/d koog^ to 
erase, to draw a Ime through : 
also to fire at a picture of 
(S^ung koriQ^ \xkan, a custom 
known at Canton in the 
month of October, 
i^- Waters overflowing, an in- 
Jrr iindation ; waters swellin" 

t^vung 1-11 t ^ 

over their banks, and run- 
ning in many directions. 
i'JV A deep red, like the petals 
Ki .iir"'^^® Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 

'^ A deep rose color. 
^ A vapor on a hill. lop ; tht- 
jlun^ rainbow, vulgarly called /in 
■^ kong\ 

To>. Dn 1. 23 

i^^ A cross.piece on the legs of 
J. a bed; a flag-stalT; a foot 
bridge ; thills of a sedan ; the 
yards on a ship; cross-pieces 
in frames; '^td kong' highway 
robl)ery; /oikong' altercation, 
tiresome bickering. 



■ji* The neck of a man. Read 

K' <T ^'^"1?^ strong, overlwaring, 

° domineering; unbending ; to 

oppose, to resist ; to shelter, 

to protect ; a star near Arctu- 

rus; isiung k'ong- are equally 


'pJj' The neck or throat of a bird ; 

,/y an iniportant paas into a 
K'ang . i^ ^ S IT II 

country; to swallow. Usually 

read ifiong. 
'iA Generous-minded, magna- 
Jv^ nimous; 'A-'o;j.^/c'o? noble, li- 
beral, unmoved by slander, 
firm, grieved at wrongdoing. 
/A-' To compare with, to match ; 
''" k'ong' lai' a pair, a man and 
'^ wife, a match at a game or 
fighting ; to hate, to oppose, 
t^' A Wide cojch or sofa, having 
jK— a low table in the middle, and 
''"° placed at the head of the 
room , a bedstead, or .sleeping- 
place, made of brick, su that 
it can be warmed underneath ; 
k'oiii:' (At, the stand in a wide 
couch ; ^fo k'ong' a fire warm- 
ed bed.' 
IJJ-' To raise with the hand, to 

^'** lift: to oppiwe, to withstand, 
K'ang V , , . . 

to resist, to rebel against ; lo 
scr««Mt, to shield ; to rescue ; 
k'ong' ikun, lo op()osc the 





government ; k'onf>^ sing* per- 
verse ; k'ong" 'k'ii, to prevent 
coming, to resist, disobedient ; 
tfan sjt'eng k'ong^ Hai, disput- 
ing about precedence ; ^Uung 
(S^ung kily k'ong^ the two con- 
tracted an enmity, two parties 
matched against each other. 

('•^09) Kop. 

A measure, containing about 
a gill ; ten make almost a pint; 
to join together, to come toge- 
ther, to meel, to correspond, 
like the edges of shears, or 
two lids ; Vjo Hs'oi f kop^ tAi' 
U'd^ good ! it matches his lie ; 
i. e. he lied, but it happened to 
be true ; kdp-> kdii' Hsiii '/tat/, 
scissar blades meet ; kdp:, <,mdi, 
to join, to make one. Often 
pronounced hdp^ in many 
phrases, with the same mean- 

Bivalve shells, thin and 
marked, like a Tellina or Do- 
nax ; man kdp:, shells with ribs 
or lines ; ^shdn kdp:> a sort of 
striped toad ; ^Cin kbp-, or kop:, 
^ndy a frog ; kbp:, kdi' a kind 
of gecko, brought to Canton 
as an aphrodisiac, and com- 
monly thought to be a trans- 
formation of a swallow. 

The Columbidae ; a dove, a 
pigeon ; pdki kdp^ a house 
pigeon ; fong^ pdk^ kdp^ to let 
off a pigeon ; to make a false 
marriage ; \v^ kdp^ a wild 
pigeoB ; ti^ kdp) a ground pi- 









To cut, to gash ; to hack ; 
to wound, to injure ; to cut in 
twain, to separate, to divide ; 
to deduct ; to take off; to cede, 
to make over to ; to turn, as 
a debt to a creditor ; kot:, ihoi, 
to cut open ; kot:, '■tiin, to 
sunder ; kot: oi' to sever friend- 
ship ; ^0/3 (Tigan, to look to 
another for pay ; kot, ^wo, to 
reap ; kot^ 'sun, to wound ; 
kot: Jio (pdu k6^ a cut-purse ; 
kot: ip'dtiin- i^ to break off all 
intercourse; kot: tfdn, to take 
off, to deduct; kot: ^kung 
iVgan, to deduct from wages ; 
kot: tak: oi^ or '•Ad ts'it: kot: to 
part with a beloved thing; koti 
'^sh^, obliged to part with ; kot^ 
^k'ii '■nin yah. [it will] cut a 
slice off him, said of a stingy 
man holding on to his money. 

A creeping edible plant (the 
Dolichos tuberosus), of whose 
tibres a yellow coarse cloth is 
made ; creepers; met. relatives, 
posterity ; ^yau mat: ikiod kot: 
'/ii, is there any relationship 
between you? mb (kdu kot: 
nothing to do with him; kot:pd^ 
coarse summer cloth; a plant 
(Dolichos trilobus) producing 
a long spindle-shaped root, 
used for food, called '■fan kot: 
the mealy taro; its stems aro 

The rushing clamor of cha- 
riots to battle ; hasty, precipi- 
tate, violent motion ; ^kdu kot: 
glancing of armor, confused 








JffT Fatherless; an orphan; dcs- 
''^^ titiite, alone, Bingiilar; no pro- 
tector; tmequaled, solitary, a p. 
plied by the emperor to him- 
self; ungrateful, not cherishing 
a sense of kindness ; (iii fu^ 
^jii cyan, unthankful for your 
affection ; (ku Jion, neglected 
and poor; cfni cka, I the empe- 
ror ; sfiaP (ku, left alone and 
diminished ; (ku ^wan, a ne- 
glected orbatc spirit ; (hU tuki 
alone, no kindred ; (ku fv} 'sho 
mong^ to frustrate one's hopes. 
Name of a river in Ts'iuen- 
chau fu in Fulikien ; to trade 
in, to contract, to buy or sell ; 
unworthy, anything trashy ; to 
abridge ; (k'u 'tsau, to buy wine; 
Jing (ku, sold by retail ; (kii 
<rneng, to buy a name, to pur- 
chase office. 

To buy or trade in liquor : 
liquor just made or kept over 
night ; a liquor-shop ; /o (h'l \ 
,chi sz' an eating-house. In- 
terchanged with the last. 

A polite term for females; 
a husband's mother is called 
(ku or cyung (ku by his wife ; 
tap (ku, 'siv. (tii, a husband's! 
sisters ; (kit iU^ung, a paternal 
aunt, a respectful term for I 
young ladies; (ku -mo and (ku 
tp'o, a father's and grand. ' 
father':! sisters; kv (y^, a bus- 
band's brother-in-law; (<?'u/i 
,tu, village girls. To tolerate J 
lenient, lax, yielding; for the} 
time, temporarily,just, merely; i 
,ku "^ch'i man' man' let it br,l 
gently ; a' kii, a girl, a miss ; ! 









(Xam (ku, are nuns, wizard", 
and wives of Rationalists ; 
ttii'^sd, sisters-in-law ; (ku sik, 
indulgent, easy with, lax ; (hi 
sik:, ^y^ung (kdn, too much 
leniency nourishes treachery. 
A variety of the mole-cricket, 
called ilau (hi ; wai' (ku, a va- 
riety of the cicada. 

Chf (ku, the partridge, but 
seems also to include other 
birds of the same habits and 

A fault, a crime ; guilt, sin, 
transgression ; necessary to be, 
must; to engross goods, to 
monopolize ; to dissect a sacri- 
ficial victim ; (md (kit, inno- 
cent, guiltless ; (ku fu' un- 
grateful, unmindful of; jWd 
(ku shau^ lui' to compromise 
the guiltless. 

A wine vase used in feasts, 
holding two or three pints; 
square, angular ; a law, a rule, 
a pbm ; kirn' (hi, a sword-hilt ; 
hiiti (ku (Ch'i iyan, a litigious 
Interchanged with the lasf; 
angular, a corner ; the cornice 
of a house. 

A fishing-net, a large ne^ 
dragged between boats ; to 
fish ; yah -hi (nau, a haul, all 
taken together, lump them ; 
yat:, (k(( kwafi a clean'^sweep, 
take them all. 

^nterxjhanged with the last ; 
nets dragged n»long ;. nets ^^r 
birds ; the net of the law ; /o 
'kii ishiin, fishing.srn;»cks ; fsui' 
""kii, involved in guilt ; ^mong 
'hi, nets f()i_ fishing. 





A w^^^Br vejjetahle, called 

\dsz\ku, the Caladiiim, ciil-; 

c^E^j tivated for its tubers ; .mo ,ku,: 
Ku and H'd <.ku, are edible vnrie- 
ties of mudhrooms, the former i 
is brought from Tartary ; </«i; 
iliiU or iTignn 'shi ,kn, n puff- 1 
ball, the lycoperdon ; Hsd c/tw,! 
or Jung '/t«, small edible rDusli- ' 
rooms. A sort of upland rice, j 
'I'hese two characters are: 
often interchanged. 

'-f-* Ancient, that which has come i 
^. down through tea months ; \ 
remote, from of old ; antique, 
old; antiquity; former, old, i 
practiced in, accustomed ; '■ku 
ikam, ancient and mo«lern; *A-»< 
*<«n^, antiques, curiosities ; 'Atm. 
^ku tiky old fashioned ; kom^ 
'■ku kiodi' so odd, strange; '■kon" 
cheki '■ku 'Isai, to tell a strange ' 
story, a funny incident; 'A;w 
Hd ytung^ of an ancient shape; 
'■ku chap,set in his way, fixed ; 
'^li iyan, or iSin '■kit, ancestors, 
one's progenitors; the an- 
cients ; ^ku tsik^ relics, sacred 
or venerated spots ; 'kii iUian, 
ancient writings, the classic 
style: tsok^ '■ku <,yan^ to die; 
tsz'^ 'ku H iloi, from of old ; 
(Sdm 'kuf the three periods of 
antiquity, i. tc. at b. c. 2850, 
1120, and 550. 

'/JL To price, to estimate, to vaUj 
\^ ue ; to guess, to reckon ; price, 
value ; /oi 'yfcw, to raise the 
price ; '■ku hai^ mat, what do 
vou think it is? '■ku Ihmg^ to 
suppose, to give an opinion ; 
t.soi' pafy'^kii, very unexpected ; 
'/li '/cii chunfr^ you guessed 
right ; 'kii kni' to reckon the 



price of ; ^ku ku 'Ad, make a 

A bull; the male of quadru- 
peds, usually of those domes- 
ticuted ; tc/iii 'ku, a boar : 'ma 
'kli, a stallion. According to 
Kanghi's dictionary, a cow. 

To explain the words nf tli>; 
ancients by modern iiliHtr - 
tions ; 'hi faii' to expmiiui ; 
'kii (i/i, traditions. 
1 A drum, skin insfrumoii;.s 
-, >of music once made t>f e«rtli. 
_gjjen; radical of characters per- 
kii taining to drums; earthen. ^cats 
or flower-stands; a measure of 
about ten pecks ; drum-shaped; 
to drum ; to excite, to encour. 
age, to arouse ; to urge a fire ; 
to soothe ; a watch of the 
night ; to play on a lute ; "-ku 
ngoki instrumental music ; yaty 
fiV 'ku ngoki a band of music ; 
Idn' tdi^ 'ku, a vile wretch ; 
'kii 'ch^ung, to clap the hands ; 
'kii chu' to melt metals ; it'ung 
'ku, a knobbed gong ; 'ku fs'di' 
a groat hubbub ; ,poiig 'ku, a 
tamborine ; (fd 'ku, a side 
drum ; i-'ku, the second watch; 
'Id (kdng 'kfi, to strike the 
watches ; tsz'- ip'd ishiin, fsz'^ 
'■td 'kii, I can myself paddle 
and drum — I am independent ; 
sheki 'ku, an earthenware seat 
or stand ; jti "-ku, a fish tambo- 
rine used by tiie Rationalists ; 
Hui 'ku, to drum rapidly : 'kd 
fuki pursy, corpulent ; Jio ku, 
the stars a, /?, y in Aquila. 
Sj^ Eyes without puj)ils, or uiiich 
^, can not see objects ; blind ; a 
leader of an orchestra, a musi- 
cian ; /? kit, musicians in the 






palace ; '^kii mtcki iynn, a blind 
man ; ViM miiki iiii- a blind 
asylum ; H^ung '■ku <.s^ung ifu, 
a blind man leading another. 
A ram, a particolored ram ; a 

K^ sheep, male or female ; ''/i^ 
^kri tdi^cfu, the lord of the five 
sheepskins — a story of Peh-li- 
hi, B. c. 660. 

The haunches, the upper 
f part of the thigh, the rump ; 

f^j the leg ; a strand of a cord ; 

K& a share in a concern ; a di- 
vision ; a proportion, a fold, a 
quota ; a chapter or head of a 
discourse ; a spoke in a whrel ; 
strong, stable ; ■J'an ^ku '/sz' to 
pay the portion due to writer.'? 
in a y^mun ; yaU '■ku (Shang V 
a share in a business ; tai^ '^ku 
fan' the head partner; tfan ''ku 
to divide the assets ; (Sam '■ku 
(fthing, a threefold cord ; '■ku 
chvi' si lull trembling with fear; 
'■ku ikwang, the limbs, met. 
statesmen; pat, '^kii, eight 
heads in an essay. 

^ A shopman, one who trades 
in a market, a resident trades- 
man ; to trade, to traffic; 'hi 
^shi, a market, a bazaar ; 
(Sliiung '■ku, a merchant. 

Worms in the abdomen, 
which are thought to caus'- 
dropsy ; a venemous worm, 
used to poison people ; a slow 
poison ; an inquiet ghost ; to 
disturb, to disquiet ; to stir up ; 
to delude ; suspicious ; to trou- 
ble one with doubts, to per- 
vert from rectitude ; the 18th 
diagram ; 'ku chiung^ the drop- 
sy ;yb/t^' 'A;u, to poison one, 
saitl to he dune bv the women 





in Kwingsi ; shau^ 'ku^ poison, 
ed ; t/*i 'Am, flies produced from 
worms in grain ; 'ku tuki poi- 
sonous ; kon' 'ku ^chi '■tsz' a 
son who atones oi* repairs a 
parent's errors; cfti 'ki, possess- 
ed by a malicious goblin, 
elf-shot ; ^ku wdki to impose 
on, to cozen. 

A salt pond in near or Shan- 
tung ; not lasting, not durable, 
badly made ; to suck ; tempo- 
rary, for the time. 

A cause, an occasion, pre- 
text, that which affects or in- 
duces a result ; a reason for ; 
because, therefore, on that 
account, on purpose ; that 
which was formerly, old, for- 
gotten, neglected ; to die, to 
decease ; old, long in posses- 
sion; death ; a matter or affair ; 
yat^yatiiji. kiV daily the same 
as before ; kd^ ih&iing^ my 
native village ; ku' fdn^ pre- 
sumptuous error ; ku' s?'^ an 
old aff'air, an ancient story ; 
'pdi kii' sz'^ to parade old 
things, as in a procession ; tai* 
A'ti' death of parents, the « great 
death;' ^shan ku' or mati ku' 
dead ; ku' ^yan an old (or de- 
ceased) friend ; jAo ku' why ; 
ku' Hs'z' therefore ; ku' i' pur- 
po!fely ; kii' kau' old, long used; 
sffid k(i' causeless, unseason- 
able ; isi isui sai' ku' a trifling 

To turn the head and look, 
to look after, to attend to, to 
care for, to regard ; consider- 
ate ; to reflect upon, to con. 
sider ; consonant to, corres. 
ponding ; to assist with one's 






counsel or business, to patron- 
ize ; an initial word, hut, on 
the contrary ; ku' chu^^k'u look 
after him, to see to; ktV nim^ 
to remember, to consider ; po^ 
kv? to disregard, inattentive ; 
/»•?? havr to lay up, to reflect 
on the consequences ; ^s^ung 
kit' correspondent, mutual ac- 
tion ; kii' "pun to be careful of 
one's capital ; 'rti kiV 'Art/?, do 
you look well after it ; tsx^^ 
kv? pat J hd^ I have no leisure 
(or not enough) for myself; 
s'/n kfi^ min^ ^pi, careless of 
one's name, disreputable ; 
iinung Jcwong kt? to favor one 
with custom — a shop phrase ; 
(tn .•iJnii Am' not heeding ; kt? 
iTTiun "han, to regard the re- 
putatlon oftheshop. Used for 
the next. 

"j To hire, to rent, to engage 
\ for wages ; to borrow ; Ai? 
! ikung, workmen ; krV i'thiin, 

to hire a boat ; h? ynmr ikong, 

to rent a house ; Aw' 'teng ^kni 

engage a sedan. 

S'uit around, sluit up; well 
strengthened, fortified ; imper- 
vious, solid ; firm, constant, 
obstinate, pertinacious, fixed, 
determined ; chronic, as dis- 
ease ; to defend ; to render sta- 
ble ; assuredly, certainly, firm- 
Iv ; vulgar, rude, rustic ; '^chi'i 
icu' lasting, strongly made ; 
A6' chapi pati <fung, immova- 
ble and deaf to reason, per- 
Vf^rse ; ktV <,tn hni? 'kdm, it cer- 
tainly is so ; kiV </s'z' to de- 
clinc firmly ; An? lati' ^yi iinnn, 
thf> rustic, unpolished people ; 
kiV Jang, or Am' i' willful, will 
have his own wav. 







• To fuse iron or copper to 
mend cracks, to stop up care- 
fully ; Aam' Ati' to bind more 
carefully, to keep out, to re- 
press, to prevent, as good men 
reaching office. 
' A chronic, incurable dis- 
ease, such as leprosy, gout, 


To dwell, to stop at a place, 
and live there, to inhabit, to 
reside ; to seat one's self, to 
remain stationary ; to fill an 
office or station ; to be acting, 
and thus is often merely a par- 
ticipial form of the next verb, 
as (kii c-tong, In mourning ; ckii 
ut) lying in ; (ku king' bein^ 
respectful ; cS^nng (kit, widow- 
ed ; to consist in ; to hoard, to 
collect ; to engross goods ; 
retired, not in public life ; to 
desist ; ^ku ik'h goods kept to 
raise the price ; cku chii' to 
live at; Mn Mi, living in 
retirement or otiuin ; Jdi ch'ii' 
a residence ; man- hau^ 'hi cku, 
to inquire about one's health 
or circumstances; 'hi (kit, act- 
ing and quiescent, operating 
and ceasing ; <Au csam «dn' 
tong^ heart bent on dissipation ; 
csan M, a new residence ; 
iCh'd ikiJL, a 'tea-shop, a res- 
taurant ; hiU <ku, to visit, to 
lodge ; ,kii<kun, to be in office; 
iTnd 'sho M 'chi, no abiding 
place;\Aw's2''' a retired scholar. 

The skirt of a robe, the tail 
of a coat ; (Ch'^ung (ki'h a long 
skirt, a train : proud, haughty. 




4E A tree found in Hondn, used 
Ka ^^^ whip. handles, and old 

men's walking-staves. 
iK Ornamental gems hanging 
l^ from the girdle, one on each 

side; ik'ing (kii, precious or- 

namentis, bijoutry ; ikii p^ui' 

girdle trappings. 
" ^ A wheeled barrow, vehicle, 

Kq *^^'^'' ^^'l th® 159th radical 
of characters pertaining to 
vehicles ; the jaw-bones ; yat, 
shing^ ikii, a carriage ; ^b ^lun 
<fcu, a rail-car ; skiing ^kii, a 
public office ; tso* ^kii, to ride 
in a carriage ; hd' (kii, to get 
out of a car, to arrive at ; hoki 
Ju' ^'ng ikii (or (Ch'i) master 
of five cart-loads of books — 
very learned ; hd^ (kii (i 'cA'i, 

^ having just arrived here. 

/& All; altogether, at once; both 
' ^ jointly, together with, the two; 
fully supplied, all right, pre- 
pared; ckii ils^iiii complete, per- 
fect in all its parts ; ^ku sht' 
yat, ^y^ung"; all are the sam%; 
ifcnpi^ all is ready ; ,k'h '^ho^ 
all are good ; ^kii ^md, nothing 
at all. 

To raise with the hands, 

,T^\io carry between two, to ele- 
■^jvate; sometimes denotes the 
Kq action of the next verb, as 
'A-M ''yam, drinking ; to raise in 
public opinion, to introduce 
to, to recommend to ; to vene- 
rate, to rise in one's esteem ; 
to speak of, to allude to, to 
extol, to praise ; to advance, 
to promote ; all, the whole 
number ; to confiscate ; an 
aficient weight of three taels : 
'Aw iyan, or 'kit pak, u •' pro- 






moted man," a kiijin gradu- 
ate ; ^ku Jiiung sin, to set forth 
(or nominate) a village wor- 
thy ; '/tti tsin' to recommend 
one ; 'A-u tdi^ Jo, to lift a fal- 
chion ; ikung '^kii, nominated 
by the public ; 'Au shai' man- 
kind ; pati ^chung /oi '■ku, not 
worth bringing forward ; '/d 
'Aii, a whore (also culled iinan 
iTfgau, from the parts of this 
character) ; 'A« '^shau to raise 
the hand ; 'Aii '^chi, deport- 
ment ; 'Ati on' its'ai jmi, '• table 
even with the eyebrows," to 
respect a husband — refers to 
an old legend of MangKwang. 

A carpenter's square ; a rule, 
law, usage ; a pattern ; strict, 
exact ; what is constant, uni- 
form ; an angle; to square, 
to adjust ; ikw^ai '■kii, usage, 
custom ; pat, ii^ 'A«, [Confu- 
cius] did not overstep equity ; 
kit-, ''ku, rules of conduct which 
influence others. 

A name for the taro in Shan- 
tung; name of an petty ancient 
state in that province, now 
the superior district of Kii\ 
chau in Ichau fu. 

A round osier basket, hold- 
ing about half a peck of rice ; 
lour handfulls of grain, or a 

A stately, solitary, independ- 
ent gait ; going alone, unso- 
ciable ; 'A« 'A"« Jeung JLeuvg, 
careless way, wanting no help. 

A stop in reading, a comma ; 
a period, a sentence; a phrase, 
an expression, a term, a word ; 
a line in a stanza ; a classifier 
oi phrases, as yat. ku wa' a 




plirnse ; yat} kit* ishi, a verse ; 
tfan kii^ tau^ divide it into sen- 
tences; '/ci kii" shut:, iDd^ several 
phrases ; Him U'un kii^ punctu- 
ate it ; s'm tuki lah H'iin ku' 
you don't read it properly ; 
j'm iShing ich^ung kit' ungram- 
niatical, unintelligible ; yat:, 
kii' ku' (td 'liiuf I understand 
every word. 

/rR' A saw ; to saw, to divide ; 

^ to reduce ; kii' ^ch'i, teeth of a 
saw ; ku' ^kengt cut his throat; 
kii' ^c/ii ipy a leaf with serrat- 
ed edges ; ildi kii' to saw ; kii' 
^kdm tik:, jtd'cheapen it a httle. 

A' Prepared, arranged ; placed 
J, together orderly ; to present, 
to furnish, to lay before ; tools, 
implements; 'A:a« Aw' carefully 
prepared ; kii^ itsai pV all is 
ready ; <.chi {ining put:, kii^ 1 
omit the name, as you know 
it; ku' fung^ kwo' '/li, give 
them to you ; iying kO^ imple- 
ments of torture ; hi' kit' the- 
atrical apparatus ; kii' iShan 
ichl iLing '^chi, in whom is the 
Spirit of God. 
^' Hastily, instantly, suddenly, 
5^ quickly ; fleet, hurried, swift ; 
agitated, trembling, fluttered; 
to forward, to send on, to trans- 
mit ; a post, an express ; kap-, 
kuf h.urried, urged on ; iking 
ittf frightened; )tM^^t/i*a slight 
glance at ; icWun ki^ chi yiki 
a postman, a courier. 
' Poor, miserable; rjstic, rude, 
uncer^nionious; kii' jP'o", 
poor ; kii' shd' a defense for the 
head when carrying burdens. 
4ri|* To lay the hand on ; to 
1^ defend, to bar off; to maintain 
a place ; to seize, to take pos- 







session of; to lean against or 
on ; to have form or substance ; 
substantial, tangible ; proof, 
testimony, evidence ; relying, 
according to, de[;ending on ; 
conformably to, it appears 
that; A;w';/d'to take possession 
of a shop ; chirn' kii^ to occupy 
by force, to eject ; pa' kv^ to 
usurp ; ku^ shiit, from what he 
says, &ic.] kii^ '^shau, to guard 
carefully ; ku' yiuk-, according 
to the contract ; kii' sz*' flun 
sz^^ each thing to be done in 
its own way ; ^yau iho rhing^ 
ki^ what proof is there? 

A furious wind, common 
along the southern coasts of 
China; a whirlwind, a cyclone, 
a tyfoon ; kii' ^md, or cfvtig 
kij- Han, the prognostics of a 

A frarRefor a bell or drum ; 
read ik'ii, an ancient table 
utensil of gold or silver. 

To stand or sit carelessly ; a 
free and easy way ; __ a proud, 
sans-souci, haughty, carriage ; 
a vain, self-confidertt gait; 
strong, as kii' <vga, strong 
teeth, tusks ; ku- n^o' haughty. 

To squat, to sit on the feet ; 
to sit in a rude, uncivil style ; 
iki kit' to sit like a tailor ; ku' 
tso' to take the best seat ; ip'iia 
k'i' to sit improperly. 

The chief, the great one, first 
of its sort, great, vast, very, 
mighty, large ; ku} man' a my- 
riad of myriads, innumerable ; 
ka' ich'dt the great raft, is 
supposed to refer to Noah's 
ark ; kit' maki the thumb ; 
(Chiung thoi ku' '^hau, to open 
the mouth wide. 




5c2 How, in what manner? often 
^ implying the opposite of what 
is said ; to stop at, to reach to ; 
ignorant of a language; kij^ jii 
'te'z' sti, was it till this? kii' a' 
who would have thought it ? 
i, c. it was unexpected, un- 
wished. The last is sometimes 
used in this sense. 
>E0* Hard as iron or steel, obdii- 
^ rate ; great, chief; fierce, im- 
placable ; ku^ikunfi, a term for 
the emperor ; kvc" t'% iron- 
%C^ A kind of black millet, of 
'^r- which spirits used in libations 

were anciently made. 
IB^'] To fear, to stand in awe 
»^^ ',of : apprehen.sive ; '^hung kii^ 
ASl j or /tti'p'd'todread, afraid lest; 
Kq tcai' ku^^ng^fat:, to respect- 
fully fear the laws ; Jid ind ku^ 
tdn^ not afraid a bit ; chin^ kit' 
trembling with fear. 
'^- The upright posts of a frame 
'^ on which bells or tinklincr 

l^U 1 111 

stones are hung ; sun ku^ a 
jbQ^ A reddish, sweet fruit ; 'cAt 
^S^ kU} the Hovenia dulcis, used 

to settle spirits or wines, 
g^- Shoes or sandals, formerly 
made of coarse cloth ; tcliiin 
ku' to put on shoes ; si/j ki^ 
to steal a pair uf shoeii. 




4 "2 To grasp with the hand, tn 
K'U ^®^^'"' to grapple with, to stop; 
to re-strain, to moderate, to 
repress ; to hold, to adhere to : 
obstinately attached to, bi"o. 
ted ; to lake, to receive ; tu 

To>. DicT. 'Jl 

hook ; paU ck'ii ^wung Jtoi, no 
limit upon your proceedmgs, 
come as you please ; (k'u chapi 
or [k'ii ni^ obstinate, self-will- 
ed in one's own views ; (k'ii 
i»id, to seize, to arrest ; tk'it 
chuki to restrain, to keep in 
order, as inferiors ; cA"' ii ihin, 
to drag along ; M j'm ik'u, 
intimate, perfectly free, no 
restraint ; pat:, (.k'u 'Ai cto, no 
limit as to the number ; j'm 
'^shai ik'il, don't be so particu- 
lar, dort't stand for trifles ; Jcii 
iUai patj tt'unff, obscure, un- 
intelligible ; ck'u chapi kwo^ 
ff'au, too fastidious. 

A colt under two years' old ; 
a fine colt ; a small sized 
horse, a pony ; Us'in Hi (k'ii, a 
swift horse, a term of praise 
for sprightly lads. 

A place or hold for storing 
or concftaling ; a dwelling, a 
hamlet, a small house or store- 
room ; to class, to sort, to as- 
sign to its own place or rank : 
a line of division, a boundary; 
lA'u tt'it, trifling, petty ; used 
to denote one's own things, 
gift, or opinions; 'Jcii pili to 
properly discriminate ; cA-'w 
its'ong, to hide away ik'ii ak'ii 
ichi ,sant, my private feelings, 
my trifling regard. 

The body, the entire person ; 

a body or substance ; yuki 

Jcu, the bodv ; Jcun Mu wai^ 

kwok, to ofl'cr one's self for 

his country. 

ffjff "i A fleet horse ; to run fast ; 

■^^r* ;. to drive out beasts from gruin ; 

^^ ! to drive them in to a baitue; 

I h.'a to lash, to switch up ; to drive 












on ; to urge, to exhort ; to 
move, to order into their place; 
'.k'uchuki to drive out, toexpel; 
(Sin (k'ii, the vanguard ; hau^ 
ik'ii, the rearward ; ich'i ik'ii 
cpan '■L'tau, to whip up and 
gallop fast ; (k'ii its'^, to expel 
what is noxious; ik'ujiiu^k'u 
hu' take him out. 

To dissipate or expel noxious 
influences or malaria ; to avert 
evil ; (k'ii cfung, to expel 
windy humors; ik'u ak'u, 
strong ; ik'ii sdti^ to scatter. 

The cuff of the sleeve, a 
wristband ; an ornamented 
cuff; a sleeve. 

A sort of ring ; a surname. 

A kind of coarse bamboo 
mat, used for floors ; it is liken- 
ed to a shriveled, deformed, 
man ; ^k'u Jiongf a tray for 

A kind of wild wheat, called 
j&'ii maki used in simples ; a 
mushroom ; ik'ii Jc'u, content- 
ed, satisfied. 

Labor, care, anxious solici- 
tude ; jA;'m j/d, the toils and 
troubles of parents, t.he pangs 
of childbirth. 

A fearful glance of a bird» 
timid, apprehensive ; to look 
at ; to examine wildly, care- 
fully, or hurriedly ; a surname. 
Also read ku^ ; carefully, cir. 
cumspect ; J,6uiig 5t'' kii' kv? 
a discreet, wellbred scholar ; 
hu^ lin, alarmed. 

Thin, emaciated, poor, like 
a ghost ; iyingiyung sham' Jcii, 
a lean, cadaverous Io6k. 



A street, a broadway, a high- 
way, a public road, from which 
others diverge; d^ung JiU^a. 
tlioroughfare ; pb^ yapt /in 
jjt'u, to go to the equator, i. e. 
to see his Majesty. 

ml A species of thrush, or grack- 
i-le called ik'u kuki or pdtt 
vf§ij Jco ; its plumage is black, with 
K'U a white spot on the seconda- 
ries (the Tardus violaceus?); 
ik'ii kuL ^ngdn, the grease 
colored spots seen in argillite 

j^ A kind of milky stone, resem- 
bling argentine, used for cap 
knobs by officers of the sixth 
rank ; it is called cc/iV ik'ii. 

The water lily, called iho ifu 
ik'ii ; chtuh y6uKi ifu ik «, 
splendid as th& lotus flower. 

A drain, aqueduct, or gutter ; 
a pool, pond, or cesspool, into 
which a drain empties ; great, 
ample, wide ; gradual ; a dis- 
trict of Shunking fii in Sz'- 
chuen ; a personal pronoun, 
he, she, it, for which the next 
is now chiefly used ; ik'ii ik'ii, 
careful ; luki maki ik'ii, a large 
sewer passing through the new 
city at Canto!!. 

Used for the last ; the third 
person personal pronoun ; he, 
she, it ; ^k'ii W they, them ; 
^k'ii kd' his; ^k'ii hai^ it is him ; 
hai^ ^k'ii ke" it belongs to him. 

To ward off with the hand ; 
to stop, to obstruct, to with- 
stand ; to oppose a plan, to 
stand out against ; k'ong^ ^k'u, 
to resist ; liki ^k'ii, strenuous 
opposition ; 'k'ii po- to resist 









legal authority ; ^k'u tsiUi to 
repel utterly ; ^k'u iSh^utig 'Ad 
ito iyan, wounded many men ; 
^k'u chv} to' stop one, to defend 
one's self. 

A cock's spur ; a dew-claw, 
a hallux ; to go to, to reach ; 
to oppose, to attack ; to stand 
over against, opposite ; to bor. 
der on, conterminous ,• the dis- 
tance between, distant from; 
to skip or leap over; to stab 
backiianded ; ,kai ^k'ii, a 
cock's spur ; (kau ^k'ii, a sort 
of grappling-hook, used in 
war, a lure ; iCh'iii ^k'u, to leap 



<Kt2. To pout; M 'hi Hsui, to 
pout out the lips. 

cITm. To roll ,up in a ball ; to 
rumple ; to rub between the 
hands , ik'ii H'tn, to roll up in 
a ball ; nioki ^k'tl icKdu, don't 
rumple it ; maU <k'il kdni' lun' 
why is it so tangled? ik'ii W 
improperly, troublesome. 






One who acts as a broker to 
keep up or settle the price of 
goods ; iTiga '^kui, a midsman 
in trade. 

To cut off, to amputate, to 
decapitate ; to broak asunder, 
to cut in two ; '^kui Hsz' or 
kui '■tsz' '^shau, a headsman. 
A durable kind of wood, a 
sort of juniper or cedar, the 
timber of which is suitable 
for coffins and ships ; orua. 



fa J 


ments on coffins ; an ancient 
principality in Hondn. 
Crafty, cunning, mischief, 
making; '^kdu ^kHi, deceitful, 

Hashed meat or f.tsh ; a 
salad ; to cut snmli ; 'kHi cheki 
hashed and roasted. 

A colloquial word ; tired, 
weak, without strength, worn 
out; kdm^ kau' kui^ so tired 
and weak ; keuk) kui* weary 
from walking. 



^ A valley, a gulf, a ravine, 
^T' with or without a stream ; the 
150th radical of characters 
relating to valleys ; a channel 
for water between hills, the 
bed of a rivulet ; an empty 
space ; the east wind ; to nou- 
rish, to sustain ; difficulty, 
embarrasment ; iShdn kuk> a 
valley ; sy^ung kuk> and WJiit' 
kith-, the place of sunrise and 
sunset. Often used erroneous- 
ly for the next. 
*n- 1 Grain, cereals, corn ; real, 
^'^^ \ well off", substantial ; good, ex- 
spaA cellent, virtuous; a succession, 
Kuh connected, to continue; liv- 
ing, alive ; income, salary t 
"n^ kuk-, the common kinds of 
grain ; ■pdk-. kuk, all kinds of 
vegetables; pat-, kuk, *>the not 
worthy," i. e. 1, your humble 
servant ; ishau kuk:, to lay up 
provision ; kuk-, tan' a lucky 
day ; kuk- Js'ung, a granary, 
a bin ; kuk. c/*.Vu/2^, t lie beard 
or awn pf grain,. 







g& The nave or hub of a whfel, 
Kuh' "*^'* *^h^^'' carriage ; j/u/j kuk, 
hub of a wheel ; cch'ni kiik:, lo 
push on the nave, to recom- 
mend one ; lim^ kuh cchi ha^ 
at or about court. i 

■ ^t 'I'o inform with haste, an 
urgent communication; tai' 
Kuk; the emperor Kuh, b. c. 
2435, or 720 years after the 

Manacles, lianrlcuffs ; sedi- 
tion ; a neck-collar; chnU kuki 
fetters, stocks ; ham' c« kuk^ 
imong, involved in sedition 
and death. Read Koh; self- 
restrained ; straightfoward. 
/J-ft. A shed, stable, or pen, for 
^ j^' cattle and horses ; it'ttng (ngaii 

kuk-, a pen for calves. 
i!:6 A target, a bull's eye ; an 
Huh ^"^' ^ design ; a little bird ; 
the swan, called ^fin ^ngo or 
sky goose ; white, hoar, vene- 
rable, like an old man ; kuki, 
tclii chV high, comprehensive 
views, great designs — allud- 
ing to the aerial flight of the 
swan ; kuk^ lap, to stand on 
the lookout like a swan ; kuk) 
fdti gray haired. 

A species of singing thrush, 
called ik'i'i kuk:, or more com- 
monly Hiu (ko. 
^ ] To hold or grasp with both 
'j'/' 'i^hands ; a handful, tlie hand 
^, J filled ; the hollow of the hand ; 
Kiuh pali<ying y'tt-, kuk, not enough 
for a handfull ; siu' (yvng '■ho 
kuk; much pleased with ; kuk 
iindi ^k'ii, to drain one of 
funds, to bring in custom to; 
kuki "^hi (p'du iSoi, to swell out 
the cheeks in anger; kuk, 
ds'au, overworked, no rest; 






Svngenesious flowers like 
the Asler, Chrysanthemum, 
marygold, &c.; kuk, if a, the 
China aster ; kuk, ifd Hsan^ 
spirits with petals of the aster 
steeped in it ; 'sh^ung kuh to 
enjoy the beauty of Asters. 

A ball, a sort of chatt' foot- 
ball ; an awl ; to bear, to bring 
up, to nourish, to train ; to 
rule ; a boy, a child ; being, 
life; full, much ; to bend the 
body ; to investigate ; to push 
to an extreme ; kuh Ming, to 
incline the head ; fap^ kuh to 
kick a football ; kuh yuk> to 
nourish, to rear ; kuh Hsz' a 

To investigate a case judi- 
cially, to question a criminal, 
to get at the truth ; '^sham kuh 
to inquire into and judge a 
case ; kuh man' to strictly ex- 
amine. Often interchanged 
with the last. 

Leaven, barm ; the slime or 
mother which collects on li- 
quors ; kuk. Hi spirit.cakes, 
used for fermentation. 

A square on a chessboard ; 
a game of chess ; an order, a 
rank, a distinction ; contract- 
ed, coiled, bent up ; narrow, 
mean, low-lived ; the body 
confined or cooped ; appear- 
ance, look, aspect; an affair, 
matter, undertaking; a com- 
pany, a club, association ; a 
place where work is carried 
on, which must be guarded 
or carefully looked to, as a 
mint, a powder-factory, or a 
manufactory; a gaming-house; 
to delude, to put out a bait for ; 
to bake, to heat under a cover. 




<o mnke (ea : curlv : ^ni .^m 
(C/ii kiiki (ChvTig fchi 'fu, you 
don't know what trouble will 
attend it ; Ar/A-j (Chung, a tea- 
cup with a cover ; dong hiki 
'ch^ iinai, besotted with [gam- 
ing or venery] ; kvki Jo, an 
oven ; jjnd ashing kvki an un- 
finished game or affair, a still- 
born business ; ip'ing kvk^ a 
fair, even, bargain, no loss on 
either side ; H'ai mat, ^y^ ktikj 
min' see what is meant bv it, 
learn the real object; 'ki. ,shi 
-hu kukiwhen will the casting 
be over, wiien will the matter 
be finished ? ^mi lyan kvki a 
house of assignation; ch'iukvki 
or 'pat kiiki to do a game well, 
to take one in nicely ; kuk^ 
vgov' cchi ipan, a looker-on, 
one not concerned in; %d yaU 
kuki Jci, to play a game of 
chess ; kuk^ t.suk, confined, too 
narrow or too small ; kuki 
Uvng^ 'pin 'siu, a little mind- 
ed, mean-spirited fellow ; kdk, 
kuki appearance of, physiog- 
nomy, symptoms, looks; y^uki 
kuki a dispensary ; its'in kuki a 
mint; chan^ tsaV kuk^ a rooti)' 
for dispensing food to the poor: j 
kuki shaP the position of a | 
game, a situation, advantages! 
of; Hd kuki a gaming-shop ; ' 
kuki p'in^ to trick one ; s/iau' 
kuki gulled ; j'm 'pi ynpi kuk,_ 
not let him join the company, 
to black-ball one; 'fid Ttgoi'\ 
kvki great show, all preten- i 
sion, fine outside ; kuki sIujVl 
-i ixhing, the matter is all ar- 
ranged, the contract is made ; 
kuki Hd ''kit, to pigeon or l 
tltece one. 

OR To bow the head, to ^bend 

^^'.^down, to humble one's self; 

crooked, bent : Jciin kuki bent. 

This character is often pronounced 
ftuk. when meaning a song ; but the 
most correct sound is hxik, which see. 



[The first five of these characters are 
often pronounced VnJ] 

Lg Beautiful, comely, eleganf, 
'^P pretty, slender ; pleasing, 
sprightly, i^hin (kiin, a lady- 
like woman ; (kiin (kiin som- 
ber, distant ; Jiin ckirn, arched, 
crescent ; ptji^ (kiin, dancing, 
gesturing, pantomime, 
[fc^ Little red larvae found in 

v^ puddles; the larvae of mus- 
Kiuen ; . ' , ^ -,, 

kefoes; a large caterpillar : 

crawling ; to stir up, to disturb, 
to agitate. Used for the last. 
la Angry, irrigated, impetuous; 
K distressed; anxious; Ifati 
(kiin, angered ; (kiin (kuut 
careworn, tristful. 
1-'=* To reject, to throw awav, \o 
cast off; to disdain, to leave, 
to renounce ; to subscribe at 
a call from government, to 
buy office or title ; to part, as 
at death ; (kiln it'ai, to sub- 
scribe ; (kiin xjigan, to pay up 
money ; (kiin chik, to buy a 
titip ; (kun (kiin, to buy an 
office ; (kiin ndpi to contribute 
to government ; (hoi (kun, to 
op)pn a subscription to aid go- 
vernment ; (kun hi' to risk, to 
cast away, to die ; (kitn (pdn, 
he purchased the office. 

A colloquial word ; to ex- 
amine carefully, to pry ; to 






squeeze through ; to stoop ; 

to make a hole in ; to guess 

Itjckily, as in lottery tickets ; 

tkiin tuk, t'ati^ to examine 

thoroughly ; .kiln kwd* hu' to 

squeeze through, to wriggle 

in ; ..kun Jung, to get through 

a hole ; ikuu ^t'oi Hai, to stoop 

under the table. 

Looking askance, and with 

„. displeasure at; reciprocal dis- 
Kiuen ... • , _ , . • 

like ; ikun (kun, to reprove 

with a look. 
ijS A brook, a runlet, a small 
Kiuen ^^'"^'''^» which swells as it 
runs ; pure, clear ; to cleanse, 
to purify ; to select ; to ex- 
chide ; a river in Shantung ; 
ikiiii kaU to select lucky time ; : 
(fcurt oki to exclude the bad. I 
^o A bridle ; the traces of a ' 

V:nl harness ; a scabbard : long. ' 

Kiuen , ' - . ' o' 

ample, as a fringe. | 

Bja The cuckoo, or a species of j 

Kiuen go'-^^sucker of the same hab- 1 

it of laying its eggs in other i 

nests,- culled /d' ikun ; td^ ckwii 

t/d, the AzHlea ; td- (kun /ai, \ 

the cry of the cuckoo, con- : 

tinued all night till blood 

comes into ita eyes — as the. 

Chinese believe. j 

9&, A worm, produced in rotten' 

K vegetables — appears to be I 

a glowworm; bright, pure, i 

shining ; to purify, to clean ; 

to maintain purity ; to illus- 

trate, to manifest; to put aside, 

to excuse, to remit govern- 

m<?nt dues ; haste, quickly ; 

(kiin chiung^ to excuse the ' 

pityment of taxes ; pat^ ikiin, 

impure, sordid ; (kiin hnin, to 

remit dues to government. 

=i^ To roll up in a scroll ; spiral, 
Kmen crisped, curled, rolled up ; lo 
whirl about ;t09eize, to carry 
off; '^kiin (mdi or '/:u« 'Ai, to 
roll up; '■kun jdU curly hair ; 
tsiki 'kiin (Shdn (Ch'un, to seize 
the country' or region ; tsik2 
'■kun ji /d, run off with the 
whole; (fung '■kiln 'k, the wind 
whirls the rain ; tun^ '^kUn, roll- 
ed wafers; -.shu and '/:ii«, are 
to unroll and to roll up. Inter- 
changed with the next. 
' <fe. A roll, a manuscript, a scroll, 
r^ a book; a section, a division, 
a part of a book; ruled paper 
for writing essays on ; a clas- 
sifier of things rolled up, of 
books, manuscripts, dec; to 
roll up; ihoi '^kiin, to begin a 
lesson ; ^ch'o ihoi '■kiin, com- 
menced his studies ; 'shau 'kim 
a scroll containing pictures ; 
inhii '■kiin, books ; tnaki 'kiin, 
original essays of the candi- 
dates for kftjin ; lok} 'kiin, re- 
jected essays. Read kiin\ a 
case at law; on' kiln' the pa- 
pers relating to a case. 
-W&' Bound with silken cord ; 'Inn 

^V* kiln' attached to each other 
Kiuen . - . J , . i 1 • 

in friendship, united, insepar- 

To look upon with affection, 
as parents do; kiin' kiin' pat, 
'sh^, unremitted care ; kiin' 
jwdi, solicitous for, anxious. 
Same as the next in these 

To love, to care for, to regard 
affectionately ; those whom 
one loves, relatives, family, 
kindred; related to ; gracioua; 
'pd kiin' your wife; (Ad kiin' 






a family, one's household ; ^md ' 
Jed kiiri' widowed ; kun' ku^ to 
regard with aftection, to see 
to carefully ; (yan kiin^ tai' 
your relative by marriage ; 
(t'in kiin' shaV tyan, Heaven's 
gracious regard for men ; kuii' 
^mai, rice for family use, best 
rice ; nov' kiin^ women are in- 
side — a notice to visitors, 
fg^ A thin cheap silk, used for 
^T* linings or covers, for painting 
on, &c.; a kind of lustring 
or taffeta, of which there are 
many sorts ; a bird-net, once 
made of lustring ; ted* kiin' 
lustring for painting on; iS^ang 
kiin' ipin, to bind the edge 
with lustring ; kiin' pd' cot- 
ton lustring or lutestring. 

© '^ A not or gin for taking an- 
S ) > imals ; to entangle or catch 
7-^ J in a net. 

XS"' ■ To skip about, frisky, play- 
j^/)ful; hasty, prompt, light. 
^^ i minded ; a moderate, modest 
Kiuen man of probity, but not ta. 
lented, one who must be 
f^' A pen for animals is com- 
^monly called kiin\ as ^md 
kiin' a horse-stable, or shed. 
Otherwise read (hiin, as ^hiin 
chi^ ^k'ii tsd^ give him this for 
a stint. 

Tired, fatigued, wearied ; 
~ to desist from labor ; ^p'i kUn' 
fagged out ; ^md kiin^ unwea. 
ried, persevering ; pati (Chi im' 
kUn^ indefatigable ; ^^shan kiiti^ 
tired out ; 'Ad kau' kiin' very 



Muen , 


^ The hand doubled ap, the 

i^ fistjboxing, fisticuffs; strong, 

vigorous, athletic ; to hold 

in the hand, to grasp; ^k^On 

it'au, the fist ; '<d ik'Hn, to learn 

to box; ikUn fat) pugilism; 

ich'di Jciin, the game of mor- 

ra; Jtung Jtun, empty-handed; 

jfc'«« sfc'w", careful, respectful, 

attentive ; sung' ^ni Jciin ji'au^ 

to shake the fist at ; yaU Jciin 

(Chung kico' hii' a blow with 

the fist ; itno Jciin ts'dU '^chiung, 

itching to have a fight. 

Careful ; Jcxin ik'Hn, atten- 

,. tive, earnest about, applying 

one's self; to stop. 

o/fe The limbs contracted or dou- 

K^ n ^'^^ "P ' '^'^'* ^*'^- stooping, 

bent up. 
J^ A fine head of hair ; curly 
hair ; Jc'i <,yan 'mi '■ch'e ik'un^ 
he is handsome and adorned 
with fine hair. 
The weight of the steelyard; 
„■ a weight ; to weigh ; to ba- 
lance, to equalize ; to plan, 
to devise ; power, authority, 
influence ; influential ; cir- 
cumstances, position ; mean- 
while, for the time, temporary; 
contracted ; Jtiin '■cK^, under 
the circumstances ; Jcun ji, 
temporarily obliged ; ^chd Ji'un 
ping' to wield power ; Jciin'^tsz' 
^mb, to get interest on money ; 
Jc'Un (heng chnng* weigh it ; 
Ji'iin pin' to adapt one's self 
to circumstances ; Jtiin Jl, in 
the beginning ; Jtun ishan, a 
powerful statesman ; ^k'Un 





iUang, power and ability, in- 
fluential ; ipingjcun, military 
power ; Jtun iinan, to plan at 
the instant, saojacioiis ; tsuvg^ 
sfe'u/j, according to circum- 
stances; 'ya« c&'m/j, powerful, 
having the nutliority ; ik'ua 
yam^ a substitute in office, left 
in charge. 
The cheek-bones ; Heung 
t.- ikiin, the cheek-bones ; H^ung 
ik'unikd, sftdl:, ifudd, [a wife] 
with high cheek-bones is a 
hut>band-killin<; knife. 



<A» An officer of government ; 

',r*. the magistrates, the authori- 
ties, rulers ; a title ot adula- 
tion or respect ; the govern- 
ment collectively ; an office 
belonging to government ; a 
public court; official; business; 
''ng (kun, the media of the 
senses (eyes, ears, nose, mouth 
and eyebrows); tsd\kun^ to be 
in office ; cA;urt '/m, officers, 
an officer; iinan, 'md, hoki ^kun, 
officers of the civil, military, 
and literary departments ; 'rti 
hai^ mali ikun, what is your 
name or office? iTing Mm, 
Mr. Ting, or Tingqua, as it is 
commonly called in Canton — 
the change to qua is derived 
' from (kw"d, the pronunciation 
of 'Ma at Amoy; '^ki'-pan <.kun, 
what rank is he ? '^hitshan lAriin, 
about to vacate office ; '<'ai 
,krin ^yau ^ngdn, he has eyes 
for an officer, he fawns on 

rank ; d' ^kun Hsai, a young 
gentleman ; ya/jj (Awn, to con- 
fiscate ; ikun Id' a highway, a 
public road ; Mn iyan, term 
a wife calls her husband ; Hd 
Jiun^sz' to carry a case before 
the authorities ; cfeiirt wd^ the 
court dialect, the language of 
scholars ; cAwn '■Cai, official 
dignity or dress, stately, awe- 
striking ; ikun c,ch'^ung iChung 
iyan, a person belonging to 
the government; ^kun ising 
'■fiin, his star is rising, he will 
soon be in office ; tsiki ikun 
sfuii' trusting to official power ; 
s'm p'd' ikvn, "chi p'a' '■kun, 
don't fear the officer, but the 
ruler; it'iti ^kiin ts^^^fuki may 
the ruler of heaven send you 
down blessings ; ikCirt iCh'^ung 
cchung, among the rulers ; 
ikun ikun iS^ung wai^ officers 
countenancing each other in 
it5f The emperor's charioteer, or 
' 'K one who has the care of his 

4|^ That which closes all affairs 
tT . for this world, a coffin; the in- 
ner one, when there are two ; 
to encoffin, to close up ; (hln 
its^oi, a coffin ; ^kun its'oi tsoki 
a reproachful epithet, you cof- 
fin-chissel ! wan\kun, to take 
a coffin home ; 'she ikiin, to 
give coffins — a religious act ; 
its'z' hi' ikiin its'oi, a crockery 
coffin, met. a skinflint ; (kun 
Js'oi {.shall ch'uU '«/ia«, a hand 
comes out of the coffin, grasp, 
ing till death ; tkun chdu' a 
pall ; tkun ^ts'oi ham} one bick 
unto death. 





gg'i To look at carefully, to see; 
'*''- i to observe, to travel and see ; 
'^Mj to take a wide view of ; to 
KwSn manifest; observed, manifest- 
ed, the appearance of; a 8pec» 
tacle ; many ; (kun mong^ to 
look at; tkun ^kwong, first en- 
trance to the literary exam- 
ination ; ikiin s^ung' to judge 
physiognomies ; (Kiin ^yamifd 
aati the idol Kw^nyin, called 
the Goddess of Mercy ; iknn 
(fung, to mark the manners and 
wonders of a place ; ^mi Jcun, a 
beautiful aspect, a fine action; 
<At/n tfin ^man, astrology; 
ikun(yamcp'ing, a lady's man. 
Read Kun^ a temple of the 
Rationalists ; a hermitage, a 
secluded cell or retreat ; a gal- 
lery ; to make known ; ^'Ng 
(Sin kun^ the Five Genii mo- 
nastery in Canton. 
fcTj*. A conical cap or bonnet, a 
'TO- covering for the head ; comb 
of cocks, crest on the head of 
birds ; rka ihin, to cap a young 
man ; ^tsing ishing Jtun, please 
remove your caps ; ikai ^kun 
,fa, cockscomb flower ; kd* 
(kiin, wattles ; ^mtn ,.f{un, off 
with your caps, said to officers 
in the presence of their judge; 
ikun '^min *s'' with parade, 
showy. Read ift/n'; to cap a 
young man, now done a' 
marriage, and equivalent to 
putting on the toga virilis; the 
chief or head ; able, superior ; 
^yung kuri' csdm (kwan, the 
bravest '» capped" in three 
jirmies — one who has been 
promoted for courage ; kun^ 
ic/i'^uj»/j, excelling in the three 
ninrtial tests. 

Ton. Dict. *^5 


'f^,] A little flute or flageolet ; 
t p* 1^ a reed, a tube, tubes to make 
'g*] pencils of; a classifier of fifes, 
K wan flutes, pipes, quills, and tubu- 
lar things ; to rule, to govern, 
to control ; to have the man- 
agement or care of; to awny, 
to influence primarily ; ^hin 
(td, a butler, a mujor-domo ; 
'/f«rt f.hd^ to rule over ; pot, 
'/r?J«, tube of a pencil ; 'A-r'm 
sz'^ ifong, a manager's room, a 
pantry ; 'An'/n tim^ a coolie, a 
shop assistant; '/flirt Vj, to ma- 
nage, to rule ; '^kun kiii' to see 
partially, as through a tube ; 
one's imperfect views, my op- 
inion ; chati '•kUn before other 
verbs intimates compulsion 
or constraint, ciTti not be help- 
ed, — as chnt:, '■kvn tsd' must lie 
done ; chat^, '^ktin ''kong, talk 
away, let him talk; ''kvn s/id' 
a treasurer or money -keeper ; 
'^tsung '■kun, a superior ruler, 
to superintend ; shau^ ''kuii 
hati governed by ; 'Anin ^k'ii j'/n, 
must make the best of hira, 
hard to manage ; '^kun i'm chu^ 
'^t>^ A tube of stone, made into 

-JP flutes; to polish metals; a 
Kwan ,., ' ,, ' 

gem-iike pebble. 

'«fe Impotent, weak, worn out ; 

^a. sick from grief or disheart 
Kwan " 


ened by disappointment. 

A hotel, an inn, a caravan- 
serai, a lodging or stopping, 
place for travelers; iicouncil- 
Kwan room, an assembly-hall, an 
exchange or place for public 
consultations, a hall; an offic< , 
study, or counting-room, wh^n 
they are built separatelv; a 
BulooJi ; a room for any public 




pur[»ose ; a school-room ; lidic, 
"■kun, a tavern ; iknng 'Am«, a 
governmental hall, the lodging 
of an oflicer ; ui' ^kurt, a mer- 
cantile hall, often called in 
Canton, a consoo-houae ; cshi), 
'■kun, a college, a school ; '■kiiii 
sh6^ lodgings to let, a hired 
hall ; '■S6 "^chi '■kiin, office for 
opium-orders ; Jioi '■kiin, to 
open school ; pdn^ '^kiin, pur- 
veyor inayamun; iko Jau'^kun, 
an eating room ; sfnii^ '^kun, 
custom-houses ; '■kun fi^ a post 
in a yamun as a writer, a lite- 
rary man's occupation ; 'kun 
A/i/f) salary ; ci '^kun, a hospital. 

'^ffil A fife or small wind instru- 

^^ ment like it ; a string to sus- 
Kwan , J ' , "= , 

pend drums; to rule; a shuttle. 

'i^J cTung '^ki'in tin', the district 
^ti cast of the Pearl River, near 
the Bogue. Read j«n, a kind 
of coarse grass (Coix lachry- 
mal) used to weave mats; to 
smile, to look pleased. 

•S" A string of 1000 cash ; to 
^^, thread, to string upon, to run 
thread through ; to connect, 
to traverse ; linked, joined to; 
to implicate, to involve; to 
penetrate, to go through ; yat:, 
hill' ^ts'in, a string of cash ; 
kiin^ (ming, to see through ; 
tsiki jtwn' origin and parentnge, 
account of one's self required 
at examinations ; jji Jui knri' 
Hy like thunder piercing the 
car; kun' ck'un^ to run or get 
through, to bore through ; hin^ 
'■kan ^k'it, fasten it tightly, as 
bv runninu a string through. 

To run or flow together ; to 

J^. discharge or disembogue into, 
to water, to moisten ; to give 
one drink, to pour down one's 
throat ; much ; bushy trees ; 
kini^ ^k'ii 'yam, force him to 
drink: kun^ (fa, to water 
plants; kiin^ tsuP made h,iir> 
drimk. Used for the next. 

^El' To pour out K libation ot^ 
ts ; kiin^ 


Z!'^^ the ground to spiri 

'■tsau to offer a libation when 
calling upon the spirits. 

A jar, a gallipot, a cruse, 
a vase, a mug ; a water or 
oil jar, round and having no 
KwAn spout ; icli'd ktin^ a tea-canis- 
ter. The second form is 

A crane ; two species of it 

are noticed, the pdk^ kun' 

entirely white ; and the (« 

kiiri' of an ashy plumage and 

a black tail. 




/\ The opposite of selfish or 
'j^ ^^mean ; common, public, uni- 
" versal ; open, general ; just, 
equitable, fair; male of ani- 
mats ; a duke ; a lord, master 
or head, a term of respect and 
dignity added to names of 
relationship ; (kung tM, the 
imperial family ; (kung '■chii, a 
princess ; (kd (kung, a bus- 
band's father ; also, my father ; 
(kung iSz' a public company ; 
in Canton, the East India 
Company ; a mercantile firm ; 
thing (Si' (in, E. 1. Co.'s wool- 
ens ; knng '■'Siio, a public hall, 
a town-house ; ,kung qnng or 




, hung Id- fair, just ; 'm ^kung, 

ineun, dislionorable ; kung ui* 
a corporation, a puhlic com- 
jianv; ;^»»i^ Hsai, images, play- 
things, statuettes ; Jiung Is^uk^ 
the rank of a duke ; seung\ 
(kung, a gentleman, a master ; 
ikutig (Sam, public-spirited ; 
ikung c«' public and selfish, 
the governnienl and |)rivate 
purposes ; .kung iy^, my lord 
duke, my gruudfaiher ; t'dt 
ikuvg, a grandfather, an old 
man ; Wai' ,kuug, Mr. Wai — 
usfrd by equals ; jiai a' skiing 
hu-o' 'hoi, when the clay god 
crosses the river — he can not 
secure his own safety ; -mau 
ikujig, a certain gentleman : 
'/() J(ung, a husband ; ngoi^ 
ikuiig, a maternal grandfather; 
ikuiig ikwig, a eunuch ; (chii 
(knng, you gentlemen ; ^kung 
.viitn, a government office ; 
ikuns if ong, the room where 
a coi.rt is held ; ikung hong' 
public funds or articles; Jong 
(kung md- for the government 
use ; ihitng 'fsz' a gentleman's 
son, an officer's son ; 'Unng 
ikung ip'o, a married couple ; 
ikung (ii ^chi hd' leisure from 
public duties. 

ilj;\ An insect ; ^ng kung, the 

'jP* centip'^de, commonly called 
^"^ pdki tsuk, or hundred feet, 
-|* A laborer, a workman, an 

jT^ artisan, a mechanic; lal)or, 
""^ craft ; art ; an ornament re- 
quiring skill; a work; an of. 
fjcer ; the 48th radical ; ^kung 
.,7jan, laborers; (kung Iseung^ 
ailisans; kung ,fn, \\ox\i, la- 
\mx -..kung Ji'i rhd. Congou 


tea ; ,kiing .ngan, or kung 
its'in, wiig<;s; Jioi kung, -shau 
ikung, to begin work, to stop 
work ; ^liinikung or sdn\I,ung, 
job-work ; iCli^ung ^kung, 
constant occupation ; td ikung 
"^Isai, assistants, clerks ; Jiung 
tsoki skill ; quality of work ; 
'/d Jcitng, to work ; ds'o Jiuug, 
poor \\ ork ; p'un' Jiung, a piece 
of work ; ts6' fd^ <.kung, the 
maker of all things; Jsing 
.Aung, or hdu (kung, skillful 
or tine work ; ^yau ^kung Jn, 
busy, occupied; .kung tsz"' yaU 
ch'ut, j'au, the letter kuvg 
has no head — a workman can 
not become a boss. 
To attack, to assault, to fight 

,, with, to beat : to put in order, 
to set to work at, to applv 
diligently to; to rouse, to re- 
prove for faults ; to stimulate 
the energies or vital powers; 
urgency of desire on the heart, 
temptation ; sirciig, 'enduring ; 
(kung 'td, to set on, to fight ; 
(kung (Shu, to study hard ; 
.kung fu, to seize robbers ; yat. 
(Sam (kung ^chi ^ch^ chung^ a 
crowd of desires attack the 
heart ; (kung yuk> to work 
gems ; (kdn (kung, to join 

■ri-t Actions deserving praise, 
V, ' honor, reward, or mtrit ; me. 
ritorious; virtuous, worJhy ; 
a good service, woik,<»r atf lir ; 
virtues of medicines; (kung Jd 
merit, that wliich deserve.^ 
reward ; (kung Uki merits ; verv 
efficacious as medicine; tdi^ 
ikung, nine moitf hs' mxurning, 
put on for uncles ; iiii kung. 




five months' njourning forcou- 
sinrt; A:j^ ikung, to record me- 
rits ; ithing ikwg, a finished 
work ; Jc'iiig ji tsz'^ ^kunn-, self- 
laudation, vain-glorioiis ; ^yati 
(kung, meritorious ; 'md (kung, 
undeserving ; pat^ kai' (kmig, 
regardless ot" th« labor; dstung 
tkung shuki tsui^ to expiate 
faults by good deeds ; y^uh 
liki tkung hdu^ the virtue of 
the medicine is' great ; ^hing 
iTning, high rank; '^hai.-pincKu! 
yung^ (knttg, where do you i 
study? ikuiig <«d« 'pd kwo' no 
good acts can wipe out his 
crimes ; tkung t'ung Isoi^ l^d\ 
your goodness has [as it were] 
recreated mc. 

pi A bow ; the 57th radical of 
'„ ■' characters relating to bows; 
archery ; crescent, curved ; 
a cover of a carriage ; a mea- 
sure of five or six ch'eki the 
length of a iiow — fifty made 
a bowshot ; to n)easure ; tkung 
tsin^ bows and arrows; tkung 
ihdi, women's shoes ; Jiung 
tc/ia, a stretch used in arch- 
ery; tkung j/n, a bowstring; ,ldi 
tkung, to pull a bow ; tkung, 
tto, 5/ieA'] trials in pulling a bow, 
fencing, and in!iftingst<meB — 
at the military examinations. 

"^ A medicinal plant, the root 

V * ^ of which rescuibles tornien. 

" tilla ; the best is from Sz'- 

rli'uen, called -xli'un tkung; 

the decoction is used to purify 

the blood. 

6^ One's person, personally, 

' •' one's self or h.od v ; < kuns ds'an 
Kun<r I , - ^ , 

lA- 1 .« ' to do a thing one s 

self; cham\kung,0\ir3Q\^, the 

emperor ; shing^ ikufigt the 
sacred person ; huk> tkungt 
the bended body. 

To respect, to behold with 


regard, to venerate by an out- 
ward serious, sedate, depori- 
ment ; rPspectful,complaisani, 
collected, courteous, atJiiblo 
in one's conduct ; as an adjec- 
tive, often merely enforces the 
next word ; tkung ^hi, respect- 
fully wish you joy ; tkung king^ 
respectful, venerating ; tkung 
shun^ submissive ; tkung ho' 
congratulatory present!- ; tkung 
tkung jM Hai, very polite, ac- 
cording to etiquette ; tkung 
iPan, ladiea of officers of the 
4th rank. 

/jj. "1 To place before, to offer or 
'•^ V present to, to lay out, to ar- 
^-\^} range ; to supply with ; to pro- 
Kung vide, to succor, to give ; to 
confess, to give in evidence, 
to declare ; tkung kap^ to fur- 
nish ; tkung yJng\ to provide 
superiors, to pay the dues of 
office ,^hau -.kung. verbal evi- 
dence; ^ngo tkung ^k'ij, I accuse 
him ; tkung tch'ing, he confess- 
es saying; iCk'un tkung sy<w>, 
interpreters for witnesses; 
tkung '^tong, to tell of one's 
accomplices ; tkung tp'dn, to 
accuse falsely ; tkung cluky to 
assume an office ; tkung ui^ to 
pay back to the club one's 
proportion. Read Knvg\ to 
nourish, to support; offeringn ; 
kitng^ yinng^ to sustain omc'.s 
parents; kung^ jJw, to oifer in 
worship ; r/i't/j kung^ to ar- 
ranae the offerings. 




fi^ Interchanged with the two 
'J^ last ; ii 8urnu(ne ; to give : re- 

* specttul. 
^> A mansion, a building ; now 
K confined to the imperial re- 
^ sidence ; the palace ; a w-.iil ; 
11 temple ; a district college ; 
the tirst note in the octave ; 
lo castrate ; to surround ; the 
circuit of; ,kuiig tin- a palace; j 
thing %'a7n, the seraglio ; 
(kitiig ^fi, imperial concu. 
bines ; ,kur>g iy'ng, " punish, 
ment of the palace," castra- 
tion ; (kung iVgo, maids of ho- 
nor; hoki Mungi a college in 
a district or prefecture ; ihang 
ikung, a rural palace ; ichai 
loki Hang ikung, put her in 
the "cold palace," said of a 
wife or concubine who is 
discarded ; it refers to the ha- 
reem where rfjected women 
used to be sent ; "^shau ikutig, 
a house lizard. 
To join the hands before the 
breast as when bowing ; to 
hold or take with both hands ; 
lo encircle ; an arch ; arched, 
bowing ; '^kung ''teiig, a don)e, 
n cupola ; ''kung ''s/iau, to bow 
with the hands even with the 
head; '^hung pVi to bow and 
part ; '■kung ip'ung, a kind of 
dooi-porch ; kul) ising 'kung 
f/ijii' may happy ftars shine 
around you ; kung ^ngd, semi- 
cylindrical tiles. 
'i.4j- A post, prop, orpilhr ; 'kung 
^'•^ '■foil, the capital i;r top of a 






To bind with thongs, to 
bind securely : firm, strong, 
well secured ; wtll guarded j 

against attack ; to shrink or 

dry at the fire ; a district in 

Hondn fii in Honan ; 'kung 

kii' well guarded ; <»/iu ^pi 

'kung 'hi, the book-cover:) 

warp ; 'kung ikun, to dry ul a 


•^' To offer tea liege, to present; 

,f^ to offer tribute or taxes : tri- 
fwung . ' 

bute, taxes, or presents given 

by inferiors or fiefs, as the 
peltry, gems, &.c., of Tartar 
tribes sent to Peking ; to an- 
nounce ; offers of service — 
and hence merit, worthy ac- 
tions ; tswi' kii7ig' to offer tri- 
bute or taxes ; kung^ 'pan, ar- 
ticles of tribute ; kung^ as'' the 
tribute-bearer ; vdpi kung' to 
pay taxes ; pat, kung' a select- 
ed siutsai ; kung' iin* provin- 
cial examination. hull ; kung* 
iShiin, vessel bringing tribute. 
-|y -' Generally, all, altogether, 
^^ in all, collectivelv ; in fine, 
in slort, to sum up; with, 
and, together with ; the same, 
alike; to include in, to live 
with; kung- 'tsung, the whole, 
altogether ; hdp2 kung^ in all, 
all taken together; kung^ kai' 
the whole amount; kung^ 
/ling ^k'ii hii- all are gone 
witli him; ^ngo hung^ '/ti, 1 
and you ; /ung tsaia kung* 
'sliui, of the same mind ; paU 
kung' yoU shall can not live 
in the same house ; kung* 
ishing '«ji 'kii, it will be a 
good act to make up the sum ; 
hma' 'kirni 'koig ^m^, have 
you beei: 'ilking with a ghosi? 
Read 'Kung, to superintend 
woik; tciwardrt ; openly. 






^Jg Brouglit to the last degree ; 
if 7 poor, abmdoned, exhausted, 
impoverished, no means; 
the poor ; poverty ; the end, 
the fimil termination of; to 
make helpless or poor ; to 
search thorouglily, to investi- 
gate to the bottom ; to exhaust; 
ik'ung kw'an^ destitute, on 
xesowvces \ Jcung kiki at the 
end, nothing at all ; ^md Jiung, 
inexhaustible, endless; 'shui 
ik'ung (ihdn tsun^ no way to 
go, no way open ; Jc'ung 
kau^ to thoroughly examine ; 
ik'ung iChui, to pursiie every- 
where ; ik'ung it' by left on thp 
road without means ; ik'ung 
holi'^ck^, a poor scholar ; sung' 
s/iirt Jivng, idolatrous cere- 
monies at the year's end ; 
ik'ung //i' iS^ung -ye., you will 
get poor too ; Jcung Jci liiii. 
to search out a thing to the 
Lofty ; high and vast as the 
sky ; eminent ; spacious, 
empty ; ik'itog Jsong, the 
azure canopy, the empy- 
rean ; to stop up, to prevent 

An inferior department near 
Cliinirtn fu in Sz'ch'uen : 




name of a river ; |)oorly, sick, 
infirm ; troublesome. 
Biimboos tit for making 
iT'iuno- w:ilkinir-sMcks for old men ; 

a kind of bamboo. 
^C The eye of aji ax or hammer: 
',.' " '/"/'/ k'ung, the hole of an .ix. 

3^ A fabulous animal likn a 
'.^ griffon ; a kind of locust ; 
J I ik Wig hnun y^, the fly- 
ing locusts fill the [)lains ; 
ik'ung ik'ung, concerned for, 
sad ; ik'ung jj/am, the locust'ij 



.yjr 1 Name of a river; streams 

{-jT* } flowing different ways ; to 

yi>j fl«w, to lead streains ; to 

Kiueh spread abroad ; to decide, to 

pass sentence, to settle j to cut 

off; decided upon, certainly, 

fixed, positively ; doubtless ; 

kiit:, sin, certainly is so ; '■ch'u 

kiiti to sentence to death ; ktit, 

tsiiti to utterly renounce ; kiiti 

it? must have it ; kiit, yuki to 

take out of prison. 

til Parting or dying words ; to 
KiuJh ^^^^ leave, to depart ; a fare- 
well ; an art, a rule, a pre- 
cept ; a mystery or secret ; 
abstruse doctrine; a trick, a 
sleight ; j)? kOf:, undivulged se- 
crets ; kiiti pUi to take a lastintr 
farewell ; Jau kUti a dying 
legacy or words ; ich'iung kiit, 
eternal sepuation ; maL kiiti 
the doctrine of the pulse ; 'hau 
km, gibberish ; to teach a 
craft. Interchanged with the 

-TJi a broken or halved ring, 
Jy^) formerly used to indicate 
l»reaking ott all connection 
a semicircle; an archers 
ring; p«r.-ioual oruuuients. 




Kh A broken, dofectivo, clipped, 
^^\ or cracked, vessel ; deficient, 
wanting, short; defects; a 
deficiency; to make a vacancy 
in an office ; duties of an of- 
ficial post, of wljicli there are 
three sorty — 'kdn kuU an easy 
post, tc/iwn^ ^M^ medium post, 
and W kill:, an important post ; 
and the salaries are propor- 
tioned ; Jioi kul-. to make a 
vacancy ; ^pd A-«^ to siipply a 
vacancy ; '■fid^ a good 
office, a profitable situation ; 
kulifdU wanting, not enough ; 
(fang kiiti broken, defective ; 
tai^ kidy hdm^ a grievous thing 
or event ; kuU '-piin, to aflfecl 
or ""educe the principal. 
To hope or expect impa. 
tiently, to long for one's re- 
turn; to make known; to 
regard with dissatisfaction ; 
to want; deficient. 
To shut the door, to close 
the office ; to stop, to rest ; 
terminated, done; to prohibit; 
end of a song -ffuki kilt:, to 
take nir mourning ; ^ko shb'' 
A-«/j several tunes or songs. 

^A catch, a mark by which to 
' remember a cliaracter ; to 
mark off; Jcau kid-, to mark 
off criminals for execution, 
as is done by the emperor at 
the autumnal assizes. 
A p<;rsonal pronoun, he, she, 
it ; that, that one, the man; 
ts, his ; short ; to project 
stones ; to bow the head to 
the ground ; kiit:, Haug^ they. 
^ A gouge, chissel, burin, or 
^"', "raver, used bv carvers and 







Ht» A post, a stake, a pile ; used 

§r^\ for half of a thing ; a stick, 
Kiueh , c , 

a lever, a piece ot wood ; a 

post in the middle of a gate- 
way ; the bit in a bridle ; a 
drum. stick ; to/, yaU kiif, cut 
off a piece, cut about a half; 
'^kam 7jnl) kiiti take off half, cut 
it in two. 
3£ An edible fern ; the stalks 
are cooked for food whea 
tender, and a flour is made 
from the root ; kiiti^fan, farina 
of the fern. root. The draw- 
ing of the kiit) resembles an 
Insolent; (Ch'<j7ing kiif, un- 
ruly, ferocious, disobedient, 
according as applied to chiU 
dren, robbers, or animals. 
^^ An animal that carries an. 
^^\ other ; the vague description 
of it may refer to some mar- 
supial animal. 
Vj^ To stumble, to fall, to slip 

■< 1^', down ; to fail in ; to leap, to 
I Kiueh. ' . . ! • , 

jump ; prostrate, to go quick. 

ffi^ Tongue of a buckle, a hasp ; 
i Jr"- '. a ring on a carriage for fas- 
tening the reins to, called 
kiit^ ndfi ; a ring with a 
tongue or hook for fastening 
to ; part of a lock. 
Feigned, counterfeited ; to 

1?'^'. impose on; hypocritical, craf« 
ty ; to please or agree with 
one to gain an end. 

a^ A shrike, called pdk) Jd ; it 

V \ sings in the seventh month, 
and is said to -eat its dam ; 
(shdn pdki Jd, the wild 
butcher-bird, an epithet for 
disobedient children. 









yht To unite all the parts, unit- 

^H ' ed strength ; to tug at ; to 

"'" reach ; to collect or assemble ; 

kuty kuU tugging. 

J^ To inclose or embrace ; to 

^\ bundle-up, to tie up, to en. 

velop ; to infold, to compre- 

hend ; to examine into; to 

arrive at ; cpd« kut-, to bundle 

or wrap up; to contain, to 

have an understanding of; 

^nong kuU sz" '■hoi, he ♦• bags 

up the four seas," i. e. he 

knows everything; kufyfdt, to 

do up the hair in a coil. 

W3t To make a great clamor, to 

^^'' stun one,tom<ike a din ; im- 

'^ portunate, bothering, distrac- 

ting, noisy ; to injure an affiiir 

by talking ; A:u^ kut, inapt, 

ignorant ; (to jin ki'if, % to din 

in one's ears ; kuti ^iu, clamor- 


^ Fleet, hasty ; quick ; to has- 

JS' ten one; a man's name; 

kuty /nne, to understand 

soon ; Pdk,-kuti was one of 

Wan Wang's officers. 

Aft' A garden slug, called frri^5<2 ; 

^^' vulgarly pi^ t'ai^ iCh'ung, or 
the snivel worm ; a frog's 
eggs ; katt Jtauy the mole, 

^g An o|)en valley ; to pcne- 

^•^'t trate through ; to understand; 

liberal, magnanimous ; kut^ 

tail perspicacious ; kuti fin 

itnivg, fully understand it. 

tTT General name for gourdj», 
'Jr\ melons, cucumber?, brinjais, 
egg. plant, squash, &c.; the 
9*7 th radical of characters 
pertaining to melons ; csai 
iktrd, tlie watermelon ; (ivottg 
(kwa, cucumber ; /s?^ (kwd, a 
hairy squash ; (Oi (kwa, egg- 
plant ; (fan (kwi'i, small yellow 
squash ; (tiing (kwn, a large 
coarse squash ; mnkukwa, the 
papaya ; tV ytvki (kwa (fan, 
the country is cut up (or ap- 
portioned) like the carpels <>f 
a squash ; ^yau (kwa ^-o^ there 
is a liaison or intercourse of 
pome kind ; (kwa ts'o'C (fan, a 
greengrocer's stall ; ts^urig^ 
(kira, a kind of pickle made of 
the tender paki (kwa ; ^kwd ^k'i 
(i toi^ change it when melons 
are ripe, i. e. next year ; (kita 
tViiTnin jmin, a numerous pro- 
geny, many descendants. 

To distribute to several; few, 
little ; seldom, unusual, rarely ; 
alone ; deficient, what is short ; 
a widow ; the regal We ; ,ku 
'A-tcri, orphans and widows, left 
alone desolate ; (to'^kwd, much 
or few, how many ? '■hcd fu or 
'fcrm ^md jp'o, a widow ; '■kwa 
iyan, Ourself, I, the king ; 
'■kwd Hd, a widower, an old 
bachelor ; '^kim pat, tiki chuv^' 
alono I can't stand them all ; 
'■hrd {man, little experience. 
±1 ' Divining lines or diagrams 
^•^ invented by Fuhhf, to serve 
as an abacus by which to phi- 
loaophize ; first there were 







eight, then these were involv- 
ed to sixty-four ; to divine ; 
ichim kwd' or puk^ kvca' to 
divine ; ifigd '■cICi '/d kwd^ 
shivering from cold or terror ; 
kwa' it'au '■chun, he guessed 
4iM To suspend, to hang up ; 
>~, , to dwell on or prolong ; to 
^y divine by straws ; to remem- 
kwa ber; to distinguish ; to lay 
aside ; in suspense, anxious ; 
kwd' Ad* to enter names in a 
visiting-book, to make or keep 
a list of articles or names ; 
jfcifld^ 'c/»'i, to make people talk 
of ; kwd' rnong^ to hope for ; 
kwd' (Sam or kwd' lu- to be 
anxious for; kitd' ^sheung, to 
hang up ; kiDd\kun, to secret- 
ly leave office ; kwd^ c/iu' ^k'ii, 
to keep thinking of ; hca' niin} 
to bear in mind ; (d^ kwa' a 
small green parrot ; kwa' 
imeng, to call by. in name 
only; kwd' '^hi fan^ inoki voii 
may hang up the griddle — out 
of business. 
iti.' A jacket worn over the robe, (225) 
T^^'^ having short and wide sleeves; 
'//id A-Jcd' a riding-jacket, a sort 
of dress overcoat or sack ; tdi^ 
Jttcd' a pelisse worn by ladies, j 
a short robe ; jp'd kwa' cere- 1 
monial dress, robes ; ikwan i 
iki kioi.^ a sort of vest, with 
very short sleeves. 
S^^ An impediment, a hindrance; 
to hinder, to obstriict ; to fall 
;nio a snare; kwa' ngoi^ an 

To deceive, to cozen, Xr^"^ 

; to disturb ; Arwd'ii^ 
lead ; kwd^ lun} ^t'in jj 
ha^ to distract the emi>ire. 


•••tv" impose on 

us to mislead 

A final word, indicating a 

doubt, or orne's opinion of; ^k'u 

Jm'i Jiiu kwa' I think he has 

come ; icuAj 'c/<^ fiai^ kwa' I 

think it is so; ■p'a' i'm hoki 

tak, kwa" I'm afraid I can't 

learn it ; kdm' kwa' so ? are 

you sure it is so? 

ftfe,'] The thighs, space between 

^^ , ;> the legs, the crotch ; kwd' 

j^ j '//jd, lo bestride a horse ; kwd' 

K.\vk yuk^ to shame one by making 

him go between one's legs ; 

kwd' ifu, one forced to submit. 

The second character also 

means trowsers. 

Cfe' Interchanged with the last ; 

^^ to pass over, to straddle, to 

bestride ; to surpass, to excel ; 

to border on a country ; the 

crotch ; kwd' tso' a son who 

excels his father ; kwd' «/j to 

excel ; pat^ kwd' Jci kwok, not 

incroach on his territory ; kwa' 

ihoi tui' ''shnu, to stretch or 

throw out thti arms. 


■^^ Prodigious ; to vaunt, to brajr; 
C*7 magniloquent; self.conceittd. 

Same as the next, 
f^ To talk big, to boast ; to 
K^a^''^""*' bragg'ng, grandilo- 
quence ; conceited, arrogant ; 
wide, ample — said of a dr^ss ; 
(kw'd ^hau boastful ; ikw'd 
^Ls^iins ^k'u, to adulate one ; 
f*t'* ikw^a, self-laudation. 
Jfj^ Vain, conceited ; good, pret- 
tc^i ty ; ikw'd Isity regardful of 
one's appearance or conduct, 
faijtiJioUb-, finical. 

To>. DicT 







"I To return to the same place 
*i»i **' state ; to go, or send back, 
tl^j 'o restore, to revert to ; to 
Kwei terminate, to end; to belonij 
to ; to go home ; to marry out ; 
to send a present, to give, to 
promise; to unite, to assemble; 
a terminus ad quern ; a home, 
a country, a native place, a 
refuge, a center ; to divide 
fractional numbers ; tfdn /m' 
ikwai, to go home ; (Jcwai mah 
it/an, vvhoui does it belong to? 
(kwai kau' to lay the blame 
on the right one ; ^kwai ckan, 
to trace to the end ; Jtwaifuki 
to return to obedience, to give 
up rebellion; j»id '■sho (kwai, 
no home, wandering — said of 
ghosts ; (kwai iwdn hii, send it 
back to you ; (kwai ,mdi yaU 
pirif to go or put aside ; ikwai 
'^ku or (kwai shai^ dead ; (kwai 
iiiing, a bride's visit to her pa- 
rents; (kwai (U 'f'd, to be bu- 
ried; ctioaij/'in, to resign office, 
to return to one's homestead ; 
tkwai fat) division ; dHn ha} 
(kwai (Sam, the country looks 
to me ; (kwai 'pan tsiki to 
bring a region under rule ; 
(kwai (kwai yaU yat-, put every- 
thing in its place ; "-kau <.ktoai, 
a table for reducing fractions. 
/jc To conform to, to receive 
'^^- instruction, to comply with ; 
ikwai (hfuki fat, to hearken 
and conform to instructions — 
as disciples do. 





:^] A sceptre or baton made 
'■^^ofsfone, given to noblemen 
,JjEj''nd princes as a sign of rank, 
Kwei and used at levees ; a mea- 
sure equal to a pinch or six 
grains of millet ; some say, 
64 grains, or what can be 
taken up in three fingers; 
chap> (kwaiy to hold the baton. 
To butcher ; to eviscerate, 
. to cut open ; to stab, to stick 
a knife into. 
The stride of a man ; the 
15th of the 28 constellations, 
answering to parts of Andro- 
meda and Pisces, and auspi. 
cious to students. 
The door separating the pri- 
vate from the public part of a 
house ; the apartments of the 
women ; unmarried females, 
who have not yet left tiie 
hareem ; women; female, lady 
like, feminine ; (kwai ^nii, a 
virgin, a young lady ; (Sham 
(kwai, the inner apartments; 
(kjoai (mun, to stay at home, 
of a retiring disposition — said 
of maids ; (kam (kwai tsiki a 

«1 The tortoise, the chief of 
i mailed beings^ the 213th 
^ J radical of characters pcrtain- 
Kwei ing to the cheloniae; (kam 
(kwai, a small species of Kmys, 
whose carapace, divided into 
28 plates on the edges, is used 
in divination ; (kwai Ao/ca tor. 
toise's shell ; ,kwai (kung, a 
cuckold ; (kwai 'chdu, a pimp ; 
(kwai tdn^ or (kwai Hsai, a bas- 
tard ; (kwai piiV arched over, 
like a tortoise's back; tdi^ 
ngong^ (kwai, you stupid dolt. 






Lots made of paper or wood ; 
to choose by lot ; inim ^kwai, 
to draw lots. 

A spirit of a dead person, a 
manes, that which the soul 
reverts or turns to at death ; 
the 194th radical of characters 
of demons, phantasms, &c.; 
a gho^t, an apparition, a 
spectre ; a demon, a devil ; a 
horrid looking object ; a mise- 
rable person, a wretch ; the 
Cantonese stigmatize foreign, 
ers as (kwai, and say their 
shrill voices resemble the 
plaintive cry of spirits ; vji 
kin^ ^kwai cm^, have you seen 
a ghost — what are you scared 
at ? '/cteat /au '^kwai ^nd, to 
peep, to hide and seek; 'kwai 
'shu, a suspicious, dishonest, 
person; '^kwai ^shai ^ni m^, 
did a sprite get you to do 
this? cliong^ 'kwai, to meet a 
foreigner ; '^kwai j'au fung, a 
wiiirlwind ; t^ai' '^sz' A-ioJt, a 
wretch taken instead of the 
real criminal; tsd* lOtti' 'kwai 
/au, done altogether wrong; 
'^kwai [Tnai '/li, are you po^- 
sessed ! ^shang 'kwai kdtn' 'fan, 
frisky as an*^tf ; 'kwai 'Id '■kwai, 
a jnmt plan to swindle one ; 
'kwai snk, the 23d of the 29 
constellations, stars y, S, i\, 6 in 
Cancer ; kwai tsluiu, the gods, 
spirits ; sliui 'kwai, ghosl of a 
drowned man ; cti p'in^ '■kwai, 
a besotted opium-slave ; din 
'kwai, unavenged spirit of n 
murdered man; 'kwai ^ind, bad- 
ly done, careless ; iini'ia 'kwai, 
a I'.atch in a bolt ; yapi 'kww 
.mi'tn /.m/J, enterod the door ol' 

. ! 



demons — dead; ship^ Mng kwai 
kdm' yiung^ he is like a ghosl, 
afraid of the face of men. 

A dish for holding grain at 
sacrifices, once made round 
within and square without ; a 
dish or platter ; 'kaa tdi^ '■kwai, 
nine platters — a set oulj; 'kwai 
'un, large dishes or basins ; 
muki 'kwai, wooden open dish- 
es, used for holding the grain 
in the equinoctial worship of 

An axle; a rut ; a trace, 

a vestige ; an orbit, a path ; a 

ffi/^ ; law, a rule ; treasonable plana 

K wei against a country ; to imitate; 

pat:, 'kwai, unconformable ; 

'kwai to' to follow in the path, 

a constant path. 

t^ A box ; a casket for papers ; 

l^f to put in a box ; to bind with 

JUS A ruinous wall, one ready to 
^^^. fall ; ruinous, dilapidated ; to 

destroy, to demolish. 

'^^ To deceive, to cheat, to de- 

.P^- fraud; to blame, to reprimand; 

to oppose what is good ; to 

vilify, to insult, to defame ; 

bad, malicious, perverse ; odd, 

strange ; 'kwai kioat-, crafty, 

fraudulent ; 'A: waj c/id' lying; 

j/nd its'ung 'kwai iis'ui, do not 

follow cunning tales; 'kwai 

V extravagancies, wondorful 

things, incredible ; 'kwai ^/nd 

kinki shiki a bad fellow, 

^^i A gnomon^ a dial ; daytimp, 

j^*. the day ; yati 'kwai, a sun- 

dial ; mat:, ^yt^ 'kwai luik, what 

is the mark on the dial? ifan 

(kd kai' 'kwai, to prolong ihe 

dav by burninji candles. 




j^' Honoriible, noble, pxalted, 
jv^ . iIlu!?trious ; dignified, worthy, 
pood ; your, thine, in direct 
address; dear, hiiih-|)riced ; 
precious, valuable ; to esteem, 
to honor, to desire, to make 
much of; kmai' sing^ your 
name ; Icwai' lak^ Isai^ very 
dear ; (tsun kwai^ ^yau taki to 
honor the virtuou? ; kwai^ 
siting^ a noble, inirenuous 
countenance ; 'yau mat, kwuP 
koii' what jo your business? 
/ai ikd kwai^ '■shan, please lift 
up (or off) your hand, please 
let me off; iking kmaP rare, 
precious ; /cicai' saP delicate, 
elegant, as manners ; ktraP hi' 
precious things — applied to 
darling children; kwaV thi^ 
fyan, your excellency ; kioai^ 
rhnng' 'yd, a rare article. 
^fe' L'ttle, tender, junior, wliat- 
'^ ever is young and immature ; 
the least or last of a series ; a 
season, a quarter of the year; 
half of the year, when speak, 
ing of crops or paying rent; 
maiti'\chung',kwai\n series of 
three; *2" kwai^ the four sea. 
8ons; (Ch'nn kwai' spring; 
tch'un kwaV uf^ the third month 
of spring ; kwai^ Hsz* the 
youngest child; kwaP shai' 
the last generation or dynas- 
ty ; 'man kwaV the late or se. 
cond crop. 
3^' To perturb ; agitation of 
mind ; the end or fringe of n 


belt or girdle. 

■jkt' Cdfsia tree (Lauras cassia 

K^ . and cinnamomea): met. lite, 
r iry reputation and honor : 
Arircij' ip'i, cassia bark ; kuHiV 

(■p'i <yav, cassia oil; kicaV ^tsz' 
cassia buds ; '^sliau ipdn (tan 
kwaP to pick a cassia twig,— 
to become a kiijin ; kwai' ^fd^ 
the Olea frngrans ; kwai^fit 
pd' figured calicoes; iilt hvui' 
the monthly rose (Rosa sem- 
f<i.^ The last of the ten stem", 
j^. which with iyam, belong to 
water ; the character i> sup- 
posed to represent water flow- 
ing to a center ; to consider, 
to calculate ; it'in kwai' the 
menses ; puberty. 
T^' A perfect pearl, which is 
^^ ■ lustrous by night, called jniwi 
kwai"; hence jWiui kwai" (fa, 
the red rose ; rare, precious, 
excellent, admirable; fk'ing 
kwai' a. kind of jasper. 
^*' Food, victuals, viands ; pre- 
^^. sents of food ; to prepare food ; 
to attend to the kitchen, to 
present food toone; kwai^yan, 
a king's baker. 

To present to, to give, to 
offer ; gifts of food. Nearly 
the same as the last. 

t' A basket or hamper of straw 
„ . or bamboo for carrying ; a 
vegetable like the blite or 
etrawberry.spinach, having a 
red stem ; name of a hill. 

A case with doors, a press, 
a chest, a locker ; exhausted, 
f^M j wearied out ; tt) fail in ; (Shii 
Kwei k'nai'n book-ease; kirni\wn\ 
a counter ; kwai^ ^^unff, a 
druwer ; dfaki kwni^ a wari. 
robe, a bureau ; aU hcai" a 
sum put in deposit for rent ; 
*A-'i iiwai^ or 'chtung kieai^ a 

Kwei ' 






clerk in a shop ; ikam /ang 
kwai^ state records, archives 
of state. 
I ' To kneel, to bend the knee 
^'^. to the ground; the legs; a 
crab's leg; ktvai^ ha} to kneel 
down ; "pdi^ kwip to bow and 
kneel to ; kwaP IW to kneel 
on chains — a mode of torture ; 
Vwai^ sat, knee-pads. 
t^' Quick, active, diligent ; to 
^* J play with the feet ; hiraV 
ItwaP its'vtig sz'* to stir up one 
to attend to business, diligent. 



ifl A pnir of compnpses; a law, 
'^^ ■ regulation, custom, usage ; a 
douceur for connivance ; a 
rate for taking a farm ; to rule 
men according to usage ; to 
regulate ; to calculate, to plan ; 
to line or draw a line ; the disk 
of the pun or moon; iktr'ai 
vdki to draw lines ; ,kw'ai 'ku, 
nsagp, custom ; (kw'ai lai^ law; 
«/} -pun- ikw'aU moon half full ; 
,$hau uti ,ktc'ai, to receive the 
mon'hly fee ; 'mwn tkir'ai, (he 
time covered by the fee is up ; 
tsit, (kw'ai, fee due three times 
n year ; ngdA-j (kw'ai, a fixed 
fee ; (kw'ai china^ to regulate 
others ; ^hong cktr'ai, bye-laws 
of a guild, 
g^ To peep at, to look furtively 
K^ ■ ^*' "^ through a crevice ; to 
spy ; to look on sliiy ; ff) 
observe for one's own use ; 
ttie lengtli of a stpp ; (kw'ai 
fdm' to spy, to go about look- 
ing inlo ; tkic'ai sUi' to make 


secret inspection of; (kw'ai 
si'* to wait for one. to see 
what is going on ; (kun dw'ai, 
" a tuhe.view," a partial exa- 
mination of, a bird's-eye view. 
To peep from under or be- 
J hind a door, or through a 
crack : to observe ; to glance 
at, or have a slight view of; 
sU,(kw'ai, to look at by stealth. 
Interchanged with the last. 
A helmet, a casque or de- 
fense for the head; a block 
on which caps are ironed and 
fashioned ; a basin or por- 
ringer ; /au (kw'ai, a casque 
made of iron plates, worn by 
military officers ; (kw'ai kdp, 
^^ A term formalvacpous plants 
'Sei '■';Semblingthe Malva, Gera- 
nium, Althea, Hibiscus, 6ic, 
ikw'ai ,fd, the AUhea rosea; 
iwong s/iiiki ikw'ai, the Hi. 
hisciis manilwt ; ,'i^iing' yati 
ikw'ai, the sunflower ; ikw'ai 
shin^ leaf fans, made from 
the leaves of the Raphis 
fiohelliformis ; ikw'ai ip'twg, 
awnings or thatch made of 
leaves; ikw'ai ts'oi' an esculent 
-1^1 To lead by the band, as a^ 
l2 1'*'-''''^"'" blind man; logo with," 
i1^ ! to take along, to join, to 
Hwui lock arms ; to carry ; to take 
up from the ground ; to leave ; 
/ai ikw'ai, to lead by the 
band, to carry, to recommend 
one ; ikw'ai IdV to take along, 
to sustain from falling ; Jcto'ai 
. ^shav, to take by the band, to 
take an arn) ; ikw'ai ildm, to 
carry a baskot on the arm, 





An ivory stiletto or horn 
MVui ^'''■^'^'"» ^^^ opening knots 
anciei'jtiy worn on the girdle ; 
a kind of tortoise ; the name 
of a star, 
mj*. A field containing 50 'www, 
u^ or about 8 English acres ; a 
plat of ground; a low wall 
around a field ; ikw'ai ts^oV a. 
Jig- The jaw-bones, the sides of 
kw'ei*^® fwce ; a place where nine 
or many roads meet, a tho. 
roughfare ; name of a mush, 
room ; ichung Jkwai, a man of 
the T'^iig dynasty, now deifi- 
ed as a protector against de- 
vils, and drawn clutching a 
sword, and standing on one 

{£^ A one-legged monster, drag. 
on,'ox and man combined ; 
a statesman in the days of 
Shun ; a certain plant. 
To consider ; to calculate, to 
^. guess ; to surmise the mean- 
ing, to weigh in the mind ; 
to examine ; ^kw'ai toki to 
estimate, to reason upon ; pak:, 
^kw'ai^ a superintendent. 
The sun and moon in appo- 
sition ; distant from, absent 
from, separated ; ^kw'ai (wai 
yufi '■kau, [we have been] a 
long time sundered. 

Irfj '"j Ashamed, abashed, discon- 

jjr,>certed; shamefaced, bashful ; 

15g j ^o feel shanie when detected ; 

K w'ei conscience-stricken, remorse; 
csau houV ashamed ; kip'nP 
^niiOiJnd its'oi, I feel shnme for 
my stupidity ; kw'ai' J'ttV con- 





f* Perverse, obstinate, to turn 
k' k' ^^^ ^^^^^^ o" > cross-purposes ; 
to contradict ; strange, extra- 
vagant; cunning, crafty; ikwdi 
'Atiti, wily, ingenious ; maU 
taki A-^m' ikwdi, so well train- 
ed — said of children ; Jsing 
tkwdi, clever, ingenious at 
contriving ; iktodi p'ik^ mali- 
'J^ Different, to pull or flow 
^^ . different ways ; parted, divid- 
ing ; absolute, certain ; the 
54th of the 64 diagrams. 
'Jri To deceive, to swindle, to 
K A- S"" J to seduce, to kidnap, to 
decoy one in order to carry 
him off; to entrap persons ; 
'ktodi p'in' to gull, to swindle ; 
"^hcdiHsz^ a kidnapper ; "^kwdi 
p'ili' ipan tx'ip, to elope with 
a man's concubine ; ''kwdi tdV 
lyan ^han, to cajole in order 
to carry off; '^ktedi k^uk-, crip- 
pled, lame ; '■kzodi iyan loki 
tam^ to lead one into evil. 
'4S An old man's staff or crutch, 
J^ . with a crooked top; ^hodi 

ch^ung' a cane or staff. 

'fl&l ^ '^'"^^ ^^ grass, used for 

,>'^'^ . making sandals, withes, or 

mats ; '■•(waivt, grass sandals, 

used by chief mourners ; a 


X*.' Strange, marvelous, extra- 

,},. ordinary ; bizarre, siipernatu- 

ral, portentous, monstrous ; 

rare, wonderful, curious ; to 

dislike, to bear a grudge 

against : to deem strange, sur. 




prised at ; ik'i kwdV strange, 
surprising ; kwdV mati a mon- 
ster, an apparition ; s'ra V/o kW 
k'wdi' don't be surprised, don't 
feel angry : '/dn kwdi^ 'ni, he 
lays the blame on you wrong- 
ly ; hodi^ chdk^^k'u, reprimand 
liim ; iJidn kwdi' ^k'ii, can not 
(or ought not to) blame him ; 
kwdp Usoi, strange ! kwdi' ^m 
taki not surprising ; r^chiu ktmi^ 
to bring blame on one's self; 
kwdi^ tdn' '■chi sz'^ marvelous, 
ghost-like; ^kwaiktpdV horrid, 
ugly ; 'yaw 7nat, kwdV ^fau, 
what wrong have 1 done ? 

(229) Kwak. 

im To slap the face with the 
T^' hnnd; kwdk-,yat:,(pd, a single 

"slap ; ktcdk:, iSheng, a clap. 
^S A colloquial word ; a loop, 
^^' a bight of a rope ; to tie up 
with a loop ; a stroll ; Hd yat-> 
ho' kiodki make a noose ; 
ho^dki chii} ^k'u, catch him in 
a lasso, noose him; itnng '/u 
Aii' kw'dky ^hd, let us take a 



•^ A chief, head of society ; a 
j^„ prince, sovereign, or ruler ; 
honorable, in high station, 
exalted ; superior, wise, ono 
who can influence others; a 
term of respect ' given to 
others, and used by all per- 
sons ; to rule, to fulfill the 
dutas of a guvereign ; -kwan 

Hsz' the princely man, the 
beau ideal of virtue; good peo- 
ple ; (fu xkwah, my husband ; 
(«in Jtwan, a deceased father ; 
Hiung ikwan, your son ; ktook) 
(kwan, the emperor ; fu iktoan 
and t'di' (kwan are father and 
mother in epitaphs ; iWJn 
iktoan, a blue-beard, an unkind 
husband ; sai^ (kwan, my wife. 
^ An army, a force of 12,500 

'j^ men; the head-quarters of a 
troop ; an inclosure ; military, 
warlike ; (kwan iping, a camp ; 
ihang (kwan, to move troops ; 
kdm' /thV (kwan, servants who 
attend the candidates within 
the hall : Aon' (kwan, Chinese 
Bannermen ; (kwan itnan '■fti, 
a sub- prefect ; Jcwan (ki tdi^ 
ishan, the General Council of 
state ; /aw (kwan, to enlist ; 
^yatt mat: (kwan '■md, what plan 
has he, what will (or can) he 
do? (kwan (kung, military 
merit ; man^ (kwan, banish* 
ment to the garrisons. 
H Together, alike or compar- 

Ip** able, at the same time ; evid- 
ent, clearly ; an elder brother; 
descendants; many, a multi- 
tude ; with, then ; to take pre. 
cedence ; (kwan tai^ or (kwan 
chung* brothers ; hau} (kioan, 
descendants ; (kwan ^rlirmg, 
all insects ; '/ji '^kl (kwan kwaV 
how many brothers hive you? 

^ The Kwanl'in or Koulkun 

'j^*^jj range of mnunfains, lying 
about lat, 35° N., t)etween 
the Desnrt of Gobi and Tibet ; 
the Chinf^e retrfird if ns ihe 
abode of everything myste. 
rious and supernatural. 




AS The roe or spawn of fishes ; a 
'£J^j^jjIeviathan,a whale ; (kwanfd' 
,wai ip'ang, the whale turned 
into a roc. 
0^ A sort offiallinaceous bird ; 
^^jj perhaps a heathcock or jun- 
Jjfci An inatrurnent for moulding 
Kiun pottery ; equal, just, in simi. 
lar parts ; even, level, plane, 
flat ; to equalize, to adjiLst or 
harmonize ; a musical instru- 
ment ; ikwan efan^ equally 
divided ; ikwan ip'ing, impar- 
tial, equal ; ^fu loki iktcan 
(Chim, sorrow and joy equally 
portioned ; Jiioan itiai tfong 
ching^ all regular and proper ; 
iktoan cchi haV let it be so now, 
don't change it. 
fefe| A quarter of a sheki or pe- 
'^7 ' cul ; a weight of 30 catties ; 
a potters lathe; to equalize, 
to harmonize ; just; impor- 
tant; tdi' ^kwnn or ihting cktoan, 
the Great Framer, wheel of 
events, heaven, nature ; ,kwan 
tf your wishes or orders — a 
polite phrase. Used for the 
^£ The green tough skin of the 
^f^ bamboo, which contains silex. 

Also read iWun. 
^^B Fire, fiery, the flame of a 

^^^ fire ; ckwan iv? blazing. Read 

Kwan \ a ^r i i . 

wan'; name ; yo wair wan' ji 

sliiting^ iching, the lambent 

flame curled upwards. 

XB' a round stick, a club; to 

^^ bind up sticks; a sharper; 

tsdpiHm kwan^ inhing, prac j 

tice makes a thing natural ; 

Jcwong kwan^ a " bare-stick," 

a scoundrel ; jin min^ kwan^ a 

pastry roller; Jcwan J'd, a 

knave, a band of pestilent 
fellows; tsnng^ kwan' a pet- 
tifogger; kwan^ kom' ^kwong, 
bare as a stick, poor ; kwan' 
kivk) a dangerous fellow. 
DE^tf' An inhabited place, a princi- 
j?f' pality, a small district ; now 
applied to a prefecture ; '^fu 
kwan} a department; ^ni hai* 
mati kwan^ what prefecture 
are you from ? kwan' ^md, a 
king's brother-in-law or oeice. 



The earth, q. d. inferior or 
iTT] obsequious to heaven; hence 
applied to the moon, states- 
men, wives, and to whatever 
has a correlative superior ; the 
2d diagram; favorable, com- 
pliant, obedient ; '■tau shat) 
ik'in Jrw'^an tdi' a cottage can 
contain a great mind ; (kw'an 
'■kdn, a betrot bed's horoscope. 
M^ A punishment of shaving the 
'j7^^ head, inflicted on the prince's 
family for slight offense**; 
bald : a leafless tree. 
Jte- The plaited skirt of a lady's 
y^, dress, sometimes elegantly 
efnbroidered ; rim of a tur- 
tle's skell : (Chinifr ^hoan, or 
vol' ikw'an, petticoats ; iwai' 
ikw'-an, an apron, a bib ; iC/t'iii 
ikw'an, an embroidered silk 
apron worn by officers; Jtw'an 
k^iiki itnui, waiting-njaids; 
ikw'an ich'd, a gore in a skirt ; 
ikw'an fdi^ ichi (ts'ajt, relatives 
of a different surname ; '•hiung 
ikw'an, a skirt with bells or 




^^ A flock of sheep, as few as 
'^^ three ; a herd ; a concourse, 
a group, a multitude, a horde, 
a company ; men of the same 
sort ; friends, equals, compan- 
ions, feilow-officers ; a form of 
the plural number ; to sort 
with, to agree with ; ikio'an 
ishatifn, all living ],^kvoan Hong, 
a company, messmates; ikw'an 
iTndi yat, ttii^ to form a group, 
to go together ; ^mdi Jcic^an, 
to consummate a marriage. 

'iaj Sincerity, singleness of heart; 

j}'^ unadorned, simple, said of 

style ; "kidan shati unafFect- 

ed, simple-minded ; iyung 

ishan ts6^ '■kw'an, I can not 

forget your kindness — used 

at the end of letters. 

*4cg To tie or put together ; to 

v\ plait : to make firm bv beat. 

ing, to work at ; ^k'p an ku' 

to weave sandals. Same as 

the next. 

'^ttl To bind, to tie up with cords, 

^,^^to fetter ; to plait, to braid ; 

a border or fold on the skirt 

of a garment for ornament ; to 

hem, to put on a band or fold ; 

'^kw'auHens, to bind the neck 

of a dress; '■kw'an'^pong, to bind 

up ; '^kw'an imdi yat:, ch'uk:, tie 

thein up together ; '^kwan it'ii'i, 

tape used for hems; '■kwan 

(j)in,a broad fold; '^kvoan/ang 

to bind with rattans ; '■kwan 

ixhan, to tie on the girdle; 

(■teung '^kw'an, to insert a fold 

or band on garments. 

'■fga To bind with rope ; full, well- 

il*^ |)rovideH • '•kiium IsoP j ^kioai ' 
Kwan ' , ,. , , 

to return home well laden, 

successful in business. 
* Ton. Dili. 27 


"^^fe The mushroom ; mold on 
K^.„„ bread or paste; fat, '^kw'an, 
moldy ; ti' 'ftio an, toadstool ; 
''kw'an kioai' a sort of fine, 
quilled cassia ; ^looHs' b'-kw an 
fine mushrooms raised on 
'^ A threshold; door.posts ; a 
small door in a gate ; door 
of the female apartments ; 
females; '/cto'an noi^ and "^kivan 
ngoi^ are terms used for with- 
in and without the palace, the 
court and country. 
'J^ A general name for deer ; 
.^ perhaps specially the Antilo. 
pe gutturosa, the doe of which 
is hornless, and both sexes 
are easily frightened. 
';^ To take up and put in order, 
K^n '° P"^ ^^ rights ; to complete 

an unfinished work. 
'^ Paths between or among 
t?^, buildings or rooms in the 
palace ; to dwell in ; ^kivai 
"- kw'an, a virtuous woman. 
'^^ A large fish ; name of the 
£^^jj father of Yu the Great, who 

lived B. c. 2200. 
'/^ Imperial robes embroidpVM 

{^ with dragons ; '■kvo'an ^min, 

Kwan , 1 ; 

robes and crown, a royai 

dress; '^kw'an '^kw'an 'hoi t'eng 

worth hearing. 

'■y^ Water flowing in a rapid, 

j[^„ bubbling manner; boiling, 

/ ^ welling up, rolling ; to roll, to 

/u'icgo off"; to boil; '■kw'an 'shui, 

boiling water ; ^kw'an pd^ dear 

out, be off*! '^kw'an tdn' to go 

away ; Js'oi ^iin '^kw'an '■kw'an, 

my capital must be constantly 

circulating — a shop phrase . 

'kiv'au Ian' boiled to ra;ia • 




\^kw'an liin^ <o make mistakes ; 

7d '^kwan^ to roll about, to 

make a feint in fencing by 

rolling over; '/o '^kw'an 'ngo, 

he vexes me. 

A ribbon, a cord; to sew, to 

stitch together : to bind, 
wan " ' 

S' A ruined house ; confined, 
J. , cramped, cribbed, like a 
^ *" plant which has no room; ex- 
hausted, disheartened, weary, 
worn out, jaded ; poor, beg- 
gared ; weak, diseased ; want- 
ing, insufficient, needy ; to 
tire, to weary, to repress ; to 
impoverish ; to influence so as 
to hinder, to be the slave of; 
hampered for want of; the 
471 h diagram ; mourning for, 
sorry, afflicted , oppressed with; 
to put forth labor; fluster, 
ed ; kw'aii' kun^ wearied out ; 
'..iO:^pP 'tsau kwan' confused by 
■M drink ; kvian^ chu' to restrain, 
to disable ; kw'an? '«/iau, poor, 
nothing to do; kw'an' kiki 
beggared ; Jiang Hi kw'an'fdt, 
in want of funds or baggage 
on a jaurney. 
^' Afflicted, enfeebled ; poor, 
JP^ distressed, in urgent want of; 
urged by ; to distress, to ha- 
rass ; kw'ari' pih straitened ; 
kiDan' kap^ in need. 
^' A round granary ; a spiral ; 
^ twisted ; ilun kw'ari' contort- 



ed like roots, spiral. 


BH To shut or bar a door, to 

4'*'^ stop up a doorway ; to fasten, 

""to f^x, to stop a tlwng for a 

little while ; the cross-bar ol 

a door ;a gateway lo a market ; 
a frontier-pass : n place where 
goods enter, a custom-house ; 
a post-house ; a limit, a line, a 
boundary, both literally and 
metaphorically ; to bear upon, 
to efiect, to have a relation to 
or connection with, to belong 
to, to concern, to allude to, 
to involve ; consequences, 
results ; to pass through or by 
way of; to pierce, to penetrate; 
Moan maki the middle pulse 
in the wrist; (kwan ;»o' or 7toi 
[kwan, the collector of customs, 
called a hoppo; ckwdn ^hau, 
a custom-house ; itn Jcwdn 
^ngo sz" none of my business ; 
'/iT i'm (kwan (Sam, you did not 
pay attention ;pat:, Jcwdn ship, 
no connection with, indepen- 
dent of; (kwan tsit^ covert as- 
sistance ; the circumstances or 
condition of; Hd (kwan tsit-, to 
give a douceur for underhand 
aid ; Hsau (kwan mnki to act 
on the boards ; sung^ Jcwdn, (o 
pass free of duty ; (Kwan laV 
the God of War ; (kwdn (Sam 
chiti' liu- look after it careful- 
ly ; (kwdn hai^ results, consc- 
quences ; '^hd(kwdn hai^ a very 
serious matter ; (kwdn (Cham, 
a pin ; (kwdn (Cimng, " inside 
of the pass," is a term for 
Shensi and the neighboring 
regions : ik7odn(Shit, proposals 
to engage a teacher or secre- 
tary ; df:: (kwdn is the money 
sent with the letter. 
Diseased, infirm, sick;in- 
v^^ capable, incompetent for the 
^^*" duties of; (kwdn^kun, an in- 
elficient ruler. 




K win 

^5P A large fish ; a widower ; an 
'j;''V' old man, who has nevv-r been 
married ; alone, single, unat- 
tended ; ikwdticfu, a widower ; 
ikwdn cA-ti, to live alone ; muki 
ishiung ikwdn (.kwdn, sleepless, 
l^^ Accustomed to, experienced ; 
habitual, addicted to; practic- 
ed in ; to slip, to stumble ; 
kwdn'sfiuki used to; hu' kwdn' 
often going there ; '^fdn kwdfi' 
very playful ; j'm kwdii' un- 
skilled, unused to; kwdn' 'td, 
to stumble and fall ; kwdn' 
eking, in the habit of; yut^ 
ikdu kwdn' ^to, a fall ; kwdn' lai^ 
the common way or custom ; 
'/d kwdn' to overlook, to be 
easy with ; Hd kwdn' addicted 
to gaming. 
Ob' The two tufts made in 
J? '. . dressing children's hair, com- 
monly called id kok) kai'. 

(233) Kwang. 

WC The rumbling of wheels, 
',yP muttering of thunder, roaring 
of cannon ; a buzzing, stun- 
ning noise ; ilui ikwang, noise 
of thunder ; ^kioang lifi irasci. 
ble, techy ; ikwang ^kwang, 
stunning, as a noise ; ikwang 
Jang, t\ie clang ofglas;-^, tin, or 
other sonorous bodies. 

n/- The upper arm, the humerus; 

u* ^''^ ^"^"^ ' ^"^' Jcwang s? 

^^ ^ ^cham, to pillow his head on 

his arms. 

^k. A large cyalhiform goblet 

'J*'^ made of rhinoceros' horn ; 

Isau kwang, a wine cup. 




The death of a prince or 
grandee ; to die ; many ; fleet, 
prompt ; (kwang ^kwang, the 
buzzing or hum of insects. 
Noise of drums or belk, clam- 
or ; rushing of waters ; din of 
loud voices. 

iKwang ikwang, roaring of 
waters over atones ; dashing 
of waves. 


l^x' To wander about, to ramble, 

^^^ to take a walk, to go to and 

fro; hu' kwdng' to walk 

abroad ; kwdng' iiin '^yam 

ich'd, take a cup of tea after 

a walk. 

^<j^' A colloquial word; to lalch, 

*^ to fasten or loop two doors, 

with a string or hoop ; kwdng' 

itndi itnun, fasten the door ; 

kwdng' '^kau, to tie up a dog ; 

yal:, kwdng' long' a number or 

load of things tied together. 

To rub against, to run up- 
on one in the street; kwdng' 
(ts'an ^k'ii, rubbed against it ; 
kwdng' ldn\shdm, to tear one's 
dress by catching it ; ktodng* 
^k'uloki Jai, catch it (a kite) 
down; H'ai nwdng' lookout, 
[lest I] run against you ! — a 
.. porter's cry. 

^ Colloquially called ^kw'dng, 
' *~~* as Jam ^kw^dng, baskets. 
'■Kw'dng. A twig, a sprig, the 

small stems of herbs and tree:*; 

peduncles, stalks of leaves; 

'/.'/« '^kw'dng, willow twig""; ,fAl 

^kw'dng, t\vig^», stalks. 










The bones of bodies ; wbat- 
ever is hard that is inclosed in 
something soft, as the ribs of 
leaves, sticks amonj^ leaves, 
knots in cloth, or seams in 
garments ; the 188lh radical 
of characters relating to bones; 
the figure, the person ; kwal:, 
kdk-, lai^ a large, frame or per- 
son ; yaUfu'k'irat:, kak-, a skele- 
ton ; shv} kwat-, heart-wood ; 
kwal-, Hsz^ particular, exact, 
finical ; kwat, yuki brothers, 
children, relatives by blood ; 
shati' kwaty ju ipli^di, lean and 
bony as a slick ; ^tnd du kwaty 
regardless of his promise; '/a« 
kwalr to turn against one for 
a slight cause ; (Sung kwat:, to 
crack the joints ; tsz^^ ^yau 
kwal, liki the characters are 
vigorously written ; tsW kwat, 
it'au, you baseborn runt ; kwat, 
ip'dJ, dominoes. 

The noise of waves ; to con- 
J'"'', found, to mix ; to unstop, to 
let tlow out ; to rise, to float ; 
kwat, icliau, to confuse. 
Read Mit,; a river in Hii- 
pan, called Mut, Jo ckong, 
which enters Tungt'ing Lake 
on the southeast. 

1^ A small kind of orange ; 

^^' ikain kwat, the Citrus madtirr 

e/j*w, or kumquot orange, used 

for sweetmeats ; ciaw kwat, 

. . Hsz' tai' a dear little fellow ; 

' y.,t. kwat, Jmng, dried orange-skin 

brought from Hwa chau in 

the S. NV. of Kwangtung. 


^^ False, crafty, intriguing ; to 
j?v^\ 'impose on ; time-serving, 
wily, crooked ; kical, chd' tor- 
tuous conduct. 
4^ To dig into the ground, to 
^'•^^ excavate, to scoop, to open, 
to hollow out : kwali dung, to 
dig a hole: kwati ikam, to dig 
for gold ; kwtiti '^cKung to dig 
a grave ; kwati Jiang, to open 
a drain. Used for the nc\t. 
iHS Rising loftily like a soliliiry 
17^\ peak ; eminent, dif<tiiiguish- 
*^* ed ; kwali Vti standing alone, 
/ra Obstinate, opinionated ; Artro/, 
Kmeh '^'^""i^' [-(.rverse, willful. A 
colloquial word : to cut otT 
stiort ; a dull or broken point ; 
abrupt ; a way stopped up ; 
W kwati the road is stopped ; 
shitl, wd^kwati an abrupt sen- 
tence ; itsim. and kwat^ are 
opposites, sharp and dull. 



Jf-'^ To pare or scrape off, to 
\ ^\ abrade, to rub or rasp ; to 
burnish ; to even off grain ; to 
raze ; to extort ; kwat, siuk, 
to scrape ; met. to op|)ress ; to 
cheapen ; kwdt, dsiung, to stif- 
fen cloth ; kwdt,ip'wg, to even 
(grain) ; Hau kwdt, a striker ; 
ku'dt, ipiitg tV (fong, to des- 
troy a place; kwdt,muknS^ung 
(hon, to rub one's eyes find lo 
treat well — spoken of another's 
sudden prosperity ; It' kwdt, a 
tongue-scraper. Kwdt, is used 
in Canton for a quarter, in 
imitation of the English sound. 






[t^ 1 A rrack, a chink, a crevice, 

•-^''ya fissure, a cleft, a gap, an 

ji^, i interstice ; leisure-time, an 

Kih ' interval ; an occasion for, an 

Opening for variance ; suspi- 

cion, dislike ; ^yau kwik-, split, 

as a board ; suspicious, resent- 

ing ; JLs'am kwik^ to seek occa- 

sion against ; (hdn kwik) at 

leisure ; t/nfj kwik^ ccAi <.kdn, 

in an instant. 

Zif, A water-course in fields; a 

Jr. 'moat: a sluice for water: 


Same as the last. Read 
j^' wik, to flow rapidly; a current ; 

water foaming and rising. 
4^ Quiet, silent, peaceful ; taci- 

Hiiieh ^""^^ ' ^"'*^' tsing' peaceful, 


Bp^ ] To take the heads, or to 

■j^' ;^cut offthe left ears of persons 

^(j\ killed, or prisoners taken in 

Kwoh battle, and send them to 

court — (his was done in an- 

cient times as evidence of 

victory ; the face. 

tf^ The gash or marks made by 

Kw^jh ^ ^'S^'' ^^hen seizing his prev; 

a surname ; name of a state 

in the Tsin dynasty, now 

YungVi'ing hien in K'4ifung 

fu in Hoiian. 

^^ To terrifv, to make afraid ; 

^^ alarmed ; as when seeing a 

tig'T : a kind of fly. 
is The tailor bird, called 'A/fu 
j/^y;i 'niii, " the cunning wife," 
an<i many other names; it 
sin<js at (he equinoxes, and 
marks the seasons. 

jM;? A sort of coarse hempen 
J^T' fabric, made of the Dolichos ; 

anciently, used for towels and 

M Silent, from being unoccu- 
^l' pied ; empty, solitary, alone. 





vague ; an abyss ; to forbid. 

To examine with a clear 
light ; brightness, lustre ; 

A door-bar or latch outside 
of a door ; to bolt or bar a 
door; a bar or frame in a 
chariot to hold weapons ; an 
ear or handle ; ikwing imun, 
to bolt the gate; ^kwing Jiwing^ 
to examine. 
A desert or void place, a 
wild remote from towns ; the 
'""^ edge of a forest. 
'^ri Distant, remote ; profound, 


/•■"* "S""' ' "i •^•■•••■'^'~, in. 
^ '■kwing ^kwing, eflTulgent 
'Aril A garment without any 
^fbl'v '^lining and of a plain color; 
«tS 1 to drag or lead one along 
Ki.ii/g quickly. 

':jrr« Void, waste, desert ; remote ; 
"Wii also, bright, lustrous ; '^kxoing 
"'""^pi/, very difiereijt. 
'ffra A large and fat horse, one 
M^ in good case; a pasture or 
*""^ paddock for horses ; '■kwing 
'^kwing ^mau 'fljd, robust, fine 
'1©. Toadvert to and understand, 
,\r*> (o be excited u|)on : distant, 
to appear remote; kwmg kok, 
to perceive. Also read 'king 
in the Fan Wan. 






A squeaking noise at night, call, 
ed kwiti isheng, is thought to 
be the cry of ghosts ; the 
squeaking of mice; clever, 
astute, sagacious ; kom^ kwiti 
so smart — suid of children. 







A kind of halberd, the cross 

bar of which is used as a hook; 

the 62d radical of characters 

referring to arms ; warlike 

weapons ; '^cham ikioo top tan- 

laid on their arms till morning; 

tung- (kon Jcwo, to take up 

arms, to commence war. 

"j To strike, to whip a horse ; 

) a switch, a lash; grass, plants ; 

J wide, easy ; hunger ; the first 

of these is also read cc/id. 

A branch of the R. Hwdi, 

which rises in Honan, and 

flows S. E. into it at HwA,i- 

yuen hien in Nganhwui. 

1 Edible fruits, fruits with 

i seeds or kernels in them ; to 

j overcome, to surpass ; results; 

to conclude, to see the end 

of; courageous, hardy ; really, 

truly, indeed ; perfection or 

nigbun of the Budhists ; pak:, 

"■ktvu, all sorts of fruits ; 'Awjo 

siH, certainly ; kih '^kwo ^k'ii, 

tinish him, make away with 

him, — said of criminals; '■kwo 

fii/i' to decide finally or justly ; 

'^kiro'tsz' fruit; 'kwo'kom, great 

courage, intiepid ; iyan Livo, 




cause and effect; absorpfion 
into Budha ; jti 'kwo hai^ 'kdm^ 
is it so, really ? or as a reply, 
it certainly is so; 'Ajoo *pa/j, 
sorts of fruits ; ^ktoai ching* 
"^kiooy to reform one's conduct ; 
jwi tik-> '^kwo ishang, this fruit is 
green ; y'an 'kwo, meat cakes 
steamed ; ^t'ong 'kwo, sweet 
meats ; 'kwo lipi plates of fruit; 
iShi 'kioo, fruits in season; 'kioo 
Mn, a fruit-market; ^k'i sz'- 
paWkioo, the matter is not yet 
ended. The second character 
is commonly used for fruit. 

The solitary wasp or sphex ; 
'ktoo 'lo, wasps, which impri- 
son caterpillars in their nests. 

To bundle up, to wrap or 
wind around ; to envelop ; a 
bundle ; the receptacle of 
flowers, place where the fruit 
sets; 'kwo k^uki to bind the 
feet ; cpdu 'kwo, to wrap up ; 
ichong 'kwo, habiliments of the 
dead ; 'kwo H'd, a belly- wrap- 
per, a stomacher. 

To overpass, to exceed, to 
go beyond, to pass along ; to 
pass, to spend, as time ; be- 
yond, further ; to transgress, 
to violate propriety ; an error, 
a transgression, an impru- 
dence, a sin of ignorance; de- 
notes past time, the pluper- 
feet ; a sign of comparison, 
great, much, too; the 28th 
and 63d diagrams, are called 
tdi' Arico'and 'siu kwo'; kwo' hii' 
to go, to go by ; hii' kwo' Jai, 
gone, I've been there ; tsoi'' hit' 
kwo' go again ; t'dP kwo' a 
great blunder ; pat, kwo' Mim 
ko' onl) threp, no more than 




three ; J(wo\thai^ or A/oo' isJian, 
deceased ; s'm kteo^ taki V mis- 
taken, 1 was in error ; j'm ktooi' 
tak) /»«' impassable, I can't 
do it ; 'Ad kwo^ better, improv- 
ing ; 'Ad kwo^ ko' tik> better 
than that ; J'eng hoo' I have 
heard it ; shV kiod' I have tried 
it ; kwo' ik'i, it is past the hour ; 
(td hoo' tak; I can get along 
on a pinch ; it will do ; well, 
make it do ; kwo* it'av, too, 
very ; a common superlative, 
nsjfuli kwoi* it'au, too broad ; 
jTian kwo^ hard to get by, or 
over, or along ; kiu' ^k'ii Hsati 
kwo' Joi, tell him to come 
quickly ; yt?<7o\Ai«, gone, past ; 
ifing kioo^ evenly balanced or 
matched, at quits ; kwo^ y^^ to 
pass the night ; kwo' ikwong, 
to gloss over, to make a false 
show ; kwo' ^lid it'im, wait a 
while ; 'yau tjco' faulty, guilty; 
kwo' tsd- season past, as fruit ; 
deceased ; kwo' shan^ too cau- 
tious ; 5'm its'ang kiri' ktod' I 
have not seen it ; kwd* sun' 
yat-, 9 give me a little credit; 
jmo hoo' j« shi^ none better 
than this ; hoo' ko' (pin, go 
on that side ; itn hoo' lak:, 
'^shan, don't give it into his 
hand ; j'm hoo' tah ^ngdn, into- 
lerable, I can not suffer it. 

(240 Kwok. 


A state, country, kingdom, 
> empire ; a nation, a people ; 
^ }h region; national, govern- 
Kwoh tnenta! ; mdn^ kwoh all nat. 
ions ; kwoki iwoiigf his majesty; 


a sovereign : 'pf/n hook, my 
country ; tshdn kwoh a hilly 
country ; ktooh ckd, the state ; 
kwoh ^mo, the empress ; iigoi' 
hook-, foreign countries ; tdi^ 
iTs'ing kwoh the Manchu 
empire ; 'hi mali ^yd kwoh ^fon 
what country are you of? ^tvn, 
kwoh the kingdom of keaven ; 
Jioi kwoh to found a stale ; 
clmi' kwoh the contending 
states, about B. c. 400-260. 
Jjffl A kind of small green frog, 
^'^. called Jajt kwoh with long 

iJjgH A hempen cap or kerchief 
worn by women when mour- 
ning ; a female headdress ; 
ikan kwok, ichi yuh the " dis- 
grace of kerchiefs," — pol- 
troon ry. 

To slap one's head or mouth; 
^ ', often pronounced kwdh in 

HK| The po; liteal space ; the 
^t^' calf of the leg. 
Kwoh » 

^1/ The wall inclosing the gates 
^' '.of Chinese cities, forming a 
greater security for defend, 
ing the gate, commonly call- 
ed vng' Jiiin ; a surname. 
fiijF Hide, dressed and curried 
^'Jj \ skin, with the hair taken off. 

^ A coffin or box which in- 
closes the true coffm ; to mea- 
sure ; sheh kwoh a stone 


(24'^) Kvvong. 

:^ Light, splendor, lustre ; illus. 

'I/'-* trious, brilliant, bright ; ho- 
K-wantr ^1,1 , 

nor, eclat, glory ; met. one s 




presence ; naked, smooth, 
bare, bald ; only, barely ; to 
illuminate, to adorn, to reflect 
credit on ; yali Jtioong^ day- 
light ; Jfwong (Sin, smonth and 
new.; ^kwong it' an, bald, hare- 
headed ; ikicong Hsoi, splen- 
did ; shaved clean ; ^fan ngoi^ 
tkwong, too bright ; itd ikioong 
Hiu, all consumed, bare of ; 
Jid Jttco7ig, a nimbus on the 
head of idols ; ikwong slip a 
sunbeam, a gleam of light ; 
fong' tkwong ich'ung, a glow, 
worm ; (kwong min^ ckang iju, 
eye-service ; tkwong Jsung, to 
glorifj' one's ancestors, by 
one's good conduct ; fong^ 
(kwong, incandescent ; han' 
tkwong, we wait for your pres- 
ence ; /s^' ikwOng, to borrow 
clothes (jackdaw-like) or other 
articles of one ; (kwoiig ixhan 
ilaif come without any bag- 
gage ; naked ; tkwong ^indng, 
the light is too bright. 
A kind of palm like th«! areca, 
■^ called ckwong ih'tg, of which 
"^ sedan thills are made; a 
cut water ; (ki Javong, the 
beam of the loom. 
jJU, Water sparkling and glisten- 
<T/C ing in the sun ; a river in 
Kvfkug g(^^„g^. ^jjg. ^/ftff,jng ,kwong 

martial, threatening. 
nJ^ The bladder is called ip'ovg 
k1 <kioong, the last word refer- 

"^ "^ ring to its breadth. 
'^fe Broad, extensive, wide, spa- 
cious ; large, ample ; to en- 
large, to make broader or 
wider, to extend ; to increase ; 
to diflTuse ; a body of 15 
chariots; ^kivong Jimg, cxteu- 


sively diffused or made known; 

^ktvong tap large, profound, 

as one's learning or estate ; 

'^kwong iP^ng, to publish 

everywhere ; '■Kwong Uuvg 

isheng, (ho city of Canton ; Hd 

'■Kwong Jung, an old resident 

of Canton ; ^L^img ^Kicovg, 

the two Broad provinces ; 

Uung^ "^kwong, able to drink 


f/r Wild, incoherent talk ; to 

,? , deceive, to mislead, to lie 

to ; "^kwong iin, lying words ; 

yau' '<.vz' ishhung sW ,,md 

'■kwong, children never mis- 

lead one. 

'1 The ore of iron, lead, and 

,> other metals ; minerals; the 

^ j lode of metals, gen)s in the 

Kwang matrix ; /.'»<> kwong' iron ore, 




<j\ Mad, crazed, raging, raving, 
K i v/M, incoherent; hasty; 
unable to judge about mat- 
ters, stolid ; cruel, irascible ; 
eccentric, enthusiastic, new- 
fangled, precipitate, rash, im- 
prudent, — often sneeringly ap- 
plied to the acts of others ; de- 
ranged, insane, delirious ; 
ikw'ong ^mong, extravagant, 
mad, vicious ; '/sou Jcio'ong, 
silly from liquor ; fdl:, ikio'oug, 
raving mad ; ^kw'ong ^liiln, a 
mad dog ; ^shii ^kw'ong, book- 
mad, pedantic ; ^kw'ong ts'o^i 
light-minded ; moki ko" kdm 
ikw'ong, don't be so hasty 
^,kw'on" sing' headstrong. 






A finnl particle expressing 
certainty, permission, or what 
will do ; it often follows pa\as 
"^('ai pa' Jd, comn, let nie see ; 
'Ad M, well ; Uiiti^ 'k()rn Jv, 
that will do ; fsd' .«'- Ji Jd, lo 
do things wrony, Ht sixes and 
sevens ; Jd tpd, a long pipe 
or hu|ile, called Jiii M- 

'l\» take with the H tigers, to 
grab at, to clutch up; '/a ''hi 
Jai, tak«j it up. 

A crevice, a cleft, a crack or 
very slight fissure ; ^yau Id' 
it is cracked, opened; lau- W 
leaky ; to escape, to elude ; W 
Ji /a' Jung, a cranny, a hole, 
by-placo ; Ad' Id' 's^, write ii 
between the lines; /d' ^ckd, 
dirty, fouled ; Id' kwik, a cause 
of offense ; a crack ; hong^ Id' 
a very narrow alley. 

A final particle, used when a 
matter is finished, or will d<» 
as it is; '^kdm md' Id' well, as 
you say ; t^b' mat, ^yi Id' what 
have you been doing ? 

(245) Lai. 

jg^ A plough ; to plough, to pre- 
pare ground for crops ; day- 
break, jast before dawn ; a 
piebald ox ; forms part of the 
name of hordes of Huns ; Jai 
'7d, old and grimed with dust; 
yat^ 'pd Jn'u a plough ; Jni Jd, 
a colter ; Jai /in, to p!ougli ; 
ifii Jai. if/an, a ploughman. 
Interchanged with the next. \ 

Ton. DiCT. 23 


'F'o prepare ground for rice ; 
black, dark brown; many, 
ruunerous ; Jai iVning, early 
dawn ; Jai ^man, ttie black- 
haired race — the Chinese; Jai 
chtitig'the people, a multitude, 
all ; iLui jftin^ tribes of abori- 
gines in H.uitati I. 

A kind of lierb, whow? leaves 
are edible when youtig, and 
trie stalks fit for canes when 
grown ; a sort of golden rod ; 
p'rii' s/tf/, a confused multitude; 
Jai ch^iing' a cane ; tsat^ Jai, 
a spinous herb used in oph- 
f A colloquial word used for 5^ 
Joi ; to come ; able ; to begin • 
used with other verbs, to de- 
note a command, as cni/ig ^c/i'd 
Jai, bring tea here; a final 
particle, making the present 
perfect tense ; ifou^ Jai yau^ hit' 
coming arid going; Jai j'/ra 
J^'ft^tg, has he come yet ? 'f'ai 
Jai ts'au' Jo, see if it can do, 
or will suit ; Jai lok, cominij ! 
-^iised as a reply ; c/d/i Jai, 
comfe back ; fxd' maL '^^ Jai^ 
what have you b»^en doing? 
cli'uly ikdi Jai, \ have been 
out ; Jai 'chi ip'di, to play 

A colloquial word ; to turn, 
as Hoi '■chiin /an, to turn the 
head ; stiH', as fan' Hai "-heng, 
a stiflT neck from shiepmg 
awry ; to accuse falsely ; %ii 
^k'il tsi^ ts'dki impeached him 
as a n»l)ber ; <m« '/«/ '//«, in. 
volved hiiri .alsely ; 7«/ \shau 
"■pi., give it behind hi-- back ; 
7at '■shall db '^ttnng, he'll lake 
less if tie is bent c^*wn. 




^ - 

fiJ") Propriety, etiqueUe; cere- 
i-, '^nfionies, rites, acts wliici) are 

jjJLj meet when serving the gods ; 
H decorum, manners, politeness; 
the rules of society, what is 
requisite and hecoming to a 
station ; ofticial obeisance, 
worship ; courtesy, prompted 
by good feeling; offerings, aj 
gift required by usage ; Hat ji, 
or ikon Hai, a present of mon-j 
cy ; Hai sho^ requirements of! 
politeness, rules of society ; 
Hai mdu- good manners ; hdih, 
'/at, courteous ; jwio Hai, im-j 
pertinent, rude ; (kam yati Hai\ 
pdi' to-day is Snbbath ; yat, I 
Ao' Hai pdi' a week ; Hai pdi' i 
i^ Tuesday ; Hai pdv /otlg, a 
church; sung^ Hai, to send a! 
present ; 'Zai ikani or Haisz''*^ 
money paid at betrothing ; j 
sitapi Hai, a present (not of 
money) ; Hai cto, obsequious ; 
iSli^utig Hai, usual etiquette;] 
^hang Idi^ Hai, to perform a 
high obeisance ; Hai <foiig, the 
department or office in a yd- 
mun which attends to obser- 

5 3^ Sweet or newly distilled spir- 
its, made from glutinous rice ; 
sweet, applied to fountains; 
'■hiung Hai, an imperial feast ; 
'■Isau Hai, spirits used in sacri- 

Name of a river 'emptying 
into Tungting Lake; -Lai 
ichau, an inferior prefecture 
in the north of Hunan. 

A wood borer, bugs which 
cat wood; ip'dng Hai, a marsh 
in Yangchau fu. Read,a. 
calabasii ; H Jai ch'ati:, Hioi, to 
lueasure the ocean with a 







gourd — presum|)tuous ignor. 

A whetstone ; to grind, to 
rub, to sharpen ; to inspirit, to 
excite, to animate ; to disci- 
pline ; to con) me nee ; severe, 
harsh, stern, majestic ; raging, 
furious, violent, cruel, exces. 
sive, tyrannical ; ugly; to ford 
a stream ; dangerous disease ; 
dm lai- severely strict ; lai' 
itnan, to oppress the people ; 
lai\piiig, to animate troops; 
lai- '^kwai, an orbate spirit, 
a fierce demon. Used for the 
four following. 
]V To exert ; to encourage, to 
''' animate; to urge to ; ^min lai^ 
to rouse up to effort. 
V^' '^'^ cross a stream on step- 
^' ping-stones, to ford a rivulet ; 
cslunn tsak, lai, if deej) then get 
stones to cross. 
yA^^ Foul, virulent ulcers, plague 
'^ij^ sores ; a pestilence, epidemic : 

noxious vapors, 
■gf^^ A coarse kind of sandstone, 
Y^ a whetstone for sharpening 
tools ; Ini^ sheki sandstone. 
fj^' Coarse, rougt), food ; unhull- 
ed or unclcansed rice; lai* 
shiki coarse food ; its'd lai^ 
plain — applied to fare. 
Affi- A rock oyster, called hnaii 
W lai'; lai\fong, the shell of this 

m()llut.k used as a medicine. 
%W A stag walking and then 
'^j^ stopping ; an adjective of 
praise ; elegant, graceful, glo- 
rious, adorned, good, lovelv, 
fair, beautiful — according to 
the character of the noun ; 
luxurious, extravagant; flow, 
cry, bright : to couple, a pair ; 
attaclied to, belonging to, as 





clothes or the hciirt do to the! 
body; a boat; a beam; aj 
number ; to hit ; ^wd lai^ mag. | 
nifical ; 'mi lai- beautiful ; | 
(Ko lai^ kicoki Corea ; ^siung j 
fu- lai^ proportional, corres- j 
ponding to, as guilt and pu- 
fiiji* A pair, a couple, as husband 
1^ and wife; together with ; com- 
panion-i, mates, fellows ; k'ong" 
lai^ a match, 
riia^ To look at, to gaze ; -/J/^aw 
^W". lai- lai- to stare at ; hii 'mai 
^ lai^ chij} '/Jgo, don't stare at 
BBf^ Name of a place in the state 
^C Lu, now comprised in the pre- 
fecture of 'J'angchau in Shan- 
tung ; a surname, 
iti^ To compare together, to 
', ,' class'ify, to adj ist, to arrange ; 
laws, rules, regulations, direc- 
tions, by-l;jws ; order, disposi- 
tion of thing*, mode or custom 
of; tsaki lai' rules of the 
Boards; regulations; '■pi lai^ 
to compare ; fan' lap or iWai 
lap to oppose or break the law ; 
(hoi lap to make a rule ; s'm 
hufh sz'^ lap it is not the way 
or custom ; lap /au, a regula- 
tion ; lap «/t«u- "would have 
legally been given," — a phrase 
applied to titles of deceased 
graduates ; lap paU <Ju, not 
according to etiquette or taw; 
ten^' lap a settled custom ; 
inhing lap it has become a 


JLr.r Trees growing in rows ; a 
"^1 } kind of worn! used by cart- 

wrijihts. Rt-ad hi, a kind ol 

wiltl rlicstnut. 




A fruit tree, the lichi or lai- 
ch; (Dimocarpus leche); a kind 
of tlag with fibrous roots ; 
ktcaP luki lap ichi, small-pit 
laichi, the best sort ; tdP Jio 
tjpdu lap iChi, the early laichi. 


The last child ; Jdi Isai, the 
youngest child ; Jdi ^ini, the 
last one ; .ktcd Jdi, any small 
ckwd or melon?. 

To pull, to drag along or up 
to one ; to lead ; to claw, to 
seize with the talons or lingers; 
Jdi ktP to saw ; Jai tsiirP to 
work a bit ; Mi ''ch'i, to pull, 
to tear apart ; Jdi chip to hold 
to detain by force ; ^Co Jdi 
'■shau, to take one's hand in 
walking ; Jdi IdnP to pull a 
boat ; Jdi lak^ i^gan, to borrow 
money ; lai mano^ to pull ; to 
borrow money ; Jdi ^cli'iin Jni 
pdP no one will trust me ; Jdi 
tak^fo' (o get goods on credit ; 
Jdi kwo' tik^ move it along a 
little; Jdi id, to settle a matter, 
to hush up or quash an affair ; 
Jdi ^td <yan^ to nab a man, to 
arrest one; Jdi ,fdy open work- 
ed carving ; Jai koi' ip'ing kwai' 
even now, the matter is balan- 
ced. Read lap-, in the Fan 

A colloquial word ; to leave 
behind one, to omit, to pass 
over; tired, indisposed to; Jii 
Jdi kwat:, ts'ik, tired out, my 
back aches ; Jdi lau' careless, 
slovenly ; Jdi J'au sat. ^ini, 
negligent in everything. 





A virulent blotch or eruption; 
the leprosy or a scrofiilou>< 
aHection like it ; now applied 
to the itch, the impetigo, and 
other chronic cutaneous dis- 
eases ; (Iton /««' the itch ; shap, 
ldi' theimpHtigo; ^shan^ Idi^ 
to have the itch ; IdV (Sin, 
one covered with itch ; Iq,'^ 
(Ch'ong, itch sores. 

*fe*1 To depend on, to lean on ; 
^^jVtorely on, to confide in, to 
wp I trust to ; to {jissiimp, to act 
Lai on a falsity, to trump up; to 
profit one's s«'lf, to get advan- 
tnge ; to Civluniniati*, to accuse 
falspiv ; to bave, to forget ; 
it'd Idi^ to involve the guiltless 
in punishment ; {Wio ilill ^inb 
lar^ Hying by hi* wits, a hap- 
haziird living : itndhW icin /^ 
no dependance on, a loafer, a 
lazv fellow, a suspicious chap; 
Idi^loki to forget to tal^e a\yay; 
ldi} shcl' to extort a trumped up 
del)t ; kung^ ^k^u Idi^ linn^ very 
intimate with him ; Idi^ Jim 
fsz'' to omit a charqicler ; Idi^ 
shing^ pal) /iu, left one behind 
me ; }m^ ts'o' to accqse falsely, 
a groundless charge. 

its' Fallen in ruins ; remiss in 
sacrificing; cchix ldi' to purse, 
to imprecate. 

^W ^ water vegetable, a sort of 

■T-Ti celery ; to pqver, shaded ; isdm 
Idi^ capoor ciftchpry- 

^^' A musical pipe with three 
tubes or ree<ls ; any arrange- 
uient of tubes or pipes ; u 
wlii^^ing, moaning, or sough- 
ing no|se ; fvt Idi'tsz" imin(i, 
the whistling of the Wind. 





til* The ribs, the side of the 
I 'y body ; laky Hm, the side ; lak^ 
shdky kumty the ribs ; Hd (or 
t'uh) cliiky Inky barebacked ; 
to strip ; laky kaky rugged, un- 
even, as a path ; l^kyit'iu kwafy 
a spare rib ; ^kai lak, '' lien's 
ribs," is a useless thing or 
num. Often pronounced lak,. 
\h To divine with fifty straws 
y^/ between the fingers ; they are 
reduced to 49, and divided into 
two parcels at hazard, from 
one of which a straw is taken 
and put by the little finger, 
and four others then selected 
to put with it, the remainder 
of the parcel being distributed 
between theotiier two fingers; 
the other parcel is then divid- 
ed in the same manner on the 
other hand, and the lengths 
of the two compared with the 
64 diagrams to ascertain the 
luck. Also, to hind. 

A bridle-bit, a curb; a head- 
stall ; to bridle, to rein in, to 
restrain ; to oblige, to require, 
to force to do ; to exact unjust, 
ly, to vex ; to engrave, to cut 
in stone ; to tie up or around, 
to strangle ; 'ma l-aki ^ horse's 
bit ; laki soky to extort ; to 
compel one to take up with : 
laki cliii^ c/ieki '///«, hold in 
the horse; laki du, to lit-j^bv 
the waist ; lak^ yik^ to force 
or insist on doing; lak^ <(/'"' 
to re(|iiire to resign ; lak, chd 
to oppress in order to get 
monev ; /t/A, 'jj' to strangle 
to deul^h. 







^ A spinous and thornv kind 
.of hamhon, used for hedges ; 

fmmboorofits ; spines, thorns ; 

Inkikom' ifii'ti,rough asahrnni- 
ble ; laki lam' a bramble or 
quickset bush; 'fO(i/^unirlakia 
cactus ; 'f A'di ch^uki laki to 
stick a thorn in the foot. The 
first character is also read 
tkan; the second is unauthoriz* 


P^ A final particle, implying a 

"^^' fullfdment, a finish of a mat. 

ter ; '//d Idk^ very well ; so, 

that will do ; no more ; hu'lak, 

certainly, he's gone. 


<2<n) Lam. 

A bud ; to cover or bend 
down over ; kom^ clam lut^ such 
a gabble, reiteration ; a? Jam 
'/.?fli,a girl of the streets; '■ching 
ilam likt make it sloping a 
little ; dam Jam ts^uki a hoot, 
ine owl ; (fa. Jam, a flower 

A grove, a clump of trees or 
bamboos ; a wood, a forest ; a 
luxuriance X)r abundance of; 
one's village or native groves ; 
a group of, a company : ^ch'd 
Jum^ a tea-shop ; Itiki Jam, a 
mountain in Hupj'h, hence a 
den of tliieves ; liiki Jam hdk-, 
a band of robl)ers ; shiV Jam, a 
fdre^f : it^ Jam ku-au, the Im- 
)>«'rial (i lard ; ^ynm Jam, an 
out of the WMV place, a bvr- 
ciiiner : Jtim hd' itt'oi 'rUii, an 
opulent retired otijcer. 









Dropping ; dripping, water 
running off; to soak, to mois- 
ten, to wet ; Jam (fa, to sprin- 
kle flowers'; Jam Ji, soaked, 
drenched, continual drop, 
pine ; chiii^ j'aii Jam, to throw 
water on one ; Jam shap) wet 

Interchanged with the last; 
a timely rain of three days 
fail; incessant rains ;,Admj/aw, 
an opportune shower ; 'ii J^m 
d'aii, wet in a shower ; met. 
care taken after losing things. 

A kind of pr.;cious stone, 
called ik'au Jam, perhaps a 
species of prnoc. 

A disease of the bladder or 
ureter ; a strangury or dysury 
arising from any cause ; cshd 
Jam, gravel ; hut, Jam, bloody 

To look down upon, to behold 
with a care for, to superin- 
tend ; a superior regarding or 
going to an inferior; to bless 
or curse, by coming to; to des- 
cend upon ; to go to ; to com. 
mence, at the point of, about 
to do ; during, when, time of 
meeting ; makes the present 
gerundive ; the 1 9lh diagram ; 
great; Jam '«' near death, 
when he was dying ; Jam ^man 
to superintend or govern the 
people ; Jam shnV to come 
into the world ; ,taan Jam 'fai, 
go and see myself; Jam ^shi 
'n^'sz^ to hinder a matter at 
the time; Jam //w' going ; .,hm 
hip. Jam jnons., to hurrv onf's 
s"lf, be quirk : Jam y/^ night- 
fall : JiwnniJ Jam .mdn alU^ vou 
hoijoi luy luuulet ; Jam ,skum, 



LA Ml. 




1 . 


to face or brave danger, fear, 
less ; J,am loki dau, when he 
goes down stairs ; Jam Hd yapi 
tjd its'ung, to take a young 
wife wiien old ; ilam t'ip^ to 
imitate a writing; Jamching^ 
to examine diseases; 
iCliiu, to be at a levee ; J-am 
sJu'm/i, tinrjc of childbirth. 

Shivering with cold ; great 
cold ; an awe-inspiring man- 
ner ; trembling, fearing, as 
people slioiild in presence of 
rulers ; Ham, Ham, piercingly 
cold ; awe-struck ; Ham Hi, 
stern, terrific; Ham ^tsun, trem- 
bling obttdionce. 

A government granary ; a 
corn-house, a grange, a ddpQt 
for grain ; to give grain to 
students ; di'ong Ham, a gra- 
nary ; Ham lulci the stipend for 
certain students ; Ham ishang, 
a stipendary siiitsai ; ';>d Ham, 
to get on the list of stipenda- 

A colloquial wprd ; to sooth, 
to make sleek, to soften what 
is harsh, to smooth ; Ham ctsltn 
it'iii 'mt, smooth its tail, m,et. 
polish or mollify his expres- 

Fear, respect ; Ham Ham, se- 
rious, afraid of, reverentially 
obedient or accordant to. 

To nourish, to give, to sus- 
tain, to provide food or pay 
for ; to give out grain. 

A colloquial word ; to pile 
up, to lav on each othnr ; a 
group, to go in a crowd ; to 
sooth, to soften what is harsh ; 
lam^ 'hi, pile it up ; lam' ^rh'd, 
pile up tea ; "-isau iinui it/an lum^ 








to hide in the crowd ; Jam^ 
its'ai, to pile or lay even ; lam^ 
its'^ung, to lay a wall. 


Covetous, greedy of gain ; 
to desire, to long after ; Jan 
J,dm, avaricious, niggardly; 
Jam sdpi grasping, close ; Jam 
dsong, hoards obtained by 
griping dealings ; 

Vapor or cloudy mist on a 
hill top is called ishdn Jdm ; 
name of a hill near Tayuen 
fii in Shansi. 

B;iskets, usually with cross 
handles, made of bamboo, wire, 
or-t^tan',Jdm(kw'dng, baskets 
in general ; cwi (Ch'lung 'i 
Jdm, to -back a long-eared 
basket — to be a beggar ; c/a 
Jdm, baskets made of flowers. 

A plant used to dye blue, 
the Isatis ; Jam shik, a blue 
or indigo color ; ^y^tmg Jam, 
foreign indigo ; Hd Jam, blu3 
black ; Jdm ct'in, the blue 
field, a famous place in the 
district of that name near Si- 
ngan fu in Shensi ; Jdm tin^ 
native indigo. Used for the 

A single coverlet ; ragged, 
mean clothes, without Collar 
or trimu)ing ; d ^shdm J/im lii^ 
tattered raiment ; Jam Haii, 
dirtv, as raiment. 

;,Ki)mHdm, the Canarivm, of 
which the pdl(i Ham is the 
Canurium album ; and the <« 
7a«i is the Viinarium pimela ; 
Ham shi^ or Ham kok-, a con- 
diuient uf olive^j ; Jium Hdi/i, 





.s.'iUcd olives; Jiau ^him, Atlatn's 
apple ; Jidm mukiHdm, to hold 
a wooden olive — silent ; Jiii 
Hdm icali carved olive seeds. 
-4^- 1 To grasp, to carry with a 
j'^^^ firm hold, to carry in both 
. ^ arms ; to usurp, to interfere 
Ldti in ; to monopolize, to hoard ; 
grasping ; an armful ; '■Idvi fo^ 
to engross goods ; '/«m '<»'?/, to 
carry in the arms, to seize all ; 
Ham iindi pan- to manage 
alone; Udm tt'au, head ma- 
nager of an aflfair ; ich'di yah 
Ham, an armfid of wood ; Hdm 
'pong, the last name on the list 
of kiijin graduates ; Hdm^shan 
HdmsliaVio wrestle and play. 
'^S To behold, to look at care- 
fully, to see from a distance ; 
to understand, to perceive ; 
ynU Ham, at one view ; Hdm 
slii- to see ; .kung aching «^ Hdm 
sent up for his majesty's in- 
spection ; ip'ai Hdm, to publish 
judicial cases to the |>eopIe ; 
Hdm \kuii Jcam ^ku, an exten- 
sively read man. 
^S^^ A rope, a hawser, a cable, 
^^ a painter ; to tie on, to bind 
with cord : to drag with a ro|)e; 
IdvO ^shu7i, to track a vessel ; 
Idi^ Idni^ a cable ; Hd Idrn^ 
to twist ropes ; '/rui Ztiwr to 
weigh anchor ; Idm^ ^fau pdk, 
to bind on a mourning cap, 
a funeral garb ; Jdi Mm^ to 
haul the rope; Idm" 'A-d/t <'m 
iindi, a rope will not join 
them, — very unlike ; Jdm- Id" 
n tracking path, 
vgt^ A fresh, a rising of water ; 
[™|-^ excess; incroaching, overflow, 
ing, violating, intruding on; 




to float ; to soak ; excessive, 
profuse, beyond bounds ; irre- 
gular, careless, loose, or law. 
less, according to the circum- 
stances ; Idm^ ipifigi illegal 
punishments ; Idin^ f/ung^ to 
use profusely ; Idtn^ '^si, scrib- 
bling; swjo Idm^ no excess; 
Idm* fat' \o waste ; Idm^ Jidxiy 
to associate with the lowbred ; 
Zd77i^ Jioi shd^ muki to charge 
higher than the settled price. 

A baluster, a railing, a row 
of bars below a window ; a 
den for furious beasts ; to cage; 
Idm^ Idm^ rumbling of car- 
riages ; Idm^iCh'^, a cart with 
n cage on it. Sometimes read 
Kdm\ and used for the last. 

A war-junk ; a man-of-war 
with strong bulwarks, a frig- 
ate ; a kind of defended round- 
house on deck ; chin^ Idm' a 



cLon. A colloquial word ; quick, 
speedy ; ^p'an Mn, in a hur- 
ry, quick. 

^ A colloquial word ; a bazaar 
^ or row for the sale of an ar- 
ticle; (hdm (hd Jdn. the salt- 
shrimp row ; iYati Mn imun, 
the Oil-row Gale on the south 
of Canton, called the Petition 
Gate ; lok, Jdn hii^ gone to 
the bazaar : ,7ndi Jdn, to take 
to the bazaar, to turn peddler ; 
'■kwo Jdn, the fruit market. 




DM To oversfep, to pass over ; fo 
v** creep, to twine around ; dun 
ti^ to crawl on the earth ; Jau 
/o/j^, to twine over, as a grape 
vine grows, 
•tea A raihng or balustrade for 
'T', a support and defense ; a pen 
or bar for animals ; to rail in ; 
ildn ikon, a railing ; '//id J-dn, 
a horse pen. 
■^tf A general name for gynan- 
I A d'"""'* flowers, and others with 
a single flower on a pedimcle; 
used in a yood sense in com- 
parisons ; met. adopted, sworn; 
pleasant, delightful ; icku J,dn, 
the Chloranlhus inconspicuus ; 
tiv' ildn, the air-plant ; kiti pdi' 
Jcam Jdn, to adopt one for a 
sister ; Jdn Hs4, an adopted 
sister ; M" Mngt a sworn bro- 
ther ; Jan ip'un y^ung^ cyathi- 

A door-screen ; a wristlet ; 
to shut in, to seclude, to sepa- 
rate; late, evening; failing, 
fading, falling into ruins; few, 
rare; in limited quantities, 
moderate ; Jidn yap^ to go in 
abruptly ; imiin Jan, a door- 
screen; y^\ldn, the night near- 
ly past, very late. 

To stop with the hand, to 
hinder, to prevent ; to embar- 
rass ; to divide, to separate; 
,ch( ildn, to hinder, to prevent 
seeing or going; lin ^u ^che 
Jdn, to baniho<izlu, to dissuade, 
to use amphibology ; Jdn lii, 
to stop an officer's sedan ; ilan 
W '■tstunfi hip> to stop up the 
ro id lo rob men ; Jdn Jioi, to 
part [combatants]; Jdn ^kdi 
hat, sliik, be^igars blocking up 







the street ; iind (hrdn Jdn, 
nothing to guard it with ; Jdn 
tsiti to stop the way j Jdn iCau 
cfiong' to wait to meet one. 

Swelling, continuous waves, 
surges ; dirty rite-water^; <pd 
j/d/i, rolling waves; lUi Jdn 
ik'iu, the Eddy (or returning 
current) Bridge, the bridge 
near the Factories. 

A mixture of colors on ani. 
mals, mottled, speckled ; ^pdn 
Jdn, striped, brindled. 

A listless, lazy lout ; remiss, 
sluttish ; sleepy ; averse, disin- 
clined to do ; Hdn to' lazy ; tdi- 
sfiiki Hdn, a lazy glutton ; 7o 
Hdn, to shirk work ; Hdn \tdn, 
to lofe, to dawdle ; ^shan Hdn, 
to gape and stretch ; tso^ Hdn 
ixhan, an idler; Han Hd ki" 
thing (fii, very easy work; yaft 
(ShanHdn kwati incurably lazy. 

To cook thoroughly, to boil 
to rags; rotten, corrupted, pu- 
trid, over-ripe ; torn, tattered, 
worn out, broken, spoiled, 
ruined; to break; splendor, 
bright ; to oppress ; many ; 
very, a superlative, as /d/i' Jo, 
a great many ; '■hong wd^ Idn* 
Hd, he s|>eaks very well ; Idn^ 
Hsai, a rascal ; Idn^ Hiau, a 
blackguard ; cAjV Idn^ worm- 
eaten ; Hd Idti* to break ; Idn* 
Hilt, broken, spoiled ; Zd«* j/idi, 
old shoes ; Idn^ J'ung Idn^ I'it^ 
bits of broken copper and iron; 
Inn' iCh'di J'au, a hard knot to 
split, met. a hard matter; /d«' 
me/j^^ahard fate; lAu^ ^Cau 
H'ena, a reckless dare-devil; 
/drt* (Chin /d Idi* a beggaily 
scamp who tries lo involve one. 








n^ A colloquial word ; a jingle 
'^ of tin or glass vessels is raled 
Jtwang Junfi; onci dang U'eng, 
a kind ot'tanka boat pushed by 
two oars, common at Canton. 
Lang' A lot of things tied toge- 
ther is called kwdng' lau^\ 



(This is read lang in the Fan Wan.)' 

'^A. Cold, icv, chilly ; frigid, in- 
/" different;" still, clear; Hang lam' 
"^ distant, neglectful, as friends; 
insipid, as books; dull, as 
trade ; Hang Js'ing dsHng, still, 
quiet, alone ; Ha Hang chan' 
to shake with cold ; faU ^Idng, 
the ague ; ^yan itsing Hang 
'/lii'i, men's feelings are ve- 
ry changeable ; Hang t'iU I'U, 
very cold; kam' Hang keuk^ 
"to forbid cold feet," means 
to prevent strangers seeing 
small-pox patients ; '■Idng 
.shettne c/i/n^. "ose snuffling 
from cold ; Hang ngdng' 'shau 
kiuh hands and feet benumb- 
ed ; ^Idng ^ngdn H'ai kin' to 
look at coldly or carelessly ; 
Hang Ui ,cham, a thermometer; 
Hang fan* /aw. China root. 



^ A rain hat, made of splints ; 

^'an open basket, a hamper ; a 

' tIovc ; an imposition, cheat ; 

lo hoodwink ; iai' if a lapi to 

To?f. Did. i:"y 



catch one in a basket ; also, 
to wear a false or paper bridal 
coiffure ; t'dn' yal, lap^ lapy 
each basket of coal ; lap. Ho 
'^'«, humbugged him ; ^shau 
lap:, n glove ; yaU Heng Hau lap, 
one umbrella hat; /opj chii' 
'■slwri, to put on gloves; Zap, 
chii- H('u, to put in a basket. 
it" Similar to the last ; a pen 
-"•'or inclosure ; a basket for car- 
rying game ; iChiilapi a basket 
to carry pigs in. 
(This is often pronounced Up.) 
To stand erect, to stand ; 
"1^* established, erect, fixed, up- 
right ; to establish, to found, 
to set up, to institute, to per- 
fect ; to agree upon, to settle, 
to fix, to effect ; to place in 
order, to arrange; the 117th 
radical ; soon, presently, the 
arrival of the time of; Hit lapi 
stand up ; lap^ hdk^ instantly ; 
lapi ccA'wn, it is now spring — 
one of the 24 terms; lap^ V or 
Za/Ji isam, to resolve on, deter- 
mined ; lapi (kiing, to establish 
one's fame ; '/li lap, keuk^ mi^ 
'^wan, have you just entered 
upon these duties ? lapi liin^ 
in disorder, all in confusion ; 
lapits'ipi to take a concubine ; 
lapi'-pan, to reform, sown his 
wild oats; lapishatAo setup 
a house, to marry ; lap^ ting* 
k^uki engaged to stay. 



ii|J| A colloquial word ; to take 

'•-^' up a number of thinijs in the 

arms ; to lump or take all toge- 





ther ; 7dp> sWiut ^chai ka' ch'it' 
lake and put them all there ; 
lap, sWidi ^yait'^kij.o, how ni^ny 
are tliere in all ? 
'Jo hold and manhge ; to 
y. .lump, to take together; Idpi 
iindi yati Jtii, put them all in a 
pile ; Idpi sap, refuse, dirt, of- 
fal ; Idpi Idpi Isdpi tsdpi mixed 
up, heterogenous, disorderly. 
n^ To sacrifice after the win- 
j^j' ter solstice ; to dry flesh ; lap, 
iitj the twelfth month ; Idpi dp, 
dried ducks ; Idpi Jton, to jerk 
meat ; Idpi m%^ cured meats ; 
iChan Idpi kwok, Cambodia. 
4t^ Wax, beeswax ; waxy, wax- 
T^^ed, glazed ; pdk^ Idpi insect 
wax obtained from bugs on the 
Idpi siiii^ or wax-tree ;• ifung: 
Idpi beeswax ; Idp^ iiin, waxen 
pills ; Idpi slieki yellow or 
greasy quartz; Idpi 'chi, paper 
smoothed^ with a soaped stone ; 
Idpi '^peng,- wax tapfers ; tapi 
Hsuh a hawfinch (the Cocco 
tkramteis melanura.y 



A colloquial word ; to let go, 
' to leave off, to loosen ; broken 
off, severed, come off, parted ; 
hi, '^shau. take off your hand, 
let go ; to part from, as ft lends ; 
t'm tak, lal, it won't come off; 
lat, Hai, bottom fallen out, 
ruined ; iCh'v laf. ^k'ii, lake it 
down ; lat, (huh' come apart or 
off; 'tdlatf, broken off; ttsing 
hit, cpin, smart enough to take 
h'm queue off; tt'ui lat, ishan i^ 
to got rid of a business. 


('^58) Lat. 

i^itinjz, piquant, hot, pun- 
gent,- acrid, taste, like pepper ; 
severe, heavy, as a punish- 
ment; injurious, recriminating, 
as abuse ; Idli (tsiu, cayenne 
pepper ; kani' ifiu V/d Uti the 
prohibitions jjre very stric! ; 
J(d Idti a freshwater crali ; 
ha^ Inti '^shau, to " down a hot 
hand," — to punish severely ; 
ishang tak, Ho Idfi precocious, 
strong while yet young. 

Intractable, wicked; inhu- 
; man, harsh ; to cut In twain, 
to mangle ; a row of things 
with interstices between them;' 
'pi do Idli (hoi, cut it open ; 
ehvvg^ Jioi yat, Idti Idti plant 
them in open rows ; Jiwdi Idti 
perverse, cross-grained; Jcdu 
'■cKi Wi a dovetail. Often 
confounded with ^|| Is'z'^. 



^■^ The leaf of the betel-pep. 
'^^ f ^er (Piper belle); a plant used 
^^m j to catch fish ; Mu ipi betel 
Lau leaf; ds'ing Jau, fresh pepper 
leaves ; '^Hoi (fung J,au, leaves 
from Haifung hicn. 

A colloquial word ; to throw 
or wear over the shoulders ; a 
cloak ; to hang down, as a 
sha wl does ; J,au ^yam miW a 
girl whose (lair covers her fore- 
head ; tdi' dan, a cloak ; dau 
pok, (kan, to wear a shawl ; dou 
?sV ipan ip'i, false, only the 
skin of a man ; dan ^(iv ch'ut, 
dtdi, constantly asking him to 
go out ; Vwjf shui dau, a bib. 




nA- Loquacity ; troul)!ePome and 
J^ talkative ; Jau Joi Jau hii' ur- 
ging, to talk much to get an 
endj Jau i,yan ^mdi, to urge 
one to buy. 
■^ The 16th zodiacal conslella- 
'T^ tion, it is in the head of Aries ; 
a surname ; an ox tied up ; a 
troublesome number; frequent, 
many ; a mound ; simple, 
/^ Crooked, curved ; huncliback, 
'j^ stooping; Jau ^chati ij/an, a 
beggarly fellow ; Jau '^chi, to 
bend the fingers. 
1,^ Diligent ; contented, joyous, 
i §")! to be pleased; iZa« jau tcAi 

isam, a sedulous disposition. 
1*: To drag, to draw or pull ; to 
Y"^ carry off, to elope with ; to 
embrace, to hug ; Jau ^p'd, to 
fall on the neck ; Jau chu^ to 
hold in one's embrace. 
A loft, a staging or tower ; 

Y^ the upper floor or story of 
buildings^a peak; a layer j 
storied, in stories; to assemble; 
^sheung ikd Jau, to go to an 
eating-room, to tiffin ; Jau 
sfi^ung' Jau, two-storied ; 7id 
Hs'oi, Jau shhtng^ Jau, good, 
I'm in for luck ! (kdng Jau, a 
watchtower; ''«^ its'ang Jau 
(Cliii yuki the loin of pork ; 
Jau chan^ sleepers of a floor ; 
mnng^ Jau, a lookout tower ; 
Jau s/i<^»ng- up-stairs ; ^wnng 
Jan. green flower-hoats; ^t'i'ing 
Jau, brothels ; '/li Jau kom^ '■hi, 
har<l to do; ^sheng Jau, gate- 
way towers; nchurtg Jau, a bpl- 
fry ; "iV^ ^ts'ntig Jjou, the 
Five-storied Pagoda in the 
city of Caiifon. 


A kind of vessel^ with high 
,— stern galleries or frames made 

in stories. 
A^ The mole-cricket, called Je^ 
Jau ; a kind of ant ; 'f'd Jaui 
a four-horned fabulous goat ; 
Jau Ji, a small dragon-fly. 
j^ A sow in heat ; Jau cchii, a 
Lau ^^^^ ' ^ certain wild beast. 
M^ A skull without skin or flesh; 
' P* c/ji Jau or tuk^ Jau, a skull, the 

upper bones of the skull. 
WP } To detain, to stop a guest ; 
'^ > to hold on to, or keep by one, 
;gg!to keep back; to delay, to 
Li6 procrastinate ; remaining ; di- 
latory, slow ; a long time ; Jau 
pUi a keepsake, a parting gift ; 
Jau loki detained in a place 
by poverty ; left by mistake ; 
handed down from ancestors; 
Jau^k'ii j'm chii^ could not keep 
him ; Jau if an, to keep for 
future use ; j'm Jau (Sam, givt- 
ing no heed to, careless ; Jau 
yam^ to keep in office or place 
longer ; ^wdn Jau, to take by 
the arm to stop ; Hs'ing Jau pd^ 
don't trouble yourself to come 
out — said by a visitor ; Jau 
Ad' to leave with one for a 
while, to relinquish ; jmd fi 
Jau, no murderers remain ; Jau 
tarn} hV keep in your breath ^ 
pal, "J^ing Jau, not to stop a 
single moment ; Jau ^il ti\ 
leave a little space, don't be 
too hard. 




The pomegranate tree; sheki 
Jau, the pomegranate ; fo 
aheki Jatt, the flowering pome- 
granate ; c/d» shek^ Jau, a 






Li a 





Li 6 

A kind of bamboo ra( ; 'md 
Jau ^or (lav), a monkey ; '/»d 
{/au '2«at, a nickname for chil- 

A tumnr, excrpscencp, wpn, 
or swelling of any kind ; ynki 
Jau, a tumor ; hut:, Jan, bloody 
tumor ; '^hdm laid ko' Jau, made 
the swellinsr by a knock ; hi' 
Jau, swellings in the neck 
from anger; ^fan sjtau, a slough, 
ing tumor. 

The sighing or breathing of 
the wind ; Jiuu JaUt waving in 
the wind. 

A kind of owl, called Jau Ji, 
which eats birds and mice. 

A chestnut or bay horse, with 
black mane and tail ; 'tsz* JaUf 
a sorrel horse with dark mane. 

A pearl : a vitreous, glassy 
substance; Jau iU, glassy, shin- 
ing, like a new mat or ice ; 
also cups for water lamps ; Jau 
ik'au kwoki the f^ewchew Is.; 
Jau Ji ^ngd, glazed tiles, used 
on temples. 

Pendents of a crown, hung 
before and behind ; ^min Jau, 
crown pendents ; the narrow 
pendents attached to a ban- 
ner, called ik'i tdi\ 

The flowing of water; to 
pass along, to go from one 
place to another ; to circulate, 
as news ; to spread, to diffuse 
itself; to descend in life, to 
cast off restraint; to get into 
Jau ^ngan lui- to shed tears ; 

' - ~ • I nr, Croupiers,, of^oriv 

from another province; mat^ 
kdm' Jau ik'au, why are you 
gorude and unmannerly; Jau\ 
hut. to bleed ; Juu -in, rumor ; 1 





yat, Jau jWid peng' I've never 
before been sick ; iCh'iung Jau, 
continual, overflowing ; tin* 
Jau Jci hilt) willingly shed his 
bad habits ; to shed ; flowing 
out ; to seek, to select ; to beg, 
to intreat ; a class, a low set, 
the vicious, low. life people ; 
roving, vagrant; shifting, float- 
ing ; to be transported; Jau 
Ji shati \^7io, vagrant, without 
a home ; pat:, Jau Jo hai' 'Ad/w, 
it is ever so, this is usually 
the way ; yat, Jan (yan, a class 
of men ; 'hm Jau, females ; 
blood ; j/ouAd^and Jaxi^shiung, 
ebb and flood tide ; 'Arau Jau, 
the nine professions ; Jau ^man, 
vagrants, vagabonds. 
JLau iicong mr'd, sulphur, flow- 
ers of sulphur ; Jau iwong, 

To kill, to slaughter; a kind 
of sword ; to arrange, to set 
in order, to lay out ; Jjau Pi^ 
a famous general of the Three 

Clear, limpid, deep water ; 
iLau <.y^ung ikong, a river in 
Hrn)4n ; a strong wind ; rust- 
ling of trees. 

Tiie willow; a groove; brind- 
led, striped; met. pleasure, dis- 
sipation ; slender, wasp-like ; 
arched, crescent ; ^thui cSi' 
Hau, the taniarix ; (fa Haii /i' 
(foug, places of di.ssipatiou ; 
Hau it'iu iShaiufi^D^Gr person ; 
^Zatf-^^i^'^nrched eye-brows ; 
the 24th constellation, it is in 
Hydra ; iiP yap^ ^lau, it must 
be grooved ; Hau 'sii, willow 
catkins ; ko' Hau 'shau, that 
ftflair — a slang phrase ; Hau 




/iu 7)0' a kind of striped cloth : 
Vii Hau, to make a groove. 
' To take up earth and daub 
it on, when building a wall ; 
to level with the hand. 

A colloquial word ; to toss in 
the arms; to shake in the arms; 
to toy with : to fuss over ; lair 
hd- ^k'ii, dandle him, as a babe ; 
lati^ '■fo Jd, make a fire ; lau^ 
iwan ^k'iit shake them up tho- 

A bamboo basket or hamper ; 
j/rt/j Hau t'dn^ a hamper ot" 

A trap or net of bamboo for 
taking fish or crabs, made like 
a seine. 

A skein or knot of thread, 
of a hundred lengths; a fob 
or pocket ; Hsin Hau ki^ a cut- 
purse, a pickpocket. 

A narrow, dirty residence, 
a vile place; a strait; low, 
rude, rustic, vulgar ; ugly, ill. 
favored ; uninformed, unac- 
quainted, obscure, ignorant of 
tilings ; 'c/t'au lau' horrid- 
looking; lau^ iku'ai, hush- 
money ; lau^ lid:, vile-looking, 
useless ; tsoi^ lau^ hong^ in my 
poor lane — affected talk. 
^M^ 'i'o drip, to drop on ; a clep- 
1^ sydra ; to leak, to ooze out ; 
to lose ; to disclose, to blab ; 
to evade, to escape from ; to 
forget, to lose sight of or let 
.•ilil) ; to moisten ; a crack, an 
aperture, a leak ; shaiii' lau^ it 
leaks ; chap-> lau^ to mend a 
leak ; Jau} /d' an oversight, 
forgotten ; tsij). lan^ catch the 
water ; hiu^ 'kam /iii */«>' for- 
got (o enter in the account ; 










*j/j lau' to let out a secret ; 
lau^ hV waste of breath ;j lau^ 
Mu, leaky ; jWd Aro' tat' lau- 
no such good news as that. 

A river in Kw^ngsl ; to flow ; 
to issue ; a gutter under eaves ; 
tcdty lau' glossy, smooth. 

Lingering, stopping on a 
journey ; tau' lau- loitering, 
lurking about. 


4M To drag or fish for in the 
Ldu ^'*^^^^^ ^^ grapple from a deep 
place, to dredge for ; to hook 
out ; Jau '^hi, to haul up ; 7d 
c/d», to drag for; to make a 
search for; ^md Ji Jdu ch'du^ 
no dredge, nothing to help 
myself with ; Jdu Jid hok, to 
dredge for oysters : <'om' Hai 
Jdu, to price a thing dirt cheap. 



pm A final particle, like lokyH^ 

' Li denoting that a thing is or 
should be in a certain manner ; 
rendered by surely, doubt, 
less, so, &c.. according to the 
scope ; '■lim ,U, [the lamps] are 
lighted ; hai' M, it is so : yes, 
it is ; j/.M iU, come ; Afi' ^U, let 
us go ; 'kwo /au J^, too much, 
most certainly. 

nf^r A final and colloquial par. 

■^* tide, implying an order ; a 
mere final sound ; At? /<^' gone ; 
wa/j ^yi U\ what is it ? hai* 
'horn W ]ti' let it be so. 






X-^ To rob with violence, to 
.f<y^ plunder, to take things by 
force ; to invade, to waste, 
to make a foray ; to punish 
with a stick ; a sweep stroke to 
the left in writing a character ; 
cch'du Uuhi to snatch the valu- 
ables ; ds'am Uuki to make a 
raid ; ''pong Uuki to bastinado. 
W "I To divide or mark fields; 
^^^ >a boundary of fields; to plan, 
^^j] to counsel, to contrive ; as- 
Ljoh tilte, shrewd; to abridge, to 
diminish labor ; a resum^, a 
digest of, an abridgment; a 
little, in general, rather, slight- 
ly, not minute ; to disosteem, 
(o slight ; a path, a rule ; to 
take or seize ; to walk, to go ; 
to ofiend, to transgress ; to 
sharpen ; tai^ Uuki for the most 
psirt, in general ; lu' Uuki the 
radical or important parts of; 
Uuki ^yau, oaly a few ; Uuki 
Ihuki "-hill, I understand this 
somewhat; sWWh /^mA-j clever at, 
foreseeing, shrewd, forecast- 
ing ; Uah do tik:, rather too 
many ; Ao' l^uki mdP cyan, apt 
to seize and sell people ; Uuk, 
(Chi yaU i\ understand it a 
little ; l^uki ti^ to enter of pass 
through a region. 



^^« A plank across a stream, a 

'"^5 foot-bridge ; a ridge-pole, a 

° lintel, a Ixam or sleeper, n 

.stretcher; a dam or jnles to 

liinder a current ; the fasten- 
ing of the knob on a cap ; mel. 
the principal ; trustworthy ; 
Jceung J^ting, atrocious, one 
worthy of death ; pi' J^ung, 
bridge of the nose ; ^iin Jeung^ 
hung himself from a beam; 
kd' J^urtg, to lay the ridge- 
pole; met. to side with the 
weak in a quarrel ; Jidi Jeungt 
the ridge-seam on shoes. 
jL^. a mast of a boat; used for 
' »r* the preceding ; ^sh&ung Jeung 
^'"^"^ tdi^ kat:, good luck to raising 
the ridge-pole — a sentence 
wriltert on it. 
ipts Large grained millet, a spe- 

17"^ cies of Holcus, of which tliere 
Liang ,, ' J 1 •» 

are yellow, green and white 

varieties ; spirits are distilled 

from it ; c/ro Jeung, the Barba- 

does or tall millet. 

*B.l Food, provision, victuals ; 

'•^'rations or pay of soldiers; 

^jj^ I land taxes in kind ; -Js'tn Mung 

Liang taxes or their commutation ; 
pay ; shiki J^iing, in govern, 
ment pay, a soldier; nkon Jiung 
provender for a journey; J6ung 
ti9 commissioner of the land- 
tax ; kdk: Jeung, to stop the 
rations ; ndj)i J^ung, to pay in 
taxes ; (kwdn JC-ung, to receivfe 
rations ; deung Hs'd, rations 
and provender; food, eatables ; 
kip:, il^ng, to forage. 

pA To jump; t'hV Jeung, to 


dance and hop about. Also 

read Jong, to go; Jong cp'ong, 

ready to go, starting. 

A Goodhearted, gentle, liberal, 

^*^ mild, benignant : excellent of 

° its kind, valuable, perfect, 

suptrior ; a term of praise ; 




loyal, oljerlienf; capable, skill- 
ftil ; a long time ; past mid- 
night; Jeung iyau, my good- 
ni;>n ; my good wife; J^ung 
sliin^ good; ileung isam, devout, 
desirous of doing right ; ^mb 
J f ring ^sam, ojipressive, bad, 
hardhearted ; Jeung '■kmt^ a 
long time ; iUiing /in, a fertile 
field ; Jew'g i>nan, the loyal 
people ; Jenng tkiiing, galan- 
gal ; Mung iS/ian, a fortunate 
hour or day. 
y^' ] Cool, fresh ; pleasant ; rc- 
'^9? (■f^rcsbing ; cool, distant, as 
sYM I '"^"'^^'■^ ' \\tt\e of, sparing ; in 
Liiingneed of, straitened; a pre- 
fecture in Kansuh ; Jeung 
ifung, a fresh breeze ; <,shing 
ileung, to take the air ; ileung 
^shong, cool and pleasant ; 
iUung ip'dng, an awning of 
mats ; Jeung kwd' ^Iid chd^ 
cooling off a little 

'pp: A common contraction for 

,'^J the next, when meaning a 

Liangs 1/^1- 1 

^ tael or Chmese ounce, equal 

to 1^ oz. fl?)., or 579^8^4^ grs. 
ir.; the highest Chinese no- 
minal money, worth $1.38, 
or 6s. 9d.; <,ng(m ^Uung^ mon- 
ey, cash. 

*R^ ' Two, a couple, a pair; 

^^ >hoth, doubled, twice, again ; 
^ ; Heung H^ung ^chung two taels' 

Liing weight ; H^ung ^chi (ipai, two 
masts ; H^ung '^fan (fan, divide 
it equally ; s'w csdm ''kau Heurtg 
undignified, degrading ; isdm 
(.?dm H^ung H^ung, in small 

Read l&ung^, a classifier of 
chariots ; a car, a chariot. 
The ne.xl is now used in this- 

^' A classifier of carriages ; a 
Li\f* car ; a pair of wheels. 

't&S An elf or gnome, like a small 
J jT^ child ; ^mong H^ung, a sprite. 

'/BES Clever at, skilled in ; ^ni mat, 

Lilnjr^^' '^^""^' ^'^^^ have you 
practiced, what can you do? 

J^,- Clear, bright, like the sun 

./f-* or moon ; lustrous: transnar- 
ent ; Iiglited, illumined; trust- 
ing in, believing — in which 
senses it is used with the next ; 
leung' (Slia , transparent gauze; 
tktcong luting' lighted up, not 
obscure, as a room ; J.'in Uung- 
day light. 

A colloquial word; loud noise, 
distant sounds ; ishing ,yam 
Jiu leitng^ the music is sweet; 
kdm' '^h^ung Uung^ such a loud 

^j^ Sincere words, faithful, ve- 

LiAnir ''^^'°^^ ' *** believe in, to ac- 
credit, trusting fo ; to know 
certainly; tosuppr)se, to guess, 
to conjerture ; to aid, to a.ssist,- 
kin^ lenng- to excuse, to make 
allowances for ; pat^ (nang /an' 
Uung^- inexcusable ; l/nng' pUt 
fiai^'^kdm, 1 am pretty certain 
of it ; Uung- pat:, ^itgo kwdi^ I 
think he will not blame me; 
j'm '■pi '■k'ii Ihtng* Hb, \ shall 
not do as he supposes. 
To measure, to judge, to 

estimate ; to keep an account 
of; a measure, a capacity, a 
limit, a determinate point or 
quantity ; ability to eat or 
drink, appetite ; an enlarged, 
liberal mind, good feeling ; 
opinion, views »)f the mind ; 
mnf. kbm^ h'ung^ kiraP why do 
vou drink so little ? can't vou 




stand mucl« wine ? ^ngoUung^ 
chiit, t don't drink much ; 'A;k 
l^ung' to guess ; kuki lewig^ 
tdi^ a shrewd ohseiver of men, 
astute ; '/nd tik, Uung^ no ca- 
pacity; hdn^ Idling' ^ki do, what 
is the limited quantity ? pat, 
tst'^ Z^M.1^'^ an over-estimate of 
one's self. 

Read iUung ; to measure ; 
to deliberate upon ; (Sh^ung 
lUung, to consult upon ; 'pi 
Han Mung, measure it with a 
'/au, or peck, 






A colloquial word ; in disor- 
der, careless ; tsa' sz'^ M ild, 
he does things slovenly. 

Bright; elegant; the 5th 
diagram ; interchanged with 
the next. 

A. yellow bird of a beautiful 
plumage ; to retire, to disperse, 
to scatter, to dismiss, to sepa- 
rate or go from ; to leave, to 
part from ; distant, absent, 
parted ; dispersed, scattered ; 
to divide, to cut in two ; to 
arrange or divide off; in pairs; 
the 5th diagram ; pat,iU, en- 
gaged in, attached to, employ- 
ed upon ; J-i iming, the morn, 
ing ; lU ihoi,, parted ; J,i (Siln, 
a sister's grandchild ; Ji ^t'oi, 
to get up from table ; lati lot, 
Ji Ji, coming off, very loose ; 
Ji 'Ad 'iirt, very far off; Ji 
jWan, to leave the company 
or group ; Ji sdn^ to scatter, to 
disperse ; Ji han^ sad from 




one's absence ; Ji pit, td part 
from one; Ji<.kd, to go abroad; 
fali Ji (fi 'rtiM, [is still] noth- 
ing but a bird. 

A fence or wattle of bamboo; 
to fence, to inclose ; a small 
basket tray; ifdn Ji, a bamboo 
hedge ; chuki Ji, a bamboo 
tray ; chdu' Ji, a strainer, an 
open ladle for taking out cakes; 
tau^ Ji, a trellice for beans to 
run on ; Ji ^pd, a hedge. 

To stretch or open ouf, to 
spread out, as wings ; to place 
in order, for a display. Also 
read jcA'f. 

Water dropping and soaking 
into the ground ; tlie pattering 
of rain or hail ; to instil by 
drops; thin and bad ; mak^ '^shui 
Jam Ji, the letters dropped like 
rain from his pencil — calli- 
graphy, beautiful penman- 

A vitreous, translucent sub- 
stance ; Jail Ji ichu, glass 
beads ; Jau Ji t'dp^ a bedstead 
with glass in the sides. 
I An ornamented girdle, put 
} on a bride by her mother ; 
j a sash ; a perfumed veil worn 
by brides; to sew shoes ; (kam 
yah kit:, Ji, she is married to- 
day. Read ich'i, sharp, like 
a cold wind. 

Thin, poor spirits; weak 

■=^ Deceitful language, sportive 
^Vj jokes, bantering; to ridicule; 
(Chi Ji, verbose, exaggerated 
talk ; not trustworthy. 

A^ A mountain elf, a hobgoblin, 

Q^' ^^"^*^ '^^ '"'^ regarded aa ma- 






Aft A dragon without horn?, 
*grj. just mohed ; a (prm appUed 
to cruel men ; isuii^ }i, a spirit- 
ed horse. 

j;Jg i Used for Hi >™« to suhjecl 

fM [to, to cause to submit ; to re- 

'^|gu'a<e ; the lOOOth part of a 

j7(Vj 'ael, nominally equivalent to 

Li the coin called a cash ; the 

second term infraction's, a 

hundredth ; a very little, a 

grain, a hair's breadth; a pair ; 

to give ; Ji^tan^, n small nion- 

ey steelyard ; 'md J.i ts'o^ no 

mistake at all ; 'mo Ji ''kan hV 

not the least attention ; httd Ji 

yung^ useless ; ^mdj.i sz^ quite 

at leisure. The last form is 

used only in numeration. 

^•ffl^ A name for many small 

'^^l^animals, like the fox, rac- 

j^i^ooon, wild cat, &i.c.\ ^yi Ji, » 

Li sort of wild-cat ; jW Ji, the fox, 

thought by the Cliinese to take 

a human shape : (ka Ji, a cat : 

'^hoiji, a seal : '/?/ Ji, a yellow 

fox ; Jiiiivg Ji, li.e civet ; ^I'l 

Ji ilsing, a fox-fairv, a witch, 

a siren — a term of reproach ; 

fit, Jisliiki an iron grav color: 

'-kiDo'-lsz' Ji, a sm ill civet-like 

animal, wuich is eaten. 

^C A widow : Ji-fii, h woman 

whose husband is dead. 


A string; sadness, sorrow : 
toencounter, toincur ; to mee' 
or hap|)en to ; /«'' Ji chuiig' 
kaii^ to incur great pu:iisii- 
ment ; Ji ^k'ijiung hoi^ suffer- 
ed his deadly malice ; miti mo 
Ji, without any sorrow ; <,fiiitg 
pdky Ji, afllicted willi nmii\ 

Ton. DicT. 30 






A pear ; ttitig^ Ji, a face grim- 
ed with age ; sfth Ji, a russft 
pear fiorrr T'lentsin ; (Sfid Ji, 
native pear ; Ji Jiti Hsz* tai^ 
play-actors ; siit^ Ji ikd, pear 
jam ; if a Ji muk^ rosewood. 

A yellow b!rd, the iWong Ji^ 
or mango bird. 

A fleet horse, a charger ; a 
black horse ; to drive a .span 
of horses ; Ji kd' a carriage 
and span. 

A prune or apricot ; to get 
ready for a journey : Jiang Hi, 
luggage; iVdm (wd Hi, a yellow 
plum ; /o Hi :c/idiig tch'un, the 
peach and plum emulate each 
other at spring; tsin^ «t'^ jK 
<i'd Hi, to recommend a pupil 
as a plum or pear. 

A place of residence ; a 
neighl)Orhood, a village, ori- 
ginallv of 25' or 50 families'; 
a lane in a village, a place or 
court in a town, a street ; a 
measure of If'figth of 860 
paces, the Chinese mile ; it 
is ot- various lengths, usuallv 
LSOT.J E iglish feet, or 274 U 
to 10 Eng, miles; the g<!0. 
graphical It is the ^j^yof a 
degree or 14fi0.44 ft., or -j-'jj of 
a French astronomical league; 
mournful, alus; the 166th rad- 
ical ; ''"go Ji^ung Hi, mv neigii- 
bor or townsman ; Jun ^li, a 
neijjhborhood ; Hi iyaii, one 
oftiiis place ; yfl/) Hi Id' one 
mile ; Js'in Ht ^ind, a courier ; 
(haling Hi, the country, village 
plac s. 

Ristic, vulgar, gross, low- 
fa ed, vile ; to protect, to sup- 
poit ; ,a trust, protection, a re- 








source ; Hi tin, low expressions, 
vulgar talk ; ^md '«Ao Hi Idi^ 
nothing to look to, resourceless; 
Hi Hsz^ a term for the people 
of Wiichau fu in Kwangs'. 

Brother's wives are called 
chuki. Hi ; or vulgo, 'sham '/nd. 

A mat sail ; any small sail ; 
'^ch'i Hi, hoist sail ; 'sAai tsun^ 
Hi, set the whole sail ; met. to 
exert one's full power ; '^chiin 
Hi, to wear sail ; Hi p'a^ a sail- 
loft ; Hi it an, the foot of the 
sail ; Hi Idm^ halliards ; 'Mm Hi, 
take in sail ; '^kdm tfung j'm 
'^kdm Hi, is to profit one's self 
at other's expense. 

A basket or hod for carrying 
soil ; a spade or narrow mat- 
tock, for lading in earth. 

To work gems according" to 
their veins ; to polish, to burn- 
ish gems ; veins or striae; style; 
to govern, to regulate ; to con- 
trol, rule, manage, adjust, rec- 
tify, or put to rights, as cir- 
cumstances require; to'meddle 
with ; a match-mtiker ; reason 
inman, right principles, nature 
rule of action, that which is 
felt to be right or proper ; the 
principle of organization or 
rules by which matter is kept 
in its essence ; Hi follows some 
verbs, showing that the first 
verb is done properly, as csau 
Hi, to repair; ifai Hi, to look 
to carefully ; ct'in H(, heavenly 
reason, analogous to retributioh 
or overruling Providence ; ti' 
Hi it'o, maps ; hori' It' Hi csin 
iShang, a geomancer ; /iii Hi, 
regulations ; tlie topography 
or capabilities of a pkce ; to' 





Hi, reason, the propriety of 
things ; Hi Iwr to reason, tp 
debate ; Hi *«'* to attend to an 
affair ; jman Hi, style of writ- 
ing ; Hi tit* to comprehend ; Hi 
fdti to dress the hair ; Hi shd^ 
hai^ '^kom, it should be this way, 
this is the manner ; Hi j'm /o' 
I have no time to see to it ; 
chiu' Hi '^kong, to talk reason, 
ably ; hSp^, Hi, reasonable ; ^m 
yapi Hi, unreasonable ; ilin Hi 
'^chi, a marriage alliance ^ngo 
^ui '^Id Hi, I can manage it ; '/li 
Hi ip'in, you was in the wrong; 
Hi chiki hi^ chong' reason is 
mild, anger is violent. 
] A lining, the inside of gar- 
vments; inside, within, inner ; 
home; 'piii Hi, false silk, burn, 
ed in ancestral worship ; Hi 
min^ or Hi Hai, within, in ; Hi 
pd^ coarse cotton lining ; tsoi^ 
tka Hi, at home. 

The carp (CyprinidtB), the 
king of fishes, and fabled to 
change into a dragon ; ish^ung 
Hi, a letter ; the ^kam Hi, yellow 
carp, is the most common at 
Canton ; Hi fa' Jung, the carp 
has become a dragon, met. 
rapid promotion in office. 

A leather shoe ; to put on a 
shoe ; to tread on, to walk ; to 
act, to walk in a way ; actions, 
conduct ; met. the body, the 
man ; salary, a living, some- 
thing to depend on, subsist, 
ence ; Hi Hai, the sole of a sho<'; 
Hi liki record of good acts ; Hi 
(,yan, to do humane ac's ; Isin^ 
Hi, to tread ; Hi Jiang, to walk, 
the conduct ; Hi Ham, to go 
and see for one's self. 






Sharp edge or point : acute,' 
keen, edged ; advantageous, 
profitable, useful ; Bmooth, for- 
tunate, happy, beneficial; gain, 
profit ; address, cleverness ; 
smart, nrreedy for gain, covet- 
ous ; trade ; interest on mon- 
ey ; to benefit others or one's 
self, to ol)Iige ; to nourish ; 
jtno li^ to sharpen ; h^ ^s/ii, an 
advantageous market, prosper- 
ous ; W hi' cutlery, edged tools; 
tfung W ^shi, (often pron. lai* 
^shi) to give cash at newyear 
to children, or a retaining fee 
to a physician, or to funeral 
a-ttendants ; li* sik, or IV its' in, i 
interest ; n/ip, h^ to pay inter- j 
est; pat, W uitlucky, disadvan- ' 
tageous, unsuccessful ; W^/iau, 
fluent speech, pleasant tasted; [ 
W tuki gluttonous, mean; li^. 
pin^ convenient, at hand ; (kd 
yal, li' to get 10 per cent, peri 
mouth ; icJiati ichan W hoi' 
truly awful or formidable,! 
stingy ; fdi' W keen edged ; W 
kin^ ldi\ynn, happy if Youri 
Honor notices me; (ming IV, 
Heung /d, two pursuits, letters! 
and trade ; ^md pa/, shun' IP, 
everything as he wished, al-| 
ways prasperous ; /j' '■(siii ^fd 
lOifd, talkative and s|>ecious ; , 
h- h' ^shi ^ski Jai, done care- 
fully and willingly. 

Clever ; jwd W active, ex- 

A colloquial word for the 
tongue, used becatise the pro- 
|>er sound shiti also means to 
lose ; (Shan iViii W put out your 
tongue ; 'pi Zt^ *rim, tapte it; 
h' f, a furred tongue ; kol, li' 

'^kdm (Sheng, thickmouthed ; li* 
Jidi, a strumous tongue ; W 
(yam, final particles. 
^^ A dysentery or flux ; s6^ li- 
Y^* a purging, a diarrhoea ; ^hung 
W a bloody flux ; ^yau sik, li' 
a chronic diarrhoea ; kam'hau 
//'cholera morbus. 
^^' A flower, highly prized by 
^/ the Chinese ; mutt It' cfd, the 
white jasmine; also the name 
of a common song. 
(W|P A sort of clam, called kdp^ 
Lj' W found on the coast of Fuh- 
kien, and pickled by the peo- 
^it^l Water running down ; wa- 
^'77jf-ter grasses, rushes; to come 
)p[ j to, to descend towards, to 
Li arrive at ; to enter upon or 
assume the duties of; to see ; 
the seat or place where an 
officer acts ; W yam' to go to 
an ofllcial post ; h' iman, to 
govern the people ; li' sz'' at- 
tending to business, active ; Zi* 
(kun, the rule or conduct of 
an officer. 
■^^ To scold about, to blame or 
^ be angry with ; h' md' to rail 
at, to abuse ; li' yuki to disgrace 
by much obloquy, 
'^' Oflicers, magistrates, rulers ; 
"£>• deputies or secretaries in of- 
fices, any subordinate execu- 
tive ; to rule ; Ll' Po' the Board 
of Civil Office ; U' ifong, the 
department of a magistracy 
which receives officers ; (*/ju Zi* 
government writers; '■tin W 
head writers ; li' muki the de- 
pufy in an inferior prefecture ; 
W ,ti/i, official attendants; ,<«< 
It- an oppressive officer. 




W'^) Lik. 

•W^ A specirs of onk (Quercus 
Vvj' '^erra/a 7) hard and tough, con- 
sidered to be a useless wood, 
not even fit for fuel ; employ- 
ed as a depreciatory term for 
one's self, 
^gffli Gravel, shingle, coarsesand, 
^?V' small broken stones or pebbl&«; 
c<(iM liki cinnabar or ore of 
quicksilver; higd liki potsherds, 
broken pottery. 
^^ Crushed under a wheel ; a 
/V rut or path for wheels ; ikw'ong 
(Ch'^ tsin' lilt, ridden over by 
the furious chariots. 
t^& To move ; motion ; a step, a 
^f^' pace. Read Loky to exceed : 
cli'^uk:, loki extraordinary, sur- 
paj<sing. ' 

' 4S A sort of oak. of which the 
' ^^j" acorn is edible; a stable or 
cote for artimals; ils'dm lik, 
frames for worms to weave 
their coccoons on ; 'md liki a 
stable ; Uk^ csz' to squeeze the 
fingers between sticks. 
^^ A clap ; yik, lik- the crash- 
^j' ing> splitting sound of thunder; 
anameof the God ofThunder. 
: ^J The heavenly bodies ; the 
''^. course of the spheres ; to ral- 
endar licnes and seasons ; t/A, 
cs/ai, an almanac ; liki fdh as- 
tronomy. Interchanged with 
the next. :• uun, 

n^ To pass over,- byj or to; to 
JlV ^^^^ away, as generations do ; 
to pass through, to experience 
one's self; to transgress, to 
overpass the laws; arranged 
orderly ; next in order, succes. 
sive; disordered, eonfu»ed ; to 

exhaust ; to say all ; retired, 
silent ; wide apart, as teeth ; 
liki ich'iii, successive dynas- 
ties ; likjoi^ successive genera- 
tions or ages ; liki^ni, from the 
first till now ; Joi liki the an- 
tecedents of, notices of; ^yd 
its' an fr ,king lik) gone by, pas- 
sed ; lik, '^kau, long since gone; 
liki lin* experienced in ; lik, 
5»f«, for a series of years ; liki 
liki ''ho '■ftdu, every item is 
trustworthy, all can be proven ; 
liki tsim^ ils'ai J,eung '^kingt I 
have passed through all evils ; 
liki Itk, '^ho '.</(o, I can count 
all to this time, all can be 
'accounted for. 
Jte A drop, a very little left in 
"l^'j^ a cup ; to drink the last drop ; 
to drop or drip; liki hUU to 
stab one's self; r/ir^^, ZiAri bam- 
boo sap, thought to be afebri- 
fuiie ; 'yam tsu»^ j/i hki drank 
the last drop ; lik, J.s'ing '■pan 
k'nn^ humbly petition with the 
sincerest feelings; yat, liki 
ts'oi^ a row of vegetables ; i,hoi 
yat, liki to make a furrow. 
f^ The scrofula ; Ho liki the 
Y^r' king's evil ; "^h liki ^ngdn tsaf} 
rheumatic ophthalmia ; kap^ 
"■pan lik, scrofula undtr both 
ears; liki kdm' hina^ hii' Isd' 
ardent as the scrofula to do it. 
"^ An incense caldron, contain- 
f^h '"f' ^'^**"* '^"' pecks, placed in 
temples; the 193 1 radical of 
characters relating (o boilers, 
or food cooked in them. 
■4i Streneth, nerve, brawn, mus- 
, ..^ cular power ; the full use of 
any organ; force, power, vigor, 
spirit, energy of mind ; divine 
lielp or succor ; assiduous, 






smart, dillgenf, active ; the 
properties or strength of a 
thing ; the stift'ness of a bow ; 
the 19th radical of characters 
relating to force ; yung-liki or 
cli'ut, liki exert yourself; liki 
'^shiii, weakly ; Fah liki help 
of Biidha ; peitg^ liki danger- 
ously sick ; liki nchdng, test 
of strength, to argue ; Hsau 
liki the strength of wine; likt 
hung' bodily vigor, aptitude ; 
paljliki a nervous style ; heavy 
penmanship ; "sliai iOgd liki f>r. 
dering people, talkative and 
lazy; its'oi liki trusting to his 
wealth; itti'pd (kung ^ki ko'hki 
how much (i. e. in catties) is 
the strpnsth of this bow ? cho' 
yatipV iclii liki to lend a hand, 
to assist in anything ; liki yam- 
to hold office beyond the usual 
l»eriod; ^ngdn hki sliarpsighl- 

To split rocks ; the veins or 
creases in rock* ; to write, as 
iTnitig Ung^ lik^ (or laki) my 
nanie is written elsewhere, — 
a phrase used instead of a 
signature. ^^ 

Interchanged with /a^2 ^)' 
spines on plants; prickly, spin- 
ous; tui' mill' liki the Gardenia 
spiitosa ; ^Id '^shii liki a rough 
grass, the Spinifex squarrosus. 

(266) Lim. 

KS A corner, an angle ; by the 

v^ side or on one side ; sparini;, 
Lien . , , ' ' 

economical, moderate ; pure, 

disinlen^sted, uncorrupted ; to 

ex amine ; 'yaw Jim ^ch'i, mod- 

est, shanie.aced, regardfid ol 

one's reputation ; ^mb Jim 'ch'i, 
shfimpless, avaricious, brazen- 
faced ; ^hdn Jim^ over-frugal; 
Tttct/j kom'' Jim, why so close ? 
^y^wig Jim iiigant anti-extor- 
tion allownnce to officers ; 
its'ing Jim, uncorrupt, integri- 
ty ; ^d' Jim o- mi^ <.kd, delicate 
flavored and not high priced ; 
Jim iming, to examine equit- 
jjj||1 A screen of cloth or bamboo 
^'WS ^splints, hung before doors; 
j^ } chnki Jim, bamboo blinds ; pd' 
Lien Jim, cloth curtains ; muki 'pan 
Jim, Venetian blinds ; not' Jim 
ikun, examiners of essays ap- 
pointed by the fuyuen ; ^kun 
Jim, roil up the screen. 
V^ A mountain stream falling in 
\^ a sheet of water ; thin, poor; 
Jim Js'iin ^hdng, a cascade 
near the While Cloud hills. 
Hill '^^^ *^"'^ "^ ''^'^ '^^ ' ngoi' 

1/ n ''""' ^^^ '*'''" '*""® ' '^'*" ^^"^ 
i'ip, hog's spleen. 

^ A sickle or reaping-hook ; 
1/ \f'^ ^^^ (pou, a tinder.crtse and 
flint ; (ICO Jim, a sickle. 

A species of silure ( Arius 
falcatus) of a didl green color, 
with a large mouth and 6 cirri. 
k^ The embroidered quarterinff 
V^ on a banner on the inner edge 

near the staff, 
j^ A coarse kind of sandstone, 
U^ unfit for polishing ; met. spu- 
rious, hypocritical. 
3§i A lady's dressing-case, a per- 
'.'.'^ fuinery-case or toilet te-box ; 
ichong Jim, a bride's trousseau, 
or portion ; Jim j?, a money 
present to a bride ; kcng^ Jim, 
a toileltt-case. 




Jjjj A flag, showing wfiere^ wine 

L^n '® ^^^^ ' ^*'''" t^'** ^ tavern 
A kind of creeper ; pdk} J-im, 



L^ a drying or styptic medicine 
'/fiL To gather in harvest ; to 
'L^ amass, to collect together, to 
hoard, to husband, sparing of; 
an ingathering, a hoard; ^shau 
Him, to gather in ; to harvest ; 
Uij^ Him, io extort ; to collect ; 
Him sz'^ not to meddle with ; 
Him hiuk:, to stay at home ; 
Him imdi cheki ^shau, to draw 
up the arras within the sleeves; 
its'iin Him, saving, to lay up 
little odds. To l)e distinguish- 
ed from ihom ^j^ to desire. 

To draw the hands in the 
sleeves ; Him ^yam, to sleeve 
the hands, a curtsey ; Him ^yam 
'pdi' pays her respects-a phrase 
on a lady's card. 
'5^ To shroud a corpse, to lay 

L^n °"^ ^ ^°^>' '" **" ^'-^ clothes 
. j| for the grave; ^shan Him, to 
; encoffin ; '^siu Him, to shroud 

without coffining, as Moslems 
• ^^ ^^® cheek ; the face ; met. 
'^n *'^® reputation, honor ; bad lim^ 
^ shameless; hang^ lim' ruddy 
cheeks. Read s.ts'im, thick 
soup or gravy. 
2fiL' Water overflowing ; to over- 
-Lien ^'^^l'" '> ^^^ edge of waves ; 
/im' im* brimfull, just running 
. ^' A. barrow or hand carriage 
I^T^ drawn by men ; carriage-hor- 
ses ; (he imperial chariot ; met. 
the emperor or court ; to trans- 
port, to convey ; to take to, 
to draw ; Inn' hiV at court, at 

ihe capital; Hm^ t^ ti road in 
the palace |)recincts ; H (kit 
Hm' 'flid, took his mother in a 
carriage ; lim' ikii, a sort of 
wheeled sedan. 

(267) Lin. 



To connect, to continue, to 
join, to be united, as in mar- 
riage; to compromise; reaching 
to, conjoined, continued, con- 
tiguous, annexed; a junction, 
a succession of; a lumping; 
an adversative connective par- 
ticle placed at the beginning 
of a sentence, even, with, also, 
and ; Ari/j J,in, banded together, 
as thieves ;c«^«n^^ Jin, close 
together ; iCung, joined a3 
by a thoroughfare ; ilin ikd, a 
flail ; Jau Jin uninterrupted ; 
to hang on, tedious ; Jin lui^ 
implication, to involve; Jin 
hV Iso' do it after that is done ; 
Jin (yan, allied by marriage ; 
''h^ '^Isz^ Jin Jang, five sons 
became kiijin one after the 
other ; Jin sek:, tin ore ; Jin 
Jin, unceasingly, one after the 
other, again and again ; Jin 
simnc'Vewn^, successive firings 
ofguns;j/in imdi, taken to- 
gother ; Jin ,xvdn kap a plan 
that effects two objects ; Jin 
yali for several days ; Jin 
imonfi, speedily ; Jin min^ Jd 
j'jfl '«a», he does not evea 
wash his face. 

Ripples on the water, a rip. 
pling appearance; weeping; 
yap, t'aP Jin Jin, unceasing 
crying : name of a river. 










The lotiis or nelurnbiutn ; Jiti 
(fa, the water lily ; j/in ip'ung, 
the receptacle of the lotus ; 
Jin Hsz^ lotus nuts ; ^ho ji 
tp'dn Jin, a child climbing by 
Ihe lotus — a scholar acting 
unworthily ; Jin ka' the lotus 
seat, i. e. Kwanyin ; jwdi Jin 
Hi, the lotus with the plum — 
affianced ; Jtctm Jin, «' golden 
lilies" — ladies' feet ; Hs'oi Jin 
ishiin, a pleasure boat ; Jin pd^ 
a tine lady-like gait ; Jin t/d 
loki a well-known song ; Jio ijpi 
Jin, the nasturtium. 

Unrefined lead or tin ; a 
chain; 'so Jin, a lock and 
chain ; ^piujin, a watch-chain; 
^sheung Jin, to wind up [a 
clock],; Jiang ^/min Jin [the 
watch] is run down ; kwai- 
Jin, to kneel on chains — a 

A species of carp, ^the A- 
bramis bramula 7) called tpin 
Jii, or broad-fish, at Canton. 

To commisserate, to have 
charify for, to sympathize 
with, to have compassion on, 
to love ; Jin sut, to pity ; '/<o 
Jin Hk-, pitiable ; pat>ihdm Jin, 
unworthy of pity ; J'ungjieng^ 
fSeting Jin, tlrose in the same 
disaster sympathize with each 

Vases or chargers to hold 
grain at sacrifices in the an- 
cestral halls. 

To transport, to remove, to 
carry in the hands, to take a 
thing to one ; Hhi "^hi, lift up 
'[to a higher place] ; Hin Jio'i 
Jai shdi^ take them out and 
sun them; Hin Joi Hin hit' t<i 
take back and forth ; ^ui Hin 






Idn' apt to break in carrying ; 
^lin kito* iyan take it to the 
man ; j'nt 'A' aw Hin, it will 
hardly bear handling. 

To boil silk, and to soften 
its harshness ; to experiment 
upon, to learn by practice, to 
drill ; habituated to; to select, 
to choose ; white, a splendent 
white ; a piece of silk ; lin* 
isdpi to learn to do a thing; 
lin^ shuki tik:, t«' dressed raw 
silk ; Ivi' (Shang i' to learn bu- 
siness ; kom^ Hd lin^ ver}- well 
skilled in ; lin' tak. kdtn^ irdi* 
quite spoiled by bad habits ; 
lin^ I'm Jsing, does not become 
skilled in ; lin^ a, mourning 
for thirteen months ; '^shui lin' 
the water police. 

To smell ores of metals ; to 
refine ; to forge ; wrought ; to 
work upon thoroughly, appli- 
ed to the mutual action of the 
five elements ; to discipline, 
to test by trial ; experienced, 
matured, exercised, disciplin- 
ed, expert, practiced ; a diain ; 
pdki lin^ thoroughly refined ; 
(Sau lin' becoming religious ; 
the religious ; lin^ Fafi Bud- 
hists ; lin-Jsinff, perfect ; tch'ui 
Zirt' well hammered or wrought, 
as iron; lin^ H'd ^shang muki 
earth produces wood when 

Interchanged with the last ; 
to separate dross ; to test cha- 
racter, to discipline ; lin^ dan, 
to refine the pill — -and become 
immortal, as the Rationalists 

A species of cherry or bul- 
lace, whose fruit is sour; the 
river dragons abhor it. 





A coll<>qinnl word ; tlie tink- 
ling of a bell -ydhif! (lingishertf^. 
the ring of money, a riietallic 
sound ; ding J im 'ku, » two- 
headed rattle drum used by 
^JSi] Spiritual, pervading, incor- 
^_^ ^poreal, sul)tlo, etherial ; that 
jV'C J ^^'^'''^'^ is efficacious, felicitous, 
Ling miraculous, or able to act upon 
other powers and produce ef- 
fects ; supernatural, effective, 
mysterious; a soul, a spirit, a 
divinity, a disembodied agen- 
cy ; divine influence or as- 
sistance ; the type or the mast 
excellent of a class, as ma n of 
creat»!d beings, or the unicorn, 
phoenix, tortoise, and dragon 
of all hairy, feathered, siielly, 
and scaly beings, which aie 
called the *» four Jhi^;'^ wlinl is I 
opportune, subtle, in<);enioii- or 
obscure, as iU"g *". a lucky j 
shower ; Jing jAi, a curio s 
contrivance ; intell.g^nt, per- 
spicacious ; nstute, able to hold 
spiritual cc»nverse ; Jina iShan, 
an efficacious deity; Jitifi y'mg^ 
a divine respdiise ; ^sin Jing, 
one's ancestors ; ^yam Jinii, 
ghosts, the dead ; ^indjiing pin^ 
no tact ; Jing iWan, thf.hmn»n 
soul ; lU'iS w^i-^ ''»6 ante-burial 
pel per tablet ; ip'uh an 
ancestral wooden tablet ; wa} 
tak. kiki iliiig, a shrewd ftir- 
tune telling; pal, Jing, ineffi- 
cacious, as physic or a charm ; 
no rcspoiibc, as uu idol ; stolid, 

as a dolt ; Jsing Jiug, smart, 

wide awake ; isharig ding, an- 

i mated beings ; ^u Jing, to go 

by ihe side of the tablet in a 

funeral procession ; shing^ di'ig 

is used for the Holy Spirit by 

some ; Shing^ iLing dum isam., 

the Holy Spirit atiects the 

heart ; ding tming, to readJy 

understand it. 

M| Generous, rich spirits, made 

'pfW with great care, called di"e 
Ling o ' 'a 


j^fe Ice ; collection of ice, an ice- 
Y^ house ; to insult, to shame, to 
dishonor ; shameful, injurious ; 
to advance, to exalt ; d'ftg 
yitki to disgrace, to abuse, to 
deflower ; cwai /m^, to intimi- 
date ; di"g iican, raised to the 
clouds, ambitious ; di»g shad 
an ice-house ; ding <,rlii, tlie 
ignominious and slow punish, 
ment — of quartering. Iuter> 
changed with tl\e next. 
1)^ A mound, a bnrrow; a hill ; 
V^ H cemetery, a n)ausoleum : to 
insult; to invade, to usurp; 
to desecrate ; to aspire to a 
high place, to aim high ; stfy)n^ 
difigt the imperial tombs ; dutg 
yiuki to treat cruelly. 
^^ An angle, a corner ; a seg- 
'7^ ment ; a kind of rice ; a clas- 
"sifier of tields; ^wai di"g^ dig. 
nity, majesty of a god; '/« dingt 
has a ridge ; 'H ding it'in, how 
many fi -Ids ? 

■l^] Interchanged with the last. 

''^^A cubical piece of timber; 

iVT j '* corner ; a beam in the roof 

Lang of a tem|)le ; (Ttio ding ^sliau, 
a trimmer, one who tntjs to 
j)lt'ase all, a time-sei ver. 












An aquatic vegetable, the iling 
kofd or water caltro|)S (Trapa 
bicornis), sometimes called 
buflfaloe's horns ; J,ing ^fd, a 
poetical name for a mirror ; 
iling ''fan, flour made of the 
iling koky ; a three horned sort 
is called /ci' -^ and is perhaps 
another species of Trapa. 

Damask ; a term for thin silk 
woven with a glossy surface, 
as thin satin ; (fa iling, da- 
mask ; ihung iling (,su, a cooky 
with red bean flour inside. .. 

Interchanged with J-ing ^^j 
name of a river in Kw4ngsi ; 
to gallop over, to pass over or 
beyond; to tremble. 

The traces of, to run over ; 
iUng liki the rut of a wheel, 
to crush under a wheel ; Jing 
Jiwang, the jolting rumbling 
of wagons. 

To play the droll, to act the 
buffoon ; musicians, posture- 
makers ; clever, apt; to employ, 
to use persons; alone, single; 
Jling Jciin, master of the mu- 
sicians ; }ing It' smart ; Jing 
iting, lonely, deserted ; the 
name of Lintin I.; iLing Jing 
iyeung, Lintin Bay; 'shaiiUng, 
a servant, a boy ; lukilak^ Jing 
Jing W li^ read it very dis- 

The tinkling sound of gems ; 
Jing Jung, beautifully carved, 
carved out hollow, made in 
or with grots ; also, perspica- 
cious, acute — said of men's 

A long necked jar or ampho- 
ra, with small ears ; concave 
liles used on roofs. 

Ton. Dict. 31 








To try sounds, to hear, to 
pay attention to ; to follow, to 
obey ; faki Jing (.Using fui' I 
shall be hnppy to hear your 
clear instruction — a polite 
phrase ; sho' ikii Jing Jing, 
to understand readily. 

A kind of strengthening me- 
dicine ; iWan Jing, China root 
from Yunnan ; Jing H, a sort of 
boletus or fungus, sometimes 
used for food. 

An insect ; some say a grass- 
hopper ; its'ing Jing, dragon- 
flies (Libellulidoe), which have 
many local names. 

Feathers or wings, plumes ; 
the feathers on an arrow ; the 
tail feathers of the peacock, 
used in official caps ; ^shiung 
^ngdn fa Jing, a two-eyed 
peacock's feather ; Jam Jing, 
a plain plume; tdP fa Jing, 
to wear a feather ; pdh hu^ fd 
Jing, to take away an officer's 
feather ; tsin' Jing, the feather 
of an arrow. 

A round hollow ball like a 
sleigh-bell ; they are hung 
around horse's necks, also on 
flags, to p^nounce a|>proach ; 
a little bell ; a term applied to 
light literature ; '/nd Jing, a 
tinkling bell to hang on horses 
or dogs ; '^h^ung Jing, small 
bells hung from pavilions. 

The last drops of a shower, 
small rain ; what exceeds a 
round number; over, a fraction, 
a residue, a remainder ; in nu- 
meration used for «'a7id," or to 
show that one denomination 
is not used, a cypher ; Jing 
sui' iUgan, bits of silver ,• Jing 




(fing, miscellaneous, odd ends; 
j7tn^ /aw, a little over the a. 
mount, something thrown in, 
the thirteenth in a dozen ; iSam 
^Uung iUng i* (fan,- 3 taels and 
2 candareene ; yat, paky J,ing 
yali 101 ; ^ind iUng, no remain- 
der ; Jingloki scattering rain ; 
scattered, out of employment ; 
iling ding, alone, solitary, an 
individual ; iHng mdi^ sold by 
retail ; Hsin, to cut off for 
retail ; '^ (ov ileng), 
a little past nine o'clock ; Jing 
'■ki (to, how many over ? 

A little bird ; tsik, J,ing, the 
wagtail ; some describe it like 
a kind of titmouse ; pah iling, 
a singing lark ; koh J^ing, a 
crested lark. 

The front teeth ; not. the age, 

vears; mzM-jZm^, young, under 

age \(ha s?tng, old, gray haired; 

shau^ iling, a sexagenary. 

KI A prison ; a place inclosed 

lp3 by rails; iling ^ii, a jail. 

(The two next are often pronounced leng.) 

A species of carp, the leucis- 
cus or dace ; H'd Jeng jU, a 
common kind (the Leuciscus 
molilorella), reared in ponds ; 
{icong ^mi deng, yellow tailed 
dace (L. xanthurus); iling Ji, 
the pangolin, which the Chi- 
nese suppose to be transform- 
ed from a fish, and to grow as 
large asakraken. 

The tliroat ; the collar of a 
garment, a neck ribbon or col- 
lar i a classifier of upper gar- 
ments ; to manage, to govern, 
f o direct, to attend to ; to re- 
ceive from, to take ; to take 







charge of ; to record ; ifung 
^hng, a throat band ; yat^ Heng 
^md kwa' one pelisse ; Hing 
shau^ to receive; ^ling tsi^ re- 
ceived with thanks — a reply 
to a present ; Hing kdv? to re- 
ceive instruction, to wait on 
one ; Unk-) Hing, I've taken 
enough ; Hing ming^ to receive 
orders; to assent to a request — 
(these three are polite phrases); 
iSam Hing, deeply indebted for ; 
j'ffi 'A:dn» Hing, can not think of 
taking ; Hing tsav} " collar and 
sleeve," a leader, a headman ; 
Hing ch'uU iloi, to take away, 
to go and receive; isham Hing, 
exceedingly obliged ; tso^ Hing, 
an officer over 150 Banner- 
men, a sort of under-resident 
in the colonies ; yati tpui Hing 
loki to assent to everything, to 
promise readily ; tdi' Hing, to 
command, to head ; tdV Hing 
^yan kin' to introduce at court ; 
Hing ^sai Hai, to be baptized ; 
Hing *2'^ ckiin, an officer who 
receives orders, a consul ; 
^shan Hing, a head officer of 
any kind. 

The inside of a dress; a 
bridal dress ; a band or neck 

A break or pass in a moun- 
tain, where a road passes; a 
road over a peak ; a ridge or 
chain of mountains; Hing if an, 
a peak, a high summit ; iMiii 
Hing, the Plum ridge or Mei- 
ling, in the north of Kwang- 
tung ; Hing jwdm, "South of the 
Ridge," i. e. Kwangtung and 
Kw4ngsi ; ishdn Hing, hills 
and mountains ; ihang (6- tsuti 




^ung Hitig, got to the jumping- 
off place, no way to turn. 
/^^ Law, rule, orders; to enjoin 


upon, to warn, to prohibit, to 


coinmand ; to cause ; a cause 

of, to oblige to do, to occa- 
sion ; a period of time ; good, 
excellent, worthy of regard ; 
and hence, in direct address, 
your, your honored; ling^itsiin, 
your father ; lin/j- iCong, your 
mother ; ling^ ching' your wife; 
ling^ shuk, your respected 
uncle ; ch'iki ling^ an imperial 
order ; jim ling^ the stringent 
laws ; also, to govern strictly ; 
is/ji ling^ divisions of time, 
times and seasons ; ling^- tsiti^ 
a triangular warrant issued to 
a patrol, a flag stuck in the 
ears of criminals ; ling^ ^yan 
^ihang hV it will make [>eople 
angry ; Ung^ ^k'u Joi, cause 
him to come, bring him here. 
O^ Dwelling or being apart, 
.v' separate, distinct; alone, par- 
^ ticular ; another, besides, fur- 
thermore ; to divide in two ; 
ling' tsz'^ hy hse\f ; %'u ling^ 
tsz'^ hu' he went by himself; 
lin^- iloi, he came alone ; ling^ 
ngoi^ besides, exclusive of; 
ling^ ^yau '■ki (to, how manv 
more are there ? kok-, ling^ hix' 
tsd^ let each do his own work; 
ling- yati another day ; ling- 
-iigdn isiung Jion, to look at 

(This character is usually pronounced leng.) 

.^W fo adorn, to prink up, to 
^/''^paint the face; handsome, 
"elegant, becoming ; beautiful, 
good-looking ; clear, transpar- 
ent, dazzling; '*/a/n leng' bril- 

liant ; chd^ leng' false beauty ; 
H'ai leng^ ^m leng' see if it be 
pretty ; ^kbm it'au kdm' leng- 
fine as a fresh orange ; chV 
leng' hai' "^kdm, this is the pret- 
tiest agoing. 

(269) Lip. 

^^ To hunt wild animals ; the 
Lj^^ chase, gunning, fowling, hunt- 
ing, hawking ; to pursue ear- 
nestly, to get with difl5culty, 
to experience ; to move, to 
shake ; to bring together, to 
hunt up; 'fd lipi hunting; 
fong^ lipi to go a gunning or 
hawking ; lipi '■kau, a hunting 
dog — must die on the hills. 
To smooth down, to straigh- 


,^^' ten out, to take hold and ar- 
range ; Itpi, c«d, to stroke the 
beard; lip, tim- 'A'w, put them 
9^ 'J'o stride or pass over, to 
L-^"leap over ; to overstep, to go 
out of the way ; to tread, to 
stumble ; pat) aiang lip^ '■tang, 
must not override, can not 
overstep the regular order. 
^ Bristles of a hog, a horse's 
^^* mane ; stift' hair on the head 
of an animal ; bristly, stiff; 
long pectorals or cirri of a fish; 
ikong lipi a hog ; ich'eunglip, a 
long beard, 
ffi^ A name for many fishes 
LieU '''*® *^® perch, with spinous 
dorsals ; iiin ishuii lipi the soft- 
lip))ed perch (the Pristipoma 
grammopcBcilum); tkam iSz' lipi 
the common kind( Ckrysnphry a 
cofdinalis). Often pronoun- 
ced Zap. 






f^ To bind, to tie silk up for 

^-^,' dyeing. A colloquial word ; 
a knot, a joint, a knuckle; 
knots in wood ; an altercation, 
a difference, a quarrel, a law- 
suit : 'j/iau '^chi lit, the knuck- 
les ; 'td ko* lit-, tie that knot ; 
j)'o' (hoi iC/idilityspWt open the 
knot ; met. solve the riddle, 
explain the difficulty ; ^Id 'sAti 
lit, a slipping- noose ; '■td shafi 
koi' lit, to embroil people, to 
egg on parties to qunrrel ; 'sa' 
lit, a hard knot ; ishang lit, a 
loose knot. 

7?i| To separate, to distinguish, 
' Lieh *° dispose properly, to arrange 
in order or spread out accord- 
ing to rule; to state in order;! 
a rank, series, order ; files of, 
soldiers; Jioi lU^ iViing pdki 
to write out clearly and pro- 1 
perly, as a bill ; 'pdt liti to set 
in order ; pat, ^ku pat, ^^hing 
Uti without beating the drums, 
the ranks can not be formed ; 
Uti kwok, the several states, a 
name given the feudal states 
of China, b. c. 300-225 ; lUi 
wni^ you, gentlemen — used in 
direct address; Zi/^ clian^ troops 
in ranks. 

♦nil A cold air ; cold, chilly ; 

Li h '/""^ '*^* ^ harsh wind ; '^tseng 
liti ikon its'iin, cold wells and 

7^\] Raging fire, burning, ardent, 

^>*f 'hot; impetuous, energetic, dar- 
ing, enthusiastic ; irritable, 
fierce, cruel ; high princi[)led 
adherence to virtue, nierito- [ 

rious, excellent, eminent, dig- 
nified, majestic, imposing ; 
kdm' liti sing^ very fierce ; lUi 
^niiy a chaste woman ; liti liti 
mournful ; imposing, as moun- 
tains ; lU-i .«'^ a patriot. 

arij Remnants, cuttings of silk ; 

f^^ to tear, to crack open, to split, 
to rive, to rend or tear in two; 
tsz^ 'ki liti split or cracked of 
itself ; p'o^ liti to tear open ; 
Iso' pik, liti vein it irregularly, 
as cracked chinaware ; ?i/j 
thoi ishdtn, torn clothes ; Hd 
liti to shiver, to break; yat, 
it'ifi liti ^liau, a crack ; pik, liti 
ils'ong itnui, made in an angu- 
lar manner, irregular, like 
fancy windows. 

(271) Liu. 

To run ; to go off, to clear 
out ; to cross tiie legs ; Jiii (Id, 
begone ! clear out ! J-iu W he's 
gone ; diu IM ^pin, where's be 
gone or fled ? 

A companion, a colleague, 
an assofMate ; a fellow-offi-;er ; 
one of the same rank, an equal; 
same kind or class -^ to hold 
office and serve together ; it'ung 
J,iu, comrades, of the same 
rank ; (kun j/iw, a fellow-officer; 
the magistrates ; yat, jZ/ti jyon, 
a profession or class of men. 

Read '//«, a good appear- 
ance, an easy manner. 

Interchanged with the last 
in the sense of a fellow-officer, 
a fellow-student ; a small win- 
dow ; to study at the same 
window or room ; a cabin, a 
shanty, a hut made of thatch 










and boards ; a stall ; dwellings 
put on boats; tap, yat,, ^kdn 
iUt't, put up a hovel ; tdn^ Jid 
JiUf thatched hovels occupied 
by tanka boat people on the 
river side ; '*Am jZiii, aquatic 
peddling-shops ; .ch'iung j/tu, 
a brothel. 

The voice of a creature ; ^iu 
Jivmg^ to listen to distant cries; 
the cry of pain. 
Clever, smart, discriminating; 
to reflect upon, to examine 
into; iliu luti struck with alarm. 
To dally, to trifle, to play 
with; good-looking; — in which 
senses it is like the next; ^mai 
J.iu ^k'ii, don't play with him; 
^iu (Hii, playful, boisterous ; 
iliu ishun kwd^ '^cKi, to bother 
one, bothering ; a maternal 
grandmother is called Jit/ J.m 
(or Mu Jdu), at Peking. 

To take hold of, to pull about, 
to wield or manage a thing ; 
to regulate; to provoke, to in- 
cite to evil, to seduce or lead 
into evil ; to play with ; hd\liv 
lyan, playful, he likes to sport ; 
Jid lung^ to move about, to lay 
many plans. 

Read ^liu, a colloquial word ; 
to stir up, to brush away ; 
to brush lightly, to tickle, to 
move along gently ; 'pi ckuk, 
^liu ^k'H, take it off" with a 
bamboo ; Hiu chuk^ tsit, to 
entice crickets ; Hiu H, to brush 
the ears, as barbers do ; to 
tickle the ears; Hiii "hi 'fo, 
poke the fire ; 'Hii 'seno ^k'u, 
tickle him to Wiik«^ up ; Tiu 'hi 
'^k'u ,nnn, to touch hinj will 
make him cross. 

ijsfe To burn, to blaze ; to set on 

Lifu ^""^ ' to enlighten ; an illumin- 
ation ; torches placed on stands 
to illuminate, a link, a faggot ; 
brightness ; jrratin J.iu, a light 
at the door ; J.iu isan, faggots ; 
jZiii ju '■chi 'ch^ung, plain as 
pointing to the palm. 

4^ To heal, to cure diseases ; 

L^i *^ ^^^P ^^ ailing ; medical 
practice ; J.iu peng^ to heal 

■^ 'i'o bind or wind around, to 

U?t."'''^P "P; gyves, fetters; to 
manage; J.iii 'nau, to wind in 
a ball ; Jiu Hu, to saunter about, 
to pass around from one part 
to another, as a crowd at a 
feast or show ; ^iu ^sz' bow- 
lines on the leech of Chinese 
sails; sung^ Jiu or jTTidi Jiii, 
slack off or haul in — the sail 
to the wind. 

^ Remote, distant, far off; 

Lku ^"." ''*" «'*"' ^^^y ^^^ ' icAVun^ 
lUii Jiu, much too long ; jLtu 
(<«n^,the country of Lidutung, 
now Shingking; sZ/iM jAo, the 
River Li4u in Manchuria. 

3^6 A small bird, like a wren or 

uS hedge.sparrow;c<«UiZiti,areed 
or sedge wren, which lives in 
marshy thicJcets ; pdk, J,iu^ a 
shrike or butcher-bird. 

^ Empty, void, silent, solitary, 

Illtu v^<^^"*' wide, vast ; unoccupi- 
ed ; jZ?u loki unoccupied, de- 
serted; idle, disengaged; $ham^ 
shuki iliu Jiti, reduced to a 
very little, very unimportant. 

J^ Confiding in, to trust ; really; 

'uku ^^^^' anxiety for ; impatient 
of ; comniisserating; ^md Jiu 
"^no anxiety, nothing to do. 







A ringing in tlie ears; tol 
wish, to depend on ; a support; ; 
in which senses it is used with ! 
the last ; an initial particle, im- ; 
plying a diminution of, doubt- ; 
ful about, carelosH about, any-' 
how, then ; iliu *u (Cki fTnait,' 
then let us consult ; ^iu ^ch'^ 
tying iShino, promised it off-! 
hand; jmd H Jiu ^shang, no- ! 
thing to live by. 

The fat around the intestines,' 
the fat taken out of the bowels. 

Fixed, determined; intelli-! 
gent, knowing ; to conclude, 
to bring to an end, to finish ; 
finished, done, a sign of the 
past tense; much used in the 
court dialect, for which loki is 
here used ; before a verb, Hiu 
means entirely, clearly, wholly, ' 
very; '«^ <.ua Hiu, written itj 
all ; '■sai Hiu, washed ; mi^ Hiu 
sz*^ not yet finished the aff\ir 
or job ; sz'* s'w» ioh-> Hiu, the 
matter can not be done ; shai^ 
itn taki Hiu, strength unequal 
to it, impossible; yo/j muki 
Hiu jin, clearly understood at 
a glance 4 Hiu -pat:, taky verv, ' 
exceedingly, unequaled ; Hiu 
pat-, lakykdm^ Han, inconiparab. 1 
ly lazy; mV- V Hiu, not so easily ; 
done ; Hiu iko, a black grackle; , 
"^Hoi ifiam Hiu cko, the wattled . 
grackle or minor (Eulabes 
indiciis); '^kdm tsau- Hiii, that's 
the end, now it is finished ; Hiu 
knki the matter is ended ; ^xhi 
to^ Hiu, We know it ; 7/m Ain 
az'- the job is done ; Hiu pat, 
Hiorlonst can not be borne, in- 
supportable ; 'm«) Hiu ik'i, no 
end to his troubling. 

Li fill 


A clear, bright eye ; good 
vision, clear sighted ; to seo 

An acrid herb, a species of 
polygonum ; met. sorrow, ca- 
lamity ; ^siu Hiu, a marsh poly- 
gonum, smart-weed. 
ifi^ To measure, to estimate, to 
fjv ju'^g^'j ^o reckon, to calculate ; 
to take a census ; to manage, 
to dispose properly, to give out 
orderly ; to reflect ; stuff, ma- 
terials of which things are 
made ; glass ; an employe, one 
wlio is of service, as a clever 
man ; provender, grain ; man. 
ure ; clear sound of a drum ; 
to pull ; liiV taky "-ki Jo, how 
many do you think there are ? 
ZtiV s'm 16" unforeseen, une.\- 
pected ; liu^ Hi, to manage, to 
oversee ; judn liu* hard to say ; 
tsz'^ liu^ pal, itiang, I think I 
can not do it ; isfiui liu^ who 
would have thought it ? pat, 
ch'ut,'^sho Ziii' what I expected ; 
/in liu^ manure ; 'md liu^ gram 
for horses ; mali liu* materials ; 
liii^ hV glass-ware ; Uu^ p'ia' ; liu^ sui' broken 
glass ; iking Ztti- superfine glass 
ornaments ; ich'iu iCing hV liu* 
to be a statesman, a valuable 
employ^ ; ccAu liu^ paste made 
of pig's blood ; j'm tsd' tak, liu* 
'■skai, I can make nothing of 
it, useless ; liv} sz'* iU kin' I 
think you will find it as I say. 
This character is often pro- 
nounced Hiu, when meaning 


1^' A man's name, a surname. 










A final sound in singing ; 
children's prattle ; do ^so, troa- 
blesome, annoying, petty ; ^au 
fh, banditti. A final colloquial 
particle, used in answers ; tsd' 
tak-, Jo, it will do ; hai' Jo, yes ; 
Joi Jo, come on. 

A spring-net for birds ; a kind 
of silk, woven like gauze, used 
for dresses, and sometimes 
called 16 or law; to spread out, 
arranged in rows ; yat, paU 
Jo, a piece of law ; Jo pd^ 
linen woven in stripes; ts'z'^ 
Jiung Jo, " to give a red law. 
sash," is to strangle one ; Jo 
^mong, a bird net ; Jo cheang' 
a bed-curtain; tch^ung Jo, to 
spread a net ; met. to borrow 
money; Johon' distinguished 
disciples ofBudha, of whom 18 
were personal ; Jo hon^ ^s'ung, 
the yew ; Jo hon^ '^feng, the 
Romish tonsure ; some Bnd- 
hists wear it; tdi' Jo, heaven, | 
the great canopy ; 5/0 Zi/j sliapi \ 
jtaly (Ch^ung, he arranges thejj*^]^ 
eighteen essays, he talks con- 1 
fusedly ; Jo Jiing (or ikdng) or 
Jo p'tin, a compass; ^Lo sFfl"| 
(Sfidn, famous hills near Shik-I 
?ung; Jo iWai (ku Hnng, to 
sleep alone and cold — as a 
deserted wife. 

A kind of tree growing in 
Hun4n, easy to burn ; Jo Ivk, 
a fence made of stakes. 

A river in H'lnan, in which 
Kiuh Yuen drowned himself,! 
callf^d Mnf, Jo ,kong ; it enters 
Tungting Lake. 

I ^ 0|)en bamboo baskets, with- 
I'lP *"'^ covers or handles, some- 
times with eared holes at the 
j top, in which to run cords, 

j used to keep fruit or grain in, 

or to peddle ; Jdi Jo, a " basket 
puller,'' is a nickname for the 
fruiterers in Fruit Row in 
Canton ; tso' Jo, a condemned 
Criminal, from their being car- 
ried to execution in baskets; 
Jam Jo ffau, a peddler ; ^h'd 
'tsai Jo, peddling panniers; 
Jo 'tsai, small baskets. 
^ Parasitic plants and twigs 
j^^. like dodder, convolvulus, d:c., 
which twine around trees; 
small stems of plants ; Jo pak^ 
a turnip or radish ; Jixmg Jo 
pdki a radish ; iitong Jo ydki 
a carrot ; knng- kU^rSz' Jo, the 
vines and tendrils have inter- 
laced — a marriage alliance. 

derived from the names 
Jo and Vo' isz\ two kinds of 
twining plants ; Jo pdki kom' 
tav ko\sam, heart as big as a 
turnip — generous and grateful. 
A gong ; it serves in armies 
for wash-basins and boiler.s ; 
Vd Jo, to beat the gong ; 7d 
/tiM Jo, striking the gong 
ahead— announcing an officer's 
approach ; iVfiing Jo tsv} chung^ 
to sound the gong to collect 
the people. 

A mule ; '^hoi Jo ^p'i, beaver's 

skin ; Js'ing Jo, a bay mule ; 

Jo^md, a mule. 

'JB$} A name of spiral univalves, 

^ ,, like the Lymneus,Voluta, He- 

^ lix, Murex, &c.; a conch; 

Lo ' a volute ; a s(.Tew ; spiral, 

screw. like; Jin Jo, fresh water 










snails ; sT/it) H'ai Jo^ shells with 
eroded ends; '^hivvg Jo, conch- 
es used for horns ; jto (Sz' a 
screw ; 5/0 j«'fn, inlaid shell 
lackered. ware ; J.o kai* a spiral 
head-dress* jZo AoAj shells in 
general ; Jo kdni' Jiin, crookf>d 
as a screw ; Jo 'im, the opercu- 
lum of univalves. Read %, 
in the name 'Awo 7o, the sphex, 
or solitary wasp. 

Naked, barebacked; naked- 
ness ; the naked ; the upper 
part of the body stripped ; to 
strip, to make bare ; Ho iCh'ung, 
the " naked insect" i. e. man ; 
Ho (Shan, nude. 

A. maid servant, a waiting 
woman. Read ^wo ; '■ico ^ngo, 
delicate, slender, like a weak 
woman, elegant. 

Fruits ripening on the ground 
or growing on vines and herbs, 
as melons, pine-apples, toma- 
toes, water-caltrops. 
The king's evil, called Ho 
liki ; this name refers to scro- 
fula only as it appears in the 

To rend or split ; to select. 
A colloquial word ; to get for, 
to buy or procure, to bring to 
one ; to vex ; to injure ; Ho Hd 
ip'o, to get married ; 'nt '^lo 
^kw^an ^ngo, you provoke me ; 
Ho Jai ^ngo,' go and get it for 
me ; ^ni Joi Ho iOgnn, you come 
and get the money ; 'md ^y^ 
Ho c/an Joi, nothing to bring 
back ; 5'wi tsang Ho itndi, not 
yet got all : Ho imeng, to vex 
one's life out, bewitched ; Ho 
chdPHsai, a child dying early, 
before he has recompensed his 



parents; Ho chdi' to get a debt ; 
tki jii Ho Hii, nearly took him 
otr, he was almost done for ; 
Ho sti, to catch fish ; Ho jiii suni* 
bring an answer back. 

Smell of burning animal 
matter; to burn, to singe; 
'*Aut ck'nu' 'fo W the water is 

To cruise about, to patrol ; 
to make a circuit, to spy, to 
inspect as a guard ; to inclose 
and screen, as mountains do a 
valley ; a guard ; Js'un lo^ to 
patrol; Zo* /o' '^chun, playing 
about, here and there. 




(Some of these characters are oflei) pro- 
nounced lu.) 

A colloquial word ; to mix up 
in disorder, to confuse ; to 
hash, to chop sorts of food ; to 
mix in ; to bother, to make 
one trouble ; trouble, care, 
pains ; Jd k^vk, to poach on a 
friend for a meal : Jd liin} to 
turn things over in confusion, 
to make a bother ; M' Jd ^hd 
^k'u, go and bother him ; Jd 
Jin Hii Jai H'ai, turn them out 
to look at, as things from a 
box ; Jd c/rd Hsai, a blackleg ; 
chdn^ tak, '^shau ip'ijd, had my 
trouble for rny pains ; Jd isin, 
to give false hopes, all talk ; 
^yau mat) Jo J'au, what pay or 
perquisites are there ? Jd 
icKiung iik^ a little profit ; Jd 
tik) J'oitg, put in a little sugar. 







To toil, to labor, to exert one's 

self, to fag ; to trouble one ; 
wearied, fatigued ; service, 
toil, distress, exertion for; 
anxious, careworn ; worthy 
deeds, merit ; 'yaw ib 'hi, I anj 
troubling you ; )b iSlian, to 
weary one, tired out; ik'an 
Jd, to be diligent ; Jd ^fii, toil- 
some labor ; ^d lung' iyan, to 
trouble people and engage 
their help ; Jd Jd luk-: Ink:, wea- 
ried and distracted ; Jd kd' 
excuse me for the trouble I 
have given you. Sir — said to 
a visitor ; Jd <.sam, obliged to 
you for your kind thoughts. 

Sickness and wasting of the 
body from toil or care ; con- 
sumption, atrophy of the vis- 
cera ; Jd peng- consumption, 
phthisic ; a pining away from 
grief; in Corea, poisonous 
drugs; Jd Idti the pain of a 

A kind of univalve shell-fish; 
a small species of cicada, call- 
ed J'ai Jd ; Jtam Jd, a gold 
spotted spider. 

An inclosure or stable for 
cattle, especially sacriticial 
animals, a corral ; an aviary ; 
domestic animals ; a granary ; 
a prison, a jail ; firm, secure, 
strong : to take firmly, to know 
certainly ; tso^ Jd, in prison ; 
fdi' Jd, an ox ; shiu^ Jd, a 
sheep ; Jd Jung kaV a schenjp 
to inveigle and injure one by 
false promises ; Jd Jd '^kan kV 
reniember it clearly ; Jd kv" 
secure, strong ; Jt\n Jd, the 
emperor's prison ; Jd pat, '■/lo 
pd' it is too secure lo be open- 
ed, it is very fast. 

Ton. Dict. 32 







A vessel for holding rice ; a 
pan for fire ; a grog-shop ; 
black ; itong Jd, a shop where 
warm spirits are sold ; tdm Vw/u 
£?/ Jd, to cover the mouth and 
laugh. Interchanged with the 
three next. 

The skin ; the abdomen ; to 
arrange in order, to spread out; 
to transmit, to convey orders, 
to intimate to. lo hand down ; 
Jtung Jb /sa'^Court of Ceremo- 
nies ; iCliiin Jd, a n^^me for 
the fourth among the Hinlin ; 
Jd hh to put in order. 

A windlass, a pulley, a snatch. 
block ; liik) Jd, a machine on 
which ropes turn to haul 
things. j-^ 

Interchanged with Jii "/^.J 
a rush-like bamboo; a large 
covered basket ; a spear handle. 

r^j A fire-place, brazier, grate, 
>. stove, chafing-dish, chimney, 
! or furnace for lighting a fire ; 
an incense vase; 's/taw Jd, a 
hand-slove ; '^b Jd, a vessel 
or place for a fire ; tfuvg Jd, 
a fogong or portable furnace ; 
Jcing iPgan Jd, a refining 
furnace ; fining Jd, an un- 
covered fireplace ; knk, Jd, a 
bake-pan, an oven ; Jd ip'i'ig, 
a set of a censer and a jar, 
usually made of metal. 

Black, stiff clods, not yet 
harrowed ; yellow earth ; s,inong 
Jd, the yellow clods, the grave, 
hades ; 7^au Jd, a wine shop. 

Interchanged with the last ; 
a vessel for spirits ; Jong Jd, a 
shop where hot spirits are 
sold ; also, a dram-seller. 








A queen-post ; the peduncle of 
flowers ; jd kwaU a fruit (Erix). 
bolrya japonica )t the or 
Chinese medlar. Read jL« 
in the Fan Wan. 

Name of a river in the east 
of Kiingsi ; an inferior pre- 
fecture in Sz'chuen on the 
Yangtsz' kiang ; Jo '«/»?«, a 
tributary of the Yangtsz' in 

A gem or a kind of precious 
stone of a green color. 

The pupil of the eye ; to see ; 
itsHng ild, a clear eye. 

Hempen threads ; to hatchel 
flax or hemp and make it ready 
for weaving. 

A name for boats ; the stem 
or stern of a boat or vessel. 

High rushes along river cour- 
ses, young and flowerless ; 
rends used to repair dikes ; 
mttki s« ilo, wooden gourd- 
shaped floats strapped on chil- 
dren in boats ; Jd 'wai, rushes ; 
Jo iCiidi, reed faggots ; Jo waV 
sAoes ; Jd wai\kdu, the juice 
of the aloes used for the hair. 

The skull of a man ; /aw 
Jo, the skull ; ifu Jd J'av, a 
bare skull, a decapitated head. 

The fishing cormorant, called 
' Jd J^'z\ and poetically c« 
'^kivai, the black devil. 

A name for fishes like the 
Labrax family ; ,pdn Jd, the 
spotted labrax (L. Japonicus); 
pdhJd, tlie white labrax (Pris- 
lipoma pihloo); j'au Jd, the 
redlieaded labrax ( Prislipoma 
kaakan); ,fd 'Urn Jd, the spot- 
tud lubrux (Prislipoma nugtb); 




Jd '■kui^ hash or slices of the 
Jd fish. 

Tliick dregs of spirits; iShun 
Jd, high flavored spirits, gene- 
rous wine. 

To hunt by night by torches, 
as in deer-stalking. Also read 
Jiy,. This is considered the 
most correct form of the next. 

Large. A colloquial and some- 
what demeaning word for a 
man, a person, a fellow, one 
of a class ; it is often equi- 
valent to the termination er ; 
iTiidng Ho, a blind man ; tdi^ 
Hd and sai^ '/o, an elder and a 
younger brother ; Jieung Hid 
Hd, a villager ; ngoi^ ^kong Hd^ 
a notherner ; Hd Uii^ Hd, an old 
fellow ; itigoi Hd, a fool ; cICau' 
tfilCung Hd, a foul mouthed 
fellow ; mal:, tikj Hd, what fellow 
is that ? what does he do ? jnai 
'shui Hd, a mason ; ^k'i Hid Id, 
a Bannerman ; ko' Hd, that 
man, that stranger. 

Old, seventy years of age ; 
old, out of date, used a long 
time ; old at, skillful ; venera- 
ble, aged ; an ofllicer ; a term of 
respect and honor, Mr., your, 
often prefixed to relationships; 
to grow old; the r25th radical 
of characters relating to age ; 
'Zoc^Mwg'j^/dsp'o, husband, wife; 
Hd iyan tkd or Hd /di* an old 
man ; Hd iau- or Hd Hsz* a 
father ; Hd t'dV a mother, » 
lady ; a tide-waiter ; 'Zd c/m7»a' 
ikwan, a man whoise son is an 
officer ; Hd shaU honest ; Ho 
iye. Sir, Your Honor ; Hd J-ung 
one of the same age ; hok^ Hd, 
men of Chauchau fu ; Hi) 'ku, 





a wliore; -Zd Js'ln, versod in, 
no novice, cute — applied to 
gamesters ; % cAm/j [I am] 
old and stupid ; Hd IW well 
learned in ; Ho tikioan, Laiitsz', 
founder of the Rationalists ; 
ishdm Ho, the coat is old ; Hb 
ihotig '■chiung, an old trader ; 
Hd Wai' Mr. Wai ; Ho ,loi 
ik'ung, poor and old ; Hd shiu^ 
the old and the young ; Hb ^chu 
hV old and firm, as a table ; 
an old customer. 

(The next six arc frequently pronounced Jw.) 

*^, Blunt, stupid, dull, obtuse ; 
the name of a feudal state, 
now the province of Shantung; 
Hd lun^ dull of apprehension ; 
Ho cfu, a coarse, dull, fellow ; 
Ho ^mong, dull and easy, bull- 

U^/} A great buckler of wood ; 

sA^ ia movmg tower ; the scull on 

wm\ the stern of boats ; Hd suti the 
LO scull pivot ; /ui Hd, push the 
scull, i. e. starboard the helm ; 
ctndn Hd, port the helm ; H'ai 
Hd ^mi, lookout for the scull ; 
i'lu Hd, to scull ; Hd p'dn\ the 
scull tie. 

^(^ To seize, to capture, to take 
alive in war ; captives, prison- 
ers ; a sla~ve to, devoted to ; 
'^shaiii1s'inHd,a slave to money; 
Hd Ituki to rapture ; Hd <,yaii 
laki shukito seize and hold men 
for ransom. 

Interchanged with the pre- 
ceding; to capture prisoners; 
to seize people for slaves or to 
ransom ; Hd <yan, a kidnap|)er 
Suit, rock salt ; salt licks, 
salt ponds, or lands from:Which 
salt is obtained ; bajren lands; ' 




the 197th radical of characters 
pertaining to salt ; uncivil, 
rude ; Hd mi' meat corned with 
spirits ; Hd pd^ order of the 
emperor's traveling ; ishun Hd, 
barren land; jZd 'ts'd, careless, 
n*. ' To give a present to one, to 
"r: bribe, to corrupt ; to leave ; a 
vessel used in ancestral wor- 
ship ; fuP Zo- d'uvg Jiang, bri- 
bery prevails everywhere. 
jfcfe^' A car, a state carriage ; yuki 
^ , lo^ the emperor's chariot ; the 
traces of the harness ; 16* 
Hs'am, a post-hou3e for the 
n^^ A road, a path, a way where 
yV people go and make it plain ; 
a passage ; met. a way of ac- 
tion, duty ; overthrown ; great, 
principal ; a carriage ; isam 
(Ch'd /o- a trivia ; shapi tsz'^ W 
cross-roads ; kwaU ifati 1d^ a 
cul-de-sac ; ihang csz' /t>' to act 
improperly ; long' shahld- mis- 
sed the way ; man^ Id^ to ask 
the way ; '^ki ^iin '^shvi Id' how 
fnr is the voyage ? 'md W no- 
thins to do, out of work ; Hid 
W s//o' |)rosperous ; mat:, U^ shd' 
what luck do you have ? yd* 
ts'aU pdU Id- or hah Id^ a dark 
way (because on the 27th and 
28th days, the nightsare dark), 
misdirected ; Id' wdti a slippery 
way ; Jiang ipK^uvg W exiled ; 
tsau' 16^ to pass or go around 
by ; iiodng Id* a cross cut ; 
iyeungich'^ung tdi^W a straight 
highway ; ^mdi Zd' Js'in, to give 
black miil ; tak:, Id* to com- 
mence learning; cZ*oiZ()^tocIear 
the path fjr a soul ; it'ung (ktcai 
yal) Id* both died at the same 




time ; pati kdiri' tint' Idi^ straight 
as a pencil ; Jiang tpin /iw 
/o' which is the way to ^o1 
l<? ich'ing, an itinerary ; 'Aion 
W to hasten, urgent to get on ; 
Id^ pan- a muddy road ; Id^ 
kang^ shuk:, I know the way 

^ A river in Shenst in the pre- 
fectnre of Li'i-ngdu ; a river 
in Yunnan. 
1V5 A valuable and beautiful 

La g^"'- 

-6^* A lithe kind of bamboo, 
^ good for making arrows. 

>)?H,' To reward labor, to remem- 
ber services in order to reward 
them; to console, to commend, 
to assist ; ikwan Id^ tsah pdi" 
return thanks for the prince's 

f^^ Dew, mist which comes in 
drops ; to bedow ; to bless ; to 
disclose, to divulge ; to make 
manifest, to open, to show 
through, to exhibit; naked, dis- 
closed, apparent ; /d%f'in, oix^n 
to the sky ; W '^shui, dew ; 
paV W to let out (a secret); 
W '■cKi, exposed teeth : j'm /d- 
min' not to see a visitor; ffs'ong 
it'au 7o' ^mi, the cat at last let 
out of the bag ; (fa. 16^ '^shtii, 
colo<rne water : Id' vd^ general 
orders in an army; Id' iping, 
to see the real form or naked- 
ness of; Ha. ham' Id' to gape ; 
Id' cKvU ^ma V/jdw, the secret 
is out, it is found out. 
' A long legged bird ; pahi Jd- 
a white egret-heron ; (Ckii Id' 
a red-headed crane ; Id' ftdj 
a sfealtliy way of moving, like 
(his bird. 






A great rain, an inyndation, 
a rushing torrent caused by 
rains; to macerate, to soak; 
a collection of water ; ihang 
Id' a torrent. 

To hanker after, to dote on ; 
concupiscence, lustful affec- 
tion for : liin' Id' sick for love ; 
Ld' Tuki a paramour of the 
mother of Tsin Chl-hwAng ; 
hence, a libertine, a Sir Fran- 
cis Chartres. 




Same as Jai ?jj^ in the col- 
loquial ; to come, to reach ; 
coming, arriving; to effect, to 
bring about, to obtain, to 
induce; denotes the future, or 
progress of time ; Joi is often 
joined with hi'i' to denote com- 
ing and going, here and there, 
again and again, &c. ; but 
after this verb it is often a 
form of the pluperfect ; after 
many verbs, it merely indicates 
their action ; and if a negative 
is inserted between, the idea 
of inability of the first verb is 
implied, as cfting Joi, bring; 
^mdi paU Joi, can not buy it; 
after the verbs Vii and ch'ut^ it 
means to begin, showing the 
commencement of the action 
indicated in a previous verb, 
as '^seiing ('m 'At Joi, I can not 
rpcall if ; (»himg ch'iit^ pevo' 
Joi, you will Iwcome sick ; 
tsd' pat:, Joi, it is impossible ; 
Him tsd' iaki Joi, how can it 
be accomplislied ? Joi ^irong, 
going and coming, intercourse 









with, to and fro; Joi Jeieai, fo 
come home ; ^ni "^ki ixfii J,oi, 
when did you come ? Joi yuli 
to-morrow ; Joi jnjn, next year; 
Joi ^shav, one who brings a 
th ing ; Joi Wfo^ foreign goods ; 
mal; Joi J'au, what did you 
come for ? cWh Joi j'av, the ori- 
ginal condition of an article 
or a thing ; — fin Joi is also a 
kind of adversative phrase, 
meaning yes, indeed; yet ; 
but truly ; <»m Joi ^rhd Us'z' -li, 
never was there such a mode ; 
'kong j'm Joi, can not say it, 
unable to get it ; Joi lil'i origin 
and history of, antecedents of; 
^yfiu Joi tsz'^ there is more 
coming ; Joi yatifu' ct'im, get 
another set ; Joi ^yan, reason 
of, cause ; c'm '^shai man- Joi 
jt/flf/, dont ask the reason of if ; 
lolci Joi, come down ; ^iii Hd 
cpiii dCu' Joi, where did 5"ou 
come from ? ^yau Joiliki there 
is proof; Joi (yanwa'-md 'ch»v, 
story-tellers are not to be be- 

Read Jot' to receive one, to 
meet one coming. 

A mountain in Sz'chuen, one 
of the peaks of the Min Mts., 
near the confines of Shensi. 

Interchanged with the last; 
al^jo, to receive strangers with 

The pupil of the eye distorted, 
to squint; ^min Joi, to glance 
at sideways, to look at ear- 

A i(-)cal name in Shantung 
for wheat. 

A mare, seven cubits high ; 
a powerfid tall horse. 









A thistle, wild herbs growing 
in waste places; waste, sterile, 
untilled ground ; to clear up 
jungle ; J'in Joi, a fallow, or 
neglected field ; Joi fuki a 
turnip ; Joi Hs'd, a sow thistle, 
its leaves are esculent. 

To confer upon, to bestow 
on an inferior : a largess; Jd 
loi^ to reward for services; loi^ 
tsz"^ an imperial reward. 

The handle and beam of a 
plough; the 127lh radical of 
characters pertaining to til- 
lage ; to plough ; loi- tsz*^ a 
plough ; met. agriculture. 

A eulogy on the dead ; to 
eulogize, to write epitaphs; loi* 
shvti to narrate one's virtues ; 
loi^ iman, a eulogy, or prayers 
for the virtuous dead, often 
burned at the burial. 


Disputatious ; read koJc, a 
cock's cry. A colloquial final 
particle, like Jo, used in an- 
swers, implying indeed, cer- 
tainly ; finished, done; so; hai* 
lok, yes, indeed ; tsau' 'kdm lokj 
\ve\\, that'll do. 

To burn in, to brand ; to spit, 
to toast, to cook by roasting; 
red hot; a branding-iron; '/a 
yon' lok, to brand ; hk, t'iti a 
spit-iron ; lok. Jion, to toast 
or roast till dry; Jok, to' (tsiii, 
roast it thoroughly. 

Hemp not yet rotted ; silky 
cotton fibres, staple of cotton ; 
continuous, joined ; to bind, to 
lie around ; (o enf'ompass ; a 
coarse net, u:^il ti> curry boxes 




in, slings; the blood vessels; 
maki lok:, the pulse ; Jim lok, 
mutuni assistance, joined ; /oAr, 
^md it'au, to halter a horse ; 
csam ipdti lok, the pericardium ; 
yaU liiV J-'ang lok, a pair of 
rattan slin^is; siii' lok, netted 
slings; shau^ ipan Jung lok, 
duped, taken in ; lok^ iCh'aUy a 
sort of sarsnet. 
^^ A speckled or brindled cow ; 
■tT^' open, manifested, patent ; pok, 
loki a particolored ox ; cK^uk:, 
loki preeminent, to excel, dis- 
tinguished ; lok, lok, clearly 
understood ; hk, hok, hard and 
even, like a good road. 
|gfr Cream ; dried milk ; racky 
r":' made from mare's milk ; fat, 
greasy, unctuous ; hang^ lok, 
or hang^ ^ynn ^clia, an emul- 
sion of almonds ; ^uZoAp) thick- 
ened milk, porridge. 
ffi^C A white horse with a bhck 
'f'H'mane: Lok, J'in, a country 
near Annani ; lok, ^l a, a camel. 
/tffc A kind of bird ; interchang- 
"^^^ ed with the preceding, and with 

the next; lok, lok, iin, afraid. 
'^^ A fine river in Honan, a 
y'y large tributary of the Yellow 
River; the dazzling glare from 
water ; Lok, iy^nrig, the an- 
cient Lohyang in Hbnin, the 
capital of Fuhhi ; lok, iyiung 
ifd, a caryophyllus. 
^^ Thefalloftheleaf or of rain; 
fT"|Mo scatter about; to fall, to 
■^ tumble off, to let fall, to fall 
into ; to descend, to gather at, 
to come down to ; to lay a 
thing down ; to put into, to en- 
ter, as an item in an account ; 
the place to which one falls, 
one'rf gathering place; settled, 




fixed, arranged ; loki Joi, come 
down ; lok, siil, it snows ; Us'iin 
lok, a village ; tit, loki ti^ fell 
to the ground ; loki kd^ the 
price has fallen ; lok, poki re- 
duced in wealth, poor ; lok, 
iShiug, the job is completed ; 
tdi^ ifong loki a term for the 
five years in the cycle with isz'^ 
in their name ; loki Hki be 
smart ; lok, teng^ to pay bar- 
gain money ; loki fnin' to up. 
braid, (o abuse with foid lan- 
guage; ZoA-j'pj/nj/^'iji to advance 
capital ; loki pal, to begin a 
work, to commence writing; 
loki fsoi' (pin ck'ff where has 
it gone to? where is he at 
work ? loki fat, to shave off 
the hair, to lose the hair ; loki 
(kong, sunset ; loki i^hiin, to 
go aboard ; loki <.shd, to mix 
in sand ; loki J^au fo^ export 
cargo; /oAj ^sam, be easy about. 

Pleasure, joy, happiness, 
ease, gratidation; to rejoice 
in, to delight in, to take plea- 
sure in, to esteem a pleasure ; 
loki ill d'in ming^ pleased with 
fate, to accord with the decrees 
of heaven ; Jiang loki J'd, a 
portrait; Isok, lok, to make 
merry ; loki tak, ^irai, pleased 
to do ; Jio loki <M cchi, where 
shall I be better pleased ? loki 
t^sam, contented. 

Name of a river in Shan- 
tung, A bank, a large pool 
or estuary. ^^^ 

Interchanged with y^uk, ^^' 
Dead branches of trees ; wiih- 
ered leaves. Read ch'^uk, 
light, bright, splendid ; bril- 
liant, refulgent ; to fsliin^, to 
glisten ; to embe!liiih. 






^Tt A place or summer-house in 
r^' the Lu state ; a term of reapect 
for officers and persons ; a 
gentleman ; a male ; ling^ilong^ 
your son ; c«a/i Jong^ a bride- 
room ; is^an Jed Jong, attend- 
ants at a bridal procession ; 
'Aron (C/iM Jong, to lead a boar 
to sow ; Jong (kwan, my hus- 
band ; pun^ Jong, groomsmen ; 
tdi^ ling- Jong, i' ling^ Jong, 
first young gentleman, second 
young gentleman ; these terms 
are added by others to the 
names of sons ; (di- Jong is a 
term a wife gives her hus- 
band's eldest brother. 
Bta Rooms or porches on the two 
Y**'^ sides of a hong between the 
^ halls, or on the sides of court, 
somewhat like a gallery or 
corridor ; chambers adjoining 
a hall ; Jsun Jong, a portico 
or porch, where watchmen 
stay ; Jong mhV Js'oi, distin- 
■ giiished talents — as of states- 
men; Jong '/no, side galleries. 
iS 1 A species of palm, the wood 
'l^ ;. is good for sedan thills, and 
s^pjj i the pith for food ; ''kau Jong, a 
Ling species of Pruniis, found in 
Kw^ngtung; iViing Jong, a 
kind of rattle used to drive 
fish into nets. 

ittn] Ornaments made of coral, 
'•^ ;. called Jong ,kon ; Jong Jong, 
sj.^ ! a sort of necklace or clasp for 
L4ng the neck. 

/«^ Interchanged with the last ; 
a kind of locket ; Jtam Jong 


(long, a little bell. 

<dl A wolf or jackal, a beast 

'j]*^,^ whose howl scares animals; 

° cruel, furious, oppressive ; 

ididi Jong ctong Id' a wolf is in 

the road — said of cruel rulers ; 

Jong isam, cruel ; Jong tsiki 

more than is wanted, scattered 

about, confused ; Jong pwi' 

fettered, embarrassed, involv- 

ed ; Jong tuki truculent, callous 

and cruel. 

■^ Young bamboos, called ds'ong 

I/nff ^^^"^ chuk:> ; a basket ; a 

screen for a carriage. 
4^A "Weeds in rice or grain, or 
r i whatever hinders its growth ; 
Jong ^yau, darnel, tare; pat^ 
Jong pa/j ^yav, neither darnel 
nor grass— good for nothing. 
^A A mantis, called it' on g Jong y 
J ^ met. ineffectual efforts ; J,'ong 
Jong ■pet' iihiin, the mantis 
catches the cicada, (and the 
shrike catches the mantis). 
Also read J^ung ; ik^ung 
Jeung, the tumble-dung, a 
kind of Ateuchus. 
S3 A lofty door ; vacant, empty, 
y^J unoccupied ; Jong ^un, fairy 
land ; ckd Jong, a high gate- 
way ; Jong Jong, extensive, 
^Aa Clear, lustrous, bright, as the 
1^'' moon ; distinct utterance ; lus- 
tre, clearness ; Jewong Htmg^ 
light ; itsHng Hong, limpid, 
pure ; Hong chiu' to receive or 
ask assistance of, blessed ef ; 
«/> Hong, moonshine ; Hong 
Hong tsvng- (.king, to recite the 
classics in a clear voice. 
!m' a cemetery, a tomb, called 
■^ (fan long- in Shansi ; fong' 
lonii' a desert waste. 





\Ai Waves, billows, surges; a 
1^ drum; dissipated, extravagant, 
wasteful, profligate; imperti- 
nent, disrespectful ; unsettled, 
unfixed in mind ; mong^ long^ 
rude and unmannerly ; <fnng 
long^ waves ; loiig^ t'ong^ va- 
gabondish, inconstant ; y^uk} 
hng^ ridiculing, audacious ; 
long^ Hsz^ a spendthrift ; long^ 
yung^ wasteful ; long^ Hi fd tin, 
foolish and lewd talk. 

Read Jong, in the river 

iTs'ong Jong in Shantung. 

H'rt* To dry in the sun ; to hang 

V ■f** up to dry : long^ ikon hung up 

*°^ till dry ; long^ (hoi. spread out 

to dry ; cyam long^ dry it in 

the shade. 

Read long^ ; a colloquial 
word; tostand a thing on trest- 
les, or on whatever will raise 
it from the ground; to put a 
thing upon a shelf or place ; 
to chock or shore up ; long^ '■hi 
'A'm, raise it from the ground ; 
long\kd tiky raise it a little 
higher; isUiin '■pi sheki long^ 
chv? the ship is stranded on 
the ruck. 




(The pronunciation of the characters under 
this syllable and those in the 279th and 280th 
■js often difficult to distinguish.) 

itg A thatched hovel, a cottage, 
Y^ a choultry by the roadside ; a 
lodge or shed in a field, for 
workmen ; a poor house ; a 
term for one's own house; to 
pass the night ; pai^ Jii, my 
house ; Ju sh6^ a cottage, my 
lodgings ; /t» Ju, a cabin in 
a field. 










An ass ; ^ye Jii, a wild ass ; 
'kin Jii, a limping or slow ass ; 
Jii (till, ill-setting, £is clothes, 
bulging out. 

A plant, used to boil with 
fish, in order to give it u pleas- 
ant flavor. 

The gate of a village or lane, 
a gate ; a hamlet of 25 houses ; 
a habitation ; to dwell ; iinun 
Jii, a dwelling; 'i Jii, leaning 
against the door — and hoping 
for one's return ; Jii Hi, a viU 
lage gate. 

A kind of palm, with pointed, 
sharp leaves ; Jii mukt a. fine 
grained red wood from An- 
na m. 

The spine ; — represented by 
the character; tones in music ; 
lukiHii, the six flat notes ; ^sam 
Hu (Chi ishan, a loyal minister ; 
^La sung' Spain ; 'siu ^Liisung^ 
Luzon or Manila. 

A colleague, a companion, a 
fellow ; to associate with, to 
accompany; Jiang ^lii, a travel- 
ing comrade; kiliHii, to agree 
to go in a company, to make 
up a party ; pun^Hii, a partner. 

This character is often pr6. 
nounced Hii, in the sense of 
within, inside. 

A battalion of 500 men ; a 
stranger, a visitor, a guest, a 
sojourner; a company, many ; 
to travel about or to other pro- 
vinces ; to lodge ; an imperial 
sacrifice to heaven ; a path ; 
orderly, to arrange in order ; 
foreign ; self-planted grain ; 
Jiang Hii, a traveler ; Hii hak-, 
or (Shtunsi Hii, a traveling mer- 
chant ; Hii Isz' in order; Hii 
tini' a lodging-house. 













The backbone, th3spino ; ^yau 
Hu liki he has great strength. 

To tfiink upon anxiously, to 
expect, to care about, to feel 
sad for ; to plan, to calculate, 
to devise ; to cogitate, to turn 
over in one's mind ; concern, 
dubious of, suspicion, anxiety; 
cSz' lu- serious thoughts of; 
lii-hau} to think of the future; 
W to' precautionary, thought, 
ful of; iTnong W not to par- 
ticularize, a general view of; 
W nim^ to have anxious 

Deceitful ; to deceive ; a 
man's name, Chau Puhlii in 
the Sang dynasty. 
• A file, a rasp- a polishing 
tool ; to file smooth, to give 
lustre to ; to correct or reform 
one's self; sTno lii^ to polish, to 

Frequently, reiterated, many 
times, often; continually, 
successively; prompt ; W ts'z''^ 
many times; lii^ jnin, for m^ny 
years ; W W again and again ; 
lu' W hai^ '■kdm, he is always 
just so — he is stupid. 

Usually pronounced hv}. 
Rustic, unpolished. Read W 
in the Fan Wan. 
'■ Hempen or silken fibres not 
yet spun ; a forfeit of cloth ; a 
hank or knot ; pd^ W coarse 
cotton cloth ; /«i ^fan W sik-, 
to arrange and speak of points 
in order ; yat:, lu^csz' a knot of 

Interchanged with the last ; 
the lappet of a coat ; Jam W 
ragged clothes, seedy gar- 
^ Tos. DicT. 33 



cLm. a colloquial word ; to spit ; 

to spit out of the mouth ; J,u 

ch'ut^ ilai, spit it out. 
Lu'. A colloquial word ; confus- 

ed ; iku W all in disorder. 








A hedgehog or porcupine ; 
a class, a series, a collection, 
many of the same sort ; to 
classify; dense, abundant ; tsz^* 
Hid, a dictionary. Also read 

A worm which eats wood. 
Usually pronounced Hai, which 

A heap or pile of stones ; to 
pile or throw stones together 
into a pile ; Hui Hid loki loki 
clearly understanding. 

A military wall, a rampart ; 
to pile up, to heap, to lay on 
each other ; a pile ; reiterated ; 
graves in a row ; Hui sheki to 
pile up stones; robust, vigor- 
ous ; form, figure ; Hui Hun ^chi 
iTigai, imminent danger — as of 
breaking a pile of egg? ; ^kwan 
Hui, an intrenched camp ; yah 
Hui sheki a heap of stones ; 
Hu* pih> iCh'an, a constellation 
including parts of Capricorn, 
Aquarius and Pisces. 

A flower-bud, flowers partly 
opened ; t/d Hui, a flower- bud. 








Interchanged with J.ui tw' 
and often pronounced lui^ 
To dram, to beat a drum or 
gong; to turn over stones; sdh 
Hui p'du' to beat a reveille and 
fire a gun ; Hui '^ku, to drum. 

To destroy, to injure mutual- 
ly, as in a fight ; pdi' Hui, to 
rout ; f dp Hui, puppets, auto- 
matons ; tsz^- Hui Jii -^s/ian, he 
injured himself. 

A kind of vine or melon ; 

^f^ koU Hui, a sort of gourd ; J,s'in 


suP Hui, a sort of vine 
^mM\ -^ flyi"S squirrel, called Hui 
Lui '*'*" ' ^^^y ^^^ considered me- 
dicinal, and allied to the bat. 


To stoop, to bend, to crouch ; 
to ofiend ; to reach to, at ; de- 
termined, set ; curved, distort- 
ed, crooked ; perverse, rebel, 
lious, stubborp ; ungovernable, 
impenitent, criminal ; tsuP lup 
wicked ; lun (fi luP /in, the 
kite flies to heaven. 

^^^ Like the preceding ; to bind 

■W- so as to force out the blood ; 
incurable, virulent, as a dis- 
ease ; a I'lant furnishing a 
green dye ; ts'dki lui- a thief; 
luP (fii, an unreasonable man. 

llS." '^^^ chirping of a bird ; J,iu 

Y^ luP the scream of storks or 

yS^l To weep, to cry ; tears ; 

5^, i^ grief ;^ngdn lui- to weep ; 

f H J '" ^"*^ '^ '"^'" tears, to weep 
Lui bitterly ; ^man luP to dry up 
tlie tears ; cc/iii lui' pearly 
tears ; lup ^ngdn, eyes r*d from 
weeping ; lui-^mun ichim ^k'^ am, 
tears bedewed the coat ; tpi 
lup tears and sorrow; lup ^hari, 
the traces of tears ; Int^ <ying 
iSoi% tears wet his checks. 

*E' Good, unselfish, excellent ; 
^'^ a species, a sort, a class, a kind ; 
a luP is contained in a pd^, and 
larger than di'^chung, as a class, 
genus, species; imperial sacri- 
fice or worship ; to class with, 
to become one with ; ^I'mig 
luP of the same sort ; '^sJio ^yau 
mail lup whatever things there 
are ; lui- Hs^z' similar in kind ; 
ch'uk> lup domestic animals ; 
- pat:, iS^uiig luP unlike, not of 
the same sort ; lui^ kvP to 
appear at court on succeeding 
to a father's title ; shin- luP the 
good ; hd^ ^ago. become like 
me, make one of us; luP Hs'z^ 
^k'ii, 'kbm '-yeung, very much 
like it. 
^fes- Knots in silk thread ; a de- 
yM feet, a flaw; out of sorts; per- 
verse, unmanageable ; harsh ; 
^fan luP morose. j^ 

'^. ^1 li»terchanged with lii- J^ > 
to bind, to detain, to tie toge- 
ther ; to lay on or above, to 
heap ; repeatedly, often ; haP 
I Hui, to tie up ; Hui ^sz' to em- 
boss, to njake raised figures 
{ on a plain surface. 
J To involve, to compromise, 
L'ui to implicate ; to put an affair 
on another, to bring trouble 
to ; embarrassed, oppressed, 
troubled with many affairs : 
j'o luP to involve another ; 
lup chuP embarrassed with ; 
iUn lui- to implicate in punish, 
mcnt ; <7nn kwd^ luP no care 
about ; luP .thaV ^kwai, a most 
annoying wretch ; cKuP lui- 
ke^ skiiti 7cd^ constant repeti. 
tions; luPk'apz <yan, to involve 








(2S0) Llli. 

An edible salt-water oyster 
or clam, found in the waters 
off tlie Bogue. 

Thunder; a deafening, thun- 
dering noise ; to imitate, to do 
like ; Hd jZ/ii, or Jiang J.ui, to 
thunder ; yat^ ishvig Jai, a 
clap of thunder ; Jul Jcung^ the 
'J'hunderer, sc. Jupiter tonans ; 
fdn\lui, killed with lightning ; 
Jui iCung, to hit upon the same 
as another has ; J,ui ikung S, a 
tadpole ; Jiii Jcung (kicang a 
peal of thunder ; Jui f'ek-, p'd'j 
a shaving shop where money ; 
is lent at high rates ; Jdi (pin, 
a flash of lightning ; if/ing li^ 
yal, iShing Jiii, a clap of thun- 
der in a field, a sudden sur- 

Interchanged with Hui, in 
the sense of to drum. To 
rub fine, to triturate with a 
pestle ; to treat harshly ; to 
precipitate ; Jui its^ung, to 
make flour for starching ; J.ui 
itigdn ZiuMo grind paints; Jui 
ich'tii, a pestle for triturating; 
Jui Idn* ^k'ii, grind it fine ; 
Jiii '■ku, to drum ; Jiii slieki to! 
throw down stones. 

To bind with ropes, to secure ' 
ont*, as a criminal ; a black 
rope ; Jui sit, fetters, bonds. | 

To join together in a series, | 
to concatenate ; to place on, I 
to superimpose, to add to ; to 
die or be condemned, when j 
innocent; to invt)lvp, to en- j 
tangle ; to bind, to detain, to| 









arrest ; to creep over and en- 
tangle ; hooks or ties of armor ; 
Jui Jiii, forlorn, forsaken ; Jui 
hai^ to bind with cords. 

A sort of porcelain wine-vase 
with looped ears, having clouds 
painted on it, to show its inex- 
haustibility ; a bowl used ill 
sacrifices. .^. 

Same as Hui ^§.5 a kind 
of hod or basket to carry earth ; 
creeping plants. 

Interchanged with the pre- 
ceding. Also read Jo, in Jo 
Ui, a basket. 

Lean, meagre, emaciated, 
fallen away ; feeble, debilitat. 
ed, infirm ; entangled ; turned 
over ; Jui shau' very thin ; Jul 
Jti koh caught by the horns ; 
Jilifuk, turned over or bottom 

(281) Luk. 

•j^ A green colored stone, chry- 
soprase ? stony, rocky, uneven, 
rough ground ; laborsome, toil- 
some ; small ; a chunk of tim- 
ber ; ZmAtj luk, rough ; unimpor- 
tant, insignificant ; following 
after another ; Jd luk, unwea- 
rying, painstaking ; yal, luki 
shii^ a length cut off from a 
tree ; syung luk, an ineflScient 
man, a drudge ; luk, luk, itno 
lUang, a man of no parts, or 
force ; cpo luk, a vulgar name 
for a pumelo. 

To move ; to shake, to rattle; 
to roll over or on the grouud; 
to rock ; luk, loki W rolled over 
and fell down ; 'pi k^uk, luk. 






roll it with the foot ; Ink-, 
itndh rolled together, like two 
drops of quicksilver ; luky <,inai 
cpin clCv? where has it rolled 
to ? Ink-, ik'aUf to roll a ball ; 
luk:, '^ku, a rattle drum ; luk^ 
fTiai, to roll earth smooth ; Zm/c> 
wdti rolled smooth ; also said 
of men well versed in ; Ink:, 
iVgau, a game of rolling cop- 
pers ; luk: iloi luk:> hit' to rock 
to and fro ; luk, maki to roll 
ink in printing; luk:, Ho ch'u' 
slipped down. 
^^ The rut of a wheel ; a roller 
Lull ^^ wheel ; luk^ Jd, a windlass ; 
ich'^ luk-, a colloquial word for 
a wheel ; luk^ icKi, a waggon. 
^ A river in Changsha fu in 
Y^TjjHunin; to ooze out ; water 
drained off, dregs; to drag from 
the water; luk:, chap:, 'sAa ti^ 
tlie dripping water sprinkled 
the ground, 
ft*? The foot of a hill ; woody 
1^^ places on a hill-side ; luk:, 'shau, 

a forest ranger, a forester. 

^^ A high pannier basket for 

^^' inclosing fowls ; ^shii, luk:, a 

basket for books; met. a stupid 


*to A deer ; the 197th radical of 

^*^j" characters relating to cervine 

animals ; luki ii/ung, harts- 

horn ; itnui (fa luk^ or ikam 

its'in luki the white spotted 

axis deer. 

-^ Six ; tai^ luki the sixth ; luk^ 

Liih'/^"^' ^^^ ^'^ departments in 

a provincial yamun ; luk^ hdpi 

zenith, nadir, and the four car- 

dinal points; the twelve horary 

stems coupled into six pairs ; 

luk, shapi ,fd kdp, tlie cycle 

of sixty years ; chdki luki shik-, 
to throw six dice ; luki luk^ 

jj^ High, dry land, terra firma ; 

P^jMand, as distinguished from 
-water ; used as a complex form 
of the last ; Itiki Wa land jour- 
ney ; ihajig luki to go by land ; 
luki tsuki in succession, suc- 
cessively ; luki lo^ cpin^, land 
troops ; luki tsuki J.oi, came 
one after another. 

T^> I Late planted grain, which 

t^ j yet ripens early in the sea- 


fy^ Green color ; Js'tng luh color 
'j^j^^ of young leaves; (mung luki 
dark green ; tdP lukiind^ to be 
a cuckold; sheki luki mala- 
chite ; luki ifdn, green vitriol ; 
^Lii suvg' luki an emerald ; 
luki <i Jong, a rising man, a 
distinguished man. 
5& Emolumentsof o(?ice,salary, 
Luh *'^^'0"s, pay, income ; prosper, 
ity, the enjoyment of a thing ; 
to enjoy an income ; to salary ; 
pat:, luki a defunct scholar — 
one who died before entering 
office ; luki wai^ an office ; 
fu7}g luki a salary ; shiki luki 
pleasures of the table, gusto; 
d luki pal:> tsuki insufficient 
food and raiment ; jmo luki 
shiki no salary ; ^Kwong Luki 
tsz'^ the Banqueting OfFiio 
at Peking — also applied ironi- 
cally to cooks. , . 

Interchanged with luh jP,' 
clear water. 



A plant or grass of which 
I* cloth can be made ; luki fau^ 

a green-colored bean. 



26 1 


A metallic lustre or color ; 
veins on a shell ; to copy, to 
transcril>e ; to record, to make 
a note of; a record, a narration ; 
an order, a series, an index ; 
the teeth ; ,c1Cdu luh to copy ; 
luki ch'ut; Jai, to compose, to 
write ; muk> luh an index ; sin 
Jiang^ luki record of one's words 
and acts ; Hsii luh to be select- 
ed out from the candidates for 
a degree ; luki sz'^ to detail, to 
write an account of; ynt, 
iph'eung tsuh luh one act wtirth 
noting ; 'ki luh shapi ts'z'^ 
to be recorded ten times — as 
worthy officers are ; luh tsik^a. 
record of a family, a register ; 
luh s"^ai, to inscribe and to] 
reject candidates for degree 
of kiijin ; tdi^ kai^ luki the 
triennial report of officers ; shv' 
luh inscribed as a kiijin ; luh 
'■hau (kung, to take minutes 
of evidence. 

A map or chart ; a book ; 

ancient records ; ifu luh a 

charm, a magic writing. 

flS51 A pleasant kind of spirit, 

«^ called iling luki, made with the 

water from the Lake Ling in 


tfS. A famous steed called Ivki 

'I, belonging to the emperor 

Muh-wang of Chau dynasty. 
(^ To disgrace, to injure, to 
•^ ^ put contempt on; to act fool- 
"'ishly; siu' luh opprobrium. 

ridicule of men ; luh y^h to 

act disgracefully. 

^?fc To kill in war or for crimes, 

^^,' to massacre : to mangle a bo- 
Luh , ^ J- ° I 

<ly, to disgrace a cor[)se by 

exposure and cruelly ; to act 

foolishly, to disgrace ; shdU 
luki to slaughter ; luh I's't/u, 
to put prisoners to death ; luk^ 
liki united effort. 
^S Long and large, like vege- 
^ * tation or grass; luh luki ''che 




iHgo, the long, large rush. 





A colloquial word ; to gnaw 
a bone ; to lie uneven ; stam- 
mering; uneven, as crumpled 
paper ; shut-, wa^ dun tchun, 
hesitating talk, stammering ; 
ilun kwat:, ^t'ou, to gnaw a bone; 
Jun {mdi tiki ito, pick your 
bones clean. 

Constant, regular, that which 
is acknowledged by men as 
right, proper ; a species, class, 
sex ; relationships, affinity of 
things and classes with each 
other, a natural law ; to dis- 
tinguish or choose ; ^^ng J,un^ 
the five relationships of socie- 
ty ; yih Jun, to violate these 
duties by inhuman and atro- 
cious acts; Jtin ts'z'^ a series; 
(t'in Jun, one's parents ; tsilti 
Jun, to exterminate people. 
]^ A range of mountains, called 
'?*" iKwan Jun, the Koulkoun Mis. 

in Koko-nor. 

\^\ To choose fit persons for 

,. /office ; to select, to pick out; 

^^i to connect with ; to come in 

Lun turn, to take by turns ; Jun 

sun^ to select fit ones ; Jun 

its'oi, to select men of talent ; 

Jun (pdn, to attend to in turn ; 

si ikd Jun td^ '/li, it is your turn 








now ; Jun lohi Joi, come in 
regular rotation. The second 
character also means to walk 
with difficulty ; parsimonious. 

A ripple, " white caps ;" an 
eddy, a whirl of waters; chaos, 
turhulent water ; to sink or be 
engulfed, submerged, drown- 
ed ; to be lost in perdition, 
damned ; J.u7i loki sinking in 
d»'stitution and vice ; ich'am 
Jun, lost for ever ; Jun sang' 
extinct, as a dynasty or family; 
Jun muti destroyed utterly. 

To arrange or twist raw silk 
for weaving; to wind silk; a 
silken cord ; to compare and 
distinguish, to classify, to ad- 
just ; to know ; Jun ^yam, 
" silken sounds " are His Ma- 
jesty's words; <.?&' Jnn, sorted 
silk, fine thoughts; ^invn fuh 
(king Jun, eloquent, full of 
just thoughts. 

Read (.kiodn, in the phrase 
ikwdn Jean, the cap of Kung- 

Jjun ii^ the name of a boat ; 
the bow timbers of a vessel. 

Crawling of insects or snakes ; 
a liirge frog ; others say, a kind 
of serpent. 

A wheel with spokes ; a wheel ; 
a disc ; a round face ; a round, 
a revolution, a circuit, a turn ; 
large ; to rotate, to roll round : 
Jun '^chiin, to turn round and 
round ; Jun imiin, to go from 
one door to the next ; fong^ 
yaiy Jun 'p'du' to fire a volley 
of cannon ; Jun 5I//, transmi- 
gration ; ^chun Jun, to reenter 
life ; '^« icli^ Jun, to lift thf 
[stone] wheel — a trial of 











strength ; Jun Jau ihon ^shau, 
to watch in rotation ; '■kwong 
Jun, latitude and longitude, the 
area or expanse of a country ; 
Jun ch^uk:,^k'u, it is his turn ; 
Jun (hoi /«d- do it by turns. 
1 An ignis fatuus, supposed 
;.to be an exhalation from the 
j blood of murdered persons ; 
shining ; '^kwai '■fo Jun Jun, 
devil's fires abounding and 

Feeling ashamed, abashed, 

Precipitous, lofty peaks of 
mountains; Jun t,sun, lofty 
mountain clifis. 

"I Water murmuring over the 
5. stones ; stones by the brook ; 
j clear water of a brook ; '^sfnii 
lok) Jun Jun, the water tum- 
bling clear over the stones. 
Read lun-; to rub a stone thin, 
to make thin ; shingle, gravel. 

Name of a ri ver ; clear water, 
issuing from rocks and run- 
ning among hills, 

A veined appearance, like 
that of agate ; jun ipan, chato- 
yant, variegated. 

The rumbling of wheels, for 
which the next is also used ; a 
threshold ; abundant, full ; 
cliung\cfie Jun Jun, the noise 
of many chariots ; u' Jun, a 

Near, contiguous, proximate ; 
connected with, supporting, 
assisting, as ministers do a 
prince ; conterminous, neigh- 
boring ; a neighborhood, neigh- 
bors ; five families ; Jun Hi, 
the neighbors; kdk] Jun, next 
house, near to one's house ; 








A:</n's/un, a neighboring villago; 
52" Jun, neighbors ; Jun kwok^ 
contiguous countries; chani' 
Jun, adjoining ; Jun kan^ near 

A piebald horse ; a horse with 
black, lips. 

Scales of fishes, soft and over- 
ly ing; scaly animals, as snakes 
and fishes ; repeated, succeed, 
ing, like scales ; jM s'utj, fish- 
scales ; tfiing saV '^sliui Jun 
Jun, the breeze raises the sca- 
ly ripples ; Jun pa' scaly tribes. 

The female of the unicorn ; 
Jci Jun tsoi' '^Is'z' the unicorn 
is here — written on bridal se- 
dans; Jun '■chi idling J^s{ung, 
the unicorn's hoof has brought 
luck — an heir is born. The 
idea of the Chinese unicorn 
may have been derived from 
a one-horned Tibetan equine 
, To walk with difficulty ; 
'?^ covetous, avaricious, grasping. 

'rftt An egg; the roe of fish; 

-"•' testicles ; ^kai 'bin, hen's eggs; 
Hun '■Isz' the testes; Hun tshang, 
oviparous ; '??/n yiki to bring 
up, to cherish ; shaP ^u fuki 
Huni like one screening or set- 
ting on eggs. 

^■/v- To discourse upon, to con- 
Pi^y^sider about and discuss; to 
reason, to think upon, to con- 
sult ; discourse, deliberation, 
counsel ; a process or regular 
train of reasoning, a full ac- 
count of a matter; according 
to, by the, speaking of; lun^ 
Jean mdi^ sold by the catty ; 
s'm hui' Jo ''shiti, no matter 
how many ; J'dm lun- to con- 




verse upon ; pin' /««' to dis- 
pute, to argue ; kok:, ^yau ifui 
lun^ each maintains his own 
views ; icliui lun' to infer ; 
tsoki maki /««' to write a diag- 
nosis of a disease ; 'm jwd lun^ 
ts'z'^ to discourse without me- 
thod ; y^uk. hin^ if we admit, 
premising ; hin^ ''hi, to talk a- 
bout ; lun^ i.yan, to speak about 
-^^^ Avaricious, stingy, mean, 
'^j i sordid, sparing ; to dislike, to 
'b^ } part with, to spare ; to be as- 
JJ^-^ I hamed of; lun^ sik, close, to 
'rJ J hold on to ; c«fl« lun^ ashamed 
of, reddening ; Ittn^ po' afraid 
of one's steps ; liang^ mafi htn* 
yuki 1 hope you will not re- 
gret your steps — a phrase on 
an invitation ; pat) lun^ unspar- 
ing, liberal. 

Raveled, as thread; confused, 
intricate, involved ; to em- 
broil, to confuse ; pat) <.yung 
lun^ to disallow any confusion. 
A rush proper for making 
mats ; a surname ; ^md lun^ the 
iris or fleur-de-lis ; lun^ shek^ 
stones on walls for throwing 
down upon an enemy. 
The rut of a wheel ; to run 

against or drive over one when 
Lun P.. 






To bind or tie in any ^Vay, 
to connect ; the hands or feet 
contracted by disease, bent 
over; crooked, winding; to 
crook or bend ; to take hold 
of and drag along ; Jun kuk) 





crooked ; Jun jwd, curly hair ; 
Jiin (iii, bent over, as a luincfi- 
back ; Jiiti ishang, twins ; dun 
tkiin, winding, devious ; Jm 
itndi, bent up, cuddled, as from 
cold ; wat) iliin, to bend, to 
warp ; sat:, Jun, bandy-legged. 

j^ A kind of tree, slender like 
'^7^. a spear, from which a drug 

called Jun (.king, is procured ; 

a sort ofgynandrous plant; 

the ends of an angular bell. 

A fabulous bird, the embodi- 

ment of every beauty and 

grace, a phoenix ; the J,un ikai, 
or argus pheasant, seems to 
have furnished the type ; the 
cock is ilun, the hen is (too; 
iliin fting^ iiDO iming, the phoe- 
nixes sing in concert — a mar- 
riage: (.ku Jun ''kwd suk, the 
solitary phcEnix and lonestar — 
unmarried ; (hung Jun, a star 
lucky for marrying ; ichu Jun 
*/s*oJ, elegantly colored. Used 
for the next, because the bells 
were suspended from a phoe- 
nix's bill. 
^^ Little bells, such as are hung 
*^ on imperial cars ; imperial, 
" royal ; s?"'» 5". His Majesty's 
chair ; Jcam Jun tW the palace; 
fkam Jun .po, a term for the 
Hanlin college; Jiin fso^ an 
idol's shrine ; iui Jiin, H. M.'s 
return ; also applied to the re- 
instalment of S!i4ngti ; Jun 
ii wai- the emperor's guards- 
men ; Jiin hV his godship ; 
Jiin Jing, small bells. 
^^ The vertex or peak of a hill, 

a pointed summit ; to sur- 



■R^ Connected, joined to, as the 
I : V^ ear is to the head ; to com- 
bine With, to make alliance 
with; to associate, to assemble, 
to unite ; to join in a regular 
order ; a distich or parallel ap- 
horisms ; Jhn Jixcan, to crowd 
together, a company or flock ; 
Jan (i fuk^ to baste or stitch 
clothes ; Jiin 'fong, to combine 
in cabals ; tui' Jiin, antithetical 
couplets hung up in houses ; 
Jiin (kii, dwelling in a row or 
near to ; Jiin iming, to sub- 
scribe names, as to a petition ; 
Jiin 'shau, united strength ; 
Jan csam lidpi tsok-> to do with 
united purpose. 
^%i^' Ardently loving, to long for, 
''V'* to think of continually ; to 
dote on, to hanker for ; li'in^ 
md^ strong attachment ; lan^ 
^tsau, to hanker for spirits ; lun^ 
shiky lecherous ; li'm^ liin^ pat-, 
itnong, in tender recollection. 
01 '1 To confuse, to disorder, to 
1^'^j^ throw into trouble; discord, 
PLi j anarchy, insurrection, com- 
Lwdn motion ; in confusion, tumul- 
tuous, out of place, disarrang- 
ed, raveled ; wrong ; to regu- 
late, to put in order ; tdi^ lun^ 
commotion, turmoil, in a house 
or in a state ; liin^ chong^ to 
meet rudely ; <rnong kwok:, kdrn' 
Vun^ all in confusion, at sixes 
and sevens ; tsokt liin^ to rebel, 
insurrection ; csam /w/iMisturb- 
ed in mind ; ^mai^td lun' dorCt 
mix them up ; lun' Jai, disor. 
dercd, it is all wrong; /««' 
sha'v' to disturb the country, 
to turn the world upside down ; 
luii' iscr to sit awkwardly. 







Sometimes written UjL? but jj 
erroHeously ; a hole, an aper- ,| 
ture, a wide cleft; Hd'^shu 
Jungi a rat. hole ; yapi itpong 
itiai Jung, gone into the cluy 
hole — buried ; ^hoi ko' dung, 
make a hole ; pi'faJ. dung, the 
nostrils ; dch'un Jung, bored, 
has holes ; '^hurtg Jung, or ^fu ]' 
Jung, a hole ; Jung la/ an 
opening, a crack or hole. 
AA A dragon, the chief of scaly 
^"^ animals, thought to have su- 
[Mjrnatural |)o\vera, and ot 
which many kinds are sup,K«- 
ed to exist ; geomancers say 
much of them ; an emblem or \ 
badge of imperial power andj 
awe; the emperor's power :| 
imperial, dragon-like; to per- 1 
vade ; to bud ; gracious-, kind ; | 
%lung iShiin, dragon boats, so! 
named from the carving on I 
the bow ; Jung ih^iing, the an- 1 
cestral effigy at weddings ; ! 
'^hoi Jung iWong, the Neptune | 
of the Chin»ise ; Jung war the 
throne ; Jung 'Cai, the emper- 
or's perst^n ; Jung ^ngdn, His 
Majesty's presence; Jung ^ngdn 
'^kwo, the lungan (Dimocarj)us 
[Euphora] longan), a fruit; 
ipd Jung, paddling boats, that 
go fast ; Jung sp'di, the impe. 
rial tablet, adored by officers : 
Jung tin^ a shed or erection ! 
for the '^td tsiiV: ^lihing Jung, 
to get married ; ti- Jung, a>i 
earthworm ; ^ui\nd Jung, can 
seize a dragon — clever; its'am 
Jung iU, tlie sturgeon : Jung 

Ton. Dut. 34 

'fnttki the " dragon's pinlse," re- 
fers to subtle geomantic influ- 
ences and tokens; Jungcchung 
<rM ^nin, decre^)id. old ; Jung 
lui'^ the class of lizards, drag- 
ons, serpents< &c.; Jung ufi 
the "Dragon's Cave," or Lan- 
keet I. near ihe Bogue. 
|j3l§- The throat ; <hau Jung, the 

- IJb mullet : Jutu Juns '^/ufune, a 
Lung " J ,1 1 * . * 

" sound in the throat. 

j*S To grasp, to seize, to drag ; 

l'"^ to attack, to charge on ; to 

collect or assemble ; to effect 

an end, to exert one's self; to 

work on, to operate ; to lay 

hold of, to act with ; Jung iJndi 

'shau, to sleeve the hands ; 

Jung kan^ bring [the boat] 

near ; to cause to ap;jroach, 

to near ; ^md Jung ff'an, a 

headstall ; Jung fdU to t»e up 

the hair ; 'mo Jdi Jung, no 

intercourse or business with ; 

'/^ rto Jung kico' hfi' he was cut 

with a knife ; Jung leuki to 

capture ; Jung tiki to charge 

an enemy's force ; Jung lok, 

chit' to detain by excuses. 

tTtie rising sun obscured ; 
. /ung Jung, break of day ; the 
°sun scarcely seen. 

tThe rising moon ; itnung 
Jung, obscure, 
^ beclouded 
^g A wooden noill for hulling 
rice : to rub, to grind down, 
to sharpen ; to grind ; (rno 
Jung, to grind ; to study hard ; 
Jung kvfc^ to hull grain ; ktik:, 
Jung, a wootlen hand-mortar • 
Jutig im- to sharpen, tu rub 
and iriake bright. 

dim, a.-i the 
moon or a dirty 








:^S A dragon-shaped gem used 
Lfng '" deprecating drought ; J,ing 
Jimgf the tinkling of gems ; 
also clear; the sighing of the 
tMt ^ ^^g6, stockade, or inclosure 
Lune o^^vood for birds or animals; 
its'au ilungj a cage to carry 
prisoners in ; ifong Jung, to 
confine behind bars ; Jim 
Jung, to screen ofl'for privacy ; 
shau^ <yan Jo Jung, to be taken 
in, deluded. Interchanged 
with the next. 
A cage, a den ; an open work- 
ed basket, for holding earth or 
animals ; a quiver ; to mono- 
polize or engross goods ; '^td 
Jung, to entrap birds ; ch'if, 
Hd Jung, to inveigle people ; 
piii^ Jung, a frame for drying 
clothes ; ts^uky Jung, a bird- 
cage ; cchii Jung, a pig basket ; 
(Chii Jung cfd, the Nepenthes 
flower ; (Ad Jung, a shrimp 
net ; Jungfo' maU to hoard up 
or buy up goods ; Jung chdu^ a 
fish-net made like a basket to 
cover fish ; met. a sentence 
giving the key or subject- 
matter of a book or essay ; 
Jung loki a bridle ; met. to 
msnare by words, to get control 
of. Also read Hung, a trunk. 
Deaf, hard of hearing ; unper- 
ceived or hidden, like things 
covered up ; a' Jung, a deaf 
person ; (Chong Jung cha' ^d, 
feigning to be deaf and dumb ; 
icli i Jung, silly and deaf. 
^g A species of water polygo- 
;™ num ; ^mung Jung^ overgrown 
""^ with weeds, concealed, hid- 
den by something ; Jung .su 
ts'oi' asparagus (?) 


j^ The leggings or overalls worn 
r ^by Chinese in winter. 

LiUng •' 

R^ Grand, eminent, high above 

-•-^ what surrounds, exalted, con- 

^spicuous ; abundant, overfill. 

ed, opulent, fertile ; exalting, 

glorious; to glorify, to exalt, 

to magnify ; to rise up ; Jiitig 

Jung, prosperous ; Jung pokj 

generous and mean ; isham 

Hing Jung JsHng, to receive* 

distinguished favors ; itsiin 

Jung, highly honored ; Jung 

shing- atfluent. 

j«^ Infirm, weak in the back ; 

-'\^ Jung peng^ diseased from age ; 

^^^ Jung paV costive. 
^*g A mound in a field ; a grave, 
J ^ a tomb, a tumulus ; to engross 
° or b)iy up goods ; Hung tun' 
undulating, as a road or coun- 
try ; to speculate in, as a bro- 
ker ; iyau Hung, a mound, a 
grave, u hillock ; csz' Hung tiin^ 
peculation, to use other's mon- 
ey in speculation. 

A colloquial word ; the in. 
side of a thing ; hollow, empty 
of, nothing in ; (kun Js^oi Hung, 
inside of a coflin ; (hung Hung, 
empty, all taken out. 

A dike to prevent the irrup- 
tion of waters ; %n^ ^/nai/ ccAi 
""^<Hn, among dikes and fields — 
in agricultural pursuits ; Hung 
^sai, an old name for the west 
of Shensi, now a district in 
Kansuh ; Hung Hsung, all, the 
whole ; taki^Lting mong^ Shuk 
having got Shensi he wanted 

An unauthorized character ; 
a trunk, a box, a case for car- 
rying articles; ip'i Hung, a lea- 




thcrn trunk ; d Hung, a clothes 
trunk; ^shau lok, ^hing, pack 
it in the trunk ; '/o shiki Hung, 
a case for eatables. 
3£- To play with, to trifle and 
y* toy with ; to dally with, to use 
badinage, to treat disrespect- 
fully ; to make, to handle, to 
do, to feel ; hi' lung- to sport 
with ; hmg' ^ngd, to bear a 
daughter ; lung^ leki to play a 
fife ; ^md lung^ dsiin '■ch^ung, 
to despise dignities ; lung^ fan' 
to cook rice ; lung^ '■pa hV to 
play tricks of hand ; lujjg' 'Z:d 
ishingichan, to fullfil what was 
promised in joke ; lung- vsdi' 
to spoil ; lung' kwaii' Hiu, thor- 
oughly practiced in ; tndi^ lung^ 
to show off, bragging ; 'mo 
lung' ts'o' '■pi lyan, don't give 
it to the wrong man ; lung' 
ishan lung' 'kwai, to make 
much ado about the gods. 
n!jCi The note or song of a bird, 
J ^f to chirp ; ^*d^ sz" kon' '/id lung- 
^^^ ch'ung^ he does things very 


(25r>) Lut. 

A colloquial word ; out of 
order, morose, cross; to talk ; 
luU chut, disarranged, difficult 
to do, not rhythmical, mud- 
dy, as a style ; Jam lut-. scold- 
ing, hard tosuit, sullen, selfish; 
lut, hV tui' -ngdn wali to flach 
the eyes, to set the eyes on ; 
lul^ Vm ,kun wd' to speak the 
court dialect. 

A pencil, style, or writing 
utensil ; lo narrate, to obey, to 
follow : to dcclarei to write ; 


an initial word, forthwith, 
then, straightway, according- 
ly ; the 12 9th radical. 
A statute, an ordinance, a 

-^T!- fixed law or regulation, a com- 
mand, a penal law; a military 
code ; to divide, to distinguish; 
the sharped musical notes, or 
luki lut,, are the ydng ones ; a 
stanzas or distich ; the rules 
of versification ; to stale, to 
record ; to estimate the merits 
of, to adjust ; to trim the hair ; 
fat) luti laws ; 7i6 ^yam luti in 
good tune, good rhythm ; yaty 
'■shau lull (Shi, a stanzas of 
eight lines ; Zm/j lai' the statutes 
and ordinances, the code of a 
country ; kdV luti precepts, 
commandments ; luli-.shii, law 

^& Water flowing rapidly. Also 

fpj-read k'ut, to gush out as a 
Yuh ^ . . . -"^ , 

iountain; an islet. 

^ A well rope ; luti sok:, a ropo 

#H." for drawing; water. 

^h To follow, to comply with, 

^»- to obey ; to narrate ; an in- 
itial particle ; luti Jci ^man 
cts'ing, to review or examine 
his writings. 

j^ A black horse with white 

^f^- hind quarters. 

g^ A chestnut ; chestnut wood, 
-used for tablets; firm, solid, 
durable ; severe, strict, exact ; 
to overpass, to exceed ; to re- 
spect ; full grown grain ; cfuiig 
luti the chestnut ; skeki luti a 
sort of acorn ; 'shui lut-, water 

^ Cold ; lufi lifi a piercing, 

<1, -cold wind. 





djfi Afiaid, |>«ile, appfchenvive, 

1^- trembling, fearful; chin' Inti 

trembling from fear ; luti luh 

iUgfti kii^ quakir)g with Hread. 

^B The name of a river in Kiang- 

yi^" su, andof a district (Lihshwui 

hien) near Nanking; Lut, 

ichau, an island in the Yang- 

isz' kiang near it. 

gfc A scope, a mark ; a stretch, 

£^"as of a bow ; the opening of 

the lappel of a garment. 
^^ A bamboo rope or hjjiwser 
£|T|^for tracking boats, or letting 
tipwn into mines ; cords used 
in lowering a coffin ; lutt ^h, a 
pulley ; Inti Hu, cords for let- 
ting down a coffin. 

Clouds of various colors, 
[.■felicitous clouds, which are 

To dart down upon,asa hawk 
y^j'does ; to fly swiftly and high. 

^fc The fat around the inwards 
|*ij"of a sacrifice, which was an- 
ciently burned in temples, cal- 
led luti iUu ; fat. 



i^ Infirm, feeble, weak, inade. 

/T' ! quate ; humble, poor, insignifi- 
cant* a term used by one's 
Self, as li'Ui its'oiy my poor tal- 
ents ; inadequate, a little, bare- 
ly, scarcely ; rustic, vulgar, 
vile, rude, mean, unpolished ; 
lilt} Jcam^ depraved gentry, 
who tyrannize over the villa- 
gers; ok-i Zii/j exceedingly bad; 
lut', 'la/ig, siulsai who can not 
pftss review, and are degraded : 1 
Jiil, tak. siniill virtue ; liit: ythik, \ 

oselcss ; luh 'jw«, vicious1jor.«?c. 

A^ A low dike or path dividing 

r . * ', fields ; a mound ; to mark or 

survey fields, and designate 

their limits ; the same, equal, 

alike ; a mountain tarn, a pool ; 

'^lang liUi same sort ; hnd lui, a 


i^ To take in the fingers, to 

jT * ' draw througli the hand, to 

grasp ; to scrape, to brighten, 

to rub, to exfoliate, to amaas ; 

liit^ iWdi yaty ^tui, to bring to. 

gether into a pile ; liiii (kd J-ai 

(t.sin, take off the fat for trying; 

lijt:, ik'iJn s,t'aUf to brandish and 

rub t\\e fists, as if eager to 

fight ; lut:, itnai sdi' scraped 

everything together ; '^shau liiti 

to scrape or rub off with the 

hand, as leaves from a twig ; 

liit'. woki to scrape a boiler of 

the skin left after cooking ; liitt 

(kon iseng^ rub it ofl" clean ; 

lut:, ^ndi, to milk ; liiti tirnf 

.straighten it out ; liit} c»u» to 

stroke the beard. i ->. 

afi^ To pour out a libatipn in 

Wy * worship ; H Hsau liit:, (or Idi') 

ti^ to pour out spirits on the 

ground. Often read Idi^. 



IJE A colloquial word ; a simple 
\Vrt '^'^g'^tive, not, do not, no ; ,'m 

its'ang, not yet ; ^m hat' no ; 

t'm d' no, not at all — a reply ; 

Wii iin, he wont; ^m (Shene:, 

he says nothing ; 'ni '*^ ^'m hai^ 

(.nil ilid you write this ? 
Also read ^ng, a sound in 

singing; ri ..'n^, a refrain at th«» 

end of a line. 








A twin ; to bear twiiig ; to 
go halves, to divide in two ; 
a moiety, a half; to share witli, 
to take equal responsibility ; 
to duplicate ; %'ii ^ma ^shang, 
he is a twin ; ^shang cmd 'Isai, 
to bear twins ; dnd '^fo pUn' to 
go equal shares ; md ^k^u tsd^ 
join him in doing it ; itna'^chi, 
a double thumb ; twid /aw, a 
double head, one with a large 
tumor on it ; ^md sffidi Aw'gone 
off together ; md H'd ti- two 
gods of the land, placed back 
to back near the treasurer's of- 
fice in Canton ; haky ^md cTnd, 
pitch dark ; tWd tez'^a duplica- 
ted expression, a repetition ; 
<»Mi iTTid (fi'i, well, no great 
matter, as you please. iMd 
is also beard at the end of a 
question, as a contraction for 
<'m (d, is it not so ? 

A colloquial word ; a nurse; 
•rtdi cffid, a wet nurse ; ckon 
cf7id, a nurse; ^sho j^au jna, a 
tiring woman ; chap^ -md, a 
midwife; (ind emu, mother, 
mamma ; ^ku cTwd, aunt, aunty. 

Hemp, the female plant ; 
(Cannabis) the linen of the 
Chinese; sackcloth or mourn- 
ing apparel ; hempen ; linen 
or grasscloth ; a kind of drum ; 
the 200th radical ; ^md pd^ 
hempen fabrics; .rndsiw^ hem- 
pen thread ; imd r/d»i, a ham- 
|>er for holding the Uih iind, 
or hatcheled hemp ; ,ts'd .md 
pit' sackcloth ; jWid yav^ hemp 
oil ; ts'd ii jnd pd^ the hempen 





and coarse clad — poor |veh!nns; 
iSam liiit' iij. md, troubled, like 
tangled hemp ; ixnd imd tik, let 
it pass; jTnd iCh'd, dim, ob- 
scure ; imd W quick, prompt. 

An unauthorized form of 
the liist ; ccAi sffid, or lyau jwid, 
the sesamujn ; ichi iWid iyaut 
the oil of sesamun); imd ts&ung' 
ground up sesamum seeds, 
used in cooking ; ijna. kuxUt 
"■ktcdi ch^ung^ a staff of hemp 
is useless. 

A cutaneous disease of chil- 
dren, like chicken.p<>x or 
measles; torpidity, p:iralysis; 
ch'titj imd, he has the measles ; 
imd muki numb ; keuk^ imd, foot 
is asleep; ^md <fung, leprosy. 

A striped frog ; Jid imd, the 
edible frog. Read mok^ a sort- 
of gnat. 

A mare ; a mother ; a maid- 
servant, a waiting-woman ; 
ip^o -md, a grandmother, an 
old maid-servant, a granny ; d' 
'md, a female servant. 

A horse ; the 187th radical 
of characters pertaining to hor- 
ses ; warlike, spirited : cavalry ; 
the right foot put forward ; to 
clamp, to stitch; to join togetk. 
er, a clamp, a stretcher which 
joins things; J.eung ^md, a gen- 
tle horse ; 'md <fau, a landing 
place, an anchorage for boats, 
a ferry ; 'cho chu- 'md it'au, to 
stop a man, as beggars do ; 
^md sh^ung^ tsd' do it immedi. 
ately, as if on horseback ; (ts'in 
'li -md, a swift courier ; ^tsau 
'■md ^sh^ttng yam^ to go to an 
office immediately ; to bury- 
as soon as dead ; 'wjd ^fau 






tkwan, or ^ma ifu, an hostler 
or horsekeeper ; Heng ^ma^ an 
avant courier, one on horse, 
back in processions ; ^ma j?i, a 
square wooden stool ; hndchd-pi 
a canf)p-stool ; ^ma lapj tang' a 
stirrup ; ich'o ha} -/na, just arriv- 
ed ; ^md ildn, a horse-paddock ; 
ohdpi hnd pd^ ti plant the foot 
firmly out as in boxing; 7<d 
*md pd^ a firm standing ; 'md 
ifong, a stable ; hnd ^mi ^md, 
«» tailless horses" — a nickname 
for chair-bearers ; fdi' ^md Jai, 
come very quick — like a fleet 
horse ; ^md ^Cung, a close chair ; 
jM'mm iiheng ^md, a letter- 
carrier; ch'ut:,hnd, todoa thing, 
to advance the money, to bear 
the expense ; ^md chu} to 
clamp ; 'md i(eng, a clamp. 
nail ; ^md '^kan ^k'ii kai' Jeng, 
seize him fast by his queue. 

A. leech ; ^ma iwong^ a blood- 
sucker : ^md chd' a locust or 

The agate ; ^md -no, the cor- 
nelian or agate stone ; ^rnd '/id 
iman, having angular lines, 
like fortification agate. 

irg| Used for the last ; a yard ; 
M^ weights for money or goods ; 
fat) '/nd or ^md '^tsz' weights ; 
,*«' ^ina ch'ing' 16 taels to a 
catty ; i* ch'eki ^z" s'/'^i !/<^^ '/"o 
2 cubits4 puntos make a yard ; 
tsuh iSz' 'ffid, full weight. 

<ng To scold, for which the next 
is now used ; a final, interro- 
gative word, denoting doubt 
whether it is or not ; (hoi p'd' 
hai^ hnd, have you not opened 
a shop ? m«/i ^y^ ^mdl what do 
you want ? 'A-dm 'md, so eh ! — 
implying disapprobation. 







To rail at,' to abuse with 
vile language, to call names, 
to scold ; ma} paU chii' 7trtM, 
he never ceases railing ; yuki 
md^ to vilify ; j'm '■hang shau* 
md^ I won't be scolded so. 

Sacrifices or auguries olTer- 
ed by an army to insure a 
victory ; worship to the diivicB, 
when journeying. 





A colloquial word ; to purse 
up the mouth and keep still ; 
,mai {mdi 'haii, to pucker up 
the lips. 

To deceive, to delude ; con. 
fused, perturbed ; stupified, be- 
wildered, blinded, beclouded, 
as by vice ; stupidly attached 
to ; \mai woki deceived by, se- 
duced ; i-mai <,wan chan^ infatu- 
ated, enslaved by ; fan imai 
pat, '■sing, dead to all remon- 
strance ; cviai itnung, stupid, 
illiberal ; dong knki 'ch6 imai, 
players are stupid — the lookers 
on .see the game best ; 'ktcai 
mat, possessed by a spirit, 

To bury, to inter ; smaj tsong^ 
to bury a corpse ; itnai its'ong, 
to hoard or lay up. Usually 
pronounced {tnai. 

Storms of sand; misty, dark, 
cloudy sky, arising from fog or 
dust ; smai/wi' foggy, smoky ; 
pull iTnaikin' (t'iu, brush away 
the mists to see the sky — said 
of a clear writer. 



3:7 Ic 





Rice after it i« hulled ; small || 
grains or seeds of plants ; the'ij 
I19tii radical of characters jj 
relating to rice; fiKMi ; |2m!j 
'/ftui, lotus seeds; ^hd V/wt, ij 
dried prawns ; ishd kuki ^mai'\ 
or isai ^inai, sago ; ingd dan ; 
-mafjcochiiieiil ; ^mai Cdp^ ^cKui \ 
to interfere and spoil a busi-! 
ness ; 'nwi '■Isai, refuse, brok- 1 
en rice ; 'hung kiik} ^mat, red i 
rice ; lek, ^mai, to buy rice ; j 
t'iu^ -mai, to sell it ; shiki shal-, I 
-tnai, he's not worth his food ; j 
j'm ichi hnai ka' he does not j 
know the price of rice — inex-j 
perienced ; 'mai /ngau, a wee- j 
vil; also, a rice-shop coolie;' 
'cAu 'ni kf ^mai, to cook youri 
rice — to slander you ; V^ 'mai, j 
spilled the rice — spoiled the 
affair ; 'mai <,kdm 'shui, rice : 
gruel; 'mai fan- table expenses, 
allowance for food. j^. 

A collo<^iuial word like moki^^j 
a negative, do not, not yet ; i 
^mai ko' tsz'- don't do that yet ; \ 
'■mai fan, do not play or idle ; ] 
■mai chai^ don't do it ; -mai Joi j 
tsz'^ wait a while, stop a bit. | 
A cufl' or sleeve, a wide 
sleeve ; to take hold and open, 
to open out, as drawing the 
arm from the sleeve ; (fan mai- 
to " part sleeves " — to take a 
leave of ; ishdm mai^ sleeve of 
a dress ; 'pd mai^ to seize the 
sleeves, as at meeting. 
'■ An enigma, a riddle, a dou- 
ble entendre ; to puzzle, to 
make an allusion ; mai- 'ii, a 

hint, a hidden meaning ; '<d 
(tang mai^ to guess a riddle 

that is written. 






To secrete, to cover, to con- 
ceal ; to lay by, to hoard ; to 
harbor ; to come near, to ap- 
proach to ; to lay hold, to an- 
nex, to connect with ; to hide 
away to crouch ; to concrete ; 
following other verbs, it often 
means up, in, to, with, at, or 
merely a past or completed 
action, according to the con- 
text ; iTndi ngon' to go ashore ; 
'/d tak^ imdi, accordant with, 
agreeable, fit; j'm Cai\mdi, not 
quite shaven ; cliuti ^mdi, to 
pay out, to furnish ; {Twdt muti 
to conceal, snb rom ; smdi ^shau 
to lay hold of, to begin a job ; 
Jiu iWdi yaU t^ Arofrj thrown into 
a bye-corner, indifferent to ; 
(mdi iSliiin fung, the wind has 
brought us almost there — to 
quickly avail of; imdi \t'aUf 
up to the wharf; Juing ^mdi 
ya(, (pin, step aside a little ; 
sffidi (lai, come near ; <.hang 
^mdi kbm' noi^ long been gootl 
friends ; ^t'in '■nun j'm imdi, it 
won't harden in warm weather; 
jTwdi un* to harbor ill-will.; 
^sdung tffidi, to prepare one's 
words beforehand •,^mdlikyihoi 
jTTitti, nothing at all to give ; 
s'm ^'ang "-kong imai, you've 
not told it all ; tsut:, <rndi, to 
condense, to make small. 
To buv, to purchase ; to ob- 

tain, to win ; tsd^ '•mai mdi* to 

trade ; 'mdi mdiUyan, a trader; 

^mdi yapi to buy; ^mdi '»A«f, 




to *' buy water " at a parent's 
death ; Jing sui^ ^mdi^ to buy 
by retail ; '/ndt pd/i^ a compra- 
dor, a purveyor ; ^mdi pd^ to 
« buy fear " — to give hush 
money, to curry favor by pre- 
sents ; 'indi fnki ^man (Sam, to 
win the people's hearts; sV» 
^mui tsz'^ I'll not now buy it ; 

. ..,*/ntti chuk:, to hire villains to 

. ,. injure or inform against one; 

,. }mdi td^ obtained by purchase ; 

10 . r'/tJM ^ndi, wanted to buy ; 

tr" '^mdi its'ong wai^ to engage a 
cabin or a passage. 

^gi To sell, to dispose of for 

J^. money ; to betray, to inveigle ; 
to mock, to make game of; to 
vaunt, to show oft"; mdi^ fo^ 
'shau, a salesman ; mdi^ cKvt:, 
to sell ; c/i'uij rndi^ for sale ; 
mdi^ ts'iu^ to show off, to trick 
one's self out ; mdi^ ichu '■tsai, 
sold as a pig — into foreign 
servitude ; mdi^ Hsui ikwdi, to 
talk glibly ; mdi^ ^fau mdi^ hni, 
to sell off the driblets cheap ; 
mdi^ ifuvg, to give another the 
leprosy ; mdi^ fi'^S^ to allow 
criminals to escape ; mdi^ lung' 
xfung its'ing, to set off one's 
charms, to catch admiration ; 
mdi- ktooki to betray, one's 
country, to forsake one's flag ; 
mat' min- -kwong, to keep up 
appearances with one. 

5|6f I To wax old, to pass away ; 

?^ to overpass, to surpass, to ex- 
ceed, to go beyond; vigorotisly; 
to go away, to travel far ; 
old, -senile ; ^nin mdi' old ; rmi' 
mdi' indifferent to, remiss ; 
yat^ uli Jii mdi' the days and 
luouUis pass away. 



(All these charactors are often pronounced 
like the next syllaMe) 

Ttfo Wheat, grain with an awn; 

j^^the 199th radical of characters 
relating to wheat ; Mo maki 
oats ; ^sdm kok, tnahi buck- 
wheat; suA'j^naA'j winter wheal; 
tap maki barley ; maki ingd, 
wheat sprouts, used in soups ; 
7naki, Js^au, wheat harvest in 
July; maki Jiong, bran; sat) 
vtriki, to sow wheat. 

^ ] Dark, cloudy, sombre ; 

^y night; still, silent, retired; 

PzEj ! meditation, memory, mind ; 

Meh inspired, internal influence; 
not at ease ; maki mm' to me- 
ditate on ; maki maky jWjo si.i, 
not speaking a word : maki 's^, 
to write froni memor}' ; maki 
shi^ a silent or spiritual com- 
munication, or a revelation 
something analogous to pos- 
session or inspiration ; maki iti^ 
to understand by meditation; 
mnki maki pat:, ^on, distressed. 

£g Ink ; black, obscure, dark, 

^;|'=^' like ink ; met. letters, writings ; 
to brand with ink ; a measure 
of 5 cubits ; a dejected coun^ 
tenance ; yalo ^fong maki a cake 
of ink ; maki '^shtii, liquid ink ; 
, shoe-blackinjr ; ishing mak) 
marked and lined — all correct; 
c/'drt maki sin^ to strike a line ; 
miri^ (Sham maki chopfallen ; 
sWrtrt mah rchi iyan, a student ; 
maki'-kun, first draft of essay ; 
loki maki to write ; hn loki maki 
tsd' do you begin to do it ; maki 
fJK the cuttle-fish ; '^kong pat^ 
maki to tilk like a book; ichii 
viaki red ink, 





^& A f:ord, a two-fold cord ; to 

jj^/cord up. 

pj^ 1 The pulse, the blood run- 
'r^ >ning in ihe veins ; streaks, 
nTi] veins, in wood or flesh ; a cur- 
Meh rent of thougiit, a full idea ; 
a line of succession, a descent, 
parentage ; /jo/j' mak.„ 'pa maki 
or H'ai niaki to feel the pulse ; 
maki Hi, philosophy of the 
pulse ; hul-, maki the circula- 
tion ; 7i/n maki to hit a pulse ; 
ft' maki the geomantic forms 
and marks seen on the earth, 
supposed to influence the luck 
of a place, subterranean water 
courses ; mak^ itjifni, the puis*- 
at the wrist ; yat^ maki a Joi, 
an unbroken descent. 
^^ Misty, small rain ; makitnuk, 
j^j^' drizzling rain, which falls 

silently, a slight shower. 
IJS A raised path which divides 
l^jpjj" fields ; a path or street going 
through a market ; a road ; 
maki sh^ung^ on the road ; 
cMiwaA-jamarket-street ; maki 
Id' iijan, disagreeable to one, 
not pleased with. 
^^ A tapir, the Malacca tapir, 
■ of which many fabulousslories 
are told ; it probably still ex- 
ists in Yunnan. 
^^^ ^ Sometimes written for the 
^'' ;.la8t; a tribe of northern abo- 
^•jfj J rigines near the ^jAt; ; quiet, 
Meh settled; ^an mak, 5'wi ^chi 
ipong, the barbarians (the 
Man and M<il:) do not know 
their country — said of persons 
wholly inexperienced. 
^L To get on a horse ; to jump ; 
J^^'rnaki iili to leap or spring over 

To>'. DicT. 35 




J^ A colloquial Nvord ; to break 
■^"in two, as a cake ; to open, to 
split, to tear, to pull asunder; 
met. to disgrace ; */ii maki Jioi 
'■hail, open your mouth ; mdk^ 
fii' (king 7nin' to make one's 
father and brother blush; maki 
tap ^ngan H'ai, open your eves 
and see ! kiP mnk> the thumb; 
mdk> '■chit to tear paper ; 7ndki 
po^ ihau, to split his throat — 
with crying ; m^ki '^peng, to 
break bread. 

(293) Man. 

^t^^Jr A musketo, a gnat; fu ^man, a 
striped musketo; ^manchcwig' 
a musketo curtain ; <ma/i kom' 
its'd, a hum like musketoes ; 
tman Jn ^h^ting, smoke to kill 
musketoes ; nian ^cham ingau 
koky like a musketo boring a 
horn — Hs hard as it is useless; 
^manjui, the buzz of mus- 
ketoes ; tman fat, a musketo 
whip ; man ndiP a musketo 

Strokes, lines, veins, mark, 
ings, bands, spots, strife, clou, 
dy ; what is variegated or or. 
namental; symmetrical lines 
and colors ; slender, beautiful, 
genteel, stylish ; elegant, ac- 
complished, scholar-like; what 
is extraneous as distinguished 
from the essential ; literary, 
letters, literature; the literary 






and oiHcial class ; a dispatch ; 
a classifier of coins ; the 67th 
radical of characters dcnotinji 
markings; vaty iVian, a cash, 
a dollar; ^n Hi, style in writ- 
ing ; {«' jTwon, tine, chaste, 
scholarly, genteel ; yal^ if' in 
iman ich^ung, an essay ; t/.*i« 
iTiiart, a:5tronomy ; pak, ,jnan, 
the simp'e text ; {un (inan, the 
original text ; ^Icu shiih inian 
fCheung, he is a judge of com- 
poeition ; pat:, iVian, inelegant ; 
iTnaii ishu, a governmental 
document ; itnan paU a three- 
storied literary pagoda ; /cm 
iman, to deliver a dispatch ; 
iinan fdU grammar, rules of 
writing ; '•kit ^jnan, the ancient 
style of writing ; jwan cch'^ung 
tai' Jcwaiiy the God of Litera- 
ture ; ^man icICeang sing, stars 
6 (p V in Ursa Major ; 'Xd iinan 
ifung, a good literary reputa- 
tion ; 5;7ia;i pal, (kd Him, the 
style is unimprovable ; c'*" 
,maii, false, unworthy of credit ; 
,« yvk, iSz' man, to disgrace 
scholars ; '//aw s'/ia/Jc/s'oi, learn- 
ed, scientific. 

Read man^ to gloss over, to 
moderate ; man^ kwo' to con- 
ceal errors. 

't^ Pattern, marks, or figures in ; 

iW^ weavincr ; a mark or trace of ; I 
marks in wood, lines in the 
hand ; it<t'e iinan po' cotton I 
drills ; iinan ^ngan, tine pure 
silver, sycee ; ^shui tpo jniw, | 
ripples on water ; ^yau tik, \ 
iinan Hi, there is some regulari- 
ty in the figure ; rather pretty ; 
tsati' iVian, wrinkled, pucker, 
ed ; iman li/n^ the pattern is 
awry ; 'mo iinan Isik) no lines, 


] a smooth surface ; iVdng itnan, 
across the grain. 
.SL -I'he autumnal sky, fall of 
■j^^ the leaf; to compassionate, to 
feel for, to sympathize with ; 
iinan din, autumn ; mel. heav- 
en, the clear expanse. 
AL A small fish, with small 

^p*' scales and brilliantlv marked. 

A Sparus ? 

HL 'I'hc multitude, the peojilf, 
'^^ subjects, the uninstructed .irid 
unofficial part of mankiiui ; 
sz" iinan, the four classes of 
people ; fa' ngni^ ^10111 (inan, 
the canaille, the ruffscuff; '■tsz' 
fjnan, you poor people ; mdn- 
tvian, all the people ; iman 
chong' militia, volunteers ; 
iman iyaiu the people ; J^ung 
iinan, loyal people; itnancfung, 
popular customs or fancies ; 
iinan tsiki a register of the peo- 
ple ; //«^ jmara, to take a census. 
A fish-line ; a cord ; to string 
cash ; a string of cash ; to give 
or use garments as bedding ; 
abundant ; jiw ich'in yatumany 
had a string of cash around 
his waist. 



WA Simple, country. people ; 

' J^ ^vassals, those who have lieen 

iBCJ fugitives from other countries; 

Mang ignorant, imprudent. 

iJiW A range of mountains in th»' 
north of Sz'cbuen province, 
a spur of the Pih-ling, sepnr 
ating the valleys of the Ycllf"' 
R. and Yangtsz' kian*! ; jlf/'i 
<ffian, a district in Kansul) ; 
iMan tkong, a large tributary 
of the Yangtsz' in Sx'cbuen. 
A fine kind of stone, like 
alabaster or marble, but not 


considered ;i c^m. 




^ To hear, to porceive by thr 
>V an ^'^^' '" learn by report ; small ; 
to state to, to cause to hear ; 
report, fame, news ; / iinan, 
to hear; icliun (inan, to repeat 
a report; a tradition, a legend ; 
^fung man, rumor ; ^san ,Tiiav, 
news ; ^man ^ii iicono, told it to 
the king ; 5?na/i its'iii siky smell 
it ; Uiok, yati ,maii tuk, heard 
of it yesterday ; ^vdn ^man, 
hard of hearing, hard to hear ; 
pa/j "-yaii ^man, distressing to 
hear, heart-rending. 
P^ A kind of snake ; the an- 
-Izy cient name of P'uhkien ; the 
river Min in that province ; 
iMan Chit) 'tsung hik^ the 
governor-general of Fuhkicn 
and Chehkiang. 
-ffl Mourners at the door; to 
^^ feel for, to mourn with ; heart- 
sick, indisposed, ill ; out of 
sorts, from grief or trouble ; 
to exert one's self, to urge. 
-.jBa] Interclmnged with the last ; 
,^ ^ to r-iourn for, to commiserate, 
^j ^° f^^' concern for ; 'man cho^ 
Min to befriend ; J,in ^man, to pity ; 
pati tsukihnan, not worth one's 
J.yH. Watery, an expanse of water: 
'liti ^° ^''"' "^^'' exhausted, drain- 
ed ; destroyed, finished ; con- 
fused, obscure, distant : ^man 
jiiuti dead and forgotten ; -man 
mill exterminated ; ^man hnan 

</"" /«"> all in confusion, 
yS- 'i'o rub, to feel, to smooth 
Jj^, with the hand ; to dry up bv 
rubbing; to point bricks, to 
pay seanis, to fill up cracks ; a 
horn spatula used in dressing 





the hair ; ^man J'au fdl, to rub 
pomatum on the hair ; ^man 
(Chiin ^hau, to point bricks ; 
^man lui- to wipe away tears ; 
hnan (fuf, to rub in pitch or 
putty ; hnan mat^ fill it in tight. 

A river in Shfintung, running 
west into the Grand Canal, 
near Wan-shiing hien ; 'man 
-man, contumely, disgrace. 

The corners of the mouth ; 
the lips ; met. speech, talk ; 
tsip', hnan, to join the lips, to 
kiss ; t'd^ ^iiau ^man, to pout ; 
nioki iheng k'iit, ^nian, don't be 
too facile with your lips — be 
careful of your words. 

To join ; to blend as one ; 
blending and mingling ; ^mcux 
hopi joined, harmonioualy 

To cut one's own throat ; 
^man 'keng Jidut the tenderest 
friendship, close friends ; tsi'- 
^man, to cut one's throat ; 'man 
"■keng tsz'^ itning, I am quite 
aware of the consequences. 

Active, clever, quick, smart, 
prompt ; serious*, respectful ; 
quick at perception, witty, in- 
genious, skilled at, capable ; 
the great toe ; tsiti 'man, ready 
at, quick-witted; ^ts'ung 'man, 
ready, quick parts ; '-man tsifi 
(hungifu, fine and quick work; 
'mail liki energetic, smart ; 
'man pin- ready at retort or 
argument ; 'man Jcav, to earn- 
estly beg. 

A perch. like fish common at 
Macao, the Corvina catalca, 
spotted dark brown. 

Strong, robust, able to per- 
form things. 




i3B ] To be constrained, forced lo 
J Q i-do anything against the incli- 
"ra j nation or strengtii ; to ^strive ; 
Min to virge, to push ; ^iiian ^ininy 
compelled, unwilling to do. 
Read ^Mang ; a toad, known 
in some placs as Wd np, or 
earth ducks; a kind of dark 
striped toad; tlie205lli radical 
of characters pertaining to 
pE.' A collfvjuial word ; the edge 
*^ of a thing, the brink ; near in 
time, last moment ; to go near 
to the limits of; s'»» kot:, koin 
man' don't cut it so close ; ^k'i 
tak- Cdi' man' he stands very 
near the edge ; 7nan' 'mi, the 
last of ; Jiang man' kico' tt'ou, 
you go rather too near ; Hang 
td' kdm' man' fjtiun^ waited till 
the last moment, 
^i Character, reputation; place 
J^' to which sound reaches ; ^fhing 
man^ iiiil'in, the sound reached 
to heaven ; ling^ man^ your 
P^i To demand, to exact of ; to 
^^^ ask, to search into, to ascer- 
tain ; to inquire of or about ; 
to investigate, to try, to ex- 
amine a case, to convict, to 
give sentence ; to clear up a 
doubt; a command, a mandate; 
man^ tdp^ a dialoiue, conver- 
sation ; man^ Jiwan, transport, 
ed for crime 3000 Hi to the 
garrisons or y4mun ; man^ 
'■liin, exiled to the colonies as 
a convict ; man^ '^chdm, to sen- 
tence to decapitation ; man^ 
iming pdki ask distinctly; man^ 
ktro' 'A'w, then ask him [if von 
doubt]: man* .on, or man^ hau^ 

to inquire after another's he- 
alth ; man\ndn, to search into 
the reason of, to get difficulties 
explained ; man' imeng, to as- 
certain a girl's lineage — when 
betrothing; ^t'ing man^ I beg 
to ask ; ^kung mnn^ a govern- 
ment mandate ; inan^ (mun, to 
salute a bridegrooui's relatives; 
pat^ 'r/t'i ha^ man' do not be 
ashamed to ask of inferiors. 

(201) Man. 

!^ A colloquial word ; to turn 
M^ over, to push, to pull down to 
or towards ; to bring down, as 
pride ; ctndn tik:> ^ye loki take 
down something ; ^mdn (fan 
kwo' Jtai, to recover, as a lost 
case ; to get back ; j'm ''kdm 
(man ip'iii 'hi, I can't venture 
to contest with you ; (man Jioi 
imiin, pull open the door. 

^M A very weak worm ; bar- 
"jyj^j barons tribes and aborigines 
of the south, unreforrned by 
Chinese civilization; met. the 
south of China ; external and 
barbarous ; tierce, brutish, un- 
reasonable, not amenable to 
reproof- indm iindn is an old 
name for people south of the 
Mei-ling and of Formosa ; 
imdn si, barbarians, savages ; 
^mdn (Sing, imgovernable ; fan 
(.many rude, willful, uproarious ; 
^fii fong' itndn, you have no 
fear or respect ; Hd iindn '^kong, 
you speak like a savage ; 
7/d smd'i ke' an unreasonable 
man ; iVidn sliek^ rubble-stone. 



-^■g, Leavened wheaten bread or 

If-j*: cakes steamed ; jWd/J ^fau, 

steamed bread ; iman ^t au 

''pengy steamed cakes. 

-n^ Evening, sunset, decline of 

xx/r' the sun, night ; late in time 

Wan '^ 

or in hfe ; tlie last ; late, tar- 
dy ; afterwards ; ikam ^mdn, 
thisevening; '/adrt(/«'d7i,even. 
ing meal ; ,di ^mdn, towards 
evening ; ye^ hndii, late at 
night ; -man (kdJi, in the even- 
ing, tilt midnight ; '//jdn ^shang, 
your pupil, your servant, I — 
a polite term used in both 
writing and speaking; tsok; 
■/nan, last night ; ^man ^nw-, 
old, aged ; "^tsd hndn, early and 
late, morning and evening : 
hndn iWO, or hndn (so^ the Uist 
crop of rice ; ^'m '/won, I am 
not late ; suP hndn, late in the 
year ; iS^ung kW han^ ^mdn, 
I regret I did not know you 
before •,fdi' (Chi ^indn -i, it is 
now too late t<j^repent ; '■h^ung 
hndn fuk) to enjoy happiness 
at last. 

1^-] Bees which swarm in 
f^j > numbers under a queen; a 

^'j myriad, ten thousand, the 

Wan higiiest number usually em- 
ployed in notation ; an inde- 
finite number, manv, every 
one, all ; a strong superlative, 
great, very, high ; widn^ pat^ 
on no account, a strong nega- 
tive ; mdn^ mdn^ paU inangy 
I can not possibly do it ; mdii^ 
sni' jt/^, the emperor ; kdp, 
tndn^ a strong-box, a money 
cliest ; mdn^ .»/*aK^his Majesty's 
birthday ; mdn^ iinan, all peo- 
ple ; mdn^ pat) shat) yat> whol- 

ly correct, all right ; mdn^ ptU, 
taki 'i, must not be omitted or 
fad in ; nuln^ yaU '«' a myriad 
to one he will die; wtdn' lyau 
iiin, " all men's interest," is a 
name for the Hd Ish?; yaU pdk^ 
mdn^ a million ; shapi mdn} a 
lakh ; mdn^ pat-, k'api yal) not 
one can equal him, unsurpass- 
ed ; mdn^ shau} ^kung, tlte em- 
peror's temple, erected in every 
district ; ^shing mdn^ db ^yatt, 
there's fully a myriad ; 'Ld 
mdn^ :shdn, the Ladrone Is,; 
mdn^ shau^ '^kwo, the papaw ; 
mdn^ man- ten thousand times 
ten thousand, innumerable ; 
mdn^ ichung fpid yaU the very 
g,- Long, lengthened, extended ; 

f?" eood, fine ; marked with lines ; 

Man* J ' - ,. , : 

an adversative particle, not 

yet, not, do not ; without. 

j^^ Used for the two next ; re- 

i^S- miss; slow ; mdn^ (*e, stop a 
Man,. ,, ^ 


j^'- To despise, to affront, to 
C?- slight, to contemn, to disgrace; 
to scoff, to insult to reproach ; 
(li mdn' to vilify, to upbraid ; 
mdn^ "-kwai ^shan, to blaspheme 
the gods ; ';nd wdn^ contemp- 
jljgji Indifferent to, negligent, 
j*^ remiss, careles.'* about ; disre- 
spectful to, disobliging, proud, 
rude, supercilious; to con- 
temn, to treat haughtily; slow, 
dull, sluggish, dilatory, easy 
about ; scales falling from light 
weight ; mdn^ man- Jiavg, go 
slower, easv ! Han man' lazy, 
heedless ; tjio' sz'^ ^mo kap, 
man' he'll take his own time, 




he nevor hurries ; moh Jieng 

man* '■Icii, don't be rude to him; 

(t'em; icliiii mdn^ Jiidn- tomorrow 

morning wlien at leisure ; mdn^ 

'shall, a slow hand ; man* -liu 

^i)i, he was rude t(» you ; ,sin, 

man* are ternjs used for heavy 

weight and light weight ; mdn^ 

I in kau^ the steelyard falls, it 

is light ; 'sctdi^mdn* you write 

very slowly ; mdu^ to" ii'i Hs\, 

be careful how you speak so. 

■f-B,'- Used for the last ; to deceive 

Jlr^ asuperior, unfaithful toatrust; 
Man . •^ ,, 1-5-5 

to insult ; cna man^ cunning ; 

man* ,,in, to exaggerate. ,g 

Often used for man* t^ > 

}P^. an exi)anse ot water, a sheet ! 
ot water ; breaking boutjds 
and destroying like water de- 
vastating ; spreading, ditTiised ; 
reaching like water, every- 
where ; to let go, to set loose ; 
color of clouds; vague, diffuse, 
as writing ; Idn* man* scattered, 
all dispersed ; mdn^ wid/i' lone; 
and far, like a road ; mdn* 
chung^ to saw broadcast. 

■^i A sort of bean (a Dolichos); 

^fr to shoot forth as vines do, to 
ramily, to creep ; creepers, 
vines ; wide-spreading vege- 
tation ; intricate, tangled, ab- 
struse ; (in md/t^o spread forth, 
to expatiate, diffVisive as style ; 
koU man- a sort of vine ; man* 
man* ijati mdn^ spreading every 
time more vigorously. 

A curtain ; tapestry or hro 




' ^, cade hangings ; a screen; Vctw 

mdn* seslaii curtains ; ch^unfi'' 

mdn^ a screen ; to curtain olT. 

Ag'- A sort of eel ( Congrus) cal I - 

r:'^ p:d mri'i- Mi. like the ctinj^pr 

eel. With larg<,' ^rctoral Ims. 

(All these characters, and the laflt five oa- 
pecially, are ufteu heard pronouuced lil^e the 
next syllable.) 

n^ A colloquial word ; coarse ; 

'^^ (/«'() ^mang (mang, very coarse, 
inferior ; ^mang (kai, scars 
abf>ut the eyes ; '/<) jnangt a 
scull. tie. 

Tifej To germinate, to bud, to 

ij/' send forth shoots; a sprout ; 
incipient, fisrt risings of; to 
plough up ; the starting again 
of old evils or habits ; (mang 
in<:d, to sprout ; '/.vo ^mang jii 
(Snm, thoughts rising in the 
heart ; ^mang tung- brewing 
trouble, incipient risings of 
B^ An oath, anciently taken in 

;.™^ blood or smearing blood ; a 
" contract, an alliance, agree- 
ment ; to swear, to bind one's 
self before the gods ; to form 
a pact ; a chulkan or corps 
among the Mongols ; fining 
(Sam, guileless, with the whole 
heart ; iWang shai* to take an 
oath ; iTs'un Tsun^ ^chi imang, 
the compact of Ts'in and Tain 
states — a family alliance ; 
^m-ing (Shv, a contract, an 
agreement in writing. 

'^ A fierce, strong dog ; strong, 

,, resolute ; determined, brave ; 
rigid, severe, inhuman, sharp, 
cruel ; hot, as fire ; biting, as 
wind; to rouse, to inspirit; 
-mang lili ferocious, violent ; 
\fo ^mang, a strong fire ; ^mang 
^ifnng, valorous, valiant; Joi 
shai' shanv '^mung, his approach 




was terriblR ; iwai -mang, awfn!, 
stern, inajestic ; ^inang sing^ a 
violent tem})er ; tfting ^mang, 
the wind is high. 
-AhF- a grasshopper or locust ; '^fs'd 
mS.^*'"""^' * grasshopper; also 

" called cha^ ^mang. 
-Jjl5 A small boat, a pinnace ; rha^ 

Mane''"""?' a '^'''P's 6'g»aj"lb'- 
^ boat. 

Jj^h' A colloquial word : to pull, 

■*^^ to stretch to pull out, to pull 

to and Iro ; to pull up, to weed ; 

mang^ Jiau uUi ds'Cunr;, it pulls 

my throat but he heaves it to 

the wall — a trifle to him but 

life to me ; tZdt 7nang' pull it 

along; mang\fung shin" pull 

the punka ; maiig^ laU pulled 

it off; mang^ (sfio, thin out [the 

grain]; mang^ ich'emig, stretch 

it out, pull it taught. 

^- Great, eminent, lar<;e ; se- 

-5™- nior, the first, the eldest ; first 

month oi tlie quarter ; to use 

effort, to exert ; to beiiin, the 

begmnmg of; mang^ chvng' \ 

kwai' a triad, the Isf, 2d. 3d, I 

of a series; Mang- ,fu Hsz'' . 

M'incius, the Chinese sage;' 

mang^ long^ exaggeration, 




A colloquial word ; to pull, 
as a bow ; to cover, to puil 
over and cover ; to draw over 
for shade; '.mdng ikung she'] 
ts'ui' to draw the bow and let j 
fly the arrow; h^uk, ->'R«"^,i 

gaiters used by women ;tmdn^ 
pd' ch^nng^ to stretch out an 
awning; 7.«n itnang mang^ 
keep it (or him) very tight ; 
also hard pressed for funds. 
■^ Blind from loss of the pupi( 
L" or optic nerve, having eyes 
^ but no vision; blinded in heart, 
deceived, obtuse ; imdng (fung^ 
a variable wind ; ^mdug ^ngdn, 
blind ;/rt^ ikai imdng, to have 
night blindness ; itnang ,Tni/i, 
a blind songstress ; mdng 
(hung chvk, a blindman's stick ; 
met. a guide ; (indng (nin, a 
year without the ///irA't/n term; 
iindng tsz'' ctn shik, totally ig. 
norant of letters : iindiig Ud, a 
blind man. 



JLj A colloquial word ; what ; 

^* who ; why ; in what way ; a 
diminutive of quantity ; maf, 
tthni, w ho ? mot:, '^e (l)y elision, 
m'i-y^)y what ? what is it ? mah 
imeng, what is its name 1 mat, 
'//t '^kdm ki^ why do you act so ? 
^md matiiVan, not inany njen ; 
mati tak, ^ni kdm^ '/jd, h«)W did 
you get such a good one ; what, 
so incom|)arable ! c"i tik, j'ot 
hai- mof, Vni, this is not very 
good ^Hdmaf, Mr. Such-a-one, 
Mr. A.; d' mat, a term for 
boys or servants; hai' maf, 
what is it ? {';« wd' mat, 1 can 
nr>t express all my thoughts^; 
ishaiig mat; Jd lu' Jai, you 




must certainly come ; waP 

mat:, sz'''iTn Iso- why don't you 

do it ? what is Ihe delay ? 

ftjt A negative, do not ; a han- 

^^ } ner or standard at temples ; 

mall mall in haste, diligent, 

desirous of; ^shau mafi, lung' 

do not touch it ; mali'p'a^ ivdn, 

do not be afraid of obstacles. 

Zifi A particle of dust, an atom ; 

A,"^- mall muki inexhaustible, mi- 

nute ; abstruse. 
Mft A thing, a substance ; an 
^V article, goods ; matter ; a crea- 
ture, a being; a day; to dis- 
criminate, to distinguish by 
appearance ; to have a know- 
ledge of; mail kin- a thing; 
tkam mall to-day ; tsoki (or 
its' am) mall yesterday ; md/i* 
mall all things (exclusive of 
m^n); iyan maU a man; mah 
ku' deceased ; Idi^ malid tiger ; 
isdm mall are the dog, cock, 
and hog ; also, three leading 
moral duties; fo' mati mer- 
chandize ; '■ch'dn mati natural 
productions; iShan mali lusiis 
naturae, strange things ; ishang 
mall living things j mati ipi 
possessions, property ; mati 
sink, to judge of by the looks ; 
shiki mail eatables. 

^ Still, silent, rest ; secret ; to 
>p -stop ; {'A'ufi Mall a sage noted 

in the San Kwoh Chi. 
<^ 1 Thick, close together; fine ; 
JtX' >small ; intimate, friendly ; 
^^ij hidden, not to be seen, occult, 
Mih secret, still, mysterious, re- 
tired, profound ; to stop, to 
rest : to repeat or do rapidly, 
to ply ; its'ait mati very intim- 

ate, constantly with one ; mat, 
tik, "shau, ply your hand, work 
.sharp ; pi' mati hidden, con- 
cealed ; iciiau mail placed close 
together, not open to the air, 
thickset ; (ki mat, a hidden 
cause, the secret spring of a 
machine or conduct ; pdki mat, 
drive it up close ; mati mati ti^ 
be a little still about it; mati 
^ngdn, blind. 
^ Honey, nectar ; sugar ; sweet, 
^j^- luscious ; met. honeyed, sweet, 
flattering ; ifung mati bees' 
honey ; mati tsiii' J'ong '■kwo, 
sweetmeats, comfits ; mati Idpi 
beeswax ; si ffia/> confectionary, 
cakes ; ^p'o Jo mati the jack- 
fruit ; mall chapi kom' jCim, 
dear as honey. 
£ij& To speak quietly, in a low 
P^j^ tone, to whisper ; careful, still, 
silent, quiet ; tsing^ mati quite 





See Mid,. This word is 
often pronounced mati when 
meaning to wipe. 

Stockings, socks, hose ; yat^ 
tuV mail a pair of stockings ; 
kdp, mo<j lined socks : imin mdti 
quilted socks; t&? ^t^ung mdti 
a stocking to fit all — some- 
thing that is generally useful ; 
ichai tsoi^ mdti ^Cung, stick it 
into the stocking — as is done 
with pencils, foot-rules, &c.; 
po' mdf, stockings made of 
cotton cloth. 






cSM '^ colloquial word ; to sit on 
* ^ the heels ; to rest upon, to 
perch, to roost ; to thump ; .mau 
it'au }iok-> to rap the head with 
the knuckles; cmau 'W diu" 
squat you there ; .man kd' vng' 
Jai, to squat in a jar — to be 
ignorant of the world; ,mau4ai, 
to sit on the heels. 
^=y^ A stratagem, an artifice, a 
Mau '^^^i^^' * P'°t ; ^^ make plans ; 
to devise, to ponder, to fore- 
cast ; to deliberate, to consult 
with and upon ; to plot, to go 
about, to contrive ; ^mau hoi^ 
to plot against ; .k'i iinau, a 
cunning scheme ; (T/iav shat-, to 
murder, to devise one's death; 
imau (Shatig, or it/ing (mau, to 
lay plans for a livelihood ; (mau 
' ^fo-ti, to plot, to cabnl ; ^maii 

min^ to see one, to mark one's 
physiognomy ; iViau h'api ^fti 
it/an -.ying 'sz', he died for tell- 
ing the scheme to his wife ; 
jWiOM J^id'i a plan, a plot ; imau 
sz^* tso? (yan, iShing sz'- tso'i^ 
(t'in, man deviseth his wavs, 
but heaven coin|>Ietes his 
•fe To low, to bellow ; to take, 
,\i to usurp, to incroach, to de- 

.Mau . r' ' 

()rive ot ; to surpass, to pass 
beyond; to like; to double: 
an earthen utensil. Used for 
the nrxt. 
d^A Biirley, aho called gn-at 
M ^'''"^"* • s^WM inahi barlev, or 
barley and wheat. 

ToK. DlCT. b6 

/j^ Equal, of the same sort or 

"jyijly class, alike; even; to accord 

with ; '■ktcing pat^ ^seintg imau, 

truly they are unlike, very 


<R^ ''he pupil of the eye ; the 

Mau ^y^ ' '"""^ '^^' 'h® apple of the 
tye ; ^ming ^mau shin^ loi^ a 
clear eye glances brightly. 
^^^ Hempen thready bound 
"^^ around ; intimate intercourse, 
closely bound, familiar; wrong, 
perverse, erring ; ^ICau imau^ 
intricate, thick, closfly united. 
Read muki, a bad name in 
an epitaph. 
^& An iron pan or boiler ; a 
^n '*'"'^ "^ h*' casing ; Jan (mau, 
an ancient helmet, worn hy 
officers, with a flaring rim. 
-^] A certain person, time, 
ty !"P'3ce, or thing, used when 
"A^ I the name is unknown ; and 
Mau also for I ; used as a hiank, 
when one or two of the con. 
tracted form are used instead 
of inserting the name ; 'mau 
^mau lyan, a certain man ; '/d 
^mau, to emphasize a passage 
by ad'ling yat, Jin ^mau, a 
row of '■man on the side, equi- 
valent to S'nall capitals ; ^mau 
uti a certain month ; '■mau ,sin 
isliang, such a gentlen)an ; 
'/nt/« hdki Jai, a certain stran- 
gcr is here. 

A Chinese acre, which has 
varied much in size at diffe- 
rent eras ; it is now estimated 
at 260 p6\ which makes it 
equal to73:^^ sq. yds., or 6^% 
^man to an Eni^lish acre ; met. 
fif'Ids, arable land; yaf, ^mau ' 
It^ an acre of gruuml ; /in 





^ataUf Belds and farms ; shuV 
^mau, taxable fields. 
*4hl The threat toe ; tsuk^ ^mau, 

^ the great toe ; tp'ing ^mau^ a 

double toe. 
*AL The male of quadrupeds ; in 

j^ a few cases applied to plants ; 
a bolt of a door ; a male screw ; 
the part of a lock which slides 
in ; a piston ; ^pan ^mau, female 
and male ; cow and bull ; ^mau 
Jan ifdy the mowtan paeony ; 
'matt Mn ich'd, the mowtan 

"^* Exuberant foliage, rank, a 

jjj^y luxuriant growth; flourishing, 
thrifty, highly developed, a 
high rank or quality of; a term 
of praise, as elegant, fine, and 
much used in names ; to exert, 
to endeavor, strong, vigorous. 
ly ; a group of five persons ; 
mnu^ shing^ exuberant, exces. 
sive ; mau^ Jts'oi, fine talents ; 
all cyclic years with suU fV 
in them are called dm mav} ; 
tV man^ '■kdm J'au^ a dolt-head ; 
sau' mau^ thrifty, rich foliage ; 
mau^ '^in, many descendants. 

)0f- Interchanged with the last ; 

j^* to exert one's mind, force of 
moral purpose ; full, luxuriant ; 
pit-, mau^ ^ndi tak) with a fixed 
purpose, virtue will be strong. 

3^i Extravagant words of a fool ; 

0^ falsity, error; mistake; to de- 
ceive, to err, to irritate, to con. 
found or mislead ; tdi^ mau} a 
great error ; jAd ^md ich'd man^ 
not the least error ; chu niau^ 
fabulous, unworthy of belief. 



jC. a spear or lance, a hooked 
Map weapon ; the 1 10th radical of 
characters relating to spears ; 
iindu H'tin, "shieldsand spears" 
is a contradiction, opposing 
words ; tsz'^ ^s^ung ^vidu U'vn, 
self-contradiction ; J'tn iindu, 
star j8 in Bootes. 
^^ Reeds, or high rank grass, 
Mau ^^]^^ ^^" l»fi "sed for thatch ; 
a kind of low palm, resembling 
a Thrinax, or perhaps a scrub 
pine ; thatch ; jwidu sh6^ a cot- 
tage, my humble dwelling; 
{OTdM iliu, a lodge in a field ; 
tmdu uk:, a thatched house, a 
hut ; ik'au ihoi itndn saky pray 
to have my mind enlightened ; 
isin jmdtt, a sort of scrub pine ; 
imdu '<«'d, rushes for thatch ; 
t'iu^ itndu ishdn, to perform 
prayers by T^u priests over 
the sick ; pdki itndu Jsan, roots 
of couch grass — a febrifuge. 
"j A grub which destroys the 
> roots of grain ; (jmn iwidw, a 
t^j lady -bug foimd on the Doli- 
Mau chos, and used for blistering; 

:^ An ancient country situated 
Mau '" ^^^ present province of Sz'- 

lAfi An aquatic vegetable, 11 ki 
Mdu *"""ows ; t''e leaves an 
A cat ; jmd» jt, puss ; (mdu Ji, 


jyj.^a striped fox ; mat^ imdu '■kdm 
'-hail, as smtMtth-spoken as a 
cat.seller;j;mdu 'jf/tti ifungimin. 




the cat and the rat sleep togeth- 
er — rulers and thieves at 
league ; jwidu ji ^ngdn, the cat's 
eye ; swiau pi' kdm' tung' cold 
as a cat's nose — a hopeless 
thing. Often spoken itndu. 
-J^ The fourth of the "ten stems," 
mIu ^'""g'' *o wood and is referred 
to the rabbit ; a horary charac- 
ter ; morning ; a time, a day, 
an instalment, a term ; a catch 
on a carrying-pole ; flourishing, 
luxuriant ;cArdu'wa«, 5 o'clock 
A.M.; ching' ^/nau, 6 o'clock ; 
'ffWM u/j the second month ; 
wdti 'wdu, a smooth catch ; to 
fail in paying money; ^md^mdu 
tani' ikon, a smooth beam, a 
slippery fellow ; Jioi ^inau, to 
make the first payment of a 
series; to begin to bamboo 
upon the opening of offices 
after new.year ; ^pi ^mdii, to 
bamboo remiss policemen or 
recreant debtors ; tap ^tndu, 
substitutes who sellthemselvess 
to be bambooed ; ying^ '//idu, to 
answer the roll by a substitute; 
ying^ chu' hndu, to forego a 
thing to another ; Him ^mau, 
to call the roll ; ^nuiu Jc'U 3d 
and 8th davs in a month (the 
3d, 13th, 23d, 8th, 18th, and 
28lh), when papers are receiv- 
ed by magistrates ; icaki ^mdu, 
to answer a summons, to ap- 
pear ; ktco^ ^/ndu, to pass by, to 
< "^ The eighteenth of the 28th 
j^P constellations, answering to 

^i Aspect; the outward mein, 
?j^ manner, gait, form, look, ap. 
pcarancc, or figure; the visa gp. 

the countenance ; used in 
definitions to express an ab. 
stract quality of a thing ; to 
draw a likeness ; ^ng mdu' 
form, figure ; imin mdu- coun- 
tenance, expression ; ^mi mdu^ 
handsome ; mdu* ''ch'an, ugly, 
homely ; (ymg mdu* outline, 
aspect, as of a mountain ; 'Ad 
'paw mdu* good and elegant ; 
ifd ^nng uti mdu* beautiful as 
the moon and fair as flowers ; 
mdu* skin* ifong isam tvki be 
careful of smooth faced fellows. 

(30U M6. 


A colloquial word ; io carry 
a child pickapack ; to carry 
on the back ; to back ; (.m6 
^Isai, to carry children ; (m^ 
(pdufuki to carry a pack ; (OT^ 
tdi^ a pack-wrapper ; ^m^ 
^shtung (Shnn, to take the res- 
ponsibility of, to acknow ledge. 
Also, a final interrogative in- 
terjection, expressive of doubt ; 
^kdm ytung* ki* m^i such a 
sort, eh ! hat* (W^, is it so ! 

The bleating of a sheep ; 
tm^ <sheng, a bleating ; a^ung 
(ffi^, a sheep, a kid, a lamb. 

A colloquial word ; awry, 
askew, crooked, asquint, twist- 
ed ; to put or lay wrong ; iwdi 
(Wdi '»n^ 'm<^, all wrong, all 
awry ; '«i^ 'teui, a wry mouth ; 
'i72^ ]!t'au, a wry neck ; rather 
boozy ; ^maifong^ Vn^, don't 
lay it cro. ked ; 'A'i 'm^ tik^ to 
stand at ease, to lull, to lean 





(3«2) Mek. 

J^ A colloquial word ; to throw 

"^"a tliin<» away ; meki loki ^shu, 

to throw a book on the ground. 

(303) Meng.— *See Ming. 

iMeng. This soun<1 is often heard 
as a contraction for j'ni Js^an^, 
not yet. Also ^ts'unii iinPug, 
rosin, gum of the pine or fir. 



njSj To purse up the mouth ; to 
shut, to close, as the eye or 
mouth ; the last ; small, mi- 
nute ; to sip ; ^mi tik-, Hsau, sip 
the wine ; (ini imdi 'Aar/, silent ; 
lok, ^ii cTTii, fine rain ; '^shau ^chi 
cffii, the little fincrer. 
#rf- Small, insignificant, mean, 
"Jlp trifling; minute, delicate ; in 
a slight degree, rather ; ob- 
scure, mysterious ; hidden, ab- 
struse, recondite ; to fade, to 
dwindle, to decay, to diminish 
in value ; to hide away, to con- 
ceal ; to repress, as grief; not, 
without, have not ; an ulcer 
on the calf; imi saP very 
sm ill, fine work ; jmi ihd, tri- 
fling, unimportant ; ifnl miu^ 
exactly the thing, it just went 
in, minute, very smill ; jmi 
po^j too thin ; ^mi.fiing, a little 
brneze ; jmi iPlCnn, dusty, 
atoms of dust ; ^mi tsin^ vu'- 
gar; inferior; itni ma/i trifling, 











said of a present ; a thing of 
little or no use ; itni muti very 
little, the least bit ; i,mi jmi siu* 
a passing smile. 

A slight shower of rain ; jWii 
jWii '«, finf, small rain ; a tor- 
rent flowing in a ravine. 

A kind of pot-herb; vege- 
tables for the table, herbs ; 
Js6una jwii, a variety of rose ; 
fdki iTnif swallow- wort. (An 
asclepias ?) 

-\ delicate, beautiful woman ; 
elegant, handsome. 

The eyebrows; old, aged; 
brink of a well ; ishau (mi paty 
'■chin, to knit the eyebrows, 
contracted eyebrows, rueful ; 
^iigdn (mi, the eyebrows ; (ngo 
(mi, arcl)ed eyebrows ; rm' (mif 
a green, white-eyed thrush, a 
songster; Ho (kwan jWii, "Lau- 
tsz' eyebrows," — a fine pekoe 
tea ; (mi miik^ Mu lai^ beauti- 
ful eyes and brow. 

The margin or brink of a 
stream; water plants growing 
along the banks, mixed and 
tangled like a thicket ; jiMi (li, 
a lake in Hondn. 

A famous peak, called iNgo 
iTiii ishdn, in Kiating fii in 
Sz'chuen, near the Ta-tu 

The lintel of a door or wind- 
ow ; the plate of a roof; (Xhang 
^nu tsoki iimin (mi, to bear si 
daughter is as a lintel [which 
upholds the housf ]; ^wdng itni, 
a cross-piece of timber in a 
roof or story. 

A district town in Fnng- 
tsiang fu in tlie S. W. of Shen- 
si, south of the R. Wei. 










An elk or large species of 
deer ; a stag ; itni lyung, stag's 
horns, not deemed the best 
sort ; iini luk^ a stag. 

A halter for an ox ; to tie 
up, to fasten. Used for the 

A sort of rose, called its'^ung 
iTni, or cinnamon rose. 

A spirit made from wheat, 
and drank from off the dregs ; 
double fermented spirit. 

Rice gruel, thin congee ; 
dissolved, macerated by action 
of fire or water ; scum ; en- 
tirely ; iTiii chuki rice boiled to 
pieces ; ^wi Idn- boiled to rags ; 
meJ- oppressed, harassed to re- 
bellion ; iinifaV to waste ex- 
travagantly ; ip'o 'Ai Js'aug 
iTni, a scum floats on it ; kwok) 
Jid sWjipaiUhe state is wholly 

A bow unstrung and bent 
back ; at ease, resting ; to de- 
sist, to hinder, to stop ; to for- 
get ; to destroy, to put down ; 
imt td^ (On }hinfi, to put down 
the seditious, and quiet the 
loyal : Tpatt iVang jWii imong, 1 
can not forget it. 

Laid out, spread abroad, dis- 
persed ; troops retreating, put 
to flight, scattered, defeated ; 
overturned, inclined ; poured 
out : profuse, showy display, 
prodigal luxury, extravagant ; 
not having, not, without ; to 
implicate, to involve ; 'mi 'mi, 
slowly; private, sm;ill, insigni- 
ficant ; imd hni faP no waste 
of it ; (t'in ming' 'mi ^shhing, 
heaven's decrees are not un- 





Unwearied, indefatigable, 
continued exertion ; willing ; 
'mf ^mi, unceasing. 

The tail of animals ; the end, 
the extremity, the tail of, the 
last, the remnants of, driblets ; 
little things, the hinder part 
of; a stern ; the bottom of; a 
classifier of fishes ; copulation 
of animals ; ^shau hni tai* i' 
a very poor sort of, inferior; 
^shan 'mf or it'au 'mi, beginning 
and end, h^ad and tail, first 
or last ; (Shau 'mai ingan 'mi, 
broken and bad money bought; 
'mi Hai, the results of, what 
follows ; (kan ^mi, to follow one, 
as a lackey ; '^pdi ^mi, to wag 
the tail ; tap^ ^mi, to put the 
tail between the legs ; sko' 'mi, 
small unsettled balance ; {'»» 
cc/ii '^shau ^mi, I don't know 
where it was put, I don't know 
about the matter ; ^md tiki 
'^shaii ^mi, heedless, immethod- 
ical ; ^mihan* afterwards ; ^mi 
hau}''tim, what happened then? 
yah hni jii, one fish ; its' am ^mit 
look for a few more like this. 

Sweet, delicious, well-flavor- 
ed, savory, beautiful, excellent, 
good-looking, handsome ; hap- 
piness ; good, well ; to delight 
in, to esteem ; to praise, to 
commend ; hni '/i«, a pretty 
woman ; jwd ^mi, elegant ; ^mi 
mi^ good tasted ; 'mi /dm, well- 
said, good words ; ^mi ti^ rich 
lands ; tsdn^ hni, to praise ; 'mi 
tchung pat-, tsuh his happiness 
is not perfect ; ^mi lai^ fine, as 
a gem or piece of work ; yal, 
ich'^ung 'mi i? a good intention, 
a kind thou>;ht. 






dt'- Not yet, not now ; denotes 

"^ the sixth moon : the eighth of 
ihe " twelve branches," and 
symbolized by a sheep ; time 
from 1 till 3 o'clock p. m.; tow. 
ards evening; mi^ ting^ uncer- 
tain; ml^pil^ probably not ; mi' 
pit) '•kdm^ not so, I am sure ; 
ffij' its'ang, not yet, no ; Aii' (d' 
nti' has il got there yet, have 
you been there ? mV^yau, none 
vet, never has been. 

Taste, flavor, seasoning, re- 

"^^ lish ; a refish, a delicacy, a 
* dainty ; the style or beauties 
of a book or composition; to 
relish, to take pleasure in, to 
solace or recreate in ; '-/id mi* 
t^ good, delicious ; 'y^ mi* 
game, delicacies from the for. 
est ; iShii imd mi* tdi* tasteless, 
insipid ; stupid, as a book ; 
kano^ tfctt yat) mi* season it 
more, add another taste ; Hsan 
mi* lost its flavor; jWid mi* 
flavorless ; mi* Ini* aromatics, 
spicery, seasonings; mi* jfc'i 
jirt, relished his words; vii* 
yapi mi* not yet well seasoned ; 
hdpi mi* very palatable ; ^'ng 
mi* kd' a castor ; 'Ad dsz^ mi*, 
very interesting, pleasant. 

tojSi To rest from labor, to sleep ; 

^. sound sleep ; stupid, sleepy. 
^* headed ; ^k'u mi* he is asleep ; 
miins* mi* to dream ; mi* 'sAui, 
to dive or walk under water ; 
mi- iTndi iShiung ^ngdn, to shut 
the eyes, to keep the eyes shut 
tight ; 'frd mi*, to doze. 
Dust or mote in the eye, ob. 
. scuring the vision ; the ninht- 


mare, called at. (or Hm) miing*. 
mi'^imiin, sand in the vye, an 
irritable eye. 




Smirking, ogling, smiling; 
bewitching, engaging, attract- 
ive ; to flatter, to adulate, to 
speak soft words to ; blandish, 
ment, dalliance ; 'cA'm mi* to 
flatter, to toady ; 'f shiki mi* 
lyan, to please people by one's 
looks; (kiu mi* fascinating, 
exciting love ; mi* t'di* the 
mincing gait of Chines<j girls. 

An ogre or demon brute, 
with four legs and human face, 
which frightens men; tU mi* 
elves and ghosts. 



^3* ] To search for, to go about 

^- ^seeking ; to hunt up, to seek, 

^> j as quotations ; miki'^yam shiki 

Mih on the lookout for a dining. 

place ; mik-. Id* to look for land ; 

miki tuh found it ; miki kit' to 

search for qtiotations. 

A napkin to cover food 
with ; to cover anyth ing with 
a cloth ; to veil; the 14th 
radical of characters denot* 
ing coverings. 




OW To sleep, to go to sleep ; the 
Mi^ sleep of animals and plants ; 
dim, confused vision ; imiit 
ich'ong, a l)ed ; hii' imin, go to 
b-^d ; H'lu imin, the sleep of 
the willow ; ckino '^sing jwi/i 
kdii* frightened out of sleep ; 
iinin itinan ti* a " sleep v cow's 
land " is a lucky spot : ich'eung 




itnin, the "long .sleep" — death ; 
jwiin taki '^ki fuU how much 
room do you use to sleep in ? — 
what use is there in wrangling 
for such a trifle ? 
^^^'j Soft, cottony silk, like floss 
-iiP >or raw silk ; drawn out, pro- 
iflijfj longed, extended, outstretch. 
Mien ed ; uninterrupted, enduring, 
lasting ; stnall, weak ; thick, 
close ; c«i' jJrain, refuse silk ; 
Cmin ^in pat) tsvii unceasing 
flow of, continuously; idCin 
jmin, wound round and round, 
bound to by many ties ; '«n 
lU jwin, weak as floss. Inter- 
changed with the next. 
JbA The cotton plant ; muhi 

fl^n /min. the cotton tree (Bombax 
Mien t \ 44 . \r. 

cetba); cotton ; jwitn </a, raw 

cotton ; imin ■po' cotton cloth ; 

{Twin (foi, a quilt of cotton wool; 

imin ishd, cotton yarn ; iinin 

ndp> quilted garments ; ^kung 

imin, bowed or flocked cotton ; 

tso^ ijnin (fa (pdu, like sitting 

on a bale of cotton — stable, 


To put away or oflT, to free 

from, to dispense with; to 

spare, to forego, to excuse, to 

forgive ; to avoid, to prevent, 

to evade ; escaped fiom ; to 

remove fromotfice; a negative, 

do not, no need of; ^min^kun, 

to take ofl^ a cap ; ^min J.oi, he 

need not come ; ^niin tsui' to 

pardon, not to judge a crime ; 

'mj/i kin' he need not come in, 

can not see him ; ik'anpaU^min 

t«2' be careful in noting, and 

you need not be recalling to 

mind ; kfiU ^min J^'tmg, to remit 

the taxes ; ^min tdi. ^k'u Joit 


prevented his coming; ^min 
lai^ to elude the laws; to annul 
a law ; ^min chin^ to decline 
battle ; %'it kwd' 'min chin* 
ip'di, he shows the white 
feather ; mi^ 'minfai\shan, he 
spares no labor ; hnin Jd, don't 
trouble yourself, don't put your- 
self to inconvenience. 

'i% Same as /ti fl{f ; 'min'shau, 
Mien to hang down the head. 
-Sijj To force one's s(;If, unpleas- 
jyij^j^ant to one's feelings; con- 
strained, compelled, urged by 
circumstances; to put forth 
eflxtrt ; to urge, to animate, to 
stimulate, to persuade ; ^min 
^kUung, unwillingly, by con- 
straint ; ^min liki to be diligent; 
^k'iung ^min ^ni^ 1 would urge 
>^ yoti on. 
X^ To bear a child ; fan 'w^n, 
Mif n to be brought to bed. 
- ^ A crown, a coronet, a dia- 
jyij^dem of the Chau dynasty, 
made like a Cantah's cap, with 
pendents ; ikun 'min, a crown ; 
tsd^ tak-, cktin ^min, it will do 
very well, finely done — i. e. 
do for a crown. 
-BiG To look askance at ; to look 
Mien ^^ ^^^^dly ; to ogle, to glance 
the eyes ; ^min yaU %d ^ngdn^ 
take a look at it. 
-JiH A '^t^s near Hanyang fu in 
Mj/nHupeh; a name given the 
Han R. near its mouth ; ex- 
uberant waters, the banks full, 
flowing over. 
''liS ^^ think upon, to ^reflect on, 
jv'i7nto consider ; to recall to mind. 

"®j!l '^'* "'^^*^' *" ^^^'J*^" *o stimu. 

Mien ^^*®- 




-SBj Drunk, fuddled, intoxicated ; 

■X- addicted to, immersed, sunk 
in vice ; ich'am ^min, sunk in 
excess ; ^min Hsau pa/j cKvl^ so 
drunk he would not appear ; 
J,aa ^min, completely addicted 

-j&jS Fine silk thread ; to think 
Jl?" upon, to reflect, to imagine ; 
light ; obscure ; ^niin '^seung, to 
ponder ; hiin tin' kwokt Bur- 
mah ; ^min jin, to look at what 
is distant. 
■jffji The face, the countenance, 
Jj. the visage ; the front, the top, 
the surface, that which is for- 
wards or anterior ; a side, a 
face ; face to face, in one's 
presence, openly; honor, cha- 
racter, reputation ; to front, to 
show the face, to see one, to 
turn the face to ; personally ; 
the 176th radical of characters 
pertaining to the face ; a clas- 
sitier of mirrors, gongs, and 
drums ; wi»' mdn^ the expres. 
sion ; min} mnki the face, the 
look of; mW (Chii, the cheek 
bone ; pin- mi«' a fan, a screen ; 
pdti min} the four points of 
compass and their halves ; niin^ 
tkdu, to give to personally ; ^iii 
chat) min} icha, do you just 
look for yourself; min* h^iinii^ 
^sh^ung, the top this side up ; 
itiu mW to lose one's character; 
% mill} the inner surface, in. 
side ; '/a/i min' displeased with, 
to turn away the face ; dong 
min' in presence of, to his face ; 
tui* min' opposite ; yaf, min' 
tod' hii^ ynU min' wd' t'm liij} 
one while he says go, and then 
he says stop ; yaU min' keng' 


a looking-glass ; ^shun min' on 
deck ; min' shiki complexion ; 
min' Js'in, before, in sight ; 
Jtau c/iin tik^ pokimin' leave me 
some reputation ; min' shin' 
acquainted with ; '^Id chiu' min' 
made a visit ; ^shang min' un- 
acquainted with. 
"1 Wheaten flour; min' shiki 
\ pastry cakes, the dessert of 
j a dinner ; min' ^fau or min' 
(pdu, bread in loaves ; ikon 
shiki min' to give money in- 
stead of the dinner ; tnin' ''fan^ 
flour ; icKdi min' to knead flour; 
itigdn min' to roll out dough ; 
'■td min' to fry flitters ^fad min* 
to raise bread. 



qH Bright, clear, plain ; evident, 
ij. open, above-board, manifest ; 
brilliance, brightness, splen- 
dor ; intelligent, astute, per- 
spicacious ; to enlighten, to 
illustrate, to shed light on by 
explanations; to distinguish 
clearly ; iming pdki clear, in. 
telligible; ^chi {inin^ pdki I 
know all about it; ^ni iming 
pdki s'm Js'ang, do you per- 
ceive it yet ? (kwong (ining^ 
light, clear ; j?/ta« iming, gods, 
idols; '■k'aiiming, break of day; 
the ; iming yat^ 
to-morrow ; iming lyan, an 
honest, trustworthy man ; 
iming ikung, clever, quickwif. ^ 
ted ; iining /<^/^, mental powur ; 
(Sin <?niiig, new, showy ; ^nda 
iming, hard to comprehend; 




itnin^ (niing tsoi^ hd' inferiors 
(or the people) know it well; 
iming rchiii Hsd, early to-mor. 
row morning ; <,miTig hndi iViing 
mdi^ a lawful business ; iTning 
*long, transparent ; clear, like 
fine printing ; iinirig fining hai- 
it clearly is so. 

(This character is usually pronounced m«n;.) 

^ A name, that by which a 
1/-^ being or thing is called ; the 
given name of persons ; met. 
a person ; a title ; fame, repu- 
tation, official merit; eclat, 
credit, merit ; famous, well- 
known, noted, meritorious, re- 
nowned, eminent, celebrated ; 
to name, to designate ; fining 
tshingt reputation, fame ; '/« 
kiu' mati (tneng, what is your 
name ? <yan imeng ^mb pdk} 
'^shui, men's names have no 
certainty in their characters ; 
^mdi <xneng, to buy title or 
fame ; ts^^ imeng^ to borrow or 
take another's name at an 
examination, to pretend to ; 
cning fip-> a visiting-card ; 
iVieng ho'- or imeng tsi"^ an 
epithet or denomination by 
which a person, shop, or thing 
is known ; ^ming hd- under or 
attached ioa name ; Him imeng ^ 
to call over the names ; wan} 
Uneng or c/a imeng, a nick- 
name ; mo' itneng, to forge a 
name, to use another's influ- 
ence or name ; 'u imeng, ^shu 
imeng or ^hin imeng, and pit} 
imeng, are the infant name, 
the official name, and the style 
taken by men at different times 
of life; (^un^smen^, reputation; 
ik'au imeng, to seek honor. ' 

Tox. DiCT. 37 


*a* Dark, dismal, doleful, ob- 
^j-j> scure ; deep, dark recesses, like 
a cavern, night-likr; approach 
of night ; mind uninformed or 
immature, as a child's ; the 
world of darkness, aheol or 
hades ; ifs'lng iming, heaven ; 
(.yau iming, lost to sight, the 
abode of spirits ; iming '■fu, or 
iming (kdn, limbo ; iming iwan, 
uninstructed,stupid ; (hoiiming 
W to " open the dark road," 
is to ring bells and make in- 
cantations for the dead, 
yg* The wide and boundless sea, 
the deep; drizzling rain, fine 
mist, clouds on hill-tops ; '*m 
'ii iming iming, a fine soaking 
rain ; iming '■hoi, the blue 
boundless ocean. 
*^ A lucky plant, called iming 
^^J^frap, which grew in Yu's paU 
ace, and in its foliage followed 
the moon — perliaps a sort of 
bulb, tiie leaves of which alter- 
nately sprouted and died. 
iJjG^ An insect which eats grain 
-^^ and causes blight ; iming iling, 
^a caterpillar on the mulberry, 
which the sphex is supposed 
to adopt for its young ; iViing 
Jing (Chi Hsz' an adopted son. 
P^ The cry of a bird or animal, 


as a crow, song, buzz, hum. 

yell, &c.; a sound emitted 
from a drum or sonorous body ; 
to sound, to cause to yield a 
sound ; to resound, as fame ; 
birds calling to each other ; 
iming ichung, to sound a bell ; 
iming ilo, to strike argong ; 
(kai iming, cock-crowing ; tuk, 
'■ch^ung indn ^ming, it's hard to 
clap with one hand ; iming ^iin, 
to petition fur redress. 




'■Mt '''^^' '^°"^®'" 'eaves of the 

/jP^ tea ; chi^ ^niing, to prepare tea ; 

^Ji^ung 'ining, fragrant tea; 

(phan JieuHg ^ming, a kind of 

white (Macartney's?) rose. 

-flp^ A spirit made from glutinous 

j^^ rice and wheat ; ^ming '■ting, 

very drunk. 
-^ To remember, to inscribe on 
j^i>? the memory, to record for the 
purpose of preserving ; to en- 
grave, to carve on metal or 
stone ; a book of precepts for 
one's conduct, guides for con- 
duct ; ^ming isam, engraven on 
the heart ; cpi ^ming, a stone 
tablet or record ; ^ming itsing, 
an eulogistic banner carried at 
funerals ; ^ining '■kdm ^''ng tioi' 
held in grateful remembrance. 
-H^ To close the eyes in death ; 
yu{^ dull vision, indistinct sight ; 

"*l"g 1 ^ c • Till 

ikdm (Sam ^mmg muki to shut 
the eyes cheerfully in death ; 
^ming ^mingy obscure vision ; 
^ming ishan, the " blind states, 
man," is an epithet of Sz' 
Kvvang of Tsin, b. c. 540. 
" tnt Utensils, dishes, and vessels 
used in eating; the 108th ra- 
'"^ dical of characters relating to 
dishes ; hi' 'ming, articles used 
in worship or eating, <kc. 

(This character ig often pronounced meng.) 

/^' To order, to command, to 
'\direct; an ordinance, a be- 
hest, a rescript giving orders, 
a direction, a decree ; in polite 
usage, a request, a wish ; 
heaven, fate, destiny, lot in 
life; nature, natural habits of; 
fortune, luck; the natural life 
of beings; animated, living, 
creatures ; 'Ad meng- a happy 


lot; '/« meng^ wretched, unfor. 
tunate in life ; ^t'in meng' will 
of heaven, fate ; iu' /iw meng* 
he wants my life ; iku titki 
meng^ alone in the world ; siin' 
meng' to tell fortunes ; fung' 
meng- to get orders; ich'dung 
meng^ a long life — over sixty 
years ; ishang ming' living 
things, life ; ming' on' capital 
cases (in law); meng' wan^ a 
horoscope, and its correlative 
of a ruling character over ^ 
years ; ya/> yat, jM meng' every 
thing done as ordered ; iwong 
meng' a death-warrant ; pun' 
meng' to risk life; meng' ^fu, 
a titled lady ; meng' (ChiUf 
natural bias, nature ; J'in ming' 
to suffer capital punishment. 

(308) Mit. 

IjJ^ To strike with the hand ; to 

^j^lJpull up; to feel of ; to push. 

A colloquial word ; to tear 

off or up, to pull to pieces or 

apart ; to pull off, as a scab ; 

to pinch ; to break off, to pluck, 

as a leaf; mil:, Jio Jdn tav} to 

shell pease ; m%H Ho., to pinch 

the cars ; w«^ 'c/jt, to pull off 

paper, as when it is pasted ; 

mt/j min' ichii, to pinch the 


fcfi- "J To destroy with fire ; to 

^^ ;. exterminate, to finish, to ab<>- 

'/^, j lish, to cut off; to put out ; 

Mieh mifi -Jang, put out the lamps ; 

'f*iM mi/j to raze to the ground, 

to exterminate utterly ; mHi 

Heng, the water is overhead ; 







tdm} mill rtnii perfectly taste- 
less, insipid ; Hd miti to extin. 
guish fire, by beating it ; tsz^' 
'■ts'ii mih (ftiong, he brought on 
his own ruin. 

Interchanged with the last ; 
not, without ; small, minute, 
worthless ; scraped thin, pared ; 
uncivil, to show contempt to ; 
vitii ^yau, none ; pat:, miti iinan 
ikung, not to disregard merit 
among the people ; mih Mi 
dispirited ; also, dull in vision. 

Bamboos or reeds split into 
rods or slats ; splints for wea- 
ving baskets, or for hoops ; 
splinters, twigs, thin lath-like 
slips; skin of the bamboo; 
chuk) miti bamboo splints ; yat) 
it'iu miti a lioop. 

Sand flies or ephemera about 
stagnant water, generated in 
damp grounds, called miti 
imitng, which light and heat 







Shooting up of grain, the 
tender blade of herbs and grass; 
descendants, progeny ; the im- 
perial sumn)er hunt ; (iniu Hsz^ 
aborigines still found in the 
south of China ; ^mhi yui- pos- 
terity ; (icoiniii, paddy sprouts; 
shuki imiii, the subdued Mi4u- i 

To trace, to line, to draw, 
to design, to sketch ; to copy 
paintings or drawings ; iiniu \ 
Jcam to gild, to make designs I 
in geld ; lam' tm«/, blue pat- ; 

tern [chinaware]; jTOim lodlfi to 

paint or sketch ; (miu yat, 

yiung^ take an exact copy ; 

imiM iyung, to take a portrait ; 

imiii (nii, to " paint eyebrows," 

alludes to conjugal aflfection. 

'fft '^'^® mewing of cats ; also, 

{7^ a cat ; hnd imiv, a cat ; imiti 
miau , - 

iSneng, a mewing. 

'^h ^"^ ^y® small or wanting ; 

jyj<^ a contracted, deep sunk eye ; 
to look at with one eye, or with 
drawn up eyes, to glance at ; 
small, trifling, minute, subtile, 
abstruse ; all, to have nothing 
beyond or better ; ^miii shi' 
iyan, to regard proudly, to look 
down on one ; (.sham hniu mys- 
terious ; sffji ^miu, minute. 

-jH;], The boundless, indistinct, 

vVr and dazzling appearance of the 
ocean ; ^miu imong, immense, 
confounding so as to be hardly 
the subject of proof; doubtful, 
what can not be predicated on ; 
no telling what will come ; 
^miu ^miu, vast, unfathomable. 
^ The end or point of a tree, 

Jjpf a small branch ; the tapering 
end of a post ; the limit of, the 
end of a year or season ; sui' 
hnidt the close of the year ; 
tc/ti '/nftJ, the end of a branch ; 
ilam ^miii, the skirts of tiie 

^J^ Oljscure, as the sun setting 

^", behind trees, distant and in- 
distinct, dark, dusk ; profound, 
abstruse; confused, not f>er- 
ceiving clearly ; ^mia ^miu moki 
moki very obscure ; 'miu mingi 
dull, not plain, applied to the 
day or the mind ; ^miu jWo 
cj/am, no word from him. 





'^ A plant yielding a purple 
j^j^ydye; small, trifling, petty, 
contemptible ; remote ; to re. 
gard contemptuously, toslight, 
to look down upon ; superci- 
lious ; ';/im shi^ to look at dis- 
dainfully ; ^iniii Jieng, to dis- 
regard ; ^miu '■siu, small, petty. 
'^^ Interchanged with the last. 
*^ Also read moki; to look at from 
a distance ; 'mm ^miu, distant ; 

#i An adjective denoting ex- 
1^.. cellent, capital, perfect, good, 
admirable of its kind ; wonder- 
ful, fine ; subtle, mysterious, 
incomprehensible, difficult to 
fathom; spiritual, superna- 
tural ; miv} kuP a capital plan ; 
miu' 5z'^ a fine affair ; mhi^ 
Kihau, a skillful artist ; miv^ 
yiuki an excellent remedy, a 
wonderful medicine; miu- iiiin, 
one under age, a youth. 
Bfe-l A temple of ancestors or 

M I, 


, yofidols, a fane; a church; the 
! front hall of a palace ; (kd 

♦MiV.J nr '/cA mill- an nnppctrul 

MiAu miu} or Hsd miu- an ancestral 
temple ; t'dV miu^ the great 
temple of the emperor's fore- 
fathers; ishan miu^ an idol's 
temple ; miu^ kW a bride's 
worship of her husband's an- 
ccstors ; ^sh^ung miu^ H sz'- 
to go to a temple to consult on 
business ; ihng miv} ichi hV an 
utensil for a palace — a likely, 
rising man ; miv} chuk, ckung 
a temple curator, a sexton. 



(310) Mo. 

r^l Minute, delicate ; an inter- 

' "f^ > rogative adverb, what ? a final 

,1^ j interrogative, suggesting an 

Mo alternative, or a surprise or 

doubt ; '/li Joi Hiu ono, have 

you come hero ? sham^ imo is 

a common interrogative in the 

court dialect, like maU ^yi in 

the Canton dialect ; Joi tmo, 

has he come ? hai^ (mo, is it 

so, or is it not so? jiii mo, 

small, minute affairs. 

A colloquial word ; slow ; 'ni 
ihang mo ^mo, you walk very 
slowly ; ^n'l shik, tah kdni' mo, 
how slow you eat ! 

To feel or rub with the hand, 
to handle, to touch, to feel the 
texture of; to polish, to rub ; 
to destroy ; cyam iyeung (S^nng 
mo, the dujCl powers rub each 
other — are not harmonious ; 
'/m mo, to pat gently ; '^shii 
(mo, to pilfer, to steal like a 
rat ; '■shut Hai ,mo iiU to seek 
the moon at the bottom of 
the water — an impracticable 
thing ; moiso, to play or dawdle 
with ; cwio (mo ^ha, feel of it ; 
cWio (Sing Hivg, the Star-scrap- 
ing Ridge on the White Cloud 
Hills near Canton. 

A cup for water or tea, a 
tumbler or drmking-vessel. 

A malignant spirit, a devil, 
a demon ; to possess, torment- 
ed by a demon ; mo 'kwai, the 
devil ; a demon ; shvi- mo, 
horrid dreams ; Hsau <mo, de- 
lirium lre!uens;<.?/jj. /;»'>, poetic 









ravings ; ,mo peng^ delirious, 
raving ; 'kwai (mo '/li c/n^, has 
the devil got into you ? 

To rub, to polish ; to powder, 
to grind, to sharpen by rub- 
bing ; to afflict, to be distres. 
sed, to be brought down by 
affliction; trials; to examine 
into closely ; to draw out by 
torture ; itno li^ Jd, to whet a 
knife ; <,mo It' grind it sharp ; 
imo maki to rub India ink ; joto 
iTigdn shiki to grind paints ; 
shau^ (tsoi jWio to receive trials 
and misfortunes ; <,mo kdm^ liki 
ft'au, to work with utmost 
strength ; itno lai^ to examine 
strictly ; Hd ino, to polish ; imo 
lin^ to practice at, to fag at 

To cut, to dissect, to cut 
open ; to pare off, to slice or 
divide up. 

A colloquial word ; 'mo tsz'' 
stop, wait a minute ! 

A quern ; a mill for grind- 
ing grain ; to grind grain ; 
'«Aut mo' a water-mill; mo^ 
(ts6uns, to make rice starch ; 
mo' ifong, the mill-room ; ct'iii 
mo' to turn the mill ; (di mo* 
to push the quern ; mo- aam 
(or suti) the pivot of a quern. 



"rff A sorceress, a witch, an 
-^~. enchantress, a wise woman ; 
to perform incantations ; sor- 
rerv, magic ; '«u jwo, an en- 
chantress ; jTnd shuti magic 
arts, divination ; (nam jmo, a wi- 
zard, a sorcerer ; ,mo <s/idn, a 


mountain and a district in 
Kweichau fu in Sz'chuen. 
A— To deceive, to invent, to 
^^^ affirm what does not exist ; to 
"^ accuse the innocent, to incul- 
pate falsely, to calumniate ; 
false, visionary, superstitious ; 
calumny, slander ; (md hdm* 
to ruin by slander ; (md Idi^ to 
implicate one by lies; jmd kb^ 
a lying accusation ; j»nd tiipj 
'Ad iyan, to trump up a charge 
against innocent persons. 

t^ Hair, pelage, feathers, down, 
-"t" fyrj the covering of brutes ; 
the 82d radical of characters 
relating to hair ; herbage, the 
covering of the earth ; nap of 
felt; to deprive of hair ; sWnjWid, 
round-haired t. e. quadrupeds; 
'■pin find, flat-haired i. e. birds ; 
iyau iVtd, a sheep ; V ^md, two 
sorts of hair — grayhaired ; paU 
imd (Chi ti^ a wilderness, a wild ; 
met. savages ; j/no ^chui\g, the 
weight of a thing, including 
tare and tret ; ^md peng^ " hair 
disease," an idiosyncrasy, an 
eccentricity, a penchant, a 
weakness or failing ; 'Ad iling 
imo, ek'gant birds, spirited 
drawings of birds; jmd '/ctin, 
the barrel of a quill ; imdcchin, 
a carpet ; fat, jmd, to become 

The human hair ; the hair 
on the forehead ; tufts on in- 
fants' heads, trimmed on each 
side of the fontanelle, called 
Mil' shun' .mo or filial tufts ; 
the long hairs ; mft. eminent, 
courageous, superior ; ^md *t'* 
eminent scholars ; <.vh?i' ^md, 
superior to the rest. 





IVlau ' 


■tfe A cow's tn il, or cliowrie used 
- '^ as a signal ; a squirrel or 
marten's tai! used at the top 
of a flag-stalf; ikon ^md, a tail 
on a flag-staff. 

Overgrown with grass ; her- 

hage; vegetables; jWio (kaug, 

meat pottage ; ^md ts'op pot. 

herbs, greens. 

lA A pattern, model, muster ; 

"ma * '1^*^'^ ; ^ ^'^'■f" or guide to go 

by ; the figure ; a rule ; ikw'ai 

iVid, a regulation ; manner, de- 

portment; imdyiung^a. pattern; 

'/d 'cAi s»/id, to make a sign 


^^ Interchanged with the last ; 

-^^ to imitate, to follow a pattern ; 

to feel with the hand; to sketch; 

jWio '«e, to sketch a likeness ; 

itniu iind yati' sun^ to forge or 

counterfeit a seal ; jwd iUng, 


fft Consultation, counsel, matur- 

*jj^ ed plan, a well settled course 

of conduct ; a rule of action ; 

to imitate ; ^man iind, to devise 

plans ; jwd noai- counterfeit. 

A prohibitive negative, do 

y^ not, don't do; a denial; an 

interrogative, intimating a 

doubt : the 80th radical ; tso^ 

lit J.s6ung itnd, can I sit down ? 

jWto iioai laki shi^ don't oppose 

this special edict ; (inb '■hii, to 

deny. Interchanged with the 


<|^ "} Not, none, not having, with- 

~^".» yout, not possessing, destitute 

j/lQjof, wanting; not to exist; 

Wu iTnd ynnft^ syi", a useless fel- 

low ; (,md wa't} ichi m" an un- 

im!)ortant matter ; iind han^ 

illitnitai)le, endless ; emu sz"^ at 








leisure, no business ; jwid noi^ 
iho, no help for it ; chai^ /oi 
iind noi^ Jio, the governor, 
general can't help himself; jWid 
mah ichung yung^ very little 
use ; itno i' ichutig ^mdi, bought 
it without deliberation; imd 
'^sho pat, (Chi, omniscient ; iind 
yah paty'^hiu, there's nothing he 
does not understand ; '/»u imd 
ch'iit) childless ; iind ichung 
(Shang ^yau, it grew out of 
nothing, unfounded. 

A colloquial word, used for 
the last ; none, nothing ; not 
yet, not ; ^yaii, ^md lUi, is there 
any or not? hnd tsd^ kwo^ never 
did it ; hit hnd '■pi 'ngo, you 
have not yet given it to me ; 
iind isam takt unintentional ; 
'/no hii' kwoi' never been there. 

Overrun with, rank growth ; 
dirty, dank, stinking weeds ; 
iind waP covered with rubbish 
and )vceds; <fong iind, uncul- 
tivated, grassy. 

To flatter, to caress, to sooth, 
to comfort ; an expression of 
love ; affection ; htid iin, alas ! 
sad, sad ! 

A porch, lodge, portico, piazza 
or corridor near the gate ; side 
galleries ; a large vacant house. 
Read iind, luxuriant, abundant 

Meat dried without bones, 
jerked meat used in sacrifices ; 
(Chati iUn ^md hnd, everywhere 
it is fertile. 

A mother ; a female ; she or 
that which produces ; female 
of brutes; met. earth ; district 
magistrates ; the source of; 
inferior, small ; '/o hnd or hnd 





its' an, a mother; ^ii'/nd, a nursp, 
a foster-mother; ngoi' 'mo or 
ngoki^ -nio, wife's mother ; kai^ 
^ind, an adopted mother, a step- 
mother ; '/«' ^md, great and 
small, as in sorts ; superior and 
inferior ; '//»() Jing Jiiung, mo- 
ther cloves ; kipok'. ^md, the 
empress ; shapi ^md, the ten 
stems ; "tsz' '//id its'in, interest 
and principal ; ilung 'mo ininng 
(niungy Amphitrite, the god- 
dess of the seas ; ichu 'md, a 
sow ; '■chu 'mo, the principal 
wife. Distinguished from -ffl- 
by the two dots. 

A childless widow of fifty, 
who can instruct in female 
duties ; a schoolmistress ; an 
elder brother's wife is called 
'/«d by her 'sham, or younger 
sisters-in-law ; Idi^ 'md, my 

)ise ; to 
make fun 
of; neglect, disrespect ; ^md 
hing* to make game of, to be 
humbugged ; ^mo man* to in- 
sult, to lord it over. 
"S^ Military, martial, relating to 
^* war ; strong, warlike, brave, 
audacious, fierce-looking, ma- 
jestic, firm ; to stop anarchy 
by force ; a vestige, a footstep, 
a trace ; to connect with ; 'mo 
Jtun or 'md tseung^ miliiary 
officers ; 'md t/w, a hero, a sol- 
dierly man : hoki hno ngai- to 
study tactics ; Vj«u 'md, mili- 
tary examinations for kiijin ; 
*J[fd Tsak:, it'in, a celebrated 
empress, a.d. 640, a Messali- 
na, a courtesan ; ^md liin' to 
threaten ; iutimidatioo ; 'mo 

it^t^ To insult, to despi 
U^ hoot ; to ridicule, to ms 



cfrd, a cadet ; 'mo ittgav, a 
stupid cadet — an epithet ; 'pi 
*md, trials of martial skill ; 
islihig ik'i 'tsd hnd, to per- 
petuate his forefather's deeds, 
-p^ A stone, called ^mo ifu, of a 
\^. fine grain, but not a gem. 

'^% A parrot, called tying hnd, 
*^ of a large size ; a macaw, a 

To posture, to play with the 
body, to gesture, to dance ; 
sleight-of-hand, pantomime, 
fencing, tumbling ; I'iu^ 'md, 
dancing ; 'fd ^md, boxing ; 'md 
kirn' fencing ; had iSz' one in 
a lion's figure at play ; '■ku^md 
ishiiig ich'au, to excite others 
to play and make them en. 
emies ; tsik} thai' ^mb Jiiin, to 
afiect another's authority ; ^mx) 
pai} officers winking at de- 
linquencies, official overlook- 
ing ; 'md ^md Jau, to play with 

'I'o skip and dance ; to ex- 
cite ; ichiu hnd t.shdn, a moun- 
tain in Shantung. 

An old man of ninety years ; 

forgetful, in second childhood, 

decrepit, senile ; md^ tUi an old 

man ; jwin 'A-i ^shui mo^ aged 

and infirm. 

tffi.- An eye with a small iris ; 

Mau f^i'"-s'ghted, with a dull eye ; 

stupid, bewildered ; "^fui md^ 

confused, stupefied. 

^,- To u«3 great effort, to bend 

^i^' the mind to a subject, to attend 

to carefully ; what is attended 

to, business, duty, concerns; 

a strong affirmative, must ; «'' 

mo^ what one does, business ; 

mo* tSii ia' absolutely required 







md* '■pun ipi to attend to one's 
own duties ; md' pit, indispen- 
sible ; 'pu« md^ my own atfairs; 
t'm md^ no application ; ichiin 
mb* tuki ishii, engaged in study 
alone ; isam md^ a project, an 
intention ; '^siii iyan md^^ii It^ 
petty minds are bent on gain ; 
titd md' tdi^ liis domestic affairs 
are important. 

Fog, mist ; vapor issuing 
forth from the ground ; yat, 
it'au md' 'sAui, it is all a mist 
to me — unintelligible ; iWan 
md^ a fog; ihd md- a mist, 
smoky ; i^cong md* a dense 
mist ; ^k'u tsd^ sz'^ M mo' he 
does things very blunderingly ; 
^td md* to go with a paramour. 
^- A gay horse ; to prance 
^ wildly, to gallop furiously ; 

boisterous, violent. 
■^^ The evening, sunset ; de- 
cline of life ; end of a period 
of time ; /in md' decline of the 
day ; iChiii md* morning and 
evening ; tiid* swin, aged ; tno* 
iclinn, end of spring. 
^- A barrow, a tumulus ; a low 
^ grave, a tomb, a sepulchre ; md* 
jpt, a tombstone ; 7«d' chi' a 
eulogy on a stone ; tcfidng md- 
li* disputes about graves ; ^hui 
md* to open a grave. 
^- To invite, to call upon, to 
^ ask people to do ; to enlist, to 
give a bounty to; a public 
invitation, a general call; md* 
iping, to levy soldiers ; ichiu 
mc^ chong' ding, to enlist vo- 
lunteeers ; md- fa" priests beg- 
ging alms ; mo'/d' jcA'un^ isau 
to circulate a subscriptioii-list 
for repairing somothing ; ying' 
md' to respond to a levy. 



To think upon with affection, 
fondly to recall ; fond of, to 
long for, to hanker for ; to m- 
pire to, ambitious ; md*Ju* ^mdt 
to fondly think of one's pa- 
ents; ^y^ung md* to look up to, 
to reverence ; oi' mo* to love 
rHi The fifth of the «• ten stems," 
AlTu ^h'<^^ answers to earth ; a for- 
tunate day. 
jS - A head covering ; to go on 
jyj^^ blindfold, to rush heedless on ; 
to assume, to feign, to take 
upon one's self without author- 
ity, to presume ; to venture on, 
to brave out ; blind to, rash, 
venturesome ; false ; to falsify, 
to counterfeit, to affirm what 
is false ; md* imeng, to assume 
a name ; md^ mui* obscure, 
ignorant and rash ; md* fan* 
to willfully offend ; 'Ad ;n^^^•^i/I, 
to pretend to be officers ; 'A:d 
md*(.chiuip'ai, to take another's 
label ; md* '^him, to rush into 
danger ; rnd* ^u, indifferent 
to the rain ; Vfdm md* to take 
a slight cold. 
4iS- Envy, jealousy ; to regard 
Mdu ^^'^^' ill-will, envious of other's 

excellence or prosperity. 
jj)H- A Chinese cap or hat, a 
Miu covering for the head ; iUung 
md^ a summer cap ; -nun md* a 
warm or winter cap; tdi' md* 
to wear a hat ; md- tim* a hat 
shop : ihung ^yins tno' cap with 
red fringe ; Hs^d md* a straw 
hat ; chuk, kdp, mb* a bamboo 
coolie-hat ; 'pi kin^ ^kd md' lap, 
cfiii* '/li, to hoodwink, to bam- 
boozle with fair (speeches ; SM^ 
md* a cloth hood ; ^chin md' a 
full hat. 






To feel for, or after, with the 
jjj /hand, to feel and take, to 
grasp ; moh sok) to feel after 
with the hand ; sndn H chuki 
mok, not easy to tell, unlikely ; 
chiuki mok, careless, leaving 
things half done. 

A colloquial word ; to pare 
'off, to skin ; to pull or take off, 
as clothes, from another ; mok, 
ip'i, skin it; mok, itsing Moon g, 
to strip bare ; mok, hok, peel 
off the husk. 
•j^ A negative forbidding an 
?j*j^act; do not, not, no need of; 
if, unless ; when preceding an 
adjective, often denotes the 
highest degree of, nothing like, 
incomparably ; to plan; ample, 
great; peace, tranquillity; moki 
Joi, you need not come ; moki 
'^hln 'k'ii, let him alone, don't 
meddle with him ; mok^ tf% is 
both an interrogative and a 
strong assertion ; moki c/i ''si 
ts^o^ unless you've written it' 
wrong; mok^ y^uki nothing like 
it, the best way, better than ; 
moki sti, very proper, the best ; 
moki sham^ tii ot' none stronger 
than love ; mok, pat, shi' it 
can not but be so ; is it not so ? 
moki shuti don't say it, wonder 
not — a phrase implying com- 
parison ; moki^sii 'yau, certain. 
ly must be brought about ; 
mrtki tsb^ ifd, don't make marks 
on it, don't spoil its smooth- 
ness ; moki ko' '■kong, don't spea k 
anything ; mok,, ko^ ^hoi ka" 

Ton. Dict. 38 

don't raise the price ; moki 
iu-ai, don't do it ; moki kwo^ S^ 
'not more than, not more so. 
*^ Moving sands, a sandy 
j^^-plain; dry; careless, indiffer- 
ent to ; iSha moki the desert of 
Sbamo or Gobi ; tdm^ mokj 
simple desires ; moki tnoki jiw, 
vast, like a desert. 
•^ A curtain, a screen, a cano- 
^^-py ; a tent, a large markee ; 
° defenses like greaves for the 
legs ; to cover ; a secretary, a 
private military secretary, a 
confidential clerk ; moki ^fu, 
an encampment, official moms 
of a secretary ; moki ^yau^ or 
moki (pan, a private secretary, 
the adviser of an officer, an 
authorized clerk; tsok, moki 
to act as clerk ; luki moki the 
universe ; iyau moki a secre- 
tary on a circuit. Used for 
the last. 
m. Still, silent, as at night; 
Mnh fsik, moki silence. 
^S Sickness, disease ; one de- 
i^j^fines it as an itching sickness. 

tt^ The filmy skin between the 
ff^.-flesh and epidermis; the tijin 
peel inside of grasses or eggs ; 
any membrane or pellicle in 
plants or animals, as the 
cornea, the mesentery ; ^ngdn 
moki the cornea ; yaty its'ang 
moki a thickness of skin on 
the eye, a pterygium. 

Read imd ; to bow, to make 

obeisance ; to soothe ; to re. 

ceive by kneeling to ; Md p&V 

to salute by kneeling. 

A^ A two-edged sword, called 

"^moki iye, famous in the Lieh 


Kwoh Ciii. 





(^'3) Mong. 

Jjgjg A colloquial word ; the man- 
go ; iTHong ^hwo, the mango 
fruit; the name is an imita- 
tion ofthe foreign word; anong 
'■kico (fa, a mango Huwer — 
great promise and no perform- 
ance ; ijnong ^kwo Jo iWO 'sAiu, 
when mangoes are plenty rice 
is dear. 
-I*- Lost, destroyed without a 

!,,. trace, exterminated; dead, 
Win fir 

^ out of mind, forgotten ; to 

flee, to escape, to ahscond ; 

'sz' (.mong., dead ; imong shat^ 

lost, utterly gone ; imong ku' 

deceased ; ikd sari' ^yan iHiong, 

family utterly extinct ; itnong 

iijan, a fugitive ; one dead ; 

iTiiong iioan, comatose, insensi. 

ble. Used for jmd 4fflE not. 

l-jt- Fluttered, distracted with 
iJy cnre ; busv, hurried, much 
'^occupied; ^ tii shai (inongy 
don't be in a hurry ; 
itnongy fidgotty, hurried; cA^uAc, 
imoiig, startled I)y sudden 
news ; j'm tsoi- ^mongy no need 
of fear ; kap:, imongy hurried, 

■t To forget, to escape the mind ; 
.Mr'f'^.to neglect, to leave or disre- 
gard ; shW iinong, absent- 
minded, a slippery memory ; 
stnong kt' forgot it ; <jinong lyan, 
ungrateful ;jra/5 imong, negli. 
gent ; tso^ (mong, to sit vacant- 
ly ; itnong "-pun, to forget one's 
Ix^ncfactor or parent ; ^mong 
its'ing, unfriendly. 


-Vt The awn or beard of grain ; 

MkniT ^ '^''arp or spinous point ; tail 

" of a comet ; (tnong chung' 

"bearded grain," one ofthe 24 

terms ; onong finong, grand, 

much crowded ; ^mong (mong 

<;i« cA;wai, excessively fatigued; 

he turned back ; (ktvong iiiion^, 

a gleam of light, ara)', a tlasli. 

^tt 'J'lic iujinense expanse of the 

;<i- ocean ; vast, uncertain, d;i/.- 

" zlmg ; U-t ong iinong, dreary, 

vast, illimitable. 

Tj4* Name of a hill ; ^mong ,_siu, 

;,, „a medicine, a kind of salts. 

/Hf; The point or edge of a sword ; 

1^2"^^""^ '"""'^' ^''® point of a 

^ knife or weapon. 
|Mt The name of a hill and town 

Manjr "^^"^ ^^^ ancient capital Loh- 

^ A gadfly, a breeze, a fly in- 
1?^ r festing animals; jwott^jcA'ur;^ 
'' a gnat ; ^wong i>nong, a tly 
which attacks cows, 
-jgl A net ; stopped, hindered ; 
yy^"!^ deceived, entangled; not, 
without, nothing, none ; to 
accuse falsely, to mipose upon ; 
hn^ng kin' saw nothing of it ; 
hnong map sagacious, intelli- 
gent ; hnong lui'' to implicate. 
Used for the next. 

"^1 "^ "®* ^^^ fowling or fishing ; 

W^nff^ net of any kind, a web; 
that which arrests people, as 
the law; a haul of a net; to n( i, 
to catch ; to implicate people , 
iCh'an Vjon^, a " dusty net," 
the world ; 'mong Jean, a net 
cap, worn by actors ; t''i« 'mong 
the government of Heaven, 
fate ; 'mong At, to catch fish ; 




^mong it/an, the mesentery ; 
ichi (Chii ^mong, a spider's web ; 
tsz'^ /au Jo ^mong, to run into 
the net one's self; J'in Jo ti* 
^mong, sort of a rat-trap ; j/a/; 
ich^uvg ^motig, a net ; Us^ung 
^mong, to bait nets with eggs ; 
sdlj^mong, to throw a net ; j/a/j 
^mong '/d tsun^ to get all at one 
haul — prompt ; lau^ -mong, to 
escape from justice. 
s±tai The tire or felly of a wheel ; 
-^1' the emperor's hunting car 

^ had double rims. 
~'k3 Flurried, forgetful of one's 
.yT* duties ; ^inong 'c/i'o/ig, irrcso- 
lute, disconcerted ; ^moiig jIH, 
not knowing what to do. 
iAffl A sprite, a gnome ; hnong 
\v^ 'leung, an elf, an undine, 
iig A dog in the grass ; thick 
ivu gr^ss, jungle, underbrush, 
^ weeds ; a plant noxious to 
fishes ; matted, confused, in- 
distinct ; rustic, rude ; Hs'd 
^moiig, weedy, tangled ; rude, 
clownish ; Hd ^mong, careless, 
rough, impertinent ; ^mong 
chong' intrusive, forcing one's 
self in, to obtruile on ; '■t-t'd 
muhi ^mong ^mong, like a 
thicket, tangled, 
-i^ The boa or anaconda, the 
.largest of serpents; ^mong 
iShi, or iwong ^mong, the boa ; 
^inofig ip'd, a court dress em- 
broidered with boas ; ^mong 
ich'iwg, a caterpillar. 

5 lis. Disorderly, brutish, unman- 
^ ^nerly ; false, vain, incoherent, 
"absurd, wild; immoral; ab- 
andoned ; ceasing to exist, not 
existing ; 'mong tsnh-, ^mong 
rH'tii, wild, unseemly behavior; 


ikw'ong ^mong, crazy, disorder- 
ly, overbearing ; ^md 'mong, 
the 25th diagram ; 'mong shdt, 
to give no quarter, useless 
slaughter ; 'mong tdn^ incohe- 
rent talk, absurd, fabulous ; 
'mong ching^ perjury, false 
ft^i To hope for, to expect, to 
^' anticipate ; to observe, to look 
^ at, or forward, or towards ; to 
look afar, to espy, to stare ; 
hopes, expectations ; near to, 
opposite, over against, front- 
ing ; the full moon ; a sacri. 
fice to hills and streams ; ^kam 
ynti mong' ynti to-day is the 
15th of the moon; '■hi ch'ut, 
mong- ngoi' joy beyond all 
expectation ■,mong'Hunk6' yati 
Hsz* to expect a festival day, to 
look for a holiday ; hu" mong* 
'ha, go and see if it is so ; krcd^ 
mong* to live in hopes of; <md 
'sho mong^ hopeles.«; shut, mong^ 
lost all hope ; itning mong- a 
great reputation ; mong'- sh^^ 
to' expecting a pardon ; ^ngo 
'^chi mong* 'ni tsd* I've been 
ex|)ecting you to do it ; mong* 
Ink, shapi nearly sixty years ; 
mong- mong* iin hii^ went off 
disgusted ; chdk, mong* to cor- 
rect, to reprimand, as a child, 
for reform ; jman mon^* the 
hope of the people ; tnong-'k'ii 
JoJ, waiting for him ; mong- 
iwan, or mong* kwo' sdV seen 
it all, looked it through ; mong* 
(Ch'iin (Sh^ung 'ngdn, bored 
my eyes through expecting 
you — tired of waiting for you. 











A colloquial word ; a girl, a 
maid ; cmui 'tsai, a girl ; '■shai 
tmuif a servam girl ; ^chong ka^ 
,muiy a maid given a bride at 
marriage ; imangctnuU a blind 
songstress ; isdm tol'imuU lepers 
(girls) of the third generation. 

A small tree, a shrub ; the 
Mei ^'^'^ °^^ shrub ; a cane, stick, 
a whip or switch ; a gag ; a 
classifier of rings, the seeds of 
fruit, of pears, of nails, of 
coins, <kc.; one of, each ; ihdm 
itnui, to gag ; ick'di smw/, to 
guess the fingers, the game of 
morra ; yat^. {miji (teng, nne 
nail ; yatamui waii a kernel or 
pit of a fruit. 

A plum, an apricot, a prune; 
the flowering almond ; ^siin 
jmiii, pickled plums; sour 
plums ; imui Hsai, plums ; 
iy^unn iinui, the Chinese tree 
strawberry (a Mi/rica); imui 
chiuki the " plum bumper," 
is a cup drank after weddmgs ; 
Idpi jwtii t/fl, the Cliimouan- 
thus fragrans ; iinui cfd itevg, 
a bubo ; i-piu <,mw, marriage- 
able ; iinui imui, obscure ; tmui 
^u, spring rains. 

Tiie meat on the breast or 
between the mouth and heart ; 
cchu imui yuki or kap, isam yuki 
the brisket of a pig. 
^? A sort of raspberry or other 
'M ®'^''*'® berry ; moss ; itnui i'oi, 
moss and lichens covering 
df\mp places ; Jdn ^chii jWitl? 
jTWiii, the bright green herbage 
by the streams. 
















A door-ring, having two locks, 
bolting the door, in it ; ich'ung 
iTnui, a double lock. 

Rain in summer, damp wea. 
ther ; damp, moldy, mildewed ; 
to mildew ; jmjzi Idn^ moldy, 
spoiled ; au' itniii^ rotten, 
moldy ; mah Adm' shapj iinui, 
why are you so dilatory? 
A go-between, a matchmaker, 
an arranger of marriages ; to 
covet ; any thing or person 
which operates as a cause to 
produce an effect ; imuiip'o, a 
female go-between ; jWiui ikdy 
to pledge girls. 

Soot ; coals, charcoal, em. 
hers ; coal ; (in iinui, lamp, 
black ; '■fo iinui, soot ; jmiii* 
Cdn^ fossil coal ; 7o iinui, to 
dig coal ; iHiui '■diong, a coal 
d6p6t ; (Chi iinui, a paper 
match ; '^fo imui iyung, tinder, 

A sacrifice or worship ofler. 
od by the emperor for a son. 

To conceive, to quicken in 
the womb ; iinui iinui, lusty, 
good looking. 

A bright red stone, called jmtit 
kwai^, red coral or jasper ; imui 
kwai^ cfd, the rose. 

Each, every, each one, any 
one ; constantly, usually, al- 
ways ; although ; to covet ; 
^mui inhf, each time ; 'mui 
^mui jii '/*'«' it is so each timi', 
it is ever this way ; ^mlii (ynn, 
each man ; ^mui yah kin^ sz'* 
each affair. 

] To defile, to stain with 

V dirty waCer, to dirty or foul ; 

! used atfectedlVf to annoy, to 

request, to ask a favor of; 




pdV hnui, to request of; ^mCi 
t'oki to get one's kind office-. 

Jcki A younger sister ; a sister ; 

<^ one's daughter; d' miii^ sister, 
sis ; ngoi^ mui^ half-sisters ; 
ihing mui^ brothers and sisters ; 
(kwai mui^ a woman's marriage; 
the 64 th diagram ; 'piti mui* 
female cousins; ling^ mai' 
your sister. 

n±.- No sun, twilight, dark, ob. 

^^. scure, difficult to distinguish 
things ; perfidious ; not under- 
standing matters ; mui^ 'shong 
and mui^ kuki dawn and dusk ; 
md^ tnui^ blindly, inconsiderate 
of results ; mui^ J,iung., self, 
deceived, to act falsely. 
'. Name of a city ; name of a 


.. . stream. 


i+i A kind of leather defense of 

5^ soldiers : a plant used to dye 
Met , . ■ ^ •' 


^fe- Anxiety, disease brought on 
1^ by care ; infirmity, disease ; 

c»flm inui^ sick at heart. 
iS- Tortoise-shell, called toi^ 
jyF'. muv'; a red marbled color ; toi^ 
mui^ sheki ipdw, the tortoise- 
shell garoupa (Serranus mega- 

Read md^ a sqrt of sceptre. 



•4;- Wood ; a tree ; wooden ; the 
.,' . "TSth radical of characters per- 
taining to wood ; one of the five 
elements and eight sounds; 
stiflf, unbending; honest, un- 
pretending ; yaU /iii shv^ muki 
a single tree ; muki tshing^ or 
t'au' muki. jyaji, a carpenter; 






muki Hit' timber, lumber ; muA-, 
ii'au, a block of wood, a billet, 
a stump ; muki hok, a wooden 
dipper ; muki Ji^ung, putchuck; 
Uuky muki to chop wood ; muki 
iSing, Jupiter; muki ^k'iung^ 
cross-grained ; chong^ muki 
ichiing, to " strike the wooden 
bell," is to get the bribe with, 
out paying it over to the ruler; 
muki ^ngau iyan^ an image, a 
dunce ;«" J'ong muki a square 
block, a poor stick of a fellow ; 
muki jmiifl, «• wooden doors," 
i. e. a rich family. 

To wash and oil the hair ; 
to wash, to cleanse, to bathe ; 
to enrich by kindness, to re- 
ceive favors ; favored, enrich- 
ed ; to rule kindly ; muki yuki 
to bathe ; muki cyaiif received 
favors ; viuki 'shau^ to wash 
the hands; e. it. to respectfully 
and carefully do anything. 

Small rain ; maki muki driz- 
zling rain. 

Ornamented leathern bands 
put around a car to strengthen 

Mallards or wild ducks ; 
ducks of any kind ; hdk) kuk, 
lui^ muki to carve a stork and 
make it a duck — a failure. 

To tend cattle, to look after 
flocks ; to pasture, to put out 
to grass ; a shepherd, a cow. 
herd, a pastor, a horse-keeper ; 
to watch over, to have the 
oversight of, to superintend ; 
a ruler of a district, one who 
is in charge of a place ; a 
religious teacher ; muk, ingau, 
n cowherd ; mnk^, /ung, ashep- 
herd-boy ; mukt c*j' an over- 




seer, a shepherd, a minister ; 
sirai iTnan mvki to be a district 
magistrate ; 7nuki itnan, to rule 
the people ; ^yau muki nomads, 
wandering shepherds of Gobi. 

J6 The pretty appearance of 

TjjT grain ; pleasing, beautiful, ma- 

jostic, ilispiring respect and 

admiration ; grandeur, cordial 

regard ; to revere ; to gratify ; 

mnki muki admirable, royal ; 

muki is used for Mohammed 

"^ ' in books; ,,chHu muA-jthe order 

' ^ of precedence of ancestral 

tablets, as parents and sons, 

grandfathers and fathers, left 

and right, cc/t'm being always 

superior to muki ; muki itnan, 


R The eye; the 105th radical 

.- u of characters relating to the 
Muh , • , , 

eye ; met. the mind, the per- 

ception ; to eye, to look a( ; to 
designate, to name, to particu- 
jarize ; a director, the head of a 
body, the principal person, a 
leader ; an index, a list, a sum- 
mary ; the meshes of a net ; 
squares on a chess-board ; 
'/jgd« muki the eye ; muki luki 
an index, a table of contents ; 
it'iu muki a list : (fo muki liter- 
ary ranks above siutsdi, scho- 
lars in those ranks ; nd^ muki 
angry ; muki ha^ now, before 
the eyes ; (mtt mnk^ blind ; mwAj 
tChung s»nd ipan, supercilious, 
contemptuous towards one ; 
'^fdn muki to turn against, un- 
friendly ; shd^ muki numbers; 

' ' «z" muki the four quarters ; 

' ' '■ch'Ai ,kimn muk^ to teach the- 
atricalrt ; H muki ich'^ung, a 
well informed person. 


A herb ; muki auk, trefoil or 

i. ,- clover used to feed horses. 



A kind eye, benignant, bar- 
['t*-.- monious, peaceful ; concord 
among relatives, affection ; 
to agree with, to make peace 
with ; (iDomuki harmony ; J.s'an 
muki kind, affectionate. 






A colloquial word ; to cover,' 
to cover a thing ; (miin '^ku, to 
cover a drum ; (mun (Shii ip'i, 
to put covers on a book ; imun 
(Sha, to cover with gauze or 
millinet ; tmiin ^kan, pull it 
over tight. 

To feel, to lay the band on, 
to touch, to take hold of, to 
examine, to <<earch for with 
the hand ; ouiin shat^ to feel 
for lice ; ^muu csam, to lay the 
hand on the heart, self-exami- 

A door, a gate with two 
leaves, a gateway ; met. the 
house, the family in it ; the 
169th radical of characters 
relating to doors ; an entrance, 
an opening : a harbor ; a sect, 
a class of people, a profession ; 
a family ; a classifier of can- 
non and affairs ; yat, Id' jm?/n, 
a single door ; m/> ^mun, a. cir- 
cular door ; H^ung shin^ imun^ 
a two-leaved door ; itnun '■hau, 
at the door, doorway; Idi'tmun, 
the outer gate ; d imiin, the 
medical profession : cshd <, 
or Ful ,mun, the Rudliisls or 




Sl;amans ; ftniin Jun Hsz* door- 
posts to bar up a door ; yat, 
<,ntun (Shang V one line of bu- 
siness ; s/iapi irnnn p'du' ten 
ciinnon ; iWdng f,7niin, a side- 
door ; ikung itniin, a public 
office ; (hort ^mi'tn (kvng, a door- 
keeper ; cfi'ut^ iinun, to enter 
upon otBce, to go abroad, to 
marry a husband ; hai^ ^iigo 
iTnun ha} he is one of my sect ; 
iTnun iyan or ^lun ^shang, a 
pupil, a disciple ; ^muri ^sh^ung, 
a gentleman's servant, a major- 
domo ; tdi' imnn '■liau, a great 
family ; ■pdi'iTnun, to acknow. 
ledge one as a patron ; finun 
(fung, the reputation of a fam- 
ilv ; (I'eng ^mnn, to wait at the 
door by night ; '?/«« j/hmh, but. 
ton-hole; min^jWJin, the cheekt^; 
(mun iinun J.b '^hiu, knows every 
thing, Jack-of-all-trades ; A;ti/' 
jT/ziin, to pry up a door ; pdfc) 
itntin, to slap on the gate ; mo^ 
^mu/i, the place behind the 
gravestone ; iinun tp'di, the 
door-tablet containing names 
of the fanjily ; imiin (Slian, a 

^fna Sign of the plural of persons; 

' !,' * fat, plump ; 'rti jWiurt, you ; htfio 
"" iTnun, we, us ; jye jma/i, official 
attendants ; you, gentlemen ; 
it'd iTnun, they ; d' ikun (rnun, 
young gentlemen ; cfi^^ imiln, 
*nd jrnua, these, those; here, 
^M To paint or ornament walls ; 

^V^ ornaments on walls ; to cover 
with earth, as a wall. 

^ A trowel ; ^nni iinun, a brick- 

l?^, layer's trowel. Interchang- 

^'^^'^"ed with the last. 


'^ A vast expanse of water, 
", I-*- spreading and swelling like 

a flood. Also read Man'. 
iftS Steamed bread or wheaten 
^j^jj cakes, light and leavened; 
iVriun ff'au, loaves of bread. 
Usually read jyidn. 
Ji^ A narrow entrance where a 
stream or frith runs between 
hills, like a door, 
nife A flat eye, one whose can- 
'^\ thi or corners are nearly level 
with the face ; dull eyes, half 
closed, as if drunk, obscure 
vision ; to blind one, to deceive, 
to impose on, to conceal from ; 
'^yan ^mtin, to hide from ; (mun 
p'in' to deceive ; ^pdu ^mun^ 
deceived ; ^hi (mun Tnat^ ishuif 
nobody is deceived by it, who 
does not know it ? sliati paf-^ 
(SeiiTig sWiun,Iwill^ keep no- 
thing from you ; A' iMun, the 
infantile name of Ts'du Ts'du. 
j^ A valuable stone of a red- 
'C, dish or carnation color. 

"^ Full, filled up, surfeited, re. 

M w!n P'®^*^ ' bulging, full ; complete, 
the whole, entire, all that is 
included in the subject ; to 
complete, to fill, to abound, to 
suffice ; to finish a set time ; 
the Manchu people ; ^miin 
ishan, the whole body ; ^mun 
tsoi' full of cargo ; f on g' ^miin, 
packed full ; tsd" ^mfin yaty yam- 
completed a term of office ; 
ichong ^mun tiki fill it a little 
fuller ; ^mun iiti the month of 
a woman's confinement ; ^mun 
V quite met my wishes ; ^Tnun 
it'ong rkwong, a three-branch 
lamp ; ^mun ik'ifdti mdi' time 
having passed, they were sold 




^mftn kwo' it'au, too full ; ^mun 

ichiu 'siin, the self-sufficient 

bring on their own mis for. 

tunes ; ^Mun ichatt, Manchuria ; 

^MUn lyan, the Manchus. 

pBi] Sad, afflicted, grieved, sorry, 

^!j^> [melancholy ; chagrined, hea. 

)^ J vy at heart ; ^yau tntin^ sor- 

Mw4n rowful, unhappy ; tsokt mun^ 

to vomit from faintness or 

heat ; (Vn mun^ to disturb one, 

to hinder, bothering. 



i1^] Dull, stupid, not intelligent ; 

'[^v obscure; vexed, perturbed; 

* iWj grieved, ashamed ; to cover, to 

Mung blind ; ttnvng iinung paP you 
dolt ; stupid ; yat^ (mung isvng, 
a cloudy, dull day ; Ho ctnung 
7u«^, an old, superannuated 
fellow ; ^Id td\mnng, in second 
childhood ; onnng chy} ^ngdn, 
to cover up the eyes ; ifmivmng 
(kvxtng, day is breaking. 

tA kind of moss ; obscure per- 
j^ ception of, beclouded, dull, 
simple, ignorant, immature, 
rash, childish ; a pupil, a youth, 
a child ; to deceive, to conceal, 
to cover, to behave rudely ; 
obliged for, thankful, grateful 
for a Hivor ; the 45th diagram ; 
the Mongols ; (to imnng ^ni, 
many thanks for, will be oblig- 
ed for, beg of you the favor ; 
<jnung Hs'ii, obliged for your 
taking — a shopman's phrase ; 
(hoi itnungy to enter on studies; 
^rnvng csz' a teacher; fan' 
(mungy to teach boys ; itnung 

.yan, obliged for a favor ; ^ung 
kdu' kindly tell me ; itnung 
ilung, not bright, obscure, dif- 
ficult to see clearly ; imung 
wan^ confused, deceitful, in- 
experienced ; iinung (kwong kii' 
thankful for your patronage 
or visit ; ihung imung, chaos ; 
iMung mui^ rash, blind to ; 
iMung '^ku, the Mongols. 
A covering ; to screen off, to 

.. shelter, to defend, as against 
Mung . ,.' "^ 

^ sun or rain ; jp ing imung, to 

screen ; imung imung, luxu- 
n^ Sun obscured ; d'in imung 
M^g5^«''5'' early in the morning, 

(R^ The moon about rising or 
ftj^ setting. Interchanged with 

the last. 

{j^ Small, drizzling rain ; foggy ; 

R^g i^ung ihutig, vapory, chaotic. 

1;^ A cassia like tree, having 
Mung ^ y^"ow •^'af; ining imung, a 
lemon ; some write ^ung 
'^kwo for the mango. 
c9^ Dimsighted, weak eyes ; un- 
^^2ncr ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^'■of" ^ disease in 
the nerves, an amaurosis ; un- 
learned, untaught, ignorant 
of one's self; ^/igdn imung, 
bad sight. 
J^ A wa;r junk, long and fast- 
MmSg'''*'''"S» called imung iCting ; 

a large sort of vessel. 
4j^ Ephemera or sandflies ; small 
^j^ flies which fly over water; 

imung yuV ephemera-flies. 

^ Drizzling rain ; small rain ; 

m^g i"*""^ i^ung, a tedious rain. 

^^ A dish filled with food, an 

^f^„ abundance of food, a plenti- 

^ ful table. 




Tte^ I To dream, to see visions ; 

^ J i a dream ; a vanity ; obscure ; 

^^ I mung' kifi' saw in a dream ; 
Mung ^ni/dti mimg^ itno, are you 
dreaming ?_/af) j/a<j ko" mnug^ 
dreamed a dream ; mttng^ 
'^siung, empty hopes, day- 
dreams ; mung' chiv} a pro- 
phetic dream, a dream which 
comes to pass ; muna^ mt' (Cin 
m'^ a visionary aflfair ; mung^ 
at-, the nightmare ; fok^ mnng^ 
spiritual visions ; yat~, icfi^ung 
tdi^ mung^ "one long dream," 
— this hfe, the world ; 'Ardi 
mung^ to interpret a dream. 





To rub out, to make a clean 
sweep, to wipe clean, to obli- 
terate, to scrub, to blot out ; 
to dust ; to daub, to rub on, to 
besmear, to color, to anoint ; 
yaU "^shau tntit:, kico^ to refuse 
to pay anything ; miiti iymi, to 
rub oil on, to paint ; muW^keng, 
to rub the neck, or cut one's 
throat : muty hu^ to rub out ; 
muti ngdki a fillet worn by 
girls; mti/j /o?, to wipe the 
tablf; 'sai j/iji/j to wash and rub. 

To feed a horse with straw, 
to give hay to cattle ; proven- 
der of straw. 

A branch of the Y4ngtsz' 
kiang in Sz'chuen ; froth at 
the mouth, to slaver in sleep ; 
spittle ; foam, bubbles on wa- 
ter ; t'o" muli to spit out, to 
sputter ; mul. spume on 
water; kau mitt, e.xp«'(-loralion. 

To.N. Di(.T. 39 

-fc- The end of a branch, the 
j^^ outmost twigs; the end, the 
last, no more of, the least im- 
portant part, the meanest ; the 
opposite of the origin or root 
of a matter ; small ; weak ; 
used for 1 when spoken by 
one's self; distant, far off; the 
remnants, leavings, ends, dust 
powder, or refuse of ; the limbs; 
traders, as the least of the four 
classes : spKd muti tea-rem- 
nants ; muti shai' end of the 
world ; muti ^yav, no more ; 
,»i itsiu mull or 'Au ti/, mvti 
powdered pepper ; ichiing mut^ 
the very last ; muti tsiung^ I 
the officer ; shuld tsoi' muti ts'iki 
it is to your humble relative's. 
^ The jasmine ; muti h' ^fu^ 
^} the Jaaminum grandifiorun ; 

the name of a song. 
VJ* ] To sink in the water, to 
r!^' } perish, to terminate, to finish 
J^i ^ orie's own prospects ; to die ; 
Muh the dead ; doad, annihilated, 
finished ; to exceed, to trans- 
gross ; to enrich one's self by 
swindling ; a negative, imply- 
ing there is nothing of, with- 
out, none at all, not the least, 
none, utterly ; muti tdt, sat, at 
a loss what to do further ; mitti 
yuti Jid mi^ not the least taste ; 
ich'am midi sunk to oblivion ; 
muti yiuki myrrh ; imdi mtit) 
to secrete or keep back an- 
other's things ; ^moTig muti 
dead, perished ; 7nuti yniig' 
useless ; muti shav" pat) imong, 
I won't forget you in death ; 
ch'uti mtiti to prowl about and 
then retreat, as a band of rob- 
l)f"rs ; mufi tioi' iho, no alterna- 






A colloquial word ; a scab ; 
iCh'ong end, scab of a wound ; 
tau' end, small-pox scab ; kity 
(Hd, to form a scab ; it'ung 
tshan yaf) tdti end, all run into 
one scab. 

With, together with, in com- 
pany ; even, alike ; to join in, 
to take part with ; to stick to, 
sticky ; ^ngo <nd '/ji hu' I'll go 
with you ; cwd itndi itdm hit' 
carry them all at once ; j'tw cua 
^ni I'll have no part with you ; 
maki j'm (Wd, the ink will not 
stick ; cwd ichinif sticky, imc- 
tuous; itn ^nd tdpi incon. 
gruous ; not of the same sort ; 
'md end nang^ no intercourse. 
A final particle, drawing 
attention to a thing ; lo ! see ! 
mati ^y6 oid, what is it ? H^ai 
{i»d, see ! 
"> To lay hold of, to seize, to 

take, to apprehend, to arrest ; 
J to get an idea of, to appre- 

ciate ; (nd Jai, bring it here ; 
jTid ^shau Isd^ tak, I can take 
it in hand that it can bo done; 
jTid shall '■chii, V it is resolved 
upon ; jTjd si'^ imun sh^ung^ a 
clerk in charge at an office ; 
i»jd chuky to arrest one ; ^nd 
^wan, to grasp firmly, to be 
pretty sure of; jwd ^chd (nd, 
nothing to hold on by, a nick- 
name for a Budhist priest. 

Unintelligible talk ; a wran- 
gling, a noise ; a bother ; tsuP 
tb^ iTid ni^ drunk, fuddled 
from liquor. 


A colloquial word ; a female 
of animals, a dam ; d' 'na, 
granny, old mother ; ichii 'nd, 
a sow ; 'rtd iying, a girlish boy, 
effeminate; kop, "^nd, a. frog; 
shaft 'rtd, a louse. 

To point out ; a certain one, 
that ; there, then ; which ; 
what, what then ; a vocative, 
O, alas! it'in '^nd, O heaven! 
'/id ch^u' there ; '/id Hi, where ? 
'/«d jwi/i, that year, what year ? 
'■nd ko^ that ; '/id M jj/aw, those 
few persons ; 'nd ^shi hau? that 

A colloquial word ; a final 
word, implying here it is, here 
you have it, see, here ; hai^ 
cui ch'u\ nd^ oh, here it is. 



vy13 j Mire, mud ; dirt, clay, soil, 
-*^ ;. earth, clods ; dirty, miry ; ya/, 
i^Mj kau' iTiai, a lump of dirt ; ^nai 
Ni '■shui '/d, a bricklayer ; (nai 
pdn^ muddy, slushy ; inai tan} 
•A clay ball ; inai '^'d, earth, 
dirt ; /d«^ (nai ^ndn jti pik:, one 
can't plaster a wall with rotten 
mud — a useless fellow ; jnai 
(kam shiki a pinchbeck color ; 
iTtai ichiin, adobie, mud-bricks 
for making walls ; ^nai <f.s6ung, 
a wall made of earth pound- 
ed ; (<'o <riai tdV '^shui, dragged 
through the mud and water — 
obscure, nonsensical ; jwdi cii«, 
muki sd' i^' spoken in derision 
of idols and men ; (Shau (ntdi 
i(i (nai, "dust wanted!" — a 
street cry. 














A colloquial word ; lady ; 
(nai (Tidi or cS«' tnai, a lady, 
Madam ; (di^ ,7idi, i' cWaJj (Sdtn 
(iidi, are compellations for the 
wives of three brothers, or for 
the wives of one man. 
^ The breast of a woman ; 

udder, dugs ; nipples, teats; 
>to suckle ; milk ; a nurse ; a 
I term by which children often 
■■ call their mother ; ^ndi ^md 

or '/idi iTieung, a wet nurse ; 
ifigau ^ndi, cow's milk ; ^ndi 
sp'i, cream ; shik:, ^ndi, to nurse; 
tsUi ^ndi, to wean ; d' hidi, ma, 
nurse ! ^ndi it'au, the nipples. 
1 An adversative conjunction, 
^but, it may be ; doubtless, 
! forsooth ; also, moreover ; of- 

ten used for the substantive 
verb, or as an illative particle, 
denoting to wit, then, there- 
upon, till then, certainly, if, 
&c., according to the scope, 
and often needs no rendering ; 
your, it is your's ; ^ndi y6uh) 
but as to ; ^ndi '^ho, will do then ; 
'«' ji ^ndi tsong' he is dead and 
buried too ; Hs'z' ^iidi (Chau 
iChifu^ this is Chau's father ; 
jWd, ^ndi pah hix' if not, then 
don't go; Vio '«di '■fu (ying 
ct'uiig muki higau, how is the 
prefect like a wooden statue ? 
An iron or metallic tripod of 
great size, with two ears. 

A colloquial word ; to tie 
up, to fasten on ; to hang on, 
or depend upon one, as a fa. 
roily ; to belong to ; ndV jn^'Ot/, 


tie up the cow ; ndV ishun 'mi, 
fasten on astern ; '/nd mat) kwdf 
ndi' nothing (or no one) depen- 
ding on me ; ndt' dn Ifo, the 
fireworks are for him to give ; 
(t'o '^fhau ndi' kiuk, to tag after 

A colloquial word ; tired, 
. - . weary, worn out ; weak ; kxii' 
ndi' 1 feel weak. 

(322) Nak. 

The toothache; carious teeth. 
A colloquial word ; to mouth 
one's words, to speak thick or 
indistinctly ; to make a me- 
morandum of; nak) iUgd, to 
speak thick, to muffle ; nak) 
chu' po^ make a note of, or 
charge it in the book ; nakt 
nak) W a little sour or turned ; 
rather raw, as uncooked rice. 

(323) Nam. 

JlA^ A good taste, well flavored ; 
^j*"'"' to gormandize ; well dressed, 
thoroughly done, mellow, ripe. 
A colloquial word; throughout, 
quite through : soft, damp ; 
kind, good-natured, amiable; 
shdpi {nami boiled through ; 
iuam shin^ very good-natured, 
placable ;Vwi ^s'ang shap)inam, 
not wet through ; j'/n ^ts'ang 
fdt) inarn, not soaked enough ; 
inam ^nam tik) a kind pleasant 
person ; iCin ishi (Uam, humid 
air ; shuh ^nam ting' thorough- 
ly ripe, ready to drop. 





Grain fully ripe, m.ifiirpcl in ; 
a year, a season ; laid lai, ac- 
cumulated ; '■nam iniiit an a- 
bundant year ; 'o/n ^nam its'oi 
^ckii, a secretly rich man ; 
^itam oki apt in wicked ways. 
Muddy, thick, splashy ; to 
dredge mud. A colloquial 
word ; sound, as sleep ; slow 
going ; to reiterate, as a throw 
of dice ; soaked through ; 
shok, nani^ deep mud, slushy, 
sloppy \fan' 7i«m' sound sleep ; 
nanv' isdm, to successively di- 
vide threes.jpt gaml)lingcash ; 
Jiang tak) din' nam^ he walks 
very slow ; makt '■shui nam' the 
ink has spread ; nam' lU, a 
gudgeon (Eleotru canlharius ); 
nam' ti* eaten to tiie full, stuff- 
ed ; H'im nam' pat, soak the 
pencil full of ink. 



W The male of human species, 
'na ^ '"^" ' *^^ lowest of tiie five 
ranks of nobility, a baron ; 
itidm i.yan, a man ; a husband ; 
indvi '■tsz^ a man ; ^shang indm, 
to bear a boy ; indm Istuk-, a 
baron ; ^fd indm, a boy ; itidm 
^nii, men and women, male 
and female ; '/tu ik'aji indm, 
to send the girl's horoscope 
first by the matchmaker; hdu^ 
(ndm, a filial son — said after 
a parent's death ; indm '^tsz' 
ikioang (kwano, a spirited man, 
one above low acts ; jt/awt Hsz^ 
hon^ a high .spirited man. 

•p^ The south ; to go south ; to 
'^V* face south ; southern, austral ; 
iuum (fong, soutliern regions; 
iJiam ijnd, to recite prayers ; to 
cliant before idols ; ^ndm ^md 
iSin .shang, Tau [iriests ; indm 
imo Fati O Budim ! to rehearse 
or respect Budha's name ; iioo 
Oidm, to clasp the hands in 
prayer ; 7»o '«?' indm vw€ he 
can sit to the south — he can 
reign ; tso' indm, a northern 
exposure ; h&iing^ indtn, facing 
the south ; {ui iiidm, changed 
to a south wind ; iNdm "^hoi 
tin' the district of N.inh4i in 
which the Foreign Factories 
at Canton lie. 
n^ Incessant talk, gabbling ; jhi 
*Na '""^'*' ^ twittering, as of swal- 
S^ Noise of conversation, hum 

^UfT' of talking ; to chant, to sing; 

to mutter, to perform incan- 
tations over, to exorcise ; indm 
iiidm, incessant gabble ; indm 
kwd' ^k'UfCeng, sing it for him; 
tdi' indm Idi' '«Aai, loud shout, 
ings and great cuttings, like 
Baal's priests. 
ifc"j A kind of yellowish wood, 
*nnl vvery hard and suitable fur 
furniture, beams, &c.; a sort 

of plusn ; Hsz' indm, or indm 
muki a kind of iron wood ; jA^V 
indm, an astringent medicine 
brought from Annam. 

A large serpent, said to bo 
eatable. Also read lim. 

«j^ To grasp with the hand. 

1™ A colloquial word ; to mea- 
Nan , * ,1 e. 

sure by spanning tlie fingers ; 

a span, a finger's length ; to 

beat, to chastise ; yad chuk> .kd 






'/low* yat, jhiin ipan, Jo beat a 
whole crew with one stii-k — to 
rail at one as belonging to a 
class ; Htung '■nam yat, ch'eki 
two spans make a foot ; "^shai 
kioaii' 'nd/H ^k'ii, take a stick to 

Boiled meat, dried meat. 
.\ colloquial word ; the belly 
of an animal ; a fat abdomen ; 
H'd ^iidm tdi* a big belly ; 
(Chu p'du^ '^ndm, a hog's belly. 
A colloquial word ; to stride 
over, to step across; to miss, 
as a line in reading ; ndrn' kwo' 
hu' step over it ; ndm^ for lam') 
W tuki read every other line. 





A colloquial word in Macao ; 
milk ; to nurse ; shiki inan, to 
nurse, to drink milk. 

To cut oft' corners, to go 
across ; crosswise. 

A colloquial word ; to play 
with, to handle, to rub in the 
fingers ; to dirty, to defile, to 
be dirtied ; to train, to breed, 
as pigeons ; H'ai 'nan ^ngdn, 
to defile the eyes — by obscene 
things ; ^nan pdki kdp, to train 
carrier-pigeons ; p'ung' ''nan 
^shan, to get dirty by running 
against one ; moki '^ching '^nan 
(ifvki don't dirty your clothes; 
*pi Uc'ii 'jif/n, let him play with 
it ; V^ '^nan swdi, to get well 






Difficult, hard, grievous, not 
easy or pleasant, irksome, 
fatiguing ; distresses ; to dis- 
tress, to afflict, to harass, to 
make another do ; oidn tsd' 
hard to do ; iiidn '■kong, hard 
to say, ashamed to say ; ^jidn 
Js'ung 'rti meng^ 1 can not do 
as you say ; (nan tak, hard to 
get ; itidn wai' '/it, vex you, to 
injure another; jidn H'ai, I do 
not wish to see it ; tdi' j/idn, a 
sluggard, one who takes things 
hard ; indn td^ hard to say, it 
can not or must not be ; also 
used as an interrogative ; sndn 
id' ^k'ii im Joi, can you think 
he won't come 7 (nan td* iWdn 
"s^ung ^ngo, would he still 
think of me ? iiidn td' ^ni imong 
Hiut can you have forgotten ? 
tsun^ I'tiV Heung (ndn, to be in 
a strait, hard to retreat or to 
go forward. 

To blush, to turn red in the 
face, to redden ; a blush ; 'nan 
higdn, blushing ; ihdrn 'nan 
'nan, very salt, briny ; ^keng 
'nan, to redden when surprised. 

To venerate, to fear, to re- 
spect, to be in awe of. 

Name of an insect. 

A colloquial word ; the bite 
of gnats or insects ; a sore, a 
pimple ; (man nan' musquito 
bites ;'Aau «//«/; Hfln' flea bites ; 
yat^ (Shan ndn' covered with 

To stitch together ; nan' <X 
fuki to basle clothes. 





^tt'- Adversity, calamity, difiioul- 
^^^ ty, trouble ; to reprimand, to 
reprove ; toiin' ndn^ calamity ; 
(tsoi nan' providential afflic- 
tion ; loki ndn^ fell intotrouble ; 
'/u nan- in affliction ; Idi^ ndn^ 
ilam it'mt, a great calamity 
has come upon us ; shau^ ndrt' 
to suffer ; j7/j wda* death from 



6^ A colloquial word ; unlucky, 

''1'^ ill-omened ; ich^o yaU <.nnng 

,nang, to meet a bad om^n at 

the new moon ; Hsd luang ^nang 

tiki bad luck in the morning. 

^1^ A sort of deer as large as a 

lj*'^^bear; power, ability, skill, 

" talents ; apt, able, capable, 

skilfull, competent ; to be 

able, may, can ; ^k'uinang kon^ 

he can manage it ; ^md ^nnng, 

disabled, incapable, unskilled ; 

pa<) <jiang, unable, can not ; 

innng '^fau, can it be done ? 

its'oi ^nang, talents ; ^nang Hd 

iiang til-, he can fight and 

recover himself too; innng man 

'sho pat) (nang, can do what 

men are unable to do ; (nang 

yat) fat) inang i' I can do it 

only once. 

*\^ A colloquial word ; to walk 

*^^ on the heels; "^nang^nang ^hd, 

limp along; cc/ian^ ''nang, to 

dig the heels into the ground. 

Read nang^\ to tie up ; to 

connect with, to he attaclied 

to ; to go with one ; nang^ chu' 

^k'ij, tie him up. 

(328) Nap. 

jkjjr A grain of rice ; a kernel of 
Lih R""^'" ; '"'''• fo'^d ; a small pellet 
or thing ; a classifier of small 
thing.s, like pearls, grains, 
buttons, pebbles, &c.; yaty napy 
^mai, a kernel of rice ; nap, 
s/uA^i eating rice ; ^md napy shiky 
nothing to eat ; yaty napy tau^ 
a single bean. 
rut A colloquial word ; sinking, 
""^ hollow, concave ; a cavity ; a 
losing business ; napy tsz" cha- 
raclors sunk in ; 7iapy ^kdm tiky 
lost a little by it. 
*.3i A colloquial word ; sticky 
*H i or oily, as machinery ; slushy, 
splashy, as mud ; to stick or 
paste things together ; tough, 
sinewy ; dilatory, slow ; yun^ 
isdm uti kom' napi as slimy as 
a third intercalary month — 
because of the dampness and 
sludge ; napi no^ dilatory — 
as if stuck in the mud; nap^ 
lyau, impeded by the dry oil ; 
shap, napi napi very muddy, 
as the streets. 



Aj)|j Silken threads shrinking ; 

^!y-to enter, to collect, to obtain, 
to receive, to insert; to enter 
upon possession ; silk put in 
soak; to pay, to give to, to 
offer, as presents ; within ; 
(Shau ndpi to receive ; ndpi 
fuky to be well ofl", comfortabls; 





*/»i kan^iloi ndpi fuk, have yoii 
been well lately ? ndpz shut' lo 
pay duties ; ch'ut) ndpi to pay 
out : ndpi chik^ to buy title or 
officer mong^ jfe'i siu^ ndpi I 
think you will favorably (or 
smilingly) take it ; ^ynng ndpi 
to contain, to take in ; liberal, 
generous in feeling ; ndpits'ip} 
or ndpi '^ch'ung, lo take a con. 
cubine ; jfe't jin pat^ napi 1 can 
not assent to his words. Used 
for the next. 

To patch, to line, to over- 
n^lay ; a lining ; lined or quilted 
jackets ; priestly garments ; 
met. a priest, a bonze ; kdp) 
ndpi a lined coat ; jmrn ndpi a 
quilted coat ; du nnpi or ndp^ 
Usui, a jacket ; sp'i ndpi a fur 
jacket ; sp'a/t ndpi I, a poor 
priest; icU'au napi a silk lining; 
ch^uk:, muki ndpi to " put on a 
wooden lining," — to eiicoffin. 

'l^he reins of the inner span 
- of a team of four horses. 




f A colloquial word ; joyful, 

^'happy, frolicsome; pleased 

with ; '/o an naU jiati, the 

smoke irritates me; rw/jVc'u, I 

like him. 



A colloquial word ; to iron 
with a flat.iron ; to sear, to 
smooth ; to [»rcsi ou, to lay 

over ; nd^ cpai, a flat iron ; vdtt 
iynn kdm' Ui hot as if 1 had been 
ironed — feverish, dry and hot ; 
^min jiV ndt, ^/igdn, to press the 
eyes with a nut to cool them; 
itsin kioat, ndU yuki bones and 
flesh seared and blistered — 
preiised down, afflicted. 

To press the hand down 
heavily ; a sweep or dash to 
the riglit in writing ; p'il, ndti 
sweeps inclined to the left and 

A colloquial word ; a pipe, 
called '£0fid^2^ copper clarinet. 






To play with women, to pull 
or dally with ; lewd gambols. 
A colloquial word ; angry, 
cross, fretful ; to scold, to be 
angry at ; ivau naU irritable, 
cross ; chung^ iii^ iUau ctiau it'init 
you must get a little more 
angry;yd^c'J«w»a fit of anger ; 
ivau no- angry ; (Ttau ils'an, 
scold him ; s'wt 'shai oiau^ don't 
get angry. 

To twist, to turn with the 
hand, to wring, to wrench ; 
to collar, to seize ; to turn 
from side to side, to wriggle ; 
cramped, as tendons; twisted 
contorted ; to turn over in the 
mind ; 'naw 'c/juh, to turn over ; 
to flirt, as a stick in the hand ; 
'^uau ''chiiii (Sam -jch'^ung, to re- 
form one's ways ; '■nau kaVtdi* 
iU'ong, a master hand at plan- 
ningguilc; '^nau'-keng, perverse, 
testy ; k^uk^ ';/.««, club-footed ; 
nau kit) to twist, to clasp and 





finger the hands, as priests do ; 
'■nau cpin» to seize by th« cue ; 
'/ia« 'part, to seize and carry 
to a court '/ia« (kon, to wring 
dry ; '»»«« '^kwai, a foreign 
key; '««« lat, twisted off"; "-nau 
itnan iclidi.^ wood with crooked 
grain ; met. a crooked stick, a 
cross-grained fellow. 

A knob on top of a Chinese 
seal ; a button ; a hilt ; a knob 
or process on which a thing 
turns or connects with another; 
'^shau ^nau, manacles ; '^naii 
fe'aw' a button -loop ; yato nap^ 
'■nau, a l)utton ; kU^ "-nau a cord- 
ed knob ; cfd '■nau, ornamental 
buttons ; 'nau icfiii, a pivot, 
the Dipper. 

A thick bus'iy tree, like a 
Prunus ; the wood is good for 
bows. Read 'ch'auy manacles, 

Colic, colicky pain ; 'nan H'd, 
J.' griping pains in the bowels. 

*{rn. To knot, to braid up into a 

^^ knob, to tie, to bind ; a fasten. 
W III . 

ing, a knot, which easily un- 

ties ; a point of junction, as 

the tie of a girdle. 

« /Trt. A dog which wishes to be 

Mr coaxed ; proud ; accustomed to, 

reiterated, doing repeatedly; 

inclined to evil ; familiar with, 

disrespectful ; to approach ; 

^nan tsdpi used to, practiced in. 

^^- A kind of spade for weed- 

5rv ing ; to weed, to clear ground 

of weeds ; to study ; nan^ 'ts'd, 

to root out weeds ; ^clio nau' 

to dig and weed; pal, Jcattn 

skit, nau' to plow with a pencil 

and dig with the tongue — to 

be a pcd.igoguc. 


/^' A colloquial word ; eaten 
•^ too much, surfeited ; to lothe 
food ; overstocked ; dirty ; a«' 
nau* dirty, muddy ; nau* ^slii, 
unsaleable, in mt demand ; 
u' nau* (t'in islii, dull, close 
weather ; "-pdu nau* eaten to 
the full. 



i^ Crooked, distorted, tortuons; 

'j^ bigoted, prejudiced, unjust. 
Read nau*; to bend, to wrench ; 
to break ; to disperse ; weak, 
lithe, flexible, slender ; ndu* 
man* mati to scatter things — as 
wind does ; ^loong nau* to mis- 
represent, an unjust judgment. 

5^ Noisy debate, contentious 

"j^^ disputes ; arguing, wrangling 
ofopinions, as among sectaries; 
^hiin iudu, loud talking ; ^nda 
t7id«, noisy disputing. Inter- 
changed with the next. 

Clamorous noise ; wrangling, 
vociferation. Also read t/id ; 


Jau jTiffl, the noise of voices. 

VL^ Perturbation of mind ; in- 
'\ quiet ; confusion of intellect, 
beclouded ; jmiu liin* mind all 
in a fog, bewildered. 

^^ Cymbals, which were used 

Na ^^ ^^"^' "'^ music in the army; 
the clang of martial instru- 
mcnts; y<7/> tui\7idu, a pair of 
cymbiils, commonly called tdi* 
'c/i'du, the " great clang." 

<frij An anchor; a grappling-iron; 

w- (p'du indu, to cast anchor ; 'hi 
i/idw, to weigh anchor ; {Wd« 
/«/«' a hawser ; iiidu paW a 


NENG. NEUNO. 'NG. 313 




A natural salt from Tibet, 
called ifidu cs/td, sal ammoniac. 

A mountain in the ancient 
state of Tsi or Shantung. 

To disturb, to vex, to annoy, 
to disarrange; to twist, to 
wrench ; to pervert, to distort ; 
to scratch ; ^ndti isam, vexa- 
(ious; 'rtdti liin^ to confuse right 
and wrong ; */idu waU to shrink 
up, to draw in ; *ndu chij^ %'u, 
fasten it up. 

i"! The noisy wrangling and 
, vconfusion of a market or fair, 
J a joyful bustle ; hum, crowd, 

tumult, noise ; obstreperous ; 
to scold, to rail ; to contend, 
to embroil, to make a distur- 
bance ; 'Ad ndu^ iti a great to- 
do ; ndu^ iytin, to scold one ; 
ndu'sz^^ to make trouble ; ndw' 
Ad' Hsz' a pestilent fellow, an 
impracticable man ; ndu- '^Isau, 
a drinking carouse ; ndu^^jidii, 
to berate, to talk in an over- 
bearing to manner ; {ii ndu' to 
Bcold unreasonably ; ndu\kdu, 
to wrangle ; Idi^ ndu} yat, 
ich'iung, a tumult, a brawl ; 
/dP ndu^ ,fd itang, a great 
bustle with lanterns — on the 
15th of the 1st moon. 

A stream ; muddy, miry ; 
clay, loam ; thoroughly wet. 



A colloquial final particle, 
'^S' used in replies; there; see! 
mail ^ye ji^, what ? see there ! 

Ton. DicT. 40 



'Neng. A colloquial word : a clas. 
sifier of garments ; yat, '^neng 
md^ a hat ; ya/, 'neng ^shdm, a 



J^^k A girl, a miss, a young lady ; 

N^ang ladies ; a mother ; ,ku ineitng, 
J a young lady ; i^ M in^ung, 
he younger sister ; i^ in^ung, 
concubines ; d' (n^ung 'tsai, a 
little miss ; ^te in^ung, father 
and mother ; ineung (n^ungt 
the empress; her ladyship. Our 
Lady of ; ^san iniung, a bride ; 
tdi\niung, the Madam, — term 
used by concubines ; ^n^ung 
hnd, the Goddess M4-tsijpo, 
Amj>hitrite; 'Ai wai^ ia^ung 
^nii, several ladies. 



Tffj A colloquial sound, implying 

*^*^ dissatisfaction with, reprehen- 
sion ; ,'ng, i'm 'hd, Oh, that's 
wrong ! ,'ng j'w ch^u/a eh f 
that will not do ! 

^. A personal pronoun ; I, my ; 

Wa "^' ^^^ ' ^° '"il'ede, to guard ; 
i'ng 'tang, we, us ; j'n^ ,fi 
^mati iyart, I am not that man ; 
(Cht i'ng, careless, confused ; 
ifan sz'^ rchi ^^ng, he bungle* 
at everything he does; ,c/ii 
i'ng '■lii'i sz'' to hurry through 
a job carelessly. 






Name of a tree, famous for 
its fine, even grain, and used 
to make lutes ; i'ng it'ung, the 
Eleococcus oleifera (or Dry- 
andra cordifolia of Thunberg); 
the fall of its leaf denotes 
autumn ; cchi i'ng, a pillar or 
support not quite perpen- 

The flying squirrel, called 
iTig 'sAii ; also (fi (Shang, be- 
cause it is thought to bring 
forth on the wing. 
Loquacious, bragging ; to 
^^ boast, to talk big ; one of the 
Three States, extending over 
the southeast of China ; pat-, 
itig patitigo^ neither clamorous 
nor headstrong. 
^^ An insect ; ^ng Jcung, the 
centipede ; Cng jcung Hs'd, a 
kind of shrub, whose branches 
somewhat resemble a centi- 
' ■fl ^ Five; a perfect number 
denoting all, applied to many 
things — the virtues, the tastes, 
the elements, the planets, the 
^^- colors, the grains, human re- 
lations, the viscera, ranks of 
nobility, &c.; tai^ ^'ng, the 
fifth ; ^k'ii Hd ^'ng Jcang, he 
beats the five watches, he is a 
watchman ; ,cKq ^'ng, the fifth 
day of the month ; ^'ng uh the 
fifth month ; ^'ng mi^ all tastes; 
^'ng iSh^ung, the five virtues ; 
^'ng Jiang, the five elements; 
^'ng cfongj the four points of 
the compass, and the centre ; 
'kau ^'ng hav" 'kom ydung- it 
can't vary much. The third 
is the contracted, and the 
second the complex form. 






A file of five soldiers ; a 
squad ; a company of men ; a 
fellow, a comrade, a friend, ii 
companion ; to associate with ; 
ihong ^^ng, a file of men, the 
ranks ; met. a soldier ; "^pdi tui* 
^''ng, to parade troops, to draw 
up in rank ; isau ^ii ^wai ^'ng, 
ashamed to be in his company. 

An opponent, a match ; a 
pair ; an equal in rank ; -^tig 
tsok^ an undertaker; a coroner. 
Sometimes used for the last. 

The seventh of the " twelve 
stems," answers to the horse ; 
time between 11a. m. and 1 
p. M.; noon, midday ; to op. 
pose, to cross ; crosswise, trans- 
verse ; south, because 'ng is 
written on the compass at that 
point; cA:dM"/J^, eleven o'clock; 
ching^ ^'ng, noon ; ching^ ^^ng 
<fong, directly south ; ^'ngfdn* 
or kwo^ ^^"g, a luncheon ; 
hd^ ^'ng, afternoon ; shdung^ 
^'ng, forenoon ; ^sh^ng ^'ngy 
a recess of actors ; Ai/j ''n^-, a 
nooning, a rest at noon ; J.un 
^^ng, festival of dragon-boats ; 
^'ng islii midday ; ^'vg koU to 
cut crosswise ; '/o ching^ '■tsz' 
^'ng get it just north and south. 

To meet, to fall in with ; a 
rencontre ; to go athwart ; to 
oppose, to resist, to go counter 
to, to go against ; contrary, 
athwart ; disordered, confused ; 
disobedient ; ^'ng yiki rebel- 
lious, disobedient ; ^'ng '■chi, to 
oppose the divine, or imperial 
will ; ts'ok, ^'n^jblended, mix- 
ed ; H^tmg Jid Mung ^'»g, 
each set in hisown way, mut» 
ually obstinate. 






To arnnse and understand 
fully, to awake, to perceive 
clearly ; aware of, discerning, 
noticing, alive to ; '^sing ^ng- 
to stir up, to awaken ; kok:> ^ng' 
first idea of, to catch the idea ; 
/*2'^ 'tj^- to bethink one's self; 
^yau ^'ng sing, he has a clear 
understanding ; 'ng' ch'uU to 
appreciate in all points. 

To awake from sleep ; 'ng^ 
mi' waking and sleeping. In- 
terchanged with the last. 
§^- 1 To deceive, to mislead ; 
li > |.to mistake ; in error, wrong, 
*|^" ] misled ; false, erroneous, to 
Wft hinder by mistaking, to fail ; 
shot, 'ng^ to fail to do, to forget ; 
ts'o' 'ng^ mistaken ; 'ng^ tdi^ sz^ 
to neglect important business ; 
'^chii ku^at, 'ng^ well made and 
no mistake ; 'n^' sun^ mistaken 
trust ; itdm 'ng' to hinder by 
dawdling or delay ; ^ng^ Hiu 
yah jfc'r, to overpass the day, 
to procrastinate beyond the 
time ; mat:, ^ng- don't disap- 
point by delay ; ^wai ^ng^ heed- 
less and tardy. 
Mc} ] Interchanged with the last ; 
5Wi ^-obstinate, disobedient, sedi- 
5^" } tious, rebellious, untoward ; 
.^VQ set in one's opinions; to run 
coimter to, to cross anof * ^r's 
wishes or path. 
ni- Light, clear, lustrous ; to 
y^^ perceive what another ."ays ; 
intelligent ; to make clear, to 
meet, to explain, to see face 
to face ; ^kau paU ("i^ung ^ng^ 
not seen each other for a long 
time ; min^ 'ng^ a personal' ijn- 
t^rview ; ^ng- pit, chi. ^hi, 
after I left you» die. 



The molar teeth, the grinders, 
the double teeth ; teeth ; a pro- 
cess like a tooth ,• the 9.3d 
radical of characters relating 
to the teeth ; jagged, scored, 
or toothed ; a bud ; ivory ; {ngd 
Vung^ the toothache ; </a iVga 
W 'Isui, specious, seducing talk; 
iVgd tp'o, a woman who acts 
as a broker, usually]tosell girls; 
iVgd ikd, a broker, an agent ; 
iVgd liki strong teeth ; con- 
vincing, able to convince ; (ngd 
shik^hnff, salmon color ; isiung* 
^ngd, ivory ; jti^d shin' ivory 
fans ; ingd dan ^mai, cochineal; 
ivgd ifui, tooth-powder ; ingd 
ts'df, a tooth-brush ; iVgd kdu' 
the jaws ; ^ngd Mwdn ^kan paV 
the jaws immovable, dying ; 
ingd iCh'ung, carious teeth ; 
yaUfu' ingd a set of teeth ; 
^ngdu <,ngd,\.o grit the teeth, to 
dispute or oppose another : ^ngd 
Ming, a worker in ivory ; (ngd 
sf,an ulcerated tooth and cheek; 
ingd ^ch'i 7d ^hi, the teeth 
chattering with cold ; t'uttingd, 
to extract teeth ; ^s^ung ingd, 
to insert a tooth. 

A germ, a plumule, a sprout ; 
to bud ; the beginning, the bud- 
ding forth of; mak^ngd, wheat 
sprouts; ingd ts'oi' tender bean 
sprouts, used for food ; ingd 
'sun, bamboo shoots ; iwong 
ingd pdki colewort ; fdU ingd, 
to sprout. 

A colloquial word ; the day 
after the new and full moon ; 
fau ingn, 1st moon, 2d day . 








tsd'' iTigd, to observe tliese days ; 
*miingd,\2th moon, 16th day. 

The markee of a general, 
distinguished by a standard ; 
the house of rulers, a palace, a 
court, an office ; a tribunal ; 
the exercise of the functions 
in a court ; iUgd ividn, the of- 
ficial residence of a Chinese 
officer, often called a yamun ; 
Hsbcnga, an early court; itigd 
yiki official attendants ; jp'dt 
ittgd, to open the court ; itigd 
*shu, an office, ^shiung (ngd, 
an officer's visit to his superior 
on the 1st and 15 th days. 

Elegant, correct, genteel, 
decorous ; simple, pure, plain, 
unadorned ; ^ngd chV elegant, 
stylish ; gentle, soft ; jwan ^ngd, 
correct, studious, classical, 
scholarly ; Jidn ^ngd elegant 
leisure ; ^ngd tarn} plain, yel 
stylish ; min' ch'ik) paU ^ngd, 
impolite to scold people. 

Earthenware, pottery ; tiles ; 
the 98th radical of characters ; 
pertaining to earthenware ; a 
roof; ^ngd it'ung, the round, 
upper tiles ; hon' ^ngd, the bot- 
tom row of tiles ; ^ngd Jiang, 
the space between the ^ngd 
tji'ting on the roof; iwong ^ngd, 
yellow imperial tiling ; ^ngd 
min* or ^ngd put' a tiled roof ; 
^ngd hV earthenware ; Jung 
*ngd cchi hing' the joy of hav- 
ing a daughter ; ^ngd ipun, a 
glazed earthen dish. 
I To go out to receive one, 
^to meet,to descend and greet; 
j to see with admiration ; king' 

ngd' to respectfully receive. 

gtti Interchanged with the last ; 

S!^ to express surprise at, to ex- 

A colloquial word ; t6 stop 
the road, to obstruct ; ^mai ngd' 
teng^ don't block up the way ; 
pd' ngd^ ko' tdti ti^ to occupy 
a spot while others want it ; 
ngd^ chd* to impede one's pro- 




A colloquial word ; to impor- 
tune, to dun and press a re- 
quest, to solicit ; ^ngai Vid 'k'ii, 
urge him more ; ^ngai jioi mgai 
hii' to beg in many ways; 
iTigai ip'o sdU to weary the 
gods; sai' oigah ^ very little, 
mean-spirited, stingy ; Jcam 
mgai, incessant urging ; also, 
to disregard importunity. 
/A High, precipitous; imminent, 
'J,'-* dangerous, hazardous, unstea- 
dy ; inclined, not upright ; an 
uneasy place ; sick, in dan- 
ger of death ; to rush into dan- 
ger, to endanger ; to ruin ; the 
12th of the 28 constellations, 
- comprising a Aquarius and ij 
6 Pegasus ; Jam {ttgai, dan- 
gerous, near danger, in dan- 
ger; ingai '■hhn, hazardous; 
iJigai ^mAt, dangerously ill ; ^ngai 
ji«, words of caution and warn- 
i"g ; iffg^i i^g&nii a dangerous 
ledge, a precipice ; ingai tsoi* 
tdn^ tsiki in imminent danger ; 
near dissolution ; ijigai ingai 
£ii, very dangerous. 








Little, feeble, weak, like chil- 
dren to glance at ; the young 
and delicate ; a limit, an edge, 
a verge ; to benefit, to distin- 
guish ; itiin (tigai, exact, the 
least point, the beginning ; 'teo 
ingaiyau'iTigai, to glance right 
and left, to look about. 

A fawn ; csiin ingai, a lion- 
like animal, able to devour 
tigers ; ingai Jcau, garments 
of deer's skin. 

The rainbow, specially the 
secondary one, called the 
female ; {wan ingai, a rainbow ; 
Hsoi lUgaiy variegated ; itigai 
in* *« 'cAi, when the rainbow 
appears, the rain stops. 
|g A cross bar, to which animals 
^P' are fastened when dragging 

the vehicle. 
^ I High, elevated, lofty and 
^ } alone, like a detached peak; 
^j sublime, exalted, as virtue; 
Wu conspicuous ; ingai ingai iu, 
how lofty and grand ! 
To look aslant or askance 
at, glancing the eyes, as an- 
imals do; the sun shining a- 
thwart ; yati ^ngai csAo Jam, the 
sun glances through the copse ; 
nd^ ^ngai, an angry look. 

An ant ; a generic name for 
insects like the ant ; a demean- 
ing term, " as the petitioner," 
I, a «' suppliant," used by the 
people when addressing their 
rulers ; the commonalty, rab- 
ble, the lower classt^rt; pdkt 
^ngai, the white ant ; iwong 
csz' ^ngai, small red ant ; ^ngai 
iVian, or ^ngai Uang, we, the 
people ; we ; ^ngai tsu' collect- 
ed like ants, as banditti ; ^ngai 
it'au, an ant-hill ; 'ngai ^ngau 



c/d I'm 'Art yuki don't stir, even 
if the ants bite ; ^ngai ^ngdu 
'^kdm iCh^, [fidgetty] as if ants 
were biting me ; c/i ^ngait 
flying ants. 

To turn a boat's head to the 
shore ; to lay a boat up to a 

^^'1 Ability, aptitude, the skill 
2^, ;.or art necessary for doing a 
Jff^ j thing ; a craft, an art, an 
r occupation, an accomplish- 
ment ; skilled, accomplished ; 
to distinguish ; to cultivate the 
arts ; luki ngai^ the six polite 
accomplishments ; iman ngai* 
literary occupation ; its'oi ngai^ 
ability, skill; '^shau ngai* u 
handicraft ; hoki ngai^ to learn 
a trade; 'mo ngcu* military 
tactics. • 

^^^^ Interchanged with the last* 
to plant, to cultivate trees ; to 


set out with the band. 

^'- A famous archer, called Hau* 
^ Ngai^, who flourished about 

B. c. 1980. 
An.i Unbending, firm, resolute, 
^^ intrepid ; forgetful of one's self, 
magnanimous ; stern, wrath, 
ful ; power of endurance, for- 
titude, patience ; ngai^ tijj, 
firmly convinced, decided ; 
Jiong ngai^ unappaled, unde- 
terred by danger. 
/|5^i False, hypocritical ; counter- 
^^. feit, not genuine, surreptitious; 
to deceive ; ^tai ngai^ not pure 
or real, as money ; tsok, ngai* 
to act falsely ; ngai* fo' coun- 
terfeit, as goods ; ngai^ shin* 
to act the hypocrite. 
•f^i To reach a place, to go in 
•^P person ; to advance, to repair 
to ; to meet at a resting-place • 





tsd^ ngai^ well learned, pro- 
Acient ; ds'an ngai- went my- 

High, lofty, like a mountain; 
name of one of the Three 
States, A. D. 200, over which 
Ts'au Tsdu ruled, including 
the present Honin ; also one 
of the contending states, b. c. 
350, now comprised in Shdnsi. 





The bank of a river, a shore, 
a beach ; a limit ; jmd iUgdit 
illimitable ; (Shang itigdi, bu- 
siness, occupation ; (tsun jW^di, 
a mart on the wnter-side. 
] The side of a hill, a cliff, 
va ledge, a precipice, a high 
] bank ; iftgdi ngon^ a steep 
bank; a discrepancy, disagree- 
ment of things; c^'in ingdi, the 
horizon ; ishdn {ngdi, a pre- 
cipice ; iNgdi ichau, a district 
in H.^in^n ; ^Ngdi imiin, a 
place in Sinhwui hien, where 
the last emperor of the Sung 
dynasty died. 

PThe outer corner of the eyes; 
. to look angrily at, to stare up- 
' on ; to glance at. 
tor? To lean against ; to lounge, 
^ to loiter, to put off, to trifle 
with, to procrastinate ; to suf- 
fer, to endure ; ngdi^ shaV kdP 
to receive hardships in the 
world ; ngdi- ^fu, to suffer ills; 
TW'n^ ngdi^ ngdi^ out of coun- 
tenance, can no longer refuse ; 
ngdi^ chii- to suffer, Can't help 




To cut grass, for which it 
is used with the next ; to go- 
vern, to regulate ; clever, able, 
talented ; ngdi* lOn, at (>eace, 
as a country. 

To mow, to cut grass ; to 
kill, to exterminate, to cut off; 
vgdP 'ts'd, to mow. 

Mugwort, artemisia, a plant 
from which the moxa is made ; 
a term for labiate plants like 
mint or catnip ; old, fifty, 
waning in life ; to quiet, to 
relax one's self; shiH.^ ngdi' a 
beautiful woman ; ngdi* lyung, 
moxa punk ; ngdi^ifu, a charm 
of the artemisia, hung at the 
doors on 5th of ."jth moon ; 
ngdi* -pa, mugwort burned to 
dispel odors. 



rffij A colloquial word ; to de- 
'''^' swindle one ; a notch, 
a catch ; ngak, Hd ^k'ii, swind- 
led him; 'ni ^mai ngak-, 'ngo 
kdm^ (to, don't delude me so ; 
'piiyan ti* ngak) sdp swindled 
out of everything; j'm ngak> 
tah ishan, cannot deceive the 



The forehead ; the front ; 
incessant ; the creaking of a 
jHj J chariot ; the name of a place ; 
Gch a fixed number, or quantity ; 
n^d/lciif'au, the forehead; ngdki 
kok the corners of the fore- 



NGAN 319 

head ; ngdld sfid' a fixed 
number ; tigdki shd' liai* '■kom, 
the matter is fixed ; it cannot 
be otherwise ; ngdk^ ngoi' 
beyond the amount fixed ; 
iwdng ngdki a tablet with an 
inscription upon it, suspended 
in houses. 
U^-AJ' A colloquial word. Oppos- 
^'ing, contrary to ; ngdki ,fung, 
a contrary wind ; ngdki 's/mi, 
opposing tide. 




A colloquial word. To mur- 
mur, to complain, to grumble, 
to talk incessantly against 
others ; to take anything with 
the hand from a narrow mouth- 
ed vessel ; iiigam iCh'am to 
grumble in a low tone of voice; 
iTigam iloi (ngam kit' to grumble 
incessantly ; itigam Jto ipdu, 
to feel in one's purse ; spoken 
also of pickpockets ; <vgam tiki 
tfim, take a little more out. 
Ngam' A colloquial word. Old, 
feeble, foolish ; yatj <,nin yali 
,jiin jigaiiv' '■hi Jai, becoming 
more and more feeble every 
year ; itigoi <,ngoi ngam' ngam' 
to be in one's dotage, to be 
childish, foolish. 



j^ A colloquial word, very fre- 
'v^ quently used in this dialect. 
It denotes agreement, in re- 
spect to time, manner, place, 

quantity, or any other particu. 
lar ; kbm' ^ngdm, so exactly 
suitable ! ^ngdm sdV it agrees 
in every particular ; (tigdm 
(Vgdm cb'ut) hii' just this mo- 
ment gone out ; ^m (to crtgdm, 
they don't exactly agree, spo- 
ken of persons and of things. 

c^ 1 ^ ^^E^ bank ; a precipice: 
g^ la rocky hill ; lofty, dangerous 

-y^ J (Ttgdm iVgdm its'dm ts^dm^ 
Gau very high and precipitous ; 
itigdm ilong a temple, a hall ; 
iiigdm '^him, dangerous. 

=^- A colloquial word. Wild, 

'^ incoherent ; like a dream ; 
raving ; delirious ; nonsensi- 
cal ; ^mai '■hai ch'ii'fdli ngam* 
wd^ don't talk your nonsense 

(345) i\Tgan, 

^ A colloquial word ; small, 

'^^ delicate looking, thin ; spoken 

of persons ; ishang taki kdm' 

lUgaiit born very thin and 

small ; d' <.ngan, a nickname 

for a thin child ; <.ngan iVgan 

hiu' drawn up, crooked ; also 

greatly vexed, and irritated. 

m^ ^ Silver ; money ; the name 

' «^ I of a place ; a surname ; '^shui 

- ^ J ^^'^^^ quicksilver ; ^ngan (Chu 

Yin Vermillion ; jwian ittganj or sai' 

iSZ iPgan, Sycee silver ; sui' 

ingan, broken pieces of silver, 

used as money ; tfd ^pin jigaiu 

a Spanish dollar, having a 

flowered edge ; its'in (ngan, 

the general name for money , 

ingan shut, the diflcrcncc in 




the value of different kinds of 
silver ; ^ja Jiung itigan, reward 
money ; ingan sp'di, a silver 
medal ; H'ai iUgan, to inspect 
money ; ^'ung tngan, silver, 
with brass intermingled ; *<d 
iTigaTi tsz fu^ a silversmith ; 
iTigari iho, the milky way ; 
tngan dan, a money order or 
bond; (ngan polfi silver leaf ; 
iiigan hi' articles made of 
4a A bank ; a limit ; a boundary; 
^•^ imd iUgan, unlimited. 

A surname ; to reprove gent- 
ly; to spead kindly ; agreeable, 

To bark, and fight as dogs. 





The sound of persons talk- 
ing ; stupid ; to utter things 
unworthy of belief ; /li' siodn, 
'md iTigan, the father is obstin- 
ate, and the mother foolish. 

A stone resembling greatly 
the jade stone. 

NgarC A colloquial word. To 
tread upon; to shake violently; 
vgari' ikd kiuh to stand upon 
tiptoe ; ^mai ngaii" H'iin kd' 
fat' '^pdn, dont break the board 
in two, by standing upon, or 
jarring it. 

ttrrt^ A colloquial word. Tough ; 

WJv tenacious ; not brittle ; strong ; 
any kind of sediment ; ^ni tik. 
yuki 'Ad 7igan^ this meat is 
very tough ; <ia ngan^ very 
tough, hard to break or cut ; 
ngan} ip'h obstinate ; Jc'ing 
tts'ing '^shui ngan* to purify 
water, by letting the sedmient 




<^ The space between the eyes 

"y * and eyebrows ; the counten- 
ance ; hilly ; color ; a surname; 
iHgdn iyung the countenance; 
cngdn sink) color ; (ngdn liu^ 
coloring matter, paint; ^tsun 
ifigdn, a respectful mode of 
address, used in writing. 

Xrr A colloquial word. To rub ; 

"'>'' to grind ; to draw a fiddle bow ; 
itigdn i^ tin, to play on a two 
stringed fiddle ; itigdn mvii 
to grind to powder ; ^ngdn pokf 
fiArjroUifoutthin, as of dough ; 
'pi kong^ Jai ingdn kim' Wii, 
to polish, by rubbing with a 
piece of steel. 

igg The eye ; a space ; a limit ; 
"l^ a classifier ; a surname ; ^ngdn 
(Ch% the eyeball ; ^ngdn k'oi^ 
the eyelid ; 'ngdn (kw'dng, the 
socket of the eye ; ^ngdn iyan 
pupil of the eye ; cKdng'' Jioi 
^ngdn, open the eyes wide ; 
^ngdn ifd, the eyes blurred ; 
j'm kioo' taki ^ngdn, wont bear 
inspection, not good ; also, 
unable to deceive a person- 
j'm kok) bigdn, to over-look ; 
not to perceive ; ^ngdn pdki 
pdki before one's very eyes ; 
to see clearly ; diu ^ngdn koki 
to look with a lustful eye; H'ai 
itn ^sh^ung ^ngdn, to look with 
disrespect upon ; pdki kdpy 
^ngdn to have pigeon's eyes, 
i. e. to be proud, and insolent ; 
fdt) ^ngdn did' cWi^, cannot 
you see ? yaf^ ^ngdn icham, a 
needle ; Jung ^ngdn, the name 
of a fruit ; V/d higdn likt to 
judge of & thing accurately ; to 
see at a single glance. 







] A wild goose, of a small 
>size, a bird of passage, whose 
j flight determines times ; met. 
in a series, in order, orderly, 
alluding to their flight ; mar- 
riage ceremonies ; ngdu^ ingo, 
a wild goose ; ngdn' ihang, 
brethren ; to walk a little be- 
hind another, as brothers 
ought ; ngdn^ chat, a letter ; 
tirv' ngdfi' to pour out liba- 
tions to the goose — a wedding 
rite ; ngdn^ Joi, the »' wild 
geese come " — the 9th moon ; 
ikd ngdn} a married pair. 

False goods, spurious, adul- 
terated articles. The last is 
sometimes used for this. 



jpi Hard ; solid, not soft ; stiflT, 
jj'^ firm, not pliable ; unbending, 
* ^obstinate, inflexible, intract- 
able, perverse ; dear, high- 
priced ; nervous, terse, as 
style ; only, indeed, must be, 
in fact; a disjunctive particle, 
denoting a settled purpose; 
certainly, still, however, sure- 
ly, yet ; to harden, to stiffen ; 
ngdng^ kin^ hard, obstinate ; 
ngdng^ taki tsai' very firm, 
domineering ; vgdng^ 'Ad shiki 
it is very good tasted ; ngdng^ 
id' ^lai, good pluck to the last, 
fight to the death ; ngdng^ ilJ^ 
kau^ '■kdm do, must have it all ,■ 
ichd ngdng^ hold it firmly ; 
ngdng^ <pdng (pdng, very 
hard ; '^shau ngdng^ strong, 
brawny ; ngdng^ 'keng it/an, an 

To>-. DiCT. 41 

obstinate man; vgdng^'hau, 
foul-mouthed; nffdngHsz'^ tsb^ 
only 1 did it, 'twas rne alone ; 
Jcong^ ngdng^ mulish, fierce ; 
ngdng' kuk, kuk-, the rustling 
of stiffstarched clothes ; Hang 
ngdng^ stiff from cold. 

(348) Ngap. 

prt^ A colloquial word ; to talk 
^' at random, to talk wildly; 
raving, wandering, out of one's 
mind ; worthless ; ngap, ngdm* 
wd^ incoherent, nonsensical ; 
ngap, ,sdm ngap, sz'^ to talk 
without aim ; ts'ui' ngap, kdm' 
ts^uP "short as pie-crust," 
brittle ; ngap, ts'o' kff wd^ a 
mistake, as in reading a sen. 

A colloquial word ; to mo- 
-lion with the hand, to beckon ; 
to nod, to bow slightly; to 
assent by a nod ; ngapi %'u 
Jul, motion to him to come ; 
ngapi it'av, to nod ; to consent ; 
ckai if an ngapi dp, /au, hers 
and ducks bobbing to each 
other, i.e. bowing like friends. 



I To fasten the trowsen, to 
''' tuck in, to stick an end or 
bight in so as not to slip ; 
to turn up the cuffs or trowsers; 
ngap, H'di to strap the tiller 
when steering ; ngdp,fd^ ii'aUt 
to tuck up the trowsers. 








High and level at top, a 

/.M; height: to cut off the feet: 
Wuh. ° ' u I • . • .■ 

immovable ; an interjection, 

oh ! /id* ngafi to descend from 
a high position; nsah '■ch^, the 
maimed ; ngati tkd, to stand 
on tiptoe ; it'in ^i/d, ngah tik:, 
oh ! heaven ! 
irj* Dangerous ; disquieted ; iti 
■txr I ng(th unstable, like a floating 
vessel, or on a giddy height ; 
ngali kiiii' wearied o\it ; (pai 
vgatx limping, to halt in walk, 
i|nr An arid, bare mountain peak ; 
■ry ."^'o« ngati name of a five peak- 
ed mountain in Kienwei hien, 
in Sz'chuen. 
Jti* To move ; to joggle ; to 
^'^-sway to and fro : disquieted, 
inconstant ; 7igaU ngafi iiu 
'^kdm, to wriggle, to sway ; 
uneasy, .fidgptty ; vgafi Jioi 
tih; move off a little; ngafi 
ngati Vid, to shake, to sway, 
to rock to and fro. 
A-jf A stump or trunk without 
^J^y branches or leaves ; a sprout appearing; unsettled, 
unquiet ; ^T'd-ngafi a nntod 
bandit mentioned in the Ch'un 
/^ Strong, robust ; warlike, 
y.r like the prancing of a steed ; 
suddenly ; ngati nfrat^ martial, 
large, valiant ; tigati jf/j ji yap^ 
he suddenly came in. 
1.U An abrupt isolated peak, with 
\^- steep sides ; the highest peak 
of a range. 

rh Fatigued, wearied ; to fag at ; 

j^^jI hard, stony ; ngafi t^guti $}cung 
inin, wearied with labor the 
whole year. 

iJ^ ^ To reach or arrive at a place, 

g^' to come or reach to; even, till, 
up to, at last ; ngnfi ^king, to 
the last, finally ; ngafi ckam, 
to this time, even till now. 



Ngdt, A colloquial word ; the odor 
of urine, the rank smell of a 
privy or sty ; nigijardly, close, 
fisted ; ngdf) ch'au^ stinking. 

^g To bite or chew. This 

j^jj- incorrect pronunciation is not 
common ; see ngif^. 



fih Correctly read ckau, but tho 
'•^ J noun often has this sound ; a 
hook, a barb ; to hook ; to drag, 
to catch ; to dig up ; to sew a 
seam ; Jim oigati, the hooks 
of a door-screen ; (Vgau yau* 
sai^ stitch it fine ; ^ngau ichi 
[fan, to lust after a painted 
fJL An ox ; tho 9.3d radical of 
-^ characters relating to oxen, 
«Scc.; lytgaii ^ku or i'igan (kung, 
a bull ; iOoan '/jd, a cow ; iigaii 
/«:'' a heifer ; ingau yiiki beef; 
iWy'ig (nsouf a common cow ; 
'*/»//£ iHgaii, a buffalo ; i^gau 
ip'iikitu, glue ; ^vgau ^-p'i (tang 
ilung, a leather lantern — i. e. 
a stupid fellow ; shapi ^thui 




(ngau jp't, water-soaked lea. 
ther ; iVgau pdki ipi -xh^iung, 
Venetian {Jiit. tripe) blinds ; 
tlion tvgau Usai, a herdboy ; 
ingau iwong, ox bezoar ; ingau 
iyau, butter ; ^ngau iyau chuk) 
tallow candles; H'd (ngau^ a 
clay ox — made in the spring ; 
jTigau ilong or Jiin itigav, a con- 
stellation comprising parts of 
Aquarius and Capricorn ; tong^ 
iVgau 's/ia/, used like an ox. 
-'/^ A pair, a match ; an even 
J*^ number; double, paired ; a 
companion, a mate, a partner; 
to pair, to unite in marriage ; 
to mate, to accord with, as 
a friend ; to harrnonize, to fit ; 
a statue, an image, an idol ; 
unpremeditated, incontinent- 
ly ; suddenly ; to happen ac- 
cidentally, to occur ; p'a!, 
^ngau, a pair, a married cou- 
ple ; tkdi ^iigau, a happy pair ; 
un^^ngau,-dn ill-sorted match ; 
muki higau syan, a wooden 
image ; met. a dolt, a simple- 
ton ; 'ngfin ii^ happened to 
meet him; ^/j^qm ji//, accident, 
ally, by chance ; shat:, ^ugau, 
lost his m:ite, widowed ; -jigan 
ts/m, to write off hand ; pai^ 
^ngau tsii'.ng^ to worsliip 
Jta Two persons ploughing ; a 
^' double colter ; a pair ; an even 
^^" number ; a fellow, a mate ; to 
pair, to match ; to pervade ; 
thorough ; p'ui' ^ngait, to go 
with one ; ^/igau f.kang, to plow 
i j>&" The ronts of the nelumbium ; 
J*"^ ^ngau ''fan, arrow-root made 
^* from the lily root ; ^ngau ,sz' 
the spiral tubes io lily roots ; 

J-in ^ngav, the lily root ; ^ong 

^ligati, lily roots made into 

\^ A colloquial word ; stupid ; 
* ngau' tatc' dull, fatigued, no 

spirits for; ngau^ ^tsai, a dunce. 









To squint. A colloquial word; 
bo-peep ; to play at hide and 
seek ; '^siu Oichong^ngau (.ngdUy 
children plying bo-peep. 

Perverse, vicious. A collo. 
quial word ; to scratch ; to 
collect together, to scrape up ; 
tvgau ihan, to scratch ; kdid 
pik, in<idu Cycling, to scratch 
through a wall — a useless at- 
tempt ; Jo 'shin ^td ^ngdu ,fdn 
tile, gather up as much as can 

To lay crosswise ; blended, 
intertwisted ; to imitate; luki 
iiigdii, diagrams with mixed 
lin<>s, thought to be like tlie 
mutations of nature ; the 89th 
radical ; Ink, shapi sz'^ i^gdu, 
the 64 diajirams. 

A vase filled with sacrificial 
meats ; to taste ; prepared 
vianrls, delicacies set out at a 
feast ; provisions for a picnic. 

Interchanged with the last ; 
a feiist ; meals ; ^ngdu chdn^ 
dressed meats; i'lgdu wal, meat 
and fruits ; ^yau lik- mat, ^yi 
ingdu, what meats have you 
for us? 

Muddy water ; to mix ; wnn* 
in^dii, turhid ; a river in Ho., tributary to the Yellow 






Used for the three preced- 
ing ; mixed, blended, confus- 
ed ; to mingle, as metals ; to 
raise trouble, to excite sedi- 
tion ; bones and flesh mixed ; 
food consisting of pulse ; {ngdu 
liti arranged in order ; itigdu 
ivgdu hiu' tiki tottering, un- 
steady, top-heavy. 
Name of several hills in the 
f^ western part of Honda pro- 
-f^] To gnaw, to bite ; to chew, 
t^j^vas a cud, to masticate; to 
'^j hold in the mouth ; to set the 
Y6u teeth firm ; to ruminate upon; 
to speak, to read ; to cut even, 
to trim off; ^ngdu «i»' horn^ 
trim off the ends ; it suits to a 
hair ; ^ngdu ts'o^ tsz'^ ,.yam, 
you've read the sound wrong ; 
^ngdu ikung, a confession ; 
^ngdu chff iTtgd, to hold the | 
jaws ; ^ngdu ishun to bile the ! 
lips ; ^ngdu Jioi, to bite in two ; 
^ngdu (Ch'tin, to bite or tear a 
hole ; ^ngdu ^ngdu, biting and 
chewing ; htgdu ingd, a lock- 
ed jaw ; ^ngdu yati tdm' to bite 
a mouthful, to take a bite ; 
^ngdu haii^ to clench the teeth 
in anger. 
The first of these is also read 
(kdn, the song of birds. 

To delight in, to choose, to 
take pleasure in ; clidu^ ngdu^ 
elegant, handsome ; that 
which pleas-'es delights ; knkt 
^yau '■sho ngdn^ every one to his 
liking ; ngdii^ vgdu^ pleasu- 
rable, delightsome; ngdu^tsUi 
^lai ngoki to delight in main, 
taining propriety and accord. 



A colloquial word ; to lie, to de- 
ceive; clia' itigi iVgoU you are 
deceiving, you fib ; — a child's 

Note. — ^The sound ngi is often heard at 
Macao, where i is used at Canton. 



^ 1 To gnaw, to craunch, to 
^^- v nibble ; n^i<j kwal^ to pick 
l^j J bones ; ngUi iVgd, to grit the 
Nieh teeth ; ngit^ ngu* creaking, as 
a rusty binge. 




Y<fc Suddenly, hastily ; a mo- 
Nffo '"®'^*' inomentarily ; falling, 

ready to fall ; iiigo jfn, sudden. 

ly ; iVgo ^k'ing, an interval, a 

little while. 
jljfl To chant, to sing or rehearse 
•J/^ in recitative, to hum to one's 

self; iyam (ngo, to hum,-as in 

reading poetry. 

<^ ] High and lofty, like a 

"^i mountain ; ^ngo rrnl ishdn, a 

jll^j noted penk in Sz'chuen near 

Ngo the junction of the T4-tu and 

Min rivers ; ^go ^ngo^ h'gh, 

grand ; met. a commanding 

Mi The silkworm moth ; moths, 
No '"'''^''®» ^^^ sphinges, which 
^ fly at night ; jls'dm ingo, the 

silkworm moth; .tang ingo, a 




miller ; iUgo <rnt iiti the new 
moon, so called from Chang- 
ngo's arched eyebrows. 
^S 1 A goose ; large water birds 
'^, [with habits like the goose ; 
^Iwj ''*'^ i^gOt the common goose ; 
Ngo it'ong iVgo, a pelican ; ngdn^ 
iTigOt a wild goose ; ^kH ingo, 
a penguin ; ■pakungo ^fam^ en- 
trance to Macao Passage ; ^ngo 
hnd pati a quill-pen ; Mm {ngo 
'■tsauy one who presents a goose 
and wine to a bridegroom ; 
ingo iTnd shin' a feather fan ; 
itHn ittgo, a crane ; ^shui iUng 
ifigo, a kind of teal. 
Jj^ Good, excellent ; (kwtg ingo, 
-*^ imperial concubines ; iSh^ung 
* ingo, the Diana of the Chi- 
nese ; ikiu iUgo, beautiful, 
^fe A plant, whose stalks are 
"J^ edible like celery ; the tender 
" stalks of plants. 

To interpret the cries of birds 
and beasts, to translate foreign 
gibberish or speech ; to trans- 
form or improve; to inveigle, 
to decoy ; a decoy or stool- 
pigeon, called ^niu imui;^d^ 
ingo iyan, a seducer to evil. 

A fabulous monster, able to 
speak and lie ; to change 
speech, to lie, to falsify ; to 
promulge error; false, errone- 
ous, deceitful ; to rouse, to 
move ; an ignis fatuus ; ^ngo 
cha' lyan its' in, to extort money 
by false pretenses ; iUgo iCh'un 
hi' (.chi, only an idle rumor; 
ijau ingo, superficial ; iUgo .in, 
idle stories ; 'i iVgOiCh'iin iUgo, 
to retail idle stories, to trans- 
mit error ; cfieki fsz'^ ^md itigo, 
not a single word wrong. 





m Interchanged with the preced- 
„ ing ; foolish, idle rumors, false 
and deceptive stories. 

-Ajfi Handsome, excellent; the 
^ weak, the good ; Ho ^ngOy beau. 
^° tiful. 

The first person, I, my, me, 
mine ; we, us ; our, our's ; it 
is often used in the plural 
number, with emphasis, as 
^ngo iChau tkung, our Lord 
Chau ; ^ngo li^ ^T'ong iyan, we 
Chinese ; ^ngo Hang, ^ngo jwitin 
and higo tV are all used for the 
plural ; tsoi^ ^ngo, appertains 
or belongs to me ; ^ngo tsz'^ 
'At, I myself; hgo it'ung '/jt 
hii' let us both go, I will go 
with you ; ^ngo kv? higo, I look 
out for myself, I take care of 
number one ; ^ngo tik^ ishii, my 
book ; ^k'ii iind higo, he cuts or 
slights me. ThemenofKii- 
ying chau are nicknamed 
^kong higai, from their peculiar 
pronunciation of this word. 
'■ Starved, famished, in want 
of necessary food ; hungry, 
faint for want of food; to fast, 
to go without food ; ngo^ '■sz^ 
starved to death ; H'6 ngo^ very 
hunifry ; ngo^ yaU yah fasted 
a whole day ; ngo^ ^p'iu, a 
starved beggar in the streets; 
ngo* ^ktoai, a hungry devil, 
worshiped at the td-tsiu ; also, 
a term of abuse to self-invited 



guests or libertines ; 
^ngdn, a hollow eye ; Hai 
ngo* to bear hunger; ngo* 
Hd, fallen down from hunger ; 
ck'ung (Sz' vgo* '■siung, the poor 
think only how to appease 





i To rest, to desist from care 
i?** or toil ; to cease for a while ; 
^° to go to bed, to lie down, to 
repose, to doze ; to be chang- 
ed, as in sleep; a sleeping- 
place ; ngo^ ifong, a bed-room : 
isoi* ngo^ paU (n'wg, no ease sil- 
ting or lying ; ngo^ iiti iming, 
sleeping in the moon ; ikd ngo^ 
•» to sleep high " — to let the 
world wag ; shui^ ngo^ to sleep. 



g«j To fly like a hawk ; to skim ; 

'k- i^g^ ifs'^""g^ to fly in a wheel- 

^ ins manner, to soar to and fro. 

tA loud wailing or cry ; mourn- 
-^ ful clamor, as if asking for 
* food ; noise, hubbub, from 
many voices or birds ; cluing^ 
'■hau iTtgd itisd, the clamor of 
many people; every one is 
tea-'ing me ; ifigd its'o, the hum 
oftnlking; s'»^d iUog Jing, 
incessant talkinij. 
^j To shake, to strike ; to joggle, 
^T* to rattle ; (ngd luki ^kii, to 
^ rattle a handdrum, as peddlers 
do ; itigd shik, to throw dice ; 
^mai i'lgd it'oi, don't shake the 
^^ A large dog, four feet high, 
i^^ said to be able to speak; per- 
^ haps the Tibetan mastiff; a 

fierce dog. 
"lifr A sort of metallic musical 

l.'*^ instrument, which makes a 
Ngau.. ,. 
** jinglmg. 

(^ The stem or cut-water of a 

^'* vessel ; the lowest timber in 

^ a vessel's bull. 

^ The claws of a crab or lobster, 
\P^ also called ^hdi kong'; (cU'i 
' i'tgd, a variegated species of 
swimming crab. 

t] A kraken or a great sea 
^ i monster, fabled to carry the 
$^j mountain P'ung-ldi on its 
Ngau back ; iVgd ^t'ou, the whale's 
head, an ornament on roofs ; 
tuki chini' (ngd ifau, to be 
perched on the whale's head — 
to attain the highest literary- 
rank ; ^ngd jM, a species of 

i^i To saunter; to ramble ; pro- 

Ngau^''^' '""^5 n^d' ngt^ pleased ; 
a tall or long appearance. 
Used for the three next. 

I&]t^ Proud, arrogant, uncivil, 
Ngau "Pg'f^ctful, haughty ; pride, 
rudeness ; to treat rudely ; to 
brave, to defy proudly ; ngd^ 
man^ to treat insolently, to 
scorn ; toi- ngb- lazy ; ikd ngo^ 
arrogant, pompous. 

^&- A nalogcius to the preceding; 

N^n ^ vicious, spirited horse ; 
stubborn, regardless of con- 
sequences, indomitable ; vgd^ 

• kiti resolute, in a good sense; 
proud, overbearing, in a bad 

;^- To ramble, to saunter, to 


divert one's self, to travel for 

|>leasure ; sz" '■hoi vgd^ s^aw, 

to travel over the world ; ngd* 

hi\ to go and see shows. 

%^' '^o apply heat to ; to boil 

N»au'" water in another vessel, to 

" simmer, to distil ; to brew, 

to decoct, to warm ; ngd^ ikd, 

to boil a cake ; ngd^ yiuki to 

decoct medicine. 







An oarthen or iron pot to 
boil food or cakes : a pan or 
boiler, now called wok^; (Shiu 
ngb^ to cook cakes. 

An infelicitous bird, which 
like the owl, assembles in the 

Lofty, assuming, overbear- 
ing, haughty. A man men- 
tioned in the Lun Yu, who 
rowed boats on land. 




Kg-i kdni' inaoi, stupid as a hog ; 
what an ass! iVgoi iyan,a fool ; 
chd^ iTtgoi, to feign or act like 
a fool ; kom' itigoi, so stupid ! 
iVgoi pan} a dunce. The 
second character also means 
the s:l!y look of a pi'ppj'. 
Outside, without, boyond ; 

-J^'. another, moreover; what is 
extraneous, over and above ; 
foreign, strange o\it of doors, 
beyond the village, from 
abroad ; to exclude, to reject, 
to put aside or outside; rela- 
tions by marriage ; ngoi' kwoki 
foreign countries; vgoi' Jtong 
Hbi northerners, 
men ; ngoi^ 'shang, another 
} rv)vince ; ngoi^ Hai, ngoi^ /ou, 
or ngoi^ miv? outside, in the 
street, ngoi^ Joh from abroad ; 
ngoP fu' a wife's father — also 
Sty lei HbngoP; jcA'u '/«'z' <.chi 
ngoi* besides this one ; kdk> 
ngoi* cAi' 'Ad, extraordinarily 

good ; ngoi* ^kdm, affected by 
the weather ; '■hau ngoi* be- 
yond the frontier ; ngoi* kuki 
another set or company ; ^yau 
ngoi* its'oif has a knowledge of 
the world, not book-knowledge; 
hdki ngoi* ^t'dji^ung, to do bus- 
iness in other than one's own 
town ; V ngoi* unexpectedly ; 
cfiitii ngoi* to go abroad ; ngoi* 
mdu* a man's appearance ; 
ngoi* iyan, a stranger ; ngoi* 
^md, a postman. 
•rfZi"! To hinder, to embarrass, 
^^^ > to obstruct, to oppose, to set 
^IJF' J a limit to, to impede, to stop 
Ngai progress ; to let, to restrain, 
as one's conscience does ; to 
offend, or be an offense to ; a 
hindrance, objection to, rest, 
rainf, impeditnent ; ngoi* chu* 
whatever prevents attaining 
an object ; ^mb ngoi* nothing 
in the way, no hindrance ; 
^yau ngoi*iU iyan, to offend one; 
chat:, naroi* an obstacle ; nsoi* 
sheki a stumbling-stone; ngoi* 
chenk- injured by, stopped. 
Bfli Analogous to the last ; to 
'^1 shut a door to prevent en- 
^ ^^' trance ; stopped, headed off, 
obstructed ; '^cho ngoi* prevent- 
ed ; ishiung ngoi* prevented 
by an injury. 

(359) Ngok. 

Music, one of the six arts ; 
^instruments of music ; met. 


elegancies of life, refinement ; 
ngoki hV musical instruments ; 
Usau' ngoki or tsok^ ngoh to 




play ; ngoki ^fu, a repository 
for instruments ; tdi^ ngoki 
large instruments. 
ilj, A lofty peak ; the highest 
Y ''J-of mountains ; ^^ng ngoki five 
high peaks worshiped in C hina, 
viz., (lung ngoki in Shantung; 
(Sai ngoki in Shensi south of the 
capital ; sfidm ngoki in Hun^n 
near the centre; pak^^ngoki in 
thesouthwestofChihIi; (.chung 
ngoki in the west of Honan, 
near the Yellow R.; each of 
them has other names. 
j^ Used for the preceding ; 
V-V ngoki fu} ^md, a wife's parents ; 
ishdn ngoki my father-in-law. 
■pg' A grave and serious feeling, 
■^l stern, rigid ; awe-struck, frigh- 
^° tened ; ngoki mung^ an alar- 
ming dream. 
igg Siiprised, astonished, amaz- 
^'} ed ; to wonder at ; to oppose, 
^° uncomplying; ngoki jin, fright. 


=ffi "I Honest, faithful reproof, 

^- s blunt straightforward, friend- 

^i j Iv advice ; ngoki ngoky plain 

Ngoh' spoken advice, of a friend or 


^J? Used for the two preceding ; 

^\ an ancient principality, now 

* the modern Hupph ; a name 

of Wuchdngfu ; a boundary. 

gg Sound of two persons sing. 

jT^j" ing responses. A colloquial 

word ; to lift up the head, to 

stretch the neck ; ngoki '-fan 

^chiin ifau, to turn the head 

round ; ngoki JiO it'au, to raise 

the head. 

3®fe A large eagle, called ngoki 

^J^lsuki emblematic of marriage. 


A crocodile, or gavial, said 
to have once existed in Chdu- 

chau fu in Kwangtung ; term 
applied to cruel, rapacious of- 
ficers or gentry. 
"pM The calyx or receptacle of 
j^j^ a flower, called t/d t'ok,, 

^'& The osprey or fish-eagle ; a 

I^ffoh S^^^ t^"""^ ''"'■ ^^^ genus Hali- 

aetus ; ngoki lapi to stand 

watching, as an osprey does ; 

ngoki tsin' promoted to be a 




1^- A shore, a bank, a beach ; 
Jj '7 margin of a stream ; an edge, 
a brink ; a high cliff or bank ; 
steps of a palace ; the end of 
a journey or a road ; the object 
of effort, a goal ; a country 
prison ; to show a front, to 
exhibit ; a valorous, high- 
minded man; ngon^ shiung^ on 
the bank ; ngon^ sh^ung^ iyon^ 
a landsman ; ^sh^ting ngon^ or 
smdi ngon^ to go ashore, to dis- 
embark ; jtnd iUgdi iind ngon* 
boundless and shoreless ; jcA'i 
iloi isin ^sh^ung ngon^ the last 
aboard goes ashore first — the 
last is first ; jtij it'au shV ngon^ 
the shore is just behind you, 
i. e. you've made little pro- 
gress, a novice ; kdki ngon^ a 
beach intervenes, an o^truc- 
tion is in the way. 
p^^ Rude, unpolished, vulgar- 
Y^ looking ; robust, rustic ; blunt 
in speech, unmannerly. 






rtl Great, high ; dear, high- 
jij' priced ; strenuous effort ; to 
^ ^ lift the head to look, an atti. 
tude of expectation ; pronoun 
I, used by females ; Jai ingong, 
low, high ; ka? JLs^in Jed ingong 
the price is extravagant ; 
'■Jcong U'dV tez'^ (iigongy to 
Dobly exert one's self, 

^ Analogous to the last; to 


rise, as the sun, to issue 

^ forth ; to raise, to elevate ; 
to look stately ; raised, tall, 
lofty, imposing ; dear in price ; 
ingong ''shau, to carry the head 
high ; ingong kwav" exorbitant; 
chi^ hV in^ortgjOg'On^, satisfied, 
joyful from having attained 
one's wishes ; Jiin iUgong, a 
fine, erect, portly gait. 

ffljl A horse which carries its 

5^^ head high ; .ngong iUgong, a 

horse frightened, a prancing 

steed; a white-bellied horse. 

(These two characters are also read oiig.) 

*5' Simple, silly, rude, doltish ; 

^^ stupid, out of one's head ; 

Chun f^ ' , .,; 

ngong' song crazy, wild 

acting ; ngong^ ke' ^kom y^ung^ 
acting as if mad ; ngong^ Hd, 
a madman ; ngong' '^ch'un, 
foolish ; iil ngong' half idiotic, 
stupid ; ngong' hi' wild, half- 
witted ; mati ^ni '■kbm ngong' 
what's the matter you act so 
silly ? 

3!E* Pearl-barley, the seeds of 
3^ the i'^i plant. 

Tos. DicT. 42 




A colloquial word ; to ab- 
scond, to hide one's self ; to 
keep secret ; fdi' tik^ cni imdi, 
hide quick ; ini to' maix mati 
keep yourself very close. 

A colloquial word ; an in. 
terrogative, final particle ; a 
pronoun, this, the nearer of 
two ; mati ^y^ ^ni, what is it ? 
hai^ ini, isn't it so ? (.ni 'id, 
this one, this thing; <ni tiki 
this ; Him sun' 'Ad jii, how shall 
we do now, what's best now? 

To accord with, to agree ; 
concord ; near, agreeing ; a 
nun ; jTii Jtu, a Budhist priest- 
ess ; Chung^ .ni, Confucius. 
A slave girl ; .ni '■tsz' a maid of 
work in a house. Also used for 
.ni Jcu, a nun. 

A twittering, a humming ; to 
speak low, a murmuring ; m 
cndm, the twittering of swal- 

To blush, to color up ; nuk^ 
.nit to redden, to be ashamed. 





(The three following characters are also 
sometimes read mi, as in the court dialect.) 

affi") A bow discharged ; to shoot 

^ '^ Ian arrow ; to reach or pervade 

c^flJ^J everywhere ; full, universal. 

Mi extensive ; to prevent ; more, 

still more ; long, distant ; .ni 

fto, more ; .ni 'tin, farther ; 

(ni uti a month old ; (ni ifung, 

to patch ; to disguise, to hide 

from, to screen; .ni Jsoi, to take 

measures against calamity ; 

.ni lak, Fat^, the past Budba ; 

^ytung jchi .ni <.kdt the higher 










every time I see it, it constant, 
ly grows more vast ; jni ^ung 
patikujo^ the patch is too small. 

A vast expanse of water ; 
^mia. iTii, vast, ocean-like ; ini 
jTii, everflowing waters. 

A monkey ; jwi jAau, a she 

A fawn ; the tender young 
of animals ; iui Jtau, unyean- 
ed skins for garments. Also 
read imai. 

The second person, thou ; 
'ni tik^ or ^ni ki^ your's ; ^ni W 
you ; ^ni '^kiu mati imeng, what 
is your name ? ^ngo ts'au' 'ni, 
you and I, both of us; 'ni 
chung'wai^ all you gentlemen. 

A father's tablet in the an. 
cestral temple ; an ancestral 
hall ; to carry a tablet about. 

Bigoted, attached to ; to 
doat on ; Jcu nV pat) (fung, set 
in his way, deaf to reason ; ni^ 
tU (fung'shui, bigotedly attach- 
ed to geomancy ; ni' iyan^ one 
set on gratifying his passions, 
one lost to reproof. 

A kind of dumpling or pie, 
cakes, pastry, a tit-bit ; a bait 
for fish ; an enticement, allure, 
ment, temptation ; to entice, 
to tempt ; to take a bait ; tiu? 
ni' to angle with bait ; /dm 
ni' to love nice things; '^fan 
n9 flour cakes. 

Grease, hardened fat ; gross, 
fat, smooth, oily ; ni' chai^ 
uneasy in the stomach, indi. 
gestible ; ni^ kdki overloaded 
stomach ; jj/aMnPoily, greasy ; 
sai' «i' ichi kin^ little ideas, 
notional, whimsical ; .fi ni' 
very greasy, as food. 





A big bellied jar ; to abscond, 
to elude search ; to conceal, to 
hide, to secrete ; to gloss over ; 
hidden, clandestine; nikuming, 
anonymous, to give an alias, 
or pseudonyme ; its'ong niki to 
hide away ; nik) song^ to con- 
ceal a parent's death and not 
to put on mourning — a crime ; 
niki pi^ to be concealed, to lie 

The sun drawing near ; time 
near at hand ; daily, familiar 
intercourse with ; to be near. 

To be near, to draw near ; 
to stop ; settled. Like the 

flg, Small eyes. 


1^ Secret vice, depraved heart ; 

^'wicked, dissolute, lewd, filthy, 
malicious ; to gloss over vice, 
to act the hypocrite ; to plunge 
into vice, to do evil ; the moon 
when seen after sunrise ; ^yan 
niki to hide one's evil acts ; 
(jfcdn nik, profligate, licentious ; 
(Sau niki to reform one's wick- 
ed ways ; nih lU ok-> tsdpi to 
abandon one's self to vile 

A feeling of shame, to be 
r' ashamed at what one has 
done ; isau niki ashamed. 
To grasp, to catch hold of ; 

]^*to provoke, to excite to battle. 
A colloquial word ; to carry in 
the hand, to bring ; nih Jnit 
bring it here ; nik> Jed tih carry 
it higher. 





B^ Wrangling between brothers ; 

Kt' litigations, quarrels, mutual 
contentions ; bitter animosi. 
ties ; nik) han^ reciprocal ha. 
tred ; Jiing taP iiiki lii its'iung, 
brothers quarreling in their 
house ; nik) tsung- two per- 
sons bringing actions against 
each other before courts. 

ip A break to stop or check a 

"ijr* carriage ; to chock a wheel. 

^jj^ Sorry, mournful, from hun. 

^*'ger; to long for, to hunger 
after ; anxious thought. 

^ To sink, to drown one's self; 

--^-to be drowned ; to put under 
the water ; to stifle, to sufFo- 
cate ; sunk in vice, lost to all 
reproof, reprobate ; greedy, 
passionately fond of, given up 
to ; niki 'nri, female infanti- 
cide; hdmhiiki ik^iiman., to lead 
the people into danger ; niki 
ov' a blind love for, love-sick ; 
niki '^tsau, given to drink, an 
inebriate ; niki iming, ambi- 
tious of fame; niki '^shui, drown, 
ed, submerged, shipwrecked. 




XJU To take with the fingers, to 
^jP handle ; to carry ; mm ikwai, 
to draw lots ; (jiim 'Ai tsaur tsd^ 
make ready and then do it ; 
<niw (hittngt to take incense 
for worship; ^m ^nimlak-, cKuU 
it can not be taken out ; inim 
(fan ilai, bring it back ; Ai' 
tTiim crtim, panting for breath ; 
tTiim pi* to catch by the nose — 
a vain hold. 



A silure or bull-head, a mud 
fish. One account describes 
it as a reptile like a siren. 

j*^ Usually read iChim, 

To reflect upon, to consider, 
to ponder in the mind, to think 
on with pleasure ; to repeat 
memoriter ; to chant in a set 
tone, to read loud, to drone ; 
thoughts, reflections, inten- 
tions ; (Sz* nim^ to think of; 
nim' nim^ pah itnong, constant 
remembrance of; jwdi nim^ to 
bear in mind ; nirn^ it'au, in- 
tentions, purpose, design; nim' 
'^sfio (long nim* to bend the 
mind to ; 7iim^ iking, to chant 
prayers ; kwd^ nirn^ to doubt 
about, in suspense ; nim'ch^uki 
fu} ^md, to think upon one's 
parents ; nim' 'Ad kau- its'ing, 
to recall a former affair ; nim* 
Fall to repeat Budha's name. 



iNin. A colloquial word ; milk ; 
^yavi cnin, to suck ; chuU tnin, 
to take the breast. 
^p A revolution of the seasons, 
^Z** a year ; years of one's life : 
shiu' ^nin, or jnin <herig, young ; 
Hd inin, or inin '^ki idi- aged, 
old ; ch*uty swin or §ning aiin, 
next year ; kavr iiiin, or Aix' 
jnin, last year ; ijnin iuin, every 
year, yearly ; ^nin 'tai, ^nin ^mi 
or inin hnnn, the close of the 
year ; chii^ j/jin, yearly con- 
tract of a laborer, a servant 
hired by the year ; ,nin /au, 
the first of the yt-ar ; tdi" yau 




snirt, a prosperous year ; imdi 

iTiin, drawir)g to the end of 

the year ; pdi' s.nin, newyear 

congratulations ; Jau inin, a 

dangerous year in one's fate ; 

tsd^ cnin, to perform newyear 

rites ; -kam itiin, this year ; s'w 

'Ad ifiin its'ing, an unlucky, 

disastrous year; inin Jcang pat, 

tsz^^ the eight characters of the 

birth hour, used in the horo- 

scope ; kdh itiin ^fung, about 

the same age ; paU tsun^ if in 

sTtin, has not filled up his full 


<^ Read ^lun ; flesh cut into 

j^f pieces, minced ; jerked meat, 

A colloquial word ; a slice 

of meat, a slice or thin piece ; 

yaU ^nin, a slice. 

'^ To work over in the fingers, 

j|5«^ to roll over, to make by finger- 

**" ing ; to play with ; to tread, 

to follow ; '^nin (Sd, to fondle the 

beard ; '^nin ikon '^shau Jean, to 

wring a napkin dry ; 'nfn chv} 

■k'u '■keng, twist its neck ; ''nin 

iTnd, to felt hair or wool. This 

character is sometimes read 


Ning. . 

To pull and haul, to throw 
ij'j into confusion ; ds^iung dfiing, 
to upset and tumble. 

A colloquial word ; to bring, 
to take, to carry in the hand ; 
itiing ilaU bring it here ; lUing 
saP hu' taken away aU ; cuing 
(hoi, take it off*; (fiing (fan 
^chiinit'au, bring it back again. 

<^1 ^®^*' repose, tranquillity, 
'JT[ I quiet ; to bring peace, to wish 
j-^ !> peace to, to salute, to quiet ; 
^ I to prefer, what one had rather 
KFn J have ; rather, better, more 

/^ I to prefer, what one had rather 

desirable ; a term of compa- 
rison, followed by a negative ; 
ining ''ho ^sz' pati hu' 1 had 
rather die than go ; ining iin^ 
I prefer, I had rather ; lOn 
ining, quiet repose ; (kwai 
ining, a bride's visit to her 
parents ; sning tsing^ tranquil 
times, no wars ; 'ti ining, three 
years' retirement from office 
to mourn for one's parents ; 
swd iuing Jiim, humility is 
best, nothing like being hum- 
ble. — The second form is the 
contraction ordered to be used 
when the Emperor Taukwdng 

V^ A tree, whose bark steeped 

^y in spirits, is used medicinally ; 

ining iVnung, limes, lemons; 

ining iTnung '^shui, lemon juice. 

n^ To order ; iting iningt to 

- "^ caution, to reiterate orders, to 
charge straitly. 

Read ^ning, a colloquial 

word ; ^ning ^ning 'hd, the tot- 

tering, unsteady gait of a 

Chinese lady. 

t}-i Eloquent, insinuating, per- 

^ suasive ; talkative, flattering, 
^"^ .skilled in speech, artful, spe- 
cious ; tart, smart, or ready in 
reply ; Mn ning^ treacherous, 
subtle; 'chim nmg^^ cringing; 
^ngo paU ning^ 1 am unready 
of speech. 

A colloquial word ; to turn 
with the fingers, to twine 
around, to twirl, to whirl ; 






to twist ; ilo {W' nm^a wrench, 
a screw-driver ; ning^ lat^ ko^ 
nap:, Heng, untwist the knob ; 
(tiu Jciu '■nau ning^ flighty, 
hoydenish ; ning^ ^chun ^Cau, 
turn your head around ; ning^ 
(Ch'i iTn^, to twirl a teetotum ; 
its'ui (fung ning^ a weather 
bird, a trimmer, an unstable 

A surname. 

Miry ; ni^ ning^ muddy, slip, 
pery and slimy, as roads after 
a rain. 



1 To collect or scratch to- 
>gether with the fingers ; to 
^^EiJ work or pinch up with the 
Nieh fingers ; to trump up a story, 
to make a pretext to injure 
one ; to foist in, to usurp; 
nipi ham} to involve others by 
false charges ; nipi ^'iu tsiiP 
to charge a crime on one ; 
nipi hung' to inform against 
falsely ; nipi tsd' to insinuate 
i^ Black mud at the bottom of 
jljg^" puddles; to blacken, to mud- 
dy, to stick in the mud ; defil- 
ing ; nipi ip'un, " the defiling 
vessel," i. e. the world — a 
Budhistic phrase ; name of a 
:^ To whisper, to lisp or mutter, 
j^^" to put the mouth to another's 
ear ; whisperings ; a surname. 
5^ To tread on, to step upon ; 
^^'to ascend, to go up ; nipi tsuk-, 
to lift or point at with the feet. 





Pincers, pliers, hair tweezers, 
forceps ; a fish-snare ; to pull 
out ; nipi Hsz' (or kap^ Hsai ia 
colloquial) a pair of pincers. 

Interchang&ii-with the two 
last ; a small basket. 

To pinch up with the fingers, 
to take a pinch ; to take up 
with tongs or pincers ; a pinch, 
a pugil ; nipi isz' to shake out 
skeins of silk ; nipi yaU nipi 
take a pinch ; yaU nipi ihung, 
a " pinch of red," is the mow. 
tan flower. 

Fatigued, wearied out, ex- 
hausted ; ishfti nipi unable to 
perform one's duties. 


A colloquial word ; to seize, to 
clasp ; to play with, to toy 
with ; 'nan nUt, to play with ; 
nUi ^keng, to seize by the 



XT Branches of a tree even at 

Su the top. 

A colloquial word ; small, 
nice, delicate, pretty, natty, 
tapering ; Cdi" ^niu taki Jtwdn 
hai^ too small by far ; 'shau 
kwat, (niu, delicate, taper 
fingers ; (Uiu csiu, attenuated, 
becoming small ; ^ch'^ung emu 
tniu, ridiculously long. 

s^ A bird; general name for 

*^ aves; the 196th radical of cha. 

racters relating to birds ; rf- 





'niti, a flying bird; '»iti Miung 
a fowling-piece, a gun ; '/liii 
}dn or ^niu ich'du, an aviary ; 
kwo* tsMn '/ut2, a culverin, a 

A parasitic creeper, like the 
' ivy ; ^niu Jo ichi its'an, related 
like a parasite — said by parties 
negotiating marriage. 
s ^ An excellent horse ; to tie a 
jj^ horse with silken fringes. 

i^gg Delicate, like a girl ; long, 

slender, easily moved, like 

waving willow branches; a 

hum ; continuous sound ; ^niu 

*niu, curling upwards, like in. 

censq ; ^/liri 'no, wriggling, 

squirming, like a worm ; the 

mincing gait of a lady. 

■g^>] Urine ; Zdi^ nttiMo urinate 

/^^j '^in sleep ; niii} iU, a chamber- 

■«&' J pot ; niii' kap^ urgent to piss ; 

Niau /au^ nm^ncontinence of urine. 

The second character is only 

used as a verb ; to make water. 






To walk in a measured pace, 
a genteel step ; soft, yielding ; 
to exorcise, to perform cere- 
monies tu expel apestilence, or 
the demons which cause it ; (i 
jTiw, slender, graceful. 
] To rub between the hands, 
} to make round by rubbing ; 

t^r ] to rub, to burnish or polish by 

No rubbing ; to move ; to rub off; 

to rub on paste or paint ; to 

transfer, to misapply to an- 

* other use ; to flatter, to praise ; 
i«o j, to move away ; jio tse' 

to borrow of, to embezzle ; 
its'o 5«o, to rub in the hands ; j/io 
ihoitik, move it away a little ; 
fTio '^chiin, turn it around ; itio 
ils'oi '^chic Hd, to flatter a rich 
man ; itio ^yau, to rub on: paint; 
cno iWO, to weed grain. 

flRj To transfer, to apply to 
t '"'[another than the right use; 

^jjj in which senses and tone it 

No is like the last. To terminate, 

to rest ; peaceful, contented ; 

much ; shau^ fuki pat, ^no, to 

enjoy no great happiness. 

-j^n Agreeable, affable ; elegant 

^" gaitof a lady ; V»'ti 'mo, beauti. 
ful, graceful ; cO '/to, handsome. 

t^-^j Glutinousrice, called "old 
^ ',} man's rice," and grown in 
^ji^" j drier fields than the common 
No ' kind; it is used for distilling; 
met. soft, without energy, no 
firmness; no'^mai Hsau, sweet, 
ish spirit ; no^ ^mai '■keng, a 
mild, spiritless man. 
iffij- ] Infirm of purpose, timid, 
l^j ;> apprehensive, soft ; no^ yiuki 
i^n j w^ak, fearful ; 'sAui nci^ weak 
No as water. 



•Art A slave, one bought with 
"<V^ money or sentenced to slavery; 
an abject ; slavish ; a term of 
contempt ; jnd itsoi, your slave, 
used for 1, by Manchus in 
addressing the emperor ; ^nd 
puki a bond servant ; ifid 'p'i, 
a slave girl ; '^shau its'oi j«d, a 
stingy fellow ; chuk^ jwd, a 
bamboo bolster; ,tong jtid, 
serving like a slave. 






«^^ I ''^ ^^''^ ' ^y children; a 

"^^ } bird's tail ; soft, weakly, 

s^p" I what needs soothing; its'ai 

Nu jTid, my wife and children ; jwd 

jnd, weakly, said by females. 

A weak old horse, a broken 
down steed ; iVd iCoi, a weak 
old horse ; met. a worn out 
statesman, a term used by 
Vexed, annoyed, angered, 
•^ indignant ; to feel irritated, 
resentful ; ^nd han^ irritated, 
resentful ; ifdn ^nd, annoyed 
and displeased ; yal^ "^ku Vid 
Ai' a fit of anger, in a rage. 

~kM] ^^^ ^'^^''^ ' g'ossy, like 

y ^ marrow; ^nd^ts^ung the brain • 

PiJ'fld toi^ the skull; 'nd k'oi' 

Nau the brain-pan ; ^nd hau^ kin} 

(Soiy to see the jaws before the 

brain — when looked at from 

behind, is a bad phrenological 

sign ; smd ifmt ^nb, " no head 

or brains," inexplicable, unable 

to understand, no head for; 


-r|2] The cornelian, opal, forti. 

^^yfication agate, and chalced- 

■'Jjij J ony, called ^md ^nd ; the striae 

N4u in the best sorts resemble the 

head of a horse. 
^M^ A ballista or crossbow, con. 
trived to shoot several arrows, 
and set as traps for animals ; 
fong^ ^nd, to shoot a crossbow ; 
ik'6ung ^nd (Chi muti like the 
weakness of a discharged bow 
— a great cry and little wool. 
To exert strength, to ago- 
nize for, to strive, to put forth 
a last effort ; energy, force, a 
desperate exertion ; 'nd liki 
Jiang shin' to do good with 
all one's energies. 



jff^i Anger, displeasure, fury, ire, 
♦j^" passion, indignation ; vigor, 
mettle, spirit ; to be angry, to 
get into a passion ; nd^ hV 
tshiung Jcon, anger hurts the 
liver ; fdt^ nd^ in a rage, an. 
gry ; no^ shih flushed with 
anger ; iwai nt^ sternness ; nd* 
hi\ch'ung ikfirif his rage lifted 
up his cap. 




Within, inside, inner, inter- 
nal ; in ; that which is within, 
the inclosed; near to, personal, 
privy ; amongst ; in the midst 
of; the inner or female ap. 
artments ; family, private ; the 
inwards ; noi^ /'lu, inside of 
it ; noi^ li^ the Inner Land — 
China ; tsin^ noi^ or noi^ lyan, 
my wife ; itsun noi^ your wife ; 
not' koki the Privy Council ; 
tdi' noi^ the hareem ; (Sham 
hak, ^^ng noi^ deeply engraved 
on my bowels ; ^yau noi^ jis^oi, 
has book-learning, theoretical ; 
noi^ chati a wife's nephew ; 
noi^ iwan, in which it is said, 
abovementioned — said in a 
letter; paU tsoi^ noi^ is not 
included, extra ; noi^ kuri^ ^chi 
pd' stop at the women's room. 
A kind of buUace or wild 

plum, sour yet edible ; to 

meet with, occur; an adver. 

sative particle; how, in what 
way ? a remedy, a resource ; 
noi^ s'lo, to endure, to submit 
to — as noi^AO(t' in, to be resign, 
ed *o heaven ; noi^ iko, noi^ iho, 
what shall we do now .' what 





must be done? 'md noi^ Jio, 
there's no resource, no help 
for it ; ch'uty jii jmd noi* must 
make up my mind to it ; nop 
taki maU Jio, what will you do 
then ? noi^ mat-, ^ngo ^ho, how 
can you help my doing it ? 
*/nd hV noi^ Jio, or jWid '■ho noi^ 
Oio, could not help it. 
jiaj i To shave the whiskers as a 
UA punishment ; to bear with, to 
suffer, to endure, to forbear, to 
undertake, to be patient with ; 
patience ; patient. In colloqu- 
ial, a time, a period of endur- 
ance ; ^mb 'Ai noi^ not a long 
time ; 'Ad noi^ a good while ; 
noi? ^kau, a long time ; kbm* 
no^ so long ; '^yan noi^ endur- 
ance, forbearance ; noi^ kwdn' 
well used to it; j'm noi* tah 
insufferable ; j'w noi {fan, im- 
patient of trouble, can not be 
bothered ; Hang noi^ tik-, wait 
a little ; noi^ noi^ Joi ^hd, come 
in a little while ; 'Ao not^ k6^ 
tyan, an old acquaintance ; noi^ 
*ldng, to bear the cold ; not 
sing' patient, persevering. 

(373) Nok. 

S^ A reply, a nod, an assent ; 

^*?^an answer of approbation; 
ying' noki to answer a call ; 
yati noki its in ikarn^ one word 
(or promise) is as a thousand 
taels ; noki imd V noki one 
promise and no two words ; 
ishing itnung Jcam noki I have 
received your golden {i. e. cer- 
tain) promise. 



j^ -A- bag, a sack ; a purse ; met. 

'isSig property ; Jiang ^nong, a tra- 
vehng bag, baggage; ^nong 
chung, an empty bag — poor ; 
Hsau iuong fdv} toi^ you wine 
sack and rice bag — you lazy 
lubber ! jp'i sjiong, a leather 
bag ; its'ing {nong, the Green 
Bag — a work on geomancy ; 
'Ardi inong, one's purse. 
MljT The pulp of a squash or 

^y^ melon ; a whitish pulp or pith, 
^ as is in the pith-paper plant ; 
mucus of the nose ; Hd iUong 
Jiwd, poured out the melon's 
pulp — empty, hollow ; itung 
tkwd {nongf a flaw in a gem. 

^^^ In former times, days gone 

j^ by ; passed by ; previously ; 
^nong yafi a few days ago, 
lately ; ^nong sik) anciently. 

-4^ To push away by force, to 

J^^ drive off violently ; /tit ^nong^ 
= to thrust away. 



*^ A female ; an unmarried wo- 
^ man, a girl ; a daughter ; 
feminine, female; the 38th ra- 
dical of characters relating to 
women and vice ; the 10th of 
the 28 constellations, part of 
Aquarius ; -nUiVan, a woman ; 
^nu Hsaiy a girl ; 'si'ii ^nu, my 
daughter ; '^ch'u 'nfi, a young 
lady ; /ung ^nii, a girl under 
ten years ; chati ^nii, a neice ; 
Ming it'au '/jfi, an unengaged 





girl ; ^nii ^lau, the women ; 
\fu ^niif wives and daughters, 
women generally ; '/lii (.chung 
ch^ng^ (fu, a masculine wo- 
man ; ^sin '««, a fairy ; ^nii tdri' 
an actor of female parts ; ^nu 
Jid ^'au, of my wife's family ; 
ikung ^nii, maids of honor ; 
siiti li ^niiy a white crockatoo. 
Read nii^; to marry a daughter 
out ; to give a daughter in 






To be ashamed •, nuh <nt. to 
blush. To be accustomed to, 

Analogous to the preceding ; 
ashamed, a feeling of shame ; 
its'dm nuk] mortified. 

To bleed at the nose, thought 
•to arise from fright ; a defeat, 
a discomfiture ; to be routed. 

A colloquial word ; to work 
over or tread with the feet, as 
in rubbing or mixing things, 
to press under foot ; nuki ^yi, 
to knead with the feet ; nuki 
ch'ut^ch'eung, bowels stamped 
out, as when pressed to death 
in a crowd. 



'■H^ '^'^ warm, to put near a fire ; 

.r^ warm, an agreeable warmth, 

like a gentle fire ; warmed ; 

met. warm feelings, friendly , 

^nijn hV a warm breath ; it/an 

its'ing Hang '■nun., people's feel- 

ToN. DiCT. 43 

ings are changeable, i. e. are 
cold and hot ; ^nini ip'o, a bed- 
warmer, made of metal to hold 
hot water ; '««« 'niin iik, rather 
too warm ; 'pdu ^niin, filled and 
warmed, well taken care of. 
-g© The genial warmth of the 
jij^^sun ; agreeable warmth, like 
a pleasant spring day ; warm ; 
warmed ; (ko ^niin ^shau, to 
warm the hands with the 
breath ; cfung 'niin, a genial 
breeze ; ikam yati ^nun 'Ad cto» 
it is much warmer to-day. 
-|^ Food presented to superiors ; 

daughter just after her mar- 
riage ; ^nun ^ong fdv^ a wed- 
ding feast given at the bride- 
groom's house ; ^niin ch^uk-, a 
bridal feast — a house-warming 
^t- Delicate, tender, small 
^^ young, immature, not fully 
grown ; weak, slender ; soft, 
fine ; supple ; ci^in kV niin' of 
tender years ; sai^ nun^ fine and 
tender, like early leaves ; niin* 
Hsai, a stripling ; niin' Jam, a 
light blue ; 'ni cshang iaki niin' 
you are very young-looking ; 
(kiu niin^ delicate, fresh com- 
plexion; 7d — nti/i^are opposites 
old — young ; yuk> niin^ flabby, 
soft flesh ; nun^ ip'i, soft leather. 



iHt I'o toast. 

u "* A colloquial word ; to scorch,. 
Hung ^ . ' ' 

to burn or dry up in cooking ; 
browned, burnt, as in roasting ; 
s'wi 'chu laky !^nung, don't cook 
it to burn it ; ^shiu Id' Jiung^ 





done brown ; mung 'At fro' '^nin 
min' to scowl, to look cross; iho 
ipdu jiung Jeng, not a copper 
in my purse ; — the words <nung 
tteng are an imitation of the 
Portuguese words nad tenho. 
^ To cultivate the ground, to 

1^^ delve and dig; to plant, to 
SOW; agriculture; ctiung ,fu, 
a farmer ; s.nung ■kd, husband- 
men ; pah iWai {nung iShi, don't 
interfere with the times of 

<^ I ; cO iUung, 1, myself ; -k'ii 

N^ff-**""^' ^^' h''"^^'^; ^ pronoun 

used in the Tdng dynasty. 
^/S, Thick, as liquids ; spiced, 

L^ seasoned ; rich, strong, as in. 
fusions or flavors ; heavy, as 
„ dew ; nervous, terse, as style ; 
kind, hearty ; ^jiung tarn- are 
opposites, as light and shade 
in pictures, rich and \freak, in 
flavors ; iUung ich'd, strong tea; 
iTiung shui^ deep sleep ; Jing 
*/ii iTiung ifsHngf avail of your 
great kindness ; inung Ji^ung, 
a high flavored aroma ; iTiung 
itni, thick eyebrows ; iUung 
(■yam, a thick shade. 

ffiffi Analogous to the preceding ; 

^P^ rich, generous, high flavored, 
or strong, as wine ; iUung ^tsau, 
good wine. 

fite Pus, matter in ulcers ; slough. 

^ » Jng ; to rot away, as stubble ; 

n ung c 1 ' i .. . 

iTiung '5/iut, pus ; inung hul^ 

bloody pus ; ktin' iUung, ripe, 

as a boil ; nipy ^nung ch'ut:, to 

squeeze a boil ; '■au inung ^ to 

spue pus — a vile speech. 

5gr Thick, close set, as growing 

"^J^ grain ; cnung mati thick, luxu. 

riant, as shrubs. 



§li^ ] To stammer, to stutter ; to 
P'l|' yspeak slowly and hesitating- 
"p^ij ly ; sparing of words; cau. 
Nuh tious, embarrassed in doing, 

unready ; ^hau nuli stuttering ; 

nutiHsui, to pout; shiti ^fau 

null an impediment in speech ; 

yuki null ju iin, desirous to re. 

strain his words ; ikam ikai nuh 

Peruvian bark. 



U'pT'j A mound ; an undulating 
' jj. Kidge; the declivity of a moun- 
(jiPj I tain ; a river bank ; one side 
O ' or end higher than the other ; 
distorted, prejudiced ; near to ; 
to lean against ; the beam of 
a house ; to flatter, to cringe 
to ; to answer, to assent ; a 
final particle, denoting who ? 
what ? with frequently a con- 
dition or choice included in 
the idea ; an exclamation, O \ 
Ah ! alas ! used in sorrow or 
surprise ; an initial particle, 
used before names, when it 
is usually read a'; cO mi-fung^ 
iShing, to servilely flatter one ; 
tO iufung^ iShing ^ngo, he sim. 
pers at my words, sycophancy ; 
'pi ^ngo '^fai cO, will you let 
me see it ? tO ngai- assafcetida ; 
(O (ni it'ofati Araida Budha, 
sometimes used as an cxcla. 




matlon of devout recognition, 
mat:, 'j/^ cO, Oh, what is it ? tai^ 
yaf, fdi' kwo' -ni cO, shan't I 
send you a piece ? 

A helve, an ax handle ; a 
large branch fit for a helve, a 
stalk ; a means, a cause ; a 
go-between ; chap^ (O fat, jO, 
to cut one helve with another, 
to use another's agency ; ito 
ts6^ '^ni chap, tO, I'll thank you 
^0 be my agent or go-between. 

A quartzose gem, milky 
^^^ quartz or white chalcedony, 
of inferior value ; a sea conch, 
with a white naker, used in 
ornamerl'tal work ; lO Jcam, 
pure gold. 
•^ Excellent ; to commend ; 
'^J may, might, can ; to be able ; 
to be good or well off. 

^^ Wheels connected with the 
*^ * axles, or with each other : 
7id»i cO, carriages dragging 
heavily, going slowly from the 
, roughness of the road ; imped- 
ed, disappointed ; d' lO, the 
infantile name of Mencius. 

*^i I Undecided ; <o ^no, weak, 
J delicate, like a woman. 





il Disease, severe sickness ; 
_^ i'Aau<o, sores about the mouth; 
fitp| J convulsions or fits in little 
O children. 

A large fish, a kind of sciaena, 
called iy^ung ^sho cO, the sea 

MTo void excrements ; ^o '^shi, 
to go to stool ; cO Am/) to pass 
blood ; (0 niu^ to make water. 


ffiS Warm ; to warm, to put fire 
"» in a vessel ; to boil or stew, 
as in cooking meats and ve- 
getables ; to warm in water ; 
cd yuki to stew pot-luck ; td 
ichdi, to stew vegetables ; (d 
shvki or id iTiam, stew it well. 
To bake or steam under a 
1^ "> lid ; same as the last. Usually 
^ read ngd\ 

J^ To kill, to slaughter, to ex- 
'^u terminate; to fight in disregard 

of death ; a pan or broadish. 
J^ To grind. A colloquial word; 
Nffau *° reach after with the hand ; 
iiUid takitd^ I can't reach up 
to it : td ^un tih reach out a 
little further. 
'J^ A robe, an outer garment ; 
jy'^^ asort ofskin garment; ich'^ung 
^ 'd, a long gown or robe ; jmi/i 
'd, a cotton jacket. 
Vexed, angry ; to regret ; 
Ngan ^'^^ricious ; 'd haiv' to hate ; 'd 
hid, angry, irritated ; 'd wdi^ 
jtai, to brood angrily over a 
thing, so as to injure one's 
self, a fit of the sulks, 
'ft^ A large kind offish, eatable, 
Ne^u^"^ brought to market in 

Macao in winter. 
'iM An old woman, an old 
Nau -""^""y = ^he goddess spirit of 
' ^ the earth. 

fia^* The south-west corner of a 
j^^ dwelling, where one can be 
retired ; deep, remote ; recon- 
dite, mysterious, obscure ; 
within, further than one has 
penetrated ; to collect, to be 
thick ; d' miu- not easy to 





understand ; csham o^ deep, as 
a valley ; abstruse, as philo- 
sophy. Used for the next, 
i^* A bank, a high shore ; a 
jP^ bay, an inlet, a cove, a deep 
^'* bight, in which ships can 
shelter ; ^ a dock fdr repairing 
ships ; O^ ^miin, Macao ; ^K't 
o' the^ island of Kee-ow ; iNdm 
tdi^ O^ Lantao ; js/m/i (.mdi o^ 
the ship came jnto the cove ; 
(kam yati hu' O' he went to 
Macao to-day; iNdm d' Namoh. 
1 ^ * Interchanged with the pre- 
^^y ceding; a square piece of 
ground ; an even, flat, open 
ground like a plateau. 





To grieve for, to lament, to 
compassionate; to commiser- 
ate, to feel for, to condole with 
one ; sad, pained, grieving ; 
lamentable, grievous ; urgent- 
ly, heartily ; pity, grief, com- 
miseration, sorrow, lamenta- 
tion ; loi iUn, to pity, to sym- 
pathize with other's griefs ; 
toi (tsoi, how sad, alas ! ^oi Hsz' 
a motherless child ; lOi mfv} 
^mo, alas, my parents ! ^pi coi, 
to sorrow ; coz huk^ to wail and 
cry ; toi 'Aan, urgently request ; 
7io cOi, lamentable ; iOi coi, 
sh^iing' ko' with bitter grief is 
this presented — a phrase in 
petitions ; ^oi ^oi tung^ huk:, 
bitter sorrow and weeping. 

Fine dust, such as is raised 
by the wind; <,cfi an ioi, dust 
settled on things. 




l-f^ Drops of water, water trick- 

^^- ling ; tkun loi moki po' 1 can 

not requite [your kindness to 

the extent of] a drop of water. 

^"1 To sigh ; to respond, to 

*-^> answer; to belch; a sound 

iV^ j or ejaculation of regret ; (Oi 

Ngai oi^ hushaby ! words used by 

nurses in quieting a child. 
«^ Foggy, heavens obscured by 
" vapor, misty ; clouds and va- 
pors commingled; ^ts'^ung (wan 
'■oi '■Oh snowy clouds and genial 

Cloudy, obscure ; sun hidden 
by clouds; 'oi toi^ dull; that 
which can relieve a dim aighl ; 
spectacles, said to have been 
brought from Malacca. 
Beautiful and luxuriant vege- 
tation ; thick, shady, flourish- 
ing; fine, personable, graceful; 
'■oi "-oi kat) sz'^ accomplished, 
scholarlike persons, who can 
help the sovereign ; jzoo ^oi, 
dignified, pleasing. 

Sun hidden by clouds; to 
obscure, to cloud over ; 'oi 'oi, 
moon behind clouds ; '^oi mui^ 
to do things confusedly, care- 
less, not tidy. 

Like, similar ; simulated ; 

hard to see ; '^oi iin, as if, 

likely ; '^oi yap^ to pant, short 

of breath. 

^> To love, to take delight in, 

„^. to feel attached to; to think 

^ on joyfully ; to want, to desire ; 

to be sparing of; kind regard, 

love, attachment ; the object 

of love, the beloved ; sparing, 

forbearing of, tender of; ds'an 

oV mutual love, friendship ; 

Cimg^ oV to love tenderly, an 






anxious fondness for ; ling^ oV 
your daughter ; iUi oi' koi' tiki 
I don't want it ; ^ho oP lovely, 
amiable ; (Sara '«/to oi^ what 
one likes, pleasurable ; oV uh 
kapi ct2, I like your house and 
the crows too ; iinung ^ni kwd' 
oV many thanks for your great 
kindness ; oP sik:, yak Hsz' spar- 
ing of time ; '/it oi' tah ito, you 
want too much ; oV hoki 'Ad, I 
want you to imitate the good ; 
tsoi' oV " mistaken love," — a 
polite phrase, meaning, I am 
unworthy your regard ; oi^ '■ki 
iSuoi\yan, as you love your- 
self, you should love others. 

(383) Ok. 

55, Bad, intentionally bad ; 

N^h V'<^'0"^» wicked, evil ; vile, 
ugly ; deformed, ungracious ; 
filthy, coarse, sordid ; unfor- 
tunate, unlucky. In colloquial, 
used for hard, difficult, unplea- 
sant to do or get through with ; 
ok:, <yan, a bad man ; kom^ oh 
Hdfdt) hard to send him off, 
such a troublesome fellow, — as 
a beggar ; oki Jiang, not easy 
to go ; (hung ok:, malicious, 
truculent ; oh ''kong, hard to 
speak; under constraint in say- 
ing it ; oh sin, vile language ; 
kwan^ oh unscrupulous and 
bad ; oh ^yau oh po' wicked- 
ness brings a wicked retribu- 
tion ; '^ch'au oh vile,' ugly, 
filthy ; oh ilong Jong, wolfish, 
fierce ; oh ch'ul} tati incompar- 
ably bad : shin^ oh the good and 
bad ; ok: tso- not easily done. 

?5 Different colored clays ; 

^^l white or washed clay for 
crockery ; to wash or plaster 
walls, to whitewash ; plaster ; 
an unplastered wall. 



] A round hut, a thatched 

> cottage, a straw hovel for 

w j soldiers or guard ; a pig-sty ; 

Ngan a nunnery ; csz' cku ibm, a 

Budhist nunnery ; yapi idm, to 

become a nun ; ^om it'ong, a 


A^ A quail ; cowi ishun, a quail, 

I^T under which two or three 

^ species of Coturnix are includ. 

ed ; Jnng ^dm, quails beaten in 

fight, which are then put aside 

for the table. 

j^ I To cover, to hide, to screen, 

)^^ } by putting something on ; to 

Jg! extinguish, to suppress; ^dm 

Ngan chii^ "^hau, to put the hand 

over the mouth ; ^ch^ 'dm paty 

chii^ can not be hid ; 'dm chii^ 

it'au hoh to lean the head on 

the hand : 'pi ^shau 'dm chii^ 

cover it with your hand ; ^dm 

mail Jo '■ku, " muffle the gong," 

t. e. keep it quiet; '■dm <fung 

Jcam, to play a piano ; 'dm miti 

to put out, as fire ; to quash ; 

'dfTi pdh sWiai itnung, blind* 

man's buff; '■dm chu} ^k'ii 

(Sh^ung ^ngdn, blindfold his 

eyes; '■dm mah to feel the 

pulse ; 'dm pui' '^shau to give 

hush-money, to bribe. The 

first character is read 'm, but 

also used with this meaning in 

the ping shing. 




<5ft Accustomed, skilled in, vers- 
J*^ ed ; to know, fully acquainted 
with ; knowing thoroughly, 
to commit to memory, to re- 
cite, to chant or repeat ; '■dm 
lin^ well practiced in, mature ; 
j'm 'dm shai' ' its'ing, unac- 
quainted with the world ; 'dm 
tsung^ to repeat exactly. 

^HH To shut the door, to with- 
J^' draw from society, to retire 
from ; retired, dark, an ob- 
scure recess ; ignorant, dark 
minded ; badly lighted ; even- 
ing ; an eclipse ; 'dm jWi^in ts^ 
hAki to decline to see friends ; 
'd/n y^uki unenlightened. 
*fflfc Dark, pitch dark, dark as 
^H midnight ; astonied and silent, 
^'^" as if lost in amazement; K'ap:, 
'^Om a distinguished statesman 
of the Hdn dynasty. 
^^X* Dissatisfied, sorrowful, dis- 
contented ; humble, not pre- 
sumptuous. Read /dm, to 
covet, to desire. 
pJt' Sun obscured by clouds or 
J^l^ otherwise ; dark, dimly light- 
* ed, sombre ; gloomy, not shin- 
ing bright ; clandestine, un- 
observed, secret, underhand ; 
dull, not perspicacious ; pri. 
vate, mental ; kak^ bm' dark ; 
tfin shiki dm' a dark day ; dang 
dm^ a dim lamp; dm' 's^ung, 
to think over ; Hd dm' hd- to 
give a hint ; dm^ iChung tsd^ 
sz'^ to do things in the dark ; 
dm' muL^ dull of perception ; iho 
tpdu dm' ^iiam, a full purse, 
well supplied with cash ; dm' 
(kdn, in the dark ; dm' Hiu, it 
is now night ; dm' hoi' to privi- 
ly injure. 




!fc Still, settled, quiet; repose, 
Nedn *^®^*' tranquillity ; peaceful, 
safe, calm ; at ease, uncon. 
strained ; to settle, to rest, to 
make easy, to tranquillize ; to, 
remain at rest, to be content- 
ed ; an interrogative particle, 
how, how could ? where ? A 
colloquial word ; to place on, 
to lay down ; to put ; tOn loki 
joy, pleasure ; ^ni cOn csam, 
make yourself easy ; Hd con, to 
soothe old people ; cOn 'hdung 
tdi- p'ing, to enjoy the plea- 
sures of peace ; d'au lOn, " to 
steal leisure," — lazy ; <o« 7jd, 
to wish peace to ; cOn '/an, 
contented with one's lot iishan 
H'ai him' lon, indisposed, out 
of sorts ; cOn cc/ii haP how do 
you know it ? — j. e. you do not 
know ; sti ^kam ^on tsoi^ where 
is he now .' lon shi' (On (fi, to 
lay down right and wrong ; 
(On wai' to console, to quiet ; 
con iindicpin ch'u' where shall 
I put it? cO« chV put it down; 
(On 'wan, put it down careful- 
ly ; lOn (kd, to give advance 
money, an allotment ; ^on siki 
yati the sabbath ; con siA;, Jiiung^ 
gum benjamin ; ton ik'ai {cVd, 
Ankoi tea, from the S.W. of 
Fuhkien ; lOn indm kwok-, 
Cochinchina ; Hh6ung loki 
ip'ing ton, let peace attend 
all going in and out ; con tun* 
to make all ready, to provide 
things ; cOn tso^ to sit quietly, 
firmly seated ; man^ (On, to in- 





quire after one's health ; ^on 
Jai ^kong, to make up a story ; 
otC (t'in ishan, the god placed 
in courtyards. 
A saddle ; ^md i6n, a saddle ; 
Nffan "^ ^^" ik'iu, an arched bridge. 
^^' A table, an official table, a 
^^> bar or bench before a judge ; 
that which is on his table, a 
case in law, an action ; a 
sentence, a decision ; to exam- 
iDe,totry judicially, to decide 
cases ; placed in order, serial ; 
a limit or frontier ; a cup or 
goblet ; oa' 'iii/i, papers relat- 
ing to a case ; on' its'ing, the 
circumstances of a case ; on' 
iyau, the merits of a case ; yat:, 
kin^ ori' a case in court ; kav} 
oiv" an old case; '■sham on' to try 
a case ; teng' on' to decide a 
case ; tsoi^ on' is on record, is 
in court ; on' its'in, before the 
court, at the bar ; mo it'au 
Jcung on^ illegal, unaccount- 
able ; on' ^shau, first on the list 
of scholars at the examina- 
tions in the district and pre- 
fecture ; yat:> fu' Jiiung on' a 
set of tutenague censers ; ^fdn 
on' to revise a case ; tiu- on' to 
appeal ; ming^ on' a case of 
murder ; ■pdk^ on' to slap the 
table ; on' Hai tdi^ ito, many